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AUTHOR OF The Fall of the Moghul Empire, etc. 


lPubli)3l)cr0 to t\)Z 31nDia SDffice, 






The substance of this Dictionary was collected by Mr. T. "W. 
Beale, formerly a Clerk in the office of the Board of Eevenue, 
N.W.P., at a time when the Secretary was Henry Myers Elliot, 
afterwards well known as Sir H. M. Elliot, K.C.B. It is pro- 
bable that, in preparing his extracts from the Muhammadan 
Histories of India, Elliot availed himself of the aid of Mr. 
Beale, of whose scholarship Prof. Dowson makes justly deserved 
mention in the eighth volume of his valuable edition of Elliot's 
work.* Mr. Beale died at Agra, at a very advanced age, in the 
summer of 1875 ; having before his death expressed a wish that 
I would see his MS. through the press, and reduce the trans- 
literation into conformity with the system then recently adopted 
by the Government of India, and founded (as I need hardly 
observe) upon the system of Sir W. Jones. 

Accordingly, on the 5th October of that year I laid the MS. 
before Sir John Strachey, the then Lieut. -Governor, in a letter 
from which the following is an extract : — 

" This is no ordinary book. I have used it as a work of 
reference for years : and have lately had an opportunity of 
showing it to the eminent scholar Mr. E. B. Eastwick, C.B., 
who, I am authorised to say, concurs with me in thinking that 
the Dictionary will be of unique value to oriental students." 

Sir J. Strachey took up the subject with that enlightened 
energy which always actuated him in dealing with the past 
history of the country over whose administration he then pre- 
sided. The MS. and copyright were acquired at the expense 

* "The History of India, by its own Historians," Triibner aird Co., 1877. 


of Government; and it was nltimately resolved — in view of the 
importance of the work and my own official occnpations — that 
the editing should be entrusted to the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 

The Society confided the labour of seeing the Dictionary 
thi'ough the press to theii* Philological Secretary, Principal Bloch- 
mann, of whose qualifications it would be presumptuous to say 
more than that they have an oecumenical reputation. That dis- 
tinguished man (of whom it has been observed by Count von 
Noer that he united the enthusiasm of an artist to the most 
patient accuracy of research*) undertook the task with his cha- 
racteristic earnestness and ability. But unhappily for oriental 
scholarship Mr. Blochmann's lamented death occurred before he 
had completed the preparation of more than a few sheets; and 
the duty ultimately reverted to the present Editor. 

The substance, as already stated, is almost entirely Mr. 
Beale's ; and I cannot close this notice more fitly than by giving 
the following extract from the preface originally drafted by 
himself : — 

" In preparing a work of this nature, intended to be used 
as a work of reference on matters connected with Oriental Ilis- 
tory, it is proper to state that the greatest care has been taken 
to ensure accuracy in the narrative, as also in the dates of births, 
deaths, and other events recorded. . . . Various MSS. have been 
collated whenever discrepancy was observed .... To remove 
all doubt, chronograms indicating the dates with a certainty not 
to be found by any other method and written when the events 
were fresh in the minds of men, have been inserted, when 

I may, however, add that it has been judged expedient to omit 
these chronograms, for the most part, in printing the book. In 
the chapter of Mr. Dowson's book already cited, will be found 
an account of this species of memoria iechnica. But it is chiefiy 

* "Kaiser Akbar," Lcyden, 1880. [Since tlic above was written the illustrious author quoted 
has himself died.] 


interesting as macliinery for producing a certain result ; and 
when the result has been produced is not of much more use 
than the scaffolding of a building when the building is complete. 

This notice may well terminate with a repetition of Mr. 
Beale's guarantee of accuracy : and with an appeal to scholars 
of larger leisure and opportunities for an indulgent treatment 
of a work originated by a man who had never been in Europe 
nor enjoyed the use of a complete Library. Mr. Beale had, 
however, drawn up a list of more than thirty books in various 
lansruaojes which had furnished him with materials. In addition 
I have from time to time referred to the translation of the 
Am AJihari and its invaluable notes by the late Mr. Bloch- 
mann, of which the First Volume (never, alas, continued) was 
published in Calcutta some years ago ; also to the works of 
Garcin de Tassy and the Baron McG. de Slane. 

One word more as to the inexhaustible subject of trans- 
literation. The English, as is well-known, have three methods ; 
the Haphazard (which indeed is no method at all) ; the Gil- 
chiistian; and the popularised Jonesian introduced by the Go- 
vernment of India under the inspiration of Sir "W. W. Hunter. 
I^one of these is quite satisfactory. The French adopt a system 
of their own, and so do the Germans. Mr. Beale had followed 
an orthography, compounded of the two first-named elements, 
which has been conformed to the third method in printing these 
pages. The principle is, mainly, to accentuate the long vowels 
and to express the other vowels by the English sounds in 
"r«mm«nt" and "obey." G is always to be pronounced hard, 
as in "^ive." For the convenience of Continental European 
scholars the names have also been printed in the Persian 
character : and it is hoped that no practical difficulty will 
be experienced by those who may have occasion to use the 


This work has been carefully revised and mucli amplified: 
and now appears, for the first time, as an English publication. 
The fresh additions to Mr. Beale's matter are chiefly taken from 
Ibn Khalikan and the works of Garcin de Tassy, with occasional 
references to Blochmann, von Noer, and some historical books 
by the Editor himself and other recent authors. It is still far 
from complete ; but great pains have been taken to make it a 
trustworthy and useful work of reference to students of Eastern 
history. " The Imperial Gazetteer of India," 2nd edition, 188G, 
has been consulted throughout. 

It must be understood that Anglo-Indian lives have been 
omitted : they will be found, in some instances from the pen 
of the present Editor, in the Dictionary of National Biography : 
to have included them here would have made the book too 
bulky. Similarly, Chinese matter is excluded ; indeed, Sinology 
forms a distinct department of research. 



A'azz-Uddin (j^^jJ^H J-c^), Prince, 
secoud son of Sliilli 'Alain Bahadur Shall. He 
was born on the 17th Zi-Qa'da lOT'l, and 
appears to have died early. 

A'azz - Uddin (^j_>aJ1 \.^\), son of 
Mu'izz - nddiii Jahaudar Sliah, emperor of 
Dehli. lie was blinded and imprisoned by 
Farmkli-siyar. in the end of a.h. 1124. 

AbaBakr(^^ bl), Mirza or Sultan, 

the son of Shahrukh Mirza, the son of AmTr 
Timur. He was murdered by order of his 
brother Mirztl Ulugh Beg, a.d. 1448 (a.h. 

Aba Qaan or Abqa Khan or Abaqa 

Khan {J\\i \i\ or ^\s^ UjI), a king 

of Persia, of the tribe of Mughuls or Tartars, 
and descendant of Chingiz Khan, succeeded 
his father Hulukii Ivhau in February, a.d. 
1265 (Rabi'-us-Sani, a.h. 663), and was 
crowned on Friday the 19th June following 
(3rd Eamazan). He was a prince who added 
to the qualifications of courage and wisdom 
those of moderation, clemency, and justice. 
His ambassadors were introduced in 1274 
to the ecclesiastical Synod at Lyons. He 
proved a somewhat formidable neighboiu' to 
the Christians who settled at Jerusalem. The 
intrigues of his court embittered the latter 
years of his reign ; and liis days wei'e believed 
by many to have been shortened by poison 
given to him by his minister Kliwaja Shams- 
uddin Muhammad, which occasioned his death 
on Wednesday the 1st April, a.d. 1282 (20th 
Zil-hijja, A.H. 680), after a reign of 17 years 
and some months. He had married the 
daughter of Michael Palreologus, emperor of 
Constantinople, who had been betrothed to 
his father, but arrived at Maragba in Tabriz, 
the seat of his government, after the death 
of that prince. Aba IChan was succeeded 
by his brother, N^ekodar Hian {q.v.), who 
embraced Muhammadanism, and took the title 
of Ahmad. 

'Abbas {^jA^z), the son of 'Abd-ul- 

Muttalib, and uncle of the prophet Muham- 
mad. He at first opposed the ambitious 
views of bis nephew, but when defeated in 
the battle of Badr, he was reconciled to him, 
warmly embraced his religion, and thanked 
heaven for the prosperity and tlie grace which 
he enjoyed as a Musalnian. He served the 
cause of Muhammad at the battle of Huuain 


by recalling his dismayed troops to the charge, 
and inciting them boldly to rally round their 
prophet, who was near expiring under the 
scimitars of the Sakafites. He died on the 
21st of February, a.d. 653 (17th Eajab, a.h. 
32) ; and 100 hmar years after Abul- 'Abbas, 
surnamed As Saffrdi, one of his descendants, 
laid the f oimdation of the 'Abbasi or Abbaside 
family of the Caliphs in Baghdad, which con- 
tinued for 524 lunar years. The tomb of 
'Abbas is in Madiua. 

'Abbasa (^LjU^), a sister of Hariin-ur- 

Rashid, the IvhalTfa of Baghdad, Avho bestowed 
her hand on Ja'far Barraaki, his minister, on 
condition that she abstained from the marriage 
rights. The promise was forgotten, and the 
husband's life was sacrificed by the tyrant, 
and 'Abbasa was reduced to poverty. This 
circiuustance took place in a.d. 803 (a.h. 
187). There are still extant some Arabic 
verses which beautifully celebrate her love 
and her misfortunes. [&e Ja'far ul-BarmakT. ] 

'Abbas 'All (^i-c (w-Ur), a physician, 
and one of the Persian magi, who followed 
the doctrines of Zoroaster. He wrote, a.d. 
980, a book called Roi/al Work, at the request 
of the son of the reigning Klialifa of Baghdad, 
to whom it was dedicated. It was translated 
into Latin by Stephen of Antioch in a.d. 

'Abbas 'All ( Lc jw-Lc), Mirza, whose 
poetical naine was Betab, the son of Xawab 
Sayadat 'Ali Khan, son of Ghulam Muham- 
mad Klian, the son of Faiz-ullah Ivhan, 
Nawab of Eampiir in the 18th century. 

'Abbas Bin-'Ali Shirwani (^ ^j-'^--^ 
jli .-ii X^), author of a history, 

containing the narrative of Sher Shah the 
Afghan, who drove Humayun from Hindii- 
stan, A.D. 1539, and mounted the throne of 
Dehli. This work was dedicated to the 
emperor Akbar, and is called Tuhfa-i-Akhar- 
shali't. The first part of this work was trans- 
lated into Urdii by Mazbar 'Ali Khan in the 
time of Lord Cornwallis, and is entitled 
Turlkh-i-Sher &ha/il. 

[Vide Dowson, EUioCsIIistory of India, iv. 
p. 301.] 

'Abbas Mirza {\ \^ i^^-^), a Persian 
prince, son of Fath 'Ali Shah, was born in 
1783. He died in 1833. His death was 




a great loss to his country, altliouj^li ho could 
not prevent the encroachments of Eussia. 
His eldest son, Muhammad Wirza, mounted 
the throne in 1834, on tlie death of Path 'Aii, 
iinder the united protection of England and 

'AlDbas Mirza (\ ;^ ^^£), whose title 

was Nawab Iqtidar-uddaula, was the author 
of a Masnawi in Urdu verse, contaiuing 
a history of Christ. He was living iu Luck- 
now in a.d. 18i9, and was then about eighty 
years of age. 

♦Abbas (Shah) I. (iL^ ,^W-^)> s^r- 

named the Great, and seventh king of Persia 
of the Safawl family, was born ou Monday 
the 29th of January,'A d. 1571 (1st Ramazan, 
A.H. 978). He was proclaimed king of rirsia, 
iu his sixteenth year, by the chiefs of Kjiurfi- 
san, and took possession of the throne during 
the lifetime of his father. Sultan Sikandar 
Shah, suruamed Muhammad Kluulabauda, 
A.D. 1588, (a.h. 996). He was the first 
Avho made Isfahan the capital of Persia. IIo 
:yas brave and active, and enlarged the Ijound- 
aries of his dominicms. He took, conjoiutlv 
with the English forces, in a.d. 1622, the 
island of Ormuz, which had been in the 
possession of the Portuguese for 122 years. 
He reigned 44 lunar years, was contemporary 
with Akbar and Jahangir, and died oil 
Thursday the 8th of January, a.d. Ifi29 
(24th Jumada I., a.h. 1038). His grandson 
succeeded him and took the title of Shah 

[He was a bigoted ShT'a. In later histories 
he is generally called ^U tmlzi ; vide Bloch- 
mann's Atn Translation, i. pp. 445, 453.] 

'Abbas (Shah) II. (^U ^l^ j^Lc), 

great grandson of Shah 'Abbas I. succeeded 
his father Shiih Sail on the throne of Persia 
in the month of May, a.d. 1642 (Safar a.h. 
1052), when he was scarcely ten years old. 
Qandahur, which was lost by his father, was 
recovered by this prince before he was six- 
teen years of age. Shah Jahan made many 
efforts to recover this city, but with no 
success. He reigned 25 lunar years, and 
was cut off by the lues venerea in his 34th 
year, on the 26th August, a.d. 1666 (5th 
Rabi'-ul-awwal, a.h. 1077). He was suc- 
ceeded by his son Safl Jlirzu, who took the 
title of Shah Sulaimrm. According to Char- 
din, he died ou the 25th Septeml)er wliich 
corresponds with the 5th Rabi'-us-Sfiui. 
[Vide Orme's Hisio)ical Fragmeuts of the 
Mogul Empire, p. 196.] 

Abdal (J^jjI), sou of 'All Era, ruler 
of Little Tibet during the reign of Shah 
Jahan. He was ca])tured, and Adliam Klian 
was appointed governor of Little Til)et. 

[ Vide Dowson, Elliot s llistorg of India, 
rii. p. 63.] 

Abdal Chak (lJo- JUjO, uucle of 

Yiisuf Klian Chak (last King of Kashmir, 
who succumbed to the emperor Akbar). 
[Vide^w Translation, i. p. 478.] 

Abdali (^JLo^), tide Ahmad Shuh 

Abdall. ^ 

Abdals, the Forty, hence called Chihil- 
tduan. After Muhammad's death, the Earth 
complained to God that she would henceforth 
be no longer honored by prophets walking on 
her surface. God promised that there should 
always be on earth forty (or, according to 
some, seventy-two) holy men, called Abduls, 
for whose sake he would not destroy the 
earth. The chief of the Forty is called 
' Gliaus.' 

Abdar Begam (^Cj^lj^.T), ouc of the 
concubines of the emperor Akbar. 

'Abdi (i^s^z), his proper uame is not 

known. He is the author of the work called 
3nrjami-i-Takii,ila, a translation of YaJi'Vs 
Legends of Qadiriga saints into Persian verse, 
completed iu a.d. 1641, a.h. 1051, under 
Shah Jahan. 

'Abdi of Tun i^^S^), a poet who had 

a predilection for Masuawis, and is the author 
of the Gaiihar-i Shah-tcar, which is in the 
style of NizaniT's MakJtzan-nl-A.srar. He 
came to celebrity iu Khurasan in a.d. 1545, 
A.H. 950. 

[/■(Vfc Kliwaja Zain-ul-'Alndiu 'Ali 'Abdi, 
who appears to be the same person.] 

'Abdi (^s^£), and Nawedi (^_v_'y), 

vide Khwaja Zaiu-ul'-Abidin 'Ali 'Abdi. 

Abdi (^-_v^\), author of a heroic poem 

called Anicar-nUina in praise of Nawab 
Anwar-uddiu Klian of tlie Kaniatik, in 
which the exploits of Major Lawrence and 
the first contests between the English aud 
French in India are recorded with tolerable 

[ Vide Abjadi.] 

'Abdul-' Ali (Maulana) (^.UJl j^.^), 

entitled Babrul-uliim (i.e., Tlie Sea of 
Knowledge), the son of Mullil Nizam-uddTn 
Sih.ili. He is the author of the Arkan Aria' 
Tiqah'' and several other works. He died 

A.D. 1811, A.H. 1226. 

'Abdul-'Aziz bin 'Umar ( ' >;_.«!1 s^c 
J "J 

— 4^£ (j-^)> son of Umar (Omar), the 

second Klialifa after ISIuhammad. He did 
not succeed his father in the khilfifat. The 
Muhammudans consider him a great lawyer. 



'Abdul-'Aziz ( IjLstJl J^-), author of 

the Tcirihh-iSusainl, continuing the Life 
of the faraoiis Sack-uddlu jSIuhammad 
Husaini Gcsu-Daraz, whose tomb is held 
in the highest veneration at Kulbarga in 
the Decca'u. This work was deiUeated to 
Ahmad Shah Bahmaui in a.d. 144.5. 

'Abdul - 'Aziz bin - Ahmad Dairini 
(Shaikh) ( :._j^_'w>), au Arabian 
author who thed a.d. 1294. 

'Abdul-' Aziz Khan, vide AzTz. 

'Abdul-'Aziz (Maulana Shah), son of 

Shah "WaliuUah, a learned Musalman of 
Dehli. Ho is the author of a Persian com- 
mentary on the Quran, entitled Tafsir Fath- 
til-'-Jziz, and several other works. His death 
took plaee in June a.d. 1824 (7th Shawwal, 
A.H. 1239). 

'Abdul-'Aziz, emperor of Turkey, son 
of Sultan Mahmud, succeeded his brother 
Sultan 'Abdul-Majid on the 25th June, 1861, 
A.H. 1277 ; deposed in 1875. 

'Abdul-'Aziz (Shaikh) (^a^ jj J-^!^ -^t^), 

of DehlT, a learned man who died in the time 
of the emperor Akbar, a.d. 15G7, a.h. 975. 
'Abdul-Qadir of Badaou found the chronogram 
of his death in the following words — " Qutb- 
i- Tariqat-numa . " 

'Abdul-'Aziz (Shaikh) (;^^ ;j 'A\ s^z). 

His poetical name was 'Izzat. He held a 
mausab of 700 in the reign of Am-augzib, and 
died'iu the year a.d. 1680, a.h. 1091. He 
is the author of a poem called Saql-/iama. 

[For a detailed biography vide the Maja'- 

'Abdul-Baqi (^JL»-!^ ^.-^), author of 

the JIaasir-i-Iia/uini, or Memoirs of^Ahdxr- 
Rahim KJian, Khan-Ehannn, and of all the 
illustrious nobles, authors, and poets, who 
resided at the coiu't of Akbar. He completed 
his work iu a.d. 1616, a.h. 1025, and died 
about the year a.d. 1642, a.h. 1052, iu the 
reign of Shah Jahan. 

[For further notes vide Dowson, Elliot''s 
History of India, vi. 237.] 

'Abdul - Baqi (Maulana). Ho was 

a Sadr (or Judge) iu the beginuiug of 
Akbar' s reign. 

'Abdul Basit (Maulana) (L^Ul i>_^r 

\j1y*), the son of Rustam All. He 

wrote a commentary on the Quran which 
he left incomplete. He also %vi-ote a work 
called 'ylj/b-iil-Bai/an ft 'iili~im-il-Q>ira)i. 
He died iu a.d. 1808, a.h. 1223. 

'Abdul-Fattah ( L-_ft.n Ju-wi), author 

of the Persian yfovk c?i\\e&Aurad-i-Ghausiya^ 
on Sufism, and of one entitled Jawa-hir-ul- 

'Abdul-Ghaffar ( .LLAJ^ A.-.-^), -whose 

full title is Shaikh NajnuulcUu 'Abdul- 
Gliaffar ush-Shafi'i QazwinT, is the author 
of the Hnicl, Fiqah, Luhab, and SJiarli 
Lnbab. He died iu the year a.d. 1265, 
a.h. 663. 

'Abdul-Ghafur, of Labor (,^i.iSl s^ 

t_f ,»Jb\'), was an author and a pupil 

of 'Abdiu--Kabman Jami. He died in the 
year A.D. 1506, a.h. 912. 

'Abdul-ahafur (Shah) (iU^^iiJl j.^), 

commonly called Baba Kapiir, a saint Avhose 
tomb is at Gwaliar. He was a native of 
Kalpi, and a cHsciple of Shah Madar. He 
died in the year a.d. 1571, a.h. 979. 
[Yide A'U Translation, i. p. 539.] 

'Abdul-Ghafur (Shaikh), of Azampur 

in Sambhal, a pupil of 'Abdid Quddiis. He 
died iu .\.h. 995. 

'Abdul-Ghani (Mirza) ( ..:ot.ll X.^ 

\\.^, a native of Kashmir, wrote 

under the name of Qabiil. He died in the 
year a.d. 1726, a.h. 1139. 

'Abdul -Haqq (Shaikh) (j.Jl S.^ 

'^•^ ^.i-Jjj), of Dehll, surnamcd 

" Mubaddis," son of Saif-uddin, son of 
Sa'd-uUah Turk. He was a descendant of 
one of Amir Timur's followers, who had 
remained at Dehli, after the return of the 
conqueror to his native land. He is the 
author of the Tarikh-i-llaqq) , which is more 
frequently styled Tftr'kh-i-^ Abdul- Haqq, 
compiled in the 42nd year of the emperor 
Akbar's reign, a.d. 1596, a.h. 1005. He 
went on a pilgrimage to Mecca and Madina, 
where he dwelt for a long time, and -Nvrote 
works upon mauv subjects — Commentaries, 
Travels, Sufi Doctriues, Beligiou aud Histoiy, 
and his different treatises amount altogether 
to more than one hunch'ed. The best known 
are the Madina Sakhia, Matla'-ul-Anwar, 
Madarij-im-2<ubuivirat, Jazb-Hl-quhlb, Akh- 
bar-iil-Akhyar, a book on the .saints. He 
was born iu the mouth of January, a.d. 1551, 
Muharrum, a.h. 958. In the year a.d. 1637, 
although he was then nearly ninety years old, 
he is said to have been in possession of his 
faculties. He died in the year a.d. 1642, a.m. 
1052, aged ninety- four lunar years; lies buried 
on the bank of the liauz Shamsi iu Uehli, and 



now holds a hijjh rank amnno; llie saints of 
Ilindustaa. His sou Siifiikh Nfir-ul-IIaqq 
is the author of the Zuhdi(t-ut-T<iwar'ikh. 

[For further notes vide Dowson, H/llot's 
History of India, vi. pp. 175, 483.] 

'Abdul - Hakim of Siyalkot (a— -j^ 

A_-._k.sM) was a pupil of Maulana 

of Kanial-uddin of Kashmir. lie wrote the 
Hiishiija, or marf^'inal coiumeutarj-, on the 
Tafah- Baizani, and a ITas/iii/a ou the 
marjjinal notes of 'Abdul-Gliaffar. He died 
in the year a.d. 1656, a.h. 1066. 

'Abdul-Halim bin-Muhammad {s-^c 

*-»i.sM), surnamed " Kanalizada," an 

Arabian author, wlio died iu the year a d 
15b9, A.H. 997. 

'Abdul - Hamid, vide Ahmad IV, em- 
peror of Turkey. 

'Abdul - Hamid of Lahore was the 

autlior of the rruIshah-tiuiwi-i-Shnhjnhani. 

[Regarding this history, vide Dowson, 
Elliot'' s History of India, vii. p. 3.] 

'Abdul -Hasan (Kazi), author of an 
Arabic work ou Jurisprudence called Ahlcam- 

'Abdul-Hay (Mir) Sadr ( -Jl Jk_-._£ 

j-*.^ j>^.^), a learned man who wrote 

a chronogram on the death of the emperor 
Humayuu, and one on the accession of Akbar 
in A.D. 1556, A.H. 963. 

[Vide Ahi Translation i. p. 480.] 

'Abdul-Jalil (Mir or Sayyid) (j._*_£ 
j^y^ ^■■t^jSJkji ^^A^\), of Bilgram 

in Audh. He was a great scholar and an 
elegant poet, and his poetical name was 
WasitT. In a.d. 1699, a.h. 1111, he visited 
the camp of Aurangzil) at Bijapur; and being 
presented to that nionarch' by Mlrzfi 'AIT 
Beg, the royal intelligencer^ obtained a 
mansab and jaglr, Avith the joint offices of 
Bayishi (l^^ymaster) and >fews- writer of 
Gujrat ; from which place he was removed 
to Bhakar in Siudh, with similar appoint- 
ments. 'J'lirough some intrigues at court, he 
was recalled from Bhakar in the reign of 
Farrukh-siyar in a.d. 1714, ah. 1126, but 
upon circumstances being explained, he was 
restored in the most honourable manner, and 
was at Icugth ])ermitted to officiates bv deputy, 
whilst he himself nunaiued at Dehli until 
a.d. 1721, A.H. 1133, when he resigned in 
favour of his son, :Mir Savvid Mubliiiimad. 
He was the sou of Savvid Ahmad of Bilgram, 
was born on the 2nd June, ad. 1661 ; 13fh 
fihawwal 1071, and died on Monday the 2Sth 

December, a.d. 1724; 23rd RabbT' I. 1137; 
aged 66 lunar years, and is huried at Bilgram 
close to his father's tomb. He is the author 
of several works, one of which contaiuing 
letters written in Persian is called Adiih-ul- 

[For a_ detailed biography, vide Azad's 
Sarir-i-Azud, and the Tabsirat-ioi- Kazirln 
by 'Abdul-Jalil's son.] 

'Abdul -Qadir (Sultan) was the de- 
scendant of a Marabaut family of the race of 
Ilashim, who trace their pedigree to the 
Khalifas of the lineage of Fatiraa. His 
father died in 1 834. His public career began 
at the time of the conquest of Algiers by 
the French. In 1847, he was defeated and 
surrendered himself, but was afterwards per- 
mitted to reside in Constantinople. He died 
in 1873. 

'Abdul-Qadir bin-Abil-Wafa al-Misri 
(Shaikh Muhiy-Uddin) (,jUJl s^r. 


jj^.-*'^}\^\ ^x 

author of the JaicaJiir-nl-Maziya fl Tahaqdt- 
il Haiinjjya, a biographical dictionary giving 
an account of the Hauafi lawyers, arranged 
in alphabetical order. He died in a.d. 1373, 
A.H. 775. 

'Abdul-Qadir Badaoni (Shaikh) {s^z 

'^^ ^y^SJ jjLiiJl) was the son of 

Muluk Shah of Badaon and pupil of Shaikh 
Mubarak of Nagor. He is the author of a 
work called Muntakab-ut-Tawar>kh. He 
was a very learned man, and was frequently 
employed by the emperor Akbar to make 
translations into Persian from the Arabic 
and Sanskrit, as in the case of Mn\jani-ul- 
Iii(ld(ui,Jaiiii-ur-Ras]iid>, and the Rdiiiriyan. 
He also composed a moral and religious work, 
entitled Najnt-tir-Rashid, and translated two 
out of the eighteen Sections of the Maha- 
Ihnrat, and made an abridgement of the 
History of Kashmir in a.d. 1591, a.h. 999. 
The year of his death is not known, but he 
was living in a.d. 1596, a.h. 1004, in 
which year he completed the Jll/aifafchab-nt- 
Taivar'ikh. His poetical name was Qadiri. 

[He died at Badaon, in 1004. For a 
d(>tailed biography, vide Jour. As. »Sc., Bengal, 
1869, pt. i. p. 118 ; and Dowson, v. p. 477.] 

'Abdul-Qadir Suhrawardi ( .jUl^ j^.^^ 
^J,. .-^,-;), author of the work called 


'Abdul - Qadir Bedil (Mirza) (jk..^ 
\\j^ Jj^-..j ^.jUl^), a celebrated poet, 

better knoAvu by his poetical name of Bedil or 
]\Iirza Bedil. He was a Tartar of the tribe 
of 15irlas ; in his youth he was employed by 
prince A'zam Shah, sou of Aurangzib, but 



being one day ordered by the prince to write 
a paneg}Tic in his praise, he resigned the 
se^^^ce and never afterwards served any one. 
He is the author of several works, sucli as 
Mtihit A^za»i; Ch~ir 'Uiisur; Iiisha-i-Bedil, 
also called Eiiq'at-i-Bedil ; and of a Diwan 
or hook of Odes in Persian, containing 20,000 
couplets. He died in the commencement of 
the reign of Muhammad Shah, on the 24tli 
November, o.s. 1720; 4th Safar, a.h. 1133. 
He is also the author of a work called Nukat- 
i-Bedil, containing the memoirs of Shaikh 
Jrmaid, third in descent from the celebrated 
Shaikh Safi, and grandfather of Shah Isma'il 
Safavi, king of Persia. 

[Vide Sprenger, Catalogue of Omlh MSS., 
p. 379.] 

'Abdul-Qadir Gilani or Jilani or Jili 

(Shaikh), also called Pir-i-Dastgir 
and Ghaus-ul-A'zam Muhiy-ud-din, a saint, 
who is said to have performed a number of 
miracles dm-ing his lifetime. He was bom 
in Gilan or Jilau in Persia, in the year a.d. 
1078, A.H. 471, and was greatly revered for 
his learning, his piety, and the sanctity of his 
manners. He died on the 22nd February, 
A.D. 1166, 17th Rabi' II. 561, aged 91 lunar 
years, and is biu-ied at Baghdad, where he 
held the place of guardian of Abii-Hanifa's 
tomb. The order of Dervishes, called after 
him the Qadiris acknowledge him as foimder. 
His tomb is held in high veneration amongst 
the Muhammadans. He is said to have 
written many books on Mystical Theology, 
amongst which are the Futnh-ul-Ghaib, 
Malfuzat-i-Qadir'i in Arabic, and a trans- 
lation of the same in Persian, named Mnl- 
f 11 zat-i- Jilani. Another work of his in 
Arabic on Jurisprudence is called Ghunyat- 
ut-Talihin, and another work on Sutism is 
entitled Bahjat-ul-Asrar, and a book of Odes 
called BlivaH-i-Ohai/s-ul-A'zain. 

[ Vide Muhammad Qasim (Sayyid) and 

Some say that he was bora at Jil, a village 
near Baghdad ; hence he should be called 

'Abdul-Qadir (Maulana) (.jIJL!^ J^^^ 

L'l'».--# ^»J_;tj), of Dehli, the son of 

Maulawi Wall-ullah. He is the author of 
an Urdii commentary on the Quran, entitled 
Tafs'>r Muzih-vl-QKrnn. He made an Urdu 
translation of the Quran, which was finished 

[Fiife Abdullah Saj^id.] 

'Abdul-Qadir Naini (Maulana) {s.^z 

^Jj\i jj^'^\) , a poet wlio was a native 

of Nain near Isfahan, and contemporary with 
Shaikh Sa'di. ' 

'Abdul - Qadir, a resident of Devi, 
a village in the district of Luckuow. From 

the Jomi'-iif-Tixarikh of Eashld-tiddhi he 
translated that portion which is called the 
book of Patanjali into easy Persian, at the 
request of Major Herbert, in May, 1823. It 
is a collection of all the sciences, and one of 
the most valuable works of the sages of Hind. 
It contains an account of their various sects, 
and the history of their ancient kings, also 
the life of Sakyamuni. 

'Abdul-Qahir Jurjani (Shaikh) (j,^- 
Ji\^j.:>- -JbLiiJl), son of Abdur- 

Eahman, was the author of the book called 
Laicdl-ul-I-jaz, and several other works. He 
died in a.d. 1081, a.h. 474. 

'Abdul-Karim (*-.'Xl^ >^-r^^, siirnamed 

Imam-uddlu Abul-Qusim, author of the Sliarh 
Kahir and Shark Sa^ r. 

'Abdul - Karim bin - Muhammad al- 
Hamadani, author of a Persian Com- 
mentary on the Su-ajiya of Sajawandi, en- 
titled Famiz-ut-Tnjl Sharh Faraiz-is-Siraji. 

'Abdul-Karim Sindhi (Mulla) (_\_^_£ 

^j^_\:..-J j,iX]\), a native of Sindh who 

served under Kliwaja Mahmiid Gawan in the 
Deccan, and was living about the year a.d. 
1481, A.H. 886. He is the author of the 
history of Sultan Mahmiid Bahmanl, entitled 


'Abdul-Karim, a native of Dehll, who 
accompanied Nadir Shah to Persia, and wrote 
a history of that conqueror aboiit the year 
A.D. l7o4, A.H. 1168, entitled Bcnjdn-i- 

[Regarding this work, vide Dovason, Flliofs 
History of India, viii. p. 124.] 

'Abdul-Karim, Mir, of Bukhara, who 
died at Constantinople about a.h. 1246, a.d. 
1S80. He is the author of a history of 
Afghanistan and Turkistun (ad. 1740 to 
1H18), translated into French by C. Schefer, 
Paris, 1876.] 

'Abdul-Karim, Munshi, who died about 

thirty years ago. He is the author of the 
Tarikh-i- Ahmad, a history of Ahmad Shah 
Durrani and his successors. The Persian 
text was lithographed in 1266, and an Urdu 
translation under the title of Waqi'ut-i- 
Durranl was issued at Kanh])ur in a.h. 1292 
(a.d. 1875). 'Abdul-Karim also wrote a 
laro-er work, entitled Mtthnrnha-i-Kabul o 
Qalulahar (h. 1265), which contains the 
heroic deeds of Akbar l^iian, son of Dost 
Muhammad Kjian, and is chietly based on the 
Akbar-uama written in verse by Miuislu 
Qasim Jan ; and the Tnr''Ml-i-l^»».i"'> *"h' 
fatan lil-ahhah (a.h. 1265j on the Sikh wars. 




'Abdul - Quddus Gangohi (Shaikh) 
(ir;?-^ 15^/^ L^J-^^ "V^X a native 

of Ganfjoli, near DelilT, was a descendant of 
Abu-Haulfa Kufa, and a famous saint of 
India. lie died on the 27th Xovember, a.d. 
1537, 23rd Jumada II. a. 11. 944, the chrono- 
gram of the year of his death bein<j "Sliaikh- 
i-ajall." His grandson Shaikh 'Abdun-Xabi 
held a higli post in the reifiu of Akbar, but 
was subsequently imprisoned and murdered. 

'Abdullah (u^Lk^ll x^^il]\x.z), 

the father of ^luhammad the Prophet, was a 
younger son of 'Abdul-iMuttalib the son of 
Hashim. He was remarkable for his beauty, 
and though a ckiver of camels, he is said to 
have ])iissessed such merits, that his hand was 
solicited in marriage by the fairest and the 
most virtuous of the women of his tribe. He 
was so universally admii-ed, that on the night 
of his nuptials one huncb'ed young females 
expired in despair. His wife Amina, though 
long barren, at last became the mother of 
Muhammad. 'Abdullah died during the life- 
time of his father, eight days (some say eight 
years) after the birth of his son, and left bis 
widow and infant son in very mean circum- 
stances, his whole substance consisting of 
only five camels and one female Ethiopian 
slave. 'Abdul-j\Iuttalib, his father was there- 
fore oliliged to take care of his grandson 
Muhammad, which he did and at his death 
enjoined his eldest sou Abii-Talib to provide 
for him for the futiu'e. 'Abdullah died about 
the year a.d. 571. 

'Abdullah bin-'Ali al-Halabi was one 

of tile first writers on Shifa jurisprudence, 
as he was amongst the earliest compilers 
to the traditions of that sect. It does not 
appear that any of his legal compositicms 
are extant. 

'Abdullah {A:>-\,j ^j c^.]\x.z), son of 

Rawaba, was an Arabian ])0(^t, who signalized 
liimself in arms as well as poetry. He 
became an associate of Muhammad and was 
sent with the army, of which Zaid was the 
chief, against the Greeks, and was killed at 
IMutii in Syria with Zaid and Ja'l'ar the 
brother of 'Ali, in a.d. 629, a.h. 8. 

'Abdullah, son of Zubair ( ._* ajj^x..:; 
j-»-jj) was a Musalmfm born at 

JMadina amongst those who were called 
" ;\IiibajirTn," that is to say, fugitives from 
Mecca. Alter the battle of Karbalfi in a.d. 
GSO, in which Ilusain the sou of 'All was 
slain, the inhabitants of IMecca and Madlna, 
perceiving that YazTd did all that lay in his 
power to suppress the house of 'All, made an 
insurrection against YazTd, the second khalifa 
of the house of Umavya, and proclaimed 
'Abdullah khalifa in the city of Mecca. 'J'he 

IMusalmans of Sn-ia also, after the death of 
Yazid and Mu'awiya the 2nd, acknowledged 
him for the space of 128 days, after which 
time Marwfin the son of Hakam was pro- 
claimed khalifa in the city of Damascus. 
'Abdullah still remaining in the city of Mecca, 
was besieged there in a.d. 691, ah. 72, by 
Hajjaj, general of the khalifa 'Abdul-Malik. 
The siege lasted 8 mouths and 17 days, after 
which 'Abdullah made a sally upon the 
enemy, destroyed a great number of them 
with his own hand, and was at length killed 
fighting valiantly in a.d. 692, a.h. 73. His 
head was cut off and sent to the khalifa 

'Abdullah (j^*^^ ^j ailU-.^:), son of 

]\Ias'iid, companion of Muhammad. He died 
in A.D. 652, A.H. 32. 

'Abdullah (^w-L.^ ^^J ailLv-.£), son of 

'Ablias, the uncle of Muhammad, was dis- 
tinguished as a teacher of the sacred book. 
Before he was ten years of age, he is said 
to have received inspiration from the angel 
Gabriel. He was born in a.d. 619, three 
years before the Ilijra (622), and was con- 
sidered the ablest interpreter of the Qurivn 
then in existence. He was appointed governor 
of Basra, by the khalifa 'Ali, and remained 
there for some time. He then returned to 
Hijaz, and died at Tap^» ^ town hing 60 
miles eastward of Mecca, in a.d. 687, a.h. 
68, aged 70 years. His mother Umm-ul-Fazl 
was the sister of Maimiina, one of the wives 
of Muhammad. 

'Abdullah (^^.^ ^ <lU\^^.s:), son of 

'Uniar the second khalifa after Muhammad, 
was one of the most learned Arabians amongst 
the contemporaries of Jlubammad. He died 
in a.d. 692, a.h. 73. He is famous tor his 

'Abdullah (sj',.) ,.,-j a..L!U-£), son of 

YazTd, was celebrated as a lawyer in the 7th 
century. He was the disciple of Abii-IIuraira 
and Abii- 'Abbas, companions of Muhammad, 
and lived till the hundi-edth year of theHijra, 
or A.D. 718, A.H. 100. 

'AbduHah (_ U j .dlU-.^), the son of 

'Ali, son of 'Abdullah, son of 'Abbas, the 
uncle of Muhammad, was the uncle of the 
first two khalifas of the Abbasides, viz., 
Abul-'Abbiis al-Saffah and Al-Mansur, imder 
whom he served as general against the khalifa 
JNIarwan, and having vanquished that prince, 
proclaimed his nejibew Al-Saffab. He was 
guilty of horrilde cruelties on the family of 
the Omniaides. ^\'ben his eldest nephew 
died, his brother Al-MansTir took u])ou him 
the government, which displeased 'Abdullah 
so much, that he raised an army against him, 
but was defeated and afterwards perfidiously 
murdered in a.d. 754, a.h. 137. 



'Abdullah (s'jt\, ^^ iS-Wx^c), the son 

of Eawaud. was the foimder of an impious 
sect, who were called after hira the Ra- 
Avandites, duriug- the Khilafat of Al-Mausur 
the Ahbaside, about the year a.d. 776. 

'Abdullah (<dl^J^-ȣ), the son of Shams- 

uddlu, author of the margiual notes on the 
Taltnh, entitled Hasltiija bar Talw'ih, a work 
on jurisprudence. 

'Abdullah {.iM: ,.^.> aLILv-^), the son 

of Tahir, the general of Al-Maraiin. lie 
succeeded his brother Talha in the goveni- 
ment of Kluirasan about the year a.d. 828, 
A.H. 213, reigned 17 years, and died in a.d. 
844, A.n. 230. He was succeeded by his son 
Tahir II. 

'Abdullah {, 




„.«J1), the son of Tayyib al- 

Sarakhsi, preceptor to the KhalTfa Mu'tazid 
Billah, by whom he was put to death a.d. 
899, A.H. 286. Heis the author of the 
Bahr-nl-Mantiq, and IsTulghjl [a. commentaiy 
on the Isayoge of Porjjhp-as) . 

'Abdullah (^-Az ^_ a.l!lA-»c), the son 

of 'Adiy, author of the Kitah Kanul. lie 
died in a.d. 975, a.h. 365. 

'Abdullah, author of a collection of 

Letters, entitled Inshd-i-^ Ahdidlah . 

'Abdullah {i..^:^ j ^l.^**.* j ^^A-^), 

the son of Muslim, the son of Qutaiba, was 
the author of the work called Kitib-iil- 
maTirif, and several other works. He died 
in A.D. 889, A.H. 276. 

'Abdullah (aAA^^.^^), author of the 

Persian work on jim.spiiideuce, called AltkUni 

'Abdullah ( /.J_< aULu^), of Kul- 

barga, author of a work called Fars-ndnia, 
written in a.d. 1407. 

'Abdullah (Maulana) (l^y* dULur), 

son of Ilahdad. He is the author of Shark 
Mlzan-U-Mauliq, and several other works. 
He Avas a native of Dehli, flourished in the 
reisfu of Sultan Sikaudar, and died in a.d. 
1516, A.H. 923. 

'Abdullah (Maulana), of Sultanpur, 

a learned bigoted Sunn! at Akbar's Court. 
He had the title of " Makhdum-ul-]\Iulk." 
He played a prominent part in the religions 
discussions which led Akbar to renounce 
Islam. He died, or was poisoned, in a.ii . 990. 
[Vide Arn Translation, p. 544, and p. vii. 
of Abab-J''a:Ps Biograp]nj.'\ 

'Abdullah {A^ ^ d.ULw), the son 

of Salam, author of the questions which 
Muhammad was asked on the subject of his 
prophecy. He is also the author of a work 
called ''A:mat-ul-Manqiil. Another work, 
called Sazar Masaijil, is ascribed to him. 

'Abdullah {sa.s.''* ^ a\]\s^z), son of 

Muhammad, simiamed QalauisT, an Arabian 
author. He died in a.d. 1121, a.h. 515. 

'Abdullah ( ^.OU ,*iL!r.^'WJiU-.r), 

the son of 'Al-Yafi'i Shfifi'i, author of the 
Arabic work called Raiizat-ur-Iiaiiah'tn, con- 
taining a detailed accoimt of the lives of 
Muhammad, the twelve Imams, and of all 
the saints of Arabia, Persia, and Hiudiistau. 

'Abdullah Abu-Muslim (^j\ AlJLur 
^L^^), author of the Commentary on 

the Qurf.n, called Sahih Muslim. He was born 
in A.D. 817, A.H. 202, and died in the year ad. 
875, A.H. 261. He is called by some ^Titers 
Abul-Husain Muslim biu-al-Hajjaj biu' 
Muslim al-Qushairi, and by others MusUm 
biu-Hajjaj Xishipiiri, which see. 

'Abdullah Ahrar ( ,V-=-^ ^!L\..^), 

author of the Ma Ifa-zat-i- Kli icoja 'Abd/iUaJi, 
containing the doctrines of the Xaqshbandis, 
and of the AnJs-us-Suli/ihi. 

'Abdullah Ansari (Khwaja) (aiJU-^ 
^'.L^_jO, surnamcd Shaikh Abu 

Ismii'il, the son of Abii-Mansur, the son of 
Abii-A}Tnb. He was born at Hiriit in May, 
A.D. l666, Sha'ban, a.h. 396, and is the 
founder of the sect called 'Ansarls in Hirat 
and Kluu-asan. He died on the 2nd July, 
A.D. 1088, 9th Rabr I. a.h. 481, aged 84 
lunar vears, and is buried at Hirat. in a place 
called "Giizui-gah. 'Abdullah was struck with 
stones by the boys when he was doing 
penance, and expired. 

'Abdullah bin -'All bin-Abu-Shu'ba 

al-Halabi {^^A 




^.-J^..s'^ A^xJ^). One of the earliest 

writers both on the Hadsi and Law of the 
Imamiva sect. His grandfather, Abu-Shu'ba, 
is related to have collected traditions in the 
time of the Imams Hasan and Hnsain. 
'Abdullah wrote down these traditions, and 
presented his work, when completed, to the 
Imam Ja'far Sudiq. by wh(un it is said to 
have been verified and corrected. 

'Abdullah bin-'Ali, author of the work 

called Siral-ii!-nin(h, which he ])araphrased 
from the Persian into the Arabic, for it had 
been originally translated from Sanskrit into 
the Persian. 



'Abdullah bin-Fazl-ullah, of SliTraz, 

iUitlior 1)1' the Tankli-i- H'axsaf. 

[The first four vohimes of this work, which 
may be looked upon as a coutiuuatiou of the 
Jahan-kusha^, go as far as Sha'bau, 690 
(March, 1300). Subsequently, the author 
added a fifth volume which relates the events 
down to the year 728 (a.d. 1328) ; vide 
Elliot'' s Jlitito)-!/ of India, iii. p. 24. 'Ab- 
nixLAH is also the name of the author of the 
Turikh-i-Butidl , an Afghan History, written 
during the reign of Jahungir ; vide Dowson, 
iv. p. 434.] 

'Abdullah Hatifi, vide Hatifi. 

'Abdullah Khan Uzbak (^l^L i.]\\x.z 

C_5o : i) was a renowned officer in the 

time of Akbar. He was made governor of 
Mandii (Malwa) in a.d. 1562, and afterwards 
rebelled against the king, but was defeated 
and compelled to leave the country. 

[For further notes, vide Alii Translation, 
i. p. 320.] 

'Abdullah Khan {^jJ\ J^ dU^A-^), 

chief of the Uzbaks, was the sou of Sikandar 
Khan, the son of Jani Beg Klian, a descend- 
ant of Juji Kliiln, son of Chingiz Khan. 
After the death of his father (during whose 
life he had several battles with him\ he 
ascended the thi'one of Samarqand and Buk- 
hara in A.D. 1582, A.H. 990, invaded Khura- 
san, and took Hirat after a siege of nine 
months in a.d. 1585, a.h. 993. Its governor, 
'All (iuli Klian, with several other chiefs 
were put to death, and the city was plundered. 
He was contemporary with Shah 'Abbas of 
Persia and Akbar Shah, and died after a 
reign of 15 years, aged 66, on the 12th 
February, a.d. 1597, 5th Rajab a.h. 1005. 
The clu'onogram of the year of his death is 
"qiyamat qayim shud." He was succeeded 
by his son 'Al)dul-Miimiu I\hun. 

'Abdullah Khan Firuz-Jang (tdI^j>-.£ 

t—AJ^s^ ;.--.j ..,1-^), ti descendant of 

K[iwaja 'Alxlullnh Ahriir. lie came to India 
in the latter end of tlie reign of the emj)eror 
Akbar, was raised to the rank of 6000 by the 
emperor Jahauglr, and died in the time of 
Shah Jahan, a.d. 1644, 17th Shiiwwfd 1054, 
aged nearly 70 years. 

'Abdullah Khan (Sayyid) (a.L!U-..£ 

cX-.-j ;j;l:s-), styled Qutbul-Mulk, was 

governor of Allahabad from the time of 
Bahadur Slifdi, emperor of DehlT, and his 
younger brother Sayyid Ilusaiu 'All Ivhiin, 
that of Bihar. These brothers sju-ung from 
a numerous and respected family of the 
descendants of the prophet, who were settled 
in the town of Bfirha, and in consequeuce of 

this origin, they are best known in India by 
the name of Sadat, or Sayyids, of Barlia. 
Farrukh-siyar, who by the aid of these two 
brothers had ascended the throne of Delili, 
on his accession in January, a.d. 1713, ah. 
1125, made the former his prime minister, 
M'ith the title of Qutb-ul-Mulk, and appointed 
the latter Amir-ul-Umara. Ilusain 'Ali 
Iv[iau was assassinated by Mir Haidar Klian, 
at the instigation of the emperor Muhammad 
Shah, on the IStli September, o.s. 1720, 
27th Zil-qa'da 1132, and his brother, 'Ab- 
dullah Khan, who made some resistance, was 
defeated and taken prisoner on the 4th 
November following, 14th Muharram 1133, 
aud died in confinement, after three years, on 
the 19th September, o.s. 1723, 30th Zil- 
bijja 1135. The remains of Husain 'All 
Iviian were transferred to Ajmir for burial. 
His brother 'Abdullah was biu-ied at Dehli. 

[Regarding the Saypds of Barha, vide Ahi 
Translation, i. p. 390 ; and for 'Abdullah 
Qutb-ul-Mulk, vide Dowson, vii. 447ff.] 

'Abdullah Qutb-Shah (c_^Lj aUU-^ 

il-l), the sixth Sultan of tlie Qutb- 

Shahi d\Tiasty of Golkonda in Haidarabad, 
Pecean. He succeeded Muhammad Qutb- 
Shah, aud reigued many years under the 
protection of the emperor Shah Jahan, to 
whom he acknowledged himself tributary, and 
paid an annual sum ; but in the year a.d. 
1656, a.h. 1066, he displeased that monarch, 
aud brought upon himself much trouble. The 
enqtcror had commanded him to permit his 
prime minister, Mir Muhammad Sa'id, and 
his son Muhammad Amlu, to repair with their 
effects to coiu-t. Qutb-Shah disobeyed the 
mandate, and confining Muhammad Amin, 
then at Haidarabad, seized part of his wealth. 
The prince Aiirangzlb, then governor of the 
imperial territories in the Deccan, enraged at 
this conduct, marched to Haidaral)ad, which 
he took aud plundered. 'Abdullah tvas 
obliged to purchase pardon by a contribution 
of a crore of Rupees, and the gift of his 
daughter in marriage to the son of his enemv, 
the prince Sultan Muhammad. From this 
time 'Abdullah, during the remainder of his 
life, was, in fact, a vassal of the empire. 
'Abdullah Qutb-Shah died in June, a.d. 
1674, Rabi I., a.h. 1085, and was succeeded 
by his son-in-law, Abul-Hasan. 

'Abdullah Mansur (,^..^.:^* <d,.jL\-£), 

author of the Tarjama-i-Tabaqdt-i-Silfya, 
containing the lives of the most celebrated 
Siifis and Shaikhs. 

'Abdullah Mirza {\ ; .^ ^UU-.^) was the 

son of Ibrahim Mirza, the son of Shahrukh 
Mirza, and great-grandson of Amir Timur. 
Upon his father's death (about the year a.d. 
1443), he became possessed of the sovereignty 
of Ffirs, or Persia ; but, four years after, he 
was dispossessed by one of his cousins -german, 
named IMirza Abu-Sa'id. and was obliged to 
fly til his uncle Mirza riiigh Beg, who then 



reigned iu Transoxiaua, aud who gave him 
his daughter in marriage. Some time alter, 
Uhigh Beg having been defeated in a battle 
against his son Mirza ' Abdul - LatTf, aud 
afterwards put to death by him in October, 
A.D. 1449, Ramazan, A.H. 853, and the latter 
not enjoying the suecess of his paiTicide 
above six months, 'Abdullah, as son-iu-law to 
Ulugh Beg, took possession of his dominions ; 
but Mirza Abu - Sa'Td, his cousin - germau, 
declared war agaiust him, and defeated him 
in a pitched battle, iu which he perished. 
This event took place in the year a.d. 1451, 
A.H. 855. 

'Abdullah Sayyid, son of Bahadur All, 

a native of Sawana, near Thauesar, aud a 
prominent disciple of Sa^Tid Ahmad (q.v.), 
under whose inspiration he published Abdul 
Kadir's Urdu version of the Koriin, with 
commentary, 1822. 

'AlDdullali Sliattari (Shaikh) (aULv-^ 

t_^A-— -ii\ a descendant of Sliaikli 

Shihab-uddin Suhrawardi. He came from 
Persia to India, and died in Malwa, a.d. 
1406, A.H. 809, and is bm-ied there. 

[Regarding the ShattarTs vide Jonr. As. 
Soc. Bengal, 1874, pt. i. p. 216.] 

'Abdullah Tamimi ( ^^.^ <Ll.!Lv-.r), 

author of the Arabic work called Raxzat- 
id-Abrar, which contains the histoiy of 
Muhammad, and Memoirs of many of his 

'Abdullah Tiimizi (Mir) (a._lJL\.-^ 

^iX_^_j) was an elegant poet and 

wrote an excellent Nasta'lTq hand, for which 
he received from the emperor Jahangir the 
poetical name of Wasfl, or 2)raiseworthv, and 
the title of Mushkin-Qalam, that is to 
say, out of whose pen flowed musk. He is 
the author of several poems. His death 
happened in the year .\.d. 1626, a.h. 1035. 
His tomb stands at a place in Agra, called 
Nagla Jawiihir. 

[P'or the inscription on his tomb, and his 
son Muhammad Salih Kashfi, vide I'roc. As. 
Soc. Bengal, 1874, p'. 162.] 

'Abdul-Latif (^.^kU^ J..^r), a cele- 
brated physician born at Baghdad, a.d. 
1261, A.H. 660. To the acquirement of 
medical knowledge, he applied himself with 
diligence ; and it was chiefly with this view 
that, in his 28th year, he "left Baghdad in 
order to visit other countries. Having spent 
a year in Mausil, he removed to Damascus in 
Svria and thence to Egypt, where the people 
of the highest rank continued to vie with each 
other in cultivating his friendship. He after- 
wards travelled to Aleppo, and resided several 

years in Greece. Of 150 treatises which he 
composed on various subjects, only one, 
entitled Historice yEgypli Compendium, has 
survived the ravages of time. He died 
suddenly at Baghdad in his 65th year. 

'Abdul-Latif (^.^I;.LS^ S^z), a great- 
grandson of Amir Timirr. In October ad. 
1449, he defeated his father Mii-za Ulugh 
Beg in an action near Samarqand, took him 
prisoner and put him to death. He cUd not 
long enjoy his success, for he had scarcely 
reigned six months, when he was murdered 
by his own soldiers on the 9th May, 1450, 
26th Rabi I. a.h. 854. His head was 
separated from his body and sent to Hirat, 
where it was placed on the gate of the college 
built by his father. 

'Abdul-Latif (^J^iJl j^^), a native 

of Qazwin, and author of the work entitled 
Lubb-nt-Tawnrlch, a history of Persia, 
written in the middle of the 16tli century. 

'Abdul-Latif (Mulla) (U uJ^LUl s^z) 

of Sultanpur, was the tutor of the prince 
Aurauzib. In the last years of his life he 
became blind, received from the emperor 
Shah Jahau a few villages free of rent for his 
support, and died in the year a.d. 1632, 
A.H. 1042. 

'Abdul-Latif, author of a collection of 
Letters called Insha-i-^ Abdul-Latif. 

'Abdul-Latif (^J^Ul A^^\ author of 

the work called Lataif-i-Ma^naivl, a com- 
mentary on the diiiicult passages of the 
Masnawi or MauhTua Rum, written in a.d. 
1640. He also is the author of a Dictionary 
called Latpif-ul-Lu^ht. 

[Regarding the author vide Jaur. As. Sue. 
for 1868, p. 32.] 

'Abdul-Maal ( JL«wkJ1 S.^), author of 

a system of Geography, written in the Persian 
Language, and entitled JIasFihat ul-Ar:, or 
the survey of the earth. 

'Abdul-Majid Khan (^\ j>^), the 

Turkish emperor of Coustautinople, was born 
on the 23rd April, 1823, and succeeded his 
father Mahmiid II. on the 2ud July, a.d. 
1839, A.H. 1277. He died ou the 25th June, 
1861, aged 39 years, aud was succeeded by his 
brother 'Abdul- 'Aziz. 

'Abdul-Majid Khan ( 

entitled Majd-ud daula, a uolilemau who was 
promoted by Ahmad Shah of Dehli to tlie 
post of 3rd Bakhshigarl or payinastcrship. iu 
A.D. 1748, A.H. 1161. He died iu the year 
1752, A.u. 1165. 




♦Abdul-Majid (Shaikh) (s.^^'\ s^s^ 


^**'), a learned man who flourished 

in the time of Shall Jahan, and_ wrote_ a 
history of that emperor entitled &Iia/i Jahan- 

[This seems to be a mistake for 'Abdul- 

'Abdul-Malik {J^>j-^ ^i lLnU!^ S^), 

the son of Marwan I. and the 5th Khalifa of 
the house of Uma}7a (Ommaides). He 
succeeded his father" "at Damascus, on the 
13th April, a.d. 685, 3rd Ramazan, a.h. 65, 
surpassed his predecessors in military exploits, 
and extended his power as far as Sjiain in the 
■west, aud India in the east. He was so 
gjenerous as not to take a church from the 
Christians, which they had refused to grant 
him when he requested it. He was called 
Ahul-Zubab or "father of flies," because 
his breath was so offensive, that it killed the 
very flies that settled on his lips. He reigned 
upwards of 21 lunar years and died in October, 
A.D. 705, Shiiwwal, A.H. 86. He was suc- 
ceeded by Walid I. the eldest of his sixteen 
sons, who greatly extended the Moslem 

'Abdul-Malik (JU ^^j CS1^\ S.s.), 

the son of Salih, the son of 'Abdullah, the 
son of 'Abbfis, was related in blood to the 
prophet Muhammad ; was invested by Ilariiu- 
ur-Rashid, the Klialifa of Baghdad, with 
the government of Egypt, in which he 
continued till about the "year a.d. 794, ah. 
178, when Hariin, suspecting that he was 
engaged in some cabals, in order to obtain 
the empire, threw him into prison, where he 
remained till Hariin' s death. His son re- 
leased him, and invested him with the govern- 
of Syria, a.d. 809, a.m. 193. 

'Abdul-Malik ( _,,ii. ,.p^ uJ^A^^ A-sx), 

the son of Zuhr, an eminent Aralnan 
physician, commonly called by Europeans 
Avenzur, a corruption of Ibn-Zuhr. His 
full name is Abu-Marwan 'Abdul-Malik ibn- 
Zuhr. He flourished about the end of the 
ilth or the beginning of the 12th century. 
He was of noble descent, aud born at Sevilla, 
the capital of Andalusia, where he exercised 
his profession with great reputatiou. His 
grandfather and father were both physicians. 
It is said that he lived to the age of 135; 
that he began to practice at 40 or, as others 
say, at 20 ; and had the advantage of a longer 
experience than almost any one overbad, for 
he enjoyed perfect health to his last hour. 
He left" a son, also known by the name of 
Ibn-Zuhr, who followed his" father's pro- 
fession, Avas in great favour with Al-Mansiir, 
emperor of Morocco, and wrote several 
treatises on ])hysic. Avenzur wrote a book, 
entitled Tuyi'smr fi-l-niHdairdt wdt-ladbir, 
which is much esteemed. This work was 

translated into Hebrew in a.d. 1280, and 
thence into Latin by I'aravicius, whose versitm 
has had several editions. The author added 
a supplement to it, imder the title of Jami^, 
or Collection. He also wrote a treatise 
F'tl-adu'iijat u'al-aghziyat, i.e., of medicines 
and food, wherein he treats of their qualities. 
Ibn-Znhr was contemporary with Ibn-Eashid 
(AveiToes), who more than once gives him a 
very high and deserved encomium, calling him 
admirable, glorious, the treasxu-e of all know- 
ledge, and the most su])reme in medicine from 
the time of Galen to his own. 

'Abdul-Malik ((_jC.L^J\ s*£.), king of 

Fez and Morocco, was dethroned by his 
nephew Muhammad, but he afterwards de- 
feated Sebastian, king of Portugal, who had 
lauded in Africa to support the usiu-per. The 
two African monarchs and Sebastian fell on 
the field, a.d. 1578 (a.h. 986). 

'Abdul-Malik (Khwaja), a native of 

Samarqand who held the oflice of Shaikh -ul- 
Islam in that city in the reign of Amir 

'Abdul-Malik Samani I. {i,'_<C\.^\\ j><,£ 
_jl_^l_,»;), a king of the house of 

Sumau, and son of Amir Niih I., whom he 
succeeded in a.d. 954 (a.h. 343). He reigned 
in Kluirasan and Mawaran-nahr seven and a 
half years, aud was killed by a fall from his 
horse while plajing at ball in a.d. 961 (a.h- 
350). He was succeeded by his brother Amir 
Mausur I. 

'Abdul-Malik Samani II. {CSW>\ S^ 
.)Vt\J), an Amir of the house of 

Sfiman, was elevated to the throne of 
Klurrasan, after his brother Amir Mansur II. 
in a.d. 998 (a.h. 388). He was tlie last 
Amir, or king, of the race of the Samauides. 
He reigned only a few months, and was 
defeated in battle against Sultan jVIahmiid of 
Gliazni in a.d. 999, who took possession of 
his country. 'Abdul-Malik was shortly after 

'Abdul-Manaf (t_iU^n j.,x), or 'Ahd- 

Maniif, {i.e. slave of the idol Manaf) the 
great-great-grandfather of Muhammad, was 
the son of Qusa\w, who aggrandised the tribe 
oi the (Juraisli liy juirchasing the keys of the 
Ka'ba from Abu-Ghassan, a weak and silly 
man, for a bottle of wine. Qiisayy was 
succeeded by his second son 'Abdul-Manaf, 
to whom the ])r()])hetic light, which is said to 
have manilV'slcd itself in his face, gave the 
right of ]ii-iiiiogeuilure. After his death his 
son Ilashini, tlie father of 'Abdul-Muttalib, 

['Aiu)-j\[an.\f is also the name of a sou of 
the I'rophet, who died in infancy.] 




'Abdul-Mannan (Mir) L^ ^L^!^ ^~), 

son of Mir Nii'miiu Kluiu, son of Kliwaja 
'Abcliu--RahTm lOiau of Andijau. lie served 
under the celebrated Nizam-ui-Mulk Asaf-Jali 
in the Deccan for several years, was an 
excellent poet, and is known under the poetical 
name of 'Ibrat. 

'Abdul-Mumin {^^^y^\ S^s.), a man of 

obscure origin and son of a potter, who seized 
the crown of Morocco, after destroying the 
royal family. He extended his dominions by 
the conquest of Tunis, Fez, and Tremezen. 
He meditated the invasion of Spain, wdien 
death stopped his career in a.u. 1156. His 
son Yusuf who succeeded him, carried his 
ambitions into effect. 

'ATDdul-Mumin Khan ( .^«^.x»..n s.^.s: 

jjlrs-), the son of AbduUah Khan, 

chief of the Uzbaks, was raised to tlie throne 
after the death of his father at Samarqand in 
the year a.d. 1597, a.h. 1005. He took 
Masliad and put the inhabitants to the sword. 
He w'as soon after assassinated by his own 
officers in A.D. 1598, a.h. 1006; the chrono- 
gram of his death being contained in the 
words " Badbaldit-i-sar-burida." After Iris 
death, Din INIuhammad Klian, the son of 
'Abdullah Ivhau"s sister, was placed on the 
throne ; but he fell shortly after, in a battle 
fought at Hirat, against Shah 'Abbas, king 
of Persia. 

'Abdnl-Muttalib (^^Lkjl S^), the 

grandfather of Midiammad, the son of 
Hashim of the tribe of Qnraish. He is said 
to have been extremely affable and easy of 
access, as well as just and generous. The 
well which God shewed Hagar the mother of 
Ishmael, in the wilderness, is said to have 
been miraculously discovered to 'Abdul-Mut- 
talib, about five himdi-ed years after it had 
been filled up by 'Amr, prince of the 
Jorhomites. The well is called Zainzam by 
the Arabs and is on the east side of the Ka'ba, 
covered with a small biulding and cupola. 
Its water is highly reverenced, being not only 
received with particular devotion by the 
pilgrims, but also sent in bottles as a great 
rarity to most parts of the Muhammadan 
dominions. 'Abdul -Muttalib had ton sons 
whose names are as follows : Abii-Talib, the 
father of 'AlT ; 'Abbas, the ancestor of the 
Abbasides who reigned at Baghdad ; Haniza ; 
Haris ; Abii-Lahab; Abdullah, the father 
of Muhammad ; Al-Maqawwam ; Zubair ; 
Zirar ; Qusam. His younger son 'Abdullah, 
the father of Muhammad, dying eight days 
after the birth of his son, 'Abdul-Muttalib 
was obliged to take care of his grandson 
Muhamniad, whicli he not only did during 
his life, but at his death enjoined his eldest 
son Abu-Talib to provide for him for the 
future. 'Abdul-^riittalib died about the year 
A.I). 579, at which time Muhammad was 
about ei;'ht years old. 

'Abdul-Nabi (Shaikh) ( ^.■A\ S^.£. 


r-'*), son of Shaikh Ahmad, and 

grandson of Shaikh 'Abdid-Quddus of Gan- 
goh. He was the tutor of the Emperor 
Akbar, and was honoured with the post of 
Sadr-us-Sadar (Chief Justice). No Sadr 
ciuring any former reign had so much favour. 
The Emperor was for some time so intimate and 
unceremonious with him that he would rise to 
adjust the Shaikh's slippers when he took his 
leave. At last, through the enmity of 
Maulana 'Abdullah Makhdura-nl-Mulk [vide 
p. 6) and others, he fell in Akbar's estima- 
tion, and began to be treated very differently. 
He was banished to Mecca, aiid after his 
return was murdered in the year a.d. 1583 
(A.H. 991). 

[Vide 'Ayn Translation, i. pp. 538, 546, and 
p. xiii (AhiUTazVs BiorjrnphyJ ; and Proc. 
As. Soc. Boigal, January, 1S76.] 

'Abdul - Nabi Khan served under 
Aurangzib, and built the large Mosque at 

[Vide Froe. As. S'jc. Bengal, 1873, p. 12.] 

'Abdul-Rahim bin-Alimad Sur (j^^^ 

..^ Sa,^\ ^i >-»r^^n), author of the 

Persian Dictionary Kashf-ul-Li((jh~it. 

[Vide Jour. As. Soc. Bengal, for 1808, 
p. 9.] 

'Abdul-Rahim Khan (^_*.>. Jl j._-._£ 

j^Ul-ri- i.A->- ^^^), Khan Klianan, 

commonly called IChan Mirza, was the son of 
Bairam Kliiin, the first prime -minister of the 
emperor Akbar. He was born on the 17th 
December, a.d. 1556 (14th Safar a.h. 964) 
and was only four years old when his father 
was assassinated. "When of age, he received 
a command in the force attached to the 
emperor's person. In 1584 he was one of 
the commanders of the array sent to Gujarat, 
and on the conclusion of the campaign, was 
made head of the army. On Todar Mai's 
death (1589) he was made prime-minister. 
His daughter Jani Begam was married to 
prince Danyal in the year a.d. 1599 (a.h. 
1007). He" translated the Wdqi'nt-i-Bnharl 
(Memoirs of the emperor Babar) from Turk! 
into Persian. After Akbar's death he served 
under Jahangir for 21 years, and died a few 
months before that emperor, shortly after the 
suppression of Mahabat Ivliau's rebellion, in 
the year a d. 1627 (a.h. 1036^ aged 72 lunar 
years, and lies buried at Drhli near the Dariiah 
of Shaikh Nizam-uddin Auliya, where his tonib 
is to be seen to this day. His poetical name 
was Eabim. 

[For ad, 
lulion, i. p. 

331. J 

(1 biiigra))hy, vide A'ln Trans- 




'Abdul-Rahim (,„^.:^^\ S.^~), one of 

the principal nobles wlio joined Prince 
Khusrau iu liis rebellion against his father 
Jahiiugir in a.d. 1606. He was taken 
prisoner with the prince and bronnht to the 
einperor at Labor ; by whose order he was 
sewn up in the raw hide of an ass, kept 
constantly moist with water, in which miser- 
able condition he remained twenty-four hours. 
He was afterwards pardoned. 

[Vide Aln TrandatioH, i. p. ^oii.'] 

■Abdul-RaMm Klian (Khwaja) (a-x 
i^\^ ^^ ♦-.j-J^), tlie son of Abul- 

Qasim. He was a native of Andijan iu 
Farghana, came to India in the reign of the 
emperor Shah Jahan, and served under 
Aurangzib for several years. He died iu 
A.D. 1692 (A.H. 1103.) 

'Abdul-Ralimaii ( .j1 ..ui^s^jl\ Je-_c 

J, ST'*), the son of Muljim, the 

murderer of 'All, son-in-law of Muhammad. 
He was killed by Hasan, son of 'All, in 
January, a.d. 661 (Ramazan a.h. 40). 

[No Shi 'a would now-a-days call his son 
'Abd-ul Rahman, just as no orthodox Mu- 
hammadan would call his son Yazid.] 

'Abdul-Rahman {^^\ ^j.a^::^j1\ S.^-z 
_C»»_'^), the son of Abu-Bakr, first 

Khalifa after Muhammad, and brother to 
'Ayisha, the favourite wife of the prophet. 
He died iu the same year that his sister died, 
i.e., in a.d. 678, a.h. 58. 

'Abdul-Rahman ( ._j ._ 


.W S.^z 

{^Ji^>- s^s^), the son of Muhammad 

Hanif son of 'Ali. He raised a formidalde 
power against Ilajjaj, the governor of Arabia, 
defeated him in several battles, and at last, 
rather than fall into his hands, threw himself 
from a house and died, ^.d. 701, a.h. 82. 

'Abdul -Rahman, a popukr Afghan 

poet of Peshawar. His verses are written 
with fiery energy, which has made them 
popular amongst a martial people, and yet 
■with natural simplicity which is charming to 
the lover of jioetry. Not far from the city is 
his grave, situated on the road to Hazar- 
khana, the poet's native village. 

'Abdul-Rahman (^_^_^-^Jl A_*_£), 

a Saracen general of the Wialifa llisham 
(called by some of our authors Al)deram(>s) 
■who penetrated into Aquitain and I'oitou, and 
was at last defeated and slain by Charles 
Martcl near Poitcrs, in a.d. 732, a.h. 111. 

'Abdul-Rahman Mustafa ( .,^2^ .1! Jk-.^ 

^Jin^y*), who in Watkin's Biographi- 
cal Dictionary is called Babacauschi, was 
mufti of the city of Caifa, in Tauris. He 
wrote a book called The Friend of Princes. 
He died iu a.d. 1381, a.h. 783. 

'Abdul-Rahman ( ..^^^ J\ ^.^z), also 

called by old writers Abderamcs, a descendant 
of the Khalifas of the house of Umayya. He 
was invited to come to Spain, in a.d. 756, 
A.H. 139, by the Saracens who had revolted; 
and after he had conquered the whole king- 
dom, he assumed the title of king of Cordova. 
He was the founder of the Omniaidcs of 
Spaiu, who reigned above two hundred aud 
fifty years from the Atlantic to the Pyi-enees. 
He died in a.d. 790, a.h. 174, after reigning 
32 years. 

'Abdul-Rahman lehi (.-^♦^sw J\ jk.-^£ 

^_=srl), or Ijl, the father of Qazi 

'Azd-uddln of Shiraz, a learned man and 
native of Ich, a town situated 40 farsakhs 
from Shiraz. 

'Abdul-Rahman (^.^^--il -V-.^), called 

by us Abderamts, a petty prince in the king- 
dom of Morocco, who murdered 'Iniad-uddin, 
his predecessor and nephew, and was himself 
after a long reign assassinated by a chieftain 
whose death he meditated, a.d. 1505, a.h. 

'Abdul-Rahman, the Sultan of Fez 

and Morocco, born 1778, was rightfid heir 
to the throne when his father died ; but was 
supplanted by his uncle, after whose death he 
ascended the throue in 1823. His eldest son 
Sidi Muhammad (born 1803) is heir to the 

'Abdul-Rahman Khan ( .^-^ Jl s^s- 

^jL~-.), Nawab of Jhajjar, who on 

account of his rebellion diu-ing the mutiny of 
the uative troops in a.d. 1857, a.h. 1274, 
was found guilty and executed at DehlT before 
the Kotwali on the 23rd December of the 
same year. He was a descendant of Xajabat 
'AH Khan, to whom in 1800, when Sir G. 
Barlow was Governor- General of India, were 
granted the large territorial possessions held 
by the late Nawab, yielding a yearly revenue 
of 125 lacs, and consisting of jhajjar, Badli, 
Karannd with its fort, Narnaul, etc. In 
addition to these, expressly for the purpose 
of kee])ing up 400 horsemen, the territory of 
Badwfiu and Dadrt was granted. Up to May, 
1857, he had always been looked upon as a 
staun('h friend of the British Government ; 
but when the rebellion burst forth, he forgot 
all his obligations to the British, and sided 
with the rebels. 




'Abdul-Raliman Khan (^^s- J\ ^^z 

^l_rs.), Sadr-us-Sudur of Kanlipm- 

(Cawnpore), a rebel and a staunch supporter of 
Nana Sahib, when that rebel commeuced 
his career. He was hanged at Kanhpiir, in 
June, 1858, a.h. 1274. 

'Abdul - Rahman Sulami (Shaikh), 
author of the Tabaqat Sufii/a, a work on 
Sufism. He died in a.d.' 1021, a.h. 412. 
He is also called Abu-'Abdur-rahman. 

'Abdul-Rahman, son of 'Abdul-'Aziz 
NaqshbandT, the father-in-law of Salaiman 
Shikoh, who married his dauuhter in a.h. 
1062, the 25th year of Shah Jaban. 

'Abdul-Rahman Chishti {^a.>~ 

■ ), author of the 

Mir -at -i- 

Mas'ud'i, which contains the legendary history 
of Siilar Mas'ud QliazT, bm-ied at I5abraicli 
in Audh. 'Abur-rahman died during the 
reign of Aurangzlb in a.h. 1094. 

[For extract translations vide Dowson, 
Eliiofs History of Indin, ii. p. 513. An 
Urdu translation of the Mir-at-i-Mcs'Rdi 
was lithographed at Kanhpiir a.h. 1287, imder 
the title of Gh.nza-numa-i-Mas'ud.'] 

'Abdul-Rashid (A-.-i^l '^^), was the 

son of Sultan Mas'ud, of Gliazni. He began 
to reign, after deposing and confining his 
brother 'Ali, in a.d. 1052, a.h. 443. He 
had reigned but one year, when Tughril, one 
of his nobles, assassinated him and mounted 
the throne of GliaznT. Tughril reigned only 
forty days, and was miu-dered on the Persian 
New Year's day in jNlarch a.d. 1053, a.h. 
444, when Farrukh/.ad, a brother of 'Abdur- 
Easbid, succeeded him. 

'Abdul-Rashid (Mir) ( ^ -V^J^ -V-^), 

son of 'Abdid-Ghafur-ul-HnsainT. He lived 
in the time of the emperor ShJih Jahan, and 
wrote chronograms on his accession to the 
throne of Dehli in a.d. 1628, a.h. 1037. 
He is the author of the Persian Dictionary 
called Farhang-i-Rasludl, also of the Mtm- 
takhab - ul- Lngliat, a very useful Arabic 
Dictionary, Mith Persian exjilanations, dedi- 
cated to the emperor Shah Jahan. Another 
work of his is called Risala-i-Mu^arrabat. 

The Farhaiig-i-Rashidi, which was written 
in 1064 (a.d. 1653), is the first critical 
dictionary of the Persian language, and has 
been printed by the Asiatic Society of 

[Vide Jour. As. Soc. Bengal, 1868, p. 20.] 


J^ J.-.. 

'Abdul-Rashid Khan (^ 

^W-), son of Sultan ALu-Sa id Khan, 

king of Kiishghar. He was the contemporary 
of Humayun, the emperor of Dehli. Mirza 

Haidar, author of the TarlML-i-Manhidi, 
dedicated his work to him. 

\_]'ide Dowson, _^//to<'s Historij of India, 
V. p. 127 ; and Ain Translatio)i, i. p. 460.] 

'Abdul-Razzaq ( •i\\j^\ J*-*.^), a chief 

of the Sarbadals of Sabzwar. He was at first 
enii)loyed by Sultan Abu-Sa*id Klian as a 
Yasawal, or mace-bearer, but after his death, 
when confusion took place, he possessed him- 
self of Klmrasan in a.d. 1336, ah. 737, and 
was slain, after one year and two mouths, 
by his brother, "Wajih-uddin Mas'ud, in 
September, 1337, Safar a.h. 738. Mas'ud 
reigned seven years, and was deposed by his 
brother Shams-uddin, who after a reign of 
four years and nine mouths was slain at 
Sabzwar by Haidar Qussab. After him Amir 
Yabya Qirati made himseh master of 
Kliurasan, and gave the command of his 
troops to Haidar Qassilb. In the month 
of December a.d. 1353, a.h. 754, Yabya 
slew Tughan Timur, a descendant of the 
Mughul kings, in battle, and was himself 
slain by his nobles, after he had reigned four 
years aud eight months. After him they 
raisid Kliwaja Lutf-ullah, the son of Ivhwaja 
Mas'ud to the masnad. He was slain after a 
short time by Hasan DamgbauT, who reigned 
four years and four montlis, when Kliwaja 
'All Muayyad slew him, aud reigned eighteen 
years in Kiim'asan, after which he made over 
ills country to Amir Timur, who passed 
Khurasan "in a.d. 1380, a.h. 782. 'Ali 
Muayyad was Idlled in a battle in the year 
1386, a.h. 788, and with him terminated 
the power of the Sarbadals. 

'Abdul-Razzaq, Kamal-nddTn, son of 
Jalal-uddiu Is-haq, born at Hirat on the 
12th Sha'ban, 816 (6th November, 1413). 
He is author of the historical work entitled 
'Matla'-us-sa'-dain. He died in 887 (a.d. 
1482 J. 

[ Vide below i)i voc. Kanial, and Dowson, 
iv. p. 90.] 

'Abdul-Razzaq, the son of Mirza ITlugh 
Beg, the emperor Efibar's uncle. Ho was 
killed by the command of that monarch, 
before his invasion of India, for raising 
disturbances at Kabid, about a.d. 1509, 
A.H. 915. 

'Abdul-Razzaq(Mulla)(^j^ ■i\' A\ S^z), 

of Labijan, author of the Ganhar-i-Murad, 
a dissertation on the creation of the world, 
and the pre-eminence then given by God to 
man, dedicated to Shah Abbas II. of Persia. 
He lived aliout the year a.d. 1660, a.h. 1072. 
His poetical name is Fayyaz. 

'Abdul-Salam {^.ajs.'-* ^jj *LJ\ J*-r), 

son of Muhammad, a celebrated learned man, 
and author of the Tafi'ir Knb'ir, a commentary 
on the (iuran. He tlied in the year .v.i). 1095, 
A.H. 488. 




'Abdul-Salam (Qazi) ( JL^J^ A_--c 

^J^\s-i ^_JU), of Badaon, son of 

'Ata - 111 - Ilaqq. lie is the axitlior ()f the 
commeutary called Tafsh- Zad-ul-Akhiral, 
in Unlu, consistiuo- of 200,000 verses, whicli 
he completed about the year a.d. 1828, a.h. 
1244, as the name of the work shows. 

•Abdul-Salam, a famous philosopher 
and physician, who died at Damascus in a.d. 
1443, A.H. 847. 

'Abdul-Salam (Mulla) {A^\ S^s^ L.), 

of Lahor, a pupil of Amir Fath-uUah Shirazi. 
He died in the year a.d. 1628, a.h. 1037. 
[Vide Am Translation, i. p. 545.] 

'Abdul-Salam (Mulla), of DehlT, was 

the pupil of Mulla 'Abdus-Salam of Lahor. 
He wrote the Sliarh, or marj^iual mites, on 
the commentaries called Tahzlb, 31annr, etc., 
and is also the author of the work on Sulism, 
in Arabic, called Hall-ur-Uumuz. 

'Abdul Samad (jk./«>.^\ ^^, uncle of 

the two first Khalifas of the house of 'Abbas, 
died at a great age during the khilafat of 
Hariiu-ur-Rashid, in the year a.d. 801, a.h. 
185. It is said of him that he never lost a 
tooth, for both the upper and lower jaws were 
each of one single piece. 

'Abdul-Samad (Khwaja) (x*.^Jl s.^ 
J._r»-L_r?-), a noble of Akbar's court, 

also well-known as a caligrapher. He was 
the father of Sharif, Amir-ul-Umara, imder 
Jahangir (vide Aln Translation, i. pp. 495, 
517), and had the title of " Shirin-Qalam," 
or sweet-pen. 

'Abdul - Samad, nephew of Shaikh 
Abul-Fazl, secretary to the emperor Akbar. 
He is the compiler of the work called Inslia- 
i- Abul-Fazl, which he collected and published 
in the year a.d. 1606, a.h. 1015. 

'Abdul-Samad Khan ( IrL ^^A \ S^s-), 

styled Nawab Samsam-iiddaula Bahadur - 
Jang, was the son of K[iwaja 'Abdul- Karim, 
a descendant of Kliwaja 'Ubaid-ullali Ahrar. 
The native country of his father was Samar- 
qand, but he was born at Agra. In his 
childhood, he went with his father to Samar- 
qand, where he completed his studies. In 
the reign of Aurangzib he returned to ludia, 
and was, at liis first introduction to tlie 
emperor, raised to the rank of 600, and alter 
a short time to that of 1500, witli the title of 
Khan. In the reign of Jahandar Shah, the 
rank of 7000 and the title of 'Ali-Jang were 
conferred on him. He was made governor of 
Lahor, in tlie time of Farrukh-siyar, and was 
sent with a great army against tlie Sikhs, 
whom he defeated and made prisoners with 

Bauda their chief. He was made governor of 
Multan by the emperor Muhammad Shiih, 
with the title of Samsam-uddaiila, and his 
sou, Zakariya Khan, Subadrir of Lahor. He 
died in a.d. 1739, during the invasion of 
Nadir Shah. 

[The histories call him " Diler-jang," not 
"Ali-jang"; vide also Dowson, vii. pp. 456, 
491, 511.] 

'Abdul-Samad Khan ( IrU sa^ \ S^z), 

Faujdar of Sarhind, distinguished himself in 
the Maratha Wars, and was at last beheaded 
by Bluio in a.h. 1174 (a.d. 1760). 
\_Vide Dowson, viii. p. 278.] 

'Abdul-Shukur (Maulana) ( ,.<C/lJ1 S^s. 

lj-»-«). His poetical name was Bazmi 

[(/.?'.], and he was killed, or mortally 
wounded, in a skirmish near Karnal, 16th 
February, a.d. 1634. 

•Abdul Wahhab (Qazi) (c_jU..n S^zl 
^_jl_j) lived in the time of the 

emperor 'Alamgir, and died on the 26th 
November, a.d. 1675, 18th Ramazan, a.h. 
1086, at Dehli. He is the author of a 
Dast//r-ul-^Ainal, which he dedicated to that 

'Abdul Wahhab (Mir) (l_jU^J1 j^^r 

--w<), author of the Tazlcira-i-Be- 

}ia:ir, which he wrote about the year a.d. 
1758, a.h. 1172. 

'Abdul-Wahhab, author of the Mana- 

qih-i M(i//Iaict Itilm, containing tlie memoirs 
of the celebrated Jalal-udchn lliinii. 

'Abdul-Wahhab bin-Ahmad {s-*~s- 

Jk«4-:>-^ ^^J l_jIj&»JO, author of the 

Arabic work on theology, called Anivur 
Ahinadiija, written in a.d. 1548. 

'Abdul-Wahhab, or Muhammad bin- 
'Alxlul-Wahhab, founder of the sect of the 
'^^'allhabis, was horn at Huraimala, in the 
province of Najd, in Arabia, about the year 
a.d. 1750. 

'Abdul- Wahid (a^\^!1 ^^z), author of 

the Sab'a Sanubll, essays on the duties of 
Instructor and Student, written iu the year 
A.D. 1561, A.H. 969. 

'Abdul-Wahid (Mir) (^^,„ s^\j\\ s^r), 

a native of Bilgram, in Audh, whose poetical 
name was Shahidi. He died iu his native 
couuti-y on the Uth of December, a.d. 1608, 
3rd Ivamazau, a.h. 1017. His son's name 
was Mir 'Abdul-Jalil the father of Sayyid 
Uwais, whose son's name was Saj-yid Barkat- 




•Abdul-Wahid (Mir), of Bilgram. He 

wrote nuclei- two assumed names, viz. : "NYahid 
aud Zaiiqi, was an excellent poet in Persian 
and in Hindi, and is the author of a work 
in prose and verse, called f^hakar-iston-i- 
KhiniTd, wherein he has mentioned the names 
of all kinds of sweetmeats. lie was killed on 
the 13th October, a.d. 1721, Friday, 2nd 
Mnharram, a.h. \\M, in an affray with the 
ZaniTudars of Eahun, in the Paujab, the 
settlement of which place was entrusted to 
his father Sa}-)-id Muhammad Ashraf. 

'Abdul-Wahidi, a Turkish poet, autlior 
of a Diwan, comprising 30 Qasidas, 200 
Ghazals, 29 Tarikhs, aud 54 Euba'is. 

'Abdul-Wasi' of Hansi (t_.^^^Jl s.^z 

^4_Au._jl_Ji»), author of a Persian 

grammar, called after his name, Itisala-i- 
'■Ahdul-Wasi. He flourished in the last 
century, and is also the author of a Hindu- 
stani Dictionary, entitled Gharuib-ul-Lughut . 
[For fiu'ther notes, vide Proc. As. Soc. 
Bengal, for 1887, p. 121.] 

'Abdul -Wasi' Jabali {x j^»il wV-.-c 

^l-j>-), a celebrated poet of Persia, 

who flourished about the year a.d. 1152, a.h. 
547, iu the time of Sultan Bahram Shah, son 
of Sultan Mas'iid, of GliazuT, and Sultan 
Sanjar Saljuc|i, in whose praise he wrote 
several beautiful panegjTics. He died in the 
year a.d. 1160, a.h. 555. "Jabal" means 
a mountain, and as he was a native of 
Gliurjistan, a mountainous country, he chose 
"Jabali" for his poetical title; vide Jabali. 
\_Vide Sprenger, Catalogue of Oudh MSS. 
p. 443.] 

Abengnefil (a corruption of an Arabian 
name, spelt so in Lempriere's Biograpliical 
Dictionary), was an Arabian physician of the 
12tli century, aud author of a book, the 
translation of M'hich, entitled Be virtittihns 
VH'dicinKrum et cihorum, was printed at Venice 
in Ibol ; folio. 

'Abhai Singh {i^t^^ ^^1 ^=T^j^> ^H^ 

of Jodlipiii', who had acquired his power by 
the murder of his father, Efija Ajit Singh 
Eathauri in the beginning of the reign of 
Muhammad Shah, emperor of Dehli, about 
the year a.d. 1726, a.h. 1139. He served 
under the emperor, aud having in a battle 
defeated Sarbaland Kliau, the usurper of 
Gujrat, was appointed governor of that 
province in a.d. 1727, a.h. -1140; but his 
younger brother Baklit Singh succeeded his 
father to the Eaj of Jodhpiir. Abliai Siugh 
was poisoned in a.d. 1752, and after his death 
his sou Bijai Singh succeeded him. 

'Abi Bakr, author of the Jairuhir-ul- 
GaiiJ, and of another work on Siitism, caHed 
Marsad-ul- 'Ibud. 

'Abi Bakr Muhammad (jk^.s'*ij j\), 

author of an Arabic work in prose entitled 
Adnb-id-Kitab, written in a.d. 984, a.h. 

'Abid Khan (^l>. S^}^, a nobleman 

on whom Aurangzib conferred the Siibadar- 
ship of Multan. 

Abjadi (^a.^1), the poetical name of 

]\rir Muhammad Ismfi'il Khan, tutor of the 
Nawab 'Umdat-ul-Umara of the Karnatik, 
who made him a present of 6700 Es. on the 
completion of the history, called Anwar- 
nan, a, a masnawi, or epic, containing an 
account of the exploits of Nawab Anwar 
Klian, the father of the patron of the author. 
It was completed iu a.d. 1760 (a.h. 1174), 
aud in 1774 the title of Malik-ush-shu' ara, 
or poet laureate, was conferred on the author. 

[ Vide Abdi.] 
'Abq.a Khan i^J^ U.-^), vide Aba Qaan. 

Abrakh Khan (^A:>- ^^A) (the son of 

Qizilbash Khan Afshar, governor of the fort of 
Ahmadnagar, who died there in the 22nd year 
of Shah Jahan) was a nobleman of high rank 
in the time of 'Alamgir. A few years before 
his death, he was appointed governor of 
Barar, where he died on the 24th of JiUy, 
A.D. 1685, 3rd Eamazan, a.h. 1096. 

Abru (. j\), vide Hafiz Abru. 

Abru (, J 1 ), poetical name of Shah 

Xajm-uddiu, of Dehll, alias Shah Mubarak, 
who flemished iu the reign of the emperor 
Muhammad Shah. He died in a.h. 1161. 

{Vide Sprenger, Oudh MSS., p. 196.] 

Abtin (^j..^:\ ), the father of Faridun, 

seventh king of Persia of the first, or Peshdil- 
diau, dynasty. Abtiu pretended that he 
derived his origin from Jamshed, king of 
Persia of the same dynasty. 

Abu-'Abbas (. -.Lc _j.'U, the first kha- 
lifa of Baghdad, of the race of 'Abbas. 
[J'ufcAbul- 'Abbas.] 

Abu-'Abdullah (^.ULus _j_'l). There 

are three Muhammadan .saint.s of this name, 
whose lives are writt(>n by Abu-Ja'far. The 
first is sm-named (iuraishi, because he was of 
the family of the Quraisliites, aud a native 
of Mecca. The second bore the name of 
Iskandar, and the thii'd that of Jauhiui. 




Abu-'Abdullah Bukhari, r?We ^Nliiham- 

niiul Isnia'il BukhfirT. 

Abu-'Abdullah, Muhammad Fazil, son 

of SaATid Ahmad, the son of Saj-j-id Hasan 
of Agra, author of the poem called MnMir- 
ul- Wusir'n, written in praise of Mnhanimad 
and his descendants, with the dates of their 
respective deaths in verse. The title of the 
book is a chronogram for a.h. 1106, in which 
year it was completed, corresponding with 
A.D. 1650. He Unnrished in the time of 
'AlamgTr, and died in the year a.d. 1694. 
He is" also called Mazhar-iil-Haciq, which 

Abu-'AbdullahCi QK^ ^\d]^\s^zy\), 

commonly called Ibn-Malik, author of the 
Shark S'lh'h BiikharK He died at Damascus 
in A.D. 1273 (a.h. 672). 

Abu-'Abdullali, the surname of Shafi I, 

which see. 

Abu-'Abdullah {sa.^\ ^J a.UL\-c ^\ 
^^lr_jj ^j\.^.)\), the son of Ahmad 

Ansari, an author, of Cordova, who died a.d. 
1272 (a.h. 671). 

'Abu-'Abdullah {^s^^ d}iS\s^z y\), 

Hamuli, son of Ahii-Nasr, author of the 
■work called Jrini^baina-l- Srihlhain , and the 
history of Andalusia, called Tarikh Viidulus. 
The former comprehends the collections of 
al-Bukhari and Muslim, and has a great 
reputation. He died in a.d. 1095 (a.h. 

Abu-'Abdullah Maghribi (aULv 


jt.-^), named Muhammad bin- 

Isma'il, tutor of Ibrahim Kjiawas, Ibrahim 
Shaiban of Kirmiiushah, and of Abu-Bakr of 
Bikand, and pupil of Abul-Husain Zarrin of 
Hirat. Abu-'Abdullah died in the year a.d. 
911 (a"h. 299), and was buried on Mount 

Abu-'Abdullah Muhammad (<dl \ x^ ? y \ 

i\A..s:'*), son of Sufyan, a native of 

Qairuwan in Africa, 
■work called Kadi. 
(a.h. 415.) 

He is the author of the 
He died in a.d. 1024 

Abu-'Abdullah Muhammad bin-'Ali 
ar-Rahibi {sajs^^* AWs^c ^_\), antliov 

of a short treatise, entitled the Bighyat-ul- 
B'lhis consisting of memorial verses, wjiich 
give an epitome of the law of iuhcrilance 
according to the doctrine of Zaid biu-Siibit. 

Abu-'Abdullah Muhammad Ha'kim 
Kabir (^.^ Xl^ j,^^-* i^\s^z y\), 

author of the work called Mustadrik. He 
died in a.d. 1014, a.h. 405. 

Abu-'Abdullah Muhammad bin-Mu- 
hammad al - Nu'mani, surnamed 
Shaikh ilufid and Ibu-Mu'allim, was a 
renowned Shi'a lawyer. Abk-J'afar ut-Tusi 
describes him in the FiJirist as the greatest 
orator and lawyer of his time, the most 
ancient Muj tabid, the most subtle reasoner, 
and the chief of all those who delivered 
Fatwas. Ibn-Kasir-ush-ShamI relates that, 
when he died, Ibn-Naqib, who was one of the 
most learned of the Sunni doctors, adorned 
his house, told his followers to congratulate 
him, and declared that, since he had lived to 
see the death of Shaikh Muttd, he should 
himself leave the world without regret. 
Shaikh Mufid is stated to have written 200 
works, amongst which one, called i\\e Irshud, 
is well-known. He also wrote many works 
on the law of inheritance. His death took 
place in a.d. 1022, a.h. 413, or as some say 
a.d. 1025, A.H. 416. 

Abu - 'Abdullah Muhammad bin - 

'Umar al-Waqidi {s^^-^ i.\S\s^ ^A 

^-XJi '.!!./♦.£ ^j), an author who ■v\'rote 

in Arabic the work, called Tabaqat Waqidl, 
containing the history of the conquest of 
S)Tia by the generals of 'Umar during the 
yearsA.D. 638-9. He is said by some to have died 
in the year a.d. 824, a.h. 219, but as he makes 
mention of Al-Mii'tasim Billah, whose reign 
began in 833, he must have died about the 
year 834 and not a.d. 824, a.h. 209. 
[ Vide Waqidl.] 

Abu-'Abdullah Muhammad bin-Hu- 
sain al-Shaibani (a,*,.s"* tdnj*-.r ^\ 
j^_j), commonly 

,W^ji ^^ 

called Imam Muhammad, was born at Wasit 
in 'Iriiq-'Arab in a.d. 749, a.h. 132, and 
died at llai, the capital of Khui-asau in a.d. 
802, a.h. 187. He was a fellow pupil of 
Abii-Yusuf, under Abii-Haulfa, and on the 
death of the latter pursued his studies imder 
the former. His chief works are six in 
number of which five are considered of the 
highest authority, and cited under the title 
of the Znhir-ur-Riicaynt ; they are Jaiiii'- 
ul-Kah r, Jami^-us-Saghlr, the Mahsut fi 
furiV-il-Hanafii/a the Ziiijadat fl furu'^-il- 
HaiHiJitja, the Siyar-ul-Kahlr teal Saglur ; 
and the Nmcadir, the sixth and last of the 
kno\\Ti compositions of Iman Muhammad, 
which, though not so highly esteemed as 
the others, is still greatly respected as an 

Abu-'Abdullah Salih, vide Abu- All, 
"NVazir of Mansfir I. 

ABU- 'A 



Abu - 'Abdul - Rahman Ahmad bin - 
'Ali bin-Shu'aib al-Nasai {s^ »jl 

)\), author of the 

•workscalled Sunan Kiibrg and Sunan S/tghra'. 
The first is a large work on the traditions ; 
hut as NasaT himself acknowledged that many 
of the traditions which he had inserted, were 
of doubtful authority, he afterwards wrote an 
abridgement of his great work, omitting all 
those of questionable authenticity ; and this 
abridgement which he entitled Al-Mujtabg 
and is also called Sunan Sn^rg, takes its 
rank as one of the six books of the Sunna. 
Al-Nasa! was horn at Nasa a city in 
Khurasan, in a.d. 830, a.h. 303, and died at 
Makka in a.d. 915. 

Abu - 'Abdul - Rahman Sulami. Vide 

'Abdid-Eahmau Sulami. 

Abu - 'Abdul - Rahman Yunas (j^„.i- 

L/*^y. ij'*-^j^^\ the son of Hablb, an 

excellent irrammarian who died in the year 
A.D. 798, A.H. 182. 

Abu-'Abdul-Wahid (j.^1^^ j-r _jjl), 

an elegant Turkish poet who flourished in 
Constantinople in the earlier part of the 
seventeenth century. 

Abu-Ahmad {^\i ^^ Sa.c^\ ^\), the 

son of Qasim, was born in the city of Amasia 
in Natolia a.d. 1483, a.h. 888 ; he publicly 
explained the book written by his father 
Ahmad bin -'Abdullah ul-Kirmi on the fimda- 
niental points of Muhammadanism. 

Abu-'Ali ( 

^^JOj^* J.£ ^\), surnamed 

Muhandis, " the Geometrician," who excelled 
in that science. He flourished a.d. 1136, 
A.H. 530, in the time of Al-Hafiz li-din-illah, 
Kjialifa of Egj^^t, and Al-Rashid Billah, the 
son of Al-Mustarshid of Ba gh dad. 

Abu-'Ali (, J.r ^A), the wazir of Man- 

sur I. the son of Nub, prince of the Samanian 
d}-nasty of Khiu-asan. In a.d. 963, a.h. 352, 
he translated the Tar'ikh Tabarl into the 
Persian language from the Arabic. It is a 
general history from the creation of the 
world, down to the 300th year of the Hijra. 
In the course of eight centuries the language 
of Abu -'All haying become obsolete, Abu- 
'Abdullah Salib bin-Muhammad was per- 
suaded by Xiirullah Jxhiin, prince of Turan, 
to put it into modern Persian. 

[Vide Abu Ja'far at-Tabari, and Tabari.] 

Abu - 'Ali Ahmad bin - Muhammad, 

the son of Ya'qiib bin-Maskawaihi Kliazin of 
Eai, author of the Arabian work entitled 

Kitah-ut-Talmrat, which was translated in 
Persian by Xasir-uddin TusI, and named 
Akhlaqi-Nasirl. He flourished about the 
12th century. 

Abu-'Ali Ismail ( J^.n^^l J,^ y^), an 

Arabian author who died in a.d. 967, a h. 

Abu-'Ali Qalandar (Shaikh) ( U 4j1 

\^ J- 

jiXjJj), commonly called Bu-'A1I 

Qalandar Shaikh Sharaf-uddin PauipatT, a 
celebrated and highly respected Muhammadan 
saint, who is said to have performed numerous 
miracles during his life. He was born at 
'Iraq in Persia, but came to India and fixed 
his residence at Panipat, where he died, aged 
about 100 years, on the 30th August, a.d. 
1324, 9th Ramazan a.h. 724. His tomb is 
held sacred and is visited by the Musalmans 
to this day. 

[Vide Troc. As. Soc. Bengal, for 1870, p. 
125, and for 1873, p. 97.] 

Abu-'Ali Sina (U-».^l_cjj^). Vide 


Abu-'Ali 'Umar(j^s'* ^jij^^^ ^z^\), 

son of Muhammad, was the author of the 
commentary, called Shark Kabh- and Shruh 
Saghlr. He died in the year a.d. 1247, a.h. 

Abu-Ayyub {i^yj\ ^\), a companion 

of the prophet Muhammad, who had been 
with him in the battles of Badr and Uhud, 
and lost his life in the expedition of 
Constantinople (a.d. 668, a.h. 48) in the 
reign of Mu'awiya, the Khalifa of the 
house of Uma}Ta. His tomb is held in such 
yeneratiou by the Muhammadans, that the 
Sultans of the 'Usman, or Ottoman, d^■nasty 
gird their swords on at it on their accession 
to the throne. 

Abu-Bakr (A-«-i) ^\ ^J X' ^S), son of 

Abu-Shaiba, an Arabian author who died in 
the year a.d. 849, a.h. 235. 

Abu-Bakr Ahmad (a^^^-I .<o yl), eon 
of Husain BaihaqT, vide Baihaqi. 

Abu-Bakr Ahmad bin'Umar al-Khas- 

saf (i i\^.^\ jA,z ^jj S^:^\jL.; ^^), 

author of several treatises, known by the 
name of Adab-ul-Qazl. Haji Khalifa speaks 
very highly of this work. It contains 120 
chapters, and has been commented \\\wa by 
many learned jurists : the most esteemed 
commentary is that of 'Umar bin-'Abdul- 
'Aziz biu-]\Iaja, commonly called Hiisam-ush- 
Shahld. wlio'was killed "in a.d. 'i141. A1- 
Khassaf died in a.d. 874, a.u. 261. 



Abu-Bakr Baqalani ( j^ljjlj jLi ».J^), 

son of l'a\Tib. He was of the sect of Imam 
Miilik, and author of the work called Al- 
Tauhid, and several other works. He died 
in A.D. 1012, A.H. 403. See Baqalani. 

Abu-Bakr Bikandi, a pupil of Abii- 

' Abdullah ^Slaghribi. He lived about the 
year a.u. 900. 

Abu-Bakr bin-Mas'ud al-Kashani 
(^Lilxil i^^M^-* ^.J .X.J ».m), author 

author of the work on jurisprudence, entitled 
Bnd'ii^. It is also called Bodiii-us- Sanai^ . 
He died in a.d. 1191, a.h. 587. 

Abu-Bakr Kattani, Shaikh Muhammcd 

bin- 'All Ja'far, a famous saint, who was born 
at Baghdad, and died in a.d. 954, a.h. 322. 

Abu-Bakr Muhammad al-Sarakhsi 

(^*uri^.A^ji S^i^s.-^ jLi ^\), whose title 

was Sharas-ul-Ai'mma ; he composed, whilst 
in prison at Uzjand, a law book of great 
extent and authority, entitled the Mabsi/t. 
He was also the author of the celebrated 
Al-Muhlt. He died in a.d. 1096, a.h. 490. 

Abu-Bakr, or Aba-Bakr (,-^' »-j1 or 

Xj yi), son of Miranshiih, was killed 
in battle a.h. 810, a.d. 1407. 

Abu-Bakr Shadan (Shaikh) (..Lj ^\ 

',ff^ i^\c\J^), of Qazwln, a celebrated 

pious Musalraan who died at Qazwin in the 
year a.d. 1137, a.h. 531. 

Abu-Bakr Shashbani (J LA^ Xj »j 1), 

a valiant commander, born in a village called 
Shasban in the province of Mazaudaran. 
He was one of the greatest opponents of Amir 
Timiu' in his conquest of Asia. 

Abu-Bakr Shibli (Shaikh) {^ ^^\ 

'^~y^ ^_L-— i)), a celebrated doctor of 

divinity, born and brought up at Ba gh dad, 
but the native country of his parents was 
Khurasan. This Sufi followed the doctrines 
of the sect of Imiin Mfdik, and had for his 
masters Junaid and other holy men of that 
epoch. He died at Baghdful on Friday 31st 
July, A.D. 94G, 27th Zii-hijja a.h. 334, aged 
87 years. 

Abu-Bakr Siddiq {j^XaJ^ ^i}), the 

father of 'Ayisha, the wife of Muhammad the 
prophet, by whom he was so much respected 
that he received from him the sm-name of 

Siddiq, which signifies in Arabic " a great 
speaker of truth," and at the Prophet's death, 
in June, a.d. 632, he was elected KJialif 
in opposition to 'All, the sou-in-law of the 
prophet. He supported with energy the uew 
faith, and reduced several of the Arabian 
tribes who wished to abandon the new 
doctrines and retui-n to the religion of their 
fathers. Afterwards he turned his arms 
against foreign natious, and by the valour of 
his active general Klialid, he defeated an army 
of 200,000 men, whom the Greek emperor 
Heraclius had sent to ravage Syria. He did 
not long enjoy his victories : a slow fever 
wasted his vigoirr, and he died the very day 
that Damascus was taken ; but before he died 
he appointed for his successor 'Umar (Omar) 
the son of Khattab. He reigned two lunar 
years three mouths and nine days, and expired 
in his 63rd year on Friday the 23rd August, 
A.D. 634, 22ud Jumada II. a.h. 13. He 
was buried close to the tomb of Muhammad 
in Madlua. 

Abu-Bakr Tughluq {^JiJdJ J^ »jO, the 

son of priuce Zafar Ivhan, and grandson of 
Firuz Shah Tughluq, was raised to the throne 
of Dehll after tlie assassination of his cousin 
Gliiyas-uddin Tughluq, in February, a.d. 
1389, Safar, a.h. 791. He reigned one year 
and six months, after which his uncle Prince 
Muhammad Tughluq, the sou of Firuz Shah, 
who was at jVagarkot (Kangra), proclaimed 
himself kiug, and proceeded with an army 
towards Dehli. After some repulses he was 
victorious, entered Dehll, and ascended the 
throne in the month of Atigust, a.d. 1390, 
Eamazan, a.h. 792. Abii-Bakr who had fled 
towards Mewat, was taken prisoner on the 
29th November of the same year, 20th 
Zil-hijja, and sent to the fort of Mirath 
(Meerut), where he died some years after. 
[ Vide Dowson, iv. p. 20.] 

Abu-Bakr Yahya ( l^_^_sr^_G ^_j^), 

author of the BahJut-ul-ul-Mahafil, or the 
Delight of Assemblies, containing various 
anecdotes recorded of Muhammad, the four 
Khalifas, and other illustrious persons, in 

Abu - Bakr Zain - uddin (Maulana) 
(lj^»-* ivH^^^ iiT-:! i T^M-T^X surnamed 

Zain-uddiu, a learned Musalman, who died at 
Talbad, on Thursday the 28th of January, 
A.D. 1389, 30th Mubarram, a.h. 791. 

[For fiu'ther notes, vide Aln Trcn/shition, i. 
p. 366.] 

Abu-Bakr Zangi (^ ax-c ^j->j^ ^A 

^xj j), son of Sa d, son of ZangT, one 

of the Atabaks of Persia, who reigned at 
Shlrilz for thirty-five yeai's, and died in the 
year a.d. 1260, a.h. 658. The celebrated 
Sbaildi Sa'dl of Shlriiz dedicated his Gulistan 
to him in a.d. 1258. 




Abu-Darda Oj,J ^\), a companion of 

Muhammnd, who was governor of Syria, iu 
the time of the Khalifa 'Umar. 

Abu-Daud Sulaiman bin-al- Asli'as 

(i.j-^x-i))Il i^J ^[^^1^ JJ^J^J^), sur- 

named Al-Sijistani, author of a Eitdb i/s- 
Sunan, wliichcoutaius4, 800 traditions, selected 
from a collection made by him of 500,000. 
It is considered the fourth book of the Sunua. 
He was born in a.d. 817, a.h. 202, and died 
at Basra iu a.d. 888, a.h. 275. 

Abu - Daud Sulaiman bin - 'Uqba 

surnamed Az-Zahiri. He is the translator 
and commentator of Euclid in Arabic. He 
was also the foimder of a Suuui sect, but had 
few followers, and was called Az-Zahiri, 
because he founded his system of jurisprudence 
on the exterior {zahir), or literal meaning of 
the Quran and the traditions, rejecting the 
qiyas. He was born at Kufa a.d. 817, a.h. 
202, and died at Baghdad in a.d. 883, a.h. 
270. Some authors say that he died a.h. 275 
(a.d. 888). He was a great partisan of 

Abu - Hafs al - Bukhari {^faJ..p- .j\ 

^.Lsa.^), a mufti of Bukhara, and 

a very rigid- Musalman. He was sm'uamed 
Al-Kabir, the Great, to distinguish him 
from his son, who was siu-named Al-Saghir, 
the Little, or the Younger, and was also a 
learned teacher, but not so famous as his 

Abu-Hafs Haddad, Amr, son of Sa- 
lama, of Xishapur, a saint, who died in a.h. 

Abu-Hafs 'Umar ( ..j .^£ ^_^-i->- yA 

,^A.s>.\), son of Ahmad, author of 330 

works, among which are Targhib and Tufslr 
and Masnad. He died iu a.d. 995, a.h. 

Abu - Hafs 'Umar al - Grhaznawi 

surnamed Siraj-uddin, a follower of Abii- 
Hanifa, and author of the Arabic work called 
Zubdat-ul-Afikcnii, which expounds the prac- 
tical statutes of the different doctrines of the 
four Sunnl sects. He died in a.d. 1371, 
a.h. 773. 

Abu-Hamid (Imam) {jX^\ Ju^Ljs- y^\ 
^lui S^s.^ j^j), son of Muhammad, 
sm-uamed Ghazzall. He is the author of 

the Arabic work on theology, called Ihyau- 
'ulum-iddJn, and of many other works. He 
died in a.d. 1111, a.h. 505. 
\_Vide Gliazzali.] 

Abu - Hamza bin - Nasr al - Ansari 

(^_^.l.^j^\ .^j j^ i\y^:>- %!\), surnamed 

Aus bin Malik, was one of the six authors 
most approved for Muhammadan traditions. 
He died at Basra, in the year a.d. 710, a.h. 
91, aged 103 years, after having begot 100 
children. He was the last that was styled 
Sahaba, that is to say, friends, companions, 
and contemporaries of Muhammad. 

Abu-Hanifa (Imam) (*t*l iji.^j:..s>. ^\), 
Tide Hanifa. 

Abu-Haraira {s iJb ^)\), that is "father 

of the kitten," so nicknamed by Muhammad, 
because of his fondness for a cat, which he 
always carried about with him. He was so 
constantly called by this name, that his true 
name is not known, nor his pedigree. He 
was such a constant attendant upon Muham- 
mad, that a great many traditions go under 
his name ; so many, indeed, that the multi- 
tude of them make people suspect them. 
Nevertheless, others receive them without 
hesitation as of undoubted authority. He 
was Qazi of Mecca in the time of 'Usman. 
He died in the year a.d. 679, a.h. 59. 

Abu-Husain Zarrin i^lj] fji:^'^ ^v^y 

of Hirat, and master of Abu- 'Abdullah 
Maghribi. He died at the age of 120. 

Abu-Hatim (*jl_s- ^^\), a celebrated 

Musalman lawyer. 

[ Vide Hatim, surnamed Al-Asamm.] 

Abu-IbraMm Ismail ( ^t.^ ♦-Jb^J \ y ^ 

^jj^\ ^-t-=K ^J^^X ^^^ 0^ Yahya al- 

Mazani, a distinguished disciple of Imam 
Shafi'i, and author of the J ami' Sughhir 
and other works. He died in the year a.d. 
878, a.h. 264. He was the most celebrated 
amongst Shafi'i' s followers for his acquaint- 
ance with the legal system and juridicial 
decisions of his preceptor, and for his know- 
ledge of the traditions. Amongst otherworks, 
he -^Tote the Mukhtasir, the Mamur, the 
Rasail-ul-MuHahira, and the Kitah-id- 
TFas/iiq. The Mnkhtnsir is the basis of_ all 
the treatises composed on the legal doctrines 
of Shafi'T, who himself entitled Al-Mazani 
"the champion" of his doctrine. 

Abu-Is-haq, son of Alptigin, indepen- 
dent governor of Ghazni. Abu-Is-bru[ handed 
over the reigns of the government to Subukti- 
gin, who, on Is-baq's death, iu a.d. 977, 
A.H. 367, usurped the throne. 




At)u-Is-liaq (sa.s.''* j iJ-s-^\ ^}), the 

son of MuhamiiKitl, an inhabitant of Sma, 
who ^\Tote an excellent commentar}' to Mnta- 
nabbi. lie died in a.d. 1049, a.h. 441. 

Abu-Is-haq Ahmad (j.^^^^^ c^-^~^ J^.^^ 

or Abid-Is-haq Ibrahim bin-Isma'il, author 
of the Qisfts-ul-Anhii/a, which contains an 
account of the creation of the world, and 
a history of all the prophets preccdius' 
Muhammad ; also the histoi'v of Muhammad 
till the battle of Ubud, a.d. 623. He died 
in A.D. 1036, A.H. 427. 

Ahti-Is-haq al-Kaziruni (^.;s~=! »jl 

^^ . jliJ^), a Muhammadan saint who, 

they say, lighted a lamp iu the mosque of 
the college called " Takht Siraj," which con- 
tinued burning for foiu- huuiked years till the 
time of Bin-Qasira. 


Ahu-Is-haq Hallaj (_L; 
AAJt!b\). Vide Is-liaq. 

Abu-Is-haq Isfaraini (^_sr'\ ^\ 
^ijLL<j^), son of Muhammad, author 

of the Ja))ii' -ul-Jila, which refutes the 
doctrines of various sects. He died in a.d. 
1027, A.H. 418. 

Ahu-Is-haq (Shah Shaikh) (^^'^\ jj\ 
',^'^ il^). His father Amir Mu- 
hammad Shah, a descendant of Khwaja 
'Abdullah Ansarl, was governor of Shiraz in 
the reign of Sultan Abii-Sa'id Khan, and was 
murdered during the reign of Arpa Klirm, in 
A.D. 1335, A.H. 736. His son. Amir Mas'ud, 
who succeeded liim, was also slain shortly 
after, when his brother, AbH-Is-haq. toot- 
possession of Shiraz in 1336. He reigned 18 
years ; but when Amir Muhammad Muzaffar 
besieged Shiraz, in a.d. 1353, a.h. 754, 
Abu-Is-haq fled to Isfahan, where he was 
slain four years after, on Friday the 1 2th 
May, A.D. 1357, 21st j'lmada I. a.h. 758. 

Abu-Is-haq Shami, of Syria, a famous 
saint, who died on the 14th Kabi' II. 329, 
and lies buried at 'Akka. 

Abu-Is-haq ShiraziC^tl ^^ flsf^^J\), 

author of the Tahaqnt ul-Fuqnha, a collection 
of the lives of celebrated laAvyers. He died 
A.D. 1083, A.H. 476. 

Abu-Ismail Muhammad (^_.»x^^^ »jl 

s.A^s.'^), author of the history called 
TarVc/i Fiitiih-il-Shnm, the conquest of SvTia 
by the generals of 'Umar in forty-two l)attles, 
during the years 638 and 639 of the Christian 
era, translated and abridged from the Tahaqat 

Abu-Ja'far ( 


i,i\). r}'rf(? Al-Mansur. 

Abu-Ja'far Ahmad bin -Muhammad 
Tahawi (j.,*.^'* ^t s^s.^\ j-Lx.^ ^1 

i_S<\~sr'), an inhabitant of Taha, 

a village in Eg}'pt. He was a follower of 
the Hauafiya sect, and is the author of the 
commentary on the Quran, called Ahkcim-ul- 
Quran, and other woi'ks, called Ikhtilaf-ul- 
'■ulanid, Mti^anl-l-Amr, Ndsikh and Mansukh, 
all in Arabic. He ciied in the year a.d. 933, 
A.H. 321. He also wrote an abridgment of 
the HanafI doctrines, called the Miikhtasir 
tit- Tahiiwl. 

Abu-Ja'far al - Haddad \ 

Abu-Ja'far al-Saffarl 

teachers of 


M j the spiritual 

life ; one was a locksmith, and the other a 
brazier. The latter is called "Al-HafEar," 
i.e., gravedigger, in Jami's Nafhat-ul-Uns. 

Abu-Ja'far al-Tabari {^ Ji:^\.kx.:>- ^A 

jij^ i^i), son of Jarlr, author of the 

Tdrtkh Taharl, a very authentic lustory in 
Arabic, which he wrote in the year a.d. 912. 
This work was translated and continued by 
Abil- Muhammad of Tabriz in Persian. 
Tabarl was the founder of the seventh Sunni 
sect, which did not long survive the death of 
its author. He was born at Amul in 
Tabaristan in a.d. 838, a.h. 224, and died 
at Baghdad in a.d. 922, a.h. 310. He was 
also the author of a commentary to the 
Quran. His son, Midiammad Tabari, was 
also an author, and died about twenty years 

Abu-Ja'far Muhammad bin-'Ali bin- 

Babwaihi al-Kumi (jv^.s'* .kx:>- ^\ 

^^xA\ ^l^y_ ^i ^Xsi ^jj), surnamed 

As-Saduq, one of the earliest of the many 
writers on the Quran amoug the Shi 'as. He 
lived in the foiu'th centmy of the Hijra, 
and was a contemporary of Eukn-ud-daula 
Dailaml. He was one of the greatest of the 
collectors of Shl'a traditions, and the 
most celebrated of all the Iniamiya lawyers 
of Qum in Persia. This writer composed 
a large and a small Tafslr. There is 
considerable uncertainty as to the exact 
time when he lived. Shaikh Tusi says in the. 
Fihrist that AbH-Ja'far died at Eai" in a.h. 
331, A.D. 942, but this appears to be 
erroneous. Shaikh NajashI, who died in 
A.D. 1014, states that Abii-Ja'far visitedj 
Baghdad whilst yet in the prime of life, in' 
A.H. 355, A.D. 965, which might well have^ 
been the case, since Al)ul-Hasan 'All bin-\ 
Babwaihi, the father of Abii Ja'far, did not 




die until a.h. 329, a.d. 940. In addition to 
this, Nur-ullah relates, on the authority of 
the Shaikh ad-Durysati (Duryast, a village 
near Eai, which is now called Durasht), that 
Abii- Ja't'ar lived in the time of Rukn-ud-dauln 
Dailami, and had repeated interviews with 
that prince, who, as is well-known, reigned 
from A.H. 338 to a.h. 336, a.d. 949— 976. 
He is also the author of the Jinn In yahzarhu 
al-Faqih, which is the fourth of the four 
authentic books on Shi'a tradition, called 
" Kutab Arba." He is said to have written 
in all 172 works, and to have been specially 
skilled in Ijtihad (jurisprudence, q.v.). 

Abu-Ja'far Muhammad bin -Hasan 
al-Tusi Shaikh, who was one of the 

chief Muj tabids of the Imaniiya or Shi 'a 
sect, is the author of the woi'k entitled 
Fihristu-Kiituh-ish-Shl''a iva Asma-il-Musdn- 
nifin. It is a bibliographical dictionary of 
Shi'a works, together with the names of the 
authors. The greater part of this author's 
works were publicly biu'ut iu Baghdad in the 
tumult that arose between the Sunnis and 
ShI'as in a.d. 1056, a.h. 44S— 460, Abu- 
J'afar died in a.d. 1067. He is also the 
author of a very extensive commentary on the 
Quran, in twenty volumes, which is generally 
called the Tafslr-ut-Tusi, though it was 
entitled by its author the Mnjma^.ul-Ba)jfin 
li-^ulum-U- Quran. Among the Four Books 
on Shi'a Hadis, called Kutab Arba', the tM'o 
first in order were composed by him entitled 
Tuhzlb-ul-Ahkam, and Istibsar. His chief 
works are the Mabsut and KJiildf, wliich are 
held in great estimation, as are also the 
Nihdya and the Mnhlt by the same author. 
The Risala-i-J a'^fariya is likewise a legal 
treatise by at-Tusi, which is frequently 

Abu-Jahl (J_^,.:>- ^j\), the uncle of 

'TJmar ibn-ul-Khattab (" Father of ignor- 
ance." Jahl means theological ignorance, or 
unbelief). He was one of the most inveterate 
enemies of Muhammad and his religion. 
Though his son 'Ikrima became a convert to 
the tenets of jMuhammad, yet the father was 
for ever shut out from paradise ; and so 
violent is the resentment of the Musalmans 
against this first enemy of their prophet, that 
they call the colocynth, iu contempt, the 
melon of Abii-Jahl. Abu-Jahl was slain in 
the battle of Baclr, which he fought against 
Muhammad, together with Al- As, his brother, 
in the 70th year of his age, in the month of 
March, a.d. 624, Ramazan a.h. 2. 

Abu-Lahab (i_^.^^J y:\), the uncle of 

Muhammad, also called 'Abdul- 'Uzza, was 
the son of 'Abdul-Muttalib and one of the 
bitterest enemies of Muhammad and his 
doctrines. He died of grief within a week 
after the defeat of Abii-Sufyan in tlic battle 
of Badr, which took ])lace about the begin- 
ning of the year a.d. 624, a.h. 2. He was 

a man of wealth, of proud spirit, and irritable 
temper. His son 'Utba was engaged, or 
according to some, married to, Muhammad's 
third daughter Ruqajya, but when Muham- 
mad appeared as a prophet, the contract was 
dissolved, and RuqajTa married her lover 
'Usman. Abu-Lahab was also allied to 
the rival line of Quraish, having maiTied 
Umm-Jamil, sister of Abu-Sul'yan. 

Abu-Lais Nasir Samarkandi, author 

of the work on jurisprudence in Arabic called 
Fiqh Abu-Luis,and the <lhtmyat-ul- Mubtadl. 

Abul - 'Abbas, surnamed Al - Saffah, 

which see. 

Abul-'Abbas Ahmad bin-Muhammad, 

commonly called Ibn-'Uqda, was one of the 
greatest masters of the science of traditions, 
and was renowned for Ms diligence in collect- 
ing them, and the long and frequent journeys 
which he undertook for the purpose of obtain- 
ing information on the subject. Al-Darqutni, 
the Sunui tratlitionist, is reported to have 
said that Ibn-'Uqda knew 300,000 traditions 
of the Ahl-i-Bait and the Bauu-Hashim. He 
died in a.d. 944, a.h. 333. 

Abul - 'Abbas bin - Muhammad (,.j^ 

jv-^-s'" ^ jjjuL-wxJl), author of the 

Arabic work Ma'rifat-us-Sahaba, and other 
books. He died in a.d. 1041, a.h. 432. 

Abul-'Abbas Fazl, bin-Ahmad, of Is- 

faraiu, was minister to Mahmiid of Gliazni. 

Abul-'Aina (l.:^-,jtJ\ .jl), a Musalmun 

lawyer, celebrated for his wit. When Musa, 
son of the khalifa 'Abdul Malik, put to death 
oue of Abul- 'Ainu's friends, and afterwards 
spread a report that he had escaped, Abul- 
'Aina said in the words of the Lawgiver of 
the Hebrews, "Moses smote him and he 
died." The sentence was reported to the 
prince, and Abul-'Aina was summoned to 
appear. Instead of dreading the threats of 
the tp-ant, he bokUy replied iu the words of 
the following verse in Exodus, " "NVilt thou 
kill me to-day as thou killedst the other man 
yesterday ? " The ingenuity of the expression 
disarmed the anger of Musa, who loaded him 
with presents. 

Abul-' Ala OLr^\ ^\), entitled Malik- 

ush-Shu'ara, or royal poet, of Ganja, 
flourished in the time of Manuchihr, ruler 
of Shirwan. The poets Falaki and Kliaqaui 
were his pupils, and to the latter he gave his 
daughter iu marriage. 

Abul-'Ala Ahmad bi^' Abdullah al- 
Ma'arri (aIJU-j: ^-.' Sa.^\ L^J^ ^j\ 
^jx^\), a celebrated Arabian philo- 
sopluT, free-thinker and poet, born at 




Ma'arra in Spia on Friday the 26th 
December, a.d. 973, 1st Rabi' I. a.h. 
363. Though he lost his sight in the third 
year of his age by the sraall-pox, his poetry 
is animated and his descriptions are beautiful 
and striking. He died on Friday the 9th of 
May, A.D. 'l057, 1st Rabi' I. a.h. 449. He 
was the panegp'ist of Al-qfiyim Billah, the 
khalifa of Ba gh dad, and has left a Diwan in 

[Vide Zeitschrift, D.M.G. xxix. p. 304.] 

Abul-'Ala Mir {^M^SW^S ^\j^.^), 

(Mir), son of Mir Abul-AVafa Hasani, of 
Agra, was born in the year a.d. 1582, 
A.H. 990. His grandfather Mir 'Abd-us- 
Saliim came to India from Samarqaud, and 
went on a pilgrimage to Mecca, and cUed 
after some years. His father Mir Abul- 
Wafa died at Fathpiii- Sikri, from which 
place his remains were conveyed to Dehli 
and buried close to the college situated near 
the Lai Darwaza. When Raja Miin Singh 
was appointed governor of Bengal, Mir Abul- 
'Ala accompanied him, aud was honored with 
the rank of 3000, but he soon left him and 
jH'oceeded to Ajmir, and thence to Agra, 
where he passed the remainder of his life, 
and is said to have performed many miracles. 
He died on Friday the 21st January, a.d. 
1651, 9th Safar, a.h. 1061, aged 71 lunar 
years, and lies biu'ied at Agra, at a place 
near the karbalil, where every year on the 
anniversary of his death a great number of 
people assemble together and worship his 

He was a Naqshbandi and a descendant of 
Kliwaja Ahrar. 

Abul-Barakat 'Abdullah bin-Ahmad 
{s^^\ ^jj ^dlLyc c:-?!^!^ ^A), vide 


Abul-Barakat Nishapuri (t^X J^ jA 

^j^j\AkJ), author of tlie work called 


Abul-Barakat, Shaikh, brother of 
Abxil-Fazl, born a.d. 1552. 

\^Vi(le Blockmauu's A'ln Tramlation, p. 

Abul rarah, of "Wasit, the ancestor of 

the Sayyid families of Barha, Bilgram, 
Kliairabad, Fatbpur, Hanswa, aud Other 

[Vide Axn Translation, i. p. 390.] 

Abul-Faraj {^JiW yi\), who in some 

of our Biographical Dictionaries is called 
Abulfaragius (George), was the son of Aaron, 
a Chi-istian physician, born at Malatia in 
Armenia, near the source of the; Euphrates 
in A.D. 1226. He followed his fatiier's 
profession, but afterwards studied the 

Eastern languages and divinity, and was 
ordained bishop of Guba in his 20th year, 
from whence he was translated to Lacabena 
aud Aleppo. He ^vrote a work on history, 
called Mi<khtasir-ud- Daical, divided into 
djTiasties, which is an epitome of universal 
history from the creation to his own time. 
The most excellent part of the work is that 
which relates to the Saracens, Mughuls, and 
the conquests of Cliingiz Khan. Dr. Bococke, 
Professor of Hebrew aud Arabic at Oxford, 
published this work in 1663, in the original 
Arabic, with a Latin version to it. Abul- 
Faraj died in a.d. 1286, a.h. 685. 

Abul-Faraj 'All (^^ \^ _^!1 ^\ 

^--UA»-), the son of Husain bin- 
Muhammad Quraishi IsfahanT, was born in 
the year a.d. 897, a.h. 284, and was 
brought up at Baghdad. He is the author 
of a famous work called Eitdb-ul-Aghanl, or 
Book of Songs, an important biographical 
dictionary, notwithstanding its title, treating 
of grammar, history, and science, as well as 
of poetry. The basis is a collection of one 
himdred Arabian songs, which he presented 
to Saif-ud-daula, prince of the race of Ham- 
dan, who ordered him a thousand dinars. 
The minister of that prince, thinking this 
sum too small for the merit of the work, on 
which the author had laboured fifty years, 
doubled it. The author of this celebrated 
work died in a.d. 967, a.h. 356, having lost 
his reason previous to his death. 


Abul-Faraj al-Khalidi \ 

Abul-Faraj al-Baghawi I P°^^^' ^^^^ 
{^c^kJA ^j^\ ^\),)^^^'^'^ ^^ ^^^^ 

court of the Sultan Saif-ud-daula of the 
house of Hanidau, who was a protector of 
men of letters, on whom he bestowed large 

Abul-Faraj ibn-Jauzi {^j\ ^ j^\ ^\ 

t_>J»^), surnained Shams-uddin, was 

the most learned man, the ablest traditionist, 
and the tirst preacher of his time. He com- 
piled works on a variety of subjects, aud was 
the tutor of the celebrated Shaikh Sa'di of 
Slnriiz. He died on the 16th June, a.d. 
1201, 12th Ramazau, a.h. 597, and is buried 
at Baghdad. His father's name was 'AlT, 
and that of his grandfather Jauzi. One of his 
works is called Talbls Ihlls, The Temptation 
ef Satan. 

Abul-Faraj Runi {^^*j ^jS^\ y}), of 

Riin, said to be near Lahore. He is the 
author of a Dlwau, and was the panegjTist 
of Siillau Ibi-alilm (the grandson of Sultan 
Mahmiid of G[iazul) who reigned from a.d. 




1059 to 1088, A.H. 451 to 481. Amvan 
imitated his style. 

[ Fide Sprenger, Oiidh 3ISS., p. 308. He 
is often wrougfy called Abul-Farah Euwaini ; 
vide Dowson iv. p. 205.] 

Abul-Faraj Sanj ari ( i_SjS:Li -.y^ ^ ^ 0, 

a Persian poet who lived in the time of the 
great irruption of the Tartars under Chiugiz 

[^Vide, however, Sprenger, Oiidh MSS. p. 
308, from which it appears that Sanjari is a 
mistake for Sijizi, i.e. of Sijistan.] 

Abnl-Fatli, author of a Persian work 

called Chahar Ba<ih or The Four Gardens, con- 
taining forms of letters on different subjects. 

Abul-Fath, Muhammad bin-Abu-Bakr 
al-MargliTnani al-Saraarqandi, author of the 
Fusfd-ul-'-Imndiua, which comprises forty 
sections containing decisions respecting mer- 
cantile matters, and being left incomplete at 
the author's death, which took place in a.d. 
1253, A.H. 651, was finished by Jamal-uddm 

Abul-Fath Bilgrami Qazi {^sii\ J\), 

commonly called Shaikh Kamiil. It is men- 
tioned in the work called Hharaif-i-' Usmdnl, 
that he was born in the year a.d. 1511, a.h. 
917, and that in the reign of the emperor 
Akbar he held the situation of Qazi of 
Bilgram, and died in the year a.d. 1592, 
A.H. 1001. MuUa Firuz 'Usmani found the 
chronogram of the year of his death in the 
letters of his name, viz. : ShaiWi Kamal. 

Abul-Fath Busti Shaikh {^Jil\ J\ 

•:.^), a learned Musalman of Bust, 

who lived in the time of Sultan Mahmiid 
of Ghazui, wrote excellent poetry on divinity, 
and died in July, a.d. 1039, Shawwal, a.h. 
430. lie is the author of a Dlwau in Arabic. 

Abul-Fath Gilani ( ^l^ ^.slW ^}), 

sumamed Masih-uddin, the son of 'Abdur- 
Eazzaq, a nobleman of Gilan, was a physician 
in the service of the emperor Akbar. In the 
year a.d. 1689 he proceeded to Kashmir with 
that monarch, and during the emperor's 
progress from Kashmir to Kabul, he died 
at a place called Dhantiir, on the 20th June 
of the same year, 16th Sha'ban, a.h. 997, 
and was buried at Baba Hasan Abdal. He 
had come to India with liis two brothers 
Hakim Humam and Hakim Nur-uddin 
Qarari about the year a.d. 1567, a.h. 974. 

[For further notes, vide Aln Translation, 
i. p. 424.] 

Abul-Fath Lodi, chief of :^rultan. 
Sultiin Mahmud of Gliazui took Midtan in 
A.D. 1010, and carried away Abul-Fath as 
prisoner to Ghazui. 

Abul-Fath Muhammad al-Shahris- 

tani ( jI:x«^^^11 j^s-* Ji.sJ,\ ^\), 

author of the Arabic work called Kitrib ul- 
Milal tvati-Nihal, or the Book of Religious 
and Philosophical Sects. This book, which 
gives a full account of the various Suuni 
sects, was translated into Latin and published 
by Dr. Haarbriicker, in a.d. 1850, and into 
English by the Rev. Dr. Cureton. Shah- 
ristani died in a.d. 1153, a.h. 548. 

Abul-Fath Nasir bin-Abul-Makarim 
Mutarrizi U^\ ^^i..^\Ji -6aJJ\ »_j^ 

^\.\s^ ^ ,ix*,n), author of the Arabic 

Dictionary called Mughrib. He died in a.d. 
1213, a.h. 610 in Kliwarazm. He was a 
Mu'tazilite and invited people to that faith. 
He is also the author of the Shark Maqain'it 
Sarlri, and of another work called Kitab 
Azhari. The inhabitants of Khwiirazm used 
to call him the master of Zamaqhshari, and 
on his death the poets wrote more than seven 
hundred elegies in his praise. 

Abul - Fath Nasir bin - Muhammad 
Lrfilj -sA'-aJ! »jU, author of the Jami- 


Abul-Fath Rukn-uddin bin-Husam 

Nagori i^^^^^^^j ^s^\ ^}), author 

of a work on jiuisprudence, entitled the 
Fatawa Hammndiya, which he composed and 
dedicated to his tutor, Hammad-uddiu Ah- 
mad, chief-qazi of Naharwala (I'atan) in 
Gujrat. This work was lithographed in the 
original Arabic at Calcutta in a.d. 1825. 

Abul-Fath 'Usman (^jUi.c Jvii^ y\), 

surnamed Malik ul-'Aziz 'Imad-iiddln, 
second king of Egypt of the Ay>Tibite 
djTiasty. He acted as viceroy of Egypt 
during the absence of his father, Sultan 
Salah-uddin Yusuf ibn-Ayyub, in Sp-ia. 
On the demise of his father at Damascus 
in A.D. 1193, he took possession of the 
supreme power with the unanimous consent 
of the great niilitary officers of the empire. 
He was born at Cairo on the 7th of January, 
A.D. 1172, 8th Jiunada I., a.h. 567, reigned 
about five years, and died at Cairo on the 
23rd November, a.d. 1198, 21st MuhaiTam, 
a.h. 595. 

Abul-Fazl 'Abdul-Malik bin-Ibrahim 
al - Hamadani al - Mukaddasi (^ \ 

^\^\ S^ J^.iJO, author of the 
Fardi:-nl-Mii(j<(dda.'<l, a treatise on the law of 
inheritance according to the Shfifi'i doctrine. 
He died a.d. 1095, a.h. 489. 




Al)ul-FazlBaihaki( ^^ ^j.^L\\ ^\), 

author of several works ou history. Vide 

Abul-Fazl Ja'far (jS.x.:>- ^^.L\\ ^:\), 

son of the khalifa Al-^Muktafl, was a great 
astronomer. Vide Al-Mutawakkil. 

Abul-Fazl Muhammad (J^iJl ^A 

i.Sa.^-^), author of the Arabic Dic- 
tionary called Siirdh-iil-lKglalt. 

Abul-Fazl (Shaikh) {^-^-^ J^Jui\y_\), 

Akbar's favorite Secretary and Wazir. His 
poetical name was 'Allami. He was the 
second son of Shaikh Mubarak of Nagor, 
and brother of Shaikh Faizi. He was born 
in the year a.d. Io'jI, a.h. 958, and was 
introduced to the emperor in the 19th year 
of bis reign. His writings prove him to 
have been the most learned and elegant 
writer then in the East. He is celebrated 
as the author of the Akbamnma and the 
Ain-Akbarl, and for his letters, called 
Makifibat-i-' Allami, which are considered 
in India models of public correspondence. 
The history of the Mughul emperors be 
carried on to the 47th year of Akbar's reign, 
in which year he was murdered. He was 
deputed with prince Sultan Murad in a.d. 
1597, A.H. 1006, as Commander-in-Chief 
of the army of the Deccan, and ou his being 
recalled five years after, he was advancing 
towards Narwar with a small escort, when 
he fell into an ambuscade laid for bim by 
Birsingb Deo Bundela, raja of Urcha in 
Bundelkhand, at the instigation of Prince 
Salim (afterwards Jahangir) on suspicion 
of being the occasion of a misimderstanding 
between him and the emperor bis father ; 
and although Abul-Fazl defended himself 
with great gallantry, he was cut off with 
most of his attendants, and his head was 
sent to the prince, who was then at Allaha- 
bad. This event took place on Friday the 
13th of August, A.D. 1602, 4tb RabT' I, a.h. 
1011. Akbar Avas deeply afflicted by the 
intelligence of this event ; he shed abundance 
of tears, and passed two days and two nights 
without food or sleep. Alnd-Fazl is also 
the author of the 'A?/i''r-I)n)iish, which is a 
translation of Pilpay's Fables in Persian. 

[For a detailed biography, vide AJu Trans- 
lation, i. pp. 1 to 36.] 

Abul - Fazl Tahir bin - Muhammad 
Zahir-uddin Faryabi (J^^aJJl y}\ 

Jk,*«.s^), a Persian poet. Vide Zahlr. 

Abul-Fida Ismail Hamawi {\ssl.^\ »j1 

j_fy».r>- ^Lx..*--*'), whose full name is 
Malik Muayyad Isma'il Abul-Fida, son of 

Malik -ul-Afzal, a learned and celebrated 
prince, who succeeded his brother Ahmad as 
king of Haniat, in Syria, in the year a.d. 
1342, A.H. 743. When a private man, he 
publislied in Arabic an account of the regions 
bevond the Oxus called Taqwlm-ul- Bulddn, 
which was first edited by Gravius, with a 
Latin translation, London, 1650, and by 
Hudson, Oxford, 1712. Abul-Fida died in 
1345, aged 72, at Hamat. The principal of 
Aliul-Fida's other works is bis abridgment of 
I'niversal History down to his time, called 
Tdrikh Miikhiamr. He is very exact, and his 
style is elegant, on which account his works 
are very much esteemed. 

Abul-Faiz (^^J^ »jl). Vide Faizi. 

Abul-Faiz Muhammad bin-Husain 
bin-Ahmad, surnamed Al-Katib, or 
the A^^riter, is better known by the name of 
bin-Ahmad. He was a Avazir of Sultau 
Ilukn-ud-daula, of the Boyides. He was a 
great orator and a poet, and brought Arabian 
caligraphy to perfection. He died in a.d. 
961, a.h. 360. 

Abul-Futuh Razi Makki (^yiiJ^ ^\ 

15-^-'* (-?j\()j author of the Arabic 

work called Risftla, or Kitdb Hasaniya, 
which has a great reputation amongst the 
Shi'as, particularly in Persia. It consists of 
an imaginary disputation between a Shi'a 
slave-girl and a learned Simni lawyer, on 
the merits of their respective doctrines, in 
which, as a matter of coiHse, the girl utterly 
discomfits her opponent. The argument is 
very ingenuously managed, and the treatise, 
taken altogether, furnishes a good and concise 
exposition of the tenets of the Shi'as, and the 
texts on which their belief is founded. This 
work was translated from Arabic into Persian 
by Ibrahim Astarabadi, in a.d. 1551. 

Abul-Ghazi Bahadur (.jl^j ^■\i^\ ^\), 

I\han of the Tartars, was descended from 
the great Chingiz Khan. He came to the 
sovereignty of Kjawarazm on the death of his 
brother ; and after 20 years, during which 
be was respected at home and abroad, he 
resigned the sovereignty to his son, Aniisha 
iVIuiiammad, and retired to devote himself to 
literature. He wrote a valuable genealogical 
history of the Tartars, the only Tartar history 
known in Europe, but did not live to finish 
it. He died a.d. 1663, a.h. 1074, and on 
his death -bed charged his son and successor 
to complete his history, which he performed 
in two years after his father's death. This 
valuable work was translated in to German by 
(Jount Strahlenberg, and a French translation 
app(>arcd at Leyden in 1726. 

Abul-Ghazi Bahadur. 

Husain Mirzfi. 

Vide Sultan 




Abul-Haras (^ J aj ,yjL^\ <^j^\ ^A 

^Jiii ^ ^-tj^), or Haras, commonly 

called Zul-Rama, son of 'Uqba. He was an 
Arabian poet, and was contemporary with 
Farazdaq. He died in a.d. 735, a.h. 117. 

Abul - Husain Ahmad bin - 'Ali al- 
Najaslii, author of a biographical 

work entitled Kitdb-tir-Bijal, comprising the 
lives of eminent Shi'as. Najashi died in 
A.H. 405 (a.d. 1014). 

Abul - Husain 'Ali bin - 'Umar al - 
Darqutni (^£ ^ ^Lc ^_^-.a«.s:!^ y\ 

^:»Lj.1j), a Sunn! traditionist, whose 

collection of traditions, like those of Abii- 
Bakr Ahmad-bin-al-Husain al-Baihaqi, are 
of the liighest authority. He died in a.d. 
995, A.H. 385. 

Abul-Husain bin-Abu-Ya'la al-Farra 
(Kazi) (^^.Ltj ^_\ ^ ^^-^-s)^ y_\), 

author of the Tabaqat-ul-Hanbaliya, which 
comprises the Hves of the most famous lawyers 
of the sect of Ibn-Hanbal ; it was commenced 
by our aiithor, continued by Shaikh Zaiu- 
uddiu 'Abdur- Rahman bin- Ahmad, commonly 
called Ibn-Rajab, and concluded by Yusuf 
bin-Hasan al-Muqaddasi ; these three writers 
died respectively in a.d. 1131, 1392, and 
1466, A.H. 526, 795, and 871. 

Abul-Husain Kharqani ( ..*^sM »-j1 
^\:j6-), author of the Sharh-i- 

Makhzan-ttl-Asrar, and Mir-at-ul-Muhaqqi- 
qln, containing an explanation of the cere- 
monies used on the induction of a Siifi, and 
the rules of the order. He died a.d. 986, 
A.H. 376. 

Abul - Husain Zarrin. Vide Abu - 

Husain Zarrin. 

Abul-Hasan (|^^_u..^n yS\), author of 

the Siyar Nur Maulud, a heroic poem on the 
wars of the prophet Muhammad. 

Abul-Hasan (^^^^^1 >J^)> a poet who 

wrote a commentary on the Diwan of Auwari, 
called Sharh-i-Dltvdn-i-A)iwari. 

Abul-Hasan (Shah) (^l^ ^j^J\ ^A), 

son of the famous Shfih Tahir, of Alimad- 
nagar, in the Detcan, and minister of 'All 
'Adil Shah I., about the year a.d. 1572, 
A.H. 980. 

Abul-Hasan, the son of I timad-ud- 

daula, prime minister of the emperor Jahanglr, 
had three daughters, viz. Arjmand Banu, 
also called Mumtaz-Maball, married to the 
emperor Shah Jahan ; Sultan Zamania, the 
second daughter, was married to Sultan 
Parwiz ; and the third, Badr-uzzamania, to 
Shiih 'Abdul -Lat if, the spiritual guide of the 
emperor 'Alamgir. Vide Asaf Khan. 

Abul-Hasan 'Abdullah (Imam) (...j\ 

«_.:»JLi« 1^ <lU'a.«»_c i^^oas'i), son of 

Muqanna'. He translated Pilpay's Fables 
from the Pahlawi language into "Arabic by 
order of Abii-Ja'far Mansiir, the second 
khalifa of the house of 'Abbas, who reigned 
at Baghdad from a.d. 754 to 775. The book 
is called Kallla Damna. 

Abul-Hasan 'Ali ( I ^ 

-^^ ^:'0, 

author of the works called Sunaii and 'Hal. 
He died a.d. 990, a.h. 380. 

Abul-Hasan 'Ali bin-al-Husain al- 
Kumi (^JL]\ ^^;--w.^ ^i ^J^J\ yj\ 

i^^\S), commonly called Babwaihi, 

who is said to have died in a.d. 940, a.h. 
329, was the author of several works of note, 
one of which is called Kitab-ush-8harVa. 
This writer is looked upon as a considerable 
authority, although his fame has been almost 
eclipsed by his more celebrated son, Abii- 
Ja'tar Muhammad Ibn-Babwaihi (p. 14). 
When these two WTiters are quoted together, 
they are called the two Sadiiqs. He is also 
the author of the Kitdb - ul - Mawdris, a 
treatise on the law of inheritance. 

Abul-Hasan 'Ali (^ ^U ^j^\ ^\ 
l>^xmj^ (^Lb-l-j), the son of Sultan 

Mas'ud I., ascended the throne at Ghazni, 
on Friday 29th December, a.d. 1049, 1st 
Sha'ban, a.h. 441, reigned little more than 
two years, and was deposed by his brother, 
'Abdui--Rashid, in a.d. 1052, a.h. 443. 

Abul-Hasan Ash'ari ( , ■., _■?'! ^\ 

jj-jc^-ji ,J^ u5r*--'0, son of Isma'll. 

He was a Mu'tazilite, but afterwards became 
a Sunnl. He is the author of nearly 400 
works. He died in the year a.d. 936, a.h. 

Abul-Hasan Jurjani (^^_v*,._s:M ^\ 

j\j>- -:>-), a celebrated lawyer, a 
native of Jurjan or Georgia. J'idc Jurjaul. 




Abul-Hasan Qhan (Mirza) (.^^'\^\ 
\\j-^ ^l.^), rer.siau ambassador to 

the British Court iu 1809 and 1819. He is 

the author of a work calU'd Hairat-namn, or 
book of wouders, which title was oivi'U to it 
by Fath 'All Slifili, king- of I'ersia. It 
contains a long account of the Klian's travels 
in India, Turkey, Russia, England, etc. 

Abul-Hasan Qutb-Shah (^vu-..s.-l yA 

i(L-i) ( 4::J), whose literary name 

was Tana Shah, was the son-in-law of 'Ab- 
dullah Qntb-Shah, after whose demise, about 
the year a.d. 1672, a.h. 1083, he succeeded 
to the throne of Golkonda in Haidarabad, 
Deccan. This place was conquered by 
'Alamglr, after a siege of seven months, on 
the 22nd September, a.d. 1687, 24th Zil- 
qa'da, a.h. 1098, and Abul-Hasan was taken 
prisoner and confined for life iu the citadel 
of Daidatabad. Golkonda was then reduced 
to a province of the empire of Hindustan. 
Abul-Hasan died in confinement about the 
year a.d. 1704. He was the last Sidtan of 
the Qutb-shahi d^-nasty, and a famous poet 
in the Bakini, or "dialect of the Deccan. 

Abul-Hasan Razin bin-Mu'awiya al- 

'Abdari (<OjU^ ^_ c.'-'^J ij-^*^'^ ^^^ 

(C,Jc»i«Il), author of a collection of 

traditions Ijearing the same title as the one 
written by Baghawi, namely /«;»«' haina-l- 
Saffihain. It comprises the works of Al- 
Buivhari and Muslim, the Muwatta of Malik 
ibn-Aus, the Jami' -ut-Tirmizi, and the 
Sunans of Abii-Dfiud, and Al-Nasai. He 
died in a.d. 1126, a.h. 520. 

Abul-Hasan Turbati (^^ 

z^ijj), entitled Rukn-us-Saltanat, 

an Amir who held the rank of 5,000 in the 
reign of the emperor Jahiingir, and died in 
the sixth year of Shah Jahau, a.d. 1632, 
A.H. 1042, aged 70 years. 

Abul-Qasim al-Sahrawi (^^LiLll ^\ 

^.L.s'^'O, called in Lempriere's 

English Biographical Dictionary "Alsaha- 
ravius," an Arabian physician who lived 
about the year a.d. 1085, a.h. 478, and is 
the author of the Al-TasrJf, a treatise in 
thirty-two books on medical practice. 

Abul-Qasim Namakin (^^UiJl ^.A 

^-iUj), a Sayyid of Hirat, served 

with distinction under Akbar and Jahiingir, 
and became a rich landowner in Bhakar, in 
Sindh. He biult the great mosque in Saldiar. 
His descendants served under Shahjahan, 
'Alamglr, and Farruk-siyar. 

[Vide Ain Translation, i. p. 470.] 

-^\ ^} 

Abul-Qasim Nishapuri (*^l.iLSl ^\ 

^.^jIA-J), author of a Persian work 

on P^thics, called Ganj-i-Ganj, and of another 
work, entitled Huhjat-ul-Muttaqin. 

Abul-Qasim 'Abdullah (^.^jUUI >^\ 

&!u\s^z), son of Muhammad Baghawi, 

author of the book called Mu^Jam, and several 
other works. He died in the year a.d. 929, 
A.H. 317. 

Abul - Qasim Isma'il bin - 'Abbad 

(J.-je^-:l >— jLiiJ^ _j-J^)> wazir of the 

Boyide prince Faklir-ud-daida. One of the 
most splendid libraries ever collected by a 
private individual in the East was that of 
this nobleman. Ibu-AsTr relates that four 
lumdred camels were required to remove the 

Abul-Qasim Mirza, son of Kamran 
Mirza, brother of the emperor Humajiln. In 
the year a.d. 1557, a.h. 964, he w^as confined 
in the fort of Gwaliar by the emperor Abkar, 
who, when going to punish Khau Zaman, 
ordered him to be mm-dered. 

Abul-Qasim KaM ( Jbl^ ^^-jliUl ^\), 

of Isfahan, though it is usually said that he 
was of Kabid. He died at Agra. Vide 

Abul-Qasim of Hilla(^_^^ ^^UI^^jO, 

commonly called Shaikh Muayyad, author of 
the S/t(nyli^-Hl-Is/ch)i, a treatise on lawful 
and forbidden things. This book is of great 
authority amongst the Muhammadans pro- 
fessing Shi'a doctrines. He is also called 
Shaikh Najm-uddin Abul-Qasim Ja'far biu- 
Muayyad. ' He died a.d. 1277, a.h. 676. 

Abul-Qasim 'Ubaidullah bin -'Ab- 
dullah bin-Khurdadbih, died ah. 
300, A.D. 912. He is best known as Ibn- 
Kliurdadbih. He wrote the Kitdb-ul-Masdlik 
ivnl - Mamdlik, the Book of Moads and 

\_Vide Khm-dadbih, and Dowson, i. p. 12.] 

Abul-Khair Maulana of Khwarazm 

i}Siy* ^^\j\^:>-j^'\ »Ji), a physician 

and poet, whose poetical name was 'Ashiq. 
From his native country he went to Hirat 
in the latter part of the reign of Sultan 
Ilusain Mirza, and was there till Muhammad 
Sliaibani, commonly called Shahi Beg Klifin 
Fzhak, conquered that province, and took 
him to Mawaran-nahr, or Transoxiana, where 
he (lied iu a.d. 1550, a.h. 957. The chnmo- 
gr;im of the year of his death is " Faut-i- 
'Ashiq," the death of 'Ashiq. 




Abul-Ma'ali, whose proper name is 

Muhammad Sacli--uddTn, is claimed by the 
Turks as the first of their poets, though liis 
labours were not confined to their language 
alone, for he wrote in Arabic also, and was 
in Persian the rival and opponent of Xasir- 
uddin. He was contemporary with Jalal- 
uddin Riimi and his son Walad, aud died 
about the year a.d. 1270. He is not, how- 
ever, according to Baron von Hammer, 
to be strictly considered a Turkish poet by 
his countrjTuen ; but the mystic tone which 
he adopted from Persian literature, and 
which he was imdoubtedly the first to impress 
upon the national mind, gives him an un- 
questionable right to the place assigned him. 
The names of his works, such as the Seal 
of Perfection, and the Kei/ of Jli/stcries, 
indicate the peculiarity of his taste and 
genius ; but amidst all the confusion of 
style and thought some passages of great 
beauty and even simplicity are found in his 
works. He is lost, however, in the fame 
of his successor 'Ashik. 

Abul-Ma'ali {s^\ J.^z^ Jl-^Wy}), 

the son of 'Abdul-ilajTd, the most eloquent 
of the Persians, who floiuished in the time 
of Sultan Bahram Shah Ghaznawi, by whose 
order, in the year a.d. 1118, a.h. 512, he 
wrote in prose his Eallla Bamna (or Pilpaifs 
Fables) from a copy which Eiidaki, the 
celebrated poet, had formerly used for poetry. 
This version continued in vogue till the time 
of Sultan Husain Mirza, fom-th in descent 
from 'Umar Shaikh, the second son of Amir 
Timm-, when his prime minister Amir 
Shaikh Ahmad Suhaili got Husain Wa'iz 
to modernize it, in a.d. 1505, a.h. 910, 
under the name of Anwar Suhaiil, or the 
Rays of Canopus. Abul-Fazl, the able 
prime minister of Akbar, compressed this 
work, and gave it the name of ^ Ay ur- Danish, 
or the Touch-stone of Knowledge. He is 
called by Daulat Shah, Hamid-uddin Xasr- 
uUah. Vide Nasr-ullah, the son of 'Abdul 

Abul-Ma'ali (Shah) (ill ^\x.^\ ^\), 

a chief in the service of the emperor Akbar, 
who ha^'ing revolted was compelled to seek 
safety in Kabul, where Mirza Muhammad 
Hakim, the brother of Akbar, gave him 
his sister, named Mihr-un-Xisa Begam, 
in marriage, and raised him to the first 
office in that kingdom. The ungrateful 
refugee, however, had not been many months 
in office, before he aspired to the kingdom 
of Kabul, and in March a.d. 1564, Sha'ban, 
a.h. 971, basely assa-ssinated Mirza iluham- 
mad Hakim's mother, his own mother-in- 
law, who was a woman of uncommon abilities, 
aud might with truth be said to have ruled 
that kingdom. He then pretended to act as 
regent to the young prince, who was still in 
his minority, with a view to get rid of him 
as soon as he could conciliate the ITmariis. 
In the meantime Mirza SuLumiin, prince of 

Badaklishan. attacked him, and slew him in 
a battle on the 13th ilay, a.d. 1564, 1st 
Shawwal, a.h. 971, and took possession of 
that country, which he held for two years. 
Abul-Ma'ali was an elegant poet, and his 
poetical name was Shahbadi. 

Abul-Ma'ali (Shaikh) (^^L-t-^l ^^\ 

'-^^ -jjl'TaiS\), of Allahabad, author 

of the work called Tulifat-ul-Qadinya, or 
the life of Shaikh 'Abdul- Qadir Gilani. He 
resided in Lahore, aud died there on the 6th 
April, A.D. 1615, 16th Rabi' I., a.h. 1024. 

Abul-Mafakhir Razi (.^Li.^1 jJ\ 
oj^,), a poet who flourished in the 
reign of Sultan Muhammad Saljiiqi. 

Abul-Mahasin (^^Isr*^^ ^\), author 
of the work called Jfanhal-i-Sdfl. 

Abul-Makarim bin-'AbduUah. There 
are three comments on the Niqaya of 'Ubai- 
dulla bin-Mas'iid, which are much esteemed ; 
they were written respectively by Abul- 
Makarim in A.D. 1501, a.h. 907 ; Abii-'Ali 
bin -Muhammad al-Birjindi in a.d. 1528, 
a.h. 935 ; and Shams-uddin Muhammad al- 
Kliurasani in a.d. 1534, a.h. 941. 

Abul-Ma'shar (^i^jt^l ^\), who is 

called by some older authors Albumassar and 
Albumazar, was a learned Ai'abian astronomer, 
who fiom-ished in the ninth century in the 
reign of the khalifa Al-Mamiin of Baghdad, 
and wrote a treatise on the revolutions of the 
years. His fuU name is Ja'far bin-Muham- 
inad bin- 'Umar Abul-Ma'shar. He is 
called the prince of the Arabian astrologers. 
He was born in Balkh. In his famous work, 
called Uluf or Kitab-id-Uiilf, which he 
wrote from a Sanski'it work on astronomy, 
he asserts that, when the world was created, 
the seven planets were together in the first 
point of the sign of Aries, and that it will 
end when the same planets shall meet again 
in the last point of Pisces in their exalta- 
tion or Dragon's head. He died in a.d. 885, 
a.h. 272. His works were printed in Latin 
at Venice in 1586, Svo. 

Abul-Najib al-Bukhari (i 

^ , l.saJ \ ) , poetically called 

'Am'aq, was a Persian poet who flourished 
in the fifth century of the Hijra at the court 
of the Sultan Qadr Khan, king or khaqan 
of Turkistan, who made him j^esident of the 
academv of poets which he had established. 
His poem of the loves of Yiisuf and Zalikha, 
which can be read in two different metres, 
is much admired. He was particularly 
famous for his elegies. He lived nearly 
100 years. Daulat Shah says, he lived iu 
the time of Sultan Saujar, who requested 




him to write an olesry on the death of his 
daugliter Malik Klifitun, whith he did, al- 
though he was then blind on account of old 
age. He appears to have died some years 
before or after a.d. 1145, A.n. 540. 

Abul - Sa'adat Mubarak Ibn - Asir 

al-Jazari, author of an Arabic Dictionary 
called Al-Xihaya fl gharlb-il-Hadis. He 
died in a.d. 1209, a.h. 606. Vide Ibn-Asir. 

Abul-Wafa (Khwaja), one of the 

great saints of Kliwarazm, and author of 
several works on Suiism. He died a.d. 1432, 
A.H. 835. 

Abu-Maaz Muslim (^Iau..* JU,* ^\), 

an Arabian grammarian, who died in a.d. 
803, A.H. 187. 

Abu-Mansur, surnamed al-Haldm bi- 

amr-illah, succeeded his father Al-'Aziz to 
the throne of Egypt in a.d. 990, a.h. 381, 
when only 11 years of age. In the latter 
part of his reign he fancied himself a god, 
and found no fewer than 16,000 persons who 
owned him as such. These were mostly the 
Dararians, a new sect sprung up about this 
time, who were so called from their chief, 
Muhammad Ibn-Isma'il, surnamed Darari. 
He is supposed to have inspired the mad 
khalifa with this impious notion ; and as 
Darari set up for a second Moses, he did 
not scruple to assert that Abii-Mansiir was 
the great creator of the universe. He was 
assassinated in the year a.d. 1020. His son 
Tfihir succeeded him. 

Abu-Mansur ( , »^:>^ vO, author of 

the Kitab-ut-Tauhid, and several other 

Abu-Mansur 'Abdul-Kahir al-Bagh- 
dadi, author of a treatise on the law 
of inheritance according to Shafi'i. He died 
a.d. 1037, A.H. 429. 

Abu - Mas'ud, surnamed Shaikh -ul- 
IslSm, a native of Constantinople, and author 
of the valuable connueutary on the (iurfiu, 
entitled Irshad-ul-'aql, flourished in the nign 
of Sultan Salim Klian, emperor of Constanti- 
nople, and died in a.d. 1516, a.h. 922. 

Abu-Muhammad (^C* X^^* ^i\), of 

Mecca, son of Abii-Talib, author of a 
commentary on the Quran, and several other 
works. He died in a.d. 1045, a.h. 437. 

Abu-Muhammad, son of Ahbas, the 
son of a sister of Abu-Ja'far bin-]\Iuhanimad 
bin-Jarir al-Tabarl. It is said that he had 
by h(!art 100,000 verses of different authors. 
He died in a.d. 993, a.h. 383, and was a 
contemporary of the author of the ^yli/i/dr. 

Abu-Muhammad Husain bin-Mas'ud 
Farra al-Baghawi (^^^:>- a^^'* ^\ 

^»-jL-Ji M_i i_V<A*.^ (J-t'X author of 

a collection of traditions called the Masabih, 
in Arabic; also of the Ma^dlim-id-Tanzll, 
and Sharh-us-Sunnat. He died in a.d. 1122, 
A.H. 516. He was a vendor of furs, conse- 
quently he was caUed Farra. Baghawi also 
wrote a Jdmi' baina-l- Sahlhain. 

Abu - Muhammad Hisham bin-al- 
Hakim al - Kindi al - Shabani, 
who lived in the time of the Khalifa Hariin- 
ur-Eashid, and died in a.d. 795, a.h. 179, is 
famed as one of the first compilers of Shi 'a 

Abu-Muhammad Nasihi (j^^.^'* »j\ 

^..s*^lj), was a man of eminent 

learning in the time of Sultan Mas'iid I., of 
GhaznT. He wrote a book entitled Mas^ftdl, 
in support of the doctrine of Abu-Hauifa, 
which he presented to the king. He 
flourished about the year a.d. 1035. 

Abu - Muhammad Rozbihan Bakali 

Shirazi (jc-^-^ U^-^j^; 'X-'*-^^ 


' *•), author of the Safivat-ul- 

Musharib. He died in July, a.d. 1209, Mu- 
harram, a.h. 606. Vide Eozbihan (Shaikh) . 

Abu-Muhammad Shatibi {s.^sr'* ^\ 
^-Jjlwi)), a very learned Musalman 

and author of the Qaslda Shatibiija. He 
died in a.d. 1194, a.h. 590. His proper 
name was Qasim ; he was born at Shatibiya, 
in Andalusia, from which he derived his title 
of Shatibi. He is also the author of several 
other works. 

Abu -Muhammad Tabrizi, author of 

the Persian history called Turikh-i-Tabart. 
The original of this book was written in 
Arabic by Abii-Ja'far bin-Jarir Tabari, in 
A.D. 912, A.H. 300, and was afterwards 
translated into Persian and continued by Abii- 
Muhammad, and dedicated to Abu-Salib bin- 
Niih, about the year a.d. 1118, a.h. 512. 

Abu - Musa Ja'far al - Sufi, whose 
poetical name is Jabar, was the founder of 
the Arabian school of chemistry, flourished 
towards the end of the eighth, or the com- 
mencement of the ninth century. According 
to the majority of authorities, he was born 
at Tiis, in Kliurasan. He wrote an immense 
number of treatises on alchemy, also a work 
on astronomy. An edition of his works in 
Ijatin was published at Dantzic, in 1662, and 
another iu English by Ru.ssel, in 1G78. 




Abu - Musa al - Ash'ari ( ^.-jj.^ •j^ 

^jjt-J^'i\), one of the arbitrators 

between 'All and Mu'awiya I., by whose 
decision 'Ali was deposed in the year a.d. 
658, A.H. 37. Eight months after the battle 
of Siffin between 'Ali and Mu'awiya, the two 
arbitrators, Abu-Miisa and 'Anir, the son of 
'As, met at a place between Mecca and Kiifa, 
where a tribunal was erected. Abu-Miisa 
first ascending it, pronounced these words 
with a loud voice: "I depose 'Ali and 
Mu'awiya from the Kliilafat (or government) 
to which they pretend, after the same manner 
as I take this ring from my finger," and 
immediately came down. 'Amr then went 
up and said: "You have heard how Abii- 
Miisa has on his part deposed 'Ali ; as for 
my part I depose him too, and I give the 
Kliilafat to Mu'awiya, and invest him with 
it after the same manner as I put this ring 
upon my finger ; and this I do with so much 
the more justice, because he is 'Usman's 
heir and avenger, and the worthiest of all 
men to succeed him." 

Abu-Muslim, a great general, to whom 

the Abbasides entirely owed their elevation 
to the Ivhilafat, for which he is commonly 
called !Sahib-ud-Da'wat, or author of the 
vocation of the Abbasides. For his good 
conduct and bravery, he occupied the first 
posts in the senice of the Ommaides. He 
was governor of Khurasan, a.d. 746, when 
he proclaimed the Abbasides the lawfid heirs 
of the Khilafat, and in a.d. 749 transferred 
the dignity of Klialifa from the family of 
Umayya to that of the Abbasides. This 
revolution occasioned the death of above 
600,000 men; and when Abu-Ja'far Al- 
Mansiir, the second Ivhalifa of the race of 
'Abbas, was opposed on his accession by his 
uncle 'Abdidlah, son of 'Ali, 'Abii-Muslim 
was despatched against him. This general 
having harassed him for five months together, 
at last brought him to a general action, and 
having entirely defeated him, forced him to 
iiy to Basra. Xotwithstandiug all his services, 
however, Abii-Muslim was soon after, on 
Thursday the 13th February, a.d. 755, 24th 
Sha'ban, a.h. 137, ungratefully and bar- 
barously murdered by Al-Mansiir, and his 
body was thrown into the Tigris. Abii- 
Muslim took his origin (as Isfahani, a Persian 
historian relates) from Hamza, who pretended 
to descend from Gaudarz, one of the ancient 
kings of Persia. 

Abu-Na'im (aUU-£ ^ *-jt5 ^\), son 

of 'Abdullah, author of the works ' Uli/a and 
I)Hlcnl-i-Kubuiiivat. He died in the year 

A.D. 1012, A.H. 403. 

Abu-Nasr Farabi ( >Ui^.^J .jl). 

Vide Farabi. 

Abu-Nasr, author of a Persian work 

on Sulism, QiilhCi Anis-nl-TiiUb'm. 

Abu - Nasr Farahi ( jfcl j ^3 ^\)^ 

flourished about the year a.d. 1220, in the 
time of Bahram Shah, son of Taj-uddin, 
ruler of Sistan (also called Nimruz), who 
began to reign in the year a.d. 1215. He is 
the author of a vocabulary in verse, called 
Nimb-us-Sibydn. His real name is Mu- 
hammad Badr-uddin, and he belongs to 
Farah, a town in Sijistan. 

[Vide Ahi Translation, i. note 41.] 

Abu-Nasr Isma'il bin-Hammad al- 
Jauhari (jU^ ^ J-..t^-jl^.^J ^} 

^_f.Jbyjs}.\) is the author of the Dic- 
tionary called Sihdh-ul- Liighdt. He was 
born at Farab, and died about the year a.d. 
1003, A.H. 394. 

Abu-Nasr Khan (Nawab) ( ^aJ 


c_;1y ^J^^\ ail amir of the reign 

of the emperor 'Alamgir. The mosque of 
Jajnagar, in Orisa, was built by him in the 
year A.D. 1687, a.h. 1098. 

Abu-Nasr Maskati ( L<Ca;u^ -^j »jl), 

a native of Maskat, and author of the book 
called Maqdmdt. 

Abu-Nasr Sabur (Shapur), son of 

Ardsher. He built in the year a.d. 954, an 
edifice at Ba gh dad, dedicated to scientific 
and literary exercises, and collected a large 
quantity of books, designed for the use of 
Musalmans ; there were, it is said, upwards 
of 10,400 volumes of all kinds, including a 
hundred Qm'ans, copied by the celebrated 
caligrapher Ibn-Muqla. 

Abu-Nawas i^^ ^}), al-Hasan bin- 
Hani, a celebrated Arabian poet, born in the 
city of Basra. His merit was acknowledged 
at the court of Hariin-ur-Rashid. His 
principal works have been collected by several 
persons, on which accoimt there is a great 
difference between the copies of his works. 
His proper name is Abii- 'j:\ii. He died a.d. 
810, A.H. 195. 

Abu-Raihan al - Biruni i^^, yl 

J^ --.JO, or Abii-Raihan Muhammad 

bin-Ahmad al-Bimni, was born about the 
year a.d. 971, in the town of Biriin, said to 
be situated in the province of Khwarazm. 
He was astronomer, geometrician, historian, 
scholar, and logician. Besides metaphysics 
and dialectics, he studied, and appears to 
have di-awn his chief lustre from, attainments 
in the magical art. Of this tlic following 
instance is related. One day Sultan l^fahmiid 
ordered him to deposit with a third ])erson a 
statement of the precise manner in which the 
monarch would quit the hall where he then 




was sitting. The paper being lodged, the 
king, instead of going ont by one of the 
numerous doors, caused a breach to be made 
in the wall, by which he effected his exit ; 
but how was ho amazed, when, on the paper 
being examined, there was found iu it a 
minute specification of the precise spot 
through which he penetrated ! Hereupon the 
prince with horror denounced tliis learned 
man as a sorcerer, and commanded him to be 
instantly thrown out of the window. The 
barbarous sentence was presently executed ; 
but care had been taken to prepare beneath 
a soft cushion, into which the body of the 
sage sank without sustaining any injury. 
Abu-Raihan was then called before the 
monarch, and was required to say whether by 
his boasted art he had been able to foresee 
these events, and the treatment through which 
he had that day passed. The learned man 
iinmediately desired his tablets to be sent for, 
in which were found regularly predicted the 
whole of these singular transactions. He 
travelled into different cormtries, and to and 
from India for the space of 40 years. He 
wrote many works, and is said to have 
executed several translations from the Greek, 
and epitomized the Almajest of Ptolemy. 
His works are said to have exceeded a camel 
load. The most valuable of all his works is 
the Tdrlkh-uJ-Hind. Another of his works 
is the Qihii'm Mas^fidi, dedicated to Sultan 
Mas'ud of Ghazni, for which he received an 
elephant-load of silver coins. He lived in 
the time of Sultrnis Mahuiiid and Mas'ud 
Ghaznawl, and died in the year a.d. 1039, 
A.H. 430. 

[For fTU'ther notes vide Dowson, Elliofs 
History of hidla, ii. p. 1.] 

Abu-Sa'id (<d!U-.£ 

the son of 'Abdullah, an Arabian poet who 
flourished in the coiu't of Salah-ud-din, 
(Saladin), and was his prime minister. He 
died in the year a.d. 1201, a.h. 597. 

Abu-Sa'id (,^^Ll t—^^-K ^jj C^x^ ^\), 

the son of Kulaib Sliashi, author of the book 
called Masnad Kahlr. He died in a.d. 946, 
A.H. 335. 

Abu-Sa'id 'Abdul-Malik bin-Quraib 

commonly called Asma'I, celebrated for his 
grammatical knowledge and eloquence. He 
was born in the year a.d. 740, a.h. 122, and 
flourished in the time of Al-Mansiir, khalifa 
of Baghdad (who reigned from a.d. 754 to 
775), and died at Basra during the reign of 
Harun-ur-llashid, or, as some authors say, 
iu A.H. 216 (a.d. 832). 

Abu - Sa'id 'Abdur - Rahman bin - 
Mamun al-Mutawalli, author of the 

I'ardiz ilutaicnllt^, a treatise on the law of 
inheritance according to Shafi'i's doctrine. 
He died a.d. 1085, a.h. 478. 

Abu-Sa'id Baizawi {^^\a^ S^x^ ^\), 

or Qazi 2\.bii-Sa'Id 'Abdullah Baizfiwi, author 
of the work called Nizuin-ut-Tawdrlkh, an 
epitome of Oriental History from Adam to 
the overthrow of the Kliilafat by the Tartars 
under Hulakii Klian, a.d. 1258, a.h. 674, 
written about the year 1275. Vide Baizawi. 

Abu-Sa'id Fazl-ullah {^A.s s^x^ ^\ 

^lIJ^), son of Abul-Ivhair, a great 

Slifi, of Mabna. His spiritual guide was 
Abul-Fazl Luqman of Sarakhs. He devoted 
himself to ascetic exercises, and spent fourteen 
years in the wilderness. He is the author of 
the Quatrains, called Ruba'iyat-i-Abii-Sa'id 
Abul-Khair. He died at the age 44 in the 
year a.d. 1068, a.h. 440. 

Abu-Sa'id Khan Bahadur {s.^^ yj\ 

».:;.; Ls^ ^) .d\^) ^_J^^), a Sultan of 

the family of Hulakii I£lian, was the sou of 
Oljaitu, commonly called Muhammad l\lmda- 
banda, whom he succeeded to the throne of 
Persia in December, a.d. 1316, Shawwal, 
A.H. 716, when he was only twelve years of 
age. In his time Rashid-ud-diu, the author 
of the Jdmi'-ut- TawdrJkh, was put to death. 
This monarch may be termed the last of the 
dynasty of Hulakii Khan who enjoyed any 
poAver. The few princes of that sovereign's 
family who were raised to the throne after 
Abu-Sa'id were mere pageants, whom the 
nobles of the court elevated or cast down as 
it suited the purposes of their ambition. 
Abu-Sa'id reigned 19 lunar years, and died 
of fever on the 30th November, a.d. 1335, 
13th Ilabi' II., a.h-. 736. The following is 
a list of the princes of the family of Chingiz 
Klian, who were raised to nominal poAver 
after the death of Abu-Sa'id Klian : 

Arpii Khan (Mu'izz-uddin) was crowned in 
1335, reigned five months, and was killed 
in battle in a.d. 1336. 

Miisa Khan was elevated in 1336, reigned 
two years, and was murdered iu a.d. 1338. 

Saki, sister of Abii- Sa'id Khan, was 
elevated to the throne in 1338. She 
was married to Jahan Timur, Avho got 
the kingdom as her dowry, but was 
deposed the same year. After him 

Sulaiman I\hau was declared king ; he left 
the kingdom and went to Divar-bakr in 

Nausherwau was elevated in 1334. 

Abu-Sa'id Mirza (Sultan) (s^x^ ^\ 

(^I.Lj_>j \\j^t), the son of Sultan 

Muhammad Mirza, son of Miranshah, son of 
Amir Timur (Tamerlane). He was born in 
A.D. 1427. After the death of his father in 
1441, he continued to live Avith Mirza Ulugh 
Beg, son of Mirza Shahrukh, at Samarqand, 
and served in his army Avhen he was at Avar 
with his son Mirza 'Abdul-Latif ; but when 




that prince -was miu-dered by his imuatural 
son, iu October, a.d. 1449, Ramazan, a.h. 
853, and he in his turn was slain after six 
or seven months by his own soldiers, and 
Samarqaud was taken possession of by Mirza 
'Abdullah, son of Mirza Ibrahim, and grand- 
son of Mirza Shahrukh, Abii-Sa'id, ^\-ith 
the assistance of Abu-Kiiair Uzbak, having 
defeated and taken 'Abdullah prisoner in a 
battle, put him to death and ascended the 
tlirone of Samarqand in a.d. 1451, a.h. 855. 
He also took possession of Khm'asan after 
the death of Babar Sultan, son of Baya- 
saughar Mirza, in a.d. 1457, a.h. 861, and 
greatly extended his dominions, but was at 
last taken prisoner in an ambuscade, and put 
to death on the 8th Febi-uary, a.d. 1469, 
25th Rajah, a.h. 873, after he had reigned 
18 years. After his death, Sultan Husaiu 
Baiqra, surnamed Abid-Gjiazi, a descendant 
of Amir Timm-, made himself master of the 
empire. Abii-Sa'id at his death left eleven 
sons, viz. : !Mirza Sultan Ahmad, Mirza 
Sultan ;^[ahmiid, Mirzii Sultan iluhammad, 
Mirza Shahrukh. Mirza Ulugh Beg, Mirza 
'Umar Shaikh, Mirza Aba-Bakr, ]\Iir/a 
Sultan Mm-ad, Mirza Sultan Khalil, Mirza 
Sultan "Walid, and Mu-za Sultan 'Umar ; of 
whom four amved to the dignity of kings, 
viz. : Mirza Ulugh Beg to the throne of 
Kabul ; Mirza Sultan x\.limad to the kingdom 
of Samarqand; Mirza 'Umar Shaikh to the 
united thrones of Andijan and Farghana ; and 
Mirza Srdtan MahmM to those of Kunduz 
and Badakhshan. Abii-Sa'id Mirza, says 
Babar Shah, though brought up in the city, 
was illiterate and unrefined. 

\_Vide Genealogical Table attached to Ain 

Abii-Sina Muhammad, author of the 

Arabic work called Baqaiq-ul- Haqdiq, con- 
taining a collection of traditions. 

Abu-Sina (L»^^l), or Abu-'AlT Slna, 

whom we call Avicenma, was a famous 
Muhammadan physician and philosopher, mIio 
early applied himself to literatui-e, botany, 
and mathematics. At the age of eighteen he 
began to practise, and with such success that 
he became physician to the coiu't at Baghdad. 
He was born in the city of Bukhara, iu a.d. 
983, A.H. 373, and died at Hamadan in July, 
a.d. 1037, A.H. 427, aged 54 lunar years, 
with the character of a learned man, but 
too much addicted to wine and effeminating 
pleasures. His books on ^Medicine, etc., were 
in number 100, now nearly all lost. He is 
also called Ibn-Sina. The following are the 
titles of his works : Of the Utility and 
Advantages of Sciences, 20 books ; of Inno- 
cence and Criminality, 2 books ; of Health 
and Remedies, 18 books ; on the means of 
Preserving Health, 3 books ; Canons on 
Phj'sic, 14 books ; on Astronomical Observa- 
tions, 1 book ; on Mathematical Sciences ; of 
Theorems, or Mathematical and Theological 
Demonstrations. 1 book ; on the Arabic 
Language, 10 books ; on the Last Judgment ; 

on the Origin of the Soid, and the Resurrec- 
tion of Bodies ; of the end we shoidd propose 
to ourselves in Harangues and Philosophical 
Arguments ; Demonstrations of the collateral 
lines in the sphere ; abridgment of Euclid ; 
on Finity and Infinity ; on Physics and 
Metaphysics ; on Animals and Vegetables, 
etc. ; Encyclopajdia, 20 volumes. Avicenna 
is also credited with an Arabic redaction of 
some of the works of Aristotle, and with 
some Persian quatrains in the style afterwards 
popularized by Umar Khayyam (<?.«'.). 

ATDU-Sufyan (l-j^s- ^j u^-^ ;J^), the 

son of Harb, the grandson of UmajTa, and 
great-grandson of 'Abdrd- Shams. He was 
an able and ambitious man, of great wealth 
and influence, and one of the most persevering 
and powerful opponents of Muhammad. He 
was the father of Mu'awiya, the first khalifa 
of the house of Uma\Ta, and one of the 
heads of the tribe of Quraish, to which 
Muhammad also belonged, "^"lien Muhammad 
took up arms for the propagation of his faith, 
Abu-Sufyan was made generalissimo of his 
enemies against him ; and after the battle of 
Bach', he stood very fair for the headsliip of 
that tribe. But he was at last convinced 
(as it seems, by a signal victory gained by 
Muhammad over his enemies) of the truth of 
the prophet's pretensions, and was converted 
in the 8th year of the Hijra, a.d. 629. 

Abu-Sulaiman Daud (l>5^l>^U,J.^ J\), 

bin-Abul-Fazl bin-Muhammad Fakhr Bina- 
kiti, so called from lianng been bom at 
Binakit, or Finakit, a town in Transoxiana, 
afterwards called Shahrukhiya. He is the 
author of the Tdnkh-i- Bindkiti. Its correct 
name in full length is Eauzatu rdi-l-albdb 
fi Tawdrl -il-Akdbir wal-Ansdb, i.e. the 
garden of the learned in the histories of 
great men and genealogies. It is chiefly an 
abridgment of the Jdmi^-ur-Raslud'i, and was 
compiled by the author only seven years after 
that work, in a.d. 1317, a.h. 707. and is 
dedicated to Sultan Abii-Sa'id, the ninth 
Mughul king of Persia. The author was 
a poet as well as an historian, aud was 
appointed by Sultan Ghazan Khan, poet 
lam-eate of his court. He died in or about 
the year a.d. 1330, a.h. 731. 

[ Vide Dowson, Elliot'' s History of India, 
iii. p. 55.] 

Abu-Tahir (^Ji'J^ y^\), of Tortosa, 

in Spain, author of the Ddrdb-udma, an 
abridgment of Oriental Biography, contain- 
ing the Lives of Zuhak, of Darius, of Philip 
of Macedon, aud of Alexaud-r the Grrat ; 
also Memoirs of Galen and other Greek 
Philosophers, etc. 

Abu-Tahir Khatuni ( Jjljs^ _&ll? »j1), 

a poet who flourished in the twelfth or 
thirteenth centuries of our era. He is the 
author of tiie History of the Saljiiqi kings, 
entitled TdriMi->'l-Saljriqi, and of another 
work, called Mandqib-ttsh-Shu'ard. 




Abu-Talib (t ]\Jh ^\) was the father 

of 'All, and the uncle of ]\Iuhammad the 
prophet, lie died ihrw days lielore Khadija, 
the tirst wife of Muhammad, in August, a.d. 
619, aged 80 years. 

Abu-Talib Husaini, author of the 

Tuzulc-i- Tinulri. This work contains an 
account of the first forty-seven years of the 
life of Tamerlane, written by himself in 
Chaghtai Turki, and translated into Persian 
by Abu-Talib, who dedicated it to Shah 
Jahan. It has been translated into English 
by Major Charles Stewart. 
\_Vide Dowson, iii. p. 389.] 

Abu-Talib Kalim (*---iJ' ( JIL yi\ 

Ji\x.A^), whose poetical name was 

Kalim, was a great poet of Hamadan in 
Persia, and came to India, the first time in 
the reign of the emperor Jahiingir, and 
returned home in a.d. 1619, a.h. 1028. 
After some years he again visited India in 
time of Shah Jahan, who employed him, and 
conferred on him the title of " Malik -ush- 
Shu'ara," or Poet Laureate. He was twice 
Aveiglied against gold and silver, and the 
amount was given to him as a reward for his 
poetical talents. He died at Lahore on the 
19th November, a.d. 1651, 15th Zil-hijja, 
A.H. 1061. He is the aiithor of a poem 
called Zafar-nama-i-Shdh Jahan, or the 
conquests of Shiih Jahan, and of a Dlwan in 

Abu-Talib Khan (Mirza) (i_JLl? ^jl 

^'\j-^ Li>^-^X the son of Haji Mu- 
hammad Beg Khan, by descent a Turk, was 
bom at Lucknow in the year a.d. 1752, a.h. 
1165. He was appointed by Mukbtar-ud- 
daula, the prime minister of Nawab Asaf-ud- 
daula of Lucknow, in a.d. 1775, 'Amaldar 
of Itawa and several other districts situated 
between the rivers Januma and Ganges. In 
this situation be continued for two years ; 
but, after the death of his patron, and the 
appointment of Haidar Beg Khan to his 
office, he was superseded, and repaired to 
Lucknow, and was allowed by the Nawab 
60,000 rupees per annum for bis support. 
After the expiration of one year. Colonel 
Alexander Ilannay, having been appointed 
Collector of Gorakhpur, requested the Xawab's 
leave to take him as an assistant, in which 
situation he continued for three years. He 
was afterwards employed by Mr. IMiddleton, 
the Resident of Lucknow, in reducing the 
rebel Raja Balhliaddar Singh, whom, during 
two years, he frei|uently dcl'cated and jiursucd. 
At length, the Rajah, l)eing surprised in bis 
camp, was killed in endeavouring to make his 
escape. Abii-lTilib, after this falling info dis- 
tress for some years, embarked for Eiirojn' witji 
Captain David Richardson, a British otticir, 
and left Calcutta in February, 1799, Katnazrin 
A.H. 1213. He visited England and other 

parts of Europe, and was well known in 
London under the title of the Persian I'rince. 
During his travels he wi-ote a Journal in 
which he daily inserted every event, and com- 
mitted to writing such reflections as occiirred 
to him at the moment. On his retm-n to 
Calcutta in 1803, a.h. 1218, having revised 
and abridged his notes, he published them 
under the title of Maasir-ut- Tdliln fl Bilad- 
i - Ifranjt. This work was translated by 
Charles Stewart, and published in London in 
the year 1814. Abii-Talib died about the 
year a.d. 1806, a.h. 1221. He is also the 
author of the Khuldsat-nl-Afkdr. 
\_Vide Dowson, viii. p. 298.] 

Abu-Talib Mirza. Vide Shaista Khan. 

Abu-Talib (Shaikh) {-^^ i^llr ^\), 

the father of Shaikh Muhammad 'Ali Hazin. 
He died at Isfahan, in a.d. 1715, a.h. 1127, 
and was interred in the cemetery, called 
Mazar Biiba Rukn-uddin, close to the tomb 
of the learned Maulana Hasan, Shaikh -ul- 
Islam of Gilan. 

Abu-Tammam Habib ibn-Aus al-Tai 

an Arabian poet. Ha\'ing arrived in the city 
of Hamadan, he was received with great 
distinction by Abul-Wafa bin-Salama. When 
about to depart, a heavy fall of snow made 
the roads for a long time impassable. Abul- 
Wafa conducted the poet to his library, and 
placed it entirely at his disposal. Surrounded 
with these literary treasures, Aba-Tammam 
forgot his journey, read the precious volumes 
M'ith avidity, and devoted his time to the 
composition of several works. The poetical 
collecti(m entitled Khamsa was the principal 
fruit of these researches, and attests the inde- 
fatigable attention with M'hich the learned 
writer bad ransacked this rich library. 
Amongst the other works that he wrote, one 
is called FuhTil-ush-Shu^ard. He was born 
in a.d. 804, a.h. 188, at Jasim, near 
Damascus, and died in a.d. 845, a.h. 231. 

Abu-Tayyib al-Mutanabbi (v 
, --s:o.^0. Vide Mutanabbi. 

J_^ ^\ 

Abu-Turab (Mir) ( --..^ '-r'Vj' >^^)> 
a Salami Saj'V'id of Shiraz, who served, Avith 
his son Mir Gadai, in Gujrat, and then 
under Akbar. He died in a.h. 1005, and 
lies buried in Ahmadabad. 

[Vide Ahi Translation, i. p. 506.] 

Abu-'Ubaida {^s^^z si\), a friend and 

associate of Muhammad, M'ho had the com- 
mand of the Moslem army in the time of 
A])fi-Bakr, the first Khalifa, but being de- 
feated in a battle against the troops of the 
Greek em])eror, he was deprived of the com- 
mand, which was given to Kliahd. 'Umar, 




ou his accession to the khulifat, replaced 
'Abu-'Ubaida in the command of thy army 
in S)Tia, being greatly displeased with the 
cruel and blood-thirsty disposition of Klialid. 
'Abii-'Ubaida extended his conquests over 
Palestine and Sp'ia, and drove the Greeks 
out of the whole country extending from the 
Mediterranean to the Euphrates. This con- 
quest was completed in a.d. 639, a.h. 18, in 
which year Spia was visited by a dreadful 
plague, in which the Moslems lost 25,000 
men, among whom were Abii-'Ubaida him- 
self, Yazid ibn Abii-Sufyan, and many other 
men of distinction. 

Abu-'Ubaida ibn-Mas'ud ds^^s: ^A 

(.Vt^^ i^j\), a general in tlie time 

of the khalifa 'Umar. He was defeated and 
killed in battle by Farrukhzad, who com- 
manded the army of Tiiran-Dukht, queen of 
Persia, about the year a.d. 635. 

Abu-'Ubaida Kara bin-Salam, author 

of a work on Qanlat. 

Abu-'Ubaida Ma'mar bin-Al-musanni 
( .Jd^ll .J jA.x^ *-^:rr- )^}\ ^ famous 

Arabian grammarian, born in Basra, who 
lived in the time of Hariin-nr-Rashid, and 
died A.D. 824, a.h. 209, aged 99 lunar years. 

Abu - 'Umar Minhaj al - Jurjani 

( jl:>-ydl ^l^,i^ .^£ »jU, author of 

the Tahaqiit-i-Ndsirt, a celebrated history, 
written in a d. 1252, a.h. 650, and dedicated 
to Siiltan Nasir-uddin Mahmud of Dehli. 
Vide Minhaj-i-Siraj. 

Abu-Yahya bin-Sanjar ( .,j^ ^*rsr^ »j^ 


.-:sa-j\ author of a Diwan in Arabic, 
lie died in a.d. 1234, a.h. 632. 

Abu - Yahya Ahmad bin - Daud al - 
Farazi al- Jurjani (a^5^\ ^^.^st^^j^ 

lJj^J ^), who was originally a Sunni, 

but became a convert to the Imamiya or 
Shi'a faith, is the author of a biographical 
work, entitled Kitdb fl ma')-ifat-ir-liijftl, 
containing the lives of eminent Shi 'as. 

Abu-Ya'qub al-Warraq (< ?yL)tJ_ y^\ 

s^ .J'). Vide Muhammad bin-Is-haq 

Abu - Yazid (Maktabdar) (a.;:_) »j1 

.^A-:xC«\ secretary of state in Egypt, 

who rebelled against Qaim, the second khalifa 
of the race of the Fatimites. He was not 
punished for his rebellion till Isma'il al- 
Mansiir defeated him, and confined him in an 
iron cage, where he ended his days. 

Abu-Yusuf (Imam) i^[^\ c_a-;«J yj\) 

bin-Habib al-Kiifi, a celebrated Qfizi of 
Baghdad, and one of the first pupils of Abu- 
Hanlfa, dignified with the title of Qazi-1- 
Quzat, or supreme judge, in the reigns of 
Hiidi and Harun-ur-llashid, khalifas of 
Baghdad. He supported the tenets of Abii- 
Hanifa, and maintained the dignity of his 
oifice by impartiality. When one day re- 
proached for his ignorance of one of the 
causes brought before him, for the decision 
of which he received an ample allowance, he 
jocosely replied, that he received in propor- 
tion as he knew; but, said he, "If I were 
paid for all I do not know, the riches of 
the khilafat itself would not be sufficient to 
answer my demands." He was born a.d. 731, 
A.H. 113, and died on the 13th September, 
a.d. 798, 27th Rajab, a.h. 182, at the age 
of 69 years, at Baghdad. The only work 
known to have been written by him, treats of 
the duties of a Magistrate, and is entitled 
Addb-id-Qdzi. The reputation of this work 
has been eclipsed by that of another, having 
a similar title, by al-Kliassaf. 

Abu-Yusuf Ya'kub bin-Sulaiman Is- 


faraini (^A^Jw; ,.< L-J^'i-x.^ 

author of the Shardit-xl-KhiJdfat. He died 
in A.D. 1095, A.H. 488. 

Abu - Zakariya Yahya al - Nawawi. 

]'idc Xawawi. 

Abu-Zarr ( Jca,<_j .j^O, the father 

of the Karamatians in Arabia, who not only 
opposed the religion of Muhammad, but 
plundered and insulted the temple of Mecca, 
and carried away the black stone which was 
believed to have fallen from heaven. He 
died A.D. 953, a.h. 342. Vide Qarmat. 

Abu-Zarr Yaqut Mausili (,j:jy'o^ j^^ 
1^ »,••), a celebrated caligraphcr. 

Abu-Zubaid {s.^\ ^}), an author who 

has written on the lion and all its names in 
the Arabic language. 

Achaemenes , old Persian Hakhamanis ; 
founder of the dynasty of kings called after 
him, viz. : 


Cmis I. ? \ 

Cambyses I. ? /^ £;„; Kobud). 

Cyrus II. d. o29 I ^ 

Ckmbvses II. d. 522 ) 

Darius I. d. 485. 

Xerxes (?), d. 465 {v. Isfandyar). 

Artaxerxes, d. 425. 

Darius II. d. 405 I j^- -. 

Darius III. d. 330P'- "''^'''- 




Achanak Begam, one of the concubines 

of the t'Tuperor Akbar. She had built a 
garden on tlie banks of the Jamunfi, at Agra, 
called Achanak Bagli. Some traces of it are 
yet to be seen. 

Aehohhe (,^^^=^\), the poetical name 

of prince Baland-Akhtar, a brother of the 
emperor Muhammad Shah of Dehli. lie was 
familiarly called Achchhe Sahib, and there- 
fore chose Achchhe for his " takhallus." 
He is the author of a beautiful poeni, called 
2\Y(hul-o-Akhtar, i.e. Venus and the Star, 
containing 355 verses, wliich he completed in 
the year a.d. 1726, a.h. 1139. 

Adam, the first man. The Muhamma- 
dans place Adam's Paradise in heaven ; hence 
after the fall Adam and Hawwa (Eve) were 
hurled down to earth. As this event happened 
about 7,000 years before the Hijra, Adam is 
often called haft-hazfai. 

Adam Khan Gakkhar { ^ ^d- *S\), 

chief of the Gakkhars, who defied the power 
of the emperor Akbar. In 970, at the 
instigation of Kamal Khan Gakkhar, Adam 
was attacked, and defeated and captured at 
Hllan, south of Chilianwala, near Dangali, 
Adam's stronghold. 

[Vide Am Translation, i. p. 457.] 


(aAJi), the poetical name of 

Mirza Ibrahim, a Say^'id of the Safawi race. 
He came to India in the time of the emperor 
Shah Jahiln. He died, or was put to death 
in pri.sou, in the year a.d. 1650, a.h. 1060. 
He is the author of a Diwan, and also of a 
Masnawi, called Maftq - us - Salikln, and a 

Adham Artamani ( 3L*..j',^ 

author of a Diwan in Persian. 

'y r* 


Adham {^S\). Vide Ibrahlm-i- Adham. 

Adham Khan {^6- ^S\), the son of 

IMaluim Anaga. He a])pcars to have been 
an illegitimate son of the emperor Ilamapm. 
His mother Mahum was one of Akbar's 
nurses {oinit/a), who attended on Akbar " from 
the cradle till after his accession." She 
played a considerable ])art in bringing about 
Bairam's fall. Adham Klifin {i.e. the Black 
Klian) was a commander of 5,000, and dis- 
tinguished himself in keeping the rebellious 
Bhadauriya clan, near Ilatkauth, south-east 
of Agra, in order. In a.h. 968, he de- 
feated Baz Bahadur of ]\Iahva, whose female 
favourite was the poetess Bupmati {'/./'.). In 
the following year, a.d. 1562, he stahlied at 
coui't his enemy Atgah Klian, Akbar's foster- 

father, and was killed by the emperor's order. 
Mahum Anaga died forty days after from 
grief, and was buried with her son in Dehli, 
in a Mausoleum erected by Akbar. Adham's 
brother Biiqi Klian, or Khan Baqi Klifiu, 
died in the 30th year of Akbar's reign, as 
Governor of Garha-Katanga (Central Pro- 
vinces) . 

Vide Keene's History of Hiiidiistan. 

Adhan (Shaikh) (^Jb<J>\), a Chishtl 
saint, who died at Jauupiir in a.h. 970. 

Adib (k__^_jl), the poetical name of 

Abu -Hasan 'All bin-Nasr, an excellent 
philosopher, who was a judge in Egypt, 
under the khilafat of Ammar the Fiitimite. 

Adib (l_^jJ^), surnamed Sabir, a poet 

who was contemporary with Asir-uddm 
Futiibi and Anwarl. Vide Shihab-uddin 
Adib Sabir. 

'Adil Khan i^J^jl's J^.:^ J->U), 

Fariiql I., ruler of Kliandesh, who is also 
called Miran G[iani, which see. 

'Adil Khan II, Faruqi (^l~- Jjlc 
^Ij ^J}J^)> entitled A'zam Huma- 

yiin, son of Hasan, and grandson of Nasir 
KJian Fariiqi by the daughter of Mahmiid 
Shah, of Gujrat. He succeeded to the throne 
of Kliaudesh after the death of DaM Klian 
FiiriiqT, iu August, a.d. 1510, Jumada I., 
a.h. 916, and removed from Talner to 
Burhanpiir, which place he made the seat of 
his government, and died there, after a reign 
of nine or ten years, in a.d. 1520, a.h. 926, 
and was succeeded by Miriiu Muhammad, his 
eldest son by the sister of Bahadiu- Shah of 

'Adil Khan i^[d>. 

)jU), the eldest 

brother of Sidtan Islam Shiili, king of Dehli. 
He fled to Patna after his defeat in a battle 
against his brother, but he soon disappeared, 
and was never heard of afterwards. 

Adina Beg Khan (^l^ <*-Cj ^:^^S\), 

son of Channii, an Arain by caste, was born 
at Sarakpiir, near Lahore. He was brought 
up in a Mnghul family, became a soldier, 
but devoted himself to accounts. He was 
Governor of Sultanpiir when Nadir Shah 
invaded India. Subsequently, he became 
Governor of the Panjab. In 1768 he defeated 
the Atyiaus near Lahore. Soon after this 
he die(T7 without heirs, at Khanpiir, near 
Iloshyfirpur, whore a line tomb was erected 
over his remains. 






the nickname of Mu- 

hammad 'Adil Shah, king of Dehli. His 
name was Mubariz Khan, sou of Nizam Kliau. 
He succeeded Islam Shah iu the very eud of 
A.H. 960, defeated Avith the help of his 
general Ilimu, in 962, ILuhammad Shah of 
Bengal at Chhapparghatta, east of Kalpi, aud 
was at last, iu 964, one year after Akbar's 
accession, defeated and killed in the battle of 
Siirajgarh, near Muuger, by Bahadur Shah, 
Sultan of Bengal. His nickname 'Adli was 
often further corrupted to "Audhli'," the 
blind woman. 

'Adnan (^\j^s:), one of the descend- 
ants of Isma'il, the sou of Abraham, with 
whom the genealogies of the Arabiaus, aud 
also that of Muhammad, terminate. For 
reckoning up from 'Adnan to Isma'il, the 
descents are very uncertain, and the best 
historians confess that there is nothing certain 
beyoud 'Adnau. 

Afi. ( il), poetical name of Ahmad 

Yar Khan, author of a small poem in Persian 
called Masnaivl Gulzdr-i-Khaydl, containing 
the story of Shahzada and Gada, written in 

'Afif. Vide Shams Sirfij 'Afif. 

Afrasyab {L-A^\ji\), an ancient, if 

not mj-thic, king of Tiiran, the son of 
Pashang. He overcame Nauzar, king of 
Persia of the Peshdadian dATiasty, and having 
killed him, ruled over Persia for twelve years. 
He was subsequently defeated in a battle 
against Kai-khusrau. king of Persia, of the 
second or Kaianian dynasty. 

Afrasyab Khan, adopted son of Mirza 
Xajaf Kliau [q.v.), became AmIr-ul-Urara 
on the death of his master, a.d. 1782. 
Intriguing with Madhuji Sindhia, he_ was 
over-reached, and was assassinated near Agra, 
October, 1783. 

Afrin (^j yl ), poetical name of Shaikh 

Qalaudar Baklish, of Saharanpiir, who is the 
author of a work called Tuhfat-us-Sandi' . 

Afrin ( ,ji •!), the poetical name of 

Shah Faqir-uUah, of Lahore. He was a 
Giijar, embraced Muhamraadanism, and is 
the author of a Diwan, and of au epic, called 
Hir-ira-lld>ijh('i. Some say that he died in 
A.D. 1730, and others in 1741, a.h. 1143, or 

Afsah {^'^'\), Shah Faslh, a pupil of 

Mirza Bedil, died at Luckuow iu a.ii. 1192, 
and left a Diwan. 

Afsari (^.^il), the poetical name of 
a poet. 

Afshin (^_-_A.i^), the surname of 

Haidar ibn-Kuiis, a geuei'al of the khalifa 
al-Mu'tasim Billali, of Baghdad. He was a 
Turk by origin, aud had been brought up a 
slave at the khalifa's com't, and having been 
employed in disciplining the Turkish militia, 
had acquired the reputation of a great captain. 
He was, however, executed about the year 
A.D. 840, by the khalifa, being accused of 
holding correspondence with the khalifa's 

Afsos {^j.^jj^\), the poetical name of 

Mir 'Ali, son of S. Muzafar Ali Klian, 
claiming descent from Imam Jafar yq.v.), 
born at Dehli, where his grandfather had 
been in the imperial service ; author of the 
Ardish, a sort of Urdu Gazetteer, admired 
for its style. He was first in the service of 
Nawab Is-biiq Khan, the uncle of Asaf-ud- 
daula, of Luckuow, and subsequently of 
Mirza Jawan-Biikht, and was hually recom- 
mended to Lord Wellesley, and appointed a 
Munshi of the College ot^Foi-t William. He 
is the author of the Ardish - i - Mahjil , in 
Urdii, and of the Gulistdn, translated by 
him into the same language. He died iu 
Calcutta in A.D. 1806, a.h. 1221. 

Aftab (<_jl_-_iT), the Takhallus, or 

poetical name of Shah 'Alam, king of Dehli, 
who died in the year a.d. 1806. The 
following couplet is a sample of his Majesty's 
poetry : 

"The forenoon with the wine-cup, the 
evening with the wife ; 
The rest 13 known to God alone ; mean- 
time I live my life." 

(Shah 'Alam.) 

Afzal, the poetical name of Shah 
Ghulam A'zam, which see. 

Afzal 'All Khan (Nawab). Vide 
Afzal Kliau (p. 36), whose original name was 

Afzal, the poetical name of Muhammad 

Afzal, which see. 

Afzali ( ^LiJ^), the poetical name of 

Shaikh Muhammad Nai?ir, son of Shaikh 
K]u'ib-ullah, of Allahabad. He died in a.d. 
17.30, A.H. 1163. 

Afzal Khan (^,l>- J~i-i^), or Mir 
:Muhammad Afzal. He nourished in the 
reign of the emperor Muhammad Shah_, of 
Ddili, and died iu the year a.d. 1735 or 
1738, a.h. 1148 or llol. ' His poetical name 
was Sabit, which see. 




Afzal Khan (^,L^ J-J_'0, Shaikh 

'Alid-unalimau, son of the celebrated Shaikh 
Abiil-Fazl, minister and secretary to the 
emperor Akbar, was Jahangir's governor of 
Bihar in a.d. 1610, and died at Agra in 1613. 
[Vide AJn Translation, p. xxxv. (Abnl- 
Fazl's Biography), and Dowson, vi. p. 205.] 

Afzal Khan (^^Iri- J^il), whose original 

name was Mulhi Shukr-ullah, the son of 
'Abdul -Haqq, came from Shiraz to the 
Deccan, and was introduced by 'Abdiu'- 
Bahim Klian, Kliankhanan, to the emperor 
Jahiiugir, who conferred on him the rank of 
an Amir. In the second year of Shah Jahau, 
A.D. 1628, A.H. 10o8, the office of Wizarat- 
i-kuU having become vacant by the dismissal 
of Iriidat Ivhan, the brother of Asaf Khan 
Ja'far Beg, he was honoured with that 
appointment. In the eleventh year of the 
emperor, the mausab of 7,000 and 4,000 
sawars was conferred upon him, but he died 
the next year at Lahore, on the 7th January, 
12th Eamazan, a.h. 1048, o.s. 1639, aged 
70 years. His poetical name was 'Allami. 
His tomb, called Chiui Rauza, is in Agra, on 
the left bank of tlie Jamua. 

Afzal - ud - daula (Nawab), Nizam of 

Haidarabad, succeeded his father, Nawab 
Nasir-ud-daula, in May, a.d. 1857, 15th 
Zil-qa'da, a.h. 1285, and departed this life 
on the 26th February, 1869, aged 44 years, 
leaving an infant .son, who, according to the 
succession guarantee granted by Lord Canning, 
is now his successor. 

Afzal-uddin (Mir), Nawab of Surat. 

He died on the 7th August, 1840, at the 
age of 59 years, after enjoying his nominal 
nawabship about 21 years. His son-in-law, 
Mir Ja'far 'Ali, succeeded him. 

Agah (ilS'T), the poetical name of 

Maulawi Muhammad Baqir. His parents 
were of Bijapur, but he was born at Elhn-a 
in A.D. 1745, A.H. 1I5S, and died on the 3rd 
March, a.d. 1806, 14th Zil-bijja, a.h. 1220. 
He is the author of a Diwan. 

[He was a Niiita (pi. Nawdit, said to be a 
corruption of the Persian nau-amad, a "new 
arrival"), a name given to certain seafaring 
Arabs, settled in Western India.] 

Agah Khan, a eunucli of the emperor 
Shah Jahan, who died on tlie 9th liabl' I., 
A.H. 1067. Ilis tomb is near the Mumtaz- 
Mahall, in Tajganj. 

Agha Ahmad 'Ali, poetically styled 

Ahmad, son of of Agha Shaja'at 'All, of 
Dhaka, a Persian grammarian of note, who 
successfully defended, in his Muayyid-i- 

Biirhan, and the S/iainsher-i -Tcztar, the 
author of the Biohdu Qati\ a Persian 
Dictionary, against the famous Delili poet 
Giialib. He also published the Jiisala-i- 
Ishiiqdq, the Risilla-i-Tardna, Haft Asman, 
A History of the Persian Mas//aivi, and edited 
several works for the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 
He was a Persian teacher in the Calcutta 
Madi-asa when he died, June, 1873. 

Ag-ha Husain Khwansari ( , 



Vide Husaiu Khwan- 

AghaMir (^,, UT), entitled Mu'tamad- 

ud-daula, minister of Ghazi-uddin Haidar, 
king of Audh. He was dismissed in a.d. 
1826, A.H. 1242, and retired to Kiiuhpiir, 
where he died on Mondav 7th May, a.d. 
1832, 5th Zil-bijja, a.h. 1247. 

Agha Muhammad Khan (^.^..sir* lil 

^,l->-). Vide Aqfi Muhammad Khan 


Agha Mulla (L,« l-iT), surnamed 

" Dawatdar," "the inkstand-holder," the 
ancestor of the three Asaf Klaaus who served 
under Akbar and Jahangir. His genealogical 
table is given in Ain Translation, i. p. 369. 

Aghar Khan (^Ir^.. 

'.\ ), Pir Muhammad, 

who served diu'ing the reignof Aurangzib 
against Prince Shujfi', in Asam, and in 
Kabul. lie died in a.h. 1102. His son, 
Airbar Kliiiu II., was still alive during the 
reign of Muliamraad Shah. The family 
traced their descent from Aghar, a descendant 
of Yafis (Japhet), son of Nuh. Their villa, 
Agharabad, near Dehli, is often mentioned 
in the histories. 

Ahi ( ^j^l), a poet who was a chief 

of one of the Chaghtai hordes, and had 
assumed originally the poetical name of 
"Nargisi," but changed it into "Ahi," 
because he found that another poet of his 
time had adopted it. He is the autlior of a 
Diwiln, which he dedicated to prince Gliarib 
Mirza, tlie son of Sultan Husain Mirza 
Briiqra. He died in the year a.d. 1520, 
A.H. 927. 

Ahl-i-Bait (c:--J J-&^), "the people 

of the house," a general name for the 
descendants of Muhammad, the Sayyids. 

Ahl-i-Kitah (k__>l::^ J^O, "the people 

of the book," a collective name for the Jews, 
Christians, and Muhammadans, who received 
a book, i.e. revealed religion from heaven. 




Ahli Khurasani ( ^Lc^js- /s^^X ^ 

poet who died at Tabriz in the year a.d. 
1527, A.H. 934. He must not be confounded 
with Ahll-i-Turani, a Chaghtai nobleman of 
profligate character, who lived at the court of 
Sultan Husain Mirza, and died in a.d. 1497, 
A.n! 902. 

Ahli SWrazi (Maulana)(^l ; _»-i, ^lil), 

of Shiraz, an elegant poet in the service of 
Shah Ismu'il Safawi I. He is the author of 
several poems, amongst which are the Sihr-i- 
Halal, Sham' wa Farwdiia, Eis'ila-i-X«(jliz. 
Saqlnama, and Fawdid-nl- Fa icdid . He died 
in the year a.d. 153.5, a.h. 942, and is boi-ied 
at Shiraz, close to the tomb of Hatiz. 

AWia Bai, the wife of Madliu Rfio 

Peshwa, built a ghat Jit Agra, in the time 
of Shah 'Alani, called Bisuan Gliat, or a 
bathing-place for all meu, on the banks 
of the river Jamna. It extended from the 
trench of the fort to the house of Dara 
Sliikoh, and was in good preservation in the 
year a.d. 1830. On one of the corners a 
large gun of iron was then lying, under the 
Haweli of Dara Shikoh, called Dhaiil Dahani. 

Ahlia Bai (, ^'l... d.Aj^), the ^ife of 

Khande Rao, the son of Malhar Rao Holkar 
I., of Indor, after whose death, in a.d. 1766, 
she had a jagir allotted to her, yielding an 
annual revenue of 1,500,000 rupees. Her 
hiLsband, Khande Rao, was killed in battle at 
Dig against Siii'aJQial Jat, in 1754. Her son 
Mall Rao, who had succeeded his grandfather 
Malhar Rao in 1766, died nine months after. 
She was a woman of spirit and ability, and 
reserved in her own hands the right of 
nominating a successor, and elected Tukaji to 
the raj. 

Ahmad al-Makkari (x*.iv 1), author of 

the History nf the Muhammadan Fynastles 
in Spain. This work was translated by M. 
Pascual de Gayangos, an erudite Spaniard, 
London, 1810, in 4to. Vol. I. He was born 
in the 16th century, and died in Damascus in 
the year A.D. 1631, a.h. 1041. After having 
composed a very detailed biography of the 
celebrated and learned wazir of Granada, 
Muhammad Ibn-ul-Khatib, he added to it, 
in the form of an introduction, a general 
history- of the Arabs in Spain from the 
conquest to their final expulsion. 

Ahmad I, (j^^ksT* ^^ ^^=^1), emperor 

of Turke}-, son and successor of ]\Iahanimad 
III., whom he succe.'ded in January, a.d. 
1604, Sha'ban, a.h. 1012. This prince was 
of a good constitution, strong and active ; 
he would thi'ow a horseman's mace, of nine 
or ten pounds weight, farther than any of 
his court. He was much given to sensual 
pleasure.^, and had 3,000 coucubiues. He 

died on the 15th November, a.d. 1617, 15th 
Zil-qa'da, a.h. 1025, at the age of thirty, 
having reigned fourteen years. He was suc- 
ceeded by his brother Mustafa I. 

Ahmad II. {^^'^^A ^ Sa^s^\), son of 

Ibrahim, succeeded on the death of his brother 
Siihuman II., in a.d. 1691, a.h. 1103, to 
the throne of Constantinople, and died in 
A.D. 1695, a.h. 1106. He was succeeded by 
Mustafa II., son of Muhammad IV. 

Ahmad III. (j.,ks'« ^j Sa.s^\), son of 

Muhammad IV., was placed on the throne of 
Constantinople in a.d. 1703, a.h. 1115, by 
the heads of a faction which had deposed his 
brother Mustafa II. He granted a friendly 
asylum to Charles XII. of Sweden, after the 
battle of Pultowa ; and the kindness and the 
hospitality which marked the whole of his 
intercourse with that unfortunate monarch, 
are entitled to the highest encomium. He 
was preparing an expedition against Persia, 
when an insun-ection hurled him from his 
throne, and exalted his nephew Mahmud I. 
from a prison to the sovereign power in a.d. 
1730, A.H. 1142. He died of apoplexy in 
1736, aged 74 years, a.h. 1148. 

Ahmad IV. (j^^.:^l ^^ 

\), (also 

called 'Abdul-Hamid), son of Ahmad III., 
emperor of Tm'kev, succeeded his brother 
Mustafa III. in a!d. 1774, a.h. 1188. He 
died, after a reign of 15 years, on the 7th 
April, 1789, Rajab a.h. 1203, and was suc- 
ceeded by Salim III. 

Ahmad (xk^^I), an Arabian author who 

is known as the writer of a book on the 
interpretation of di-eams, a translation of 
which, in Greek and Latin, was published 
with that of Artemidorus on the same subject, 
at Paris, by Rigault, a.d. 1603. He lived 
in the 4th century of the Hijra. 

Ahmad Abu - Tayyib 



al - Mutanabi 
\), a cele- 


brated Arabian poet whom none excelled in 
poetry. He is the author of a Dlwan. He 
died "in the year a.d. 965, ah. 354. Vide 

Ahmad al-Ghaffari (^.l_LiJ^ i\^=^'). 

Vide Ahmad bin -Muhammad al-Ghaffari,' 
p. 26. 

Ahmad 'Ali Hashimi (Shaikh) (_v*^\ 

'^^■^ i^^-lUs t_5-^^' author of the 

Biographical Dictionary, called Makhzan-ul- 
Ghan'iib, dedicated to Xawab Safdar-Jang. of 
Faizabad, wlio died in a.d. 1754, a.h. 1167. 
His" poetical name was Kluidim. 




Ahmad 'Ali Khan, Nawab of Eampur. 
I'Uic Faiz-ulhili Ivlifiii. 

Ahmad 'Ali Khan (^\.s- ^£. Sa.^\ 

<-_^L3), Nawab of Ivarnal. A remission 
of revenue to the extent of 5,000 rupees per 
annum was p^ranted to him in perpetuity by 
the British Government, and a khil'at of the 
vahie of 10,000 rupees was conferred on him, 
in July, 1858, for his distinguished loyalty, 
and for the eminent services rendered by him 
during the rebellion of 1857. In 1806, the 
Pargana of Karual consisted of a number of 
villages, yielding a revenue of 40,000 rupees 
per annum. It was conferred by Lord Lake 
in jagir on three Mandal chiefs, named 
Muhammadi Khan, Ghairat 'All JG^an, and 
Is-haq Klian, for their lives, and after their 
death to descend to their heirs, subject to 
the pa\iuent of 15,000 rupees per annum in 
perpetiiity. Nawab Ahmad 'Ali Ivljan is the 
lineal descendant of Muhammadi Khan, and 
holds 24 entire villages, besides a third share 
in four others. These lands are assessed at 
24,000 rupees, on which the Nawab has 
hitherto paid a quit rent of 5,000 rupees, 
payment of which sum the Government has 
now remitted. 

Ahmad 'Ali Khan (Sayyid) ( j,^.=^ ^ 

J^.wj ^Lri.- ^-^-c), Nawab-Nazim of 

Bengal, succeeded his brother 'Ali-Jah. He 
died on the 3Uth October, a.d. 1824. 

Ahmad 'Ali Khan, and Walldad Khan, 

the reltel Nawabs of Mfdagarh. 

Ahmad Ayaz, Malik Kbwaja Jahan, 
served with distinction under Muhammad 
Shah bin-Tughluq, of Dehli. On the death 
of the king at Tatta, in ad. 1352, a.h. 752, 
he tried to set up at Dehli a son of the late 
king, but had to submit to Firiiz Shah III., 
who allowed the nobles to execute him before 
he himself entered Dehli. 

Ahmad Bakhsh Khan (Nawab), 

entitled Fakbr-ud-daula, was the jagirdur of 
Firiizpiir and Lolnlrii, in the district of Dehli, 
after whose death his son, Nawab Shams- 
uddin Khan, succeeded him. The latter was 
executed for murder in October, 1835. 

Ahmad Barani ( Jj A.^=^\), author 
of a Persian work called tSifr-Kn-Sii/ar. 

Ahmad Beg Kabuli, served in Kabul 
under Muhammad Hakim, Akbar's brother, 
and later under Akbar and Jahangir. Jle 
was for some time governor of Kashmir. He 
died about a.d. 1614. 

Ahmad Beg Khan, a son of (Mu- 
hammad Sharif) Niir Jahan's brother. He 
served under Jahangir in Bengal, assisted 
Prince Shahjahan during his rebellion, and 
was subsequently made, by Shahjahan, 
Governor of Tatta, Siwistan, and of Multan. 
He received as jagir Jiiis and Amethi, in 
Audh, where he died. 

Ahmad bin - 'Abdullah al - Kirmi 

(td]ljk-.£ ^ Jk.^s^l), author of a work 

on the fundamental points of Muhammadanism. 
J'ide Abii-Ahmad, the son of Uasim. 

Ahmad bin-Abu-Bakr, (^\ .j sa.>'\ 

jCj), an Arabian author who wrote 

the Mashra' -ul-Mannqib, a minute account 
of the events of Muhammad's life, with 
memoirs of his successors and companions. 

Ahmad bin - Abn - Bakr bin - Nasir 
Mustafa al-Kazwini {».j\ ._) sa<=^\ 

Jo), author of the Tunhh-i-Guzlda, 

which contains the history of the fo>ir ancient 
Persian Dynasties, viz. PeshdacUans, Kai- 
aniaus, Ashkanians, and Sasaniaus, that is, 
from the year B.C. 890 to a.d. 636, and 
memoirs of the several dynasties who ruled 
over Persia, Tartary, etc., during the khilafat, 
and to the year a.d. 1329. See also called 
Hamd-idlah Mustaufi. 

Ahmad bin 'Ali Razi (Shaikh) {sas'-S 

'^t-^ >^'Sj tj-^-c cT-^' surnamed 

Jassas, a famous lawyer. He was born in 
the year a.d. 917, a.h. 305, and died in a.d. 
980, A.H. 370, aged 65 lunar years. 

Ahmad bin-' Ali al-Khatib Kastalani 

\). Vide 

{^^\..^\ , I. 



Ahmad bin - Hasan Maimandi 

(Khwaja)(^j^:.^^^,^,u:s-j^j J>^.=>-U, 

foster bi"other and fellow student of his 
sovereign Sultan Mahmvid, of Ghazni. On 
the removal of Abul- 'Abbas Fazl, two years 
after the succession of Mahmiid, Kliwaja 
Ahmad was appointed prime minister, which 
othce he held uninterriiptedly for a period 
of eighteen years, when Altiintash, the 
commander-in-chief, and a number of other 
Amirs, brought before the coiu't of the king 
charges against him. He was in consequence 
disgraced and imprisoned for tlm-teen years 
in one of the forts of India. He was released 
by Sultan ^las'iid, son and successor of 
Mabinud, and reinstated in the responsible 
oflice of minister, which he held for some 
time. He died a natural death in the year 
A.D. 1033, A.H. 424. 




Ahmad bin-Idris (^j^ijj\ ^ j..*^0, 

a lawyer of the sect of JIalik, was the author 
of many works, and died about the year a.u. 
1285, A.H. 684. 

Ahmad bin-Israil (J.JL^\ -j A^:^\), 

a great astrologer who lived under the 
khilafat of AVasiq Billah, of Baghdad. 

Ahmad bin-Kasir (p-.J..^ ^-j J^^r^l), 

also called Muhammad bin-Knsir and KasTr 
al-Farghani, is the same person whom we 
call Alfaraganius, a great astronomer, who 
lived during the reign of the khalifa al- 
ii amiin. Vide Far gh ani. 

Ahmad bin-Khizrawaih (^_) a./*.=>-1 
Aji ->i.ri-), a celebrated Muliammadan 

saint, was the disciple of Khwaja Hatim 
Asamm. He died in the year a.d. 854, a.h. 
240, and is buried at Balkh. 

Ahmad bin-Muhammad al-Grhaffari 

al-Kazwini (^^liAi^ S^t^s.^ ^j ^^=J), 

a qazi, and a descendant of 'Abdul-GliafPcir, 
the author of the Hdun. He is the author 
of the work called Kaskh-i-Jahdn-drd, which 
he composed in the year a.d. 1563, a.h. 971, 
of which number the title forms the chrono- 
gram. It is also called Tdrikh-i-MHkhta?i)\ 
an abridged history of Asia, from Adam down 
to Shah Tahmasp of Persia, a.d. 1525. It 
also contains memoirs of the Muhammadan 
kings of Spain, from a.d. 755 to 1036. It 
was dedicated to Shah Tahmasp. We are 
also indebted to him for the better known 
work entitled Nigdristdn. We learn from 
the Tdr'ikh Baddoni that, having resigned his 
employment in Persia, he went towards the of his life on a pilgrimage to Mecca, 
and that, landing in Dibal in Sindh, for the 
purpose of paying a visit to Hindustan, he 
died at that port in a.d. 1567, a.h. 975. 

\_Vide Dowson, Elliot'' s History of India, 
ii. p. 504.] 

Ahmad bin-Muhammad al-Qastalani 

J^^.s-'* ^j-i jk-i-p-l), an 

author who died in the year a.d. 1527, a.h. 
933. Vide Qastalani. 

Ahmad bin-Muhammad Quduri(>x*j:!^l 
^f ..jkJ! Sa^-^ ^i), author of a work 

on jurispnidence, called Qudurl, and several 
other works. He died in a.d. 1046, a.h. 

Ahmad bin - Muhammad bin - *Ali 

Bakr al - Hanafi, author of the 
Khazd nat-til- Fatuw(i , a collection of decisions 
made towards the end of the eighth centurj- 
of the ITijrn, and e(miprisiug questions of 
rare occurrence. 


Ahmad bin-Tulun i^^ya ^ Sa::^\), 

the founder of the Tuliinide dynasty in Egypt. 
Vide Ahmad Ibn-Tulun. 

Ahmad bin - Yahya bin - Jabir al - 
Biladuri (^jr.u^^jj^ or ^ji^l^\), sur- 

named also Abu-Ja'far and Abul-IIasau, was 
the insti-uctor to one of the princes of tlie 
family of al-Mutawakkil, and died in a.d. 892, 
A.H. 279. His Futfih-ul-BuJddn is one of 
the earliest Arabic chronicles. He also wrote 
a geographical work entitled Kitdb-ul- 
Bulddn, the Book of Coimtries. 

Ahmad bin- Yahya ( \-*=sr ,.,.' J^^s^^), 

author of the marginal notes on the TViqdi/a, 
a work on jirrisprudence. 

Ahmad bin-Yusuf (, e^^j ^j w\^=^^), 

an historian, and author of the Aldibdr-ud- 
dairal, written in A d. 1599, a.h. which is 
said to be an abridgment of Jauabi's Tdrlkh- 
til-Jandhl, called also Bar-uzh-Za khkh dr . 

Ahmad Chap, Malik, was Xaib-Barbak 

imder Firuz Shah II. (Khilji), of Dehli, 
whom he warned in vain against 'Ala-uddin. 
He was blinded by 'Ala-uddin after his 

Ahmad Ghaffari. Vide Ahmad bin- 
Muhammad al-Gliaffari. 

Ahmad G-hazzali. Vide Ghazzall 
(Ahmad) . 

Ahmadi {^s.a^=>^\), a Turkish poet, 

whose proper name was Khwfija Ahmad 
Ja'farT, and of whom we have the following 
anecdote : The great Tartar conqueror Amir 
Timiu- (Tamerlane) being on his march 
through Anadoli, halted for awhile at iVmasia, 
where Ahmadi lived ; and the poet took the 
opportunity of presenting him with an ode. 
This led to fm-ther intimacies, Timur being 
a patron of literaiy men ; and one day 
when both were in "the bath, the monarch 
amused himself by putting crotchetty questions 
to Ahmadi, and laughing at his answers. 
" Suppose now," said he, pointing to the 
surrounding attendants, "you were required 
to value these beautiful boys, how much 
would you say each was worth?" Ahmadi 
answered with becoming gravity, estimating 
one at a camel -load of silver, another at six 
bushels of pearls, a third at forty gold wedges, 
and so made the circuit of the ring. " Very 
fair," said Timur, ''and now tell mo, Wliat 
do you value Me at?" "Four and twenty 
aspei-s," replied the poet, "no more and no 
less." "What!" cried Timur, laughing, 
"why the shirt I have on is worth that." 
"Do ycm really think so?" a.sked Ahmadi, 
with the greatest apparent simplicity — "at 
that rate you must be worth nothing, for I 




included the shirt iu the valuatiou ! " Much 
to his credit, Timur, instead of being angry, 
appLiuded and rewarck'd the wit and boldness 
of the poet. Ahmadi was a contemporary of 
Shaikhi, and is the author of the KuUiijdt-i- 
Khwilja Alniiad Ja'fari. He also composed 
a heroic poem on the actions of Tamerlane, 
and a Sikandar-uama iu the Turkish language. 
He died in a.d. 1412. 

Ahmadi (^jk-^s^U, the poetical name 

of Mir Sayvid Lutf-ullah, who died in a.d. 
1633, A.H." 1043. 

Ahmad Ibn-' Arab-Shah. Vide 'Arab- 

Ahmad Ibn-Hanbal. Vide Haubal 


Ahmad Ibn-Tulun (^(^l^r ^\ Sa.^-X), 

the founder of the Tuliinide djTiasty in Egypt, 
a Turkish slave, who, being entrusted by 
al-Mu'taraid, the khalifa of Baghdad, with 
the government of that country and Syria in 
A.D. 879, set up for himself, and maintained 
his authority notwithstanding all attempts to 
depose him. He reduced Damascus, Hims, 
Hamat, Kinnisrin, and ar-Raqqa, situated 
upon the eastern banks of the Euphrates. 
His mosque in Cairo may be seen to this day. 
He died in a.d. 884, a.h. 270, and was 
succeeded by his son Ivhumarwaih. Egypt 
continued to be governed by his successors 
for several years, when it was again reduced 
in A.D. 905 by Muhammad, general of the 
khalifa of Baghdad al - Muktafi ; the last 
]\halifa of Egypt having assassinated his pre- 
decessor, and thereby rendered himself very 
odious. In the year 933, Muhammad, the 
son of Taj, or TajTl, surnamed al-Ashhad, 
seized upon Sp-ia and Egypt in the khilafat 
of ar-Ilazi Billah, and his family retained 
the M'hole of it, except a small part which 
'Ubaid-ulla al-Mahdl, the first of the 
Fatiraite dynasty (the seat of whose empire 
was at Qairuwan, near Tunis) had conquered 
in A.D. 910. His successor, Abu-Tamim 
Ma'd, surnamed Mu'izz li-dlu-illah, con- 
quered the rest of Egypt about the year 970, 
by his general Ja'far, who built the city of 
al-Qahira, commonly called Grand Cairo, 
whither his master soon removed his court. 
The Fatimite dynasty ended in a.d. 1176, 
when, upon thc! death of the last prince of 
this family, the kingdom was usurped by the 
famous Sahih-uddlu (Saladiu). 

List of thc Khalifas of Bayhanj. 

'Ubaid-ullah al-:\lahdl, first of the Fati- 
mite race. 

Al-Qaim Mahdi, his son. 

Isma'Il, surnamed al - Mansiir, son of 

Mu'izz li-diu-illah, son of al-Mansiir, wjio 
conquered Egypt and became the first 
khalifa of the Fatimite dynasty in that 

Ahmad Ilkani ( jULi.j^ X*.s-0, also 

called Ahmad Jalayir. Vide Hasan Buzurg. 

Ahmad Jafari (Khwaja) (a_^-.j-^ 
(C^jj-). Vide Ahmadi. 

Ahmad Jalal Bukhari (Sayyid), son 

of Sayyid Muhammad Bukhari. 

Ahmad Jalayir {jJi.=^ S^.s^\), also 

called Ahmad Ilkani, a descendant of Hasan 
Buzurg, which see. 

Ahmad Jam (Shaikh ul - Islam) 

(^l-:9- Jk^s-^), entitled Abu-Nasr and 

Ziuda-Pil, a celebrated Muhammadan saint 
of Nishapiir, born iu the year a.d. 1049, 
A.H. 441. He passed 18 years of his life in 
devotion in wilds and mountains. He sub- 
secpiently got married, and was blessed with 
thirty-nine sons and three daughters. At the 
time of his death, besides the three daughters, 
fourteen of his sons were living, all of whom 
became men of learning and authors of several 
works. Ahmad Jam himself was an author, 
and among the different works that he wrote 
are the following : Risala Samarqandi, Anls- 
ut - Talibln, Miftdh - un - Najat, Bahr -ul- 
Haqiqat, and Sirdj-us-Sdijirin. He died in 
the reign of Sultan Sanjar, in February, a.d. 
1142, Rajah, a.h. 536. 

Ahmad Jan (Sultan), of Hirat. He 
died about the 6th April, a.d. 1863, 17th 
Shawwal, a.h. 1279, and was succeeded by 
his son. Shah Nawaz lOian. 

Ahmad Kabir (Sayyid) (^^.-^ J^-^r^l 

(A---:), a Musalman saint, whose tomb 
is at Uchcha in Multan. He is the son of 
Sayyid Jalal, and the father of two other 
saints, Sayyid Jalaluddin, surnamed Makhdiim 
Jalianiyiin Jahiin-gasht, and Eajii Qattal. 
Niinurous miracles were wrought by these 
two brothers. 

Ahmad Khan (j^U- A^s^l), surnamed 

aVckodar for Nicholas), was raised to the 
throne of Persia after the death of his brother 
Al)a([a K]ian, the son of Hulakii Khan, in 
April, a.d. 1282, Zil-hijja, a.h. 680, and 
was the first emperor of the race of Chingiz 
Kjian who embraced the Muhammadan re- 
ligio)i. He is said to have been liaptized 
in his youth by the name of Nicholas, but 
])olicy, or conviction, led him to abandon the 
doctrine of Chi'ist for that of Muhammad, 
when he assumed the name of Ahmad KJian. 
In the first year of his reign, Majd-ul-Mulk 
Yazdl, a nobleman of his court, being accused 
ol' sorcery, lost his life. He put his own 
1)r(ifiicr to death, and was successful in 
obtaining possession of the person of his 
nephew, Arghiiu Klian ; but that prince was 




not only rescued from his violence by the 
MiighiU nobles, but by their aid was enabled 
to deprive him of his crown and life on the 
night of Thursday 11th August, a.d. 1284, 
26th Jumada I., a.h. 683, and become his 

Ahmad Khan Bangash (,^1;^ ju,4.-s^^ 

j_^_x.i.j), second son of Muhammad 

Kjiau Bangash, Nawab of Farnikhabad. 
When the Wazir Safdar-Jang, after the 
death of Qaim-Jang, the brother of Ahmad 
Kl^an, confiscated his estates in December, 
A.D. 1749, A.H. 1163, he (Ahmad Klian) 
collected an army of Afghans, defeated raja 
Nawal Rai, the Wazlr's deputy, who was 
slain in the action, and recovered the terri- 
tories lately seized from his family. This 
circumstance took place on Friday the 2ud 
August, 17-50, 10th Ramazan, a.h. 1163. 
After this, Ahmad I£han governed his country 
about 22 luuar years, and died in November, 
1771, Sha'ban, a.h. 1185, wh'r'n he was 
succeeded by his son, Diler Ilimmat Klian, 
who received the title of Muzaffar-Jang froui 
the emperor Shah 'Alam, who was then on 
his way to Dehli from Allahabad. 

Ahmad Khan Mewati, one of the petty 

rulers (mHhlk-i-tairdifJ who had usurped the 
chief parts of the Delili empire during the 
Sanid djTiasty (beginning of the fifteenth 
century). Ahmad Klian held Mewat, his 
frontier coming close up to Dehli. He had 
to submit to Buhlul Lodi. 

Ahmad Khan (Sayyid), C S I., of 

'Aligarh, a distinguished Muhammadau re- 
former. He wrote a book on the life and 
work of the Prophet, and founded the ' Aliga. h 
College. (See Sayyid Ahmad.) 

Ahmad Khan Sur. Vide Sikandar 

Iv[iau Sur. 

Ahmad Khattu (Shaikh) i^'LS J*^a-1 

4i""**^), surname of Wajih - uddin 

Ahmad Mnghribi, who was the son of Malik 
Ikhtiyar-uddiu, a nobleman at the court of 
Sultan Firiiz Shah Tughluq of Dehli, and 
related to him. After the death of his father, 
having squandered his wealth in pleasure and 
dissipation, he became a disciple of Shaikh 
■ Baba Is-haq Maghribi, and turned very pious 
and journeyed to Gujrat, where he acquired 
great fame. During his residence at that 
place, he obtained such celebrity, that Sultan 
Muzaffar Gujrati became his disciple. He 
died in that country in the reign of Sultiln 
Muhammad of Gujrat, on Thursday 6th of 
January, 1446, 8th Shawwal, a.h. 849, aged 
111 years, and was buried at Sarkich, near 
Ahmadahild. Khattu is a place in Nagor, 
where Shaikh Aliuiad was born. 

Ahmad Maghribi. 

K]iat.t.u (^Shaikh). 

Vide Ahmad 

Ahmad Mirza (Sultan) (1 ; _^ A.,»...2-l 

i^lki-j), son of Abu-Sa Id Mirza, after 

whose death, in a.d. 1469, he took possession 
of Samarqand, and died about the year 1495. 

Ahmad (Mulla) (^J^ S.a^=^\), the son 

of a qazi of Tatta. His ancestors, who resided 
in Sindh, were FariiqTs of the Hanifa sect, 
but he was a Shi'a. He is the author of a 
work called Klnddsat-til- Hayat, the Essence 
of Life. He came from the Deccan to the 
court of the emperor Akbar, in the year a.d. 
1582, A.H. 990, and when that monarch 
ordered the Tdrlkh-i-Alfi to be compiled, 
several authors were employed in the compi- 
lation, but subsequently the chief labour 
devolved upon Mulla Ahmad. The compila- 
tion of the first two volumes up to the time 
of Chingiz Klian was just finished by him, 
when Mirza Fulad Birlas, during the mouth 
of January, 1588, Safar, a h. 996, persuaded 
the Mulla, who was always openly reviling 
the first khalifas, to leave his o\n\ house at 
midnight on some pretence, and then murdered 
him in a street at Lahore. For this act 
Mirza Fiilad was sentenced to death, was 
bound alive to the leg of an elephant in the 
city of Lahore, and dragged along till he 
died. The Mulla expired three or foirr days 
after the Mirza. After the death of Mulla 
Ahmad, the remainder of the work was 
written by Asaf Klrau Ja'far Beg, up to the 
year a.h. 997, or a.d. 1589. Mulla Ahmad 
was biu'ied at Lahore, but being a Shl'a 
who openly used to revile the first khalifas, 
the people of Lahore exhumed his remains 
and burnt them. 

[Vide A'lH Translation, i. p. 206.] 

Ahmad Nizam Shah Bahri (ji_^f_rs-l 

i^^ <»l.l2J), the founder of the 

Xizam-Shahi dynasty of the Deccan, was the 
sou of Nizam-ul-Midk Bahri, prime mini.ster 
to Sultan Mahmiid Shiih Bahmani. He had 
conquered many places in the vicinity of his 
father's jagir, and was besieging the fort of 
Dundrajpiir about the year a.d. 1486, a.h. 
891, when he received intelligence of the 
assassination of his father, and immediately 
returned and assumed the titles of the deceased, 
and was generally known by those of Ahmad 
Nizilm-ul-Mulk Bahri, to which the people 
of the Deccan added the title of Shah. As 
he had distiuguished himself repeatedly as a 
general in the field, though the Sultan wished 
to remove him from power, none of his 
nobilitv would accept the task of reducing 
him. "He, however, on the 3rd May, 1490, 
3rd Rajab, a.h. 895, gained a victory over 
the armv of the SultSn, and from that time 
he sat without opponent cm the luasuad of 
royaltv, and by the advice of Yusuf 'Adil 
Shah, who had already become iudcpendeut, 
having discontinued to read the khutha in llie 
name of the king, put in his own and spread 
a wliite umbrella over his head. He laid the 




foundation of the city of Aliniaduajjar in a.i>. 
1-195, A.n. 900, wliicli was completed in two 
years, and became the first of the Xizam- 
"Shahi kings of Ahmadnagar. He died in 
A.D. 1508, A.n. 914, and was succeeded by 
his son, Burhau Nizam Shah I. The follow- 
ing is a list of the Nizam- Shahi kings of 
Alimaduagar : 

Ahmad Xi?am ShSh I., a.d. 1490. 

Burhan Ni?ani Shah, 1508. 

Husain Ni?am Shfxh I., 1553. 

Murtaza Niziim Shiih, 1565. 

Miran Husain Nizam Shah, 1587. 

IsmS'Il Nizam Shah, 1589. 

Bm'han Ni/.am Shah II. 

Ibrahim Nizam Shah, 1594. 

Ahmad Nizam Shah II., son of Shah 

Tahir, 1594. 
Bahadur Nizam Shah, 1595. 
Murtaza Nizam Shah II., 1598. 

The Ni?am ShahT dominions fall under the 
control of Malik 'Ambar, 1607. 

Ahmad Pasha (Ijblj j^^rs-V), a general 

of Sulaiman I., emperor of Turkey, who, 
•when appointed Governor of Egypt, revolted 
from his sovereign in a.d. 1524. He was 
soon after defeated by Ibrahim, the favourite 
of Sulaiman, and his head was sent to 

Ahmad Rumi ( ,.^., Jk./*,..^^^), author 

of the Fdiq-ul-Huqaiq, a work written in 
imitation of the Masnawl of Jalal uddin 

Ahmad Samani (Amir) ( jl^U ^a^7>-\ 

-_».^1), second king of the race of 

Saman (Samanides'), succeeded his father Amir 
Isma'Tl in the provinces of I\hurasan, etc., in 
A.D. 907, A.n. 295. He was a cruel prince, 
and contended with his uncle, his brothers, 
and other relations, for the extensive posses- 
sions of his father, more by intrigues at the 
coirrt of Baghdad than by arms. After a 
reign of seven years, he was murdered by 
some of his domestics on Thursday 30th 
January, a.d. 914, 23rd Jumslda I., a.h. 
301, and his son. Amir Nasr, then only eight 
years of age, was placed upon the throne of 
Khurasan and Bukhara. Ahmad was buried 
in Bukhara, and they gave him the title of 
Sultan Shaliid, i.e. the martjTed king. 

Ahmad Sarhindi (Shaikh) (j>.^.rw\ 
:), entitled Mujaddid- 


i - Alf - i - SiinT, a dervish celebrated for his 
piety and learning, was the son of Shaikh 
'Abdul -Wahid FfiriKiT, and was born at 
Sarbiiul in a.d. 1503, a.h. 971. Ho was a 
disciple of Khwaja Baiil, a celebrated saint of 
DehlT, and is the author of several works. 
He died on Tuesday 29tii November, a.d. 

1624, the last Tue.sdayin the month of Safar, 
A.n. 1034, and is buried at Sarhiud. He 
was called " Mujaddid-i-Alf-i-Saui, or the 
" Renewer of the second Millennium," because 
he adopted the general belief that eveiy 
thousand years a man was born who has a 
thorough knowledge of the Islam, and whose 
vocation it is to revive and strengthen it. 
He believed that he Avas the man of the 
second (samj Millennium (alf). 

Ahmad, Sayyid, of Barha, brother of 

Sayyid Mahmiid Barha, served under Akbar 
in Gujrat. He was in charge of Akbar's 
hunting leopards. His son, Sayyid Jamal- 
uddin, was killed by the explosion of a mine 
before Chitor. 

Ahmad, Sayyid, of Bukhara, father of 

the renowned Shaikh Farid-i-Bukhari. Tide 

Ahmad Shah (iLi^ A.^5-1), entitled 

Muj iihid - ud - din Muhammad Abun - Na sr 
Ahmad Shah Bahadur, was the son of 
Muhammad Shah, emperor of Dehli, whom 
he succeeded on the 15th April, a.d. 1748, 
27th Eabi' II., A.n. 1161. His mother's 
name was Tdham Bai. He was born in the 
fort of Dehli on Tuesday 14th December, 
A.D. 1725, 17th RabT' II., a.h. 1138, and 
crowned in Panipat en Monday 19th April, 
A.D. 1748, 2nd Jumada I., a.h. 1161. After 
a reign of 6 years 3 months and 8 days, he 
was deposed and imprisoned, and afterwards 
blinded, together with his mother, ])y his 
prime minister, 'Imad-ul-Mulk Gliazi-uddiu 
I\han, on Sunday 2nd June, n.s. 1754. 
After this, he lived more than 21 years, and 
died on the 1st January, a.d. 1775, from 
bodily disease. He was binied in front of the 
mosque of Qadam- Sharif in Dehli, in the 
mausoleum of Maryara-MakanT. After his 
imprisonment, 'Alamgir II., son of Jahandar 
Shah, was raised to the throne. 

[Vide Troc. As. Soc. Bengal, for 1874, 
p. 208.] 

Ahmad Shah Abdali (iL-i J>-4-=>-l 
Jlj>jl), commonly called Shah 

Durrani, was the son of a chief of the Afglian 
tribe of Abdal, in the vicinity of the city of 
Hirat. He was taken prisoner in his infancy 
by Nadir Shah, who gave him the post of a 
mace-bearer, and by degrees promoted him to 
a considerable command in the army. The 
morning after the assassination of Nadir 
Sliah, which took place in the night of the 
12th May, 1747, o.s., he made an attack, 
supported by a corps of Uzbeks, upon the 
Persian troops, but was repulsed. He then 
left the army, and proceeding by rapid 
marches to (iandahar, not only obtained 
possession of that city, but took a large 
convoy of treasure which was coming from 




Kiibul and Siudh to the Persian camp. By 
the aid of these means, he laid the fouudatiim 
of a kingdom, wliich soon attained a strength 
that rendered it formidable to the surrounding 
nations. He not only subdued Qandahar and 
Kabul, but took Peshawar and Lahore ; and 
emboldened by this success, and the weakness 
of the empire, he resolved the conquest of 
the capital of Hindustan. In the beginning 
of the year a.d. 1748, a.h. 1161, he began 
his march from Lahore. Muhammad Shiih, 
the emperor of Dehli, being at this time too 
inchsposed to take the field, despatched his 
only son, prince Ahmad, against the enemy, 
under the command of the wazir Qamar- 
uddin Khan, Safdar-Jang, governor of Audh, 
and several other chiefs, with a great army. 
For some davs several skirmishes took place 
between the two armies near Sarhind. At 
length, on Friday 11th March, a.d. 1748, 
22ud Eabi' I., a.h. 1161, Qamar-uddin 
Khan, the wazir, being killed as he was at 
his devotion in his tent by a cannon ball, a 
panic prevailed in the Mughul army ; the 
battle, however, continued till a magazine of 
rockets taking fire in the enemy's camp, 
numbers of the troops were wounded by the 
explosion ; and Shah Abdali, either dis- 
heartened by the loss, or satisfied by the 
plunder gained at Sarhind, thought it proper 
to retreat towards Kabul, which he did un- 
molested. In the year, a.d. 1757, a.h. 1170, 
he again advanced as far as Dehli and Agra, 
and after having plundered and massacred 
the inhabitants of Mathura, he returned to 
Qandahar. About the year a.d. 1758, a.h. 
1172, the Maratha power had spread itself in 
almost every province of Hindiistan, when 
Naj lb - ud - daula, the Rohela , Shuj a ' - ud - 
daula jSTawab, of Audh, and not only the 
Musalmans, but Hindiis also, joined in 
petition to Ahmad Shah Abdali, that he 
would march and assume the throne of Dehli, 
in which they promised to support him. The 
Abdali, enraged at the seizure of Lahore by 
the Marathas, rejoiced at the invitation, and 
advanced without delay across the Indus, and 
driving the Marathas before him, he did not 
stop till they reached the vicinity of Dehli. 
He engaged the Marathas in several battles, 
and attained the highest reno-mi among 
Muhammadans by the memorable defeat that 
he gave the hostile army on the plains of 
Panipat. This famous action was fought in 
January, 1761. After this victory, Durrani 
Shah retiu'ned to his OAvn country, but before 
his departure he acknowledged Shah 'Alam, 
then in Bengal, as emperor of Hindiistan, 
and commanded Shuja'-ud-daula and other 
chiefs to submit to his authority. He died 
after a reign of 26 years in a.d. 1772, a.h. 
1182, aged 50 years, and was succeeded by 
his son, Timur Shah. His tomb, covered with 
a gilt cupola, stands near the king's palace, 
and is held sacred as an asylum. 

Ahmad Shah Bahmani II. (Sultan) 

^.:.-4..^,.j il-l Jw».r-0. On the 

death of his father. Sultiin Mahmud Shah II., 
in October, a.d. 1518, Shawwal, a.h. 924, 

Amir Biiiid, his prime minister, dreading that 
the siu-rouuding powers would attack him 
should he assume open independence, placed 
prince Ahmad, son of the late king, upon the 
throne at Ahmadabad Bidar, leaving him the 
palace, with the use of the royal jewels, and 
a daily allowance of money for his support. 
The sum not being equal to his expenses, the 
king broke up the crown, which was valued 
at 400,000 buns, or £160,000, and privately 
sold the jewels. He died two years after his 
accession to the throne, in the year a.d. 1521, 
a.h. 927. After his death Amir Barid raised 
Sidtan 'Ala-uddin III., one of the princes, 
on the throne. Two years after he was 
imprisoned, and another son of Mahmiid 
Shilh, named Wali-ullah Shah, was placed 
in his room. Three years after his accession, 
the minister conceiving a passion for his wife, 
he caused him to be poisoned, and espoused 
the queen. He then placed Kalim-ullah, 
the son of Ahmad Shah II., on the throne. 
This prince enjoyed nothing but the name of 
sovereign, and was never allowed to leave the 
palace. He was afterwards treated with great 
rigour by Amir Barid, whereupon he made 
his escape, first to his uncle Isma'il 'Adil 
Shah to Bijapiir, and thence to Biu'han 
Nizam Shah of Ahmadnagar, where he 
resided till his death. With him ended the 
dmasty of the Bahmani kings of the Deccan. 
In fact, before this event, the Deccan was 
divided into five kingdoms — 'Adil-ShaliT, or 
kings of Bijapur; (jutb-Shahi, or kings of 
Golkonda ; 'Imad-Shahi, or kings of Barar; 
Nizam-Shahi, or kings of Ahmadnagar; and 
Barid- Shahi, kings of Ahmadabad Bidar. 

Ahmad Shah I. (^^l.^ Jk.^ft^l), second 

king of Gujrat, was the son of Tatar Kliau 
and grandson of Muzaffar Shah, whom he 
succeeded as king of Gujrat. The author of 
the Mu)itakhab-ut-Taiidnkh states that his 
grandfather placed him on the tlu-one druing 
his lifetime, in the year a.h. 813, a.d. 1410, 
and that he sun'ived that measure five months 
and sixteen days. In the same year he laid 
the foundation of a new city on the banks of 
the Sabannati, which he called after his o\\ti 
name, Ahmadabad, and which afterwards 
became the capital of the kings of Gujrat. 
The date of the lajing of the foundation of 
this city is contained in the words " Ba- 
khair," i.e. all well. He ched after a reign 
of nearly 33 years, on the 4th July, a.d. 
1443, 4th Rabi' I., a.h. 847, and was suc- 
ceeded by liis son, Muhammad Shah. 

Ahmad Shah II. (j^U i\.Z> s.a~s^\), 

king of Gujrat. After the death of jrahmud 
Shah III., there being no relation on whom 
the succession might devolve, I'timfid Khan, 
the prime minister, resolved rather than see 
the kingdom in absolute anarchy, to elevate 
a youth, whom ho asserted to be the son of 
prince Ahmad Isiian, fonnerly governor of 
Ahmadabad, and declared him the legal 
successor to the crown of Gujrat. He was 
forthwith placed on the thnnie on the 18th 




February, A.n. 1554, loth RabI' I., a.h. 961. 
He reiiiiicd srveii vciU's aiul some nioutlis, and 
was fouud Tiiurdered oue luoruiug at the foot 
of the palace wall. This event took place 
on Monday the 21st April, a.d. 1561, 5th 
Sha'ban, a.h. 968. He was succeeded by 
Mxizaffar Shah III. 

[Vide ^in TraiiKhttion, i. p. 335.] 

Ahmad Shah of Bengal (iLl J^^s^l), 

succeeded his father, Jalal - uddiu, to the 
throne of Bengal in a.h. 834, or a.d. 1430, 
reigned about 16 years, and died about the 
year a.d. 1446, a.h. 850. He was suc- 
ceeded by Nazir-uddin Mahmud Shah I., a 
descendant of Shams-uddln Ilyas Shah. 

Ahmad Shah, or Ahmad-ullah Shah 

(iL-1 Jk./«..=-'), commonly called 

*' The Maulawi," a prominent character in 
the neiulibonrliood of Shahjahanpiir and 
Muhammad! during the mutiny of 1857. He 
is said to liave been the inspired Faqir who 
travelled through the upper provinces, a few 
years ago, on a miraculous mission. He made 
a pretty long stay at Agra, astonishing the 
Datives and puzzling the authorities. It seems 
probable that he was even then busy in sowing 
the seeds of rebellion. He held great power 
within the city of Lucknow, in March, 1858, 
when the Commander-in-chief entered that 
city and commanded a stronghold in the very 
heart of the city. He was slain at Pawain, 
on the 15th June, 1858, sixteen miles north- 
east of Shalijahanpiir, and the raja of that 
place sent the head and trunk to Mr. Gilbert 
Money, the Commissioner. 

Ahmad Shah Wall Bahmani I. 

(Sultan) {i^y%.^^j ]j il^ w\^s».l), was 

the second son of Sultan Daiid Shah of the 
Bahmani race. He ascended the throne of 
the Deccan on the loth September, a-d. 
1422, 5th Shawwal, a.h. 825, ten days before 
the demise of his brother. Sultan Firiiz Shah, 
who had resigned the crown in his favour. 
He is the founder of the city and fort of 
Ahraadabad Bidar, the foundation of wliich 
he laid in the year a.d. 1432, a.h. 836. It 
is said that tlie Sultan, on his retiu'n from 
a war at Bidar, took to the amusement of 
hunting ; and coming to a most beautiful 
spot, finely watered, resolved to build upon it 
a city, to be called after his name, Ahmada- 
bad. A citadel of great extent and strengtli 
was erected on the very site of Bidar, the 
ancient capital of princes, who, according to 
the Hindii books, 5,000 years back, possessed 
the whole extent of Mirhat, Karnatik, and 
Talingana. llaja Bhim Sen was one of tlie 
most celebrated of this lionsc?, and the history 
of the loves of his daugliter and Baja Nal, 
king of Millwa, are famous through all 
Hindiistan. Their story was translated from 
the Sanskrit by Shaikh FaizI, under the title 

of XaJ Daman, into Persian verse, at the 
command of the emperor, Akbar Shah. 
Ahmad Shah reigned 12 lunar years and 10 
months, and died on the 19th February, a.d. 
1435, 18th Rajab, a.h. 838. He was"buried 
at Ahniadabiicl Bidar, and was succeeded by 
his son, Sultan 'Ala-uddin II. 

Ahmad (Shaikh) (; 

c^j'^ 3,^:=- 


of Ghazni, author of the work entitled 
Maqdmdt-i-Shaikh Ahmad, containing the 
Life of Ahmad Jam, Shailch-id-Islam, of 
jVishapiir ; with a minute account of the 
miracles performed by him. Tide Ahmad 

Ahmad (Shaikh) ( J 


'±^^\ d-A.^\), 

commonly called Mulla Jiwan, of Amethl, 
was the ttitor of the emperor 'Alamgir, and 
author of the Tafslr-i-Ahmadi. He died in 
A.D. 1718, a.h. 1130. Vide Mulla Jiwan. 

Ahmad (Shaikh), second son of Shaikh 

Salim Chishti, of Fatbpur Sikri. He served 
imder Akbar, and died in a.h. 985. 

Ahmad Shihab-uddin Talish (A^r^l 

{J^\'j 1^1'^'^ t__J^^). Viile Slilhab- 
uddln Ahmad Talish. 

Ahmad Suhaili (Amir) ( V^j,^ S/*.s^\ 

.-.-<1), seal-bearer to Sultan Husain 

IMirza of Hirat, to whom several of tlie poets 
of his time dedicated their works. Husain 
"NVaiz dedicated his Anwar Suhaili to him. 
Vide Suhaili. 

Ahmad-ullah Shah, commonly called 
' The Maulawi " ; sec Ahmad Shah. 

Ahmad Yadgar (^ISjIj Jk.4.>-1), author 

of tlu' Tilrlk-i-Saldnn-i-Afdgh'uia, a history 
of the Afghan kings of IncUa from Bidilid 
LodT, composed by order of Daud Shah, last 
king of Bengal. 

I Vide Dowson, v. p. 1.] 

Ahmad Yar Khan (^Ld- .L« jkw*.=-0, 

whose poetical name is Yakta, was of the 
tribe of the Turks called Birlas. His father, 
Allah Yar Klian, held at different ]Hriods the 
siibadfiri of Lahore, Tatta, and Multan, and 
was afterwards appointed to the Fanjdari of 
Gliazni. Ahmad Yar Khan also held the 
Subadari of Tatta in the latter part of the 
reign of 'Alamgir. He was an excellent poet, 
and is the author of several poems. He died 
on the 21st September, a.d., o.s. 1734, 23rd 
Juniada I., a.h. 1147. 




Alimad Yar Khan (Nawab), of Barcli, 

the son of Nawab Zul-tiqar-ud-daula INIu- 
liammad Ziil-tiqiir Khau Bahadm- Dilawar- 
Jaug of Bareli. He was alive iu a.d. 1815, 
A.H. 1230. 

Ahmad Zarruq. ijjjj .^'♦■=-0, surname 

of Abul- 'Abbas Abmad bin -Ahmad bin- 
Muhammad bin-'Isa BarallusI, author of the 
coninieutary called Sharh AsnuVil-Husna. 
He cUed in a.d. 1493, a.h. 899. 

Ahsan { »j,:^\), poetical name of 

'Inayat Khan, the son of Nawab Zafar Khan. 
He was Governor of Kabul in the reign of 
'Alamgir, and is the author of a Diwan. 
Vide Ashna. 

Ahsan-ullah Khan (Hakim) {^^^\ 

*-X>. ^ISO, so well-known at Delili, 

died in September, 1873, in that city. 

'Ain-uddin (Shaikh) (^--^ ^_jj^ ^^), 

of Bijapiir, author of the Mulhaqdt, and 
Kitdb-ul- Anwar, containing a history of 
all the Muhammadan saints of India. Ho 
flourished in the time of Sultan 'Ali-uddin 
Hasan Bahmani. 

'Ain-nl-Mulk (Hakim) (J_<US\ ^.^z 
f,^.L.=>-), a native of Shiraz, and 

a well-educated and learned Musalmau, was 
an otticer of rank in the time of the emperor 
Akbar. He was an elegant poet, and his 
poetical name was Wata. He died in the 
40th year of the emperor's reign in a.d. 1594, 
A.H. 1003. 

[For further notes, vide Aln Translation, 
i. p. 481.] 

'Ain-ul-Mulk (Khwaja) (tli^L*]^ ^^z 

d^:>-\^6-.), a distinguished nobleman 

of the court of Sultan Muhammad Shah 
Tughluq and his successor Sultan Firuz Shah, 
kings of Dehli. He is the author of several 
works, one of which is called Tarsil ^Ain-nl- 
Mulki. He also appears to be the author of 
another work called Fath-ndnid, containing 
an account of the conquests of Sultan 'Ala- 
uddlu, who reigned from a.d. 129G to 1316. 

'Aish (j^^r), the poetical name of 

Muhammad 'Askari, who lived in the reign 
of the emperor Shah 'Alam. 

'Aishi ( 


'S), a poet, who is the 

Ajaipal, the ruja who founded Ajmir 
about a.d. 1183. 

Ajit Singh, a Sikh chief and murderer 

of Maharaja Sher Singh of Lahore. He also 
slew Dhaian Singh, another chief, and was 
himself seized by Hira Singh, the son of 
Dhaian Singh, and put to death together 
with Lena Singh and others. This took place 
in September, 1843. 

Ajit Singh (Raja) (<^-l d5o^~ 

author of a Masnawi called Ilttft Akhtnr, or 
the seven planets, which he wrote in a.d. 
1675, a.h. 1086. 

a Rathaiui Rajput, and hereditary zamindar 
of Marwar, or Jodhpiir, was the son of Raja 
Jaswaut Siugh Rathauri. He was restored 
in A.D. 1711 to the throne of his ancestors, 
and gave his daughter in marriage to the 
emperor Farrtiklisiyar in the year a.d. 1716. 
He was murdered one night, when fast asleep, 
at the instigation of his son, Abhai Singh, 
who succeed'ed him. This took place in the 
beginning of the reign of the emperor Mu- 
hammad Shah, about a.d. 1724. 

'Ajiz (j.:?-!.^), the poetical name of 

'Arif-uddin Khan, who lived about a.d. 1754, 
A.H. 1168. 

'Ajiz, the poetical name of Lala Ganga 
Bishn, father of Ram j as Mim.shi, which see. 

Ajmal (Shah) ( J^^l), or Shah Mu- 
hammad Ajmal, a Pirzada of Allahabad, 
was a descendant of Shah Kliiib-ullah, and 
younger brother of Shah Gliulam Qutb-uddin, 
the son of Shah Muhammad Fakhii-, the 
respectability of whose family is well-known 
at Allahabad. He died iu the year a.d. 1821, 
A.H. 1236. 

Ajmiri Khan, an inhabitant of Ajmir. 
He walked with the emperor Akbar from 
Agra to Ajmir, on which account he received 
the title of Ajmiri Klian from that emperor. 
He had built a garden on a spot of 28 bighas 
of grouud at Agra. This place is now called 
Ajmiri Khan-ka Tila. 

Aka Rihi, of Nishapur, an author. 
Akbarabadi MahaH ( J.s-* ^S^\jS\), 

A'azz-un-Xisa Begam, was the name of one 
of the wives of the emperor Shah Jahan. 
The large red stone mosque at Faizbazar, iu 
Dehli, was built by her in the year a.d. 1651, 
A.H. 1060, at a cost of 15(t,odo rupees. She 
died on the 29th January, a.d. 1677, 4th 
Zil-hijja, A.H. 1087, in the reign of 'Alamgir. 
There is also a mnsjid inside the city of Agra 
built by her, calledAkbarrihrulI ^Masjid. She 
had a villa also built at Agra. 




Akbar 'Ali Tashbihi ( A.z ^^\ 


-^j). He is mentioned in the 

Khiililsnt-ul-Ash'ar to have been the son of 
a washerman. lie went to India, and tnrned 
faqir, but, as he was an inlidel, his ascetic 
exercises cannot have been of much use to his 
soul. He left a diwan of about 8000 verses, 
and a masnawl, called Zurra tea Khurshtd. 
He was alive in a.d. 1585, a.h. 993. 

[Regarding tliis poet, vide Atn Transla- 
tion, i. p. 956.] 

Akbar Khan, the son of Dost Mu- 
hammad Klian, ruler of Kabul, by his first 
wife. Ho shot Sir W. II. Macnagiiten on 
the 26th December, 1841, when his father, 
Dost Muhammad Klifiu, was a State prisoner 
in India. When his father. Dost Muhammad 
Khan, came in possession of Kabul after 
the retreat of the English in 1842, he was 
ajipointed heir - appar, nt in preference to 
Muhammad Afzal Ivhiln, his eldest son by 
his second wife. He died in 1848, when his 
full brotlier, Gluilam Haidar I\han, was 
nominated heir-apparent, after whose death, 
in 1858, Sher 'All, his brother, was nomi- 

Akbar (Prince) , the youngest son of the 

emperor 'Alamgir, was born on the 10th 
September, o.s. 1657, 11th Zil-hijja, a.h. 
1067, raised the standard of rebellion against 
his father, and joined the Maratha chief 
Sambhuji in Jime, 1681. He afterwards 
quitted "his court, and repaired to Persia, 
where he died in a.d. 1706, a.h. 1118, a few 
months before his father, and was buried at 
Mashhad, in Khm-asan. 'Alamgir, at one 
time, intended to make Akbar his successor, 
and this preference arose from Akbar being 
the son of a IMuhammadan mother, the 
daughter of Shah Nawaz K]ian ; whereas his 
brothers, Sultans Mu'azzam and A'zam, were 
born of Eajput princesses. 

Akbar Shah (i^Li j.^^\), the Great, 

emperor of Hiudiistan, surnamed Abul-Fath 
Jalal-uddiu Muhammad, was the eldest sou 
of the emperor Humayun, and was born in 
Amarkot in the province of Sindh, on Sunday 
the lothi October, a.d. 1542, 5th Eajab, a.h. 
949, at a time when his father, after being 
defeated by Sher Shah, had taken refuge -with 
Eana Prashad. At the time of his father's 
death, Akbar was at Kalanur, where he had 
been deputed by his father with a considerable 
force to expel the ex-king Sikandar Shah 
Siir from the Siwalik mountains. "When 
information reached the prince of this mourn- 
ful event, Bairam K]ian, and other officers 
who were present, raised him to the throne 
on Friday 14th February, a.d. 1556, 2ud 
Rabi' II., A.H. 963, Akbar being then only 
13 years and 9 mouths old. He enlarged his 
dominions by the conquest of Gujrat, Bengal, 
Kashmir, aiid Sindh. Besides the forts of 

Atak, Agra, and Allahilbad, many military 
works were erected by him. He also built 
and fortified the town of Fathpur Sikri, 
which was his principal residence, and which, 
though now deserted, is one of the most 
s])lendid remains of former grandeur of India. 
He died after a prosperous reign of 61 lunar 
years and 9 months, on Wednesday the 16th 
October, o.s. 1605, 13th Jumada II., a.h. 
1014, aged 64 hmar years and 11 months. 
The words "Faut-i- Akbar Shiih" (the death 
of Akbar Shah), are the chronogram of his 
death. He was buried in the village of 
Sikandra, in the environs of Agra, where 
a splendid mausoleum was biult over his 
remains by his son Jahangir, which is still 
in a high state of preservation. He received 
after his death the title of "Arsh-'Ashyfaii," 
and was succeeded by his son Sultan Salira, 
who assumed the title of Jahangir. His 
mother's name was Hamida Bauii, commonly 
called Maryam-Makani. The history of 
this potentate has been written, with great 
elegance and precision, by his wazir Abul- 
Faz.l, in the work entitled Akbar-nd>na. In 
order to keep his turbulent Umaras, Turks, 
and Afghans, in check, Hindu chiefs wure 
encouraged by Akbar, and entrusted with the 
highest powers, both military and civil, as 
was the case with Raja Maldeo of Marwar, 
Bhagwan Das of Amber, Man Singh, his son, 
and Raja Todar Mai. He also connected 
himself and his sons with them by marriage. 
Both Akbar and his successor, Jahangir, had 
amongst their wives several of Hindii origin. 
Towards the middle of his reign, Akbar 
became dissatisfied with the Muhammadan 
religion, and invited to his coiu't teachers of 
the" Christian, Hiudii, and Parsi religions, 
and took an interest in their discussions. 
He adopted, however, none of them, but 
attempted to found a new system of belief, 
called " Din-i-Ilahi," which acknowledged 
one God, and the king as his vice-regent. 

[Vide Elphijistone'' s History of India, and 
Jiiiist'r Akbar, by the late Graf v. Noer 
(Prince Frederick of Schleswig-Holstein).] 

Akbar Shah II. ( Jlj iU, ^^1), king 

of Dehli, whose title in fidl is Abul-Nasr 
Mu'in-uddin Muhammad Akbar Shah, was 
the sou of the nominal emperor Shah 'Alam ; 
was born on AVeduesday 23rd April, n.r. 
1760, 7th Ramazan, a.h. 1173, and succeeded 
his father at the age of 48, on the 19th 
November, a.d. 1806, 7th Ramazan, a.h. 
1221, as titular king of Dehli. On his 
accession he made some weak attempts to 
increase his influence and power. These were 
properly resisted, but at the same time the 
pledge given by Lord Wellesley, to increase 
the allowance of the imperial family when 
the revenue of the country improved, was 
redeemed by an act of politic liberality. An 
augmentation of 10,000 rupees per mensem 
was appropriated for the support of his eldest 
son, whom he had declared heir-apparent. 
He sat on the throne of his ancestors nearly 
32 hmar years ; died on Friday 28th 




September, ad. 1837, 28tli Jumiida II., a.h. 
1253, aged about 80 lunar years, and was 
buried at Delili, close to the tomb of Bahadur 
Shah. His son Bahadur Shah XL, the last 
king of Dehli, succeeded him. Akbar some- 
times wrote poetry, and used the word Shu' a 
for his poetical name. 

Akhfash Ausat (k-^^1 ^jiiX^-l), was 

called Akhfash, because he had small eyes. 
His pi'oper name is Abul-IIasan Sa'id. He 
was an author, and died in the year a.d. 830. 
Some say he was born at Balkh, and died in 
A.H. 376. There were three persons of this 
name, all of whom were authors. Akhfash 
Asghar, or the lesser, died in a.d. 845. 

Akhtar ( ji.<..\), the poetical name of 

Qazi Midiammad Sadiq Klian, an excellent 
writer of prose and verse. 

Akhtar iy:..^\), the poetical name of 

Wajid 'All Shah, the last king of Audh, now 
of Garden Reach, Calcutta. 

Akmal-uddin Muhammad bin-Mah- 
mud (Shaikh), author of a commen- 
tary on the Ilidfiya, entitled 'Inai/a, or a/- 
'Indya. There are two commentaries on the 
Hidaya, commonly known by that name, but 
the one much esteemed for its studious 
anah'sis and interpretation of the text, is by 
this author ; it was published in Calcutta in 
1837. This author died in the year a.d. 
1384, A.H. 786. 

'Akrima, or more correctly 'Ikrima 
iU^.JLc), surname of Abu- AMullah, 

who was a freed slave of Ibn- 'Abbas, and 
became afterwards his disciple. He was one 
of the greatest lawyers. He died in the year 
A.D. 725, A.H. 107- 

Aksir, or more correctly, Iksir (Mirza) 


j\.^,.L^\ r:»A«^0, of Isfahan, 

1;^ L^H- 

author of a book of elegies. He served imder 
NawabNizam-ul-Mulk Asaf-Jah and Safdar- 
Jang, and died in Bengal in n.s. 1756, a.h. 

Alahdad Sarhindi, or more con-ectly, 

Ilahdad, poetically styled Faizi, a 

native of Sarhiud, and author of a Persian 
Dictionary called Maddr ul-Afazil. 

[Regardiug this dictionary and its author, 
vide Jour. As. Soc. Boiyal, 1868, p. 10.] 

Al-Ahnaf (^jo^^'l), uncle of Yazid, 

the second khalifa of the house of Umayya. 
At the battle of SifEln he had fought on 

the side of 'Ali. Several sayings of this 
celebrated chief are recorded " in the Bio- 
graphical Dictionary of Ibn KliaUikan. He 
outlived Mu'awiya. 

Alahwirdi Khan (^l..:L ^_s^J,^^^), 

or more correctly, Ilahwirdi Khan, 

a nobleman of the reign of the emperor 
Jahaugir. He Was raised to the rank of 
6,000 in the time of Sliah Jahan, and held 
several offices of importance. He was ap- 
pointed Governor of Patna, and espoused the 
cause of Sultan Shuja', brother of Aurangzib, 
A.D. 1658, A.H. 1068, and after the defeat of 
Shuja', accompanied him to Bengal, where 
he was slain, together with his son Saif-uUah, 
by order of that prince, in July, a.d. 1659, 
Zil-qa'da, a.h. 1069. 

[The word ivirdl or ivirdi means " a rope," 
God being the hahl'i-matin, the strong rope 
which the faithful seize so as not to perish.] 

Alahwirdi Khan {J^<^ ^^j^i^\), 
or more correctly, Ilahwirdi Khan, 

title of Ja'far Khan, the sou of Ilrdiwirdi 
K[ian the first. He was raised to the rank 
of an amir by 'Alamgir, with the title of 
Ilahwardi Ivhan 'Alamgir- Shahi. He was 
appointed Subadar of Allahabad, where he 
died A.D. 1669, a.h. 1079. He was an 
excellent poet, and has left a Diwan. 

Alahwirdi Khan, (^l^ ^J.j<LiJl 
^— C:k:>- ci—jL^*), or more commonly, 

Allahwirdi Khan, styled Mahabat- 

Jang, the usurper of the government of Bengal, 
was originally named Mirzii Muhammad 'All. 
His father, Mirza Muhammad, a Tui'kman, 
an officer in the ser%'ice of the prince A'zam 
Shah, on the death of his pati-on in a.d. 
1707, falling into distress, moved from Dehli 
to Katak, the capital of Orisa, in hopes of 
mending his fortune under Shuja' -uddin, the 
son-in-law of Nawilb Murshid Quli Ja'far 
Klian, Siibadar of Bengal, who received him 
with kindness, and after some time bestowed 
on his son the Faujdari of Eajmaliall, and 
procured for him from the emperor a mansab 
and the title of Allahwirdi Khan, and after- 
wards that of Mahabat-Jaug. ^'\iter the 
death of Shuja'-uddiu, and the accession of 
his son, Sarfaraz Khan, to the government of 
Bengal, Allahwirdi overthrew the Nawab, 
in an action in which the latter was slain, 
in a.d. 1740, a.h. 1153, and m-sm-ped the 
government. He reigned sixteen years over 
the three pi'ovinces of Bengal, Bilifir, and 
Orisa, and died on Saturdav tlie lOtli April, 
N.s. 1750, 9th llajab, A.ii. 1169, aged 80 
years. He was bm-icd in Murshidabad, near 
tlie tomb of his mother, in tlie ganhm of 
Kjiiish- Bfigh, and wiis siu'cccded by his 
grand-nephew and grandson, Mirza Mahmud, 




better known by his assumed name of Siraj- 
iid-diuila. It does not appear that Anahwirdl 
ever remitted any part of the revenue to 
Dehli after payment of the first instalment, 
of which tlu! "hulk went to the Marat ha 
Government at J 'una. 

Alah Yar Klian i'^i^ ^A:>- ,b i^\), 

j^ w V •• 

or more correctly, Hah Yar Khan 

(Shaikh), son of Shaikh 'Abdus- 

Suhhan, was formerly employed by Xawab 
Mubariz-id-^SIulk Sarbalaud IChfrn, Governor 
of Gujriit, and in the reiuu of the emperor 
Fari-ukhsivar was raised to the rank of h,000, 
with the title of Rustam Zaman Khan. In 
the time of the emperor Muhammad Shah, 
when Raja Abhai Singh, the son of Raja 
AjTt Singh Marwari, was appointed Governor 
of Gujrat in the room of Nawab Sarbalaud 
Klian, the latter made some opposition to his 
successor ; a battle ensued, and Shaikh Ilah 
Yar, who was then with the Nawab, was 
killed in the action. This took place on the 
dav of Dasahra, 5th October, o.s. 1730, 8th 
Rabi II., A.H. 1143. 

Alah Yar Khan ( .j^ ij;^-^ j^ ^^^ 
■ ^:>- }^\.i\), or more correctly, 

Ilah Yar Khan, son of Iftikhar 

Khan Turkman, a nobleman of the court of 
Shiih Jahan. He died in Bengal in a.d. 
1650, A.H. 1060. 

Alah Yar Khan Mir-Tuzuk (^l_) a.S1 
( $;J _»,« ^j^A:>-), or more correctly, 

Ilah Yar Khan, a nobleman in the 

time of the emperor 'Alamo-Ir, who held the 
rank of 1,500, and died a.d'. 1662, a.h. 1073. 

Alamayo (Prince), the son of king 

Theodore of Abyssinia. After the fall of 
Mao:dala and the death of his father, 10th 
April, 1808, he was sent to England to be 
educated, where he died. 

Al-Amin {^j^^^i'), the 6th khalifa of 

the house of 'Abbas, succeeded his father, 
Hariin-iu--Rashid, to the throne of Baghdad, 
in March, a.d. 809, a.h. 193. He was no 
sooner seated on the throne than he formed 
a desifjn of excluding his brother, al-Mamiin, 
from the succession. Accordinjjly, he deprived 
him of the furniture of the imperial palace 
of Khurasan ; and in o])en violation of his 
father's will, who had bestowed on al-Mamun 
the perpetual government of Khurasan and 
of all the troops in that province, he ordered 
these forces to march directly to Baghdad. 
T^pon the arrival of this order, al-Maniun 
expostulated with the general al-Fazl Ibu 

Rabi'a, who commanded his troops, and 
endcavound to prevent his marching to 
Baghdad ; but without effect, for he punc- 
tually obeyed the orders sent by the khalifa. 
Al-Fazl having ingratiated himself with the 
khalTta by his ready compliance with his 
orders, was chosen prime minister, and 
governed with absolute sway, al - Amin 
abandoning himself entirely to ch'unkenuess. 
Al-Fazl was a very able minister; but fearing 
al-Mamiin's resentment, if ever he should 
ascend the throne, he gave al-Amin such 
advice as proved in the end the ruin of them 
both. He advised him to deprive al-Mamiin 
of the right of succession that had been given 
him by his father, and transfer it to his own 
son Miisa, though then but an infant. Agree- 
able to this pernicious advice, the khalifa sent 
for his brother al-Qasim from Mesopotamia, 
and recalled al-Mamun from Ivhmasan, 
pretending he had occasion for him as an 
assistant in his councils. By this ill-treat- 
ment al-Mamun was so much provoked, that 
he resolved to come to an open ruptm-e with 
his brother. A war soon after broke out 
between them. Tahir ibn-Hnsaiu, the general 
of al-Mamun, laid siege to Baghdad, took it, 
and having seized al-Amin, cut off his head, 
and exposed it to public view in the streets 
of Baghdad. Afterwards he sent it to al- 
Mamiiu in Kliurasau, together with the ring 
or seal of the kbilafat, the sceptre and the 
imperial robe. At the sight of these, al- 
Mamiin fell down on his knees, and returned 
thanks to God for his success, making the 
courier who brought the insignia a present 
of a million dirhams. The death of al-Amin 
took place on the 6th October, a.d. 813, 6th 
Safar, a.h. 198. He was then 30 years of 
age, and had reigned but four years and some 

'Alamgir I. (il-ijb .-.Olc), emperor 

of Hindiistan, surnamed Abul-Zafar Muhi- 
luldin Muhammad Aiu'angzib, took the title 
of 'Alamgir on his accession to the throne. 
lie was the third son of the emperor Shah 
Jahan, born on Sunday lOtli October, o.s. 
1619, nth Zil-qa'da, a.h. 1028. His 
mother's name was Arjmand Banii, surnamed 
Mumtaz-Mahall. In his youth, he put on 
the appearance of religious sanctity, but in 
June, a.d. 1658, Ramzan, a.h. 1068, during 
his father's illness, he, in conjunction with 
his brother, j\Im-ad Bakhsh. seized Agra, and 
made his father prisoner. Murad was soon 
after imprisoned by 'Alamgir, who marched 
to Dehli, where he caused himself to be 
proclaimed emperor on the 21st July of the 
same year, 1st Zil-qa'da, a.h. 1068, but was 
not crowned till the first anniversary of his 
accession, a circumstance which has intro- 
duced some confusion in the chronology of 
his reign. Soon after, he put Murad Bakhsh 
and his eldest brother, the heir - apparent, 
Dara Sliikoh, to death. He greatly enlarged 
his dominions, and became so formidable that 
all Eastern princes sent ambassadors to him. 
He was an able prince, but a biii'oti'd Sunni, 
and attempted to force the Hindiis to adopt 




that faith, destropng their temples, and 
levying the capitation tax {Jizi/a) from every 
Hindii. The feudatory chiefs of Rajputana 
successfully resisted the impost. lie died 
after a reign of 50 lunar years at Ahmad- 
nagar, in the Deccan, on Friday the 21st 
February, o.s. 1707, 28th Zil-ija'da, a.h. 
1118, aged 90 hmar years and 17 days, and 
was interred in the coiu't of the mniisoleum of 
Shaikh Zaiu-uddin, in Kliuldabad, eight kos 
from the city of AurangShad. After his 
death, he received the title of " Hazrat 
Klmld-Makau" {i.e. He whose place is in 
paradise). He was married in the 19th year 
of his age to a daughter of Slifihnawaz K]iau, 
the son of 'Asaf Klian, the prime minister of 
the emperor Jahaugir, by whom he had five 
sons and four daughters. His eldest son, 
named Sultan Muhammad, died before his 
father ; his second son was Muhammad 
Mu'azzam, who succeeded him with the title 
of Shah 'Alam Bahadur Shah ; the third, 
A'zam Shah, was slain in battle fought 
against the latter ; the fom'th, Muhammad 
Akbar, who revolted against his father, took 
refuge in Persia, and died there ; the fifth, 
Kiim Bakhsh, who was also slain in battle. 
The names of his four daughters are : Zeb- 
un-Xisa, Zinut-un-Xisa, Badr-un-Xisa, and 

'Alamgir II., 'Azlz-uddin, was the son 

of the emperor Jahandar Shah by Aniip Bal ; 
was born in a.d. 1688, a.h. 1099, and raised 
to the throne, in the fort of Dehli, by 
'Imad-ul-Mulk Gliazi-mldin Klian the wazTr, 
on Sunday the 2ud June, n.s. 1751, 10th 
Sha'ban, a.h. 1167, after the deposition and 
imprisonment of Ahmad Shah, the son of the 
emperor Muhammad Shah. He was, after 
a nominal reign of five years and some 
months, assassinated by the same person who 
had placed him on the throne, on the 29th 
November, n.s. 1759, 8th Rabi' II. a.h. 
1173, and was interred in the jdatform before 
the mausoleum of the emperor Humaviin. 
His son 'All Gardiar (afterwards Shah 'Alam) 
being then in Bengal, Muhiy-ul-Simnat, sou 
of Kiim Bakhsh, the son of the emperor 
Aurangzib, was seated on the throne, with 
the title of Shah Jahan, and insidted by 
the empty name of emperor for some 
months, after which, on the 10th October, 
N.s. 1760, 29th Safar, a.h. 1174, the 
Marathas having plundered Dehli, prince 
Mlrza Jawan Bakht, the son of 'Ali Gauhar, 
was placed on the throne by the Maratha 
chief Bhao, as regent to his father, who was 
still in Bengal. 

Alap Arsalan. Vide Alp Arsalan. 

Alaptigin or Alptigin (^^tj;^l\), 

one of the chief nobles of Bukhara, and 
Governor of Khurasan during the reign of 
the house of Saman. Having, in a.d. 962, 
renounced his allegiance to that com-t, he 
retired, with his followers, to Ghazni, then 

an insignificant town, to escape the resent- 
ment of Amir Mausiir SanianT, whose eleva- 
tion to the throne he had opposed, on the 
ground of his extreme youth. He established 
a petty principality, of which Ghazni became 
the capital. He 'died a.d. 976, a.h. 366, 
when his son, Abu-Is-baq, succeeded him ; 
but that weak and chssipated prince survived 
his father but a short time ; and the suffrage 
of all ranks gave the rule to Subiktagin, a 
chief in the service of Alaptigin, in a.d. 977, 
A.H. 367. 

Al-Aswad (t>».-j\'0, an impostor. Vide 

'Ala-ud-daula (Prince) (<)J^j^!1jl.c 

( J^».j), the son of Baisanghar Mirza, 

and grandson of Shahrukh ]Mirza, after whose 
death, in a.d. 1447, he ascended the throne 
at Hirat, but was soon di-iven from it by his 
uncle, Ulugh Beg. After the death of Ulugh 
Beg, A.D. 1449, he was imprisoned and 
bliiaded by his brother. Sultan Babar. He 
died in a.d. 1459, a.h. 863. 

'Ala-ud-danla (a>l,j.!^^i£. 
Nawab of Bengal. 

J'ide Sarfaraz Khan. 

'Ala - ud - daula (Mir or Mirza) 
(j-^* aJ^j^J^jLc), a poet whose 

poetical name was Kafi. He is the aiithor 
of a biography of those poets who flourished 
in the reign "of the emperor Akbar. The 
time of his death is not known, but he 
was living at the time of the conquest of 
Chltor by Akbar in a.d. 1567, a.h. 975. 
There is some mistake in his poetical name ; 
he appears to be the same person who is 
mentioned under the poetical name of Kami, 
which see. 

'Ala-ud-daula Samnani (<*J^j^l|^Lc 
JL*^), one of the chief followers 

of the Sufi Jimaid Baghdadi. In his youth 
he served Arghim Khan, the Tartar king of 
Persia, and his uncle Sharaf-uddin Samnani 
was a nobleman at the court. He died on 
Friday the 8th March, a.d. 1336, 23rd Bajab, 
A.H. 736, aged 77 lunar years, six years before 
Kjiwaja Kirmani. 

'Ala-uddin ( ,ja1U^1-), a Muhamraadan 

prince of the Arsacidcs or Assassins, better 
known by the appellation of "The old man 
of the mountains." His residence was a 
castle between Damascus and Autioch, and 
was surrounded bv a nmnbcr of youths, whom 
he intoxicated with pleasiu-es, and rendered 




subservient to liis views, by promisiiif;- still 
greater voluptuousuess iu the next world. As 
these were emplo5-ed to stab his enemies, he 
Avas di'eaded by the neighbouring princes. 

{^Vide Hasan Sabbah.] 

'Ala - uddin (Kliwaja) ( .,.jjJULr 

( NJ-,«U::.r itjs-Lri-), surnamed 'Ata 

Malik, was the brother of Shams-uddin Mu- 
hammad Sahib, diwan, and is the author of 
a histoi'y called JaliCmkHsIid. 

'Ala-uddin 'Ali al-Quraishi ibn-Nafis 

author of the commentary termed MFijiz-id 
Qdmm Jil- Tihb, being an epitome of the 
canons of Avicenna. He died a.d. 1288. 

'Ala-uddin Ali Sliah ( J.^ ^^sl\'^ 

iLi)), king of "Western Bengal. He 

usurped the government of that country after 
defeating Fakhr-uddin Mubarak Shah, and 
■was assassinated, about a.h. 746, by the 
instigation of Khwaja Ilyas, who succeeded 
him under the title of Shams-uddin Ilyas 

'Ala-uddin Atsiz {j,^]\ ^jjj'jlr), 

the son of 'Ala-uddin Hasan G]iorI. He 
defeated Bahii-uddln Sam in a.d. 1210, and 
reigned four years iu Ghor. He fell in battle 
against Taj-uddin Ildiiz, a.d. 1214, and was 
the last of the kings of Gliur, of the family 
of 'Ala-uddin Hasan. 

'Ala-uddin Hasan ( 



c/j^J.), prince of Ghur, entitled 

Jahan-s6z. His elder brother, Qut.b-uddiu, 
prince of Ghor, was publicly executed by his 
brother-in-law, Bahram Shah of Gliaziii, in 
A.D. 1119, a.h. 513. Saif-ud-daula, brother 
of the deceased, took possession of Ghazui in 
A.D. 1148, A.H. 543, but afterwards was 
defeated, taken prisoner, and put to death by 
Bahram Shah iu a.d. 1149, a.h. 544. Wheii 
the mournful news of his brother's death 
reached 'Ala-uddin, he burnt with rage, and 
being determiu(d to take revenge, invaded 
G[iazui with a great army. He defeated 
Bahram Shah, who fl.d "to Lahore, took 
possession of Ghaziii, in a.d. 1152, a.h. 574, 
and gave up the city to flames, slaughter, and 
devastation for several days, on which account 
he is known by the epithet of " Jahan-soz," 
or the burner of the world. He carried his 
animosity so tar as to destroy every monument 
of the G|iaziii emperors with tlie exception 
of those of Saltan Mahmud, iMasTul, and 
Ibrahim; but he defaced ail the inscriptions, 
eveu of their times, from every public edifice. 

'Ala-uddin died in the year a.d. 115G, a.h. 
549, after a reign of six years, and was 
succeeded by his sou Malik" Saif-uddin, or 
Saif-ud-daula, who in little mon^ than a vear 
fell in battle with tlie G[iiza Turkmans. ' Ho 
was succe(ded by his eldest cousin, Ghiyas- 
uddiu Muhammad Ghori. The following is 
a list of the kings of Gliur : 

1. 'Ala-uddin Hasan Ghori. 

2. Malik Saif-uddin, son of 'Ala-uddin 

Hasan Ghori. 

3. Ghiyas-uddiu iluhammad Ghori, son 

of Baha-uddiu Sam, the yotmger 
brother of 'Ala-uddin. 

4. Shihab-uddiu, brother of Ghiyas-uddin. 

5. Ghiyils-uddiu Mahmiid, sou of Ghiyas- 


6. Baha-uddiu Sam, sou of Gl^iiy as -uddin 


7. Atsiz, son of Jahan-soz, and last of the 

kings of Ghor of this branch. 

,^^ ^rl^I^j^Jx 

'Ala-uddin I (i.Cil^ .., 

^J^A■-^^), Hasan Kangoh Bahmanl, 

the first Bahmani king of the Deccan. He 
was a native of Dehli, and in the service of 
a Brahmanical astrologer named Kangoh, or 
Giingoh, enjopng high favour with the prince 
Mtdiammad Tughluq, afterwards king of 
Dehli. This Brahman a.ssured Hasau that 
he perceived from his horoscope that he would 
rise to great distinction, and be eminently 
favoured of the Almighty ; and made him 
promise that if he ever should attain regal 
power, he would use the name of Kangoh 
and employ him as his minister of finance, 
a request with which Hasan readily complied. 
The Governor of Daulatabad and others 
having revolted took possession of the place, 
and selected Hasan (who had then the title 
of Zafar Klian and a jagir in the Deccan) to 
be their king. On Friday tlie 3rd, 
A.D. 1347, 24th Rabi' II. a.h. 748, they 
crowned him and raised him on the throne, 
with the title of 'Ala-uddin Hasan Kangoh 
Bahmani at Kulbarga, which place became 
the royal residence and capital of the first 
Muhammadan king of the Deccan, and was 
named Ahsanabad. Towards the end of the 
reign of Muhammad Tughluq of Dehli, he 
subdued every part of the Deccan previously 
subject to the throne of Dehli. The death 
of 'Ala-uddin Hasan hajipened ten years, ten 
months, and seven days aftt r his accession to the 
throne, about the lOth February, a.d. 1358, 
1st Rabi' I. a.h. 759. He was succeeded 
by his son, ]\Iuhammad Shah I. Bahmani. 
The following is a list of the kings of the 
Bahmani dynasty of Kulbarga or Ahsauabad 
with the years of their accessions : 

'Ala-uddin Hasan I. 
Muhammad Shah I. 
l\Iiij;"ihi(l Shfih . . 
Daiul Shrdi . . . 
Mahmiid Shah . . 

. a.h. 748, A.D. 1347. 
. A.H. 759, A.D. 1358. 
. AH. 77(3, AD. 1375. 
. A.H. 780, A.D. 1378. 
. A.H. 780, A.D. 1378. 
. A.H. 799, A.D. 1397. 

Shams-uddiu . . . a.h. 799, a.d. 1397. 




Firuz Shfih Roz-afzun A.n. 800, a.d. 1397. 

Ahmad Shah Wall . . a.h. 825, a.d. 1422. 

'Ala-iiddm Ahmad II. a.h. 838, a.d. 1435. 

HumaA-uu the ciuel. 

Nizam Shah. 

IMiihammnd Shah II. 

Mahmud II. 

Ahmad Shah II. 

'Ala-uddm III. 


Kalim-iiUah, with whom the Bahmaui dynasty 

terminates, and is succeeded by Amir 

Barid at Ahmadabiid Bidar. 

'Ala-uddin II. (Sultan) (^j.vjljL^ 
(^Iki-j ^^U), son of Sultan Ahmad 

Shah Wall Bahmani, ascended the throne at 
Ahmadabad Bidar in the Deccan, in the 
month of February, a.d. 1435, a.h. 838, and 
died after a reign of 23 years, 9 months, and 
20 days in the year a.d. 14.37, a.h. 862. He 
was succeeded by his son, Humayiin, a cniel 

'Ala-uddin Khilji (Sultan) ( .,« j^ll^J^-c 

;li2A...^ 1$-^^ .-\_--X- 


styled Sikaudar-i-Saui, "the second Alex- 
ander," was the nephew and son-in-law of 
Sultan Jalal-uddin Firuz Shfdi Kliilji, whom 
he murdered at Kara - Maiiikpiir, in the 
province of Allahabad, on the 29th July, 
A.D. 1296, 17th Ramazan, a.h. 695, and 
marching thence with his army ascended the 
throne of Dehli in the month of October the 
same year, Zil-hijja, ah. 695, after having 
defeated and removed Eukn-uddin Ibrahim, 
the son of Firuz Shah. He was the first 
Musalman king who made an attempt to 
conquer the Deccan. He took the fort of 
Chitor in August, a.d. 1303, 3rd Muharram, 
a.h. 703. It is said that the empire never 
fiom-ishcd so much as in his reign. Palaces, 
mcsques, universities, baths, mansolea, forts, 
and all kinds of jniblic and private buiklings, 
seemed to rise as if by magic. Among the 
poets of his reign, we may record the names 
of Amir Kliusrau, Ivhwaja Hasan, Sadr- 
uddiu 'Ali, Faklir-uddiii Kliawas, Hamid- 
uddin Raja, Maulana 'Arif, 'Abdul-Hakim, 
and Shihab-uddin Sadi'-Xishin. In poetry. 
Amir Kliusrau and Khwaja Hasan had the 
first rank. In philosophy and physic, Maulana 
Badr-uddin Damishqi. In divinity, Maulana 
Shitabi. In astrology. Shaikh Nizam-uddin 
Auliya acquired much fame. 'Ala-uddin died, 
according to Firishta, on the 6th Shawwal, 
A.H. 716, or 19th December, a.d. 1316, 
after having reigned more than twenty years. 
He was buried in the tomb which he had 
constructed in his life-time near the ^Manihilr 
Masjid in Old Dehli. Amir Kliusrau, in 
that part of his Diwan called Baqiija - i - 
Naqiya, says that he died on the 6th 
Shawwal, a.h. 715, i.e. about the 30th 
December, a.d. 1315. After his death, Malik 
Naib Kafiir, one of the eunuchs of the king, 

placed his youngest son, Sultan Shihab-uddin 
'Umar, who was then only seven years old, 
on the throne. After a short time, however, 
the eunuch Kafiir was slaiu, and Shiliab- 
uddin was set aside, and his elder brother, 
Mubarak Khan, imder the title of IMubarak 
Shah, ascended the throne on the 1st April, 
A.D. 1316, 7th Muharram, a.h. 716, but 
according to Firishta in 1317. It was the 
boast of 'Ala-uddiu that he had destroyed 
one thousand temples in Banaras alone. lie 
is best known now by the beautiful gateway 
to the Kutb Mosque, and the uufiuished 
tower by wliich he hoped to rival the Kutb 

'Ala-uddin 'Imad Sliah ( .j_.>w\JUL.i 

il-ij l)Ix».£) succeeded to the govern- 
ment of Barar in the Deccan after the 
death of his father, Fath-ullah 'Imad Shah, 
about the year a.d. 1513, and following the 
example of other chiefs of the house of 
Bahmani, declared himself king of Barar, and 
established his royal residence at Gawal. He 
contracted an alliance by marriage ■ft'ith the 
sister of Isma'il 'Adil Shah, named Khadija, 
in A.D. 1528, A.H. 935, and died some time 
about the year a.d. 1532, a.h. 939. He was 
succeeded by his son Darya, 'Imad Shah. 

'Ala-uddin Kaiqubad (Sultan) VA^ 

S^J^ ^.^sW), a prince of the 

Saljiiqiau dj-nasty. When Sultan Malik- 
Shah conquered Riim or Anatolia, in Asiatic 
Tiu-key, he conferred on Sulaimfm, the son of 
Kutlumish, that kingdom, whose descendants 
reigned there till the time of Abaqa Klian, 
the Tartar king of Persia. 'Ala-nddin 
Kaiqubad was a descendant of Sulaiman 
Shah, and died about the year a.d. 1239, 
a.h. 637. Vide Sulaiman bin -Kutlumish. 

'Ala-uddin Majzub (Shah) ( .^'jJU^j; 

i\.J^ L_J. j^_sr*), a Muhammadan 

saint of Agra, commonly called Shah 'Alawal 
Balawal, son of Sayyid Sulaiman. He died 
in the beginning of the reign of Islam Shah, 
sou of Slier Shah, in the year a.d. 1546, 
A.H. 933. His tomb is in Agra, at a place 
called Nai-ki Maudi, where crowds of 
Musalmiins assemble every year to worsliip 
it. The adjacent mosque has sunk into the 
ground to the spring of the arches. 

'Ala-uddin Mas'ud (j..t,uA,* ,j_\!'j^lx), 

Sultan of Dehli, was the son of Sultan 
Rukn-uddin Firiiz, and grandson of Shanis- 
uddiu Iltitmish, was raised to tlie throne 
of Dehli after the nuu-der of Bahrain Shah, 
in Mav, a.d. 1242, Zil-qa'da, a.h. 639. 
He died on the 10th June, a.d. 1246, 23rd 
Muharram, a.h. 644, after a reign of four 
years, and was succeeded by his brother 
(or uncle), Sultan Nazir-uddin Mahmiid. 




'Ala - uddin Muliammad al - Samar- 
qandi (Shaikh) (A.^i='* ,.,.jj.J';lr 

tJAxi.^-w.1'), author of a compendium 

of Al-Qudurl's ^fuklitasir. wliich he entitled 
the T((hfat-ul-Fi(li(ihn. This work was coni- 
niented upon hy his ])upil Ahii-Bakr bin- 
Mas'ud al-Ivashani, who died in a.d. 1191, 
A.H. 587. This comment is entitled al- 
Badai' as-Sauai' 

'Ala-uddin Husain Shah 




i^.-.^u*.i^), king of Bengal. He 

Avas the son of Sayyid Ashraf, and after 
defeating Muzaffar Shah at Gaur in a.h. 
899, ascended the throne of Bengal. He 
reigned with justice for a considerably longer 
period than any of his predecessors until the 
year a.d. 1521, a.h. 927, when he died a 
natural death, after a reign of 28 years. His 
son Nusrat Shah succeeded him. 

'Ala-uddin (Sultan) (J>LL- ^^sWAz 
.. \ ^ ^ ^" J 

•^y-^ "*'), a king of the race of 

Saljiiq, who reigned in Iconium, and died 
in the year a.d. 1301, a.h. 700. 

'Ala-uddin (Sultan) (^V-L: ^^^^jJljL: 
^^.i_&J iL^jb), the last king of 

Dehli of the Sayyid djTiasty, succeeded his 
father Sultan Muhammad Shah to the throne 
in January, a.d. 1446, Shawwal, a.h. 849. 
Bahlol Lodi, in a.d. 1451, a.h. 855, at 
the instigation of Hamid Khan wazir, took 
possession of Dehli during the absence of the 
king, who was then at Badaon. 'Ala-uddin 
continued to reside at Badaon unmolested till 
his death, which happened in the year a.d. 
1478, A.H. 883 ; his reign at Dehli being 
about six years, and his government at Badaon 
28 years. 

'Ala-uddin (Sayyid), of Oudh, whose 
poetical name was Wasili, is the author of 
a Tarji'l)aud, commonly called MdmngJmdn, 
with which word it commences. He was a 
native of Kluirasan, came to India about the 
year a.d. 1300, became a disciple of Nizam- 
uddiu Aulia, and fixed his residence in Oudh. 

'Ala-uddin Takash (^^.O i^^jJU^^), 
a Sultan of Kliwarizm. 7';V/f'Takash. 

'Ala-ul-mulk Kotwal (Malik) (jLr 

< ^L« JV^^ lLS^W). He served 

under Sultan 'Ala-uddin Kliilji, king of 
Dehli, and was the uncle of Ziya-uddlu Barni, 
the author of the Tdrlkh Firt'iz-S/ifi/ii. He 
was then very old and so fat that he was not 
able to attend the court more than once a 
month. lie was living in a.d. 1300, a.h. 

'Al-Aziz BillahAbu-al-Mansur Tarar 

(,VL^ ,,-^-^-11 ,.>UJL 


;7~'J5-^-^-^'->:' -J- 

of Mu'izz-ud-din-allah, second khalifa of 
Egypt the Fiitimite dynasty, .succeeded his 
father in a.d. 970, and committed the 
management of affairs entirely to the care 
of Jauhar, or Ja'far, his father's long- 
experienced general and prime minister. This 
famous warrior, after several battles with 
Al-Aftakin, the amir of Damascus and the 
Karmatians, died in a.d. 990, a.h. 381. 
'Al-Aziz died on his way to Syria, in the 
21st year of his reign aui 42nd of his age, 
and was succeeded by his son, Abul-]\Iansiir. 

Al-Baghawi (^^A.J1). Vide Abul- 

Faraj - al - Baghawi and Abii - Muhammad 
Farrai ibu-Mas'iid al-Baghawi. 

Al-Batani (^:.l2J-0, commonly called 

by European writers Albategnius, was an 
Arabian astronomer who wrote a treatise on 
the knowledge and the obliquity of the Zodiac 
of the stars. He died in 929. He greatly 
reformed astronomy, comparing his own 
observations with those of Ptolemy. This 
book was printed at Nuremberg, in 1537, 
4to., and at Bologna in 1545. He died 
a.d. 929. 

Al-Biruni(^.^JO, an Arabian author, 

whose original work, entitled Tdrikh H'liid, 
was compiled in India in about a.d. 1030-33. 
See Abii-Eaihan. 

Al-Bukhari (^^l..k\Jl), who received 

this name from Bukhara, the place of his 
birth or his chief residence, was a famous 
lawyer by name of Muhammad Isma'il. His 
collection of traditions on the Muhammadan 
religion, commonly called Sahlh-uI-Bukhdri, 
is of the greatest authority of all that have 
ever been made; he called it Al-Sahili, i.e. 
genuine, because he separated the spurious 
ones from those that were authentic. He 
says, he has selected 7,275 of the most 
authentic traditions out of 10,000, all of 
which he looked upon to be time, having 
rejected 200,000 as false. He died at 
Bukhara in the year a.d. 870, a.h. 256. 
Vide Muhammad Isma'il Bukliari. 

Al-Dawani. Vtde Dawaul. 

Al-Farghani { ^j\J.jl}i\) , surname of 

Ahmad ibn Kathir or Kasir, an Arabian 
astronomer of the niuth centiu-y, author of 
an introduction to astronomy. 
[ Vide Farghaui.] 

'Alha and Udal ( Jj^^^ ^JO, princes 

of Mahoba. There is a heroic ballad sung 
or recited by the Hindii sepoys in a kind of 




monotonous, but not unmusical sort of cliaimt, 
accompanied by a sotto voce beat of the dhol, 
which rise to a constrepito in the pause 
between the verses. Whoever has resided in 
a military cantonment must have frequently 
observed the sepoys, when disengaged from 
military duty, collected in small knots, 
listening to one of the party reciting some 
poem or tale to a deeplv interested audience. 
The subject of this lay is the prowess of 
'Alha', the Raja of Mahoba, a town in 
Bundelkhand, of which extensive ruins remain. 
The hero is described as the terror of the 
JMuhammadans ; his triumphs over whom are 
attributed not only to his own valour, but the 
favour of the goddess Kali, whom he had 
propitiated by the offering of his life. There 
are many songs, it is said, of this prince, 
and his brother Udal, a warrior of equal 
estimation ; but they are preserved only 
traditionally by the Powars, and their amateur 
students. The versos are in Ehaklia. 

Al-Hadi (^-0^1), the fourth khallf of 
the house of 'Abbas, succeeded his father, 
al-Mahdi, on the 4th August, a.d. 785, 
23rd Muharram, a.h. 169, to the throne of 
Baghdad. He reigned one year and one 
month, and having formed a design to deprive 
his younger brother, Harim-al-Rashid, of 
his right of succession, and even to assassinate 
him, was poisoned by his prime minister 
about the month of September, a.d. 786, 
Rabi I. A.H. 170. On his death his brother, 
the celebrated Haiiin-al-RashId, ascended the 

Al-Hakm, also called ibn AbclQl Hakm, 

an Arabian author, who (according to the 
chronological aiTangement of the Arab 
authorities by Howard Yyse and Dr. Spreuger, 
in the former's second volume of The Tyrainkls 
of Gizeh) Lived about a.d. 1450, or six iiuncked 
years after the death of the khalif al-Mamun 
of Baghdad, but by a manuscript note re- 
corded by a gentleman of the British Museum 
1868), it appears that al-Hakm was nearly 
contemporary with that prince, who tlourisliecl 
between a.d. 813 and 843. Al-Hakm writes 
that the Great Pyramid in Egypt was built 
by a certain antediluvian king" Saurid, and 
filled by him chiefly with celestial spheres 
and figures of the stars, together with the 
perfumes used in their worship ; and that 
khalifa al-Mamun found the bodv of a man 
deposited, with jewels, arms, and golden 
writing, in the coffer, when he broke into the 
king's chamber of the Great PjTamid. But 
neither Abu Miishar Jafar bin Muhammad 
Balkhi, who ^vrote in about a.d. 890, nor 
ibn Khm-dalbch, in a.d. 920, have one word 
about al - Mamun, or any opening of the 
pyTamid. But when we descend to Masaiidi, 
in A.D. 967, he, after an astonishing amount 
of romancing on what took place at the 
building of the pyramids 300 years before the 
Flood, mentions that, not al-Mamiin, but his 
father, khalifa Harun-al-Rashid, attempted 
to break into the Great P\ramid ; and alter 
penetrating 20 cubits, found a vessel con- 

taining 1000 coins of the finest gold, each 
just one oimce in weight, and making up a 
sum which exactly repaid the cost of his 
operations, at which, it is added, he greatly 
wondered. About the year a.d. 1170, or 
340 years after al-Maraiin's age, that prince 
is mentioned by Abu Abd-ullah Muliammad 
bin Abdur Rahim Alkaisi, who states that he 
was informed that tliose who went into the 
upper parts of the Great PjTamid in the 
time of al-Mamiin, came to a small passage, 
containing the image of a man in green stone, 
and within that a human body with golden 
arnioiu-, etc., etc. 

Al-Hasan ( 


i), an Arabian who 

wrote on optics, about the year a.d. 1100. 

'Ali (^lU ^\ ^\ ^U), son of Abu- 

Tiilib, was the cousin and son-in-law of 
Muhammad. He was born 23 years before 
the Hijri, i.e., in the year a.d. 599, at the 
very temple itself. His mother's name 
was Fatima, daughter of Asad the son of 
Hashim. After the death of ]Muhanimad, 
he was opposed in his attempts to succeed 
the prophet by 'Usman and 'Umar, and 
retired into Arabia, where his mild and 
enlarged interpretation of the Quran, in- 
creased the number of his proselj"tes. After 
the death of 'Usmfm, the 3rd kl'alifa, he 
was acknowledged khalifa by the Eg}i)tians 
and Arabians in July, a.d. 655, but in less 
than five years after he was compelled to 
resign that title, and Mu'awiya was pro- 
claimed khalifa at Damascus. 'Ali was 
subseqiiently wounded by 'Abdiu--Rahman 
ibu-Muljim in a mosque at Qufa, whilst 
engaged in his evening prayers, on Friday 
th(3 22nd January, a.d. 661, 17th Ramazun, 
A.H. 40, and flied foiu- days after. 'Ali, 
after the decease of his beloved Fatima, the 
daughter of the prophet, claimed the privilege 
of polygamy, and had 18 sons and 18 
daughters. " The most renowned of them 
are the two sons of Fatima, viz., Hasan 
and Husain, as also Muhammad Hanif, by 
another wife. Among the many surnames, 
or honorable titles bestowed upon 'Ali, are 
the following : Wasi', which signifies "legatee 
and heir;" Miurtaza, "beloved by God;" 
Asad-ullah-ul-Ghalib, " the victorious lion 
of God ; " Haidar, " a lion ; " Shah Mardan, 
" king of men ; " Sher ]\huda, " tlie lion of 
God." His memory is still held in the 
highest veneration by the Muhammadans, 
who say that he was the first tliat emlu-aced 
their- religion. They say, moreover, that 
Muhammad, talking of him, said, "Ali is 
for me and I am for him ; he stands to me 
in the same rank as Aaron did to Moses ; I am 
the town in wliich all knowledge is shut up, 
and he is the gate of it." However, these 
great eidogics did not liinder his name, and 
that of all his family, from being cursed, and 
their persons from" being excommunicated 
through all the m(is(iU(>s of the empire of 
the khalifas of the house of Umayya, from 
Mu'awiya down to the time of 'Unuir ibn- 




'Abdul- 'Aziz, -who suppressed the solemn 
malediction. There were besides several 
khalil'as of the house of 'Abbas, who ex- 
pressed a great aversion to 'Ali and all his 
posterity; such as Mu'tazid and Mutawakkil. 
On the other hand, the Fatimite khalifas of 
E.u-^-jjt caused his name to be added to that 
of ^luhammad in the call to praj-er fazdn), 
■wliicli is cliauuted from the tiu'rets of the 
mosques. He is the first of the twelve 
Imams, eleven of whom were his descendants. 
Their names are as follows : 

1. 'AH, the sou of Abii-Talib. 

2. Imam Hasan, eldest son of 'All. 

3. ,, Ilusain, sec(md son of 'Ali. 

4. ,, Zaiu-ul-'Abidin, son of Husain. 

5. ,, Muhammad Baqir, son of Zain- 


6. Imam Ja'far Sadiq, son of Muhammad 


7. Imam Musa Kazim, son of Ja'far Sadiq. 

8. ,, Ali Miisa Eaza, son of Miisa 


9. Imam Muhammad Taqi, son of Miisa 


10. Imam 'Ali NaqT, son of Muhammad 


11. Imam Ilasan 'Askari, son of 'Ali Naql. 

12. ,, Malidi, son of Hasan 'Askari. 

As to the place of 'All's burial, authors 
differ ; but the most probable opinion is, that 
he was buried in that place which is now 
called Najaf Ashraf, in Kiifa, and this is 
visited by the Muhammadans as his tomb. 

The followers of 'Ali are called Shi'as, 
which signifies sectaries or adherents in 
general, a term first used about the fovu'th 
century of the Ilijra. 

Ali is reputed the author of several works 
in Arabic, particularly a collection of one 
hundred sentences (paraphrased in Persian by 
Eashid-uddin-Watwat), and a Diwau of di- 
dactic poems, often read in Madrasahs. 

In mentioning 'Ali's name, the Shi'a use 
the phrase " 'alaihi as-salam," which is used 
after the names of prophets ; the Sunnis say, 
" karrama allahu wajhahu," may God honour 
his face. 

,_\^.-^l ^J (C^X 

'Ali ij^J.^ ^A ^ 

son of Ahtiiad bin-Abu-Bakr Kiifi, a resi- 
dent of Uch and author of the history of 
iSindh in Arabic called T/i/ifat - ul - Ktrdm. 
This work was translated into I'ersian and 
called Chacli JS'dma, a translation of which 
was made in English by Lieutenant Postans 
and jfublished in the Jour. As. Soc. in 1838. 

'Ali {^S^\ y}j^Y^^ ^^^^ C)^ l5^^X 
son of Ahmad, commonly called WabidI, was 
an Arabian author who wrote three Com- 
mentaries, viz. : TFasif, /akh\ and Ba.sit, 
and also Kildb Nuzul. He died in a.d. 
1075, A.D. 468. 

'Ali (> 

_j c-J-r), son of Hamza, 

autlinr 111 till' 'lYiyilik Jsfii/iih/i 

'Ali (li_c^^ |^-..*u.r:^ ^^3 i^J-c-), son of 

Ilusain Waiz Kfishiff, the famous writer of 
the Anicdr-i-Sahaili, author of the work 
called Latdif- uz - Zaruif, containing the 
anecdotes of Muhammad, of the twelve 
Imams, of the ancient kings of Persia, and 
of various other persons. He is also the 
author of another work entitled litishhdt, 
containing the Memoirs of the SiifT Shaikhs 
of the Nakshbandi order. 'Ali died in a.d. 
1532, A.H. 939. He is also called 'Ali 

[ Vide Safl-uddin Muhammad.] 

'Ali ( rsn,^^' Js^.s'* ^^ 15^-^X son of 

Muhammad Qusanji, an astronomer, and 
author of the Slidrh-ul-Jadhl, the new 
commentary. He died a.d. 1474, a.h. 879. 

'Ali (^,wi^ ^ i^^\ ^0^ ^^ Usman 

Gilani, author of the Kashf-itl-MahjTib, 
containing a minute description of the twelve 
orders of Siifis, etc., written in a.d. 1499, 
A.H. 905. He is also called Pir 'Ali 

*Ali (^^.s^l ^j\ A_^ t_^iiL« j^ j-c), sur- 
named Abul Hasan. Vide Abul-Hasan 'Ali. 

'Ali {^jj^ 1^ ^^.Li^ ^-i-^), the 
poetical name of Mulla Xasir 'Ali, which see. 

'Ali ( i^X the poetical name of a poet 

who converted the Ghazals of Hafiz into 

'Ali 'Adil Shah I. (il.^ JjU ^Jl^ 

^^ ^yjVsixS) , of Bljupur, suruamccl 

Abul-Muzaffar, succeeded to the throne of 
that kingdom after the death of his father 
Ibrahim 'Adil Shah I, in a.d. 1558, a.h. 
965. He reigned about 22 lunar years, and 
as he had no son, he aiipointed in the year 
a.d. 1579 his nephew, Ibrahim, son of his 
brother Tahmasp, his successor ; and the 
following year on the night of Thursday the 
10th Apri'l, 1580, 23rd Safar, a.h. "988, 
he was assassinated by a yoimg ermucli. He 
was bm'ied in the city of JBijapiir, where 
his tomb or mausoleum is called by the 
people, " llauza Ali." 

[Vide A'ln Translation, i. p. 545.] 

'Ali 'Adil Shah II. (.xL-i J jl.z ^.Li 
^,»_jl_sri_j _jl_j), of Bljapur, 

succeeded his father Muhammad 'Adil Shah 
in his childhood in November, a.d. 165G, 
Mubarram, a.h. 1067, and was unable to 
rcnu'dy the disorders which had occurred 

in his kingdom, by the rcbcliiim of the 




celebrated Marhatta chief Sc^yaji, who had 
possessed himself of all the strongholds in the 
Kokau country, and erected several new forts. 
Under pretence of making his submissions 
to the Sultan, he begged an interview with 
the Bijapur general, Afzal Klian, whom he 
treacherously stabbed in an embrace. Eustam 
Klian was afterwards sent against him, and 
defeated. 'Aii 'Adil Shah died in the year 
A.D. 1672, A.H. 1083, after a turbulent 
reign of eleven or twelve years. He was 
succeeded by his son Sikandar 'Adil Shiih. 

'Ali Ahmad (Shaikh) (;:--^j^^\ U), 

the son of Shaikh Husain NaqshT, a learned 
man and engraver who died suddenly on 
hearing a verse of the poet IChwaja Hasan 
of DehlT repeated in the presence of the 
emperor Jahanglr on the 13th Apiil, o.s. 
1609, ISth Muliarrani, a.h. 1018. 

'Ali Akbar (^.^(\ ^U), the eldest son 

of Imam Husain, killed in battle together 
with his father on the 10th October, a.h. 

*Ali Akbar (^^^\ ^.l.r), author of the 

work called Majina^-ul- Aul'd, containing a 
detailed account of all the Miihammadan 
saints, dedicated to the emperor Shah Jahan, 
Avho was a great admirer of saints, a.d. 1628, 
A.H. 1038. 

'Ali Akbar {^S^\d^^..\\ j..S\ ^-£), 

of Allahubild, author of the FasFil Alcbari 
and Usitl Akbari, and several other works. 

*Ali Asghar (^^ ^L), proper name 
of Imam Zain-ul-'AbidIn, which see. 

'Ali Asghar ( 

..:>- •--_* ,.x.>a 



^.Lr), of 

Qanauj, author of a commentary on the Quran 
called Saivakib-ut-Timztl. He died in the 
year A.D. 1727, a.h. 1140. 

'Ali Bahadur {jJ^-^^ 'r-'V"' 15-^-^^' 
Nawab of Banda, eldest son of Sbam.sher 
Bahadur I. and grandson of the Marhatta 
chief Biiji Rao Peshwa I. He received the 
investiture of Bimdelkhand from Nana Far- 
nawis, the Piina minister, about the year 
A.D. 1790, and accompanied by his brother 
Ghani Bahadur, and supported by a powerful 
army, invaded Buudelkhand, but was opposed 
by Nana Arjim (the guardian of Bakliat 
Singh, a descendant of Eaja Chatiu-sal), who 
falling in the contest, and Raja Rakhat Singh 
being taken prisoner, Ali Bahadur accpiircd 
the whole of that part of the raj of Banda 
which belonged to Baklint Singh and all the 
raj of Pauna. He reigned about cloven or 
twelve years, and as at the time of his death, 

which happened in a.d. 1801 or 1802, his 
eldest son, Shamsher Bahadur II. was absent 
at Puna, his youngest son Zulfikar All was 
proclaimed (in violation of the title of his 
eldest brother) as his successor by his uncle 
Gliiinl Bahadur and his Diwan Ilimmat 
Bahildiu' Goshfiln. Glvani Bahadur, how- 
ever, was soon after expelled by Shamsher 
Bahadur, who took possession of the raj. 

'Ali Bahadur Khan (^jlri- , jL^ ls^-^X 

the last Nawab of Banda and son of Zulfikar 
All Klian Bahadur. He is the author of a 
diwau and a masnawi called MehruUuh. He 
was removed for alleged complicity in the 
rebellion of 1857. 

'Ali Bai (^L* .L^), (whose name is 

spelt in oiu- English Biographical Dictionaries 
All Bey) was a native of Natolia, son of a 
Greek priest. In his thirteenth year he was 
carried away by some robbers as he was himt- 
ing, and sold to Ibrahim, a lieutenant of the 
Janissaries, at Grand Cairo, who treated him 
with kindness. 'All distinguished himself 
against the Arabs, but when his patron was 
basely assassinated in ad. 17-58, by Abrahiin 
the Circassian, he avenged his death, and 
slew the miu-derer with his own hand. This 
violent measure raised him enemies, and his 
flight to Jerusalem and to Ptolemais or Aore 
with difficulty saved him from the resentment 
of the Ottoman Porte, that had demanded his 
head. Time, however, paved the way to his 
elevation. Those who had espoused the cause 
of the Circassian were saci'ificed to the public 
safety ; and 'Ali, recalled by the public voice, 
governed the country with benevolence and 
equity. In a battle fought against a re- 
bellious Mamliik to whom he had entrusted 
part of his army, 'Ali saw some of his troops 
desert, and unwilling to survive a defeat, he 
defencled himself with the fury of a lion, till 
he was cut down by a sabre and can-ied to the 
conqueror's tent, where eight days after he 
expired of his wounds, April 21st, a.d. 1773, 
in his 4oth year, and left behind him a cha- 
racter unrivalled for excellence, for courage, 
and magnanimity. 

'Ali Bai (^Ij ^.L=). The titles by 

which he was known in the Muhammadan 
countries were al-Amir, al-IIakim, al-Faqih, 
al-Sharif, al-Haj 'Ali Bai ilni Usman Bai al- 
Abbiis, Khiidim Baitnllah al-IIarfim, i.e. the 
prince, the learned, doctor of the law, of the 
blood of Muhammad, pilgrim, 'Ali Bai, son 
of Usman Bai, of the race of the Abbasidcsi, 
servant of the house of God. He was master 
of the Arabic language, and had carefully 
studied the mathematical and natural branches 
of science and knowledge. It was in a.d. 
1802 that he visited Eugland. In June, a.d. 
1803, he sailed from Spain to ^Morocco, and 
travelled through Tripoli, Cyprus, Egypt, 
Arabia, Syria, and Turkey, and wrote a 
histoi7 of his travels, which was translated 




into English and piihlishcd in Loudon in the 
year a.d. 181G, eiititk-d 77((' 'Travels of'-AU 
JBdi. In his visit to the isle of Cyprus he 
surveyed some curious remains of antiquity 
that have been usually overlooked. Having 
been admitted iu his character of a Muham- 
niudau prince to sweep the interior of the 
Ka'ba at Mecca, the most sacred office that 
a Musalman can perform, and to visit it 
repeatedly, he has given, from personal in- 
spection, a more minute and exact accoimt 
of the Temple of Jlecca than other travellers 
could lay before the public. His notice of 
the venerated mountain beyond Mecca, the 
last and priuci])al object of the pilgrimage to 
that city, and his dcsniptiim of the iiitirinr 
of the Temple of Jerusalem, which no Chris- 
tian is permitted to enter, is said to contain 
much new information. 

'Ali Baridl. (jj^j ^Ir) succeeded his 

father, Amir Barid, to the throne of Ahmada- 
bad Bidar in the Deccan in the year a.d. 
1542, and was the first of this family who 
assumed royalty. He died after a reign of 
more than twenty years in a.d. 1562, a.h. 
970, and was succeeded by his son Ibrahim 

'Ali Barid II. succeeded his father 

Kasim Barid II. in the government of Ah- 
madabad Bidar in a.d. 1572, and was deposed 
in A.D. 1609 by his relative Amir Barid II. 
who succeeded him, and was the last of this 

'Ali Beg (C_/-J ^U), a Pole, born of 

Christian parents. When yoimg he was made 
prisoner by the Tartars and" sold to the Turks, 
who educated him in the Muhammadan faith. 
He rose in the Tm'kish court, and was ap- 
pointed interpreter to the Grand Signior, and 
translated the Bible and the English Catechism 
into the Turkish language. His great work 
is on the liturgy of the Turks, their pilgrim- 
ages to Mecca, and other religious ceremouics, 
translated into Latin by Dr. (Smith. He died 
A.D. 1675. 

*Ali Beg (Mirza) (1 



C-C*j ^-c), 

a native of Badakhshfin who held a high rank 
in the service of tiie emperor Akbar ; and was 
honoured with the office of 4,000 in the reign 
of Jahangir. He accompanied the emperor 
one day to visit the shrine of the celebrated 
saint. Shaikh Main-uddin Chishti at Ajmir, 
and ha])pening to see the tomlj of Shahbaz 
Klian Kambii, he embraced it, and crying out 
with a loud voice, that "he, when living, 
•was one of his oldest and best friends," gave 
up the ghost. This happened on the 11th 
March, o.s. 1616, 2nd Kahi I.' a.h. 1025. 

'Ali bin al-Husain al-Masa'udi al- 
Hudaili (^-^s^.^^ ^Jt^^\ ^^J ^), 
the lar-fanicd author of the Maruj-uz-Zahab, 

and who has been, with some justice, termed 
the IIcn)(li)tus of tlie East, was also a writer 
on the Sliia' traditions. He died a.d. 957, 
A.D. 346. 

'Ali Buya or Ali ibn Buya (<^jy is^-'^X 

entitled 'Imad-ud-daula, the first of a race of 
kings of Ears and 'Irak. The flatterers of 
this family, which is called Dilami or Dialima 
(from the name of their native village, Dilam) 
and Buya or Buyites (from that of one of their 
ancestors named Buya), trace their descent to 
the ancient kings of Persia ; but the first of 
this race that history notices was a fisherman 
of Dilam whose name was Buya. His eldest 
sou, 'Ali Buya, was employed by a governor 
of his native country, named Murawij, and 
was in the command of the chief part of his 
army, with which he encountered and defeated 
Yakut, the governor of Isfahan, and by the 
immense plunder that he obtained from that 
victory, he became at once a leader of n'j)uta- 
tion and of power. He piu'sued Yakiit into 
Ears, defeated him again, and took possession 
of the whole of that province as well as those 
of Kirman, KJiuzistan and 'Iraq in a.d. 933, 
A.n. 321. This chief was afterwards tempted 
by the weak and lUstracted state of the K]iila- 
fat or Caliphate, to a still higher enterprise ; 
accompanied by his two brothers, Hasan and 
Ahmad, he marched to Baghdad. The IChalif 
al-llazi Billah fled, but was soon induced to 
return, and his flrst act was to heap honours 
on those who had taken possession of his 
capital. 'Ali Buya, on agreeing to pay 
annually 600,000 dinars of gold, was ap- 
pointed viceroy of Ears and 'Iraq, with the 
rank of Amir-ul-Umra, and the title of 
'Imful-ud-danla. His younger brother Ah- 
mad received the title of Maizz-ud-daula, 
and was nominated wazir to the klialif. 
Hasan, who was his second brother, i-eceived 
the title of Rukn-ud-daula, and acted, during 
the life of 'Ali Buya, under that chief. 'Ali 
Buya fixed his residence at Shiriiz, and died 
on Sunday the 11th November, a.d. 949, 
16th Jamad I. a.h. 338, much regretted by 
his soldiers and subjects. He was succeeded 
by his brother Euku-ud-daula. 

Sultans of the race of Buya, who rvigned 108 
lunar years in Fcrsia. 

'Imad-ud-danla 'Ali Buj^a ; Maizz-ud- 
daula Ahmad ; Rukn-ud-daula Hasan, 
sons of Buya. 

Azd-ud-daula; Mouv7ad-ud-daula; Eakhr- 
ud-daula Abiil Ilasan, sous of Rukn- 

IMajd-ud-daula, son of Eakhr-ud-daida. 

Izz-ud-daula Bakhtyar, son of Maizz-ud- 

'Ali Durdazd (Moulana) (j*j.j , ^i-c 

^cJl..'t •.I-.-jI IJ !!'»-.<), of Astarabad. 

A ])oet who was contemporary with Katibi 
'J'arshizi, who died in ad. 1435, a.h. 840. 
He is the author of a diwan. He was living 
in A.D. 1136, in which year his wife died, on 
which account he wrote a beautiful elegy. 




Alif bin Nur Kashani ( ._j t L.\\ 

^J^i^,^), author of another Matla- 

ul-Anivar, besides the one of the same name 
written by MuUa Husain Waez. This is a 
complete history of Muhammad, his descen- 
dants, with Memoirs of the khalifs. 

'Ali Ghulam Astarabadi {A J. ^e^ 

^jljl^^i^l), a poet who served under 

the kings of Deccan and was living in a.d. 
1565, A.H. 972, in which year Ramraj the 
raja of Bijanagar was defeated and slain in 
a battle against the Muhammadan princes of 
Deccan, of which event he wrote a chrono- 

*Ali Hamdani ( ^l^-^Jb i~). Vide 

Sayyid 'All Hamdani. 
*Ali Hamza {^'^.s^ 

g~^.s), author of 

the Jawdhir-ul- Asrdr, a commentary on the 
abstruse meaning of the verses of the Quran, 
etc., being an abridgment of the Miftdh-id- 
Asrdr, written in a.d. 1436. 'Ali Hamza's 
poetical name is 'Azuri, which see. 

'Ali Hazin (Shaikh Muhammad) 
(i^jj.>- ^Xs-)- Vide Hazin. 

*Ali ibn Isa ( ^^^^z ,. 

,A ^Lc), general 

of thekhalif al-AmIn, killed in battle against 
Taliir ibn Husain, the general of the khalif 
al-Manmn, in the year a.d. 811, a.h. 195, 
and his head sent as a present to the khalif. 

'Ali ibn ul-Rijal (JU^ll ^\ ^_^), 

author of the Arabic work on astronomy called 
Albdra' ahkdm jS'ajum. 

'Ali Ibrahim Khan (^Ir^ /^rt^^rJ^ A-^)> 

a native of Patna, who became judge of 
Banaras. He was the author of twenty-eight 
mans and several other works, and a tazkira 
or biography of Urdii poets, which he wrote 
about the year A.D. 1782, a.h. 1196, and which 
he entitled Guhzdr-i-Ibrahim. His poetical 
name is Ivhalil. He is called Hal by Isliki 


'Ali Jah {i\p^ ^^), the eldest son of 

the Nizam of Haidarabud. He rebelled 
against his father in June, a.d. 1795, was 
defeated and made prisoner, and died shortly 

'Ali Lala (Shaikh Razi - uddin), 

a native of G}iazui. His father Sayyid Lala 
was the uncle of Sliaikh Sanai tlic poet. He 
was a disciple of Naini-uddiu Kubra and his 
title Shaikh-ul-Shaiukh. He died A.d. 1244, 
a.h. 642, aged 76 lunar jears. 

'Ali Mahaemi ( ^^l^* , ^ii), a native 

of Mahaem in the Deccan, was the son of 
Shaikh Ahmad, and is the author of the com- 
mentary on the Quran entitled Tafsir Itah- 
mdnl. He died a.d. 1431, a.h. 835. 

J'^/'* , X'\ 

'Ali Mardan Khan (^lr>- ,^i 

AmTr-ul-Umra, was a native of Persia and 
governor of Qandahar on the part of the king 
of Persia, but finchng himself exposed to much 
danger from the tp-anny of his sovereign Shah 
SafT, he gave up the place to the emperor Shah 
Jahan, and himself took refuge at Dehli in 
the year a.d. 1637, a.h. 1047. He was re- 
ceived with great honour, was created Amir- 
xd-Umra, and was, at different times, made 
governor of Kashmir and Kabul, and employed 
in various wars and other duties. He excited 
universal admiration at the coiurt by the skill 
and judgment of his public works, of which 
the canal which bears his name at Dehli still 
affords a proof, and the taste and elegance he 
displayed on all occasions of show and festivity. 
He died on his way to Kashmir, where he was 
going for change of air, on the 16th April, 
A.D. o.s. 1657, r2th Pvajab, a.h. 1067, and 
was buried at Lahore in the mausoleum of his 
mother. He left three sons, viz., Ibrahim 
Klian, Isma'il Beg and Is-haq Beg, of whom 
the two last were slain in the battle which 
took place between Dara Shik5h and 'Alam- 
gir at Dhaulpur on the 29th May, o.s. 1658, 
7th Pamazan, a.h. 1068. He is believed to 
have introduced the bidbous Tartar dome into 
Indian architecture. 

'Ali Mosi Raza (U^ ^-^i-^ ir^-^^' *^^^ 

eiglith Imam of the race of Ali, and the son 
of Miisi Kazim the seventh Imam. His 
mother's name was Umm Sayyid ; he was 
born in the year a.d. 764 or a.d. 769, a.h. 
147, and died on Friday the rith August, 
A.D. 818, 9th Safar, a.h. 203. His wife's 
name was Umm Habil, the daughter of the 
Ivhalif al-Mamun. Ilis sepulchre is at Tiis 
in Khurasan. That town is now commonly 
called Mash-had, that is, the place of martyr- 
dom of the Imam. To the enclosiu-e wherein 
his tomb is raised, the Persians give the name 
of " Pauzat Rizawi," or the garden of Ilaza, 
and esteem it the most sacred spot in all 
Persia. The chief ornament and support of 
Mash-had is this tomb, to which mauy thou- 
sands of pious pilgrims annually resort, and 
which had been once greatly enriched by the 
bounty of sovereigns. Nasir-ullah Mirzii, the 
sou of Nadir Shah, carried away tlie golden 
railing that surrounded the tomb, and Nadir 
Mirza, son of Shah-rukh Mirza and grand- 
son of Niidir Shah, took down the great 
golden ball which ornamented the top of the 
donie over the grave, and wliich was said to 
weigh 60 mauuds or 420 pounds. The carpets 
fringed with gold, the golden lamps, and 
evcrvtliiug valuable were plundered t)y tlicso 
neucssitdus and rapacious princes. All Musi 
llaza was poisoned by the khalif al-Manmn, 
consequently is called a martyr. 




'Ali Muhammad Khan (S-as^ J^^ 

i^\d-), founder of the Eohila govern- 

iiieut. It is mentiouecl iu Forster's Travels, 
tliat in the year a.d. 1720 Biishilrat Kliau 
and Daud Kliau, of the tribe of lluhilas, 
accoui))auied by a small number of their 
adventurous countrymen, came into Hindustan 
iu quest of military service. They were first 
entertained by Madan Shah, a Hindu chief of 
Serauli (a small town on the the north-west 
qiiarter of Rohilldiand) who by robbery and 
predatory excui'sions maintained a large party 
of banditti. In the plunder of an adjacent 
village, Daud Khan captured a youth of the 
Jat sect, whom he adopted and brought up in 
the Muhamraadan faith, by the name of 'All 
Muhammad, and distinguished this boy by 
pre-eminent marks of paternal affection. 
Some years after, the llohilas quarrelling 
with Madan Shah, retired from his country, 
and associating themselves with Chand Klian, 
the chief of BarelT, they jointly entered into 
the service of Azmat Khan, the governor of 
Moradabad. After the death of I)aiid Klian, 
"who was slain by the mountaineers in one of 
his excursions, the Rohila party in a short 
space of time seized on the districts of Madan 
Shah and 'Ali Muhammad Kliiiu was declared 
chief of the party. From the negligence of 
government and the weak state of the empire 
of Dehli in the reign of Muhammad Shah, 
he possessed himself of the district of Katir 
(now called from the residence of the llohilas, 
Rohilkhand) and assumed independence of 
the royal authority. He was besieged in 
March, a.d. 1745, Safar, a.h. 1158, in a 
fortress called Bankar and 'Aoula and taken 
prisoner, but was released after some time, 
and a jagir conferred on him. The emperor 
Muhammad Shah died in April, a.d. 1748, 
A.H. 1161, and 'All Muhammad Khan some 
time after him in the same year at 'Aoula, 
which he had ornamented with numerous 
public and private edifices. He left four 
sons, viz., Sa'd-ullah Klian, Abdullah Kliau, 
Faiz-uUah Khan, and Dvmde Klian. Sa'd- 
iillah Khan succeeded to his father's posses- 
sion, being then twelve years old. 
[Vide Sa'd-ullah Klian.] 

'Ali (Mulla) (1^ ^.L^ ), Muhaddis or 

the traditioiiist, whose poetical name was 
" TarT," died in the year a.d. 1573, a.h. 
981, and Mulla 'Alam wrote the chronogram 
of his death. 

'AliMurad Khan ( .A. 


a king of Persia of the Zand family. He 
succeeded to the throne after the of 
Sfidiq Klian in March, a.d. 1781, and assumed 
the title of wakil. He reigned over Persia 
five years, and was independent of the govern- 
ment two years prior to this period. Persia 
during this time enjoyed a certain degree of 
peace. He continued to confine his rival 
'Aka Muhammad Klian to the ])rovince of 
Maziudaran. He died in A.D. 1785. 

'Ali Murad (Mir), present chief of 

Kliairpur (18G9). 

'Ali Naqi (Imam) (^L^l ^.sj , .!.£.) 

was the tenth Imam of the race of 'All, and 
the son of Imam Muhammad Taqi, who was 
the ninth Imam. He was born in the year 
A.D. 828, A.H. 213, and died on the i7th 
June, A.D. 869, 3rd Rajab, a.h. 255. His 
tomb is in Sarmanrae (which is also called 
Samira) in Baghdad, where his son Muham- 
mad Askari was also buried afterwards. 

'Ali Naqi Khan (Nawab) (. ^-ftj l^ 

<— ji».j |^L>-.), the father-in-law and 

prime minister of Wajid 'Ali Shah, the last 
king of Lucknow. He died at Lucknow of 
cholera about the Lst December, 1871, 17th 
Ramzan, a.h. 1278. 

'Ali Naqi ( i) ^Xs:), Dlwan of Prince 

Murad Bakhsh, sou of Shalyahi, whom he 
slew with his own hand. 

'Ali Nawedi {^S)^j ^s:), a poet and 

pupil of Shah Tfdiir Audjani, came to India, 
where he was patronized liy Abiil Fatha 
Husain Nizam Shah I. in the Deccan. For 
some time he was in disgrace with his patron 
and changed his Takhallus or poetical name 
from Nawedi to Na-umaidi (or hopeless). 
He died in a.d. 1567, a.h. 975, at Ahmad- 
uagar in the Deccan. 

'Ali Quli Beg-. 


Vide Shah Afcihan 

'Ali Quli Beg of Khurasan ( Ijj Lc 

L-JL^-i), author of a tazkira or bio- 
graphy of poets. 

'Ali Quli Khan (Nawab) ( L • ^.L^ 
^l~-). Vide Ganna Begam. 

'Ali Qusanji (Mulla) ( r^L^ }S). 
Vide Mulla 'Ali Ciusanji. 

'Ali Qusanji (Mulla) (^s^^y ^J^-^), 

author of the Sharah Tajrld, and Ildnhia 
Kashnhrif. He died iu a.d. 1405, a.h. 808. 

'Ali Shahab Tarshizi (t_^^.^ ls"^^ 
^_$j.^.J^jJ), a poet who was a native 

of Tarshish. He llourished in the reign of 
Shah-rukh ]\Iirza, and found a patron in 
his son ISIuhammad JogT, in whose praise he 
wrote several panegyrics. He was coutem- 
])(n-ary with the poet Azuii, who died a.d. 
1462," a.h. 866. 




' Alislier(Amir) (^^L^A-lr), surnamecl 

Nizam-uddin, was the prime minister of the 
Sultan Husaiu Mirza {q. v.), ruler of Khiu'a- 
san. He sprang from an illustrioiis family of 
the Jaglitai or Chaghtai tribe. His father, 
Gajkiua Bahadur, held one of the principal 
offices of government diuing the reign of 
Sultan Ahul Qiisim Babar Bahadur, great 
grandson of Amir Taimiir. His grandfather, 
by his mother's side, was one of the principal 
Amirs of Sultan Baiqara Mirza, the grand- 
father of Sidtan Husain Mirza. 'Alisher, 
who was born a.d. 1440, and educated at 
the same school as his futiu-e patron, attached 
himself originally to Sultan Abiil Qiisim 
Babar Mu-za, who was greatly attached to 
him, and called him his sou. After his death 
he retired to Mash-had and continued his 
studies there ; which place he subsequently 
quitted for Samarqand, on account of the 
disturbances which broke out in Khurasan, 
and applied himself diligently to the acquire- 
ment of knowledge in the college of Hiwaja 
Fazl-uUah. When Sultan Husain Mirza 
became uncontrolled niler of Ivhurasan (a.d. 
1469), he requested Sultan Ahmad Mirza, 
at that time ruler of the countries beyond the 
Oxus, to send 'Alisher to him. On his 
an-ival he was received with the greatest 
distinction, and raised to the highest posts 
of honour. 'Alisher's palace was open to all 
men of learning : and notwithstanding that 
the reigns of government were placed in his 
hands, in the midst of the weightiest affairs, 
he neglected no opportunity of impro^dng 
both himself and others in the pursuit of 
knowledge. He was not only honoured by 
his own Sultan and his officers, but foreign 
princes also esteemed and respected liini. 
After being employed in the capacity of 
diwau and prime minister for some time, 
love of study induced him to resign, and 
bidding a final adieu to public life, he passed 
the remainder of his days in composing 
Tm-kish and Persian works, of which Sam 
Mirza recounts the names of no less than 
twentv-one. Daiilat Shah, the biographer, 
]\[irkhiind and his son Khiindamir, the 
historians, dedicated their works to him, 
and amongst other men of genius who were 
cherished by his liberality may be mentioned 
the celebrated poet Jami. His collection of 
Odes in the Chaghtai or pure Turkish dialect, 
which he wrote under the poetical name of 
Nawai, amounts to 10,000 couplets, and his 
parody of Nizami's five poems, containing 
nearly 30,000 couplets, is imiversally admired 
by the cultivators of Turkish poetry, in which 
he is considered to be without a rival. In 
the Persian language also he wrote a collec- 
tion of Odes, under the poetical name of Fani 
or Fanal, consisting of 6000 distiches. He 
Avas also a proficient in painting and some of 
the plastic arts. 'Alisher died on Sunday 
the 6tli December, a.d. 1500, 15th Jamad 
I. A.H. 906, five years before his royal friend 
and master Sultan Husain Mirza. Khiin- 
damir has recorded the year of his death in 
an affectionate chronogram : " His highness 
the Amir, the asylum of divine guidance, in 

whom all the marks of mercy were con- 
spicuous, has quitted the thorny brake of 
the world, and fied to the rose-garden of 
compassion. Since the ' light of mercy ' has 
descended on his soul, those words represent 
the year of his departure." One of his works 
is called Majfdis-til-NafCtes. 

'AliTabar (Prince) (ij^;^^,^^,U^ ^^), 

was the son of prince 'Azim Shah, and grand- 
son of the emperor 'Alamgir. He died in 
the year A.D. 1734, a.h. 1147. 

'Ali Waez (lic^^ )^), the son of the 

famous Husain "Waez Kiishifi of Hirat. 
\_Vich 'All, son of Husain Wiiez.] 

'Ali Wardi Khan ( .,U 


also called Alahwardi Khan, which see 

'Ali Yezdi (^cJ:.j ^L). Vide Sharaf- 

uddiu 'All Yezdi. 

Aljaitu (y;..A^!l), a Tartar king of 

Persia, who assumed the title of ^Muhammad 
Khuda Banda on his accession to the throne, 
which see. 

Al-Khassaf (^L2..s:'l). Vide Abu 
Bakr Ahmad bin-'Umar al-Kliassaf. 

'Allama Dawani. Vide Dawani. 

'Allama Hilli (Shaikh) ( W ^,*lx 
ii""^), the great Shia lawyer, whose 

full name is Shaikh al- 'Allama Jamal-uddiu 
Hasan bin Yusuf al-Mutakhir Hilli, was the 
author of the KJiiddsat-iil-Jqu-al, a bio- 
graphy of eminent Shias. His chief works 
on the subject of traditions are the Istiksa, 
al-YaHbur, the Masahlh al- Anwar, and the 
Jjiirar-iva al-Marjun. He died in a.d. 1326, 
A.H. 726. 

\_Vide Jamul-uddlu Hasan bin Yiisuf.] 

'Allami. Vide Afzal Khan. 

'Allami ( ^^Lx), the poetical name of 

Shaikh Abvil Fazl, the favorite wazTr and 
secretary of the emperor Akbar. 

'Allami Shirazi (^_fjL*,^ ^^^Lc), or 

the philo.sopher of SliTraz, a very learned 
man, so generally called that his ])roper name 
is almost forgotten. He is the author of a 
celebrated collection of tracts on pure and 
niived mathematics, entitled Diirmt-iit-TitJ. 




Al-Mahdi (^s^^\), the third khalif 

of the race of Ahhas, succecdod his father, Abu 
Ja'far al-Mausur, to the throue of Ban^hdail, 
and was iuaii,2;iirated on Sunday the 8th 
October, a.d. 775, 6th Zil-bijja, a.h. 158. 
From the accession of al-Mahdl to the year 
A.D. 781, A.n. 164, the most remarkable 
event was the rebellion of al-Maqna (or al- 
Maqanna), which see. All this time war had 
been carried on with the Greeks, but without 
.any remarkable success on either side. But 
after the suppression of the rebellion of al- 
Maqna, the khalif ordered his son Harrm-al- 
Kashid to penetrate into the Greek territories 
with an army of 95,000 men. Hariin then, 
having entered the dominions of the empress 
Irene, defeated one of her commanders that 
advanced against him ; after which he laid 
waste several of the imperial provinces with 
fire and sword, and even threatened the city 
of Constantinople itself. By this the empress 
was so terrified, that she piu'chased a peace 
with the khalTf by paying him an annual 
tribute of 70,000 pieces of gold, which for the 
present at least delivered her from the depre- 
dations of these barbarians. After the signing 
of the treaty, Haruu retiu-ned home laden with 
spoils and glory. This year {i.e. the 164th 
year of the Hijri or a.d. 781) accorchng to 
some of the oriental historians, the sun one day, 
a little after his rising, totally lost his light 
in a moment without being eclipsed, when 
neither any fog nor any cloud of dust appeared 
to obscure him. This frightful darkness con- 
tinued till noon, to the great astonishment 
of the people settled in the countries where it 
happened. Al-Mahdi was poisoned, though 
undesignedly, by one of his concubines, named 
Hasana. She had designed to destroy one of 
her rivals whom she imagined to have too 
great an ascendancy over the khalif, by giving 
her a poisoned pear. This the latter, not 
suspecting anything, gave to the khalif ; who 
had no sooner eaten it than he felt himself 
in exquisite tortiu-e, and soon after expired. 
This event took place on the eve of Thursday 
the 4th August, a.d. 785, 23rd Muhurram, 
A.n. 169, in a village called Ar Rad in the de- 
pendencies of Masabadan. He was succeeded 
by Ms eldest son al-Hadi. 

Al-Mahdi (^-A.^,.^0, a khalif of 

Barliary. Vide Obeid-ullah al-MalulI and 
Muhammad al-Mahdi. 

Al-Mamun (^^^^UIO, surnamcd 'Ab- 
dullah, was the seventh khalif of the race of 
the Abbasides, and the second son of Hariin- 
al-Rashid. He was proclaimed khalif at 
Baghdad on the 6th October, a.d. 813, 6th 
Safar, a.h. 198, the day on which his brother 
al-AmIn was assassinated. He conferred the 
government of Khurasan upon Tahir ibn 
Husain, his general, and his descendants with 
almost absolute and unlimited power. This 
happened in the year a.d. 820, A.n. 205, 
from which time we may date the dismem- 
berment of that province from the empire 

of the khalTfs. Dm'ing the reign of this 
khalif nothing remarkable happened ; only 
the African Moslems invaded the island of 
Sicily, where they made themselves master 
of several places. Al-Mamun conquered part 
of Crete, had the best Greek writers trans- 
lated into Arabic, and made a collection of 
the best authors. He also calculated a set of 
astronomical tables and founded an academy 
at Ba gh dad. In Kl^urasan he made Tiis, at 
that time the capital of the kingdom, his 
place of residence. Under his patronage 
Klmrasan became the resort of learned men ; 
and the city of Tus, the great rival of Bagh- 
dad. He "died of a surfeit on the 18th 
August, A.D. 833, 17th Rajab, a.h. 218, 
after a reign of 20 years and some months 
in Asia Minor, aged 48 years, and was 
buried at Tarsus, a city on the frontiers 
of Asia Minor. His wife named Biiran, 
daughter of Hasan ibn Salil, his prime 
minister, out-lived him 50 years, and died 
on Tuesday the 22nd September, a.d. 884, 
27th Rabi I. a.h. 271, aged 80 years. 
Al-Mamiin was succeeded by his brother 
al-Mo'tasim Billah. 

Al-Mansur ij^.^.u^\), 2nd khalif of 

Barbary of the Fatimite race. Vide Ismail, 
siumamed al-Mansiir. 

Al-Mansur (,^..„a-;..^JO, whose former 

name was Abii Ja'far, was called al-Mansiir, 
the victorious, by his overcoming his enemies. 
He was the second khalif of the noble house 
of Bani Abbas or Abbasides, and succeeded 
to the throne of Irak at Baghdad after the 
death of his brother Abiil Abbas surnamed 
al-Saffah, in a.d. 754, a.h. 136. He was 
opposed by his uncle, 'Alxlullah, son of Ali, 
who caused himself to be proclaimed khalif at 
Damascus, but Avas defeated by al-Mansiir's 
general, Abii Muslim. He laid the founda- 
tion of the city of Baghdad on the banks of 
the Tigris in a.d. 762, and finished it four 
years after. He was a prince of extraordinary 
talent and taste, and an ardent lover of science 
and literature. He got the Pahlawi copy of 
Pilpay's Fables translated into Arabic. In 
the year a.d. 775, a.h. 158, the khalif set 
out from Baghdad in order to perform the 
pilgrimage to Mecca ; but being taken ill on 
the road, he expired at Bir Maimim, whence 
his body was carried to Mecca, where, after 
100 graves had been dug, that his sepulchre 
might be concealed, he was interred, having 
lived, according to some 63, according to 
others 68 years, and reigned 22 lunar years. 
He is said to have been extremely covetous, 
and to have left in his treasury 600,000,000 
dirhams and 24,000,000 dinars. He is re- 
ported to have paid his cook by assigning him 
the heads and legs of the animals di-essed in 
his kitchen, and to have obliged him to pro- 
ciu'e at his own expense all the fuel and 
vessels he had occasion for. He was succeeded 
by his son al-Mahdi. A Christian physician, 
named Bactishua, was very eminent at the 
court of al-Mansiu\ who understanding that 




he had au old infirm woman for his wife, sent 
him three beautiful Greek girls and 3,000 
dinars as a present. Bactishua sent back the 
girls and told the khalif that his religion pro- 
hibited his having more than one wife at a 
time ; which pleased the khalif so much, 
that he loaded him with presents, and per- 
mitted him, at his earnest request, to return 
to his own country of KJim-asau. 

Al-Maqna or al-Maqanna (^:*X/*.J\), 

a famous impostor of Kjiurasan who lived in 
the reign of al-Mahdi the khalifa of Bagh- 
dad. His true name was Hakam ibn Hasham, 
and he had been an imder- secretary to Abu 
Muslim, governor of that province. He after- 
wards tiu'ned soldier, and passed thence into 
Mawarunnahr, where he gave himself out as 
a prophet. The name of al-Maqna, as also 
that of al-Burqai, that is, the veiled, he re- 
ceived from his custom of covering his face 
with a veil or girdle -mask, to conceal his 
deformity ; he having lost an eye in the wars, 
and being otherwise of a despicable appear- 
ance, and a stutterer ; though his followers 
pretended he did this for the same reason that 
Moses did, viz., lest the splendour of his 
countenance should dazzle the eyes of his 
beholders. In some places he made a great 
many proselytes, deluding the people with 
a number of juggling tricks which they 
swallowed as miracles, and particularly by 
causing the appearance of a moon to rise out 
of a well for many nights together ; whence 
he was also called in the Persian tongue, 
Sazinda Mali, or the Moon-maker. This 
wretch, not content with being reckoned a 
prophet, arrogated to himself divine honours ; 
pretentling that the Deity resided in his per- 
son. He had first, he said, assumed the body 
of Adam, ihen that of Noah, and subsequently 
of many other wise and great men. The last 
human form he pretended to have adopted 
was that of Abu Aluslim, a prince of Kjiu- 
rasan, from whom it proceeded to him. At 
last this impostor raised an open rebellion 
against the khalif, and made himself master 
of several fortified places in Kliurasan, so 
that al-Mahdi was obliged to send one of his 
generals with an army against him about the 
year A. D. 780, a.h. 163. Upon the approach 
of the khalifa's troops, al-Maqua retired into 
one of his strong fortresses which he had well 
provided for a siege. But being closely be- 
sieged by the khalifa's forces, and seeing no 
possibility of escaping, he gave poison in wine 
to his wiiole family and all that were with 
him in the castle ; when tiiey were dead, he 
burnt their bodies, together with all their 
turuitiu-e, provisions, and cattle ; and lastly 
he threw himself into the flames. He had 
promised his followers, that his soul should 
transmigrate into the form of an old man 
ricUug on a grepsh coloured beast, and that 
after so many years he would return and give 
them the earth for their possession ; which 
ridiculous expectation kept the sect in being 
for several years. English readers will re- 
member the use made of this story by the 
author of Lallah Kookh. 

Al-Mo'tamid Billah (a.UI.j Sa:xx^\), 

the fifteenth khalif of the house of Abbas, 
was the son of al-Mutwakkil Billah. He was 
raised to the throne of Baghdad by the Turks 
after the murder of al-Muhtadi in a.d. 870, 
A.H. 256. This year the prince of the Zan- 
jiaus, All or al-Habib, made incursions to the 
very gates of Baghdad, doing prodigious mis- 
chief wherever he passed. In the year a.d. 
874, Ya'kiib-bin-Lys having taken Khurasan 
from the descendants of Tahir, attacked and 
defeated Muhammad ibn Wasil (who had 
killed the khalTf's governor of Fars, and 
afterwards made himself master of that pro- 
vince), seizing on his palace, where he found 
a sum of money amounting to 40,000,000 
dirhams. In the year a.d. 879, a.h. 265, 
Ahmad ibn Tiilan rebelled against the khalif 
and set up for himself in Egypt. There were 
now four independent powers in the Moslem 
dominions, besides the house of Umyya in 
Spain, viz., the African Moslems, or Aghla- 
bites, who had tor a long time acted indepen- 
dently ; Ahmad ibn Tulan in Syria and Egvpt ; 
Ya'kiib ibn al-Lys in Khurasan, and al-Habib 
in Arabia and I'raq. In the year a.d. 883, 
A.H. 27o, al-Habib was defeated and slain by 
al- Muwafiq, the khalTf's brother and coadjutor, 
who ordered his head to be cut off, and carried 
through a great part of that region which he had 
so long disturbed. In the year a.d. 891, a.h. 
278, the Qarmatians first made their appear- 
ance in the Moslem empire, and gave almost 
continual distm'bance to the khalifs and their 
subjects. Al-Mo'tamid reigned 22 lunar 
years 1 1 months and some days, and died in 
the year a.d. 892, a.h. 279. He was .suc- 
ceeded by his nephew, al-Mo'tazid Billah, the 
son of al-Muwafiq. 

Al-Mo'tasim Billah (<xIJb *^:;it^\) 

was the fourth son of Hariin-al-Eashid, and 
the eighth khalif of the house of Abbas. He 
succeeded to the throne by virtue of his brother 
al-Mamiin's express nomination of him to the 
exclusion of his own son al- 'Abbas, and his 
other brother al-Qasim, who had been ap- 
pointed by Ilarim-al-Rashid. In the begin- 
ning of his reign, a.d. 833, a.h. 218, he was 
obliged to employ the whole forces of his 
empire against one Babak, who had been for 
a considerable time in rebellion in I'ersia and 
Persian Iraq, aud had taken upon himself the 
title of a prophet. He Avas, however, de- 
feated and slain. In the year a.d. 838, a.h. 
223, the Greek emperor Theophilus invaded 
the khalTf's territories, where he behaved with 
the greatest cruelty, and, by destroying Sozo- 
petra, the place of al-Mo'tasim's nativity, 
notwithstanding his earnest entreaties to the 
contrary, occasioned the terrible distinction of 
Amorium. He is said to have been so robust, 
that he once carried a burden of 1,000 ])ounds 
weight several paces. As the ))eople ot Bagh- 
dad disturbed him with freciueut revolts and 
commotions, he took the resolution to abandon 
that city, and build another for his own resi- 
dence. The new city he built was first called 
Samira, aud afterwards Sarmanri (for that 




■\vhieli gives ])leasure at first sight), aud stood 
in the Arabian 'Iraq. He was attached to 
the opinion of the Matazalites who maintain 
the creation of the Uuran ; aud both he and 
his predecessor cruelly persecuted those who 
believed it to be eternal. Al-Mo'tasini died 
on Thursday the 5th January, a.d. 842, 18th 
Rabi I. .\.H. 227. He reigned eight years, 
eight months aud eight days, was born in the 
eighth month iShaban) of the year, was the 
eighth khalif of the house of Abbas, ascended 
the throne in the 218th year of the Hijri, 
died on the eighteenth of Itabi I. lived forty- 
eight years, fought eight battles, built I'i^ht 
palaces, begat eight sons and eight daughters, 
had 8,000 slaves, and had 8,000,000 dinars, 
and 80,000 dirhams in his treasiuy at his 
death, whence the oriental historians gave 
him the name of al-Mnsamnian, or the Oc- 
tonary. He was the first khalif that added 
to his name the title of Btlluh, equivalent 
to the Dei Gratia of Christian sovereigns. 
He was succeeded by his son al-Walhiq or 
Wasiq Billah. 

*Al-Mo'tazid Billah (jjjl. xSj:j^^\), 

the son of al-Muwafiq, the sou of al-Mut- 
wakkil Billah, was the sixteenth khalif of the 
race of Abbas. He came to the throne of 
Bnghdad after the death of his rmcle al- 
Mo'tamid Billah in a.d. 892, a.h. 279. In 
the first year of his reign, he demanded in 
marriage the daughter of Khamarawia, Sultan 
or khalif of Egypt, the son of Ahmad ibn 
Tulau ; which was agreed to by him with the 
utmost joy, and their nuptials were solemnized 
with great pomp in the year a.d. 895, a.h. 
282. He carried on a war with the Qarma- 
tians, but very unsuccessfully, his forces being 
defeated with great slaughter, and his general 
al-Abbas taken prisoner. The khalif some 
time after his marriage granted to Harun, 
son of Ivliamarawia, the perpetual prefecture 
of Awasam aud Kinuisriu, which he annexed 
to that of Egypt and Syria, upon condition 
that he paid him an annual tribute of 45,000 
dinars. He reigned nine years, eight mouths 
and twenty-five days, and died in a.d. 902, 
A.H. 289. His sou al-Muktafi Billah suc- 
ceeded him. 

Al-Mughira (i^_^_A_^JO, the son of 

Sayyid and governor of Kufa in the time of 
Mfi'awia, the first khalif of the house of 
Umyya. He was an active man, aud of very 
good parts ; he had lost one of his eyes at the 
battle of Yersuouk, th(nigh some say that it 
was with looking at an eclipse. By the 
followers of Ali he was accounted to be of 
the wrong party, aud one of the chief of 
them. For thus they reckon : There are 
five elders on All's side : Muhammad, AlT, 
Fatima, Hasan aud Ilusain ; aud to these are 
opposed Abii Bakr, 'Umar, Muawia, Amrii 
aud al-Mughira. He died in the year a.d. 
670, A.H. 50, at Kiifa. A great plague had 
been raging in the city, which made him 
retire from it; but returning upon its violence 
abating, he nevertheless caught it, aud died 
of it. 

Al-Muhtadi (^j._u._^_^JO, the four- 
teenth khalif of the Abbasides, was the son 
of one of Wiithiq's concubines named Kurb, 
who is supposed by some to have been a 
Christian. Al-Muhtadi was raised to the 
throne of Baghdad after the dethronement 
of al-Muttai'z Billah in a.d. 869, a.m. 255. 
The beginning of his reign is remarkable for 
the irruption of the Zanjians, a people of 
Nubia, Ethiopia, and the country of Caff res, 
into Arabia, where they penetrated into 
the neighbourhood of Basra and Kiifa. The 
chief of this gang of robbers was 'Ali ibn 
Muhammad ibn Abdiil Eahman, also called 
al-Habib, who falsely gave himself out to be 
of the family of Ali ibn Abii Taleb. This 
made such an impression upon the Shias in 
those parts, that they flocked to him in great 
numbers ; which enabled him to seize upon 
the cities of Basra and Ramla, and even to 
pass the Tigris at the head of a formidable 
army. In the year a.d. 870, a.h. 256, al- 
IMuhtadi was barbarously miu'dered by the 
Turks who had raised him to the throne. He 
reigned only eleven months aud was succeeded 
by al-Mo'tamid. 

Al-Mukhtar {j\j:^jkr^"\) , a celebrated 

]\Iuhammadan chief who had beaten all the 
generals of the khalifs Yezid, Marwan, and 
Abdiil Malik, aud had made himself sole 
master of Babylonian I'raq, whereof Kiifa 
was the capital. He persecuted all those he 
could lay his hands on, who were not of 
Husain's party ; he never pardoned any one 
of those who had declared themselves enemies 
to the family of the prophet, nor those who, 
as he believed, had dipped their hands in 
Husain's blood or that of his relations. He 
sent an army against Ubeid-ullah the son of 
Zayad, who was sent by the khalif Abdiil 
Malik towards Kiifa with leave to plunder 
it for three davs, and slew him in battle in 
August, A.D. 686, Muharrani, a.h. 67. Al- 
Mulvhtar was killed at Kiifa in a battle 
fought with Misaa'b, the brother of Abdullah, 
the son of Zuber, governor of Basra, in the 
month of April, a.d. 687, Ramzau, a.h. 67, 
in the 67th year of his age. It is said that 
he killed nearly 50,000 men. 

Al-Muktafi BiUah (.^I!lj ^L'd^^) 

was the seventeenth khalif of the house of 
Abbas who reigned in Baghdad. He suc- 
ceeded his father, al-Mo'tazid Billah, in a.d. 
902, A.H. 289, and proved a warlike and 
successful prince. He gained several advan- 
tages over the Qarmatians, but was not able 
to reduce them. The Turks, however, hav- 
ing invaded the province of Mawaruunahr, 
were defeated with great slaughter ; after 
which al-Muktafi carried on a successful war 
against the Greeks, from whom he took 
Seleucia. After this he invaded Syria and 
Egypt, which provinces he recovered from 
the house of Ahmad ibn Tiilan in A d. 905, 
A.H. 292 ; he then renewed the war with 
success against the Greeks aud Qarmatiaus. 




Al-Miiktafi died iu a.d. 908, a.h. 295, after 
a roiyu of about six years and a half. He was 
the last of the Idjalit's who made any figure 
by their warlike exploits. His successors al- 
Muqtadir, al-Qahir, and al-Rixzi, were so 
distressed by the Qarmatians and numberless 
usm-pers who were every day starting up, 
that by the 325th year of the Hijri, a.d. 
937, they had nothing left but the city of 
Ba gh dad. 

Al-Muqtadi Billah (<^_L!Lj ^A::ii^S^), 

surnamed Abul Qfisim Abd-ullah, the son of 
Muhammad, and grandson of al-Qriem 
Billah, was raised to the throne of Baghdad 
after the death of his grandfather in a.u. 
1075, A.H. 467, by orders of Sultan Malikshah 
Saljuki, who was then the real master of 
the empire. He was the 27th khalif of the 
race of Abbas, reigned 19 lunar years and 5 
months and died a.d. 109-1, a.h. 487. His 
death induced Barkayaraq the Saljuki, the 
reigning Sultan of Persia, whose brother 
Mahmiid had died about the same period, to 
go to Bnghdild, where he confirmed al- 
Mustazhir, the sou of the late khalif, as his 
successor, and was himself hailed by the new 
lord of the faithful, as Sultan of the empire. 

Al-Muqtadir BUlali (A-ULj^-Vuii^O, 

the eighteenth khalif of the house of Abbas, 
was the son of al-Mo'tazid Billah. He 
succeeded his brother al - MuktafT to the 
throne of Baghdad in a.d. 908, a.h. 295. 
He reigned 24 luuar years 2 months and 7 
days, and was nuu-dered by a eunuch ou the 
29th October, a.d. 932, 25th Shawwal, a.h. 
320. He was succeeded by his brother al- 
Qahir Billah. 

Al-Muqtafi Bi-amr-illali ( ^.i_:i.ii.^jl 

<u]^j.t\:), the son of al-Mustazahr, 

was the 31st khalif of the house of Abbas. 
He succeeded his nephew al-Eashid in a d. 
1136, A.H. 530, reigned about 24 lunar years 
and died iu a.d. 1160, a.h. 555, leaving his 
kingdom to his sou al-Mustaujad. 

Al-Mustaa'li BiUah (alSb ^[x-:.^^\), 

the sixth Fatimite khalif, succeeded his father, 
al-Mustanasar Billah, in the government of 
Egypt and Syria. During his reign, the 
power of that dynasty was impaired, and 
its authority M'eakeued, their political in- 
fluence having ceased in most of the Syrian 
cities, and the provinces of that country 
having fallen into the possessions of the 
Turkmans ou one hand, and the Frauks on 
the other. This people (the Crusaders) 
entered Syria and encamped before Antiocli 
in the month of October, a.d. 1097, Zil- 
qada, a.h. 490 ; tliey obtained possession 
of it on the 20th June, 1098, 1 6th Rajah, 
A.H. 491 ; the following year they took 
Maaratun Nonifiu, and in the month of 
July, 1099, Sha'bau, a.h. 492, they became 

masters of Jerusalem, after a siege of more 
thau 40 days. This city was taken ou a 
Friday morning ; during the eusrring week 
a great multitude of Moslems perished, and 
upwards of 70,000 were slain in the Masjid 

al-Aqsa (or mosque of Umar) al-Musta- 

a'li was born at Cairo ou the 24th August, 
A.D. 1076, 20th Muharram, a.h. 469, pro- 
claimed khalif ou Thursday the 28th 
December, a.d. 1094, 18th Zil-hijja, a.h. 
4h7, and died in Egypt ou the 10th 
December, a.d. 1101, 16th Safar, a.h. 495. 
His son Amar hi Ahkam-ullah Abii Ali 
Mansiir succeeded him. 

Al-Mustaa'sim Billali ( aU Ij j^^jcXj^^ \), 

surnamed Abii Ahmad Abdullah, was the 
thirty-seventh and last khalif of the race of 
Abbas. He succeeded his father, al-Mus- 
tanasar, to the throne of Baghdad in a.d. 
1142, A.H. 640. In his time Halakvi I£[ian 
Tartar, emperor of the Mughals and grand- 
scm of the great conqueror Changiz Khan, 
besieged Baghdad for two months, and 
having taken that place, seized al-Mustaa- 
'sim and his four sons, whom he put to a 
most cruel death with 800,000 of its inhabi- 
tants. Halaku Khan was very desirous of 
seizing upon Baghdad, and of adding the 
whole kingdom ot Mesopotamia to his already 
vast and numerous conquests ; but, partly 
on account of his own scruples, and partly 
from fear of offending the prejudices of his 
Sunni followers, who were all of the same 
faith with the khalif, he refrained for a time 
from entering the sacred dominion of one 
who was considered as the head of their 
holy religion, and the true representative of 
their beloved prophet. But the glorious days 
of the house of Bani Abbas had already been 
numbered, the effeminate Mustaa'sim had 
personal vices enough to lead to and excuse 
the final extinction of his race ! Ibu al- 
Qama, his prime minister (who hated him 
more than any other of his oppressed subjects) 
from within, and Nasir-uddin Tusi, the 
preceptor of the Mughal prince (who owed 
him an old grudge) from without, ru-ged the 
conqueror to the gates of Baghdad. Nasir- 
uddTu had a few years before beeu at Ba ghdad, 
seeking shelter from persecution, and wlieu he 
was introduced to Mustaa'sim, the latter asked 
hini to what country he belonged? " Tiis, 
please your holiness," answered Nasir-uddin. 
"Art thou of the asses, or of the oxen of 
TUs?" said the khalif (meaning the two 
principal branches of the Shia faith — 
Akhbaris and Usulis). Mortified as the 
illustrious refugee was at this iuhospitable 
insult, he still submissively auswered, " Of 
the oxen of Tiis, please your highness." 
"Where, then, are thy horns," said the 
insolent buffoon. " I have them not with 
me," replied Nasir-uddin, "but if your 
holiness permit, I will go and fetch them." 
" Make haste, liencc, llicnce, thou deformed 
animal," said the khalif, "and never again 
appear in my pn'seuce iu so imperfect a 
state ! " Nasir-uddin kept his promise well, 
for, at the moment when Batrhdad was on 




the point of being surrendered, and the 
khalif driven to the last extremity, he sent 
him a message to the effect that the ox 
of Tus was at the gate with his horns, and 
inquiring, when it would please his holiness 
to receive liini ? Nasir-uddin had in the 
city another old offender, whom he was 
anxious also to chastise. This was ibn 
Hajib, also one of the khalif's ministers, 
and a person of great reputation for his 
learning ; but being an Arabian SunnT, and 
a very bigoted one too, he had behaved still 
more cruelly than his master to the distressed 
Persian Sliia \\lien he sought protection at 
Baghdad. Ibn Ilajib, having been seized 
with depression of spirits, the physicians had 
recommended him (and the priests had 
granted him dispensation) to take, occasion- 
ally, a little wine. This happened when 
Nasir-nddin was at Baghdad. One day, ibn 
Hajib feeling himself particularly melancholy, 
and having, in consequence, taken a larger 
dose than usual, he became unusually merry, 
and requested Nasir-uddin to accompany him 
on the Tigris. Having reached the middle 
of the stream, he stopped the boat, and 
produced the several volumes of NasTr-uddln's 
works, which the learned refugee had pre- 
sented to the khalif — some of them in the 
original manuscript, and not yet transcribed, 
and in the presence of their anxioiis author, 
he threw them all, one after another, into 
the river, with such spiteful force, that the 
water was splashed about in every direction ; 
when turning himself, on each occasion, to 
his mortified guest, he exclaimed with a 
sarcastic smile of triumph, "How wonder- 
fully it bubbles ! ' ' When the tiu-n of Naslr- 
uddin came he, too, gave full vent to his 
revenge. He ordered ibn Hajib to be cased 
up to his neck, in an ox's hide, just taken off 
the animal, and, having filled the skin with 
air, he laid it for a few hours in the sun, till 
it became quite dry, and soimded like a drum. 
Then the victor advanced close to his half 
exhausted enemy, gave him a kick of triumph, 
and, as he rolled on the ground, exclaimed, 
" How wonderfully it rattles ! " The fall of 
Baghdad took place on Sunday the 10th 
February, a.d. 1258, 4th Safar, a.h. 656, 
from which time Baghdad was added to the 
other conquered provinces of this proud 
emperor. Al-Mustaa'sim reigned 15 lunar 
years and 7 months. 

Al-Musta'in Billah (aHIj ^j^-<.-:.^j^^) , 

the son of Muhammad, the son of al- 
Mo'tasim Billah, was the twelfth khalif of the 
race of Al)bris. He ascended the throne of 
Baghdad iu a.d. 862, a.h. 248, after the 
death of his cousin or brother al-Mustanasar 
Billah, but was forced to abdicate the throne 
in A.D. 866, A.H. 252, by his brother al- 
Mo'tiz Billah, who afterwards caused him to 
be privately murdered. 

Al-Mustakfi Billah (aJJlj, ^ki-:..^\) 

Avas the 22nd khalif of the Abbaside family, 
and the son of al-Muktafi, the son of al- 
Mo'tazid Billah. He succeeded his uncle 

al-Muttaqi in a.d. 945, a.h. 333, reigned in 
Baghdad one year and four months, and was 
dejjosed by his wazir in a.d. 946, a.h. 334. 
After him al-Mutia' Billah was raised to the 

Al-Mustanasar Billali(aiSlj .^:ji*u/*]^), 

the son of Tahir, was the fifth khalif of 
Egypt of the Fatimite race. He succeeded 
his lather a.d. 1036, and with the assistance 
of a Turk named Basasiri, conquered Bagh- 
dad and imprisoned al-Kaem Billah about 
the year a.d. 1054, and for a year and a half 
was acknowledged the only legitimate chief 
of all the Musalmans. Basa.siri was defeated 
and killed by Tughral Beg a.d. 1059, a.h. 

[ Vide Basasiri. Al-Mustanasar died in 
1094, having reigned 60 years; and was 
succeeded by his son al-Mustaa'li Billah 
Abiil Qasim.] 

Al-Mustansir Billah I.(ai!lj^:.:i^^l), 

the eleventh khalif of the race of Abbiis, 
ascended the throne of Baghdad after the 
murder of his father, al-Mutwakkil, iu 
December, a.d. 861, Shawwal, a.h. 247, 
and had reigned only six months, when he 
was cut off by the hand of death in a.d. 862, 
A.H. 248. He was succeeded by his cousin 
al-Mnsta'in Billah. 

Al-Mustansir Billah II. {^•.,::aj^\ 

<iL-L.U-.j), surnamcd Abu Ja far al- 

Mansur, ascended the throne of Baghdad 
after the death of his father, al-Tahir, iu 
A.D. 1226, A.H. 623. He was the 36th 
khalif of the house of Abbas, reigned about 
17 years, and died a.d. 1242, a.h. 640, 
leaving his kingdom to his son al-Mustaa'- 
sim Billah, the last of the khalifs. 

Al-Mustanjid Billah (<).illj jksaji^u;,^^), 

the 32ud khalif of the race of Abbas, suc- 
ceeded to the throne of Baghdad after the 
death of his father al-Muktati, iu a.d. 1160, 
A.H. 555, reigned 11 lunar years and died iu 
A.D. 1171, A.H. 566, when his son al-Mustazi 
succeeded him. 

Al-Mustarashid Billah (a.lllj A-i) .tu^^), 

the twenty-ninth khalif of the Abbaside 
family, succeeded his father, al-Mustazahr, 
to the throne of Baghdad in a.d. 1118, 
A.H. 512. It is related by ibn l^iallikan 
that when Sultau Masaiid, the son of Muham- 
mad, the son of Malik.shah Saljiiki, was 
encamped outside the town of Maragha in 
Azurbejan, al-Mustarashid was then with 
him, aud on Thursday the 28th or, according 
to ibn Mustaufi, the" 14th or 28th Zil'qada, 
A.H. 529 (corresponding with the 24th 
August or 7th September, a.d. 1135), a 
band of assassins broke into the khalif's tent 
aud murdered him. Al-Mustarashid reigned 
17 lunar years aud some months, and was 
succeeded by his son al-Kashid Billah. 




Al-Mustazhir Billali {&\l[jj^}^^\), 

the son of al-Muqtadi, was the tweuty-eii;hth 
khalif of the dynasty of Abbiis. He was 
phiced on the throne of Baghdad after the 
death of his father in a.d. 1094, a.h. 487, 
by Barkyaraq Saljuki, the Turkish Sultan of 
Persia. He reigned 2o hmar years and some 
months, and at his death, which happened 
in the year a.d. 1118, a.h. 512, he was 
succeeded by his son al-Mustarashid. 

Al-Mustazi Bi-amr-illali ( ^»i.:x^^i 

aJJl^^lO, the thirty-third khalif of 

the Abbaside family, succeeded his father, al- 
Mustanjad, to the throne of Baghdad in a.d. 
1171, AH. 566. He reigned about seven 
years and died in a.d. 1179, a.h. 575, when 
his son al-Xasir Billah succeeded him. 

Al-Mutaa'zz Billali (aIIIj •*:;>^1), the 

son of al-Mutwakkil, was the 13th khalif of 
the race of Abbas. He deposed his brother 
al-Mustain in a.d. 866, a.h. 252, and having 
caused him to be murdered privately, ascended 
the throne of Baghdad. He did not, how- 
ever, long enjoy the dignity of which he had 
so iuiquitously possessed himself, being de- 
posed by the Tm-kish Militia (who uow 
began to set up 4ind depose khalifs as they 
pleased) in the year a.d. 869, a.h. 255. 
After his deposition, he was sent under 
an escort from Sarr Manrae to Ba gh dad, 
where he died of thirst and hunger, after a 
reign of three years and about seven months. 
The fate of this khalif was peculiarly hard : 
the Turkish troops had mutinied for their 
pay; and al-Mutaa'zz not having money to 
satisfy their demands, applied to his mother, 
named Kabiha, for 50,000 dinars. This she 
refused, telling him that she had no money at 
all, although it afterwards appeared that she 
was possessed of immense treasure. After 
his deposition, however, she was obliged to 
discover them, and even deposit them in the 
hands of the new klialif al-Muhtadi. They 
consisted of 1,000,000 dinars, a bushel of 
emeralds, and another of pearls, and tl\ree 
pounds and three quarters of rubies of the 
coloiH of lire. 

Al-Mutia' Billah (aillj ^, the 

twenty-third klialif of the i-ace of Abbas, was 
the son of al-Muqtadir Billah. He ascended 
the throne of Baghdad after al-Mustakfi in 
a.d. 946, A.H. 334, reigned 29 lunar years 
and 4 months, and died in a.d. 974, a.h. 363. 
It was in his time that the temporal power 
of the khalTfs of Baghdad, after having been 
long sustained bv Turkish mercenaries, was 
completely and finally broken by the Byzantine 
Romans, led by Xicephonis Phocas and John 
Zimisces. [Smith's Gibbon (ed. 1862), vi. 
pp. 106, 422, 427-8.] His sou al-Taya' 
succeeded him. 

Al-Muttaqi Billah (<dilj ^'i^O, the 
sou of al-Muqtadir, was the twcuty-first 

khillf of tlie dynasty of Abbas. He succeeded 
his brother al-E,azi Billah to the throne of 
Ba gh dad in a.d. 941, a.h. 329, reigned 3 
years 11 months and 15 days, and died in 
A.D. 945, a.h. 333. He was succeeded by 
his nephew al-Mustaqti, the sou of al-Muktafi. 

Al-Mutwakkil 'Al-allah (J<yx^\ 

a.UlJ..c). This was the name and 

title assumed by Abiil Fa/1 Ja'far on his 
accession to the throne of Baghdad. He was 
the tenth khalif of the house of Abbas, and 
the sou of al-Mo'tasim Billah. He suc- 
ceeded his brother al-Wathik or Wasiq in 
the year a.d. 847, a.h. 232, and began his 
reign with an act of the greatest cruelty. 
The late khilif's wazir having treated al- 
Mutwakkil ill in his brother's lifetime, and 
opposed his election to the khilafat, was on 
that account now sent to prison, and after- 
wards thrown into an iron furnace lined with 
spikes or nails heated red hot, where he was 
miserably bm-nt to death. Diu-ing this reign 
nothing remarkable happened, except wars 
with the Greeks, which were carried on with 
various success. He was very intolerant, 
especially of the Jews and Clu-istiaus, on 
whom he heaped many indignities. He did 
not stop there. In his imbecility and ferocity 
he forbade the pilgrimage to Karbala, and 
caused the sacred repository of the ashes of 
Husaiii and the other martyrs interred there 
to be razed. He reigned 14 years 9 months 
and 9 davs, and was assassinated and cut into 
seven pieces on the 24th December, a.d. 861, 
17th Shawwal, a.h. 247, at the instance of 
his son al-Mustauasar, who succeeded him. 

Al-Muwaffiq Billah (.OJb J.i^\), 

the son of al-Mutwakkil Billah, the khalif 
of Baghdad and brother and coadjutor of the 
khalif al-Ma'tamid, to whom he was of much 
service in his battles against his enemies. 
He died of elephantiasis or leprosy in the 
year a.d. 891, a.h. 278, and while in his 
last illness could not help observing that of 
100,000 men whom he commanded, there 
Avas not one so miserable as him.self. His 
son Mo'tazid, after the death of his brother 
al-Mo'tamid in a.d. 892, succeeded to the 
throne of Baghdad. 

Al-Muwyyid(Isma'il)(J^.t^.^^ J^.\y^\), 

whose name is spelt in Lempriere's Vniversnl 
Biorjraphicitl Lictionary " Alombuadad," 
and in "SVatkiu's Biographical liictionarij 
" Almuvadad," was an Arabian historian, 
who gave a chronological account of the 
Saracen affairs in Sicily from a.d. 842 to 
904. This MS. is iu 'the Library of th3 
Escurial, in Spain, and a Latin version of 
it is inserted iu Muratori's Ecriim Italicancin 

Al-Muzani ( Jj-^Jl). Vide AbQ 

Ibrahim Ismail. 
Al-Nasir Billah (^\j ^^\J\), or al- 

Xasir-udilin allah, the son of al-Mustazi, 




succeeded his father to the throne of I>;igli Ifid 
iu A.D. 1179. lie professed the Shui' laith, 
aud after a loiiji: reij;ii of 46 luuar years and 
11 months, died in the year a. d. 1225. He 
■was the 34th khalif of the house of Ahbas, 
aud was succeeded by his son al-Tahir Billah. 

Alp Arsalan 



\ ^^\), (which 

nieaus in the Turkish language " the valiant 
lion "), was a king of Persia of the Seljiikian 
dNTiasty, aud the son of Daud Beg Saljuki. 
He succeeded his uncle Tngliral Beg in a.d. 
10G3, A.H. 4 5o, married the sister of the 
khilif Qfiim Billah, and his name was pro- 
noimced in the public prayers of the Mu- 
hammadans after that of the khalif. He was 
a warlike prince ; and, having spoiled the 
Church of St. Basil in C;esarea, defeated 
Romauus Diogenes, Emperor of the Greeks 
iu A.D. 1068, A.H. 460, who was seized aud 
carried to the conqueror. Alp Arsalau de- 
manded of hi.s captive, at the first conference, 
what he would have done if fortrme had 
reversed their lot. " I would have given 
thee many a stripe," was the impradeut aud 
virulent answer. The Sultan only smiled 
and asked Romauus what he expected would 
be done to him. " If thou art cruel," said 
the Emperor, "put me to death. If vain- 
glorious load me with chains, and drag me in 
triumph to thy capital. If generous, graut 
me mv liberty." Alp Arsalan was neither 
cruel nor vain-glorious, he nobly released his 
prisoner, and, giving all his officers who were 
captives dresses of honour, sent them away to 
their homes. Alp Arsalan after a reign of more 
than nine years was stabbed aborrt the loth 
December, a.d. 1072, 30th Rabi I. a.h. 
465, by a Kbwarizmiau desperado whom he 
had taken prisouer aud sentenced to death. 
He Avas buried at Marv iu Khurasan, and the 
following is the translation of the iuscription 
engraved on his tomb: "All ye who have 
seen the glory of Alp Arsalan exalted to the 
heavens, come to Marv, and*j-ou will behold 
it buried in the dust." He was succeeded by 
his son Malikshah. 

Alp Arsalan, who is by some called 

Apal Arsalan, was the son of Atsiz, a Sultan 
of Kvliwarizm, whom he succeeded iu ad. 
1166, A.H. 551-557, and died iu a.d. 1162. 

Alptakin or Alptagin ( .,_-_$L'.x_-s_n). 
o •* 

Vtdf Alaptakin. 

Al-Qadir Billali (.dLj ^jUJl), the 

twenty-fifth khalif of the Abbaside family, 
was the son of Is-bfiq, the son of Muqtadir 
Billah. He asceuded the throne of Baghdad 
after the dethronement of al-Taya' in a.d. 
991, A.H. 381. He was a contemporary of 
Sultan Mahuuul of Ghazni ; reigned 41 lunar 
years and 3 tuonths, and died a.d. 1031, a.h. 
422. He was succeeded by al-(iriimbi-amr- 

Al-Qadiri or Qadiri (j_c,jliiJl), a sect 
of Muliammadans. Thes j are a branch of the 

Muetazillis, and differ in their opinions from 
the orthodox Musalmuus, in that they deny 
God's decree, and a.ssert free will ; affirming 
that the contrary opinion makes God the 
author of evil. 

Al-Qaliir Billah UMj ^j^lJiJ'O, the 

nineteenth khalif of the race of the Abbasides, 
and the third son of al-Mo'tazid Billah, 
succeeded his brother al- Muqtadir to the 
crown of Baghdad in October, a.d. 932, 
Shawwal, a.h. 320. He had reigned only 
one year, five mouths and twenty-one days 
when his wazir ibn ]\Iaqla de])rived him of 
his sight with a hot iron on Wednesday the 
23rd April, a.d. 934, 6th Jamad I. a.h. 
322, and raised al-Riizi Billah, the son of 
IMuqtadir, to the throne. It is said that al- 
Qahir, after this, as long as he lived, was 
obliged to beg for charity in the mosque at 
Baghdad, calling out to the people that 
assembled there, " Have pity and give 
charity to one, who had once been your 

Al-Qaim (*jUj1), second khalif of the 

Fatiuiite race of Barbary ; he succeeded 
his father Obeid-ullah al-Mahdi a.d. 924, 
A.H. 312. Dm'ing his reign we read of 
nothing remarkable, except the revolt of 
Yezid ibn Koudat, a man of mean extraction. 
Al-Uaim reigned nearly 12 years and died in 
A.D. 945, A.H. 334. His son Ismail al- 
Mansiir succeeded him. 

'Al-Qama (^uii-:), son of Qys, was one 

of the pupils of Abdullah bin MasaM, and 
an eniineut man. He died in a.d. 681, 
A.H. 61. 

Al-Qaim Billah or Al-Qaim -bi-amr- 

illah (aJLj A-^'l-iJ^), surnamed Abu 

Ja'far AbdullSh, the 2''.th khalif of the house 
of 'Abbas. He succeeded his father Qiidir 
Billah to the throne of Baghdad in a.d. 
1031, A.H. 422, reigned 44 lunar years and 
8 months, and died iu a.d. 1075, a.h. 467, 
which was soon after Sultan Malikshah the 
Seljiiki had ascended the throne of Persia, 
and as that monarch was the real master of 
tlie empire, the nominatiou of a successor was 
deferred till he was consulted. He deputed 
a sou of his prime minister Nizam -ul-Mulk 
to Baghdad with orders to raise al-Mu(itadi, 
the grandson of al-Qaim, to the (nominal) 
rank of the commander of the faithful. 

Al-Rashid or Hariin al-Rashid (^„ ,b) 

^-.-ij^), tlie celebrated liero of the 

Arabian Xights, was the fifth khalif of the 
race of Abbas and son of al-.Mnhtli; he 
succeeded his eldest brother al-Iladi to the 
tbnme of Baghdad in a.d. 786, a.h. 170. 
This was one of the best and wisest princes 
that ever sat on the throne of Baghdad. He 
was also extremely fortunate iu all his uudir- 
takinjjs, thonnh he did uot much extend his 




dnmiuiniis hy couquest. In his time the 
Moslem empire may he said to have beeu iu 
its most fiourishintr state, though, hy the 
iudepemleney of the Moslems in 8paiu, who 
had formerly set up a klialif of the house of 
Umyya, his territories were uot quite so 
extensive as those of some of his predecessors. 
He possessed, however, the provinces of Syria, 
Palestine, Arabia, Persia, Armenia, Natolia, 
Media or Azurbejan, Babylonia, Assyria, 
Siudh, Sijistan. Klau-asau, Tabristan, Jurjau, 
Zabulistau, Mawaruuuahr, or great Bukharia, 
Egypt, Libya, Maiuitania, etc., so that his 
empire was still by far the most powerful of 
any in the world, and indeed extended farther 
than the Roman empire ever had done. 

In the beginning of the year .4.d. 802, a.h. 
186, he divided the government of his exten- 
sive dominions among his three s(ms in the 
following manner : To al-Amin the eldest, 
he assigned the provinces of Spia, Irak, the 
three Arabias, Mesopotamia, Assp'ia, Media, 
Palestine, Egj^rt, and all the part of Africa 
extending from the confines of Egypt and 
Etliiopia to the Straits of Gibraltar, with the 
dignity- of khalif ; to al-Mamun the second, 
he assigned Persia, Kirman, the Indies. 
Khurasan, Tabristan, Kabulistan and Zabu- 
listau, together with the vast province of 
Mawaninnahr ; and to his third sou al-Qasini, 
he gave Armenia, Xatolia, Jm-jau, Georgia, 
Circassia, and all the Moslem territories 
bordering upon the Euxine sea. As to the 
oi'der of succession, al-Amin was to ascend the 
throne immediately after his father's decease ; 
after him al-Mamiin ; and then al-Qasim, 
whom he had suruamed al-Mo'tasim. 

The most considerable exploits performed 
by this khalif were against the Greeks, who 
by their perfidy provoked him to make war 
upon them, and whom he always overcame. 
In the year a.d. 803, a.h. 187, the khalif 
received a letter from the Greek Emperor 
Nicephorus, commanding him to return all 
the money he had extorted from the Empress 
Irane, or expect soon to see an Imperial army 
in the heart of his ten'itories. This insolent 
letter so exasperated Harun, that he im- 
mediately assembled his forces and advanced 
to Heraclea, lajiug the country through which 
he passed waste with fire and sword. For some 
time also he kept that city straitly besieged, 
which so terrified the Greek Emperor that he 
submitted to pay an annual tribute. 

In the year a.d. 804, a.h. 188, war was 
renewed with the Greeks, and Xicephorus 
with a great army attacked the khalif's forces 
vdth the utmost fiuy. He was, however, 
defeated with the loss of 40,000 men, and 
received three wounds in the action ; after 
which the Moslems committed terrible ravages 
in his territories, and returned home laden 
with spoils. The next year Ilariin invaded 
Phrygia ; defeated an Impei'ial army sent to 
oppose him, and having ravaged the countiy, 
returned without any considei-able loss. In 
the year a.d. 806," a.h. 190, the khalif 
marched into the Imperial territories with an 
army of 135,000 men, besides a great number 
of volunteers and others who were not enrolled 
among his troops. lie first took the city of 

Heraclea, from which he is said to have 
carried 16,000 prisoners ; after which he 
made himself master of several other places, 
and, in the conclusi(m of the expedition, he 
made a descent on the island of Cypnis, 
which he plundered iu a terrible manner. 
This success so intimidated Kicephorus, that 
he immediately sent the tribute due to Hilriin, 
the withholding of which had been the cause 
of the war ; and concluded a peace upon the 
khalif's own terms. Chai'lemague respected 
his character, and Ilarun in token of his 
friendship presented to the Eui-opean prince a 
clock, the mechanism and construction of 
which were regarded among the prodigies of 
the age. Ilarun reigned 23 years, and died 
in Kliuriisan on the eve of Saturday the 24th 
March, a.d. 809, 3rd Jamad II., a.h. 193, 
and was bmicd at Tus, which is now called 
Mashhad. He was succeeded by his eldest 
son, al-Amin. 

Al-Rashid Billah (^Ij sJ:,\J\), the 

thirtieth khalif of the Abbasides, succeeded 
his father, al-Mustarashad, in AugiLst or 
September, a.d. 1135, Zil'kad, a.h. 529, 
and died in the year a.d. 1136, a.h. 530. 
He was succeeded" by al-]\Iuqtali, the son of 

Al-Razi. See Eazi. 

Al-Razi Billah U\][: ^j\J^), the son 

of al-Muqtadir and the twentieth klialif of 
the house of Abbas, was the last who deserved 
the title of the Commander of the Faithful. 
He was raised to the throne of Baghdad, 
after the dethronement of his uncle al-Qaliir 
Billah bv the wazir Ibu Maqla in April, a.d. 
934, Jaiiiad I. a.h. 322. In the year 936, 
the khalif finding himself distressed on all 
sides by usurpers, and having a wazir of no 
capacity, instituted a new otfice superior to 
that of wazTr, which he entitled Amir-ul- 
Umra. This great officer, Imad-ud-daula 
All Boya, was tnisted with the management 
of the finances in a much more absolute and 
unlimited manner than any of the khalif's 
wazirs ever had been. Nay, he ofliciated for 
the khalif in the great mosque at Baghdad, 
and had his name mentioned in the public 
prayers throughout the kingdom. In short 
the khalif was so much under the power of 
this ofiicer, that he could not apply a single 
dinar to his own use without the leave of the 
Amir-ul-Umra. In the year a.d. 937, the 
Moslem empii-e so great and powerful, was 
shared among the following usurpers : 

The cities of Wasat, Basra, Kiifa with the 
rest of the Arabian Iriiq, were considered as 
the property of the Amir-ul-Umra, though 
they had been in the beginning of the year 
seized upon by a rebel called al-Baridi, who 
could not be driven out of them. 

The country of Fars, Faristan, or Persia 
pro])erlv so called, was possessed by Imad-ud- 
daula All ibn Boya, who resided" in the city 
of Shiriiz. 

Part of the tract denominated al-Jabal, 
together with Persian Iraq, which is the 




nioimtaiuoTis part of Persia, and the couutrv 
of the ancient Parthians, ol)eve(l Rukn-nd"- 
daula, the brother of luad-ild-daula, wlio 
resided at Isfahan. The other part of the 
country was possessed by Washmakin the 

Dayar Rabia, Dayar Bikr, Dayar Modar, 
and the city of Musal, acknowledgx-d for 
their sovereign a race of princes called 

Egypt and Syria no longer obeytd the 
khalifs, but Muhammad ibn Taj, who had 
formerly been appointed governor of those 

Africa and Spain had long been indepen- 

Sicily and Crete were governed by princes 
of their own. 

The provinces of Kliurasan and Malvarun- 
nahr were under the dominions of al-Nasr 
ibn Ahmad, of the dynasty of the Samaniaus. 
The provinces of Tabrisfcm, Jurjau or 
Georgia, and Mazindaran, had kings of the 
first djTiasty of the Dllamites. 

The province of Kirmiin was occupied by 
Abu All Muhammad ibn Eylia al-Samani, 
Avho had made himself master of it a short 
time before. And 

Lastly, the provinces of Yemama and 
Bahryn, including the district of Hajr, were 
in the possession of Abii Tahirthe Karmatiau. 
Thus the khalifs were deprived of all their 
dominions, aud reduced to the rank of 
sovereign pontiffs; in which light, though 
they continued for some time to be regarded 
by the neighbouring princes, yet their power 
never arrived to any height. In this low 
state the khalifs continued till the extinction 
of the Kjiilafat by Halilku Klian the Tartar 
in the year a.d. 1258, a.h. 656. 

Al-IlfizT Billiih reigned 7 years 2 months 
aud 11 days, and died in a.d. 941, a.h. 329. 
lie was succeeded by his brother al-Muttaqi. 

Al-Saharawi {^t\ 



'M). Fide Abul 

Al-Saffah CliJl), surname of AbOl 

Aljljfis, the s(m of Muliammad, the sou of 
All, the son of 'AbduUali, the son of Abbas, 
the nucle of the prophet. lie was proclaimed 
khalifa by the inhabitants of Kufa on Friday 
the 29th November, a.d. 749, 13th Rabi 
II., A.H. 132, upon which a battle took 
place between him and Marwan II., the last 
khalifa of the house of Uiuyya aud Ommaides, 
iu wliicli tlie latter was slaiu, 5th August^ 
A..D. 750, 26th Zil-hijja, a.h. 132. °A1- 
Saffah after this victory investing himself 
with sovereign power, laid the foundation of 
the dynasty of the Abbasides, which continued 
to be transmitted to his family from father to 
son for 524 lunar years, during a succession 
of 37 khalifs, till they were dispossessed by 
Ilalaku Klian the Tartar king of Persia iii 
A.D. 1258, a.h. 656. By the elevation of 
the house of Abbas to the dignity of khilfifat, 
began that glorious period during which 
Arabic and Persian lit(n-ature reached its 
highest perfection. 'With some few ex- 

ceptions these khalifas were the noblest race 
of kiugs that ever adorned the throne of 
sovereignty. Abiil Abbas died, after a reign 
of more than fom- years, of the small-pox, 
on Sunday the 9th June, a.d. 754, 13tli 
Zil-hijja, A.H. 136, and was succeeded by 
his brother Abii Ja'far Almansiir. 

List of the kjalifas of the race of Ahhus 
who reigned at Baghdad. 

1. Al-Saffah, or Abiil 'Abbas al-Safffdi. 

2. Al-Mansiir. 

3. Al-Mahdi, son of al-Mansiir. 

4. Al-IIadi, son of al-Mahdi. 

5. Al-Eashid, or Hariin al-Eashid, son of 

6. Al-Arain, son of Hariin. 

7. Al-Mamiiu, son of Hariin. 
Ibrahim, son of Mahdi, competitor. 

8. Al-Mo'tasim Billah, son of Hariin. 

9. Al-Wathiq, or Wasiq, son of Mo'tasim. 

10. Al-Mutwakkil. 

11. Al-Mustauasar Bilhih. 

12. Al-:Mustain Billah. 

13. Al-Mo'tia' Billah. 

14. Al-Miditadi Billah. 

15. Al-Mo'tamid. 

16. Al-Motazid Billah. 

17. Al-Miiktafi Billah. 

18. Al-Muqtadir Bilkih. 

19. Al-Kahir Billah. 

20. Al-Iiazi Billah. 

21. Al-Muttaki Billah. 

22. Al-Mustakfi Billah. 

23. Al-Mutia BilLih. 

24. Al-Tava Billah. 

25. Al-Qadir Billah. 

26. Al-(irtim bi-amr-ullah. 

27. Al-Muqtadi BilLah. 

28. Al-Mustazahir Billfih. 

29. Al-:\[ustarasliid Billah. 

30. Al-R:ilihid Billah. 

31. Al-Muktal'i bi-amr-ulhlh. 

32. Al-Mnstanjad Billah. 

33. Al-Mustazi bi-amr-ullah. 

34. Al-Nasir Bilhih. 

35. Al-Tahir bi-amr-ullah. 

36. Al-Mustanasar BillSh II. 

37. Al-Mu'tasim Billah, the last khalif. 

Al - Tahir bi - amr - illah Muhammad 

(jk.4..sL'* tUjy«lj J^^L^ ) succeeded his 

father, al-Nasir Billah, to the throne of 
Bairhdad in a.d. 1225, a.h. 622. He was 
the thirty-fifth khalif of the house of Abbas, 
reigned 9 mouths and 1 1 days, and (bed in 
A.D. 1226, a.h. 623. His son al-Mustanasar 
II. succeeded him. 

Al-Taya' (or al-Tayi') Billah (j^jlkll 

dill)), the son of al-Mutia' Billah, 
was the tweuty-foiu'th khalif of Ba gh dad. 
He succeeded his father iu a.d. 974, reigned 
17 years and 4 months, aud was deposed by 
Baha-ud-daula in a.d. 991, when QSdir 
Billah, the son of Is-hiiq, the son of Muqtadir, 
was raised to the throne. 

Altimsh ( jLA::}i\). Vide Sliams-uddln 
Altimsh. ^ 




Al-Walid (.O^l). Vide Walid. 

Al - Wathik or al - Wasik Billali 

(^J^yi), the niuth khalif of the 

family of the Ahbasides, succeeded his father, 
al-Mo'tasini BiHah, on the 5th Jauuarv, a.d. 
84-2, 18th RabI I., a.h. 227, to the "throne 
of Baghdad. The following year, he invad.d 
and conquered Sicily. Nothing remarkable 
happened during the rest of his reign. He 
reigned 5 lunar years 7 months and 3 days, 
and died in a.d. 847, a.h. 232. He was 
succeeded by his brother al-Mutwakkil. He 
is the Vathek of Beekford's well-known tale. 

'Alwi (ij:^!-), poetical name of Shaikh 
Wajl-uddln, which see. 

'Alwi (^»Lc), poetical name of Mir 

Tahir 'Alwi, who died at Kashmir previous 
to the year a.d. 1723, a.h. 1136. He is the 
author of a diwan and a Masnawl ; the latter 
contains the story of the blacksmith and the 
cotton cleanser called Qissae Haddad wa 

'Alwi Khan (Hakim) (^U- ^-.i-), 

a physician, who was invited from Persia by 
the Emperor Muhammad Shah, and died at 
DehlT in a.d. 1748, a.h. 1161. His title 
was Mo'tmid-ul-Maliik Sayjid 'Alwi Khan 
Hakim. He is the author of a medical work 
called JZma^ -ul-Jaua^ ma'' . 

'Amad (jU.2), 'Amad Shah, 'Amacl- 
uddln, etc. Vide Imiid, Imad Shah, e c. 


Vide Abul NajIb-al-Bukhari. 

Amanat (ci^-'l^^), poetical name of 

Sayyid Agha Hasan, son of Agha Razwi, 
author of a Diwan. 

Amanat 'Ali (Maulwi) ( l.c (.::,->:< l«l ), 

author of a small work entitled Buhdr Jjam, 
containing 121 letters written by him to 
different persons, in pure Persian. 

Amanat Khan Mirak (^lr>^ L::.^3t«l 

(__$--.,«\ title of Mir Ma In-nddin 

Ahmad Iihiin Kliwafi, a native of Khwaf in 
Khurasan. He was a nobleman of high rank 
in the time of the Emperor 'Alamgir, and 
died in the year a.d. 1684, a.h. 1095, at 
Anrangal)ad. He is the author of the work 
called mhariat vl-lsliim. 

Amanat Khan ( Ir 

JU^), title 

of Mir Husain, sou of Amanat Khan Khwafi. 
He was honoured with the title of his father 
about the year a.d. 1688, a.h. 1100, by the 
Emperor 'Alamgir, and raised to the rank of 
a nobleman. He held different otHces under 
that J'mperor, and died at Surat ad. IG'J!), 

a.h. nil. 

Amanat Khan (^LsU (*::-vjL«^), a 

celebrated Nastrdiq writer, who in the 11th 
year of the reign of the Emperor Shah Jahan 
wrote the inscriptions on the Taj at Agra. 

Amani (Mir) {^^ ^J^-*^), of Kabul, 
died in a.h. 981, or a.d. 1573. 

Amani (^jL*1), poetical name of 

j\rirza Aman-ullah, the eldest son of Mahabat 
Klian. He flourished in the time of the 
Emperor Shah Jahan, and died in the year 
a.d. 1637, A.H. 1047. He is the author of 
a diwan. 

\_Vide Klian Zaman Bahiidur and Mahabat 

Aman-uUah (Hafiz) (liiU d.]\\ ^IJ), 

of Benares, was an author and Qazi of Luck- 
now in the time of the Emperor 'Alamgir. 
He died in a.d. 1721, a.h. 1133. 

Aman-ullah Husaini (ti,_l_n ^J^-.^\ 
i-.-^.^:.-), author of an Insha which 

goes by his name, Inshde Amdn-ulldh 

Ahmad Shah Abdali (.\l_^ Jk_,*^>.l 

Jijji) on his seventh invasion of 

Hindustan arrived at the Satlaj in a.d. 1764. 
Amar Singh waited on him, but was ordered 
to shave his head and beard before entering 
the royal presence. By a nazarana or present 
of a lac of rupees, he purchased permission to 
appear bearded and imshorn, and received 
investiture with the title of Maha Ilaja 
Kajagan Mahiudar Bakashr, which title is 
now borne by the head of the Patiala family. 

Amar-ibn-obaid. F/rt'^TJmar-ibn-ubaid. 

Amar Singh (..ijl:^^ j-^^), Riija of 

P^itiala, was the sou of Sardal Singh, who 
survived his father. Raja Ala Singh, two or 
three years. Ahmad Amar Singh, vide Rana 
Amar Singh. 

Amar Singh Rana, sou of Eama 

Pallal Singh of Chittore, died in a.h. 1028 

Amar Singh {itu^ r^^^' ^^^ °^ ^^J 
Singh, a rajput chief of the tribe of Rathor. 
He killed Salabat Khan Mir Bakhshi in the 
17th year of Shah Jahan in the presence of 
the Emperor, on Tlinrsdav evening the 2oth 
July, o.s. 1644, 30th Jamadi I., a.h. 1054, and 
was' by the order of the Emperor pursued and 
cut to" pieces after a gallant delence near one 
of the gates of tht^ fort of .\gra, which is to 
this dav called Amar Singh Darwaza or Amar 
Singh Gate. An accimnt of this prince's 
carlv history will be found in Tod's Efijasthdu. 




Amar Singh (d^^ ^\), of Benares, 

whose poetical name was Kluisligo, held a 
governmeut appointment in the Koel district. 
He compiled a short history of Akbar's palace 
and of the Taj of Agra, and put the Bahar 
Danish into verse and called it Tarjuma liaJulr 
han'ish. This hook is to be distinguished 
from the Izhar Danish, an Urdu translation 
of Bahdr Ddnisli by Miillazada at Palnar. 

Amar Singh (Rana), son of Eana 
rurtab .Singh. Vaie Eana Sankar. 

Ambaji Inglia, a general of the Gwa- 
liar State who served under Mahadaji Sindhia 
from 1787, and who continued his services, 
both military and political, under his nephew 
Daulat Rao. The last mention of him is 
in Lake's war in Hindustan, in which he 
succeeded Gen. Perron [Keene's History of 
India, i. pp. 274, 360, 372]. 

A-mili ( A.« 1 ), a poet who was the 

author of a Diwan. This person appears to 
be the same with Shaikh Baha-uddin 'Amili. 

Amin (^->^U, the sixth khallf of the 
house of Abbas. Vide al-Amiu. 

Amin (^-.,*0, poetical name of Shah 
Amin-nddln of Aziniabild, who flourished 
about the year a.d. 1715, a.h. 1127, and left 
a diwan of Ghazals, etc. 

Amina (d:.. J), the wife of 'Abdullah, 
and mother of Muhammad the prophet of the 
Musalmans. She was the daughter of 
Wahab the son of 'Abdul Manaf." She is 
represented as the most beautiful, prudent, 
and virtuous lady of her tribe, and conse- 
quently the most worthy of such an extra- 
ordinary person as 'Abdullah. She died 
six years after the birth of her son Muham- 
mad, about the year a.d. 577. 

Amina Begnm {^.L^.i 6.u^^\). Vide 

Ghasiti Iiegum. ' 

Amin Ahmad or Amin Muhammad 

Razi {^■^\j Sa^^\ ^,-.,mO, the author 

of the Biographical Dictionary called Haft. 
uiJdTm. (The seven climates.) This book, 
which he finished in the time of the emperor 
Akbar in a.d. 1594, a.h. 1002, contains a 
short description of the seven climates of the 
Temperate Zone, and the Topography of 
their principal cities ; with memoirs of the 
illustrious persons and eminent poets which 
each has produced. 

Amin-uddin Khan, Nawfib of Loharu, 
descended from Ahmad Bakhsh, a Minister of 
the Alwar State in 1.'- 05- 1826. The Nawab 
succeeded his unhajjpv brother Shams-ul-din 
{q.v.) in 1835; and died on the 31st December, 
A.D. 1869, aged 70 years. His eldest son, 
Mirza 'Ala-uddiu JChan, succeeded to his 
estates at Lohfirii, on the 11th January, 1870. 

Amini ( ^:^^a\), poetical name of Amir 

Sultan D)rahim, a contemporary of Khwaja 
'Asafi, who died in a.d. 1520, a.h. 926. 
Amini wrote a chronogram on that occasion. 

Amin-uddin (Mir) i^,^ .,ja!1 ^..r^^0, 

a poet and a great jester, was contemporary 
with the poets Moulana All Kiihi and 
Khwaja All Shahab. 

Amin-uddin (Amir) {^^\ ^.r.JjJ^ i-^"*^)- 
Tide Yemiu-uddin (Amu) and Tughrai. 

Amin-ud-daula Abul Jin (it.!.w\!^ ,^'»\ 

^sivO, surnamed the Samaritan, 

was a physician, and had been wazir to Malik 
Salah Isma'il. He was strangled at Cairo 
in AD. 1250, A.H. 048, and there wei'e found 
iu his house, amongst other precious articles, 
about 10,000 volumes of valuable works, 
copied by the most celebrated caligraphers. 

Amin-ud-daula Khan (<d!iJ^!l ,*.*\ 

i^Ars-), a rebel, was blown from the 

mouth of a gun on the 3rd August, 1857, at 

Amir hi Ahkam Allah (dUl z*^^ r*^^' 

surnamed Abu All Mausiir, seventh klialif 
of the Fatimite dynasty of Egypt, succeeded 
his father, al-lMustaa'li Billah, in December, 
1101. From this time to the reign of 'Azid 
li-din Allah, during which period five khalifs 
ascended the throne of Egypt, the history of 
that country affords little else than au account 
of the intestine broils and contests between 
the wazirs or prime ministers, who were now 
become so powerful, that they had in a great 
measiu'e stripped the khalifs of their civil 
power, and left them nothing but a shadow 
of spiritual dignity. These contests at last 
gave occasion to a revolution, by which the 
race of Fatimite khalifs were totally extin- 

\_Vidc 'Azid li-din Allah.] 

Amir (-»,«^), poetical name of Amir-ud- 

daula Xasir Jang, commonly called Mirza 
JMendlni, son of Xawab Shuja-ud-daula and 
brother to Nawab Asaf-ud-daula. 

Amiran Shah (il^ (^'■_^..»1), Vide 
Miran Shah. 

Amira Singh Tappa (djj aia*j ij^^), 

also called Amar Singh, a Gm'kha general. 
He was the highest in rank and character 
of all the military chiefs of Nipal. In 1814 
diu-ing his campaign against Sir David 
Ochterlony in the Kamaon hills, he evinced 
equal valom- and patriotism ; but was com- 
])elled to surrender, at Malaun near Simla, 
10th May, 1815. 

[Keene's History of India, ii. p. 21.] 




Amir Barid I. (_v;.j .^.t^), the sou of 

Qasim Barid, whom he succeeded in the 
government of Ahmadahad Bidar in a.d. 
1504, A H. 910. Diiriuo- his rule the king 
Sultan Mahmiid Shah Bahmaui died in a.u. 
1517, A.H. 923, when Aniir Barid pUiced 
Sultan 'Ala-uddln III. on the throne, and 
after his death Sultan Kallni Ullah, who 
being treated with great rigour by the Amir, 
fled from Bidar to Ahmaduagar, where he 
died shortly after. "With Kalim Ullah ended 
the dynasty of the BahmanI kings of D^ccan. 
Amir Barid reigned over the territories of 
Ahmadabad Bidar with full power more than 
25 years, and died at Daulatabad in a.d. 
1542, A H. 949. He was buried at Ahnia- 
dilbud Bidar, and succeeded bv liis son Ali 

Amir Barid II. 

(^JlJ J^jj^ 


succeeded to the government of Ahmadabad 
Biwar after deposing his relative AlT Barid 
Shah II. in A D. 1609, and was the last of 
the Barid Shalil djniasty. 

Amiri (,_c^^^), the poetical name of 

Maulana Sultan Muhammad, a distinguished 
man who lived in the time of Shah Tahniasp 
Safwi I. He praised this sovereigu iu his 
poems, and is the translator of Amir Ali 
Sher's Tazkira, called Mnjdl's-til- Nofdcs, 
from Tui'ki into Persian. He is also the 
author of the Boston ul-Khaydl. 

Amir Khan {J.d>~ j^\), title of Mir 

Abiil Wafa, the eldest son of Mir Qasim 
Kjiau Namkin, was a nobleman in the time 
of the emperors Jahaugir and Shah Jabiiu. 
At the time of his death he was governor 
of I'hatta, where he tlied a.d. 1647, a.h. 
1057, aged more than 100 years. His former 
name was Mir Khan, but having made a 
present of one lac of rupees to Shah Jahan, 
lie was honoured with the title of Amir Khan. 

Amir Khan {^^.^^ ^^^ ^\: 


surnamed Mir Mirau, the sou of Khalil -ullah 
Klian Yezdi, was a nobleman of high rank 
in the time of the emperors Shfih Jaliau and 
'Alamgir, and a great favouiite of the latter. 
He died at Kabul on the 2sth April, a.d. 
1698, 27th Shawwal, a.h. 1109, and the 
emperor conferred the title of Amir Khan on 
his son. 

Amir Khan (Nawab) (t_-j^.j ^=>- m.-«0, 

entitled U'mdat-ul-Mulk, was the son of tlio 
principal favourite of the emperor 'Alamgir, 
of the same name, and a descendant of the 
celebrated Shah Xa'mat-ullah Wali. He 
was himself a favourite of the emperor 
Muhammad Shah ; was appointed governor 
of Allahabad in a.d. 1739, A.ii. 1152, and 
re-called to court in a.d. 1743, a.ii. 1156. 
He was naturally free of speecli, and the 
emperor, fond of his repartee, had allowed 
him more license in his conversation tlian 
was consistent with respect to his own dignity, 

when he was on business with the emperor, 
which by degrees disgusted Muhammad Shah 
and made him wish his removal from office. 
He was consequently, with the consent of the 
emperor, stabbed with a dagger by a person 
who had been discharged from his service, 
and fell down dead on the spot. This circum- 
stance took place on Friday the 26th 
December, 1747, 23rd Zil-hijja, a.h. 1159. 
He was biu'ied after four days in the sepulchre 
of Klialil-ullah Klian his g"randfather, which 
is close to the Sarae of Eiih-ullab Klian at 
Debli. His poetical name was Anjam. He 
composed logograpbs, and has left Persian and 
Kekhta Poems. There is a full account of 
Amir Klian in the SKJar-uI-Muti'ikharin, 
where he is said to have died in the same 
year as the emperor. 

Amir Khan (^^:>- j-^-*^)) the famous 
ally of the Piudaris and ancestor to the 
present Nawab of Tonk. He was originally 
in the service of Jaswaut Rao Ilolkar, who 
becoming insane iu 1806 and iucapable of the 
administration of his own affairs, this Mu- 
hanimadau chief endeavoured to establish an 
ascendancy at his coiu-t, but soon left it with 
the array he commandecl to pui'sue the separate 
object of his own ambition, and became the 
chief supporter of the Piudaris. A treaty was 
ratiiied with him by the British Government 
on the 19th December, 1817. He had on 
various pretexts avoided the ratification of the 
engagements which his agent had concluded 
with "the resident of Dehli, but the movement 
of troops to his vicinity, and their occupation 
of positions which left him only the option 
between engaging in an unequal conflict aud 
signing this treaty, induced him to adopt the 
safer course. He was confirmed in the pos- 
session of all the territories he held from the 
Holkar family, but compelled to surrender 
his large trains of artilleiy to the English 
Government, and to disband that great body 
of plunderers which had been for more than 
two years the scourge of Malwa and Ilajpn- 
tana. Amir Klian died a.d. 1834, a.h. 1250. 
His Life was written by a Hindu named 
Basawan Lai ; and the Memoir was translated 
into English by the late Thoby Prinsep. 

Amir Khan (^U- .^^), "whose proper 
name was Mir Kliau, but was chauged by the 
emperor 'Alamgir by adding an alif to it into 
Amir Klian. On a" spot of seven bighas of 
ground, he had built his house close to the 
place called Guzur Tijara, including the ma- 
halla of Chhipitola. In the first year of the 
emperor 'Alamgir he was appointed governor 
of the fort of Shahjahanabad, and in the 
eleventh year of the reign of the emperor ho 
was appoiuted Siibadar of Kabul. 

Amir Khan Sindhi (^>» J^- 




title of Mir Abdul Karini, son of Amir Khan, 
the sou of "Mir Abul (iasim Namkin. Ho was 
cmi)l(iycd iu various others during the irigu 
of •Alanigir, Bahadur Shah and Earrulih- 
sivar, and died some time before the accessi(ai 
of Muhammad Shah to the throne of Dehli. 




Amir Khond (jkj, 

Klmnd or KhaM'ind Shiib. 

Amir Khtisru (. 
Kliusro (Amir). 

Amir Mahmud ( . ,j j^! ^ 

y^\). YidcWix 


.1). Tide 


surnamcd Faklir-uddln, aud commonly called 
Ihn-Yemin, was the son of Amir Yemin- 
uddln, entitled Malik-ul Fuzla, i.e., the 
prince of the learned. Aniir Mahmiid was 
an excellent poet, and died on Saturday 
the 2911i January, a d. 1.'5G8, Jumadni II. 
A.H. 769, in Persia. lie is mentioned in Dr. 
Sprenjrer's Catalogue, p. 67, to have cUed in 
749 Ilijri coiTespondinjy with a.d. 1348, and 
in the Tazhira Daulat Sliahl it is mentioned 
that he died in A.n. 745, a.u. 1344. He has 
left a Diwan. 

AinirMirza(Nawab)((__^Lj ^ ;.-..« .-.^«0 

was the son of George Hopkins Walters, a 
pensioned Eiu'opean officer, who, with his 
family, consisting of a wife, two daughters 
and one son, had established himself in Luck- 
now as a merchant many years ago. After 
his death bis family, through the intrigues of 
one Bakhsb Ali Klian, embraced the Miibam- 
madan religion, and the younger daughter not 
long after Avas consigned to the Seraglio of 
king Nasir-uddTn Hydar aud became one of 
the queens of that monarch, under the title 
of Wilayeti Mahal, or the King's European 
consort. The elder daughter also received the 
name and title of Asliraf-un-nisa Begam. 
She remained unmarried all her life. The 
brother, Josejjh "Walters, received the name 
of Amir Mirza. He was brought up as a 
Musalman of the Slii'a sect, and always took 
a pride in showing himself as an orthodox 
follower of the Crescent. After "Wilayeti 
JVIabal's death, her elder sister Ashraf-un-nisa 
Begam succeeded to her estate, consisting of 
Government Securities valued at 11,400,000 
rupees besides jewellery, movable and im- 
movable property of considerable vahie. In 
1832 Ashraf-un-nisa died, and was succeeded 
by Amir Mirzii, her brother, who squandei-ed 
almost the whole property by his reckless 
prodigality. Amir Mirza died on the 10th 
January, 1870, in his C6th year. 

Amir Mo'izzi (^-;jt.* r-^^), a celebrated 

poet of Samarqand, who served under Sultan 
Malik Shah and Sultan Sanjar Saljiiki, and 
was honoured with the title of Malik-ush- 
Sliua'ra, or tlie Royal I'oet. He was accident- 
ally killed l)y an arrow shot by the latter 
prince. His Diwan contains 15,000 verses. 
His death happened in the year a.d. 1147, 
A.H. 542. His proper name was Amir Ali. 

Amir Shahi (^,1,;,^ ^ jt\j^ r-"*^)j oi 

Salizwfir, a ])iict who flnurislied in tlie time of 
Shahrukli Mirza, about the year a.u. 143(i. 
Vide Shfihi (Amir). 

Amir Taimur (^\yL:s-U5 ,y\^ j^^), 

styled Sahib Qiran, because he reigned more 
than 30 years, or because he was born in a 
conjunction of the planets so called. He is 
also calltd Timiu-lang (Taraei'lane) from some 
defect in his feet ; was born at Kush in ancient 
Sogdania on Tuesday, the 9th April, a.d. 1336, 
27th Sha'bau, a.h. 736. Some say he was 
the son of a shepherd, and others that he 
was descended in a right line from Qajuli 
Bahadur, son of Tiimana Klian, of the same 
lineage with Changez Khan, the celebrated 
conqueror of Persia. His father's name was 
Amir Tm-aghai and mother's Takina Kliatiin ; 
however, his obscurity was soon forgotten in 
the glory of his exploits. Distinguished by 
his courage and unbounded ambition, he 
gained a number of faithful adherents, and 
seized the city of Balkh, the capital of Khn- 
riisan, and having put to death Amir Ilusain, 
the ruler of that place, whose sister he had 
married, he ascended the throne on Wednes- 
day the 10th April, a.d. 1370, 12th Earazan, 
A.H. 771. He then suljdued Kandahar, Persia 
and Baghdad, and seconded by an enthusiastic 
army he penetrated to India, took Dehli on 
Tuesday the 17th December, a.d. 1398, 7th 
Eabi II. A.H, 801, with its immense trea- 
sures, aud retui-ned to punish Ba gh dad that 
shook off his yoke. The offending city was 
given up to pillage, and 80,000 of her inhabi- 
tants put to the sword. Now master of the 
fairer part of Asia, he interfered, at the request 
of the Greek emperor, iu the affairs of Baiazid 
(Bajazet), emperor of the Turks, and com- 
manded him to abandon the siege of Constan- 
tinople. The message roused the indignation 
of Baiazid ; he marched against the new 
enemy, and was defeated by him in Phrygia, 
after a battle of three davs, on Fridav the 
21st July, A.D. 1402, 19th Zil-bijja," a.h. 
804. Baiazid fell into the hands of the em- 
peror, aud was carried about in mockery in 
an iron cage. To these conquests Taimiir 
added Egypt and the trea.siu-es of Cairo, and 
then fixed the seat of his empire at Samarqand, 
where he received the homage of Manuel 
Palasologus, emperor of Constantinople, and 
of Henry III. King of Castile, by their 
ambassadors. Taimiir was prejjaring fresh 
victories by the invasion of China, when death 
stopped his career on Wednesday the 18th 
February, a.d. 1405, 17th Sha'-ban, a.h.807, 
in the 36th year of his reign, aged 71 years, 
and was buried at Samarqand. He was the 
ancestor of Babar, who founded the d\Tiasty of 
the Mugliul emperors of Dehli. After his death 
he received the title of " Firdaus Makani," 
i.e., "May paradise be his ])lace of residence." 
He had four sons, viz., Jabfuigir Mirza. L'mar 
Shaikh Mirza, Miran Sliab and Shabrukh 
Mirza. Tamerlane on his death-bed named 
his grandson Pir Muhammad, son of Jahangir 
Mirza, the universal heir of all his dominions ; 
but the contempt witli which his will was 
treated after death was equal to the venera- 
tion wliich had been paid to his authority 
duiing his life. Tlie Sultan Klialil, another 
of his grand.sons, immediately took possession 
of the capital of Samarqand, and proclaimed 



'a MRU 

himself emperor. Pir Muhammad did not 
live long euoiigh to assert his rights, but was 
assassinated six months after the deatli of 
his grandfather. After his death, Shahrukh 
Mirza, the youngest of the two surviving sons 
of Tamerlane, succeeded to the inheritance 
assigned for Pir IMuhammad. 

List of the kings of SfiDiarqaiid of the race of 

Atnir Taiinur. 
Ivlialil Sultan, the sou of Mirau Shah. 
Shahrulch Mirza, son of Amir Taimiir. 
Ala-ud-daula Mirza. 
Ulugh Beg Mirzil, son of Shahrukh. 
Mirza Bahar, who subsequently conquered 

Dehli, and became the first emperor of the 

Mughuls in India. 
Mirza Abdul-Latif. 
Mirza Shah Miihammad. 
Mirza Ibrahim. 
Sultan Abii Saypd. 
Mirza Yadgar Muhammad. 

Amir Yemin-uddin (^^.t J^!^ m'^" ri^^X 
entitled Malik-ul-Fuzlii, « c, the priuce of 
the learned, was a Turk and an excellent 
poet. He flourished in the time of Sultan 
Muhammad I\huda Banda, and died in a.d. 
1324, A.H. 724. \_ride Tughardi.] 

Amjad 'Ali Shah (il,ij ^J_£ j>jsl'«^) 

was the son of Muhammad All Shah, whom 
he succeeded on the throne of Lucknow as 
king of Oudh, with the title of Suria Jab, 
on the 17th May, a.d. 18-i2, 5th Rabi II. 
A.H. 1258, and died on the 1 6th March, a.d. 
1847, 26th Safar, a.m. 1263. He was suc- 
ceeded by his son "NViijid Ali Shah, in whose 
time Oudli was annexed to the British Govern- 
ment on the 7th February, a.d. 1856. 

'Ammar ibn Hissan C^l-*s- ^i\ .Uc) 

was All's general of the horse, and was killed 
in battle fought by Ali against Mu'awia, the 
first khalif of the house of Umaia, in the 
month of July, a.d. 657, Safar, a.h. 37. He 
was then about 90 years of age, and had been 
in three several engagements with Muhammad 
himself. He was one of the murderers of 
Usman, the third khalif after Muhammad. 

Amra-al Qais (^^-.iH ^\j^\), the son 

of Ilajar, one of the most illustrious poets 
the Arabians had before ]\Iuhamnmdanism. 
He is one of the seven poets whose poems 
have, for their excellency, been hung in the 
temple of Mecca. These poems were called 
MufiUakat (suspended), and as they were 
written in letters of gold, they were also 
called Miizahhihat. The names of these 
seven celebrated poets are Amra-al-(iais, 
Tarafa, Zuhir, Liibid, Antar, Amru and 

[Amra-al-Qais is the same person who is 
commonly called Majniin, the lover of Laila, 
and Labid was his friend and master. Amir 
Khu.ssu's Loves of Mnjinoi (Did Ln'ihi \va^ been 
translated into Euglisli.j 

Amrit Rao (.^. c:.-* -«^), a Mahratta 

chief who had been placed on the masnad of 
I'lma bv Ilolkar in a.d. 1803, but deposed 
by the "British, and a pension of 700,000 
rupees was assigned for his support annually. 
He was the son of Raghunath Rao, commonly 
called Raghoba. For some time he resided 
at Banaras and then in Bundelkhaud, and 
cHed at the former station in a.d. 1824. 

*Ainru bin Mua'wia (i<.<.U^ ^j •;'♦••=)» 

an ancient Arabian poet whose collection of 
poems are to be found in the Royal Library 
at Paris, No. 1120. 

'Amru ibn Al-'As (^j^jLO ^\ ^j-^^), 

a celebrated Muhammadan, at first the enemy 
and afterwards the friend of Muhammad, of 
whom it is reported by tradition that Muham- 
mad said, " There is no tnier Musalman, nor 
one more steadfast in the faith than 'Amru." 
He served in the wars of Syria, where he 
behaved with_^singular cotu-age and resolution. 
Afterwards Umar the khalif sent him into 
Egji)t, which he reduced in a.d. 641, a.h. 
20, and became lieutenant of the conquered 
country. Usman continued him in that post 
foiu' years, and then removed him ; where- 
upon he retired to Palestine, where he lived 
privately till Usman' s death. Upon this 
event, he went over to Mu'awia upon liis 
invitation, and took a great part in the dis- 
pute between 'Ali and Mu'awia. The latter 
restored him to the lieutenancy of Egypt, and 
continued him in it till his death, which 
happened in a.d. 663, A.H- 43. Before he 
turned Muhammadan he was one of the three 
poets who were famous for writing lampoons 
upon Muhammad, in which style of composi- 
tion 'Amru particularly excelled. There are 
some fine proverbs of his remaining, and also 
some good verses. He was the son of a 
courtezan of Mecca, who seems to have num- 
bered some of the noblest of the land among 
her lovers. When she gave birth to tliis 
child, the infant was declared to have most 
resemblance to 'As, the oldest of her ad- 
mirers, whence, in addition to his name of 
Amrii, he ireceived the designation of Ibn- 

'Amru (s.'o.x.^ ^r-J ^r-y*'-^\ the son of 
Sa'id, was a cousin of the khalif 'Abdul- 
Malik. In the year a.d. 688, a.h. 69, the 
khalif left Damascus to go against Misaa'b, 
the son of Zuber, and appointed Anu-u to take 
care of Damascus, who seized upon it for 
himself, which obliged 'Abdul-Malik to re- 
turn. After three "or four days the khalif 
sent for him and killed liini with his own 

'Amru bin Lais (i, 


brotlier of Ya'kfib ibn T^ais, whom he suc- 
ceeded in the government of Kjnirasau, etc., 
in a.d. 878, a.h. 265, and ruled over those 
countries for 23 vears. He was at last 




seized by Anilr I.sma'il Samfuii iu a.d. 900, 
A.H. 288, and sent to Baghdad, where he was 
confined lor some time ; his execution was 
the last act of tlie Khalif Al-Mo'tazid, wlio 
gave orders for it a few mouths before hi.s 
own death iu a.d. 901, a.h. '289. He was 
blind of one eye. With Amrii fell the for- 
tuui's of his family. His grandson Tahir 
struggled for power in his native province ; 
but after a reign of six years, during which 
he conquered Fars, his authority was sub- 
verted by one of his own officers, by whom 
he was seized and sent prisoner to Ba gh dad. 
The only other prince of the family of Bam 
Lais that attained any eminence was a chief 
of the name of Ivhalaf, who established him- 
self in Sistan and maintiiined his power over 
that province till the time of Sultan Mahmiid 
of GJiaznl, by whom he was defeated and 
made prisoner. 

Amuratli, names of several emperors of 
Tiu-key, as written by English writers, being 
a corruption of Murad, which see. 

Anandpal (JIja:.30, son of Jaiprd I., 

raja of Lahore, whom he succeeded about the 
year a.d. 1001, aud became tributary to 
Sultan Mahmud of GhaznI. He died about 
the year 1013, and was succeeded in the 
government by his son Jaipal IL 

Anarkali (, JiSj\j\), tlic name of a lady, 

otherwise " Xadira Begam," who lived in 
the time of the emperor Jahanglr. Her 
mausoleum is at a place called Anarkali iu 
Lahore, which has been recently used as a 
chru'ch. Differeut stories are told concerning 
the name Anarkali, by which the mausoleum 
as wfill as the station in its vicinity is known. 
According to some, it was the name of a 
princess in Jahanglr's titne, while others say 
that Anarkali was a beautiful haudmaid with 
whom Jahangir fell in love, and who, on 
Akbar becoming aware of it, was buried alive. 
These stories may not be true ; but this much 
is at least certain, that the Avonian after whose 
name the building is called, lived in the time 
of Akbar, or his son Jahangir, that Jahangir 
or some other prince was madly in love with 
her, and that her death took place under such 
mournful circumstances as broke the heart of 
the fond lover, and led him to compose the 
following couplet, still found engraved on her 
tombstone : ' ' Oh ! coiild I see again the face 
of my lost friend, I would thank my God 
imtil the day of judgment." 

Anand Rao, G-aikwar ( .L.C^ J . xj]), 

a Marhatta chief of Baroda, with whom the 
English Government had iu 1812 concluded a 
subsidiary alliance. Before the treaty he was 
a nominal dependant of the Pcshwa. 

Anas (^^^jT), a poet of Arabia. 

'Andalib (e^Jj.:.^). Vide Kliwaja 

Anis (fj^j\), poetical name of Mulian 

Liil, which see. 

Anisi Shamlu (^L,Li ^j-*-J^), a poet 

named Yul Qiili Beg. He was an intimate 
friend and constant companion of prince Ibra- 
him Mirza, a grandson of Shah Isma'il Safwi, 
consequently took the takhallas of Anisi. 
"When 'Abdullah Khan Uzbaq took Hirat 
he made a proclamation in his army, that 
the life of Anisi be spared, aud treated him 
with great respect. He came to India and 
received a salary of 50,000 rupees and a 
jagir. He died at Barhanpiir in a.d. 1605, 
A.H. 1014, and has left a Diwan and a Mas- 
nawi called MaJuiuld Aidz. 

Ang or Ungh Khan, a king of the Trit 

Tartars, who resided at Karakoram, and to 
whom the celebrated Jangez Kliau was at one 
time a tributary. He is also called Prcster 
John by the Syrian Missionaries. Jangez 
Khan having thrown off his allegiance, a 
war ensued, which ended in the death of 
Aug Khau iu a.d. 1202. 

Anjam (^l:sc^^), the poetical name of 

Nawab Umdat-ul-Mulk Amir Klian. fide 
Amir Klian. 

Anup Bai (^Ij <-r-'y^), the wife of 

the emperor Jahandiir Shah, and mother of 
Alamgir II. king of Dehli. 

Anushtakin {^S.::^^^Jj\), the cup- 
bearer of Sultan San jar, and father of Sultan 
Qutb-uddin Muhammad of Khwarizm. 

Ans bin Malik (t_<JL« ^ ^j^'^)- 
Vide Abu Hamza biu Nasr-al-Ausiiri. 

'Ansuri (^^..^-ur), a poet of the court 
of Sultan Mahnmd. Vide Unsari. 

Antar ( .lixjl), one of the seven Arabian 

poets, whose poems were hung up in the 
temple of Mecca in golden letters, aud from 
that circumstance were called Mua'llakat (sus- 
l)in(kd), or ^luzabhibat (golden). The first 
volume of the history of Autar, called The 
Life and Advcnfures of Aiitdr, was translated 
into English and published iu December, a.d. 
1818, in England. 

[ Jlde Amra-al-Kais.] 



A on 

Anwari (^,»3\), a famous Persian poet 

suruaraed Ashad-uddTu. He fonnerly took 
for his poetical name " Kliafwari," but he 
chaujred it afterwards to " Auwari." From 
the superiority of his jioetical talents he was 
called the king of the poets of Khm-asan. 
He was a native of Abiward in Khurasan, 
was the favoiu-ite of Sultan Sanjar SaljukT, 
and the rival of the poet Eashidi surnanied 
Watwat, who espoused the cause of Atsiz, 
the Sultan of KliWcirizm. Whilst the two 
princes were engaged in war, the two poets 
assailed one another by rhymes sent on the 
point of arrows. He is also said to have 
been the greatest astronomer of his age. It 
so happened in the year a.h. 581 or 582, 
September, a.d. 1186, that there was a con- 
junction of all the planets in the sign of 
Libra ; Anwari predicted a storm which 
would eradicate trees and destroy every 
buildiug. When the fatal day arrived it 
was perfectly calm, and there was the whole 
year so little wind, tliat the people were 
unable to winnow their corn. He was there- 
fore accused for his pi'edictious as an astro- 
loger, and was obliged to fly to Balkh, where 
he died in the reign of Sultan Alauddin 
Takash in a.d. 1200, a.h. 596. His death 
is mentioned in the Khulasat-ul-Asha'ar to 
have taken place in a.h. 587, and others have 
written A.H. 592. Anwari, when very young, 
was sitting at the gate of his college, called 
Mansiiria in Tus, when a man richly dressed 
rode by him on a fine horse, with a numerous 
train of attendants ; upon his asking who it 
was, he was told that it was a poet belonging 
to the court. "When Anwari reflected on the 
honoiu" conferred on poetiy, for which art he 
had a very early bent, he applied himself to 
it more ardently than ever, and having finislied 
a poem, presented it to the Sultan, who ap- 
proved the work and invited him to his palace, 
and raised him even to the first honours of 
the State. He found many other poets at 
com't, among whom were Salman, Zahlr and 
Eashidi, all men of wit and genius. Auwari 
has left us a collection of highly esteemed 
poems on various subjects, called iJiwan An- 
wari. Verses from his poems are quoted by 
Sa'di in his Gulistan. 

^?,.J0, a cor- 
ruption of Abii Eaihan, which see. 

Anwari Khan ( .1, 

Anwar-uddin Khan {^J^ m-''^'^ J^^^' 
Nawab of the Carnatic, a soldier of fortuue, 
wlio had attained power by treacherous con- 
nivance to the murder of the legitimate heir, 
a child whose guardian he had been appointed 
by Nizam-ul-Mulk. He at first served under 
one of the emperors of Dehli, and was ap- 
pointed governor of Kora Jahanabad. Ill 
success, or perhaps ill conduct, preventing him 
from being able to pay th(! usual revenues of 
his government to the throne ; he {)uitted it 
privately, and went to Alimadaljfid, wliere 
Oliazi-uddin Klian, the father of Nizam-ul- 
Midk, gave him a post of considerable trust 

and profit in the city of Surat. After the 
death of Gliazi-uddin, his son, who liad suc- 
ceeded in the Subadari of the southern ])ro- 
vinces, appointed him Xawiib of the Carnatic, 
or Vellore and Ilajmauch'um, countries which 
he governed from a.d. 1725 to 1741, and in 
A.D. 1744 he was formally created governor 
of the coimtry. He was killed in battle 
fought against Muzaffar Jang, the grandson 
of Xizam-ul-ilulk, on the 23rd July, o.s. 
ah. 1162, who took possession of the Car- 
natic. Anwar-uddin was then 107 years 
old. His eldest son was made prisoner and 
his second son, Muhammad Ali, fled to Tri- 
chinopoly. A heroic poem called Anwar 
Naina, in praise of this Xawab was written 
by Abdi, in which the exploits of Major 
Lawrence, and the first contests between the 
English and French in India are recorded 
with tolerable accinacy. [Vide Sa'adat- 
ullali Klian.) His son Muhammad Ali was 
confirmed by Nawlib Xasir Jang in the 
government of the Carnatic in a.d. 1750. 

Aohad Sabzwari (Kliwaja) (jk.5^,1 

tL5>-l»-ri- ^f^u^_».-J"), poetical name of 

KJiwaja F;ik]ir-uddin, aphysician, astronomer, 
and poet, of Sabzwar. He died a.d. 1463, 
A.H. 868, aged 81 lunar years, and left a 
Diwan in Persian containing Gliazals, Qasidas, 

Aohadi (^a=-^0, the poetical name of 

Shaikh Aohad-uddiu of Isfahan or Maraglia, 
a celebrated Ptrsian poet who put into verse 
the Jdm-i-Jnm, a book full of Muhammadan 
spirituality, which he Avrote in imitation of 
the Iladiqa of Sanai ; he also wrote a Diwan 
containing verses. He was liberally rewarded 
by Arghiiu Klian, the king of the Tartars. 
He was a pupil of Aohad-uddin Kirmfmi ; 
died in a.d. 1337, ah. 738, and was biu-ied 
at Maragha in Tabreiz. 

Aohad - uddin Isfahan! (Shaikh) 
( ^.)\^Ji.J^ ,.,.j-vJL\.::^J), a Persian 
poet. Vide Aohadi. 

Aohad - uddin Kirmani (Shaikh) 

( Jt*.^ ,,5Jw\J^A5-.U, author of tlie 
\^ > ty- > 

Mishah-td-Aru-dh. He flourished in tlie 

reign of Al-Mustanasar Billah, khalif of 

Baghdad, and died in the year a.d. 1298, 

A.H. 697. His poetical name is Ilamid. 

He was a contemporary of Shaikh Sa'di of 


Aohad-uddin (,.^wv!^ Ji;?-.0, the sur- 
name of the ei'lebrated Anwari, which see. 

Aoji ( ^:5-J), a \\ovt who dietl in 

A.D. 1640, A.H. 1050. 




*Apa Sahib (^_^=».U Ij ' ), a nephew of 

llaglirijl Blionsla II. and cousin to Parsaram 
Llionsla, commonly called Bala Sahib, raja 
of Nagpiir or Berar. The latter succeeded 
his lather in March, a.d. 1816, bnt being 
an idiot and nnlit to ride, 'Apa Sahib assumed 
the chief authority under the title of Regent, 
and had the sole conduct of the public affairs. 
Although he was in a great degree indebted 
for his elevation to the English Government, 
he early evinced a disposition as inconsistent 
with the gratitude which he owed to that 
State, as with the obligations of good faith. 
It was also discovered that he had secretly 
murdered his predecessor, Bala Sahib (Par- 
saram), in order to obtain that elevation 
which he had so disgraced. He was conse- 
quently seized in the beginning of the year 
A.D. 1818, and brought to the Residency, 
where he continued in confinement till directed 
to be sent under a strong escort to the Com- 
pany's territories . When arrived at Raichora , 
a village within one march from Jabalpur, 
he contrived, by bribing some of his guards, 
to make his escape. It is believed that after 
having for a short period found a refuge in 
Asirgurh, he fled to the Paujiib, where he 
remained a miserable dependant on the charity 
of Raja Ranjit Singh. After the dethrone- 
ment of 'Apa Sahib, the grandson of Raghoji 
Bhonsla was raised to the masuad of Nagpiir. 
\_Vi(le Keeue's India, ii. 34, f. f.] 

Apa Sahib (l_-->-U IjT), also called 

Shalyi, thjrd brother of Partap Singh Xara- 
yan, raja of Satara. After the dethronement 
of his brother in a.d. 1839, he was placed on 
the masnad of Satara by the British Govern- 
ment, and died on the 5tli April, 1818. 
Before his death he expressed a wish that 
he might adopt as a son, a bqy by name 
Balwaut Rao Bhonsla. It was, however, 
determined to annex Satara. 

Aq.a Muhammad Khan Qajar (Ijl 

j\-^\-i J^-z 


'*), king of 

Persia, of the tribe of Qajar, and son of 
Muhammad Hasan Klian Qajar, ruler of 
Mazanderan. He was made an eunuch in 
his cliildhood by 'Adil Shah, the nephew and 
immediate successor of Nadir Shah. Alter 
the death of 'Adil Shah he obtained his 
release, and joined his father, who was after- 
wards slain by Karini Klian Zand, king of 
Persia. Agha, or Aqa Muhammad, was 
obliged to sm-render himself to him, and was 
a prisoner in the city of Shiraz. He had 
for some time been very strictly guarded, and 
was never allowed to go beyond the walls of 
the town, but afterwards he was permitted 
to go a-hunting. When the last illness of 
KarTm KJian assumed a dangerous ap])earance, 
he contrived to leave that city on the usual 
pretext of hunting. AVlien iutfliigeuce was 
brought to him that the founder of the Zand 
dynasty was no more, accompanied by a f(!W 
attendants, he commenced his Hight, and, 

favoured by the confusion of the moment, he 
reached his province of Mazaudariin in safety, 
and ])roclaimcd himself one of the competitors 
for the crown of Persia. Soon after the 
death of 'All Murad Kliiin, ruler of Persia, 
in A.D. 1785, he made himself master of 
Isfahan without a battle, but had for several 
years to contend with Lutf 'All Kjian, the 
last prince of the Zand family, before he 
became sole master of Persia. Lutf 'Ali 
Klifin was put to death by him in a.d. 1795, 
14th Muharram, a.h. 1212. Aqa Midiammad 
Klifin was murdered on the 10th July, a.d. 
1797, by two of his attendants, whom he had 
sentenced to death, in the 63rd year of his 
age. He had been a ruler of a great part of 
Persia for 20 years, but had only for a short 
period enjoyed the undisputed sovereignty of 
that country. He was succeeded by his 
nephew, Fath 'Ali Shah, who died in a.d. 
1834, a.h. 1250. After him, his grandson, 
Muhammad Shah, the sou of 'Abbas Mirza, 
mounted the throne, and died in 1847, when 
his sou, Nasir-uddin Ahmad Shah, the 
present king of Persia, succeeded him. 

Aqa Razi (^.Jj 1-' 1 ), a poet of Persia, 

who came to India, and after his return home, 
died in a.d. 1615, a.h. 1024. 

'Aqidat Khan ( .,1^ LUXfS.z), title 

of Mir Mahmiid, brother of Asalat Khan 
Mashhadi^ He came to India in the Hth 
year of 'Alamgir, ad. 1670, and was raised 
to the rank of 1,0U0 and 400 sawars. 

'Aqil (J-iii), 'Aqilthe brother of 'Ali. 

There is a story of him that being displeased 
with liis brother 'All the Klialifa, he went 
over to Mu'awiya, who received him with 
great kindness and respect, bnt desired him 
to curse 'Ali ; and as he would not admit of 
any refusal, 'AqTl thus addressed the congre- 
gation : "0 people, you know that 'AlT, 
the son of Abii-Talib, is my brother ; now 
Mu'awiya has ordered me to curse him, 
therefore, may the curse of God be upon 
him." So that the curse would either apply 
to 'All or to Mu'awiya. 

'Aqil Khan (^^1=^ JJl-r), 'Aqil Khan, 

ncpliew of Afzal I\han wazir, a nobleman of 
3,000, who served under the emperor Shah 
Jahan, and died a.d. 1649, a.h. 1059. 

'Aqil Khan (Nawab) (< >ly ,^l:>. JiU), 

the title of Mir 'Askari. He was a native of 
Kjiiiwaf, in Kliurasan, and held the office of 
wizarat in the time of the emperor 'Alamgir. 
He was an excellent poet ; and as he had a 
great respect for Shah Burhan-uddin, entitled 
Raz-i-Ilfihi, he chose the word Razi for his 
])(Htical title. He is the author of several 
Works, among which are a Masnawi and 
Dlwan. He died A.D. 169i, a. 11. 1108. Vide 




'Arabshah (il.^c__J^r), author of a 

history of Amir Taimiir (Tamerlane) called 
Jjdcb-ul - Maqdilr, and of a treatise on the 
unity of God. He was a native of Damascus, 
where he died in a.d. 1450, ah. 854. lie is 
also called Ibn 'Arabshiih and Ahmad Ibn 

Aram Bano Begam. {S-^i Jl) ^U ), a 

dausjhter of the emperor Akbar, who died 
ill the 40th year of her age in a.d. 1624, 
A.H. 1033, dm'iuo- the reign of Jaliangir, her 
brother, and is buried in the mausaleum of 
Akbar at Sikancba iu Agra. Her tomb is 
of white marble. Her mother's name was 
Bibi Daulat Shad, and her sister's name 
Shakr-un-uisa Begam. 

Aram Shah (Sultan) (il^ .♦^i'), king 

of Dehli, succeeded his father, Sultan Qutb- 
uddiu Aibak, in a.d. 1210, a.h. 607, and had 
scarcely reigned one year when he was de- 
posed by Altimsh 'the adopted son and son- 
in-law of Qutb-uddin) who assumed the title 
of Shams-uddin Altimsh. 

Araru (, ,1,1), a zamlndar of Kora in 

the pro\ince of Allahabad, was of the tribe 
of Khichar, who, taking advantage of the 
weakness of the em])ire, slew Xawab Jan 
Nisar Khan (brother to the wazir's wife), 
chakladar of that district in a.d. 1731, a.h. 
1144, upon which 'Azim-ullah Khan, the 
son of tlae deceased, was sent with an army 
to chastise him, but the zamindar took refuge 
iu his woods, and for a long while eluded his 
pursuer, who, tired out, returned to Dehli, 
leaving his army under the command of 
Kliwarizm Beg Kliau. Ararii, emboldened 
by the Xawub's retreat, attacked and slew 
the deputy ; upon which the wazir Qamar- 
uddiu Kjian applied for assistance to Biudian- 
ul-Mulk Sa'adat Ivhan Siibadar of Oudh, for 
the reduction of the rebel. Sa'adat Kliau 
marched agaiust Ararii in a.d. 1735, a.h. 
1148, killed him in a battle and sent his head 
to the emperor Muhammad Shah. The skin 
of his body was Hayed off, and sent stuffed 
with straw to the wazir. 

Ardai Viraf (>_il -^ ^'^}^^ ^ priest of 

the Magian religion, who lived iu the time of 
Ardisher Babagan, king of Persia, aud is the 
author of the Ardni I'irdf Xnina, which he 
Avrote in the Zend, or the original I'ersian 

[See Nousherwan Kirmiiui.] 

Ardisher Babakan ( .,l<i[;lj .-- iJ,U, 

or Briljagfin. the son of Babak, was, we are 
told, a descendant of Sasau, the son of Bah- 
mau aud grandson of Isfandiar. He was tlie 
first king of the Siisauiau dynasty. His 
father Babak, who was an inferior officer in 

the public service, after putting to death the 
govei'uor appointed by Ardawau (Artabanes) 
made himst^lf master of the province Pars. 
The old man survived but a short time. His 
.son Ardisher, after settling the affairs of 
Fars, not only made himself master of Isfa- 
han, but of almost all Iraq, before Ardawau, 
who was the reigning prince, took the field 
agaiust him, about the year a.d. 223. The 
armies met in the plains of Hurmuz, where a 
desperate battle ensued, in which Ardawau 
lost his crown and his life ; aud the son of 
Babak was hailed in the field with the proud 
title of Shahan Shah, or King of kings. He 
was contemporary with Alexander Severus, 
the Roman emperor. Ardisher (whom the 
Eoman historians call Artaxerxes) having 
reigned fom-teen years as absolute sovereign 
of Persia, resigned the government into the 
hands of his son, Shahpiir, called by the 
Eomans Sapor or Sapores, in the year a.d. 

The foUoiruig is a list of the kings of Fcrsia 
of the Sdsdniau race : — 




Shahpiir I. 


Iliumuzd I. 


Bahram I. 


Balir;un II. 


Bahram III. 




Hurmuzd II. 


Shahpfu- II. 


Ardisher II. 


Shrdipiir III. 


Bahram IV. 


Yezdijard I. 


Bahram Gor. 


Yezdijard II. 


Hurmuz, or Hurmuzd III 




Balas or Palash. 






Nausherwan (Kasra) . 




Kluisro Parwez. 




Ardisher III. 




Turan, or Puran Dekht. 


Azarmi Dukht. 


Farruzkhiul Bakhtiar. 


Yezdijard III. 

Ardisher (.^^j^,l), (or Artaxerxes) IT. 

succeeded his father Shiihpur II. in the year 
A.D. 380, and sat on the throne of Persia 
only four years, during which period no event 
of consequence occurred. He was de])osed in 
A.D. 384 by his brother Shahpur III. who 
succeeded him. 

Ardisher ( .^ J X), (or Artaxerxes) III. 

a king of Persia, of the Sasiinian race, who 
reigned about the year a.d. 629, after 




Ardislier Darazdast ( -. -iJ,^ 

u:^— .O:^ ij), an ancient king of 

rersiii, tlie Artaxerxos Louj^-imauus of tlio 
Greeks, suruaraed Balimau, was the son of 
Isfandiar. He succeeded his grandfather, 
Gashtasp, as king of Persia in b.c. 464. 
He is celebrated for the wisdom he displayed 
in the internal regulation of his empire. In 
the commencement of the reign of this 
monarch, the celebrated Rustam was slaiu 
by the treachery of his brother. This pi-ince 
is supposed to be the Ahasuerus of Scripture, 
who married Esther, and during the whole of 
his reign shewed the greatest kindness to the 
Jewish nation. The long reign of this 
monarch includes that of two or more of his 
immediate successors, who are not noticed by 
Persian writers. According to them, he 
ruled Persia 112 years, and was succeeded 
by his daughter Queen Ilumai. 

Arghun Khan (^[:>. u^)-^M, the son 

of Abaka Kjian and grandson of Halakii 
Klian, was raised to the throne of Persia after 
the murder of his uncle Ahmad Klian, sur- 
named Nekodar, in August, a.d. 1'2S4, 
Jamad I. a.h. 683. His reign was marked 
by few events of consequence. He recalled 
the celebrated Shams -ud- dm Muhammad 
Sahib Diwiin, his father's wazir, who, dis- 
gusted with coirrt, had retired to Isfahan : 
but this able minister was hardly re-estab- 
lished in his office, before his enemies per- 
suaded the prince that he had actually 
poisoned his father ; and the aged wazTr 
was in the same year made over to the public 
executioner. Amir Buka, the rival of Shams- 
ud-din, rose, upon his fall, to such power 
that he was tempted to make a grasp at the 
crown ; but he was unsuccessful, and lost his 
life in the attempt. Arghun Khiin died on 
Saturday, the 10th March, a.d. 1291, 5th 
Rabi I. A.H. 690, after a reign of 6 years 
and 9 mouths, and was succeeded by his 
brother Kaijaptii or Kaikhatii. His mother 
was a Christian. 

[ V. Siij). Aba Kaan.] 

Arghun Shah Jani Qurbani (Amir) 

reigned in Naishapur and Tiis about the year 
A.D. 1337, and was defeated by the Sarbadals 
of Sabzwar. 

'Arif (( j,U), the poetical name of the 

son of Ghulam Ilusain IClian. He was an 
excellent Urdu poet of Dehli, and died in 
A.D. 1852, A. II. 12()8. 

'Arifi (Maulana) ( ^\^), a Persian 

poet who flourished in the time of the wazIr 
khwaja Muhammad bin Is-haq, and wrote a 
work in his name called Bah Ndma. He 
lived in the 9tli century of the Hijrl era. 

'Arifi (Manlana) ( • ,l_r), son of 

Mubarik Maskhara, was a learned Musalmfin, 
and was living in a.d. 1580, a.h. 988, when 
he wrote a chronogram on the death of 
Qasim KaliT, who died in that year, during 
the reign of the emperor Akbar. 

Arjumand Bano Begam (»jlj su^>'j\ 

^x-,j), entitled Mumtaz Mahal (now 

corrupted into Taj Mahfd and Taj Bibi) was 
the favourite wife of the emperor Shah 
Jahan, and daughter of 'Asaf Kluvu, wazir, 
the brother of the celebrated Niir Jahan 
Begam. She was boru in the year a.d. 1592, 
A.H. 1000, and married to the prince Mirza 
Kjiurram (afterwards Shah Jahiiu) in a.d. 
1612, A.H. 1021, by whom she had .several 
children. She died in child-bed a few hours 
after the birth of her last daughter, named 
Dahar Ara, on the 7th July, o.s. 1631, 17th 
Zil-hijja, A.H. 1040, at Burhanpiir in the 
l)eccan, was at first buried there in a garden 
called Zainabad, but afterwards her remains 
were removed to Agra, where a most splendid 
mausoleum was built over her tomb, with a 
coatiug of white marble decoi'ated with 
mosaics, which for the richness of the 
material, the chasteness of the design, and 
the effect at once brilliant and solemn, is not 
surpassed by any other edifice either in 
Europe or Asia. It Avas completed in a.d. 
1645, A.H. 1055, and is now called the 
"Taj," or "Taj Mahal," which is said to 
have cost the enormous sum of £3,000,000. 
The chronogram of her death contains the 
date in the word " Gliam," or Grief. She 
Avas also called Kudsia Begam and Nawab 
'Alia Begam. 

Arjun Singh {di-^^ ^>- ,\) was one of 

the three sons of Raja Mansingh. 
[Vide A'ln Translation, i. p. 485.] 

Arpa Khan (j^A^ b ,\), one of the 

princes of the Tartar family, was crowned 
king of Persia after the death of Abxi Said 
Ivlian Bahadur, in November, a.d. 1335, 
AH. 730. He reigned five months and was 
killed in battle against MiisI Ivlian in a.d. 
1336, who succeeded him. 
\^Vide Abii Said Khan Bahadur.] 

Arsalan Khan (^l>- 

.1-c.l), title of 

Arsalan Quli, the sou of Alahwardi Khan I., 
M'as a nobleman in the service of the emperor 
Alamgir, and was living about the year a.d. 
1696, A.H. 1108. 

Arsalan Shah (jl-i) ^\^j\), the son of 

Sultan IMasa'ud III. of Gliazni. He miu-dered 
his brother Sherzad in a.d. 1115, a.h. 509, 
and having ascended the throne, he im- 
prisoned all his other brothers excepting 
Bahram Shah, who fled to Kliurasan and 
sought assistance of Sultan Saujar his uncle. 




Saiijar iu the year ad. 1118, a.h. 512, 
marched to GhaznT, aud iu a battle defeated 
Arsalan Shah, who made his escape to 
Lahore, but was soon after taken prisoner 
and put to death, when Bahram Shah ascended 
the throne. 

Arsalan Shah (ilji, ^^..^,^\ a king of 

Ivliwarizni, and son of Atsiz. J'idt: Alp 

Arsalan Shah Saljuki (il^ ivj-^—" '^ 

^•j^^-"), tlie son of Tughral II 

and o^randson of Sultan Muhammad, brother 
to Sultan Sanjar. Arsalan Shah died in 
January, a.d. 1176, a.h. 571. His son 
Tughral III. who succeeded him, was the 
last Sultan of the family of the Salju- 
kides, who reigned in I'ersia. 

'Arsh-Ashaiani ( JL^I , Jl,r), the 

title given to the emperor Akbar I. after his 

'Arshi ( J^j^), ■whose proper name 

was Mir Muhammad Momin, was a brother 
of Mir Salah Kashifi, the sou of Mir Ab- 
dullah Mushkln Qalam HusaiuT, who was 
a celebrated caligrapher imder Jahangir. 
Arshi is the aixthor of a poem called Shdhid- 
Arshl, composed in the year a.d. 1G59, a.h. 
1070, also of another work entitled Mtltr tea 
Wafa, and of a Diwau. 

Artaxerxes. Vide Artlisher. 

Arzami Dukht (l:^-.,.^^^ ^..»; ,^), a 

queen of the Persians, whose general named 
Mehran being killed in a battle against the 
Saracens, she Avas deposed by the people, who 
placed Yezdijard III. upon the throne in her 
stead, a young man of the roval family. But 
this did not much mend the matter, the 
government of the new king of theirs being 
even more inauspicious than that of the 
queen ; for in her reign the confines of the 
empire were only invaded, but in his all was 
entirely lost, and the whole kingdom aud 
country of the Persians fell into the hands of 
the Musalraaus. Tlie accession of Yezdijard 
is placed by Sir John Malcolm in a.d. 632, 
A.H. 11, but Major Price fixes it in a.d. 635, 

A.H. 14. 

[ Vide Taurraidukbt.] 

Arzani Begam (^Lj ^^\j^^ "'«i^ the 

daughter of Shahriar, who was married, iu 
the 16th year of Jahangir's reign, to Mihr- 
un-nisa, the daughter of Nur Jahan. 

[Vide ^;« Translation i. p. 331.] 

Arzu i»\j^), the poetical name of 
Siraj-iul-dlu Ali KJiau, which see. 

Asa Ahir (^\ Ul ), a shepherd chief, 

Mho built the fortress of Asirgarh in the 
Deccan in the 14th century ; he had some 
2000 retainers. The hill had long before 
been encircled by a wall to protect the cattle, 
and it was to employ the poor that Asa con- 
structed, instead of the fortifications, which 
still remain, beyond all comparison, the 
strongest native built fortress in India. Asa 
was put to death by Malik Nasir, the Muham- 
madan chief I£handais, who possessed himself 
of the stronghold by treachery, and com- 
pleted the fortifications. Two centuries later 
Asirgarh and all Nimar were conquered by 
Akbar aud incorporated with the Mughal 
empires. It was taken by the British iu 1817. 

Asad (j^w>^\), the poetical name of 

Mirza Asad-uUah Klran, usually called Mirza 
Noushah. His ancestors were of Samarqand, 
but he was born at Agra ; but was brought 
up and lived at Dehli, where he rose to great 
fame as a poet and writer of the Persian 
language, whilst liis compositions in Urdii 
were uot less admired. He won the favour 
of Bahadm- Shah, the last king of Dehli, 
who conferred upon him the title of Nawab, 
and appointed him royal preceptor in the art 
of poetry. He is the author of a Persian 
Insha, a Masnawi in praise of 'Ali, and a 
Diwiin in Persian and another in Urdii. 
Both have been printed. He was in a.d. 
1852, when sixty years of age, living at Dehli, 
and was engaged in compiliug a history of 
the Mughal emperors of India. His poetical 
name is Glialib, which see. He died iu the 
year a.d. 1869, a.h. 1285. 

Asadi Tusi ( ^Is J^-jO, a native of 

Tiis in the province of Khurasan, and one 
of the most celebrated Persian poets at the 
court of Sultan Mahmiid of Gliazni, whom 
the Sultan often entreated to undertake the 
legendary history of Persia, but he excused 
himself on account of his age. His best 
work is supposed to be lost. He was the 
master of Firdaasi, who afterwards composed 
the Shtih Nama. It is said that Firdausi 
on his departure from GJiazni requested 
him to finish the Shah Nama, which was 
yet incomplete, and that Asadi composed 
ithat part of the poem between the Arabian 
conquest of eastern Persia under the khalif 
'Umar, to the end, consisting of 4000 
couplets. The year of Asadi' s death is un- 
known, but it appears from the above cir- 
cumstance that he was living in a.d. 1010, 
AH. 4 01, in wliich year Firdausi departed 
from Gliazui. The most celebrated of the 
other works of Asadi now extaut is his 
dispute between Day and Night, a transla- 
tion of which in English verse is to be found 
in the Rose Garden of Persia, by Louisa 
Stuart Costcllo, published, London, 1815. 

AsadKhan(Nawat))(( i\^ ^l^ S^\), 

entitled Asiif-ud-daula and Jumlat-ul-Mulk. 
was descended from an illustrious family of 




Turkmans. His father, who fled from the 
oppressious of Shah Abbas, of Persia, into 
Hiudiistan, was raised to hinh rank by the 
emperor Jahilufflr with the title of Zultiqar 
Kliaii, and married to the dau;;liter of a uew 
relation to his empress Niir Jahan. Ilis son 
Asad K]iau (wliose former name was Ibrahim) 
was very early noticed by Shah Jahan, who 
married him to a dauj;-hter of his wazir 'Asaf 
IjOifm, and promoted him to the office of 
second Bakhshi, which he held till the loth 
year of 'Alamgir ^a.d. 1671), when he was 
raised to the rank of 4000, and a few years 
afterwards to the office of wazir and highest 
order of nobility, seven thousand. In the 
reign of Bahadur Shah he was appointed 
Wakil Mutlaq (an office superior to wazir), 
and his son Isma'il made Mir Bakhshi or 
chief paymaster, with the title of Amir-ul- 
'Umra Znlfikar Khan ; but on the accession 
of Farrukhsiar. he was disgraced, his estates 
seized, and his son put to death. After that 
period, he lived upon a scanty pension in a sort of 
confinement, but much respected by all ranks. 
He died in the year a.d. 1717, a.h. 11-29, 
aged 90 lunar years, and was buried with 
great fimeral pomp at the expense of the 
emperor, in a mausoleum, erected by his 
father for the family. 

Asad-ullah al-Ghalib(i 4U11 ^U-.!), 

the conquering lion of God, an epithet of Ali 
the son-in-law of Muhammad. 

Asad-ullah Asad Yar Khan (Nawab) 

(^Irs- jb S^\ i^^\ iX^\); he lived in 

the time of the emperor Muhammad Shah, 
and died in a.d. 1745, a.h. 1158. His 
poetical name was lusan, which see. 

Asad-ullah Khan (Mirza) i^^...]\ s^\ 
\\j^'^ 1^'^^)' Tide Asad and Ghiilib. 

Asaf (, i^\), a native of Qumm in 

Persia, who came to India in the reign of the 
emperor Shah Jahan, and is the author of a 
Diwan. [The name conies from the legendary 
minister of Solomon, who appears to have 
been merely a musician ; vide I. Chron. 
c. xvi. 7.] 

Asafi (Khwaja) (a.:?-l^rL ^J.-s\), son 

of IChwaja Na'mat-ul-liih, was an elegant 
poet. Asafi is his poetical name, which he 
took on account of his father having served 
in the capacity of wazirto Sultan Abii Sa'id 
Mirza ; for, they say, Asaf or Asaph of the 
Scriptures, was wazir to king Solomon. He 
was one of the contemporaries and com- 
panions of Jami, and took instructions from 
hinV in the art of poetry. He died about the 
month of August, a.d. 1520, 16th Sliaban, 
a.h. 926, aged more than 70, and was buried 
at Herat ; but according to the work called 
Khuhlsat-ul-Asha'dr, he died in a.h. 920. 
He is author of a Diwan or book of Od s 
called jD'ncdn Asafi, and a Masnawi in the 
measure of Asrdr . 

Asaf Jah (ilr^ i^JiJ\), the title of the 
celebrated Nizam-ul-Mulk of Haidarabad. 

Asaf Khan I. (^l^ L_i-^T), surnamcd 

Abdul ]\Iajid, was a noblemau in the time of 
the emperor Akbar, who in a.d. 1565, a.h. 
973, distinguished himself by the conquest of 
Garrakuta, a princi])ality on the Narbada, 
bordering on Ijundelkhand. It was governed 
by a Queen or Hani named Durgawati, who 
opposed the Muhammadan general in an rm- 
successful action, and when seeing her army 
routed and herself severely wounded, she 
avoided falling into the hands of the enemy 
by stabbing herself with a dagger. Her 
treasures, which were of great value, fell 
into the hands of Asaf Kliiin ; he secreted a 
great part, and the detection of this embezzle- 
ment was the immediate cause of his revolt. 
He was, however, subsequently pardoned, 
and after the conquest of Chittour, that 
country was given to 'Asaf Klian in jagir. 

Asaf Khan II. {J,:^ ^J\), title of 

K_hraj-Gliayas-ud-din Ali Qaiwani, the son 
of Aqa Mullaud, uncle to Asaf Klian Jafar 
Beg. He held the Bakhshigari in the time 
of the emperor Akbar, and after the couquest 
of Gujrut in a.d. 1573, a.h. 981, in which 
he distinguished himself, the title Abbiis 
Klian was conferred on him. He died at 
Gujrat in a.d. 1581, a.h. 989, and after his 
death his nephew Mirza Jafar Beg was buried 
with the title of Asaf Klian. 

Asaf Khan III. 



L-Si^i), commonly called Mirza Ja far 

Beg, was the son of Mirza Badi-uz-Zamiin 
and grandson of Aqil Mulla Qazwiui. He 
■\vas born at Qazwiu, and came to India in 
his youth, a.d. 1577, a.h. 985. At the 
recommendation of his uncle Mirzii Gliaias- 
ud-din, who was a nobleman at the coiu't of 
the emperor Akbar, and bore then the title 
of Asaf Khan, was received with honour, 
and after the death of his uncle the office of 
Bakhshigari was conferred on him with the 
title of Asaf Klian, a.d. 1581, a.h. 989. 
He was an excellent poet, and was one of 
the many that were employed by the em- 
peror in compiling the Tfirlkh Alft, and 
after the assassination of Mulla Ahmad in 
A.D. 1588, A.H. 996, the remainder of the 
work was written by him up to the year a.h. 
997. He is also called Asaf Klian Mirza 
Ja'far Bakhshi Begi, and is the author of a 
poem called Slurln iva Khusro. The ofiice 
of chief Diwan was conferred on him by the 
emperor in a.d. 1598, a.h. 1007, and in the 
I'eign of Jahangir he was raised to the high 
post of wazilrat. He died in the yiar a.d. 
1612, A.H. 1021. In his poetical composi- 
tiims he used the name of Ja'far. One of 
his sous, who also bore the name of Ja'far, 
became an excellent poet and cUed in the time 
of 'Alamgir, a.d. 1682, a.h. 1094. 




Asaf Khan IV. (^l^ uJ^T), the title 

of 'Abul Hasan, who had several other titles 
conferred on him at different times, such as 
Ya'tqad Ivhan, Yemiu-iid-daula, etc., was the 
son of the celebrated wazir Ya'tmad-ud-daula, 
and brother to Xiir Jahan Begam. After his 
father's death in a.d. 1621, a.h. 1030, he was 
appointed wazir by the emperor Jahangir. His 
daughter Arjumaud Bano Begam, also called 
Mumtaz Mahal, was married to the prince 
Shah Jahan. 'Asaf Klian died at Lahore in 
the loth year of Shah Jahan on the lOtli 
November, o.s. 1641, 17th Sha'ban, a.h. 
Idol, aged 72 lunar years, and was buried 
there on the banks of the Rawi opposite to 
the city of Lahore. Besides Mumtaz Mahal, 
he had foiu' sons, viz., Shaista Khan ; Mirza 
Masih, who was drowned in a drunken frolic 
in the river Behat in Kashmir ; Mirza Hu- 
sain, of moderate abilities and little note ; 
and Shahnawaz Ivhan, who rose to much 
reputation and distinction. 

Asaf-Tid-daula (<l!.JsJ^ i—L^O, a title 
of Asad Khan, which see. 

Asaf-ud-daula (Nawab) (<jj,jk!l ^ z^] 

c_;'».j), the eldest son of Xawab 

Shujaa'-ud-daula of Audh, after whose death 
in January, .\.d. 177o, Zil-qada, a.h. 1188, 
he succeeded to liis dominions, and made 
Luc know the seat of his government, which 
formerly was at Faizabad. He died after a 
reign of twenty-three lunar years and seven 
months on Friday the 2ist September, 
A.D. 1797, 28th ilabl I. a.h. 1212, and 
was buried in the Imam Bara at Lucknow, 
of which he was the founder. His eldest 
adopted son, "WazTr All Khan, agreeably to 
his request, was placed on the masnad, but 
was after foiu- months deposed by Sir John 
Shore, then Governor of Calcutta, and Sa'adat 
All Khiin, the brother of the deceased, raised 
to the masnad. Asaf-ud-daula is the author 
of a Diwau in Urdu and Persian. 

Asalat Khan (^l:>- l::-JLs^), title of 

Mir Abdul Hadi, son of Mir Jliran Yezdi, 
was a nobleman in the service of the emperor 
Shah Jahan. He died in the year a.d. 1647, 
A.H. 1057. 

Asalat Khan ( l- 

•Ji\^\), title of 

Mirza ^luhammad, son of ]\Iirza Badia' of 
Mashhad. He came to India in the 19th 
year of Shah Jahan, a.d. 1645, a.h. 1055, 
and was raised to the rank of 5,000 by the 
emperor 'Alam^ir, in whose time he died, 
A.D. 1666, a.h.' 1076. 

Asam or Atham (Ji\), poetical name of 
Hafiz-ullah, which see. 

Asar (yl), i)oetical name of Akhund 

Shafa'i or Shafia'ai of Shiraz, who died at 
Lar in the year a.d. 1701, a.h. 1113, and 
left a Diwan containing 10,000 verses. 

Asar (jj\), poetical name of j^awab 

Husain Ali Khfrn, son of Arair-ud-daula 
Haidar Beg Khan. He is the author of a 

Asghar (^U. 

^), Husain 

Khan (Nawab) of Furrukhabad, in 1874, 
went to Bombay, intending to proceed to 
Mecca on a pilgrimage. 

Asha'ri {^^ t.^\), the surname of one of 

the most celebrated doctors among the Musul- 
mans, named Abul Hasan Ali bin-Isma'il. 
Originally a resident of Bassora and a teacher 
of the sect which flomished there in the 
tenth centiu"y a.d. ; he publicly renounced 
their doctrines and finallv removed to Bagh- 
dad, where he died in his 70th year, after 
writing more than half a hundred works on 
the side of orthodoxy. He died about 952. 
[ Vide Mu'tazila.] 

'Ashiq (^JLU), poetical name of Mahdl 

All Khan, grandson of Nawab Ali ^Mardan 
Klian. He is the author of three Diwans in 
Urdu, two in Persian, a book called Mainla 
Haidari, and several works. 

'Ashiq (j;^U), poetical name of Shaikh 

Nur-ud-diu Muhammad, the author of the 
Masuawi called Aish ica Tarnh (Enjoyment 
and Merriment), composed in a.d. 1668, 
A.H. 1079. 

'Ashiq Pasha (lib ^iU), a Turkish 

poet, who was born at Hirshari, in the reigu 
of Sultan Orkhan, the successor of Othman, 
and died at no very advanced age, in the reign 
of Murad I. He was, says You Hammer, 
one of the richest Shaikhs of his time, but 
lived nevertheless the life of a simple darvesh, 
from conscientious motives. His Diwan or 
great work, in imitation of Jalal-rul-din 
Riimi's, is a collection of mystical poetry, 
exceeding ten thousand distichs, and divided 
into ten books, each book into ten parts. 

'Ashiq (^ilr), poetical name of Mau- 
laua Abiil Ivhair of Kliwarizm, which see. 

Ashir-ud-din (^j jJ^ j^^^t pronounced 
by the ludiaus Asir-ud-din, which see. 

Ashk (i_jC-ijU, poetical name of Mu- 
hammad Kludil-ullah Kluiu, which see. 




Ashna (li^l), poetical name of Mirza 

Muhammad Tahir, who had the title of Inait 
Kliau. He was a i3on of Nawab Zafar Khan 
Ihsfm, and died in a.d. 1666, a.h. 1u77. 
His complete work is called Kulliat ^ Ashna, 
in which Kasidas are to be found in praise of 
Shah Jahau and Dara Shikoh. 

Ashna (L^l ), poetical name of Ghai'is- 
ud-dln, Avho died in a.d. 1662, a.h. 1073. 

Ashob {l^^^\), poetical name of Mu- 
hammad Bakhsh, a poet who flouri.shod in 
Audh during- the reign of Asaf-ud-daula and 
his father Shujaa'-ud-daiUa. He is the 
author of a Diwiin. 

Ashraf (i_J^^O, or Darwcsh Ashraf. 

He flourislied under Eaisaughar's son, and 
has left a Diwan. 

Ashraf Ali Khan Koka ( ^Ix i_j^JLl 


^Ir^). Tide Fighan. 

Ashraf (uJ^-- i^), poetical name of 

Mirza Muhammad Sa'Td of Mazandaran, son 
of Mulla Muhammad Qana'. He came to 
India and was appointed to instruct Zebuu 
Nisa Begam, the daughter of the emperor 
'Alamgir. He died at Mungair. He is the 
author of a Diwan and several Masnawis. 

Ashraf (i_J^O, poetical name of Mu- 
hammad Hasan, son of Shah Muhammad 
Zaman of Allahabad. He was probably alive 
in a.d. 1852, and is the author of a Masnawi 
called Ma'- dan Faiz. 

Ashraf (, J^-i^;, a cliief of the Afghans 

of the tribe of Ghilzai, who was elected on 
the 22ud April, o.s. 1725, by the Afghans as 
successor of his cousin or uncle Mahniud, 
another chief of the same tribe, who had 
usurjH'd the throne of Persia in the time of 
Sultan Husaiu Safwi, whom he kept in con- 
lineuient. Ashraf on his accession murdered 
the latter, and sent his corpse to be interred 
in Qunim. He was defeated by Nadir Qiili 
(afterwards Nadir Shah) in A.D. 1729, a.h. 
1142, who ])lac('d Shah Tahmasp II. son 
of Sultan Ilusain on the throne. Ashraf 
was afterwards seized and murdered bv a 
Billoch chief between Kirmau and Qandaliar 
in January, a.d. 1730, a.h. 1143, aud his 
head sent to Shah Tahmasp. 

Ashraf Khan (,^l_>- < f^-iO, title of 

Mirza Muhiimniad Asliraf, tlie sou of Islam 
Khan Mashhadi. In the reign of Sliali Jalian 
he held the rauk of 1500,' and the title of 
Ya'tmfid Klian. In tlic; linu' of 'Alamgir lie 
was raised to the rank of 3000 witli tlu; title 
of Ashraf ICjian, and died five days after the 
conqui st of Bliiipiir on the I7th September, 
A.D. 1686, yth'/Jil-qada, a.h. 1097. 

Ashraf Khan (^l^ u_J^-i^), whose 

proper name was jMuhammad Asghar, was 
a Sayyad of Mashhad, aud held the office 
of Mir Miinshi in the time of the emperor 
Akhar. He wrote a beautifid hand, and 
was an excellent poet. He composed a 
chronogram on the death of Muhammad 
Yiisaf in a.d. 1562, a.h. 970; another on 
the completion of the mosque of Shaikh 
SalTni Chishti at Fathapur SikrT in a.d. 
1571, A.H. 979; and one on the conquest 
of Slirat by Akbar on the 1st January, a.d. 
1573, 25tli Sha'ban, a.m. 980. He accom- 
panied ]\Iunaim Kliiiu Kliankhaniin to Bengal 
and died at Lakhnauti in the year a.d. 1575, 
A.H. 983. At the time of lus death he held 
the rauk of 2,000. 

'Ashrat (cuylx). Vide Ishrat. 

'Ashrati ( ^jL.z). Vide Ishratl. 

'Ashrati (JJi.z.), the name of a poet. 
Vide Ishratl. 

'Asi ( ^[.z), the poetical name of 

Gliulam Sarwar, author of the Nama, 
which consists of Gliazals, all the verses of 
which end in Qaf , hence the name ; another 
peculiarity is that the first letter of every verse 
of the first Ghazal is Alif, of the second Be, 
of tlie third Te, etc., a ghazal for every letter 
of the alphabet. 

'Asif Khan. Vide Asaf Khan. 

'Asimi ( ^^Ix), an Arabian poet who 

lived in the time of Khwaja Nizfim-ul-Mulk, 
aud wrote beautiful panegyrics iu his praise. 

Asir (j^^\), poetical name of Sayyid 

Giilzar All, the son of Nazir, a poet of Agra. 
He is the author of an Urdii Diwan, and is 
still living in Agra (1878). 

Asir (~^\), commonly called Mirza 

Jalal Asir, a celebrated poet of Persia and 
a relation of Shah Abbas the great. He 
flourished about the year a.d. 1600, never 
came to India, and is the author of a Diwan 
in Persian. He died in a.d. 1630, a.h. 

Asir-ud-din Akhsikati (^_) jj\ j.^k^\ 

jj: jL-.^ri- ^ \ a native of Akhsikat, 

a city in the province of Farghana, was an 
exc(>rient poet and contemporary with Klia- 
kfiuT. He died in ad. 1211, a.h. 608. 
He spent the greatest part of his life at 
tiie courts of the Atabaks, and stood in 
high favour with Arsalan Sliiih, the son of 
Tughral, Eldiguz and Qizil Arsalan. 




Asir-ud-din Aomani or Aamani (j^^\ 
^yl^jl ij-jJkJl), a poet of Hamdan, 

Avlio was a jrapil of NasTr-iid-din Tusi. He 
is the author of a Diwan in Persian and 

Asir - ud - din ibn - Umar al - Abhari 



._)! ..tJAH ;^-5^), author 

of the Kashf, Zabda, and Hiddya, which is 
also caUed Hiddyet-uI-Hikmat, the Guide to 
I']iUosophij. He died in a.d. 1344, a.h. 

'Asjudi {^s^^), a powerful poet at 

the court, of Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni, was 
a native of Mary, and one of the scholars 
of 'Unsari. He evinced in his works much 
genius ; but they are scarce, and the greatest 
part of them are lost. 

Askaran (Raja) {i.7^\j ^^y^--!), brother 

of Eaja Bihari Mai Kachhwaha. He served 
under the emperor Akbar for several years, 
and died some time after the year a.d. 1588, 
A.H. 99fi. After his death, his son Raj 
Singh was raised to high rank and honours. 

'Askari (Imam) {X^\ ^ L^z). Fide 
Hasan Askari. 

'Askari (Mirza) {\j^^ ^J^z), third 

son of the emperor Babar Shah. On the 
accession of his eldest brother, Humayiiu, to 
the throne of Dehli, the district of Sarkar 
Sambhal was conferred on him as jagir. He 
Avas subsequently kept in confinement for some 
time on account of his rebellious conduct by 
Humayun on his return from Persia. He 
afterwards obtained permission to go on a 
pilgrimage to Mecca, but died on his way 
across the deserts of Arabia in the year a.d. 
1554, A.H. 961. He left one daughter, who 
was married to Yusaf Klian, an inhabitant 
of Mashhad. 

Asmai (^xa^\), surname of Abu Said 
Abdul Malik bin Qureb, which see. 

'Asrnat (> 

-z), or Ismat, poetical 

name of Kliwaja Asmat-ullah of Bukhara. 
He was descended from a noble family of 
Bukhara tracing his ancestry to Ja'far, the 
son of Abu Talib, the father of Ali. He was 
successful in all kinds of poetical composition ; 
and flourished in the time of prince Mirzii 
Khalil, the grandson of Amir Taimiir, whom 
he instructed in the art of poetry. He died 
in tlie year a.d. 1426, a.h. 829, and has left 
a Diwan consisting: of 20,000 verses. 

'Asmat-ullali L\..}\ 


'Asmat-ullah (Mulla) U..J]\ l::^^...^!^ 

L«), of Saharanpur, was the author 
of the work called Shurah Khiddsat ul-Hisah. 
He died in a.d. 162G, a.h. 1035. 

Asoka {dSj^\), the sou of Bindusara 

and grandson of Chandragupta, raja of Patali- 
putra in Magadha. He reigned for about 
forty years, imtil the year b.c. 223. His 
reign is most important. Numerous inscrip- 
tions made by his order have been discovered 
in various parts of India. In his edicts he 
styles himself " Piyadasi." 

'Assar ( .Lui) (oil-presser), the poetical 

name of Shanis-ud-diu Muhammad. He was 
a native of Tabrez, and author of a romantic 
poem called Mehr tea Mush tar i, the Sun and 
Jupiter, which he completed on the 20th 
February, a.d. 1377, 10th Shawwal, a.h. 
778, anil died in the year a.d. 1382, a.h. 

Aswad (j»_„j^), or Al-Aswad. Vide 


'Ata (ll:ix), the poetical name of Shaikh 

Ata-ullali, a pupil of ilirzii Bedil. He died 
at Dehli in a.d. 1723, a.h. 1135. 

Atabak (( Cj'oI), or Atabeg. This is 

a Tm'kish title, formed from the word Ata, 
father or tutor, and Beg, lord ; and signifies 
a governor or tutor of a lord or prince. 
From the time of the decline of the dynasty 
of Saljiik to the conquest of Persia by Halakii 
Ivhan (which occupies a period of more than 
a ceutiu-y), that country was distracted by the 
contests of a number of petty princes, or 
governors, called Atabaks ; who, taking ad- 
vantage of the weakness of the last monarchs 
of the race of Saljiik, established theii- 
authority over some of the finest provinces 
of the empire. One of the most distinguished 
of these Atabegs was Eldiguz, a Turkisli 
slave, whose descendants reigned over 'Azur- 
bejan. The Atabegs of Pars were descended 
from Salghiu', a Tmkish general. 

[Vide Eldiguz and Salghur, also 'Imad- 
ud-din Zangi. There were foui- dynasties 
of these Atabaks.] 

Atabak Abu Bakr (^j ^\ LJCj\3\), 

the son of Atabak Muhammad, the son of 
Eldiguz, succeeded his uncle Qizal Arsalau as 
prime minister to Tughral III. Saljiiki, in 
A.D. 1191, A.H. 587. He appears to have con- 
tented himself with the principality of 'Azur- 
bejan, and fixed his residence at Tabrez. His 
louf reign was only distui-bed by one war 
with his brother Qutalaq. in which he Avas 
victorious. Qutlaq lied into Klnvariziu and 
eucom-ag-ed ^Ua-ud-din Takash to advance 




afrainst Tiigliral III. whom ho defeated and 
slew iu A.D. 1194, a.h. 590. Abu Bakr 
died in a.d. 1210, a.h. 607, aud was suc- 
ceeded by his brother Atabak Muzaffar. 

Atal)ak Abu Bakr bin-Sa'd bin-Zangi 

^^'j cH '^^-" c;-^ J^. ^^} (— 5^l-'U. 
Vide Sunqar. 

Atabak 'Ala-ud-daula ('\_z < <oljl 

<U^aJi), the son of Atabak Sam, one 

of the Atfibaks of Isfahan of the race of the 
Dihunites. He died iu a.d. 1227, a.h. 624, 
aged 84 years. 

Atabak Eldiguz (j.^j..L t^.;ljU. 
Vide Eldiguz. 

Atabak Muhammad (A^.sr* (_jC.;Lji) 

was the eldest son of Eldiguz, whom he 
succeeded as prime minister in a.d. 1172, 
a.h. 568. When Tughral III. a prince of 
the Saljakian dynasty (who was a child of 
seven years of age), was placed on the throne 
in A.D. 1176, Midiammad, who was his uncle, 
became the actual ruler of Persia. This chief 
after enjoying power 13 years died in March, 
A.D. 1186, Zil-hijja, a.h. 581, in which year 
the conjunction of all the planets took place. 
He was succeeded by his brother Qizal Arsaluu. 

Atabak Muzaffar (y„li^ ( Cbi), the 

son of Atabak Muhammad. He succeeded 
his brother Abu Bakr in a.d. 1210, a.h. 
607, and not only inherited Azurbejan, but a 
considerable part of 'Iraq. He enjoyed this 
power 15 years ; after which 'Aziu-bejan was 
invaded and conquered by Sidtan Jalal-ud-din, 
the monarch of Khwarizm, a.d. 1225, a.h. 
622. Muzaffar shut himself up in the fort 
of Alanjaq, where he died ; and with him 
perished the power of the family of Eldiguz. 

Atabak Muzaffar - ud - din Zangi 
(|^-^-J J ^i-li-'* (-Jolji), a prince of 
Shiraz, aud brother of Sunqar, which see. 

Atabak Sa'd bin-Zangi. Vide Sunqar. 

'Ata Husam Khan ( ,U 


Avhose poetical name was Tahsln, is the 
author of the liautarz Miirassa', an Urdii 
translation of the Cliahtn- Dnrwesh. He 
flourished in the time of Nawfib 'Asaf-ud- 
daula of Lncknow, about the year a.d. 1776, 
a.h. 1189. As a specimen of the Urdu 
language the Nautarz Mtirassa' was rendered 
objectionable for students, by his retaining 
too much of the phraseology and idiom of 
the I'ersian and Arabic. On this account a 
simple version was executed by Mir Amman 
of Debli in a.d. 1802, a.h. 1217, which is 
styled the Bdgh-o-Bahiir. 
\_yide Tahsln.] 

Atal (J.j'i), a name assumed by Mir 

Abdul Jalil Dehli in his poetical composi- 
tions, who gave out that he was by inspira- 
tion the pupil of Ja'far Zatalli, and wrote 
poetry in Persian and Arabic. 

'Ata Malik ((_<U Iki). Vide Atu- 
ud-din suruamed 'Ata Malik. 

Atash (jjl.jM ), poetical name of Khwaja 

Haidar AlT of Lucknow, who is the author 
of two Diwans or books of Odes consisting of 
Persian and Urdu verses. He died in a.d. 
1847, a.h. 1263. 

'Ata-ullah {d,^\ Lk.^), surname of 

several Musalman authors, but particularly 
of Tilj-ud-din Muhammad bin- Ahmad bin- 
Ata-ullah, who is the author of a book 
entitled Hakam - id - Atia, which treats on 
Musalman law, and is to be found in the 
Eoyal Library at Paris, No. 672. There is 
one Ata-idlah who is the author of a dic- 
tionary called Firdaus-ul-Litghcit. 

'Ata-ullah {^\ ^z), bin-Muhammad 

-al-IIusaini Xaishapiiri, aiithor of the Raiizat- 
nl-Ahbdb, containiug the histoi'y of Muham- 
mad, of his companions, and of the twelve 
Imams. This book was written at Herat 
and dedicated to Amir 'Alisher in a.d. 1494, 
A.H. 899. He is also called Amir Jamal-ud- 
din Ata-uUah. He also wrote another work 
on the art of writing poetry, entitled Eitdb 
I'almll-us- SanaaH, dedicated to the same 
Amir, in which he calls himself 'Ata-ullah 
biu-Muhammad-al-Husaini Xaishapiiri. He 
was wazlr to Sultau Husain Mirza of Herat, 
and died in the beginning of the year 
A.H. 917. 

At-har or Athar Khan (^l>- r-v-^\ 

the son of Amir Nizam-ud-din Razwi ; he 
was a native of Bukhara, and came to India 
in the time of the emperor 'Alamgir, where 
he collected his poems into a Diwau. 

Atma' (iU/4>L\), a poet ■whose proj)er 
name is Abii Is-haq Hallaj, which see. 

Atsiz iy,^\), one of the Sultans of 

Ivhwarizm called Atsiz ibn - Auk by Ibn 
Klialiikan. Tutush or Turtush, son of Alp 
Arsalfiu, who was lord of the coiuitries to the 
east of Syria, caused him to be arrested, and 
having put him to death on the 21st October, 
A.D. 1078, 11th Eabi II. a.h. 471, took 
possession of his kingdom. 

Atsiz {'^j\), a Sultan of Ivlnvurizm 

called by ibn-Kliallikan, Atsiz, the son of 
Qutb-ud-din Muhammad, the son of Anush- 
takiu. He was contemporary with Sultau 




Sanjnr S;iljukl, with wliom he had several 
battles. He died in a.d. 1166, 6th Jamad 
II. A.H. 551, and was succeeded to the 
throne by his son Alp Arsalan, who is also 
called Apa Arsalan. He died in a.d. 1162, 
19th Rajab, a.h. 557. 

Atsiz ij^'A), son of Ala-ud-dla Hasan 

Jahan Soz, kin£^ of Glior. He reigned after 
Baha-ud-din Siim, and was killed in a battle 
against Taj-ud-din Eldiiz, prince of Ghazni, 
some time about the year a.d. 1211, a.h. 
608. lie was the last of the kings of Ghor 
of this branch. 

'Attar (^Lk-c), poetical name of Faiid- 
ud-din Attar, which see. 

Aurang (l»jC ,.^), name of a lover 
Avhose mistress was Gulchehra. 

Aurangabadi Begani(^Cj ^jLUo .^^), 

one of the wives of the emperor Aiu'angzeb 

Aurangzeb (t .)\Cjj»\), the son of 

Shiih Jahan, emperor of DehlT. On his 
accession to the throne, he took the title of 
'Alamgir, agreeably to the custom of the 
Eastern princes, who always assume a new 
one on that occasion. 

[^Vide 'Alamgir.] 

Aurangzeb (l_--jjJ^J .^0, private name 

of the emperor 'Alamgir I. which see. The 
Mughil Emperors changed their names on 
accession, like the Popes of modern times. 

Avank Klian (^l~- i«JCjJ), or Ung 

Klian, a prince of the tribe of Karit or Kirit, 
a tribe of Mugbals or Oriental Tartars, who 
made profession of the Christian religion. 
He was surnamed Malik Yiihanna, or king 
John. From the name of this prince we 
have made John the Priest, who was stripped 
of his dominions by Changez Khan in a.d. 
1202, a.h. 599. They have since applied 
the name of John the Priest or Prestre John 
to the king of Ethiopia, because he was a 
Christian. Avank K]ian is by some authors 
called Avant Khan. He was a very power- 
ful sovereign, and the greatest part of 
Tartary was tributaiy to him ; but he was 
defeated and put to death by Changez Kliau. 

Aven Roscli. Vide Il)n TvasliTd. 

Avenzur. Vide Abdul ^lalik biu-Zulir 

Averroes. J'lde Ibn Ku.slnd. 

Avicenna. Vide Abu Sina, 

Aweis Qarani (Khwaja) (^Jy ^J^\J\), 

an upright Jlusalman of the Siifi sect, who 
had given up the world, used to say to those 
that sought him, "Do you seek God? If 
you do, why do you come to me ? And if 
you do not seek God, what business can I 
iiavc with you?" He was an inhabitant of 
Yeman and of the tribe of Qaran. He was slain 
in a battle fought by Ali against Mu'awia I. 
in A.D. 657, 17th Shawwal, a.h. 37. This 
man had never seen Muhammad, and yet the 
Musalmaus say, that when he heard that 
Muhammad had lost a tooth in battle, and 
not knowing which, he broke all his teeth. 

Aweis Jalayer (Sultan) (,jL?- (j-^-'jl 
i^l-Ll^j) succeeded his father, Amir 

Hasan Buzurg, as king of Baghdad in July, 
a.d. 1356, Rajab, a.h. 757, and after a 
reign of nearlv nineteen lunar years died on 
Tuu.sday the ioth October, a.d. 1374, 2ud 
Jamad I. a.h. 776. He was succeeded by 
his son Sultan Husaiu Jalayer. 

Aweis Mirza {\j^ ij^-i*^), a prince 

nearly related to Baiqara Bahadiu', was 
nephew to Abiil Gliazi Sultan Husain Baha- 
dur. He was miu'dered by Sultan Abii Said 
Mirza, between the years a.d. 1451 and 

'Ayani ( ^jUx), whose proper name 

was Abii Is-haq Ibrahim, probably flourished 
previous to the 8th centiu-y of the Hijrat. 
He is the author of a Masnawi called Anbia 
JSTima, a history of the prophets who pre- 
ceded Muhammad. 

Ayaz (jM), a slave of Sultan Mahmud 

of Ghazni who, being a great favourite of his 
master, was envied by the courtiers ; they 
therefore informed tire Sultan that they 
frequently observed Ayaz go privately into 
the Jewel office, whence they pre.sumed he 
had purloined many valuable effects. The 
next time when the slave bad entered the 
treasury, the Sultan followed by a private 
door, and, unobserved, saw Ayaz di'aw from 
a large chest a suit of old dirty garments, 
Avith which having clothed himself, he 
prostrated himself on the ground and re- 
turned thanks to the Almighty for all the 
benefits conferred on him. The Sultan, 
being astonished, went to him, and demanded 
an explanation of bis conduct. He replied, 
"Most gracious Sire, when I first became 
your Majesty's servant, this was my dress, 
and till that period, humble had been my lot. 
Xow that, by the grace of God and vour 
majesty's favour, I am elevated above ail" the 
nobles of the laud, and am intrusted witii the 
treasures of the world, I am fearful that my 
heart shoidd be puffed uj) with vanity ; \ 
therefore daily practise tliis humiliation to 
remind me of my former iusiguitieauce." 
Tlie Sultan bt'ing mucli pleased, added to his 
rank, and severely rtprimanded his slanderers. 




'Ayaz (Qazi) (^-ili ^ja\^), son of 

Musa, and author of the Shnrah SaLlh 
Muslim, Mashdriq-ul-A)nvar, and several 
other works. He died in a.d. 1149, a.h. 

'Ayesha (^ILAjIx), daughter of Abu 

Bakr, and one of the most beloved wives of 
Muhammad, though she bore him no child. 
She was his third wife, and the only one 
that was a maid, beinjj then only seven 
years of age ; on which account (some say) 
her father, whose original name was Abd- 
ullah, was named Abii Bakr, that is to say, 
the father of the virgin. An Arabian author, 
cited by Maracci, says, that Abvi Bakr was 
very averse to giving him his daughter so 
young, but that Muhammad pretended a 
divine command for it ; whereupon he sent 
her to him with a basket of dates, and when 
the girl was alone with him, he stretched out 
his hand, and rudely took hold of her clothes ; 
upon which she looked fiercely at him, and 
said, "People call you the faithful man, 
but your behaviour to me shews you are a 
perfidious one." But this story is most pro- 
bably one of those calumnies against Muham- 
mad which were invented and found favoiu- 
in the ]\Iiddle Ages. After the death of her 
husband she opposed the succession of All, 
and had several bloody battles with him ; 
although violent, her character was respected, 
and when taken prisoner by AH she was dis- 
missed without injury. She was called 
prophetess and mother of the faithfiil. She 
died, aged 67, in the year a.d 678, a.h. 
68. Her brother Abdur Rahman, one of the 
foiu- who stood out against Yezid's inaugura- 
tion, died the same year. There is a tradition 
that 'Avesha was murdered by the direction 
of Mu'awia I. and the following particulars 
are recorded : — 'Ayesha having resolutely and 
insultingly refused to engage her allegiance 
to Yezid, Mu'awia invited her to an enter- 
tainment, where he had prepared a very deep 
well or pit in that part of the chamber 
reserved for her reception, and had the 
mouth of it deceptively covered over with 
leaves and straw. A chair was then placed 
upon the fatal spot, and 'Ayesha, on being 
conducted to her seat, instantly sank into 
eternal night, and the mouth of the pit was 
immediately covered with stones and mortar. 
There is, however, no trustworthy authority 
in support of this story. 

'Ayn-uddin (Shaikh) (^<i, ^,^_u5J^ ^Jr:^), 

of Bijapur, author of the MuUiiqat, and 
Kitdb-ul-Jnwdr containing a history of all 
the MTihammadan saints of India. He 
floru-ished in the time of Sultan Ala-uddlu 
Hasan Bahmani. 

'Ayn-ul-Mulk (Hakim) (i^jCL^H ^^r. 

j,^L^), a native of Shlruz, and a avcII- 

educated and learned Musalman, was an 
officer of rank in the time of the emperor 

Akhar. He was an elegant poet, and his 
poetical name was Wafa. He died in the 
40th year of the emperor in a.d. 1594, a.h. 

'Ayn-ul-Mulk (Khwaja) ((_^1^! ^.ȣ 

Aj>-L;>.), a distinguished nobleman in 

the court of Sultan Muhammad Shah 
Tughlaq and his successor Sultan Firoz 
Shah Barbak, kings of Dehli. He is the 
author of several works, one of which is 
called Tars'il 'Aijn-ul-Mu/ki. He also 
appears to be the author of another work 
called Fatlia Ndmn, containing an account 
of the conquests of Sultan 'Ala-uddin Sikan- 
dar Saul, who reigned from a.d. 1296 to 
A.D. 1316. 

'Aysh ifjlt.^z), poetical name of Mu- 
hammad 'Askari, who lived in the reign of 
the emperor Shah 'Alam. 

'Ayshi ( JL-x), a poet who is the 

author of a Masnawi called Haft ylkjdar, 
or the seven planets, which he wrote in 
A.D. 1675, A.H. 1086. 

Azad (jUl), poetical name of Mir 

Gluilam All of Bilgram, born about 1703. 
His father Sayyad Niih, who died in a.d. 
1752, A.H. 1165, was the son of the cele- 
brated Mir Abdul Jalil Bilgrami. He was 
an excellent poet and is the author of several 
works in Persian and Arabic, among which 
are Qasdid '■JJzzd, Sab - lutt - ul - Mirjdn, 
K7iazd)in 'Amira, and Tazkira Sarv 'Azdd. 
He died in the year a.d. 1786, a.h. 1200. 

Azad (jUl), the poetical name of 

Captain Alexander Hiderley, in the service 
of the raja of Alwar. He was a good poet 
and has left a small Diwan in Urdii. His 
father's name was James Hiderley, and his 
brother's Thomas Hiderley. He died on the 
7th July, 1861, Zilhij, a.h. 1277, at Alwar, 
aged 32 years. 

Azad Khan (^j\:>~ ^^)^), governor of 

Cashmere, of the Afghan tribe, succeeded his 
father, HajT Karim Dad, a domestic officer 
of Ahmad Shah Abdali, and who was at the 
death of that prince advanced to the govern- 
ment of Cashmere by Taimiir Shah, as a 
reward for quelling the rebellion of Amir 
Klian, the former governor. Azad Klian was 
only 18 years of age (in 1783) when he was 
governor of Cashmere, but his acts of ferocity 
exceeded common belief. 

'Azaeri (^jr .«L-i£). Fide Uzaerl. 

Azal (J;U, poetical name of Mirza 

MuhamuKid Amin, who died in a.d. 1728, 
A.H. 1141. 




'Azam Shah (iU) (*lir^), the third son 

of the emperor Alamgir, was boru on the 
11th July, o.s. 1653, 25th Shaban, ah. 
1063. After his father's death (his eldest 
brother Bahadiu- Shah beinr;; then at Kabul) 
he was crowned in the warden of Shalimar 
at Ahmadabad in the Deccan on the 4th 
March, o.s. 1707, 10th Zil-hijja, a.h. 1118, 
but was soon after slain, together with his 
two sons, Bedar Bakht and Waliljah, in a 
battle fought against his eldest brother at 
Jajowan between Agra and Dholpur. , This 
took place on Sunday the 8th June, o.s. 
1707, 18th Rabr I. a.h. 1119, three lunar 
months and eighteen days after his father's 
death. His mother's name was Bauo Begam, 
the daughter of Shahnawaz Khan. He was 
buried in the mausoleum of Humayiin at 
Dehli. His two youngest sons who siu'vived 
him were 'All Tabar and Bedar Dil. 

Azdihak. Vide Zuhak. 

'Azd-ud-daula (aj^jkll ^sAs.), a Sultan 

of the Boyites, succeeded his father, Rukn- 
ud-daula, in September, a.d. 976, Muharram, 
A.H. 366, to the government of Fars and 
'Irak, as well as in the office of wazir or 
Amir-ul-Umra to the khalif Al-Taya Billab 
of Baghdad, in the room of his cousin Izz- 
ud-daula, the son of Maizz-ud-daula, whom 
he killed in battle in a.d. 978, a.h. 367. 
He biiilt the mausoleum of 'All at Najaf 
A.shraf, embelhshed Baghdad and other places 
by magnificent public buildings, and died on 
Monday the 27th March, a.d. 983, 8th Shaw- 
wal, A.H. 372, aged 47 lunar years. At his 
death the reigning kballf read the prayers at 
the fimeral of this good and great man. His 
name is still fondly cherished in a country 
over which he endeavoured dming the reign 
of his father and his own, being a space 
of 34 years, to diffuse prosperity and joy. 
His power and possessions became from the 
moment of his death a subject of contest 
between his brothers and nephews. 

*Azd-uddin (Qazi) (^-^Ij ^^„^'^ SAs), 

of Shiriiz, author of several works, one of 
which is called the Mnicdqif '■Azdia, a cele- 
brated work in Arabic on Jm'isprudence. He 
flourished in the time of Shah Abii Is-haq, 
governor of Shiraz, to whom he dedicated 
the above work. He died a.d. 1355, a.h. 

'Azid la din-aUah-bin-Yusaf-bin- 

Hafiz ( .J I— tt-V ^.^J <^^ ^Jl^^ Juilc 

lijl>-), the eleventh and last khalif of 

Egypt of the Fatimite djTiasty, succeeded his 
father, Faez-bi-nasr-allah Isilbiu-Zafir, inthe 
year a.d. 1158, a.h. 553. But the state of 
affairs in Eg}-pt was now tottering to its fall. 
The descendants of 'All from the death of Al- 
Musta'ali BiUah, a.d. 1101, had become 

puppets in the hands of their wazir or Amir- 
ul-Jayiish (generalissimo), who wielded all 
the regal authority of the state : two Amirs, 
Dargam and Shawar, had contested in arms 
this high dignity ; and the latter, defeated 
and expelled from Egypt, sought refuge and 
aid from Niir-uddin, styled Mrdik-ul-'Achl 
Nur-uddin Mahmud, the celebrated ruler of 
Syria. The sovereign of Damascus eagerly 
embraced the opportunity of obtaining a 
footing in Egyqjt, and in a.d. 1163, a.h. 
658, despatched a force under Asad-ud-dln 
Shirakoh (the brother of Aiyiib) and his 
nephew Salah-uddTn to reinstate Shawar, 
whose rival called in the Christians of Pales- 
tine to his support ; but ere Amamy (the 
brother and successor of Baldwin III.) could 
enter Egy^rt, Dargam had been overpowered 
and slain by Shirakoh, who replaced Shawar 
in his former power. But Shawar, faithless 
alike to friend and foe, now entered into 
aiTangements with the Franks in order to 
elude the fidfilment of his engagements with 
Niu'-uddln ; and Shirakoh, after maintaining 
himself for some time in Belbes against the 
joint forces of Jerusalem and Egypt, was 
compelled to enter into a convention with 
Amaury and evacuate the country. But he 
was soon recalled by Shawar to deliver him 
from the vengeance of his new allies, to whom 
he had proved as perficUous as to those of 
his own faith ; Cairo was closely besieged 
by the Franks, and the Fatimite khalif , 'Azid 
le-dln-allah, sent the hair of his women, the 
extreme symbol of Oriental distress, to im- 
plore the succour of Nur-uddin (a.d. 1168). 
Shirakoh again entered Egj-pt with an army, 
forced Amaury to retreat, and after beheading 
the double traitor Shawar, installed himself 
in the twofold office of wazir to the Fatimite 
khalif and lieutenant of Egypt in the name 
of Niir-uddin ; but dying the same year, 
was succeeded in his dignities by his famous 
nephew Salah-uddin, who, after the death 
of Niir-uddin in May, a.d. 1173, Shawwal, 
a.h. 569, became the sole master of Egypt 
and Syria. The khalif 'Azid died in a.d. 
1171, a.h. 567, and the name of the Abba- 
side khalif Mustazi was substituted in the 
public prayers till the death of Niir-uddin. 

'Azim (*-iic), the son of Mulla QaidI, 

and a nephew of Mulla Naziri, was a Persian 
poet of Naishapur. He floiu'ished aboiit the 
year a.d. 1663, a.h. 1074, and is the author 
of a Diwan, and a Masuawi caUed Fauz 

\_Vide Azim Naishapiiri.] 

'Azim {j^]h.z\), poetical name of Siraj- 

ud-daula ^luhammad Gliaus Khan, Nawab of 
the Karnatic. 

]h.A), poetical name of Sayyad 

Azim 'All of Allahiibad, author of a Diwau 
osid iu A 11 1 K.!.! 

'Azim (J 

.zim 'An ui ii.uini;u 

Urdu, composed in a.d. 1855. 





'Azim Ali (Mir) (^^ J^ ^A), of 

Agra, author of a Sikaudiir Xama in Urdu 
Terse, translated from the one in Persian, iu 
A.D. 1844. 

'Azim Humayun (^,»_.l.^i, J^.s:\). 
Vide Adil Khan Fariiqi II. 

'Azim Humayun Shirwani ( ^^ U r\ 

O -V"' U^^^' ^ nobleman of the 

court of Saltan Sikandar Shah L5di. He 
■was imprisoned hy Sultan Ibrahim and died 
in prison. 

'Azim Jah (il^ ^-r^ii-^), Nawab of 

Arkat, died 14th January, 1874, aged 74. 
He was the second son of Azim Jah, one of 
the Nawabs of the Carnatic, and the uncle 
of the late Nawab Ghulam Muhammad Gliaus 
Wiau- He received a pension of 2500 rupees 
from the Government. 

*Azim Jah (Nawab) (c 


Siraj-ul-Umra, the son of Azim-ud-daula, 
Nawab of the Karnatic, was installed by the 
British Government as Nawab on the 3rd 
February, 1820. He died ou the 12th 
November, 1825, aged 34 years. 


'Azim Khan (^l^ ^^^), or 

'Azim, an officer of state in the time of 
Humayuu and Akbar, emperor of Dehli. 
He was commonly called Anka Khan, sur- 
named Shams-udd'in Muhammad, and was the 
father of Mirza Aziz Kuka, who also after- 
wards held the title of 'Azim Kliau. He 
was a native of GliaznT, and formerly served 
under Prince Kamran Jlirza. It is said that 
he saved the life of Humayiin, or had been 
of some service to him after his defeat by 
Sher Shah at Kanauj ; for which service he 
was handsomely rewarded by that emperor 
after his having recovered the kingdom. 
He accompanied the emperor to Persia, and 
as his wife, Jiji Begam, became the wet- 
niirse of Akbar, the emperor's son, he was 
consequently called Atyak Khiin. He was 
the first person that was honoured with the 
rank of " Haft HazarT," or Seven Thousaud, 
by Akbar. The office of Wakil Mutlaq, 
which was taken away from Maham Anka, 
was also conferred on him ; on which account, 
Adliam Isjian Kokaltash {q.v.), the sou of 
Maham Anka, took ofPence, and assassinated 
~K\\in\ 'Azim on Monday the 18th May, a.d. 
loG2, 12th Ramzan, 969, iu a room 
adjoining to that occupied by the enqxrcn-. 
Adlmm Iviian was immediately bound hand 
and foot by order of the eni])eror, and thrown 
down headlong from a window of the court 
at Agra, where this circumstance had taken 
place, and crushed to death. The remains 
of Khan 'Azim were sent to Dehli, and 
buried in the vicinity of the Dargah of 
Nizaui-uddin Aulia, where a mausoleum was 

erected over his grave by his son Mu'za Aziz 
Knka, which is .still to be seen at Dehli. 
]\Iaham Anka died with grief one month 
after the death of his sou Adham Klian. 
The tomb of Adham Klian, who is also 
biu-icd at Dehli, is called Bhiil Bhulian. 

'Azim Khan (^L^ ^Ji-^^). The in- 
habitants of the town of Azimgarh, which 
is near Jaunpiii', say that the fortress and 
town of Azimgarh was founded by a person 
who belonged to the family of "the Eajas 
of that place, and who was forced by the 
em]ieror Jahangir to become a Midiammadan, 
and received the title of Azim Khun. 

'Azim Khan (^_jU>- Jirl), commonly 

called Mirza Aziz Kokii or Kokaltash, was 
the son of 'Azim Kliau or KJian 'Azim. 
He was called Kokii or Kokaltash on account 
of his being foster-brother and playmate of 
Akbar ; for his mother, whose name was Jiji 
Begam, was Akbar' s wet-uurse. He was 
one of the best generals of the emperor, who, 
in the 16tli year of his reign, conferred on 
him the title of 'Azim Klian. He held the 
government of Gujrat for several years to- 
gether, and being absent from the presence 
for a long period, was summoned to court 
by Akbar in a.d. 1592, a.h. 1001, but as 
that chief had always entei-tained the wish 
to proceed ou a pilgrimage to Mecca, and 
his friends representing to him that the king 
was displeased with him, and merely sought 
an opportunity to imprison him, he placed 
his family and treasm-e on board a vessel, 
and on the 13th March, o.s 1594, 1st Enjab, 
a.h. 1002, set sail for Hejaz without leave 
or notice. In a short time, however, he 
found his situation irksome in that country, 
and returned to India, where he made his 
submission, and was restored at once to his 
former place in the emperor's favour and 
confidence. He died at Ahmadabad Gujrat 
in the 19th j-ear of the reign of Jahangir, 
a.d. 1624, A.H. 1033. His remains were 
transported to Dehli and buried close to his 
father's mausoleum, where a splendid monu- 
ment was erected over his tomb all of marble. 
It consists of sixty-four pillars, and is called 
by the people " Chaunsa'th Khambh." 

'Azim Khan (^l:^ ^A), title of Mir 

Muhammad Biiqir, the brother of 'Asaf Klian 
Jafar Beg. In the second year of the reign 
of the emperor Jahangir, a.d. 1606, a.h. 
1015, he was honoui-ed with the mausab 
of 1000 and title of Iradat Khan. In the 
first year of Shiih, a.d. 1628, a.h. 
1037, the rank of 2000 was conferred on him 
Avith the office of "Wizarat Kull ; iu the third 
vear of his reign he received the title of 
'Azim Klian. He was appointed at different 
times governor of Bengal, Allahabad, Gujrat 
and latterly of Jauupvir, where he died in 
A.D. 1649, A.H. 1059, aged 76 lunar years, 
and was buried there. After his death the 
title of 'Azim Khan was conferred on his 




eldest sou, "who was slaiu iu the battle which 
took place between Dara Shikoh and his 
brother Alamgir in a.d. 1658, a.h. 1068, 
at Agra. His second son, Mir Khalil, was 
honoured with the title of Ivhilu Zamau. 
Dm-ing the government of this viceroy iu 
A.D. 1634, the English obtained permission 
to trade with their ships in Bengal by the 
emperor Shah Jahan, but were restricted to 
the port of Pipley, where they established 
their factory. 

'Aziin Khan (^Ir^ f^^), ex-amir aud 

a brother of Sher All Khan, Amir of Kabul, 
died at Shah Eiid on the 6th October, 1869. 

'Azim Khan Koka {d^^ ^l:^ (Ji^O, 

the title of Muzaffar Hu,sain, commonly 
known by the appellation of FidaT I\han, a 
title conferred on him bv the emperor Shah 
Jaliau. His elder brother held the title of 
KJiau Jaliau Bahadiu- Kokaltash, and were 
both foster-brothers to the emperor Alamgir. 
Fidiii Kliau wa s honoured with the title of 
'Azim Kluin by Alamgir about the year a.d. 
1676, A.H. 1086, and appointed governor of 
Bengal in a.d. 1676, a.h. 1087, which 
sitiwtion he held for a whole year, and died 
on his wav to Behar on the 21st April, 
o.s. 1678, "9th Eabi I. a.h. 1089. 

'Azim Naishapuri (^',»_)l.^^j ^lirl) 

author of a Diwau foimd iu the Library of 
Tipii Sultan. 

'Azim-ud-daula (Nawab) (d!iw\- 


t_-?'y), of the Caruatic, was the son 

of Xawab Amir-ul-Umra, the brother of 
Umdat-ul-Umra. On the death of Umdat- 
ul-Umra, the English resolved to take the 
functions of government into their own hands. 
'All Husaiu, the next heir, refused to comply, 
consequently Ayim-ud-daula, the nephew of 
the deceased, was placed on the masnad by 
the British Goverumeut on the 31st August, 
a.d. 1801. He died on the 2ud August, a.d. 
1819. His son 'Azim Jali was installed as 
Nawab of the Camatic on the 3rd February, 
A.D. 1820. 

'Azim-ul-Umra {\^.J\ ♦-lie), minister 

of the Xizam of Hydars'ibad. He succeeded 
Rukn-ud-daula about the year a.d. 1794. 

'Azim-ullali Khan (^Ir^ AW J^z), 

says Mr. Sheppard in his Narrative of the 
Mutiny, was a charity boy, having been picked 
up, together with his mother, dui'ing the 
famine'of 1837-1838, when they were both 
in a djing state from starvation. The mother 
being a .staunch heathen, she woidd not con- 
sent to her son being christened. He was 
adopted in the Cawnpore Free School under 
Mr. Patau, schoolmaster. After ten years 
he was raised to he a teacher. After some 
years he attached himself to the Nana, who 

sent him to England for the purpose of 
bringing his case before the Home Govern- 
ment. He became a favourite in English 
society, aud visited the camp before Sevas- 
topol, rt'turuiug to India iu 1856. He 
iutrigued with Dehli, and persuaded the 
Xana to join the mutinous Sepoys in 1857. 
He is believed to have instigated the Cawn- 
pore massacre. He fled on the re-occiipation 
of the place, and his further fate is imknown. 

'Azimnsh Shan (^.\jij\ *-li.2), second 

son of the emperor Bahadur Shah of Dehli. 
He was appointed by his graudfather, the 
emperor 'Alamgir, governor of Bengal ; he 
made Patna the seat of his government aud 
named it Azimabad. On the news of his 
grandfather's death, leaving his own son 
Farrnldisiar (afterwards emperor) to super- 
intend the affairs of that country, he came 
to Agra, and was present in the battle which 
took place between his father and his uncle 
'Azam Shah, iu June, a.d. 1707, a.h. 1119. 
He was slaiu in the battle which ensued 
after his father's death between Jahiindar 
Shah and his other brothers, iu the month 
of February, o.s. 1712, Muharram, ah. 
1124. His second son, Muhammad Karim, 
was taken prisoner after the battle and 
murdered by order of Jahandar Shah, who 
ascended the throne. 

'Aziz ('}'£.), whose proper name was 

Abdiil Aziz Kliiin, was a native of Deccan. 
He is the author of a Diwan, also of a prose 
composition called Gulshan Rang. 

'Aziz Koka (Mirza) (^,_^ d^S ]y,^), 

the foster-brother of the emperor Akbar. 
Vide 'Azim Klian, the sou of I\han 'Azim, 
commonly called Anka K]ian. 

'Aziz-ullah Zahidi (^- J^J^\ • d^\ •.•,£) 

author of a Masnawi, which he composed in 
the year a.d. 1407, a.h. 810. He is com- 
mouiv called Aziz. 

'Azmat-ullah (Shah) (^Ul 


author of the Mozliar-ul- Asrdr , being a long 
dissertation on the nature of the divinity, the 
soul, and other abstruse subjects on Siif iisra. 

'Azra (\jjkx), name of the celebrated 
mistress of "VTamiq. 

Azraqi (^:>- ^ijj^), commonly called 

Hakim Arzaqi or Azraqi, was a physician 
aud a poet. He was a native of ]\Iars, and 
flourished in the reign of Tughral III. 
Saljuki, king of Per.sia, iu whose name ho 
wrote several books. Arzaqi died in a.d. 
1189, A.H. 585. His Diwan contains nearly 
2000 verses. He is also said to be the author 
of a work called Kitdb Siiulhad. His proper 
name is Ahii'l ^fahasin Aliu Bakr Zaiii-ud- 
diii, sou of Isiua'il AVarra(|. He introduced 
himself into the society and coufuleiice of the 
Saljiiki prince Tughan Shfdi I. the seat of 




whose government was Naishapur, by the 
composition of a most obscene book, which 
he called Alfia Shaljia, illustrated with 
pictures. This book appears to be a version 
of the Kok Shashtar. He is called Azraqi 
in the Jour. As. Soc. of Bengal for 1844, vol. 
xiii. part ii. p. 620, and stated to be the 
author of a history of Mecca, of which 
ancient work several MSS. are in Europe, 
especially one at Cambridge, formerly the 
property of Dr. Burckhardt, who in the 
preface to his Travels in Arabia professes 
to have largely made use of it. 

Azur (.(iO, the poetical name of Lutf 

'All Beg, author of the Tazkira called 
Ataishkada Azur. He was engaged in the 
compilation of this work in a.d. 176o, a.h. 
1179, and was alive in a.d. 1782, a.h. 1196. 
He never came to India. 

Azuri Razi (^5]^ lJj'^^X ^ native of 

Eei in Persia, was a celebrated poet who 
lived at the court of Sultan Mahmiid of 
Ghazni. On one occasion he received a 
present of 14,000 dirhams from the Sultan 
for a short panegyric. 

Azuri (Shaikh) {-^'^ cJ;*^ ' )> Isfaraem, 

whose original name was Jalal-uddm Hamza, 
was a pious Musalman and an excellent poet. 
He came to the Deccan from Persia in the 
reign of Sultan Ahmad Shah Wall Bah- 
mani, a.d. 1432, a.h. 835, and returned 
again to KJiurasan, his native country, where 
he died in the year a.d. 1462, a.d. 866, 
aged 82 lunar years. He is the author of 
several works, among which are Jaivdhir-ul- 
Asrdr, Tughrde Humdyun, and Samrdt 
Fruits, which consists of four books, viz., 
Almakri Tama, AJdeb-nd-dunia, Ajdeh-nl- 
'A/a and Sa'i-us-Safd. He also left a Diwan 
of 30,000 verses. He adopted the poetical 
name of 'Azuri, because he was born in the 
Persian month of Azur. His tomb is at 
Isfaraen, and was at the time of Daulat Shah 
so sacred, that convicts found an asylum there 
from the hands of justice. He is also the 
aiithor of another poetical work, called 
Bahman Ndina. 

\_Vide All Hamza.] 
'Azz-uddin Abdul Aziz {s^z ,.,.'-xll ]s. 

Ijj*,!'). Vide Izz-uddln. 





Baba (1-jIj), a Tuvkish imposter, who 

announced himself in a.d. 1260 as the 
messenger of God ; and collected a number 
of adherents, at whose head he laid waste 
Anatolia. He was at last overpowered and 
his sect dispersed. 

Baba Afzal Kashi (^1^ J-»i-J^ Ij^), 
an author. 

Baba Fighani (^^Ui bb), a poet of 

Persia who served under Sultan Ya'qiih, the 
son of Uzzau Hasan, and died in the year 
A.D. 1519, A.H. 92o, at Khurasan. He has 
left a Diwan containing 6U00 verses. 

Baba 'Isa ( *u._^_£ W^')) ^v 'isa 

Langotesband. His tomb is in Tatta in 
Sindli. The inscription gives the year a.d. 
1514, A.H. 920. 

Babak (ujCjb), the father of Ardsher 

Babakau, which see. 

Babak ((_iolj), an impostor, who first 

appeared in a.d. 816, a.h. 201, when he 
began to take upon him the title of a prophet. 
What his particidar doctrine was, is now 
unknown ; but his religion is said to have 
diifered from all others then known in Asia. 
He gained a great number of proselytes in 
'Azarbaijan and Persian 'Iraq, where he 
soon grew powerful enough to wage war 
with the khalif Al-Atamiin, whose troops 
he often beat, so that he was become ex- 
tremely formidable in the beginning of the 
khalif Al-Mu'ta'sim's reign. The general 
sent by the khalif to reduce him was Haidar- 
ibn-Kaus, surnamed Afshin {q.v.), a Turk by 
birth. By him Babak was defeated with 
prodigious slaughter, no fewer than 60,000 
men being killed in the first engagement. 
The next year, a.d. 835, a.h. 220, he 
received a still greater overthrow, losing 
100,000 men either killed or taken prisoners. 
By this defeat he was obliged to retire into 
tbe Gordian moimtaius, where he fortified 
himself in such a manner that Afshiu found 
it impossible to reduce him till the year a.d. 
837, A.H. 222, when he was forced to sur- 
render to Afshiu upon that genei-al promis- 
ing him ])ardon. But Atshin no sooner bad 
him in his power, than he first caused his 
hands and feet, and afterwards his head to 
be cut off. Babak had supported himself 

against the power of the kbalifs for upwards 
of 20 years, during which time he had cruelly 
massacred 250,000 people, it being his custom 
to spare neither man, woman, nor child of 
the Muhammadans or their allies. 

Baba Kaikhusiz {:^^.^ Ijb) (Father 

without Anxiety), a dervish who flom-ished in 
the reign of Miirad III. and was author of 
the '■Ahditllah-Numa. 

Baba Lai Guru {^^ Ji! IjL), a Hindu 

of the tribe of K]iattris, who was a Hindi 
poet, and flourished in the time of Jahangir. 
He was an inhabitant of Malwa. 

Baba Ratan (Ij. ^\ J. bL), sur- 
named Abii Raza, a pious Musalman, who 
is said, by Daulat Shah, to be one of the 
disciples of Jesus Christ, and that he lived 
to the advanced age of 1400 years, and died 
about the beginning of the 13th century of 
the Christian era. 

Babar Shah {^sl\ .~^j^ iL-l^jlj 

Jc.isS'*), surnamed Zahlr-uddln Mu- 
hammad, the ancestor of the Mu gh al 
emperors of Dehli, was the sixth in descent 
from Amir Taimur (Tamerlane). His father 
'Umar Shaikh Mu'za, was the son of Abu 
Sa'id Mirza, the son of Muhammad Mirza, 
the sou of Miranshah, the son of Amir 
Taimiir. His mother's name was Kutlngh 
Nigar Klianam, daughter of Yiinas Klian, 
king of Mughalistan and sister to Mahmiid 
Khan, a descendant of the famous Changez 
or Jenghiz Kliau. He was born on the 15th 
February, a.d. 1483, 6th Muharram, a.h. 
888, and succeeded his father in the govern- 
ment of Farghana, the capital of which is 
Andjan, in June, a.d. 1494, Ramazan, a.h. 
899. During eleven years he fought several 
battles with the Tartar and Uzbak princes, 
but was at last obliged to leave his country 
and fly towards Kabul, which place he con- 
quered, without opposition, together with 
Qandahar and Badakhshan. He reigned for 
22 vears over those countries before his con- 
quest of India. He then proceeded to Ilindii- 
stiin, slew Ibrahim Husain Lodi, tlie Pathau 
king of Dehli, iu a battle at Pauipat on 
Friday the 20th April, a.d. 1526, 7tli Uijuh, 
a.h. 932, and became the founder of tlio 
Mughal dynasty of India, which ended iu 
1867. Babar wrote liis own life — Tuzak- 




i-Bdhari — in the Turkisli Iniiijunce, with 
siicli I'lt'U'iuice and truth, tlmt the pertdnnance 
is uuiversally admired. It Mas traushited in 
the rei<;u of his graudsou Akbar, by Ahdiil 
Eahim Kliau Ishaukiluau iuto Persian, and 
recently iuto English from the Jaghatai 
TurkI, by Dr. Leyden and Mr. W. Erskine. 
This monarch ascended tlie throne in his 12th 
year, and reigned 38 Innar years, viz. : at And- 
jan 11 year's, at Kabul 22, and nearly o years 
in India, and died in Agra on Monday the 26th 
December, a.d. 1530, 6th Jamad I. a.h. 
937. He was at first buried in a garden on 
the left bank of the Jamna, then called the 
Niir Afshan, and now Eambagh, fi-om which 
place his remains were transported after six 
months to Kabul, where a splendid mansuleum 
■was built over his tomb by his great-great- 
grandson, the emperor Shah Jahaa, in a.d. 
1646. His tomb on a hill near the city, 
surrounded by large beds of flowers, com- 
mands a noble prospect. The chronogram 
of the year of his death was found to consist 
in the words " Bahisht-rozibad," or "May 
heaven be his lot." After his death, he 
received the title of " Firdaus-Makani." He 
was succeeded on the throne of Dehli by his 
eldest son, the emperor Humayuu. His three 
other sous were Mirza Kanu-an, Mirza 
'Askarl, and Mirza Ilandal. Fii-ishta says 
that Babar, who was much addicted to women 
and wine, on occasions when he was inclined 
to make merry, used to till a reservoir in a 
garden in the neighbourhood of Kabul with 
wine, over which was inscribed a verse to this 
purpose : 

Bright Spring blooms here, from day to day. 
Young girls stand by, old wine to pour ; 

Enjoy them, Babar, while you may — 
Your Spring, once gone, retm'us no more. 

Babar (Sultan) (^LkL^ ^jLj), sur- 

named Abiil Qasim, was the son of Mirza 
Baisanghnr aud grandson of Shahrukh Mirza. 
After the death of Mirza Ulagh Beg aud his 
son 'Abdiil Latif, he succeeded in January, 
A.D. 1452, Zil-hijja, a.h. 855, in murdering 
his own brother Sultan Muhammad and 
establishing himself in the government of 
Khurasan and the neighbouring countries. 
A few months before his death, the comet of 
A.D. 1456, A.H. 860, made its appearance 
and alarmed the inhabitants of Kliurasau. 
He died at Mashhad on Tuesday the 22nd 
March, a.d. 1457, 25th Eabi II. a.m. 861. 
After his death Khurasan was taken posses- 
sion of by Mirza Abii Sa'id, the grandfather 
of the emperor Babar Shfih of Dehli. 

Baba Soudai. Vide Souclal (Baba) 

Babawia (<*>jylj), or Bin Babawia, 

father of Ibn Babawia. Ilde Abii'l Hasan 
All Bin-al-Husdin at Knmarl. 

Badakhshi ( ^jL6^Si), a Persian poet 

who was a native of the province of Badiikh- 

shan. He flourished in the r. igu of the 
khallf Al-Muktafi, about the year a.d. 905, 
A.H. 294. His Diwun or collection of poems 
is written upon the fortuues of the great men 
of the court ; and he says that the varied 
scene in human affairs ought not to create 
surprise as we see that life is measured by an 
hour-glass, and that an hoiu* is always above 
and the other below in alternate succession. 

Badakhshi (Maulana) (lj\'j,* JL^Si 

^_\ii' /♦.-j), of Samarqand, flourished 

in the reign of Ulagh Beg Mirza, the son of 
Shahrukh Mirza, and is the author of a 

Badan Singh Jat {(JLiXp^ i^t^^ ^■^^), 

the son of Chiiraman Jat, a raja of Bhartpur 
and the founder of the fort at Dig. He was 
living at the time of Nfulir Shah's invasion 
of India in a.d. 1739, a.h. 1152. After his 
death his .son Siii-ajmal Jiit succeeded him. 
[ ]'ide Chiiraman Jat.] 

Badaoni (^JjU.j). Abdul Kadlr of 
Badaon {q.v.). 

Badi-uddin (,.,:> j>!^ p j^j). Vide Shah 

K^lSi\ cj 

Badi-uddin (Shaikh) {'^^ ,j j^H cX>) 
C *^" C. • ' 
of Saharanpur, was a disciple of Shaikh 
Ahmad Sarhindi. He died in the year a.d. 
1632, A.H. 1042, and lies buried in the yard 
of the masjid erected by him at Saharanpiir. 

Badi'-Uzzaman Mirza {^\^'\\ «_.<j»j 

ij^), was the eldest son of Sultan 

Husain Mirza, after whose death in a.d. 
1506, A.H. 912, he reigned conjointly with 
his younger brother, Muzaffar Husain Mirza, 
over Kluirasan. He was subsequently com- 
pelled by the victorious Uzbaks, and the 
usurpation of his brother, to take refuge in 
'Iraq; and in the year a.d. 1514, a.h. 920, 
went to the coiu't of the Ottoman Snltau, 
Salim I. where, after a few months' residence, 
he died of the plague. He was the last of 
the race of Tainuir who reigned in Persia. 
In a work called Ship of the Time, a Persian 
Anthology, there are to be found verses of 
the royal poet's composition. The following 
is a translation of a few lines — 

Since not for me thy cheek of roses shines, 
My bosom like the fading tulip pines ; 
Who in his burning heart conceals its flame, 
Aud mine, in absence, perishes the same. 
Pour wiue — and let me, as I drink, suppose 
I sec the colours of that blushing rose ; 
Pour wine — and let it borrow every hue 
Born in the tulip's petals wet with dew ; 
Till I believe thou may'st e'en yet be mine — 
And let me never wake, uor that sweet 
di'eam resign. 




Badr (,_\j), poetical title of Ganga 
Parsliad, a Hindu. 

Badr Chachi ( .rs-lr:.. ,cNj), surnamed 

Fakhr-uz-zamau, a celebrated poet of Chacli 
(the ancient name of Tilshkand^ , who flourished 
in tlie reign of Sultan Muhammad TuglihK] 
Shah, king of Dehll, and died some time 
after the year a.d. ISii, a.h. 745. 

Badr Muhammad C^cAa-J ,Sa.s^ jS)), 

of Dehll, author of the Persian Dictionary 
called Adiih-ul-Fuzald, dedicated to Qadr 
Kliim bin Dilawar Khan, written in a.d. 
1419, A.H. 822. 

Badr Shirwani (Maulana) (,j_j 

Xj'it,.-* J^.,-,-1), a Musalmaa seliolar 

and poet, who was contemporary with Katibi, 
Avho died in a.d. 1435. 

Badr (Pir). Vide Pir Badar. 
Badr-uddin Aiiital)i( ^-^-xij ^_ jJ^ i Jj), 

an historian, who relates that the Qazi Ibn- 
al-^lnglifdi, who died in a.d. 1231, a.h. 628, 
bequeathed a part of his vast collection of 
books to the library of the college founded in 
Cairo by Malik 'Ashraf Borsabai. 

Badr-uddin (Balbaki) {^sS\ jS-i 

^J^Jikxj), a Syriac physician, who 

wrote a book called Musarrah-al-Xafs. He 
lived in the 7th century of the Hi j rah. 

Badr - uddin, Isma'il - al - Tabriz! 

Arabian author, surnamed Bazil. 
Badr-uddin Jajurmi ( ...jj^Jl ,jk_j 

^ .==- W ), an author who died in 

a d. 1287, A.H. 686, in which year also died 
Majd-uddin Hamkar. He was a contem- 
porary of Shams-uddin Muhammad Sahib 
Diwan, and of Sa'di. 

Badr-uddin Lulu (J^J ^>_.^\ jS:), 

ruler of Mausal, who was living in the reign 
of Halakii Khan, the Tartar, in a.d. 1258, 
and was in his 90th year. 

Badr-uddin Malimud ( 


.W j.\^ 

J.^.s''*), known by the name of 

Ibn-al-(lazi Simawana, is the author of the 
Jdina^-al- h'usiilai)!, a collection of decisions 
on mercantile matters. He died a.d. 1420, 
A.H. 823. 

Badr-uddin Mahmud Bin Ahmad-al- 
'Aini (j^-^\ ^ L>^.^.s'* ^i^W j^^ 

z.^!^\), author of a commentary on 

the Kanz - ul - Daqdeq, called Jiamz - nl - 
Haqdeq. He died in a.d. 1451, a.h. 855. 
He is also the author of a collection of 
decisions entitled the Masael-al-Badria. 

Badr-uddin Muhammad Bin Abdur 
Rahman-al-Dairi i:^^^'* (^^-3^^ i-5o 

^..;jJ^ i^U.=- JLu£ ^0, author of a 

commentarv on the Kanz-id- Daqdeq, entitled 
Matlab-ul-Fdeq, which is much esteemed in 

Badr-uddin Shashi Shirwani (,jk_j 

754 or 854. 

l^ ^^.>-^^^), tlied in a.h. 

Badr-uddin Sufi ( i»^ ,.ii'^\ ,J^), 

author of the Bahr-ul-ITa)jdt (the sea of life), 
containing manv good miles for moral conduct. 

Badr-uddin (,.JJ^11 iJ^j), of Sarhind, 

author of a Persian work called Hazrat-ul- 
Quds, containing the miracles performed by 
Ahmad Sarhindi. 

Badr-un-nisa Begam (L^.iJl iA-j 
♦^-.j), the daughter of 'Alamglr, died 
in March, a.d. 1670, Zi-Qa'da, a.h. 1080. 

Badshah Bano Begam {y\j iLljlj 

♦-x.-j), one of the wives of the 

emperor Jahangir. She died in a.d. 1620, 
A.H. 1029. 

Badshah Begam (^^ il.<i)jl_j), wife 

» "■ 
of the emperor Jahangir, died in the vear 
A.H. 1029. 

Baghdad Khatun (^».jL>^ jlj^ij), a 

daughter of Amir Chobfin or Jovian, who 
governed the empire of the Tartars in the 
riign of Sultan Abii Sa'Id, the son of Aljaitii. 
Her father refusing to give her in marriage 
to that prince, because she had been betrothed 
to Shaika Hasan Jalaiar, was the occasion of 
the Amir's disgrace and death. Hasan, who 
had married her, afterwards repudiated her 
and gave her into the hands of Abu Sa'id. 
The prince publicly married her, and for some 
time was entirely governed by her ; but being 
at last disturbed', and dying a short time after 
in A.D. 1335, A.H. 73G", she was suspected to 
have poisoned him, and IJiiidu Khan, the 
successor of Abii Sa'id, put her to death. 




Baghuri (^.k;), or Baglishurl, sur- 
name of Muliamraad Lin Is-liaq, au Arabian 
author who wrote on moral subjects, died in 
the year a.d. 1280, a.u. 679. 

Bagliwi (,c.Aj). Vide Abu Muhammad 
FaraI-il)u-^Iasa'ud al-Bagbwi. 

Bahadur Ali Husaini (Mir) ( , jL.„j 
.^ ^i.-,A**=- X-^), chief Muush! of 

the college of Fort William, author of the 
Alci Uq U'nicU, or Indian Ethics^ translated 
from a Persian version, also of the Ka-sir 
Benazir, a prose translation of the enchanting- 
fairy tale entitled Sehr-ul-Baydn, commonly 
called Mir Hasan''s Jfasnawt. This latter 
work was written by the request of Dr. 
Gilchrist in a.d. 1802, a.h. 1217, and pub- 
lished at Calcutta in 1803. 

Bahadur Khan Faruqi i^^-si- i^-^l-W 
^, succeeded his father, Raja 

All Klian, in the government of IChandesh 
in A.D. 1596, A.H. 1005. When the emperor 
Akbar a few years afterwards arrived at 
Mando, Avith the avowed intention of in- 
vading the Deccan, Bahadur Klian instead 
of adopting the policy of his father in relying 
on the honour of Akbar, and going with 
au army to co-operate with him, shut himself 
up in the fort of Asir, and commenced 
preparations to withstand a siege. When 
Akbar heard of these proceedings he sent 
orders to the Ivhaukhauan 'Abdur Eahim 
Kliau aud the prince Dauial Mirza to con- 
tinue the siege of Ahniadnagar, while he 
himself marched to the south and occupied 
Burhanpur, leaving one of his generals to 
besiege Asir. The blockade of this fortress 
continued for a length of time, till it sur- 
rendered, and Bahadur Klian, the last of the 
Fariiqi dynasty, humbled himself before the 
throne of Akbar in the year a.d. 1599, a.h. 
1008, while the impregnable fortress of Asir 
Avith ten years' provisions and countless 
treasures fell into the hands of the conqueror. 

a\..J&jj), son of Daria Klian, was an 
amir of high rank in the reign of the emperor 
Shah Jahfin. He accompanied prince Aui-ang- 
zib to Qandahar, aud died there during the 
siege, on the 19th July, a.d. 1649, 19th 
Rajab, a.h. 1059. 

Bahadur Nizam Shah (*\li; ^i^-^^J 

iLi)), the last of the Nizam ShaliT 
kings of Ahniadnagar in the Deccau. On 
the death of his father, Ibrahim Nizam Shah, 
which took place in August, a.d. 1595, Zil- 
hijja, A.H. 1003, several factions arose in 
Ah'maduagar, each setting up a nominal 
sovereign. Mian Manju who possessed the 
city, and acknowledged the title of Bahadur 

Nizam Shah, then an infant, being besieged 
by his competitors, invited Sultan Miirad, 
sou of the emperor Akbar, then governor 
of Gujrat, to his assistance, for which he 
offered to become tributary to the jMughal 
power. Sultan jVIurad embraced the pro- 
posal, and arrived before Ahmaduagar with 
a considerable army. Mian Manjii by this 
time, having overcome his rivals, repented 
of his offers, and prepared to oppose the 
prince. Having committed the city to the 
charge of Nasir K]ian, his deputy, under 
the care of Chand Bibi, great aunt to Sultan 
Bahadur, he departed to raise levies and 
implore the assistance of Qutb Shah of Gol- 
kanda and 'Adil Shah of Bijapiir. Sultan 
Miirad besieged Ahmaduagar, on the 16th 
December, o.s. 1595, 23rd Rabi II. a.h. 
1 004, which was gallantly defended. Broaches 
were made, but were immediately repaired 
by the heroic conduct of Chiiud Bibi, who, 
covering herself with a veil, headed the 
troops. At length in the month of March, 
A.D. 1596, Rajab, a.h. 1004, supplies grow- 
ing scarce in the camp, and the allies of 
Bijapiir and Golkauda approaching. Sultan 
INIurad thought proper to accept of some 
offers of tribute from Chand Bibi, and raise 
the siege. Some money was paid, and the 
districts in Berar belonging to the Nizam 
Shahi government were ceded to the Mu glials. 
In the year a.d. 1600, beginning of a.h. 
1009, Ahmaduagar was taken by the Mnghals, 
and Bahfidnr Shiih with all the children of 
both sexes of the royal family were taken 
prisoners and sent to perpetual confinement 
in the fortress of Gwaliar. 

Bahadur Shah (^Ui^ il<i) j^^^-O, an 

Afghan, succeeded his father, Mahniiul Klian, 
as governor of Bengal in the time of Salim 
Shah, and became independent and reigned 
five j-ears. He was deposed in a.d. 1549, 
A.H. 956, and succeeded by another of the 
nobles of Salim Shah, named Sulaiman 

Bahadur Shah (iLl .ili.* ,.^) il-i ,jLj 

^\j^), the second son of MuzafFar 

Shah II. of Gtijrat. At the time of his 
father's death, he was absent at Jaunpiir, but 
when Mahmud Shah, his younger brother, 
ascended the throne of Gujrat, after the 
murder of his eldest brother, Sikaudar Shah, 
Bahadur returned from thence, and having 
deprived Mahmiid of his kingdom, ascended 
the throne on the 20th August, a.d. 1526, 
loth Zi-Qa'da, a.h. 932. He conquered 
Malwil on the 26tb Februarv, a.d. 1531, 
9th Shabiin, a.h. 937, and tlic king of that 
place. Saltan Mahmiid II. who was taken 
prisoner aud sent to Champanir, was put 
to death on the road. In the year a.d. 1536, 
AH. 942, ]\Ialwa was taken by the emperor 
niimaviin, aud Bahadur being defeated was 
obliged to rty towards Cambay, where, on 
his arrival, he heard that a fleet, in which 
there were between 4,000 or 5,000 Europeans, 
had arrived off' the Island of Diu. He im- 




mediately repaired thither with a reinforoe- 
ment of troops, and on his arrival there he 
ordered his barge and went to visit the 
admiral ■\nth the intention of killing him ; 
but perceiving that he was betrayed he arose 
and was attacked on all sides by the Portu- 
guese, when a soldier struck him over the 
head with a sword and threw him into the 
■water, where he was drowned. This event 
took place on the 14th February, a.d. 1537, 
3rd Ramazan, a.h. 943, and has been com- 
memorated in two Persian chronograms, 
comprising the numerals which form the date 
of the year when it occurred. Their meaning 
is this: "The Europeans were the slayers 
of Bahadur," and "The king of the land 
became a martjT at Sea." Bahadur Shah 
was 20 years of age when he ascended the 
throne, reigned 11 hmar years, and was slain 
at the age of 31. After his death his nephew 
Miran Muhammad Shah was raised to the 
throne of Gujrat. 

Bahadur Shah I. (t, 

surnamed Q,utb- 


uddin Shah 'Alam, formerly called prince 
Mu'azzim, was the second son of the emperor 
'Alamgir I. born at Burhanpiir in the Deccan 
on the 4th October, o.s. 1643, 30th Rajab, 
A.H. 1053. At the time of his father's death, 
which took place at Ahmadiibad, on the 21st 
February, o.s. 1707, 2Sth Zi-Qa'da, a.h. 
1118, he being then at Kabul, his younger 
brother, prince 'Azim, was proclaimed 
sovereign of all India in perfect disregard 
of the late emperor's will. Prince Mu'azzim, 
with better reason, assumed the crown at 
Kabul with the title of Bahadur Sliiih ; and 
both brothers prepared to assert their pre- 
tensions by force of arms. They assembled 
very large armies, and met at length between 
Dhaulpur and Agra. A bloody battle ensued 
on Sunday the 8th June, o.s. 1707, IStli 
Rabi' I. a.h. 1119, in which prince 'Azim 
and his two grown-up sons, Bedar Bnklit 
and Walajah, were killed. Bahadur Slifdi 
reigned nearly five lunar years, and died at 
Lahore on Monday the 18th February, o.s. 
1712, 21st Mubarram, a.h. 1124, in the 
71st lunar year of his age. He was buried 
in the environs of Dehli, near the tomb of 
Khwaja Qutb-uddin, where he had built 
dm-iug his life a mosque entirely of white 
marble named Moti Masjid. His tomb is 
also biult of the same stone. He received 
the title of " Khuld Manzil," i.e., "May 
his mansion be in paradise," after his death. 
He left four sons, viz., Ma'iz-uddin Jahandar 
Shah, Azim-ush-Shan, Rafi-ush-Shan, and 
Jahan Shah, among whom a battle ensued, 
■wherein the three latter brothers were killed, 
and Jahandar Shuli ascended the throne. 

Bahadur Shah II. ( Jii/«.!..l iLi ,jLj 

iS^.s:^ iji-^^ — V*^)) the last king of 

Dehli, wliose title in full was Abu'l Muzaffar 
Siraj-uddin IMuliammad Bahadur Slifih, a 

lineal descendant from Amir Taimiir, the son 
of Akbar Shah II. on whose death he suc- 
ceeded him on the 28th September, a.d. 
1837, 28th Jumada II. a.h. 1253. He was 
born on Tuesday the 24th October, a.d. 
1775, 28th Shaban, a.h. 1189; and Abii'l 
ISIuzafPar is the chronogram of his birth. 
His mother's name was Lai Bai. A stipend 
or pension of one lakh of rupees monthly 
was allowed him by the British Government. 
He was an excellent Persian scholar and an 
elegant Urdii poet, and Zafar was his poetical 
name. His Diwan or Book of Odes was 
printed some years ago at Dehli. He was 
supposed to be the principal instigator of 
the mutiny of the native troops throughout 
India in a.d. 1857, and was deposed and 
tried, but his life was spared. In October, 
A.D. 1858, he was sent down to Calcutta, 
from which place he embarked on board 
H.M. ship Megara on Saturday the 4th 
December, a.d. 1858, tor Rangoon, accom- 
panied by two of his wives, a son and a 
grandson. He died there a few years later, 
and thus ended the royal race of Taimiir 
in India. His sons Mirza Mughal and Mirza 
Khwaja Siiltan, and a grandson named Mirza 
•Abii Bakr, who were known to have taken 
a prominent part in the atrocities attending 
the insurrection, were captured on the 22nd 
September, a.d. 1857, at the tomb of Huma- 
yiin, and shot on the spot by Major Hodson. 
During the mutiny in a.d. 1857, Bahadur 
Shah had stnick a new coin with the following 
inscription : — 


iS-^ i^ 



li iL 


i) .jl^,J ^l^\ r-)/-* 

Siriij-ud-dln, that hero bold. 
Adorned his triumph with this gold. 

Bahadur Singh (j.C:^^jl^j), the only- 
surviving son of Raja Man Singh Kachwaha. 

Bahadur Singh Kuchwaha ( .jL^ 

ljfc^»^ (Ui^), brother to Sakat Singh, 

died of hard drinking in the year a.d. 1621, 
A.H. 1030. 

Bahadur Singh (Rao). Tide Rao 

Bahadm* Singh. 

Bahai (jL^,_j). Vide Baha-uddin 

Bahar (i^j), poetical name of Tek 
Chand, which see. 

Bahar Bano (^Ij .L^-j), Daulat-im 

Jsisa, and Begam Sultan, daughters of the 
emperor Jahaugir. All of them died in their 





Baliar Bano (^.jb jl^^), daugliter of 

the emperor Jaliauoir ; married to Priuce 
Taliiiiuras, the sou of Prince Danial, iu their 

Bahar Bano Begam (^L.J yb ^l^^), 

aiidtliir daui;-hter of Jahaiinlr, was married 
to Talimur, a sou of priuce Dauial. 

Baha-uddin (,,,jj,n *Lj), a learned 

Arabian, known as a favourite of Sultan 
Salah-uddin (Saladdin) and the historian of 
that prince's life. He flourished about the 
year a.d. 1190, a.h. 586. An edition of his 
work appeared at Leyden in a.d. 1755. 

Baha-uddin (^^^^J:> ^) ;j^t-.;-0^ H^^ 

^^.;^1), the son of Shams-uddln, the 

son of Fakhr-uddin. His father was the first 
king of the second branch of the Sultans of 
Ghor. Baha-uddTn was the second king, and 
is said to have reigued 14 years. Imam 
Faklir-uddm RazI, who flourished in his 
time and died iu a.d. 1210, a.h. 606, dedi- 
cated the work called Risala Ha'njat or book 
of geometry to him. After the death of 
Baha-uddiu, his son Jalal-uddin succeeded 
him. He was slain by Sultan Muhammad 
of Khwarizm, and appears to have been the 
last of this branch. 

-uddin (^l^i..-! ^\^ ^i^W .\,), 

governor of Isfahan, and author of the Mun- 
takhab-ul-Akhbdr, an abridged history of the 
patriarchs and prophets, also of IMuhammad 
and his descendants, with a good description 
of the cities of Mecca and Madiua. He 
flourished about the year a.d. 1271, a.h. 

Baha-uddin 'Amili (Shaikh) ('L^.J 

^-i) ^c^*^-^ e;:'.-'*^^)' ^ native of Amul 

in Persia, and son of Shaikh Husain. His 
poetical name is Bahai. He is the author 
of several works, one of which is a Masuawi 
or poem called Ntln-wa-llidwa (bread and 
pud(hug). He flourished in the time of Shah 
'Abbas the Great, king of Persia ; died at 
Isfahan on Tuesday the 21st August, o.s. 
1621, 12th Shawwal, a.h. 1030, and was 
buried agreeably to his request at Mashhad. 
Imad-ud-daula Abii Talib, the prime minister 
of Shah 'Abbas, ftuuid the chronogram of 
the year of his death in the words "Shaikh 
Paha-uddTn AVae." Besides the above-men- 
tiiiued Masuawi and many Arabic works, he 
has left a Diwan and a Kashknl, or Adversaria. 

Baha-uddin Muhammad ( .j jiJl L,.) 
ir*'*' J^l.:^ ^A-sr^), Jalal or Jalll 

(Shaikh) of 'Amil. This person is mentioned 
by H. M. Elliot, Esq., in his ITistorinns of 
India, and appears to be the same with the 


preceding. He was a Persian mathematician, 
says he, and lived in the reign of Shah 'Abbas 
the Great. He was celebrated among his 
countrymen for a supposed peculiar power 
which he possessed over the magi and writers 
of talismans, and was one of the most pious 
devotees of his time. His works on various 
subjects are much read in Persia, particularly 
one entitled Kashkol, or the Beggar's AVallet, 
being an universal miscellany of literature. 
The Ja'ma^-ul-Abhilsi, a concise aud com- 
prehensive treatise on Shia law iu twenty 
books, is generally considered as the work of 
Baha-uddin Muhammad 'Amili, but that 
lawyer only lived to complete the first Ave 
books, dedicating his work to Shiih 'Abbas. 
The remaining fifteen books were subsequently 
added by Nizam Ibn-Husain-al-SawaT. 

Baha-uddin Nac[shband (Khwaja) 

iAs>'\^:>^ S:^^AJ fjl^\ ^^), a famous 

learned Musalman, who died on Monday the 
1st March, a.d. 1389, 2nd llabi I. a.h. "791, 
and was buried at Bukhara. 

Baha - uddin Naqshband (Shaikh) 

(i;-:?*^ ;SU^J3J (^.|J*j1 L.J ), a celebrated 

saint and the founder of an Order of Siifis, 
distinguished by the title of Naqshbandi. 
He is the author of the Haiat JS'ania, au 
esteemed moral poem. He died at Ilarafa 
in Persia, a.d. 1453, a.h. 857. He appears 
also to be the author of a work on Siifiism 
called Dalil-ul-^Ashi(p)i. 

Baha-uddin Sam (^L ^Ja!1 \^i), son 

of Ghayas-ttddin Mahmiul, king of GluJr aud 
Ghazni. He succeeded his father in a.d. 
1210, A.H. 607, at the age of fourteen years, 
but was, after three months, defeated by Ala- 
uddin Atsiz, son of Jahau Soz, who reigned 
four years iu Glior aud Ghazni, aud fell in 
battle against Taj -uddin Elduz in a.d. 1214. 
Baha-uddin Sam was, after his defeat, taken 
captive by the governor of Hiriit, and sent to 
Khwarizm Shah, who at the time of the 
invasion of Chingiz ]<han, threw him, along 
with his brother, into a river, Mliere both 
were drowned. 

Baha-uddin Shirazi (^_.iJkJl 1_j._j 
t_f j'j.-.-i)), a celebrated KazI of Shiraz, 
who died in the year a.d. 1380, a.h. 782. 

Baha-uddin Wald (Maulana) (l_^_j 
IjD^^ aL ^|jkSO, a native of Balkh 

and the father of the celebrated Jalal-uddin 
Maulawi Riimi. He flourished and enjoyed 
distinguished honours in the time of Sultan 
Muhammad, surnamed Qutb-uddln of KliwSr- 
izm. He was an enthusiastic follower of the 
doctrine of the Siifis, and became so celebrated 
as a preacher and expounder that people 
flocked from all parts of Persia to hear him 
discourse. In the latter part of his life he 




left his native country and went and dwelt at 
Qonia (Iconium) in Asiatic Turkey, where he 
died about the year a.d. 1230 or 1233, A.n. 
628 or 631, and his son succeeded him as 
the head of the sect. 

Baha-uddin Zikaria (Shaikh) (l_^,_j 

^-r?'-' W>0 cT""^-^^''' ^ Muhammatlan 

saint of Multan, was the son of Qutb-uddiu 
Muhammad, the son of Kamal-uddin QureshT. 
He was born at Kotkaror in Multan in a.d. 
1 1 7 , A . H . 5 6 5 . After his studies he j oiu-neyed 
to Baghdad and became a disciple of Shaikh 
Shahab-uddln Suharwardi. He afterwards 
returned to Multan, where he became intimate 
with Farid-uddin Shakarganj. He died at 
Multan on the 7th November, a.d. 1266, 
7th Safar, a.h. 665, aged 100 lunar years, 
and is still considered one of the most revered 
saints of India. He left enormous wealth to 
his heirs. His sou Shaikh Sadr-uddin died 
at Multan in a.d. 1309, a.m. 709. 

Baha-uddin (^s\\ l^,j) (Badi'-uddin 

or Bogo-neddin), a Muhammadan saint whose 
tomb is in the neighbourhood of Bukhara, 
called Mazari Bogo-neddin. During the 
invasion of the Eussians at that place, it is 
said that a book, written in verse in the 
Persian language, was found in the tomb of 
this saint. It is said in this book that in the 
82nd year of the Hijrah, a.d. is 65, the 
Christians will rush upon Tashkand like a 
river. In the 84th year, a.d. 1867, they will 
occupy Samarkand, and sweep it away like a 
prickly thorn. In the 88th year, a.d. 1871, 
the Christians will take Bokhara, and con- 
vert it into a level like the steppe. In the 
year 90th but one, a.d. 1872, the Khwariz- 
mians will run out of their own accord to 
meet them like childi'en. 

Bahishti (^A^^j), poetical name of 

Shaikh Bamzan, the son of 'Abdul IMuhsiu, 
an author, who died a.d. 1571, a.h. 979. 

Bahjat (c:^.^:-';':'), or Behjat, author of 

a Diwan which contains chicily Ghazals, and 
at the end a very silly Qaseada in praise of 
Europeans. He was living in Lucknow in 
a.d. 1797, A.H. 1212. 

Bahlol ( J^^j), who lived during the 

reign of the khalif Hariin-al-Eashid, was 
one of those people who pass amongst the 
^Musalmans either for saints or madmen. 
Although surnamed Al-Majniin, or the Fool, 
he was possessed of a great deal of wit. 

Bahloli (^SjL^j), a poet, whose Dlwan 
was foimd in the Library of Tipii Sultan. 

Bahlol Lodi (Sultan) (^-jJ , 1..L-J 
jjlbl-j), a king of DchlT of the tribe 
of Afghans called Ludi. His father, Mfdik 

Kalii, was the son of Ibrahim Kliau or Malik 
Bahram, governor of Multan. In the year 
A.D. 1450, A.H. 854, Bahlol, during the 
absence at Badilon of Sultan Ala-uddin, son 
of Muhammad Shah, took possession of 
Dehli. He, however, gave place to the 
name of the Sultan for some time in the 
khutba ; but when that prince promised to 
cede to him the empire, upon condition that 
he wotdd permit him to live quietly in the 
possession of Badaon, Sultan Bahlol im- 
mediately threw the name of 'Ala-uddin out of 
the khutba and caused himself to be crowned 
on the 18th January, a.d. 1452, 25th Zil- 
hijja, a.h. 855. Bahldl reigned 38 lunar 
years, 7 months and 7 days, and died on the 
1st July, A.D. 1489, 2nd Sha'ban, a.h. 894. 
He is buried at Dehli near the tomb of 
Nasir-uddin Mahmiid, surnamed Chiragh 
Dehli, a Musalman saint, and was succeeded 
by his sou Nizam I£han, who assumed the 
title of Sikandar Shah. 

The folloiving is a list of the hiugs of Behll of 
the tribe of Lodl A fgh ans : 
Bahlol Lodi. 

Sikandar Shah, son of Bahlol. 
Ibrahim Husain, son of Sikandar, who was 
the last of this race, and was defeated and 
slain by Babar Shfdi. 

Bahman ( .^^), an ancient king of 

Persia, better known in history by his title 
of Ardisher Darazdast, which see. 

Bahmani, name of a dynasty in the 

Deccan, founded by an Afghan adventurer, 
'Ala-ud-din Hasan Gango, {q.v.), a.d. 1347, 
a.h. 748. 

Bahman Yar Khan (^l>- .b ^^^^.j), 

son of Shaista Khan and grandson of Asaf 
Khan, a nobleman of the coiu-t of the emperor 

Bahram I. (^^^j) (Yarancs of the 

Greeks), the fourth king of the Sasanian 
race, was the son of Iliu'niuz (Horraisdas), 
whom he succeeded to the Persian throne in 
the year a.d. 273. He was a mild and 
munificent prince, and much beloved by his 
subjects. The most remarkable act of his 
reign was the execution of the celebrated 
Mani (Manes), the toimder of the sect of the 

[ Vide Mani. Bahram reigned only three 
years and three months, after which he died 
and left the crown to his son Bahram II. 
■ about the year a.d. 270.] 

Bahram II. (a|.^,j), (some authors 

term him the fourth of that name), was the 
son of Bahram I. whom lie .succeeded to the 
crown of Persia in a.d. 276. He reigned 17 
years, and after his demise was succeeded by 
ivis son Bahram III. about the year a.d. 




Bahrain III. {^\j^,i) succeeded his 

father, Bahram II. to the Persian throne about 
the year a.d. 293, reigned only four months, 
and was succeeded by his brother, Narsi or 

Bahrain IV. {^\j^j), the twelfth king 

of Persia of the Sasanian race, succeeded his 
brother Shahpiir (Sapores) (q.v.) about the 
year a.d. 390, and is clistiuguished from other 
princes of the same name by liis title of Kirraan- 
shah, which he received "from having, diu'ing 
the reign of his brother, filled the station of 
ruler of tlie province of Kirmau ; and he has 
perpetuated it by founding the city of Kirman- 
sliah. He reigned, according to some accounts, 
eleven years ; and to others fifteen. He was 
killed Ijy an arrow when endeavouring to 
quell a tumult in his army, and was succeeded 
by Yezdijard I. who is called Isdigerdes by 
the Greek authors. 

Bahram V. i^^j.^,:) (or Yaranes V.), 

the fourteenth king of Persia of the Sasanian 
dynasty, who is known, in Persian history, 
by the name of Bahram G5r. He was the 
son of Yezdijard I. whom he succeeded to 
the throne of Persia in a.d. 420. The word 
Gor signifies a wild ass : an animal to the 
chase of which this monarch was devoted ; 
and it was in pursuit of one of these that he 
lost his life ; having suddenly come upon a 
deep pool, into which his horse plunged, and 
neither the aniinal nor his royal rider were 
ever seen again. The first rhythmical com- 
position in the Persian language is recorded 
to have been the prodiiction of Bahram and 
his mistress Dilaram. Bahram visited India, 
was contemporary with Theodosius the 
emperor of Constantinople, and ruled Persia 
eighteen years. He died in a.d. 438, and 
was succeeded by his son Yezdijard II. 

Bahram (^L^j), an author who wrote 

the History of the Parsis of Bombay in a.d. 
1599, entitled Qis.sai SuiijilH. 

Bahram Chobin (^-.^'^^ f*l;-WX or 

Jovian, a general of Ilnrmuz III. king of 
Persia, whom he deposed ; he reigned eight 
months, about the year a.d. 590. 
\_Vidv Ilurmuz III.] 

Bahram Mirza (\j^ (♦Ia'-^' ^°^ °^ 
Shah Sama'il Safawl. He was a good poet 
and died in the prime of youth in a.d. 1550, 
A.H. 957. 

Bahram Saqqa {i^'i^ c\-^^)^ ^ poct, 

was of Turkish extraction and belonged to 
the Bayat tribe. It is said that tlu; prophet 
Kliizr appeared to him, and a divine light 
filled him. He renounced the world and 
became a water-carrier. 

\\i(ic Ahi Translation, i. p. 581.] 

Bahram Sarakhsi ( 

V*^ f*y1'^ ' ^ 

Prosodian of Sarakhs, a town between 
Naishapui' and Marv. 


Bahram Shah (i'ji) /♦U^.-j), son 

Sultan Masa' lid III. ascended the throne of 
GhaznT by the assistance of Sultan Saujar 
liis uncle, after his brother Arsalan Shah, 
who was put to death in a.d. 1118, a.h. 512. 
Bahram Shah, after a prosperous reign of 
35 hmar years, w^as defeated in a.d. 1152, 
A.H. 547, by 'Ala-uddin Hasan Ghoi-i, and 
fled to Lahore, where he died the same year, 
and his son Khusro Shah succeeded him in 
the government of Labor.;. The poets Shaikh 
Sa'nai and Abii'l Majd-bin-'Adam-al-Ghaz- 
nawl flouiished in the time of Bahram Shah. 


Bahram Shah (^1,^ /♦^.^.-O, surnam 

]\ra'iz-uddin,wasthesonof Sultan II ukn-uddin 
Fn-riz. He was raised to the tlirimc of 
Hehli after the murder of Sultana Razia the 
queen, on Monday the 21st April, a.d. 1240. 
He reigned little more than two years, and_ 
was slain by the instigation of Mahzab-uddin 
wazir, aboiit the 15th May, a.d. 1242, when 
Siiltau 'Ala-uddin Masa'iid, another son of 
Siiltfin Altimsh, was raised to the throne. 
I'irishta erroneously says tli;it Bahram was 
the sou of Altimsh and brother of Sultana 

Bahramand Khan (^,l>. i.\:»,«i-^j), 

son of Mirza Bahram, and one of the emperor 
'Alamgir's oldest nobility and his friend. 
After the death of Riih-ullah-Khau, he was 
raised to the post of Mir BakhsliI or chief 
paymaster by the emperor in a.d. 1692, a.h. 
1103, and died in the Deccan on the 17ih 
October, o.s. 1702, 5th Jumada II. a.h. 1114. 
He was buried at his own request in a small 
tomb at Bahadiu'gurh. He was succeeded 
in his office by Zulfiqar Kliiin Nasrat Jang, 
who notwithstanding this appointment con- 
tinued in the command of the army against 
the Mai'hattas in the Deccan. 

Bahr-ul Hifz (lii.J\ ^c^), (or the Sea 

of IMemory,) is the title of Abii L^sman-bin- 
'Amru, who wrote a book on the mann(rs 
and qualities of princes. He died a.d. 869, 
a.h. 255. 


Bahu Beg-am (^>..^j »j^j), the m 

of Nawah Asf-ud-daula of Lucknow. She 
died on the 28th December, 1815. She was 
one of the " Begams " on ill-treat- 
m;nt was based a charge in the impeach- 
ment of Warren Hastings. 

Baian {\.^S), the poetical name of 

Khwaja Ahsan-nddin or Ahsan-ullah Khan 
of Agra, wlio was living at Dehli in a.d. 
17G0J A.H. 1174. 




Baiazid I. (Sultan) (^ILL- A.j j. jIj), 

whom vre call B.ijazet, siu'uamed Iklerim, or 
Lightning, succeeded his father, Miirad I. 
(Aniurath) in a.d. 1389, A.n. 791, as Sultan 
of tlie Turks. He caused his ekler brother 
Ya'kiib, his rival for the throne, to be 
strangled, an act of barbarity which since his 
time prevailed as a custom at the Turkish 
court. He conquered Bulgaria, Macedonia, 
and Thessaly ; and after he had made the 
emperor of Constantinople tributary to his 
power, he marched to attack Tamerlane in 
the east. He was, however, totally defeated 
near Angora on Friday the 21st July, a.d. 

1402, 19th Zil-bijja,"A.H. 804, and taken 
prisoner ; and when the proud conqieror 
asked him what he would have done with 
him if he had obtained the victory, Baiazid 
answered that he would have confined him 
in an iron cage. " Such then shall be thy 
fate," rejoined Tamerlane, and ordered him 
to be carried about with his camp in an iron 
cage. Baiazid died on the 8th March, a.d. 

1403, 13th Sha'ban, a.h. 805, at Antioch 
in Pisidia during his coniiucmeut in Taimur's 
camp. His son Miisa, who was with his 
father at the time of his death, brought his 
remains to Brusa and buried them there. 
During his (Miisa' s) absence in the camp, his 
brother Sulaiman had ascended the throne. 

Baiazid II. (Sultan) (^IkU wV.olj), 

emperor of Tiu'key, succeeded his father 
Muhammad II. to the throne of Constanti- 
nople in May, a.d. 1481, Eabi I. a.h. 886. 
He extended the bormdaries of his kingdom ; 
and obliged the Venetians to sue for peace. 
His reign was distracted by intestine discord, 
and he fell by the perfidy of his son Sallm I. 
who caused him to be poisoned in a.d. 1512, 
a.h. 918, in the 60th year of his age and 
31st of his reign. He was a man of un- 
common talents, and did much for the 
improvement of his empire and the promotion 
of the sciences. 

Baiazid Ansari (^j[^\ J^j jA'), the 

Afghan Apostle, called Pir Roshan, founder 
of the Suli sect called " Roshauia," or "the 
enlightened." He had established amid the 
mountains of Afghanistan a temporal power 
upon the authority of his .spiritual character, 
which enabled him and his successors to 
disturb the trauqidlity of the empire of DehlT, 
when, under the celebrated Akbar, it had 
reached the very zenith of its power. 

Baiazid Bustami (Khwaja) (j^j* -L) 
t)v:s-'^d>. ^,-«lkA**j), the famous ascetic 

of Bustam, whose original name was Taifuri ; 
he is therefore sometimes called Baiazid 
Taifuri-al-Bustami. His father's name was 
' Isa - ibn - Adam - ibn - ' Isa - ibn - 'All. His 
grandfather was a Gabr or magian, but 
became a convert to Islamism. These two 
brothers, Adam and 'All, were, like himself, 
devout ascetics, but in an inferior degree. 

He was born in the year a.d. 777, a.h. 160, 
lived to a great age, and died between the years 
A.D. 845 or 848, a.h. 231 or 234," but 
according to Ibn-l\halikan his death took 
place in a.d. 875 or 878, a.h. 261 or 264. 
lie is saiil to have been a contemporary of 
Ahmad Kliizroya, who died a.h. 240. 

Baiazid Khan (^U- '^jU}^), Faujdar 

of Sarhiud, who was commanded by, the 
emperor Farrukb-siyar to punish the Sikhs, 
who had risen in rebellion ; he took the field, 
but was assassinated in his tent when alone 
at evening prayers, by a Sikh commissioned 
for that purpose by 13auda their chief, and 
the murderer escaped unhurt. This circum- 
stance took place about the year a.d. 1714, 
a.h. 1126. 

Baiazid (Sultan) (,^1.1-1.^ jk.jJjL>). 

There is a cenotaph at Chatigaon (Chitta- 
gong), called the liauza of Sultan liaiazid. 
It is related that he was born at Bustam in 
Klaurasan, of which coiuitry he was king ; 
but abandoning regal pomp and cares for the 
tranquility of the ascetic life, he came with 
twelve attending disciples to Chatigaon. 
Their arrival was promptly opposed by the 
king of the fairies and the attendant genii, 
who desired them forthwith to depart. Sultan 
Baiazid, with feigned humility, entreated to 
be allowed to remain that night and to occupy 
only as much ground as could be illumined by 
a single lamp, called in Bengali chati or 
chat ; on obtaining their consent, he kindled 
from his tu'ine a lamp of such ratUance, that 
its light extended to Tik Naof, a distance of 
120 miles, and scorched the temfied genii, 
who fled from its flame in dismay. In 
commemoration of this event, the place was 
named Chatigram, in conamon parlance, 
Chatgaon, signifying the village of the lamp. 
This insidt and breach of confidence led to 
implacable war on the part of the genii, 
whom Sultan Baiazid, in various conflicts, 
ch'ove from the field ; and in his strenuous 
exertions dropped a ring where the cenotaph 
now stands — his Karanphiil, or ear-ring, fell 
in the river, which thence was named the 
" Karanphuli " ; and a saukh, or shell, 
di'opped from his hand into the other stream, 
from which it derived the name of Sankhautl. 
Sultan Baiazid then became a Gorchela {i.e. 
did penance in the tomb) for 12 years : after 
endowing it with lands to keep it in repair 
and defray the expenses of pilgrims and the 
twelve disciples, he proceeded to Makanpiii', 
and was succeeded by his disciple Shah, M'ho, 
in the hope of an eternal reward, performed 
the penance of .standing for 12 years on one 
leg, after which he also proceeded to Makan- 
piir ; leaving the cenotaph under the charge 
of Shah Pir, an attenchng discijde of Baiazid. 
This place was therefore in after ages held iu 
great repute, andvi.sited by numerous pilgrims 
from distant parts. It is situated on a hill, 
ascended by a flight of steps, inclosed by a 
wall about 30 feet square and 15 high, with 
mitred battlements, and a pillar rising two 
feet above them at each angle, similar to the 




biiildinj^s of the time of Akbar. The toml), 
about 12 feet by 9, is in the centre of tlie 
area, with some shells and corals deposited at 
its head. 

Baiazid Taifuri-al-Bustami (j..jj_)lj 

^li2Au.Jl f_f^^kJc), Vide ErdazTtl 

Baidu Khan (^l^ ^'^-.^X the son of 

Turaghiii and .trrandson of Ilalaku Kliau, 
succeeded Kaikhatii or Kaijaptii Klifm in 
January, a.d. 1295, Safar, a.h. 694, and 
enjoyed the crown of Persia only seven 
months : he was dethroned and slain by his 
nephew, Ghazan Klian, the son of Arghiin 
Klian ; who was compelled to attack his 
uncle and sovereign to preserve himself from 
destruction. This event took place in October 
the same year, Zil-hijja, a.h. 694. In 
English Histories he is called Batii. In 
1235, at the head of half a million of 
Keptchak Mongols, he conquered tlie east 
of Russia, destropng Riazan, Moscow, 
yiaudimir and other towns. 

Baihaqi ( L^,^), siirnamed Abu'l 

Fazl, and whose proper name is Abii Bakr 
Ahmad, was the son of Husaiu Baihaqi. He 
is the author of the works in Arabic called 
Sunaii Kubra and Siighra and of one 
entitled Sha^h-ul-Imfm, He died in the 
year a.d. 1066, a.h. 458. His collection of 
Traditions is also of the highest authority. 

Baiju (^.sa„<), one of the most cele- 
l)rated songsters of India, besides Naek, 
Gopal, and Fansin. 

Baiqara Mirza (Sultan) (^:,-« l^.iL'l.j 

(jjlLLc), the son of Umar Shaikh 

Mirza, the second son of Amir TaimHr. 
Baiqara succeeded his brother as governor 
of Persia in a.d. 1394, a.h. 79(5. His 
eldest brother, PTr ]\Iuhammad Jaliangir, 
was slain in a.d. 1405, a.h. 808. Baiqara, 
Mirza was slain by his uncle Shahrukh 
Mirza in a.d. 1416, a.h. 819 ; he left a 
son named Jlansur, who became the f:ither 
of Sultan Husaiu Mirza, surnamed Abii'l 
Ghazi Bahadur. 

Bairam (^L-.j), sometimes erroneously 

written by us for Bahram. It is the T. 
name of the planet Mars. 

Bairam Beg (< t^_ J ^) was father 

of Munim Klian. Tlie latter was a grandee 
in Humayun's Court. 

[Vide Aln Translation, vol. i. p. 317.] 

Bairam Khan {^j>. ,^^j-^-(), styled 

Khan Klianan, or Lord of lords, was one of 
the most distinguished olhcers of the Mu gh il 

court. He was a Turkman and descended 
from a line of ancestors who served for many 
generations in the family of Taimiir. Bairam 
accompanied the emperor Humayun from 
I'crsia to India, and on the accession of 
his sou Akbar, he was honoured with the 
title of Kliiln Kjianan and the othce of prime 
minister ; and had the whole civil and mili- 
tary powers vested in his hands. When 
Akbar in a.d. 1558, a.h. 965, thought he 
was capable of acting for himself, he dismissed 
Bairam Klian from the wizarat. Bairam at 
first had recourse to rebellion, but being un- 
successful, was compelled to throw himself on 
the clemency of his sovereign, who not only 
pardoned him but assigned to him a pension 
of 50,000 rupees annually for his support. 
Bairam soon after took leave of the emperor 
with the design of making a pilgrimage to 
Mecca, and had proceeded to Gujrat in order 
to embark for Mecca, but was slain by 
one Mubiirik Klian Lohani, whose father 
Bairam Klian had slain in battle with his 
own hand during the reign of the emperor 
Humayun. This event took place on Friday 
the 31st January, a.d. 1561, 14th Juuiada I. 
A.H. 968. He was at first buried near the 
tomb of Shaikh Ilisam at Gujrat, but after- 
wards his remains were transported to 
Mashhad and bmied there. He is the author 
of a Diwau. 

Baizawi (Qazi) ( ,JIj ^^VaS), the 

surname of Nasir-uddin Abu'l Kliair Abd- 
ullali-ibu-Umar al Baizawi. He was a 
native of Baiza, a village of Shiraz, on 
wliieh account he is styled Baizawi. He 
held the office of Qazi or Judge of the city 
of Shiraz for a considerable time, and died 
at Tabriz or Tauris in the year a.d. 1286, 
A.H. 685, or as others say in a.d. 1292, 
A.H. 691. He is the author of the well- 
known Commeutary on the (iuriin called 
TdJ'slr Baizawi, wliich is also called Anwdr- 
til-Tanzil, and Asrdr-ul-Tcnvll. Some say 
that he is also the author of a history entitled 
Nizdmut Tawarlkh, but the author of this 
work is said by others to be Abu Sa'id 
Baizawi, which see. 

Baisanghar (Mirza) {^\j-* j«--^. 

son of Mirza Shahrukh, the son of Amir 
Taimiir. He was a learned and noble prince, 
a great protector of letters and learned men. 
He himself wrote six different hands, com- 
posed verses in the Persian and Turkish 
languages, and constantly had in his employ- 
ment forty copyists for transcribing MSS. 
He was born in the year a.d. 1399, a.h. 
802, and died before his father in a.d. 1434, 
A.u. 837, at Herat, aged 35 lunar years. 

Baisanghar (Mirza) (1; .^ .k^}^), 

son of Sultau Husaiu Mirza of Herat. He 
Avas killed by Kliusro Shah, king of Qundaz. 

Bajazet, name of several Turkish 
emjierois spelt so in English, being a cor- 
ruption of Baiazid, which see. 





Baji Bai ( Jb js^r^). also called 
Bija Bai, which see. 

Baji Rao I. (Peshwa) 0^j!L^j L\j j>'[:), 

the sou of Bahxji Eao Bishwauath Peshwa, 
whom he succeeded iu October, a.d. 1720. 
He was the ablest of all the Brahman dynasty, 
and perhaps of all the Marhatta nation, except 
Sewaji. He died on the 28tli April, o.s. 
1740, 12th Safar, a.h. 1153, and left three 
sons, I'h. Balaji Baji Rao, who succeeded him 
as I'eshwa ; Raghnuath Eao, commonly called 
Efighoba, who was at one time much con- 
nected with the Ena^lish, and was the father 
of the last Peshwa Baji Eao II. ; and Sham- 
sher Bahadur, to whom (though an illegitimate 
son by a ]\Iuhammadan woman, and brought 
up iu his mother's religion), he left all his 
possessions and pretensions iu Buudelkhaud. 

Baji Rao II. O^jL^ '^\j ,c=r^^X the 

last Peshwa, was the eldest son of Eaghoba 
or Eaghuuath Eao of ambiguous memory. 
He succeeded Madho Eao, the infant Peshwa. 
who died suddenly iu October, a.d. 1795, 
During the reign of Madho Eao he aud his 
brother Chimnaji were coufiued in the fort 
of Juneir, near Piiua, aud after his death 
Chimnaji was fiu'tively invested, but he was 
soon after deposed and Baji Eao was pub- 
licly proclaimed Peshwa by Daidat Eao 
Sciudhia on the 4th December, a.h. 1796. 
In May, a.d. 1818, a proclamation was 
issued by Government deposing him for re- 
bellion ; and the Eaja of Sitara, Partap 
Singh Narayan released from confinement, 
had a part of the Piina territories assigned 
for his support, and was vested with the 
reality of that power of which his ancestors 
in latter times had enjoyed only the name. 
Baji Eao was compelled to surrender himself 
to the English, and was pensioned on the 
3rd June, a.d. 1818. The pension allowed 
him by Government was 800,000 iiipees per 
annum. He died at Bithiir, near Cawnpore, 
in December, a.d. 1852, and was succeided 
by his adopted son Dhondii Pant, commonly 
called Nana Sahib {q.v.), who became a 
rebel in the distm-bances of 1857. 
[See Colebrooke's Mountstuart Elphinstone.'] 

Bakhat Singh {iS-:^ ci^s:^), or Baklit 

Singh Eathor, son of Ajit Singh and brother 
of Abhai Singh, Eaja of Jodhpiir. He was 
poisoned in a.d. 1752. 

Bakhshi 'Ali Khan (^,1^ ^^ ^^'^)' 

whose poetical name was Ilashmat, nourished 
in the time of Xawab Salabat Jang of Hydera- 
bad, about the year a.d. 1751, a.ii. 1104. 

Baklishi Bano Eegam (^jl.j .L.b^^ 
(f^-S), a sister of the emperor Akbar 
the Great. 

Bakhtaiar Beg Gurdi Shah Mansur 
{AJli i^jS ^"S^i (Lixrsr), Turkman, 
was an Amir, and governed (1001) Siwistan. 
[Vide Am Translatioit, vol. i. p. 474.] 

Bakhtaiar Khilji ( 

I— •.;.i^). 

Vide Muhammad Bakhtaiar Khilji. 

Bakhtari {^•^\ one of the most 

celebrated Arabian poets, who died in the 
year a.d. 823. According to some writers, 
he was born in a.d. 821, a.ii. 208. flourished 
iu the time of the khalif Al-:Musta'in Bill5h, 
aud died in his 63rd year at Baghdad. He 
is also called Ein-Baklitari. 

Bakhtawar Khan (, ,l:>- jXub^r), an 

amir who served under the emperor Alnmgir. 
The Sarae of Bakhtawaruagar, near Dehli, 
was constructed by him in a.d. 1671, a.h. 
1082. He is the author of the work called 
Mirat-ul-'Alam, a history of the first part 
of the reign of 'Alamgir. He died in a.d. 
1684, A.H. 1095. 

\_Vicle Xazir Bakhtaiar Klian.] 

Bakhtishu { c. ^JL.*--i.J:^) , name of a 

Christian physician iu the service of Haruu- 

Bakshu (»A=sr), a singer, lived at the 

Court of Eaja Bikramajit Mansur ; but when 
his patron lost his throne he went to Eaja 
Kirat of Kalinjar. Not long afterwards he 
accepted a call to Gujrat, where he remained 
at the Court of Sultau Bahadur, a.d. 1526 
to 1536. 

[Vide A'ui Translation, vol. i. p. 611.] 

Baktash Quli ( ^jj J^jLii-^-J ), a 

Musalmau wTiter of the Persian sect, who 
wrote a book called Bostdn-al-Khaydl, or the 
Garden of Thoughts. (Watkin's Biographical 
Dictionary.) See also Aniiri, who also wrote 
a book of that name. 

Balaji Rao Bishwa Nath Peshwa 

(^^-l-.j i^j\j ^J!L.i '^j ^^^\i)y the 

founder of the Brahman dynasty of Peshwa, 
was the hereditary accountant of a village 
in the Kokau. He afterwards entered into 
the service of a chief of the Jado family, 
whence he was transferred to that of the 
Eaja Sahu, son of Sambhaji, chief of the 
Marhattas. His merits were at leugtli re- 
warded with the othce of I'eshwfi, at tliat time 
second in the State. He died in October, 
A.D. 1720, and was succeeded by his son 
Buji Rao Peshwa. 

List of Hereditary Tesliwds of rftna. 
Balaji Eao Bishwauath Peshwa. 
Baji Eao Peshwa, son of Balaji. 




Balaji Bfiji Riio, son of Baji Eao. 

Madho Kilo Bilal, son of BfilrijI, succeeded 
under the regency of his uncle Eaghunath 

Kara van Eiio Peshwa, brother of Madho Eao. 

Eaghunath Eao, son of BajT Eao Peshwa I. 

Madho Eao II. posthiimous son of Narayan 

BajT Eao II. sou of Eagliunath Eao, pro- 
chiimed himself, and was taken by Sindhia. 

Cliimnaji, furtively invested at Puna, 26th 
May/ 1796. 

Baji Eao II. jnihliely proclaimed, 4th Decem- 
ber, 1796. Surrendered to and peusioned 
by the English, 3rd June, 1818, and Partap 
Singh Nfiraj-an, the Eaja of Sitara, released 
from confinement. 

Balaji Baji Rao (l\, ^^b ,z 


also called Biila Eao Pandit Pradhan, was 
the son of Baji Eao Peshwa I. and succeeded 
his father in A])ril, a.d. 1740. He was at 
Puna when the battle between the Marhattas 
and Ahmad Shilh AbdalT took place in Januarv, 
A.D. 1761, but died in the month of June of 
the same year, leaving three sons, viz., Biswas 
Rao, who was killed in the battle of Panipat, 
Madho Eao, and Narayan Eao. 

Baland Akhtar ( 

1 S:>1j), a brother 

of the emperor Muhammad Shah 

Balash (^J-^'lj). Fide Tairish or Palas. 

Balban (^_^_Lj), a kiug of Lelili. 
Vide Ghayas-uddin Balbau. 

Balbhaddar Singh (aL.^ j\t^-:\ a 
Raja lineally descended from the ancient 
Hindu monarchs of Audh, who, havinu' 
100,000 Rajputs at his command, considered 
bimself as equal to the Nawab Wazir of Luck- 
now, whose autlu)rity he disclaimed. To 
reduce this Raja an army was sent about 
the year a.d. 1780, composed partly of tlie 
Nawab's troops, and partly of the Company's 
sepoys ; but owiug to the intrigues of Ilaidar 
Beg Klian, the minister of the Nawab Wazir 
Asaf-uddaula, and the native collectors, who 
extorted large sums from the zamindars, this 
expedition failed of success. During two years 
be was frequently defeated and piu-sued ; and 
at length being surprised in his camp, he was 
killed in endeavouring to make his escape. 

Baldeo Singh {i.tu^ ):\-^^-;)> tlic Jat 

Raja of Bli!irtpur, was the second son of 
Ranjit Singh. He succeeded to the Ruj 
after the death of his eldest brother, Randlnr 

Baligh (J..L), author of the Dahlel 

Zdliira, Talamvan Qndrat, and MnliVima. 
He was a native of India and was living in 
A.D. 1772, A.H. 1186, 

Balin, erroneously -written by some for 
Balban, which see. 

Balqini ( ^i-iij), 77r/e Blbpinl. 

Balti (^-!l,0 {tide Jodh Ba!), the 

daughter of Raja ITdaia Singh Rathor, 
commonly called Motba Raja ; she was married 
to the emperor Jahaugir and became the 
mother of Shah Jahan. She died in a.d. 
1619, A.H. 1028. 

Balwan Singh {dxu^ u'i^^^ {\\h.o was 
always called by the natives of Agra as the 
Kashi-wala Raja) was the son of the celebrated 
Chait Singh, Raja of Bauaras. Balwan Sinj^li 
was born at Gwaliar, and after his fatlnr's 
death, he and his family lived in the city of 
Agra for many years on a monthly ])ension 
of 2000 rupees. He lost his only son, Kuwar 
Ciiakarbati Singh, on the 17th December, 
1871, and after a few days, on the 2()th of 
the same month, he resigned his unusually 
prolonged life. The only surviving members 
of this family were the widow of ChakarbatI 
Singh and his cbikken, a boy aged nine and 
a girl aged 11 years. Balwan Singh was 
the author of a Diwiiu in Urdii. 

Balwant Singh {xiu^ ui^J^L), a Raja 

or zamindar of Bauaras. He was the father 
or brother of the famous Chait Singh who 
rebelled against the British, and was arrested 
and di'iKised by Mr. Hastings in 1781. 
Balwant Singh succeeded his father Mausa 
Ram in a.d. 1740, reigned 30 years, died in 
1770, and was succeeded by Raja Chait Singh. 

Balwant Singh ((a.^i^ li— 3^1j\ E,aja 

of Bhartpiir, succeeded bis father, Baldeo 
Siugh, in August, 1824 ; was displaced by one 
of his cousins, named Durjan Sal, in March, 
1825 ; but reinstated by the British Govern- 
ment on the 19th January, 1826. Bhartpiir 
was stormed and taken by the Bengal troops 
under T>Mrd Combermere, on the 18th January. 
Tlio British lost during the siege 45 officers 
killed and wounded, and 1500 men; the 
enemy lost some thousands, and the usurper 
Durjan Sal was seized and sent to Allahabad. 
His father, Baldeo Singh, was the second 
brother of EaudliTr Singh, the eldest of the 
four sons of Eanjit Singh the son of Kehri 
Siiiu'li, the brother of Ratan Sinjib, the 
l)n)tlier of Jawahir Singh, the sou of Surajmal, 
the son of Churaman Jat, the founder of tlie 
principality. Balwant Singh died aged 34 
years on "the 16th March, 1853, and was 
succeeded by his infant son Jaswant Siugh. 

Banana (a,jL.«), an Arabian poet whose 

full name is Abii Bakr-bin-Muhammad bin- 
liauaua. There has been anotlier Bin- 
Banana, r«3., Abii Nasr-ibn-ul-'Aziz-bin 
Banana, who was a poet also, and died at 
Baghdad in a.d. 1009, a.h. 400. 




Banda (i.\:j). Vide EazI (Maulana). 

Banda (i.Uj), a guru or chief of the 

Sikhs, and successor of Gviru Gobind. This 
man obtained great power, and committed 
great depredations in the province of Lahore, 
in the reign of Bahadur Shah I. and while 
the emperor was in Deccan against his brother 
Kam Bakhsh, Banda collected his followers, 
to revenge the death of his predecessor's sons, 
who were taken prisoners and had been put 
to death some time before. He committed 
the greatest cruelties on the Musulmans, in 
every advantage shewing no quarter to age 
or sex, and even ripping up women with 
child. The emperor found it necessary to 
march in person against him, and he was 
besieged in the fortress of Lohgarh, which 
was taken, but Banda found means to 
escape, and raise new insurrections. In tiio 
reign of the emperor Farrukhsiar, 'Abdus 
Samad I\han, governor of Kashmir, was sent 
against the rebels with a great army. After 
many severe engagements, he forced Banda to 
take refuge in a fortress, which was blockaded 
so effectually as to cut off every supply. 
The garrison was reduced to the necessity of 
eating cows, horses, asses, and other animals 
forbidden by their laws ; when at length, 
having no provision of any sort left, and 
being reduced to the extremity of famine and 
disease, they begged for quarter. 'Abdus 
Samad Klian, having planted a standard on 
the plain, commanded them to come out and 
lay their arms under it, which they did. He 
then divided the meaner sort among his chiefs, 
who cut off their heads; and threw their 
bodies into a river near the fortress. Banda 
and many other captives were sent to Dehli, 
through which he was carried in an iron cage 
upon an elephant, dressed in a robe of gold 
brocade. The Sikhs bore the insults of the 
populace with the greatest firmness, and 
steadily refused the emperor's offers of life 
if they would embrace the Muhammadan 
faith. They were put to death, a huncked 
each day, on the ensuing seven days. On 
the eighth day Banda and his son were put 
to death without the city. A dagger was 
put into his hands, and he was commanded 
to kill his infant son ; but refusing, the child 
was slain by the executioner, his heart torn 
out, and forced into the father's mouth. 
Banda was then put to death by the tearing 
of his flesh with red hot pincers and other 
tortirres, which he bore with the greatest 
constancy. This event took place in the 
year a.d. 1715, a.k. 1127. 

Bano Begam {J^ yb), the daughter 

of Shahnawaz Khan, the son of the Wazir 
Asaf Klian, wife of the emperor AlamgTr, 
and mother of 'Azim Shah. 

Baqai (^jLiLj), surname of Ibrahim- 
bin- 'Fmar, a learned Musalman, who is 
the author of several treatises on ancient 

philosophers, on di^-ination by numbers, a 
commentarv on the Quran, etc. He died in 
the year a.d. 1480, a.h. 885. 

Baqai (Mulla) (1« JUj), a poet who 

lived in the time of the emperor Babar Shfih. 
He is the author of a poem or Masnawi, which 
he dedicated to the emperor. 

Baqalani (^3L'Ij), the author of a 

work called Ai'Jaz-xl-Qnrdn, or of the diffi- 
cidt things in the Qm'au. See Abii Bakr 

Baii Khan (j^,l>- i^-'M, a nobleman 

of the court of the emperor Shah Jahan, by 
whom he was appointed governor of the fort 
of Agra. In the 24th year of the reign of 
the emperor he was raised to the rank of 
1500. In the 49th year of the emperor's 
reign, he still held the governorship of the 
fort of Agra, and was raised to the rank of 
2000 the following year. He had bidlt in 
the front of the gate called Hathiapol, which 
is sitxiated towards the Chauk and the Jama 
Misjid, a fine bungalow, which was still 
standing about the year a.d. 1830. 

Baqili ( iii.'), surname of Abu'l Fazl 

Muhammad - bin-Qfisim-al - Khwarizmi, who 
from his learning has the title of Zain-uddin 
and Zain-id-Mashuekh, or the ornament of 
the doctors. He wTote a book on the prayers 
of the Miisalmans, on the glory and excellence 
of the Arabs, called Salot-id-Baqill. He 
died in a.d. 1167, a.h. 562, but according 
to Haji Khalfa in a.d. 1170, a.h. 566. 
There was another Baqili, also a Muham- 
madan doctor, who died in a.h. 982. 

Baqi Muhammad Khan Koka ( ^jlj 

i^S ^J^s>~ j»/«>^-*), eldest brother of 

Adham Khan, the son of Maham Anka, 
was an officer of 3000 in the time of the 
emperor Akbar. He died at Garb Katka, 
where he had a jagir, in a.d. 1585, a.h. 993. 

Baqir ( ..jLO, the poetical name of 

Muhammad Baqir All I\han, -who flourished 
in the time of the emperor Muhammad Shah 
and wrote a Masnawi or poem called Jiain/lz- 
t(t-Tdhir'm, composed in a.d. 1726, a.h. 
1139, also another work entitled Guhhani 
Asrar, which he wrote in a.d. 1732, a.h. 
1145. He is also the author of a Diwan, 
and another poem called Mirat-ul-JamCd. 

Baqir Ali Khan {. ,L>^ , .i-z JLO. 

Tide Bacjir. 

Baqir (Imam) (*L-«1 j^\S). Vide 
Muhammad Baqir (Imam). 




Baqir Kashi (^_-il^ j-i^->X '"'liose 

poetical name is Kliirad, was a contemporary 
of Zaluirl who Hourislied about the year a.d". 
1600, and is the athor of a Dhvan. 

Baqir Khan (^l^ yl.,), a nobleman 

in the service of the emperor Shah Jahan. 
In the latter part of his life, he was appointed 
governor of Allalial)ad, where he died in ad. 
1637, A.n. 1047, in which vcar died also 
Klian Zaman Eahadur, in Daulatabad. 

Baqir Khan (^^jlj ^sc^ ^^l^^-Lj), 

siu-named Najm Saul, an amir of the reign 
of Shsih Jahan. lie was a very liberal man, 
fond of literature, and was himself a poet. 
He died inA.i). 16t0, a.h. 1050, but, accord- 
ing to the work Mdzir-ul-JJmrd, in a.d. 
1637, A.H. 1047. He is the author of a 
Diwan or Book of Odes. 

Barahman (^^y), poetical title of a 

Brahman whose name was Chandar Bhan, 
"which see. 

BarlDak (lL^j^Ij), the son of Balilol 

Tide Ilusain Shah 


Lodi, king of Dehli. 

Barhak Shah (^l^ t-^Jj^:'), Purbi, 

the son of Nasir Shah, whom he succeeded 
to the throne of Bengal in a.d. 1458. He 
reigned for a period ot' 17 years and died in 
A.D. 1474, A.H. 879. 

Barbarassa (a-I^U^U), the famous 

Corsair. Sulaiman, emperor of the Turks, 
gave him the title of Khair-uddin, and made 
him afterwards Pasha of the sea. He suc- 
ceeded his brother Aruch, who conquered 
the kingdom of Algiers, after having killed 
Sallm the Arabian king. He took Tunis 
A.D. 1533, A.H. 940, after having driven out 
the Venetians, but Andrea Doria retook it 
again a.d. 1536, a.h. 943. After this, he 
ravaged several parts of Italy, and reduced 
Yemin, in Arabia Felix, to" the Turkish 
government. Khair-uddln died at Constanti- 
nople in A.D. 1516, A.H. 953, aged 80. 

Barbarassa (Aruch) (ti;_2-.U .l_j), a 

famous pirate. Being called in to assist 
Salim, ])riuce of Algiers, against the Spaniards, 
he murdered that monarch, and took posses- 
sion of his throne. He afterwards laid si(>ge 
to Tunis, whiili be took, and caused himself 
to be ])riiclaiiiicd sovereign. He was besieged 
by the Manjiiis of Gomarez and reduced to 
the greatest distress. He escaped by a sul)- 
terraneous passage, but was overtaken witli 
asmall mimber of Turks, the wliole of wlmni 
died sword in hand in a.d. 1518. 

Barbud (j^_j^Lj), a famous Persian 

nmsician, master of music to I^iusro Parwez, 
king of Persia. He composed an air called 
Aorangi, and invented a musical instrument 
(a sort of lyre) which bears his name : i.e. 
Bfirbud or Bfirbut. 

Barizi (^^j.Lj), the son of 'Abdul 

Eahlm, an Aral)ian author who ■WTote a 
CdUimentary on the work called Asrar-ul- 
'Tiinzil. He died in a.d. 1337, a.h. 738. 
This author appears to be the same with 
Bazirl, which see. 

Barkali i^ji), the name of two Mu- 

hammadan doctors; the one died in a.d. 
1553, A.H. 960, and the other in a.d. 1573, 
A.H. 982. They are sometimes called Birgili, 
■\vliicli see. 

Barkat-nllah (Sayyad) (a..lJl i.::^.^'^ 

uV.-..^'), styled Suhih-ul-Barhut, was 

the son of Savyad Aweis, the son of Mir 
'Abdul Jalil, the son of Mir 'Abdul Wfihid 
Shahidi of Bilgaram. His poetical name 
was 'Is]it|T, and as bis grandfather's tomb 
was in Jlfiliara in the district of Agra, he 
went and lived in that ■village till the day 
of his death, whicli happened on the 25th 
Jidy, A.D. 1729, 10th Muharram, a.h. 1142. 

Barkayaraq (Sultan) (^^ILl-j j^,L^.'), 

the eldest son of Sultan Malikshah Saljuqi, 
whom be succeeded in a.d. 1092, a.h. 485. 
His usual residence was Baghdad. His brother 
Muliammad ruled over Azur-baijan; while 
Sanjar, his third brother, established a 
kingdom in Klnirasau and Transoxiana, from 
whence lie extended his conquests over the 
fallen princes of Ghazni. Barkayaraq reigned 
twelve years and died in December, a.d. 1104, 
A.H. 498. His brother Sultan Muhammad 
succeeded him. 

Barmak (uJ^^y), the name of a noble 

family, originally from Balkh in Khurasan, 
and highly celel)rated all over the East for 
their generosity, magnificence, and dis- 
tinguished patronage of men of genius. One 
of the most illustrious was governor to the 
kbalif Harun-al-Rashid, and his son Ja'far, 
a tterwa rds minister to that prince ; but having 
incurred his displeasiu'e, he with several of the 
heads of the family was put to death. Vide 
Ja'far-al-Barmaki. (The "Barmecide" is 
familiar to readers of Galland's Arabian 

Baroda {\j>»y), Ptaja of. Vide Pclajl. 

Barq (j^-j), poetical name of Mu- 
hammad ilaza {q.c). 




Basasiri j_5 .^Lyj ("Glutton") was 

the nickname, and afterwards the surname 
of Arsahiu, who from a slave became Com- 
mander-in-Chief of the armies of Baha-iid- 
daula, the wazir of the khalTf of Baghdad. 
Having quarrelled with him he fled to Egypt 
and put himself rmder the protection of Al- 
Mustanasir Billa, the fifth khalif of Egypt 
of the Fatimite dynasty. After some time 
he came to Baghdad. He took Qiiem, the 
26th khalif of the Abbasides, prisoner in 
Baghdad, deposed him, and caused Mustanasir 
to be acknowledged the only and legitimate 
chief of all the Musalmans. He maintained 
Mustanasir in the kliilafat for one year and 
a half, after which Tughral Beg, Sidtan of 
the Saljiiqides, put Qaem on the throne of 
Baghdad again, defeated and killed Basasiri 
A.D. 1059, A.H. 451, and sent his head to 
Qfiom, who caused it to be carried on a pike 
through the streets of Baghdad. 

BasMr-ibn-ul-Lais ((.j^^lll , ,A -»Aj), 

the brother of the arch-rebel Rafa-ibn-ul- 
Lais, who had revolted against Haruu-al- 
Eashid the khalif of Baghdad in the year 
A.D. 80G, A.H. 190, at Samarcjand, and 
assembled a considerable force to support him 
in his defection ; notwithstanding all Hariiu's 
care, the rebels made in a.d. 807, a.h. 191, 
great progress in the conq^lest of Khurasan. 
According to Abul Faraj, in the year a.d. 
809, A.H. 193, Bashir was brought in chains 
to Hariin, who was then at the point of 
death. At the sight of him the khalif 
declared, that if he could speak only two 
words he would say kill him ; and iiumediately 
ordered him to be cut to pieces in his 

Basiti ( L-ib), poetical name of a 

person who is the author of the biography of 
poets called Tazkira Basitl. 

Basus (^^»..^lj), an Arabian woman, 

from whom originated a war, called Harb-i- 
Basiis, which has since become a proverb to 
express, "Great events from little causes.'' 
Two Arabian tribes fought about 40 years 
because a camel belonging to this woman 
broke a hen's egg ; the owner of the &^f]; 
"Wounded the camel with an arrow, and the 
two tribes were instantly in arms. 

Batalmiyusi (^^^^kj), an Arabian 

author, who died in a.d. 1030, a.h. 421. 
He wrote a treatise on the qualities requisite 
in a secretary and good writer, and another 
on genealogies. 

Batu Khan (^l>- ^i'b), the son of 

JujI Khan, and grandson of Changez Klian. 
He ruled at Kipchak and was contemporary 
with Pope Innocent IV. 

Bauwab (c_;^tO (or Bouwab), surname 

of Abii'l Hasan 'All Kala, who is better 
known under the name of ibn-Bouwrib. It 
is he who improved the form of the Arabic 
Alphabet after Ibn-Maqla. He died in a.d. 
Io22, A.H. 413, or as some say in a.d. 1032, 
A.H. 423. After him Ya'kub, surnamed 
Mustaa'simi, reduced it to its present form. 

Baz Bahadur (.jl_^_j jl_j) whose 

original name was Miilik Baiazid, succeeded 
his father Shujaa' Klian to the government 
of Malwa in a.d. 1554, a.h. 962, and having 
taken possession of many towns in Miihva 
which were previously almost indepeudent, 
he ascended the throne under the title of 
Sultan Baz Bahadiu-. His attachment to 
Rupmati, a celebrated courtezan of that age, 
became so notorious, that the loves of Baz 
Bahadur and Riipmati have been handed 
down to posterity in song. He reigned about 
17 years, after which the kingdom of Malwa 
was taken, and included among the provinces 
of the empii-e of Dehll, by the emperor 
Akbar in the year a.d. 1570, a.h. 978. 
Baz Bahadur afterwards joined Akbar at 
Dehli and received a commission as an officer 
of 2000 cavalry. Baz Bahadur and Rupmati 
are both buried in the centre of the tank at 

\_Vide Rupmati.] 

Baz Khan (^^l.>- jb), an amir in the 

service of the emperor Bahadur Shah. lie 
Avas killed in the battle against Azim Shah 
[q.v.) on the 8th June, o.s. 1707, 18th Rabi' 
I. A.H. 1U8, near Dhaulpur. 

Bazil ( J JM. 

Vide Bafi Khan Bazil. 

Bazil (Jjb), tbo poetical name of 

Bach--uddin, Ismail-al-Tabrizi, an Arabian 

Baziri (^'mLj), author of a poem 

entitled Koulab-cd-Barriat or the Brilliant 
Star, in praise of Muhammad, who cured 
him, as he said, of the palsy in a dream. 
Every line of the poem ends with an M., 
the initial of the prophet's name, and it is 
so highly valued that many of the Muham- 
madans learnt it by heart, on accoimt of its 
maxims. (Lempriere's Unirersal Bict'ionary 
under Bausirri.) Barizi and Baziri appear 
to be the same person. 

Bazmi ( ^-^'S), author of the Padmdwat 

in Persian verse. He was a native of Karkh 
and resided for .some time at Shiriiz. He 
came to Gujrat during the reign of the 
emperor Jahangir, and composed the abovc- 
nuutioned poem in a.d. 1619, a.h. 1028. 
lie was living at Delili in tlie time of Shah 
Jahau about the year 1631. His proper 
name was 'Abdul Shakiir 




Bazzaz (j^J— •), the author of the 

^drih-aI-Mi(fri(h'(t ox a treatise on tlie par- 
ticular tonditious aud properties of traditions, 
and some other works on tlie Muliammadau 

BeTjadal Khan {^\:>. J-J^^^^j), a poet 

of Persia who came to India in the rei^-n of 
the emperor Jahangir, and llourished in the 
time of Shah Jahan, who conferred on him 
the title of Bebadal Klian. Under his sup;r- 
iutendence the Peacock throne was constructed. 
Lehadal KJiau appears to be the former title 
of Abii Talib Kallm. 

Bedar (.L\«j), the poetical name of 

Sanath Sinf;h, a Iliudii, who was living in 
A. 13. 1753, A.}i. 1166. 

Bedar ( .^ji^j), an author whose proper 

name was Imam Bakhsh, a native of Ambala. 
He is the author of the work called Tiirikh 
SaUldat, being an account of the progress of 
the dynasty which ruled over Audli from 
Shujaa'-uddaula to Sa'adat 'AlT Hian, to 
whose name the title is an allusion. It was 
composed in a.d. 1812, a.h. 1227. He is 
also the author of several Masnawis, one of 
which contains the praises of Nawab Sa'adat 
'All Khan, called Giihh/ln-i-Sa'ridat. He 
was living in the time of Nasir-uddm Ilaidar, 
kins: of Audh. 

Bedar Bakht (Prince) (> 


son of 'Azim Shah. He was killed in the 
battle fought by his father against the 
emperor Bahadur Shah on the 8th June, 
o.s. 1707, A.H. 1119. 

Bedar Bakht (ci^sT^ j^'^r^rX ^on of 
Ahmad Shah, king of Deldl. lie was 
elevated to the throne of Dehli on the 1st 
September, a.d. 1788, 27th Zi-Ka'da, a.h. 
1202, when Ghnlara Qadir imprisoned Shah 
Alara. Bedar Bakht continued to reign until 
the approach of theMarhattas towai-ds Dehli, 
-when he fled upon the Tith October, 1788, 
but was subsequently apprehended and put to 
death by the orders of Shah Alam. 

Bedil (Mirza) Ojj--^ Jw\_->_j), the 
poetical name of Saidai Gilani, which sec. 

Begam Sultan (j^lkL-j *x*j), a lady 

of rank, whose tomb is to be seen to this 
day, outside of the gate of Ya'tmad-uddaula's 
mausoleum in Agra. From the inscrii)tion 
that is on her tomb, it appears that slu; died 
in the time of the emperor Ilumayun in a.d. 
1538, A.H. 945, aud that she was the daughter 
of Shaikh Kamal. 

Begana (ajU1-j), the poetical name of 
AbCi'l Hasan. 

Bekasi (Maulana) (lJ^y,« ^.^.Cj), 

a ])(>et who lived in the time of the emperor 

Bekasi (Maulana) (Ij^^^ ^.>uu.L-..j), 

a jioet of SliTraz who was contemporary with 
(_il^iizalT, who died in the year a.d. 1111, 
A.H. 505. 

Bekhabar (^^.in-)), the poetical name 

of Mir'Azmat-ullah, son of Lxitf-ullah of 
Bilj;ram. He died in a.d. 1729, a.h. 1142, 
at Dehli. He is the author of the work 
called Saf 'iliac Bckhahar. 

Bekhud (j^.in.j), poetical name of 

Mulla Jami Lahaiul Xamdar Khani, which 

Bekhud (j^.i^.j), poetical name of 

Sayyad Iladi 'All, son of Saj-yad Nasir 'Ali 
Sehr, and author of a Diwan. 

Bengal, Sultans and Governors of. 

Tide Muhammad Baghtaiiir IvhiljT, andKliiin 

Beni Narayan. A Hindu by birth, 

but follower of the warlike teacher Savyad 
Ahmad {q.v.). He wrote a sort of bio.t;Ta])liic 
anthology called Tazkira-i-Jnhdn (published 
18121 and many other works in prose and verse. 
(De Tassy, Ilist. de la Hit. hind. 115.) 

Berar (cL=>-\j j\jj), Eaja of. Vide 

Raghoji Bhosla. 

Betab (l__>1:i-.j), whose proper name 

is Abbas 'All Khan, which see. 

Bhagwan Das (Raja) (^^Lv.J 

^59- ^ ,), called by Abu 1 Fazl Bhagwant 

Daswastheson of Raja Bihara ilal Kaclihwaha 
Ambhar or Amer, now Jai])iir. His daughter 
was married to the prince Mirzii Salim (after- 
wards Jahangir) iu the j^ear a.d. 1585, a.h. 
993, by whom he had a daughter named 
Sultan-uu-nisa Begam, and then a son Avho 
became Sultan Khusro {q.v.\. Bhagwan Das 
died live days after the death of Eaja Todar 
Mai, i e. on the 15th November, a.d. 1589, 
19th Mnbarram, a.h. 998, at Lahore. After 
his deatli, the emperor Akbar, wlio was then 
at Kabul, conferred the title of Raja on his 
son Man Sinii-li with the rank of 5000. 

He died ou the 

Bhagwant Singh {i^^ 

riiua of DhanlpTir (1857). 
14th Februarv, 1873. 

Bhanbu Khan i^\<^ ^r^-:'); the son 
of Zabita Khau, which see. 




Bhartrihari, brother of Baja Vikram 

(Bikramjit). His Century of Sentences has 
been translated iuto English by Prof. Tawney, 
of Calcutta. 

Bhara Mai (Raja) (J,* ^j\0' ^^^^^ 

Eihari Mai. 

Bhartpur U^-]. ^yc:^.^,:), Eaja of. 
Vide Churaman Jat. 

Bhaskar Acliarya (Ij ,l.>-^ <1.«^„'), a 

most celebrated astronomer of the Hindiis, 
who was born at Bidae, a city in the Deccan, 
in the year of Salivahana, 1036, corresponding 
with the year A. D. 1114, a. it. 508. He was 
the author of several treatises, of which the 
Llldivutl and the BlJd Ganita, relating to 
arithmetic, geometery and algebra, and the 
Sironianl, an astronomical treatise, are ac- 
counted the most valuable authorities in those 
sciences which IncUa possesses. The Sirninain 
is delivered in two sections, the Gola- Adliyayn , 
or the Lectiu-e on the Globe, and the Ganita 
Adhyaya, or the Lecture on Numbers, as 
applied to Astronomy. The Llldwntl was 
translated into Persian by Faizi in the reign 
of Akbar, and an English translation has 
also been lately made by Dr. Taylor and 
published at Bombay. Bhaskar died at an 
advanced age, being upwards of 70 years. 
Lilawati was the name of his only daughter 
who died unmarried. 

death by defeat of Zalim Singh, and died in 
1S03. lie was succeeded by Man Singh. 

Bhau (jL^^), a Maliratta chief. 
Sadasheo Bhau. 


Bhau Singh (a.iu-j »\j^S), also called 

Mirza Eaja, was the second son of Eaja 
Bhagwan i)as Kachhwaha, Raja of Amber 
(now Jaipur) . He succeeded to the raj after 
his father's death in a.d. 1G14, a.h. 1023, 
was raised to the rank of oOOO by the emperor 
Jahangir, and died of drinking a.d. 1621, 
a.h. 1U30. Two of his wives and eight con- 
cubines burnt themselves on his funeral pyre. 
Among Jahangir's courtiers the llSjas of 
Amber were the most addicted to drinking. 
His eldest brother Jagat Singh, and Jlaka 
Singh his nephew, had likewise paid with their 
hves for their ckunken habits, but their fate 
was no lesson for Eaja Bhilii. 

Bhim Singh (aX:..^ (*— -y-^X i'''»iiii of 
Udaipiii-, was living in a.d. 17-50. 

Bhim {&.:>-\^ ♦-uj). Raja of Giijrat, in 

whose time Sultan Malimud Gliaznawi took 
the famous temple of Somnuth in a.d. 1027. 

Bhim Singh Rathour (ajl:,.^ ♦--^..J 

.»yl.). He usurped tlie throne of 
Jodhpiir in a.d. 1793, on his gTaudfather's 

Bhoj (Raja) (<>.^^ --^^j). n«'e Raja 


Bhori Rani ( J^. ^,»^,j), the last of 

the wives of Maharaja Eaujit Singh; she 
died childless at Lahore on the 5th April, 
1872. Her adopted son Kiiwar Bhup Singh 
distributed large sums of money before and 
after her death as alms to the poor. The 
funeral was very grand. Her remains were 
burnt near the sainddh of the late Maharaja, 
and the ashes were sent to be thrown into 
the Ganges at Hardwar. She ch'ew a pension 
of 800 rupees per mensem from our Go\eru- 
ment and held jagirs of upwards of 60,000 
rupees per annum. 

Bhuchchu (^M-^). Vide Zarra. 

Bhuya {^\^t ^I'^^'X ^ nobleman of 

the court of Sultan Sikandar Lodi, who built 
the masjid Math in Delhi, but was afterwards 
assassinated by that prince without any crime, 
only because people used to assemble at his 

Bibi Bai ( ..jLj ^.j --j), the sister of 

Muhammad Shah 'Adil, king of Dehli, married 
to Salim Shah Siir, by whom she had a son 
named Firdz. After the death of Salim Shah, 
when Firoz, then an infant, was beingmm-dered 
by his imcle Muhammad Shah, she defended 
her sou for some time in her arms, presenting 
her body to the dagger, but her cruel brother 
tore the young prince from her embrace, and 
in her presence severed his head from his 
bodv. This event took place in May, a.d. 

Bibi Daulat Shad Begam ( 



j»j), one of the wives 

of the emperor Akbar, and the mother of 
Shakrunnisa Begam, who survived her father, 
and died in the time of Jahangir. 

Bibi Marwarid {^jj\^^ j ^j), wife 

of the late Amir Af zal I\hrin, died in September, 
A.D. 1874. 

Bibi Zinda Abadi (^Jol sSj\ J ^j), 

commonly called Bibi Jind "NVadi by the 
people of Uchcha, was one of the descendants 
of Sajwad Jalal. She is buried at Uchcha 
in Multan. The dome in which she rests is 
erected of burnt bricks and cemented by 
mortar. The whole of the edifice is ornamented 
by various hues, and hipis liizuli of tlie 
celebrated mines of Badakhshan. The size 
of this grand building may be estimated at 
50 feet high, and the circumference 25. 




Bihari Lai (J/tl ijj\^), a celebrated 

Hindi poet, called by Gilchrist the Thomson 
of the Hiudiis, and much admired ainonu- 
them ; he appears to have flourished aliout 
the beg'inuing- of the 16th centiu'y. Beini;- 
informed that liis prince Jaisah of Jaipiir 
was so infatuated with the beauty of a very 
yoimg girl he had married (so as to neglect 
entirely the affairs of his country, for he never 
came abroad, having shut himself up to 
contemplate the fascinating charms of his 
beauteous, though immatiu-e bride), Bihari 
boldly ventured to admonish him by bribing 
a slave girl to convey a couplet, Avhich he had 
composed, under his pillow ; the translation 
of which is thus given by Gilchrist, ' ' When 
the flower blooms, what will be the situation 
of the tree, that is now captivated Avith a 
bxd, in which there is neither fragrance, 
sweets, or coloiir." This had not only the 
desired effect of rousing the prince from his 
lethargy, but excited in his breast a generous 
regard for the man, whose advice came so 
Reasonably and elegantly disguised. Bihari 
received, ever after, a pension from court, 
with a present of more than one thousand 
pounds, for a work he published under the 
name of Satsai, from its consisting of seven 
liuufh-ed couplets. 

Bihari Mai (J^ lJj\^^), also called 

Bharamnl and Piiranmal, a Raja of Amber 
or Ameir, now Jaipiir, was a rajpiit of 
the tribe of Kachhwaha. He paid homage to 
Babar about the year a.d. 1527, and was on 
friendly ' terms with the emperor Akbar, and 
had at an early period given his daughter in 
marriage to him, of whom was born the 
emperor Jahangir. Both he and his son Raja 
Bhagwan Das were admitted at the same time 
to a high rank in the imperial army by the 
emperor. Bhagwan Das gave his daughter in 
marriage to Jahangir in a.d. 1585, who was 
married next year (1586') to the daughter of 
Raja Udai Singh, son of Rao Maldeo Rathor. 

Bija Bai (^b l^saj), or Biza Bal, 

the wife of Maharaja Daulat Rao Scindhia 
of Gwaliar. After the death of her husband, 
who died without issue, she elected Jhanko 
Rao Scindhia as his successor on the; 18th 
June, 1827. She was expelled by him in 
1833, and went over to Jhansi, where she had 
a large estate. She died at Gwaliar about 
the middle of the year 1863. 

Bijaipal (JLj^^st), a famous or 

ial)uluus Raja of Bayana, regarding whose 
power, riches, and extent of dominion, many 
curious tales are still current among the 
Bhartpur Jats, who assert their (spurious) 
descent from him. In the Jiijidpdl Easn, a 
metrical romance or ballad (written in the 
Birj Bhakha) the Hindu scholar will iiiid a 
full and ])articular account of this great 
Hindu monarch, who is fabled to have con- 
quered Raja Jumeswar, the father of I'irthi 

Raj, the celebrated chauhan king of DehlT, 
and to have ruled despotically over the whole 
of India. The Karauli Raja too boasts bis 
drscent from Bijaipiil, and if any faith can be 
placed in a " Bansiioli or genealogical tree," 
he has a fair claim to the benefits, real or 
imaginary, resulting therefrom. 

Bijai Singh (a^^ ^), son of Raja 

Abhai Singh, the son of Maharaja Ajit, 
Singh, Rathor of Jodhpiir, succeeded to the 
raj in a.d. 1752, a.h. 1167. He became in- 
fatuated with fondness for a young concubine ; 
after having fought the Mughols for 40 years 
he organised a confederacy against them in 
1787 and was defeated by de ]3oigne {q.v.) at 
Patau and Xirta in 1790 ; his chiefs rebelled, 
his family were in hostility with each other, 
and he left at his death the throne itself in 
dis]nite. Raja Man Singh at length suc- 
ccided, in 1804, to the honours and the feuds 
of Bijai Singh. 

Bijai Singh (d.>Owo ^c=^)y son of Eaja 
Bhagwan Diis. Vide Ramji. 

Bikramajit (o--«^^U^.C), or more 

properly Yikramaditya, a mythical sovereign 
of Maiwa and Gujrat, whose capital was 
Ujain. His era called the Sambat is still used 
in the north of India. Bikramajit died (or 
ascended the throne) in the Kali Jug year, 
3044, according to Wilford, whose essays in 
the 9th and 10th volumes of the Asiatic 
Researches contain information on the history 
of the three supposed princes of this name 
and of their common rival Saliviihana. The 
first Sambat year, therefore, concurs with the 
year 3045 of the Kali Jug year, or 57 years 
before the birth of C!hrist. This prince was a 
great patron of learned men ; nine of whom 
at his coiu't are called nine gems, and are said 
to have been Dhanwantari, Kshapanaka, 
Amera Siiiha, Sanku, Yetfilabhatta, Ghata- 
karpara, Kalidasa, Yirahamihira, and Vira- 
ruchi. His real date is still an open question. 
" To assign him to the first year of his era 
might be quite as great a mistake as placing 
Pope Gregory XIII. in the year one of the 
Gregorian Calendar." — Holtzmann. 

[Vide Weber's Sansk-Liter. Eng. tr., 1882, 
p. 202.] 

Bikramajit (Rajah)(A^r i.j:^5>-l«^G), 
Vide Rae Patr Das. A I\hatre. 

Bikrami ( ^^\J>S), the poetical name 

of Mir 'Alidur Rahman Wizarat Ivhan, 
brother of (iusim l\]iau, the grandfather of 
Samsam-uddaula Shahnawaz Klian. He was 
jiromoted in the reign of the emperor 
'.Mamgir to the Diwani of Miihva and 
Bijapfir. He was an excellent poet, and has 
left a Diwan composed in a nu)st beautiful 




Bilal (Jlllj), tlie name of the crier, 

who used to anuoiince to the p8oi)le ■when 
Muhammad prayed. He was an African, 
a id a freed slave of Muhammad. He died in 
the time of Umar, the second Khalif after 
Muhammad, in the year a.d. 641, a.h. 20. 

Bilal Kunwar {^y,^ JL), the wife of 

the emperor 'Ahxmgir II. and mother of Shah 
'Alam, king of Denli. Her title was Ziuat 

Bilqaini ( iJib), whose proper name 

was Abii Ilafs, is the aiithor of the works 
called Mahasin-id-Istilah, Sharah Bnkhdri, 
and Tarand'i. He died in a.d. 1402, a h. 
805. See Siraj-uddin, son of JS^ur-uddiu, 
and Abii Hafs-al-Biikhari. 

Binai (Maulana) (^-lij). His father 

was a respectable architect at HerJit, the birth- 
place of the poet, and his takhallus or 
poetical name is derived from Bina or Banna, 
a builder. He is the author of a work called 
Bahrdtnwa - Bahroz, a story which he 
dedicated to the Sultan Ya'qub the son of 
Uzzan Hasan. His conceit had roused the 
jealousy of Amir Alisher ; Binai tried to con- 
ciliate his favour by writing a Qasida in his 
praise, but receiving no reward, he therefore 
substituted the name of Sultan Ahmad Mirza 
for that of Alisher, saying that he would not 
give away his daughters without dowry. 
Alisher was so enraged at this, that he 
obtained a death-warrant against him. Binai 
fled to Mawarunuahr. lie was killed in the 
massacre of Shah Isma'il in a.d. 1512, a.h. 
918. He has also left a Diwau consisting of 
6,000 verses. 

Bin Ahmad (_v*.^^ ^i). Vide Abu'l 
Faiz Muhammad. 

Binakiti ( ^_:x_iL:^.0. Vide Abu 

Sulaiman Daiid. 

Binayek Rao (Raja) (a.:>-L^l, (»_^.>l:j), 

the son of Ainrit Rao, a Marhatta chief. 
He died in July, 1853, aged 50 years. 

Bin Banana (.OLj .,j), surname of 

Abu Nasr-ibn-ul-'Aziz bin-'Amrii, an 
Arabian poet who died at Baghdad in a.d. 
1U09, A.H. 400. 

Bindraban (^j1 ja.-), a Hindu author 

who flourished in the reign of the emperor 
'Alaragir, and wrote a work called Lubbut- 
Taivarlkh, a summary history of Hindustan. 

Birbal (J_.^_^_j), or Blrbal, was a 

Brahman of tlie tril)c of Bhiit. His proper 
name was JNIahes Das. He was a man of 
very lively conversation, on which account he 
became one of the greatest personal i'avoui-ites 

of the emperor Akbar, who conferred on 
him the title of Bftja and the rank of 5000. 
He was also an excellent Hindi poet, and was 
honored with the title of Kabrae or the royal 
poet. He was slain, together with Mulla 
Sheri and other officers of note, in a battle 
fought against the Yusafzai Afghans of 
Sawad and Bijor (places between Kabul and 
Hindiistan) in February, a.d. 1586, Babi I. 
A.H. 994. Akbar was tor a long time incon- 
solable for the death of Birbal, and as the 
Kaja's body was never found, a report gained 
currency that he was still alive among the 
prisoners, and it was so much eucoiu-aged 
by Akbar, that a long time afterwards an 
impostor appeared in his name ; and as this 
second Birbal died before he reached the 
com-t, Akbar again wore mom'uing as for his 
friend. Many of Birbal' s witty sayings are 
still current in India. 

Birbhan, founder of the sect of 

Sadhs (Hindust. "Quakers") born near 
Naruaul at a.d. 1040. Date and place of 
death unknown. 

Bir Singh {d^\j iS.-^^ j^i), a Eaja of 

the Bundela tribe of Rajpiits. He was the 
founder of this family, and from him the 
family of the Urcha chief is descended. The 
greater part of liis dominions was wrested 
from him by Raja Chatar Sal, who was 
the last sole possessor of the Bundelkhand 
province. At that period its capital was 
Kalanger, but the residence of the Raja was 
Banna, celebrated for its diamond mines. 

Birgili (^^iS^j), surname of Mulla 

Muhammad-biu-Pir 'Ali, acelebrated Arabi in 
author, who wrote the Sharah Arba,in, 
and died a.d. 1573, a.h. 981. He is by some 
called Barkali. 

Birjis Qadar (^j.i ^j^^=>-jS), whose 

original name was Ramzan 'All, was son of 
Wajid 'All, the ex-king of Lucknow. His 
mother's name was Ma'shiik Begam. At the 
outbreak, he was created king with the unani- 
mous consent of the rebel soldiery in 1857 at 
the instance of Barkat Ahmad, Risaladar, 
late 15tli Regiment Irregular Cavalrv, who 
subsequently fell in battle. BirjTs Qadar was 
then 10 years of age. Before his accession, 
his imcle Sulaiman Shikoli was much per- 
suaded by the rebels to accept the crown, but 
refused. Birjis Qadar was driven out of 
India and took refuge with his mother at 
Katmandii in Nepal. 

Bir Singh Rao {^\j iXj^^), other- 
wise written Nar Singh, a Bundela chief 
suborned by Sultan Saliin, eldest son of 
Akbar, to slay Abiil Fazl, the emperor's 
favourite minister. The Rao was hotly pur- 
sued for his crime but escaped. On Saliui's 
accession he was rewarded. 
[ Vide Jahaugir.] 




Bisati Samarqandi (^s:.'i^^ Jb\.^^), 

a poet of Sauifin]niKl who Hourislied in llie 
time of Siilncu Khalil-tillah, gTandsoii of 
Amir Taimdr. He was formerly a weaver of 
carpets, and had assumed for his poetical title 
" IlasTri," but he ehau<;-ed it afterwards to 
Bisali, lie was coutemporary with 'Asmat- 
ullah Bulduiri. 

Bishr Hafi (^.iL^^..) {le. Bishrthe 

barefoot), a Muhammadan doctor who was 
born at Marv, aud brought up at liaghdad, 
where he died ou AVeduesday the 10th iXo- 
vember, ad. 840, 10th Muharram, a.h. 226. 
Different dates are giveu of his death ; but it 
is certain that he died several years before 
Ahmad Hanbal, aud the one given here 
appears to be very correct. 

Bishun Singh (Kacliwaha) ( ,,.^.j 

d^jwi), Eaja of Ambhar or Ameir, 

was the son of Riim Singh and the father of 
Mii'za Raja Jaisiugh Sewai. He died about 
the year A. D. 1693, a.h llOo. 

Bismil (J.^,v-.j), the poetical name of 

]\rirza IMuliammad Sha'fi of Naishupiir, uncle 
of Nawab Safdar Jaug. 

Bismil ( J^^;), tlie poetical name of 

Aniir Hasan Klifm of Calcutta, who was 
living in a.d. lS4o, a.h 1261. 

Biswas Rao i,\ , j^^^^^j), the eldest 

son of Bfila Eiio Peshwa, the Marhatta chief. 
He was killed in the battle against Ahmad 
Shiih Abdali on the 14th January, n.s. 17(il, 
together with Sadasheo Bliaii aud other 
Marhatta chiefs. 

Bithal Das Gaur ( ,^f ^^b J^,--j), 

son of Gopfil Das, llaja of Sheopiir. On a 
spot of 10 bhigas towards Tajganj on the 
hanks of the river Jamua he had built his 
house and a garden. In the town of Shali- 
ghin he was raised to 3000, aud was appointed 
Kiladiir of the fort of Agra. He was after- 
wards raised to the rank of 5000, and in the 
year a.h. 1062 went home and there died. 

Bo 'Ali Qalanclar (.S-u.\Ji ^■^£- _j-j). 
[Vide Ahu 'All (ialaudar.] 

a Savoyard who, after holding commissions in 
the P'rench and Russian arinies, came to India 
and entered the East India Company's ser- 
vice at Madras, 1778. Alter some adventures 
he entered Siudhia'sserviceiu 1784, andlrained 
four regular brigades. In 1796 he returned 
to Eui'ope with a large fortime, much of 

which he devoted to public purposes aud 
cliaritv at Chamberi, his native town. He 
died there on the 21st June, 1830. 

[Vide Keeu's Fall of the Muyhol Fnipire.] 

Bug'hra Khan (^\<^ \^kj), siiniame of 

Nasir-uddTn Mahmud, the second son of 
Sultau Ghayas-uddiu Ealban, kiug of Dihli. 
He was made governor of Lakhnauti in 
Bengal by his father, at whose death in a.d. 
1286, he being then in that province, his 
son Kaiqubad was raised to the throne of 

[ fide Nasir-uddln Mahmiid.] 

Bukhari (^>J^=^). Vide Al-Biikhari. 

Bulhnl (J-.L)- ^Vi/^Mirza Muhammad 
surnamed Bulbul. 

Burandaq ( jj^j^.-), the poetical name 

of Maulana Baha-uddlu. lie was a native 
of Samarqand, aud a sprightly satirical poet ; 
much (h'eaded by his coutmiporaries, ou 
account of his wit and caustic humour. He 
Avas the especial panegyrist of Sultan Baiqara 
Mirza, the son of 'Umar Shaikh andgraudsou 
of Amir Taimiir. Wheu Prince Baiqara 
ascended the throne in a.d. 1394, he ordered 
that the sum of five hundred ducats (in Turki 
bish yiiz altuu) should be paid to Biiraiidaq. 
By a mistake of the Secretary, he received 
only two hundred ; aud therefore addressed 
the following lines to the Sultau : — 
" The Shiih, the teiTor of his foes, 
AVho well the sound of flatt'ry knows, 
The conqueror of the world, the lord 
t)f natious vauquish'd by his sword, 
Gave, while he prais'd my verse, to me 
Five hundred ducats as a fee. 
Great was the Sultan's generous mood, 
Great is his servant's gratitude, 
Aud great the sum ; but strange to say ! 
Perhaps the words in Tm'kish tongue 

Convenient meaning may derive ; 
Or else my greedy ear was wrong. 
That turn'd two hundred into five." 
The Sidtau was extremely entertained at the 
readiness of the poet ; and sending for him, 
assured him that the words " Ms/i i/ilz altihi " 
signified in Turkish a thousand ducats, which 
he ordered to be immediately paid [I)i(hlin 
Univcrsitji Magazine for 1840). The year of 
Buraudaq's death is unknown. He was 
contemporary with Khwiija 'Asmat-ullah 
Bukhari who died in a.d. 1426, a.h. 829. 

Burhan ( ,lJ^ 0, a poet of Mazindaran, 

came to Dehli and died there shortly after 
Kaelir Shah had pillaged that city. He is 
the author of a Diwau. 

Burhan (^l>.j), the poetical name of 

Muhammad Hasan, the autluir of the Persian 
Dictionary called Biirhun Qfita. 
[Vide Muhammad Hasan.] 




Burhan 'Imad Sliah. (^Ij;, ui^^z ^^lJ^y ), 

oue of the princes of the 'Imad Shahi dynasty. 
lie succeeded his father, Daria 'Imad Sliah, in 
the o-overnment of Herar when but a child. 
His minister Taufal Khiiu became regent ; 
and before the prince was of an age to assume 
the reigns of his empire, Taufal Klian, 
assisted bv the ruler of Khandesh and by the 
Nizam Shahl court, usurped the government. 
He eventually confined his sovereign in irons 
in the fort of Parnala, and assumed the title 
of king. In the year a.d. 1568, a.h. 980, 
Nizam Shah marched against Taufal Khan, 
under the pretence of releasing the imprisoned 
prince from his confinement. He took the 
fort of Gawal by capitulation, defeated Taufal 
Kliau and made him prisoner with his son ; 
but instead of placing the captive monarch on 
the throne of Bei-iir, sent him with the 
usurper and his son to be confined in one of 
the Nizam Shahl forts, where they were all 
subsequently strangled by the king's order. 
Thus the family of 'Imad Shiih and that of 
the usurper Taufal Ivlian became extinct. 

Burhan Naqid {Si\} ^^>/)y ^ Poet 
■who is the author of the poem entitled Dil 
Ashob, dedicated to the emperor Shah Jahan. 

Burhan Nizam Shah I. (^llij ^^.i 

iLl) ascended the throne of Ahmad- 

nagar in the Deccau after the death of Ms 
father, Ahmad Nizam Shah, in a.d. 1508, a.h. 
914, in the seventh year of his age. He 
reigned 47 lunar years and died at the age of 
54 in A.D. 1554, a.h. 961, and was buried in 
the same tomb with his father. 

Burhan Nizam Shah II. (^llij u^-^r^ 

il-i), brother of Murtaza JSTizam II. 

ascended the throne of Ahmadnagar in the 
Deccan on the loth May, o.s. 1591, 1st 
Sha'ban, a.h. 999, after deposing and con- 
fining his own son Isma'il Nizam Shrdi, who 
had been placed on the throne diuing his 
absence at the coiut of the emperor Akbar. 
He was advanced iu years ; but notwith- 
standing his age, gave liimself up to pleasures 
unbecoming his dignity. His reign was 
marked by an unsuccessful war with the king 
of Bijapiir, and a disgraceful defeat from the 
Portuguese, who had seized the sea coasts of 
his dominions. He died after a reign of 
foiu- years and si.x^teen davs, on the 18th April, 
A.D. 1595, 18th Sha'baii, a.h. 1003, in the 
40th year of the reign of Akbar, and was 
succeeded by his son Ibrahim Nizam Shah. 
Maulana Zahuri dedicated his Sruiiiiama to 
Burhan Nizam Shiih, containing nearly 4,000 

Burhan-uddin Ahu Is-haq[-al-Fazari 

(j^.s-'l ^\ ^.tJjJl (j;^;^)> commonly 
called Ibn-Firkah, author of the Furdez-ul- 

Faz'lrl, a treatise on the law of Inheritance 
according to Shafa'i's doctrine. He died in 
A.D. lo28, A.H. 729. 

Burhan - uddin Bin Mazah - al - Bu- 

khari (^_j_\J\ |^l_jb^_j), author of 

the Zxkhlrat-ul-Fiitihca, sometimes called 
Za'sliiyat ul-Burhaiiia, and of the Muliect-al- 

Burhan-uddin Ali Bin Abu-Bakr-al- 

Marghinani (Shaikh) ( .^jjvl^ lO^-'^r' 

'^'!^ y^^^, author of the HidCiija 

Sharah Badlya, or the Lawyer'' s Guide, a 
very celebrated book of Muhammadan Juris- 
prudence, which during the peiiod that Mr. 
Hastings governed the British dominions in 
India, was by his orders most ably translated 
by Charles Hamiltou, Esq., and published in 
Loudon, in the year a.d. 1791. Btu'han- 
uddin was bornat Marghinan, in Transoxania 
in a.d. 1135, A.H. 529, and died in a.d. 
1197, A.H. 593. The Ilul'nja, which is a 
commentary on the Badaya-al-Mubtada, is 
the most celebrated law treatise according to 
the doctrines of Abii Hanlfa, and his disciples 
Abu Yiisaf and the Imam Muhammad. A 
Persian version of the Ilidrnja was made by 
Maulwi Ghulam Yehia IClian and others and 
published at Calcutta iu 1807. He also 
wrote a work on inheritance entitled the 
Fardez-ul-Usmdni, which has been illustrated 
by several comments. 

Burhan-uddin Gharih 
Shaikh) (iU ^^j .i 


(Shah or 

a celebrated Musalman saint much venerated 
in the Deccan. He died in a.d. 1331, a.h. 
731, and his tomb is at B u'haupiir iu Daula- 
tiibad, and is resorted to in a pilgrimage by 
the Muhammadaas. He was a disciple of 
Shaikh Nizam-uddin Aulia, who died in a.d. 
1325, A.H. 725, 

Burhan-uddin Haidar Bin Muham- 

mad-al-Hirwi ( ..j ^j.^Ji \-^r-i 

d^A^s.-^), author of a commentary on 

the Sirajia of Sajawaudi. He died in a.d. 
1426, A.H. 830. 

Burhan-uddin Ibrahim Bin Ali Bin 

Farhun {^z ^; *-^Vr?^ iji^'^ J^^^. 

^i»i'.i ,j), chief biographer of the 

Maliki lawvers, and author of the Dlbdj-ul- 
Jlicii/i/nb.' HecHediuA.D. 1396, A. u. 799. 

Burhan-uddin (Qazi) ( .^.«j.Jl ^.\.>< 

li), Lord of tlic city of Sivas in 

Cappadocia or Caranienia, who died in a.d. 
1395, A.H. 798. After his death Bayezld I. 
Sultan of the Tiu-ks, took possession of his 





Burhan-uddin Malimud Bin Ahmad 

author of a MuhU, wliicli, thouo-h kiuiwn in 
India, is not so greatly esteemed as the 
Mnhlt-as-Sarakh^l. The work of Burhan- 
uddin is commonly known as the Muhit-nl- 

Burhan - uddin Muhammad Baqir 

(Mir) (^^ ^:«lj x*^« i^jjl ^J;^^-^ 

^^'>i\ QazI of Qashan. He wrote 

a Dlwiin containing about 5,000 verses. He 
was living about the year A. D. 1585, A.n. 993. 

Burhan-uddin (Shaikh) ( .,.'a!I u^j^ 
ir:^-^), or Savyud. Vide Ivwih Alam. 

Burhan-uddin (Sayyad) ( .,jjk!\ .,Uj 

(X-—'), surnamcd Muhaqqiq. He died 

in the year ad. 1247, a.h. 645, and was 
buried at Ctesarea. 

Burhan - ul - Mulk Sa'adat Khan 
(^,U- ^Ji\x^ t_<Ul J^y)- Tide 
Sa'adat Iv^iiin, and Mirza Nasir. 

Burzuj C^j; -j), a Persian physician 

who lived under Naushirwan the Just. He 
was sent by that prince to India to procure a 
copy of the book called the Wisdom of all 
Ages ; which he afterwards translated into 
Persian. That which now exists is greatly 
altered from the original version. 

Bus-haq (jl.,s-=^'), the abbreviated 

poetical name of Abii Ls-haq Atma', which see. 

BuzarjimehrC^,^:?.^^.'), the celebrated 

minister of Naushirwan the Just, king of 
Persia. He is said to have imported from 
India the game of Chess and the Fables of 
Pilpay. Such has been the fame of his 
wisdom and virtues, that the Christians claim 
him as a believer in the gospel ; and the 
IMuhammadans revere him as a premature 
Musalman. He lived to a great age, and 
died in the time of Hurmuz III. son and 
successor of Naushirwan the Just, between 
the years a.d. 580 and 590. 

Buzarjmehr Qummi {^^ j^^p^jy), 

a celebrated Persian Prosodian of Qumm, who 
lived before the time of Saifi, the author of 
the Uriiz Saijl. 

Buzurg Khanam ( jl^ ^jjO> ^^^ 

daughter of Saif Iilian, by Malika Bilno 
Begam, the daughter of Asaf Kl\an "NYazir, 
and wife of Zafar Khan, a nobleman of the 
reign of the emperor 'Alamgir. She died 
before her husband in the mouth of May, 
A.D. 1659, Shawwal, a.h. 1069. 

Buzurg Umaid Khan (jk.<i.^l ^— ^'J-f 

,1-^)) son of Shaista Khan, an 

officer of rank in the time of the emperor 
Alamgir. At the time of his death, which 
took place in a.d. 1694, a.h. 1105, he was 
governor of Behar. 

Buzurg Umaid (j^^^^ < f^j), or Kaia 

Buzurg Umaid, one of the Ismailis, who 
•succeeded Hasan Sabbilh, the Old Man of 
the Moimtains, in June, a.d. 1124, Eabi II. 
A.H. 518, and reigned 24 years. After his 
death his son Kaia Muhammad succeeded 
him and reigned 25 years. 




Caragossa. Vide Qara Ghuz. 

Cliaghtai Khan i^A.^- *L:xjL=^), or 

Qaiin, the most pious aud accompHslied of all 
the sons of ChaDgez Ivhau ; and although he 
succeeded, by the will of his fatlioi-, to the 
kingdoms of Transoxiana, Balkh, Badakhshan, 
and Kashghar in a.d. 1227, a.h. 624, he 
governed these coimtries by deputies, and 
remained himself with his eldest brother, 
Oqta Qaan, by whom he was regarded with 
the reverence which a pupil gives to his 
master. He died seven months before his 
brother in the mouth of June, a.d. 1241, 
Zi-Qa'da. a.h. 638. Qarachar Xawian, who 
was the fifth ancestor of Amir Taimiir, was 
one of his Amirs, and, at length, captain 
general of aU his forces. The djTiasty that 
founded the so-called " Moghul, or Mughol 
Empire" of India was namedafter Chaghtai. 
[Fiffe Keene's Turks in India. Chap, i.] 

Chaglita Sultan (ul-k-L^ Ij^i-r^), a 

handsome yoimg man of the tribe of the 
Mughols and favourite of the emperor Babar 
Shah. He died at Kabul in a.d. 1546, a.h. 

Chait Singh (xJiu.^ c:---*_>-), Eaja, 

son of Balwant Singh, zamindar of Banaras. 
He succeeded his father in a.d. 1770. In 
August, 1781, demands were made upon him, 
by the Governor-General, for additional tribute 
to be paid to the Company, as the sovereign 
power now requiring assistance in its exigency. 
The Eaja declined, pleading willingness, but 
inability. He was an-ested by Mr. Hastings' 
order, at Banaras ; a revolt took place in 
his behalf on the 20th August ; nearly two 
companies of Sepoys and their officers were 
destroyed, — and the Eaja escaped in the con- 
fusion. The Governor-Genei'al immediately 
assumed control of the province ; and troops 
were called in to oppose the Raja, who now 
headed the nvmibers flocking to his support. 
He was defeated at Latifpur, in Bundelkhand, 
where he had taken refuge ; and lastly, his 
stronghold of Bijaigurh was seized, and his 
family plundered by a force imder Major 
Popliam. His post was declared vacant, and 
the zaraindarl bestowed on the next heir, a 
nephew of the Raja, a minor. After these 
transactions at Banaras, the Governor- General 
proceeded to Audh, to obtain an adjustment 
of the heavy debts due to the Comi)auy by 
the Wazir 'Asaf-ud-daida. The territories 
of the Begams (one, the mother of Shuja'-ud- 
daula, the late Nawab — the other, the mother 

of the Wazir) were seized, on a charge of 
aiding the insuiTCction of Chait Singh. The 
Raja found an asylum in Gwaliar for 29 
years, and died there on the 29th March, a.d. 
1810. See Balwant Singh. His estates, 
with title of Raja, were presented to his 
nephew Babu jMuhip Narain, grandson of 
Raja Balwant Singh. 

[Vide TTarren Hastings ; by Sir A. 
LyaU, K.C.B.] 

Chand (j^jl.^-), or Chand, called also 

Trikala, from his supposed prophetic spirit, 
was a celebrated Hindu poet or bard. He 
flom'ished towards the close of the twelfth 
centiu-y of the Christian era. He may be 
called the poet laureate of Prithii-aj, the 
Chauhan emperor of Dehli who, in his last 
battle with Shahab-uddin GliorT, was taken 
prisoner and conveyed to Ghazni, where his 
bard, Chand, followed him. Both perished 
by their own hands, after the death of their 
implacable foe, Shahab-uddin. Like the 
Greek bard. Homer, countries and cities have 
contended for the honour of having been the 
place of birth of this the most popular poet 
of the Hindiis. Dehli, Qanauj, Mahoba, 
and the Panjab, assert their respective claims, 
but his own testimony is decisive, whence it 
appears that he was a native of Lahore. In 
his Piithin'ij Chauhan R'isa, when enumerat- 
ing some of the heroes, friends and partizans 
of his hero, he says, " Niddar was born in 
Qanauj, Siluk and Jait, the father and son, 
at Abu ; in Muudava the Parihur, and in 
Kurrik Kangra the Haoli Rao, in Niigor, 
Balbhaddar, "and Chand, the bard, at Lahore." 

Chand Saudagar (^^t)*^ J^jU-), a 
Bangali merchant. 

Chand (jjl^). Vide Teik Chand. 

Chanda Kunwar (,»_;._$' \s.u-=^), 

also called Jindan Kour ; the wife of Maha- 
raja Ranjit Singh, of Lahore, and mother 
of Maharaja Dilip Singh {q.v.). She died 
at Kensington, 1863. 

[Fif/e Griffin's i?rt«yF^ Singh, "Rulers of 
India," also Lady Login's Sir John login 
and Duleep Singh.'] 

Chanda i\jS iL-« L\_i-j^), also called 

Mah-liqa, a dancing girl, or ipieen of Haidara- 
bud, was a poetess of nincli taste aud merit. 
She is the author of a Diwan, which was 
revised by Sher i\IuliamTnad Khan Iinan. In 
the year a.d. 1799, in the midst of a dance, in 




•which she bore the chief part, she presented 
a British officer with a copy of her poems, 
accompauied with the following complimeutarv 
observations, in the form of the usual gazal: — 
Since my heart drank from the cup of a 

fascinating eye, 
I wonder beside myself, like one whom \\-iue 

Thy searching glances leave nothing unseated ; 
Thy face, bright as flame, consumes my heart. 
Thou soughtest a Nazar : I oiier thee my 

Albeit thy heart is not unveiled to me. 
My eyes fixed on thy lineaments — emotion 

agitates my soul. 
Fresh excitement beats impatient in my heart. 
All that Chanda asks is, that, in either world, 
Thou wouldst preserve the ashes of her heart 

by thy side. 
[Garcin de Tassin informs us that there is a 
copy of her Diwan in the East India House 
Library, which she herself presented to 
Captain Malcolm on the 1st October, a.d. 

Chanda Sahib ( k_^-. U \ \u:>- ) , siirnam e 

of Husain Dost Klian, a relation of Dost 'Ali 
Khan, Nawab of Arcot, whose daughter he 
had married. lie had made his way to the 
highest offices of the government by the services 
of his sword, and was esteemed the ablest 
soldier that had of late years appeared in the 
Carnatic. He cajoled the queen of Trichi- 
nopoly, and got possession of the city in a.d. 
1736. He was taken prisoner by the 
Mahrattas on the 26th March, a.d. "l741, 
and imprisoned in the fort of Sitara, but was 
released by the intervention of Dupleix in 
1748, and appointed Nawab of the Carnatic by 
Muzaffar Jang. He was put to death in 
A.D. 1752, 1st Sha'ban, a.h. 1165, by the 
Mahrattas, and his head sent to ]\[uhammad 
'All Khan, made Nawab of Arcot by the 
English, who reigned for over 40 years. 

Chandar Bhan {^^i>j J^j j^^), 
a Brahman of Patifila, well-versed in the 
Persian language, was employed as a MuushT 
in the service of the prince Dara Shikoh, the 
eldest son of the emperor Shah Jahan. He 
is the author of several Persian works, i.e., 
Guldasta, Tuhfat-id- Anwar, Tuhfat-ul- 
Fus-ha, Majma^-ul-FnqrS, one entitled 
Char Chaman, another called Manshat Brah- 
man being a collection of his own letters 
written to different persons, and also of a 
Diwan in which he uses the title of Brfilmian 
for his poetical name. After the tragical 
death of his employer, he retired to Bauaras 
where he died in the year a.d. 1662, a.h. 
1073. He had also built a house at Agra, of 
Avhich no traces now remain. 

Cliand Bibi (Sultana) ( t _j j^JLs-) 

was the daughter of Ilusain Nizam Shiih I. 
of Ahmadnagar in the Deccau, sister to 
Murtaza Nizam Shah, and wife of 'Ali 'Adil 
Shah I. of Bijapiir. After the death of her 
husband in a.d. 1580, A.n. 98f<, she had 
been queen and dowager-regent of the neigh- 

bouring kingdom of Bijapiir during the 
minority of her nephew Ibrahim 'Adil 
Sliiih II. and was one of the most able 
politicians of her day. The Mughols under 
prince Mirrad, the son of Akbar, proceeded 
in November, a.d. 1595, Rabi' II. a.h. 1004, 
and besieged Ahmadnagar for some months, 
■while Chand Sultana defended the place with 
masculine resolution. At the same time, 
there being a scarcity of provisions in the 
Mughol camp, the prince and Ivhan-Klianan 
thought it advisable to enter into a treaty 
with the besieged. It was stipulated by 
Chand BIbi that the prince should keep 
possession of Berar, and that Ahmadnagar 
and its dependencies, should remain with her 
in the name of Bahadur, the grandson of 
Burhan Shah. She was put to death by a 
faction in the year a.d. 1599, a.h. 1008. 

Chandragupta (b^j^ij-), called by 

the Greeks Sandi'acottus. He seized the 
kingdom of Magadha, after the massacre of 
the survivors of the Naida dynasty, whose 
capital was the celebrated city Pataliputra, 
called by the Greeks Palibotlira. Married a 
Greek Princess, daughter of Seleucus Nikator, 
and was grandfather to Asoka (s'.t'.). 

ChanduLal {^\^ J!^.Aijs^), a Hindu, 

who was appointed Diwan to the Nizam 
of Haidarabad in a.d. 1808. His poetical 
name is Shadan. He died iu the year a.d. 

Changez Khan {^:>~ y^S^^), also 

called by us Gengis, Jengis, and Zingis, 
sxii'nameci Tamiijiu, was the son of Yesuki 
a Ivhan or chief of the tribe of Mughols. 
He was born in a.d. 1154, a.h. 649, and at 
the age of 13 he began to reign, but the 
consjnracies of his subjects obliged him to fly 
for safety to Avant K]ian, a Tartar prince, 
whom he supported on his throne, and whose 
daughter he married. These ties were not 
binding. Avant Klian joined against Changez, 
who took signal vengeance on his enemies, 
and after almost xmexampled vicissitudes he 
obtained, at the age of 49, a complete victory 
over all those who had endeavoiu'cd to effect 
his ruin, and received from the Klians of 
Tartary the title of K|iriqan in a.d. 1206, 
a.h. 602, and was declared emperor of 
Tartary. His capital was Qaraqiu-m. In 
the space of 22 years he conquered Corea, 
Cathay (part of China) and the noblest 
provinces of Asia, and became as renowned a 
conqueror as Alexander the Great. He died 
on Sunday the 29th August, a.d. 1227, 
llamazan, a.h. 624, aged 75 lunar years, 
leaving his dominions (which extended 1800 
leagues from east to west, and 1000 from 
north to south) properly divided among liis 
four sons, Jiiji, Oqtai, Chaghtai and Tiili 

Lui of the Mughol emperors of Tarianj. 
CHiangcz Klian, 1206. 
Tuli K[ian, his son, 1227. 
Oqtai, brother of Tiili, 1241. 
Tui'kina Kliatun, his wife, regent for 4 years. 




Kayuk Khan, son of Oqtai, 1246. 
Ogulgan-misli, his wife, regent on his death, 

Mangii Khan, son of Tuli Kluin, 1258, clied 

After tlie death of Mangfi, the empire of the 

Mughals was divided into different 

hranfhes, in China, Persia, in Qapchaq, etc. 
Khnbhii I\han, the brother of iNIangu Klian, 

succeeded in China, and founded the Yuen 

dynasty, 1260. 
Chaghtai Khan, son of Changez Klian, 

founded the Chaghtai branch in Trans - 

oxiana, 1240. 
Jiiji, son of Changez Khan, founded the 

Qapchaq d}Tiasty, 1226. 

[ T'ij^/e Halakii Kjian, I\hubhii Khan, etc.] 

Char Bagh (iL jl-^), name of a 

garden constructed by the emperor Babar on 
the bank of the Jamna, which it is said was 
also called Hasht Bahisht ; it bore all sorts 
of fruits ; no traces of this famous garden are 
left now. 

Chatrapati Appa Saliib ([j\ •xi\ ::.:>- 

i-_^=^l-.?), Eaja of Sitae, ■who died 

in, or a year before, a.d. 1874, whose adopted 
son was Eaja Ram. 

Chatr Sal ( JL y-^^), or, according 

to the author of the Musir-til-Umrd, 
Satar Sal, was the son of Chait Singh, chief 
of the Buudelas or inhabitants of Bundel- 
khand, of which province he was Raja. To 
secure the independence of his posterity 
against the encroaching power of the 
Marhattas, he entered into a close alliance 
with the Peshwa Baj! Rao I. about the year 
A.D. 1733, A.H. 1146, and at his demise he 
bequeathed him a third of his dominions, 
under an express stipulation that his 
posterity shoidd be protected by the Peshwa 
and his heirs. Chatr Sal died a.d. 1735, 
leaving two sons, Hirde Sah and Jagat Raj. 
The division of the dominions of Bimdel- 
khand, bequeathed to the Peshwa, comprised 
the Mahals of KalpT, Sirounj, Kuuch, Garra 
Kota, and Hirdaiuagar. Gaugadhar Bala 
was nominated by the Peshwa as his naib to 
superintend the collections. Afterwards the 
principal leaders in Bundelkhaud having 
fallen in battles, and the ruin of the coimtry 
having been completed by the subsequent 
conquest of the Raja of Pauna by Nana 
Arjiin, the grandson of Bakhat Singh, a 
descendant of Chatr Sal, it hence became 
the object of Nana Farnawls, the Piina 
minister, notwithstanding the stipulations by 
which the former Peshwa obtained from 
Chatr Sal one-third of his dominions, to 
annex the whole of Bundelkhaud to the 
Marhatta States. For this purpose he gave 
the investiture of it to 'All Bahadur, son of 
Shamsher Bahadm-, an illegitimate son of the 
Peshwa Biiji Rao, whose descendants became 
Nawabs of Banda. 

[ Vide Muhammad Klian Bangash.] 

Chatur Mahal ( J^^ ^-^-=")j ^^^ of 

the Begams of the ex-king of Oudh. One 
Qurban 'All, who had held a subordinate 
position, and was latterly a Sliaristadar under 
the British Government, suddenly became a 
rich man by marrying her. lie formed the 
acquaintance of this young and beautiful 
woman, and they resolved to be married. 
But the Begara did not wish the union with 
a man so inferior to herself to take place 
where she was known, and so obtained the 
permission of the Chief Commissioner to 
leave Oudh on the pretence of making a 
pilgrimage to Mecca. Once clear of Luckuow, 
she was joined by Qurban 'All, and made for 
his home at Bijnaur in Bundelkhaud. 

Chimnaji 'Apa (LjT ^^1^^.^^), the 

younger son of the Mahratta chief Raghunath 
Rao (Raghoba) Avas furtively raised to the 
masuad at Pima some time after the death 
of Madho Rao II. the son of Narayan Rayo 
II. on the 26th May, a.d. 1796; but was 
deposed afterwards, and succeeded by his elder 
brother Baji Rao II. who was publicly pro- 
claimed on the 4th December following. 

Chin Qalich Khan ( ,l::k ^« ^*^-). 
C-' (V- cy-v 
Vide Qulich Kliau. 

Chin Qalich Khan {^S^ *^l.j .t-j>-), 

former name of Nizam - ul - Mulk Asaf Jab 

Churaman (^^j^^), an enterprising 

Jat who having enriched himself by phm- 
dering the baggage of tlie emperor 'Alamgir's 
army on his last march to the Deccan, 
built the fortress of Bliartpur, fom-teen kos 
from Agra, with part of the spoil, and 
became the chief of that tribe. The present 
Rajas of Bhartpvir are his descendants. He 
was killed by the Imperial army in the battle 
which took place between the emperor 
Muhammad Shah and Qutb-ul-Midk Sayyad 
'Abd-ullah Kliau in November, a.d. 1720, 
MuhaiTam, a.h. 1133. His sou Badau 
Singh succeeded him. 

The following is a list of the Rdjas of 
Bliartpur : — 
Churaman Jat. 

Badan Singh, son of Churaman. 
Surajmal Jat, the son of Badan Singh. 
Jawahir Singh, the son of Surajmal. 
Rao Ratan Singh, bi'other of Jawahir Singh. 
Kehri Singh, the son of Ratan Singh. 
Nawal Singh, the brother of Ratan Singh. 
RaujTt Singh, the nephew of Nawal Singh 

and son of Kehri Singli. 
Raudhir Singh, the son of Rnnjit Singh. 
Baldeo Singli, the hrotiu'r of lianillilr Singh. 
]]ahvant Singh, the son of Baldeo Singh. 
Jaswant Singli, the sou of Bahvant Singh aud 

present Raja of Bhartpiir. 




Dabir-ud-daula Amin-ul-Mulk (Na- 
wab)(c_;^y u_<Ull ^^\ Al^j^n^^jj), 

title of Kliwaja Fand-uddin Ahmad Khan 
Bahadur Mushih Jauij, the maternal grand- 
father of Sayyid Ahmad Kjian, Munsif of 
DehlT. "Whilst the British were in Bengal, 
and the "\\"akil of the king of Persia was 
killed in Bombay in an affray, it became 
urgent for the British Government to send 
a Wakil on deputation to Persia. Dahir-ud- 
daula was selected for this high office. On 
his retiu-n, after fully completing the trust, 
he was appointed a full Political Agent at 
Ava. After this, in latter times, he held the 
office of Prime Minister to Akbar Shah II. 

Daghistani (|^JL;_.uu_c.b), a poet of 

Daghistilu in Persia, who is the author of a 
Persian work called Rayaz-ush-Shu^ard. 

Dahan (^Ulj), whose proper name is 

Abii Muhammad Sa'id, son of Mubarik, better 
known as Ibn Dahau-al-Baghdadi, was an 
eminent Arabic grammarian and an excellent 
poet. lie died in a.d. 1173, a.h. 569. 

Dai (^£1 j), whose full name is Xizam- 

uddin Muhammad Dai', was a disciple of 
Shuh Na'mat-ullah Willi, and is the author 
of a Diwan which he completed in the year 
A.D. 1460, A.H. 865. 

Daqiqi (^iL«j), a famous poet at the 

court of Amir Niih II. son of Amir Mansiir 
Samaui, by whose request he had commenced 
to write the Shah Ndma, but before he could 
finish a thousand verses of the story of 
Gashtasp, he was slain by one of his slaves. 
The year of his death is not known, but this 
event appears to have taken place during the 
reign of his royal master, who reigned in 
Kliurasan twenty years, and died in a.d. 997, 
A.H. 387. His proper name, according to 
the Aitashkada, was Mansiir bin-Ahmad. 

Dalpat i^j^S), rtnja of Bhojpiir near 

Buxar, was defeated and im])risoned, and wdien 
he was at length set at liberty by Akbar, on 
payment of an enormous sum^ he again 
rebelled under Jahangir, till Bliojjjur was 
sacked, and his successor Kaja Partab was 
executed by Shah Jahfrn, wliilst the Rani 
was forced to marry a Muhammadan courtier. 

Dalpat Sah (iL C:-J j), the husband 

of Rani Durgawati, which see. 

Damad (jUL^), poetical name of Mu- 
hammad Baqir, which see. 

Damaji (^j?-UL>), the first Gacqwar 
of Baroda. Ilis successor was Pelaji. 

Damishqi (^^^JLi*-^j), an illustrious 

Persian poet, named Muhammad Damishqi, 
who flourished in the time of Fazl, the son 
of Ahia or Yahia, the Barmecide or Barmaki. 

Danial Mirza (Sultan) (l;--* JL-jlj 

(^IULj), the third son of the emperor 

Akbar. He was born at Ajmir on Wednes- 
day the loth September, a.d. 1572, and 
received the name of Danial on accoimt of 
his having been born in the house of a 
celebrated Darwesh named Shaikh Danial. 
His mother was a daughter of Raja Bihari 
INIal Kachhwaha. After the death of his 
brother, prince Sultan Murad, he was sent 
to the Deccan by his father, accompanied by 
a well appointed army, with orders to occupy 
all the Nizam Shahi territories. Ahmadnagar 
was taken in the beginning of the year a.h. 
1009, or a.d. 1600'; Sultan Danial died on 
the 8th April, a.d. 1605, 1st Zil-hijja, a.h. 
1013, in the city of Burhiinpiir, aged 33 years 
and some mouths, owing to excess in drinking. 
His death and the circumstances connected 
with it so much affected the king his father, 
who was in a declining state of health, that 
he became every day worse, and died not long 
after. From the chronogram it would seem 
that the prince Danial died in the year a.h. 
1012, or a.d. 1604, a year and six months 
before his father. 

Danish ((ji^jlj), poetical name of Mir 
RazT who died in a.d. 1665, a.h. 1076. 

Danishmand Khan (^l:>- Su^JL'AS), 

wlinso ]ir()pcr name was ]\Iuliammad ShafT or 
Mulla Shafi, was a Persian merchant who 
came to Surat about the year a.d. 1646, a.h. 
1056, from which place he Avas sent for by 
tlie emperor Shall Jahan. He was soon 
after raised to the mansab of 3000 and 




paymastersliip of the army, with the title of 
Danishmaud K]iau. In the reign of 
'Alamgir he was honored with the mansab 
of 4000, and after some time to that of 5000, 
and appointed governor of Shah Jahanabad, 
where he died in the month of July, a.d. 1670, 
10th Rabi I. a.h. 1081. He nsed to speak 
much about the Christian religion. Bernier, 
the French Traveller, who accompanied 
'Alamgir to Kashmir in 1664, was attached 
to his suite, and has mentioned him in his 

Danishmand Klian (^lr>. J.i,4-^lj), 

whose original name was Mirza Muhammad, 
and poetical, Ali, was a native of Shiraz. In 
the year a.d. 1693, he was honored with the 
title of Xa'mat Khan, and the superinten- 
dence of the royal kitchen by the emperor 
'Alamgir. After the death of that monarch, 
the title of Nawab Danishmand Khan Ali 
was conferred on him by Bahadur Shah, by 
whose order he had commenced writing a 
Shahnama or history of the reign of that 
emperor, but died soon after in the year a.d. 
1708, A.H. 1120. 

[ Vide Xa'mat Klian Ali.] 

Dara or Darab II. (i^\j\j) ^^Ij), the 

eighth king of the second or Kaiiinian 
djmasty of the kings of Persia, was the son 
of Queen Ilumai, whom he succeeded on the 
Persian throne. His reign was distinguished 
by several wars ; particularly one against 
Philip of Macedon. He reigned 12 years, and 
was succeeded by his son Dara, or Darab II. 

Dara or Darab III. ((^\.\j U j) is the 

celebrated Darius Codomanus of the Greeks. 
He succeeded his father Dara II. as king of 
Persia, and was slain in battle against Alex- 
ander the Great in the year b.c. 331. He 
was the ninth and last king of the 2nd or 
Kaianian dynasty of the kings of Persia. 
[ Vide Achaemenes.] 

Dara Bakht (Mirza) (1-^ 

son of Bahadiir Shah, the ex-king of DehlT. 
His poetical title is Dara, and he is the 
author of a Diwan. 

DarabBeg (Mirza) (!j^C--Cj c_?Uj). 

J'ide Juva. 

Darab Khan (^U- c-j^J,) commonly 

called Mirza Darab, was the second son of 
Abdul Rahim Klian, Khan Klianan. After 
the death of his eldest brother Shahnawaz 
Khan in a.d. 1618, a.h. 1027, he was 
honored with the rank of 5000 by the 
emperor Jahangir and was appointed 
governor of Berar and Ahmadnagar in the 
Deccan. He was also governor of Ikngal 
for some time, and on his retm-n to ithe 
Deccan the emperor, being displeased with 

him on some accoimt, ordered Mahabat I\han 
to strike off his head, which he did, and 
sent it to the king. This circumstance took 
place A.D. 1625, a.h. 1034. 

Darab Khan (^lU- (^\j\j), son of 

Muklitar Khan Subzwarl, a nobleman in the 
service of the emperor 'Alamgir. He died 
on the 24th June, a.d. 1679, 25th Jumada I. 
A.H. 1090. 

Dara Shikoh (^-^.i l^^j), the eldest 

and favourite sou of the emperor Shah Jahan, 
was born on the 20th March, o.s. 1615, 29th 
Safar, a.h. 1024. His mother, Mumtaz 
Mahal (v. Arjumand), was the daughter of 
'Asaf Khiin, wazir, the brother of Nur 
Jahan Begam. In the 20th year of his age, 
i.e., in the year a.d. 1633, a.h. 1043, he 
was married to the princess Xadira, the 
daughter of his uncle Sultan Parwez, by 
whom he had two sons, viz., Sulaiman 
Shikoh and Sipahr Shikoh. In a.d. 1658, 
during the illness of his father, a great battle 
took place between him and his brother 
Am-angzib 'Alamgir for the throne, in which 
Dara being defeated, was at last obliged to 
fly towards Sindh, where he was captured by 
the chief of that country and brought to the 
presence of Aurangzib, loaded with chains, 
on a soiTy elephant without housings ; was 
exposed through all the principal places and 
then led off to a prison in okl Dehli, where 
after a few days, in the night of the 29th 
August, o.s. 1659, 21st Zil-bijja, a.h. 1069, 
he was mm'dered by the order of Aiu'augzib ; 
his body exhibited next morning to the 
populace on an elephant, and his head cut off 
and carried to the emperor, who ordered it 
to be placed on a platter, and to be wiped 
and washed in his presence. When he had 
satisfied himself that it was the real head of 
Dara, he began to weep, and with many 
expressions of sorrow directed it with its 
corpse to be interred in the tomb of the 
emperor Humav-un. Sipahr Shikoh, his son, 
who was also taken captive and brought witli 
his father, was sent away in confinement to 
Gwaliar. Sulaiman Shikoh, his eldest son, 
M-ho, after the defeat of his father had taken 
refuge in Srinagar for some time, was 
subsequently, in a.d. 1670, a.h. 1071, given 
up by the Raja of that place to the officers of 
Aurangzib and conveyed to Dehli. He was 
then sent to Gwaliar, where he and his 
brother Sipahr Shikoh both died within a 
short space. Dara Shikuli is the author of 
the work called Safhiat-Hl-Aitlia, an abridg- 
ment of the Life of Muliammad, with a 
circumstantial detail of his wives, children, 
and companions, etc., also of a work entitled 
Majma^ - ul - Bahrain {i.e., the uniting of 
both seas), in which he endeavours to 
reconcile the Brahman religion with tlie 
Muhammadan, citing passages from the 
Quran to prove the several points. In 1656 
he likewise, with the same intent, caused a 
Persian translation to be made by the 
Bralimans of Banaras, of the Apnilvhat, a 
^\•ork in the Sanskrit language, of which the 




title sinjnifies " the word tlmt is not to be said ;" 
meanini;^ the secret that is not to be revealed. 
This book he named Sarr-i-Asrdr, or Secret 
of Secrets ; but his enemies took advantaive 
of it to traduce him in the esteem of his 
father's ]\luhammadan soldiers, and to 
stitrmatize him with the epithets of Kafir 
and lififizl (unbeliever and blasphemer), and 
fiuallv effeoted his ruin ; for Am-an.nzib his 
brother made a pretence of that, and con- 
sequently had all his bigoted jSIuhammadaus 
to join him. Auquetil du Perron has a^iven 
a translation of this work, in two larije 
volumes in quarto, on wliich a very good 
critique may be foimd in the Second Number 
of the Edinhnrgh Revieiv. There is also a 
copy of the Persian version of this work in 
i^e' British Mnseiim, with a IMS. translation, 
made by N. B. Halhed. The authorship of 
other works has been ascribed to this prince. 
His poetical name was Qadiri. Catrou says 
that Darii died a Christian. 
\_Turlis in India. Chap, v.] 

Dard (Mir) ( ^ ji.j) is tlie poetical 

name of K}iwaja Muhammad Mir of Dehli, 
a son of Khwaja Nasir who was one of the 
greatest Shaikhs of the age. Dard was the 
greatest poet of his time. He was formerly 
in the army, but he gave xip that profession 
on the advice of his father and led the life 
of a devotee. When during the fall of Dehli 
everybody fled from the city, Dard remained 
in poverty contented with his lot. He was a 
Sufi and "a good singer. A crowd of musicians 
used to assemble at his house on the 22nd of 
every month. Some biographers say that 
he was a disciple of Shah Gulshan, meaning 
Shaikh Sa'd-ullah. Besides a Diwau in 
Persian and one in Eekhta, he has written a 
treatise on Siifiism called Risala TFih-id'it. 
He died on Thursday the 3rd January, a.d. 
1785, 2tth Safar, a.h. 1199. 

List of his Works. 

All Nala-wa-Dard. 
All Sard. 
Dard Dil. 

Dlwan in Persian. 
Dlwan in Urdu. 

Dardmand (j,.:^.^^^^), poetical name 

of Muhammad Taqih of Dehli, who was a 
pupil of Mirza Jan Jauan Mazhar, aud 
the author of a Saciiuama and of a Diwan. 
He died at Murshidabad in the year a.d. 
1762, A.H. 1176. 

Daria Iliniad Shall (il.<i, jU^ ^.j^), 

the son of 'Ala-uddm 'Imad Shah, whom he 
succeeded on the throne of Berar in the 
Deccan about the year a.d. 1532, a.h. 939. 
In A.D. 1543, a.h'. 950, he gave his sister 
Rabia' Sultana in marriage to Ibrahim 'Adil 
Shrdi, and the nuptials were celebrated witli 
royal magnificence. In a.d. 1558, a.h. 
966, he gave his daughter in marriage to 
Husain Nizam Shah, and reigned in great 
tranquility witli all the other kings of the 
Deccan until his death, wlien he was 
succeeded by his sou Bui'hau 'Imad Shah. 

Daria Khan Rohela (ALJ^^.^ ^,l~- bj^-^), 

a nobleman in the service of prince Shah 
Jahan, who, on his accession to the throne, 
raised him to the rank of 5000. He afterwards 
joined the rebel Ivhan Jahan Lodi. In a 
battle which took place between him and 
Raja Bikarmajit I5iind(da, son of Eaja 
Chhajjar Singh, he was killed, together with 
one of his sons and 400 Afghans, a.d. 1630, 
A.H. 1040. His head was sent to the 

Dariqutni (^i_k.jljl j). Fide Abu 1 
Husain 'Ali-bin-'Umr. 

Darimi ( ^)\j), the son of Abdul 

Rahman of Samarqand, is the author of the 
work called Musnad Darimi. He died in the 
year a.d. 869, a.h. 255. He is also called 
by some authors Abu Muhammad 'Abd- 

Darki ( ^ lJj'^X ^^ Qumm in Persia, 

was a contemporary of ShJih 'Abbiis. He 
died in the Deccan and left a Persian Diwan. 

Dasht Baiazi ( jLj ^.j^J^j). Vide 
AYali of Dasht Bayaz. 

Dastam Khan (^\^ *-^o), son of 

Rustam Khan Turkistani, was an Amir of 
3000 in the service of the emperor Akbar. 
He died in a.d. 1580, a.h. 988, of his 
wounds which he had received in battle 
against the three nephews of Raja Biharl 
Mai, who had rebelled against the emperor 
and were also killed. 

Data Ram Brahman ( .^i>^ j ^^ . Ij'LO, 

a poet who wrote beautiful Persian verses. 

Dattaji Sindhia (tUiA:.-.-: ^:5-lj!_^), 

son of Rauaji and brother of Jaiapa Sindhia, 
a Mabrntta chief who had a cavalry of 80,000 
horse under him, and was slain in battle 
against Ahmad Shah Abdali in the month of 
January, A.D. 1760, Jumada II. a.h. 1173, 
a year before the death of Bhaii, the famous 
Mahratta chief. 

[Vide Ranaji Siudhia.] 

Daud Bidari (Mulla) (^.jk.->j t3jL>), 

a native of Bidar in the Deccan. When 
twelve years of age, he held the oflice of i)age 
and seal-bearer to Sultan Muhammad Shah 
Bahmani I. king of Deccan about the year 
A.D. 1368, A.H. 770. He is the author of 
the 'TaJi fat-US- Saldtin Bahmani. 

Daud Khan Faruqi ( ^ ^)l^ c>j^^O 

succucdod his brother Mirfiu GhanI to the 
throne of Khandesh in September, a.d. 1503, 




1st Jumada I. a.h. 916, reigned seven years 
and died on Wednesday the 6th August, a.d. 
1510. He was succeeded by 'Ailil Khan 
FarquI II. 

Daud Khan QuresM ( JLt Jj^lr^ JiLO 

son of Bhikan Khan, was an officer of 5000 
in the reign of the emperor 'Ahimglr. In 
the year a.d. 1670, a.h. 1081, he was 
appointed governor of Allahabad. 

Daud Khan Panni ( x> jo^^ '^j^'-^X 

son of Kjiizir Ivhan PanuT, a Pathiin officer, 
was renowned throughout India for his reckless 
courage, and his memory still survives in the 
tales and proverbs of the Deccan. He served 
several years imder 'Alamglr, and when 
Bahadur Shah, on his departure from the 
Deccan, gave the viceroyalty of that kingdom 
to the Amir-al-Umi'a, Zulfikar Klian, as 
that chief could not be spared from court, he 
left the admiuistratiou of the governmeut to 
Daiid Khau, who was to act as his lieutenant. 
In the reign of FaiTukh-siyar, when the 
Amir-ul-Umra Husaiu 'Ali Khiin marched 
towards Deccan, Daiid Khan received secret 
orders from the emperor to oppose and cut 
him off. Accordingly when the Amir-ul- 
Umra arrived at Burhaupiir, Daiid Khan, 
who regarded himself as the hero of his age, 
prepared to receive him. The engagement 
was very bloody ou both sides ; a matchlock 
ball struck Daiid Khau, and he fell down 
dead on the seat of his elephant. This event 
took place in the year a.d. 1715, a.h. 1127. 

Daud Qaisari (Shaikh) {^j^^ (.".^J 

i:"^*^), author of another commentary 

called Sharah HadJs-iil-Arba'hi, besides 
the one written by Birgili. He died a.d. 
1530, A.H. 751. 

Daud Shah Bahmani (Sultan) (jj^j 

jjILLj i^-^^, i^), the son of Sultan 

'Alii-uddin Hasan, ascended the throne of 
Deccan, after assassinating his nephew 
Mujahid Shah on the 14th April, a.d. 1378, 
21st Muharram, a.h. 780. He reigned one 
month and five days, and was murdered on 
the 19th May, the same year in the mosque 
at Kulbarga where he went to say his 
prayers. He was succeeded by his brother 
Mahmiid Shah I. 

Daud Shah (^\j^ *l-w tJ^jL^), a king 

of Gujrat, who was placed on the throne 
after the death of his nephew Qutb Shah in 
a.d. 1-139, and was deposed after seveu days, 
when Mahmiid Shah, another nephew of his, 
a youth of only 14 years of age, was raised to 
the throne. 

Daud Shah (il^ ^^j^^), the youngest 

son of Sulaimau Qiraiii, succeeded to the 
kiugdnm of Bun«'al after the death of his 

eldest brother Baiazul in the year a.d. 1573, 
a.h. 981. This prince was much addicted to 
sensual excesses ; and the propensity was 
rendered more degrading by his inclination to 
associate with persons of low origin and mean 
connections, by whom he was induced to 
attack the frontiers of the kingdom of Dehli, 
He had several skirmishes with Munaim 
Klian, Khan Kjianan, governor of Jaimpiir, 
who was subsequently joined by his master, 
the emperor Akbar, when an obstinate battle 
took place ou the 30th July, a.d. 1575, 21st 
Kabi II. a.h. 983, in which Daiid Shah was 
defeated and obliged to retire to a fort on the 
borders of Katak. After this a peace was 
concluded, by which Daud Shah was invested 
with the government of Orisa and Katak, 
and the other provinces of Bengal were 
occupied by Mimaim Kliiin in the name 
of the emperor. The year of this event 
is commemorated in a Persian Hemistich. 
After the death of Muuaim Kb an, which took 
place the same year at Lakhnauti, Daud 
Khan re-took the pi'ovinces of Bengal, but 
was soon attacked by Ivhan Jahan Turkman, 
who was appointed governor, when after a 
severe engagement Daiid Klian was taken 
prisoner, and suffered death as a rebel. From 
that period, the kiugdom of Bengal was 
subdued, aud feU under the subjection of the 
emperor Akbar. Thus ended the rule of the 
Piii-bi or independent eastern kings of Bengal. 

Daud Tai (^-Ll? <-^^j), a Musalman 

doctor who was master of several sciences. 
He had served Abii Hanifa for 20 years, and 
was one of the disciples of Habib RaT. He 
was contemporary with Fazail Aiaz, Ibrahim 
Adham and Ma'riif Karkhi, and died in the 
reign of the khalif Al-Mahdi, the son of 
Al-Mansiir, about the year A.D. 781 or 782, 
a.h. 164 or 165. 

Daulat Rao Sindhia (^\j cl^J^J 

A_^_i>A_:^_-_~;), son of Anandi Rao, 

nephew to Madhoji, by whom he was 
adopted. Made war against the British, 
1803, but was beaten in one campaign ; died 
A.D. 1827. 

iVide Doulat Rfio.] 

Dawal Devi (i_^Vt^ Jj^'^X or Dewal 

[ Vide Kaula Devi.] 

Dawani ( ^_j1,j), the philosopher, 

whose proper name is Jalal-uddin Muham- 
mad Asa'd Aldawiini, the son of Sa'd-uddin 
Asa'd Dawani. He lioiu-ished in the reign 
of Sultan Abii Sa'id and died, according 
to Haji Klialfa, in the year a.h. 908 
(correspondiug with a.d. 1502.) He is the 
author of the S/mrah Eawkal, AW<iq Jnlulx, 
Ixhat Wajih (on the existence of God), Uixala 
Zaura (on SCiflism), Ildshia Shamsia, and 
Anivdr Shdfia. He also wrote the Sharah 
'Aqded, and marginal notes on Sharah 
TajrU. The Akhhui Jalali is a translation 




from the Arabic, the original of whicli 
ai)pcared in the 10th century under the name 
of Kitab-nt-Tahdrat, by an Arabian author, 
minister of the imperial liouse of Buya. Two 
centuries after, it Avas transhited into Persian 
by Abii Nasr, and named Akhldq Nc'isin, or 
the morals of Nasir, being enriched "with 
some important adtlitions taken from Abu 
Sina. In the loth century it assumed a still 
fui'ther improved form, under the present 
designation, the Akh^fiq Jalall or morals of 
Jalal. This book, which is the most esteemed 
ethical work of middle Asia, was translated 
into English by W. F. Thompson, of the 
Bengal Civil Service, London, 1839. 

Dawar Bakhsh (Sultan) (/^^ i^^^^ 
(^ILLj), siirnamed Mirza Bulaqi, was 

the son of Sultan Kliusro. When his 
grandfather, the emperor Jahangir, died on 
his wav from Kashmir to Lahore in October, 
o.s. 1627, Safar, a.h. 1037, 'Asaf Khan, 
■wazir, who was all along determined to 
support Shah Jahan, the son of the late 
emperor, immediately sent off a messenger to 
summon him from the Deccan. In the 
meantime, to sanction his own measures by 
the appearance of legal authority, he released 
prince Dawar Bakhsh from prison, and 
proclaimed him king. Nur Jahan Begam, 
endeavouring to support the cause of Shahriar, 
her son-in-law, was placed under temporary 
restraint by her brother, the wazir, who 
then continued his march to Lahore. 
Shahriar, who was already in that city, forming 
a coaliti(m with two, the sons of his uncle, 
the late Prince Danial, marched out to oppose 
'Asaf Kliau. The battle ended in his defeat ; 
he was given up by his adherents, and after- 
wards put to death together with Dawar 
Bakhsh and the two sons of Danial, by orders 
from Shah Jahan, who ascended the throne. 
Elphinstone in his History of India says that 
Dawar Bakhsh found means to escape to 
Persia, where he was afterwards seen by the 
Holstein ambassadors. 

Daya Mai (J.* bo). Vide Imtiyaz. 
Daya Nath (a^jIj Uj). Vide Wafa. 

Dayanat Khan ( U 

J bo), title 

of Muhammad Ilusain, an amir of 2,500, who 
served under the emperor Shiih Jahan, and 
died at Ahmadnagar in the Deccan a. u. 1630, 
A.H. 1040. 

Daya Ram {Aj \jS), Pattha, a liero, 

renowned in the west of Ilindiistan for extra- 
ordinary stnmgth of body, extraordinary 
courage, and extraordinary achitvinuiits. 
lie was a Gwala by caste, and flourished in 
the reign of the emperor Farrukh-siyar. 
The wonderful feats of this man are sung 
or recited accompanied by tlie beat of a dhol 
throughout Hindustan. A full and affecting 
account of this hero is given in the Bnu/al 
Annual, published at Calcutta in 1833, p. 169. 

Daya Ram {J\. LjO), a cLief of 

Ilatras, tributary to the East India Company, 
who, about the year a.d 1814, confiding in 
the extraonlinary strength of his fort, showed 
a spirit of contumacy and disobedience. A 
train of Artillery was brought against this 
place from Cawnpore, imder Major-General 
Dyson Marshall ; and a few hours of its 
tremendous fire breached the boasted fortifica- 
tion. Daya Ram effected his escape by a 
sally-port, and was never heard of after. 

Deo Narain Singh (Aijwi ^}j^ *:\^) 

(K.C.S.I., Sir, Raja) of Banaras, diedsuddenly 
on the 28th August, 1870. 

Dewal Devi (,_c»_jJ J^-jO). Vide 
Kaula Devi. 

Dhara (KLjbj), the son of Eaja 

Todarmal. He was killed in a battle fought 
against Mirza Jiini Beg, ruler of Thatta, in 
November, a.d. 1591, Muharram, a.h. 1000. 

Dhola Rao {t\. i!^i^^>), the ancestor of 

the Kachhwaha Rajas of Ambir or Jaipur ; 
he lived about the year a.d. 967. 

Dhundia Wagh (i^^^j Aj JJ^J^J), the 

free-booter, who had for several years with 
a formidable baud, pillaged and laid waste 
the frontiers of Mysore. This robber assumed 
the lofty title of king of the two worlds, and 
aimed, doubtless, at carving out for himself 
some independent principality, after the 
example of Haidar 'Ali, in whose service he 
originally commenced his adventurous career. 
Subsequently he incurred the displeasure of 
TTpii Sultan, who chained him like a wild 
beast to the walls of his dungeons in Serang- 
apatam, from which "durance vile" he was 
liberated by the English soldiers after the taking 
of Serangapatam. He proceeded to threaten 
Mysore with 5,000 cavalry. The Govern- 
ment of Mackas instructed Colonel Wellesley 
to piu'sue him wherever he could be found 
and to hang him on the first tree. His sub- 
jugation and subsequent death (in 1800) with 
the extirpation of his formidable band of free- 
booters, relieved the English Government 
from an enemy who, though by no means 
equal to Haidar and Tipii, might eventually 
have afforded considerable annoyance. 

Dil (Jo), poetical name of Zorawar 

Kjuiu of Sirkar Kol. He is the author of a 
Diwiin aud a few Masnawis. 

Dilami (^^I'o) and SamanI were two 

dpiasties which divided between them the 
kingdom of Persia towards the beginning of 
the 10th centiu'y. They both rose to power 
tlirough the favour of the Khallfs of Ba gh dad, 
but they speedily threw off the yoke. The 




Dilami divided into two branches, exercised 
sovereign authority in Kirmiiu, Iraq, Fiiris, 
Khuzistan, and Laristan, always acknowledg- 
ing their nominal dependence on the l\lialTli, 
and during the whole period of their rule, 
one of the southern branch of this family was 
vested with the dignity of Amir-ul-Umra, or 
vizir, and managed the affairs of the Ivhalif ate. 
Several of the Dilami were able and wise 
riders, but Mahmiid of Gliazui put an end to 
the rule of the northern branch in a.d. 1029, 
and the Saljuqs subjugated the southern one 
in A.D. 1056, by the capture of Baghdad, 
their last stronghold. Their more powerful 
rivals, the Samani, had obtained from the 
Klialif the government of Transoxiana in a.d. 
874 ; and to this, Isma'il the most celebrated 
prince of the family, speedily added Ivhwarizni, 
Ealkh, Kliurasan, Sistan, and many portions 
of northern Turkistan. Rebellions of pro- 
vincial governors distracted the Samauida 
monarchy towards the end of the 10th ceutiu-y; 
and in a.d. 999 their dominions north of 
Persia were taken possession of by the Klian 
of Kiislighar, the Persian provinces being 
added by Mahmud of Gliazui to his dominions. 
See Samani. 

Dilawar Khan C^U- j^'^'^^' founder 
of the d\Tiasty of the Muhammadan kings 
of Malwa. The Hindu histories of tJie 
kingdom of Malwa go back as far as the reign 
of Eaja Bikarmajit, whose accession to that 
kingdom has given rise to an era which 
commences 57 years before Christ. After 
him reigned Raja Bhoj and many others who 
are all mentioned among the Rajas of 
Hindiistan. During the reign of Ghayas- 
uddin Balban, king of Dehli in the year a.d. 
1310, A.H. 710, the Muhammadaus first 
invaded and conquered the provinces of 
Malwa ; after which it acknowledged allegi- 
ance to that crown until the reign of 
Muhammad Shah Tug|ilaq II. a.d. 1387, 
A.H. 789. At this period Dilawar Klian, a 
descendant on his mother's side from Sultan 
Shahilb-uddin Ghori, was appointed governor 
of Malwa, previously to the accession of 
Muhammad Takhlaq, and he subsequently 
established his independence. In the year 
A.D. 1398 A.H. 801, MahmM Shah, king of 
Dehli, being driven from his throne by Amir 
Taimur (Tamerlane), made his escape to 
Gujrat, and then to Malwa, where he remained 
three years, after which, in a.d. 1401, 
A.H. 804, he, at the instance of the Dehli 
nobles, quitted Malwa, in order to resume 
the reins of his own government. Dilawar 
Khan shortly afterwards assumed royalty and 
divided his kingdom into estates among his 
officers whom he ennobled. Dilawar Khiin 
on assuming independence, took up his 
residence in Dhar, which place he considered 
as the seat of his government, but he fre- 
quently visited the city of Mando, remaining 
there sometimes for months together. He 
only survived his assumption of the royal 
titles a few years ; for in the year a.d. 1405, 
A.H. 808, he died suddenly, and his son Alp 
Khan ascended the tlirone under the title of 
Sultan llushau": Shah. Includinir Dilawar 

Khan eleven princes reigned in Malwa till 
the time of the emperor Ilumayim, whose 
son Akbar eventually subdued and attached 
it to the Dehli government. Their names 
are as follow : 

1. Dilawar Khan Ghori. 

2. Hushang Shah, son of Dilawar. 

3. Sultan Muhammad Shah. 

4. Sultan Mahmud I. Khilji, styled the 

Great, son of Malik Mughis. 

5. Ghayas-uddin Kliilji. 

6. Xasir-uddin. 

7. Mahnmd II. 

8. Bahadur Shah, king of Gujrat. 

9. Qadar Shah. 

10. Shujaa' Khan, and 

11. Baz Bahadur, son of Shujaa' Khan. 

Dilawar Klian {^J.:^ j^^^)) a noble- 
man of the reign of the emperor Shah Jahan, 
was the son of Bahadur Khan Rohila. He 
died at Kabul in the year a.d. 1658, a.h. 1068. 

Dildar Aga (liT j^j»!j\ one of the 

wives of the emperor Babar, and mother of 
Mirza Handul. 

Diler Himmat Khan {^Jd>~. ^ji-^AJb J j), 

original name of Xawab Muzaffar Jang of 
Farrukhabad, which see. 

Diler Khan (^l^ JS), a Daudzal 

Afghan, whose proper name was Jalal Klian. 
He was the younger brother of Bahadur 
Khan Rohila, and one of the best and bravest 
generals of the emperor 'Alamgir. He held 
the rank of 5,000, and died in'the year a.d. 
1683, A.H. 1094, in the Deccan. 

Diler Khan (^A_rL y---!^), title of 

'Abdul Raiif , the son of ' Abdid Karim, formerly 
in the service of the king of Bijapiir. After 
the conquest of that country, he joined 
'Alamgir and received the title of Diler 
Khan and the mansab of 7,000. He died 
in the reign of Bahadiu- Shah in the Deceau, 
where he held a jagir. 

Dilip Singh U^:^ '-rr^'^^^ Maharaja, 
often miscalled by Eiu'opeans " Dhideep 
Sing," the son of Rani Chanda Kunwar [q.v.). 
He became titular ruler of the Panjab a.d. 
1843, but was deposed by Dalhousie 1848; 
became a Christian and .settled for some years 
in England. Married an Egj-j^tian lady, by 
whom he had issue. Went to India, alleging 
grievances against the Government, but was 
not allowed to land. Abjured Christianity 
and declared himself a foe to the British race. 
"Was living on the Continent in 1890. 
[ Vide Lady Login's book cited above.] 

Dilras Bano Begam (*^ ylj jj*.Jj), 

daughter of Shahnawaz Klifm Safwl, the sou 
of Mirza Rustam Kandhari, and wife of tlio 
emperor 'Alamgir. Slie had anotiu'r sister 
who was married to Murad Bakhsh, brother 

of 'Alamgir. 




Dilshad Khatun (^^jL>. jLaJl)), 

daun-hter of Aniir Damisliq, the sou of Amir 
Jiil)au or Jovian, ami wife of Sultau Abii 
Sa'id Ivl^ifm. Ainlr llasaii Biizurg-, after the 
death of the Sultan iu a.d. 1335, took 
possession of Baghdad and married her, but 
the reigns of goveruuieut remaiued iu her 

Dilsoz (j._-^Jj), poetical title of 

KhairatI Kjiuu, a poet who lived about the 
year 1800. 

Din Muhammad Klian (a.4^-^'* ^J 

(^Iri-), the son of Jam Beg Sultan, 

and 'Abd-uUah I\han Uzbak's sister, was 
raised to the throue of Samarqaud after the 
death of 'Abdul Momiu K]ian, the sou 
of 'Abd-ullah Kliau, iuA.D. 1598, a.h. lOOG. 
He was wounded in a battle fought agaiust 
Shah 'Abbas the Great, king of Persia, and 
died shortly after. 

Diwan (^U_o), a collection of odes. 

The word is of frequent occurrence in Persian 

Diwana (<xJ^^o), poetical name of 

Muhammad Jau, who died in the year a.d. 
1737, A.H. 1150. 

Diwana (^tj^^jij), poetical name of Rae 

Sarabsukh, a relation of Raja Maha Narayan. 
He wrote two Persian Diwans of more than 
10,000 verses; most poets of Lucknow were 
his pupils. He died iu a.d. 1791, a.h. 1206. 

Diwana (a..j^^_j), poetical name of 

Mirza Muhammad 'All Klian of Jahanabad. 
He was employed at the ofhce of Mr. Colebrooke 


at Jahanabad. 
Diwanji Begam {J^ ^^^\y^S). 

was the mother of Arjumaud Bauo Begam 
Mumtaz Mahal, and the wife of 'Asaf Kjian, 
wazlr. On a spot of fifty bighas of laud ou 
the bank of the river Jamua, close to Tajganj, 
is to be seen her tomb of white marble. 

Dost 'Ali (^^ ^^^^^S), Xawab of 

Arkat and a relative of Murtaza Khan. TJuder 
him the atrocious seizure of Trichiuopoly was 
perpetrated by Chauda Sahib. He was suc- 
ceeded by his son Safdar 'All, who, after 
overcoming the effects of poison prepared for 
him by Murtaza KhiTn, fell by the poniard 
of a Patliau assassin, hired for the work by 
the same person. A storm was raised which 
he had not the courage to encounter ; and 
disguising himself in female attire, he escaped 
from Arkat to his o^vn fort of Vellore. 

Dost Muhammad Khan [sa,.^'* <j:^^tJ> 
ruler of Kaljul and (iaudabfir, was one of 

the brothers of Fatha Klian, the celebrated 
wazir of Mahuiiid, ruler of Hlrat and chief 
of the Barakzal clan. He was the most 
powerful chief in Alghrmistan, and had for 
some years previous to the restoration of Shah 
Shujaa'-ul-Mulk by the British in 1838, 
ruled that country. He was taken to Calcutta 
during the war, as related below ; but his 
son Akbar Khan (q.v.) defeated and for a 
time expelled the invaders and killed Shujaa' 
(q.v.). The following is a summary of the 
Dost's career : — • 

Ou the death of this prince. Dost Muham- 
mad again assumed the reins of government. 
On the base and cruel murder of Fatha 
Khan by Mahmiid, at the instigation of I'riuce 
Kamrau, his brothers revolted from their 
allegiance imder the guidance of Azim Klian, 
the governor of Kashmir, and di'ove Mahmud 
and his sou Kamrau from Kabul. Azim 
Khan in the first instance offered the vacant 
throue to Shah Shujaa', but offended by some 
personal slight withcbew his support, and 
placed iu his room, Aiyiib, a brother of Shah 
Shujaa', who was content to take the trappings 
with the power of royalty. On Azim KJiau's 
death, his brothers dissatisfied with their 
position conspired against his son, Habib- 
ullfili Kliau, and seizing his person, by threats 
of blowing him from a gun, induced his 
mother to deliver up the residue of Azim 
Kliau's immense wealth. Aiyiib's sou was 
killed in these disputes, and he himself, 
alarmed by these scenes of violence, fled to 
Lahore. Dost Muhammad Khan, the most 
talented of the brothers, then took possession 
of the throne and became de facto kiug of 
Kabul. Sher Dil Kjian, accompanied by four 
brothers, carried oli about half a uiilliou 
sterling of Azim Khan's money, and seated 
himself in Kandahar as an independent 
chieftain. He and one of his brothers died 
some years ago ; and Kandahar was until 
lately ruled by Kohan Dil I\han, assisted by 
his two surviving brothers llahira Dil and 
Mir Dil. In the year 1839 the British army 
entered Kabul and placed Sh;ih Shujaa'-ul- 
Mulk on the throne on the 8th May, and 
Dost Muhammad Kliiiu surrendered to the 
Britisli Envoy and Minister in Kabul on the 
4tli November, after having defeated the 2nd 
Bengal Cavalry, who were disbanded for their 
behaviour in the action of Parwan Darra. 
He was subsequently sent down to Calcutta, 
where he arrived, accompanied by one of his 
sous, ou the 23rd May, 1841. lie was set 
free iu November, 1842, and retm'ued to 
Kabul , where he reigned as before till his 
death, which took place on the 9th June, a.d. 
1863, 31st Zil-hijja, a.h. 1279 ; his youngest 
son Amir Sher Ali succeeded him. 

Doulat Khan Lodi (^4> J li;^ LT-JiJ), 
who, according to J^irishti, was an Af gh an 
by birth, originally a private Secretary, who 
after passing through various offices was 
raised by Sultan Mahmud Tughhuj, and 
attained the title of 'Aziz Mumalik. After 
the death of Mahmud, the nobles raised him 
to the throne of Dehll in April, a.d. 1413, 
Mubarram, a.m. 816. In March, 1414, loth 





Eabi I. A.H. 817, Ivhizir Khan, governor oi 
Multiin, invaded Dehli, and after a siege of 
four months obliged Doulat KliJin on the 
4th June, U14, Jamada I. a.h. 817, to sur- 
reudur. He was instantly confined in the 
fort of Firozabad, where he died after two 

Doulat Klian Lodi (j^J.l ^lU 

who invited Babar Shah to India, was a 
descendant of the race of that name, who 
heretofore reigned at Dehli. He was a poet 
and a man of learning. He died a short 
time before Babar conqured Dehli, i.e. iu 
the year a.d. 1526, a.h. 923. 

Doulat Khan Lodi Shahu Khail 

(J-.:5- ^jtl-i i^JjS ^1:5- LI— Ijj) was 

the father of the rebel Khan Jahan Lodi. 
He served under Mirza 'Aziz Koka, 'Abdul 
Eahim Khan Khauan, and Prince Danial 
for several vears, and was raised to the rank 
of 2,000. He died in the Deccan a.d. 1600, 
A.H. 1009. 

Doulat Rao SindMa (Maharaja) 

(i).==-^.L^ i'^su^ ^\j <s~^^S), of 

Gwaliar, a Mahratta chief, was the grand- 
nephew and adopted son of Madhoji Sindhia, 
whom he succeeded to the Raj of Gwaliar iu 
March, a.d. 1794, a.h. 1208. His \-iolence, 
rapacity and lawless ambition, were the main 
causes of the war in 1802 with the confederate 
Mahratta cliief tains. Hostilities having broken 
out with the British, Sir Arthur Wellesley 
(afterwards Duke of Wellington) defeated 
Doulat Rao at Assaye in 1803, while Lord 
Lake drove the Mahrattas from the whole of 
the Doab. He married Baiza Bald, daughter 
of Sherji Rao, Gliatgai, reigned 33 vears, and 
died on the 21st March, 1827, 21st Sh'aban, 
A.H. 1242. He was succeeded by Jhanko 
Rao Sindliia. 

Doulat Shah (iL-is tjL^Ji%S), son of 

Bakht Shah of Samarqand, and author of the 
Biography of Poets called Tazkira Doulat 
SMhl. iSe flom-ished in the reign of Sultan 
Husaiu Mirza of Herat, si.irnamed Abiil 
Ghazi Bahadur, and dedicated the work to 
his prime minister, the celebrated Amir 
Kizam - uddiu ' Alisher. This work was 
written in a.d. 1486, a.h. 891, and contains 
the Lives or Memoirs of ten Arabian, and one 
hundred and thirty-four Persian poets, with 
various quotations from their works, and 
anecdotes of the princes at whose courts they 
resided. It also gives an account of six poets 
then residing iu Herat ; two of whom were 
principal ministers of the Sultan ; viz. 
'Alisher and Amir Shaikh Ahmad Suheli. 
He died in a.d. 1495. 
[_Vide Faizi Kirmani.] 

Dundi Khan (<lL-.-&j. (^^=*- t=_^^^)> 

a Rohila chief, and son of Ali Muhammad 
Klian, the founder of the Rohila Government. 

In the partition of lands which were assigned 
to the chiefs, in the time of Hafiz Rahmat 
Kjian, Dundey Klian ol)tained the districts of 
Bisanii, Muradabiid, Chandpur and Sambhal 
in Rohilkhand. He cUed previous to the 
Rohila war which took place in a.d. 1774, 
leaving three sous, the eldest of whom, Muhib- 
ullah Khiin, succeeded to the largest portion 
of his territories. 

Dunyapat Singh (Raja) 

<L^^ <iL5li.-j). 

His father died in 

A.D. 1790, at which time he was only 
seven years of age. He inherited from his 
grandfather Riip Rae the Chaklas of Kora, 
Fathapiir and Kara, but was dispossessed 
by the Nawab "VVazir, and a Nankar allow- 
ance of 24,000 rupees granted to the Raja 
on his exclusion. This was subsequently 
reduced to 7,500 rupees. The original grant 
amounted to 52,000 per annum, payable from 
14 mahals, but in a.d. 1770, the Nawab 
Najaf Khan acquiring unlimited dominion 
over these provinces, dispossessed his father 
of eleven of the villages, by wliich his income 
was reduced to 20,000 rupees. In 1787 his 
father was dispossessed of the remaining three 
villages by Zain-ul-'Abidiu Khan, the 'Amil, 
but as the Riija was about to proceed to 
hostilities, the 'Amil agreed to allow liim 
10,000 rupees for the first year, and 20,000 
thereafter, but failed in the fulfilment of his 
promise. In a.d. 1792, Zain-ul-'Abidiu 
died, and was succeeded by his son Baqar, 
'All Klian, and from that period up to 1802 
the Raja Duniapat Singh was allowed 8,000 
rupees per annum, Avhich was conlirmed by 
Government in 1805 iu perpetuity. 

Dupleix, Joseph Francois, a French 

officer, governor of Pondicherry. In a.d. 
1750 he was elevated to the rank of a Haft 
Hazari, or Commander of seven thousand 
horse, and permitted to bear an ensign, 
assigned to persons of the highest note in the 
empire, by Muzaffar Jang, viceroy of the 
Deccan, after his victory over his brother 
Nasir Jang, who fell in battle on loth December 
of that year. But the ambitious plans of 
Dupleix were not approved by the French 
Government. He was suspended and sent 
home in 1754 ; and died in disgrace and 
poverty Nov. 10th, 1764. 

[Vide Mallcson's Dupleix, "Rulers of 
ImUa," 1890.] 

Durduzd (jj^jj). Vide 'All Durduzd 
of Astrabad. 

Durgawati (Rani) i^^j ^'%\.^jS), 
daughter of Rana Sarika. 
[ Vide Silhaddi.] 



Durgawati (Rani) (^-"i 15-*;^ 

the daughter of the Goud Raja of l\[ahnlia, 
who was much celebrated for her siugidar 




beauty. Overtures had been made for an 
union with Dalpat Sah, Raja of Sinjralgurh 
(which is situated on the brow of a hill that 
commands a pass on the road about halfway 
between Garda and Sang-ar) ; but the proposal 
was rejected on the ground of a previous 
engagement, and some inferiority of caste on 
the part of the Garha family, who M'ere of the 
race of the Chandeil rajpiits. Dalpat Sab 
was a man of uucommouly fine appearance, 
and this, added to the celebrity of his father's 
name and extent of his dominions, made 
DurgawatI as desirous as himself for the 
union, but he was by her given to understand, 
that she miist be relinquished or taken by 
force, since the difference of caste would of 
itself be otherwise an insurmountable obstacle. 
He marched with all his troops he could 
assemble, met those of her father and his 
rival, — gained a victory and brought off 
Dm'gawati as the prize to the fort of 
Singalgurh. Dalpat Sah died four years 
after their marriage, leaving a son named 
Bir Narayan about three yeai'S of age, and 
his widow as regent during his minority. 
Asaf l\han, the imperial viceroy at Kara 
Mfioikpur on the Ganges in the province of 
Allahriljad, invited by the prospect of 
appropriating so fine a country and so much 
wealth as she was reputed to possess, invaded 
her dominions in the year a.d. 1564, at the 
head of 6,000 cavalry and 12,000 well 
disciplined infantry, with a train of ai'tillery. 
He was met by the EanI at the head of her 
troops, and an action took place in which she 
was defeated. She received a wound from an 
arrow in the eye ; and her only son, then 
about 18 years of age, was severely wounded 
and taken to the rear. At this moment she 
received another arrow in the neck ; and 
seeing her troops give way and the enemy 
closing roimd her, she snatched a dagger 
from the driver of her elephant, and plunged 
it in her own bosom. Her son was taken off 
the field and was, unperceived by the enemy, 
conveyed back to the palace at Churagarh, to 
which Asaf Klian returned immediately after 
his victory and laid siege. The yormg prince 
was killed in the siege; and the women set 
fire to the palace under the apprehension of 
suffering dishonour if they fell alive into 
the hands of the enemy. Two females 

are said to have escaped, the sister of 
the queen, and a young princess, who had been 
betrothed to the young prince Bir Karayan ; 
and these two are said to have been sent to 
the emperor Akbar. In this district of 
Jabbalpur the marble rocks and the palace 
called Madan Mahal are worth seeing. There 
is some doggrel rhyme about this palace 
which is not generally known, though of some 
interest. This building stands on a single 
granite boulder, and was constructed by the 
Goud princess Bani Duragawati at the time 
of the jMulunnmadan invasion of Central 
India. Years after the cession of the country 
to the British, a wag of a Pandit wrote on the 
entrance door of the palace the following 
lines : 

Madan Mahal ke chhaiu me, 
Do tangon ke bich, 
Garsi nan lakh rupl, 
Aur sone ka do int. 

Translation — 

In the shade of Madan Mahal, 
Between two boulders. 
There are buried nine lakhs of rupees 
And two bricks of gold. 

It did not take long for the news of the 
appearance of this ^vTiting on the door to 
spread abroad, and the very person to fall a 
dupe to the Pandit's trick was Captain 
Wheatley, at that time a Political Assistant 
at Jabalpiir. lie nuistered some peons and 
labourers, and having proceeded to the spot 
commenced digging for the treasm-e on the 
part of Government. The native lady, in 
whose possession were the village lands on 
which the palace stood, came rushing down 
to the Agent to the Governor- General and 
represented that she was being plundered of 
her treasure by Captain Wheatley. "Pagli" 
replied Sir AVm. Sleeman, " he is as mad as 
you are ; the Pandit would not have divulged 
the secret were it of much value." Many 
years have since elapsed, and many others not 
possessed of Sir "William's wisdom have fallen 
dupes to the Pandit's poetical trick ; and, but 
for the very dm'able nature of the martas, 
there have been enough excavations made in 
and about the building to raze it to the 




Egypt, Kings of. Vide Moizz-li-diii- 

allah Abi Tamim Ma'd. 

Ekkoji (5^X0, the founder of the 
Tanjore family, was the son of Shahji Bhosla, 

the brother of Siwajl, but from another . 
consort. The principality of Tanjore was 
one of the oldest in the Mahratta confederacy, 
of which province Ekkoji obtained possession 
in A.D. 1678. 

[ 1lde Letter Y.] 




Faghfur ( ,^iAj), the general name of 
the kings of China. 

Faghfur Yezdi (>-io^ ^^JJj jjAki), 

(Hakira), a physician and poet of Persia, born 
at Yezd. He is the author of a Dlwan or 
Book of Odes, and has written several 
panegjTics in praise of the kings of Persia. 
He came to India in a.d. 1603, a.h. 1012, 
and was employed by prince Parwez, and died 
at Allahabad about the year a.d. 1619, 
A.H. 1028. 

Fahmi Kirmani (Maulana Sadr-uddin 

Muhammad) (Ijjj^ ^L#^.^ Li-^-l-* 

iX^.s'* ^_Jk!i . Jk*fl), a poet "who is the 

author of a Masnawi called Surat-wa-Ma'am, 
and also of some Qasidas, Gliazals, Satires, etc. 
He died in the year a.d. 1584, a.h. 993, in 
the fort of Tabrez, dming the time it was 
besieged by the Tiu'ks. 

Faiq i^\\i), or Payeq, poetical name 

of Moulwi Muhammad Faiq, author of the 
work called JUakhzan-ul-Fawatd. 

Faiz (j_^_li), or Fayez, poetical name 

of Shaikh Muhammad Faiz, a pupil of 
Muhammad Sa'id Ayaz. He is the author 
of a short Diwan, and was probably living in 
a.d. 1724, a.h. 1136. 

Faiz (^^^), the distinguished mystical 

philosopher and theologist, Mulla Mulisin of 
Kashau, commonly called Akhiiud P^aiz. He 
flourished under Shah 'Abbas II. of Persia, 
who treated him with great respect. He has 
written a great number of books, of which 
Kitdb 'Asafi, and Kitdb Safl are two 
Commentaries on the Quran. He died at 
Kashan in the time of Sliah Sulaiman of 
Persia, and his tomb is a place of pilgrimage. 

Faiz (^_^^i-j), poetical title of Mir Faiz 

'All, an Urdu poet of Delili. His father, 
Mir Muhammad Taqi, was also an elegant 
poet, and had assumed the title of Mir for 
his poetical name. Both Faiz 'All and his 
father were living at Dehli in the year a.d. 
1785, A.H. 1196. 

Faiz i^^i), a pupil of Mirza QatTl, and 

author of a poetical work contaiuing amorous 
songs in Persia, called DhcCoi Faiz. He was 
living in the time of Muhammad 'Ali Shah, 
king of Luckuow, about the year a.d. 1840, 
A.H. 1256. 

Faiz (^jaJ), poetical title of Faiz-ul- 

Hasan of Saharaupiir, author of the Hauzat- 
nl-Faiz, a poem composed in a.d. 1847, 
A.H. 1263. 

Faizi ( ^_^_<._i), of Sarhind. Vide 

Faizi Kirmani ( jL^^ ^^^jL-), a 

poet who rendered the Tazkira of Doulat 
Shah in Persian verses iu the time of the 
emperor Akbar, and altered the division of 
the original, making ten periods instead of 

\_Vide Lutfullah Muhammad Muhaddis.] 

Faizi (Shaikh) {-^-^ ^-^i^^, whose 

proper name was Abii'l Faiz, was the son of 
Shaikh ]\Iubarik of Nagor, and eldest brother 
or Shaikh Abii'l FazI, prime-minister and 
secretary to the emperor Akbar Shah. He 
was born on the 16th September, a.d. 1547, 
1st Shaban, a.h. 954, and was first presented 
to Akbar in the 12th year of his reign, and 
introduced his brother Abu'l Fazl six years 
later. After the death of the poet laureate 
Ghizali of Mashhad, about the year a.d. 1572, 
or some years after, or, according to the 
Mdsir-ul- Umrd, in the 33rd year of the 
emperor, Faizi was honoured with the title of 
Malik-ush-Shua'rd, or king of poets. In 
history, philosophy, in medicine, in letter 
writing, and in composition, he was without 
a rival. His earlier compositions in verse 
bear his titular name of Faizi, which he 
subsequently dignified into Fuiyazi, but he 
survived to enjoy his last title only one or 
two months, and then met liis death. Being 
desirous of rivalling the Kliamsa or the five 
poems of Nizami, he wrote iu imitation of 
them his Markaz Adwdr, Sidniinan and 
Bilkais, Nal Daman, Haft Kiskicdr, and 
Akbar ISama. The story of Nal Daman is 
an episode of the Mahabharat, which he 
translated into Persian verse at the command 
of the emperor Akbar. He was the first 
Musalmau that applied himself to a diligent 




study of Hindu, literature and science. 
Besides Sanskrit works in poetry and philo- 
sophy, he made a version of the Blja (Jaiiitd 
and L'lldwatl of Bhaskar Acharya, the best 
Hebrew works on Algebra and Arithinetic. 
He was likewise author of a great deal of 
original poetry, and of other works in Persian. 
He composed an elaborate Commentary upon 
the Qiu'au, making use of only those 13 out 
of the 28 letters of the Alphabet which have 
no dots, and which he named Saicdta^-td- 
llhdm ; a copy of this extraordinary 
monument of wasted laboiu- (says Elliot) 
is to seen in the Library of the East India 
House. There is also another book of the 
same description which he wrote and called 
Mawarid-ul- Ealam._ FaizI suffered from 
asthma and died at Agra on Saturday the 
4th October, o.s. 1595, 10th Safar, a.h. 
1004, aged 49 lunar years and some months ; 
and, as many supposed him to have been a 
deist, several abusive chronograms were 
written on the occasion, of which the follow- 
ing is one — " The Shaikh was an infidel." 
There is also an Insha or collection of Letters 
which goes after liis name. His mother cbed 
in January, a.d. 1590, a.h. 998, and his 
father in August, a.d. 1593, Zeqa'd, a.h. 
1001. He was a profound scholar, well 
versed in Arabic literatm-e, the art of poetry 
and medicine. He was also one of the most 
Toluminous writers that India has produced 
and is said to have composed 101 books. 
Faizi had been likewise employed as teacher 
to the princes ; he also acted as ambassador. 
Thus in a.h. 1000 he was in the Deccan, from 
whence he wrote the letter to the historian 
Budaoni, who had been in temporary disgrace 
at Court. 

[Vide Ai)i Translalio)i, i. 490.] 

Faiz-ullah Anju (Mir) (.sT^^ dIS\ j_^^ 

j^), a QazI who presided on the 

seat of justice in the reign of Sultan 
Mahmud Bahmani, king of Deccan, who 
reigned from a.d. 1378 to 1397, a.h. 780 to 
799. He was a good poet, and a contem- 
porary of the celebrated Kliwaja Ilafiz. 
Once presenting the Sultan with an ode of 
his own composition, he was rewarded with 
a thousand pieces of gold, and permitted to 
retire, covered with honours, to his own 

Faiz-ullah Khan (^l-i- aill j^-i), 

chief of the Eohelas and Jagirdar of Efunpur, 
was the son of 'All Muhammad K]ian Eohela. 
After the battle of Kutra in a.d. 1774, he 
retired to the Kamaon hills. By the treaty 
under Colonel Champion, he had. a territory 
allotted to him of the annual value of 14 lakhs 
of rupees. He chose the city of Rampur as 
the place of his residence, and after an un- 
interrupted and prosperous administration of 
20 years, he died in September, a.d. 1794, 
Safar, a.h. 1209, and was succeeded by his 
eldest sou Muhammad 'All l\han. This 
prince, in the course of a few days, in 1794 

was imprisoned and assassinated by his younger 
brother Glmlam Muhammad, who forcibly 
took possession of the government. The 
English, having espoused the cause of Ahmad 
All, the infant son of the murdered prince, 
defeated and took Ghulam Muhammad prisoner 
at Bithom-a. He was conveyed to Calcutta, 
where, under pretence of going on a pilgrim- 
age to Mecca, he embarked on board a ship, 
probably lauded at one of the ports in Tipii 
Sultan's dominions, and thence made his way 
to the court of Kabul in a.d. 1797, a.h. 1212, 
where, united with the agents of Tipii in 
clamours against the English, he urged 
Zaman Shah, the son of Taimiir Shah, to 
invade Hindustan, promising that, on his 
approach to DehlT, he should be joined by 
the whole tribe of Eohelas. The Nawab 
Ahmad All Khan died about the year a.d. 
1839, A.H. 1255. After the death of Ahmad 
All Klian, Muhammad Said Khan ascended 
the Masnad in 1840 ; after him Muhammad 
Yusuf All Kjian succeeded in 1855, who was 
living iu 1872. 

Fakhri (|_j .s*), son of j^Iaulana Sultan 

Muhammad Amiri of Herat. He is the 
author of the Jawdhir-ul-^ Jjdeb, Gems of 
Curiosities, being a biography of poetesses. 
He informs us that with the intention to 
perform the pilgrimage to Mecca, he came 
during the reign of Shah Tahmasp Iliisaini 
to Siadh ; the ruler of that country was then 
Isa TLirkhan (who died about the year a.d. 
1566, A.H. 974). Ilahi the poet calls the 
above-mentioned work Tazkirat-ul-Nisd. He 
is also the author of the Tahfat-ul-Eahib, a 
collection of Glmzals from the best authors. 

Fakhri (^ .s'*), a Persian poet who 

wrote a Dlwan of 10,000 verses in which he 
imitated most of the ancient masters, but as he 
had not much education he was not acknow- 
ledged by other poets. He dug a grave for 
himself outside the Isfahan Gate and made 
himself a tombstone, and visited his grave every 
Friday. He was living in a.d. 1585, a.h. 993. 

Fakhr-ud-daula (A!jjv!V^.sr), title of 

Abii'l Hasan 'All, a Sultan of the race of 
Buya, was the son of Sultan Kuku-ud-daula. 
He was born in a.d. 952, a.h. 341, and 
succeeded his brother Mowaiyad-ud-daula to 
the throne of Fersia in January, a.d. 984, 
Sha'bau, a.h. 373. He was a cruel prince, 
reigned 14 years, and died in August, a.d. 
997, Sha'bau, a.h. 387. He was succeeded 
by his son Majd-ud-daida. 

Fakhr-ud-danla (a!^a!1^.s:-'), a noble- 
man who was governor of Patna in the reign 
of Muhammad Shah, emperor of Dehli ; he 
held that situation till the year a.d. 1735, 
A. II. 1148, when it Avas taken away from him 
and confi'rred upon Shujaa'-uddin Nawab of 
Bengal, in addition to that government, and 
of the province of Urissa. 




Fakhr-uddin (^,jjjt i:*), one of the 

princes of the Druses, who, eiirly in the 17th 
ceutiu-y, conceived the idea of rendering him- 
self independent of the Porte. He was 
betrayed, carried a prisoner to Constantinople, 
■where he was strangled by order of Sultan 
Miu-ild IV. in a.d. 1631, a.h. 1011. 

Faklir-uddin Abu Mtihammad-bin- 
Ali az-Zailai (_\.^.^'« ^A ^jkJL.s-' 

*l1 "3 ljS Lif'^' ^^t^^or of a Com- 
mentary on the Kanz-nl-Baqiieq entitled 
Ta'ba'in-ul-Haqdeq, which is in great repute 
in India, on account of its upholding the 
doctrines of the Hanafi sect against those of 
the followers of Shafa'i. He died in a.d. 
1342, A.H. 743. 

Fakhr-uddin Bahman (Malik) { sr 

t—xL* ^j^ (.til-^^^^ third Sultan of 
the djTiasty of Kart or Kard, was the son 
of Malik Shams-uddiu Kart II. whom he 
succeeded to the throne of Herat, Balkh and 
Ghaznl in September, a.d. 1305, a.h. 705. 
He was contemporary with Sultan Aljaitii, 
surnamed Muhammad Kliuda Banda, king of 
Persia, who sent an army against him which 
he defeated. He died about the beginning 
of the year a.d. 1307, a.h. 706, and was 
succeeded by his brother Malik Ghayas-uddiu 
Kart I. who died in a.d. 1329. 



Fakhr-uddin Ismat-ullah 

died in a.d. 1426, a.h. 829 
[ Vide Asmat.] 

Fakhr - uddin Junan (Malik) ( .sr* 

C_isL« jjw*i>- mJ:1>^')> eldest son of 
Sultan Ghayas-uddin Tugblaq Shall I. On 
the accession of his father to the throne of 
Dehli, he was declared heir-apparent, with 
the title of Ulagh Khan, and all the royal 
ensigns conferred upon him. The names of 
his other brothers were Baliram Klian, Zafar 
Khan, Mahmud Klian and Nasrat Klian. 
After the death of his father in a.d. 1325, a.h. 
725, he succeeded him with the title of 
Muhammad Shah Tughlaq I. 

Fakhr - uddin Kha'lidi (Maulana) 

(Ij^^^ ^5A!l^^ i^tJw\ll^.s-), -who was 

commonly called " Bihishfi," is the author of 
a work called SJiarah-Fardez. He was the 
master of Maulana Mo 'in -uddin JawTni. 

Fakhr-uddin Mahmud Amir { j^' 

_--^' J»./*>.^'* -jwOi), son of Amir 
Temin-uddin Muhammad jMustiifi. He is 
generally known by his Takhalhis or poetical 
name, Ibu Yemiu, i.e. the son of Yemin- 

uddin. According to Dr. Sprenger's Cata- 
logue, he died in a.d. 1344, a.h. 745, and 
left panegjTics on the Sarabdal princes and 
some gbazals, but it is particularly his Qita's 
which are celebrated. 
[Vide Amir Mahmiid.] 

Fakhr-uddin Malik (t_^l„ ^a!|^^'). 
[ Vide Malik Fakhr-uddin, king of Bengal.] 

Fakhr-uddin Mirza (1 ; 


the eldest son of Bahadm- Shah II. ex-king 
of Dehli. He died before the rebellion, on 
10th Jidy, 1856. 

Fakhr-uddin (Maulana) ( ..jjJL.^' 

\jl^^), son of Mzam-ul-Haq, was 

styled Saiyad-ush-Shua'ra, or chief of the 
poets. He is the author of several works, 
among which are the following : Kizdm-ul- 
^ Aqdcd, Risdla Marjia and Fakhr -ul-Hasn. 
He died in the year a.d. 1785, a.h. 1199, 
aged 73 years, and lies buried close to the 
gate of the Dargah of Qutb-uddin Bakhtyar 
Kaki in old Dehli. His tomb is of white 
marble and has an inscription mentiouing his 
name and the year of his demise. His grand- 
sou Gliulam Nasir-uddiu, surnamed Kali 
Sahib, was a very pious and learned Musalman ; 
he too was a good poet and died in the year 
A.D. 1852, A.H. 1268. 

Fakhr - uddin Muhammad Razi 

(Imam) (^U^ ^cj|^ j.^^-* ^^j^ll^i:-*) 

was a doctor of the Shafa'i sect. He sur- 
passed all his contemporaries in scholastic 
theology, metaphysics and philosophy. He is 
the author of several instructive works, among 
which is one called E.addije'k-ul- Anuar , a 
book on different subjects which he dedicated 
to Sultan 'Ala-uddiu Takash, ruler of 
Khwarizm ; and another called Risdla Haiyat, 
or Geometry, dedicated to Sultan Balui-uddln 
Gliori. He was born at Kei on tlie 26th 
Januarj', a.d. 1150, 25th Kamazan, a.h. 
644, and died at Herat on Monday the 29th 
March, a.d. 1210, 1st Shawwal,'A.H. 6C6, 
aged 62 lunar years. His father's name was 
Ziya-uddin-bin-Umar. The title of Eazi 
attached to his name is because he was bom 
at Eei in Tabristan. He is the father of 
Kliwuja Nasir-uddiu Tiisi. 

Fakhr-uddin Sultan(^lLLj ^j j,n^ ), 

also called Fakhra, was the king of Sonargaon 
in Bengal, which adjoins the district of 
Pandiia. He was put to death by Shams- 
luldin, king of Lakhnauti, about the year a.d. 
1356, A.H. 757, who took possession of his 

Fakhr-ul Islam i^d^ji AJt\j^'), of 

Barod, the son of 'Ali. He is the author 
of the works called Usfd-ud din and Usui 
llqlia, and several other works. He died in 
A.D. 1089, A.H. 482. 




Fakhr-ullah Asad Jurjani (<)l_,J^ _i^ 

^-3l->-.-5f- Ju*.«ji). He flourished 

under the Saljuq princes, and is the author 
of the love adventures of Wais and king 
Efimin, originally in the Pahlawi language, 
called Jf^ais- ica-Jiaiiun . 

Fakhr-un-nissa Begam (l.wt^:J^ -s-* 

*,X-..j), the wife of jS'awab Shi;ja'at 

Khan. She is the founder of the mosque 
called " Fakhr-ul-Masajid," situated in the 
Kashmiri Bazar at Dehli, which she erected 
in memorv of her late husband in the year 
A.D. 1728^ A.H. 1141. 

Falaki ( iii), takhullus of a Persian 

poet whose proper name was Abu'l Nizam 
Muhammad Jalal-uddiu Shirwani. He is 
also commonly styled Shams-ush-Shua'ra, the 
Sim of the poets, and Malik-ul-Fuzla, king 
of the learned. His poems are preferred to 
those of Kliaqani and Zakir. Hamd-ullah 
Mustaufi calls him the master of Khaqani, 
but Shaikh 'Azuri makes mention in his 
Jawahir-ul-Asrar that Kliaqani and Falaki 
both were the pupils of Abii'l 'Ala of Ganja. 
There has been also another Falaki surnamed 
Abu'l Fazl, who was an author. Falaki died 
in A.D. 1181, A.H. 577. His patron was 
Manochehr Shirwani. 

Fanai (^ui), poetical name of Shams- 

uddin Muhammad-bin-Hamza. He was an 
author and died in the year a. d. 1430, a. h. 834. 

Fani ( Jlj) (perishable), the poetical 
name of Muhsin Fani, which see. 

Fani (^li), the Takhullus of Khwaja 

Muhammad Mo'in - uddin - bin - Muhammad- 
bin-MahmM Dihdar Fani. He came to 
India and stood in high favour with Abdul 
E.ahim Khan the Ivhau Khauau. He died in 
A.D. 1607, A.H. 1016, and left several works 
on Sufiism, as Shnrah Khutba, Hdihia Rdsha- 
hdt, Hi'iah ia Knflidt, JL'i/i/i ia bar- Gidshan Edz, 
and Albayan. He is also the author of a 
Diwfin in Persian, and a Masnawi or poem 
caWed ITaft Dilbar, i.e., the seven sweethearts, 
dedicated to the emperor Akbar. 

Faqir ( .^i), poetical name of Mir 

Nawazish 'Ali of Bilgaram. He died in 
the year a.d. 1754, a.ii. 11G7. 

Faiqr (Mir Shams-uddin) (^,« ^^.Li 

j^JwVjl ^jM.y*.J:i), of Dehll, wlio had 

also the poetical name of ]\Iaftun. From 
Dehli he went to Lucknow in a.d. 1765, 
A.H. 1179, and is said to have been drowned 

about the year 1767. He is the author of a 
Diwiiu and also of a Masnawi called Taswi)- 
Jll/ihabbat, containing the story of Earn 
C'hand, the son of a betel-vendor, composed 
iu a.d. 1743, A.H. 1156, and of several other 

Farabi (j^ ^A j^^li), commonly 

called so because he was a native of Farab, 
a tovra in Turkey. His proper name is Abu 
Nasr. He was one of the greatest Musalman 
philosophers, remarkable for his generosity 
and greatness of talents, whom we call 
Alfarabixs. He was murdered by robbers in 
Syria in a.d. 954, a.h. 313, "thirty years 
before the birth of Abii STua. Imad-uddin 
Mahmiid and Ahmad-bin-Midiammad were 
two authors who were also called Farabi. 

Faraburz (jjAji), the son of Kaikaus 
(Darius the Mede), king of Persia. 

Faraghi (Mir) {.^.^ 

^s.\j^), the 

brother of Hakim Fath-ullah Shirazi. He 
was living in a.d. 1563, a.h. 971, in which 
year the fort of Ranthanbiir was conquered 
by the emperor Akbar, on Avhich occasion he 
wrote a chronogram. 

Farai ('i^i), whose proper name was 

Abii Zikaria Yehia, was an excellent Arabic 
grammarian w'ho died in the year a.d. 822, 
A.H. 207. 

Faramurz ( • ^|^_i), son of Rustam, 

the Hercules of the Persians. He was assas- 
sinated by the order of Bahman, also called 
Ardisher Darazdast, king of Persia. There 
is said to have also been an author, named 
Muhammad bin- Faramurz, styled Shadid. 

Farasquri (^cj^_ii_^^_i), surname of 
Muhammad bin - Muhammad - al - Hanifa, 

Imam of the mosque named Gouride, at 
Grand Cairo, who floirrished about the year 
A.D. 1556, A.H. 964, and was an author. 

Fard (j.i), poetical name of Abii 1 

Hasan, the sou of Shah Na'mat-ullah. He 
died in the year a.d. 1848, a.h. 1265, and 
left a Diwau. 

Farghani ( jli^j), commonly called 

so liocause he was a native of Farghana, but his 
full uauKus Ahmad or Mnhamraad-ibn-Kasir- 
al-Farghaui, a famous Arabian astronomer 
whom we know under the name of Alfragan 
or Alfraganius. He flourished in the time 
of the Klialif-al-Mamiin, about the year 
A.D. 833, A.H. 218, and is the author of an 
introduction to Astronomy, which was printed 
by Golius, at Amsterdam, in 1669, with notes. 




Farliad (jLjS;_j), the lover of the 

celebrated Sliirin, the wife of Kluisro Parwez, 
kinj^ of Persia. The whole of the sculpture 
at Behstun in Persia is ascribed to the chisel 
of Farhad. He was promised, we are told 
in Persian Romance, that if he cut through 
the rock, and brought a stream that flowed 
on the other side of the hill to the valley, 
the lovely Shirin (with whom he had fallen 
distractedlv in love) should be his reward ; 
he was on the point of completing his labour, 
when Khusro Parwez, fearing to lose his 
mistress, sent an old woman to inform Farhad 
that the fair object of his desire was dead. 
He was at work on one of the highest parts 
of the rock when he heard the mom-nful 
intelligence. He immediately cast himself 
headlong, and was dashed in pieces. Vide 

Farhat (. 

J), poetical name of 

Shaikh Farhat-ull&h, son of Shaikh Asad- 
ulliih. He wi-ote a Diwan in Urdu and 
died in the year a.d. 1777, a.h. 1191, at 

Farhat Kashmiri {^j^^aJ^S \.jL^s^Ji), 
a poet who was li\ing in a.d. 1724:, a.h. 1136. 

Farid Bukhari (Shaikh) (^.Ibir ^>j y 


ti), commander of the Agra city 

guards when Akbar died. Great honoiu-s 
were conferred on him by the emperor 
Jahangir, on account of his services. He 
received the title of Murtaza Khan, and 
managed the affairs of the empire till he was 
rtiidt-red unfit for business by a stroke of the 
palsv, which opened the way for the promotion 
of Ya'timad-uddaula, the father of the empress 
Niir Jahau. He died a.d. 1616, a.h. 1025. 

Farid Katib (s 
uddin Katib. 

^■1< Jc' j). Vide Farld- 

Farid or Farid-nddin Ahwal (jk_j ._• 

J»=^^ i^.'^^) (tli6 squinting), a poet 
of Persia who was a native of Asfaraen in 
Kliurasan and contemporary wilh Imami 
HirwT. Kliwaja Xizam-uddin Abii Bakr 
the Wazir of Azd-uddin Sa'd was his patron. 
He died at Isfahan and left a Diwan contain- 
ing 5,000 verses. 

Farid or Farid-uddin (Shaikh) (-\.v 

.L^ t-'^^), a cele- 

brated Muhammadan saint, who is styled 
Shakar Gauj, on account of his having, it is 
said, mii'acidously transmuted dust or salt 
into sugar. His father's name was Shaikh 
Jalal-uddin Sulaiman, a descendant of 
Farrukh Shah of Kfibul. He was a disciple 
of Khwaja Qutb-uddin Bakhtyar Kaki, and 

was contemporarv with Shaikh Sa'd-uddin 
Hamwia, Saif -uddin Makharzi, and Baha- 
uddin Zikaria, all of whom died successively 
a short time after one another. He was born 
in A.D. 1173, A.H. oG9, died on Saturday the 
17th October, a.d. 1265, 5th Muharram, 
A.H. 664, aged 95 lunar years, and is buried 
at Ajiidhan, a place commonly called Patau 
or Pak Patau in Midtan. The anniversary 
of his death is celebrated every year on the 
5th of Muharram, when a great crowd of 
Muhammadans assemble together to pray at 
his tomb. 

Farid-uddin (( j'l^ ^^-J^lj^j ,i), com- 
monly called Farid Katib, was a pupil of 
AuwarT, a good poet and secretary to Sidtan 
Sanjar. When that prince was defeated by 
the monarch of Qara Ivhatai in a.d. 1140, 
A.H. 535, and fled with a few followers to 
Kjuu-asan, Farid consoled him by composing 
an ode upon the occasion, in which he says, 
" that every thing must change, but that the 
condition of God alone was not liable to 

Farid-uddin Attar (Shaikh) {s.}j^ 
^.-i) jl.Li_c |^_Jk.I\), surnamed Mu- 
hammad Ibrahim, was a dealer in perfumes, 
from which he took his poetical name " 'Attar." 
He afterwards retired from the world, became 
a disciple of Shaikh Majd-uddin Baghdad!, 
and lived to a great age, namely, that of 114 
lunar years. He was bom at Shadyakh, a 
village in Naishapiir in the reign of Sultan 
Sanjar in November, a.d. 1119, Sha'ban, 
A.H. 513, and, whenatthe siege of Naishapur, 
the son-in-law of Changez Khan, the Tartar, 
was killed, a general massacre of the inhabi- 
tants of that place was made by the Mughals, 
among the number that were slaiu being 
Farid-uddin. This circumstance took place 
on the 26th April, a.d. 1230, 10th Jamad II. 
A.H. 627. He is the author of 40 poems and 
several prose works, amongst the latter 

The following are his poems: — 
Asrar Nama. Ilahi Xama 

Ashtiu- Xama. K]iayat Xama. 

Ausat Xama. Kanz-ul-Haqaeq. 

Besar Xama. Lisan-ul-Gliaib. 

Bulbul X^'ama. Mansiir X^'ama. 

Gul-wa-Ivliusro or Miftah-ul-Fatuh. 

Hurmuz. Mazhar-ul- ' Ajaeb. 

Haidar Xama. Mantiq-ul-Tair. 

Haft Wadi. Mukhtar Xama. 

Haqaeq-ul-Jawahir Musibat Xama. 

Ilallaj Xama. Pand Xama. 

Jawahir-ul-zat. Sipah Xama. 

Kluisro Xiima. "Wald Xama. 

Kanzan Makhfia. "Wasiat Xama. 

Kiint Kauz Makhafia. 

Besides the above, he is also the author of 
a Diwan containing 40,000 verses. 

Faridun (^ji^ju -i), an ancient king of 
Persia, the son of Abtin, an immediate 




descendant of Talmuirs, king of Persia. He 
had escaped, it is said in a miraculous manner, 
from Zuliaq, when that prince had seized and 
murdered his father. At the age of 16 he 
joined Kawa or Gawa, a blacksmith, who 
had collected a large body of his countrymen ; 
these fought with enthusiasm under the 
standard of the blacksmith's apron, which 
was afterwards converted into the royal 
standard of Persia, called the Durafsh 
Kawani. Zuhiiq, after numerous defeats, 
was made prisoner, and put to a slow and 
painful death. Faridun, who was a very 
just and virtuous king, had three sons, viz., 
Salm, Tur, and Iraj, among whom he 
divided his kingdom ; but the two elder, 
displeased that Persia, the fairest of lands and 
the seat of royalty, shoidd have been given to 
Iraj their junior, combined to effect his ruin, 
and at last slew him, and sent his head to 
Faridiin. The old man fainted at the sight, 
and when he recovered he called upon Heaven 
to pimisli the base penetrators of so unnatural 
and cruel a deed. The daughter of Iraj was 
married to the nephew of Faridun, and their 
yoimg son Manucliehr proved the image of 
his grandfather. "When he attained manhood, 
the old king made every preparation to enable 
him to revenge the blood of Iraj. A war 
commenced ; and in the first battle Salm and 
Tiir were both slain. Faridun soon after- 
wards died, and was succeeded by Manuchehr. 
Persian authors assure us that Faridun 
reigned 500 years. 

Faridun (^jS.}^.j), a Turk who wrote 

a Commentary in the Turkish language on 
the Gliazals of Hafiz. 

Farigh (i l_j), author of the 



called Masiiawl Fdricjh, which he composed 
in A.D. lo92, A.H. lOUO, in which year, he 
says, Shah 'Abbas conquered Gilan, and to 
whom it was dedicated. 

Faris Ecchidiak(^^ ,li), an Arabic poet 

and litterateur, born about the year a.d. 179G . 
In religion he was a Syrian Christian. He 
is the author of st^veral works. AVhen in 
London he published his revised text of the 
New Testament in Arabic. His Diwan in 
Arabic is highly spoken of by whose who 
have seen it. He was living in 1860. 

Fariz {^^ {.'s), or Ibn Fariz, surname 

of Aim Ilafs Sliaraf-uddin ITmar bin-al- 
Asa'di, bin-al-Mursliid, l)in-Ahmad al Asa'di, 
a very illustrious Arabian poet. Ho was born 
at Cairo a.d. 1181, a.h. 577, and died there 
in the year a.d. 1234, a.h. 632. 

Farkhari (^c^lrL^), a poet who was 

in the service of Amir Kaikaus, and is the 
author of the story of WCimiq-iva-Uzra, in 

Farkliunda Ali Khan (Mir) {iSui^jS 

.-.^ c^^^ ij^^^f Nizam of Deccan, 

He succeeded his father Sikandar Jah in the 
government of Haidarabad in a.d. 1829. 
[ Vide Afzal-uddaula.] 

Faroghi Kashmiri (^^.^tJ^J <^ij-\ 
a poet Avho died in a.d. 1666, a.h. 1077. 

Faroghi (Maulana) (IjL^ i_s^ij'^^ ^^ 

Qazwln in Isfahan ; he was a dealer in 
perfumes, but an excellent poet, and lived in 
the time of 'Abbas the Great. 

Farrukhi (^>-y), or Faikhi, a poet 

who flourished in the time of Sultan ]Mahmud 
of Cxliuzni, was a pupil of Unsari the poet, 
and a descendant of the royal race of the 
kings of Sistan. He is the author of a work 
called Turjumdn - ul - Bahlghtt, and of a 
Diwan in Persian. He wrote several pane- 
gyrics in praise of Abu'l Muzaffar, the son 
of Amir Nasr and grandson of Nasir-iuldin, 
ruler of Balkh. 


Farrukh Fa'l ( Jli ^i^j), a son of 

emperor Ilumayun by Mah Chiichak Begam, 
born at Kabul in a.d. 1555, a.h. 962. 

Farrukh-siyar (Muhammad) {^^ _: j 

S^s.''*), emperor of Dehll, born on 

the 18th July, o.s. 1687, 18th llamazau, 
A.H. 1098, was the son of Azim-ush-Shan, 
the second son of Bahadur Shah I. and great- 
grandson of the emperor Alamglr. His father 
was killed in the battle fought against 
Jahandar Shiih, his uncle and pi'edecessor. 
One of Jahandar Shah's first acts on his 
accession to the throne had been to pxit all 
the princes of the blood within his reach to 
death ; among those whom he could not get 
into his power was Farrukh-siyar, who was 
in Bengal at the time ot his grandfather 
Bahadiu- Shah's death. But when the 
information of his father's death reached 
him, he threw himself on the compassion and 
fidelity of Saiyad Husain Ali KJnTn, tlie 
governor of Behar, who warmly espoused his 
cause, and prevailed on his brother, Saiyad 
Abdullah K]ian, governor af Allahabad, to 
adopt the same course. By the aid of these 
noblemen, Farrukh-siyar assembled an army 
at Allahfdjad, marched towards Agra, 
defeated Jahandar Slifdi, took him prisoner, 
and having murdered him, ascended the 
llironc in the fort of Delili on Friday the 9th 
Jauuai'y, o.s. 1713, 23rd Zil-hijja, a.h. 
112t. The former Amir-ul-Umra Zulfiqar 
Kiuin and many other nobles and dependants 
of the late emperor were put to death by the 
bow-string and other ])imishments. Raja 
Sabhchand, Diwan to the late Amir-ul-Umra, 
had his tongue cut out : Aziz-uddin, son of 
JahaudiTr Shah, 'Ali Tabar, the sou of 'Azim 




Shah, and Humapiu Bakht, younger brother 
to Farrukh-siyar were deprived of their 
sight by a red hot iron ckawu over their eyes. 
On Farrukh-siyar's accession, Abdullah 
Klian, the eldest brother, was made Wazir 
with the title of Qutb-ul-Mulk, and Husaiu 
All Klian raised to the rank of Aniir-ul- 
Umni (Commander-in-Chief) which was the 
second in the State. The emperor's nuptials 
with the daughter of Eaja Ajit Singh of Marwar 
were celebrated with unprecedented splendour 
in the year a.d. 1716, a.h. 1128. Farrukh- 
siyar had not long enjoyed the throne, when 
a jealousy arose between him and the Wazir 
Qutb - ul - Mulk ; and upon the emperor 
trving to form schemes for the recovery of 
his independence, he was deposed, blinded and 
imprisoned by the two brothei-s. This event 
took place on the 18th February, o.s. 1719, 
8th Rabi' II. a.h. 1131, and not" long after he 
was murdered on the 16th May, a.d. 1719, 
9th Rajab, a.h. 1131, following, and buried 
in the court of the mausoleima of the 
emperor Humayun at Dehli. He had reigned 
6 years 3 months and 15 days. After his 
deposal the Saiyads set up a prince of the 
blood to whom they gave the title of Rafl- 
ud-Darjat. It was from FaiTukh-siyar that 
the East India Company obtained their 
Farman of free trade, with leave to purchase 
thirty-seven districts in Bengal, besides 
various privileges ; little attention was how- 
ever paid to it by the Subahdar till the 
English acquired force to give it weight. 

Farrukhzad (j\--^), a prince of 

Persia of the Sasanian race. 

Farrukhzad (jV,.j.,i), son of Sultan 

IMasa'iul I. of Gliazui, began to reign after 
the death of his brother Sidtan Abdul Rashid, 
in Jlarch, a.d. 10o3, a.h. 444. He reigned 
6 years and died in the latter part of the year 
a.d. 1058. when his brother Sultan Ibrahim 
succeeded him. 

Farsi (^--i^i V. (C-y\ or FarasT, sur- 
name of Abii'l Fawaris Ibrahim, a Persian 

Farsi ( ^ i), poetical name of Sharif 
Klian Amir-ul-Umra, which see. 

Faryabi. Vide ZaliTr-iuldm Faryabl. 

Faryad (jljy), the poetical name of 

Lala Sahib Rae, a Kayeth of Lucknow. He 
originally had assumed Qurlian, for his 
poetical name, but latterly changed it to 
Faryad. He was living in a.d. 1782, a.h. 

Farzada Quli (^Ij ^Jj/), author of a 

Catalogue of books in the Arabic, Persian, 
and Hindi lansruages, amountiuir, on a rounh 

estimate, to upwards of 2,000 volumes. From 
its mentioning the Diwan of Sanda, it 
appears that it was written within the last fifty 
or sixty years. It also mentions the Mustafa, 
Ndma, in the metre of the Shah Nilma, 
embracing the history of Persia from Muham- 
mad to Tahmasp Shah Safwl, amounting to 
104,000 couplets; also of a Persian trans- 
lation of the Muqamat of Harizi. Jour, of 
the Roy. As. Soc. No. XI. 

Farzadaq ( vJ; ,«), the son of Ghalib, 

called the master of Arabian poets, was an 
author, and had the whole Qiu-an by heart.. 
He died in a.d. 728, a.h. 110, aged upwards 
of 70 years. He flourished in the reign of 
Abdul Malik, the son of Marwan I. who 
imprisoned him because he wrote a panegjTic 
in praise of Imam 'All Zain-ul-'AbidTn, son 
of Imam Husaiu, but was released, after the 
death of the khalif, by his son "NValid. His 
Diwan in Arabic is much esteemed in Hajjaz 
and Iraq. 

Fasihi Ansari (o*;-* i^J^\ ,js:\-^i), 

of Herat, a Persian poet, who flourished 
about the year a.d. 1595, a.m. 1004. He 
never came to India. He died in a.d. 1636, 
A.H. 1046. 

Fasih - uddin Muhammad Nizami 

Maulana ( ^.^Uij sa^'^ ,.t-'-^^ -s^-^^ 

L!l!y«), author of the Sharah Ju gh mini. 

Fassi ( M^), surname of Faqih-uddlii 

Muhammad-ibn-Ahmad 'Ali-al-HusainT ; he 
was a native of Fass (Fez), on which account 
he was called Fassi. He was an author and 
Qilzl of the city of Mecca, and died a.d. 1429. 
A.H. 833. 

Fatha All Husaini ( 


author of the biography called Tazlcirat-ush- 
Sliua'rde Hindi." It contains the Memoirs 
of 108 Hindi and Deccaui authors, with 
numerous extracts from their works. 

Fatha 'All Shah (iLi l^ ^i), king 

of Persia, was a Turkman of the tribe of 
Kajar. He succeeded his rmcle 'Aka 
Muhammad Khan to the throne of Persia 
in A.D. 1797, A.H. 1212. He had received 
an excellent education, and possessed some 
literary accomplishments ; was a tolerable 
poet, and fond of the society of the learned, 
whom he generously patronized. He reigned 
nearly 40 years and died in the year a.d. 
1834, A.H.' 1250. After him Muhammad 
Shah, the son of 'Abbas Wnv.a. and grand- 
son of Fatha 'Ali Shiih, mounted the throne 
and died in a.d. 1847, when his son Naslr- 
uddln Ahmad Shah, the jiresent king, suc- 
ceeded him. It was to the court of Fatha 
'All Shfih that Sir John Malcolm in 1800 
led the magnificent embassy which Lord 




"Wellesley liad despatched from Calcutta, with 
the ^•ie^v of trunipiug Bonaparte's cards in 
the East, and of phiying off a Persian ally 
on our Indian frontiers against an Af gh an 
ill-wisher, the ambitious Zaman Shah. 

Fatha Haidar {jS^>- ^i), the eldest 
son of Tippii Sultan. 

Fatha Khan (^l-r^ ^J), the son of 

Sultan Firoz Shah Barbak, king of Dehll, 
and brother of Zafar Klian. 

[^Vide Firoz Shah Barbak.] 

Fatha Khan (^\:>~ ^i), Nawab of 

Fatha Khan (^l>- Jii), brother of 

Dost Muhammad Klian, ruler of Kabul. 
The celebrated Wazir of Mahmud, ruler 
of Herat and chief of the Barakzai clan, 
whose family drove away the descendants of 
Ahmad Shah Abdali from Kabul. 

Fatha Khan (^l^L ^.), the son of 

Malik 'Ambar, the Abyssinian chief of Ahmnd- 
nagar in tlie Deccan, who had the Nizam 
Shall! dominions imder his control for some 
years. After his father's death in a.d. 1626, 
A.H. 1035, he succeeded to his authority ; 
but Murtaza Nizam Shah II. being weary 
of his control, took him prisoner by treachery, 
and confined him in the fort of Kliyba'r. 
Having made his escape, he rebelled, but 
was again taken, and confined in Daulat- 
abad. He was released in time, and appointed 
generalissimo by the influence of his sister, 
mother to Nizam Shah. He shortlv, to 
prevent another removal from office, confined 
the Sultan under pretence of insanity, and 
put to death twenty -five of the principal 
nobility in one day, writing to the emperor 
Shah Jahan that he had thus acted to 
prevent them from rebelling against him. 
The emperor in reply commended his attach- 
ment, and ordered him to put the captive 
prince to death, which he did aliout the year 
AD. 1628, A.H. 1038, and placed his son 
Husaiu, an infant of ten years, on the throne. 
Fatha Khan, by offering a present of eight 
lacs of rupees, and agreeing to pay tribute, 
was allowed to keep what territory yet 
remained to the Nizam Shahi sovereignty. 
In the year a.d. 1634, a.h. 1044, Fatha 
Khan was forced to sin-render ; and the fall 
of this place put a final period to the Nizam 
Shahi dj'uasty, which had swayed the sceptre 
for 150 years. Husain Nizam Shah was 
confined for life in the fortress of Gwfilinr, 
but Fatlia Kliau was received into favour, and 
was allowed to retire to Lahore on a pension 
of two lacs of rupees, which he enjoyed till 
his death. 

Fatha Naek (lLCIS J^i), the father 

of Haidar 'Ali Khan, the usurper of Mysore 
and Seringapatam. He died in a.d. 1738, 
and was buried at Kolar, a capital of seven 
parganas, about 35 miles east of Bangalore. 

Fatha-puri Mahal (J..s'* i_5,»J ^i), 

or Begam, one of the wives of the emperor 
Shah Jahan. She was the founder of the 
Fathai)firi Masjid in Dehli. 

Fatha Shah ( ^ .y ili, ^i), Purbl, 

succeeded Yiisaf Shah to the throne of 
Bengal in a.d. 1482, a.h. 887, and after a 
reign of about eight years was murdered in 
A.D. 1491, A.H. 896, by the euuucli Sultan 
Shahzada, who succeeded him. 

Fatha-uHah Imad Shah (a..iJl ,^.3 

iL-i) jl./»,.c), originally in the service 

of Sultan Mahmiid Shah II. Bahmani, king 
of Deccan, was made governor of Berar. 
He became independent about the year a.d. 
1484, and died about the year a.h. 1513. 
His son 'Ala-uddln 'Imiid Shah succeeded 

[Vide 'Iraad-ul-Mulk.] 

Fatha-ullah Mustaufi (cuLll 


J»^.AM.^), surnamed Faldir-uddln, 

M'as a good poet and served imder Kliwaja 
Rashid-uddin, Fazl-ullah and his son Gliayas- 
uddin Muhammad, as secretary. He is the 
brother of Khwaja Hamd-ullah Mustaufi, 
who died in a.d. 1349. 

Fatha-nllah Shirazi Amir (a1.]\ 



,^-*\ ^-.^.-Jb), one of the most learned 

men of his time. He came from Shiraz to 
Deccan and passed a few years in the service 
of Sultan Ali Adil Shah of Bijapiii-. After 
the death of that king, he left Deccan and 
came to Dehli in the year a.d. 1582, a.h. 
990, and had an houourable office assigned to 
him bv the emperor Akbar, near his person, 
with the title of Azd-ud-daula. He died on 
Wednesdav, the 3rd Shawwal, 997 Hijri, the 
24th Amardad Mah Ilahi, in the 34th 'year of 
Akbar' s reign, corresponding with the 6th 
Augu-st, o.s. 1589, at Sirinagar the capital of 
Kashmir, where he had proceeded with his royal 
master. The emperor was much grievinl at his 
loss ; and Sliaikh Faizi wrote an appropriate 
epitaph on the occasion. Fifteen days after 
his death died also the Hakim Abii'l Fatha 
(Jilani, the brother of Hakim Hamau, who 
was then with the king proceeding to Kabul. 
Sarii Sawaji wrote the chronogram of their 




Fathi ( .sLi), a poet of Ardastau, 
who died iu a.d. 1635, a.h. 1045. 

Fathi 'Ali Husaini Gurdezi. Vide 

Fatima (cul?li), the claughter of Mu- 
hammad and his wife Kliudija. She was 
born at Mecca five years before her father 
gave himself out for a prophet, i.e., about 
the year a.d. 606, and died about six months 
after him, in the city of Medina on the night 
of Monday the 23rd November, a.d. 632, 
3rd llamazan, a.h. 11. She was married to 
Ali, Muhammad's cousin - german, and 
became the mother of the Imams Hasan and 
Husain. She passes for a very holy woman 
amongst the Miisalmans, and is also called by 
them Batiil, Tahira, Mathara, and Zahra. 

Fatima "bint Asad {sJ\ ^^:^Ui d.A^\i), 

the daughter of Asah, the son of Hashim. 
Slie was the wife of Abu Tiilib and mother of 

Fatima Sultan (^Ikl^ <ul:li), one of 

the wives of Umar Shaikh Mirza, and 
mother of the prince Pir Muhammad 


Fatimites, or kings of Barbary and 

Egypt of the Fatiiuite dynasty. 

{Vide Muizz - li - din - allah and Obeid- 
uUah AlmahdL] 

FattaM Naishapuri Maulana ( ,>.l:ii 

lj^»^* ,4jLl-.j), an autlior -^'lao died 

A.D. 1448, A.H. 852. 
[FiV/e Yahia (Mulla).] 

Fauji (jc^y), poetical name of Mirza 

j\Iuhammad Muqim ; he was born at Shiraz 
but came to India in the time of Shah Jahan, 
and was attached to the service of his son 
Shah Shujii'a in Bengal. After a long 
residence in India he retm-ned to his father- 
land, but died in a short time after his 
arrival there. He was living in a.d. 1649, 
A.H. 1059, and has left a Diwan iu Persian 
verse. As he was employed in the army he 
derived his poetical title from Faitj, i.e. army. 

Faulad Khan (Shidi) (^Lri. S^l^i 

^_sJk-»-l), an Abyssinian ■who was at 

Kotwal iu tlie time of the emperor Muham- 
mad Shrdi, about the year a.d. 1737, a.h. 
1150, and on whom a satire was written by 
file poet Sauda. He had built a fine garden 
in Agrali, of which no traces are to be seen 

Fauraq^ i/ij^^), surname of Abu Bakr 

Muhammad, bin-Hasan, bin-Fauraq, com- 
monly called ibn-Fanraq, was a great 
Metaphysician and Schoolman, for which 
reason lie is styled Mutkallim. He was born 
at Isfahan, and died in the city of Naishapiir, 
in K]iurasau, a.d. 1015, a.h. 406. 

Fawad Muhammad Pasha (j^»-i 

l^L) J^js'*), a Turkish statesman 

and litteratem- of Constantinople, son of Izzat 
Mulla, and nephew of Laila Khatiin, a 
Turkish poetess. He is the author of several 
works. He was living in a.d. 1870, and has 
been loaded with distinctions by European 

Fayyaz (^Li). 

of Lahijan. 

Vide 'Abdul-Eazzaq 

Fayyazi ( ^^J). Vide Faizi (Shaikh). 

Fazal Khan (^l:>- (_MJ)> governor or 

kiladar of the fort of Agra, was turned out by 
Siirajmal Jat, who took possession of the fort 
and plundered everything he could lay his 
hands upon. 

Fazil (J.«,iLj), a poet "who flourished 
about the year a.d. 489. 

Fazl Ali Khan {^6- ^J^^ t^.'^.i), a 

poet who flourished iu the time of the 
emperor Muhammad Shah of Dehli, and 
was living in a.d. 1739, a.h. 1152. 

Fazl Ali Khan (^l.^ («-^ J-^)> 

whose entire title was Nawab Ta'timad-ud- 
daula Zaya-ul-Midk Saiyad Fazl 'Ali Khiin 
Bahadm- " Solirab Jang^ was the prime 
minister of the king of Audh Ghazi-ud-din 
Haidar, and was li\ing in a.d. 1829. 

Fazl Barmaki {S i*j J-iJ), brother 

of 'Jafar-al-Barmaki, the minister of Hariin" 
al-Rashid Khalifa of Baghdad. 
[ Vide Jafar-al-Barmaki.] 

Fazl Haq (^s- J<.ii), the son of Fazl 

Imam. He wrote prose and poetry as did 
also his father. His Qasldas are much 
esteemed. At the oiitbrcak of 1857, he joined 
the rebel Xawab of Bauda and others, and was 
said to have been killed at Narod in an attack 
made bv General Napier on the 1 7th December, 
A.D. 1858. A.H. 1274. 'n\c iJchn Gazcttc,^Uy 
17th, 1859, mentions, however, that sentence 
of transportation was ))assed on the rebels Loui 
Singh, ex-Raja of Mitauli, and the Maulwi 
Fazl Haq. 




Fazli ( l^i), a poet and author of the 

Loves of Shdh-iva-Muh, a poem containinn- 
12,260 Persiiin verses, which he completed iu 
the year a.d. 1C41. 

Fazl Imam {A^\ J^), an inhabitant 

of KJiairabad, who wrote prose and poetry, 
and died iu the year a.d. 1828, a.h. 12-14. 

Fazl Rasul Moulvi (^cjy« J.^. J^i 

^Jii-\j), of Eadaon, son of Maulvi 

Abdu] ]MajId, aud author of the works called 
Bawdrik aud Tashih-nl-2Iasuel. He was 
liviug in a.d. 1854, a.h. 1271. 

Fazl-ullala (d-LH J-.d-J), suruamcd 

Khwaja Eashid-iuldin, a native of Qnzwiu or 
Hamdan aud a Persian historian, who wrote 
at the desire of his master, the Sultan of 
Persia, a history of the Mughals, finished iu 
a.d. 1294, to which he afterwards added a 
supplement. He was beheaded in July, a.d. 
1318. His name is spelt iu some "of our 
Biographical Dictionaries, Fadl-allah. From 
the work of Rashid-uddiu, called Jama^-ut- 
Taivdnkh, aud from other materials, Abii'l 
Ghiizi, king of Khwarizm, composed iu the 
Mughal language his Genealogical History. 
{^Vide Eashid-uddiu.] 

Fazl-ullali Khan Nawab {^\\ J.^-.i 

j^l:i^), an Amir of the court of the 
emperor Babar, who built a mosque iu Dehli 
in the year a.d. 1529, a.h. 936, which is 
still standing. 

Fazl-ullah Maulana (IjAJ^^ ^^ J^;)^ 

Physician to Amir Taimiir, and the most 
celebrated aud skilful practitioner of the age 
iu which he lived. 

Fazuli Baghdadi (^-jL\..^j J»-c2.i), 

an author who was a native of Baghdad, and 
died in the year a.d. 1562, a.h. 970, aud 
left us a Diwan in the Persian and Turkish 

Fidai Khan (^l^ ^jUJ), former 
title of 'Azim Khan Koka, which see. 

Fidai Mirza (tj^^ ^\^), name of a 

Fidwi i^^Si), of Lahore, the poetical 

name of a poet of the end of the 18th centiuy ; 
was son of a Hindu cbaudler but converted "to 
Islam by Sfibir 'Ail Shah ; became a client of 
Zabita Ixlifin (q.v.J aud died at Moradabad 
about 1780. He is the author of a poem iu 

Urdu entitled Y/'isaf-iva-Za'eikJid (the Loves 
of Joseph aud Potiphar's wife). Mir Fatha 
All Shaida has satirized him in his story of 
the Hum and Baqqdl. 

Fidwi (^-..v.j), author of a Tersian 

Diwan. He flourished in the year a.d. 1649, 
A.H. 1059. 

Fig-han (^Ui), the poetical title of 

Ashraf 'Ali Klian, the son of Mirza 'Ali 
Khan, and the Koka or foster-brother of the 
emperor Ahmad Shah of Dehli. He is the 
author of a Diwan iu the Urdii language, 
containing about 2,000 verses. He (bed at 
Patna iu a.d. 1772, a.h. 1186, and was 
buried there. 

Fighani ( jUi). Tide Biiba Fighani. 

Fikrat (cu'^.C*), poetical title of Mirza 


Fikri (^y.Ci), poetical title of Sa'ld 

Muhammad of Heriit. He was a weaver and 
is therefore called Jamabaf. He came to 
IncUa in a.d. 1561, a.h. 969, aud gained, 
through his great talents for making epigrams, 
the favoru' of the emperor Akbar. He com- 
posed only Jiiiba'is, and died in a.d. 1565, 
A.H. 973. 

Firaqi ( ^\j.:), poetical title of an 

author named Abii'l Barkat, who died in the 
year a.d. 1507, a.h. 913. 

Firdausi or Firdausi Tusi (Ij ,^»^^i 

Li"^^ L_S'^-?'v'^' ^^^ poetical title of 
Abii'l Kasim Hasan - bin - Sharaf Shah, a 
famous Persian poet, sometimes called the 
Homer of Persia, whose epic poem, called 
Shabuama, written by order of Sultan 
i\Ialmiud of Ghazni, is justly celebrated. It 
contains the legendary annals of the ancient 
kings of Persia, from the reign of the first 
king, Kaiomiu's, to the death of Yezdijard III. 
the Last monarch of the Sasiinian race, who 
was deprived of his kingdom a.d. 641, by the 
invasion of the Arabs chu-ing the Kliilafat of 
'Umar, the second Khalif after Muhammad. 
It was the labour of 30 years, aud consists of 
60,000 verses, each of ■\vhich is a distich. 
The following circumstances respecting the 
origin of the poem aud the life of the poet 
are chiefly derived from the preface to the 
copy of the Shdhndma, which was collated 
A.D. 1426, A.H. 829, by order of Baisaughur 
Mirza the grandson of Amir Taiiuiir. It 
appears from that preface, that Yezdijard, 
the last king of the Sasanian race, took 
considerable pains in collecting all the 
chronicles, histoi'ies, and traditions connected 
with I'ersia aud the sovereisrus of that 




country, from the time of Kaiomurs to the 
accession of the Khusros, which by his 
direction were chgested and brought into one 
view, and formed the hook known by the 
name of Siar-ul-3Ialnk, or the Bdstdii Ndma. 
"When the followers of Muhammad overturned 
the Persian monarchy, this work was found 
in the plundered library of Yezdijard. In the 
tenth century one of the kings of the then 
dynasty, directed Daqiqi {q-v-) the poet to 
versify that extensive work, but the poet only 
lived to finish a thousand distichs, having been 
assassinated by his own slave. Nothing 
further was done till the reign of Sultan 
Mahmiid, when a romantic accident furnished 
the Sultan with a copy of the Bdstfoi Noma, 
the existence of which was till then imknown to 
him. P'rom this work, he selected seven 
stories which he delivered to seven poets to be 
composed in verse, that he might be able to 
ascertain the merits of each competitor. The 
poet TJusari gained the palm, and he was 
accordingly engaged to arrange the whole in 
verse. Firdausi was at this time at Tus, 
his native city, where he cultivated his 
poetical talents with assiduity and success. 
He had heard of the attempt of DaqiqT, and 
of the determination of the reigning king 
Mahmiid, to patronize an imdertaking which 
promised to add lustre to the age in which he 
lived. Having fortimately succeeded in 
procuring a copy of the Bdstdn Ndma, he 
pm'sued his studies with unremitting zeal, 
and soon produced that part of the poem in 
which the battles of Zuhaq and Faridiin are 
described. The performance was universally 
read and admired, and it was not long before 
his fame reached the ears of the Sidtan, who 
immediately invited him to his court. It is 
related that when Firdausi, on the invitation 
of the Sultan, reached the capital Gliazni, he 
happened to pass a public garden where the 
three royal poets, Unsari, Asjadi and 
Farrukhi were enjojing themselves. The 
poets observed him approach and at once 
agreed that if the stranger chanced to have 
any taste for poetry, which they intended to 
put to test, he should be admitted to their 
friendship, and in order to decide as to his 
merits they settled among themselves to 
repeat each in tru-n a hemistich, and leave to 
Firdausi to complete the fomth, but at the 
same time satisfied in their own minds that 
there was no other word in the Persian 
language that would rhyme with the three 
which they had taken care to pre-occupy. 
Firdausi joining them and hearing the 
proposal, promised to exert his powers. 
They then commenced each with an extem- 
poraneous line : — 

Unsari ... The light of the moon to thy 

splendour is weak, 
Asjadi . . . The rose is eclipsed by the bloom 

of thy cheek ; 
Farrukhi ... Thine eyelashes dart through the 

folds of the Joshan, 
Firdausi ... Like the javelin of Geo in the 

battle with Pushau. 

The poets were astonished at the readiness 
of the stranger, and ashamed at being totally 

ignorant of the story of Geo and Push an, 
which Firdausi related as described iu Bdstdn 
Kama. They immediately treated him with 
the gi-eatest kindness and respect, and after- 
wards introduced him to Mahmiid, as a poet 
capable of undertaking the Shuhndma. 
Mahmud considered himself never so much 
honoured as when Firdausi set his foot at 
Gliazni ; he was never more proud than 
that Firdausi was by his command, composing, 
in his faultless verse, a history of the 
monarchs of Persia, his predecessors. No 
reward then appeared to him too great to 
offer, to induce the poet to undertake the 
task, no promise too splendid to excite him. 
"Write, unequalled one," cried he, "and 
for every thousand couplets a thousand pieces 
of gold" shall be thine." Firdausi obeyed, 
but resolved to accept no reward till he had 
completed the work he had undertaken, and 
for thirty years he studied and laboirred that 
his poem might be worthy of eternal fame. 
In this he succeeded, and presented an elegant 
copy of his book to Mahmud, but the patience 
of the Sultan was exhausted, his enthusiasm 
was gone, his liberality had faded away, and 
when the 60,000 couplets of the Shdhndma 
were ended, there was a pause, which brought 
to the poet disappointment and to the monarch 
such everlasting disgrace as has obliterated 
all his triumphs. Mahmiid received the book, 
coldly applauded his diligence and dismissed 
him. Many months elapsed, and Firdausi 
heard no more of his work ; he then took 
occasion to remind the king of it by the 
following epigram : 

'Tis said our monarch's liberal mind 
Is like the ocean unconfined, 
Happy are they who prove it so, 
'Tis not for me that truth to know. 
I've plunged within its waves, 'tis true, 
But not a single pearl cotdd view. 

Shamed, picqued, and offended at this 
freedom, the Sidtan ordered 60,000 pieces of 
silver dirhams ito be sent to the author, 
instead of the gold which he had promised. 
Firdausi was "in the bath at the time the 
money arrived, and his rage and amazement 
exceeded all bounds when he fouud himself 
thus insulted. He immediately (hstributed 
the paltry sum amongst the attendants of the 
bath and the slave' who brought it. The 
excited poet then relieved his mind by a satire 
full of stinging invective, and caused it to be 
transmitted to the favomite Wazir who had 
instigated the Sultan against him ; it was 
carefully sealed up, with directions that it 
shoidd be read to Mahmiid on some occasioii 
when his mind was perturbed with affairs of 
State, as it was a poem likely to afford him 
entertainment. Firdausi having thus prepared 
his vengeance, quitted the court and was 
safely arrived iu IMazandarfiu, where news 
reached him that his lines had fully answered 
the purpose ho had intended tli(>y should do. 
Mahmud had heard and trembled, and too 
late discovered that he had ruined his own 
reputation for ever. After his satire had 
been read by Mahmud, the poet feared to 
remain too long in one place ; he sought 




shelter in the com-t of the kh;ilif of B;igh'lad, 
in whose honour he added a 1000 couplets to 
iheShd/uK'nna, aud who rewarded him with the 
60,000 gokl pieces which had heen withhehl 
by Mahmud. Mahmud pretended to have 
discovered that his "NVazIr h;ul deceived liiui 
in attributing impiety to FirdausI, and he at 
once sacrificed that favourite, dismissing 
him with disgrace. Thinking, by a tardy 
act of liberality, to repair his former meanness, 
Mahmud dispatched to Firdausi the 60,000 
pieces he had promised, a robe of State, and 
many apologies and expressions of friendship ; 
but the poet was dead, having expired in his 
native town full of years and honoiu-s, sur- 
rounded by his friends and kindred. Firdausi 
died at Tiis (now called Mashhad) his native 
country in a.d. 1020, a.h. 411, aged 89 years, 
but Ilaji Ivhalfa says he died in a.d. 1025, 
A.H. 416. Besides the ShdJoidma, he was 
the author of other poems called Abult 

Firdausi-al-Thihal (J^^^^ -j^tiy), 

a Turkish historian, and author of the 
Turkish work called l^hdlnidma, which com- 
prises the history of all the ancient kings of 
the East. Baj'azid or Bajazet II. to whom 
the book was dedicated, ordered the author to 
reduce it from its original bulk of 300 
volumes to 80. Firdausi however, felt so 
mortified at this proposal, that he preferred 
leaving the country altogether, and emignited 
to Kliiu-asau, in Persia. Firdausi lioiuislied 
in A.u. 1500. 

FirisMa (^:i^ j)^ whose proper name 

was Muhammad Qasim, and who was the 
author of the history called Tnrikh-i-Firishta, 
was born at Astrabad on the borders of the 
Caspian Sea, between the years a.d. 1570 or 
1650, A.H. 978 or 958. His father, a learned 
man, by name Ghulam 'Ali Ilindii Shah, left 
his native country when our author was very 
young and travelled into India. He even- 
tually reached Ahmadnagar in the Deccan 
during the reign of Murtaza Nizam Shah I. 
and was appointed by the Sultan to instruct 
his sou Miran Ilusain in the Persian language, 
but he soon died after his selection, and 
Firishta was left an orphan in early youth. 
After the death of Mm-taza Nizam Shah, in 
A.D. 1589, A.H. 996, he proceeded to Bijapur, 
and was presented by Dilawar Klian, minister 
to Ibrahim 'Adil Shah II. by whose request 
he wrote the hi.story which goes by his name, 
in the year 1023 Hijri (a.d. 1614). The year of 
his death is altogether unknown. Briggs 
supposes that it occurred in a.d. 1612, a.h. 
1021, making him only 41 years of age. 
M. Jules Mohl supposes him to have revised 
his work up to at least a.d. 1623, a.h. 1033, 
making his age not less than 73, as he 
supposes him to have been born in a.d. 15i0. 
Firishta styles his work GxIshan-i-Ihrdhlml 
and Naitras Ndina. Its former name is 
derived from the king to whom it was 
dedicated ; and hence it is frequently quoted 
under the name of Tiirikh Ihrdhlml. The 

latter name was given to it in commemoration 
of the new capital, N auras, which his patron 
Ibrahim 'Adil Shah, commenced building in 
the 3-ear a.d. 1599. The first and second 
books, giving an accoimt of the Dehli 
emperors down to Akbar, were translated 
into English by Colonel Dow in 1768 ; the 
history of the Deccan by Captain Jonathan 
Scott. But the translation of the entire work by 
General Briggs in four volumes 8vo., 1829, has 
(according to Elliot) thrown others into the 
shade, and is by far the most valuable store- 
house of facts connected with Mnhammadan 
dynasties of India. 

YVide Dowsou's EUlot, vi. 207.] 

Firoz (j. ^^i), a celebrated Sufi of 

Agra, author of a Persian work on Theology 
called 'Aqded St/Jia, written in a.d. 1626, 
A.H. 1036. 

Firoz I. (j.^.-..i) (the Poroses of the 

Greeks), a king of Persia of the Sasanian 
race, was the eldest sou of Yezdijard II. He 
succeeded his younger brother Ilurmuz, 
whom he dethroned and put to death iu a.d. 
458. He lost his life in a battle against the 
king of Transoxiana, after a reign of 26 years, 
in a.d. 484. Balas or Palas or Balasus, his 
son, succeeded him ; and after his death his 
brother Qubad mounted the throne. 

Firozabadi (^-jLjI ^_->J), surname of 

Majd-uddin Muhammad - bin - 'Yaqiib bin- 
Muhammad, a learned Persian, so called from 
his birth-place Firozabad, a village in Shiriiz. 
The stupendous work called Qdmi/s or Qdint/s- 
vI-Liighat, renowned as the most perfect 
Arabic Dictionary, was written by him. Those 
who are acquainted with the pecidiarities of 
the Arabic language cannot open this work 
without feeling amazed at the literary services 
rendered by this learned man. He died a.d. 
1414, A.H." 817. 

\^Vide Majd-uddin Muhammad-bin- 'Yaqiib.] 

Firozabadi (^-j'o^J5^-..i), a learned 

Musalman, author of Al Tanhidh, or Tanlnz^ 
or general information on the IMuhannuadan 
law in the 11th ceutiny. Lempriere's Uni- 
versal Dictionary . 

Firoz Jang Khan (^1:5- L-Xljs- j,^^), 

the inscription on the gate of the old fort of 
Patna, dated in the Ilijra year 1042 (a.d. 
1633), attributes its erection to Firoz Jang 

Firoz Khan Khwaja Sara (A^L j.^i 

'1..^ <Lj^^. -:?-.), who held the rank of 
300 in the time of Shahjahan. 




Firoz Mulla (^^^j^ ^j ^I^-« j.^.i), son 

of Kaus, chief priest of tlie Parsi Qadlmis of 
Bombay, author of the Gcvrge Kiiiiia, a 
history of luclia from its discovery by the 
Portuguese to the conquest of I'una by the 
English iuA.D. 1817, a.h 1233. 

Firoz Shah (iLi ;.,—•), the son of 

Salim Shah, was raised to the throne of 
Dehli at Gwaliar after the death of his father 
Avhen he was only about 12 years old. He had 
scarcely reigned three months (or only 3 days) 
when his mother's brother Muharik Kliau 
mui'dered him on the 2ud May, a.d. 1554, 
2yth Jumada I. a.h. 961, and ascended the 
throne with the title of Muhammad Shah 
'Adil. See BibI Bai. 

Firoz Shah Bahmani Sultan (;..-ki 

j^l.kJ— J ^Jw*-^^ il-1), king of the 

Deccan, was the sou of Sultau Daud Shah. 
After having deposed and couliued Sultan 
Shams-uddiu, he ascended the throue on the 
loth November, a.d. 1397, a.h. 800, with 
the title of Sultan Firoz Shah Eoz Afziiu. 
He excelled his predecessors in power and 
magnificence, and iu his reign the house of 
Bahmani attained its greatest splendour. On 
ascending the throue, he appointed his 
brother Ahmad Kjian, Amir-uI-Umra, with 
the title of Kliaukhauan, and raised Mir 
FaizuUah Anjii, his preceptor, to the office of 
Wazir-us-Saltauat, with the title of Malik 
Naeb. He reigned 25 years 7 months and 
15 days, and died on the 2oth September, 
A.D. 1422, loth Shawwal, a.h. 825, ten days 
after resigning his crown in favoiu- of his 
brother Ahmad Khan, who ascended the 
throne with the title of Sultan Ahmad Shah 
"NVali Bahmani. 

Firoz Shah Khilji Sultan (.^Li -.^ 

'), surnamed Jalal- 

uddin, son of Qaem Khan, ascended the 
throue of Dehli after the murder of Sultan 
Muiz-uddin Kaiqubad in a.d. 1282, a.h. 
688. He reigned about 8 years, after which 
he was obliged to go down to Kara Mauikpur 
in the province of Allahabfid to pimish his 
nephew and son-in-law 'Ala-uddin, the 
governor of that place, who had rebelled 
against him. 'Ala-uddin, hearing of the 
king's departure from Dehli, crossed the 
Gauges and encamped near Manikpiir upon 
the o])posite bauk. When the king reached 
the lauding place, 'Alu-uddiu appeared upon 
the bank with his attendants, whom he 
ordered to halt. He advanced alone, met 
his uncle and fell prostrate at his feet. The 
king, taking him by the hand, was leading 
him to the royal barge, when 'Ala-uddin 
made a signal to his guards, and one of his 
officers struck his head off. 'Ala-uddin 
caused it to be fixed ou the point of a spear 
and carried through the camp and city. This 
circumstance took place on the 19th July, 
a.d. 1296, 17th Kamazan, a.h. 695, and 

'Ala-uddin ascended the throne of Dehli 
with the title of Sikandar Sani (" second 
Alexander " ) . Firoz Shah was the first Sultan 
of the second brauch of the Turko -Af gh an 
djTiasty called Kliilji. 

List of the Kutffs of the Khilj'i dynasty. 

1. Fir5z Shfih Kliilji. 

2. 'Ala-uddin Khilji. 

3. Shahab-iuldiu Umar. 

4. Mubarik Shah Khilji, the last of this 

dynasty, was murdered in a.d. 1321, 
by Malik Klausro, a favourite slave, 
who ascended the throne, but was soon 
afterwards slain by G[iaias-uddin 
Tughlaq Shah, the first of the 3rd 
brauch of Afghan kings of Dehli. 

Firoz Shah Purbi ( 5-.' .y il-1 

a king of Bengal, whose former name was 
Malik Andil, an Abyssiuian chief, who after 
killing the eunuch Sultan Shahzada, was 
elevated to the throne of Bengal in a.d. 
1491, A.H. 896, with the title of Firoz Shah. 
He repaired the city of Gom-, commonly 
called Lakhnauti, where he gave universal 
satisfaction to all classes of his subjects. He 
died in a.d. 1494, a.h. 899. 

Firoz Shah Tughlaq Sultan (]tj~--i 
j^lkl^ ^lij" il-i), called Firoz Shah 

Barbak, was the son of Sipahsalar Rajah, 
the brother of Sultau Ghaias-uddiu Tughhui, 
and cousin to Sultan Muhammad Tughlaq, 
whom he succeeded to the throne of Delili ou 
the 20th March, a.d. 1351, 21st Muharram, 
A.H. 752, at Thatta. He was a just and 
learned prince. His soldiers and his subjects 
were equally happy uuder his administration, 
nor cUd anyone dare to exercise oppression in 
his time. He was himself the author of the 
work called Fatdhdt Firoz Shdht, i.e. the 
conquests of Firoz Shah. In August, a.d. 
1387, he abdicated the throue and resigned 
the reins of government to his son Kasir- 
uddin Muhammad, but the prince giving himself 
up entirelv to pleasure, was soon after expelled 
and obliged to fiy with a small retinue to the 
mountains of Sirmdur, and Firoz Shah again 
resumed his full authority. He coustriicted 
numerous buildings and canals, as also the 
fort of Firozabad at old Dehli, and after a 
reign of of 38 lunar years and eight mouths, 
died on the 2Ist September, a.d. 1388, 18th 
Eamazan, a.h. 790, aged upwards of 80 years. 
The words "Waf at Firoz" (^the death of Firoz) 
comprise the numerical letters of the year of 
his demise. He was buried on the banks of 
the Hauz Khas, a tank built by him iu old 
Dehli ; and was succeeded by his grandson 
Ghaias-uddin (the son of Fatha Khan) who 
was slain after five mouths. After him 
another grandson of the late king, named 
Sultau Al)u 15akr, the son of Zafar I\hau, 
was raised to tlie throne. He had reigned 
one year and six mouths, when his uncle 
Nasir-uddin IVluhammad Shah, the son of 
Firoz Shah, deposed him and ascended the 
throne of Dehli iu August, a.d. 1390. 




Firoz Shah (il.^ j.^-^i), one of the 

sons of the ex-kiug Buhachir Shah II. 
king^ of DehlT, and one of the chief rohels in 
the outhreak of 1^57. He foup^ht the British 
boldly, and for a time acted with Tantia 
Topi in ISoS ; so that the British Government 
offered a reward of 10,000 nipees for his 
apprehension. It was reported in 1864 that he 
had made his appearance in the Seronj Jnnn^les. 
Some Arabs who arrived at Ilaidarahad in 
1866 reported that they had seen him in 
Arabia, and snpportiui;' himself by be,uf;-ing 
amonjj the rich merchants. [Since this was 
written nothing more has been heard of 
this Prince.] 

Fitrat (iju _LJ), the poetical name of 

Mir Muiz-iiddin Muhammad Muswl Khan, 
a mansabdar in the time of 'Alamgir employed 
as Diwan of Siiba Behar. He was aSayyad 
and lineal descendant of 'Ali MiisT Raza. He 
subsequently chose for his poetical name, 
Miiswi. lie was born in Persia in a.d. 1640, 
A.H. 1050, and came to India, where he was 
much esteemed for his talents as a poet and a 
critic. He is the author of a Tazkira or 
biography called Gnlshan-i-Fitrat, also of a 
Diwan. He died in a.d. 16L0, a.h. 1100. 

\_Vide Miiswi.] 

Furati ( ^j\j). Vide Mulla FinatT. 

Furqati ( ^^_i), whose proper name 

was Abii Turab, was a poet. He died in the 
year a.u. 1617, a.h. 1026. 

Fursat (c:—.^^), poetical title of 

Muhammad Beg, a poet, who was in the 
service of Shiih 'Abbus II. and died under 
Shah Sulaiman, kings of Persia. He has 
left a Diwan of Ghazals. 

Fursi i^js), poetical title of Husain 

Ali Shfih, author of the Nishat Xdmn Shah- 
rnifin, a history of the Qutbshahi dj-nasty 
of Golkanda in 18,600 verses, from its com- 
mencement to Muhammad Quli Qutbshah, who 
died in a.d. 1612, a.h. 1021. 

Fuzail Ayaz (,^1-.^ u^i), a pious 

IMusalman, whose native country was either 
Kuta, Wiurfisan, or Samarqand. He received 
iustructidus from Imam Ja'far Sadiq, and 
was the master of Bishr Ilafi and Sari Saqti. 
lie suddenly fell down and died at the time 
of prayers at Mecca in January, a.d. 803, 
Muharram, a.h. 187. 



Gaj Singh Rathor ( , Ji^ , ^^— j J* 
<);ji.^_._sr), a Eaja of Marwar or 

Jodpiir of the tribe of Eathor rrijputs, was 
the sou of Suraj Singh aud the father of 
Jaswaut Siug-h. He reigned about 18 years 
and died in the year a.d. 1630, in Gujrat. 
The buikling called Kala Mahfil at I'ipal 
Mandi in Agrah, was constructed by him. 
His sou Amar Singh killed Salabut K]ian. 
Siiltau Parwez married Gaj Singh's sister iu 
A D. 1624, aud Sulaiman Shikoh, the son of 
Sultan Parwez, married the daughter of Gaj 
Siugh iu the year a.h. 10G5. 

Gakkhar ( wilS ), a tribe whose resi- 
dence is amongst the mountains that lie between 
Bhat aud Siudh. 

\_Yxde Kamal Khan Gikhar.] 

G-anga Bai ( Jb lx:^S ), Rani of Jhansi 

and widow of Raja Gaugadhar Eao. At the 
outbreak of 1857 she joined the rebels, aud 
was the cause of the massacre at Jhfiusi. She 
was killed iu the battle of Gwaliar on the 
17th June, 1858. She fell with her horse, 
and was cut down by a Hussar ; she still 
endeavoiu'ed to get over, when a bullet struck 
her in the breast, aud she fell to rise no 
more. The natives hastily burnt her dead 
body to save it from apprehended desecration 
bv the Firingis on the night of the 17th 
and 18th. 

Ganna Begam(^^j US'). Tide Gunna 

. Gajpati {zjJ^), a Raja of Jagdespur 

in south Bihar, who, with his brother Bairi 
Sal, during the reign of the emperor Akbar, 
defied the Mughal armies for several years, 
though the unequal combat led to their 

Garshasp (, Jl^jt), an ancient king 

of Persia. Vide Karshasp. 

Gashtasp (( ..^^cJlS) was, according 

to Persian history, the son of Lohrasp, aud 
the fifth king of the Kaianian dynasty of 
Persia. In his time floui-ished Zardasht or 
Zoroaster, who couverted the Persians to the 


worship of fire. Gashtasp, it is said, reigned 
60 years, and was succeeded by Bahman his 
grandson, whose father Isfaudaiar {q.v.) was 
a great warrior aud was killed by Rustam 
some time before. He is supposecl to have 
been the Darius Hystaspes of the Greek 

George Thomas {,j^i>^ _.W). Tlie 

district of Harriana was once the field of the 
exploits of this famous adventurer. The Jats 
are a stalwart aud brave race, and showed 
what they coidd do under his leadership, 
though when left to themselves they were 
so divided by factions, that Harriana has 
always yielded to every adventurer who had 
been able to attack them. Thus it was over- 
run by the Mahrattas, under Messrs. Bourquin 
and Perron, by the Rohillas under Amir 
Khan, and another leader, aud finally by the 
British. George Thomas came out to India 
as a common seaman, and having deserted 
his ship first took service with Madho Rao 
Siudhia about the year a.d. 1782. The 
famous Begam Samru of Sirdhana was then 
iu the zenith of her power, and he left 
Sindhia to serve her. Shortly after, having 
collected a body of men, he left her, and 
marched down to Harriana, and in no time 
carved out a kingdom for himself. He made 
the city of Hansi his capital and built a 
strong "fort in it. He built another fort 
about 20 miles to the south of the town of 
Rohtak, and called it after his o\vn Christian 
name Georgegarh, wliich (perhaps from his 
maritime origin) the natives call Jahajgarh, 
or "ship-castle." After a few years the 
Mahrattas under Louis Bourquin invaded his 
territories. He hastened to give them battle, 
and throwing himself into the small fort of 
Jahajgarh, he fought them for three daj-s, 
though iiis force was infinitely smaller than 
theirs. His cavalrv, Avhich was composed 
priucipalh of Rfiughars, having gone over 
to the enemy, and his Lieutenant, an English- 
man of the name of Hopkins, being killed, 
his troops at length gave way, and he fled on 
a favoiu-ite Arab horse to Hansi, a distance 
of about 60 miles. Bourquin assaulted the 
city aud Thomas, after a defence of some 
weeks, gave himself up, aud was allowed to 
join the British Brigade at Auupshalir. l)e- 
partiug thence, iu charge of a Capt. Fraucklin, 
he died on his way down the river, as he was 
seeking to return to Europe by way of 
Calcutta. His great-granddaughter was the 
wife of a writer on a humble salary (1867) 
in one of the Goverun\eut offices in Agra. 




There is a Life of George Thomas, written 
by Franckliu, of wliicli a copy is to be seen 
in the Dehll Institute Library. [See Keeue's 
Fall of the Jlii^al Empire, part iii. ch. ii. 


Gesu Daraz (jl^j ^■^)- ^^'(^^ Mu- 
hammad Gesu Daraz. 

Ghaeb (^^jli), a poet wlio died in 

A.D. 1750, A.H. 1163. 

Ghafil (^-^[,\^J\ Jili), a poet of 



,-.i), title of 

Ghairat Khan ( Ad 

Khwaja Kangar, the nephew of 'AbdiiUah 
Klian, Firoz Jang and son of Sardar Kliau. 
In the year a.o. 1631, lie brought the head 
of Klian Jahan Jodi to Shah Jahan, and was 
raised to the rank of 2000 with the title of 
Ghairat Khan. He died in a.d. 1640, a.h. 
1050, at Thatta of which place he was 
governor. lie is the author of the Jahanglr 

Ghalib (c^JLi), the poetical title 

assuined by Muhammad Sa'd, author of a 
Diwiin which he completed in the year a.d. 
1690, A.H. 1101. 

Ghalib (» U_i), the poetical name of 

Mir Faklir-uddin, author of a book of Qasidas 
which he finished in the 6th year of Muhammad 
Shfih the emperor of DehlT, a.d. 1734, a.h. 

Ghalib (e^lli), poetical title of Shaildi 

Asad-ullah, son of the sister of Shaikli 
Muhammad Afzal of Allahabad. He died 
in A.D. 1750, A.H. 1163. 

Ghalib (L__^!li.), poetical name of Mirza 

Asad-ullah Khan, author of a Dlwan, and a 
history of the Miighil cnijxTors of India. He 
was the son of 'All IJakhsh Klian, the brother 
of Nawab Ahmad Bakhsh Kliiiu of Flrozpur 
and Loharl. He died at Delili in the month 
of February or March, a.d. 1S69, a.d. 1285. 

Ghani ( ,-:.—=■), the poetical name of 

Mirzii Muhammad Taliir. He is commonly 
called (ihani Kashuihi on account of his 
being a native of Kashmir. He was a 
pupil of Shaikh Muhsin-Faiii, whom he 
excelled in his learning and became an 
elegant poet. He wrote a book of Odes 
called I)iwan Glianl, and died in Kashmir 
two years before his master a.d. 1668, a.h. 
1079. It is said that the emperor 'Alamgir 
wrote to Sail' l<2iriii tiie governor of Kasliinir 
to send Gliaui to his jircsence. GlianI refused 
to go, telling him at the same time to inform 
the emperor that Gliani had become insane 
and was not worthy to be sent to his presence. 

Saif Kjian said that he could not call a wise 
man like him mad ; upon which Gliani 
immediately really went mad, tore liis clothes, 
and died after three days. He was a young man 
at tlie time of his death, having "enjoyed a 
brilliant reputation for poetical excellence for 
about eighteen years. He sometimes uses 
Talilr for his poetical name. 

Ghani Bahadur (^,l>1^j lj^^X son of 

Sliamsher Bahadur I. and younger brother of 
'Ali Bahiidur, the Xawab of Banda. 
[ Vide 'All Bahadur.] 

Ghanimat (l::^.^^:.^), poetical name of 

Muhammad Akram, author of a short Diwan 
and a Masnawi containing an account of the 
Loves of Aziz and Shiihid, called Nairang 
Isliq, composed in the reign of 'Alamgir 

Gharib (i._^_) i), poetical name of 

Shaikh Nasir-uddin of Dehll. He is the 
author of a Diwan in Persian. 

Gharib (k >-^ r-i), poetical name of 

Sayyad Karim-ullah of Bilgram. 

Ghasiti Begam U-^,^\ ^ ^Cj iL-^u.^ 

^-L--.'), the wife of Shahamat Jang, 

and Aiiiina Begam, the mother of Nawiib 
Siraj-uddaula, were daughters of Nawab 
Mahabat Jang of Bengal ; they were drowned 
in the river, close to Jahangirnagar, by order 
of ]Mirau the son of Nawab Ja'far 'Ali Khan, 
in June, a.d. 1760. 

Ghaus Muhammad Khan (»J:_?4_i 

A,\6- Sa.^'"*), whose title is Mohta- 
shim-uddaula, was (1870) Nawiib of Jiiwara. 

Ghaus-ul-'Alam (^JL>tJl lLj^-z), a 

famous SiifT. 

Vide Muhammad Ghaus of 

Ghaus-ul-'Azim (*.l2.rl!!l lIj^^), a 

title of the Muhammadan saint 'Abdid Qiidir 

Ghauwasi (^-j;j , ^-^^.i), of Yezd, a 

poet, whose proper name is Izz-nddin. He 
is said to have composed 100,000 verses. 
This fertile poet, in a work which he wrote 
in A. P. 1543, a.h. 950, says: "The poetry 
which I have written amounts to 1,950 books." 
He made 500 verses a day, and it would 
appear that he put the Raiizat-tish-Shohada, 
the history of TabarT, the legends of the 
rrii])licts, Kaleila-wa-Damua,and the Medical 
work called Zakjiira Ehuarizm Shdh'i, and 
many other works into verse. He died in 
a.d. 1553, a.h. 960, at an age of more than 
one hundi'ed years. 




Ghayas Halwai (|__c^Pw»- C>?l.--i), of 

Sliiraz, was bliud aud died by a fall from 
the terrace of a house in the time of Shah 
Saft. He is the author of a Diwiin. 

Ghayas-uddin ( ,^^s]\ 

;Li), author 

of a Persian Dictionary called G/iai/ils-ul- 
L ugM t. Tide Muhammad Ghayas-uddlu. 

Ghayas - uddin Bahmani (Sultan) 

{J}A^ ^^A.^i ^rld^\ V±.A^r), the 

eldest son of Sultan Mahmud Shah I. He 
ascended the throne of the Deccau in his 
seventeenth year, after the death of his father 
in April, a.d. 1397. He had reii^ned 
only one month and twenty days, when 
Lalchiu, one of the Tiu-kish slaves, not 
being appointed prime minister — to which 
ofhce he had aspired — put out his eyes with 
the point of his dagger, and having sent him 
in confinement to the fortress of Sagar, placed 
Shams-uddm, the late king's brother, on the 
throne. This circumstance took place (m 
the 14th June, a.d. 1397, 17tli Ramaziiu, 
A.H. 799. 

Ghayas-uddin Balban (Sultan)(t.^A*i 

j^lkl-j |^.-*J_J ,.j JkJ^), king of Dehli. 

In his youth he was sold as a slave to Sultan 
Altimsh, who raised him by degrees to the 
rank of a noble, and gave him his daughter 
in marriage. On the accession of his son 
Nasir-uddin Mahmud to the throne of Dehli, 
Ghayas-uddin was appointed his wazTr. After 
the king's deposal or death in February, a.d. 
1266, A.H. 664, he ascended the throne and 
reigned 20 years. He died in a.d. 12.S6, 
A.H. 685, aged 80 years, and was succeeded 
by his grands(m Mniz-nddiu Kaiqubiid, the 
son of Nasir-uddin Ba gli ra K]ian, governor 
of Bengal, who was then absent in that 

Ghayas-uddin Kart I. (Malik) (i.ijLi 

I <^L# lzJjS ,.j_vJO, fourth king of 

the race of Kart or Kard. He succeeded his 
brother Malik Fakhr-uddm Kart in a.d. 1307. 
A.H. 706, reigned more than 21 years over 
Herat, Balgh, aud Ghazni, and died in the 
year a.d. i3'29, a.h. 729. He was suc- 
ceeded by his son Malik Shams-uddin Kart. 

Ghayas - uddin Kart II. (Malik) 

(t_^L« ij:^S ijj-^,-^^ d^Li.), the eighth 

and last king of the dniasty of Kart or Kard. 
He succeeded his father or grandfather Moiz- 
uddTn Hu.sain Kart in a.d. 1370, a.h. 771, 
and reigned 12 years over Herat, rrliur, 
Sarakhsh, and Xaishapur, and conquered Tas 
and Jam. He was a great tyrant, and had 
several battles with the Sarbadiils of Sabzwar 
and the chiefs of Jaui Qurbilni. In the year 

A.D. 1381, a.h. 783, Amir Taimiir (Tamerlane) 
con uered Herat, when G|iayas-uddln, together 
with his son and brother, were taken prisoners 
and put to death. This dynasty lasted one 
hundred and nineteen lunar years and two 

Ghayas-uddin Khilji (Sultan) (t^^Li. 


^^^^ ...J-jJO succeeded his 
lS • ^•• 

father Sultan Mahmud Kliilji on the throne 

of Gujrat in May, a.d. 1469," Zi-Qa'da, a.h. 

873. When he had reigned 33 years and 

arrived at an advanced age, his two sons 

anxiously looked for his death as an event 

which would secure to one of them the throne 

of Malwa ; a jealousy arose between the two 

brothers, who con.spired against each other, 

till Nasu'-uddin, the eldest, having put his 

brother, Shuja'at I\hauto death on the 22nd 

October, a.d. 1500, 24th RabI II. a.h. 

906, assumed the reins of government. A 

few days after, his father was found dead in 

the Seraglio ; and it was supposed that poison 

had been administered to him by his son. 

Ghayas-uddin Mahmud (, .;_\!1 


Js^A,^'*), the son of Ghayas-uddin 

JIuhammad GliorT, succeeded his uncle 
Shahab-uddin in the kingdom of Ghor 
and GliaznT in a.d. 1205, a.h. 602. He 
reigned about four years, and was assassinated 
by the people of Mahmud All Shah on 
Satiu-day night, the 31st July, a.d. 1210, 7th 
Safar, a.h. 607. He was at first buried at 
Firoc K5h, but was afterwards transported to 
Herat and buried there. He was succeeded 
by his son Baha-uddin Sam, who was after 
tliree months defeated by 'Ala-uddin Atsiz 
(son of Ala-uddin Hasan surnamed Jahan 
Soz) who reigned in Glior and Gliazni for 
four years, and fell in battle against Malik 
Nasir-uddin Husain Amir Shikar in the year 
A.D. 1214, A.H. 611. After his death Ala- 
uddin ^[uhammad, son of Abii Ali, cousin of 
Miilik Ghayas-uddin Muhammad, was raised 
to the throne by Taj -uddin Eldiiz. 

Ghayas-uddin Mahmud Ghori (cl,'Li 

^,^.i J>.-i..^'* |^,_!,_\J^), the son of 

Gliayas-uddin Muhammad Ghori, and nephew 
of Shahab-uddin Muhammad Gliori, whom he 
succeeded to the throne of Glior and Ghazni 
in A.D. 1206. Mahnmd being naturally 
indolent, remained satisfied with the throne 
of Gl^or, and proclaimed Taj -uddin Elduz, 
king of Gliazni. He died in a.d. 1210. 

Ghayas - uddin Muhammad Ghori 

(^_^,»i wV/«.js"« v^J^!^ CLjLi), king of 

(j\h)V and Gliazni, was the s<ui of Baha-uddin 
Sam, the vounirest brotluT of Ala-uddiu 
Hasan Ghnri. lie succeeded to the thr(me of 
Glior and (xhazni alter the death of his cousin 
Malik Saif-uddiu, the son of the latter, about 




the year a.d. 1]o7, and conferred the 
government of Gliazni on his brother 
Shahab-uddin surnanied Mo'iz-uddin Muham- 
mad ; this ilhistrious general subdued 
Khurasan and a great part of India in the 
name of his brother Gliayiis-uddin, wlio 
annexed those countries to his own dominions. 
Ghayas-uddiu died on "Wednesday the 12th 
March, a.d. 1203, 27th Jumada I. A.ii. 
699, and M'as succeeded by his brother 

Ghayas-uddin Muhammad (Sultan) 

(^ILL) Jk^.s'* e;:!"^^^ '-^'W-^X the sou 

of Malik Shah of the Saljiik dynasty. In 
the time of his eldest brother Barkayaraq the 
empire was divided, Barkayaraq retaining 
Persia ; Gliayas-uddin Muhammad, Syria 
and Azurbejan ; and Sultan Sanjar, Kluirasiln 
and Mawaruunahr. He reigned about the 
year a.d. 1095. 

[Tide Midiammah (Sultan.)] 

Ghayas-uddin Purbi ( ,.jaJ1 C:_;L»_i 
„j ,»j) succeeded liis father Sikandar 

Purhi on the throne of Bengal in a.d. 1367, 
A.n. 775, reigned for a period of seven years, 
and died in 1373. lie was succeeded by his 

son Sult;"in-us-Salatin. 

Ghayas - uddin Tughlak Shah I. 
(Sultan) (^,M-^ <_?•■ 

^i.:; ^.^11 c-U), 

king of DehlT (also known as Ghazi Malik). 
His father Tughlaq was a slave of Sultan 
Ghayas-nddin Balban. He ascended the 
throne of Dehll after murdering Kliiisro Shah 
on the 26th August, a.d. 1321, 1st Shaban, 
a.h. 721, reigned three years and some 
months, and was crushed to death by the 
fall of a temporary wooden building which his 
son had raised for his entertainment on his 
return from Lnkhnanti in February, a.d. 
1325, Eabi' I. a.h. 725. His son Muham- 
mad Tukhlaq succeeded him. The celebrated 
poet Amir Kliusro of Dehli, who lived to 
the end of this king's reign and received a 
pension of 1000 tangas monthly, wrote the 
history of this prince under the title of 
Tughlaq Noma. Gliayas-nddin was the first 
king of the 3rd l)ranch of the Afghan dynasty 
which is called Tughlaq Shfdu. The tolk)W- 
ing is a list of the Sultans of this branch : — 

1. Ghay<as-uddin Tughlaq I. IMahmud Shah 

Tughlaq, last ol this family, expelled by 
Amir Taimur. 

2. Muhammad Shrdi Tughlaq I. 

3. Firoz Shall Tughlaq. 

4. Gbavas-uddiu 'I'ughiaq II. 

5. Abu'Hakr Sl.rdi. 

6. Muhammad Slifdi Tughlaq 11. Ala-nddiu 

Sikandar Shah. 

7. Nasrat Khan. 

8. Mahnuul Shfdi. 

9. Ikbal Ivhan Mahmud Klu'm restored a.d. 


Ghayas-uddin Tughlak II. (Sultan) 

(^'.Ll«j ^_fci.^J' ^^l^\ C-jLx) was the 

son of prince Fatha Khan and grandson of 
Firoz Shah Tughlaq. He ascended the 
throne in place of Firoz Shah in Dehli on 
the death of his grandfather in a.d. 138S, 
A.H. 790, hut giving loose to his youthtul 
passions, and neglecting the affairs of the 
State, the chiefs together with the household 
troops revolted, and put him to deatli on the 
19th February, a.d. 1389, 21st Safar a.h. 
791, after he had reigned six months. He 
was succeeded by his cousiu Al)ii Bakr 
Tughlaq the son of prince Zafar Ivhan, the 
third son of Firoz Shah. 

Ghazali ( jlji). Vide Ghazzall. 

Ghazan Khan (,^L>. ^_^V..i), seventh 

king of Persia of the Tartar tribe and fourth 
in descent from Halaku Khan, was the son of 
Arghiin Ivhan. He succeeded to the crown 
of Persia after the dethronement of Baidii 
Khan his imcle in October, a.d. 1295, 
Zil-bijja, A.H. 694. He was the second 
emperor of the race of Changez Klian who 
embraced the religion of Muhammad, and 
with him near one hundred thousand of his 
followers followed their leader into the pale 
of Islam. He was the first of this race of 
kings who threw off all allegiance to the 
K^iaqan of Tartary, by directing that the 
name of that monarch (whom he now deemed 
to be an infidel) should not in futm-e be 
struck on the coins of Persia. After 
embracing Muhammadanism, he took the 
title of Sultan Mahmiid. He reigned nearly 
nine years and died on Sunday the 17th May, 
A.D. 1304, 11th Sha-w^val, A.n. 703, at 
Qazwin ; he was interred in a superb mosque 
which he had constnicted near Taiu'is or 
Tabrcz. He was succeeded hy his brother 
Aljiutii, who took the title of Muhammad 
K[iuda Banda. 

Ghazanfar Khan {^.:>~ .ku^i.), son 

of Alawardi Kliiin I. and brother of Alawardi 
Klian II. a nobleman of the reign of Shah 
Jahan and 'Alamgir. He was three times 
at different periods appointed governor of 
Saharanpiir and afterwards of Thatta iu Sindh, 
where he died on the 1st May, a.d. 1666, 17th 
Zi-Qa'da, a.h. 1077. His remains were 
brought to Dehli and buried there. 

Ghazi (^jli), the poetical title of a 

person who served as Kiirhegi under the 
prince Sultan Muhammad Muilzzim the son 
of the emperor 'Alamgir. 

Ghazi (t_f jli), or Al-Ghazi, the son of 

Ortak, the first of the Turkman Ortakite 
jnincts who seized Jerusalem and reigned in 




Mardin and Miafarkin in Syria. The follow- 
ing were his descendants : — 

A.D. A.H. 

Hnsam-uddin Taimiirtash, son of 

Alghazi, beo^an to reign . . 1122 516 

Kajm-uddin Abu'l Muzaffar Alhi 

or Alpi, son of Taimurtash . 1152 547 

Qutb-iiddin Alghazi, son of Albi. 1176 572 

Husam-iiddin Yulak Arsalan, the 

son of Qutb-uddin . . . .1184 580 

Malik Almansur Nasir-nddln 
Ortak Arsalan, son of Uiitb- 
uddln 1201 597 

Malik-US- Said Najm-nddin 
Ghazi, son of Nasir-uddin 
Ortak 1239 637 

Malik-ul-Mazatlar Qara Arsalan, 

son of Xajm-nddiu .... 1255 653 

Shams-uddm Daiid TiUl 691 

Malik - a 1 - Mansiir Naj m - iiddin 

Ghazi 1293 693 

Albi Malik-iil-Adil 'Imad-uddin 

'Ali 1312 712 

Malik -lis - Salah Shams -iiddiu 
Salah, the last prince of this 
race 1312 712 

Ghazi-uddin Haidar ( ,.„'jJl lS'X-^ 

.Jk-.;^-), the eldest of the ten sons of 

Nawab Sa'adat 'Ali Khan of Audli. On 
his father's death, which took place on the 
nth July, A.D. 1814, 22ud Rajab, a.h. 
1229, he succeeded to his dominions as 
Nawab AYazir, and five years after, assumed, 
with the concurrence of the British Govern- 
ment, the regal dignity. His coronation 
took place on Saturday the 9th October, a.d. 
1819, 18th Zil-hijja, a.h. 1234, at Lucknow, 
when he took the title of Abii'l Muzaffar 
Maiz-uddin Shah Zaman Ghazi-uddiu Ilaidar 
Padshah. On ascending the first step of tlie 
throne, the minister delivered to him a crown, 
studded with diamonds and jewels of great 
value. He then put it on his head and was 
congratulated on the occasion by the Resident, 
who saluted him as king of Audh. Jewels 
and pearls to the value of 30,000 rupees were 
then scattered over the heads of the spectators, 
many of which were picked up by English 
ladies. Ghazi-uddTn Haidar died after a reign 
of more than 13 years, on the 19tli October, 
A.D. 1827, 27th Rabi' I. a.h. 1243, aged 58 
lunar years, and was succeeded by his son 
Sulaiman Jah Nasir-uddin Haidar. 

Gliazi-uddin Khan I. ( ,„«jJl , c;l.i. 



L^), styled Firoz 

Jang, whose original name was IMir Shahab- 
uddm, was the son of Kulich ]\han Sadr-us- 
Sudur, and was raised to the rank of an Amir 
with the title of Firoz Jang, after his father's 
death, by the emperor 'Alamgir in a.d. 1687, 
a.h. 1098. His son was the famous Nizam- 
ul-Mulk 'Asaf Jah whose descendants are 
known to Europeans as Xizams of the Dcccan. 
In the reign of Bahadur Shah he was 
appointed governor of Gujrat, and died at 

Ahmadabad in a.d. 1710, ah. 1122. His 
remains were transported to Dehli, and 
interred in the yard of the college built by 
him outside the Ajmiri Gate. 

G-hazi-uddin Khan II. ( ^.iS^\ icA-i 



•«' i^jl-:::^), Amli'-ul-Umra, 

also styled Firoz Jang, was the eldest son of 
the celebrated Kizam-iil-Mulk 'Asaf Jiih. 
He was elevated to the rank of Amir-ul- 
Umra after the death of Klian Dauran, and 
departure of Nadir Shiih to Persia, in a.d. 
1739, a.h. 1152, by the emperor Muhammad 
Shiih. Some years after the death of his 
father, when his brother Nasir Jang, who 
had succeeded him, died in the Deccan, he 
proceeded from Dehli to regain his possessions 
in that country, but died on his way at 
Aorangabad on the 16th October, a.d. 1752, 
7th Zil-hijja, a.h. 1165 (new style). His 
remains were brought to Dehli and biu-ied 
there. After his death the office of Amir-ul- 
Umra was conferred on his son Shahab-uddin 
with the title of 'Imad-ul-Mulk Ghazi-uddin 

Ghazi-uddin Khan III. ( .,..a!1 ^-jU 

j^y\ j.-->-'<' |^L>-), Amir-ul-Umra, 

styled 'Imad-ul-Mulk, was the son of Ghazi- 
uddin Klian Firoz Jang, the son of INizam- 
ul-Mulk 'Asaf Jah. His original name was 
Shahab-uddin, but after the death of his 
father in a.d. 1752, a.h. 1165, he was, by 
the recommendation of Xawab Safdar Jang, 
wazir, appointed Amir-id- Umra, by the 
emperor Ahmad Shah of Dehli with tlie title 
of 'Imad-id-Mulk GliazT-uddin Iv[ian. This 
is that Ghazi-uddin Ivhan, who afterwards 
became wazir, imprisoned and blinded his 
master the emperor Ahmad Shiih, and 
assassinated 'Alamgir II. His wife was the 
celebrated Ganna, or Gunna [q.v.), Begam, 
who died in the year a.d. 1775, a.h. 1189. 
The year of Ghazi-uddin Klian's death is 
unknown, but according to the biography of 
the poet called Gidziir Ibriihim, he was livino- 
in A.D. 1780, A.H. 1194, in straitened circum- 
stances. His poetical name was Xizam. Ac- 
cording to the work called Mdsir-ul-Umrd, 
he went to the Deccan a.d. 1773, a.h. 1187, 
and received a jiigir in Miilwa ; .subsequently 
he proceeded to Surat and pa.ssed a few years 
with the English, and thence on a pilgrimage 
to Mecca. He composed Persian and Raikhta 
poetry, and left Arabic and Turkish Ghazals 
and a thick Pursian Diwiin and a Masuawi in 
wliich the mii-acles of Maulana Fakhr-uddiu 
are related. Some say he died at Kalpi, a.d. 

[Vide Jour. As. Soc. Bcng. 1879.] 

Ghaznawi (^-J:i). 
Khiin (Mir). 

Vide Muhammad 

Ghazni ( 


z), Kiii"'s of. 





G-hazzal (J^^jJ.) (a seller of thread), 

title of AVasil-biu-'Ata, a celebrated Musal- 
uifm doctor who was thus suruamed. 

Ghazzal ( J|^i). Vide Wasil. 

Ghazzali (j,^^l A.J ^^j-^), or 

Ghazal! (Imam Ahmad), younger brother of 
Imam Muhammad Ghazzali. He was a 
doctor of the sect of Shiifa'T, and died at 
Qazwin in the year a.d. 1123, a.h. 517, but 
according to Ibn Kliallikan in a.h. 520, 
corresponding with a.b. 1126. 

Grhazzali (s.A.-si-'* ^\^\ ^]\j-z), or 

Ghazali (Imam Muhammad), Avho is also 
entitled Hujjat-ul-Islam, is the surname of 
Abu Hiimid Muhammad Zain-uddin-al-TusI, 
one of the greatest and most celebrated 
Musalman doctors, and author of a treatise 
on the different classes of science which 
concern religion, called, Klmide Sa'ddat, and 
many other works such as the Ycikat-ut- 
Tawib, also called Tafs'r Jawdhir-ul-Qnrdn , 
AkdcdfThazzdll, Ahia-ul-' JJltim, and Tuhfat- 
-uI-Filasafa. He was born in the year a.d. 
1058, A.H. 450, in a village called Ghazzfila 
or Ghazali, in Tus, whence he and his 
brother derived their names of Gliazzali. He 
died on the 18th December, a.d. 1111, 4th 
Jumada II. a.h. 505, aged 55 lunar years. 
Some authors say that his name should be 
spelt Gjiazali and not <iliazzall, but the 
following verses from the Mukhbir-ul- 
Wasilin confirm the latter. 

He is said to have written ninety-nine works, 
mostly in Arabic, a few in Persian. 

Ghazzali (Maulana) (L)^'^^ JU_c), 

of Tus or Mashhad, the royal poet. He 
mentions in one of his Qasldas named liauzat- 
us-Safd, that he was born in the year a.d. 
1524, A.H. 930. He first came from Mashhad 
his native country to the Deccan, where being 
disappointed in his prospects, he went over to 
Jaun])ur, and was employed for some years 
by IQifin Zamau 'AlT Quli Kjian, governor 
of that province, during which time he wrote 
a poem called Xaqnh BadVa, for which he 
received from his patron a piece of gold for 
each couplet. Afer the death of Klutn Zamau, 
who was slain in battle against the emperor 
Akbar in a.d. 15G8, a.h. 975, he fell into 
the hands of that monarch, who took him 
into his service, and conferred on him the 
title of Malik-ush-Shua'ra, or the King of 
poets. He was the first poet that was 
honoured with this title in India. He accom- 
panied his royal master to the conquest cf 

Gujrat, and died there of venereal disease, on 
Friday the 5th December, a.d. 1o72, 27th 
liajab, a.h. 980. He is buried at Ahmada- 
bad, Gujrat, at a place called SarkTj. He is 
also the author of a Diwiin, and three 
Masnawis or poems, containing from 40 to 
50,000 verses ; their titles are : Kitdb Asrdr, 
liinJiahdt-Kl-Haidt and Mirat-ul-Kaendt. 

Ghulam Ahia ( 1 

t\-z), author of 

an Arabic work on Logic, which goes after 
his name. Its marginal notes written by 
another author are called Shams-uz-Zuha 

Ghulam 'Ali (^ir ^^ii), author of the 

work called Slu'ih 'Alain Kama, a history of 
the reiy-n of the emperor Shah 'Alam, who 
died in a.d. 1806, a.h. 1221. 

Ghulam 'Ali Khan (^IrL ^.1^ Asl), 

author of the Lama'dt-uf-Tdhirln, a pane- 
gyric on the actions of Muhammad, and a 
number of mystical poems, dedicated to the 
emperor 'Alamgir. 

Ghulam 'Ali, Mir {S\j\ j^ ^ic ^U\ 
a poet whose poetical title is 'Azad, which see. 

Ghulam Ilusain Khan ( ..^.^ 



(^il:s-), author of the Persian History 

of Bengal called Eayaz-ussalathi, which he 
wrote about the year a.d. 1780, at the 
request of Mr. George Udney of Malwa. He 
was a learned and respectable character, once 
of great consequence, and afterwards a 
member of the native court of judicature 
under the Nawab 'All Ibrahim Khan. 

Ghulam Husain Khan, NawahSayyad 

suruamed Tiba Tibal, son of Hidayat 'Ali 
I\han, Bahadm- Asad Jang, author of a 
Persian work called Siar - id- Mutdkliirln 
written in the year a.d. 1780, a.h. 1194, 
and translated soon after into English by a 
French creole, named Ra^Tuond, calling 
himself " Ilaji Mustafa." He is also author 
of a Poem entitled Bashdrat-til-Imdnat. He 
was a client of M. Eaza Kliau [q.v.). 

Ghulam Imam Shahid, Maulana 

(Ul'»_.^ ^:?-V--» (♦^'■*^ (*^^-^\ ^ poet who 

is the author of a Persian Diwan, and of a 
celebrated Qasida comprising the dispute 
between Love and Beauty. His poetical title 
is Shahed and he is living .still, a.d. 1879. 

Ghulam Muhammad Khan {^a.s'^ ^^i 

\^^^), present Nawab of the Karnatic, 
whose title is Amir -ul- Hind Wala Jah 
Umdat-ul- Umra Mumtiiz-ul-Mumalik. 




Griiulam Muhammad Khan, Nawah 


'V ^^- 

ullali Khan. 

Ghulam Muhammad (Prince) (^Li. 

fcX^-sr*), grandson of Tippu Sultan, 

was installed as a Knight Commander of the 
Star of India on the 27th February, a.d. 
1871. Seventy-two years before he was a 
prisoner in the hands of the English, and 
since then a recipient of the highest honours. 
He died in Calcutta on the night of the 11th 
August, 1872, aged 78 years. 

Ghulam Qadir Khan ( ,l>- ,jlJ! >^Ii\ 

son of Zabita Khan, and gi-andson of Najib- 
uddaula, the llohila chief. This is that 
traitor who, after extorting as much mouey as 
he could from his royal master, the emperor 
Shah 'Alam of Dehli, ordered his Rohilas to 
pluck out his eyes from their sockets and 
placed Bedar Bakht, son of Ahmad Shah 
and grandson of Muhammad Shah, ou the 
throne. This tragic scene happened on the 
10th August, A.D. 1788, 7th Zil-Qa'da, 
A.H. 1202. After this, the traitor endeavoured 
to make his retreat to his owu territory 
Ghousgarh, but was pursued by the Mahrattas 
■who took him prisoner, cut off his ears, nose, 
arms, and legs, and in this mutilated state he 
was sent to Dehli ; but died on the road in 
the month of December the same year, 
Rabi I. A.H. 1203. His tomb is in Aul, 
Parganua Furrah, Zila Agra. 

[ Vide Keene's Fall of the MughZil Umpire.'] 

Ghulam Qutb-uddin Shah (^ 



^AA <^\ ili'^Al^), of Allahabad, 

whose poetical name is Muslbat, was the son 
of Shah Muhammad Fakhir. He was an 
elegant poet eminently learued and accom- 
plished, and is the author of a work called 
JV^ilH Qalia (Cakes and Steaks) which he 
wrote in answer to a work eutited Xdn Hahcd 
(Cakes and Pudding). He was born ou the 
29th August, o.s. 1725, 1st Maharram, a.d. 
1138, went ou a pilgrimage to Mecca, and 
died there in the year a.d. 1773-4, a.h. 

Ghunchacha-i-Umaid (ju^l <ls'^?^), 

{i.e. a small bud of hope), was one of the 
wives of Umar Shaikh Mirzii, the son of 
Sultan Abu Sa'id Mirza, and mother of Nasir 
Mirza and Malid Bano Begam. She was a 
native of Audjan. 

Gilan Shah. Vide Kabus. 

Girami ( ,«^^.S), the poetical name of 

a poet whose Diwan was found in the Library 
of Tipu Sultan. 

Girdhar Das (^^jybj^.f ), of Dehli, 

author of the histoiy of Ram, entitled 
ltd may an, translated from the Sanskrit in 
A.D. 1722. This is a very celebrated Hindi 
poem, containing the exploits of the famous 
demigod Ram, who reigned over India for 
many years. His capital was at Audh, and 
his conquests extended to Ceylon, where the 
chain of rocks which nearly unite that island 
to the continent is still called Ram's Bridge. 
Besides this, there are two other Rdmdyans, 
one translated by TulshT Das in the Bhakha 
dialect, and another by Khushtar in Urdu. 

Girdhar Singh (aC:^; J^J^^), or Gird- 
har Bahadur, a Rajput chief who was 
governor of Malwa in the reign of the 
emperor Muhamiuad Shah, and fell in battle 
against the Peshwa BiljT Rao's officers in 
A.D. 1729. His nephew, Daya Riim, who 
succeeded him, and had opposed a gallant 
resistance for some time, was defeated by 
Chimnaji the Peshwa' s brother, and lost his 
life in battle about the year a.d. 1732. 

Gobind Guru (^ i' ^j^yS), a chief of 
the Sikhs. 

\_Vule Giu'u Gobind.] 

Gopal or Nayek Gopal (wL^Clj Jj*^'), 

a celebrated singer of India, who was a native 
of the Deccan, and flourished during the reign 
of Sultan 'Ali-uddin Sikandar Saui. He 
was a contemporary of Amir Ivhusro, who died 
in a.d. 1325. It is related that when Gopal 
visited the coiu-t of Dehli, he sung that 
species of composition called Git, the beauty 
of which .style, enunciated by the powerfiil 
and harmonious voice of so able a performer, 
could not meet with competition : — At this 
the monarch caused Amir Ivhusro to remain 
hid under his throne, whence he could hear 
the musician unknown to him. The latter 
endeavoured to remember the style, and on a 
subsequent day, snug Qoul and Tardna in 
imitation of it, which sm-prised Gopal, and 
fraudulently deprived him of a portion of his 
due honoiu'. 

Goshyar ( .L.i)»r), an astronomer whose 
proper name is Abu'l Hasan. 

Gouhar Shad Begam {JLj jli^A^), 

the wife of Mirza Shahrulvh, the son of Amir 
Taimiir. She was slain by Sultan Abu Sa'id 
Mirza for creating distiu'bauces, in a.d. 1457, 
A.H. 861, at Herat, where she lies buried on 
the left bank of a stream called Anjir. The 
grave is covered by a very higli gilt dome. 
She is said to have been the most incom- 
parable lady in the world. Some erroneously 
say that she was the daughter of Amir 
Taimur and sister of Shalu-ukh Mirza, and 
that she never married, but devoted herself to 
the perusal of the Quran. 
[Vide Mohan Lai's Journal.] 





Goya (Lj»_S), poetical name of Hisam- 

uddaula Kawab Faqir Miiliainmad Klifiu of 
Luckuow. He is the author of a Diwan. 

Goya (Ij,X), poetical name of Mirza 
Kamran, a brother of Joya, which see. 

Goya (Lj»X), poetical name of Shaikh 

Ilaiiit-iillah of Furrukhabad. 

Gujar ( .p^S), grandson or son of the 

daughter of the Peshwa EaghSji Bhosla's 
daughter. He was raised to the raasnad of 
Nagpiir after the dethrouement of 'Apa Sahib 
in A.D. 1818. 

Gulab Singh (aiuwj i-Jit), of Jammii 

(Maharaja), the independent niler of Kashmere 
and the hills, which were made over to him 
bj' the British "for a consideration," after 
the Punjab war (1846) . He died 2ud August, 
A.D. 1857, about three months after the out- 
break of the Bengal Army. He was succeeded 
by his son Eanbir Singh. 

Gulbadan Begam {^.i^^ ^^S^^), a 

daughter of the emperor Bfibar Shah, sister 
to Humayun and aunt to Akbar Shah. She 
was married to Khizir Kliau, a descendant of 
the kings of Kashghar. Kliizir tvhan was 
made governor of Lahore in a.d. 15oo, a.h. 
963, and afterwards of Behar, where he died 
about the year a.d. 1559, a.h. 966. 

Gulbarg Begam (♦Jl-.-J lJj-A^), 

daughter of the emperor Babar Shah ; she is 
also called Gulrang Begam and Gulnikh 
Begam, which see. 

Gulohehra Begam (jS-^_ bj^^,.:^\) a 

daughter of the emperor Babar Shah, and 
youngest sister of Humayiin, by whom she 
was given in marriage to Abbas Sulriin, an 
Uzbak prince, at Kabul in a.d. 1548. 

Gul Muhammad Khan (A.^* AS 

^-'rLi |^l.r^), a poet of Dehll who 

died iu the year of the Christian era a.d. 
1848, a.h. 1264. His poetical name was 

Natik, which see. 

Gulrukh Begam (>i^.-.J rj^^f ^ 

daughter of the emperor Babar, who was 
married to Mirzii Nur-uddin Muhammad, a 
person of respectable family, by whom she 
had a daughter named Salima Sultana Begam, 
who was married in the beginning of the 
reign of the emperor Akbar, to Balram Klian, 

Kliankhanan, after whose death in a.d. 1561, 
A.H. 9(iS, the emperor married her himself. 
Gulrnkli Begam is called in the 3Iosir-ul- 
U/nrd GuJbarg Begam, and by some GuLraug 

Gulrukh Begam (^.^ -r-j^), a 

daughter of Kamran Mu'za, the brother of 
the emperor Humayun and first cousin to 
Akbar. She was married to Ibrahim Husain 
Mirz.i, the son of Muhammad Sultan Mirza, 
a descendant of Amir Taimiir. Ibrahim 
Husain, who together Avith his other brothers 
had created great disturbances in the country, 
was taken prisoner in a.d. 1573, a.h. 981, 
and shortly alter put to death and his head 
sent to Akbar, who ordered it to be placed 
over one of the gates of Agra. Gulrukh 
Begam siu'nved him for several years and was 
Hviug at Agra in a.d. 1614, a.h. 1023. 

Gulshan (^iS'), the poetical name of 

Shaikh Sa'd-uUah, a mystical poet, who 
resided for some years at Dehli, and left 
nearly 100,000 verses of Gliazals. He was a 
disciple of Shah 'Abdul Ahad SarhindT, and 
made with him a pilgrimage to Mecca. He 
died A.D. 1728, a.h. 1141. 

Gulshani ( ^a1^), the poetical title 
of Shaikh Sa'd-ullah, which see. 

Gunna or Ganna Begam (^Ji^: LS^), 

a princess, celebrated for her personal accom- 
plishments, as well as for the vivacity of her 
wit, and the fire of her poetical genius. 
Several of her lyric compositions in the 
Hindustani language are still sung and 
admired, one of which is to be seen in the 
first volume of the Asiatic Itcscarchcs, p. 55. 
She was the daughter of IS'awab '^Ui Quli 
Khan, commonly called Chhanga or Shash 
Augushti (from having six fingers on each 
hand), a mansabdar of 5000 horse. Ganna 
Begam was betrothed to Shuja'-uddaula, the 
son of Nawab Safdar Jang of Audh, but 
afterwards married to 'Imiid-ul-Mulk Gliazi- 
uddlu Kliau, wazir of the empire, and this 
rivalship is said to have iu part laid the 
fouudatiou of the mortal enmity which after- 
wards subsisted between that wazir aud Safdar 
Jang. Adjoining to the village of NUrabad 
near Dholpiir, two miles from Chola Sarae, 
is a pretty large garden, the work of the 
emperor Alamglr, bidlt in the year a.d. 1688, 
a.h. 1160, over the gate of which is an 
inscription bearing the chronogram of the 
year of its erection, viz. " Dida Ba gh 
Jamal." Within this garden is the monument 
of Guunil Begam. Her shrine bears the 
followiug inscription: "Ah gham Gunna 
Begam," which is the chronogram of the 
year of her death, viz. a.d. 1775, a.h. 
1189. The poets Soz, Souda, and Minnat 
corrected her verses. 




Giirdezi Fathi Ali Husaini. Tide 

Guru Gobind (jcj,^ •.$), the son of 

Ti'gh Bahadur, a famous chief of the Sikhs. 
After the death of his father, who was 
executed hy order of the emperor 'Alamgir 
in the year a.d. 1673, havin"; collected his 
followers, he gave them arms and horses, 
which till this time they had never used, and 
hegan to commit depredations, but he was 

soon obliged to fly, and two of his sons 
being taken prisoners, were put to death. 
Being desirous of retiu-ning to his home, he 
prevailed on some Afghans to conduct him, 
disguised as one of their devotees, through 
the army stationed at Sarhind ; and for the 
remainder of his life kept himself retired, 
having lost his faculties in grief for his sons. 
He ordered Ms disciples to wear blue, and 
leave their beards and the hairs of their heads 
unshaved, which they do to this day. He was 
succeeded by Banda, one of his followers. 
[ Vide Hughes, Diet, of Islam, in voc. 




Habib Ajmi, Khwaja ( ^a^ c:-^-s:s- 

^,p^\^:>~). He was called Ajmiorthe 

Persian, on accoimt of his not being able to 
read the Quran, or that he could not 
pronounce the words of it dis'inctly. He was 
a pious Musalman and disciple of Ivhwaja 
Hasan Basri. He died on the 28th August, 
A.D. 738, 7th Eamazau, a.h. 120. 

Habib-ullah (AW i ---=-), author of 

an Arabic work on philosophy called Buhr-ul- 
Mantiq, or the Sea of Logic. 

Habib-ullah, Shaikh (aJJ^ l_^_*-»-5^ 
^""'^), a celebrated poet of Agra. 

Habib-ullah, Shah or Mir (i^^-k.<^>. 

i\.J:i ^1\), a descendant of Shah 

Ki'mat-xdlah "Wali, and an Amir in the service 
of the Bahmani kings of the Deccan. He 
was imprisoned, and afterwards put to death 
in Jime, a.d. 1460, Sha'ban, a.h. 864, by 
Sultan Ilumayun Shah II. Bahmani, a tyrant, 
who at the same time cast his brolher Hasan 
Klian, who had rebelled against him, before 
a voracious tiger, that soon tore the wretched 
prince to pieces. 

Habshi or Habashi ( 

-), a poet 

who having lost an eye in a scuffle, was asked 
by Ibrahim Pasha, " Where is thine other 

eye ? ' ' and making answer, ' ' It grew tired 
of stopping at home iu the socket, and flew 
oiit to see the Avorld f ' ' was imprisoned ten 
years for his wit in the tower of Hero and 
Leander, where he daily gave vent to his 
feelings in such verses as "the following : — 

I will groan, till everj- stone in this cold 

prison-tower shall weep, 
I will cry, till earth and sky, and each 

dark rolling hour shall weep, 
I will make, that hearts shall break, and 

even the dewless flower shall weep. 
Yea, for me, the wronged Habshi, both 

Musiilman and Gabr shall weep ! 
[So Mr. Beale : "We shall perhaps run no 

great risk of error if we suppose Habshi 

to have been an Abyssinian domiciled in 


Hadi (^L>lj&), a khalif of Ba gh dad. 
Vide Al-Hadi. 

Hadi (^'jW), poetical name of Mir 

Muhammad Jawad 'Ali Klian, who died in 
the year a.d. 1800, a.h. 1215, and left a 
Diwan in Urdu. 

Hafi ( ^jl=-), which means barefoot, is 

the surname of Zain-uddin Muhammad, an 
author, who led an austere life, and who 
always walking barefoot, was thus suruamed. 

Hafiz Abru {»j.i} liil-j^), surnamcd 

Xur-uddin-bin-Lutf-ullrih, author of the 
history called Tdrikh lidjlz Abri'e. He was 




born in the city of Herat, but pnssed his 
infancy in Ilanulan, where he received his 
education. lie was fortunate enough to 
secure the esteem of Amir Taimur, who 
sought every occasion to do him service. 
After the death of that tyrant, he attended 
the court of his son Shalirukh Mirza, and 
received from the young prince Mirza Bfiisan- 
ghar every demonstration of kindness and 
regard. To him he dedicated his works imder 
the name oi Zuhdat-td-Tawdrikh Bfiisaucihar, 
which contains a complete history of the 
world, and an account of the institutions and 
religions of different people do\vn to a.d. 
1425, A.H. 829. He died five years after- 
wards in the city of Zanjan, about the year 
A.D. 1430, A.H. 834. 

Hafiz Adam (^jT liil^), a Musalman 

devotee and disciple of Shaikh Ahmad Sar- 
hindi, who about the year a.d. 1673, in 
conjunction with the Sikh Guru Tegh Bahadur, 
having collected his followers, levied con- 
tributions with the greatest oppression fnim 
the inhabitants of his neighbourhood and 
pretended to royalty. He was banished from 
the kingdom across the Indus by order of the 
emperor 'Alamgir. 

Hafiz Halwai {^\^ liiU), a con- 
fectioner and poet of Herat, who floiu-ished 
in the reign of Shiihrukh Mirza, the son of 
Amir Taimur, about the year a.d. 1430, 
A.H. 834. 

Hafiz, Khwaja (^l^^i. kil^^), wliose 

proper name is Shams-uddln Muhammad, was 
the most elegant Xyxic poet of Persia. He 
was born at ShTraz in the reign of Muzaffarians, 
and was living at the time when Amir Taimur 
(Tamerlane) defeated Shah Mansiir, the last 
Sultan of that d)-nasty. The language of 
Hafiz has been styled among the Musalmans 
" Lisan-ul-Ghaib," the language of mystery. 
From his frequent celebration of love and 
"wine in his odes he has very appi-opriatelv 
been denominated, by some Orientalists, the 
Anacreon of Persia. He died in a.d. 1389, 
A.H. 791, at Shlraz, where his tomb is yet 
to be seen at a place called Musalla, and' is 
•Ndsited as a sacred spot by pilgrims of all 
ages. After his death a collection of 569 of 
his odes was made by Sayyad Qasim Anwar, 
entitled Diivdn Hafiz. A" few of his poems 
may be understood in a literal sense ; but in 
general they are figurative, and allude to the 
Siifl doctrines; most of them have been at 
different times translated into some of the 
European languages. At the head of the 
English translators stand Sir W. Jones, 
Messrs. Ilichardson and Carlyle. [There 
have been two other Persian poets of the 
name of Hafiz, one of them suruamed Halwai, 
that is to say, the confectioner, who lived 
in the reign of Sultan Shahnikh, the son of 
Tamerlane, and the other was named Ajfin 
Ruml.] Many zealous admirers of Hafiz 
insist that by wine he invariably means 
devotion; and they have gone so far as to 

compose a dictionary of words in the lanr/Kafje, 
as they call it, of the SiifTs ; in that vocabulary 
sleej} is explained by meditation on the cHvine 
perfections, anii perfume by liope of the divine 
favour ; gales are illapses of grace ; kisses and 
embraces, the raptm-e of piety ; idolators, 
infidels, and lihertincs, are men of the purest 
religion, and their idol is the Creator himself ; 
the tavern is a retired oratory, and its keeper, 
a sage instructor ; heauty denotes the per- 
fection of the Supreme Being ; tresses are 
the expansion of his glory ; lips the hidden 
mysteries of his essence ; down on the cheek, 
the world of spirits who encircle his throne : 
and a hlach mole, the point of indivisible 
unity; lastly, wantonness, mirth ,ii\iAinebriety , 
mean religious ardour and abstraction from 
all terrestrial thoughts. 

Hafiz Muhammad, autlior of the 

Hawl S agh lr. 

Hafiz Rahmat Khan (i. 


■), a celebrated 


He joined his countrymen during theadmiuis- 
trationof 'Ali Muhammad Khan, who advanced 
him to an important station, and Pilibhit 
and Bareily were given to him and Muradiibad 
to another chief named Diiude Khan. Having 
attained his office, by military ability and 
genius, he at length v,-holly superseded the 
authority of Sa'd-ullah-K]iau, the son of 
'All Muhammad K[ian, and was advanced to 
the supreme administration of affairs. He 
failed in his engagement to pay forty lacs of 
rupees to Nawab Shuja-uddaula of Audh for 
the protection of his country from the ravages 
of the Marhattas, was killed in a battle fought 
by the Nawab by the assistance of theEiii^-lish 
on the 23rd April, a.d. 1774, 10th Saiar, 
A.H. 1188. His Life has been translated by 

[Vide Strachey ; Hastings and the Boh da 

Hafiz Rakhna {d,u:>~. liiW) is the 

name of the person who planted a large 
garden at Sirhiud in the reign of the Emperor 
Akbar and called it " Bagh Noulakh." He 
died in a.d. 1592, A.n. 1000, and a beautiful 
chrouo"-ram was written on the occasion. 

Hafiz-uddin Ahmad, Moulwi (li^jir*. 
(jj^ll), author of the 


Khirad Afroz, an Urdu translation of the 
Agar Banish, or Pilpay's Fables, which he 
translated for the use of the College of P'ort 
William in a.d. 1803, a.h. 1218. 

Hafiz - uddin 

Nasafi - bin - Ahmad 

author of the commentaries called Jfrtv/ff/jA-- 
^tt-Tanzil?a\(\. Hakdeq-ut- Tanawll, in Arabic. 
He died in the year a.d. 1310, a.h. 710. 

\_Vide Nasafi or Al-Nasafa.], 




Haflz-ullah, Shaikh (^-^^ aJJ\ \hA=^), 

a relation of Siraj-uddm 'All Khan Arzii. 
His poetical name was Asam. He died in 
the 21st year of the emperor Mnhammad 
Shah of DehlT, a.d. 1767, a.h. 1181. 

Hafs (^.A.-.). T^ide Abu Hafs-ul- 

Hafsa (ti>.^.i.^), a daughter of the 

IChalif Umar, and wife of Muhammad, in 
whose hands Abu Baki", the successor of the 
prophet, deposited the original Quran. Slie 
outlived her husband 33 years and ched in 
A.D. 665, A.H. 45. 

Haihat Jang (,_Clj: 

.^.^!i>), title 

of Zain-uddln Ahmad, the youugest sou of 
Haji Ahmnd, aud nephew and son-in-law 
of Alahwardi Kliau Mahabat Jang, governor 
of Bengal. He was the father of Nawab 
Siraj -uddaula, who succeeded Mahabat Jang 
in the government of Bengal in a.d. 1756. 

Haibat Khan (^l 

^). He 

the author of the Tin'ihh Khun Jahdn Lod'i, 
Makhzan-i- Afghani, containing the history 
of Khan Jahan Lodi and of the Afghans. 
Klian Jahan was a general of great reputation 
during the reign of the emperor Jalianglr, 
but rebelling against Shah Jahan, was killed 
in an engagement with the royal troops, a.d. 
1631, A.H. 1087. The above work was 
written in a.d. 1676. There is also an 
abridgment of this work, by the same author, 
called Majiiiua' A fcjh ln'i. 

Haidar (jJ^-,^), a title of 'All, the son- 
iu-law of Muhammad. 

Haidar {^^\<, jS^=^ L» i^S jS^:^), 

also called Haidar Kuluj or Haidar Kulicha, 
because he was by profession a baker. He 
was a native of Herat, and is the author of a 
Diwau in Persian and one in Urdu. 

Haidar (^j^^-^), or Mir Haidar Shah, 

a gallant soldier in the service of Nawab 
Sarfaraz Kliau, governor of Bengal. He put 
the Diwau of AVali the Deccani into Mu- 
khammas and interspersed that of Hafiz with 
verses of his own. He died at Hugli in the 
reign of the emperor Ahmad Shah, a year or 
two before or after a.d. 1750, a.h. 1164, 
aged 100 years. Garcin-de-Tassy thinks that 
he is the author of a Masuawi entitled Ktssai 
Chandar Badun and Mdhi/dr. 

Haidar Ali, known to contemporary 

Europeans as " Hydor Naik," son of a 
Punjabi adventurer, born in the Deccan about 
A.D. 1702 ; distinguished himself in the 

service of the Maisur (Mysore) State about 
1740. Deposed the Raja and assumed the 
power of the State twelve years later and 
ruled for 20 years. His extraordinary efforts 
and occasional successes against the British 
are matter of history. Defeated by Sir Eyre 
Coote at Porto Novo 1781, he died 7th 
December, 1782. He was succeeded by his 
son Tipu (Tippoo). 

Haidar Ali Moulwi (t_sJ»^ ^s. jS..j>- 

j_5'JIji ij^^i), of Faizabad, author of 

the Mtintnhl-iil- Kaldm and several other 
works. He was living in Dehli a.d. 1854, 
A.H. 1270. 

Haidar Mir {^,t ,^-.>.). Vide Haidar 

Haidar Mirza (h...« .lX.-..£-), who is 

also called Mir Haidar and Mirza Haidar 
Doghlat, was the son of Muhammad Husaiu, 
and his wife was the aunt of Babar Shah. 
He was formerly in the service of Kamran 
Mirza, brother of the emperor Humayiin, 
but being disgusted with his conduct abandoned 
his standard about the year a.d. 1539, a.h, 
946, and joined the emperor, to whom he 
was afterwards of great service. In a.d. 
1540, A.H. 947, he was deputed by the 
emperor to conquer Kashmir, which he took 
in a short time ; but as that emperor was 
soon after expelled from India by Sher Shall, 
Haidar became the king of that coimtry. In 
the year a.d. 1548, a.h. 955, he invaded 
Little Thibet, and not only succeeded in con- 
quering that country, but subsequently added 
Great Thibet, Eajora and Pogla to his 
dominions. He reigned nearly ten years, and 
was killed by an arrow in a night-attack made 
upon his camp in a.d. 1551, a.h. 958. 

Haidar Khan, Mir (^^ (^A:>- iJ»->»-), 

the grandson of jMir Haidar, who was the 
author of the Tarikh liashidi. This person, 
on plea of presenting a petition, killed Husaiu 
'Ali Ivhan Amir-ul-Umra, at the instigation 
of the emperor Muhammad Shah, ou the 
18th September, o.s. 1720, 27th Zi-Qa'da, 
a.h. 1132, aud was himself cut to pieces. 

Haidar Malik (L_XJl« .wUr^), entitled 

RaTs-ul-Mulk Chughtai, author of the most 
authentic history of Kashmere down to his 
own time. He was a nobleman in the service 
of the emperor Jahaugir, aud was living 
about the year a.d. 1619, a.h. 1028, in 
which year he accompanied that emperor to 

Haidar Muammai, Mir (^jl^r,* j^u^- 
..-^), surnamed Eafisgi Kashl, a 

punster who flourished in the time of Shah 
IsnnxTl II. king of Persia, aud wrote a chrouo- 




gram at his death, which took phice in a.d. 
1577, A.H. 985. He was distinguished by 
his skill in making chronograms and enigmas. 
He came to India in the time of Akl)ar, and 
was drowned when returning by sea to Persia. 
He was in charge of copies of Faizi's works 
for distribution in Persia, and they were 
also lost. Tide Mir Haidar. 

Haidar Razi (i_>".\; j-V^'X ^ Persian 

historian who wrote in the 17th century of 
the Christian Era. 

Haidar, Shaikh or Sultan ( ..v.^^^ 

(.Ll2_l_-j), father of Shah Ismail I. 

SafwI. He was the son of Sultan or Shaikh 
Junaid, the son of Shaikh Ibrahim, the son 
of Shaikh or Khwaja AlT, the son of the 
celebrated Shaikh Sadar-uddin Miisa, the 
son of Shaikh Safi or Sat'i-uddm ArdibelT, 
who was the 21st in a direct line from MiisT 
Qazini, the seventh Iraiini, He was killed 
in a battle against Ya'kiib Beg the son of 
Uzzan Husan, at Shirwau in the month of 
Jidy, A.D. 1488, Sha'ban, a.h. 893. 

Hairan (|^^^-.s-), poetical name of Mir 

Haidar 'Ali. He was killed in zillah Bihar, 
but had the assassin put to death before he 

Hairani, Maulana (Ij^L.^ ^jl..*.=^ 

JlA,*J&), of Hamdan. He is the 

author of several Masnawis or poems, viz. 
Bahn'on-ica- Xahld. Dispute between Heaven 
and Earth, e^i'iileA Mamzira Arz-iva-Samd ; 
Dispute between the Candle and the Moth, 
called Manazira Shama''-^ca- I'aru-nna ; and 
Dispute between the Eoasting Spit and the 
Fowl, named Manazira Sikh-ua-Murgh. He 
died in a.d. 1497-8, a.h. 903. 

Hairat (^JjJl ^Ui c:j^-.=^), poetical 

name of Qayam-uddln, the author of the 
biography called Tazlcira Maqdldt - ush - 
IShtia'rd, which he com2)leted in a.d. 1760, 
A.H. 1174. 

Hairat {cLij.^.=^), poetical title of 

Pandit Ajuddhia Parshad, a native of Kash- 
mere, who resided at Lncknow. He is the 
author of a small Dlwan and a few Masnawis. 
He died a.h. 1234, in the 35th year of 
his age. 

Hairati ( 


), a poet of Marv. In 

reAvard of a Qasida which he com])os(d in 
praise of Slifih Tiiliiiias]) I. Satwl, he <)l)taini'd 
the title of Malik-ush-Shua'rfi or king of 

poets. Besides the work called Baljat-ul- 
Mub'ihij, he is the author of a Masuawl to 
which he gave the title of Gulzur. All his 
verses amount to about 40,000. He was 
murdered at Kashan a.d. 1554, a.h. 9G2. 

Hairati (^J^_*.^-) was the greatest 

poet of his time. He had studied at Isfahan, 
and was alive when Taqi KiishanT wrote his 
Tazkira a.d. 1585. Though he received a 
liberal allowance from the Persian Govern- 
ment, owing to his extravagance, it was quite 
iusutficient i'or his support, and in a.d. 1581, 
a.h. 989, he came to India being attra(,'ted 
by the prodigaUty of the Qutb-Sliahi kings 
of Golkanda. 

Hajar ( js.^^), a very gi'eat man among 

the followers of 'AlT, and remarkable for his 
singular abstinence, piety and strictness of 
life, his constant purifications according to 
Muhammadan law, and exactness in observing 
the hoiu's of devotion. He was put to death 
in A.D. 666, by order of Mu'awia I. for 
speaking reproachfully of him, affronting his 
brother Zayad, governor of Kiifa, and afhrming 
that the government did not, of right, belong 
to any but the family of 'Ali. 

Hajari. Vide Hijrl. 

Haji Begam (*-x.-_j ^^:>-L^), wife of 

the emperor Humayiin. 

[_Vide Ilamida Bauo Bcgam.] 

Haji Khalfa (<LiJ..^ s^\:^), a cele- 
brated author commonly called MustafT Haji 
Khalfa. He is the author of the work called 
Fazlaka, also of the Biographical Dictionary 
called Ka&hf-uz-Zuiifin, and the work called 
Taqi.vhn-ut-Tawdrlkh Ruml. The latter is a 
Chronological Table of remarkable events 
from the Creation of the world to a.d. 1648, 
A.H. 105s, translated from the Turkish 
during the reign of Sultan Muhammad IV. of 
Constantinople. The Kashf-nz-Zmuin was 
printed for the Oriental Translation Fund in 
1835-50, together with a Latin translation by 
Professor Fluegel. It appears that Haji 
Khalfa formerly bore the title of Katib CliilpT, 
and if this is correct, he died in a.d. 1657, 
A.H. 1067. 

[In Chambers' Encyclopa'dia the mouth and 
j'car of his death are given as September, a.d. 
1 658, and he is also said to have been the author 
of the Tarlkh Kahir, the Great History, which 
is a history of the world from the creation of 
Adam to a.d. 1G55, containing notices of 150 
dynasties, principally Asiatic ; also a history 
of the Ottoman empire from a.d. 1591 to 
165S, and a history of the maritime wars of 
the Turks, which has been translated into] 




Haji Muhammad Beg Khan ( r^-l.^- 

^l^ L^^ Xiss:^), the father of the 

celebrated Mirza Abu Talib Kbiin, author of 
the Jlasir Tfdibl. He was by descent a Turk, 
but born at 'Abbasabad in Isfahan. Whilst a 
young man, cbeading the tyranny of Xadir 
Shah, he fled from Persia, and on his arrival 
in India was admitted into the friendship of 
Nawab Abu'l Mansiir Khilu Safdar Jang. 
Upon the death of Raja Nawul Eae, Deputy 
Governor of Audh in a.d. 1750, a.h. 1163, 
Muhammad Quli l\lian, the nephew of the 
Nawab, Avas appointed to that important 
office, and he (Haji) was nominated one of 
his assistants. On the death of Safdar Jang 
in A.D. 1753, A.H. 1167, his son Shuja- 
uddaula became jealous of his cousin Muham- 
mab Quii Khan, arrested him and put him to 
death. Haji titd with a few of his faithful 
servants to Ijengal, where he passed a number 
of years, and died at Murshidabad in April, 
A.D. 1769, Zil-hijja, a.h. 1182. 

Haji Muhammad Jan (jk^.s'* .^^^^ 

,_cj.j,A^ ^^), of Mashhad. His 

poetical name is Qudsl. He flourished in the 
reign of the emperor Shah Jahau, who 
conferred on liim the title of Malik-ush- 
Shua'ra, or the Royal poet. He is the 
author of a poem containing the conquests of 
the emperor, which he named Zafarmma. 
He died in the year a.d. 1645, a.h. 1055, 
and after him the title of the royal poet was 
conferred on Abu Talib Kalim. He is also 
the author of a Diwan, and an Insha. 

Haji Muhammad Kashmiri Maulana 

One of his forefathers, who w'as a native of 
Hamdiln, came to Kashmere with Mir Said 
'All Hamdaui. Haji was born in that 
province, but came to Dehli in his youth, 
where he received his education. He was an 
excellent poet, flourishing in the time of 
Akbar, and died on Thiu-sday the 22ud 
September, a.d. 1597, 19th Safar, a.h. 
1006, o.s. He was a religious man, and had 
many disciples, one of whom, named Maulana 
Hasan, wrote the chronogram of his death. 

Haji Muhammad Khan Sistani 

( j\:,M*^ 1^^ Jk,4usr* |^3>-l:>-). He 

was at first in the service of Bairam Khan 
I£liaukbanan, after whose dismissal he was 
honoured with the rank of 3000 by the 
emperor Akbar. He accompanied Muuaim 
Klian Kliankbauiin to Bengal and died at 
Gout in a.d. 1575, a.h. 983. 

Haji Muhammad Qandahari ( ,^1^^ 

tjr^UbJu.Ji Jv/»^'*). He is the author 

of a history which goes by his name, viz. 
Tarlkh lidji Muhammad Qandahari. 

Haj j aj -bin- Yusaf-al-Saqafi or Thaqafl 

^^. ^-'. -^- 


■), one of 

the most valiant Arabian captains, who was 
made governor of Arabia and Arabian Iraq, 
by Abdulmalik the fifth Klialif of the 
Ommaides, after he had defeated and killed 
Abdullah -bin-Zubeir, who had taken the 
title of Klialifa at Mecca. In the year a.d. 
693, a.h. 74, he pulled down the temple of 
Mecca, which Abdullah had repaired, placing 
the black stone on the outside of it again and 
restoring it to the very form it had before 
Muhammad's time. He was a great tyrant; 
it is said of him, that in his lifetime he had 
put to death a hundred and twenty thousand 
persons, and when he cUcd had 50,000 in his 
prisons. He died in the reign of the Khalif 
Walif I. in the year a.d. 714, a.h. 85, aged 
54 years. 

Hakim I. (,^~-), the poetical title of 

a person who was a native of IMashbad, and 
was living about the year a.d. 1688, a.h. 
1100. He was an Arabic and Persian scholar, 
and is the author of a Diwan and a Masnawi. 

Hakim II. (j^C:^), the poetical name 

of Shah Abdul Hakim of Lahore. He is the 
author of a work called Mard/im Dida, 
compiled at Aurangabad in a.d. 1761, a.h. 
1175. It contains an accoimt of those poets 
with whom the author was acquainted. 

Hakim-Ain-ul-Mulk (^-->-£ ♦---^s>- 

( CL^JO, of Shiraz. He was a 

learned man and a clever writer. He traced 
his origin, on his mother's side, to the 
renowned logician Muhaqqiq-i-Dawani. The 
Historian Badaoni was a friend of his. Akbar 
also liked him very much. Hakim was a 
poet and -wi-ote under the Lakhalus of 
Dnwani. He died at Handiah on the 27th 
Zil-hijja, a.h. 1003. 

[Vide Am Translation, i. p. 481.] 

Hakim Ali ( ji_-,.s' ^s. *.->.x.c^), of 

Gilan, came to India in indigent circum- 
stances, but was fortunate enough to become 
in course of time a personal attendant and 
friend of Akbar. In the 39th year of Akbar' s 
reign, he constructed the wonderful reservoir 
which is so often mentioned by Mughal 
historians. In the 40th year Ali was a 
commander of 700 and hkl the title of 
JaHnus Uzzamani the ' Galinus of the Age.' 
He died on the 5th Muharram, a.h. 1018. 

[Vide A'in Translation, i. p. 466.] 

Hakim Muhammad (jk.y*..s'* ♦-^JLs^). 

He was half-brother to the emperor Akbar, 
being born of a diii'erent mother. 
[_]'ide Muhammad Hakim.] 




Hakim Nur-uddin SMrazi ( ,»j *-i^J^ 

^■.\.^ ^.\J^\), who appears to have 

been either grandson or sister's son of Ahii'l 
Fazl, asserts in his preface to the Hajat Dara 
Shikohi, that he comineuced his work in the 
l-lth year of tlie reign of Shah Jahan, a.d. 
1042, A.H. 10-52, tlie ahove name of the book 
gives the year of tlie Ilijra, and brought it to 
a conclusion iu a.h. lUoG. 

Hakim-ul-Mumalik(( ClU^'l /♦rr-^)> 

title of MTr ]\Iuhammad Mahdi, a physician 
who held the rank of 4000 in the reign of 
the emperor '^Vlamgir. 

Halaki ( jljc^Jfc ^S'^^'^, of Hamclan, 

a Persian poet, though illiterate, wrote a 
paneg}Tic on the accession of Shah Isma'il 
Safwi II. to the throne of Persia, iu the year 
A.D. 1576, A.H. 984, for which he received a 
handsome present from the king, while other 
poets who wrote on the same occasion 
received nothing. 

Halaku Qaan or Khan (^1 Ijj ^\:b), 

also called Ilklian, was the son of Tuli Kl^an, 
and the fourth successor and grandson of 
Changez Khau the Tartar. In the reign of 
his brother Maugu Qaan, king of Tartary, 
he was detached, in May, a.d. 1253, Eabi' I. 
A.H. 651, attended by one hundred and fifty 
thousand horse to subdue Persia, which he 
soon conquered, after which he extirpated the 
power of the Isma'ilis, tlie descendants of 
Hasan Sabbiih [q.v.), the founder of the 
sect, and destroyed their strongholds in 
November, a.d. 1256, ^il-qada, a.h. 6)4. 
He next intended to march direct to Constan- 
tinople, but was persuaded by Nasir-uddiu 
Tiisi (whom he had made his prime minister) 
to turn his arms against Baghdad. He 
marched against that capital, aud after a 
siege of some months took it in February, 
A.D. 1258, 4th Safar, a.h. 656. The Kiialiia 
Mustaa'sim Billah aud his son were seized, 
and with 800,000 of its inhabitants were put 
to death. After these successes Halakii was 
desirous of retiu'ning to Tartary to take 
possession of the government of his native 
country, which had become vacant by the 
death of his brother Maugii Qafiu ; but the 
great defeat which the geueral whom he had 
left in S}Tia suffered from Saif-uddin Firoz, 
the prince of the Mamluks of Egypt, com- 
pelled him to abandon his design ; aud after 
he had restored his affairs in Syria, he fixed 
his residence at Marfigha, in Azurbaijan, 
where he died on Sunday the 8th February, 
A.D. 1265, 19th Rabi' ll. a.h. 663, after"a 
reign of twelve yciirs from his iirst coming to 
Persia, and eight years from the death of his 
brother. During his prosperous reign, the 
literature of I'ersia resumed its fdrmer 
flourishing state ; and the illustrious Persian 
Bard Sa'di of Shiraz was living in his time. 

Iltilaku was succeeded by his son Aba Qaan 
iu the kingdom of Persia. 

List of Mughal -Tartar or Ilkhdln di/iiastt/ of 

Halakii Khan, the son of Tiili Ivhan, suc- 
ceeded his brother Mangii Qaan iu the 
kingdom of Persia. 

Aba Qaan, the son of Halakii. 

Nikodar or Ahmad Khan, brother of Aba 

Arghuu Klian, son of Aba Qaan. 

Kaikbatii I\han, son of Aba Qaan. 

Baidfi, grandson of Halakii. 

Ghazan Khan, son of Arghiin IChiln. 

Aljaita, the son of Arghuu ]\luiu. 

Abii Said Bahadiu- Klulu, son of Aljaptii, 
after whose death the dynasty became 

Halati (^x]';:s^), poetical title of Kasini 

Beg, wlio was born and brought up in 
Teheran, and spent the greater part of his 
life at Qazwin. He flourished iu the reign 
of Shah Tahmasp Safwi, and wrote the 
chronogram of the accession of Shah 
Ismail II. in a.d. 1576, a.h. 984. He is 
the author of a Diwan iu Persian. 

Halima (a.,*..-.!.;^), the name of Mu- 
hammad's nurse, who, it is said, had formerly 
no nulk in her breasts, but immediately 
obtained some when she presented them to 
the new born prophet to suck. 

HaHaj (_1^). This word, which 

properly signifies the person that prepares 
cotton before it is mauufactiu-ed, was the 
surname of Abii MugbTs Husaiu-bin-Mansiir. 
{Vide Mansiir Hallaj.] 

al-Qazwini, Khwaja (<i,.iJl jk.^.s^ 

also called Ilamid-uddin jMustoufi, a native 
of Quz^vin, and author of the Tdr'tkh Giizida, 
or Sdected History, which he composed in 
A.D. 1329, a.h. 730, and dedicated to the 
minister Gliayas-uddin, the son of Rashid- 
uddiu, author of the J(lina'-ut-Taw<irl^i, to 
both of whom Hamd-ullah had been Secretary. 
The Tdrlkh Guzlda ranks among the best 
general histories of the last eleven years ; after 
the completion of this history, the author 
com])(iscd his celebrated work on Geography 
and Natural History, eutitled Nuzhat-id- 
Qnl/'ih, The delight of hearts, which is in high 
repute with Oriental Scholars, aud which has 
obtainel for him from D'Hcrbelot the title 
of le G(H)graphe Persan. llamd-nllah died 
AD. 134!)^ A.H. 750. He was the brother of 
I'aklir-uddin Fath-ullah Mustoufi. See also 
Ahmad-bin-Abii Bakr. 




Hamid (jk--../*..^-), a poet, who is the 

author of a poem called Jsniat Ndma, contaiu- 
iug the loves of Satin and Mina, composed in 
the year a.d. 1607, a.h. 1016, during the 
reig-u of Jahangir. 

Hamid ( j^^ W ), or Abdul Hamid Yahia, 

a celebrated caligrapher, who reformed the 
Arabian characters in the reign of the Khalif 
Muawia II. of the house of Umaiya. He 
died in a.d. 749, a.h. 132. 

Hamid Ali, Mirza (U^< ^Lc x.«lj^), 

or more properly Prince Mirza, Hamid 'Ali, 
son of AVajid 'All Shah, the last king of 
Lucknow. He accompanied his grandmother 
the Dowager Queen of Lucknow to England 
to claim his right, in 1856. 
I Vide Jawad All.] 

Hamida Bano (».jlj bS.^-A-^), the 

daughter of Malika Bano, the sister of 
Mumtaz Mahal, was married to Klialil-ullah 
Kliau, who died in a.d. 1662. 

Hamida Bano Begam (».jU iJc-..^=- 
^Cj), styled (after her death) Mariam 

Makani, and commonly called Haji Begam, 
was a great-granddaughter of Shaikh Ahmad 
Jam. She was married in a.d. loil, a.h. 
948, to the emperor Humayun, and became 
the mother of the emperor Akbar. She is 
the founder the Sarai called Arab Sara, 
situated near the mausoleum of her husband 
at old Dehli. She had gone on a pilgrimage 
to Mecca, and on her return brought with 
her 300 Arabs, for whom she built this place 
in a.d. 1560, a.h. 968. She died at Agra 
on Monday the 29th August, a.d. 1603, 
17th Shahrewar, a.h. 1012, aged about 78 
years, and was biuied in the mausoleum of 
Humayiin at Dehli. 

Hamid Kirmani ( ^L«i^ w\^«l_>), 

poetical name of Shaikh Aohad - uddiu 

Hamid-uddin Ali-al-Bukhari {s^a^£>^ 

^.Isal^ ^Iji ^jJvll), author of a short 

Commentary on the Hidaya, entitled the 
I'awded. He died in a.d. 1268, a.h. 667. 

Hamid-ullah Khan (j^lri- tdH S^a.s^), 

author of the Ahadis-ul-Khaicdnhi, also 
called Tdrikk-i - Hamid, which contains a 
history of Chatgawu (Chittagoug). I'riuted 
at Calcutta in 1871. 

Hamid - uddin Mustoufi, Khwaja 

\_Vide Ilamd-idlah Mustoufi.] 

Hamid-uddin Nagori, Qazi {^.^.a,.o- 
^iJ ^,^\J ^^_!j»J\), a native of 

Nagor who held the appointment of QazT, 
and died on the 11th July, a.d. 1296, 11th 
Ramazan, a.h. 69o, and is bm-ied at Dehli 
close to the tomb of I\liwaja Qutb-uddln 
Bakhtiar, commonly called Uutb Shah. He 
is the author of the book called Tawdla-iish- 
IShamus, containing religious contemplations 
and speculative opinions of the essence and 
natirre of the divinity, etc., etc. The year of 
his death is taken from an inscription over his 

Hamid-uddin Qazi ( ^\i ^;>a!^ '■^r*'^- 

^■jJ..J6j), of Dehli, -was the author 

of the Sharah Hiddyat-td-Fiqah and several 
other works. He died in a.d. 1363, a.h. 764. 

Hamid-uddin Umar, Qazi (jk.^w*_=^ 
^^lJ5 y^z jjJ^O flourished in the 

time of Sultan Saujar, the Saljuki king 
of Persia, was a contemporary of the poet 
AnwarT, and is the author of a Commentary 
on the Qm-an called Muqdmdt. 

Hammad (jL.*._.5-), the son of Abu 

Hanifa, who was a learned man, and died in 
the year a.d. 792, a.h. 176. 

Hamza, Amir ( .-.^^ ij.^5- ), the son of 

Abdul Muttalib, and uucle of Muhammad, 
who gave him the title of Asad-ullah, or the 
lion of God, because of his courage and valour, 
and put into his hands the first standard he 
ordered to be made, which was called " Raet- 
ul-Islam," the standard of the faith. Hamza, 
who was also called Abii 'Umar, was killed 
in the battle of Ohad which Muhammad 
fought with the Qureshites, of whom Abii 
Sufian was chief. After the battle Hinda, 
the wife of Abii Sufian, pulled Hamza's 
liver out of his body and chewed aud 
swallowed some of it. This battle took place 
in the month of March, a.d. 625, Shawwal, 
A.H. 3. 

Hamza Bano Begam (^il.^ y b iU.5-), 

daughter of Shah Jahan by Kandahari Begam, 
daughter of Muzaffar Husain Mirza of the 
royal race of Shah Isma'il Safwi. She was 
born in the year a.h. 1019. 

Hamza Mirza (U^ *Uj>-), the eldest 

son of Sultan Muhammad Kjuida Banda, aud 
the grandson of Sliali Talunfisp I. of the 
Safwi family of I'ersia. His father, on 
account of a natural weakness in his eyes, 
which rendered him almost blind, had at 




first cntnisted tlio cliar<;-c of the empire to his 
■\vazir, Mirzii Sulaimiin ; wlien that nobleman 
was slain, he created his own son, Hamza 
Mirza, regent of the empire. This prince, 
by his valonr, extricated his weak father from 
all his difficulties with which be was 
snrronndfd. Ent this gleam of good fortime 
soon vanished. This gallant prince was 
stabbed by a barber, in his own private 
apartments on the 24th November, a.d. 1586, 
22nd Zil-hijja, a.h. 99-t. 

Hanbal, Imam(^Ul J^-s-), or Ahmad 

Ihn Ilanbal, the son of Muhammad- 
ibn - Ilanbal, was the fourth Imam or 
foimder of one of the four orthodox sects of 
the Suunis called Ilanbalites. This sect 
made a great noise in Baghdad in the reign of 
the Khallf Al-Muqtadir in a.d. 929, "a.h. 
317. Meranzi, chief of the sect, had asserted 
that God had placed Muhammad on bis 
throne, which assertion be founded upon the 
passage of the Quran ; ' ' Thy Lord shall soon 
give thee a considerable place or station." 
All the other sects of the Musalraans regard 
the explication of the Ilanbalites as a shocking 
impiety. They maintain that this consider- 
able place or station was the post or quality 
of a mediator, which they affirm to belong to 
their prophet. This dispute passed from the 
schools to the public assemblies. At length 
they came from words to blows which cost 
the lives of several thousands. In the year 
A.D. 935, A.H. 323, the Ilanbalites became 
so insolent, that they marched in arms on the 
city of Baghdad, and plundered the shops on 
pretence that wine was drunk in them. 
Ahmad was a traditionist of the first class, 
and composed a collection of authenticated 
traditions called Ilasnad, more copious than 
those any other person had, till then, been able 
to form : it is said that he knew by heart one 
million of those traditions. He was born in 
the year a.d. 780, a.h. 164, and died on the 
31st' July, a.d. 855, 12th Eahi' I. a.h. 241, 
in the reign of the KlialTf Al-Mutwakkil, and 
was buried at Baghdad. It was estimated 
that the number of men present at his fimeral 
was 800,000, and 60,000 women; and it is 
said that 20,000 Christians, Jews and 
Magians became Moslems on the day of his 
death. In the year a.d. 835, Ramazan, 
A.H. 220, some time in the month September, 
he was required by Klialif Al-Motasim Billah 
to declare that the Quran was created, but 
would not, and although beaten and imprisoned 
persisted in his refusal. The eternity of the 
Quran, considered as the word of God, is the 
orthodox Moslem doctrine. [The mddriii 
"NVahhabis are believed to be partly followers 
of this teacher. See Hughes' Dictionary of 
Islam, in voc. " Ibn Ilanbal."] 

Handal Mirza {\\j.^ JU.:_>-), son of 

the emperor Babar Shah and brother of 
Humilyun, was born in the year a.d. 1518, 
A.H. 924. IIo his life in a night attack 
made by his brother Kamran Mirza on the 

emperor Ilumilyiin near Khaihar in the 
province of Kabul, on the 19th November, 
A.D. 1551, 21st Zi-Qa'da, a.h. 958. lie is 
buried at Kabul close to the tomb of the 
emperor Babar Shah. Ilumayun, out of 
affection to the memory of Handal Mirza, in 
the same year gave the daughter of that 
priuce, Ilaqia Sidtana, to his son Akbar in 

Hani ( u>-), surname of Muhammad- 
bin- 'All, a poet who died in the year a.d. 
1333, a.h. 733. 

Hanifa Imam (^Ul Ak^us^ ), also called 

Abii Hanifa and Imam 'Azim, was one 
of the four Jurisconsiilts of Mecca, 
viz. Imam Hanifa, Imam Hanbal, Imam 
Shafa'I and Imam Malik, from whom are 
derived the various Codes of Muhammadan 
Jurisprudence. He was one of the most 
celebrated doctors of the Musalmans, and 
chief of the sect of Hanlfites ; and though his 
sect is the principal of the four which they 
now indifferently follow, he was ill-used 
during his lifetime. His principal works are : 
the Masnad, i.e. the foundation or support, 
wherein he establi.shed all the points of the 
Musalman faith ; a treatise entitled Filkaldm 
or Scholastic Divinity ; and a catechism 
called Mua'lUm.-iil-Islfnn, i.e. the Instructor. 
Another of his books is entitled the Fiqh- 
ul- Akbar ; it treats of the Ilm-ul-Kalam, 
and has been commented upon by varioiis 
writers, many of whom are mentioned by 
Haji Khalfa. Some .say that the Masnad 
was written by Imam Hanbal. By the Shias 
he is as much detested and censiu'ed as by 
their antagonists he is admired and exalted. 
For allowing his clisciples to drink nablz, 
which is a wine made of dates, he is accused 
by the Persians of departing ifrom the clear 
injunction of the Prophet against all intoxi- 
cating beverages. [At the time of his birth 
some of the "companions" of the Projihot 
were still living, which adds to bis authority 
among the Sunn! denomination.] 

Haqiqat (Liz^Ji^X^-), poetical title of 

Saiyad Ilusain Shah, son of Saiyad Arab 
Shah. He accompanied Col. Kydd to 
Chin.apatan in Madras as head Muushi and 
died there. He is the author of an Urdii 
Diwan and seven other works, some of which 
are named Tahfat-iil-'jijam, Khaz'inat-td- 
AmsCtl, Sanamhada Chin and Hashf Gulgusht. 
[ Mdc Ilusain Shilh.] 

Haqiri (^_*.ii.»-), poetical name of 
Maulana Shahab-uddin Mua'mmaT. 

Harindar Narain Bhup, Maharaja 

(cLp-ljl^,^ i-Jy^^, ^j.Aj6 jdJij-n), the 

Rfija of Kfich Behar, who died at Benares 
on the 30th IMay, 1839, and was aged 70 years. 
IIo was of tbellajhansi caste, and a follower 
of Siva, but bis style of living was very 




unlike that of a Hindu. He used to marry 
■without any regard to caste, and entered into 
the connubial relation with any women he 
took a fancy to. He did not even spare married 
women. The number of his wives or ranis 
was no less than 1200 ! 

Hari Rao Holkar (^JLLji jV, ^j^), 

E,aja of Indor, was the cousin and successor 

of Malhar Eao III. the adopted son and 

successor of Jaswant Eao Holkar. He died 
on the 24:th October, a.d. 1843. 

Hariri (^. -J ,-»-), whose full name is 

Abii Muhammad Qisim - b i n - ' A 1 i - bin - 
Usman-al-Hariri-al-Basri, was a native of 
Basra. He was one of the ablest writers of 
his time, and is the author of the Miiqdmdt 
Hariri, a work consisting of fifty Oratorical, 
Poetical, Moral, Ecomiastic, and Satirical 
discourses, supposed to have been spoken or 
read in public assemblies ; but which were 
composed by the author at the desire of 
Anusherwan- ibn - Khrdid, wazir to Sultan 
Muhammad Saljiiqi. He died at Basra in 
the year a.d. 1122, a.h. 516. Poets, 
historians, grammarians and lexicographers 
look upon the M/iqfimat as the highest 
authority, and next to the Quran, as far at 
least as language is concerned. His book has 
been translated either entirely or partially 
into nearly every Eastern and Eiu-opean 

Harkaran ( .^^a), the son of Mathura 

Das, a Kamboh of Multan, was a Munshi in 
the service of Nawab Ya'tbar Khan, and is 
the author of a collection of letters called 
Inshde Harkaran, or the Furms of Harka- 
ran, translated into English by D. Francis 
Balfour, M.D. The second edition of this 
work was printed in 1804. 

Harun-al-Rashid {s. 

Vide Al-Pvashid. 

^^j^\ ^^j 


Hasan (J.-^.~j ^J ^^us^), son of Suhail 

or Sahl, was governor of Chaldea about the 
year a.d. 830, under the Klialif Al-Mrnnfui, 
who married Turan Dukht his daughter. 
Some attribute to this Hasan the translation 
of the Persian book entitled Jdweddn Kliirad 
into Arabic. 

Hasan ( ...w*.*-), poetical name of Mu- 
hammad Hasan, who flourished in the reign of 
the emperor Shiih 'Alam of Dehli. 

Hasan Abdal ( Jljk_*r j^^uas*-), or Baba 

Hasan Abdal, a famous saint who was a 
Sayyad at Sabzwar in K[iurasan. He came 
to India with Mirza Shahrukli, son of Anser 

Taimur, and died at Qaudahar, where his tomb 
is resorted to by pilgrims. Jahaugir says in 
the Tilzak that the place Hurasadak is 75 kos 
from Kashmere. 

Hasan 'All (^-l-^ (j-^-s^), the poet 

laiu-eate in the service of Tipu Sultan of 
Mysore. He is the author of a book called 
Bhoghal, or the Kok Shdstar. It is a curious 
but obscene satire on women, said to be a 
translation or paraphrase from the Sanskrit 
in Hindi verse. There is another translation 
of the same book in Persian prose called 
Lazzat-un-Xisa, by Ziya-uddin Xakhshabl. 

Hasan Askari, Imam {^.L^£. ..*^=» ), 

or Abii'l Hasan 'All-al- 'Askari, was the 
eleventh Imam of the race of 'Ali, and the 
eldest son of Imam 'All Na(ii who was the 
tenth. He was born at Madina in the year 
A.D. 846, A.H. 232, and died on the 6th 
November, a.d. 874, 22nd Muharram, a.h. 
261, aged 28 years. He is buried at Sar- 
manrai in Baghdad close to the tomb of his 

Hasan Basri, Khwaja (^_s-.w^.j ^j^=>- 
i,:>-\^6>-), a native of Basra and a very 

pious Musalman, who is said to have possessed 
all the branches of science, and was noted for 
self-mortification, fear of God and devotion. 
He is the author of a Diwau or book of Odes 
in Arabic. He was born in a.d. 642, a.h. 
21, and died on the 11th October, a.d. 728, 
1st Eajab, a.h. 110, aged 89 lunar years, 
and was buried at Basra. 

Hasan Beg (Khani, Badakhslii) 

d^SJ g.i\.:>- l_-.N-»-J -Aw-=-), 

Shaikh Umari was a good soltlier. He was 
made a commander of 2,500 for his services in 
Bangash, and was put, towards the end of 
Akbar's reign, in charge of Kabul, receiving 
Fort Rohtas in the Panjab as jagir. Hasan 
Beg, after making a useless attempt to in- 
criminate others, was put into a cow-hide 
and in this state he was tied to donkeys and 
carried through the bazaar. He died after a 
few hours from suffocation. 

[Vide Aln Translation, i. p. 454.] 

Hasan - bin - Muhammad Khaki - al - 
Shirazi ( ^£\.d>. S-a^.^"^ ^jJ ^^^^=^ 

^j\^^\\), -who came to India in the 

time of the emperor Akbar and obtained 
different offices under the governnu'ut. He is 
the author of a history also called Munfakh'di- 
iit-Tan-drikh, besides the one written l)y 
Abdu (ifulir Badaoni. He commenced the 
work before the close of Akbar's reign, i.e. 
A.D. 1010, A.H. 1019, in which year, he tells 
us, he was appointed Diwau of Patua. 




H asan-bin-Muhammad Sliarif( .fA«.»- 
i jk-.^.js:'* llj-'^ author of the 

Ams-nl-^Ushshdq, the lover's compauion, 
coutaining an explanation of all the metaphors 
and phrases used by the poets ; with numerous 
quotations from those held in the greatest 

\_Vide Qhadim.] 

Hasan-bin-Sabah (_L^ 
Vid^ Hasan Sabhah. 

ti;-^ cT^' 


Hasan Buzurg (i— J^^J ^.^.=^), also 

called Sheikh Hasan, Amir Hasan Ilqaui, 
and Aran- Hasan Naviiin, Kayukai, the son 
of Amir Ilqan Jahiyer. He was an immediate 
descendant of Sultan Arghuu Khan, king of 
Persia (whose sister was his mother), and 
one of the principal chiefs of the Mughals in 
the reign of Sultan Abu Sa'id. He married 
liaghdad Ixhatiin, daughter of Amir Chobau 
or JoWau, but the prince being deeply 
enamoured of her charms, Amir Hasan, after 
the death of her father, Avas forced to resign 
his consent to him in a.u. 1327, a.h. 728. 
A few years after the death of Abu Sa'id, 
Amir Hasan married his widow Dilshad 
Ivhiitiin, went to Baghdad, seized that city, 
and became the founder of a petty dj-nasty 
of princes. His life was passed in contests 
to establish his authority over the territories 
of Baghdad, and he died before this object 
of his ambition was accomplished, in July, 
A.D. 1356, iiajab, a.h. 757. His sou Sultan 
Owes Jalayer was more fortunate ; he not 
onlv succeeded in completing the conquest 
his father had commenced, but carried his 
arms into Azm'hejan and Kliurasan. Sultan 
Owes died in October, a.d. 1374, a.h. 776, 
and left his government to his second son 
Sultan Husain Jalayer. This excellent priuce, 
who is also alike celebrated for his benevo- 
lence and love of justice, lost his life in an 
action in a.d. 1382, a.h. 784, with his 
brother Ahmad, surnamed Ilqaui, acriiel and 
unjust ruler, whose enormities compelled his 
subjects to invite Amir Taimur (Tamerlane) 
to their relief in a.d. 1393, and almost the 
whole of the futiu'e life of Ahmad passed in 
an ineffectual struggle with that conqueror. 
He fled to Egj-pt for safety, and when, after 
the death of Taimiir, he returned to recover 
his dominions, he was taken and put to death 
hy Qara Yiisaf, a Tm"kman chief, in a.d. 
1410, A.H. 813. 

Hasan Ganga. Vide Ah'i-ad-din I. 

Hasan Imam {Ay*\ ^^?-), the eldest 

son of 'All, the son of Abu Talib, and 
Fatima, the daughter of Muhammad ; was 
born on the Lst March, a.d. 625, 15th 
Ramazan, a.h. 3. After the death of his 
father in January, a.d. 661, Ramazan, a.h. 40, 
he succeeded him as second Imiim, and was 

proclaimed Ivhalif by the Arabians, but 
perceiving the people cUvided and liimself 
ill-used, he after six months resigned the 
Kliiliifat to Mu'awia, who assigned to him 
about 15,000 pounds a year, besides large 
presents. After this Hasan and his brother 
Husain retired and lived privately at Madina, 
where after a few years he died of poison, 
administered to him by one of his wives, 
whom Yazid, the son of Mu'awia, suborned 
to commit that wickedness, on the promise 
of marrying her afterwards ; though instead of 
a new husband, she was forced to be con- 
tented with a good sum of money which 
Mu'awia gave her for her pains; for Yazid 
was not so mad as to trust himself to her 
embraces. Hasan's murder took place on 
the night of the 17th March, a.d. 669 or 
670, 7th Safar, ah. 49. He was buried in 
Madina at a place called Baqia. Hasan is 
said to have been in person very like his 
grandfather Muhammad, who, when he was 
born, spit in his mouth and named him 
Hasan. He had twenty chikh-en — tifteen 
sons and five daughters. Though his wi\'es 
were remarkably foud of him, yet he was apt 
very frequently to divorce them and marry 
new ones. 

Hasan Kashi, Maulana ( 

^IS ^j*^i 

L'l'.^), a poet who was a native of 

Kashan. He is the author of many Qasldas 
and Ghazals. The year of his death is not 
known, but he appears to have flourished 
about the 8th century of the Hijri era. 

Hasan Khwaja (cL 
Vide Hasan Sanjari. 




Hasan Khwaja {i^s>-\^.:>, ^j.jj^=:^), a 

darwesh, the son of Khwaja Ibrahim. He 
is the author of a Diwau of G^iazals, in the 
last verses of each of which he has mentioned 
the name of his beloved. 

Hasan Kochak, Shaikh ( ._«^_:5- 
^:^*^ i^-\j=-»i), a grandson of Amir 

Chouban or Jovian. He was one of the 
chiefs aaIio, during the period of trouble and 
confusion which took place after the death 
of Sultan Abu Sa'id, king of Persia, in a.d. 
1335, rose to eminence. He fought several 
battles with Amir Hasan Buzurg [q.v.), and 
met his death accidentally by the hands of a 
quarrelsome wife, in December, a.d. 1343, 
Rajah, a.h. 741. 

Hasan Maimandi d^jc^*-*.^ ^*^»-). 

It is asserted by some that he was one of the 
ministers of Sultan Mahnmd of Ghazni. 
This statement is altogether incorrect and 
uniiiunded, says Sir H. Elliot, as it is not 
mentioned by any great liistoriau. But his 




son who is commonly called Ahmnd-biu-IIasan 
Mainiandi was a minister of that monarch. 
Hasan MaimaudT was, during the lifetime of 
Sultan Nasir-uddin iSubaktagin, employed as 
Diwan or Collector of Revenues at Qasba 
Bust ; hut Nasir-uddin was led hy the secret 
machinations of his enemies to entertain an 
unfavom-able opinion of him, till he was at 
last, in consequence of his having been con- 
victed of extortion and fraud to a large 
amount, hanged by order of that Sultan ; so 
that the general notion which prevails that 
he was the wazir of Sultan Mahmud, is 

Hasan, Mir ( ^< .^z 

-), a HiiKlustrinl 

poet of Lucknow, and author of the novel 
called Mamawl Mir Hasan, containing the 
loves of Badr-i-Mimir and Benazir in tJrdii 
verse, which he completed and dedicated to 
Nawab 'Asaf-uddaula in the year a d. 1785, 
A.H. 1199. It is also called Sahr-ul-Bai/dn. 
His ancestors were of Herat, but he was horn 
at Delili and went early in life to Lucknow, 
where he was supported by Nawab Safdar 
Jang and his son Mirza Nawazish All Klian. 
He is also the author of a Diwan of about 
8000 verses, and of a Tazkira of Urdu poets. 
He died in a.d. 1790, a.h. 120i. His father's 
name was Mir Gjulam Husain Zahik. 

Hasan Mirza Ojj-^ ^^.j^=>-), son of 

IMulla Ahdiu' Razzaq of Lahijau. He has 
left some noble compositions, such as T/ie 
True Light on the articles of Faith, The 
Beauty of good Men in their Works, a pious 
treatise, and some others. He died in the 
beginning of the 18th centiu-y. 

Hasan, Maulana (Lj^..^ , 

), a 

learned Musalman who lived in the time of 
the emperor Jahangir and wrote a chronogram 
on the sudden death of Shaikh *AlT Ahmad, 
son of Shaikh Husain Xaqshi, in the year 
A.D. 1609, A.H. 1018. 

Hasan MutkaUim, Maulana ( ,_u^r^ 

\.ji^^ >J,X.-.,-«), a poet and pupil of 

Maulana Muzaffar of Herat. He ilonrislicd 
in the reign of Malik Ghayas-uddin Kart II. 
in whose name he composed a book on the 
art of poetry. 

Hasan Rafi (, 

J, j.^.u.5^), a Persian 

Hasan Sabbah (^l.^.^ ,wu*.:^) the 

founder of the dynasty of the Isma'ilTs in 
Bersia. He was styled Shaikh-ul-Jabal, an 
Arabic title, which signifies "the chief of 
the mountains." The name by which this 
ruler and his descendants are indiscriminately 
known in Eiu'opean history is, " The Old 

Man of the Mountain." His followers or 
descendants were also called HasanT, and the 
English word " assassin," is supposed to 
have been formed from a corruption of this 
term. Hasan Sabbah was at first a mace- 
bearer to Sultan Alp Arsaliiu ; but in con- 
sequence of a quarrel with Nizam-ul-Mulk, 
the minister of that prince, he retired to Rai, 
his native country, and from thence, to 
SvTia, where he entered into the service of a 
chief of the family of Isma'il the son of 
Ja'far Sadiq, and adopted the tenets of that 
sect. The fii'st object of Hasan was to 
possess himself of a stronghold ; and he 
succeeded in gaining by stratagem the morm- 
taiu fort of Alahmiit, situated between 
Qazwin and Gllau. The fort was built by 
Hasan-bin-Zaid in the year a.d. 860, a.h. 
246, and Hasan Sabbah took it in a.d. 1089, 
A.H. 482. From this fortress he commenced 
depredations on the surrounding country, and 
added several other hill forts to the one he 
had already seized. That of R5dbar, which 
is also near Qazwin, was next to Alahmut in 
consequence. Malik Shah Saljiiki, the reign- 
ing Sultan, had sent a force to reduce him, 
but without any success. In the month of 
October, a.d. 1092, Raraazan, a.h. 485, 
Xizam-ul-Mulk, who was then following the 
royal camp from Isfahan to Baghdad, was 
stabbed by one of the followers of Hasan Sabbah 
who was his personal enemy. Hasan Sabbah 
died in a.d. 1124, 26th Rabi II. a.h. 518. 
Rukn-uddin, who was the of this family, 
and who is better known under the name of 
Qahir Shah or K['ur Shah, after a weak and 
ineffectual struggle fell before Halakii. That 
conqueror not only made him prisoner, but 
took and dismantled all his strongholds. This 
event took place in the month of November, 
A.D. 1256, Zi-Qada' a.h. 654. It was his 
father Alii-uddin Muhammad who forced 
Nasir-uddiu Tiisi to remain with him for 
some years, till he was released by Halakii 
Khan. Vide Ismail and Ismailis. The 
successor of Hasan was Buzurg Umaid. 
[Hasan Sabbah and the minister had both 
been schoolfellows at Umar Kliayyani {q.v.).'\ 

Hasan Salimi ( ^^^Lj ^^ 

• ) . Vide 

Hasan Sanjari, Kliwaja ( .,_^_r>. 
<i;?-Lr^ ^.■^^), also called Khwaja 

Hasan Dehlawi, a celebrated Persian poet 
of Dehli, who was a contemporary of the 
famous Amir Khusro, and had become at 
the age of 50 years a disciple of Shaikh 
Nizam-uddin Aulia. He died, according to 
the author of the Miraf-itl-K/tai/Fif, in the 
Deccan in the year a.d. 1307, a.h. 707, and 
is buried at Daulatilbad. He is tlie author 
of several works, amongst which is a DTwan, 
and one called Faivt'ied-ul-Faivdd, a collection 
of letters written by Nizfuu-uddin Aulia to 
his disciples. Talib says he died in a.d. 
1337, A.H. 738. His father name was Alai 




Hasan, Shaikh (i^rr- 


), the 


of Shaikh Nazar-iillfih. He is the author ol' 
a wiirk calk'd Sarat Istakam. He died in 
Mlrat iu the year a.h. 1078. 


Hasan Khan Shamlu (^l.. 

»Jw*l.^), governor of Herat under 

Shah Ahbas II. and his son Shah Sukiinian. 
He died in a.d. 1697, a.h. 11U9, and is the 
author of a Hiwan. 

Hasan, Sayyad (^J ji w\- 


.), of 

GhaznT, a poet who flourished in the reign of 
Sultan Bahram Shah the Ginznavida, and 
is the antlior of a Diwan. ile is also called 
Sayyad Hasan-al-HusainT. He died on the 
■way while returning from Mecca, iu the year 
A.D. 1170, A.H. 56.5. 

Hasham (i d^\ S^z ^: *li^), the 

son of Ahdiil Malik, and the tenth KhalTf 
of the house of Umaiva or Ummaides, succeeded 
his brother Yazid It. in a.d. 724, a.h. 105. 
He conquered the Klniqan of Turkistan, and 
made war against Leo III. the Isanrian. He 
was alwaj's attended by 600 camels to carry 
his splendid wardrobe. He died after a reign 
of 19 years 7 months and 1 1 days in the year 
a.d. 743, a.h. 125, and was succeeded by 
"Walid II. son of Yazid II. In his time 
lived the celebrated Majniin, the lover of 


{jt.Ji>\jb), a poet who flourished 

at Burhfinpur in the Deccan in the reign of the 
emperor Jahangir and was a disciple of Shaikh 
Ahmad Fariiqi, commonly called Shaikh 
Ahmad Sarhindi. He is the author of a 
Diwan and several other books, and was alive 
in a.d. 1646, a.h. 1056. 

Hashim (^.^l.j^\ the son of Abdul 

Manaf, was the father of Ahdiil Muttalib, 
who was the father of Abdullah and grand- 
father of Muhammad the prophet of the 
Musulmaus. Ho succeeded his father as 
president of the Ka'ha, and raised the glory 
of his people to tlie highest pitch ; insomuch 
that the ueiglibouring great men and heads 
of tribes made their court to him. Nay, so 
great veneration is the memory of Hashim 
held in by the Arabs, that from him the 
family of Muhammad among them are called 
Hashimites. lie died at Gliaza in Syria, 
and was succeeded by liis son Alidid Muttalib, 
who became president of the Ka'ba. 

Hashmat (, 


Hashimi Kirmani ( jl^,^ 


author of a poem or Masnawi called J\[az]iar- 
ul-Asar. He died iu a.d. 1541, a.h. 948. 

), tlic poetical 

name of Mir ^luhtashim Ali KJiun, whose 
ancestors were of liadiikhslian, but ho was 
boru in DehlJ. He died about the vear a.d. 
1748, A.H. 1161, and lelt a Diwaii of 700 

Hashmat (c:-wkA.=-), the poetical 
name of Bakhshi Ali Khan, which see. 

Hasrat (^ 

), the poetical name 

of Sayyad Muhammad, who died in the reign 
of the emperor Muhammad Shiih. 

Hasrat (^, 


■ ), poetical name of 

Mir Muhammad Hayat of Patua who had 
the title of Ilaibat Quli Khan. He was for 
some time attached to the service of Nawab 
Shaukat Jang at Purania, and for some time 
to that of Siraj-uddaala of Mursliidabad. He 
died in a.d. 1800, a.h. 1215, and left a 
Diwan of 20u0 verses. 

Hasrat (^ 

^ MJ,' 

■ ), poetical appellation 

of Mirza Ja'far 'Ali, an Urdii poet who 
flourished in the latter part of the ISlh 
century, and gave iustrnctions in the art of 
poetry to Nawab Muhabbat Klian at Lucknow. 

Hasrati ( ^j' ^s^). 

Vide Shefta. 

Hatifi, Maulana {\Siy^ .i-J'Ljt), the 

poetical name of Abd-ullah, the sou of 
Maulana Abdiu- Eahman Jami's sister. He 
was born in Jam, a city of Herat, and died 
there in the year a.d. 1521, a.h. 927, and 
was buried in the village of Ivharjard. He 
was a good poet, and author of several works. 
Having finished his .studies, under the patron- 
age and instruction of his uncle Hiitiii, with 
his permission, secluded himself from the 
world. AVhen Shah Isma'il Safwi fought 
the Uzhak Tartars iu Kliurasan, aud slew 
Shahibeg Klian their chief in a.d. 1508, a.h. 
914, he prevailed on our poet to quit his cell, 
and come to court. Solely ambitious of 
rivalling the Kliamsa or five poems of Nizami, 
he wrote in imitation of them his LniU atid 
Ildjiifm, Khusro (vid S/iirln, Haft Mai/zar, 
the Taimiir Kama, which is also called 
Zafarnama, and in imitation of the Sikaudar 
Kama, he undertook a heroic poem in praise 
of his patron, called FattiJuit S/ui/il, which he 
did not live to finish. Among the uunurous 
Persian poems on the story of Laili and 
Majnun, that of Hatifi seems universally 
tsteenicd the simplest aud pathetic. 

Hatim ( Jlir -»3ls^), commonly called 

Haliiii 'ITii, a famous Arabian Chief of the 
tribe of Tai, celebrated for his liberality, 
wisdom and valour. He flourished before 
the birlh of Muhammad, and his sepulchre 
may still be seen at a little village called 




Anwarz in Arabia. There is an account of 
his adwulurcs ia the romance entitled lliiLim 
Tdl in I'ersiau, which has also beeu translated 
into Urdii. An English translation of this 
romance was made by Duncan Forbes, A.M., 
from the Persian. 

Hatim {f,^\ ^jl.*-), surnamed Al- 

\ r 

Asamni, that is to say, the deaf, was a great 
Musulmau doctor, much esteemed for his piety 
and doctrine. He was a disciple of Shaqiq 
Balklii and master of Ahmad Ivhizroya. He 
died A.D. 861, a.h. 237, in the reign of 
Mutwakkil the I\halif of Baghdad, and was 
buried at Balkh in Ivhiuasan, his native 

Hatim Kashi, Maulana ( ,-ijli *I'ls- 

\jiy»), a poet of Kashan in Persia, 

■who flourished in the reign of Shah Abbas 
the Great. 

Hatim (^_jLr^), or Shah Hatim, 

poetical name of ShailA Zahir-uddln, a poet 
who was a contemporary of AVali [q-v-)- He 
was born at Dehli in a.d. 1699, a.h. 1111, 
and was a soldier by profession. He gave 
the first impulse to Urdii poetry in Dehli. 
In A.D. 1720, A.H. 1132, the Diwau of Wali 
was brought to Dehli and verses of it were 
on everybody's lips ; this induced him and 
three friends of his, Xaji, Mazmiin, and 'Abru 
to apply themselves to Rekhta poetry. Up to 
the time of Hatim, it would appear that 
the Dehli poets wrote iu Persian. He is the 
author of two Diwans in Urdii, one in 
imitation of Wali, and the other iu imitation 
of Sauda and Mir Tac[i. The date of Hatim's 
death is unknown. His D/iccin Znda appeared 
iu 1750. 

Hatim Ali Beg-, Mirza ( ^X-z *-'l->- 

\\j^ i^J^)- Vide Mehr. 

Hawas (^^y^), poetical title of Nawab 

Mirza Taqi, son of Xawab Mirza Ali Klian. 
He is the author of the story of Laili and 
Majnuu iu Urdu, aud of a Diwau in which 
every Ghazal contains the name of Laili and 

Haya (L*.--), poetical title of Shio 

Eamdas, a Hindii, and brother of Raja Daya 
Mai Imtiyaz. He was a pupil of Mirza 
Abdiil Qadir Bcdil, and is the author of a 
Diwau of about 5000 verses. 

Hayat-ullah Alirari (tUJ^ l , ;^ ; L^=>. 

i^j^j\), author of the Avork called 

Hahata Alarjin, which contains the life of 
Abrsala. He died iu a.h. 1061, and his 
tomb is in Agra. 

Hayati Mulla (\\^^ jL::^), of Gilan, 
a poet. 

Hazin ( A^ X+^sr* i^wl L^'^^ ^^J;:^), 

the poetical name of Maulana Shaikh Muham- 
mad 'Ali, a Persian of distinction, eminently 
learned, aud accomplished. He fled into 
Hindiistau from his native country to avoid 
the persecution of Nadir Shah iu a.d. 1733, 
a.h. 1146. He was a voluminous author 
both in prose and verse. He wrote his 
Memoirs in 1741, eight years after his settle- 
ment for life iu lucUa, and it contains a 
variety of personal and historical anecdotes, 
excellent observations on men and manners, 
besides an interesting account of his travels, 
and remarks on mauy modern literary 
productions. A translation of this work, 
entitled The Life of Shaikh 3Iuhammad All 
Hazin, was made by F. C. Belfour, F.R.A.S., 
and published iu 1830. His father's name 
was Shaikh Abii Talib of Gilan, a descendant 
of Shaikh Tajuddin Ibrahim, commonly 
called Shaikh Zfdiid Gilani, who was the 
spiritual guide of Shaikh Safi-uddiu Ardibeli. 
He was born at Isfahan on the 7th January, 
1692, O.S., 27th Rabi' II. a.h. 1103, was in 
Dehli at the time of Nadir Shah's invasion, 
and died in 1766, according to Sir Wm. 
Ouseley, a.d. 1779, a.h. 1180, aged 77 lunar 
years, "at Bauaras (where he had built his 
own tomb some time before his death) ecpially 
admired and esteemed by the Musalman, 
Hindii and English inhabitants of that place. 
He is the author of several works iu Persian 
and Arabic. 

Hazuq, Hakim (*^s». v^jl*-), son of 

Hakim Humam, the brother of Abii'l Fatha 
Gilani. He was a noble of the reign of the 
emperor Shah Jahau, a physician and a poet, 
and is the author of a Diwau in Persian. He 
died A.D. 1658, a.h. 1068. 

Hessing, Colonel John William, 

of Holland. He came to India and was at 
first employed by the Nawab Nizam Ali Kluin 
of the Deccan in the year a.d. 1763, a.h. 
1177, and afterwards by Madho Rao Siudhia 
iu 1784, after whose death iu 1794, he 
continued iu the service of his nephew Daulat 
Rao Sindhia, by whom he was appointed 
a Colonel in 1795, with the command of the 
fortress and city of Agra. He died on the 
21st July, 1803, aud was bui-ied in the 
Roman Catholic Biu'ial- ground at Agra, 
where a splendid mausoleum of red stone was 
built by his children, with an English 
inscription on his tomb which is of wiiite 

Hidayat (c:.-^'_L^.-J^), poetical name of 

Hidavat Klian, the uncle of Nisar-nllah Ivlifm 
Firak. He died iu the year a.h. 1215, and 
left a Diwan. 




Hidayat-ullah UU\ c:_..;U->>), author 

of a work on arts and sciences called Iliddi/nt- 
ul-Jiamal, written in a.d. 1601. 

Hidayat-ullali Khan (clL\\ c:-^j L\.-..Ji 

(j;l;>-), great grandson of Khan 'Azim 

Mirza Koka. He is the author of a history 
called Tankh Hidayat-ullcih Khan written in 
the year a.h. 1659. 

Hijri {^j.s^)^ the poetical title of 

a poet who was a native of Konban but lived 
in Bengal. He is the author of a Diwan in 
which there is a Qasida of a most wonderful 
composition. If you read the first letter of 
every Misra', you have a Qita' in praise of 
Nawab Sayyad Muhammad Eiza Khau 
Muzaffar Jang. Some letters in the Qasida 
are written in red, if you read them by them- 
selves, you have a Gjiazal, and certain letters 
in the Ghazal form a Ruba'i, and certain 
letters in the Ruba'i form a Misra'. He was 
living in A.D. 1766, a.h. 1180. 

Hilal Qazwini { u^,,yi JLj^), an 
author who died in a.d. 1o27, a.h. 934. 

Hilali {^J\i\j:J\ JW, of Astarabad, 

was a Tartar of the tribe of Jughtai or 
Chughtai, and author of a Dlwan consisting 
of amorous odes. In his youth he travelled 
to Khurasan, and resided at Herat, where 
the illustrious Amir 'Alisheir conferred on 
him many favom's. He was a Sunni by 
religion, and was, by the contrivance of his 
enemies, who were Shias, put to death by 
order of one of the Uzbak chiefs in the year 
a.d. 1530, A.H. 936, but according to a book 
called Talifa Shdlii, in a.d. 1533, a.h. 939. 
He is the author of the following works, viz., 
Hhdh-iva- Danvcs/i, Lai/i -iva-MaJniln, Sifat- 
ul-^Ashiquii, and a Diwan. 

Hilm (^L?-), poetical name of Prince 

Mirza Said-uddin, commonly called Mirza 
Faiyaz-uddin, son of Mirza Rayaz-uddin alias 
Mirza Mulianimad Jau, sou of Mirza Klun'raui 
Eakht, sou of Mirza Jabaudar Shrdi, son of 
Shah Alam, king of Dehli. He is the author 
of a Diwan. 

Himmat Bahadur Gushain (v.::,-w4^ 

^A/lS .jL..'), Diwan of Ghan! Baha- 
dur, Nawab of Bauda, and one of the 
Peshwa's (Briji Rao II.) principal officers in 
Bundelkhand. He joined the; British troops 
under the command of Lieuteuant-Colonel 
Powell in Septenilx-r, 1803, and gave batth^ 
to Shamsb(!r Bahadur, Nawab of Buiida, who 
was defeated and compelled to retreat with 
loss. Ilimmat Bahadur was a powerful 

commander of a large body of horse, and of a 
numerous party of Gushains or Nagas, a 
peculiar class of armed beggars and religious 
devotees of whom he was not only the military 
leader, but also the spiritual guide. He died 
at Kalpi in 1804, and his family was pro- 
vided for by the British Government. 

[ Vide Huuter's Imperial Gazetteer, in voc. 

Himmat Khan (^'ri- L::-^Jb), was the 

son of Klian Jahan Shayasta Khan, the son 
of the wazir Asaf Khan. He built his house 
on the banks of the river Jamna in a j'ear 
with raauy other buildiugs such as gardens, 
reservoirs, baths, etc., etc., of which a bath, 
a reservoir, a Baoli, etc., etc., are still to be 
seen. His proper name was Sayyad Muzaffar. 
Shah Jahan conferi'ed on him the name 
of Himmat Klian. In the 19tli year of 
Alamgir he was appointed governor of 
Allahabad. In the 24th year of Alamgir, 
the appointment of Bakbigani was conferred 
on him ; and in the 30th year of Alamgir, he 
was again appointed governor of Allahabad. 

Himu (4^*^), a banian or Indian shop- 
keeper of the caste of Dhiisar, whom Salim 
Shah, king of Dehli, had made superintendent 
of the markets. In the reign of Muhammad 
Shah 'Adil, he was appointed his M'azir, and 
intrusted with the whole administration of 
affairs. This person in the beginning of the 
reign of the emperor Akbar laid siege to 
Agra, and having reduced it proceeded to 
Dehli which also surrendered, and Tardi Beg, 
governor of that place, who fled to Sarhind, 
was seized by Bairam Ivban [q.v.), the 
minister of Akbar, aud beheaded for abandon- 
ing Dehli, where he might have defended 
himself. Himu was afterwards defeated and 
made prisoner in a battle fought at Panipat 
on Thui-sday the 5th November, a.d. 1556, 
2nd Muharram, a.h. 964, and brought into 
the presence of the king by Bairum Klian, 
who begged him to kill the infidel with his 
own baud. Akbar (who was then in his 
fifteenth year) in order to fidfil the wish of 
his minister, drew his sword and touched the 
head of the captive, while Bairam Khan, 
drawing his own sabre, at a single blow 
severed the head of Himu from his body. 

Hinda (i^xi^jb), the daughter of Utba 

and wife of Abii Sufiiin. 
\_Vide Hamza (Amir).] 

Hindal Mirza (h^--* JLv:^.Jb). Vide 
Ilandal Mirza. 

Hindu Rao (,U ^Si-ia), the brother of 

Biiil Bai [q.v.), the wife of Maharaja Daulat 
Rao Siudbia. His Kothi or Rekka House 
on a hillock is well-known at Dehli. He died 
in A.D. 1855. [He was fond of the society 
of Englishmen in India, among whom he was 
very popular.] 




Hira Singh (C— X.i.-— o Ua), a Sikli 

Chief and minister of Maharaja Dilip Singh 
ot Lahore. He was murdered with many 
others about the beginning of January, 1845. 

Hirpaldeo (».^jjb Jb), the son-in-law 

of Ramdeo, Raja of Deoglr, who by the 
assistance of the other Rajas of the Deccan, 
had recovered his country from the Musal- 
mans, but Mubarik Shah, the son of Ahi- 
uddin Kliilji, in the second year of his reign, 
A.D. 1318, AH. 718, marched towards the 
Deccan, took Ilirpaldeo prisoner, flayed him 
alive, and hung his body at the gate of 
Deogir which is now called Daulatabad. 

Hisam-hin- Jamil ( J.^=>- ,j ^L^^j-), 

surname of Abu Sahl-al- Baghdad!, who 
passed for one of the best traditionists of 
Musalmanism. He died in a.d. 722, a.h. 

Hissan (c:^jU ^j ^Lu^), the son of 

Sabit, was a poet and companion of Muliam- 
mad. He is the author of a Diwan in Arabic. 
When Muhammad overcame his enemies at 
the battle of Khandaq, Hissan wrote a few 
verses on that occasion ; the prophet was so 
much delighted, that he gave him Shirln 
the sister of Maria Qabti, for wife. 

Hissan-al-Hind (j^:._,^Jl ^[^^), that 

is, the Hissan of India, a title wliich Mir 
Gulam 'All Azad assumed. 

Holkar. Vide Malhar Eao I. The 
word means " Ploughman." 

Hormisdas. Vide Hurmuz. 

Hoshang (t_X.:wi)^.ib), second king of 

the first or Pishdadian djTiasty of Persia, was 
the son of Sayamak, and grandson of Kyoimu's 
whom he succeeded. He reigned 40 years 
and was succeeded by his son Tahmurs, 
commonly called Deoband, or the Magician 
binder, a title he derived from the success 
with which he warred against the enemies of 
his family. 

Hoshang Shah (^L^ cS--^--^}-^) (for- 
merly called Alp Khan), was the first Muham- 
madan king of Malwa, and the son of Dila- 
war Khan Ghori who was governor of that 
place from the time of Muhammad Shah, 
a.d. 1401, son of Flroz Shah Tughlaq, king of 
Dehli. After hisfather'sdeath. whichhappeued 
about the year a.d. 1405, a.h. 808, taking 
advantage of the times, he became entirely 
independent and assumed the title of Sultfiii 
Hoshang Shah. He reigned 30 lunar years, 
and died on the 17th July, a.d. 1434, 9th 
Zil-bijja, A.H. 837. Ho was buried in a 
stone vault, and a splendid mausoleum of 

white marble was built over it which is still 
to be seen at Mando. The date of his death 
is to be found in the three last words of a 
tetrastich translated thus by General Briggs. 
When death had sealed the Hoshang' s fate, 

Aud he prepared to tread on Lethe's shore, 
I asked a poet to record the date. 

Who briefly said, " Shiih Hoshang is no 

He was succeeded by his son Sultan 
Muhammad Shah, who was poisoned after a 
reign of one year and nine months by 
Maiimiid Khan (the son of his Wazir), who 
took the title of Mahmiid Shah and ascended 
tlie throne of Mfilwa on Tuesday the loth 
May, A.D. 1436, 29th Shawwil, a.h. 839. 

Zist of the kings of Mfdiva, whose capitals 
were Bhdr, Mando or Shddidbdd. 
Dilawar Khan Ghori, governor. 
Hoshang Shah Glioii. 
Muhammad Shah Gliori (also called Ghazni 

Mahmud Shah Kliilji. 
Sultan Gliayas-uddiu KhiljT. 
Sultan Nasir-uddiu Kliilji. 
Sultan Mahmiid II. the tast of the Klriljis. 
In his time Malwa was incorporated with 
the kingdom of Gujrat by Bahadur Shah 
(about A.D. 1523). 

Hoshdar Khan (|^l>- SsJ^i^lb), a title 

of Hidayat-ullah Klian, the son of Iradat 
Khan Wazah. He was honoured with this 
title by the emperor Farmkh-siyar, and after 
liis father's death with that of Iradat Khan 
and the Faujdari of Diihipereya in the 
province of Malwa. In the sixth year of 
iMuhammad Shah, a.d. 1724, a.h. 1136, he 
attended Nizam-ul-Mulk 'Asaf Jah to the 
Decean, and after the victory over Mubariz 
Kli:iu, was appointed Diwan of the Deccan 
with the rank of 4000. He was afterwards 
appointed governor of Kulburga in the Deccan 
aud died in the year a.d. 1744, a.h. 1157. 
He had many sons, most of whom died in his 
lifetime. His eldest surviving son, Hafez 
Kjifui, succeeded him in the government of 
Kulltarga which he held at that time. Shiih- 
uawaz Klian wrote the Mdsir-ul-Uinra, or 
Biography of Nobility. 

Hoshmand Begam (>.5^-».J Jo-^Jj^fc), 

daughter of Sultan Khusro, married to Prince 
Hushang, the son of prince Diinial in the 
year a.h. 1035. 

Hujjat (cj^js^), poetical name of 

Nasir Khusro, which see. 

Hujjat-ul-Islam (^AJ'1\ c: 

title of Muhammad Gliazzali, a celebrated 
doctor of the Musalman law. 
[ Vide Gliazzali.] 

Huma (Ujb), poetical name of Sayyad 

Imtivfiz Klian, a son of IMo'tmid Klifiu, aud 
a brother of Savwad Ahmad whose takballus 
was Zamir. He is the author of a Diwiiu. 






Humai, Queen (^'l_^_Ji>), was the 

daughter of Bahman, wlio is also called 
Ardisher Darazdast (Artaxerxes Longimanus 
of the Greeks). She succeeded her father as 
queen of Persia, in the fourth century before 
Christ. She built the city called "Simrah, 
■which the author of the La'bb TauarJkh says, 
bore also the name of Simirem, and is the 
same which is at this day called Jarbadakan. 
The Persian authors state, that when she 
ascended the throne, she was pregnant by her 
own father. Shame led her to conceal this 
circumstance ; and the child, of which she 
was delivered, was given over to a nurse to 
be put to death. The life of the child, 
however, was miraculously preserved ; and 
the iinnatural mother first recognised her son 
when his fortune and valour had advanced 
him to the rank of a victorious general in her 
array. Humai immediately resigned the 
crown to him, and retired to a private life 
after she had reigned 32 years. Her son 
reigned about 12 years, and is called by the 
Persians Dara or biirab I. 

Humam, Hakim (*,^C 

► L*Ji)), brother 

of Hakim Al)u'l Fatha Gilanl, a well 
educated and learned man in the service of 
the emperor Akbar. He was sent by that 
monarch on an embassy, in company with 
Sayyad Sadr Jahan, to Abdullah " I\han 
Uzbak, ruler of Ivhurasan, about the year 
A.D. 1589, A. II. 997. He died in a.d. 1595, 
A.H. loot', and left two sons, Hakim Sadiq 
and Hakim Kliiishhal. 

Humam (^l_^_ji.), poetical name of 

Eamiil-uddin Muliammad bin - Abdul -Wah- 
hab, styled by Arabshfih, " One of the most 
illustrious doctors of the member of the 
Sadat," that is to say, of the race of Ali. 
He lived in the time of Amir Taimur 
(Tamerlane) and died in a.d. 1457, a.h. 861. 
He is author of a Commentary on the Hidava 
His proper name is Kamal-uddiu Muhammad- 
al-Siwasi, which see. 

Humam Tabrezi, Khwaja (^L^^^^. 

4_Oj.-J), a celebrated Persian poet of 

Tairris or Tabrez, and author of a collection 
of Eubais or quatrain verses called liubili/dt 
Mh- Hunulm. He was a contemporary and 
rival wit of Shaikh Sa'di. Meeting Sa'di one 
day in a bath, Ilumum, observing Sa'di to be 
very bald, presented to liiin a basin with the 
bottom upwards ; asked him ' ' Why do the 
heads of the people of Shiraz resemble this ?" 
Sa'di, having turned the basin with the 
empty side upwards, replied, " First tell me, 
why do the heads of the people of Tabrez 
resemble this 'r" Many other anecdotes are 
related of tliem. Humam died in the reign 
of Aljaitu, emperor of the Mughals, in 
A.n. 1313, A.H. 713, and was buried at 
Tabrez. He is also called K]nvaja Humam- 
uddin TabrezT. 

Humam-uddin Tabrezi ((^'jJ\ ^Uj5 
\}^). Vide Humam Tabrczl. 


Humayun {sajs."* ,,,:S^\ ,, 

emperor of Hindiistan, snrnamed Xasir-uddin 
Muhammad, was the eldest son of the emperor 
Biibar Shah, was born at Kiibul on the night 
of Tuesday the 7th March, a.d. 1508, 
4th Zi-Qa'da, a.h. 913, and his mother's 
name was Maham Begam. He succeeded 
his father on the throne at Agra on the 
2Gth December, a.d. 1530, Gth'^Jumada I. 
A.H. 937, and conferred the government of 
Kabul, Qandahar, Ghazni, and the Panjab 
on his brother Mirza Kamiran ; to IMirza 
Askari he gave the government of Sarkar 
Sambhal, to Mirza Handfil, Sarkar Alwal, 
and the government of Badakhshan to Mirza 
Sulaiman, the son of Klian Mirza, the son of 
Sultan Muhammad, the son of Sultan Abii Said. 
Humayiin was defeated the first time by Sher 
Klian (afterwards Sher Shivh) in a battle 
fought on the banks of the Chaunsa in Beliar 
on the 26th June, a.d. 1539, 9th Safar, a.h. 
946, and the second time at Qanuoj on the 
17th May, a.d. 1540, 10th Muharram, a.h. 
967. The capital no longer afforded him a 
place of refuge ; even his brothers became 
his enemies, and would not grant him shelter 
in their provinces. He fied from one place 
to another, subject at times to the greatest 
hardships ; and was at last obliged to quit 
the kingdom and seek an asylum in Persia, 
where he arrived in July, a.d. 1544, a.h. 
951, and was hospitably and honorably enter- 
tained for some time "by Shah Tahmasp of 
Persia, who assisted him with troops. During 
the absence of Humaviin, which extended to 
a period of fifteen years, five kings ascended 
the throne of Dehli, riz. Sher Shah, his son 
SalTm Shah, Muhammad Shah Adili, Ibrahim 
Khan, and Sikandar Shah. Humayun liaving 
overcome his brothers at Kabul and ( jandahilr, 
commenced his march from the former city 
in the month of January, a.d. 1555, Safar, 
a.h. 962, towards India. He took the 
Panjab, and advancing towards Dehli defeated 
Sikandar Shah on the 22nd June, a.d. 1555, 
2nd Shabau, a.h. 962, in a battle fought at 
Sarhind. Sikandar, after his defeat, fled 
to the mountains of Sewalik, and Humayiin 
having reached Dehli in triumph, became a 
second time emperor of Hindiistan. Bairam 
Klian (q.v.), to whose valour and talent the 
king was principally indebted for his restor- 
ation, was rewarded with the first offices in 
the state with the title of Kliau Kliauan. The 
year of tliis victory was found by Bairam 
Klian to be contained in the words, " The 
sword of Humayiin." Seven months after 
this victory, on the 21st January, a.d. 1556, 
as Humaj-un was coming down at the time 
of evening prayers from the terrace of the 
liibrary at Dehli, he fell headlong down the 
steps, and died on the 25th January, a.d. 1556. 
11th Rabi I. a.h. 963. The words "Alas ! 
my sovereign fell from the terrace," are 
the English of the line recording the year 
of his demise. He was buried at Kiloghari, 




a distance of four kos from the city of 
Shiihjanabad on the banks of the river 
Jumna ; and a splendid monument was 
erected over his remains some years after by 
his son Akbar, who succeeded him. Humayun 
died at the age of 49, after a reign of 25 
years, including the fifteen years of his banish- 
ment from his capital. The foundation of 
his mausoleum was laid in a.d. 1565, a.h. 
973, was superintended by Haji Begam, 
mother of Akbar, and was finished in 16 years 
at a cost of 15 lakhs of iiipees. Farrukh- 
siyar, 'Alamgir II. Dara Shik5h and other 
princes are also bmied in this mausoleum, 
where the last of the dynasty took refuge in 
1857 (see above, in roc. Baliadui- Shah II). 
Huma}"un, after his death, received the title of 
Jannat 'Ashiani. 

[For Huma\iin's character vide Keene's 
Sketch of the History of Hindustdn.'] 

Humayun, Amir {^.^\ ^»jL«w-a>), of 

Isfaraen, a poet who went early in life to 
Tabrez, and was supported by Qazi 'Isa, 
and SiJtan Ta'qub, who called him Khusro 
Sani, that is, the second Khusro and Khusro 
Kochak. After the death of his patron, he 
went to Kashan and died there in a.d. 1496, 
A.H. 902. He is the author of a Diwan. 
Humayun Shah, Bahmani, Sultan 

(j^ j»/».^^j iw i^sy^y^Jb), sur- 

named Zalim, or the Cruel, was the eleventh 
king of the Bahmani dynasty. He succeeded 
his father Sultan 'Ala-uddin II. Bahmani in 
the year a.d. 1458, a.h. 862, and causing 
his brother Hasan Klian's eyes to be put out, 
ascended the throne of the Deccan. According 
to the will of his father, he conferred the 
office of Wakil - us - Saltanat on Kliwaja 
Mahmud Gawan, with the title of Malik-ut- 
Tajjar and the government of Bijapur. He 
was an unjust prince and a great t}Tant, on 
which account he was sumamed "the Cruel." 
He reigned 3 years 6 months and 6 days, and 
was miudered with one stroke of a heavy 
club on the 1st September, a.d. 1461, 28th 
Zi-Qa'da, a.h. 865, during a fit of intoxica- 
tion, by his own servants, who were wearied 
out with his inhuman cmelties. He was suc- 
ceeded by his son Sultan Xizam Shah, then 
only eight years of age. See above in voc. 


surname of Abii 

Zaid 'Abdur Rahman Hunain, son of Is-haq, 
son of Hunain, was a celebrated Christian 
physician who translated many books out of 
the Greek into Syriac and Arabic. 

Hurmuz or Hurmuzd I. (L) \.^jJb 
o:.^._i>), the third king of Persia, of 

the Sasanian race, was the son of Shahpur I. 
whom he succeeded in a.d. 272. He is the 
Hormisdas of the Greek authors, and is said 
to have resembled, both in person and cha- 
racter, his gnmdlather(r. Ardisher Babegfin). 
The mother of this monarch was the daughter 

of Mahrukh, a petty prince, whom Ardisher 
had put to death, and whose family he had 
persecuted, because an astrologer had pre- 
dicted that a descendant of Mahrukh should 
attain the throne of Persia. This lady had 
fled to the tents of a shepherd, where she was 
seen by Shahpiir when hunting. This prince 
became enamoured, and married her privately. 
His father Ardisher, goiug one day unexpectedly 
to his son's house, saw young Hurmuz. He 
was greatly pleased with the appearance of 
the child and made inquiries, which compelled 
Shahpiii- to confess all that had happened. 
The joy of the old king was excessive. " The 
prediction of the astrologers," he exclaimed, 
"which gave me such alarm is, thank God, 
confirmed, and a descendant of Mahnikh 
shall succeed to my crown." Hurmuz was 
a ^-ii'tuous prince, but reigned only one year 
and ten days. He died about the year a d. 
273, and was succeeded by his sou Bahram I. 

Hurmuz or Hurmuzd II. ( ^jU SytJk), 

the eighth king of Persia of the Sasanian 
race. He succeeded his father Xarsi about 
the year a.d. 303, rtiled Persia seven years 
and five months and died a.d. 310. No 
events of any consequence occurred during 
the reign of this prince. At his death he 
left no son ; and the kingdom was on the 
point of being thrown iuto confusion, when 
it was declared that one of the ladies in the 
harem was pregnant, and that there were 
certain indications of the embryo being a 
male. "VMien the child was brought forth, it 
was named Shahpur, and every care was 
taken to give the young sovereign an education 
suited to his high duties. 

Hurmuz or Hurmuzd III. (j"„^,J!> 

1.^:— !lj), the second son of Yezdijard 

II. succeeded his father, of whom he was 
always the favourite, a.d. 456. His elder 
brother Firoz, though at first compelled to 
fly across the Oxus, soon returned to assert 
his right at the head of a large army, which 
aided by a general defection of the Persians, 
who deserted his weak brother, obtained an 
easy -^-ictorv, and the unfortimate Hiu-muz 
was, after a short reign of little more than 
one year, dethroned and put to death a.d. 457. 

Hurmuz or Hurmuzd IV. («_'^ , "-S-^) 

(the Hormisdas III. of the Greeks) was 
declared successor to his father the great 
Chosroes, sumamed Nausherwan the Just, 
and ascended the throne of Persia a.d. 579. 
His subjects revolted against him at the 
instigation of Bahram Chobln or Yarnnes, his 
general, whom he had offendtd by sending 
him a female dress because he had been 
defeated by the Romans. They confined 
Hurmuz and put out his eyes to disqualify 
him from ascending the throne, and soon 
after put him to death a.d. 590. His son 
Kliusro Purvez having colkctcd a force to 
oppose Bahram, who with the intention of 
taking the government into his own hands 
was advancing towards Madain, was defeated, 




and with great clifReulty effected his escape 
to tlie territories of the Romans (Greeks), 
from whose emperor, Maurice, he met with 
the most friendly and hospitable reception. 
Bahram Chobiu took possession of the vacant 
governm(mt, but his rule was short, for 
within eight mouths from the period of his 
taking possession of Madain, he was defeated 
by an army of Romans and Persians com- 
manded by Khusro, aud tied to Tartary. 

Husain ( ..^.u<u>.), poetical name of 

Muzaffar Ilusain, an author who is also 
called Shahid or Martyr. He is the author 
of the work called Kai/iiz-us-Sflli/cim. 

Husain Ali Khan Bahadur ( ,.^^.>. 

.jL^^j (^l_>- |^.l_c), second son of 

Alahwirdl Ivlian, a nobleman of high rank 
who served under the emperor 'Alamgir, and 
died on the 3rd October, a.d. 1686, 2oth 
Zi-Qa'da, a.h. 1097, a day after the fort of 
Bijapiir was taken. See above i>i voc. Alah- 

Husain Ali Khan, Sayyad ( 


gj-c), Amir-ul-Umrii. 

Vide Abdullah Khau (Sayyad). 
Husain-bin-Alim (^j: j ,^ 


author of the Nuzhat-ul- Arivdh , containing 
interesting anecdotes of the most celebrated 

[ Vide nusain-bin-Hasan-al-Hasani.] 

Husain - bin - Hasan - al - Husaini 

( ;w»-^u..s:^ 1 _WA^- ^ ^^M*s-), a native 

of Ghor and author of several works, viz. Ka)iz- 
ul-Eamiiz, Si Nania, Nuzhat-ul- Arwdh, 
Zdd-'ul-Musafartn, Tar ah -ul- Majdlis, 
Rnh-ul- Arivah, Sirat-ul- Mustagim, and 
of a DTwan in Arabic aud Persian. He died, 
says Jami, in the year a.d. 1317, a.h. 717, 
aud is buried at Herat. Firishta calls him 
Amir Husaini Sadat and says that he with 
his father Sayyad Xajm-uddin came to India 
as merchants and became the disciples of 
Shaikh Baha-uddin Zikaria at Multan, and 
died at Herat on 1st December, a.d. 1318, 
6th Shawwal, a.h. 718. 

Husain - bin - Muhammad, as - Sa - 
ma'ani ( ^U^^H j.^.s'« ^j ^->*«r^), 

author of the Khazcinat-al Muftiln, which 
contains a large quantity of decisions, and 
is a book of some authority in India. It 
was completed in a.d. 1339, a.h. 740. 

Husain Dost Sambhali, Mir ( ,,*^=y. 

_».^ \^^^ L:^«i^t>), son of Abii 
Talib of Sambhal. He is the author of a 

biography of poets called Taz/rira Husaini, 
which appears to have been compiled a few 
years after the death of Muhammad Shah 
the empsror of Djhli, who died in a.d. 17-18, 

A.H. 1161. 

Husain Ghaznawi (j_^».j* i , ^. ......_> )^ 

author of the story of Padmiiwat in Persian 
poetry called Qissal Fadmdwat. 

Husain Hallaj , Shaikh (^^l^i- .^^s>~ 

4i""^), the son of Mansur Hallaj. 

Many fables have been invented to account 
for the imprudence of this wise teacher. One 
of these states, that he observed his sister go 
out every evening ; he followed her ; having 
seen her commimicate with the H dries, and 
receive from these celestial nymphs a cup 
of nectar, he insisted on drinking one or two 
drops that remained of this celestial liquor. 
His sister told him he could not contain it, 
and that it would cause his death. He per- 
sisted ; from the moment that he swallowed 
it he kept exclaiming "Au-ul-Haq!" thatis, 
" I am the truth ! " till he was put to death. 
\_Vide Mansur Hallaj.] 

Husaini ( 


S-), author of the 
Asmdl Husaini and Maktubdt Husaini. 

Husain - ibn - Muin - uddin Maibadi 

author of a work on religion, entitled 

Husaini Fathi-Ali, a Sufi of Dehll, 

author of a biographical dictionary published 
1750-1. Mentioned as stiU living iu 1806 
by Qasim of Agra (q.v.). 

Husain, Imam {A^\ ^.^^.^j^^s^), the 

second son of 'Ali, the son-in-law of Mu- 
hammad. He was born at Medina in January, 
A.D. 626, Sliaban, ah. 4, aud was the third 
Imam of the race of 'AlT. Having refused 
to acknowledge Yazid the son of Mu'a'n'ia 
for the lawful KliiilTf, he was obliged to 
leave MecUna and to Hy to Mecca, but was 
overtaken on his way and killed by order 
of Ubaidullah-ibu-Zaviid, oue of Yazid's 
captains, on the 10th October, a.d. 680, 10th 
Muharram, a.h. 61. When his head was 
brought to Ubaidullah at Kufa, he struck it 
over the mouth with a stick, and treated it 
with great contempt. He then sent it along 
with his family, who were made captives, to 
Damascus, where Yazid then reigned. The 
day on which he was killed is still a great 
day amongst the Musalmans. He is buried 
at a place called Karbala iu Babylonian Iraq 
or Chaldea near Kufa. Some pretend to 
show that Ilusain's head was buried near the 
river of Karbala ; others say that there are 




no other traces of it remaining. However, 
the first Sultan of the race of Boyaides huilt 
on that spot a sumptuous monument, which 
is visited to this very day with great devotiou 
hy the Musuhuans. It is called " Gunhaz 
Faiz," or the dome of grace. 

Husain Jalayer, Sultan (,.>^Ij»- ^-»-was^ 

i^l-k-L-j), grandson of Amir Hasan 

Buzurg, succeeded his father Sultan Awes 
Jalayer to the thi'one of Baghdad in Octoher, 
A.D. 1374, A.H. 776, and lost his life in an 
action with his brother Sultan Ahmad, iuA.D. 
1382, A.H. 784. 

IJ'idc Hasan Buzurg.] 

Husain Kashi ( ^^1^ ^.*-*a*.»-), an 
author, who died in a.d. 1544, a.h. 951. 

Husain, Kashmiri (^^^.t^ .-,*u>.), 

author of the Persian work entitled H'uldjiat- 
ul-'Ainl, the Guide to the Blind, containing 
essays on various religious subjects, SMi 
doctrines, etc. 

Husain Khonsari (^,[jm.:^ ^^yjj.s^) 

was one of the celebrated philosophers of 
Persia , smmamed from his birth-place Khonsar , 
a town between Teheran and Kashau. He 
flourished in the latter part of the 17th 

Husain Langa I. (l^J ^^s^), third 

king of Multan, succeeded his father Qutb- 
uddln Mahmiid Langa in a.d. 1469, a.h. 
874. He entered into a treaty of alliance 
with Sikandar Lodi, king of Dehli, and died 
about the year a.d. 904, or according to 
some, on Sunday the 28th August, a.d. 1502, 
26th Safar, a.h. 908, after a reign of 30 or 
34 years. He was succeeded by his grandson 
Mahmud Kliiin Langa. Firishta says that 
the Tawdrlkh Bahadur Shahi, which contains 
the history of this prince, is full of errors, 
and the author of the Mirat-SiJcandarl 
declares it to be absolutely unintelligible. 

Husain Langa II. {\^■^ .^;u»s-), fifth 

and last king of Multan, was, after the death 
of liis father MahmM Khan Langa in 1524, 
raised to the throne, although a minor. He 
was only a pageant in the hands of his sister's 
husband, Shujaa'-ul-Mulk, who assimied the 
office of protector. Shah Husain Arghun, 
king of Thatta, under the orders of the 
emperor Babar Shah, soon after besiiged 
the place, which was at length, in the year 
A.D. 1526, a.h. 932, carried by escalade, alter 
a siege of fifteen mouths. Husain Ar gh un 
having nominated one Lashkar Klian his 
deputy, returned to Thatta. When Bfibar 
Shah, diu'ing his illness, abdicated the throne 
in favour of his son Humayim, the latter 
prince gave the Panjab in jaglr to Mirzii 

Kamran his brother, who on his arrival at 
Lahore sent for Lashkar Klian and made 
over the district of Kabul to him, in lieu of 
that of Multan, since which time the kingdom 
of Multan has continued a province of the 
empire of Dehli. 

Husain Marwi ^^ty 
Khwaja Husain Marwi. 

.). Vide 

Husain Maibazi, Muin-uddin ( .^»juus^ 

^jj\ ^J;r^*^ 0'^r:f"*X author of the 

Sajanjal-iil-Anvdh, or Mirror of Spirits, a 
selection from the Persian and Turki poets. 
He floiu'ished in the tenth centirry of the 

Husain Maslihadi {^Sj^j!l.a ^. 
a Persian poet. 


Husain Mirza (^j.-^ 
Sultan Husain Mirza. 


.). Vide 

Husain Muammai, Mir ( ._^_^_.=!- 

^^.•» ^'l^-r..-*), a celebrated punster 
who died in the year a.d. 1498, a.h. 904. 

Husain Muin-uddin (^^.^»jt^ i^ir'^^-^ 
^.jaJO, author of the Faivutah Saba 

on Theology. 

Husain Naqshi, Mulla ( AiiJ .-.-u*?- 

\^), a learned Musalman of Dehli. 

who was a good poet and an excellent 
engraver in the time of the emperor Akbar. 
He ched on the 16th July, a.d. 1581, 14th 
Jumada II. a.h. 989. 

Husain Nizam Shah I. (^lli) ^^t-'^s^ 

il^) ascended the throne of Ahmad- 

nagar in the Deccan in the 30th year of his 
age, after the death of his father Burhau 
Nizam Shah I. in the year a.d. 1554, a.h. 
961. In A.D. 1565, a.h. 972, an alliance 
was formed between him and the three 
Sultans, viz. 'AH 'Adil Shah of Biji'ipiir, 
Ibrahim Qutb Shah of GSlkanda and Amir 
Barid of Admadabad Bidar, against Eamraj, 
Raja of Bijanagar, who was defeated and 
slain. Husain Nizam Shah died eleven days 
after his return from this expedition, on 
Wednesday the 6th June, a.d. 1565, 7th 
Zi-Qa'da, a.h. 972, and his son Murtaza 
is'izam Shah succeeded him. The death of 
Nizam Shah has been couimenuirated in the 
following chronogram: " The sun of the 
Deccan has become obscured." 




Husain Nizam Shah II. (^llij ,^^s-~ 

^JIJ ilwi)), a nominal prince of the 

Nizam Sliahi djiiasty. 

[ Vide Fatlia Ixhfin, the son of Malik 

Husain Sabzwari (. c,U;-^~j ,.,^^^), 

a native of Sabzwar, and aiithor of the works 
entitled Lntdef Wazaef and Rdhat -ul- 
Arwnh, books on Siifiism, containing the 
best means of obtaining salvation and rules 
for moral conduct. 

Husain Sadat, Mir (.ji.;^jLj 

._-»_••). Vide Husain-bin-Hasan-al- 

Husain Shah (iljij ,.^<^>.), of Bengal. 


Vide 'Ala-uddiu Husain Shah. 

Husain Shah Lohani, Pir {,.^mj^:>- 

_»_) ^JL*»J iL-l), a Muhammadan 

saint whose tomb is in MiingliTr, where both 
Hindus and Muliammadans make offerings 
especially on their marriages and other special 

Husain Shah Sharqi, Sultan ( .^^~^ 

^LL-i^ iS-V"^ i^-i), ascended the 

throne of Jaunpiir after his brother Muham- 
mad Shah, who was slain in battle about the 
year a.d. 1452, a.h. 856. He fought several 
battles with Bahlol Lodi, the king of Dehli, 
and was at last defeated, and so closely 
piu'sued that he left his horse and escaped on 
foot. The army of Dehli advanced without 
any other check to Jaunpiir, which fell to the 
arms of Bahlol, while Husain Shah, abandon- 
ing his capital, was obliged to content himself 
with a small tract of country pelding only 
a revenue of five lakhs of rupees. Bahlol 
having delivered over Jauupur and its 
kingdom to his own son Barbak, enjoined 
him not to de})rive Husain Shah of the small 
tract to which he was confined, terming it 
his family estate. This event took place 
about the year a.d. 1476, a.h. 881, and the 
subversion of the Sharcp dynasty may be 
dated from that year. The reign of Husain 
Shah lasted for a period of 19 lunar years. 
Some years after the death of Bahlol Lodi 
(which happened in a.d. 1489, a.h. 894) 
Husain Shfdi incited the prince Barbak to 
rise up against his brother Sikandar Lodi, 
king of Dehli, and wrest the government out 
of his hands ; but Barbak was defeated in 
the first action and retired to Jaunpiir, to 
which place he was ])ursued by the king. 
Jauupur fell slun'tly after, and was added to 
the kingdom of Dehli. Husain Shah was 
now induced to seek refuge with 'Ala-uddin 
Purbi, king of Bengal, by whom he was 

treated with the respect due to his station till 
his death, which took place in a.d. 1499, 
a.h. 905. With him the royal line of 
Jaunpiir was extinguished. 

Husain Shah, Sayyad (iLi, ^^^..«^r>- 

wV.--j), author of the story of Bahrani 

Gor, entitled Hasht Gulgasht, which he made 
into prose from the Hasht Bahisht of Amir 
Khusro in the year a.d. 1800, a.h. 1215, on 
the requisition of M. Charles Perron, who 
served under Daulat Eao Sindhia. 

\_Vide Hak-ik-at.] 
Husain - uddin 


c^ ^t 




bin - Ali 
•MS-), who 

is said to have been a pupil of Burhfin-uddln 
'Ali, was the first who wrote a commentary 
on the Hidaya, entitled ihQ Kilidya. 

Husain Waez, Maulana (lirL f^^>- 
\jty), surnamed Kashifl, was a man 

of consequence in the time of Sultan Husain 
Mirza, surnamed Abii'l Ghazi Bahadur of 
Kjinrasan, and held the office of sacred herald 
in the city of Herat till the Hijri year 910, 
on the last day of which he expired, i.e. on 
the 3rd Jime, a.d. 1505, 30th Zil-hijja, 
A. h . 9 1 . He is the author of a commentary on 
the Quran, commonly called Tafotr Bnsaini, 
which he entitled Mawahih ' Ulidt, also of 
one entitled Jawdhir-ut-Tafdslr. Besides 
these, he wrote several other works, amongst 
which are the Rouzat -ush- Shuhadd, an 
excellent history of Muhammad with a minute 
detail of the battle of Karbala, dedicated to 
Sultan Husain Mirza in a.d. 1501, an abridg- \i 
ment of which is called Duh Jfa/lis. His 
AkhJdq Iluhsinl is a very valuable system of 
Ethics, treating upon worship, prayer, 
patience, hope, chastity, etc., dedicated to 
the same Sultan a.d. 1494, a.h. 900, the 
title of which gives the year of its completion. 
The Anwar Suheli, Rays of the star Canopus, 
is a translation of Pilpay's Fables in 
Persian, dedicated to Amir Shaikh Ahmad 
Suheli, seal-bearer to the Sultan. He calls 
himself in tliis book Maulana Husain- bin- 
'Ali-al-Waez sm-named Kashifi. He also 
made an abridgment of Moulwi Riimi's 
Masnawi which he called Liihb-i-Labdb. He 
is also the author of the works called Makh~an- 
ul-Inshd, Saba Kdshifia (on astrology), Asrdr 
Qdsiml, Matla-^ul-Amvdr, and of a collection 
of Anecdotes called Latdif-ut-Tawdef. This 
author is by some writers called Kamiil-iiddin 

Huzuri, Mir {j-^^ ^_jj^^.:f), son of 

Amir Sayyid 'Ali Muhtasib. He lived in the 
time of Shah Isma'il Safwi, and wrote a 
chronogram on his accession to the throne of 
Persia in the year a.d. 1576, a.h. 984. He 
is the author of a Diwan. 



Ibn-Abi Tai ( J^ ^\ ^A), author of 
the work called Xitab Ar Rauzatain. 

Ibn-Abu Usaiba, MuwaflB.q-ud.din 
Abu'l Abbas Ahmad. (L«-u*i»j^ ^\ 

Sa,^\ ^jwLxlljjl ^^^Jy\ fjiy^), author 

of the Arabic work called Aymi-al-Anba-fi- 
Tabqdt-ul-Atibba , i.e. Fountains of informa- 
tion respecting the classes of Physicians. 
This book was translated by the author into 
Arabic from the Sanskrit at the commence- 
ment of the 13th century of our era. In the 
12th chapter of this work, he gives an account 
of all the Physicians who were from India. 
Of one, whom he calls Kanka-al-Hindi, he 
says : He was skilful as a philosopher amongst 
ancient philosophers of India, and one of the 
greatest of men. He investigated the art of 
physic, the power of medicines, the nature of 
compound substances, and the properties of 
simple substances. He was the most learned 
of all men in the form of the universe, the 
composition of the heavenly bodies, and the 
motions of the planets. An extract from 
the above work is given in the Jour, of 
the Royal As. Sec. No. 11, by the Eev W. 
Cureton with remarks by Professor H. H. 
Wilson. Ibn-Abu Usaiba died in a.d. 1269, 
A.H. 668. 

Ibn-Amin (^^^.^l ^\). Vide Ibn- 
Yamin or Amir Mahmud. 

Ibn-'Arabi (^j-£ ^^0, surname 


Shaikh Muhi-uddin Abu 'Abdullah- bin- 
Muhammad-bin -'Ali-al-Tai-al - Ilatimi - al- 
AndalusT, a celebrated doctor of Damascus to 
whom, the Muhammandans pretend, was 
dictated or inspu-ed, or sent from heaven, by 
their prophet in the year a.d. 1229, a book 
of mystical divinity, called Fasus-id-Hakam. 
It contains 27 Hnkams or Instructions ; each 
of which is attributed to one of the ancient 
patriarchs or prophets, excepting the last, 
which belongs to Muhammad, and is entitled 
Hakam Fard'ujat Muhammad iaf. The Musal- 
man doctors are very much divided as to the 
merit of this work ; for some praise it, and 
others absolutely reject it as being full of 
superstition and falsehood. He is also the 
author of several other works, one of which 
is called Fatuhdt Makkia. He died in a.u. 

1240, A.H. 638. — There appears to be another 
Ibn - 'Arabi, who died in Sarmam-ae, in 
Baghdad, in the year a.d. 1040, or a.h. 431, 
and who was also an author of several works. 

Ibn-Arabshah (iLlj_c ^}X surname 

of Ahmad -bin- Muhammad, a native of 
Damascus, who besides a collection of Tales, 
wrote several other works in a very polished 
stvle, the most celebrated of which is a 
liistorv of the Life of Amir Taimiir 
(Tamerlane) entitled Ajdcb-ul- ^laqdur . He 
died at Damascus in the year a.d. 1450, a.h. 

[Also called Arab Shah {q.v.)']. 

Ibn-'Asir(^^ ^A), al-Shaibani Majd- 

uddin, also called Jazari, a most celebrated 
Arabian author, of whom we have several 
works. He is the author of the Arabian 
work on Jurisprudence entitled Jdma^-ul- 
Ustd, a work having great authority. 
Another of his works is called Kamil-ut- 
Tawarl^. He is also known as Abu'l 
Sa'adat, Miibarik-bin-Asir-al-Jazari, com- 
monly called Ibu-Asir. He died a.d. 1209, 
A.H. 606. 

[ Vide Jazari.] 

Ibn-'Askar( JLu£ f^}), an author who 
wrote the history of Damascus. 

Ibn-Babawia (^vIj ^>})- ^'(^^ Abu 
Ja'far Muhammad bin-'Ali-bin-Babawia. 

Ibn-Batuta (jlJ^-ix-J io-^^X the Arab 

traveller whom Muhammad Tughlaq {q.v.) 
made Judge of Dehli, was the author of the 
work called Travels of Ibn-Batuta, which has 
been translated from the Arabic by the 
Rev. S. Lee, B.D. London, 1829. Ibn- 
Batuta performed his pilgrimage to Mecca 
in A.D. 1332, A.H. 732. His work contains 
few facts concerning Arabia. His whole 
account of Mecca is, " May God ennoble it." 

Ibn - Bauwab (< ?1 1 


\). Vide 


Ibn-Dahan (.oUj ^\). 

Vide Dahan. 




Ibn-Darastuya (tL.t..'i.>c,L) ^-J^), com- 
monly called so, but his proper narae is Abu 
Muhammid 'AbcluUuh, the son of Ja'far, a 
very learned Mnsalinan who died a.d. 9.38, 
A.H. 347, at Baghtlfid. 

Ibn-Dured (jk.j.J rj~>^X author of a 

dictionary and of a work entitled GJiarlb-ul- 
Qumii, which is also called Jamhira. He died 
at Baghdad in a.d. 933, a.h. 321. 

Ibn-Faklir-uddin Anju ( ,ja1\ i:^ ^.j' 

*=f^\), author of the Farhang Jahdn- 
g'lrl. Vide Jamal-uddTu Ilusain Anju. 

Ibn-Farat {cl:\j! ^^^), author of the 

Geographical Jlriiioirs of Ef/ijpt. 

Ibn-Fargliani (^jlirJ ^j^^X Shaikh 

Abii 'Bakr Wasiti, a saint, who died about 
A.H. 320. 

Ibn-Fouraq ( v,.i^j^), Vide'F ovir-A<\. 

Ibn-Grhayas (ci_>l_^_i. (.t— jO. ^'^'V/e 
Kamiil-uddm Muhammad (Kliwaja). 

Ibn-Hajar, Shahab-uddin { sr 


^;jJl t__>lif^), son of All UsqahinI, 

an Arabian author who wrote more than a 
hundred books, among' which are Lisdn-ul- 
Mizdn and Asdba. He died in a.d. 1449, 
A.H. 853. 

{Vide Shalmb-uddm Abii'l Fazl-al- 

Ibn - Hajar Yehsami or Yehthami 

( ^>a*hJ_ rsr^ ijT-'^X son of Badr-uddin, 

author of the work called Sawdiq Nidiriqa, 
and several other books. He died in a.d. 
1566, A.H. 974. 

Ibn-Hajib (i„.->^W (^-'^), an Arabian 

author of several works. He died at 
Alexandria in the year a.d. 1248, a.h. 646. 
He is the author of the two commentaries 
called Kdfia and Shajia. 

Ibn-Hanbali ( A, 

^jO, surname 

of Muhammad-bin-Ibrahim Hanbali, author 
of the JJddat -ul - lldsib - wa - Umdat - ul- 
Masdhib, a book of Arithmetic. He died 
a.d. 1563, A.H. 971, and is the author of 
several other works. 

Ibn-Hasham (A^Sb i^}), the author 

of the Slraf-ul-Easul or Biography of the 
Prophet. His native place was Old Cairo, 
where he died in a.d. 828, a.h. 213. An 
abridgment of his work was made at Damascus 
in a.d. 1307, a.h. 707, by one Ahmad Ibn- 

Ibn-Hasham (( d^.j .j *l/l> ^j^}), 

son of Yusaf, author of several Arabic 
works, among which are Touzlh, Sharah 
Aljia, etc. He died a.d. 1361, a.h. 762. 

Ibn-Hibban {^J^:>- ^Ji\), whose proper 

name was Asir-uddin Muhammad, the son of 
Yusaf. Was the author of several works. 
He died at Damascus in the year a.d. 1344, 
A.H. 745. 

Ibn-Hilal ( J1& ^i\), also called i\.lal, 

is the author of a work entitled Minhdj-ul- 
Talibhi, which is also called Tdrlkh 'Aldi, 
and is dedicated to Shah Shnjaa' Kirmani. 

Ibn-Houbal (J..'»ib ^^^X ^ celebrated 

physician and author, who died in the year 
A.D. 1213. 

Ibn-Houkal (J.^»J^ ^J^), an Arabian, 

and author of the work entitled Jshkdl-iil- 
Bildd, containing maps and geographical 
description of several countries which he 
wrote in the year a.d. 977, a.h. 367. 

Ibn-Humam {AaJh ^\), author of a 

Commentary on the Hidaya, entitled Fath- 
ul-Qadlr, which is also called Sharah Hiddi/a. 
He died in the year a.d. 1457, a.h. 861. 
He is also called Humam, which see. 

^\), of Khawaf, 

Ibn-Husam (^L 

surname of Shams-uddin Muhammad, author 
of an heroic poem in praise of 'Ali, containing 
the principal events of his life, his disputes, 
wars, etc., entitled Khdwar Ndma. He died 
A.D. 1470, A.H. 875. 

Ibn-Ibad (jLi ^.jl), surname of Abul 

Qasim Isma'Il, Kfifi, who was wazir and first 
minister of state to the Sultans ]\Iuwaiyad- 
uddaula and Fakhr-uddaula of the race of 
Boya. He died a.d. 995, a.h. 385, and is 
said to have left a library consisting of 
112,000 volumes, and to have passed for 
the most generous and most liberal man of 
his time. He was also styled Kafi-ul-Kafat. 




Ibn-Imad (ol_^_x m-^^X ^ po^t of 

Khurasiiu who flourished iu the latter eud of 
the 14th century of the Christain Era. He 
resided iu Shiraz, and is author of a Diwau 
or a love story, called Bah Nama, in Persian. 

Ibn-Jinni ( ^^ ^}\ whose proper 

name was Ahii'l Fatha 'Usmam, a learned 
Musalnian, but blind of one eye. He died at 
Baghdad a.d. 1002, a.h. 392. 

Ibn-Jouzi (^j»;5- iM-'^)' ^^^"'^ ^^^^ ^ 

Ibn-Kamal Paslia (Lllj_ JU.^ ^i}), 

surname of Jlufti Shams-uddin Ahmad-bin- 
Sulaimau, author of the S/iarah Hadts-al- 
^Arhahi. He died a.d. 1533, a.h. 940. 

Ibn-Khaldun (^,.j>_Lri- ^j-^}), the 

African pliilosopher. His name and titles are 
in Arabic: " Wali-uddin Abu Zaid 'Abdur- 
rahman - bin - Muhammad - al - Hazrami - al- 
Islibili," but he is better known by the single 
patronymic name of Ibn - KliakKm. His 
lather surnamed Klialdiin was a native of 
Amazirg or Berber (\n Africa), but his wife, 
descending from a family of the Arabian 
province Hazramat, made her son adopt the 
surname of Al-Hazrami. He was born iu 
Tunis iu the year a.d. 1332, and passed his 
youth iu Egypt. He then served a short 
time imder Taimur, as chief justice at 
Damascus. He returned to Egypt, where he 
became Supreme Judge, and died iu the year 
A.D. 1406. His principal and most remarkable 
work is the history of the Arabs, the Persians, 
and the Berbers. The whole composition is 
commonly called Tankh-ibn-KhalduH. 

Ibn-Khallikan {^iA:>. ^\), whose 

full name is Shams-uddin Abu'l Abbas 
Ahmad-ibn - Muliammad - ibn- Abu Bakr -ibn 
Kkillikan, drrw his descent from a family 
of Balkh. This very eminent scholar and 
follower of Shfifa'i doctrines, was born at 
Arbela, but resided at Damascus, where he 
had tilled the place of chief Qazi till the year 
A.D. 1281, A.H. 6S0, when he was dismissed, 
and from that time till the day of his death 
he never weut out of doors. He was a man 
of the greatest reputation for learning, versed 
in various sciences, and highly accomplished ; 
he was a scholar, a port, a compiler, and an 
histoi'ian. By his talents and writings, he 
merited the honourable title of " the most 
learned man," and was an able historian. 
His celebrated biographical work called the 
WaJidt-ul-Aiyfnt, or deaths of eminent men, 
is considered the acme of perfection. This 
work was translated from the Arabic by 

Baron McGuckin De Slane, Member of the 
Council of the Asiatic Society of Paris, etc., 
and published iu a.d. 1842. The work is 
in four volumes 4to. and in English. It was 
printed in Paris for the Oriental Translation 
Fund of London. This translation is a most 
valuable work to those who wish to gain 
a knowledge of the legal Uteratiure of 
the Muhammadans, as the translator has 
added to the text numerous learned notes, 
replete with cmious and interesting informa- 
tion relating to the Muhammadan law and 
lawyers. Ibn-Khallikan was born on Thursday 
the 22nd September, a.d. 1211, 11th 
RabI' II. A.H. 608, and died on Thursday 
the 31st October, a.d. 1282, 26th Rajah, 
A.H. 681, aged 73 lunar years, in the 
Najibia College at Damascus and was 
interred at Mount Kusiyun. 

Ibn-Khurdadbih (oj^j>..ri- ^^^), an 
historian, who died about the year a.d. 912. 
[Vide Khurdaziba.] 

Ibn-Maja (<^>-l.« j^-'O, whose proper 

name is Abu Abdullah Muhammad -bin - 
Yezid-bin-Maja-al-Q,azwini, was the author 
of a collection of traditions, and of a com- 
mentary on the Quran. The first, which is 
entitled Kitab-i(s-Si(iian, is the sixth book of 
the Simna, and is commonly called Sunan 
Ihn-Maja. Ibn-Maja was born in the year 
A.D. 824, A.H. 209, and died in a.d. 886, 
A.H. 273. 

Ibn-Malik ((_<]U ,.,j^). 

Vide Ahii 

Ibn-Maqla (^il* (^J^), wazir of the 

khalif al-Qahir Billah of Baghdad, whom, 
with the consent of other Umras, he deposed 
and having deprived him of sight raised 
Al-Razi Billah to the throne. Not long 
after, his hands and tongue were cut off by 
the order of Razi, because he had written a 
letter to the KhalTf's enemy without his 
knowledge, and he died from the injm-ies in 
the year a.d. 939, a.h. 327. Ibn-Maqla is 
the inventor of the present Arabic character 
which was afterwards improved by Ibn- 

Ibn-Marduya (tu.t).^ [j^}^y commonly 

called so, but his proper name is Abu Bakr. 
He is the author of the work Mustakharij 
Blklidn and of a commentary and history. 
He died A.H. 410. 

Ibn-Muallim (*_L.'«_.* ,,t— '^). Jlde 
Sliaikh Mufid. 




Ibn-Qattaa (^i*rs- ^} ^^ cILj ^^1 
&.*jy^.^^] ^\JLs), surname of 'AU- 

bin-Ja'far Si(|illi, an Arabian autlior, who 
died A. D. 1121, a.h. 615. 

Ibn-Qutaiba (d-»-J ^\), surname of 

Shaikh al-Imam Abu Muhammad Ahdullah- 
biu-Muslim Diuwari, author of the Ayun- 
zil-Akhbilr, and many other works. He died 
A.D. 889, A.H. 267. 

Ibn - Raj ab. Vule Zain - uddin - bin- 

Ibn-Rashid {s~^j ^J-^}), surname of 

Abu'l "NValid Muhanimad-bin-Ahmad, whom 
the Europeans call Averroes and Aven Rosch, 
was one of the most subtile philosophers that 
ever appeared among the Arabians. He was 
born at Cordova in Spain (a.d. 1149), Avhere 
his father held the office of high priest and 
chief judge, rmder the emperor of the Moors. 
His knowledge of law, divinity, mathematics, 
and astrology was very extensive, and to this 
was added the theory rather than the practice 
of medicine. On the death of his father, he 
was appointed to succeed him. Falling under 
the suspicion of heresy, he was deprived of 
his posts and thrown into prison, from 
whence he was at last delivered and reinstated 
in his office of judge. He wrote a treatise 
on the art of physic, an epitome of Ptolemy's 
Almagest, a treatise on astrology, and many 
amcn'ous verses ; but when he grew old, he 
threw the three last into the fire. He is best 
known as a translator and expositor of 
Aristotle ; his commentaries were published 
at Venice a.d. 1489-1560. He was a 
pantheist, and a despiser of all supposed 
revelations, as to which his opinions were : 
that Christianity is absurd ; Judaism, the 
religion of children ; and Muhammadanism, 
the religion of swine. A further edition of 
his works is that published at Venice 1608. 
He is said to have died at Morocco in a.h. 
595, corresponding with a.d. 1199, though 
Lempriere in his Universal Biography says 
that he died in a.h. 1206. 

Ibn-S'abbagh-al-Shafaj (cl^..^ ^\ 

^.x-'LAJi), surname of AbQ Nasr 

'Abdul Sald-l)in-^ruhammad, author of the 
Uddat-itl-''Alim 11 at Turiq-til-Sdlim. He 
died A.D. 1084, a.h. 477. 

Ibn-'Sad {sjt..^ m-^^X author of the 

Ibn-Shaliab-uz-Zoliri (t_jL^^ ^S\ 

^ ^^-W ), an Arabian author who 

flourished during the Kliilafat of 'Umar-ibn- 
'Abdul 'Aziz. 

Ibn-Sina (I; 


\). Vide Abu Sina. 

Ibn-Siraj (J^^ ^,jt), whose proper 

name is Abii Bakr Muhammad, was an 
Arabian author, and died in a.d. 928, a.h. 

Ibn-ul-'Arabi( ^j,.rl\ ,..:!). Fidelhn- 

^-ij^' ' c;: 


,.,jO. Vide Ibn- 

Ibn-ul-Hajar ( xs 

Ibn-ul-Jazari-bin-Muhammad ( , A 
1^ ,jj^\), an Arabian author who died 
in the year a.d. 1430, a.h. 833. 

Ibn-ul-Khashab (^_>l.^sil ^j1), whose 

proper name is Abii Muhammad 'Abdullah, 
Avas an excellent penman. He died at 
Baghdad in a.d. 1172, a.h. 567. 

Ibn-Uqba {<L^:L£. ^0, surname of 

Jamal-uddin Ahmad, author of the Umdat- 
id-Talih. He died a.d. 1424, a.h. 828. 

Ibn-Uqda {)i\:Lz ^.i\). 

Vide Abu 1 

'Abbas Ahmad-bin-Muhammad. 

Ibn-ul-Rumi {^^*)\ ^^0, a famous 

Arabian poet, who was contemporary with 
Avicenna. He is the author of a Dlwau in 

Ibn-ul-Warda i^dy^\ ^^\), author of 

an Arabic history called Malchtdsir-Jdma-ut- 
Taivdrlkh, a valuable general history from 
A.D. 1097 to 1543. 

Ibn-us-Saleh (JL^JI ,^.jO, whose 

proper name is Abu 'Amrii 'Usman-bin- 
'Alidur Rahinan-ash-Shahrzuri, author of a 
cit] lection of decisions according to the 
doctrine of Shafa'i, entitled Fata wd- Ibn-us- 
Saleh. He died in a.d. 1244, a.h. 642. 

Ibn-Yemin (,^-^_ ^^1), a celebrated 

poet, whose proper name was Amir Mahnmd, 
which see. 

Ibn-Yunas (^jjujy. ij^^X astronomer to 

the Klialif of Egj^it, who observed three 
eclipses with such care, that by means of 
them we are enabled to determine the 
quantity of the moon's acceleration sine tthat 
time. He lived about a century or more after 

Ibn-Zohr ij-^^ ^-i}). Vide Abdul 
Malik Ibn-Zohr. 




Ibn-Zuryk (( G..i? ,j\), Tanuki, an 

i.j-^ c:- 


Ibrahim (^_^_jbl^_j'), the patriarch 


(>-.>|..m), an emperor of the 

Moors of Africa iu the 12th century, who 
was dethroned by his subjects, aud his crown 
usurped by 'Abdul Mumiu. 

Ibrahim {j^\j\), the son of Alashtar, 

killed iu a.d. 690, a.h. 71, in a battle fought 
between the khalif 'Abdul Malik and Misaa'b 
the brother of 'Abdullah, the sou of Zabair, 
whose faithful friend he was. 

Ibrahim {j^^\y\), the son of Ibrahim 

Mahran, a very famous doctor of the sect of 
Shafa'i, and author of several works. 

Ibrahim Adham (j^j>\ *^Uj^), a king 

of Balkh, who retii-ed from the world, 
became a Dervish aud died between the years 
875 and 880, aged 110 years. It is said 
that he saw in a dream a man on the top of 
a house looking for something. He asked 
him what he was looking for. The man 
replied that he had lost his camel. " What a 
fool you must be" said the king, "to be 
looking for your camel on the roof of a house ! " 
The man rejoined " and what a fool you must 
be to look for God in the cares aud troubles of 
a crown ! " Ibrahim from that day abdicated 
his throne, and became a wandering Dervish. 

Ibrahim 'Adil Shah I. ( JjU f^^'\jj\ 

i\j^), Sultan of Bljapiir, surnamed 

Abii'l Nasr, son of Ismail 'Adil Shah, 
succeeded his brother Mallii Adil Shah on 
the throne of Bijapiir in the Deccan iu a.d. 
1535, A.n. 941. He married the daughter 
of 'Ala-uddin 'Imad Shah, named Kabia 
Sultana, in a.d. 1543, a.h. 950, reigned 24 
lunar years and some months, and died in 
a.d. 1558, A.H. 965. He was buried at 
Kuki near the tombs of his father and grand- 
father, and was succeeded by Ids son 'Ali 
'Adil Shah. 

Ibrahim 'Adil Shah II. (Jjlc ^i,\.A 

iLi), of Bijapiir, surnamed Abii'l 

Muzaffar, was the son of Tahmasp the 
brother of 'Ali 'Adil Shah, whom he 
succeeded in April, a.d. 1580, Safar, a.h. 
988, beiug then only iu his ninth year. The 
management of public affairs was given to 
Kamal Khiin Dakhani, and Chaud Bibi 
Sultana, widow of the late king, was entrusted 
with the care of the education of the miuor 
monarch. For some time Kamftl Khan 
behaved with due moderation in his othce ; 

but at length was guilty of some violence 
towards Chand Sultana, who turned her 
thoughts to means for his destruction. She 
secretly sent a message to Haji Kishwar 
Klian, an officer of high rank, who caused him 
to be murdered. After this eveut Kishwar 
Khan, by the support and patronage of 
Cliand Bibi, grasped the authority of the 
State, and ruled with uncontrolled sway till 
he was assassinated. Akhlas Klian next 
assumed the regency ; but after some time he 
was seized by Dilawar Kjian, who put out 
his eyes, and became regent of the empire. 
He was expelled by the king in a.d. 1590, 
and his eyes put out aud himself confined in 
A.D. 1592. Ibrahim 'Adil Shah died after a 
reign of more than 38 years in a.d. 1626, 
A.H. 1036, and was succeeded by his son 
Muhammad 'Adil Shah. The first building 
of any importance we meet at Bijapiir is the 
Ibrahim Rauza, the tomb of Ibrahim 'Adil 
Shah II. On a high -raised platform of 
stone, separated by a square, in the midst of 
which is a hauz or fountain, stand the rai(2a 
aud mosque opposite each other, and corre- 
sponding in size and contoiu*. The tomb is 
most elaborately ornamented, the walls being 
covered with inscriptions from the Quran 
in raised stone Arabic letters, which formerly 
were gilt, on a blue ground, though now the 
colotu'ing has worn away. The mosqtie also 
is a beautiful building. 

Ibrahim Ali Khan (^l^ ^Lc *»»J^^.Jl), 

the chief of Malair Kotla, was a minor of 
about 15 years of age (1872), and was re- 
ceiving his education in the Wards' School 
at Umballa. 

Ibrahim Ali Khan (^l^;. Lc *,-.Ji)^jl), 

Nawab of Tonk, grandson of the famous 
Pindari chief Amir Klian. His father Mu- 
hammad 'Ali Kjian was deposed by the 
British GovernniL-ut on account of the Lowa 
massacre in 1867. He was installed as 
Nawab of Tonk on the 19tli January, 1871, 
by the British Government. 

Ibrahim Astarabadi(^- jb Lu^l f^^r. ^ \ 

an author who translated the Kisala or Kitdb 
Ilasania of Abii'l Fatuh Razi Makki from 
the Ai'abic into Persian in A.D. 1551, a.h. 958. 

Ibrahim Barid Shah {Al) >sj J M^i>\j\) 

succeeded his father 'Ali Barid in the govern- 
ment of Ahmadabad Bidar about the year 
A.D. 1562, A.H. 970. He reigned seven years 
and died about the year a.d. 1569, a.h. 977. 
His brother Qasiin 13arid II. succeeded him. 

Ibrahim Bayu, Malik (^^ ^.^j&Lj\ 

t__CL^). In the province of Behar 

there is a hillock called Pir Pahari, on the 
top of which there is a tomb with Persian 
inscriptions in verse, intimating that Malik 
Ibrahim Bavu ilied in the reign of Sultau 




Firoz Shah on a Sunday in the month of 
Zil-liijja, A.H. 753, which corresponds witli 
Januiirv, a.d. 1353, but who he was we are 
not informed. 

Ibrahim - bin - Aghlab 


i—^Ajil), an Arabian captain who was 

appointed governor of Egypt and Africa by 
the Khalif Harun-al-RaVhid in a.d. 800, 
A.H. 184. Tlie descendants of this governor, 
who settk'd in Africa, bore the name of 
Aghlabia or Aghlabites, and formed a dynasty 
of princes who reigned there till the year 
A.D. 90S, A.H. 296, when they were driven 
out by the Fatimites. 

Ibrahim-bin-Ali ( 1.C , .j *.-^J^^ '1), 

author of the wort called Majma^-ul-Ansdh, 
or the Genealogy of the different dynasties of 
Persia, till a.d. "l233, a.h. 630. 

Ibrahim - bin - Hariri ( .j ^_^1 .j1 

,__f_j ,_=►), author of the Tdrlkh 

Ibrdhiml, an abridged history of India from 
the earliest times to the conquest of that 
country by the emperor Babar Shah, who 
defeated Sultan Ibrahim Hussain Lodi, king 
of Dehli, and became the founder of the 
Mughal dj-nastv. It was dedicated to Biibar 
ShraTin a.d. 1528, a.h. 934. 

Ibrahim -bin -Muhammad-al-Halabi, 

Shaikh ( ^J^^l S^^^ ^ (*r^^l^:'^ 

^.-i), author of a Persian work on 

Theology called Aqded Simnia and of the 
MnJtdqd-al-Abhdr . This work, which is an 
universal code of Muharamadan law, contains 
the opinions of the four chief Mujtahid 
Imams, and ilhistrates them by those of the 
principal jurisconsults of the school of Abu 
Ilanifa. He died a.d. 1549, a.h. 956. 
\_l'ule Imam 'Alam-bin-'Ata.] 

Ibrahim-bin-Nayal ( JLj ^J ^h\ji\), 

brother of Tughral Beg's mother, a chief who 
d(d\ated Tugljau Shah I. a prince of the 
Salifniian family, in battle, took liim prisoner 
and blinded him. Ibrahim was murdered 
after some time in a.d. 952, a.h. 451, by 
Tughral Beg, the uncle of Tughan Shah. 

Ibrahim-bin-Saleh (JLs ^ *-.A.^l), 

cousin of Harun-al-llashid. A curicms story 
is given of him in the Jour. As. Sue. 
No. 11, that when he died Mauka-al- 
Hindi, the philosopher, restored him to life, 
and that Ibrahim lived long after this 
circumstance, and married the princess 'All 
'Abbasa, daughter of Al-Mahdi, and obtained 
the governmeoit of Egypt and Palestine, and 
died in Egypt. 

Ibrahim-bin-Walid II. ( .^j ^-,„i'^._'1 
c, . ^ .. J ■ 

^.JlJ S-^t), a KlialTf of the race of 

Umaiya, succeeded his brother Yazid III. 
in A.D. 744, a.h. 126, and had reigned but 
seventy days when he was deposed and slain 
by Mu'awia II. who ascended the throne in 

Ibrahim Husain, Khwaja (^.,»j&^_j1 

^.p-'«.rs- ^*.*u.=-), a celebrated cali- 

grapher in the service of the emperor 'Akbar, 
Avho wrote a beautiful Xastaliq hand. He 
died in the year a.d. 1593, a.h. 1001, and 
'Abdul Qadir Badaoni found the chronogram 
of his death to be contained in his very name 
Avith the exception of the first letter in Ibrahim, 
viz. Alii. 

Ibrahim Husain Lodi, Sultan C^-Jb^ jl 
A-c^), ascended the 

throne of Agra after the death of his father 
Sikandar Shah Lodi in February, a.d. 1510, 
Zi-qa'da, a.h. 915. He reigned 16 years, 
and was defeated and slain in a battle fought 
at Panipat with the emperor Babar Shah on 
Friday the 20th April, a.d. 1526, 7th Eajab, 
A.H. 932, an event which transferred the 
empire of Dehli and Agra to the family of 
Amir Taimur. From this battle we may 
date the fall of the Pathan empire, though 
that race afterwards made many efforts, and 
recovered it for a few years in the time of 
the emperor Humayiin. 


Ibrahim Husain Mirza ( .^ 

^;..-_^), a son-in-law of the emperor 

Humayim, and the second son of Muhammad 
Sultan Mirza, who had four other sons besides 
him, viz. 1st, Muhammad Husain Mirza, 
2ud, Ibrahim Husain Mirza, 3rd, Masa'iid 
Husain Mirza, 4th, ITlogh Mirza, who died 
in A.D. 1567, A.H. 975, and 5th, Shah Mirza. 
They were styled "The Mirzas," and were, 
on accoimt of their ill-conduct, confined in 
the Fort of Sambhal by order of the emperor 
Akbar. When that monarch marched in the 
year a.d. 1567, a.h. 975, for the purpose of 
subduing Mahva, they made their escape and 
sought an asylum with Chingiz Khan, a noble- 
man at Baroch. They took Champaner and 
Sfirat and also Baroch in a.d. 1569, a.h. 
977, and created a great disturbance in the 
surrounding countries. Ibrahim Husain was 
taken ])risoner in a.d. 1573, a.h. 981, and 
shortly after put to death by Makhsus I\han, 
governor of Midtan, and his head sent to the 
emperor, who ordered it to be placed over 
one of the gates of Agra {vide Gulnikh Begam) 
and caused his brother Masa'iid Husain Mirza 
to be confined in the fort of Gwaliar, where 
I he soon afterwards died. 




Ibrahim - ibn - Aghlab ( .j1 »-»jfcl^j^ 

(._^Li.O, a king of Barbary. This 
country was reduced by the Saracens in the 
Khilatat of 'Umar, and continued subject to 
the Khalif of Arabia and Baghdad till th'e reign 
of Harun-al-Rashid, who having appointed 
Ibrahim -ibn-Aghlib governor of the western 
parts of his empire, that prefect took the 
opportunity, first of assuming greater powers 
to himself than had been granted by the 
Khalifs. The race of Ag]ilab continued to 
enjoy their new principality peaceably till 
the year a.d. 910, a.h. 298, during which 
timethev made several descents on the island 
of Sicily", and conquered a part of it. About 
this tinie, however, one Obedullah sm-named 
'Al-Mahdi rebelled against the house of 
Aghlab, and assumed the title of Klialif of 

Ibraliim, Imam (*t«^ *-.>^ _>^). This 

Ibrahim, who bears the title of Imam, or 
chief of the religiim of Muhammad, is not of 
the number of the twelve Imams of the 
posterity of 'All. He was a son of Mu- 
hammad, the son of 'AH, the son of 'Abdullah, 
the son of 'Abbas, the uncle of the prophet, 
and eldest brother of the two first KJialifs of 
the house of 'Abbas ; but was himself never 
acknowledged as a Khalif. He was put to 
death by order of Marwan II. surnamed 
Himiir, last Klialif of the house of Umayya, 
in the month of October, a.d. 749, Safar, 
A.H. 132. 

Ibrahim Khan ( ^\^ j^^\>\), the son 

of the celebrated Amir-ul-Umrii 'Ali Mardan 
Khan. He was honoiu'ed with the rank of 
5i)00 in the second year of the emperor 
'Alaragir, a.d. 1659, and appointed governor, 
at different periods, of Kashmere, Lahore, 
Bihar, Bengal and other places, and died in the 
reign of Bahadur Shah. 

Ibrahim Khan Fatha Jang (,».,.jb^ '\ 

L_X:.:5- ,^-i .\s^) was a rehition of 

the celebrated Xur Jahan Begam, whose 
mother's sister he had married. When Qasim 
Klian the grandson of Shaikh SalTm Chishti 
was recalled to court from the government of 
Bihiir in the twelfth year of the emperor 
Jaliangir, a.d. 1616, a.h. 1025, Ibrahim 
Kjian was appointed governor of that province 
with the rank of 4000. He was killed at 
Dacca, a d. 1623, a.h. 1032, in battle against 
prince Kjumam (afterwards Shah Jahan) who 
had rebelled against his father Jahanglr. His 
wife Huh I'arwez Kliauam lived to a great 
age, and died in the reign of the emperor 

Ibrahim Khan Siir ( ,^^ ^l:>- j^^^ A), 

son of GliazI Khan, governor of Bayana, was 
the brother-in-law ol Muhammad Shah 'Adill, 

whose sister he had married. He raised a 
considerable army and took possession of Dehll 
and Agra on the 28th February, a.d. 1555, 
6th Jumada' I. a.h. 962. He had no sooner 
ascended the throne than another competitor 
arose in the province of the Paujab, in the 
person of Ahmad Khan, a nephew of the late 
Sher Shah. He defeated Ibrahim Khan in 
a battle, and the latter retreated to Sambhal, 
while Ahmad Ivhan took possession of Agra 
and Dehll, and assumed the title of Sikandar 
Shah in May the same year. Ibrahim Klian 
was killed by Sulaiman, king of Heugal, in 
Orissa in a battle fought in a.d. loii?, a.h. 
975, and is bm-ied there. Amongst the 
incidents of the year a.d. 1555, a.h. 962, 
was the explosion of the fort of Agra, when 
enormous stones and columns were sent flying 
several /los to the other side of the Jamna, and 
manv people were destroyed. As the whole 
Fort was called Badalgarh, the dite was 
found in the words " The fire of Badalgarh." 

Ibrahim Khawas i^\^.s>- ^^JsLjl), 

a pupil of Abu 'Abdullah Maghrabi, who died 
A.D. 911. He was called Khawas, which 
means a basket-maker. 

Ibrahim Qntb Shah (^l^ 

was the son of Quli Qutb Shah I. sovereign 
of Golkanda. On the death of his brother 
Jamshid (iutb Shah, the nobles of the court 
elevated his son Siibhau Quli, a child seven 
years of age, to the throne ; but as he was 
unable to wield the sceptre Ibrahim was 
sent for from Bijanagar, where he then 
resided, and was crowned on Mondav the 28th 
July, A.D. 1550, 12th Rajab, a.h. 9o7. In the 
year a.d. 15h5, a.h. 972, he, in conjunction 
with the other Muharamadan monarchs of 
the Dcccan, marched against Ramraj, the 
Raja of Bijanagar, who was defeated and 
slain, and his territories occupied by the con- 
querors. In A.D. 1571, A.H. 979, the fort 
of Rajamanchi was taken from the Hindiis by 
Rafa't Kjjan, the general of Ibrahim ; the 
following chronogram commemorates the date 
of its occiuTcnce : ' ' The temple of the infidels 
has fallen into our hands." Ibrahim Qutb 
Shah, after a prosperous reign of 32 years, 
died suddenlvon Thursdav the 5th June, a.d. 
1581, 21st Rabi' II. a.h. 989, in the 51st 
year of his age, and was succeeded by liis son 
Muhammad Qutb Shah. 

Ibrahim Mirza (^j^-* ^>^jl), the son 

of Bahram Mirza and grandson of Shah 
Ismai'l Safwi. His poetical name was Jiihi. 
He was murdered by order of his grandfather. 

Ibrahim Mirza, Sultan (^:_.« »-.iL.j^ 
jj I ■• > • 

ij;l.l2-i--j), was the son of Shahrukh 

Mirza and grandson of Amir Tairaiir. He 
was governor of Fars during the life of his 
father, and died a few years before him in 




A.D. 1435, A.H. 839. After his death, his 
son 'Abdullah Mirza succeeded him, and was 
killed iu battle ao-ainst Mirza Abu Sa'id his 
cousiu-german iu x.u. l-t^Jl, a.u. 855. 

Ibrahim Mirza (} \yt *-JS'l j\),a Saffavi 

of literary tastes; fcDip. Shilh Jahau ; his 
poetical name was Adham, which see. 

Ibrahim Mirza O',,--* f^i^^j-- 

\), the 


of Mirza Sulaimfiu of Badakhshan, was born 
in the year .4. n. lo3-l, a.h. 941. "When his 
father,"with the intention of conquering Balkh, 
weut to that country, prince Ibrahim accoiii- 
panied him, and was taken prisoner in battle 
and put to death by order of Pir Muhammad 
K]ian, ruler of Balkh, iu the month of 
September, a.d. loGO, Zil-bijja, a.h. 967. 

Ibrahim Nayal ( JlJ j^^i>\-j\). 

Ibrahim -biu-Xa val . 


Ibrahim Nizam Shah (A \^ '< ^ ^ ^V A 

il_-i) succeeded his father Biirhan 

Nizam Shah II. in the kingdom of Ahmad- 
nagar Deccan iu the month of April, a.d. 
1595, Sha'ban, a.h. 1003, and was slain in 
action against the troops of Ibrahim 'Adil 
Shah II. .of Bijapiir, after a reign of only 
four months, in the month of August, a.d. 
1595, Zil-bijja, a.h. 1003. Mian Manjii, 
his wazir, raised to the throne one Ahmad 
a boy, said to be of the Nizam Shahi family. 

Ibrahim Pasha (a^Lt ♦.^Jb^-j^), an 

adopted son of Muhammad 'Ali Pasha of 
Egy|)t, was born in a.d. 1789, and gave the 
first proofs of his gallantry and generalship 
in a.d. 1819 in quelling the insurrection of 
Wahabis. He afterwards made several con- 
quests. In A.D. 1848, when Muhammad 
'Ali had sunk into absolute dotage, Ibrahim 
■went to Constantinople, and was recognized by 
the Porte as Viceroy of Egypt ; after a short 
visit to England, on the 9th November, a.d. 
1848, he died at Cairo. 

Ibrahim Shah Sultan (il^ >_^Jb^.jl 

l^l.LiJ_~j ^j^Ji), called Sharaqi, or 

" Eastern," ascended the throne of Jauupiir, 
after the death of his brother Muburik Shah 
in A.D. 1402, A.n. 804. lie was famous 
during his reign for the encouragement he 
afforded to literature ; and we find that in 
those times of anarchy and confusion which 
prevailed in Hindustan, Jauupiir became the 
seat of learning ; as appears (says Firishta) 
from several works now extant, dedicated to 
Ibrahim Shah. He died in a.d. 1440, a.h. 
844, after a long reign of upwards of 40 
years. He was beloved iu life, and ho was 
regretted by all his subjects. His eldest son 
Mahmiid Shah Sharqi succeeded him. 

Ibrahim Shah Pir {^^ il^ *.^a.1^j1), 

a Miihammadan saint whose tomb is in the 

district of Kach thirty miles above Lakpat. 

Vide Trans. Roy. As. Soc, vol. iii. p. 588. 

,.-..JtV.jU, the 

Ibrahim Shaikh (^:-r 

son of Shaikh Musa, the brother of Shaikh 
Salira Chishti. He served Akbar for several 
years in the military profession ; and, 
when that emperor was proceeding to Kabul 
after the death of his brother, Muhammad 
Hakim, Shaikh Ibrahim accompanied him as 
tar as Thanesar, where he fell sick through 
excess of ckiuking and cUed on the 16th Mehr, 
iu the 30th year of Akbar' s reign, correspond- 
ing with September, a.d. 1585, Shawwal, 
A.H. 992. According, however, to a later 
work, the Mdsir-ul- Uiiird, he was left behind 
by the emperor and ordered to take charge 
of the fortress of Agra, where he died a.d. 
1591, a.h. 999. 

Ibrahim, Shaikh, ibn-Mufrij-us-Suri 




^A ^- ^^^\y\), 

author of the history of Alexander the Great 
and of Kliizir in Arabic, called Kitdb Tarlkh 

al - Isl-tntd(ir Zidkurnam - ul - liilnu - iva - 
Waz'rrut - al - Khizr. This is one of those 
substructxu-es of nij-th upon which Eastern 
nations have erected a large and romantic 
edifice of fable, much in the same manner as 
the tales of chivalry of the Middle Ages, 
which, though fictitious, were partly attri- 
buted to real characters, as in the romances 
of the Knights of the Kound Table and the 
Peers of Charlemagne. 

Ibrahim Shaibani ( jL.*^ *-Jb^ j1), 

of Kinnan Shah, a pupil of Abii 'Abdullah 
Maghrabi. He lived about the year a.d. 900. 

Ibrahim Shirwani, Shaikh (^_^.jb^_j\ 

'^'"'^ J^iy-l), ruler of Shir\Yan, who 

reigued about the beginning of the ninth 
century of the Hijra. Maulana Kiltibi 
flourished in his time and died in a.d. 1435. 

Ibrahim, Sultan (^ILLj ♦-.JbKjU, the 

son of Sultan Masa'iid I. of Ghazni, succeeded 
his brother Farrukhzad in a.d. 1059, a.h. 
450. He was a pious, liberal and just prince. 
In the first year of his reign he concluded a 
treaty of peace with Sultan Sanjar the 
Saljiikidc, at the same time his son Masa'iul 
espoused the daughter of Malikshah, sister to 
Sultan Sanjar, and a channel of friendship 
and intercourse was opeued between the two 
nations. He afterwards came to India and 
took several forts and obtained the title of 
conqueror by the extent of his victories. 
Sultan Il)rahim had 36 sons and 40 daughters 
by a variety of women, the latter of whom 
he gave in marriage to learned and religious 




men. He died after a reign of more than 
forty years in a.d. 1098, a.h. 492, aged 76 
lunar years, and was succeeded by his son 
Sultan Masa'ud II. or III. According to 
the work called Tankh Guzula he reigned 30 
years and died in the year a.d. lOaS, a.h. 

Ibrahim, Sultan (^IkL-j ♦.-.J6|^.jl), 

emperor of the Turks, was the son of 
Ahmad (Achmat). He succeeded his brother 
Miu'ad IV (Amarath) in February, a.d. 1640, 
A.H. 1049, and spent a great part of his 
reign in the war of Crete against the 
Venetians, but without any great success. He 
was assassinated for his debaucheries and 
repeated cruelties in a.d. 1649, a.h. 1059. 
His son, Muhammad IV. succeeded him. 

'Ibrat (k^i^ -.j:), the poetical name of 

Ahmad 'AlT Ivhan, cousin of Nawilb Sa'adat 
Khan Zultiqar Jang. 

'Ibrat (c:j^-r), the poetical title of 

Mir Zaya-uddin, a poet, who wrote the first 
part of the story of Fadindwat in Urdii verse, 
and died ; consequently the second part was 
written by Ghulam 'Ali 'Ishrat, and finished 
in the year a.d. 1796, a.h. 1211, the chrono- 
gram of which he foimd to contain the words 
" Tasnif Dosha 'ir." 

'Ibrat {^SJj^s), the poetical name of 
'Abdul Mannan, which see. 

'Ibrat {cu^z), the poetical name of 

Ahmad, a musician of Delili, who from the 
instructions that he received from Mirza 
'Abdul Qadir Bedil, became an excellent poet. 
He at first had assumed "Maftiin" for his 
poetical name, but afterwards changed it for 
'•Ibrat." He was a contemporary of Nasir 
'All the poet, and was living about the year 
a.d. 1688, A.H. IIUO. 

'Ibrat (o-y-), the poetical title of 

Mir Ziya-uddin, author of the first portion of 
the story of Fadnidicat in Urdii verse. He 
died about the year a.d. 1795. 
[ Vide Padmawat.] 

Idris or Adris - bin - Hisam - uddin, 

MuHa il^ ^,,j,!l ^L.; 

author of the history called Tarikh Hasht 
J}a/nsht, or the Eighth Paradise, containing 
the Memoirs of the most illustrious characters 
of the Muhammadau religion, who flourished 
from a.d. 1451 to 1506. 

'Idrisi (^.^.j^,jl) (Abu 'Abdulhili 

Muhammad-ibn- 'Abdullah Idris), also called 
Sharif-al-Idiisi-al-iSiqili, author of a system 

of Arabian geography, composed in a.d. 1153. 
He is said to be one of the most eminent 
Arabic geographers and to have belonged to 
the royal family of the Idrisites. He was 
born at Ceuta or Sibta {nd sepfem) in the 
year a.d. 1090. The title of his work is 
Xnzliat-al-Miishfaq, and it has been trans- 
lated into Latin by several authors. 

'Iffat Bano (ylj c:^ic), daughter of 

the emperor Jahauglr. Her mother was the 
daughter of Said Khan of Kashghar. She 
died at the age of 3 years. 

Iftikbar Khan (^U jl:k\i^), title of 

Sultan Husain, the eldest son of Mir 'Abdiil 
Hadi, entitled Asalat Khan ]Mir Bakhshi, 
who died at Balkh iu the "iOth year of the 
emperor Shah Jahiiu a.d. 1647, a.h. 1057. 
In the first year of 'Alamgir, Husain 
was honoiu-ed with the title of Iftikhar Khan 
(fr. Arab^iJ = " glory "). Some time before 
his death he was appointed Faujdiir of Jaun- 
piir, where he died in a.d. 1681, a.h. 1092. 

Ihsan (^Lw.5^'), the poetical name of 

Mirza Ihsanullah, commonly known by the 
title of Xawab Zafar Kiian, who at one time 
was governor of Kabul Avhen the poet 
Muhammad 'Ali Saeb of Persia came to see 
him there. He died in a.d. 1662, a.h. 1073, 
and was the author of a Diwaii in Persian. 

Ihsan i^^s>'\), the poetical name of 

'Abdur Rahman Klian of Dehli, who wrote 
excellent poetry iu Urdii, and died some time 
after the year a.d. 18 i4, a.h. 1260. 

Ihsan (^l.u^:^0, the poetical title of a 

Hindii named Chunni Lai, who flourished at 
Agra in a.d. 1760, a.h. 1171. 

Ihtisham Khan (^l:>- ^lA:i=-l), title 

of Shaikh Farid of Fathapiir Sikri, the son of 
Qutb-uddin Shaikh Khubau {q.v.). He served 
under the emperors Jahfrngir, Shah Jahan 
and 'Alamgir ; and was raised to the rank of 
3000. He died in a.d. 1664, a.h. 1075. 

Ijad {S^sr\), the poetical name of ]\[lr 

Muhammad Ihsan, who died in the year a.d. 
1721, A.H. 1133. 

Ijtihad (jL;:js-0, inspired interpreta- 
tion ; authoritative application of texts. 
\_ride Mujtahid.] 

Ikhlas Khan Husain Beg ( j;^!.;^! 

L-Js-u ^^AM.>- ^l.>.), a nobleman of 

the reign of the emperor Shah Jahan who 
died in the year a.d. 1639, a.h. 1049. 




Ikhlas Khan Iklilas Kesh (^Lri-l 

{j^^ ^^ri-1 (j;l.>-) was a Hindu of 

the tribe called Khattri of Lahore. lie was 
Well-versed in Persian, and served under the 
emperor 'Alamgir, who conferred on him the 
above title. In the time of Farrnkb-siyar 
icirc. 171'i) he was raised to the rank of 7,000. 
He wrote the history of that emperor and called 
it Bfidshdh Xdma. 

[ Vide Kishnn Chand.] 

Ikhwan-us-Safa (UJ^ J^^O, "The 

Brothers of Purity." A society of thinkers 
and writers about a.d. 990, who lived 
together in Basra, and produced 51 treatises 
on science and religion ; of which the one 
best known is on the relations between men 
and beasts. They arose on the decay of the 
Mu'tuzilas [q.v.)'. 

Ikram Ali {^z *^J>\), author of the 

Urdu Akhivnn-us-Safd, which he translated 
from the Persian in the year a.d. 1810, 
A.H. 1225. 

Ikram Khan {^\^ (♦y^^^' *^^^ ^'^^ 


Lslam Klian and Ladll Begam, the sister of 
Abii'l Fazl, prime minister of the emperor 

\_Vide Islam Khan.] 


Khan (^l.^ A-^^' ^'^^'^^ °^ 

Sayyad Hasan, an amir, who served under 
the emperor 'Alamgir, and died in a.d. 1661, 
A.H. 1072. 

Ikram-uddaula (a.Jjj>Jl i*V~^^' ^^^^ 

brother of 'Ali Naki Khan, the prime 
minister of Wajid 'Ali Shah, king of 
Luckuow, died August, a.d. 1869. 

'Ikrima (<L<„Cc), son of Ahii Jahl. 

'Ikrima {iK.tjLz). Vide Akrima. 

Iksir, Mirza {\- .^ ^^\). Vide Akslr. 

Ilahi ( -J^), an author who, according 

to the work called KJixhlsat-ul-Asha'dr, 
died in a.d. 1538, a.h. 945. 

IlaM, Mir (_*.^ ^_|,J0, name and 

poetical title of a person who was a descend- 
ant of the Sayyads of Rashidahad in 
Hamadan. He came to Intlia in the latter 
part of the reign of Jahangir, and served 
under bis son Shiih Jahfin. He is the author 
of a biography called Khazina Ganj Jldhl, 
and of a Ulwfm containing amorous songs. 
The author of the Mtrat Jahdn says he died 

in A.D. 1648, A.H. 1057, but from the 
chronogram which Ghani Kashmiri wrote at 
his death, it appears that he died in a.d. 
165 4, corresponding with a.h. 1U64. 

Ilahi, Shaikh (v----^ ^^Jl), a philo- 
sopher of Bayana, who in the time of Klian, 
or SalTm Shah, sou of Sher Shiih Snr, made 
a great stir, by introducing a new system of 
religion. He called himself Imam Mahdl, who, 
according to the Shia tradition, is still living 
and is to conquer the world. Having raised 
a great disturbance in the empire, he was in 
the year a.d. 1547, a.h. 954, scourged to 
death by order of the emperor. 

Ildiguz, Atabak (u-^Aii jij^L) was 

a Turkish slave, sold to Sultan Masa'iid, one 
of the Saljiiqi princes. He is said to have 
so completely established himself in the favour 
of his royal master, that the latter advanced 
him to the highest stations in the kingdom ; 
and the able manner in which Ildiguz 
executed every duty that was assigned to him 
led at last, not only to his being charged with 
the education of one of the young princes, 
which gave him the title of Atabak or Atabeg, 
but to his marriage with the widow of 
Tughral II. (the brother of Masa'ud and 
nephew of Sultan Sanjar), and within a short 
period he became the most powerful noble of 
the Persian empire. He died at Ilamdan 
in A.D. 1172, A.H. 568, in the reign of 
Arsalan Shah, and left his power and station 
to liis eldest son Atabak Muhammad. 

List of the Atdbahs of the race of Ildiguz. 
Atabak Ildiguz died 1172 

,, Muhammad, sou of Ildiguz ,, 1186 

,, Qizal Arsalan, son of Ikhguz, 

slain . . • 1191 

,, Abu Bakr, son of Muhammad, 

died 1210 

,, Muzaffar, son of Muhammad ; he 
was defeated by Sultan Jalal- 
uddin of Khwarizm, and died 
some time after. He was the 
last of the Atiibaks of the race 
of Ildiguz who reigned in 
'Azurbaijan 1225 

Ilham (^l^J^) 

Ilmas 'Ali Khan (^l 

Vide Malul. 

LS^^ LT 


the celebrated rich and powerful eunuch of 
the Court of Nawab-Asaf-uddaula. He died 
in A.D. 1808. 

Iltitmish (^^J\). Vide Altamish. 

'Imad - al -Katib or Imad-uddin-al- 

Katib (,.,jjJl jU^ I.. c^jli3\ jUr 

i_-j'lxj i), that is, Imad the Secretary, 

was the surname of Muhammad, the son of 
'Abdullah, the son of Samad, also called 




Isfahan!. He was a celebrated author, and 
has written in Arabic the history of Salah- 
nddiu (Saladin) the Sultan of Egypt and 
S}Tia, in seyen volumes, entitled Jiarq-ush- 
Shaml, the Lightning of Syria. He died 
A.D. 1201, A.H."o97. 

'Imad Faqih Kirmani, Khwaja 
{^\y>. ^V^'V^ ^1^ >A^£.), a Mu- 
hammad doctor who lived in the time of 
Shah Sliujaa' of Shiraz. His death is 
mentioned in the Jaicdhir-ul-Asha'dr to have 
happened in a.u. 1391, ah. 793, but 
according to the poets Ilahi and Daulat Shidi 
he died in the year a.d. 1371, a.h. 773, 
which appears to be correct. Ilahi also 
mentions having seen 12,000 verses of his 
composition, adcUng that he is the author of 
the works called Mahabbat Ndnia and 2Li:lnuU 
Ndina, and also that he wrote in all a Fanj 
Ganj, that is to say, five Masnawis or Poems. 
It is mentioned in the Eabib-us-Siar, that 
Kliwaja 'Imad had a cat that would stand up 
to prayers with him, and do what he did. 
This was believed by Shah Shujaa' to be a 
miracle of the Khwaja ; but Kliwaja Hatiz, 
who was his contemporary, and would not 
take it for a miracle, but a trick played by 
the doctor, wrote a ghazal on that occasion ; 
the following is the translation of a couplet 
from the same : "0 thou charming bird, 
where art thou going ; stand still, and be not 
proud (or thiuk thyself to be safe) because the 
cat of the saint says prayers." 'Imad Kliwaja 
was bm'ied at Kirmau, the place of his 

'Iinadi (^_^jl^£), surname of Jamiil- 

uddin-bin-Imad-uddin Hanafi, author of the 
Arabic work called Fiisdl-ul-'Imddl. 

'Imad Khwaja (j;j=-Lr^ jl^r). Vide 
luiful Faqih. 

'Imad Shah (iLi jU.^). Vide Imuclul 
Mulk, commonly caUed Fatha-uUah. 

'Imad-uddin (,.,jjk!l jUr), surname of 

Qara Arsalan - bin - Daiid - bin -Sukman-bin- 
Artaq. Niir-uddin Mahmiid was his son, to 
whom Salah-uddin (Saladiu) the Sultan of 
Egjqot gave the city of 'Amid or Qara 
Auiid, A.D. 1183, a.h. 579. 

'Imad-uddin Katih(t 
I'iih- 'Imad-al-Kiitib. 

'Imad-uddin ( .,j»j,!l l^U^), author of 
the history of the Saljiikides. 

'Imad-uddin Zangi ( ^SC' : ,J ^IL^l^r), 

the son of Afsaqar, was one of the Atabaks 
or ruling ministers under the latter princes of 
the Saljiikian race. He was the first of that 
branch that had the government of Musal. 
He received the governorship of that province 
in A.D. ir27, A.H. 521, from Sultan Muham- 
mad, the son of Sultan Malikshah Saljiiki, 
reigned 19 years, and was nnuxlered by one of 
his slaves ill A.D. 1145, a.h. 540. 

The foUo>ci>ig is a list of the princes of 
thin race : — 


'Imad-uddin Zangi began to rule . . 1127 
Saif-uddin Ghazi-bin-Zangi, who de- 
feated the French at Damascus . .1145 
Qutb-uddm Maudiid, sou of Zangi, 

A.H. 569 1149 

Kur-uddin Mahmud, son of Zangi ; he 
reigned at Aleppo and formed another 

branch: died a.h. 5 9 

Malik Salah, son of Niir-uddin, suc- 
ceeded his father and reigned at 

Aleppo; died 1174 

Al-Miuzz Saif - uddin Ghazi - biu - 

Maudad 1170 

Azz-uddiu Masa'ud-bin-Maudiul . . 1180 
Niir-uddin Arsalan Shah-biu-Masa'iid 1193 
Malik-ul-Qahir Azz- uddin Masa'iid- 

bin- Niir-uddin 1210 

Niir-uddin Arsalan Shah- bin-Qahir . 1218 
Nasir-uddiu Mahmvid-biu-Qahir . . 1219 
Al-Malik-al-Rahim Badr-uddiu Liilii . 1222 
Al-Malik-us- salah Isma'il-bin -Liilii . 1259 

'Imad-uddin (^.yW u>Ux), author of a 

poem called the Giddasta or tlie Xoscf/ai/, 
which he composed in a.d. 16G4, a.m. 1075. 
He was a native of India. 

Halab or uileppo brtoich. 

'Imad-uddin Zangi 1127 

Nur-nddin Mahmi!id-bin-Zangi . . . 1145 
Al- Malik-US- Siilah Isma'il - bin - Niir- 

uddiu 1174 

'Imad-uddin Zangi -bin - Qutb - uddin- 
bin-Maudiid, delivered Aleppo to 
Salah-uddin (died A.D. 1197) . . .1181 
His son Muhammad reigued at Singara. 

'Imad-uddaula (a.\^j J,£ d]»x\ JuVijyl, 
sm-named 'Ali Buya. Vide 'Ali Buya. 

'Imad-ul Mulk ((_XL/«>J1 jL^i) com- 
monly called Fath-uUah 'Imad Shah, founder 
of the 'Imad Shahi d\-nasty in the Deccan, 
was descended from the Kanarcse infidels of 
Bijanagar. Having been taken prisoner iu 
the wars with that country when a boy, he 
was admitted among the bodyguards of Khau 
Jahan, cominandcu--in-chief and governor of 
Berar. In the reign of Muhammad Shfdi 
Bahmani, through the influence of l\2iwaja 
]Mahnuul Grnviin, he reciived tlie title of 
'luuid-ul-Mulk, and was subsequently raised 
to the office of commander of the forces in 





Berar. After the murder of his patron 
Khwaja Mahmud Gfnvuu iu a.d. 1481, a.h. 
88d, he retired to his govenimeut of Berar. 
On the accession of Sultan Mahmud Bahmani, 
he was honoured witli the office of wizarat, 
which he held for some time, but being soon 
after disgusted with the court, he left it and 
declared his independence in the year a.d. 
1485, A.n. 890. Elichpur was his capital. 
He died about tlie year a.d. 1513, a.h. 919, 
and was succeeded by his eldest son 'Ala- 
uddin 'Imad Shah. 

List of the kings of the '■Imad Shdhi di/i/asfi/ 
of Berdr. 

Fath-ullfih 'Imad Shah. 

'Ala-uddin 'Imad Shah, son of Fath-uUiih. 

Daria 'Imad Shah, son of 'Ala-uddin. 

Btu'liau 'Imad Shah. 

Tufal Klian, prime minister of Burlian 'Imad 
Shah, who usurped the throne, but was 
opposed from Ahmadnagar ; and the family 
of 'Imad Shilh and Tufal became extin- 
guished in a.d. 1568. 

•Imad-ul-Mulk (^l^Jl jUr), title 

of the Gliazi-uddin Klian who murdered his 
master 'Alamgir II. emperor of Dehli. 

[_Vide Ghazi-uddin Khan III.] 

'Imad Zangi {,^^j jl-^.r). Vide 
'Imad-uddiu Zangi. 

Imam (^UO (lit. " pattern" or " ex- 
ample"), a high priest or head or chief in 
religious matters, whether he be the head of 
all Muhammadans, as the Khalifa or the 
priest of a mosque, or the leader in the 
prayers of a congregation. This sacred title 
is given by the Shias only to the immediate 
descendants of 'Ali the son-in-law of the 
prophet, who are twelve, 'Ali being the fii'st. 
The last of these, Imam Mahdi, is supposed 
by them to be concealed (not dead) , and the 
title which belongs to him cannot, they 
conceive, be given to another. Their doctrine 
is somewhat mystic ; but among the Suunis 
it is a dogma that there must be always a 
visible Imam or " father of the church." 
Tlie title is given by tliem to the fom* learned 
doctors who are the founders of their faith, viz. : 
Imams Ilanifa, Malik, Shafa'i, and Hanbal. 
Of these four sects, the Ilanbalite and 
Malikite may be considered as the most rigid, 
the Shafa'ite as the most conformable to the 
spirit of Islamism, and the Hanifite as the 
freest and most phi]osoj)liical of them all. 
Two other Imams, 7Vbu Daiid-uz-Zahiri and 
Sufian-us - Sauri, were also cliiefs of the 
orthodox sects, but tluar opinions had not 
many followers, and after some time were 
totally abandoned. Ibn - Jarir - ut - Tabarl, 
whose reputation as an historian is so familiar 
to Europeans, founded also a particular sect, 
which disappeared soon after his death. The 

following are the names of the twelve Sh'a 
Imams of the race of 'Ali : — 

Imam 'Ali, the son-in-law of the prophet. 

,, Hasan. 

,, Husain. 

,, Zain-ul 'Abidin. 

,, Baqir or Muhammad Bfupr. 

,, Jafar Sadiq. 

,, Miisi Kazim. 

,, 'Ali Miisi Raza. 

,, Taqi or Muhammad Taqi. 

,, 'Ali Naqi. 

,, Hasan Askari. 

,, Mahdi. 

\_J'ide Hughes' Dicfionarij of Islam in roc.'\ 

Imam 'Alam - bin - 'Ala - al - Hanafi, 

(<-i^.sM \^ ^j JU /•t«0, author of a 

large collection of Fatwas in several volumes, 
entitled Fatc'iwd Tdtdrkhdnia, taken from the 
Muhit-al-Burhdni, the Zakhtrat, the Khdnia 
and Zahiria. Afterwards, however, a selec- 
tion was made from these decisions by the 
Imilm Ibrahim- bin - Muhammad - al-Halabi, 
and an epitome was thus formed, which is in 
one volume, and still retains the title of 

Imam Bakhsh, Shaikh (^^.isr^ f,\-^ 

-^t^). Tide Sahabl. 


Imam Bakhsh, Shaikh (^^.s:^ X^ 
^_-^). Vide Nasikh. 

Imam Bakhsh, Moulvi (^.is:^ aL«1 
^i^yt). Vide Salibal. 

Imam 'Azim, title of Abu Hanifa, 

Imami Hirwi, Maulana i^^tji) ^^\^\ 

lj^»^). He is called Hirwl, because he 

was a native of Herat. He was an excellent 
poet and contemporary with the celebrated 
Shaikh Sa'di of Shiraz, whom, in the opinion 
of some writers, he surpassed in the (iasida. 
He died ab(uit the year a.d. 1281, a.h. G80, 
and has left a Diwan. 

Imam Malik i^j^'A ^^\ t_XlU j*Ul), 

son of Anas, one of the four Imiims or 
Jurisconsults of Mecca. He died on the '28th 
June, A.D. 79o, 7th Bab'i II. a.h. 179, in 
the time of the I\lialif Harun-al-llaslud. 
[ T'idc Millik-ibn-Auas.] 

Imam Muhammad {^L* S^.sr^ i*^''*^), 

a Mufti in the reign of Ilariiu-al-Ilasliid the 
Kiialifa. He died at Baghdad in a.d. 802, 




A.H. 186, and is said to have -nTitten 999 
works. He was a pupil of Imam Abu Yusaf, 
who committed his notes to him, and lie 
(Muhammad) made great use of them iu the 
composition of his works. 

\_Vide Abu 'AbduUad Muhummad-biu- 

Imam-uddin Amir Katib-bin-Amir 

Umar (^^,«\ ^_ 


.,.'^11 A.t\ 

jy*^), author of a Commentary on 

the Hidaya entitled Kifdija, which he finished 
in A.D. 1346, A.H. 747. He had previously 
written another explanatory gloss of the same 
work, and entitled it the Ghfujat-ul-Baydn. 

Imdad Ali (^-i-£ jluJ...*^, the rehel 

Deputy Collector, who was hanged at Bauda, 
together • the rebel Tahsildar of I'ailaui, 
Muhammad Muhsin on the 24th April, 1868. 

Imtihani ( Jlsa,«^), poetical name of 
Imam-uddin Beg. 

Imtiyaz ( ;L-;^\), the poetical name of 

Raja Daya Mai, whose father was Dlwan of 
Asad Khan, the Wazir of 'Alamgir, and he 
of Ghazi-uddin Khan, styled 'Imad-ul-Mulk. 

Imtiyaz Khan, Sayyad (^l:>- jV-*'*^ 

^.l>- '^--j), whose poetical name is 

Klifilis, was a native either of Isfahan or of 
Mashhad. He came to India iu the time of 
the empi-ror 'Alamgir, was appointed governor 
of Giijrat for some time, and was slain by 
Khuda Yar Klian in a.d. 1710, a.h. 1122, 
in Sindh. It is said that Qasim All Khan, 
the iVawab of Bengal, was his grandson. He 
is the author of a Diwan. 

Ina'amullah Khan {^.6>- al!l ^lx)\). 

Vide Yeqin. 
Inayet Khan (l.:^.^ 



whose poetical title is 'Ashna or Ahsan, and 
proper name Muhammad Tahir, was the son 
of Zafar Klian. He was an excellent poet, 
and is the author of the work called Shilh 
Jahdn Ndma, a history of the emperor Shah 
Jahan. Besides the above-mentioned work, 
he is the author of a Diwan and a Masnawi. 
He died in a.d. 166u, a.h. 1077. 

'Inayet-ullah, Shaikh {i^\ l::^_.U^ 

^^.i)J ^,-^), of Dulili, author of 

the work called Bahar Danish, a collection of 
amusing tales, principally satires on women. 

Several of these tales were published by 
Colonel Dow, under the title of The Tales 
of ^Indyet-uUah, and the whole work was 
translated in the year a.d. 1799, by Jonathan 
Scott, in three volumes, octavo. 

'Inayet-ullah Khan (dA-H k»:^-)l-:s_c 

j^ld-), the son of Shukr-uUah Khan, 

a descendant of Sayyad Jamal of Naishapiir. 
His mother Hatiz Mariara was tutor of the 
princess Zeebun Nisa Begam, the daughter of 
the emperor 'Alamgir ; by her inliuence her 
son 'Iniij-et-ullah Khfiu was raised by degrees 
to the rank of 2oOU. In the reign of FaiTukh- 
siyar the rank of 4000 was conferred on him, 
aiid in that of Muhammad Shah, of 7000. 
He was the author of the work called Ah/uou 
^Alamglri and compiler of the Kahndt 
Taiyabdt. He died a.d. 1726, a.h. 1139. 

Indarman Bundela, Raja {^^tjSj\ 

i.=^\j dLAij), the brother of Raja 

Sujau Sindh. He died in the Deccan about 
the year a.d. 1675, and his zamindari of 
Urcha and the title of Raja were conferred 
upon his son Jaswant Siugb by the emperor 

Insaf (; jl^JO, the poetical name of 

Muhammad Ibrahim. His father was a 
native of Khm-asan, hut he was horn in 
India. He was a contemporary of Sarkhush, 
the poet, was living about the year a.d. 
1688, A.H. HOC, and died young. 

Insan (^Lj^), the poetical title of 

Nawiib Asad-idlah Asad Yar Khan. He held 
the mansab of Haft Hazari ,7000), in the 
reign of Muhammad Shah, and died in April, 
A.D. 1745, Rabi' I^ a.h. 1158. His remains 
were brought to Agra and buried there in 
the cemetery of his aucestors. 

Insha or Insha AHah Khan (l.j \Jlj\ 

,y<^ A.\,JL.i»JO, a poet and son of 

Masha Allah Klian. He is the author of 
tour Diwans of different kinds. 

Intikhabi ( 'linj^), a poet who was 
a native of Khurasan, but was brought up iu 
India. He is the author of a Diwan. 

Intizam-uddaula Khan Khankhanan 

(,.,IJL^ a. 

4jJ1 ^l-ii 

3^), the 

second son of Nawab Qamar-uddin Kliau 
Wazir. He was appointed to the rank of 
second Baklishi on the accession of Ahuuid 
Shah to the throue of Dchli in a.d. 1748, 
A.H. 1161, and was honoured with the 
appointment of Wazir iu a.d. 1753, a.h. 




1165, after the dismissal of Nawfib Safdar 
Jana: from the oflice. He was murdered b\ 
'Imad-iil-Miilk GJiazi-uddin Khau on the 
26th November, a.d. 1759, 5th Eabi' II. 
A.H. 1173, three days before the assassination 
of the emperor 'Alamgir II. 

laa Pandit (cijA:.^ \j\), a Marhatta 

Brahman who, in the time of Shah Ahim and 
Madho Eao Siudhia, liekl the appointment 
of the Subadarship of the fort of Agra. 

Iqbal Khan (J^^ J^-'O was the 

son of Zafar Khan, the son of Firoz Shah 
Tughlaq. He defeated Nasrat Khan and 
ascended the throne of Dehll about the 
beginning of the year a.d. 1400, a.h. 802, 
and was slain in a battle against Khizr Kluln, 
the governor of Multau, in November, a.d. 
1405, 19th Jumfida I. a.h. 808. After liis 
death Sultan Mahmiid Shiih, who was 
defeated by Amir Tainmr and had fled to 
Gujrat and then to Qauauj, returned on the 
invitation of Daula Khun Lodi, who com- 
manded at Dehll, and took possession of tlie 

Ilbal - uddaula Muhsin Ali Khan 

(..A- , X^ 



a!.jJ\ JL:-1), the 

son of Shams-uddaula Ahmad 'Ali Khan, 
the son of Nawab Sa'adat 'All Klidn of 
Lucknow. He sailed for England to claim 
the throne of Audh in January, a.d. 1838, 
and after trying in vain to obtain the 
recognition of his claim from England, 
determined upon passing the remainder of his 
days in a life of sanctity in Turkish Arabia. 
He is the author of the work cahed Iqbal 

Iradat Khan (^U. Ci^^l^l), the title 

of Mir Ishaq or Ishaq Klian, the son of 
Nawab 'Azim Khan, who held a high rank in 
the reign of the emperor Jahangir. Iradat 
Kliau held various offices under Shah Jahan, 
and in the first year of 'AlamgTr's reign he 
was appointed governor of Audh, but died 
after two months in October, a.d. 1658, 
>^il-bijja, A.H. 1068. 

Iradat Khan (^-^ 

t '■? ^' 

::_.-^^j^), the 

title of Mirza Mubarik-ullah, whose poetical 
name was Wazah. His father Is-hak Khan 
(who afterwards held the title of Kifayet 
Klian) was the son of Nawab 'Azim ^lan. 
Both his grandfather and father were noble- 
men of high rank. The former was ]\lir 
Bakhshi to the emperor Jahangir, and was 
afterwards appointed Faiijdar of Jauupiir, 
■where he died in a.d. 1649, a.h. 1059. The 
latter was the subject of the last article ; and 
his title of Iradat Klian was conferred on his son 
after his death. In the 33rd year of 'Alamgir 

our present subject was appointed Faujdar of 
Jagna, and at other periods of Aurangabad 
and Mando in Malwa. Was equerry to Prince 
Bedar Bakht {q.v.) in the short war of 1707, 
of which he \vi-ote an account. In the reign 
of Shah 'Alam or Bahadur Shah I. he was 
governor of the Doab, and the intimate 
friend of Mua'zzim Khan, Wazlr. In the 
latter part of his days he led a retired life, 
became a Kalandar, "and died in a.d. 1716, 
A.H. 1128. His abilities as a poet were great, 
and he left a volume of poems behind him. 
He is the author of the Kalmdt Altat, 
(Sublime discourses), Mina Bazar and of a 
history of Aurangzeb's Successors, which 
latter was translated into English by Jonathan 
Scott, Esq., in a.d. 1786. After "his death, 
which happened in the time of Farrukh- 
siyar, his son Mir Hidaet-ullah received 
the title of Hoshdar Klian, held the rank of 
4000, and died at Aiu-angabad a.d. 1744, 
A.H. 1157. 

'Iraqi (^-r r), whose proper name is 

Fakhr-uddin Ibrahim-bin- Shahryar, was a 
native of Hamdau in 'Iraq, and a pupil and 
grandson by the mother's side of the great 
Shaikh Shahab-uddln SuharwardI, author of 
a host of mystical works highly esteemed by 
the Sufis. 'Iraqi offended his parent and 
master, in consequence of a love affair, and 
went to India, where he remained some time, 
regretting his native country, and uttering 
his comphiints in moving verse. He lived in 
company with the Shaikh Baha-uddlnZikaria 
of Multan, whom he accompanied on his 
journey and became his disciple. 'Iraqi, 
after a long sojourn in India, proposed return- 
ing to his own master, Shahab-uddln ; but 
the latter had died, and oiu' poet continued 
his wanderings to Spia, where he expired 
after a long life of eightv-two years on the 
23rd November, a.d. 1289, 8th Zi-Qa'da, 
A.H. 688, and was buried at Salalil in 
Damascus close to the tomb of Shaikh Muhi- 
uddln Ibn-ul- 'Arabl. His son Shaikh Kablr- 
uddln is also buried there. 'Iraqi is the 
author of a work called Lama^dt. 

[ Vide Fakhr-uddin 'Iraqi.] 

'Irfan (^^Li_i;), poetical name of Mu- 
hammad Eiza, the son of Muhammad Jan 
Irfan, author of the lulr Nilma, containing 
the praises of 'AH Mardan Klian, the Amir- 
ul-Umra of the emperor Shah Jahan. 

Irtiza 'Ali Khan Bahadur ( V^ Li.j .1 
,jl_.^j j^l.:>-), author of the Faruiz 

Irtizia, a concise treatise in Persian on the 
law of Inheritance, which appears to be the 
principal authority of that law in the 
Deccan. It was printed in Matbas, but 
without a date. 




'Isa Masili (,^^^\ ^^^c), Jesus Christ. 

e ^- ' 

For Arabic titles of and doctrines regarding, 
vide Hughes' Bictionarij of Islam in voc. 

'Isarn - uddin Ibrahim - bin - Mu- 
hammad Isfaraeni (^^_A.n *\..^.c 

ij^.kJ\ S^.s.''* 1^ Jt^i,\jj\), an Arabian 

author who died a.d. 1o36, a.h. 9-13 ; ho 
is the author of the Arabic note-book called 
Hdshia Isdm-uddin. 

'Isa-ibn-Musa ( L^^^* ^j\ L^u-^c), 

the cousin-germau of the Ivhalif Abu Ja'far 
Mansiir, after whose death in a.d. 775, a.h. 
158, he entertained thoughts of setting up 
for himself at Kiifa, where he then resided ; 
and in order to facilitate the execution of 
his scheme, fortified himself in that city. 
But al-Mahdi, the sou of Mansur, being 
apprised of his defection, sent a detachment 
of 1,000 horse to bring him to Baghdad; 
which being done, al-Mahdi not only pre- 
vailed upon him to own allegiance to him, 
but also to give up his right to the succession 
(he being the next apparent heir to the crown) 
for 10,000 according to some, and accortling 
to others 10,000,000 dinars. 

'Isa Sawaji (^^^r^L J^-u*-,^), a poet of 

Sawa who was a Kazi. lie died in a.d. 896, 
A.H. 291. 

*Isi Turkhan, Mirza (^^Lri.^' J^->u.^j: 

) ; j.^*), was a Turkman and commander- 

in-chief of Shah Beg Arghiin, king of Sindh's 
army, after whose death he took possession 
of Thatta, of which he was then governor, 
and assumed the title of king. He reigned 
13 years and died in a.d. 1567, a.h. 975, 
when he was succeeded by his eldest son 
Mirz.a Muhammad BaqI Turkhan, who during 
his rule always maintained a friendly inter- 
course with the emperor Akbar of' Dehli, 
frequently sending presents, and acknowledg- 
ing fealty to that monarch. He died after 
a reign of 18 years in a.d. 1585, a.h. 993, 
and was succeeded by his grandson Mirza 
Jani Beg. 

Isdigertes (J^^^^j_)_). Vide Yczdijard. 

Isfahani {^\^Ji^\), author of the 
Danish JVdma, a system of natural philosophy. 

Isfan or Stephen (^^li^l) is the name 

and takhallus of a Christian poet born at 
Dehli. His father was a European. He 
was alive in a.d. 1800, a.h. 1215. 

Isfandiyar ( .b.Xi.i..jl), the son of Kish- 

tasp or Gashtasp (Hytaspes), the fifth king of 
the Kayanian dynasty of Persia, was a great 
warrior, the son of Darius I. and great- 
grandson of Achaemenes. Isfandiyar answers, 
in some respects to the Xerxes (Slier Shah) of 
the Greeks, and Ahasuerus of the Jews. He 
is the Kihayarsha of the Cuneiform inscrip- 
tions. [But vide Malcolm's Persia, where it 
is shown that, according to native historians, 
Isfandiyar was never king, but only com- 
mander-in-chief of his father's armies. He is 
said to have been killed by the hero Eustam 

Is-hacL ( •;\..s:-'l), the poetical title of 

Jamal-uddju, a cotton-carder of Shiraz. He 
was an elegant poet, and has left us a Diwan 
called Akslr-ul-Mitiha, the Elixir of Hunger, 
full of amorous soags and parodies on the 
odes of Khwaja Hiiiiz, each verse of which 
contains either' the name of a sweetmeat or a 
dish. He lived in the time of Prince Sultan 
Sikandar, the sou of Umar Shaikh, who much 
esteemed him. His proper name is Abii-Is- 
haq, which he uses in poetry by abbreviating 
it into Bus-haq. 

Is-haq - bin - 'Ali ( 1^ i^,j j;l.s*"'0, 

author of a Diwan in Arabic, and of a work 
ca\\eAZi(hr-nl-'Adah. HediedinA.D. 1022, 
a.h. 413. 

Is-haq-bin-Husain or Hunain ( ■iXsr'S 

^.-^-.s- b ^.-w.u.s>- (^-j), an Arabian 

author who translated the Almagest of 
Ptolemy from the Greek into Arabic under 
the title of Tahrir-al-MaJastl. This book 
is to be found in the French National Library. 
ShTriizi has written a commentary on this 
work, and entitled it Hfcl Mushkildt-al- 

Is-haq Khan (^J^^ ^\..s'^\), styled 

Mo'tamin-iiddaula, whose original name was 
Mirza Ghulam 'Ali, was a nobleman of high 
rank, and a great favourite of the emperor 
Muhammad Shah of Dehli. He was a good 
poet, and used for his political name Is-haq. 
He died in the 22nd year of the emperor, 
A.D. 1740, a.h. 1153, a'nd after his death his 
daughter was married to Shuja-uddaula, the 
son of Nawab Safdar Jang, and the nuptials 
were celebrated with luicommon splendour, 
A.D. 1746, A.H. 1159. 

Is - haq Maulana (Ljl^^ jLs*-'\), a 

learned Musalman who was bom at Uchcha 
in Multan. In his youth he dedicated himself 
under the guidance of bis uncle Sayyad Sadr- 
uddiu Raju Qattal, whose; sistir was his 
mother. He died in a.d. 1456, a.h. 860, 
and was buried in the compound of his oAvn 
bouse at Saharanpfir. 




Is-haq Mousali (JL^^ vLs'^1), a 

celebrated Arabian author, born at Musal. 
It is related in the Kitdb Alaghcim that 
when he was on a journey he carried with 
him eighteen coifers full of books, though he 
declared that if he had not been anxious to 
make bis lugg-an-e as light as possible, he 
would have brought double the quautity. 

'Ishq {J.JL.Z), poetical title of Shall 

Eukn-uddiu, who flourished in the reign of 
the emperor Shah 'Alam. 

'Ishqi {^iJLs), the title of a poet who 

flourished in the reign of the emperor Mu- 
hammad Shah, and is the author of a Diwan. 
He ilied in a.d. 1729, a.h. 1142. 

'Ishqi (^jiAx), poetical title of Shaikh 

Muhammad Wajih, son of Ghulam Husain 
Mujrim of Patna. lie was for ten years 
under the English government Tahsildar of 
Ivliarwar ; was living in a.d. ISOf, a.h. 
1224, and is the author of a Dlwan. 

Ishrat {<::jjJi..z) , poetical name of 

Mirza 'All Eiza, who collected his poems 
into a Diwan uuder Muhammad Shah in a.d, 
1747, a.h. IIGO, and died shortly after. 

'Ishrat (ci^y^^), author of the last 

part of the story of radmawat in Urdii verse, 
which was completed by him a.d. 1796. 
[ Vide Padmawat and Ibrat.] 

'Ishrati {Ji^jL-c), poetical name of 

a poet who is the author of a small Diwan. 
His name is Aka 'Ali of Isfahan ; he came to 
India, and on his retiu-n died at Mashhad. 

Ishtiyaq ( ;L».::^1), poetical name as- 
sumed by Shah Wall Ull-ih of Sarhind, who 
was the graudson of Shaikh Ahmad Sarhindi. 
He was a distinguished theologian and Siili. 
He died in a.d. 1748, a.h. 1161, and left 
several works. Shfdi 'Abdul 'Aziz of Dehli, 
the most celebrated Indian theologian in 
modern times, was one of his sous. 

Ishurior Ishwari Singh (a^^ ^j^i}), 
the son of Eaja Jai Singh Sawai, whom he 
succeeded to the Eaj of Jaipiir in a.d. 1743. 
He ched in a.d. 1760, aud was succeeded by 
his son Madho Siugli. 

Ishuri Parshad Narain Sing-h Ba- 
hadur (^ jl^^ aL-, ^; \y jU^ ^^JlA ), 
Eaja of Benares (1869). 

Iskandar (^j».:^.<_^0, Alexander the 

Great. Vide Sikaudar Zulkaruaiu. 

Iskandar Manishi ( ^JL^^ jd.J^J\), 

whom Stewart in his Cutuhtjue of Tippil 
Siiltrin''s Library calls Sikaudar IlamuashiuT, 
is the author of the 'fdr'ikh '■Alain ^Arde 
'Abhilsi, a history of the Persian kings of tlie 
Safwl dvnasty, from Shah Isma'il to Shah 
'Abbas the Great, to whom it was dedicated 
in A.D. 1616, a.h. 1025. 

Islam Khan (^l:>~ /*^1-j'), title of Mir 

Ziva-uddiu Ilusain Badakhshi, whose poetical 
name was "NVala. He served under the 
emperor 'AlamgTr, and was raised to the 
rank of 5000 with the title of Islam Ivhan. 
lie died in the year a.d. 1663, a.h. 1074, at 
Agra, and the chronogram of his death was 
written by Ghani Kashmiri. He Avas the 
father of jVawabs Himmat Klian, Saif Ivhau 
and 'Abdur Eahim K]ian. 

Islam Khan (^\.s>~ z*^— .-1), the son of 

SafT Ivhan and grandson of Islam Klian Mash- 
hadi, was Siibadar of Lahore in the time of 
the emperor Farrukh-siyar, and was raised to 
the rank of 7000 in the reign of Muhammad 

Islam Khan Mashhadi, Nawah {A^\ 

c_:^»J i^^^,jL.* ^y^-) (he is by some 

called Islam Kjiau Runii, but that is a mistake). 
He was a native of Mashhad, and his original 
name was Mir 'Abdus Salam. In the time 
of Jahaugir he held the mansab of 5000, aud 
the Siibadari of Bengal ; and in the lime 
of Shah Jahau was raised to the rank of 6000 
with the title of Motam-uddaula and held 
the appointment of second Bakhshigiiri and 
governorship of the Deccan. He afterwards 
was again appointed governor of Bengal. In 
the 13th year of Shah Jahan he was raised to 
the rank of Wizarat with the title of Junidat- 
ul-Mulk. Shortly after he was raised to the 
i-ankof 7000, aud the Subadariof the Deccan. 
He was wazTr to Shah Jahan and hchl the 
mansab of 7000, with the title of Islam Ivhfxn. 
He was some time before his death appointed 
governor of ihe Deccan, where he died in the 
21st year of the emjjeror, on the 2ud November, 
A.D. 1647, 14tli Shawwal, a.h. 1057, aud 
was buried at Aurangabad. 

Islam Khan Rnmi, "Turk," (^1^.^ 


lir^V ijJ^-^^> ^^^^® °^ Husain Pasha, 
sou of 'All Pasha. He was governor of 
Basra, but being deprived of that situation 
by his uncle Muhammad, he left tliat country 
and came to India in a.d. 1689, a.h. 1080, 
where he was received by the emperor 
'Alamglr with the greatest respect, aud 
honoured with the rank of 5000 and title 
of Islam Klian. He was killed in the battle 
of Bljapiir in the Deccan on the loth June, 




A.D. 1676, nth Rabi' II. a.h. 1087. He 
had built bis house at Agra on a piece of 
groimd consisting of foiu- bigas and seven 
eottas, and a garden on a spot of three bigas 
and nine eottas, on the banks of the river 
Jamna near the Ghat called Tajara close to 
the fort of Agra. Byzantine Turks were called 
Eumi in medi;eval India ; and officers of that 
race were often employed in the artiUery. 

Islam Khan, Shaikh (;-'w i^lr^ /•^^), 

styled Xawab Ya'tzad-uddaula, was a grand- 
son of Shaikh Salira Cbishtl, and son-in-law 
of Shaikh Mubarik, the father of the cele- 
brated 'Abii'l Fazl, whose sister, named Ladii 
Begam, he had married. He was appointed 
governor of Bengal by the emperor Jahaugir 
in A.D. 1608, A.H. 1017. Nawab Ikram 
Khan was his son, and Qasim Khan his 
brother. The latter succeeded him in the 
government of Bengal in a.d. 1613, a.h. 
1022, in which year Islam Klian died. His 
remains were transported to Fathapur Sikri, 
where his monument is still to be seen. 

Islam Shah {A^ a,\.^\). 

Vide Salim 

Isma'il (j_l^^^-1), or Ishmael, the son 

of the patriarch Abraham. 

Isma'il {^A^ jLkp^ A^'^ ^. J-*'*-;^), 

the eldest son of Imam Ja'far Sadiq, from 
Avhom the sect of Isma'ilis or Isma'ilias take 
their name. They maintain that Isma'il 
Ibn Ja'far, who was the eldest son, but died 
during his father's life, should have succeeded 
to the dignity of Imam, and not Miisi Kazim, 
who was his younger brother, and became 
the seventh Imam. For their other opinions 
see Hughes in voc. IsmdiUyah. Hasan 
Sabbah was of this sect. 
[ Vide Isma'ilis.] 

Isma'il I. Safavi, Shah {^^La J}^%a.J\ 
il-i), the son of Sultan Haidar, was 

the first monarch of the Safavi d}Tiasty of 
kings who reigned in Persia (a.d. 1500). 
He traced his descent from Miisi Kazim 
the seventh Imam, who was descended in 
a direct line from 'Ali, the son-in-law of 
Muhammad. Almost all his ancestors were 
regarded as holy men, and some of them 
as saints. The first of this family who 
acquired any considerable reputation was 
Shaikh Safi-uddin, who had settled at 
Ardible, and from whom this dynasty takes 
its name of Safwia or Safavi. His son 
Sadr-uddin Musa, as well as his immediate 
descendants, Ivbwaja Ali, Shaikh Ibrfdiim, 
Sultan Junaid, and Haidar, acquired the 
greatest reputation for sanctity. Contemporary 
monarchs, m'c are informed, visited the cell 
of Sadr-uddin. The great Taimiir (Tamerlane) , 
when he went to see this holy man, demanded 
to know what favour he should confer upon 

him. " Eelease those prisoners you have 
brought from Turkistan," was the noble and 
pious request of the saint. The conqueror 
complied ; and the grateful tribes, when they 
gained their liberty, declared themselves the 
devoted disciples of him to whom they owed 
it. Their children preserved sacred the obli- 
gation of their fathers ; and the descendants 
of the captives of Taimur became the sup- 
porters of the family of Safi, and enabled 
the son of a devotee to ascend one of the 
most splendid thrones in the world. Khwaja 
'Ali, after visiting Mecca, went on a pilgrim- 
age to Jerusalem, and died at that city. His 
grandson Junaid, sat on the masnad as a 
spii-itual guide after the death of his father 
Shaikh Ibrahim ; and so great a crowd of 
disciples attended this holy mau that Jahan 
Shah, the chief of the tribe of the Black 
Sheep, who at that time ruled Aziu-baijan, 
became alarmed at their numbers and banished 
him from Ardibel. Junaid went to Dayar- 
bikar, whose ruler, the celebrated Uzzan 
Hasan, received him kindly, and gave him 
his sister in marriage. He afterwards went 
with his disciples to Shirwan, where he was 
slain in a conflict with the troops of the king 
of that province in a.d. 1456, a.h. 860. His 
son Sultun Haidar succeeded him, and his 
uncle Uzzan Hasan, who had now by his 
overthrow of Jahan Shah and Sultan Abii 
Said become powerful in Persia, gave him 
his daughter in marriage. The name of 
this princess, according to Muhammadan 
atithors, was 'Alam Shao', but we are informed 
by a contemporary European writer that she 
was called Martha, and was the daughter of 
Uzzan Hasan by the Christian lady Despina, 
who was a daughter of Calo Joannes, king 
of Trebizond. Sultan Haidar also lost his 
life from the wound of an arrow which he 
received in a battle with the troops of 
Shirwan Shah and Ya'qub Beg in Julv, a.d. 
1488, Shaban, a.h. 893. Sultan Haidar 
had three sons by this princess — Suit an 'Ali, 
Ibrahim Mirza "and Shah Isma'il. ^lien 
Isma'il attained the age of fourteen (liis 
elder brothers having died some years before), 
he put himself at the head of his adherents, 
and marched against the great enemy of his 
family the ruler of Shirwan, called Sliirwan 
Shah, whom he defeated a.d. 1500, a.h. 
906 ; and soon after, by another victory 
gained over Alwand Beg, the son of Ya'qiib 
Beg, a prince of the dynasty of the White 
Sheep, he became the master of the produce 
of Azurbaijan, and established his residence 
at the city of Tabrez ; and in less than four 
years became the acknowledged sovereign of 
the kingdom of Persia. He was bom on the 
17th July, A.D. 1487, 25th Eajab, a.h. 892, 
died after a reion of 24 lunar vears on 
Monday the 23rd May. a.d. 1524, 19th 
Eajab a.h. 930, aged" 38 years, and was 
buried at Ardibel. Muhammadan historians 
fix the commencement of his reign from the 
year a.d. 1500. He left four sons — Tahmasp, 
wlio succeeded his father, Sam ]\Iirza, 
Bahram, and Ikhbis Mirza, and five daughtt rs. 
He composed a Turkish Diwan in which he 
uses the Takhallus of Kitabi. 




The folio win J is a list of the S.ifavi kinr/s 
of Pei-sia : — 

1. Sliih Ismi'Il Suf.ivl, first sou of Siilrau 


2. Shfih Tiiliniisp Safavl I. son of Isiua'il 


3. Slulh Isiui'il II 

4. Muhammad Kluida Binla. 

5. Haraza, sou of Ivliuda Bmda. 

6. Shah Isma'il III. son of Kliuda Bauda. 

7. Shah 'Ahbas I. sou of Khuda Bauda. 

8. Shah Safi, the son of Safi Mh-za, the 

son of 'Ahbiis. 

9. Shah 'Abbas II. son of Shah Safi. 

10. Shah SuUiiiuan, sou of 'Abbas II. 

11. Shah Husain, son of Sulaiuian. 

12. Shfih Tahuiasp II. last of the Safavl 


Mahmud, an Afghan. 
Ashraf, an Afghan. 

13. Shah 'Abbas III. Vide Nadir Shfih. 

Isma'il II. Safavi, Shah ( J,.<_.t.^.vo^ 

i[^ . Jli 

j), soGond son of Shah 

Tahmasp I. Safavl, 'whon; lie succeeded on 
the tlirone of Persia in May, a.d. 1576, 
Safar, a.h. 981, by the aid of liis sister 
Pari Khauam, who sent for him from the 
fort of Qaliqah, where he had been couftued 
by his father for 18 years. The short reign 
of this unworthy prince was marked by 
debauchery and crime. ImujecUately on his 
accession, he directed the massacre of all the 
princes of the blood - royal that were at 
Qazwin, except 'Ali Mirza, whose life was 
spared ; but even he was deprived of sight. 
His eldest brother Muhaminad Mirza, who 
had a natural weakness in his eyes, which 
rendered him almost blind, and was during 
his father's life employed as governor of 
Khurasan, was theu at Shiraz. Orders were 
sent to murder him and his son 'Abbas, but 
before they could be executed Isma'il was 
found dead one morning in a confectioner's 
house, supposed to have been poisoned by his 
sister. His death happened at Qazwiu on 
Sunday the 24th November, a.d. 1577, 13th 
Eamazau, a.h. 985, after a short reign of 
one year and six months. He was succeeded 
by his eldest brother Muhammad Mirza, 
who, on his accession to the throne, took the 
title of Muluimmad Khuda Bauda. 

Isma'il ( J.^.*,*^^^), suruamed al-Mansiir, 

third or fourth KJuilif of Barbary of the race 
of the riitimites, succeeded his father al- 
Qaem A.u. 945, a.h. 334, and having 
defeated and slain Yezid-ibn-Kondat, who 
had rebelled against his father, caused his 
body to be flayed, and his skin stuffed and 
exposed to public view. Al-Mausiir died 
after a reign of seven years and sixteen days 
in A.D. 952, 30th Shawwal, a.h. 341, aiid 
■was succeeded by his son Abu Tamim Ma'd, 
surnamed Mo'izz-uddlu-allah. 

Isma'il 'Adil Shah, Sultan (J^x^^^ 

iL^ jJjLc), of Bijapur, surnamed 

Abii'l Fatha, succeeded his father Yiisaf 
'Adil Shrdi on the throne of Bijapiir in the 
Deccan in a.d. 1510, a.h. 915, and died after 
a glorious reign of 25 lunar years on Wednes- 
day the 27th August, a.d. 1534, the 16th 
Safar, a.h. 941, and was buried at Kiiki 
near the tomb of his father. He was 
succeeded by his son Mallii 'Adil Shah. 

Isma'il-hin-Hasan( .^?- .J J.->x^-jl), 

author of the work called Zakhlra Khwdrism 
Sh'ih. He flourished in the reign of Ala- 
uddin Takash, SiilUui of Kjnvarizra, who died 
jn a.d. 1200, A.H. 596, and was a contem- 
porary of Kliaqani the poet. 

Isma'ili or Isma'ilia ( l_-.^.'^_^_.^l 

<);,J-jx^-j1 ), sect of Ismall-ibn- Ja far 

{q.v.). Their tenets were held by a man 
who had through the means of superstition 
established an influence over the miuds of 
his followers, that enabled them to strike 
awe into the bosoms of the most powerful 
sovereigns, and to fill kingdoms with horror 
and dismay for a period of nearly two 
centuries. Their rider, who became the 
chief of the Assassins, resided on a lofty 
mountain called Alahmiit, and fate was in 
his hands ; for there was no shape wliich 
his followers could not assume, no daug(!r 
that they could not brave, to fulHl his 
mandates. These were the Isma'ilTs or 
Assassins, well-known by the Crusaders, as 
subjects of the Old Man of the mouutaiii. 
They were completely extirpated by Halakii, 
the Tartar king of Persia, in the year a.d. 
[Vide Hasan Sabbah.] 

Isma'il Haqqi, Shaikh ( ^-^ J..».v««^l 

ir^*"), author of a commentary on 

the Quran called Riih-ul-Baijdii, and of the 
Ilddla-ul-A rba'hi . 

Isma'il Mirza (1- ^..< J..^-*.^-^^, of 

Isfahan, an author. 
Isma'il Nizam Shah (*llij Ji--,..i..*.--jl 

il.-l). His father, prince Burhan 

Shah, having been defeated in an attempt to 
dethrone his brother Murta'za Nizam Shah, 
had fled for protection to the court of the 
emperor Akbar. On his departure he left 
behind him two sons, named Ibrahim and 
Isma'il, who were kept confined in tiie 
fortress of Lahagm'h. On the death of 
Mirau Husain Shah, the younger being 
raised to the throne of Ahmadnagar by Jamal 
Ivhan in the mouth of March, a.d. 1589, 





Jumada I. a.h. 997, took the title of Isma'il 
Nizam Shah. His father Biirhau Shah, 
having received assistance from the emperor 
Akbar, marched against his son, hut was 
defeated. However, in a short time after this, 
he renewed his attempts, and being joined by 
a great majority of the chiefs and people, 
attacked Jamfil KliSn the king's minister, 
who was killed in tlie action on the 27th 
April, o.s. 1591, 13th Rajab, a.h. 999. 
Isma'il, who had reigned little more than 
two years, was taken prisoner and confined by 
his father, who ascended the throne of 
Ahmadnagar with the title of Bm-han Nizam 
Shah II. 

Isma'il Pasha (l..ilj J.^xw4w-;\), a 

recent Viceroy of Egypt, the successor of 
Muhammad 'All Pasha, who died in August, 
A.D. 1849. 

Isma'il Samani, Amir( ^jL-«l^- ^1-jt.K-j^ 

1), the first King of Amir of the 

race of Saman, called Samani, traced his 
descent from Bahrain Chobin, the warrior 
who contended for the crown of Persia with 
Khusro Parvez. Siimau the great-graudfather 
of Isma'il, is termed, by the European writers, 
a keeper of herds, and a robber ; but this 
merely designates the ordinary occupations of 
a Tartar chief. His father Nasr Ahmad, the 
son of Asad, the sou of Saman, was appointed 
governor of Mawaruu ISahr by the KlialTf 
Mo'tamid in the year a.d. 875, a.h. 261. On 
his death his son Isma'il succeeded him. 
Isma'il, after his conquest over Amrii - bin - 
Lais, whom he seized and sent to Baghdad, in 
A.D. 900, became independent. The power of 
the dynasty of the Samauis extended over 
Kjiurasau, Seistan, Balkh and the countries 
of Transoxania, including the cities of 
Bukhara and Samarqand. This justly 
celebrated prince (hed after a reign of twenty 
years in a.d. 907, Safar, a.h. 295, aged 
60 years, and was succeeded hy his son Amir 
Ahmad Saraani. 

The names of the kings of this family, who 
were called Amirs, and who continued to 
reign for a period of 128 limar years, are as 
follow: — 

1. Amir Isma'il Samani. 

2. ,, Ahmad Samani. 

3. ,, Nasr-bin- Ahmad. 

4. ,, Niih I. son of Nasr. 

5. ,, Abdul Malik. 

6. ,, Mausur I. 

7. ,, Xuh II. 

8. ,, Mausiir II. 

9. ,, 'Abdul Malik II. the last of 

this race. 

Isma'il, Sayyad-bin-Husain Jurjani 
( ^lr>-.=»- ^.^mss- ^ '^'r^-' J^-..'«'*>~j I ), 

author of two medical works in Persian, 
called Aghrdz-ut- Tihh and Kiiiff-i-'-Alai, 
wliich he dedicated to Alp Arsalan, Sultan of 

'Ismat (c:^^^ji). Vide Asmat. 

Istaghana (\^J^-:^J\), poetical title of 
'Abdul Easiil. 

'Istarushi ( ^.Jly;..^*.^). Vide Mu- 

I'tabi ( jIus), a poet, who died in the 
year a.d. 1614, a.h. 1023. 

I'tmad Khan Khwaja Sara (jU:;.c^ 

y-; Ars-i^rs^ c;'>->-)> an eunuch and 

officer in the service of the emperor Akbar. 
He was stabbed by his servant Maqsiid 'Ali 
in A.D. 1578, a.h. 916, and was buried at a 
place called I'traadpur, twelve miles from 
Agra, which he had founded in his lifetime. 

I'tmad Khan (^l^ jUixr^, title of 

Shaikh 'Abdiil Qawi, an Amir of the reign of 
the emperor 'Alamgir. He was miu'dered by 
a Qalandar in a.d."1666. a.h. 1077. 

I'tmad-uddaula (^!^j,l\ jl,*:xc^), title 

of Khwaja Ayas or G[iayas the father of the 
celebrated Niir Jahiln Begam, the favourite 
wife of the emperor Jahaugir. He was a 
Tartar and came from Persia to India in the 
reign of the emperor Akbar. In the time of 
Jahangir, he was raised to the high rank of 
I'tmad-uddaula, and his two sons to the first 
rank of 'XJmra with the titles of 'Asaf Khan 
and I'tqiid Ishan. He died near Kot Kangra, 
Avhere he had accompaniedJahangir on his way 
to Kashmere in February, o.s. 1621, Eabi' I. 
A.H. 1030. His remains were transported to 
Agra and buried on the left bank of the 
Jamna, where a splendid mausoleum was 
built over liis relics by his daughter Xiir 
Jahan. It was completed in a.d. 1628, and 
is still in a high state of preservation. It is 
said, but it seems not to be true, that she 
intended to raise a monument of silver to his 
memory, but was reminded by her architect 
that one of less covetable material stood a 
fairer chance of diu'ation. After his death 
his son 'Abu'l Hasan was appointed Wazir 
M'ith the title of 'Asaf Kliiin. No private 
family ever made such alliances with roval 
blood" as this Tartar ; for his own daugliter, 
his son's daughter and the daughter of his 
grandson, were married to three successive 
emperors of Hindiistan ; and another daughter 
of his grandson, to prince Murad Bakhsh, who 
disputed tlu' throne with 'Alamgir. and for 
some days tliouglit himself in pos.session of it. 
The place where he is buried was a garden 
planned by I 'tmad-uddaula during his lifetime. 
There are two tombs of yellow stone tinder the 
Ilauza, or tomb ; one of wliich is that of I't- 
mad-uddaula, while the other is said to be his 




■wife's. It has a verj- large gate towards the 
east, built of red stone. It has two miliars 
on both sidi's in the same number as there are 
two on the side of the Jamua towards the 
west. There is on the chabiitra towards the 
Jamna a fisli made of stone ; if the water 
runs in and rises as far as its mouth, the 
Avhole of Allaliabad will be inundated. 

I'tmad-uddaula (^J^.jJ^ jUu.^^, title 

of Muhammad Amir Khan, the prime minister 
of the emperor Muhammad Sliiih. 
l^T'idc Muhammad Amir Kjian.] 

I'tmad-uddaula (^tj^jj^ jUo^O, son of 

Muhammad Amin Ivhan, AVazIr. 
{_Vide Qamar-uddin Khan.] 

I'tqad Khan (^l.^ ^^lL-x.^\), the 

brother of 'Asaf Klian, WazTr, and sou of I't- 
mad-uddaula. lie was appointed governor 
of Kashmere by the emperor Shah Jahan, 
which situation he held for several years. He 
died at Agra in a.d. 1650, a.ii. 1060. 

I'tciad Khan (^Lri- jlJL'i_cO, the title 

of Mirza Bahman Yar, the sou of 'Asaf Klian 
and grandson of I'tmad-uddaula. He was 
raised to the rank of 4000 in the 25th year of 
Shah Jahan, a.d. IGol, a.h. 1061, with the 
title of I'tqad Klian, which his father held 
for some time as well as his uncle the brother 
of 'Asaf Khan. In the 5th year of 'Alamgir, 
A.D. 1662, A.H. 1072, the rank of 5,000 was 
conferred on him. In a.d. 1667, a.h. 1077, 
he proceeded to Dacca in Bengal, to visit his 
brother Shaista Ivhan, who was then gov^ernor 
of that province, and died there in the year 
A.D. 1671, A.II. 1082. 

I'tqad Khan ((^Lri. u>Lii-U^.c\), former 
title of Zulfiqar I\han Nasrat Jang. 

I'tsam-uddin, Shaikh C t^w\l^ ^l^:i£^ 
IT""**'), author of the Shagarf Numa- 

i- Wihlrf, being the travels of the author in 
Great Britain and France, some time before 
or after the year a.d. 1766, a.h. 1180. This 
work has been translated into English. 

Izid Bakhsh, Mirza {\\j^^ {j^=^. '^j:}^ 

His poetical name was Rasa ; he was the 
grandson of 'Asaf Klian Ja'far Beg, who was 
AVazir to Jahangir. Izid Bakhsh was at 
first employed by the prince 'Azim Shah, and 
then by his father the emperor 'Alamgir in 
the capacity of Munshi. ()n the accession of 
Farrukh-siyar, he was disgraced by that 
emperor for having cast some reflections 
on his father Azira-ush-Shan on account 
of the battle which took place between 

'Azim Shah and his brother Bahadur 
Shah. By the order of the emperor, the 
hairs of his mustaches were plucked out one 
by one, and afterwards he was cruelly 
murdered. This event took place about the 
beginning of the year a.d. 1713, a.h. 1125. 
His tomb is still to be seen in the compound 
of the Agra College. 

'Izzat {^U!'^), poetical name of 
(Shaikh) 'Abdul 'Aziz, which see. 

'Izzat (ci^:.r), poetical name of San- 
gham Lai, which see. 

'Izzat (cu'z), poetical title of Jaild- 

shun, which see. 

'Izzat (cULr), poetical appellation of 

Shaikh Wajih-uddin. 

'Izzat-uddaula Mirza Muhsin (^^'Li: 
j^-u».s'* \jj.'* aI^j»!0, brother of ISTawab 

Safdar Jang. He was sent to Persia on an 
embassy to Nadir Shah after his invasion of 
Hindustan, by the emperor Muhammad Shah. 

[ fide Najaf Kliau and Muhammad Quli 

'Izz - uddaula Bakhtyar (dJ.A-H'j: 
iL-=sr), the son of Mu izz-uddaula- 

ibn-Buya. He succeeded to the kingdom of 
'Iraq the same day on which his father died, 
viz. Monday the 1st April, a.d. 967, 17th 
Rabi' II. A.H. 356. The Klialif-al-Taya 
Billah in the year a.d. 974, gave him his 
daughter in marriage, on whom a dowry of 
one hundred thousand dinars was settled by 
her husband. He was a noble prince, and 
possessed such bodily strength that he could 
take an enormous bull by the horns and throw 
him to the ground. A contest which arose 
between him and his cousin 'Azd- uddaula 
relative to their resjicctive jiossessious, caused 
a breach between tlicm which led to a war, 
and on Wednesday the 29th May, a.d. 978, 
they met and fought a battle, in which 'Izz- 
uddaula was slain, aged 36 years. His head 
was jilaced on a tray and presented to 'Azd- 
uddaula, who is said, on seeing it, to have 
covered his eyes with his handkerchief and 

'Izz - uddin Abdul Aziz - bin - Abdus- 
Salam Damishqi, Shaikh (.^j>,\\'^ 

author of the Shajrat-ul-3[a'ftrif. He died 
in the year a.d. 1261, a.h. 660. 




'Izz-uddin Husain ( 



He was created by Sultau Ibrahim of Gbazni, 
Amir Hajib (Lord Chamberlain), iu which 
station he conducted himself so well, that the 
kinjj p;ave him a princess of the house of 
(Jhazni iu marria.o-e. lie rose daily in favoiu: 
and estiniatiuu, till Sultan Masa'ud, the sou 
of Ibrahim, put him in possession of the 
principality of Glior. By the princess of 
Ghazni he had seven sons entitled the seven 
stars. One of them, Fakhr-uddin Masa'iid, 
became king of Bfimyan. The second was 
Qutb-uddin Muhammad, who married his 

cousin, a princess of Gliazni, the daughter of 
Sultan Bahram Shah. The third was 'Ala- 
uddln Hasan, pi'ince of Gh")r, who destroyed 
Crliazni circ. ad. 1152). Izz-uddin diu'ing 
his lite-time paid tribute to the Saljiiqs as 
well as to the GjaznavidL-s. 

'Izz-uddin Khalid Khani ( .„'jj^* c 



^Vri> k.vv>-), autlior of the work 

called Daldil Firoz Sh'ih J, which he translated 
into Persian by order of Firoz Shah, from a 
Hindi book which treated on philosophy, 
astrology aud divination. 



Jabali ( JL:>-), the son of Ayham, 

last king of the tribe of Gbassan, who were 
Christian Arabs. He became a Muhammadan, 
aud afterwards attempted to assassinate 
Umar, the second Khalif after Muhammad. 
He died a.d. 673, a.h. 53. 

JalDali ( JLs-), surname of Abu All 

Mtdiammad-bin- 'Abdul "^^ahab, who was the 
master of the celebrated Abii'l Hasan al- 
Asha'ri, chief of the sect of the Asharians, 
aud one of the four Imams of Musalmauism. 

Jabali ( L:s-), poetical name of Abdul 

"Wasa, who was bora in the mountains of 
Ghurjistan, hence his takhallus which means 
moxmtaineer. He found a patron in Bahram 
Shah of Gliazni, and served Sultau Sanjar 
Saljiiki fourteen years. He died in a.d. 1160, 
A.H. 555, aud left a Diwan of Kasidas. 
[Vide 'Abdul Wasa.] 

Jabar ( .^-s^), poetical name of Abia 
Musa Ja'far-al-Safi, which see. 

Jabila Ram Nagar ( io ^U aL-.>), 

a Hindu chief who was governor of Allahahad, 
and died there in the commencement of the 
reign of IMuhammad Sluih in a.d. 1720, a.h. 
1132. His nephew Girdhar was appointed 

governor of Audh after his death, and in 
A.D. 1724, A.H. 1136, the government of 
Malwa was conferred on him, and the 
Siibadari of Audh was given to Burhan-ul- 
Mulk Sa'adat Ivban. Kaja Girdhar died in 
Malwa diu-iug the invasion of Baji Rao 
Peshwa of the Mahrattas, actiug in the name 
of the Raja Sahii, about the year a.d. 1729, 
A.H. 1142 ; be was succeeded by Daya Baha- 
dur his relation, who cimtimied gallantly to 
resist the enemy, aud fell iu battle about the 
year a.d. 1730, a.h. 1143, when Muhammad 
Khan Bangash was appointed goveinior of that 

JaWr (ti>Ulj.^£ J r'W^) the son of 

'Abdullah, was a companion of Muhammad 
and a traditionist. He was present in nine- 
teen battles which Muhammad fought, and 
died iu the year a.d. 692, a.h. 73, aged 94 

Ja'far ( Lk:>'), poetical title of Asaf 
Klian, commonly called Mirzii Ja'far Beg. 

Ja'far (.ix.^), a soldier by profession. 

He is the author of a INIasnawi, which he 
dedicated to the emperor Shah Jahan. 

Ja'far-al-Barmaki ( ,,;, X«.J1 ,ix^ 

JjsT^), son of Ahia or Yaliia and 

grandson of Ivhalid, the son of Barmak who 
was originally a tire-worshipper. He suc- 
ceeded his father Ja'far as wazir to the 

J A 'fa 



Klialif Ilarun - al - Raslild ; his grandfather 
haviug beeu wazir to Abdu'l 'Abbas Saffah, 
who was the first of all the Kjialifs who had 
a wazir. This wazir Ja'far, was a great 
favourite of Iliirim-al-llashid who gave him 
'Abbasa, his sister, in marriage, imder the 
couditiou that he was to have uo carnal con- 
nection with her, but he transgressed the 
command, for which the Klialif ordered his 
head to be struck off. He also threw his 
brother Al-Fazl and his father Ahia into 
prison, and there left them to die. Ja'far 
was only 28 years old when he was executed, 
having been in the favour of Hariiu-al- 
Eashld for the space of seventeen years. 
Ja'far was beheaded on Sunday the 29th 
January, a.d. 803, 1st Safar a.h. 187, his 
body was gibbetted on one side of the bridge of 
Bagljdad, and his head stuck up on the other. 
He was the ancestor of the " Barmecides." 

Ja'far Ali Khan (,^1=^ ^1^ j^'^X 

commonly called Mir Ja'far, whom the 
English placed on the masnad as Nawab of 
Bengal, Behar and Orissa, after the defeat and 
death of Nawab Siraj-udduila, in June, a.d. 
1757, Shawwal a.h. 1170. He was, however, 
deposed in a.d. 1760, a.h. 1174, on account 
of alleged negligence in the affaii's of his 
government, and was obliged to retire on an 
ample pension, when his son-in-law, Mir 
Qasim 'Ali Kjian was raised to the masnad. 
This man after his elevation, intending to 
drive out the English from Calcutta, was 
defeated in a battle fought at Udwa Nala on 
the 2ud of August, a.d. 1763, 22nd Muhar- 
ram, a.h. 1177, and expelled, and Mir 
Ja'far was again placed on the masnad by the 
English. He died on Tuesday the 5th 
Febniary, a.d. 1765, 14th Sliaban, a.h. 
1178, and his son Mir Phiilwari, wdio assumed 
the title of Najm-uddaula, was elevated to 
the masnad. Ja'far Ali's cemetery is at 
Murshidabad, where his Begam and his son 
Miran are also buried. 

Ja'far Barmaki ( C-« j r-^-"«^), see 

<j-^-y'- r 

Ja ' f ar - al - Bar maki . 

Ja'far - bin - Abu. Ja'far- al- Mansur 
( .lA^-z+Ji j'^-^^ yi mt^ r^*^)> the 

Khalif of Baghdad. His daughter Zubeda 
was married to Hariin-al-Ilashid. He died 
in the year a.d. 802, a.h. 186. 

Ja'far-bin-Abu Talib (»j^ .j jh.x.>' 

L_--lir) was the brother of 'All the 

son-in-law of the prophet. He was killed in 
a battle fought at IMuta in Syria against the 
Eoman arpiy in a.d. 629, a.h. 8. 

Ja'far - bin - Muhammad Husaini 

(j^-.AM=.- Sa^s:.'^ i^j _£«5-), author of 

the Muntdkhib-nt-'TiHcdrilyh, a very judicious 

abridgment of Oriental history from Adam 
down to Shahrukh Mirza, son of Amir 
Taimiir. This work was dedicated to 
Baisaughar Hahadur, third son of Shahrukh, 
in A.D. 1417, a.h. 820. Many authors have 
compiled works vmder this title, one of 
which was written by Shaikh 'Abdul Qadir 

Ja'far-bin-Tufail (J,.*A!5 ,^j .. 

an Arabian philosopher in the 12th centurv, 
author of a romance, called the history of 
Uai-il/H- Yokd/icm, in which he asserts that 
by the light of nature, a man may acqiure a 
knowledge of things and of God. 

\_Vide Lempriere's JJnircrsal Lictionary, 
under Jaaphar.] 

Ja'far Khan (A. 


-), entitled 

" Unidat-ul-Mulk," was the sou of Siiiliq 
Klian Mir Bakhshi, and sister's son and son- 
in-law of Yemin-uddaula 'Asaf Klian, wazir. 
He held the rank of 5000 imder the emperor 
Sliah Jahan, was appointed prime minister by 
'Alamgir about the year a.d. 1662, a.h. 
1073, and died in the 13th year of that 
emperor, a.d. 1670, a.h. 1081, at DehlT. 
After his death the office of wizarat was 
conferred upon Asad Khan with the title of 
Asad-uddaula. It seems that after the death 
of Ja'far Khan his remains were transferred 
to Agra, where his tomb is to be seen still 
standHug ou the right bank of the Jamna. 

Ja'far Khan (^^Iri- jS.x:>-), whose 

first title had been Murshid Qidi Klian, was 
appointed governor of Bengal by the emperor 
'Alamgir in a.d. 1704, a.h. 1116. He 
founded the capital of Murshidabad and 
named it after his original title. He w\as the 
son of a Brahman, converted to Muham- 
madanism by HiijT Shafia' Isfahani. He 
died in the reigu of the emperor Muhammad 
Shah about the year a.d. 1726, a.h. 1138, 
and w\as succeeded by his son-in-law Shnja- 
uddin (also called Shuja-uddaula). The 
following is a list of his dynasty : — 


Murshid Quli Ja'far Klian . . . .1704 
Shuja-uddin, son-in-law of Ja'far Klian 1726 
'Ala-uddauln Sarfaraz Klian .... 1739 
Alahwardi Kjifiu Mahabat Jang . . . 1740 
Siraj-uddiiula, graiidsou of ditto . . 1756 
Ja'far 'Ali Ishaii (dethroned in 1760) . 1757 
(iasini 'All Mian, son-in-law of ditto . 1760 
Ja'far 'AlT K[ian, restored in ... 1763 
Najm-uddaula, son of (Utto . . . .1764 
Saif-uddavila, brother of Najm-uddaula 1766 
IMubarik-uddaula . . . ' . . . .1769 
Niizim-ul-jMulk Wazlr-uddanla, (died 

April 28th, 1810) 1796 

Savvad Zain-nddin 'Ali Klian, sou of 

ditto 1810 

Savvad Ahmad 'Ali Khan .... 

Ilumayun J.ih 1824 

Mausiir 'Ali Kjian, Nasrat Jang . . 1858 




Ja'far Khan ( -iA.^ ^ ^\.:^ jJ... 

ijl^), son of Sadiq Khan, king of 

Persia of the House of Zend. He was recog- 
nised by the principal uoblemeu in Fars, after 
the death of 'All Murad Klian in 1785, and 
the people were forward in acknowledging his 
authority, but unable to resist his enemy 'Aqa 
Muhauimad Khan, who now ventured to 
embrace a more extensive field for the exer- 
tion of his talents, and commenced his march 
against Isfahan. Ja'far Klian was treacher- 
ously miu'dered in 1788 ; his head was severed 
from his bodv, and east before the citadel, the 
sport of chilcii'en, aud the outcasts of the city. 

Ja'far Klian (,.,l 


■), a nobleman 

who in the first year of the emperor Eahadiu* 
Shah was appointed governor of Kashmere 
in the room of Nawazish Ivlian a.d. 1707, 
A.H. 1119. He proved to be a bad governor 
and a mob set fire to his residence. He died 
in Kashmere of drink and excess a.d. 1709, 
A.H. 1121, and according to the record of his 
death, must be faring badly at present. 

Ja'far Nasiri ( 


author, who completed the work called Latdif 
Khayal, in a.d. 1742, A.H. 1155, which was 
commenced by Mirza Muhammad Salah. 

Ja'far Sadiq ( -^jU jix^-), or Ja'far 

the Just. He was the eldest son of Mu- 
hammad Baqir, the grandson of Imam Husain. 
He is reckoned the sixth Imam ; was born 
at Madina about the year a.d. 702, a.h. 83, 
and died in the same city under the khilafat 
of Abu Ja'far Al-Mansiir, in a.d. 765, a.h. 
148. He was very famous for his doctrine 
amongst the Musalmans, was invited to court 
by Al-Mansiir, that he might profit by his 
counsel: Ja'far returned for answer, " Who- 
ever has a view didy to this world, will not 
give you sincere advice, and he who regards 
the next, will not keep your company." He 
was buried in the cemetery of Al-Baqia at 
Madina. The same tomb contains the bodies 
of his father. Imam Bfikir, his grandfather 
'All Zain-ul 'Abidin, and his grandfather's 
uncle, Hasan, son of 'Ali. His mother's 
name was Umm Farwah, daughter of Kisim, 
the son of Muhammad, the sou of Abii Bakr 
Sadiq, the first Kiialif after Muhammad. He 
is said to be the author of a book of fate 
called Fdl Xama. 

Ja'far ZataHi, Mir ( <^-« ili- Jcrs^). 

a Sa\-)^ad of Narnoul, contemporary with Mirza 
Bedil. He served under prince 'Azim Shiili, 
the son of the emperor 'Alamgir, who was 
slain in battle in a.d. 1707, a.h. 1019, Ja'far 
was the most celebrated humouristic poet of 
Hindiistau : his compositions are a mixture 
of Persian and Urdii. He is the author of a 

Sliahnama in Eckhta. He was put to death 
in A.D. 1713, A.H. 1225, by order of the 
emperor Farrukh-siyar, on account of a satirical 
verse he had written on the accession of that 
emperor to the throne of Dehli. 



Jagat Goshaini 

Vide Jodh Bai. 

Jagat Narayan 

Hindii poet who wrote some kasulas in praise 
of Nawab 'Asaf-uddaula of Lucknow, who 
died in A.D. 1797, a.h. 1212. 

Jagannath, Raja (U-^. i^KjS.^'), 

the son of Bhara Mai. He held the rank of 
5000 in the time of the emperor Jahangir, 
about the year a.d. 1605, a.h. 1014. 

Jagat Singh (ciCi.^ l::.-^;?-), the son 

of Makund Singh Hara, lived in the time of 
the emperor 'Alamgir, a.d. 1659. 

Jagat Singh {^itx^ l::-^=>-), Eaja of 

Jaipur or Jainagar, was the son of Raja 
Partap Singh, the son of Madho Singh, the 
son of Ishuri Singh, the son of the celebrated 
Raja Jai Singh Sawai, who lived in the time 
of the emperor Muhammad Shah. Jagat 
Singh succeeded his father in a.d. 1803, and 
is said to have been an effeminate prince ; 
though he died without issue, he was succeeded 
by Raja Jai Singh, a posthumous son, believed 

Jagnath Kalanwat (i.::^^!lll^ 4^,jI:.(.p-), 

a musician who was employed by Shah Jahan, 
who conferred on him the title of Malia 
Kabraj . 

Jaghtai {^\^k^). Vide Chaghtai 

Jagnath {i.J^^\:^^), brother of Raja 

Bhagwan Das. He distinguished himself in 
the war with Raja Partap Singh. He slew 
the renowned champion Ram Das, son of 

Jahan. Vide BenI Narayan. 

Jahan Ara Begam (*Cj ^.1 ^^.:>-), 

daughter of the emperor Shiih Jahan, by 
Mumtaz Mahal, daughter of 'Asaf Klian, 
wazir ; was born on Wednesday the 23rd 
March, a.d. 1614, 21st Safar, a.h. 1023. 
One of the most beautiful examples of female 
modesty to be found in the annals of woman 
is recorded of tliis princess, celebrated in song 
and history as the heroic, the witty, the 
generous, the elegant, the accomplished, and 




the beautiful Jalmu Ara Begam. One niglit 
(26tli March, a.d. 1644, 27th Muharram, 
A.H. 1054), as she was retui'uing from her 
father's apartments to the liarem, in one of 
the passages which connect the hitter huikhug 
with the body of the pahice, her tiowing 
drapery was unhappily ignited by the flame 
of a lamp. Her whole cbess, which was of 
the finest musliu, was instantly in flames, 
and of course her life was in imminent pei'il ; 
but, knowing that she was then within liearing 
of many young uobles of the court, she would 
not raise an alarm, lest they should run to 
her assistance, and behold her unveiled, or 
lay their hands upon her in order to extinguish 
the flames. Heroically enduring all the agonies 
which fire could inflict, she withheld her cries, 
and rushed forward until she reached the 
women's apartments, and there sunk upon 
the floor, almost lifeless. For a long period, 
no hopes were entertained of her recoveiy, 
but she was ultimately restored to health by an 
English physician named Gabriel Boughton 
who was then at Surat, and had been sent 
for by the emperor her father then in the 
Deccan, although her beauty was cruelly 
impaii-ed. The emperor, in reward for Dr. 
Boughton' s services, besides other favours, 
granted him, at his disinterested request, a 
patent for his countrymen to trade free of 
customs throughout his dominions. The large 
niasjid of red stone adjoining the foi't of 
Agra near the Tripolia (now demolished) was 
built by her (or in her honour) in the year 
A.D. 1648, A.H. 1058, at a cost of five lacs 
of rupees. She died in the reign of her 
brother the emperor 'Alamgir on the 5th 
September, a.d. 1680, 3rd Eamazau, a.h. 
1092, and lies buried in the yard of the 
mausoleum of Nizam-iiddin Aulia at Dehli. 
The name of Jahan Ara will ever adorn the 
pages of history as a bright example of filial 
attachment and heroic self-devotion to the 
dictates of duty, more especially when we 
view it in contrast with the behavioiir of 
her sister Roshan Ara, who, by aiding the 
ambitious designs of Aurangzib, enabled him 
to dethrone Sliah Jahan. The amiable and 
accomplished Jahan Ara not only supported 
her aged father in his adversity, but voluntarily 
resigned her liberty and resided with_ him 
during his imprisonment in the fort of Agra. 
Her tomb is of white marble, open at the 
top, and at the head is a tablet with a Persian 
inscription inlaid in black marble letters, to 
the following effect : " Let no one scatter 
over ray grave anything but verdure, for such 
best becomes the sepulchi-e of one who had a 
humble mind." On the margin is wiitten, 
"The perishable faqlr Jahan Ara Begam, 
daughter of Shah Jahan, and the disciple of 
the saints of Chisht, died in the year of the 
Hijra, a.h. 1092." 

Jahan Bano Begam (*.^-.j y b ij^'W^^' 

the daughter of Prince Murad, the son of the 
emperor Akbar. She was married to Prince 
Parwez, the son of Jahangir, by whom she 
had Nadira Begam, who was married to Dara 
Sheko, the eldest sou of Shah Jahan. 

Jahan dar Sliah (il^ j\sj\^^), sur- 

uamed Muhammad Mui'zz-uddin, was the 
eldest son of the emperor Bahadur Shah, and 
grandson of 'Alamgir. He was born in the 
Deccan on Wednesday the 8th April, a.d. 
1663, 10th Ramazau, a.h. 1073. The death 
of his father, which took place in February, 
A.D. 1712, Muharram, a.h. 1124, was followed 
by the usual struggle among his sous tor the 
crown. The incapacity of Jahandar Shah, 
the eldest, had given a great ascendancy to 
the second whose name was Azun-ush-Sfmn. 
He was supported by most of the nobility 
and of the army, but his other brothers joined 
their interests, and were kept together by the 
persuasions and false promises of Zulfikar 
Khan, the AmTr-ul-'Umra. Their concord 
was of short dm-atiou, and lasted only until 
the defeat and death of Azim-ush-Shan ; 
after which a bloody bat;le ensued between 
the three surviving brothers, two of whom, 
viz., Jahan Shah with his son Farklumda 
Akhtar, and EafT-ush-Shan, being killed. 
The subject of this notice, by the intrigues and 
support of the Am!r-ul-'Umra, remained im- 
disputed master of the throne, and was crowned 
at Lahore on Thiu-sdav the 10th April, a.d. 

1712, 14th Eabi' I., "a.h. 1124, with the 
title of Jahandar Shah. He was in himself 
a weak man, effeminately careful of his person, 
fond of ease, indolent, and totally ignorant 
of the art of government. He made the vast 
empire of Hiudiistan an offering to the foolish 
whims of a public courtezan, named Lai 
Kimwar, thus vexing the minds of worthy 
subjects loyal to his family. He reigned 
only nine months, being defeated in a battle 
fought near Agra, and afterwards taken prisoner 
and murdered in the month of January, a.d. 

1713, Zil-hijja, a.h. 1124, by order of his 
nephew Farrukli-siyar (the son of the late 
Azim-ush-Shan), who became emperor. His 
corpse was exposed to public view, and then 
interred in the platform before the mausoleum 
of the emperor Humayun at Dehll. His 
mother's name was Nizam Bai. 

Jahandar Shah, Prince ( .L\_J L,,.::»- 

i(j'j^,-i il-i), the eldest son of the 

emperor Shah 'Alam. Born about a.d. 1749. 
Appointed Eegent by Ahmad Shah Abdali in 
1761, after the overthrow of the Mahrattiis at 
I'iiuipat, he administered the remains of the 
Empire until his father's restoration in 1771. 
His private appellation was Jawan Bakht 
(Mirza). In April, a.d. 1784, on account 
of the unsettled affairs of liis father, he uiade 
his escape from Dehli and repaired to Lucknow, 
where the British Governor of Bengal, "Warren 
Hastings, had arrived to regulate the con- 
cerns between the wazir, Asaf-uddaula, and 
the Company. He accompanied Mr. Hastings 
to Benares, which place he chose for his 
residence. He had an allowance of five lacs 
of rupees per annum from the Xawfib wazir 
at the earnest request of Mr. Hastings. 
He (hed in Benares on the 31st May, a.d. 
1788, 25th Shaban, a.h. 1202, after an illness 




of little more than twenty-four hours ; aged 
about 39 years, and was biu'ied with every 
honour due to his rank near the tomb of a 
venerated Muhammadan in Benares. The 
English Resident and principal people of the 
city attended his funeral. lie left behind him 
three sons, whom, with the rest of his family, 
he recommended to the care of the English, 
xmder whom they still enjoy a comfortable 
asylum and allowance at Benares. Gar(,'in 
de Tassy informs us, that there is a work of 
his in the Indian House, which has the title 
of Baijaz Iniiijet Mnrshidznda. The narrative 
written by this prince, was translated by Col. 
Scott, and published in the appendix to Mr. 
Hastings' Review of the state of Bengal. 
[Vide Fall of the Moghul Einpire.'\ 

Jahangir ( ..^xjL..=^), a cousin and 

husband of Sikandar [q.v.) Begam of Bhopal. 
His ancestor, Dost Muhammad, about the time 
of Aurangzib's death, declared himself inde- 
pendent at Bhopal. Jahangir's uncle was the 
third jVawab, on whose death his widow was 
declared Regent by the anny, and his daughter 
Sikandar Begam, heir. She married Jahaugir 
who died in the year a.d. 1845. 

Jahangir (emperor) {^.iW.^ jSj\^:>- 

Sa-st^), surnamed Xiar-uddm Mu- 
hammad, was the eldest son of the emperor 
Akbar the Great ; was born in the village of 
Sikri on Wednesday the 31st August, a.d. 
1569, 17th Rabi' I. a.h. 977, and was named 
Mirza Salim on account of his coming into 
the world, as supposed, by the prayers of 
Shaikh Salim Chishti, a venerable Shaikh and 
dervish who resided in the village of Sikri, 
now called Fathapiii- Sikri in the province 
of Agra. His mother, who received the title 
of Mariam Zaramam, was the daughter of 
Raja Bihari Mai Kachhwaha. After the 
death of his father, which took place on the 
16th October, a.d. 16lIo. he succeeded him by 
the title of Niir-iiddiu Muhammad Jahangir. 
He reigned 22 lunar years, 8 months and 
15 days from the day of his father's demise ; 
and died in camp on Sunday the 28th October, 
A.D. 1627, 28th Safar, a.h. 1037, on his 
way to Lahore from Kashmere, aged 59 lunar 
years, 11 mouths and 12 days ; and was 
interred in the suburbs of Lahore in the 
garden of his favourite wife Xiir Jahan Begam. 
He was succeeded by his son Mirza Khurram, 
who took the title of Shiih Jahan. His 
favourite Sultana Xiir Jahan, who survived 
him 18 years, is also buried in the mausoleum. 
Jahangir, after his death, received the title 
of " Jaunat MakauT." It was to this prince 
that Sir Thomas Roe was sent as ambassador 
by King James I. Sir Thomas has given a 
good description of the grandeur of the court 
of Hindustan ; but very little notice is taken 
of this embassy in the chronicles of the East. 
In 1612, Jahangir permitted the Company 
to establish factories at SHrat, Ahmadabad, 
and Cambay. Jahangir wrote his own memoir 
iu Persian, called Tazak Jahditgln, which 

has been translated by Major David Price, 
London, 1829, 184 pages 4to. It is also 
called Jahangir JVdma. 

Jahangir Mirza (^,^..•# -^L^), the 

eldest son of Akbar Shah II. king of Dehll. 
He was, in consequence of having fired a 
pistol at Mr. Seton, the Resident at DehlT, 
sent as a State prisoner to Allahabad, where 
he resided in the garden at Sultan Kliusro for 
several years, and died there in a.d. 1821, 
A.H. 1236, aged 31 years; a salute of 31 
guns was tired from the ramparts of the fort 
of Allahabad at the time of his burial. He 
was at first interred in the same garden, and 
subsequently his remains were transferred to 
Dehll, and" bmied in the coiu-t-yard of the 
mausoleum of Nizam-uddin Aulia. 

Jahangir Mirza (U^^ .-.>oL^), tlie 

eldest son of Amir Taimiir. He died before 
liis father a.d. 1574, a.h. 776. His son's 
name was Pir Muhammad, which see. 

Jahangir Quli Khan ( ij ^^L^,5=- 

(o^->-), son of Khan Azim Mirza 

'Aziz Koka, served under the emperors Akbar 
and Jahangir, and died in the fifth year of 
Shc\h Jahan a.d. 1631, a.h. 1041. 

Jahangir Quli Khan,Kabuli L»^'L,^ 

A:-^ J. 

^j), an amir of the 

rank of 5000, who was appointed governor 
of Bengal by the emperor Jahangir, in a.d. 
1607, a"h. 1016, and died there in a.d. 160S, 
A.H. 1U17. 

Jahanian Jahan Gasht, Makhdum 

[ Tide Shaikh Jalal.] 


Jahan Khatun (^^'L^- ^iL,^), a 

famous lady, who after the death of her first 
husband was married to Khwaja AmTu-uddIn, 
minister to Shah Abii Is-haq, rider of Shiraz. 
She is said to have been a very beautiful 
woman, and a good poet. 

Jahan Shah (Prince) (i'^ .,L_5^ 
iJ^L«l), the third son of the emperor 

Bahadiu- Shah. He was slain in the battle 
which took place at Lahore, after the death 
of his father, between his brothers in March, 
A.D. 1712. His mangled body with that of 
his brother Rafl-ush-Shau and his sou, was 
conveyed to Dehli and interred without 
ceremouy and pomp in the mausoleum of the 
emperor HumJiyun, the general receptacle of 
the murdered princes of the imperial family. 




Jahan Shall Turkman (iLl c:,'^~^ 
^^\^J), son of Qara Yusaf Turkman, 

■was the brother of Sikandar Turkman, after 
whose death in a.d. 1437, a.h. 841, the 
government of Azurl)ejiiu was conferred on 
him by Shfihrulvh Mirza, the son of Amir 
Taimiir lie hekl it till the death of that 
prince in a.d. 1447, a.h. 850, after which lie 
conquered most part of Persia, and carried 
his arms as far as Dayarbikar, and fell in a 
battle which he fouglit against Hasan Beg, 
commonly called Uzzan Hasan, the ruler of 
that province, on the 10th November, a.d. 
1467, I'ith llabi' II. a.h. 872, aged 70 years. 
He reigned more than 30 lunar years, and as 
he was slain in battle against Hasan Beg, the 
chronogram of the year of his death was found 
to contain the words " Slain by Hasan Beg." 

Jahan Soz (;»-~o ^\^^:>-), a title of 
Sultan 'Ala-uddin Hasan Ghorl. 

Jahi ( j^Ij>-), the poetical name of 
Ibrahim Mirza (Sultan), which see. 

Jahiz or Aljahiz (li=!-ljs.'^ Ij li=^l:?-), 

the surname of Abu 'Usman 'Umar bin- 
Mahbiib Kana'aua, a man of great learning, 
but of a very eccentric tendency of mind. He 
wrote a book on the Commerce of the 
Arabians early in the third century of the 
Hijra entitled Kitab-al-Nazrat Jil Tajarat, 
which is frequently quoted by Nawari. 
Jahiz died a.d. 868, a.h. 255, at the age of 
96 years. 

Jaiapa (LjbA:^-^ IjLj^), Sindhia, suc- 
ceeded his father Ranoji Sindhia, the founder 
of the Sindhia family, in a.d. 1750, a.h. 
1163, and was murdered in his tent in a.d. 
1759, A.H. 1172. He was succeeded by his 
brother Madhoji Sindhia. 

Jai Chand ( .^^'.'\; t^x=- ts^^' ^^^^ ^^^^ 

Eathor monarch of Kauauj. He ruled the 
country from Buxar to Kanauj and reigned 
about the Sambat year a.d. 1400, a.h. 1343. 
His favourite residence was near the city of 
Jounpiir which he had built in a.d. l.'ioO, 
Sambat 1416. The present city of Jannpiir 
was built by FiriJz Shah in the year a.d. 
1370, A.H. 772, in honour of his uncle 
Fakhr-uddin Muhammad Junan, the date of 
Avliich is found in the words ' ' Shahr 
Jannpiir." According to Colonel Tod, 
Jaichand reigned about the 12th century of 
the Christian era, and one of his grandsons 
named Seoji, with a few retainers, planted 
the Rathor standard in Marwar in the year 
A.D. 1212. 

Jai Chand {s.:,-:>- , c-^), a Itaja of 

Nagarkot or Kaugra, who lived in the time 
of the emperor Akbar. 

Jaikishun {^jJLA^^t^), a Kashmir! 

Brahman whoso poetical name was 'Izzat, 
was the agent of Nawab Is-haq Klian. 

Jaimal (J.^^.r>-), a Ivfija, famous in 

history as "the bravest of the brave." In 
A.D. 1568 Udai Singh, the son of Raua 
Sanka or Sanga, and the founder of the 
capital Udaipiii' in Chittor, came under the 
cUspleasiu-e of the emperor Akbar. The 
recreant chief fled and left the defence of his 
capital Chittdr to Rfija Jaimal, who was 
killed by Akbar himself in the course of the 
siege, A.D. 1568. 

Jaipal I. (J^^ JW^)) son of Hitpal, 

Raja of Lahore of the Brahman tribe, who 
reigned over the country e.xtending in length 
from Sarhiud to Laughan, and in breath 
from the kingdom of Kashmere to Multan. 
He was once defeated by Subaktagin, the 
Sultan of Ghazni, with great slaughter, and 
again on Monday the 27th November, a.d. 
1001, by his son Sultan Mahmiid, when 
Jaipal with fifteen of his principal chiefs, 
being his sons and brethren, were taken 
prisonei's, and 5000 of his troops were slain 
on the field of battle. He was afterwards 
released by Mahmiid, but in compliance with 
a custom which prevailed among the Hindiis, 
that whatever Raja was twice overpowered 
by strangers became disqualified to reign, he 
ordered a funeral pile to be prepared, and 
having set fire to it with his own hands, 
perished therein. He was succeeded by his 
son Anandpal. 

Jaipal II. {cK:>'\j jlj JW=r)) ^^^jil 

of Lahore, son of Anandpal, whom he suc- 
ceeded in A.D. 1013. He was routed in a 
great battle by Sultan Mahmiid in a.d. 1022, 
on the banks of the river Ravi ; the result 
was the permanent occupation of Lahore by 
a Muhammadan governor, and the appoint- 
ment of a Viceroy of Lahore by Mahmiid. 
Jaipal fled to Ajmir. This has been con- 
sidered the foundation of the Muhammadan 
empire in India. 

Jai Singh I. (Raja) (J^^ i^^.^ .>- 

^:>-\j), of the tribe of Kachhwaha, 

commonly called Mirza Raja, was the son of 
Riija Maha Singh, the son of Partap Singh, 
the son of Raja Man Singh. He served 
under the emperor Shah Jahan, and was 
made governor over the conquered provinces 
of the Deccan about the year a.d. 1664, by 
the emperor 'Alamgir. He was recalled to 
court in a.d. 1666, but died on the road, 
soon after his arrival at Bm-hanpur, 28th 
Mubarrani, a.h. 1078. According to Orme's 
Historical Fragments of the Miitihiil Empire, 
Jai Singh died at Burhanpiir soon after the 
pretended revolt of Sultan Muazzim, the son 




of the emperor, and was said to have been 
poisoned by the procurement of 'Alamgir. 
There never was a prince among the Rajpiits 
equal to him in accomplishments. He was 
competely learned in Hindi, and understood the 
Turkish, Persian, and Arabic languages. 
He left two sons, Eiim Singh his eldest, 
and Kirat Singh. The former was honoured 
after his father's death with the title of 
Eaja, and put in possession of his father's 
territories. _ Jai Singh had built several fine 
edifices at Agra, of which no sigu remain now, 
but the name and place on which the buildings 
stood is still called Jaisinghpura. 

Jai Singh II. Sawai ((J^^ iSi:^ ^^>- 

^Ij), a Raja of the tribe of Kachh- 

waha rajpiits, was the son of Bishn Singh, 
the son of Kislnin Singh, the son of Earn 
Singh, the son of Mirza Raja Jai Singh. He 
is commonly called Mirza Eaja Jai Singh 
Sawai. He was the zamindiir or Eaja of a 
considerable territory in the province of Ajniir 
named Amer, but since the prince founded 
a new city called Jaipiir the Rajaship has 
also taken that name. Bishn Singh, the 
father of Jai Singh aud Bijai Singh, died 
about the year a.d. 1693, Sambat 1750, and 
after his death the title of Eaja was bestowed 
on Jai Singh by the emperor 'Alamgir with 
the rank of 1500, aud subsequently with that 
of 2000. After the death of that emperor 
he espoused the cause of 'Azim Shah, the son 
of 'Alamgir, whilst his brother Bijai Singh 
aided Bahadiii" Shah, who on his accession to 
the throne conferred the rank of 3000 on the 
latter. Bijai Singh quarrelled with his 
brother for the Eaj ; and the emperor, 
not willing to displease either, confiscated 
their estate, and appointed Saj-yad Husain 
All Khan of Barha, as Faujdar of that place. 
"When the emperor marchecl to the Deccan to 
punish his brother Kambakhsh, a.d. 1708, 
A.H. 1120, Jai Siugh, with the aid of Eaja 
Ajit Singh Eathor, engaged the Faujdar in 
battle and having killed him took possession 
of the province. In the reign of Farrukh- 
siyar he was honoured with the title of 
Dhiraj Eaja Jai Singh, and in the time of 
Muhammad Shah with that of Sawai {q.d. 
"exceptional"). In the year a.d. 1732, a.h. 
1145, he was appointed governor of Malwa. 
His love of science makes him one of the most 
remarkable persons of his nation. He built 
five observatories for astronomical studies, 
namely, at DehlT, Banaras, Mathra, Ujain 
and Jaipur, and published a work on 
astronomy called ZlJ Muhammad Shaht. He 
also erected a Karaviinsarai and market in 
every province of Hindustan for the conveni- 
ence of travellers at his own expense. After 
his death, which took place in September, 
a.d. 1743, 9th Shabiin, a.h. UoO, three of 
his wives, with many concubines, burned 
themselves on his funeral pile. He M'as 
succeeded by his son Ishnri Singh, after 
whose death in a.d. 1760 Madho Siugh his 
son succeeded him. 

List of KachJnvahd Rajas of Amer or 
Bhara Mai. Jai Singh Sawai. 

Bhagwan Das. Ishuri Singh. 

Man Singh. Madho Singh. 

Bhao Siugh. Pirthi Singh. 

Mahii Siugh. Partilb Singh. 

Jai Singh Mirza Eaja. Jagat Singh. 
Ram Siugh. Jai Singh. 

Bishun Singh. Ram Singh. 

Jai Singh III. (Raja) (<iJ1:.--j ^«s^ 

c: lU), of the tribe of Kachhwaha 

rajpiits and Eaja of Jaipur, was a posthumous 
son of Eaja Jagat Singh, who died in a.d. 
1818. Jai Singh was murdered by his kamdar, 
whose name was Jhota Eam, in the Sambat 
year 1891, or in January, a.d. 1831, and his 
infant son Earn Siugh succeeded him. 

Jai Singh {dS^.^ l5^^' ^^^ Riina Jai 

Singh of Udaipiir, a descendant of Eana 
Sanka who lived in the time of the emperor 
Akbar, succeeded his father Eana Eaj Singh, 
A.D. 1680, A.H. 1091. 

Jalal Asir ( -»-j^ J^-^"^- ^'^^ A sir. 

Jalal 'Azd, Sayyad {s^ sJi.£^ J^^X 

a poet who flom-ished in the reign of 
Muhammad Muzaffar, ruler of Fars and 
his descendants. He is the author of a 

Jalal Bukhari (j_j' .Ls:^ ^]\-p^), or 

Sayyad Jalal Bukhari. He came to India from 
Bukhara and became a disciple of Shaikh 
Baha-uddin Zikariii of Multan. He resided 
at Uchcha in Multau and died there. He 
had three sons, SajTad Ahmad Kabir, Sayyad 
Baha-uddin and Sayyad Muhammad. Sa>7ad 
Ahmad Kabir, who succeeded his father as 
S]nritual guide, had two sons, Makhdum 
Jahanian, also called Shaikh Jahal and 
Sluiikh Sadar-uddin, commonly called Eajii 

N.B. — There is some confusion between 
this man and Shaikh Jalal. 

[Fi^e Shaikh Jalal.] 

Jalal Bukhari, Sayyad {^\bsr^ J^5>- 

S^J), a descendant of Sayyad Ahmad 

Kabir and son of Sayyad Muhammad 
Bukhari. He was born in the year a.d. 
1594, 5th Jumada II. a.h. 1003, aud was 
highly respectrd by the emperor Shah Jahan, 
who conferred on" hiiu the office of Sadarat 
(chief justiceship) of all India with tlie 
mansab of 6000. He sometimes amused 
himself in writing poetry, and had adopted 





the word Raza for his poetical title. He died 
on the 2oth May, 1647, o.s. 1st Jumada I. 
A.H. 1057, and is buried at Tajsanj in Agra. 
His griuidfather Sayvad Ahmad Kabir lies 
buried at a place iu Dehli called Bijai Mandil. 
Jalfil Biikhari left three sons, viz. Sayyad 
Ja'far, Sayyad All styled Razwi Khan, and 
SajTad Mnsn, on M-hom high titles were 
conferred by Shabjahan, and his eldest son 
Ja'far obtained the place of his father. 

Jalal (Hakim) (j^Cz 



a physician and poet, who was a native of 
Slilrwan. He flourished in the reign of 
Muhammad Muzaffar and his son Shah 
Shujaa', rulers of Shiraz, both of whom 
reigned from a.d. 1353 to 1384. He is the 
author of a poem entitled Gul-iva-Nauroz, 
■which he wrote in a.d. 1334, a.h. 734. He 
is also called Jalal-uddm Tabib. 

Jalali or Jalal ( J^^*- Lj ^'^^), com- 
monly called Sayyad-i-'Alam Jalal or Jaliili, 
was a native of Ahmadabad, and his father 
and spiritual guide was INlir Sayyad Jalal 
bin-Hasan. He is the author of a Dlwan. 

Jalali {\\:>-), poetical name of Badr- 


Jalal, Shaikh {-^ J^-is^)- Vide 

Shaildi Jalal, commonly called Makhdum 
Jahanian. He was the son of Sayyad Ahmad 
Kabir, and grandson of Sajyad Jalal Bukhari 
the first. 

Jalal, Shaikh (^^jl^J -^-^ J^J-^), 
of Thanesar. 

\_Vide Shaikh Jalal of Thanesar.] 

Jalal - uddin Ahmad Afzal - bin - 
Muwaiyad {^yjii\ Sa.:>.\ ^iJ^\ JliU- 

tXj»^ i^j), an author. 

Jalal-uddin Aldawani ( ,_»jJl , W.^ 

^J^^jJl), author of several works. 
\_Tide Dawaui.] 

Jalal-uddin Farahani ( _«jc!l , W.^^ 
jl>^), a poet. 

Jalal-uddin Firoz Khilji (^jj*!^ JL-=- 

^.^^^ j*j.fS). Vide Firoz Shah 

Jalal-uddin Mahalli (^_>jkj^ J^-'-^ 

Xsr»), see Jalal-uddin Sayutl. He 

is sometimes called Jalal-uddin Muhammad 

Jalal-uddin Malikshah (^,>xl^ J^ 
ilAxL*). Vide Malikshah. 

Jalal-uddin Khan (;jld- ^^.,^^ J^^X 

the brother of Mahmud Klian, nawab of 
Eijuur, a rebel of 1857. 
\_Vide Sa'd-uUah Klian.] 

Jalal - uddin Muhammad Akbar 
{^\ s.A.^^ ^.isl\ JL^). Vide 

Jalal - uddin Muhammad - bin - Asa'd 
Aldawani (^ s.y%.-^:r* 

^l.jJ^ A*-j1). Vide Dawani 

crrl-^-i^ JL^ 

Jalal-uddin Purbi(jjy ^^-.^^ J^-'^^X 

king of Bengal, whose oi-iginal name was 
Jitmal, ascended the throne of Bengal on the 
death of his father Raja Kans in a.d. 1392, 
A.H. 794. He became a convert to the 
Midiammadan faith and received the name of 
Jalrd- uddin. He ruled with such justice 
that he became entitled to the appellation of 
the Nausherwan of the age. He reigned 17 
years and died in a.d. 1410, a.h. 812, when 
ills son Ahmad succeeded him. 

Jalal-uddin Rumi, Maulana (JL^^- 


Y» le-^ij rvjrl'^^X commonly called 

Maulana or Maulwi Rumi, was the son of 
Baha-uddln Wald Balkhi, He is not 
esteemed as a poet than as a metaphysician, 
and is the author of the astonishing work 
entitled the Mapiaui Maitlwl Rfanl. He 
founded an order of Derwishcs or Siifis in the 
city of Conia (Icouium) in Asiatic Turkey. 
He was born at Balkh on the 30th SeptcTuber, 
A.D. 1207, 6th Rabi' I. a.h. 604, and died in 
the time of Abka Khan on the 17th December, 
A.D. 1273, 5th Jumada II. a.h. 672. He 
was buried in a monastery at Conia, and his 
tomb was visited for many centuries by his 
devout countrymen, who considered his works 
as the effect of inspiration and only inferior to 
the Quran. His Dlwan contains 30,000 
verses, and his Masnawi more than 47,000. 
In his Dlwan, instead of his own title, he 
has inserted the name of Shams Tabrezi his 




Jalal-uddin Sayuti ( ._>jk.n J^I-^ 
jjr»--*s), son of AbcTur Rahman bin- 

Abi Bakr, an Egyptian author of some merit, 
who died in a.d. 1505, a.h. 911. He is said 
to be the author of 400 works, amongst which 
are the commentary on t\ieI)arr-AI-MiiiisJiiir, 
and the last half of the Tafsir Jaldlaiii ; the 
author of the other half was Jalal-uddin 
Mahali, who died in a.d. 1450, a.h. 854. 
Another work of Sayuti is called Liihh-ul- 
Lubfib. It is a dictionary of patronymic 
names, and of othei's under which the Arabic 
authors are much more frequently quoted 
than under their proper names. The con- 
fusion under which the Arabs labour to 
identify men known under different names, 
has induced them to prepare dictionaries for 
obviating this difficulty. SamanI (or Sam- 
nani) in the sixth century of the Hijra 
published one, entitled Fil Ansdh, in which 
he does not only explain the sense and origin 
of these names, but also mentions with regard 
to every word the true names of the authors 
who have had them. This work was abbre- 
viated in the succeeding century by Ibn-ul- 
Asir, and this extract shortened by Sayiiti. 
There is another work of Sayuti called 
Kashf us- Salsa! a-un- Wasfuz Zalzala, contain- 
ing an account of all the earthquakes which 
took place from the year a.d. 713, a.h. 94, 
to his time. He wrote this work on the 
occasion of an earthquake in Egypt, with a 
view of shewing to his countrymen tliat 
earthquakes are ordained by God to punish 
men for their sins. This work was translated 
from the Arabic by Dr. A. Sprenger. Vide 
Jour. As. Soc. vol. xvii. part ii. p. 741. 
Sayiiti was also the author of the Jama'--ul- 
Jaimma, containing a collection of Traditions, 
of which he afterwards made an abridgment 
and called it Jdma'-iis-S^ghtr. 

Jalal-uddin, Sultan ( .jj^Jl JL?- 

(^l.LJ»^), the son of Sultan Mu- 
hammad, surnamed Qutb-uddin, SultJln of 

l_Vide Muhammad (Sultan).] 

Jalayer (^_L:>-), the name given to a 

race of kings of Baghdad, the first of whom 
was Hasan Buzurg, commonly called Hasan 
Jalayer (q.v.). 

Jalinus (^^.^JL^), " Galen," or 

Galenus, prince of the Greek physicians after 

Jam Afra (\^i| aI^). J^nle Nasir- 
uddhi Qabbacha. 

Jama Baf (^L« L*l^). Fide llTr 
SaATad Jama Buf. 

Jamal ( JL*,^), the name assumed by 

Abii'l Fazl Muhammad, the son of 'Umar, 
the son of Klialid. He is the author of the 
Sarah, a dictionary of Arabic words explained 
in Persian by him, being a translation of a 
very celebrated Arabic dictionary, entitled the 

Jamal Faqih, Khwaja (^L-JLJ JU«5^ 

4^.5- uri-), a poet. 

Jamali Khalifa (diLlri- , jUs^), sur- 

name of Is-haq Karamuni, another author 
of the commentary called Sharah Hadis-ul- 
Arba^ln. He died a.d. 1526, a.h. 933. 

Jamali, Shaikh {:^r^ ^Us^). Vide 
Shaikh Jamali. 

Jamal Kill, Shaikh (ir?*' .L^ Jl/»^), 

an inhabitant of Qazwin in Isfahan. He 
lived in the time of Sultan 'Ala-uddin the 
Isma'ili, ruler of the fort of Alahmut, who 
highly respected him. It is said that he 
secretly followed the tenets of the Isma'ilis, 
biit the people thought otherwise. He died 
on Monday the 29th September, a.d. 1253, 
4th Shawwal, a.h. 651. 

Jamal Khan {^J^ J^^)j a man- 

sabdar, or commander of 5000 horse, in the 
reign of Shah Jahan. It is related that the 
emperor had ordered that all the ladies at 
court should provide precious stones and 
bring them to a market-place that he had 
erected, and there shew their wares publicly 
to all the noblemen at court, who were 
ordered to buy them at whatever prices the 
ladies put upon them ; and that the king 
himself was to be a buyer, to put the greater 
houoiu- on the new erected market. The 
ladies obeyed, and took their booths as they 
thought fit. On the market day the king 
and the noblemen came to market, and bought 
the jewels and other trifles the ladies had to 
dispose of. The king, coming to the booth 
of a very pretty lady, asked her what she had 
to sell. She told h'im she had one large fine 
rough diamond still to dispose of. He desired 
to see it, and he foimd it to be a piece of fine 
transparent sugar-candy of a tolerable diamond 
flgiu-e. He demanded to know what jjrice 
she set on it, and she told him with a pleasant 
air that it was worth a lakh of rupees, or 
£12,500 sterling. He ordered the money to 
be paid, and falling into discourse with her 
found her wit was as exquisite as her beauty, 
and ordered her to sup with him that night 
in his palace. She accordingly went and 
stayed with him three nights aiid days, and 
then went back to her husband, whose name 
was Jamal Ivlian. The husband received her 
very coldly, and told her that he would 
continue civil to her, but would never live 




with her again but in the same manner as if 
she was his sister. Upon which she went to 
the palace, fell at the emperor's feet, and told 
him Avhat her hnsband had said. The king, in 
a rage, gave orders to carry her husband to 
the elephant garden, and there have him put 
to death by an elephant. The poor man was 
soon apprehended, and as they dragged him 
from his house he begged to have leave to 
speak to the king. A friend of his ordered 
the messengers of death to stop awhile, till 
he had acquainted the king with the request, 
which was accordingly done, and he was 
ordered to be carried into the court of the 
palace, that the king might hear what he had 
to say : and being carried thither, the king 
demanded what he would have. He answered 
that what he had said to his wife was the 
greatest honour which he was capable of doing 
his king, because, after he had honoured his 
wife with his embraces, he thought himself 
unworthy ever after to cohabit with her. The 
king, after pausing a little, ordered him to be 
unbound, and brought to his own room, 
where, as soon as he came, the king embraced 
him, and ordered a royal suit to be put upon 
him, and gave him command of five thousand 
horse more, but took his wife into his own 
harem. — As. Jour. vol. xxx. p. 215. 

Jamal-uddin Ahmad, Shaikh (JU.?- 

kr^^ J^»-l (j:'.'^^^)* ^ celebrated Mu- 

hammadan saint of Hansi, and grandfather of 
Shaikh Qutb-uddiu Manawwar. 

Jamal-uddin- AtauUah, 'Amir (J U::;- 

j-^^\ ^SW LL.£ ^jJl), nephew of 

Sa}Tad Asil-uddin 'Abdullah. He is the 
author of the work called Hauzat-ul-Ahbiib. 

[ Vide Ataullah bin -Muhammad al-Husaini 

Jamal - uddin - bin - 'Abdul Razzaq 

^J^jJ^'^t^ l:;. (J"*^'^ J^-*^)j a cele- 
brated poet of Isfahan, and author of a 
Diwan. He is the father of Kamal-nddin 
Isma'Tl and Mu'In-uddin 'Abdul Karim, both 
of whom were also poets. Jamal-uddin died 
in A.D. 1192, A.H. 588. 

Jamal-uddin Hasan bin Yusaf bin- 
al-Matahhir al-Hilli ( ,,;a!1 JU::^ 

>" C^ (j;***^X entitled Shaikh 

al-'Allama, is called the chief of the lawyers 
of Hilla. He is the author of the Klndasat- 
ul-Aqudl. His legal works are very numerous 
and frequently referred to as authorities of 
undisputed merit. The most famous of these 
are — the Talkhls-ul -Mmdm, the Ghdet-ul- 

Ahlxilm and the Tahrlr-id-Ahlcdm, which 
last is a justly celebrated work. The Mukh- 
talif-ush-Shiq is also a M'ell-knowu composi- 
tion of this great lawyer ; and his Irshud-al- 
Azhan is constantly quoted as an authority, 
under the name of the Irs/uld-i-^Alldma. 

[Vide AWama al-Hilli.] 

Jamal-uddin Husain Anju (Jl. 
»sc^i ^-*u3»- ^JOi), son of Fukhr- 

uddin Kashmiri, author of the Persian 
Dictionary called Farhaiig Jahdncfiri, which 
he dechcated to the emperor Jahaugir in a.d. 
1605, A.H. 1014. The author of the Md&ir- 
nl-^Vmra calls him Mir Jamrd-uddln Anjii, 
and says that he is a descendant of the 
Saj'yads of Shiraz, and came to the Deccan 
and thence to Agra a.d. 1585, a.h. 993, in 
the time of Akbar, who raised him bv degrees 
to the rank of 3000. In the reign of Jahangir 
the rank of 4000 was conferred on him with 
the title of 'Azd-uddaula. 

Jamal-uddin-ibn-Malik ( _,.tjJl JUj>- 

(— ^l^ ,.,jl) author of an Arabic work 
on philosophy, called Aljia. 

Jami (j^U>.^U-£ ^i:^\ j^ ^"•^^), 

the poetical name of Niir-uddin 'Abdur 
Rahman, a celebrated Persian poet, the son 
of Maulana Muhammad or Ahmad IsfahanI ; 
was born on the 7th November, a.d. 1414, 
23rd Shabau, a.h. 817, at a village in Herat 
called Jam, from which he derived his poetical 
name " Jami." He was remarkably polite, of 
a very gentle disposition, and endued with 
such extensive learning that it was supposed 
there was not throughout the empire of 
Persia so complete a master of the language 
as himself. Even princes who were them- 
selves men of erudition and exalted talents 
have lavished upon him the most unbounded 
praises and the highest honours. He was very 
intimate with Sultan Abii Sa'id Mirza of 
Herat, who continued the friend of Jam! so 
long as he lived. After his death, our poet 
enjoyed the same favours from his son and 
successor Sultan Husain Mirza. He was a 
contemporary of the esteemed biographer 
Daulat Shah, who recorded his fame in the 
Lives of the Persian poets, called Tazkira 
JJaulat Shdhl. Jami was the author of more 
than 44 works. His poem on the Loves of 
Joseph and Zalikha is one of the finest 
comjjositions iu the language ; it contains 
about 4000 couplets. He is also the author 
of the book called Nafuhdt-ul-Ins, a very 
celebrated abridgment of the Lives of the 
Sufi Shaikhs, translated from the Arabic 
2\(hkat -us- Sdfta, and dedicated to the 
celebrated wazir 'Alisher in a.d. 1476, a.h. 
881. It may be here observed that the 
celebrated poets, as Hafiz, Sadi, Jami, etc., 




were professed Suits. The following are the 
works commouly known composed by Janii : — 
^1. Silsilat-uz-Zahab, dedicated to 
Bayazid II. 

2. Salaraan-wa-Absal. 

3. Tnhfat-ul-Ahrar. 

4. Sabhat-ul-Abrar. 
0. Yusaf-wa-Zalikha. 
6. Laili-wa-Majnun. 

.7. Khirad-nama. 






Lawaeh JamT. 


Jam! died at the advanced age of 81 lunar 
years, on Friday the 9th Xovember, a.d. 
1492, 18th Muharram, a.h. 898, mourned by 
the whole city of Herat ; his funeral expenses 
were defrayed by Sultan Husain, and a 
magnificent train of the most illustrious 
nobles accompanied his body to the tomb. 
'AlTsher his friend laid the first stone of a 
monument which he caused to be raised to 
his memory, and his fame became immortal 
in the minds of his countrymen. He was 
also the author of a TafsTr or commentary of 
some note. \_Sald)nan and Absdl has been 
translated into English verse by the late 
Mr. Edward Fitzgerald.] 

Jamila (ai-.^K?-), the poetical name of 
a Persian Poet. 

Jamil-ibn-Mi'mar (^U*-« ^\ J-'*.:*-), 

a celebrated Arabian poet who lived in the 
time of the khallf 'Abdulmalik, and died in 
the year a.d. 701, a.h. 82. He was contem- 
porary with two other famous poets named 
'Umar the sou of 'Abdullah aud Kathir Azza. 
Jamil was the lover of Shanha, one of those 
pairs of lovers M'hose constancy and fidelity 
the orientals praise in theii- histories and 

Jamil-uddin Kashi ( ._jj^J\ Jl_^_->- 

^-i^), author of the history called 

Zubdat-ut-Tawdrikh. A work of the same 
title is mentioned under Shaikh Niir-ul-Haq 
of Dehll. 

Jamil - uddin 

Muliaramad Abdul 

Razzaq (^_j j,J^ J*_*wS- ^ 

•yjjAS^). Vide Jamal-uddlu bin- 
'Abdul Eazzak. 

Jamshed {xJL^^) (also called Jam) 

was one of the ancient mythic kings of Persia, 
and the fourth of the First or Pishdadian 
dynasty. He is celebrated as the founder of 

Persepolis, which is to this day called Istakhr 
and Takht Jamshed. He is said to have 
introduced the solar year and ordered the first 
day of it, when the sun entered Aries, to be 
celebrated by a splendid festival. His country 
was invaded by Zuhak, a Tm'anian king, and 
the unfortunate Jamshed was obliged to fly 
before the emperor. He was piu'sued by the 
agents of Zuhak, through Sistan, India, and 
China, and was at last seized and earned 
like a common malefactor before his cruel 
enemy, who ordered him to be placed between 
two boards and sawn asunder with the bone of 
a fish. "NYe are told by Fii-dausi that his reign 
lasted 700 years. He is supposed to have 
flourished 800 years before the Christian era. 
His goblet, called Jam Jamshed and Jam 
Jam, was wondi'ous. A hunch-ed marvellous 
tales are told of this celebrated cup, which 
used to dazzle all who looked in it, and has 
often been employed by the poets to furnish a 
simile for a bright eye. 

Jamshed {s.Jl^>'), this title is some- 
times given by the Musalmans to king 
Solomon the son of David, and they say that 
his magic ring and throne possessed extra- 
ordiaary powers, and his control was absolute 
over genii and men. 

Jamshed Qutb Shah (c_^,kji jk^/*,5>- 

iLl), son of Quli Qutb Shah I. 

ascended the throne of Golkonda in the 
Deccan after the death of his father in 
September, a.d. 1543, Jumuda II. a.h. 950. 
He reigned seven years and some months, 
aud was succeeded by his brother Ibrahim 
Qutb Shah in a.d. 1550, a.h. 957. 

Jan (( .s^U ^jl^), or Jan Sahib, 

poetical name of Mir Yar 'All, who is the 
author of a Diwan. 

Janabi [j\us^), the surname of Abu 

Muhammad Mustafa bin-Sajyad Hasau-al- 
Husaini, a celebrated historian and author of 
a work called Tdnkh-al-Jandbl, of which the 
correct name is supposed to be Bahr-nz- 
Zakhkhdr, the Swelling of the Sea ; it com- 
prises a general history from the beginning of 
the world to a.d. loti9, a.h. 997. It was 
originally written in Arabic, and translated 
by the author into Turkish. Janabi died in 
A.D. 1591, A.H. 999. 

Jan Fishan Khan Bahadur (^\-s^ 

i—j^^'j .t)^J ic^^- i^lAJ), Nawab of 

Sardhana. A Cabuli of Persian extraction 
who for his conspicious loyalty during the 
mutiny of 1857, was ordered by Government 
to be rewarded with a pension of 1000 rupees 
a mouth in perpetuity to his male heirs, and a 




grant of eonfiscatod villajips of 10,000 rupees 
per annum to be conferred upon him with 
remission of one half of revenue for his life, 
and a quarter for two generations. 

Jangez Khan (^l:>- 
Chauo-ez Khfiu. 



Jani ( JIp-), There have been three 

authors of this name. The first, 'Abu 'Abdullah 
Muhammad ibn - Malik Atai, a native of 
Damascus ; the second, Basar Jam ; and the 
third, Mausur-bin'Umar-al - Adib, a native 
of Isfahan, who died a.d. 1025. 

Jani ( gjW), the poetical name of 
Mirza Jan, the father of Mirza Jan Janan. 

Jani Begam (*li^-J 15^ ^^X daughter 

of 'Abdul Eahim Klian, Klian-Khanan, who 
was married to prince Danial, the son of the 
emperor Akbar in a.d. 1599, a.h. 1007. 

Jani Beg Sultan (i^lkLj t— JC»j ^ W), 

son of 'Abdidlah Khan TJzbak's sister. His 
son. Din Muhammad Khan, was raised to the 
throne of Samanjand after the death of 
'Abdul Momim Kjiau, the son of 'Abdullah 
Khan Uzbak. 

Jani Beg Turkhan, Mirza ( ~j\-!:>- 

\:j^ i^l:>- J L-C.j), ruler of Thatta, 

succeeded his grandfather Mirza Muhammad 
Baqi, in the government of Thatta, the remain- 
ing province of Sindh, in a.d. 1584, a.h. 
993. Akbar Shah who before the death of 
Muhammad Baqi had gone to Lahore, and 
had remained there for some years, expected 
a personal visit from Jaul Beg ; but being 
disappointed he proceeded to take measures 
for the subjugation of that country. He 
therefore in the year a.d. 1591, a.h. 999. 
directed his commander-in-chief 'Abdul 
Eahim Khan, the son of Bairam fflian, to 
proceed and occupy the place in his name. 
The first action took place on the 3i-d Novem- 
ber, A.D. 1591, 26th Muharram a.h. 1000, 
when the SindhTs were totally defeated. 
Notwithstanding, daily skirmishes took place 
between the two armies ; at last Mirza Jani Beg 
offered to acknowledge fealty to the emperor 
and to proceed to the presence. Shortly 
after 'Abdul Rahim Klian .celebrated the 
nuptials of his son Mirza Irich with the 
daughter of Jani Beg, and after the rainy 
season of the year a.d. 1592, a.h. 1001, 
accompanied Mirza Jilni Beg to the presence 
of Akbar, who created the latter a noble of the 
realm ; and from that date the whole kingdom 
of Sindh reverted to the sovereignty of the 
empire of Dehli. Mirzil Jani Beg died at 
Burhanpiir in a.d. 1599, a.h. 1008, and the 
government of Thatta was conferred on his 
son Mirzii Ghazi. 

Jan Janan, Mirza {]• ^ i^\j\: 


son of Mirza Jiin, a learned Musalman and a 
good poet, distingiushed no less for the grace 
and s])irit of his compositions than for the 
independent spirituality and anti-idolatrous 
nature of his sentiments. His poetical name 
was Mazhar ; was born at Agra about the 
year a.d. 1698, a.h. 1110, but resided at 
behli. In the month of IMubarram or 3rd 
January, a.d. 1781, 7th Muharram a.h. 
1195, having expressed his contempt for a 
superstitious ceremony — the commemoration 
of the death of Husain — he was shot on the 
terrace of his own honse, by a vindictive 
partizan of that martyr, and died on the 6th 
of that month, 10th Muharram, a.h. 1195. 
He was the author of a Diwan. 

Jan Muhammad, Munshi (j^^i^s-^ ^. 

^JL'^, author of an Insha or C( 
lection of letters which goes by his name. 

Jannat Ashani ( 

-), the 

title given to the emperor Humayiin after his 

Jannati (^_:x_i_5»-), a poetical name. 
[From Jannat = " Paradise."] 

Jan Nisar Khan (^l:>- .ll) \,J^), 

title of Kamal-nddin Husain, an Amir of 
3000 imder the emperor Shah Jahan. At the 
time of his death he was governor of Sistan, 
and died there a.d. 1639, a.h. 1049. [The 
word is the same as Janisary.] 

Jan Nisar Khan, Nawab (jliJ ^^l^s- 
C—jLj ijl^), "was brother-in-law to 

the wazir Qamar-uddin Khan who had 
married his sister. He was appointed 
Chakladar of the districts of KorQ Jahanabad 
in the province of Allahrilnul, and was 
assassinated by Aram Bhagwant Singh, a 
zamindar of that place in a.d. 1731, a.h. 

Jan Nisar Khan, Sayyad (^lij ^p-- 

^^^ iv)^^)j son-in-law of the wazir 

Qamar-uddin Khan, was put to death, 
together with several others, by Nadir Shah, 
on account of the re.sistance shewn by them 
in endeavouring to protect their family in the 
general massacre. This event took place in 
March, a.d. 1739, Zil-hijja a.h. 1151. 




Janoji Bhosla {A^^j ^yU-), the 

second Riija of Berar, succeeded his fatliei' 
Raghoji Bhosla in a.d. 1749, and died in 
A.D. 1772. He was succeeded by his younger 
brother iladhuji Bhosla. 

\_Vide Raghoji Bhosla the first Raja of 

Jansipar Khan Turkman {X^^^^^^ 

(^l^.j ^:>~), an Amir of 4000 in 

the reign of the emperor Jahanglr. He was 
appointed governor of Allahabad in the first 
year of Shah Jahan a.d. 1628, a.h. 1037, 
and died there the same year. 

Jansipar Khan 




second son of Mukhtar Khan Sabzwari, an 
amir of the reign of the emperor 'AlamgTr. 
At the time of his death he held the siibadari 
of Haidarabad, and died there in a.d. 1701, 
A.H. 1113. 

Janubi {^JjLs>.\i ^^y^), of Badakh- 

shan, a poet and punster who flourished about 
the year a.d. 1521, a.h. 927. 

Jannni (^^'y->-^• ^'^^ Jununi. 

Jarbardi (^j^_ji^,L5»-), surname of 

Fakhr-uddTu Ahmad bin-Hnsan, an author 
who Avrote the Sharah Shajio, and the 
marginal notes on the Eashshdf. He died 
A.D. 1345, A.H. 746. 

Jarir ( j -p-). Vide Jurir which is the 
correct pronunciation. 

Jarjis (^jjg._^_rs-^_:s"), George, and in 

particular St. George the martjT, very well 
known in the East, and even by the Muham- 
madans, who put him amongst the number of 
the prophets, and confound him with Elias. 

Jarj Tamas {^jj^^ -V^^)- ^i^« 
George Thomas. 

Jarraz (j^^^), the surname of Ahmad 

bin - Ibrahim - al - Tabid - al - Afriki, who is 
often cited imder the name of Ibn-JaiTaz. 
He was a physician and an author, and a 
native of Africa. He died a.d. 1009, a.h. 

Jarullah Zamakhshari (iii_i.JUl_:>- 

t^A.s'^j), surname of Mahmiid bin- 

'Umar-al - Zamakhshari, the Ma'tzalite of 

Zamakhshar, a village in Khwarizm. He wag 
the author of an excellent commentaiy on the 
Quran called Eashshdf, which he wrote in 
the name of one of the princes of Mecca. He 
obtained the surname of Jarullah (or neigh- 
bour of God) on accoimt of his residing for a 
long period at Mecca. He was born in a.d. 
1074, A.H. 467, and died in the place of his 
natiAaty in the year a.d. 1142 or 1144, a.h. 
537 or 539. He was also the author of many 
other works, such as — 

Kitab Fasl-dar-Xahr. 

Asas-ul-Balaghat-dar-Lo gh at. 


Fasiis - ul - Akhbar - wal - Faraez - dar - Ilm 

Sharah Abiat Sebiiya. 
Mustaqazi-diH-Amsal 'Arab. 
Sawaer-ul- Islam. 

Mauhaj -dar-Usul. 

Jassas (|^l^^), surname of Shaikh 

Ahmad bin- 'All Razi, which see. 

Jaswant Rae (^_s\. l::^-J 

Hindi! who was a poet and the author of a 
Diwan, a copy of which was found in the 
Librarj' of Tipu Sultan. 

rX a 

Jaswant Rao Holkar 



SXib), the son of Takoji Holkar, and 

brother of Kashi Rao, whom he succeeded 
as chieftain of Indor about the year 1802. 
He made a rapid incursion into the Doab 
and committed some ravages, but was defeated 
and pursued by Lord Lake to the Sikh 
coxmti-y as far as the Bias in 1803, and all 
his territories occupied by a British force. The 
whole was restored to him at the peace. He 
became insame in 1806, and Tulshi Bai, his 
wife, was acknowledged regent. He died on 
20th October, 1811, and was succeeded by 
Malhar Rao III. his son, by a woman of low 
birth. Tulshi BaT, however, continued to 
act as regent. On the 20th December, 1816, 
a company of armed men .seized Tulshi Bai, 
conveyed her forcibly to the neighbouring 
river of Sipra, and cutting off her head on 
the bank, threw the lifeless trunk into the 

Jaswant Singh (aJIu^ L::->J».*u-r>-), 

Raja (if Jodhpur JTrirwar, .succeeded to the 
gaddi after the death of his father Takhat 
Singh in February, a.d. 1873, a.h. 1289. 




Jaswant Singh (^^ l::^3^**.^), son 

of Bahvant Singh Maharaja of Bhartpur. 
He was born on the 28th Februaiy, 1851, 
and succeeded his father on the 16th March, 
1853, when he was but two years old. 

Jaswant Singh Bundela (^s^yM.:>- 

<UJ^^iJ Axi.«c), son of Eaja Indarman. 

He held a suitable rank in the army in the 
reign of the emperor 'Alamgir, and died about 
the year a.d. 1687, a.h. 1099. After his 
death the zamindari of Urcha was conferred 
on Bhagwant Singh his sou, an infant of four 
years, with the title of fiaja, but he dving 
about the year a.d. 1693, a.h. 1105, there 
remaiued no one of the family of Rajas 
Shujan Singh or of his brother Indarman, 
to succeed him ; upon which the EanT Aniar 
Kiinwar, grandmother to the deceased prince, 
placed on the Eaja Udaut Singh, who was 
descended from Madhukar Sah, father to 
Eaja Bir Singh Deo, which was approved by 
the emperor, who conferred on him the title 
of Eaja with a suitable mansab. 

Jaswant Singh, Kunwar (; 
j^ (ijo^). Vide Par w ana. 


Jaswant Singh, Maharaja (lj:^.^-^ 
ds>-\j\^ s^^^j the celebrated Eaja 

of Jodhpiir or Marwar, of the tribe of Eathor 
Eajputs, who acted so capital a part in the 
competitions of 'Alanigir and his brother 
Dara Sliikoh whose cause he espoused, and 
was guilty of great impropriety. He was the 
son of Eaja Gaj Singh and a descendant of 
Eao Maldeo. Jaswant Singh, subsequently 
became one of the best generals of 'Alamgir, 
and held the rank of 7000 for several years. 
He died near Kabul about the 1 1th December, 
A.D. 1678, 6th Zil-qada a.h. 1089. He had 
built a fine house at Agra on the banks of 
the Jamna, the surrounding walls of which 
are still standing, and his followers brought 
his infant children and his women who did 
not burn with him, towards their native 
country. Orders were sent by the emperor 
'Alamgir to conduct them to court, where, on 
their arrival, he insisted on the children being 
made Musalmans. Upon this the riijput 
attendants determined to die rather tliau 
submit to this order, fled with their charge 
towards the Eaja's territories, and being 
pursued by the emperor's troops fought 
valiantly, and were mostly cut to pieces, but 
the women and infants arrived safe at 
Jodhpiii-; they were, however, compelled to 
take refuge in the hills and the woods, and 
on tlie death of 'Alamgir in a.d. 1707, 
regained their former possession. Ajit Singh, 
his son {q.v.), was restored to the throne of 
his ancestors in the year A.n. 1711, by the 
emperor Farrukh - siyar who married his 

Jat (i^\f>-), a tribe of HindQ labourers 

who made no figure in the Mughul empire, as 
a nation, till the reign of 'Alamgir, in whose 
expedition to the Deccan, they Avere first 
heard of as a gang of banditti, under an 
intrepid leader Chiiraman. They were then 
so daring as to harass the rear of the 
imperial army. After the death of that 
monarch they took advantage of the growing 
imijecility of the empire, and fortifying 
themselves, spread their depredations to the 
gates of Agra. Mukham Singh, who after 
the death of Chiiraman commanded the Jats 
and took upon himself the title of Raja, but 
their power increased under Badan Singh and 
Surajmal (<?.«.). 

[ Vide Churaman Jat.] 

Jawad 'Ali, Mirza i\jj^ ^£ "^^^X 

or more properly Mirza Muhammad Jawad 
'Ali Sikaudar Hashmat Bahadur, son of 
Amjad 'Ali Shah, and brother of Wajid 'Ali 
Shah, the ex-king of Lucknow. He accom- 
panied his mother, the dowager Queen of 
Audh, after the annexation of that country to 
the British possessions in 1856, to England, 
and died there after the death of his mother, 
on the 25th February, 1858, aged 30 lunar 
years. The body of the prince was trans- 
ferred from London to Paris, to be buried on 
French soil beside that of the Queen his 
mother. An immense crowd assembled to 
witness the procession, attended by Mirza 
Hamid 'Ali, the nejihew of the deceased. 

Jawahir Singh (a.^ Jb\y>-). 


Jawahir Singh (a^:^ .J&Ls^), the Jat 

Eaja of Dig and Bhartpiir, was the son of 
Siirajmal Jat. He succeeded to the Eaj after 
his father's death in December, a.d. 1763, 
A.H. 1177, was secretly murdered in 1768, 
and was succeeded by his brother Eao Ratan 
Singh, who chd not escape suspicion of having 
been accessory to his brother's murder. 
Ratan Singh reigned ten months and thirteen 
days and was stabbed by a faqir named 
Rfipanand, who pretended to transmute 
copper into gold. 
[ Vide Ratan Singh.] 

Jawahir Singh {<iSiu^ ^Jb]^:^), a Sikh 

chief who became the minister of Maharaja 
Dilip Singh after the death of Hira Singh, 
and was murdered by the troops at Lahore 
on the 21st September, a.d. 1845. Eaja 
Lai Singh succeeded him. 

Jawahir Singh, Maharaja (..ib\t_s>- 

i.>-\j[Y* ii^^si^), son of Dliyan Singh 

and nephew of Maharaja Gulab Singh, 
ruler of Kashmere. 




Jawan (J *>-), the poetical appellation 

of Mirza Qazini 'Ali, a Hindustani lyric poet, 
attached to the college of Fort William. He 
is the author of an Urdii Diwan and also of 
a Barah Masa, which he composed in a.d. 
1802, A.H. 1217. He was alive in 1812. 

Jawan Bakht, son of Shah Alam. 
[fide Jahanda Shah II.] 

Jawan Bakht, Mirza {i,j:^s:r j^U^ 

1:.^), the youngest son of Bahadur 

Shah, the ex-king of DehlT, who accom- 
panied his father to Rangoon in 1858, where 
he resided under surveillance at that place 
till his death in September, a.d. 1884. The 
British Government sanctioned the grant of 
a separate pension and an allowance of 250 
rupees to his wife Zamani Begam in a.d. 

Jaweni ( J,J»r^-), -nhose proper name 

was Abu'l Ma'ali 'Abdulmalik bin- 'Abdullah, 
was a doctor and a very celebrated meta- 
physician, who bore the title of " Imam-ul- 
Haramain." He flourished in the reign of 
Malik Shah the Saljiikide, and professed the 
doctrine of Shiifa'i at Naishapiir, where the 
famous Ghazzall (q.v.) was his disciple. He 
was the author of several works, amongst 
which are the two following : Tdrlkh J alum 
Kushde and Aqidat-ul-Nizdniiat. He died 
in A.D. 1085, A.H. 478. 

Jawera {i^^^s^), one of the •wives of 

Muhammad whom he married in the sixth 
year of the Hijra a.d. 627. She is said to 
have been a woman of great beauty, and was 
brought among the captives after a fight. 
She died about the year a.d. 670, a.h. 56. 

Jawid Khan (^^U- cy^lj^), an eunuch 

and a great favourite of the emperor Ahmad 
Shah and his mother, who raised him to the 
rank of an Amir with the title of Nawab 
Bahadur. Nawab Safdar Jang, who was 
much digusted at the influence he had over 
the emperor, invited him to an entertainment, 
and murdered him during the banquet. This 
event took place on the 28th August, o.s. 
1752, 28th Shawwal, a.h. 1165. 

Jawini ( 



). Vide Moln-uddin 

Jazari (i_? ,!::>-), surname of those who 

were born at a city called Jazarat-ul-'Umar, 
situated on the Tigris, to the northward of 
Nineveh and Mausal. One of the most 
illustrious amongst the men of letters this 
city has produced, was Ibn-Asir ul-Shaibani 
Majd-uddin, who died a.d. 1209, a.h. 606, 
and of whom we have several works. 
[Vide Ibn-Asir.] 

Jenghis Khan (^Iri- j^Cjs>-). 
Changez Khan. 


Jayesi ( ^^A:>-). Vide Malik Mu- 
hammad Jayesi. 

Jent Parkas, Lala (f^^ j L:^i.-^5>-), 

author of a poem called Dnstilr Ishq, contain- 
ing the story of Sassi and Panun in Persian 
verse. It is believed that his correct name 
is Jot Parkash. 

Jhankoji Sindhia ( ^_js-»_<l_:»_j,_5>- 

i^S'^J), son of Jiapa or Jyapa 

Sindhia, was killed in the great battle which 
took place between Ahmad Shah Abdali and 
the Marhattas on the 14th January, n.s. 
1761, at Panlpat. 

Jhanko Rao Sindhia {.\. »_^:._^_5>- 

<UAJk*->-j), also called Mukk! Eao, on 

the death of Daulat Rao Sindhia, was elected 
by his widow Baji Bai as Raja of Gwaliar, 
and was put on the masnad on the 18th Jime, 
A.D. 1827 ; but being then only nine years of 
age, Baji Bai acted as regent. He assumed 
the reins of government in a.d. 1828, reigned 
15 years and some months, and died on the 
4th February, a.d. 1843, aged 24 years. 
He was succeeded by his adopted sou Jiaji 
Sindhia the late Raja of Gwaliar, with whom 
Bija Bai appears to have resided until the 
time of the mutiny. 

Jiaji Rao Sindhia (.1. _:>-L-._:>- 
i^X^S), the late Raja of Gwaliar, 

whose name in full is, Maharaja 'Ali Jah 
Jiaji Rao Sindhia, was the adopted son of 
Jhanko Rao Sindhia, on whose death he 
succeeded to the government on the 4th 
February, a.d. 1843. His installation took 
place on the 20th January, a.d. 1844, when 
Lord Ellenborough visited the fort. He was 
made G.C.B. and a British General, and died 
in A.D. 1888. 

Jiji Begam (Xo ^^s^^), the wet- 
nurse of the Emperor Akbar, and the mother 
of Mirza 'Aziz Kuka, who was raised to a 
high rank by the emperor with the title of 
Khan 'Azim. She (lied in the year a.d. 
1599, A.H. 1008. The emperor carried her 
coffin on his shoulders and shaved his beard 
and moustache. 




Jiwan, Mulla 0-L^ ^_^i._-_r^). Vide 

^[ulhi Jhvau. 

Jodha Rao {^\. UjJ.-j^), Eaja of 

Marwar, and a descendant of SeoiT, the 
grandson of the celebrated Jaichand, the hist 
Rathor monarch of Kauanj. He, in the 
year a.d. 1432 founded the modern capital 
of Jodhpur, to which he transferred the seat 
of the government trom Mandur. 

Jodh Bai (^Ij i^^=^) (whose maiden 

name appears to be Jagat Goshaini and also 
Biilmati), was the daughter of Raja XJdai 
Singh of Jodhpur or Marwar, the son of 
Raja Maldeo. She was called Jodh Bal, 
because she was a princess of Jodhpiir. She 
was married to Mirza Salim (afterwards 
Jahangir) in a.d. 1585, a.h. 994, and 
became the mother of the Emperor Shah 
Jahan, who was born in a.d. 1592, a.h. 
1000, at Lahore. She poisoned herself at 
Agra in a.d. 1619, a.h. 1028, and was 
bm-ied in Sohagpura, a village founded by 
her, where her palace and tomb are still to 
be seen in a ruinous state. 

Jogi, Sultan (^Ikil-j (<^=r). V'ide 

Muhammad Jogi. 

Josh {L^:>-), poetical title of Ahmad 

Hasan Khan, who is familiarly called Achchhe 
Sahib. He was living in Lucknow in a.d. 
1853, a.h. 1269, and was the author of an 
Urdii Diwau. He was the son of Nawab 
Muqim Klian, the son of Nawab Muhabbat 
Khan, the son of Hafiz Rahmat Khan {q.v.). 

Joshish ((^^^^5-), poetical title of 

Muhammad Hasan or Muhammad RSshan of 
Patna, who flourished in the time of the 
Emperor Shiih 'Alam. 

Jot Parkash, Lala (p} /^^y CJ»=^), 

a Hindu Kaycth and an author. This 
appears to be the correct for Jent Parkas, 
which see. 

Jouhar (J^ ,:>-), the poetical appella- 
tion of Jawahir Singh, a Hindii, who was 
the pupil of the poet Mulla Xatiq of Xaisha- 
pur. He was the author of a Dlwan in 
Persian and Urdii, and was living in a.d. 
1851, A.H. 1267. 

Jouhar (_&.=>-), the poetical name of 

Munshi Sewa Ram of Shahjahanpur, who 
flourished in the time of Akbar Shah II. 
and was the author of several works in 
Persian, such as Jouhar-ul-TaUm, Jouhar- 
ul-Tarklh, etc. ; the last-named work he 
wrote in a.d. 1820, a.d. 1235. 

Jouhari Farabi {^}j\-i ^Jt^^-), sur- 
name of Abii Nasr Isma'il bin-Hammad. 
Although he was a Tiu-k, yet he made such 
progress in the Arabic language, which he 
studied in Mesopotamia and Egy|)t, that he 
was styled " Imam-ul-Lughat," or master of 
the language. He is the author of a very 
large Arabic Dictionary entitled Sahdh-ul- 
Liicjh'lt, the purity of the tongue. He is 
often called after this work, " Sahib-us- 
Sahah," or the author of the Sahah. He 
is commonly called Farabi or Fiirabi-al- 
Turki, because he was a native of Farab 
in Tiu-kistan. He died a.d. 1002, a.h. 
393. Some authors say that his death took 
in A.D. 992, A.H. 382, 

Jouhari Zargar (^,j ^^ib^s»-), a poet 

who flourished in the time of Sulaiman Shah 
and Arsalan Shiih of the house of Saljuq. 
He is the author of a poem containing the 
story of "Amir Ahmad and Mahasti." 

Jounpur (^,J^r>-), kings of. Vide 
Khwaja Jahan. 

Jouzi i^j^^-). Vide Abul Faraj 

Juban Chohan or Jovian, Amir 

ij^\ u;y^^), the tutor and general 

of the armies of Sidtan Abu Sa'id Klian, 
son of Aljaitii, king of Persia. He was 
put to death by Malik Ghayas-uddin Kart 
in November, a.d. 1327, Muharram, a.h. 
728, by order of the, because he 
refused to give him his daughter Ba gh dad 
Kjiatiin in marriage. 

[ Vide Ba gh dad Khatiin.] 

Juber (._^_-._^), a companion of Mu- 

Judat (ci-JJu;^), a poetical appellation. 

Jugal Kishor ( ,^.A.^ J-^^), an in- 
habitant of Dehli whose poetical name was 
Sarwat. He was wakil to the Nazim of 
Bengal for several years. 

Jughtai (^lii.'i:?-). Vide Chaghtai. 

Juji Khan (^U- ^J>-^^^ "^^^ the 

eldest son of Chingiz Khan the Tartar, from 
Avhom he had received for his share the wide 
regions of Qapchaq ; but this prince died a 
few months before his father in a.d. 1226, 
and left his territories to his son Batii 
Klian, who conquered Russia and Bulgaria, 
ravaged the countries of Poland, ]\Ioravia, 
and Dalmatia, and had marched into Hun- 
gary in order to attack Constantinople, when 
death ended his victorious career. 




Junaid Baghdad!, Shaikh {s-*-U-: 


;j\t^)), a celebrated ascetic 

whose father was a glass-blower, of Nahil- 
wand. He was born and brought up at 
Baghdad, and became one of the best disciples 
of Shafa'i, but followed the system of Suf lan 
Souri. He made thirty pilgrimages to Mecca, 
alone and on toot. He died at Baghdad in 
the year a.d. 911, a.h. 298, and was buried 
near the tomb of his master and maternal 
uncle, Sari Saqti. 

Junaid, Shaikh or Sultan (a_-._:._5>- 

(^ILx-j), third in descent from the 

celebrated Shaikh Safi-uddin Ardibeli, and 
grandfather of Shah Isma'Tl I. of Persia, 
founder of the Safwi dynasty which was 
extirpated by Nadir Shah. He was a Siifi 
or mystic philosopher, but being expelled 
from Azurbejan by the Turkman riiler Jahan 
Shah, established himself in Dayarbikar. In 
the latter period of his life, he went to 
Shirwan with his disciples, and was killed 
in A.D. 1456, A.H. 860, in a conflict with 
the troops of Amir Khalil-ullah, ruler of 
that province. 

\_Vide Isma'il I. Safwi. The book called 
Nnkkdt Bedil, written by Mii'za Bedil, con- 
tains his Memoirs.] 

Juna Shah {^{J:, lj^=r), a brother of 

Muhammad Tughlaq Shah, king of Dehli, 
who bmlt the city of Joimpur, which goes 
after his name. 

Jununi ( J^i5>-), author of a poem 

called Latdef Shoiiq, a collection of enter- 
taining and witty tales, which he composed 
in the year a.d. 1689, a.h. 1100, and 
dedicated to the emperor 'Alamgir, but 
many were rather obscene. 

Jununi, Maulana (Ij^!^^ 3^:.ri.), a 

sprightly satirical poet of Herat who flourished 
in the time of Amir Ghayas-uddln Sultan 
Husain, sou of Firoz Shah, about the 9th 
centm-y of the Hijri era. 

Jurat (tc^l^_p-), poetical title of 

Kalandar Bakhsh, a son of Tehia Aman 
and pupil of Hasrat. He was first supported 
by Nawab Muhabbat Klian, but in a.d. 1800, 
a.h. 1215, he was in the ser^'ice of prince 
Sulaiman Shikoh at Lucknow. While still 

in the prime of life he became blind, but 
became a good musician and an excellent 
player on the guitar. It appears that Jm^at 
and his family had the family name of Yehia 
Man, because they said that they were 
descended from Yehia Rai Miin, who resided 
in a street at Dehll which is close to the 
Chandni Chouk, and is still called the Rai 
Man Street. It is also stated that this Rai 
Man was executed by Nadir Shah. Jurat 
died in the year a.d. "iSlO, a.h. 1225. He 
was the author of an Urdii Diwan and two 

Jurir ( J -9-), or Abii Hazra Jarir ibn- 

Atiya, was one of the greatest and most 
celebrated poets. He flourished in the reign 
of the Klialif 'Abdulmalik of the house of 
Umayya, and received from him a handsome 
salary. He was once rewarded by the prince 
for a single panegyrical ode, with 100 camels, 
18 slaves, and a silver jug. Abii'l Faraj 
ibn-ul-Jauzi places the death of Jurir in the 
year a.d. 729, a.h. Ill, aged 80 years. 

Jurir - ibn - 'Abdullah ( ._j \ j rs- 

<d!lj^-..c), a general of the army in 

the time of 'Umar, the second Khalifa after 

Jurjani (J I; 

■), which see. 

Jurjani ( ^jlrs-.5>-), a native of Jurjan 

or Georgia. Al-Sayyad-ush-Sharif Abu'l 
Hasan (^or Husain) 'Ali was thus surnamed 
because he was born in that coimtry. He 
was one of the most celebrated Musalman 
doctors ; was born in a.d. 1339, a.h. 740, 
and died at Shiraz a d. 1413, a.h. 816. 
There have been several other authors of this 
surname, as Al-Sharif-al-Husaini, a son of 
the first, who was a famous physician and 
lived in the time of Atsiz, Sultan of the 
Khwarizmians. Also Abu'l Wafa, a mathe- 
matican, Abii Bakr bin- 'Abdul Kiihir, a 
grammarian, and Muhammad Jirjani, a 
valiant captain of the Sultau of Kliwarizm, 
and governor of the city of Herat, who was 
killed in defending that place against Tiili 
Khan, son of Changez K]ian. 

Juya (I) »:»-), poetical appellation of 

Mirza Darab Beg, a poet whose native 
country was Kashmere. He died in a.d. 
1706, A.H. 1118, and is the author of a 
Diwan. The poetical name of his brother 
Mirza Ktimran, was Guya. 




Ka'b (j.*AJ i^i\ c-^AXi), or Kaa b ibn- 

Zaliir of ilecca, was an Arabian poet, and 
author of the Qasaed Bauat Sa^dd, a poem 
in Arabic held in the highest estimation, 
containing a paneg3Tic on Muhammad. A 
translation of part of it may be found in 
Sir William Jones's second volume of the 
Asiatic Researches. The author was a Jewish 
Rabbi, contemporary and opponent of Mu- 
hammad, and had written some satirical 
verses upon him ; but afterwards being 
desirous of a reconciliation yd{\\ the prophet, 
he wrote the above poem, which had the 
desired effect. Some authors say that he 
died iu the first year of the Hijra, that is, 
A.D. 622, A.H. I. But, according to Ockley's 
History of the Saracens, " Kaa'b came in the 
ninth year of the Hijra, and made his peace 
with Muhammad with a poem in his praise." 
By this it appears that he was living in a.d. 
631. He is said to have assisted Muhammad 
greatly in the compilation of the Qm-an. 
Vide Wilkin's Biographical Dictionary under 

Ka'b-al-'Ahbar L.^.^xW 


famous traditionist of the tribe of Hamyar, 
who embraced Islamism in the reign of 'Umar, 
and died a.d. 652, a.h. 32, during the reign 
of 'Usman. 

Kabir (.-.-o), a celebrated Hindi poet, 

by trade a Musalman weaver, who, according 
to the Akbar-nama, was contemporary with 
Sikandar Shah Lodi, king of Dehli. Kabir 
was a Sufi or Deist of the most exalted senti- 
ments and of benevolence unbounded. His 
poems, which are still universally esteemed, 
inculcate the pm'est morality, good will and 
hospitality towards all men, and breathe so 
fine a spirit of toleration that both Hindus 
and Musalmans contend for the honour of his 
having been born of their religion. From 
the disinterested, yet alluriug, doctrines his 
poems contain a sect has sprung up iu 
Hindustan, under the name of Kabir PanthT, 
who are so imiversally esteemed for veracity 
and other virtues, among both Hindus and 
Musalmans, that they may be with propriety 
considered the Quakers of the country. The 
time of Kabir' s death seems involved in equal 
obscurity with the manner of his decease and 
burial. They relate that he lived a long time 
at Kasi (Benaras) and Gaya, and sojourned 
also at Jaganath, where he gave great offence 
to the Brahmans by his conduct and tolerant 
doctrine. When stricken in years, he departed 

this life among a concourse of his disciples, 
both Musalmans and Ilindiis. He is buried 
at Ratanpur, where his tomb is said to be 
seen to this dav. 

Kabir, Shaikh (;-rr-- ,^), surnamed 

Bala Pir, M-as the Shaikh Qasira Qadiri, 
whose tomb is at Chunar. Shaikh Kabir 
died at Qananj on Monday the 4th November, 
a.d. 1644, 12th Ramazan, a.h. 1054, where 
a splendid mausoleum was built on his tomb 
by one of his sons, named Shaikh Mahdi, who 
died A.D. 1677, a.h. 1088, and is also buried 

Kabir-uddin ( ,ja!1 — Ij ^^ ^^^\j^^ 

i^JjLc), son of Taj-uddln Iraqi, 

lived in the time of Sultan Ala-uddin, king 
of Dehli, and wrote a book on his conquests. 

Kabuli Mahal ( J^-* ^:'^), a wife of 

Kachhwaha, the title of the Eajas of 
Amber or Jaipur. J'ide Bhara Mai. 

Kafi (^1^), surname of Taql-nddln 

'All bin- 'All, an Arabian author who died in 
the year a.d. 1355, a.h. 756. His name is 
spelt in some of oiu- biographical dictionaries, 

Kafl or Kami (^^), poetical name of 

Mirza 'Ala-uddaula, who flom-ished in the 
reign of the emperor Akbar. 

[ Vide Ala-uddaula (Mirza) and Kami.] 

Kafi ( Jl^), whose proper name was 

Kifayet 'All, was a poet of Muradabad, and 
author of the Bahdr Khuld, which is a trans- 
lation of the Shiimel. 

Kafi-ul-Kafat (cjU^\ ^5-*^^- ^^^^ 

Kafur, Malik (t_sl.^ i^^X a favourite 

eunuch of Sultan 'Ala-uddln Kliilji, king of 
Dehli, probably of Hiudii birth, who was 
raised to the high rank of wazlr. After the 
kings death the first step which the traitor 
took was to send a person to Gwaliar, to put 
out the eyes of Khizir Kluln and Shadi Khan, 
the two sons of the deceased Sultan. His 




orders were inhumanly executed. He then 
placed Shahab-uddin, the king's youngest 
son (a boy of seven years of age) on the 
throne, and began his administration ; but 
was assassinated thirty-five days after the 
king's death, in January, a.d. 1317, a.h. 
716, when Mubarik, the third son of the 
king, was raised to the throne. 

Kahaj Tabrezi, Shaikh i^^j: —j ^ 

:^'^), a learned Musalman who held 

the office of Shaikh -ul - Islam at Tabrez during 
the reign of Sultan Awis and Sultan Husain 
of Baghdad. He was the author of a Diwan. 

Kahi (Jb^). 

Vide Qasim Kahl. 

Kaikaus (^^^IL-O, second king of the 

Kayauian djTiasty of Persia, was the son of 
Kaiqubiid. He was vain and proud ; and 
appears to have been in continual distress 
from the unfortunate result of schemes that 
his ambition led him to form, but which he 
wanted ability to execute. His life is con- 
nected with a thousand fables, which though 
improper in this place form excellent materials 
for FirdausI, who has given, in his history of 
this period, the extraordinary and affecting 
tale of the combat between Kustam and his 
unknown son, Suhrab, who is killed by his 
father. This part of the Shah-nama has been 
translated in English verse by J. Atkinson, 
Assistant Surgeon on the Bengal Establish- 
ment, and member of the Asiatic Society in 
1814. Kaikaiis, when grown old, resigned his 
crown in favour of his grandson Kaikhusro, 
the son of Siawakhsh (corresponds to Cam- 
byses I. ; vide Achaemenis). 

Kaikaus, Amir (^ , tf.K-.O, grand- 

son of Qabiis, prince of Jurjan, and one of 
the noblemen who lived at the court of Sultan 
Maudiid, the grandson of Sultan Mahmud of 
Ghazni. He is the author of the work called 

Kaikhusro (, .^^\'i), the third king 

of the Kayanian djuasty of Persia and the 
grandson of Kaikaus. He ascended the throne 
in the lifetime of his father, who resigned the 
crown in his favom\ He had several battles 
with Afrasiab the king of Turan, who was 
at last defeated, taken prisoner, and slain. 
Soon after these events Kaikhusro resolved to 
devote the remainder of his life to religious 
retirement : he delivered over Kabul, Ziibu- 
listiln and Ximroz to Rustam, as hereditary 
possessions ; and resigned his throne to 
Luhrasp, the son-in-law of Kaikaus and his 
own son by adoption and affection. After 
these arrangements, he went, accompanied by 
some nobles, to a spring which he had fixed 
upon as the place of his repose. Here he 
disappeared, and all those that went with him 
were destroyed on their return by a violent 
tempest. He lived 90 years and reigned 60. 

Kaikhusro (^^.^-irvJ'), the son of 

Sultan Muhammad Khan, governor of Multan, 
who was the eldest son of Sultan Ghayas- 
uddin Balban, king of Dehll. Alter his 
father's death in a.d. 1285 he was made 
governor of Multan by his grandfather, and 
after his decease in a.d. 1286 was murdered 
at Rohtak by Malik iS'izam-uddin, wazir of 
Kaicpibad, who ascended the throne as king 
of DehlT. 

Kaiomurs (^»^^^^), the first monarch 

of Persia, according to all Muhammadan 
writers. This king is stated to have re- 
claimed his subjects from a state of the most 
savage barbarity. They say he was the grand- 
son of Noah, and the founder of the first 
dynasty of Persian kings, called Pishdadian. 
His son Siamak was killed in one of the 
battles with the barbarians or Devs ; and 
when that monarch carried Hoshang, the 
infant son of Siawak, to share in the revenge 
he meant to take upon his enemies, his army 
was joined by all the lions, tigers and panthers 
in his dominions, and the Devs were routed 
and torn to pieces by the auxiliaries, who 
had left their native forest to aid the just 
king. After this victory, Kaiomtu's returned 
to his capital Balkh. He reigned 30 years, 
and was succeeded by his grandson Hoshang. 

The following is a list of kings of the first 
or Pishdadian dynasty: — 

1. Kaiomurs. 

2. Hoshang. 

3. Tuhmurs, surnamed Deoband. 

4. Jamshed, reigned at PersipoKs. 

5. Zuhak, sm-named Alwani. 

6. Faridiiu, restored by Kawa. 

7. Maniichchr. 

8. Naudar or Nauzar. 

9. Afrasiab, king of Turkistan. 

10. Zab, brother of Xaudar. 

11. Garshasp. 

Kaiqubad (jlJL^), the founder of the 

second or Kayanian dynasty of the kings of 
Persia, was a lineal descendant of Manuchchr, 
according to some accounts he was his great- 
grandson. This prince had retired to the 
mountain of Alburz, from which place he was 
brought by Rustam the son of Zal and pro- 
claimed king of Persia. He committed the 
administration of government into the hands 
of Zal, whose son Rustam was appointed to 
lead the Persians against the dreaded Afrasiab, 
who had again passed the Oxus and invaded 
Persia. In this battle Rustam overcame 
Afrasiab, and afterwards a peace was con- 
cluded, by which it was agreed that the Oxus 
should remain as it had been heretofore, the 
boundarv between the two kingdoms. Kai- 
qubad lived some time after this in peace : he 
is said to have reigned 120 years, and to have 
left four sons — Kaikaiis, Arish, Rum and 
Armen. To the former he becpiiathcd his 
throne, and enjoined all the others to obey him. 




Legendary list of lings of the second or 
Kayanian dynasty. 

1. Kniqiihad. 

2. Kiiikfius. 

3. Kailihusro. 

4. Lulirfis]). 

5. Guslitasp or Darius. 

6. Islaiidiar. 

7. BahiiiaiiorArilislierDarazdast(Xerxes). 

8. Ilnmai, daun'htcr aud wife of Bahman. 

9. Dariib or Dara, son of Bahman. 

10. Dara, sou of Darab (Darius overcome 

by Alexander the Great). 
\_Tidc Achaemeues.] 

Kaiqubad (jljij.0, surnamed Mu izz- 

uddTn, the grandson of Sultan Ghayas-uddin 
Balban, whom he succeeded in a.d. 1286, 
A.H. 685, on the throne of Dehli in the 
absence of his lather Nasir-uddm Ba gli ra 
K^ian, who was then in Bengal. In the year 
A.D. 1287, A.H. 686, his father, having heard 
the state of affairs at Dehli, marched from 
Bengal to visit aud advise his son. They met 
on the banks of the Ghagra at Behar, and the 
whole scene was so affecting that almost all 
the court shed tears. On this occasion the 
celebrated poet Amir K}iwsro wrote the poem 
called the Kirnn-i<s-Sadain , or the conjunc- 
tion of the two planets. Kaiqubad was 
assassinated in a.d. 1288 through the instiga- 
tion of the Firoz Malik Khilji, who ascended 
the throne by the title of Jalal-uddin Firoz 
Shah Khilji, and became the first Sultan of 
the second branch of the Turk dynasty called 

Kaiuk Khan (^l. 



Kakafi ( ^sS^). Vide Alimad bin- 

Idi'is. He is mentioned in some of our 
Biographical Dictionaries uuder the name of 

Kakafi { kS^). Fide Ahmad bin- 

Kalb Ali Khan (^U 



Nawab of Rampiir in 1869-70. 

Kalb Husain Khan, Mirza (v.^_i_$' 
^\j^ (jlr>- |.*>ao>-), Deputy Collector 

of Etiiwah, the sonof Ahtaram-uddaula Dabir- 
ul-Mulk Kalb 'Ali KJiiin Bahadm-. He is 
the author of four Diwans and a biography 
called Shaukat Nddirl. He was living in 
a.d. 1864, AM. 1281. 

Kalhana (£i..jL,^LO, a Brahman and 

author of a history of Kashmere, called Rffja- 
t(tr(uiyini. There arc four chronicles of the 
history of Kashmere written in Sanskrit verse ; 
the first by Kalhauii, bringing the history of 

Kashmere to about 1148 after Christ; the 
seciuid, a continuation of the former, by 
Jauaraja, to a.d. 1412 ; the third, a con- 
tinuation of the second, l)y Srivara, a pupil 
of Jauaraja, to a.d. 1477; and the fourth, by 
Prajyabhatta, from that date to the conquest 
of the valley by the emperor Akbar. The 
author of the work, the Pandit Kalhana, of 
whom we merely know that ho was the sou 
of Champaka, and lived about a.d. 1150, 
imder the reign of Siiilia Deva of Kashmere — - 
reports that before entering on his task he 
had studied eleven historical works written 
previously to his time, and also a history of 
Kashmere by the sage XTla, which seems to 
be the oldest of all. Kalhana begins his 
work with the mythological history of the 
country; the first king named by him is 
Gouarda, who, according to his chronology, 
would have reigned in the year b.c. 2448, and 
the last mentioned by him is Siiiha Deva, 
about 1150 after Christ. 

Kali Das (j^b ^__j^), a celebrated 

Hindii poet traditionally said to have lived 
towards the commencement of the Christian 
era, aud to have been one of the nine .splendid 
gems that adorned the court of Raja Bikar- 
majit (Yikramaditya) . Some sav that he 
flourished iu the time of Raja Bhu] (1040-90 
A.D.). He wrote the Nalodia for the purpose 
of exhibiting his unbounded skill in alliter- 
ation. In four hooks, contaiuiug on the 
average fifty-four stanzas each, he has given 
such illustrations of tliis art as can never be 
surpassed. This work has been published in 
Europe, with a Latin translation by a con- 
tiueutal scholar, Ferdiuaudus Beuary. No 
reason can be imagined why Kali Das should 
again ■write the history of Nala aud Damayanti, 
after it had been so elegantly written in 
flo\ring verse by Vyasa Deva, except that he 
intended in this simple story to shew forth 
his ingenuity in alliteration. He is also the 
author of the poem called Kiimarn Sambhava, 
aud of another called JIa/id Xdtn/c. 

Kalim (*._^_i_^), the poetical name of 

Abii Talib Kalim, which see. 

Kalim-ullah (^l^^.^, a title of 
Moses the prophet. 

Kalim-ullah (dULAO, the last king 

of the Bahmani dynasty of Kulbarga or 
Ahmadabad Bidar in the Dcccan. He was 
expelled in a.d. 1527 by Amir Barid his 
Avazir, who mounted the throue and took 
possession of that kingdom. 

Kalim-ullah (a.U^*J,i), author of a 

work called Eashkol Tasaiiwaf an exposition 
of the mystical phrases of the Sufis. 




Kali Sahib (» -.5^ La ,J^), surname 

of ffluilfim Nasir-iiddin, the son of Maiilanfi 
Qiitli-iiddm, the son of Manlana Faklir- 
uddln. Although he was the Murshid or 
spiritual guide of the king of Dehli, he 
preferred the habit of a Derwish. He died 
in A.D. 1852, A.H. 1268. 

Kamal ( JUO, a poet of Isfahan. 

Kamal (JUO, poetical title of Mir 

Kamal 'Ali of Gaya Manpiir. He wrote 
Persian and Eeklita verses, and is the author 
of a large work called Kiniifd-iiI-Hikmat, on 
philosophy, and one called Clialtardah Bariid, 
i.e. the fourteen blessings, containing an 
account of the Imams. He died in a.d. 
1800, A.H. 1215, and the chronogram of the 
Hijrl year of his death is contained in the 
word Daregha. 

Kamal Ghayas, Maulana (JL..4,_^ 
(_cji_»^ \j^ly» (^Li.), of Shiraz, a 

poet and physician who flourished in the time 
of Ibrahim Sultan. 

Kamal Khan, Gikhar (I, 

j^>^) prince of the Gikhars, was the 

son of Sultan Sarang, the son of Malik Kalan 
II. the son of Malik Kalan I. the son of Malik 
Khar, who was the founder of the principality 
of the Gikhars. Their country lies among 
the moimtains between Bhat and Sindh, which 
formerly belonged to the government of Kash- 
mere. Malik Kalan II. had several battles 
with Sher Shah, but was at last taken prisoner 
and put to death by that monarch, and his 
son or grandson Kamal Ivhan imprisoned in 
the fortress of Gwaliar. He was, however, 
after some years released by Salim Shah the 
son of Sher Shah, but during his confinement 
his uncle Sultan Adam had taken possession 
of the country. In the fii'st year of the reign 
of Akbar he was introduced to that monarch 
and was employed in his service. He by 
degrees rose to the rank of 5000, and was 
afterwards put in possession of his dominions 
by that emperor, and Sultan Adam his uncle 
taken prisoner and made over to Kamal Tv^ian, 
who put him in confinement, where he died. 
Kamal Klian, who became tributary to Akbar, 
died in a.d. 15G2, a.h. 970. 

Kamal Khujandi {^^ Jl-^-O. 
Vide Kamal -uddin Klmjandi. 

Kamal Qazi ( ^..jlj JU.O. Vide 
Abul-Fath Bil-rrimi. 

Kamal-uddin 'Abdul Razzaq, Shaikh 

{::^J^ ^\\)\s^z ^^jjJ^ JU^), is the 

author of several works, among which are the 
following : Tafslr Tdwllut, Kitdh Istildhdt 
Sfifln, Sharah FasuS'Ul-Hdcam, Shark Ma- 
nTizib-iil-Silhir'ni, etc. lie was a contemporary 
of Shaikji Rukn-uddiu 'Ala-uddaula. He 
died in a.d. 14S2, a.h. 887. 

[ Vide 'Abdul Razzaq.] 

Kamal-uddin Isma'il ( .^s\\A\^ 

J.^.'t^-jl), son of Jamal-iiddln Mu- 

hummad 'Abdul Razzaq, of Isfahan, a cele- 
brated poet of Persia, styled Malik-ush- 
Shu'ilra, that is to say, king of the poets, 
and is the author of a Diwan. In the year 
A.D. 1237, 2nd Jumada I. a.h. 635, on the 
21st December, when (Jcj^tai Kliilu, the son 
of Changez Khan, invaded Isfahan and 
massacred the inhabitants of that city, he 
also fell a martyr. It is said that he was 
tortured to death by the Mugliuls, who 
expected to find hidden property in his 

Kamal - uddin Khujandi, Shaikh 


jjJ^jU.i), was a 

great Shaikh and IjTic poet, and a contemporary 
of Hafiz, who, though they never saw each 
other, much esteemed him, considering him 
and Salman Siiwaji as amongst the first poets 
of their time. He is commonly called Kamal 
Ivhujandi, born at Khujand, a town situated 
in one of the most beautiful and fertile districts 
of Persia. After having made the pilgrimage 
to Mecca he settled at Tabrez, a place which 
he foimd extremely agreeable during the reign 
of the princes of the family of Jalaj'er. The 
principal personages of Tabrez became his 
pupils, and he led a life of literary ease and 
enjoymeut; but when Tuqtamish Ivban sur- 
prised Tabrez, Shaikh Kamal was made 
prisoner, and was carried to Serai in Kajjjak 
by order of Mangd Ivhiin the grandson of 
Changez Klian, where lie remained four years, 
after which he was permitted to return to 
Tabrez, near which city the Sultan Awes 
Jalayer built him a house. Kamal did not 
sing the praise of princes in Qasida, nor did 
he write Masnawis, but only Gliazals and 
fragments. He died in the year a.d. 1390, 
a.h. 792, and was buried at Tabrez. A MS. 
of the Diwan of Kamal, which had been the 
property of a Sultan, is possessed by the 
Imperial Library at Vienna, and is a great 
treasm-e as a specimen of splendid writing, 
and also for the superbly executed miniatures 
which adorn it, illustrating the poems. These 
pictures are not more than a sipiare inch in 
size : there are two on each side of the con- 
cluding verse ; and though so small, represent 
with the greatest correctness, either alle- 
gorically or simply, the meaning of the poet. 
— Lublin University Magazine, 1810. 




Kamal - uddin Masa'ud, Maulana 

of Shlrwan, a oelebrated logician and author 
of the marginal notes on the Sharah ilikmat 

Kamal - uddin Muhammad-al-Siwasi 

( ^-j'»aJ\ SA-Si'^ irj:! ^' ^ J ^'♦•- \ com- 
monly called Ilumam and Ibn - Ilumam, 
author of a commentary on the Hidaya 
entitled Fath-ul-Qudir HI ^Ajiz-al-Faqlr. It 
is the most comprehensive of all the comments 
on the Ilidili/a, and includes a collection of 
decisions which render it extremely useful. 
He died in a.d. 1457, a.h. 861. 

[ Vide Humam and Ibn-IIumam.] 

Kamal-uddin Muhammad bin-'Abdul 
Muna'im Jujari, Shaikh (^ jjl JU.^ 

an author who died in a.d. 1484, a.h. 889. 

Kamal-uddin Muhammad, Khwaja 

(^;»-l^^ J..^»-jsr* ^.i^sl\J)\.^), ibn- 

Ghayas-uddin Shirazi, was a physician and a 
poet, and flourished in the time of Sultan 
Ibrahim Mirza. For his poetical title he 
used Ibn-Ghayas. 

Kamal-uddin Musa bin-Yunas bin- 
Malik (jj^j^_ ^i J^-'r* CiJ.-'.'^'U^ 
« nLi» ^^i), name of an Imam, who 

■was one of the most celebrated Musalraau 

Kamal-uddin Shah (il^ .,ja11 \\^). 
Vide Lutf-ullah. 

Kam Bakhsh (prince) (jil_sru^l^ 
}iS\j^), youngest son of the emperor 

'Alamgir, a vain and violent young man, 
who had received from his father "the kingdom 
of the Deccan, but as he refused to acknow- 
ledge the sovereignty of the emperor Bahadur 
Shah, his eldest brother, and struck coin in 
his own name, that monarch, after attempting 
in vain to win him over by concessions, 
marched against him with a powerful army to 
the Deccan, and dcfcnted him in a battle near 
Ilaidarfibrwl, where K;lm Bakhsh died of his 
wounds on the same day in the month of 
February or March, a.d. 1708, Zil-hijja, 
A.H. 1119. His mother's name was Udaipurl 
Muhal, and he was born on the 25th 
February, a.d. 1667, 10th Itamazan, a.h. 

Kami ( ^IS), -whose proper name is 

Mirza Ala-uddaula Qazwini, was the son of 
Mir Yahya bin-'Abdul Lat.Tf, and is the 
author of the work called Nafdis-ul-Mdsir, 
a Biographical Dictionary of Persian poets. 
It contains notices of about 350 poets in 
alphabetical order. Most of them flourished 
in India during the reign of Akbar, to whom 
the book is dedicated. It was flnished in 
A.D. 1571, A H. 979, but there occur much 
later dates in it. He is supposed by some to 
have died in a.d. 1563, a.h. 97i", and by 
others in a.d. 15?3, a.h. 981, but the latter 
date appears to be correct. The discrepancy 
arises from the chronogram of his death, in 
which the number of the last word is con- 
sidered by some to be 60 and by others 70, 
a difference of ten years. 

[ Vide Yahya bin-'Abdul Latif.] 

Kamil (J,,l^), author of a poetical 

work, entitled Chirdghudma. It consists of 
Ghazals all of which rhyme in Chira gh 
(lamp), and the first letter of every verse of 
the first Ghazal is 1 or A, of the second <_> or 
B, and so on. 

Kamran Mirza {\-^ J^j^^), second 

son of the emperor Babar Shah, and brother 
to the emperor Humayiin, who, after his 
accession to the throne in a.d. 1530, a.h. 
937, conferred on him the government of 
Kilbul, Qandahar, Gliazni and the Panjab. 
lie was deprived of bis sight by Humayiin 
when at Kabul in the year a.d. 1553, a.h. 
960, on account of his repeated offences, and 
continually raising disturbances in the govern- 
ment. The operation was performed by 
piercing his eyes repeatedly with a lancet. 
Kamran bore the torture without a groan 
until lemon-juice and salt were squeezed 
into his eyes, when he called out "0 Lord 
my God ! whatever sins I have committed I 
have been amply punished in this world, have 
compassion on me in the next." Kamran 
eventually obtained permission to proceed to 
Mecca, where he resided three years and died 
a natural death in a.d. 1556, a.h. 964. He 
left three daughters and one son, named 
Abu'l Qasim Mirza, who was imprisoned in 
the fort of Gwaliar, and put to death by 
order of the emperor Akbar, his cousin, in 
the year a.d. 1565, a.h. 973. 

Kamran Shah (^.L^ ^^j-^"^), the 

present ruler of Herat, is the son of Mahmiid 
Shah, the son of Timiir Shah, the son of 
Ahmad Shah Abdali. On the death of his 
father, Mahmiid Shah (in a.d. 1829), he 
succeeded him on the throne of Herat. 

Kapurthala Rajah. Vide Nihal Singh, 

Karam (/♦i^), author of the Barhae 

Ilaidnrl, a history of .-\li and his son Ilusain 
in verse, composed in a.d. 1723, a.h. 1135. 




Karim (>J^0, poetical name of Mir 

Muhammad Kazim the son of Fikr. lie 
flourislied iu the time of Kiitljshah of the 
Deccan, and is the author of a Diwau. 

Karim Khan (^l_>- ♦.j^-O, tlie 

murderer of Mr. W. Fraser, Commissioner of 
Dehli. See Shams-iiddin Kliau (uawab). 

Karim Khan (^Id^ f^\J^^> ^ '^'^M'^^'^ 

chief, who surrendered himself to the British 
Government on the loth February, 1818, and 
received for his support the Tfdiiqa of 
Bui'hiapar iu the Gorakhpiir district, -which 
was held by his descendants up to the 
mutiny in 1857. 

Karim Khan Zand (jj • ^\z 



The history of Persia, from the death of 
Nadir Shah till the elevation of 'Aqa Muham- 
mad, though it occupies nearly half a centiu-y, 
presents no one striking feature, except the 
life of Karim Klian, a chief of the tribe of 
Zand. He collected an army chiefly composed 
of the different tribes of Zand and Mafi, 
defeated the Afghans in several engagements, 
finally drove them out of the country, and 
secured to himself the kingdom of Fars, or 
the southern division of Persia, while 
Khurasan partially remained in possession of 
the descendants of Nadir Shah ; and the 
countries bordering on the Caspian Sea were 
retained by Muhammad Hasan Khan Qajfir, 
ruler of Maziudariin, the great-grandfathn- of 
'Aqa Muhammad Shah (jajar. Karim Kliau, 
after subduing his enemies, enjoj'ed inde- 
pendent power for twenty-six years; and 
during the last twenty, viz. from 17-59 to 
1779, he had been, without a competitor, the 
acknowledged ruler of Persia. His capital 
was Shiraz. He died at an advanced period 
of life on the 2nd March, a.d. 1779, 13th 
Safar, a.h. 1193, being nearly 80 years of 
age. After his death ZakT Ivhan assumed the 
reins of government, and was assassinated two 
months after. Sadiq Khan, brother of Karim 
Khan, took possession of Shiraz after the 
death of Zaki Khan, and was put to death on 
the 14th March, a.d. 1781, 18th llabi' I. 
A.H. 1195, by 'All Miirad Klian, who now 
became the sovereign of Persia, and died on 
the nth January, a.d. 1785, 28th Safar, 
A.H. 1199. After his death Lutf 'Ali Klulu 
reigned for some years at Shiraz. He was 
defeated in 179'! and slain afterwards by 
'Aqa Muhammad Klian Qajar, who took 
possession of the throne of Persia. 

Karim - uddin, Professor in Agra 

College, published in 1845 an Urdii Anthology 
which became very popidar. It is prefaced 
by a dissertation. 

Karshasp (( .vmjI^-^), or Garshasp, 

the son of Zii, and the last king of the first 
or Pishdadian dynasty of Persia. 
[Vide Zu.] 

Kart (lU^), kings of the dynasty of. 
Vide Shams-nddin Kart I. 

Kashfi ( iiAi), the poetical name of 

Shah Muhammad Salamat-ullah. He is the 
author of a Diwiin iu Persian, which was 
printed and published before his death in 
A.H. 1279. 

Kashfi ( ^i.A^), takhullus of Mir Mu- 
hammad Salah, who flourished iu the reign 
of the emperor Jahanglr, and is the author of 
a Tarjihband called 3Iajmua^ Riiz, which he 
composed in A.D. 1621, a.h. 1030, containing 
270 verses. He died in the year a.d. 1650, 
A.H 1060, at Agra, and has buried there. 

Kashi, Mulla (L* ,<-i'^), surname of 

Kamal-uddin Abdii'l Ghanam 'Abdul Razzaq 
bin-Jamal-uddin, a celebrated doctor, placed 
amongst the Musalman saints, was author of 
several works. He died yoimg about the 
year a.d. 1320, a.h. 720. 

Kashi Rao Holkar {JXib ^j ^^^'^), 

the eldest of the four sous of Tukaji Holkar, 
after whose death in a.d. 1797 disputes arose 
between Kashi Rao and his brother Mulhar 
Pao, and both repaired to the court of the 
Peshwa at Puna, where, on their arrival, 
Daulat Eao Siudhia, with a view of usurijing 
the possessions of the family, espoused the 
cause of Kashi Rao, and macle a sudden and 
unexpected attack in the month of September 
on Mulhar Rao, whom he slew with most of 
his adherents. After this, Siudhia pretended 
to govern the possessions of the Holkar family 
in the name of Kashi Rao, whom he kept in 
a state of dependence and appropriated the 
revenue to his own use. A long contest 
ensued between Daulat Rao and Jaswant Rao 
Holkar, the brother of Kashi Riio, and con- 
tinued till the year a.d. 1802, when Jaswant 
Rao appears to have taken possession of Indor, 
the territory of his father. 

Kashifi ( Ji^^), the poetical name 

of Maulana Ilusain bin-All, also known by 
that of Waez or the preacher. He wrote a 
full commentary on the Quran in the Persian 
language. He M'as a preacher at the royal 
town of Herat in Kimrasan. He died in 

A.D. 1505, A.H. 910. 

\_Vide Ilusain Waez.] 





Kashmere, kin"s of. Vide Shah Mir. 

Kasir {\'z f-ii), or Kathir Azza, one 

of the celebrated Arabian poets of the court 
of the Klialif 'Abdul Malik. Vide Jamil. 

Kathir {^^<). Vide Kasir. 

Katibi {^\^y et'^^), poetical name 

of ]\raulaua Sliams-uddin Muhammad bin- 
'Abdullah-al-Xaishapiii'i and Tarshizi. He 
■wrote a very beautiful hand, on wliich account 
he assumed the title of " Katibi." He came 
to Herat in the reign of Baisangliar Mirza, 
and afterwards became one of the best poets 
of the coiu"ts of the pi-ince Sultan Mirza 
Ibrahim of Shirwan, in whose praise he once 
■wrote a panegyric, and received from that 
prince a present