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Full text of "The oriental biographical dictionary"

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r 5 "' THE 
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ORIENTAL 



BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 



BT THE LATE 



THOMAS WILLIAM MALE 

(AUTHOR OP THE MIFTAfl-UL-TAWARIKK.) 

EDITED BY 

THE ASIATIC SOCIETY OF BENGAL - , 

XTCTDEB THE BUPEETNTENDKNCK OF 

HENRY GEORGE _KEENE, M - R A. S. 

A FELLOW 07 THB UNIVERSITY OF CALCUTTA ; AUTHOR OF THR TURX8 IN INDIA, ETC. 



' CALCUTTA: 
PRINTED BY J. W. THOMAS, BAPTIST MISSION PBESS. 

PUBLISHED BT THE 

ASIATIC SOCIETY, 57 PABE STBEET. 

1881. 



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PREFATORY NOTICE. 



aOQQQQOOQa 



The author of this Dictionary was formerly a Clerk in the office of the Board of Eevenue, 
N. W. P. at a time when the Secretary was Henry Myers Elliot, afterwards well known as Sir 
H. M." Elliot, K. C. B. It is probable that, in preparing his extracts from the Mohamadan 
Histories of India, Elliot availed himself of the aid of Mr. Beale, of whose scholarship Prof. 
Dowson makes justly deserved mention in the eighth volume of his valuable edition of the 
work.* Mr. Beale died at a very advanced age in the summer of 1875, having before his death 
expressed a wish that I would see his MS. through the press, and reduce tie transliteration 
into conformity with the system then recently adopted by the Government of India, and 
founded (as I need hardly observe) upon the system of Sir W. Jones. 

Accordingly, on the 5th October of that year I laid the MS. before Sir John Strachey, 
the then Lieut.-Governor, in the name of the Archseological Society of Agra, of which he was a 
Vice-Patron, in a letter from which the following is an extract : — 

" This is no ordinary book. I have used it as a work of reference, for years : and have 
lately had an opportunity of showing it to the eminent scholar Mr. E. B. Eastwick, C. B. who, 
I am authorised to say, concurs with me in thinking that the Dictionary will be of unique 
value to oriental students." 

Sir J. Strachey took up the subject with that enlightened energy which always actuated 
him in dealing with the past history of the country over whose administration he then presided. 
The MS. and copyright were acquired at the expense of Government ; and it was ultimately 

resolved in view of the importance of the work and my own official occupations — that the 

editing should be entrusted to the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 

Tjie Society confided the labour of seeing the Dictionary though the press to their 
Philological Secretary, Principal Blochmann, of whose qualifications it would be presumptuous 
to say more than that they have an oecumenical reputation. That distinguished man (of whom 
it has been observed by Count v. Noer that he united the enthusiasm of an artist to the most 
patient accuracy of researchf) undertook the task with his characteristic earnestness and 
ability. But unhappily for oriental scholarship Mr. Blochmann's lamented death occurred 
before he had completed the preparation of more than a few sheets ; and the duty ultimately 
reverted to the local Archaeological Society of Agra. 

Being soon after transferred from Agra, and being besides prevented by my public duties 
from giving to the Dictionary the full attention which its importance required, I have availed 
to a great degree of the aid of my colleagues, Mr. Sayad Mahmood, Prof. A. Thomson, and 
Lala Bahal Rai. I have also (in the latter sheets particularly) had valuable help from Dr. 
Hoernle, Philological Secretary of the Society. To these gentlemen, and to the Superintendent 
of the Baptist Mission Press the work is indebted for its handsome and practical appearance 
and character. 

The substance is almost entirely Mr. Beale's ; and I cannot close this notice more fitly 
than by giving the following extracts from the preface originally drafted by himself ; — 

" In preparing a work of this nature, intended to be used as a work of reference on 
matters connected with Oriental History, it is proper to state that the greatest care has been 
taken to ensure accuracy in the narrative, as also in the dates of births, deaths, and other events 
recorded. ..Various MSS. have been collated whenever discrepancy was observed... To 
remove all doubt, chronograms indicating the dates with a certainty not to be found by any 
other method and written when the events were fresh in the minds of men, have been inserted, 
when available." 

• The History of India, by its own Historians. Trilbner & Cow 1877. 
f Kaiser Akbar. Leyden, 1&S0. 



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( iv ) 

I may here add that it has been judged expedient to omit these chronograms, for the 
most part, in printing the book. In the chapter of Mr. Dowson's book already cited, will be 
found an account of this species of memoria technica. But it is chiefly interesting as machinery 
for producing a certain result ; and when the result has been produced is not of much more 
use than the scaffolding of a building when the building is complete. 

" The materials collected in this Biography are only from those works which were within 
the reach of the author, and therefore it is to be considered as a nucleus to which those who 
have access to other sources may add new materials. 

" It may also be proper to add, that the difficulties and embarrassment which a writer of 
such a work is liable to meet with is so great, (I quote here the words of a learned gentleman) 
' that though of a minor order, comprehends in itself such a number of annoyances that the 
writer of it, even if he had none other to make head against, might feel tempted to abandon 
his pen in despair when considering it. 9 

" ' In the East* says he, * there are but a few proper names of individuals. Abdullah, Alf, 
Hasan, Husain, Muhammad, for example, are common to thousands. To remedy the incon- 
venience that might be supposed to result from this tendency to homogenousness, the Orientals 
annex to the family-name of the chronicled person, 1, a Kunia, or surname taken from the name 
of his eldest son, as Abu Muhammad (father of Muhammad) ; Abu'l Hasan (father of Hasan) ; 
2, the name of his father and often the name of his grandfather ; 3, a name taken from his 
place of residence; 4, a name taken from his birthplace; S, an honorary title, chiefly 
appended to the name of Kazis, Sheiks and Ln&ms, Monks and Doctors, as BaMuddin (Splen- 
dour of Religion), Jalaluddin (Glory of Religion), Tajuddin (Crown of Religion) ; and in the order 
of this nomenclature, the last name is put first. Thus to designate aright the famous physi- 
cian Abdul Latif , we must call him Muwaffikuddfn Abu Muhammad Abdul Latif bin Yusaf 
Mousali Baghdad!, viz., The Protector of Religion, father of Muhammad, Abdul Latif, son of 
Joseph, living at Mousal, born at Baghdad. Yet this is by no means an exaggerated specimen ; 
several other surnames of the same kind are frequently added. The perpetual recurrence of 
such a multiplicity of names and titles must tend in many ways to connise a literary historian ; 
and the more naturally when he finds the same individual chronicled in one page under his 
honorary title only, as Jalaluddin, in another under his family-name, as Abdur Rahm&n, in 
the third under his father's name as Ibn ArabsMh, somewhere else under the name of his 
sons, as Abfi'l Abtas, and perhaps again, and where one would least look for it, under the 
name of his native province, Stahrist&n. D'Herbelot has recorded no fewer than fourteen 
Persian writers, all of whom pass, under the common cognomen of Karam&ni, from their 
province Karam&n. Here is perspicuity ! But this is not all. The transcribers of the MSB. 
have frequently confounded the title Abu and Ibn, or else for abbreviation sake, have omitted 
them altogether and written down Abdullah, or Abdur Rahman, him who was in fact the 
father or the son of Abdullah or Abdur Rahman. Then there are a great many authors whom 
public celebrity has been accustomed to distinguish so exclusively by one only of their adjunc- 
tive titles, that even the native biographers find it impossible to trace either their family- 
names or their surnames. Lastly, many hundreds of books bear the same name, and the 
names of most books are conceived after such a many-worded and no-meaninged fashion, that 
de Sacy, Schlegel, Casiri and von Hammer, to mention but a few investigators out of many, 
have been foiled in the attempt to establish their signification.' 

" To prevent such confusion and difficulties, the author has taken care to insert each 
individual under his different appellations, viz., under his family-name, his surname, poetical 
name, under his title or under the name of the place of his birth, referring at the same time, 
if he is not to be found under one name, to look under the one referred to. 

" In conclusion the author begs to add that most part of the materials collected in this 
volume were procured by the assistance of his son the late lamented Mr. J. W. Beale, 2nd 
Master of the Bareily College who was murdered by the insurgents on the 3rd June 1857 at 
that station, and since he is now no more, the author is obliged to drop his pen ; but earnestly 
hopes that this work which is nearly the first of its kind in India, and the want of which has 
already been much felt, may prove useful to the Student, the Scholar, the BKstorian, and the 
general reader." 

This notice may well terminate with a repetition of this hope : and with an appeal to 
scholars of larger leisure and opportunities for an indulgent treatment of a work produced by 



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( v ) 

a man who had never been in Europe nor enjoyed the use of a complete Library. Mr. Beale 
had drawn up a list of more than thirty books in various languages which had furnished him 
with materials. In addition the editors have from time to time referred to the translation of 
the Ain Akbari and its invaluable notes by Mr. Blochmann, of which the 1st Volume (never, 
alas, continued) was published in Calcutta some years ago. 

One word more as to the inexhaustible subject of transliteration. The English as is 
well known have three methods; the Haphazard (which indeed is no method at all), the 
Gilchristian, and the popularised Jonesian introduced by the Government of India under the 
inspiration of Mr. W. W. Hunter. None of these is quite satisfactory. The French adopt a 
system of their own, and so do the Germans. Mr. Beale had followed an orthography, 
compounded of the two first-named elements, which has been to some extent modified in 
printing these pages. For the convenience of Continental European scholars the names have 
also been printed in the Persian character ; and it is hoped that no practical difficulty will 
be experienced by those who may have occasion to use the Dictionary. 

H. G. KEENE. 

Meerut, September, 1881. 



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A. 



A'asz 

A'azs-Uddin, ( ^^Jl^l ) Prince, second son of Shih 

'Alam Bahidur Shih. He was born on the 17th <5f-Ka'da 
1074 and appears to have died early.] 

A'azz-uddin, ( ^^oJtj*) ) son of Mu'iss-uddln Jahandar 

Shah, emperor of Dilhi. He was blinded and imprisoned 
by Farrukh-siyar, in the end of 1124 H.] 

Aba Bakr (Mirsi or Sultan), the son of Shalirukh Mini the 
son of Amir Timur. He was murdered by order of his 
brother Mini Ulugh Beg, A. D. 1448 (862 A. H.) 

Aba Eaan or Abka Khan or Abaka Khan, of^ ty or 

e/^- ^*'» a king of Persia of the tribe of Mughuls or Tartars, 
and descendant of Chingia Khan, succeeded his father 
Huliku Khan in February 1265, A. D. (Rabf-us-§ani 663 
A. H.), and was crowned on Friday the 19th June following 
(3rd Ramadan.) He was a prince who added to the qualifica- 
tions of courage and wisdom those of moderation, clemency, 
and justice. His ambassadors were introduced in 1274 
to the ecclesiastical Synod at Lyons. He proved to be a 
formidable neighbour to the Christians who settled at Je- 
rusalem. The intrigues of his court embittered the latter 
years of his reign ; and his days were believed by many 
to have been shortened by poison given to him by his 
minister Khwaja Shams-nddm Muhammad, which occa- 
sioned his death on Wednesday the 1st of April 1282 A. D., 
(20th BiHijja 680 A. H.) after a reign of 17 years and some 
months. He had married the daughter of Michael Palaeo- 
logus, emperor of Constantinople, who had been betrothed 
to his father, but arrived at Maragha in Tabrfs, the seat 
of his government, after the death of that prince. Absta- 
in was succeeded by his brother Kekodar, who embraced 
Muhammadaniam, and took the title of Ahmad Khan. 

'Abbas, U****, the son of 'Abdul-Muttalib, and uncle of 
the prophet Muhammad. He at first opposed the ambitious 
views of his nephew, but when defeated in the battle of 
Badr, he was reconciled to him, warmly embraced his reli- 
gion, and thanked heaven for the prosperity and the grace 
which he enjoyed as a Muaalman. He served the cause of 
Muhammad at the battle of Hunain by recalling his dis- 
mayed troops to the charge, and inciting them boldly to 
rally round their prophet, who was near expiring under the 
scimitars of the §akafites. He died on the 21st February, 
663 A. D., (17th Rajab, 32 A. HJ ; and 100 lunar years after, 
Abu)-* Abbas, surnamed As-Saffai), one of his descendants, 
laid the foundation of the ' Abbasi or Abbaside family of the 
Caliphs in Baghdad, which continued for 524 lunar years. 
The tomb of ' Abbas is in Madina. 

'Abbasa, *-^f*» a sister of Harun-ur-Rashfd, the Khalifc 
of Baghdad, who bestowed her hand on Ja'far Barmakf, 
his minister, on condition that she abstained from the 
marriage rights. The promise was forgotten, and the 
husband's life was sacrificed by the tyrant, and 'Abbasa 
was reduced to poverty. This circumstance took place in 
803 A. D. (187 A. H,). There are still extant some Arabic 
verses which beautifully celebrate her love and her misfor- 
tunes. See Ja'mr ul-Barmak£ 



Abba 

'Abbas 'AH, fjl* ^JUs, a physician, and one of the Per- 
sian magi, who followed the doctrines of Zoroaster. He 
wrote A. D. 980, a book called ' Royal Work*, at the request 
of the son of the reigning Khalifa of Baghdad, to whom 
it was dedicated. It was translated into Latin by Stephen 
of Antioch in 1127 A. D. 

'Abbas 'AH (Mini), whose poetical name is Betib, is the 
son of Nawab Sayadat 'Ali Khan, son of Ghulam Mu- 
hammad Khan, the son of Fais-ullah Khan, Nawib of 
Biznpur. 

'Abbas bin-' Ali Shirwani, Jbj* J* erf cf ***, author 
of a history, containing the narrative of Sher Shih the Af- 
ghan, who drove Humayun from Hindustan, A. D. 1639, 
and mounted the throne of Dilhi. This work was dedicated 
to the emperor Akbar, and is called Tuhfa-i-Akbarsh&hi. 
The first part of this work was translated into Urdu by 
Majhar 'All Khan in the time of Lord Cornwallis and 
is entitled ' Tarikh-i-Sher Shaht.' 

Vide Dowson, Elliot's History of India, IV, 301.] 

'Abbas Mirsa, a Persian prince, son of Faty 'Ali Shah, was 
born in 1783. He died in 1833. His death was a great 
loss to his country, although he could not prevent the 
encroachments of Russia. His eldest son, Muhammad 
Mirza, mounted the throne in 1834, on the death of Fatfc 
'Ali, under the united protection of England and Russia. 

'Abbas Mina, U^c* 1 **, whose title was Nawab I^tidar- 
uddaula, was the author of a Masnawi in Urdu verse, 
containing a history of Christ. He was living in Lakhnau 
in 1849 A. D., and was then about eighty years of age. 

'Abbas (Shah) I, »^ uM*, surnamed the Great, and 
seventh king of Persia of the Safawi family, was born on 
Monday the 29th of January 1571 A. D. (1st Ramagan, 978 
A H.). He was proclaimed king of Persia, in his sixteenth 
year, by the chiefs of Khurasan, and took possession of the 
throne during the lifetime of his father, Sultan Sikandar 
Shall, surnamed Muhammad Khudibanda, A. D. 1588, 
(996 A. H.). He was the first who made Isfahan the 
capital of Persia. He was brave and active, and enlarged 
the boundaries of his dominions. He took conjointly with 
the English forces, in 1622 A. D., the island of Ormus, 
which had been in the possession of the Portuguese for 
122 years. He reigned 44 lunar years, waa contemporary 
with Akbar and Jahangfr, and died on Thursday, the 8th 
of January, 1629 A. D. (24th Jumada I, 1038 A. H.). 
His grandson succeeded him and took the title of Shih 
Safi. 

He was a bigoted Shf a. In later histories he is gene- 
rally called j^oU mdz(; vide Kin Translation, 1, 445, 453.] 

'Abbas (Shah) II, J>$ *^ U"***» great-grandson of Shah 
'Abbas I, succeeded his fether Shih §afi to the throne of 
Persia in the month of May, 1642. A. D. (Safer luo2, A. H.), 
when he was scarcely ten years old. $andahar, which 
was lost by his father, waa recovered by this prince be- 



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Abda 



2 



Abdu 



fore he was sixteen yean of age. Shin Jahan made many 
efforts to recover this city, but with no success. He 
reigned 26 lunar years, and was cut off by the lues ventre* 
in his 34th year, on the 26th August 1666 A. D. {6th 
Babf -ul-awwal, 1077 A. H.) He was succeeded by his son 
Safi Mini, who took the title of Shah Sulaiman. Ac- 
cording to Chardin, he died on the 26th September which 
corresponds with the 6th Rabf-us-§anf. Vide Orme's 
Historical Fragments of the Mogul Empire, p. 196. 

Abdal, ( J!*** ) flon of >AW ^ ruler of Little Tibet 
during the reign of Shall Jahan. He was captured, and 
Adam Khan was appointed governor of Little Tibet. Vide 
Dowson, Elliot's History of India, VII, 63.] 

Abdal Chak, ( *J^ J»oj| ) uncle of Yusuf Khan Chak 

(last king of Kashmir, who succumbed to the emperor 
Akbar). Vide Kin Translation I, 478.] 

Abdali, <^*^, vide Ahmad Shah AbdaU 

Abdals, the forty, hence called Chihil-tandn. After Muham- 
mad's death, the Earth complained to God that she would 
henceforth be no longer honored by prophets walking on 
her surface. God promised that there should always be 
on earth forty (or, according to some, seventy-two) holy 
men, called Abdals, for whose sake he would not destroy 
the earth. The chief of the Forty is called 4 Ghana.'] 

Abdar Bega m , f*# j'^s one of the concubines of the 
Emperor Akbar. 

'Abdi, LS^t*' liis proper name is not known. .He is the 
author of the work called ** Tarjama-i-Takmila," a trans- 
lation of YafiTs Legends of gadiriya saints into Persian 
verse, completed in 1641 A. D., 1061 A. H., under Shah 
Jahan. 

'Abdi Of Tun, (£**** & po«t who had a predilection for 
Masnawis, and is the author of the " Gauhar-i-Shah- 
war," which is in the style of Nif ami's Makhzan-ul-Asrar. 
He came to celebrity in Khurasan in 1646 A. D., 960 H. 
Vide Khwuja Zain-ul-'Abidin 'All 'Abdi, who appears to 
be the same person. 

'Abdi, a***> an d Nawodi, ij*iy> vide Khwaja Zain- 
ul-'Abidin 'Ali 'Abdi. 

Abdi, LS^K author of a heroic poem called Anwar-nama 
in praise of Naw&b Anwar-uddfn Khan of the Karn&tik, 
in which the exploits of Major Lawrence and the first 
contests between the English and French in India are 
recorded with tolerable accuracy. Vide Abjadf. 

'Abdul-* Ali (Maulana), entitled " Babrul-'ulum" (•. e. 
the Sea of Knowledge), the son of MulU Nifim-uddfn 
8ihaU He iB the author of the * Arkan Arba' Fifcah' 
and several other works. He died A. D. 1811 (1226 A. H.). 

'Abdul-' Aria,-^* erf-jO*' 1 ***, »on of 'Umar (Omar) 
the second Khalifa after Muhammad. He did not succeed 
his father in the khittfat. The Muhammadans consider 
him a great lawyer. 

'Abfltll-'AgPP, _>j>*^ ***> author of the Tarfkh-i-Husainf, 
containing the life of the famous Sadr-uddin Muhammad 
Husaini Gesu-Daraz, whose tomb is held in the highest 
veneration at Kulbarga in the Dakhin. This work was 
dedicated to Ahmad Shall Bahmani in 1446 A. D. 

'Abdul- Azia bin-Ahmad Dairini (Shaikh), 

i^ijitt an Arabian author who died 1294 A. D. 
9 Abdul-' Asia Khan, vide 'Aafe. 
> Abdul-' Azia (Maulana Shah), eon of Shah Walf- 

ullah, a learned Musalmaa of Dihli He ia the author of a 



Persian commentary on the Kuran, entitled '* Tafair Fatfe- 
ul-'Azia", and several other works. His death took place 
in June 1824 A. D. (7th Shawwti, 1239, A. H.) 

' Abdul-' Azia (Shaikh), y^\ *** ^, f Dihli, a 
learned man who died in the time of the emperor Akbar, 
A. D. 1667, 976 A. H. 'Abdul- Kddir of Badaon found 
the chronogram of his death in the following words — 
" $utb-i-Tarikat-numaV' 

'Abdul- 9 Aaiz, emperor of Turkey, son of Sultan Mabmud, 
succeeded his brother Sultan 'Abdul-Maud on the 26th 
June 1861, 1277 A. H. 

' Abdul-* Aai« (Shaikh), y>y*\ **> &**. His poetical 
name was 'Issat He held a mansab of 700 in the reign of 
Aurangsfb, and died in the year 1680 A. D., 1091 A, H. 
He is the author of a poem called Sa^i-nama. 
For a detailed biography vide the Majma'-uiuNafdi**] 

'Abdul-Bald, <^M***, author of the Maapr-i-BaJumi, 
or Memoirs of 'Abdur-Rabim Khan, Khan-Kh anan, and 
of all the illustrious nobles, authors, and poets, who re- 
sided at the court of Akbar. He completed his work in 1616 
A. D., 1026 A. H., and died about the year 1642 A. D*, 1062 
A. H., in the reign of Shah Jahan. 

For further notes vide Dowson, Elliot's History of India, 
VI, 237.] 

'Abdul Baki, Maulan*. He was a Sadr in the beginning of 
Akbar's reign.] 

'Abdul-Baait, (Mautfni), t-Wl ** U V, the son of 
Rufltam 'Ali. He wrote a commentary on the Kuran 
which he left incomplete. He also wrote a work called 
'Ajib-ul-Bayan fi 'ulum-il- Kuran. He died in 1808 A. D., 
1228 A. H. 

'Abdul-Fattah> JSiJ\ o**, author of the Persian work called 

" Aurid-i-Ghausiya," on Sufism, and of one entitled " Jawa- 
hir-ul-Kiyinat." 

'Abdul-Ghafflir, j^Ioop, whose full title is Shaikh Najm- 
uddin 'Abdul-Ghaffifir ush-Shaii'i ^aswini, is the author 
of the "tfawi," "Fifcah," "Lubab," and u Sharb Luton." 
He died in the year 1266 A. D., 663 A. H. 

'Abdul-Ghafur, of Uhor, {S»**iy**** ***, was an 
author and a pupil of 'Abdur- Rahman Jam! He died in 
the year 1606 A. D., 912 A. H. 

'Abdul-Ghafur (Shah). )j&\ *** * U , commonly called 
Baba Kapur, a saint whose tomb is at Gwaliir. He was 
a native of Kalpf, and a disciple of ShihMadar. He died 
in the year 1671 A. D., 979 A. H. 

Vide Kin Translation, I, p. 689.] 

'Abdul-Ghafur. Shaikh, of A'sampur in SambhaL a puml 
of 'Abdul-Kuddus. He died in 996 H.] 

'Abdul-Ghani (Mirai), <>*Jl *** lj^ a native of 
Kashmir, wrote under the name of ^abdl. He died in 
the year 1726 A. D., 1139 A. H. ; vide Kabul 

'Abdul-Hakk (Shaikh), u* 1 ** d*^ **• £*» of Dihli, 
surnamed * Mu^addis', son of 8aif-udd£n son of Sa'd-ullah 
Turk. He was a descendant of one of Amir Timor's 
followers, who had remained at Dihli, after the return of 
the conqueror to his native land. He is the author of the 
"Tarikh-i-Hatti," which ia more frequently styled 
"Tarikh-i-'Abdul-HaJrt:," compiled in the 42nd year of 
the emperor Akbar's reign, 1696 A. D., 1006 A. H. He 
went on a pilgrimage to Mecca and Madina, where he dwelt 

for a long time, and wrote works upon many subjects 

Commentaries, Travels, §uff doctrines, religion, and 
history, and his different treatises amount altogether to 
more than one hundred. The best known are the " Ma- 



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din* Sakina," " Matfa'-ul-Anwar," « Madsrij-un-Nubuw- 
wat," "Jasb-ul-fculub'S " Akhbar-ul-Akhyar" a book 
on the saints. He was bora in the month of January 
1651 A. D., Muharram 968 A. H. In the year 1637 A. D., 
although he was then ninety years old, he is said to have 
been in possession of his faculties. He died in the year 
1642 A. D., 1062 A. H M agod ninety-four lunar years ; lies 
buried on the bank of the Qauz Shams* in Dihh, and now 
holds a high rank among the saints of Hindustan. His 
son Shaikh Nur-ul-HaHf is the author of the Zubdat-ut- 
Tawirikh. 

For further notes vide Dowson, Elliot's History of India, 
VI, 176, 483.] 

'Abdul-Hakim of Siyalkot, f±^l***» was a pupfl 
of^ Maulana Kamal-uddfn of Kashmir. He wrote the 
Hashiya, or marginal notes, on the Tafafr Baigdwi and a 
rjttshiya on the marginal notes of 'AMul-Ghafiar. He 
died in the year 1666 A. D., 1066 A. H. 

'Abdul-Halim bin-Muhammad, p£**\ ***> sur- 

named Kanalizdda^ an Arabian author, who died in the 

year 1689 A. D., 997 A. H. 
'Abdul-Hamid, vide Ahmad IV, emperor of Turkey. 
'Abdul-Hamid of Lahor, was the author of the 

Padshah-nuna-i-Shahjahani. 
Regarding this history, vide Dowson, Elliot* s History of 

India, VII, 3.] 

'Abdul- Hasan (Kazi), author of an Arabic work on 
Jurisprudence called " A^kam-us-Sul^ani". 

'Abdul-Hay (Mir) Sadr, j**^ ***j*>, a learned 
man who wrote a chronogram on the death of the emperor 
Humayun, and one on the accession of Akbar in 1656 
A. D., 963 A. H. 

Vide Am Translation I, 480.] 

'Abdul-Jalil (Mir or Sayyid) is*}/** tLW» ** e 
jfr°, of Bilgram in Audh. He was a great scholar and an 
elegant poet, and his poetical name was Waaitf. la 1699 
A. D., 1111 A. H., he visited the camp of Aurangxib at B{- 
japur; and being presented to that monarch by Mirza 
'All Beg, the royal intelligencer, obtained a mansab and 
a jsgir t with the joint offices of Bakhshi (Paymaster) 
and News- writer of Gujrat ; from which place he was 
removed to Bhakar in Sindh, with similar appointments. 
Through some intrigues at court, he was recalled from 
Bhakar in the reign of Farrukh-siyar in 1714 A. D., 1126 
A. H M but upon circumstances being explained, he was 
restored in the most honorable manner, and was at 
length permitted to officiate by deputy, whilst he himself 
remained at Dihtf until 1721 A. D., 1133 A. H., when 
he resigned in favor of his son Mir Sayyid Muhammad. 
He was the son of Sayyid Ahmad of Bilgram, was born 
on the 2nd June 1661 A. D M 13th Shawwal 1071, and 
died on Monday the 28th December 1724 A. D., 23rd 
Rabf I, 1137, aged 66 lunar years, and is buried at 
Bilgram close to his father's tomb. He is the author of 
several works, one of which containing letters written in 
Persian is called " Adab-ul-Mursilm. 

For a detailed biography, vide Aiad's Sartc-i-Auid, and 
the ft*f*rwt-tfft-iV4f»rt» by 'Abdul-Jalil's son.] 

'Abdul-Kadir (Sultan), was the descendant of a Ma- 
rabaut family of the race of Haahim, who trace their pedi- 
gree to the Khalifas of the lineage of Fatima. His 
lather died in 1834. His public career began at the time 
of the conquest of Algiers by the French. In 1847, he 
was defeated and surrendered himself but was after- 
wards permitted to reside in Constantinople. He died in 
1873. 

'Abdul-Kadir bin-Abil-Waft, al-Misri (Shaikh 
Muniy-uddin) ksj+* *!A*J cHj*** *** c^» 
iS**&T, author of the ° Jawahir-ul-Maiiya fi Tabatft- 



il-Qanafiya, a biographical dictionary giving an account 
of the Hanafi lawyers, arranged in alphabetical order. He 
died in 1373 A. D., 775 A. H. 

'Abdul-Kadir Badaoui (Shaikh), ^*>j&Wt *** 

jc&»> was the son of Muluk Shah of Badion and pupil 

of Shaikh Mubarak of Nagor. He is the author of a 
work cajled " Muntakhab-ut-Tawarikh". He was a very 
learned man, and was frequently employed by the emperor 
Akbar to make translations into Persian from the Arabic 
and Sanskrit, as in the case of " Mu'jam-ul-Buldan," 
*' Jami'-ur-Rashidf *, and the " Ramiyan". He also com- 
posed a moral and religious work, entitled "Naj&t-ur- 
Bashid," and translated two out of the eighteen Sections 
of the " Mahabharat," and made an abridgment of the 
History of Kashmir in 1591 A. D M 999 A. H. The year 
of his death is not known, but he was living in 1596 A. D., 
1004 A. H., in which year he completed the Muntakhab- 
ut-Tawarikh. His poetical name was Kidiri. 

He died at Badao^, in 1004. For a detailed biography 
vide Journal, Asiatic Society, Bengal, 1869, Ft. I, p. 118 ; 
and Dowson, V, 477.] 

'Abdul-Kadir Suhrawardi, (S*J&r* jo*M ***, 
author of the work called " Adab-ul-Murid." 

'Abdul-Kadir Bedil (Mirza), d*x> j^lAjf *ap 13^ 
a celebrated poet, better known by his poetical name of 
Bedil or Mirza Bedil. He was a Tartar of the tribe of 
Birlas ; in his youth he was employed by prince A'zam 
Shah, son of Aurangzfb, but being one day ordered by the 
prince to write a panegyric in his praiso, he resigned the 
service and never afterwards served any one. He is the 
author of several works, such as " Mubfy A'zam" ; " Char 
'Unsur"; " InshA-i-Bedil", also called Rufc'ftt-i-Bedil, and 
of a Diwan or book of Odes in Persian, containing 20,000 
couplets. He died in the commencement of the reign of 
Muhammad Shah, on the 24th November 1720 O. S., 4th 
gafar, 1133 H. He is also the author of a work called 
"Nukat-i-Bedil," containing the memoirs of Shaikh Junaid, 
third in descent from the celebrated Shaikh Safi, and 
grandfather of Shah Isma'il Safawi, king of Persia. 
Fide Sprenger, Catalogue of Oudh MSS., p. 379.] 

'Abdul-Kadir Gilaui or Jilani or Jili (Shaikh), 

also called Pir-i-Dastgfr and Ghaus-ul-A'zam Mubiy-ud- 
din, a saint, who is said to have performed a number of 
miracles during his lifetime. He was born in Gilan or 
Jflan in Persia, in the year 1078 A. D., 471 A. H., and was 
greatly revered for his learning, his piety, and the sanctity 
of his manners. He died on the 22nd February 1166 
A. D., 17th Rabf II, 661, aged 91 lunar years, and is buried 
at Baghdad, where he held the place of guardian of Abu- 
{jfonnVs tomb. The order of Dervishes, called after him 
the £adiris, acknowledge him as founder. His tomb 
is held in high veneration amongst the Muhammadans. 
He is said to have written many books on Mystical 
Theology, amongst which are the " Futub-ul-Ghaib", 
^Malfu^at-i-rvidiri" in Arabic, and a translation of the same 
in Persian, named ** Malfufat-i-Jflani." Another work 
of his in Arabic on Jurisprudence is called Ghunyat-ut- 
Talibin, and another work on Sufism is entitled Bahjat- 
ul-Asrar, and a book of Odes called Diwah-i-Ghaus-ul- 
A'sam. Vide Muhammad Kasim (Sayyid) and Abdals, 

Some say that he was born at Ju, a village near 
Baghdad ; hence he should be called Jili.] 

•Abdul-Kadir (Maulana), car 1 ^ J ^ f ***W>* f of 
DihH, the son of Maulawf Wali-ullah. He is the author 
of an Urdu commentary on the Imuran, entitled " Tafiur 
Mu«$-ul-£ur4n." 

'Abdul-Kadir Naini (Maulana), J*W js&\ ***, a 

poet who was a native of Nain near Isfahan, and flftntom- 
porary with Shaikh Sa'dL 



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'Abdul-Kadir, a resident of Deri, a Tillage in the district 
of Lakhnau. From the Jami'-ut-Tawankh of Bashid- 
uddin he translated that portion which is called the 
book of Patanjal, into easy Persian, at the request of 
Major Herbert in May 1823. It is a collection of all the 
sciences, and one of the most valuable works of the sages 
of Hind. It contains an account of their various sects, and 
the history of their ancient kinga,also the life of Sakyamuni. 

'Abdul-Kahir Jurjani (Shaikh), <y u ^>V AlfiJ, *** 
son of 'Abdur-Rahm&n, was the author of the book 
called " Dalail-ul-l'jaz," and several other works. He 
died in 1081 A. D., 474 A. H. 

'Abdul- Karim, fijP^ ***» surnamed Imam-uddm Abul- 
Kasim, author of the " Sharfc Kabir" and " Sharfo Saghir". 

'Abdul-Karim bin-Muhammad al-Hamadani, 

author of a Persian Commentary on the Sirajiya of Saja- 
wandf, entitled " Faraij-ut-Taji Sharfc Faraiz is-Siraji". 

'Abdul-Karim Sindhi (Mulla), a***- ^^ ***, 

a native of 8indh who Berved under Khwaja Mahmud 
Gawan in the Dakhin, and was living about the year 
1481 A D., 886 A. H. He is the author of the history 
of Sultan Mahmud Bahmani, entitled " T&rikh-i-Mahmud- 
ShahT. 

'Abdul-Karim, a native of Dihli who accompanied Nadir 
Shah to Persia, and wrote a history of that conqueror 
about the year 1754 A. D., 1168 A. H., entitled " Bayan- 
i-Wafc' ". 

Regarding this work, vide Dowson, Elliot's History of 
India, VIII, 124.] 

'Abdul-Karim, Mfr, of Bukhara, who died at Constanti- 
nople about 1246 H. (1830 A. D.) He is the author of a 
history of Afghanistan and Turkistan (1740 to 1818 A. D.), 
translated into French by C. Schefer, Paris, 1876.] 

'Abdul-Karim, Munshi, who died about thirty years ago. 
He is the author of the Tdrikh-i'Ahmad % a history of 
Ahmad Shah Durrani and his successors. The Persian 
text was lithographed in 1266, and an Urdu translation 
under the title of Wdk? dt-i-Durrdni was issued at Kanh- 
pur in 1292 H. (1875 A. D.) 'Abdul-Karim also wrote a 
larger work, entitled Muhdraba-i-Kdbul o Kandahar, (1265 
H.) which contains the heroic deeds of Akbar "KTi fo, son 
of Dost Muhammad Khan, and is chiefly based on the 
Akbar-nama written in verso by Munshi Kasim Jan ; and 
the Tdrikh-i'Panjdb tuhfatan lil-ahbdb, (A.'H. 1265) on the 
8ikh wars.] 

'Abdul-Kuddus Gangohi (Shaikh) uv**^ *** &T 
^Ajio?, a native of Gangoh, near Dihlf, was a descendant 
of Abu-rjanffa of Kufa, and a famous saint of India. He 
died on the 27th November, 1637 A. D., 23rd Jumada II, 
944 A. H., the chronogram of the year of his death being 
" Shaikh-i-ajall." His grandson Shaikh 'Abdun-Nabf held 
a high post in the reign of Akbar, but was subsequently 
imprisoned and murdered. 

9 Abdullah, yJLkJl *>**^ *U| **«, the father of Muhammad 

the Prophet, was a younger son of ' Abdul-Muftalib the son 
of Hashim. He was remarkable for his beauty, and though 
a driver of camels, he is said to have possessed such merits, 
that his hand was solicited in marriage by the fairest and 
the most virtuous of the women of his tribe. He was so 
universally admired, that on the night of his nuptials one 
hundred young females expired in despair. His wife Amina, 
though long barren, at last became the mother of Muham- 
mad. 'Abdullah died during the lifetime of his father, eight 
days (some say eight years) after the birth of his son, 
and left his widow and infant son in very mean circum- 
stances, his' whole substance consisting of only five camels 
and one female Ethiopian slave. 'Abdul-Muttalib, his 
father, was therefore obliged to take care of his grandson 
Muhammad, which he did and at his death enjoined his 



eldest son Abu-Talib to provide for him for the fature. 
'Abdullah died about the year 671 A. D. 
'Abdullah bin-'Ali al-Halabi, was one of the first 
writers on Shi' a jurisprudence, as he was amongst the ear- 
liest compilers of the traditions of that sect. It does not 
appear that any of his legal compositions are extant. 

'Abdullah, **J)j ^ *U\*** t son of Bawafca, was an Arabian 

poet who signalized himself in arms as well as poetry. 
He became an associate of Muhammad and was sent with 
the army, of which Zaid was the chieC against the Greeks, 
and was killed at Muta in Syria with Zaid and Ja'far the 
brother of 'AH, in 629 A. D., 8 H. 

'Abdullah son of Zubair,^) ^ &Ul«u*, was the first 

Mnsal m an born at Madina amongst those who were called 
'Muhajirin', that is to say, fugitives from Mecca. After the 
battle of Karbala in 680 A. D., in which Husain the 
son of 'Ali was slain, the inhabitants of Mecca and Madina, 
perceiving that Yazid did all that lay in his power to 
suppress the house of 'All, made an insurrection against 
Yazid, the second khalifa of the house of Umayya, and 
proclaimed 'Abdullah khalifa in the city of Mecca. The 
Musalm&ns of Syria also, after the death of Yazid and 
Mu'awiya the 2nd, acknowledged him for the space of 
128 days, after which time Marwin the son of EJakam 
was proclaimed khalifa in the city of Damascus. 'Abd- 
ullah still remaining in the city of Mecca, was besieged 
there in 691 A. D., 72 A. H., by rjajjaj, general of the 
khalifa 'Abdul-Malik. The siege lasted 8 months and 
17 days, after which 'Abdullah made a sally upon the 
enemy, destroyed a great number of them with his own 
hand, and was at length killed fighting valiantly in 692 
A. D., 73 A. H. His head was cut off, and sent to the 
khalifa 'Abdul-Malik. 

'Abdullah, 4?«~* &> &Uf ***>, son of Mas'ud, companion 

of Muhammad. He died in 652 A. D., 32 A. H. 
'Abdullah, cr 1 ** eH *ln*x* $ ^ of ^ oWfl a^ unole of 

Muhammad, was distinguished as a teacher of the sacred 
book. Before he was ten years of age, he is said to have 
received inspiration from the angel Gabriel. He was born 
in 619 A. D., three years before the Hijra (622), and was 
considered the ablest interpreter of the Kuran then in 
existence. He was appointed governor of Basra by the 
khalifa 'All, and remained there for some time. He 
then returned to Ilyaz, and died at T*yifr * town lying 
80 miles eastward of Mecca, in 687 A. D., 68 A. H., aged 
70 years. His mother Umm-ul-Fafl was the sister of 
Maimuna, one of the wives of Muhammad. 

'AbduUah,^** W J aU| *+*, son of 'Umar the second kha- 
lifa after Muhammad, was one of the most learned 
Arabians amongst the contemporaries of Muhammad. He 
died in 692 A. D., 73 A. H. He is famous for his 
liberality. 

'Abdullah, Oo^» ^ <tU| *ac, son of Yazid, was celebrated 

as a lawyer in the 7th century. He was the disciple of 
Abu-Huraira and Abu-' Abbas, companions of Muhammad, 
and lived till the hundredth year of the Hijra, or 718 
A. D., 100 A. H. 
'Abdullah, ^s ^ aJLff £**, the son of 'Alf, son of 
'Abdullah, son of 'Abbas, the uncle of Muhammad, was 
the uncle of the first two khalifas of the Abbasidea, vit. t 
Abul-' Abbas al-Saffafe and Al-Man?ur, under whom he 
served as general against the khalifa Marwan, and hav- 
ing vanquished that prince, proclaimed his nephew Al- 
Saffalj. He was guilty of horrible cruelties on the family 
of the Ommaidee. When his eldest nephew died, his 
brother Al-Mansur took upon him the government^ which 
displeased 'Abdullah so much, that he raised an army 
against him, but was defeated and afterwards perfidiously 
murdered in 7©4 A. D., 137 A. H. 



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9 Abdullah, toylj i^i aJJ| ***, the son of Rawand, was the 

founder of an impious sect, who were called after him the 
Ha* waudites, during the Khila&t of Al-Mansur the Abba- 
aide, about the year 776 A. D. 
'Abdullah, AUfO**, the son of Shams-uddfn, author of the 

marginal notes on the "TalwuV* entitled "tfaahiya bar 
Talwifc," a work on jurisprudence. 

'Abdullah, ^Atfc ^ ^ULf| ax*, the son of T*hir, the general 

of Al-Mamun. He succeeded his brother Talfea in the 
government of Khurasan about the year 828 A. D., 213 
A. H., reigned 17 years, and died in 844 A. D., 230 A. H. 
He was succeeded by his son T*hir II. 

'Abdullah Abu-Muslim, p)~*j$ «U| ***, author of 

the Commentary on the #uran, called "§aM> Muslim." 
He was born in 817 A. D. t 202 H., and died in the year 875 
A. D M 261 H. He is called by some writers Abul-Husain 
Muslim bin-al-tfajjaj bin-Muslim al-^ushairi, and by 
others Muslim bhv^ajjaj Nishapuri, which see. 

'Abdullah, l j^L J m)\ w<oJb ^ *U| *xjs, the son of Jnyyib 

aLSarakhsi, preceptor to the Khalifa Mu'tagid Billah, by 
whom he was put to death A. D. 899, 286 A. H. He is 
the author of the " Bafcr-ul-MantiV and fsaghujf (a 
commentary on the Isagoge of Porphyras). 

'Abdullah, <_$** cH *^l *H*i tne son of *^diy, author of 

the Kitab KamiL He died in 975 A. D., 365 A H. 

'Abdullah, author of a collection of Letters, entitled Insha- 

i-'Abdullah. 
'Abdullah, ***** ^ JU* ^ &U| ***, the son of Muslim, 

the son of Kutaiba, was the author of the work called 
" Kitab-ul-ma'arif;" and several other works. He died in 
889 A. D., 276 A. H. 

'Abdullah, *Ul*£P> author of the Persian work on jurispru- 
dence, called " Afckam us-§alaV' 

'Abdullah, ijj&dhup* °* Kulbarga, author of a work 
called " Fars-naina," written in 1407, A D. 

•Abdullah Ansaxi (Khwaja), ^Uil aUi **«, sur- 

named Shaikh AM Isma'fl, the son of Abu-Mansur, 
the son of Abu-Ayyub. He was born at Hirst in May, 
1006 A. D., Sha'ban, 396 A H. t and is the founder of the 
sect called Antiris in Hirifc and Khurasan He died on 
the 2nd July) 1088 A. D„ 9th Babf I., 481 A H., aged 
84 lunar years, and is buried at Hirit in a place called 
Gisurgah. 'Abdullah was struck with stones by the boys 
when he was doing penance, and expired. 
'Abdullah bin-'Ali bin-Abu-Shu'ba al-Halabi, 

^aUA S+*Zy1 urf^^ *U»*f*. One of the ear- 
liest writers both on the fladf* and Law of the Imamiya 
sect. His grandfather, Abu-Shu'ba, is related to have 
collected traditions in the time of the Imams Hasan and 
Husain. 'Abdullah wrote down these traditions, and pre- 
sented his work, when completed, to the Imam Ja'far 
Sadikt by whom it is said to have been verified and cor- 
rected. 
'Abdullah bin-'Ali, author of the work called " 8(rak 
tri-Hindi/' which he paraphrased from the Persian into 
the Arabic, for it had been originally translated from 
Sanskrit into the Persian. 

'Abdullah Ahrar, jj*1 *U\±** % author of the « Malfd- 
xat-i-Khwaia 'Abdullah," containing the doctrines of the 
NaVshbandK and of the " Anfe-us-Salikm." 

'Abdullah, &* \a*- *^*P$ the son of Salim, author of 
the questions which Muhammad was asked on the subject 

2 



of his prophecy. He is also the author of a work, called 
" ' A*matul-Manfcul." Another work, called " Hasar Ma- 
sayil", is ascribed to him. 

'Abdullah, *+*" crt *Uf *M>, son of Muhammad, sur- 
named galaufsl, an Arabian author. He died in 1121 
A D., 515 A H. 

'Abdullah bin-Fazl-ullah, of Shfraa, author of the 
"Ta^feh-i-Wagtt" ^^ 

The first four volumes of this work, which may be looked 
upon as a continuation of the * Jahdn-k*shd\ go as for as 
Sha'ban, 690, fMarch, 1300). Subsequently, the author 
added a fifth volume which relates the events down to the 
year 728 (1328 A D.); vide Dowson, Elliot's History of 
India, III, 24.] 

'Abdullah is also the name of the author of the Tdrikk- 
i-Ldud£, an Afghan History, written during the reign of 
Jahangir ; vide Dowson, IV, 434.] 

'Abdullah, <j**l* u*^ &* *L»I*** the son of 'ai- 

YUVi Shan't author of the Arabic work called " Raugat- 
ur-Haya^un," containing a detailed account of the live* 
of Muhammad, the twelve Imams, and of all the saints of 
Arabia, Persia, and Hindustan. 

'Abdullah Shattari (Shaikh), (SJ^ *^ ***, a de- 
scendant of Shaikh Shihab-uddin Suhrawardf. He came 
from Persia to India, and died in Malwa, A. D. 1406, 809 
H., and is buried there. 

Regarding the Shaftarfs vide Journal, Asiatic Society, 
Bengal, 1874, Pt I, p. 216.] 

'Abdullah Hatifl, vide HAtifi. 

'Abdullah Khan Uabak, «-*#f o^aUi «h* was a 
renowned officer in the time of Akbar. He was made 
governor of Mandu (Malwa) in 1562 A D., and afterwards 
rebelled against the king, but was defeated and compelled 
to leave the country. 

For further notes vide Kin Translation I, p. 820.] 
'AbduUah Khan, «^4}f c^ *** *a* chief of the Usbaks, 
was the son of Sikandar Khan, the son of Janf Beg 
Khan, a descendant of Juji Khan, son of Chin^iz Khan. 
After the death of his father (during whose life he had 
several battles with him), he ascended the throne of 
Samarkand and Bukhara in 1582 A. D., 990 A H., 
invaded Khurasan and took Hirit after a siege of nine 
months in 1585 A D., 993 A. H. Its governor 'AH Kulf 
Khan with several other chiefs were put to death, and the 
city was plundered. He was contemporary with Shah 
'Abbas of Persia and Akbar 8hah, and died after a reign 
of 15 years, aged 66, on the 12th February 1597 A. D., 
5th Bajab 1005 A. H. The chronogram of the year of 
his death is " kiyamat V*^ 111 shuoV' He was succeeded 
by his son ' Abdul-Mdmin Khan, 

'Abdullah Khan Finn- Jang, <-£*jl^» e>(* *U* *** 

a descendant of Khwaja 'Abdullah Aljrar. He came to 
India in the latter end of the reign of the emperor Akbar, 
was raised to the rank of 6000 by the emperor Jahangir, 
and died in the time of 8h£h Jahan, A D. 1644, 17th 
Shawwal 1054, aged nearly 70 years. 

'Abdullah Khan (8ayyid), o^ ****** **•, styled 
Kutbul-Mulk, was governor of Allahabad from the time of 
Bahidur Shan, emperor of Dihli, and his younger brother 
8ayyid Husain 'Ali Khan, that of Bihar. These brothers 
sprung from a numerous and respected family of the 
descendants of the prophet, who were settled in the town 
of Barha, and in consequence of this origin, they are best 
known in India by the name of SaVU t, or Hayyids, of Barha. 
Farrukh-sivar, who by the aid of these two brothers had 
ascended the throne of Dihli, on his accession in Ja- 
nuary 1718 A D., 1125 A. H., made the former his prime- 



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minister, with the title of Kutb-ul-Mulk, and appointed 
the latter Amir-ul-Umari. Husain 'All Khan was 
assassinated by Mir Haidar Khan at the instigation of the 
emperor Muhammad Shah on the 18th September 1720 

0. S., 27th gil-ta'da 1132, and his brother 'Abdullah Khan, 
who made some resistance, was defeated and taken pri* 
soner on the 4th November following, 14th Muljarram 
1133, and died in confinement after three years on the 
19th September 1723 0. 3., 30th &l-feijja 1135. The 
remains of Husain 'AH Khan were transferred to Ajmir 
for burial. His brother 'Abdullah was buried at Dihli. 

Regarding the Sayyids of Barha, vide Am Translation, 

1, p. 390 ; and for 'Abdullah Kutb-ul-Mulk, vide Dowson, 
VII, 447ff.] 

'Abdullah Kutb-Shah, $U«^*ki dWfiJjx, the sixth Sultan 

of the ^utb-Shahf dynasty of Golkonda in tfaidarabad, 
Dakhin. He succeeded Muhammad Ku^b Shah, and 
reigned many years under the protection of the emperor 
Shah Jahan, to whom he acknowledged himself tributary, 
and paid an annual sum ; but in the year 1656 A. D., 1066 
A. H., he displeased that monarch, and brought upon him- 
self much trouble. The emperor had commanded him to 
permit his prime-minister Mir Muhammad Sa'id and 
his son Muhammad Am in to repair with their effects to 
court. Ku^b-Shah disobeyed the mandate, and confining 
Muhammad Amin, then at Haidarabad, seized part of 
his wealth. The prince Aurangzfb, then governor of the 
imperial territories in the Dakhin, enraged at this conduct, 
marched to IJaidarabad, which he took and plundered. 
'Abdullah was obliged to purchase pardon by a contribution 
of a crore of Rupees, and the gift of his daughter in mar- 
riage to the son of his enemy, the prince Sultan Muham- 
mad. From this time 'Abdullah, during the remainder «of 
his life, was in feet a vassal of the empire. 'Abdullah Kutb- 
Shah died in June 1674 A. D., Babf I 1085 H., and was 
succeeded by his son-in-law Abul-Hasan. 

'Abdullah Mansur,^^^!* dl/| *ap, author of the Tarjama- 

i-f abafcat-i-Sdfiya, containing the lives of the most cele- 
brated Sufis and Shaikhs. 

'Abdullah Mirza, \yy lUl *xp, was the son of Ibrahim 

Mirza, the son of Shahrukh Mirza, and great-grandson of 
Amir Timur. Upon his fether's death (about the year 
1443 A. p.), he became possessed of the sovereignty of Fare, 
or Persia; but four years after, he was dispossessed by 
one of his cousins-german, named Mirza Abu-Sa'id, and 
was obliged to fly to his uncle Mirza Dlugh Beg, who then 
reigned in Transoxiana, and who gave him his daughter 
in marriage. Some time after, Ulugh Beg having been 
defeated in a battle against his son Mirza 'Abdul-Latif, 
and afterwards put to death by him in October 1449 A. t)., 
Ramazan 853 A. H., and the latter not enjoying the success 
of his parricide above six months, 'Abdullah, as son-in-law 
to Ulugh Beg, took possession of his dominions : but 
Mirza Abu -Sa'id, his consin-german, declared war against 
him, and defeated him in a pitched battle, in which he 
perished. This event took place in the year 1451 A. D., 
855 A. H. 

'Abdullah (Maulana), aU| *ac GJf^o, son of Hahdid. He is 

the author of Shari? Mizan-il-Mantik and several other 
works. He was a native of Dihli, flourished in the 
reign of Sul(an Sikandar, and died in 1516 A. D., 922 H. 

'Abdullah, Maulana of Sultanpur, a learned bigoted Sunnf 
at Akbar's Court. He had the title of 'Makhdum-ul-Mulk.' 
He played a prominent part in the religious discussions 
which led Akbar to renounce Islam. He died, or was 
poisoned, in 990 H. Vide Ain Translation, p. 544, and 
p. vii (of Abul-Fagl's Biography).] 

'Abdullah Tamimi, ^^#3 *Ul ***, author of the Ara- 
bic work called " Raujat-ul-Abrar," which contains the 



history of Muframmad, and Memoirs of many of his com- 
panions. 

'Abdullah Tirmizi (Mir), ^tjoji sU\ *jx, was an elegant 

poet and wrote an excellent Nasta'Kk hand, for which he 
received from the emperor Jahaugir the poetical name of 
Wasfi, or praiseworthy, and the title of Mushkih-$alam, 
that is to say, out of whose pen flowed musk. He is the 
author of several poems. His death happened in the year 
1626 A. D., 1035 A. H. His tomb stands at a place in 
Agra, called Nagla Jaw&hir. 

For the inscription on his tomb, and his son Muhammad 
Salife Kashfi, vide Proceedings, Asiatic Society Bengal 
1874, p. 162.] 

' Abdul-Latif, <JubU| iue, a celebrated physician, bom at 

Baghdad A. D. 1261, 660 A. H. To the acquirement of 
medical knowledge he applied himself with diligence ; and 
it was chiefly with this view that, in his 28th year, he left 
Baghdad in order to visit other countries. Having spent 
a year in MausiL, he removed to Damascus in Syria and 
thence to Egypt, where the people of the highest rank 
continued to vie with each other in cultivating his friend- 
ship. He afterwards travelled to Aleppo, and resided 
several years in Greece. Of 150 treatises which he com- 
posed on various subjects, only one, entitled " Historian 
iEgyti Compendium," has survived the ravages of time. 
He died suddenly at Baghdad in his 65th year. 

'Abdul-Latif, viu hU l *** , a great-grandson of Amir Ti- 
mur. In October 1449 A. D., he defeated his father Mini 
Ulugh Beg in an action near Samarkand, took him pri- 
soner and put him to death. He did not long enjoy 
his success, for he had scarcely reigned six months, when 
he was murdered by his own soldiers on the 9th May 1450, 
26th Rabf I, 854 A. H. His head was separated from 
his body and sent to Hirat, where it was placed on the 
gate of the college built by his father. 

'Abdul-Latif, «*£jliU|«XAP,fc native of $azwih, and author 

of the work entitled " Lubb-ut-Tawarfkh," a history of 
Persia, written in the middle of the 16th century. 

'Abdul-Latif (Mulla), ^slJo\)\ *ap JU, of Sul^anpur, was 

the tutor of the prince Aurangzfb. In tho last years 
of his life he became blind, received from the emperor 
Shah Jahan a few villages free of rent for his Bupport, 
and died in the year 1632 A. D., 1042 A. H. 

'Abdul-Latif, author of a collection of Letters called 

« Insha-i-' Abdul-Lattf." 
'Abdul-Latif, vJukJUi ***, author of the work called 

Lataif-i-Ma'nawi, a commentary on the difficult pas- 
sages of the Ma^nawi of Maulana Rum, written in 1640 
A.D. He also is the author of a Dictionary, called 
"Lataif-ul-Lughat." 

Regarding the author vide Journal, Asiatic Society, for 
1868, p. 32.] 

'Abdul-Maal, jUiJ|*U*, author of a system of Geography, 

written in the Persian Language, and entitled " Maaabat- 
ul-Ar?," or the survey of the earth. 

'Abdul-^ajidKhan > **x+'l ***, the Turkish emperor of 

Constantinople, was born on the 23rd April, 1823, and 
succeeded his father Mahmud II, on the 2nd July, 1839, 
A. I)., 1277 A. H. He died on the 25th June, 1861, aged 
39 years, and was succeeded by his brother 'Abdul-'Azix. 

'Abdul-MajidKhan, ^&*£sr»'f o*c, entitled Majd-ud- 

daula, a nobleman who was promoted by Ahmad Shan 
of Dihli to the rank of 3rd Bakhshigari or paymastership, 
in 1748 A. D., 1161 A. H. He died in the year 1752 
A. D., 1165 A. H, 



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'Abdul-Majid (Shaikh)! A*x*'t *xe ±x», a learned 



man who flourished in the time of Shah Juhan, and wrote 
a history of that emperor entitled Shah Jahan-nama. 

This seems to be a mistake for ' Abdul- y amid.] 
'Abdul- Malik, ^t^c ^ «JJL»Jf Owkc, tho son of Marwan I, 
was the 5th Khalifa of the house of Umayya (Ommaides). 
He succeeded his father at Damascus, on the 13th April, 
685 A. D., 3rd Kamazan, 65 A. H., surpassed his prede- 
cessors in military exploits, and extended his power as 
far as Spain in the west, and India in the east. He was 
so generous as not to take a church from the Christians, 
which they had refused to grant him when he requested 
it He was called Abul-#ubab or " father of flies," because 
his breath was bo offensive, that it killed the very flies 
that settled on his lips. He reigned upwards of 21 lunar 
years and died in October, 705 A. D., fchawwal, 86 A. H. 
He was succeeded by WaKd I, the eldest of his sixteen 
sons, who greatly extended the Moslem dominions. 

'Abdul- Malik, J^^. ^)XJ\ i>ap, the son of Salty, the 

son of 'Abdullah, the son of 'Abbas, was related in blood 
to the prophet Muhammad ; was invested by Harun-ur- 
Baahid, the Khalifa of Baghdad, with the government of 
Egypt, in which he continued till about the year 794 A. D., 
178 A. H., when Harun, suspecting that he was engaged 
in some cabals, in order to obtain tho empire, threw him 
into prison, where he remained till Harun's death. His 
son released him, and invested him with the government 
of Syria, A. D. 809, 193 A. H. 
'Abdul-Malik, j£> ^\ <J±J\ **** tbe son of ?uhr, an 

eminent Arabian physician, commonly called by Europeans 
Avensoar, a corruption of Ibn-^uhr. His full name is Abu- 
Marwan 'Abdul-Malik ibn-?uhr. He flourished about the 
end of the 1 1th or the beginning of the 1 2th century. He 
was of noble descent, and born at Sevilla, the capital of 
Andalusia, whore he exercised his profession with great 
reputation. His grandfather and father were both physi- 
cians. It is said that he lived to the age of 135 ; that he 
began to practice at 40 or, as others say, at 20 ; and had 
the advantage of a longer experience than almost any 
one ever had, for he enjoyed perfect health to his last hour. 
He left a son, also known by the name of lbn-£uhr, who 
followed his father's profession, was in great favour with 
Al-Mans&r, emperor of Morocco, and wrote several treatises 
on physic. A vensoar wrote a book, entitled •* Tayassur fi-1- 
mudawit wat-tadbir", which is much esteemed. This work 
was translated into Hebrew in 1280 A* D., and thenoe 
Into Latin by Paravicius, whose version has had several 
editions. The author added a supplement to it, under the 
title of Jami\ or Collection. He also wrote a treatise 
"Fil-adwiyat wal-agtuiyat", i. # n of medicines and food, 
wherein he treats of their qualities. Ibn-?uhr was con- 
temporary with Ibn-Rashid (Avcrroes), who more than 
once gives him a very high and deserved encomium, 
calling him admirable. -glorious, the treasure of all know- 
ledge, and the most supreme in medicine from the time of 
Galen to his own. 

'Abdul-Malik, JSAUil ***> kin * of Fes Rnd Mopocoo » waa 
dethroned by his nephew Muhammad, but he afterwards 
defeated Sebastian king of Portugal who had landed in 
Africa to support the usurper. The two African monarchs 
and Sebastian fell on the field, 1678 A. D. (986 A H.) 

'Abdul-Malik (Khwaja). a native of Samarkand who held 
the office of 8h*ikh-ul-IsUm in that city in the reign of 
Amir Timor. 

'Abdul-Malik Samani I, i ^U ifUJt j**, akingof the 

house of 8aman, and eon of Amir N6i? !» whom he succeeded 
in 964 A D. (343 A H.). He reigned in Khurasan and 
Mawaran-nahr seven and a half years, and was killed by a 
fidl from his horse while playing at ball in 961 A. D. (360 
IE) He was succeeded by his brother Amir Mansfa I. 



Abdu 

'Abdul-Malik Samani II, <yU>U v£iWf a*p,anAmfr 

of the house of Saman, was elevated to the throne of 
Khurasan, after his brother Amir Mansur H, in 998 A. D. 
(388 A. H.). He was the last Amir, or king, of the race of 
. the Samanides. He reigned only a few months, and was 
defeated in battle against Sultan Mahmud of Ghasnf in 
999 A. D., who took possession of his country. 'Abdul- 
Malik was shortly after murdered. 

'Abdul-Manaf, <JlU| ***» or 'Abd-Mani£ (t. e. slave of 
the idol Man&f) the great-great-grandfather of Muham- 
mad, was the son of Kusayy, who aggrandized the tribe of 
the $uraish by purchasing the keys of the Ka'ba from 
Abu-Uhassan, a weak and silly man, for a bottle of wine. 
Kusayy was succeeded by his second son 'Abdul-Manaf, 
to whom the prophetic light, which is said to have mani- 
fested itself in his face, gave the right of primogeniture. 
After his death, his son Haahim, the father of 'Abdul- 
Muttalib, succeeded. 

'Abd-Manaf is also the name of a son of the Prophet, 
who died in infancy.] 

'Abdul-Mannan (Mir), ^l&Jl <H* J*>, son of Mir 

Nu'man Khan, son of Khwaja* 'Abdur-Rahfm Khan of 
Andijan. He served under the celebrated Ni?am-ul-Mulk 
Asaf-Jah in the Dakhin for several years, was an excellent 
poet, and is known under the poetical name of 'Ibrat. 

'Abdul-Mumin, ^^Jl ***, a man of obscure origin and 
son of a potter, who seized the crown of Morocco after 
destroying the royal family. He extended his dominions 
by the conquest of Tunis, Fez, and Tremezen. He medi- 
tated the invasion of Spain, when death stopped his 
career in 1156 A. D. His son Yusuf who succeeded 
him, carried his ambitious views into effect. 

'Abdul-Mumin Khan, ^/i. ^jJl ***, the son of 
'Abdullah Khan, chief of the Uzbaks, was raised to the 
throne after the death of his father at Samarkand in the 
year 1597 A. D., 1005 A. H. He took Maahhad and put 
the inhabitants to the sword. He was soon after assassinated 
by his own officers in 1698 A. D., 1006 A. H. ; the chrono- 
gram of his death being contained in the words " Badbakht- 
i-aar-burida." After his death, Din Muhammad Khan, the 
son of 'Abdullah Khan's sister, was placed on the throne; 
but he fell shortly after, in a battle fought at Hirat, against 
Shah 'Abbas, king of Persia. 

*Abdul-Muttalib, JU| oo*, the grandfather of Mu- 
hammad, the son of Haahim of the tribe of Kuraiah. 
He is said to have been extremely affable and easy of 
access, as well as just and generous. The well which God 
shewed Hagar the mother of Ishmael in the wilderness, 
is said to have been miraculously discovered to 'Abdul- 
Mutfalib, about five hundred years after it had been filled 
up by 'Amr, prince of the Jorhomites. The well is called 
Zamsam by the Arabs and is on the east side of the Ka'ba, 
covered with a small building and cupola. Its water is 
highly reverenced, being not only received with particu- 
lar devotion by the pilgrims, but also sent in bottles as 
• a great rarity to most parts of the Muhammadan domi- 
nions. 'Abdul-Muttalib had ten sons, whose names are as 
follows : Abu-Talib, the father of 'AH ; 'Abbas, the ances- 
tor of the Abbasidea who reigned at Baghdad; IJamza; 
tfaris; Abu-Lahab; 'Abdullah the father of Muhammad ; 
Al-Makawwam; Zubair; Zirar; Kusam, His younger 
son 'Abdullah, the father of Muhammad, dying eight days 
after the birth of his son, 'Abdul-Mu^talib was obliged to 
take care of his grandson Muhammad, which he not only 
did during his life, but at his death enjoined his eldest son 
Abu-Talib to provide for him for the future. 'Abdul- 
Muttalib died about the year 679 A. D., at which time 
Muhammad was about eight years old. 

9 Abdul-Nabi (Shaikh), <^Jl *** £*£, eon of Shaikh 
Ahmad, and grandson of Shaikh 'Abdul- ^udd us of Gan- 



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goh. He was the tutor of the emperor Akbar, and was- 
honored with the dignity of Sadr-us-Sudur. No Sadr 
during any former reign had so much favor. The king 
was for some time so intimate and unceremonious with 
him, that he would rise to adjust the Shaikh's slippers 
when he took his leave. At last, through the enmity of 
Maulana* 'Abdullah Makhdum-ul-Mulk (vide p. 6) and 
others, he fell in the king's estimation, and began to be 
treated very differently. He was banished to Mecca, and 
after his return was murdered in the year 1583 A. D. 
(991 A. H.) 

Vide Am Translation I, 546, 538, and p. xiii (Abul- 
Fazl's Biography) ; also Proc. Asiatic 8ociety, Bengal, 
January, 1876.] 

'Abdul-Nabi Khan, served under Aurangsfb, and built 
the large Mosque at Mathur&; vide Roc. As. Socy. 
Bengal, 1873, p. 12.] 

'Abdul-Bahim bin- Ahmad Sur, jy *+*>* aH (**j*\ 

•H*, author of the Persian pictionary ' Kashf-ul-Lugha't. 
Vide Journal, As. Society, Bengal, for 1868, p. 9.] 

9 Abdul-Bahim Khan, &W*>J± e^f*^' ***, Khan- 
Khin&n, commonly called Khan Mirza\ was the son of 
Bairam Khan, the first prime-minister of the emperor Akbar. 
He was born on the 17th December 1556 A. D. (14th §afar 
964 H ) and was only four years old when his father 
was assassinated. When of age, he received the appoint- 
ment of his father with the same title of Khinkhanan 
and the government of Gujr&t in 1585 A. D. (993 H.) 
His daughter Jam Begam was married to prince Danyal 
in the year 1599 A. D. (1007 H.) He translated the 
" Wa>i'£t-i-B£barf ' (Memoirs of the emperor Bfibar) 
from Turk* into Persian. After Akbar's death, he served 
under Jah&ngir for 21 years, and died a few months before 
that emperor, shortly after the suppression of Mah&bat 
Khan's rebellion, in the year 1627 A. D. (1036 A. H.), 
aged 72 lunar years, and lies buried at DihH near the 
Dargah of Shaikh Nipim-uddfn Auliya\ where his tomb is 
to be seen to this day. His poetical name was Ra^im. 
For a detailed biography vide Kin Translation I, 334.] 

'Abdul-Bahim, *£^l <H*> one of the principal nobles 

who joined Prince Khusrau in his rebellion against his 
father Jahingfr in 1606 A. D. He was taken prisoner 
with the prince and brought to the emperor at Lihor ; 
by whose order he was sewn up in the raw hide of an ass, 
kept constantly moist with water, in which miserable con- 
dition he remained for twenty-four hours. He was after- 
wards pardoned ; vide Kin. Translation I, 455. 

'Abdul-Bahim Khan, Khwaja, \J± (**j*\ *****l>i, 
the son of Abul-l^dsim. He was a native of Andijan 
in Farghana, came to India in the reign of the emperor 
Shah Jahan, and served under Aurangzib for several 
years. He died in 1692 A. D. (1103 A. H.) 

'Abdnl-Bahman, ^° u>\ e^r*' *t* the son of 

Muljim, the murderer of 'AH, son-in-law of Muhammad. 
He was killed by Hasan, son of 'All, in January 661 A.'D. 
(Ramazan, 40 A. H.) 

No Shf a would now-a-days call his son 'Abd-urra^man, 
just as no Muhammadan would call his son Yazid.] 

'Abdul-Bahman,^^ &* i*+*Jl ***, the son of Abu- 
Bakr, first Khalifa after Muhammad, and brother to 
' Ayisha, the favorite wife of the prophet. He died in the 
same year that his sister died, •*. «., in 678 A. D., 58 A. H. 

'Abdul-Bahman, «*■**>*> *+*"&! c^^'*^, Bon of 
M uhamma d IJanif son of 'Ali. He raised a formida- 
ble power against rjajjij, the governor of Arabia, de- 
feated him in several battles, and at last, rather than fall 
into his hands, threw himself from a house and died, 701 
A. D., 82 A. H. 



'Abdul-Bahman, a popular Afghan poet of Pesh&wnr 
His verses are written with fiery energy, which has 
made them popular amongst a martial people, and yet 
with natural simplicity which is charming to the lover 
of poetry. Not far from the city is his grave, situated on 
the road to Hazarkhana, the poet's native village. 

'Abdul-Bahman, ur*v'' **" , a Saracen general of the 
Khalifa HJahim, (called by some of our authors Abder- 
amea) who penetrated into Aquitain and Poitou, and was 
at last defeated and slain by Charles Martel near Poitiers, 
in 732 A. D., 114 A. H. 

'Abdul-Bahman Mustafe, ^*** u+t^l ***, 
who in Watkin'8 Biographical Dictionary is called Baba- 
causchi, was mufti of the city of Caffa, in Tauris, He 
wrote a book called * The Friend of Princes \ He died in 
A. D. 1381, 783 A. H. 

'Abdul-Bahman, cr**/'! <H* also called by old writers 

Abderames, a descendant of the Khalifas of the house 
of Umayya. He was invited to come to Spain, in 
756 A. D., 139 A. H., by the Saracens who had revolted ; 
and after he had conquered the whole kingdom, he 
assumed the title of king of Cordova. He was the founder 
of the Ommaidos of Spain, who reigned above two hun- 
dred and fifty years, from the Atlantic to the Pyroneo». 
He died in 790 A- D., 174 A. H., after reigning 32 years. 

'Abdul-Bahman Iohi, <^** v++jH ***, or Tji the 
father of 'Kazf ' Aid-uddin of Shirts, a learned man and 
native of Ieh, a town situated 40 fartakhs from Shfraz. 

'Abdul-Bahman, W*J\ *** , called by us Abderames, 
a petty prince in the kingdom of Morocco, who murdered 
'Imad-uddfn, his predecessor and nephew, and was himself 
after a long reign assassinated by a chieftain whose death 
he meditated, 1505 A. D., 911 A. H. 

'Abdnl-Bahman, the Sultan of Fes and Morocco, born 
1778, was rightful heir to the throne when his father 
died ; but was supplanted by his uncle, after whose death 
he ascended the throne in 1823. His eldest son Sidi 
Muhammad (born 1803) is heir to the throne. 

'Abdul-Bahman Kha^uAe***^ ***, fcawib of Jhaj- 
jar, who on account of his rebellion during the mutiny of 
the native troops in 1857 A. D , 1274 A. H., was found 
guilty and executed at Dihli before the Kotwili on the 
23rd December of the same year. He was a descendant of 
Najibat 'Ali Khan, to whom iil 1806, when Sir G. Barlow 
was Governor-General of India, were granted the largw 
territorial possessions held by the late NawAb, vielding a 
yearly revenue of 12$ lacs, and consisting of Jhajjai, 
Badli, Karaund with its fort, Narnaul, &c. In addition 
to these, expressly for the purpose of keeping up 400 horse- 
men, the territory of Bad wan and Dadrf was granted. Up 
to May 1857, he had always been looked upon as a staunch 
friend of the British Government ; but when the rebellion 
burst forth, he forgot all his obligations to the British, 
and sided with the rebels. 

'Abdul-Bahman Khan, j£>&+*>j)\ ***, Sadr-ns-gudur 

of Kanhpur, a rebel and a staunch supporter of Nana" 
Safeib, when that ruffian commenced his career. He was 
hanged at Kanhpur, in June 1858, 1274 A. H. 

'Abdul-Bahman Sulami (Shaikh), author of the " fa- 
bafcat Sufiya", a work on Sufism. He died in 1021 A. D., 
412 A. H. He is also called Abu-'Atour-rcfeman. 

'Abdul-Bahman, son of 'Abdul-' Asfs Nakahbandf, the 
father-in-law of Sulaimin Shikoh, who married his 
daughter in A. H. 1062, the 26th year of Shin Jahin. 



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'Abdul-Rahman CMshti, J&* cr* 8 ^ »>**> author of 

the Mir-dt-i-Masudi, which contains the legendary history 
of Salar Mas'ud Ghasi, buried at Bahraich in Audh. 
'Abur-ra^man died during the reign of Aurangxib in 1094 
H. For extract translations vide Dowson, Elliot's History 
of India, II, 513. An Urdu translation of the Mir-at-i- 
Mas'udi was lithographed at Kanhpur, 1287 H., under 
the title of Ghaza-nama-i-Maa' uoV] 

'Abdul-Bashid, 0**^! do*, was the son of Sultan Mas'ud 

of Ghazni. He began to reign, after deposing and confining 
his brother 'All in 1052 A. D., 443 H. He had reigned but 
one year, when Tughril, one of his nobles, assassinated 
him and mounted the throne of Ghazni. Tughril reigned 
only forty days, and was murdered on the Persian New 
Year's day in'March 1053 A. D., 444 A. H M when Farrukh- 
zad, a brother of 'Abdur-Rashid, succeeded him. 

'Abdul-Bashid (Mir), ±>£j)\ ±x*jx*>, son of 'Abdul-Gha- 

rar-ul-Husainf. He lived in the time of the emperor Shah 
Jahan, and wrote chronograms on his accession to the throne 
of Dihlf in 1628 A. D., 1037 A. H. He is the author of the 
Persian Dictionary called ** Farhang-i-Rashidx", also of the 
" Muntakhab-ul-Lugh&t", a very useful Arabic Dictionary, 
with Persian explanations, dedicated to the emperor Shah 
Jahan. Another work of his is called "Risala-i- 
Mu'arrabat." 

The Farhang-i-Rasbidi, which was written in 1064 
(A. D. 1653), is the first critical dictionary of the Persian 
language, and has been printed by the Asiatic Society of 
Bengal ; vide Journal, Asiatic Society, Bengal, 1868, p. 20.] 

'Abdul-Bashid Khan, o& **»J\ «xj*, son of Sultan 
Abu-Sa'fd Khan, king of Kashghar. He was the con- 
temporary of Humay&n, the emperor of Dihli. Mirza 
Gaidar, author of the Tarikh-i-Raahidi, dedicated his work 
to him. 

Vide Dowson, Elliot's History of India, V, 127 ; and 
Ain Translation I, 460.] 

'Abdul-Raszak, Jl^it *>**, a chief of the Sarbadals of 
Sabswar. He was at first employed by Sultan Abu- 
Sa'id Khan as a Yasawal, or mace-bearer, but after his 
death, when confusion took place, he possessed himself of 
Khurasan in 1336 A. D., 737 A H., and was slain, after 
one year and two montbs, by his brother Wajfh-uddin 
Mo/ud in September 1337, Safar 738 A. H. Mas'iid 
reigned seven years, and was deposed by his brother 
Shams-uddin, who after a reign of four years and nine 
months was slain at Sabswar by Gaidar Kassib. After 
him Amir Yahya tfirati made himself master of Khurasan, 
and gave the command of his troops to ijaidar Kassab. 
In the month of December 1353 A. D., 764 A H., Yahya 
slew Tugbin Timur, a descendant of the Mughul kings, 
in battle, and was himself slain by his nobles, after he 
had reigned four years and eight months. After him 
they raised Khwaja Lutf-ullah, the son of Khwaja Mas'iid, 
to the masnad. He was slain after a short time by Hasan 
Damghani, who reigned four years and four months, when 
Khwaja 'All Muayyad slew him, and reigned eighteen 
years in Khurasan, after which he made over his country 
to Amir Timur who passed Khurasan in 1380 A. D., 782 
A H. 'AH Muayyad was killed in a battle in the year 
1386, 788 A H., and with him terminated the power of the 
Sarbadals: 

'Abdul-Rassak* Kamal-uddin, son of Jalal-uddm Is-hafe 
born at Hirit on the 12th Sha'ban, 816 (6th November, 
1413). He is the author of the historical work entitled 
' M*tl* t -u$.M f d*in. He died in 887 (A D. 1482) ; vide 
below tub Katnal, and Dowson, IV, 90.] 

' Abdul-Rauak, o'x^' ***» the S0D of Mirza Ulugh Beg, 
the emperor Bihar's uncle. He was killed by the command 
of that monarch, before his invasion of India, for raising 
disturbances at Kabul, about 1509 A D., 915 A. 0. 



'Abdul-Bazzak (Mulla), $jji\ ±* iU, of Lahijan, 
author of ihe " Gauhar-i-Murad," a dissertation on the 
creation of the world and the pre-eminence then given 
by God to man, dedicated to Shah 'Abbas II of Persia. 
He lived about the year 1660 A. D., 1072 H. His poetical 
name is Fayyaj. 

'Abdul-Salam, A+^^f *-J| *a* g^ f Muhammad, 
a celebrated learned man, and author of the "Tafsir 
Kabir," a commentary on the Kuran. He died in the 
year 1095 A. D., 488 A. H. 

'Abdul-Salam, ^^H-Jl *H* ^-ctf (Rfci) of Badaou, 

son of 'Ata-ul-rJaW* He is the author of the com- 
mentary called *' Tafeir Zad-ul-Akhirat" in Urdti, con- 
sisting of 200,000 verses, which he completed about the 
year 1828 A. D., 1244 H., as the name of the work shews. 

'Abdul-Salam, **-~N Ax*, a famous philosopher and phy- 
sician, who died at Damascus in 1443 A. D., 847 H. 

'Abdul-Salam, r^ 1 *** *"* (Mull.) of Labor, a pupil 
of Amir Fatb-ullah Shirazi. He died in the year 1628 
A D., 1037 A. H. 

Vide Ain Translation I, 545.] 

'Abdul-Salam. f*-^ *** *"> (Mulla) of Dihlf, was the 
pupil of Mulla 'Abdus-Salam of Lahor. He wrote the 
Sharb, or marginal notes, on the commentaries called 
44 Tahzib", ** Manar" &c, and is also the author of the work 
on Sufism in Arabic, called " ^all-ur-Bumua." 

'Abdul-Samad, **Afl«H*. UI1 cle of the two first Khalifas 
of the house of 'Abbas, died at a great age during the 
khilafat of Harun-ur-Bashid in the year 801 A. D., 185 
A. H. It is said of him that he never lost a tooth, for both 
the upper and lower jaws were each of one single piece. 

'Abdul Samad, Khwaja, <X**aJ| oof *^f^, a noble of 
Akbar's court, also well-known as caligrapher. He was 
the father of Sharif Amir-ul-Umari under Jahangir (vide 
Ain Translation, I, pp. 495, 617), and had the title of 
Shirtn-Kalam, or sweet-pen.] 

'Abdul-Samad, **-*Jt **», nephew of Shaikh Abul-Fazl, 
Secretary to the emperor Akbar. He is the compiler 
of the work called " Insha-i-Abul-Fagl," which he col- 
lected and published in the year 1606 A. D., 1015 H. 

•Abdul-Samad Khan, \J± **** ***> styled Nawib 
Saif-uddaula Bahadur-Jang, was the son of Khwaja 'Abdul- 
Karim, a descendant of Khwaja 'Ubaid-ullah A^rar. 
The native country of his father was Samarkand, but he 
was born at Agra. In his childhood, he went with his 
father to Samarkand, where he completed his studies. In 
the reign of Aurangzib he returned to India, and was, at 
his first introduction to the emperor, raised to the rank of 
600, and after a short time to that of 1500, with the title 
of Khan. In the reign of Jahandar Shah, the rank of 7000 
and the title of 'AU-Jang were conferred on him. He 
was made governor of Lahor in the time of Farrukh-siyar, 
and was sent with a groat army against the Sikhs, whom 
he defeated and made prisoners with Banda their chief. 
He was made governor of Multan by the emperor Muham- 
mad Shah with the title of Saif-uddaula, and his son 
Zakariya Khan, Sdbadar of Lahor. He died in 1737 
A. D., 1150 A. H., a year before the invasion of Nadir 
Shah. Vide Khan-Dauran IV. 

The Histories call him DiUr-jang, not * AU-Jang ; vide also 
Dowson, Vn, 456, 491, 511.] 

'Abdul-Samad Khan, eA *++)\ «Hp, Faujdar of Bar- 
hind, distinguished himself in the Mara^ha Wars, and was 
at last beheaded by Bhao in 1174 A. H. (A D. 1760) ; vide 
Dowson, VIII, 278.] 

'Abdul-Shukur (Maulana), j^'ox* by,* His 
poetical name was Bason. He lived in the time of Shah 
Jahan about the year 1634 A- D., 1044 A H. ; vide Basmi 



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'Abdul Wahhab (Kazi), v^^o^* Hvedintfce 

time of the emperor ' Alamgir, and died on the 26th No- 
vember 1675 A. D., 18th Ramazan 1086 A. H. at Dihli. 
He is the author of a Dastur-ul-' Amal, which he dedicated 
to that monarch. 

'Abdul Wahhab (Mir), v^ 1 *± c j*°i author of the 
** Taakira-i-Be-na?£r", which he wrote about the year 1758 
A. D., 1172 A. H. 

'Abdul- Wahhab, v 1 *^ ***, author of the Manakib-i 
Maulawf Rum, containing the memoirs of the celebrated 
Jalal-uddin Rtimf. 

'Abdul- Wahhab bin- Ahmad, ±+°^ & vM ***» 
author of the Arabic work on theology, called *' Anwar 
Abmadiya," written in 1548 A. D. 

'Abdul- Wahhab, or Muhammad bin-' Abdul- Wahhib. 
founder of the sect of the Wahhabis, was born at Quraimala 
in the province of Najd in Arabia about the year 1750 A. D. 

9 Abdul- Wahid, ^V I ***♦ author of the Sab'a Sanabfl, 
essays on the duties of Instructor and Student, written 
in the year 1561 A. D., 969 A. H. 

'Abdul-Wahid (Mir), **!^» **0**» a native of Bil- 
gram, in Audh, whose poetical name was Shahidi. He died 
in his native country on the 11th of December 1608 A. D., 
3rd Ramagan 1017 A. H. His son's name was Mir 'Abdul- 
Jalfl, the father of Sayyid Uwais, whose son's name was 
Sayyid Barkat-ullah. 

'Abdul- Wahid (Mir), **V' **0*°, of Bilgram. 
He wrote under two assumed names, viz. Wahid and 
£auki, was an excellent poet in Persian and in Hindi, and 
is the author of a work in prose and verse, called ** Shakar- 
istan-i-Khayal," wherein be has mentioned the names of all 
kinds of sweetmeats. He was killed on the 13th October 
1721 A. D., Friday, 2nd Mufcarram 1134 A. H., in an 
affray with the zamindars of Rahtin in the Panjab, the 
settlement of which place was entrusted to his father 
Sayyid Muhammad Ashraf. 

'Abdul- Wahidi, a Turkish poet, author of a Dfwan com- 
prising 30 KLasidas, 200 Ghazals, 29 Tarikha, and 54 
Ruba'is. 

'Abdul-Wasi' of Hansi, is*-*** f^ ***, author of 
a Persian grammar, called after his name "Risala-i- 
' Abdul- WW." He flourished in the last century, and is 
also the author of a Hindustani Dictionary, entitled 
" Gharaib-ul-Lughat". 

For further notes vide Proceedings, Asiatic Society 
Bengal, for 1877, p. 121.] 

'Abdul-Wasi' Jabali, ij*> fi^l ***, a celebrated 

poet of Persia, who flourished about the year 1152 A. D., 
547 A. H., in the time of Sultan Bahrain Shah, son of 
Sultan Mas'ud, of Ghazni, and Sultan Sanjar Saljiiki, in 
whose praise he wrote several beautiful panegyrics. He 
died in the year 1160 A. D., 555 A. H. ' JabaT means a 
mountain, and as he was a native of Ghurjistan, a moun- 
tainous country, he chose " Jabali" for his poetical title ; 
vide Jabali. 

Vide Sprenger, Catalogue of Oudh MSS., p. 443.] 

AbODguefll, (a corruption of an Arabian name, spelt so in 
Lempriere's Biographical Dictionary), was an Arabian 
physician of the 12th century, and author of a book, the 
translation of which entitled * De virtutibus medicinarum 
et ciborum', was printed at Venice in 1581, folio. 

'Abhai Singh, a£L. ^^Jf A*.!;, Raja of Jodhpdr, who had 
acquired his power by the murder of his father Raja Ajit 



Singh Rathauri in the beginning of the reign of Muham- 
mad Shah, emperor of Dihli, about tho year 1726 A. D., 
1139 A. H. He served under the emperor, and having 
in a battle defeated Sarbaland Khan, the usurper of 
Gujrat, was appointed governor of that province in 1727 
A. D., 1140 A. H. ; but his younger brother Bakht Singh 
succeeded his father to the Raj of Jodhpur. Abhai Singh 
was poisoned in 1752 A. D. v and after his death his son 
Bijai Singh succeeded him. 

, 'Abi Bakr, author of the " Jawahir-ul-Ganj," and of a 
another work on Sufism, called •• Marsad-ul-'ib&d." 

'Abi Bakr Muhammad, *♦** /*&$, author of an 

Arabic work in prose entitled " Adab-ul-KitaV' written 
in 984 A. D., 374 A. H. 

' Abid-Ehan, ^Ut ajU, a nobleman on whom Aurangifb 

conferred the Subadarahip of Multan. 
Abjadi, ^o^l, the poetical name of Mir Muhammad IsmaVfl 

Khan, tutor of the Nawab 'Umdat-ul-Umara* of the Karna- 
tik, who made him a present of 6.700 Rs. on the comple- 
tion of the history, called " Anwar-nama," a masnawi, or 
epic, containing an account of the exploits of Nawab 
Anwar Khan, the father of the patron of the author. It 
was completed in 1760 A. D. (1174 A. H.), and in 1774 
the title of Malik-ush-shu'ara, or poet laureate, was con- 
ferred on the author. Vide Abdi 

'Abka Khan, cM *?'» vide Aba Kaan. 

Abu-'Abbas, u-U*^t, the first khalifa of Baghdad, of th» # 

race of 'Abbas. Vide Abul-' Abbas. 

Abu-' Abdullah, &Ul ±**j*\' There are three Muhammadan 

saints of this name, whose lives are written by Abu- Ja'far. 
The first is sumamed Kuraishi, because he was of the family 
of the Kuraishites and a nativo of Mecca. Tho second 
bore the name of Iskandar, and the third that of Jauhari. 

Abu-' Abdullah Bukhari, vide Muhammad Isma'fl Bu- 
khari. 

Abu-' Abdullah, &D| o±*y m U Muhammad Fazil, son of 

Sayyid Ahmad, the son of Sayyid Hasan of Agra, author 
of the poem called ** Mukhbir-ul-Wasilin", written in 
praise of Muhammad and his descendants, with the dates 
of their respective deaths in verse. The title of the book 
is a chronogram for 1106 A. H., in which year it was 
completed, corresponding with 1650 A. D. He flourished 
in the time of 'Alamgir and died in the year 1694 A. D. 
He is also called Majhar-ul-rja^fc, which see. 

Abu-' Abdullah, «JJU^| &SJ\ iXif jjf, commonly called 

Ibn-Malik, author of the " Sharfc Sa^b Bukharf." He 
died at Damascus in 1273 A. D. (672 A. H,j 

Abu-' Abdullah, *AJ\ ***j!U the surname ofShafi'i, which 



Abu-'AbduUah, <s&J isj 1 *^ *^ cH ^ ***j*», the 
son of Ahmad Ansari, an Anrin 1 """" 1 author, who died 
A. D. 1272 (671 A*. H.). 

Abu-'AbduUah, <^»xfr»a» lM\ o±*y\ t Muhammad ul-rja- 

midi, son of Abu-Nasr, author of the work called " Jam' 
baina-l-Sabibain" and the history of Andalusia, called 
** Tarikh Undulus". The former comprehends the collec- 
tions of al-Bukhari and Muslim, and has a great reputa- 
tion. He died in 1095 A. D. (488 A. H.). 

Abu-'AbduHah Maghribi, sj/* *V* ***->#, named 
Muhammad bin-Isma'il, tutor of Ibrahim Khawas, Ibrahim 



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Shaiban of Kirmanshah, and of Abu-Bakr of Bikand, and 
pupil of Abul-Husain Zarrin of Hi rat. Abu-' Abdullah 
died in tho year 911 A. D. (299 A. H.), and was buried on 
Mount Sinai. 

Abu-' Abdullah Muhammad, *+ac° aJLff *>A*^jt, son 

of Snfyan, a native of K aim wan in Africa. He is the 
author of the work callod " Hadf." He died in 1024 A. D. 
(416 A. H.) 

Abu- 9 Abdullah Muhammad bin-'Ali ar-Rahibi, 

*+=* *U\±x*jlU author of a short treatise, entitled the 
" Bighyat-ul-BabV consisting of memorial verses, which 
give an epitome of the law of inheritance according to 
the doctrine of Zaid bin-^abit. 

Abu-'Abdullah Muhammad HaTcim Kabir, j&? 
^Tla. ±+a/° AlJl *>** ji\, author of the work called 
"Mustadrik". He died in 1014 A. D., 405 A. H. 

Abu-'AbduUah Muhammad bin-Muhammad al- 

X^u'mani, surnamed Shaikh Muffd and Ibn-Mu'allim, 
was a renowned Shf a lawyor. Abu-Ja'far ut-Tusi de- 
scribes him in the Fihrist as the greatest orator and 
lawyer of his time, the most ancient Mujtahid, the most 
subtle reasoner, and tho chief of all those who delivered 
Fatwas. Ibn-Kagir-ush-Shami relates that, when he died, 
Ibn-Xakib, who was one of the most learned of tho Sunni 
doctors, adorned his house, told his followers to con- 
gratulate him, and declared that, since he had lived to see 
the death of Shaikh Mufid, he should himself leave the 
world without regret. 8haikh Mufid is stated to have 
written 200 works, amongst which one, called the 
" Irshad", is well-known. He also wrote works on the 
law of inheritance. His death took place in A. D. 1022, 
413 A. H., or as some say A D. 1025, 416 A. H. 

Abu-'Abdullah Muhammad bin-'TTmar al-Wa- 

kidi, tfVljkj* erf *♦** *°t ****)* an author 
who wrote in Arabic the work, called " Jabafcat Wi^idi", 
containing the history of the conquest of Syria t)y 
the generals of *Umar during the years 638-9 A. D. 
Ho is said by some to have died in the year 824 'A. D., 
219 A. H, but as he makes mention of Al-Mu'tasira Billah, 
whose reign began in 833, he must have died about the 
year 834 and not 824 A. D., 209 A. H. Fide WaJddX 

Abu-' Abdullah Muhammad bin-Husain al-Shai- 

bani, u 51 ^ 1 ert-^ erf *+*" *^ *** -*', commonly 
called Imam Muhammad, was born at Wasty in 'Iri^- 
• Arab in A. D. 749, 132 A. H., and died at Rai, the capital of 
Khurasan in A. D. 802, 187 A. H. He was a fellow pupil 
of Abu-Yufluf; under Abu-ljanifa, and on the death of 
the latter pursued his studies under the former. His 
chief works are six in number, of which five are consi- 
dered of the highest authority, and are cited under the 
title of the "• £aliir-ur-Kiwayat ; they are •• Jami*-ul-Kabfr M , 
"Jami'-us-^aghlr", the " Mabsu* ft furu'-iUtJanaflya", 
the "Zivadat fi furu'-il-rjanafiya", tho M Siyar-ul-Kabir 
wal-§aghir" ; and the " Nawadir", the sixth and last of the 
known compositions of Imam Muham m ad, which, though 
not so highly esteemed as the others, is still greatly re- 
spected as an authority. 

AbU-' Abdullah Salih, tide Abu-'Ali, Warir of Mansdr I. 

Abu-'Abdul-Rahman Ahmad bin-' Ali bin-8hu'aib 
al-Naeai, <y U **^» cr**^ 1 ***J*K author of the 
works called "Sunan Rubra" and "Sunan Sughra*." 



The first is a largo work on the traditions ; but as Nasal 
himself acknowledged that many of the traditions which 
he had inserted , were of doubtful authority, he afterwards 
wrote an abridgement of his great work, omitting all 
those of questionable authenticity : and this abridgement 
which he entitled Al-Mujtaba and is also called Sunan 
Sughra, takes its rank as one of the six books of the 
Sunna. Al-Nasai was born at Nasi, a city in Khurasan, 
in 830 A. D., 303 A. H., and died at Makka in 915 A. D. 

Abu-'Abdul-Ilahman Sulami, vide 'Abdul-Ragman 
Sulanri. 

Abu-'Abdul-Rahman Tunas, urbi w**^ ***, the 
son of Habib, an excellent grammarian who died in the 
year 798 A. D. f 182 A. H. 

Abu-'Abdul- Wahid, «H*A «HV, an elegant Turkish 

poet who flourished in Constantinople, in the earlier part 
of the seventeenth century. 

Abu-Ahmad, f~& wl *+** j$ , the son of Kasim, was 

born in tho city of Amasia in Natolia A. D. 1483, 888 
A. H. ; he publicly explained the book written by his 
father Ahmad bin-' Abdullah ul-Kirmi on the fundamental 

points of M iihammft/jnni^T P, 

Abu-' Ali, &*J^i the wazir of Mansur I, the son of Nub, 
prince of the Samanian dynasty of Khurasan. In A. D. 
963, 352 A. H., he translated the " Tarikh Jabarf ' into 
the Persian language from the Arabic. It is a general 
history from the creation of the world, down to the 300th 
year of the Hijra. In the course of eight centuries the 
language of Abu-' All having become obsolete, Abu- 
1 Abdullah Salib bin-Muhammad was persuaded by Nur- 
ullah Khan, prince of Turin, to put it into modern Per- 
sian ; vide Abu Ja'far at-Taharf, and T*bari. 

Abu-'Ali Ismail, <J**+*»t </V$' f an Arabian author who 
died in 967 A. D., 366 A. H. 

Abu-'Ali Kalandar, J**** ij*y^ (Shaikh) commonly 
called Bti-'Ali Jtalandar Shaikh Sharaf-udd{n Pampati, 
a celebrated and highly respected Muhammadan saint, who 
is said to have performed numerous miracles during his 
life. He was born at 'Irafc in Persia, but came to India 
and fixed his residence at Panipat, where he died, aged 
about 100 ynars, on the 30th August, 1324 A. D., 9th 
Ramagan 724 A. H. His tomb is held sacred and is visited 
by the Musalmans to this day. 

Vide Proceedings, As. 8ociety, Bengal, for 1870, p. 126, 
and for 1873, p. 97.] 

Abu-'Ali Ahmad bin-Muhammad, the son of Ya'Jrib 
bin-Maskawaihi Khasin of Rai, author of the Arabian 
work, entitled t% Kitab-ut-Taharat**, which was translated 
in Persian by Nasir-uddin fdai, an d named Akhla^-i- 
Nasiri. He flourished about the 12th century. 

Abu-'Ali, cr^^t* irfjiK surnamed Muhandis, • the Geome- 
trician', who excelled in that science. He flourished A. D. 
1136, 530 A. H., in the time of Al-Hafi? li-din-illah, Khalifa 
of Egypt, and Al-Rashid Billah, the son of Al-Mustarahid 
of Baghdad. 

Abu-'Ali Sina, U*-. %J*j& % «** Abu-Sini. 

Abu-'Ali 'Umar, &+** criLr** iJ*J>} % *° n of Muhammad, 
was the author of the commentary, called " Sharfy Kabir" 
and " Sharfe §aghir." He diod in the year 1247 A. D^ 
646 A. H. 



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Abu-Ayyub *m>yt j>\. a companion of Muhammad who had 

• been with him in the battles of Badr and Uljud, and lost 
his life in the expedition of Constantinople (A. D. 668, 48 
A. H.) in the reign of Mu'awiya, the first Khalifa of the 
house of Umayya. His tomb is held in such veneration by 
the TW nhftropi nrinnp^ that the Sultans of the *U$man, or 
Ottoman, dynasty gird their swords on at it on their acces- 
sion to the throne. 

Abu-Bakr, or Aba-Bakr,j&yt or jit b| f son of Miran- 

shah, was killed in battle A. H. 810, A. D. 1407. 

Abu-Bakr Ahmad bin-'Umar al-Khassaf, <jlwa^f 

j+& ^ A+aJ^&^j', author of several treatises, known 

by the name of " Adab-ul-Kazi." Haji Khalifa speaks 
very highly of this work. It contains 120 chapters, and 
has been commented upon by many learned jurists : the 
most esteemed commentary is that of 'Umar bin-'Abdul- 
'Azfz bin-Maja, commonly called IJusam-ush-Shahid, who 
was killed in 1141 A. D. Al-Khassaf died in 874 A. D., 
261 AH. 

Abu-Bakr Ahmad, *+*tjfcjil 9 son of Husain Baihajtf, 
vide Baiha^L. 

Abu-Bakr Bakalani, <j^.jk y* t son of Tayyib. 
He was of the sect of Imam Malik, and author of the work 
called " Al-Taiu)idy ' and Beveral other works. He died 
in 1012 A. D., 403 A. H. See BaValani. 

Abu-Bakr Bikandi, a pupil of Abu-' Abdullah Magh- 
ribi. He lived about the year 900 A D. 

Abu-Bakr, ***-* Jf v> j^.yJ, Bon of Abii-Shaiba, an 
Arabian author who died in the year 849 A. D., 235 A. H. 

Abu-Bakr Zangi, J^j erf **~ tH jfc >> ', son of Sa'd, 
son of Zangi, one of the Atabaks of Persia, who reigned at 
Shiraz for thirty-five years, and died in the year A. D. 
1260, 658 A. H. The celebrated Shaikh Sa'di of Shiraz 
dedicated his Gulistan to him in 1258 A. D. 

Abu-Bakr Kattani, Shaikh Muhammed bin- 1 AH Ja'far, a 
famous saint, who was born at Baghdad, and died in A. D. 
934, A. H. 322.] 

Abu-Bakr bin-Mas'ud al-Kashani, <y ^Wf ^*«o 
i&ljr*. y$y author of the work on jurisprudence, entitled 

" BadaiV It is also called " SadaT-us-Sanai'." He died 
in AD. 1191, 587 AH. 

Abu-Bakr, \s&*\\&) J*.y>$ Wj", (Maulana) surnamed 
Zain-uddin, a learned Musalman, who died at Taibad on 
Thursday the 28th of January 1389 A. D., 30th Muhar- 
ram 791 H. 

For further notes vide Afn Translation I, 366.] 

Abu-Bakr M uhamm ad al-Sarakhsi, jj- ^y Jt *+** 

J*i yS y whose title was Shams-ul-Aimma ; he com- 
posed, whilst in prison at TJzjand, a law book of great 
extent and authority, entitled the "Mabsiit." He was 
also the author of the celebrated " Al-MubS{." He died 
in A. D. 1096, 490 A. H. 

Abu-Bakr Shadan, ^^ jfeyS ft*, (Shaikh) of 



Kazwin, a celebrated pious Musalman who died at Kazwin 
in the year 1137 A D., 531 A H. 

Abu-Bakr Shashbani, Jh^j&j}, a valiant com- 
mander, born in a village called Shashban in the province 
of Mazandaran. He was one of the greatest opponents of 
Amir Timur in his conquest of Asia. 



AbU-Bakr Shibli, ^Uf/j^l £&, (Shaikh) a celobra- 

ted doctor of divinity, born and brought up at Baghdad, 
but the native country of his parents was Khurasan. 
This Sufi followed the doctrines of the sect of Imam Malik, 
and had for his masters Junaid and other holy men of 
that epoch. He died at Baghdad on Friday, Slat July, 
946 A D n 27th ftHyja 334 A. H., aged 87 years. 

AbU-Bakr Siddik, fy**j&j*, the father of 'Xyisha, 
the wife of Muhammad the prophet, by whom he was so 
much respected that he received from him the surname of 
§idd$, which signifies in Arabic "a great speaker of 
truth," and at whoso death, in June 632 A. D., he was 
elected successor in opposition to 'Ali, the son-in-law of 
the prophet. He supported with energy the new faith, 
and reduced several of the Arabian tribes who wished to 
abandon the new doctrines and return to the religion of 
their fathers. Afterwards, he turned his arms against 
foreign nations, and by the valour of his active general 
Khalid, he defeated an army of 200,000 men, whom the 
Greek emperor Heraclius hid sent to ravage Syria. He 
did not enjoy his victories : a alow fever wasted his 
vigour, and he died the very day that Damascus was 
taken ; but before he died he appointed for his successor 
'Umar (Omar) the son of Khattab. Ho had reigned two 
lunar years three months and nine days, and expired in his 
63rd year on Friday the 23rd August, 634 A. D., 22nd 
Jumada II, 13 A. H. He was buried close to the tomb of 
Muhammad in MuHftu^ 

AbU-Bakr Tughluk, &£J*S), the son of prince ?afor 
Khan, and grandson of Finiz Shah Tughlufc was raised 
to the throne of Dihli after the assassination of his cousin 
Ghiyas-uddin Tughlufc in February 1389 A. D., Safar 
791 A. H. He reigned one year and six months, after 
which his uncle Prince Muhammad Tughlufc, the son of 
Fir&z Shah, who was at Nagarko$, (Kangra) proclaimed 
himself king, and proceeded with an army towards Dihli. 
After some repulses he was victorious, entered Dihli, and 
ascended the throne in the month of August 1390 A D M 
tUmazan 792 A. H. Abu-Bakr who had fled towards 
Mewat, was taken prisoner on the 29th November of the 
same year, 20th #Hyja, and sent to the fort of Mfrath, 
where he died some years after. Vide Dowson, IV, 20. 

AbU-Bakr Yahya, bi^jZyJ, author of the "Bahjat- 
ul-MafcafiT, or the Delight of Assemblies, containing 
various anecdotes recorded of Muhammad, the four Kha- 
lifas, and other illustrious persons, in Arabic. 

Abu-Darda, \*J*y), a companion of Muhammad, who was 
governor of Syria in the time of the Khalifa 'Umar. 

Abu-Daud Sulaiman bin-al-Ash'as, ^^Vl ^ 
eM*~ **$& j*f, surnamed Al-Sijistanf, author of a 
44 Kitab us-8unan ,, , which contains 4,800 traditions, selec- 
ted from a collection made by him of 500,000. It is 
considered the fourth book of the Sunna. He was born 
in 817 A. D., 202 A H., and died at Basra in 888 A. D. f 
275 AH. " ' 

Abu-Daud Sulaiman bin-'TJkba, i£r*&f| **** 

ur? c^U A^tfl, surnamed Az-?ahiri. He is the 
translator and commentator of Euclid in Arabic. He was 
also the founder of a Sunnf sect, but had few followers, 
and was called Az-?ahiri, because he founded his system 
of jurisprudence on the exterior (fdhir), or literal meaning 
of the $uran and the traditions, rejecting the fciyia. 
He was born at Kufa A. D. 817, 202 A H., and died at 
Baghdad in 883 A. D., A. H. 270. Some authors say that 
he died in 276 A. H. (888 A D.h He was a great 
partisan of Shaf i'i. 



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Abu-Haft al-Bukhari, <*/***» u^^l, a mufti of 
Bukhara^ and a Tory rigid Musalmin. He was surnamed 
Al-Kabir, the Great, to distinguish him from his son, 
who was sol-named Al-§aghir, the Little, or the Younger, 
and was also a learned teacher, but not so famous as his 
father. 

Abu-Haft Haddad, 'Amr, son of Salama, of Nfshaptir, 
a saint, who died in 264 A. H.] 

Abu-Hafs 'TJmar, t+^l^j+fi u*i*>j>\ f son of Afcmad, 
author of 330 works, among which are "Targhfb and 
Tafsfr" and " Masnad". He died in 995 A. D., 385 A. H. 

Abu-Hafs 'Umar al-Ghaznawi, ^sjj*i\ y* o***^ 

itfi^rfj**, surnamed Siraj-uddin, a follower of Abd-rja- 
nifa, and author of the Arabic work called " Zubdat-ul- 
Abkam", which expounds the practical statutes of the 
different doctrines of the four Sunni sects. He died in 
1371 A. D., 773 A. H. 
Abu-Ha / mid (Imam), ^J\y *+x" ^ **U. yt ^U| f 
son of Muhammad, surnamed Ghazzilf. He is the author 
of the Arabic work on theology, called '* Djyau-'ulum- 
id- din" and of many other works. He died in 1 1 1 1 A. D., 
605 A. H. Vide Ghaxzali. 

Abu-Hamza bin-Naar al-Ansari, ^IaVji^aj ^ 
j^A.yl^ surnamed Aus bin-Malik, was one of the six 
authors most approved for Muhammadan traditions. He 
died at Basra, in the year 710 A. D., 91 A. H., agod 103 
years, after having begot 100 children. He was the last 
that was styled §ab&ba, that is to say, friends, companions, 
and contemporaries of Muhammad. 

Abu-Hanifa (Imam), a.iui*^j» +U\ f surnamed Al-Nu'- 
man Kaff, the son of S&bit, a celebrated lawyer among the 
Musalm&ns, was born at Kufa in the year 699 A. D., 80 A.H., 
and is said to have been a descendant of the Persian king 
Nausherwan the Just. Though he was imprisoned at Bagh- 
dad by the khalifa Al-Mansur for denying the doctrines 
of predestination, and died in his confinement, yet his 
learning, his virtues, and moderation found partisans in 
the East, and 336 years after his decease, Sultan Malik- 
shin 8aljutf erected a mausoleum in the city of Baghdad, 
where his remains were deposited. There were not 
wanting enthusiasts who declared that his name was men- 
tioned in the Old Testament, and that his birth had been 
foretold as well as that of the prophet. He died in the 
year 767 A. D., 160 A. H., aged 70 lunar years. Ho was 
tho founder of the first of the four chief sects of Sunnfs, 
and the principal of the Mujtahid Imams, who looked to 
the Jpyas as the main authority upon which to base deci- 
sions. At the period of his birth, four, or as some authors 
say, six of the companions of the Prophet, were still living. 
Vide tfanfm (Imam). 

AbU-Hatim, f}^*jJ 9 * <^brs^ed Miisalmin lawyer. Vide 
Eatim, surnamed Al-Asamm. 

Abu-Huraira, 9jij*j$ t to*t " " &ther °* **© Wtten," 
so nicknamed by Muhammad, because of his fondness for a 
cat which he always carried about with him. He was 
so constantly called by this name, that his true namo is 
not known, nor his pedigree. He was such a constant 
attendant upon Muhammad, that a great many traditions 
go under his name ; so many, indeed, that the multitude 
of them make people suspect them. Nevertheless, others 
receive them without hesitation as of undoubted authority. 
He was ${zf of Mecca in the time of 'Usman. He died 
in the year 679 A. D., 69 A H, 

Abu Huaain Zarrin,^^ c ^ r *> > *t f of Hlrit, and master 

of Abu-* Abdullah Maghrib*. He died at the age of 120. 

Abu-Ibrahim Ismail, i/^o*** erf d*—* (*W J#, 

son of Yafcys al-Maxanf, a distinguished disciple of Imam 
Shaffl, and author of the "Jimi' §aghir" and other 

4 



works. He died in the year 878 A. D., 264 A. H. He 
was the most celebrated amongst ShafiT s followers for 
his acquaintance with the legal system and juridical deci- 
sions of his preceptor, and for his knowledge of the tradi- 
tions. Amongst other works, he wrote the " Mukhtasir," 
the "Mansur", the "Rasail-ul-Mu'tabira" and the "Kitab- 
ukWasiiV' The Mukhtasir is the basis of all the treatises 
composed on the legal doctrines of ShaTi'i, who himself 
entitled Al-Masanf ** the champion" of his doctrine. 

Abu-l£-hak, son of Alptigfn, independent governor of 
Ghazni. Abd-Is-bife handed over the reigns of the gov- 
ernment to Subuktigin, who on Is-fea^'s death in A. D. 
977, A. H. 367, usurped the throne.] 

Abu-Is-hak, *♦** ^J (j*~tj->l t *»« son of Muhammad, 
an inhabitant of Syria, who wrote an excellent commentary 
to Mutanabbf. He died in 1049 A, D., 441 A. H. 

Abm-Ia-feak Ahmad, £♦•>» J***!^, or AbuMs-hifc 
Tbtahim bin-IsmsVil, author of the " ^isas-ul-Anbiyi'' 
which contains an account of the creation of the world, 
and a history of all the prophets preceding Muhammad ; 
also the history of Muhammad till the battle of Ufeud, 
A D. 623. He died in 1036 A. D., 427 A. H. 

Abu-Is-hak al-Kaairuni, <yj;jWl <> -r, " , ^> a Ma * 
hammadan saint who, they say, lighted a lamp in the 
mosque of the college called "Takht Siraj," which 
continued burning for four hundred years till the time 
of Bin-$asim. 

Abu-IaJiak HaUaj, «Wt gi* t>*" ,, -* , » generally 
called " Bus-fea^ At'ima", a poet and cotton-thrasher, who 
never wrote a verse without mentioning in it the name 
of a dish; consequently they gave him the name of At'ima, 
i. e. meals. His poetical name is Bus-fea^. He lived in 
the time of Sikandar son of 'Umar Shaikh ; vide Is-fea^. 

Abu-Is-hak Iafaraini, «/6** f &****$> son of Mu- 
hammad, author of the " Jami'-ul-Jila," which refutes the 
doctrines of various sects. He died in 1027 A. D., 418 A. H. 

Abu-Is-hak Shamit of Syria, a famous saint, who died 
on the 14th Kabi' II, 329, and lies buried at 'Akka.] 

Abu-Ie-hak Shirasi, <jrj[H£ t>*~J>*t, Author of the 
" Taba^at ul-Fu*aha," a collection of the lives of celebrated 
lawyers. He died A, D. 1083, 476 A H. 

Abu-Ia-hak, <3*"V £** •**, (Shah Shaikh). His 
father Amir Muhammad Sblh, a descendant of Khwaja 
'Abdullah Anssrf, was governor of Shfraz in the reign 
of Sul(an Abu-8a'id Khin, and was murdered during the 
reign of Arpi Khan in 1336 A. D., 736 A. H. His son 
Amir Mas'ud, who succeeded him was also slain shortly 
after, when his brother Abu-Is-hifc took possession of 
Shiris in 1336. He reigned 18 years; but when Amir 
Muhammad Muzaffar besieged Shiriz in 1363 A. D., 764 
A. H., Abu-Is-ha^ fled to I§fahan, where he was slain 
four years after, on Friday the 12th May 1367 A D., 21st 
Jornada I, 768 A. H. 

Abu Ismail Muhammad, *+*" <-****•» y» , author of 

the history ceiled " Tirikh Futub-il-8ham" the conquest of 
8yria by the generals of 'Umar in fbrtv-two battles, 
during the years 638 and 639 of the Christian Era, trans- 
lated and abridged from the " Tabe+at Wafcidi." 

AbU-Ja'far, j**+J*U vide Al-Mangdr. 

Abu-Ja'far Ahmad bin-Muhammad Tahawi, 

(e^** *x^^* c ^j ±+*>\jA*a, j*\ f an inhabitant of Ta^i, a 

village in Egypt. He was a follower of the flanaflya 
sect, and is the author of the commentary on the Imuran, 
called "Abkam-ul-^uran," and other works, called 
"Ikhtilaf-ul.'ulaina", " Ma'ani-LAsar", "Nasikh and 
Mansukh", all in Arabic. He died in the year 933 A D., 
821 A. H. He also wrote an abridgement of the Qanan* 
doctrines, called the " Mukhtasir uWMawt" 



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Abu-Ja'far al-Haddad, tf&sJ\jiLAAjj\ f \ Two great 
Abu-Ja'far al-Saflfer, jfaJjj***. y\ y j ^o^e* 

one was a locksmith, and the other a brazier. 
The latter is called At-Haffdr, L e., grave-digger, in 

Jamf s Naffcat-ul-Uns.] 
Abu-Ja'far al-Tabari, jij^ o?l ur^t^***-* 1 , son 

of Jarfr, author of the T&rfkh T^oari, a very authentic 
history in Arabic, which he wrote in the year 912 A. D. 
This work was translated and continued by Abu-Muhammad 
of Tabriz in Persian. Tabarf was the founder of the 
seventh Sunni sect, which did not long survive the death 
of its author. He was born at Amul in fabaristaji in 838 
A. D., 224 A. H., and died at Baghdad in 922 A. D., 310 
A. H. He is also the author of a commentary to the 
Koran. 

Abu-Ja'far Muhammad bin-'Ali bin-Babwaihi al- 

Kumi, cij*^ *W^ etf ^ v* *♦** j*** Ji\ 
surnamed As-Sadufc, one of the earliest of the many writers 
of commentaries on the Kuran among the Shf as. He lived 
in the fourth century of the Hijra, and was a contempo- 
rary of Rukn-ud-daula Dailami. He was one of the greatest 
of the collectors of the Shi'a traditions, and the most celebra- 
ted of all the Imamiya lawyersof $umin Persia. This writer 
composed a large and a small Tafsir. There is considerable 
uncertainty as to the exact time when he lived. Shaikh Turf 
says in the Fihrist that Abu-Ja'far died at Rai in 331 
A. H., A. D. 942, but this appears to be erroneous. Shaikh 
Najdahi, who died in A. D. 1014, states that Abu-Ja'far 
visited Baghdad, whilst yet in the prime of life, in A. H. 
855, A. D. 965, which might well have been the case, 
since Abul-Hasan 'All bin-B4bwaihi, the father of Abu- 
Ja'far, did not die until A. H. 329, A. D. 940. In addi- 
tion to this, Nur-ullah relates, on the authority of the 
Shaikh ad-Duryasti* that Abu-Ja'far lived in the time of 
Rukn-ud-daula Dailami, and had repeated interviews with 
that prince, who, as is well-known, reigned from A. H. 
338 to A. H. 366, A. D. 949—976. He is also the author 
of the "Man la ya^zarhu al-Fafcih," which is the fourth 
of the four authentic books on Shf a tradition, called 
Kutub Arba'. He is said to have written in all 172 works, 
and to have been especially skilled in Ijtihad. 

Abu-Ja'far Muhammad bin-Hasan al-Tusi, (Shaikh) 
who was one of the chief Mujtahids of the Imamiya or 
Shi'a sect, is the author of the work entitled ** Fihristu- 
Kutub-ish-Shf a wa Asma-il-Musannifin." It is a biblio- 
graphical dictionary of Shf a works, together with the 
names of the authors. Tho greater part of this author's 
works were publicly burnt in Baghdad in the tumult that 
arose between the Sunnis and Shf as in 1056 A. D,, 448 — 
460 A. H. Abu-Ja'far died in 1067 A. D. He is also the 
author of a very extensive commentary on the Kuran, in 
twenty volumes, which is generally called the *• Tafsir 
ut-Tusf," though it waB entitled by its author the " Majma'- 
ul-Bayan li-'ulum-il-Kuran." Among the Four Books 
on Shi'a Qadis, called Kutub Arba', the two first in order 
were composed by him entitled •* Tahzib-ul-Abkam," and 
Istibsar. His chief works are the Mabsut and the Khilaf, 
which are held in great estimation, as are also the Nihaya 
and the Mufoit by the same author. The Risala-i- 
Ja'fariya is likewise a legal treatise by at-Tusi, which is 
frequently quoted. 

Abu- Jahl, Jfa. jjf ; the uncle of 'Umar ibn-ul-Khatta 1 b. He 
was one of the most inveterate enemies of Muhammad 
and his religion. Though his son 'Ikrima became a con- 
vert to ihe tenets of Muhammad, yet his father was for ever 
shut out from paradise ; and so violent is the resentment 
of the Musalmans against this first enemy of their prophet, 
that they call the colocynth, in contempt, the melon of 
Abu-Jail. Abu-Jahl was slain in the battle of Badr, 

* Duryast, a village near Rai, which is now called 
Darasht. 



which he fought against Muhammad, together with Al-Xs 
his brother, in the 70th year of his age, in the month of 
March 624 A. D., Ramadan 2, A. H. 

Abu-Lahab, mJ^jT, tho uncle of Muhammad, also called 
'Abdul-' Uzza, was the son of ' Abdul-Muttalib and one of 
the bitterest enemies of Muhammad and his doctrines. 
He died of grief within a week after the defeat of Abu-Suf- 
yan in the battle of Badr, which took place about the be- 
ginning of the year 624 A. D., 2 A. H. He was aman of 
wealth, of proud spirit and irritable temper. His son 
'Utba was engaged, or according to some, married to, 
Muhammad's third daughter Ru^ayya, but when Muham- 
mad appeared as a prophet, the contract was dissolved, and 
Rufcayya married her lover 'Usman. Abu-Lahab was also 
allied to the rival line of Kuraish, having married Umm- 
Jamil, sister of Abu-Sufyan. 

Abul- 'Abbas, surnamed Al-Saffiab, which see. 

Abul-'Abbas bin-Muhammad, &*s" ^ ^^fyt, 
author of the Arabic work *' Ma'rifiit.us-SaljAba, M and 
other books. He died in 1041 A. D., 432 A.H. 

Abul-'Abbas Ahmad bin-Muhammad, commonly 
called Ibn-'Ukda, was one of the greatest masters of tho 
science of traditions, and was renowned for his diligence 
in collecting them, and the long and frequent journeys 
which he undertook for the purpose of obtaining inform- 
ation on the subject. Al-Darku^ru. the Sunni traditionist, 
is reported to have said that Ibn-'TTfcda knew 300,000 tra- 
ditions of the Ahl-i-Bait and the Banu-Haahim. He died 
in A. D. 944, 333 A. H. 

Abul-'Abbas Fasl, bin-Ahmad, of Is&r&n, was minister 

to Mahmud of Ghaznf.] 

Abul-'Aina, 'H^l^t, a Musalmin lawyer celebrated for 
his wit When Musa, son of the khalim 'Abdul-Malik, 
put to death one of Abul-'Aina'e friends, and afterwards 
spread a report that he had escaped, Abul-' A ins said in 
the words of tho Lawgiver of the Hebrews, ♦* Moses smote 
him and he died." The sentence was reported to the prince, 
and Abul-'Aini was summoned to appear. Instead of 
dreading the threats of the tyrant he boldly replied in 
the words of the following verse in Exodus, " Wilt thou 
kill me to-day as thou killedst the other man yesterday Y" 
The ingenuity of the expression disarmed the anger of 
Musa, who loaded him with presents. 

Abu-Lais Nasir Samarkand!, author of the work on 
jurisprudence in Arabic called "Fifch Abu-Lais," and 
the u Ghunyat-ul-MubtadL" 

Abul-' Ala, JWljJf, entitled Malik-ush-Shu'ari, or royal 
poet, of Oanja, flourished in the time of Manuchihr, ruler 
of Shirwin. The poets Falakf and Khifcam were his 
pupils, and to the latter he gave his daughter in marriage. 

Abul-' Ala Ahmadbin-'AbduUahal-Ma'arri 9Ur ytJi 

l\i\M i^i **M ^UJl^l, & celebrated Arabian philoso- 
pher, free-thinker and poet, born at Ma'arra in Syria 
on Friday the 26th December 973 A. D M let Rabi* I, 368 
A. H. Though he lost his sight in the 3rd year of his age 
by the small-pox, his poetry is animated and his descrip- 
tions are beautiful and striking. He died on Friday 
the 9th of May 1057 A. D., 1st Rabf I, 449 A. H. He was 
the panegyrist of Al-Vayim Billah, the khalifa of Baghdad, 
and has left a Diwan in Arabic. VitU Zeitschrift, D. M. G., 
xxix, p. 304. 

Abul-'Ala, <jck\j*S\ HjJ\jJ\ jx* f (Mfr), of Akbaribld or 
Agra, Mfr Abul- Waft Hasanf, was born in the year 1682 
A. D., 990 A. H. His grandfather Mir 'Abd-us-Salim 
came to India from Samarkand, and went on a pilgrimage 
to Mecca, and died after Borne years. His father Mfr 
Abul-Wafa died at Fatypur Sfkrf, from which place his 
remains were conveyed to Dihlf and buried close to the 
college situated near the Lai Darwaaa. When Raja Man 
Singh was appointed governor of Bengal, Mir Abul- 



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*AU accompanied him, and was honored with the rank 
of 3,000, but he soon left him and proceeded to A^'mir, 
and thence to Agra, where he passed the remainder 
of his life, and is said to have performed many miracles. 
He died on Friday the 21st, January 1661 A. D., 9th Safar, 
1061 A. H., aged 71 lunar years, and lies buried at Agra, 
at a place near the karbala, where every year on the anni- 
versary of his death a groat number of people assemble 
together and worship his tomb. 

He was a Nafcahbandi and a descendant of Khwaja 
Mrar.] 
Abul-Barakat Nishapuri, (Sjji 1 ^ *>%j# l ^ > author 
of the work called " Dastur-ul-Kitabat." 

Abul-Barakat > Abdullah bin- Ahmad, *•*» w> *W 
^ofc^ljjt, rtVfcNasafi. 

Abul-Barakat. Shaikh, brother of Abul-Fagl, born A. D. 
1652 ; vide Am Translation, p. xxxiii] 

Abul-Farah, of Wasit, the ancestor of the Sayyid families 
of Barha, Bilgram, Khairabdd, Fatfcpur HansWfc, and 
other phices. Fide kin Translation I, 390.] 

Abul-Faraj, HJ**\ J$* (who in some of our Biographi- 
cal Dictionaries is called Abulfaragius (George), was the 
son of Aaron, a Christian physician, born at Malatia in 
Armenia, near the source of the Euphrates in 1226 A. D. 
He followed his father's profession, but afterwards studied 
the Eastern languages and divinity, and was ordained 
bishop of Guba in his 20th year, from whence he was trans- 
lated to Lacabena and Aleppo. He wrote a work on 
history, called "Mukhtasir-ud-Dawal," divided into dynas- 
ties, which is an epitome of universal history from the 
creation to his own time. The most excellent part of the 
work is that which relates to the Saracens, Mughuls, and 
the conquests of Chingis Khan. Dr. Pococke, Professor 
of Hebrew and Arabic at Oxford, published this work in 
1663, in the original Arabic, with a Latin version of it. 
Abul-Faraj died in 1286 A. D., 686 A. H. 

Abul-Faraj 'Ali, ^*-a ^ ^1* j^t^l, the son of 

Husain bin-Muhammad r>uraishi Isfahan!, was born in 
the year 897 A. D., 264 A. H., and was brought up at 
Baghdad. He is the author of a famous work called 
Kitab-ul-Aghani, or Book of Songs, an important biogra- 
phical dictionary, notwithstanding its title, treating of 
grammar, history, and science, as well as of poetry. The 
oasis is a collection of one hundred Arabian songs, which 
he presented to 8aif-ud*daula, prince of the race of Qam- 
dan. who ordered him a thousand dinar*. The minister 
of that prince, thinking this sum too small for the merit 
of the work, on which the author had laboured fifty 
years, doubled it The author of this celebrated work 
died in 967 A. D., 366 A. H., having lost his reason 
previous to his death. 

Abul-Faraj al-Baghawi H £^*Jf £- r*-M, J *"<> 8™* 

Abul-Farig al-Khalidi, ^aJlsWi E ytf 1*1, J w W 5 

the court of the Sultan Saif-ud-daula of the house of 9am- 
dan, who was a protector of men of letters, on whom he 
bestowed large pensions. 

Abul-Faraj ibn-Jauzi, &}j± ^ £^W» surnamed 
Shams-uddin, was the most learned man, the ablest tradi- 
tionist, and the first preacher of his time. He compiled 
works on a variety of subjects, and was the tutor of the 
celobrated Shaikh 8a'di of Shirts. He died on the 
16th June, 1201 A D., 12th Bamagan, 697 A. H., and is 
buried at Baghdad. His father's name was 'Ali, and 
that of his grandfather Jausi. One of his works is 
called "Talbis Iblis", "The Temptation of Satan." 

AbTll-Faraj Buni, <j>JD g^ ^, of Ron, said to be 

a place near Labor. He is tho author of a Diw&n, and was 
the panegyrist of Sultan Ibrahim, (the grandson of Sultan 
Mahmud of Ghaxni) who reigned from 1069 to 1088 



A D., 451 to 481 A. H. Anwarf imitated his style ; vide 
Sprenger Oudh MS 8., p. 308. He is often wrongly called 
Abul-Farab Ituwaini ; vide Dowson iv, 205.] 

Abul-Faraj Saujari, isj^r^ 1$ > a Per8iaa P 06 * 

who lived in ihe time of the great irruption of the Tartars 
under Chingis Khan. 

Fide, however, Sprenger, Oudh MSS., p. 308, from which 
it appears that Sanjarf is a mistake for Sijizf, t. e. of 
SijisUn.] 

Abul-Fath Lodi, chief of Multan. Sultan Mahmud of 
Qhazni took Multan in A. D. 1010, and carried away 
Abul-Fath as prisoner to Ghaznf. 

Abul-Fath Bilgrami, ***** yJ , (K&V ) commonly 

called Shaikh EamaL It is mentioned in the work called 
i% Shar&if-i-'Usmanf, that he was born in the year 1611 A. 
D., 917 A. H., and that in the reign of the emperor Akbar 
he held the situation of Kaji of Bilgram, and died 
in the year 1592 A D., 1001 A. H. MullA Firuz 'Uaminf 
found the chronogram of the year of his death in the 
letters of his name, vis. .* Shaikh Kamal. 

Abul-Fath Buflti, J^. f^!* 1 , (Shaikh) a learned 
Musalmin of Bust, who lived in the time of Sultan Mahmud 
of Ghaznf, wrote excellent poetry on divinity, and died 
in July, 1039 A. D., Shawwal, 430 A H. He is the author 
of a Diwan in Arabic. 

Abul-Fath, author of a Persian work called " Chahar Bagh", 
or 'the four gardens', containing forms of letters on 
different subjects. 

Abul-Fath, Muhammad bin-Abu-Bakr al-Marghfnanf al- 
Samarkandi, author of the " Fusul-ul-'Imadiya", which 
comprises forty sections containing decisions respecting 
mercantile matters, and being left incomplete at the author's 
death, Which took place in A. D. 1253, 661 A H^ was 
finished by Jamal-uddin bin-'Imad-uddin. 

Abul-Fath Qilani, <J*4 ^ l ^y surnamed Masfi?-ud- 
dfn, the son of 'Abdur-Razzafe a nobleman of Gflan, was a 
physician in the service of the emperor Akbar. In the 
year 1689 A. D., he proceeded to Kashmir with that mon- 
arch, and during the emperor's progress from Kashmir to 
Kabul, he died at a place called Dhantur, on the 20th 
June of the same year, 16th Sha'ban, 997 A. H., and was 
buried at Baba Hasan AbdaL He had come to India with 
his two brothers Hakim Humim and rjakim Nur-uddin 
$ararf about the year 1567 A. D., 974 A H. 
For further notes, vide Ain Translation I, 424.] 

Abul-Fath Muhammad al-Shahristani, c5^rt^ 
^^ f^' J$> author of the Arabic work called 
«' Kitab ul-Milal wan-Nibal," or the Book of Religions and 
Philosophical Sects. This book, which gives a full ac- 
count of the various Sunnf sects, was translated into Latin 

, and published by Dr. ilaarbriicker, in 1860 A D., and into 
English by the Rev. Dr. Cureton. Shahristani died in 
A. D. 1163, 548 A. H. 

Abul-Fath Nasir bin-Abul-Makarim Mutarriii, 

(SJU^ fifiJljf U* -T*° £** { f\ aathor of the Arabic 

Dictionary called "Mughrib." He died in A. D. 1213, 
610 A. H. in Khwarazm. He was a Mu'tazilite and invited 
people to that faith. He is also the author of the " Sharfe 
Mafcamit Hariri, and of another work called "Kitab 
Asharf ." The inhabitants of Khwarazm used to call him 
the master of Zamakhshari, and on his death the poets 
wrote more than seven hundred elegies in his praise. 



Abul-Fath Nasir bin-Muhammad, j* 

author of the •• Jami'-ulMa'arif." 



J* J*, 

Abul-Fath Rukn-uddin bin-Husam Nagori, 
Vi*J\{Jj f^I^lj author of a work on jurisprudence, en- 



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titled the " Fataw* I?amm£diya" which he composed and 
dedicated to his tutor, Qammacl-uddin Ahmad, chief-^agi 
of Naharw&la (Pa^an) in Gujr&t This work was litlyo- 
graphed in the original Arabic at Calcutta in A. D. 1826. 

Abul-Ffcth 'Usman, cA** f&W* surnamed Malik 
ul-'Aziz 'Ima'd-uddfn, second king of Egypt of the Ayyubite 
dynasty. He acted as viceroy of Egypt during the ab- 
sence of his father, Sultan Salafe-uddin Yusuf ibn-Ayyub, in 
Syria. On the demise of his father at Damascus in 1193 
A. D., he took possession of the supreme power with the 
unanimous consent of the great military officers of the em- 
pire. He was born at Cairo on the 7th January 1172 
A. D., 8th Jumada I, 667 A. H., reigned about five years, 
and died at Cairo on the ^rd November, 1198 A. D., 21st 
Muharram, 595 A. H. 

Abul-FazlBaihaki. «A** ^Wi author of several 

works on history. Vide Baiha^i 
Abul-Fazl 'Abdul-Malik bin-Ibrahim al-Hama- 

dani al-Mukaddasi, *-*W *** cUifl^t, author of 

the " Fariif -ul-Mu^addasi ", a treatise on the law of inheri- 
tance according to the Sh&A'i doctrine. He died A. D. 
1095, 489 A. H. 

Abul-Fazl Ja'far, J*** JUiJi ^ son of the khalifa Al- 
Muktafi, was a great astronomer ; vide Al-MutawakkiL 

Abul-Fazl Muhammad, *+*" cUiJl^, author of the 
Arabic Dictionary called " SuraVul-LughaV' 

Abul-FaBl (Shaikh), J-iiil>l &*, Akbar's favorite Se- 
cretary and Wazir. His poetical name was 'Allamf. He was 
the second son of Shaikh Mubarak of Nagor, and brother of 
Shaikh Faigf. He was born in the year 1551 A. D., 958 
A. H., and was introduced to the emperor in the 19th year 
of his reign. His writings testify him to be the most learned 
and elegant writer then m the East. He is celebrated as the 
author of the " Akbarnama" and the " Ain-Akbarf ', and for 
his letters, called " Maktubat-i-' Allami," which are consi- 
dered in India models of public correspondence. The history 
of the Mughul emperors he carried on to the 47th year of 
Akbar's reign, in which vear he was murdered. He was 
deputed with prince Sultan Murad in 1597 A.D., 1006 A. H., 
as Commander-in-Chief of the army of the Dakhin, and 
on his being recalled five years after, he was advancing 
towards Narwar with a small escort, when he fell into 
an ambuscade, laid for him by Bireingh Deo BundeU, 
raj& of l/rch& in Bundalkhand, at the instigation of Prince 
Salim (afterwards Jahangir) on suspicion of being the 
occasion of a misunderstanding between him and the 
emperor his father; and although Abul-Fajl defended 
himself with great gallantry, he was cut off with most of 
his attendants, and his head was sent to the prince, who 
was then at Allahabad. This event took place on Friday 
the 13th of August, 1602 A. D., 4th Rabf I, 1011 A. II, 
Akbar was deeply afflicted by the intelligence of this 
event ; he shed abundance of tears, and passed two days 
and two nights without food or sleep. Abul- Fail is also 
the author of the " 'Avar-Danish" which is a translation of 
Pilpay's Fables in Persian. 

For a detailed biography vide Kin Translation, I, pp. 1 
to xxxvi.] 

Abul-Fasl Tahir bin-Muhammad Zahir-uddin 
Faryabii *+&* d*6Si)\y\ a Persian poet ; vide $ahfr« 

Abul-Fida Ismail Hamawi, LSJ+* <J***~t t^t^t, 
whose full name is Malik Muayyad IsmsVil Abul-Fidl, son 
of Malik-ul-A&al, a learned and celebrated prince, who 
succeeded his brother Ahmad as king of Racist in Syria 
in the vear 1342 A. D., 743 A. H. When a private man, 
he published m Arabic an account of the regions beyond 
the Oxus called " Tafcwim-ul-Buldan," which was first 



edited by GrsBvius with a Latin translation, London 16501, 
and by Hudson, Oxford 1712. Abul-Fidl died in 1345, 
aged 72, at tfaxnit The principal of Abul-FidaVs other 
works is his abridgment of Universal History down to 
his time, called " Tarikh Mukhtasjr." He is very exact, 
and his style is elegant, on which account his works 
are very much esteemed. 

Abul-Paia, U^ Ltf* . Vide Faifi 

* Abul-Faiz Muhammad bin-Husain bin-Ahmad, 
surnamed Al-K4tib, or the Writer, is better known by the 
name of bin-Ahmad. He was a wasslr of Balkan Rukn-nd- 
daula, of the Boyides. He was a great orator and a 
poet, and brought Arabian caligraphy to perfection. He 
died in 961 A. 6., 360 A. H. 

Abul-FutuhBazi Makkt J* (Sjb c^!^' f author of 

the Arabic work called "Biafla" or "KitibHasaniyaV, which 
has a great reputation amongst the Shf as, particularly in 
Persia. It consists of an imaginary disputation between 
a Shf a slave-girl and a learned Sunni lawyer, on the 
merits of their respective doctrines, in which, as a matter of 
course, the girl utterly discomfits her opponent. The ar- 
gument is very ingenuously managed, and the treatise, taken 
altogether, famishes a good and concise exposition of the 
tenets of the Shf as, and the texts on which their belief is 
founded. This work was translated from Arabic into Per- 
sian by Ibrahim Astaiibadf in 1551 A. D. 

Abul-Ghazi Bahadur, J^ti iSjWji*, Khan of the Tar- 
tars, was descended from the great Ghingis TOi fr y He 
came to the sovereignty of Khwarazm on the death of his 
brother ; and after 20 years, during which he was respected 
at home and abroad, he resigned the sovereignty to his son 
Anusha Muhammad, and retired to devote himself to liter- 
ature. He wrote a valuable genealogical history of the 
Tartars, the only Tartar history knownin Europe, but 
did not live to finish it Ho died A. D. 1663, 1074 A. 
H., and on his death-bed charged his successor to complete 
his history, which he performed in two years after his 
father's death. This valuable work was translated into 
German by Count 8trahlenberg, and a French translation 
appeared at Leyden in 1726. 

Abul-GhaBi Bahadur, vide 6ultan Husain Mini, 
Abul-Haras, **** erf ^ji **»r+Jt ^j^W, or 
Qaras, commonly called gul-Rama, son of 'U^ba. He was 
an Arabian poet, and was contemporary with Faraxdak, 
He died in A. D. 735, 117 A H. ^^ 

Abul-Hasan, ur**^> author of the " Siyar Nur Mau. 

lud," a heroic poem on the wars of the prophet Muhammad* 
Abul-Hasan, er-* W, a poet who wrote a commentary 

on tho Diwan of Anwari, called Sharb-i-Diwan-i-Anwari 

Abul-Hasan 'Abdullah, C* 5 * wl ^l*** er^W, 
(Imam), son of Mufcanna'. He translated Pilpay's Fables 
from the Pahlawi language into Arabic by order of Abu- 
Ja'far Mansur, the second khalifa of the house of 'Abbas, 
who reigned at Baghdid from 754 to 775 AD. The book 
is called Kallla Damna. 

Abul-Hasan 'AH, u^ er-^J^fJ, author of the works 
called " Sunan" and " 'HaL" He died A. D. 090, 380 A. H. 

Abul-Hasan >Ali bin-al-Husain al-Kuxni, *W b . 

U+^lcr**-*" erf er**"^ f, commonly called Babwaihi, 

who is said to have died in A. D. 940, 329 A. BL, was the 
author of several works of note, one of which is called 
" Kitib-ush-Sharf a." This writer is looked upon as a 
considerable authority, although his fame has been almost 
eclipsed by his more celebrated son, Abu-Ja'far Muhammad 
Ibn-Bibwaihi (p. 14). When these two writers are quoted 



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together, they are called the two gaduka. He is also the 
author of the Kitfb-ul-MawaXa, a treatise on the law of 
inheritance. 

Abul-Hasan >AH. **>*■"* d* ^* V* \J* cr**^!, the eon 
of Suljin Mas'ud I, ascended the throne at Ghazni, on 
Friday, 29th December, 1049 A. D., 1st Sha'ban,. 441 
A. H., reigned little more than two years, and was deposed 
by his brother 'Abdur-Baehid in 1052 A. D., 443 A. H. 

Abul-Hasan Ash'ari, cl***»» urf uy&\ tr^W, son 
of IsmaVfl. Ho was a Mu'tazilite, but afterwards became 
a Sunnf. He is the author of nearly 400 works. He died 
in the year 936 A. D., 324 A. H. 

Abul-Hasan Juijani, ij^+J* cr-^Wj a celebrated 

lawyer, a native of Jurjan or Georgia. Vide Juijani 
Abul-Hasan Elian, c^er^l J* 'i/°, (Mirea) Persian 

ambassador to the British Court in 1809 and 1819. He 
is the author of a work called " IJairat-nama," or book of 
wonders, which title was given by it by Fatfc 'All Shah, 
king of Persia. It contains a long account of the Khan's 
travels in India, Turkey, Russia, England, &c. 

Abul-Hasan Kutb-Shah, » u yU cr^Wi whose 

original name was Tana* Shah, was the son-in-law 
of 'Abdullah Kutb-Shah, after whose demise, about the 
year 1672 A. D., 1083 A. H., he succeeded to the throne of 
Golkonda in rjaidaribid, Dakhin. This place was con- 
quered by 'Alamgir, after a siege of seven months, on the 
22nd of September, 1687 A. D., 24th Sil-fca'da, 1098 A. H., 
and Abul-Hasan was taken prisoner and confined for life 
in the citadel of DaulaUbAd. Golkonda was then reduced 
to a province of the empire of Hindustan. Abul-Hasan 
died in confinement about the year 1700 A. D., 1112 A. H. 
He was the last Sultan of the jjiutb-shahi dynasty. 

Abul-Hasan Razin bin-Mu'awiya al-'Abdari, j# 

{SJ *±*i\ *JjU* ^ ^j i^^f, au thor of a collec- 

tion of traditions bearing the same title as the one written by 
Baghawf, namely u J ami' bama-l-gafcibain,'* It comprises 
the works of Al-Bukharf and Muslim, the Muwafta of Malik 
ibn-Aus, the Jami'-ut-Tirmizf, and the 8unans of Abu- 
Diud, and Al-KasaX He died in 1126 A. D., 620 A. H. 

Abul-Hasan, v^~^W **~, (Shih) son of the femoua 

Shih T^hir of Ahmadnagar in the Dakhin, and minister 
of 'Aii 'Adil Shall I, about the year 1572 A. D., 980 A. H. 

Abul-Hasan, the son of Ftimiul-ud-danla, prime minister of 
the emperor Jahangir, had three daughters, Wi., Arjmand 
Banu, also called Mumtaz-Ma^all, married to the em- 
peror ShAh Jahan ; Sultan Zamania, the second daughter, 
was married to 8utyln Parwiz ; and the third Badr-uzsa- 
manta to Shah 'Abdul-Latif; the spiritual guide of the 
emperor 'Alamgir. Vide Asaf KhAn. 

Abul-Hasan Turbati, i^ij? cr^W> entitled Bukn-ua- 

Saltanai, an Amir who held the rank of 5,000 in the reign 
of the emperor Jahangir, and died in the sixth year of 
Shall Jahan, A. D. 1632, 1042 A. H., aged 70 yean. 

Abul-Hunain Ahmad bin-'Ali al-Ncyashi, author of 
a biographical work entitled u Kitib-ur-Rijal", comprising 
the lives of eminent 8hf as. Najashl died in A.E. 405 
(1014 A. P.). 

Abul-Husain bin-Abu-Yala al-Parra, u**^o* 
l^a-^tjjf, (Kasi), author of the TatjaWt-ul-tfanbaliya, 
which comprises the lives of the most famous lawyers of 
the sect of Ibn-ffanhal ; it waa commenced by our author, 
continued by Shaikh Zain-uddin 'Abdur-Kabman bin* 
A^nmd, commonly called Ibn-Raiab, and concluded by 
Yusuf bin-Hasan al-Mukaddaaf : these three writers died 
respectively in 1131, 1892, and 1466 A D~ 626, 795, and 
871 H. 



Abul-Husain Kharkani, *jflb*> i&r^W, author of 

the " Shait-i-Makhzan-ul-Asriir," and " Mir-at-ul-Mu- 

^a^^i^in," containing an explanation of the ceremonies 

" used on the induction of a Sufi, and the rules of the order. 

He died A. D. 986, 376 A. H. 

Abul-Husain >Ali bin-'Umar al-Darkutni, (j*»j* 

jr** &i v^ uirt^Wf a Sunnf traditionist, whose col- 
lection of traditions, like those of Abu-Bakr Ahmad-bin-al- 
Husain al-Baiha^i, are of the highest authority. He died 
in 995 A D., 385 A. H. 
Abul-Husain Zarrin, vide Abu-Husain Zarrin. 
Abul-Kasim al-Sahrawi, t^Lr* - ^ (^ W W called 

•in Lempriere's English Biographical Dictionary " Alsaha- 
ravius", an Arabian physician who lived about the year 
1085, 478 A H., and is the author of the " Al-Taarif;" 
a treatise in 32 books on medical practice. 

Abul-Kasim Namakin, ^^£+1 p*&}\ y\ y a Sayyid of 

Hirit, served with distinction under Akbar and Jahangir, 
and became a rich landowner in Bhakar in Sindh. 5le 
built the great mosque in Sukhar. His descendants 
served under Shihjahan, 'Alamgir, and Farruk-siyar. Vide 
Afn Translation I, p. 470.] 

Abul-Kasim Nishapuri, cfii**^ H^Wi author of 
a Persian work on Ethics, called •* Ganj-i-Ganj," and 
of another work, entitled " rlulyat-ul-Muttalfin." 

Abul-Kasim 'Abdullah, *Ul*** (*&lj& 9 son of Mu- 
hammad Baghawi, author of the book called Mu'jam, and 
several other works. He died in the year A. D. 929, 
317 AH. 

Abul-Kasim Iama>il bin->Abbad, J^-^^t, 
waxir of the Boyide prince Fakhr-ud-daula. One of the 
most splendid libraries ever collected by a private indi- 
vidual in the East was that of this nobleman. Ibn-Asir 
relates that four hundred camels were required to remove 
the books. 

Abul-Kasim Mirea, son of Kamran Mini, brother of 
the emperor Humaydn. In the year 1557 A. D., 964 
A. H., he was confined in the fort of Gw&liir by the 
emperor Akbar, who, when going to punish Khan- 
Zaman, ordered him to be murdered. 

Abul-Kasim, u*K pJ**\y\ % Kihi, of Isfahan, though it 

is usually said that he was of KibuL He died at Agra. 
Vide £asim-i-K£hi. 

Abul-Kasim, vfW p^R ^, of rJOla, commonly called 
Shaikh Muayyad, author of the " SharaT-ul-IsUm", a 
treatise on lawful and forbidden things. This book is 
of great authority amongst the Muhammadans professing 
Shf a doctrines. He is also called Shaikh Najm-uddin 
Abul-$aaim Ja'far bin-Muayyad. He died A D. 1277, 
676 A. H. 

Abul-Kasim 'Ubaidullah bin-' Abdullah bin-Khurdidbih, 
died A. H., 300, A. D. 912. He is best known as Ibn- 
KhurdAdbih. He wrote the " Kit&b-ul-Masilik wal- 
Mamalik," the 'Book of Roads and Kingdoms.' Vide 
Khurdidbih, and Dowson I, p. 12.] 

Abul-KhaiP, urtM^-^!^ °^°> Manlani, of Khwi. 
razm, a physician and poet whose poetical name waa 
'A8hifc. From his native country he went to Hirat in the 
iatter part of the reign of Sultan Husain Mini, and was 
there till Muhammad Shaibani, commonly called Shahi 
Beg Khin Usbak, conquered that province, and took him 
to Miwaran-nahr, or Tranaoziana, where he died in 1660 
A D., 967 A. H. The chronogram of the year of his 
death is " Faut-i-'Aahit," the death of ' Aani*. 



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Abul-Ma'ali, whose proper name is Muhammad §adr-uddfn, 
is claimed by the Turks as the first of their poets, though 
hie labours were not confined to their language alone, for 
he wrote in Arabic also, and was in Persian the rival and 
opponent of Nisir-uddin. He was contemporary with 
JalaU-uddin Rumi and his son Waled, and died about the 
year 1270 A. D. He is not, however, according to Baron 
von Hammer, strictly considered to be a Turkish poet 
by his countrymen ; but the mystic tone which he adop- 
ted from Persian literature, and which he was undoubtedly 
the first to impress upon the national mind, gives him 
an unquestionable right to the place assigned him. The 
names of his works, such as the " Seal of Perfection," 
and the " Key of Mysteries," indicate the peculiarity of 
his taste and genius; but amidst all the confusion of 
style and thought, some passages of great beauty. and 
even simplicity are found in his works. He is lost, how- 
ever, in the fame of his successor ' Ashi^. 

Abul-Ma'ali, *&* , l*** V^ c^^W, the son of 'Abdul- 
Majid, the most eloquent of the Persians, who flourished 
in the time of Sultan Bahram Shah Ghaznawi, by whose 
order, in the year 1118 A. D., 612 A. H., he wrote in 
prose his " Kahla Damna" (or Pilpay's Fables) from a copy 
which Rudaki, the celebrated poet, had formerly used 
for poetry. This version continued in vogue till the time 
of Sultan Husain Mirza, fourth in descent from 'Umar 
Shaikh, the second son of Amir Timur, when his prime- 
minister Amir Shaikh Ahmad Suhaili got Husain W&'i? 
to modernize it, in A. D. 1506, 910 A. H., under the 
name of " Anwar Suhaili", or the Bays of Canopus. Abul- 
Fail, the able prime minister of Akbar, compressed this 
work, and gave it the name of " 'Avar-Danish," or the 
touch-stone of knowledge. He is called by Daulat Shah, 
Qamid-uddin Nasr-uHah. Vide Nasr-ullah, the son of 
'Abdul-tfamid. 

Abul-Ma'ali, c^^W ***> (Sh*h) a chief in the service 
of the emperor Akbar, who having revolted was com- 
pelled to seek safety in Kabul, where Mirzi Muhammad 
Hakim, the brother of Akbar, gave him his sister, named 
Mihr-un-Nisi Begam, in marriage, and raised him to the 
first office in that kingdom. The ungrateful refugee, 
however, had not been many months in office, before he 
aspired to the kingdom of Kabul, and in March 1564 A. D., 
Sha'ban, 971 A. H., basely assassinated Mirza Muham- 
mad Hakim's mother, his own mother-in-law, who was a 
woman of uncommon abilities, and might with truth be 
said to have ruled that kingdom. He then pretended to 
act as regent to the young prince, who was still in his mi- 
nority, with a view to get rid of him as soon as he could 
conciliate the TTmaras. In the meantime Mirza Sulaiman, 
prince of Badakhshan, attacked him, and slew him in a 
battle on the 13th May, 1664 A. D., 1st Shawwil, 971 
A. H., and took possession of that country, which he held 
for two years. Abul-Ma'alf was an elegant poet, and his 
poetical name was Shahbadf . 

Abul-Ma'ali, tjM&Ul J[*J\yj ^Z f (Shaikh) of 

Allahabad, author of the work called u Tut>fiit-ul-Kadi- 
riya," or the life of Shaikh 'Abdul- $ adir Gflini. He 
resided in Lanor, and died there on the 6th April 1616, 
16th Rabf I, 1024. 

Abul-Mafakhir RAM, tsibj*^ -**> a poet who flour- 
ished in the reign of Sultan Muhammad Saljufci. 

Abul-Mahaein, cH*^W, author of the work called 
« Manhal-i-§ifi." 

Abul-Makarim bin-' Abdullah. There are three .com- 
ments on the Nilpaya of 'Ubaidulla bin-Mas'ud, which 
are much esteemed: they were written respectively by 
Abul-Makanm in 1601 A. D., 907 A. H. ; Abu-'AH bin- 
Muhammad al-Birjindi in 1628 A. D., 935 A. H., and 
8hams-uddm Muhammad al-Khuraaani in 1634 A D., 941 
A. H. 



Abul-Ma'shar, j & * +hj$> who is called by seme older < 
authors Albumassar and Albumaiar, was a learned 
Arabian astronomer, who flourished in the ninth century 
in the reign of the khalfm Al-Mamun of Baghdad, and 
wrote a treatise on the revolutions of the yean. His full 
•name is Ja'fer bin-Muhammad bin-' Umar Abul-Ma'shar. 
He is called the prince of the Arabian astrologers. He 
was born in Balkh. In his famous work, called " Uluf ' or 
" Kit4b-ul-UluT', which he wrote from a Sanskrit work on 
astronomy, he asserts that, when the world was created, 
the seven planets were togethor in the first point of the 
sign of Aries, and that it will end when the same planets 
shall meet again in the last point of Pisces in their 
exaltation or Dragon's head. He died in A. D. 8B6, 272 
A H. His works were printed in Latin at Venice in 
1586, 8vo. 

Abul-Najib al-Bukhari, isf**?* V&^tjtf poeti- 
cally called also 'Am'alf, was a Persian poet who 
flourished in the fifth century of the Hijra at the court of 
the Sul(£n Kadr Khan, king or khikin of Turkistap, who 
made him president of the academy of poeta which he 
had established. His poem of the loves of Yusuf and 
Zalikha\ which can be read in two different metres, is much 
admired. He was particularly famous for his elegies. He 
lived nearly 100 years. Daulat Shah says, he lived in the 
time of Sultan Sanjar, who requested him to write an 
elegy on the death of his daughter Malik Knitun, which 
he did, although he was then blind on account of old 
age. He appears to have died some years before or after 
1146 AD., 640 AH. 

Abul-Sa'adat Mubarak Ibn-Afrfr, iMJ^j^ u# 
dyl** cwU-Jjjd, akjamrf, author of an Arabic Diction- 
ary called "Al-Nihaya fl gharfb-il-tfadV' He died in 
1209 A D., 606 A H. ; vide Ibn-Asfr. 

Abul-Wafa, (Khwaja), one of the great saints of Khwarazm, 
and author of several works on Sufism. He died 1432 
A. D., 835 A. H. 

Abu-Maas Muslim, ft** il*x j*, an Arabian gram- 
marian, who died in 803 A. D n 187 A H. 

Abu-Mansur, sumamed al-9£kim bi-amr-illah, succeeded his 
fether A1-' Aziz to the throne of Egypt in A D. 990, 381 A. 
H., when only 11 years of age. In the latter part of his reign 
he fancied himself a god, and found no fewer than 16,000 
persons who owned him as such. These were mostly the 
Dararians, a new sect sprung up about this time, who 
were so called from their chief, Muhammad Ihn-Ismi'il, 
sumamed Dariri. He is supposed to have inspired the 
mad khalifa with this impious notion ; and as Dariri set up 
for a second Moses, he did not scruple to assert that Abu- 
Monsur was the great creator of the universe. He was 
assassinated in the year 1020 A. D. His son T*hir 
succeeded him. 

Abu-Man8ur,>U' A ^ ^> author of the " Kit^b-ut-TauWd," 

and several other works. 

Abu-Mansur 'Abdul-Xahir al-Baghdadi, a«th°rof 
a treatise on the law of inheritance according to Shan i. 
He died A. D. 1087, 429 AH. . . « 

Abu-Mas'ud, sumamed Shaikh-ul-Islam, a native of Con- 
stantinople, and author of the valuable commentary on 
the Imuran, entitled " Irahad-ul-'ay," flourished in the 
reign of Sultan Salim Khan, emperor of Constantinople, 
and died in 1516 A. D., 922 H. 

Abu-Muhammad, ij* *♦**>**, of Mecca, son of Abu- 
Tilib, author of a commentary on the Imuran, and several 
other works. He died in 1045 A. D., 437 A H. 

Abu-Muhammad, son of 'Abbas, the son of a sister of 
Abu- Ja' far bin-Muhammad bin-Jarir al-T*ta** & » 



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Mid that he tad by heart 100,000 verses of different 
authors. He died in 993 A. D M 383 A. H., and was a 
contemporary of the author of the 'Ayyar. 

Abu-Muhammad Hmsain bin-Mas'ud Farra al- 

Baghawi, ut^t *y~" v* *Lr» o*~* ******* 
author of a collection of traditions, called the " Masabu)," 
in Arabic ; also of the " Ma'alim-ut-TansiT and •• Sharfc- 
us-Sunnat." He died in 1122 A. D-, 616 A. H. He was a 
vendor of furs, consequently ho was called Farra. Baghawi 
also wrote a " Jamf baina-l-§a fr il?ai n ." 

Abu-Muhammad Hisham bin-al-Hakim al-Kin- 
di al-Shaibani, who lived in the time of the Kha- 
lifa Harun-ur-Rashid, and died in A. D. 795, 179 A. H., 
is famed as one of the first compilers of Shf a traditions. 

Abu-Muhammad Nasihi, yf**^ *+** y\ f was a 

man of eminent learning in the time of Sultan Mas'ud I 
of Ghasni. He wrote a book entitled " Mas'udf," in 
support of the doctrine of Abti-tJanifa, which he presen- 
ted to the king. He flourished about the year 1036 A. D. 

Abu-Muhammad Bozbihan Bakali Bhirazi, 

iS)!^ C**** &*?•}» *+**" yU author of the " §afwat- 
ul-Masharib." He died in July 1209 A. D., liu^arram, 
606 A. H. ; vide Kosbihan (Shaikh). 

Abu-Muhammad Shatibi, i /* isl ^*+*'V, a very learned 
Musalman and author of the " $asfda Shitfbiya." He 
died in 1194 A. D., 590 A. H. His proper name was 
JCasim ; he was born at Sh&tibiya in Andalusia, from which 
he derived his title of Shi(ib£. He is aWthe author of 
several other works. 

Abu-Muhammad Tabruri, author of the Persian history, 
called " Tarfkh-i-Tabarf '. The original of this book 
was written in Arabic by Abu-Ja'far bin-Jarfr Tabarf, 
in A. D. 912, 800 A H., and was afterwards translated 
into Persian and continued by Abo-Muhammad, and 
dedicated to Abu-§41ft bin-No^ about the year 1118 
A D., 612 A. H. 

AbU-Musa Ja'foP al-Sufl, whose poetical name is Jabar, 
was the founder of the Arabian school of chemistry, 
flourished towards the end of the 8th, or the commence* 
mentofthe9th century. According to the majority of 
authorities, he was born at Jus in Khurasan. He wrote 
an immense number of treatises on alchemy, _ also a work 
on astronomy. An edition of his works in Latin was 
published at Dantzic in 1662, and another in English by 
Ruesel in 1678. 

Abu-MuBa al-Ash'ari, (jfcr**^ if* **, one of the 
arbitrators between 'AH and Mu'awiya I, by whose decision 
'AH was deposed in the year 658 A. D., 37 A. H. Eight 
months after the battle of Siffin between ' Ali and Mu'awiya, 
the two arbitrators Abd-Musa and ' Amr the son of As 
met at a place between Mecca and K6fa, where a tribunal 
was erected. Abu-Musa first ascending it, pronounced these 
words with a loud voice: — "I depose 'All and Mu'awiya 
from the Khilafat (or government) to which they pretend, 
after the same manner as I take this ring from my finger," 
and immediately came down. 'Amr men went up and 
said, " You have heard how Abu-Muss, haa on his part de- 
posed 'AH ; as for my part I depose him too, and I give the 
khilafat to Mu'awiya, and invest him with it after the same 
manner as I put this ring upon my finger ; and this I do 
with so much the more justice, because he is 'Utman's heir 
and avenger and the worthiest of all men to succeed him." 

Abu-Muslim, a great general, to whom the Abbasides 
entirely owed their elevation to the khilafat, lor which 
he is commonly called $6bib-ud-Da'wat, or author of 
the vocation of the Abbasides, For his good conduct and 
bravery, he occupied the first posts in the service of the 
Ommaides. He was governor of. Khurasan A. D. 746, 
. whan he proclaimed the Abbasides the lawful heirs of the 



khilafat, and in 749 A. D. transferred the dignity of 
Khalifa from the family of Umayya to that of the 
Abbasides. This revolution occasioned the death of above 
600,000 men; and when Abu-Ja'&r Al-Mansur, the 
second Khalifa of the race of 'Abbas, was opposed on 
his accession by his uncle 'Abdullah, son of 'All, 'Abu- 
MusHm was despatched against him. This general 
having harassed him for five months together, at last 
brought him to a general action, and having entirely 
defeated him, forced him to fly to Basra. Notwithstand- 
ing all his services, however, Abu-Muslim was soon after, 
on Thursday the 13th February, 755 A. D., 24th Sha'ban 
137 A. H., ungratefully and barbarously murdered by 
Al-Mansur, and his body was thrown into the Tigris. 
Abu-Muslim took his origin (as Isfahan*, a Persian 
historian relates) from IJamsa, who pretended to descend 
from Gaudars, one of the ancient kings of Persia. 

Abu-HVim, *^ *** ui &** j'U son of 'Abdullah, author of 

the works called " 'Ulya" and " DalaiM-Nutrawwat." 
He died in the year 1012 A D., 403 A H. 

Abu-Nasr Parabi, ^tjli^^l, rwfeFarabL 

Abu-Nasr, author of a Persian work on Sufism, called 
"Aiua-ul-Talibfn." 

Abu-Nasr Farahi, c* A Lr # - r A) y) , flourished about the year 
1220 A. D. in the time of Bahrain Shah, son of Taj-uddfn, 
ruler of Sistan (also called Nfmr&s), who began to reign in 
the year 1215 A. D. He is the author of a vocabulary in 
verse, called " Nisab-us-§ibysn". 

His real name is Muhammad Badr-uddin, and he belongs 
to Farah, a town in Sijistan ; vide Kin Translation I, 41n.l 

Abu-Nasr Ismallbin-Hammad al- Jauhari, UE y^ar'l [ 
aUft. ^ (J i9 + m \j*Jji\ f ifl the author of the Dictionary 

called §u>aVul-Lughat. He was born at Farab, and died 
about the year 1003 A D., 394 A. H. 

Abu-Nasr Khan, *J*j**j$ vlA (Nawab) an amfr of 
the reign of the emperor ' Xlamgfr. The mosque of Jajna- 
gar in Orisa was built by him in the year 1687 A D., 
1098 A H. 

Abu-Nasr Maekati, J^-Aj**^, a native of Maskat, 

and author of the book called " MafcamaV* 
Abu-Nasr Sabur, (8hapur) son of Ardsher. He built in the 
year 954 A. D. an edifice at Baghdad, dedicated to scientific 
and literary exercises, and collected a large quantity of 
books, designed for the use of Musalmans ; there were, it 
is said, upwards of 10,400 volumes of all kinds, including 
a hundred $urans, copied by the celebrated caligrapher 
Ibn-Mufcla. 

Abu-Nawas, uAj>j$ 9 al- Hasan bin-Hani, a celebrated 
Arabian poet, born in the city of Basra. His merit was 
acknowledged at the court of Harun-ur-Rasbid. His 
principal works have been collected by several persons, 
on which account there is a great difference between the 
copies of his works. His proper name is Abu-' Ali. He 
died A. D. 810, 195 A H. 

Abu-Baihan al-Biruni^^Ji JsB^y^orAbu-Baifcan 

Muhammad bin- Ahmad al-Bfrunf, was born about the year 
971 A. D. in the town of Birun, said to be situated in 
the province of Khwarasm. He was astronomer, geome- 
trician, historian, scholar, and logician. Besides meta- 
physics and dialectics, he studied and appears to have 
drawn his chief lustre from attainments in the magical 
art Of this, the following instance is related. One day 
8ul{an Mahmud ordered him to deposit with a third 
person a statement of the precise manner in which the 
monarch would quit the hall where he then was sitting. 
The paper being lodged, the king, instead of going out 
by one of the numerous doors, caused a breach to be made 
in the wall, by which he effected his exit ;— but how was 



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be amazed, when, on the paper being examined, there was 
found in it a minute specification of the precise spot 
through which he penetrated ! Hereupon the prince with 
horror denounced this learned man as a sorcerer, and 
commanded him to be instantly thrown out of the window. 
The barbarous sentence was presently executed : but care 
had been taken to prepare beneath a soft cushion, into 
which the body of the sage sank without sustaining any 
injury. Abu-Kanjin was then called before the monarch, 
and was required to say whether by his boasted art 
he had been able to foresee these events, and the treat- 
ment through which he had that day passed. The 
learned man immediately desired his tablets to be sent 
for, in which were found regularly predicted the whole 
of these singular transactions. He travelled into dif- 
ferent countries, and to and from India for the space 
of 40 years. He wrote many works, and is said to have 
executed several translations from the Greek and epitomized 
the Almajest of Ptolemy. His works are said to have 
exceeded a camel load. The most valuable of all his works 
is the " Tankh-ul-Hind." Another of his works is the 
Kanun Mas'udi, dedicated to Sultan Mas'ud of Ghazni, 
for which he received an elephant-load of silver coins. 
He lived in the time of Sultans Mahmud and Mas'ud 
Ghaznawi, and died in the year 1039 A. D., 430 A. H. 

For farther notes vide Dowson, Elliot's Histy. of India, 
II, 1.] 

Abu-Sa'id, *U\*** trf *±*~ J* f * the son of 'Abdullah, an 

Arabian poet who flourished in the court of Salab-ud-din, 
and was his prime minister. He died in the year 1201 
A. D., 597 A. H. 

Abu-Sa'id, <^^ V^fc^ *±*~^'» the son of Kulaib 
Shashi, author of the book called " Maenad Kabir." He 
died in 946 A. D., 335 A. H. 

Abu-Sa'id 'Abdul-Malik bin-Kuraib, **lj 
^j u£JUJ!<xk£ «Xuu»^jI ) commonly called Asma'i, cele- 
brated for his grammatical knowledge and eloquence. He 
was born in the year 740 A. D., 122 A. H., and flourished 
in the time of Al-Mansur, khalifa of Baghdad (who reigned 
from 754 to 775 A. D.) t and died at Basra during the 
reign of Harun-ur-Rashfd, or, as some authors say, in A. H. 
216 (A. D. 832). 

Abu-Sa'id 'Abdur-Bahman bin-Mamun al-Muta- 
waHi, author of the " Faraix Mutawallf \ a treatise on 
the law of inheritance according to ShifiTs doctrine. 
He died A. D. 1085, 478 A. H. 

Abu-Sa'id Baizawi, cfJ 1 ^ ***--*!, or Kaji Abu- 
Sa'id 'Abdullah Baizawi, author of the work called " Ni- 
zam-ut-Tawarikh," an epitome of Oriental History from 
Adam to the overthrow of the Khilafat by the Tartars 
under Hulaku Khan A. D. 1258, 674 A. H., written about 
the year 1275. Vide Baizawi. 

Abu-Sa'id Fazl-ullah, *U|J*i **±*~ yl, son of Abul- 
Khair, a great Sufi, of Mahna. His spiritual guide was 
Abul-Fazl Lukmdn of Sarakhs. He devoted himself to 
ascetic exercises and spent fourteen years in the wilder- 
ness. He is the author of the Quatrains, called Rub&'iyat- 
i- Abu-Sa'id Abul-Ehair. He died at the age of 44 in the 
year 1068 A. D., 440 A. H. 

Abu-Sa'id Khan Bahadur, j^*vi j^ i^***-*, 
a Sultan of the mmily of Hulaku Khan, was the son 
of Oljaitu, commonly called Muhammad Khud£-banda, 
whom he succeeded to the throne of Persia in December 
1316 A. D., Shawwal 716 A. H., when he was only twelve 
years of age. In his time Rashfd-ud-dfn, the author of 
the Jami'-ut-Tawarikh, was put to death. This monarch 
may be termed the last of the dynasty of Huteko Khan 
who enjoyed any power. The few princes of that sover- 
eign's family who were raised to the throne after Abu- 



Sa'id were mere pageants, whom the nobles of the court 
elevated or cast down as it suited the purposes of their 
ambition. Abu-Sa'id reigned 19 lunar years, and died 
of fever on the 30th November 1335 A. D., 13th Rabf 
II, 736 A. H. The following is a list of the princes 
of the mmily of Chingiz Kh6n, who were raised to nominal 
power after the death of Abu-Sa'id Khan. 

Arpa* Khan (Mu'izz-uddin) was crowned in 1336, reigned 
five months, and was killed in battle in 1336 A. D. 

Musa Khan was elevated in 1336, reigned two years, and 
was murdered in 1338 A. D. 

S&kf, sister of Abu-Sa'id Khan, was elevated to the 
throne in 1338. She was married to Jahan Timur 
who got the kingdom as her dowry, but was deposed 
the same year. After him 

Sulaiman Khan was declared king ; he left the kingdom 
and went to Diyar-bakr in 1344. 

Nausherwan was elevated in 1334. 
Abu-Sa'id Mirza, )}yc lUa-yt ^UaU, (Sultan) the son 

of Sultan Muhammad Mirza, son of Miranshih, son of 
Amir Timur (Tamerlane). He was born in 1427 A. D. 
After the death of his father in 1441, he continued to live 
with Mirzi, Ulugh Beg, son of Mirza' Shihrukh at Samar- 
kand, and served in his army when he was at war with 
his son Mirzi ' Abdul-Latif ; but when that prince was 
murdered by his unnatural son in October 1449 A. D., 
Ramazan, 853 A. H., and he in his turn was slain after 
six or seven months by his own soldiers, and Samar- 
kand was taken possession of by Mirza* 'Abdullah, son of 
Mirza* IbriUnm and grandson of Mirza* Shihrukh, Abu- 
Sa'id with the assistance of Abu-Khair Uzbak having 
defeated and taken 'Abdullah prisoner in a battle, put him 
to death and ascended the throne of Samarkand in 1451 
A. D., 855 A. H. He also took possession of Khurasan 
after the death of Babar Sultan, son of Bayasanghar 
Mirz& in 1457, 861 A. H., and greatly extended his 
dominions, but was at last taken prisoner in an ambus- 
cade, and put to death on the 8th February, 1469 A. D., 
25th Rajab, 873 A. H., after he had reigned 18 years. 
After his death, Sultan Husain B&Vrf, surnamed Abul- 
Ghazi, a descendant of Amir Timur, made himself master 
of the empire. Abu-Sa'id at his death left eleven sons, 
viz., Mirzi Sultan Ahmad, Mirza* Sultan Mahmud, Mirzi 
Sultan Muhammad, Mirza* Shihrukh, Mirza* Ulugh Beg, 
Mirza" 'Umar Shaikh, Mirzi AM-Bakr, Mirza Sul{an 
Murid, Mirza" Sultan Khalil, Mirzi Sultan Walid, and 
Mirza* Sultan 'Umar ; of whom four arrived to the dignity 
of kings, viz. Mirza* Ulugh Beg to the throne of Kabul ; 
Mirza 1 Sultan Ahmad to the kingdom of Samarkand ; Mirza 
'Umar Shaikh to the united thrones of Andijan and 
Farghana ; and Mirza Sultan Mahmud to those of Kunduz 
and Badakhshan. Abu-Sa'id Mirz£, says Babar Shall, 
though brought up in the city, was illiterate and unrefined. 
Fide Genealogical Table attached to Am Translation.] 

Abu-Sina Muhammad, author of the Arabic work called 
" Dal^aifc-ul-rJaViilh" containing a collection of tradi- 
tions. 

Abu-Sina, l H-»^, or Abu-'AH 8mi, whom we call Avi- 
cenna, was a famous Mnhammadan physician and philo- 
sopher, who early applied himself to literature, botany, 
and mathematics. At the ago of eighteen, he began to 
practise, and with such success that ho became physician 
to the court of Baghdad. He was born in the city of 
Bukhara in 983 A. D., 373 A. H., and died at Hamadan 
in July, 1037, 427 A. H., aged 54 lunar years, with 
the character of a learned man but too much addicted to 
wine and effeminating pleasures. His books on Medicine, 
&c, were in number 100, now nearly all lost He is also 
called Ibn-Sini. The following are the titles of his works. 
Of the Utility and Advantages of Sciences, 20 books. Of 
Innocence and Criminality, 2 books. Of Health and 



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Remedies, 18 books. On the means of preserving Health, 
3 books. Canon* on Physic, 14 books. On Astronomical 
Observations, 1 book. On Mathematical Sciences. Of 
Theorems, or Mathematical and Theological Demonstra- 
tions, 1 book. On the Arabic language, 10 books. On the 
Last Judgment. On the Origin of the Soul, and the 
Besurreotion of Bodies. Of the end we should propose to 
ourselves in Harangues and Philosophical Arguments. 
Demonstrations of the collateral lines in the sphere. 
Abridgment of Euclid. On Finity and Infinity. On 
Physics and Metaphysics. On Animals and Vegetables, 
&&, Encyclopaedia, 20 volumes. 

Abu-Sufyan, «**r A> &t &k*~ y$> the son of flarb, the 
grandson of Umayya, and great-grandson of 'Abdul-Shams. 
He was an able and ambitious man, of great wealth and 
influence, and one of the most persevering and powerful 
opponents of Muhammad. He was the father of Mu'&wiya, 
the first khalifa of the house of Umayya, and one of the 
heads of the tribe of $uraish, to which Muhammad 
also belonged. When Muhammad took up anna for the 
propagation of his faith, Abu-Sufyan was made gene- 
ralissimo of his enemies against him : and after the battle 
of Badr, he stood very fair for the headship of that tribe. 
But he was at last convinced (as it seems, by a signal 
victory gained by Muhammad over his enemies), of the 
truth of the prophet's pretensions, and was converted in 
the 8th year of the Hyra, A. D. 629. 

Abu-Sulaiman Baud, &$\& ^U^i* jt\ 3 bin-Abul-Fajl 

bin-Muhammad Fakhr Binakitf, so called from having 
been born at Binakit, or Finikit, a town in Transoxiana, 
afterwards called Sbihrukhiya. He is the author of the 
" Tankh-i-Binikitf." Its correct name in full length is 
"Bauzatu uli-1-albab ff Tawarflch-il-Akabir wal-Ansab," 
i. t. the garden of the learned in the histories of great men 
and genealogies. It is chiefly an abridgment of the Jami*- 
nr-Bashidi, and was compiled by the author only seven 
years after that work in A. D. 1317, 707 A. H., and is dedi- 
cated to Sultan Abu-Sa'fd, the ninth Mughul king of 
Persia. The author was a poet as well as an historian, 
and was appointed by Sultan Ghazan Khan, poet laureate 
of his court. He died in or about the year 1330 A. D., 
731 A. H. 
Vidt Dowson, Elliot's Histy. of India, III, 55.] 

Abu-Tahir, J*^J$» <* Tortosa in Spain, author of the 
44 Darab-nama", an abridgement of Oriental Biography, 
containing the Lives of Zub£k, of Darius, of Philip of 
Macedon, and of Alexander the Great : also Memoirs of 
Galen and other Greek Philosophers, &c. 

Abu-Tahir Kbatuni, ^SytA j*lb>Jl, a poet who flour- 
ished in the 12th or 13th centuries of our era. He is the 
author of the History of the 8alju# kings, entitled * 4 Ta- 
r£kh-us-SaljuW' and of another work, called "Mana)pb- 
ush-Shu'ara." 

Abu-Talib, v'^-^H* wasthemtherof 'Alf and the uncle of 
Muhammad the prophet. He died 3 days before Khadfla, 
the first wife of Muhammad, in August, 619, A. D. t aged 
80 years. 

Abu-Talib Huaaini, author of the "Tuzuk-i-Timurf." 
This work contains an account of the first forty -seven 
years of the life of Tamerlane, written by himself in Chagh- 
tai Turki, and translated into Persian by Abu-Talib, who 
dedicated it to Shah Jahin. It has been translated into 
English by Major Charles Stewart. 
Km* Dowson, m, 389.] 

Abu-Talib Kalim, «/*♦* f& V^-* 1 , whose poetical 
name was Kalim, was a great poet of Hamadan in Persia, 
and came to India, the first time in the reign of the emperor 
Jahangir, and returned home in 1619 A. D M 1028 A. H. 
After some yean he again visited India in the time of 

6 



Shall Jahin, who employed him and con fe rred on him the 
title of " Malik-ush-Shu'ari", or Poet Laureate. He was 
twice weighed against gold and silver, and the amount 
was given to him as a reward for his poetical talents. He 
died at Lahor on the 19th November, 1651, 16th gil-buja 
1061 A. H. He is the author of a poem, called "?afar- 
nima-i-Shih Jahin," or the conquests of Shah Jahin, and 
of a Diwan in Persian. 

Abu-Talib Khan, c^ V^jtf \}/* % (Mini) the son 

of Ijlajf Muhammad Beg Khan, by descent a Turk, was 
born at Lakhnau in the year A. D. 1752, 1165 A. H. He 
was appointed by Mukhtar-ud-daula, the prime minister 
of Nawab Xsaf-ud-daula of Lakhnau, in 1776 A. D., 
'Amaldar of Itiwa and several other districts situated be- 
tween the rivers Jamuna and Ganges. In this situation 
he continued for two years ; and after the death of his 
patron, and the appointment of Haidar Beg Khan to his 
office, he was superseded, and repaired to Lakhnau, and 
was allowed by the Nawab 60,000 Bs. per annum for his 
support. After the expiration of one year, Colonel Alex- 
ander Hanny, having been appointed Collector of Gorakh- 
ptir, requested the Nawib to take him with him as an 
assistant) in which situation he continued for three years. 
He was afterwards employed by Mr. Middleton, the Besi- 
dent of Lakhnau, in reducing the rebel riji Balbhaddar 
Singh, whom, during two years, he frequently defeated 
and pursued. At length being surprised in his camp, 
the r^ja* in endeavouring to make his escape, was killed. 
Abu-Talib. after this falling in distress for some years, 
embarked for Europe with Captain David Richardson, a 
Scotchman, and left Calcutta in February, 1799, Bamafan 
1213 A. H. He visited England and other parts of 
Europe, and was well known in London under the title 
of the Persian Prince. During his travels he wrote a 
Journal in which he daily inserted every event, and com- 
mitted to writing such reflections as occurred to him at 
the moment. On his return to Calcutta in 1803, 1218 
A. H., having revised and abridged his notes, he published 
them under the title of " Maisir-Ut-Talibi fi Bittd-i- 
lfranjf .' ' This work was translated by Charles 8tewart, and 
published in London in the year 1814. Abu-Talib died 
about the year 1806 A. D., 1221 A- H. He is also the 
author of the •• KhuUsat-ul.Afkdr." 
Vide Dowson, VIII, 298.] 

Abu-Talib Mirsa, vide Shiista Khan. 

Abu-Talib, V^^^, (Shaikh) the father of Shaikh 

Muhammad 'AH Haifa. He died at Isfahan in 1715, 
1127 A. H., and was interred in the cemetery, called Mazar 
B&bi Bukn-uddin, close to the tomb of the learned 
Mauttni Hasan, Shaikh-ul-Islam of Gilan. 

Abu-Tammam Habib ibn-Aus al-Tai,^^' u*J 
i&i Vfcf* f^jftf an Arabian poet. Having arrived in 
the city of Hamadan, he was received with great distinc- 
tion by Abul-Wafa bin-Salama. When about to depart, 
a heavy fall of snow made the roads for a long time 
impassable. Abul-Wafa" conducted the poet to his library, 
and placed it entirely at his disposal. 8urrounded with 
these literary treasures, Abd-Tammam forgot his journey, 
read the precious volumes with avidity, and devoted his 
time to the composition of several works. The poetical 
collection, entitled " Khamsa", was the principal fruit of 
these researches, and attests the indefatigable attention 
with which the learned writer had ransacked this rich 
library. Amongst the other works that he wrote, one 
is called " Fm?ul.ush-8hu , ari M . He was born in A. D. 804, 
188 A. H., at Jasim near Damascus, and died in A. D. 
845, 231 A. H. 

Abu-Tayyib al-Mutanabbi, v*"+Av*J>yt, tide 
Mutanabbf. 



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Abu-Turab, Mir, sjy^jk*^ Salami Sayyid of Shfrfo, 

who served, with his son Mir Gadaf, in Gujrat, and then 
under Akbar. He died in 1005 H., and lies buried in 
Ahmadibaa ; vide Kin Translation I, p. 506.] 

Abu-'TTbaida, ****** JJ, a friend and associate of Muham- 
mad, who had the command of the Moslem army in the 
time of Abii-Bakr, the first khalife, but being defeated in 
a battle against the troops of the Greek emperor, he was 
deprived of the command, which was given to Khalid. 
'Umar, on his accession to the khilafat, replaced Abu- 
'Ubaida in the command of the army in Syria, being 
greatly displeased with the cruel and blood-thirsty disposi- 
tion of Khalid. Abu-'Ubaida extended his conquests over 
Palestine and Syria, and drove the Greeks out of the whole 
country extending from the Mediterranean to the Eu- 
phrates. This conquest was completed in 639 A. D., 18 
A. H., in which year Syria was visited by a dreadful plague, 
in which the Moslems lost 25,000 men, among whom were 
Abu-'Ubaida himself Yazid ibn Abu-Sufyan, and many 
other men of distinction. 

Abu-'Ubaida ibn-Mas'ud, oj*~* erft &>*p y), 

a general in the time of the khalifa 'Umar. He was 
defeated and killed in battle by Farrukhznd, who com- 
manded the army of Turan-Dukht, queen of Persia, about 
the year 635 A. D. 

Abu-'Ubaida Kara bin-Salam, author of a work on 
" Karaat." 

Abu-'Ubaida Ma'mar bin-Al-musanni, J^J\ 

iyij*** &*& J*), a famous Arabian grammarian, born 

in Basra, who lived in the time of Harun-ur-Bashid, and 
died A. D. 824, 209 A. H., aged 99 lunar years. 

Abu-'Umar Minhaj al-Jurjani, ^U^i -l^ 

j+*y\ y author of the " Taba^4t-i-Nasirf ', a celebrated 

history, written in 1252 A. D., 650 A. H., and dedicated 
to Sultan Na« ir-uddin Mahmud of Dihli. Vide Minhaj -i- 
Siraj. 

Abu-Yahya bin-Sanjap,^;^* u$ if^j$> author of 
a Dfwan in Arabic. He died in 1234 A. D., 632 A. H. 

Abu-Yahya Ahmad bin-Daud al-Farazi al- 
Jurjani, a^ CH ***l is^Ji 1 } who was originally 
a Sunnf, but became a convert to the Imamiya or Shf a 
faith, is the author of a biographical work, entitled 
44 Kitdb ff ma'^iiat-ir-RijaV , containing the lives of emi- 
nent Shf'as. 

Abu-Ya'kub al-Warrak, (3Ll^l VJ***^, vide Muham- 
mad bin-Is-b&f an-Nadfm. 

Abu-Yazid, J±&"*iyj*l, Maktabdfr, secretary of 
state in Egypt, who rebelled against Kaim, the second 
khalifa of the race of the Fa^imites. He was not punish- 
ed for his rebellion till Isma'fl al-Mansur defeated him, 
and confined him in an iron cage where he ended his 
days. 

Abu-Yusuf, «-*•>* jfl f^, (Imam) bin-#abfl> al-Kufi, a 
celebrated Ka?i of Baghdid, and one of the first pupils of 
Abu-IJanffo, dignified with the title of $fef-l.$us*t, or 
supreme judge, in the reigns of Hidi and Harun-ur-Bashfd, 
khalifas of BaghdAd. He supported the tenets of Abu- 
IJanifa, and maintained the dignity of his office by impar- 
tiality. When one day reproached for his ignorance of 
one of the causes brought before him, for the decision of 
which he received an ample allowance, he jocosely replied, 



that he received in proportion as he knew ; but, said he> 
if I were paid for all I do not know, the riches of the khi- 
Ufat itself would not be sufficient to answer my demands. 
He was born 731 A. D., 113 A. H., and died on the 
13th September 798, A. D., 27th Kajab, 182 A. H., at the 
age of 69 years, at Baghdad" . The only work known to have 
been written by him, treats of the duties of a Magistrate, 
and is entitled «* AdAb-ul-ltazi." The reputation of this 
work has been eclipsed by that of another, having a simi- 
lar title, by al-KhaasaX 

Abu-Yusuf Ya'kub bin-Sulaiman Isfbraini^LxL* 

Ui *->jP*i ^*<*J.y), author of the " Sharfc^ul-Khilifet." 
He died in 1095 A. D., 488 A. H. 

Abn-Zakariya Yahya al-tfawawi, vide Nawawf. 

Abu-Zarr, J^ji* J*y}, the fether of the Karamatians in 
Arabia, who not only opposed the religion of Muhammad, 
but plundered and insulted the temple of Mecca and car- 
ried away the black stone which was believed to have 
mllen from heaven. He died 953 A. D., 342 A. H. Vide 
Karmat. 

Abu-Zarr Yakut Mausili, ^Uj* ^y^y\, a cele- 
brated caligrapher. 

Abu-Zubaid, iS^J^I, an author who has written on the 
lion and all its names in the Arabic language. 

Abrakh Khan, eA j*j&, (the son of Kizilbash Khan 
Afehar, governor of the fort of Ahmadnagar, who died there 
in the 22nd year of Shall Jahan) was a nobleman of high 
rank in the time of 'Alamgfr, A few years before his 
death, he was appointed governor of Barar, where he died 
on the 24th of July, 1685 A, D., 3rd Bamag an, 1096 A- H. 

Abru, Jj$, vide r#fi$ Abru. 

Abru, jyf, poetical name of Shih Najm-uddin of Dihli, alias 
Shah Mubarak, who flourished in tho reign of the emperor 
Muhammad Shah. He died in 1161 H. Vide Sprenger, 
Oudh MSS., p. 196.] *™gwi 

Abtin, trt^T, the father of Farfdun, seventh king of Persia 
of the first, or Peshdidian, dynasty. Abtfn pretended that 
he derived his origin from Jamshed, king of Persia of the 
same dynasty. 

Aohanak Begam, one of the concubines of the emperor 
Akbar. She had built a garden on the banks of the Jamu- 
n£ at Agra, called Achanak Bagh. Some traces of it are 
yet to be seen. 

Achchhe, 4^-1, the poetical name of prince Baland-Akhtar, 
a brother of the emperor Muhammad Shiih of Dihlf . He 
was familiarly called Achchho Sa^ub, and therefore chose 
Achchhe for his l takhallus.' He ia the author of a beautiful 
poem, called " Nihid-o-Akhtar," i. e. Venus and the Star, 
containing 355 verses, which he completed in the year 1726 
A. D., 1139 A. H. J 

Adam, the first man. The Muhammadana place Adam's 
Paradise in heaven ; hence after the fall Adam and Haww£ 
(Eve) were hurled down to earth. As this event happened 
about 7,000 years before the Hijra, Adam is often called 
haft-hazari.] 

Adam Khan Gakkhar, j& d*> f±1, chief of the 
Oakkhars, who defied the power of the emperor Akbar. In 
970, at the instigation of KamiU Khan Gakkhar, Adam was 
attacked, and defeated and captured at Hilan, south of Chi- 
lianwaU, near Da>gali, Adam's stronghold. Vide Ain 
Translation, I, 457.] 



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Afeal 



Atfham, ^A^l, the poetioal name of Mirsa* Ibr&hfm, a Sayyid 

of the Safawf race. He came to India in the time of the 
emperor 8h£h Jahan. He died, or was put to death in 
prison, in the year 1650 A. D., 1060 A. H. He is the 
author of a Diwan, and also of a Masnawi, called Raft^-us- 
Balikin, and a S6ki-nama. 

Adham Artamani, ^L^t *&&!, author of a Diwan 

in Persian. 
Adham, **&\, vide Ibr£him-i- Adham. 
Adham Khan, ^li. *AiL the son of M&hum Anaga. He 

appears to be a royal bastard* His mother Mahrnn was one 
of Akbar's nurses (anaga) ', who attended on Akbar 4 from 
the cradle till after his accession.' She played a consider- 
able part in bringing about Bairam's fall. Adham Khan 
(i. e. the Black Khan) was a commander of 5,000, and dis- 
tinguished himself in keeping the rebellious Bhadauriya 
clan near Hatkanth, south-cast of Agra, in order. In 968 
H., ho defeated Baz Bahadur of Malwi. In the following 
year (A. D. 1562), he stubbed at court his enemy Atgah 
Khan, Akbar's foster-father, and was killed by the emper- 
or's order. Mahum Anaga died forty days after from 
grief, and was buried with her son in Dihli in a Mausoleum 
erected by Akbar. Adham's brother B£fci Khan, or Khan 
Bdfci Khan, died in the 30th year of Akbar's reign, as 
Governor of Garha-Katanga (Central Provinces).] 

Adhan, e^Ot, Shaikh, a Chishtf saint, who died at Jannpur 

in 970 H.] 
Adib, *r*i^> the poetical name of Abu-Hasan 'Ali bin-Nasr, 

an excellent philosopher, who was a judge in Egypt} under 
the khilafat of Ammar the F4$imite. 

Adib, v^«>'j 8urnamea ' §&hir, a poet who was contemporary 

with Asir-uddin Futdfci and Anwari. Vide ShihAb-uddin 
Adib Sabir. 

'Adil Khan, Jtxfi ^ d* 1 ** Farukil, ruler of Khandesh, 
who is also called Mfran Ghani, which see. 

'Adil Khan II, Faruki, J^^Jjj^J^ d* 1 *, entitled 
A'fam Humay&n, son of Hasan, and grandson of Nasir 
Khan Farufci by the daughter of Mahmud Shah of Guj- 
rat. Ho succeeded to the throne of Khandesh after the 
death of Daud Khan Faruki in August, 1510 A. D., Jumada 
I, 916 A. H., and removed from Talnor to Burhinpur, 
which place he made the seat of his government, and died 
there after a reign of nine or ten years in 1520, 926 A. H., 
and was succeeded by Mfran Muhammad, his eldest son 
by the sister of Bahidur Shah of Gujrit. 

'Adil Khan, uM» J* U > the eldest brother of Su^an IsUm 
Shin, king of Dihli. He fled to Patna after his defeat in 
a battle against his brother, but he soon disappeared, 
and was never heard of afterwards. 

Adina Beg Khan, ^UL J^j ai^f f son of Channu, an 

Ariin by caste, was born at 8arakpdr near L£hor. He 
was brought up in a Mughul family, became a soldier, but 
devoted himself to accounts. He was governor of Sultan- 
pur when Nadir Shin invaded India. Subsequently, he 
supported Abdali Shih Durrani. He died without heirs at 
Khinpur near Hoshy&rpur, where a fine tomb was erected 
over his remains,] 

>Adli, tJ**, the nickname of Muhammad ' Adil Shin, king 

of Dihli. His name was Mubaris Khan, son of Ni$am 
Khan. He succeeded Islam Shah in the very end of 960 H., 
defeated with the help of his general Hfcnu, in 962, Mu- 
hammad Shah of Bengal at ChhapparghaHa, east of Kilpf, 
and was at last, in 1164, one year after Akbar's accession, 
defeated and killed in the battle of Surajgarh, near 



Munger, by BaMdur Shall, Sultan of BengaL His nick-, 
name ' Adli was often further corrupted to ' Andhlf , * the 
blind woman.'] 

'Adnan, &&*£, one of the descendants of IsmaVil the son 

of Abraham, with whom the genealogies of the Arabians, 
and also that of Muhammad, terminate. For reckoning 
up from 'Adnan to IsmaVil, the descents are very uncer- 
tain, ^ and the best historians confess that there is nothing 
certain beyond 'Adnan. 

Afi, ls* T , poetical name of Ahmad Tar Khan, author of a 

small poem in Persian called " Masnawi Gulzar-i-KhayaT," 
containing the story of Shihzdda and Gada\ written in 
1848. 

'Aflf, vide Shams Siraj 'Afif. 

Afrasyab, V^*l/^ an ancient king of Turin, the son of 

Pashang. He overcame Nauzar, king of Persia of the 
Peshdidian dynasty, and having killed him, ruled over 
Persia for twelve years. He was subsequently defeated 
in a battle against Kai-khusrau, king of Persia, of the 2nd 
or Katenian dynasty. 

Afrin, Lfij 9 • ) poetical name of Shaikh Kalandar Bakhsh of 

Saharanpur, who is the author of a work, called Tufefat- 
us-SanaT. 

Afrin, Ui/1, the poetical name of Shah Fafcfr-ullah of La*- 

hor. He was a G6jar, embraced Muhammad anism, and is 
the author of a Diwan, and of an epic, called " Hir-wa- 
RanjhaV' Some say that he died in 1730, and others in 
1741 A. D., 1143 or 1154 A. H. 

Afbah, ^ai\ Shin Fasu), a pupil of Mirza Bedil, died at 
Lakhnau in 1192 H., and left a Diwan.] 

Afsari, kSjT*\* the poetical name of a poet. 

Afshin, \$ i !? t$ \> the surname of IJaidar ibn-K£us, a general of 
the khalifa al-Mu'tasim Billah of Baghdad. He was a 
Turk by origin, and had been brought up a slave at the 
khalifa's court, and having been employed in disciplining 
the Turkish militia, had acquired the reputation of a great 
captain. He was, however, executed about the year 
840 A. D. by the khalifa, being accused of holding corre- 
spondence with the khalifa's enemies. 

AftOB, uy*'j the poetical name of Mir 'All He was first 
in the service of Naw4b Is-l?Ak Khan, the uncle of Asaf- 
ud-daula of Lakhnau, and subsequently of Mirza 1 Jawan- 
Bakht, and was finally recommended to Lord Wellesley and 
appointed a Munshi of the College of Fort William. He is 
tho author of the Araish-i-Mabfil in Urdu, and of the 
Gulistan, translated by him into the same language. He 
died in Calcutta in 1806 A. D., 1221 A. H. 

Aftab, ytfif , the poetical name of Shin ' Alam, king of Dihli, 
who died in the year A. D. 1806. 

Affeal, the poetical name of Sh6h Ghulam A'jam, which see. 

Afzal *Ali Khan, (Naw£b), vide below Afeal Khan (p. 24) 
whose original name was Shukr-ullah. 

Afeal, the poetical name of Muhammad Afzal, which see. 

Af friiH. JUflit the poetical name of Shaikh Muhammad 

Nasir, son of Shaikh Khub-ullah of Altfh*ba«L He died 
in 1750 A. D., 1163 A. H. 
AfVft.1 Khan, J^ cUA, or Mir Muhammad Afeal. He 

nourished in the reign of the emperor Muhammad Shin of 
Dihli, and died in the year 1735 or 1738 A. D., 1148, 1151 
A- H. His poetical name was §abit, which see. 



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Altai Khan, <J±> JUil, Shaikh 'Abd-urrahmin, son of the 

celebrated Shaikh Abul-Faal, minister and secretary to the 
emperor Akbar, was Jahangir's governor of Bihar in 1610 
A. D., and died at Agra in 1613. 

Vide Ain Translation, p. xxxv (Abul-Fazl's Biography), 
and Dowson, VI, 205.] 

Afieal Elian, ^U. JLail^ whose original name was Mulli 

Shukr-ullah, the son of 'Abdul-Hafcfc, came from Shiriz to 
the Dakhin, and was introduced by 'Abdur-Kalnm Khan, 
Khinkhinan, to the emperor Jahingir, who conferred on 
him the rank of an Amir. In the second year of Shah 
Jahin, 1628 A. D., 1038 A. H., the office of Wisirat-i-kull 
having become vacant by the dismissal of Iradat Khan, 
the brother of Asaf Khan Ja'far Beg, he was honored with 
that appointment. In the eleventh year of the emperor, 
the mansab of 7,000 and 4,000 saw&rs was conferred on 
him, but he died the next year at Lahor on the 7th Janu- 
ary, 12th Bamazin, 1048 A. H., 1639 O. S., aged 70 years. 
His poetical name was 'Allimf. Hi« tomb, called Chini 
Bauza is in Agra, on the left bank of the Jamuni. 

Aifeal-ud-daula, (Nawib), Nizam of IJaidaribid, suc- 
ceeded his father Nawib Kasir-ud-daula in May 1857, 
15th ^il-ka'da, 1285 A. H., and departed this life on the 
26th of February 1869, aged 44 years, leaving an infant 
son who, according to the succession guarantee granted by 
Lord Canning, is now his successor. 

Affeal-uddin, (Mir), Nawib of Stirat. He died on the 7th 
August, 1840, at the age of 59 years, after enjoying his 
nominal nawibship about 21 years. His son-in-law, Mir 
Ja'far 'All, succeeded him. 

Agah Khan, a eunuch of the emperor Shall Jahin, who died 
on the 9th Babi* I, 1067 A. H. His tomb is near the 
Mumt&z-Maball in Tajganj. 

Agah, J^f , the poetical name of Maulawi Muhammad Bilpr. 

His parents were of Bijapur, but he was born at Ellora in 
1745 A. D., 1158 A. H., and died on the 3rd of March 1806 
A. D., 14th giHijja 1220 A. H. He is the author of a 
Diwin. 

He was a Niita (pi. Nawdit, said to be a corruption of 
the Persian nau-dmad, a ' new arrival'), a name given to 
certain seafaring Arabs, settled in Western India.] 

Agha Ahmad 'ALL poetically styled Ahmad, son of Agha 
Shaji'at ' Ali, of Dhiki, a Persian grammarian of note, 
who successfully defended, in his " Muayyid-i-Burhin," 
and the " Shamsher-i-Teztar,'' the author of the Burhin 
Kiti', a Persian Dictionary, against the famous Dihli poet 
Ghilib. He also published the " Bisila-i-Ishtil^aV, the 
" KiseUa-i-Tarina", "Haft Asmin," a History of the 
Persian Masnawf, and edited several works for the Asiatic 
Society of Bengal. He was a Persian teacher in the 
Calcutta Madrasa, when he died (June 1873).] 

Agha Husain Khwansari, ^LJfja. &*»+. W, vide 

Husain Khwinsiri. 

Agha Mir, J* lif entitled Mu'tamad-ud-daula, minister 

of Ghazi-uddfn Gaidar, king of Audh. He was dismissed 
in 1826 A. D., 1242 A. H., and retired to Kinhpur, where 
he died on Monday 7th May, 1832, 6th £il-bijja, 1247. 

Agha Muhammad Khan, cM ^ W, vide K\i 
Muhammad Khan Kijir. 

Agha MuUa, JU Uf } surnamed « DawitdaV, 4 the inkstand- 
holder,' the ancestor of the three Asaf Khans who served 
under Akbar and Jahingir. His genealogical table is 
given in Ain Translation, I, 369.] 



Aghar Khan, ^li, j*\ y Tir Muhammad, who served during 

the reign of Aurangzib against Prince Shuji', in Xsim, 
and in Kabul. He died in A. H. 1102. His son, Aghar 
Khan n, was still alive during the reign of Muhammad 
Shih. The family traced their descent from Aghar, a 
descendant of Yifis (Japhet), son of Nub- Their villa 
Agharabad near Dihli is often mentioned in the histories.] 

Ahi, ij*i 9 a poet who was a chief of one of the Chaghtfi 
hordes, and had assumed originallv the poetical name of 
" NargisV' but changed it into 4 * iUu", because he found 
that another poet of his time had adopted it. He is tho 
author of a Diwin which he dedicated to prince Gharfb 
Mini, the son of Sultan Husain Mini Biikri. He died 
in the year 1520 A. D., 927 A. H. 

Ahl-i-Bait, **g<>f, ' the people of the house', a general 
name for the descendants of Muhammad, the Sayyids.] 

Ahl-i-Kitaby y Uf Jjt\ f * the people of the book', a collec- 
tive name for the Jews, Christians, and Muhammadans, 
who received a book, •'. e., revealed religion, from heaven.] 

Ahli Khurasani, <j*l<*\j*> t£^l, a poet who died at 
Tabriz in the year 1527 A- D., 934 A. H. He must 
not be confounded with Ahli-i-Tdrani, a Chaghtai noble- 
man of profligate character, who lived at the court of 
Sultan Husain Mini, and died in 1497 A. D., 902 A. H. 

Ahli Shirazi, iSjjj** \}*\ (Maulini) of Shiri*, an elegant 
poet in the service of Shih Ismi'fl Safawt L He is the 
author of several poems, amongst which are the " Sifer-i- 
rjalal", "Sham' wa Parwina', " Kisila-i-Naghs", Sa>'- 
nama", and " Fawiid-ul-FawiidV' He died in the year 
1535 A. D., 942 A. H., and is buried at Shirfa, close to 
the tomb of #afiz. 

Ahlia Bai, the wife of Madhu Bio Peshwi Sindia, built 
a place in the time of Shih 'Alam, called Bisnin Ghat, 
or a bathing-place for all men, on the banks of the 
river Jamuni. It extended from ihe trench of the fort 
to the house of Diri Shikoh, and was in good preser- 
vation in the year 1830 A. D. On one of the corners 
a large gun of iron was lying, under the Haweli of Diri 
Shikoh, called Dhaul Dahani. 

Ahlia Bai, ij [ i ****!, the wife of Khindo Bio, the son 
of Malhir Bio Holkar I, of Indor, after whose death, in 
1766 A. D., she had a jagir allotted to her yielding an 
annual revenue of 1,500,000 Rupees. Her husband Khando 
Bio was killed in battle at Dig against Sdrajmal Ji% 
in 1754. Her son Mali Bio, who had succeeded his 
grandfather Malhir Bio in 1766, died nine months after. 
She was a woman of spirit and ability, and reserved in 
her own hands the right of nominating a successor, and 
elected Tokaji to the rij. 

Ahmad al-Makkari, **^>t, author of the History of the 
Muhammadan Dynasties in Spain. This work was trans* 
lated by M. Pascual de Gayangos, an erudite Spaniard, 
London, 1810, in 4to., Vol. I. He was born in the 16th 
century, and died in Damascus in the year 1631 A. D., • 
1041 A. H. After having composed a very detailed 
biography of the celebrated and learned wasfr of Granada, 
Muhammad lbn-ul-Kha^ib, he added to it, in the form 
of an introduction, a general history of the Arabs in 
Spain from the conquest to their final expul sio n. 



Ahmad I, **^ utf*****, emperor of Turkey, son and 
successor of Muhammad III, whom he succeeded in Janu- 
ary, 1604 A. D., Sha'bin, 1012 A. H. This prince was of 
a good constitution, strong and active ; he would throw a 



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horseman's mace, of nine or ten pounds weight, farther 
than any of his court. He was much given to sensual 
pleasures, and had 3000 concubines. He died on the 
15th November, 1617 A. D., 15th gil-fca'da, 1025 A. H., 
at the age of thirty, having reigned fourteen years. He 
was succeeded by his brother Mustafa I. 

Ahmad II, f£*Lrt' cH ***>!, son of Ibrihfm, succeeded on 
the death of his brother Sulaiman II, in 1691 A. D., 
1103 A. H., to the throne of Constantinople, and died in 
1695, 1106 A. H. He was succeeded by Mu|(a£s II, son of 
Muhammad IV. 

Ahmad III, &*&" ^ *+*!, son of Muhammad IV, was 

placed on the throne of Constantinople in 1703 A. D., 1115 
A. H., by the heads of a faction which had deposed his 
brother Mustafa II. He granted a friendly asylum to 
Charles XII of Sweden, after the battle of Pultowa ; and 
the kindness and the hospitality which marked the whole 
of his intercourse with that unfortunate monarch, are 
entitled to the highest encomium. He was preparing an 
expedition against Persia, when an insurrection hurled 
him from his throne, and exalted his nephew Mahmud I 
from a prison to the sovereign power in 1730 A. D., 1142 
A. H. He died of apoplexy in 1736, aged 74 years, 1148 
A. H. 

Ahmad IV, A+aJ ^ <*♦**♦, (also called 'Abdul-Qamfd), son 

of Ahmad III, emperor of Turkey, succeeded his brother 
Mustafa III in 1774 A. D., 1188 A. H. He died after a 
reign of 15 years on the 7th April, 1789, Rajab 1203 
A. H., and was succeeded by Salim III. 

Ahmad, *+*| an Arabian author who is known as the 

writer of a book on the interpretation of dreams, a transla- 
tion of which in Greek and Latin was published with that 
of Artemidorus on the same subject, at Paris, by Rigault 
A. D. 1603. He lived in the 4th century of the Hyra. 

Ahmad Abu-Tayyib al-Mutanabbi, <^Vf v*^l 

**•**!, a celebrated Arabian poet whom none excelled in 
poetry. He is the author of a Diwin. He died in the 
year 965 A. D., 354 A. H. ; «wfc Mutanabbi. 

Ahmad al-Ghaflferi,' (jy^*A *♦*) ; wb Ahmad bin-Mu- 
hammad al-Ghaflarf (p. 26). 
Ahmad 'Ali Haahimi, ^^U ^i* o**t ^ (Shaikh), 

author of the Biographical Dictionary, called "Makh**n-ul- 
Ghariib", dedicated to Nuwab §afdar-Jang of Fai^bad, 
who died in 1754 A. D., 1167 A. H. His poetical name 
wasKhidim. 

Ahmad 'AH Khan, Nawib of Bampur; vtik Fai*ullah 

Ahmad 'Ali Khan, uMnJ* *♦*! v'y, Naw£bof Karnal. 

A remission of revenue to the extent of B*. 5,000 per 
annum was granted to him in perpetuity by the British 
Government, and a khil'at of the value of Re. 10,000 was 
conferred on him, in July 1858, for his distinguished loyalty 
and for the eminent services rendered by him during the 
rebellion of 1 857. In 1806, the Pargana of Karn&l consisted 
of a number of villages, yielding a revenue of Ra. 40,000 
per annum. It was conferred by Lord Lake in jagir 
on three Mandal chiefs, named Muhammadi Khan, Ghairat 
'Ali Khan, and Is-bafc Khan, for their lives, and after their 
death to descend to their heirs, subject to the payment of 
Ra. 15,000 per annum in perpetuity. Naw&b Ahmad 'Ali 
Khan is the lineal descendant of Muhammadi Khan, and 
holds 24 entire villages, besides a 3rd share in four others. 
These lands are assessed at Bs. 24,000, on which the 
Nawib has hitherto paid a quit rent of Bs. 5.000, payment 
of which sum the Government has now remitted. 



Ahmad 'Ah Khan, JU. ^Ls o*avf ***, (8ayyid), Nawib- 

N£sim of Bengal, succeeded his brother 'Ali-Jah. He died 
on the 30th October, 1824 A. D. 

Ahmad 'All Khan, and Walidid Khan, the rebel Nawa*bs 
ofM&agarh. 

Ahmad Ayaz, Malik Khwam Jahan, served with distinc- 
tion under Muhammad Shin bin-Tughlu^ of Dihli. On 
the death of the king at Tatta, in A. H. 762 (A. D. 1352), 
he tried to set up at Dihli a son of the late king, but had 
to submit to Firuz Shan III, who allowed the nobles to 
execute him before he himself entered Dihli.] 

Ahmad Bakhsh Khan, (Nawib), entitled Fakhr-ud-daula, 
was the jagirdar of Firuzpur and Loharu in the district of 
Dihli, after whose death his son Nawib Shams-uddfn Khan 
succeeded him. The latter was executed for murder in 
October, 1835. 

Ahmad Barani, ^J>j* 0^^ author of a Persian work, 

called " Sifr-us-Siyar." 

Ahmad Beg Kabuli. served in Kabul under Mu h a mm ad 
IJakim, Akbar's brother, and later under Akbar and Ja- 
hangir. He was for some time governor of Kashmir. 
He died about A. D. 1614.] 

Ahmad Beg Khan, a son of (Muhammad Sharif) Nur 
Jahan's brother. He served • under Jahangir in Bengal, 
assisted I'rince Shahjahan during his rebellion, and was 
subsequently made by Shahjahan governor of Tatta, 
8iwistan, and of Multan. He received as jagir Jais and 
Amethi in Audh, where he died.] 

Ahmad bin-'AbduHah al-Kirmi, *U|*ac ^ o^t, 
author of a work on the fundamental points of Muham- 
madanism. Vide Abu-Ahmad, the son of Kaeim. 

Ahmad bin-Abu-Bakr, j^.^ v* ***>!, an Arabian 
author who wrote the " Maahra'-ul-Manafcib", a minute 
account of the events of Muhammad's life, with memoirs 
of his successors and companions. 

Ahmad bin-Abu-Bakr bin-Nasir Muatafe al- 
Kazwini, jfcjil erf ***!, author of the "TArikh-i- 
Gusida", which contains the history of the four ancient 
Persian Dynasties, viz. Peshdadians, Kaiinians, Ashka- 
nians, and Sasanians, that is, from the year 890 B. C. 
to 636 A. D., and memoirs of the several dynasties who 
ruled over Persia, Tartary, &c, during the khilafat, and 
to the year 1329 A. D. See also called I£amd-ullah 
MustaufL 

Ahmad bin-'Ali Ban, (Shaikh), ^sh ^ & *•*■ 
y^» 9 surnamed Jassas, a famous lawyer. He was born in 

the year 917 A. D.. 305 A. H., and died in 980 A. D., 370 
A. H., aged 65 lunar years. 

Ahmad bin-' Ali al-Khatib Kaatalani, v*^^ 
crt *+*! ; vide gastalani. 

Ahmad bin-Hasan Maimandi, &* '* • ** er** v^ 
***•, (Khwaja) foster brother and fellow student of 
his sovereign Sultan Mahmud of Qhaznf. On the remo- 
val of Abul-' Abbas Fajl, two years after the succession 
of Mahmud, Khwaja Ahmad was appointed prime mini* 
ster, which office he held uninterruptedly for a period of 
18 years, when Altnntaah, the commander-in-chief, and 
a number of other Amirs, brought before the court of the 



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king charges against him. He was in consequence dis- 
graced and imprisoned for 13 years in one of the forts 
of India. He was released by Sultan Mas'ud, son and 
successor of Mahmud, and reinstated in the responsible 
office of minister, which he held for some time. He died 
a natural death in the year 1033 A. D., 424 A. H. 

Ahmad bin-Idris, u*ij*l erf *+*>», a lawyer of the 
sect of Malik, was the author of many works, and died 
about the year 1285 A. D., 684 A. H. 

Ahmad bin-Israil, cIajJH l& *+*!, a great astro- 
loger who lived under the khilafet of Wasifc Billah of 
Baghdad. 

Ahmad bin-Kasir, j& i& *+**, also called Muham- 
mad bin-Kasfr and Ka?fr al-Farghani, is the same person 
whom we call Alfaraganius, a great astronomer, who 
lived during the reign of the Khalifa al-Mamun. Vide 
Farghani. 

Ahmad bin-Muhammad al-Ghaflfari al-Kazwini, 

^lAaJl *♦** ^ o^^f^ a ^ ^ a de8Cendant £ 

'AMul-Ghaffar, the author of the " IJawi". He is the 
author of the work called " Naskh-i-Jahin-ira" which he 
composed in the year 1563 A. D., 971 A. H., of which 
number the title forms the chronogram. It is also called 
" Tarikh-i-Mukhtasir," an abridged history of Asia, from 
Adam down to Shah Tahmasp of Persia, A. D. 1525. It 
also contains memoirs of the Muhammadan kings of 
Spain, from A. D. 755 to 1036. It was dedicated to Shah 
Tahmasp. We are also indebted to him for the better known 
work, entitled " Nigaristan". We learn from the " Tarikh 
Badaoni" that, having resigned his employment in Persia, 
he went towards the close of his life on a pilgrimage to 
Mecca, and that landing in Dibal in Sindh, for the pur- 
pose of paying a visit to Hindustan, he died at that port 
in 1567 A. D., 975 A. H. 

Vide DowBon, Elliot's Histy. of India, II, 504.] 



Ahmad bin<-Muhammad al-Kastalani, ,y**~*'i 
***** trt *•*>!, an author who died in the year 1527 
A. D., 933 A. H. ; vide gastalani. 

Ahmad bin-Muhammad Kuduri, (/i*******^ 
*♦*!, author of a work on jurisprudence, called " Kuddrf ', 
and several other works. He died in 1046 A. D., 438 A. H. 

Ahmad bin-Muhammad bin r 'Ali Bakr al-Hanafi, 

author of the " Khazanat-ul-Fatawa," a collection of deci- 
sions made towards the end of the eighth century of the 
Hijra, and comprising questions of rare occurrence. 

Ahmad bin r Tulun, ^J± u& *+*>*, the founder of the 
Tulunide dynasty in Egypt ; vide Ahmad Ibn-Tulun. 

^hrnad bin-Yahya binrJabir al-Biladuri, ^jttyl 
or ^.ilUJf, surnamed also Abd-Ja'far and Abul- 
Hasan, was the instructor to one of the princes of the 
family of al-Mutawakkjl, and died in A. H. 279, A. D. 
892. His *• Futub-ul-Buldajr" ia one of the earliest Arabic 
chronicles. He also wrote a geographical work, entitled 
"Kitab-ul-Buldan," the Book of Countries.] 

Ahmad bin-Yahya, bi** U*. *•*•, author of the mar- 
ginal notes on the " Wifciya", a work on jurisprudence. 

Ahmad bin-Yusuf, ***<*ji vi **^, an historian and 
author of the " Akhbar-ucUdawal", written in 1599 A. D., 
1008 A. H., which is said to be an abridgement of Jana- 
bfs " Tarfkh-ul- Janabi", called also " Bafcr-uz-Zakhkhar". 



Ahmad Chap, Malik, was Niib.Ba>bak under Ffrd* Shall 
II (Khiljf) of Dihlf, whom he warned in vain against 
'Ala-uddin. He was blinded by 'Ala-uddin after his 
accession.] 

Ahmad (Shaikh), ^yjiiX^f u*Z f of Gharri, author of 

the work entitled " Mafcam*t-i-Shaikh Ahmad." containing 
the Life of Ahmad Jam, Shaikh-ul-lslam of Nishapur ; 
with a minute account of the miracles performed by him! 
Vide Ahmad Jam. 

Ahmad (Shaikh), c5t I^«' *+*>\ &~ 9 commonly called 

Mulla Jiwan, of Amethf, was the tutor of the emperor 
Alamgir, and author of the " Tafsir-i-Ahmad£." He died 
in 1718 A. D., 1130 A. H. Vide Mull* Jiwan. 

Ahmad, Shaikh, second son of Shaikh Salim Chishtf of 
Fatfcpur Sikri. He served under Akbar, and died in 
985 H.] 

Ahmadi, ^pX*^^ the poetical name of Mir Sayyid Luc- 
ullan, who died in 1633 A. D., 1043 A. H. 
Ahmadi, ^*«*»l, a Turkish poet, whose proper name waa 

Khwaja Ahmad Ja'fari, and of whom we have the follow, 
ing anecdote. The great Tartar conqueror Amfr Timur 
(Tamerlane) being on his march through Anadoli, halted 
for a while at Amasia, where Ahmadi lived ; and the poet 
took the opportunity of presenting him with an ode. 
This led to further intimacies, Timur being a patron of 
literary men ; and one day when both were in the bath, 
the monarch amused himself by putting crochetty questions 
to Ahmadi, and laughing at his answers. " Suppose now " 
said he, pointing to the surrounding attendants, " you were 
required to value these beautiful boys, how much would you 
say each was worth?" Ahmadi answered with becoming 
gravity, estimating one at a camel-load of silver, another 
at six bushels of pearls, a third at forty gold wedges, and 
so made the circuit of the ring. " Very fair/' said Timur 
" and now tell me, What do you value Me at ?" " Four 
and twentyaspers," replied the poet, "no more and no 
less." "What!" cried Timur, laughing, "wbv the 
shirt I have on is worth that." "Do you really think 
so r asked Ahmadi, with the greatest apparent simplicity 
— at that rate you must be worth nothing, for I included 
the shirt in the valuation !" Much to his credit, Timu?, 
instead of being angry, applauded and rewarded the wit 
and boldness of the poet. Ahmad* was a pontemporary of 
Shaikh!, and is the author of the " Kulhyal-i-Khwaja 
Ahmad Ja'fari." He also composed a heroic poem on 
the actions of Tamerlane, and a Sikandar-nkma in the 
Turkish language. He died in A. D. 141 2. 

Ahmad Ghaflferi, vide Ahmad bin-Muhammad al-Ghaffarf t 

Ahmad Ghazzali, vide Qhazzitf (Ahmad). 

Ahmad Ibn-'Arab-Shah, vide 'Arab~Sh£h. 

Ahmad Ibn-HanbaJ, vide #anbal (Imam.) 

Ahmad Ibn T Tulun, &^J^ u^ *+*>!, the founder of the 
TuMnide dynasty in Egypt, a Turkish slave, who bein* 
entrusted by al-Mu'tamid, the khalifa of Baghdad, with 
the government of that country and Syria in A. D. 879 
set up for himself; and maintained his authority notwith- 
standing all attempts to depose him. He reduced Damascus, 
guns, tfamit, $innisrfn, and ar-Rakka, situated upon 
the eastern bank of the Euphrates. His mosque in Cairo 
may be seen to this day. He died in A. D. 884, 270 
A. H., and was succeeded by his son Khumirwaih. Egypt 
continued to be governed by his successors for several 
years when it was again reduced in A. D. 905 by Muham- 
mad, general of the khalifa of Baghdad al-Muktafi- 



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the last khalffo of Egypt having assassinated his predeces- 
sor, and thereby rendered himself very odious. In the 
year 933, Muhammad the son of Taj, or Tajfl, surnamed 
al-Ashhad, seised upon Syria and Egypt in the khilifat 
of ar-Raxf Billah, and his family retained the whole of it, 
except a small part which *Ubaid-ulla al-Mahdf, the first 
of the FAtimito dynasty (the seat of whose empire was at 
Kairuwan near Tunis) had conquered in A. D. 910. His 
successor Abu-Tamim Ma'd, surnamed Mu'izs li-din-illah, 
conquered the rest of Egypt about the year 970, by his 
general Ja'nir, who built the city of al-$ihira, commonly 
called Grand Cairo, whither his master soon removed his 
court. The Fatimite dynasty ended in A. D. 1176, when, 
upon the death of the last prince of this family, the king- 
dom was usurped by the famous Sali^-uddin (Saladin). 

List of the Khalifat of Barbary. 

'Ubaid-ullah al-Mahdi, first of the Fatimite race. 

Al-Kaim Mahdi, his son. 

Ism&'O, surnamed al-Manaur, son of al-K&im. 

Mu'izs li-din-illah, son of al-Mansur, who conquered 

Egypt and became the first fchfiTU ft v of the F4(imite 

dynasty in that country. 

Ahmad Dkani, J>Q>\ ±+*>\ } also called Ahmad Jalayir ; 
vide Hasan Buzurg. 

Ahmad Jafturi, lSj**± *+**, (Khwaja) vide Ahmadf. 

Ahmad Jalal Bukhari, (Sayyid) son of Sayyid Muhammad 
Bukhari. 

Ahmad Jalayir, ^jUa. *x*^| also called Ahmad flkani, 

a descendant of Hasan Buzurg, which see. 

Ahmad Jam, J*> J*avf, (Shaikh ul-Islim) entitled Abd- 

Nasr and Zinda-Pfl, a celebrated Muhammadan saint of 
Nishapur, born in the year 1049 A. D., 441 A. H. He 
passed 18 years of his life in devotion in wilds and moun- 
tains. He subsequently got married, and was blessed with 
39 sons and 3 daughters. At the time of his death, 
besides the 3 daughters, 14 of his sons were living, all of 
whom became men of learning and authors of several works. 
Ahmad Jim himself was an author, and among the dif- 
ferent works that he wrote, are the following : " Risala 
Samarfrandr, " Anis-ut.T*ttbto ,, > '* Mifta>un-Naj4t", 
" Babr-ul-rM»*at", and "Sirij-us-Sayirin". He died in 
the reign of Sultan Sanjar in February, 1142 A. D., Bajab 
$36 A. H. 

Ahmad Jan (Saltan) of Hirat He died about the 6th of 
April 1863, 17th Shawwil 1279 A. H., and was succeeded 
by his son Shah Nawaz Khan. 

Ahmad Kabir, j*£ *♦*>» ***, (Sayyid) a Musalman 

saint, whose tomb is at Uchcha in Multan. He is the son 
of Sayyid JahU, and the father of two other saints Sayyid 
Jalal uddin, surnamed Makhdum Jahaniyan Jahan-gasht, 
and R*ju £attfJ. Numerous miracles were wrought by 
these two brothers. 

Ahmad Khan, (Sayyid) C. S. I., of ' Aligarh, a distinguished 
Muhammadan reformer. He wrote a book on the life and 
work of the Prophet, and founded the * Aligarh College. 

Ahmad Khan, O^ «*♦*»', surnamed Nekodar (or Ni- 
cholas) was raised to the throne of Persia after the death 
of his brother Abe>i Khan, the son of Hulaku Khan, in 
April, 1282 A. D., ftil-bijja, 680 A. H., and was the first 
emperor of the race of Chingis Khan who embraced the 
Muhammadan religion. He is said to have been baptized 
in his youth by the name of Nicholas, but policy, or con- 



viction, led him to abandon the doctrine of Christ for 
that of Muhammad, when he assumed the name of Ah- 
mad Khan. In the first year of his reign, Majd-ul-Mulk 
Tazdf, a nobleman of his court, being accused of sorcery, 
lost his life. He put his own brother to death, and 
was successful in obtaining possession of the person of 
his nephew, Arghun Khan: but that prince was not 
only rescued from his violence by the Mughul nobles, but 
by their aid was enabled to deprive him of his crown 
and life on the night of Thursday, 11th August 1284 
A. D., 26th Jumada I, 683 A. H., and become his suo- 



Ahmad Khan Bangash, cr^ c^ *+*\, second son 

of Muhammad Khan Bangash, Naw£b of Farrukhabad. 
When the Wazfr Safdar-Jang, after the death of £aim- 
Jang, the brother of Ahmad Kh&n, confiscated his estates 
in December 1749, A. D., 1163 A. H., he (Ahmad Khan) 
collected an army of Afghans, defeated rajs' Nawal Kai, 
the Wazfr's deputy, who was slain in the action, and re- 
covered the territories lately seised from his family. 
This circumstance took place on the 2nd August 1760, 
Friday, 10th Bamazan, 1163 A. H. After this, Ahmad 
Khan governed his country about 22 lunar years, and 
died in November 1771, S ha' bin, 1185 A. H., when he 
was succeeded by his son Diler Himmat Khan, who 
received the title of Mufaffar-Jang from the emperor 
Shin ' Alam, who was then on his way to Dihli from Allah- 
abad. 

Ahmad Khan Mewati, one of the petty rulers fmuliik-i 
(aicdifj who had usurped the chief parts of the Dihli 
empire, during the Sayyid dynasty (beginning of the 
15th century). Ahmad Khan held Mewat, his frontier 
coming close up to Dihli. He had to submit to Buhlul 
LodX] 

Ahmad Khan SUP ; vide Sikandar Khan Sdr. 

Ahmad KhattU, Jh? *+**) &*> (8haikh) surname of 

Wajfh-uddin Ahmad Maghribi, who was the son of 
Malik Ikhtiyir-uddin, a nobleman at the court of 8ul^an 
Firuz Shah Tughluk of Dihli, and related to him. After 
the death of his father, having squandered his wealth in 
pleasure and dissipation, he became a disciple of Shaikh 
Babi Is-ba^f Maghribf, and turned very pious and 
journeyed to Gujrit, where he acquired great fame. 
During his residence at that place, he obtained such 
celebrity, that Sultan Muzafiar Gujrfti became his disciple. 
He died in that country in the reign of Sultan Muham- 
mad of Gujrft, on Thursday, 6th of January 1446, 8th 
8haww41 849 A. H., aged 111 years, and was buried 
at Sarkich, near Ahmadabdd Khattu is a place in Nagor, 
where Shaikh Ahmad was born. 

Ahmad bin-Khizrawaih, *ijj+* of *♦*', a celebrated 
Muhammadan saint, was the disciple of Khwaja Flatim 
Asamm. He died in the year 854 A. D., 240 A. H., and 
is buried at Balkh. 

Ahmad Maghribi, vide Ahmad Kha^o (Shaikh). 

Ahmad ttirsa, Ijj* *•*) Jblm, (Sultan), son of Abu- 

Ba' id Mini, after whose death, in 1469, he took possession 
of Samarkand, and died about the year 1495 A. D. 

Ahmad (Mulla), *+** **, the son of a *ag< of Tatta. 
His ancestors who resided in Sindh, were Farujcfs of the 
rjunifa sect, but he was a 8hf a. He is the author of a 
work, called M Khulasat-ul-tfaytt", the Essence of Life. He 
came from the Dakhin to the court of the emperor Akbar, 
in the year 1582 A. D., 990 A. H., and when that monarch 
ordered the " Tarikh-i-Alfi" to be compiled, several authors 
were employed in the compilation, but subsequently the 



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chief labour devolved upon Mull* Ahmad. The compila- 
tion of the first two volumes up to the time of Chingis 
Khan was just finished by him, when Mirza Ful&d 
Birlas, during the month of January 1588, Safar, 996 
A. H., persuaded the Mulli, who was alwayB openly re- 
viling the first khalifas, to leave his own house at midnight 
on some pretence, and then murdered him in a street 
of Lahor. For this act Mirza Fulad was sentenced to 
death, was hound alive to the leg of an elephant in the city 
of Lahor, and dragged along till he died. The Muila 
expired three or four days after the Mirza. After the death 
of Mulli, Ahmad, the remainder of the work was written 
by Asaf Khan Ja'far Beg, up to the year 997 A. H., or 
1689 A. D. Mulla Ahmad was buried at Lahor, but 
being a Shi' a, who openly used to revile the first khalifas, 
the people of Lahor exhumated his remains and burnt 
them. 

Vide Am Translation, I, 206.] 

Ahmad Nizam Shah. Bahri, gUflfej *+*r, the founder 

of the Nizam-Shahi dynasty of the Dakhin, was the son of 
Ni?am-ul-Mulk Babn, prime minister to Sultan Mahmud 
Shah Bahmani. He had conquered many places in the 
vicinity of his father's jagir, and was besieging the fort of 
Dundiijpur about the year A. D. 1486, 891 A. H., when 
he received intelligence of the assassination of his father, 
and immediately returned and assumed the titles of the 
deceased, and was generally known by those of Ahmad 
Ni;am-ul-Mulk Ba^rf, to which the people of the Dakhin 
added the title of Shah. As he had distinguished himself 
repeatedly as a general in the field, though the Sultan 
wished to remove him from power, none of his nobility 
would accept the task of reducing him. He, however, 
on the 3rd May 1490, 3rd Rajab 895 A. H., gained a 
victory over the army of the Sultan, and from that time 
he sat without opponent on the maenad of royalty, and 
by the advice of Yusuf 'Adil Shah, who had already 
become independent, having discontinued to read the 
khu^ba in the name of the king, put in his own and 
spread a white umbrella over his head. He laid the 
foundation of the city of Ahmadnagar in A. D. 1496, 900 
A. H., which was completed in two years, and became the 
first of the Ni$am-Shehf kings of Ahmadnagar. He died 
in A. D. 1608, 914 A. H., and was succeeded by his son 
Burhan Niiam Shah I. The following is a list of the 
Nizam-Shahi kings of Ahmadnagar : — 

Ahmad Ni*am Shah I, A. D. 1490. 
Burhan Ni?am Shah, 1608. 
Husain Ni?am Shah I, 1563. 
Murtaxa Ni*am Shah, 1565. 
Miran Husain Ni?am Shah, 1587. 
Isma'fl Ni*am Shah, 1689. 
Burhan Ni? am Shah II. 
Ibrahim Ni?am Shah, 1594. 
Ahmad Nijam Shah II, son of Shah T*bir, 1594. 
Bahadur Ni*am Shah, 1595. 
Murtaza Ni?am Shah II, 1698. 

The Ni?am Shahi dominions mil under the control of 
Malik 'Ambar, 1607. 

Ahmad Pasha, l£b ±+*>\, a general of Sulaiman I, emperor 

of Turkey, who when appointed governor of Egypt, re- 
volted from his sovereign in 1624 A. D. He was soon 
after defeated by Ibrahim, the favorite of Sulaiman, and 
his head was sent to Constantinople. 

Ahmad Bumi, <y*JD *♦* I > author of the F&Vul-IJa- 

^aifc a work written in imitation of the Masnawf of 
Jalal uddfn Rumi. 

Ahmad Samani, jJ^l****^! jk*' 9 (Amir) second king 
of the race of Simla (Semanides), succeeded his father 



Amir Ismi'il in the provinces of Khurasan, &c, in 907 
A. D., 296 A. H. He was a cruel prince, and contended 
with his uncle, his brothers, and other relations for the 
extensive possessions of his father, more by intrigues at 
the court of Baghdad, than by arms. After a reign of 
seven years, he was murdered by some of his domestics 
on Thursday, 30th January, 914 A. D., 23rd Jumada 

I, 301 A. H., and his son Amir Nasr, then only eight 
years of age, was placed upon the throne of Khurasan 
and Bukhara. Ahmad was buried in Bukhara, and they 
gave him the title of Sultan Shahid, ♦'. c. the martyred king. 

Ahmad Sarhindi, <>s***r* *++J k**>, (Shaikh) entitled 

Mujaddid-i-Alf-i-§ani, a dervish celebrated for his piety 
and learning, was the son of Shaikh ' Abdul- Wafcid Faru- 
Ip, and was born at Sarhind in A. D. 1663, 971 A. H. He 
was a disciple of Khwaja Baki, a celebrated saint of Dihli, 
and is the author of several works. He died on Tuesday, 
29th November 1624, the last Tuesday in the month of 
Safar 1034 A. H., and is buried at Sarhind. He was 
called " Mujaddid-i-Alf-i-9anf \ or the " Benower of the 
second Millennium", because he adopted the general belief 
that every thousand years a man was born, who has a 
thorough knowledge of the Islam, and whose vocation it 
is to revive and strengthen it He believed that he was 
the man of the second ffdnij Millennium (&lf). % 

Ahmad, Sayyid, of Barha, brother of Sayyid Mahmud 
Barha, served under Akbar in Gujrat. He was in charge 
of Akbar's hunting leopards. His son, Sayyid Jamil* 
uddin, was killed by the explosion of a mine before 
Chitor.] 

Ahmad, Sayyid, of Bukhara, father of the renowned 
Shaikh Fand-i-Bukhari ; vide below.] 

Ahmad Shah, »U ±+*>\ } entitled Mujahid-ud-dfn Muham- 
mad Abun-Nasr Ahmad Shah Bahadur, was the son of 
Muhammad Shah, emperor of Dihli, whom he succeeded 
on the 15th April 1748, 27th Babf II, 1161 A. H. His 
mother's name was Udham Bai. He was born in the fort 
of Dihli on Tuesday, 14th December 1725, 17th Rabi* 

II, 1138 A. H. and crowned in Panipat on Monday 
19th April 1748, 2nd Jumada I, 1161 A. H. After 
a reign of 6 years 3 months and 8 days, he was de- 
posed and imprisoned, and afterwards blinded, together 
with his mother, by his prime minister 'Imid-ul-Mulk 
Ghasi-uddin Khan, on Sunday, 2nd June 1754, N. 8. 
After this, he lived more than 21 years, and died on the 
1st of January 1775, from bodily disease. He was buried 
in the front of the mosque of £adam-Sharff in Dihli, in 
the mausoleum of Maryam-Makani. After his imprison- 
ment, ' Alamgir n, son of Jahandar Shah, was raised to the 
throne. 

Vide Proceedings, As. Socy. Bengal, for 1874, p. 208.] 

Ahmad Shah I, *l* *+&*!, second king of Gojrat> was the 

son of Tatar Khan, and grandson of Musaffar Shah, whom 
he succeeded as king of Gujrat. The author of the 
Muntakhab-ut-Tawarikh states, that his grandfather placed 
him on the throne during his lifetime, in the year 818 
H. or 1410 A. D., and that he survived that measure 
five months and sixteen days. In the same year, he 
laid the foundation of a new city on the banks of the 
Sabarmatf, which he called after his own name, Ahmad- 
abad, and which afterwards became the capital of the kings 
of Gujrat. The date of the laying of the foundation of this 
city is contained in the words " Ba-khair", i. e. all welL 
He died after a reign of nearly 33 years, on the 4th July 
1443 A. D., 4th Rabi' I, 847 H., and was succeeded by his 
sen Muh ammad Sh&bu 



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Ahmad Shah II, ^ »^ ±**\, k^g of Gujrit After 

tho death of Mahmud Shan m, there being no relation 
on whom the succession might devolve, I'timid Khan, 
the prime minister, resolved rather than see the kingdom 
in absolute anarchy, to elevate a youth, whom he asserted 
to be the son of prince Ahmad Khan, formerly governor 
of Ahmad&bad, and declared him the legal successor to the 
crown of Gujrat. He was forthwith placed on the throne 
on the 18th February 1554 A. D., 15th Babf I, 961 A. H. 
He reigned 7 years and some months, and was found mur- 
dered one morning at the foot of the palace wall. This 
event took place on Monday the 21st April 1661 A. D., 
5th Sha'ban, 968 A. H. He was succeeded by Mu?affar 
Shahm. 

Vide Kin Translation, I, 335.] 

Ahmad Shah Abdali, ^M *U *+*>\ } commonly called 

Shall Durrani, was the son of a chief of the Afghan tribe 
of Abdal in the vicinity of the city of Hirat. He was 
taken prisoner in his infancy by Nadir Shall, who gave 
him the post of a mace-bearer, and by degrees promoted 
him to a considerable command in the army. The morn- 
ing after the assassination of Nadir Shah, which took 
place in the night of tho 12th May, 1747, 0. S., he made 
an attack, supported by a corps of Uzbaks, upon the Per- 
sian troops, but was repulsed. He then left tho army, 
and proceeding by rapid marches to Kandahar, not only 
obtained possession of that city, but took a large convoy 
of treasure which was coming from Kibul and Sindh to 
the Persian camp. By the aid of these means, ho laid the 
foundation of a kingdom, which soon attained a strength 
that rendered it formidable to the surrounding nations. He 
not only subdued Kandaliar and Kdbul, but took Peshi- 
wnr and Lalior ; and emboldened by this success, and the 
weakness of the empire, he resolved the conquest of the 
capital of Hindustan. In the beginning of the year 1748, 
1161 A. H., he began his march from Lalior. Muham- 
mad Shdh, the emperor of Dihlf, being at this time too 
indisposed to take the field, despatched his only son, 
prince Ahmad, against tho enemy, under the command of 
the wazir Kamar-uddin Khan, §afdar-Jang, governor of 
Audh, and several other chiefs, with a great army. For 
some days sevoral skirmishes took place between the 
two armies near Sarhind. At length, on Friday 11th 
March, 1748, 22nd Rabf 1, 1 161 A. H., Kamar-uddin Khin, 
the wazir, being killed as he was at his devotion in his 
tent by a cannon ball, a panic prevailed in the Mughul 
army ; the battle, however, continued till a magazine of 
rockets taking fire in the enemy's camp, numbers 
of the troops were wounded by the explosion ; and Shan 
Abdali, either disheartened by the loss, or satisfied by the 
plundor gained at Sarhind, thought it proper to retreat 
towards Kabul, which he did unmolested. In the year 
1757 A. D., 1170 A. H., he again advanced as far as Dihli 
and Agra, and after having plundered and massacred the 
inhabitants of Mathura, he returned to Kandahar. About 
the year 1758 A. D., 1172 A. H., the Mara{ha power 
had spread itself in almost every province of Hindustan, 
when Najib-ud-daula, the Rohila, ShujaV-ud-daula Nawib 
of Audh, and not only tho Musalmans but Hindus also, 
joined in petition to Ahmad Shah Abdali, that he would 
inarch and assume the throne of Dihli in which they 
promised to support him. The Abdali enraged at the 
seizure of Lahor by the Marthas, rejoiced at the invi- 
tation, and advanced without delay across the Indus, 
and driving the Marathaa before him, he did not stop 
till they reached the vicinity of Dihlf. He engaged the 
Marathas in several battles, and attained the highest 
renown among Muhammadana by the memorable defeat 
that he gave the hostile army on tho plains of Panipot. 
This famous action was fought in January, 1761. After 
this victory, Durrani Shlh returned to his own country, 
but before his departure, he acknowledged Shan 'A lam, 
then in Bengal, as emperor of Rindust&n, and commanded 
Shuji'-ud-daula and other chiefs to submit to his autho- 

8 



rity. He died after a reign of 26 years in 1772 A. D., 
1182 A. H., aged 60 years, and was succeeded by his 
son Timur Shall. His tomb, covered with a gilt cupola, 
stands near the king's palace, and is held sacred as an 
asylum. 

Ahmad Shah Wali Bahmani I, (J+t* ^j «U ***t, 
(Sultan), was the second son of Sultan D&ud Shall of the 
Bahmani race. Ho ascended the throne of the Dakhin on 
tho 15th September, 1422 A. D., 6th Shawwal 825 A. H., 
ten days before the demise of his brother Sultan Firuz 
Shall, who had resigned the crown in his favor. He is the 
founder of the city and fort of Ahmaddb&d Bfdar, the 
foundation of which he laid in the year 1432 A. D., 836 
A. H. It is said that the Sultan, on his return from a 
war at Bidar, took to the amusement of hunting ; and com- 
ing to a most beautiful spot, finely watered, resolved to 
build upon it a city, to be called after his name, Ahmada- 
bad. A citadel of great extent and strength was erected 
on the very site of Bidar, the ancient capital of princes, 
who, according to the Hindu books, 5000 years back, 
possessed the whole extent of Mirhat, Karnatik, and 
Talingana. Raja Bhim Sen was one of the most cele- 
brated of this house, and the history of the loves of his 
daughter and Raja Nal, king of Malwa, are famous 
through all Hindustan. Their story was translated from 
tho Sanskrit by Shaikh Faiji, under the title of " Nal 
Daman", into Persian verse, at the command of the 
emperor Akbar Shall. Ahmad Shah reigned 12 lunar 
years and 10 months, and died on tho 19th of Februarv 
1435 A. D., 18th Rajab, 838 A. H. He was buried at 
Ahmadabad Bidar, and was succeeded by his son Sultan 
'AU-uddin II. 

Ahmad Shah Bahmani, H t^n** 1 ^***^ (Sultan). 
On the death of his father Sultan Mahmud Shall II, in 
October 1518 A. D., Shawwal 924 A. H., Amfr Barid, his 
prime-minister, dreading that the surrounding powers 
would attack him should he assume open independence, 
placed prince Ahmad, son of the late king, upon the throne 
at Ahmadabad Bidar, leaving him the palace, with the 
use of the royal jewels and a daily allowance of money for 
his support. The sum not being equal to his expenses, 
the king broke up the crown, which was valued at 400,000 
huns, or £ 160,000, and privately sold the jewels. He 
died two years after his accession to tho throne, in the 
year 1521 A. D., 927 A. H. After his death Amir Barid 
raised Sultan 'AliL-uddin HI, one of the princes, on the 
throne. Two years after, he was imprisoned, and another 
son of Mahmud Shah, named Wali-ullah Shah, was placed 
in his room. Three years after his accession, tho minister 
conceiving a passion for his wife, he caused him to be 
poisoned, and espoused the queen. He then placed Kalim- 
ullah, the Bon of Ahmad Shah II, on the throne. This 
prince enjoyed nothing but the name of sovereign, and 
was never allowed to leave the palace. He was after- 
wards treated with great rigour by Amir Barid, where- 
upon he made his escape, first to his uncle Ifinia'il 'Adil 
Shall to Bfjapur, and thence to Burhan Nizam 8Mh of 
Ahmadnagar, where he resided till his death. With him 
ended the dynasty of the Bahmani kings of the Dakhin. 
In fact before this event, the Dakhin was divided into five 
kingdoms — 'Adil-Shahf or kings of Bijipur ; Kutb-Shihf, 
or kings of Goikon^a ; 'Im&d-Shalu, or kings of Barar ; 
Nif am-Shahi or kings of Ahmadnagar ; and Barid -Shahi, 
kings of Ahmadabad Bidar. 

Ahmad Shah of Bengal, &~ ***^ succeeded his 
father Jalal-uddin to the throne of Bengal in 834 H. or 
1430 A. D., reigned about 16 years, and died about the year 
1446 A. D., 850 A. H. He was succeeded by Nasir-uddin 
Mahmud Shah I, a descendant of Shams-uddin Ilyas 
Shah.] 

Ahmad Shah, or Ahmad-allah Shah, d& **^», 
commonly called " The Maulawf ', a prominent character 



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in the neighbourhood of Shahjalianpur and Muhammad! 
during the mutiny of 1857. He is said to have been the 
inspired Fakir who travelled through the upper provinces, 
a few years ago, on a miraculous mission. He made a 
pretty long stay at Agra, astonishing the natives and 
puzzling the authorities. It seems probable that he 
was even then busy in sowing the seeds of rebellion. 
He held great power within tie city of Lakhnau, in 
March, 1858, when the Commander-in-chief entered that 
city and commanded a stronghold in the very heart of the 
city. He was slain at Pusain, on the 15th June 1858, 
sixteen miles north-east of Shahjah&npCir, and the raji of 
that place sent the head and trunk to Mr. Gilbert Money, 
the Commissioner. 



Ahmad Shihab-uddin Talish, ,JdO c^tvV" 

vide Shihab-uddin Ahmad Talish. 
Ahmad Suhaili, ^ty» o*A|^Juet, (Amir), seal-bearer to 

Sultan Husain Mirza of Hir&t, to whom several of the 
poets of his time dedicated their works. Husain Wai? 
dedicated his '* Anwar Suhaili" to him. Fide Suhaili. 

Ahmad- ullah Shah, commonly called "TheMaulawf' ; 
see Ahmad Shah. 

Ahmad Yadgar, Jf^ a*M, author of the "Tank-i- 

Salatm-i-Afaghina," a history of the Afghin kings of 
India from Buhlid Lod% composed by order of Daud Shah, 
last king of Bengal. Fide Dowson, V, 1.] 

Ahmad Yar Khan, ^*>jk &+*>K whose poetical name is 

Yakti, was of the tribe of the Turks called Birlas. His 
father Allah Yar Khan held at different periods the suba- 
dari of Lahor, Tatta, and Multan, and was afterwards 
appointed to the Faujdari of Ghazni. Ahmad Yar Khan 
also held the Subadari of Tatta in the latter part of the 
reign of 'Alamgir. He was an excellent poet, and is the 
author of several poems. He died on the 21st September, 
1734 A. D. f 0. 6., 23rd Jumada I, 1147 A. H. 

Ahmad Yar Khan, (Nawib), of Barelf, the son of Nawib 
£ul-fikar-ud-daula Muhammad ^ul-fikar Khan Bahadur 
Dilawar-Jang of BarelL He was alive in A.D. 1816, 
1230 A. H. 

Ahmad Zarruk, gjjj *+«*(, surname of Abul-'Abbas Ah- 
mad bin- Ahmad bin-Muhammad bin-' f si Barallusi, author 
of the commentary, called " Shark Asm&'-il-^usna." He 
died in 1493 A. D., 899 A. H. 

Ahsan, ^^&.t poetical name of 'Inayat Khan, the son of Na- 

wab £afar Khan. He was governor of Kabul in the reign 
of 'Alamgir and is the author of a Diwan. Fide Ashni. 

Ahsan-uHah Khan, aUf^^^i ^^ (rjakfm), so well 
known at Dihli, died in September 1873 in that city. 

Ain-uddin (Shaikh), ^aJj ^^ >±£ of Bflipur, author 

of the "MulbaVat", and Kitib-ul-Anwar, containing a 
history of all the Muhammadan saints of India. He 
flourished in the time of Sultan 'Ali-uddin Hasan Bah- 
mani. 

'Ain-ul-Mulk, <SLJ\ ^xe +*£*>, Hatim, a native of Shf- 

raz, and a well-educated and learned Musalman, was an 
officer of rank in the time of the emperor Akbar. He 
was an elegant poet, and his poetical name wasWaift. 
He died in the 40th year of the emperor's reign in 1594 
A. D., 1003 A. H. 
For further notes, vide Ain Translation I, 481.] 



' Ain-Ul-Mulk (Khwaja), *MJ\ {i ^a a^^ & distin- 
guished nobleman of the court of Sultan Muhammad Shah 
Tughluk and his successor Sultan Firuz Shih, kings 
of Dihli. He is the author of several works, one of 
which is called " Tarsfl ' Ain-ul-Mulki." He also appears 
to be the author of another work called "Faty-nami," 
containing an account of the conquests of Sultan 'Ali- 
nddin who reigned from 1296 to 1316 A. D. 

'Aish, {j*i*, th Q poetical name of Muhammad *Askarf who 

lived in the reign of the emperor Shih ' Alam. 
'Aishi, ^j^t^j a poet, who is the author of a Masnawi 

called " Haft Akhtar", or the seven planets, which he 
wrote in 1675 A. D., 1086 A. H. 

Ajit Singh, Raja, A&w cu^l fcaj^ a Bithaurf Rajput, and 

hereditary zamfndar of M&rwar, or Jodhpur, was the son of 
I^iJaawant Singh Rithauri. He was restored in 1711 
A. D. to the throne of his ancestors, and gave his daughter 
in marriage to the emperor Farrukhsiyar in the year 1716 
A. D. He was murdered one night, when fast asleep, at 
the instigation of his son Abhai Singh, who succeeded 
him. This took place in the beginning of the reign of 
the emperor Muhammad Shah. 

Ajit Singh, a Sikh chief and murderer of Maharaja" Sher 
Singh of Lahor. He also slew Dhaian Singh, another 
chief, and was himself seized by Htra Singh, the son of 
Dhaian Singh, and put to death together with Lena Singh 
and others. This took placo in September 1843. 

'Ajiz, y*\* } the poetical name of ' Arif-uddfn Khan, who lived 

about 1754 A. D., 1168 A H. 

'Ajiz, the poetical title of Lili Gangi Bishn, father of Rimjas 
Munahi, which see. 

Ajaipal, the raja who founded Ajmir about 1183 A. D. 

Ajmal, d**X, (Shah) or Bhih Muhammad Ajmal, a P&v 
zida of AHihibid, was a descendant of Shall Khtib-ul- 
lah, and younger brother of Shih Ghulam Kutb-uddin, 
the son of Shah Muhammad Fikhir, the respectability of 
whose family is well known at All£hibid. He died in 
the year 1821 A. D., 1236 A H. 

Ajmiri Khan, an inhabitant of Ajmir. He walked with the 
emperor Akbar from Agra to Ajmir, on which account he 
received the title of Ajmiri Khan from that emperor. He 
had built a garden on a spot of 28 bighas of ground at 
Agra. This place is now called Ajmiri Khin-ki Tfla. 

Aka Muhammad Khan Kajar, jW& uM> *+«* 

\S\ } king of Persia, of the tribe of Kajar, and son pf 
Muhammad Hasan Khin Kajar, ruler of Mazanderan. 
He was made an eunuch in his childhood by 'A'dil Shall, 
the nephew and immediate successor of Nadir Shih* 
After the death of 'Adil Shih, he obtained his release, 
and joined his father, who was afterwards slain by Karfm 
Khan Zand, king of Persia. Aghi or A^a Muhammad 
was obliged to surrender himself to him, and was a pri- 
soner in the city of Shiraz. He had, for some tune, 
been very strictly guarded, and was never allowed to 
go beyond the walls of the town, but afterwards he was 
permitted to go a-hunting. When the last illness of 
Karim Khan assumed a dangerous appearance, he con- 
trived to leave that city on the usual pretext of hunting. 
When intelligence was brought to him that the founder of 
the Zand dynasty was no more, accompanied by a few 
attendants, he commenced his flight, and favored by the 
confusion of the moment, he reached his province of 
Mizandarin in safety, and proclaimed himself one of 
the competitors for the crown of Persia. Soon after the 



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d»*th of 'All Murfed Khan, ruler of Persia, in 1785 A. D., 
he made himself master of Isfahan without a battle, but 
had for several years to contend with Luff *Ali Khan, 
the last prince of the Zand family, bofore he became sole 
master of Persia. Lutf 'All Khan was put to death by 
him in A. D. 1795, 14th Miujarram, 1212 A. H. Aka 
Muhammad Khan was murdered on the 10th July, 1797* 
by two of his attendants, whom he had sentenced to 
death, in the 63rd year of his age. He had been a ruler 
of a great part of Persia for upwards of 20 years, but 
had only for a short period enjoyed the undisputed sove- 
reignty of that country. He was succeeded bv his ne- 
phew Fatb 'Ah' Shah, who died in 1834, 1 250 A. H. After 
him, his grandson Muhammad Sh&h, the son of 'Abbas 
Mirza, mounted the throne and died in 1847, when his 
son N&ftir-uddin Ahmad Shah, the present king of Persia, 
succeeded him. 

Aka Hazi, u** J '> a poet of Persia, who rame to India, 
and after his return home, died in 1615 A. D., 1024 A. H. 

Aka Rihi, of Nishapur, an author. 

Akbarabadi MahaU, <J** (S^jf*> A'azz-un-NisaBe- 
gam, was the name of one of the wives of the emperor 
Shah Jahan. The large rod stono mosque at Faigbazar 
in Dihlf was built by her in the year A. D. 1661, 1060 
A. H M at a cost of 160,000 Rupees. She died on the 29th 
January, 1677 A. D n 4th Zil-bijja, 1087 A. H., in the reign 
of 'Alamgfr. There is also a masjid inside the city of 
Agra built by her, called Akbarabadi Masjid. She had 
a villa also built at Agra. 

Akbar Ali Tashbihi, «^t*f^^-r^^ He is men- 
tioned in the Khula§at-ul-Ash'ar to have been the son 
of a washerman. He went to India, and turned fakir, but 
as he was an infidel, his ascetic exorcises cannot have 
been of much use to his soul. He left a diwan of 
about 8000 verses, and a maanawf, called "3arra wa 
Khurshed". He was alive in 1585 A. P., 993 A. H. 
Regarding this poet vid$ Kin Translation, I, 596.] 

Akbar Khan, the son of Dost Muhammad Khan, ruler of 
Kabul by his first wife. He shot Sir W. U. Macnagh- 
ten on the 26th December, 1841, when his father Dost 
Muhammad Khan was a State prisoner in India, When 
his father Dost Muhammad Khan came in possession 
of Kabul after the retreat of the English in 1842, he 
was appointed heir-apparent in preference to Muhammad 
Afgal Khan, his eldest son by his second wife. He died in 
1848, when his full brother Ghulam rjaidar Khan was no- 
minated heir-apparent, after whose death, in 1858, Sher 
'Ali his brother, the present Amir, was nominated. 

Akbar. (Prince) the youngest son of the emperor 'Alamgfr, 
was born on the 10th September, 1657, O. S., 11th #1- 
biija, 1067 A. IL, raised the standard of rebellion against 
his father, and joined tho Mara^ha chief Sambhuji in 
June 1681. He afterwards quitted his court* and repaired 
to Persia, where he died in 1706, 1118 A. H., a few 
months before his father, and was buried at Mashhad in 
Khurasan. 'Alamgfr, at one time, intended to make Akbar 
his successor, and this preference arose from Akbar being 
the son of a Muhammadan mother, the daughter of Shah 
N a wax Khan ; whereas his brothers Sultans Mu'a^am and 
A'jam were born of Rajput princesses. 

Akbar Shah, i~j&, *** Great » « n P eror of Hindustan, 
suroamed Abul-Fatb Jalal-uddin Muhammad, was the 
eldest son of the emperor Humayun, and was born in 
Amarkot in the province of Sindh on Sunday the 16th Octo- 
ber 1542 A. D., 6th Hajab, 949 A. U., at a time when his 
father, after being defeated by Sher Shah, had taken refuse 
with Bana Prafthad. At the time of his father's death, 
Akbar was at Kalanur, where he had been deputed by his 
father with a cousidi«rable force to expel the ex-ldng Sikan- 
dar Shah Sur from the Siwalik mountains. When infer* 



mation reached the prince of this mournful event, Bairam 
Khan, and other officers who were present, raised him to 
the throne on Friday, 14th February, 1556, A D., 2nd 
Babf II, 963 A. H., Akbar being then only 13 years and 9 
months old. He enlarged his dominions by the conquest 
of Uujrat, Bengal, Kashmir, and Sindh. Besides the forts 
of A{ak, Agra, and Allahabad, many military works were 
erected by him. He also built and fortified the town of 
Fatbpur Sikri, which was his principal residence, and which, 
though now deserted, is one of the most splendid remains 
of former grandeur of India. Ho died after a prosperous 
reign of 51 lunar years and 9 months on Wednesday, the 
16th October, 1605, Old Style, 13th Jumada II, 1014 
A. H., aged 64 lunar years and 11 months. The words 
" Faut-i- Akbar Shah," (the death of Akbar Shah) am 
the chronogram of his death. He was buried in the village 
of Sikandra in the environs of Agra, where a splendid 
mausoleum was built over his remains by his son Jahangir, 
which is still in a high state of preservation. He received 
after his death the title of ** Arsh-'Ashyanf," and was 
succeeded by his son Sultan Salfm, who assumed the title 
of Jahangir. His mother's name was fjamida Band, com- 
monly called Maryam-Makani The history of this poten- 
tate has been written, with great elegance and precision 
by his wazir Abul-Fasl, in a work, entitled the *' Akbar- 
nama." In order to keep his turbulent U maris, Turks, 
and Afghans, in check, Hindu chiefs were encouraged by 
Akbar, and entrusted with the highest powers, both 
military and civil, as was the case with Raja Maldeo of 
Marwar* Bhagwan Das of Amber, Man Singh, his son, and 
Raja Todar Mai. He also connected himself and his 
sons with them by marriage. Both Akbar and his suc- 
cessor, Jahangir, had amongst their wives several of 
Hindu origin. Towards the middle of his reign, Akbar 
became dissatisfied with the Muhammadan religion, and 
invited to his court teachers of the Christian, Hindu, 
and Parsi religions, and took an interest in their discus- 
sions. He adopted, however, neither, but attempted to 
found a new system of belief, called ' Dfn-i-Hahi', which 
acknowledged one God, and the king as his vicegerent. 

Akbar Shah II, ^ fejpl, kin g °* I)ihl i wn08 ° titl ° 

in full is Abul-Nasr Mu'in-uddin Muhammad Akbar Shah, 
was the son of the nominal emperor Shah 'Alam ; was 
born on Wednesday, 23rd April, 1760, New Style, 7th 
Pitman, 1173 H., and succeeded his father at the age of 48, 
on the 19th of November, 1806 A. D., 7th Ramazan, 1221 
H., as titular king of Dihlf. On his accession he made some 
weak attempts to increase his influence and power. These 
were properly resisted, but at the same time the pledge 
given by Lord Wellesley, to increase the allowance of the 
imperial family when the revenue of the country improved, 
was redeemed by an act of politic liberality. An augmen- 
tation of ten thousand rupees per mensem was appropriat- 
ed for the support of his eldest son, whom he had declared 
heir-apparent. He sat on the throne of his ancestors 
nearly 32 lunar years ; died on Friday, 28th September, 
1837, 28th Jumada II, 1253 A. H., aged about 80 lunar 
years, and was buried at Dihlf, close to the tomb of 
Bahadur Shah. His son Bahadur Shah II, the last king 
of Dihli, succeeded him. Akbar some time wrote poetry 
and used the word Shu's? for his poetical name. 

Akhfash Ausat, k»j\ J»^t was called Akh f aah, because 
he had small eyes. His proper name is Abul-Hasan Sa'id. 
He was an author and died in the year 830 A. D. 
Some say he was born at Balkh and died in 376 A. H. 
There were three persons of this name, all of whom 
were authors. Akhfaah Asghar, or the lesser, died in 845 
A.D. 

Akhtar, j*+A, tiie poetical name of Jtajf Muhammad Sadifc 
Khan, an excellent writer of prose and verse. 

Akhtar, ^t, the poetical name of Wajid 'All Shah, the 
last king of Audh, now of Garden Beach, Calcutta. 



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'AkidatKhan,^ &**&*, title of MirMahmud, brother 
of Asalat Khan Mashhadi. He came to India in the 
14th year of 'Alamgir, A. D. 1670, and was raised to the 
rank of 1,000 and 400 sawars. 

'Akil, tUas, 'Akil the brother of 'All. There is a story of 
him that being displeased with his brother * Ali the Khalifa, 
he went over to Mu'awiya, who received him with great 
kindness and respect, but desired him to curse 'Ali ; and 
as he would not admit of any refusal, 'Akil thus addressed 
the congregation : — " people ! you know that 'Ali, the son 
of Abu-Talib, is my brother : now Mu'awiya has ordered 
me to curse him ; therefore, may the curse of God be upon 
him." So that the curse would either apply to 'Ali or to 
Mu'awiya. 

Akil Khan, ^ cUIp, 'Alpl Khan, nephew of Afzal Khan 
wazir, a nobleman of 3,000, who served under the emperor 
Shah Jahan, and died A. D. 1649, 1059 A. H. 

Akil Khan, (Nawab), ^U d^ v ty, the title of Mir 'As- 
kari. He was a native of Khawaf in Khurasan, and held the 
office of wizarat in the time of the emperor ' Alamgir. Ho 
was an excellent poet ; and as he had a great respect for 
Shah Burtan-uddin, entitled Raz-i-Hahi, ho chose the word 
Razi for his poetical title. Ho is the author of several 
works, among which are a Masnawi and Diwan. He died 
A. D. 1695, 1108 A. H. Vide Razi. 

Akmal-uddin Muhammad bin-Mahmud, (Shaikh) 
author of a commentary on the Hidaya, entitled " 'Inaya" 
or 4 *al-' Inaya". There are two commentaries on the 
Hidaya, commonly known by that name, but the one much- 
esteemed for its studious analysis and interpietation of 
the text, is by this author : it was published in Calcutta 
in 1837. This author died in 1384, A. D., 786 A. H. 

'Akrima, or more correctly, 'Ikrima, A l^ p , surname of 
Abu-' Abdullah, who was a freed slave of Ibn-' Abbas, 
and became afterwards his disciple. He was one of the 
greatest lawyers. He died in the year 725 A. D. 107 

Aksir, or more correctly, Iksir (Mirza), JA i ^c\y ir S\ 
Uy°> of 1 § feh * n f author of a book of elegies. "He 
served under Nawab Nizam-ul-Mulk Asaf-Jahand Safdar- 
Jang, and died in Bengal in 1756 N. S., 1169 A. H. 

Alahdad Sarlundi, or more correctly, Ilahdad, poeti- 
cally styled Faizi, a native of Sarhind, and author of a 
Persian Dictionary called " Madar ul-Afazil". 

Regarding this dictionary and its author, 'vide Journal, 
As. Socy., Bengal, 1868, p. 10.] ' 



Al-Ahnaf, «-*^ Jl, uncle of Yazid, the second khalife of the 
house of Umayya. At the battle of Siffin he had fourfit 
on Reside of 'Ali. Several sayings of this celebrated 
chief are recorded in the Biographical Dictionary of Ibn 
Knallikan. He outlived Mu'awiya. 

Alahwirdi Khan, cA c$^ **i } or more correctlv> 

Ilahwirdi Khan, a nobleman of the reign of the 
emperor Jahangir. He was raised to the rank of 5000 
in the time of Shah Jahan, and held several offices of 
importance. He was appointed governor of Patna, and 
espoused the cause of Sultan Shuja', brother of Aiiranirzib, 
A. D. 1658 1068 A. H., and after the defeat of 8hS\ 
accompanied him to Bengal, where he was slain together^ 
71 £ £? J°Z Saif-ullah by order of that prince in July 
1659, fcl-fca'da, 1069 A- H. y 

♦i. 11 ? J?** w J rd K or "**' meana " a ro Pe"» God beine 
the habU%-mat<n t the Btrong rope which the faithful seize 
so as not to perish.] 



Alahwirdi Khan, e^ (S*D ***, or more correctly. 
Hahwirdi Khan, title of Ja'far Khan, the son of 
Ilahwirdi Khan the first He was raised to the rank of 
an amir by 'Alamgir, with the titlo of Ilahwardi Khan 
Alamgir-Shahi. He was appointed Subadar of AllahabAd, 
where he died A. D. 1669, 1079 A. H. He was an 
excellent poet and has left a diwan. 

Alahwirdi Khan *£*>^lf* &l*> ^o;j *U), r more 
correctly, Allahwirdi Khan, styled Mahabat- Jang, the 
usurper of the government of Bengal, was originally named 
Mirza Muhammad 'Ali. His father Mirza Muhammad, a 
Turkman, a officer in the service of the prince A'zam Shah, 
on the death of his patron in 1 707 A. D M falling into distress, 
moved from Dihli to Katak, the capital of Orisa, in. hope* 
of mending his fortune under Shuja' -uddin, the son-in-law 
of Nawab Murshid Kuli Ja'far Khan, Subadar of Bengal, 
who received him with kindness and after some tone 
bestowed on his son the Faujdari of lUjmaball, and pro- 
cured for him from the emperor a mansab and the title 
of Allahwardi Khan, and afterwards that of Mahabat- 
Jang. After the death of Shuja'-uddin, and the accession 
of his son Sarfaraz Khan to the government of Bengal, 
Allahwirdi contrived to murder the latter in 1740 A^T> 
1153 A. H., and usurped the government. He reigned 
sixteen years over the three provinces of Bengal, Bihar 
and Oris*, and died on Saturday, the 10th April, 1756' 
N. S., 9th Rajab, 1169 A. H., aged 80 years. He was" 
buried in Murshidabad near the tomb of his mother in 
the garden of Khush-Bagh, and was succeeded by his 
grand-nephew and grandson MindMahmud, better known 
by his assumed name of Siraj-ud-daula. It does not 
appear that Allahwirdi ever remitted any part of the reve- 
nue to Dihli. 

Alah Tar Khan, ^ J, a^ or morecom5c%i Dah 

Tar Khan, (Shaikh), son of Shaikh 'Abdus-Subhaa. was 
formerly employed by Nawab Mubaru-nl-Mnlk Sarbaland 
Khan, governor of Gujrat, and in the reign of the empe- 
ror Uarrukhsiyar was raisod to the rank of 6,000 with the 
title of Eustem Zaman Khan. In the time of the emperor 
Muhammad Shah, when Raja Abhai Singh, the son of BajS 

♦K J i 5"* \ v^t^ T\ •W"** governor of Gujrat in 
the room of Nawab Sarbaland Khan, the latter made some 
opposition to his successor ; a battle ensued, and Shaikh 
llah Tar, who was then with the nawab, was killed in 
the action. This took place on the day of Dasahrt fith 
October, 1730, O. 8., 8th Rabf H, 1H3 A. H " a8anr4 > 6tn 

Alah Tar Khan, ^ ^\ ^ j± jL ^ OT mow 

correctly, llah Tar Khan, son of Iftikhar Khin Turk- 
man, a nobleman of the court of Shah JaMn. He died 
in Bengal in A. D. 1650, 1060 A. H. 

Alah Tar Khan Mir-Tmsuk, ^j^ ^UjUJr 

T^L*! emp f° r AlaID 8 fr » **° »eld the rank of 1 600 
and died A. D. 1662, 1073 A H. ' 

Al-Amin, ^c^\ y the 6th khalifa of the house of 'Abbas, 

R^H i ^ hiS M fe ^ er Hfoun -»r-Kashid to the throne of 
Baghdid, in March, 809 A. D„ 193 A. H. Hewas no 
sooner seated on the throne than he formed adesfcn of 
excluding his brother al-Mamun from the tucEL 
Accordingly, he deprived him of the furniture > of ?S 
rial pakce of Khurasan; and in oomiUbS^SV' 
fether's will, who had bestowed «33lfaSKE 2L^ 
tual government of Khurasan and otJ^Zot" ffi 

SEES h ?r 0ldfl S d ^ /° rees to »«5X3fyto 
Baghdad. Upon the arrival of this nr*w *i lit/ > 

expost^ated w'ith the general ^OatSt^Z 



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manded his troops, and endeavoured to prevent his march- 
ing to Baghdid; but without effect, for he punctually 
obeyed the orders sent by the khalifa. Al-Fa{l having 
ingratiated himself with the khalifa by his ready compli- 
ance with his orders, was chosen prime-minister, and 
governed with absolute sway, al-Amin abandoning him- 
self entirely to drunkenness. Al-Fagl was a very able 
minister; but fearing al-Mamun's resentment, if over 
he should ascend the throne, he gave al-Amin such 
advice as proved in the end the ruin of them both. He 
advised him to deprive al-Mamun of the right of succession 
that had been given him by his father, and transfer it to 
his own son Musa, though then but an infant. Agreeable 
to this pernicious advice, the khalifa sent for his brother 
al-Kasim from Mesopotamia, and recalled al-Mimun from 
Khurasan, pretending he had occasion for him as an assist- 
ant in his councils. By this ill-treatment al-Mamun was 
so much provoked, that he resolved to come to an open rup- 
ture with his brother. A war soon after broke out be- 
tween them. Tahir ibn-Husain, the general of al-Mamun, 
laid siege to Baghdad, took it, and having seized al-Amin, 
cut off his head, and exposed it to public view in the streets 
of Baghdad. Afterwards he sent it to al-Mamun in 
Khurasan, together with the ring or seal of 'the khilifat, 
the sceptre and the imperial robe. At the sight of these, 
al-Mamun fell down on his knees, and returned thanks to 
God for his success, making the courier wjio brought 
the insignia a present of a million of dirhams. The death 
of al-Amfn took place on the 6th October, 813 A. D., 6th 
Safar, 198 A. H. He was then 30 years of age, and had 
reigned but four years and some months. 

Alamayo. (Prince} , the son of king Theodore of Abyssinia. 
After tne fall of Magdala and the death of his fattier, 10th 
April, 1868, he was sent to England to be educated. 

'Alamgir I, aU^b^xCjL^ emperor of Hindustan, surnamed 
Abul-£afar Mu^i-nddin Muhammad Aurangzib, took the 
title of * Alamgir on his accession to the throne. He was 
the third son of the emperor Shih Jahan, born on Sunday, 
10th October, 1619 O. 8., 11th &l-ka*da, 1028 H. His 
mother's name was Arjmand Binu, surnamed Mumtis- 
Maball. In his youth, he put on the appearance of religious 
sanctity, but in June, 1658, Ramgan, 1068 H., during his 
father's illness, he in conjunction with his brother Murad 
Bakhsh, seized Agra, and made his father prisoner. Murad 
was soon after imprisoned by 'Alamgir, who marched 
to Dihli, where he caused himself to be proclaimed em- 
peror on the 21st July of the same year, 1st £il*fca'da, 
1068 H., but was not crowned till the first anniversary 
of his accession, a circumstance which has introduced 
some confusion in the chronology of his reign. Soon 
after, he put Murid Bakhsh and his eldest brother the 
heir-apparent Diri Shikoh to death. He greatly en- 
larged his dominions, and became so formidable, that 
all Eastern princes sent ambassadors to him. He was 
an able prince, but a bigoted Sunnf, and attempted to 
force the Hindus to adopt that faith, destroying their 
temples, and levying the capitation tax (jizyaj from every 
Hindu. The feudatory chiefs of Rijputini successfully 
resisted the impost. He died after a reign of 60 lunar 
years at Ahmadabid in the Dmkhin, on Friday, the 21st of 
February, 1707 O. S., 28th gil-fca'da, 1118 H., aged 90 
lunar years and 17 days, and was interred in the court of 
the mausoleum of Shaikh Zain-uddin, in Khuldabad, 8 
ko$ from the city of AurangabfcL After his death, 
he received the title of " tyasrat Khuld-Makin", (i. e. 
Ho whose place is in paradise). He was married in the 
19th year of his age to a daughter of 8hihnawiz Khan, the 
son of ' Asaf Khan the prime minister of the emperor Ja- 
hingir, by whom he had 6 sons and 5 daughters. His 
eldest son, named 8ul{an Muhammad, died before his 
father; his second son was Muhammad Mu'asxam who 
succeeded him with the title of Shih ' Alain Bahadur Shall ; 
the third A'sam Shih was slain in battle fought against the 
latter ; the fourth Muhammad Akbar, who revolted against 

9 



his father, took refuge in Persia and died there ; the fifth 
Kim Bakhsh who was also slain in battle. The names 
of his 4 daughters are, — Zeb-un-Nisa, Zinut-un-Nisi, Badr- 
un-Nisi, and Mihr-un-Nisi. 

'Alamgir II. 'Aziz-uddfn, was the son of the emperor 
Jahindir Shih by Anup Bif ; was born in 1688 A. D., 
1099 A. H., and raised to the throne in the fort of 
Dihli by 'Imid-ul-Mulk Ghazf-uddin Khin the wazir, 
on 8unday the 2nd June, 1754, N. S., 10th Sha'ban. 
1167 A. H., after the deposition and imprisonment of 
Ahmad Shih, the son of the emperor Muhammad Shih. 
He was, after a nominal reign of 5 years and some 
months, assassinated by the same person who had placed 
him on the throne, on the 29th November, 1769, N. 8., 8th 
Kabi' II, 1173 H., and was interred in the platform before 
the mausoleum of the emperor Humiyun. His son 'Ali 
Gauhar (afterwards Shih 'Alam) being then in Bengal, 
Mubiy-ul-Sunnat, son of Kim Bakhsh, the son of the em- 
peror Aurangzib, was seated on the throne, with the title 
of Shah Jahan, and insulted by the empty name of em- 
peror for some months, after which on the 10th October 
1760 N. S., 29th Safar, 1174 H., the Maraftas having 
plundered Dihli, njrince Mtrzi Jawin Bakht, the son of 
'KM Gauhar, was placed on the throne by the Maratfea 
chief Bhio, as regent to his father, who was still in 
Bengal. 

Alap Arsalan, vide Alp Arsalan. 

Alaptigin or Alptigin, L&Q), one of the chief 
nobles of Bukhara, and governor of Khurasan during the 
reign of the house of Samin. Having in 962 A. D. re- 
nounced his allegiance to that court, he retired, with his 
followers, to Ghazni, then an insignificant town, to escape 
the resentment of Amir Mansur Samini, whose elevation 
to the throne he had opposed, on the ground of his ex- 
treme youth. He established a petty principality, of 
which Ghazni became the capital. He died A. D. 976, 
366 A. H., when his son Abu-Is-l?aV succeeded him ; but 
that weak and dissipated prince survived his father but a 
short time ; and the suffrage of all ranks gave the rule 
to Subiktagin, a chief in the service of Alaptigin in 
977 A. D., 367 A. H. 

Al-Aswad, *j**yi, an impostor, vide Musailama, 
'Ala-ud-daula, *}j*ll5&*, vide Ali-ud-daula. 
>Ala-ud-daula, AJjdJl^K* y?y, (Prince), the son of Bii- 

sanghar Mirsi and grandson of Shihrukh Mirzi, after 
whose death in A. D. 1447, he ascended the throne at 
Hirit, but was soon driven from it by his uncle 
Ulugh Beg. After the death of Ulugh Beg, A. D. 1449, 
he was imprisoned and blinded by his brother Sultan 
Bibar. He died in A. D. 1459, A. H. 863. 
* Ala-ud-daula, dJj*>J| ^JU wly, a Nawib of Bengal. Vide 
Sarfaris Khin, 

'Ala-ud-daula, (Mir or Mirza), fJj^Jl *& j**, 

a poet whose poetical name was KifL He is the author 
of a biography of those poets who flourished in the reign 
of the emperor Akbar. The time of his death is not 
known, but he was living at the time of the conquest of 
Chitor by Akbar in 1667 A. D., 975 A. H. There is 
some mistake in his poetical name ; he appears to be the 
same person who is mentioned under the poetical name of 
Kami, which see. 

'Ala-ud-daula Samnanl, <*&+*• aJj^Va, one of the 

chief followers of the Sufi Junaid Baghdidf. In his 
youth he served Arghun Khan, the Tartar king of 
Persia, and his uncle Sharaf-uddin Samnini was a noble- 
man at the court He died on Friday the 8th of March 
1336 A. D., 23rd Bajab, 736 A. H., aged 77 lunar years, 
six years before Khwaji Kinn&ni. 



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'Ala-uddin 



34 



'Ala-uddin 



'Ala-uddin, eH*^* * a Muhammadan prince of the 
Arsacides or Assassins, better known by the appellation of 
*• The old man of the mountains". His residence was a 
castle between Damascus and Antioch, and was surround- 
ed by a number of youths, whom he intoxicated with 
pleasures, and rendered subservient to his views, by pro- 
mising still greater voluptuousness in the next world. 
As these were employed to stab his enemies, he was 
dreaded by the neighbouring princes. Vide Hasan Sab- 
b*fc. 

>Ala-uddin (Khwaja), ^^ vidh & **ȣs 

surnamed ' AU Malik was the brother of Shams-uddin Mu- 
hammad Sa'bib, dfwan, and is the author of a history called 
" Jahankush6". 

'Ala-uddin >Ali al-Kuraishi ibn-Naflfl, lT^ ^ 

iS mjJj\ tJ* i2i*)\5^*y au *hor of the commentary termed 

4 "Mujiz-ul Kanun fil-Tibb", being an epitome of the 
canons of Avicenna. He died A. D. 1288. 

9 Ala-uddin Atsiz, >^» &i*k *J^*> *&» eonof 'AU-uddfn 
Hasan Ghorf. He defeated Bahi-uddfn Sim in 1210 A. D. 
and reigned four years in Ghor. He fell in battle against 
Taj-uddin Ddui A. D. 1214, and was the last of the longs 
of Ghor, of the family of ' AU-uddfn Hasan. 

'Ala-uddin Hasan, k£)3* cr-^ &t**l 5^> prince of 
Gh6r, entitled Jahan-s6z. His elder brother Ku^b-uddfn, 
prince of Gh6r, was publicly executed by his brother-in- 
law Bahram Shall of Ghaznf in 1119 A. D., 513 A. H. 
Saif-ud-daula brother of the deceased took possession of 
Ghaznf in 1148 A. D., 643 A. H., but afterwards was 
defeated, taken prisoner and put to death by Bahrain Shah 
in 1149 A. D., 544 A. H. When the mournful news of 
his brother's death reached 'AU-uddfn, he burnt with 
rage and being determined to take revenge, invaded Ghaznf 
with a great army. He defeated Bahrain Sh&h, who 
fled to L&hor, took possession of Ghaznf in 1162 A. D. f 674 
A. H., and gave up the city to flames, slaughter, and 
devastation for several days, on which account he is 
known by the epithet of ** Jahan-s6z," or the burner of 
the world. He carried hiB animosity so far as to destroy 
every monument of the Ghaznf emperors with the excep- 
tion of those of 8ul#n Mahmud, Mas'ud, and Ibr&hfm ; 
but he defaced all the inscriptions, even of their times, 
from every public edifice. 'AU-uddfn died in the year 
1156 A. D., 549 A. H., after a reign of 6 years, and 
was succeeded by his son Malik Saif-uddin or Saif-ud- 
daula who in little more than a year fell in battle with the 
Ghiza Turkmans. He was succeeded by his eldest cousin 
Ghiy&s-uddfn Muhammad Ghorf. 
The following is a list of the kings of Ghor : 

1. 'AU-uddfn Hasan Ghorf. 

2. Malik Saif-uddin, son of do. 

3. Ghiyaf-uddin Muhammad Ghorf, son of Bahi-uddfn 

Sam, the younger brother of 'AU-uddfn. 

4. 8hihib-uddin, brother of Ghiy&s-uddin. 

6. GhiyaVuddin Mahmud, son of Ghiya>-uddin. 

6. Baha-uddin Sam, son of Ghiyis-uddin Mahmud. 

7. Atsiz, son of Jahan-soz and last of the kings of Gh6r 
of this branch. 

'Ala-uddin (I), </+tl b&K U~^ <tf^ J**, Hasan 
Kangoh Bahmanf, the first Bahmanf king of the Dakhin. 
He was a native of Dihlf, and in the service of a 
Brahmanical astrologer named Kangoh, or Gangoh, en- 
joying high favor with the prince Muhammad Tughlu^, 
afterwards king of Dihlf. This Brahman assured Hasan 
that he perceived from his horoscope that he would 
rise to great distinction, and be eminently favored of the 
Almighty ; and made him promise that if he ever should 
attain regal power, he would use the name of Kangoh and 
employ him as his minister of finance, a request with 



which Hasanteadily complied. The governor of DanUt£b&l 
and others having revolted took possession of the place, and 
Belected Hasan (who had then the title of £afor Khan and a 
jagfr in the Dakhin) to be their king. On Friday, the 3rd 
August, 1347 A. D., 24th Babf II, 748 A. H., they crowned 
him and raised him on the throne, with the title of 'AU- 
uddfn Hasan Kangoh Bahmanf at Kulbarga, which place 
became the royal residence and capital of the first Mu- 
hammadan king of the Dakhin, ana was named Ahsan- 
6b&d. Towards the end of the reign of Muhammad 
Tughlufc of Dihlf, he subdued every part of the Dakhin 
previously subject to the throne of Dihli. The death 
of 'AU-uddfn Hasan happened 10 years, 10 months and 
7 days after his accession to the throne, about the 10th of 
February 1368 A. D., 1st Rabf I, 769 A. H. He was 
succeeded by his son Muhammad 8h4h I Bahmanf. The 
following is a list of the kings of the Bahmanf dynasty 
of Kulbarga or Ahsanibid with the years of their acces- 
sions: 

'AU-uddfn Hasan I, 748 H. t 1347 A. D. 

Muhammad Shin I, 769 H., 1368 A. D. 

Mujdhid ShAh, 776 H., 1376 A. D. 

DaudShih, 780 H., 1378 A. D. 

Mahmud Shih, 780 H., 1378 A. D. 

GhiyaVuddin, 799 H., 1397 A. D. 

Shams-uddfn, 799 H., 1397 A. D. 

Ffruz Sh£h Roz-afzun, 800 H., 1397 A. D. 

Ahmad Shdh Waif, 826 H., 1422 A. D. 

'AU-uddfn Ahmad II, 838 H., 1436 A. D. 

Humayun the cruel. 

Nizam Shah. 

Muhammad Shall II. 

Mahmud II. 

Ahmad Shah n. 

'AU-uddfn IIL 

Walf-ullah. 

Kalfm-ullah, with whom the Bahmanf dynasty termi- 
nates, and is succeeded by Amfr Barfd at Ahmadabid 
Bidar. 

'Ala-uddin II, </$ LH^ £** vUA» 9 (Sultan) son of 

Sultan Ahmad Sh&h Waif Bahmanf, ascended the throne 
at Ahmad&bad Bidar in the Dakhin, in the month of 
February 1436 A. D., 838 A. H., and died after a reign 
of 23 years, 9 months and 20 days in the year 1467 
A. D., 862 A. H. He was succeeded by son HunUyun, 
a cruel prince. 

'Ala-uddin KTiilji, ,j6j*&» ^^ &*h$%* ejlfcJL, 

(Sultan) styled Sikandar-i-§anf, 'the second Alexander' 
was the nephew and son-in-law of Sultan Jalal-uddin Firuz 
Sh£h Khiljf, whom he murdered at Kara-Manikpur in the 
province of AlUhaMd on the 29th July, 1296 A. D., 17th 
Kamazan, 695 A. H., and marching thence with his army 
ascended the throne of Dihlf in the month of October the 
same year, gil-fcijja, 696 A. H„ after having defeated and 
removed Rukn-uddfn IbrAhfm, the son of Finis Shah. He 
was the first Musalman king who made an attempt to con- 
quer the Dakhin. He took the fort of Chftor in August, 1303 
A. D., 3rd Midiarram, 703 H. It is said that the empire 
never flourished so much as in his reign. Palaces, mosques, 
universities, baths, mausolea, forts and all kinds of public 
and private buildings, seemed to rise as if by magic Among 
the poets of his reign, we may record the names of Amfr 
Khusrau, Khwaja Hasan, Sadr-uddfn 'Alf, Fakhr-uddfn 
KhawaV Hamid-uddin Raja\ Maulin* 'Arif, 'Abdul-tfakfm 
and Shihab-uddfn Sadr-Nishin. In poetry Amfr Khusrau 
and Khwaja Hasan had the first rank. In philosophy and 
phasic, Maulana Badr-uddfn D&mishk;f. In divinity, Man* 
Una Shitabi. In astrology, Shaikh Nizam-uddin Auliya* 
acquired much fame. 'Ala-uddin died, according to Fi- 
rishta, on the 6th Shawwil, 716 A. H. (or 19th December, 
1316 A* D.) after having reigned more than 20 years. 
He was buried in the tomb which he had constructed in 



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'Ala*uddin 



35 



Al-Bukhari 



bis life-time near the Mawhir Masjid in Old Dihli. Amir 
Khusrau in that part of his Diwan, called "Bajpya-i- 
NaViya" says that he died on the 6th Shawwil, 716 H., t. «. 
about the 30th December 1315 A. D. After his death. 
Malik Niib Rifdr, one of the eunuchs of the king, placed 
his youngest son Sultan Shihib-uddin 'Umar, who was then 
only seven years old, on the throne. After a short time, 
however, the eunuch Kifdr was slain, and Shihib-uddin was 
set aside, and his elder brother Mubarak Khan under the 
title of Mubirik Shih ascended the throne on the 1st April, 
1316 A. D., 7th Muharram, 716 H. but according to Fi- 
rishtain 1317. It was the boast of 'Ali-uddin, that he had 
destroyed one thousand temples in Baniras alone. He is 
best known now by the beautiful gateway to the Kutb 
Mosque and the unfinished tower by which he hoped to 
rival the Kutb Minir. 
> Ala-uddin 'Imad Shah, »^U* ^^1*^, succeeded to 
the government of Barir in tho Dakhin after the death 
of his father Fatlj-ullah 'Imid Shih about the year 1513 
A. D., and following the example of other chiefs of the 
house of Bahmanf, declared himself king of Barar, and 
established his royal residence at Gawal. He contracted 
an alliance by marriage with the sister of Ismi'il ' Adil 
Shih, named Khadfla, in 1628 A. D., 936 A. H., and 
died some time about the year 1632 A. D., 939 A. H. He 
was succeeded by his son Darya" 'I mid Shih. 

'Ala-uddin Kaikubad, a 1 *^ e^t J*K (Sultan) a 
prince of the Saljufcian dynasty. When Sultan Malik- 
Shih conquered Rum or Anatolia in Asiatic Turkey, 
he conferred on Sulaiman the son of Kutlumish that 
kingdom, whose descendants reigned there till the time of 
Abiki Xliin, the Tartar king of Persia. 'Ali-uddin 
Kaifcubid was a descendant of Sulaiman Shih and died 
about the year 1239 A. D., 637 A. H. ; vide Sulaimin bin- 
Kutlumish. 

9 Ala-uddin Majrab, V>F* u****** ^ (8***) * 
Muhammadan saint of Agra, commonly called Shih 'Ali- 
wal Baliwal, son of Sayyid 8ulaimin. He died in the 
beginning of tho reign of Islim Shih, son of 8her Shih 
in the year 1546 A. D., 953 A. H. His tomb is in Agra 
at a place called Nif-ki Manfli, where crowds of Musal- 
mins assemble every year to worship it. The adjacent 
mosque has sunk into the ground to the spring of the 
arches. 

'Ala-uddin Manhid, *j*~* «***" 5*^> Sultin of Dihli, 

was the son of Sultin Rukn-uddin Ffrds, and grandson of 
Shams-uddin ntitmish, was raised to the throne of Dihli 
after the murder of Bahrim Shih in May, 1242 A. D., 
£il-fra*da, 639 A. H. He died on the 10th June, 1246 
A. D., 23rd Muharram, 644 H., after a reign of four 
years, and was succeeded by his brother (or uncle) Sul$in 
Nisir-uddfn Mahmtid. 

> Ala-uddin Muhammad al-Samarkandi, (S*** 
j+~*\ ^*JI *yl* ****, (Shaikh) author of a compen- 
dium of Al-Kuduri'a Mukhta&ir, which he entitled the 
" Tuhfat-ul-Fukahi. M This work was commented upon by 
his pupil Abu-Bakr bin-Mas'ud al-Kishini. who died in 
1 191 A. D., 687 A. H. This comment is entitled al-Badii 
as-§anii*. 

^Ala-uddin Ali Shah, t^^* vi^'j**, »°ng <* West- 
ern Bengal. He usurped the government of that country 
after defeating Fakhr-uddin Mubirak Shih and was assas- 
sinated about 746 A H. by the instigation of Khwwja 
Hyia, who succeeded him under the title of Shams-uddin 
Dyis Shah.] 

'Ala-uddin Husain Shah, sU c *~a> vi±i\ ^U, tog 
of Bengal He was the son of Sayyid Ashra^ and after 
defeating Mufaffar 8hih at Oaur in 899 A. H., ascended 



the throne of Bengal. He reigned with justice for a 
considerably longer period than any of his predecessors 
until the year 1521 A. D., 927 A H. when he died a 
natural death, after a reign of 28 years, His son Nusrat 
Shih succeeded him. 

>Ala-uddin (Sultan), ub*^ vi^W' «/"-, a king 
of the race of Saljuk, who reigned in lconium, and died in 
the year 1301 A. D., 700 A. H. 

'Ala-uddin (Sultan), JUj |l£jb ui*l\'jl* J*A~, 

the last king of Dihli of the Sayyid dynasty, succeeded his 
father Sultin Muhammad Shih to the throne in January ' 
1446 A. D., Shawwil, 849 A H. Bahl61 Lodi in 1461, 865 
A H., at the instigation of IJamid Khin wasir, took 
possession of Dihli daring the absence of the king who 
was then at Badion. 'AU-uddin continued to reside at 
Badion unmolested till his death, which happened in the 
year 1478 A. D., 883 A. H. His reign at Dihli being 
about six years, and his government of Badaon 28 years. 

' Ala-uddin (Sayyid), of Oadh, whose poetical name was 
Wasili, is the author of a Tarjf band, commonly called 
" Miinn^imin," with which word it commences. He was 
s native of Khurisin, came to India about the year 1300 
A. D., became a disciple of Nisim-uddin Auliyi and fixed 
his residence in Oudh. 

'Ala-uddin Takaah, J&£ ^t^y*, a Sultin of Khwi- 
rism, eufcTakash. 

9 Ala-ul-mulk Kotwal, J\y^^JjJ\^ *Sl* $ (Malik). 

He served under Sultin 'Ali-uddin Khilji, king of Dihli, 
and was the uncle of Ziyi-uddin Barni, the author of the 
" Tirikh Firds-Shihi." He was then very old and so fat 
that he was not able to attend the court more than once 
a month. He was living in A. D. 1300, 699 A H. 

'Al-AsizBillah Abu-al-Mansur Tarar, jjhr**JbA 

t^.yij*)), gon of Mu'izz-ud.din-allah, second khalifa of 
Egypt of the Fatimite dynasty, succeeded his father 
in A. D. 976, and committed the management of affairs 
entirely to the care of Jauhar or Ja'far, his father's 
long-experienced general and prime-minister. This famous 
warrior after several battles with Al-Aftakfn, the amir 
of Damascus and the Karmatians, died in 990 A. D., 
381 A H. 'Al-Azis died in his way to 8yria in the 21st 
year of his reign and 42nd of his age and was succeeded 
by his son Abul-Mansur. 

Al-Baghawi, 45^**^, *** Abul-Faraj-al-Baghawi and 
Abti-Moh ammad Farrii ibn-Mas'tid al-Baghawi 

Al-Batani, *^l, commonly called by European writers 
Albategnius, was an Arabian astronomer who wrote a 
treatise on the knowledge and the obliquity of the Zodiac 
of the stars. He died in 929. He greatly reformed 
astronomy, comparing his own observations with those of 
Ptolemy. This book was printed at Nuremberg, in 1637, 
4to., and at Bologna in 1645. He died A. D. 929. 

Al-Biruni, i^Jt/U an Arabian author whose original work, 
entitled " Tirikh Hind", was compiled in India in about 
A D. 1030-33. See Abu-Raisin. 

Al-Bukhari, tSj^t, who receded this name from Bu- 
khiri, the place of his birth or his chief residence, was a 
famous lawyer by name of Muhammad Ismi'il. His collec- 
tion of traditions on the Muhammadan religion, commonly 
called §a|nVul-Bukhiri, " °* **"> g^ea*?** authority of all 
that have ever been made ; he called it " Al-SaJnV' i. e, 
genuine, because he separated the spurious ones from those 
that were authentic. He says, ho has selected 7,276 of the 
most authentic traditions out of 10,000, all of which he 
looked upon to be true, having rejected 200,000 as false. 
He died at Bukhara in the year 870 A. D., 266 A H. 
Vuk Muhammad Ismi'il Bukhari 



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Al-Dawani 



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>A1i 



Al-Dawani, vide Dawani. 

*Ali, v^^l &\ fj^, »on of Abu-Tflify wa* &e cousin 

and son-in-law of Muhammad. He was born 23 years 
before the Hijri, i*. *., in the year 599 A. D., at the 
very temple itself. His mother's name was Fatima, 
daughter of Asad the son of Hashim. After the death 
of Muhammad, he was opposed in his attempts to suc- 
ceed the prophet by 'Usman and 'Umar, and retired 
into Arabia where his mild and enlarged interpretation 
of the Kuran, increased the number of his proselytes. 
After the death of 'Usman, the 3rd khalifa, he was acknow- 
ledged khalifa by the Egyptians and Arabians in July, 
655 A. D., but in less than 5 years after, he was compelled 
to resign that title, and Mu'aViya was proclaimed khalifa 
at Damascus. 'Ali was subsequently wounded by 'Abdur- 
Rahm&n ibn-Muljim in a mosque at Kufa, whilst engaged 
in his evening prayers, on Friday, the 22nd January, 661, 
A. D., 17th Ramazan, 40 A. H., and died four days after. 
'All after the decease of his beloved Fatima, the daughter 
of the prophet, claimed the privilege of polygamy, and 
had 1 8 sons and 1 8 daughters. The most renowned of them 
are the two sons of Fatima, viz., Hasan and Husain, as 
also Muhammad Hanif, by another wife. Among the 
many surnames, or honorable titles bestowed upon 'All, 
are the following — Wasi' which signifies "legatee and 
heir;" Murtaza, ''beloved by God;" Asad-ullah-ul-Ghilib, 
a the victorious lion of God ;" IJaidar, a " lion ;" Shall 
Mardan, "king of men;" Sher Khuda, "the lion of 
God." His memory is still held in the highest venera- 
tion by the Muhammadans, who say that he was the first 
that embraced their religion. They say, moreover, that 
Muhammad, talking of him, said, " 'AH is for me and I am 
for him ; he stands to me in the same rank as Aaron did 
to Moses ; I am the town in which all knowledge is shut 
up, and he is the gate of it." However, these great eulo- 
gies did not hinder his name, and that of all his family, 
from being cursed, and their persons from being excom- 
municated through all the mosques of the empire of the 
khalifas of the house of Umayya, from Mu'awiya down 
to the time of 'Umar ibn-'Abdul-'Aziz, who suppressed 
the solemn malediction. There were besides several kha- 
lifas of the house of 'A^bas, who expressed a great 
aversion to 'Ali and all his posterity ; such as Mu'tagid 
and Mutawakkil. On the other hand, the F&timite kha- 
lifas of Egypt caused his name to be added to that of 
Muhammad in the call to prayer, (azdnj which is 
chaunted from the turrets of the mosques. He is the 
first of the twelve Imams, eleven of whom were his des- 
cendants. Their names are as follows ; 

1. 'Ali, the son of Abu-Talib. 

2. Imam Hasan, eldest son of 'Ali. 



Husain, second son of 'Ali. 
Zain-ul-'Xbidin, son of Husain. 
Muhammad BAkir, son of Zain-ul-'Xbidin. 
Ja'far Sidik, son of Muhammad Balpr. 
Musa Kdzim, son of Ja'far Sddik. 
Ali Musa Raga, son of Musa Kazim. 
Muhammad Talf i, son of Musa Raza\ 
'Ali Nalff, son of Muhammad Ta^L 
Hasan 'Askari, son of 'Ali Nalp. 
Mahdi, son of Hasan 'Askari. 



S. 

4. 

5. 

6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 

As to the place of Alf e burial, authors differ ; but tne 
most probable opinion is, that he was buried in that 
place which is now called Najaf Ashraf in Kufa, and this 
is visited by the Muhammadans as his tomb. 

The followers of 'Ali are called Shfas, which signifies 
sectaries or adherents in general, a term first used about 
the fourth century of the Hijra. 

'Ali is reputed the author of several works in Arabic, 
particularly a collection of one hundred sentences (para- 
phrased in Persian by Bashid-uddin Watwa^), and a 
Diwan of didactic poems, often read in Madrasahs. 

In mentioning Alf s name, the Shi' a use the phrase 



" 'alaihi as-salam, " which is used after the names of pro- 
phets ; the Sunnis say, " karrama allahu wajhahu," * may 
God honor his face.* 

•Ali, ijj? J*jfi U* *+** O* J*, son of Ahmad bin-Abu- 
Bakr Kuff, a resident of Uch and author of the history of 
Sindh in Arabic called " Tufcfat-ul-Kiram". This work 
was translated into Persian and called " Ohich Kama", a 
translation of which was made in English by Lieutenant 
Postans and published in the Journal of the Asiatic So- 
ciety in 1838. 

'Ali, c5 Aak ^J-M^ f *+**&! (J*, son of Ahmad, com- 
monly called W&ydi, was an Arabian author who wrote 
three Commentaries, viz. : " WaarV' " Zakir", and ** Ba- 
sit", and also "Kitab Nuzul". He died in 1075 A. D. t 
468 A. H. 

'Ali, ?>^ etf \J* 9 son of JffanU, author of the "Taxfkh 
Isfohini". 

'Ali, **l* V±~*> erf iJ*, son of Husain Wtf? Kashifi, 
the famous writer of the Anw&r-i-Sohaili, author of the 
work called " LatAif-uz-^araif", containing the anecdotes 
of Muhammad, of the twelve Imams, of the ancient kings 
of Persia, and of various other persons. He is also the 
author of another work entitled " Rush^it", containing 
the Memoirs of the Sufi Shaikhs of the Nakshbandi order. 
'Ali died in 1532 A. D., 939 A. H. He is also called 
'Ali Waez. Vide Safi-uddin Muhammad. 

'Ali, i£*?**J* **=* erf t5^, son of Muhammad Kusanji, 

an astronomer, and author of the " Sharb-ul-Jadid", the 
new commentary. He died A. D. 1474, 879 A. H. 

'Ali, eA^l^ «/K son of 'Usman Gilanf, author of the 
" Kashf-ul-Mabjub", containing a minute description of 
the twelve orders of Sufis. &c., written in 1499 A. D., 905 
A. H. He is also called Pir 'Ali Hajwiri. 

'Ali, er^ty ^V 5 ^^, surnamod Abul-Hasan, vide 

Abul-Hasan 'Ali. 
'Ali, \J*J*& X" o^** <J*, the poetical name of Mulli 

Naar 'Ali, which see. 
'All, c$**, the poetical name of a poet who converted the 

Ghazals of IJaMlz into Mukhammas. 

>Ali 'Adil Shah I, (SJJi 1 ** * U Jt^iJ*, of Bijapur, 
surnamed Abul-Mu?afFar, succeeded to the throne of that 
kingdom after the death of his father Ibrahim 'Adil Shall 
I, in 1558 A. D., 965 A. H. He reigned about 22 lunar 
years, and, as he had no son, he appointed in the year 
1579 A. D. his nephew, Ibrahim, son of his brother Tah- 
masp, his successor ; and tho following year on the night 
of Thursday the 10th of April, 1580, 23rd Safer, 988 A. BU 
he was assassinated by a young eunuch. He was buried 
in the city of Bijapur, where his tomb or mausoleum 
is called by the people, " Rauza 'Ali.*' 
Vide Ain Translation, I, 466.] 

>Ali 'Adil Shah II, (Sjji^ ^ *& J^ J*, of 
Bijaptir, succeeded his father Muhammad 'Adil Shin in 
his childhood in November, 1656 A. D., Muharram, 1067 
H., and was unable to remedy the disorders which had 
occurred in his kingdom, bv the rebellion of the celebra- 
ted Marhatta chief 8ewaj% who had possessed himself of 
all the strongholds in the Kokan country, and erected 
several new forts. Under pretence of making his sub- 
missions to the Sultan, he begged an interview with the 
Bijapur general, Afzal Khan, whom he treacherously 
stabbed in an embrace. Rustam Khan was afterwards 
sent against him, and defeated. 'Ali 'Adil Shah died in 



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the year 1672 A. D., 1083 A. H. after a turbulent reign 
of 1 1 or 12 years. He was succeeded by his son Sikandar 
»Adil 8hah. 



'AH Ahmad, *♦*' ^ £*~, (Shaikh) the son of Shaikh 
Husain Na^ahf, a learned man and engraver who died 
suddenly on hearing a verse of the poet Khwaja Hasan of 
Dihli repeated in the presence of the emperor Jahangir 
An the ]3th of April, 1609 O. 8., 18th Muharram, 1018 H. 

•All Akbar, j& 4/**> the eldest son of Imam Husain, 

killed in battle together with his father on the 10th Octo- 
ber, 680 A. D. 

9 AM Akbar, j& uK author of the work called " Majma*- 
ul-Aulia", containing a detailed account of all the Mu- 
hammadan saints, dedicated to the emperor Shah Jahan 
who was a great admirer of saints, A. D. 16*28, 1038 A. H. 

'All Akbar, iS ^ V 1 ^ <J*> of Allahabad, author of 
tho "Fasul Akbarf", and "Usui Akbarf, and several 
other works. 

'AH Asghar, ^k f e\ K J^ > proper name of Imam Zain-ul- 
'Xbidin, which see. 

'AH Asghar* tftffj*** is**, of Kanauj, author of a 
commentary on the Kuran called " Sawakib-ut-Tanair. 
He died in the year 1727 A. D., 1140 A. H. 

'AH Bae, <S^- «/*** (whose name is spelt in our English 

Biographical Dictionaries AH Bey) was a native of Nato- 
lia, son of a Greek priest. In his 1 3th year he was carried 
away by some robbers as he was hunting, and sold to 
Ibrahim, a lieutenant of the Janissaries, at Grand Cairo, 
who treated him with kindness. • AH distinguished himself 
against the Arabs, but when his patron was basely assas- 
sinated in 1768, by Ibrahim the Circassian, he avenged his 
death, and slew the murderer with his own hand. This 
violent measure raised him enemies, and his flight to 
Jerusalem and to Ptolemais or Acre with difficulty saved 
him from the resentment of the Ottoman Porte, that had 
demanded his head. Time, however, paved the way to 
his elevation. Those who had espoused the cause of the 
Circassian were sacrificed to the public safety ; and 'AH 
recalled by the public voice, governed the country with 
benevolence and equity. In a battle fought against a re- 
bellious Mamltik to whom he had entrusted part of his 
army, 'AH saw some of his troops desert, and unwilling 
to survive a defeat, he defended himself with the fury 
of a Hon, till he was cut down by a sabre and carried 
to the conqueror's tent, where eight days after he expired 
of his wounds, April 21st, 1773, in his 45th year, and left 
behind him a character unrivalled for excellence, for 
courage, and magnanimity, * 

'AH Bae, </*** </K the titles by which he was known in 
the Muhammadan countries, were, al Amfr, al-Hakim, al- 
Fatfh, al-Sharif, al-HaJ 'AH Bae ibn Usman Bae al-Abbas, 
Khidim Baitulllh al-Harim, t. *. the prince, the learned, 
doctor of ihe law, of the blood of Muhammad, pilgrim, 
'AH Bae, son of Usman Bio, of the race of the Abbasidesi, 
servant of the house of God. He was master of the 
Arabic language, and had carefully studied the mathema- 
tical and natural branches of science and knowledge. It 
was in 1802 that he visited England. In June 1803 he 
•ailed from Spain to Morocco, and travelled through Tri- 
poli, Cyprus, Egypt, Arabia, Syria, and Turkey, and wrote 
a history of his travels, which was translated into Eng- 
lish and published in London in the year 1816, entitled 
"The Travels of 'AH Bie." In his visit to the isle of Cy- 
prus he surveyed some curious remains of antiquity that 
have been usually overlooked. Having been admitted 
in his character of a Muhammadan prince to sweep the 
interior of the Ka'ba at Mecca, the most sacred office that 

10 



a Musalman can perform, and to visit it repeatedly, he 
has given, from personal inspection a more minute and 
exact account of the temple of Mecca than other travellers 
could lay before the public. His notice of the venerated 
mountain beyond Mecca, the last and principal object of 
the pilgrimage to that city, and his description of the in- 
terior of the Temple of Jerusalem, which no Christian is 
permitted to enter, is said to contain much new informa- 
tion. 

'AH Bahadur, >>*tf i^*^J> Nawdb of Banda, eldest 
son of Shamsher Bahadur I, and grandson of the Mar- 
hatta chief Bajf Rio Peshwa I. He received the inves- 
titure of Bundelkhand from Nana* Farnawis, the Puna 
minister, about the year 1790 A. D. and accompanied by 
his brother Ghanf Bahadur, and supported by a powerful 
army, invaded Bundelkhand, but was opposed by Nana • 
Arjun, (the guardian of Bakhat Singh a descendant of 
Raja" Chatursal) who falling in the contest, and Raji Ba- 
khat 8ingh being taken prisoner, AH Bahadur acquired 
the whole of that part of the raj of Banda which belonged 
to Bakhat Singh and all the raj of Panna. Ho reigned 
about 11 or 12 years, and as at the time of his death, 
which happened in 1801 or 1802 A. D., his eldest son 
Shamsher Bahadur II was absent at Puna, his voungest 
son Zulfikir AH was proclaimed (in violation of the title 
of his eldest brother) as his successor by his uncle Ghanf 
Bahadur and his Diwan Himmat Bahadur Goshiin. 
Ghanf Bahadur, however, was soon after expeUed by 
Shamsher Bahadur who took possession of the raj. 

'AH Bahadur Khan, c/±j* ^ <J*, the last Nawab of 
Banda and son of Zulfikar AH Khan Bahadur. He is 
the author of a dfwan and a masnawi called "Mehr- 
ullah." He was removed for alleged compHcitv in the 
rebelHon of 1867. F J 

'AH Barid I, *ij> ,J*, succeeded his fether Amfr Barfd 
to the throne of AhmadBbad Bidar in the Dakhan in the 
year 1542 A. D. and was the first of this family who as- 
sumed royalty. He died after a reign of more than 20 
years in 1562 A. D., 970 A. H. and was succeeded by his 
son Ibrahim Barid. 

'All Barid II, succeeded his father Kasim Barfd II in the 
government of Ahmadabid Bidar in 1572 A. D. and was 
deposed in 1609 by his relative Amfr Barid II, who suc- 
ceeded him, and was tho last of this dynasty. 

'AH Beg, JoJ^ a Pole, bom of Christian parenta. When 

young he was made prisoner by the Tartars and sold to 
the Turks, who educated him in the Muhammadan faith. 
He rose in the Turkish court, and was appointed inter- 
preter to the Grand Signior, and translated the Bible and 
the English Catechism into tho Turkish language. His 
great work is on the Hturgy of the Turks, their pilgrimages 
to Mecca, and other religious ceremonies, translated into 
Latin by Dr. Smith. He died 1675 A. D. 

'AH Beg, (Mirza), «.£aj ^U fj^ a native of Badakhshan 
who held a high rank in the service of the emperor Akbar • 
and was honored with the office of 4,000 in the reign of 
Jahangir. He accompanied the emperor one day to visit 
the shrine of the celebrated saint, Shaikh Mam-uddfn 
Chishti at Ajmir, and happening to see the tomb of 
Shanbas Khan Kambu, he embraced it, and crying out 
with a loud voice, that, " he, when Hving, was one of his 
oldest and best friends," gave up the ghost This hap- 
pened on the 11th of March, 1616 O. 8., 2nd Rabi I, 1025 
A H. 

'AH bin al-Husain al-Masa'ndi al-HudaiH,^ &L-* 
CJ*-»*n erf i^*, ***• &r-»med %utnor ^ ^ h^.^ 
Zahab, and who has been, with some justice, termed the 
Herodotus of the East, was also a writer on the Shia* 
traditions. He died in 957 A. D., 346 A H. 



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»AU 



'AH Boya op Ali ibn Boya, *£^*> entitled Imad-ud- 
daula, the first of a race of kings of Fare and 'Irafc. The 
flatterers of this family, which is called Dilami or Di&lima 
(from the name of their native village, Dilam) and B6ya or 
Buyites (from that of one of their ancestors named B6ya), 
trace their descent to the ancient kings of Persia : but 
the first of this race that history notices, was a fisherman 
of Dilam whose name was B6ya. His eldest son, 'All 
Boya, was employed by a governor of his native country 
named Murawij, and was in the command of the chief 
part of his army, with which he encountered and defeated 
Yakut, the governor of Isfahan, and by the immense 
plunder that he obtained from that victory, he became at 
once a leader of reputation and of power. He pursued 
Yakut into Fars, defeated him again, and took possession 
of the whole of that province as well as those of Kirman, 
Khuzistan and 'Irak in 933 A. D., 321 A. H. This chief 
was afterwards tempted, by the weak and distracted state 
of the Khilafat or Caliphate, to a still higher enterprize : 
accompanied by his two brothers, Hasan and Ahmad, he 
marched to Baghdad. The Khalif al-Razi Billah fled, 
but was soon induced to return : and his first act was to 
heap honors on those who had taken possession of his 
capital. 'Ali Boya, on agreeing to pay annually 600,000 
dinars of gold, was appointed viceroy of Fars and 'Irak 
with the rank of Amir-ul-Umra, and the title of 'Inwd- 
ud-daula. His younger brother Ahmad, received the 
title of Maizz-ud-daula, and was nominated wazir to the 
khalif. Hasan, who was his second brother, received the 
title of Rukn-ud-daula, and acted, during the life of Ali 
B6ya, under that chief. Ali B6ya fixed his residence at 
Shiraz, and died on Sunday the 11th November, 949 A. D., 
16th Jamad I, 338 H., much regretted by his soldiers and 
subjects. He was succeeded by his brother Rukn-ud- 
daula. 

Sultans of the race of Boya who reigned 108 lunar years 
in Persia: 
'Im&d-ud-daula 'Ali B6ya; Maizz-ud-daula Ahmad; 

Rukn-ud-daula Hasan, sons of B6ya. 
Azd-ud-daula ; Mouyyad-ud-daula ; Fakhr-ud-daula Abul 

Hasan, sons of Rukn-ud-daula. 
Majd-ud-daula, son of Fakhr-ud-daula. 
Izz-ud-daula Bakhtyar, son of Maizz-ud-daula. 

>Ali Durdazd, <fMj~tejA dj J* Mf^o, (Moutfna) 

of Astarabad. A poet who was cotemporary with Katibf 
Tarshizf who died in A. D. 1435, 840 A. H. He is the 
author of a diwan. He was living in A. D. 1436, in which 
year his wife died, on which account he wrote a beautiful 
elegy. 

'AH Ghulam Astarabadi, <s*tfj»*\ C^iJ*} a poet 
who served under the kings of Dakhin and was living 
in 1565 A. D., 972 A. H., in which year Ramraj the raja 
of Bijanagar was defeated and shun in a battle against 
the Muhammadan princes of Dakhin, of which event he 
wrote a chronogram. 

'AH Hamdani, is>**+* J**, vide Sayyid 'Ali Hamdanf. 

'AH Hamza, *y+*H£^, author of the " JawaTnr-ul-AsraY', 
a commentary on the abstruse meaning of the verses of 
the Imuran &c, being an abridgment of the " Miftah-ul- 
Asrar", written in 1436 A. D. 'Ali Hamza's poetical name 
is 'Azuri, which see. 

'AH Hazin, i^}*- ^* (Shaikh Muhammad) vide Hazin. 

'Ali ibn Isa, &•*¥ etf I <^>, general of the khalif al- 
Amin, killed in battle against Tahir ibn Husain, the gen* 
eral of the khalif al-Mamun in the year 811 A. D., 195 
A H., and his head sent as a present to the khalif. 

?4U ibn ul-Bijal, d^ i^l </*, author of the Arabic 
work on astronomy called " Albara' ahkam Najum," 



'Ali Ibrahim Khan, c/^ f* A !/?' tj*> a native judge of 
Banaras who is the author of 28 mans and several other 
works and a tazkira or biography of Urdu poets which 
he wrote about the year 1782 A D., 1196 H. His poetical 
name is Khalil. 

'Ali Jah, »^ J*, the eldest son of the Nizam of Haidara- 
bad. He rebelled against his father in June 1795 A D. 
was defeated and made prisoner, and died shortly after. 

'Ali Kusanji, if*^*^* (Multt) vide Mulla'Alf SusanjL 

'Ali Kusanji, iS^J* %^*> (Mulla) author of the " Sharah 
Tajrid", and'Hashia Kashshaf. He died in 1405 A. D^ 
808 A. H. 

'Ali KuH Beg of Khurasan, *£# ^ i^*> author of a 

tazkira or biography of poets. 
'Ali KuliKhan, o^4^^*j (Nawab) vide Ganna Begam. 
'AH Lala, (Shaikh Razi-uddfn) a native of GhaznS. His 

father Sayyid Laid was the uncle of Shaikh Sanai the poet. 

He was a disciple of Najm-uddin Kubra and his title Shaikh 

ul-Shaiukh. He died A. D. 1244, 642 A H. t aged 76 

lunar years. 

'AH Mahaemi, i/^V° *J*> * native of Mahaem in the 
Dakhin, was the son of Shaikh Ahmad, and is the author 
of the commentary on the Kuran entitled "Tafefr Rah- 
man*." He died A. D., 143i, 835 A. H. 

'AH Mardan Khan, eA ^V° i^*j Amfr-ul-TJmra, wai 
a native of Persia and governor of Kandahar on the part 
of the king of Persia, but finding himself exposed to much 
danger from the tyranny of his sovereign Shah, Safi, he 
gave up the place to the emperor Shah Jahan, and himself 
took refuge at Dihli in the year 1637 A. D., 1047 A. H. 
He was received with great honour, was created Amfr-ul- 
Umra, and was at different times, made governor of Kash- 
mir and Kabul, and employed in various wars and other 
duties. He excited universal admiration at the court by 
the skill and judgment of his public works, of which the 
canal which bears his name at Dihli still affords a 
proof, and the taste and elegance he displayed on all 
occasions of show and festivity. He died on his way to 
Kashmir, where he was going for change of air, on the 
16th of April, 1657 A. D., O. S., 12th Rajab, 1067 A BL, 
and was buried at Labor in the mausoleum of his mother. 
He left three sons, vie., Ibrahim Khan, Isma'il Beg and 
Is-^iV Be fr °* whom the two last were slain in the battle 
which took place between Dara Shikoh and 'Alamgir at 
Dhaulpur on the 29th May, 1658, O. 8., 7th Bamazan, 
1068 H. He is believed to have introduced the bulbous 
Tartar dome into Indian architecture. 

'AH Musi Baza, H) i$~J° (J*> &© eighth Imam of the 
race of Ali, and the son of Musi Kazim the seventh Imam. 
His mother's name was Umm 8ayyid ; he was born in the 
year 764 or 769 A. D., 147 A. H. and died on Friday the 
12th of August 818 A. D., 9th Safer, 203 H. His wife's 
name was Umm Habil the daughter of the Khalif al- 
Mamun. His sepulchre is at Tus in Khurasan. That 
town is now commonly called Mash-had, that is, the place 
of martyrdom of the Imam. To the enclosure wherein 
his tomb is raised, the Persians give the name of " ttauzat 
RizawV* or the garden of Raza> and esteem it the moat 
sacred spot in all Persia. The chief ornament and support 
of Mash-had is this tomb, to which many thousands of 
pious pilgrims annually resort, and which had b?en once 
greatly enriched by the bounty of sovereigns. Nasfr-ullah 
Mirza the son of Nadir Shah carried away the golden 
railing that surrounded the tomb, and Nadir Mirzi son of 
Shah-rukh Mirza and grandson of Nidir Shah, took down 
the great golden ball which ornamented the top of the 



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'Alisher 



dome over the grave, and which was said to weigh 60 
matmds or 420 pounds. The carpets fringed with gold, 
the golden lamps, and everything valuable were plundered 
by these necessitous and rapacious princes. AH Musi 
Razi was poisoned by the khalff al-Mimun, consequently 
is called a martyr. 

*Ali Muhammad Khan, o^ *+** ^*, founder of the 
Kohila government. It is mentioned in Forster's Travels, 
that in the year 1720 A. D. Basharat Khan and Daud 
Khan, of the tribe of Rohilas, accompanied by a small num- 
ber of their adventurous countrymen came into Hindustan 
in quest of military service. They were first entertained 
by Madan Shah, a Hindu chief of Serauli, (a small town 
in the north-west quarter of Rohilkhand) who by robbery 
and predatory excursions maintained a large party of 
banditti. In the plunder of an adjacent village, Daud 
Khan captured a youth of the Jat sect, whom he adopted 
and brought up in the Muhammadan faith, by the name of 
'All Muhammad, and distinguished this boy by pre-emi- 
nent marks of paternal affection. Some years after, the 
Rohilaa quarrelling with Madan Shah, retired from his 
country, and associating themselves with Chand Khan the 
chief of Barell, they jointly enterod into the service of 
Azmat Khan, the governor of Moradibid. After the 
death of Daud Khan, who was slain by the mountaineers in 
one of his excursions, the Kohila party in a short space of 
time seized on the districts of Madan Shah and 'AH Muham- 
mad Khan was declared chief of the party. From the negli- 
gence of government and the weak state of the empire of 
Dihli in the reign of Muhammad Shah, he possessed himself 
of the district of Katir (now called from the residence of 
the Rohilaa, Rohilkhand) and assumed independence of the 
royal authority. He was besieged in March. 1746 A. D., 
Safer 1168 A. H., in a fortress called Bankar and 'Aouli 
and taken prisoner, but was released after some time, and 
a jigfr conferred on him. The emperor Muhammad Shah, 
died in April 1748, A. D. 1161 A. H. and 'All Muhammad 
Khan some time after him in the same year at 'Aouli, which 
he had ornamented with numerous puhlio and private edi- 
fices. He left four sons, ris., Sa'd-ullah Khan, Abdullih 
Khan, Fais-uUah Khan and Dunde Khan, Sa'd-ullah 
Khan succeeded to his father's possession being then 
twelve years old. Vide Sa'd-ullah Khan. 

'All (Mulla), </" **, Muhaddis or the traditionist whose 
poetical name was "Tirf ', died in the year 1673 A. D., 
981 A. H., and Mulli 'Alam wrote the chronogram of his 
death. 

*Ali Murad Khan, {J^ *!/• yh, a king of Persia of 

the Zand family. He succeeded to the throne after the 
death of Sadi* Khan in March, 1781 A. D., and assumed 
the title of wakfl. He reigned over Persia five years and 
was independent of the government two yean prior to this 
period. Persia during this time, enjoyed a certain degree 
of peace. He continued to confine his rival 'Aka Muham- 
mad Khan to the province of MA^d^rin L He died in 
1786 A. D. 

*AU Murad, (Mfr) present chief of Khairpur (1869). 

'All NaW, ^ i/* (***, (Imam) was the tenth Imam of 
the race of 'Alt and the son of Imam Muhammad Tu\i 
who was the ninth Imam. He was born in the year 828 
A. D M 213 A. H M and died on the 17th of June, 869 A. D. 
3rd Bajab, 266 A. H. His tomb is in Sarmanrie (which is 
also oafied Samira) in Baghdad, where his son Muhammad 
Askarf was also buried afterwards. 

>Ali Naki Khan, v^njP i/* vV , (Nawab) the father- 
in-law and prime minister of Wand 'AH 8hih, the last 
king of Lakhnau. He died at Lukhnau of cholera about 
the 1st December, 1871, 17th Bamxin, 1278 A- H. 



'AH Naki, <£^ i^* Dfwan of Prince Murad Bakhsh, son 

of Shalyahi, whom he slew with his own hand. 
'AH Nawedi, is*& %£*, a poet and pupU of Shah T*hir 

Andjani. came to India, where he was patronized by Abul 
Fatha Husain Nizam Shah I. For some time he was in 
disgrace with his patron and changed his Takhallus or 
poetical name from Nawedi to Na-umaidi (or hopeless). 
He died in 1567 A. D., 976 A. H., at Ahmadnagar in the 
Dakhan. 

'Ali Qui! Beg, vide Shah Afghan Khan. 

♦Ali Shahab Tarshizi, isytrjl* vV" i/*, a poet who 
was a native of Tarshish. He flourished in the reign of 
Shah-rukh Mirzi, and found a patron in his son Muham- 
mad Jogf, in whose praise he wrote several panegyrics. 
He was co-temporary with the poet Aauri, who died A. D. 
1462, 866 A. H. 

'Alisher, jl* 1 }* j&* 9 (Amir) surnamed Nizam-uddfn, 
was the prime minister of the Sultan Husain Mirzi ruler 
of Khurasan. He sprang from an illustrious family of the 
Jaghtaf or Chaghtai tribe. His father Gajkina Bahadur, 
held one of the principal offices of government during the 
reign of Sultan Abul Kasim Babar Bahidur, a descendant 
of Amir Taimur. His grandfather, by his mother's side, 
was one of the principal Amirs of Sultan Bai^ara Mirzi, 
the grandfather of Sultan Husain Mirza. Alisher at- 
tached himself originally to Sultan Abul JjUUim Babar 
Mirzi, who was greatly attached to him, and called him 
his son* After his death he retired to Mash-had and 
continued his studies there ; which place he subsequently 
quitted for Samarkand, on account of the disturbances 
which broke out in Khurasan, and applied himself dili- 
gently to the acquirement of knowledge in the college of 
Khwija Faal-ulUh, When Sultan Husain Mirzi became 
uncontrolled ruler of Khurasan, he requested Sultan Ah- 
mad Mirzi, at that time ruler of the countries beyond the 
Oxus, to send 'Alisher to him. On his arrival, he was 
received with the greatest distinction, and raised to the 
highest posts of honor. 'Alisher's palace was open to all 
men of learning : and notwithstanding that the reins of 
government were placed in his hands, in the midst of the 
weightiest affairs, he neglected no opportunity of improving 
both himself and others in the pursuit of knowledge. He 
was not only honored by his own Sultan and his officers, 
but foreign princes also esteemed and respected him. 
After being employed in the capacity of diwin and prime 
minister for some time, love of study induced him to resign, 
and bidding a final adieu to public life, he passed the re- 
mainder of his days in composing Turkish and Persian 
works, of which Sim Mirzi recounts the names of no less 
than twenty-one. Daulat Shah the biographer, Mirkhund 
and his son Khundamir, the historians, dedicated their 
works to him, and amongst other men of genius who were 
cherished by his liberality may be mentioned the cele- 
brated poet Jimi. His collection of Odes in the Chaghtai 
or pure Turkish dialect, which he wrote under the poetical 
name of Nawii, amounts to 10,000 couplets, and his 
parody of Kizimf s five poems, containing nearly 80,000 
couplets, is universally admired by the cultivators of 
Turkish poetry, in which he is considered to be without a 
rival. In the Persian language also he wrote a collection 
of Odes, under the poetical name of Finf or Fanii, con- 
sisting of 6,000 distiches. 'Alisher was born in the year 
1440 A. D., 844 A. H., and died on Sunday the 6th of 
December, 1600 A. D., 16th Jamad I, 906 A. H., five 
years before his royal friend and master Sultan Husain 
Mirzi. Khundamir has recorded the year of his death in 
an affectionate chronogram : " His highness the Amir, the 
asylum of divine guidance, in whom all the marks of 
mercy were conspicuous, has quitted the thorny brake of 
the world, and fled to the rose-garden of pity. Since the 



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'light of mercy' has descended on his souL those words 
represent the year of his departure." One of his works is 
called « Majalis-ul-Nafaea." 

•All Tabar, J^° ^* 8 ^!>t*> (Prince) was the son of 
prince ' Asrim Shin, and grandson of the emperor ' Alamgir. 
He died in the year 1734 A. D., 1147 A. H. 

'Ali Waea, ^l* t5^> tne 80n °* tne k™ 011 * Hnsain Waex 
Kashifiof Hirat." Vide 'AH son of Hnsain Waex. 

'AH Wardi Khan, d^iS*J3 t$^> &ko called Alah- 
wardi Khan, which see. 

»AH Yezdi, LS*Ji i^*> vide Sharaf.uddfn 'AH Yezdf. 

Alexander the Great, vide Sikandar Zul-karnyn. 

Al-Farghani, %^J^^t surname of Ahmad ibn Kathfr or 
Kaslr, an Arabian astronomer of the ninth century, author 
of an introduction to astronomy. Vide Farghini. 

Al-Paryabi, i^iJ^K vide Faryabi. 

Al-GhazzaH, «/*>^, ™frGhaxzalf. 

'Alha and Udal, (Jaj1 j IfM, princes of Mah6ba. There 

is a heroic ballad sung or recitod by the Hindu sepoys 
in a kind of monotonous, but not unmusical sort of 
chaunt, accompanied by a sotto voce beat of the dh61, 
which rise to a constrepito in the pause between the ver- 
ses. Whoever has resided in a military cantonment must 
have frequently observed the sepoys, when disengaged 
from military duty, collected in small knots, listening to 
one of the party reciting some poem or tale to a deeply 
interested audience. The subject of this lay is the prow- 
ess of 'Alha', the rajfi. of Mah6ba, a town in Bundelkhand, 
of which extensive ruins remain. The hero is described 
as the terror of the Muhammadans ; his triumphs over 
whom are attributed not only to his own valour, but the 
favor of the goddess Kali, whom he had propitiated by the 
offering of his life. There are many songs, it is said, of 
this prince, and his brother Udal, a warrior of equal esti- 
mation ; but they are preserved only traditionally by the 
Powars, and their amateur students. The verses are in 
Bhakha. 

Al-Hadi, Lf*^, the fourth khalff of the house of 'Abbas 
succeeded his father al-Mahdi on the 4th of August, 785 
A. B., 23rd Muharram, 169 H., to the throne of Baghdad. 
He reigned one year and one month, and having formed a 
design to deprive his younger brother Harun-al-Bashid of 
his right of succession and even to assassinate him, was 
poisoned by his prime minister about the month of Sep- 
tember 786 A. D., Rabi I, 170 A. H. On his death his 
brother the celebrated Harun-al-Eashid ascended the 
throne. 

Al-Hakm, also called ibn Abdul Hakm, an Arabian author 
who (according to the chronological arrangement of the 
Arab authorities by Howard Yyse and Dr. 8prenger, in 
' the former's second volume of * The Pyramids of Gizeh') 
lived about 1450 A. D., or six hundred years after the 
death of the khalif al-Mamun of Baghdad, but by a ma- 
nuscript note recorded by a gentleman of the British 
Museum, (1868) it appears that al-Hakm was nearly con- 
temporary with that prinoe who flourished between 813 
and 842 A. I). Al-Hakm writes that the Great Pyramid 
in Egypt was built by a certain antediluvian king Saurid, 
and filled by him chiefly with celestial spheres and figures 
of the stars; together with the perfumes used in their 
worship ; and that khalifa al-Mamun found the body of 
a man deposited, with jewels, arms, and golden writing, 
in the coffer, when he broke into the king's chamber of 
the Great Pyramid. But neither Abu Mushar Jafar bin 
Muhammad Balkhi, who wrote in about 890 A. D. nor ibn 
Khurdalbeh, in 920 A. D. have one word about al-Mamun, 



or any opening of the pyramid. But when we descend to 
Masatidi, in 967 A* D. he, after an astonishing amount 
of romancing on what took place at the building of the 
pyramids 300 years before tie Hood, — mentions that, not 
al-Mamun, but his father, khalifa Harun-al-Bashid, at- 
tempted to break into the Groat Pyramid ; and after pe- 
netrating 20 cubits, found a vessel containing 1000 coins 
of the finest gold, each just one ounce in weight, and 
making up a sum which exactly repaid the cost of his 
operations ; at which, it is added, he greatly wondered. 
About the year 1170 A. D. or 340 years after al-Mamun's 
age, that prince is mentioned by Abu Abd-ullah Muham- 
mad bin Abdur Rahim Alkaisi, who states that he was 
informed that those who went into the upper parts of the 
Great Pyramid in the time of al-Mamun, came to a small 
passage, containing the image of a man in green stone, 
and within that a human body with golden armour &c. &c. 

Al-Hasan, er^', an Arabian who wrote on optics, about 
thoyear 1100 A. D. 

Alif bin Hur Kashani, i^Ky erf ^j author of 
another *• Mafia' -ul- Anwar", besides the one of the same 
name written by Mulla Husain Waez. This is a complete 
history of Muhammad, his descendants, with Memoirs of 
thokhalifc. 

Aljaitu, y^*Fl> a Tartar king of Persia, who assumed the 
title of Muhammad Khuda Bandi on his accession to the 
throne, which see. 

Al-Kadir BiUah, «^ J^, the twenty-fifth khalff of 
the Abbaside family, was the son of Is-bafc the son of 
MuVtadir Billah. Ho ascended the throne of Baghdad 
after the dethronement of al-Taya' in 991 A. D., 381 
A. H. He was a contemporary of Sul|an Mahmud of 
Ghazni; reignod 41 lunar years and 3 months, and diod 
in 1031 A. D., 422 A. H. He was succeeded by al-Ka- 
em-bi-amr-illah. 

Al-Kadiri or Kadiri, LS*J^ f a sect of Muhammadans. 

These are a branch of the Muetazillfo, and differ in their 
opinions from tho orthodox Musalmans, in that they 
deny God's decree, and assert free will; affirming that 
the contrary opinion makes God the author of evil. 

Al-Xaim BHlah or Al-Kaim-bi-amr-Ulah, «** 

+A&)\ } surnamed Abu Ja'far Abdullah, the 26th khalff 

of the house of 'Abbas. He succeeded his father Kidir 
Billah to the throne of Baghdad in 1031 A. D., 422 A. H. t 
reigned 44 lunar years and 8 months, and died in 1076 
A. D., 467 A. fl., which was soon after Sultan Malikshih 
the Salju^i had ascended the throne of Persia, and as that 
monarch was the real master of the empire, the nomina- 
tion of a successor was deferred till he was consulted. He 
deputed a son of his prime minister Nizam-ul-Mulk to 
Baghdad with orders to raise al-Mu^tadi the grandson of 
al-$aim to the (nominal) rank of the commander of the 
faithful. 

Al-Kaim, fifi*! second khalif of the Fatunita race of 

Barbary; he succeeded his father Obeid-nllah al-Mahdf 
A. I). 924, 312 A. H. During his reign we road of noth- 
ing remarkable, except the revolt of Yeeid ibn Kondat, 
a man of mean extraction. Al-Kaem reigned nearly 12 
years and died in A. D. 945, 334 A. H. His son Ismail 
al-Mansur succeeded him. 

Al-Kahir BiUah, **lj j*&\ 9 the nineteenth khalif of 
the race of the Abbasides, and the third son of alMo'tajrid 
Billah, succeeded his brother al-Muktadir to the crown of 
Baghdad in October, 932 A. D., Shawwa^ 320 A. H. He 
had reigned only one year five months and twenty-one 
days, when his wazir ibn Malfda deprived him of his sight 
with a hot iron on Wednesday the 23rd April, 934 A. D., 



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6th Jaxnad I, 822 A. H. and raised al-Razi Billah the son 
of Muktadir to the throne. It is said that ni-r>ahir, after 
this, as long as ho lived, was obliged to beg for charity 
in the mosque of Baghdad, calling out to the people that 
assembled there, " Have pity and give charity to one, who 
had once been your khalifa." 

'Al-Kama, *****, son of Kys was one of the pupils of Abd- 
ullah bin Masaud, and an eminent man. He died in 681 
A. D., 61 A. H. 

Al-Khassaf, ol-«n, vide Abu-Bakr Ahmad bin-'Umar al- 

Khassai. 
'Allama Dawani, vide Da wan i. 

>AUama Hilli, J^ *"^* £**>> (Shaikh) the great Shia 

lawyer, whose full name is Shaikh al-' Allama Jamal- 
uddin Hasan bin Yusuf al-Mutakhir Hilli, was the author 
of the •* Khulisat-ul-AVwal" a biography of eminent fchias. 
His chief works on the subject of traditions, are the Istiksa 
al-Ya'tbdr, the Masibih al- Anwar and the Durar-wa al- 
Marjan. He died in 1326 A. D., 726 A. H. Vide Jamal- 
uddin Hasan bin Yusaf. 

' Allami, vide Afeal Khan. 

'AUami, (/^ the poetical name of Shaikh Abul Fazl the 

favorite wazir and secretary of the emperor Akbar. 

'AUami Shirazi, iSjb^ iS*~*3 or the philosopher of 
Shfraz, a very learned man, so generally called that his 
proper name is almost forgotten. He is the author of a 
celebrated collection of tracts on pure and mixed mathe- 
matics, entitled Durrat-ut-Taj. 

Al-Mahdi, &*t^> tne tnira * khalif of the race of Abbas, 
succeeded his father Abu Ja'far al-Mansur to the throne 
of Baghdad, and was inaugurated on Sunday the 8tll of 
October, 775 A- D., 6th ^il-hijja, 158 A. II. From the 
accession of al-Mahdi to the year 781 A. I)., 164 A. H , the 
most remarkable event was the rebellion of al-Ma^na (or 
al-Makanna) which see. All this time war had been car- 
ried on with the C? reeks, but without any remarkable 
success on either side. But after the suppression of the 
rebellion of al-Mafcno, the khalif ordered his son Harun- 
al-Raahid to penetrate into the Greek territories with an 
army of 95,000 men. Harun, then, having entered the 
dominions of the empress Irane, defeated one of her com- 
manders that advanced against him ; after which ho laid 
waste several of the imperial piovinces with fire and 
sword, and even threatened the city of Constantinople 
itself. By this the empress was so terrified, that she pur- 
chased a peace with the khalif by paying him an annual 
tribute of 70,000 pieces of gold, which for the present at 
least, delivered her from the depredations of theso barba- 
rians. After the signing of the treaty, Harun returned 
home laden with spoils and glory. This year (•'. e. the 
164th year of the Hijri or 781 A D.) according to some 
ot the oriental historians, the sun one day a little after 
his rising, totally lost his light in a moment without 
being eclipsed, when neither any fog nor any cloud 
of dust appeared to obscure him. This frightful dark- 
ness continued till noon, to the great astonishment of 
the people settled in the countries where it happened. 
Al-Mahdi was poisoned, though undesignedly, by one of 
his concubines, named Hasana. She had designed to 
destroy one of her rivals whom she imagined to have too 
great an ascendancy over the khalif, by giving her a 
poisoned pear. This the latter, not suspecting anything, 
give to the khalif; who had no sooner eaten it than he 
felt himself in exquisite torture, and soon after expired. 
This event took place on the eve of Thursday the 4th of 
August, 785 A. D., 23rd Muhurram, 169 H. in a village 
railed Ar RAd in the dependencies of Masabadin. He 
was succeeded by his eldest son al-Hidt 

li 



Al-Mahdi, C5*H*^j a khalif of Barbary, vide Obeid-ullah 
al-Mahdi and Muhammad al-Mahdi. 

Al-Makna, or al-Makanna, C***^ a famous impostor of 
Khurasan who lived in the reign of al-Mahdi the khalifa 
of Baghdad. His true name was Hakam ibn Haaham, 
and had been an under secretary to Abu Muslim governor 
of that province. He afterwards turned soldier, and passed 
thence into Mawarunnahr, where he gave himself out as a 
prophet The name of al-Makna, as also that of al- Bursal, 
that is, the veiled, he received from his custom of covering 
his race with a veil or girdle mask, to conceal his deformity ; 
he having lost an eye in the wars, and being otherwise of 
a despicable appearance, and a stutterer ; though his fol- 
lowers pretended he did this for the same reason that 
Moses did, viz., lest the splendor of his countenance should 
dazzle the eyes of his beholders. In some places he made 
a great many proselytes, deluding the people with a num- 
ber of juggling tricks which they swallowed as miracles, 
and particularly by causing the appearance of a moon to 
rise out of a well for many nights together ; whence he 
was also called in the Persian tongue, Sazinda Mdh, or the 
Moon -maker. This wretch, not content with being reckoned 
a prophet, arrogated to himself divine honors ; pretending 
that the Deity resided in his person. He had first, he said, 
assumed the body of Adam, then that of Noah and subse- 
quently of many other wise and great men. The last 
human form he pretended to have adopted was that of 
Abu Muslim a prince of Khurasan, from whom it proceeded 
to him. At last this impostor, raised an open rebellion 
against the khalif, and made himself master of several 
fortified places in Khurasan, so that al-Mahdi was obliged 
to send one of his generals with an army against him about 
the year 780 A. D., 163 H. Upon the approach of the kha- 
lifa's troops, al- Manila retired into one of his strong 
fortresses which he had well provided for a siege. But 
being closely besieged by the khalifa's forces, and seeing 
no possibility of escaping, he gave poison in wine to his 
whole family and all that were with him in the castle ; 
when they were dead, he burnt their bodies, together with 
all their furniture, provisions, and cattle ; and lastly he 
threw himself into the flames. He had promised his 
followers, that his soul should transmigrate into the form 
of an old man riding on a greyish coloured beast, and that 
after so many years he would return and give them the 
earth for their possession ; which ridiculous expectation 
kept the sect in being for several years. English readers 
will remember the use made of this story by the author of 
LallaRookh. 

Al-Mamun, &y°W, surnamed 'Abdulteh, was the seventh 

khalif of the race of the Abbasides, and the second son of 
Harun-al-Rashid. He was proclaimed khalif at Baghdad 
on the 6th October, 813 A. D., 6th Safar, 198 A. H., the day 
on which his brother al-Amin was assassinated. He con- 
ferred the government of Khurasan upon Tahir ibn Husain 
his general, and his descendants with almost absolute and 
unlimited power. This happened in the year 820 A. D., 
206 A. H., from which time we may date the dismember- 
ment of that province from the empire of the khalifs. 
During the reign of this khalif nothing remarkable hap- 
pened ; only the African Moslems invaded the island of 
Sicily, where they made themselves master of several 
places. Al-Mimun conquered part of Crete, had the best 
Greek writers translated into Arabic, and made a collec- 
tion of the best authors. He also calculated a set of 
astronomical tables and founded an academy at Baghdid. 
In Khurasan he made TAs, at that time the capital of the 
kingdom, his place of residence. Under his patronage Khu- 
rasan became the resort of learned men ; and the city of 
Tus, the great rival of Baghdad. He died of a surfeit on 
the 18th of August, 833 A. D., 17th Rajab 218 A. H., after 
a reign of 20 years and some months in Asia Minor, aped 
48 years, and was buried at Tarsus a city on the frontiers 



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AMffughira 



of Ana Minor. His wife named Buran, daughter of 
Hasan ibn Sahl his prime minister, outlived him 60 years, 
and died on Tuesday the 22nd September. 884 A. D., 27th 
Rabi I., 271 A. H , aged 80 years. Al-Mamdn was suc- 
ceeded by his brother al-Mo'tasim Billah. 

Al-ManflUT, jy**^*, 2ndkhalifofBarbaryof theFatimite 

race, vide Ismifl, surnamed al-Mansur. 

Al-Mansur, J J+*+* *> whose former name was Abu Ja'far, 

was called al-Mansur, the victorious, by his overcoming 
his enemies. He was the second khalif of the noble house 
of Ban! Abbas or Abbasides, and succeeded to the throne 
of Baghdad after the death of his brother Abtil Abbas sur- 
named al-Saffah, in 754 A. D., 186 A. H. He was op- 
posed by his uncle, 'Abdullan son of All, who caused 
himself to be proclaimed khalif at Damascus, but was 
defeated by al-Mansur' s general, Abu Muslim. He laid 
the foundation of the city of Baghdad on the banks of the 
Tigris in 762 A. D. and finished it four years after. He 
was a prince of extraordinary talent and taste, and an 
ardent lover of science and literature. He got the Pah- 
lawi copy of Pilpay's Fables translated into Arabic. In 
the year 775 A. D., 168 A. H., the khalif set out from 
Baghdad in order to perform the pilgrimage to Mecca ; 
but being taken ill on the road, he expired at Bir Maimun, 
whence his body was carried to Mecca ; where, after 100 
graves had been dug, that his sepulchre might be con- 
cealed, he was interred, having lived, according to some 
68, according to others 68 years, and reigned 22 lunar 
years. He is said to have been extremely covetous, and 
to have left in his treasury 600.000,000 dirhams, and 
24,000,000 dinars. He is reported to have paid his cook 
by assigning him the heads and legs of the animals dressed 
in his kitchen, and to have obliged him to procure at his 
own expence all the fuel and vessols he had occasion for. 
He was succeeded by his son al-Mahdi. A Christian phy- 
sician, named Bactishua, was very eminent at the court 
of al-Mansur, who understanding that he had an old 
infirm woman for his wife, sent him three beautiful Greek 
girls and 8,000 dinars as a present. Bactishua sent back 
the girls and told the khalif that his religion prohibited 
his having more than one wife at a time ; which pleased 
the khalif so much, that he loaded him with presents, and 
permitted him, at his earnest request, to return to his own 
country of Khurasan. 



Al-Mo'tamid Billah, *Mf *****Jf, the fifteenth khalff 
of the house of Abbas, was the son of al-Mutwakkil Billah. 
He was raised to the throne of Baghdad by the Turks 
after the murder of al-Muhtadi in 870 A D., 256 A H. 
This year the prince of the Zanjians, Ali or al-Habfb, 
made incursions to the very gates of Baghdad, doing pro- 
digious mischief wherever he passed. In the year 874 
A. D., Ya'kub-bin-Lys having taken Khurasan from the 
descendants of Tahir, attacked and defeated Muhammad 
ibn Wasil (who had killed the khalif s governor of Fare, 
and afterwards made himself master of that province) 
seizing on his palace, where he found a sum of money 
amounting to 40,000,000 dirhams. In the year 879 A. D., 
265 A. H., Ahmad ibn Tulan rebelled against the khalif 
and set up for himself in Egypt. There were now four 
independent powers in the Moslem dominions, besides the 
house of Umyya in Spain ; viz. The African Moslems, or 
Aghlabites, who had for a long time acted independently ; 
Ahmad ibn Tulan in Svria and Egypt ; Ya'kub ibn al- 
Lys in Khurasan, and al-Habfb in Arabia and I'ra^. In 
the year 883 A. D., 270 A. H., al-Habib was defeated and 
slain by al-Muwafik the khalif s brother and coadjutor, 
who ordered his head to be cut off, and carried through 
a great part of that region which he had so long disturbed. 
In the year 891 A. D., 278 A. H. the Karmatians first 
made their appearance in the Moslem empire, and gave 
almost continual disturbance to the khalifs and their sub- 
jects. Al-Mo'tamid reigned 22 lunar years 11 months 



and some days, and died in the year 892 A D., 279 A. H. 
He was succeeded by his nephew al-Mo'tazid Billah the 
son of al-Muwaflfc. 

Al-Mo'tasim Billah, *M* p *i* Jl, was tho fourth son 

of Harun-al-Rashid, and the eighth khalif of the house 
of Abbas. He succeeded to the throne by virtue of his 
brother al-Mamun's express nomination of him to the 
exclusion of his own son aL' Abbas, and his other brother 
al-Kasim, who had been appointed by Harun-al-Rashid. 
In the beginning of his reign 833 A D., 218 A H., he 
was obliged to employ the whole forces of his empire 
against one Babak, who had been for a considerable time 
in rebellion in Persia and Persian Irak and had taken 
upon himself the title of a prophet. He was, however, de- 
feated and slain. In the year 838 A. D., 223 A. H., the 
Greek emperor Theophilus invaded the khalifs territoritjs, 
where he behaved with the greatest cruelty, and by de- 
stroying Sozopetra the place of al-Mo'tasim's nativity* 
notwithstanding his earnest entreaties to the contrary, 
occasioned the terrible distinction of Amorium. He is 
said to havo been so robust, that he once carried a burden 
of 1,000 pounds weight several paces. As the people of 
Baghdad disturbed him with frequent revolts and commo- 
tions, he took tho resolution to abandon that city, and build 
another for his own residence. The new city ho built was 
first called Samira, and afterwards Sarmanri, (for that which 
gives pleasure at first sight) and stood in the Arabian 
'Ir&fc. He was attached to the opinion of tho Matazalites 
who maintain the creation of the Kuran ; and both he and 
his predecessor cruelly persecuted those who believed it to 
be eternal. Al-Mo'tasim died on Thursday the 6th Janu- 
ary, 842 A. D., 18th Rabi I., 227 H. Ho reigned 8 years 
8 months and 8 days, was l>orn in the 8th month (Shaban) 
of the year, was the 8th khalif of the house of Abbas, 
ascended the throne in the 218th year of the Hijru died on 
the 18th of Rabi I., lived 48 years, fought 8 battles, built 
8 palaces, begat 8 sons and 8 daughters, had 8,000 slaves, 
and had 8,000,000 dinars, and 80,000 dirhams in hw 
treasury at his death, whence the oriental historians gave 
him the name of al-Musamman, or the Octonary. He was 
the first khalif that added to his name tho title of Billah 
equivalent to the Dei Gratia of Christian sovereiijns. He 
was succeeded by his son al- Wuthifc or Wasi^ Billyh! 



Al-Mo'tazid Billah, *M ±*±*J\, the son of al-Muwafik, 
the son of al-Mutwakkil Billah, was the sixteenth khalif 
of the race of Abbas. He came to the throne of Bagh- 
dad after the death of his uncle al-Mo'tamid Billah in892 
A. D., 279 A. H. In the first year of his reign, he de- 
manded in marriage the daughter of Khamarawia, Sultan 
or khalif of Egypt, the son of Ahmad ibn Tulan ; which 
was agreed to by him with tho utmost joy, and their nup- 
tials were solemnised with great pomp in the year 895 
A. D. t 282 A. H. He carried on a war with tho karma- 
tians, but very unsuccessfully, his forces being defeated 
with great slaughter, and his general al-Abbas taken pri- 
soner. The khalif some time after his marriage granted 
to Hanin, son of Khamarawia, the perpetual prefecture 
of Awasam and Kinnisrin, which he annexed to that of 
Egypt and Syria, upon condition that he paid him an 
annual tribute of 45,000 dinars. He reigned 9 years 8 
months and 25 days, and died in 902 A D., 28*9 A H. 
His son al-Muktafi BilUh succeeded him. 

Al-Mughira, tj^J\ y the son of Sayyid and governor of 
Kufa in the time of Mu'awia tho first khalif of the house 
of Umyya. He was an active man, and of very good 
parts ; he had lost one of his eyes at the battle of Yers- 
nouk, though some say that it was with looking at an 
eclipse. By the followers of Ali ho was accounted to be 
of the wrong party, and one of the chief of them. For 
thus they reckon, there are five elders on Ali's side • Mu- 
hammad, Ali, Fatima, Hasan and Hnsain; and to' these 
are opposed, Abu Bakr, 'Umar, Muawia, Amrd and al- 



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Mughfra. He died in the fear 670 A. D., 60 A. H., at 
Kufa. A great plague had been raging in the city, which 
made him retire from it ; bat returning upon its violence 
abating, he nevertheless caught it, and died of it. 

Al-Muhtadi, C£*V"^ the fourteenth khalif of the Abba- 
sides, was the son of ono of al-Wathilf 's concubines named 
Kurb, who is supposed by some to have been a Christian. 
Al-Muhtadi was raised to the throne of Baghdad after the 
dethronement of al-Muttai'z Billah in 869 A. D., 265 
A. H. The beginning of his reign is remarkable for the 
irruption of the Zanjians, a people of Nubia, Ethiopia and 
the country of Cafrres, into Arabia, where they penetra- 
ttniinto the neighbourhood of Basra and Kufa. The chief 
of this gang of robbers, was *Ali ibn Muhammad ibn Ab- 
dul Rahman, also called al-Uabfb, who falsely gave him- 
self out to be of the family of Alf ibn Abu Taleb. This 
made such an impression upon the Shias in those parts, 
that they flocked to him in great numbers ; which enabled 
him to soize upon the cities of Basra and Ramla, and even 
to pass the Tigris at the head of a formidable army. In 
the year 870 A. D., 256 A. H M al-Muhtadi was barbarously 
murdered by the Turks who had raised him to the throne. 
He reigned only eleven months and was succeeded by al- 
M6'tamid. 

Al-Mukhtar, J**^l> a celebrated Muhammadan chief 
who had beaten all the generals of the khalifa Yezid, 
Marwan, and Abdul Malik, and had made himself sole 
master of Babylonian 1'ralfc whereof Kufa was the capital. 
He persecuted all those he could lay his hands on, who 
were not of Husain's party ; he nevor pardoned any one 
of those who had declared themselves enemies to the 
family of the prophet, nor those who, as he believed, had 
dipped their hands in Husain's blood or that of his rela- 
tions. He Bent an army against Ubeid-ullah the son of 
Zayad, who was sent by the khalif Abdul Malik towards 
Kufa with leave to plunder it for three days, and slew 
him in battle in August, 686 A. D., Muharram, 67 A. H. 
al-Mukhtar was killed at Kufa in a battle fought with 
Misaa'b the brother of Abdullah tho son of Zuber, gover- 
nor of Basra, in the month of April, 687 A. D., Ram^an 67 
A. H., in the 67th year of his age. It is said that he killed 
nearly 60,000 men. 

Al-Muktadi Billah, ^ ^*&Jl, suniamedAbul Kisim 
Abd-ullah, tho son of Muhammad, and grandson of al- 
Kaem Billah, was raised to the throne of Baghdad after 
the death of his grandfather in 1076 A. D., 467 A. H., by 
orders of Sultan Malikshah Sal Juki who was then the real 
master of the empire. He was the 27th khalif of the race 
of Abbas, reigned 19 lunar years and 6 months and died 
in 1094 A. D., 487 A. H. His death induced Barkayarafc 
tho Saljuki, the reigning Sultan of Persia, whose brother 
M ah mud had died about the same period, to go to Bagh- 
dad, where he confirmed al-Muataxhir the son of the late 
khalif as his successor, and was himself hailed by the new 
lord of the faithful, as Sultan of the empire. 

Al-Muktadir Billah, *Uiij^5Jl, the eighteenth khalif of 
the house of Abbas, was the son of al-M6'tarid Billah. 
He succeeded his brother al-Muktafi to the throne of 
Baghdad in 908 A. D., 296 A. H. He reigned 24 lunar 
years 2 months and 7 days, and was murdered by a eunuch 
on the 29th October, 982 A. D., 25th Shawwal, 820 H. 
He was succeeded by his brother al-Kahir Billah. 

Al-Muktafl. Billah, *^ %j&^> was the seventeenth 
khalif of the house of Abba* who tvigned in Baghdad. 
He succeeded his father al*M6'tazid Billah in 902 A. D., 
289 A- H., and proved a warlike and successful prince. 
He gained several advantages over the Karmatians, but 
wa» not able to reduce them. The Turks, howuvcr, ha v. 
tng invaded the province of Mawarunnahr, were defeated 
with great slaughter ; after which al-Muktafi carried on a 



successful war against the Greeks, from whom he took 
Seleucia. After this he invaded Syria and Egypt, which 
provinces he recovered from the house of Ahmad ibn Tu- 
lan in 906 A. D., 292 A. H. ; he then renewed the war 
with success against the Greeks and Karmatians. Al- 
Muktafi died in 908 A. D., 295 A. H., after a reign of 
about six years and a half. He was the last of the kha- 
lifa who made any figure by their warlike exploits. His 
successors al-Mu^tadir, al-$ahir and al-Kazi, were so dis. 
trossed by the Karmatians and numberless usurpers who 
wore every day starting up, that by the 326th year of 
the Hijri 937 A. D., they had nothing loft but the city 
of Baghdid. 

Al-Muktafl Bi-amr-iUah, ^Jr* 1 * u iaJr i the son of 
al-Mustazahr was the 31st khalif of the house of Abbas. 
He succeeded his nephew al-Rashid in A. D. 1136, 630 
A. H., reigned about 24 lunar years and died in 1160 
A. D., 666 A. H., leaving his kingdom to his son al-Mus- 
tanjad. 

Al-Mustaa'H BiUah, *^ ig lf " " ^ f, the sixth Fatimite 
khalif succeeded his father al-Mustanasar Billah in the 
government of Egypt and Syria. During his reign, the 
power of that dynasty was impaired, and its authority 
weakened, their political influence having ceased in most 
of the Syrian cities, and the provinces of that country 
having fallen into the possessions of the Turkmans on one 
hand, and the Franks on the other. This people (the 
Crusaders) entered Syria and encamped before Antioch in 
the month of October, 1097 A. D., Zfl-fcada 490 A. H. ; they 
obtained possession of it on the 20th June, 1098, 16th 
Hajab, 491 A. H. ; the following year they took Maaratun 
Noman, and in the month of July, 1099, Sha'ban, 492 
A. H., they became masters of Jerusalem, after a siege of 
more than 40 days. This city was taken on a Friday 
morning ; during the ensuing week, a great multitude of 
Moslems perished, and upwards of 70,000 were slain in 

the Masjid al-A^sa (or mosque of Umar) al-Musta- 

a'li was born at Cairo on the 24th August, 1076, 20th 
Muharram, 469 A. H., proclaimed khalif on Thursday the 
28th of December, 1094, 18th ?il-bijja 487 A. H., and died 
in Egypt on the 10th December, 1101 A. D., 16th Safar, 
495 A. H. His son Amar bi Ahkam-ullah Abu All Man- 
stir succeeded him. 

Al-MuBtaa'sim BiUah, *W* r**i~J\, sumamed Abd 
Ahmad Abdullah, was the thirty-seventh and last khalif 
of tho race of Abbas. He succeeded his father al-Mus- 
tanasar to the throne of Baghdad in 1142 A. D., 640 A. H. 
In his time Halaku Khan Tartar, emperor of the Mughala 
and grandson of tho great conqueror Changiz Khan, 
besieged Baghdad for two months, and having taken that 
place, seized al-Mustaa'sim and his four sons whom he 
put to a most cruel death with 800,000 of its inhabitants. 
Halaku Khan was very desirous of seizing upon Bagh- 
dad, and of adding the whole kingdom of Mesopotamia to 
his already vast and numerous conquests ; but, partly on 
account of his own scruples, and partly from fear of 
offending the prejudices of his 8unni followers, who were 
all of the same faith with the khalif, he refrained for a 
time from entering the sacred dominion of one who was 
considered as the head of their holy religion, and the true 
representative of their beloved prophet. But the glorious 
days of the house of Bani Abbas had already been num- 
bered, the effeminate Mustaa'sim had personal vires enough 
to load to and excuse the final extinction of his race ! 
Ibn al-$ama, his prime minister (who hated him more 
than any other of his oppresned subjects) from within, and 
Kasir-uddin T6si, the preceptor of the Mughal prince 
(wbo owed him an old grudge) from without, urged the 
conqueror to the gates of Baghdad. Kasir-uddin had a 
few years before been at Baghdad, seeking nhelter from 
perswution, when he was introduced to Mustaa'sim. the 
latter asked him to what country he belonged ? " Tue, 



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please your holiness", answered Nasir-uddin. " Art thou 
of the, asses, or of the oxen of Tus ?* said the khalif 
(meaning the two principal branches of the Shia faith — 
Akhbaris and Usulis). Mortified as the illustrious refugee 
was at this inhospitable insult, he still submissively an- 
swered, "Of the oxen of Tus, please your highness." 
44 Where, then, are thy horns", said the insolent buffoon. 
•* I have them not with me", replied Nasir-uddin, " but, if 
your holiness permit, I will go and fetch them." '* Make 
haste, henee, then, thou deformed animal", said the khalif, 
'* and never again appear in my presence in so imperfect 
a state !" Nasir-uddin kept his promise well, for, at the 
moment when Baghdad was on the point of being sur- 
rendered, and the khalif driven to the last extremity, he 
sent him a message to the effect that the ox of Tus was at 
the gate with his horns, and inquiring, when it would 
please his holiness to receive him ? Nasir-uddin had in 
the city another old offender, whom he was anxious also 
to chastise. This was ibn Hajib, also one of the khalifa 
ministers, and a pdrson of groat reputation for his learn- 
ing ; but being an Arabian Sunni, and a very bigoted one 
too, he had behaved still more cruelly than his master to 
the distressed Persian Shia when he sought protection at 
Baghdad. Ibn Hajib having been seized with depression 
of spirits, the physicians had recommended him (and the 
priests had granted him dispensation) to take, occasion- 
ally, a little wine. This happened when Nasir-uddin 
was at Baghdad. One day, ibn Hajib feeling himself 
particularly melancholy, and having, in consequence, taken 
a larger dose than usual, he became unusually merry, and 
requested Nasir-u<ldui to accompany him on the Tigris. 
Having reached the middle of the stream, he stopped the 
boat, and produced the several volumes of Nasir-uddin' s 
works, which the learned refugee had presented to the 
khalif — some of them in the original manuscript, and not 
yet transcribed, and in the presence of their anxious au- 
thor, he threw them all, one after another, into the river, 
with such spiteful force, that the water was splashed 
about in every direction ; when turning himself, on each 
occasion, to his mortified guest, he exclaimed with a 
sarcastic smile of triumph, '* How wonderfully it bubbles!" 
When the turn of Nasir-uddin came, he, too, gave full 
vent to his revenge. He ordered ibn Hajib to be cased 
up to his neck, in an ox's hide, just taken off the animal, 
and, having filled the skin with air, he laid it for a few 
hours in the sun, till it became quite dry, and sounded 
like a drum. Then the victor advanced close to his half 
exhausted enemy, gave him a kick of triumph, and, as he 
rolled on the ground, exclaimed, "How wonderfully it 
rattles !" This melancholy event took place on Sunday 
the 10th of February, 1258 A. D., 4th Safar, 656 A. H., 
from which time Baghdad was added to the other con- 
quered provinces of this proud emperor. Al-Mustaa'sim 
reigned 15 lunar years and 7 months. 



Al-Musta'in BiUah, 



aUbv. 



', the son of Muham- 



mad, the son of al-Mo'tasim Billah was the twelfth khalif 
of the race of Abbas. He ascended the throne of Bagh- 
dad in 862 A. D M 248 A. H., after the death of his cousin 
or brother al-Mustanasar Billah, but was forced to abdi- 
cate the throne in 866 A. D.. 252 A. H , by his brother 
al-M6'tiz Billah, who afterwards caused him to be private- 
ly murdered. 

Al-Mustakfl BiUah, ^ J&-~J\ t was the 22nd khalif 
of the Abbaside family, and the son of al-Muktaff the son 
of al-M6'tazid Billah. He succeeded his uncle al-Muttaki 
in 946 A. I)., 333 AH, reigned in Baghdad one year and 
four months, and was deposed by his wazir in 946 A. D., 
334 A. H. After him al-MutiV Billah was raised to the 
throne. 

Al-Mustansir BiUah, *M*j*£-J\, the son ofTahir, 
was the fifth khalif of Egypt of the Fatimite race. He 
succeeded his father A. D. 1036, and with the assistance 
of a Turk named Basasiri, conquered Baghdad and im- 



prisoned al-Kaem Billah about the year 1054 A. D., and 
for a year and half was acknowledged the only legitimate 
chief of all the M usalmans . Basasiri was defeated and 
killed by Tughral Beg A. D. 1059, 487 A. H. VuU 
Basasiri. Al-Mustanasar died in 1094, having reigned 60 
years ; and was succeeded by his son al-Mustaa'li Billah 
AbulKasim. 

Al-Mustansir Billah I, di % *j+**-J\ 9 the eleventh 

khalif of the race of Abbas, ascended ihp throne of Bagh- 
dad after the murder of his father al-Mutwakkil in De- 
cember 861 A. D., Shawwal, 247 A. H,, and had reigned 
only six months, when he was cut off by the hand of death 
in 862 A. D., 248 A. H. He was succeeded by his. cousin 
al-Musta'in Billah. 
Al-Mustansir Billah II, *Ubj*Z~Jl, surnamed Abu 
Ja'far al-Mansur, ascended the throne of Baghdad after 
the death of his father al-Tahir, in 1226 A. P., 623 A- H. 
He was the 36th khalif of the house of Abbas, reigned 
about 17 years, and died in 1242 A. D., 640 A. H., leaving 
his kingdom to his son al-Mustaa'sim Billah the last of 
the khalifs. 

Al-Mustanjid Billah, ^ **? lm * , t, the thirty-second 
khalif of the race of Abbas, succeeded to the throne of 
Baghdad after the death of his father al-Muktafi, in 1160 
A. D., 555 A. H., reigned 11 lunar years and died in 1171 
A. D., 566 A. H., when his son al-Mustazi succeeded him. 

Al-Mustarshid BiUah, **** A^L-Jf, the twenty, 
ninth khalif of the Abbaside family, succeeded his father 
al-Mustazahr to the throne of Baghdad in 1118 A- D., 
512 A. H. It is related by ibn Khallikan that when Sul- 
tan Maaaud the son of Muhammad the son of Malikshah 
Saljuki was encamped outside of the town of Maragha in 
Azurbejan, al-Mustarashid was then with him, and on 
Thursday the 28th or according to ibn Mustaufi, the 14th 
or 28th Zii'kada 529 A. H. (corresponding with the 24th 
August or 7th September, 1135 A. D.) a band of aft****™* 
broke into the khalifs tent and murdered him. Al-Mus- 
tarashid reigned 17 lunar years and some months, and 
was succeeded by his son al-Rashid Billah. 

Al-Mustazhir BiUah, *&* j ! *" -•*>, the son of al- 
Muktadi, was the twenty- eighth khalif of the dynasty of 
Abbas. He was placed on the throne of Baghdad after 
the death of his father in 1094 A. D., 487 A. H., by Bar- 
kyarak Saljuki, the Sultan of Persia. He reigned 25 lunar 
years and some months, and at his death which happened 
in the year 1118 A. D., 612 A, H., he was succeeded by 
his son al-Mustarashid. 

Al-Mustazi Bi-amr-illah, *U\y>k ^1^J\ 3 the thirty- 
third khalif of the Abbaside family, succeeded his father 
al-MuBtanjad to the throne of Baghdad in 1171 A. D. f 
566 A. H. He reigned about seven years and died in 1179 
A. D., 575 A. H., when his son al-Nasir Billah succeeded 
him. 

Al-Mutaa'ZE BiUah, *MiJ*iJI, the son of al-Mutwak- 
kil, was the thirteenth khalif of the race of Abbas. He 
deposed his brother al-Mustafn in 866 A. D., 252 A. H^ 
and having caused him to be murdered privately, ascended 
the throne of Baghdad. He did not, however, long enjoy 
the dignity of which he had so iniquitously possessed 
himself; being deposed by the Turkish Militia (who now 
began to set up and depose khalifs as they pleased) in the 
year 869 A. D., 255 A. H. After his deposition, he was 
sent under an escort from Sarr Manrae to Baghdad, where 
ho died of thirst and hunger, after a reign of three years 
and about seven months. The fate of this khalif was 
peculiarly hard: the Turkish towns had mutinied for 
their pay ; and al-Mutaazz not having money to satisfy 
their demands, applied to his mother named Kabiha for 
50,000 dinars. This she refused, telling him that she had 



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no money at all, although it afterwards appeared that she 
was possessed of immense treasure. After his deposition, 
however, she was obliged to discover them, and even depo- 
sit them in the hands of the new khalif al-Muhtadl . They 
consisted of 1,000,000 dinars, a bushel of emeralds, and 
another of pearls, and three pounds and three quarters 
of rubies of the colour of fire. 

Al-Mutia > Billah, *^ C^ 1 , the twenty-third khalif 
of the race of Abbas was the son of al-Muktadir Billan. 
He ascended the throne of Baghdad after al-Mustakfi in 
946 A. D., 334 A. H., reigned 29 lunar years and 4 months 
and died in 974 A. D., 363 A. H. His son al-Taya' suc- 
ceeded him. 

Al-Muttaki Billah, *M* (J****, the son of al-Mu*tadir 
was the twenty-first khalif of the dynasty of Abbas. He 
succeeded his brother al-Rszf Billah to the throne of 
Baghdad in 941 A. D. t 329 A. H., reigned 3 years 11 
months and 15 days and died in 946 A. D., 333 A. H. 
He was succeeded by his nephew, al-MustaVfi the son of 
al-Muktafi. 

Al-Mutwakkil, 'Al-allah, ^tU 0fjxJ\. This was 

the name and title assumed by Abul Faal Ja'far on his 
accession to the throne of Baghdad. He was the tenth 
khalif of the house of Abbas, and the son of al-M6'tasim 
Bfflah. He succeeded his brother al-Wathik or Wasit 
in the year 847 A* B., 232 A. H., and began his reign 
with an act of the greatest cruelty. The late khalif s 
wasir having treated al-Mutwakkil ill in his brother's 
lifetime, and opposed his election to the khilamt, was on 
that account now sent to prison, and afterwards thrown 
into an iron furnace lined with spikes or nails heated red 
hot, where he was miserably burnt to death. During 
this reign nothing remarkable happened, except wan with 
the Greeks, which were carried on with various success. 
He was very intolerant, especially of the Jews and Chris- 
tians, on whom he heaped many indignities. He did not 
stop there. In his imbecility and ferocity he forbade the 
pilgrimage to Karbala, and caused the sacred repository 
of the ashes of Husain and the other martyrs interred 
there to be razed. He reigned 14 years 9 months and 9 
days, and was assassinated and cut into seven pieces on 
the 24th December, 861 A. D., 17th Shawwal, 247 A. H., 
at the instance of his son al-Mustana&ar who succeeded 
him. 

Al-MuwaJBk Billah, *M* i&jJ*, the son of al-Mut- 
wakkil Billfli, the khalif of Baghdad and brother and 
coadjutor of the khalif al-Ma'tamid, to whom he was of 
much service in his battles against .his enemies. He died 
of the elephantiasis or leprosy in the year 891 A. D., 278 
A. H., and while in his last illness, could not help observ- 
ing, that of 100,000 men whom he commanded, there was 
not one bo miserable as himself. His son M6'taxid\ after 
the death of his brother al-M6'tamid in 892 A. D., suc- 
ceeded to the throne of Baghdad. 

Al-Muwyyid (Ismail), J &«* « l *iyJ\, whose name is 
spelt in Lempriere'a Universal Biographical Dictionary, 
** Alombuadad", and in WatkhVs Biographical Dictionary 
" Almuvadad", was an Arabian historian, who gave a chro- 
nological account of the 8aracen affairs in Sicily from 842 
to 904 A. D. This MS. is in the library of the Escnrial, 
in 8pain, and a Latin version of it is inserted in Mura- 
toris' Renim Italioarum Scriptorea. 

Al-Musani, Jj+*\ <** Abu Ibrahim Ismafl. 

Al-NaaiT Billah, *M> m jJVl, or al-Nasir-uddin allah, the 
son of al-Mustazi succeeded his father to the throne 
of Baghdad in 1 179 A. D. He professed the Shis' fitith, 
and after a long xeign of 46 lunar years and 11 months, 
died in the vear 1226 A. D. He was the 34th khalif of 
the house of Abbas, and was succeeded by his sonal-Tahir 
Billah. 

12 



Alp Arsalan, cr*^*^ (which means in the Turkish 
language " the valiant lion*') was a king of Persia of the 
Saljukian dynasty, and the son of Daud Beg Saljukf. He 
succeeded his uncle Tughral Beg in 1063 A. D., 465 A. H., 
married the sister of the khalif $aem Billan, an d his name, 
after that of the khalif, was pronounced in the public 
prayers of the Muhammadans. He was a warlike prince ; 
and, having spoiled the Church of St Basil in Csdsarea, 
defeated Bomanus Diogenes, emperor of the Greeks in 
1068 A. D., 460 A. If., who was seized and carried to the 
conqueror. Alp Arsalan de mand ed of his captive, at the 
first conference, what he would have done if fortune had 
reversed their lot. " I would have given thee many a 
stripe", was the imprudent and virulent answer. The 
Sultan only smiled and asked BomanuB what he expected 
would be done to him. " If thou art cruel", said the 
emperor, " put me to death. If vain-glorious load me with 
chains, and drag me in triumph to thy capital. If gen- 
erous, grant me my liberty." Alp Arsalan was neither 
cruel nor vain-glorious, ho nobly released his prisoner, 
and gave all his officers who were captives dresses of 
honor, and sent them away. Alp Arsalan after a reign 
of more than nine years was stabbed about the 16th of 
December, 1072 A. D., 30th Babi I, 466 A. H., by a des- 
perate Khwdrizmian, whom he had taken prisoner and 
sentenced to death. He was buried at Marv in Khurasan, 
and the following is the translation of the inscription en- 
graved on his tomb : " All ye who have seen the glory 
of Alp Arsalan exalted to the heavens, come to Marv, and 
you will behold it buried in the dust." He was succeeded 
by his son Malikshah. 

Alp Arsalan, who is by some called Apal Arsalan, was the 
son of Atsix, a Sultan of Khwarizm, whom he succeeded 
in A. D. 1166, 651—667 A. H. and died in 1162 A. D. 

Alptakin or Alptagin, u^^t, vide Alaptakin. 

Al-Rashid or Harun al-Rauhid, *±»J\ «!•/*, ^ e ^^ 
brated hero of the Arabian Nights, was the fifth khalif of 
the race of Abbas and son of al-Mahdi, he succeeded his 
eldest brother al-Hadi to the throne of Baghdad in 786 
A. D., 170 A. H. This was one of the best and wisest 
princes that ever sat on the throne of Baghdad. He was 
also extremely fortunate in all his undertakings, though 
he did not much extend his dominions by conquest. In 
his time the Moslem empire may be said to have been in 
its most flourishing state, though, by the independency 
of the Moslems in Spain, who had formerly set up a kha* 
Iff of the house of Umyya, his territories were not quite 
so extensive as those of some of his predecessors. He, 
possessed the provinces of Syria, Palestine, Arabia, Persia, 
Armenia, Natoha, Media or Asurbejan, Babylonia, 
Assyria, Sindh, Sijistan, Khurasan, Tabristan, Jurjan, 
Z&bulistan, Mawarunnahr, or great Bukhara, Egypt, 
Libya, Mauritania &c, so that his empire was by far the 
most powerful of any in the world, and extended farther 
than the Roman empire ever had done. 

In the beginning of the year 802 A. D., 186 A. H., he 
divided the government of his extensive dominions among 
his three sons in the following manner : To al-Amin the 
eldest, he assigned the provinces of Syria, Irak, the three 
Arabian, Mesopotamia, Assyria, Media, Palestine, Egypt, 
and all the part of Africa extending from the confines of 
Egypt and Ethiopia to the Straits of Gibraltar, with the 
dignity of khalif; to al-Mamun the second, he assigned 
Persia, Kirmin, the Indies, Khurasan, Tabristan, Kibu- 
listan and Zabulistan, together with the vast province of 
Mawarunnahr, and to his third son al-gasim, he Rave 
Armenia, NatoHa, Jurjan, Georgia, Circassia, and all the 
Moslem territories bordering upon the Euxine sea. As to 
the order of succession, al-Amin was to ascend the throne 
immediately after his father's decease ; after him, al-Ma- 
mun ; and then al- Kasim, whom he had surnamed al-M6'. 



The most considerable exploits performed by this 
khalif were against the Greeks, who by their perfidy pro- 



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voked him to make war upon them, and whom he always 
overcame. In the year 803 A. D., 187 A. H., the khalif 
received a letter from the Greek emperor Nicephorus, 
commanding him to return all the money he had extorted 
from the Empress Irane, or expect soon to see an impe- 
rial army in the heart of his territories. This insolent 
letter so exasperated Harun, that he immediately assem- 
bled his forces and advanced to Heraclea, laying the 
country, through which he passed, waste with fire and 
sword. For some time also he kept that city straitly 
besieged ; which so terrified the Greek emperor that he 
submitted to pay an annual tribute. 

In the year 804 A. D., 188 A. H., war was renewed with 
the Greeks, and Nicephorus with a great army attacked 
the khalif *s forces with the utmost fury. He was, how- 
ever, defeated with the loss of 40,000 men, and received 
three wounds in the action; after which the Moslems 
committed terrible ravages in his territories, and returned 
home laden with spoils. The next year Harun invaded 
Phrygia ; defeated an imperial army sent to oppose him, 
and having ravaged the country, returned without any 
considerable loss. In the year 806, 190 A. H., the khalif 
marched into the imperial territories with an army of 
135,000 men, besides a great number of volunteers and 
others who were not enrolled among his troops. He first 
took the city of Heraclea, from which he is said to have 
carried 16,000 prisoners ; after which he made himself 
master of several other places, and, in the conclusion of 
the expedition, he made a descent on the island of Cyprus, 
which he plundered in a terrible manner. This success so 
intimidated Nicephorus, that he immediately sent the 
tribute due to Harun, the withholding of which had been 
the cause of the war ; and concluded a peace upon the 
khalif s own terms. Charlemagne respected his character, 
and Harun in token of his friendship presented to the 
European prince a clock, the mechanism and construction 
of which were regarded among the prodigies of the age. 
Harun reigned 23 years and died in Khurasan on the eve 
of Saturday the 24th March, 809 A. D., 3rd Jamad II, 
193 A. H., and was buried at Tiis which is now called 
Mashhad. He was succeeded by his eldest son al-Amin. 

AI-Bashid Billah, *^ *&\jh, the thirtieth khalif of 
the Abbasides succeeded his lather al-Mustarashad in 
August or September, 1135 A. D., Zil'kad, 629 A. H., and 
died in the year 1136 A. D., 530 A. H. He was succeeded 
by al-Mu^tafi the son of al-Mustazahir. 

Al-Razi, see Razf. 

Al-Bazi Billah, ^ u^A the son of al-Mufctadir and 

the twentieth khalif of the house of Abbas, was the last 
who deserved the title of the Commander of the Faithful. 
He was raised to the throne of Baghdad, after the de- 
thronement of his uncle al-Kahir Billaii by the wazir ibn 
Mafcla in April 934 A. D.\ Jamad I, 322 A. H. In the 
year 936, the khalif finding himself distressed on all sides 
by usurpers, and having a wazir of no capacity, instituted 
a new office superior to that of waifr, which he entitled 
Amir-ul-Umra. This great officer, Im&d-ud-daula All 
B6ya, was trusted with the management of the finances 
in a much more absolute and unlimited manner than any of 
the khalif s wazfrs ever had been. Nay he officiated for the 
khalif in the great mosque at Baghdad, and had his name 
mentioned in the public prayers throughout the kingdom. 
In short the khalif was so much under the power of this 
officer, that he could not apply a single dinar to his own 
use without the leave of the Amir-ul-Umra. In the year 
937 A. D. the Moslem empire so great and powerful, was 
shared among the following usurpers : 

The cities of Wasat, Basra, Kufa with the rest of the 
Arabian Ira^, were considered as the property of the 
Amir-ul-TJmra\ though they had been in the beginning of 
the year seized upon by a rebel called al-Baridi, who could 
not be driven out of them. 



The country of Fars, Parisian, or Persia properly so 
called, was possessed by Imad-ud-daula Alf ibn Boya, who 
resided in the city of Shiraz. 

Part of the tract denominated al-Jabal, together with 
Persian Iri^, which is the mountainous part of Persia, 
and the country of the ancient Parthians, obeyed Rukn- 
ud-daula, the brother of Imad-ud-daula, who redded at 
Isfahan. The other part of the country was possessed by 
Waehmaktn the Dflamite. 

Dayar Babia, Dayar Bikr, Dayar Modar, and the city 
of Mousal, acknowledged for their sovereign a race of 
princes called Hamdanites. 

Egypt and Syria no longer obeyed the khalifa, but Mu- 
hammad ibn Taj who had formerly been appointed gover- 
nor of those provinces. 

Africa and Spain had long been independent. 

Cicily and Crete were governed by princes of their own. 

The provinces of Khurasan and Milvarunnahr were 
under the dominions of al-Nasr ibn Ahm*^ of the dynasty 
of the Samanians. 

The provinces of Tabristan, Jurian or Georgia, and 
Mazindaran, had kings of the first dynasty of the Dfla- 
mite*. 

The province of Kirman was occupied by Abu AH Mu- 
hammad ibn Eylia al-Samani, who had made himself 
master of it a short time before. And 

Lastly, the provinces of Yemamaand Bahryn, including 
the district of Hajr, were in the possession of Abu Tlhir 
the Karmatian. 

Thus the khalifs were deprived of all their dominions, 
and reduced to the rank of sovereign pontiffs ; in which 
light, though they continued for some time to be regarded 
by the neighbouring princes, yet their power never arrived 
to any height. In this low state the khalifs continued 
till the extinction of the Khiliat by Halaku Khan the 
Tartar in the vear 1258 A. D., 656 A. H. 

Al-Razi Billah reigned 7 years 2 months and 11 days 
and died in 941 A. D., 329 A. H. He was succeeded by 
his brother al-Mutta^f. 

Al-Saharawi, KS$j*^l, vide Abul ^aaim. 

Al-Saflfoh, £W-Jt , surname of Abul Abbis, the son of Ma* 

hammad, the son of AH, the son of 'Abdulteh, the son of 
Abbas the uncle of the prophet. He was proclaimed khalifa 
by the inhabitants of Kufa on Friday the 29th of November, 
749 A D., 13thRabiII, 132 A. H. v upon which a battle took 
place between him and Marwan II the last khalifa of the 
house of Umyya or Ommaides, in which the latter was 
slain, 5th of August, 750 A D. f 26th ?il-lujja, 132 A. H. 
Al-Saffah after this victory investing himself with sover- 
eign power, laid the foundation of the dynasty of the 
Abbasides, which continued to be transmitted to his family 
from father to son for 524 lunar years, during a succession 
of 37 khalifs, till they were dispossessed by Halaku Khan 
the Tartar king of Persia in 1258 A D., 656 A H. By 
the elevation of the house of Abbas to the dignity of khi- 
Ufat, began that glorious period during which Arabic and 
Persian literature reached its highest perfection. With 
some few exceptions these khalifas were the noblest race 
of kings that ever adorned the throne of sovereignty. 
Abul Abbis died, after a reign of more than four years, of 
the small-pox, on Sunday the 9th of June, 754 A D., 13th 
gil-bljja 136 A H., and was succeeded by his brother Abd 
Ja'far Almansur. 

Litt of the khalifat of the race of Abbde who 
reigned at Baghdad. 

1. Al-Saffah or Abul 'Abbas al-Saffalu 

2. Al-Mansur. 

3. Al-Mahdi son of al-Mansur* 

4. Al-Haa% son of MahdL 

5. Al-Rashid or Harun al-Raahfd son of MahdL 

6. Al-Amin, son of Harun. 

7. Al-Mamun, son of Harun. 
Ibrahim son of Mahdi, competitor. 



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8. Al-Mo'tasim Billyh, son of Hirun. 

9. Al-Withifc or Wisifc eon of Mo'tasim. 

10. Al-Mutwakkil. 

11. Al-Mustanasir Billih. 

12. Al-Mustain Billih. 
IS. Al-Mo'ti* BilUh. 

14. Al-Muhtadi Billih. 

15. Al-Mo'tamid. 

16. Al-Motaeid Billih* 

17. Al-Muktafi Billih. 

18. Al-Mufctadir Billih. 

19. Al-Kahir Billih, 

20. Al-Bizi Billih. 

21. Al-Muttakf BilUh. 

22. Al-Muetakfi BilUh. 

23. Al-Mutia BilUh. 

24. Al-Tiya BilUh. 

25. Al-£&ir Billih. 

26. Al-I£iem be-amr-ullih. 

27. Al-Mufctadi BilUh. 

28. Al-Mustasahir Billih. 

29. Al-Mustarashid BilUh. 

30. Al-Bahhid BilUh. 

31. Al-Muktafi bi-amr-ullih. 

32. Al-Mufltanjad BilUh. 

33. Al-Mostazi bi-amr-ullih. 

34. Al-Nisir BilUh. 

35. Al/Tihir bi-amr-ullih. 

36. Al-Muatanasar BilUh II. 

37. Al-Mo'tasim BilUh, the last khalifc 

Al-Tahir bi-amr-illah Muhammad, t* *" *U]j"l> 
J*"**), succeeded hifl father al-Nisir BilUh to the throne 

of Baghdad in 1225 A. D., 622 A. H. He was the thirty, 
fifth khalif of the house of Abbia, reigned 9 months and 
11 days and died in 1226 A. D., 623 A. H. Hifl son al- 
Mustanasar II succeeded him. 

Al-Taya> (or al-Tayi') Billah, *M fiJ^I, the son of 
al-Mutta* BilUh was the twenty-fourth khalif of Baghdid. 
He succeeded his father in 974 A. D. reigned 17 years 
and 4 months, and was deposed by Bahi-ud-dauU in 991 
A. D., when Kidir BilUh the son of Is-fcik the son of 
Muktadir was raised to the throne. 

Altimah, cA*^'j vide Shams-uddin Altunsh. 

Al-Walid, «H^ , vide Walid. 

Al-Wathik or al-WasOt Billah, c#A the ninth kha- 
lit of the family of the Abbasides succeeded his father 
al-M6'tasim BilUh on the 5th January, 842 A. D., 18th 
Rabi 1, 227 A. H., to the throne of Baghdid. The follow- 
ing year, he invaded and conquered 8icily. Nothing 
remarkable happened during the rest of his reign. He 
reigned 6 lunar years 7 months and 3 days, and died in 
847 A. D., 232 A. H. He was succeeded by his brother 
al-MutwakkiL 

'Alwi, *s£*$ poetical name of 8haikh Waji uddfn, which 
see. 

>Alwt,UfrK poetical name of M£r Tihir 'Alwi who died at 

Kaahmir previous to the year 1723 A. D., 1136 A. H. 
He is the author of a dfwan and a Maanawi, the latter 
contains the story of the blacksmith and the cotton 
cleanser, called pasae Haddid wa Hallaj. 

* Alwi Khan (Hakim), **^ iSJ^$ a physician, who was 
invited from Persia by the emperor Muhammad Shih 
and died at Dehli in 1748 A. D„ 1161 A. H. His title 
was Mo'tmid-ul-Maluk 8ayyid 'Alwi Khan Hakim. He 
is the author of a medical work called " JaW-ul-Jawa'- 



•Amad, *U*/ 'Amid Shih, 'Amid-uddfn Sec. vide Imid, 
ImidShih&c 

'Ama-'ak or Uma-'ak Bukhari, <5*+*, vide Abul Na- 
jib-al-Bukhiri. 

Amanat, *&**!, poetical name of Sayyid Aghi Hasan son 
of Aghi Bazwf, author of a Dfwan. 

Amanat 'AH, i^^^t, (Maulwi) author of a small work 

entitled "Bahir Ajam", containing 121 letters written 
by him to different persons, in pure Persian. 

Amanat Khan Mirak, **J* &**> cJU», title of Mir 
Ma'in-uddin Ahmad Khin Khwifi, a native of Khwif 
in Khurasan. He was a nobleman of high rank in the 
time of the emperor ' Alamgir, and died in the year 1684 
A. D., 1095 A. H., at Aurangabid. He is the author of 
the work called " Shariat ul-IsUm." 

Amanat Khan, «/*• oJUf, tiUe of Mir Husain, son of 
Amanat Khan Khwifi. He was honored with the title 
of his father about the year 1688 A. D., 1100 A. H., by 
the emperor 'Alamgir, and raised to the rank of a noble- 
man. He held different offices under that emperor and 
died at Surat A. D. 1699, 1111 A. H. 

Amanat Khan, c/*» *sil*l, a celebrated Nastalfk writer, 
who in the eleventh year of the reign of the emperor 
Shih Jahin wrote the inscriptions on the Taj at Agra. 

Amani, J^j**, (Mir) of Kibul died in 981 A. H. or 1573 
A. D. 

Amani, u*^, poetical name of Mini Amin-ullih the eld- 

est son of Mahabat Khin. He flourished in the time of 
the emperor Shih Jahin, and died in the year 1637 A. D., 
1047 A. H. He is the author of a diwin. Vide Khin 
Zamin Bahidur and Mahibat Khin. 

Aman-ullah, *W'«|Ul £iU, (Hifiz) of Benares was an 

author and $izi of Lakhnau in the time of the emperor 
'Alamgir. He died in 1721 A. D., 1133 A. H. 

Aman-ullah Husaini, uHr* *^l e>^> author of an 



Inaha which goes by his name, (< Inahie Amin-ullih 
Husaini" 

Ahmad Shah Abdali, ^rftdJl »U Ck^t, n his seventh 

invasion of Hindustan arrived at the Satkj in 1764, A. D. 
Amar Singh waited on him, but was ordered to shave his 
head and beard before entering the royal presence. By 
a nazarana or present of a lac of Rupees, he purchased 
permission to appear bearded and unshorn, and received 
investiture with the title of Maha Raja Rijagin Mahindar 
Bakashr, which title is now borne by the head of the Pa. 
tiala family. 

Amar Singh, *^V«trajiofPatiala, was the son of Sardal 

Singh who survived his rather Biji Ala Singh two or three 
years. Ahmad Amar Singh vide Bana Amar Singh. 

Amar Singh Bana, son of Kama PaUal 8ingh of Chittore, 
died in 1028 A. H. 

Amar Singh, *&-v*f , son of Gaj 8ingh, a rajput chief 
of the tribe of Radnor. He killed SaUbat Khin Mir 
Bakhshi in the 17th year of Shih Jahin in the presence of 
the emperor, on Thursday evening the 25th of July, 1644 
0. 8., 80th Jamadi 1, 1054 H., and was by the order of the 
* emperor pursued and cut to pieces after a gallant defence 
near one of the gates of the fort of Agra, which is to this 
day called Amar Singh Darwisa or Amar Singh Gate. 
An account of this prince's early history will be found in 
Tod's Bdjotthd*. 



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Amar Singh, *&*j*f, of Benares whose poetical name 
was Khushg6, held a government appointment in the 
Koel district. He compiled a short history of Akbar's 
palace and of the Taj of Agra and put the Bahar Danish 
into verse and called it Tarjuma Bahar Danish. This 
book is to be distinguished from the Izhar Danish, an 
Urdu Translation of Bahar Danish by Mullazada at 
Palnar. 

Amar Singh, (Rana) son of Rana Purtab Singh vide Rana 
Sankar. 

Ambaji Inglia, a raja of Gwaliar who was living in 1808. 

Amin, <D**I> the sixth khalif of the house of Abbas. Vide 
al-Amfn. 

Amin, (i^*'j poetical name of Shah Amin-uddin of Arim- 
db&d who flourished about the year 1716 A. D., 1127 H., 
and left a diwan of Ghazals &c. 

Amina Begum, (&&> *****> vide Ghasftf Begum. 

Amin Ahmad or Amin Muhammad Bazi, er^*l 

^jU ±+*>\ the author of the Biographical Dictionary called 

" Haft Aklim." (The seven climates.) This book, which 
he finished in the time of the emperor Akbar in 1594 
A. D., 1002 A. H, contains a short description of the seven 
climates of the Temperate Zone, and the Topography of 
their principal cities; with memoirs of the illustrious 
persons and eminent poets which each has produced. 
Amin-uddin Khan, Nawab of Lohari, one of the eldest 
and most worthy of the chiefs of Dohli. He died on 
the 31st of December, 1860 A. D., aged 70 years. His 
eldest son Mirza 'Ala-uddin Khan succeeded to his estates 
at Saharu, on the 11th of January 1870. 

Amini, uh(*l> poetical name of Amur Sultan Ibrahfm, a 
contemporary of Khwaja 'Asafi who died in 1620 A. D. 
926 A. H. >jmin{ wrote a chronogram on that occasion. 

Amin-uddin, e^^ V&^J* ) (Mfr) a poet and a great 
jester, was contemporary with the poets Moulana All Kihi 
and Khwaja AH 8hahab. 

Amin-uddin, c^^' V&J&°I> (Amfr) vide Yemfn-uddin 
(Amir) and Tughrai. 

Amin-ud-daula Ahul Jin, u=bV **>*** v^±*t, 
surnamed the Samaritan, was a physician and had been 
wazir to Malik Salah Isma'fl. He was strangled at Cairo 
in 1260 A, D., 648 A. H., and there were found in his 
house, amongst other precious articles, about 10,000 
volumes of valuable works, copied by the most celebrated 
calligraphers. 

Amin-ud-daula Khan, c^ *MWf crt*t, a rebel, was 

blown from the mouth of a gun on the 3rd August, 1867, 
at Agra* 

Amir bi Ahkam AUah, *Ut (&*> k/**, surnamed Abu 

AH Mansur seventh khalif of the Fatimite dynasty of 
Egypt, succeeded his father al-Mustaa'li Billah in Decem- 
ber 1101. From this time to the reign of 'Aarid li-din 
Allah, during which period five khalifs ascended the 
throne of Egypt, the history of that country affords little 
else than an account of the intestine broils and contests 
between the wazfrs or prime ministers, who were now 
become so powerful, that they had in a great measure 
stripped the khalifs of their civil power, and left them 
nothing but a shadow of spiritual dignity. These con- 
tests at last gave occasion to a revolution, by which the 
race of Fatimite khalifs were totally extinguished. Vide 
'Arid li-din Allah. ~ 

Amir, J&^> poetical name of Amir-ud-daula Nasfr Jang 
commonly called Mirza Menghu, son of Nawab 6huja-ud- 
daula and brother to Nawab Asaf-ud-dautt. 



Amiran Shah, *^" o!sH> *•& Mfrin 8h4n. 

Amira Singh Tappa, *$* «&• j^of, a chief of Nipfl. 
He was the highest in rank and character of all the mi- 
litary chiefs of NaipsX In 1814 during his campaign against 
Sir David Ochterlony in the Kamaon hills, he evinced 
equal valour and patriotism. 

Amir Barid, I, <Hr? j&\ 9 the son of l&nm Barid whom 

he succeeded in the government of Ahmadabid Bfdar in 
1604 A. D., 910 A. H. During his rule the king Sultan 
Mahmud ShahBahmani died in 1617, A. D. 928 A. H., when 
Amir Barid placed Sul^An 'AUuddin III, on the throne, 
and after his death Sultan KaHm Ullah, who being treated 
with great rigour by the Amfr, fled from Bidar to Ah- 
madnagar, where he died shortly after. With KaHm 
Ullah ended the dynasty of the Bahmanf kings of Dak- 
han. Amir Barid reigned over the territories of Ahma- 
dabad Bidar with full power more than 26 years, and 
died at Daulatabad in 1642 A D., 949 A. H. He was 
buried at Ahmadabad Bidar, and succeeded by his son AU 
Barid. 

Amir Barid, II, ^ u *&jV\ f iuooeeded to the govern- 
ment of Ahmadabad Biwar after deposing his relative All 
Barid Shah II in 1609 A. D., and was the last of the 
Barid Shahi dynasty. 

Amiri, c5«r**'> the poetical name of Manlana Sultan Mu- 
hammad, a distinguished man who lived in the time of 
8hah Tahraasp Safwi I. He praised this sovereign in his 
poems, and is the translator of Amir AH Sher's Tazkira, 
called ** Majalis-ul-Nafaes", from Turki into Persian. 
He is also the author of the " Boetan ul-KhayiL" 

Amir Khan, d^j***, title of Mfr Abul Waft, the eldest 
Bon of Mir $asim Khan Namkin, was a nobleman in the 
time of the emperors Jahangir and Shall Jahan. At the 
time of his death he was governor of That^a, where he 
died A D. 1647, 1067 A. H., aged more than 100 years. 
His former name was Mir Khan, but having made a pre- 
sent of one lac of rupees to Shah Jahan, he was honored 
with the title of Anur Khan. 

Amir Khan, s^jfj* ufej¥°1, surnamed Mfr Mfran, the 
son of Khalfl-ullah Khan Yezdl, was a nobleman of high 
rank in the time of the emperors Sh4h Jahan and 'Alam* 
gir, and a great favorite of the latter. He died at Kibul 
on the 28th April, 1698 A D., 27th Shawwal 1109 H., 
and the emperor conferred the title of Amfr Khan on his 
son. 

Amir Khan, J^ji*l v!y, (Naw4b) entitled TTrndat-ul- 
Mulk, was the son of the principal favorite of the emperor 
' Alamgir, of the same name, and a descendant of the cele- 
brated Shah Na'mat-ullah Wall. He was himself a 
favorite of tho emperor Muhammad Shih ; was appointed 
governor of Allahabad in 1739 A. D M 1162 A. H., and re- 
called to court in 1743 A. D., 1166 A. H. He was naturally 
free of speech, and the emperor, fond of his repartee, had 
allowed him more license in conversation than was con- 
sistent with respect to his own dignity, when he was on 
business with tho emperor, which by degrees disgusted 
Muhammad Shan and made him wish his removal from 
office. He was consequently, with the consent of the em- 
peror, stabbed with a dagger by a person who had been 
discharged from his service, and feu down dead on the 
spot. This circumstance took place on Friday the 26th 
December, 1746, 23rd JJil-r^i.fja, 1159 H. He was buried 
after four days in the sepulchre of Khalfl-ulUh Khan his 
grandfather, which is close to the Sarae of Ruh-ullih 
Khan at Dehli. His poetical namo was Anjam. He com- 
posed chiefly logographs, and has left Persian and Bekhta 
Poems. 



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Att*ii» Khan, u)^" J&^> the famous chief of the Pintfaris 
and ancestor to the present Nawab of Tonfc. He was 
originally in the service of Jaswant Rao Holkar, who 
becoming insane in 1806 and incapable of the adminis- 
tration of his own affaire, this Muhammadan chief endea- 
voured to establish an ascendancy at his court, but soon 
left it with the army ho commanded to pursue tho sepa- 
rate object of his own ambition, and became the chief of 
the rintfaris. Treaty was ratified with him by the British 
Government on the 19th December, 1817. He had on 
various pretexts avoided the ratification of the engage- 
ments which his agent had concluded with tho resident of 
Dehli, but the movement of troops to his vicinity, and 
their occupation of positions which left him only the op- 
tion between engaging in an unequal conflict and signing 
this treaty, induced him to adopt tho safer course. He 
was confirmed in tho possession of all the territories he 
held from the Holkar family, but compelled to surrender 
his large trains of artillery to the English Government, 
and to disband tbat great body of plunderers which bad 
been for more than two years the scourge of Malwa and 
Rajputana. Amir Khan died A. D. 1834, 1250 A, H. 

Amir Khan, ^J£>jhc\ } whose proper name was Mfr Khan, 

but was changed by the emperor 'Alamgir by adding 
an alif to it into Amir Khan. On a spot of seven bigbas 
of ground, he had built his house close to the place called 
Guzar Tijara including tho mahalla of ChhipitolA. In the 
first year of the emperor 'Alamgir he was appointed gover- 
nor of the fort of Shahjahanabad, and in the 1 1th year 
of the reign of the emperor he was appointed Sdbadar of 
Kabul. 

Amir Khan Sindhi, <#***** wl*>j±"), title of Mir Abdul 
Karfm, son of Amir Khan the son of Mir Abul $asim 
Namkin. He was employed in various offices during the 
reign of 'Alamgir, Bahadur Shah and Farrukh-eiyar, and 
died some time before the accession of Muhammad Shah 
to the throne of Dehli. 

Amir Khoand, **)**• j&t, vide Mir Khund or Khawind 

8hah. 
Amir Khusro, 3J~^J&^> tide Khusro (Amir). 

Amir Mahmud, Aj** B 'VH &i^J&> a native of Fa- 
reomud, surnamed Fakhr-uddin and commonly called Ibn- 
Yemin, was the son of Amir Yemin-uddin entitled Malik- 
nl Fuzla, t. #., the princo of the learned. Amir MahmOd 
was an excellent poet and died on Saturday the 29th of 
January, 1368 A. D., Jumada II, 769 A. H., in Persia. 
He is mentioned in Dr. Sprenger's Catalogue, p. 67, to 
have died in 749 Hijrf corresponding with 1348 A. D., 
and in the Tazkira Daulat Shahi it is mentioned, that he 
died in 746 A- H., 1344 A. D. He has left a Diwan. 

Amir Mima, ^XjVj** vlrS (Nawib) was the son of 
George Hopkins Walters, a pensioned European Officer, 
who with his family, consisting of a wife, two daughters 
and one son, had established himself in Lakhnau as a 
merchant, many years ago. After his death his family 
through the intrigues of one Bakhsh Ali Khan, embraced 
the Muhammadan religion, and the younger daughter not 
long after was consigned to the Seraglio of king Nasir- 
uddin Hydar and became ono of the queens of that mon- 
arch, under the title of Wilayeti Mahal, or the King's 
European consort. The elder daughter also received the 
name and title of Ashraf-un-nisa Begam. She remained 
unmarried all her life. The brother Joseph Walters re* 
ceived the name of Amir Mirza, He was brought up as a 
Musalman of the Shi" a sect, and always took a pride in 
showing himself as an orthodox follower of the Crescent. 
After Wilayeti Mahal's death, her elder sister Ashraf- 
un-nisa Begam succeeded to her estate, consisting of 
Government Securities valued at 1,14,00,000 rupees besides 

13 



jewellery, moveable and immoveable property of consider- 
able value. In 1832 Ashraf-un-nisa died, and was suc- 
ceeded by Amir Mini her brother, who, squandered 
almost the wbole property by his reckless prodigality. 
Amir Mirza died on the 10th of January, 1870, in his 66th 
year. 

Amir Mo'izzi, <SJ**J&> a celebrated poet of Samarkand 
who served under Sultan Malik Shah and Sultan 8anjar 
Saljtiki, and was honored with the title of Milik-ush- 
8hua'r£, or the Royal Poet. He was accidentally killed 
by an arrow shot by the latter prince. His Diwan con- 
tains 15,000 verses. His death happened in the year 1147 
A. D., 542 A. H. His proper name was Amir Ali. 

Amir Shahi, ^jtej&*i£*^j±*l, of Sabzwar, a poet who 

flourished in tho time of Shahrukh Mini about the year 
1436 A. D. Vide Shahi (Amir). 

Amir Taimur, oLr 5 ** 1 ^ jj*Vj**> styled Sihib Kirah, 
because he reigned more than 30 years. He is also called 
Timarlang (Tamerlane) from somo defect in his feet ; was 
born at Kush in ancient Sogdania on Tuesday the 9th 
April, 1336, A.D. 27th Sha'ban, 736 A. H. Some say he was 
the son of a shepherd, and others, that he was descended in 
a right line from Kaiuli Bahadur, son of Tumana Khan, 
of tbe same lineage with Changes Khan the celebrated 
conqueror of Persia, His father's name was Amir Tura- 
ghai and mother's Takina Khatun ; however, his ob- 
scurity was soon forgotten in the glory of his exploits. 
Distinguished by his courage and unbounded ambition, 
he gained a number of faithful adherents, and seized the 
city of Balkh, the capital of Khurasan, and having put 
to death Amir Husain the ruler of that place, whose sister 
he had married, he ascended the throne on Wednesday 
the 10th of April, 1370 A. D., 12th Ramzan, 771 A. H. He 
then subdued Kandahar, Persia, and Baghdad, and second* 
ed by an enthusiastic army, he penetrated to India, took 
Dehli on Tuesday the 17th December, 1398 A. D., 7th 
Rabf II, 801 A. H., with its immense treasures, and return- 
ed to punish Baghdad that shook off his yoke. The offend- 
ing city was given up to pillage, and 80,000 of her inhabi- 
tants put to the sword. Now master of the fairer part of 
Asia, he interfered, at the request of the Greek emperor, 
in the affairs of Baiazid (Bajazet) emperor of the Turks, 
and commanded him to abandon the siege of Constanti- 
nople. The message roused the indignation of Baiazid ; 
he marched against tho new enemy, and was defeated 
by him in Phrygia, after a battle of 3 days, on Friday the 
21st of July, 1402 A. D., 19th frHijja, 804 A. H. Baiazid 
fell into the hands of the emperor, and was carried about 
in mockery in an iron cage. To these conquests Taimur 
added Egypt and the treasures of Cairo, and then fixed 
the seat of his empire at Samarkand, where he received 
the homage of Manuel Palmologus, emperor of Constan- 
tinople, and of Henry III, King of Castile, by their ambas- 
sadors. Taimur was preparing fresh victories by the 
invasion of China, when death stopped his career on 
Wednesday the 18th of February, 1406 A. D., 17th Sha'- 
ban, 807 A. H., in the 36th year of his reign, aged 71 years, 
and was buried at Samarkand. He was the first who 
founded the dynasty of the Mughul emperors of Dehli. 
After his death he received the title of " Firdaus Makini," 
t . *., " May paradise be his place of residence." He had 
four sons, viz., Jahahgir Mirza, Umar Shaikh Mirza, 
Mirin Shah and Shahrukh Mirza. Tamerlane on his 
death-bed named his grandson Pfr Muhammad son of 
Jahangir Mirza, the universal heir of all his dominions ; 
hut the contempt with which his will was treated after 
his death, was equal to the veneration which had been 
paid to his authority during his life. The Sultan Khalil, 
another of his grandsons, immediately took possession of 
the capital of Samarkand, and proclaimed himself emperor. 
Pfr Muhammad did not live long enough to assert his 
rights, but was assassinated six months after the death of 



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his grandfather. After his death, Shihrukh Mini the 
youngest of the two surviving sons of Tamerlane, suc- 
ceeded to the inheritance assigned for Pit Muhammad. 
List of thi kimg* of Sam*rko*d of th$ rtm of Amir Ttimur. 

Khain Sultan, the son of Minn Shah. 
Shihrukh Mirzi, son of Amir Taimdr. 
Ala-ud-daula Mini. 
TJlugh Beg Mirzi, son of Shihrukh. 
Mini Babar who subsequently conquered Dehlf and be- 
came the first emperor of the Mughuls in India. 
MiniAbdul-Latif. 
Mini Shih Muhammad. 
Mini Ibrahim. 
Saltan Abu Sayyid. 
Mini Yidgir Muhammad. 

Amir Yemin-uddin, cH 4 ^ 1 (&±+ij**, entitled Malik- 
ul-Fuzli, i. e., the prince of the learned, was a Turk and 
an excellent poet. He flourished in the time of Sultan 
Muhammad Khudi Banda, and died in 1324 A. D., 724 
A. H., vide Tughardi. 

Amili, 4/^*'> a poet who is the author of a Df win. This 
person appears to be the same with Shaikh Baha-uddin 
'Amili. 

Amina, ***T, the wife of 'Abdullah, and mother of Mu- 
hammad the prophet of the Musalmina, She was the 
daughter of Wahab tho sou of 'Abdul Manif. She is 
represented as the most beautiful, prudent and virtuous 
lady of her tribe, and consequently the most worthy of 
such an extraordinary person as 'Abdullah. She died six 
years after the birth of her son Muhammad, about the 
year 677 A. D. 

Amjad ' Ali Shah, |l£ ,J* «H s *Jj waB the 80n of Muham- 
mad Ali Shih whom he succeeded on the throne of Lakh- 
nau as king of Oudh with the title of Surii Jih, on the 
17th of May, 1842, 6th Rabf II, 1268 A. H., and died on 
the 16th March, 1847 A. D., 26th Safar, 1263 A. H. 
He was succeeded by his son Wajid AH Shih, in whose 
time Oudh was annexed to the British Goverment on the 
7th of February, 1866 A. D. 

«*» 

'Ammar ibn Hissan, J~*> tflj 1 **, was A1 ^ 8 general of 

the horse, and was killed in battle fought by Ali against 
Mu'iwia the first khalif of the house of Umaia, in the 
month of July, 667 A. D., Safar, 37 A. H. He was then 
about 90 years of age, and had been in three several en- 
gagements with Muhammad himself. He was one of the 
murderers of Usman the 3rd khalif after Muhammad. 

Amra-al Kais, ^^sj) *LH> ^ e Bon °* Hajar, one of the 

most illustrious poets the Arabians had before Muhamma- 
danism. He is one of the seven poets whose poems have, 
for their excellency, been hung in the temple of Mecca. 
These poems were called "Muallakat," (suspended), and 
as they were written in letters of gold, they were also called 
" Muzahhibit." The names of these seven celebrated poets, 
are Amra-al-Eais, Tarafa, Zuhir, Labid, Antir, Amru 
and Hirath. 

Amra-al-Kais is the same person who is commonly called 
Majntin, the lover of Laila, and Labid was his friend 
and master. Vide Lover of Majnun and Laila trans- 
lated into English. 

Amrit Rao, jlj o/>l ; a Mahratti chief who had been placed 

on the masnad of Puni by Holkar in 1803 A. D., but 
deposed by the British and a pension of 700,000 rupees 
was assigned for his support annually. He was the son 
of Raghunith Rio commonly called Kaghoba. For some 
time he resided at Banaras and then in Bundelkhand; 
and died at the former station in 1824, A. D. 



Amru bin Mua'wia, *JjU* &}j** $ «* ancient Arabian 
poet whose collection of poems are to be found in the 
Boyal Library at Paris, No. 1120. 

'Amru ibn Al-'As, ^Iml v*\jj** 9 a celebrated Muham- 

madan, at first the enemy and afterwards the friend of 
Muhammad, of whom, it is reported by tradition, that 
Muhammad said, "There is no truer Musalman, nor one 
more steadfast in the faith than 'Amru/' He served in the 
wars of Syria, where he behaved with singular courage 
and resolution. Afterwards ITmar the khalif tent him 
into Egypt, which he reduced in 641 A. D. t 20 A. H M and 
became lieutenant of the conquered country. Usman 
continued him in that post four years, and then removed 
him ; whereupon he rotired to ralestino, where he lived 
privately till Usmin's death. Upon this event, he went 
over to Mu'iwia upon his invitation ; and took a great part 
in the dispute between 'Ali and Mu'iwia. The latter re- 
stored him to the lieutenancy of Egypt, and continued 
him in it till his death, which happened in 663 A. D., 43 
A. H. Before he turned Muhammadan, he was one of the 
three poets who were famous for writing lampoons upon 
Muhammad, in which style of composition 'Amru parti- 
cularly excelled. There are some fine proverbs of his 
remaining, and also some good verses. Ho was the son of 
a courtezan of Mecca, who scorns to have numbered some of 
the noblest of the land among her lovers. When she gave 
birth to this child, tho infant was declared to have most 
resemblance to 'As, the oldest of her admirers, whence, in 
addition to his name of Amru, he received the designation 
of Ibn-al-'As. 

> Amru, ^t* - * ctf \T**> the son of Sa'fd was a cousin of the 

khalif * Abdul-Malik. In the year 688 A. D., 69 A. H., the 
khalif left Damascus to go against Misaa'b the son of Zuber, 
and appointed Amru to take care of Damascus, who seized 
upon it for himself, which obliged 'Abdul-Malik to return. 
After three or four days tho khalif sent for him and killed 
him with his own hand. 

'Amru bin Lais, *^f U*.JJ+*, brother of Ya'kub ibn Lais, 
whom ho succeeded in the government of Khurasan, &c^ 
in 878 A. D., 265 A. H., and ruled over those countries 
for 23 years. He was at last seized by Amir Isma'fl Si* 
mini in 900 A. D., 288 A. H., and sent to Baghdad where 
he was confined for some time ; his execution was the last 
act of the Khalif Al-Mo'tazid. who gave orders for it a few 
months before his own death in 901 A. D., 289 A. H. He 
was blind of one oye. With Amru fell the fortunes of hia 
family. His grandson Tihir, struggled for power in his 
native province : but after a reign of six years, during 
which he conquered Firs, his authority was subvertod by 
one of his own officers, by whom he was seized and sent 
prisoner to Baghdad. The only other prince of the family 
of Bani Lais that attained any eminence, was a chief of 
the name of Khalif who established himself in Sistin and 
maintained his power over that province till the time of 
Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni by whom he was defeated and 
made prisoner. 

Amurath, names of several emperors of Turkey written so 
by English writers, being a corruption of Murid, which 

Anandpal, JljAxif, son of Jaipil I, riji of Lihor whom 

he succeeded about the year 1001 A. D., and became 
tributary to Sultin Mahmud of Ghazni. He died about 
the year 1013, and was succeeded in the government by 
his son Jaipil II. 

Anarkali, u^J^l a famous lady, who lived in the time 
of the emperor Jahangir. Her mausoleum is at a place 
called Anarkali in Labor, which is now used as a church. 
Different stories are told concerning tho name Anarkali by 
which the mausoleum as well as the bazar in its vicinity 
is known. According to some, it was the name of a 



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Anand 



51 



Aohadi, 



princess in Jahingir' s time, while others say, that Anir- 
kali wat a beautiful handmaid with whom Jahingir fell 
in love, and who, on Shah Jahan becoming aware of it, 
was buried alive. These stories mav or may not be true, 
but this much is at least certain, that the woman, after 
whose name the building is called, lived in the time of the 
emperor Jahingir or Shah Jahan, that Jahingir or some 
other prince was madly in lovo with her. and that her death 
took place under such mournful circumstances, as broke the 
heart of the fond lover, and led him in the height of his 
passion and love for the princess who was no more, to com- 
pose the following couplet, and have it engraved on her 
tombstone : " Oh could I see again the face of my angel, 
for ever would I repeat thanks to the Almighty." 

Anand Rao, Gaikwar, jjfiJ jtj jjjj, a Marhatti chief 

of Baroda, with whom the English Government, had in 
1812 concluded a subsidiary alliance. Before the treaty 
he was a nominal dependant of the Peshwa. 

Anas, ur**, a poet of Arabia. 

'Andalib, *r****^ M* Khwija Nisir. 

Anifl, ur*\> poetical name of Mohan Lil, which see. 

AniBi Shamlu, jJUU K j^\ } a poet named Yul $ulf Beg. 

He was an intimate friend and constant companion of 
prince Ibrahim Mini, a grandson of Bhih Ismail 8afwi, 
consequently took the takhallas of Anisi. When 'Abdul- 
lah Khan Uzbak took Hirst he made a proclamation in 
his army* that the life of Anfsf be spared, and treated him 
with great respect. He came to India and received a 
■alary of 50,000 rupees, and a jagfr. He died at Barhin- 
pur in 1605 A. D., 1014 A. H.. and has left a Diwin and 
a Masnawi called Mahmiid Aiii. 

Ang or Ungh Khan, a king of the Trit Tartars who 
resided at Karakoram, and to whom the celebrated Janges 
Khin was at one time a tributiry. He is also called 
Prester John by the Syrian Missionaries. Jangez Khan 
having thrown off his allegiance, a war ensued, which 
ended in the death of Ang Khin in 1202 A. D. 

Anjam, (•^F J f, the poetical name of Nawib Umdat-ul-Mulk 
Amir Khin, vide Amir Khin. 

Anup Bai, .Jb ^y\ y the wife of the emperor Jahindir 
Shah, and mother of Alamgir II, king of Dehli. 

Annahtakin, c^J^y', the cup-bearer of Sultan Sanjar, 
and lather of Sultan Kutb-uddfn Muhammad of Khwirixm. 

Ana bin Malik, *£JU oV^f , *** Abu Hamxa ^ Naar * 
al-Ansizt 

'Anauri, ^j*A** f a poet of the court of Sultan Mahmud 
FwfoTJnsarf. 

Antar, J^ one of the seven Arabian poets, whose poems 
were hung up in the temple of Mecca in golden letters 
and from that circumstance were called Mua'llakit (sus- 
'pended), or Muzahhibit (golden). The first volume of the 
history of Antir, called "the Life and Adventures of 
Antir," was translated into English and published in De- 
comber 1818, in England. Vide Amra-al-Kais. 

Anwari, iS)jfl> * fiunous Persian poet surnamed Ashad- 
uddin. He formerly took for his poetical name, " Khif- 
wari," but he changed it afterwards to •* ADwari." From 
the superiority of his poetical talents, he was called the 
king of the poets of Khurasan. He was a native of 
Abiward in Khurasan, was the favorite of Sultan Sanjar 
SaljukI, and the rival of the poet Hashidi surnamed 
Watwit, who espoused the cause of Atsiz the Sultan of 
Khwarism. Wnilst the two princes were engaged in 
war, the two poets assailed one another by rhymes sent 



on the point of arrows. He is also said to have been the 
greatest astronomer of his age. It so happened in the 
year 581 or 582 A. H., September, 1186 A. D., that there 
was a conjunction of all the planets in the sign of 
Libra ; Anwari predicted a storm which would eradicate 
trees and destroy every building. When the fetal day 
arrived, it was perfectly calm, and there was the whole 
year so little wind, that the people were unable to winnow 
their corn. He was therefore accused for his predictions 
as an astrologer, and was obliged to fly to Balkh where he 
died in the reign of Sul(in Aliuddin Takash in 1200 A D., 
596 A. H. His death is mentioned in the Khulisat-ul- 
Asha'ar to have taken place in 587 A. H. and others have 
written 592 A. H. Anwari, when very young, was sitting 
at the gate of his college called Mansuria in Tus, when 
a man richly dressed rodo by him on a fine horse, with a 
numerous train of attendants; upon his asking who it 
was, he was told, that it was a poet belonging to the 
court. When Anwari reflected on the honor conferred on 
poetry, for which art he had a very early bent, he applied 
himself to it more ardently than ever, and having finished 
a poem, presented it to the Sultan, who approved the 
work and invited him to his palace, and raised him even 
to the first honors of the State. He found many other 
poets at court, among whom were Salman, Zahir and 
Rashidi, all men of wit and genius. Anwari has left us 
a collection of highly esteemed poems, on various subjects 
called Diwin Anwari. Venes from his poems are quoted 
by Sa'di in his Gulistin. 

Anwari Khan, c/*> U&y' > a corruption of Abu Kaihin, 
which see. 

Anwar-uddin Khan, o^ u**^ J^* nawib of the Kar- 
natie, a soldier of fortune, who had attained power by 
treacherous connivance to the murder of the legitimate heir, 
a child whose guardian he had been appointed by Nizim- 
ul-Mulk. He at first served under one of the emperors 
of Dehli, and was appointed governor of Kori Jahinibid. 
HI success, or perhaps ill conduct, preventing him from 
being able to pay the usual revenues of his government 
to the throne, he quitted it privately, and went to Ah- 
madabad, where Qhizi-uddin Khin the rather of Nizizn- 
ul-Mulk, gave him a post of considerable trust and profit 
in the city of Surat. After the death of Ghasi-uddfn, his 
son who had succeeded in the Subadari of the southern 
provinces, appointed him Nawib of Yalore or Yellore and 
Rajmandrum, countries which he governed from 1725 to 
1741 A. D., and in 1744 he was appointed governor of the 
Karnatie. He was killed in battle fought against Mu- 
saffar Jang the grandson of Nisim-ul-Mulk, on the 23rd 
of July 1749 O. 8., 1162 A. H., who took possession of 
the Karnatie. Anwar-uddin was then 107 years old. His 
eldest son was made prisoner and his second son Muham- 
mad Ali fled to Trichinopoly. A heroic poem called 
41 Anwar Nama," in praise of this Nawib was written by 
Abdi, in which the exploits of Major Lawrence, and the 
first contests between the English and French in India, 
are recorded with tolerable accuracy. ( Vid$ Sa'idat-ullah 
Khan) His son Muhammad Ali was confirmed by 
Nawib Nasir Jang in the government of the Karnatie in 
1750, A. D. 

Aohad Sabswari, iSjbj** **J ***J*, (Khwija) poeti- 
cal name of Khwija Fakhr-uddin, a physician, astronomer 
and poet of Sabzwar. He died A. D. 1463, 868 A. H., 
aged 81 lunar years, and left a Diwin in Persian contain- 
ing Ghasala, Kasidas, Ac. 

Aohadi, IS**J> *&e poetical name of Shaikh Aohad-uddin 
of Isfa h an or Maragha, a celebrated Persian poet who put 
into verse the " Jim-i-Jam," a book full of Mnhammadan 
spirituality, which he wrote in imitation of the Hadi^a 
of 8anii ; he also wrote a Diwin containing verses. He 
was liberally rewarded by Arghun Khin, the king of the 



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Tartars. He was a pupil of Aohad-uddin Kirmani ; died 
in 1337 A. D., 738 A. H., and was buried at Marigha in 
Tabreis. 

Aohad-uddin Isfahani, ij\***\ e^*A**y , (Shaikh) 
a Persian poet, vide Aohadi. " 

Aohad uddin Kirmani, ij^J vi**l**j, (Shaikh) 
author of the " Misbah-ul-Arw&h." He flourished in the 
reign of Al-Mustanasar Billah, khalif of Baghdad, and 
died in the year 1298 A. D., 697 A. H. His poetical 
name is HamicL He was a cotemporary of Shaikh Sa'di 
ofShiraz. 

Aohad-uddin, e^t^jl, the surname of the celebrated 
Anwari, which see. 

Aoji, tT^'j a poet who died in 1640 A. D., 1060 A. H. 

Aurang, *-*i>jt> name of a lover whose mistress was Gul- 
chehra. 

Aurangabadi Begam, f*i*(sjhfy*l> one of the wives 
of the emperor Aurangzeb 'Alamgir. 

Aurangzeb, VO^l*'* the son of Shall Jahan emperor of 
Dehli. On his accession to the throne, ho took the title 
of 'Alamgir, agreeably to the custom of the Eastern princes, 
who always assume a new one on that occasion. Vide 
'Alamgir. 

Apa Sahib, V*^ ty> a nephew of Baghojf Bhonsla n, 
and cousin to Parsaram Bhonsla, commonly called Bali 
Sahib, raja of Nagpur or Ber&r. The latter succeeded his 
father in March 1816, but being an idiot and unfit to rule, 
'Api Sahib assumed the chief authority under the title 
of Regent, and had the sole conduct of the public affairs. 
Although he was in a great degree indebted for his ele- 
vation to the English Government, he early evinced a dis- 
position as inconsistent with the gratitude which he owed 
to that State, as with the obligations of good faith. It 
was also discovered that he had secretly murdered his 
predecessor Bala Sahib (Parsaram) in order to obtain that 
elevation which he had so disgraced. He was conse- 
quently seized in the beginning of the year 1818, and 
brought to the Residency, where he continued in confine- 
ment till directed to be sent under a strong escort to the 
Company's territories. When arrived at Raichora, a 
village within one march from Jabalpur, he contrived by 
bribing some of his guards, to make his escape. It is 
believed that, after having for a short period found a 
refuge in Asirgurh, he fled to the Panjab where he re- 
mained a miserable dependant on the charity of Raja 
Ran jit Singh. After the dethronement of 'Apa Sahib, 
the grandson of Raghoji Bhonsla was raised to the masnad 
of Nagpur. Vide Partap Singh Karayan. 

Apa Sahib, V*' 1 '* ^T, also called 8halyi, third brother 

of Partap Singh Narayan, raja of Satara. After the de- 
thronement of his brother in 1839, he was placed on the 
masnad of Satara by the British Government, and died 
on the 6th April, 1848. Before his death he expressed 
a wish that he might adopt as a son, a boy by name BaL 
want Rio Bhonsla, it was, however, determined to annex 
8atara. 

'Arabshah, *^**rtJ*> author of a history of Amir Taimur 

(Tamerlane) called " Ajaeb-ul-Makdur," and of a treatise 
on the unity of God. He was a native of Damascus, 
where he died in 1460 A. D M 864 A. H. He is also called 
Ibn 'Arabshah, and Ahmad Ibn Arabshih. 

Aram Bano Begam, fH?>^ (•!;■> a daughter of the 

emperor Akbar, who died in the 40th year of her age in 
1624 A. D., 1033 A. H., during the reign of Jahangir her 
brother, and is buried in the mausoleum of Akbar at 



Sikandra in Agra. Her tomb is of white marble. Her 
mother's name was Bfbi Daulat Shad, and her sister's 
name Shakr-un-nisa Bcgam. 

Aram Shah, » u f!;f, (Sultan) king of Debit succeeded 
his father Sultan Kutb-uddfn Aibak in 1210 A. D. t 607 
A. H., and had scarcely reigned one year when he was 
deposed by Altimah, (the adopted son and son-in-law of 
Kutb-uddm) who assumed the title of 8hams~uddfn 
Altimsh. 

Araru, Jj\r, a zamfndar of Kor& in the province of Alla- 
habad, was of the tribe of Khichar, who taking advantage 
of the weakness of the empire, slew Nawab Jan Nisar Khan 
(brother to the wazfr's wife), chakladar of "that district 
in 1731 A. D., 1144 A. H., upon which 'Arim-ulUh Khan 
the son of the deceased was sent with an army to chastise 
him, but the zamindar took refuge in his woods, and for 
a long while eluded his pursuer, who, tired out, returned 
to Dehli, leaving his army under the command of Khwa- 
rizm Beg Khan. Ariru, emboldened by the Nawib's 
retreat, attacked and slow the deputy ; upon which the 
wasfr Kamar-uddin Khan applied for assistance to Bur- 
han-ul-Mulk Sa'adat Khan Siibadar of Oudh, for the 
reduction of the rebel. Sa'&dat Khan marched against 
Araru in 1736 A. D., 1148 A. H., killed him in abattle 
and sent his head to the emperor Muhammad Shah. The 
skin of his body was flayed off, and sent stuffed with straw 
to the wazir. 

Ardai Viraf, **>[)J iS^jU a priest of the Magian religion, 
who lived in the time of Ardisher Bibagan king of Persia, 
and is the author of the "Ardai Virai Kama" which he 
wrote in the Zend, or the original Persian language. See 
Nousherwan Kirmani. 

Ardisher Babakan, cWjjt^l* orB£bagin, the son of 
Babak, was, we are told a descendant of Sasan the son of 
Bahman and grandson of Isfandisr. He was the first 
king of the Sasanian dynasty. His father Babak, who 
was an inferior officer in the public service, after putting 
to death the governor appointed by Ardawin (Artabanes) 
made himself master of the province Fars. The old man 
survived but a short time. His son Ardisher, after set- 
tling the affairs of Fars, not only made himself master of 
Isfahan, but of almost all Irdk before Ardawan, who was 
the reigning prince, took the field against him, about the 
year 223 A. D. The armies met in the plains of Hurmus, 
where a desperate battle ensued, in which Ardawan lost 
his crown and his life ; and the son of Babak was hailed 
in the field with the proud titlo of Shahan Shall, or King 
of kings. He was contemporary with Alexander Severua 
the Roman emperor. Ardisher (whom the Roman his- 
torians call Artaxerxes) having reigned 14 years as ab- 
solute sovereign of Persia, resigned the government into 
the hands of his son, Shihpur, called by the Romans, 
Sapor or Sapores, in the year 238 A. D. 

The following is a list of the kings of Persia of the 
Sasanian race. 

Hurmuz or Hurmuxd m. 

Firoz. 

Balas or Palash. 

Kubad. 

Jamasp. 

Nausherwan (Kasra). 

Hurmuxd. 

Khusro Parwes. 

Shoroya. 

Ardisher HE. 

Shabriar. 

Turin or Purin Dukht 

Azarmi Dukht. 

Farrukhzad Bakhtiar. 

Yezdijard m. 



1. 


Ardisher. 


16. 


2. 


Shahpurl. 


17. 


3. 


Hurmuzd I. 


18. 


4. 


Bahrain I. 


19. 


6. 


Bahrain II. 


20. 


6. 


Bahrain III. 


21. 


7. 


Narsf. 


22. 


8. 


Hurmusd II. 


23. 


9. 


Shahpdr II. 


24. 


10. 


Ardisher II. 


25. 


11. 


Shahpur III. 


26. 


12. 


Bahram IV. 


27. 


13. 


Yezdijard I. 


28. 


14. 


Bahram G6r. 


29. 


16. 


Yeidijard II. 


30. 



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Ardisher, j±&&J, (or Artaxerxea) IT succeeded his father 
Shihpur II in the year 380 A. D., and sat on the throne 
of Persia only four years, during which period no event 
of consequence occurred. He was deposed in 384 A. D., 
hy his brother Shihpur III, who succeeded him. 

Ardisher, J**^* (or Artaxerxos) III, a king of Persia, 
of the Sasanian race, who reigned about tho year 629 
A. D., at Sheroyi. 

Ardisher Darazdast, *fi**oJJ)»> j±~*j> an ancient king 
of Persia, tho Artaxerxea Longimanus of the Greeks, 
surnamed Bahman, was the son of Isfandiir. He suc- 
ceeded his grandfather, Gaahtasp, as king of Persia in 
464 B. C. He is celebrated for the wisdom he displayed 
in the internal regulation of his empire. In the com- 
mencement of the reign of this monarch, the celebrated 
Rustam was slain by tho treachery of his brother. This 
prince is named Ahasuerus in Scripture, and is the same 
who married Esther, and during the whole of his reign 
shewed the greatest kindness to tho Jewish nation. The 
long reign of this monarch includes that of two or more 
of his immediate successors, who are not noticed by 
Persian writers. According to them, he ruled Persia 112 
years, and was succeeded by his daughter Queen Uumai. 

Arghun Khan, cM- i&*J> the son of Abiki Khin and 
grandson of Haliku Khan, was raised to the throne of 
Persia after the murder of his undo Ahmad Khin, sur- 
named > T ek6dar, in August, 1284 A. D., Jamad I, 683 
A. H. His reign was marked by few events of conse- 
quence. He recalled the celebrated Shams-ud-din Mu- 
hammad Sahib Diwin his father's waxir, who, disgusted 
with court, had retired to Isfahan : but this able minister 
was hardly re-established in his office, before his enemies 
persuaded the prince that he had actually poisoned his 
lather ; and tho aged wazlr was in the same year made 
over to the public executioner. Amir Buki, the rival 
of Shams-ud-din, rose, upon his fall, to such power that 
he was tempted to make a grasp at the crown : but he 
was unsuccessful, and lost his life in the attempt. Arghun 
Khin died on Saturday the 10th of March, 1291 A, D~ 
6th Babf I, 690 A. H., after a reign of 6 years and 9 
months, and was succeeded by his brother Kaijaptu or 
Kaikhatu. 

Arghun Shah Jani Kurbani, %^ji ^> fe <&*j\ 

j+fti, (Amir) who reigned in Naishapur and Tus about 

the year 1337 A. D., and was defeated by the Sarbadals 
of Sabswir. 

*Arif, *£y*$ the poetical name of the son of Ghulim Husain 

Khan. He was an excellent Urdu poet of Dehli, and 
died in 1862 A. D., 1268 A. H. 

'Arifl, %j£* (MaulanA) a Persian poet who flourished in 

the time of tho waiir khwaja Muhammad bin Is-hiJt, 
and wrote a work in his name called " Dah Nima," He 
lived in the 9th century of the Hijri era, 

'Arifl, if?/* > (Maulina) son of Mubirik Maakhara, was a 
learned Musalmin, and was living in 1680 A. D., 988 
A. H., when he wrote a chronogram on the death of 
Jtiaim Kihi who died in that year, during the reign of 
the emperor Akbar. 

Arjumand Bano Begam, fa J^ &++J, entitled 

Mumtis Mahal (now corrupted into Taj Mahal and Tij 
BIW) was the favorite wife of the emperor 8hih Jahin, 
and daughter of 'Asaf Khan, wazir, the brother of the 
celebrated Ntir Jahin Begam. She was born in the year 
1692 A D., 1000 A. H„ and married to the prince Mini 
Khurram (afterwards Shall Jahin) in 1612 A. D., 1021 
A. IL, by whom she had several children. She died in 

14 



child-bed a few hours after the birth of her last daughter, 
named Dahar Ari, on the 7th of July, 1631 O. S„ 17th 
3il-hiya 1040 A. H., at Burhinpur in the Dakhan, and 
was at first buried there in a garden called Zainabad, and 
afterwards her remains were removed to Agra, where a 
most splendid mausoleum was built over her tomb, all 
of white marble decorated with mosaics, which for the 
richness of the material, the chasteness of the design, and 
the effect at once brilliant and solemn, is not surpassed by 
any other edifice either in Europe or Asia. It was 
completed in 1646 A. D., 1066 A. H , and is now called 
the "Taj," or "Taj Mahal," which is said to have cost 
the enormous sum of £760,000. The chronogram of her 
death contains in the word •' Gham," or Grief. She was 
also called Kudsia Begam. 

Aljun Singh, *&*• &*j> was one of the three sons of 
Raja Minsingh. Vide Ain Translation, I, 486. 

Arpa Khan, eA ty> one of the princes of the Tartar 

family, was crowned king of Persia after the death of 
Abu Said Khan Bahidur, in November, 1335 A. D., 736 
A. H. He reigned five months and was killed in battle 
against Musi Khin in 1336 A. D., who succeeded him. 
Vide Abu Said Khin Bahadur. 

Arsalan Elian, c^ cr*^» title of Arsalin Kuli, the son 
of Alahwardi Khin I, was a nobleman in the service of 
tho emperor Alamgir, and was living about the year 1696 
A. D., 1108 A. H. 

Arsalan Shah, «*-* cA^f j the son of Sultin Masa'ud III 
of Ghasni He murdered his brother Sherzid in 1116 
A. D., 609 A. H., and having ascended the throne, he 
imprisoned all his other brothers excepting Bahrain Shin, 
who fled to Khurisin and sought assistance of Sultan 
Sanjar his uncle. Sanjar in the year 1118 A. D., 612 
A. H., marched to Ghazni and in a battle defeated 
Arsalin Shin, who made his escape to Lihor but was 
soon after taken prisoner and put to death, when Bahrain 
Shah ascended the throne. 

Arsalan Shah, S^c^jt, a king of Khwarixm and son of 
Atsis. Vide Alp Arsalin. 

Arsalan Shah Saljuki, yfcr** & uflmjS, the son of 
Tughral II, and grandson of Sultan Muhammad, brother 
to Sultin Sanjar. Arsalin Shin died in January, 1176 
A. D., 671 A. H. His son Tughral III who succeeded 
him, was the last Sultin of the family of the Saljukidee 
who reigned in Persia. 

'Arsh-Ashaiani, %^r ' c&* the title given to the empe- 
ror Akbar I, after his death. 
'Arshi, (VV*, whose proper name was Mir Muhammad 

Momin, was a brother of Mir Silah Kashifi the son of 
Mir Abdullah Mushkin Kalam Husainf, who was a cele- 
brated calligrapher under Jahingir. Arshi is the author 
of a poem called " Shihid- Arshi," composed in the year 
1669 A. D., 1070 A. H., also of another work entitled 
" Mehr wa Watt " and of a Diwin. 

Artaxerxes, vide Ardisher. 

Arzami Dukht, ***** if*))*> a queen of the Persians, 

whose general named Mchrin being killed in a battle 
against the Saracens, she was deposed by the people, who 
placed Yezdijard III upon the throne in her stead, a 
young man of the royal family. But this did not much 
mend the matter, tho government of the new king of 
theirs, being even more inauspicious than that of the 
queen ; for in her reign tho confines of the empire were 
only invaded, but in his, all was entirely lost, and the 
whole kingdom and country of the Persians fell into the 
hands of the Musalmins. The accession of Yexdyard ia 



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placed by Sir John Malcolm in 632 A. D., 11 A. H„ but 
Major Price fixes it in 635 A. D., 14 A. H. Vide Turin, 
dukht. 

Arzani Begam, f*£ ij^jj, was the daughter of Shahriar 
who was married, in the 16th year of Jahangir's reign, 
to Mihr-un-nisa the daughter of Nur Jahan. VicU Ain 
Translation, I, 331. 

Arzu, JJjh the poetical name of Siraj-ud-dln AH Khan, 

which see. . 
Asa Ahir, j^ ***!, a shepherd chie£ who built the 

fortress of Asirgarh in the Dakhan in the 14th century ; 
he had some 2000 retainers. The hill had long before 
been encircled by a wall to protect the cattle, and it was 
to employ the poor that Asa, constructed instead of the 
fortifications which still remain beyond all comparison, 
the strongest native built fortress in India. Asa was put 
to death by Malik Nasir, the Muhammadan chief of 
Khandais, who possessed himself of the stronghold by 
treachery, and completed the fortifications. Two cen- 
turies later Asirgarh and all Nimar were conquered by 
Akbar and incorporated with the Mughal empires. It 
was taken by the British in 1817. 

Asad, &*•!, the poetical name of Mirzi Asad-ullah Khan 

usually called Mirzi Noushah. His ancestors were of 
Samarkand, but he was born at Agra ; but was brought 
up and lived at Dehli where he rose to great fame as a 
poet and writer of the Persian language, whilst his com- 
positions in Urdu were not less admired. He won the 
favour of Bahadur Shah, the last king of Dehli, who con- 
ferred upon him tho title of Nawab and appointed him 
royal preceptor in the art of poetry. He is the author of a 
Persian Insha, a Masnawi in praise of 'All, and a Diwan 
in Persian and another in Urdu. Both have been printed. 
He was in 1852 A. D., sixty years of age, living at Dehli, 
and was engaged in compiling a history of the Mughal 
emperors of India. His poetical name is Ghalib, which 
see. He died in the year 1869, 1285 A. H. 

Asadi Tusi> ig—^ ***•!> a native of Tusin the province of 
Khurasan, and one of the most celebrated Persian poets 
at tho court of Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni, whom the 
Sultan often intreated to undertake the Shah Nama, but 
he excused himself on account of his age. His best work 
is supposed to be lost. He was the master of Firdausi, 
who afterwards composed the Shah Nama. It is said that 
Firdausi on his departure from Ghazni requested him 
to finish the Shah Nama which was yet incomplete, and 
that Asadi composed that part of the poem between the 
Arabian conquest of eastern Persia under the khalif 
'Umar, to the end, consisting of 4,000 couplets. The year 
of Asadi'' s death is unknown, but it appears from the 
above circumstance, that he was living in 1010 A. D., 
401 A. H., in which year Firdausi departed from Ghazni. 
The most celebrated of the other works of Asadi now 
extant, is his dispute between Day and Night, a trans- 
lation of which in English verso is to be found in the 
i4 Rose Garden of Persia," by Louisa Stuart Costello, pub- 
lished, London, 1845. 

Asad Khan, cf*> *~» v!^> (Nawab) entitled Aaaf-ud- 
daula and Jumlat-ul-Mulk, was descended from an 
illustrious family of Turkmans. His father who fled 
from the oppressions of Shah Abbas of Persia into Hin- 
dustan, was raised to high rank by the emperor Jahangir 
with the title of Zulfikar Khan, and married to the 
daughter of a new relation to his empress Nur Jahan. 
His son Asad Khan (whose former name was Ibrahim) 
was very early noticed by Shah Jahan, who married him 
to a daughter of his wazir 'Asaf Khan, and promoted 
him to the office of second Bakhshi, which he held till 
the 15th year of 'Alamgir (1671 A. D.) when he was 



raised to the rank of 4,000, and a few years afterwards 
to the office of wazir and highest order of nobility, seven 
thousand. In the reign of Bahadur Shah he was ap- 
pointed Wakfl MutlaJ (an office superior to wazir), and 
his son Isma*il made Mir Bakhshf or chief paymaster 
with the title of Amir-ul-'Umra Zulfikar Khan ; but on 
tho accession of Farrukhsiar, he was disgraced, his estates 
seized, and his son put to death. Since that period, ho 
lived upon a scanty pension in a sort of confinement, 
but much respected by all ranks. He died in the year 
1717 A. D., 1129 A. H., aged 90 lunar years, and was 
buried with great funeral pomp at the expense of tho 
emperor, in a mausoleum, erected by his father for tho 
family. 

Asad-uUah al-Ghalib, V^** *U| **•! , the conquer- 
ing lion of God, an epithet of Alf the son-in-law of 
Muhammad. 

Asad-uUah Asad Yar Khan, cM> j***-» V 1 !**'* 

(Nawab), he lived in the time of tho emperor Muhammad 
Shdh, and died in 1745 A. D., 1158 A. H. His poetical 
name was Insan, which see. 

Asad-ullah Khan, c ,li^H , !^ j (Mir**) vide 
Asad, and Ghalib. 

Asaf, ****», a native of Kumm in Persia, who came to 

India in the reign of the emperor Shih Jahin, and is the 
author of a Diwan. 

Asafl, (/"f **!>S (Khwaja) son of Khwaja Na'mat-ul- 
l£h, was an elegant poet. Asafi is his poetical name, 
which he took on account of his father having served in 
the capacity of wazir to Sultan Abu Sa'fd Mirza ; for, 
they say, that Asaf or Asaph of the Scriptures, was wazir 
to king Solomon. He was one of the contemporaries and 
companions of Jami, and took instructions from him in 
the art of poetry. He died about the month of August. 
1520, A.D., 16th Shaban 926 A. H., aged more than 70Tand 
was buried at Hirdt ; but according to the work called 
Khulasat-ul-Asha'ar, he died in 920 A. H. He is the 
author of a Diwan or book of Odes called Diwan Asafi, 
and a Masnawi in the measure of '* Makhzan-ul-Asrar." 

Asaf Jah, S^'-M', the title of tho celebrated Nizam-ul. 
Mulk of Haidarabdd. 

Asaf Khan I, eJ^ «***f, surnamed Abdul Majid, was 
a nobleman in the time of the emperor Akbar, who in 
1565 A. D., 973 A. H., distinguished himself by the 
conquest of Garrak6$a, a principality on the Narbada, 
bordering on Bundelkhand. It was governed by a queen 
or Rani named Durgawati, who opposed the Muhammadan 
general in an unsuccessful action, and when seeing her 
army routed and herself severely wounded, she avoided 
falling into the hands of the enemy by stabbing herself 
with a dagger. Her treasures, which were of great value, 
fell into the hands of Asaf Khan ; he secreted a great 
part, and the detection of this embezzlement was the 
immediate cause of his revolt. He was, however, subse- 
quently pardoned, and after the conquest of Chittour 
that country was given 4o 'Asaf Khan in jag£r. 

Asaf Khan II, ij*> «-**f title of Khraj-Ghayas-ud-dm 
All Qaiwanf, tho son of Aq£ Midland uncle to Asaf 
Khan Jaiar Beg. He held the Bakhshigarf in the time 
of the emperor Akbar, and after the conquest of Gujrat 
in 1573 A. D., 981 A. H. in which he distinguished himself, 
the title of Abbas Khan was conferred on him. Ho died at 
Gujrat in 1581 A. D., 989 A. H., and after his death his 
nephew Mirza Jafar Beg was buried with the title of 
Asaf Khan. 



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Asaf Khan IH, ^j*** V^ **"1, commonly called 
Mired Ja*far Beg, was the son of Mirza Badi-uz-Zam£n, 
and grandson of Aki Mulli Kazwinf. Ho was born at 
Kazwln, and came to India in his youth 1577 A. D M 986 
A H. At the recommendation of his undo Mirzi Ghaias- 
ud-dfn, who was a nobleman at the court of the emperor 
Akbar, and bore then the title of Asaf Khan, was received 
with honor, and after the death of his uncle the office of 
Bakhshigarf was conferred on him with the title of Asaf 
Khan, 1581 A. D M 989 A. H. He was an excellent poet, 
and was one of the many that were employed by the 
emperor in compiling the " Tarikh Alfi," and after the 
assassination of Mulla Ahmad in 1588 A. D., 996 A. H. 
the remainder of the work was written by him up to the 
year 997 A. H. Ho is also called Asaf Khan Mirzi 
Ja'far Bakhshi Begi, and is the author of a poem called 
" Shfrin wa Khusro." The office of chief Diwan was 
conferred on him by the emperor in 1598 A. D., 1007 
A. H., and in the reign of Jahangir, he was raised to the 
high post of wazarat. He died in the year 1612 A. D., 
1021 A. H. In his poetical compositions ho used the 
name of Ja'far. One of his sons who also bore the name 
of Ja'far became an excellent poet and died in the time of 
•Alamgir, A. D. 1682, 1094 A. H. 

Asaf Khan IV, J* *-M, the title of 'Abul Hasan, 
who had several other titles conferred on him at differ- 
ent times, such as Ya'tkad Khan, Yemin-ud-daula, &c, 
was the son of the celebrated wazir Ya'tmad-ud-daula, 
and brother to Nur Jahan Begam. After his father's 
death in 1621 A. D M 1030 A. H., he was appointed wazfr 
by the emperor Jahangir. His daughter Arjumand Bano 
Begam also called Mumtaz Mahal was married to the 
prince 8hah Jahan. 'Asaf Khan died at L4h6r in the 
15th year of Shah Jahan on the 10th November, 1641 
O. S., 17th Sha'ban, 1051 A, H., aged 72 lunar years, 
and was buried there on the banks of the Rawi opposite 
to the city of L4h6r. Besides Mumtfz Mahal, ho had 
four sons: *«., bhiiata Khan; Mirza Masih who was 
drowned in a drunken frolic in the river Behat in Kash- 
mir ; Mirz£ Husain, of moderate abilities, and little note ; 
and Shahnawaz Khan who rose to much reputation and 
distinction. . ^ 

Asaf-ud-daula, *!>** **+"> «• t* tie of Aflad 1Sh ^ 

which see. 

Asaf-ud-daula, *h** *-*"* vlA (Nawib) the eldest 
son of Nawab Shujaa'-ud-daula of Audh, after whose 
death in January 1775, A. D., 01-fcada 1188 A. H., he 
succeeded to his dominions, and made Lakhnau the seat 
of his government, which formerly was at Faizab&l. He 
died, after a reign of 23 lunar years and seven months, 
on Friday the 21st of September, 1797 A. D., 28th Kabf 
I 1212 A. H., and was buried in the Im&m Bara at 
Lakhnau of which he was the founder. His eldest 
mdopted son, Wazir AH Khan, agreeably to his request, 
was placed on the masnad, but was after four months 
deposed by Sir John Shore, then Governor of Calcutta, 
and Sa'adat All Khan, the brother of the deceased, raised 
to the masnad. Asaf-ud-daula is the author of a Diwan 
in Urdu and Persian. 

Asalat Khan, J^ uJU i title of Mfr Abdul H*di son 
of Mir Miran Yozdf, was a nobleman in the service of 
the emperor Shin Jahan. He died in the year A. D. 
1647, 1057 A. H* 

Asalat Khan, c^ ^^ title of Mirza* Muhammad son 
of Mirzi Badia' of Mashhad. He came to India in th« 
19th year of Shin Jahan 1646, A- D., 1055 A. H., and 
was raised to the rank of 5,000 by the emperor 'Alamgir, 
in whose timo he died 1666, A. D., 1076 A. H. 

Asam or Atham, f^j poetical name of Hafiz-ullih, 
which see. 



Asar, jfl, poetical name of Akhund Shifa'f or 8hafia's*i of 
Shfraz who died at La> in the year 1701 A. D., 1113 
A H., and left a Diwan containing 10,000 verses. 

Asar, J*> poetical name of Nawib Husain AM Khan, son of 

Amfr-ud-daula Haidar Beg Khan. He is the author of 
a Diwan. 

>Asi» {g*\*> the poetical name of Ghulam Sarwar, author 
of the K&f Nama, which consists of Ghazals, all the verses 
of which end in l£a£ hence the name ; another peculiarity 
is that the first letter of every verse of the first Ghazal is 
Alif, of the second Be, of the third Te, &c, a ghazal for 
every letter of the alphabet. 

ABir,^^*!, poetical name of Sayyid Oulzar AH, the son of 

Nazir, a poet of Agra. He is the author of an Urdu 
Diwan, and is still living in Agra, (1878). 

Asir, J&*^> commonly called Mirza Jaldl Asrr, a celebrated 
poet of Persia and a relation of Shih Abbas the great. 
He flourished about the year 1600 A. D M never came to 
India, and is the author of a Diwan in Persian. He died 
in 1630 A. D., 1040 A. H. 

Asir-ud-din Akhsikati, f JkC ±-A.\ ^j±)\ jxm\ a native 

of Akhsfkat a city in the province of Farghana, was an 
excellent poet and contemporary with Khakani. He died 
in A. D., 1211, 608 A. H. He spent the greatest part 
of his life at the courts of the Atabake, and stood in high 
favor with Arsalan Shih, the son of Tughral, Eldiguz 
and Kizil Arsalan. 

Asir-ud-din Aomani or Aamani, <y^f i&t^j**&, 
a poet of Hamdan, who was a pupil of Nasir-ud-din Tusf. 
He is the author of a Diwan in Persian and Arabic. 

Asir-ud-din ibn-Umar al-Abhari, iSjtf^ J+* u# 
^Jl J Lm\ i author of the " Kash£" " " Zubda," and 

44 Hidaya," which is also called Hidiyet-ul-Hikmat, the 
Guide to Philosophy. He died in 1344 A. D., 745 A. H. 

Aflghar, J^ Uir^j***, Husain Khan (Nawib) of Fur- 

rukhibid in 1874 went to Bombay intending to proceed 
to Mecca on a pilgrimage. 

'Ashrati, J*J~*9 vide IshratL 

Aflha'ri, c5" ***"'* the surname of one of the most celebrated 
doctors among the Musalmans, named Abul Hasan All 
bin-Isma'fl. He died in 936 or 941 A. D., 324 or 329 
AH. 

'Ashik, &^*t poetical name of Mahdf Ah' Khan, grandson of 
Nawab All Mardan Khan. He is the author of 3 Diwans 
in Urdu, two in Persian, a book called Hamla Haidari 
and several works. 

'Ashik, i5^*> poetical name of Shaikh Nur-ud-din Muham- 
mad, the author of the Masnawi called " Aish wa Tarab," 
Enjoyment and Merriment, composed in 1668 A. D., 1079 

> Ashik Pasha, ^^ (J* 4 ***, a Turkish poet, who was born 
at Hirshari, in the reign of Sultan Orkhan the successor 
of Othman, and died at no very advanced age, in the 
reign of Murad I. He was, says Von Hormuz, 
one of the richest Shaikhs of his time, but lived 
nevertheless the life of a simple darvesh, from conscien- 
tious motives. His Diwan or great work, in imitation of 
Jalal-ud-din Bumfs is a collection of mystical povtry 
exceeding ten thousand distichs, and divided into ten 
books, each book into ten parts. 



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Atabak 



'Ashik, <S"^> poetical name of Martlana" *Abul Khair of 

Khwarizm, which see. 
ABhk *-^£f, poetical name of Muhammad Khalil-ullah 

Khan, which see. 

Ashna, ^ T, poetical name of Mirza* Mohammad T&hir 

who had the title of InAit Khan. He was a son of 
NawaT) Zafar Khan Ihsan, and died in 1666 A. D., 1077 
A. H. His complete work is called " Kulliit 'Ashna\" 
in which Kasidas are to be found in praise of Shih Jahan 
and Dard Shik6h. 

Ashna, ^1, the poetical name of Ghaias-ud-din who died 

in A. D. 1662, 1073 A. H. 

Ashob, *-£j** T , the poetical name of Muhammad Bakhsh, 

a poet who flourished in Audh during the reign of Asaf- 
ud-daula and his father Shujaa'-ud-dauliL He is the 
author of a Dfwan. 

Aflhraf, <-ir*^ or Darwesh Ashraf. He flourished under 
Baisanghar's son, and has left a Diwan. 

ABhraf Ali Khan Koka, *V cM <^> cj^t, 

vide Fighan. 
Afihraf, «4/*"'j poetical name of Mirza" Muhammad Sa'id of 
Mazandaran, son of Mulla Muhammad Kana\ Ho came 
to India and was appointed to instruct Zebun Nisa 
Begam, the daughter of the emperor 'Alamgir. He died 
at Mungair. He is the author of a Diwan and several 
Masnawis. 

Ashraf, *-£r*l> the poetical name of Muhammad Hasan, son 
of Shall Muhammad Zaman of Allah£b£d. He was pro- 
bably alive in 1852 A. D., and is the author of a Masnawi 
called M Ma'dan Fail." 

Ashraf Khan, e>^ **LA title of Mirz£ Muhammad 
Ashraf the son of Islam Khan Mashhadf. In the reign 
of Shah Jahin, he held the rank of 1500, and the titlo of 
Ya'tmad Khan. In the time of 'Alamgir he was raised 
to the rank of 3000 with the title of Ashraf Khan, and 
died five days after tho conquest of Bijapur on the 17th 
September, 1686 A. D., 9th gil-fcada, 1097 A H. 

Ashraf Khan, ttJ^* **h~l> whose proper name was Mu- 
hammad Asghar, was a Sayyad of Mashhad, and held the 
office of Mir Munshi in tho time of tho emperor Akbar. 
He wrote a beautiful hand, and was an excellent poet. 
He composed a chronogram on the death of Muhammad 
Yusaf in 1562 A. D., 970 A. H., another on the completion 
of the mosque of Shaikh Salim Chishti at Fathapur 
Sikri in 1571 A. D., 979 A. H., and one on the conquest 
of Surat by Akbar on the 1st of January, 1573, A. D., 25th 
8 ha' ban, 980 A. H. He accompanied Munaim Khan 
Khankhanan to Bengal and died at Lakhnauti in the 
year 1575 A. D., 983 A. H. At the time of his death he 
held the rank of 2,000. 

Ashraf, «-ir^> a chief of the Afghans of the tribe of Ghil- 
zai, who was elected on the 22nd of April 1725 O. S., by 
the Afghans as successor of his cousin or uncle Mahmud, 
another chief of the same tribe, who had usurped the 
throne of Persia in the time of bSul^an Husain Safwi 
whom he kept in confinement. A hraf on his accession 
murdered the latter, and sent his corpse to be interred in 
Kumm. He was defeated by Nadir l£ul£ (afterwards 
NAdir Shah) in 1729 A. D., 1142 A. H., who placed 
Shah Tahmasp II, son of Sultan Husain on the throne. 
Ashraf was afterwards seized and murdered by a Billoch 
chief between Kirman and Kandahar in January, 1730 
A. D., 1143 A. H., and his head sent to Shah Tahmasp. 



'Ashrat, Cb^, vide Ishrat. 

'Ashrati, <££*, name of a poet, vide Ishratf. 

'Asif Khan, vide Asaf Khan* 

'Asimi, %s+***, an Arabian poet who lived in the time of 

Khwaja Nizam-ul-Mulk, and wrote beautiful panegyric* 
in his praise. 

'Asjudi, iS*¥~*> a powerful poet at the court of Sultan 
Mahmud of Ghazni, waa a native of Marv, and one of the 
scholars of 'Unsari. He evinced in his works much 
genius; but they are scarce, and the greatest part of 
them are lost 

Askaran, e£r^*' **!;> (Bija*) brother of Raj* Bihiri Mai 
Kachhwaha. He served under the emperor Akbar for 
several years, and died some time after the year 1588 
A. D., 996 A. H. After his death, his son Baj Singh was 
raised to high rank and honors. 

'Askari, iSJ*~** (^> (Imam) vide Hasan Askari. 

'Askari, igj"** \)j*> (Mirzi) third son of the emperor 
Bihar Shah. On the accession of his eldest brother 
Humayun to the throne of Dihli, the district of Sarkir 
Sambhal was conferred on him as jagir. He was sub- 
sequently kept in confinement for some time on account 
of his rebellious conduct by Humayun on his return from 
Persia. He afterwards obtained permission to go on a 
pilgrimage to Mecca, but died on his way across the 
deserts of Arabia in tho year 1564 A. D., 961 A. H. He 
left one daughter who was married to Yusaf Khan, an 
inhabitant of Mashhad. 

Asmai, &*+^> surname of Abu Safd Abdul Malik bin 

Kureb, which see. 

'Asmat, tf *+« ft i * 'j or Ismat, poetical namo of Khwaja Asmat- 

ullah of Bukhara. He was descended from a noble family 
of Bukhara tracing his ancestry to Ja'far, the son of Abu 
T&lib the father of AH. He was successful in all kinds of 
poetical composition ; and flourished in the time of prince 
Mirza Khalil, the grandson of Amir Taimur, whom he 
instructed in the art of poetry. He died in the year 
1426 A. D., 829 A H., and has left a Diwan consisting 
of 20,000 verses. 

'Asmat-uHah, *t^ »&» »* », vide Asmat. 

'Asmat-uUah, V» ^~** *", (Multt) of Sahtonpur, 
was tho author of the work called "Shurah Khulisat 
ul-Hisdb." He died in 1626 A. D., 1035 A H. 

Asoka, **j~J } the son of Bindusara, and grandson of Chandra- 

gupta raja of ,Pataliputra in Magadha. He reigned for 
about 40 years, until tho year 223 B. C. His reign is 
most important. Numerous inscriptions made by his order 
have been discovered in various parts of India. 

' Assar, J* **, (oil-presser) the poetical name of Shams-ud-dfn 
Muhammad. He was a native of Tabrez, and author 
of a romantic poem called " Mehr wa Mushtari," the Sun 
and Jupiter, which he completed on the 20th February, 
1377 A. D., 10th Shawwal, 778 AH., and died in the 
year 1382 A. D., 783 A. H. 

Aswad, &J~^, or Al-Aswad, vide Musailima. 

' Ata, "**, tho poetical name of Shaikh AtA-ulUh a pupil of 

Mirz* Bedfl. He died at Dihli in 1723 A D., 1135 

A. H. 

Atabak, •***©, or Atabig. This is a Turkish title, formed 
from the word At£, father or tutor, and Beg, lord ; and 



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signifies a governor or tutor of a lord or prince. From 
the time of the decline of the dynasty of Saljuk to the 
conquest of Persia by Haliku Khan (which occupies a 
period of more than a century,) that country was dis- 
tracted by the contests of a number of petty princes, or 
governors, called Atibaks ; who taking advantage of the 
weakness of the last monarchs of the race of Saljuk, 
established their authority over some of the finest pro- 
vinces of the empire. One of the most distinguished of 
there Atabegs, was Eldiguz, a Turkish slave, whose de- 
scendants reigned over 'Azurbejin. The Atabegs of Fars 
were descended from Salghur, a Turkish general. Vide 
Eldiguz and Salghur, also 'Imad-ud-din Zangi There 
were four dynasties of these Atibaks. 

Atabak Abu Babr,jk#l ^§, the son of Atabak 
Muhammad, the son of Eldiguz, succeeded his uncle Kixal 
Arsalan as prime minister to Tughral III Saljuki, in 1191 
A. t). t 587 A. H. He appears to have contented himself 
with the principality of 'Axurbejan, and fixed his resi- 
dence at Tabrez. His long reign was only disturbed by 
one war with his brother I£utla^ in which he was vic- 
torious- r>utlak fled into Khwarizm and encouraged 
Ala-ud-din Takash to advance against Tughral III whom 
he defeated and slew in 1194 A. D., 590 A. H. Abu 
Bakr died in 1210 A. D., 607 A. H., and was succeeded 
by his brother Atabak Muzaffar. 

Atabak Abu Bakr bin-Sa'd bin-Zangi, %fi o* 

JX * erf Ai j* ^®, vide 8ur4ar. 

Atabak >Ala-ud-daula, ^^ *** ^% the son of 

Atabak Sam, one of the Atibaks of Isfahan of the race of the 
Dflamitee, He died in 1227 A. D., 624 A. H^ aged 84 
years. 

Atabak Eldigua, J*k *M*, vide Eldigu*. 

Atabak Muhammad, *•** «-^, was the eldest son of 
Eldiguz, whom he succeeded as prime minister in 1172 
A. D. v 568 A. H. When Tughral III a prince of the 
8aljukian dynasty (who was a child of sevsA years of 
age) was placed on the throne in 1176 A. D M Muhammad, 
Who was his uncle, became the actual ruler of Persia. 
This chief after enjoying power 13 years died in March, 
1186 A. D* £il-hijja 681 A. H., in which year the can* 
junction of all the planets took place. He was succeeded 
by his brother, $izal Arsalan. 

Atabak Musafbr, j&* &&, the son of Atabak 
Muhammad. He succeeded his brother Abu Bakr in 
1210 A. D., 607 A. H., and not only inherited Azur- 
bejan, but a considerable part of 'Irak* He enjoyed this 
power 16 years; after which 'Azurbejin was invaded 
and conquered by Sultan Jalil-ud-din the monarch of 
Khwarizm A. D. 1225, 622 A. H. Muzaffar shut himself 
up in the fort of Alaniak, where he died ; and with him 
perished the power of the family of Eldiguz. 

Atabak MuBaffkr-ud-din Zangi, </b J&* **&, 
a prince of Hhiraz, and brother of Sun^ar, which see. 

Atabak 8a'd bin-Zangi, vide Sunfcar. 

'Ata Huaain Khan, u^ ttrt-* *•, whose poetical 
name was Tahsin, is the author of the " Nautars Murassa'," 
an Urdu translation of the "Chahar Darwesh." He 
flourished in the time of Nawab 'Asaf-ud-daula of Lakh- 
nan, about the year 1776 A. D., 1189 A. H. As a 
specimen of the Urdu language the Nautars Murassa* 
was rendered objectionable for students, by his retaining 
too muck of the phraseology and idiom of the Persian 
and Arabia On this account a simple version was execut- 
ed by Mir Amman of Dihli in 1802 A. D., 1217 A. H~ 
which is styled the « fiegh-o-Bahar," vide Tahsin. 

15 



Atal, Vv 9 a name assumed by Mir Abdul Jalfl of Dehlf 
in his poetical compositions, who gave out that he was 
by inspiration the pupil of Ja'far Zajalli, and wrote 
poetry in Persian and Arabic. 

'Ata Malik, sSX ^ § ^ W* Ata-ud-d£n8u^named , Ata Malik. 
Atash, kJ***, poetical name of Khwaja Haidar All of 

Lakhnau, who is the author of two Dfwans or books of 
Odes consisting of Persian and Urdu verses. He died in 
1847 A. D., 1263 A. H. 

'Ata-ullah, *tr' "**> surname of several Musalman 

authors, but particularly of Taj-ud-din Muhammad bin* 
Ahmad bin-Ata-ullah, who is the author of a book en- 
titled " Hakam-ul-Atia" which treats on Musalman law, 
and is to be found in the Royal Library at Paris, No. 672. 
There is one Ata-ulUh who is the author of a dictionary 
called "Firdaus-ul-Lughat" 

'Ata-ullah, V' ^ bm-Muhammad-al-Husainf Naiaha- 
puri, author of the " Rauzat-ul-Ahba'b," containing the 
history of Muhammad, of his companions, and of the 
twelve Imams. This book was written at Hirat and de- 
dicated to Amir 'Alisher in 1494 A. D., 899 A. H. He 
is also called Amir Jamal-ud-din Ata-ullah. He also 
wrote another work on tho art of writing poetry, entitled 
" Kitab Taknul-us-Sanaa't" dedicated to the same Amir 
in which he calls himself 'Ata-ullAh bin-Muhammad-al- 
Husaini NainhApuri He was wazfr to Sultan Husain 
Mirza of Hirat, and died in the beginning of the year 917 
A. H. 

At-har or Athar Khan, e^ j&> the son of Amir 
Nizam-ud-din Razwf ; he was a native of Bukhara, and 
came to India in the time of the emperor ' Alamgir, where 
he collected his poems into a Di wan. 

Aahir-ud-dih, ui™l J*"l> pronounced by the Indiana 
Asir-ud-din, which see. 



name is Ami Is-hafc 



Atma*, **+»!, poet whose proper 

Hallaj, which see. 

Ateis, y^j one of the Sultans of Khwarizm called Atsia 

ibn-Auk by Ibn Ehallikan. Tutuah or Turtush son of 
Alp Arsalan, who was lord of the countries to the east of 
8yria, caused him to be arrested, and having put him to 
death on the 21st of October 1078, A. D., 11th Babi II, 
471 A. H., took possession of his kingdom. 

Atsia, y&i a Sultan of Khwarizm called by ibn-Khalli- 
kan, Atsiz the son of Kutb-ud-din Muhammad the son of 
Anushtakin. He was cotemporary with Sultan Sanjar 
Saljuki, with whom he had several battles. He died in 
1166 A. D., 6th Jamad II, 561 A. H., and was succeeded 
to the throne by his son Alp Arsalan who is also called 
Apa Arsalan. He died in 1162 A. D., 19th Rajah, 657 
A. H. 

Atsia, jT^t son of Ala-ud-din Hasan Jahin 86a, king of 
Gh6r. He reigned after Bahi-ud-dm Sam, and was 
killed in a battle against Taj-ud-din Elduz prince of 
Ghazni some time about the year 1211 A. D., 608 A. H. 
He was the last of the kings of Oh6r of this branch. 

'Attar, )****> poetical name of Farfd-nd-dih Attar, which 
see. 

Aurangseb, Vr^l, a name of the emperor 'Alamgir, 
which see. 

Arank Khan, *J*> ^jft or Ung Khan, a prince of the 
tribe of Karit or Kirit, a tribe of Mughals or Oriental 
Tartars, who made profession of the Christian religion. 



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He was surnamed Malik Yuhann* or king John. From 
the name of this prince we have made John the Priest, 
who was stripped of his dominions by Changes Khan in 
1202 A. D., 699 A. H. They have since applied the 
name of John the Priest or Prestre John, to the king of 
Ethiopia, because he was a Christian. Avank Khan is 
by some authors called Avant Khan. He was a very 
powerful sovereign, and the greatest part of Tartary 
was tributary to him ; but he was defeated and put to death 
by Changeiz Khan. 

Aven Bosch, vide Ibn Bashld. 

Avenzur, vide Abdul Malik bin-Zohr. 

Averroes, vide Ibn Raahfd. 

Avicenna, vide Abu Sina. 

Aweis Karani, <JJ lT^j (Khwaja) an upright Mu- 
salman of the Sufi sect, who had given up the world, 
used to say to those that sought him, " Do you seek God ? 
If you do, why do you come to me P And if you do not 
seek God, what business can I have with you P" He was 
an inhabitant of Yeman and of the tribe of Karan. He 
was slain in a battle fought by Ali against Mu'awia I. 
in 657 A. D., 17th Shawwal, 37 A. H. This man had 
never seen Muhammad, and yet the Musalmans say, that 
when he heard that Muhammad had lost a tooth in battle, 
and not knowing which, he broke all his teeth. 

Aweis Jalayer, ji** urij eJ 1 * 1 ^, (Sultan) succeeded 
his father Amir Hasan Buzurg as king of Baghdad in July 
1356, A. D., Eajab 757 A. H., and after a reign of nearly 
nineteen lunar years died on Tuesday the 10th October, 
1374 A. D., 2nd Jamad I, 776 A. H. He was succeeded 
by his son Sultan Husain Jalayer. 

Aweis Mirza, l\x* crij> a prince nearly related to Bai- 
fcara Bahadur, was nephew to Abul Ghazf Sultan Husain 
Bahadur. He was murdered by Sultan Abu Said Mirza 
between the years 1461 and 1467 A. D. 

>Ayani, ur&> whose proper name was Abu Is-hty Ibrihfm, 
probably flourished previous to the 8th century of the 
Hijrat. He is the author of a Maanawi called " Anbia 
•Nama," a history of the prophets who preceded Muham- 
mad. 

Ayaz, ^M) a slave of Sultan Mahmud of Ghasni, who being 
a great favourite of his master, was envied by the courti- 
ers ; they therefore informed the Sultan that they fre- 
quently observed Ayaz go privately into the Jewel office ; 
whence they presumed he had purloined many valuable 
effects. The next time when the slave had entered the 
treasury, the Sultan followed by a private door, and 
unobserved, saw Ayaz draw from a large chest a suit of 
old dirty garments with which having clothed himself, 
he prostrated himself on the ground and returned thanks 
to the Almighty for all the benefits conferred on him. 
The Sultan, being astonished, went to him, and demanded 
an explanation of his conduct. He replied, "Most 
gracious Sire, when I first became your Majesty's servant, 
this was my dress, and till that period, humble had been 
my lot. Now that, by the grace of God and your ma- 
jesty's favor, I am elevated above all the nobles of the 
land, and am intrusted with the treasures of the world, 
I am fearful that my heart should be puffed up with 
vanity ; I therefore daily practice this humiliation to 
remind me of my former insignificance." The Sultan 
being much pleased, added to his rank, and severely re- 
primanded his slanderers. 

? Ayaz (J£azi), {jjk* c*^> son of Musa, and author of the 

u Sharah Sahih Muslim," Mashari^-ul-Anwar, and several 
other works. He died in 1149 A. D., 644 A. H. 



'Ayesha, *&J*, daughter of Abu Bakr, and one of the 
most beloved wives of Muhammad, though she bore him 
no child. She was his third wife, and the only one that 
was a maid, being then only of seven years of age. On 
which account (some say) her father, whose original name 
was Abd-ullah, was named Abu Bakr, that is to say, 
the father of the virgin. An Arabian author, cited by 
Maracci, says, that Abu Bakr was very averse to the 
giving him his daughter so young, but that Muhammad 
pretended a divine command for it ; whereupon he sent 
her to him with a basket of dates, and when the girl was 
alone with him, he Btretched out his hand, and rudely 
took hold of her clothes ; upon which she looked fiercely 
at him, and said, " People call you the faithful man, but 
your bohaviour to me shews you are a perfidious one." 
But this story is moat probably one of those calumnies 
against Muhammad, which were invented and found favour 
during the Middle Ages. After the death of her husband, 
she opposed the succession of Ali, and had several bloody 
battles with him ; although violent, her character was 
respected, and when taken prisoner by Ali, she was dis- 
missed without injury. She was called prophetess and 
mother of the faithful. She died aged 67 in the year 
678 A. D., 68 A. H. Her brother Abdur Rahman, one 
of the four who stood out against Yezld's inauguration, 
died the same year. There is a tradition that 'Ayesha 
was murdered by the direction of Mu'awia I, and the 
following particulars are recorded. 'Ayesha having reso- 
lutely and insultingly refused to engage her allegiance 
to Yezid, Mu'awia invited her to an entertainment, where 
he had prepared a very deep well or pit in that part of 
the chamber reserved for her reception, and had the mouth 
of it deceptively covered over with loaves and straw. 
A chair was then placed upon the fatal spot, and 'Ayesha, 
on being conducted to her seat, instantly sank into eternal 
night, and the mouth of the pit was immediately covered 
with stones and mortar. There is, however, no trust- 
worthy authority in support of this story. 

'Ayn-uddin (Shaikh), i**** e** £&*, of Btfipdr, 

author of the " MulhiVat," and Kitab-ul-Anwar contain- 
ing a nistory of all the Muhammadan saints of India. 
He flourished in the time of Sultan Ala-uddin Hasan 
Bahmani. 

'Ayn-ul-Mulk (Hakim), «-^J' c^* f£*> a native of 

Shiriz, and a well educated and learned Musalman, was 
an officer of rank in the time of the omperor Akbar. 
He was an elegant poet, and his poetical name was Waft. 
He died in the 40th year of the emperor in 1694 A. D., 
1003 A. H. 

'Ayn-ul-Mulk (Khwaja), ^^l e^* **!*N a dis- 
tinguished nobleman in the court of 8ul{an Muhammad 
Shah Tughlafc and his successor Sultan Firoi Shah 
Barbak, kings of Dehli. He is the author of several 
works, one of which is called "Tarsfl 'Ayn-ul-Mulkf." 
He also appears to be the author of another work called 
" Fatha Nama," containing an account of the conquests 
of Sultan 'AU-uddin Sikandar Sani, who reigned from 
1296 to 1316 A. I). 

'Ayah, U***> poetical name of Muhammad 'Askarf who 

lived in the reign of the emperor Shah ' Alam. 
'Ayshi, u - **** a poet who is the author of a Maanawi 

called "Haft Akhtar," or the seven planets, which he 
wrote in 1676 A. D., 1086 A. H. 

Azad, ^J*> the poetical name of Mir Ghulam Ali of Bil- 
garam. His father Sayyad Nuh who died in 1762 A. D., 
1166 A. H., was the son of the celebrated Mir Abdul 
Jalfl Bilgaramf. Ho was an excellent poet and is the 
author of several works in Persian, among which are 



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"pasted 'Vni'\ u 8ab-hat-ul-Mirjan," "Khazana 
*Amira, ,, and "Tazkira Sarv 'Azad." Ho died in the 
year 1786 A. D. f 1200 A. H. 

Azad, <*L?f ; the poetical name of Captain Alexander Hider- 
ley, in the service of the Raja of Alwar. He was a good 
poet and has left a small- Diwan in Urdu. His father's 
name is Mr. James Hiderloy and his brother's Thomas 
Hiderley. He died on the 7th of July 1861, Zilhij 1277 
A. H., at Alwar, aged 32 years. 

Asad Khan, c/^ **}*> governor of Kashmir of the 
Afghan tribe, succeeded his father Hajf Karim Dad, a 
domestic officer of Ahmad Shah Abdali, and who was at 
the death of that prince advanced to the government of 
Kashmir by Taimur Shah, as a reward for quelling the 
rebellion of Amir Khan the former governor. Azad 
Khan was only 18 years of age (in 1783) when he was 
governor of Kashmir, but his acts of ferocity exceeded 
common belief. 

'Azaeri, kSJ$***> rideVzaM. 

Azal d$} poetical name of Mirza Muhammad Amfh who 
died in 1728 A. D., 1141 A. H. 

>Azd-uddin (Kazi), crf^t *** iS°^> of Shfraz, author 
of several works, one of which is called the " Muwafcif 
'Azdia," a celebrated work in Arabic on Jurisprudence. 
He flourished in the time of Shah Abu Is-ha> governor 
of Shiraz, to whom he dedicated the above work. He 
died A. D. 1356, 766 A. H. 

'Azd-ud-daula, ^J^ ***** a Sultan of the Boyites, sue- 
ceeded his fether Rukn-ud-daula in September, 976 
A. D., Muharram, 366 A. H„ to tho government of Fars 
and 'Irak, as well as in the office of wazir or Amir-ul- 
TJmra to the khalif Al-Taya BiUah of Baghdad, in the 
room of his cousin Izz-ud-daula the son of Maizz-ud- 
daula, whom he killed in battle in 978 A. D., 367 A. H. 
He built the mausoleum of 'All at Najaf Ashraf, em- 
bellished Baghdad and other places by magnificent public 
buildinjrs, and died on Monday the 27th of March, 983 
A. D., 8th Shawwal, 372 A. H., aged 47 lunar years. 
At his death the reigning khalif read the prayers at the 
funeral of this good and great n* 11 -. **« name is stiU 
fondly cherished in a country, over which he endeavoured 
during the reign of his father and his own, being a space 
of 84 years, to diffuse prosperity and joy. His power and 
possessions became from the moment of his death, a subject 
of contest between his brothers and nephews. 

'Asim, (*£*> tto 80n of MaU * £ aid *> and a Mpliew of 
Muila Naziri, was a Persian poet of NaisMpur. He 
flourished about the year 1663 A. D., 1074 A. H ; and is 
the author of a Diwan, and a Masnawi called "Faux 
Aifm," vide Aiim Naiahapuri. 

'Arim Jah (Nawab), »**f^ v!y, Siraj-ul-Umri the 
son of Azira-ud-daula, Nawab of the Karnatic, was 
installed by the British Government as Nawab on the 3rd 
February, 1820. Ho died on the 12th November, 1826, 
aged 34 years. 

'Asim Jah, »** f£*> Nawab of Arkat, died 14th January, 
1874 aged 74. He was the second son of Azim Jah, one 
of the Nawabs of the Karnatic, and the uncle of the late 
Nawab GhuUm Muhammad Ghaus Khan. He received 
a pension of 2600 rupees from the Government 

>A«im-ud-daula (Nawab), *!Wl f* 6 * v!y, of the 
Karnatic, was the son of Nawab Amir-ul-Umra, the brother 
of Umdat-ul-Umra. On the death of Umdat-ul-Umri, 
the English resolved to take the functions of government 
into their own hands, 'All Husain the next heir refused 



to comply, consequently Ayfm-ud-daula the nephew of 
the deceased was placed on tho masnad by the British 
Government on the 31st of August, 1801. He died on the 
2nd August, 1819, A. D. His son 'Azim Jah was in- 
stalled as Nawab of the Karnatic on the 3rd February, 
1820, A. D. In 1698, he allowed the Company to pur- 
chase the zamindarahip of Sutanuti, Calcutta and Govind- 
pur. 

'Azim-ul-Umra, tf^ffc**, minister of the Nizam of 
Hydarabad. He succeeded Rukn-ud-daula about the year 
1794 A. D. 

'Azim-ullah Khan, CJ^ *^l (*&*> says Mr. Sheppard in 
his Narrative of the Mutiny, was a charity boy, having 
been picked up, together with his mother, during the 
famine of 1837-38, when they were both in a dying state 
from starvation. The mother being a staunch heathen, she 
would not consent to her son being christened. Ho was 
adoptod in the Kanpur Free School under Mr. Patan, 
School Master. After 10 years, he was raised to be 
a teacher. After some years he attached himself to the 
Nawab, who sent him to England for the purpose of 
Tnnlring a last appeal. Failing in his endeavours, he 
returned to India breathing revenge in his heart. 

' Azimush Shan, <j^ & > > second son of the emperor 
Bahadur Shah of Dohlf. He was appointed by his grand- 
father, the emperor 'Alamgir, governor of Bengal; ho 
made Patna the Beat of his government and named it 
Azimabad. On the news of his grandfather's death, 
leaving his own son Farrukhsiar (afterwards emperor) to 
superintend the affairs of that country, he came to Agra, 
and was present in the battle which took place between 
his father and his uncle 'Azim Shah in June 1707* A. D., 
1119 A. H. He was slain in the battle which ensued 
after his father's death between Jahandar Shah and his 
other brothers in the month of February 1712, O. 8., 
Muharram 1124, A. H. His second son Muhammad 
Karim was taken prisoner after the battle, and murdered 
by order of Jah anda r Shah who ascended the throne. 

'AziB, JO** whose proper name was Abdul Aziz Khan, 
.was a native of Dakhan. He is the author of a Diwan, 
also of a prose composition called •* Gulshan Bang." 

>A*iz Koka (Mirza), **J* ' jij* lir*, the foster-brother 
of the emperor Akbar, vide 'Azim Khan, the son of Khan 
'Azim commonly called Anka Khan. 

>Azi*-uUah Zahidi, tf**!) *^' J&*> author of a 
Masnawi which he composed in the year 1407 A. D., 810 
A. H. He is commonly called Aziz. 

'Arid le dm-allah-bm-Yusaf-bin-HafLz, JaiU. ^ 

«Ju»w ^ AUl ^ti iJ-^U, the eleventh and last khalif of 

Egypt of the Fatimite dynasty, succeeded his father Faoz- 
bi-nasr-allah Tsa bin-Zafir in the year 1 158 A. D., 553 A. H. 
But the state of affairs in Egypt was now tottering to its 
fall. The descendants of 'All from the death of Al- 
Musta'ali Billah A. D. 1101, had become puppets in the 
hands of their wazir or Amir-ul-Jayush (generalissimo), 
who wielded all the regal authority of the state : two 
Amirs, Dargam and Shawar, had contested m arms this 
high dignity ; and the latter, defeated and expolled from 
Ejrypt, sought refuge and aid from Nur-uddin styled 
Malik-ul-'Adil Nur-uddin Mahmud, the celebrated ruler 
of Syria. The sovereign of Damascus eagerly embraced 
the opportunity of obtaining a footing in Egypt, and in 
1168 A. D., 658 A. H, despatched a force under Asad-ud- 
din Shirakoh (the brother of Aiyub) and his nephew 
8alah-uddin to reinstate Shawar ; whose rival c%lled in 
the Christians of Palestine to his support: but ere 
Amauri (the brother and successor of Baldwin III) could 



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enter Egypt, Dargam had been overpowered and slain 
by Shirakoh, who replaced Shi war in his former power. 
But Shawar, faithless alike to friend and foe, now entered 
into arrangements with the FrankB in order to elude the 
fulfilment of his engagements with Nur-uddin j and 
Shirakoh, after maintaining himself for some time in 
Belbes against the joint forces of Jerusalem and Egypt, 
was compelled to enter into a convention with Amauri 
and evacuate the country. But he was soon recalled by 
Shawar to deliver him from the vengeance of his new 
allies to whom he had proved as perfidious as to those of 
his own faith ; Cairo was closely besieged by the Franks, 
and the Fatimite khalif 'Azid le-din-aUah sent the hair of 
his women, the extreme symbol of Oriental distress, to im- 
plore the succour of Nur-uddin (1168 A. D.). Shirakoh 
again entered Egypt with an army, forced Amauri to 
retreat, and after beheading the double traitor Shawar, 
installed himself in the twofold office of wazir to the 
Fatimite khalif and lieutenant of Egypt in the name of 
Nur-uddin ; but dying the same year, was succeeded in 
his dignities by his famous nephew Salah-uddin, who 
after the death of Nur-uddin in May, 1173 A. D., Shaw- 
wal, 569 A. H., became the sole "master of Egypt and 
Syria. The khalif 'Azid died in 1171 A. D., 667 A. H., 
and the name of the Abbaside khalif Mustaxi was sub- 
stituted in the public prayers till the death of Nur-uddin. 

'Azim, f . fj poetical name of Siraj-ud-daula Muhammad 
Ghaus Khan, Nawab of the Earnatio. 

' Azim, (*^> poetical name of Sayyad 'Azim 'All of Allaha- 
bad, author of a Diwan in Urdu, composed in 1855 A. D. 

'Azim All (Mir), %£*(&* j%°, of Agra, author of a 
Sikandar Nama in Urdu verse, translated from the one in 
Persian, in 1844 A. D. 

>Azim Humayun, \s)J$+* (&*** vide Adil Khan Faruki 
'Azim Humayun Shirwani, \^3jr u>r+* {*** 9 * 

nobleman of the court of Sultan Sikandar Shah Lodi. He 
was imprisoned by Sultan Ibrahim and died in prison. 

'Azim Khan, e>^ (•"'* or Khan 'Azim, an officer of 
state in the time of Humayun and Akbar, emperor of 
Dehli. He was commonly called Anka Khan, surnamed 
Shams-uddfn Muhammad, was the father of Mirza Aziz 
K6ka who also afterwards held the title of 'Azim Khan. 
He was a native of Ghazni, and formerly served under 
Prince Eamran Mirza. It is said that he saved the life 
of Humayun, or had been of some service to him after his 
defeat by Sher Shah at Kanauj; for which service he 
was handsomely rewarded by that emperor after his 
having recovered the kingdom. He accompanied the 
emperor to Persia, and as his wife Jiji Begam became the 
wet-nurse of Akbar, the emperor's son, he was conse- 
quently called Anka Khan. He was the first person that 
was honored with the rank of " Haft Hazarf," or Seven 
Thousand, by Akbar. The office of Wakil Mutlafc, which 
was taken away from Maham Anka, was also conferred 
on him ; on which account, Adham Khan Kokaltash, the 
son of Maham Anka, took offence, and assassinated Khan 
'Azim on Monday the 18th of May, 1562 A. D., 12th 
Ramzan, 969 A. H., in a room adjoining to that occupied 
by the emperor. Adham Khan was immediately bound 
hand and foot, by order of the emperor, and thrown 
down headlong from a window of the court at Agra, where 
this circumstance had taken place, and crushed to death. 
The remains of Khan 'Azim were sent to Dehli, and 
buried in the vicinity of the Dargah of Nixam-uddin 
Aulia, where a mausoleum was erected over his grave by 
his son Mirza Aziz K6ka which is still to be seen at Dehli 
Maham Anka died with grief one month after the death 
of his son Adham Khan. The tomb of Adham Khan, 
who is also buried at Dehli, is called Bh&l Bhulian. 



'Azim Khan, eM- (J**\, the inhabitants of the town of 
Azimgarh, which is near Jaunpur, say that the fortress 
and town of Azimgarh was founded by a person who 
belonged to the family of the Rajas of that place, and 
who was forced by the emperor Jahangir to become a 
Muhammadan and received the title of Azim Khan. 

'Azim Khan, cA (&'*> commonly called Mirza Aziz 
K6ka or Kokaltash, was the son of 'Azim Khan or Khan 
'Azim. He was called K6ka or Kokaltash on account of 
his being fostor-brother and playmate of Akbar; for his 
mother whose name was Jiji Begam, was Akbar's wet- 
nurse. He was one of the best generals of the emperor, 
who, in the 16th year of his reign conferred on him the 
title of 'Azim Khan. He held the government of Gujrat 
for several years together, and being absent from the 
presence from a long period, was summoned to court by 
Akbar in 1592 A. D., 1001 A. H., but as that chief had 
always entertained the wish to proceed on a pilgrimage to 
Mecca, and his friends representing to him that the king 
was displeased with him, and merely sought an oppor- 
tunity to imprison him, he placed his family and treasure 
on board a vessel, and on the 13th of March, 1594 O. S., 
1st Rajab, 1002 A. H., set sail for Hejiz without leave 
or notice. In a short time, howovor, he found his situa- 
tion irksome in that country, and returned to India, where 
he made his submission, and was restored at once to his 
former place in the emperor's favor and confidence. He 
died at Ahmadabad Gujrat in the 19th year of the reign 
of Jahingfr 1G24 A D., 1083 A. H. His remains were 
transported to Dehli and buried close to his father's mau- 
soleum, where a splendid monument was erected over his 
tomb all of marble. It consists of 64 pillars, and is called 
by the people " Chaunsa'th Khambh." 

'Azim Khan, O 1 ^ f^** } title of Mfr Muhammad Ba^ir, 

the brother of ' Asaf Khan Jafar Beg. In the second year 
of the reign of the emperor Jahangir 1606 AD. 1015 
A. H, he was honored with the mansab of 1000 and title 
of Iradat Khan. In the first year of Shah Jahan, 1628 
A. D., 1037 A. H , the rank of 2000 was conferred on him 
with the office of Wizarat Kull ; in the third year of his 
reign he received the title of 'Azim Khan. He was ap- 
pointed at different times governor of Bengal, Allaha- 
bad, Gujrat and latterly of Jaunpur, where he died in 
1649 A. D., 1059 A. H., aged 76 lunar years, and was 
buried there. After his death the title of 'Azim Khan 
was conferred on his eldest son, who was slain in the battle 
which took place between Dara Shikoh and his brother 
Alamgir in 1658 A. D., 1068 A. H., at Agra. His second 
son Mir Khahl was honored with the title of Khan Zaman. 
During the government of this viceroy in Bonga 1634 
A. D., the English obtained permission to trade with their 
ships in Bengal by the emperor Shah Jahan, but were 
restricted to the port of Pipley where they established 
their factory. 

>AEim Khan Koka, *0* d*> (&**, the title of Muzafiar 
Husain commonly known by the appellation of Fidai 
Khan, a title conferred on him by the emperor 8hah 
Jahan. His elder brother held the title of Khan Jahan 
Bahadur Kokaltash, and were both foster-brothers to the 
emperor Alamgir. Fidai Khan was honored with the 
title of 'Azim Khan by Alamgir about the year 1676 
A. D., 1086 A. H, and appointed governor of Bengal in 
1676 A. D., 1087 A H., which situation he held for a 
whole year and died on his way to Behar on the 21st 
April, 1678 O. S., 9th Rabi I, 1089 A H. 

'Asim Khan, uM (J***, ex-amir and a brother of Sher All 
Khan, Amir of Kabul, died at Shah Bud on the 6th of 
October, 1869. 

'Aaim tf aishapuri, iS)j&&# f**U author of a Diwan 
found in the Library of Tipu Sul(axu 



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'Azam Shah, *^» (J**\ } the third son of the emperor 
Alamgir, was born on the 11th July, 1653 0. S., 25th 
Shdban, 1063 A. H. After hia father's death (his eldest 
brother BahAdur 8h£h being then at Kdbul) he was 
crowned in the garden of Shalimar at Ahmadibsxl in the 
Dakhan on the 4th March, 1707 O. S., 10th £il-hijja 1118 
A. H., but was soon after slain, together with his two sons 
Bedar Bakht and Walajih, in a battle fought against 
his eldest brother at Jajowan between Agra and Dholpur. 
This circumstance took place on Sunday the 8th of June, 
1707 O. S., 18th Hibi' I, 1119 A. H., three lunar months 
and eighteen days after his father's death. His mother's 
name was Bano Begam, the daughter of Shihnawa* Khan. 
He was buried in the mausoleum of Humayun at Dehli* 
His two youngest sons who survived him were 'Ali Tabar 
and Bedar Dil. 

'Azmat-Ullah, *t^ ^J^ } (or Uzmat-ullah) Shin, author 
of the " Mazhar-ul-Asrar," being a long dissertation on 
the nature of the divinity, the soul, and other abstruse 
subjects on Sufiism. 

'Aara, [A*> name of the celebrated mistress of Wamifc. 

Aaraki, tfjft (*£**, commonly called Hakim AnaH or 
Axrafcf, was a physician and a poet He was a native of 
Mars, and flourished in the reign of Tughral III, Saljdki, 
king of Persia, in whose name he wrote several books. 
Arzajy died in 1189 A. D., 585 A. H. HiB Diwan con- 
tains nearly 2,000 verses. He is also said to be the 
author of a work called •' Kitdb Sindbid." His proper 
name is Abd'l Mahasin Abu Bakr Zain-ud-din, son of 
Isma'fl Warra^. He introduced himself into the society 
and confidence of the Suzuki prince Tughan ShAh I, the 
seat of whoso government was Naishapur, bv the com- 
position of a most obscene book which he called "Alfia 
Shama," illustrated with pictures. This book appears to 
be a version of the K6k Shashtar. He is called Azrafci 
in the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal for 1844, 
Vol. XIII, Part II, p. 520, and stated to be the author of a 
history of Mecca, of which ancient work several MSS. 
are in Europe, especially one at Cambridge which has 
been left thore by Dr. Burckhardt, who in the preface to 
his Travels in Arabia, professes to have largely made use 
of it. 

A«ur, j'Jj the poetical name of Lutf • All Beg, author of 
the Taskira called "' Ataishkada Azur/' He im«w1 
in the compilation of this work m 1765 A. D., 1179 A. H., 
and was alive in 1782 A. D. f 1196 A. H. He never came 
to India. 

Asrari Ra*i, isib U^> a ***** of Rei in Porsia ' ^ 
a celebrated poet who lived at the court of Sultan 
Mahmud of Ghasnf. On one occasion he received a pre- 
sent of 14,000 dirhams from the Sultan for a short pane- 
gyric. 

Asori (Shaikh), (S)*1 &£> iB^raeni, whose original 
name was Jalal-uddin Hamxa, was a pious Musalman 
*nd an excellent poet. He came to Dakhan from Persia 
SMS -?sSl Ahmad Shih Wall BahmanUm 
A D 835 V H., and returned again to Khurfein, lua 
native country, where ho died in the year 1462 A. D., 
866 A. H., ag^d 82 lunar years. He m the anttor of 
.everal works, among which are " Jawahir-ul-Aarar," 
" ^hraTHumayun? and « Samrit Fmita," which con- 

dunia, •••AjieVnl.-AU," and "^-J"**-" He $» 
lett TDiwan of 80,000 veraea. He adopted the poetical 
name of 'Axuri, because he waa horn in the Peiman month 
ufArur. HUtombiaat Iafcrf«n, andwwatthetame 
of Umlat Shah «o sacred, that convicta found an aaylum 
there bom the hands of juatieo. He is abo the author 
of another poetical work called •• Bahman Nima," Fuk 
AUHamsa. 

16 



'Azz-uddin Abdul Aziz, JO*** «H* eri^" y, vide 
'Azz-uddin. 



B. 



Baba, t V, a Turkish impostor, who announced himself in 
1260 A. D M as the messenger of God; and collected a 
number of adherents, at whose head he laid waste Natolia. 
He was at last overpowered and his sect dispersed ; vide 
Babak. 

Baba Affeal Kashi, <~K cUi| k P, an author. 

Baba Pighani, if*^** ^ b, a poet of Persia who served 
under Sult&n Ya'Vub the son of Uzzan Hasan, and died 
in the year 1519 A. D., 925 A. H., at Khurasan. He has 
left a Diwan containing 6,000 verses. 

Baba Kaighusiz, j m J** ^ (Father without Anxiety) a 
dervish who flourished in the reign of Murad III, and 
was author of the 'Abdullah-Nama. 

Baba Lai Guru, *£ J^ ^ ^, a Hindii of the tribe of 
Khattrfs, who was a Hindi poet and flourished in the time 
of Jahangir. He was an inhabitant of Malwa. 

Baba 'Isa, (J***^ or 'fsa Langotesband. His tomb 
is in Tatta in Sindh. The inscription gives the year 1514 
A. D., 920 A. H. 

Babak, «-** ^> the father of Ardsher Bib&kin, which see. 

Babak, ^ ^ an impostor, who first appeared in 816 A. D., 
201 A. H., when he began to take upon him the title of 
a prophet. What his particular doctrine was, is now 
unknown ; but his religion is said to have differed from 
all others then known in Asia. He gained a great 
number of proselytes in 'Azerbaijan and Persian 'Ir&Jb 
where he soon grew powerful enough to wage war with 
the khalff Al-Atamun, whose troops he often beat, bo 
that he was bocome extremely formidable in the begin- 
ning of the khalfla Al-Mu'ta'sim's reign. The general 
sent by the khalif to reduce him, was IJaidar-ibn-Kaus, 
surnamed Afshin, a Turk by birth. By him Bibak was 
defeated with prodigious slaughter, no fewer than 60,000 
mon being killed in the first engagement. The next year 

836 A. D., 220 A. H., he received a still greater over- 
throw, losing 100,000 men either killed or taken prisoners. 
By this defeat he was obliged to retire into the Gordian 
mountains, where he fortified himself in such a manner, 
that Afshin found it impossible to reduce him till the year 

837 A. D., 222 A. H., when he was forced to surrender to 
Afshin, upon that general's promising him pardon. 
But Afshin no sooner had him in his power, than he first 
caused his hands and feet, and afterwards his head to be 
cut off. B4bak had supported himself against the power 
of the khalifs for upwards of 20 years, during which time 
he had cruelly massacred 250,000 people, it being his 
custom to spare neither man, woman, nor child of the 
Muhammadans or their allies. 

Baba Batan, <J>J ** ^ ***)*$> surnamed Abu Raza, a pious 
Musalman, who is said, by Daulat Shah, to be one of the 
disciples of Jesus Christ, and that he lived to an advanced 
age of 1400 years, and died about the beginning of the 
13th century of the Christian era. 

Babar Shah, * u J b*+** c^ jX*>> surnamed 
Zahir-ud-din Muhammad, the ancestor of the Mughal 
emperors of Dehli, was the sixth in descent from Amir 
Taimur (Tamerlane). His father 'Umar Shaikh Mirzi, 
was the son of Abu Sa'id Mini, the son of Muhammad 
Mirs4, the son of Mirinshih, the son of Amir Taimur. 
His mother's name was Kutlagh Nigar, Khanam, daugh- 



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ter of Ydnas Khan, king of Mughalistah and sister to Mah- 
mud Khan, a descendant of the famous Changez or Jenghiz 
Khan. He was bora on the 15th February 1483, 6th 
Muharram. 888 A. H., and succeeded his father in the 
government of Farghana, the capital of which is And j an, 
in June 1494, Ramasan, 899 A. H. During eleven years 
he fought several battles with the Tartar and TJzbak 
princes, but was at last obliged to leave his country and 
fly towards Kahul, which place he conquered, without 
opposition, together with Kandahar and Badakhshan. 
He reigned for 22 years over those countries before his 
conquest of India. Ho then proceeded to Hindustan, 
stew Ibrahim Husain Lodi, the Papuan king of Dehli, 
in a battle at Panipat on Friday the 20th of April 1526, 
A. D., 7th Rajab, 932 A. H , and became the founder of 
the Mughal dynasty of India which ended in 1857. 
Babar wrote his own life in the Turkish language, called 
44 Tuzak Babari" with such elegance and truth, that the 
performance is universally admired. It was translated in 
the reign of his grandson Akbar, by Abdul Rahim Khan, 
Khankhanan into Persian, and recently into English from 
the Jaghatai Turki, by J. Leyden, Esq., and Wm. Erakine, 
Esq. This monarch ascended the throne in his 12th 
year and reigned 38 years, viz : at Andjan 11 years, at 
Kabul 22, and nearly 5 years in India, and died in 
Agra on Monday the 26th of December, 1530 A. D., 6th 
Jamad I. 937 A. H. He was at first buried in a garden 
on the left bank of the Jamna, then called the Nur Af- 
ghan, and now Rambagh, from which place his remains 
were transported after six months to Kabul, where a 
splendid mausoleum was built on his tomb by his great- 
great-grandson, the emperor Shah Jahan in 1646 A. D. 
His tomb on a hill near the city, surrounded by large beds 
of flowers, commands a noble prospect. The chronogram 
of the year of his death was found to consist in the words 
" Bahisht-rozibad,'* or •' May heaven be his lot." After 
his death, he received the title of " Firdaus-Makani He 
was succeeded on the throne of Dehli by his eldest son, 
the emperor Humayun. His other three Bons were Mirz£ 
Kamran, Mirza 'Askari, and Mirza HandaL Firisbta 
says, that Babar, who was much addicted to women and 
wine, on occasions when he was inclined to make merry, 
used to All a reservoir in a garden in the neighbour- 
hood of Kabul, with some wine, over which was inscribed 
a verse to this purpose — 

Give me but wine and blooming maids, 

All other joys I freely spurn : 
Enjoy them, Babar, while you may — 

For youth once past, will ne'er return* 

Babar (Sultan), jk tf;^-», surnamed Abul Kasim, was 

the son of Mirz£ Baisanghar and grandson of Shahrukh 
Mirza. After the death of Mirza Ulagh Beg and his son 
'Abdul Latif, he succeeded in January 1452, A. D., 2il-hija 
855 A. H., in murdering his own brother Sultan Muham- 
mad and establishing himself in the government of Khura- 
san and the neighbouring countries. A few months 
before his death, the comet of 1456 A. D., 860 A. H., 
made its appearance and alarmed the inhabitants of 
Khurasan. He died at Mashhad on Tuesday the 22nd of 
March 1457, 25th Rabf II, 861 A. H. After his death 
Khurasan was taken possession of by Mirza Abu Sa'id, 
the grandfather of the emperor Babar Shah of Dehli. 

Baba Soudai, vide Soudai (Baba). tgltyMi 

Babawia, *&^> or Bin Babawia, father of Ibn Babawia, 

vide Ab&'l Hasan AH Bin-al-Husian at Kumari. 

Badakhshi, «j* AA J, a Persian poet who was a native of 

the province of Badakhshan. He flourished in the reign 
of the khah'f Al-Muktafi, about the year 905 A. D., 294 
A. H. His Diwan or collection of poems is written upon 
the fortunes of the great men of the court ; and he says 



that the varied scene in human affairs ought not to create 
surprise as we see that life is measured by an hour-glass, 
and that an hour is always above and the other below in 
alternate succession. 

Badakhshi (Maulana), c5^Jr^- if*^±i ^r°, of 
Samarkand, flourished in the reign of Ulagh Beg Mini, 
the son of Shahrukh Mirza, and is the author of a Diwan. 

Badan Singh Jat, «S»^ *&*• &*>, the son of Churaman 
Jat, a rajd of Bhartpur and the founder of the fort at Dig. 
He was living at the time of Nadir Shah's invasion of 
India in 1739 A. D., 1152 A. H. After his death his son 
Surajmal Ja$ succeeded him, vide Churaman Jat. 

Badaoni, </* jt*' Abdul Kadfr of Badaon. 

Badi-uddin, vi^J* vide Shah Madar. 

Badi-uddin (Shaikh), e^'f** &*, of Saharanpur, 

was a disciplo of Shaikh Ahmad Sarhindi. He died in 
the year 1632 A. D., 1042 A. H., and lies buried in the 
yard of the masjid erected by him at Saharanpur. 

Badi'-uzzaman Mirza, ^ji\ g±* t t^o, wa8 the 
eldest son of Sultan Husain Mirza, after whose death in 
1506 A. D., 912 A. H., he reigned conjointly with his 
younger brother, Muzaffar Husain Mirza, over Khurasan. 
He was subsequently compelled by the victorious Uzbaks, 
and the usurpation of his brother, to take refuge in 'Irak ; 
and in the year 1514 A. D., 920 A, H., went to the court 
of the Ottoman Sultan, Salim I, where, after a few 
months' residence, he died of the plague. He was the last 
of the race of Taimur who reigned in Persia, In a work 
called " Ship of the Time," a Persian Anthology, there arc 
to be /bund some verses of the royal poet's composition. 
The following is a translation of a few lines : 

Since not for me thy cheek of roses shines, 

My bosom like the fading tulip pines ; 

Who in his burning heart conceals its flame, 

And mine, in absence, perishes the same. 

Pour wine — and let me as I drink suppose. 

I see the colours of that blushing rose ; 

Pour wine — and let it borrow every hue 

Born in the tulip's petals wet with dew ; 

Till I believe thou may'st e'en yet bo mine — 

And let me never wake, nor that sweet dream resign. 

Badr, J«V, poetical title of Gang* Parshid, a Hindd. 

Badr Chachi, 4^^ J**.> surnamed Fakhr-uz-aunan, a 
celebrated poet of Chach (the ancient name of Tashkand) 
who flourished in the reign of Sultan Muhammad Tughlafc 
Shah, king of Dehli, and died some time after the year 
1344 A. D., 745 A. H. ' 

Badr Muhammad, (S^* ±+**jto f Dehli, author 
of the Persian Dictionary called " Adah-ul-Fuzala,' ' dedi- 
cated to Kadr Khan bin Dilawax Khan, written in 1419 
A. D., 822 A. H. 

Badr Shirwani (Maulana), <#**ir*" J*t Wy>, 
a Musalman scholar and poet who was contemporary with 
Katibi who died in 1435 A. D. 

Badr (Fir), vide Vir Badar. 

Badr-uddin Aintabi, iflfaf w**h j*», an historian 
who relates that the $4zf Ibn-al-Maghuli who died in 
1231 A. D., 628 A. H., bequeathed a part of his vast col- 
lection of books to the library of the oolleire founded in 
Cairo by Malik ' Ashraf Borsabaf. ^^ 

Badr-uddin (Balbaki), </***! upllj*, a Syriac phy- 
sician, who wrote a book called " Musamh-al-Nafe '» 
He lived in the 7th century of the Hijrah. 



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Badr-uddin, Isma'il-al-Tabriei, isji/^^ J**") 

&_±Jlj±i f an Arabian author, surnamed Basil. 

Badr-uddin Jajurmi, u*j*** iyi*^j*i> an author 
who died in 1287 A. D., 686 A. H., in which year also 
died Majd-uddin Hamkar. Ho was a coteraporary of 
Shams-uddin Muhammttd Sahib Di wan, and of Sa'di. 

Badr-uddin Lulu, ^ sai^b^y ruler of Mausal who 
was living in the reign of Halakd Khan the Tartar in 
1268 A. D., and was in his 90th year. 

Badr-uddin Mahmud, ty**^ \ji^ j*i> known by the 

name of Ibn-al-#axi Simawana, is the author of the 
Jama'-al-Fusulain," a collection of decisions on mercantile 
matters. He died 1420 A. D., 823 A. H. 

Badr-uddin Mahmud Bin Ahmad-al->Aini, 
^Wl *♦*>! ^ *j**?° {&**!;**, author of a commen- 
tary on the " Kanz-ul-Dakaek," called u Ramz-u^HakaoV , 
He died in 1461 A. D M 855 A. H. He is also the author 
of a collection of decisions entitled the "Masael-al- 
Badria." # 

Badr-uddin Muhammad Bin Abdur Bahman-al- 

Dairi, iSji^ elU^*** &* *+*" &i**lj**.> author 
of a commentary on tho '* Kanz-ul-DakaeV," entitled 
44 Matlab-ul-Faeip," which is much esteemed in India. 

Badr-uddin Shashi Shirwani, if*j&~L*" [ ~&i**b* > .> 
diod in 754 or 854 A. H. v 

Badr-uddin Sufl, u£y*vi**b*i> author of the"Bahr- 
ul-Hayat," <4 the sea of life," containing many good rules 
for moral conduct. 

Badr-uddin, tzrt^ J*!> of Sarhind, author of a Persian 
work called Hazr&t-ul-Kuds containing tho miracles per- 
formed by Ahmad Sarhindi. 

Badahah Bano Begam, fo>yl* aU^b, one f the 
wives of the emperor Jahingir. She died in 1620 A. D., 
1029 A. H. 

Baghdad Khatun, UU^** *!**>, a daughter of Amfr 
Choban or Jovian who governed the empire of the Tartars 
in the reign of Sultan Abu Sa'id, tho son of Aljaitu. Her 
father refusing to give her in marriage to that prince, 
because she had been betrothed to Shaika Hasan Jalaiar, 
was the occasion of the Amir's disgrace and death. Hasan 
who had married her, afterwards repudiated her, and gave 
her into the hands of Abu Sa'id. The prince publicly 
married her, and for some time was entirely governed by 
her ; but being at last disturbed, and dying a short time 
alter in 1335 A. D., 736 A. H., sho was suspected to have 
poisoned him, and Baidu Khan, the successor of Abu 
8a' id, put her to death. 

Badr-un-niaa Begam, f*ft? UUf jAj, the daughter of 
'Alamgir died in March 1670 A D., Si-Ijla'da 1080 A. H. 

pa^^fth Begam, f**J d~ck 9 wife of the emperor Jahan- 
gir, died in tho year 1029 A. IL 

Baghuri, <JJ*i> or Baghshurf, surname of Muhammad 
bin Is-hik, an Arabian author who wrote on moral 
subjects, died in the year 1280 A D., 679 A. H. 

Baghwi, LSjfc> 9idc Abu Muhammad Farii*ibn*Masa'ud 
al-Baghwt 

Bahadur AH Huaaini (Mir), <f*-*> ^ J^j*** 
chief Munshf of the college of Fort William, author of 
the Akhlifc Hind% or Indian Ethics, translated from a 



Persian version, also of the " Nasir Benazir," a prose 
translation of the enchanting Fairy Tale entitled " 8ehr- 
ul-Bayan" commonly called •• Mir Hasan's Masnawf." 
This latter work was written by the request of Dr. Gil- 
christ in 1802 A. D., 1217 A. H., and published at Cal- 
cutta in 1803. 

Bahadur Khan Faruki, i^x^ «^ >>*t*> suoceeded 
his father Raja All Klian in tho government of Khan- 
deah in 1596 A. D., 1005 A. H. When tho emperor 
Akbar a few years afterwards arrived at Man^o, with the 
avowed intention of invading the Dak ban, Bahadur Khan 
instead of adopting the policy of his father in relying on 
the honor of Akbar, and going with an array to co-operate 
with him, shut himself up in the fort of Asir, and com- 
menced preparations to withstand a siege. When Akbar 
heard of these proceedings, he sent orders to the Khan- 
khanan 'Abdur Rahim Khan, and tho prince Danial Mirza 
to continue the siege of Ahmadnagar, while he himself 
marched to tho south and occupied Bnrhanpur, leaving 
one of his generals to beseige Asir. The blockade of this 
fortress continued for a length of time, till it surrendered, 
and Bahadur Khan, the last of the FaruVi dynasty hum- 
bled himself before the throno of Akbar in the year 1599 
A D., 1008 A. H., while the impregnable fortress of 
Asir with ten years' provisions and countless treasures fell 
into the hands of the conqueror. 

Bahadur Khan Bohila, ****» c/^V* 8 on of Dari* 

Khan, was an amir of high rank in the reign of the em- 
peror Shah J ahan. He accompanied prince Aurangzib to 
Kandahar, and died there during the siege, on the 19th. 
of July 1649 A. D., 19th Bajab, 1059 A. H. 

Bahadur Nizam Shah, d~ f^J*^, the last of the 
Nizam Shahi kings of Ahmadnagar in the Dakhan. On 
the death of his father Ibrahim Nizam Shah, which took 
place in August 1595 A. D., Ztt-byja 1003 A. H., several 
factions arose in Ahmadnagar, each setting up a nominal 
sovereign. Mian Manju, who possessed the city, and 
acknowledged the title of Bahadur Nizam Shah, then an 
infant, being besieged by his competitors, invited Sultan 
Murad, son of the emperor Akbar, then governor of 
Gujrit, to his assistance, for which he offered to become 
tributary to the Mughal power. Sultan Murid embraced 
the proposal, and arrived before Ahmadnagar with a consi- 
derable army. Mtfn. Manju by this time, having over- 
come his rivals, repented of his offers, and prepared to 
oppose the prince. Having committed the city to the 
charge of Nasir Khan his deputy, and the care of Ch/ind 
Bibi, great aunt to 3ui(au Bahador, ho departed to raise 
levies, and implore the assistance of Kutb Shah of G61- 
kanaa and 'Adil Shah of Bijapur. Sultan Murad beseiged 
Ahmadnagar, on the 16th of December 1595 O. 8., 23rd 
Babi II, 1004 A. H., which was gallantly defended. 
Breaches were made, but were immediately repaired by 
the heroic conduct of Chand Bibi, who covering herself 
with a veil, headed tho troops. At length in the month 
of March 1596. Rajab, 1004 A. H., supplies growing 
scarce in the camp, and the allies of Bijapur and Golkanda 
approaching, Sultan Murad thought proper to accept of 
some offers of tribute from Chand Bibi and raise the 
seige. Some money was paid, and the districts in Berar 
belonging to the Nizam Shihi government wen ceded to the 
Mughals. In the year 1600 A. D., beginning of 1009 A. H., 
Ahmadnagar was taken by the Mughals, and Bahadur 
Shah with all the children of both sexes of the royal 
family were taken prisoners and sent to perpetual con- 
finement in the fortress of Gwaliar. 

Bahadur Singh Kuohwaha, **Uf^ *^>»*A brother 
to Sakat Singh, died of hard-drinking in the year 1621 
A. D., 1030 A. H. 

Bahadur Shah, eiWl siAj^, ^ Afghan, succeeded 
his father Mahmud Khan as governor of Bengal in the 



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time of Salfm Shin, and became independent and reigned 
live years. He was deposed in 1549 A. D., 966 A. H. 
and succeeded by another of the nobles of Salfm Shah 
named Sulaimin Ijtirani. 

Bahadur Shah, t/W » u j»*"> eH ** J* 1 **, the 
second Bon of Muzaffar Shah II, of Gujrit. At the time 
of his father's death, he was absent at Jaunpur, but when 
Mahmud Shah his younger brother ascended the throne 
of Gujrit, after the murder of his eldest brother Sikandar 
Shah, Bahidur returned from thence, and having deprived 
Mahmud of his kingdom, ascended the throne on the 20th 
of August 1626, A. D., 15th £i-Ka'da 932 A. H. He con- 
quered Milwi on the 26th February 1531, 9th Shaban, 937 
A. H., and the king of that place. Sultan Mahmud II, 
who was taken prisoner and sent to Champanir, was put 
to death on the road. In the year 1536 A. D., 942 A. H. 
Milwi was taken by the emperor Humiyun, and Bahadur 
being defeated was obliged to fly towards Cambay, where, 
on his arrival, he heard that a fleet, in which there were be- 
tween 4 or 5,000 Europeans, had arrived off the island of 
Diu. He immediately repaired thither with a reinforcement 
of troops, and on his arrival there, he ordered his barge and 
went to visit the admiral, with the intention of killing him ; 
but perceiving that he was betrayed, he arose, and was 
attacked on all sides by the Portuguese, when a soldier 
struck him over the head with a sword and threw him 
into the water, where ho was drowned. This event took 
place on the 14th of February 1537, 3rd Eama^an, 943 
A. H., and has been commemorated in two Persian chro- 
nograms, comprising the numerals which form the dato of 
the year when it occurred. Their meaning is this : " The 
Europeans were the slayers of Bahidur," and " The king 
of the land became a martyr at Sea." Bahadur Shih was 
20 years of age when he ascended the throne, reigned 11 
lunar years, and was slain at the age of 31. After his 
death his nephew Mirin Muhammad Shall was raised to 
the throne of Gujrit. 

Bahadur Shah I, » u j^ ^ * u e^M*, 
Burnamed Kutb-uddm Shall 'Alam, formerly called prince 
Mua'zzim, was the second son of the emperor 'Alamgfr I, 
born at Burhinpur in the Dakhan on the 4th October 
1643 O. S., 30th Kajab, 1063 A. H. At the time of his 
father's death, which took place at Ahmadabid, on the 
21st February 1707 O. S., 28th £i-Ka'da 1118 A. H., he 
being then at Kabul, his younger brother, prince 'Azim, 
was proclaimed sovereign of all India in perfect disregard 
of the late emperor's will. Prince Mua'zzim, with better 
reason, assumed the crown at Kabul with the title of 
Bahadur Shah ; and both brothers prepared to assert their 
pretensions by force of arms. They assembled very large 
armies, and met at length at Dhaulpur not far to the 
south of Agra. A bloody battle ensued on Sunday the 
8th June 1707, O. 8., 18th Rabf I, 1119 A. H., in which 
prince 'Azim and his two grown-up sons Bedar Bakht 
and Wilijih, were killed. Bahadur Shall reigned nearly 
Ave lunar years and died at Lahor on Monday the 18th 
of February 1712, O. S., 21st Muljarram, 1124 A. H., in 
the 71st lunar year of his age. He was buried in the en- 
virons of Dehli, near tho tomb of Khwaja Kutb-uddin, 
where he had built during his life a mosque entirely of 
white marble mimed Moti Masjid. His tomb is also built 
of the same stone. He received the title of "Khuld 
Manzil," •'. f., '* May his mansion be in paradise," after 
his death. He left four sons, viz., Ma'iz-uddin Jahindir 
Shin, Azim-ush-Shan, Raff-uah-Shin, and Jahan Shah, 
among whom a battle ensued, wherein the three latter 
brothers were killed, and Jahandar Shan ascended the 
throne. 

Bahadur Shah II, ^J^. **** ul*H &-j&*y , 
the present and last king of Dehli whose title in full 
is Abu'l Muzaffar Siraj-uddm Muhammad Bahadur Shall, 
a. lineal descendant from Amir Taimfir ; is the son of 
Akbar Shall II, on whose death he succeeded him on the 



28th September 1887, 28th Jumida II, 1268 A. H. He 
was born on Tuesday the 24th of October 1776, 28th 
Shaban, 1189 A. H. ; and Abu'l Muzaffar is the chrono- 
gram of his birth. His mother's name was Lai Bii A 
stipend or pension of one lakh of rupees monthly was 
. allowed him by the British Government. He is an ex- 
cellent Persian scholar and an elogant Urdu poet, and 
Zafar is his poetical name. His Dfwan or Book of Odes 
was printed some years ago at Dehli. He is supposed to 
be the principal instigator of the mutiny of the native 
troops throughout India in 1867, and is now deposed and 
tried, but his life has been guaranteed. In October 1858 
he was sent down to Calcutta, from which place he em- 
barked onboard H. M. Ship •• Megara" on Saturday the 4th 
December 1858, for Rangoon, accompanied by two of his 
wives, a son and a grandson, and thus ended the royal 
race of Taim&r in India. His sons Mirzi Mughal and 
Mirzi Khwaja Sultan, and a grandson named Mirzi 'Abu 
Bakr, who were known to navo taken a prominent part 
in the atrocities attending tho insurrection, were captured 
on the 22nd September 1867 at the tomb of Humaydn, 
and shot on the spot. During the mutiny in 1 857, Bahidur 
Shah had struck a new coin with the following inscrip- 
tion: — 

Bahadur Singh (Rao), vide Rio Bahidur Singh. 

Bahai, <y W-, *wk Bahi-uddin 'Amilf. 

Bahar, J^ti, poetical name of Tek Chand, which see. 

Baha-uddin, *y-^ # Vj a learned Arabian, known as a 
favorite of Sul^ln Salah-uddin (Saladdin) and the historian 
of that prince's life. He flourished about the year 1190 
A. D., 586 A. H. An edition of his work appeared at 
Leyden in 1755. 

Bahar Bano, J^ij^s Daulat-un-Nisa, andBegam Sultan, 

daughters of the emperor Jahingir. All of them died in 

their childhood. 
Bahar Bano,^J*t*> daughter of the emperor Jahingfr, 

married to Prince Tahmuras, the son of Prince Dinial in 

their childhood. 

Bahar Bano Begam, f^-J^A** another daughter of 
Jahingir, was married to Tahmur a son of prince DiniiL 

Baha-uddin, vi^^jr+Z eH cH**» fi[ t>, the son of Shams- 
uddin, the son of Fakkhr-uddfn. His father was the first 
king of the second branch of the Sultans of Gh6r. Baha- 
uddin was the second king, and is said to have reigned 
14 years. Imam Fakhr-uddin Razi who flourished in 
his time and died in 1210 A. D., 606 A. H., dedicated the 
work called " Hisala Haiyat," or book of geometry to him. 
After the death of Baha-uddin, his son Jalal-uddin suc- 
ceeded him. He was slain by Sultan Muhammad of Khwi- 
rizm, and appears to have been the last of this branch. 

Bahadur Singh, ***■*• ji^ tho only surviving son of 
Baja Man Singh Kachwaha. 

Baha-uddin, eV*l ff**> erf^ **t*, governor of Isfe- 

hin, and author of the " Muntakhab-ul-Akhbir," an 
abridged history of the patriarchs and prophets, also of 
Muhammad and his descendants, with a good description 
of the cities of Mecca and Madina. He flourished about 
the year 1271 A. D., 670 A. H. 

Baha-uddin 'Amili (Shaikh), </*** e**Mtf k±*, 

a native of ' Amul in Persia, and son of 8haikh Human. 
His poetical name is Bahif . He is the author of several 
works, one of which is a Maanawi or poem called " Nin« 
wa-Halwi," Bread and Pudding. He flourished in the 
time of Shin 'Abbas the Great, king of Persia ; died at 
Isfahan on Tuesday the 21st of August 1621, O. &, 12th 



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Shawwffl, 1030 A. H., and was buried, agreeably to his 
request, at Manhhad. Imid-uddaula Abu T*lib, the prime 
minister of Shah 'Abbas, found the chronogram of the 
year of his death in the words " Shaikh Bahi-uddin WaV' 
Besides the above-mentioned Masnawi and many Arabic 
works, he has left a Diwan and a Kashk6i, or Adversaria. 

Baha-uddin Muhammad, <-W^ t+a**^*)! I^j u*», 
Jalal or Jalfl (Shaikh) of 'Amil. This person is men- 
tioned by H. M. Elliot, Esq., in his "Historians of 
India," and appears to be the same with the preeeding. 
He was a Persian mathematician, says he, and lived in 
the reign of Shah 'Abbas the Great. He was celebrated 
among his countrymen for a supposod peculiar power 
which he possessed over the magi and writers of talismans, 
and was one of the most pious devotees of his time. His 
works on various subjects are much read in Persia, par- 
ticularly one entitled " Kashk61," or the Beggar's Wallet, 
being an universal miscellany of literature. The " Ja'ma' 
ul-Abbfisi," a concise and comprehensive treatise on Shia 
law in twenty books, is generally considered as the work 
of Bahi-uddin Muhammad 'Amili, but that lawyer only 
lived to complete tho first five books, dedicating his work 
to Shih 'Abbas. Tho remaining fifteen books were subse- 
quently added by Nizam Ibn-Husain-al-Siwai. 

Baha-uddin Nakshband (Khwaja), *ifMS crt*" 
IfJ a&|^j a famous learned Musalman who died on Mon- 
day the 1st of March 1389 A. D., 2nd Babf I, 791 A. H., 
and was buried at Bukhara. 

Baha-uddin Nakshband (Shaikh,) a***Aj e^Jl ^ 
&**> a celebrated saint and the founder of an Order of 

6ufXs, distinguished by the title of Nafcshbandf. He is tho 
author of tho " Haiat Nama," an esteemed moral poem. 
Ho died at Harafa in Persia 1453 A. D., 857 A. H. He 
appears also to be the author of a work on Sdfusm called 
«• Dalfl-ul-'AshiVin." 

Baha-uddin Sam, (&* wi^ *tf, son of Ghayis-uddin 
Mahmud, king of Gh6r and Ghazni. He succeeded his 
father in 1210 A. D., 607 A. H., at the age of fourteen 
years, but was after three months defeated by Ali-uddfn 
Atsis, son of Jahin 86s, who reigned four years in Gh6r 
and Ghazni, and fell in battle against Taj-uddin Eldua in 
1214 A. D. Baha-uddin Rim was, after his defeat, taken 
captive by the governor of Hirit, and sent to Khw&rizm 
Shih, who at tho time of tho invasion of Chingiz Khan, 
threw him along with his brother into a river where both 
were drowned. 

Baha-uddin Shiraai, iSjbi*' i&i^l *t*> a celebrated 

ICasi of Shiriz, who died in the year 1380 A. D., 782 
A. H. 

Baha-uddin Wald (Maulana), **j c^** ^ G V, 

a native of Balkh and the father of the celebrated Jalal- 
uddin Maulawi Rami. Ho flourished and enjoyed distin- 
guished honors in the time of Sultan Muhammad, surnamed 
$utb-uddin of Khwarizm. He was an enthusiastic fol- 
lower of the doctrine of the Sufis, and became so cele- 
brated as a preacher and expounder, that people flocked 
from all parts of Persia to hear him discourse. In the 
latter part of his life, he left his native country and went 
and dwelt at Konia (Iconium) in Asiatic Turkev, where 
he died about the year 1230 or 1233 A D., 628 or 631 
A. H., and his son succeeded him as the head of the sect. 

Baha-uddin Zikaria (Shaikh), kjj ert^ *tf £**, 

a Muhammadan saint of Multin, was the son of Kutb-uddih 
Muhammad, the son of Kamil-uddin Kureshi.' He was 
born at K6tkaro r in Multan in 1170 A. D., 565 A. H. 
After his studies hn journeyed to Baghdid and became a 
disciple of Shaikh Shahib-uddin 8uharwardX He after. 

17 



wards returned to Multan where he became intimate with 
Farid-uddin Shakarganj. He died at Multan on the 7th 
November, 1266 A. D., 7th Safer, 665 A. H., aged 100 
lunar years, and is still considered one of the most revered 
saints of India. He left enormous wealth to his heirs. 
His son Shaikh Sadr-uddin died at Multan in 1309 A. D 
709 A. H. * 

Baha-uddin, uirf ^ (Badf-nddm or Bogo-neddin) a 
Muhammadan saint whose tomb is in the neighbourhood of 
Bukhara, called Mazari Bogo-neddin. During the inva- 
sion of the Bussians at that place, it is said, that a book, 
written in verse in the Persian language, was found in 
the tomb of this saint. It is said in this book that in the 
82nd year of the Hijrah (1865 A. D.,) the Christiana 
will rush upon Tashkand like a river. In the 84th year 
(1867 A. D.,) they will occupy Samarkand, and sweep 
it away like a prickly thorn. In the 88th year (1871 
A. D.,) the Christiana will take Bokhara, and convert it 
into a level like the steppe. In the year 90th but one 
(1872) the Khwarizmians will run out of their own accord 
to meet them like children. 

Bahishti, c**^?, poetical name of Sheikh Ramzan, the son of 
'Abdul Muhsin, an author who died 1571 A. D., 979 A. H. 

Bahjat, ***&*, or Behjat, author of a Diwin which contains 
chiefly Ghazals, and at the end a very silly Kaseada in 
praise of the Europeans. He was living in Lakhnau in 
1797 A. D., 1212 A. H. 

Bahlol, YXltf* ^^o lived during the reign of the khalif 
Hirun-al-Kashid, was one of those people who pass 
amongst the Musalmans either for saints or madmen. 
Although surnamed Al-Majnun, or the Fool, he was pos- 
sessed of a great deal of wit. 

Bahloli, ifj^.y a poet whose Diwin was found in the 
Library of Tipu" Sultan. 

Bahlol Lodi (Sultan), is*** J^t? ufl°**; a king of 
Dehli of the tribe of Afghans called Lodf. His father 
Malik Kali was the son of Ibrahim Khan or Malik Bah- 
rim governor of Multan. In the year 1450 A. D., 854 
A. H., Bahl61, during the absence at Badaon of Sultan 
Ali-uddin, son of Muhammad Shall, took possession of 
Dehli. He, however, gave place to the name of the Sul- 
tan for some time in the khutba ; but when that prince 
promised to cede to him the empire, upon condition that 
he would permit him to live quietly in the possession of 
Badaon. Sultan Bahl61 immediately threw the name of 
'Ali-uddin out of the khutba and caused himself to be 
crowned on the 18th of January, 1452 A. D., 25th £il-bijja, 
855 A. H. Bahl61 reigned 38 lunar years, seven months 
and seven days, and died on the 1st of July, 1489 A. D., 
2nd Sha'ban, 894 AH. He is buried at Dehlf near the 
tomb of Nasir-uddin Mahmud, surnamed Chirigh Dehli, 
a Musalman saint, and was succeeded by his son Nizam 
Khan, who assumed the title of Sikandar Sh&h. 

The following is a list of the kings of DehUof the tribe 
of UoH Afghdns. 

Bahl61 L6di. 

Sikandar Shih, son of Bahlol. 

Ibrahim Husain, son of Sikandar who was the last of this 
race, and was defeated by Bibar Shih. 

Bahman, U+tf, an ancient king of Persia, better known in 
history by his title of Ardisher Darixdast, which see. 

Bahman Tar Khan, ^jk v+t*, son of Shiista Khin 
and grandson of Asaf Khin, a nobleman of the court of 
the emperor 'Alamgir. 

Bahu Begam, (&t y&> the mother of Nawib Asf-uddaula 
of Lakhnau. She died on the 28th December 1815. 



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Bahrain I, firt^ (Varanes of the Greeks), the fourth king 
of the Sasanian race, was the son of Hurmuz (Hormisdas) 
■whom he succeeded to the Persian throne in the year 273 
A. D. He was a mild and munificent prince, and much 
beloved by his subjects. The most remarkable act of 
his reign was, the execution of the celebrated Mani 
(Mani) the founder of the sect of the ManichceanB. Vide 
Mini. Bahrain reigned only three years and three months, 
after which he left the crown to his son Bahrain II, about 
the year 276 A. D. 

Bahrain II, firt^ (some authors term him the fourth of 
that name), was the son of Bahrain I, whom he succeeded 
to the crown of Persia in 276 A. D. He reigned 17 years, 
and after his demise, was succeeded by his son Bahrain 
III, about the year 293 A. D. 

Bahram III, {l?tf> succeeded his father Bahrain II to the 

Persian throne about the year 293 A. D., reigned only 
four months, and was succeeded by his brother, Narsi, 
or Narses. 

Bahram IV, firt^ the twelfth king of Persia of the Sasa- 

nian race, succeeded his brother Shahpur (Sapores) about 
the year 390 A. D., and is distinguished from other 
princes of the same name, by his title of Kirmanshah, 
which he received from having, during the reign of his 
brother, filled the station of ruler of the province of Kir- 
man : and he has perpetuated it by founding the city of 
Kirmanshah. He reigned, according to some accounts, 
eleven years : and to others fifteen. He was killed by 
an arrow when endeavouring to quell a tumult in his 
army, and was succeeded by Yezdijard I, who is called 
Isdigerdes by the Greek authors. 

Bahram V, (*irtf> (or Varanes V,) the fourteenth king of 
Persia of the Sasanian dynasty, who is known, in Persian 
history, by the name of Bahram G6r. He was the son of 
Yezdijard I, whom he succeeded to the throne of Persia 
in 420 A. D. The word G6r signifies a wild ass : an 
animal to the chase of which this monarch was devoted ; 
and it was in pursuit of one of these that he lost his life ; 
having suddenly come upon a deep pool, into which his 
horse plunged, and neither the animal nor his royal rider 
were ever seen again. The first rhythmical composition 
in the Persian language is recorded to have been the pro- 
duction of Bahram and his mistress Dilaram. Bahram 
visited India, was contemporary with Theodosius the 
emperor of Constantinople, and ruled Persia eighteen years. 
He died in 438 A. D., and was succeeded by his son Yez- 
dijard II. 

Bahram, fbt^ an author who wrote the History of the 
Parsls of Bombay in 1599 A. D., entitled Kissai Sanjan. 

Bahram Chobin, eHt{^ f^jtfy or Jovian, a general of 
Hurmuz III, king of Persia, whom he deposed ; he reigned 
eight months about the year 690 A. D. Vide Hurmuz III. 

Bahram Mirza, tir* (btf> son of Shah SamsVfl Safewi. 
He was a good poet and died in the prime of youth in 
1560 A. D., 957 A. H. 

Bahram Saqqa, ***• (•!/& a poet, was of Turkish extrac- 
tion and belonged to the Bayat tribe. It is said that the 
prophet Khizr appeared to him, and a divine light filled 
him. He renounced the world and became a water-carrier. 
Vide Ain Translation, Vol I, p. 581. 

Bahram Sarkhasi, c^r*" fir?., a Prosodian of Sarakhs, 
a town between Naiahapur and Marv. 

Bahram Shah, *U> f*jf> 9 son of Sultan Masa'ud m, as- 
cended the throne of Ghaznf by the assistance of Sultan 
Sanjar his uncle, after his brother Arsalan Shah, who was 



put to death in 1118 A. D., 512 A. H. Bahram Shah after 
a prosperous reign of 35 lunar years was defeated in 1 152 
A. D., 647 A. H., by 'Ala-uddin Hasan Gh6ri, and fled to 
Lahor where he died the same year, and his son Khusro 
Shah succeeded him in the government of Labor. The 
poets Shaikh Sa'nai and Abu'l Majd-bm-'Adam-al-Gkax- 
nawi flourished in the time of Bahram Shah. 

Bahram Shah, *^ fltf, surnamed Ma'iz-uddin, was 

the son of Sultan Rukn-uddin Firoz. He was raised to 
the throne of Dehli after the murder of Sultana Baxia 
the queen, on Monday the 21st of April, 1240 A. D. He 
reigned little more than two years, and was slain by the 
instigation of Mahzab-uddin wazir, about the 15th of 
May, 1242 A. D., when Sultan 'Ala-uddin Masa'ud, 
another son of Sultan Altimah, was raised to the throne. 
Firishta says that Bahram was the son of Altimsh and 
brother of Sultana Kazia. 

Bahramand Khan, eA*- ****n> , son of Mirza* Bahram, 

and one of the emperor 'Alamgir's oldest nobility and his 
friend. After the death of Ruh-ullah Khan, he was raised 
to the post of Mir Bakhshi or chief paymaster by the 
emperor in 1692 A. D., 1103 A. H., and died in tho 
Dakhan on tho 17th October, 1702 O. S., 5th Jumada II, 
1114 A. H. He was buried at his own request in a small 
tomb at Bahadurgurh. He was succeeded in his offico 
by Zulfikar Khan Nasrat Jang, who notwithstanding this 
appointment continued in the command of the army 
against the Marhattas in the Dakhan. 

Bahr-ul Hifz, •kto'f^^ ( or fa B g^ f Memory,) is tho 

title of Abu Usmah-bin-'Amru who wrote a book on the 
manners and qualities of princes. He died 869 A. D., 
255 A. H. 

Baidu Khan, u^ J*£j the son of Turaghaf and grand- 
son of Halaku Khan, succeeded Kaikhatu or Kaijaptu 
Khan in January, 1295 A. D., Safar, 694 A. H., and on- 
joyed the crown of Persia only seven months : he was 
dethroned and slain by his nephew, Ghaxan Khan, the 
son of Arghun Khan ; who was compelled to attack his 
uncle and sovereign to preserve himself from destruction. 
This event took place in October the same year, #il-fcij ja 
694 A. H. In English Histories he is called Batu. la 
m 1235, at the head of half a million of Keptchak Mongols, he 
conquered the east of Russia, destroying Kiazan, Moscow, 
Ylandimir and other towns. 

Baikara Mirza (Sultan), !i/* l&i ^J^», tho son of 
Umar Shaikh Mirza, the second son of Amir Taimur. Bai- 
kara succeeded his brother as governor of Persia in 1 394 
A. D., 796 A. H. His eldest brother, Pit Muhammad Jahan- 
gir was slain in 1405 A. D., 808 A. H. Baikara Mirzi was 
slain by his undo Shahrukh Mirza in 1416 A. D M 819 
A. H., he left a son named Mansur, who became the father 
of Sultan Husain Mirza, surnamed Abu'l Ghazi Bahadur. 

Baihaki, «/*t#> surnamed Abu'l Fazl, and whose proper 
name is Abu Bakr Ahmad, was the son of Husain Baihafci. 
He is the author of the works in Arabic called " Sunan 
Kubra and Sughra," and of one entitled •* Sha*b-ul- 
Iman." He died in the year 1066 A. D., 458 A. H. 
His collection of Traditions is also of the highest au- 
thority. 

BaiJU, J^f one of the most celebrated songsters of India, 
besides Naek, Gopdl, and Fansin. 

Bairam Khan, e^ rfrW, styled Khan Khanin, or Lord 
of lords, was one of the most distinguished officers of the 
Mughal court He was a Turkman and descended from a 
line of ancestors who served for many generations in tho 
family of Taimur. Bairam accompanied the emperor 
Humayun from Persia to India, and on the accession of 



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his son Akbar, be was honored with the title of Khan 
Khinin and the office of prime minuter ; and had the 
whole civil and military powers vested in his hands. When 
Akbar in 1558 A. D., 966 A. H., thought he was capable 
of acting for himself, he dismissed Bairam Khan from the 
wizarat. Bairam at first had recourse to rebellion, but 
being unsuccessful, was compelled to throw himself on the 
clemency of his sovereign, who not only pardoned him, 
but assigned to him a pension of 50,000 rupees annually 
for his support. Bairam soon after took leavo of the em- 
peror with the design of making a pilgrimage to Mecca, 
and had proceeded to Gujrit in order to embark for Mecca, 
but was slain by ono Mubarik Khan Lohani, whose father 
Bairam Khan had slain in battle with his own hand 
during tho reign of the emperor Humayun. This event 
took place on Friday tho 31st of January, 1561 A. D., 14th 
Jumida I, 968 A. H. Ho was at first buried near the 
tomb of Shaikh Hisam at Gujrit, but afterwards his re- 
mains wero transports! to Mashhad and buried there. He 
is the author of a Diwan. 

Bairam, |*i/#> sometimes erroneously written by us for 
Bahrain. 

Bairam Beg, «-Aj fir*S was father of Munim Khan. The 
latter was a grandee in Humayun's Court. Vtde Ain 
Translation, Vol. I, p. 317. 

Baizawi, iS^**±i \£*^*> (Kazi) the surname of Nasir-uddin 

Abti'l Khair Abd-ullih-ibn-Umar al-Baizdwf. He was a 
native of Baiza, a village of Shiriz, on which account he is 
styled Baizawi. He held the office of Kazi or Judge of the 
city of Shiraz for a considerable time, and died at Tabriz or 
Tauris in the year 1286 A. D., 685 A. H., or as others say in 
1292 A D., 691 A. H. Ho is the author of tho well-known 
Commentary on the Kuran called "Tafsir Baizawi," which is 
also called •* Anwar-ul-Tanzfl," and " Asrar-ul-TawiT. 
Some say that he is also the author of a history entitled 
*• Nizamut Tawirikh," but the author of this work is said 
by others to be Abu 6a' id Baizawi, which see. 



Baiflanghar (Mirsa), j***^. \)j*> son of Mirzi Shih- 
rukh, the son of Amir Taimdr. He waB a learned and 
noble prince, a great protector of letters and learned 
men. He himself wrote six different hands, composed 
verses in the Persian and Turkish languages, and constantly 
had in his employment forty copyists for transcribing 
MSS. He was born in the year i399 A. D., 802 A. H., 
and died before his father in U34 A. D., 837 A. H., at 
Hirit, aged 35 lunar years. 

Baisanghar (Mirza), j**~*£*. \$j*> son of Sultan Husain 
Mini of Hirat He was killed by Khusro Shah, king of 
£undas. 

Bajaset, name of several Turkish emperors spelt so in Eng- 
lish, being a corruption of Biyesid, which see. 

Baji Bai, ^ 4/*^> ***> c* 11 ^ B ti» Bif, which see, 
Baji Bao I, !r^ 5b </***> (Peahwi,) thesonofBalijiRio 

Bishwanith Peshwi, whom he succeeded in October 1720, 
A. D. He was the ablest of all the Brahman dynasty, 
and of all the Marha^ nation, except Sewijf. He died 
on the 28th April 1740, O. S., 12th Safer 1153, A. H., 
and left three sons : vix. : Balajf Rao who succeeded him 
as Peshwi: Raghunith Rao commonly called Righoba, 
who was at one time much connected with the English, 
and was the father of tho last Peshwi Baji Rio II ; and 
Shamsher Bahadur to whom (though an illegitimate son 
by a Muhammadan woman, and brought up in his mother's 
religion), he left all his possessions and pretensions in Bun* 
delkhand. 

Baji Bao IT, !r^J*;</^^ the last Peshwa, was the 
eldest son of Raghoba or Raghunith Rio of infamous 



memory. He succeeded Midho Rio, the infant Peshwi, 
who died suddenly in October 1795, A. D. During the 
reign of Madho Rio, he and his brother Chimnaji were 
confined in the fort of Juneir, near Puna, and after his 
death Chimnaji was furtively invested, but he was soon 
after deposed and Baji Rio was publicly proclaimed 
Peshwi by Daulat Rao Scindhia on the 4th December, 
1796 A. D. In May, 1818 a proclamation was issued 
by Government deposing him ; and the Raja of Sitira, 
Partap Singh N a ray an released from confinement, had 
a part of the Puna territories assigned for his support, 
and was vested with the reality of that power of which 
his ancestors, in latter times, had enjoyed only the name. 
Baji Rio was compelled to surrender himself to the Eng- 
lish, and was pensioned on the 3rd June, 1818. The 
pension allowed him by Government was 800,000 rupees 
per annum. He died at Bithur near Cawnpur in De- 
cember, 1852 A. D., and was succeeded by his adopted 
Bon Dhondu Pant, commonly called Nani Sahib, who 
became a rebel in the disturbances of 1857. 

Bakai (Mulla), &&1 **, a poet who lived in the time of 
the emperor Babar Shin. He is the author of a poem 
or Masnawi which he dedicated to the emperor. 

Bakai, i£f .> surname of Ibrahim-bin-* Umar, a learned 

Musalmin who is the author of several treatises on ancient 
philosophers, on divination by numbers, a commentary 
on the Imuran, &c. He died in the year 1480 A. D., 885 
A. H. 

Bakalani, <y •> the author of a work called •' Ai'jiz-ul- 

Kurin," or of the difficult things in the Kuran. See 
Abu Bakr Bakalani. 

Baki Muhammad Khan Koka, **j* c^ *+** 
iJ*>> eldest brother of Adham Khan, the son of Miham 
Anka, was an officer of 3000 in the time of the emperor 
Akbar. He died at Garh Katka, where he had a jagir, 
in 1685 A. D., 993 A. H. 

Baki Khan, CJ^ {g 3 t, a nobleman of the court of the 
emperor Shah J ah an, by whom he was appointed governor 
of the fort of Agra. In the 24 th year of the reign of the 
emperor he was raised to the rank of 1500. In the 49th 
year of the emperor's reign, he still held the governorship 
of the fort of Agra, and was raised to the rank of 2000 the 
following year. He had built in the front of the gate called 
Hathiapol which is situated towards the Chauk and the 
Jama Misjid, a fine bungalow which was still standing 
about the year 1830 A. D. 

Bakhat Singh, *&* °**> or Bakht Singh Rithor, son 
of Ajit Singh and brother of Abhai 8ingh, riji of Jodh- 
pur. He was poisoned in 1752 A. D. 

Bakhshi >Ali Khan, &**> if** </^** whose poetical 
name was Hashmat, flourished in the time of Nawib 
Salibat Jang of Haidaribid about the year 1751 A. D., 
1164 A. H. 

Bakhshi Bano Begam, fki & \f~**> a sister of the 
emperor Akbar the Great. 



Bakshu, JT** a singer, lived at the Court of Riji Bik- 
ramijit Mansur ; but when his patron lost his throne, 
he went to Rajah Kirit of Kilinjar. Not long afterwards 
he accepted a call to Gujrat, where he remained at the 
Court of Sultan Bahidur 1526 to 1536 A. D. VUU Ain 
Translation, Vol. I, p. 611. 

Bakhtari, iSj*^> one of the most celebrated Arabian 

poets, who died in the year 823 A. D. According to some 

writers, he was born in 821 A. D., 208 A. H., flourished 

. in the time of the khalif Al-Musta'in Billah, and died in 

his 63rd year at Baghdad. He is also called Bin-Bakhtarf. 



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Bakhtawar 



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Balwant 



Bakhtawar Khan, e)^J>J^*^ an ainfp who served 
under the emperor Alamgir. The Sarae of Bakhtawar- 
nagar near Dehlf was constructed by him in 1671 A. D., 
1082 A. H. He is the author of the work called " Mirat- 
ul-'Alam," a history of the first part of the reign of 
'Alamgir. Ho died in 1684 A. D., 1096 A. H., vide 
Nazir Bakhtaiar Khan. 

Bakhtaiar Beg Gurdi Bhah Mansur, ***• ^ 
*£>* jvted, Turkman, was an Amir and governed (1001) 
Siwistan. Vide Ain Translation, Vol. I, p. 474. 

Bakhtaiar Khilji, i^^J^X^ vide Muhammad Bakhtaiar 
Khilji. 

Bakiliy lt^> surname of Abu'l Fazl Mahammad-bin-ffasim 

al-Khwarizmi, who from his learning has the title of 
■ Zain-uddin and Zain-ul-Mashaekh, or the ornament of 
the doctors. He wrote a book on the prayers of the 
Musalmans, on the glory and excellence of the Arabs, 
called " Salat-ul-Bakili." He died in 1167 A. D., 662 
A. H., but according to Hdji Khalfa in 1170 A. D., 566 
A. H. There was another Ba^ili, also a Muhammadan 
doctor, who died in 982 A. H. 

Bakir, j*^> the poetical name of Muhammad Bajpr Mi 

Khan who flourished in the time of the emperor Muham- 
mad Shah and wrote a Masnawi or poem called " Ramuz- 
ut-Tahirfn", composed in 1726 A. D., 1139 A. H., also 
another work entitled " Gulshani Asrar," which he wrote 
in 1732 A. D., 1146 A. H. He is also the author of a 
Diwan, and another poem called " Mirat-ul-JamaL 

Bakir Ali Khan, ^ *£*j*^> vide Bafcii. 

Bakir (Imam)> J*h r^} vide Muhammad "BUpi (Imam). 

Bakir Kashi, lS^^J 3 -) whose poetical name is Khirad, 
was a contemporary of Zahuri who flourished about the 
year 1600 A. D., and is the author of a Diwan. 

Bakir Khan, *J^J*^> a nobleman in the service of the 
emperor Shah Jahan. In the latter part of his life, he 
was appointed governor of Allahabad, where he died in 
1637 A. D., 1047 A. H., in whicn year died also Khan 
Zaman Bahddur in Daulatabad. 

Bakir Khan, ^ p 8 ? c/*J*^> surnamed Najm Sanf, 
an amir of the reign of Shah Jahan. He was a very 
liberal man ; fond of literature ; and was himself a poet. 
He died in 1640 A. D., 1060 A. H., but, according to the 
work " Masir-ul-Umra," in 1637 A. D M 1047 A. H. He 
is the author of a Diwan or Book of Odes. 

BaktaBh Kuli, <^* cA^> a Musalman writer of the 
Persian sect, who wrote a book, called " Bostan-al-Kha- 
yal" or the Garden of Thoughts. Watkin's Biographical 
Dictionary. See also Amiri, who also wrote a book of 
that name. 

Bakhtishu, £>^i£^ na me of a Christian physician in the 
service of Harun-al-Rashid. 

Balaji Rao Bishwa Wath Peshwa, !^2 V 1 ^ 5!> 
aJIIj^ the founder of the Braliman dynasty f Peshwa, 

was the hereditary accountant of a village in the Kokan. 
He afterwards entered into the service of a chief of the 
Jado family, whence he was transferred to that of the 
raja Sahu, son of Sambhajf, chief of the Marhattas. His 
merits were at length rewarded with the office of Peshwa, 
at that time second in the State. He died in October 
1720, and was succeeded by his son Baji Rao Peshwa L 



Liet of Hertditaty Pethw&t of Puna. 
Bal^f Rao Bishwanath Peshwa. 
Baji Rao Peshwa I, son of BalajL 
Balaji Rao, son of Baji Rao. 
Madho Rao Bilal, son of Balaji, succeeded under the re* 

geney of his uncle Raghun£th Rao. 
Ndrayan Rao Peshwa, brother of Madho Rao. 
Raghunath Rao, son of Baji Rao Peshwa I. 
Madho Rao II, posthumous son of Xarayan Rao. 
Baji Rao II, son of Raghunath Rao, proclaimed himself, 

and was taken by Scindhia. 
Chimnaju furtively invested at Puna, 26th May, 1796. 
Baji Rao II, publicly proclaimed, 4th December, 1796. 
Surrendered to, and pensioned by the English, 3rd June, 

1818, and Partap Singh Narayan the raja of Sitara 

released from confinement. 

Balaji Bao, Jb t/*^ also called Bala Rao Panflt Pra- 
dhan, was the son of Baji Rao Peehwi I, and succeeded 
his father in April, 1740 A. D. He was at Puna when 
the battle between the Marhattas and Ahmad Shah 
Abdali took place in January, 1761 A. D., but died some 
time after in the same year, leaving three sons, vtz. : 
Biswas Rao who was killed in the battle of Panipat, 
Madho Rao, and Ndrayan Rao. 

Baland Akhtar, J*4 *&, a brother of the emperor 
Muhammad Shah. Vide Achchhe. 

Balash, cA% vide Patfsh or Palis. 

Balban, U*^, a king of DehK, vid* Ghayas-uddfn Balban. 

Baibhaddar Singh, ***-* J*x^> a raj4 lineally descended 
from tho ancient Hindu monarchs of Audh, who having 
100,000 Rajputs at his command, considered himself as 
equal to the Nawab Wuzir of Lakhnau, whose authority 
he disclaimed. To reduce this raja, an army was sent, 
about the year 1780 A. D., composed partly of the Nawab's 
troops, and partly of tho Company's sepoys ; but owing 
to the intrigues of Haidar Beg Khan, the minister of tho 
Nawab Wasfr Asaf-uddaula, and the native collectors who 
extorted large sums from the zamindars, this measure 
failed of success. During two years he was frequently 
defeated and pursued ; and at length being surprised in 
his camp, he was killed in endeavouring to make his 
escape. 

Baldeo Singh, *&~ji*b, the Ja* raja of Bhartpur, was 
the second son of Ranjit Singh. Ho succeeded to the 
raj after the death of his eldest brother Randhir Singh. 

Baligh, fr^, author of the "Dalael Zahira, u "Talauwan 
]£udrat," and Makalima. He was a native of India and 
was living in 1772 A. D., 1186 A. H. 

Balin, erroneously written by some for Balban, which soe. 
Balkini, <^£^ vide Bilkainf. 

Balwan Singh, *&• &^ J ., (who was always called by the 
natives of Agra as the Kashf-wala rajA) was the son of the 
celebrated Chait Singh, raja of Banaras. Balwan Singh 
was born at Gwaliar, and after his father's death, he and 
his family lived in the city of Agra for many years on a 
monthly pension of 2000 rupees. He lost his only son 
Kuwar Chakarbati Singh on the 17th of December, 1871, 
and after a few days, on the 26th of the same month, he 
resigned his unusually prolonged life. The only survi- 
ving members of this family are the widow of Chakarbati 
Singh and his children, a boy aged 9 and a girl aged 11 
years. Balwan Singh is the author of a Diwan in Urdu. 

Balwant Singh, ***-* **£, a raja or eamfndar of 
Banaras. He was the father or brother of tho famous 
Chait Singh who rebelled against the British, and was 



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Balti 



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Barkayarak 



MTPstod and deposed by Mr. Hastings in 1781. Balwant 
Singh succeeded his father Mansa Ram in 1740, A. D., 
reigned 30 years, died in 1770, and was succeeded by 
Baja Chait Singh. 

Balti, s/*k> («** Jodh Bai), the daughter of raja Udaia 

Singh Kathor, commonly called Motha raja, she was 
married to the emperor Jahangir and became the mother 
of Shah Jahan. She died in 1619 A. D., 1028 A. H. 

Balwant Singh, *•&*• ^^, raja of Bhartpur, suc- 
ceeded his father Baldeo Singh in August 1824 ; was dis- 
placed by one of his cousins, named Durjan Sal, in March 
1825, but reinstated by the British Government on the 
19th of January 1826. Bhartpur was stormed and taken 
by the Bengal troops under Lord Combennere, on the 
18th January. The British lost during the siege 46 
officers killed and wounded, and 1600 men ; the enemy 
lost some thousands, and the usurper Durjan Sal was seized 
and sent to Allahabad. His father Baldeo Singh was the 
second brother of Kandbir Singh, the eldest of the four 
sons of Kan jit Singh, the son of Kehri Singh, the brother 
of Ratan Singh, the brother of Jawahir Singh, the son 
of Surajmal, the son of Churaman Ja^ the founder of the 
principality. Balwant Singh died aged 84 years on the 
16th of March 1858, and was succeeded by his infant son 
Jaswant Singh. 

Banana, **^* an Arabian poet whoso full name is Abu 
Bakr-bin-Muhammad bin-Banana. There has been an- 
other Bin- Banana, vis., Abu Nasr-ibn-ul-'Azu-bin Banana, 
who was a poet also, and died at Baghdad, in 1009 A. D., 
400 A, H. 

Bands, ***** vide Basrf (Maulana). 

Banda, ****> * guru OT chio * °* tne Sikhs, and successor of 
Guru Gobind. This man obtained great power, and 
committed great depredations in the province of Lahor, 
in the reign of Bahadur Shah I, and while the emperor 
was in Dnkhan against his brother Kam Bakhsh, Banda 
collected bis followers, to revenge the death of his pre- 
decessor's sons who were taken prisoners, and had been 
put to death some lime ago. He committed the greatest 
cruelties on the Musalmana, in ev«ry advantage shewing 
no quarter to age or sex, and even ripping up women with 
child. The emperor found it necessary to march in per- 
son against him, and he was besieged in the fortress of 
Lohgurh, which was taken, but Banda found means to 
escape, and raise new insurrections. In«the reign of the 
emperor Farrukhsfr, 'Abdns Samad Khan governor of 
Kashmir was sent against the rebels with a great army. 
After many severe engagements, he forced Banda to take 
refuge in a fortress, which was blockaded so effectually, 
as to cut off every supply. The garrison was reduced to 
the necessity of eating cows, horses, asses, and other ani- 
mals forbidden by their laws ; when at length, having no 
provision of any sort left, and being reduced to the ex- 
tremity of famine and disease, they begged for quarter. 
'Abdus Samad Khan, having planted a standard on the 
plain, commanded them to come out and lay their arms 
under it, which they did. He then divided the meaner 
sort among his chiefs, who cut off their heads ; and throw 
their bodies into a river near the fortress. Banda and 
other captives wore sent to Dehlf, through which he was 
carried in an iron cage upon an elophant, dressed in a 
robe of gold brocade. The Sikhs bore tho insults of the 
populace with the greatest firmness, and steadily refused 
tne emperor's offers of life if they would embrace the 
Mtthammadan faith. They were put to death, a hundred 
each day, on the ensuing seven days. On the eighth day 
Banda and his son, were put to death without the city. 
A dagger was put into his hands, and he was commanded 
to kill his infent son ; but refusing, the child was slain by 
the execu tioner, his heart torn out, and forced into the 

18 



father's mouth. Banda was then put to death by the 
tearing of his flesh with red hot pincers and other tor- 
tures, which he bore with the greatest constancy. This 
event took place in the year 1716 A. D., 1127 A. H. 

Bano Begam, f^.?^, the daughter of Shahnawas Khan, 
the son of the Wazir Asaf Khan, wife of the emperor 
Alaragir, and mother of 'Azim Shah. 

Barahman, CJ*-*H> poetical title of a Brahman whose name 
was Chandar Bhan, which see. 
| Barbak, i&jIj, the son of BaMol Lodi, king of Dehlf. Vid* 
Husain Shah Sharif. 

Barbak Shah, ^ «-** A Purbf, the son of Nasir Shah, 
I whom he succeeded to the throne of Bengal in 1468 A. D. 

He reigned for a period of 17 years and died in 1474 
A. D., 879 A. H. 

«#* 
Barbarassa ( Aruoh) > 4U>b jU f a femous pirate. Being 
called in to assist Salim, prince of Algiers, against the Spa- 
niards, he murdered that monarch, and took possession 
of his throne. He afterwards laid siege to Tunis, which 
he took, and caused himself to be proclaimed sovereign. 
He was besieged by the Marquis of GomareE and reduced 
to the greatest distress. He escaped by a subterraneous 
passage, but was overtaken with a small number of Turks, 
the whole of whom died sword in hand in 1618, A. D. 

Barbarassa, **»>b J*^ the famous Corsair. Sulaiman, em- 
peror of the Turks, gave him the title of Khair-uddin, 
and made him afterwards Pasha of the sea. He succeed- 
ed his brother Aruch, who conquered the kingdom of 
Algiers, after having killed Salim the Arabian king. He 
took Tunis, 1533 A. D., 940 A. H., after having driven 
out the Venetians, but Andre Doria retook it again, 1636 
A. D., 943 A. H. After this, he ravaged several parts 
of Italy, and reduced Yemin, in Arabia Felix, to the 
Turkish government. Khair-uddin died at Constanti- 
nople in 1646 A. D., 963 A. H., aged 80. 

Barbud, **t> .* a famous Persian musician, master of musio 
to Khusro Parwez king of Persia. He composed an air 
called Aorangt and invented a musical instrument (a sort 
of lyre) which bears his name : viz., Barbud or Barbut. 

Barizi, <SJJ^> the son of 'Abdul Rahim, an Arabian author 
who wrote a commentary on the work called " Asrar-ul- 
Tanzil." He died in 1337 A. D., 788 A. H. This author 
appears to be the same with Baairf, which see. 

Bark, CLTo poetical name of Muhammad Rata. 

Barkali, u¥ji> the name of two Mnhammadan doctors; 
the one died in 1663 A. D., 960 A. H., and the other in 
1673 A D., 98^ A. H. They are sometimes called Bin- 
gili, which see. 

Barkat-ullah (Sayyad), * 1J| °0* <x ^> styled "Sahib- 

ulBarkat," was the son of Sayyad Aweis, the son of Mir 
'Abdul Jalil, the son of Mir 'Abdul Wahid Shahidf of 
Bilgaram. His poetical name wis 'Ish^i, and as his 
grandfather's tomb was in Mahara in the district of Agra, 
he went and lived in that village till the day of his death 
whieh happened on the 26th of July, 1729 A. D., 10th 
Mubarram, 1142 A. H. 

Barkayarak (Saltan), $)^fj> cM*> the eldest son of 
Sultan Malikshah Saljulp, whom he succeeded in 1092 
A. D-. 486 A. H. His usual residence was Baghdad. 
His brother, Muhammad ruled over Azur-bejan; while 
Sanjar, his third brother, established a kingdom in Khura- 
san and Transoxiana, from whence he extended his con- 
quests over the fallen princes of Ohaani. Barkayarafc 
reigned twelve years and died in December, 1104 A. D. 



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Barmak 



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Baiazid 



498 A. H. 
him. 



His brother Sultan Muhammad succeeded 



Barmak, ^™y f the name of a noble family, originally 
from Balkh in Khurasan, and highly celebrated all over 
the East for their generosity, magnificence, and distin- 
guished patronage of men of genius. One of the most 
illustrious was governor to the khalif Hariin-al-Bashid, 
and his son Ja'far, afterwards minister to that prince ; but 
having incurred his displeasure, he with several of the 
heads of the family was put to death. Vide Ja'far-al- 
Barmaki. 

Baroda, \*)j> } raj£ of. Vide Pelaji. 

Basasiri, LSjir^, (a glutton) was the nickname, and 
afterwards the surname of Arsaldn, who from a slave 
became Commander-in-Chief of the armies of Bahi-ud- 
daula, the wazir of the khalif of Baghdad. Having 
quarrelled with him he fled to Egypt and put himself under 
the protection of Al-Mustanasir Billah, the fifth khalif of 
Egypt of the Fatimite dynasty. After some time he came 
to Baghdad. He took Kaem, the 26th khalif of the Ab- 
basidee, prisoner in Baghdad, deposed him, and caused 
Mustanasir, to be acknowledged the only and legitimate 
chief of all the Musalmans. He maintained Mustanasir 
in the khilafat for one year and a half; alter which Tu- 
ghral Beg, Sultan of the Saljukides, put Raera on the 
throne of Baghdad again, defeated and killed Basasiri 
1059 A. D., 461 A. H., and sent his head to $dem, who 
caused it to be carried on a pike through the streets of 
Baghdad. 

Eashir-ibn-ul-Lais, *^f ^j*^., or Laith, the bro- 
ther of the arch-rebel Rafa-ibn-ul-Lais, who had revolted 
against Harun-al-Rashid the khalif of Baghdad in the 
year 806 A. D., 190 A. H., at Samarkand, and assembled 
a considerable force to support him in his defection; 
notwithstanding all Harun'B care, the rebels made in 807 
A. D., 191 A. H.,- great progress in the conquest of 
Khurasan. According to Abul Faraj, in the year 809 
A. D., 193 A. H., Bashir was brought in chains to Harun, 
who was then at the point of death. At the sight of him 
the khalif declared, that if he could speak only two words 
he would say kill him ; and immediately ordered him to 
be cut to pieces in his presence. 

Basiti, u** 4 " •> poetical name of a person who is the author 
of the biography of poets called " Tazkira Basiti. 

Basus, er>*V, an Arabian woman, from whom originated a 
war, called Harb-i- Basus, which has since become a proverb 
to express, "Great events from little causes." Two 
Arabian tribes fought about 40 years, because a camel 
belonging to this woman broke a hen's egg ; the ownor 
of the egg wounded the camel with an arrow, and the two 
tribes were instantly in arms. 

Batalmiyusi, cr* >i*^% an Arabian author, who died 
in 1030 A. D., 421 A. H. He wrote a treatise on the qua- 
lities requisite in a secretary and good writer, and another 
on genealogies. 

Patu Khan, v^jfy, tho son of Juji Khan, and grand- 
son of Changez Khan. He ruled at Kipchak and was 
cotemporary with Pope Innocent IV. 

BiUWab, vL^> (or Bouwab) surname of Abu'l Hasan 'All 
Kala, who is better known under the name of ibn-Bouwa*b. 
It is he who improved the form of the Arabic Alphabet 
after Ibn-Makla. Ho died in 1022 A. D., 413 A. H., or 
as some say in 1032 A. D., 423 A. H. After him Yi'kub, 
sumamed Mustaa'simf, reduced it to its present form. 

£aian, cj4?> the poetical name of Khwaja Ahsan-uddin or 

Ahsan-ullah Khan of Agra, who was living at Dehli in 
1760 A. D, 1174 A. H. 



Baiazid I (Sultan), **>& cM<* 9 whom we call 
Bajazet, sumamed Hderim, or Lightning, succeeded hia 
father Murad I (Amurath) in 1389 A. D., 791 A. H., as 
Sultan of the Turks. He caused his elder brother Ya'kub, 
his rival for the throne, to be strangled, an act of barbarity 
which since his time has become a custom at the Turkish 
court. He conquered Bulgaria, Macedonia, and Thee- 
saly ; and after he had made the emperor of Constan- 
tinople tributary to his power, he marched to attack 
Tamerlane in the east. Ho was, however, totally defeated 
near Angoria on Friday the 21st July, 1402 A. D., 19th 
&l-lnjja, 804 A. H., and taken prisoner ; and when the 
proud conqueror asked him what he would have done 
with him if he had obtained the victory, Baiazid answered 
that he would have confined him in an iron cage. ** Such 
then shall be thy fate," rejoined Tamerlane, and ordered 
him to be carried about with his camp in an iron cage. 
Baiazid died on the 8th of March, 1403 A. D., 13th Sha*- 
bin, 805 A. H., at Antioch in Pisidia during his confine- 
ment in Taimur's camp. His son Musa, who was with his 
father at the time of his death, brought his remains to 
Brusa and buried there. During his (Musa's) absence in 
the camp, his brother Sulaiman had ascended the throne. 

Baiazid II, ^J^ cA*~, (Sultan) emperor of Turkey 
succeeded his father Muhammad II. to the throno of 
Constantinople in May, 1481 A. D., Rabf I, 886 A; H. 
He extended the boundaries of his kingdom ; and obliged 
the Venetians to sue for peace. His reign was distracted 
by intestine discord, and he fell by tho perfidy of his son 
Salim I, who caused him to be poisoned in 1612 A- D., 
918 A. H„ in the 60th year of his age and 31st of his 
reign. He was a man of uncommon talenta, and did 
much for the improvement of his empire, and the promo- 
tion of the sciences. 

Baiazid Ansari, iSj^ *i>^j the Afghan Apostle, 
called Pir R6shan, founder of the Sufi sect called ; * R6- 
shania," or "the enlightened." He had established amid 
the mountains of Afghanistan a temporal power upon the 
authority of his spiritual character, which enabled him 
and his successors to disturb tho tranquillity of the Enw 
piro of Dehli, when, under the celebrated Akbar, it had 
reached the very zenith of its power. 

Baiazid Bustami (Khwaja)) i/ ^^ ±4j& ***>*► 

the famous ascetic of Bustdm, whose original name was 
Taifuri ; he is therefore sometimes called Baiazid TaifiSri- 
al-Bustamt His father's name was 'Isa-ibn-Adam-ibn- 
'Isa-ibn-'Ali. His grandfather was a Gabr or magian, 
but became a convert to Islamiam. These two brothers 
Adam and 'Alf, were like himself, devout ascetics, but in 
an inferior degree. He was born in tho year 777 A. D M 
160 A. H., lived to a great age, and died between the 
years 84o or 848 A. D., 231 or 234 A. H., but according 
to Ibn-Khahkan his death took place in 875 or 878 A. D., 
261 or 264 AH. He is said to havo been a cotemporary 
of Ahmad Khizroya who died 240 A. H. 

Baiazid Khan, ^ *H>^> feujdir of Sarhind, who was 
commanded by the emperor Farrukh-siyar to punish the 
Sikhs, who had risen in rebellion ; he took the field, but was 
assassinated in his tent when alone at evening prayers, by 
a Sikh commissioned for that purpose by Banda their chief, 
and the murderer escaped unhurt. This circumstance took 
place about the year 1714 A. D„ 1126 A. H. 

Baiazid (Sultan), *is& J^^*. There is a cenotaph 
at Chatigaon, called the Rauza of Sultan Baiazid. It 
is related that he was born at Bustara in Khurasan, of which 
country he was king; but abandoning regal pomp and 
cares for the tranquillity of the ascetic life, he came with 
twelve attending disciples to Chatigaon. Their arrival 
was promptly opposed by tho king of the fairies and the 



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Bekhud 



attendant genii, who desired them forthwith to depart. 
Sultan B&azfd, with feigned humility, entreated to be 
allowed to remain that night and to occupy only as much 
ground as could be illumed by a single lamp, called in 
* Beng&li, chatf or chat J on obtaining their consent, he 
kindled from his urine a lamp of such radiance, that its 
light extended to Tik Naof, a distance of 1*20 miles, and 
scorched the terrified genii, who fled from its flame in dis- 
may. In commemoration of this event, the place was 
named Chatigram, in common parlance, Cha{gaon, signi- 
fying the village of the lamp. This insult and breach of 
confidence, led to implacable war on the part of the genii, 
whom Sultan B&iazid, in various conflicts, drove from the 
field ; and in his strenuous exertions dropped a ring where 
the cenotaph now stands — his Karanphul, or ear-ring, fell 
in the river, which thence was named the " Karanphul 1 ;" 
and a sankh, or shell, dropped from his hand, into the 
other stream, from which it derived the name of San - 
khauti. Sultan Baiazid then become a Gorchela (•'. #,, did 
penance in the tomb) for 12 years : after endowing it with 
lands to keep it in repair and defray the expenses of pli- 
grims and the twelve disciples, — he proceeded to Makan- 
pur, and was succeeded by his disciple Shah — who in the 
hope of an eternal reward, performed the penance of 
standing for 12 years on one leg, after which he also pro- 
ceeded to Makanpur ; leaving the cenotaph under the 
charge of Shah Pir, an attending disciple of Baiazid. 
This place was therefore in after ages held in great repute, 
and visited by numerous pilgrims from distant parts. It 
is situated on a hill, ascended by a flight of steps, inclosed 
by a wall about 30 feet square and 15 high, with mitred 
battlements, and a pillar rising two feet above them at 
each angle, similar to the buildings of the time of Akbar. 
The tomb, about 12 feet bf 9, is in the centre of the area, 
with some shells and corals deposited at its head. 

Baiazid Taifuri-aJ-Bufltami, ^*^-^ iSD*** *£>& 
tide Baiazid Buatami. 

Baa Bahadur, J^.jfc, whose original name* was Malik 

B&azid, succeeded his father ShujaV Khan to the govern- 
ment of Malwa in 1554 A. D., 962 A. H., and having 
taken possession of many towns in Mdlwa which were 
previously almost independent, he ascended the throne 
under the title of Sultan Baz Bahadur. His attachment 
to Rupmani, a celebrated courtezan of that age, became 
so notorious, that the loves of Baz Bahadur and Rupmani 
have been handed down to posterity in song. He reigned 
about 17 years, after which the kingdom of MsUwa was 
taken, and included among the provinces of the empire of 
Dehli, by the emperor Akbar in the year 1570 A. D , 978 
A. H. Baz Bahidur afterwards joined Akbar at Dehli and 
received a commission as an officer of 2000 cavalry. Baz 
Bahadur and Rupmani both are buried in the centre of 
the tank at Ujjain. 

Basil, J&> vide Ka£i Khan Baiil. 

Basil, d&> the poetical name of Badr-uddfn Ismafl-al-Tab- 
rizi, an Arabian author. 

Baziri, uyj.j author of a poem entitled " Koukab-al-Dar- 
riat" or the Brilliant 8tar, in praise of Muhammad, who 
cured him, as he said, of the palsy in a dream. Every 
line of the poem ends with an M, the initial of the pro- 
phet's name, and it is so highly valued, that many of the 
Muhammadans learn it by-heart, on account of its max- 
ims Lempricre's Universal Dictionary under Bausirri. 
Barizf and Baziri appears to be the same person. 

Baz Kh&n, e/^ j^> an amir in the service of the em- 
peror BahaVlnr Shall. He was killed in the battlo against 
Azim Shah on the 8th June, 1707 O. 8., 18th Rabi* 1, 1118 
A. H., at Dhaulpur. 



B&zmi, i^y., author of the Padmawat in Persian verse. 

He was a native of Karkh and resided for some time at 
Shiraz. He came to Gujrai during the reign of the 
emperor Jahangir, and composed the abovementioned poem 
in 1619 A. D., 1028 A. H. He was living at Dehli in 
the time of Shall Jahan, about the year 1634. His proper 
name is 'Abdul Shakur. 

Bazzaz, j\j4, the author of the " AdaVal-Mufridat" or a 
treatise on the particular conditions and properties of 
traditions, and some other works on the Muhammadun 
theology. 

Bebadal Khan, *J*> ^^u** a poet of Persia who came 
to India in the reign of the emperor Jahangir, and flou- 
rished in the time of Shih Jahan, who conferred on him 
the title of Bebadal Khan. Under his superintendence 
the Peacock throne was constructed. Bebadal Khan 
appears to be the former title of Abu Talib Kalun. 

Bedar, j*&> the poetical name of Sanath Singh, a Hindu, 
who was living in 1753 A. D., 1166 A. H. 

Bedar, j'**#j an author whose proper name was Im&m 
Bakhsh, a native of Ambdla. He is the author of the 
work called " Tarikh Sa'adat," being an account of the 
progress of the dynasty which ruled over Audh from 
ShujaV -uddaula to Sa'adat 'Ali Khan, to whose name the 
title is an illusion. It was composed in 1812 A. D., 1227 
A. H. He is also the author of several Masnawis, one of 
which contains the praises of Nawib Sa'adat 'Ali Khan, 
called " Gulshin-i-Sa'&dat." He was living in the tiuie 
of Naair-uddin Haidar, king of Audh. 

Bedar Bakht, * s ^ gi j^, (Prince), son of 'Azim Sh*h. 
He was killed in the battle fought by his father against 
the emperor Bahadur Shah on the 8th June, 1707 O. S., 
1119 A. H. 

Bedar Bakht, ***** J*#> son of Ahmad Shah, king of 
Dehli. He was elevated to the throne of Dehli on the 
1st September, 1788 A. D., 27th gi-ga'da 1202 A. H., 
when Ghulam K^dir imprisoned Shih Alam. Bedar 
Bakht continued to reign until the approach of the Mar- 
hattas towards Dehli. when he fled upon the 12th October, 
1788, but was subsequently apprehended and murdered by 
the orders of Shah Alam. 

Bedil (Mirza), d*£ $</*> the poetical name of Saidaf 
Gilani, which see. 

Begam Sultan, cJ^ - * pf*?., a lady of rank, whose tomb 
is to be seen to this day, outside of the gate of Ya'tmid- 
uddaula's mausoleum in Agra. From the inscription that 
is on her tomb, it appears that she died in the time of the 
emperor Humayun in 1538 A. D.^ 945 A. H., and that she 
was the daughter of Shaikh Kainal. 

Begana, *^-> the poetical name of Abu'l Hasan. 
Bekasi (Maulana), «/-*# ^h*, a poet who lived in 

• the time of the emperor Akbar. 
Bekasi (Maulana), ur**J. G V, a poet of Shiriz who 

was cotemporary with Ghizali, who died in the year 1111 

A. D., 505 A. H. 
Bekhabar, J**^> the poetical name of Mir 'Azmat-ullah, 

son of Lutf-ullah of Bilgaram. He died in 1729 A. D., 

1142 A. H., at Dehli. He is the author of the work 

called " Safinae Bekhaba^. ,, 
Bekhud, *>***, poetical name of Mulla Jami Lahauri 

Kamdar Khani, which see. 



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Bekhud, &J*^> poetical name of Sayyad Hadi 'All, eon of 
Sayyad Nasir 'Alf 8ehr, and author of a Diwan. 

Betab, ^^j whose proper name is Ab v aa 'Ali Khan, which 
see. 

Bengal, Sultans and Governors o£ vide Muhammad Bakh- 
taiar Khilji, and Khan Jahan. 

Berar, j\S *± l J, raja of; vide Ragboji Bh6sla. 

Bhagwan Das (raja), er^!*^ *H;, called by Abu'l 
Fazl Bhagwant Das. was the son of Raja Bihara Mai 
Kachhwaha of Ambhar or Amer, now Jaipur. His 
daughter was married to the prince Mirza* Salim (after- 
wards Jahangir) in the year 1685 A. D., 993 A. H., by 
whom he had a daughter named Sult&n-un-nisa Begam, 
and then a son who now was Sultan Khusro. Bhagwan 
Das died five days after the death of Raja Todar Mai, ♦'. *., 
on the loth November, 1689 A. D., 19th Mu^arram 998 
A. H., at Labor. After his death, the emperor Akbar, 
who was then at Kabul, conferred the title of Raja on his 
ton Man Singh with the rank of 5000. 

bhagwant Singh, ***-» ^J%, ran* of Dhaulpdr 
(1857). He died on the 14th February, 1873. 

Bhanbu Khan, c^jfV, the son of Zabita Khan, which 
see. 

Bhau, *&i> a Marhatta chief. Fide 8adasheo Bhau. 

Bhau Singh, ***• J^ } also called Mirsi Raja; was the 
second son of Raj 4 Man Singh, the son of Raj A Bhagwan 
Das Kachhwaha. He succeeded to the raj after his 
father's death in 1614 A. D., 1023 A. H , was raised to 
the rank of 5000 by the emperor Jahangir, and died of 
drinking 1621 A. D., 1030 A. H. Two of his wives and 
eight concubines burnt themselves on his funeral pyre. 
Among Jahangir's courtiers the rajas of Ambur were the 
most addicted to drinking. His eldest brother Jagat Singh, 
and Maka Singh his nephew, had likewise paid with their 
lives for their drunken habits, but their fate was no 
lesson for Raja Bhau. 

Bhara Mai (Raja), d" L^ > «*<fe Bihari MaL 
Bhartpur, Itf <^/^. **!; raj4 of; vide Churaman Ja**. 
Bhaskar Acharya, hjfo\jr~i£> a most celebrated as- 
tronomer of the Hindus, who was born at Bfdae, a city in 
the Dakhan, in the year of Solivahana, 1036, correspond- 
ing with the year 1114 A. D., 608 A. H. He was the 
author of several treatises, of which the Lilawati and the 
Bijft Ganita, relating to arithmetic, geometry and al- 
gebra, and the Siromani, an astronomical treatise, are 
accounted the most valuable authorities in those sciences 
which India possesses. The Siromani is delivered in two 
sections, the G61a-Adhyaya, or the Lecture on the Globe, 
and the Ganita Adhyaya, or the Lecture on Numbers, as 
applied to astronomy. The Lilawati was translated into 
Persian by Faizi in the reign of Akbar, and an English 
translation has also been lately made by Dr. Taylor and 
published at Bombay. Bhaskar died at an advanced age, 
being upwards of 70 years. Lilawati was the name of 
his only daughter who died unmarried. 

Bhim Singh, ****• fity> ran* of .Udaipur, was living in 
1750 A. D. 

Bhim Singh Bathour, j*£b ***"• f*tf- He usurped 
the throne of Jodhpur in 1793 A. D., on his grandfather's 
death by defeat of Zalim Singh, and died in 1803. He 
was succeeded by Man Singh. 

Bhim, f*t* **b> *aj£ of Gujrit, in whose time Sultan 



Mahmud Ghaznawi took the famous temple of Somnath 
in 1027 A. D. 

Bhoj (Raja), £>tf **b> vide Raja Bhoj. 

Bhori Rani, ^j e£2n*, the last of the wives of Maharaja 
Ranjit Singh, she died childless at Lahor on the 6th of 
April, 1872. Her adopted son Kuwar Bhup Singh 
distributed large sums of money before and after her 
death as alms to the poor. The funeral was very grand. 
Her remains were burnt near the tamddh of the late Ma* 
haraja, and the ashes were sent to be thrown into the 
Ganges at Hardwar. She drew a pension of 800 rupees 
per mensem from our Government and held jagirs of 
upwards of 60,000 rupees per a T>fiMm - 

Bhuohohu, J&*> vide Zarra. 

Bhuya, *i *f* &k*, a nobleman of the court of Sultan 

Sikandar Lodi, who built the masjid Math in Dehli, but 
was afterwards assassinated by that prince without any 
crime, only because people used to assemble at his place. 

Bibi Bai, ^ */*^> tne eister of Muhammad Shah 'Adil 
king of DehK, married to Salim Shah Stir by whom she 
had a son named Firoz. After the death of Salim Sh&h, 
when Fir6z, then an infant, was being murdered by his 
uncle Muhammad Shah, she defended her son for some 
time in her arms, presenting her body to the dagger, but 
her cruel brother tore the young prince from her embrace, 
and in her presence severed his head from his body. This 
event took place in May, 1554 A D. 

Bibi Daulat Shad Begam, f&*> ^ ^a «/V*> oneof 
the wives of the emperor Akbar and the mother of Shakr- 
unnisa Begam, who survived her father, and died in the 
lime of Jahangfr. 

Bibi Marwarid, *ifoj* ^Ji } wife of the late Amir 
Afzal Khan, died in September, 1874 A. D. 

Bibi Zinda Abadi, c5°^ t**j i/^*> commonly called 
Bibi Jind Wadi by the people of Uchcha, was one of tho 
descendants of Sayyad Jalal. She is buried at Uchcha in • 
Multan. The dome in which she routs is erected of burnt 
bricks and cemented by mortar. The whole of the edifice 
is ornamented by various hues, and tapie lazuli of the 
celebrated mines of Badakhshan. The size of this grand 
building may be estimated at 50 feet high, and the cir- 
cumference 25. 

Bihari Lai, ^ c5^tf> a celebrated Hindi poet, called by 
Gilchrist the Thomson of the Hindus, and much admired 
among them ; he appears to have flourished about the 
beginning of the 16th century. Being informed that his 
prince Jais&h of Jaipur was so infatuated with the beauty 
of a very young girl he had married, as to neglect entirely 
the affairs of his country ; for he never came abroad, hav- 
ing shut himself up to contemplate tho fascinating charms 
of his beauteous, though immature bride ; Bihari boldly 
ventured to admonish him by bribing a slave girl to con- 
vey a couplet, which he had composed, under his pillow ; 
the translation of which is thus given by GilchriKt, 
" When the flower blooms, what will be the situation of 
the tree, that is now captivated with a bud, in which there 
is neither fragrance, sweets, or colour." This had not 
only the desired effect of rousing the prince from his 
lethargy, but excited in his breast a generous regard 
for the man, whose advice came so seasonably and ele- 
gantly disguised. Bihari received, ever after, a pension 
from court, with a present of more than one thousand 
pounds, for a work he published under the name of " Sat- 
sai," from its consisting of seven hundred couplets. 

Bihari Mai, ^* l£>^* also called Bharamal and Pdran- 
mal, a raja of Ambhar or Ameir, now Jaipur, was a rtjput 



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of the tribe of Kachhwaha. He paid homage to Babar 
abont the* year 1627 A. D., and was on friendly terms 
with the emperor Akbar, and had at an oarly period given 
his daughter in marriage to him, of whom was born the 
emperor .Tahangi'r. Both he and his son Raja Bhagwan 
Das were admitted at the same time to a high rank in the 
imperial army by the emperor. Bhagwan Das gave his 
daughter in marriage to Jahangir in 1585 A. D.. who was 
married next year (1586) to the daughter of Raja Udai 
Singh, son of Itao Maldeo Radnor. 

Bija Bai, ^ ^"> 0T Ba J* Btti * the wife of Man * ra J a 
Daulat Rao Rcindhia of Gwaliar. After the death of her 
husband who died without issue, she elected Jhanko Rao 
Scindhia as his successor on the 18th June, 1827. She 
was expelled by him in 1833, and went over to Jhansi 
where she had a* large estate. She died at Gwaliar about 
the middle of the year 1863. 

Bijaipal, J v c$^> a f amoufi or fabulous raja of Bayana, 
regarding whose power, riches, and extent of dominion, 
many curious tales are still current among tho Bhartpur 
Jats who assert their (spurious) descent from him. In 
tho " Bijaipal Rasa," a metrical romance or ballad (written 
in the Birj Bhakha) the Hindu scholar will find a full and 
particular account of this great Hindu monarch, who is 
fabled to have conquered raja Jumeswar, the father of 
Pirthi Raj, the celebrated chauhan king of Dehli, and to 
have ruled despotically over the whole of India. The 
Karauli raja too boasts his descent from Bijaipal, and if 
any faith can be placed in a " Bansaob' or genealogical 
tree," he has a fair claim to the benefits, real or imaginary, 
resulting therefrom. 

Bijoi Singh, ***• *5^J *>n of raji Abhai Singh, the son 

of Maharaja Ajit Singh, Rathor of Jodhpur. succeeded 
to the raj in 1752 A. D., 1167 A. H. He became infa- 
tuated with fondness for a young concubine ; his chiefs 
rebelled, his family were in hostility with each other, 
and he left at his death the throne itself in dispute. 
Raj4 Man Singh at length succeeded, in 1804, to the 
honors and the feuds of Byai Singh. 

BiJAi Singh, ***~ ^> «>n of Raja Bhagwan Das. 
Vid* Ramji. 

Bikrami, lH.A & e poetical name of Mir * Abdur Rahman 

Wizarat Khan, brother of Kisim Khan, the grandfather 
of Samsam-uddaula Shahnawaz Khan. He was promoted 
in the reign of the emperor 'Alamgir -to the Diwsni of 
Malwa and Btfapur. He waa an excellent poet, and has 
left a Diwan composed in a most beautiful style. 
Bikramajit, li *fc* l *-A or m<> re properly Vikramaditya, 
a celobrated sovereign of Malwa and Gujrat, whose capital 
waa Ujain. His era called the Sambat is still used in 
the north of India. Bikramajit died or ascended the 
throne in the Kali Jug, year 3044, according to Wilford, 
whose essays in the 0th and 10th volumes of the Asiatic 
Researches, contain the fullest information on the history 
of the three supposed princes of this name, and of their 
common rival Salivahana. The first Sambat year, there- 
fore, concurs with the year 3045 of the Kali Jug year, 
or 57 years before the birth of Chriat. This prince was 
a imsat patron of learned men ; nine of whom at his court 
are called tho nine gems, and are said to have been Dhan- 
wantari, Kshapanaka, Amera Siuha, Sanku, VeUlabhatta, 
Ghatakarpara, Kalidasa, Virahamihira, and Vararuchi. 

Bikramajit (Bajah), ^ U J* **b> Vid* RaoPatrDis. 
AKhatre. 

Bilal, J^> ^° name of tQ0 crier ' who U8ed to announce *° 
the people when Muhammad prayed. He was an African, 
and a Seed slave of Muhammad. He died in tho time 

19 



of Umar the second Khalif after Muhammad, in the year 
641 A. D., 20 A. H. 

Bilal Kunwar, jy^JXi, the wife of the emperor 'Alamgir 
II, and mother of Shah * Alam, king of Dehli. Her title 
was Zinat Mahal. 

Bilkaini, ^^h, whose proper name was Abii Hafa, is 

the author of the works called " Manasm-iil-Mlan." 
"Sharah Bukhari," and "Tarandi." He died in 14C2 
A. D.. 805 A H. See Siraj-uddin son of Nur-uddin, and 
Abu Hafs-al-Bukhari, 

Binai, iS* •) (Maulana), his father was a respectable 

architect at Hirat, the birthplace of the poet, and his 
takhallus or poetical name, is derived from Bina or Banna, 
a builder He is the author of a work called ** Bahram- 
wa-Bahr6s," a story which he dedicated to hultan Ya'fcub 
the son of Uazan Hasan. His conceit had roused the 
jealousy of Amir Alisher, Binai tried to conciliate his 
favour by writing a Kasida in his praise, but received no 
reward, he therefore substituted the name of Sultan Ah- 
mad Mirsa for that of Alisher, saying that he would not 
give away his daughters without dowry. Alisher was 
so enraged at this, that he obtained a death-warrant 
against him. Binai fled to Mawarunnahr. He was 
killed in the massacre of Shah Isma'a* in 1612 A. D„ 918 
A. H. He has also left a Diwan consisting of 6,000 
verses. 

Bin Ahmad, *♦*>* &*> **** ^'l Fai* Muhammad. 

Binakiti, ^^ *«fc Abu Sulaiman Daud. 

Binayek Rao (raja), A ^ **!>* the son of Amrit 
Rao, a Marhatta chief. He died in July 1853, aged 50 
years. 

Bin Banana, ^ ctfj surname of Abu Nasr-ibn-ul-'ABk 
bin-'Amru. an Arabian poet who died at Baghdad in 1009 
A. D., 400 A. H. 

Bindraban, W b***> a Hindu author who flourished in 
the reign of tho emperor 'Alamgir, and wrote a work 
called -Lubb-ut-TawarikV' a summary history of Hin- 
dustan. 

Birbal <-^ J*'> or Birbar, was a Brahman of the tribe of 
Bhat. His proper name was Mahes Das. He was a man 
of very lively conversation, on which account he became 
one of the greatest personal favorites of the emperor 
Akbar, who conferred on him the title of raji and the 
rank of 5000. He was also an excellent Hindi poet, and 
was honored with the title of Kabrae or the royal poet. 
He was slain together with Mulla Sheri and other officers 
of note, in a battle fought against the Yusafzai Afghans 
of Sawad and Bijor (places between Kabul and Hindu- 
stan) in Februarv 1586 A. D., Rabf I, 994 A. H. Akbar 
was for a long time inconsolable for the death of Birbal. 
and as the raja's body was never found, a report gained 
currency that he was still alive among the prisoners, and 
it was so much encouraged by Akbar, that a long time 
afterwards an impostor appeared in his name ; and as this 
second Birbal died before he reached the court Akbar 
again wore mourning as for his friend. Many of Birbal s 
witty sayings are still current in India. 

Bir Singh, *&"J* **!>> * **J* of *** Bund ^* t" 1 * 3 of 
Baiuuta.' He was the founder of this family, and from 
him the family of the Urcha chief is descended The 
greater part of his dominions was wrested from him by 
Raja Chatar Sal, who was the last sole possessor of the 
Bundelkhand provinee. At that period its capital was 
Sger. but the residence of the raja waa Panna, cele- 
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Birgili, t/*v*> surname of Jlulli Mohannnad-bin-Pir 'Ali, 

a celebrated Arabian author, who wrote the "Sharah 
Arba'in," and died 1573 A. D., 981 A. H. He is by some 
called Barkali. 

Biljis Kadar, J* 9 U^J.} whose original name was Ram- 
lin 'AH, is the son of Wajid 'Ali, the ex-king of Lakhnau. 
His mother's name is Ma'shuk Begam. At the outbreak, 
he was created king with the unanimous consent of the 
rebel soldiery in 1857 at the instance of Barkat Ahmad, 
Risaladar, late 15th Regiment Irregular Cavalry, who 
subsequently fell in battle. Birjis liadar was then 10 
years of age. Before his accession, his uncle Sulaimin 
Sfeikoh was much persuaded by the rebels to accept the 
crown, but refused. Birjis Kadar was driven out of India 
and is now with his mother at Katmandu in Nepal. 

Bisati Samarkandi, </**?/•*■ %#^~i> a P oet of Sa- 
markand who flourished in the time of Sultan Khalil-ul- 
lah, grandson of Amir Taimur. He was formerly a 
weaver of carpets, and had assumed for his poetical title 
"Hasiri," but he changed it afterwards to Bisati. He 
was ootemporary with 'Asmat-ullah Bukhari. 

Bishr Haft, ^^r^, (•*. #., Bishr the barefoot) a Mu- 
hammadan doctor who was born at Marv, and brought 
up at Baghdad, where he died on Wednesday the loth 
of November 840 A. D., 10th Mubarram, 226 A. H. 
Different dates are given of his death ; but it is certain 
that he died several years before Ahmad Hanbal, and the 
one given here appears to be very correct. 

Bishun Singh (Kachwaha), *&-• eA> riji of 
Ambhar or Ameir. was the son of Ram Singh and the 
father of Mirza Raja Jaisingh Sewai. He died about the 
year lt>93 A. D., 1105 A. H. 

Bismil, O****, the poetical name of Mirzi Muhammad 
Sha'fi of Naibhipur, uncle of Nawib Safdar Jang. 

Bismil, 1*+-*, the poetical name of Amir Hasan Khan of 
Calcutta, who was living in 1845 A. D , 1261 A. H. 

Biswas Rao, jt> LTJ^j the eldest son of Bali Rio 
Peshwa, the Marhatta chief. He was killed in the battle 
against Ahmad Shah Abdali on the 14th January, 1761 
N. 8., together with Sadasheo Bhau and other Marhatta 
chiefs. 

Bithal Das Gaur, jj w** d*t#, son of Gopil Das, 
raja of Sheopur. On a spot of 10 bhigas towards Tajganj 
on the banks of the river Jamna he had built his house and 
a garden. In the town of Shaligahan he was raised to 
3000, and appointed Kiladar of the fort of Agra. He was 
afterwards raised to the rank of 5000, and in the year 
1062 A. H. went home and died there. 

Bo 'Ali Kalandar, J^^ u*'J*, vide AM 'Ali Kalandar. 

Boya, **y* vide 'Ali Boya. 

Bughra Khan, c^ Lr% surname of Nisir-uddin Mah- 
mud, the second son of Sultan Qhayas-uddin Balban, king 
of Dehli. He was made governor of Lakhn aufri in Bengal 
by his father, at whose death in 1286 A. D, he being 
then in that province, his son Kaikubad was raised to the 
throne of Dehli. Vide Nisir-uddin Mahmud. 

Bukhari, iSJ^, vide Al-Bukharf. 

Elllbul, ^-h > 9 vide Mirzi Muhammad surnamed Bulbul. 



Burandak, O^trt, the poetical name of MauU'na Baha- 
uddin. He was a native of Samarkand, and a sprightly 
satirical poet ; much dreaded by his contemporaries, on 
account of his wit and caustic humour. He was the 
especial panegyrist of Sultan Baikara Mirzi, the son of 
Umax Shaikh and grandson of Amir Taimur. When 
Prince Bailcara ascended the throne in 1394 A. D., he 
ordered that the sum of five hundred ducats (in Turki 
bish yuz altun) should be paid to Burandnk. By a mis* 
take of the Secretary, he received only two hundred ; and 
therefore addressed the following lines to the Sultan : — 

44 The 8hah, the terror of his foes. 
Who well the sound of flatt'iy knows, 
The conqueror of the world, the lord 
Of nations vanquish* d by his sword, 
Gave, while he prais'd my verse, to me 
Five hundred ducats as a fee. 
Great was the Sultan's gen'rous mood, 
Great is his servant's gratitude, 
And great the sum ; but strange to say, 
Three hundred melted by the way ! 
Perhaps the words in Turkish tongue 

Convenient meaning may contrive ; 
Or else my greedy ear was wrong, 

That turn* d two hundred into five." 

The Sultan was extremely entertained at the readiness 
of the poet ; and sending for him, assured him that the 
words 4t bish yitz altun" signified in Turkish a thomaid 
ducats, which he ordered to be immediately paid. 
Dublin University Magazine for 1840. The year of 
Burandak's death is unknown. He was cotemporary 
with Khwaja 'Asmat-ullah Bukhari who died in 142*6 
A. D., 829 A. H 

Burhan, c;~^> a poet of Mizindarin, came to Dehli and 

died there shortly after Nadir Shah had pillaged that 
city. He is the author of a Dfwan. 

Burhan, ct^j the poetical name of Muhammad Hasan, 

the author of the Persian Dictionary called Burhan $ata, 
vide Muhammad Hasan. 

Burhan 'Imad Shah, ^ **+* c; 1 *^, one of the princes 
of the 'Imad Shihi dynasty. He succeeded his father 
Daria 'Imad Shah in the government of Berar, when but 
a child. His minister Taufal Khan, became regent; and 
before the prince was of an age to assume the reins of his 
empire, Taufal Khan, assisted by the ruler of l£hinde*h 
and by the Nizam Shahi court, usurped the government. 
He eventually confined his sovereign in irons in the fort 
of Parnala, and assumed the title of king. In the veor 
1568 A. D., 980 A. H., Nizam Shah marched agamst 
Taufal Khan, under the pretence of releasing the impri- 
soned prince from his confinement. He took the fort of 
Gawal by capitulation, defeated Taufal Khan and made 
him prisoner with his son ; but instead of placing the 
captive monarch on the throne of Berar, sent him with 
the usurper and his son to be confined in one of the Nizam 
Shahi forts, where they were all subsequently strangled 
by the king'B order. Thus the family of 'Imad Shih and 
that of the usurper Taufal Khan became extinct. 

Burhan Nakid, ^ J^y. 9 a poet who is the author of 

the poem entitled " Dil Ash6b," dedicated to the emperor 
Shah Jahin. 

Burhan Nizam Shah I, aW fl& J*j> } ascended the 
throne of Ahmadnagar in the Da khan after the death of 
his father Ahmad Nizam Shah in 1608 A. D., 914 A. H., 
in the seventh year of his age. He reigned 47 lunar 
t years and died at the age of 54 in 1564 A D., 961 A. H-, 
and was buried in the same tomb with his father. 



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Eurhan Niaam Shah II, * u C^ *> { *S> d™ 41 "* of 
Murtaza Nisam I, ascended the throne of Ahmadnagar 
in the Dakhan on the 15th May, 1591 O. 8.. 1st Sha'ban, 
999 A. H., after deposing and confining hia own son 
Isiua'il Nizam Shah, who had been placed on the throne 
during his absence at the court of the emperor Akbar. 
He was advanced in years ; but notwithstanding his age, 
gave himself up to pleasures unbecoming his dignity. 
His reign was marked by an unsuccessful war with the 
king of Bijapiir, and a disgraceful defeat from the Portu- 
guese, who had seized the sea coasts of his dominions. 
Ho died ufter a reign of 4 years and 16 days, on the 18th 
of April, 1595 A, D„ 18th Sha'ban, 1003 A H., in the 
40th year of the ruign of Akbar, and whs succeeded bv his 
son Ibrahim Nizam Shah. Maulana Zahuri dedicated his 
Sa^i'iiama to Burhan Nizam Shah, containing nearly 4,000 
verses. ( 

Burhan-uddin Abu Ia-hak-al-Faaari, J*"^ 1 eh^ 
c/*^, commonly called Ibn-Firkah, author of the " Farae*- 
al-Fa»ftri" a treatise on the law of Inheritance according 
to Shafa'i's doctrine. Ue died in i328 A. D., 729 A. U. 

Burhan-uddin BinMaaah-al-fciikharic^l J** 
author of the *• Zukhira^-ul-Fatawa," sometimes called 
Zakhirat ul-Burhania", and of the " Muheet al-Burhani." 

Burhan-uddin Ali Bin Abu Bakr-al-Marghinani 
(Shaikh), i> cH*" c^y £±^ author of the "Hi- 

diva Sharah Badaya, or the lawyer's Guide," a very 
celebrated book of Muhammadan Jurisprudence, which 
during the period that Mr. Hastings governed the British 
dominions inlndia, was by his orders nwst ably translated 
by Charles Hamilton, Eaq., and published in London, in 
the year 1791 A. D. Burhan-uddin was born at V******* 
in UWoxania in 1185 A. D., 529 A. H., and died in 1197 
A D 693 A. H. The Hidaya which is a commentary 
on the Badnva-al-Mubtada, is the most ^ celebrated law 
tosatise according to the doctrines of Abu Hamfa, and 
his disciples Abu Yusaf and the Imam Muhammad. A 
Vevsuin version of the Hidaya was made by Maulw! 
Gbulam Yehia Khan and others and published at Calcutta 
in 1807 Ho also wrote a work on Inheritance entitled 
Se-Faraea-ul-Usmani," which has been illustrated by 
several comments. . 

Burhan-uddin Gharib (Shah or Shaikh), Vij* 
^ JjJt J^j* l^ 9 a celebrated Musalman saint much 
venerated in the Pakhan. He died in 1331 A. D., 731 
1 h! and his tomb is at Burhanpdr in DaulaUbad, and 
is resorted to in a pilgrimage by the Muhammadans. He 
waTa disciple of Shaikh Nixaxn-uddin Auha who died in 
1325 A. D., 725 A. H. 

Burhan-uddin Haidar Bin Muhammad.al.Hirwi, 
**** C^C^ J| cJ U -H author of a commentary on the 

Sirajia of Sajawandi. He died in 1426 A. D., 830 A. H. 
Burhan-uddin Ibrahim Bin Ali Bin Parhun, 

cjV cH ij* v* f**W &*** * iAjJ > chief bio & ra P her 
of the Miliki lawyers, and author of the " Dibaj.nl. 
MuSnh*/ 1 He died in 1396 A. D.. 799 A. H. 

Burhan-uddin (Kaai), ^' ^^\^t°!£ 
dtvrfSivaamOappanociaorCaramenu j who died in 1396 
A V, 7 98 A. H After his death Bayewd I, Sultan of 
the Turks, took possession of his States. 

Burnan-uddin Mahmud Bin Ahmad, *♦*• cH 

« y^ e^ 1 *> U -^ aaUlor of * " Mtthit »" which| though 
known in India, is not so greatly esteemed u the Muhit 
l^khs? The work of Burhan-uddin u commonly 
known a* the Mulut-al-Burhani. 



Burhan-uddin Muhammad Bakir (Mir), jsU 

***" ^j)\ lA^ jx* ^J 9 Kazf of Kashan. He 

wrote a Diwan containing about 6000 verses. He was 
living about the year 1686 A. D., 993 A. H. 

Burhan-uddin (Shaikh), c** 1 ' c/V f^> or Sayyad 

vide Kutb 'Alam. 

Burhan-uddin (Sayyad), c^ ! c^-rt ***, sumamod 
MuhnlflpV. He died in the year 1247 A, D., 646 A. H. } 
and was buried at Cassarea. 

Burhan-ul-Mulk Sa'adat Khan, cM &* 1 *- ****** 
\V [A y.) vide Sa'adat Khan, and Mirza Kasir. 

Burzui, i-DjJ*.* * Persian physician who lived under 
Nauahirwan the Just. He was sent by that prince to 
India to procure a copy of the book called the Wisdom of 
all Ages ; which he afterwards translated into Persian. 
That which now exists is greatly altered from the original 
version. 

Bus-hak, <3 sm J i . the abbreviated poetical name of Abu 
Is-half Atina', which Bee. 

Buzarjimehrj^rr*^^* &* celebrated minister of Nau- 
shirwan the Just, king of Persia, He is said to have 
imported from India the game of Chess and the Fables 
of Pilpay. Such has been the fame of his wisdom and 
virtues, that the Christians claim him as a believer in the 
gospel ; and the Muhammadans revere him as a prema- 
ture Musalman. He lived to a great age, and died in 
the time of Hurmuz III, son and successor of Nauslurwan 
the Just, between the years 680 and 690 A. D. 

Busarjmehr Kummi, iS^Jt^Jji* a celebrated Per- 
sian Prosodian of Kama, who lived before the time of 
Saifi, the author of the Uruz Saifi. 

Buzurg Khanam, f**^ ^J Jii the daughter of Saif 
Khan, by Malika Bano Begam, the daughter of Asaf 
Khan Wazir, and wife of Zafar Khan, a nobleman of the 
reign of the emperor 'Alamgir. She died before her 
husband in the month of May, 1669 &. D., Shawwal 1069 
A. H. 

Buzurg Umaid Khan, c^ * x *** ^L& "on of Shaista 
Khan, an officer of rank in the time of the emperor Alam- 
gir. At the time of his death, which took place in 169 1 
A. D., 1106 A. H., he was governor of Behar. 

Buzurg Umaid, **** ^Jji or Kaia Buzurg Umaid, one 
of the Ismail is, who succeeded Hasan Sabbah, the Old Man 
of the Mountains, in June, 1 124 A. D., Rabi' II, 618 A. H., 
and reigned 24 rears. After his death his son Kaia Mu- 
hammad succeeded him and reigned 25 years. 



c. 

CaragOSSa, vide IJLara Ghuz. 

Chaghtai Khan, O^ *^**> or ?aan, the most pious 
and accomplished of all the sons of Changer Khan ; and 
although he succeeded, by the will of his father, to the 
kingdoms of Trdnsoxania, Balkh, Badakhshan, and KiLm- 
ghar in 1*227 A. D., 624 A. H., he governed those coun- 
tries by deputies, and remained himself with his eldurt 
brother, Ofcta I^aan, by whom he was rsganle I with tho 
reverence which a pupil gives to his master. He died 



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Chand 



seven months before his brother in the month of June, 
1241 A. D., ^i-^a'da, 638 A. H. Karachar Nawian, who 
was the fifth ancestor of Amir Taimur, was one of his 
Amirs, and, at length, captain general of all his forces. 
The dynasty that founded the so-called " Moghul Em- 
pire" of India was named after Chaghtai.. 

Chaghta Sultan, cjU*L« Uaa.^ a handsome young man 
of the tribe of the Mughals and favorite of the emperor 
Babar Shah. He died at Kabul in 1546 A. D., 063 
A. H. 

Chait Singh, ***** ^±^ son of Balwant Singh, a raj* 
or zamindar of Banaras. He succeeded his futher in 
1770 A. D. In August 1781 demands were made upon 
him, by the Governor-General, for additional tribute to 
bo paid to the Company, as the sovereign power now 
r. quiring assistance in its exigency. The raja declined, 
pleading willingness, but inability. Ho was seized by 
Mr. Hastings' order, at Banaras ; a revolt took place in 
his behalf on the 20th August ; nearly two companies of 
sepoys and their officers were destroyed,— and the raja 
escaped in the confusion. The Governor- General imme- 
diately assumed control of the province ; and troops were 
called in to oppose the raja, who now headed the numbers 
flocking to his support. He was defeated at Latffpur — 
and lastly, his stronghold of Bijaigurh was seized, and 
bis family plundered by a force under Major Pophanu 
The raja had fled, on his reverses at Lattfpur, to Bundel- 
khand. His government was declared vacant, and the 
zumindari bestowed on the next heir, a nephew of the 
raja, a minor. After these transactions at Banaras, the 
Governor- General proceeded to Audh, to obtain an ad- 
justment of the heavy debts due to the Company by the 
Wazir 'Asaf-ud-daula. The territories of the Begams, 
(one, the mother of Shuja'-ud-daula, the late Nawab— -the 
other, the mother of the Wazir) were seized, on a charge 
of aiding the insurrection of Chait Singh. The raja 
found an asylum in Gw&Hax for 29 years, and died there 
on the 29th March, 1810 A. D. The lands were transferred 
to a collateral branch of the family, the present representa- 
tive of which is named Kaja Udat Narain. Bee Balwunt 
Singh. His estates, with title of Kaja, were presented 
to his nephew Babu Muhip Narain, grandson of Raja 
Balwant Singh. 

Chand, ** » > or Chand, called also Trikala, from his sup- 
posed prophetic spirit, was a celebrated Hindu poet or 
bard. He flourished towards the close of the twelfth cen- 
tury of the Christian era. He may be called the poet 
laureate of Prithiraj, the Chauhan emperor of Dohli who, 
in his last battle with Shahab-uddin Gh6ri, was taken 
prisoner, and conveyed to Ghazni, where his bard, Chand, 
followed him. Both perished by their own hands, after 
causing the death of their implacable foe, Shohab-uddin. 
Like the Greek bard, Homer, countries and cities have 
contended for the honor of having been the place of birth 
of this the most popular poet of the Hindus. Dehli, 
Kanauj, Mah6ba, and the Panjab, assert their respective 
claims, but his own testimony is decisive, whence it ap- 
pears that he was a native of Labor. In his 4 Prithiraj 
Chauhan Rasa," when enumerating some of the heroes, 
friends and partizans of his hero, he says, '• Niddar was 
born in Kanauj, Siluk and Jait, the father and son, at 
Abu ; in Mundava the Parihar, and in Kurrik Kangra 
the Haoli Rao, in Nagor, Balbhaddar, and Chand, the 
bard, at Labor.* ' 

Chand Saudagar, ji* l *J m **^j a Bangali merchant. 

Chand, *^> vide ?eik Chand. 

Chanda Kxinwar, JJ**\ \^^ 9 the wife of Maharaja 

Kharag Singh of Lahor. 
ChaUda, ^ a 1 * • «**, also called Mah-lika, a dancing girl, 

or queen of Hai dura bad, was a poetess of much taste and 



merit. She is the author of a Diwan which was revised 
by 8her Muhammad Khan I man. In the year 1799 
A. I)., in the midst of a dance, in which she bore the 
chief part, she presented a British officer with a copy of 
her poems, accompanied with the following complimentary 
observations, in the form of the usual gazal : — 

Since my heart drank from the cup of a fascinating 

eye, 
I wonder beside myself like one whom wine bewilders. 
Thy searching glances leave nothing unseated ; 
Thy face, bright as flame, consumes my heart. 
Thou soughtest a Natar : I offer thee my head ; 
Albeit thy heart is not unveiled to me. 
My eyes fixed on thy lineaments — emotion agitates 

my soul. 
Fresh excitement beats impatient in my heart. 
All that Chanda asks is, that, in either world, 
Thou wouldst preserve the ashes of her heart by thy 

side 

Garcin de Tassy informs us that there is a copy of her 
Diwan in the East India House Library, which she her- 
self presented to Captain Malcolm on the 1st of Octo- 
ber, 1799 A. D. 

Chanda Sahib, ij^sU* 1**^, surname of Husain Dost 

Khan, arolation of D6st 'AU Khan, NawAb of Arcot, whose 
daughter he had married. He had made his way to the 
highest offices of the government by the services of his 
sword, and was esteemed the ablest soldier that had of 
late years appeared in the Carnatic. He inveigled the 
queen of Trichinopoly, and got possession of the city in 
1736 A. D. Ho was taken prisoner by the Marhattus on 
the 2Cth March, 1741 A. D.. and imprisoned in tho fort of 
Sitara, but was released by the aid of Mons. Dupleix in 
] 748, and appointed Nawab of the Carnatic by Muzaffar 
Jang. He was put to death in 1752 A. D., 1st Sha'ban, 
1166 A. H. by the Marhattas, and his head sent to Mu- 
hammad 'Ali Khan who was made Nawab of Arcot by the 
English, who treated it with ignominy. 

Chandar Bhan, \&**J. &W.)***> a. Brdhmau of Patf. 

ala, well-versed in the Persian language, was employed as , 
a Munshi in the service of the prince Dara Shikoh, the 
eldest son of the emperor Shah Jahan. He is the author 
of several Persian works, nc. ; 4< Guldasta," " Tuhfat-ul- 
Anwir," " Tuhfat-ul-Fus-ha," " Majma'-ul-FuVraV* one 
entitled " Char Chaman,'' another called ** Manshat Brah- 
man" being a collection of his own loiters written to dif- 
ferent persons, and also of a Diwan in which he uses the 
title of Brahman for his poetical name. After the tragical 
death of his employer, ho retired to Banaras where he 
died in the year 1662 A. D.. 1073 A H. Ho had alao 
built a house at Agra, of which no traces now remain. 

Chand Bibi (Sultatoa), aW **^*>, was the daughter 
of Husain Nizam Shah I of Ahmadnagar in the Dakhan, 
sister to Murtaza Nizam Shah, and wife of ' Att 'Adil Shah 
I, of Bijapur. After the death of her husband in 1580 
A. D., 988 A. H., she had been queen and dowager-regent 
of the neighbouring kingdom of Bijapdr during the mi- 
nority of her nephew Ibrahim 'Adil Shah II. and was one 
of the most able politicians of her day. The Mughals 
under prince Murid, the son of Akbar, proceeded in 
November, 1595 A. D., Rabf II, 1004 A. H., and besieged 
Ahmadnagar for some months, while Chand Sultana. de- 
fended the place with mascutine resolution. At the same 
time there being a scarcity of provisions in the Mughal 
camp, the prince and Khan-Khanan thought it advisable 
to enter into a treaty with the besieged. It was stipulated 
by Chand Bibi that the prince should keep possession 
of Berar, and that Ahmadnagar and its dependencies, 
should remain with her in the name of Bahadur, the 
grandson of Burhan Shah, She was put to death by the 
Dakhanis in the year 1599 A. D., 1008 A. H. 



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Chandu Lai, J^J^t" LSb> a Hindu, who was appointed 

Diwin to the Nizam of Haidaribad in 1808 A. D. Hia 

• poetical name is Shidin. He died in the year 1868 A. D. 

Chandragupta, °W* V *^> (called by the Greeks Sandra- 
cottns). He seized the kingdom of Magadha, after the 
massacre of the survivors of the Naida dynasty, whose 
capital was the celebrated city Pataliputra, called by the 
Greeks Palibothra. 

Changes Khan, 0^->4^> also called by us Gengis, 
Jengis, and Zingis, surnamed Tamfijin, was the son of 
Yesuki, a Khan or chief of the tribe of Mughals. He was 
born in 1154 A. D., 549 A. H., and at the age of 13 he 
began to reign, but the conspiracies of his subject* obliged 
him to fly for safety to Avant Khan, a Tartar prince, whom 
he supported on his throne, and whose daughter he mar- 
ried. These ties were not binding. Avant Khan joined 
against Changez, who took signal vengeance on his 
enemies, and after almost unexampled vicissitudes, he ob« 
tained, at the age of 49, a complete victory over all those 
who had endeavoured to effect his nun. and received from 
the Khans of Tartary, the title of Khafcan in 1206 A. D., 
602 A. H., and was declared emperor of Tartary. His ca- 
pital was KaraVurm. In the space of 22 years he conquer- 
ed Corea, Cathay, part of China, and the noblest provinces 
of Asia, and became as renowned a conqueror as Alex- 
ander the Great. He died on Sunday the 29th August, 
1227 A. D.. Ramajan 624 A. H., aged 75 lunar years, 
leaving his dominions (which extended 1800 leagues from 
east to west, and 1000 from north to south) properly 
divided to his four sons, Juji, Ofctii, Chaghtai and Tuli 
Khan. 

Litt of the Mughal emperort of Tartary. 

CbangezKhin, 1206 

Tuli Khan, his son, 1227 

OVtaX brother of Tulf, 1241 

Turkina Khatun, his wife, regont for 4 years. 

KayukKhin, sonofOfctii, 1246 

Ogulgan-mish, his wife, regent on his death, . . 1248 

Mangii Khan, son of Tuli Khan, 1251, died 1259 

After the death of Mangu, the empire of the Mughals was 

divided into different branches, in China, Persia, in 

gapchafc, &c. 
Kablai Khan, the brother of Mangu Khan, 
" succeeded in China, and founded the Yuen 

dynasty 1260 

Chaghtai Khan, son of Changez Khan, founded 

the Chaghtai branch in Transoxiana, .... 1240 
Juji son of Changes Khan, founded the $ap- 

chik dynasty, 1226 

Vide, Halaku Khan. 

Chatrapati Appa Saheb, v^ u ty tf^Lr 1 ** riji 
of Sitae, who died in, or a year before, 1874 A. D., whose 
adopted son was Kaji Kim. 

Char Bagh, & J^> name of a garden constructed by the 
emperor Bihar on the bank of the Jamna, which it is 
saidwas also called Hasht Bahisht ; it bore all sorts of 
fruits ; no traces of this famous garden are left now. 

ChatUT 8al, d^—ji^, Chhattar 841, or, according to the 
author of the " Masir.ul-TJmra\ M 8atar Sal, was the son of 
Chait Singh, chief of the Bundelas or inhabitants of Bun- 
delkhan4, of which province he was riji. To secure the 
independence of his posterity against the encroaching 
power of the Marhattas, he ent< red into a close alliance with 
the Peshwi Biji Rio I about the year 1733 A. D., 1146 
A. H., and at his demise, he bequeathed him a third of 
his dominions, under an express stipulation, that his 
posterity should be protected by the Peahwu and his heirs. 

20 



Chatur Sil died 1735 A. D., leaving two sons, Hirde 
84h and Jagat Raj. The division of the dominions of 
Bundelkhan^, bequeathed to the Peshwi, comprised the 
Mahals of Kalpf, Sirounj, Kunch, Garra Koja and Hir- 
dainagar. Gangadhar Bala was nominated by the Pesh- 
wi as his niib to superintend the collections. After- 
wards the principal leaders in Bundelkhan^ having fallen 
in battles, and the ruin of the country having been com- 
pleted by the subsequent conquest of the rij of Panna by 
Nfrni Arjun, the grandson of Bakhat Singh, a descendant 
of Chatur Sil, it hence became the object of Nini Far- 
nawis, the Puna minister, notwithstanding the stipulations 
by which the former Peshwi obtained from Chatur Sil 
one-third of his dominions, to annex the whole of 
Bundelkhan^ to the Marha^ States. For this purpose 
he gave the investiture of it to 'AH Bahidur, son of 
Shamsher Bahidur, an illegitimate son of the Peshwi Biji 
Rio, whose descendants now are called the Nawa.be of 
Banda. Vide Muhammad Khin Bangash. 

Chatur Mahal, ^**-/**j one of the Begams of the ex- 
king of Audh. One K urban 'All, who had held a subor- 
dinate position, and was latterly a Sharistadir under the 
British Government, suddenly became a rich man by 
marrying her. He formed the acquaintance of this young 
and beautiful woman, and they resolved to be married. 
But the Begam did not wish the union with a man so 
inferior to herself to take place where she was known, 
and so obtained the permission of the Chief Commissioner 
to leave Audh on the pretence of making a pilgrimage to 
Mecca. Once clear of Lakhnau, she was joined by Kur- 
bin 'Alf, and made for his home at Bijnaur in Bundel- 
khan 4. 

Chin Kalioh Khan, tti^ ^* e>±* , vide Kulich Khin. 

Chin Kalioh Khan, c^ tf& c^?> former name of 

Niaim-ul-Mulk Asaf Jih. 
Chimnaji 'Apa, ty </^k*^ the younger son of the 

Marhafta chief Raghunith Rio, (Ragh6ba) was furtively 
raised to the masnad at Puna some time after the death 
of Midho Rio II, the son of Nariyan Rio. on the 26th 
May, 1796 A. D. ; but was deposed afterwards, and suc- 
ceeded by his elder brother Biji Rao II, who was publicly 
proclaimed on the 4th December following. 

Churaman, cr*L>>^j an enterprising Jit who having 
enriched himself by plundering the baggage of the emperor 
'Alamgir's army on his last march to the Dakhan, built 
the fortress of Bhartpur, fourteen kos from Agra, with 
part of the spoil, and became the chief of that tribe. The 
present rij as of Bhartpur are his descendants. He was 
killed by the royal army in the battle which took place 
between the emperor Muhammad Shah and Kutb-ul- 
Mulk Sayyad 'Abd-ullih Khin in November, 1720 A. P., 
Mu^arram, 1133 A. H. His son Badan Singh succeeded 
him* 

The following ie a list of the Jtajds of Bhartpkr. 

Churiman Ji$. 

Badan Singh, the son of Churiman. 

Surajmal Jit, the son of Badan Singh. 

Jawahir Singh, the son of SurajmaX 

Rio Ratan Singh, brother of Jawahir Singh. 

Kehri Singh, the son of Ratan Singh. 

Nawal Singh, the brother of Ratan Singh. 

Ran jit Singh, the nephew of Nawal Singh and son of 

Kehri Singh. 
Randhir Singh, the son of Ranjit Singh. 
Baldeo Singh, the brother of Randhir Singh. 
Balwant Singh, the son of Baldeo Singh. 
Jaswant Singh, the son of Balwant Singh and present raji 

of Bhartpur. 



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Dara 



Choaroes I, of Persia, vide Naushirwan the Just. 
ChOBroes II, vide Khusro Parviz. 



D. 



Dabir-ud-daula Amin-ul-Mulk (Wawab), vV 

kSXJ\ k ^\ A/j J\ jm f title of Khwaja Farfd-uddin 

Ahmad Khan Bahidur Muslah Jang, the maternal grand- 
father of Sayyid Ahmad Khan, Munsif of Dehli. Whilst 
the British were in Bengal, and the Wakfl of the king 
of Persia was killed in Bombay in an affray, it became 
urgent for the British Government to send a WakA on 
deputation to Persia. Dabir-ud-daula was selected for this 
high office. On his return, after fully completing the 
trust, he was appointed a full Political Agent at Ava. 
After this, in latter times, he held the office of Prime 
Minister to Akbar Shah II. 

Dai, \*^*> whose full name is Nixam-uddin Muhammad 

Daf, was a disciple of Snih Na'mat-ulUh Wall, and is 
the author of a Diwan which he completed in the year 
1460 A. D., 865 A. H. 

DaghiBtani, <^*~*'«>, a poet of Daghistan in Persia, who 

is the author of a Persian work called "Ray&z-ush-Shu'ara," 
vufr Walih. 

Dahan, iy **'•>, whose proper name is Abu Muhammad 

Sa'fd, son of Mubarik, better known as Ibn Dihin-al- 
Baghdad!, was an eminent Arabic grammarian, and an 
excellent poet. He died in 1173 A. D., 569 A. H. 

Dailamites, the, a dynasty. 

Dakiki, i£*i s &> a famous poet at the court of Amir Nuh 

II, son of Amfr Mansur Samant by whose request he had 
commenced to write the Shah Na"ma, but before he could 
finish a thousand verses of the story of Gaahtasp, he was 
slain by one of his slaves. The year of his death is not 
known, but this event appears to have taken place during 
the reign of his royal master, who reigned in Khurasan 
twenty years, and died in 997 A. D., 387 A. H. His 
proper name, according to the Aitashkada, was Mansur 
bin-Ahmad. 

Dalpat Sah, *U °^«>j the husband of Rani Durgawltf, 

which see. 

Dalpat, ***?&> riji of Bhojpur near Buxar, was defeated 

and imprisoned, and when he was at length set at liberty 
by Akbar, on payment of an enormous sum, he again 
rebelled under Jahangir, till Bhojpur was sacked, and his 
successor Raja Partab was executed by Shah Jahan, whilst 
the Rani was forced to marry a Muhammadan courtier. 

Dalip Singh (Maharaja), *&~ y^* ^J*? , the 
youngest son of Mahiraja Ran jit Singh, ruler of the Pan- 
jab. He was only ten years of age when he was raised to 
the masnad at Lahor after the death of his nephew. Raja 
Sher Singh, in September, 1843. In his time the Panjab was 
annexed to the British Government, 1846 A. D. " On the 
19th of March," (1849) says Marshman, "the young Ma- 
haraji took his seat for the last time on the throne of 
Ranjit Singh, and in the presence of Sir Henry Lawrence, 
the Resident, and Mr. Elliot, the Foreign Secretary, and 
the nobles of his court, heard Lord Dalhousie's proclama- 
tion read in English, Persian, and Hindi, and then affixed 
the initials of his name in English characters to the do- 
cuments which transferred the kingdom of the five rivers 
to the Company, and secured him an annuity of five lakhs 
of rupees a year. Dalip Singh was baptized on the 8th 
March, 1835 A. D., and went to England where he is 
■till living. 



Damad, «^t«>, poetical name of Muhammad Ba^ir, which se*. 

Damaji, ^^0, the first Gaefcwar of Baxoda. His succes- 
sor was Pelajf. 

Damiahki, <j*^°«>j an illustrious Persian poet, named 
Muhammad Damish^i who flourished in the time of Faal, 
the son of Ahia or Yahia, the Barmecide or Barmakl 

Danial Miraa (Sultan), Uf° <J^«> o^, the third 
son of the emperor Akbar. He was born at Ajmir on 
Wednesday the 10th September, 1572 A. D., and received 
the name of Danial on account of his having been born in 
the house of a celebrated Darweah named Shaikh DaniaL 
His mother was a daughter of Raj£ Bihari Mai Kachh- 
w&ha. After the death of his brother, prince Sultan Mar- 
id, he was sent to the Dakhan by his father, accompanied 
by a well appointed army, with orders to occupy all the 
Nizam Shihi territories. Ahmadnagar was taken in the 
beginning of the year 1009 A. H. or 1600 A. D., 
Sultan Danial died on the 8th April, 1606 A. D., 
1st ZU-lu'jja, 1013 A. H., in the city of Burhanpdr, 
aged 33 years and some months, owing to excess in 
drinking. His death and the circumstances connected 
with it, so much affected the king his father who was in 
a declining state of health, that he became every day 
worse, and died six months after. From the chronogram 
it appears that the prince Danial died in the year 1012 
A. H, or 1604 A. D., a year and six months before his 
father, 

Danish, U^'^? poetical name of Mir Raai who died in 

1665 A. D., 1076 A. H. 

Daniahmand Khan, \J^ ai^-mjIj^ whose proper name 

was Muhammad Shaff or Mull& ShafF, was a Persian 
merchant who came to Surat about the year 1646 A. D„ 
1056 A. H., from which place he was sent for by the 
emperor Shall Jahan. He was soon after raised to the 
mansab of 3000 and paymastership of tho army, with the 
title of Danishmand Khan. In the reign of ' Alamgfr ha 
was honored with the mansab of 4000, and after some time 
to that of 5000, and appointed governor of Shall Jahini- 
bad, where he died in the month of July, 1670 A. D., 10th 
Rabf I, 1081 A. H. He used to speak much about the 
Christian religion. Bernier, the French Traveller, who 
accompanied 'Alamgfr to Kaahmfr in 1664, has mentioned 
him in his Travels. 

Danishmand Khan, {J* *x+£j ^ 9 wn0fle original name 
was Mirzi Muhammad, and poetical, Alt was a native 
of Shiran. In the year 1693 A. D., he was honored with 
the title of Na'mat Khan, and the superintendence of the 
royal kitchen by the emperor 'Alamgir. After the death 
of that monarch, the title of Nawab Danishmand Kh jn 
All was conferred on him by Bahadur Shin, by whose 
order he had commenced writing a Shalinama or history 
of the reign of that emperor, but died soon after in the 
year 1708 A. D., 1 120 A. H. Vide Na'mat Khan All. 

DaraorDarab I, vl) 1 * b**> the eighth king of the second 

or Kaianian dynasty of the kings of Persia, was the ton 
of Queen Humai, whom he succeeded on the Persian 
throne. His reign was distinguished by several wars; 
particularly one against Philip of Macedon. He reigned 
twelve years, and was succeeded by his son Dili or Darib 

Dara or Darab II, vL>^ b**> is the celebrated Darius 
Codomanus of the Greeks. He succeeded his father Dili 
I, as king of Persia, and was slain in battle against Alex- 
ander the Great in the year 331 B. C. He was the last 
and ninth king of the 2nd or Kaianian dynasty of the 
kings of Persia. 



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Dastam 



Dara Bakht (Mirza), 



' l)'^ U/*> son of Bahadur 



Shah, the ex-king of Dehli. His poetical title is Dara, 
and he is the author of a Diwan. 

Darab Beg (Mtrza), ^ *JJ& $S°> vide Joy*. 

Darab Khan, tt>^ vl>'«>> commonly called Mixta Darab, 
was the second eon of Abdul Rahim Khan, Khan Khanan. 
After the death of hie eldest brother Shahnawaz Khan 
in 1618 A. D., 1027 A, H., he was honored with the rank 
of 5000 by the emperor Jahangir and appointed governor 
of Berar and Ahmadnagar in the Dakhan. He was also 
governor of Bengal for some time, and on his return to 
the Dakhan, the emperor, being displeased with him on 
some account, ordered Mahabat Khan to strike off his 
head, which he did, and sent it to the king. This circum- 
stance took place 1626 A. D., 1034 A. H. 

Darab Khan, O 1 ^ vb'^ «>^ °* Mukhtar Khan Sabzwari, 
a nobleman in the Bervice of the emperor 'Alamgir. He 
died on the 24th June, 1679 A. D., 26th Jumada I, 1090 
A.H. 

Dara Shikoh, Vt~ L> ! «>> the eldest and favorite son of the 
emperor Shah Jahan, was born on the 20th March, 1615 
O. S., 29th Safer, 1024 A. H. His mother, Mumtaz 
Mahal, was the daughter of » Asaf Khan, wazir, the brother 
of Nut Jahan Begam. In the 20th year of his age, t. <., 
in the year 1633 A. D., 1043 A. H., he was married to 
the princess Nadira, the daughter of his uncle Sultfo 
Parwez, by whom ho had two sons, viz., Sulaimin 
Shik6h and Sipehr 8hik6h. In 1658 A. D., during the 
illness of his father, several battles took place between 
him and his brother Aurangrib 'Alamgir for the throne, 
in which Dara being defeated, was at last obliged to fly 
towards Sindh, where he was captured by the chief of 
that country and brought to the presence of Aurangzib, 
loaded with chains, on a sorry elephant without housings ; 
was exposed through all the principal places and then 
led off to a prison in old Dehli, where after a few day* in 
the night of the 29th of August, 1659 O. 8., 21st frHyja 
1069 A. H., he was murdered by the order of Aurangzib ; 
his body exhibited next morning to the populace on an 
elephant, and his head cut off and carried to the emperor, 
who ordered it to be placed on a platter, and to be wiped 
and washed in hU presence. When he had satisfied him- 
self that it was the real head of Daii, he began to weep, 
and with many expressions of sorrow, directed it with its 
corpse to be interred in the tomb of the emperor Humi- 
yun. Sipehr 8hik6h, his son, who was also taken captive 
and brought with his father, was sent away in confine- 
ment to Gwaliar. Sulaiman Shik6h, his eldest son, who, 
after the defeat of his father had taken refuge in Srfnagar 
for some time, was subsequently, in 1670 A. D., 1071 
A.H given up by the raja of that place to the officers of 
Auran^b and conveyed to Debit He was then sent to 
Gwaliar, where he and his brother 8ipehr ShikOh both 
died within a short space. Dara 8hik6h is the author of 
the work called ** Saffnat-ul-Aulia," an abridgment of the 
Life of Muhammad, with a circumstantial detail of his 
wives, children, and companions, &c, also of a work en- 
titled "Majina'-uLBahrain," (•. #., the uniting of both 
seas,) in which he endeavours to reconcile the Brahman 
religion with the Muhammadan ; citing passages from the 
Kurin to prove the several point* In 1656 he likewise, 
with the same intent, caused a Persian translation to be 
made by the Brahmans of Banaras, of the Apnikhat, a 
work in the Sanskrit language, of which the title signifies 
"the word that is not to be said;" meaning the secret 
that is not to be revealed. This book he named " Sarr-1- 
Asrar," or 8ecret of Secrete ; but his enemies took advan. 
tare o'f it, to traduce him in the esteem of his Other's 
Mahammadan soldiers, and to stigmatise him with the 
epithets of Kafir and Rafizf (unbeliever and blasphemer), 
and finally effected his ruin ; for Aurangnb his brother 



made a pretence of that, and consequently had all his 
bigoted Muhammadans to join him. Monsieur Anquetil 
du Perron has given a translation of this work, in two 
large volumes in quarto, on which a very good critique 
may be found in the Second Number of the " Edinburgh 
Review." There is also a copy of the Persian version of 
this work in the British Museum, with a MS. translation, 
made by N. B. Halhed, Esq. He is also the author of 
the three following works, " Hasnat-ul-' Arifin," " Risala 
Hal^ Nima" and *• 8akinat-ul-Aulia." His poetical name 
was Kadiri. Catrou says that Dara died a Christian. 

Dard (Mir), &J&J& } is the poetical name of Khwaja Mu- 
hammad Mir of Dehli, a son of Khwaja Nasir who was 
one of the greatest Shaikhs of the age. Dard was the 
greatest poet of his time. He was formerly in the army, 
but he gave up that profession on the advice of his father 
and led the life of a devotee. When during the fall of 
Dehli every body fled from the city, Dard remained in 
poverty contented with his lot. He was a Sufi and a 
good singer. A crowd of musicians used to assemble 
at his house on the 22nd of every month. Some biogra- 
phers say that he was a disciple of Shah Gulshan, meaning 
Shaikh Sa'd-ullah. Besides a Diwan in Persian and one 
in Rekhta, he has written a treatise on Sufiism called 
" Risala Waridat." He died on Thursday the 3rd of Ja- 
nuary, 1786 A. D., 24th Safer, 1199 A. H. 
List of hie Works. 



KM Nila-* 
Ali Sard. 
DardDiL 



-Dard. 



Hm-ul-Kitab. 
Diwan in Persian. 
Diwan in Urdu. 



Dardmand> ^^W, poetical name of Muhammad Talfih 
of Dehli, who was a pupil of Mirza Jan Janan Mazhar, 
and the author of a Safcinama and of a Diwan. He died 
at Murshidabad in the year 1762 A. D., 1176 A. H. 

Daria Imad Shah, d*> d+* ^*, the son of 'AU-uddfn 
'Imad Shah whom he succeeded on the throne of Berar in 
the Dakhan about the year 1632 A. D., 939 A. H. In 
1543 A. D., 960 A. H., he gave his sister Rabia' Sultana 
in marriage to Ibrahim 'Adil Shah, and the nuptials were 
celebrated with royal magnificence. In 1658 A. D., 966 
A. H., he gave his daughter in marriage to Husain Nizam 
Shah and reigned in great tranquillity with all the other 
kings of the Dakhan until his death, when he was suc- 
ceeded by his son Burhan 'Imad Shah. 

Daria Khan Bohila, **Aj) e>^ ^> a nobleman in the 
service of prince Shah Jahan, who on his accession to the 
throne, raised him to the rank of 5000. He afterwards 
joined the rebel Khan Jahan Lodf. In a battle which 
took place between him and Raja Bikarmajit Bundela, son 
of Raja Chhajjar Singh, he was killed, together with one 
of his sons and 400 Afghans 1630 A. D., 1040 A. H. His 
head was sent to the emperor. 

Darikutni, iftyd, vide Abu'l Husain 'Ali-bin-'Umr. 

Daiimi, iS*j*> the son of 'Abdul Rahman of Samarkand, 
is the author of the work called " Musnad Darimf." He 
died in the year 869 A. D., 256 A. H. He is also called 
by some authors Abu Muhammad 'Abd-ullah-al-Darimi. 

Darki, is* 9 U?J*> of Eumm in Persia, was a contemporary 
of Shah 'Abbas. He died in the Dakhan and left a Persian 
Diwan. 

Dasht Baiari, <f*k> *****, vide Wall of Dasht Bayai. 

Dastam Khan, «l^ f**^j son of Rustam Khan Turki- 
stani, was an Amir of 3000 in the service of the emperor 
Akbar. He died in 1680 A. D., 988 A. H. of his wounds 
which he had received in battle against the three nephews 
of Raja Bihiri Mai, who had rebelled against the emperor 
and were also killed. 



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Data 



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Dawar 



Data Bam Brahman, i&^i fb ^*j a poet who wrote 
beautiful Persian verses. 

Dattaji Sindhia, ******* <^^» *on of Ranajl and 
brother of Jai&pi Sindhia, a Marhat^a chief who had a 
cavalry of 80,000 horse under him, and was slain in battle 
against Ahmad Shall Abdali in the month of January, 
1760 A. D., Jumada II, 1173 A. H., a year before the 
death of Bhau. the famous Marhafta chief. Vide Raniji 
Sindhia. 

Daud Bidari (Mulla), iSJ*H *$*> a native of Bfdar 
in the Dakhan. When twelve years of age, he held the 
office of page and seal-bearer to Sultan Muhammad Shah 
Bahmani I, king of Dakhan about the year 1368 A. D., 
770 A. H. He is the author of the " Tahfat-us-Salitin 
Bahmani." 

Daud Khan Faruki, i^jj*^ sty** succeeded his 
brother Mirin Ohani to the throne of Khandesh in Sep- 
tember, 1503 A. D., 1st Jumidal, 916 A. H., reigned Beven 
years and died on Wednesday the 6th of August, 1610 
A. D. He was succeeded by 'Adil Khan Faru# II. 

Daud Khan Kureshi, 4/^*0^ *V»>* son of BMkan 
Khan, was an officer of 6000 in the reign of the emperor 
'Alamgfr. In the year 1670 A. D., 1081 A. H., he was 
appointed governor of Allahabid. 

Daud Khan Panni, 4^ &^ *y*, son of Khi»r Khan 
Pannf, a Pathan officer, renowned throughout India for 
his recklesB courage, and his memory still survives in the 
tales and proverbs of the Dakhan. He served several 
years under 'Alamgir, and when Bahidur Shah, on his 
departure from the Dakhan, gave the viceroyalty of that 
kingdom to the Amir-al-Umra, Zulfikar Khan, as that 
chief could not be spared from court, he left the admin- 
istration of the government to Daud Khan, who was to 
act as his lieutenant. In the reign of Farrukh-siyar when 
the Amir-ul-Umra Husain 'AH Khan marched towards 
Dakhan, Daud Khan received secret orders from the em- 
peror to oppose and cut him off. Accordingly when the 
Amir-ul-Umri arrived at Burhinpur, Daud Khan, who 
regarded himself as the hero of his age, prepared to re- 
ceive him. The engagement was very bloody on both 
sides ; a matchlock ball struck Daud Khan, and he fell 
down dead on the seat of his elephant. This event took 
place in the year 1716 A. D., 1127 A. H. 

Daud Kaisari (Shaikh), isj*^ *ty* * ±% author of 

another commentary called "Sharah Hadfs-ul-Arba'fn," 
besides the one written by Birgili. He died 1360 A. D., 
761 A. H. 

Daud Shah Bahmani (Sultan), ^^n? *^~ ^^ 
gjUaLttj the son of Sultan 'Ali-uddin Hasan, ascended the 
throne of Dakhan, after assassinating his nephew Mujahid 
Shah on the 14th of April, 3 378 A. D., 21st Muljarram, 
780 A. H. He reigned one month and five days, and was 
murdered on the 19th May the same year in the mosque 
at Kulbarga where he went to say his prayers. He was 
succeeded by his brother Mahmud Shin I. 

Daud Shah, «/L^ * u &&, a king of Gujrit, who 
was placed on the throne after the death of his nephew 
Kutb Shah in 1439 A. D., and was deposed after seven 
days, when Mahmud Shah, another nephew of his, a youth 
of only 14 years of age, was raised to the throne. 

Daud Shah, *^ «*V«>» the youngest son of Sulaiman 
Kirani succeeded to the kingdom of Bengal after the 
death of his eldest brother Baiazid in the year 1673 
A. D., 981 A. EL This prince was much addicted to 



sensual excesses ; and the propensity was rendered more 
degrading by his inclination to associate with persons ^ of 
low origin and mean connections, by whom he was in- 
duced to attack the frontiers of the kingdom of DehlL 
He had several skirmishes with Munaim Khan, Khin 
Kh&nfri, governor of Jaunpur, who was subsequently 
joined by his master, the emperor Akbar, when an obsti* 
nate battle took place on the 30th of July, 1676 A. D., 
21st Rabi" II, 983 A. H., in which Diud 8hih was defea- 
ted and obliged to retire to a fort on the borders of Ka^ak. 
After this a peace was concluded, by which Diud Shall 
was invested with the government of Orisa and Katak, 
and the other provinces of Bengal were occupied by 
Munaim Khin in the name of the emperor. The year 
of this event is commemorated in a Persian Hemistich. 
After the death of Munaim Khin which took place 
the same year at Lakhnau^i, Daud Khin re-took the 
provinces of Bengal, but was soon attacked by Khin 
Jahin Turkman, who was appointed governor, when 
after a severe engagement Daud Khin was taken 
prisoner, and suffered death as a rebel. From that 
period, the kingdom of Bengal was subdued, and fell 
under the subjection of the emperor Akbar. Thus ended 
the rule of the Purbi or independent eastern kings of 
Bengal. 

Daud Tai, \*?^° a5l«>, * Musalmin doctor who was mas- 
ter of several sciences. He had served Abu Hanifa for 
20 years, and was one of the disciples of Habib Hit He 
was contemporary with Fazail Aiiz, Ibrihim Adham 
and Ma'ruf Karkhi, and died in the reign of the khalif 
Al-Mahdi, the son of Al-Mansur, about the year 781 or 
782 A. D., 164 or 166 A. H. 

Daud Khan, er^ *j!*i a general of Aurangifb. 

Dawal Devi, iSji* Jj*, or DewalDevi, ride Kauli Devi. 

Dawani, <yl?<>> the philosopher, whose proper name is 

Jalal-uddin Muhammad Asa'd Aldawanf, the son of 8a'd- 
uddin Asa'd Dawini. He flourished in the reign of Sul- 
t&n Abu Sa'fd and died, according to Haji Khalfa, in the 
year 908 A. H., (corresponding with 1502 A. D). He is 
the author of the "Sharah Haiikal" "Akhla> Jalaa," 
«« Isbit Wijib," (on the existence of God) " Risala Zaura," 
(on Sufiism), "Hashia Shamsia," and "Anwir Shifia." 
He also wrote the " Sharah 'A^aed," and marginal notes 
on *♦ Sharah Tajrid." The Akhla^ Jalili is a translation 
from the Arabic, the original of which appeared in 
the 10th century under the name of " Kitab-ut-Tahirat," 
by an Arabian author, minister of the imperial house of 
B6yi. Two centuries after, it was translated into Persian 
by Abu Nasr, and named " Akhlafc Nasiri," or the morals 
of Nisir, being enriched with some important additions 
taken from Abu Sina. In the 16th century, it assumed 
a still further improved form, under the present designa- 
tion, the Akhlak Jalali or morals of Jalal. This book 
which is the most esteemed ethical work of middle Asia, 
was translated into English by W. F. Thompson, Esq. of 
the Bengal Civil Service, London, 1839, 

Dawar Bakhsh (Sultan), lA** J>** d*A~, surnamed 
Mirzi Bulakf, was the son of Sul^in Khusro. When his 
grandfather, the emperor Jahingir, died on his way from 
Kashmir to Lihor in October, 1627 O. S., Safer 1037 
A. H.. 'Asaf Khan, wazir, who was all along determined to 
support Shah Jahan, the son of the 1m te emperor, imme- 
diately sent off a messenger to summon him from the 
Dakhan. In the meantime, to sanction his own measures 
by the appearance of legal authority, he released prince 
Dawar Bakhsh from prison, and proclaimed him king. 
Niir Jahan Begam, endeavouring to support the cause of 
Shahriar, her son-in-law, was placed under temporary 
restraint by her brother, the warir. who then continued 
his march to Lihor. Shahriar who was already in that 
city, forming a coalition with two, tho sons of his uncle, 



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Daya 



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Dilawar 



the late prince Danial, marched out to oppose ' Asaf Khan. 
The battle ended in his defeat ; he was given up by his ad- 
herents, and afterwards put to death together with D» wa * 
Bakhsh and the two eons of Danial, by orders from Shah 
Jahan who ascended the throne. Elphinstone in his His- 
tory of India, says that Dawar Bakhsh found means to 
escape to Persia, where he was afterwards seen by the 
Holstein ambassadors. 

Daya Mai, d* ^> vide Imtiyax. 
DayaNath, *#W ^ wrfsWaft. 

Dayanat Khan, \J^ ***^A, title of Muhammad Husain, 
an amir of 2500, who served under the emperor Shah Ja- 
han, and died at Ahmadnagar in the Dakhan 1630 A. D., 
1040 A. H. 

Daya Bam, fb k& f Eatt na > a nero » renowned in the west 
of Hindustan for extraordinary strength of body, extra- 
ordinary courage, and extraordinary achievements. He 
was a Gwala by caste, and flourished in the reign of the 
Emperor Farrukh-siyar. The wonderful feats of this man 
are sung or recited accompanied by the beat of a dAdl 
throughout Hindustan. A full and affecting account of 
this hero is given in the •' Bengal Annual" published at 
Calcutta in 1833, p. 169. 

Daya Bam, fb ^«>> tt chiejf °* Hatras, tributary to the 
Honorable Company, who, about the year 1814 A. D., 
confiding in the extraordinary strength of his fort, shewed 
a spirit of contumacy and disobedience. A train of 
Artillery was brought against this place from Cawnpur, 
and a few hours of its tremendous fire breached the 
boasted fortification. 

Dilami tx*^»> and Samanl were two dynasties which divided 
between them the kingdom of Persia towards the be- 
ginning of the 10th century. They both rose to power 
through the mvor of the Khalffs of Baghdad, but they 
speedily threw off the yoke. The Dilami divided into 
two branches, exercised sovereign authority in Kirman, 
Ira>, Faris, Khuzistan, and Laristan, always acknowledg- 
ing their nominal dependence on the Khalifi, and during 
the whole period of their rule, one of the southern branch 
of this family was vested with the dignity of Amir-ul- 
Umra, or vizfr, and managed the affairs of the khalifate. 
Several of tho Dilami were able and wise rulers, but 
Mahmud of Ghnznf put an end to the rule of the northern 
branch in 1029 A. D., and thcfcaljuVs subjugated the south- 
ern one in 1066 A. D., by the capture of Baghdad, their last 
stronghold. Their more powerful rivals, the Samini, had 
obtained from the Khalif the government of Transoxiana 
in 874 A. D. ; and to this, IsmaM, the most celebrated 
prince of the family, speedily added Khwarizm, Balkh, 
Khuiiaan, Sistan, and many portions of northern Turki- 
stau. Rebellions of provincial governors distracted the 
Samanida monarchy towards the end of the 10th century ; 
and in 999 A. D. their dominions north of Persia were 
taken possession of by the Khan of Kashghar, the Persian 
provinces being added by Mahmud of Uhazni to his domi- 
nions. See Samani. 

Din Muhammad Khan, cM* ****e^> the son of 
lani Beg Sultan, and 'Abd-ullah Khan Uzbak's sister, was 
raised to the throne of SamarVan4 after the death of 
'Abdul Momin Khan, the son of 'Abd-ullah Khan, in 1598 
A. D., 1006 A. H. He was wounded in a battle fought 
against Shah 'Abbas the Great, king of Persia, and died 
shortly after. 

Diwana, **t^> poetical name of Muh a mma d Jan, who 
died in the year 1737 A. D., 1160 A. H. 

Diwana, **\yt*> poetical name of Hae Sarabsukh, a rela- 
tion of raja Maha Narayan. He wrote two Persian 

21 



Dfwans of more than 10,000 verses; most poets of Lakh- 
nau were his pupils. He died in 1791 A. D., 1206 A. H. 

Diwana, **&** poetical name of Mirza Muhammad 'All 
Khan of Banaras, who was employed in the office of Mr. 
Colebrooke at Jahanabad. 

Diwanji Begam, (*£ \^\ji&, she was the mother of 
Arjumand Bano Begam Mumtaz Mahal, and the wife of 
'Asaf Khin, Wazir. On a spot of fifty bighas of land 
on the bank of the river Jamna, close to the Rauza of 
Tajganj, is to be seen her Rauxa bust of white marble. 

Deo Narain Singh, *&• uib^> (K. C. 8. 1., 8ir, Baja) 
of Banaras, died suddenly on the 28th August, 1870. 

Dewal Devi, 1£jt& d&*> vide KauliL Devi 
Dhara, b **«>> the son of Raja TodarmaL He was killed 
in a battle fought against Mirza Jani Beg, ruler of Thatta, 
in November, 1691 A. D., Mufcarram 1000 A. H. 
Dhola BAO, jb ^J**> the ancestor of the Kachhwaha Bajas 
of Ambir or Jaipur, he lived about the year 967 A. D. 

Dhundia Wagh, *r b *i*ij A «>> the free-booter, who had 
for several years with a formidable band, pillaged and laid 
waste the frontiers of Mysore. This robber assumed the 
lofty title of king of the two worlds, and aimed, doubtless, 
at carving out for himself some independent principality, 
after the example of Hydar 'All, in whose service he ori- 
ginally commenced his adventurous career. Subsequently 
he incurred the displeasure of Tipu Sul$£n, who chained 
him like a wild beast to the walls of his dungeons in 
Serangapatam, from which ** durance vile" he had been 
liberated by the English soldiers after the taking of 
Serangapatam. He now threatened Mysore with 6,000 
cavalry. The Government of Madras instructed Colonel 
Wellesley to pursue him wherever he could be found and 
to hang him on the first tree. His subjugation and sub- 
sequent death (in 1800) with the extirpation of his formi- 
dable band of free-booters, relieved die English Govern- 
ment from an enemy, who, though by no means equal to 
Hydar and Tipu, might eventually have afforded consi- 
derable annoyance. 

Dil, dd } poetical name of Zorawar Khan of Sirkar Kol. 
He is tho author of a Diwan and a few Masnawfs. 

Dilawar Khan, &^JJ*&> founder of the dynasty of the 
Muhammadan kings of Malwa. The Hindu histories of 
the kingdom of Malwa go back as far as the reign of 
Raja Bikarmajft, whose accession to that kingdom has 
given rise to an era which commences 67 years before 
Christ. After him reigned Raj£ Bhoj and many others 
who are all mentioned among the rajas of Hindustan. 
During the reign of Ghayas-uddin Balban king of Dehli 
in the year 1310 A. D., 710 A. H., the Muhammadans first 
invaded and conquered the provinces of Malwa; after 
which it acknowledged allegiance to that crown until the 
reign of Muhammad Shah Tughlalf II, 1387 A. D., 789 
A. H. At this period Dilawar Khan, a descendant on his 
mother's side from Sultan Shahib-uddin GL6H, was ap- 
pointed governor of Malwa, previously to the accession of 
Muhammad Tughlak, and he subsequently established his 
independence. In the year 1398 A. D., 801 A. H., Mah- 
mud Shah, king of Dehli, being driven from his throne 
by Amir Taimur (Tamerlane,) made his escape to Gujrat, 
and then to Malwa, where he remained three years, after 
which, in 1401 A. D., 804 A. H., he, at the instance of 
the Dehli nobles, quitted Malwa, in order to resume the 
reins of his own government. Dilawar Khan shortly af- 
terwards assumed royalty and divided his kingdom into 
estates among his officers whom he ennobled. Dilawar 
Khan on assuming independence, took np his residence 
in Dhar, which place he considered as the seat of 



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his government, bat he frequently visited the city of Mingo, 
remaining there sometimes for months together. He only 
survived his assumption of the royal titles a few years ; 
for in the year 1405 A. D., 808 A. H., he died suddenly, 
and his son Alp Khan ascended the throne under the title 
of Sultan Ho&hang Shah. Including Dilawar Khan 
eleven princes reigned in Malwa till the time of the em- 
peror Humiyun, whose son Akbar eventually subdued and 
attached it to the Dehli government. Their names are as 
follow : 

1. Diliwar Khan Ghort 

2. H6shang Shih, son of Dilawar. 

3. Sultan Muhammad Shih. 

4. Sultan Mahmnd I, Khilji, styled the Great, son of 

Malik Mughis. 

5. Ghayas-uddin Khilji. 

6. Nasir-uddin. 

7. Mahmud II. 

8. Bahadur Shah, king of Gujrit. 

9. £adarShih. 

10. ShujaV Khin, and 

11. Bis Bahadur, son of ShujaV Khan. 

Dilawar Khan, eMjJ^a, a nobleman of the reign of the 
emperor Shih Jahin, was the son of Bahadur Khan 
Rohila. He died at Kibul in the year 1668 A. D., 1068 
A. H. 

Bildar Aga, ^ j***, one of the wives of the emperor 
Babar, and mother of Mini HandaL 

Diler Himmat Khan, eM- ***** j*!* f original name 
of Nawab Muzaffar Jang of Farrnkhibid, which see. 

Diler Khan, J^jS?*, a Diudzai A%han, whose proper 
name was Jalal Khin. He was the younger brother of 
Bahadur Khan Rohila, and one of the best and bravest 
generals of the emperor 'Alamgfr. He held the rank of 
5000, and died in the year 1683 A. D., 1094 A. H., in the 
Dakhan. 

Diler Khan, V^ji}*, title of 'Abdul Bauf; the son of 
'Abdul Karfm, formerly in the service of the king of 
Bijapdr. After the conquest of that country, he joined 
'AlamKir and received the title of Diler Khan and the 
mansab of 7000. He died in the reign of Bahadur Shah 
in the Dakhan, where he held a jagir. 

Dilras Bano Begam, (Au^u^*, daughter of 

Shahnawiz Khin Safwi, the son of Mirza Rustam Kan- 
dhari, and wife of the emperor 'Alamgir. She had an- 
other sister who was married to Murid Bakhsh. brother of 
. 'Alamgir. 

Dilfihad Khatun, &jr^ *&}&, daughter of Amir Da- 
mishfc the son of Amir Juban or Jovian, and wife of Sul- 
tan Abu Sa'id Khan. Amir Hasan Buzurg, who after 
the death of the Sultan in 1335 A. D., took possession of 
Baghdad, married her, but the reins of government were 
in her hands. 

Dilsoz, JT~**, poetical title of Khairati Khan, a poet who 
lived about the year 1800. 

Dost'Ali, ij* ^~>>, Naw*b of Arkat and a relative of 
Murtaza Khan. Under him the atrocious seisuro of Tri- 
chinopoly was perpetrated by Chanda Sahib. He was suc- 
ceeded by his son Safdar 'Ali, who, after overcoming the 
effects of poison prepared for him by Murtaea Khin, fell 
by the poniard of a Papuan assassin, hired for the work 
by the same person. A storm was raised which he had not 
the courage to encounter ; and disguising himself in fe- 
male attire, he escaped from Arkat to his own fort of 
\ eilore. 



Dost Muhammad Khan, e^ ++** c^j^ ^i^ f 
Kibul and Kandahar, was one of the brothers of Fatha 
Khan, the celebrated waxir of Mahmud, ruler of Hirat and 
chief of the Barakzai clan. He was the most powerful chief 
in Afghanistan, and had for some years previous to the 
restoration of Shih ShujaV -ul-Mulk by the British in 
1838, ruled that country. On the death of this prince. 
Dost Muhammad again assumed the reins of government. 

On the base and cruel murder of Fatha Khin by Mah- 
mud at the instigation of Prince Kamran, his brothers 
revolted from their allegiance under the guidance of 
'Azim Khin, the governor of Kashmir, and drove Mah- 
mud and his son Kimran from Kabul. Asim Khan in 
the first instance offered the vacant throne to 8h»h 8hu- 
jaV, but offended by some personal slight, withdrew his 
support, and placed in his room, Aiyub, a brother of 
Shih ShujaV, who was content to take the trappings with 
the power of royalty. On Azim Khan's death, his bro- 
thers dissatisfied with their position conspired against his 
son, Habib-ullih Khin, and seizing his person, by throats 
of blowing him from a gun, induced his mother to deliver 
up the residue of Azim Khin's immense wealth. Ai- 
yub's son was killed in these disputes, and he himself 
alarmed by these scenes of violence, fled to Lihor. Dost 
Muhammad Khin, the most talented of the brothers, then 
took possession of the throne and became de facto king of 
Kabul. Sher Dil Khin, accompanied by four brothers, 
carried off about half a million sterling of Azim Khin's 
monoy, and seated himself in Kandahar, as an indepen- 
dent chieftain. Ho and one of his brothers died some 
years ago; and Kandahir was until lately ruled by 
Kohan Dil Khin, assisted by his two surviving brothers 
Bahim Dil and Mir Dil. In the year 1839 the British 
army entered Kabul and placed Shih ShujaV -ul-Mulk on 
the throne on the 8th May, and Dost Muhammad Khin 
surrendered to the British Envoy and Minister in Kibol 
on the 4th November, after having defeated the 2nd Ben- 
gal Cavalry by a desperate charge. He was subsequently 
sent down to Calcutta, where he arrived, accompanied by 
one of his sons, on the 23rd May, 1841. He was set free 
in November 1842 and returned to Kabul, where he reign- 
ed as before till his death, which took place on the 9th June 
1863 A. D., 21st £il-lnjja 1279 A. H., and his youngest 
son Amir Sher AU succeeded him. 

Doulat Khan Lodi, isto* *J*> *Jj*, who, according 
to Firishta, was an Afghin by birth, originally a private 
Secretary, who after passing through various offices was 
raised by Sultfn Mahmud Tughlafc and attained the 
title of Aziz Mumilik. After the death of Mahmud, the 
nobles raised him to the throne of Dehli in April, 1413 
£• v?r ^ arra ^ 8»6 A. H. In March 1414, 15th 
1 ij A 1 J A * H> ' Khidr Kh * n » governor of Multin, in- 
vaded Dehli, and after a siege of four months obliged Doulat 
Khan on tho 4th June 1414, Jamida I, 817 A. H., to 
surrender. He was instantly confined in the fort of Firozi- 
Dad, where he died after two months. 

Doulat Khan Lodi, ls&j} e^^/lwho invited 
Bihar Shih to India, was a descendant of the race of that 
name who heretofore reigned at Dehli He was , poet 

stir 11 ^Jr??!?* He died a 8hort *"* i*» 

Bilgr conquered Dehli, ». «., in the year 1626 A. D. W2, 

Doulat Khan Lodi Shahu Khail, &*j) d*> *Jj* 

V*^ J****, was the father of the rebel Khan Jahan Lodi. 

vlfV!i ? nder Mirz * ' Aziz Koka > ' Abdul ^^m Khin 
Jtnan Knanin, and prince Diniil for sevoral years and was 

?"t^ 1^™ e A r S lk of 200 °- He died in the Dakhan 1600 
A. D., 1009 A. H. 

Doulat Bao Sindhia (Maharaja), *i***±*jj ^a 
^b^T 6 , of Gwiliar, a Marhatti chief; was the grand- 



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Doulat 



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Durgawati 



nephew and adopted eon of Madhoji Sindhia, whom he 
succeeded to the rij -of Gwaliar in March, 1794 A. D., 
1208 A. H. His violence, rapacity and lawless ambition, 
were the main causes of the war in 1802 with the con- 
federate Marhatta chieftains. Hostilities having broken 
out with the British, Sir Arthur Wellesley (afterwards 
Duke of Wellington) defeated Doulat Rao at Assaye in 
1803, while Lord Lake drove the Marhattas from the whole 
of the Doab. He married Baji Bai, reigned 33 years, 
and died on the 21st March, 1827, 21st Sh'aban 1242 
A. H. He was succeeded by Jhanko Rao Sindhia. 

Doulat Shah, &» ^^ y son of Bakht Shah of Samarkand, 
and author of the Biography of Poets called " Tazkira 
Doulat Shahi." He flourished in the reign of Sultan 
Husain Mirza of Hirit, surnamed Abul Ghazf Bahadur, 
and dedicated the work to his prime minister, the celebra- 
ted Amir Kizam.uddin 'Alisher. This work was written 
in 1486 A. D., 891 A. H , and contains the Lives or Me- 
moirs of ten Arabian, and one hundred and thirty-four 
Persian poets, with various quotations from their works, 
and anecdotes of the princes at whose court they resided. 
It also gives an account of six poets then residing in 
Hirat; two of whom were principal ministers of the 
Sult&n ; viz., 'Alisher, and Amir Shaikh Ahmad Suheli. 
Vid* Fieri Kirmani. He died in 1495 A. D. 

Dundey Khan, *k?JJ uM> <— »^J«>, a Kohila chief, and 

son of 'AH Muhammad Khan, the founder of the Rohila 
Government. In the partition of lands which were 
assigned to the chiefs, in the time of Hafis Rahmat Khan* 
Dundey Khan obtained the districts of Bisauli, Muradi. 
bid, Chindpur and Sambhal in Rohilkhand. He died 
previous to (he Rohila war which took place in 1774 
A. D., leaving three sons, the eldest of whom Muhib-ullah 
Khin, succeeded to the largest portion of his territories. 

Dunyapat Singh (raja), *^~ ^k** *±b- His father 
died in 1790 A. D., at which time he was only seven years 
of age. He inherited from his grandfather Rup Rae the 
Chaklas of £6ri, Fathapdr and Kara, but was dispossess- 
ed by the Nawab Wazir, and a Nankar allowance of 
24,000 rupees granted to the raja on his exclusion. This 
was subsequently reduced to 7,500 rupees. The original | 
grant amounted to 62,000 per annum,, payable from 14 
mahila, but in 1770 A. D., the Nawab Najaf Khin 
acquiring unlimited dominion over these provinces, dis- 
possessed his father of eleven of the villages, by which his 
income was reduced to 20,000 rupees. In 1787 his fathor 
was dispossessed of the remaining three villages by Zain- 
ul-'Abidin Khan, the 'Amil,but as the raja was about to 
proceed to hostilities, the 'Amil agreed to allow him 
10,000 Be. for the first year, and 20,000 thereafter, but 
failed in the fulfilment of his promise. In 1792 A. D., 
Zuin-ul-'Abidin died, and was succeeded by his son Bifear 
'Ali Khin, and from that period up to 1802, the raja Du- 
niipat Singh was allowed 8,000 rupees per annum, which 
was confirmed by Government in 1806 in perpetuity. 

Dupleix, a French officer, governor of Pondicherry. In 
1750 A. D., he was elevated to the rank of a Haft Haxiri, 
or Commander of seven thousand horse, and permitted 
to boar an ensign, assigned to persons of the highest 
note in the empire, by Muzaflar Jang, viceroy oi the 
Dakhan, after his victory over his brother Nasir Jang 
who fell in battle. 

Durdusd, *)*J*r w& 'Ali Durduad of Astrabad. 
Durgawati (Rani), tfjtji i/b> daughter of Rana 

Sarika. VuUMhnd&L 
Durgawati (Rani), i/Jtj* ^-, the daughter of the 

raji oi Mah6ba, who was much celebrated Cor her singu- 



lar beauty. Overtures had been made for an union 
with Dalpat Sah, raji of 6ingalgurh (which is situated 
on the brow of a hill that commands a pass on the road 
about half way between Garha and Sangar ;) but the pro- 
posal was rejected on the ground of a previous engage- 
ment, and some inferiority of caste on the part of the 
Garha family, who was of the race of the Chandeil rij- 
ptita. Dalpat Sah was a man of uncommonly fine ap- 
pearance, and this added to the celebrity of his father's 
name and extent of his dominions, made Durgawati as 
desirous as himself for the union, but he was by her 
given to understand, that she must be relinquished or 
taken by force, since the difference of caste would of itself 
be otherwise an insurmountable obstacle. He marched 
with all his troops he could assemble, met those of her 
father and his rival, — gained a victory and brought off 
Durgawati as the prize to the fort of Singalgurh. Dal- 
pat Sah died four years after their marriage, leaving a son 
named Bir Narayan about three years of age, and his 
widow as regent during his minority. Asaf Khin, the 
imperial viceroy at Kara Slanikpur on the Ganges in the 
province of Allahabad, invited by the prospect of appro- 
priating so fine a country and so much wealth as she was 
reputed to possess, invaded her dominions in the year 
1664 A. D. t at the head of 6,000 cavalry and 12,000 well* dis- 
ciplined infantry, with a train of artillery. He was met 
by the queen at the head of her troops, and an action 
took place in which she was defeated. She received a 
wound from an arrow in the eye ; and her only son, then 
about 18 years of age, was severely wounded and taken 
to the rear. At this moment she received another arrow 
in the neck ; and seeing her troops give way and the 
enemy closing around her, she snatched a dagger from 
the driver of her elephant, and plunged it in her own 
bosom. Her son was taken off the field, and was, un- 
perceived by the enemy, conveyed back to the palace at 
Churigarh, to which Asaf Khan returned immediately 
after his victory and laid siege. The young prince was 
killed in the siege ; and the women set fire to the place 
under the apprehension of suffering dishonor if they fell 
alive into the hands of the enemy. Two females are said 
to have escaped, the sister of the queen, and a young 
princess who had been betrothed to the young prince 
Bir Narayan ; and these two are said to have been sent 
to the emperor Akbar. In this district of Jabbalpur, the 
marble rocks and the palace called Madan Mahal is worth 
seeing. There is some doggrel rhyme about this palace 
which is not generally known, though of some interest. 
This building stands on a single granite boulder, and was 
constructed by the Gond princess Rani Durgawati, at the 
time of the Muhammadan invasion of Central India. 
Tears after the cession of the country to the British, a . 
wag of % PanoUt wrote on the entrance door of the palace 
the following lines : 

Madan Mahal ke* chhain ml, 
Do ting6n ke" bich, 
Gave nau lakh nipi, 
Aur sone* ka do int. 

Translation — 

In the shade of Madan Mahal 
Between two boulders 
There are buried nine lakhs of rupees 
And two bricks of gold. 

It did not take long for the news of the appearance of 
this writing on the door to spread abroad, and the very 
person to fall a dupe to the Pandit's trick was Captain 
Wheatley, at that time a Political Assistant at Jabalpur. 
He mustered some peons and laborers, and having pro- 
ceeded to the spot, commenced digging for the treasure 
on the part of Government. The native lady, in whose 
possession was the village lands on which the palace stood, 
came rushing down to the Agent to the Governor-General 
and represented that she waa being plundered of her 



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treasure by Captain Wheatley. " Pagli," replied Sir Wm. 
Sleeman, " he is as mad' as you are ; the Pandit would not 
have divulged the secret were it of much value." Many 
years have since elapsed, and many others not possessed 
of Sir William's wisdom have fallen dupes to the Pandit's 
poetical trick ; and, but for the very durable nature of 
the martas, there have been enough of excavations made 
in and about the building to raze it to the ground. 



E. 



Egypt, kings o£ vide Moizz-li-dfn-alUh Abi Tamim Ma'd. 
Ekkoji, uftjh, the founder of the Tanjore mmily was the 

son of Shahji Bhosla, and brother of Seiwajf, but from 
another consort. The principality of Tanjore was one 
of the oldest in the Marhatta confederacy, of which pro- 
vince Ekkoji obtained possession in 1678 A. D. 



/vli 



F. 



Faek, (Ji*, or Fayefc, poetical name of Moulwi Muham- 
mad Faok, author of the work called " Makhzan-ul- 
Fawaed." 

Paez, {jcAi, or Fayez, poetical name of Shaikh Muham- 
mad Faez, a pupil of Muhammad Sa'id Ayaz. He is the 
author of a short Diwan, and was probably living in 1724 
A. D., 1136 A. H. 

Faezi Kirmani, is^r LS^i > a poet who rendered the 

Tazkira of Doulat Shah in Persian verses in the time of 
the emperor Akbar, and altered the division of the ori- 
ginal, making ten periods instead of seven. Vide Lutf- 
ullah Muhammad Muhaddis. 

FaghfllT, JJ** 9 * the general name of the kings of China. 

FaghfOT Yezdi, LS&JJ*** f&*, (Hakim) a phy- 
sician and poet of Persia, born at Yezd. He is the author 
of a Diwan or Book of Odes, and has written several 
panegyrics in praise of the kings of Persia. He came 
to India in 1603 A. D., 1012 A. H.. and was employed 
by prince Parwez, and died at Allahabad about the year 
1619 A. D., 1028 A. H. 

Fahmi Kirmani, iS*J ^ ***** i^ 1 ;** G V, 
(Moulana Sadr-uddin Muhammad), a poet who is the 
author of a Masnawi called " Surat-wa-Ma'ani," and 
also of some Kasidas, Ghazals, Satires, &c* He died in 
the year 1584 A. D., 993 A. H., in the fort of Tabrez, 
during the time it was besieged by the Turks. 

FaiZy UP&* the distinguished mystical philosopher and 
theologist, Mull a Muhsin of Kashdn, commonly called 
Akhund Faiz. He flourished under Shah 'Abbas II of 
Persia, who treated him with great respect. Ho has 
written a great number of books, of which " Kitab 'Asafi" 
and " Kitdb Safi are two Commentaries on the Kuran. 
He died at Kashan under, or after Shah Sulaiman of 
Persia, and his tomb is a place of pilgrimage. 

Faiz, U^i*, poetical title of Mir Faiz 'All, an Urdu poet 
of Dehli. His father Mir Muhammad Tafci was also an 
elegant poet, and had assumed the title of Mir for his 
poetical name. Both Faiz 'Ali and his father were living 
at Dehli in the year 1785 A. D., 1196 A. H. 

Faiz, U*&, a pupil- of Mirz£ Katil, and author of a poe- 
tical work containing amorous songs in Persian, called 
** Diwan Faiz." He was living in the time of Muham- 
mad 'Ali Shall, king of Lakhnau, about the year 1840 
A. D., 1266 A. H. 



Faiz, U***, poetical title of Faiz-ul-Hasan of Saharan- 
pur, author of the " Rauzat-ul-Faiz," a poem composed in 
1847 A. D., 1263 A. H. 

Faizi (Shaikh), %£*& ££"> whose proper name was 
Abu'l Faiz, was the son of Shaikh Mubarik of Nagor, 
and eldest brother of Shaikh Abu'l Fazl, prime-minister 
and secretary to the emperor Akbar Shall. He was born 
on the 16th September 1547, A. D., 1st Shaban, 954 
A. H., and was first presented to Akbar in the 12th year 
of his reign, and introduced his brother Abu'l Fazl six 
years later. After the death of the poet laureate Ghixali 
of Mashhad, about the year 1672 A. D., or some years 
after, or, according to the " Masir-ul-Umrd," in the 33rd 
year of the emperor, Faizi was honored with the title of 
" Malik-ush-Shua'ra" or king of poets. In history, phi- 
losophy, in medicine, in letter writing, and in composi- 
tion, he was without a rival. His earlier compositions 
in verse, bear his titular name of Faizi, which he subse- 
quently dignified into Faiyazi, but he survived to enjoy 
his last title only one or two months, and then met his 
death. Being ' desirous of rivalling the Khamsa or the 
five poems of Nizam i, he wrote in imitation of them his 
" Markaz Adwar," " Sulaiman and Bilkais," " Nal Da- 
man," " Haft Kiskwar," and " Akbar Nama." The story 
of Nal Daman is an episode of the Mahabharat, which he 
translated into Persian verse at the command of the em- 
peror Akbar. He was the first Musalman that applied 
himself to a diligent study of Hindu literature and science. 
Besides Sanskrit works in poetry and philosophy, he 
made a version of the " Bi'ja Gunita," and " Lilawati," 
of Bhaskar Acharyi, the best Hebrew works on Algebra 
and Arithmetic. He was likewise author of a great deal 
of original poetry, and of other works in Persian. He 
composed an elaborate Commentary upon the Kuran, 
making use of only those 13 out of the 28 letters of the 
Alphabet which have no dots, and which he named 
" Sawata'-ul-Hham" ; a copy of this extraordinary monu- 
ment of wasted labour (says Mr. Elliot) is to be seen in 
the Library of the East India House. There is also 
another book of the same description which he wrote and 
called " Mawarid-ul-Kalam." Faizi suffered from asthma 
and died at Xgrah on Saturday the 4th of October, 1595 
O. S., 10th Safttr, 1004 A. H., aged 49 lunar years and 
some months ; and, as many supposed him to have been a 
deist, several abusive chronograms were written on the 
occasion, of which the following is one — u The Shaikh 
was an infidel." There is also an Insba or collection of 
Letters which goes after his name His mother died in 
January, 1590 A. D., 998 A. H., and his father in August, 
1593 A. D., £eka'd, 1001 A. H. He was a profound scholar, 
well versed in Arabic literature, the art of poetry and me- 
dicine. He was also one of the most voluminous writers 
that India has produced and is said to have composed 101 
books. Faizi had been likewise employed as teacher to 
the princes ; he also acted as ambassador. Thus in 1000 
A. H., he was in the Dak hi n, from whence he wrote the 
letter to the historian Budaoni, who had been in tempo- 
rary disgrace at Court. Vide Ain Translation I, 490. 

Faizi, ij^i*> of Sarnind » "<*" Alahdad. 

Faiz-ullah Anju (Mir), ^ *M u*#ji», a Kazi 

who presided on the seat of justice in the reign of Sultan 
Mahmud Bahmani, king of Dakhan, who reigned from 
1378 to 1397 A. D., 780 to 799 A. fi. He was a good 
poet, and a contemporary of the celebrated Khwaja H&fiz. 
Once presenting the Sultan with an ode of his own com- 
position, he was rewarded with a thousand pieces of gold, 
and permitted to retire, covered with honors, to his own 
country. 
Faiz-ullah Khan, eM *^ oM, chief of the Kohelas 
and Jagirdar of Rampur, was the son of 'AH Muhammad 
Khan Rohela. After the battle of Kutra in 1774 A. D., 
he retired to the Kamaon hills. By the treaty under 
Colonel Champion, he had a territory allotted to him of 



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Fakhri 



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Pakhr 



the annual value of 14 lakhs of rupees. He chose the city 
of R&mpur as the place of his residence, and after an 
uninterrupted and prosperous administration of 20 years, 
he died in September, 1794 A. D., Safar 1209 A. H., and 
was succeeded by his eldest son Muhammad 'Ali Khan. 
ThiB prince, in the course of a few days, in 1794 was im- 
prisoned and assassinated by his younger brother Ghulara 
Muhammad, who forcibly took possession of the govern- 
ment. The English, having espoused the cause of Ahmad 
Ali, the infant son of the murdered prince, dofeated and 
took Ghulam Muhammad prisoner at Bithoura. He was 
conveyed to Calcutta, where, under pretence of going on 
a pilgrimage to Mecca, he embarked on board a ship, 
probably landed at one of the ports in Tipu Sultan's 
dominions, and thence made his way to the court of 
Kabul in 1797 A. D., 1212 A. H., where, united with the 
agents of Tipu in clamours against the English, he urged 
Zamdn Shin, the son of Taimur Shih, to invade Hindustan, 
promising that, on his approach to Dehli, he should be 
joined by the whole tribe of Rohelas. The Naw&b Ahmad 
Ali Khan died about the year, 1839 A. D., 1255 A. H. 
After the death of Ahmad Ali Khan, Muhammad Said 
Khan ascended the Masnad in 1840 ; after him Muham- 
mad Yusuf Ali Khan succeeded in 1856, who was living 
in 1872. 

Fakhri, C&r > son of Moulana Sultan Muhammad Amiri 

of Hirat. He is the author of the " Jawihir-ul-'Ajaeb," 
Gems of Curiosities, being a biography of poetesses. He 
informs us that with the intention to perform'the pilgrim- 
age to Mecca, he came during the reign of Shah Tahmasp 
Husaini to Sindh, the ruler of that country was then f Fa 
Turkhan (who died about the year 1566 A. D., 974 
A. H.). Ilahi the poet calls the above-mentioned woik 
** Tazkirat-ul-NisaV' He is also the author of the •* Tahfut- 
ul-Habib," a collection of Ghazals from the best authors. 

Fakhri, i£j*^y a poet who wrote a Dfwan of 10,000 
verses in which he imitated most of the ancient masters, 
but as he had not much education, he was not acknow- 
ledged by other poets. He dug a grave for himself 
outside the Isfahan Gate and made himself a tomb-stone, 
and visited his grave every Friday. He was living in 
1585 A. D., 993 A. H. 

Fakir (Mir Shams-uddin), j^i ^oJl if+Zjx*, 

of Dehli, who had also the poetical name of Maftun. 
From Dehli he went to Lakhnau in 1765 A. D., 1179 
A. H., and is said to have been drowned about the year 
1767. He is the author of a Diwan and also of a Mas- 
nawi called " Taswir Muhabbat," containing the story of 
Ram Chand, the son of a betol- vender, composed in 1743 
A. D., 1156 A. H., and of several other poems. 

Fakir, J&*> poetical name of Mir Naw&zish 'Ali of Bil- 
garam. He died in the year 1754 A. D., 1167 A. H. 

Fakhr-uddin, eH^Lr^> one of the princes of the Druses, 
who, early in the 17th century, conceived the idea of 
rendering himself independent of the Porte. He was 
betrayed, carried a prisoner to Constantinople, where he 
was strangled by order of Sultan Murad IV. in 1631 
A. D., 1041 A. H. 

Fakhr-uddin Abu Muhammad-bin- AU az-Zailai, 

U^lj {j^ & ±+ae"jy ert^f J*?> author of a Com- 
mentary on the Kans-ul-DafcaeV, entitled •* Ta'ba'fn-ul- 
Hafcaelf" which is in great repute in India, on account of 
its upholding tho doctrines of the Hanafi sect against 
those of the followers of Shafa'i. He died in 1342 A. D., 
748 A. H. 

22 



Fakhr-uddin Bahman, (Malik), o*r? vt^'j*? 

*Jl*, third Sultan of the dynasty of Kart or Kard, was 

the Bon of Milik Shams-uddin Kart II, whom he suc- 
ceeded to the throne of Hirit, Balkh and Ghazni in Sep- 
tember, 1305 A. D., 705 A. H. He Was contemporary 
with Sultan Aljaitu, surnamed Muhammad Khuda Banda, 
king of Persia, who sent an army against him which he 
defeated. Ho died about the beginning of the year 1307 
A. D., 706 A. H., and was succeeded by his brother 
Malik GhayAs-uddin Kart I, who died in 1329 A. D. 

Fakhr-uddin Iraki (Shaikh), t^Lr* ui^j^ 9 ki~, 

was the son of Shaikh Shahab-uddin's daughter, and 9 
disciple of Shaikh Bah£-uddin Zikaria of Multan, whose 
daughter he married. He died on the 23rd November, 
1289 A. D., 8th #l.*a'da 688 A. H., and lies buried at 
Damascus. He was a native of Irdfc, and assumed the 
poetical name of Irafci in his poetry. Doulat Shah says 
that 'Iraki died during the reign of Muhammad Khuda 
Banda in the year 1307 A. D., 709 A. H. Tide Iraki. 

Fakhr-uddin Ismat-uUah Bukhari, cs; tt *U* 
****** Vidljk?. He aiea ja 1426 A. D., 829 A. H., 
vide Asmat. 

Fakhr-uddin Junan (Malik), dtfrvi^j*? «-4*, 

eldest son of Sultan Ghayas-uddin Tughlak Shah I. On 
the accession of his father to the throne of Dehli, he was 
declared heir-apparent, with the title of Ulagh Khan, and 
all the royal ensigns conferred upon him. The names of 
his other brothers were Bahrain Khan, Zafar Khan, Mah- 
mud Khan and Nasrat Khan. After the death of his 
father in 1325 A. D., 725 A. H., he succeeded him with 
the title of Muhammad Sh&h Tughlak I. 

Fakhr-uddin Kha'Hdi (Maulana), ^aJU. ^[yk 9 
fj*> who was commonly called " Bihishti," is the au- 
thor of a work called " Sharah-Faraez." He was the 
master of Moulana Mo'in-uddin Jawini. 

Fakhr-uddin Mahmud Amir, A^^e^Lr** 
j%°\, son of Amir Yemin-uddin Muhammad Mustufi. 
He is generally known by his Takhallus or poetical name, 
Ibn Yemin, t. *., the son of Yemin-uddin. According to 
Dr. Sprenger's Catalogue, he died in 1344 A. D., 745 
A. H., and left panegyrics on the SarabdaU princes and 
some ghazals, but it is particularly his Kita's which are 
celebrated. Vide Amir Mahmud. 

Fakhr-uddin Malik, e^» j& ^*, vide Malik 
Fakhr-uddin, king of Bengal. 

Fakhr-uddin Mirza, cH^l J& l)j", the eldest son 

of Bahadur Shah II, ex-king of Dehli. He died before 
the rebellion, on 10th July, 1856. 

Fakhr-uddin (Moulana), erf^!^* Wy*> eon of 
Nizam-ul-Hak, was styled Saiyad-uah-Shua'ri, or chief 
of the poets. He is the author of several works, among* 
which are the following "Nizam-ul-'Afcaed," **Ria41a Mar- 
jia" and " Fakhr-ul-Hasn." He died in the year 1785 A. 
D., 1199 A. H., aged 73 years, and lies buriod close to the 
gate of the Dargah of Kutb-uddin Bakhtyar Kaki in old 
Dehli. His tomb is of white marble and has an inscrip- 
tion mentioning his name and the year of his demise. 
His grandson Ghulam Nasir-uddin, surnamed Kali Sahib, 
was a very pious and learned Mnsalman ; he too was a 
good poet and died in the year 1852 A. D., 1268 A. H. 



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Fakhr-uddin Muhammad Razi (Imam), ^j 

±+**{&*J\s ±9 r^l, was a doctor of the Shafe'i sect. 
He surpassed all his contemporaries in scholastic theology, 
metaphysics and philosophy. He is the author of several 
instructive works, among which is one called " Hadayek- 
ul-Anwar," a hook on different subjects which he dedica- 
ted to Sultan 'Ala-uddin Takash, ruler of Khwarizm ; and 
another called " Risala Haiyat," or Geometry, dedicated 
to Sultan Baha-uddin Ghori. He was horn at Rei on the 
•26th January, 1150 A. D., 25th Ramadan, 644 A. H., and 
died at Hirat on Monday the 29th of March, 1210 A. D., 
1 Shawwal, 606 A. H., aged 62 lunar years. His father's 
name was Ziyd-uddin-bin-Umar. The title of Razi at- 
• tached to his name is because he was born at Rei in 
Tabristan. He is the father of Khwaja Nasir-uddin Tusi. 

Fakhr-uddin Sultan, e^!/* 5 ij^***, also called 
Fakhra, was the king of Sonargaon in Bengal, which ad- 
joins the district of Pandua. He was put to death by 
Shams-uddin king of Lakhnau^i about the year 1356 
A. D., 757 A. H., who took possession of his country. 

Fakhr-ud-daula, **J**\j& 9 title of Abu'l Hasan 'AH, 
a Sultan of the race of Boya, was the son of Sultan Rukn- 
ud-daiila. He was born in 952 A. D., 341 A. H., and 
succeeded his brother Mowaiyad-ud-daula to the throne of 
Persia in January, 984 A. *D.. Sha'ban, 373 A. H. He 
was a cruel prince, reigned 14 years, and died in August, 
997 A. D., Sha'ban, 387 A. H. He was succeeded by his 
son Majd-ud-daula. 

Fakhr-ud-daula, & ^i\j^ } a nobleman who was gover- 
nor of Patna in the reign of Muhammad Shah emperor of 
Dehli; he held that situation till the year 1735 A. D M 
1148 A. H., when it was taken away from him and con- 
ferred upon Shujaa'-uddin Nawab of Bengal, in addition 
to that government, and of the province of Urissa. 

Fakhr-ul-Islam, C^JLr? f^^b*^* of Barod, the son of 

'Ali. He is the author of the works called " TJBiil-ud-din" 
and " Usui Fikha," and several other works. He died 
in 1089 A. D., 482 A. H. 

Fakhr-uUah Asad Jurjani, J* 1 *^ ***** Vl**** 
He flourished under the Saljuk princes, and is the author 
of the love adventures of Wais and king Ramin, origin- 
ally in the Pahlawi language, called " Wais-wa-Ramin." 

Fakhr-un-nissa Begam, f&! ^l?* 9 , the wife of 
Nawab Shuj&'at Khan. She is the founder of the mosque 
called " Fakhr-ul-Masajid," situated in the Kashmiri 
Bazar at Dehli, which she erected in memory of her late 
husband in the year 1728 A. D., 1141 A. H. 

Falaki, (jr**> takhallus of a Persian poet whose proper 

name was Abu'l Nizam Muhammad Jalal-uddin Shirwanf. 
He is also commonly styled Shams-ush-Shua'ra, the sun 
of the poets, and Malik-ul-Fuzla, king of the learned. 
His poems are preferred to those of Khakani, and Zakir. 
Hamd-ullah Mustaufi calls him the master of Khakani, 
but Shaikh 'Azuri makes mention in his Jawahir-ul-Asrar 
that Khakani and Falaki both were the pupils of Abu'l 
'Ala of Ganja. There has been also another Falaki 
surnamed Abu'l Fazl, who was an author. Falaki died 
in 1181 A. D., 577 A. H. His patron was Manochehr 
Shirwanf. 

Fanai, i3r^> poetical name of Shams-uddin Muhammad- 

bin-Hamza. He was an author and died in the year 
1430 A. D., 834 A. H. 



Fani, <y^, (periahable) the poetical name of Muhsin Fani, 
which see. 

Fani, J>\*, the Takhullus of Khwaja Muhammad Mo'in- 

uddin-bin-Muhammad-bin-Mahmud Dihdar Fani. He 
came to India and stood in high favor with Abdul Rahim 
Khan the Khan Khanan. He died in 1607 A. D.. 1016 
A. H., and left several works on Sufyism, as '• Rharah 
Khutba," " Hashia RashahaV' •* Hfohia NafhaV' " Hashia 
bar-Gulshan Raz." and "Albayan." He is also the 
author of a Diwan in Persian, and a Masnawi or poem 
called " Haft Dilbar," i. e., the seven sweethearta. dedi- 
cated to the emperor Akbar. 

Farabi, istb^J**^* commonly called so, because he was 

a native of Farab, a town in Turkey. His proper name 
is Abu Nasr. He was one of the greatest Musalman 
philosophers, remarkable for his generosity and greatness 
of talents, whom we call Alfarabius. He was murdered 
by robbers in Syria in 954 A. D„* 343 A. H., thirty year* 
before the birth of Abu Sina. Imid-uddin Mahmud and 
Ahmad-bin-Muhammad were two authors who were also 
called Farabi. 

Faraburz, JjfJ, the son of Kaikids, (Darius the Mode) 
king of Persia. 

Faraghi (Mir), y&jPj*", the brother of Hakfm Fath- 

ull&h Shirazi. He was living in 1663 A. D., 971 A. H. 
in which year the fort of Ranthanbur was conquered by 
the emperor Akbar, on which occasion he wrote a chrono- 
gram. 

Farai, *[?, whose proper name was Abu Zikaria Yehia, 
was an excellent Arabic grammarian who died in the vmr 
822 A. D., 207 A. H. >W 

Faramurz, j^V, son of Rustam, the Hercules of the Per- 
sians. He was assassinated by the order of Bahraan also 
called Ardisher Darazdast, king of Persia. There has 
also been one Muhammad bin-Faramurz, styled Shadid, 
who was an author. 

Faraskuri, iSM**"* 9 * surname of Muhammad bin-Mu- 

hammad-al-Hanifa, Imam of the mosque named Gouride, 
at Grand Cairo, who flourished about the year 1556 A. D. 
964 A. H., and was an author. ' "' 

Fard, *j*, poetical name of Abu'l Hasan, the son of Shall 

Na'mat-ullah. He died in the year 1848 A D 12fin 
A. H., and left a Diwan. ' b ° 

•g^ani, </~/>, commonly called so because he was a 
native of Farghana, but his full name is Ahmad or Mu- 
hammad-ibn-Kasir-al-Farghani, a famous Arabian astro- 
, nomer whom we know under the name of Alfragan or 
Alrraganius. He flourished in the time of the khalif Al- 
Mamun, about the year 833 A. P., 218 A. H., and is the 
author of an introduction to Astronomy, which was prin- 
ted by Golius, at Amsterdam, in 1669, with notes. 

Farhad, ^*j*, the lover of tho celebrated Shirm, the wife 
of Khusro Parwez, king of Persia. The whole of the 
sculpture at Bistun in Persia is ascribed to the chisel of 
Farhdd. He was promised, we are told in Persian 
Romance, that if he cut through the rock, and brought a 
stream that flowed on the other side of the hill to the 
valley, the lovely Shirin (with whom he had fallen dis- 
tractedly in love) should be his reward ; he was on the 
point of completing his labour, when Khusro Parwea 



Fargifi 



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fearing to lose his mistress, sent an old woman to inform 
Farhad, that the fair object* of his desire was dead. He 
was at work on one of the highest parts of the rock when 
he heard the mournful intelligence. He immediately 
cast himself headlong, and was dashed in pieces. Vide 
Shirin. 

Farhat, s£ **J*, poetical name of Shaikh Farhat-ullah, son 
of Shaikh Asad-ulteh. He wrote a Diwan in Urdu and 
died in the year 1777 A. D., 1191 A. H., at Murshidabad. 



*j* } a poet who was 



Farhat Kashmiri, isj*»»* 

living in 1724 A. D., 1136 A. H. 

Farid Bukhari (Shaikh), (sj^-^J &£> commander 

of the Agra city guards when Akbar diea. Great honors 
were conferred on him by the emperor Jahangir. on ac- 
count of his services. He received the title of Murtaza 
Khan, and managed the affairs of the empire till he was 
rendered unfit for business, by a stroke of the palsy, 
which opened the way for the promotion of Ya'timad- 
uddaula the father of the empress Nur Jahan. He died 
1616 A. D., 1025 A. H. 

Farid Katib, V^ *ij 9 vide Farid-uddin Katib. 

Farid or Farid-uddin Ahwal, J^ c^ 1 *i?, (the 

squinting) a poet of Persia who was a native of Asfaraen 
in Khurasan and co-temporary with Imami Hirwi. 
Khwaja Nizam-uddin Abu Bakr the Wazir of Azd-uddin 
Sa'd was his patron. He died at Isfahan and left a Diwan 
containing 6,000 verses. 

Farid or Farid-uddin (Shaikh), ^ j& vi^*ij* 

ffr* *ij> y a celebrated Muhammadan saint, who is 

styled "Shakar Ganj," on account of his having, it is 
said, miraculously transmuted dust or salt into sugar. 
His father's name was Shaikh Jalal-uddfa Sulaiman, a 
descendant of Farrukh Shah of Kabul. He was a disciple 
of Khwaja Kutb tiddin Hakhtydr Kaki, and was contem- 
porary with Shnikh Sa'd-uddin Hamwia, Saif-uddin 
Makharzi, and Itaha-uddin Zikaria, all of whom died suc- 
cessively a short time after one another. He was born 
in 1173 A. D., 669 A. H.. died on Saturday the 17th 
October, 1265 A. I)., oth Aluminum, 664 A. H., aged 96 
lunar years, and is buried at Ajudhan, a place commonly 
called 'Patan or Pak Patan in Multan. The anniversary 
of his death is celebrated every year on the 6th of Mu- 
barrara, when a great crowd of Muhammadans assemble 
together to pray at his tomb. 

Farid-uddin, V"^ {j\^^i^ y commonly called Farid 

Katib, was a pupil of Anwari a good poet and secretary 
to Sultan Sahjar When that prince was defeated by the 
monarch of Kara Khatai in 1140 A. D., 536 A. H., and 
fled with a few followers to Khurasan, Farid consoled 
him by composing an ode upon the occasion, in which he 
says, •* that every thing must change, but that the condi- 
tion of God alone was not iiublo to change/' 

Farid-uddin Attar (Shaikh), j^ v^^J g£, 

sumamed Muhammad Ibrahim, was a dealer in perfumes, 
from which he took his poetical name " 'Attar." He 
afterwards retired from the world, became a disciple of 
Shaikh Majd-uddin Baghdadi, and lived to a great age, 
namely, that of 114 lunar years. He was born at Shad- 
yakh, a village in Xainhapur in the reign of Sultan 
Sanjar in November. 1119 A. D M Sha'ban, 613 A. H., and, 
when at the siege of Naishapur, the son-in-law of Changes 
Khan, the Tartar, was killed, a general massacre of the 
inhabitants of that place was made by the Mughals, 
among the number that were slain, Farid-uddin was one. 



This circumstance took place on the 26th April, 12S0 
A. D., 10th Jamad II, 627 A. H. He is the author of 
40 poems and several prose works, amongst the latter 
" Taxkirat-ul-Aulia." 

The following are hie poems. 



Asrar Nama. 

Ashtur Nama. 

Ausat Nama. 

Besar Nama. 

Bulbul Nama. 

Gul-wa-Khusro or Huxmuz. 

Haidar Nama. 

Haft Wadi. 

Hakack-ul-Jawahir. 

Hallaj Nama. 

Jawahir-ul-zat. 

Khusro Nama. 

Kanzan Makhfia. 

Kunt Kauz Makh&fia. 

Besides the above, he is also 
taining 40,000 verses. 



IUhi Nama. 
Khayat Nama. 
Kanz-ul-Hakae^. 
Lisan-ul-Ghaib. 
Mansur Nama. 
Miftah-ul-Fatuh. 
Mazhar-ul-'Ajaeb. 
Pand Nama. 
Musibat Nama. 
Wald Nama. 
Wasiat Nama. 
Mantik-ulTair. 
Mukhtar Nama. 
Sipah Nama. 

the author of a Diwan con- 



Faridun, i&*ij?> an ancient king of Persia, the son of 
Abtln, an immediate descendant of Tahmurs, king of 
Persia. He had escaped, it is said in a miraculous manner, 
from Zohak, when that prince had seized and murdered 
his father. At the age of 16 he joined Kawa or Gawa, 
a blacksmith, who had collected a large body of his coun- 
trymen : these fought with enthusiasm under the standard 
of the blacksmith's apron, which was afterwards convert- 
ed into the royal standard of Persia, called the Durafah 
Kawani. Zohak, after numerous defeats, was made pri- 
soner, and put to a slow and painful death. Faridun, 
who was a very just and virtuous king, had three sons, 
viz. : Salm, Tut, and Erij. among whom he divided his 
kingdom ; but the two elder, displeased that Persia, 
the fairest of lands and the seat of royalty, should have 
been given to Erij their junior, combined to effect his 
ruin, and at last slew him, and sent his head to Faridun. 
The old man fainted at the sight, and when he recovered, 
he called upon Heaven to punish the base perpetrators of 
so unnatural and cruel a deed. The daughter of Erij 
was married to the nephew of Faridun, and their young 
son Manuchehr proved the image of his grandfather. 
When he attained manhood, the old king made every 
preparation to enable him to revenge the blood of Erij. 
A war commenced ; and in the first battle Salra and Tur 
were both slain. Fareidun soon afterwards died, and was 
succeeded by Manuchehr. Persian authors assure us 
that Fareidun reigned 500 years. 

Faridun, ^±ij* f a Turk who wrote a Commentary in the 
Turkish language on the Ghazals of Hafiz. 

Farigh, ^ } author of the poem called " Masnawf Farigh," 

which he composed in 1592 A. D., 1000 A. H., in which 
year, he says. Shah 'Abbas conquered Gilan, and to whom 
it was dedicated. 

Faris Ecchidiak, ^rj^, (from Chambers' Ency- 
clopaedia) an Arab poet and litterateur, born about the 
year 1796 A. D. In religion he was a Syrian Christian. 
He is the author of several works. When in London, he 
published his revised text of the New Testament in 
Arabic. His Diwan in Arabic is highly spoken of by 
those who have seen it He was living in 1860. 

FariS, ^joj^, or Ibn Faru, surname of Abu Hafs Sharaf- 

uddin Uinar bin-al-Asa'di, bin-al-Murshid, bin- Ahmad 
al-Asa'di, a very illustrious Arabian poet. He was born 
at Cairo 1181 A. D., 677 A. H., and died there in the 
year 1284 A. D., 632 A. H. 



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Farkhari, iS)~j*, a poet who was in the service of Amir 

Kaikaus, and is the author of the story of " Wamifc-wa- 
Uzra," in verse. 

Farkhunda AU Khan (Mir), J^ J* %^Ly j**, 
Nizam of Dakhan. Ho succeeded his father Sikandar Ja"h 
in the government of Haidarabad in 1829 A. D. Vide 
Afzal-uddaula. 

Faroghi Kashmiri, is jl ** ^ t^?3^, a poet who died in 

1666 A. D., 1077 A. H. 

Faroghi (Maulana), ^fyj ^j* 9 of S* 2 *™ in Igfe - 

hin ; he was a dealer in perfumes, but an excellent poet, 
and lived in the time of 'Abbas the Great. 

Farrukhi, K^J 9 } or Farkhf, a poet who flourished in the 

time of Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni, was a pupil of Unsarf 
the poet, and a descendant of the royal race of the kings 
of Sistan. He is the author of a work called " Tarjuman 
ul-Balaghat" and of a Diwan in Persian. He wrote se- 
veral panegyrics in praise of Abii'l Muzaffar, the son of 
Amir Nasr and grandson of Nasir-uddin, ruler of Balkh. 

Farrukh Fa'l, <J^ £j 9> a 8on °* *^ e em P eror Humayun 
by Mah Chuchak Begam, born at K&bul in 1655 A. D., 
962 A. H. 

Farrukh-siyar (Miihammad),^^^-^ ****> emperor 
of Dohli, born on the 18th July, 1687, O. 8., 18th Ramadan, 
1098 A. H., was the son of Azim-ush-Shan, the second son 
of Bahadur Shah I, and great-grandson of the emperor 
Alamgir. His father was killed in the battle fought 
against Jahandar Shah his uncle and predecessor. One 
of Jahandar Shah*s first acts on his accession to the throne 
had been to put all the princes of the blood within his 
reach, to death : among those whom he could not get into 
his power, was Farrukh-siyar, who was in Bengal at the 
time of his grandfather Bahaxlur* Shah's -death. But 
when the information of his father's death reached him, 
he threw himself on the compassion and fidelity of Saiyad 
Husain AH Khan, the governor of Behar, who warmly 
espoused his cause, and prevailed on his brother, Saiyad 
Abdullah Khan, governor of Allahabad, to adopt the same 
course. By the aid of those noblemen, Farrukh-siyar as- 
sembled an army at Allahabad, marched towards Agra, 
defeated Jahandar Shah, took him prisoner, and having 
murdered him, he ascended the throne in the fort of 
Dehli on Friday the 9th of January, 1713, O. S. t 23rd 
#l-bijja, 1124 A. H. The former Amir-ul-Umra Zulfifcar 
Khan and many other nobles and dependants of the late 
emperor were put to death by the bow-string and other 
punishments. Raja Subhchand, Diwan to the late Amir- 
ul-Umra, had his tongue cut out : Aziz-uddin, son of Ja- 
handar Shall, 'All Tabar, the son of 'Azim Shah, and 
Humayun Bakht, younger brother to Farrukh-siyar were 
deprived of their sight by a red hot iron drawn over their 
eyes. On Farrukh-siyar's accession, Abdullah Khan, the 
eldest brother, was made Wazir with the title of Kutb-ul- 
Mulk, and Husain All Khan raised to the rank of Amir- 
ul-Umra (Commander-in-Chief) which was the second in 
the State. His nuptials with the daughter of Rajd Aj it 
Singh of Marwar, were celebrated with unprecedented 
splendour in the year 1716 A. D., 1128 A. H. Farrukh- 
siyar had not long enjoyed tho throne, when a jealousy 
arose between him and the Wazir Kutb-ul-Mulk. And on 
the emperor's trying to form schemes for the recovery of 
his independence, he was deposed, blinded and imprisoned 
by the two brothers. This event took place on the 18th 
February, 1719, O. 8., 8th Rabf II, 1131 A. H., and not 
long after he was murdered on the 16th May, A. D., 
9th Rajab, 1131 A. H., following, and buried in the court 
of tho mausoleum of the emperor Humayun at Dehli. 
He reigned 6 years 3 months and 15 days. After his 



deposal the Saiyads set up a prince of the blood to whom 
they gave the title of Rafi-ud-Darjat It was from 
Farrukh-siyar that the East India Company obtained their 
Fannin of free trade, with leave to purchase thirty- 
seven districts in Bengal, besides various privileges, hut 
little attention was however paid to it by the Subas, till the 
English acquired force to give it weight. 

Farrukhzad, ^j^J 3 ) a prince of Persia of the Sasanian 

race. Vide Ttiran Dukht. 

Farrukhzad, **)&*, son of Sultan Masa'ud I, of Ghazni, 

began to reign after the death of his brother Sultan 
Abdul Rashfd in March 1053, A. D., 444 A. H. He 
reigned 6 years and died in the latter part of the year 
1058 A. D., when his brother Sultan Ibrahim succeeded 
him. 

Farsi, ij—J* ^ iS'V* or Farasi, surname of Abd'l Fawaris 

Ibrahim, a Persian author. 

Farsi, iS*J 9 > poetical name of Sha^ j£hAn Amir-ul-Umra, 

which see. 
Faryabi, vide Zahfr-uddm FarylM. 

Faryad, &J 3 , the poetical name of LaU Sahib Use, a 
Kayeth of Lakhnau. He originally had assumed K urban 
for his poetical name, but latterly changed it to Faryad. 
He was living in 1782 A. D., 1196 A. H. 

Farzada Kuli, ^ii *d)ji, author of a Catalogue of books 

in the Arabic, Persian, and Hindi languages, amounting, 
on a rough estimate, to upwards of 2,000 volumes. From 
its mentioning the Diwan of Sauda, it appeare that it 
was written within tho last fifty or sixty years. It also 
mentions tho *• Mustafa Nama," in tho metro of the Shah 
Nama, embracing the history of Persia from Muhammad 
to Tahmasp Shah Safwi, amounting to 104,000 couplets; 
also of a Persian translation of the Mukamat of Harixi. 
Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, No. 11. 

Farzadak, O^jj 3 , the son of Gh&lib, called the master of 
Arabian poets, was an author, and had the whole Kuran 
by heart. He died in 728 A. D., 110 A. H., aged upwards 
of 70 years. He nourished in the reign of Abdul Malik, 
the son of Marwan I, who imprisoned him because he 
wrote a panegyric in praise of Imam 'Ah' Zain-ul-'Abidfn, 
son of Im&m Husain, but was released, after the death of 
the khalif, by his son Walid. His Diwan in Arabic is 
much esteemed in Hujaz and Iri\. 

Fasihi Ansari, iS3J* iSJ**** <***** of Hirat, a Per- 
sian poet, who flourished about the year 1595 A. D., 1004 
A. H. Ho never came to India, He died in 1636 A. D^ 
1046 A. H. 

Fasih-uddiD Muhammad Nizami Maulana, 



oU£j 



Jughminf." 



^^dJl p^ai lilfjrf, author of the *' Sharah 



Fa8Bi, if»* 9 surname of Fakih-uddia Muhammad-ibn-Ah- 

mad 'Ali-al-Husaini ; he was a native of Fass (Fez) on 
which account he was called Fassi. He was an author 
and Kazi of the city of Mecca, and died 1429 A. D., 833 
A.H. 

Fatha Ali Husaini, uXr**> ^ ^*, author of the 

biography called '* Taekirat-ush-Shua'rae Hindi." It 
contains the Memoirs of 108 Hindi and Dakhani authors, 
with numerous extracts from their works. 



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Fatha 



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Fatha 'Ali Shah, S 1 -" ^+ {&, king of Persia, wa* mi 

Afghan of the tribe of Kachar. He succeeded his nncle 
'Aka Muhammad Khan to the throne of Persia in 1797 
A. D., 1212 A. H. He had received an excellent educa- 
tion, and possessed some literary accomplishments ; was a 
tolerable poet, and fond of the society of the learned, 
whom he generously jwtronized. He reigned nearly 40 
years and died in the year 1834 A. D.. 1250 A. H. After 
him Muhiimmad Shah, the son of 'Abbas Mir^d, and grand- 
son of Fatha 'All Shah, mounted the throne and died in 
1847 A. P., when his son Nasir-uddin Ahmad Shah, the 
present king, succeeded him. It was to the court of Fatha 
'All Shah that Sir John Malcolm in 1800 led the magnifi- 
cent embassy which Lord Wellesly had despatched from 

* Calcutta, with the view of trumping Bonaparte's cards in 
the East, and of playing off a Persian ally on our Indian 
frontiers against an Afghan ill-wisher, the ambitious 
Zaman Shah. t 

Fatha Haidar, j***- *±* t the eldest son of Tippu Sultan. 

Fatha-puri Mahal, ^** LS)*i £*, or Begam, one of tho 
wives of the emperor Shdh Jahan. She was the founder 
of the Fathapuri Masjid in Dehli. 

Fathi, sS^** a P oet °* Ardastin, who died in 1635 A. D., 

1045 A. H. 
Fatha Khan, uM> £*> the son of Sultan Firoz Shin Bar- 

bak, king of Dehli, and brother of Zafar Khan. Vide 

Firoz Shah Barbak. -# 
Fatha Khan, ^ £**> Nawab of Bhawalpur. 

Fatha Khan, ^ f&> brother of Dost Muhammad Khan, 

ruler of Kabul. The celebrated Wa«ir of Mahmud, ruler 
of Hirat, and chief of the Barakzai clan, whose family 
drove away the descendants of Ahmad Shdh Abdali from 
Kabul. 
Fatha Khan, c^ f **, tho eon of Malik *Ambar, the 
Abyssinian chief of Ahmadnagar in the Dakhan, who had 
the Nizam Shahi dominions under his control for some 
years. After his father's death in 1626 A. D., 1035 A. H., 
he succeeded to his authority ; but Murtaza Nizam Sh&h 
II, being weary of his control, took him prisoner by trea- 
chery, and confined him in the fort of Khybar. Having 
made his escape, he rebelled, but was again taken, and 
confined in Daulatabad. He was released in time, and 
appointed generalissimo by tho influence of his sister, 
mother to Nizam Shah. He shortly, to prevent another 
removal from office, confined the Sultan under pretence of 
insanity, and put to death twenty-five of the principal nobi- 
lity in one day, writing to the emperor Shah Jahan, that 
he had thus acted, to prevent them from rebelling against 
him. The emperor in reply commended his attachment, 
and ordered him to put the captive prince to death, which 
he did about the year 1628 A. P., 1038 A. II., and placed 
his son Husain, an infant of ten years, on the throne. 
Fatha Khan, by offering a present of eight lacs of rupees, 
and agreeing to pay tribute, was allowed to keep what 
territory yet remained to the Nizam Shahi sovereignty. 
In theV«»r l6 ^4 A. D., 1044 A. H., Fatha Khan was 
forced to surrender ; and the full of this place put a final 
period to the Nizam Shahi dynasty, which had swayed 
the sceptre for 150 years. Husain Nizam Shah was con- 
fined for life in tho fortress of Gwaiiar, but Fatha Khan 
was received into favour, and wa* allowed to retire to 
Lahor on a pennon of two lacs of rupees, which he en- 
joyed till his death. 

Fatha Kaek, •^ f^> the father of naidar 'Alf Khan, the 
usurper of Mysore and Seringapatam. He died in 1738 
A. D., and was buried at Kolar. a capital of seven parga- 
nas, about 35 miles east of Bangalore. 

23 



Fatha Shah, iftj&j »& *£* Purbi, succeeded Yuiaf Shah 

to the throne of Bengal in 1482 A. D., 887 A. H., and 
after a reign of about eight years was murdered in 1491 
A. D., 896 A. H., by the eunuch Sultan Shahzada, who 
succeeded him. 

Fatha-uUah Imad Shah, ^ a 1 ** *U» ^originally 

in the service of Sultan Mahmud Shdh II, Bahmanf, king 
of Dakhan, was made governor of Berar. He became 
independent about the year 1484 A. D., and died about 
the year 1613. His son 'Ala-uddin 'Imad Shah succeeded 
him. Vide 'Imad-ul-Mulk. 

Fatha-uUah, Mustaufl, tfj*"* *Ul ^, sumamed 

Fafehr-uddin, was a good poet and served under Khwaja 
Bashid-uddin, Fazl-ullah and his son Ghayas-uddin Mu- 
hammad, as secretary. He is the brother of Khwaja 
Hamd-ullah Mustaufi, who died in 1349 A. D. 

Fatha-uUah Shirazi Amir, <s)lr±" **^ J* j*°h 
one of the most learned men of his time. He came from 
Shiraz to Dakhan and passed a few years in the service 
of Sultan AU Adil Shah of Bijapur. After the death of 
that kinsr, he left Dakhan and came to Dehli in the year 
1582 A. D., 990 A. H , and had an honorable office assigned 
to him by the emperor Akbar, near his person, with the 
title of Azd-ud-daula. ne died on Wednesday, the 3rd 
Shawwal 997 Hijri, the 24th Amardad Mah Ilahi, in the 
84th year of Akbar's reign, corresponding with the 6th of 
August, 1589 O. S., at Sirinagar the capital of Kashmir, 
where he had proceeded with his royal master. The king 
was much grieved at his loss ; and Sheikh Faizf wrote an 
appropriate epitaph on the occasion. Fifteen days after 
his death died also the Hakim Abu'l Fatha Gilinf, the 
brother of Hakim Hamim, who was then with the king 
proceeding to Kabul. Sarfi Sawaji wrote the chronogram 
of their death. 

Fatima, *+kb f the daughter of Muhammad and his wif e 
Khudija, She was born at Mecca five years before her 
father gave himself out for a prophet, i. «., about the year 
606 A. D., and died about six months after him in the city 
of Medina on the night of Monday, the 23rd of November, 
632 A. D., 3rd Ramag&n, 11 A. H. She was married to 
Ali, Muhammad's cousin-german, and became the mother 
of the Imams Hasan and Husain. She passes for a very 
holy woman amongst the Musalmans, and is also called by 
them Batul, Tahira, Mathara, and Zahra. 

Fatima bint Asad, «**•! ^ **^, the daughter of 

Asad, the son of Hashim. She was the wife of Abu Talib 
and mother of 'Ali. 

Fatima Sultan, o'^-* A*±U f ne of the wives of Umar 

Sheikh Mirza, and mother of the prince Pir Muhammad 
Jahangir. 

Fatimites, or kings of Barbary and Egypt of the Fatimite 

dynasty, tide Muizz-li-din -allah, and Obeid-ullah Almahdi. 

Fattahi Naishapuri Moulana, iSlH^*^** Wj* f 
an author, who died 1448 A. D., 852 A. H., vide Yahia 
(Mulla). 

Fawad Muhammad Pasha, ^ *+*** •>!>*, a Turkish 

statesman and litterateur of Constantinople, son of Iziat 
Mulla, and nephew of Laila Khatun, a Turkish poetess. 
He is the author of several works. He was living in 
1870 A. D., and has been loaded with distinctions by 
European sovereigns. 

Fayyaz, u^-», ride ' Abdul- Razzalf of Lahijan. 
Fayyasi, { y^J, ride Faijrf (Shaikh). 



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Pazal 



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Plrdausi 



Pazal Khan, tt>^ tU^, governor or kfladar of the fort of 
Agra, was turned out by Surajmal Jat, who took possession 
of the fort and plundered every thing he could lay his 
hands upon. 

Fazil, tL*U f a voet w1l0 fl our i 8 hed about the year 489 A. D. 

Fazl Ali Khan, ^ <J>* <J***, a poet who flourished in 

the time of the emperor Muhammad Shah of Dehli, and 

was living in 1739 A. D,, 1152 A. H. 

Fazl Ali Khan, c>^ fjh d***, whose entire title was 
"Nawab Ya'timad-ud'-doula Zaya-ul-Mulk Saiyad Fazl 
'Ali Khan Bahadur Sohrab Jang," was the prime minister 
of the king of Audh Ghazf-ud-din Haidar, and was living 
in 1829 A. D. 

Pazl Barmaki, </**flH d** 9 brother of ' Jafar-al-Barmaki, 
the minister of Harun-al-Rashid Khalifa of Baghdad. 
Vide Jafar-al-Barmaki. 

Fazli, uT* 3 * a poet and author of the Loves of " Shah-wa- 

Mah" a poem containing 12,260 Persian verses which he 
completed in the year 1641 A. D. 

Pazl Hak, (3^ <J*^% the son of Fazl Imam. He also 
wrote prose and poetry as well as his father. His Kasidas 
are much esteemed. At the outbreak of 1857, he joined 
the rebel Nawab of Banda and others, and was at last 
killed at Narod in an attack made by General Napier on 
the 17th December, 1858 A. D., 1274 A. H. The "Dehli 
Gazette" of May 17th, 1859 mentions, that sentence of 
transportation was passed on the rebels Lonf Sangh, Ex- 
raja of Mitauli, and the Maulwi Fazl Hak, 

Pazl Imam, C ^ <-****» an inhabitant of Khairabad, who 
wrote prose and poetry, and died in the year 1828 A. D., 
1244 A. H. 

Pazl Basul Moulvi, <fj*i JrV ^^ C£jV>, of Ba- 
daon, son of Maulvf Abdul Majid, and author of the works 
called u Bawarik," and " TashQl-ul-Masael. ,, He was liv- 
ing in 1864 A. D., 1271 A. H. 

Pazl-ullah, ^ d**, surnamed Khwaja Rashfd-uddfn, 

a native of Kazwin or Hamdan and a Persian historian 
who wrote at the desire of his master the Sultan of Persia 
a history of the Mughals, finished in 1294 A. D., to which 
he afterwards added a supplement. He was beheaded in 
July 1318, A. D. His name is spelt in some of our Bio- 
graphical Dictionaries, Fadl-allah. From the work of 
Rashid-uddin, called Jdma'-ut-Tawarikh, and from other 
materials, Abu 1 Ghazi, king of Khwarizm, composed in 
the Mughal language, his Genealogical History. Vide 
Rashid-uddin. 

Pazl-Ullah Moulana, *^l &** *&**> Physician to 
Amir Taimur, and the most celebrated and skilful practi- 
tioner of the age in which he lived. 

Fazl-uBah Khan Nawab, cA *W cU*, an Amir of 
the court of the emperor Babar, who built a mosque in 
Dehli in the year 1529 A. D., 936 A. H., which is still 
standing. 

PaZUli Baghdadi, &*****. \Jy**> an author who was 
a native of Baghdad, and died in the year 1562 A. D., 
970 A. H., and left us a Diwan in the Persian and Tur- 
kish language. 

Pidai Khan, «>^ ^**> former title of 'Azim Khan 
K6ka, which see. 

Pidai Mirza, ^f\** %j* y name of a poet. 



Pidwi, <JS3**> of Labor, the poetical name of a person, who 
was cotemporary with Mirza Rafi-us- Saudi. He is the 
author of a poem in Urdu entitled " Yusaf-wa-Zaleikha,'* 
(the Loves of Joseph and Potiphar's wife). Mir Fatha 
Ali Shaida has satirized him in his story of the u Bum 
and Baikal." 

Pidwi, IS)* 3 , author of a Persian Diwan. He flourished, 
or was living in the year 1649 A. D., 1069 A. H. 

Pighan, e> **», the poetical title of Ashraf 'AH Khan, the son 
of Mirz£ 'Ali Khan, and the K6ka or foster-brother of 
the emperor Ahmad Shah of Dehli. He is the author of 
a Diwan in the Urdu language, containing about 2,000 
verses. He died at Patna in 1772 A. D., 1186 A. H., and 
was buried there. 

Pighani, {j'^ t vide Baba Fighini. 

Pikrat, ^J^ 3 * poetical title of Mirza Ghaias-uddiiu 
Pikri, LfJ**> poetical title of 8a' id Muhammad of Hirat. 
He was a weaver and is therefore called Jamabaf. He 
came to India in 1561 A. D., 969 A. H., and gained 
through his great talents for making epigrams, the favor 
of the emperor Akbar. He composed only Ruba'is, and 
died in 1566 A. D., 973 A. H. 

Piraki, is*b*9 poetical title of an author named Abu'l Bar- 

kat, who died in the year 1507 A. D., 913 A. H. 
Pirdausior Firdausi Tush isT^is-jtj* ^ is**j±j*, &* 

poetical title of Abu'l Kasim Hasan-bin- Sharaf Shah, a fa- 
mous Persian poet, styled by us the Homer of Persia, whose 
epic poem, called Shahnama, written by order of Sultan 
Mahmud of Ghazni, is much celebrated. It contains the 
annals of the ancient kings of Persia, from the reign of 
the first king, Kaiamurs, to the death of Yezdijard m t 
the last monarch of the Sasanian race, who was deprived 
of his kingdom 641 A. D., by the invasion of the Arabs 
during the Khilafat of 'Umar, the second Khalif after 
Muhammad. It is the labour of 30 years, and consists of 
60,000 verses, each of which is a distich. The following 
circumstances respecting the origin of the poem and the 
life of the poet, are chiefly derived from the preface 
to the copy of the Shahnama, which was collated 1426 
A. D., 829 A. H., by order of Baisanghur Mirza the 
grandson of Amir Taimur. It appears from that preface, 
that Yezdijard, the last king of the Sasanian race, took 
considerable pains in collecting all the chronicles, histo- 
ries, and traditions connectod with Persia and the sove- 
reigns of that country, from the time of 'Kaiomurs to the 
accession of the Khusros, which by his direction were 
digested and brought into one view, and formed the book 
known by the name of " Siar-ul-Maluk," or the Bastan 
Nama. When the followers of Muhammad overturned 
the Persian monarchy, this work was found in the plun- 
dered Horary of Yazdijard. In the tenth century one of 
the kings of the Sasanian dynasty, directed Da^iki the 
poet to verify that extensive work, but the poet only lived 
to finish a thousand distichs, having been assassinated by 
his own slave. Nothing further was done till the reign of 
Sultan Mahmud, when a romantic accident furnished the 
Sultan with a copy of the Bastan Nama, the existence of 
which was till then unknown to him. From this work, 
ho selected seven stories which he delivered to seven poets 
to be composed in verse, that he might bo able to ascer- 
tain the merits of each competitor. The poet Unsarf 
gained the palm, and he was accordingly engaged to ar- 
range the whole in verse. Firdausi was at this time at 
Tub, his native city, where he cultivated his poetical ta- 
lents with assiduity and success. He had heard of the 
attempt of Dakiki, and of the determination of the reign- 
ing king Mahmud, to patronise an undertaking which 



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Firdausi 



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promised to add lustre to the age in which he lived. 
Having fortunately succeeded in procuring a copy of the 
Bastin Nama, he pursued his studies with unremitting 
teal, and soon produced that part of the poem in which 
the battles of Zuhak and Fareidun are described. The 
performance was universally read and admired, and it was 
not long before his fame reached the ears of the Sultan, 
who immediately invited him to his court. It is related 
that when Firdausi, on the invitation of the Sultan, 
reached the capital of Ghazni, he happened to pass a pub- 
lic garden where the three royal poets, Unsari, asjadi and 
Farrukhi were enjoying themselves. Tho poets observed 
him approach and at once agreed that if the stranger 
chanced to have any taste for poetry, which they intended 
to put to test, he should be admitted to their friendship, 
and in order to decide as to his merits they settled among 
themselves to repeat each in his turn a hemistich, and 
leave to Firdausi to complete the fourth, but at the same 
time satisfied in their own minds, that there was no other 
word in the Persian language that would rhyme with the 
three, which they had taken care to pre-oceupy. Firdausi 

i'oining them and hearing the proposal, promised to exert 
lis powers. They then commenced each with an extem- 
poraneous hemistich : 

ITnsari The light of the moon to thy splendour it 

weak, 

Asjadi The rose is eclipsed by the bloom of thy 

cheek; 

Farrukhi .... Thy eye-lashes dart through the folds of 
the Joshan, 

Firdausi .... Like the javelin of Geo in the battle with 
Pushan. 

The poets were astonished at the readiness of the stran- 
ger, and ashamed at being totally ignorant of the story of 
Goo and Rishan, which Firdausi related as described in 
the Bastin Nima. They immediately treated him with 
the greatest kindness and respect, and afterwards intro- 
duced him to Mahmud, as a poet capable of undertaking 
the Shihnama. Mahmud considered himself never so much 
honored as when Firdausi set his foot at Ghazni ; he was 
never more proud, than that Firdausi was by his com- 
mand, composing, in his faultless verse, a history of tho 
monarchs of Persia, his predecessors No reward then 
appeared to him too great to offer, to induce tho poet to 
undertake the task, no promises too splendid to excite 
him. " Write, unequalled one," cried he, " and for every 
thousand couplets a thousand pieces of gold shall be 
thine." Firdausi obeyed, but resolved to accept no re- 
ward till he had completed the work he had undertaken, 
and for thirty years he studied and laboured that his poem 
might bo worthy of eternal fame. In this he succeeded, 
and presented an elegant copy of his book to Mahmud, but 
the patience of the Sultan was exhausted, his enthusiasm 
was gone, his liberality had faded away, and when the 
60,000 couplets of tho Shihnima was ended, there was a 
pause, which brought to the poet disappointment and to 
tho monarch such everlasting disgrace as has obliterated 
all his triumphs. Mahmud received the book, coldly ap- 
plauded his diligence and dismissed him. Many months 
elapsed, and Firdausi heard no more of his work : he then 
took occasion to remind the king of it by the following 
epigram: 

'Tis said our monarch's liberal mind, 

Is like the ocean unc on fined, 

Happy are they who prove it so, 

'Tis not for me that truth to know. 

I've plunged within it» waves, 'tis true, 

But not a single pearl could view. 
Shamed, piequed, and offended at this freedom, the Sul. 
tan ordered 60,000 piece* of silver dirhams to be sent to 
the author, instead of the gold which he had promised. 
Firdausi was in the bath at the time the money arrived, 
and his rage and amazement exceeded all bounds when he 



found himself thus insulted. He immediately distributed 
the paltry sum amongst the attendants of the bath and 
the slave who brought it. The excited poet then re- 
lieved his mind by a satire full of stinging invective, and 
caused it to bo transmitted to the favorite Wazir who had 
instigated the Sultan against him ; it was carefully sealed 
up, with directions that it should be read to Mahmud on 
some occasion when his mind was perturbed with affairs 
of State, as it was a poem likely to afford him entertain- 
ment. Firdausi having thus prepared his vengeance, 
quitted the court and was safely arrived in Mazandarin 
where news reached him that his lines had fully answered 
the purpose he had intended they should do. Mahmud had 
heard and trembled, and too late discovered that he had 
ruined his own reputation for ever. After his satire had 
been read by Mahmud, the poet feared to remain too long 
in one place : he sought shelter in the court of the Khalif 
of Baghdad, in whose honor he added a 1000 couplets to 
the Shahnama, and who rewarded him with 60,000 gold 
dinars which had been withheld by Mahmud. Mahmud 
pretended to have discovered that his Wazir had deceived 
him in attributing impiety to Firdausi, and he at once 
sacrificed that favorite, dismissing him with disgrace. 
Thinking, by a tardy act of liberality, to repair his former 
meanness, Mahmud dispatched to Firdausi the 60.000 
pieces he had promised, a robe of State, and many apolo- 
gies and expressions of friendship ; but the poet was dead, 
having expired in his native town full of years and honours, 
surrounded by his friends and kindred. Firdausi died at 
Tu8 (now called Mashhad) his native country in 1020 A. D., 
411 A. H., aged 89 years; but Haji Khalfa says, he died 
in 1025 A. D., 416 A. H. Besides the Shahnama, he is 
the author of other poems called 4 * Abiat Firdausi." 

Firdausi-al-Thauil, dt^'c^^ir** a l^ish historian, 

and author of the Turkish work called " Shahnama" 
which comprises the history of all the ancient kings of 
the East. Bayazid or Bajazet II, to whom the book was 
dedicated, ordered the author to reduce it from its original 
bulk of 300 volumes to 80. Firdausi, however, felt so 
mortified at this proposal, that he preferred leaving the 
country altogether, and emigrated to Khurasan, in Per. 
sia. Firdausi flourished in 1500 A D. 

Piriflhta, **^/*t whose proper name is Muhammad Kasim, 
and who is the author of the history called " Tarfkh Firish- 
ta, " was born at Astrabad on the borders of the Caspian Sea, 
about the year 1570 or 1550 A. D., 978 or 958 A. H. His 
father, a learned man, by name Ghulam 'All Hindu Shin, 
left his native country when our author was very young 
and travelled into India. He eventually reached Ahmad - 
nagar in the Dakhan during the reign of Murtaza Nizam 
Shin I, and was appointed by the Sultan to instruct his 
son Mfran Husain, in the Persian language, but he soon 
died after his selection, and Firishta was left an orphan 
in early youth. After the death of Murtaza Nizam Shah 
in 1589 A. D., 996 A. TL, he proceeded to Bijipur, and 
was presented by Diliwar Khan, minister to Ibrahim 
'Adil Shah II, by whose request he wrote the history 
which goes by his name, in the year 1023 Hijrf (1614 A. D.) 
The year of his death is altogether unknown. Briggs 
supposes that it occurred in 1612 A. D., 1021 A. H., 
making him only 41 years of age. M. J. Mohl supposes 
him to have revised his work up to at least 1623 A. D., 1033 
A. H., making his age not less than 73, as he supposes him 
to have been born in 1550 A. D. Firishta styles his work, 
44 Oulshan-i-Ibrahimi," and "Nauras Nima." Its for- 
mer name is derived from the king to whom it was dedi- 
cated; and hence it is frequently quoted under the name 
of " Tirikh Ibrahimi." The latter name was given to it 
in commemoration of the new capital, Nauras, which his 
patron Ibrahim 'Adil Shah, commenced building in the 
year 1699 A. D. The first and second books, giving an 
account of the Dehli emperors down to Akbar, were 
translated into English by Colonel Dow in 1768. The 
history of the Dakhan by Captain Jonathan Scott. But 



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Firoz 



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the translation of the entire work by General Briggs in 
four volumes 8vo., 1829, has (according to Elliot) 
thrown others into the shade, and is by far the most 
valuable store-house of facts connected with Muham ma- 
dan dynasties of India.— [v. Dowson's Elliot, VI, 207.] 

Firoz, JJJ&y a celebrated Sufi of Agra, author of a Persian 
work on Theology called "'Akaed Sufia," written in 1626 
A. D., 1036 A. H. 

Firoz I, JV^> ( tne Xeroses of the Greeks), a king of Persia 
of the Sasanian race, was the eldest son of Yezdijard II. 
He succeeded his younger brother Hurmuz, whom he 
dethroned and put to death in 458 A. D. He lost his life 
in a battle against the king of Transoxiana, after a reign 
of 26 years, in 484 A. D. Balas or Palas or Balasus, his 
son, succeeded him ; and after his death his brother Kubad 
mounted the throne. 

Firozabadi, iS^-l i)jt 3 9 surname of Majd-uddfn Muham- 
mad-bin-' Yak tib bin-Muhammad, a learned Persian, so 
called from his birth-place Firozabad, a village in Shfraz. 
The stupendous work called Ramus or " Kamus-ul- 
Lughat," renowned as the most perfect Arabic Dictionary, 
was written by him. Those who are acquainted with the 
peculiarities of the Arabic language cannot open this work 
without feeling amazed at the literary wonders wrought 
by this learned man. He died 1414 A. D., 817 A. H. 
Vide Majd-uddfn Muhammad-bin-' Yakub. 

Firozabadi, LS^JJJ* 9 * a learned Musalman, author of 
" Al Tanbidh," or Tanbiz, or general information on the 
Muhammadan law in the 1 1th century. Lempriere's Uni- 
versal Dictionary. Majd-uddin Muhammad-bin-' Ya'kub, 
author of the Ramus, is also called Firozabadi. 

Firoz MuHa, U*W i^)jJ±' **> «on of Kaus, chief 
priest of the Parai Kadimis of Bombay, author of the 
" George Nama," a history of India from its discovery by 
the Portuguese to the conquest of Puna by the English in 
1817 A. D., 1233 A. H. 

Firoz Jang Khan, o^ ^*fr }*j&> *&* inscription on 
the gate of the old fort of Patna, dated in the Hyra year 
1042, attributes its erection to Firoz Jang Khan. 

Firoz Khan Khwaja Sara #]^4^l^i. &^jxr&, who 
held the rank of 300 in the time of Shahjahan. 

Firoz Shah, *^ JJL/**» the son of Salim Shah, was raised 
to the throne of Dehlf at Gwaliar after the death of his 
father when he was only about 12 years old. He had 
scarcely reigned three months (or only 3 days) when his 
mother's brother Mubarik Khan murdered him on the 
2nd May, 1654, A. D., 29th Jumada I. 961 A. H., and 
ascended the throne with the title of Muhammad Shin 
•Adil. SeeBibSBai. 

Firoz Shah Bahmani Sultan, i/^ *** ja/ft* eM", 

king of the Dakhan, was the son of Sultan D£ud Shah. 
After having deposed and confined Sultan Shams-uddin, he 
ascended the throne on the 16th November, 1397 A. D., 
800 A. H., with the title of Sultan Firoz Shah R6z Afzun. 
He excelled his predecessors in power and magnificence, 
and in his reign thn house of Bahmani attained its great- 
est splendour. On ascending the throne, he appointed his 
brother Ahmad Khan, Amir-ul-UmrA, with the title of 
Khankhanan, and raised Mir Faizullah Anjti, his precep- 
tor, to the office of Wazir-us-Saltanat, with the title of 
Malik Naeb. He reigned 25 years, 7 months and 15 days, 
and died on the 25th of September, 1422 A. D., 1 5th 
Shawwal, 825 A. H., ten days after his resigning his 
crown in favour of his brother Ahmad Khan, who ascended 
the throne with the title of Sultan Ahmad Shah Waif 
Bahmani. 



Firoz Shah Khilji 8ultan, ^^ &"!»& uflA**, 

sumamod Jalil-uddin, son of Kaem Khan, ascended the 
throne of Dehlf after the murder of Sultan Muiz-uddin 
Kaikubad in 1282 A. D., 688 A. H. He reigned about 
8 years, after which he was obliged to go down to Kar£ 
Manikpur in the province of Allahabad to punish his 
nephew and son-in-law 'Ala-uddin, the governor of that 
place, who had rebelled against him. 'Ala-uddin hearing 
of the king's departure from Dehli, crossed the Ganges 
and encamped near Manikpur upon the opposite bank. 
When the king reached the landing place, 'Ala-uddin 
appeared upon the bank with his attendants, whom he 
ordered to halt. He advanced alone, met his uncle and 
fell prostrate at his feet. The king taking him by the 
hand, was leading him to the royal barge, when *A14- 
uddin made a signal to his guards, and one of his officers 
struck his head off. 'Ala-uddin caused it to be fixed 
on the point of a spear and carried through the camp 
and city. This circumstance took place on the 19th of 
July 1296, A. D., 17th Ramazan, 696 A. H.,and 'Ala-ud- 
din ascended the throne of Dehli with the title of Sikan- 
dar Sani. Firoz Shah was the first Sultar of the second 
branch of the Turk of Afghan dynasty, ct died Khilji. 
List of Kings of the Khilji dynasty. 

1. Fir6z Shah Khilji. 4. Mubarik Shah Khilji, the 

2. 'Ala-uddin Khilji. last of this dynasty, was 

3. Shahab-uddfn Umar. murdered in 1321 A. D., 

by Malik Khusro, a fa- 
vorite slave, who ascended 
. the throne, but was soon 
after sin in by Ghaias-ud- 
din Tughlafc Shah, the 
first of the 3rd branch of 
Afghan. 

Firoz Shah Purbi, %^.)ji $~ )yj#, a king of Bengal, 
whose former name was Malik Andfl, an Abyssinian chief; 
who after killing the eunuch Sultan Shibzaaa, was ele- 
vated to the throne of Bengal in 1491 A. D., 896 A. H., 
with the title of F(r6z Shah. He repaired the city of 
Gout, commonly called Lakhnauti, where ho gave uni- 
versal satisfaction to all classes of his subjects. He died 
in 1494 A. D., 899 A. H. 

Firoz Shah Tughlak Sultan, J^^J^eA 1 -*, 
called Firoz Shah Barbak, was the son of Sipahsalar Rajah, 
the brother of Sultan Ghaias-uddin Tughlak and cousin 
to Sultan Muhammad Tughlafc, whom he succeeded to the 
throne of Dehli on the 20th March. 1351, A. D., 21st Mu- 
harram, 752 A H., at Tha^ta. He was a just and learned 
prince. His soldiers and his subjects were equally happy 
under his administration, nor did any one dare to exercise 
oppression in his time. He was himself the author of the 
work called " Fatuhat Ffr6z Shahi," t. *., the conquests of 
Firoz Shah. In August, 1387 A. D., he abdicated the 
throne and resigned the reins of government to his son 
Nasir-uddin Muhammad, but the prince giving himself up 
entirely to pleasure, was soon after expelled and obliged 
to fly with a small retinue to the mountains of Sirmour, 
and Firoz Shah again resumed his full authority. He con- 
structed numerous buildings and canals, as also the fort of 
Firozabad at old Dehli, and after a reign of 38 lunar years 
and eight months, died on the 21st of September, 1388, 
A. D., 18th Kamazan, 790 A. H., aged upwards of 80 years. 
The words •* Wafat Fir6z," (the death of Firoz) comprise 
the numerical letters of the year of his demise. He was 
buried on the banks of the Hauz Khas, built by him in 
old Dehli and was succeeded by his grandson Ghaias- 
uddin (the son of Fatha Khan) who was slain after five 
months. After him another grandson of the late king, 
named Saltan Abu Bakr, the son of Zafar Khan, was raised 
to the throne. He had reigned one year and six months, 
when his uncle Nasir-uddin Muhammad Shah, the son of 
Fir6z Shah deposed him and ascended the throne of Dehli 
in August 1390. 



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Firoz Shah, ^ !&&> one of the sons of the ex-king Ba- 
h&dur Shah II, king of Dehlf, and one of the chief rebels 
in the outbreak of 1857. He took a prominent part in 
tho rebellion of 1857, and the British Government offered 
a reward of 10,000 rupees for his apprehension. It was 
reported in 1864 that he made his appearance in the Se- 
rony Jungles. Some Arabs, who have recently arrived 
at Haidarab£d, state that he is now (1866) in Arabia, and 
supports himself by begging among the rich merchants. 

Fitrat, *rir^> the poetical name of Mir M6i*-udd(n Mu- 
hammad Muswi Khan, a mansabdir in the time of 
'Alamgfr employed as Diwan of Suba Behar. He was a 
Sayyad and lineal descendant of 'AH Musi Raza. He 
subsequently chose for his poetical name, Muswi He 
was born in Persia in 1640 A. D., 1050 A. H., and came 
to India, where he was much esteemed for his talents as a 
poet and a critic. He is the author of a Tazkira or bio- 
graphy called " Gulflhan-i-Fitrat," also of a Diwan. He 
died in 1690 A. D., 1100 A. H. Vide Muswi 

Fouji, i^J 9 } poetical name of Mini Muhammad Mu- 
kim ; ho was born at Shiraz, but came to India in the 
time of Shah Jahan, and was attached to the service of 
his son Shah Shuj&'a in Bengal. After a long residence 
in India he returned to his father-land, but died in a 
short time after his arrival there. He was living in 1649 
A. I)., 1059 A. H., and has left a Diwan in Persian verse. 
As he was employed in the army he derived his poetical 
title from M Fouj," t. «., army. 

Foulad Khan (Shidi), c£«H~ ^U &}y } m Abyssinian 
who was a Kotwal in the time of the emperor Muhammad 
Shah, about the year 1737 A. D., 1160 A. H., and on 
whom a satire was written by the poet Sauda. He had 
built a fine garden in Agrah, of which no traces are to be 
seen now. 

Fourak, CD-*** surname of Abu Bakr Muhammad, bin- 
Hasan, bin-FouraV* commonly called ibn-Fouralfe was a 
great Metaphysician and Schoolman, for which reason he 
is styled Mutkallim. He was born at Isfahan, and died 
in the city of Naishapur, in Khurasan, 1016 A. D., 406 
A.H. 

Furati, <y'y> vide Mulla Furatt 

* •• • 
Furkati, i^ir** whose proper name was Abu Turab, was 

a poet. He died in the year 1617 A. D., 1026 A. H. 
Fursat, %£ *^*> poetical title of Muhammad Beg, a poet, 
who was in the service of Shah 'Abbas II, and died under 
Shah Sulaiman, kings of Persia. He has left a Diwan of 
Ghaxals. 

Fursi, iSTJ** poetical title of Husain AH Shah, author of 
the "Nisbat Nama 8hahraiarf," a history of the Kutb- 
shiM dynasty of Golkan<Ja in 18,600 verses, from its 
commencement to Muhammad Kuli Kutbahah, who died 
in 1612 A. D., 1021 A. H. ^ 

Fuzail AyaE, u^£* *+&**> a pious Musalman whose 
native country was either Kufa, Khurasan or Samarkand. 
He received instructions from Imam Ja'far Sadi^ and was 
the master of Biahr Hafi and Sari Sa^tf. He suddenly 
foil down and died at the time of prayers at Mecca in 
January, 803 A. D. Mufcarram 187 A. H. 



Gaj Singh Bathor, ^irt^j* 1 !; ***-• g*, a raja of 

Mar war or Jodpur of the tribe of Radnor rajputs, was the 
son of Suraj 8ingh and the father of Jaswant Singh. He 

24 



reigned about 18 years and died in the year 1630 A. D. in 
Gujrat The building called Kala Mahal at Pipal Mandi 
in Agrah, was constructed by him. His son Amar Singh 
killed Salabut Khan. Sultin Parwez married Gaj Singh's 
sister in 1624 A. D., and 8ulaiman Shikoh, the son of 
Sultan Parwez, married the daughter of Gaj Singh in the 
year 1066 A. H. 

Grakkhar, fc*> a tribe whose residence is amongst the 
mountains that lie between Bhat and Sindh. Vide 
Kamal Khan Gikhar. 

G-anga Bai, s^i &>, Rani of Jhansi and widow of Uaj& 

Gang6dhar Rao. At the outbreak of 1857, she joined the 
rebels, and was the cause of the massacre at Jhansi. She was 
killed in the battle of Gwaliar on the 17th of June, 1868. 
She fell with her horse, and was cut down by a Hussar ; 
she still endeavoured to get over, when a bullet struck her 
in the breast ; and she fell to rise no more. The natives 
hastily burnt her dead body to save it from apprehended 
desecration by the Firingis on the night of the 17th and 
18th. 

G-anna Begam, f^i ^> vide Gunna Begam. 

Gajpati, </V £* > a *aj* of Jagdespur in south Bihar, who, 
and his brother Bairi Sal, during the reign of the emperor 
Akbar, defied the Mughal armies for several years, though 
the unequal combat led to their destruction. 

Garshasp, ^^y , an ancient king of Persia, vide Kar- 
shasp. 

Gashtasp, *!**• ^^", was, according to Persian history, the 
son of Lohrasp, and the fifth king of the Kaianian dynasty 
of Persia. In his time flourished Zardasht or Zoroaster, 
who converted the Persians to the worship of fire. Gash- 
tasp, they say, reigned 60 years, and was succeeded by 
Bahman his grandson, whose father Isfandai&r was a 
great warrior and was killed by Rustam some time before. 

Gilan Shah, vide Kabus. 

Gesu Daraz, J'j $J**^» vide Muhammad Geisu Daraz. 

George Thomaa, U""* 1 ^ £^*« The district of Hurriana 

was once the field of the exploits of this famous adven- 
turer. The Jats are a stalwart and brave race, and showed 
what they could do under his leadership, but when left 
to themselves they are so divided by factions, that 
Hurriana has always fallen an easy prev to every ad- 
venturer who has taken it into his head to subdue it. 
Thus it was overrun by the Marhattas, under Messrs. 
Louis and Perron, by the Rohillas under Amir Khan, and 
another leader, and finally by the British. George Thomas 
came out to India as a common seaman, and having deser- 
ted his ship, first took service with Madho Rao Scindhia 
about the year 1770 A. D. The famous Begam of Sir- 
dhana was then in the senith of her power, and he left 
8cindhia to serve her, and shortly after, having collected a 
body of men, he left her, and marched down to Hurriana, 
and in no time carved out a kingdom for himself. He 
made the city of Hansi his capital and built a strong fort 
in it. He built another fort about 20 miles to the south 
of the town of Rohtak, and called it after his own Chris- 
tian name Georgegarh, or as the natives call Jahajgarh. 
After a few years the Marimbas under Mons. Louis 
invaded his territories. He hastened to give them 
battle, and throwing himself into the small fort of Jahaj- 
garh, he fought them for three days, though his force 
was infinitely smaller than theirs. His cavalry, which 
was composed principally of that rascally tribe the Rau- 
ghars, having gone over to the enemy, and hA Lieutenant, 
an En glishman, of the name of Hopkinson, being killed, 
his troops at length gave way, and he fled on a favourite 
Arab horse, to Hansi, * distance of about 60 miles. We 
are not aware how long he lingered in the neighbour- 



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hood after his defeat, bat he died at Banaras on his way 
to hifl native country, Ireland. His great-granddaugh- 
ter is the wife of a t writer on a humble salary at present 
(1867) in one of the Government Offices in Agrah. There 
is a " life of George Thomas" written by a friend of his 
in the Dehli Institute Library. 

Ghaeb, V^S a poet who died in 1760 A. D., 1163 A. H. 

Ghafll, iS*^^ ^^ 9 a poet of Agrah. 

Ghairat Khan, e)^ «*^, title of Khwaja Kangar, the 
nephew of 'Abdullah Khan, Firoz Jang and son of Sar- 
dar Khan. In the year 1631 A. D., he brought the head 
of Khan Jahan Jodi to Shah Jahan, and was raised to the 
rank of 2000 with the title of Ghairat Khan. He died in 
1640 A. D., 1050 A. H., at Thatta of which place he was 
governor. He is the author of the " Jahangir Nama." 

Ghalib, *r"^ } the poetical title assumed by Muhammad 
Sa'd, author of a Diwan which he completed in the year 
1690 A. D., 1101 A. H. 

Ghalib, *t*^> the poetical name of Mir Fakhr-uddin, author 
of a book of Kasidas which he finished in the 6th year of 
Muhammad Shah the emperor of Dehli, 1734 A. D., 1136 
A.H. 

Ghalib, V^, poetical title of Sheikh Asad-ullah, son of the 
sister of Sheikh Muhammad Afzal of Allahabaa. He died 
in 1750 A. D., 1163 A. H. 

Ghalib, «t*^> poetical name of Mirza" Asaa-ullah Khan, 
author of a Diwan, and a history of the Mughal emperors 
of India. He was the son of 'Ali Bakhsh Khan, the brother 
of Nawab Ahmad Bakhsh Khan of Firozpur and Lohari. 
He died at Dehli in the month of February or March, 
1869 A. D., 1285 A. H. 

Ghani, %/*> the poetical name of Mirzi Muhammad Taliir. 
He is commonly called Ghani Kashmiri on account of his 
being a native of Kashmir. He was a pupil of Sheikh 
Muhsin-Fani, whom he excelled in his learning and 
became an elegant poet. He wrote a book of Odes called 
" Diwan Ghani," and died at Kashmir two years before 
his master 1668 A. D., 1079 A. H. It is said that the 
emperor 'Alamgir wrote to Saif Khan the governor of 
Kashmir to send Ghani to his presence. Ghani refused 
to go, telling him at the same time to inform the emperor 
that Ghani had become insane and was not worthy to be 
sent to his presence. Saif Khan said, that he could 
not call a -wise man like him mad ; upon which Ghani 
immediately got mad, tore his clothes, and died after 
three days. He was a young man at the time of his 
death, having enjoyed a brilliant reputation for poetical 
excellence for about eighteen years. He sometimes uses 
Tahir for his poetical name. 

Ghani Bahadur, j^ ±j*t son of Shamsher Bahadur I, 
and younger brother of ' Ali Bahadur, the Nawab of Banda. 
Vide 'Ali Bahadur. 



Ghanimat, vi "*£ xp > poetical name of Muhammad Akram, 
author of a short Diwan and a Masnawi containing an 
account of the Loves of Aziz and Shahid, called ** Nairang 
Ishk," composed in the reign of Alamgir. 

Gharib, *r*!j*f poetical name of Sheikh Nasir-uddin of 
Dehli. He is the author of a Diwin in Persian. 

Gharib, V^^rS poetical name of Sayyad Karim-ullah of 
Bilgram* 

Ghasiti Begam, (At Mj f^ J*^* ** ™** of 

Shahamat Jang, and Amina Begam the mother of Naw&b 
Siraj-uddaula, were daughters of Nawab Mahabat Jang of 



Bengal ; they were drowned in the river, close to Jahan - 
girnagar, by order of Miran the son of Nawab J a* far 'Ali 
Khan, in June, 1760 A. D. 

Ghayas Halwai, (S^ ^^, of Shiraz, was blind 
and died by a fall from the terrace of a house in the time 
of Shah Safi. He is the author of a Diwan. 

Ghayas-uddin, tH^ &L*, author of a Persian Dic- 
tionary called •' Ghayas-ul-LughaV* vuU Muhammad 
Ghayas-uddin. 

Ghayas-uddin Bahmani, <y*tf ei**' 1 &k* o 1 *^ 

(Sultan) the eldest son of Sultan Mahmud Shall I. He 
ascended the throne of the Dakhan in his seventeenth year, 
after the death of his father in April, 1397 A. D. He 
had reigned only one month and twenty days, when 
Lalchin, one of the Turkish slaves, not being appointed 
prime minister to which office he had aspired, put out 
his eyes with the point of his dagger, and having sent him 
in confinement to the fortress of Sagar, placed 8hams-ud- 
din, the late king's brother on the throne. This circum- 
stance took place on the 14th of June, 1397 A. D., 17th 
Ramaaan, 799 A. H. 

Ghayas-uddin Balban, u& ui**\ &Up ^lkU f 
(Sult&n) king of Dehli. In his youth he was sold as a 
slave to Sultan Altimsh, who raised him by degrees to the 
rank of a noble, and gave him his daughter in marriage. 
On the accession of his son Nasir-uddin Mahmud to the 
throne of Dehli, Ghayas-uddin was appointed his warir. 
After the king's deposal or death in February, 1266 A. D., 
664 A. H., he ascended the throno and reigned 20 years. 
He died in 1286 A. D., 685 A. H., agod 80 years, and was 
succeeded by his grandson M6iz-uddin Kaikubad, the son 
of Nasir-uddin Baghr& Khan, governor of Bengal, who 
was then absent in that province. 

Ghayas-uddin Kart I (Malik), o/^jJi^UvJIo, 
fourth king of the race of Kart or Kard. He succeeded 
his brother Malik Fakhr-uddin Kart in 1307 A. D. 
706 A. H., reigned more than 21 years over Hira\ 
Balkh, and Ghazni, and died in the year 1329 A. D., 
729 A. H. He was succeeded by his son Malik Shams- 
uddin Kart. 

Ghayas-uddin Kart II (Malik), «-^ Lp «*/e^t£»Lc, 
the eighth and last king of the dynasty of Kart or Kard. 
He succeeded his father or grandfather M6iz-uddin Hu- 
sain Kart in 1370 A. D., 771 A. U., and reigned 12 years 
over Hir£t, Ghor, Sarakhsh and Naishapur, and conquered 
Tub and Jam. He was a great tyrant, and had several 
battles with the Sarbadals of Sabzwar and the chiefe of 
Jani Kurbani. In the year 1381 A. D., 783 A. H .. Amir 
Taimtir (Tamerlane) conquered Hir*t, when Ghavas- 
uddin together with his son and brothor were taken "pri- 
soners and put to death. This dynasty lastod one hundred 
and nineteen lunar years and two months. 

Ghayas-uddin Khilji (Sultan), «/?*** uH^ «i»^ 
c>UA~ t succeeded his father Sultan Mahmdd Khflji 
on the throne of Gujrat in May, 1469 A. D., gi-^a'da, 873 
A. H. When he had reigned 33 years and arrived at an 
advanced age, his two sons anxiously looked for his death 
as an event which would secure to one of them the throne 
of Malwa ; a jealousy arose between the two brothers who 
conspired against each other, till Nasir-uddin, the eldest, 
having put his brother, Shuja'at Khan to death on the 
22nd of October, 1500 A. D., 24th Kabf II, 906 A. H. 
assumed the reins of government. A few days after his 
father was found dead in the seraglio ; and it was sup- 
posed that poison had been administered to him by his 



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Ghayas-uddin Mahmud, &y** i&A & 1 **, the son 
of Ghayas-uddin Muhammad Ghori, succeeded his uncle 
Shahib-uddin in the kingdom of Gh6r and Ghazni in 
1206 A. D., 602 A. H. He reigned about four years, and 
was assassinated by the people of Mahmud All Shah on 
Saturday night, the 31st of July, 1210 A. D M 7th Safer, 
607 A. H. He was at first buried at Firoz K6h, but was 
afterwards transported to Hirat and buried there. He was 
succeeded by his son Bahi-uddin Sam, who was after three 
months defeated by 'Ate-uddin Atsiz (son of AU-uddin 
Hasan surnamed Jahan Soz) who reigned in Gh6r and 
Ghazni for four years, and fell in battle against Malik 
Nasir-uddin Husain Amir Shikar in the year 1214 A. D., 
611 A. H. After his death Ala-uddin Muhammad son of 
Abu All, cousin of Malik Ghayas-uddin Muhammad was 
raised to the throne by Taj-uddin Eldux. 

Ghayas-uddin Muhammad, (Sultan), ^ ^jaJi 
£,Li ^IkL.^ the Bon of M^fe 8h4h of ^ Sal j uk dynasty. 
In the time of his eldest brother Barkayarak the empire 
was divided, Barkayarak retaining Persia ; Ghayas-uddin 
Muhammad, Syria and Azurbejan ; and Sultan Sanjar, 
Khurasan and Mawarunnahr. He reigned about the year 
1095 A. D. Vide Muhammad (Sultan). 

Ghayas-uddin Muhammad Ghori, is)** *+** 

iyi**l £»'**, king of Gh6r and Ghaznf, was the son of 
Baha-uddin Sim, the youngest brother of Ala-uddin Ha- 
san Ghdri. He succeeded to the throne of Gh6r and 
Ghazni after the death of his cousin Malik Saif-uddin the 
son of the latter, about the year 1 167 A. D., and conferred 
the government of Ghazni on his brother Shahib-uddin 
surnamed Mo'iz-uddfn Muhammad ; this illustrious ge- 
neral subdued Khurasan and a great part of India in the 
name of his brother Ghayas-uddin, who annexed those 
countries to his own dominions. Ghayas-uddin died on 
Wednesday, the 12th of March, 1203 A. D M 27th Jumida 
I, 699 A. H., and was succeeded by his brother Sh&hib- 
uddin. 

Ghayas uddin Mahmud Ghori, (SJJ* ****** i&** I 

&^, the son of Ghayaa-nddin Muhammad Ghorf, and 
nephew of Shah&b-uddin Muhammad Ghori, whom he 
succeeded to the throne of Ghor and Ghazni in 1206 A. D. 
Mahmud being naturally indolent, remained satisfied with 
the throne of Ghor, and proclaimed Taj-uddin Elduz, king 
of Ghazni. He died in 1210 A. D. 

Ghayas-uddin Purbi, \j.Jsi c^ £»^t succeeded 
his father Sikandar Purbf on the throne of Bengal in 1367 
A. D., 776 A. H., reigned for a period of seven years, 
and died in 1373. He was succeeded by his son Sultan- 
ua-Salitin. 

Ghayas-uddin Tughlak Shah I (Sultan), (J** 3 

^jjJt &U iJbL; king of Dehli. His father Tughlafc 

was a slave of Saltan Ghayas-uddin Balban. He ascended 
the throne of DehH after murdering Khusro Shah on the 
26th August, 1321 A. D., 1st Shaban, 721 A. H., reigned 
three years and some months, and was crushed to death by 
the fall of a temporary wooden building which his son had 
raised for his entertainment on his return from Lakhnau^i in 
February, 1326 A- D., Kabv* I, 725 A. H. His son Muham- 
mad Tughlafc succeeded him. The celebrated poet Amir 
Khusro of Dehli, who lived to the end of this king's reign 
and received a pension of 1000 tangas monthly, wrote the 
history of this prince under the title of ** Tughlalf Nima." 
Ghayaa-uddin was the first king of the 3rd branch of the 
Afghan dynasty which is called Tughlafc Shahi The 
following is a list of the Sultana of this branch : — 

Ghayas-uddin Tnghlak I. Mahmud Shah Tughlafc last 
Muhammad Shah Tughlat L of this family expelled by 



Firoz Shah Tughlafc. Amir Taimur. 

Ghayas-uddin Tughlafc II. (Nasrat Khan). 
Abu Bakr Shah. (Ikbal Khan). 

Muhammad Shah Tughlak II. Mahmud Shah restored. 
Ala-uddin Sikandar Sh&h. 

Ghayas-uddin Tughlak II, (Sultan), 6^ t*^ 1 

«*,Li &&b», was the son of prince Fatha Khan and 
grandson of Firoz Shah Tughlak. He ascended the throne 
in place of Firoz Shah in Dehli on the death of his 
grandfather in 1388 A. D., 790 A. H., but giving loose to 
his youthful passions, and neglecting the affairs of the 
State, the chiefs together with the household troops re- 
volted, and put him to death on the 19th February, 1389 
A. D., 21st Safer, 791 A. H., after he had reigned 
six months. He was succeeded by his cousin Abu Bakr 
Tughlak the son of prince Zafar Khan, the third son of 
Firoz Shah. 

Ghazali, kJ [}*> vide Ghazzali. 

Ghazanfar Khan, cjl^A***, son of Alawardi Khan I and 
brother of Alawardi Khan II, a nobleman of the reign of 
Shah Jahan and 'Alamgir. He was three times at different 
periods appointed governor of Saharanpur and afterwards 
of Tbatta in Sindh, where he died on the 1st May, 1666 
A. D., 17th ^i-Ka'da, 1077 A. H. His remains were 
brought to Dehli and buried there. 

Ghazan Khan, e>^ c>0^> seventh king of Persia of the 
Tartar tribe and fourth in descent from Halaku Khan, 
waa the son of Arghun Khan. He succeeded to the crown 
of Persia after the dethronement of Baidu Khan his uncle 
in October, 1296 A. D., fcil-hijja, 694 A. H. He was the 
first emperor of the race of Change* Khan who embraced 
the religion of Muhammad, and with him near one 
hundred thousand of his followers followed their leader 
into the pale of Islam. He was the first of this race of 
kings who threw off all allegiance to the Khafcan of Tar- 
tary, by directing that the name of that monarch (whom 
he now deemed to be an infidel) should not, in future be 
struck on the coins of Persia. After embracing Muhamma- 
danism, he took the title of Sultan Mahmud. He reigned 
nearly nine years and died on Sunday, the 17th of May, 
1304 A. D M 11th Shawwal, 703 A. H., at Kazwin; he was 
interred in a superb mosque which he had constructed near 
Tauris or Tabrez. He was succeeded by his brother 
Aljaitu, who took the title of Muhammad KnucUL Banda. 

Ghazi, LSJr*i the poetical title of a person who served as 
Kurbegi under the prince Sultan Muhammad Muazzim 
the son of the emperor 'Alamgir. 

Ghazi, iS'^i or Al- Ghazi, the son of Ortak, the first of 
the Turkman Ortakite princes who seized Jerusalem and 
reigned in Mardin and Miafarkin in Syria. The follow- 
ing princes are his descendants : 

A.D. A.H. 
Husam-uddin Taimurtaah son of Alghazi, 

began to reign, 1122 516 

Najm-uddin Abu'l Muzafiar Albi or Alpi, 

son of Taimurtash, 1162 547 

Kutb-uddin Alghazi, son of Albi, 1176 572 

Husam-uddin Yulak Arsalan, the son of 

Kutb-uddin, 1184 580 

Malik Almansur Nasir-uddin Ortak Arsa- 
lan, son of Kutb uddin 1201 597 

Malik-us-Said Najm-uddin Ghazi, son of 

Nasir-uddin Ortak, 1239 637 

Malik-ul-Mazaffar Kar£ Arsatfn, aon of 

Najm-uddin, 1255 653 

Shama-uddin Daud, 1291 691 

MaHk-al-Mansur Najm-uddin Ghazi, .... 1293 693 
Albi Malik-ul-Adil 'Imad-uddin 'All, .... 1312 712 
MaHk-us-SaUah Shams-uddin Salah, the last 

prince of this race, •• 1312 712 



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Ghazi 



96 



Ghoua 



Ghazi-uddin Haidap, j*¥* e^l (Sj^, the eldest of 
the ten sons of Nawab Sa'auat 'Ali Khan of Audh. On 
his father's death, which took place on the 11th July, 
1814 A. D., 22nd Rajab, 1229 A. H. t he succeeded to his 
dominions as Naw£b Wazir, and five years after, assumed, 
with the concurrence of the British Government, the regal 
dignity. His coronation took place on Saturday, the 9th 
October, 1819 A. D M 18th #Hijja, 1234 A H., at 
Lakhnau, when he took the title of Abu'l Muzaffar Maiz- 
uddin Shah Zaman Ghazi-uddin Haidar Padshah. On 
ascending the first step of the throne, the minister deli- 
vered to him a radical crown, studded with diamonds and 
jewels of great value. He then put it on hi8 head and 
was congratulated on the occasion by the Resident who 
saluted him as king of Audh. Jewels and pearls to the 
value of 30,000 rupees were then scattered over the heads 
of the spectators, many were picked up by our fair ladies. 
Ghazi-uddin Haidar died after a reign of more than 13 
years, on the 19th of October, 1827 A. D., 27th Rabi ? I, 
1243 A. H., aged 68 lunar years, and was succeeded by 
his son Sulaimin Jah Nasir-uddin Haidar. 

Ghazi-uddin Khan I, *&*> jjj±* ^ o**^ cs3^> 

styled FirozJang, whose original name was Mir Shahab- 
uddin, was the son of Kulich Khan Sadr-us-Sudur, and 
was raised to the rank of an Amir with the title of Firoz 
Jang, after his father's death, by the emperor 'Alamgfr 
in 1687 A. D., 1098 A. H. His son was the famous 
Nizam-ul-Mulk 'Asaf Jah whose descendants are known 
to Europeans as Nizams of the Dakhan. In the reign of 
Bahldur Shah he was appointed governor of Gujrai, and 
died at Ahmadabad in 1710 A. D., 1122 A. H. His re- 
mains were transported to Dehli, and interred in the 
yard of the college built by him outside the Ajmiri Gate. 

Ghazi-uddin Khan II, 1/^^f iv^ c^«^l is)^ f 

Amir-ul-Umra, also styled Firoz Jang, was the eldest son 
of the celebrated Nizam-ul-Mulk 'Asaf Jah. He was 
elevated to the rank of Amir-ul-Umra after the death of 
Khan Dauran, and departure of Nadir Shah to Persia, 
in 1739 A. D., 1152 A. H., by the emperor Muhammad 
Shah. Some years after the death of his father, when 
his brother Nasir Jang, who had succeeded him, died in 
the Dakhan, he proceeded from Dehli to regain his pos- 
sessions in that country, but died on his way at AorangaV 
bad on the 16th of October, 1752 A. D., 7th fll-Wja, 
1165 A. H. New Style. His remains were brought to 
Dehli and buried there. After his death the office of 
Amir-ul-Umra was conferred on his son Shahab-uddin 
with the title of 'Imad-ul-Mulk Ghazf-uddfn Khan. 

Ghazi-uddin Khan m, ^ &*J\ ^jli r^J/f^*!, 

Amir.ul-Umra, styled 'Imad-ul-Mulk, was the son of 
Ghazi-uddin Khan Fir6z Jang, the son of Nizam-ul- 
Mulk Asaf Jan. His original name was Shahab-uddin, 
but after the death of his father in 1752 A. D., 1165 
A. H., he was, by the recommendation of Naw6b Safdar 

i^'/SSi a 5^J!? A . m£r ' ul - Umr ^ h 7 the emperor 
Ahmad Shah of Dehli with the title of 'Imad-ul-Mulk 
Gfaan-uddin Khan. This is that Ghazi-uddin Khan, who 
afterwards became wazir, imprisoned and blinded his 
master the emperor Ahmad Shah, and assassinated 
Alamgir II. His wife was the celebrated Gunna Begam, 
^ £<*%£** * 77 \ A ; *>., H89 A. H. Thenar 
of Ghazi-uddin Khan's death is unknown, but according 
to the biography of the poet called Gulzar Ibrahim, he 
was livmg in 1780 A. D., 1194 A. H., in straitenedcir- 
cumstances. His poetical name was Nizam. Accordimr 
to the work called Masir-ul-Umra, he went to the Da- 
khan 1773 A. D., 1187 A. H., and received a jagfr in 
Malwa ; subsequently he proceeded to Surat and mssed 
a few years with the English, and thence on a pilgrimage 
to Mecca. He composed Persian and Eeikhta poetry and 



left Arabic and Turkish Ghasals and a thick Persian 
Diwan and a Masnawi in which the miracles of M*MiUn* 
Fakhr-uddin are related. Some say he died at Kalpi 

Ghaznawi, i$yj*, vide Muhammad Khin (Mir). 

GhazzaL J]y } (a seller of thread) title of Wasil-bin.'Ata; 

a celebrated Musalman doctor who was thus surnamed. 

Ghazni, <#>}*, kings of; vide Subaktagin, 

Ghazzali, «^i>* *♦*■* f^*, or Ghazali (Imam Ahmad), 

younger brother of Imam Muhammad Ghazzali. He was 
a doctor of the sect of Sha&'i, and died at Kazwin in th*> 
year 1123 A. D., 517 A. H., but according* to Ibn Khal- 
likan in 520 A. H., corresponding with 1126 A. D. 

GhazzaU, %^]y ***** f M, or Ghazali (Imam Muham- 
mad) who is also entitled Hujjat-ul-Isiam, is the surname 
of Abu Hamid Muhammad Zain-uddin-al-Tusi, one of 
the greatest and most celebrated Musalman doctors, and 
author of a treatise on tho different classes of science 
which concern religion, called, "Kmiiao Sa'adat/* and 
many other works such as the Y£kut-ut-Tawib, alao 
called "Tafsir Jawahir-ul-Kuran," u Akaod GhazzaU 1 ' 
^ < *Ahia-ul-'Ulum, ,, and"Tuhfat-ul-Filasam.'' He was born 
in the year 1058 A. D., 450 A. H M in a village called 
Ghazzala or Ghazala in Tiis, whence he and his brother 
Ahmad, derived their names of Ghazzali. He died on tho 
18th December, 1111 A. D., 4th Jumaua II, 505 A. H M 
aged 65 lunar years. Some authors say' that his name 
should be spelt Ghazali and not Ghazzali, but the fol- 
lowing verses from the Mukhbir-ul-Wasilin, confirms the 
latter. 

***** iJ 1 * *±J±! ffk »>> 

He is said to have written ninety-nine works, mostly in 
Arabic, a few in Persian. 

Ghizali (Moulana), J]y Wy,, of Tug or Maahha<l 

the royal poet. He mentions in one of his £aaidas 
named Rauzat-us-Safa, that he was born in the year 1624 
A. D., 930 A. H. He first came from Mashhad his native 
country to the Dakhan, where being disappointed in his 
prospects, he went over to Jaunpur, and was emplored 
for some years by Khan Zaman 'Ali Kuli Khan, governor 
of that province, during which time he wrote a poem 
called " Nafcsh Badfa," for which he received from his 
patron a piece of gold for each couplet. After the death 
of Khan Zaman, who was slain in battle against the 
. emperor Akbar in 1568 A. D., 975 A. H., ho fell into 
tho hands of that monarch, who took him into his service, 
and conferred on him the title of Milik-ush-Shua'ri, or the 
King of poets. He was the first poet that was honoured 
with this title in India. He accompanied his royal 
master to the conquest of Gujriit, and died there of 
venereal disease, on Friday the 5th of December, 1572 
A. D., 27th Rajab, 980 A. H. He is buried at Ahmad- 
abad, Gujrat, at a place called Sarkij. He is also the 
author of a Diwan, and three Masnawis or poems, con- 
taining from 40 to 50,000 verses ; their titles are : " KitSb 
Asrar, " liishahat-ul-Haiat." and " Mirat-ul-KaenaV 
Ghoufl Muhammad Khan, uA* *««* ggji, whoao 

title is Mohtashim-uddaula, is the present Nawdb of 
Jawara. 

Ghous-uVAlam, f*Wl ^ a {amovm 8df . pU$ Mu 

hammad Ghous of Gwaliar. 

Ghoufl-ul->Azim, (^^ £>>, a title of the Muhammadan 
saint 'Abdul #adir Gilani. 



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Ghouwasi 



97 



Goshyar 



Ghouwasi, (S& if*&> of Yezd, a poet, whoee proper 

name is Iazuddin. He is said to have composed 100,000 
verses. This fertile poet, in a work which he wrote in 
1543 A. D., 950 A. H. f says: "The poetry which I have 
written amounts to 1,950 books." He made 500 verses 
a day, and it would appear that he put the " Rausat-ush- 
Shohada," tho history of Tabari, the legends of the pro- 
phets, Kaleila-wa-Dainna, and the Medical work called 
"Zakhira Khwarizm Shahf," and many other works into 
verse. He died in 1553 A. D., 960 A. H., at an age of 
more than one hundred years. 

Ghulam >AJi, Mir, «Mjf ^ f^j#>> a poet whose 
poetical titlo is 'Az&d, which see. 

Ghulam >Ali Khan, \d*> «£** f^> author of the 
" Lama'at-ut/r&uruV' a panegyric on the actions of Mu- 
hammad, and a number of mystical poems, dedicated to 
the emperor 'Alamgir. 

Ghulam >Ali, %j^ (&*, author of the work called " Shah 
'Alum Nama," a history of the reign of the Emperor Shah 
•Alam, who died in 1806 A. D., 1221 A. H. 

Ghulam Husain Khan, Nawab Sayyad, ^^^ 

tt>^C^-A ^iU *>*-• yly, surnamed Tiba Tibaf, son of 

Hidaet 'AH Khan, Baha'dur Asad Jang, author of a Persian 
work called "Siar-ul-Mutakhirin," written in the year 1780 
A. D., 1194 A. H., and translated soon after into English 
by a French Renegade, called Mustafa. It was again 
translated into English by F. C. Balfour, Esq., LL. D. 
He is also author of a Poem entitled " Basharat-ul- 
Imamat." 

Ghulam Husain Khan, \J*> {j^r^ p**, author of the 
Persian History of Bengal called u Rayaz-ussalatin" which 
he wrote about the year 1780 A. D. at the request of Mr. 
George Udney of Malwa. He was a learned and respect- 
able character, once of greater consequence, and afterwards 
a member of the native court of judicature under the most 
worthy Nawab 'All Ibrahim Khan. 

Ghulam Imam Shahid, Maulana, **r r U| f ** 

tijfj*, a poet who is the author of a Persian Diwan, and 
of a celebrated Kasfda comprising the dispute between 
Love and Beauty. His poetical title is Shahed and he is 
living still, 1879 A. D. 

Ghulam Kadir Khan, ei^>>£ f& 9 son of ZAbita 
Khan, and grandson of Najfb-uddaula, the Rohila chief. 
This is that traitor who after extorting as much money as 
he could from his royal master, the emperor Shah 'Alam 
of Dehli, ordered his Rohilas to pluck out his eyes from 
their sockets and placed Beidar Bakht, son of Ahmad 
Shah, and grandson of Muhammad Shah on the throne. 
This mournM event happened on the 10th of August, 
1788 A. D., 7th gi-ga'da, 1202 A. H. After this, the 
traitor endeavoured to make his retreat to his own terri- 
tory Ghousgarh, but was pursued by the Marhaftas who 
took him prisoner, cut off his ears, nose, arms, and legs, 
and in this mutilated state he was sent to Dehli; but 
died on the road in the month of December the same 
year, Rabi 1, 1203 A. H. His tomb is in Aul, Parganna 
Furrah, Zila Agrah. 

Ghulam Kutb-uddin Shah, </*>M *** e^l V^ 

*£* iLi f Allahabid, whose poetical name is Musibat, 

was the son of Shah Muhammad Fakhir. He was an 
elegant poet eminently learned and accomplished, and is 
the author of a work called " Nan JjLalia," (Cakes and 
Steaks) which he wrote in answer to a work entitled 
"Nan Halwa" (Cakes and Pudding). He was born on 

25 



the 29th August, 1726 0. 8., 1st Mabarram, 1138 A. H., 
went on a pilgrimage to Mecca, and died there in the 
year 1773-4 A. D., 1187-8 A. H. 

Ghulam Muhammad, *+** flU, (Prince,) son or 

grandson of Tippu Sultan, was installed as a Knight 
Commander of the Star of India on the 27th February* 
1871 A. D. Seventy -two years ago he was a prisoner 
in the hands of the English, and since then a recipient 
of the highest honors. He died in Calcutta on the 
night of the 11th August, 1872, aged 78 years. 

Ghulam Muhammad Khan, ^^ *♦** (*&, pre- 
sent nawab of the Karaatic, whose title is Amir-ul-Hind 
Wal& Jah Umdat-ul-Umra Mumtaz-ul-Mumalik. 

Ghulam Muhammad Khan, Nawab, u^^ 1 

j.3U ^Jy f vide Fais-ullih Khan. 
Ghulam Ahia, is^ (&*, author of an Arabic work on 
Logic, which goes after his name. Its marginal Notes 
written by another author are called " Shams-uz-Zuhi." 

Ghunohaohae Ummaid, ***! ***f > (t. *., a small 
bud of hope), was one of the wives of Umar Shaikh Mirza, 
the son of 8ultan Abti Sa'id Mirza, and mother of Nasir 
Mirza, and Mahd Bano Begam. 8he was a native of 
Andjan. 

Girami, {jf\r > the poetical name of a poet whose Df wan 
was found in the Library of Tipii Sultan. 

Girdhar Das, cH* J**Jr* of Dehli, author of the history 

of Ram, entitled " Ramayan," translated from the Sans- 
krit in 1722 A. D. This is a very celebrated Hindi poem, 
containing the exploits of the famous demigod Ham, who 
reigned over India for many years. His capital was at 
Audh, and his conquests extended to Ceylon, where the 
chain of rocks which nearly unite that island to the 
continent, is still called Barn's Bridge. Besides this, there 
are two other Ramayans, one translated by Tulshi Das 
in the Bhakha" dialect, and another by Khushtar in Urdu. 

Girdhar Singh, *&*j**jf, or Girdhar Bahadur, a 
Rajptit chief who was governor of Malwa in the reign of 
the emperor Muhammad Shah, and fell in battle against 
the Peshwa Bajf Rao's officers in 1729 A. D. His ne- 
phew, Day& Ram, who succeeded him, and had opposed 
a gallant resistance for some time, was defeated by Chim- 
naji the PeshwsVs brother, and lost his life in battle about 
the year 1732 A. D. 

Gobind Guru, *Hr IT* a chief of the Sikhs, vide 
Guru Gobind. 

Gopal or Nayek Gopal, d^ijr *^, a celebrated 
singer of India, who was a native of the Dakhan, and 
flourished during the reign of Sultan ' Ala-uddin Sikandar 
Sani. He was a contemporary of Amir Khusro who died 
in 1325 A. D. It is related that when Gopal visited the 
court of Dehli, he sung that species of composition called 
•♦Git," the beauty of which style, enunciated by the 
powerful and harmonious voice of so able a performer, 
could not meet with competition : — At this the monarch 
caused Amir Khusro to remain hid under his throne, 
whence he could hear the musician unknown to him. The 
latter endeavoured to remember the style, and on a sub- 
sequent day, sung "Qoul" and "Tarana" in imitation 
of it, which surprised Gopal, and, fraudulently deprived 
him of a portion of his due honor. 

Goshyar, Jnfjri an astronomer whose proper name is 
Abu'l Hasan. 



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Gouhar 



98 Habib 



Gouhar Shad Begam, & && j*J, the wife of 

Mirz£ Shahrukh, the son of Amir Taimur. She was slain 
by Sultan Abu Sa'id Mirza for creating disturbances, in 
145 1 ^P'' 861 A ' H > at Hirit, where she lies buried 
°? j j of a 8tream c^ed Anjir. The grave is 

shaded by a very high gilt dome. She is Baid to have 
been the most incomparable lady in the world. Some erro- 
neously say that she was the daughter of Amfr Taimur, 
and the sister of Shihrukh Mirzl, and that she never 
married, but devoted herself to the perusal of the Kuran, 
vide Mohan Lai's Journal. 

Goya, *£>» , poetical name of Hisam-uddaula Nawab Fakir 

Muhammad Khan of Lakhnau. He is the author of a 
Diwan. 

Goya, Hjp , the poetical name of Mirz£ Kamran, a brother 
of J6y&, which see. 

Goya, kr, poetical name of Shaikh Hatft-ullah of Fur- 
rukh&bad. 

Gujar, jrty* grandson or son of the daughter of the Peshw* 
K*gh6j{ Bhosla's daughter. He was raised to the masnad 
of Nagpur after, the dethronement of 'Apa S£hib in 1818 
A. D. 

Gulab Singh, *&- V** , of Jammu (Maharaja) the in- 
dependent ruler of Kashmir and the hills, which were 
made over to him by the British " for a consideration,* ' 
after the battle with the Sikhs in 1846. He died 2nd 
August, 1857 A. D , about three months after the outbreak 
of the native troops. He was succeeded by his Bon Ranbfr 
Singh. 

Gulbadan Begam, f^A <y**tf f a daughter of the 
emperor Babar Shah, sister to Humayun and aunt to 
Akbar Shah. She was married to Khizir Khan, a descen- 
dant of the kings of Kashghar. Khizir Khan was made 
governor of Lahor in 1555 A. D., 963 A. H., and after- 
wards of Behar, where he-died about the year 1559 A. D. 
966 A. H. * •» 

Gulbarg Begam, (*X *Jj*U, daughter of the emperor 

Babar Sh£h, she is also called Gulrang Begam, and Gul- 
rukh Begam, which see. 

Gulchehra Begam, (A> **= , a daughter of the 

emperor Babar Shah and youngest sister of Humayun, 
by whom she was given in marriage to Abbas Sultan, an 
Uzbak prince, at Kabul in 1548 A. D. 

Gul Muhammad Khan, <jM=to ^ *♦** JJ, a poet 
of Dehli who died in the year of the Christian era 1848 
A. D., 1264 A. H. His poetical name was Natik, which 

Gulrukh Begam, (**# £jU, a daughter of the emperor 

Babar, who was married to Mirz£ Nur-uddin Muham- 
mad, a person of respectable family, by whom she had a 
daughter named Salima Sultana Begam, who was mar- 
ried in the begum^ of the reign of the emperor Akbar, 
to Beram Khan, Khankhanan, after whose death in 1561 
A. D., 968 A. H., the emperor married her himsel£ Gul- 
rukh Begam is called in the Masir-ul-Umra, Gulbarir 
Begam, and by some Gulrang Begam. 

Gulrukh Begam, f*tf &**, a daughter of KSmrin 

Mirza, the brother of the emperor Humayun, and first 
cousin to Akbar. She was married to Ibrahfm Husain 
Mirza, the > son of Muhammad Sultan Mirza a descendant 
of Amfr Taunur .Ibrahim Husain, who together with 
his other brothers had created great disturbances in the 



^^y* va » A taken prisoner in 1573 A. D„ 981 A/H., 
and shortly after put to death and his head sent to Akbar 
who ordered it to be placed over one of the gates of Agrah. 
Gulrukh Begam survived him for several years and was 
living at Agrah in 1614 A. D., 1023 A. H. 

Gulshan, eA 1 *, the poetical name of Shaikh Sa'd-ullah, 
a mystical poet, who resided for some years at Dchli, and 

of Shah 'Abdul Ahad Sarhindi, and made with him TSl- 
gnmage to Mecca. He died in 1728 A. D., or 1 141 A. H. 

GulBhani, <&M, the poetical title of Shaikh Sa'd-ullah, 
which see. 

Gunna or Ganna Begam, /^ ^, a princess, celebra- 
tod for her personal accomplishments, as well as for the 
vivacity of her wit, and the fire of her poetical genius. 
Several of her lyric compositions, in the Hindustani 
language are still sung and admired, one of which is to 
be seen in the first volume of the Asiatic Researches, 
p. 5o. 8he was the daughter of Nawib 'All Kulf Khan 
commonly called Chhanga or Shash Angushtl (from hav- 
ing six fingers on each hand), a mansabdar of 5000 horse. 
STfh^fr r 8 he ^°^ *° Sh «J*'-^daula, the son of 
Nawab Safdar ^Jang but afterwaids married to 'Imad-iil- 
Mulk Ghazi-uddin Khan, wazir, and this rivalship fcsaid 

^V* *"$ ^^fo^dationofthemorJenmity 
which afterwards subsisted between that wazir and Safdar 
Jang. Adjoming to the yttage of NurSbad near Dhoul- 
pur, two miles from Chola Sarie, is a pretty large garden, 
A iTn *°n f «^«P«jAlamgfr, built ii the>aVll 588 
A. D 1160 A. H., over the gate of which is an inscrip- 

•** ^^wX^VP^J! *» y^ofiteerectio^ 
v **., Dida Bagh Jamal." Within this garden is the 
monument of Ganna Begam. Her shrine bears the fol- 
lowing inscription, -Ah gham Gunna Begam," which L 
the chronogram of the year of her death? viz 1775 

trr^l IT A - H * ^ *** ^ «oud^anTMinnat 
corrected her verses. «*«*«»•» 

Guru Gobind, *ijjj, the son of Tegh Bahidur, a 
femous chief of the Sikh*. After the death of hU father 
who was executed by order of the emperor •Ahunrirfc 
the year 1673 AD, having collected his foUowenJK" 
them arms, and horses, which till his time theyhkd nfver 
used, amd began to commit depredations, bnt he w£, *Z 
obhged to fly, and two of his sons being taken prison^ 
were put to death Being desirous ofreturringThh 
homo, he prevailed on some Afghans to conduct hinu 
disgmsed ^ one of their devotees, through the army te- 
tioned at Sarhind ; and for the remainder of toWo tot 
himself rohred, having lost his faculties in grief f^r h£ 
Sk 1 ^ " 1 ^ Ws disciples to wear blue, and W 
thc^ beards and the hair of thoir heads unshaved, wUch 
^oUowe^"^ He ^"»«c-dodbyBan£ Zeot 



H. 

Habib Ajmi, Zhwaja, y*** vM* **«>i, he wm 
called 'Ajmf or the Persian, on account of hi. «„♦ i. • 

Habib-uUah, ^» VMS anthor of „ Arabic work oa 
plulosophy called « Bahr-ul-Mantik," or the Sea of Logic 



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Habib 



99 



Hafiz 



Habib-ullah, Shaikh, ***• V*** &£, a celebrated 
poet of Agrah. 

Habib-ullah, Shah or Mir, *^ V*H* *^, a descen- 
dant of Shih Ni'mat-ulUh Waif, and an amir in the 
service of the Bahmani kings of the Dakhan. He was 
imprisoned, and afterwards put to death in June, 1460 
A. D., Sha'ban 864 A. H., by Sultan Humayun Shah II, 
Bahmanf, a tyrant, who at tie same time cast his brother 
Hasan Khan, who had rebelled against him, before a 
voracious tiger, that soon tore the wretched prince to 
pieces. 

Habshi or Habashi, <^*^> a poet who having lost an 

eye in a scuffle, was asked by Ibrahim Pasha, "Where 
is thine other eye ?" and making answer, " It grew tired 
of stopping at home in the socket, and flew out to see the 
world ;" was imprisoned ten years for his wit in the tower 
of Hero and Loander, where he daily gave vent to his 
feelings in such verses as the following :— - 

I will groan, till every stone in this cold prison-tower 

shall weep, 
I will cry, till earth and sky, and each dark rolling hour 

shall weep, 
I will make, that hearts shall break, and even the dewloss 

flower shall weep, 
Yea, for me, the wronged Habshi, both Musalmin and 

Gabr shall weep ! 

Hadi, iS^y a khalif of Baghdad, wVfc Al-H*di. 

Hadi, i5*(Aj poetical name of Mir Muhammad Jawad 'Ali 

Khan, who died in the year 1800 A. D., 1215 A. H., and 
left a Di'wan in Urdu. 

Hall, «/* i which means barefoot, is the surname of Zain- 
uddin Muhammad, an author, who led an austere life, 
and who always walking barefoot, was thus surnamed. 

Haflz-uddin Ahmad, Monlwi, ***• c^ 1 **&* 
kS^y° f author of the " Khirad Afroz," an UrdtS trans- 
lation of the ** Avar Danish," or Pilpay's Fables, which 
he translated for the use of the Collego of Fort William 
in 1803 A. D., 1218 A. H. 

Haflz-uddin ETasafL-bin-Ahmad, *+** vt ij*~* 

^4^1 I fuflr^ au thor of the Commentaries called "Ma- 

darik-ut-TanzfT and " Hakaek-ut-TanawO," in Arabic. 
He died in the year 1310 A. D., 710 A. H., tide NasafC 
or Al-Nasafa. 

Hafiz-ullah, Shaikh, *''» ^±*^ £&, a relation of 

Siraj-uddin 'AM Khan Arxu. His poetical name was 
Asam. He died in the 21st year of the emperor Muham- 
mad Shah of Dehli, 1767 A. D., 1181 A. H. 

Hafts Abru, Jji » **^, surnamed Nur-uddin-bin-Lutf- 
ulUh, author of the history called " Tarfkh H&fis Abrii." 
He was born in the city of Hirat, but passed his infancy 
in Hamdan, where he received his education. He was 
fortunate enough to secure the esteem of Amir Taimur, 
who sought every occasion to do him service. After the 
death of that tyrant, he attended the court of his son 
Shahrukh Mini, and received from the young prince 
Mini Baiaanghar every demonstration of kindness and 
regard. To nun he dedicated his works under the name 
of "Zubdat-ut-Tawirikh B&isangham," which contains a 
complete history of the world, and an account of the 
institutions and religions of different people down to 1425 
A. D„ 829 A. H. He died five years afterwards in the 
city of Zanjan, about the year 1430 A. D., 834 A. H. 



Hafiz Adam, f& T «•***, a Musalman devotee and disciple 

of Shaikh Ahmad Sarhindi, who about the year 1673 
A. D M in conjunction with the Sikh Guru Tegh Bahddur, 
having collected his followers, levied contributions with 
the greatest oppression from the inhabitants of his neigh- 
bourhood and pretended to royalty. He was banished 
from the kingdom across the Indus by order of the em- 
peror 'Alamgfr. 

Hafiz Halwai, IS*J^ ^^,a confectionerandpoet of Hirat 
who flourished in the reign of Sh&hrukh Mirz&, the son of 
Amir Taimur about the year 1430 A. D., 834 A. H. 

Hafiz, Khwaja, **^ *^L^j whose proper name is 
Shams- uddin Muhammad, was the most elegant lyric 
poet of Persia. He was born at Shiraz in the reign of 
the Muzaffarians, and was living at the time when Amir 
Taimur (Tamerlane) defeated Shah Mansur the last 
Sultan of that dynasty. The language of Hafiz has been 
Btyled among the Musalmans, " Lisan-ul-Ghaib," the lan- 
guage of mystery. From his frequent celebration of love 
and wine in his odes he has not improperly been deno- 
minated, by some Orientalists, the Anacreon of Persia. 
He died in 1389 A. D., 971 A. H. at Shiraz, where his 
tomb is yet to be seen at a place called Musalla, and 
is^ visited as a sacred spot by pilgrims of all ages. After 
his death a collection of 569 of his odes was made by 
Sayyad IjLaaim Anwar, entitled " Diwin Hafiz." A few 
of his poems may be understood in a literal sense ; but 
in general they are figurative, and allude to the Sufi 
doctrines ; most of them have been at different times 
translated into some of the European languages. At the 
head of the English translators, stand Sir W. Jones, 
Messre. Richardson and Carlyle. There have been two 
other Persian poets of the name of Hafiz, one of them 
surnamed Halwai, that is to say, the confectioner, who 
lived in the reign of Sultan Shahrukh, the son of Tamer- 
lane, and the other was named Ajan Rumf. Many zeal- 
ous admirers of Hafiz insist, that by wine he invariably 
means devotion ; and they have gone so far as to compose 
a dictionary of words in the language, as they call it, of 
the Sufis : in that vocabulary, sleep is explained by me- 
ditatioti on the divine perfections, and perfume by hope 
of the divine favor ; gales are illapses of grace ; kisses and 
embraces, the raptures of piety; idolators, infidels, and 
libertines, are men of the purest religion, and their idol 
is the Creator himself; the tavern is a retired oratory, 
and its keeper, a sage instructor ; beauty denotes the per- 
fection of the Supreme Being ; tresses are the expansion 
of his glory ; lips the hidden mysteries of his essence ; 
down on the cheek, the world of spirits, who encircle his 
throne ; and a black mole, the point of indivisible unity ; 
lastly, wantonness, mirth, and inebriety, mean religious 
ardour and abstraction from all terrestrial thoughts. 

Hafiz Muhammad, author of the " Hawi SagMr." 
Hafiz Bahmat Khan, ^ ^^^j AiU, a celebrated 
Rohila chief. He joined his countrymen during the 
administration of 'Ali Muhammad Kh4" t who advanced 
him to an important station, and Pflibhit and Bareily 
were given to him and Muradibdd to another chief named 
Dunde Khan. Having attained his office, by military 
ability and genius, he at length wholly superseded the 
authority of Sa'd-ullah Khan, the son of 'Ali Muhammad 
Khan, and was advanced to the supreme administration of 
affairs. He failed in his engagement to pay forty lacs of 
rupees to Nawib Shuj6-uddaula of Audh for the protec- 
tion of his country from the ravages of the Marhattas, 
was killed in a battle fought by the nawab by the assis- 
tance of the English on the 23rd April, 1774 A. D., 10th 
8afar, 1188 A. H. His Life is translated by Mr. Elliott. 

Hafiz Bakhna, ***>J *&*, is the name of the person 
who planted a large garden at Sarhind in the reign 



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Hairati 



of the Emperor Akbar and called it " Bagh Noulakh." 
He died in 1592 A. D., 1000 A. H. f and a beautiful chro- 
nogram was written on the occasion. 

Hafs, U*^, vide Abu Hafe-ul-Bukh&t 



Hafsa, *-a*^, a daughter of the Khalif Umar, and wife of 
Muhammad, in whose hands Abu Bakr, the successor of 
the prophet, deposited the original Kuran. She outlived 
her husband 33 years and died in 665 A. D., 45 A. H. 

Haibat Jang, «-&*■ °^, title of Zain-uddin Ahmad, 
the youngest son of Hajf Ahmad, and nephew and son- 
in-law of Alahwardi Khan Mahibat Jang, governor of 
Bengal. He was the father of Nawab Siraj-uddaula, 
who succeeded Mahabat Jang in the government of Ben- 
gal in 1756 A. D. 

Haibat Khan, eM- vi "H A . He is the author of the 

" Tan'kh KMn Jahan Lodi,' ' " Makhzan-i- Afghani," con- 
taining the history of Khan Jahan Lodi and of the Af- 
ghans. Khan Jahan was a general of great reputation 
during the reign of the emperor Jahangir, but rebelling 
against Shah Jahan, was killed in an engagement with 
the royal troops 1631 A. D., 1087 A. H. The above 
work was written in 1676 A. D. There is also an abridge- 
ment of this work, by the same author, called " Majmua' 
Afghani." 

Haidar, J*t^> a title of 'Ali, the son-in-law of Muhammad. 

Haidar, ~jLS j*£*> (j AxY* j±xa*. 9 also called Haidar 

Kuluj or Haidar Kulicha, because he was by profession 
a baker. He was a native of Hirat, and is the author of 
a Diwan in Persian and one in Urdu. 

Haidar, J«H^, or Mfr Haidar Shall of the Dakhan, a 
gallant soldier in the service of Nawab Sarfaraz Khan 
governor of Bengal. He put the Diwan of Wall of the 
Dakhan into Mukhammas and interspersed that of H&fiz 
with verses of his own. He died at Hugli in the reign 
of the emperor Ahmad Shin, a year or two before or after 
1750 A. D., 1164 A. H., aged 100 years. Gracin-de- 
Tassy thinks that he is the author of a Masnawi en- 
titled " Kissae Chandar Badon and Mahyar." 

Haidar Ali Moulwi, ^M u*& ^ j*±*> cs*!**, 

of Faizabid, author of the " Muntahi-ul-Kalam," and 
several other works. He was living in Dehli 1854 A. D., 
1270 A. H. 

Haidar Mir, ♦£* J**£S vid€ Gaidar Mirza. 

Haidar Mirza, Kw© j*&*>, wno ** a ^ so ca ^ e< l Mfr Haidar 
and Mirza Haidar Doghlat, was the son of Muhammad 
Husain, and his wife was the aunt of Babar Shah. He was 
formerly in the service of Kamran Mirza, brother of the 
emperor Humayun, but being disgusted with his conduct 
abandoned his standard about the year 1539 A. D., 946 
A. H., and joined the emperor, to whom he was afterwards 
of great service. In 1640 A. D., 947 A. H., he was depu- 
ted by the emperor to conquer Kashmir, which he took in 
a short time ; but as that emperor was soon after expelled 
from India by Sher Shah, Haidar became the king of 
that country. In the year 1548 A. D., 955 A. H., he 
invaded Little Thibet, and not only succeeded in con- 
quering that country, but subsequently added Great 
Thibet, Rajora and Pogla to his dominions. He reigned 
nearly ten years and was killed by an arrow in a night- 
attack made upon his camp in 1551 A. D., 968 A. H. 

Haidar Khan, Mir, e^ J 4 ^^ ->**> the grandson of 
Mir Haidar who was the author of the " Tarfkh Rashfdf." 
This person, on plea of presenting a petition, killed Hu- 
sain Ali Khan Amir-ul-Umra, at the instigation of the 



emperor Muhammad ShAh, on the 18th September, 1720 
O. S., 27th 3i-$a'da 1132 A. H., and was himself cut to 
pieces. 

Haidar Malik, **&° J***, entitled Rais-ul-Mulk 

Chughtdi, author of the most authentic history of Kash- 
mir, down to his own time. He was a nobleman in 
the service of the emperor Jahangir, and was living about 
the year 1619 A. D., 1028 A. H., in which year he ac- 
companied that emperor to Kashmir. 

Haidar Muammai, Mir, i£f l ***j A ** - r**, surnamed 

Rafisgi Kashi. a punster who flourished in the time of Shin 
Ismafl II, king of Persia, and wrote a chronogram at his 
death, which took place in 1677 A. D., 985 A. H. He 
was distinguished by his skill in making chronograms 
and enigmas. He came to India in the time of Akbar, 
and was drowned when returning by sea to Persia. He 
was in charge of copies of Faizf s works for distribution 
in Persia, and they were also lost. Vide Mir Haidar. 

Haidar Bazi, iSJbj*i^> a Persian historian who wrote 
in the 17th century of the Christian Era. 

Haidar, Sheikh or Sultan, j*#* &UA-, father of 
Shah Ismail I, Safwi. He was the son of Sultan or 
Shaikh Junaid, the son of Shaikh Ibrahim, the son of 
Shaikh or Khwaja Ali, the son of the celebrated Shaikh 
Sadar-uddin Musa, the son of Shaikh Saff or Safi-uddm 
Ardibeli, who was the 21st in a direct line from Musi 
Kazim, the seventh Imam. He was killed in a battle 
against Ya'kub Beg the son of Uzzan Husan. at Shirwan 
in the month of July, 1488 A. D., Sha'ban, 893 A. H. 

Hairan, &[&*, poetical name of Mir Haidar 'Ali. He was 

killed in zillah Bihar, but had the assassin put to death 
before he expired. 

Hairani, Moulana, ^l*** t$j^ Wy°, of Hamdan. 

He is the author of several Masnawis or poems, viz., " Bah- 
ram-wa-Nahid." Dispute between Heaven and Earth, 
entitled " Manazira Arz-wa-Sama' ;" Dispute between the 
Candlo and the Motfc, called " Manazira Shama'-wa-Par- 
wana ;" and Dispute between the lioasting Spit and the 
Fowl, named " Manazira Sikh-wa-Murgh." He died in 
1497-8 A. D., 903 A. H. 

Hairat, *>ji*> eH«^' (k*, poetical name of ^ayam-uddiu, 
the author of the biography called "Tazkira Makilat- 
ush-Shua'raY' which he completed in 1760 A. D.,1174 

A.. 11. 

Hairat, o^ poetical title of Pandit Ajuddhia Parahad, 

a native of Kashmir, who resided at Lakhnau. He is the 
author of a small Diwan and a few Masnawis. He died 
1234 A. H., in the 35th year of his age. 

Hairati, *fl^> a poet of Marv. In reward of a JCasfda 
which he composed in praise of Sh&h Tahmasp I, Safwi, 
he obtained the title of Malik-ush-Shua'ri or king of 
poets. Besides the work called " Bahjat-ul-Mubihij, M 
he is the author of a Masnawi to which ho gave the title 
of Gulzar. All his verses amount to about 40,000. He 
was murdered at Kashan 1564 A. D., 962 A. H. 

Hairati, U*J**> was the greatest poet of his time. He 

had studied at Isfahan, and was alive when Taki Kaahani 
wrote his Tazkira, 1585 A. D. Though he received a 
liberal allowance from the Persian government, owing to 
his extravagance, it was quite insufficient for his support 
and in 1581 A. D., 989 A H., he came to India bSn* 
attracted by the prodigality of the Kutb-Shihi kings of 
Golkancja. ° 



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Hajar, J^% * ▼«? great man among the follower* of 'AH, 
and remarkable tor his singular abstinence, piety and 
strictness of life, his constant purifications according to 
Muhammadan law, and exactness in observing the hours 
of devotion. He was put to death in 666 A. D., by order 
of Mu'awia I for speaking reproachfully of him, affront- 
ing his brother Zayad governor of Kufa, and affirming 
that the government did not, of right, belong to any but 
the family of 'All. 

Hajari, vide Hijrf. 

Haji Begam, p&#. </*^> wife °f the emperor Humayun. 
Vide Hamida Bano Begam. 

Haji Khalf a, *^ c5*^i * celebrated author com- 
monly called Mustaufi Haji Khalfa. He is the author 
of the work called " Fazlaka," also of the Biographical 
Dictionary called " Kashf-us-Zunun," and the work called 
"Takwfm-ut-TawArikh Rumi." The latter is a Chro- 
nological Table of remarkable events from the Creation 
of the world to 1648 A. D., 1058 A. H., translated from 
the Turkish, during the reign of 8ul^an Muhammad IV 
of Constantinople. The " Kashf-uz-Zunun" was printed 
for the Oriental Translation Fund in 1835-50, together 
with a Latin translation by Professor FluegeL It ap- 
pears that Haji Khalfa formerly bore the title of " Katib 
Chilpi," (which see,) and if this is correct, he died in 1657 
A. D., 1067 A. H. 

In Chamber's Encyclopa3dia the month and year of his 
death is September, 1658 A. D., and that he is also said to 
bo the author of the Tarikh Kablr " the Great History," 
which is a history of the world from the creation of Adam 
to 1655 A. D., containing notices of 160 dynasties, princi- 
pally Asiatic ; also a history of the Ottoman empire from 
1591 to 1658 A. D., and a history of the maritime wars of 
the Turks, which has been translated into English. 

Haji Muhammad Beg Khan, ^ *■*« *+** «**K 
the father of the celebrated Mirzd Abu Talib Khan, 
author of the "JIasir Talibi." He was by descent a 
Turk, but born at 'Abbaaibad in Isfahan. Whilst a 
young man, dreading the tyranny of Nadir Shah, he fled 
from Persia, and on his arrival in India, was admitted 
into the friendship of the Nawib Abu'l Mansur Khan 
Safdar Jang. Upon the death of Raja Nawul Rae, Deputy 
Governor of Audh in 1750 A. D., 1163 A. H., Muham- 
mad Kuli Khan, the nephew of the Nawab, was appointed 
to that important office, and he (Haji) was nominated 
one of his assistants. On the death of 8afdar Jang in 
1753 A. D., 1167 A. H., his son Shuja-uddaula became 
jealous of his cousin Muhammad $wi Khan, arrested 
him and put him to death. Haji fled with a few of his 
faithful servants 'to "Bengal, where he passed a number 
of years, and died at Murshitttbad in April, 1769 A. D., 
flHuJa, 1182 A. H. 

Hitfi Muhammad Jan, ^i- 5 * vfr *+*" ^^, 

of Mashhad. His poetical name is Jtudsi. He flourished 
in the reign of the emperor Shall Jahan, who conferred 
on him the title of u Malik-ush-Shua , ra, M or the Royal 
poet. He is the author of a poem containing the con- 
quests of the emperor, which he named " Zafarnama," 
He died in the year 1645 A. D., 1055 A. H., and after 
him the title of the royal poet was conferred on Abu 
Talib Kalim. He is also the author of a Dfwan, and an 
Insha* ... 

Hoii Muhammad Kandahari, </>«** *♦** ^*. 

He is the author of a history which goes by his name, 
ris^ "Tarikh Haji Muhammad JjLandahari." 
Haji Muhammad Kashmiri Moulana, *sj&~S 
& 9 pA LS sJc^. (>)!?*• One of his forefathers who was a 

native of Hamdan, came to Kashmir with Mir Said 'All 
Hamdani. Haji was bom in that province, but came to 

26 



Dehli in his youth where he received his education. He 
was an excellent poet, flourished in the time of Akbar, and 
died on Thursday the 22nd of September, 1597 A. D., 
10th Safer, 1006 A. H. t O. S. He was a religious man, 
and had many disciples, one of whom, named Moulana 
Hasan, wrote the chronogram of his death. 
Haji Muhammad Khan Sistani, <y^-*» o^ 



*#*b* 



He was at first in the service of Bairam- 



Khan, Khankhanan, after whose rii«mimffl1 he was ho- 
nored with the rank of 3000 by the emperor Akbar. He 
accompanied Munaim Khan, Khankhanan to Bengal and 
died at Gour in 1575 A. D., 983 A. H. 

Hajjaj-bin-Yusaf-al-Sakafl. or Thakafi, ^*^ 
***~ji lH £^*> one of the most valiant Arabian cap- 
tains, who was made governor of Arabia and Arabian 
Irifc by Abdulmalik the fifth Khalif of the Ommaides, after 
he had defeated and killed Abdullah-bin-Zubeir, who had 
taken the title of Khalifa at Mecca. In the year 693 
A. D., 74 A. H., he pulled down the temple of Mecca, 
which Abdullah had repaired, placing the black stone 
on the outside of it again and restoring it to the very 
form it had before Muhammad's time. He was a great 
tyrant ; it is said of him, that in his lifetime, he had put 
to death a hundred and twenty thousand persons, and 
when he died had 50,000 in his prisons. He died in the 
reign of the Khalif Walid I, in the year 714 A. D., 95 
A. H., aged 54 years. 

Hakikat, ****{£*, poetical title of Saiyad Husain ShAh, 
son of Saiyad Arab Shah. He accompanied CoL Kydd 
to Chinapatan in Madras as head Munshi and died there. 
He is the author of an Urdu Dfwan and seven other 
works, some of which are named "Tahfat-ul-'Ajam," " Khazf • 
nat-ul-AmsaV' " Sanamkada Chin" and"Hasht Gulgusht." 
Vide Husain Shall. 

Hakim I, fi r* 9 the poetical title of a person who was a 
native of Mashhad, and was living about the year 1688 
A. D., 1 100 A. H. He was an Arabic and Persian scho- 
lar, and is the author of a Diwan and a MasnawL 

Hakim II, (*£*> the poetical name of Shih Abdul Hakim 
of I^hor. He is the author of a work called " Mardum 
Dida," compiled at Aurangaba<i in 1761 A. D., 1175 
A. H. It contains an account of those poets with whom 
the author was acquainted. 

Hakim-Ain-ul-Mulk, *-*Wl e^ /*£*, of Shiraz. 
He was a learned man and a clever writer. He traced 
his origin, on his mother's side, to the renowned logician 
Muhaklpl>i-Dawanf. The Historian Badaoni was a 
friend of his. Akbar also liked him very much. Hakim 
was a poet and wrote under the Lakhalus of Dawani. 
He died at Handiah on the 27th gil-bijja 1003 A. H. 
Vide Ain, L 481. 

Hakim AJi, </**** ^ (•£*, of Gilan, came to India in 

indigent circumstances, but was fortunate enough to be- 
come in course of time a personal attendant and friend 
of Akbar. In the 39th year of Akbcu^s reign, he construc- 
ted the wonderful reservoir which is so often mentioned 
by Mughal Historians. In the 40th year All was a com* 
mander of 700 and had the title of Jahnus Uzxamani the 
4 Galinus of the Age/ By Jahangfr he was made a com- 
mander of 2000. He died on the 5th Mu^arram, 1018 
A. H. Vide Ain, I. 466. 
Hakim Muhammad, f£* *♦**• He was half-bro- 
ther to the emperor Akbar, being born of a different 
mother. Vide Muhammad Hakim. 

Hakim Nur-uddin ShiraBi, is)i^ &***hy f£*> 
who appears to have been either grandson or sister's son of 



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Abu'l Fazl, asserts in his preface to the " Hajit Dara Shi- 
kohi," that he commenced his work in the 14th year 
of the reign of Shin Jahan 1642 A. D., 1062 A. H M the 
above name of the book gives the year of the Hijra, and 
brought it to a conclusion in 1066 A. H. 

Hakim-ul-Mumalik, **^UJl ^^, title of Mir Mu- 
hammad Mahdi, a physician who held the rank of 4000 
in the reign of the emperor ' Alamgfr. 

Hakiri, (Sj^^j poetical name of Moutfni Shah4b-uddin 

Mua'mmaX 

Halaki, t^'*** uf^*> of Hamdan, a Persian poet, though 

illiterate, wrote a panegyric on the accession of Sh£h Is- 
ma'il Safwf II, to the throne of Persia, in the year 1676 
A. D., 984 A. H., for which he received a handsome pre- 
sent from the king, while other poets who wrote on the 
same occasion, received nothing. 

Halaku Kaan or Khan, &^ J?^*> also called El- 
khan, was the son of Tfilf Khan, and the fourth successor 
and grandson of Changes Khan the Tartar. In the reign 
of Ins brother Mangu Kain, king of Tartary. he was de- 
tached, in May, 1263 A. D., Rabf I, 661 A. H., attended 
by one hundred and fifty thousand horse to subdue Per- 
sia, which he soon conquered, after which he extirpated 
the power of the Isma'flis, the descendants of Hasan 
Sabbih, the founder of the sect, and destroyed their strong- 
holds in November, 1266 A. D., ^^ada, 654 A. H. 
He next intended to march direct to Constantinople, but 
was persuaded by Nasir-uddin Tusf (whom he had made 
his prime minister) to turn his arms against Baghdad. 
He marched against that capital, and after a siege of some 
months, took it in February, 1268 A. D M 4th §amr, 666 
A. H. The Khalifa Mustaa'sim BilUh and his son were 
seized, and with 800,000 of its inhabitants were put to 
death. After these successes HaUku was desirous of 
returning to Tartary to take possession of the government 
of his native country, which had become vacant by the 
death of his brother, Mangu K&an : but the great defeat 
which the general whom he had left in Syria suffered 
from Saif-uddin Fir6x, the prince of the MamlukB of 
Egypt, compelled him to abandon his design : and after 
he had restored his affairs in Syria, he fixed his residence 
at Mar&gha, in Azurbejao, where he died on Sunday the 
8th February 1265 A. D., 19th Rabf II, 668 A. H., after 
a reign of twelve years from his first coming to Persia, 
and eight years from the death of his brother. ^ During 
his auspicious reign, the literature of Persia resumed its 
former flourishing state. The venerable Persian Bard 
Sa'df of Shirfe was living in his time. Hal&ku was suc- 
ceeded by his son Abakian in the kingdom of Persia. 

list of Mughal- Tartar or flkhdni dynasty of 
JPerna. 

Halaku Khan, the son of Tulf Khan, succeeded his brother 

Mangu K&an in the kingdom of Persia. 
Abi Kaan, the son of Hattku. 
• Nfkodar or Ahmad Khan, brother of Ab&kl. 
Arghun Khan, son of Ab&k&. 
Kalkhatu Khan, son of AbaTdL 
Baidu, grandson of Hal&ku. 
Ghizin Khan, son of Arghun Khan. 
Aljaitu, the son of Arghun Khin. 

Abu Said Bahadur Khan, the son of Aljaptu, after whose 
death the dynasty became dependent. 

Halati, kJ^^> poetical title of Kasim Beg, who was born 

and brought up in Teheran, and spent the greater part of 
his life at Kaswin. He flourished in the reign of Shah 
Tahm&sp Safwf, and wrote the chronogram of the acces- 
sion of Shah Ismail II, in 1576 A. D., 984 A. H. He is 
the author of a Diwan in Persian. 



Halima, *+?*; the name of Muhammad's nurse, who, it 
is said, had formerly no milk in her breasts, but immedi- 
ately obtained some when she presented them to the new 
born prophet to suck. 

Hallaj, £^» This word, which properly signifies the 

person that prepares cotton before it is manufactured, was 
the surname of Abu Mughfs Husain-bin-Mansur. Vide 
Mansur Hallaj. 

Hamd-uUah Mustoun-bin-Abu Bakr-aJ-Kaswi- 
ni, Khwaja, i/i^^i j4 &%f&~* *W *♦*> 
^j*>, also called Hamfd-uddfn Mustoufi, a native of 
$azwfn, and author of the " TaVfkh Guzida," or " Selec- 
ted History," which he composed in 1829 A. D., 780 
A. H., and dedicated to the minister Ghayis-uddin, the 
son of Rashid-uddfn, author of the " Jama'-ut-Tawarikh," 
to both of whom Hamd-ulUh had been Secretary. The 
" Tarikh Guzfda" ranks among the best general histories of 
the East. Eleven years after the completion of this hia. 
tory, the author composed his celebrated work on Geo- 
graphy and Natural History, entitled " Nushat-ul-Kulub," 
" The delight of hearts," which is in high repute with 
Oriental Scholars, and which has obtained for him from 
D'Herbelot, the title of " le Geographe Penan/' Hamd- 
ultth died 1849 A. D., 750 A. H. He was the brother of 
Fakhr-uddfn Fath-ullih Mustoufu See also Ahmad-bin- 
Abu Bakr. 



Hamid, «H**>> a poet, who is the author of a poem called 
" Ismat N&ma," containing the loves of 86tin and Mina, 
composed in the year 1607 A. D., 1016 A. H., during 
the reign of Jahangir. 

Hamida Bano, y^ l ****, the daughter of Malika Bano, 
the sister of Mumtas Mahal, was married to Khalil- 
ulUh Khan, who died in 1662 A. D. 

Hamida Bano Begam, f*#y^ ***♦*, staled (after 
her death) Mariam Makinf, and commonly called Hsji 
Begam, was a great-granddaughter of Sheikh Ahmad 
Jam. 8he was married in 1541 A. D., 948 A. H., to 
the emperor Humayun, and became the mother of the 
emperor Akbar. She is the founder of the Sarae called 
Arab 8ara\ situated near the mausoloum of her husband 
at old Dehlf. She had gone on a pilgrimage to Mecca, 
and on her return, brought with her 300 Arabs, for whom 
she built this place in 1560 A. D., 968 A. H. She died 
at Agrah on Monday, the 29th of August, 1608 A. D., 
17th Shahrewar, 1012 A. H., aged about 78 years, and 
was buried in the mausoleum of Humiyun at Dehli. 

Hamid-uddin Kaai, </>**«> wi*J\*f* ^M f of 

Dehli, was the author of the "Sharah Hidaet-ul-Fi^h," 
and several other works. He died in 1863 A. D., 764 
A. H. 

Hamid-uddin Mustoufi, Khwaja, tfj*~* c^' 

«Xx*flt &*|^. Vide Hamd-ulUh Mustoufi. 
Hamid-uddin Nagori, Kaai, yu** B w*** A *^ i ^ f , 

a native of Nigor who held the appointment of $asf, 
and died on the 11th July, 1296 A. D. f 11th Ramasin, 696 
A. H., and is buried at Dehlf close to the tomb of Khwaja 
Kutb-uddfn Bakhtiar, commonly called Kutb 8h£h. He 
is the author of the book called " Tawila-ush-Shamus," 
containing religious contemplations and speculative 
opinions on the essence and nature of the divinity &c, 
&c. The year of his death is taken from an inscription 
over his tomb. 

Hamid-uddin Umar, Kaai, j+* erf**! ***> <f"V, 

flourished in the time of Sultln Sanjar, the SaQukf king 



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of Persia, was a contemporary of the poet Anwari, and is 
the author of a Commentary on the guran called «'Mu- 
tfmit" 
Hamid All, Mirza, ^ **** bj"> or more properly 
Prince Mini Hamid 'Alt, son of Wajid 'All Shin, the last 
king of Lakhnan. He accompanied his grandmother the 
Dowager Queen of Lakhnan to England to claim his 
right, in 1856. Fids Jawid Ali. 

Hamid, **^, or Abdul Hamid Yahia, a celebrated calli- 
grapher, who reformed the Arabian characters in the 
reign of the Hhalif Muiwia II, of the house of TTmaiya. 
He died in 749 A. D., 132 A. H. 

Hamid-uddin Ali-al-Bukhari, 4£jl*n *J* wi^ 
«H*^> author of a short Commentary on the Hidaya, en- 
titled the " Fawaed." He died in 1268 A. D., 667 A. H. 

Hamid Kinnani, ^y^, poetical name of Sheikh 
Aohad-uddfn Eurmani. 

Hamid-ullah Khan, e;^ *Ul **♦*, author of the 

Abidk-ul-Khawanin, also called " Tankh-i-rjaxnid," which 
contains a history of Cha^gawn (Chittagong). Printed at 
.Calcutta in 1871. 

Hammad; «>*+^> the son of Abu Hanifa, who was a learn- 
ed man, and died in the year 792 A. D., 176 A. H. 

Hamaa, Amir, *r^/**S the son of Abdul Muttalib, and 
uncle of M uhammad, who gave him the title of Asad-ulUh, 
or the lion of God, because of his courage and valour, 
and put into his hands the first standard he ordered to be 
made, which was called •' Raet-ul-Ialam," the standard 
of the faith. Hamza, who was also called Abd 'Umar, 
was killed in the battle of Ohad which Muhammad fought 
with the $uroshites, of whom Abd Sufian was the chief. 
After the battle, Hinda, the wife of Abu Sufian, pulled out 
Hamza' s liver out of his body and chowed and swallowed 
some of it This battle took place in the month of March, 
625 A. D., Shawil, 3 Atf. 

Hamsa Bano Begam, fajk *>*, daughter of Shin 
Jahan by Kandahari Begam, daughter of Muzaffar Husain 
Mirzi of the royal race of Shall Isma'fl Safwi She was 
born in the year 1019 A. H* 

Hamsa Miraa, *}j* *J+**> the eldest son of Sul(an Mu- 
hammad Khuda Banda, and the grandson of Shih 
Tahmasp I of the Safwi family of Persia. His father, 
on account of a natural weakness in his eyes, which ran* 
dered him almost blind, had at first entrusted the charge 
of the empire to his waif r, Mini Sulaiman ; when that 
nobleman was slain, he created his own son, Hamsa 
Mirxa, regent of the empire. This prince, by his valour, 
extricated his weak father from all the difficulties with 
which he was surrounded. But this gleam of good for- 
tune soon vanished. This gallant prince was stabbed by 
a barber, in his own private apartments on the 24th of 
November, 1586 A. D., 22nd gil-bijja 994 A. H. 

Hanbal, Imam, d*** f U, > or Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, the 
son of Muhammad«ibn-Hanbal, was the fourth Imam or 
founder of one of the four orthodox sects of the Sunnts 
called HanbaHtes. This sect made a great noise in Bagh- 
dad in the reign of the Khalif Al-Mufctadir in 929 A. D., 
317 A. H., Meronaf chief of the sect, had asserted that 
God had placed Muhammad on his throne, which asser- 
tion he founded upon the passage of the guran : "Thy 
Lord shall soon give thee a considerable place or station." 
All the other sects of the Mnaalmana regard the explica- 
tion of the Hanbalites as a shocking impiety. They 
n »fnfAin that this 'cotuuUrcbl* pUc* or rtntionj was 
the post or quality of a mediator, which they affirm to 



belong to their prophet. This dispute passed from the 
schools to the public assemblies. At length they came 
from words to blows which cost the lives of several 
thousands. In the year 935 A. D., 323 A. H., the 
Hanbalites became so insolent, that they marched in arms 
on the city of Baghdad, and plundered the shops on 
pretence that wine was drunk in them. Ahmad was a 
traditionist of the first class, and composed a collection 
of Authenticated traditions called " Maanad" more copious 
than those any other person had till then been able to 
form : it is said that he knew by-heart one million of 
those traditions. He was born in the year 780 A. D., 
164 A. H M and died on the 31st July, 865 A. D., 12th 
Eabf I, 241 A. H., in the reign of the Khalff ALMutwak- 
kil, and was buried at Baghdad. It was estimated that 
the number of men present at his funeral was 800,000, 
and women 60,000; and it is said that 20,000 Christiana, 
Jews and Magians became Moslems on the day of his death. 
In the year 835 A.D., Ramadan, 220 A. H., some time 
in the month of September, he was required by the Khalff 
Al-Motaaim Biltth to declare that the $uran was created, 
but would not, and although beaten and imprisoned, persis- 
ted in his refusal. The eternity of the Imuran, considered 
as the word of God, is the orthodox Moslem doctrine. 

Handal Mirza, \jp* d»*U, son of the emperor B£bar 
Shah, and brother of Humaydn, was born in the year 
1618 A. D M 924 A. H. He lost his life in a night attack 
made by his brother Kamran Mini on the emperor 
Humaydn near Khaibar in the province of Kibul, on the 
19th of November, 1551 A. D., 21st fci-Sa'da, 958 A. H. 
He is buried at Kabul close to the tomb of the emperor 
Babar 8bih. Humaytin, out of affection to the memory 
of Handal Mirza, in the Bame year, gave the daughter of 
that prince, Bazia Sultana, to his son Akbar in marriage. 

Hani, </*^> surname of Muhammad-bin-' Alf, a poet who 
died in the year 1333 A. D., 733 A. H. 

Hanifa Imam, *****> f l*f, also called Abd Hanffo and 
Imam 'Azim, was one of the four Jurisconsults of Mecca ; 
re**., Imam Hanifa, Imam Hanbal, Imam Shim'f and 
Imam Malik, from whom are derived the various Codes of 
Muhammadan Jurisprudence. He was one of the most 
celebrated doctors of the Mnsalmans, and chief of the 
sect of Hanifites ; and though his sect is the principal of 
the four which they now indifferently follow, he was ill- 
used during his lifetime, and died in the prison at Bagh- 
dad 767 A. D., 150 A. H. His principal works are, the 
" Musnad," •. *., the foundation or support, wherein he 
established all the points of the Musahnan faith- a 
Treatise entitled " Filkatfm," or Scholastic Divinity; 
and a Catechism called " Mua'Uim-ul-Islam" •'. *., the* 
Instructor. 

His principal work is entitled the " Fifch-ul-Akbar," 
it treats of the Hm-ul-Kalam, and has been commented 
upon by various writers, many of whom are mentioned by 
Hajf Khalfc, Vid$ Abd Hanffe. 8ome say that the 
Musnad was written by Imam Hanbal. By the Shias 
he is as much detested and censured, as by their antago- 
nists he is admired and exalted. For allowing his disci- 
ples to drink **£&, which is a wine made of dates, he is 
accused by the Persians of departing from the clear 
injunction of the Prophet against all intoxicating bever- 
ages. 

Harindar Narain Bhup, Maharaja, yjtf %&$j* 
j**j* **$**> the raja of Kuch Behar, who died at Be- 
nares on the 30th May, 1839, aged 70 years. He was of 
the Bajbansf caste, and a follower of Siva, but his style 
of living was very unlike that of a Hindu. He used to 
marry without any regard to caste, and entered into the 
connubial relation with any woman he took a fancy to. 
He did not even spare married women, TTie number of 
his wives or ranis was no less than 1200 ! 



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Hari Rao Holkar, jP*'jb (Sj*> raj* of Indor, was 
the cousin and successor of Malhar Bio III, the adopted 
son and successor of Jaswant Rao Holkar. He died on 
the 24th of Octoher, 1843 A. D. 

Hariri, iSJij^i whose full name is Abu Mu hamma d 
Kasim-bin-'AU-bin-'Usnian-al-Harfrf-al-Basri, was a na- 
tive of Basra. He was one of the ablest writers of his 
time, and is the author of the " Mu^amdt Hariri/' 'a work 
consisting of 50 Oratorical, Poetical, Moral, Ecomiastic, 
and Satirical discourses, supposed to have been Bpoken or 
read in public assemblies ; but which were composed bv 
the author at the desire of Anusherwan-ibn-Khalid, wazir 
to Sultan Muhammad Saljulfi. He died at Basra in the 
year 1122 A. D., 516 A. H. Poets, historians, grammari- 
ans and lexicographers look upon the Mukamat as the 
highest authority, and next to the Kur&n, as far at least as 
language is concerned. His book has been translated 
either entirely or partially into nearly every Eastern and 
European tongue. 

Harkaran, <y/j* f the son of Mathura Das, a Kamb6h of 
Multan, was a Munshi in the service of Nawab Ya'tbar 
Khan, and is the author of a collection of letters called 
** Inshae Harkaran," or the Forms of Harkaran, trans- 
lated into English by Dr. Francis Balfour, M. D. The 
second edition of this work was printed in England in 
1804. 

Harun-al-Bashid, *i*>j*l &v^*' Vide Al-Rashid. 

Hasan, dty" &*. er**^> son of Suhail or Sahl, was gover- 
nor of Chaldea about the year 830 A. D., under the Khalif 
Al-Mamiin, who married Turin Dukht his daughter. 
Some attribute to this Hasan the translation of the Per- 
sian book entitled " Jawed&n Khirad" into Arabic. 

Hasan, liJ***^ poetical name of Muhammad Hasan who 
nourished in the reign of the emperoj Shah *Alam of 
Dehli. 

Hasan Abdal, J**** D"***, or Baba Hasan Abdal, 
a famous saint who was a Sayyad at 8abzwar in Khurasan. 
He came to India with Mirza* Shahrukh, son of Anser 
Taimur, and died at Kandahar where his tomb is resorted 
to by pilgrims. Jahangir says in the Tuzak that the 
place Hurasadak is 75 kos from Kashmir. 

Hasan 'All, J* W**'* the poet laureate in the service 
of Tipu Sultan of Mysore. He is the author of a book 
called " Bhogbal," or the " Kok 8hastar." It is a curi- 
ous but obscene satire on women, said to be a translation 
or paraphrase from the Sanskrit in Hindi verse. There 
is another translation of the same book in Persian prose 
called " Lazzat un-Nisa," by Ziya-uddin Nakhshabf. 

Hasan Askari, Imam, isJ~* v~**> or Abu'l Hasan 
'Ali-al-'Asfcari, was the eleventh Imam of the race of 'All, 
and the eldest son of Imam 'AH Na^i who was the tenth. 
He was born at Madfna in the year 846 A. D., 232 A. H., 
and died on the 6th November 874 A. D., 22nd Muhar- 
ram, 261 A. H., aged 28 years. He is buried at Sar- 
manrae in Baghdad, close to the tomb of his father. 

Hasan Baeri, Khwaja, isj^ o^ **b* f a native 
of Basra and a very pious Musalman, who is said to have 
possessed all the branches of science, and was noted for 
selfcniortincation, fear of God and devotion. He is the 
author of a Diwan or book of Odes in Arabic. He was 
born in 642 A. D., 21 A. H., and died on the 11th October, 
728 A. D., 1st Rajab, 110 A. H., aged 89 lunar years, and 
was buried at Basra. 

Hasan Beg, (Khani, Badakhshi), t/^** ^^ «-*** 

eT^j Shaikh Umari was a good soldier. He was 



made a commander of 2500 for his services in Bangash, 
and was put towards the end of Akbar' 8 reign, in charge 
of Kabul, receiving Fort Bohtas in the Panjab as jagir. 
Hasan Beg, after making a useless attempt to incriminate 
others, was put into a cow-hide and in this state he was 
tied to donkeys and carried through the bazar. He died 
after a few hours from suffocation. Vide Ain, I. 454. 

Hasan-bin-Muhammad Khaki-al-Shirazi ^ 

tf&&J| lt^ &+&* (^ {&"*>, wno c&me to India in the 

time of the emperor Akbar and obtained different offices 
under the government. He is the author of a history 
also called " Muntakhib-ut-Tawarikh," besides the one 
written by Abdul $adir Badaonf. He commenced the 
work before the close of Akbar' a reign, and completed it 
in the fifth year of the emperor Jahangir, i. *., 1610 A. D., 
1019 A. H., in which year, he tells us, he was appointed 
Diwan of Patna, 

Hasan-bin-Muhammad Sharif, ***ij£ *♦** & 
W**, author of the " Anis-ul-'Ushshak," the lover's 

companion, containing an explanation of all the meta- 
phors and phrases used by the poets; with numerous 
quotations from those held in the greatest estimation. 
F«fr Khadim. 

Hasan-bin-Sabah, c 1 ** u* er**, vide Hasan Sabbah. 

Hasan Buzurg, ^jy. uT**», also called Sheikh Hasan. 

Amir Hasan t l^anf, and Amir Hasan Navian, Kayukii, 
the son of Amir fl^an Jalayer. He was an immediate 
descendant of Sultan Arghun Khan, king of Persia, 
(whose sister was his mother,) and one of the principal 
chiefs of the Mughals in the reign of Sultan Abu 8a' id. 
He married Baghdad Khatun, daughter of Amu* Chobin 
or Jovian, but the prince being deeply enamoured of her 
charam, Amir Hasan, after the death of her father, was 
forced to resign his consort to him in 1327 A. D., 728 
A. H. A few years after ^e death of Abu Sa'fd, Amir 
Hasan married his widow Dirahad Khatun, went to Bagh- 
dad, seized that city, and became the founder of a petty 
dynasty of princes. His life was passed in contests to esta- 
blish his authority over the territories of Baghdad, and he 
died before this object of his ambition was accomplished, 
in July 1356 A. D., Bajab, 757 A. H. His son 8ultan 
Owes Jalayer was more fortunate : ho not only succeeded 
in completing the conquest his father had commenced, 
but carried his arms into Azurbcjan and Khurasan. 
Sultan Owes died in Ootober 1374 A. D., 776 A. H., and 
left his government to his second son Sultan Husain 
Jalayer. This excellent prince, who is also alike cele- 
brated for his benevolence and love of justice, lost his life 
in an action in 1382 A. D., 784 A. 0., with his brother 
Ahmad, surnamed flkani, a cruel and unjust ruler, 
whose enormities compelled his subjects to invite Amir 
Taimur (Tamerlane) to their relief in 1393 A. D., and 
almost the whole of the future life of Ahmad passed 
in an ineffectual struggle with that conqueror. He fled 
to Egypt for safety, and when, after tho death of Taimur, 
he returned to recover his dominions, he was taken and 
put to death by $ara Yusaf, a Turkman chief in 1410 
A. D., 813 A. H. 

Hasan Imam, iy~^ (•**!, the eldest son of 'AH, the son 

of Abu Talib, and Fatima, the daughter of Muhammad ; 
was born on the 1st March 625 A. D., 15th Ramagan, 3 
* A. H. After the death of his father in January 661 
A. D., Bamazan, 40 A. H„ he succeeded him as second 
Imam, and was proclaimed Khalif by the Arabians, but 
perceiving the people divided and himself ill-used, he 
after six months resigned the Khilafat to Mu'awia, who 
assigned to him about 150,000 pounds a year, besides 



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uts. After this Hasan and his brother Husain 
retired and lived privately at Madina, where after a few 
years he died of poison, administered to him by one of 
his wives, whom Yasid, the son of Mu'awia suborned to 
commit that wickedness, on the promise of marrying her 
afterwards. But instead of a new husband, she was 
forced to be contented with a good sum of money which 
Mu'awia gave her for her pains ; for Yazid was not so 
mad as to trust himself to her embraces. This mournful 
event took place on the night of the 17th March, 669 
or 670 A. D., 7th Safar, 49 A. H. He was buried in 
Madina at a place called Balpa, Hasan is said to have 
been in person very like his grandfather Muhammad, who, 
when he was born, spit in his mouth and named him 
Hasan. He had twenty children, fifteen sons and five 
daughters. Though his wives were remarkably fond of 
him, yet he was apt very frequently to divorce them and 
marry new ones, 

Hasan Kashi, Moulana, ^^ w-*- "X*°j a poet who 
was a native of Kishan. He is the author of many Ka- 
sidas and Ghazals. The year of his death is not known, 
but he appears to have flourished about the 8th century 
of the Hijri era. 

Hasan Khwaja, e^*^ **!*^j vide Hasan Sanjari. 

Hasan Khwaja, e)**^ *^t*^, a darwesh, the son of 
Khwaji Ibrahim. He is the author of a Diwan of Gha- 
sals, in the last verses of each he has mentioned the 
name of his beloved. 

Hasan Koohak, Sheikh, *£&* er^ £~, a grand- 

son of Amir Chouban or Jovian. He was one of the 
chiefs, who, during the period of trouble and confusion 
which took place after the death of Sultan Abu Sa'id, king 
of Persia, in 1336 A. D., rose to eminence. He fought 
several battles with Amfr Hasan Buzurg, and met his 
death accidentally by the hands of his quarrelsome wife, 
in December 1343 A. D., Bajab, 744 A. H. 

Hasan Maimandi, <,***♦£* er*^. it is recorded by 
some that he was one of the ministers of Sultan Mabmdd 
if Ghazni. This statement is altogether incorrect and 
unfounded, says Mr. Elliot, as it is not mentioned by any 
great historian. But his son who is commonly called 
Ahmad-bin-Hasan Maimandi was a minister of that mon- 
arch. Hasan Maimandi was, during the lifetime of Sul- 
tan Nasir-uddin Subaktagin, employed as Diwan or Col- 
lector of Revenues at Kaaba Bust ; but Nasir-uddin was 
led by the secret machinations of his enemies to entertain 
an unfavourable opinion of him, till he was at last, in 
consequence of his having been convicted of extortion and 
fraud to a large amount, hanged by order of that Sultan ; 
so that the general notion which prevails that he was the 
waiir of Sultan Mahmud, is erroneous. 

Hasan, Mir, er-^^°, a Hindustani poet of Lakhnau, 
and author of the novel called " Masnawi Mir Hasan," 
containing the loves of Badr-i-Munir and Benazir in 
Urdu verse, which he completed and dedicated to Nawab 
'Asaf-uddaula in the year 1785 A. D., 1199 A. H. It is 
also called ** Sahr-ul-Bayan." His ancestors were of 
Hir&t, but he was born at Dehli and went early in life 
to Lakhnau, where he was supported by Nawib Sufdar 
Jang and his son Mini Nawazish Ali Khan. He is also 
the author of a Diwan of about 8000 verses, and of a 
Tazkira of Urdu poets. He died in 1790 A. D., 1204 
A. H. His father's name was Mir Ghulam Husain 
Zihik. 

Hasan Mirsa, ur*- *)S°, son of Mulk Abdur Razza> 

of Lahijan. He has left some noble compositions, such 
as, "The True light on the articles of Faith." "The 

27 



Beauty of good Men in their Works." A pious treatise, 
and some others. He died in the beginning of the 18th 
century. 

Hasan, Moulana, er*^ Wj°> a learned Musalman who 

lived in the time of the emperor JaMngir and wrote a 
chronogram on the sudden death of Sheikh 'Ali Ahmad, 
son of Sheikh Hosain Nafcshi, in the year 1609 A. D., 
1018 A. H. 

Hasan Mutkallim, Moulana, (J*** {***> Wj", 

a poet and pupil of Moulana* Muzaffar of Hirak He 
flourished in the reign of Malik Ghayas-uddin Kart II, 
in whose name he composed a book on the art of poetry. 

Hasan Eafl, ££j er*^, a Persian poet 

Hasan Sabba f^ CT^* the founder of the dynasty 

of the Isma'ilis in Persia. He was styled Sheikh-ul-Jabal, 
an Arabic title, which signifies " the chief of the moun- 
tains." The name by which this ruler and his descen- 
dants are indiscriminately known in European history, is, 
u The Old Man of the Mountain." His followers or 
descendants were also called Hasanf, and the English word 
" assassin," is supposed to have been formed from a cor- 
ruption of this term. Hasan SabbAh was at first a mace- 
bearer to Sultan Alp Arsalan ; but in consequence of a 
quarrel with Nizam-ul-Mulk, the minister of that prince, 
he retired to Rai, his native country : and from thence, 
to Syria, where he entered into the service of a chief of 
the family of Isma'il the son of Ja'far SaoUV, and adopted 
the tenets of that sect. The first object of Hasan was to 
possess himself of a stronghold; and he succeeded in 
gaining by stratagem the mountain fort of Alahmut, 
situated between Kazwin and Gilan. The fort was built 
by Hasan-bin-Zaid in the year 860 A. D., 246 A. H., 
and Hasan Sabbah took it in 1089 A. D., 482 A. H. 
From this fortress he commenced depredations on the 
surrounding country, and added several other hill forts 
to the one he had already seized. That of Rodbar, which 
is also near Kazwin, was next to Alahmut in consequence. 
Malik Shin Saljiiki, the reigning Sultan, had sent a force 
to reduce him, but without any success. In the month 
of October, 1092 A. D., Ramazan, 485 A. H., Nizam-ul- 
Mulk, who was then following the royal camp from Is- 
fahan to Baghdad, was stabbed by one of the followers of 
Hasan Sabbah who was his personal enemy. Hasan 
Sabbah died in 1124 A. D., 26th Rabf II, 618 A. H. 
Rukn-uddin, who was the last of this family, and who is 
better known under the name of I£ahir Shin or Knur 
Shah, after a weak and ineffectual struggle fell before 
Hateko. That conqueror not only made him prisoner, 
but took and dismantled all his strongholds. This event 
took place in the month of November, 1256 A. D., #• 
$ada' 654 A. H. It was his father Ala-uddin Muhammad 
who forced Nasir-uddin Tusi to remain with him for 
some years, till he was released by Halaku Khan. Vide 
Ismail and Ismail is. The successor of Hasan was Busurg 
Umed. 

Hasan Salimi, %f£~ ur»*>, vide Salimi. 

Hasan Sanjari, Khwaja, kjj^ 9 er*- **!>*, also 

called Khwaja Hasan Dehlawi, a celebrated Persian poet 
of Dehli, who was a contemporary of the famous Amir 
Khusro, and had become at the age of 60 years a disciple 
of Sheikh Nizam-uddin Aulia. lie died, according to the 
author of the " Mirat-ul-Khayal," in the Dakhan in the 
year 1307 A. D., 707 A. H., and is buried at Daulatabid. 
He is the author of several works, amongst which is a 
Diwan, and one called " Fawaed-ul-Fawad," a collection 
of letters written by Nizam-uddin Aulia to his disciples. 
Talib says he died in 1337 A. D., 738 A. H. His father's 
name was Alii Sanjari 



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Hasan, Shaikh, er^ <*", the son of Shaikh Nazar- 

ullih. He is the author of a work called " Sarat Istakam." 
He died in Mirat in the year 1078 A. H. 

Hasan Khan Shamlu, j^x>U ^IL ^^-a., governor of 

Hirat under Shall Abbas U t and his son Sh£h Sulaiman. 
He died in 1697 A. D., 1109 A. H., and is the author of 
a Diwan. 

Hasan, Sayyad, c£*i>* er* **•> of Ghazni, a poet who 
flourished in the reign of Sultan Bahram Sh£h the Ghax- 
navida, and is the author of a Diwan. He is also called 
Sayyad Hasan-al-Husaini. He died in the way while 
returning from Mecca, in the year 1170 A. D., 665 A. H. 

Hasham, vfilUl ao* ^ ^lU^ the BOn of AMdl Malik> 

and the tenth Khalif of the house of Umaiya or Ummaides, 
succeeded his brother Yazfd II in 724 A. D., 105 A. H. 
He conquered the Khafcan of Turkistan, and made war 
against Leo HI, the Isaurian. He was always attended 
by 600 camels to carry his splendid wardrobe. He 
died after a reign of 19 years 7 months and 11 days in 
the year 743 A. D M 125 A. H., and was succeeded by 
Walid II, son of Yezid II. In his time lived the celebra- 
ted Majnun, the lover of Laili. 

Hashim, (**** > a poet who flourished at Burhanpur in the 
Dakhan in the reign of the emperor Jahangir and was a 
disciple of Shaikh Ahmad Farufci, commonly called Shaikh 
Ahmad Sarhindi. He is the author of a Diwan and se- 
veral other books, and was alive in 1646 A. D., 1056 A. H. 

Hashim, f** 1 *, the son of Abdul Manaf; was the father of 
Abdul Muttalib, who was the father of AbdulUh and 
grandfather of Muhammad the prophet of the Musalmans. 
He succeeded his father as president of the Ka'ba, and 
raised the glory of his people to the highest pitch ; inso- 
much that the neighbouring great men and heads of tribes 
made their court to him. Nay, so great veneration is the 
memory of Hashim held in by the Arabs, that from him 
the family of Muhammad among them are called Hashi- 
mites. He died at Ghaza in Syria, and was succeeded by 
his son Abdul Muttalib, who became president of the 
Ka'ba. 

Ha8himi Kirmani, </4^ </*" ,A > author of a poem or 

Masnawi called " Mazhar-ul-Asar." He died in 1541 
A. D., 948 A. H. 

Haehmat, ^*-^, the poetical name of Mir Muhtashim 
Ali Khan, whose ancestors were of Badakhshan, but he 
was born in Dehlf. He died about the year 1748 A. D., 
1161 A. H., and left a Diwan of 7000 verses. 

Hashmat, o» ^ ^ poetical name of Bakhshi Ali Khan, 
which see. 



Hasrat, Oj~^, the poetical name of Sayyad Muhammad, 
who died in the reign of the emperor Muhammad Shih. 

Hasrat, **LT^ poetical name of Mir Muhammad Hayat 
of Patna who had the title of Haibat Kuli Khan. He 
was for some time attached to the service of Nawab 
8haukat Jang at Purania, and for some time to that of 
Siraj-uddaula of Murahidabad. He died in 1800 A. D. 
1215 A. H., and left a Diwan of 2000 verses. * ' 9 

Hasrat, «a^~^ poetical appellation of Mirzd Ja'far 'AH, 
an Urdu poet who flourished in the latter part of the 18th 
century, and gave instructions in the art of poetry to 
Nawab Muhabbat Khan at Lakhnau. 

Hasrati, {fir*** vide Shefta. 



Hatifl, Montana, <^3^ Wj*, the poetical name of Abd- 
ullah, the son of Moulana Abdur Bahman Jamf s sister. 
He was born in Jam a city of Hirat, and died there in the 
year 1621 A. D., 927 A. H., and was buried in the village 
of Kharjard. He was a good poet, and author of several 
works. Having finished his studies, under the patronage 
and instruction of his uncle, Hatifi, with his permission, 
secluded himself from the world. When Shah Isma'fl 
Safwi fought the Uzbak Tartars in Khurasan, and slew 
Shahibeg Khan their chief in 1608 A. D., 914 A. H., ho 
prevailed on our poet to quit his cell, and come to court. 
Solely ambitious of rivalling the Khamsa or five poems 
of Nizami, he wrote in imitation of them his " LaiH and 
Majnun," "Khusro and Shfrin," "Haft Manzar," the 
J 4 Taimur Nama," which is also called " Zafarnima," and 
in imitation of the Sikandar Nama, he undertook a 
heroic poem in praise of his patron, called "Fatuhft 
Shahf," which he did not live to finish. Among the nu- 
merous Persian poems on the story of Laili and Majnun, 
that of Hatifi seems universally esteemed the simplest and 
most pathetic. 

Hatim, ^^ (&*>, commonly called Hatim Tal, a femoua 

Arabian Chief of the tribe of Tai, celebrated for his liber- 
ality, wisdom and valour. He flourished before the birth 
of Muhammad, and his sepulchre may still be seen at a 
little village, called Anwars in Arabia. There is an ac- 
count of his adventures in the Romance entitled " Hatim 
Taf in Persian, which has also been translated into Urdu. 
An English translation of this Romance was made by 
Duncan Forbes, A. M., from the Persian. 

Hatim, f * {***> surnamed Al-Asamm, that is to say, the 
deaf; was a great Musalmin doctor, much-esteemed for 
his piety and doctrine. He was a disciple of Shaki^ 
Balkhi and master of Ahmad Khiiroya. He died 851 
A. D., 237 A. H., in the reign of Mutwakkil the Khalif 
of Baghdad, and was buried at Balkh in Khurasan his 
native country. 

Hatim Kashi, Maulana, kjW (&*> Wj*> a poet of 

Kashan in Persia, who flourished in the reign of Shah 
Abbas the Great. 

Hatim, f^> or Shah Hatim, poetical name of Shaikh 

Zahir-uddin, a poet who was a contemporary of Wall. 
He was born at Dehli in 1699 A. D., 1111 A. H., and was 
a soldier by profession. He gave the first impulse to 
Urdu poetry in Dehli. In 1720 A. D., 1132 A. H., the 
Diwan of Waif was brought to Dehli and verses of it 
were on every body's lips ; this induced him and three 
friends of his, Nfrji, Mazmun, and 'Abru to apply them- 
selves to Bekhta poetry. Up to the time of Hatim, it 
would appear, that Indian poets wrote in Persian. He 
is the author of two Diwans in Urdu, one in imitation of 
Waif, and the other in imitation of Sauda and Mir Ta^f. 

Hatim AU Beg, Mirza, ^i i/* ^ !>•, vid$ 
Mehr. 

Hawas, <jF>J* y poetical title of Naw£b Mirra Tafcf, son of 

Nawab Mirxd Ali Khan. He is the author of the story 
of Laili and Majnun in Urdu, and of a Diwan in which 
every Ghazal contains the name of Laili and Majnun. 

Haya, k*>, poetical title of Shio Bamdas, a Hindi!, and 
brother of Raja Daya Mai Imtiyaz. He was a pupil of 
Mirza Abdul Kadir Bedil, and is the author of a Diwan 
of about 5000 verses. 

Hayat-ullah Ahrari, isJJ *^ 1 *a»^, author of the 
work called " Hahata Alarfin," which contains the life of 
Abrsala. He died in 1061 A. H., and his tomb is in Agrah. 



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Hayati Mulla, «^±*^ of Gflan, a poot 

Hazin, &&* <^* *+&* £*** ^y°, tho poetical name 

of Moutena Shaikh Muhammad 'AH, a Persian of dis. 
tinction, eminently learned, and accomplished. He fled 
into Hindustan from his native country to avoid the per- 
secution of Nadir Shah in 1733 A. D., 1146 A. H. He 
-was a voluminous author hoth in prose and verso. He 
wrote his Memoirs in 1741, eight years after his settle- 
ment for life in India, and it contains a variety of personal 
and historical anecdotes, excellent observations on men 
and manners, besides an interesting account of his travels, 
and remarks on many modern literary productions. 
A translation of this work, entitled, ** The Life of Shaikh 
Muhammad Ali Hazin," was made by T. C. Balfour, 
Esquire, and published in 1830, His father's name was 
Shaikh Abu Talib of Gflan, a descendant of Shaikh Taj- 
uddin Ibrahim, commonly called Shaikh Zahid GMni, 
who was the spiritual guide of Shaikh Safi-uddm Ardibeli. 
He was born at Isfahan on the 7th January, 1692 O. S., 
27th Rabi* II, 1103 A. H., was in Dehli at the time of 
Nadir Shah's invasion, and died in 1766 A. D., 1180 
A. H., aged 77 lunar years, at Benaras (where he had 
built his own tomb some time before his deathj equally 
admired and esteemed by the Musalman, Hindu and 
English inhabitants of that place. He is the author of 
several works in Persian and Arabic. 

Hassik, Hakim, O)^ f^** *>n of Hakfm Humam, tho 
brother of Abu'l Fatha Gittnf. He was a noble of the 
reign of the emperor Shah Jahan, a physician and a poet, 
and is the author of a Diwan in Persian. He died 1658 
A. D., 1068 A. H. 

Hessing, Colonel John William, of Holland. He 
came to India and was at first employed by the Nawab 
Nizam All Khan of the Dakhan in the year 1763 A. D., 
1177 A. H., and afterwards by Madho IUo Scindhia 
in 1784, after whose death in 1794, he continued 
in the service of his nephew Daulat Rio Scindhia, by 
whom ho was appointed a Colonol in 1795, with the com- 
mand of the fortress and city of Agrah. Ho died on the 
21st of July 1803, and was buried in the Roman Catholic 
Burial-ground at Agrah, where a splendid mausoleum of 
red stone was built by his children, with an English in- 
scription on his tomb which is of white marble. 

Hidaet, *£*il«H*» poetical name of Hidaet Khan, the uncle 
of Niaar-ullah Khan Firak. He died in the year 1215 
A. H., and left a Diwan. 

Hidaet-ullah, *^l ^t«H*, author of a work on arts and 
sciences called " indiet^-Ramay' written in 1601 A. D. 

Hidaet-ullah Khan, O^ *^l c-jla^A, great-grandson 
of Khan 'Azim Mini Koka. He is the author of a His- 
tory called " Tarikh Hidaet-ullah Khan" written in the 
year 1659 A. H. 

Himu, J+&> a banian or Indian shopkeeper of the caste of 
Dhusar, whom Salim Shah, king of Dehli, had made su- 
perintendent of the markets. In the reign of Muham- 
mad Shah * Adil, he was appointed his wazir, and intrusted 
with the whole administration of affairs. This person in 
the beginning of the reign of the emperor Akbar laid 
siege to Agrah, and having reduced it proceeded to Dehli 
which also surrendered, and Tardi Beg, governor of that 
place, who fled to 8arhind, was seized by Bairam Khan, 
the minister of Akbar, and beheaded for abandoning 
DehR, where he might have defended himself. Him6 
was afterwards defeated and made prisoner in a battle 
fought at Panipat on Thursday the 5th of November, 1556 
A* D M 2nd Mubarram, 964 A. H., and brought into the 
presence of the king by Bairam Khan, who begged him to 



kill the infidel with his own hand. Akbar (who was then 
in his fifteenth year) in order to fulfil the wish of his 
minister, drew his sword and touched the head of the cap- 
tive, while Bairam Khan, drawing his own sabre, at a 
Bingle blow severed the head of Himu from his body. 

Hy ri, LSj^, the poetical title of a poet who was a native 
of Konban but lived in Bengal. He is the author of a 
Diwan in which there is a Kasfda of a most wonderful 
composition. If you read the first letter of every Miara', 
you have a KhW in praise of Nawab Sayyad Muhammad 
Riza Khan Muzaffar Jang. Some letters in the IjLasida 
are written in red, if you read them by themselves, you 
have a Ghazal, and certain letters in the Ghazal form a 
Ruba'f, and certain letters in the Ruba'i form a Miflra'. 
He was living in 1766 A. D., 1180 A. H. 

Hilal Kazwini, ijijj* <J^, an author who died in 1527 
A. D., 934 A. H. " 

Hilali, iS* **Lr* " ! ^**> of AstaraMd, was a Tartar of the 
tribe of Jughtai or Chughtai, and author of a Diwan con- 
sisting of amorous odes. In his youth he travelled to 
Khurasan, and resided in Hirat, where the illustrious 
Amir 'Alfsheir conferred on him many favours. He was 
a Sunnf by religion, and was, by the contrivance of his 
enemies, who were Shfas, put to death by order of one of 
the Uzbak chiefe in the year 1630 A. D., 936 A. H., but 
according to a book called Tuhfa Shahi, in 1533 A. D. f 
939 A. H. He is the author of the following works, 
viz. u Shah-wa-Darwesh," " Laili-wa-Majnun," " Siftt-ul- 
'Ashiljim," and a Diwan. 

Hilm, p^ } poetical name of Prince Mirzi Said-uddin, com- 
monly called Mirza Faiyaz-uddin, son of Mirza Rayaz- 
uddin alias Mirza Muhammad Jan, son of Mirza Khurram 
Bakht, son of Mirza Jahandar Shah, son of Shah Alam, 
king of Dehli. He is the author of a Diwan, 

Himmat Bahadur Guahain, u^j^ ***+*> Diwan 
of Ghaui Bahadur, Nawab of Banda, and one of the Pesh- 
wa f s (Baji Rao II) principal officers in Bundelkhand. He 
joined the British troops under the command of Lieut.- 
Col. Powell in September, 1 803, and gave battle to Sham* 
sher Bahadur, Nawab of Banda, who was defeated and 
compelled to retreat with loss. Himmat Bahadur was a 
powerful commander of a large body of horse, and of a 
numerous party of Gushauis or Nagas, a peculiar class 
of armed beggars and religious devotees of whom he was 
not only the military leader, but also the spiritual guide. 
He died in 1814 and his family is provided for by the Bri- 
tish Government. 

Himmat Khan, ct*> *£•+*, was ihe son of Khan Jahan 

Shaesta Khan, the son of the wazir Asaf Khan. He 
built his house on the banks of the river Jamna in 
a year with many other buildings such as gardens, 
reservoirs, baths, &c, &c, of which nothing remain now. 
But a bath, a reservoir, a Baoli, &c. &c.,are still to be seen. 
His proper name was Sayyad Muzaffar. Shah Jahan con- 
ferred on him the name of Himmat Khan. In the 19th 
year of Alamgir he was appointed governor of Allahabad. 
In tho 24th year of Alamgir, the appointment of Bakhi- 
gani was conferred on him; and in the 30th year of 
Alamgir, he was again appointed governor of Allahabad. 

Hinda, ****, the daughter of Utba and wife of Abu Sufian. 
Fide Hamz* (Amir). 

Hindal Mirza, Ur* J***** ^ Handal MinL 
Hindu Rao, JJJ**** the brother of Bija Baf, the wife of 
Maharaja Daulat Rao Sindhia. His Ko^hi or Rekka 
House on a hillock is well-known at Dehli He died in 
1855 A. D. 



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Hira Bingh, «■&*• !/*> a Sikh Chief and minister of Ma- 
hariji Dalip Singh of Lahor. He was murdered with 
many others about the beginning of January, 1845. 

Hirpaldeo, Jitdljj*, the son-in-law of Rimdeo, Riji 
of Deogir, who by the assistance of the other rajas of the 
Dakhan, had recovered his country from the Musalmins, 
but Mubarik Shah, the eon of Ala-uddin Khilji, in the 
second year of his reign, 1318 A. D., 718 A. H., marched 
towards the Dakhan, took Hirpaldeo prisoner, flayed him 
alive, and hung his body at the gate of Deogir which is 
now called Daulatabid. 

Hiflam-bin-Jamil, <J*** ^ f^^* surname of Abu 
Sahl-al-Baghdadi, who passed for one of the best tradi- 
tionists of Musalmanism. He died in 722 A. D., 104 
A.H. 

Hissan, °^ ert {J****, the son of 8abit was a poet and 
companion of Muhammad. He is the author of a Diwin 
in Arabic. When Muhammad overcame his enemies at 
the battle of Khandafc, Hissan wrote a few verses on that 
occasion ; the prophet was so much delighted, that he gave 
him Shirin the sister of Maria Kabti, for wife. 

Hiflsan-al-Hind, «*V tt>^-^> that is, the Hissan of 

India, a title which Mir Gulam 'All Asad assumed, 

Holkar, vide Mulhir Rao I. 
HormisdaSy vide Hurmuz. 

Hoahang, %^Xm^A } second king of the first or Pishdidian 

dynasty of Persia, was the son of Sayamak, and grandson 
of Ky6murs whom he succeeded. He reigned 40 years 
and was succeeded by his son Tahmurs, commonly called 
Deoband, or the Magician binder, a title he derived from 
the success with which he warred against the enemies of 
his family. 

Hoshang Shah, **~ «-&~>*, (formerly called Alp Khan) 
was the first Muhammadan king of Milwa, and the son of 
Dilawar Khan Ghori who was governor of that place 
from the time of Muhammad Shah, son of Firoi Shah 
Tughlak, king of Dehli. After his father's death, which 
happened about the year 1405 A. D., 808 A. H., taking 
advantage of the tunes, he became entirely independent 
and assumed the title of Sultan Hoahang Shan. He 
reigned 30 lunar years, and died on the 17th July, 1434 
A. D., 9th £il-bijja, 837 A. H. He was buried in a stone 
vault, and a splendid mausoleum of white marble was 
built over it which is still to be seen at Mando. The date 
of his death is to be found in the three last words of a dis- 
tich translated thus by General Briggs. 

When death had sealed the glorious Hoshang's fete, 
And he prepared to tread on Lethe's shore, 

I asked a poet to record the date, 
Who briefly said, " Shih Hoshang is no more." 

He was succeeded by his son Sultan Muhammad Shih, 
who was poisoned after a reign of one year and nine 
months by Mahmud Khan (the son of his Wazir), who 
took the title of Mahmud Shah and ascended the throne 
of Malwa on Tuesday the 15th of May, 1436 A. D., 29th 
Shawwal, 839 A. H. 

List of the kings of Mdltca, whose capitate were Dhdr, 
Mando or Shddidbdd. 

Dilawar Khan Ghori, governor. 

Hoshang Shih Ghori. 

Muhammad Shih Ghori (also called Ghazni Khin). 

Mahmud Shih Khiljf. 

Sult&n Ghayis-uddin Khiljf. 

Sultan Kisir-uddin Khiljf. 

Suit in Mahmud II, the last of the Khiljfs. 

In his time Milwa was incorporated with the kingdom 
of Gujrat by Bahadur Shih. 



Hoahdar Khan, &^j±h*, a title of Hidiet-ullih 
Khin, the son of Iridat Khin Wisah. He was honoured 
with this title by the emperor Farrukh-siyar, and after his 
father's death with that of Iridat Khin and the Faujdiri 
of Duhipereya in the province of Milwa. In the sixth 
year of Muhammad Shih, 1724 A. D., 1136 A. H., he atten- 
ded Nizam-ul-Mulk 'Asaf Jih to tho Dakhan, and after 
the victory over Mubiriz Khin, was appointed Diwin of 
the Dakhan with the rank of 4000. He was afterwards ap- 
pointed governor of Kulburga in the Dakhan and died in 
the year 1744 A. D., 1157 A. H. He had many sons, 
most of whom died in his lifetime. His eldest surviving 
son, Hafez Khan, succeeded him in tho government of 
Kulbarga which he held at the time. Shihnawiz Khin 
wrote the ** Misir-ul-Umra," or Biography of Nobility. 

Hoshmand Begam, f*# ***&j*, daughter of Sttltin 

Khuaro, married to Prince Hushang, the son of prince 
Danial in the year 1035 A. H. 



Hujjat, %£ ^F^ i poetical name of Kisir Khnsro, which see. 
Hajjat-ul-Ialam, <•*-•¥» ***^, a title of Muhammad 

Ghazzilf, a celebrated doctor of the Musalmin law. vide 
Ghazzili. 

Huma, ***> poetical name of Sayyad Imtiyiz Khin, a son 
of Mo'tmid Khin, and a brother of Sayyad Ahmad, whose 
takhallus was Zamf r. He is the author of a Diwin. 

Humai, Queen, (S**** was the daughter of Bahman, who 
is also called Ardisher Darisdast (Artazerxes Longima- 
nus of the Greeks). She succeeded her father as queen of 
Persia, in tho fourth century before Christ. 8ho built 
the city called Simrah, which the author of the " Labb 
Tawarikh" says, bore also the name of 8imirem, and ia 
the same which is at this day called Jarbadakan. The 
Persian authors stato, that when she ascended the throne, 
she was pregnant by her own fathor. Shame led her to 
conceal this circumstance : and the child, of which she 
was delivered, was given over to a nurse to be put to 
death. The life of tho child, however, was miraculously 
preserved ; and the unnatural mother first recognised her 
son, when his fortuno and valour had advanced him to 
the rank of a victorious general in her army. Humai 
immediately resigned the crown to him, and retired to a 
private life after she had reigned 32 yoars. Her son 
reigned about 12 years, and is called by tho Persians Diri 
or Darib I. 

Humam, Hakim, f^f^i brother of Hakfm Abu'l 
Fatha Gflini, a well educated and learned man in tho 
service of the emperor Akbar. He was Bent by that mon- 
arch on an embassy, in company with Sayyad Sadr Ja- 
han, to Abdullah Khin Uzbak, ruler of Khurasan, about 
the year 1589 A. D., 997 A. H. He died in 1695 A. D., 
1004 A. H., and left two sons, Hakim Sadik and Hakfm 
Khushhil. 

Humam, (•*♦** poetical name of Kamil-uddm Muhammad 
bin-Abdul-Wahhib, styled by Arabahili, " One of the 
most illustrious doctors of the member of the Sadit," that 
is to say, of the race of All. He lived in the time of Amir 
Taimiir (Tamerlane) and died in 1457 A. D., 861 A. H. 
He is author of a Commentary on the Hidiya. His pro- 
per name is Kamil-uddfn Muhammad-al-Siwisf, which 
see. 

Humam Tabrezi, Khwaja, <sjij$ (•*♦*> a celebra. 
ted Persian poot of Tauris or Tabres, and author of a 
collection of Itubiis or quatrain verses called '* Rubiyit 
Mir Humim." Ho was a cotomporary and rival wit of 
Shaikh Sa'di. Meeting one day in a bath, Humam, ob- 
serving Sa'di to be very bold, presented to him a bason 
with tho bottom upwards; asked him, "Why do tho 



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head* of the people of Sblras resemble this V Se'di, hav- 
ing turned the bason with the empty aide upwards, re* 
plied, "First tell me, why do the heed* of the people of 
Tabres reaemble this P" Many other Anecdotes are rela- 
ted of them. Humam died in the reign of Aljaitd, emper- 
or of the Mughals, in the year 1313 A. D., 713 A. H„ and 
wai buried at Tabres. He is also called KhwajaHu- 
inim-uddm Tabreal 

Humam-uddin Tabrezi, ifjj?» &i*>\ fU*, ** 
Humam Tabrexi 

Humayun, el***** «*♦«* ^^i\j^A> } emperor of Hin- 
dustan, gornamed Naafr-uddln Muhammad, was the 
eldest son of the emperor Babar Shah, was born at Kibul 
on the night of Tuesday the 7th of March, 1608 A. D., 
4th £i-Ka da, 913 A. BL, and his mother's name was 
Miham Begam. He succeeded his father on the throne 
at Agrah on the 26th December, 1630 A. D., 6th Jumida 
I, 937 A. H., and conferred the government of Kibul, Kan- 
dahar, Ghasni, and the Panjib on his brother Mirza Ki- 
mirin, to Mini Askarf he gave the government of Sarkar 
Sambhal, to Mirxa Handal, Sarkar Alwar, and the govern- 
ment of Badakhabin to Mirza Sulaimin, the son of Khan 
Mine, the son of Sultan Muhammad, the son of Sultan 
Abu Said. Humiyun was defeated the first time by Sher 
Khan (afterwards Sher Shin) in a battle fought on the 
banks of the Chaunsa in Behar on the 26th June, 1689 
A. D n 9th §afar, 946 A. H., and the second time at $an- 
noj on the 17th of May, 1640 A. D., 10th Mubarram, 
967 A. H. The capital no longer afforded him a place 
of refuge ; even his brothers became his enemies, and 
would not grant him shelter in their provinces. He fled 
from one place to another, subject at times to the greatest 
hardships ; and was at last obliged to quit the king- 
dom and seek an asylum in Persia, where he arrived in 
July, 1644 A. D., 961 A, H., and was hospitably and 
honorably entertained for some time by ShihTahmasp 
of Persia, who assisted him with troops. During the 
absence of Humayun, which extended to a period of 
fifteen years, five kings ascended the throne of Dehli, vis. 
Bher Shah, his son Salfm Sbih, Muhammad Shall Adili, 
Ibrahim Khin, and Sikandar Shah. Humivun having 
overcome his brothers at Kibul and flanaahir, com- 
menced his march from the former city in the month of 
January, 1666 A. D., Safer, 962 A. H., towards India. He 
took the Panjib, and advancing towards Dehli, defeated 
gilrand^ Sbih on the 22nd of June, 1666 A. D., 2nd Sha- 
ban, 962 A. H M in a battle fought at Sarhind. Sikandar. 
after his defeat, fled to the mountains of 8ewilik, and 
Humiyun having reached Dehli in triumph, became a 
aeoond time emperor of Hindustan. Bairim Khan, to 
whose valour and talent the king was principally indebt- 
ed for his restoration, was rewarded with the first offices 
in the state with the title of Khin Khinin. The year of 
this victory was found by Bairim Khin to be contained in 
the words, M The sword of Humiyun." 8even months after 
this victory, on the 21st January, 1666 A. D., as Humiyun 
was coming down at the time of evening prayers from the 
terrace of the Library at DehH, he fall he adl o ng over the 
steps, and died on tho 26th January, 1666 A. D., 11th 
Babf I, 963 A. H. The words M Alas! my sovereign fell 
from the terrace, contain the year of his demise. He was 
buried at GOokharf, a distance of four kos from the city 
of Shahjihanibid on tho banks of the river Jumna ; and 
a splendid monument was erected over his remains some 
years after, by his son Akbar, who succeeded him. Hu- 
miyun died at the age of 49, after a reign of 26 veers, 
incindn'ff the fifteen years of his banishment from his ca- 
pital. The foundation of his mausoleum was laid in 1666 
A. D., 973 A. H^ was superintended by Haji Begam 
mother of Akbar, and was finished in 16 years at a cost 
of 16 lakhs of rupees, tfarrukh-siyar, 'Alamgir II, Dara 
Bhikoh and other princes are also buried in this mauso- 
leum. Hamiyun, after his death, received the title of Jan* 
net ' Ashiini. 

8^ 

-2,V 



Humayun, Amir, &yl+*j*&, of Ismrien, a poet who 
went early in life to Tabres, and was supported by $asi 
'Is'a and Sultan Yi'fcub, who called him Khusro Sani, that 
is, the second Khusro and Khusro Kochak. After the 
death of his patron, he went to ir^in and died there 
in 1496 A. D., 902 A. H. He is the author of a Df win. 

Humayun 8hah, Bahmani, Sultan, <j*+t? ***• 

&j*+* 0^*-», surnamed Zalim, or the Cruel, was the 
eleventh king of the Bahmanf dynasty. He succeeded 
his father 8u^in 'Ali-uddin II B ahmani in the year 1468 
A. D n 862 A. H., and causing his brother Hasan Khin's 
eyes to be put out, ascended the throne of the Dakhan. Ac- 
cording to the will of his father, he conferred the office of 
Wakfl-us-Saltanat on Khwaja Mahmud Giwan, with the 
title of Malik-ut-Tajjir and the government of BQipur. 
He was an unjust prince and a great tyrant, on which 
account he was surnamed " the Cruel." He reigned 3 
years 6 months and 6 days, and was murdered with one 
stroke of a heavy club on the 1st of September, 1461 A. D., 
28th £i-£a'da, 866 A. H., during a fit of intoxication by 
his own servants who were wearied out with his i^timtn 
cruelties. He was succeeded by his son Sultan Nisixn 
Shin, then only eight years of age. 
Hunain, e^^> surname of Abu Zaid 'Abdur Rahman 

Hunain, son of Is-hife son of Hunain, was a celebrated 
Christian physician who translated many books out of the 
Greek into Syriac and Arabic 

Hurmus or Hurmuzd I, *y°j* hj*j*> the third king of 
Persia, of the Sasanian race, was the son of Shihpur I, 
whom he succeeded in 272 A. D. He is the Hormisdas 
of the Greek authors, and is said to have resembled, both 
in person and character, his grandfather Ardisher. The 
mower of this monarch was the daughter of Mahrukh a 
petty prince, whom Ardisher had put to death, and whose 
family he had persecuted, because an astrologer had pre- 
dicted that a descendant of Mahrukh should attain the 
throne of Persia. This lady had fled to the tents of a 
shepherd where she was seen by Shihpur when hunting. 
This prince became enamoured, and married her privately. 
His father Ardisher, going one day unexpectedly to his 
son's house saw young Hurmux. He was greatly pleased 
with the appearance of the child and made enquiries, 
which compelled Shihpur to confess all that had happen- 
ed. The joy of the old king was excessive. "The pre- 
diction of the astrologers,'* he exclaimed, " which gave 
me such alarm, is, thank God, confirmed, and a descen- 
dant of Mahrukh shall succeed to my crown." Hurmus 
was a virtuous prince, but reigned only one year and ten 
days. He died about the year 273 A. D., and was suc- 
ceeded by his son Bahrain I. # ^ 

Hurmus or Hurmusd II, if*^&*j*, the eighth king of 
Persia of the Sasanian race. He succeeded his father 
Narai about the year 303 A. D., ruled Persia seven years 
and five months and died 310 A. D. No events of any 
consequence oocurred during the reign of this prince. At 
his death he left no son : and the kingdom was on the 
point of being thrown into confusion, when it was de- 
clared that one of the ladies in the harem was pregnant, 
and that there were certain indications of the embryo be- 
ing a male. When the child was brought forth, it was 
named Shihpur : and every care was taken to give the 
young sovereign an education suited to his high duties. 

Hurmus or Hurmuzd m, c *-* b *yj*, the second son 
of Tesdigard II, succeeded his father, of whom he was al- 
ways the favourite, 466 A. D. His elder brother Firos, 
though at first compelled to fly across the Oxus, soon 
returned to assert his right at the head of a large army, 
which aided by a general defection of the Peraums, who 
deserted his weak brother, obtained an easy victory, and 
the unfortunate Hurmus was, after a short reign of little 
more than one year, dethroned and put to death 467 
A.D. 



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Hurmuz or Hurmuad IV, ffy Sb^j*) (theHorxnisdas m 
of the Greeks) was declared successor to his father the 
great Ohosroes, summed Nausherwan the Just, and 
ascended the throne of Persia 679 A. D. His subjects 
revolted against him at the instigation of Bahr&m Chobin 
or Varanes his general, whom he had offended by sending 
him a female dress because he had been defeated by the Bo- 
mans. They confined Hurmuz and put out his eyes to 
disqualify him from ascending the throne, and soon after 
put him to death 590 A. D. His son Ehusro Purvez 
having collected a force to oppose Bahram, who with the 
intention of taking the government into his own hands 
was advancing towards Madam, was defeated ; and with 
great difficulty effected his escape to the territories of the 
Romans, from whose emperor, Maurice, he met with the 
most friendly and hospitable reception. Bahram Chobin 
took possession of the vacant government : but his rule 
was short : for within eight months from the period of 
his taking possession of Madam, he was defeated by an 
army of Romans and Persians commanded by Ehusro, 
and fled to Tartary. 

Husain, uk"*, poetical name of Muzaffar Husain, an 
author who is also called Shahid or Martyr. He is the 
author of the work called " Bayaz-ufl-Salikim." 

Husain Ali Khan Bahadur, ja^ cA*> ^ c*^ 

second son of Alahwardi Khan, a nobleman of high rank 
who served under the emperor 'Alamgir, and died on the 
3rd of October, 1686 A. D., 26th £i-Ka'da 1097 A. H., a 
day after the fort of Bfjaptir was taken. 

Husain Ali Khan, Sayyad, d* ul* c*-*> «H~, 
Auur-ul.TTmri. Vide AbdulUh Khan (Sayyad). 

Husain-bin-Alim, p£* urf ert~*>, author of the" Nuz- 

hat-ul-Arw&h." containing interesting anecdotes of the 
most celebrated Sufis, vide Husain-bin-Hasan-al-Hasanf . 

Huflain-bin-Muhammad, as-Sama'ani, ^*I**-Jf 
" ~* erf ertr*S author of the " Khaxanatral-Muftun" 



which contains a large quantity of decisions, and is a book 
of some authority in India. It was completed in 1339. 
A. D., 740 A. H. . 

Husain-bin-Hasan-al-Husaini, t^r* • e>~». ^ 
CjH*, a native of Gh6r and author of several works, viz. 
"Kans-ul-Bamus," "Si Nama," <( Kuzhat-ul-ArwaX" 
"Zdd-ul-Musimrm," '« Tarab-ul-MajaTia/' " Ruh-nl- Ar- 
win," "8ir4t-ul-Musta#m," and of a Diwan in Arabic 
and Persian. He died, says Jimi, in the year 1317 A. D., 
717 A. H., and is buried at Hirit. Firishta calls him 
Amir Husaini S&Ut, and says, that he with his father 
Sayyad Najm-uddin came to India as merchants and be- 
came the disciples of Shaikh Bah£-uddin Zikaria at Mul- 
tan, and died at Hirit on 1st December, 1318 A. D., 6th 
8haww*l, 71$ A. H. 

Husain Dost Sambhali, Mir, yUj a* *z**j* <•**•»*. 
j*o f son of Abu TAlib of SambhaL He is the author of a 
biography of poets called " Tazjrira Husaini," which ap- 
pears to have been compiled a few yean after the death 
of Muhammad Shall the emperor of Dehlf who died in 
1748 A- D-i H61 A. H. 

Jlusaini, i fb "** author of the "Aamae Husaini" and 

"MaktubttHusaint" . . 

Husain. Ghaznawi, <£*i>* utr*, author of the story 

of Padmiwat in Persian poetry called M $iasae Padmi- 
wat." 

Husain Hallaj, Shaikh, 5**tt>*-*£**, the son of 

Mansdr Hallaj. Many fables have been invented to ac- 
count for the imprudence of this wise teacher. One of 
these states, that he observed tus sister go out every even- 



ing : he followed her ; having seen her communicate with 
the Huries, and receive from these celestial nymphs a cup 
of nectar, he insisted on drinking one or two drops that 
remained of this celestial liquor. His sister told him he 
could not contain it, and that it would cause his death* 
He persisted; from the moment that he swallowed it, he 
kept exclaiming An-ul-Ha^ ! that is, ** I am the truth !'* 
till he was put to death. Vide Mansdr Hallaj. 

Husain, Imam, urir* f*"l, the second son of 'All, the 
son-in-law of Muhammad. He was born at Medina in 
January, 626 A. D„ Shaban, 4A.E, and was the third 
Imam of the race of 'AH. Having refused to acknowledge 
Yazid the son of Mu'awia, for the lawful KbaKf, he was 
obliged to leave Medina, and to fly to Mecca, but was over- 
taken on his way and killed by order of UbaidullaTi-ibn- 
Zayld, one of Yazid's captains, on the 10th October, 
680 A. D., 10th Mubarram, 61 A. H. When his head 
was brought to TJbaidullAh at Kufa, ho struck it over the 
mouth with a stick, and treated it with great contempt. 
He then sent it along with his family who were made 
captives, to Damascus where Yaiti then reigned. The 
day on which he was killed, is still a great day amongst 
the Musalmans. He is buried at a place called Karbala 
in Babylonian Ir&Jt or Chaldea near Kufa* Some pretend 
to show that Etusain's head was buried near the river of 
Karbala ; others say, that there are no traces of it re- 
maining. However, the first 8ultanof the race of Boyaades 
built on that spot a sumptuous monument, which is visited 
to this very day with great devotion by the Musahnina* 
It is called " Gunbas Fais," or the dome of grace. 

Husain-ibn-Muin-uddin Maibadi* ls**° 4^ 
c^fc** eH* &*-**, author of a work on religion, entitled 
"Pawftah."" 

Husain Jalayer, Sultan, j£* uir* wP****, grand- 

son of Amir Hasan Buzurg, succeeded his father oul|an 
Awes Jaiayer, to the throne of Ba^hdid in October, 1374 
A. D., 776 A. H., and lost his life in an action with his 
brother Sultan, Ahmad in 1382 A. D., 784 A. H, Vide 
Hasan Buzurg. 

Husain Eashi, i/*t?U>i~*>, anauthor, who died in 1544 
A. D., 961 A. H. 

Husain, Kashmiri, l^J^^ U±"*>, author of the Per- 
sian work, entitled, " Hidayat-ul-'Ami," the Guide to the 
Blind, containing essays on various religious subjects, 
Sufi doctrines, &c. 

Husain Khonsari, ^U^ u*~»>, was one of the 
celebrated philosophers of Persia, surnasaed from his 
birth-place Ehonsar, a town between Teheran and Ka- 
shan. He flourished in the latter part of the 17th century. 

Husain £anga I, IW (^r^, t|urd king of Multan, 
succeeded his father Kutb-uddin Mahmud Langa in 
1469 A. D., 874 A. H. He entered into a treafro? alli- 
anoe with Sikandar Lodf, king of Dehlf, and died about 
the year 1498 A. D., 904 A. H., or according to some, on 
Sunday the 28th August, 1602 A. D., 26th §*&r, 908 
A. H., after a reign of 30 or 34 years. He was succeeded 
by his grandson Mahmud Khan Langa, Firishta says, 
that the "Tawfafkh $ah*dur Shihf," which contains the 
history of this prince, is full of errors, and the author 
of the "Mirat*8ikandarf' declares it to be absolutely 
unintelligible. 

Husain Langa II, &* 4^-^, fifth and mat king of 
Multan, was, after the death of his father Mahmu^Khln, 
I*nga in 1524, raised to the throne, although a minor. 
£e was only a pageant in. the hands of his star's hus- 
band, ShujaV-uA-Mulk, who assumed the oflftce of protec- 
tor. 8hah Husain Arghun, king of Thafta, under the 
orders of the emperor BibarShah, soon after besieged 
the place which was at length, in the year 1626 A. D. 
932 A. H., carried bv escalade, after a siege of fifteen, 
months. Husain Arghun having nominated one T^kf ir, 



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Khan his deputy, retained to Th*tt&- When Bibar 
8hih, daring his illness, abdicated the throne in favor of 
his son Humiyun, the latter prince gave the Panjib 
in jigfr to Mini Kimrin his brother, who on his 
arrival at Lihor, sent for Lashkar Khan and made 
over the district of Kabul to him, in lieu of that of Mul- 
tin, since which time the kingdom of Multan has conti- 
nued a province of the empire of Dehli. 

Husain Marwi, <£*j* cHS-^> vide Khwaja Husain 
Marwi. 

Husain Mirsa, !i/"° &***>> vide 8ultan Husain Mini. 
Husain Mashhadi, is*1*** C^*^> a Persian poet. 
Husain Moin-ud din , i^'fc^** iufc m *'> author of the 

" Fawitah Saba" <» Theology. 
Husain Maibasi, Muin^uddin, is*** uir* c*^ 

{&&*, author of the a Sajanjal-ul-Arwih," or Mirror of 

Spirits, a selection from the Persian and Turkf poets. 

He flourished in the tenth century of the Hijra, 

Husain Muammai, Mir, c£**** v i ^ ^ ji^t a celebra- 
ted punster who died in the year 1498 A. D,, 904 A. H. 

Husain Nakshi, Mulla, «/kai i&~*> **, a learned 
Musalmin of DehK who was a good poet and an excellent 
engraver in the time of the emperor Akbar. He died on 
the 16th of July, 1581 A. p., 14th Jumidall, 989 A. H. 

Husain Nisam Shah I, *^ ft& &***-, ascended the 
throne of Ahmadnagar in the Dakhan in the 30th year 
of his age, after the death of his father Burhan Nisim 
Shih I in the year 1654 A. D., 961 A. H. la 1665 
A. D., 973 A. H~ an alliance was formed between him 
and the three Sultans, ris., 'AH 'Adfl Shih of BQapur, 
Ibrahim Kutb Shah of G61kan$a and Amfr Bartf of Ah- 
madabtd Bidar, against Rimraj, rajjj* of Btianagar, who 
was defeated and slain. Husain Nizam Shan died eleven 
days after his return from this expedition, on Wednesday 
the 6th of June, 1666 A. D., 7th &-$a'da, 972 A. H^ and 
his son Murtasi Nixam Shalt succeeded him. The death 
of Nixam 8hih has been commemorated in the following 
chronogram : " The sun of the Dakhan has become ob* 
soured." # A 

Husain Nisam 8hah II, t^ *^ f ** crt~% a nominal 
prince of the Nixam Shihi dynasty. Vide Fatha Khan, 
the son of l(alik ' Ambar % 

Husain Qabwari, ififxr** <&**) anative of Sabawir, 
and author of the works entitled "Latief Waaief;" and 
** Ranat-ul- ArwaV' books on Sufyism, containing the 
best means of obtaining salvation, and rules for moral 
conduct 

Husain Sadat, Wr, «*UU v*r*j**, vide Husain 
bm-Hasan-al-Husami. 

Husain 8hah Lohani, Pir, ^ ^jtfevir* 
a Muhammadan saint whose tomb is in Munghfr, where 
both Hindus and Muhammadans make offerings especially 
on their marriagea and other special occasions. 

Husain Shah Sharki, 8ultan, %£?» •** i#ir*> 
cjM^a ascended the throne of Jaunpur after his brother 
MuhainmadrShih, who was slain in battle about the year 
1462 A. D.j 656 A. H. He fought several battles with 
Bahl6l LodL the king of DehK, and was at last defeated; 
and so closely pursued that he left his horse and escaped 
on foot The army of Dehlf advanced without any other 
check to Jaunpur which fell to the arms of BahloX while 
pusein 8hih, abandoning his capital, was obliged to con* 
Vect himacU with a small tract of country yielding only 



a revenue of five lakhs of rupees. Bahl6l having delivered 
over Jaunpur and its kingdom to his own son Barbak, 
enjoined him not to deprive Husain Shih of the small 
tract to which he was confined, terming it his family 
estate. This event took place about the year 1476 A. D., 
881 A. H., and the subversion of the Sharif dynasty may 
be dated from that year. The reign of Husain Shih 
lasted for a period of 19 lunar years. 8ome years after 
the death of Bahl61 Lodf (which happened in 1489 A. D., 
894 A. H.) Husain Shih incited the prince Barbak to rise 
up against his brother 8ikandar Lodi, king of Dehlf, and 
wrest the government out of his hands; but Barbak was 
defeated in the first action and retired to Jaunpur, to 
which place he was pursued by the king. Jaunpur fell 
shortly after, and was added to the kingdom of Dehlf. 
Husain Shih was now induced to seek refuge with 'Ali- 
uddin Purbf, king of Bengal, by whom he was treated 
with the respect due to his station till his death which 
took place in 1499 A. D., 906 A. H. With him the royal 
line of Jaunpur was extinguished. 

Husain Shah, 8^* U^~*» of Bengal ; vide 'Ali-uddin 

Husain Shih. 

Husain Shah, Sayyad, *^ w ! - » * * - , author of the 

story of Bahrain Gor, entitled " Hasht Gulgasht," which 
he made into prose from the " Hasht Bahisht" of Amir 
Khusro in the year 1800 A. D., 1215 A. H n on the re- 
quisition of M. Charles Perron, who served under Daulat 
Bio Scindhia, vide Hak-fk-at 

Husain Waes, Maulana* **b vir* Wj" surnamed 

Kishifit, was a man of consequence in the time of 8ul$an 
Husain Mini, surnamed Abu'l Ghixf Bahidur of Khuri- 
sin, and held the office of sacred herald in the city of 
Hirit till the Hijri year 910, on the last day of which he 
expired, t. #., on the 3rd June, 1606 A. IX, 30th £il-bijja, 
910 A. H. He is the author of a commentary on the 
gurin, commonly called "Tafsfr Husaini," which he 
entitled « Mawahib 'Uliit," also of one entitled " Jawi- 
hir-ut-Tafasir." Besides these, he wrote several other 
works, amongst which are the " Rousat-ush-Shuhadi,'' 
an excellent history of Muhammad with a minute detail 
of the battle of Karbala, dedicated to Sultan Husain Mir- 
si in 1601 A. P., an abridgment of which is called " Dak 
Majlis." The " Akhli* Muhsinf." a very valuable system 
of Ethics, treating upon worship, prayer, patience, hope, 
chastity, &c, dedicated to the same 8ul(in 1494 A. I>. t 
900 A. BL, the title of which gives the year of its comple- 
tion. The " Anwir 8uhelf," (Emanationa of the star 
Ganopus) being a translation of Pilpay's Fables in Per* 
sian, dedicated to Amir Shaikh. Ahmad 8ahelf, seal-bearer 
to the Sultan. He calls himself in this book Maulina 
Husain-bm-'AU-al-Wae* surnamed Kishifi. He also 
made an abridgment of Moulwf Bumfs Masnawi which 
he called M Lubb-i-Labib." He is also the author of the 
works called "Makhsan-uLInsbi," "Saba" Kishifia (pn 
astrology! ««Asrir Kishni," " Matia-'ul-Anwir," and of a 
collection of Anecdotes called " Latief-ut-Tawief." This 
author is by some writers called Fn™fl-"drifn Husain-aK 
Wies-al-Kashifi-us-Subswirf, 

Husain-uddin Huaain-bin-JUi^. */* &* v*r*^ 
C^wt i&r+>, who. is said to have been, a pupil of Burhin-. 
uddfn *Ali, was the first who wrote a commentary on the 
Hidiys* entitled the Nihiya, 

Huiuri, Mir, i/ir^ j*°, son of Amfr Sayyid 'AliMuh- 

tasib. He hVed inthethneof Shalv Isma'a 8afwf, and 
wrote a chronogram on his accession to the throne of Persia 
in the year 1676 A, IX, 984 A, H. He is the author of a, 
Dfwan, 



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Ibn-Abi Tai, ^ ^1 ^ author of the work called 

Etab"ArRauxatain." 
Ibn- Abu Usaibia, Mnwafflk-uddin Abul Abbas 

Ahmad, 4*-*yt crt» ***t cr^W fc^ c&*, an- 
thor of the Arabic work called " 'Ayun-al-Anba^nVTab**t- 
ul-AtibbA" t. *., Fountains of Information respecting the 
olasseB of Physicians. This book was translated by the 
author into Arabic from the Sanskrit at the commencement 
of the 13th century of our era. In the 12th chapter of 
this work, he gives an account of all the Physicians who 
were from India. Of one, whom he calls Kanka-al- Hindi, 
he says, He was skilful as a philosopher amongst the 
ancient philosophers of India, and one of the greatest of 
men. He investigated the art of physic, the power of 
medicines, the nature of compound substances, and the 
properties of simple substances. He was the most learned 
of all men in the form of the universe, the composition of 
the heavenly bodies, and the motions of the planets. An 
extract from the above work is given in the " Journal of 
the Royal Asiatic Society, No. 11," bv the Eev. W. Cure- 
ton; with remarks by Professor H. H. Wilson. Ibn- 
Abu Usaibia died in 1269 A D., 668 A H. 

Ibn-Arabi, <£&*&*)> surname of Shaikh Mubi-uddfn 
Abd'Abdullah-bm-Muhammad-bm-'AH-al-Tai-al-Hatimi- 
al-Andalusi, a celebrated doctor of Damascus to whom, 
the Muhammadans pretend, was dictated or inspired, or 
sent from heaven, by their prophet in the year 1229 A D., 
a book of mystical divinity, called " Fasus-ul-Hakaxn." 
It contains 27 Hukams or Instructions ; each of which is 
attributed to one of the ancient patriarchs or prophets, 
excepting the last, which belongs to Muhammad, and is 
entitled " Hakam Fardiyat Muhammadiat" The Musal- 
man doctors are very much divided as to the merit of 
this work ; for some praise it, and others absolutely reject 
it, as being full of superstition and falsehood. He is also 
the author of several other works, one of which is called 
"FatuhatMakkia." He died in 1240 A. D., 638 A. H. 
There appears to be another Ibn-'Arabi who died in 
Sarmanrae in Baghdad in the year 1040 A. D., or 431 
A H., and who was also an author of several works. 

Ibn-Arabshah, fi»*j* e*?t, surname of Ahmad-bin-Mu- 

hammad, a native of Damascus, who besides a collection 
of Tales, wrote several other works in a very polished 




864 A H. Vide Arab Shah. 



rbn-Amin, erV^ cH'* vide Ibn-Yamfn or Amir Mahmtid* 
rbn-Aflir, J& &l 9 akShaibani Majd-uddfn, also called 
Jasaxi, a most celebrated Arabian author of whom we 
have several works. He is the author of the Arabian 
work on Jurisprudence entitled " Jama'-ul-Usul," a work 
having great authority. Another of his works is called 
" Kamtt-ut-Tawarikh." He is by some authors called 
Abu'l Sa'adat. Mubarik-bin-Asfr-al-Jazari, commonly 
called Ibn-Asfr. He died 1209 A. D., 606 A H. Vide 
JasarL 

Ibn-Afikar, Jr** e^t an author who wrote the history of 
Damascus. 

Ibn-Babawia, H?-- W$* vide Abu Ja'far Muhammad 
bin-'AK-bin-Babawia. 

Ibn-Batuta, &jk &1, the Arab traveller whom Muham- 
mad Tughlak made Judge of Dehli, was the author of 
the work called ** Travels of Ibn-Batuta," which has 



been translated from Arabic by the Rev, 8. Lee, B. D. 
London, 1829. Ibn-Battita performed his pilgrimage to 
Mecca in 1832 A. D., 732 A H. His work contains few 
nets concerning Arabia. His whole account of Mecca is 
" May God ennoble it" 

Ibn-Bauwab, vl^ c^j vide Bauwft. 

Ibn-Dahan, *^ ut, rfADahin. 

Ibn-Darastuya, *ij*~j* i&f, commonly called so, but his 
proper name is Abu Muhammad 'Abdullah, the son of 
Ja'far, a very learned Muaalman who died 968 A. D., 347 
A. H., at Baghdad. 

Ibn-Duredy *H)^ ert'i author of a dictionary and of a work 
entitled " QhaifUul^uran" which is also called " Jam- 
hira." He died at Baghdad in 933 A. D., 321 A H. 

Ibn-Fakhr-uddin Anju, j^ e^tr** e^> author 
of the '• Farhang Jahangfri," vide Jamal-uddfn Husain 
Anju. 

Ibn-Farat, *s»lr* cH'i author of the Geographical Memoirs 

of Egypt. 
Ibn-Farghani, i/ { b* S9#> Shaikh Abu Bakr Wasiti, 

a saint, who died about 320 A. H. . 
Ibn-Fourak, dl>* u#j vide Fourafc. 
Ibn-G-hayas, &^ w#, vide Kamal-uddfn Muhammad 

(Khwaja). 

Ibn-Hajar, 8hahab-uddin, j^ &* i^» y*t-*, 

son of 'AH 'Uslpilani, an Arabian author who wrote more 
than a hundred books, among which are "Lisan-ul- 
Misan," and Aaiba. He died in 1449 A D., 863 A H., 
vide Shahab-uddin Abu'l Fail^-'Usfcalani 

Ibn-Hajar Yehaami or Yehthami, if~ti j^ 

fcrft * son of Badr-uddfn, author of the work called " Sa- 
waifc Muhri^a," and several other books. He died in 
1566 A. D., 974 A H. 

Ibn-Hajib, V*^ tHl, an Arabian author of several 
works. He died at Alexandria in the year 1248 A D., 
646 A. H. He is the author of the Two commentaries 
called " Kafia and Shana." 

Ibn-Hanbal, t-M^ ttf f , whose proper name is Abu 'Ab- 
dullah Ahmad-ash-Shaibanf-al-MarWazi, but generally 
known by the name of Ibn-Hanbal, was the founder of 
the fourth Sunnf sect. This learned doctor, who was a 
pupil of Sham'i, strenuously upheld the opinion that the 
$uran was uncreated, and that it had existed from all 
eternity. Since, however, it happened unfortunately that 
the Khalifa Al-Mostansir maintained tho contrary doc- 
trine, Ibn-Hanbal was greatly persecuted for his persistent 
opposition to that monarch's favorite belief. Fide Hanbal. 

Ibn»Hanbali, o*f^ ert', surname of Muhammad-bin- 
Ibrahim Hanbali, author of the " Uddat-ul-HaBib-wa- 
Umdat-ul-Masahib," a book of Arithmetic. He died 1663 
A. D., 971 A. H., and is the author of several other 
works. 

rbn-Ha8ham, {&*&), the author of the Sfrat-ul- 
Basul or Biography of the Prophet. His native place was 
Old Cairo, where he died in 828 A. D M 213 A H. An 
abridgment of his work was made at Damascus in 1807 
A. D., 707 A. H., by one A^xnad Ibn-Ibrahim. 

Ibn-Hasham, **~ji & f&* &1, m & y^ author 

of several Arabic works, among which are "Toujrfh," 
« Sharah Alfla," Ac &c. He died 1361 A. D., 762 A H. 



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rbn*Hibban, O^ \^ f whose proper name was Asir- 
uddin Muhammad, the son of Yusaf. Was the author 
of several works. He died at Damascus in the year 1344 
A.D., 745 A. H. 

Ibn-Hilal, J** O*'* al*> caU ed 'AM* ** the author of a 
work, entitled " Minha>ul-Talib(n," which is also called 
w Tarikh 'Alaf," and is dedicated to Shall ShujaV Kir- 
m &PX t 

Tbn-Houbal, *M)* u^> a celebrated physician and au- 
thor, who died in the year 1213 A. D. 

Ibn-Houkal, d*j* utft* an Arabian, and author of the 
work, entitled " Ashkal-ul-BilidV' containing maps and 
geographical description of several countries, which he 
wrote in the year 977 A. D., 367 A. H. 

Ibn-Humam, fk* fcrttj author of a Commentary on the 
Hidaya, entitled " Fatl?-ul-Kadfr, M which is also called 
44 Sharah Hidaya." He died in the year 1467 A. D., 861 
A. H. He is also called Humam, which see. 

Ibn-Husam, fl" A eri^ of Khawi^ surname of Shams- 

nddfn Muhammad, author of an heroic poem in praise of 
'AIL containing the principal events of his life ; his dis- 
putes, wars, &c, entitled " Khawar Nama." He died 1470 
A. D. t 875 A. H. 

Ibll-Ibad, *k* crt 1 , surname of Abu'l ?asim Ismifl, 
Kiff, who was wazfr and first minister of state to the 
Sultans Muwaiyad-uddaula and Fakhr-uddaula of the raoe 
of Boya. He died 996 A. D n 386 A. EL, and is said to 
have left a library consisting of 112,000 volumes, and to 
have passed for the most generous and most liberal man 
of his time. He was also styled Kaff -ul-Kafat. 

Ibn-Imad, *k* i^f} a poet of Khurasan who flourished 
in the latter end of the 14th century of the Christian Era. 
He resided in Sbiraz, and is author of a Diwan or a love- 
story, called " Dah Nama", in Persian. 

Ibn-Jinni, tj* **A whose proper name was Abul Fatha 
'TJsman, a learned Musalman, but blind of one eye. He 
died at Baghdad 1002 A. D M 892 A. H. 

Ibn-Jou*i, L«b* ^ f > t** Abul Farah-ibn-Jouri. 

Ibn-Kamal Pasha, a[ i J 1 ** v*> raniame of Mufti 
Shams-uddfn Ahmad-bin-Sulaimin, author of the " Sha- 
rah Hadis^l-'Arbain." He died 1683 A. D., 940 A. H. 

ibn-Kattaa, £ w erf *1»W J** >+ & </*, 

surname of 'Ali-bin-Ja'far Si^plli, an Arabian author, who 
died 1121 A. IX, 616 A. H. 
Ibn-Khaldun, c**^crtt> the African philosopher. His 
name and titles are in Arabic: " Wali-uddin Abd Zaid 
'Abdurrahman bin -Mn^™™^»^» H ** rM ^- <J - IAbflL bnt 
he is better known by the single patronymic name of Ibn- 
Khaldun. His father surnamed Ehaldun was a native 
of Amasirg or Berber (in Africa), but hit wife, descending 
from a family of the Arabian province Hasramat, made 
her son adopt the surname of Al-Haxramf . He was born 
in Tunisinthe year 1882 A. D., and passed his youth in 
E*rvpt He then served a short time under Taimur, as 
chief justice at Damascus. He returned to Egypt where 
he became 8upreme Judge, and died in the year 1406 
A D His principal and most remarkable work is the 
History of the Arabs, Hie Persians, ^ tt^BaiW 
The whole composition is commonly ceiled lwkn-ion- 
Khaldun. 

29 



Ibn-Khallikan, u&^> &f\, whose full name is Shams- 
uddin Abu'l Abbas Ahmad-ibn-Muhammad-ibn- Abu Bakr- 
lbn-Khallikan, drew his descent from a mmily of Balkh. 
This very eminent scholar and follower of Shafa'i doc- 
trines, was born at Arbela, but resided at Damascus, 
where he had filled the place of chief $6si till the year 
1281 A. D., 680 A. H., when he was dismissed, and from 
that time till the day of his death he never went out of 
doors. He was a man of the greatest reputation for 
learning, versed in various sciences, and highly accom- 
plished ; he was a scholar, a poet, a compiler, and an his- 
torian. By his talents and writings, he merited the hon- 
orable title of " ika most learned man," and the ablest 
historian. His celebrated Biographical work, called the 
Wafiat-ul-Aiyan or deaths of eminent men, is the acme 
of perfection. This work was translated from the Arabic 
by Baron MacGucklin De Slane, Member of the Council 
of the Asiatic Society of Paris, &c, and published in 1842 
A. D. This translation is a most valuable work to those 
who wish to gain a knowledge of the legal literature of 
the Muhammadana, as he has added to the text numerous 
learned notes, replete with curious and interesting infor- 
mation relating to the Muhammadan law and lawyers. 
Ibn-Khallikan was born on Thursday the 22nd of Sep- 
tember, 1211 A. D., 11th Rabf II, 608 A. H., and died on 
Thursday the 31st of October, 1282 A. D., 26th Rajab, 
681 A. H., aged 78 lunar years, in the Kajibia College 
at Damascus and was interred at 'Mount Easiyun. 

Ibn-Khurdadbih, &£( dj&t ^ } an historian, who died 
about the year 912 A. D. Vide Khurdaziba, 

Ibn-Kutaiba, **±**erf, surname of Shaikh al-Imam 
Abu Muhammad Abdullah-bin-Muslim Dinwarf, author 
of the "Ayun-ul-Akhbar," and many other works. He 
died 889 A. D., 267 A. H. 

Ibn-Maja, *^^* &$> whose proper name is Abu Abdul- 
lah Muhammad-bin-Yezid-bin-Maja-al-^azwfni, was the 
author of a collection of traditions, and of a commentary 
on the Kuran. The first, which is entitled " Kitab-us- 
Sun an," is the sixth book of the Sunna, and is commonly 
called " Sunan Ibn-Maja." Ibn-Maja was born in the year 
824 A. D., 209 A. H., and died in 886 A. D., 278 A. H. 

Ibn-Makla, **** &$, wazfr of the khalff al-Kahir Billan 
of Baghdad, whom, with the consent of other Umras, he 
deposed and having deprived him of sight, raised Al- 
Eazi Billah to the throne. Not long after, his hands and 
tongue were cut off by the order of Razf, because he had 
written a letter to the Khalff s enemy without his know- 
ledge, from which he died in the year 939 A. D., 327 
A. H. Ibn-Makla is the inventor of the present Arabic 
character which was afterwards improved by Ibn-Bauw&b. 

Ibn-Marduya, *i)*/* erfj commonly called so, but his 
proper name is Abu Bakr. He is the author of the work 
" Mu8takharij Bfkhiri" and of a commentary and history. 
He died 410 A, H, 

Ibn-Malik, «-^ U C^j vide Abu AMulUh-ibn-Mflik. 

Ibn-Muallim, f^° erf, vide Shaikh Mufid. 

Ibn-Rajab, vide Zain-uddin-bin- Ahmad. 

Ibn-Hashid, *±V c^ f surname of Abu'l Walid Muham- 
mad-bin- Ahmad, whom the Europeans call Averroes and 
Aven Bosch, was one of the most subtile philosophers that 
ever appeared among the Arabians. He was born at 
Corduba in Spain, where his father held the office of high 
priest and chief judge, under the emperor of Morocco. 
His knowledge of law, divinity, mathematios, and astro* 
logy was very extensive, and to this was added the theory 
rather than the practice of medicine. On the death of 
his fether, he was appointed to succeed him. Falling 



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under the suspicion of heresy, he was deprived of hia 
posts, and thrown into prison, from whence he was at 
last delivered and reinstated in his office of judge. He 
wrote a treatise on the art of physic, an Epitome of 
Ptolemy's Almagest, a treatise on astrology, and many 
amorous verses ; but when he grew old, he threw the three 
last into the Are. As to religion, his opinions were, that 
Christianity is absurd ; Judaism, the religion of children ; 
and M nhammadanism, the religion of swine. The best 
edition of his works is that of Venice, published in 1608. 
He is said to have died in 695 A. H., corresponding with 
1199 A. D., but Lampriere in his Universal Biography 
says, that he died at Morocco in 1206 A. D. 

Ibn-Sabbagh-al-Shafai, ^**&lt £U* ^) t gumame 
of Abu Nasr 'Abdul Safd-bin-Muhammad, author of 
the " Uddat-ul-'Alim Wit Tarffc-ul-Salim." He died 
1084 A. D., 477 A, H. 



Ibn-Sad, **~ C#j author of the Tabafcft. 
Ibn-Sina, ^erft, rufe Abu Sins. 
Ibn-Shahab-UB-Zohri, iSJ&l V*t* o**# an Arabian 

author who flourished during the Khilafat of 'Umar-ibn- 
' Abdul 'Asia. 

Ibn-Siraj, g!>-» &>*, whose proper name is Abu Bakr 

Muhammad, was an Arabian author, and died in 928 A. D. 
316 A. H. 

Ibnt-TJkba, ****l^, surname of Jamal-uddin Ahmad, 
author of the u Umdat-ut-Talil?." He died 1424 A. D M 
828 A. H. 

Ibn-XJkda, »*** crft, vide AbuTAbbas Ahmad-bin-Mu- 



Ibn-Ul-Arabi, <Jj**\ v>1, vide Ibn-Arabi. 
Ibn-ul-Ha ( jar, - r*^' uH^ vide Ibn-Hajar. 
Ibn-id-Jazari-bin-Muhammad, <s£&* etff, an Ara- 
bian author who died in the year 1430 A. D., 833 A. H. 

Ibn-nl-Zhashab, v*-^ 1 C^'j whose proper name is Abu 
Muhammad 'Abdullah, was an excellent penman. He 
died at Baghdad in 1172 A. D., 667 A. H. 

Ibll-ul-Bumi, i/ ^ &**} a famous Arabian poet who was 
co-temporary with Avicenna. He is the author of a 
Diwan in Arabic. 

Ibn-Ul-Warda, )*jji\ erf', author of an Arabic history 

called "Mukhtasir Jama-ut-Tawarikh," a valuable gen- 
eral history from 1097 to 1643 A. D. 

Ibn-Ufl-Saleh, J^l ^, whose proper name is Abu 

'Amru 'Usman-bin-'Abdur Bahma n»aa h *Shahrgur^ author 
of a collection of decisions according to the doctrine of 
Shafe'i, entitled " FaUwa Ibn.usSaleh. ,, He died in 
1244 A. D., 642 A. H. 

Ibn-Yemin, {&& etf t, a celebrated poet, whose proper 
name was Amir Mahmud, which see. 

Ibn-YunaB, %jr*Ji{&1, astronomer to the Khalif of Egypt, 
who observed three eclipses with such care, that by means 
of them, we are enabled to determine the quantity of the 
moon's acceleration since that time. He lived about a 
century or more after Al-Batani. 

Ibn-Zohr, j^o ^i\ f vide Abdul Malik Ibn-Zohr. 
Ibn-Zuryk, «-*0* <&?, Tanuki, an author. 
Ibrahim, fi A lrf the patriarch Abraham. 



rteahim, p&l& 9 an emperor of the Moors ol Africa in the: 

12th oentury, who was dethroned by his subjects, and his 
crown usurped by 'Abdul Mumin. 

Ibrahim, Sultan, (S^^ttA^ emperor of the Turks, 
was the son of Ahmad (Achmat). He succeeded his, bro- 
ther MuraM IV (Amarath) in February, 1640 A. D., 1049 
A. H., and spent a great part of his reign in the war of 
Crete against the Venetians, but without any great suc- 
cess. He was assassinated for his debaucheries and re- 
peated cruelties in 1649 A. D., 1059 A. H. His son Mu. 
hammari IV, succeeded him. 

Ibrahim, f±*LA the son of Alashtar, killed in 690 A. D., 

71 A. H M in a battle fought between the khalff 'Abdul 
Malik and Miaaa'b the brother of 'Abdullah, the son of 
Zubair whose faithful friend he was. 

Ibrahim, p&lriU the son of Ibrahim Mahran, a very 
famous doctor of the sect of 8hsia'f, and author of several 
works. 

Ibrahim Adham, (*** ffc*W> » king of Balkh, who 
retired from the world, became a Dervish and died be- 
tween the years 875 and 880, aged 110 years. It is said 
that he saw in a dream, a man on the top of a house 
looking for something. He asked him, what he was look- 
ing for ? The man replied, that he had lost his oameh 
What a fool you must be, said the king, to be looking 
for your camel on the roof of a house. The man rejoined. 
And what a fool you must be to look for God in the carea 
and troubles of a crown ! Ibrahim from that day abdi- 
cated his throne, and became a wandering Dervish. 

Ibrahim 'Adil Shah I, »^J> f±*iA Sultan of Bi- 
japur, Burnamed Abu'l Nasr, son of Ismail 'Adil Shih, 
succeeded his brother Mallii Adil Shah, on the throne of 
Bijapur in the Dakhan in 1636 A. D., 941 A. H. He 
married the daughter of 'Ala-uddin 'Imid Shah, named 
Babia Sultana in 1543 A. D., 960 A. H^ reigned 24 lunar 
years and some months, and died in 1668 A. D., 966 
A. H. He was buried at Kdki near the tombs of his 
father and grandfather, and was succeeded by his son 'AU 
'Adil Shah. 

Ibrahim 'Adil Shah II, l^b 1 * (•**]*», ofBflapur, 
Burnamed Abu'l Musaffar, was the son of Tahmasp the 
brother of 'AH 'Adil Shah, whom he succeeded in April, 
1580 A. D., Safar, 988 A. H., being then only in his 
ninth year. The management of public affairs was given 
to KamAl Khan Dakhani, and Chand BfbS Sultana, 
widow of the late king, was entrusted with the cure of the 
education of the minor monarch. For some time Kamal 
Khan behaved with due moderation in his office ; but at 
length was guilty of some violence towards Chand Sul- 
tana, who turned her thoughts to effect his destruction. 
She secretly sent a message to Haji Kishwar Khan, an 
officer of high rank, who caused him to be murdered. 
After this event Kishwar Khan, by the support and pa* 
tronage of Chand Bfbi, grasped the authority of the State, 
and ruled with uncontrolled sway, till he was assassinated* 
Akhlas Khan next assumed the regency ; but after some 
time he was seised by Dittwar Khan, who put out his 
eyes, and became regent of the empire. He was expelled 
by the king in 1590 A. D., and his eyes put out and himself 
oonflned in 1592 A. D. Ibrahim 'Adil Shin died after a 
reign of more than 38 lunar years in 1626 A. D., 1036 
A. H., and was succeeded by his son Muhammad 'Adil 
Shah. The first building of any importance we meet at 
Bfjijrar, is the Ibrahhn Bausa, the tomb of Ibranim 
'Adil Shah H. On a high-raised platform of atone, 
separated by a square, in the midst of which isahou* 
or fountain, stand the rousa and mosque opposite each 
other, and corresponding in sise and contour. The tomb 
is most elaborately ornamented, the walla being covered 



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with inscriptions from the tfurin in raised stone Arabic 
letters, which formerly were gilt, on a blue ground, 
though now the colouring has worn away. The mosque 
also is a beautiful building. 

Ibrahim Ali Khan, O^^ f&bi*, the new chief of 
Malar Kotla is a minor of about 15 years of age (1872), 
and is receiving his education in the Wards' School at 
Umballa. 

Ibrahim Ali Khan, e^*/** p&b$i nawib of Tonk, 
grandson of the famous Pindara chief Amir Khan. His 
father Muhammad 'Ali Khan was deposed by the British 
Government on account of the Lowa massacre in 1867. 
He was installed as nawab of Tonk on the 19th January, 
1871 by the British Government. 

Ibrahim Astarabadi,c5^!/***l ffc*W* *& author who 

translated the Risala or " Kitib Hasania" of Abu'l Fatuh 
Rizi Makki from the Arabic into Persian in 1651 A. D., 
958 A. H. 

Ibrahim Barid Shah, *^*^f f**lA Bucoeeded his 
father 'AH Barid in the government of Ahmadibid Bfdar 
about the year 1562 A. D., 970 A. H. He reigned seven 
years and died about the year 1669 A. D., 977 A. H. 
His brother $asim Barid II, succeeded him. 

Ibrahim Bayu, Malik, J* (&b# ^ u - In the 
province of Behar there is a hillock called Pfr Pahiri, on 
the top of which there is a tomb with Persian inscriptions 
in verse, intimating that Malik Ibrihhn Bayu died in 
the reign of Sultan Firos Shah on a Sunday in the month 
of 3il-bijja 758 A. H., which corresponds with January, 
1858 A. D., but who he was we are not informed* 

Ibrahim-bin^Aghlab, V^cH rH*!^, an Arabian cap. 

tain who was appointed governor of Egypt and Africa 
by the Khalif Harun-al-Rashid in 800 A. D., 184 A. H. 
llie descendants of this governor who settled in Africa, 
bore the name of Aghlabia or Aghlabites, and formed a 
dynasty of princes who reigned there till the year 908 
A. D., 296 A. H., when they were driven out by the Fa* 
timitoj. 

Ibrahim-bin-Ali, ^ttf (&[rf> author of the work 
called " Majma'-ul-Ansib," or the Genealogy of the dif- 
ferent dynasties of Persia, till 1233 A. D., 630 A. H. 

Ibrahim-bin«Hariri, Ut^r^cH f^lrf> author of the 
"Tarikh IbrahinuV an abridged history of India, from 
the earliest times, to the conquest of that country by the 
emperor Bibar Shah, who defeated Sultan Ibrahim Hus- 
sain Lodf , king of Dehli, and became the founder of the 
Mughal dynasty. It waa dedicated to Bibar Shah in 
1528 A. D., 934 A. H. 

Ibrahim-bin-MuhammacUal-Halabi, Shaikh, 

ijlarlt+B^s&fPW &* $ author of a Persian work 

on Theology called "Afcaed Sunnia," and of the " Mul- 
tata-al-Abhar." This work, which is an universal code 
of Muhammadan law, contains the opinions of the four 
chief Mojtahid Imams, and illustrates them bv those of 
the principal jurisconsults of the school of Abu Hanifa. 
He died 1549 A. D., 956 A. H., ft* Imam 'Alam-bin. 
'Ata. 

Ibrahim-bin-Nayal, J V «tf(*i*irJS brother of Tughral 
Be§f s mother, a chief who defeated Tughin Shah I, a 
prince of the Saljukian famihr, in battle, took him pri. 
sonar and blinded him. Ibrahim was murdsred after 
sometime in 952 A. D^ 461 A. H., by Tughral Beg, the 
uncle of TughinSbih, 



Ibrahim-bin-Saleh, ^ ui f&lrf> cousin of Hirun-al- 
Bashfd. A curious story is given of him in the Journal 
of the Royal Asiatic Society, No. 11, that when he died, 
Mauka-al-Hindf the philosopher restored him to life, 
and that Ibrihim lived long after this circumstance, and 
married the princess 'Ali 'Abbasa, daughter of Al-Mahdf, 
and obtained the government of Egypt and Palestine, 
and died in Egypt. 

Ibrahim-bin- WaUd II f J& ^ui^y\ a Khalif of 

the race of Umaiya, succeeded his brother Yazid III, in 744 
A. D., 126 A. H., and had reigned but seventy days, when 
he was deposed, and slain by Mu'awia II, who ascended 
the throne in Syria. 



Ibrahim Husain, Khwaja, cri~*> f&J) **•>*, 

a celebrated caligrapher in the service of the emperor 
'Akbar, who wrote a beautiful Nastalifc hand. He died 
in the year 1593 A. D., 1001 A. H., and 'Abdul tfidir 
Badioei found the chronogram of his death to be contained 
in his very name with the exception of the first letter in 
Ibrihim, viz., Alif. 

Ibrahim Husain Lodi, Sultan, iS*jl &***> pi*lyt 
e>U*L», ascended the throne of Agra, after the death of 
his father Sikandar Shall Lodi in February, 1510 A. D., 
Zi-fca'da 915 A. H. He reigned 16 years, and was defea- 
ted and slain in a battle fought at Panfpat with the em- 
peror Bibar Shah on Friday the 20th April, 1526 A. IX, 
7th Rajah, 982 A. H., an event which transferred the 
empire of Dehli and Agfch to the family of Amir Taimur. 
From this battle we may date the mil of the Pa^han 
empire, though that race afterwards made many effort*, 
and recovered it for a few years in the time of the em* 
peror Humiyun. 

Ibrahim Husain Mir*a, !/^° e*** f**Lr*t, ason- 
in-law of the emperor Humiyun, and the second son of 
Muhammad Sultan Mini, who had four other sons be- 
sides him, tie., 1st, Muhammad Husain Mini, 2nd, 
Ibrahim Husain Mini, 3rd, Masa'ud Husain Mini, 4th, 
Ulagh Mini, who died in 1567 A. D., 975 A. H., and 
5th, Shih Mini. They were styled, "The Minis," 
and were, on account of their ill-conduct, confined in the 
Fort of Sambhal by order of the emperor Akbar. When 
that monarch marched in the year 1567 A. D., 975 A. H. 
for the purpose of subduing Milwi, they made their 
escape and sought an asylum with Chingix Khin, a 
nobleman at Baroach. They took Champaneir and Sunt 
and also Baroach in 1569 A. D., 977 A. H., and created 
a great disturbance in the surrounding countries. Ibri- 
him Husain was taken prisoner in 1573 A. D., 981 A. H., 
and shortly after put to death by Makhsus Khin, gover- 
nor of Multin, and his head sent to the emperor; who 
ordered it to be placed over one of the gates of Xgrah, 
(viaV Gulrakh Begam) and caused his brother Masa'ud 
Husain Mini to be oonfined in the fort of Gwiliar where 
he soon after died. 

Ibrahim-ibn^Aghlab, V^e^f**]^, a king of Barbary. 

This country was reduced by the Saracens in the Khili- 
fat of 'Umax, and continued subject to the Khalif of 
Arabia and Baghdid till the reign of Harun-al-Raabid, 
who having appointed Ibrahun-ibn-Aghlab governor of 
the western parts of his empire, that prefect took the 
opportunity, first of assuming greater powers to himself 
than had been granted by the Khalif; and then erecting a 
pri n c i p ali t y altogether independent of the Khalifa. The 
— i of Aghlab continued to enjoy their new 



,_„ „_„_ .__ _ ^^ __ _ ^^^^olity 

peaceably till the year 910 A. D^ 298 A. a/during 
which tune they made several descents on the island of 
Sicily, and conquered a part of it About this time, how- 
•TW,a»Obettullahsuinamed'Al.Mah 



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the house of Aghlab, and assumed the title of Khalif of 
Kairwan. 

Ibrahim, Tn^m, f^jfl f^. This Ibrahim who bearB 
the title of Imam, or chief of the religion of Mohammad, 
is not of the number of the twelve Imams of the posterity 
of 'Ali. He was a son of Muhammad, the son of 'All, 
the son of 'Abdullah, the son of 'Abbas the uncle of the 
prophet, and eldest brother of the two first Khalifa of the 
house of 'Abbas ; but was himself never acknowledged 
for a Ehalif. He was put to death by order of Marwan 
II, surnamed Himir, last Khali f of the house of Umayya, 
in the month of October, 749 A. D., Safer, 132 A. H. 

Ibrahim Khan, &^(*&j$ t the son of the celebrated 
Amir-ul-Umra ' Ali Marriftn Khan. He was honoured with 
the rank of 6000 in the second year of the emperor 'Alam- 
gir 1659, A. D., and appointed governor, at different 
periods, of Kashmir, Lahor, Bihar, Bengal and other 
places, and died in the reign of Bahadur Shah. 

Ibrahim Khan Patha Jang, *&*f&d*>p&j$, 

was a relation of the celebrated Nur Jahan Begam, whose 
mother's sister he had married. When Kasim Khan the 
grandson of Shaikh Salim Chishti was recalled to court 
from the government of Bihar in the twelfth year of the 
emperor Jahangir 1616 A. D., 1025 A. H., Ibrahim Khin 
was appointed governor of that province with the rank of 
4000. He was killed at Dacca 1623 A. D M 1032 A. H„ in bat- 
tle against prince Khurram (afterwards Shah Jahan) who 
had rebelled against his father Jahangir. His wife Run 
Parwax Khinam lived to s# great age, and died in the 
reign of the emperor ' Alamgir. 

Ibrahim Khan Snr, j>~ *J* f**!^, son of Ghisf 
Khan, governor of Bayina, was the brother-in-law of Mu- 
hammad Shah 'Adili, whose sister he had married. He 
raised a considerable army and took possession of Dehli 
and Agrah on the 28th February, 1555 A. D., 6th Jumada' 
I, 962 A. H. He had no sooner ascended the throne, than 
another competitor arose in the province of the Panjab, 
in the person of Ahmad Khan, a nephew of the late Sheir 
Shah. He defeated Ibrahim Khin in a battle, and the lat- 
ter retreated to Sambhal, while Ahmad Khan took posses* 
sion of Agrah and Dehli, and assumed the title of Sikandar 
Shah in May the same year. Ibrahim Khan was killed 
by Sulaiman, King of Bengal, in Orissa in a battle fought 
in 1567 A. D., 975 A. H., and is buried there. Amongst 
the incidents of the year 1555 A. D., 962 A. H., was the 
explosion in the fort of Agrah, when enormous stones and 
columns were sent flying several kda to the other side 
of the Jamna, and many people were destroyed. As the 
whole Fort was called Bidalgarh, the date was found in 
the words, " The fire of Bidalgarh." 

Ibrahim Khawas, u°l^ f^LrJtf a pupil of Abu 
'Abdullah Maghrabi who died 911 A. D. He was called 
Khawis, which means a basket-maker. 

Ibrahim Kutb Shah, »& V^ f**lH», was the son of 

Kuli Kutb Sliah I, sovereign of Golkanda. On the death 
of his brother Jamaheid Kutb Shah, the nobles of the 
court elevated his son Subhin Kuli, a child of seven 
years of age, to the throne ; but as he was unable to 
wield the sceptre, Ibrahim was sent for from Bijanagar, 
where he then resided, and was crowned on Monday the 
28th of July, 1550 A. D., 12th Rajab, 967 A. H. In the 
year 1565 A. D., 972 A. H., he, in conjunction with the 
other Muhammadan monarchs of the Dakhan, marched 
against Bamraj, tho riji of Bijanagar, who was defeated 
and slain, and his territories occupied by the conquerors. 
In 1571 A. D., 979 A. H., the fort of Rajmandri was 
taken from the Hindus by Rafa't Khin, the general of 
Ibrahim ; the following chronogram commemorates the 



date of its occurrence: « The temple of the infidels has 
fallen into our hands." Ibrahim £utb Shan, after a 
prosperous reign of 32 years, died suddenly on Thursday 
the 6th of June, 1681 A. D., 21st Babf H, 989 A. H M in 
the 61st year of his age, and was succeeded by his son 
Muhammad Kutb 8han. 

Ibrahim Mirza, !ir* f&lrf> the son of Bahram Mini and 
grandson of Shah Ismaf 1 Safwi. His poetical name was 
Jahi. He was murdered by order of his grandfather. 

Ibrahim Mirza, Sultan, 0^ f**!/* f o^ 1 **, was the 

son of Shahrukh Mirzi and grandson of Amir Taimur. He 
was governor of Fan during the life of his father, and died 
a few years before him in 1435 A. D., 839 A. H. After 
his death, his son 'Abdullah Mini succeeded him, and was 
killed in battle against Mirzi Ami Sa'id his cousin-ger* 
man in 1451 A. D., 866 A. H. 

Ibrahim Mirza, *)y° f&lrf) his poetical name was 
Adam, which see. 

Ibrahim Mirza, f^W V J/*> the son of Mini 8ulaimin 
of Badakhahin, was born in the year 1634 A. D., 941 
A. H. When his father with the intention of conquering 
Balkh went to that country, prince Ibrahim accompanied 
him, and was taken prisoner in battle and put to death 
by order of Pir Muhammad Khin, ruler of Balkh in the 
month of September, 1660 A. D., £iH\)ja, 967 A. H. 

Ibrahim Nayal, J 1 ** p&lrft vide Ibrahim-bin-Nayil. 

Ibrahim Nizam Shah, * u r 1 ^ f^lrft succeeded his 
father Burhin Niiam Shah n, in the kingdom of Ah- 
madnagar Dakhan in the month of April, 1695 A. D., 
Sha'ban, 1003 A. H., and was slain in action against the 
troops of Ibrahim ' Adil Shah II, of Bfjipur, after a reign 
of only four months in the month of August, 1596 A. D., 
giHijja, 1003 A. H. Mian Manju, hisWazir, raised 
to tho throne one Ahmad a boy, said to be of the Ni*am 
Shihi family. 

Ibrahim Pasha, *^ (**[?)> an adopted son of Mu- 
hammad 'Ali Pasha of Egypt, was born in 1789 A. D., 
and gave the first proofs of his gallantry and generalship 
in 1819 A. D., in quelling the insurrection of the Wahabis. 
He afterwards made several conquests. In 1848 A.D. when 
Muhammad 'Ali had sunk into absolute dotage, Ibrahim 
went to Constantinople, and was installed by the Porte 
as Viceroy of Egypt ; but on the 9th November, 1848, 
he died at Cairo. 

Ibrahim Shah Sharki, Sultan, <fj* » u f**W cM-, 

ascended the throne of Jaunpur, after the death of his 
brother Mubirik Shih in 1402 A. D., 804 A. H. He was 
famous during his reign for the encouragement he affor- 
ded to literature ; and we find that in those times of 
anarchy and confusion which prevailed in Hindustan, 
Jaunpur became the seat of learning; as appears (says 
Firishta) from several works now extant, dedicated* to 
Ibrahim Shah. He died in 1440 A. D., 844 A. H., after 
a long reign of upwards of 40 years. He was beloved 
in life, and he was regretted by aU his subjects* His 
eldest son Mahmud Shah Sharki succeeded him. 

Ibrahim Shah Pir,^» u f^l^i a Muhammadan saint 
whose tomb is in the district of Each thirty miles above 
Lakpat. Vide Transactions Royal Asiatic Society, Vol. HI. 
p. 668. 

Ibrahim Shaikh, f^j) £*&, the son of Shaikh Musa, 

the brother of Shaikh Salim Chishti. He served Akbar 
for several years in the military line, and when that 
emperor was proceeding to Kabul after the death of his 
brother, Muhammad Hakim, Shaikh Ibxihim accompanied 



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him as for as Thinesar, where he fell sick through ex* 
cess of drinking and died on the 16th Mehr f in the 80th 
year oi Akbar's reign, corresponding with September, 
1686 A. D., Bhawwii, 993 A. H. According to the work 
" Masir-ul-Umri," he was left behind by the emperor and 
ordered to take charge of the fortress of Agrah, where he 
died 1691 A. D M 999 A. H. 

Ibrahim. Shaikh, ibn-Mufrij-ufl-Souri, {j)y^\ 

jrjAjo ^| ^A|^| £*£, author of iho history of Alex- 

ander tho Great and of Khizir in Arabia, called " Kitab 
Tarfkh al-Iskandar Zulkarnain-al-Eumi-wa-Wazirat-al- 
Khisr." This is one of thoso substructures of truth upon 
which Eastern nations have erected a large and romantic 
edifice of fable, much in the same manner as the tales of 
chivalry of the Middle Ages, which though fictitious, were 
partly attributed to real characters, as in the romances of 
the Knights of the Round Table and the Peers of Charle- 
magne. 

Ibrahim Shirwani, Shaikh, <J)yr r±*LH* £±% 

ruler of Shirwin, who reigned about the beginning of the 
ninth century of the Hijra. Maulani Kitibi flourished 
in his time and died in 1435 A. D. 

Ibrahim Shaibani, ^^ f± A i^# of Kirman Shah, a 

pupil of Abu 'Abdullah Maghrabi He lived about the 
year 900 A. D. 

Ibrahim, Sultan, f&j*) &U&* } the son of Sultan Ma- 
ss' ud I of Ghaznl, succeeded his brother Farrukhzid in 
1069 A. D., 460 A. H. He was a pious, liberal and just 
prince. In the first year of his reign he concluded a 
treaty of peace with Sultan Sanjar the 8aljukide, at the 
same time his son Masa'ud espoused the daughter of 
Malikshih, sister to Sul(an Sanjar, and a channel of 
friendship and intercourse was opened between the two 
nations. He afterwards came to India and took several 
forts and obtained the title of conqueror by the extent 
of his victories. Sultan Ibrahim had 86 sons and 40 
daughters by a variety of women, the latter of whom he 
gave in marriage to learned and religious men. He died 
after a reign of more than forty years in 1098 A. D., 492 
A. H,, aged 76 lunar years, and was suoceeded by his son 
8ultan Masa'ud II or III. According to the work called 
"Tar$ Guzfda" he reigned 30 years and died in the 
year 1088 A. D., 481 A. H. 

'Ibrat, **&**> the poetical name of Ahmad 'Alf Khan, 

cousin of Nawib Sa'idat Khan Zulfifcar Jang. 

> Ibrat, *>jP> the poetical title of Mir Zaya-uddfn, a poet, 

who wrote the first part of the story of Padmiwat in Urdu 
verse, and died ; consequently the second part was written 
by Ghulam 'All 'Ishrat, and finished in the year 1796 
A. D., 1211 A. H., the chronogram of which he found 
to contain the words " Tasnif Dosha'ir." 

'Ibrat, &j¥) the poetical name of 'Abdul Mannin, which 

see. 

'Ibrat, &Ji*> the poetical name of Ahmad, a musician of 

DehlL who, from the instructions that he received from 
Mini 'Abdul £idir Bedil, became an excellent poet. 
He at first had assumed " Maftun" for his poetical name, 
but afterwards changed it for " Ibrat." He was a co- 
temporary of Nanr 'Ali the poet, and was living about 
the year 1688 A. D., 1100 A. H. 

'Ibrat, **>/?$ the poetical title of Mfr Ziasi-uddfn, author 
of the first portion of the story of Padmiwat in Urdu 
verse. He died about the year 1795. A. D. Vii* Padmiwat 

Idris or Adris-bin-Hiflam-uddin, Mulla, u^l 

30 



^Ua. (^ ,j*i)S\ ILo, author of the history called "Ta- 

rikh Hasht Bahisht," or the Eighth Paradise, containing 
the Memoirs of the most illustrious characters of the 
Muhammadan religion, who flourished from 1451 to 1606 
A.D. 

'Idrisi, ts-i)d, (Abu 'Abdullah Muharnxnad-Hm-' Abdullah 
Idris), also called Sharif-al-Idrfsf-al-SifciH, author of a 
system of Arabian geography, composed in 1153 A. D. 
He is said to^be one of the most eminent Arabic geogra- 
phers and descendant of the royal family of the Idrisites. 
He was born at Ceuta or Sibti (Ci vitas) in the year 1090 
A. D. The title of the above work is " Nuzhat-al-Mush- 
tafc," and it has been translated into Latin by several 
authors. 

Iftikhar Khan, tj^j^l, title of Sultin Husain, the 
eldest son of Mir 'Abdul Hidi, entitled Asilat Khin Mir 
Bakhshi, who died at Balkh in the 20th year of the em- 
peror Shah Jahin 1647 A. D., 1057 A. H. In the first 
year of 'Alamgfr, Sultan Husain was honored with the 
title of Iftikhar Khan. Some time before his death he 
was appointed Faujdir of Jounpnr, where he died in 1681 
A. D., 1092 A. H. 

Ifffct Bano, y ^ •*+**, daughter of the emperor Jahingfr. 
Her mother was the daughter of Said Khin of Kashghar. 
She died at the age of 3 years. 

Ihflan, cjl~^t, the poetical name of Mirza Ihsinullih, com- 
monly known by the ti^le of Nawib Zafar Khin, who at 
one time was governor of Kibul when tho poet Muham- 
mad 'Ali Sieb of Persia came to see him there. He died 
in 1662 A. D., 1073 A. H., and is the author of a Diwan 
in Persian. 

Ihsan, er—^, the poetical name of 'Abdur Rahman Khin 
of DehK, who wrote excellent poetry in Urdu, and died 
some time after the year 1844 A. D., 1260 A. H. 

Ih8an, ur-^t, the poetical title of a Hindu named Chunni 
Lai, who was living at Agrah in 1760 A. D., 1174 A. H. 

Ihtiflham Khan, C^ f\&S*>\, title of Shaikh Farfd of 
Pathapur 8£kri, the son of Kutb-uddm Shaikh Khuban. 
He served under the emperors, Jahingfr, Shah Jahin and 
'Alamgir ; and was raised to the rank of 3000. He died 
in 1664 A D., 1075 A. H. 

Ijad, a^, the poetical name of Mfr Muhammad Ihsan, 
who died in the year 1721 A. D., 1133 A, H. 

Ika Pandit, t***J b| > a Marhafta who, in the time of Shah 
Alam and Madho Bio Scindhia, held the appointment of 
the Subadarship of the fort of Agrah. 

Ikbal Knan, e) 1 ^ cM, was the son of Zamr Khin, the 
son of Firoi Shih Tughlafc. He defeated Nasrat Khin 
and ascended the throne of Dehli about the beginning of 
the year 1400 A. D., 802 A. H. f and was slain in a battle 
against Khizr Kfrfri , the governor of Multan, in Novem- 
ber, 1405 A. D., 19th Jumida I, 808 A. H. After his 
death Sultin Mahmud Shih, who was defeated by Amir 
Taimur and had fled to Gujrit and then to tfanauj, re- 
turned on the invitation of Daulat Khin Lodi who com- 
manded at Dehli, and took possession of the empire. 

Ikbal-uddaula Muhnin Ali Khan, id* %J* er«** 

*|>*f| JU*I, the son of Shams-uddaula Ahmad 'AH 

Khin, the son of Nawib 8a'idat 'Ali Khin of Lakhnau. 
He sailed for England to claim the throne of Audh in 
January, 1838, A. D., and after trying in vain to obtain the 
recognition of his claim in England, determined upon 



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passing the remainder of his days in a life of sanctity in 
Turkish Arabia. He is the author of the work called 
"ftbalFirang. M 

Ikhlas Khan Husain Beg, ^ cri-* o 1 * u»^, 
a nobleman of the reign of the emperor Shan Jahan who 
died in the year 1639 A. D., 1049 A. H. 

Ikhlas Khan Ikhlas Keiflh, cA^ u 6 ** 1 ei^ o ^* 
was a Hindu of the tribe of Khattri of Lahor. He was 
well-versed in Persian, and served under the emperor 
'Alamgir, who conferred on him the above title. In the 
time of Farrukh-siyar he was raised to the rank of 7,000. 
He wrote the history of that emperor and called it " BacL- 
shih Nama." See T£i«hnTi Chand. 

Ikram Khan, eM* f^j the son of Islam Khan and Ladli 
Begam, the sister of Abu' 1 Fazl, the prime minister of the 
emperor Akbar. Vide Islam Khan. 

Ikram Khan, er^ flfh title of Sayyad Hasan, an amir, 
who served under the emperor 'Alamgir, and died in 1661 
A. D., 1072 A. H. 

Ikram All, <J* (fjfi, author of the Urdu " Akhwan-us- 

Safa," which he translated from the Persian in the year 
1810 A. D., 1226 A. H. 

Hcram-uddaula, ^j** (>)/\, the brother of *Ali Naki 
Khan, the prime minister of Wajid 'AH Shah, king of 
Lakhnau, died August 1869, A. D. 

'Ikrima, **jfc> aon of Abu JahL 
'Ikrima, *^S vide Akrima. 
Iksir, Mirsa, tjj"j&*, wttAksfr. 

Ilah Wirdi Khan, c^ iS*JJ ^$ ) vide Alah Wirdi 
Ilah Yar Khan, ^ jk *U\, ) KhAn - 
Hani, ^r'> an author who, according to the work called 

« Khulasat-ul-Asha'aV' died in 1638 A. D., 946 A. H. 
Ilahi, Mir, ur L/*S name and poetical title of a person 
who was a descendant of the Sayyads of Bashidabld in 
Humdan. He came to India in the latter part of the 
reign of Jahangir, and served under his son 8hih Jahan. 
He is the author of a biography called ** Khasina Ganj 
Itehi," and of a Diwan containing amorous songs. The 
author of the "Mirat Jahan" says, he died in 1648 
A. D., 1067 A. EL, but from the chronogram which 
Ghani Kashmiri wrote at his death, it appears that he 
died in 1664 A. D., corresponding with 1064 A. H. 

Hani, Shaikh, ^ &*, a philosopher of Bayana, who 

in the time of Salim Shih, king of Dehli, made a great 
stir, by introducing a new system of religion. He called 
himself Imam Mahdi, who, according to the Shia's, is still 
living and is to conquer the world. Having raised a 
great disturbance in the empire, he was in the year 1647 
A. D., 964 A. H., scourged to death by order of that em- 
peror. 

Ildiguz, Atabak, jS^i cftfy was a Turkish slave, 
sold to Sultan Masa'iid, one of the Saljdki princes. He 
is said to have so completely established himself in the 
favor of his royal master, that he advanced him to the 
highest stations in the kingdom : and the able manner 
in which Ildiguz executed every duty that was assigned 
to him, led at last, not only to his being charged with the 
education of one of the young princes^ which gave him 
the title of Atabak or At&beg, but to his marriage with 
the widow of Tughral II (the brother of Masa'ud, and 
neuhew of Sultan Sanjar), and within a abort period 



he became the most powerful noble of the Persian empire. 
He died at Hamdan in 1172 A. D., 668 A. H., in the 
reign of Arsalin Shah, and left his power and station 
to his eldest son At&bak Muhammad. 

Zitt of the Atdbake of the race of Ildiyut. 

J A. D. 

Atftak Edigux, died 117* 

„ Muhammad, son of Ildiguz, „ H&6 

„ £ixal Arsalan, son of ndigus, slain 1191 

„ Abu Bakr, son of Muhammad, .... died 1210 
„ Muaaffar, son of Muhammad, he was defeated 1 126 
by Sultan Jalal-uddih of Khwa- 
rizm, and died some time after. 
He was the last of the Atlbaks 
of the race of Ildiguz who reigned 
in 'Axurbejan. 

Ilham, rV ! i **k M* 1 * 1 - 

Umas 'Ali Shan, \J^ t^* cr^t, the celebrated rich 

and powerful eunuch of the Court of Nawib Asif-uddaula. 

He died in 1808 A. D. 

Iltitmish, ij^\ } vide Altamish. 

'Imad-al-Katib or Imad-uddin-al-Katib, ^ 

V^ujiaJl ^ ^ V^ f , that ia/Imid the Secretary, 
was the surname of Muhammad, the son of ' Abdullan, the 
son of Samad, also called Isfahani. He was a celebrated 
author, and has written in Arabic the history of SsUah- 
uddin (Saladin) the Sultan of Egypt and Syria, in seven 
volumes, entitled " Barfc-ush-Shami," the lightning of 
Syria. He died 1201 A. D., 697 A. H. 

'Imadi, LS*^*** surname of Jamal-nddin-bin-Imad-uddin 
Hanaft, author of the Arabic work called "Fus&tal- 
•Imidi." 

'Imad Fakih Kirmani, Khwaja, </*j* *& ^ 
A^t>^, a Muhammadan doctor who lived in the time of 
Shall ShujaV of Shiras. His death is mentioned in the 
" Jawanir-ul-Asha'ar" to have happened in 1391 A. D., 793 
A. H., but according to the poets Hani and Daulat Shih 
he died in the year 1371 A. D., 773 A. H., which appears 
to be correct. Ilahi also mentions to have seen 12,000 
verses of his composition, and that he is the author of 
the works called "Muhabbat Nama," and "Mehnat 
Nama," adding that he wrote in all a " Panj Ganj," that 
is to say, five Masnawis or Poems. It is mentioned in 
the " Habib-us-Siar," that Khwsja 'Imad had a cat that 
would stand up to prayers with him, and do what he did. 
This was believed by Sh£h ShujaV to be a miracle of the 
Khwaja; but Khwaja Hafiz who was his cotemporary, 
and would not take it for a miracle, but a deceit of the 
doctor, wrote a ghasal on that occasion ; the following is 
the translation of a couplet from the same : " O thou 
charming bird, where art thou going, stand still, and be 
not proud (or think thyself to be safe) because the cat of 
the saint says prayers." Imid Khwaja was buried at 
Kirman, the place of his nativity. 

'Imad Khwaja, **** ^J^ 9 vide Imid Fatfh. 

'Imad Shah, &" *l+*, videlmiivl Mulk, commonly called 
Fatha-ulteh. 

'Imad-uddin Katib, hW i^^U*, vide 'Im*d-al- 
Katib. 

'Imad-uddiQ, {ji*)\db* f surname of Kara Arsalin-bin- 
Ddud-bin-Sukman-bin-Arta^. Nur-uddin Mahmud was 
his son, to whom Salah-uddfn (Saladin) the Sultan of 
Egypt gave the city of 'Amid ox Kara Amid, U83 A. P«* 
679 A. ft 



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>Iinad-uddill, cH^ta 1 **, author of a poem called the 
" Guldasta" or the Nosegay, which he composed in 1664 
A. D., 1075 A. H. He was a native of India. 

'Imad-Tlddin, vi^ld***, author of the history of the 
8aljukidee. 

•Imad-uddin Zangi, vA eri^ **+*$ *ke son of Afsa- 
\ax f was one of the Atabaks or ruling ministers under 
the latter princes of the Saljukian race. He was the 
first of that branch that had the government of MousaL 
He received the governorship of that province in 1127 
A. D., 521 A. H., from Sultan Muhammad, the son of 
Sultan Malikshah Sa\juk(, reigned 19 years, and was 
murdered by one of his slaves in 1145 A. D., 540 A. H. 

The following is a list of the princes of this race. 

A. D. 

'Imad-uddin Zangi, "began 1127 

Saif-uddin Ghazi-bin-Zangi who defeated the 

French at Damascus, began 1145 

$utb-uddfn Mauddd, son of Zangi, .... 569 A. H. 1149 
Kur-uddin Mahmud, son of Zangi, he reigned at 
Aleppo and formed another branch, died 669 

A.H .-••• 

Malik Salah, son of Nur-uddin, succeeded his fa- 
ther and reigned at Aleppo and died 1174, . . • • 
Al-Muizz 8aif-uddin Ghazi-bin-Maudud, .. began 1170 

Azz-uddin Masa'ud-bin-Maudud, • • • 1 180 

Kur-uddin Arsalan Shah-bin-Masaud, 1 193 

Malik-ul-Kahir Azz-uddin Masa'ud-bm-Nur-uddfn, 1210 

Kur-uddin Arsalan Shah-bin- Kahir, • 1218 

Kasir-udctfn Mahmud-bin-Kahir, • 1219 

Al-Malik-al-Kahim Badr-uddin Lulu, • 1222 

Al-Malik-ua-Salah Isma'fl-bin-Lulu, 1259 

Eolab or Aleppo branch. 

»Im4d-uddin Zangi, "27 

Kur-uddin Mahmud-bin-Zangi, 1145 

Al-Malik-us-Salah Isma'fl-bin-Kur-uddin, 1174 

'Imad-uddin Zangi-bin-Kutb-uddin-bin.Maudud, 

delivered Aleppo to Salah-uddin (died 1197 AD. 1181 
His son Muhammad reigned at Singara. 

♦Imad-uddaula, *& */* ****** ***** sumamed 'All 

Boya, was the son of Boya, a fisherman who rose to the 
command of the armies of the Sultan of Dflam and ob- 
tained possession of Persia, &c, which he divided with 
his two brothers. He fixed his residence at Shiraz 933 
A. D., 321 A. H., and died in the year 949 A. D., 338 
A. H. Vide 'AM B6ya. 

'Imadul Mulk, *SlLJf a***, commonly called Fathullah 
'ImAd Shah, founder of the 'Imacl Shahi dynasty in the 
Dakhan, was descended from the Kanarese infidels of 
Bijanagar. Having been taken prisoner in the wars with 
that country when a boy, he was admitted among the 
bodyguards of Khan Jahan, commander-in-chief and 
governor of Ber&r. In the reign of Muhammad Shah 
Bahmani, through the influence of Kbwaja Mahmud 
Gawin, he received the title of 'Imaa-ul-Mulk, and was 
subsequently raised to the office of commander of the 
forces in Berar. After the murder of his patron Ehwaja 
Mahmud Gawin in 1481 A. D., 886 A. H., he retired 
to his government of Berar. On the accession of Sultan 
Mahmud B ahmani, he was honored with the office of 
wixaxat, which he held for some time, but being soon 
titer disgusted with the court, he left it and declared his 
independence in the year 1485 A. D., 890 A. H. Elich- 
pur was his capital. He died about the year 1513 A. D., 
919 A. 1L, and was succeeded by his eldest son 'Ala-uddin 
•ImadShah, 



List of the kings of the 'Imdd Shdhi dynasty of Berdr. 

Fath-ullah 'Imad Shall. 

'Ala-uddin 'Imad Shah, son of Fath-ullah. 

Daria 'Imao 4 Shan, son of 'AU-uddin. 

Burhan 'Imad Shah. 

Tufal Khan, prime minister of Burhan 'Imao 4 Shall, who 
usurped the throne, but was opposed from Ahmadnagar, 
and the family of 'Imid Shah and Tumi extinguished in 
1568 A. D. 

'Imad-Ul-Mulk, &&Jld**, title of that Ghazi-uddin 
Khan who murdered his master 'Alamgir II, emperor of 
Dehli. Vide Ghazi-uddin Khan m. 

'Imad Zangi, ifi) aU*, vide 'Imad-uddin Zangi 
Imam, #»^t, a high priest or head or chief in religious mat- 
ters, whether he be the head of all Muhammadans, as the 
Khalifa or the priest of a mosque, or the leader in the 
prayers of a congregation ; but this sacred title is given 
by the Shias only to the immediate descendants of 'Ali, 
the son-in-law of the prophet, which are twelve, 'Ali be- 
ing the first. The last of these, Imam Mahdi, is supposed 
by them to be concealed (not dead), and the title which 
belongs to him, cannot, they conceive, be given to an- 
other : but among the Sunnis it is a dogma, that there 
must be always a visible Imam or '* father of the church," 
The title is given by them to the four learned doctors 
who are the founders of their faith, viz. : Imams Hanifa, 
Malik, Shafa'i, and Hanbal. Of these four sects, the 
Hanbalite and Malikite may be considered as the most 
rigid, the Shafa'ite as the most conformable to the spirit of 
Islamism, and the Hanffite as the wildest and most philo- 
sophical of them all. Two other Imams, Abu Diud-uz- 
Zahiri, and Sunan-us-Sauri were also chiefs of the ortho- 
dox sects, but their opinions had not many followers, and 
after some time were totally abandoned. Ibn-Jarfr-ut- 
Tabari, whose reputation as an historian is so familiar to 
Europeans, founded also a particular sect, which disap- 
peared soon after his death. The following are the names 
of the twelve Imams of the race of 'Ali. 

Imam 'Ali, the son-in-law of the prophet 

„ Hasan. 

„ Husain. 

„ Zain-ul 'Abidfn. 

„ Balpr or Muhammad Ba^ir. 

„ Jafar SAdi*. 

„ Musi Kazim. 

„ 'Ali Musi Raza. 

„ Taki or Muhammad Tafcf. 

„ 'Ali Nafcf. 

„ Hasan AskarL 

„ Mahdi. 

Imam 'AlBm^liin-^Ala-al-Haiiafl, *?^l** & ^/U 

iJ*l, author of a large collection of Fatwas in several 
volumes, entitled "Fatawa Tatarkhania," taken from the 
" Muhit-al-Burhani," the •• Zakhirat," the " Khania" and 
" Zahiria." Afterwards, however, a selection was made 
from these decisions by the Imam Ibrahim-bin-Muham- 
mad- al-Halabi, and an epitome was thus formed, which, 
is in one volume, and still retains the title of " Tatar- 
khania.'* 

Imam Bakhsh, Shaikh, cA** f U » f;~> *** Sahabf - 
Imam Bakhsh, Shaikh, cA** r U| £*** *** N* 8 **- 

Imam Bakhah, Moulvi, <J& f **• iS^S*, vide Sahbaf. 

Imam 'Azim, title of Abu Hanifa. 

Imami Hirwi, Moulana, isx>* i/ ** 1 B *f*# he is 
called Hirwi, because he was a native of Hirat. He was 
an excellent poet and co-temporary with the celebrated 



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Shaikh Sa'df of Shfraz, whom, in the opinion of some 
writers, he surpassed in the Kasida. He died about the 
year 1281 A. D., 680 A. H., and has left a Diwan. 

Tmatn Malik, Lf^T {&* ^^ J* 1 *!, son of Anas, one of 
the four Imams or Jurisconsults of Mecca. He died on 
the 28th of June, 795 A. D., 7th Rabi' H, 179 A. H., in 
the time of the Khalif Harun-al-Rashfd. Vide MaUik-ibn- 
Anas. 

Imam Muhammad, *♦** f^ £**> a Muftf in the 

reign of Harun-al-Rashid the Khalifa. He died at Bagh- 
dad in 802 A. D., 186 A. H., and is said to have written 
999 works. He was a pupil of Imam Abu Ydsaf, who 
committed his notes to him, and ho (Muhammad) made 
great use of them in the composition or his works. Vide 
Abu 'Abdullah Muhammad-bin-Husain. 

Imam-uddin Amir Katib-bin-Amir Umar, 
J**j&* & *?>kj&* vidl {X»\, author of a Commen- 
tary on the Hidaya entitled " Kifaya" which he finished 
in 1346 A. D., 747 A. H. He had previously written 
another explanatory gloss of the same work, and entitled 
it the " Ghayat ul-Bayan." 

Imdad All, ^ «>I«M, the rebel Deputy Collector, who 

was hanged at Banda together with the rebel Tahsfldar 
of Pailani Muhammad Muhsin on the 24th of April, 1858. 

Imrit Bao, jtj *=ir*^ vide Amrit Rao. 

Imtihani, ^^Jf poetical name of Imam -ud din Beg. 

Imtiyaz, 3^*^ the poetical name of raja Day* Mai, 
whose father was Diwan of Asad Khan the Wazir of 
'Alamgir, and he of Ghazi-uddin Khan, styled 'Imad-ul- 
Mulk. 

Imtiyaa Khan, Sayyad, u^ ^ )*#** **-, 

whose poetical name is Khalis, was a native of TwfAh&n or 
Mashhad. He came to India in the time of the emperor 
'Alamgir, was appointed governor of Gujrai for some time, 
and was slain by Khuda Yar Khan in 1710 A. D., 1122 
A. H., in Sindh. It is said that Kasim Alf Khan, the 
Nawab of Bengal, was his grandson. Ho is the author of 
a Diwan. 

Ina'amuUah Khan, ^ aU ' r w > *Me Yekin. 

Inayet Khan, ^»f sj*> cJi^ whose poetical title is 
'Ashnd or Ahsan, and proper name Muhammad Taliir, 
was the son of Zafar Khan. He was an excellent poet, 
and is the author of the work called " Shah Jahan Nama," 
a history of the emperor Shah Jahan. Besides the above- 
mentioned work, he is the author of a Diwan and a Mas- 
nawi. He died in 1066 A. D., 1077 A. H. 

'Inayet-ullah, Shaikh, is^** *W ^^ &£, of 

Dehli, author of the work called " Bahar Danish," a col. 
lection of amusing tales, principally satires on women. 
Several of these tales were published by Colonel Dow, 
under the title of " The Tales of 'Inayet-ullah," and the 
whole work was translated in the year 1799 A. D., by 
Jonathan Scott, Esq., in three volumes, octavo. 

'Inayet-ullah Khan, eA^ *M ^i^ } the son of Shuk - 
ullah Khan, a descendant of Sayyad Jamal of Naishapur. 
His mother H4fiz Mariam was tutor of the princess Zeibun 
Nis£ Begam, the daughter of the emperor 'Alamgir ; by 
her influence her son 'Inayet-ullah Khan was raised by 
degrees to the rank of 2500. In the reign of Farrukh- 
sivar the rank of 4000 was conferred on him, and in that 
of Muhammad 8h£h, of 7000. He is the author of the 
work called "Ahkam 'Alamgfri,'' and compiler of the 
"Kalmat TaiyabaV' He died 1726 A. D., 1139 A. H. 



Indarman Bundela, Baja, 4e*H v*j** **b> the 

brother of Raja Sujan 8ingh. He died in the Dakhan 
about the year 1675 A. D., and his zamfndari of Urcha 
and the title of raj4 were conferred upon his son Jaswant 
Singh by the emperor 'Alamgir. 

Insaf, fci* - ^!, the poetical name of Muhammad Ibr£hizn. 

His father was a native of Khurasan, but ho was born in 
India. He was a cotemporary of Sarkhush the poet, 
was living about the year 1688 A. D., 1100 A. H., and 
died young. 

Insan, o 1 — ^ the poetical title of Naw&b Asad-ulUh Asad 

Yar Khan. He held the mansab of Haft Hazarf in the 
reign of Muhammad Shah, and died in April, 1745 A. D., 
Rabi' I, 1158 A. H. His remains were brought to Agrah 
and buried there in the cemetery of his ancestors. 

Inahaor Insha Allah Khan, ^ ^^ k^ 9 apoet 

and son of Masha Allih Khan. He is the author of four 
Df wins of different kinds. 

Intikhabi, ij^^U a poet who was a native of Khurasan, 

but was brought up in India. He ib the author of a 
Diwan. 

Intizam-uddaula Khan Khankhanan, o^ e>^ 

&)j±)t f U*£>t, the second son of Nawab Klamar.uddm 
Khan Wazir. He was appointed to the rank of second 
Bakhshi on the accession of Ahmad Shah to the throne 
of Dehli in 1748 A. D., 1161 A. H., and was honored 
with tho appointment of Wazir in 1753 A. D., 1165 A. H., 
after the dismissal of Nawab Safdar Jang from the office. 
He was murdered by 'Imad-ul-Mulk Ghazi-uddin Khan 
on the 26th November, 1759 A. D., 6th Rabi' II, 1173 
A. H., three days before the assassination of the emperor 
'Alamgir II. 

Iradat Khan, e^ «**y> the title of Mir Ishik or IahAfc 
Khan, the son of Nawab 'Azim Khan who held a high 
rank in the reign of the emperor Jahingir. Iradat Khan 
held various offices under Shah Jahan, and in the first 
year of 'Alamgir's reign he was appointed governor of 
Audh, but died after two months in October, 1658 A. D., 
gil.bijja 1068 A. H. 

Iradat Khan, £*j &**> *a>«>tj!, the title of Mirza* Mu- 

barik-ullah, whose poetical name was Wazah. His father 
Ia-hak Khan (who afterwards held the title of Kifayet 
Khan) was the son of Nawab 'Axim Khan. Both his 
grandfather and father were noblemen of high rank. The 
former was Mir Bakhshi to the emperor Jahingir, and 
was afterwards appointed Faujdar of Jaunpur, where he 
died in 1649 A. D., 1059 A. H., the latter held various 
offices of importance under Shah Jahan and 'Alamgir, 
and died soon after his appointment to the government of 
Audh in 1668 A. D., 1068 A. H. His title was also Iii- 
dat Khan which was conferred on his son after his death. 
In the 33rd year of 'Alamgir our present poet was ap- 
pointed Faujdar of Jagni, and at other periods, of 
Aurngibad and Mando in Malwa. In the reign of Shah 
'Alam Bah&dur Shdh, he was governor of the Dodb, and 
the intimate friend of Mua'zzim Khan, Wazir. In the 
latter part of his days, he led a retired life, became a Ka- 
landar, and died in 1716 A. D M 1128 A. H. His abilities 
as a poet were great, and he left a volume of poems be* 
hind him. He is the author of the " Kalroit 'AliaV' 
(Sublime discourses,) " Mina Bazar" and of a history of 
Aurangzeb's Successors, which latter was translated into 
English by Jonathan Scott, Esq., in 1 786 A. D. After 
his death, which happened in the time of Farrukh-siyar, his 
son Mir Hidiet- ullah received the title of Hoshd&r Khan, 
held the rank of 4000, and died at Aurangabad 1744 A. D.. 
1157 A. H. ' 



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Ishrat 



'Iraki, ^J*y whose proper name is Fakhr-uddin Ibr&hfm- 
bin-Shahryar, was a native of Hamdan in 'Iralf, and a 
pupil and grandson by the mother's side of the groat 
Shaikh Shah&b-uddin Suharwardf, author of a host of 
mystical works highly esteemed by the Sufis. 'Ira^i 
offended his parent and master, in consequence of some 
love attachment, and went to India, where he remained 
some time, regretting his native country, and uttering his 
complaints in moving verse. Ho lived in company with 
the Shaikh BahA-uddin Zikaria of Multan, whom he ac- 
companied on his journey and became his disciple. 'Iriki, 
after a long sojourn in India, proposed returning to his 
own master, Shahib-uddin ; but the latter had died, and 
our poet continued his wanderings to Syria, where he 
expired after a long life of eighty-two years on the 23rd 
November, 1289 A. D., 8th gi-Ka'da, 688 A. H., and was 
buried at Sdlahi in Damascus close to the tomb of Shaikh 
Muhf-uddin Ibn-ul-'Arabf. His son Shaikh Kabir-uddin 
is also buried there. 'Ira^i is the author of a work called 
" Lama'aV' vide Fakhr-uddin 'Ira>i. 

, Irfan, ertrS poetical name Muhammad Risl, the son of 
Muhammad Jan Irfin, author of the " Kar Nama," con- 
taining the exploits of 'AH Mardin Khan, the Amir-ul- 
Umrd of the emperor Shah Jahan. 

Irtiua 'Ali Khan Bahadur, jck* m>^ <J* Uty, 
author of the " Fariez Irtisia," a concise treatise in Per- 
sian on the law of Inheritance, which appears to be the 
principal authority of that law in the Dakhin. It was 
printed in Madras, but without a date. 

'Isam-uddin Ibrahim-bin- Muhammad Iefaraeni, 

^ijl~\ *+**& (**}j$ Lrf^t flat, ^ Arabian author, 

who died 1636 A. D. t 943 A. H., and is the author of the 
marginal notes in Arabic called " Hashia Is&m-uddin." 

Iga-ibn-Musa, tf^TJ* cril &"**> the cousin-german of 
the Khalff Abu Ja'far Mansur, after whose death in 775 
A. D., 158 A. H., he entertained thoughts of setting up 
for himself at Kufa where he then resided ; and in order 
to facilitate the execution of his scheme, fortified himself 
in that city. But al-Mahdi, the son of Mansur, being 
apprised of his defection, sent a detachment of 1000 horse 
to bring him to Baghdad ; which being done, al-Mahdi 
not only prevailed upon him to own allegiance to him, 
bnt also to give up his right to the succession (he being 
tho next apparent heir to the crown) for 10.000 according 
to aome, and according to others 10,000,000 dinars. 

*Iaa 8awaji 9 ^J^ <!si*$ a poet of Siwa who waa a Kfaf. 
He died in 896 A. D., 291 A. H. 

»Isi Turkhan, Mirza, cAfy &~& $J*> ▼*• » T^k- 
min and commander-in-chief of Shah Beg Arghun, king 
of Sindh's army, after whose death he took possession of 
fhatta of which he was then governor, and assumed the 
title of king. He reigned 13 years and died in 1567 
A. D., 976 A. IL, when ho was succeeded by his eldest 
son Mini, Muhammad Bifci Turkhan, who, during his 
rule always maintained a friendly intercourse with the 
emperor Akbar of Dehli, frequently sending presents, 
and acknowledging fealty to that monarch. He died 
after a reign of 18 years in 1685 A. D., 993 A. H., and 
was succeeded by his grandson Mirza Jani Beg. 

ladigertes, *j*>&}, *•* Yerdijard. 

Iafahani, i^ ( r ft **l| author of the u Danish Nama,'* a sys- 
tem of natural philosophy. 

T ffffr T* or Stephen, \J**U i* the name and takhallus of 
a Christian, bom at Dehli. His mther was a European, 
He was alive in 1800 A. D., 1215 A. H. 

31 



Isfandiyar, jl*>**~\, the son of Kiahtasp or Gaahtasp 

(Hystaspus) the fifth king of the Eayanian dynasty of 
Persia, was a great warrior, and appears to be the Xerxes 
of the Greeks. He was killed by Bustam before his 
father's death. 

Is-hak, (3***"l> the poetical title of Jamil-uddfn, a cotton- 
thrasher of Shiris. Ho was an elegant poet, and has left 
us a Diwan called " Aksir-ul-IshtihaY 1 the Elixir of Hun- 
ger, full of amorous songs and parodies on the odes of 
Khwaja Hafiz, each verse of which contains either the 
name of a sweetmeat or a dish. He lived in the time of 
prince Sultan Sikandar, the son of Umar Shaikh, who 
much esteemed him. His proper name is Abu Is-hafe, 
which he uses in poetry by abbreviating it into Bus-halt, 
vide Abd Is-hifc. 

IS-hak-bin-'Ali, <J* \J 0**~», author of a Dfwan in 
Arabic, and of a work called " Zuhr-ul-'Ad6b." He died 
in 1022 A. D., 413 A. H. 

Is-hak-bin-Husain or Hunain, {&*-*> cH <5****t, 
(^*Xa. b an Arabian author who translated the Almagastf 
of Ptolemy from the Greek into Arabic under the title of 
'* Tahrir-al-Majastf." This book is to be found in the 
French King s Library, No. 887. Shiraxf has written a 
commentary on this work, and entitled it " Hall Mushki- 
lat-al-Majasti." 

Ia-hak Khan, c>^ O*****'* styled M6'tamin-uddaula, 
whose original name was Mirza" Ghulam 'Alf, was a no- 
bleman of high rank, and a great favourite of the emperor 
Muhammad Sh£h of Dehli. He was a good poet, and 
used for his poetical name Is-hak. He died in the 22nd 
year of the emperor 1740 A. D., 1153 A. H., and after 
his death, his daughter was married to Shnjt-uddaula, the 
son of Nawib Safdar Jang, and the nuptials were cele- 
brated with uncommon splendour, 1746 A. D., 1159 A. H. 

18-hak, Maulana, O^*"* ^r*> a learned Musalman 
who was born at Uchcha in Multan. In his youth he 
dedicated himself under the guidance of his uncle Sayyad 
Sadr-uddfn Biju $atttl, whose sister was his mother. 
He died in 1456 A. D., 860 A. H., and was buried in the 
compound of his own house at Sahiranpur. 

Ia-hak Mousali, u^S O^^j a celebrated Arabian 
author, born at MousaL It is related in the Kitib Ala- 
ghini, that when he was on a journey, he carried with 
him eighteen coffers full of books, though he declared, 
that if he had not been anxious to make his luggage as 
light as possible, he would have brought double the 
quantity. 

lank, {}"*, poetical title of Shall Rukn-uddin who 

flourished in the reign of the emperor 3hih 'Alam. 

Iflhki, ijP 4 **) the title of a poet who flourished in the reign 

of the emperor Muhammad Shih, and is the author of a 
Dfwan. He died in 1729 A. D., 1142 A. H. 

l8hki f <£*^*t poetical title of Shaikh Muhammad Wajfh, 

son of Ghulam Husain Mujrim of Patna. He was for 
ten years under the English government Tahsildar of 
Kharwar ; was living in 1809 A. D., 1224 A. H., and is 
the author of a Diwan. 

'Ishrat, *3>r&*, poetical name of Mini 'AH Riii, who col- 
lected his poems into a Dfwan under Muhammad Shin in 
1747 A. D., 1160 A. H., and died shortly after. 

Ishrat, *»/"*» author of the last part of the story of Pad- 
ma wat in Urdu verse, which was completed by him 1796 
A. D. Vid$ Padmiwat and Ibrat. 



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Isma'Il 



'Ishrati, i/i^^i poetical name of a poet who is the author 

of a small Diwin. His name is Aka 'All of Isfahan, he 
came to India, and on his return died at Mashad. 

Ishtiyak, <3'^*'t poetical name assumed by Shah Wall 
UlUh of Sarhind, who was the grandson of Shaikh Ah- 
mad Sarhindi. He was a distinguished Theologian and 
Sufi. He died in 1748 A. D M 1161 A. H., and left several 
works. Shah 'Abdul *Aziz of Dehli, the most celebrated 
Indian Theologian in modern time, was one of his sons. 

Ishuri or Isliwari Singh, *&•• iSJ~i*> the son of 
Raja Jai Singh Sawai, whom he succeeded to the raj of 
Jaipur in 1743 A. D. He died in 1760 A. D., and was 
succeeded by his son Madho Singh. 

Ishuri Farshad Narain Singh Bahadur <//^' 
jiltf dXU ^fy a^, raja of Benaras( 1869). 

Iskandar, j*&«l, Alexander the Great Vide Sikandar 

Zulkarnain. 

Iskandar Manishi, ^^j^&J, whom 8tewart in his 

44 Catalogue of Tippu Sultan's Library," calls Sikandar 
Hamnashini, is the author of the " Tarikh 'Alam ' Arae 
'Abbasi," a history of the Persian kings of the Safwi 
dynasty, from Shah Isma'il I to Shah 'Abbas the Great, 
to whom it was dedicated in 1616 A. D., 1025 A. H. 

Islam Khan, c>^ C ^ ^tle °* ^ir Zay4-uddin Husain 
Badakhshi, whose poetical name was Wala. He served 
under the emperor 'Alamgir, and was raised to the rank 
of 5000 with the title of Islam Khan. Ho died in the 
year 1663 A. D., 1074 A. H., at Agrah, and the chrono- 
gram of his death was written by Ghani Kashmiri. He 
was the father of Nawabs Himmat Khan, Saif Khan and 
'Abdur Rahim Khan. 

Islam Khan, eJ^ f^*l> the son of 8afi Khan and grand- 
son of Islam Khan Mashhadi, was Subadar of Lah6r in 
the time of the emperor Farrukh-siyar, and was raised to 
the rank of 7000 in the reign of Muhammad Shin. 

Islam Khan Mashhadi, Nawab, &**&* e^ f^*' 
vL^i (he is by some called Islam Khan Bumf, but that is 
a mistake). He was a native of Mashhad, and his 
original name was Mir 'Abdus Salam. In the time of Ja- 
hangir he held the mansab of 5000, and the Subadari 
of Bengal ; and in the time of Shah Jahan was raised to 
the rank of 6000 with the title of Motam-uddaula and held 
the appointment of second Bakhshigari and governor- 
ship of the Dak h in. He afterwards was again appointed 
governor of Bengal. In the 13th year of Shah Jahan he 
was raised to the rank of Wizarat with the title of 
Jumdat-ul-Mulk. Shortly after he was raised to the rank 
of 7000, and the Subadari of the Dakhin. He was wazir 
to Shah Jahan and held the mansab of 7000, with the title 
of Islam Khan. He was some time before his death ap- 
pointed governor of the Dakhin where he died in the 21st 
year of the emperor, on the 2nd of November, 1647 A. D., 
14th Shawwal, 1057 A. H., and was buried at Auranga- 
bad. 

Islam Khan Bumi, is"JJ cM f^"**, title of Husain 

Pasha, son of 'All Pasha. He was governor of Basra, but 
being deprived of that situation by his uncle Muhammad, 
he left that country and came to India in 1689 A. D., 
1080 A. H., where he was received by the emperor 'Alam- 
gir with the greatest respect, and honored with the rank 
of 5000 and title of Islam Khan. He was killed in the 
battle of Bijapur in the Dakhin on the 13th of June, 



1676 A. D., Uth Rabf II, 1087 A. H. He had built his 
house at Agrah on a piece of ground consisting of four 
bigas and seven cottas, and a garden on a spot of three 
bigas and nine cottas, on the banks of the river Jamna 
near the Ghat called Tajara close to the fort of Agrah. 

Islam Khan, Shaikh, e^ f*~l £*», styled Nawib 

Ya'tiid-uddaula, was a grandson of Shaikh SalTm Chishti, 
and son-in-law of Shaikh Mubarik, the father of the cele- 
brated 'Abu'l Fazl, whose sister, named La^lf Begam, he 
had married. He was appointed governor of Bengal by 
the emperor Jahangir in 1608 A. D., 1017 A. H. Ktwtb 
Ikrarn Khan was his son, and $ asim Khan his brother. 
The latter succeeded him in the government of Bengal in 
1613 A. D., 1022 A. H., in which year Islam Khan had 
died. His remains were transported to Fathapur Sflcri 
where he was buried. 

Islam Shah, * U f*~U vide Salmi Shin. 

Isma'il, U&—I, or Ishmael, the son of the patriarch 
Abraham. 

Isma'il, &d"J** f t*» v> <J*aW, tho eldest son of 
Imam Ja'far Sidilp, from whom the sect of Isma'ilis or 
Isma'ilias take their name. They maintain, that Isma'il, 
who was the eldest son, but died during hi« father's life, 
should have succeeded to the dignity of Imam, and not 
Musi Kazim, who was his younger brother, and became 
the seventh Imam. Hasan Sabbah was of this sect Vide 
Isma'ilis. 

Isma'il I, Safwi, Shah, u*** 0*~>4 *^, the son 
of Sultan Haidar, was the first monarch of the Safwian 
dynasty of kings who reigned in Persia. He traced his 
descent from Musi Kajrim the seventh Imam, who was 
descended in a direct line from 'Ali, the son-in-law of 
Muhammad. Almost all his ancestors were regarded as 
holy men, and some of them as saints. The first of this 
family who acquired any considerable reputation was 
Shaikh Safi-uddin, who had settled at Ardibel, and from 
whom this dynasty takes its name of Safwia or Safwi. 
His son Sadr-uddin Musa, as well as his immediate de- 
scendants, Khwaja Ali, Shaikh Ibrahim, Sultan Junaid, 
and Haidar, acquired the greatest reputation for sanctity. 
Cotemporary monarchs, we are informed, visited the cell 
of Sadr-uddin. The great Taimur (Tamerlane), when he 
went to see this holy man, demanded to know what favour 
- he should confer upon him. " Release those prisoners 
you have brought from Turkey," was the noble and 
pious request of the saint. The conqueror complied; 
and the grateful tribes, when they gained their liberty, 
declared themselves the devoted disciples of him to whom 
they owed it. Their children preserved sacred the obli- 
gation of their fathers ; and the descendants of the cap- 
tives of Taimur became the supporters of the family of 
Safi, and enabled the son of a devotee to ascend one of the 
most splendid thrones in the world. Khwaja 'Ali, after 
visiting Mecca, went on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, and 
died at that city. His grandson Junaid, sat on the mae- 
nad as a spiritual guide after the death of his father 
Shaikh Ibrahim ; and so great a crowd of disciples atten- 
ded this holy man, that Jahan Shah, the chief of the tribe 
of the Black Sheep, who at that time ruled Azurbejan, 
became alarmed at their numbers, and banished him from 
Ardibel. Junaid went to Dayarbikar, whose ruler, the 
celebrated Uzzan Hasan, received him kindly, and gave 
his sister in marriage to Junaid. He afterwards went 
with his disciples to Shirwan, where ho was slain in a 
conflict with the troops of the king of that province in 
1466 A. D., 860 A. H. His son Sultan Haidar succeeded 
him, and his uncle, Uzzan Hasan who had now by his 
overthrow of Jahan Shah and 8ultan Abu Said, become 
sovereign of all Persia, gave him his daughter in mar- 
riage. The name of this princess according to Muham- 
madan authors, was 'Alam Shoa', but we are informed by 



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I8ma'il 



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Isma'il 



a cotemporary European writer, that she was called 
Martha, and was the daughter of Uzzan Hasan by the 
Christian lady Despina, who was a daughter of Calo 
Joannes, king of Trebizond. 8ul(an Haidar also lost his 
liib from the wound of an arrow which he received in a 
battle with the troops of Shirwan Shih and Ya'Vub Beg 
in July, 1488 A. D., fihaban, 893 A. H. Sultan Haidar 
had three sons by this princess ; Sultan 'All, Ibrahim 
Hirzi and 8hih Ismail. When Isma'il attained the age 
of fourteen (his elder brothers having died some years 
before), he put himself at the head of his adherents, and 
marched against the great enemy of his family the ruler 
of Shirwan, called Shirwan Shah, whom he defeated 
1600 A. D., 906 A. H., and soon after ; by another victory 
gained over Alwand Beg, the son of Ya'jciib Beg, a prince 
of the dynasty of the White Sheep, he became the master 
of the province of Azurbejan, and established his resi- 
dence at the city of Tabres ; and in less than four years 
became the acknowledged sovereign of the kingdom of 
Persia. He was born on the 17th July, 1487 A. D., 25th 
Bajab, 892 A. H., died after a reign of 24 lunar years on 
Monday the 23rd of May, 1524 A. D., 19th Rajab, 930 
A. H., aged 38 years, and was buried at Ardibel. Mu- 
hammadan historians fix the commencement of his reign 
from the year 1500 A. D. He left four sons ; Tahmasp, 
who succeeded his father, Sam Mirza, Bahrain, and Ikh- 
lis Mirza, and five daughters. He composed a Turkish 
Diwin in which he uses the Takhallus of Khitabi. 

The following is a litt of the Safwi Icing* of Persia. 

1. Shah Isma'il Safwi, 1st son of Sultan Haidar. 

2. Shah Tahmasp Safwi I, son of Isma'il Safwi 

3. 8hah Isuia'il II. 

4. Muhammad Khudi Banda. 
6. Hamza, son of Khuda Banda. 

6. Shah Isma'u III, son of Khuda Banda, 

7. Shah 'Abbas I, son of Khuda Banda. 

8. Shin Safi, the son of Safi Mirza, the son of 'Abbas. 

9. 8hah 'Abbas H, son of Shah §afi. 

10. Shah Sulaiman, son of 'Abbas II. 

11. Shah Husain, son of Sulaiman. 

12. Shah Tahmasp II, last of the Safwi dynasty. 

Mahmud, an Afghan. 
Ashraf, an Afghan. 

13. Shan 'Abbas III, vide Nadir Shah. 

Nadir Shah. 

Isma'il II, SafWi, Shah, ij&iS**" <^*<~» $&, second 

son of Shih Tahmasp I. Safwi, whom he succeeded on the 
throne of Persia in May, 1576 A. D.. $afar, 984 A. H., 
by the aid of his sister Pari Khinam, who sent for him 
from the fort of Kabbah where he was confined by his 
father for the last 18 years. The short reign of this 
unworthy prince was marked by debauchery and crime. 
Immediately on his accession, he directed the massacre 
of all the princes of the blood-royal that were at Kaxwin, 
except *Ali Mirzi whose life was spared : but even he 
was deprived of sight. His eldest brother Muhammad 
Mirza, who had a natural weakness in his eyes, which 
rendered him almost blind, and was during his father's 
life, employed as governor of Khurasan, was then at 
8hiraz. Orders were sent to murder him and his son 
'Abbas, but before they could be executed, Isma'il was 
found dead one morning in a confectioner's house, sup- 
posed to have been poisoned by his sister. His death 
happened at $azwin on Sunday the 24th November, 1677 
A. D., 13th Ramaxan. 985 A. H., after a short reign of 
one year and six months. He was succeeded by his eldest 
brother, Muhammad Mirza who, on his accession to the 
throne, took the title of Muhammad Khuda Banda. 

Isma'il, C4^*rfj surnamed al-Mansur, third or fourth Khalif 
of Barbary of the raw of the Fatimites, succeeded his 
father al-^aem 945 A. I)., 334 A H., and having defea- 
ted and slain Yewd-ibn-Kondat who had rebelled against 



his father, caused his body to be flayed, and his skin 
stuffed and exposed to public view. Al-Mansur died after 
a reign of seven years and sixteen days in 952 A. D., 
30th Shawwil 341 A. H., and was succeeded by his son 
Abu Tamim Ma*d sumamed Mo'isz-uddin-aH ih , 

Isma'il >Adil Shah, Sultan, s& Jo 1 * J****!, of 
B(japur, sumamed Ami'l Fatha, succeeded his father 
Yusaf 'Adil Shall on the throne of Bijapur in the Dakhin 
in 1610 A. D., 915 A. H., and died after a glorious reign 
of 25 lunar years on Wednesday the 27th of August, 
1534 A. I)., 16th Safar, 941 A. H., and was buried at 
Kuki near the tomb of his father. He was succeeded by 
his son Mallu 'Adil Shah. 

Isma'il-bin-Hasan, cr^ ui cl**+~l , author of the 

work called " Zakhira Khwarizm Shih." He flourished 
in the reign of Ala-uddin Takash, Sultan of Khwarizm 
who died in 1200 A. D., 696 A. H., and was a cotemporary 
of K hay ani the poet. 

Isma'il, Sayyad-bin-Husain Jmjani, cU*^-f 

ijWj* u±~*> {& «H**, author of two medical works 
in Persian, called " Aghras-ut-Tibb," and " Khiff-i-'Alii," 
which he dedicated to Alp Arsalan, Sultan of Khwarizm. 

Isma'ili, (/***♦*•» or Isma'ilia, ** L fc*-^** 1 , a family of 

chiefs, who had through the means of superstition, esta- 
blished an influence over the minds of their followers, that 
enabled them to striko awe into the bosoms of the most 
powerful sovereigns, and to fill a kingdom with horror 
and dismay for a period of nearly two centuries. Their 
ruler, who may be justly termed the chief of the assas- 
sins resided on a lofty mountain, called Alahmut, and 
fete was in his hands ; for there was no shape which his 
followers could not assume, no danger that they could not 
brave, to fulfil his mandates. These were the Isma'flis 
•r assassins, well-known by the Crusaders, as subjects of 
the Old Man of the mountain. They were completely 
extirpated by Haliku, the Tartar king of Persia, in the 
year 1256 A. D. Vide Isma'il and Hasan 8abbah. 

Isma'il Hakki, Shaikh, ^ cl*«~! £f~, author of 

a commentary on the Koran called " Buh-ul-Bayin," and 
of the " Hadis-ul-Arba'in." 

Isma'il Mirza, U^° tl*«W, f Isfahan, an author. 

Isma'il Nizam Shah, »& f ^ C ^* M * 1 * His rather, 
prince Burhan Shih, having been defeated in an attempt 
to dethrone his brother Murta'zi Nizam Shah, had fled 
for protection to the court of the emperor Akbar. On 
his departure he left behind him two sons, named Ibra- 
him and Isma'il, who were kept confined in the fortress 
of Lahagurh. On the death of Miran Husain Shih, the 
younger being raised to the throne of Ahmadnagar by 
Jamil Khan in the month of March, 1589 A. D., Jornada 
I. 997 A. H., took the title of Isma'il Nizam Shah. His 
father Burhan Shih having received assistance from the 
emperor Akbar, marched against his son, but was defea- 
ted. However in a short time after this, he renewed his 
attempts, and being joined by a great majority of the 
chiefs and people, attacked Jamil Khan the king's min- 
ister, who was killed in the action on the 27th April, 
1691 O. S., 13th Rsjab, 999 A. H. Isma'il, who had 
reigned little more than two years, was taken prisoner 
and confined by his father, who ascended the throne of 
Ahmadnagar with the title of Burhan Nizam Shah II. 

Isma'il Pasha, ^ J***~t, the present Khaddev or 
king of Egypt, son and successor of Muhammad 'Alf 
Pasha, who died in August, 1849 A. D. 

Isma'il Samani, Amir, ^°^ d**+~tj¥* t the first 
King or Amir of the race of Samin, called Rfrnjnf, traced 



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his descent from Bahram Chobin, the warrior who con- 
tended for the crown of Persia with Khusro Parves. 
8aman, the great-grandfather of Isma'il, is termed, by 
European writers, a keeper of herds, and a robber : but 
this merely designates the occupation of a Tartar chief. 
His father Naur Ahmad, the son of Asad, the son of Si- 
man, was appointed governor of Mawarun Nahr by the 
Khalif Mo'tamid in the year 875 A. D., 261 A. H. On 
his death his son Isma'il succeeded him. Ismail, after 
his conquest over Amru-bin-Lais, whom he seized and 
sent to Baghdad, in 900 A. D., became independent. 
The power of the dynasty of the Samanis extended over 
Khurasan, Seistan, Balkh and the countries of Trans- 
Oxania, including the cities of Bukhara and Samarkand. 
This justly celebrated prince died after a reign of twenty 
years in 907 A. D., Safar 295 A. H., aged 60 years, and 
was succeeded by his son Amir Ahmad Samani. 

The names of the kings of this family who were called 
Amirs, and who continued to reign for a period of 128 
lunar years, are as follow : — 

1. Amir Isma'il Samani. 6. Amir Mansur I. 

2. „ Ahmad Samani. 7. „ Nuh II. 

3. „ Nasr-bin- Ahmad. 8. „ Mansur II. 

4. „ Nuh I, son of Nasr. 9. „ 'Abdul Malik II, 

5. „ Abdul Malik. the last, of this 



'Ismat, *£*•***, «*<feAsmat. 

, IstarUflhi, ijTJ^"** vide Muhaxnmad-bin.Mahmud. 
Istaghana, *****•» . poetical title of 'Abdul BasuL 
*Itabi, ift^, a poet, who died in the year 1614 A. D., 1023 
A.H. 

Itkad Khan, J^ a^l, the brother of 'Asaf Khan, 

Wazfr, and son of Ya'tmid-uddaula. He was appointed 
governor of "Kashmir by the emperor Shah Jahan, which 
situation he held for several years. He died at Agrah in 
1650 A. D., 1060 A. H. 

Itkad Khan, d*> o^^f, the title of Mina Bahman 
Yar, the son of 'Asaf Khan and grandson of Ya'tmad- 
uddaula. He was raised to the rank of 4000 in the 25th 
year of Shih Jahan 1651 A. D., 1061 A. H., with the 
title of Ya'tkad Khan, which his father held for some time 
as well as his uncle the brother of 'Asaf Khan. In the 
5th year of 'Alamgir 1662 A. D., 1072 A. H., the rank 
of 6000 was conferred on him. In 1667 A. D., 1077 
A. H., he proceeded to Dacca in Bengal, to visit his bro- 
ther Shalsta Khan who was then governor of that pro- 
vince, and died there in the year 1671 A. D.> 1082 A. H. 

Itkad Khan, ii^ a 1 *** 1 , former title of Zulnfcir Khan 
Nasrat Jang. 

Itmad Khan Khwaja Sara, Lr* **!>* d*> J^+H 
an eunuch and officer in the service of the emperor Akbar. 
He was stabbed by his servant Malpud 'All in 1578 
A. D., 986 A. H., and was buried at a place called Itmad- 
pur, twelve miles from Agrah, which he had founded in 
his lifetime. 

Itmad Khan, e^ a^ief, title of Shaikh 'Abdul £awf, 
an Amir of the reign of the emperor ' Alamgfr. He was 
murdered by a Kalandar in 1666 A. D., 1077 A. H. 

Itmad-Uddaula, *^l * W*!, title of Khwaja Ayas or 
Ghayas the father of the celebrated Ndr Jahan Begam, 
the favourite wife of the emperor Jahangir. He was a 
Tartar and came from Persia to India in the reign of the 
emperor Akbar. In the time of Jahangir, he was raised 
to the high rank of Wazir, with the title of ItmAd-ud- 
daula, and his two sons to the first rank of 'Umra with 



the titles of 'Asaf Khan and Itkad Khan. He died near 
K6t Kangra where he had accompanied Jahangir on his 
way to Kashmir in February, 1621 O. 8., Rabi' I, 1030 
A. H. His remains were transported to Agrah, and 
buried on the left bank of the Jamni, where a splendid 
mausoleum was built over his relics by his daughter Nur 
Jahan. It was completed in 1628 A. D., and is still in a 
high state of preservation. It is said, but it seems not 
to be true, that she intended to raise a monument of silver 
to his memory, but was reminded by her architect, that 
one of less covetable material stood a fairer chance of 
duration. After his death, his son 'Abu'l Hasan was ap- 
pointed Wazir with the title of 'Asaf Khan. No private 
family ever made such alliances with royal blood, as this 
Tartar ; for, his own daughter, his son's daughter and the 
daughter of his grandson, were married to three successive 
emperors of Hindustan; and another daughter of his 
grandson, to prince Murid Bakhsh, who disputed the throne 
with 'Alamgir, and for some days thought himself in 
possession of it. The place where he is buried, was a 
garden built by ItmacUuddaula during his lifetime. 
There are two tombs of yellow stone under the R&tua, 
one of which is of Itm&d-uddaula and the other is 
said to be his wife's. It has a very largo gate towards 
the east, built of red stone. It has two minara on both 
sides in the same number as there are two on the side of 
the Jamna towards the west. There is on the chabutra 
towards the Jamna a fish made of stone ; if the water 
runs in and rises as far as its mouth, the whole of 
Allahabad will be inundated. 

'Itmad-uddaula, *Jj*J' *^*, title of Muhammad Amir 

Khan, the prime minister of the emperor Muhammad 
Shah. Vide Muhammad Amfr Khan. 

Itmad-uddaula, *Jy>Jl oUI^t, son of Muhammad Amfn 

Khan, Wazir. Fide Kamar-uddin Khan. 
Itsam-uddin, Shaikh, ui^ f 1 **** £*% author of 

the " Shagarf Nama-i-Wilaet," being the travels of the 
author in Great Britain and France, some time before or 
after the year 1766 A. D., 1180 A. H. This work has 
been translated into English. 

Ihia-bin-' Abdul Latif-al-Husaini of Kazwin, 
Amir, c*^^ *-*iMW *** e* is^j^U author of 

the "Lubbut Tawankh," which he composed in 1541 
A. D., 948 A. H. Haji Khalfa gives his name as Isma'il- 
bin-' Abdul Latif, and in the Masir-ul-Umra, he is called 
Mir Ihia Husaini Saifi. He was patronized by Shah 
Tahmasp 8afwi, but his enemies, envious of his good 
fortune, endeavoured to poison his patron's mind against 
him, and at last prevailed so far as to induce the king 
to order him together with his son Mir Abdul Latif, to be 
imprisoned, the latter, however, made his escape, but 
Mir Iahia died in prison after one year and nine 
months' imprisonment in 1555 A. D., 962 A. H., aged 77 
years. His second son Ali-uddaula known by the poeti- 
cal name of Kami, is the author of the work called 
" Nafais-ul-Masir." His eldest brother Mir 'Abdul Latif 
who had fled to Q-ilan, came afterwards to Hindustan 
with his family some time after Akbar had ascended the 
throne. By him he was received with great kindness and 
consideration, and was appointed his preceptor. He is 
said by some authors to have died at Sfkrf in 1563 A. D M 
971 A. H M but the author of the *' Maair-ul-'Umra" writes 
that his death took place in 1573 A. D., 981 A. H., 
and that Kaaim Arsalan found the chronogram of his 
death to be ** fakharalyas." His eldest son Ohayas- 
uddin 'All was also endowed with an excellent disposi- 
tion, and served Akbar for a long period. In the 26th 
year of Akbar's reign, 1581 A. D., he was honored with 
the title of Nakib Khan, by which he is now best 
known. In the time of Jahangir he attained still for. 
ther honors, and died at Ajmir in 1614 A. D n 1023 



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A. H. He was buried there in a marble tomb within the 
urea of Mo'fa-uddin Chishtfs mausoleum, where his wife 
also lies burled by his side. Nalpb Khan was one of the 
compilers of the first portion of the "Tirfkh Alfi," and 
the translator of the " Mahabharat," though this honour 
is usually ascribed to Fairi. He left a son named Mir 
'Abdul La^if who was a person of great worth and ability 
and attained high honours, but died insane. 

Iyar Muhammad Khan, Mir, el**- ****jkjV 9 the 
son of Mir Murad 'AH, former ruler of the Haidaribid 
portion of Sindh. He is a brother of Muhammad Khan, 
who being dispossessed and kept for some time a prisoner on 
the annexation of Sindh under Sir Charles Napier, was 
allowed to return, and now resides at Haidarabad as a 
private gentleman upon a pension from Government. 

laid Bakhflh, Mirza, c^ ^ !ir*°* His poetical 
name was Rasa ; he was the grandson of ' Asaf Khan Ja'far 
Beg who was Waxir to Jahangir. laid Bakhsh was at 
first employed by the prince 'Asim Shin, and then by his 
father the emperor 'Alamgfr in the capacity of Munshi. 
On the accession of Farrukh-siyar, he was disgraced by that 
emperor on account of his casting some reflections on his 
father Asfm-ush-8han at the time of the battle which 
took place between 'Azim Shah and his brother Bahadur 
Shah. By the order of the emperor, the hairs of his mus- 
taches were plucked, out one by one, and afterwards he 
was cruelly murdered. This event took place about the 
beginning of the year 1713 A. D., 1125 A. H. His tomb 
is still to be seen in the compound of the Agrah College. 

'Issat, &J*> poetical name of (Shaikh) 'Abdul 'Axis, which 

see. 
'Issat, ^i^i poetical name of 8angham Lai, which see. 
'Issat, &}*> poetical title of Jaikishun, which see. 
Issat, &y t poetical appellation of Shaikh Wajfh-uddin. 

Issat-uddaula Mirsa Muhsin, !)>• ^J^l *&* 

er**** brother of Nawab Safdar Jang. He was sent to 
Persia on an embassy to Nadir Shin after his invasion of 
Hindustan, by the emperor Muhammad Shin. Vide 
Najaf Khan and Muhammad (Lull Khan. 

Iss-uddin Abdul Asis-bin-Abdus-Salam Da- 
miahki, Shaikh, fM*** erf JO^^ u*^>* 
^ tJ&A*, author of the •* Shajrat-ul-Ma'ari£" He 
died in the year 1261 A. D., 660 A. H. 

Iss-uddin Husain, crt-^ cd*^. He was created 
bv Sultan Ibrihim of Ghasni, Amir Hajib, in which sta- 
tion he conducted himself so well, that the king gave him 
anrincess of the house of Ghasni in marriage. He rose 
daily in favour and estimation, till 8ultan Masa'ud the son 
of Ibrahim, put him in possession of the principality of 
Gh6r By the princess of Ghasni, he had seven sons 
entitled the seven stars. One of them, Fakhr-uddin 
Masa , ud,bc>camekingofBamyin. The second was Kutb. 
uddin Muhammad, who married his cousin, a princess of 
Ghasni, the daughter of Sultan Bahram 8hih. The third 
was 'Ali-uddfn Hasan, prince of Gh6r, who destroyed 
Ghasni. Iis-uddfn during his lifetime paid tribute to 
the 8a\ju*s as well as to the Ghaanavides. 

laa-uddin Khalid Khani, ^ *^ fcrt*^ 

author of the work called "Daliel Ffr6s Shahi," which 
he translated into Persian by order of Ffros Shah, from a 
Hindi book whkh treated on philosophy, astrology and 
divination. 

32 



'Iss-uddanla Bakhtyar, j 1 *** *)j**!y, the son of 

Mu'izx-uddaula-ibn-B6ya. He succeeded to the kingdom 
of 'Irafc the same day on which his father died, viz., 
Monday the 1st of April, 967 A. D., 17th Babf II, 356 
A. H. The Khalif al-Taya Billah in the year 974 A. D. 
gave him his daughter in marriage, on whom a dowry of 
one hundred thousand dinars was settled by her husband. 
He was a noble prince, and possessed such bodily strength 
that he would seize an enormous bull by the horns and 
throw him to the ground. A contest which arose be- 
tween him and his cousin 'Azd-uddaula relative to their 
respective possessions, caused a breach between them 
which led to a war, and on Wednesday the 29th May, 
978 A. D., they met and fought a battle, in which Isz- 
uddaula was slain, aged 36 years. His head was placed 
on a tray and presented to 'Azd-uddaula, who on seeing 
it, covered his eyes with his handkerchief and wept 



j. 



Jabali, t^T^j the son of Ayham, last king of the tribe of 

Ghaasan, who were Christian Arabs. He became a Mu- 
hammadan, and afterwards attempted to assassinate 
Umar, the second Khalif after Muhammad. He died 673 
A. D., 63 A. H. 

Jabali, Jt^j surname of Abo 'All Muhammad-bin-' Abdul 
Wahab, who was the master of the celebrated Abu'l Hasan 
al-Asha'ri, chief of the sect of the Asharians, and one of 
the four Imams of Musalmanism. 

Jabali, u^t poetical name of 'Abdul Wasa, who was born 
in the mountains of Ghurjistin, hence his takhallus 
which means mountaineer. He found a patron in Bahrim 
Shall of Ghasni, and served Sultan Sanjar Saljdkf four- 
teen years. He died in 1160 A. D., 555 A. H., and left a 
Diwan of Kasfdas. rule 'Abdul Wasa. 

Jabar, j*?>> poetical name of Abu Musa Ja'far-al-Safi, which 
see. 

Jabila Bam Nagar,^ (*J ***N a Hindu chief who 
was governor of Allahabad, and died there in the com- 
mencement of the reign of Muhammad Shih in 1720 
A. IX, 1132 A. EL His nephew Girdhar was appointed 
governor of Audh after his death, and in 1724 A. D., 1136 
A. H., the government of Milwi was conferred on him, 
and the Subadarf of Audh was given to Burhan-ul-Mulk 
Sa'adat Khan. Baja Girdhar died at Milwi during the 
invasion of Bajf Rao Marhafta, the general of Raja Sahu, 
about the year 1729 A. D., 1142 A. H., and was succeeded 
by Days Bahadur his relation, who continued gallantly to 
resist the enemy, and fell in battle about the year 1780 
A. D., 1143 A. H., when Muhammad Khan Bangash was 
appointed governor of that province. 

JabiT, *Wl*fc* ^ y^ the son of 'Abdullah, was a com- 
panion of Muhammad and a traditionist He was present 
mindneteen battle* which Muhammad fought, and died in 
the year 692 A. D., 73 A. R n aged 94 years. 

Ja'far, ^^ia*', poetical title of 'Asaf Khan, commonly called 
Mini Ja'far Beg. 

Jaffex, J***i a soldier by profession. He is the author of 
a Masnawf, which he dedicated to the emperor Shih 
Jahan. 



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Ja'far-al-Barmaki, &=* u* ij*jd\ j***>, son of 

Ahia or Yahia and grandson of Kh&lid, the son of Barmak 
who was originally a fire-worshipper. He succeeded his 
father Ja'far as wazir to the Khalif Harun-al-Rashid ; 
his grandfather having heen wazir to Abu'l 'Abbas 
Saffiih, who was the first of all the Khalife who had a 
wazir. This wazir Ja'far, was a great favourite of H4- 
run-al-Rashid, who gave him 'Abbasa, his sister, in 
marriage, under the condition to have no carnal con- 
nection with her, but he transgressed the command, for 
which the Khalif ordered his head to be struck off. He 
also threw his brother al-Fazl and his father Ahia into 
prison, and there left them to die. Ja'far was only 28 
years old when he was executed, having been in the favour 
of Harun-al-Rashid for the space of seventeen years. 
Ja'far was beheaded on Sunday the 29th of January, 803 
A. D., 1st Safar 187 A. H., his body was gibbetted on 
one side of the bridge of Baghdad, and the head stuck up 
on the other. 

Ja'far Ali Khan, e>^ (^ j**+, commonly called Mir 

Ja'far, whom the English placed on the masnad as 
Naw&b of Bengal, Behar and Orissa, after the defeat and 
death of Nawab Siraj-uddaula, in June, 1767 A. D., 
Shawwal 1170 A. H. He was, however, deposed in 1760 
A. D., 1174 A. H., on account of his neglect in the affairs 
of his government, and was obliged to retire on an ample 
pension, when his son-in-law, Mir Kasim 'Ali Khan was 
raised to the masnad. This man after his elevation, in- 
tending to drive out the English from Calcutta, was 
defeated in a battle fought at Udwa Nala on the 2nd of 
August, 1763 A. D., 22nd Mu^arram, 1177 A. H., and 
expelled, and Mir Ja'far was again placed on the masnad 
by the English. He died on Tuesday the 6th February, 
1765 A. D., 14th Shaban, 1178 A. H., and his son Mir 
Phulwarf, who assumed the title of Najm-uddaula, was 
elevated to the masnad. Ja'far Alf s cemetry is at Mur- 
shid£bdd, where his Begam and his son Miran are also 
buried. 

list of the Nawdba of Murthiddbdd. 

Ja'far 'AH Khan, died 5th February, 1766. 

Najm-uddaula, son of Ja'far 
Ali Khan, died 3rd May, 1766. 

Saif-uddaula, 2nd son of Ja'far 

'AliKhan, died 10th March, 1770. 

Mubarik-uddaula, 3rd son of 
Ja'far 'Ali Khan, died September, 1793. 

Nazir-ul-Mulk, son of Mubarik- 
uddaula, died April 1810. 

Zain-uddin 'Ali Khan. 

Sayyad Ahmad 'Ali Khin, . . died 30th October, 1824. 

Humayun J£h. 

Mansur 'Ali Khan Nasrat Jang, present Naw£b (1868). 

Ja'far Bannaki, kJ^.J^, see Ja'far-al-Barmakf. 
Ja'far-bin-Abu Ja'far-al-Mansur, j****>l i&j*** 

Jir**J\, the Khalif of Baghdad. His daughter Zubeda 

was married to Haxun-al-Eashid Ho died in the vear 
802 A. D., 186 A. H. J 

Ja'far-bin-Abu Talib, V^ j» & j***>, was the 
brother of 'Ali the son-in-law of the prophet. He was 
killed in a battle fought at Muta in Syria against the 
Roman army in 629 A. D., 8 A. H. 

Ja'fto-bin-Muhammad Husaini, *+aB* ^^i**. 

&-*>, author of the " Muntakhib-ut-Tawarikh," a very 
judicious abridgment of Oriental history from Adam down 
to Shihrukh Mirzi, son of Amir Taimur. This work 



was dedicated to Baisanghar Bahadur, third son of 8hah- 
rukh, in 1417 A. D„ 820 A. H. Many authors have com- 
piled works under this title, one of which was written by 
Shaikh 'Abdul Kidir Badaoni 

Ja'far-bin-Tufail, JJlL ^ ju^ } an Arabian philo- 
sopher in the 12th century, author of a romance, called 
} e . ^ £ Hai-ibn-Yokdhan,''in which he asserts 
tuat by the light of nature, a man may acquire a know- 
ledge of things, and of God. FtVfr Lempriere's Uni- 
versal Dictionary, under Jaaphar. 

Ja'far Khan, ^J**, entitled "Umdat-ul-Mulk," was 
the son of S4di£ Khan Mir Bakhahf, and sister's son and 
son-in-law of Yemin-uddaula 'Asaf Khan, wazir. He 
held the rank of 5000 under the emperor Shah Jahau. was 
J??^**^ 1 ™ 06 mini8t er by 'Alamgir about the vear 
I 662 A " ^ji? 7 ? A ^ H - """ **" 13th year of that 
HTk 167 £ A - ?' - 10 , 81 A ' H > at D <** After his 
death the office of wizirat was conferred upon And 

^ Um * Wlt ^ ^ h JH of Asad-uddaula. It seems that 
after tiie death of Ja'fer Khan his remains were tarns- 
ferred to > Agrah, where his tomb is to be seen still stand- 
ing on the right bank of the Jamna. 

Ja'far Khan, cM>**, whose original name was Mur. 
shid Kuli Khan, was appointed governor of Bengal by 
the emperor 'Alamgir in 1704 A. D., 1116 A. H. He 
folded the can*., I of MurshidSbaM and named it site 

ST Wi Ue * , H ? WM ^ Bon of a Bt &™» oonver? 
SL • ^"""P^MiMm by Hiji Shafia' Isfkhani. He 
ft! m ^L* 6 ^ ' the ^P^or Muhammad Shah about 
theyeari726A D 1138A. H., and was succeeded by 
hw son.in.law Shuj^-uddin (also called Shuja^ud^ula? 
The following is a list of his successors :— *""""»;• 

Murshid Kuli Ja'far Khan, . . ^* 7 ?t 

Shujd-uddin, son of Ja'fer Khan," ! ". '"* 179* 

'AU-uddauU8arfara^Kha^V7.. JIS 

Alahwardi Khan MahAbat Jang,...' fl™ 

Sirdj-uddaula, grandson of ditto, ..." \I,VL 

Ja'fer 'Ali KhAn (dethroned in 1760), .'//, JJS 

Ja'far 'Ali Khan, restored in ........ . i££ 

Najm-uddaula, son of ditto, ilJJ 

Saif-uddaula, brother of Najm-uddaula, . i i«l 

Mubarik-uddaula, ^ }™J 

N&im-ul-Mulk Wazir-uddaula, (died* April *28th, 

Sayyad Zain-uddin ''AH Kbin^ 'son of ditto! ' 1 ' ! * ' * }1m 

Sayyad Ahmad 'AH Kh&aT^ ' 1810 

Humayun Jah. 

Mansur 'Ali Khan, Nasrat Jang. 

Ja'far Khan, cA ^ ^ o^j**±, ^ of g^ 

Khan, Kng of Persia. He was recognised by the prin- 

^t^S m J^ ^^ dea^Vf 'AHM^d 
Khan m 1785 and the people were forward in acknow- 
ledging his authority, but unable to rosist £r«S^ ^Ak* 
Muhammad Khan, who now ventured to embrace a mc^ 
extensive field for the exertion of his talented ££T 
mencod his , mar^h against Isfahan. S5S» igfa ^ 
Wherously murdered in 1788 ; his head waTseVaTed 
from his body, and cast before the citadel thT m^F^t 
children, and the outcasts of the city . ^ PWt of 

Ja'far Khan, ^>^, a nobleman who in the first year 
of the emperor Bahadur Shih was appointed aoverna* nt 
Kashmir in the room of Nawaash Khan m 7 f D^Tiio 
A. H He proved to be a bad governor and a mol ™ 
fire to his residence. He died in Kashmir of drink *?? 

^^TA 709 /-.?' 1121 A ' H » ^^1^ totted 
cord of his death, must be faring badly at present. 



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Ja*far Nasiri, 1SJ*** J**+* an author who completed 

the work called " Latief KhayaV' in 1742 A. D., 1165 
A. H., which was commenced by Mirza Muhammad 
8ilah. 

Ja'far Sadik, O^J***, or Ja'far the Just. He was 
the^ eldest son of Muhammad BaMpr, the grandson of 
Imam Husain. Ho is reckoned the sixth Imim; was 
born at Madina about the year 702 A. D., 83 A. H., and 
died in the same city under the khilafat of Abu Ja'far 
Al-Mansur, in 765 A. D., 148 A. H. He was very fa- 
mous for his doctrine amongst the Musalmans, was in- 
vited to court by Al-Mansur, that he might profit by his 
counsel: Ja'far returned for answer, "Whoever has a 
view duly to this world, will not give you sincere advice, 
and he who regards the next, will not keep your com- 
pany." Ho was buried in the cemetry of Al-Ba^fa at 
Madina. The same tomb contains the bodies of his father, 
Imam Bakir, his grandfather *AK Zain-ul 'Abidin, and his 
grandfather's uncle, Hasan, son of 'AH. His mother's 
name was Umm Farwah, daughter of Kasim, the son of 
Muhammad, the eon of Abu Bakr Sadik, the first Khalif 
after Muhammad. He is said to be the author of a book 
of fate called " Fal Nima." 

Ja'far Zatalli, Mir, uFjj***^", a Sayyad of Nir- 
noul, cotemporary with Mirza Bedil. He served under 
prince 'Azim Shall, the son of the emperor 'Alamgir, who 
was slain in battle in 1707 A. D., 1019 A. H. Ja'far was 
the most celebrated humoristic poet of Hindustan ; his 
compositions are a mixture of Persian and Urdu. He is 
the author of a Shihnima in Rekhta. He was put to 
death in 1713 A. D., 1225 A. H., by order of the 
emperor Farrukh-siyar, on account of a satirical verse he 
had written on the accession of that emperor to the throne 
ofDehlf. 

Jagat Goflhaini, <fk ^jf «^* vide Jodh BaX 

Jagat Narayan, ufi/* ^^^j a Hindu poet who wrote 
some kasfdas in praise of Nawib 'Asaf-uddaula of Lakh* 
nau, who died in 1797 A. D., 1212 A. H. 

Jagannath, Baja, V 1 ^ Mj the son of Bhara MaL He 

held the rank of 6000 in the time of the emperor Jahingfr, 
about the year 1605 A. D., 1014 A. H. 

Jagat Singh, *&•• *****, the son of Makund Singh 
Hara, lived in the time of the emperor 'Alamgir 1659 A. D. 

Jagat Singh, *&* **•**, raj* of Jaipur or Jainagar, was 

the son of raja" Partip Singh, the son of Madho Singh, 
the son of Ishuri Singh, the son of the celebrated raja* Jai 
Singh 8awif, who lived in the time of the emperor Mu- 
hammad 8hih. Jagat Singh succeeded his father in 1803 
A. D., and is said to have been an effeminate prince. 
Though he died without issue, he was succeeded by raji 
Jai 8ingh, a posthumous son, believed supposititious. 

Jagnath K&lanwat, CyJ^ *t^*, a musician who 

was employed by 8h£h Jahin, who oonferred on him the 
title of MahiKabrij. 

Jaghtai, </**** *** Chaghtaf Khan, 

Jagnath, *t*^« brother of Raji Bhagwin Das. He dis. 
tinguishod himself in the war with Raji Partip 8ingh. 
He slew the renowned champion Bam Das, son of 
Jagmah. 

Jahan Ara Begam, fHfltf c**t*, daughter of the em- 
peror Shah Jahan, by Mumtas Mahal, daughter of 'Asaf 



Khan, wazfr; was born on Wednesday the 23rd of 
March, 1614 A. D., 2lst §afar, 1023 A. H. One of the 
most beautiful examples of female modesty to be found 
in the annals of woman is recorded of this princess, cele- 
brated in song and history as the heroic, the witty, the 
generous, the elegant, the accomplished, and the beauti- 
ful Jahin Ari Begam. One night, (26th March, 1644 
A. D., 27th Mubarram, 1054 A. H.) as she was returning 
from her father's apartments to the harem, in one of the 
passages which connect the latter building with the body 
of the palace, her flowing drapery was unhappily ignited 
by the flame of a lamp. Her whole dress, which was of 
the finest muslin, was instantly in flames, and of coarse 
her life was in imminent peril ; but, knowing that she 
was then within hearing of many young nobles of the 
court, she would not raise an alarm, lest they should run 
to her assistance, and behold her unveiled, or lay their 
hands upon her in order to extinguish the flames. Heroi- 
cally enduring all the agonies which fire could inflict, she 
withheld her cries, and rushed forward until she reached 
the women's apartments, and there sunk upon the floor, 
almost lifeless. For a long period, no hopes were enter- 
tained of her recovery, but she was ultimately restored to 
health by an English physician named Dr. Boughton who 
was then at Surat, and had been sent for by the emperor 
her father then in the Dakhin, although her beauty was 
cruelly impaired. The emperor, in reward for Dr. Bough- 
ton's services, besides other favours, granted him, at his 
disinterested request, a patent for his countrymen to 
trade free of customs throughout his dominions. The 
large Masjid of red stone adjoining the fort of Xgrah 
near the Tripolia (now demolished) was built by her in the 
year 1648 A. D., 1058 A. H., at a cost of five lacs of 
rupees. She died in the reign of her brother the emperor 
'Alamgir on the 5th September, 1680 A. D., 3rd Ramaxan, 
1092 A. H., and lies buried in the yard of the mausoleum 
of Nizam-uddfn Aulia at Dehli. The name of Jahan Ari 
will ever adorn the pages of history as a bright example of 
filial attachment and heroic self-devotion to the dictates 
of duty, more especially when we view it in contrast with 
the behaviour of her sister Roshan Ara, who, by aiding 
the ambitious designs of Aurangzfb, enabled him to de- 
throne Shih Jahan. The amiable and accomplished 
Jahan Ari not only supported her aged father in his ad- 
versity, but voluntarily resigned her liberty and resided 
with him during his imprisonment in the fort of Xgrah. 
Her tomb is of white marble, open at the top, and at the 
head is a tablet with a Persian inscription inlaid in black 
marble letters, to the following effect: "Let no one 
scatter over my grave anything but verdure, for such 
best becomes the sepulchre of one who had a humble 
mind." On the margin is written, "The perishable 
h\(T Jahin Ari Begam, daughter of Shih Jahan, and the 
disciple of the saints of Chishtf, died in the year of the 
Hijra, 1092 A. H." 

Jahan Bano Begam, f^y^. e/t*»> the daughter of 

Prince Murid, the son of the emperor Akbar. She was 
married to Prince Parwes, the son of Jahingfr, by whom 
she had Nadira Begam, who was married to Dara Sheko, 
the eldest son of Shan Jahin. 

Jahandar Shah, *^" J***** aumamed Muhammad 
Mui'zz-uddin, was the eldest son of the emperor Bahidur 
Shih, and grandson of 'Alamgir. He was born in the 
Dakhin on Wednesday the 8th April, 1663 A. D., 10th 
Ramaxan, 1073 A. H. The death of his father, which 
took place in February, 1712 A. D., Mubarram, 1124 
A. H., was followed by the usual struggle among his sons 
for the crown. The incapacity of Jahandar Shall the 
eldest, had given a great ascendancy to the second whose 
name was Asfm-ush-8hin. He was supported by most 
of the nobility and of the army, but his other brothers 
joined their interests, and were kept together by the per- 
suasions and false promises of Zulfikir Khan the Amir- 



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ul-'TJmri. Their concord was of short duration, and 
lasted only until the defeat and death of Azfm-ush-Shan ; 
after which a bloody battle ensued between the three 
surviving brothers, two of whom, viz., Jahan Shan with 
his son Farkhunda Akhtar, and Raft-ush-Shin, being 
killed, Mui'zz-uddin by the intrigues and support of the 
Amfr-ul-'Umri, remained undisputed master of the throne, 
and was crowned at Lahor on Thursday the 10th of 
April, 1712 A. D., 14th Rabf I, 1124 A. H., with the title 
of Jahandar Shan. He was in himself a weak man, 
effeminately careful of his person, fond of ease, indolent, 
and totally ignorant of the art of government. He made 
the vast empire of Hindustan an offering to the foolish 
whims of a public courtezan, named Lai Euuwar, which 
tortured the minds of worthy subjects loyal to his family. 
He reigned only nine months, was defeated in a battle 
fought near Agrah, and afterwards taken prisoner and 
murdered in the month of January, 1713 A. D., ZQ-bijja, 
1 124 A. H., by order of his nephew Farrukh-siyar (the son 
of the late Azim-ush-Shan), who became emperor. His 
corpse was exposed to public view, and then interred in 
the platform before the mausoleum of the emperor Hu- 
mayun at Dehli, His mother's name was Nizam Bat 

Jahandar Shah, Prinoe, *** J**^ **!>A the 

eldest son of the emperor Shall 'Alam. In April, 1784 
A. D., on account of the unsettled affairs of his father, he 
made his escape from Dehli and repaired to L&khnau, 
where Mr. Hastings had arrived to regulate the concerns 
between the wazir, Asaf-uddaula, and the Company. He 
accompanied Mr. Hastings to Benares, which place he 
chose for his residence. He had an allowance of five 
lacs of rupees per annum from the Nawib wazir at the 
earnest request of Mr. Hastings. He died in Benaras on 
the 1st of April, 1788 A. D., 25th Shaban 1202 A. H., 
after an illness of little more than twenty-four hours ; 
aged about 35 years, and was buried with every honour 
due to his rank near the tomb of a venerated Muham- 
madan in Benaras. The "English Resident and principal 
people of the city attended his funeral. He left behind 
him three sons, whom, with the rest of his family, he re- 
commended to the care of the English, under whom they 
still enjoy a comfortable asylum and allowance at Bena- 
ras. Garcin-de-Tassy informs us, that there is a work of 
his in the India House, which has the title of " Bayaz 
Inayet Murshidzada.'' He is also called Mini Jawan 
Bakht, and his poetical title is Jahandar. The narrative 
written by this prince, was translated by Mr. Scott, and 
published in the appendix to Mr. Hastings' Review of the 
state of Bengal. 

Jahangir, j*?^ *♦** ert ^, (emperor) surnamed 
Nur-uddm Muhammad, was the eldest son of the emperor 
Akbar the Great; was born in the village of Sikrf on 
Wednesday the 81st of August, 1569 -A. D., 17th Rabf I, 
977 A. H., and was named Mini Salfm on account of his 
coming into the world, as supposed, by the prayers of 
Shaikh 8alim Chiahti, a venerable Shaikh and dervish 
who resided in the village of Sikri, now called Fathapur 
Sikri, in the province of Agrah. His mother, who re- 
ceived the title of Mariam Zamman, was the daughter of 
• Raia Biharf Mai Kachhwaha. After the death of his 
father, which took place on the 16th of October, 1605 
A. D., he succeeded him by the title of Nur-uddin Mu- 
hammad Jahangir. He reigned 22 lunar years, 8 months 
and 15 days from the day of his father's demise ; and died 
in camp on Sunday the 28th of October, 1627, A. D., 28th 
Safer, 1037 A. H., on his way to Lali6r from Kashmir, 
aged 59 lunar years, 11 months and 12 days; and was 
interred in the suburbs of Lah6r in the garden of his 
favourite wife Nur Jahan Begam. He was succeeded 
by his son Mirzi Khurram, who took the title of 
Shah Jahan. His fevourite Sultana Nur Jahan, who 
survived him 18 years, is also buried in the same mau- 



soleum. Jahangir, after his death, received the title of 
" Jannat Makani." It was to this prince that 8ir Thomas 
Roe was sent as ambassador by King James I. Sir Thomas 
has given a good description of the grandeur of the court 
of Hindustan ; but very little notice is taken of this em* 
bassy in the chronicles of the East. In 1612, Jahangir 
permitted the Company to establish factories at 8urat, 
Ahmadib&d, and Cambay. Jahangir wrote his own 
Memoir in Persian, called, " Tuzak Jahingfrf * which has 
been translated by Major David Price, London, 1829, 184 
pages 4to. It is also called Jahangir Nama. 

Jahangir Kuli Khan, Kabuli, ^S c/*»^*/fc&*t*> 

an amir of the rank of 5000, who was appointed governor 
of Bengal by the emperor Jahangir in 1607 A. D M 1016 
A. H., and died there in 1608 A. D., 1017 A. H. 

Jahangir , j-i*** a cousin and husband of Sikandar 
Begam of Bhopal. His uncle was one of the Fa{han or 
Afghan soldiers of fortune, who under Aurangrfb carved 
out principalities, and on that emperor's death, declared 
himself independent at Bhopal; and on his death his 
wife was declared Regent by the army, and his daughter 
Sikandar Begam, heir. She married Jahangir who died 
in the year 1845 A. D. 

Jahangir Kuli Khan, \J*> i^j£fy±> son of Khan 

'Asim Mirza 'Aziz K6ka, served under the emperors 
Akbar and Jahangir, and died in the fifth year of Sh£h 
Jahan 1631 A. D., 1041 A. H. 

Jahangir' Mirza, U/* Lr ^t>> the eldest son of Amir 
Taimur. He died before his father 1574 A. D., 776 A. H. 
His son's name was Pir Muhammad, which see. 

Jahangir, Mirza, Jif*^ *)j*, the eldest son of Akbar 

Shan II, king of Dehli He was, in consequence of hav- 
ing fired a pistol at Mr. Seton the Resident at Dehli, sent 
as a State prisoner to Allahabad, where he resided in the 
garden of Sultan Khusro for several years, and died there 
in 1821 A, D., 1236 A. H., aged 81 years ; a salute of 31 
guns was fired from the ramparts of the fort of Allnhfihad 
at the time of his burial. He was at first interred in the 
same garden, and subsequently his remains were trans- 
ferred to Dehli, and buried in the court-yard of the mau- 
soleum of Nizim-uddfn Aulia. 

Jahanian Jahan Gasht, Makhdum, c/±^t* 
^j^cJ^av, vid, shaikh Jalal. 

Jahan Khatun, v&>^ CJ*f*, a famous lady, who after 
the death of her first husband, got married to Khwtia 
Amin-uddin, minister of Shan Abu Is-htijb ruler of Shiraz. 
She is said to have been a very beautiful woman, and a 
good poet. 

Jahan Shah Turkman, w^J &» ci^rS son of $ai* 
Tusaf Turkman, was the brother of Sikandar Turkman, 
after whose death in 1437 A. D., 841 A. H., the govern- 
ment of Azurbejan was conferred on him by Shihrukh 
Mirza, the son of Amir Taimur. Ho held it till the 
death of that prince in 1447 A. D., 850 A. H., after which 
he conquered most part of Persia, and carried his arms as 
far as Dayarbikar, and fell in a battle which he fought 
against Hasan Beg, commonly called Uzzan Hasan, the 
ruler of that province, on the 10th of November, 1467 
A. D., 12th Rabf II, 872 A. H., aged 70 years. He 
reigned more than 30 lunar years, and as he was slain in 
battle against Hasan Beg, the chronogram of the year of 
his death was found to contain the words " Slain by 
Hasan Beg." 



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Jahan Shah, *^ w^ **}yt*, (prince) the third son of 
the emperor Bahadur Shin. He was slain in the battle 
which took place at Lihor after the death of his father 
between his brothers in March, 1712 A. D. His man- 
gled body with that of his brother Rafi-ush-Shin and his 
son, was conveyed to Dehli and interred without cere- 
mony and pomp in the mausoleum of the emperor Hu- 
miy tin, the general receptacle of the murdered princes of 
the imperial family. 

Jahan Soz, jy cj^, a title of Sultan ' Ali-uddin Hasan 
Ghori. 

Jahi, c^ • t the poetical name of Ibrihim Mirzi (Sul|in) 
which see. 

Jahiz or Aljahis, ^Ml k&^U., the surname of Abu 
'Usmin 'Umar bin-Mahbtib Kana'ina, a man of great 
learning, but of a very eccentric tendency of mind. Ho 
wrote a book on the Commerce of the Arabians early in 
the third century of tho Hijra, entitled * 4 Kitib-al-Na«rat 
fil Tajirat," which is frequently quoted by Naweri. 
Jihiz died 868 A. D., 255 A. H., at the age of 96 years. 

Jaiapa, ^A^ix** bU*> 9 Sindhia, succeeded his father Rinoji 

Sindhia, the founder of the Sindhia family, in 1750 A. D., 
1163 A. H. and was murdered in his tent in 1759 A. I)., 
1172 A. H. He was succeeded by his brother Madhoji 
Sindhia. 

Jaichand, JfiVb **t\/^, the last Rith6r monarch of 

Kanauj. He ruled the country from Buxar to Kanauj 
and reigned about the Sambat year 1400 A. D., 1848 
A. H. His favourite residence was near the city of Joun- 
pur which he had built in 1359 A. D., 1416 Sambat. 
The present city of Jounpur was built by Fir6z Shin in 
the year 1370 A. D., 772 A. H., in the name of his uncle 
Fakhr-uddin Muhammad Junan, the date of which is 
fbnnd in the words " Shahr Jounpur." According to 
Colonel Tod, Jaichand reigned about the 12th century 
of the Christian era, and one of his grandsons named 
8eoji, with a few retainers, planted the Ri(h6r standard 
in Mirwir in the year 1212 A. D. 

Jai Chand, **?- </*> a raj & of Nagarkot or Kingra, who 
lived in the time of the emperor Akbar. 

Jalkiahun, v"**^* * Kashmiri Brihman whose poeti- 
cal name was 'Iizat, was the agent of Nawib Is-hifc Khin. 

Jaimal, V+t±, a riji, famous in history as " the bravest 

of the brave." In 1568 A. D. Udai Singh, the son of Kana 
8anka or Sanga, and the founder of the capital TJdaipdr 
in Chittor, came under tho displeasure of the emperor 
Akbar. The recreant chief fled and left the defence of his 
capital (Chittor) to Raja* Jaimal, who was killed by 
Akbar himself in 1668 A. D. 

Jaipal I, Jj ] J^*** »° n of Hitp41,r4ja of Lihor of the Brih- 
man tribe, who reigned over the country extending in 

* length from Sarhind to Lamghan, and in breadth from 
the kingdom of Kashmir to Multin. He was once defea- 
ted by Subaktagin, the Sultan of Ghazni, with great 
slaughter, and again on Monday the 27th November, 1001 
A. D. bv his son 8ul^an Mahmud, when Jaipal with 
fifteen of his principal chiefs, being his sons and brethren, 
were taken prisoners, and 5000 of his troops were slain 
on the field of battle. He was afterwards released by 
Mahmud, but in compliance with a custom which prevailed 
among the Hindus, that whatever raja" was twice over- 
powered by strangers, became disqualified to reign, ho 

33 



ordered a funeral pile to be prepared, and having set fire 
to it with his own hands, perished therein. He was 
succeeded by his son Anandpil. 

Jaipal II, ^ J^ **»;, raj* of Lihor, son of Anandpil 

whom he succeeded in 101 3 A. D. Ho was routed in a great 
battle by Sultan Mahmud in 1022 A. D. on the banks 
of the river Ravi, the result was the permanent oc- 
cupation of Lihor by a Muhammadan governor, and the 
appointment of a Viceroy of Lihor by Mahmud. This 
was the foundation of the Muhammadan empire in India* 

Jai Singh I, Jj' *&*• ^ **!;> (riji) of the tribe of 
Kaehhwihi, commonly called Mini Riji, was the son of 
riji Mini Singh, the son of Partip Singh, the son of riji 
Min Singh. He served under the emperor Shin Jahan, 
and was made governor over the conquered provinces of 
the Dakhin about the year 1664 A. D. by the emperor 
'Alamgir. He was recalled to court in 1666 A. D., but 
died on the road, soon after his arrival at Burhinpur, 28th 
Mubarram 1078 A. H. According to Orme's Historical 
Fragments of the Mughul Empire, Jai Singh died at 
Burhinpur soon after the pretended revolt of Sultan 
Muazzim the son of the emperor, and seems to have been 
poisoned by the procurement of 'Alamgir. There never 
was a prince among the raj puts equal to him in accom- 
plishments. He was completely learned in Hindi, and 
understood the Turkish, Persian, and Arabic languages. 
He left two sons, Rim Singh his eldest, and Kirat Singh. 
The former was honoured after his father's death with the 
title of riji, and put in possession of his father's terri- 
tories. Jai Singh had built several fine edifices at Agruh 
of which no sign remains now, but the name and place on 
which the buildings stood is still called Jaisinghpura. 

Jai Singh II, Sawai, ^ <£■!*•***• if*, a riji of the 

tribe of Eachhwihi raj puts, was the son of Bishun Singh, 
the son of Kishun Singh, the son of Kim Singh, the son 
of Mini Riji Jai Singh. He is commonly called Mirzi 
Riji Jai Singh Sawai. He was the zamindir or riji of 
a considerable territory in the province of Ajmir named 
Amer, but since the prince's founding a new city called 
Jaipur, the rijiship has also taken that name. Bishun 
Singh, the father of Jai Singh and Bijai Singh, died 
about the year 1693 A. D., Sambat 1750, and after his 
death the title of riji was bestowed on Jai Singh by the 
emperor 'Alamgir with the rank of 1500, and subsequent- 
ly with that of 2000. After the death of that emperor, 
he espoused the cause of 'Azim Shah, the son of 'Alamgir, 
whilst his brother Bijai Singh aided Bahidur Shah, who 
on his accession to the throne conferred the rank of 3000 
on the latter. Bijai Singh quarrelled with his brother 
for the rij ; and the emperor, not willing to displease 
either, confiscated their estate, and appointed Sayyad 
Husain AH Khin of Birha, as Faujdar of that place. 
When the emperor marched to the Dakhin to punish his 
brother Kimbakhsh, 1708 A. D., 1120 A. H., Jai Singh, 
with the aid of riji Ajit Singh Rith6r, engaged the 
Faujdir in battle and having killed him took possession 
of the 'province. In the reign of Farrukh-siyar he was 
honoured with tho title of Dhirij Riji Jai Singh, and in 
the time of Muhammad Shin, with that of Sawii. In the 
year 1732 A. D., 1145 A. H., he was appointed governor 
of Malwi. His love of science makes him one of the 
most remarkable persons of his nation. He built five 
observatories for astronomical studies, namely, at Dehli, 
Banaras, Mathri, Ujain and Jaipur, and published a 
work on astronomy called "Zij Muhammad Shihi." 
He also erected a Karavinsarae and market in every 

Srovince of Hindus tin for the convenience of travellers at 
is own ezpence. After his death, which took place in 
September, 1743 A. D., 9th Shabin, 1156 A. H., three of 
his wives with many concubines burned themselves on 
his funeral pile. He was succeeded by his son Ishuri 



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Singh, after whose death in 1760 A. D., Madho Singh his 
son succeeded him. 

list of Kachhicdhd M<yds of Amer or Jaipur, 

Bhara MaL Jai Singh 8awii. 

Bhagwin Das. Ishuri Singh. 

Man Singh. Madho Singh. 

Bhao Singh. Pirthf Singh. 

Maha Singh. Partab Singh. 

Jai Singh Mirzi Rija. Jagat Singh. 

Rim Singh. Jai Singh. 
Bishnn Singh. 

Jai Singh HE, **!$*&* «^, (riji) of the tribe of Kachh- 

wahi rijputs and riji of Jaipur, was a posthumous son of 
Raja Jagat Singh who died in 1818 A. D. Jai Singh was 
murdered by his kimdir, whose name was Jhota Ham, 
in the Sambat year 1891, or in January, 1834 A. D., and 
his infant son Bam Singh succeeded him. 

Jai Singh, *^" 4^j or Rana Jai Singh of Udaipur, a de- 
scendant of Rana Sanka who lived in the time of the em- 
peror Akbar, succeeded his father Rani Raj Singh, 1680 
A. D n 1091 A. H. 

Jai Singh, *&* «^*, (raja) who held the subahdarship of 

Agrah in the time of the emperor Muhammad Shah. He 
built the Shaharpanah round the city of Agrah. It had 
several gates, but only three recently were remaining, fix., 
(1) Ajmiri Darwazi, (2) Kara at Chhanga Mudf 8 bridge, 
(3) Kans Darwazi at Gokalpura. After the mutiny of 
1857, the British for some reason or other, pulled down the 
Ajmiri Darwaza. 

Jalal Asir, J*** J^, vide Asfr. 

Jalal 'Uzd, Sayyad, *** ^** **-*, a poet who 

flourished in the reign of Muhammad Muzaffar, ruler of 
Fare and his descendants. He is the author of a Diwin. 

Jalal Bukhari, <5^ J^ **% or Sayyad Jalal Bu- 
khiri. He came to India from Bukhari and became a 
disciple of Shaikh Bahi-uddfn Zikarii of Multin. He 
resided at Uchcha in Multan and died there. He had 
three sons, Sayyad Ahmad Kabir, Sayyad Bahi-uddin 
and Sayyad Muhammad. Sayyad Ahmad Kabir, who 
succeeded his father as spiritual guide, had two sons, 
Makhdum Jahanian, also called Shaikh Jalal, and Shaikh 
Sadar-uddin, commonly called Rajti Kattal. 
N. B. — There is some confusion between this man and 
Shaikh JalaL Vide Shaikh Jalal. 

Jalal Bukhari, Sayyad, iSJ M d** **•> a de8cen% 
dant of Sayyad Ahmad Kabir, and son of Sayyad Muham- 
mad Bukhari. He was born in the year 1594 A. D., 5th 
Jumida II, 1003 A. H., and was highly respected by the 
emperor Shin Jahin, who conferred on him the office of 
Sadarat of all India with the mansab of 6000. He some- 
times amused himself in writing poetry, and had adopted 
the word Razi for his poetical title. He died on the 25th 
of May, 1647 O. S., 1st Jumida I, 1057 A. H., and is 
buried at Tijganj in Agrah. His grandfather Sayyad 
Ahmad Kabir lies buried at a place in Dehli called Bijai 
Mandil. Jalal Bukhiri left three sons, viz., Sayyad 
J a' far, Sayyad A If styled Razwi Khan, and Sayyad Musa, 
on whom high titles were conferred by Shahjahan, but 
his eldest son Ja'far obtained the place of his father. 

Jalal, (Hakim), t/*A/~ J^ (♦*£*, a physician and 
poet, who was a native of Shirwan. He flourished in the 
reign of Muhammad Muzaffar and his son Shah Shujaa', 
rulers of Shiriz, both of whom reigned from 1353 to 1 384 
A. D. He is the author of a poem entitled " GuL-wa-Nau- 



roz " which he wrote in 1334 A* D„ 734 A. H. He is 
also called Jalal-uddin Tabib. 

Jalali or Jalal, J^ k ^^ f commonly called 8ayyad-i- 
'Alim Jalal or Jalali, was a native of Ahmadabid. and 
his father and spiritual guide was Mir Sayyad Jalil bin- 
Hasan. He is the author of a Diwin. 

Jalal, Shaikh, d%* £**, vide Shaikh Jalil, commonly 
called Makhdum Jahanian. He was the son of Sayyad 
Ahmad Kabir, and grandson of Sayyad Jalil Bukhiri the 
first, 

Jalal, Shaikh, 9Jjr*if J** £^j of Thanesar, ri* 

Shaikh Jalal of Thanesar. 
Jalali, lt • j poetical name of Badr-uddfn. 
Jalal-uddin Ahmad Aftal-bin-Muwaiyad, ±*yo 

&} JLafl *+*>( x p**)\ jlU, an author. 

JaJaJ-uddin Aldawani, tPlWl u*** J**, author of 
several works. Fte^Dawani. 

Jalal-uddin Parahani, J^J &** J**, a poet 

Jalal-uddin Piroz Khilji, i/*^ ji># <*!*& J**, 

vide Fir6z Shih Khilji. 

Jalal-uddin Mahalli, ^** \&^ ^**, see Jalil- 
uddin Sayuti. He is sometimes called Jalal-uddin Mo- 
hammad bin-Ahmad-al-Mahlf. 

Jalal-uddin Malikshah, iU»*U c^oJf j1L+ f vuk 
Malikahah. . ' 

Jalal-uddin Khan, yj*> & m *}\ jAa>, the brother of 

Mahmud Khin, nawib of Byn6r, a«rebel of 1857. Vide 
Sa'd-ullah Khan. 

Jalal-uddin Muhammad-bin-Asa'd Aldawani, 
*/b**l **~l vi *+** v^J^I J**, t^Dawini. 

Jalal-uddin Muhammad Akbar, j$\ ^** &**! 
J*^, vide Akbar. 

Jalal-uddin Purbi, isljJt Ui^ J**, king of Ben- 
gil, whose original name was Jitmal, ascended the throne 
of Bengal on the death of his father Riji Kans in 1392 
A. D., 794 A. H. He became a convert to the Muham* 
madan faith and received the name of Jalal-uddin. He 
ruled with such justice, that he became entitled to the 
appellation of the Nausherwin of the age. He reigned 
17 years and died in 1410 A. D., 812 A. H., when his son 
Ahmad succeeded him. 

Jalal-uddin Rumi, Maulana, </*v i^** J** l#>*, 
commonly called Maulini or Maulwi Rtimi, was the son 
of Bahi-uddin Wald Balkhi. He is not less esteemed as 
a poet than as a metaphysician, and is the author of the 
astonishing work entitled the " Masnawi Maulwf Rami" 
He founded an order of Derwishes or Sufis in the city 
of Conia (Iconium) in Asiatic Turkey. He was born at 
Balkh on the 30th of September, 1207 A. D., 6th Rabf I 
604 A. H , and died in the time of Abki Khan on the 
17th of December, 1273 A. D., 5th Jumida II, 672 A. H. 
He was buried in a monastery at Conia, and his tomb was 
visited for many centuries by his devout countrymen who 
considered his works as the effect of inspiration, and only 
inferior to the Koran. His Diwan contains 30,000 verses, 



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and his Masnawi mare than 47,000. In his Dfwan, in- 
stead of his own title, he has inserted the name of Shams 
Tabrexi his master. 

Jalal-uddin Sayuti, ^J** c*^ J**, sonof'Abdur 
Rahman bin- Abi Bakr, an Egyptian author of some merit, 
who died in 1605 A. D., 911 A. H. He is said to be the 
author of 400 works, amongst which are the commentary 
on the " Durr-al-Munshur," and the last half of the 
44 Tafiar JalaUain," the author of the other half was Jalal- 
uddin Mahal! who died in 1450 A. D., 854 A. H. Ano- 
ther work of 8ayuti is called " Lubb-ul-Lub*b." It is a 
dictionary of patronymic names, and of others under 
which the Arabic authors are much more frequently 
quoted than under their proper names. The confusion 
under which the Arabs labour to identify men known 
under different names, has induced them to prepare 
dictionaries for obviating this difficulty. Samani (or 
Samnani) in the sixth century of the Hijra published 
one, entitled, " Fil Ansib/* in which he does not only 
explain the sense and origin of these names, but also 
mentions with -regard to every word the true names of 
the authors who have had them. This work was abbre- 
viated in the succeeding century by Ibn*ul-Asfr, and this 
extract shortened by Sayuti. There is another work of 
Sayuti called " Kashfiis-Salsala-un-Wasfui Zalaala," 
' containing an account of all the earthquakes which took 
place from the year 713 A. D., 94 A. H., to his time. 
He wrote this work on the occasion of an earthquake in 
Egypt* with a view of shewing to his countrymen, that 
earthquakes are ordained by God to punish men for their 
sins. This work was translated from the Arabic by 
A. Sprenger, Esq., M. D. Vide Journal, Asiatic Society, 
Vol. XVII, Part II, n. 741. Sayuti is also the author 
of the ** Jama'-ul-Jawama, " containing a collection of 
Traditions of which he afterwards made an abridgement 
and called it Jama'-us-Saghir." 

Jalal-uddin, Sultan. lH^ J&* o^****, the son of 

Sultan Muhammad, surnamed Kutb-uddin, Sultan of 
Khwaxizm. Vide Muhammad (Sultan). 

Jalayer, jr*** the name given to a race of kings of Bagh- 
dad, the first of whom was Hasan Buxurg, commonly called 
Hasan Jalayer. 

Jalirrus, tryt^, prince of the Greek physicians after 
Hippocrates, whom we call Galen. 

Jam Afra, \j* f **> vide Nasir-uddfn gabbacha. 

Jama Baf, **k U ^, vide Mfr 8ayyad Jama Bat 

Jamal, J***> the name assumed by Abd*l Fasl Muham- 
mad, the son of 'Umar, the son of Khalid. He is the 
author of the *' Sarin,", a dictionary of Arabic words 
explained in Persian by him, being a translation of a very 
celebrated Arabic dictionary, entitled the " Sahih," 

Jamah Khalift, **4*> %jfl+*t surname of Is-ha> Ka- 

ramani, another author of the commentary called " Sharah 
Hadia-ul-Arba'in." He died 1526 A. D. f 933 A. H. 

Jamali, Shaikh, ^^ £**> **** 8haikh JamaU 

Jamal Fakih, Khwaja, *& J 1 ** **l*N * poet 

Jamal Kill, Shaikh, «^V J^ &&, an inhabitant 

of Kazwin in Isfahan. He lived in the time of Sultan 
* A 14- ud din the Ismi'ili, ruler of the fort of Alahmut, who 
highly respected him. It is said that he secretly followed 
the tenets of the lama ills, but the people thought other- 



wise. He died on Monday the 29th September, 1263 
A. D., 4th Shawwfl, 661 A. H. 

Jamal Khan, c^ OL+, & commander of 6000 horse in 
the reign of 8hih Jahan. It is related that the emperor 
had ordered that all the ladies at court should provide 
precious stones, and bring them to a market-place that he 
had erected, and there shew their wares publicly to all the 
noblemen at court, who were ordered to buy them at 
whatever prices the ladies put upon them ; and that the 
king himself was to be a buyer, to put the greater honour 
on the new erected market. The ladies obeyed, and took 
their booths, as they thought fit On the market day, 
the king and the noblemen came to market and bought 
the jewels and other trifles the ladies had to dispose of. 
The king coming to the booth of a very pretty lady, 
asked her what she had to sell. She told him she had 
one large fine rough diamond still to dispose of. He 
desired to see it and he found it to be a piece of fine 
transparent sugar-candy of a tolerable diamond figure. 
He demanded to know what price she set on it and she 
told him with a pleasant air, that it was worth a lakh of 
rupees, or £12,600 sterling. He ordered the money to be 
paid, and, falling into discourse with her, found her wit 
was as exquisite as her beauty, and ordered her to sup 
with him that night in his palace. She accordingly 
went and stayed with him three nights and days, and 
then went back to her husband, whose name was Jamal 
Khan. The husband received her very coldly, and told 
her that he would continue civil to her, but would never 
live with her again but in the same manner as if she was 
his sister. Upon which she went to the palace, fell at 
the emperor's feet and told him what her husband had 
said. The king in a rage gave orders to carry her hus- 
band to the elephant garden, and there put him to death by 
an elephant The poor man was soon apprehended, and 
as they dragged him from his house, he begged to have 
leave to speak to the king. A friend of his ordered the 
messengers of death to stop awhile, till he had acquainted 
the king with the request, which was accordingly done, 
and he was ordered to be carried into the court of the 
palace, that the king might hear what he had to say ; 
and being carried thither, the king demanded what he 
would have. He answered, that what he had said to his 
wife was the greatest honour which he was capable of doing 
his king, because, after he had honoured his wife with his 
embraces, he thought himself unworthy ever after to cohabit 
with her. The king, after pausing a little, ordered him 
to be unbound, and brought to his own room, where, as 
soon as he came, the king embraced him, and ordered a 
royal suit to be put upon him, and gave him command 
of five thousand horse more, but took his wife into his 
own harem, — Aeiatie Journal, VoL XXX, p. 216. 

Jamal-uddin Ahmad, Shaikh, **** e^i J 1 ** 
is£"*> a celebrated Muhammadan saint of Hanai, and 
grandfather of Shaikh Kutb-uddin Manawwar. 

Jamal-uddin Ataullah, Amir, *Uf U* erf^ JU*> 
J#*, nephew of Sayyad Asfl-uddin 'Abdullah. He is 
the author of the work called " Rauzat-ul-Ahb4b," vide 
Ataullah bin-Muhammad al-Husaini Niahipdri 

Jamal-uddin-bin-'Abdul Bazzak, i^W' J*** 

ijijjil*** &* 9 a celebrated poet of Isfahan, and author of 
a Diwan. He is the father of Kamal-uddin Iemi'fl and 
Mu'in-uddfn 'Abdul Karim, both of whom were also 
poets. Jamal-uddin died in 1192 A. D., 688 A. H. 

Jamal-uddin Hasan bin-Yusaf bin-al-Matahhir 
al-Hilli, *"*~>i v* cr^ &A JU*, entitled 
Shaikh al-'Allima, is called the chief of the lawyers of 
Hilla. He is the author of the " Khulasat-ul-A^wal." 



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Jani 



His legal works are very numerous, and frequently 
referred to as authorities of undisputed merit. The most 
famous of these are, the " Talkhis-ul-Marim," the " Ghaet- 
ul-Ahkam" and the 4i Tahrir-ul-Ahkam," which last is a 
justly celebrated work. The 4t MukhtaUf-ush-Shia M is also 
a well-known composition of this great lawyer ; and his 
" Irshaa'-al-Azhan" is constantly quoted as an authority, 
under the name of the " Irshid-i-'Allama." Vide Allama 
al-Hilli. 

Jamal-uddin Husain Anju, j^l er*~* e*^t J^> 
son of Fakhr-uddin Kashmiri, author of the Persian 
Dictionary called " Farhang Jahingiri," which he dedi- 
cated to the emperor Jahangir in 1605 A. D., 1014 A. H. 
The author of the <k Maair-ul-'Umra" calls him Mir Jamal- 
uddin Anju, and says that he is a descendant of the Say- 
yads of Shiraz, and came to theDakhin and thence to A gran 
1585 A. D., 993 A. H. in the time of Akbar who raised 
him by degrees to the rank of 3000. In the reign of 
Jahangir, the rank of 4000 was conferred on him with the 
title of ' Azd-uddaula. 

Jamal-uddin-ibn-Malik, ^ u ^ e^l JW, au- 
thor of an Arabic work on philosophy, called " Alfia." 

Jamal-uddin Kashi, ig™\£ e^' J^, author of the 

history called " ZuMat-ut-Taw&rikh." A work of the 
same title is mentioned under Shaikh Nur-ul-Hak of 
Dehli. 

Jamal-uddin Muhammad Abdul Bazzak, J^ 

iSJ^ 1 *P b+^iyi^, vide Jamil-uddin bin-'Abdul Razzik. 

Jami, «/*** eJ^Jia-* ^\ jj, the poetical name of 
Nur-uddin 'Abdur Rahman, a celebrated Persian poet, the 
son of Maulana* Muhammad or Ahmad Iefahani; was 
born on the 7th November, 1414 A. D., 23rd Shaban, 
817 A. H M at a village in Hir£t called Jam, from which 
he derived his poetical name " Jami." He was remark- 
ably polite, of a very gentle disposition, and endued with 
such extensive learning, that it was supposed there was 
not throughout the empire of Persia, so complete a master 
of the language as himself. Even princes, who were 
themselves men of erudition and exalted talents, have 
lavished upon him the most unbounded praises and the 
highest honours. He was very intimate with Sultan Abu" 
8a' id Mirza of Hirat, who continued the friend of Jami 
so long as he lived. After his death, our poet enjoyed 
the same favours from his son and successor Sultan Husain 
Mirzi. He was a cotemporary of the esteemed Biogra- 
pher, Daulat Shah, who recorded his fame in the Lives of 
the Persian poets, called " Tazkira Daulat Shahi." Jim! 
was the author of more than 44 works. His poem on the 
Loves of Joseph and Zalikha is one of the finest compo- 
sitions in the language ; it contains about 4000 couplets. 
He is also the author of the book called u Nafahit-ul- 
Ins," a very celebrated abridgement of the Lives of the 
Sufi Shaikhs, translated from the Arabic "TabWt-us- 
Sufla," and dedicated to the celebrated wazir 'Alisher in 
1476 A. D., 881 A. H. It may be here observed, that the 
celebrated poets, as Hafiz, Sadf, Jami, &c. &c, were 
professed Sufis. The following are the works, commonly 
known, composed by Jami : — 



fel 3 






' 1. Silsilat-uz-Zahab, dedi- 
cated to Bayazfd II. 

2. Sal&manwa-AbsaU. 

3. Tuhfat-ul-Ahrar. 

4. Sabhat-ul-Abrar. 

5. Yusaf-wa-Zalikha. 

6. Laili-wa-Majnun. 

7. Khirad-nima. 



Sikandar-nama. 

Nafahit-ul-Ins. 

Baharistan. 

Fatuh-ul-Haramain. 

Khurshed-wa-Man. 

Lawaeh Jami. 

Bhawahid-ul-Nabuai. 



J&mi died at the advanced age of 81 lunar yearn, 
on Friday the 9th of November, 1492 A. D., 18th Mu- 
b&rram, 898 A. H., mourned by the whole city of Hirit : 
his funeral expenses were defrayed by Sultan Husain, 
and a magnificent train of the moat illustrious nobles 
accompanied his body to the tomb. 'Alisher, his friend 
laid the first stone of a monument which he caused to be 
raised to his memory, and his fame became immortal in 
the minds of his countrymen. He is also the author of a 
Tafsir or commentary of some note. 

Jami Lahouri, Mulla, t5*^ > *"& MnHa Jami. 

Jamila, **£♦*, the poetical name of a Persian poet 

Jamil-ibn-Mi'mar, jU** etft cl**^, a celebrated Ara- 
bian poet who lived in the time of the khalif ' Abdulmilik, 
and died in the year 701 A. D., 82 A. H- He was co- 
temporary with two other famous poets named 'Umax the 
son of 'Abdullah, and Kathir Azza. Jamil was the lover 
of Shanba, one of those pairs of lovers, whose constancy 
and fidelity the orientals praise in their histories and 
poems. 



Jamshed, * & - » (also called Jam) was one of the ancient 

kings of Persia, and the fourth of the First or Pishdidian 
dynasty. He is celebrated as the founder of Persepolis, 
which is to this day called Istakhr and Takht Jamshed. 
He introduced the solar year and ordered the first day of 
it, when the sun entered Aries, to be celebrated by a 
splendid festival. His country was invaded by Zuhik, 
a Syrian king, and the unfortunato Jamshed was obliged 
to fly before the conqueror. Ho was pursued by the 
agents of Zuhak, through Sistan, India, and China, and 
was at last seized and carried before his cruel enemy 
like a common malefactor, who ordered him to be placed 
between two boards and sawn asunder with the bone of a 
fish. We are told by Firdausi that his reign lasted 700 
years. He is supposed to have flourished 800 years be- 
fore the Christian era. His goblet, called Jam Jamshed 
and Jam Jam, was wondrous. A hundred marvellous 
tales are told of his celebrated cup, which used to dazzle 
all who looked on it, and has often been employed by 
the poets to furnish a simile for a bright eye. 



Jamshed, * * «»'•*, thig title is sometimes given by the 

Musalmans to king Solomon the son of David, and they 
say that his magic ring and throne possessed extraordi- 
nary powers, and his control was absolute over genii and 
men. 



Jamshed Kutb Shah, sUi-Juf o^*, ^ f Kulf 

Kutb Shah I, ascended the throne of Golkonga in the 
Dakhin after the death of his father in September, 1643 
A. D., Jum£da II, 950 A. H. He reigned seven years 
and some months, and was succeeded by his brother Ibra- 
him Kutb Shan in 1550 A. D., 957 A. H. 

Janabi, is*-, the surname of Abu Muhammad Mustafa 

bin-Sayyad Hasan-al-Husaini, a celebrated historian and 
author of a work called " Tarikh-al-Janabf," of which 
the correct name is supposed to be ** Bahr-uz-Zakhkhar," 
the Swelling of the Sea ; it comprises a general history 
from the beginning of the world to 1589 A. D., 997 
A. H. It was originally written in Arabic, and trans- 
lated by the author into Turkish. Janabi died in 1591 
A. IX, 999 A. H. 

Jani, <y^* 'There have been three authors of this name. 

The first Abu 'Abdullah Muhammad ion-Malik Atai, a 
native of Damascus. The second Basar Jani; and the 
third Mansur bin-'Umar-al-Adib, a native of Isfahan, who 
died 1025 A. D. 



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Jani 



133 



Jamllah 



Jani, i^'f the poetical name of Mirea" Jan, the father of 
Mini Jan Jinan. 

Jani Begam, f*±J <^^, daughter of 'Abdul Rahim 
Khan, Khan-Khan an, who was married to prince DiniaU, 
the son of the emperor Akbar in 1599 A. D., 1007 A. H. 

Jani Beg Sultan, olkL. JJ*> ^JU^ son of 'Abdullah 

Khan Uzbak's sister. His son, Din Muhammad Khan, 
was raised to the throne of Samarkand after the death of 
'Abdul Momin Khan, the son of 'Abdullah Khan Uzbak. 

Jani Beg Turkhan, Mirza, cMy ^ «y^ 0^°, 

ruler of Thatta, succeeded his grandfather Mirza" Muham- 
mad B&ki, in the government of Thatto, the remaining 
province of Sindh, in 1584 A. D.,' 993 A. H. Akbar 
Shah who before the death of Muhammad Baki bad gone 
to L&hor, and had remained, there for some years, ex- 
pected a personal visit from Jani Beg ; but being disap- 
pointed he proceeded to take measures for the subjugation 
of that country. He therefore in the year 1591 A. D., 
999 A. H. directed his commander-in-chief 'Abdul Rahim 
Khan, the son of Bairam Khan to proceed and occupy 
tho place in his name. The first action took place on the 
3rd November, 1591 A. D., 26th Mubarram 1000 A. H. 
when the Sindhfs were totally defeated. Notwithstand- 
ing, daily skirmishes took place between the two armies ; 
at last MirzA Jani Beg offered to acknowledge fealty 
to the emperor and to proceed to the presence. Shortly 
after, 'Abdul Rahim Khan celebrated the nuptials of his 
son Mirza f rich with the daughter of Jani Beg, and after 
the rainy season of the year 1592 A. D., 1001 A. H. 
accompanied Mirza Jani Beg to the presence of Akbar 
who created the latter a noble of the realm ; and from 
that date the whole kingdom of Sindh reverted to the 
sovereignty of the empire of Dehlf. Mirz£ Jani Beg 
died at Burhanpur in 1599 A. D., 1008 A. H., and the 
government of That^a was conferred on his son Mirza 
Ghazi. 

Jan Piflhan Khan Bahadur, j*ltf ^U* &UJ &1+ 
4_jJ nawab, of Sardhina. He, for his conspicuous 

loyalty during the mutiny of 1857, was ordered by Gov- 
ernment to be rewarded with a pension of 1000 rupees 
a month in perpetuity to his male heirs, and a per- 
petuity in confiscated villages of 10,000 rupees per annum 
to be conferred upon him with remission of one half of 
revenue for his life, and a quarter for two generations. 

Janges Khan, u/^>*k*> vide Changez Khan. 

Jan Janan, Mima, o tl * vfa Vj"> «on of Mirza Jin, 

a learned Musalmin and a good poet, distinguished no 
less for the grace and spirit of his compositions than for 
the independent spirituality and anti-idolatrous nature of 
his sentiments. His poetical name was Mazhar; was 
born at Xgrah about the year 1698 A. D., 1110 A. H., 
but resided at Dehli. In the month of Mm>arram or 
3rd January, 1781 A. D n 7th Muparram, 1195 A. H. 
having expressed his contempt for a superstitious cere- 
mony — the commemoration of the death of Husain— 
he was shot on the terrace of his own house, by a vindic- 
tive partisan of that martyr, and died on the 6th of that 
month, 10th Mubarram, 1195 A. H. He is the author of 
aDiwin. 

Jan Mnhammad, Munshi, a***^^**, author of 
an Inaha or collection of letters which goes by hit name. 

Jannat Ashyani, i£*~ ■ *****•, the title given to the 
Emperor Humiyun after his death. 

34 



Jannati, t5*^> a poetical name. 

Jan BTisar Khan, u^J^^t title of Kamfl-uddin 
Husain, an Amir of 3000 under the emperor Shah Jahan. 
At the time of his death he was governor of Sistan, and 
died there 1639 A. D., 1049 A. H. 

Jan BTisar Khan, Nawab, e^j&e^V^, was 
the brother-in-law to the wazir Kamar-uddin Khan who 
had married his sister. He was appointed Chaklad£r 
of the districts of KorA JahAniibad in the province of 
Allahibdd, and was assassinated by Ar&ru named Bhag- 
want Singh, a zamindar of that place in 1731 A. D., 1144 
A.H. 

Jan Nisar Khan, Sayyad, ^ j& uh «H~, son-in. 
law of the wazir Kamar-uddin Khan, was put to death* 
together with several others by Nadir Shan, on account 
of the resistance shewn by them in endeavouring to pro- 
tect their family in the general massacre. This event 
took place in March, 1739 A. D. f £il-bijja 1151 A. H. 

Janoji Bhosla, ^jtf if*** 1 *, the second raj* of Berar, 
succeeded his mther Raghoji Bh6sla in 1749 A. D M and 
died in 1772 A. D. He was succeeded by his younger 
brother Madhoji Bhoala, Vide Raghoji Bhosla the first 
raja of Berar. 

Janubi, ^j&xiXi i c!^ t of Badakhshan, a poet and 

punster who flourished about the year 1521 A. D. t 927 
A. H. 

Januni, ij*y*> vide Jununf. 

Jan, ^r*^^ CJ^, or Jan Sahib, poetical name of Mir Yar 
'Ali, who is the author of a Diwaxu 

Jansipar Khan Turkman, d+Sj cA J^-v^t 
an Amir of 4000 in the reign of the emperor Jahangir. 
He was appointed governor of AllaMbaxl in the first year 
of Shah Jahan 1628 A. D., 1037 A. H., and died there 
the same year. 

Jansipar Khan, eA*> J^e/% second son of Mukhtar 
Khan Sabzwari, an amir of the reign of the emperor 
'Alamgir. At the time of his death he held the suba- 
dari of Haidar&b&L and died there in 1701 A. D., 1113 
A. H. 

Jarbardi, IS*J*.J^> surname of Fakhr-uddin Ahmad 
bin-Hasan, an author who wrote the " Sharah Shifia," 
and the marginal notes on the *' Kaahshaf." He died 
1345 A. D., 746 A. H. 

Jarir, jt^> vide Jurfr which is the correct pronunciation* 

Jarjis, ijr^J^t George, and in particular St. George the 
martyr, very well-known in the East, and even by the 
Muhammadans, who put him amongst the number of the 
prophets, and confound him with Ellas. 

Jaij Tamaa, u^° £/+$ vide George Thomas. 

Jarras, j\j*> f the surname of Ahmad bin-Ibr£bfm-al-Tabfb- 

al- Afriki, who is often cited under the name of Ibn-Jarraz, 
He was a physician and an author, and a native of Africa. 
He died 1009 A. D., 400 A. H. 

Jamllah Zamakhshari, ksjT^'j *^j**» surname of 
Mahmud bin-'Umar^-Zamakhshari, the Ma'tzalite of 



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134 



Jawahir 



Zamakhshar, a village in Khwarizm. He is the author 
of an excellent commentary on the Ituran called " Kash- 
shaf," which he wrote in the name of one of the princes 
of Mecca. He obtained the surname of Jarullah (or 
neighbour of God) on account of his residing for a long 
period at Mecca. He was born in 1074 A. D., 467 A. H., 
and died in the place of his nativity in the year 1142 
or 1144 A. D., 537 or 539 A. H. He is also the author 
of many other works, such 



Kitab Fasl-dar-Nahr. 

Asas-ul-Balaghat-dar-Loghat. 

Rabi-ul-Abrar. 

Fasus-ul-Akhbar-wal-Faraez-dar-Hm Faraez. 

Raus-ul-Masdel-dur-FiljLa. 

Sharah Abiat Sebuya. 

Mustakazi-dur-Amsal 'Arab. 

Himam-ul-Arbia. 

Sawaer-ul-Islam. 

Shakaek-ul-Na'man-wal-Kistas-dar-uruz. 

Mu'ajjam-ul- Hadud. 

Manhaj -dar-Usul. 

Mukaddima-al- Adab. 

Diwan-ul-Tamsil. 

Diwan-ul-Rasael. 

Diw&n-ush-Shua'r&. 

Jassas, {J*****, surname of Shaikh Ahmad bin-'Ali Razi, 
which see. 



Jaswant Eae, Lsb 



h c: 



a Hindu who was *a poet 



and the author of a Diwah. His Diwan was found in the 
Library of Tipu Sultan. 

Jaswant Bao Holkar, j^Jj ^j~* 9 the son of 

Takoji Holkar, and brother of Kashi Rao, whom he suc- 
ceeded on the masnad of Indor about the year 1802. 
He made a rapid incursion into the Doab and committed 
some ravages, but was defeated and pursued by Lord 
Lako to the Sikh country as far as the Bias in 1803, and 
all his territories occupied by a British force. The whole 
was restored to him at the peace. He became insane 
in 1806, and Tulshi Bai, his wife was acknowledged re- 
gent. He died on 20th October, 1811, and was succeeded 
by Malhar Rao III, his son, by a woman of low birth. 
Tulshi Bai, however, continued to act as regent. On the 
20th December, 1816, a company of armed men seized 
Tulshi Bai, conveyed her forcibly to the neighbouring 
river of Sipra, and cutting off her head on the bank, 
threw the lifeless trunk into the water. 

Jaswant Singh Bundela, *^*J a **-" °^r-^, son of 

Raja Indarman. He held a suitable rank in the army 
in the reign of the emperor ' Alamgir, and died about the 
year 1687 A. D., 1099 A. H. After his death the zamin- 
dari of Urcha was conferred on Bhagwant Singh his son, 
an infant of four years, with the title of Raja, but he 
dying about the year 1693 A. D., 1105 A. H., there 
remained no one of the family of Rajas Shujan Singh or 
of his brother Indarman, to succeed him ; upon which 
the Rani Amar Kunwar, grandmother to the deceased 
prince, placed on the raj Udaut Singh, who was descend- 
ed from Madhukar Sah, father to Raj4 Bir Singh Deo, 
which was approved by the emperor, who conferred on 
him the title of raja, and a suitable mansab. 

Jaswant Singh, Maharaja, *&* ^4r-* **!/rt 
the celebrated raj£ of Jodhpur or Marwar, of the tribe of 
Ra^hor Rajputs, who acted so capital a part in the 
competitions of 'Alamgir and his brother Daii Shik6h 
whose cause he espoused, and was guilty of great impro- 
priety. He was the son of Raja Gaj Singh and a descen- 
dant of Rao Maldeo. Jaswant Singh, subsequently, 
became one of the best generals of 'Alamgir, and held the 
rank of 7000 for several yean. He died near Kabul 



about the 11th December, 1678 A. D., 6th 3£I-fcad* 1089 
A. H. He had built a fine house at Agrah on the banks of 
the Jamna, the surrounding walls of which are still stand- 
ing, and his followers brought his infant children and his 
women who did not burn with him, towards their native 
country. Orders were sent by the emperor "Alamgir to 
conduct them to court, where on their arrival, ho insisted 
on the children being made Musalmans. Upon this the 
raj put attendants, determined to die rather than submit 
to this order, fled with their charge towards the raja i 
territories, and being pursued by the emperor's troops, 
fought valiantly, and were mostly cut to pieces, but the 
women and infants arrived safe at Jodhpur ; they were, 
however, compelled to take refuge in the hills and the 
woods, and on the death of 'Alamgir in 1 707 A. D., re- 
gained their former possession. Ajft Singh, his son, was 
restored to the throne of his ancestors in the year 1711 
A. D., by tho emperor Farrukh-siyar who married his 
daughter. Ajit Singh was murdered by his son Abhai 
Singh in 1724 A. D. 



Jaswant Singh, ***** ****?»*, raja of Jodhpur Majwar, 
succeeded to the gaddi after the death of his father 
Takhat Singh in February, 1873 A. D., 1289 A. H. 

Jaswant Singh, *&* c *i***j son of Balwant Singh 

Maharaja of Bhartpur. He was born on tho 28th Feb- 
ruary, 1851, and succeeded his father on the 16th of 
March, 1853 when he was but two years old. 

Jaswant Singh, Kunwar, *^-» *s4r** jy* f ^ 
Parwana. 

Jat, «5»», a tribe of Hindu labourers who made no figure in 

the Mughul empire, as a nation, till the reign of 'Alamgir, 
in whose expedition to the Dakhin, they were first heard 
of as a gang of banditti, under an intrepid fellow called 
Churaman. They were then so daring as to harrass tho 
rear of the imperial army. After tho death of that mon- 
arch they took advantage of the growing imbecility of the 
empire, and fortifying themselves, spread their depreda- 
tions to tho gates of Agrah. Mukham Singh, who after 
the death of Churaman commanded the Jats, took upon 
himself the title of raja, but their power increased under 
Badan Singh and Surajmal, which last was dignified with 
titles from the emperor. Fide Churaman Ja£, 

Jawad 'AH, Mirza, U/* is** «*!>*>, or more properly 
Frince Mirza" Muhammad Jawad 'AH Sikandar Hash- 
mat Bahadur, son of Amj&d 'All Shdh, and brother 
of Wajid 'Ali Shah the ex-king of Lakhnau. He accom- 
panied his mother, the dowager Queen of Lakhnau, after 
the annexation of that country to the British possessions 
in 1856, to England, and died there after the death of his 
mother, on the 25th February, 1858, aged 30 lunar years. 
The body of the prince was transferred from London to 
Paris, to be buried on French soil bosido that of the 
Queen his mother. An immense crowd had assembled to 
witness the procession, attended by Prince Mirzi Hamid 
'Ali, the nephew of the deceased. 

Jawahir Singh, ***—j*\j*> t vide Jouhar. 

Jawahir Singh, *&»j*\j* % the Jit, raja* of pig and 

Bhartpur, was the son of Surajmal Jit. He succeeded 
to the raj after his father's death in December, 1763 
A. D., 1177 A. H., was secretly murdered in 1768, and 
was succeeded by his brother Rao Raton Singh, who 
did not escape suspicion of having been accessory to his 
brother's murder. Ratan Singh reigned ten months and 
thirteen days and was stabbed by a faljir named Rupa- 
nand, who pretended to transmute copper into gold, fide 
Ratan Singh, 



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Jouhar 



Jawahir Singh, i&^j*]?*, a Sikh chief who became 
the minister of Maharaj^ Dalip Singh after the death of 
Hira Singh, and was murdered by the troops at Lahor on 
the 21st September, 1845. Raja Lai Singh succeeded him. 

Jawahir Singh, Maharaja, *&" J**!* **!)V°t 
son of Dhyan Singh and nephew of Maharaja* Guttb Singh, 
ruler of Kashmir* 

Jawan, CJ!j% the poetical appellation of Mirdl Ka*zim 
'All, a Hindustani lyric poet, attached to the college of 
Fort William. He is the author of an Urdu Diwan and 
also of a Barah Masa which he composed in 1802 A. D., 
1217 A. H. He was alive in 1812. 

Jawan Bakht, Mirza, U/° ^^ *>}**, the youngest 
eon of Bah&dur Shah, the ex-king of Dehli, who accom- 
panied his father to Rangoon in 1858, and now resides 
under surveillance at that place. Government has sanc- 
tioned the grant of a separate pension and an allowance 
of 260 rupees to his wife Zamani Begam in 1873 A. D. 

Jawed Khan, O^ *i)*i an eunuch and a great favou- 
rito of the emperor Ahmad Shah and his mother, who 
raised him to the rank of an amir with the title of Nawab 
Bahadur. Nawab Sufdar Jang, who was much disgusted 
at tho influence ho had over the emperor, invited him to 
an entertainment, and murdered him during tho banquet 
This event took place on the 28th of August, 1752 O. S., 
28th Shaww&l 1165 A. H. 

Jaweni, c$Hj^> whoso proper name was Abu'l Ma'ali 
'Abdulmalik bin-' Abdullah, was a doctor and a very cele- 
brated metaphysician, who bore the title of " Imam-ul- 
Haramain." He flourished in tho reign of Malik Shah 
the Saljukide, and professed tho doctrine of Shufa'i at 
Naishapur, where the famous Ghazzali was his disciple. 
Ho is the author of several works, amongst which are the 
two following: "Tarikh Jahin Kushae," and"A#dat- 
ul-Nisamiat." He died in 1085 A. D., 478 A. H. 

Jaweria, Sr-J^i one of the wives of Muhammad whom he 
married in the sixth year of tho Hijra 627 A. D. She is 
said to be a woman of great beauty, and was brought 
among the captives. She died about the year 670 A. D., 
66 A. H. 
Jawini, c/^-^> *M* Moin-uddin JawinL 
Jayesi, «/~^> vide Malik Muhammad Jayed. 

Jazari iSJJ^f surname of those who were born at a city 
called Jazarat-ul-'Umar, situated on the Tigris, to the 
northward of Nineveh and MausaL One of the most 
illustrious amongst the men of letters this city has pro- 
duced, was Ibn-Asir ul-Shaibani Majd-uddin, who died 
1209 A. D., 606 A. H., and of whom we have several 
works. Fide Ibn-Asir. 

Jenghia Khan, o U J&>> *** Changes Khan. 

Jent Parkae, Lala, uXji °^» anthor of a P 00 " 1 

called " Dastdr Ish V containing the story of Sassf and 
Pan an in Persian verse. It appears that his correct name 
is J6t Parkaah. 
jhankqji Sendhia, ****** </**%*> wn of JKpa 
or Jyapi Sendhia, was killed in the last battle which took 
place between Ahmad Shah Abdali and the Marha^as on 
the Uth of January, 1761 N. 8., at Panipat. 

jhanko Rao Sendhia, ******* j!; -A*, also called 
Mukki Rao, on tho death of Daulat Bio Sendhia was 



elected by his widow Baj*i Bif as raj£. of Gwiliar, and was 
put on the masnad on the 18th June, 1827; but being 
then only nine years of age, Baji Bdi acted as regent. 
He assumed the reins of government in 1833, reigned 16 
years and some months, and died on the 4th of February, 
1843, aged 24 years. He was succeeded by his adopted 
Bon Jiaji Sendhia the present raja of Gwaliar, with whom 
Bija Bai appears to have resided until the time of the 
mutiny. 

Jiaji Bao Sendhia, *± A *H~ jlj (j^^ the present 
raja of Gwaliar, whose name in full is, Maharaja 'All 
Jah Jiaji Rao Sendhia, was the adopted son of Jhanko 
Rao Sendhia, on whose death he succeeded to the govern- 
ment on tho 4th February, 1843. His installation took 
place on tho 20th of January, 1844 when Lord Ellen- 
borough visited the fort. 

Jiapa Sendhia, ******* ^jk*, vide Jyapa Sendhia. 

Jiji Begam, fHJ i^^t the wet-nurse of the emperor 
Akbar, and the mother of Mirza 'Aziz K6ka, who was 
raised to a high rank by the emperor with the title of 
Khan 'Azim. She died in the year 1599 A. D., 1008 
A. H. The king carried her coffin on his shoulders and 
shaved his beard and mustachoes. 

Jiwan, Mulla, *° £&&> vide Mulla Jfwan. 

Jodha Bao, j\) ^J^t raj£ of Ma"rwar, and a descendant 
of Scojf, the grandson of the celebrated Jaichand, the last 
Rath6r monarch of Kanauj. He in the year 1432 A. D. 
founded the modern capital of Jodhpur, to which he trans- 
ferred the seat of government from Mand6r. 

Jodh Bai, tS*^ *«>J^> (whose maiden name appears to 
be Jagat Goshaini and also Balmati), was tho daughter of 
Raja Udai Singh of Jodhpiir or Marwar, the son of Raja* 
Maldeo. She was called Jodh Bai, because she was a 
princess of Jddhpur. She was married to Mirza Salim 
(afterwards Jahangir) in 1585 A. D., 994 A. H., and 
became the mother of the emperor Shall Jahan who was 
born in 1592 A. D., 1000 A. H. at Lahor. She died at 
Agrah in 1619 A. D., 1028 A. H., and was buried in 
Sohagpura built by her where her palace and tomb are 
still to be seen in a ruinous state. 

Jogi, Saltan, CJ^"*^*^ vide Muhammad Jogi. 

J08h, LT^-f poetical title of Ahmad Hasan Khan, who is 
familiarly called Achchhe 8ahib. He was living in 
Lakhnau in 1858 A. D., 1269 A. H., and is the author of 
an Urdu Diwan. He is the son of Naw&b Mukim Khan, 
the son of Nawab Muhabbat Khan, the son of Hans 
Rahmat Khan. 

Joflhiflh, ifi^J^ 9 poetical title of Muhammad Hasan or 
Muhammad Keshan of Patna, who flourished in the time 
of the emperor Shin 'Alam. 

Jot Farkash, Lala, W <J*Kri &>J± aHinduKayethand 
an author. This appears to be the correct for Jeint Par* 
kash, which see. 

Jouhar, J*J*> the poetical appellation of Jawihir Singh, 
a Hindu, who was the pupil of the poet Mulla NitiJ: of 
Naishapur. He is the author of a Diwan in Persian and 
Urdu, and was living in 1851 A. D., 1267 A. H. 

Jouhar, J*J*> the poetical name of Munshf Sewa Ram of 
Shahjahanpur, who flourished in the time of Akbar Shah 
II, and is the author of several works in Persian, such 



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Jurjani 



as " Jouhar-ul-Talim," " Jouhar-ul-Tarkib," ftc, the last- 
named work he wrote in 1820 A. D., 1235 A. H. 

Jouhari Farabi, ^j** i£j*r±> surname of Abu Naar 
Isma'il bin-Hammid. Although he was a Turk, yet he 
made such progress in the Arabic language, which he 
studied in Mesopotamia and Egypt, that he was styled 
" Imam-ul-Lugha't," or master of the language. He is 
the author of a very large Arabic Dictionary entitled 
" Sah£h-ul.LughaV , the purity of the tongue. He is 
often called after this work, " Sahib-us-Sahah" or the 
author of the Sahah. He is commonly called Farabi or 
Faiubf-al-Turkl, because he was a native of Firab in 
Turkistan. He died 1002 A. D., 393 A. H. 8ome au- 
thors say that his death took place in 992 A. D.. 382 
A.H. 

Jouhari Zargar, jrji (Sj*J*> a poet who flourished in 
the time of Sulaiman Shah and Arsalan Shan of the house 
of Salju^. He is the author of a poem containing the 
story of " Amir Ahmad and Mahasti." 

JounpUT, J&J+, kings of; vide Khwaja Jahin. 

Jouzi, iS&*f vide Abu'l Faraj ibn-Jauzi. 

Joya, kf*, poetical appellation of Miria Darab Beg, a 

poet whose native country was Kashmir. He died in 

1706 A. D., 1118 A. H., and is the author of a Diwan. 

The poetical name of his brother Mini Kimran, was 

G6ya\ 

Juban Choban or Jovian, Amir, cA*^ j**1, the 
tutor and general of the armies of Sultan Abu Sa'fd Khan, 
son of Aljaitu, king of Persia. He was put to death by 
Malik Ghayas-uddin Kart in November, 1327 A. D., 
Mubarram, 728 A. H., by order of the Sultan, because 
he refused to give him his daughter, Baghdad Khatun, 
in marriage. Vide Baghdad Khatun. 



Juber, 



a companion of Muhammad* 



Judat, ^^J^i a poetical appellation. 

Jughtai, &****> wfrChaghtai. 

Jugal Kishor. jy~* *J^j an inhabitant of Dehli whose 

poetical name was 8arwat. He was wakfl to the Naiim 

of Bengal for several years. 

Juji Khan, c)^ if*J±> was the eldest son of Chingis 
Khan the Tartar, from whom he had received for his 
share the wide regions of Kapchalft ; but this prince died 
a few months before his father in 1226 A. D., and left 
his territories to his son Batu Khan, who conquered Rus- 
sia and Bulgaria, and ravaged the countries of Poland, 
Moravia, and Dalmatia, and had marched into Hungary 
in order to attack Constantinople, when death ended his 
victorious career. 

Juna Shah, **-" ^, a brother of Muhammad Tughlafc 

Shah, king of Dehli, who built the city of Jounpur which 
goes after his name. 

Junaid Baghdadi, Shaikh, is***** **** g&, 

a celebrated ascetic whose father was a glass-blower of 
Nahawand. He was born and brought up at Baghdad, 
and became one of the best disciples of Shafa'f, but 
followed the system of Sufian 8ourf. He made thirty 
pilgrimages to Mecca, alone and on foot. He died at 
Baghdad in the year 911 A. D., 298 A. H., and was 
buried near the tomb of his master and maternal uncle, 
Sari Safctf . 

Junaid, Shaikh or Saltan, **** cA***, third in 
descent from the celebrated Shaikh Safi-uddin Ardibeli, 



and grandfather of Shah IsmaVil I of Persia, founder of tho 
Safwi dynasty which was extirpated by Nadir Shah. He 
was a Sufi or mystic philosopher, but being expelled 
from Azurbejan by the Turkman ruler Jahan Shah, es- 
tablished himself in Dayarbikar. In the latter period 
of his life, he went to Shirwan with his disciples, and was 
killed in 1456 A. D., 860 A. H., in a conflict with the 
troops of Amir Khalfl-ullah, ruler of that province. Vide 
Isma'il I Safwf. The book called Nukkit Bedil, written 
by Mina Bedil, contains his Memoirs. 

Jnnuni, i£*J*±> author of a poem called " Lataef Shouk," 

a collection of entertaining and witty tales which he 
composed in the year 1689 A. D., 1100 A. H., and dedi- 
cated to the emperor 'Alamgir, but many were rather 
obscene. 

Jununi, Maulana, i^y* ^Xj*i a sprightly satirical 
poet of Uirat who flourished in the time of Amir Ghayas- 
uddin Sultan Husain, son of Firos Shah about the 9th 
century of the Hijri era. 

Jurat, &b±, poetical title of Kalandar Bakhsh, a son of 

Yehia Aman and pupil of Hasrat. He was first supported 
by Nawib Muhabbat Khan, but in 1800 A. D M 1215 
A. H., he was in the service of prince Sulaiman Shik6h 
at Lakhnau. Though in the prime of life, he became 
blind, but became a good musician and an excellent 
player on the guitar. It appears that Jurat and his family 
had the family name of Yehia Man, because they said 
that they were descended from Yehia Rae Man who re- 
sided in a street at Dehli which is close to the Chandni 
Chouk, and is still called the Rae Man street. It is also 
stated that this Rae Man was executed by Nadir Shah. 
Jurat died in the year 1810 A. D., 1225 A. H. He is 
the author of an Urdu Diwan and two Masnawis, 

Jnrir, J*-J+> or Abu Hazra* Jarfr ibn-Atiya, was one of the 

greatest and most celebrated poets. He flourished in the 
reign of the Khalif ' Abdulmalik of the house of Umayya, 
and received from him a handsome salary. He was once 
rewarded by the prince for a single panegyrical ode, with 
100 camels, 18 slaves and a silver jug. Abu'l Faraj ibn- 
ul-Jauzi places the death of Jurfr in the year HI Hyri 
or 729 A. D., Ill A. H., aged 80 years. 

Jurir-ibn-' Abdullah, ^*** ^ jij*> a general of 
the army in the time of 'Umax, tho second Khalifa after 
Muhammad, 

Jurir-ibn-ul-Tabari, t£j^\ u*Ij4j*> or Jurfr-ut-Ta- 
barf, a celebrated Arabian historian, author of the *' Tirikh 
Tabari." He died in tho year 922 A. D., 310 A. H. His 
son Muhammad, who was also an author, died in 942 
A. D., 330 A. H. Vide Abu Ja'far-at-Tabart 

Jurjani, u^^j^j which see. 

Jurjani, «^4^, a native of Jurjan or Georgia* A1- 

Sayyad-ush-Sharif Abu'l Hasan (or Husain) 'Alf, was 
thus surnamed because he was born in that country. He 
was one of the most celebrated Musalman doctors ; was 
born in 1339 A. D., 740 A. H., and died at Shirks 1413 
A. D M 816 A. H. There have been several other authors 
of this surname, as Al-Sharif-al-Husaini, a son of the first, 
who was a famous physician and lived in the time of 
Atsiz, Sul{an of the Khwarismians. Also Abu'l Wafa, 
a mathematician, Abu Bakr bin-' Abdul Kahir, a gram- 
marian, and Muhammad Jirjani, a valiant captain of the 
Sultan of Khwarism, and governor of the city of Hirat 
who was killed in defending that place against Toll Shan, 
son of Changez Khan, 



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Kadar 



K. 



Kaan f vide Khan. 

Ka'b, J&) ^ >?**> or Kaa'b ibn-Zahir of Mecca, was an 
Arabian poet, and author of the " Kasied Binat Sa'id,'* 
a poem in Arabic held in the highest estimation, contain- 
ing a panegyric on Muhammad. A translation of part 
of it may be found in Bir William Jones's Second Volume 
of the Asiatic Researches. The author was a Jewish 
Rabbi, contemporary and opponent of Muhammad, and 
had written some satirical verses upon him ; but after- 
wards being desirous of a reconciliation with the prophet, 
ho wrote the above poem, which had the desired effect. 
Some authors say that he died in the first year of the 
Hijra, that is, 622 A. D., 1 A. H. But, according to 
Ookley's History of the Saracens, "Kaa'b came in the 
ninth year of the Hijra, and made his peace with Muham- 
mad, with a poem in his praise." By this it appears that 
h»» was living in 631 A. D. He is said to have assisted 
Muhammad greatly in the compilation of the Kuran, 
Wilkin s Biographical Dictionary under Coab. 

Ka^b-al-' Ahbar f- rhr*^ < t**^> a famous traditionist of the 
tribe of Hamyar, who embraced IsUmism in the reign 
of 'Ulnar, and died in 652 A. D., 32 A. H., during the 
n>ign of 'Usman. 

Kabir, J&? > » celebrated Hindi poet, by trade a Musalmin 
weaver, who, according to the Akbar-nima, was cotem- 
porary with Sikandar 8hih L6d£ king of Dohli. Kabir 
was a Sufi or Deist of the most exalted sentiments and 
of benevolence unbounded. His poems which aro still 
universally esteemed, inculcate the purest morality, good 
will and hospitality towards all men ; and breathe so' 
fine a spirit of toleration, that both Hindus and Musal- 
mans contend for the honour of his having been born of 
their religion. From the disinterested, yet alluring, doc- 
trines his poems contain, a sect has sprung up in Hindu- 
stan, under the name of Kabir Panthf, who are so uni- 
versally esteemed for veracity, and other virtues, among 
both Hindus and Musalmins, that they may be with 
propriety considered the Quakers of this country. The 
time of Kabir's death seems involved in equal obscurity 
with the manner of his decease and burial They relate 
that he lived a long time at Kisf (Ben&raa) and Gayi, 
and sojourned also at Jagarnith, where he gave great 
offence to the Brahmaps, by his conduct and tolerant doc- 
trine. When stricken in years, he departed this life among 
a concourse of his disciples both Musalmans and Hindus. 
He is buried at Batanpur, where his tomb is said to be 
seen to this day. 

Kabir, Shaikh, J*£ £*"> surnamed Bala Pfr, was the 

son of Shaikh £isim tfidiii whose tomb is at Chunir. 
Shaikh Kabir died at $anauj on Monday, the 4th of 
November, 1644 A. D., 12th Ramadan, 1064 A. H., where 
a splendid Mausoleum was built on his tomb by one of 
his sons named Shaikh Mahdi who died in 1677 A. D., 
1088 A~ H., and is also buried there. 

Kabir-uddin, </lr* cH^I £ G iy* \ai^ j*?> son of 
Taj-uddin 'Irifcf, lived in the time of Sul(in Ali-uddin 
king of Dehli, and wrote a book on his conquests. 

iy ft Kitt.i Kaan, «|1" * . * or Khan, or more properly 
Kawaila Kain, Ohrand Khin of the Mongols and Emperor 
of China, was the son or brother of Mangu Khin 
emperor of Tartary, and great-grandson of Chingus Khan. 
He succeeded his brother about the year 1269 A. D., 666 
A. H., and founded the Yueen dynasty in China. Being 
ordered by his brother Mango, then Khakan of the 

35 



Mongols, to subjugate Corea and China, he entered China 
with an immense army in 1260 A. D., drove out the Tartars 
of the Kin dynasty and took possession of North China. 
In 1279 he completed the ruin of the Song dynasty by 
invading and subduing Southern China so that his* dominion 
now extended from the Frozen Ocean to the Straits of 
Malacca and from Corea to Asia Minor — an extent 
of territory, the like of which had never before, and has 
never since, been governed by any one monarch. The 
rule of the Mughuls, hitherto severe and barbarous, 
changed its character in the reign of this prince, who 
adopted entirely the manners of the Chinese, and who is 
regarded, oven by that people, as one of the best and 
most illustrious of their emperors. He died in 1294 
A. I)., 693 A. H. 

?abul, (Jj&, the poetical appellation of Mirzi 'Abdul 
Ghini Beg of Kashmir, who was a Sufi and a pupil of 
J6yi, the brother of G6ya. He died in 1726 A. D. f 1139 
A. H. 

l^abus, uryr 3 , a prince of the house of 8hamgir, or Dash- 
magir, whose capital was Rei, and afterwards Jurjan in 
Khurfisan. Shamgir was succeeded by his son Bistun, 
of whom nothing particular is related. But the next of 
this family, Kibtis, whose title was " Shama'-ul-Mulk," 
or the candle of the kingdom, is celebrated for his extra- 
ordinary wisdom and learning. He was, by the instiga- 
tion of his son Manuchchr, slain by his own mutinous 
officers 1012 A. D., 403 A. H., whose excesses he had 
probably desired to restrain. He was succeeded by his 
son Manuchchr, who submitted to the power of Sultan 
Mahmiid of Qhazni : but that monarch not only conti- 
nued him in his family possessions, but gave him his 
daughter in marriage. He died 1070 A. D., 463 A. H., 
and was succeeded in the government of Jurjan by his 
son Gflan Shah. Kabus is the author of several works, 
one of which is called " Kamil-ul-Baiighat." 

Kabuli Mahal, cl**^k(?, a wife f Shihzahan. 

Kaohhwaha, the title of the Rajas of Amber or Jaipur. 
Vide Bhara Mai. 

$adard, *J&> the son of Ja'far Beg Diud, and brother 

of Alp Arsalin of the race of Saljuk. He was installed 
by Tughral Beg his uncle in 1041 A. D., 433 A. H., and 
became the first Sultan of the 8aljuk dynasty of Kirman 
where he reigned 32 years and died of poison in 1072 
A. D., 465 A. H,, by order of Malik Shah. 

The following it a list of the Sulfdne of Kirmdn 
of the race of Sa{juk, 

A. D. A. H. 

gidard, the son of Ja'far Beg Diud, began 1041 433 

Sultan Shah, the son of £idard, 1072 465 

Turin Shah, brother of Sultan Shih, 1074 467 

Iran Shah, son of Turin Shih, a tyrant 

who was slain in 1100, 1096 489 

Arsalin Shah, son of Kirman Shih, reigned 

42 years, 1100 494 

Mughis-uddm Muhammad, son of Arsalin, 1141 636 

Tughral Shih, son of Muhammad, 1156 551 

Bahrain, Arsalin, and Turin Shih, sons of 

Tughral, dispute succession, 1169 566 

Muhammad Shih, son of Bahrim 8hih who 
after the death of his father and two 
uncles ascended the throne of Kirmin, was 
dispossessed by Malik Dinar, a Turk of 
the tribe of Ghuz in 1187 A. D., 688 
A. H. Thus ended the Saljuk dynasty 
of Kirmin of the race of $idard. 

TTttH»y Khan, e^ja 1 *. Vide £adr Khin* 



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?adir, J*^, the poetical title of Shaikh 'Abdul Kadir Ba- 
daonL Vide 'Abdul $*dir. 

^adir> >^ j the poetical appellation of Wazir Khan, an 
inhabitant of Xgrah, who was in great favour with * Alam- 
git and his two successors. He died in 1724 A. D., 1186 
A. H., and is the author of a Diwan. 

l^adir, J** 9 ? the poetical name of Shaikh 'Abdul £adir, who 
was employed as Munshf by Prince Muhammad Akbar, 
son of 'Alamgir. He is the author of a Diwan. 

$adir Billah, V 1 * J^. Vide Al-Kadir Billah. 

$adir or IJZadiri, (SJ^ ^J^> the poetical name of 
'Abdul $adir of Badaon. 

£adiri, (SJ*^> the poetical title of Prince Dara Shik6h, the 
eldest son of the emperor Shah Jahan. 

fadir Shah, &»j*&, of Malwa. After the occupation 

of Malwa by the emperor Humayun, that monarch had 
left his own officers in the government of that kingdom, 
but shortly after his return to Agrah, Mallu Khan, one 
of the officers of the late Khilji government, retook all 
the country lying between the Narbada and the town of 
Bhilsa, after a struggle of twelve months against the 
Dehli officers; whom having eventually subdued, he 
caused himself to be crowned in Mando, under the title 
of Kadir Shah of Malwa. He reigned till the year 1642 
A. D., 949 A. H., when Sher Shah took Malwa, and con- 
ferred the government to Shujaa' Khan his minister and 
relative. 

2£adr Khan, &l*>j*s, king of Khutan, who was a con- 
temporary of Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni. He was living 
between the years 1005 and 1024 A. D. It is related of 
him that he was very fond of music, and that four bags 
were constantly placed round his sofa, and as he listened 
to the song, he cast handfuls of gold and silver to the 
poets. 

5aol, (JjUj poetical name of 'Abdullah, a Persian poet 

TJMli or ^abili, ur? 3 } of Sabzwar, is the author of a 
biography or Tazkira of poets. Ho died in 1548 A. D., 
955 A. H. 

£aem-bi-amr-ullah, *Uy>b pA*, was the son of 

Mahdi, the first Khalif of the Fatimites in Africa. He 
rebuilt the city of Massilah in Africa in the year 927 
A. D., 316 A. H., and called it Muhammadia. 

£aem Billah, V 1 ? f&, Khalifa of Baghdad, vide Al- 
$aem Billah. 

£aem Jang or £ayum Jang, ^^ fi^> the son of 
Muhammad Khan Bangash, nawa*b of Famikhabad, whom 
he succeeded in June, 1748 O. S., Jornada I, 1156 A. H. 
He made war by the instigation of the wazir, nawib 
Safdar Jang, with the Eohelas of Kater now called Ro- 
hilkhand, after the death of their chief, 'AH Muhammad 
Khan, but was defeated and slain on the 10th November, 
1749 O. 8., 10th #Hijja, 1162 A. H., and his estates 
confiscated by the wazir. The principal servants of the 
deceased were sent prisoners to Allahabad; but his 
mother was allowed to keep the city of Farrukh&ba'd and 
twelve small districts for the support of the family, as 
they had been conferred on it in perpetuity by the em* 
peror Farrukh-aiyar. The conquered country was com- 



mitted to the care of the wazir's deputy. Raja Nawib Rae, 
who was soon after slain in battle against Ahmad Khan 
the brother of Kaem Jang, who took possession of tho 
country. 

IjCaem, ftf 9 , poetical appellation of $aem Khan who held 

tho post of Captain in the service of Wazir Muhammad 
Khan, Nawib of T6nk, the son of Amir Khan. He is the 
author of an Urdu Diwan, which he completed and pub- 
lished in 1853 A. D., 1270 A. H. 

Kafl, iS*^> surname of Talff-nddin 'AH bin-' AH, an Ara- 
bian author who died in the year 1356 A. D.. 756 A. H. 
His name is spolt in some of our Biographical Dictionaries, 
Can. 

Kafl. or Kami, <^*K, poetical name of Mirza 'Ali-uddaula 

who flourished in the reign of the emperor Akbar. Vide 
AU-uddaula (Mirza), and Kami. 

Kafl, u?^> whose proper name was Kifayet 'AU, was a 

poet of MuradabacL, and author of the " Bahir Khuld," 
which is a translation of the ** Shimael." 

Kafl-ul-Kafat, ^^J ^^ tide Ibn.'Ibld. 

Kafar, Malik, JJ*% c ^ x , a favourite eunuch of 8ultan 
'Ala-uddfa Khilji, king of Dehli, who was raised to the 
high rank of wizarat. After the king's death, the first 
step which the traitor took, was to send a person to Gwa- 
liar, to put out the eyes of Khizir Khan and Shidii Khan 
the two sons of the deceased Sultan. His orders were 
inhumanly executed. Ho then placed Shihib-uddin the 
king's youngest son (a boy of seven years of age) on the 
throne, and began his administration ; but was assassina* 
ted thirty -five days after the king's death, in January, 1317 
A. D., 716 A. H., and Mubarik the third son of the king 
was raised to the throne. 

Kahaj Tabrezi, Shaikh, </>LrN *f^ &~, a learned 

Musalman who held the offico of Shaikh-ul-Ialam at 
Tabrez during the reign of Sultan Aweis and Sultan 
Husain of Baghdad. He is the author of a Diwan. 

Kahi, if*X, vide Kasim Kihf. 

?ahir BiUah, V^^ *»* Al-Kahir Billah, Khalffc of 
Baghdad. 

$ahkaii, <Sjhf> ^ide Najm-uddln Abu'l Hasan. In 

some of our Biographical Dictionaries his name is spelt 
Cahcari 

Kaikaufl, LfX^?> second king of the Kayanian dynasty 

of Persia, was the son of Kai^ubad. He was vain and 
proud : and appears to have been in continual distress 
from the unfortunate result of schemes that his ambition 
led him to form, but which he wanted ability to execute. 
His life is connected with a thousand fables, which though 
improper in this place, form excellent materials for Fir- 
daugi. who has given, in his history of this period, the 
extraordinary and affecting tale of the combat between 
Bustam and his unknown son, Suhr&b, who is killed by 
his father. This part of the Shah-nama has been beautf* 
fully translated in English verse by J. Atkinson, Esq., 
Assistant Surgeon on the Bengal Establishment, and 
member of the Asiatic Society in 1814. Kaikaus when 
grown old, resigned his crown in favour of his grandson 
Kaikhusro, the son of Siawakhah. 

KaikaUB, Amir, KJP&f J**\> grandson of Kabus, prince 
of Jurjan, and one of the noblemen who lived at the court 



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Kalhana 



of Sultan Maudud, the grandson of Sultan Mahmud of 
Ghazni. He is the author of the work called " Kibus- 
nama." 

Kaikhusro, JZr**^* the third king of the Kayanian 
dynasty of Persia and the grandson of Kaikaus. He 
ascended the throne in the lifetime of his father who 
resigned the crown in his favour. He had several battles 
with Afrdsiao the king of Turin, who was at last defea- 
ted, taken prisoner, and slain. Soon after these events 
Kaikhusro resolved to devote the remainder of his life to 
religious retirement : he delivered over Kabul, Zabulistan 
and Nimr6z to Rustam, as hereditary possessions ; and 
resigned his throne to Luhrasp the son-in-law of Kaikaus 
and his own son by adoption and affection. After these 
arrangements, he went accompanied by some nobles 
to a spring which he had fixed upon as the place of his 
repose. Here he disappeared, and all those that went 
with him were destroyed on their return by a violent 
tempest. He lived '90 years and reigned 60. 

Kaittmsro, Jj~=^> the son of Sultan Muhammad Khan, 

g)vernor of Multan, who was the eldest son of Sultan 
hayaa-uddin Balban, king of Dehli. After his father's 
death in 1285 A. D., he was made governor of Multan by 
his grandfather, and after his decease in 1286 A. D., 
was murdered at Rohjak by Malik Nizam-uddin, wazir of 
Kaifcubad who ascended the throne as king of Dehli. 

Kaikubad, ^&£> the founder of the second or Kayanian 
dynasty of the kings of Persia, was a lineal descendant 
of Manuchchr, according to some accounts he was his 
great-grandson. This prince had retired to the mountain 
of Alburz. from which place he was brought by Rustam 
the son of Zal and proclaimed king of Pereia. Ho com- 
mitted the administration of government into the hands 
of Zal, whose son Rustam, was appointed to lead the 
Persians against the dreaded Afrasiab who had again 
passed the Oxus and invaded Persia. In this battle, Rus- 
tam overcame Afrasiab, and afterwards a peace was 
concluded, by which it was agreed that the Oxus should 
remain as it had been heretofore, the boundary between 
the two kingdoms. Kaifcubid lived some time after this 
in peace : he is said to have reigned 120 years. He left 
four sons: Kaikaus, Arish, Rum and Armen. To the 
former he bequeathed his throne, and enjoined all the 
others to obey him. 

List of kings of the second or Kayanian dynasty. 

1. Kaikubad. 
Kaikaus. 

Kaikhusro (Cyrus the Great). 
Luhrasp. 

Gushtasp (Hystaspes of Grecian History). 
Isfandiar (Aspanda or Astyages of ditto). 
Bahman or Ardisher Darazdast (Artaxerxea 

Longimanus). 
Humai, daughter and wife of B ahman . 
Darab or Dara, son of Bahman. 
Dari, son of Darab (Darius overcome by Alex- 
ander the Great). 

Kaikubad, d^ft^j surnamed Mu'izz-uddin, the grandson of 
Sultan Ghayas-uddin Balban, whom he succeeded in 1286 
A D 685 A. H., on the throne of Dehli in the absence 
of hU father Nasir-uddin Baghri Khan who was then 
in Bengal. In the year 1287 A. D., 686 A. H., Ins father 
having heard the state of affairs at Dehli, marched from 
Bengal to visit and advise his son. They met on the 
banks of the Gbigra at Behar, and the whole soene was 
so affecting, that almost all the court shed tears. On 
this occasion the celebrated poet Amir Khusro wrote the 
poem called the 4i Kiranus-Sadain," or the conjunction 
ifthe two planets. Kaifcubid was assassinated through 



9. 
10. 



the instigation of Firoz Malik Khiljf in 1288 A. D., who 
ascended the throne by the title of Jalal-uddfn Fires 
Shah Khilji, and became the first Sultan of the 2nd 
branch of the Turk dynasty called Khiljf . 

KaiomtLTS, \J>j*j£) the first monarch of Persia according 
to all Muhammadan writers. This king is stated to have 
reclaimed his subjects from a state of the most savage 
barbarity. They say he was the grandson of Noah, and 
the founder of the first dynasty of Persian kings called 
Pishdadian. His son Siamak was killed in one of the 
battles with the barbarians or Devs; and when that 
monarch carried Hoshang, the infant son of Siamak, to 
share in the revenge he meant to take upon his enemies, 
his army was joined by all the lions, tigers and panthers 
in his dominions, and the Devs were routed and torn to 
pieces by the auxiliaries, who had left their native forest 
to aid the just king. After this victory, Kaiomurs re- 
tired to his capital Balkh. He reigned 30 years, and was 
succeeded by his grandson Hoshang. 

Ths following is a list of kings of the first or 
Piskdddian dynasty, 

1. Kaiomurs. 

2. Hoshang. 

8. Tuhmurs, surnamed Deoband. 

4. Jamshed reigned at Penripolis. 

5. Zuhak, surnamed Alwani. 

6. Faridun, restored by Kawa. 

7. Manuchchr. 

8. Naudar or Nauzar. 

9. Afrasiab, king of Turkistan. 

10. Zab, brother of Naudar. 

11. Garshasp. 



]£aisar, J^?* a poet of the tribe of Shamld, who is com- 
monly called $aisar Shamld. 

I£aisar, J*"* 3 } poetical name of Prince Khurshaid Jfadr 
the son of Mirza Asman Kadr, the son of Mirza Khurram 
Bakht, the son of Prince Mirza Jahandar Shah, the son 
of Shah ' Alam, king of Dehli. 

]£aisari Kirmani, i^*J* <*$,/*&> a poet of Kirmania. 

Kaiuk Khan, cA ^#? } vide Kayuk. 

Kakafl, %jP*K 9 vide Ahmad bin-Idrfs. He is mentioned in 
some of our Biographical Dictionaries under the name 
of Cakafi. 

Kakafl, «/*^> vufe Ahinad bin-Idrfs. 

Ifalandar, J*^> author of the work called "8irat-ul- 
MuBta^im l ,, which he composed in 1405 A. D., 808 
A. H., and dedicated to Abu'l Muzaffar Huaain Shah 
bin.Mahmud Shan bin-Ibrahim Shah of Jaunpur. 

Kalaniffi tS^^y surname of 'Abdullah bin-Muhammad, 
an Arabian author, who died in 1121 A. D., 515 A. H. 

Kalb Ali Khan, ^ uh ***** Nawib of R&apdr in 
1869-70. 

Kalb Husain Khan, Miraa, d* e*-* v^ v >j*> 
Deputy Collector of Etawah, the son Ahtaram-uddaula 
Dabir-ul-Mulk Kalb 'Ali Khan Bahadur. He is the 
author of four Diwans and a biography called " Shaukat 
Nadiri" He was living in 1864 A. D., 1281 A. H. 

Kftlb ft " ^ *V*j a Branman and author of a history of Kash- 



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Kamal-uddin 



m£r called " Raja'tarangini." There are four chronicles 
of the history of Kashmir written in Sanskrit verse ; the 
first by KalhanS, bringing the history of Kashmir to 
about 1148 after Christ ; the second, a continuation of 
the former, by JauarajA, to 1412 A. D. ; the third, a conti- 
nuation of the second by Srivara, a pupil of Jauara'ja', to 
1477 A. D. ; and the fourth, by Prajyabhafta, from that 
date to the conquest of the valley by the emperor Akbar. 
The author of the work, the Pandit Kalhana, of whom we 
merely know that he was the son of Champaka, and 
lived about 1150 A. D., under the reign of Sinha Deva of 
Kashmir — reports that before entering on his task, he had 
studied eleven historical works written previously to his 
time, and also a history of Kashmir by the sage Nila, 
which seems to be the oldest of all. Kalhana' begins his 
work, with the mythological history of the country, the 
first king named by him is Gonarda, who, according to 
his chronology, would have reigned in the year 2448 
B. C, and the last mentioned by him is Sinha Deva, about 
1150 after Christ. 

Kali Das, O"'** &$, a celebrated Hindu poet who lived 
towards the commencement of the Christian era. He 
was one of the nine splendid gems that adorned the court 
of Raja* Bikarmajit (Yikramaditya). Some say that he 
flourished in the time of Rajd Bhoj. He wrote the '* Na- 
lodia" for the purpose of exhibiting his unbounded skill 
in alliteration. In four books, containing on the average 
fifty-four stanzas each, he has given such illustrations 
of their subject as can never be surpassed. This work 
has been published in Europe, with a Latin translation 
by a continental scholar, Fordinandus Benary. No reason 
can be imagined, why Kali Das should again write the 
history of Nala and Damayanti, after it had been so 
elegantly written in flowing verse by Vyasa Deva, except 
that he intended in this simple story to shew forth his 
ingenuity in alliteration. He is also the author of the 
poem called " Kumara Sambhava," and of another called 
"MahaNatak." 



Kali Sahib, V^ 1 ** ^K, surname of Ghuttm Nasir- 

uddin, the son of Maulana" Kutb-uddin, the son of Maulani 
Fakhr-uddin. Although he was the Murshid or spiritual 
guide of the king of Dehlf, he preferred the habit of a 
Derwish. He died in 1852 A. D., 1268 A. H. 

Kalim, f£* } the poetical name of Abu Talib Kalim, which 

see. 

Kalim-ullah, ^f^*, a title of Moses the prophet. 

Kalim-uUah, *^lf^, the last king of the Bahmanf 
dynasty of Kulbarga or Ahmad&b&d Bidar in the Dakhin. 
He was expelled in 1527 A. D., by Amir Barid his wazfr, 
who mounted the throne and took possession of that 
kingdom. 

Kalim-Ullah, ^ftP, author of a work called "Kash- 

kol Tasauwaf," an exposition of the mystical phrases of 
the Sufis. 

Kamal, J^> a poet of Isfahan. 

Kamal, *Jl+f, poetical title of Mir Kamal 'Alf of Gaya 
Manpur. He wrote Persian and Rekhta verses, and is the 
author of a large work called " Kamil-ul-Hikmat," on 
philosophy, and one called "Chahardah Daru\i," t. *. f 
the fourteen blessings containing an account of the 
Imams. He died in 1800 A. D., 1215 A. H., and the chro- 
nogram of the Hijri year of his death is contained in the 
word Dareghi. 

Kamal Ghayas, Maulana, iSjjj^ «Mi* JU tyyo } 

of 8hiras, a poet and physician who flourished in the 
time of Ibr&him Sultan. 



Kamal $asi, cM <^ U , vide Abul-Fath BOgramt 

Kamal Khan, Gikhar, j£* cM> J***, prince of the 
Gikhars, was the son of Sultan Sirang, the son of Malik 
Kalan II, the son of Malik Kalan I, the son of Malik 
Khar, who was the founder of the principality of the 
Gikhars. Their country lies among the mountains be- 
tween Bhat and Sindh, which formerly belonged to the 
government of Kashmir. Malik Kalan II had several 
battles with Sher Sh&h, but was at last taken prisoner 
and put to death by that monarch, and his son or grand- 
son Kamal Khan imprisoned in the fortress of Gwiliar. 
He was, however, after some years released bySalimShih 
the son of Sher Shdh, but during his confinement, his 
uncle Sultan Adam had taken possession of the country. 
In the first year of the reign of Akbar he was introduced 
to that monarch and was employed in his service. He 
by degrees rose to the rank of 6000, and was afterwards 
put in possession of his dominions by that emperor, and 
Sult&n Adam his uncle taken prisoner and made over to 
Kamal Khan who put him in confinement where he died. 
Kamal Khan who became tributary to Akbar, died in 
1562 A. D., 970 A. H. 

Kamal Khujandi, iS**^ J^> vide KamAl-uddin 
Khujandi. 

Kamal-uddin 'Abdul Hazzak, Shaikh, JUT &~ 

£\jjl\±*e t*»oJ!, ia the author of several works, among 
which are the following " Tafeir Tawittt," " Kitib Isti- 
Uhdt Sufia," "Sharah Fasus-ul-rjikam," "Sharh Ma- 
nazib-ul.Sdbirin," &c. He was a contemporary of Shaikh 
Rukn-uddin 'Ali-uddaula. [He died in 1482 A. D 1 887 
A. H. Vide 'Abdul Razza*. 

Kamal-uddin Isma'il, da***l &l*i\ JU, ^ u of 

Jamil-uddin Muhammad 'Abdul Razzik of Isiahan. a 
celebrated poet of Persia, Btyled, Malik-ush-Shu'ari, that 
is to say, king of the poets, and is the author of a Diwan. 
In the year 1237 A. D., 2nd Jumida I, 635 A. H„ on 
the 21st of December, when Ofctai Khan, the son of Chan- 
ges Khan, invaded Isfahan, and massacred the inhabi- 
tants of that city, he also foil a martyr. It is said that 
he was tortured to death by the Mughuls who expected 
to find hidden property in his house. 

Kamal-uddin Khujandi, Shaikh, vi*JlJl+S 



c *xs^\ 



was a great Shaikh and lyric poet, and a cotem- 
porary of Hans, who, though they never saw each 
other, much esteemed him, considering him and 8alman 
Sawaji as amongst the first poets of their time. He is 
commonly called Kamil Khujandi, born at Khujand, a 
town situated in one of the most beautiful and fertile 
districts of Persia. After having mado the pilgrimage 
to Mecca, he settled at Tabrez, a place which he found 
extremely agreeable during tho reign of the princes of 
the family of Jalayer. Tho principal personages of 
Tabrez became his pupils, and he led a life of literary 
ease and enjoyment; but when Tufctamish Khan sur- 
prised Tabrez, Shaikh Kamal was made prisoner, and was 
carried to Serai in Kapjik by order of Mangu Khan tho 
grandson of Changes Khan, where he remained four 
years, after which he was permitted to return to Tabrez. 
near which city the Sultan Awes Jaliyer built him a 
house. Kamal did not sing the praise of princes in 
£asida, nor did he write Masnawis, but only Ghazals, and 
fragments. He died in the year 1390 A. D., 792 A IL. 
and was buried at Tabrez. A MS. of the Df win of Kamal 
which had been the property of a Sultan, is possessed by 
the Imperial Library at Vienna, and is a great treasure 
as a specimen of splendid writing, and, also, for the 
superbly executed miniatures which adorn it, illustrating 



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141 



Kaplan 



the poem*. These pictures are not more than a square 
inch in size : there are two on each aide of the conclud- 
ing verse; and though so small, represent, with the 
greatest correctness, either allegorically or simply, the 
meaning of the poet — Dublin University Magazine for 1840. 

Kamal-uddin Masa'ud, Maulana, u**h J^ b V, 
i^bj~ *J"~* of Shirwan, a celebrated logician and 
author of the marginal notes on the "Sharon Hikmat 
Ain." 

Kamal-uddin Muhammad bin-' Abdul Muna'im 
Jujari, Shaikh, (***+** *** t^ a^^^I jU ^ } 
KJP^J* an author who died in 1484 A. D., 889 A. H. 

Kamal-uddin Muhammad-al-Siwasi, e^ dU, 

i~m\y~}\ 04s 4 commonly called Humam and Ibn- 
Humim, author of a commentary on the Hidiya entitled 
44 Fath-ul-Kidir lil 'Ajiz-al-Fakir." It is the most com- 
prehensive of all the comments on the Hidaya, and includes 
a collection of decisions which render it extremely useful. 
He died in 1457 A. D., 861 A. H. Vide Humam and Ibn- 
Humam. 

Kamal-uddin Muhammad, Khwaj a, **ar* c ,*xJ| JUT 
^J^ f ibn-Ghayis-uddin 8hfris(, was a physician and a 
poet, and flourished in the time of Sultan Ibrahim Mirzi. 
For his poetical title ho used Ibn-Ghayas. 

Kamal-uddin Musa bin-Yunas bin-Malik, 

•^° i^ trW & *Sr*y° urt^ J**^,name of an Imam, 
who was one of the most celebrated Masai man doctors. 

Kamal-uddin, Bhah, »U ^aJl Jl*S f vide Lutf-ullih. 

^ am ar-uddin, Mir, y^ (&*l\j** 9 whose poetical title 
is Minnat, which see. 

$amar-uddin Khan, wazir, ji)3 ^ v****j**, 

whose original name was Mir Muhammad Fizil, was the 
son of Ya'tmad-uddaula Muhammad Amin Khan, waxir, 
and was himself appointed to that office with the title of 
Ya'tmid-uddaula Nawib £amar-uddin Khan Bahadur 
Kasrat Jang, by the emperor Muhammad Shin, after the 
resignation of Nizam-ul-Mulk Asaf Jah, in 1724 A. D., 
1137 A. H. He was sent under Prince Ahmad on the 
first invasion of Ahmad Shah Abdali to oppose him, but 
was killed by a cannon ball, while at prayers in his tent 
during the battle of Sarhind on the 11th March, 1748 
O. S. t 11th Kabi' I, 1161 A. H. 

Kam Bakhah, i£***tf *^Jt~* (prince) youngest son 
of the emperor 'Alamgfr, a vain and violent young man, 
who had received from his father the kingdom of the Dak* 
hin, but as he refused to acknowledge the sovereignty of 
the emperor Bahadur Shah, his eldest brother, and struck 
coin in his own name, that monarch after attempting in 
vain to win him over by concessions, marched against 
him with a powerful army to the Dakhin, and defeated 
him in a battle near Haidarabid, where Kim Bakhah 
died of his wounds on the same day in the month of 
February or March, 1708 A. D., &iHijja, 1119 A. H. 
His mother's name was Udaipurf Muhal, and he was born 
on the 25th February, 1667 A. D., 10th Ramadan 1077 
A.H. 

]£ambari, <fJJi*~& lSjP*> or Kanbarf, a poet of Nai- 
ihapnr, flourished in "the time of Saltan Bibar who died 
14*7 A. D., 861 A, H. 

Kami, \S^&> whose proper name is Mini Ali-uddaula 
Kaiwini, was the son of Mir Yahya bin- 1 Abdul Latff; and 
is the author of the work called M Nafais-ul-Misir/' a 

36 



Biographical Dictionary of Persian poets. It contains 
notices of about 360 poets in alphabetical order. Most 
of them flourished in India during the reign of Akbar 
to whom the book is dedicated. It was finished in 1671 
A. D., 979 A. H., but there occur much later dates in it. 
He is supposed by some to have died in 1563 A. D., 971 
A. H., and by others in 1673 A. D., 981 A. H., but the 
latter date appears to be correct The discrepancy arises 
from the chronogram of his death, in which the number 
of the last word is considered by some to be 60 and by 
others 70, a difference of ten years. Vide Yahya bin-' Abdul 
Lattt 

Kamil, t-U(£, author of a poetical work, entitled " Chiragh- 
nima." It consists of Ghaaals all of which rhyme in 
Chiragh (lamp) and the first letter of every verse of the 
first Ghazal is | or A, of the second w or B, and so on. 

Kamran Mirsa, (i/° oLr*f, second son of the emperor 
Babar Shah, and brother to the emperor Humayun who, 
after his accession to the throne in 1530 A. D., 937 A. H., 
conferred on him the government of Kabul, Kandahar, 
Ghazni and the Panjab. He was deprived of his sight by 
Humayun when at Kibul in the year 1563 A. D., 960 
A. H., on account of his repeated offences, and continu- 
ally raising disturbances in the government. The opera- 
tion was performed by piercing his eyes repeatedly with 
a lancet. Kamran bore the torture without a groan until 
lemon-juice and salt were squeezed into his eyes, when 
he called out ** O Lord my God ! whatever sins I have 
committed I have been amply punished in this world, 
have compassion on me in the next." Kamran eventually 
obtained permission to proceed to Mecca, where he resided 
three years and died a natural death in 1556 A. D., 964 
A. H. ile left three daughters and one son named Abu'l 
Kasim Mirzi, who was imprisoned in the fort of Uwiliar, 
and put to death by order of the emperor Akbar his 
cousin in the year 1566 A. D., 973 A. H. 

Kamran Shah, cjV ^ *^> the present ruler of Hirat, 
is the son of Mahmud Sh&h, the son of Timur Shah, the 
son of Ahmad Shah Abdali. On the death of his father 
Mahmud Shah, in (1829 A. D.) he succeeded him on the 
throne of Hirat 

IjCandahari Begam, (&t isM**** the first wife of 

the emperor Shah Jahan. She was the daughter of 
Muzaffar Husain Mirzd Safwi of the royal house of 
Persia, who was the son of Sultan Husain Mirzi, the son 
of Bahrain Mirzi, the son of Shah Ismi'fl. I of Persia. 
When Akbar Hhih, in the third year of his reign, made* 
over Kandahar to Shih * Abbas, king of Persia, the latter 
conferred the government of that province on his nephew 
Sultan Husain Mirzi, after whose death his son Muzaffar 
Husain succeeded him. His three brothers came to India 
in the 38th year of Akbar (1692 A. D.), and Muzaffar 
Husain followed them afterwards, was received by the 
emperor with the greatest kindness, and honoured with 
the rank of 5000, and the jagir of Sambhal. His sister 
$andahiri Begam, was married in September, 1610 
A. D., Kajab, 1019 A. H. to Prince Khurram (afterwards 
Shih Jahin) the son of the emperor Jahingir, and re- 
ceived the title of $andahiri Begam, because she was 
born at Kandahar. The year of her death is unknown. 
She lies buried at Agrah, in the centre of a garden called 
Kandaharf Bigh. The building on her tomb, which is 
in the vault, is converted into a dwelling place ; it is a 
beautiful edifice, and now belongs to the Raja of Bhartpur. 

KaU0, wfrKaikius. 

K frpla/n Beg, t^£ &*> of the gushchi family, was 
born in India and served under Khin-Khinin in the 
Dakhin with great distinction, and was in high favour 



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with Jahangfr. He is the author of a Dfwan and a 
Masnawi, the latter is called " Man Dotty" which cele- 
brates the love of Bustam and Rudaba. 

Kapurthala Bajah. Vide Nihal Singh. 

$ara Arsalan, &&*jl \Ji y (which signifies in Turkish, 

a black lion,) was surnamed 'Imacl-uddin, the son of 
Daud, the son of Sukman bin-Artafc. Nur-uddin Mah- 
mud was his son, to whom Salah-uddfn (8aladin) gave 
the city of 'Amid or Kara 'Amid in Mesopotamia 1183 
A. D., 597 A. H. His name is to be found in some of 
our Biographical Dictionaries under Cara Arslan. 

$arachar Nawian, &kj jW\)*> name of the wazfr 
and son-in-law of Changes Khan. 

l£&ra GhUE, >*!A a Beglarbeg of Natolia whom our 
historians call Caragossa. He was impaled near Kara 
Hisar by Shah Kuli in the reign of Bayasid U, emperor 
of the Turks. 

]£ara Khan, o^ ir% vide Sadr-uddfn bin-Ya'kub. 

$arak Shah, **-" <■&, vide Shah £arak. 

Karam, (•>*, author of the " Harbae Haidari," a history 

of AH and his son Husain in verse, composed in 1723 
A. D., 1135 A. H. 

$ara Muhammad Turkman, &l+*y *♦** 1^. The 

Turkmans of Asia Minor were divided into two great 
tribes, the Kara Koinlu, and A^a Koinlu, t. *., the tribes 
of "black and white sheep," from their carrying the 
figures of these animals in their respective standards. 
Kara Muhammad, the founder of the first dynasty, left 
his small territories, of which the capital was Van, in 
Armenia, to his son, Kara Yusuf, who though possessed 
of considerable power, was compelled to fly before the 
sword of Timur. When that conqueror died, he ^turn- 
ed from Egypt, and was victorious in an action with 
Sultan Ahmad Jalayer flkanf, the ruler of Baghdad, 
whom he made prisoner and put to death in 1410 A. D., 
813 A. H. After this success he collected an army of 
100,000 men, and was preparing to attack Sultan Shah- 
rukh the son of Amir Timur, when he was suddenly 
taken ill and died near Tabrez in 1411 A. D., 814 A. H. 
He was succeeded by his son Sikandar Turkman, who 
was defeated by 8hahrukh in 1421 A. D., 824 A. H. 
Sikandar after this had several battles with Shahrukh, 
but was at last slain by his son Kubad 1437 A. D., 841 
A. H., when Shahrukh added Rei to his own possessions, 
and gave Tabrez to Jahan Shah the brother of Sikandar. 
Jahan Shin, after a long reign of £0 lunar years, fell in 
one of the first actions he fought with Uzran Hasan, chief 
of the Turkmans of the white sheep, in November. 1467 
A. D., Rabi' H, 872 A. H. 

]£arari, iSjl? 9 * & Persian poet, vide Abul Fath Gflanf. 

I£ara Yufluf, **~ji \j*, vide $ara Muhammad. 

Karim, pijr> poetical name of Mir Muhammad Karim the 
son of Fikr. He flourished in the time of Kutbshan of 
the Dakhin, and is the author of a Dfwin. 

Karim Khan, &&. pijf, the murderer of Mr. W. Fraser, 
Commissioner of Dehli. See Shams-uddfn Khan (nawab). 

Karim Khan, *J* pi/> a Pindarf chief; who surrendered 
himself to the British Government on the 15th February, 
1818, and received for his support the Talu^a of Burhia- 
par in the Gorakhpur district, which was held by his 
descendants up to the mutiny in 1857. 



Karim Khan Zand, *j ^ fj. The history of 

Persia, from the death of NsViir Shah till the elevation of 
*Afca Muhammad, though it occupies nearly half a oan- 
tury, presents no one striking feature, except the life of 
Karim Khan, a chief of the tribe of Zand. He collected 
• n .™y cW^y composed of the different tribes of Zand 
and Mafi, defeated the Afghans in several engagements, 
finally drove them oat of the country, and secured to 
himself the kingdom of Fars, or the southern division of 
Persia, while Khurasan partially remained in possession 
of the descendants of Nadir Shah; and the countries 
bordering on the Caspian Sea were retained by Muham- 
mad Hasan Khan Kiehar, ruler of Masindaran the great- 
grandfather of 'Afc* Muhammad 8hah Kiehar. Karim 
Khan, after subduing his enemies, enjoyed independent 
power for twenty-six years; and during the last twenty, 
w*., from 1759 to 1779, he had been, without a competitor, 
the acknowledged ruler of Persia. His capital was Shi- 
rax. He died at an advanced period of life on the 2nd 
March, 1779 A. D., 13th §akr, 1193 A. H., being nearly 
80 years of age. After his death Zaki Khan assumed the 
reins of government, and was assassinated two months 
after. Sadi* Khan, brother of Karim Khan took pos- 
session of Shfraz after the death of Zaki Khan, and was 
put to death on the 14th of March, 1781 A. D., 18th 
Eabf I, 1196 A. H., by 'AH Murid Khan, who now bo- 
came the sovereign of Persia, and died on the Uth Janu- 

y 7 '* 1 . 78 ! 6 / ~w" 28th §afiir ' X 199 A - H - **** *>■ death 
Lutf All Khan reigned for some years at Shiras. He 
was defeated in 1794 and slain afterwards by 'A^a Mu- 
hammad Khan $achar, who took possession of Persia. 

$armat, *"j*, or Karmata, a famous impostor, named 
Abu Zar, who in the year 891 A. D. became the head of 
a sect called Karma*! or Karamatians, which overturned 
all the principles of Muhammadanism. He came from 
Kh6zistan to the villages near Kufe, and there protended 
great sanctity and strictness of life, and that God had 
enjoined him to pray fifty times a day ; pretending also 
to invite peoplo to the obedience of a certain Imam of 
the mmily of Muhammad ; and this way of life he con- 
tinued till he had made a very great party, out of whom 
he chose twelve apostles to govern the rest, and to pro- 
pagate his doctrines. Afterwards his courago foiling 
him, he retired to 8yria, and was never heard of anymore. 
This sect began in the Khilamt of Al-Mo'tamid : they 
multiplied greatly in Arabian Irafc or Chaldea, and 
maintained perpetual wars against the Khallf. In the 
year 931 A. D., they beseigod and took the city of Mecca, 
filled the well Zamsam with dead bodies, defiled and 
plundered the temple and carried away the black stone • 
but they brought it again in 950 A. D., and festened it 
to the seventh pillar of the portico, giving out, that they 
had both taken it away, and brought it back again, by 
express order from heaven. This sect was dissipated by 
degrees, and at last became quite extinct Vide Abu-Zarr 
r^arma^L 

2£armati, ytfj 9 , or Karamatian, a follower of $arma$, 
which see. 

Karflhaep, *f*A*jf, or Garshasp, the son of Zti, and the 

last king of the first or Pishdadian dynasty of Persia. 
Vide Zu. 

Kart, *&jf, kings of the dynasty of,— Vide 8hams-uddfn 
KartL 

Kashi, Mulla, is&K **, surname of Kamfl-uddfn Abul 
Ghanam 'Abdul Razza> bin-Jamal-uddin, a celebrated 
doctor, placed amongst the Musalman saints, was author 
of several works. He died young about the year 1320 
A. D., 720 A. H. 



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Kashl Hao Holkar, j&*jb </*K, the eldest of the 
four sons of Takojf Holkar, after whose death in 1797 
A. D. disputes arose between Eashi Rao and his brother 
Mulhar Rio, and both repaired to the court of the Peah- 
wa at Puna ; where, on their arrival, Daulat Rao Sindhia, 
with a view of usurping the possessions of the family, 
"espoused the cause of Kishi Rao, and made a sudden and 
unexpected attack in the month of September on Mulhir 
Rao, whom he slew with most of his adherents. After 
this Sindhia pretended to govern the possessions of the 
Holkar family in the name of Kashi Rao, whom he kept 
in a state of dependence and appropriated the revenue to 
his own use. A long contest ensued between Daulat Rio 
and Jaswant Rio Holkar, the brother of Kashi Rio, and 
continuod till the year 1802, when Jaswant Rio appears 
to have taken possession of Indor the territory of his 
father. 

KashfL, u*^fi the poetical name of Shah Muhammad Sali- 
mat-ullih. He is the author of a Diwin in Persian 
which was printed and published before his death in 1279 
A. H. 

Kashfl, i/^t takhullus of Mir Muhammad Silah, who 
flourished in the reign of the emperor Jahingir, and is the 
author of a Tarjihband called "Majmua' Ris," which 
he composed in 1621 A. D., 1030 A. H., containing 
270 verses. He died in the year 1650 A. D., 1060 A. H., 
at Agrah and lies buried there. 

Kashifi, t£*£"tf * the poetical name of Maulini Husain bin- 
All, also known by that of Waez or the preacher. He 
wrote a full commentary on the Kurin in the Persian 
language. Ho was a preacher at the royal town of Hirit 
in Khurasan. He died in 1606 A. D., 910 A. H. Vide 
Husain Wies. 
Kashmir, kings of;— vide Shih Mir. n 

Ifaaim, ^ jty y?\ f~&, of Agrah, author of the " Zafar- 

nima Akbari," or book of the victory of Akbar Khin, 
the son of Dost Muhammad Khin, which he completed 
in 1844 A. D., 1260 A. H. It is a poem and contains an 
account of the late wars in Kabul by the British. 

Ipttim, (****> the poetical name of Hakim Mir £udrat- 
ullah who is the author of a Tazkira ox Biography of 
poets. 

• y^aim Ali Khan, Mir, eM^* f~^jX°, commonly 
railed Mir Kasim, was the son-in-law of Mir Ja'mr 'Ali 
Khin the Nawib of Bengal. The English, deceived by 
his elegance of manners, and convinced of his skill in the 
finances of Bengal, raised him to the masnad in the room 
of his father-in-law in 1760 A. D., 1174 A. H. He, in 
the latter years of his government, retired to Munger, 
and actuated by a keen resentment against the English, 
for their extensive encroachments on his authority, and 
the commerce of his country, formed the plan of throwing 
off their yoke, and annihilating their influence in Bengal ; 
but was deposed and defeated, in a battle fought on the 
Odwa Kala on the 2nd August, 1763 A. D., 22ndMubarram, 
1177 A. H., and the deposed Nawib Ja'far 'Ali Khin 
was again placed on the masnad. Kaaim 'Ali, incensed 
to madness at these reverses, fled to Patna from Munger, 
and there cruelly ordered the massacre of the English in 
his power : there were 60 gentlemen, Messrs. Ellis, Hay, 
Lushingtun, and others, and 100 of lower rank. On the 
6th October, they were brought out in parties, and bar- 
barously cut to pieces, or shot under the direction of a 
German, named Samru or Sombre. Munger fell to the 
y.nqlifch early in October. Patna was stormed on the 
6th November, and the Ex-Nawib $isim 'Ali fled to the 
waair of Audh, with his treasures! and the remnant of 



his army. On the 23rd of October, 1764 A. D., Major 
Carnac fought the celebrated battle of Buxar, completely 
routing the wazir Shuja-uddaula's army. The following 
day the Mughul emperor Shih 'Alam threw himself on 
the protection of the British, and joined their camp with 
the imperial standard of Hindustan. The British army 
advanced to overrun Audh. The wazir refused to deliver 
up Kasim 'Ali, though he had seized and plundered him. 
Kisim 'Ali made his escape at first into the Rohela coun- 
try, with a few friends and some jewels, which he had 
saved from the fangs of his late ally, the wasir, and found a 
comfortable asylum in that country ; but his intrigues 
rendered him disagreeable to the chief under whose pro- 
tection he resided, he was obliged to leave it, and took 
shelter with the Rani of Gohad. After some years' resi- 
dence in his country, he proceeded to Jodhpur, and from 
thence came to try his fortune in the service of the em- 
peror Shih 'Alam about the year 1774 A. D., 1188 A. H., 
but was disappointed, and died shortly after in 1777 
A. P., 1191 A. H., at Kotwal an obscure village near 
Dehli, unpitied even by his own family. With Kisim 
'Ali ended, virtually, the powers of the Subadirs of 
Bengal. 

$asim Ali Khan, Nawab, &l*** p& *Jy, uncle to 
the nawib of Ramp Or. He was living in Bareli in 1869, 
and his daughter was murdered on the 22nd December 
of that year. 

2£aerim Anwar, Sayyad, }& f^ **"> surnamed 
Ma'in-uddin Ali, a great mystical poet, called from his 
knowledge and writings, the " diver into the sea of truth," 
the " falcon of the transcendant plains," the " profound 
knower of the world of spirits," the " key of the treasury 
of secrecy," &c. He was born at Tabrez; and was a 
member of a considerable family of the tribe of Sayyad, 
descended from the same Btock as the Prophet. In his 
youth he dedicated himself, under the guidance of Shaikh 
8adr-uddin Musi Ardibeli, to the contemplative life and 
deep study of the Sufis. He then journeyed to Gften, 
where he soon acquired great fame; and subsequently 
went into Khurasan. During his residence at Hirit, he 
obtained such celebrity, and was surrounded by so many 
princes and learned men, his followers, that Mirzi 8hih- 
rukh (the son of Amir Timur), moved by jealousy of 
the Sayyad, and attentive to the danger of the increase 
of the Sufi creed, commanded him to retire from the 
capital. In order to mitigate the harshness of this com- 
mand, Biisanghar, the son of Shihrukh, a learned and 
noble prince, took upon himself to make it known to the 
Sayyad, which he did in the most humane manner, in* 
quiring of him, in the course of conversation, why he did 
not follow the counsel contained in his own verse. The 
8ayyad inquired in which verse, and Biisanghar imme- 
diately quoted the following : — 

" $isim cease at once thy lay ; 

Rise and take thy onward way ; 

Other lands have waited long, 

Worthy thy immortal song : 

Give the bird of paradise 

What the vulture cannot prise ; 

Honey let thy friends receive, 

To thy foes the carrion leave." 
The Sayyad thanked him, and immediately set out for 
Balkh and Samarkand, where he remained for a time. 
He afterwards, however, returned to Hirit, where as 
before, he was constantly followed by great and powerful 
men. His death occurred in the village of Kharjard in 
Jim near Hirit, where a garden had been bought for 
him by his disciples, in which he greatly delighted. This 
event took place in the year 1431 A. D., 836 A. H., and 
his tomb was erected in the very garden which he so 
much enjoyed. Amir Alisher afterwards piously endowed 
it. A book of Odes is the only work he has left behind, 
in which he uses " $iaiin" for his poetical name. 



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l£asim Arsalan, is* fi * ufl~jl f****> of Mashhad, a 

poet who was a descendant of Arsalan Jazib, a general of 
Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni. He flourished in the time of 
the emperor Akbar, and was in great favour with that 
monarch. He died in 1587 A. D., 995 A. H., and has 
left a Diwan. 

$afiim Barid Shah I, &" *ij! f—^, was the founder 
of the Barid Shahi dynasty in the Dakhin. He was a 
Turkish or Georgian slave, became by degrees the wazir 
of Mahmud Shah II, king of the Dakhin, and assumed 
such power as to take upon himself the entire govern- 
ment of the kingdom. He treated the king as a mere 
pageant, and about the year 1492 A. D., 898 A. H., by 
the advice of * Adil 6hah, Nizam Shah and 'Imid Shah, 
became entirely independent, and leaving to the king 
only the town and fort of Ahmadabad Bidar, read the 
public prayers and coined money in his own name. 
After having ruled his estate for a period of twelve years, 
during the lifetime of his sovereign, he died in the year 
1504 A. D., 910 A. H., and his son Amir Barid succeeded 
him in office, and assuming still greater power, deprived 
Mahmud Shah of what little power had been left him by 
his father. Seven persons of this family have reigned 
since their establishment in the capital of Ahmadabad 
Bidar ; their names are as follow : 

A. D. 
1492 
1504 
1542 
1562 
1569 
1572 
1609 



ICasim Barid L • 

Amir Barid, 

Ali Barid ; first who assumed royalty, 

Ibrahim Barid Shah 

^asim Barid Shah II, 

Ali Barid Shah II 

Amir Barid Shah H, 



Ijtasim Barid Shah II, &* ±>J. pM, succeeded his 
brother Ibrahim Barid Shah to the government of Ah- 
madabdd Bidar in 1669 A. D., 977 A. H., and died after 
a reign of three years in 1672 A. D. He was succeeded by 
his son Mirza* 'Ali Barid II, who was deposed after a 
reign of 27 years by his relative Amir Barid II who 
ascended the throne in 1609 A. D., and was the last of this 
dynasty. 

£asim Beg Halati, i/^ *-*» (>*&, vide Halati. 

yasim Diwana, ^bi^ f*^ 3 * a poet who was probably 
alive in 1724 A. D., 1136 A. H., and is the author of a 
Diwan. 

$aaim IjTariiri, Shaikh, i^)^ f»& &t, also called 

Shah Kasim Sulaimani, a Musalman saint whose tomb is 
at Chunar. His son Shaikh Kabir commonly called 
Bala, Fir is buried at Kanauj where he died in the year 
1644 A. D., 1054 A. H. The shrine of Shah Kasim 
Sulaimani at Chunar is the only notable Muhammadan 
endowment in the Mirzapur District supported from the 
income of rent-free lands and a Ma'ash Rozina pension. 

Kasim Kahi, Maulana, y 4 ^ f~^ ^S , a Sayyad, 

whose proper name was Najm-uddfn and surname Abu'l 
Kasim. He was a pupil of 'Abdul Rahman Jami; he 
accompanied Mirza Kamran, the brother of the emperor 
Humayun, on a pilgrimage to Mecca from Hirat, and 
after the death of that prince in 1657 A. D., 964 A. H., 
he came to India in the reign of the emperor Akbar. 
For a long period he remained with Bahadur Khan the 
brother of 'Ali KuK Khan at Benares, and after his de- 
mise he came to Agrah, where he passed the remainder 
of his life, and died there on the 17th of April, 1580 
A. D., 2nd Rabf II, 988 A. H., aged 110 lunar years. He 
was buried at Agrah at a place called Madar Darwasa. 



Maulana ?asim Arsalan another poet and Shaikh Fdaf 
wrote the chronograms of his death. 'Abdul Kadir 
Badaoni calls him an atheist and a disgusting cynic. 

^asim Khan, eJ^ (*"**, Subadar of Kabul in the reign 
of the emperor Akbar Shih. He was murdered by one 
Muhammad Zaman, who gave out that he was the son 
of Sh£hrukh Mirza. He had held possession of Badak- 
shan for some years, but after his defeat by 'Abdullah 
Khan Uzbak, he came to Kabul and was confined by 
Kasim Khan whom he murdered about the year 160O 
A. D., and was consequently put to death by Muhammad 
Hashim the son of Kasim Khan. 

3£asim Khan Jawini, Nawab, tfi& c^ f^ 

'•Ay*, was a nobleman of the court of the emperors 
Jahangir, and Shah Jahan, and held the rank of 6,000. 
He was a native of Sabzwar and was married to Manija 
Begam, the sister of Nur Jahan, consequently he was 
sometimes in jest called by the officers of the court 
" Kasim Khan Manija." He is the author of a Diwin. 
and his poetical name is Kasim. He succeeded Fidii 
Khan in the government of Bengal in the first rear of 
Shah Jahan 1628 A. D., 1037 A. H. Ho slew* about 
10,000 Portuguese (men and women) and drove the rest 
from Hugh', of which place he took possession and died 
three days after, 1631 A. D M 1041 A. H. He had built a 
very grand house at Agrah on 20 bighas of land and on 
10 bighas of land the garden was built) of which no 
traces now remain. 

Ifasim Khan, Shaikh, <-)&** ^ (*~& £*^, 

of Fathapur Sikri, entitled Muhtashim Khan, brother of 
Islam Khan. He was a noble of the rank of 4,000. in 
the reign of the emperor Jahangir who appointed him 
governor of Bengal after the death of his brother in 1613 
A. D., 1022 A. H. He invaded Asam, and his troops were 
mostly killed in a night-attack by the Asamis, on which 
account he was recalled to court and died some time after. 

l£asim Shah, * U f*^ vide Shah Kasim. 

J£asim Shiran, ufjLr*" ?"&, a nativo of Shiraz, and 

author of the *' Tumir-nama," a very beautiful poem on 
the conquest of Amir Timur. 

$asim Sulaimani, <y m~ f^, vide Kasim Sadiri. 

Kasim Tibbi, %s^° f*^, author of an Inshi. 

^asimi, iS~**> his proper name is Maulana Majd-uddin, 
a poet of Khwaf in Khurasan. He is the author of the 
work " Rauzat-ul-Khuld" which he wrote in imitation of 
the Gulistan of Sa' di. 

$asimi, i/j* if**^, (Dervish) of Tun in Persia, who 

went about like a derwish and wrote poetry. He lived 
in the 9th century of the Hijra. 

Kasir, \j*j&, or Kathir Azsa, one of the celebrated 
Arabian poets of the court of the Khalif 'Abdul Malik. 
Vide Jamil. 

Kassab, ^ A3 y the poetical name of an author. 

Kastalani, <y^ a ~*, the surname of Ahmad bin-Alial-Kha- 
tib. He is so called because he was born at $astal£. He 
is the author of several works among which is the history 
called "Mawahib Ladina," or " Mawahib-ud-Dunni/* 
an accurate history of the first forty years of Muhammad, 
being the period previous to his assuming the prophetic 
character. He died in the year 1617 A. D., 923 A. H. 
Besides him there were other authors of this surname, 
viz.j Ahmad bin-Muhammad al-Kaatalani, who died 1527 
A. D., 933 A. H., Ahmad bin-Ibrahim bin-Yahya-al- 
Yaidi^al-Kafltalani, and Mulla Maslah-uddin Mustafi 



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$astalanf who died 1406 A. D., 901 A. H. They were 
all born at KastaU, a city in Persia. 

Kathir, ji**, vide Kasfr. 

Katib Chilpi, «£$♦ V^> of Constantinople, author of 
several works, among which is one called "Kashf-uz- 
Zanun," and another " Tuhfat-ul-Kabar," this latter 
work was translated by James Mitchell, Esq. It contains 
a detailed account of the maritime wars of the Turks in 
the Mediterranean and Black Seas, and on the Danube. 
He died in the year of the Christian era 16o7 A. D M 
1067 A. H. Katib Chilpi appears to be a Turkish title of 
Haji Khalfa, which see. 

Katibi, iSJ**J* </*% poetical name of Maulani Shams- 
uddin Muhammad bin-'Abdullah-al-Naishapuri and Tar- 
shizi. lie wrote a very beautiful hand, on which account 
he assumed the title of " Katibi." Ho came to Hi rat in the 
reign of Baisanghar Mirza, and afterwards became one of 
the best poets of the court of the princo Sultan Mirza 
Ibrahim of Shirwan, in whose praise he once wrote a pa- 
negyric, and received from that princo a present of 10,000 
dinars. We have several of his works in the Persian 
language. In the latter period of his life he fixed his 
residence at Astrabdd, and died there in 1435 A. D., 839 
A. H. His works which contain five poems are called 
"Majma'-ul-Bahryn," the story of Nasir and Mansur, 
which can be read in two different metres ; " Dah Bib," 
" Husnwa Ish^" and ** Bahrain and Gulandam." 

Ijjtatil, Mirza, <>£* !i/*, the poetical name of Mini 

Muhammad Hasan. Ho was a native of Dehli, and a 
Hindu of the tribe of Khattri, but became a convert to 
Muhammadanism. He was an excellent Urdu and Per- 
sian poet, and died at Lakhnau in the time of Ghaxi- 
uddin Haidar, thon nawab of that country 1817 A. D., 
1232 A. H. He is the author of several works, amongst 
which are : 

Kuskha Shajrat-ul-Amanf, dedicated to Mir Aman 'All 

Nahr-ul-Fasahat, a Persian grammar. 

Chahar Sharbat, and a Diwan. 

]£atran, u)J^*f vide Kitrin. 

$awami Matarzi, is)J*° ^J*> » great poet who 
was a native of Mutaras, a city in Persia, and is an author. 
He was a brother of Shaikh Nizami Ganjwi. 

$awami Maulana Muaaffar, ^Sj* 3 *" g V, 
a celebrated poet. 

2£awam-uddin Hasan, Haji, er-^ e*J*Jl (*j* <^^> 
wazir to Shah Shaikh Abu Is-hafc, ruler of Shiraz. He 
was a man of great liberality, and one of the patrons of 
the celebrat<Hl Persian poet Khwaja Haflz, who has 
praised him in many of his odes. He died during the 
soige of Shiraz by Mubariz-uddin Muhammad Zaiar, on 
Friday the 12th of April, 1363 A. D., 6th Babf I, 764 
AH. 

Ifawam-uddin, Khwaja, &i*h f*j* **■!**, iumamed 
Sahib Avar, was the waxir and favourite companion of 
Shah 8hujaa\ the son of Mubariz-uddin Muhammad Zaiar, 
commonly called Muzafiar Shah, who took Shiraz in 1353 
A. D. He was put to the rack and beheaded by Shah 
Shujaa' in August, 1363 A. D., Zi.tfa'da, 764 A. H. 

fawela Kaan, iyfa ^y vide Kiblai gain. 
KayomUTS, &f°J^> vide Kaiomurs. 
Kayuk^aan, &W >Jj£, or Kayuk Khan, was the son 
3T 



of Oktai Jfaan, the son of Ghangez Khan. He succeeded 
his father in January, 1242 A. D., 639 A. H., to the 
kingdom of Tartary, and his uncle Jughtai or Chughtai 
$aan to the kingdom of Transoxania, Badakhshan and 
Kaahghar. He reigned one year, and died about the 
beginning of 1243 A. D M 640 A. H., when Mangu Kain, 
the eldest son of Tuli Khan, the son of Changez Khan, 
succeeded him and reigned nine years. 

Kaza, ***> poetical namo of Muhammad Hafiz-ulUh Khan. 

2£azi Khan, c^ i^ 3 , he is commonly called by this 
name, but his full name is Imam Fakhr-uddin Hasan bin- 
Mansur-al-'Uzjandi-al-Farghani. He died in 1 195 A. D., 
692 A. H. He is the author of a work entitled ** Fatawa 
Kazi Khan," a collection of decisions which is held in the 
highest estimation in India. Yusuf bin-Junaid, generally 
known by the namo of Akhi Chalabi-at-Tukati, epitomised 
this work and compressed it into one volume. 

Ifazib-ul-Ban, uM)* V** 5 , surname of Shaikh Muhin- 
uddin 'Abdul Kadir bin-Sayyad Muhammad, an Arabian 
author who died in 1630 A. D., 1040 A. H. 

Kaaim, Hakim, (&6 f^> a physician who had the 
title of Hazifc-ul-Mulk and was the son of the Mujtahid 
Haidar AH Tushtari Najafi. He is the author of the 
work called tk Farah-nama Fa^ima," which he composed 
in 1737 A. D., 1150 A. H. 

Kazim, Hakim, (&6 f^, vide Sahib. 

Kazim Ali Khan, \J^ ij* f^^i {*£*>. He had built 

a garden at Xgrah on the banks of the Jamna opposite 
to Ram Bagh. Some traces of this garden still remain 
called Hakim ka Bagh. It was built in the year 1551 
A. D. 

Kazim Zarbaya, *A Jj f^K, a Persian poet who died 
at Isfahan in the year 1541 A. D., 948 A. H. 

$azwini, u*i>>*, author of the " *Ajaob-ul-Makhluk*V 
vide Zikaria bin-Muhammad bin-Mahmud. 

Kerat Singh, A&~o^, second son ofMirzSRaja Jai- 
Bingh. He served under tho emperor 'Alamgir, and after 
his father's death was honoured with tho rank of 3000. 
Ho was living in tho Dakhin 1673 A. D., 1084 A. H. 

Kesari Singh, *&» iSjr£> raja of Jaipur who lived in 
the timo of Muhammad 8hah, emperor of Dehli. 

Kesho Das Bathor, Baja, jj&j crto y^ ***j, who 

gave his daughter in marriage to the emperor Jahangir, 
by whom he had Bahar Bano Begam. 

Khadija, ****% Muhammad's wife. Although this is 

the correct pronunciation of the name, yet, see under 
Khudyja. 

Kh adi m , C* * tne poetical name of Nazar Beg, a poet. 
He was a pupil of Muhammad Azfal Sabit, and died some 
time before the year 1760 A. D., 1 174 A. H. 

Khadim, |* J » the takhallus or poetical appellation of 
Shaikh Ahmad 'AH of 8andfla and son of Muhammad 
Haji. He is the author of several works, among whiVh 
is one called ** Anis-ul-'Ushshalf," an Anthology. He 
flourished about the year 1752 A. D., 1165 A. H. See 
bin-Muhammad Sharif. 



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Khaef 



146 



Khalil 



Khaef Kashmiri, Maulana, ^V isj*** ^^> 

a poet. 

KhafL, i/^f poetical title of Mir Abul Hasan Khan, 
author of a poem called u Chahar Dervish." 

Khafl. Khan, e;^ t/^» whose original name is Moham- 
mad Hashim, was the author of the work called " Tarikh 
Khafi Khan," which is also called " Muntakhib-ul-Lubib," 
an excellent history of Hindustan, commencing with the 
invasion of the emperor Babar Shah, 1519 A. D., 925 
A. H., and continued to the accession of Muhammad 
Shah ; comprehending the whole of the reign of the em- 
peror 'Alamgir, also those of Bahadur Shah, Jahandar 
Shih, FaiTukh-siyar, and Rafi-ud-darjat ; all of which, 
except the first ten years of ' Alamgir' s reign, Colonel 
Dow was obliged to pass over, for want of documents. 
There are few works in the Persian language (says 
Stewart) so worthy of being translated. The author was 
a person of good family, who resided at Dehli during the 
latter part of the reign of 'Alamgir, where he compiled 
his history ; but in consequence of the well-known pro- 
hibition of that monarch, he was obliged to conceal his 
intentions, and for some other causes did not publish it 
till the 14th year of the emperor Muhammad Shah, 1732 
A. D., 1145 A. H. The work was well received, and the 
author was honoured with the title of Khafi Khan, or 
the Clandestine Lord. 

Khaiyam, fk^t vide 'Umax Khaiyam. 

Khaju, J*^> ndeKhwaju. 

Khakan, e/^t the title of Changes Khan and his de- 
scendants. It means an emperor in the Turkish dialect. 

Khakani, t^*^ a, celebrated Persian poet surnamed 
Afzal-uddin Ibr&him bin -'AH Shirwani. He was a native 
of Shirwan, and the pupil of Falaki the poet. He flou- 
rished m the reign of Kh&kan Manuchchr, prince of 
Shirwan who conferred on him the title of Khal^ani. 
He is the author of the book called " Tuhfat-ul-Ira^in, " 
a poetical description of the two provinces of 'Lrafc 'Ajam 
and 'IraV 'Arab, composed by him while travelling 
through them on a pilgrimage to Mecca. He is consi- 
dered the most learned of the lyric poets of Persia, and 
was called " Sultan-ush-Shu'ara" or king of poets. He 
is also the author of a Diwan, according to Daulat Shah, 
and the book called " Haft A^fm," he died at Tabrez in 
the year 1186 A. D., 582 A. H., and is buried at Surkhab, 
where, close to his tomb, Zahir-uddin Fary&bi and Shin 
Ghafur Naishapuri are also interred. The chronogram 
of the year of his death given in the work ** Mukhbir-ul- 
WasUin," shews that he died in 1199 A. D., 695 A. H. 

Khaki, <^^i author of the " MuniVib-ul-'Arifin." This 
book contains the memoirs of three very celebrated Sufi 
Shaikhs, viz., Khwaja Bahi-uddfn, Burhan-uddin, and 
Jalal-uddin. The former of these was reputed a great 
Baint, and was the founder of an Order of Sufis, distin- 
guished by the title of Nalfshbandi. He died at Harafa 
in Persia, 1453 A. D„ 857 A. H. The two others were 
authors of commentaries on the Kuran, and were held in 
much veneration. The above-mentioned book was dedi- 
cated to Baha-uddfn. 

Khaki Shirazi, iSjb** «£^> author of a Persian Diwan. 

Khaksar, j^^ 9 poetical name of Shukr-ullah Khfr } who 
died in 1696 A. D., 1108 A. H., and has left a Dfwan. 

&h&ldlll), UJ^ S vide Khalidun. 



Khalif or KhaHfea, *****>, of the house of Muhammad, 
see Abu Bakr Siddi*;. 

Khalif or Khalifas, ***♦ **£*> f of the race of Umayya 
who reigned at Damascus, vide Mu'awia I. 

Khalif or Khaliftw, ss?^ *^, of the hause of • Abbas 
called 'Abbasi or ' Abbisides, who reigned at Baghdad, vide 
Al-Saffah. 

Khalif or Khalifa, **±^ f this Arabic word, which signi- 
fies vicar or successor, of which we have formed that of 
Khalif or Caliph, is the name of a sovereign dignity 
amongst the Muaalmans, which comprehends an absolute 
power, and an independent authority over all that re* 
gards religion and political government. Not only the 
first four immediate successors of Muhammad, but the 
rulers of the house of Umayya, written by us Ommaides, 
who reigned in Damascus, and the 'Abbisides who reigned 
in Baghdid, were also called Khalifas. There were in all 
56 Khalifas, 4 of whom were of the house of the prophet, 
15 of the house of Umayya, and 37 of the house of 'Abbas. 

Khalid ibn-Barmak, *£*?. ert*^, was the first of 

the Barmakides, who acted as wasfr to Abu'l 'Abbas 
Saffah. He was the grandfather of Jit' far, wasfr to Harun- 
al-Rashid. He died in the year 780 ox 782 A. D n 163 or 
165 A. H. 

Khalid ibn-Walid, **!> c* ^> who became a pros*- 

lyte to Mnhammadaniam in 630 A. D., and afterwards so 
terrible to the Greeks ; was called from his courage, the 
Sword of God. In spreading the doctrines of the guran, 
and the dominion of the prophet, he committed atrocious 
cruelties, and was at last cut off by the plague in 639 
A> D., but according to Ockley's History of the Saracens, 
Abu Ubeda died that year, and Khalid survived him 
about three years, and then died. 

KhaUd ibn-Yezid ibn-Mua i wia, *&«****>, he 
is reported to havo been the most learned of the tribe of 
Kuresh in all the different branches of knowledge, and 
skilled in the art of alchymy. He died in 704 A. £>., 86 
A.H. 

Khalidi, 4^*^, surname of Abu'l Faraj, one of the first 

poets of tho court of the 8ul{an Saif-uddaula Haimdani. 
He was a native of Khaldia or Chaldea. consequently he 
is called Khalidi. 

Khalidun, cJj*^, or 'Abdul Bahman bin-Muhammad 
bin-Khalidun, surnamed Alhasrami, was an author and 
If asi of tho city of Aleppo when Amir Timur took it, 
who carried him away to Samarkand as a slave, where he 
died 1405 A. D.» 808 A. H. 

Khalil bin-Ahmad, iSJ^ *♦*' v* ^M^i of Basra, 
a very learned man who is said to be the first that wrote 
on the art of writing poetry. He wrote sevoral works 
and died about the year 175 A. H. 

Khalil ibn-lB-hak, 6 {at ^ v>* <^, author of a Mukh- 
taeir which goes after his name. This is a work profess- 
edly treating of the law according to the Maliki doctrines, 
and has been translated into French by M. Perron and 
published in the year 1849. 

Khalil, *W*, the poetical title of All Ibrahim Khan, 
which see. 



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Khalil 



147 



Khan 



Khalil, cM^ 9 the poetical appellation of Mini Muham- 
mad Ibrahim, whose title was Asalat Khan. He served 
under the emperor 'Alamgir, and was living in Patna in 
1690 A. D., 1102 A. H. He was a native of Khurasan, 
but brought up in India. 

Khalil Khan, e^ tl^, a mansabdir of 5000 of the 
court of Shall Jahan but of a very bad temper. It was he 
who instigated 'Alamgir to confine his father 8hih Jahan. 
He had built a fine house at Agroh on the banks of the 
Jamna, of which some traces are still to be seen. 

Khalil, Maulana, <-M^ **h"> a poet of Persia, who 
flourished in the time of Shin Tahmasp Safwi, and was 
living about the year 1539 A. D., 946 A. H. 

Khalil Sultan, tfe^ eM", son of Shaikh Ibrihfcn 
Shirwini, ruler of Shirwan. He reigned about the begin- 
ning of the 15th contury of the Christian era. 

Khalil, Sultan, cM* eA 1 -, also called Mini Khalil 
and Khalfl-ullih, was the son of Mirinahih, and grand- 
son of Amir Timur at whose death, he being present 
with the army at Samarkand, took possession of that 
country. This prince, who was a person of excellent 
temper, and had many good qualities, might have pre- 
served the power he had acquired, had not his violent 
love for Shad-ul-Mulk, a celebrated courtezan, whom he 
had secretly married, diverted him from the cares of 

government. He had scarcely reigned four years, when 
e was seized by the chiefs who had raised him to the 
throne, and sent a prisoner to the country of Kishghar 
in 1408 A. D., 81 1 A. H., where instead of endeavouring to 
effect his release and recover his power, he spent the whole 
of his time in writing verses to his beloved mistress, who 
had been exposed, by the reverse of his fortune, to the 
most cruel indignities. He was at last released by Mini 
Bhihrukh his uncle, who had taken possession of his 
kingdom, and who not only gave him the government of 
Rei, Kum and Hamdin, but restored his beautiful mistress 
to his arms. After this he lived two years and a half and 
died 6th November, 1411 A. D., 18th Raiab, 814 A. H., 
aged 28 years, and Shid-ul-Mulk, on the occurrence of 
this event, acted a part which has given feme to her 
memory — she struck a poniard to her breast: and tho 
lovers were buried in one tomb in the city of Rei. 



Khalil-uUah, ^ tWS the Friend of God, a title of 
Abraham the patriarch, 

Khalil-Ullah Hirwi, Mir, iSJj* *^ cW*^*, a de- 
scendant of 8haikh Na'mat-uiiah Walt 

Khalil-ullah Khan, J*> *** iW*>, entitled Umdit-ul. 
Mulk, brother of Asalat Khan Mir Bakhsht served under 
the emperor Shah Jahan, was appointed governor of Dehli 
about the year 1653 A. D., 1063 A. H., and was raised to 
the rank of 6000 in the first year of * Alamgir 1658 A. D. t 
1068 A. H. He died on the 11th February, 1662 A. D , 
2nd Bajab, 1072 A. H. 

KhalH-uBah Miraa, Ur* ^ d^s vide Khalfl Sul^n. 
Khahs, U^i the poetical name of Imtiyaa Khan of 
Tffffth^n ) which see. 

ghallikan , uA^, vide Ibn-KhalUkin. 

Khamoeh, kJs*^, poetical name of Rie Sihib Rim of 

Dehli Ho was for somo time Tahsfldir under Mr. J. 

Duncan in Benaras. Ho has left a large Diwin. 

Khan* &**• This word which appears to be a corruption 



of gain, is a Turkish title and means powerful lord. The 
most powerful kings of Turkistin, of Great Tartary and 
of the Khatayans have borne this title. Changes, the 
great conqueror, had no other, and it makes even part of 
his name, for he is called by the Orientals, Changes 
Khan. It means the same as KhjVJTi or Kiin. 

Khan, ttl^i the poetical name of Mini Sharif. 
Khanam Sultan, J^U f*^, a daughter of the emperor 

Akbar, married to Musaffar Husain Mini, the son of 

Ibrahim Husain Mirza in 1693 A. D. 

Khana m Bultan, &&*<* fj&>, a daughter of the em. 
peror Akbar, married to Muzaffar Husain Mirza, the son 
of Ibrahim Husain Mirza by Gulrukh Begam. 

Khan 'Alam, /^ U e^, title of Mini Barkhurdir, son 
of Mini 'Abdul Rahman Dauldi, a nobleman who served 
under the emperor Shih Jahan and was raised to the 
rank of 5000 ; and in the reign of 'Alamgir he was 
honoured with the dignity of 6000. In the latter part 
of his life, he was pensioned by the emperor and received 
one lac of rupees annually. He had a house and garden 
in Agrah on the banks of the river Jamna built of red 
stone touching the northern Burj of the Bauza of Tij- 
ganj in a spot consisting of 60 bighas. In the latter part 
of his life he was raised to 6000 by Shah Jahan and ap- 
pointed governor of Bihar. 

Khan 'Alam, f* u eA*, title of Ikhlis Khin, the son of 
Khan Zamin Shaikh Nizam. He served under the em- 
peror 'Alamgir and was raised to the rank of 6000 in 
1689 A. D., 1 100 A. H., with the title of Khin 'Alam. In 
1696 A. D. the rank of 6000 was conferred on him. After 
the death of that emperor he espoused the cause of 'Azim 
Shah against his brother Bahadur Shall, and fell in battle 
1707 A. D., 1119 A. H. After his death his son was 
honoured with the same title. 

Khan 'Azim, (&* cA, vide 'Axfm Khin. 

Khan Bahadur, jd^i \J*>, ton of Baji Mittra Jit of 
Patna. He is the compiler of the work called " Jima' 
Bahadur Khini," an epitome of European Sciences in the 
Persian language, including treatises on astronomy, optics, 
and mathematics, and copious tables of logarithms for 
natural numbers, sines, tangents, &c, also of a small 
octavo volume of Perspective called " 'Dm-ul-Manizarat," 
in the Persian language, which he presented to the Asiatic 
Society in 1835 A. D., 1251 A. H. 

Khanasad Begam, fH? *t)**^) the sister of the em- 
peror Bibar was five yean older