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r.V 1111: LATE 







author of The Fall of the Moghul Empire, etc. 



IPublisfjenj to tf>e Intoia 2Dffice, 






i-hin l BO Bl -i i i in s a i BT» 


Tin: substance of this Dictionary was collected by Mr. T. W. 
Beale, formerly a Clerk in the office of the Board of Kevenue, 
N.W.P., at a time when the Secretary was Henry Myers Klliot, 
afterwards well known as Sir II. M. Elliot, ELC.B. It is pro- 
bable that, in preparing his extracts from the Muhammadan 
Histories of India, Elliot availed himself of the aid of Mr. 
Beale, of whose scholarship Pn»i'. I) wsmi makes justly deserved 
mention in the eighth volume of his valuable edition of Elliot's 
work.* Mr. Beale died at Agra, at a very advanced age, in the 
summer of L875; having before his death expressed a wish that 
I would see his MS. through the press, and reduce the trans- 
literation into conformity with the system then recently adopted 
by the Government of India, and founded (as 1 need hardly 
observe) upon the system of Sir W. Joni 

Accordingly, on the oth October of that year I laid the MS. 
before Sir John Strachey, the then Lieut. -Governor, in a letter 
from which the following is an extract : — 

" This is no ordinary book. I have used it as a work of 
reference for years : and have lately had an opportunity of 
showing it to the eminent scholar Mr. E. B. Eastwick, C.B., 
who, I am authorised to say, concurs with me in thinking that 
the Dictionary will be of unique value to oriental students." 

Sir J. Strachey took up the subject with that enlightened 
energy which always actuated him in dealing with the past 
history of the country over whose administration he then pre- 
sided. The j\IS. and copyright were acquired at the expense 

* " The History of India, by its own Historians," Tiiibner and Co., 1877. 


of Government; and it was ultimately resolved— in view of the 
importance of the work and my own official occupations-r-thal 
the editing should be entrusted to the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 

The Society confided the labour of seeing the Dictionary 
through the press to their Philological Secretary, Principal Bloch- 
mann, of whose qualifications it would be presumptuous I 
more than that they have an OBCumenical reputation. That dis- 
tinguished man (of whom it has been observed by Oounl von 
Nocr that he united tin' enthusiasm of an art i-t to the mosl 
patient accuracy of research*) undertook the task with liis cha- 
racteristic earnestness and ability. Bui unhappily for oriental 
scholarship Mr. Blochmann's Lamented death occurred before he 
had completed the preparation of more than a few Bheets; and 
the duty ultimately reverted to the presenl Editor. 

The substance, as already Btated, is almost entirely Mr. 
Eeale's; audi cannot el"-'' this notice more fitly than by giving 
the following extract from tie- preface originally drafted by 
himself : — 

"In preparing a work of this nature, intended to be used 
as a work of reference on matters connected with Oriental Hi>- 
tory, it is proper to state that the greatesl care has been taken 
to ensure accuracy in the narrative, a- also in the dates of birth-, 
deaths, and other events recorded. . . . Various MSS. have been 
collated whenever discrepancy was oloerved . . . . To remove 
all doubt, chronograms indicating the dates with a certainty not 
to be found by any other method and written when the events 
were fresh in the minds of men, have been inserted, when 

I may, however, add that it has been judged expedient to omit 
these chronograms, for the most part, in printing the book. In 
the chapter of Mr. Dowson's book already cited, will be found 
an account of this species of memoria technica. But it is chiefly 

* " Kaiser Akbar," Leyden, 1880. [Since the above was written the illustrious author quoted 
has himself died.] 


interesting as machinery for producing a certain result ; and 
when the result has been produced is not of much more use 
than the scaffolding of a building when the building is complete. 

This notice may well terminate with a repetition of Mr. 
Beale's guarantee of accuracy : and with an appeal to scholars 
of larger leisure and opportunities for an indulgent treatment 
of a work originated by a man who hail never been in Europe 
nor enjoyed the use of a complete Library. Mr. Beale had, 
however, drawn up a list of more than thirty books in various 
languages which had furnished him with materials. In addition 
I have from time to time referred to the translation of the 
A! a AJcbari and its invaluable notes by the late Mr. Bloch- 
mann, of which the First Volume (never, alas, continued) was 
published in Calcutta some years ago; also to the works of 
Garcin de Tassy and the Baron McG. de Slanc 

One word more a-- to the inexhaustible subject of trans- 
literation. The English, as is well-known, have three methods; 
the Haphazard (which indeed is no method at all); the Gil- 
christian ; and the popularised Jonesian introduced by the Go- 
vernment of India under the inspiration of Sir W. W. Hunter. 
None of these is quite satisfactory. The French adopt a system 
of their own, and so do the Germans. Mr. Beale had followed 
an orthography, compounded of the two first-named elements, 
which has been conformed to the third method in printing these 
pages. The principle is, mainly, to accentuate the long vowels 
and to express the other vowels by the English sounds in 
"rttimhant" and "obey." G is always to be pronounced hard, 
as in "//ive." For the convenience of Continental European 
scholars the names have also been printed in the Persian 
character : and it is hoped that no practical difficulty will 
be experienced by those who may have occasion to use the 


Tins work has been carefully revised and much amplified: 
and now appears, for the first time, as an English publication. 
The fresh additions to Mr. Beale's matter arc chiefly taken from 
Ibn Khalikan and the works of Garcin de Tassy, with occasional 
references to Blochmann, von Noer, and some historical books 
by the Editor himself and other recent authors, li Lb still far 
from complete ; but great pains have been taken to make it a 
trustworthy and useful work of reference to Btudents oi Eastern 
history. "The Imperial Gazetteer of [ndia," 2nd edition, l v 
has been consulted throughout. 

It must be understood that Anglo-Indian lives have been 
omitted: they will be found, in Borne instances from the pen 
of the present Editor, in the Dictionary of National Biography. 
to have included them here would have made the book too 
bulky. Similarly, Chinese matter is excluded) indeed, Sinoli 
forms a distinct department of research. 


A A/7 


A'azz-Ucldin (^jJjJI j-c^), Prince, 

•ml aon of Shah •Ainu Bahadur Shah. Be 
\\ is born on the 17th Z -Qa'da L07 1. and 
appears to have died early. 

A'azz-Uddin (^jJI Lxt), son of 

Mu'izz-uddin Jahandar Shah, emperor ol 
Dehli. Be was blinded and imprisoned by 
Farrukh-aiyaX) in the end oi a.h. 1 lJi. 

AbaBakr^ \j\), Mirza or Sultan, 

tin son ol Shahrukh Mirza, the son of Amir 
Timur. II. was murdered by order oi his 
brother Mirza (Thigh Beg, a.d. 1448 (a.h. 

Aba Qaan or Abqa Khan or Abaqa 

Khan '^' 'J W or ^[^ U^), a king 

of Persia, of the tril i Mughula or Tai I 

and d( sceudant ol Chir K di d 

his father Bulaku Khan in February, ad. 
1265 Rabi'-u.s-§anl, a.h. nd was 

iwn< d "ii Friday the 19th June following 
(3rd Bamazan . Bi was a prince who added 
to the qualifications oi courage and wisdom 
those "i moderation, clemency, and jusi 
II- ambassadors were introduced in 1-7 1 
to the ecclesiastical Synod at Lyons. Be 
proved a somewhat formidable neighbour to 
the Christians who settled at Jerusalem. The 
intrigues of his court embittered the latter 
yi are oi his n ign ; and las days were believed 
by many to have been shortened by poison 
given to him by his minister Khwaia Shams- 
uddTu Muhammad, which occasioned his death 
on Wednesday the 1st April, a.d 1282 20th 
Zil-bijja, a.h. 080 , after a reign of 17 j 
and some months. lit- had married the 
daughter ol Michael Palseologus, emperor of 
I onstantinople, who had been betrothed to 
his father, but arrived at Maragha in Tabriz, 
the seat of his government, alter the death 
of that prince. Aba Khan was succeeded 
by his brother. Nekodar Khan (q.v.), who 
embraced Muhammadanism, and took the title 
of Ahmad. 

'Abbas (^Lc), the son of 'Abd-ul- 

Muttalib, and uncle of the prophet Muham- 
mad. He at first opposed the ambitious 
views of bis nephew, but when defeated iu 
the battle of Badr, he was reconciled to him, 
•warmly embraced his religion, aud thanked 
heaven for the prosperity aud the grace which 
he enjoyed as a Musalman. He" served the 
cause of Muhammad at the battle of Huuain 

by recalling his dismayed troops to the cha 
and inciting them boldly to rally round their 
prophet, who was near expiring under the 
scimitars ol the §akafites. II'- died on the 
•Jl-t ol February, a.d. 653 (17th I; ib, \.n. 
; and Ion lunar yi ars after Abul-'Abbas, 
surnamed A- Saffah, one of hi- descendants, 
laid the foundation of the 'Abbasi or Abbaside 
family of the Caliphs in Ba gh dad, which con- 
tinned tor 524 lunar years. The tomb of 
'Abba a i- in Madina. 

'Abbasa («!LaLx), a Bister <>i' Harun-ur- 

iiid, the Khalifa of Baghdad, who bestowed 
her hand on .la-tar Barmaki, his minister, on 
condition that -he abstain* d from the marriage 
rights. Tlie promise was forgotten, and the 
husband's life was sacrificed by the tyrant, 
and -A • due, d to p0V( rty. This 

circumstance took place in a.h. .so:; a.h. 
187). 'I In re are -till extant some Arabic 
verses which beautifully celebrate her love 
and her misfortu far ol- Barmaki.] 

'Abbas 'Ali ( lc -A-;), a physician, 

and one of th< Persian magi, who followed 
tin- doctrines ol Zoroaster. He wrote, a.h. 
'.'mi. a book called Royal Work, at the request 
oi the -on oi tin- reigning Khalifa oi Baghdad. 

to whom it w a- dedicated. It wa- translated 
into Latin by Stephen of Antioch in a.d. 

'Abbas 'Ali ( i_c ,-Lc), Mirza, whose 

ideal name ft Bel b, the -"ii oi Nawab 
Sayadat 'Ali Khan, son of Ghulam Muham- 
mad Khan, the sou of Faiz-ullah Khan, 
Nawab of Rampur in the 18th century. 

'Abbas Bin-'Ali Shirwani ( ._> , «,L^ 

■ J^j t-i J^), author of a history, 

containing the narrative of Slier Shah the 
Afghan, who drove Humayun from Hindu- 
stan, a.d. 1539, and mounted the throne of 
Dehli. This work was dedicated to the 

[m ror Akbar, and is called T«h(n-i-Akbar- 
shahT. '1 he first part of this work was trans- 
lated into Urdu by Mazhar 'Ali Khan in the 
time of Lord Cornwallis, and is entitled 
Tarlkh-i-Sher Shafii. 

[ Vide Dowson, Elliot's History of India, iv. 
p. 301.] 

'Abbas Mirza (\ ; ^# ^Lr), a Persian 

prince, son of Fath 'Ali Shah, was born in 
1783. He died iu 1833. His death was 




■ nit ry, a] 
ii<>t pn r< nt the i 1 

II.- Mufa immad Mil 

the throne in 1834, on thi death ol Path ' 
under the united proti i tion "i Engl ind 

'Abbas Mir/a '\ •* ^L;), whose title 

■\ "ili rqtidar uddaula, thor 

ol B M -niwi in Urd . 
:i historj "i Chris! He v - living in L 
dow in \.i>. 1849, and was thi n about 

'Abbas (Shah) I. »Ll ^-'— - 

nami >l the G d seventh kit 

nt the $afnwi i miljr, w born on ' : 

the 29th ol Janu 1571 I 

a. ii. 978). II 1 

in In- Bist4 cnth yenr, hy the < icfo I K 

- ill. .ii ■! I • ■. ;. ■ -i. mi n| I 

the Lifetime «ii liu 
Shah, surnam il M 
a D. 1688, v H 9 ■■ Ii 
who in II 


ariea of his d aininns. II 
w iili the English forn -. in \ d 1 
ad "i Onn 

In m| thi Portu 
I reigned 44 lunai nt> mpoi 

wiili Akbar and Jahangir, and <li«<l on 
Thursday the 8th ol 
(24th Jnmfida I.. \ w, 10 18 II 
succeeded him and took t Shah 


II was a bigoted ShT'a. In 
li llv calli <1 ^j- ; ^ "• Bloch- 

manna Ain i . i. pp. 1 1 

'Abbas (Shah) II. | „ ^.. ^ 

greal grandson ol Shfib ■ \ is I - 
his fathi r Shah v sfi ■ d tl tl 
in the month ol May, i d. 1642 Safar a.h. 
L052 ), w hi d hi was e ly ten yi in old. 
Qandahur, which was loel by his father, n - 
recovered by tliis prim 
teen ) Shah Jahan made i 

efforts to recover this city, but with no 
success. Be reigned 26 lunar j ire, and 
was <-nt off by the lues venerea in his 34th 
yi ar, on the 26th August, a.n (6th 

Etabi'-ul-awwal, ah. 1077). He a - suc- 
. ded by bis son Safi Mirza, who tool 
lit 1 1' ol Shah Sulaiman. According to Char- 
din, he died mi the 25th September which 
corresponds with the 5th Etabl'-us-SJanl. 
[Vide Orme's Historical 1 f the 

Mogul Empire, p. 196.] 

Abdal (JIjjI), son of 'All Ral, ruler 

of Little Tibet during the reign of Shall 
Jahan. He was captured, and Aaham Khan 
was appointed governor ol Little Tib I 

[Fide Dowson, Elliots History of India, 
vii. p. 63.1 

1 k ( w '.-. 


■ ■ 

Abdali ( ^\xj\), i AJ Shah 


, the Fori ' '«/- 



» ~_ '.N I the 

_---.-. hia pi 
known, li 


11, \ ii. 1061, i. 


ii of Tun ( iJXfX I, 


ii ii i- ii. 

it) in K!. ii a. i>. 1 

i ■ 

wli.i a; on.] 

U I _.--\-_- I, and K U ^Sm . 

• \ \ i 'Abdi. 

W <_--\-' I, author of a 1 

-uddiu I the B i" 

win, h thi exp ■■' |, 1 

the fire! i "nt- -' ' - '- !l u»d 

I nrh in liulia ar d with tolerable 

f Fid* Abj 

'Abdul-'Ali (Maulana) | Jutjl Jl-js), 

entitled Babrul-ulum i.e., 1 Sea of 
Knowledge), the Bon ol Mulla Nifum-uddTn 
Sili t li. He is the author ol the Arkan Arba 1 
1 ii/r and several other works. He died 
a. i>. 1811, a.h. 1226. 

'Abdul-'Aziz bin 'Umar ( L>*jJ1 S~c 

._'), son of Umax (Omar), the 

[fa after Muhammad. II- did 
ii. .t succeed his father in the khilafat. The 
unmadans consider hiiu a greal Ian 



'Abdul-'Aziz ( ;_- •_<-!' A-*^), author of 

ill ■ T rikh-i-Htuainl, conl linii 

,,t r, - Muhammad 

Busnini G nib '- n ''' 

in the liij • E i" 

the D Tin- 1 to 

Ahm td S B bmani in a.d. 1 i 

'Abdul -'Aziz bin - Ahmad Dairini 
(Shaikh) ( ,_^_:._j». an Arabian 
an; I a.d. 1- 

'Abdul-'Aziz Khan, , t ! Aziz. 

'Abdul-' Aziz (Maulana Shah), son of 

- \\\ Waliullah, a le irn d M 

1» iili. Be is the author ol i im- 

mentary on the Quran, entil 

ul-'Aziz, and se> His death 

tools [)1 ■ in June ah. 1824 7th S lawwal, 

a.h. 1239). 

'Abdul-'Aziz, emperor of Turk . 
of Suit ui Mahmud, sn hi> broth r 

Sultan 'Abdul-Majid on the 25th Jun 
a.h. 1277 : di poa d in 1875. 

'Abdul-'Aziz (Shaikh) (j_ ,1 :.:^.' s^c), 

■ - 
oi Dehll, :i learned man \\le> dii d in tb i time 
ui the emperor i i>. 1567, a.h. 

'Abdul-Qadir ol I found th< 

of his death in the following woi Quf.b- 


'Abdul-'Aziz (Shaikh) (jl.jv •_. ;-i' uUr 

IIi< poetical name was 'Izzat. Ee held a 
mansab ol 700 in tin- reign ol Aurangzib, and 
died 'in the year a.d. 1680, a.h. 1091. II 
is the author of a poem <-.ill« ■! s - 

[For a detailed biography vide the Maja'- 
un-A r afais.'\ 

'Abdul-Baqi ( -SLJI &-*s), author of 

tin - - '' ■.; 

Rahim Khan, Khan-Kh ad of all the 

illustrious nobles, authors, and poets, who 
r sided at the court of Akbar. II.- compli 
his work in ad. 1616, a.h. 1025, and died 
about the year a.d. 1642, a.h. 1052, in the 
r. ign of Shah Jahan. 

[For further notes vide Dowson, Elliot's 
History of India, vi. 2o7.] 

'Abdul - Baqi (Maulana). He Avas 
a Sadr (or Judge) in the beginning of 
Akbar' s reign. 

'Abdul Basit (Maulana) (L_~ -\2\ J>_*r 

Wy), the son of Rustam 'All. He 

wrote a commentary on the Quran which 
he left incomplete, lie also wrote a work 
called l Ajib-ul-Bayan 1"\ 'ulum-il-Qm 
He died in a.d. 1808, a.h. 1223. 

'Abdul-Fattah (^UjJI &.+ r), author 

ol ; m work called Aurad- 

on Sufism, and oi one entitled Jatca-hir-ul- 


'Abdul-Ghaffar ( Ai_*J! Jl-^-c), whose 

\ jmuddin 'Abdul- 

G ' ush-Shafi'i Qazwini, is the author 

// and SharA 

ii lied in tl a.d. 1_ 


'Abdul-Ghafur, of Lahor ( ,»!*/ Jux 
^j yJt>i), was an author and a pupil 

\ Ixllll- ll.l 1.1 111 "i II J 
A D. 1606, \.n. H12. 

Be died in the 

'Abdul-Ghafur (Shah) (*l*, } ^\ Jux), 

commonly called Baba Kapur, a Bain! whose 
tomb is at Gwaliar. II w • a native ol 
KalpI, and a disciple of Shah Madar. Ee 

\.D. l-">7 I, A.H. ' 

[Vidi -i I , i. p. 539.] 

'Abdul-Ghafur (Shaikh), of Azampur 
in S I, a pupil of 'Abdul Quddus. Ee 

ill A.H. 

'Abdul-Ghani (Mirza) ( •- ± )} s.^ 

\ ; .-•«\ a native of Kashmir, wrote 
nndi r the nami Q ul. Ee di( d in the 

!• A.D. 1720. A H. 1 1 
[/ .1.] 

'Abdul -Haqci (Shaikh) ( Ls-' ±.~.~ 


JbS), of Dehll, surnamed 

•• Muhaddis," son -uddin, son of 

S 1-ullah Turk. He was a descendant of 
one oi Amir Timur's followers, who had 
rem I Dehll, after the return of the 

queror to hi- native land, lie is the 
author of the Tarikh-i-ITaqql, which i- more 
frequently styled Tnr>M-i ' - 'Abdul- Waqq, 
compiled in the 42nd year oi the emperor 
it's reign, a.d. 1596, a.h. 100-3. lie 
went on a pilgrimage t.> Mecca and Madina, 
where he dwelt lor a long time, and wrote 
works upon many subjects — Commentary 3, 
;j i Doctrine , Religion and History, 
and his different treatises amount altogether 
to more than one hundred. The best known 
are the Madina Salclna, Matla ( -ul- Anwar, 
Madarij-tm-A ubuwwat, Jazb-ul-qulub, Akh- 
bor-ul-Afchyar, a In ok on the saint-. lie 

- born in the month of January, a.d. 1551, 
Muharrum, a.h. 958. In the year a.d. 1637, 
although he was then nearly ninety years old, 
he I i hive been in possession of his 

ilties 1L' died in the year a.d. 1642, a.h. 
1052. aged ninety- four lunar y ars; ii is buried 
on the bank of the Hauz Shamsi in Dekli, and 



bow holds a lii^b rank among 1 1 1 * - saints ol 
II industun. Hi- son Shaikh Nur-ul-Haqq 
i- the author oi the Zubdut-ul- 1 '/<. 

[For farther aoti a - id* Dowt a, / 
Hi itory of India, \\. pp, 1 75, 

Abdul - Hakim of Siyalkot ( >_- , * 

*_-_x.5:^) was a pupil of tfaulana 

of Kamal-uddin of Kashmir. He wrote the 
Hashiya, or marginal commentary, on the 
Tafvr Baizawi, and a Hat iya on the 
marginal notes oJ 'Abdul- Ghaffar. He died 
in the year a.i>. L656, a..h. Ll 

Abdul-Halim bin-Muhammad ( jv „ - 

*-»Ls*l), Burnamed " Kanalizada," an 

Arabian author, w ho died in th< \.i>. 

1589, a. ii. 997. 

Abdul -Hamid, ride Ahmad IV. em- 
peror oi 'I'm 

A.bdul - Hamid of Lahore was tin 
author oi the Fadshah-namn-i-Shahjahani. 

[Regarding this history, vid* Dowson, 
Elliot's History of India, \ii. p 

A.bdul- Hasan (Kazi), authoT of an 
Arabic work on Jurisprudence called Ai 

ibdul-Hay (Mir) Sadr ( ^\ s ^ 

r-*-* i^--s), a learned man who wrote 

a chronogram on the death <>! the emperor 
Humayun, and one on thi on "i Akbar 

in a. i>. 1656, a. ii. 963. 

[Vide Ain Translation i. p. ISO.] 

\.bdul-Jalil (Mir or Savvid) ( * - r 
1 <« 


yJU J-lsiO, of Bilgram 

in Ainlli. He was a greal scholar and an 
eleganl poet, and his poetical name was 
Wasiji. In \.i». 1699, \ u. 1111. he visited 
the camp oi A.urangzlb a1 Bijapur; and being 
presented to th n mon irch by Mir/a 'All 
Beg, the royal intelligencer, obtained a 
mansab and ]agir, with the join! offices oi 
Bakhshi (Paymaster) and News-writer oi 
Gujrat; from which place In- was removed 
to Bhakar in Sindh, with similar appoint- 
ments. Through some intrigues at court, he 
was recalled from Bhakar in the reign of 
Parrukh-siyar in a..d. 1714. ah. 1126, but 
upon circumstances being explained, he was 
restored in the most honourable manner, and 
was at length permitted to officiate bydeputy, 
whilst he himself remained at Denli until 
a.d. 1 7 12 1 . ah. 1133, when he resigned in 
favour oi his son, Mir Savvid Muhammad. 
Hewas the son of Sayyid Ahmad of Bilgram, 
was born on the 2nd June, ad. 1(5(31 : 13th 
Shawwal 1071, and died on Monday the 28th 

h en ber, i.b. 1724 - 

and is 1 

II' Lb tho iitlior 
of several oi whi< h ling 

letters written in Persian La cal ■«/- 


[For \ 

l.\ 'Abdul-Jaiil'a Bon.] 

' Abdul - Qadir (Sultan) waa tin 
adant "i a M ural 

II i-liiin. who • 

K - i the lin I Mima. II - 

ii r died in i s : ; i . Hi- pa 
at the time "t the conquest "i Algiers by 
the Pn di li. In 18 17. he ■ 
surrendered himself, but per- 

mitl Constant H 

in 18 

iir bin- Abil- Wafa al-M 

(Shaikh Muhiy-Uddin) ( ,j £)1 jue 

author ol tin Jaicahir-ul '.' I /<it- 

il II 

an account of 1 1 1 ■ 

in alphabi (deal ordi r. 1 1 a a.d. 1 

a.m. 775. 

'Abdul-Qadir Badaoni (Shaikh) (x*C 

■^-r* _'i'j_' iJLfljU was thi 

M . It ik 8 ' Bad d and pupil ol Shu ikh 

Mubarak of fl Hi ia the autl 

work called Muntakab-ut-i II. 

- a v. r\ learned man. and waa frequently 
employed by the emperor Akbar t-i make 

oslationa into Persian from the Arabic 

and Sanskrit, as in thi -"/- 

Buldan, ■■ and thi fan. 

Hi also composed a moral and religious w.Tk, 
entitled ' '• and translate d I 

nut c.i the eight S tiona "i the .Wnlnl- 
bhnrat, and made an abridgement "i th>- 
// in a D. 1591, a ii. I 

The year oi lii> death i- not known, but he 
w ia living in a.d. 1696, ah. 1004, in 
which year he completed tie M -ut- 

Tawari&. His poetical nami i Qidiri. 

[He died at BaduOQ, in 1004. Fur a 
di tailed biography, vide/i ur. At 
1869, pt. i. p. 118; and Dowson, v. p. 477.] 

'Abdul-Qadir Suhrawardi (.j>\&\ s~~ 
,cJ,« —-;), author of the work called 

'Abdul - Qadir Bedil (Mirza) (i - r 
\\ p* Jj^-j •S^l'), a celebrated poet, 

better known by hi^ poetical name of Bedil or 
Mirza Bedil. He was a Tartar of the trihe 
oi Birlas : in his youth he was employed by 
prince A'zam Shah, son oi Aurangzib, but 




being one da v ordi red by the prince to write 
a panegyric in his praise, he resigned the 
• ire ami never afterwards served anj one. 
He is the anthor of several works, snch as 
.V </iit A'z'hn ; < /■ r •/"<"/• ,• Tnsha i-B 
also called Ruq'at-i-Bedil ; and of a Diwan 
or book "i < >des in Persian, containing 20,ooo 
couplets. He died in the commencement ot 
the reign of Muhammad Shah, on the 24th 
November, o.s. 1720; 4th Safar, a. it. 1133. 
He is als,, the author of a work called Nukat- 
i-Bedil, containing the memoirs of Shaikh 
Junaid, third in descent from the celebrated 
Shaikh Sail, ami grandfather oi Shah [sma'Il 
Safari, kinir of Persia. 

[ Vide Sprenger, Catalogue of Oudh MSS., 
p. 379.] 

'AMul-Qadir Gilani or Jilani or Jili 

(Shaikh), also called Pir-i-Dastgir 
and Ghaus-ul-A'zam Muhiy-ud-dTn, a saint, 
who is said to have performed a number oi 
miracles during his lifetime. He was born 
in Gilan or Jilan in Persia, in the year a. d. 
1078, a.h. 471, and was greatly revered for 
his learning, his piety, and the sanctity of his 
manni rs. He died on the 22nd February, 
a.i». 1166, 17th RabP II. 561, aged 91 lunar 
years, and is buried at Baghdad, where hi 
held the place ol guardian oi Ahu-B i 
tomb. The order oi Dervishes, called after 
him the Qadiris acknowledge him as founder. 
His tomb is held in high veneration amongst 
the Muhammadans. He is said to have 
written many hook- on Mystical Theology, 
amongst which are the Futiih-ul-Oh 
Malfuzat-i-Qjadiri in Arabic, and a trans- 
lation oi the same in Persian, named J/«A- 
fuzat-i-Jllani. Another work of his in 
Arabic on Jurisprudence is called Ghun 
ut-Talibln, and another work on Sufism is 
entitled Bahjat-ul-Asrar, and a hook of 1 1 
called Ltwan-i-Ohaua-ul-A't 

[Fide Muhammad Qasim (Sayyid) and 

Some say that he was horn at .Til, a village 
near Baghdad ; hence he should be called 

'Abdul-Qadir (Maulana) (.jLftJI S-~z 



Jso), of Dehll, the son of 

Maulawi "Wali-ullah. lie is the author of 
an Urdu commentary on the Quran, entitled 
Tafs>r Muzih-ul- Quran. He made an Urdu 
translation of the Quran, which was finished 

[Vide Abdullah Sayyid.] 
'Abdul-Qadir Naini (Maulana) ( L v. rt p 

^ u .jU!'), a poet -who was a native 

of Nam near Isfahan, and contemporary with 
Shaikh Sa'di. 

'Abdul - Qadir, a resident of Devi, 
a village in the district of Lucknow. From 

the Jami'-ut- TiuSrikh of RashTd-uddw he 
translated that portion which is called the 
book of Patanjali into easy Persian, at the 
request oi Major Herbert, in May. 1823. It 
is a collection of all the sci< aces, and one oi 
the most valuable works of the sag* - oi Hind. 
It contains an account oi their various sects, 
and the history oi their ancient kings, also 
the life oi Sakyamuni. 

'Abdul-Qahir Jurjani (Shaikh) ( w y~ 
>Vs*- r.^- ,_J&Uui), son of Abdur- 

Rahman, was the author of the book called 
Da ail-ul-J'Jaz, and several other works. lie 
died in a.i>. 1081, a.h. 471. 

'Abdul-Karim (*ji31 *>-^\ surnamed 

[mam-uddin Abul-Qasim, author oi the Shark 
Kabir and Shark S"yk r. 

'Abdul-Karim bin - Muhammad al- 
Hamadani, author of a Persian Com- 
mentary on the Sirajiya of Sajawandl, en- 
titled t'araiz-ut-Tojl Shark Faraiz-is-SirajJ. 

'Abdul-Karim Sindhi (Mulla) U_-_£ 


.C!^), a native of Siinlh who 

served under Khwaia Mahmud Gawan in the 
Deccan, and was living about the year a.d. 
1 181, a.h. 886. He is the author of the 
history oi Sultan Mahmud BahmanT, entitled 

'Abdul-Karim, a native of Dehll, who 

accompanied Nadir Shah to Persia, and wrote 
a history of that conqui ror about the year 
a.i>. 17-31, a.h. 1168, entitled Bayan-i- 

!;• garding this work, rid, iDowson, Elliot's 
History of Ltd at, viii. p. 124.] 

'Abdul-Karim, Mir, of Bukhara, who 

died at Constantinople about a.h. 1240, a.d. 
WW. He is the author of a history of 
Afghanistan and Turkistan (a.d. 1740 to 
l«18), translated into French by C. Schefer, 

Paris, 1870.] 

'Abdul-Karim, Munshi, who died about 

thirty years ago. He is the author of the 
Tarikh-i- Ahmad, a history of Ahmad Shah 
Durrani and his successors. The Persian 
text was lithographed in 1266, and an Urdu 
translation under the title of Waqi l at-i- 
Durrani was issued at Kanhpur in a.h. 1292 
(a.d. 1875). 'Abdul-Karim also wrote a 
larger work, entitled Muharaba-i- Kabul o 
Qandahar (h. 1265), which contains the 
heroic deeds of Akbar Khan, sou of Dost 
Muhammad Khan, and is chiefly based on the 
Akbar-nama written in verse by Munshi 
Qasim Jan; and the Tar>kh-i-Panjab tuh- 
fatan lil-ahbab (a.h. 1205) on the Sikh wars. 




'Abdul - Qudclus Gangohi (Shaikh) 
{&*" .JbfiS -.JkflJ^Ju*), a native 

"i I . in .11- 1). lili. woe o '1 id .nt "i 

AbQ-Hanlfa Kufa, and a fai i- sainl <•! 

[ndia. Be died on the 'J7ih Novembi r, a i>. 
1637, 23rd Jumada II. \ a. 944, the chrono- 
gram "i the rear of hi- deatb b< i : tikh- 
i li grandson s h ; i i kh 'Abdun- 

held a high | >« «— t in thi bar, but 

was subseqm ntly imprison* d and mnrden d. 

•Abdullah (, 

\-^ ■ • 

the father oi M nhammad the Prophet, v 

i oi 'Abdul -Mmt.ilili the Bon oi 
Bushim. Ee k ible for hie b< auty, 

and though b driver ">t camels, he i- Baid t<> 
have po uch merits, that his hand 

solicited in nu i 

most \ irtuous "i th< women of his I II- 

w.i> bo universally admired, thai on the i 
oi his nuptials one hundred young !• n 
expired in despair. Hi- wife Ajnina, though 
long barren, al e the moth* r "i 

Muhammad. 'Abdullah died during the life- 
time "i his latin r, < ighl i 

re) after the l>irtli «ii hi- son, and u fl 
widow and infant Bon in \< ry □ um- 

aces, his whole sul 
only five c imels and one fi I I 

'■<■. 'Ahdul-Muttalib, his fathi r « 
fore "Mi ■ '1 t" ta] 

M nhammad, which he iliil and nth 

en joined liis eld \l>u-Tai i iilt- 

for him for the future. 'Abdullah died about 
the y< ar A.i>. 67 1 . 

'Abdullah bin-'Ali al-Halabi wasone 

i.i the tir-t w riii rs I'M Shifa jurisprudi 

as In' was i. •! i 

lo ill traditions of that - • i ft < 
appear thai any oi hi- I. 
are extant. 

'Abdullah U^. 


Jijuc), bod -I' 

K i\\ ill i. \\ .- ,«ii \i ibian poet, \\ I 

himself in arms as will a- poi try. E< 

became an .-issocinti' ol Muhammad and 

senl w itli iln array, oi which / :.'l n - the 

chief, against the Greeks, and was killed a1 

Muta in Syria with /aid and 

brother of "AH. in a.i>. 629, a.h. B. 

'Abdullah, son of Zubair ( ._> ilMjy^ 

j-t-tj) was a Musalman born at 

Madlna amongst those who were railed 
"Muhajirin," that is to say, fugitives from 
Mecca. After the battle oi Karbala in a i>. 
680, in which Eusain the son of "All \\ - 
slain, the inhabitants of Mecca and Madlna, 
perceiving that YazTd did all that lay in his 
power to suppress the house oi 'AH. made an 
insurrection against YazTd. the second khalifa 
of the house of Umayya, and proclaimed 
'Abdullah khalifa in the city oi Mecca. I 


^ /id and M it'aw i . 

liilil for tbl ' i « lin ll 

tin in ih- -••ii hi Hukntn ■ 

claimi d kh ilifa in the cii\ oi I I 

' I 

II gem i'.il "t ' - '■'. 


which 'Abdullah n 

with hi- own li .ml. ill killed 

tiiiL' valiant 2, am 73 II- 


•Abdullah (j***u « .._• i. |\ju* D of 

M s'ud, ■ mpanion "i Muhammad. !!■ 

in a 

lullah Lr ... xu Qof 


. Il"!ll I 

1 • 'in I. He 

1 1 

then in 


I tr) 

I i 

mill i h. 

! i IMIII-lll I 

•Abdullah ...♦._- ....■ dtlNj^c), son of 

'!'• • ml khali 


in a n 692, am. 73. II 
lih. rulity. 

lullah (juJj -• *JlI !'_\— -'. boh of 

FazTd, «\i i in tin 7th 

•my. Be was tin Vbu- Em 

and Aliu-'A 

and Hm d lill the hundredth yi 

or a. i>. 71 s . a. ii. I 1 

'Abdullah ( is . j M xJ), thi 

. -..n "t 'Abdul . the 

uncle oi Muhammad, was the uncle "i the 

t two khalifas of ti 
Abul-'Abba S h and Al-Mansur, under 
whom hi -l the khalifa 

Marwan, and lnv iquished that pri 

proclaimi d hi- i U-S h. E< 

guilty <'t horrible cruelties on the family ••! 
the Ommaides. When liis eldest nep 
died, his brother Al-Mansur took upon him 
the government, which displeased 'Abdullah 
so much, that he raised an army againsl him, 
hm was defeated and afterwards perfidiously 
murdered in a d. 754, a.m. l 


'Abdullah (jj,^. ..j <dJ^c), the bod 

of Rawand, \\ ta the founder of an impious 
- r, who were called after him the Ra- 
vi indites, during the Khilafaf of Al-Mansur 
the Ahhaside, about the year a.i>. 770. 

'Abdullah {.O^z), the son of Shams- 
uddin, author of the oiargina] notes on the 
Talivih, entitled Hashiya i to'A, a fl 
on jurisprudence. 

'Abdullah (ybUs ^ <&-Hju£>, the son 

of Tahir, the general of Al-Mamun. He 
succeeded his brother Talha in the 
men! of Khurasan about the year a p. 8 
ah. 213, reigned 17 years, and died in a d. 
844, \.!i. 230. He m - & by his 

Tahir II. 

'Abdullah (u. — --!? ^H *JlHa---c 

^.^-*J\), the son of Tayyib al- 

Sarakhsl, preceptor to the Khalifa Mu'tazid 
Billah, by whom hi ' to death \ d. 

899, a. ii. 286. He is the author ol the 
Bahr-ul-Mantiq, and tea&ghjt fi commentary 
on the J ! Porphyi 

'Abdullah ( ?t Xc ..J ddl\ju»c), the son 

of 'Adiy, author of the Kit R He 

died in a.d. 975, a.ii. 365. 

'Abdullah, author of a collection of 
Letters, entitled Insha-i-' Abdullah. 

'Abdullah (ju*u ^ *L~. ^ .~'-w\ 

the son of Muslim, the son of Qutaiba, - 
the author of the work called Kit <b-ul- 
ma'arif, and several other works. He died 

in a.d". 889. a. ii. -27(1. 

'Abdullah (4_.LM.X--s), author of the 

Persian work on jurisprudence, called Ahkam 


'Abdullah (.>L. ^j dIJLv-j=), the son 

of Salara, author of the questions which 
Muhammad was asked on the subject ol his 
prophecy. He is also the author of a v. 

tl. Another work, 
call, Masayil, is ascribed to him. 

'Abdullah (.x*s-* ^ cClLw), son of 

Muhammad, Burnamed Qalanisi, an Arabian 
author, lie died in a.d. 1121, A..H. 515. 

'Abdullah ( 

'Abdullah ( 

Jl£ aIUjuc), of Kul- 

barga, author of a work called Jars- 
written iu a.d. 1407. 

'Abdullah (Maulana) (10L. aIJIjuc), 

son of Hahdid. He is the author of Shark 
Hizan-il-Mantiq, and several other works. 
He was a native of Dehli, flourished in the 
reign of Sultan Sikandar, and died in a.d. 
1516, a.h. 923. 

'Abdullah (Maulana), of Sultanpur, 

a learned bigoted Sunni at Akbar's Court. 
He had the title of " Makhdum-ul-Mulk." 

He played a prominent part iu the religious 
discussions which led Akbar to renounce 
Islam. Hedied, or was poisoned, in a.h. 990. 

[Vide Am Translation, p. 544, and p. vii. 
of Abub'Fazfs Biography?] 

the son of 'Al-Yafi'i Shitfi'i, author oi the 
Arabic work called Rauzat-ur-Rayuh », con- 
t l inin g a detailed account of the lives of 
Muhammad, the twelve Imams, and of all 
the Baints of Arabia, Persia, and Hindustan. 

'Abdullah Abu-Muslim {yj\ dJJljue 
*Luw«), author of the Commentary on 

the Quran, called §ahih Muslim. He was born 
in a.d. 817, a.h. 202, and died in the war a d. 
A ii 261. !!• i called by some writers 
d-Husain Muslim bin-al-Hajjaj bin- 
Muslim al-Qushairi, and by othi i Muslim 
bin-rlajjaj Nishapuri, which 

'Abdullah Ahrar (,l->^ iJJl^-x), 

thorofthe Malfu-zat-i-Khwaja' Abdullah, 
containing the doi tri the Naqshbandis, 

and of the Ants- - ' ikin. 

'Abdullah Ansari (Khwaja) (<dJ\*\^c 

^j\ z_j\), surnamed Shaikh Abu 

[sma'il, the son of Abu-Mansur, the son of 

V!iu-A\\ul>. He was horn at Ilirfit in May, 
a.d. 1006, Sha'ban, a h. 396, and is the 
founder of the sect called 'Ansaris in Hirat 
and Khurasan. He died on the 2nd July, 
A .,,. 1088, 9th Rabi' I. a "■ 481, aj d 84 
lunar wars, and is buried at Hirat, in a p 
called Gazurgah. 'Abdullah was struck with 
by the boys when he was doing 
penance, and expired. 

'Abdullah bin -'All bin-Abu-Shu'ba 

al-Halabi («j^ ^: ^J 

n \ g '.\ du*^). One of the earliest 

i_« • 

writers both on the Hadsi and Law of the 

Imamiyasect. His grandfather, Abu-Shu'ba, 

is related to have collected traditions in the 
time of the Imams Hasan and Hnsain. 
'Abdullah wrote down these traditions, and 
presented his work, when completed, to the 
Imam Ja'far Sadiq, by whom it is said to 
have been verified and corrected. 

'Abdullah bin-'Ali, author of the work 
ca Ued Sh ,k-ul-Sind . which he paraphrased 
from the Persian into the Arabic for it had 
been originally translated from Sanskrit into 
the Persian. 

£ ^j jJJ^Juj: 




'Abdullah bin-Fazl-ullah, of Shlraz, 
author "t the Tarlkh-i' U ■ • 

[The first four volunu - • ■! tin- work, which 
i be looki 'I upon as a continuation ..i the 
Janan-kutha', go as I Sha'ban, 

(March, 1300). Subsequently, the author 

ded a fifth volume which relates the events 
»|i-u n to the • . - (a ii. 1328) ; ride 
Elliot'' t History of India, iii. p. 24. 'An- 
iM i.i. mi i- also the name "i the author oi the 
'I'm ii.h-i- li'imij, an Afghan Eistory, written 
during thi r< ign <.i Jan Dowson, 

[v. p. 134.] 

'Abdullah Hatifi, vide Hatifi. 
'Abdullah Khan UzbakC^U. aIMju* 


t_X):^) was a renowned officer in the 

time <>l Akbar. He was raadi governor "t 
Mandu Malwa in \.i>. 1662, and afterwards 
rebelled againsl the king, bill was « I ■ it . 1 1 . « 1 
and compelli 'I to l< ave the country. 

i ii further notes, \ id. 
i. p. 320.] 

'Abdullah Khan (i_£>:' ,,U. ddHjuc), 

chiei "i the Uzbaks, was the on "i Bilcandar 
Khan, the son of Jani Bi K in, a descend- 
ant of Jail Khan. Bon of Chingiz Khan. 
Ait. r tin ill ath i>i bis fathi t dui ins whose 
life he had Beveral battles \\ ith him'', hi 
ascended the throne oi Samarqand and Buk- 
hara in \ D. 1682, \ ii. 990, invaded Khura- 
san, and toiik 1 1 i i - r» t aft« r a rii _•>■ "i nine 
months in ah. 1686, a.m. 993. It- governor, 
'Ali Qui! Kli:in, with several other chiefs 
wen' ]mt to death, ami the .ii\ was plundi n d. 
He was contemporary with Shah 'Abbas oi 
Persia and Akbar Shah, ami died afh 
reign oi 16 years, aged 66, on the 12th 
Feb] nil \ . \ n. 1697, -"'tli Bajab am. l 1 
'I'hc chronogram oi tin hi- .1. ath is 

"qiyamal qayim shud." He was succeeded 
by his Bon 'Abdul-Mumin Khan. 

'Abdullah Khan Firuz-Jang (ddNjy^ 



.,l^O, a descendant of 

Khwaja 'Abdullah Ahrur. He came to India 
in the Latter end oi the n ign "i the emperor 
Akbar, was raised to the rank of 6000 bj tin 
emperor Jahangir, and died in the tint 
Shah Julian, a.h. 1644, 17th Shawwal 1054, 
aged marly 70 years. 

'Abdullah Khan (Sayyid) (<lLHju*_c 

cU-j ^UO, styled Qutbul-Mulk, was 

governor of Allahabad from the time oi 

Bahadur Shah, emperor of Dehli, and his 
younger brother Sayyid Husain 'Ali Khan, 
that of Bihar. These brothers sprung from 
a numerous and respected family of the 
descendants of the prophet, who were settled 
in the town of Barna, and in consequence of 

tlti- origin, tb. i by 

the nai rha. 

I i rukh-aiyi r, who bj the aid of tl 

l.I. • .■ d the thr.i 

OD hi- ai I I — i ■ • 1 1 in .lain \ II. 

1126, made tie miniati r. 

with the titli i.I (Jiill»-lll-Mn ,i|n.ilit.<l 

the latt« r Amii -ul« 
K niatxl bj Mil I! 

• th. instigation "t the em] 
Shah, mi th.- 18th S. pt« i 

L'Ttli Zil-<|:i'<la 

dullah Khan, who i 

d< : taken prisoner on the 4th 

November following, 14th Mubarram II 

ami died in i "litun m. nt. alt. r ti 

th.- 19th S 'th Zil- 


K • \]inir t. : 

II i- brother 'Abdullah « 

/ . i. |. 1 i..r 'Abdullah 

Qn|;b nl Hulk, I 1 7 iT. 3 

iullah Qutb-Shah (c^JaJ i J'ju* 

i £), the sixth Sultan of the Qutb- 

g • ' . ii 

Deccan Ui sv Ii i Muh imm id Qutb- 
Shah, and reigned many years undei I 
protection <>t tin- . mix 
win. in In- acknowledged him-. It tribul 
paid an annual -uni ; l.nt in tl 
1666, a ii 1066, hi di-jil. i- .1 that n 
ami hr..iiL'ht ii|i«.n himself much troul 
ini|Mrnr had commanded him to i ii rmit his 

Iirime minister, Mir Muhan a 'id, and 

ii- -..n Muhammad Amin, t>> repair w Ith tin ir 

t nt. Qufb-Shah disoh \. .: I 

mandate, and < < •ntiniiiir Muhammad Amin. 

then at ll.i.lar'il.a.l. seized part >.t hi- wealth. 

'I'h< prince Auranpzib, then povernor "t the 
imperial t. rritorii - in tin Deeciin. ei 
thi- conduct, march) d t 1 1 t. which 

he took ami plun dullah was 

obliged t" purchas pardon by a contribution 
..l ;, crore ..t Rupees, ami the gift "t his 
daughter in mai jon of his enemy, 

the prii S in Muhammad. From this 
time 'Abdullah, during the remainder "t his 
life, was, in tact, a vassal .•! the empire. 
'Abdullah QuJ;b-Shah died in dune. ah. 
1674, Rabi I., a.m. 1086, and n 
l.\ hi- son-in-law, Abnl-Hasan. 

'Abdullah Mansur (,^^ sJJ.^\*.z), 

author of the Tarj - ■ 1 fya, 

Ltaining th.- lives .'i tin- most 1 1 !• bi 
Sufis and Shaikhs. 

'Abdullah Mirza ; .-* <dM->~=) was the 

son of Ibrahim Mirza. the son "t Shahrnkh 
Mirza. ami great-grandson ..t AniTr Timnr. 
Upon his lather's death about th.- year a.d. 
1443), he h. came possi ssed ..i tin bovi i ignty 
ui Pars, or Persia; but, four years after, he 
was disposal ssed by one <>t his cousins-german, 
named Mirza Abu-Sa'id, and was obliged t.> 
tlv to his uncle Mirza Plugh Beg, win. then 




reigned in Transoxiana, and who gave him 
his daughter in marri ige. Some time after, 
I'luirli !'■'-' having 1 •« • n defeated in a battle 
mi-i In- sod Mirza 'Abdul -Latif, and 
afterwards pui to death by him in < >< tober, 
A.D. L449, Etamazan, \ a. 853, and the latter 
ii"t enjoying the success oi his parricide 
above six months, 'Abdullah, as son-in-law to 
Dlugh Beg, took possession of his dominions : 
but Mirza Abu-Sa'Id, his cousin - german, 
declared war against him, and defeated him 
in a pitched battle, in which he perished. 
This event took place in tin- year a.i>. 1451, 

A. 11. 855. 

'Abdullah Sayyid, son of Bahadur 'All, 

a native of Sawana, near Thanesar, and a 
prominenl disciple oi Sayyid Ahmad [q.v.), 
under whose inspiration he published Abdul 
Cadir's Urdu version oi tin Koran, with 
commentary, 1822. 

'Abdullah Shattari (Shaikh) (all Lw 

,c.Ua-$»), a descendant of Shaikh 

Shihab-uddin Suhrawardi. lie came from 

P( - to India, and died in Malwa, a.i>. 
1406, a.m. SOU, and i- buried tin re. 

[Regarding the Sha&arls vide Jour. As. 
Soc. Bengal, L874, pt. i. p. 216.] 

'Abdullah Tamimi ( ^^aj <lULw), 

author of the Arabic work called A'"- - - 
ul-Abrar, which contains the li i-t « t\ of 
Muhammad, and Memoirs of many oi hia 

'Abdullah Tiimizi (Mir) (aAAs-^-z 

^jS—ij-'j) was an elegant poet and 

wrote an excellent Nasta'llq hand, tor which 
he received from the emperor Jahangir the 
poetical name of Wasfl, or praiseworthy, and 
the title of Mushkin-Qalam, that is to 
say, out of whose pen flowed musk. II. i- 
the author of several poems. His death 
happened in the year a.d. 1626, a.h. 1035. 
His tomb stands at a place in Agra, called 
Nagla Jawahir. 

[For the inscription on his tomb, and his 
son Muhammad S a 1 i h Kashfl, vide 1'roc. As. 
Soc. Bengal, 1874, p". 162.] 

'Abdul-Latif (wi-Ja-L^ S.-J), a cele- 
brated physician horn at Baghdad, a.d. 
1261, a.h. 660. To the acquirement of 
medical knowledge, he applied himself with 
diligence ; and it was chiefly with this vi< w 
that, in his 28th year, he left Baghdad in 
order to visit other countries. Having spent 
a year in Mausil, he removed to Damascus in 
Syria and thence to Egypt, where the people 
of the highest rank coutinued to vie with each 
other in cultivating his friendship. He after- 
wards travelled to Aleppo, and resided several 

years in Greece. Of" 150 treatises which he 
composed on various subjects, only one, 
entitled Histories /Hgypti Compendium, has 
survived the rai agi "t time. Ee died 
suddenly at Ba gh dad in his Goth year. 

'Abdul-Latif (wjLJaJJI S~~), a great- 

grandson of Amir Timor. In October \ i>. 
1 1 19, ht defeated hi- father Mirza Dlugh 
Beg in an action near Samarqand, took him 
pi isoner and put him to death, lie did not 
long enjoy his success, tor he had scarcely 
reigned >i\ month-, when he was murdered 
by hi- own Boldiers on the 9th May, 1 150, 
th Etabi 1. a.h. .s5i. His head was 

separated from hi- body anil si lit to 

where it was placed on thi gate of the col 

built h\ his lather. 

'Abdul-Latif (. 

S^z), a native 

of Qazwin, and author of the work entitled 
lubb-ut-Tawarlch, a history oi Persia, 
written in the middle of the loth century. 

'Abdul-Latif (Mulla) OU < c-.\^U^ Jux) 

oi Bultanpur, was the tutor of the prince 
Auraii/ib. In the last y< ars of his life he 
became blind, received from the emperor 
Shah Jahan a lew villagi - fri • of renl Eor his 
support, and died in the year a.d. 1632, 
a. n. L042. 

'Abdul-Latif, author of a collection of 
I itei- called Insha-i-' Abdul- Latif. 

'Abdul-Latif (^J-kLJl Jur), author of 

the work called Lataif-i-Ma'nawi, a com- 
mentary on the difficult passages of the 
Magnawi or Maubina Rum, written in a.d. 
J640. Ee also is the author of a Dictionary 
call. 1 1 / - - Lughflt. 

[Regarding the author vide Jour. As. Soc. 
for 1868, p. 32.] 

'Abdul-Maal ( Jl_*w»J! &+&), author of 

a system of Geography, written in the Persian 
Language, and entitled Masahat ul-Arz, or 

the survey of the earth. 

'Abdul-Majid Khan (a-js^ ju^c), the 

Turkish emperor of Constantinople, was horn 
on the 23rd April, 1823, and succeeded his 
father Mahmud II. on the 2nd July, a.d. 
1839, a.h. 1277. He died on the 25th June, 
1861, aged 39 years, and was succeeded by Ms 
brother 'Abdul- Aziz. 

'Abdul-Majid Khan( .,U- Jujs?*H Juos), 

entitled Majd-ud daula, a nobleman who was 
promoted by Ahmad Shah of Dehli to the 
post of 3rd Bakhshigari or paymastersbip, in 
a.d. 1748, a.h. 1161. He died in the year 
1752, a.h. 1165. 




'Abdul-Majid (Shaikh) (s^s^' Jl-c 
i:-"^), a learned man who flourished 

in the time of Shah Jahiin, and wron 

tory "i thai empi tot < ntil 

[This a 'in- to be a miai ike for 'Abdul- 
II mid.] 

'Abdul-Malik (J. y .i ^ il£UM J-c), 

the -"ii "i M irwan 1. and the 5th Khali 
the 1 1 .it- ■ of I'm iv\ ■ ■ • II 

s seeded lii- father ai D im if us, on the 

l.iili A;.ril. A.D. ' 'ii. a ii 

surpassi d lii- |"- - in noilil irj i \;>. 

and extended lii- power S a in the 

west, and [ndia in the east. II 

ua as qoI to take a church from the 
Christians, which they had refn i ml 

him when he reqm iU d if II Ued 

Ibul-Zubab or " fathi r ol fli( 
lii- breath w is bo offensive, thai ii killed the 
very flies th ii settled on lii- tips. II 
upwards oi 21 lunar j I died LnO I 

a.d. 705, Shawwal, a.h. B6. He w 
ceeded by Walid I. the '•< n 

sons, who greatlj extended the Moslem 

'Abdul-Malik (JL- .,.- <jXL*^ A-x 

the Bon of Salih. the boh oi 'Ahdull h, the 
sun el 'Abbas, wa - related in blood t>. the 
prophet Muhammad; was invested bj ll.min- 
ur-Rashid, the Khalifa oi B gh i id, with 
the government of Egypt, in which he 
continued lill ahoui the year a.d. 794, a n. 
ITS. when II. nun. suspecting thai he wae 
engaged in some cabals, in order t'> obtain 
the empire, threw him into prison, when hi 
remained till Harun's death. Hi- son 
leased him, and invested him \\ 1 1 1 1 the govi rn- 
oi Syria, \ d. 809, a a. 198. 

'Abdul-Malik ( _!- iP j! lJCUJI 


the son oi Znhr. an emineni Arabian 
physician, commonly called by Europ 
Avenzur, a corruption ol [bn-Zuhr. His 
t u 1 1 name is AbQ-Marwan 'Abdul-Malik ibn- 
Zuhr. He flourished aboui the end oi the 
ltth or tlic beginning oi the 12th century. 
He was of noble descent, and born nt Sevilla, 
the capital of Andalusia, where he exercised 
his profession with greai reputation. His 
grandfather and father were both physicians. 
It is said that In' lived to the age oi I 
that he began to practice al 40 ■ 
say, at 20 ; and had the advantage of a 1": 
experience than almosi any one ever had. for 
he enjoyed perfect health to his last hour. 
Hi- left a smi, also known by the name oi 
[bn-Zuhr, who followed his father's pro- 
fession, was in greai favour with Al-Mansur, 
emperor of Morocco, and wrote several 
treatises on physic. Avenzur wrote a hook, 
entitled Tay> s$ur fi-1-mndavoat wot-ladbir, 
which is much esteemed. This work was 

I : 111 A 1' 

thence into L itin bj I 

■ ral editi 1 

ipplemeni t<> it. under the tit 
a II- also » 
/ - 

and food, \\ hen in I 
Ibn-Zuhr « 
(A-. who more th 

. high and d< liim 


ledge, and t 


•Abdul-Malik (c^XJl^J! X*c), kin. 

I • and Y b\ hifl 

. but hi 

i ho li id 

land, d iii Al i]i|iort t! 

two/ 00 


lik (Khwaja), a 

ml wlm held S -ul- 

I 'in in t A in i r 

1 mi ur. 

'Abdul-Malik .: I. (__,..♦:' SfX 

<r _'l_«'w-;), a kdj : the ho 

v man, and Amir Nub I,, whom he 

! ! 
in K 
hall \. Ull< d by a tall from his 

hone while playing at b ill i.h 

He . by his brothi r Amir 

M asm I. 

'Abdul-Malik Barnaul II. Ui&JI jue 
JUL), an Amir of the h< 

ted to the tl : 
K II. 

in \ 1. 998 \ ii 388 . Hi - 

ir, or king, oi th 
II' . only a fen months, and 

■ S Mahmnd •■! 

1 ■ azni in a.d. 999, who t,.,.k | a ol 

his country. 'Abdul-Malik rtlj ait. r 

murden d. 

•Abdul-Mauaf (t^liJI Juc), or \\M- 

M inaf, [i.e. of the idol Manaf) the 

adfathi r of Muhammad, was 
-•ii oi Qusayy, who aggrandised the tribe 
oi the Quraish by purchasing the keys 
Ka'ba from Abu-Ghassan, a weak and sillv 
man, tor a bottle oi win. ».'-■'■ 
Ii d by h . son 'Abdul-Mi 

to whom the prophetic light, which i- said to 
have manifested itselt in lii- fa 
right oi primogeniture. Alter his death his 
son Hashim, the father of 'Abdul-Mu&tatib, 
- ceeded. 

['Abd-Manaf is also the nam. oi a -"ii of 
the Prophet, who died in infancy.] 




' Abdul-Mannan (Mir) ( ^ ^U*! \ A-- ) , 

son of Mir Nu'man Khan, son of Khwaja 
•Abdur-RahTm Khan ol Andijan. He served 
under the ci l( brated Nizam-ul-Mulk Asaf-Jah 
in the Deccan for several years, was an 
excellent poet, and is known under the poetical 
name of 'Ibrat. 

'Abdul-Muniin ( ,y*yt\\ Juf), a man of 

obscure origin and boh of a potter, who seized 
the crown ot Morocco, after destroying the 
royal family. He extended his dominions by 
the conquest ot Tunis Fez, and Tremezen. 
He meditated the invasion of Spain, when 
death stopped hifl career in a d. 1156. Hi- 
^ Qsuf who succeeded him, carried his 
ambitions into effect. 

'Abdul-Munim Khan ( ( j^ytJ\ w \._j: 

^\s>-), the son of Abdullah Khan, 

chief "i the Uzbaks, was raised to the throne 
after the death of his father at Samarkand in 
the year a.i>. 1597, a.h. 1005. He I 
Mashad and put the inhabitants to the sword. 
He was soon after assassinated by his own 
officers in a.d. 1598, a a. 1006; the chrono- 
gram ni his death lined in the 
words " BadbakhM-sar-burida.'' Attn- Ids 
death, l>m Muhammad Khan, the son of 
'Abdullah Khan's sister, was placed on the 
throne; but he fell shortly after, in a battle 
foughl ;ii Unfit, against Shuh ' king 
of Persia. 

'Abdul-Muttalib ( v 

0, the 

grandfather of Muhammad, the son "i 
Hashim of the tribe ol Quraish. He is said 
to have been extremely affable and easy oi 
access, as well as just and generous. The 
well which God shewed Hagarthe mother oi 
Ishmael, in the wilderness, is said to have 
been miraculously discovered to 'Abdul-Mut- 
talib, about rive hundred years after it had 
been filled up by 'Amr, prince of the 
Jorhomites. The well is called Zamzam by 
the Arabs and is on the east side of the Ka'ba, 
covered with a small building and cupola. 
Its water is highly reverenced, bi ing not only 
received with particular d by the 

pilgrims, but also sent in b< I reat 

rarity to most parts of the Muhammadan 
dominions. 'Abdul - Muttalib had ten Bons 
whose nanus are as follows : Abu-Talib, the 
father of 'All; 'Abbas, the ancestor of the 
Abbasides who reigned at Baghdad : Hamza : 
Haris ; Abii-Lahab : Abdullah, the father 
of Muhammad ; Al-Maqawwam ; Zubair : 
Zirar ; Qusani. His younger son 'Abdullah, 
the father of Muhammad, dying eight days 
after the birth of his sou, 'Abdul-Muttalib 
was obliged to take care of bis grandson 
Muhammad, which he uot only did during 
his life, but at his death enjoined his eldest 
son Abu-Talib to provide for him for the 
future. 'Abdul-Muttalib died about the year 
a.d. 579, at which time Muhammad was 
about eigbt years old. 

'Abdul-Nabi (Shaikh) ( .^.\ s^.z 

&***), son of Shaikh Ahmad, and 

adson of Slnikh 'Abdul-Quddus of <ein- 
goh. lie was the tutor of the Empi 
bar, and was honoured with the posl "i 
• S dur (Chief Justice). No Sadr 
during any former reign had so much favour. 
The Emperor was for some time SO intimate and 
unceremonious with him that he would rise to 
adjust the S slippers when he took his 

leave. At last, through the enmity of 
Maulana 'Abdullah Makhdum-ul-Mulk {vide 
p. c and others, he fell in Akbar's estima- 
tion, and began to he treated very differently. 
lie was banished 1" Mi cca, and after his 
turn was murdered in the year a.d. 1583 
(a.m. 991). 

[Vide-.; . i. pp. 538, 546,and 

p. xiii i ! WazVs AY : and Proc. 

As. iuary, WO.] 

'Abdul - Nabi Khan served under 
Aurangzib, and built the large Mosque at 

[Vide Pr e. As. S , Bengal, 1873, p. 12.] 

'Abdul-Rahini bin-Ahmad Sur (j^ 

,»~- _V*=* \ ,.J *-^.''), author of the 
^j \J> \- J * 

V ian Dictionary Kashf-ul-Lughat. 

[Vide Jour. As. Soc. Bengal, for 18G8, 
p. 9.] 

'Abdul-Rahim Khan (, 




,,,UL>- .,L>- ,.\s>-), Khan Khanan, 

commonly called Khan Mirza, was the son q! 
Bairam Khan, the first prime-minister of the 

emperor Akhar. He was horn ou the 17th 
D cember, a.d. 1556 14th Safar a.h. 964) 
and was only four years old when his father 
was assassinated. When of age, he received 
a command in the force attached to the 
eni]>en>r's person. In 1584 he was one of 
lers of the army sent to Gujarat, 
and on the conclusion of the campaign, was 
made head of the army. On Todar Mai's 
. h (1589) he was made prime-minister. 
His daughter Jani Begam was married to 
prime Danyal in the year a.d. 1599 (a h. 
1007). He translated the Woqi'at-i-Bnbari 
(Memoirs of the emperor Babar) from Turk! 
into Persian. After Akbar's death he served 
under JahangTr for 21 years, and died a few 
mouths before that emperor, shortly after the 
suppression of Mahabat Khan's rebellion, iu 
the year a d. 1627 (a.h. 1036), aged 72 lunar 
years, and lies buried at Debll near the Dargah 
of Shaikh Nizam-uddinAuliya, where his tomb 
is to be seen to this day. His poetical name 
was Rabim. 

[For a detailed hiography, vide Ain Trans- 
lation, i. p. 334.] 




'Abdul-Rahim (*_*.> J 1 A.— z), oni 

the principal nobles who joined Pi 
Khusrau in his rebellion : i _r : • i 1 1 ~ t his i:itli>r 
Jahangii in a d. 1606. Ee waa taken 
prisoner with the prince and broughl to the 
emperor al Lahor; by whose order he was 
bi un up iii the raw hide ol an ass, k< pi 
constantly moist with water, in which mi 
able condition he remained twentj -four hours. 
Ee waa afterwards pardom d. 
[Vide Ain Tremtlation, i. p. 465.] 

'Abdul-Rahim Khan (Khwaja) (juc 
i&Af>. ^S. ++&-J\) } the -"ii of Ahul- 

Qaaim. Ee was a natiTe oi Andijin in 
Farghana, cami to India in the reign ol the 
emp< ror Shall and w rv< d nndi r 
Aurangzib for several years. Ei died in 
a. ii. L692 'a.h. 11" 

'Abdul-Rahman ( tt j] 

J' X* 


of Muljiiii, 


murderer of 'All, Bon-in-law of Muhan 

II, waa killed bj Hasan, son ol 'AIT. in 

January, a.i>. 661 < Kamafan \.n. 40 . 

[No Shi 'a would now-a-daya call hia son 

'Al,il ul Rahman, jusl as i rthodoi Mu- 

hammadan would call his son Xazid.] 

'Abdul-Rahman ( t J\ , •*♦*»- Jt Ju*-C 

-iL , 4_• , ). the son of Abu-Bakr, first 

Khalifa after Muhammad, and brother to 
'Ayisha, the favourite wife ol the prophet. 
11,' died in thi same y< ar thai hi- died, 

i.e., in a.h. 678, a. ii. -'> s . 

'Abdul-Rahman ( .._.• 

i_ e - •. ->- £jis"), the Bonof Muhammad 

Hanif bou ol 'All. !!<■ raised a formidable 
power againsl Eajjaj, the governor of Arabia, 
defeated him in Beveral batth s, and al last, 
rather than fall into his hands, threw himsi li 
from a house and died, a.d. 701, a.h. s :. 

'Abdul -Rahman, a popular Afghan 

poet of Peshawar. Eia verses are written 
with fiery energy, which has made them 
popular amongst a martial people, and yel 
with natural simplicity which is charming to 
the lover of poetry. Not far from the city is 
his grave, situated on the road to Hazar- 
khana. the poet's native village. 

'Abdul-Rahman ( _^_?-^J! A_*-e), 

a Saracen general of the Khalifa Eisham 
(called by some of our author- Abderames] 
who penetrated into Aquitain and Poitou, and 

was at las! titrated and slain by Charles 
Mariel near Poiters, in a.i>. 732. a.h. 114. 

'Abdul-Rahman Mustafa ( .+> J^Ju£ 

Jh-At), who ill Watkin'a B _■• iphi- 

Dictionary is i nlh 1 B 
mufti oi thecitv ' B< 

wrote a I k called 751 

B( dii d in a.i». 1381, a ii. 7 - 

'Abdul-Rahman ( 

- _!' j,.^ \ also 

(ailed 1>V old \\ : 

ol lie Kh.ilila- ol 1' II' 

.11 A.l>. 7 

a. ii. 189, by tie - oa who had r< roll 

and alt« r hi oqui r> d tie 

doin. he assumed the titl< «,i kimr ol <',r,: 

II .'. - ■ : ler of tl Omi 

- in. who r, i^'ii, ,1 two hundred and 

titt\ rears from the Atlantic to the Pyrei 

II died in A.D. 790, a.m. 174, afti r 

'Abdul-Rahman lohl ( _^.^ '' A-~_z 

w J 

_=^"'>. or lji. the father of <Jazi 

'Afd-uddln of Shiriz, a learned man and 
nal • • Mi. a town situ 
from Shi 

'Abdul-Rahman ( 


1 iW), call '1 

by u- Abderamts, a petty prince in the k 
dom ol M . who murdered 'Imad-uddin, 

hi- ]'!'■ ind nt-phi w . and w a- bin 

ait, r a Ion. nated by a chii Main 

wh.-, death he meditated, a.i>. 1605, a.h. 

'Abdul-Rahman, the Saltan of Fei 

I Morocco, born 177- rightful In ir 

the throne when his father died; but waa 

supplanted by hi- ancle, ait,r whoa death he 
nded the throne in 1823. Hi- i Id, -t son 

- ii Muhammad [born 1803] is heir to the 


'Abdul-Rahman Khan ( 

J! juc 

w _<\ Nawab of Jhajjar, who on 

mnt oi his rebellion during the mutiny ol 
the native troops in a.i>. ls.">7. a.h. 1274, 
« - found guilty and executed at Dehli hit,, re 
the rlotwali on the 23rd December ol the 
Min' year. Ee was a descendant oi Najabat 
•Ali Khan, to whom in 1806, when Sir G. 
B rkro was Governor- General of India, were 
granted the large territorial possessions held 
by the late Nawab, yielding a yearly revenue 
oi' l'2\ lacs, and consisting of Jhajjar, Badli, 
Karaund with its fort, Narnaul, etc. In 
addition to these, expressly for the purpose 
of keeping up 4(10 horsemen, the territory oJ 
Badwan and Dadri was granted. Up to May, 
1857. he had always been looked upon aa a 
staunch friend of the British Government; 
but when the rebellion burst forth, he forgot 
all his obligations to the British, and sided 
with the re!,, I-. 




'Abdul-Rahman Khan (^*s>- J>\ J^-- 

^l_^-), Sadr-us-Sudur of Kanhpur 

(Cawnpore' , a rebel and a staunch supporter of 
Nana Sahib, when that rebel commenced 
his career. Hi was hanged at Kanhpur, in 

June, 1858, a.h. 1274. 

'Abdul -Rahman Sulami (Shaikh), 
author <>i the Tabaqat ^ i, a work on 
Sufism. He died in a. i>. 1021, a.h. 4 1 J. 
He is also called Abu-'Abdur-rabman. 

'Abdul-Rahman, boii of 'Abdul- Aziz 
\ iqshbandl, the father-in-law of Salaiman 
Shikoh, who married his daughter in a.h. 
1002. the 25th year oi Shah Jahan. 

'Abdul-Rahman Chishti ( tV *=>. \\ s^z 

), author of the Mir-at-i- 

'Abur-rahman died during the 

Mas'ud?, which contains the legendary history 
ot Sulfa- Mas'ud Ghazi, buried al Bahraich 
in Am Hi 
d ign of Aurangzlb in a.m. 10 

[For extract translations vidt Do\i 
Elliot 1 s Hi tory of India, ii. p. 513. An 
Urdu translation of the Mir-at-i- \t 
was lithographed at Kanhpur a.h. 1287, under 

the title of (j]t'i;a-it ~lfna-i-Mas'ud '.] 

'Abdul-Rashid ( 


), was the 

son of Sultan Mas'ud, of Ghazni. 11 
to reign, alter deposing and confining his 
brother 'All, in a.h. 1052, a.h. 443. He 
had reigned but one year, when Tughril. one 
of his nobles, assassinated him and mounted 
the throne of Ghazni. Tu ghri l reigned only 
forty days, and was murdered on the Pi r.-ian 
New Year's day in March a.h. 1053, a.h. 
444. when Farrukhzad, a brother of 'Abdur- 
Rashid, succeeded him. 

'Abdul-Rashid (Mir) (^ s^> 1\ A**), 

son of 'Abdul- Ghafur-ul-HusainT. lie lived 
in the time of the emperor Shah Jahan, and 
wmte chronograms on his accession to the 
throne of Dehli in a.h. 1628, A.H. 1037. 
He is the author of the Persian Dictionary 
called Farhang-i-Rashidl, also oi the IU 
takhab-ul-Lughat, a very useful Arabic 
Dictionary, with Persian explanations, dedi- 
cated to the emperor Shah Jahan. Another 
work of his is called Risala-i-Mu'arrabat. 

The Farhang-i-Rashidi, which was written 
in 1064 (a.d. 1653), is the first critical 
dictionary of the Persian language, and has 
been printed by the Asiatic Society of 

[Vide Jour. As. Soe. Bengal, 1868, p. 20.] 
'Abdul-Rashid Khan ( a . *, \\ ,\ . - 

^,lrO, son of Sultan Abu-Sa'id Khan, 

king of Kashghar. He was the contemporary 
of Humayun, the emperor of Dehli. Mirza 

Haidar, author of the Tarikh-i-Rashldi, 
dedicated his work to him. 

Dowson,_.EWtotf'« History of India, 
v. p. 127 : and Ain Translation, i. p. 460.] 

'Abdul-Razzaq ( -A- M ji_*_c). a chief 

of tin' Sarbadals of Sabzwar. II was al first 
employed by Saltan Abu-Sa'id Khan as a 
\ isawal, or mace-bearer, but after his death, 
when confusion took place, he possi — d bim- 
; of Khurasan in a.d. 1336, a a. 737, and 
was -lain, alter one year and two months, 
by his brother, Wajih-uddin Mas'ud, in 
September, 1337, Safar a.h. 738. Mas'ud 
reigned seven years, and was deposed by his 
brother Shams-uddln, who alter a reign of 
lour year- and nine months was slain at 
Sab/war by Haidar Qassab. After him Amir 
5 hya Qirati mad' himself master of 
Khurasan, and gave the command of his 
troops to Haidar Qassab. In the month 
of December a.d. 1353, a.h. 7-">i. Yahya 
Blew Tu gh an Timor, a descendanl of the 
Mu ghu l kings, in battle, and was himself 
slain by his nobles, after he had reigned tour 
years and eighl mouth-. After him tiny 
rais d Khwaja Lutf-ullah, the son oi Khwaja 
Mas'ud to the masnad. 11 was -lain aft< r a 
short time by Hasan Damghani, who reigned 
tour years and four month-, when Khwaja 
'All Muayyad sli w him, and reigned 

r8 in Kiiura-all, alter which lie made over 

his country to Amir Timur, who passed 
Khurasan in a.d. 1380, a.h. 782. 'Ali 
Muayyad was killed in a battle in the year 
1386, a.h. 788, and with him terminated 
the powi t oi thi Sarbadals. 

'Abdul-Razzaq, Kamal-uddin, son of 
Jalal-uddin Is-haq, born at Hirat on the 
12th Sha'ban, 816 6th November, 1413). 
He i- author of the historical work entitled 
'Matla'-ussa'-dain. He died in 887 (a.d. 
1482 . 

\Vide below in voc. Kamal, and Dowson, 
iv. p. 90.] 

'Abdul-Razzaq, the son of Mirza Thigh 
li g, the emperor Bihar's uncle. He was 
killed by the command of that monarch, 
bi tore his invasion of India, for raising 
disturbances at Kabul, about a.d. 1509, 
a.h. 91-5. 

'Abdul-Razzaq/MullaXL. s\; Jt Juc). 

of Lahijan, author of the Gauhar-i-Murad, 
a dissertation on the creation of the world, 
and the pre-eminence then given by God to 
man, dedicated to Shah Abbas II. of Persia. 
He lived about the year a.d. 1660, a.h. 1072. 
His poetical name is Fayyaz. 

'Abdul-Salam (x*^-* ^j AjJ,\ £*.£■), 

son of Muhammad, a celebrated learned man, 
and author of the Tafslr Kablr, a commentary 
on the Quran. He died in the year a.h. 1095, 
a.h. 488. 




'Abdul-Salam (Qazi) | Ju H A— - 


.-JyjLj e _JlJj >. of Badaon, son of 

• \t:" ( - ill - Haqq. He i I ithor ol 
commentary called Tafi'\ Zad-ul-Jkbirat, 
in Urdu, consisting -. which 

completed about the yi ir a d. 1828, ah. 
1244, ! the nam work Bhows. 

'Abdul-Salam, a famous philosopher 
and physician, who died at Damascus in a.j>. 
1443, a ii. 647. 

'Abdul-Salam (MullaW JLJ\ _v—- ... 

• ■I Lahor, :> |ni|iil ol Amir Fatb-nllah Slui 
IT died in t i'. 1628, l.h. 1 

[Vide Jin 7 \>. •">l-'».] 

'Abdul-Salam (Mulla). of Dehll, 

I pupil "i Mulla 'Abdus-S lara ol I ihor. 
He wrote the 8b u h, or m irgin il not b, on 
the commentaries called Tahzib, 

I i> also the author ol the work oi - 
in Arabic, calli d // ' '- ■ • i 

'Abdul Samad is^.^1' Jk*c), and 

t • two lii-t Khalifas ol the hou 

died at a great e during the khilafal <>t 

I I u fin -m- It ishid, in II" D. 801, a.ii. 
is."). It i- said oi him thai he never lo I 
tooth, for both the upper and lower jaws ■■ 

i ol one Bingle pi 

'Abdul-Samad (Khwaja) (a + n \\ v . - 

£_s»-u«r£»)i a noble of Akbar's court, 

also well-know a as a c digraph r. Hi 
i . father oi Sharif, Amir-ul-Umara, under 
Jahangir vide A'ut ZVi . i. pp. . 

517 . and had the title ol •■ ShMn-Qalam," 
or bw« t-pen. 

'Abdul - Samad, nephew of Shaikh 
Abul-Fazl, secretary to the emperor Akbar. 
He is the compiler oi the work calli I 
i'AbuUFazl, which he< o od puldi 

in the year a..d. 1606, a.m. 1016. 

'Abdul-Samad Khan( ,U- A*J1 Juc) 


styled Nawab Samsam-uddaula Bahadur - 
Jang, was the boh oi Khwaia 'Abdul-Karim, 
n descendanl of Khwaja 'Ubaid-nllah Ahrar. 
The native country oi his father • S mar- 
qand, but he was horn at Agra. In his 
childhood, he weni with his father to Samar- 
qand, where he completed his studies. In 
the reign oi Aurangzib he returned to India, 
and was, at his first introduction to the 
emperor, raised to the rank oi 600, and after 
a short time to that of 1500, with the title oi 
Khan. In the reign of Jahandar Shah, the 
rank of 7000 and the title oi 'Ali-Jang were 
conferred on him. I It • was made governor oi 
Lahor, in the time oi Farrukh-siyar, and was 
sent with a great army against the Siklis. 
whom he defeated and made prisoners with 

Binda r ..f 

Ifultan by thi I 

with t 

ii Klnui, S )|. 

I in a .n. \1.,:>, dm 

I II him " Dili 

" \ - rii. pp. ; 

491, 611.] 

'Abdul-Samad Khan i U-JlaJI \- 


I I in 

by Bhio in a it. 1 174 a.i>. . 
[ \'i n, \iii. 

'Abdul-Shukr. ,XlJ1 

. . II ' ; ■ tical nai 

['/.<•.]. and h 

lu] Wahhab (Qazi) __ .. ' j^ 

-~ _-• in the tit 


1"- ! Q 

- - . 

'Abdul Wahhab I M (_Aj*J1 X~£ 

r~-*), author of th<- Tazkira-i-JBe- 


\ D. 

1768, a .ii. 1172. 

'Abdul-Wahhab. author of the Ifand- 


"! ' ni. 

'Abdul-Wahhab bin-Ahmad (s.^.- 
A-^^r-' .._• i — -.^»-'\ of the 

:k oil 1 


'Abdul-Wahhab. or Muhammad bin- 
' Abdul -Wahhab, fonndi r of i 
Wahl ■ I ! aala, in 

provino I N ;d. in Arabia, abonl the j 

A.I'. 17 

'Abdul-Wahid (j^y x*c), author of 

v S i ys on th( dnti' - 

Instructor and Student, written in I 
a. n. 1561, a.m. 9G9. 

'Abdul-Wahid (Mir) ( ^„ jo-tj)! Juc), 

a nativ. .ram. in Andh. whose poetical 

name v S idi. He died in his ;. itive 

country on the lltli oi December, a.d. 1608, 

3rd Ramazan, ah. Inl7. His Bon's name 
was Mir •Ahdnl-.Talil the father "I Savyid 

I"w n's name was Sayyid Bar : 




'Abdul-Wahid (Mir), of Bilgram. Ee 
wrote under two assumed names, viz.: Wahid 
and £auqi, was an excellent poel in Persian 
and in Hindi, and is the author of a work 
in prose and vi rse, called &ha - n-i- 
Khayal, wherein he has mentioned the nai 
of all kinds of sweetmeats. He was killed on 
the L3th 1 1 :■■■■• r, a i>. 1721, Friday, 2nd 
Muharram, a h. 1134, in an affray with the 
Zamindars of Rahun, in the Panjah, the 
settlement of which pla I d to 

his fathi r Sayyid Muhammad Ashraf. 

'Abdul-Wahidi, a Turkish poet, author 
of a Diwan, comprising 30 Qasidas, 200 
Ghazals, 29 Tarikhs, and 54 Rub 

'Abdul- Wasi' of Hansi (« ,\A\ w v_^- 

^t-A^-jl-j^). author of a Persian 

grammar, called after his name, Risal - - 
'Abdul-Wan. He flourished in the last 
century, and is also the author of a Hindu- 
stani Dictionary, entitled Gharaib-ul-Lughat. 

[For further notes, ride Froc. As. Soc. 
Bengal, for 1887, p. 121.] 

'Abdul -Wasi' Jabali (, >\A\ w v_^ 

Ls*-), a celebrated pod of IV: 


who flourished aboui I r a.d. 1152, a n. 

547. in the time of Sultan Bahrain Shah, son 
oi Sultan Mas-fid, \ in. and Sultan 

San jar Saljuqi, in whose praise he wrote 
si viral beautiful panegyrics. He died it I 
year a d. 1160, a h. 555. "Jabal" means 
a mountain, and as he was a native of 
Ghurjistan, a mountainous country, he cl 
'•Jabali*' for his poetical title; vide Jabali. 

\F\d\ Sprenger, Catalogue of Oudlt MSS. 
p. 443.] 

Abengnefil (a corruption of an Arabian 
name, spelt so in Lempriere's Biographical 
Dictionary , was an Arabian physician oi I 
12th century, and. author of a book, I 
translation of which, entitled J' Hints 

medicin irum et ciborum, was printed at Venice 
in l>ol ; iolio. 

'Abhai Singh (*&_, _j| &s>-\j), Raja 

of Jodhpur, who had acquired his power by 
the murder of his father, Raja A jit Singh 
Rathauri in the beginning of the reign of 
Muhammad Shah, emperor of Dehll, about 
the year a.d. 1726. ah. 1139. He served 
under the emperor, and having iu a battle 
defeated Sarbaland Khan, the usurper of 
Gujrat. was appointed governor of that 
province in ad. 1727. a.h. 1140: but his 
younger brother Bakht Singh succeeded his 
father to the Raj of Jodhpur. Abhai Singh 
was poisoned in a.d. 1752, and alter his death 
his son Bijai Singh succeeded him. 

'Abi Bakr, author of the Jaicahir-ul- 

Gai/j, and of another work on Sufism, called 
Marsad-ul- 'Ibad. 

'Abi Bakr Muhammad (j^s-* Jj i\), 

author of an Arabic work in prose entitled 
Ad'ib-uUKitob, written in a.d. 984, a. it. 

'Abid Khan (^Ui- JuLc\ a nobleman 

on whom Aurangzlb conferred the Subadar- 
ship of Multan. 

Abjadi (^Juss^), the poetical name of 

Mir Muhammad Isma'i] Khan, tutor of the 
.\ wfib 'Umdat-ul-TJmara oi the Karnatik, 
who made him a present of 6700 Ra. on the 
completion of the history, called Anwar- 
nan a, a masnawi, or epic, containing an 
.unt oi the exploits "t Nawab Anwar 
K "in. the father oi the patron of the author, 
completed in a.d. 1760 (a.h. 117 1 . 
and in 1774 the title of Malik-ush-shu' ara, 
or poet laureate, was conferred on the author. 

'Abqa Khan (^U- Uj\), ride Aha Qaan. 

Abrakh Khan ( A^- _: y\) (the son of 

ilbi b Khan Afshar, governor of the fori of 
Ahmadnagar, who died there in the 22nd j 
oi Shah Jahan) was a nobli man of high rank 
in the time oi 'Alamgir. A few years before 
his (hath, he was appointed governor of 
I rar, where he died on the 24th of July, 
A.D. 1685, 3rd Rama/fin, A.H. 1' 

Abru (. _>1 ) vide Hafiz Ainu. 

Abru (.._.'!), poetical name of Shall 

N ijm-uddln, of Dehli, alias Shah Mubarak, 
wdio flourished in the reign of the emperor 
Muhammad Shah. He died in a.h. 1161. 

{Vide Sprenger, Oudh MSS., p. 196.] 

Abtin ( ,. 

1 1 ), the father of Farldun, 

■nth kiiiLi- oi Persia of th • first, or IVshda.- 
dian, dynasty. Abtin pretended that he 
derived his origin from Jam-died, king of 
Persia of the same dyn 

Abu-' Abbas (^Ls f\), the first kha- 
lifa of Baghdad, of the race of 'Abba-. 
[F«fcAbuL- 'Abbas.] 

Abu-' Abdullah (<dJLuc ^j\). There 

are three Muhammadan saints of this name, 
whose lives are written by Abu- Ja'far. The 
first is Burnamed Quraishi, becaus h was of 
the family of the Quraishites, and a native 
of M cca. The second bore the name of 
Iskandar, and the third that of Jauhari. 




Abu-'Abdullah Bukhari, vide Muham- 
mad Isma'il Bukhari. 

Abu-' Abdullah, Muhammad l-V./il, son 

of Bayyid Ahmad, the bob oi Sayyid Hasan 
of Agra, author of the poem called Muktbir- 
tii-n "us,/ «, written in praise of Muhammad 

1 his descend ints, with the dat< - of their 

respective deaths in rerse. Th( title oi the 
book is a chronogram for a.m. 1 106, in which 
year it was completed, corresponding with 
a.,,. L650. II'- nourished in th< bmi oi 
'AlamgTr, and dii 'I in the year a d. II 
He is also called Ma?har-ul-Haqq, which 

Abu-* Abdullah/ 1 C!U J AWs+e »-' ». 

commonly called [bn-Malik, author oi the 
SharhSahVi Bukhari Hi died at Damascus 

in a.i). 1273 [A ii ' : 

Abu-' Abdullah, the surname of Shafi I, 

which - 

Abu-'Abdullah (Jk*»J 

'.- i ^LaJl), the -"ii of Ahmad 

Ansari, an author, oi Cordova, who died a.i>. 
1272 (.v. ii. 071). 

'Abu-'Abdullah (^JljAs* ddl^J-r yX), 

HamidI, boh of Ahu-Nasr, author <'t the 
work called Jam'baina-l-Sahihniit, and the 
history ol Andalusia, i alii d /' ikh Undu 
The former comprehends the collections oi 
al-Bukhari and Muslim, ami has a t 
reputation. He died in a.k. 1096 ah. 

Abu-'Abdullah Maghribl (aU^j^c yi\ 

_j_i_*), named Muhammad bin- 

Isma'il, tutor of Ibrahim Khawas, Ibrahim 
Shaiban of rliimanshah, and oi Abu-Bakr oi 
Bikand, and pupil of Abul-Husain Zarrin oi 
Hirat. Abu-'Abdullah died in the year a.i>. 
911 (a-ii. 299), and was buried on Mount 

Abu-'Abdullah Muhammad (dU 1 Jm? *i\ 

S*s:*), son of Sufyan, a native of 

Qairnwan in Africa. II<- is the author oi I 
work called Eadi. lie died iii a.d. L024 

(A.H. 415.) 

Abu-'Abdullah Muhammad bin-'Ali 
ar-Rahibi (a^st* iiNjufij^), author 

of a short treatise, entitled the Bighyat-ul- 
Bnhis consisting of memorial verses, which 
give an epitome of the law of inheritance 

according to the doctrine of Zaid bin-Sabit. 

Abu-'Abdullah Muhammad Ha'kim 
Kabir .,,. J >■ **** 

author oi the work '.' II. 

: in a.i». LOU, a ii i 

Abu-'Abdullah Muhammad bin-Mu- 
hammad al - Nu'mani. bui 
M ufid and 

lor and 
am ii nl M 

I ■ I - i. - ' 


most learned of the h 
lii— house, told 

hi: i to 


i- well-known. Hi 

on the law oi i tb took 

place in \ i> 1022, am. i 13, oi 
a. i.. 1026, a ii I 

Abu - 'Abdullah Muhammad bin - 
'Umar al-Waqidl (xtc* *lM.*-rf . ' 
1 s-_v_*'.!' jix, j). an author who wrote 

in Arabic the work, / 

staining the hist 
- ria li\ tl 

in t i. D. 824, a. II 

in. : 1 1 i < > i i i.t Al-Mu'tasitl 
began in 833, In- musl bave died about 
; not a.n. >Ji. am. - 
[J'i ^ di.] 

_\^ ». ' 

Abu-'Abdullah Muhammad bin-IIu- 

sain al-Shaibani (.y^jr* . 

JL— _-' ., i — **■ ,•_>), commonly 

led Imam Muhammad, w is born al Wisil 
in 'Iraq-'Arab in a i>. i and 

died ai : tal oi Khurasan in 

ii. 187. He was a fellow pupil <»f 
Abu-YOsuf, under Aim- Manila, ana on the 

th of the latter pursued bis studies under 
former. II works i in 

number of which ti ri d ol the 

highest authority, and cited under the title 
,,i ; . / - . thi y are Jami'- 

ul-Kair, J ami 1 - -6 ifctr, the Mabiui ft 
furu'-il-H '■<!• 

Ii s ir-ul-Kailr wal-Sagh'r; 

and the Notcadir, the sixth and last of the 
known compositions oi [man Mu h a mma d, 
which, though not so highly est 1 as 
the others, is .-till greatly respected as an 

Abu-'Abdullah Salih, tide Abu-'AlI, 
Wazir of Mansur I. 




Abu - 'Abdul - Rahman Ahmad bin - 
'Ali bin-Shu'aib al-Nasai (s~£ *j\ 

■ JtuJ *x*».' ,a.=^J\), author of the 

works called Sunan Kubrq&vA Sunan St tgh ra'. 
The first i- a large work cm the traditions ; 
luit a- Nasai lii'n- If acknowledged that many 
cii the traditions which he had inserted, wi re 
oi doubtful authority, he afterwards wrote an 
abridgement of hi- greal work, omitting all 
those "l questionable authenticity : and this 
abridgement which he entitled Al-Mujtabq 
and is also called 6 S igh ra, i 

rank as one ol the -i\ 1 ks "i the Sunna. 

Al-Nasai was born at Nasi a city in 
Khui isan, in a.d. 830, a.ii. 303, and died at 
M ikka in i..D. 915. 

Abu -'Abdul -Rahman Sulami. Vide 
'Abdul-Rahman Sulami. 

Abu -'Abdul -Rahman Yunas (s.~-~ 
^j^-'-^ i 1 /* 5, jJ')j the son of Hablb, an 

excellent grammarian who died in the year 
a d. 798, a.ii. 182. 

Abu-' Abdul- Wahid (a>.1J! s+s *j\), 

an eleganl Turkish poet who flourished in 
Constantinople in the earlier pari of. the 

si v( ai' ■ nth century. 

Abu-Ahmad (.^J3 _.> ±*s^\ yj\), the 

son of Qasim, was horn in the city of An 
in Natolia a.i>. 1 in:;. \ a. s^ : he publicly 
explained the book written by his father 
Ahmad hin- - Ahdullah nl-Kirnil on the funda- 
mental points of Muhammadanism. 

Abu-' Ali (. mS^..* Jlc »ji), surnamed 

w^ > l_5 ■*■ 

Muhandis, li tlu> Geometrician." who excelled 
in that science. lie flourished a.d. 1136, 
a.ii. 530, in the time of Al-Hafiz li-dln-illah. 
Khalifa oi Egypt, and Al-Rashid Billah, the 
son of Al-Mustarshid of Baghdad. 

Abu-' Ali ( lr *i\), the wazlr of Man- 

sur I. the sou of Nuh, prince of the Samanian 
dynasty of Khurasan. In a.d. 963, a.h. 352, 
he translated the Tarikh Tabari into the 
Persian language from the Arabic. It is a 
general history from the creation of the 
world, down to the 300th year of the Hijra. 
In the course of eight centuries the language 
of Ahfi-'Ali having Income obsolete, Abu- 
'Abdullah Salib bin-Muhammad was per- 
suaded by Nurullah Khan, prince of Turan, 
to put it into modern Persian. 

[Vide Abu Ja'far at-Tabari, and Tabari.] 

Abu -'Ali Ahmad bin -Muhammad, 
the son of Ya'qub bin-Maskawaihd Khazin of 
Eai, author of the Arabian work entitled 

Kifab-ut-Taharat, which was translated in 
Persian by Nasir-uddln TusI, and earned 
Akhlaq - \ Be flourished about the 

12th century. 

Abu-'Ali Ismail (J 1 j t A^>\ Jlc ^\), an 
Arabian author who died in a.d. 967, a.h. 

Abu-'Ali Qalandar (Shaikh) ( c \^ > : \ 

,-V-^-U), commonly called Bii-'All 

Qalandar Shaikh Sharaf-uddin Panipati, a 
• brated and highly respected Muhammadan 
saint, who i- gaid to have performed numerous 
miracles during his life. He was born at 
'Iraq in Persia, bul came to India and fixed 
his residence at Panipat, where h< dud. 
about l m > years, on the 30th August, a.d. 
L324, 9th Etamazan a.h. 724. His tomb is 
held sacred and is visited by the Musalmans 
to this day. 

[Vide /'roc. As. Soc. Bengal, for 1S70, p. 
125, and for L873, p. 97.] 

Abu-'Ali Sina (I; 


Lc o\). Vide 

Abu-'Ali 'Umar(j^s-* cJ J^.r lz^), oi Muhammad, was the author of the 
commentary, called Sharh Kab>r and Shruh 
S jtfc/r. lie died in the year a.d. 1247, a.h. 

Abu-Ayyub (< >»_^ »_>h, a companion 

of the prophet Muhammad, who had been 
with him in the battles oi Badr and (Jbiid, 
and lost his life in the expedition of 
i mstantinople (a.d. 668, a.h. I s ) in the 
reign of Mu'awiya, the first Khalifa oi the 
house oi dmayya. His tomb is held in such 
veneration by the Muhammadans, that the 
Sultan- of the 'Usman, or Ottoman, dynasty 
gird their swords on at it on their accession 
to the thnme. 

Abu-Bakr (&~JZ» j! ^ Xj *j\), son of 

Abu-Shaiba, an Arabian author who died in 
year a.d. 849, A.h. 235. 

Abu-Bakr Ahmad («x*-J ..G ^:\), son 
of Husain BaihaqT, vide Baihaqi. 

Abu-Bakr Ahmad bin'Umaral-Khas- 

Saf (i_jU3^1 jAC- ^ S*^\ jL tf\), 

author of several treatises, known by the 
name oiAdab-ul-Qazi. Haji Khalifa speaks 
very highly of this work. It contains- 120 
chapters, and has been commented upon by 
many learned jurists : the most esteemed 
commentary is' that of 'Ulnar bin-'Abdul- 
'Azlz bin-Maja, commonly caUed Husam-ush- 
Shabid, who was killed in a.d. 1141. Al- 
Khassaf died in a.d. 874, a.h. 261. 



AB1 B 

Abu-Bakr Baqalani ( jliU^J ».. 

son of Tayyib. Ee was ol tin- seel ol [mam 
Malik, and author ol the work called Al- 
Tuuh d, and Bev< ral oth r works. Be died 
in a.d. 1012, a.h. 403. 8( Baqalani. 

Abu-Bakr Bikandi, a pupil ol Ahfi- 

'Abdullah Maghribl. Ee lived aboui the 

year a.h. Dun. 

Abu-Bakr bin-Mas'ud al-Kashani 

(, JliK!\ J, 

,_> r G »j\) f author 

author of the work on iurisprudi act . ei titl< il 
Hud ('. It i~ also called Jt d i~ua-$ 
Hi died in a.h. 1191, a.m. 587. 

Abu-Bakr Kattani, Shaikh Bfuhammed 

Jiin-'All Ja'far, a famous saint, who waa born 
at Baghdad, and died in \.i>. 954, a a. 35 

Abu-Bakr Muhammad al-Sarakhsi 

( ^uu~- .*J1 a*.s-* Xj *.■'), whose title 

was Shams-ul-Aimma ; he composed, whilst 
in prison al (Jzjand, a law book i 
extent and authority, entitled the 
Ee was also the author ol the celebrated 
Al-Muh ■/. Ee died io a.D. 1096, a.H. I 

Abu-Bakr, or Aba-Bakr ( ._C_' *j\ or 

io \i\), son of Miranshah, was killed 
in battle a. ii. BIO, l.d. I 107. 

Abu-Bakr Sliadan (Shaikh' ( „(_• yj] 


r - ^jli), of Qa/wTii, a celebrated 

pious Musalman who died al Qazwin in the 
year a.d. 11o7, a.h. 531. 

Abu-Bakr Shashbani( jLJL£* Joyl I, 

a valiant commander, born in a village called 
Shasban in the province of Mazandaran. 
11. was one ol the greatest opponi ata ol Amir 
Timur in his conquesl ol Asia. 

Abu-Bakr Shibli (Shaikh) (_G ._•' 

irS"*" . -L-k-1). a celebrated doctor of 

c o 

divinity, horn and broughl up at Baghdad. 
nut the native country ol his parents was 
Khurasan. This Sufi followed the doctrines 
of the sect of [man Malik, and had for his 
masters Junaid and other holj men ol that 
epoch. He died at Baghdad on Friday 3 1st 
July, a.d. 946, 27th Zil-hijja a.h. 334, aged 
87 years. 

Abu-Bakr Siddiq (j^.Ju^Xj yt\) t the 

father of 'Ayisha, the wife of Muhammad the 

prophet, by whom he was so much respected 
that he received from him the surname ol 

- Idlq, whi 

-p. alu i "i truth, and at Ui Pro] 

in .Imi' , A.D. 

iii opjMwition to 'All, the son-in-lan 
prophet. Be supported with 
faith, and 

tril>e~ who to abandon t 

doctrini - and n turn to I 
i ith( i-. An. rwards he turned 1 
i ii - 1 foreign nations, and bj the ralou 


o i . m< d, whon 

II. II. ilnl 

not long i nioj 

sted his vigour, and he died t!.' verj 
that Damat : but !•• • i i« -*1 

he appoint d tor his 

i i two lunar 

ml nine il iv», and e\> 
in I ust, 

a.]. Jumada II \ n 1 ■ Be 

. buried : HubJUB 

ill Mail. 

Abu-Bakr Tughluq (jflju Sj y' ), the 

/ i. dson ol 

Firuz Shah I 

of D arin 

i • -u.ldin Tughluq, in I \ D. 

138 § • . Be reigned 

and -i\ moi r which bi* uni l< Pi 

Muhammad Tughluq, the son ol I 
who was at \ limed 

himsell king, and a with an army 

towards Dehli. \r waa 

victorious, i. and iuu i odi d the 

tlir ■ in the month ol Au 

|; :, \n. \.ii ; kr who had tl> d 

tou !•!■ was i:keii prisoner on the 
29th November "i the same 20th 

Zil-hijja. and -nit to the tort ol Mfrath 
Meerut), « en he died - '• r. 

[/ D -'ii. i\. p. 20.] 

Abu-Bakr Yahya ( > - «*^ _(_' 

author of 1 ■ or the 

Delight of Assen varioua 

anecdotes recorded ol Muhammad, the tour 
K I othei illustrious i« rsona, in 

\ i >ii-. 

Abu - Bakr Zain - uddin (Maulana) 

My «*•»' *-■•.• , . 

Zain-uddin, a learned Musalman, who died al 
Taibid, on Thursday the 28th ol January, 
a D. 1389, 30th Muharram, \ ii. 791. 

[For furthi r notes, vide Ain Trantlalion, i. 
p. 366.] 

jj -0 J\ 

Jj> \), son of Sa'd, son of ZangT, one 

of the Atabaks ol Persia, who reigned at 
ShTraz for thirty-five 1 died in the 

l.d. 1260, a h. 658. The celeb I 
Shaikh Sa'di of Shiraz dedicated h\> Gulistan 
to him in a.i>. 1258. 

..(_• 4..' , ). surnauK d 

Abu-Bakr Zangi ( p1 j _v*. 




Abu-Darda (\ J.£ ^j\\ a companion of 

Muhammad, who was governor of Syria in 
the time ol the Khalifa 'Umax. 

Abu-Daud Sulaiman bin -al- Ash' as 

(cUcifl ^ JaJL, Jjb^jl), but- 

named Al-SijistanI, author of a Sitdb 
Sunan, whichcontains4,800traditions, - lei t .1 

from a collection made by him of 500, 

It i- considered the fourth ho >k of the Sunna. 

Hi was born in a.d. 817. ah. 202, ami died 
at Basra in a.d. 888, a.h. 'I','). 

Abu - Daud Sulaiman bin - 'Uqba 

surnamed Az-£ahiri. Be i- the translator 
ami commentator of Euclid in Arabic. II. 
was also the founder of a Sunn! sect, hut hail 
few followers, and was called A/-Zahirl, 
because he founded his system "i jurisprudence 
on the exterior (zahir), or literal meaning "t 
the Quran ami the traditions, rejecting tin 
qiyas. II.' was born at Kufa a.d. 817, a h. 
202, and died at Baghdad in a.: l.h. 

270. Some authors say thai he died a.h. 27.") 
(a.d. SSS) 

Ho was a great partisan of 

Abu - Hafs al - Bukhari ( '- o -* - *^\ 

jiiaJl), a mufti of Bukhara, and 

a very rigid Musalman. He was surnamed 
Al-Kabir, the Great, t.. distinguish him 
from his son, who was surnamed Al-Saghlr, 
the Little, or the Younger, ami was also a 
learned teacher, but not so famous as bis 

Abu-Hafs Haddad, 'Arar, son of Sa- 

lama, of Nishapur, a saint, who died in a.h. 

Abu-Hafs 'Umar ( ,_j 

J jA~ {J* 


wW»-i), son of Ahmad, author of 330 

works, among which are Targhib and Tafstr 
and Masnud. He died in a.d. 995, a.h. 

Abu - Hafs 'Umar al - Ghaznawi 

surnamed Siraj-uddin, a follower of Abu- 
Hanifa, and author of the Arabic work called 
Zubda.t-ul-A.hkam, which expounds the prac- 
tical statutes of the different doctrines of the 
four Suuni sects. He died in a.d. 1371, 
a.h. 773. 

Abu-Hamid (Imam) (*L«! A^L>- ol 
^j'jj: Jvf.s'* ( j) j son of Muhammad, 
surnamed GhazzfdT. He is the author of 

tlr- Arabic work on theology, called Ihyau- 

• a hi in -id din, and of man) other works. He 
died in a.d. 1111, a.h. 605. 

[ Vide GhazzalL] 
Abu - Hamza bin - Nasr al-Ansari 
(o.Li-'l^ j~2j jjj >U> •ji), surnamed 

Aus Lin Malik, n ifi ••in' of the >i\ authors 
most approved for Biuhammadan traditions. 
II.- di.d at Basra, in the year a.d. 710, a.m. 
91, aged 103 years, after having begot 100 
children. 11 was the l;i~t thai was styled 
Sahaba, that is t.> say, friends, companions, 
ami contemporaries of Muhammad. 

Abu-Hanifa i.Imam.i («U dJu^s- ^), 


Abu-Haraira (^..o^ 1 ), tliat is "father 

of the kitten." so nicknamed by Muhammad, 
because of his fondness for a cat, which he 
always carried aboul with him. He was so 
constantly called by this nam", thai bis true 
name i- not known, nor his pedigree. He 
was such a constant attendant upon Muham- 
mad, that a great many traditions go under 
hi- name; bo many, indeed, that the multi- 
tude of them make people suspect them, 
v -. rthe] as, others receive them without 
hesitation as ot undoubted authority. He 
was Qazi of Mecca in the time of 'IJsman. 
II died in the year a.d. 679, a.h. 59. 

Abu-Husain Zarrin ( .,.< ,; -rr ^>- »ji), 

..i, and master of Abu-^Abdullah 
M ghribi. 

He died at the age of 120. 

Abu-Hatim (. 


\), a celebrated 

Musalman lawyer. 

[Vide Hatim, surnanied Al-Asamm.] 

Abu-Ibrahim Ismail (^L*,*^ +~t>j>\ y} 
jull r ^rgr' j^jj), son of Yahya al- 

Mazani, a distinguished disciple of Imam 
Shafi'i, and author of the Jami 1 Saghhir 
and other works. He died in the year a.d. 
878, \.h. 264. He was the most celebrated 
amongst Shafi'i's followers for bis acquaint- 
ance with the legal system and juridicial 
decisions of his preceptor, and for his know- 
ledge of the traditions. Amongst other works, 
he wrote the Mukhtasir, the Manfur, the 
Easail-ul-MuHabira, and the Kitab-ul- 
Wattniq. The Mukhtafir is the basis of all 
the treatises composed on the legal doctrines 
of Shafi'i, who himself entitled Al-Mazan! 
•• the champion" of his doctrine. 

Abu-Is-haq, son of Alptigln, indepen- 
dent governor of Ghazni. Abu-Is-haq handed 
over the reigns ot the government to Subukti- 
gin, who, on Is-haq's death, in a.d. 977, 
a.h. 367, usiu-ped the throne. 

ABU- 1 



Abu-Is-haq (jv*«=-* ^ Jh*~^ ^\ t] " 

son of Muhammad, an inhabitant oi B 
who wrot. an excell( a\ commentarj to Muta- 
iiabbi. II'- died in a.i>. 1049, a.m. 441. 

Abu-Is-haq Ahmad (j.^^-^ J^sr-^ *-'^ 

or Abul-Is-haq Ibrahim bin-Isma'il, author 
of tbe Qifaf-ul-Anbit/a, which contains an 

accouni of the creati i the world, and 

a history of all the prophets preceding 
Muhammad ; also the history <>t Muhammad 
till the battle oi Ubud., a.i>'. 623. 1 1 « died 
in a.i). 1036, a.h. 427. 

Abu-Is-haq al-Kaziruni ( 

J.. \\&\), a Muhammadan saint who, 

they Bay, lighted a lamp in the mosque oi 
the college called " Takhl Siraj," which con- 
tinued burning for four hundred years till tin- 
time of Bin-Qasim. 

•< J • 

Abu-Ja'far ( 


». ' ). / ", /- \] M mi- ur. 

Abu-Is-haq Hallaj CJL; 

<U*kl). Vide Is-haq. 
Abu-Is-haq Isfaraini (j^-s^i •_*' 
j^\JuJi), son of Muhammad, author 

of the Jami'-ul-Jilg, which refutes the 
doctrines of various sects. Ee died in a.h. 
1(127, a.h. 418. 

Abu-Is-haq (Shah Shaikh i (. r^->1 *)] 

t^ir* *Li>). His father Amir Mu- 

hammad Shah, ;i descendant oi Khwaja 
'Abdullah Ansari, was governor oi Shiraz in 
the reign of Sultan Abu-Sa'id K! an, and 
murdered during the reign oi Arpu Kb in, in 
ad. 1335, \ n. 736. Bis Bon, Amir Mas'ud, 
who succeeded him, was also slain shortly 
alter, when his brother, Abu-Is-haq, t",,k 
possession of Shiraz in 1336. Ee reigned 1^ 
years; but when Amir Muhammad Muzaffar 
besieged Shiraz, in A..D. L353, \ a. 754, 
Abu-Is-haq fled to Isfahan, where he was 
slain lour years alter, on Friday the 12th 
May, ad. 1357, 21s1 Jnmada I. a.h. 768. 

Abu-Is-haq Shami, of Syria, a famous 
saint, who died on the 14th Rabi' II. 329, 

and lies buried at 'Akka. 

Abu-Is-haq Shirazi( - -\ ^£> /Ls*^ *-^), 

author of the Tabaqnt ul-Fuqaha, a collection 
of the lives of celebrated lawyers. Ee died 
A.i). 1083, a.h. 476. 

Abu-Ismail Muhammad (Jl^«c*.J »_'^ 

a^.s'*), author of the history called 
Tur'ikh Futiih-il-Shnm,\hR conquest of Syria 
bythe generals of 'TJmar in forty-two battles, 
during the years 638 and 639 of the Christian 

era, translated and abridged from the Tabaqut 


Abu-Ja'far Ahmad bin -Muhammad 

Tahawi (jx^-s.'' 

>( J _\ *r^ .-*—*. 


.r.Lsr 9 ), an inhabitant of Tahi, 

a village in Egypt. II follow) I 

the Hanafiya b< i t. and is the aul 
commentarj on the Quran, called A -»/- 

Quran, and other » lkl,iih\f-ul- 

1/ ■ if- Mi, 

all in Arabii II died in the y< ir l.d. 9 
a. n. 321. II' also wrote an abridgment 
tin- Hanafi doctrim . thi M ifs&tafir 

ut- '/ 

Abu-Ja'far al-Hadd 
Abu-Ja'far al-S.iffar 

L'H :it 

the Bpiritual 

lit. ; one was a locksmith, and the other a 
brazil i I bo latter i- called " Al-IIaffar," 

I.I \alhit-u!- I'll-. 

Abu-Ja'far al-Tabari ( ej^\ .L%^ *>! 
j .r- ,ji i. b it "i Jarlr, author of the 

/,/, /./, I . authentic bistorj in 

Arabic, which he « rote in th< y< ar \ \< 
This work was translated and continued by 
Abu-Muhammad oi Tabriz in Persian. 
I bari was the founder oi the seventh Sunn] 
t. which did not long Burvive the death oi 
it- author. Be was born at Amu] in 
Tabaristun in \ D. s: '^. i H. 224, and died 
at Baghdad in a d, 922, \ n. 310. II- was 
also the author oi a commentary to the 
Quran. Eis Bon, Muhammad Tahari. was 
also an author, and died about twentj \ 
lab r. 

Abu-Ja'far Muhammad bin-'Ali bin- 

Babwaihi al-Kumi (j.^.^r* .1*^- ». ! 

•;.jv_: M lj*)\i ..: -.- j), suraamed 

As-SadQq, one oi the earlieei oi the many 
writers on the Quran among the Shi'as. Ee 
lived in the fourth century of the Eijra, 
and was a contemporary of Rukn-ud-daula 
Dailami. Ee was one of thi 3t oi the 

* collectors oi Shi'a traditions, and the 
most celebrated oi all the Imamiya lawyers 
of Qum in Persia. This writer composed 
a large and a small Tat-ir. Thin- is 
considerable uncertainty as to the exact 
time when he lived Shaikh Tusi -ay- in the 
Fihrist that Abu-Ja'far died at Rai in ah. 
331. a. ii. 942, but this appears to be 
erroneous. Shaikh Najashi, who died in 
a. p. 1014. states thai Abu-Ja'far -w-it.d 
Baghdad whilst yet in the prime of life, in 
a h. 355, a d. 965, which might well have 
been the case, since Abul-Hasan 'All hin- 
Babwaihi, the father of Abu Ja'far, did not 




die until a.ii. 329, a.d. 940. In addition to 
this, Xur-ullah relates, on the authority oi 
the Shaikh ad-DGrysati Duryast, a village 
m ar Rai, which is now called Durashl . that 
Ahu-Ja'far lived in the time of Rukn-ud-dauln 
Dailami, and had repeated interviews with 
that prince, who, as is well-known, reigned 
l,-,,in a n. 338 to 4..H. 336, a D. 949- 
11. is also the author of the Mm la yahznrhtt 
al-Faqih, which is the fourth of the four 
authentic books on Shi'a tradition, called 
" Kutab Arba." Ee is -aid to have written 
in all 172 works, and to have b ally 

skilled in Ijtihad (jurisprudence, q.v.). 

Abu-Ja'far Muhammad "bin -Hasan 
al-Tusi Shaikh, who was one of the 

chief Mujtahids of the Imamiya or Shi'a 
sect, is the author of the work entitled 
Fihristu-Kutub-ish-ShVa i-H-Mitf 

nifin. It is a bibliographical dictionary oi 
Shi'a works, together with the name- oi the 
authors. The greater part of this author's 
works were publicly burnl in Baghdad in the 
tumult that arose between the Sunnls and 
Shi'as in \.\>. loot;, a.h. lis 460, Ahu- 
J'afar died in a.i>. 1067. He i- also the 
author of a verj t ctensive commentary on the 
Quran, in twenty volumes, which rally 

called the Tafslr-ut- Tim, though it wa- 
entitled by its author the Majma'-ul-Baynn 
li-'ulum-il-Q Anion-- the Four Books 

on Shi'a Hadis, called K'itnJ> Arba*, the two 
first in order were composed by him entitled 
Tuhzlb-ul- Ahkam, and Istibpxr. Hi- chief 
works are th \fabsut and Kin! /, which are 
held in greai estimation, as air also the 
A'ihaya and the Muhxt by the same author. 
The Rtsala-i-Jafariya U likewise a legal 
treatise by at-Tusi, which is frequently 


Abu-Jahl (J^_;>- »_ji), the uncle of 

'Tmar ibn-ul-Khattab (•' Father of ignor- 
ance." Jahl means theological ignorance, or 
unbelief). He was one of the most inveterate 
enemies of Muhammad and his religion. 
Though his son 'Ikrima became a convert to 
the tenets of Muhammad, yet the father was 
for ever shut out from paradise ; and so 
violent is the resentment of the Musalmans 
against this first en any of their prophet, that 
they call the colocynth, in contempt, the 
melon of Abu-Jahl. Abu-Jahl was slain in 
the battle of Badr, which he fought against 
Muhammad, together with Al- As, his brother, 
in the 70tb year of hi- age, in the month of 
March, a.d. 624, Ramazan a.h. 2. 

Abu-Lahab (» _^J *.A) } the uncle of 

Muhammad, also called 'Abdul-'l'zza, was 
the son of 'Abdul-Muttalib and one of the 
bitterest enemies of Muhammad and his 
doctrines. He died of grief within a week 
after the defeat of Abu-Sufyan in the battle 
of Badr, which took place about the begin- 
ning of the vear a.d. 621, a.h. 2. He was 

a man oi w alth, of proud spirit, and irritable 
temp r. Hi- -on 'TJtba was engaged, or 
according to some, married to, Muhammad's 
third daughter Ruqayya, but when Muham- 
mad appeared as a prophet, the contract was 
dissolved, and Ruqayya married her lover 
•I -man. Abu-Lahab was also allied to 
tie rival line of Quraish, having married 
(Jmm-Jamil, sister oi AbQ-Sufyan. 

Abu-Lais Nasir Samarkandi, author 

of the work on jurisprudence in Arabic called 
l-'iqlt .Unt-I..iis,[[iu\ the Ghunyat-ul-Mubtadi. 

Abul - 'Abbas, surnamed Al-Sarfuli, 

which see. 

Abul-'Abbas Ahmad bin-Muhammad, 

commonly called [bn-'Uqda, was of the 

greai -t masters of the science of tradition-;, 
and was renowned tor his diligence in collect- 
in-- them, and the long and frequent journeys 
which he undertook for the purpose oi obtain- 
in.-- information on the subject. Al-Darqutni, 
the SiinnT traditionist, is reported to have 
i that Ibn-'Uqda kne-w 300,000 traditions 
ot the Ahl-i-Bail and the Banu-Hashim. He 
died in '.Ml, a.h. 333. 

Abul - 'Abbas bin - Muhammad (yA 
wV-^.s"* .,_< (jwLfcjtiO, author of the 

Arabic work Mn'ri/at-us-Sahaba, ami other 

1 ks. He died in a.i». 1041, a. n. 432. 

Abul-'Abbas Fazl, bin-Ahmad, of Is- 
laialn, was minister to Mahmiid of (JJiazni. 

Abul-'Aina (l_^_*.^ ol), a Musalman 

lawyer, celebrated for his wit. Wh d Musa, 

-on 'of the khalifa -Abdul Malik, put to death 
one of Abul-'Aina's friends, and afterwards 
spread a report that he had escaped, Abul- 
'Aina said in the words of the Lawgiver of 
the Hebrews, "Moses smote him and hi3 
died." The sentence was reported to the 
prince, and Abul-'Aina was summoned to 
appear. Instead of dreading the threats of 
the tyrant, lie boldly replied in the words of 
the following verse in Exodus, "Wilt thou 
kill me to-day as thou killedst the other man 
yesterday? " The ingenuity of the expression 
disarmed the anger of Musa, who loaded him 
with presents. 

Abul-' Ala 0J_*J^ ^j\), entitled Malik- 

ush-Shu'ara, or royal poet, of Gauja, 
flourished in the time of Manuchihr, ruler 
of Shirwan. The poets Falaki and Khaqani 
were his pupils, and to the latter he gave his 
daughter in marriage. 

Abul-'Ala Ahmad bin-'Abdullah al- 
Ma'arri (<U._^.a-~: ^ S*s>-\ LxJl j-j\ 
L c^tL^H), a celebrated Arabian philo- 
sopher, free-thinker and poet, born at 

Alii I. 


Al.l 1. 

Ma'arra in Byria on Friday th i 26th 
Decembi r, a.i>. 973, IbI Rabi' I. a.m. 
3G3. Though he Lost bis Bighi in the third 
year of his age by the Bmall-pox, his poetry 
i- animated and hi- descriptions are beautiful 
and striking. Ee died on Friday the 9th "i 
May, a.i.. 1057, 1st Rabi' I. a.i'i. 449. B( 
was the panegyrist oi Al-qHyim Billah, the 
khalifa of Baghdad, and has I ■ it a Diwanin 

[Vide Zeitschrift, D.M.<;. \\i\. p. 304.] 

Abul-'Ala Mir { ^J^^hR J\ ^ .), 

(Mir), son of Mir Abnl-Wafa Easanl, oi 
Agra, was born in the year a.d. 1582, 
a.h. 990. His grandfather Mir 'Abd-us- 
Salam came to India from Bamarqand, and 
went on a pilgrimage to Mi . and died 
after Borne years. Hi- rather Mir Abul- 
Wafa died at Fathpur Bikri, from which 
place liis remains were conveyed t" Dehli 
and buried close to the college situated i 
the Lai Darwaza. Winn Raja Man Singh, 
was appoint* d govi raor ol Bi ngal, Mir Al 
'Ala accompanied him, and was honored with 
the rank ol 3000, bnl he soon li it him and 
proceeded to Aimlr, and thence to Agra, 
where he passed the remainder .>i his life, 
and is said to have pi rformi d many mirai 
Ee dii d on Friday the 21b1 January, a.d. 
1651, 9th Safar, a h. L061, aged 71 lunar 
years, and lies buried al Agra, al a place 
mar the karbala, where everj year on the 
anniversary of his death b greai Dumber ol 
people assemble together and worship liis 

He was a Naqshbandi and a descendant oi 
Kliwaja Ahrar. 

Abul-Barakat 'Abdullah bin-Ahmad 


^ <0J!jy»fi (JIJ^JI ))\), vide 

Abul-Barakat Nisliapuri f .^. K ' Jl ^,\ 

l3j)*}&~J), author of the work called 

Abul-Barakat, Shaikh, brother of 
Abul-Fazl, born a.d. L552. 

[Vide Blockmann's A'ui Translation, p. 


Abul Farab, of Wasit, the ancestor of 

the Sayyid families oi Barha, Bilgram, 
Khairabad, Fathpur, Eanswa, and other 


[Vide Aln Translation, i. p. 390.] 
Abul-Faraj ( J&] ^\) f wrjL0 in some 

of our Biographical Dictionaries is called 
Abulfaxagius (George), was the son oi Aaron, 
a Christian physician, horn at Malatia in 
Armenia, near the Bource of the Euphrates 
m a.d. 1226. He followed his father's 
profession, but afterwards studied the 

I 'id divinity, and 

ordained bishop <>i Guba in In- 20tli 
from whi 

ami Aleppo Ei arroti a irorV on i 
called M into 

which i- an ■ pitome >■! uui . 
bistorj from tin creation tn hi< own 
The most excellent pari "i tin work is thai 

I i tO 

published thi- \\..rk in _mal 

Arabic, with a Latin version to it. Abul- 
i j dii d in a.d. 1286, a. n. ■ 

Abul-Faraj 'Ali ( >f j 

__' _•* 

,..«»>■), tlic S'lii of Hu&aio bin- 

Mohammad Qnraishi I - ■ in 

the year a d. 

brought «i i • at Baghdad. Ee i- th. author 

, or 
B Sonjrc, an important biographical 

dictionary, notwithstanding it- title, treating 
oi grammar, hisl 

ot pot i: . •■]]. ction ol one 

hundred Arabian which he presented 

to Baif-ud-daula, prince of tl 1 1 tm- 

dan, rdered him a thousand 

The minister ol that prince, thinking this 
sinn too small tor the merit "t thi work, on 
which the author had laboured tin-. 
doubled it. The author ol this celebrated 
work died in a.d. 967, \ n 356, ha-. 
his n aeon pri \ ions to his di ath. 

Abul-Faraj al-Khalnh 

(^jJUJl -ill J . tW ° P ' 

Abul-Faraj al-Baghawl i l wh0 

court ot the Sultan Baif-ud-daula oi th.- 
lion- Bamdan, who was a protector ..t 

men ol letters, on whom he bestowed la 
]» osions. 

Abul-Faraj ibu-Jauzi ( _>^ ill «j1 

ij>))>~)i surnamed Shams-uddln, was 

the most learned man. the ablest traditionist, 
and the first preacher oi hi> time. Ee com- 
piled works on a variety oi subjects, and was 
the tutor ot the celebrated Shaikh Ba'di ol 
Shiraz. Be died ..n the 1 6th June, a.d. 
1201, 12th Ramazan, a.h. 597, and i- buried 
at Baghdad. His father's name was 'All, 
and that oi his grandfather Jauzi. One ol his 
work- is called Talbis Iblit, Thi 1 
of Satan. 

Abul-Faraj Runi (, J,, _ £\ ».• \). of 

\^ yy l^_ > > • 

Run, said to be near Lahore. Be is the 
author ol a Diwan, and was the panegyrist 
of Sultan Ibrahim the grandson oi Sultan 
Mahmud oi Ghazni) who reigned from a.d. 




1069 to 1088, \ .ii. 451 to 481. Anwarl 
imitated his Btyle. 

[Vide Sprenger, Oudh MSS., p. 308. Be 
is often wrongly called Ahul-Farab Ruwaini; 

1 1 .wsiiii iv. p. 205.] 

Abul-Faraj Sanjari {^cysx^ —j^ »^X 

a Persian poet who lived in the time of the 
great irruption of the Tartars under Chingiz 

[Vide, however, Sprenger, Oudh MSS. p. 
308. from which it appears that Sanjari is a 
mistake tor Sijizi, i.e. "t Sijistan.] 

Abul-Fath, author of a Persian work 
called ChaharBagh or I7n I Ga , con- 
taining forms "i Letters on different subjects. 

Abul-Fath, Muhammad bin-Abu-Bakr 
al-Marghinani al-Samarqandi, author of the 
Fuful-ul-'Imndit/a, which comprises forty 
sections containing decisions respecting mer- 
cantile matters, and 1" im. r left incomplete at 
the author's death, which took place in a d, 
1253, a .ii. 651, was finished by Jamal-uddTn 

Abul-Fath Bilgrami Qazi (J'-sL^ »j\), 

commonly tailed Shaikh Kama]. It is men- 
tioned in the work called Hht ini, 
that he was horn in the year a.i>. 1511, a.m. 
917, .and that in the reign oi the emperor 
Akhar he held the situation of Qaz! oi 
Bilgram, and died in the year a.d. 1' 
a ii. 1001. Mulla Firuz 'Usmani found the 
chronogram of the year of hi< (hath in the 
letters oi his name, \i/. : Shaikh Kainal. 

Abul-Fath Busti Shaikh (JLsA\ «j1 
ji^j), a learned Musalman of Bust, 

who lived in the time oi Sultan Mahmud 
of Ghazni, wrote exi ellent poetry on divinity, 
and died in July, a.d. 1089, Snawwal, a.ii. 
430. lie is the author of a Diwin in Arabic. 

Abul-Fath G-ilani ( jlJ JLaJI ^\), 

surnamed Masih-uddin, the son of 'Abdur- 
Razzaq, a nobleman of Gilan, was a physician 

in the service of the emperor Akhar. In the 
year a.d. 1589 he proceeded to Kashmir with 
that monarch, and during the emperor's 
progress from Kashmir to Kabul, he died 
at a place called Dhantiir, on the 20th June 
of the same year, lGtli Sha'ban, a.h. 997, 
and was buried at Baba Hasan Abdal. He 
had come to India with his two brothers 
Hakim Humam and Hakim Xur-uddm 
Qariiri about the year a.d. 1567, a.h. 974. 

[Tor further Dotes, vide Ain Translation, 
i. p. 4 24.] 

Abul-Fath Lodi, chief of Multan. 
Sultan Mahmiid of Ghazni took Multan in 
a.d. 1010, and carried away Abul-Fath as 
prisoner to Ghazni. 

Abul-Fath Muhammad al-Shahris- 

1 *D, 

tani ( j\z^ JJ< £}\ j^,s"« JJi 

author of the Arabic work called h'itlb ul- 
M, a l wan-Nihal, or the Book of Religion* 
and P/iiloxophii v This hook, which 

gives a full account of the various Siinnl 
ts, was translated into Latin and pubhshed 
by Dr. Haarbriicker, in a.d. 1850, and into 
English by the Eev. Dr. Cureton. Shah- 
ristani died in a.d. 1 153, a.ii. 54 3. 

Abul-Fath Nasir bin-Abul-Makarim 
Mutarrizi (»_^ ,.,_.' ^a\j **aJl!\ »_'l 

^SjjQy ♦.oL»S\), author of the Arabic 

Dictionary called Mitghrib. Ee died in a.d. 
1213, \ii. tilii in Khwarazm. Ee was a 

Mu-ta/ilite and invited people to that faith. 
Be i- also the author oi the Sharh Maqam t 
Hariri, and of another work called KiUib 
Azhari. The inhabitants oi Khwarazm used 
to call him the master oi Zamaqhshari, and 
on his death the poets wrote more than seven 
hundred elegies in his praise. 

Abul-Fath Nasir bin - Muhammad 
C-tfli -ivJiJI %)\), author of the Jumi- 

Abul-Fath Rukn-uddin bin-Husam 
Nagori ( ,<j^ ,S , **sl\ >j\), author 

of a work on jurisprudence, entitled the 
/ - ,r,i //, a, which he composed and 

dedicated to his tutor, Hammad-uddin Ah- 
mad, chief-qazi of Naharwala (l'atan) in 
Gujrat. This work was lithographed in the 
original Arabic at Calcutta in a.d. 1825. 

Abul-Fath 'Usman (^Ui^ Skl\ y\), 

surnamed Malik ul-'Aziz 'Imad-uddin, 
ond king of Egypt of the Ayy&bite 
dynasty. He acted as viceroy of Egypt 
during the absence of his father, Sultan 
Salah-uddin Ynsuf ibn-Ayyub, in Syria. 
On the demise of his tather at Damascus 
in a.d. 1193, he took possession of the 
supreme power with the unanimous consent 
of the great military officers of the empire. 
He was horn at Cairo on the 7th of January, 
a.d. 1172. 8th Juniada I., a.h. 567, reigned 
about five years, and died at Cairo on the 
23rd November, a.d. 1198, 21st Mubarram, 
a.h. 595. 

Abul-Fazl 'Abdul-Malik bin-Ibrahim 
al-Hamadani al-Mukaddasi (J\ 

U«£L*11 ±~z J*aJLl!), author of the 
Fardiz-ul-MuqaddasI, a treatise on the law of 
inheritance according to the Shafi'i doctrine. 
He died a.d. 1095, a.h. 489. 



Al,l 1. 

Abul-Fazl Baihaki( l^j J-oiM j\), 

author of several works on hifltory. I 

sou of the khalifa Al-Muktafi, waa a 
astronomer. Vide Al-Mutawakkil. 

Abul-Fazl Ja'far ( y i*:>- 

AToul-Fazl Muhammad (J.^.^1' *-.' 

Sajzl'*), author of the Arabic Dic- 
tionary called SSwah-ul-LugkHt. 

Abul-Fazl (Shaikh) (-^ J^.~ f\) t 

Akhar' s favorite Secretary and Wazif. II 
poetical name was 'Allami. Ee w m the 
second son of Shaikh Mubarak "t \ 
and brother of Shaikh Faizi. He waa bom 
in the year ,\.i>. 1651, ah. 968, and 
introduced to the emperor in the L9th j 
of his reign. Hi- writinga prove him to 
have been th most learned and 
writer then in the East. He ia celebrated 
as_ the author of the Akba and the 

Aln-Akbarl, and for hia letters, called 
Maktubat-i-' Allami, which are considered 
in India models of public corresponden 
The history of the Afughul empt 
carried on to the Hili year of AkbaVs n ign, 
in which year he waa murdered. IF 
deputed with prince Sultan Murad in \ D. 
1597, a. ii. L006, aa Commander-in-( 
of the annj oi the Deccan, and on hia b< 
recalled live years alter, he waa advancing 
Inwards \arwar with a small escort, when 

he fell into aii ambuscade laid for him by 
Birsingh Deo Bundela, raja ol Urcha in 
Buudelkhand. at the instigation oi Prince 
SalTm (afterwarda Jahangir on suspicion 
of being the occasion oi a misunderstanding 
between him and the emperor hia fathi 
and although Alml-Fa/1 defended bin 
with greai gallantry, he waa cui "11 with 
must of his attendants, and his head 
sent to the prince, who was then at Allaha- 
bad. This event took place on Friday the 
13th of August, A.D. L602, 4th Rabr I." \.n. 
1011. Akbar was deeply afflicted by the 
iuteUigence of this evenl : he shed abundance 
of tears, and passed two days and two nights 
without food or sleep. Abul-Fazl is also 
the author of the 'Ay ir-Dnnish, which i- a 
translation of Pilpay's Fables in Persian. 

[For a detailed biography, vide din Ti 
lation, i. pp. 1 to 36.] 

Abul - Fazl Tahir bin - Muhammad 
Zahir-uddin Faryabi (J^^iJLlI yj] 

tWs' 1 *), a Persian poet. Vide Zahir. 

Abul-Fida Ismail Hamawi (\skl\ %i\ 

±Sy*£*- ^L*.*-. •'), whose full name is 
Malik Muayyad Isma'Il Abul-Fida, son of 

Malik -ul - At/ il. 

1,1111. e, wl »d US 

II 5 in tin y at \ D. 

\ ii 7 13. Whi a a pi i a, ha 

published in Arabic an account of tl 

which • with a 

Latin .1 mdon, l< 1 by 

I i 

1345, apod 72, 'II ' I ■■ ; I 


Universal History don i ailed 

/ :. i i exact, and his 

a which prorka 

are \ 

Abul-Faiz ( _^.J" *)\). I 

Abul-Faiz Muhammad bin-J! 
bin-Ahmad, surnamed Al Katib, or 

tin Wl Itoi known bj tie n an • 

bin -Ahmad. II 


phj to i'i rii ction. II died in a.i>. 

Abul-Futuh Razi Makki (_._' *j\ 

C 3 

^JL* u/j»i)i author of the Arabic 

•. or Kit-db 11 


Shi 'as, particularly in I' 


Sunni lawyer, on 

i n- oi tie ir n ~|h i tive doctnnes, in 

whii h, ''• r oi - . the girl utfc 

di- omfita her opponent I ■ 

\i i .n-l\ munap d, and I 

tnki ' . 1 u r 1 1 i - 1 . I and con 

exposition of the £ -. and the 

texts on which their belief is founded. This 

work w.i- translated from Arabic into 

by Ibrahim A ii. in a.i>. 1551. 

Abul-Ghazi Bahadur ( ,jLj ^c'SiiS *-•'), 

Khan oi t ended from 

Hi, • i hingiz Khan. He came to the 

_ntv oi Khwarazm on the death oi his 
brother; and after 20 years, during which 
lie waa r. -p. et. d at hone- and abroad, he 
i signed the sovereignty to his son. Anusha 
Muhammad, and retired to devote himself to 
lit ratine. He wrote a valuable genealog 
history ol the Tartar-, the only Tartar history 
known in Europe, but did not live to finish 
it. lie died a. i.. 1663, a.h. 1074, and on 
hi- death-lied charged his son and successor 
to complete hia history, which he performed 
in two vears alter his father's death. ] 
valuablework was translated in to German by 
Count Strahlenberg, and a French translation 
appeared at Leyden in 172G. 

Abul-Ghazi Bahadur. 
llu-.dn Mirza. 

Vide Sultan 




Abul-Haras (,j <JU ,jy"~*^ lL^sI ^ 
<UJu ^J <U^), or Haras, commonly 

called Zul-Rama, -.n oi 'Uqba. II- was an 
Arabian poet, ami was contemporary with 
Farazdaq. 11'- died in a.d. 7:;-"). a..h. 117. 

Abul-Husain Ahmad bin -'Ali al- 
Najashi, author of a biographical 

work entitled Kitdb-ur-JRijdl, comprising the 
lives of eminenl Shi'as. Najaahi died in 

a. ii. 40o (a.d. 1014). 

Darqutni ( ^, z 

\ »j' 

Husain 'Ali bin - 'Umar al - 

\Wi \.>) a Sunni traditionist, whose 

ction of traditions, like tin— of A.bu- 
Bakr Ahmad-bin-al-Husain al-Baihaqi, are 
of the highest authority. He died in a.d. 
995. a. n. 385. 

Abul-Husain bin-Abu-Ya'la al-Farra 
(Kazi) ( Jucj *->} ^H c^."" 5 ^ J-J^i 

author of the Tabaqdt-ul-Hanbaliya, which 
comprises the lives oi the most famous lawy< rs 
of the seel oi Ebn-Hanbal ; it was commi aced 
by our author, continued by Shaikh Zain- 
uddin 'Abdur-Rahman bin-Ahmad, commonly 
called [bn-Rajab, and concluded by Yu-ut 
bin- Hasan al-Mu [addasi ; these three writers 
died respective ly in a.d. 1 L31, 1392, and 
1466, a.k. 526, 795, and 871. 

Abul-Husain Kharqani (-+u±s?\ jjl 

<jlj.rO, author of the Sharh-i- 

MaWizan-ul-Asrar, and Mir-at-ul-Muhaqqi- 

qhi, containing- an explanation of the cere- 
monies used on the induction of a Sufi, and 
the rules of the order. He died a.d. 986, 
a.h. 376. 

Abul-Husain Zarrin. Vide Abu- 
Husain Zarrin. 

Abul-Hasan ( , tm yj\) } author of 

the Siyor Nur Maulud, a heroic poem on the 
wars of the prophet Muhammad. 

Abul-Hasan ( .h*^s:4 *-^), a poet who 

wrote a commentary on the Diwan of Anwarl, 
called Sharh-i-Diwdn-i-Anwari. 

Abul-Hasan (Shah) (s\jj l ^y^s'\ *)\), 

son of the famous Shah Tahir, of Ahmad- 
nagar, in the Deccan, and minister of 'All 
'Adil Shah I., about the year a.d. 1572, 
a.h. 980. 

Abul-Hasan, the son of I timad-ud- 

daula, prime minister of the empi ror Jahangir, 
had three daughters, viz. Arjmand Banu, 
also rail, d M unit a/- M ahall. married t<> the 
emperor Shah Jahan; Sultan Zamania, the 
second daughter, was married to Sukan 
Parwiz ; and the third. Badr-uzzamania, to 
Shah 'Abdul-Latif, the spiritual guide of the 
emp rot a imgir. I Asaf Khan. 

Abul-Hasan 'Abdullah (Imam) (»._.1 
<U_!L\_-._z .^>-.s^), son of 

Muqanna'. He translated Pilpay's Fables 
from the Pahlawi language into Arabic by 
order of Abu-Ja'far Biansur, the second 
khalifa of tin house of 'Abbas, who reigned 
at B ghdad from a.d. 754 to 775. The book 
i- called Kalila Damna. 

Abul-Hasan 'Ali ( _L.c 

\ +>\). 

1 •"•' 

author n\ tic work- railed Sunan and 'Hal. 
II died a.d. 990, a.h. :>80. 

Abul-Hasan 'Ali bin-al-Husain al- 
Kumi ( ^JLl\ ,.,— ^- ,.tJ „t«s'! +j\ 

<L.'»_'L'), oommonly tailed Babwaihi, 

who i- said to have did in A.D. 940, A. II. 
I, was tin- author of several works of DOl . 
of which i- called Kitdb-ush-SharVa. 
I is writer i- looked upon a- a considerable 
authority, although his tame has been almost 
eclipsed by his more celebrated son, Abu- 
Ja'far Muhammad Ibn- Babwaihi (p. 14 . 
When these two writers are quoted together, 
they are called the two Saduqs. He is also 
the' author of tie Kitab - ul - Mawaris, a 
treatisi ou the law of inheritance. 

Abul-Hasan 'Ali (^j lr .<u,.«:m yj\ 
ijLk-Lj), the son of Sultan 

Mas'ud I., ascended the throne at Ghazni, 
on Friday 29th December, a.d. 1049, 1st 
Sha'ban, a.h. 441, reigned little more than 
two years, and was deposed by his brother, 
'Abdur-Rashid, in a.d. 1052, a.h. 443. 

Abul - Hasan Ash'ari ( „«*^£.^ yi\ 

^r^J\ ^ lJj*^), son of Ismail. 

He was a Mirtazilite, but afterwards became 
a Sunni. lie is the author of nearly 400 
works. He died in the year a.d. 936, a.h. 

j ».*,.-.« 


Abul-Hasan Jurjani (,.,. 



^j\jp-rS>-), a celebrated lawyer, a 
native of Jurjan or Georgia. Vide Jurjani. 


I I. 

Abul-Hasan Qhan (Mirza) (^^ y} 
\' ir * J^.^), Persian ambassador to 

the British Court in L809 and 1819. Q 
the author of a work called hjairat^nama, or 
bo<»k of wonders, which title was giv< d to it 
by Fatb 'Ali Shah, king oi P •> 

contains a long ace. unit i b in's tray< Is 

in India, Turkey, Russia, England, etc. 

Abul-Hasan Qutb-Shah (^t— s 1 ;-- 

a Li t_ , 4 ?-2), whose literarj name 
was Tana Shah, was the Bon-in-law oi 'Ab- 
dullah Quth-Shah, after whose demise, aboul 
the year a.d. L672, a.m. 1083, h ded 

to the throi i Q dkonda in Haidarabad, 

Deccan. This place was conquered by 
'Alamgir, after a si ge oi - pen months, on 
the 22nd September, \ i>. L687, 24th Zil- 
qa'da, a.m. ions, and Abul-Hasan was taken 
prisoner and confined for life in the citadel 
of Daulatabad. Golkonda was then reduced 
to a province of the empire ol Bindustan. 
Abul-Hasan died in confinement aboul the 
year a.d. 1704. Ee was th I Sultan oi 
the Qutb-shahi dynasty, and a famous , 
in the ibakini, or dial d of thi I' * can, 

Abul-Hasan Razin bin-Mu'awiya al- 
'Abdari (<ij,l*,« ^ c -»~ : ' c,^"^ *" 
^.JuaM), author of a collection oi 

traditions bearing the Bame title as the one 
written by Baghawi, nun.!. ! ,i\mi-t- 

SiihJhii'ui. It foiii]iri- - the works ol Al- 
Bukhari and Muslim, the ofuwaftS oi Malik 
ibn-Aus, the Jami'-ut-Tirmizi, and the 
Sunans of Abu-Daud, and Al-Nasai. II 

died in a.m. 1 126, a.m. 520. 

Abul-Hasan Turbati 


ji_;.J'), entitled Rukn-us-Saltanat, 

an Amir who held the rank oi 6,000 in the 
reign of the emperor Jahanglr, and died in 

the sixth year of Shah Jahaii, A..D. I 1 

a.m. 1042, aged 70 years. 
Abul-Qasim al-Sahrawi (^AjUI yi\ 

l _$«\j5:* a '\), called in Lempriere'a 

English Biographical Dictionary "Alsaha- 
ravius," an Arabian physician who 1 i >■ d 

about ti\c year a.d. 108.'>. a m. 478, and i~ 
the author of the Al-Tasrlf, a treatise in 
thirty-t\ <»> books on medical practice. 

Abul-Qa&'ui Namakin (^.^ULll *J\ 

^.CiJ), a Sayyid of Hirat, served 

with distinction under Akbar and Jahanglr, 
and became a rich landowner iu Bhakar, in 
Sindh. He built the great mosqu • in Sakhar. 
His descendants served under Shahjahan, 
'Alamgir, and Farruk-siyar. 

[Vide Aire Translation, i. p. 470.] 

Abul-Qasim Nlshapnxi (♦L..^' . 

l^i^IumJ), Miith Persian work 

on lithe -. call* • d ol another 

work, entitled //»'.'■ 

Abul-Qasim 'Abdullah ( . -I 5 N ,_>! 


ddl\.x-x), - in of Muhammad Baghawi, 

author oi th '■ 

other woi ks. 1 1 

A.M. .'U7. 

Abul - Qasim Isma'il bin - 'Abbad 

( Ur^»._' . ... the 

idi prim I khr-ud-daul I. < >w • •! 
ni« .-t >|i!. ndid I 

]iri\ati individual in thi East thai ol 

this Qobleman. [bn-A-»ir relate* thai i"iir 
hm I to remoYi the 

I k-. 

Abul-Qasini Mir i t Kami'm 

I In 

a o. 1557, i.h 964, h< was i onfini d 
in the fort of i 

who, when to punish &han Zao 

r. d him t" )m murdi n d. 

Abul-Qasim Kahi ( JfcK **UJ! ». " . 

it i- usually « lid thai he 
of Kabul. B 


Abul-Qasim of Ililla ( J,^-' ^,W . 

commonly called Shaikh Muayvad, author -t 
th. Sharai'-ul- i lawful 

and forbiddi n tl I bis h"<'k is 

M lammadans ; 
- i'a doctrin - II died 

N m-uddln Abul-Qasim Ja'far bin- 
Mn lyyad. H< dii d a.i>. 1-77. a.m. I J 

Abul-Qasim 'Ubaidullah bin -'Ab- 
dullah bin-Khurdadbih, died a ii. 
300, a d. 912. II' is best known as Ibn- 
Khurdadbih. He wrofc the KUab-ul-Mamlik 
wal-Mamdlik, the B U n<«l 

[J'idt Khurdadbih, and Dowson, i. p. 12.] 

Abul-Khair Maulana of Khwarazm 

(LJ».* ^jJifZ-j+s. \ yi\), a physician 

and poet, whose poetical name was 'Ashiq. 
From his native country hi- went to 
in the latter part of the reign of Sultan 
Husain Mirza, and was there till Muhammad 
Shaibani, commonly called Shahi Beg Khan 
TJzbak, conquered that province, and took 
him to Mawaran-nahr, <>r Transoriana, where 
he died in a.d. L550, a.m. 957. The chrono- 
gram of the y.-ar oi Ins death is " Paut-i- 
'Ashiq," the death oi 'Ashiq. 



ABl" L 

Abul-Ma'ali, whose proper name is 

Mohammad Sadr-uddfn, is claimed by the 
Turks as the first <>t their poets, though his 
lalx>ur< were aot confined to their language 
alone, for he wrote in Arahic also, ana was 
in Persian the rival ami opponent of Na§ir- 
mlilui. lie was contemporary with Jalal- 
oddin Rumi ami his boii Walad, and died 
about the year a.i>. L270. Be i- aot, how- 
ever, according to Baron von Eammer, 
to be strictly considered a Turkish poel hj 
bis countrymen ; hut the mystic tone which 
1„. adopted from Persian literature, and 
which he was undoubtedly the first to impress 
upon 1h<' national mind, gives him an un- 
questionable right to the place assigned him. 

The nam. - oi hi- Works, such BS the 5 

of i - ■■■it, and the Key of Mysteries, 
indicate the peculiarity of his taste and 
genius ; but amidst all the confusion oi 
style and thought some passages oi great 
beauty and even simplicity are found in bis 
works. He is lost, however, in the tame 
oi his buci essor 'Ashik. 

Abul-Ma'ali (a><^ \ X*z ^ J- UJ ^ y \ ), 

the son of 'Ahdul-Majid, the most eloquent 
of the Persians, who flourished in the time 
i.i Sultan Bahrain shah Ghaznawi, by whose 
order, in the year a.i>. 11 IS. a.m. 512, he 
w rote in prose his KaRla /> 
Fables) from a copy which Rudaki, the 
celebrat.-l poet, had formerly used for poetry. 
This version continued in vogue till the time 
of Sultan Ilusain Mirza, fourth in des 
from 'Umar Shaikh, the second son oi Amir 
Timur, when his prime minister Amir 
Shaikh Ahmad Suhaili gol Susain Wa'iz 
to modernize it, in a.d. 150.5, a.h. 910, 
under the name of Anwar Suhaili, or the 
Rays of Canopus. Abul-Fazl, the able 
prime minister of Akbar, compressed this 
work, and gave it the name of l Ay ir-JJaninh, 
or the Touch-stone of Knowledge. He is 
called by Daulat Shah, Hamld-uddin Nasr- 
ullah. Vide Xasr-ullah, the son of 'Abdul 

Abul-Ma'ali (Shah) (ili .yUJl yi\), 

a chief in the service of the emperor Akbar, 
who ha vine: revolted was compelled to seek 
saietv in Kabul, where Mirza Muhammad 
Hakim, the brother of Akbar, gave him 
his sister, named Mihr-un-Xisa Begam, 
in marriage, and raised him to the first 
office in that kingdom The ungrateful 
refugee, however, had not heeu many months 
in office, before he aspired to the kingdom 
of Kabul, and in March a.d. 156-1, Sha'ban, 
a.h. 971, basely assassinated Mirza Muham- 
mad Hakim's mother, his own mother-in- 
law, who was aweman of uncommon abilities, 
and might with truth be said to have ruled 
that kingdom. He then pretended to act as 
regent to the young prince, who was still in 
his minority, with a view to get rid of him 
as soon as he could conciliate the Umar as. 
In the meantime Mirza Sulaiman, prince of 

B lakhshan, attacked him, and slew him in 

a battle mi the 13th May, A.D. 1564, 1st 

Shawwal, a.h. 971, and took possession oi 
thai country, which he held for two years. 

Abul-Ma'ali was an elegant poet, and his 
poetical name was Shahhadi. 

Abul-Ma'ali (Shaikh) ( ^l.*^ ^\ 

•^~> ^sA-l i&\), of Allahabad, author 

ot the work called Tuhfat-ul-Qadiriya, or 
the life of Shaikh 'Ahdui-Qadir Gilani. He 

resided in Lahore, and died there on the 6th 
April, a.h. 1615, 10th Kabi' I., a.h. 1024. 

Abul-Mafakhir Razi L^jJjL*]] y\ 
-;^,), a poet who flourished iu the 
n ign ot Sultan Muhammad Saljuqi. 

Abul-Mahaain ( .^IsrM yj\), author 
ut the work called Manhal-i-Sdfi. 

Abul-Makarim bin-'Abdullah. There 
are thne comments on the Niqaya of 'T bai- 
dulla bin-Mas'ud, which are niiieh esteemed; 
they were written respectively by Ahul- 
M ikarim in a.d. 1501, a.h. 907 : Ahii-'Ali 
bin - Muhammad al-Birjindi in a.i>. 1528, 
a ii. 935; and Shams-uddin Muhammad al- 
Khurasani in \.i>. 1534, A.H. 941. 

Abul-Ma'shar (_A_*_^J1 ^j\), who is 

called by some older authors Albumassar and 
Alhumazar, was a learned Arabian astronomer, 
who flourished in the ninth centun in the 
reign oi the khalifa Al-Mamun of Baghdad, 
and wrote a treatise on the revolutions of the 
years. His full name is Ja'far bin-Muham- 
i hin-'l'mar Abul - Ma'shar. He is 
called the prince of the Arabian astrologers, 
lie was born in Balkh. In bis famous work, 
called Uluf or Kitab-ul-Uiuf, which he 
wrote from a Sanskrit work on astronomy, 
he asserts that, when the world was created, 
the seven planet- were together in the first 
point of the sign of Aries, and that it will 
end when the same planets shall meet again 
iu the last point of Pisces in their exalta- 
tion or Dragon's head. He died in a.d. 885, 
a.h. 272. His works were printed in Latin 
at Venice in 1586, 8vo. 

Abul-Najib al-Bukhari (^fi!l tf\ 
^j\^s\\\), poetically called also 

'Am'aq, was a Persian poet who nourished 
in the fifth century of the Hijra at the court 
of the Sultan Qadr Khan, king or khiqan 
of Turkistan, who made him president of the 
academy of poets which he had established. 
His poem of the loves of Yusuf and Zalikha, 
which can be read in two different metres, 
is much admired. He was particularly 
famous for his elegies. He lived nearly 
100 years. Daulat Shah says, he lived in 
the time of Sultan Sanjar, who requested 




him to write an elegj on the death oi his 
daughter Malik Khatun, which be did, al- 
though he was then blind on account oi old 
age. II. appears to have died Borne y< 
before or after a.u. 1145, ah. 540. 

Abul - Sa'adat Mubarak Ibn - Asir 





al-Jazari, author of an Arabic Diction 
called Al-Nihaya ft gkarlb-il-Eadlt. II 
died in a. p. 1209, a.h. 00(3. Vidi [bn-Asir. 

Abul-Wafa (Khwaja), one of the 

greai saints of Khwarazm, and author of 

several works on Sufism. II di '1 \.i>. I I 
a. n. 83o. 

Abu-Maaz Muslim (Juw^i Jwt< 

an Arabian grammarian, who died in a.h. 
803, a. ii. L87. 

Abu-Mansur, surnamed al-Hakim bi- 

amr-illah, buco ded bis father Al-'Azi 
the throne oi Egypl in \ d. 990, \ h. 
when only 11 years oi ag , In the latter 
part of bis reign be fam ii d hinuw Ii a god, 

and found do fewer than 16, p< reons who 

owned him as such. Th< Be wi re mostlj the 
Daririans, a ae* seel sprung up about this 
time, who were bo called from their chief, 
Muhammad DJn-Isma'il, Burnamed Darari. 
II is supposi '1 to have inspired the mad 
khalifa with this impious action; and as 
Darari set ap for a second Moses, he ili<l 
not Bcruple to assi rt thai Abu-Mansur 
the greai creator oi the nnivi ree. !!• 
assassinated in the year a.h. 1020. Bis Bon 
Tahir succ< eded him. 

Abu-Mansur (,»^:~« ». ,,N >, author of 

s J J' 

tlic Eitdb-ut-Tauhld, and several other 


Abu-Mansur 'Abdul-Kalrir al-Bagh- 

dadi, author of a treaties on th< law 
of inheritance according to Shafi'i. Ee died 

A.D. 1037. A.ll. 1- I. 

Abu - Mas'ud, Burnamed Shaikh -ul- 
Islam, a native of Constantinople, and author 
of the valuable commentary on the Quran, 
entitled Irshad-ul-'aql, flourished in the reign 
of Sultan Salim Khan, emperor of Constanti- 
nople, and died in a.i>. 1516, a.h. 922. 

Abu-Mulianiniad (^-C« .X^-st* »j^), of 

Mecca, son of Abu-Talib, author of a 
commentary on the Quran, and - vera! other 

works. He died in a.d. L045, a.h. 437. 

Abu-Muhammad, son of Abbas, the 
sun of a sister of Abu-Ja'far bin-Muhammad 
bin-Jarir al-Tabari. It is said that he had 
hy heart 100,000 verses oi different authors. 
lie died in a.d. 993, a.h. 3S3. and was a 
contemporary of the author of the 'Ayyar. 

Abu-Muhammad Husain bin-Mas'ud 
Farra al-Baghawi. ( . — =~ j^s:* 

c»jL-J' '—• ->.*—« . — '). authi 

Election "i traditions i « 1 1 < d I > it>, 

in Arabic : also "i the Ma'dlt 
and Sharif- • x B lied in \ i>. 1 

a.h. 516. II ador "t furs, 

quently he I 

wi - - s ikihain. 

Abu - Muhammad Ilisham bin -al- 
ii ikim til - Kindi al - Shabani, 
who lived in the time "i the Khalifa Barun- 
ur-Bashid, and died in a.d. 795, a ii. 17 


Abu-Muhammad Nasihl ( a^. s * --' 
ir _s~- . a man of eminent 

: niiiLr in tli> time "i Sul| 
i , Be wroi i book cutil 

in support "ii Abu-H ;iit.i. 

flourished about tie 

Abu - Muhammad Rozbihan Bakah 

Shir a /.i ( 

. \ 




Jl ), author of ti at-td- 

II died in July, Mu- 

I' • 

Abu-Muhammad Shatibi (s.+sr* yX\ 
c „ V- ' -t >. a very I I Ifusalman 

and author of i " "■ 

1 in a.h. 1194, a ii. 690 II 
name was Qaaim : he was born al Sharibiya, 
in Andalusia, from which he derived hi- title 
oi Shafibi. II .mli"r ><\ at n ral 

otto r works. 

Abu -Muhammad Tabrizi, authoi 
the Persian history called ZEi<4ft-»- Tabarl. 
I i i.'inal oi this book was \\ritt< n in 

\ liie by Aliu-Ja'tar Kin-. I I ban, in 

A ,,. 912, a.h. 300, and was afterwards 
translated into Persian and continn d by Abu- 
Muhammad, and dedicated to Abu-§ilih bin- 
Nub, about the year a.h. 1118, a.m. 512. 

Abu - Musa Ja'far al - Sufi, whose 
poetical name is Jabar, was the founder "t 
the Arabian school "i chemistry, flourished 
toward- the end cf the eighth, <>r the com- 
menc menl oi the ninth century. According 
to the majority of authorities, he was born 
at Tus, in Khurasan. Be wrote an immense 
number oi treatises on alchemy, also a w<>rk 
on astronomy. An edition "t his works in 
Latin was published at Dantzic, in 1662, and 
another in English by Russel, in i 




Abu - Musa al - Ash'ari ( _«.•»«« ^.A 

^J > > • 

(Cfjt-ilM), one of the arbitrators 

between 'AH :uid Mu'awiya I., by whose 
decision 'All was deposed in the year a d. 
658, a.h. 37. Eight months after the battle 
of Siffln between -AH ami Mu'awiya, th two 
arbitrators, Abu-Miisa and •Ann-, the son of 
■As, met at a place betwei o Mecca and Kfna. 
where a tribunal was erected. Abu-Miisa 
first ascending it. pronounced these words 
with a loud voice: "I depose 'AM and 
Mu'awiya from the Khilafat (or government) 
to which th j pn t ad, after the same manner 
as I take this ring from my finger," and 
immediately came down. 'Amr then went 
up and said: "Von have heard how Abii- 
Musa has (iii his pari depos d 'All; as for 
my pari I depose him too, and I give the 
Khilafat to Mu'awiya, and invest him with 
it alter the same manner as 1 put this ring 
upon inv finger : and this I do with so much 
th • more justice, because he is 'Usman's 
heir and avengi r, and the worthii at of all 
men to succeed him." 

Abu-Muslim, a great general, to whom 

tin 1 Ahbasidi - entirely owed their elevation 
to the Khilafat, for which he i- commonly 
called Sahib-ud-Da'wat, or author of the 

vocation ol the Abbasides. For bis g 1 

conduct and bravery, he occupied the first 
posts in the service of the Ommaides. Be 
was governor of Khurasan, a.i>. 7i'>, when 
he proclaimed the Abbasides the lawful h irs 
of the Khilafat, and in a.d. 7-19 transferred 
the dignity of Khalifa from the famih ol 
Umayya to that of the Abbasides. This 
revolution occasioned the death of above 
600,000 men; and when Abu-Ja'far Al- 
Mansur, the second Khalifa of the race of 
'Abbas, was oppos id on his acc< ssion by his 
uncle 'Abdullah, sun of 'All, 'Abu-Muslim 
■was despatched against him. This general 
having harassed him for five months together, 
at last brought him to a general action, and 
having entirely defeated him, forced him to 
fly to Basra. Notwithstanding all his services, 
however, Abu-Muslim was soon after, mi 
Thursday the 13th February, a.d. 755, 24th 
Sha'han, a.h. 137, ungratefully and bar- 
barously murdered by Al-Mansur, and his 
body was thrown into the Tigris. Abu- 
Muslim took his origin (as, a P( rsian 
historian relates) from Hamza, who pretended 
to descend from Gaudarz, one of the ancient 
kings of Persia. 

Abu-Na'im (<d!Lu£ ^ +~xj ^\), son 

of 'Abdullah, author of the works ' Ulya and 
Dalail-i-Nubuwwat. He died in the year 

A.D. 1012, A.H. 403. 

Abu-Nasr Farabi (.-jtili ~^-' %->^). 
Vide Farabi. 

Abu-Nasr, author of a Persian work 
on Sufism, called Ams-ul-Tdhbln. 

Abu - Nasr Farahi ( j^^ ^ ^j\) t 

flourished about the year \ i>. 1220, in the 
tine' ot Bahram Shah, sun of Taj-uddin, 
ruler of SIstan (also called Xliuruz . who 
In a m to reign in tin- year \.i>. 1215. He is 
the author of a vocabulary in verse, called 
Nisdb-us-Sibydn. His real name i- Mu- 
hammad Badr-uddin, and he belongs to 
Farah, a town in Sijistan. 

[Vide Ain Translation, i. note -11.] 

Abu-Nasr Isma'il bin-IIammad al- 
Jauhari (.jU^- „ r j , Ljl*J ..^.3 ^.A 

1 c r i>»_s^) is the author of the Dic- 
tionary called S'/n'ifi - til - l.injh'tt . If was 

born at Farah. and died about the year a.d. 
1003, a. n. 394. 

Abu-Nasr Khan (Nawab) ( ^J *_}\ 

< mJ ,,l>-), an amir of the reign 

ot the emperor 'Alamgir. The mosque of 
Jajnagar, in Orisa, was built by him in the 
yi :.r a. u. 1687, a.h. L098. 

Abu-Nasr Maskati ( J.r.Cw« -jj *s\), 

a native of Maskat., and author of the book 
called Maqdmat. 

Abu-Nasr Sabur (Shapur), son of 
Ardsher. He built in I \.i>. 954, an 

editiee at Baghdad, dedicated to scientific 
and literan exercises, and collected a large 
quantity oi books, designed for the use of 
Musalmans; there were, it is said, upwards 
oi 10,400 volumes oi all kind-, including a 
hundred Qurans, copied by the celebrated 
caligrapher [bn-Muqia. 

Abu-Nawas C^y y>}), al-Hasan bin- 

IlanT. !l celebrated Ariliiull poet, born ill the 

city of Basra. His merit was acknowledged 
at the court of Harun - ur - Rashid. His 
principal works have been collected by several 
persons, on which account there is a great 
difference between the copies of his works. 
His proper name is Abu- 'All. ne died a.d. 
810, a.h. 195. 

Abu -Hainan al - Biruni ( AsT. *j\ 

"•. ~**1\), or Abu-Bailian Muhammad 

bin-Ahmad al-Blruni, was born about the 
year a.d. 971, in the town of Blrun, said to 
be situated in the province of Khwarazm. 
He was astronomer, geometrician, historian, 
scholar, and logician. Besides metnphy-ii is 
and dialectics, he studied, and appears to 
have drawn his chief lustre from, attainments 
in the magical art. Of this the following 
instance is related. One day Sultan Malnnud 
ordered him to deposit with a third person a 
statement of the precise manner in which the 
monarch would quit the hall where he then 




was ritting. The paper b ing lodg d, the 
king, instead oi going onl by one ol th 
nnmeroua doors, cans id a bri acb to b made 
in the wall, by which he i H cted his exit ; 
l,ut how was he amazed, when, on th paper 
being examined, there was found in it a 
minute specification of the precise spot 
through which he penetrated ! H< reupon the 
prince with horror denounced this learned 
man as a sorcerer, and commanded him to be 
instantly thrown oul of the window. The 
barbarous sentence was prea ntly executed; 
but care had been taken to prepare b< oeath 
a soft cushion, into which the body of the 
sage sank without sustaining any injury. 
Abu-Baiban was then called before the 
monarch, and was required to Bay whether by 
his boasted art he had been able to fi 
these events, and the treatmenl through which 
he had that day passed. The Learned 
immediately desired his tablets to be sent for, 
in which were found regularly predicted the 
whole of these singular transactions. II 
travelled into dill', n nt countries, and tu and 

from India for the spi t 40 w are. Ee 

wrote many works, and is said to have 
executed several translations from th< Greek, 
and epitomized the Almajest oi Ptolemy. 
His works are said to have i iot edi d a camel 
l,,ad. The most valuable ol all hi- works i* 
the Tarikh-ul-Hind. Another ol his work- 
is the Qanun Mas'iidl, dedicated to Sultan 
Mas'ud oi Qhazni, for which hi • d an 

elephant-loacl ol Bilver coins. Ee lived in 
the time of Sultans M ihmud and M 
Ghaznawi, and died in the year a.i>. 
a. ii. 430. 

[For further notes >■;./, Dowson, / 
History of India, ii. p. 1.] 

Abu-Sa'id Baizawl ( 


Abu-Sa'id (aU^Ju^c 

the son of 'Abdullah, an Arabian poet who 
flourished in the courl ol Salih-ud-din, 

(Saladin), and was his prime minister. B< 
died in the year a.d. 1201, ah. 6 

Abu-Sa'id ( ^li i— Ji 


the son of Kulaib Shashi, author ol the book 
called Masnad Kabir. Ee died in a.d. 
a.h. 335. 

Abu-Sa'id 'Abdul-Malik bin-Quraib 




commonly called Asma'i, celebrated tor his 
grammatical knowledge and eloquence. Ee 
was born in the year a.d. ~i0, a.h. 122, and 
tlourished in the time of Al-Mansur. khalifa 
of Baghdad (who reigned from a.d. 75i to 
775), and died at Basra during the reign of 
Harun-ur-Bashld, or, as some authors Bay, 
in a.h. 216 (a.d. 832). 

Abu-Sa'id 'Abdur - Rahman bin - 
Mamun al-Mutawalli, author of the 
Faraiz Mutawalli' , a treatise on the law of 
inheritance according to Shafi'i's doctrine. 
He died a.d. 1085. a.h. 478. 

or Q&zi Abu-Sa'id 'Abdullah I thor 

ol the- work called A'ir(/</<- an 

epitome ol Oriental II i to 

overthrow ol the Khilafat bj 
andi r Euliko. Khan, a.d. 
written about thi year 1275. I Baizuwi. 

Abu-Sa'id Fazl-ullah CJ«flJ -N-*- ». ' 

jJ.S \ son i I Abul-Knair, a 

Sufi, -of W Ii - spiritual raids 

Abul-Fagl Luqn - - 11 d roted 


ra in the wild, rn -- II i* th nuth< 
the Quatraii H \ at-i-Abu-8a'id 

Abul-Khair. II 14. in the 

s li. 41U. 

Abu-Sa'id Khan Bah&dux (^«r_ »_ ' 

«- A^ _• . _ s . Sultan of 

j ■■ ■ %~ *— 

the tan., ol Hulaku Khin, was thi 
ii. M liuinimiil K huda- 

. la, whom I. ••! 

P< reia m D< i mb< r, a.d. 1 B rn U, 

a ii. 7 16, wh( n be was onlj tw< - ol 

1 !, i i-hid-ud-dill. tin author 

oi the .liimt'-u!- 1 •'•'<. was pal to death. 

This monarch may be I ol the 

dynastj ol Hulaku Khan who enjoyed 

power. The t> w prin t thai ra's 

taiiiiK ■ to the throni att« r 

Abu-Sa'id whom 

nobles ol the courl 

it suited the porpos - ol tlcir ambition. 
Abu-S i 'id i 19 lun. i: ind died 

,,i fever on b Now mm r. \ d. 1 

nth Etabi* II.. ah : the following 

a li-t ol tin' princes ol the familj ol Chit 
.n. who were raiwd to nominal power 
.th ol Abu-Sa'id Khan : 

ArpaKhan Ifu'izz-uddin was crowned in 

1 :;:>.".. n igned ti\> month-, and was killed 
in battle in l.d. ; ;3G. 

, K :,'.:. ted in 1 33»*.. r. 

tw in a n. 1338. 

Saki, Bister ol Abu-Sa'id Khin, 

i t.. the throne in 1338. She 
iras i i tried to 1 hin Timor, who 
the kingdom as h r dowry, but 
depoa d th ar. Att. r him 

Sulaiman Khin w is d ■ lared king : he left 
the kingdom and went to Diyar-bakr in 
134 1. 

Nausherwah ited in 1334. 

Abu-Sa'id Mirza (Sultan) (j.^ 
■ ol Vt \ ,.i \ ; r*), the son 

of Sultan 

Muhammad Mirza. son of Miranshah, son of 
Amir Timor [Tamerlane). Ee was born in 
a.d. 1427. After the death of his father in 
1441. he continued to live with Mirza ITugh 
I; sg, son ol Mirza Shahrukh, at Samarqand, 
and served in his army when he was at war 
with his son Mirza • ; but when 




that prince was murdered by his unnatural 
Bon, in October, a.d. 1449, Ramazan, a.m. 
853, and he in his turn was slain after six 
or sewn months by bis own soldiers, and 
Samarkand was taken possession d bj Mirza 
'Abdullah. «<t\ of Mirza [brahim, and -rand- 
son of Mir/a Shahrukh, Abu-Sa'id, with 
the assistance of Abu-l£hair (Jzbak, having 
defeated and taken 'Abdullah prisoner in a 
battle put trim to death and ascended the 
throne <>i Samarqand in a.d. 1 151, a.m. 855. 
11,. also took possession of Khurasan after 
the death of Babar Sultan, son of Baya- 
sanghar Mirza, in a.d. 1457, a.m. 861, and 
greatly extended hi- dominions, but was al 
hi.-t taken prisoner in an ambuscade, and put 
to death on the Mh February, a.d. 1469, 
25th Rajab, a.m. 873, ait. t be had reigned 
is years. After his death. Sultan Eusain 
Baiqra, surnamed Abul-GhazI, a descendant 
of Amir Timur, made himself masti c of the 
empire. Abu-Said at his death left eleven 
sons, viz. : Mirza Sultan Ahmad, Mirza 
Sulifui Mahmud, Mirza Sultan Muhammad, 
Mirza Shahrukh, Mirza Dlugh Beg, Mirza 
■liuar Shaikh, Mir/a Aba-Bakr, Mirza 
Sultan Murad. Mir/a Sultan Khalil. Mir/a 
Sultan Walid, and Mir/a Sultan 'TJmar; of 
whom four arrived to the dignity oi kings, 
viz. : Mirza Dlugh Beg to the throne of 
Kabul : Mirza Sultan Ahmad to the kingdom 
of Samarqand; Mirza 'Umar Shaikh to the 
united thrones of Andijanand Farghana ; and 
Mirza Sultan Mahmud to those of Kunduz 
and Badakhshan. i.bu-Sa'id Mirza, says 
Babar Shah, though brought up in the city, 
was illiterate and unrefini d. 

[Vide Genealogical Table attached to Am 

Abu-Sina Muhammad, author of the 
Arabic work called Daqdiq-ul-Haqdiq, con- 
taining a collection of traditions. 

Abu-Sina (1~~j y\), or Abu- All Sina, 

whom we call Avicenna, was a famous 
Muhammadan physician and philosopher, who 
early applied himself to literature, botany, 
and mathematics. At the age of eighteen he 
began to practise, and with such success that 
he became physician to the court at Baghdad. 
He was born in the city of Bukhara, in a.d. 
983, a.h. 373, and died at Hamadan in July, 
a.d. 1037, a.h. 427. atred 54 lunar years, 
with the character of a learned man, but 
too much addicted to wine aud effeminating 
pleasures. His books on Medicine, etc., were 
in number 100, now nearly all lost. He is 
also called Ibn-Slna. The following are the 
titles of his works: Of the Utility and 
Advantages of Sciences, 20 books ; of Inno- 
cence and Criminality, 2 books; of Health 
and Remedies, 18 hooks; on the means of 
Preserving Health, 3 books ; Canons on 
Physic, 14 books ; on Astronomical Observa- 
tions, 1 book ; on Mathematical Sciences ; of 
Theorems, or Mathematical and Theological 
Demonstrations, 1 hook ; on the Arabic 
Language, 10 books ; on the Last Judgment ; 

on the Origin of the Soul, and the Resurrec- 
tion o| B iai : oi the end we should propose 
to ourselves in Earangues and Philosophical 
Argumi m- : Demonstrations of the collateral 
lines in the sphere; abridgment of Euclid; 
on Fruity and Infinity ; on Physics and 
Metaphysics; on Animals and Vegetables, 
etc.; Encyclopaedia, 20 volumes. Avicenna 
i- also credited with an Arabic redaction of 
some of the works oi Aristotle, and with 
some Persian quatrains in the >t\ 1. afterwards 
p ipularized by Omar Khayyam [q.v.). 

Arju-Sufyan (t__J.>- ^ eA^ y<), the 

son of Harb, the grandson of Umayya, and 
great-grandson of 'Abdul-Shams, lie was 

an able and ambitious man, oi great wealth 
and i it 1 1 ii> me. and .me of the mosl pers svering 
and powerful opponi uts of Muhammad. lie 
was the father oi Mu'awiya, the first khalifa 
of the house oi Umayya, and one oi the 
heads of the tribe of Quraish, to which 
Muhammad also belonged. When Muhammad 
took up arms for the propagation of his faith, 

Abu-Sufyan was mad.- generalissii i his 

enemies againsi him; and after the battle of he stood very fair for the head-hip of 
that tribe. Bui he was at last convinced 
is, by a signal victory gained by 
.Muhammad over his enemies of the truth of 
the pi-..]. lut'- pretensions, and was converted 
in the 8th y. ar of the Ilijra, a.d. 629. 

Abu-Sulaiman Daud (jjlj^U-A-: ^\), 

bin-Abul-Fazl bin-Muhammad Fakhr Bina- 

kiti, so called from having been born at 
Binakit, or Finakit, a town in Transoxiana, 
afterwards called Shahrukhiya. He is the 
author of the Tarikh-i-Bindkiti. Its correct 
name in lull length is Uauzatu ull-l-albab 
fi Taxvarl -%1-A.kabir wal-Amab, i.e. the 
garden of the learned in the histories of 
great men and genealogies. It is chiefly an 
abridgment of the Jdmi'-ur-JRashidi, and was 
compiled by the author onlj seven years after 
that work, in a.d. 1317, a m. 7l»7, and is 
dedicated to Sultan Abu-Sa'id, the ninth 
Mughul king of Persia. The author was 
a poet as well as an historian, and was 
appointed by Sultan Ghazan Khan, poet 
laureate of his court. He died in or about 
th. \ ear a.d. 1330, a.h. 731. 

[Tide Dowson, Elliot's History of India, 
iii. p. 55.] 

Abu-Tahir (^JbU? ^j\), of Tortosa, 

in Spain, author of the Ddrdb-ndma, an 
abridgment of Oriental Biography, contain- 
ing the Lives of Zuhak, of Darius, of Philip 
of Macedon, and of Alexander the Great; 
also Memoirs of Galen and other Greek 
Philosophers, etc. 

Arju-Tahir Khatuni ( J*j'l>- JfclL»jl), 

a poet who flourished in the twelfth or 
thirteenth centuries of our era. He is the 
author of the History of the Saljuql kind's, 
entitled Tarlkh-ul- Saljuql, and of another 
work, called Mandqib-ush-Sfru'ara. 



AB1 i 

Abu-Talib (^_JU? yj\) waa the father 

of 'All, and the uncle ol Muhammad the 
prophet. Ee died three days b foi I h dija, 
the first wife of Mohammad, in August, * o. 
619, aged 80 years. 

Abu-Talib Husaini, author of the 
Tuzuk-i-Timurl. This work contains an 
account of the first forty-s Fen y< irs ol the 
life of Tamerlan . written by himsell in 
Chaghtai Turk!, and translated into Persian 
by Abu-Talib, who dedicated it to Shah 
Jahan. It has been translated into English 
by Major Char] Si it. 
[ Vide Dowson, iii. p. 3S 

j ■ 

Abu-Talib Kalim ( 

,.J^Jo«>Jb), whose poetical nai 

Ealim, was m great poet ol Bamadln in 
Persia, and came to India, the first time in 
the reign of the emperor Jahangir, and 
returned home in .\ o. 1619, a.m. l 
After Borne years he again visited India in 
time of Shah Jahan, who employed him, and 
conferred on him the titli ol " M tlik-ush- 
Shu'ara," or Poi t Laureate. Be n 
weighed againsl gold and silver, and the 
amount was given to him as i for his 

poetical talents. Ee dii d at I 
L9th Nbvemb r, a.d. 1651, 15th Zil-ln 
a ii. 1061 . Ee is the author oi a po< m 
called Zafar - noma - < - s; 
conquests of Shah Jahan, and of a Diwan in 

Abu-Talib Khan (Mirza) (i^JU 



,_.* ,ou=>-). the son of Bajl Mu- 
hammad Beg Khan, by descent a 'I'm!. 
born at Lucknow in thi d. 1752, \ h. 

1K5.5. 1 1 ■ was appointed bj Mukhtar-ud- 
d&ula, the prime minister "i nawab Asaf-ud- 
daula of Lucknow, in a.i>. 1 7 T -"> . 'Amaldar 
of Itawa and Beveral other districts situated 
between the rivers Jamuna and Ganges [n 
this situation he continued for t\\.> j 
but, after the death oi his patron, and the 
appointment of Haidar \> g Khan to his 
office, he was superseded, and repaired t" 
Lucknow, and was allowed by tin Nawab 
GO, ooo rupees per annum for his support. 
Alter the expiration of one year. Colonel 
Alexander Hannay, having been appointed 
Collector oi Gorakhpur, requested the Nawab's 
leave to take him as an assistant, in which 
situation he continued for tin. Ee 

was afterwards employed by Mr. Middleton, 
the Resident of Lucknow. in reducing the 
rebel Raja Balhhaddar Singh, whom, during 
two years, he frequently defeated and pursued. 
At length, the Rajah, being surprised in his 
camp, was killed in endeavouring to make his 
escape. Abu-Talib, after this falling into dis- 
tress for some years, embarked for Europe w ith 
Captain David Richardson, a British officer, 
and left Calcutta in February, 1799, Ramazan 
a.h. 1213. lie visited England aud other 

I a iu 

I indon undi r t f the Persia] 

1 » 1 1 r i 1 1 lt hi ! in 

w hich i nd i on- 

mitt. .1 to writing muIi i 

to him at thi mom q1 ' In I 

' i utt.i in 1803, * ii. 1218 

and abridged his notes, he published them 

uiid r the title / 

- . ■ I ' by 

Cli Stewart, and publifd I 

the year 1814 Abu-Tali I the 

author ot the A"A»/./» 

[/'. ii. x i i i 

Abu-Talit) Kirza. / - Lata K: 

Abu-Talib (Shaikh) _-- _ | 1 . 

ihammad 'Alt 1 1 
il died at 1 716,4 

II. d 
M ikn-uddii tomb 

ol the M U S h-ul- 

I . f G 

Abu-Tammam ILibib ibn-Aus al-Tai 

< 5\yi -.'..'. ^ .u , 

an Arabian pa 1 I ■ H\ nl in thi i ity 

ol llnniiuUn, I with 

distinction by Abul- v - When 

thi tinu imp irs i >1 Abul- 

\\ ,- . In- library, and 

placed it entirel] disposal. Surrounded 

with thi so lit- 1 i immara 

t . i r lt < • t his jourm y, n ad thi \ nlulhi - 

with avidity, and devoted hi- timi to thi- 
rd work ]»M tiial 
co titi d h the principal 
truit >.t thi • iii'le- 

fat on « ith whii li th- Ii arned 

writ.r Led this rich library. 

Amongst il ther w..rk- that hi wrote, one 

i« i hul'Uth-Shu'ari. Il« was born 

in $04, a ii. 188, at .1 'i-im. n. ar 

id dii d in ah. B45, \ ii 231. 

Abu-T;iyyib al-Mutanabbi (, *Jt *)\ 


k!' ). Vide Mutanabbl. 

Abu-Turab (Mir) ( 

Salami Sayyid oi Shiraz, who Berved, with 
hi< son Mir Gadai, in Gujrat, and then 
under Akbar. Be died in ah. 1006, and 
lit a buried in Ahmadabad. 

[Vide Ai» Translation, i. p. 506.] 

Abu-'Ubaida (ss-~z J\), a friend and 

■date ol Muhammad, who had the com- 
mand ot the Moslem army in the time of 
Abu-Bakr, the first Khalifa, but being de- 
feated in a battle against the troops ol the 
Greek emperor, he was deprived ol the com- 
mand, which was given to Khalid. 'TJmar, 

Alii I 



on his accession to tlie khalifat, replaced 
•Abu-'Ubaida in the command of tli • army 
in Syria, being greatly displeased with the 
cruel and blood-thirsty disposition of Khalid. 
•Abu-'Ubaida extended his conquests over 
Palestine and Syria, and drove the Greeks 
out of the whole country extending from the 
Mediterranean to the Euphrates. This con- 
quest was completed in a.i>. 639, \.n. L8, in 
which year Syria was visited bj a dreadful 
plague, in which the Moslems losl 'Jo.OOO 
men, among whom were Abu-'Ubaida him- 
self, Yazid ilni Abu-Sufyan, and many other 
men oi distinction. 

Abu-'Ubaida ibn-Mas'ud (\_\ 




ial in the time 

of the khalifa 'Umar. He was defeated and 
killed in battle by Farrukhzad. who com- 
manded tlif army of Turan-Dukht, queen oi 
Persia, about the year a.i>. 635. 

Abu-'Ubaida Kam bin-Salam, author 
oi a work on Qardat. 

Abu-'Ubaida Ma'mar bin-Al-musanni 

Z kj\), a t';illlOUS 

Arabian grammarian, burn in Basra, \\h<> 
lived in the time of Harun-ur-Bashid, and 
died a.d. 824, a.h. 209, aged 99 Lunar years. 

Abu - 'Umar .Minbaj al - Jurjani 

( jU-^;' —L.^« .+z tj\) author of 

<_5 • J ■ ^ * V J- 

the Tabaqdt-i-Nafiri, a celebrated history, 
written in a d. 1252, a h 650, and dedicated 
to Sultan Nasir-uddin Mahmud oi Dehli. 
Fide Minhaj-i-Siraj. 

Abu-Yahya bin-Sanjar ( m J\ ^sT *j\ 

j-s^i), author of a Diwan in Arabic. 
He died in a.d. 1234, a.h. 632. 

Abu - Yahya Ahmad bin - Daud al - 
Farazi al- Jurjani (j^^\ c—^ %->^ 

JjiJjjj), who was originally a SunnI, 

but became a convert to the Imamiva or 
Shi'a faith, is the author of a biographical 
work, entitled Kitab ft ma'rifat-ir-Rijal, 

containing the lives of eminent Shi'a-. 

Abu-Ya'qub al-Warraq (<_->•£_*_> *_>! 

s' ,»/). Vide Muhammad bin-Is-haq 

Abu - Yazid (Maktabdar) (jo • « ->1 

•v •• J • 

j^XciL*\ secretary of state in Egypt, 

who rebelled against Qaim, the second khalifa 
of the race of the Fatimites. He was not 
punished for his rebellion till Isma'il al- 
Mansur defeated him, and confined him in an 
iron cage, where he ended his days. 

Abu-Yusuf (Imam) (A,+\ 

bin-Habib al-Kufi, a celebrated Qazi of 
B _-l i f 1<1, and one of the first pupils of Abu- 
Hanita, dignified with the title of Qazi-1- 
Quzat, or supreme judge, in the reigns of 
Had! and Harun-ur-Rashid, khalifas of 
Baghdad. He supported th A Abu- 

rlanifa, and maintained the dignity of bis 
office by impartiality. When one day re- 
proached for his ignorance of one oi the 
causes brought bi fore him, for the decision 
hi which he received an ample allowance, he 
jocosely replied, that he received in propor- 
tion as he knew; but, said he, "If 1 were 
paid for all I do not know, tin- riches of 
the khilafat it-ilt would not be sufficient to 
answer my demands." lie was born a.d. 731, 
a .ii. 113, ami died on the 13th September, 
a.d. Tvs. 27th Rajab, \ n. L82, al the age 
.■I 69 years, at Baghdad. The only work 
known to have been written by him, treats "t 
the duties oi a Magistrate, and i- entitled 
.[<• - -Qazi. Tlie reputation oi this work 
has been eclipsed by thai of another, having 
a similar title, l>y al-Khassaf. 

Abu-Yusuf Ya'kub bin-Sulaiman Is- 

faraini (^L-J-. .• ^j 

author of the Sharait-ul- Khilafat. He died 
in a.d. 1095, a. ii. 488. 

Abu - Zakariya Yahya al - Nawawi. 
S iwawi. 

Abu-Zarr ( 

>'), the father 

of the Karamatians in Arabia, who not only 
opposed the religion of Muhammad, but 
]>luudered and insulted the temple of Mecca, 
and carried away the black stone which was 
believed to have falli d from heaven. He 
died a.d. 953, a.h. 342. Vide Qarmat. 

Abu-Zarr Yaqut Mausili (j^Ji \j , j *i\ 
\*ty*), a celebrated caligrapher. 

Abu-Zubaid (.x-j ; tf\), an author who 

has written on the lion and all its names in 
the Arabic language. 

Achaemenes, old Persian Hakhamanis ; 
founder of the dynasty of kings called after 
him, viz. : 


Cyrus I. ? \ 

CambysesL? U. Kai Kobad). 

Cyrus II. d. o29 l v ' 

Cambyses II. d. 522 ) 

Darius I. d. 485. 

Xerxes (?), d. 465 {v. Isfandyar). 

Artaxerxes, d. 4-~>. 

Darius II. d. 405 
Darius III. d. 330 

1 [v. Dara). 




AchanakBegam,one of the concubini - 
of the emperor Akbar. She had built a 
garden on the banks of the Jamuna, al Agra, 
called Achanak Bagh. Borne traces ol il are 

yet to be seen. 

Achchhe (g-^s-l), the poetical name 

of prince Baland-Akhtar, a brother ol tie 
emperor Muhammad Shah ol Dehli. Be was 
familiarly called Achchhe Sahib, and there- 
fore chose Achchhe for his "takhallus." 
He is the author of a beautiful ; died 

Nahid-o-Akhtar, i.e. Venus and thi Star. 
containing 355 verses, which he completed in 
the year a. d. 1726, a.ii. 1139. 

Adam, the first man. The Muliamina- 
dans place Adam's Paradise in h< av< n ; 1 
after the fall Adam and LJawwa 1".\. 9 
hurled down to earth. Aa this event happened 
about T.'Hio years before the Hijra, Adam i- 
often called haft-hazari. 

Adam Khan Gakkhar L t iS {i ^&. A S \ 

chief of the Gakkhars, who defied the power 
of the emperor Akbar. In '.'7 n . at_ the 
Instigation ol Carnal Khan Gakkhar, Adam 
was attacked, and defi ited and captured at 

Ililan, south ol Chilianwala, Dear I 
Adam's Btronghold. 

[Vide Am Translation, i. p. 457.] 

Adham (*>o^), the poetical name of 

Mirza Ibrahim, a Sayyid ol I 

lie came to India in tie- time ol th< i nap 

Shah Jahau. He died, or was put t.> death 

in prison, in the y. ar \ d. 1 650, \ B. LI 

He is tin' author of a DlWan, and also "t a 

Masnawi, called Safiq-ue-Sdlikin, and a 


Adham Artamani ( _jl_^_j' ^ ,»_J>»>' ) 
author of a Diwan in Persian. 


Vide Ibrahlm-i- Adham. 

Adham Khan (.,U- *Jb^). the son of 


Mahum Anaga. He appears to have : 
an illegitimate son ol the emperor Hamayun. 

His mother Mahum Mas one of Akbar" s 
nurses (anaga), who attended on Akbar " from 
the cradle till after his accession." She 
played a considerable part in bringing about 
Bairam's fall. Adham Khan [i.e. the Black 
Khan) was a commander of 5,000, and dis- 
tinguished himself in keeping the rebellious 
Bhadauriya clan, near Hatkantk, south-east 
of Agra, in order. In a.h. 968, he de- 
feated Baz Bahadur of Malwa, whose female 
favourite was the poetess Bupmati (q.r.). Iu 
the following year. a.d. 1562, he stabbed at 
court his enemy Atgah Khan, Akbar's foster- 

father, and was killed by the em: • !.r. 

Milium Anaga died fortj dayi after frooi 
ief, and waa buried with ha ion in Dehli, 
in a Mausoleum ere< ted r. Adh 

brother Baqi Klein, or Klein 

died in ii. 

< ,.. . rnoi "i Garb - .. I Pro- 

vini • 

B ,'. tut tan. 

Adhan (Shaikh) | ._>./). a Chishtl 
•it, who died at Jaunpur in a.m. 970. 

AdiVj (, -jSi. the poetical name <>f 

- II ii •All bin- N - • exo Lieut 
iloeopher, who n I irypt, 

undi r He ol Am:. I I L&imite. 

Adib C :j'\ Bornai B bir, a • 


l l Anwari. I Shihab-uddin 

Adib Siibir. 

'Adil Khan ( •. ,Li 

I iqi I., ruler ol 

called Mil "in Ghani, 


who i- a!-<> 

'Adil Khan II. Faruqi (..,U. Jjlfi 

•. j :ititlc <1 A*/atn Huinii- 

yun, si.n ol Easan, and grandson i 

I tqi bj tie daughter ol Mahmud 

to the throne 

ol Khindesh alter the death "t Difid KJiin 
I iruqi, in August, a.d. L510, Jumada I , 
a.h. 916, and removed from Talner to 
B irhanpur, which place he nuid it oi 

hi- government, and died tin n . ait. r a i 
ol nine or ten vears, in \ i>. 1620, a.ii. 

and was bu 1><1 by Miran Muhammad, his 

• -..ii bj tie -i-t. r oi Bahadur S 

'Adil Khan (^U- JjU), the eldest 

brother oi Sultan [slim Shah, kin:: of Dehli. 
II. fled to Patna ait. r his defeat in a battle 
i dnst his brother, but he soon disappeared, 
and was n>\.r heard "t afterwards. 

Adina Beg Khan ( A_k 



son of Channu, an Arain by caste, was horn 
Sarakpur, near Lahore. Eewas brought 
up in a Mughul family, became a soldier, 
but devoted himself to accounts. He was 
Governor oi Sultanpur when Nadir Shah 
invaded India. Subsequently, he became 
Governor of the Panjab. In 17^ s he defeated 
the Afghans near Lahore. Soon alter this 
he died, without heirs, at Khanpur, near 
Hoshyarpur. where a line tomb was erected 
over his remain-. 




'Aclli ( Jjlc), the nickname of Mu- 
hammad 'Adil Shah, king of Dehli. T T i - 
name was Mubariz Khan, son of Nizam Khan. 
Be succeeded Islam Shah in the very end oJ 
a.m. 960, defeated with the lull) of his 
aeral Ilium, iii 962, Muhammad Shah <>i 
I; ngal .-it < hhapparghatta, easi oi KalpI, ami 
was at last, in 964, one year after Akbar's 
accession, d< feated ami killed in the battl 
Surajgarh, Dear Munger, by Bahadur Shah, 
Sultan oi Bengal. Bis nickname 'Adli was 
often further corrupted t" "Andhli'," the 
blind woman. 

'Adnan ( ,Uj.-), one of the descend- 
ants of [sma'il, the smi of Abraham, with 
whom thr genealogies "t the Arabians, and 
also that u!' Muhammad, terminate. For 
reckoning up from 'Adnan to Isma'il, the 
descents are very uncertain, ami the best 
historians confess that thin- is nothing certain 
beyond 'Adnan. 

Afi ( -iO, poetical name of Ahmad 

Yar Khan, author of a small poem in P( rsian 
called Masnawi Gulzar-i-JOiayal, containing 
thr story ot Shahzada and Gada, written in 

'Afif. Vide Shams Siraj *Afif. 

Afrasyab ( i 

;L~j^), an ancient, if 

not mythic, king of Turin, the son of 
Pashang. Be overcame Nauzar, king of 
Persia of the Peshdadian dynasty, and having 
killed him, ruled over Persia for twelve years. 
He was subsequently defeated in a battle 
against Kai-khusrau. king of Persia, of the 
second or Kaifuiian dynasty. 

Afrasyab Khan, adopted son of Mirza 
Najaf Khan {q.v.), became Amir-ul-Urara 
on the death of his master. A.n. 1782. 
Intriguing with Madhuji Sindhia. he was 
over-reached, and was assassinated near Agra, 
October, 1783. 

Afrin (^iT), poetical name of Shaikh 

Qalandar Bakhsh, of Saharanpur, who is the 
author of a work called Tuhfat-us-Sandi'. 

Afrin (^.j^\ th e poetical name of 

Shah Faqir-ullah, of Lahore. He was a 
Gujar, embraced Mnhammadanism, and is 
the author of a Diwan, and of an epic, called 
Hir-wa-Ranjha. Some say that he died in 
ad. 1730, and others in 17*41, a.h. 1143, or 

Afsah {^ li \) ) Shah Fasih, a pupil of 

Mirza Bedil, died at Lucknow in a.h. 1192, 
and left a Diwan. 

Afsari (^jyuil), the poetical name of 

a poet. 

.i'), the surname of 
a general ot the khalifa 

Afshin ( __ 

Haidar ibn-Kaus 

al-Mu'tasim Billah, of Baghdad. Be was a 
Turk by origin, and had been brought up a 
slave at the khalifa's court, and having been 
employed in disciplining the Turkish militia, 
had acquired the reputation of a great captain. 
Be was. however, executed about the year 
a ii. 840, by the khalifa, being accused of 
holding correspondence with the khalifa's 
em m 

Afsos ( „.»a^), the poetical name of 

Mir 'Ali. -"ii of S. Muzafar All Khan, 
claiming descent from Imam Jafar g.v.), 
born at Dehli, where his grandfather had 
b en in the imp. i ial w n ice : author of the 
Ardish, a sort of Ordu Gazetteer, admired 
for its style. Be was tii-t in the service of 
\ v. i i [s-haq Khan, the uncle ot Asaf-ud- 
daula, "i Lucknow, and subsequently of 
Mirza Jawan-Bakht. and was finally recom- 
mended to Lord Wellesley, and appointed a 
Munshi of the Collej oi I it William. Be 
i- the author of the Araish-i-Mahfil, in 
Urdu, ami of the Gulistdn, translated by 
him into the same language. Be died in 
Calcutta in a. ii. 1806, a.m. 1221. 

Aftab (t-jLi-iT), the Takhallus, or 

poetical name of Shah 'Alam, king of Dehli, 
who died in the year a.i>. 1806. The 
following coupli t is a sample oi bis Majesty's 
poetry : 

" The forenoon with the wine-cup, the 
evening with the \\ ii 
The rest i- known to God alone; mean- 
time 1 live my life." 

(Shah 'Alam.) 

Afzal, the poetical name of Shah 
Ghulam A'zam, which see. 

Afzal 'Ali Khan (Nawab). Vide 
Afzal Khan (p. 36), whose original name was 

Afzal, the poetical name of Muhammad 
Afzal, which see. 

Afzali ( e La.*'), the poetical name of 

\ - 

Shaikh. Muhammad Nasir, son of Shaikh 
Khub-ullah, of Allahabad. He died in a.d. 
1750, a.h. 1163. 

Afzal Khan ( ,U- J»«£i\), or Mir 

Muhammad Afzal. He flourished in the 
reign of the emperor Muhammad Shah, of 
Dehli, and died in the year a.d. 1735 or 
1738. a.h. 1148 or 1151. " His poetical name 
was Sabit, which see. 



Afzal Khan ( ,l>- J-Jjl), Shaikh 

'Abd-urrahman, Bon "i the celebrated Bhi 
Abul-Fazlj minister and Becretarj to the 

emperor Akbar, was Jahangir's govern i 

Bihar in a d. L610,and died at Agra in L613. 

[Vide Aln Translation, p. sxxv. (Abul- 

Fazl's Biography), and Dowson, vi. p. 205.] 

Afzal KhanC^Ui. J^ai\), whose original 

name was Mulli Shukr-ullah, the bot "i 
'Abdul-Haqq, came from Shiraz to the 
Deccan, and was introduced by 'Abdur- 

Rahim Klifm, Khankhanaii. t<» the em] r 

Jahiangir, who conferred on him the rank ol 

an Amir. In the Bee 1 yi ar ol Shah Jahan, 

A.D. 1628, \ ii. L038, the office oi Wizarat- 
i-knll having become vacanl by the dismissal 
of [radal Khan, the brother ol Asal Khan 
Ja'far Beg, he was honoured with thai 
appointment. In th< elevenl "t the 

emperor, the mansab ol 7,000 and 1,000 
s: i wars was conferred upon him, bul he died 
the aexl year at Lahore, on tin 7th January, 
12th Ramagan, \ a. L048, o - ."1 

70 years. His poetical name was |Allami. 
Eis tomb, called Chini Etauza, is in AgTa, on 

tin: lilt hank nl tin .lainiiu. 

Afzal - ud - daula (Nawab), Nizam of 

Haidarabad, succeeded his father, Nawab 
Nasir-ud-daula, in May, \ .i>. 1857, 15th 
gil-qa'da, a.m. L285, and departed 1 1 * I — lit. 
on the 26th February, 1869, aged 14 yi 
leaving an infanl Bon, who, according to the 
succession guarantee granted by Lord < lannimr, 
is now his successor. 

Afzal-uddin (Mir), Nawah of Surat. 

Ee died on the 7th August, L840, at the 
age nl 59 years, after enjoying his nominal 
nawabship about 21 years Bus son-in-law, 
Mir Ja'far 'Ali, succeeded him. 

Agah (iliTT), the poetical name of 

Maulawi Muhammad Baqir. Hi- parents 
were of Bijapur, but he was horn at Ellora 
in a.d. 1745, \ n. 1158, and died on the :3rd 
March, a.d. 1806, 1 Ith /il-hijja. a.h. L220. 
He is the author of a Diwan. 

[Ho was a Naita (pi. Nawait, Baid to be a 
corruption of the Persian nau-amad, a "new 
arrival"), a name given to certain seafaring 
Arabs, settled in Western India.] 

Agah Khan, a eunuch of the emperor 

Shah Jahan, who died on the 9th Rabi' I., 
ah. 1067. His tomb is near the Mumtaz- 
Mahall, in TaVjganj. 

Ag-ha Ahmad 'Ali, poetically styled 
Ahmad, sou of of Agha Shaja'at 'Ali, of 
Dhaka, a Persian grammarian of note, who 
successfully defended, iu his Muayyid-i- 

I: , '■ in, and the S/iai the 

author "t th Burhdn Q I 
Dictionary, against the ft us Dehli ■ 

G "ilih. II '-<- 

Ishliqaq, tin /.'■ • • - - /■ h 

Ah ■ ■ • ,; ' , • 'I 

-. \. ral works for tin Asiatic Sooiel 

||. was a P< reian t. ai her in the Calcutta 

M idrasa when he died, June, 1 s T 

A<rha Husain Khwansari ( p- \c\ 

w .- , '»_<>. PiVfc II. sain Khwan- 


Agha Mir ( _ . £1), < utith '1 Mu tamad- 

ud-danla, mini i-uddin Gaidar, 

king "t An. lh. II m \ D. 

1826, \ ii 1242, and i •■ to K i pur, 
w] M 7: M IJ . \ D. 

• / . \ n. 1247. 

Muhammad Khan (jytsr* 

,l>.). Vide Aqa Muhammad Khan 

ia Mulla (.. * L_ : ' >, Burnamed 

"Dawatdir," "the inkstand-holder," the 

am ■ -t..r ..t tie thr \ 

audi r Akbar an 1 1 


.ar Khan( .,'.< _c\),Plr Muhammad, 

who served during the reign_ol Aurangzib 

t Prince Shuju 1 , in Asim, and in 

h ml II. di.d in a ii. 1102. Hi- son, 

\ . in II., was -till alive during the 

..i Muhammad Shah, Th< family 

ol Yafis Japhel . Bon ol x Thi ir villa, 

.r Dehli, is often mi ntioned 
in the histoi 

Ahi ( gjfcOi a ]"" , who was a chief 

,,i om ol the Chaghtai hordes, and had 
assumed originally the poetical nami 
■■ \ rgisi," but changed it into "Ahi," 
becaua he found thai another poet ol his 
time had adopted it. II. is the author ol a 
Diwan, which he dedicated to princi Gharib 
Mirza, tin boh ol Sultan BLusain Mini 
Baiqra. Ee died in the year \.i>. l 
ah. 927. 

Ahl-i-Bait (^-*-' Jj»t), "the people 

of the house," a general name for the 
,1 scendants ol Muhammad, the Sayyids. 

Ahl-i-Kitab (. -\^ J^), "the people 

ol the hook.*" a collective name for the Ji w-, 
Christians, and Muhammadans. who received 
a hook. i.e. revealed religion from heaven. 




Ahli Khurasani ( _>U .rL "JjbO, a 

poet who died at Tabriz in the year a.d. 
1.027, a. ii. 934. Hi- niu-t nut be confound d 
with Ahll-i-Turani, a Chaghtai aobleman of 
profligate character, who lived al the court oi 
Sultan Husain Mirza, and died in a.d. 1497, 
a.h. 902. 

Ahli Sliirazi (Maulana)(^J • ^ *\b} >, 

di Shiraz, an eleganl poel in the Bervice oi 
Shah Isma'il Safawi I. He is the author oi 
several poi ms, amongst which are the Sihr-i- 
Haldl, Sham' wa Tarwana, Risila-i- N agh z. 
Saqinama, and Fawaid-ul-Fawaid. He died 
in the year a.d. 1535, a.h. 942, and i- buried 
at Shiraz, close to the tomb oi Hafiz. 

Ahlia Bai, the wife of Madlm Rao 

Peshwa, built a ghat at Agra, in the time 
of Shah •Alain, called Bisnan Ghat., or a 
bathing-place for all nun. on the banks 
of the river Jamna. It extended from the 
trench of the fort to the bouse "i Dara 
Shikoh, and was in good preservation in the 
\ ar a.d. L830. On one of the corners a 
large gun of iron was then lying, under the 
Haweli ot Dara Shikoh, called Dhaul Dahani. 

Ahlia Bai (^5b AJubl), the wife of 

Khande Rao, the son of Malhar Rao Holkar 
I., ut Indor, after whose death, in a.d. 1766, 
she had a jagir allotted to her, yielding an 
animal revi mi ot 1 ,500,000 rupei 3. Hei 
husband, Khande Rao, was killed in battle at 
Dig against Surajmal .Jar. in 1754. Her son 
Mali Kan. who bad succeeded his grandfather 
Malhar Rao iu 1766, died nine months alter. 
She was a woman of spirit and ability, and 
reserved in her own hands the right of 
nominating a successor, aud elected Tukaji to 
the raj. 

Ahmad al-Makkari (a*>|), author of 

the History of the Muhammadan Dynasties 
in Spain. This work was translated by M. 
Pascual de Gayangos, an erudite Spaniard, 
London, 1810, in 4to. Vol. I. He was born 
in the 16th century, and died in Damascus in 
the year a.d. 1631, a.h. 1041. After having 
composed a very detailed biography of the 
celebrated and learned wazir of Granada, 
Muhammad Ibn-nl-Khatib, he added to it. 
in the form of an introduction, a general 
history of the Arabs in Spain from the 
conquest to their final expulsion. 

Ahmad I. (±**z* ^ x*.=J), emperor 

of Turkey, son and successor of Muhammad 
III., whom he succeeded in January, a.d. 
1604, Sha'ban, a.h. 1012. This prince was 
of a good constitution, strong and active ; 
he would throw a horseman's mace, of nine 
or ten pounds weight, farther than any of 
his court. He was much given to sensual 
pleasures, and had 3,000 concubines. He 

died "ii the loth November, a.d. 1617, 15th 
Zil-qa'da, a.h. 1025, at the age of thirty, 
having reigned fourteen years. He was sue- 
ceeded by his brother Mustafa I. 

Ahmad II. (^Ljl ^ £*>\), son of 

Ibrahim, succeed d on the death of hi- brother 
Sulaiman 11.. in a.d. 1691, a.h. 1103, to 
the throne oi Constantinople, and died iu 
a d. 1695, a ii. 1106. 11 was succeeded by 
Mustafa 11., son of Muhammad IV. 

Ahmad III. (j^^s-* .,.- w w^i), son of 

Muhammad IV., was placed on the throne of 
Constantinople in a.d. L703, a.h. L115, by 
the lead- ut a faction which had deposed his 
brother Mustafa II. He granted a friendly 
asylum to Charles XII. of Sweden, after the 
battle oi Pultowa; and the kiudn ss and the 
hospitality which marked the whole of his 
intercourse with that unfortunate monarch, 
are entitled to the highest encomium. He 
was preparing an expedition against Persia, 
when an insurrection hurled him from his 
throne, and exalted his nephew Mahmud 1. 
from a prison to the soven ign power in a.d. 
1730, a. ii. 1112. lie died ot apoplexy in 
L736, aged 71 years, a.h. 1 148. 

Ahmad IV. (j^^.^1 ,.,_> s.a~=^\), (also 

called 'Abdul- Humid., son of Ahmad III., 
emperor of Turkey, succeeded his brother 
Mustafa III. in a.d. 1771, a.m. L188. II i 
died, after a reign of 15 Mar-, on the 7th 
April, 1789, Rajab a.h. L203, and was suc- 
ceeded by Sallin III. 

Ahmad (.x^^), an Arabian author who 

is known as the writer of a book on the 
interpretation of dreams, a translation ot 
which, in Greek and Latin, was published 
with that ut Artemidorus on the same subject, 
at Paris, by Rigault, a.d. 1603. lie Lived 
in the 4lh century of the Hijra. 

Ahmad Abu - Tayyib al - Mutanabi 
(^.^.i^!^ c-^-b »j! &a.»~\), a cele- 
brated Arabian poet whom none excelled in 
poetry. He is the author of a Diwan. He 
died in the year a.d. 965, ah. 354. Vide 

Ahmad al-Ghaffari {^jXjut^ X*»^). 

Vide Ahmad bin -Muhammad al-Ghaffari, 

p. 26. 

Ahmad 'Ali Hashimi (Shaikh) (x«o-\ 
,Lfe -i— =), author of the 

Biographical Dictionary, called Makhzan-ul- 
Gharaib, dedicated to Nawab Safdar-Jang, of 
Faizabad, who died in a.d. 1754, a.h. 1167. 
His poetical name was Khadim. 




Ahmad 'Ali Khan, Naval) of Rampur. 
Vide Faiz-ullah Khan. 

Ahmad 'Ali Khan (^l^ .Ji* Sas>~\ 

< >L>), Nawab of Karnal. A remission 

of revenue to the extent of 5,000 rupees pet 
annum was granted to him in perpetuity by 
the British Government, and b khif'af ol the 
value of 10,000 rupees was conf< rred on him, 
in July, 1858, for hifl distinguished Loyalty, 
aud for the eminent services rendered bj him 
during the rebellion ol 1857. I" 1806, the 
Pargana of Kama] consist d ol a aumberoJ 

villages, yielding a revenue ol 10,1 i 

per annum. It was conferred bj Lord I.:ik< 
in jagir on three Mandal chiefs, named 
Muhammadi Khan, Ghairai 'Ali Khan, and 
Is-haq Khan, for their lives, and after their 
death to descend to their heirs, subji d to 
the paymenl of 15,000 rupees per annum in 
perpetuity. Nawab Ahmad 'All Khan is the 
li ii< ;il descendanl ol Muhammadi Khan, and 
holds 24 entire villa) d* - a third sfa 

in tour others. Thi se lands 1 at 

24,000 rupees, on which the Nawab has 
hitherto paid a qnil renl ol 5,00 > rap 
paymenl of which sum the Government has 
now remitted. 

Ahmad 'Ali Khan (Sayyid) (jut*»>! 

j^.~- »l-^- c^-c), Nawab-Nazim of 

Bengal, succeeded his brother 'Ali-Jah. II 
died on the 30th Octobi r, a.i>. L824. 

Ahmad 'Ali Khan, and Walidad Khan, 
the rebel Nawabs of Malagarh. 

Ahmad Ayaz, Malik Kliwfija Jahan, 

served with distinction under Muhammad 
Shah bin-Tnghlnq. of Dehli. <»n the death 
of the king at Tatta, in \ d 1362, t h. 752, 

he tried to set up at Dehli a son "i thi 
king, but had to submit to Firuz Shall III., 
who allowed the uobles to execute him before 

he himself entered Dehli. 

Ahmad Bakhsh Khan (Nawab), 
entitled Fakhr-ud-danla. was the jagirdar ol 
Firuzpurand Loharu, in thedistricl of Dehli, 

after whose death his son, Nawab Shams- 
uddin Khan, succeeded him. The latter was 
executed for murder in October, 1835. 

Ahmad Barani ( J^j j^.^^), author 
of a Persian work called Sifr-us-Siyar. 

Ahmad Beg Kabuli, served in Kabul 

under Muhammad Hakim, Akbar's brother, 
and later under Akbar aud Jahangir. He 
was for some time governor of Kashmir. He 
died about a.d. 1614. 

Ahmad Beg Khan, a son <>f Mu- 

hanim .tier. II 

red und -t<d 

Prince Shah jahan dun: 

* • r< rnor ol I S I of M 

II and An 

Audh, win n he aii d. 

Ahmad bin - 'Abdullah al - Kirmi 

. ' _v— : .j jkx»^' i. author of a work 

on the fundamental points ol Muharamndauism. 
a-Ahmad, t .in. 

Ahmad bin-Abu-Bakr, (»j1 ( j x*>-\ 
£j), an Arabian author who wi I 

tin M " '"- - 1/ unt 

ol with 

mi in. .li- ol . ind compani 

Ahmad bin - Abu - Bakr bin - N 
M il-Ka/.wini ( »..•' .._• a^»- \ 

£j), author of the Tdrtkh-i-G 

tins the hi-t..r\ ol I 


from tin- j 

memoirs ••! thi several dun-tie- who mini 

I • . during tin khilafat. 

and t.. • r a.d. 1329 a died 

1 1 iiiid-ullah Mu-tiiuli. 

Ahmad bin 'Ali Razi (Shaikh) (j^l 

&£ — ' . A..- ,-j), Bnrnamed 

j - a fat rye* Se was born in 

! ah. 917, \ M. 306, and dii d in a.d. 

Ahmad bin-' Ah al-Khatib Kastalani 


Ahmad bin - Hasan Maimandi 

( Klnvaja) (^ jo^..« ^~~>- ^ J^*^), 

foster brother and fellow student of his 
sovereign Sultan Mahmud, ol Ghazni. On 
the removal ol Abul-'AI - I icl, two yi 
after I —inn of Mahmud. Khwaja 

Ahmad was appointed prime minister, which 
office he held uninterruptedly for a period 
ol d years, when Altuntaah, the 

commander-in-chief, and a number ol other 
Amirs, brought before the court >.t the 
charges against him. He was in conseqni 
disgraced and imprisoned for thirteen ; 
iu one of the forts ol India. II was n li 
by Sultan Mas'ud, s.m and sum— r ol 
Mahmud, and reinstated in the responsible 
office of minister, which he held tor some 
time. He died a natural death in the year 
a.d. 1033, a.h. 424. 




Ahmad bin-Idris (^ jj\ ^j s*=».\), 

a lawyer of the - ■ i oi Malik, was tin- author 
hi many works, and died about the year a.h. 
1285, a. ii. 684. 

Ahmad bin-Israil (,J-SU-j! ,ji ~V*=^), 

a great astrologer who lived under 
khilaiat of Wasiq Billah, of Bagdad. 

Ahmad bin-Kasir (_*jLi ,jj s*.>-\), 

also called Muhammad bin-Kasir ami K 
al-Farghani. i- tin- same person whom we 
call AJfaraganius, a great astronomer, who 
lived during tli • reign of the khalifa al- 
Mamun. / I rghani. 

Ahmad bin-Khizrawaih ( ._< a.^..^-\ 

&U/*r ■"**)> 8 celebrated Muhammadan 

it, was the disciple of Khwaja Hatim 
Asamm. He died in the year a.d. 854, \.\\. 
240, and is buried at lialkh. 

Ahmad bin-Muhammad al-Ghaffari 

al-Kazwini (^.-.Uxl 1 A*.<r* ..: ±*^ 

a qazi, and a descendant of 'Abdul-Ghafl 
the author oi the II >< II is thi author 
m the work called Nasldi-i-J - i, which 
hi composed in the y< ar \ u. L563, a.m. 971, 
oi which number the title forms the chrono- 
[ mi. It is also called Tdrit^-i- i/ 
an abridged history of Asia, from Adam down 
to v Lb Tahmasp ol P o. 1525. It 

also contains memoirs oi the Muhammadan 
kin_ - tain, from a.d. 7-55 I It 

was d dicated to Shah Tahmasp. W< 

■ i indebted t<> him i"r the better known 
work entitled Nigaristan. We learn from 
tin- Tdrikh 1 that, having resigned his 

employment in be went towards the 

close nt his life on a pilgrimage to M 
and that, landing in in Sindh, tnr tin- 
purpose oi paying a visit to Hindustan, he 
died at that port in a.d. L567, a.h. 975. 

\Vide Dowson, Elliot'* History of India, 

ii. p. 504.] 

Ahmad bin-Muhammad al-Qastalani 

( J& 


author who died in the year a.d. 1527, a.h. 
933. Vidt Qastalani. 


L*i»Jk3 X+js-'* ,.j), author of a work 

on jurisprudence, called Quduri, and several 

other works. He died in a.d. 1046, a.h. 

Ahmad bin - Muhammad bin - 'Ali 

Bakr al - Hanafi, author of the 
Kf - U-Fatdwa,a collection of decisions 

made towards the end of the eighth 
oi the Hijra, and comprising questions of 
rare occurrence. 

Ahmad bin-Tulun (^y^ ,j-J X*.^), 

the founder of the Tulunide dynasty in Egypt. 
Vide Ahmad 1 ini-'lfil uu. 

Ahmad bin - Yahya bin - Jabir al - 
Biladuri {^jSll\ or -,i.'-Jl), sur- 

named also Abu-Ja'far and Abul-Hasan, was 
the instructor to one of tin princes of the 

milyof al-.Mntawakkil, and died in a.d. - 
a.h. 279. Hi- Futuh-ul-Bulddn i- one of 
the earliest Arabic chronicles. He also wrote 
a ihical work entitled Kitdb-ul- 

, the B 

Ahmad bin-Yahya ( \ 

j s*^), 

author of the marginal notes on the Wiqaya, 
a work on jurisprudent 

Ahmad bin-Yusuf ( 


an historian, ami author of tin- Akhbdr-ud- 
dawal, written in a d. 1599, a.h. which i- 
1 tn In- an abridgmi at oi Janabi's Tdrijch- 
ui-Jan&bi, calli d al- 

AhmadChap, Malik, was Naib-Barbak 

nnder Piruz Shah II. (Khilji), "t Dehli, 
whom he warned in vain against 'Ala-uddin. 
11 blinded by 'Ala-uddin after his 


Ahmad Ghaffari. f'iile Ahmad bin- 
Muhammad al-Ghaffari. 

Ahmad Ghazzali. 

Vide Ghazzali 

Ahmadi (^x^.^\), a Turkish poet, 

whose pp^T name was Khwaja Ahmad 
Eari, and of whom we have the following 
anecdot t Tartar conqueror Amir 

Timur (Tamerlane) being on bis march 
through Anadoli, halted for awhile at Amasia, 
where Ahmadi lived; and the poet took the 
opportunity of presenting him with an ode. 
Thi- led to further mtimaciee, Timur being 
a patron of literary men : and one day 
when both were in the hath, the monarch 
amu-ed himself by putting crotchetty questions 
to Ahmadi, and laughing at hi- answers. 
"6 :. " -aid hi-, pointing to the 

surrounding atb "you win- required 

to vain • beautiful hoy-, how much 

would you -ay each was worth?" Ah: 
answered with becoming gravity, estimating 
one at a camel-load of silver, another at 
bushels of pearls, a third at forty gold 
and so made the circuit of tin: ring. " very 
fail," '-aid Timur, "and now tell me. What 
do you value Me at?" ••Four and twenty 
plied the poet, "no more and no 
less." ••What'." cried Timur, laughing, 
. hv the shirt I have on i- worth that." 
"Do you really think -d Ahmadi, 

with the greatest apparent simplicity — "at 
that rate you m worth nothing, for I 

A 11. MA 



included the shiri in the raluation ! " Mm b 
to his credit, Timur, instead ol being an. 
applauded and rewarded the wii and boldness 
of the poet. Ahinadiwas a contemporary oi 
Shaikh!, and is tin- author oi the Kulliyat-i- 
Ehwdja Ahmad Ja'fari. Ee also composed 
a hemic poem on the actions oi Tamerlane, 
and a Sikandar-nama in the Turkish langu 
He died in a.d. 1412. 

Ahmadi (^jx^.^\), the poetical name 

of Mir Sayyid Lutf-ullah, who died in a.d. 
1633, a. h. "1043. 

Ahmad Ibn-' Arab-Shah. Vide Arab- 

Ahmad Ibn - Hanbal. f'ule Hanbal 


Ahmad Ibn-Tulun (.. JJ- jl Jl*s»^), 

tlic founder of the Tfiluuidedynastj in Egypt, 
a Turkish slave, who, being entrusted by 
al-Mu'tamid, the khalifa oi Baghdad, \\\\\\ 
the government oi thai country and Syria in 
a.d. 879, B( t up for himself, and maintained 
hi> authority notwithstanding all atti mpts to 
depose him. He reduced Damascus, aims, 
Hamat, Kinnisrin, and ar-Raqqa, situated 
ii I >< > n the eastern banks of the Euphrati b. 
I lis mosque in Cairo may he Been t<> tln> day. 
He died in a.d. MSI, a.h. 270, and was 
succeeded by his -'>n Khumarwaih. Egypi 
continued to be governed by hi- successors 
for several years, when it was again reduced 
in a.d. 905 by Muhammad, general oi the 
khalifa of Baghdad al-Muktafi; the laai 
khalifa of Egypl having assassinated his pre- 
decessor, and thereby rendered himaeli rery 
odious. In the year 9:>:5. Muhammad, the 
son of Taj, or T&jil, surnamed al-Ashhad, 
seized npoB Syria and Egypl in the khilafai 
of ar-Ka/i Billah, and his family retained 
the whole of it. excepi a small pari which 
'Uhaid-ulla al-Mahdi, the firsi oi the 
Fatimite dynasty the seai "i whose empire 
was at Qairuwan, near Tunis had conquered 
in a.d. 910. His successor, Abu-Tamim 
Ma'd, surnamed Mu'izz Ii-din-illah, oon- 
quered the rest oi Egypl ahoui the year 970, 
by his general Ja'far, who buili the city oi 
al-Qahrra, commonly called Grand Cairo. 
whither his master soon removed his court. 
The Fatimite dynasty ended in a.d. 1176, 
when, upon the death of the last prince oi 
this family, the kingdom was usurped by the 
famous Salah-uddin (Saladin). 

List of the Khalifas of Barbary. 

Thaid-ullah al-Mahdi, first of the Fati- 
mite race. 

Al-Qaim Mahdi, his son. 

Isma'il, surnamed al - Mansur, son of 

Mu'izz li-dln-illah, son of al-Mansur, who 
conquered Egypt and became the first 
khalifa of the Fatimite dynasty in that 

Ahmad Ilkani ( JliLLjl Jb4»-\), also 
called Ahmad Jaliyir. Vi&t 

Ahmad Jafari (Khwaja) {s—^-^ 
). Vide Ahmadi. 

Ahmad Jalal Bukhari (Sayyid), son 
oi Saw id Muhammad Bukhari. 

Ahmad Jalayir ( <Lr>- A~*_s>-'\ also 
called Ahmad [lkani, a deeoendani oi II 

Buzurg, which - 

Ahmad Jam (Shaikh ul - Islam) 

( »L^» .x*^), entitled Abu-Nasr and 

Zinda-Pil, a celebrated Muhammadan saint 
oi Nishapur, born in the year ad 11 
a.m. \ 1 1 . Be passed 18 i lii- life in 

devotion in wilds and mountains II' sub- 
sequently got married, and was blessed with 
thins -nine Bona and three daughters. At the 
time of his death, besides th< tnrw daughf 

rteen oi his sons wen living, all of whom 
becami m< a oi learning and authors "i - \> ral 
works. Ahmad Jim bimseli was an author, 
and among the differeni works that he a 
are tin follow ing : !■' ■ s 
ut-Tdlibin, Miftah-ui - \ \ Bahr-ul- 
ll md 8iraj' x EL died in 

the reign oi Suit m San jar, in February, a.d. 
Ill _* . Bajab, a.m. 6 

Ahmad Jan (Sultan), of Hirat. Be 
died aboul the 6th April, a.d. 1863, 17th 
Shawwal, a.h. 1J7'.». and was succeeded by 
bis son, Shah Nawaz EQuTh. 

Ahmad Kabir (Sayyid) ( 

Jumi), a Knaalman saint, whose tomb 
i- at CTchcha in Multan. Hi i- the son oi 
B wid Jalal, ami the father oi two "tier 
•it-. Sayyid Jalaluddin, Burnami d Makhdum 
Jahaniyan Jahan-gasht, and Raiu Qattal. 
Numerous miracles were wroughi bj these 
two brotht i-. 

Ahmad Khan ( .A-l. .x*^), Bnrnamed 

Nekodar or Nicholas), was raised to the 
throne nt Pi rsia after the death oi his broth r 
Abaqa Khan, the son oi Ilulftku Khan, in 
April, a d. 1282, Zil-hijja. a.h. 680, and 
was the first emperor oi the race of Chingiz 
Khan who embraced the Muhammadan re- 
ligion, lie i- -aid to have been baptized 
in his youth by the name of Nicholas, but 

Solicy, or conviction, led him to abandon the 
octrine of Christ tor that oi Muhammad, 
when he assumed the name of Ahmad Khan. 
In tlie first year of his reign, Majd-ul-Mulk 
Yazdi, a nobleman of his court, being accu>i d 
of sorcery, lost his life. He put his own 
brother to death, and was successful in 
obtaining possession of tin- person of his 
nephew, Arghun Khan; but that prince was 




not only rescued from his violence by the 
Mughul nobles, but by their aid was enabled 
to deprive biro oi his crown and life on the 
niu'lit "i Thursday Llth August, a.d. 1284, 
26th Jumada 1.,'a.h. 683, and become his 

Ahmad Khan Bangash (^A>- S-a-^ 

i A.S '■ , second son of Muhammad 

Khan Bangash, Nawab of FarruWiabad. 
When the Wazir Safdar-Jang, after the 
d ath of Qaim-Jang, the brother oi Ahmad 
Khan, confiscated bis estates in December, 
a.d. 1749, \ ii. 1163, he (Ahmad Khan) 
collected an army oi Afghans, defeated raja 
Nawal Rai, the Wazir's deputy, who was 
slain in the action, and recovered the terri- 
tories Lab K at Lzed from his family. This 
circumstance took place on Friday the 2nd 
August, L750, LOth Ramazan, ah. 1163. 
After this, Ahmad Khan soverned his country 
aboui 22 lunar years, and died in November, 
1771. Sha'ban, \ a. 1 L85, wh n be was 
succeeded by bis son. Diler Himmat Khan, 
wh.. i a the titloi Muzaffar-Jang from 

tlo- emp ror Shah 'Alam, who was then on 
his way to Dehli from Allahabad. 

Ahmad Khan Mewati, one of the petty 
rulers (muluk-\~tawaif) who had usurped the 
chin parts oi the Dehli empire during the 
Sayyid dynastj beginning of the tin. .nth 
century). Ahmad Khan held Mewat, his 
frontier coming close up to Dehli. He had 
to submit to Buhlul Lodi. 

Ahmad Khan (Sayyid), C S I., of 
•AJigarh, a distinguished Muhammadan re- 
former. II." wrote a Look on the life and 
work of the Prophet, and founded the 'Aliga h 
College. (See Sayyid Ahmad.) 

Ahmad Khan Sur. Vide Sikandar 

Khan Sur. 

Ahmad Khattu (Shaikh) (&£ ±*^\ 

^?~~ > ), surname of \Yajih - uddin 

Ahmad Maghribi, who was the son of Malik 
Ikhtiyar-uddin, a nobleman at the court of 
Sultan Flruz Shah Tughluq of Dehli, and 
related to him. After the death of his father, 
having squandered his wealth in pleasure and 
dissipation, he became a disciple of Shaikh 
Baba Is-baq Maghribi, and turned very pious 
and journeyed to Gujrat, where he acquired 
great fame. During his residence at that 
place, he obtained such celebrity, that Sultan 
Muzaffar Gujrati became his disciple. He 
died in that country in the reign of Sultan 
Muhammad of Gujrat, on Thursday 6th of 
January, 1446, 8th Shawwal, a.h. 849, aged 
111 years, and was buried at Sarkich. near 
Ahmadabad. Khattu is a place in Xagor, 
where Shaikh Ahmad was born. 

Ahmad Mirza (Sultan) 0;_,< Jo*.:^ 
.,ILA— •), son of Abu-Sa Id Mirza, after 

who- death, in a.h. 1 169, he took possession 
of Samarkand, and died aboul the year L495. 

Ahmad (Mulla) 0.L* s^=^\), the son 

of a qazloi Tatta. His ancestors, who resided 

in Sindh, were Fariiqis oi the Manila sect, 
but he was a Shi'a. Be i< the author of a 
work called Khula»at-ul- Hayat, the Essence 
of Life. He came from the Deccan to the 
curt of the emperor Akbar, in the year a.h. 
1582, a.h. 990, and when that monarch 
ordered the Tarikh-i-Alfi to be compiled, 
several authors were employed in the compi- 
lation, luit subsequently the chief Labour 
devolved upon Mulla Ahmad. The compila- 
tion of the first two volumes up to the time 
oi Chingiz Khan was just finished by him, 
when Mirza Fulad Birlas, during the month 
,u January, loss, Safar, a a. 996, persuaded 
the Rffulla, who was always openly reviling 
the first khalifas, to leave his own house at 
midnight on some pretence, and then murdered 
him in a street at Lahore. For this act 
Mirza Fulad was sentenced to death, was 

hound alive to the leg of an elephant in the 
city of Lahore, and dragged along till he 
di.d. The Mulla expired three or four days 
att.r the Mirza. After the death of Mulla 
Ahmad, the remainder of the work was 
written l>\ Asai Khan Ja'far Beg, up to the 

r \ a. 997, or a.h. 1589. Mulla Ahmad 
was buried at Lahore, hut being a Shi'a 
who openly used to revile the first khalifas, 
the people of Lahore exhumed his remains 
aud burnt them. 

[Vide Jin Translation, i. p. 206.] 

Ahmad Nizam Shah Bahri (, 


Ahmad Maghribi. 
Khattu (Shaikh). 

Vide Ahmad 

>l „* ? * \ '^ t ), the founder of the 

Nizani-Shahi dynasty of the Deccan, was the 
son of Nizam-ul-Mulk Bahri, prime minister 
to Sultan Mahmud Shah Bahmam. He had 
conquered many places in the vicinity of his 
lather's jagir, and was besieging the fort of 
Dundrajpur about the year a.d. 1486, a.h. 
891, when he received intelligence of the 
assassination of his father, and immediately 
returned and assumed the titles of the deceased, 
and was generally known by those of Ahmad 
Nizam-ul-Mulk Bahri, to which the people 
of the Deccan added the title of Shah. As 
he had distinguished himself repeatedly as a 
general in the field, though the Sultan wished 
to remove him from power, none of his 
nobility would accept the task of reducing 
him. He, however, on the 3rd May, 1490, 
3rd Rajab, a.h. 895, gained a victory over 
the army of the Sultan, and from that time 
he sat without opponent on the masnad_ of 
royalty, and by the advice of Yusuf 'Adil 
Shah,' who had" already become independent, 
having discontinued to read the khutba in the 
nameof the king, put in his own and spread 
a white umbrella over his head. He laid the 




foundation oi the city of Ahmadnagar in a.d. 
l 195, i a. 900, which was complete d in two 
vcars, and became the firsl oi the Nizam- 
Shahi kinga oi Ahmadnagar. Ee died in 
a. ii. L508, \.n. 91 I. and waa succeeded by 
his son, Burhan Nizam Shah I. The follow- 
ing is a list "i the Nizam- Shahi kings "t 
Ahmadnagar : 

Ahmad Nizam Shah I., a d. 1490. 

Burhan Nizam Shah, 1508. 

Eusain Nizam Shah I.. 1553. 

Murtaza Nizam Shall. 1565. 

Mlrfui Eusain Nizam Shah, 1587. 

Isma'il Nizam Shah. L589. 

Burhan Nizam Shah 1 1 . 

Ibrahim Nizam Shah, 1594. 

Ahmad Nizam Shall II., sou of Shah 

Tahir, 1594. 
Bahadur Nizam Shah. Ifi 
Murtaza Nizam Shah 11.. 16 

The Nizam Shahi dominions fall nodi r the 
coutrol of .Malik 'Ambar, L607. 

Ahmad Pasha (Li'j Xt>l), a general 

of Sulaiman [., i mp< ror ol Turku \. who, 
when appointed Governor ol Egypt, revolted 
from his sovereign in a.d. 1524 Hi 
soon afti r defi ated bj Ibrahim, the favourit* 
of Sulaiman, and bis bead was Ben! to 

Ahmad Rumi ( ^,* t 


■ \), autl 


of the Fdiq-ul-Haqaiq, a work written in 
imitation of the Magnatoi >>i Jala] uddin 

Ahmad Samani (Amir) ( jLeLs A-4^ 

~K.,t\), second king of the race of 

Saman (Samanides^, sue© i ded his fathi r Amir 
Isma'il in the provinces of Khurasan, etc., in 
a.d. 907, \. ii. 295. He was a cruel prii 
and contended with his ancle, his broti 
and other relations, for the extensive pose - 
sions of his father, more by intrigues at the 
court of Baghdad than by arms. After a 
reign of seven years, he was murdered by 
some of his domestics ,,n Thursday 3otii 
January, a.d. 914, 23rd Jumada I., a.h. 
301, and his son. Amir Nasr, then only eight 
years of age, was placed upon the throne ol 
Khurasan and Bukhara. Ahmad was buried 
in Bukhara, and they gave him the title ,.i 
Sultan Shahld, i.e. the martyred king. 

Ahmad Sarhindi (Shaikh) ( 

xrr. — ^ ^.^J^..^), entitled Mujaddid- 

i- Alf -i- Sani, a dervish celebrated for his 
piety and learning, was the sou of Shaikh 
'Abdul -Wahid Faruqi, and was horn at 
Sarhind in a.d. 1563, a.h. 971. ITe was a 
disciple of Khwaja Baqi, a celebrated saint of 
Dehu, and is the author of several works. 
He died ou Tuesday 29th November, a.d 

1624, ti tlo month i S 

a.h. 1034, an.. :t Sarhind. 11 

waa called "Mujaddid-i-Alf-i-$ 

•• I; di •*' i "i t:. - ' "iid Milh iiniuni," 
In- adopted tie even 

thousand years a man was horn who 1. 
thorough know l< 

cation it i- !■■ revive and strengthen it. 

II. 1" .;• \. d that the ni.m ol the 

! ilh uniui 

Ahmad, Sayyid. ha, brothi I 

8 jrvid Mahinud Barha, - rved un<l< r Akbar 
in <; !!• waa in "i Ak 

hunting leopards. II a jryid Ja 

killed by the < iplosion "I a mine 

befort Cbitor. 

Ahmad. Sayyid. of Bukhara, fatht 
tin I irid-i-Bukhari. I 

1m |i 

Ahmad Shah ( | 

Li Jut^-0, entitled 

ftfujahid-ud-dln Muh Ahun-N 

Ahmad Shah Bahadur, waa the -.ii ..| 
M ihammad Shah, emperor "i Dehli, whom 
le ! on the loth April, ad. 17 1 s . 

^7' II . \ n. 1161. Hi- motl 

I dham Bai He n aa born in 
fort "t I'' iili "ii I 14th Deo :h1m r, 

a d. 1725, 17th Babr [I., am. 1 138, and 
wned in i 19th April, 

a d. 171 s . 2nd Jumada I . l.h. 1 161. a 
a n i. D "I ■ .nth- and 8 da] -. 

■ I and imprisom d, and alt. rw 
blinded, r with hi- mother, bj his 

prime minister, 'Imad-nl-Mulk Ghazi-uddin 
Khan, ou Sunday 2nd . I une. K.8. 1764. 
After this, In- lived mi>r< thm 21 years, and 
did on tin 1-t January, a.d. 177">. from 
In.ilih .. i I buried in front "i the 

mosqui "i Qadam-Sharil in Dehli, in the 
mausoleum "i Maryam-Makini, After his 
imprisonment, 'Alai II.. son ol Jahand&r 
1 t" the throne. 

[Vide Proe. As. 6'«" .J 

Ahmad Shah Abdali (>Li, jv_^.=>J 

^J^_^), commonly called Shah 

Durrani, waa tin Bon "i a chief of the Afghan 
tribe of Abdal, in the vicinity of tin citj ■•: 
Eirat, lit was taken prisoner in his infancy 
by Nadir Shah, who gave him the post "1 a 
mace-bearer, and 1>\ promoted him to 

a considerable command in the army. The 
morning after tin- assassination of Xadlr 
Shah, which took place in the night of the 
12th May, 1747. o.B., he made an attaek, 
supported by a corpa of Uzbeks, upon the 
Persian troops, but waa repulsed. He then 
kit the army, and proceeding by rapid 
marches to Qandahar, not only obtained 
possession of that city, but took a lanre 
convoy of treasure which was coming from 



aiim a 

Kabul ami Sindh to the Persian camp. By 
tin* aid of these means, he laid tin- foundation 
of a kingdom, which soon attained a sti 
that rendered it formidable to the surrounding 
nations. Ee □ >i only subdued Qandahar and 
Kabul, but took Peshawar and Lahore; ami 
emboldened by tin- . ami the weakness 

of the empiri . solved tin- conquest of 

the capita] of Hindustan. In tin- beginning 
of the year a.d. 171*. \.n. L161, In- b 
his march from Lahore. Muhammad Shah, 
the emperor of Dehli, being at this time too 
indisposed to take the field, despatched his 
only -on, prince Ahmad, against the enemy, 
under the command of flu- wazir Qaniar- 
uddin Khan, Safdar-Jang, governor of Audh, 
ami several other chiefs, with a great army. 
For some days several skirmishes took place 
between the two armies near Sarhind. At 
length, on Friday 11th March, a.i>. 1748, 
2'Jnd RabV I.. A. ii. 1161, Qamar-uddin 
Khan, tin- wazir, being ki 
his devotion in his tent by a cannon ball, a 
panic prevailed in the Mughul army ; the 
battle, however, continued till a magazine of 
rocket- taking fire in the enemy's camp, 
numbers of the troop- wire wounded by the 
explosion; and Shah Abdali, either dis- 
heartened by the loss, or -ati-tied by the 
plunder gained at Sarhind, thought it proper 
to retreat toward- Kabul, which he did un- 
molested. In the year. ah. 17">7, a.h. 1170, 
he again advanced as tar as Dt-hll and ' 
and alter having plundered and mass 
the inhabitants of Mathura, he returned to 
Qandahar. About the year a.i>. 17os. a.h. 
1172, the Maratha power had spread itself in 
almost every province of Hindustan, when 
Najib-ud-daula, the Rohela, Shuja'-ud- 
daula Nawab, of Audh, and not only the 
Musalmans, but Hindus also, joined in 
petition to Ahmad Shah Abdali, that he 
would inarch and assume the throne of Dehli, 
in which they promised to support him. The 
Abdali, enraged at the seizure of Lahore by 
the Marathas, rejoiced at the invitation, and 
advanced without delay across the Indus, and 
driving the Marathas before him, he did not 
stop till they reached the vicinity of Dehli. 
He engaged the Marathas in several battles, 
and attained the highest renown among 
Muhammadans by the memorable defeat that 
he gave the hostile army on the plains of 
Panipat. This famous action was fought in 
January, 1761. Alter this victory, Durrani 
Shah returned to his own country, but before 
his departure he acknowledged Shah 'Alam, 
then in Bengal, as emperor of Hindustan, 
and commanded Shuja^-ud-daula and other 
chiefs to submit to his authority. He died 
after a reign of 26 years in a.d. 1772, a.h. 
1182, aged 50 years, and was succeeded by 
his son, Timur Shah. His tomb, covered with 
a gilt cupola, stands near the king's palace, 
and is held sacred as an asvlum. 

Ahmad Shah Bahmani II. 

, ..^4. .... ; i l_-uj .Nwt- - j>- i ) . 

On the 

death of his father. Sultan Mahmud Shah II., 
in October, a.d. 1518, Shawwal, a.h. 924, 

Amir Band, bis prime minister, dreading that 
the surrounding powers would attack him 
should he assume op< n independence, placed 
prince Ahmad, son of the late king, upon the 
throne at Ahmadabad Bldar, leaving him the 
palace, with the use of the royal jewels, and 
a daily allowance of money for bis Bupport. 
The sum not being equal to his expenses, the 
king broke up the crown, which was valued 
at loo.ooi) buns, ,,r 6160,000, and privately 
sold tile jewels. lie died two years alter his 
accession to the throne, in the year A.D. 1521, 
a. it. '.»'J7. Att.r his death Amir Band raised 
Sultan 'Ala-uddin 111., one of the princes, 
on the throne. Two years after lie was 
imprisoned, and another son of Mahmud 
Shah, named Wali-ullah Shah, was placed 
in his room. Three year- alter his acc< —ion, 
tli.' minister conceiving a passion for hi- wife. 
In- caused him to be poisoned, and espoused 
the queen. He then placed Kallm-ullah, 
tin -on of Ahmad Shah II., mi the throne. 
This prince enjoyed aothing hut the name of 
sov< i'' ign, and was never allowed to leavi the 
palace. II" was afterwards treated with gi 
rigour by Amir Band, whereupon be made 
In- t to his uncle Lsma'il 'Adil 

Shah to Bijapur, ami thence to Burhan 
Nizam Shah of Ahmadnagar, where he 
resided till hi- death. "With him ended the 

dynasty of the Bahmani kings of the Deccan. 
In fact, before this event, the Deccan was 
divided into live kingdoms — ' Adil-Shahi, or 
kings oi Bijapur; Qutb-Shahi, or kings oi 
Golkonda ; 'Imad-Shahi, or kings of Barar; 
Nizam-Shahi, or kings "i Ahmadnagar; and 
Barid-Shahi, kings of Ahniadabad Bidar. 

Ahmad Shah I. (*L*, s.*.~J), second 

king of Gujrat, was the son of Tatar Khan 
and grandson id' Muzaffar Shah, whom he 
succeeded as king of Gujrat. The author of 
the Mtmtakhab-ut-Tawarikh states that his 
grandfather placed him on the throne during 
hi- lifetime, in the year a.h. 813, a.d. 1410, 
and that he survived that measure five months 
and sixteen days. In the same year he laid 
the foundation of a new city on the banks of 
the Sabarmati, which he called after his own 
name, Ahmadabad, and which afterwards 
became the capital of the kings of Gujrat. 
The date of the laying of the foundation of 
this city is contained in the words " Ba- 
khair," i.e. all well. He died after a reign 
of nearly 33 years, on the 4th July, a.d. 
1443. 4th Rabi' I., a.h. 847, and was suc- 
ceeded by his son, Muhammad Shah. 

Ahmad Shah II. ( ^jlj *Li s^^J\), 

king of Gujrat. After the death of Mahmud 
Shah III., there being no relation on whom 
the succession might devolve, I 'timid Khan, 
the prime minister, resolved rather than see 
the kingdom in absolute anarchy, to elevate 
a youth, whom he asserted to be the son of 
prince Ahmad Khan, formerly governor of 
Ahmadabad, and declared him the legal 
successor to the crown of Gujrat. He was 
forthwith placed on the throne on the 18th 




February, ,\.i>. L554, 15th LtabT [., \ H.I 
He reigned seven \ iars and Bome months, and 
was found murdered one morning al the fool 
of tlic palace wall. This event took place 
mi Monday the 21st April. \ d. 1561, 6th 

Sha'ban, a.h. 968. He was su led bj 

Muzaffar Shah III. 

[Vide Ain Translation, i. p. 335.] 

Ahmad Shah of Bengal (>Li ±*=>-\), 

succeeded his father, Jalal-uddin, to the 
throne of Bengal in a.m. 834, or a.i>. 1 I 
reigned about 16 yen-, and died abort I 
year a.d. 1446, a.h. 850. Be was suc- 
ceeded by Nazir-uddjn Mahmud Shah I., a 
descendant of ShamB-uddin Ilyas Shah. 

Ahmad Shah, or Ahmad-ullah Shah 

(iLi Jo*_»J), commonly called 

"The Manlawi," a prominent character in 

the neighbourh I ot Shahjahanpur and 

Muhammad! during the mutiny ot l s '">7. II 
is said to bave be< □ the inspiri 'I Faqlr who 
travelled through tin upper provinces, a few 
years ago, on a miraculous mission. II' made 
a pretty long stay a! Agra, astonishing the 
natives and puzzling the authorities Its ems 
probable thai he was even then busy in sowing 
the seeds of rebellion. He held great powtir 
within the citj ol Lucknow, in M irch, 18 
when the Commander-in-chiei entered thai 
city and commanded a stronghold in the \<\) 
heart of the city. He was slain at Pawain, 
on the 15th June, 1858, sixteen miles north- 
east of Shahjahanpur, and the raja ol thai 
place sent the head and trunk to Mr. Gilbert 
Money, the Commission! r. 

Ahmad Shah Wall Bahmani I. 

(Sultan) ( J**^ Jj *\-& »X*»-t), was 

the second son ot Sultan Daud Shah ol the 
Bahmani race. He ascended the throne ■•! 
the Deccan on the 16th September, \ D 
142J, 5th Shawwal, a.h. 825, ten days before 
the demise of his brother, Sultan Firu/ Shah, 
whd had resigned the orown in hi> favour. 
He is the founder ot the city and fori ot 
Ahmadabad Bidar, the foundation oi which 
he laid in the year a.d. 1432, a.h. 836. It 
is said that the Sultan, on his return from 
a war at Bidar, took to the amusement ot 
hunting; and ooming to a moat beautiful 
spot, finely watered, resolved to build upon it 
a city, to be called after his name. Ahmada- 
bad. A eitadel of great extent and strength 
was erected on the very site of Bidar, the 
ancient capital of princes, who, according to 
the Hindu hooks, .5,000 year- back, poss( ssed 
the -whole extent of Mirhat, Earnatik, and 
Talingana. Raja Bhim Sen was one of the 
most celebrated of this house, and the history 
of the loves of his daughter and Raja Nal, 
kin«- of Malwa, are famous through all 
Hindustan. Their story was translated from 
the Sanskrit by Shaikh Faizi, under the title 

ot .v / . ' ':'• r 
command ot the emperor, Akbar Shah. 
Ahmad Shah 1'i.ii'd 12 lunar years and 10 
months, and died on the l'.'th February, \ d. 
I 135, 18th Etaiab, a.h. B38. It. was' buried 
at Ahm idiibad Bidar, and « I by 

bis son, Sulj in 'Ali-uddin 1 1. 

Ahmad (Shaikh) | --~ c*j 'J s*> ' I 

ot Ghazni, author ot the work entitled 
1/ l-i-& 

Life ot Al m, Shaikh -ul- Islam. ol 

N diapur : with a minute account ot the 
miracles performed by him. /'"/< A!. 


Ahmad (Shaikh) (^-~ 2~*\ &*»-\) 

commonly called Mullii Jlwan, tin. 

was the tut 

anthor of the II dii d in 

a.d. L718, \. ii. 1180. Vuk Mulli Jiwan. 

Ahmad (Shaikh), -, oond boh of Shaikh 

Salim Chishtl, ot Fathpur Sfkri. Il> served 
and) r Akbar, and dii d m i.h. '••- 

Ahmad Shihab-uddin Talish (a^j>^ 

C L'. . S .;S.' ^A. _>. / Idi Shihab- 
uddin Ahmad Talish. 

Ahmad Suhaili (Amir) | \ r , „* a.*^ ' 
^ «' \ si '-' • ;• r I i Saltan Eosain 

Mir/a ..| to whom m \< r. 1 1 ot the p 
oi hi~ time dedicated ileir work-. Hu 
Waii dedicated his - ; 8uhaiR to him. 

S ■ -till. 

Ahmad-ullah Shah, commonly called 

' The Maulawi " ; Bee Ahmad Shah. 

Ahmad Yadg-ar (.\Sj\j a^>- , ) < author 

oi the TBrik-i-& I -i-AJ .<.'' . a history 
ot the Afghan kim:- ot India from Buhlid 
Lodi, composed by order of Daud Shah, 
king ot is. Dgal. 

[ Vide Dowson, v. p. 1.] 

Ahmad Yar Khan (^\^>~ \j x^.^), 

whose poetical name i> Yakta, was of the 
tribe of the Turk- called Birlas. His fathi r, 
Allah Yar Khan, held at different periods tie- 
subadari oi Lahore. Tatta, and Multan. and 
was afterwards appointed to the Faujdari of 
Ghazni. Ahmad Yar Khan also held the 
Subadari of Tatta in the latter part of the 
reign of 'Alamgir. He was an excellent poet, 
and is the author of several poems. He died 
on the 21st September, a.d., o.s. 173-1, 23rd 
Jumada I., a.h. 1117. 




Ahmad Yar Khan (Nawab), of Barell, 
the bod "i Nawab 2ul-fiqar-ud-daula Mu- 
hammad Zul-tiqfir Khan Bahadur Dilawar- 
Jang of Barell. lie was alive in a.d. L815, 
a. u. 1230. 

Ahmad Zarruq (j»j\ Sa.=^\), surname 

of Abul-'Abbas Ahmad bin-Ahmad bin- 
Muhammad bin-'Isa Barallusi, author oi the 
commentary called Sharh Asma'il-Husna. 
Ee died in a.d. 1493, a.m. 899. 

Ahsan ( .,_^_=^), poetical name of 

'Inayat Khan, the Bonof Nawab ?afar ly 
II ■ was Governor oi Kabul in the r ign oi 
'Alamgir, and is the author of a Diwan. 
J'idt Ashna. 

Ahsan-ullah Khan (Hakim) ( ,,^^\ 

*Jls- <d)\), so well-known at Dehli, 

died in September, 1873, in thai city. 

'Ain-uddin (Shaikh) (p~> ^jjl ^x), 

of Bljapur, author of the Mulhaqat, and 
Kitab-ul- Anwar, containing a historj oi 
all the Muhamm id in - ints of India. II 
il (Uriah d in the time of Snhan 'Ali-uddin 
Easan Bahmani. 

'Ain-ul-Mulk (Hakim) (JjCl^ ^^-z 
^.L^), a native of Shiniz, and 

a well-educated and learned Musalman, was 

an officer of rank in the time of the emperor 
Akbar. He was an elegant port, and his 
poetical name was Wafa. Ee died in the 
40th vear of the emperor's reign in a.d. 1594, 
a.h. 1003. 

[For further notes, Aide Aln Translation, 
i. p. 481.] 

'Ain-ul-Mulk (Khwaja) (d,<L^ ^z 

cL^-^r^), a distinguished nobleman 

of the court of Sultan Muhammad Shah 
Tughluq and his successor Sultan Firuz Shah. 
king-s of Dehli. He is the author of several 
works, one of which is called TurslI 'Ain-ul- 
Mulkl. He also appears to be the author of 
another work called Fath-nama, containing 
an account of the conquests of Sultan 'Ala- 
uddin, who reigned from a.d. 1296 to 1316. 

'Aish (^J^^s.), the poetical name of 

Muhammad 'Askari, who lived in the reign 
of the emperor Shah 'Alam. 

'Aishi ( 

-), a poet, who is the 

Ajaipal, the raja who founded Ajmir 
about a.d. 1183. 

Ajit Singh, a Sikh chief and murderer 

of Maharaja Slur Singh of Lahore. He also 
slew Dhaian Singh, another chief, and was 
himself seized by Bira Singh, the son of 
Dhaian Singh, and put to death together 
with Lena Singh and oth< rs. This took place 
in September, 1843. 

Ajit Singh (Raja) (is>-\. Axx-.- 


a Kathauii Rajput, and hereditary zamlndar 
of Marwar, or Jodhpur, was the son of Raja, 
Jaswanl Singh Etathauri. Ee was restored 
in a i). I7M to the throne of his ancestors, 
1 gave his daughter in marriage to the 
emperor Farrukhsiyar in the year a.d. 1710. 
II. was murdered one night, when fas! asleep, 
at the instigation of hi> son, Ahhai Sin h, 
who succeeded him. This took place in the 
beginning of the reign of the emperor Mu- 
hammad Shah, about a.d. 1724. 

'Ajiz (is^Lc), the poetical name of 
'Arif-uddin Khan, who lived about a.d. 1754, 

A. 11. 1 LI 

'Ajiz, the poetical name of Lala Granga 
Bishn, father oi Etamjas Munshi, which see. 

Ajmal (Shah) ( 

\), or Shah Mu- 

author of a Masnawi called Haft Akhtar, or 
the seven planets, which he wrote in a.d. 
1675, a.h. 1086. 

hammad Ajmal, a Pirzada of Allahabad, 
w la a descendant oi Shah Khub-ullah, and 
youngi r brother of Shah Ghulam (iuth-uddin, 
the son of Shah Muhammad Fakhir, the 
respectability of whose family is well-known 
at Allahabad. Ee died in the vear a.d. 1821, 
a.h. 1236. 

Ajmiri Khan, an inhabitant of Ajmir. 

He walked with the emperor Akbar from 
Agra to Ajmir, on which account he received 
the title of Ajmni Khan from that emperor. 
He had built a garden on a spot of 28 bighas 
of ground at Agra. This place is now called 
Ajmlii Khan-ka Tila. 

Aka Rihi, of Nishiipur, an author. 

Akbarabadi Mahall ( J..S- 1 * ^jb^-il), 

A'azz-un-Nisa Begam, was the name of one 
of the wives of the emperor Shah Jahan. 
The large red stone mosque at Faizbazar, in 
Dehli, was built by her in the year a.d. 1651, 
a.h. 1060, at a cost of 150,000 rupees. She 
died on the 29th January, a.d. 1677, 4th 
Zil-hijja, a.h. 1087, in the reign of 'Alamgir. 
There is also a masjid inside the city of Agra 
built by her, called Akbarabadi Masjid. She 
had a villa also built at Agra. 




Akbar 'Ali Tashbihi ( Juc j+£\ 
cj^L'i). He is mentioned in the 

Khulasat-ul-Ash'ar to have beei I n ol 

a washerman. He wt-nt to India, and tamed 
faqir, but, as he was an infidel, hi- asci tic 
exercises cannot have been ol much on to his 
soul. Ee lilt a dlwan of ahoul 8000 vi i 
and a masnawi, called garret wa I ■<</. 
lie was alive in a.d. L585, a.h. 9 

[Regarding this poet, vide A\n Trot 
Hon, i. p. 956.] 

Akbar Khan, the son of Dosl Mu- 
hammad Khan, rul< t ol Kabul, by his I 
wife. II>' shot Sir W. II. Mai ■ lit. n mi 
the 26th December, L841, when his fat! 
Dost Muhammad Khan, was a Stat prisoner 
in India. Win n his fathi r, Dosl Muhammad 
Khan, came in poss - ion oi K ibul ait. r 
the retivat of the English in 1842, he 
appointed heir-appar nt in pi 
Muhammad Afzal Kb in, 1 - • Ideal Bon by 
hi- si cond wife. E dii d in 1848, when his 
lull brother, Ghulam Haidar Khan, i 
nominated heir-apparent, after v ith, 

in 1858, Slnr 'All, his brother, uri- 


Akbar (Prince), the youngi a of the 

emperor 'Alamgir, w - I oi ■< on I 10th 
September, o.s. L657, 1 1 1 1 1 JJil-bijja, am. 
1067, raised the standard of n b llion ag insl 
Ids father, and joined the M i 
Sambhuji in June, L681. Ee afterwards 
quitted his court, and repaired t" Pi 
where he died in \.i>. 1706, a.m. 1118, a few 
months before his father, and was buried at 
Mashhad, in Khurasan. 'Alamgir, at 
time, intended t.. make Akbar In- successor, 
and this preference arose from Akbar being 
the smi of a Muhammadan mother, the 
daughter ol Shah Nawaz Khan; whereas bis 
brothers, Sultans Mu'azzam and Avain, « 
born of Rajput princess 

Akhar Shah (A-2. j+£\), the Great, 

emperor of Hindustan, aurnamed Abul-Fatb 
Jalal-uddin Muhammad, was th. eldesl son 
of the emperor Humayun, and was born in 
Amarkot in the province ol Sindh, on Sunday 

the 15th October, a.d. 1542, 6th Rajah, a.h. 
949, at a time when his father, after being 
defeated by Slier Shah, had taken refuge with 
Rani Prashad. At the time of his rati 

death, Akhar was at Kalanur, where he had 
been deputed by his father with a considerable 
force to expel the ex-king Sikandar shah 
Siir from the Siwalik mountains. When 
information reached the prince of this mourn- 
ful event, Bairam Khan, and other officers 
who were present, raised him to the throne 
ou Friday 14th February, a.d. 1556, 2nd 
Rain' II., a.h. 963, Akhar being then only 
13 years and 9 mouths old. He enlarged his 
dominions by the conquest of Gujrat, Bengal, 
Kashmir, and Sindh. Besides the forts of 

. and Allah ny milil 

woi im II uilt 


which was his principal i 
though now di a it. d, i 

II- di 

id '.' im ; tin 1 6th 

[] . A II. 

1014 and 1 1 im. nth-. 

I ut-i-Akbar Shah" nth 

«. I Akhar Shah), an tin el.: ol lu- 

ll' I in th. villnp ■■! 


a splendid mausoleum was bu 
remain- by his lii b i- -till 

in a hi. .11' 

aft ith th.- til 

and ' S lim, 

who Hi- 

ll aimonly 

call ' I history ol 


by hi- wazir Aluil- 

I In 
up: . Turks, 

all' :, 

id entrust .1 with the 

:nl civil, 


T ■ 1 ' Man S ■ in. 

I, i M h ted 

hit. th th. in by m 

and hi- had 

:al ..t Hindu origin. 

Towards the i of 1 Akbar 

w i 1 1 1 th v ' tnmadan 

reh I iiivit.d t.i his court teachers ol 

the Christian, Hindii. and Parsi i • : i _• i ■ ■ n - . 

• -t in th- ir di- ii--. 

II : th. in. but 

attempt m ..i 1" 

• Din-i-Ilahi," which acknowla 

1 . 1. and the killer a- his \ ici -n _'i nt. 

[Viil / India, and 

Ea by the late <-nt 

i rederick ol BchleBwig-Holstein).] 

Akbar Shah II. ( J ij »U S >. king 

..i Dehli, whos tit!, in full i- Al.ul-N 
Mu'in-uddin Muhammad Akhar Shah, was 
the - .ii ..| th. nominal i mperor Shah 'Alam ; 

- born "ii v. 23rd April. - 

1760. 7th I! una/aii. a-H. 1173, and sucoi eded 
his lath.T at the age ol 48, on the 19th 
\ r, a.d 7' ; : B inuUan, a.m. 

1221, as titular king of Dehli. On his 
>n he made some w< : i r ~ '" 

increase his influence and power. Th.-. were 
properly resisted, but at the -am.- time the 
pledge given by Lord Wellesley, to incn 
the allowance ol the imperial family when 
the revenue of the country improved, was 
redeem, d by an act nf politic liberality. An 
augmentation of 10. 000 rupees per mensem 
was appropriated for the support of his eldesl 
son, whom he had declared heir-apparent. 
He sal "ii the throne of his ancestors nearly 
32 lunar years : died on Friday 28th 




September, \ d. 1837, 28thJumada II., a.h. 
1253, aged about 80 lunar Tears, and w is 
buried at DeblT, close to tbe tomb of Bahadur 
Shah. Ili~ bod Bahadur Shah II.. the last 
king of Dehli, succeeded him. Akbar some- 
times wrote poetry, and u-cd the word Shu'a 
for his poetical name. 

Akhfash Ausat (k— »»\ ^jLJu^), was 

called Akhfash. because he had small eyes. 
His proper name is Abul-Hasan Sa'id. II' 1 
was an author, and died in tli y< ii \.n. 830. 
Some Bay he was born at Balkh. and died in 
a. it. 37<i. There were three persons of this 
name, all of whom were authors. Akhfash 
Asghar, or the lesser, died in a.d. 845. 

Akhtar (^x_=^), the poetical name of 

Qazi Muhammad Sadiq Khan, an excellent 
writer of prose and vera . 

Akhtar („u,_^), the poetical name of 

Waiid 'AH Shah, the li-t king of Audh, now 
of Garden E sach, Calcutta. 

Akmal-uddin Muhammad bin-Mah- 
mud (Shaikh), author of a commen- 
tary on the Hidaya, entitled 'Indya, or <//- 
'Indya. There are two commentaries on th 
Hidaya, commonly known by that name, but 
the one much esteemed tor its studious 
analysis and interpretation of the ti\t. is by 
this author ; it was published in Calcutta in 
1837. This author died in the year a.d. 
1384, a.m. 786. 

'Akrima, or more correctly 'Ikrima 
<s—«.jLc), surname of Abu-'Abdullah, 

who was a freed slave of Ibn-'Abbas, ami 
became afterwards his disciple. He was one 
of the greatest lawyers. He died in the year 
a.d. 725, a.h. 107. 

Aksir, or more correctly, Iksir (Mirza) 
(iJT-"i ■ jjl^^L'l -^il), of Isfahan, 

author of a book of elegies 

He served under 
Nawab Nizam-ul-Mulk Asaf-Jah and Safdar- 
Jang, and died in Bengal in n.s. 1756, a.h. 

Alahdad Sarhindi, or more correctly, 

Ilahdad, poetically styled Faizi, a 

native of Sarhind, and author of a Persian 
Dictionary called Maddr ul-Afazil. 

[Regarding this dictionary and its author, 
vide Jour. As. Soc. Bengal, "l86S, p. 10.] 

Al-Ahnaf ( v 

-^), uncle of Yazid, 

the second khalifa of the house of TJmayya. 
At the battle of Siffin he had fought on 

the ride oi "All. S feral Bayings of this 
celebrated chief are recorded in the Bio- 
graphical Dictionary of Ihn Khallikan. lie 
outlived Mu'aWiya. 

Alahwirdi Khan (^,Ul iJ^j^), 

or more correctly, Ilahwirdi Khan, 

a nobleman of the reign of the emperor 
JahangTr. He was raised to the rank of 
5,000 in the time of Shah Jahan, and held 
- vera! others of importance. He was ap- 
pointed Governor of Patna, and espoused the 
cause oi Sultan Shuja', brother of Aurangzib, 
a.d. 1658, a.h. 1068, and ait. r tie defeal of 
Shuja - , accompanied him to Bengal, where 
he was slain, together with his son Saif-ullah, 
by order of that prince, in Julv, a.d. 1659, 
gil-qa'da, a.h. 1009. 

I, word wirdi or wirdi mean- "a rope," 
God being the habl-i-matln, the strong rope 


which the faithful Beize so as not to peris 

Alahwirdi Khan ( ,L>- -j,.aJl), 

or more correctly, Ilahwirdi Khan, 

title of Ja'far Khan, the boh of Ilahwirdi 
Khan the first. He was raised to the rank 
oi an amir by 'Alamgir, with the title of 
Qahwardi Khan 'Alamgir- Shahi. He was 
appointed Subadar of Allahabad, where he 
died \.i>. 1669, a.h. 1079. He was an 
i v • lli nt poet, and ha- hit a Diwan. 

Alahwirdi Khan, (^l_r 

"jL*), or more commonly, 

Allahwirdi Khan, styled Mahabat- 

Jang, the osurperoi the government of Bengal, 
was originally named Mirza .Muhammad 'All. 

His lather. Mirza .Muhammad, a Turkman, 
an officer in the service of the prince A'zam 
Shah, on the death of his patron in a.d. 
1707, falling into distress, moved from Dehli 
to Katak. the capital of Orisa, in hopes of 
mending his fortune under Shuia'-uddln, the 
son-in-law of Nawab Murshid Quli Ja'far 
Khan, Subadar of Bengal, who received him 
with kindness, and after some time bestowed 
on bis son the Faujdari of Rajmahall, and 
procured for him from the emperor a mansab 
and the title of Allahwirdi Khan, and after- 
wards that of Mahabat-Jang. After the 
death of Shuja '-uddin, and the accession of 
his son, Sarfaraz Khan, to the government of 
Bengal, Allahwirdi overthrew the Xawab, 
in an action m which the latter was slain, 
in a.d. 1710, a.h. 1153, and ursurped the 
government. He reigned sixteen years over 
the three provinces of Bengal, Bihar, and 
Orisa, and died on Saturday the 10th April, 
n.s. 1756, 9th Rajah, a.h. 1169, aped 80 
years. He was buried in Murshidabad, near 
the tomb of his mother, in the garden of 
Khush - Bagh, and was succeeded by his 
grand-nephew and grandson, Mirza Mahmud, 



A I . Wl 

better known by his assumed name "t Siraj- 
iid-daula. It does Dot appeal that Allahwirdi 
ever remitted any pari <>i tin- revenoe t.. 
Dehli after payment <.i Hi'- first instalment, 
of which the bulk went to the Marajha 
Government at Puna. 

Alah Yar Khan (^r^ ^U- ,1' < 
or more correctly, Hah Yar Khan 

(Shaikh), son of Shaikh Abd 

Subhan, was formerly employed by Nawab 
Mubariz-ul-Muli Sarbaland Khan, Governor 
of Gujrat, and in the reign "i the ■ mp< ror 

Farrukhsiyar was raised to th( rani of i 

with the title of Bustam Zaman Khan. 
the time of the emperor Muhammad Shah, 
when Raja Ahhai Singh, the bod ol B 
Ajlt Singh Marwari, was appointed Governor 
of Gujrat in the room of Nawab Sarbaland 
Khan, the latter made Borne opposition t" 1 1 i — 
successor; a battle ensued, and Shaikh Bah 
Yar, who was then with the Nawab, was 
killed in the action. This took place on the 
day of Dasahra, 5th Oi tob r, o.s 11 10, Bth 
Rabi II., a.m. 1143. 

Alah Yar Khan (J\ -oUi. ,L .-' 
ul.>- ,LscL£^), or more correctly, 

Ilah Yar Khan, son of It'tikli'u- 

Khan Turkman, a nobleman <>t the conrl • •! 
Shah Jahan. Ee died in Bengal in a.i>. 
1650, a. n. 1060. 

Alah Yar Khan Mir-Tuzuk (,'._• *J1 
t_5;y r»-« ij;l>A or more correctly, 

Ilah Yar Khan, a nobleman in the 

time of tlic emperor 'Alamgir, \\1m held the 
rank of 1,500, and died a.h. L662, \.u. 1 

Alamayo (Prince), the son of king 

Theodore of Abyssinia. After the fall "t 
Magdala and the death of his father, LOth 

April, 1868, he was -nit to England to In- 
educated, where he died. 

Al-Amin (,.~J1), the 6th khalifa of 

the house of 'Abbas, succeeded his father, 
Harun-ur-Rashid, to the throne of Baghdad, 
in March, a.d. 809, a.h. 193. He was no 
sooner seated on the throne than he formed 
a design of excluding his ln-othcr. al-Mamun, 
from the succession. Accordingly, he deprived 
him of the furniture of the imperial palace 
of Khurasan ; and iu open violation of his 
father's will, who had bestowed on al-Mamun 
the perpetual government of Khurasan and 
of all the troops iu that province, he ordi red 
those forces to march directly to Baghdad. 
Upon the arrival of this order. al-Mamun 
expostulated with the general al-Fazl Ibn 

I: bi'a, who commanded I I -. and 

endeavour, d t<. pn v nt his a t.. 

I d ; hnt with. ait . if. . t. for b< pti 
tualh obeyed tl ' l»j tin 

Al-Ka/1 li.i t lit- 

kh .'Ha by In- r. adj . omp ith hi- 

ordi re, a prime miui-t. r. and 

i with abaoluti - Amln 

mdoning himself entirelj t.. drunkem 
Al- i ible miui-t. r : but 

al-Mamun'e resentment, it ever he should 

ml the throne, he gave al-Am 
advici as proved in the end the ruin >■; them 
both. Be advised bim to deprivi nun 

1. 1 the right >•! - i that had h. • 

him bjf In- lather, and t: IS OWO 

M • lough tin n lmt an infant, 
able to tin- pernicioi . tie khalifa 

hi- brother al-Qasiiii tr..m M uia, 

- M unun ir.-in K' 
pn t. uding hi rion for him as an 

i-taiit iii his couni - By this ill-b 
in. nt al-Mamun much provoked, that 

t.. an open ruptun ■ itli 
hi- brothi 1 . \ ..n alt- I ..ut 

In two* n tin in. '1 ahir ibn- 1 1 
i.t al-Mamun, laid si _•• t.. Ii took it. 

and having »< i did, cut off his head, 

and exposed it I., publii \\'\\ in the -t 
i.t i Atti rwardi he sent it to al- 

M Lm .-. in Khurasan, together with the i 
or seal "t I 

imperial robe. At thi sight ol these, al- 
Mituun fell down on his kn. .-. and retut 

thank- t" <i...l t'.r hi- malring the 

courier who brought the insignia a present 
.•i a million dirhanu I ■ death of af-Amin 
th 0< tob r, i 

- \,r. a ii. 198 II wa« thi d 30 yi an "i 

. and had n igDJ d hut foUl •: 10016 


'Alamgir I. ( i £ . . -JLallc), emperor 

■ •t Bindnstan, surnamed Abul-Zafar Muhi- 
uddin Mohammad Aurangab, t....k th< title 

nt ' Alamg ir on hi- a to the thrmie. 

II n ;- thi tliird -..a nt tin- emperor shah 
Jahan, hum on Sunday Kith October, 
L619, llth Zil-qa'ds, a.m. 1028. 1 1 j - 
mother's name was Arjmand Banu, sornamed 
Mumtas-Mahall. In hi- youth, he pot on 
the appearance "t religious sanctity, lmt in 
June, a d. 1668, Ramzan, a.h. 1068, daring 
his lather's illness, he, in conjunction \\ith 
his brother, Murad Bakhah. - i/ .1 Agra, and 
made his lather prisoner. Murad was soon 
atter imprisoned by 'Alamgir, who man lied 
to Dehli, where he caused himseli to be 
proclaimed emperor on the 21st July of the 
-am. year, 1st Zil-qa'da, a.h. 1068, but was 
not crowned till the tir-t anniversary "t his 
accession, a circumstance which has intro- 
duced some confusion in the chronology of 
his reign. Soon alter, he put Murad liakhsh 
and liis eldest brother, the heir -apparent, 
Dara Shikoh, to death. Be greatly enlai 
his dominions, aud became so formidable that 
all Eastern prim.- sent ambassadors to him. 
He was au able prince, but a bigoted Sunni, 
and attempted to force the Hindus to adopt 




that faith, destroying their t ■ 1 1 1 ] > 1 « s . and 
levying the capitation tax (jizya) Erom every 
Hindu. Tlir teudatory chiefs of Rajputana 
successfully resisted the impost. He died 
after a reign >>\ 50 Lunar years at Ahmad- 
nagar, in the Deccan, cm Friday the 21-t 
F ibruary, o.s. 1707, 28th Zil-"a'da, a.m. 
1118, aged 90 lunar years ami 17 days, ami 
was tnterr d in the court <>t the mausoleum of 
Shaikh Zain-uddin, in Khuldabad, « i l^ ! 1 1 koi 
from tin- city of Aurangabad. After his 
death, he received tin- title of " Sazrat 
Khuld-Makfui" (i.e. Be whose place is in 
paradise). lie was married in the 19th year 
of hi- age to a daughter of Shahnawaz Khan, 
the son ot 'Asai Khan, the prime minister of 
the emperor Jahangir, by whom he had live 
sons and tour daughters. Hi- eld si ->", 
named Sulfcan Muhammad, died before his 

lather ; bis - CO id son was Muhammad 

Mu'azzam, who succeeded him with the title 
of Shah •Alam Bahadur Shah; the third, 
A'zam Shah, was slain in battle foughi 
against the latter; the fourth, Muhammad 
Akhar, who revolted against hi- lather, took 

refuge in Persia, and died there; the tilth, 
Kam Bakhsh, who was also slain in battle. 
The name- of his lour daughters are: Zeb- 
un-Nisa, Zlnut-uu-Xisa, Badr-un-Nisa, and 
M ihr-un-Nisa. 

'Alamgir II., 'Aziz-uddin, was the son 

of the emperor Jahandar Shah by Anup Bai ; 

was horn in a.d. 1688, a.m. L099, and raised 
to the throne, in the tort of Dehli, by 
'Imad-ul-Mulk Ghazi-uddin Khan thewazir, 

on Sunday the '2nd June, n.-. ] ;.", |. loth 
Sha'ban, a.h. 1167, after the deposition and 
imprisonment of Ahmad Shah, tie bod of the 
emperor Muhammad Shah. He was, alter 
a nominal reign of five years and some 
months, assassinated by the same person who 
had placed him on the throne, on the 29th 
November, n.s. 1759, 8th Rabi' II. a.h. 
1173, and was interred in the platform before 
the mausoleum of the emperor Humavun. 
His son 'All Gauhar (afterwards Shah 'Alam) 
being then in Bengal, Muhiy-ul-Suunat, son 
of Kam Bakhsh, the son of the emperor 
Aurangzib, was seated on the throne, with 
the title of Shah Jahan, and insidted by 
the empty name of emperor for some 
months, after which, on the 10th October, 
N.s. 1760, 29th Safar, a.h. 1174, the 
Marathas having plundered Dehli, prince 
Mirza Jawan Bakht, the son of 'All Gauhar, 
was placed on the throne by the Maratha 
chief Bhao, as regent to his father, who was 
still in Bengal. 

Alap Arsalan. Vide Alp Arsalan. 

Alaptigin or Alptigin {^J^A\\ 

one of the chief nobles of BukhSra," and 
Governor of Khurasan during the reign of 
the house of Saman. Having, in a.d. 962. 
renounced his allegiance to that court, he 
retired, with his followers, to Ghazni, then 

an insignificant town, to escape the resent- 
ment o| Amir Mausur Samani, whose eleva- 
tion to the throne he had opposed, en the 
ground oi hi- extreme youth, lie established 
a petty principality, of which Ghazni became 

the capital. He died a. n. 976, A.H. 

when his son, Abu-Is-baq, succeeded him; 
hut that weak and dissipated prince survived 
his taller hut a -holt tine-; and the Buffrage 
oi all ranks gave the rule to Subiktagin, a 
chief in the Bervice ot Alaptigin, in a.d. 977, 
a.h. 367. 

Al-Aswad (j^-l"), an impostor. Vide 


'Ala-ud-daula (Prince) (jJjjJljLc 

( ^*J), the son of Biiisanghar Mirza, 

ami grandson ot Shfdirukh Mirza, alter whose 

death, in a.d. 1117, he ascended the thr • 

at llirat, hut was -ooii driven from it by his 
uncle, I'lugh Beg. After the death ot Ulugh 
1; _. a.d. 1449, ho was imprisoned and 
blinded by hi- brother, Sultan Bihar. He 
died in a.d. 1459, a. ii. 863. 

'Ala-ud-daula {A^VAs. c_;^J), a 
Nawab "t Bengal. Vide Sarfaraz Khan. 

'Ala - ud - daula (Mir or Mirza) 
(_-w# Aj.jJULr), a poet whose 

poetical name was Kafi. He is the author 
of a biography of those poets who flourished 

in tie reign of the emperor Akhar. The 
time of his death is not known, but he 
was living at the time of tie- conquest of 
Chitor by Akhar in a.d. 1o67, a.h. 975. 
There is some mistake in his poetical name ; 
he appears to be the same person who is 
mentioned under the poetical name of Kami, 
which see. 

'Ala-ud-daula Samnani (<djjJULc 

_'L^-j), one of the chief followers 

of the Sufi Junaid Baghdadi. In his youth 
he served Arghun Khan, the Tartar king of 
Persia, and his uncle Sharaf-uddin Samnani 
was a nobleman at the court. He died on 
Friday the 8th March, a.d. 1336, 23rd Rajab, 
a.h. 736, aged 77 lunar years, six years before 
Khwaja Kiruianl. 

'Ala-uddin ( #r j.>]U^U), a Muhammadan 

prince of the Arsacides or Assassins, better 
known by the appellation of "The old man 
of the mountains." His residence was a 
castle between Damascus and Antioch, and 
was surrounded by a number of youths, whom 
he intoxicated with pleasures, and rendered 

'ALA r 



subservieni to Ids views, by promising still 
greater voluptuousness in the next world. As 
these were employed to stab hi- enemies, he 
was dreaded by the neighbouring prim i -. 

[ Vide Hasan Sabbab.] 

'Ala - uddin (Khwaja) ( ...,-jJULc 

i £_L^Ua_c a^*^), Burnamed Ata 

Malik, was the brother of Shams-uddiu Mu- 
hammad Sahib, diwan, and i- the author oi 
a history called Jahankusha. 

'Ala-uddin 'Ali al-Quraishi ibn-Nafis 

author of the commentary termed Mujiz-ul 
Qanun Jil-Tibb, being an epitome "i the 
canons of Avicenna. H. died a.d. 12 

'Ala-uddin Ali Shah ( le .._-_\_'.... 

i\j^), king of Western Bengal. Hi 

usurped thi government oi thai country after 
defeating Fakhr-uddin Mubarak Shah, and 
was assassinated, about a.h. 746, by I 
instigation ol Khwaja [lvas, who succeeded 

him miilcr the title "I Shams - uddin ] 


'Ala-uddin Atsiz (>*xl| ...jjJtilU), 

the sou of 'Ala-uddin II Ghori. H- 

defeated Baha-uddln Sam in ah. L210, and 
reigned four years in Ghor. Ee till in battle 
against Taj -uddin I Muz, ah. 1214, and « - 
the Last ni the kings oi Ghor, oi the family 
of 'Ala-uddin Hasan. 

'Ala-uddin Hasan ( 


lJjjJ.), prince of Ghor, entitled 

Jahan-soz. His elder brother, t'utb-uddin. 
prince of Ghor, was publicly executed by his 
brother-in-law, Bahram shah oi Ghazni, in 
a. ii. 1119, a. ii. 513. Saif-ud-daula, brother 
of the deceased, took possession oi Ghazni in 
a.d. 1148, a. ii. 543, hut afterwards was 
defeated, taken prisoner, and pu1 to death bj 
Bahram Shah in a.d. 1 1 19, ah. ."ill. When 
the mournful news of hi- brother's death 
reached 'Ala-uddin. lie burnl with rage, and 
being determined to take revenge, invaded 
Ghazni with a great army. He defeated 
Bahram Shah, who lid 't,, Lahore, took 
possession of Ghazni, in a.d. 1162, a.h. 574, 
and g-ave up the city to flames, slaughter, and 
devastation for several days, on which account 
he is known by the epithet ot "Jahan-soz," 
or the burner of the world. He carried his 
animosity so far as to destroy every monument 
of the Ghazni emperors with the exception 
of those of Sultan Mahmftd, Mas'ud, ami 
Ibrahim; but he defaced all the inscriptions, 
even of their times, from every public edifice. 

'Ala-uddin died in tin- year a d. 1166, a h. 

..Hi r a n i^'H of six yi . «;ui 

ded by hi- son Malik Saif-uddln, or 
Saif-ud-daula, who in little more tl 
fell i: ' »v ith tin ' • I Hi- 

. h\ hi- 

uddin Muhammad Ghori. The follow) 

a li-t oi the kin. ' . r : 

1 . 'Ala-uddin Hasan Gh ri. 

Malik Saif-uddin, boo oi 'Ala-uddin 

II G ri. 

3. ' Min Muhamm id Ghori, ton 

I aa-uddin Sam, the youi 
brother oi 'Ala-uddin. 
Shihab-uddin, brother oi Ghiyas -uddin. 

MliUil. SI 


-uddin Sim, son ol I uddin 

M ihmud. 
7. Al oi the 

kill. I i oi this branch. 

'Ala-uddin I 


- ^'.-- 

•r_i+_L_0. Hasan I Bahmani, 

tin- Drat Bahmani kiin; <>i the Dei n Hi 
a native of D i, and in th- - n i' • 
Brahmanical astroloper named Kangoh, or 
oying high favour with tie pi it 
Muhammad Tughlnq. afterwards king 
Heidi. This Brahman assured II win that 
he perceh d from his horoscope thai hi would 
ri-' t" great distinction, and be eminently 
uri d "t the Almighty : and madi him 
promise that ii hi ever should attain r- 
power, he would use the name --t Kangoh 
and employ him as his mil 

th which Hasan readily complied. 
The Governor oi Daulatabad and oi 
having revolted took possession ol the pL 

ami 11 - ni who had tin 11 the title 

of Z h "'» : "" 1 > i V-ir in thi 

lie ir kin-. < 'ii I 'he 3rd August, 

a ii. L347, 24th Etabi' II. a.m. 748, they 
crowned him and raised him on tin- throne, 
■ 'Ala-uddin II Kii goh 

Bahmani at Kulbarga, which place became 
tin royal residence and capital ot tin | 
Muhanunadan king ot the Deccan, and wis 
named Ahaanabad. Toward- the end of the 
reign oi Muhammad Tughlnq oi Dehli, he 
subdued everyparl ot th. Di can previously 

Subject to the throne ot Dehli. The death 

ot •Ala-uddin Hasan happened ten years, tin 
months, and seven daysafti rhie into the 

throne, about the 1 ot li February, a.d. 1858, 
1st Rabi' I. a.h. 759. He was succeeded 
by hi- son, Muhammad Shah I. Bahmani. 
The following is a list of the kiiiLS of the 
Bahmani dynasty of Kulbarga or Ahsanabad 
with the years oi their accessions : 

'Ala-uddin 11 isan I. 

Muhammad Shah 1. 

Mujahid Shah . . 

Hind Shah . . . 

Mahmud Shah . . 
Ghiy as -uddin 


a.h. 748, a.d. 1347. 
a.h. 759, a.d. 13o8. 
ah. 77'i, a d. 1375. 
a.h. 780, a.d. 1378. 

A.H. 7S0, A.D. 1378. 

a h. 799, ad. 1397. 
a.h. 799, a.d. 1397. 




Fin./. Shah Roz-afzun a.m. 800, a d. 1397. 
Ahmad Shah Wall. . a.m. 825, a.i.. L422. 
'Ala-uddin Ahmad II. a.h. 838, a.d. 1135. 
Humayun the cruel. 
Nizam Shah. 
Muhammad Shah II. 

M HMUtl 1 1 . 

Ahmad sir,!, II. 

'Ala-uddin III. 


Kallm-ullali, with whom the B ihmani dynasty 

terminates, and i~ succeeded by Amir 

Band at Ahmadabad Bidar. 

'Ala-uddin II. (Sultan) ( _._\JU1- 
i^llaLj JlJ), son of Sultan Ahmad 

Shall Wall Bahmani, ascended the throm at 
Ahmadabad Bidar in the Deccan, in the 
month oi February, A..D. L435, a.h. 838, and 
died ait, r a reign of '23 years, 9 months, ami 
20 days in the year a.d. 1457, a.h. 862 ll< 
wa.- succeeded by his son, Eumayun, a cruel 

'Ala-uddin Khilji (Sultan) ( .jjJlilU 

styled Sitandar-i-Sani, "the second Alex- 
ander," was the nephew ami son-in-law "t 
Sultan Jalal-uddin Firuz Shah Khilji, whom 
he murdered at Kara - Manikpur, in the 
province of Allahabad, on the 29th July, 
a.d. 1296, 17th Ramazan, a.h. 695, and 
marching thence with his army ascended the 
throne of Dehli in the month of October the 
same year. Zil-hijja, a h. 695, alter having 
defeated and removed Ruku-uddin Ibrahim, 
the son of Firiiz Shah. He was the first 
Musalman king who made an attempt to 
conquer the Deccan. He took the fort of 
Chitor in August, a.d. 1303, 3rd Muharram, 
a.h. 703. It is said that the empire never 
flourished so much as in his reign. Palaces, 
mosques, universities, baths, mausolea, forts, 
and all kinds of public and private buildings, 
seemed to rise as if by magic. Among the 
poets of Iris reign, we may record the names 
of Amir Khusrau, Klywaja Hasan, Sadr- 
uddin 'All, Fakhr-uddin Khawas, Hamid- 
uddin Raja, Maulana 'Arif, 'Abdul-Hakim, 
and Shihiib-uddin Sadr-Xishln. In poetry, 
Amir Khusrau and Khwaja Hasan had the 
first rauk. In philosophy and physic, Maulana 
Badr-uddin Diimishqi. ' In divinity, Maulana 
Shitabi. In astrology. Shaikh Xizani-uddin 
Auliya acquired much fame. 'Ala-uddin died, 
according to Firishta, on the 6th Shawwal. 
a.h. 716, or 19th December, a.d. 1316, 
after having reigned more than twenty years. 
He was buried in the tomb which he had 
constructed in his life-time near the Manihar 
Masjid in Old Dehli. Amir Khusrau, in 
that part of his Diwan called Baqiya - i - 
Naqiya, says that he died on the 6th 
Shawwal, a.h. 715, i.e. about the 30th 
December, a.d. 1315. After his death, Malik 
Naib Kafur, one of the eunuchs of the king, 

placed his youngesl son, Sultan Shihab-uddin 

'I'liiar, who was then only seven years old, 
on the throne. After a short time, however, 
the eunuch Kafur was slain, and Shihab- 
uddin was set aside, and his elder brother, 
Mubarak Khan, under the title oi Mubarak 
Shah, ascended the throne on the 1st April, 
a.d. 1316, 7th Muharram, a.h. 716, but 
according to Firishta in 1317. It was the 
boast "i 'Ala-uddin that he had destroyed 
one thousand temples in Banaras alone, lie 
i- h. st known now by the beautiful gateway 
to tic- Kutb Mosque, and the unfinished 
town- by which he hoped to rival the Kutb 

'Ala-uddin 'Imad Shah ( f _jjJULs 

l\L .2*1*^) succeeded to the govern- 
ment of Barar in the I), can after the 
death of his tather, Fath-ullah 'Imad Shah, 
about the year \.i>. L513, and following the 

mple of other chiefs of the bouse of 
I: ihmani, declared himself king "t Barar, and 

ablished his royal residi nee at Gawal. He 
contracted an alliance by marriage with the 
-i-t. r oi I-ncVil -Adil Shah, named Khadija, 
in a.d. 1528, a.h. 935, and died some time 
about the year a.d. L532, \ n. 939. lie was 
succeeded by his son Darya, 'Imad Shah. 

'Ala-uddin Kaiqubad (Sultan) (jLc 

jL-JLo ^jJI), a prince of the 

Saljuqian dynasty. When Sultan Malik- 
Shah conquered Rum or Anatolia, in Asiatic 

Turkey, he conferred on Sulaiman, the son of 
Kutlumish, that kingdom, whose descendants 
reigned there till the time of Abaqa Khan, 
the Tartar king of Persia. 'Ala-uddin 
Kaiqubad was a descendant of Sulaiman 
Shah, and died about the year a d. 1239, 
a.h. 637. Vide Sulaiman bin-Kutlumish. 

'Ala-uddin Majzub (Shah) (.^jjtiic 

sLi < — ),A^r«), a Muhammadan 

saint of Agra, commonly called Shah 'Alawal 
Balawal, son of Sayyid Sulaiman. He died 
in the beginning of the reign of Islam Shah, 
son of Sher Shah, in the year a.d. 1546, 
a.h. 953. His tomb is in Agra, at a place 
called Xai-ki Mandi, where crowds of 
Musalmans assemble every vear to worship 
it. The adjacent mosque has sunk into the 
ground to the spring of the arches. 

'Ala-uddin Mas'ud (j 


Sultan of Dehli, was the son of Sultan 
Rukn-uddin Firuz, and grandson of Shanis- 
nddin Iltitmish, was raised to the throne 
of Dehli after the murder of Bahrain Shah, 
in May, a.d. 1212, Zil-qa'da, a.h. 639. 
He died on the 10th June, a.d. 1246, 23rd 
Muharram, a.h. 644, after a reign of four 
years, and was succeeded by his brother 
"(or uncle), Sultan Xazir-uddm Mahmud. 




'Ala - uddin Muhammad al-Samar- 
qandi (Shaikh) (Jl^ v* ^jJ'jl-s 

jffjcJ-4-J^), author of a compendium 
of AKJuduri's Mtrt&tasir, which he entitled 
the Tuhfat-ul-Fukaha. Thia work was com- 
mented upon by hia pupil Abu-Bakr bin- 
Mas'ud afKashani, who died in a.d. 1191, 
a.h. 587. Tliis commenl i- entitled al- 
Badai' as-§anai' 

'Ala-uddin Husain Shah ( ... : ;_0'.---- 

'Al-Aziz Billah Abu-al-Mansur Tarar 


.), king of ]'<< Qgal. He 

was the boii "i Sayyid Ashraf, and after 
defeating Muzaffar Shah at Gaur in a.m. 
899, ascended the throne of B< ngal. II 
reigned with justice far a conrideraDly lot 
period than any oi bis predecessors until the 
year \.\>. 1521, a.m. 927, when be died a 
natural death, after a n J years. Hia 

son N Shah sui ceedi d him. 

'Ala-uddin (Sultan) (J!A^ ^jJ^lc 

-J^sr- - ), a king of the i 

Saljuq, who reigned in [conium, and died 
in the year a.i>. 1301, a a. 700. 

'Ala-uddin (Sultan) (^UaLi ^-<.\ . c 

J_ao jLijLO, the last king of 

o * 

Dehli nt the Sayyid dynasty, succeeded hia 
father Sultan Muhammad Shah to the throni 
in January, a d. I 1 16, Bhawwal, a 
Bahlol Lodi, in a d. 1451, a.m. 856, al 
the instigation ol Hamid Chan n Eir, took 
possession of Dehli during the absence oi the 
king, who was then al Badaon. 'Ala-uddin 
continued to reside at Badaon unmolested till 
his death, which happi ued in th( year a.d. 
1478, a.h. 883; his reign at Dehli being 
about six years, and hia govi rnmi nt at Badaon 
28 years. 

'Ala-uddin (Sayyid), of Oiulli. whose 

poetical name was Wasili, is the author .,i 
a Tarji'band, commonly called Mamuqiman, 
with which word it commences. He was a 
native of Khurasan, came to India about the 
year a.d. 1300, became a disciple of Ni/.ani- 
uddin Auliii, and fixed his residence in < >udh. 

'Ala-uddin Takash (JiSj ^jWjlc), 

a Sultan of Khwarizni. 1'idc Takash. 

'Ala-ul-mulk Kotwal (Malik) (jlx 

i_$X« JV}^ t-li^*^). He served 

under Sultan 'Ala-uddin Khilji, king of 
Dekli, and was the tmcle of Ziya-uddin Band, 
the author of the Tdrlkh Flruz-Shahi. He 
was then very old and so fat that he was not 
able to attend the court more than once a 
mouth. He was living in a.d. 1300, a.h. 

w J\ T ■ , , 

..i M u'izz - ud - din - all I 

Kltn pt thi I Ij-mmty, d bis 

father in l.d. 97 I • mitted thf 

_•, IUl nt tin h t.i thi 

of Jauhar, or Ja'far, bis i long- 

, \j. i . di ral and prime mini 

famous w 'ral buttles with 

Al-Aftakin, the amir of D and the 

itians, died in a.d 
\ ■ \/i/ died on bia wai to Syria, in the 
21s1 \'ir ol hi- reign and 42nd "t his 
and « eded bj bia Bon, Abul-Munsur. 

._'». Fide Al.ul- 
and Abu - Muhammad 

Al-Baghavvi (±jy 

I nj -al - Bagb i« i 

1 rai ibn-Mas'ud «ri. 

Al-Batani ( ^JaJ^). commonly called 

by European writers Albategnius, waa an 

Man astronomer who wroti a tn • d 

the knowledge and the obliquitj ol thi Zodiac 

.,t the stan B died in 929. Hi greatly 

1 astronomy, comparing hia own 

obs( r\;it i«-n~ with those ol Ptoli my. 'I his 

1 k waa print* d at Nun ml., rg, in l 

■it.... and at Bologna in L545. Hi 


Al-Biruni( ^-. ^jM), an Arabian author, 
whose original w..rk. entitled Tariit H 

ipiled in India in almiit A.D. 1030-33. 

\ i-B iban. 

Al-Bukhari (,jr.Lsc\J1 ). who r< 1 1 Lved 

thia nam.- ir..m Bukhara, the place ol his 
birth ..r hi- < b ".. . waa a famous 

Lawyer by nam. ..t Muhammad [smi'il. His 
collection ol traditiona <>n the Muhammadan 
religion, commonly called sulnh-xl- l;«k: 
is ol thi greatest authority oi all that have 
ever been made; he called it Al-§ahih, i.>-. 
genuine, because he separated the spurious 
ones from thosi thai wen authentic He 
says, he has selected 7,275 ol the n 
authentic traditions out ol 10,000, all of 
which he looked upon to be true, having 
rejected 2011.000 as false. He died at 
Bukhara in the year a.d. 870, a.m. 256. 
/ Muhammad Isma'il Bukhari. 

Al-Dawani. Vide Dawani. 

Al-Farghani (^XJjjlSS), surname of 

Ahmad ibn Kathlr or Kasir, an Arabian 
astronomer of the ninth century, author of 
an introduction to astronomy. 
[Vide Farghini.] 

p — 

'Alha and Udal ( Jj^\ ^ L^Jl ), princes 

of MahSba. There is a heroic ballad Bung 
or recited by the Hindu sepoys in a kind of 




monotonous, but not unmusical sorl of chaunt, 
accompanied by a sotto voce beal of the dhol, 
which rise to a constri pito in the pa 
between the verses. WTioi \ t bas n sided in 
a military cantonment mu.-t have frequently 
observed the sepoys, when disengaged from 
military duty, collected in -mail knots, 
listening to one "t the party reciting some 
poem or tale t<> a dei ply interested audience. 
The subject oi this lay is the prowess oi 
'Alha', the Raja of Mahoba, a town in 
Bundelkhand. oi which extensive ruin- remain. 
The hero i- describ <1 as the terror "t the 
Muhammadans ; his triumphs over whom arc 
attributed not only to his own valour, Init the 
favour nt the godd ss Kali, whom he had 
propitiated bj th off< ring oi his life. Tin re 
are many songs, it is said, oi this prince, 
and his brother Udal, a warrior oi equal 
estimation; hut they are preserved only 
traditionally by the Powars, and their amateur 
students. The v, rs - are in Bhakha. 

U-Hadi (^-Jlijl), the fourth khalif of 

the house of 'Abbas, succeeded his father, 
al-Mahdl, on the 4th August, \ n. 785, 
'23rd Muharram, a.h. 169, to the throne oi 
Baghdad. He reigned one year and one 
month, and having formed a design to deprive 
his younger brother, Harun-al-Rashid, oi 
his right of succession, and even to assassinate 
him, was poisoned by his prime ministi c 
about the month of September, a.i>. 786, 
Rabi I. a. ii. 170. On his deatb his brother, 
the celebrated Harun-al-Rashld, ascended th i 

Al-Hakm, also called ibn Abdul Kakm, 

an Arabian author, who (according to the 
chronological arrangement of the Arab 
authorities by Howard Vyse and Dr. Sprenger, 
in the former's second volume of The Pyramids 
of Gizeh) lived about a.d. 1450, or six hundred 
years after the death of the khalif al-Mamun 
of Baghdad, hut by a manuscript note re- 
corded by a gentleman of the British Museum 
1868), it appears that al-IIakm was nearly 
contemporary with that prince, who flourished 
between a.d. 813 and 843. Al-Hakm writes 
that the Great Pyramid in Egypt was built 
by a certain antediluvian king Saurid, and 
filled by him chiefly with celestial spheres 
and figures of the "stars, together with the 
perfumes used in their worship ; and that 
khalifa al-Mamun found the body of a man 
deposited, with jewels, arms, and golden 
writing, in the coffer, when he broke into the 
kiug's chamber of the Great Pyramid. But 
neither Abu Mushar Jafar bin Muhammad 
Balkki, who wrote in about a.d. 890, nor 
ibn Khurdalbeh, in a.d. 920, have one word 
about al-Manuin, o v any opening of the 
pyramid. But when we descend to Masaudi, 
in a.d. 967, he, after an astonishing amount 
of romancing on what took place at the 
building of the pyramids 300 years before the 
Flood, mentions that, not al-Mamun, but his 
father, khalifa Harun-al-Rashid, attempted 
to break into the Great Pyramid : and after 
penetrating 20 cubits, found a vessel con- 

taining 1000 coins of the finesl gold, each 
just one ounce iu weight, and making up a 
sum which exactly repaid the cosl of his 
operations, at which, it is added, he greatly 
wondered. About the year a.d. 1170, or 
340 years after al-Mamun's age, that prince 
is mentioned bj Aim Abd-ullah Muhammad 
bin Alidiir Rahim Alkaisi, who states that he 
was informed that those who went into the 
upper parts of the Greal Pyramid in the 
time ni al-Mamun, came to a small passage, 
containing the image of a man in green stone, 
and within that a human body with golden 
armour, etc., etc. 

Al-Hasan ( - Ufa sa\) > an Arabian who 
wrote mi optic-, about the year a.d. 1100. 

'All (ujJlt f\ ^\ ic), son of Abu- 

Talib, was the cousin and son-in-law of 
Muhammad. He was born 23 year- before 
the Ilijn. i.e., in the Mar a.d. 599, at the 
very temple itself. His mother's name 

was r'atima, daughter of A-ad the son of 
II i-him. Alter the death of .Muhammad, 

h. was opposed in his attempts to succeed 
the prophel by 'Usman and 'Umar, and 

retired into Arabia, where his mild and 
enlarged interpretation of the Quran, in- 
creased the number of hi- proselytes. After 

the death ni -1-111,111. tin- 3rd khalifa, he 
Was acknowledged khalifa by the Egyptians 
and Arabians in .Inly, a.d. 6.35, but in less 
than five years alter he was compelled to 
resign that title, and Mu'awiya was pro- 
claimed khalifa at Damascus. 'All was 
subsequently wounded by 'Abdur-Rahman 
ibn-Muljim in a mosque at Qfifa, whilst 
engaged in hi- evening prayers, mi Friday 
the 22nd January, a.d. 661, 17th Ramazan, 
a. ii. 40, and died four days after. 'All, 
alter the decease of his beloved Fatima, the 
daughter oJ the prophet, claimed the privilege 
of polygamy, and bad 18 sons and 18 
daughters. The most renowned of them 
are the two sons of Fatima, viz., Hasan 
aud Husain, as also Muhammad Hanif, by 
another wile. Among the many surnames, 
or honorable titles bestowed upon 'Ali, are 
the following: Was!', which signifies "legatee 
and heir;" Murtaza, "beloved by God;" 
A-ad-ullah-ul-Ghfdib, " the victorious lion 
of God ; " Haidar. " a lion ; " Shah Mardan, 
" king of men ; " Sher Khuda, " the liou of 
God." His memory is still held in the 
highest veneration by the Muhammadans, 
who say that he was the first that embraced 
their religion. They say, moreover, that 
Muhammad, talking of him, said, "Ali is 
for me and I am for him ; he stands to me 
in the same rank as Aaron did to Moses ; I am 
the town in which all knowledge is shut up, 
and he is the gate of it." However, these 
great eulogies did not hinder his name, and 
that of all his family, from being cursed, and 
their persons from being excommunicated 
through all the mosques of the empire of 
the khalifas of the house of Umayya, from 
Mu'awiya down to the time of 'Umar ibn- 



A 1.1 

1 Ainliil-'Aziz, who suppressed the solemn 
malediction. There were besides several 
khalifas of the house of 'Abbas, who ex- 
pressed a greai aversion to 'Ali and all his 
posterity; such as Mu'tazid and Mutawakkil. 
On tlic'otlirr h.iii'l. the Fatimite K I ! dlfas oi 
Egypi caused hi- name to be addi A to thai 
or Muhammad in the mil to prayi i 
which is chaunted from tin- inn. ts >>i the 
mosques. lie is the first ol tin' twelve 
Imams, eleven of whom were hi- desa odants. 
Their names are as follows : 

1. 'AH, the son of Abu-Talib. 

2. [mam Hasan, eldest son ol 'AH. 

3. ,, llusiiii, second son oi "Ali. 

4. ,, Zaiii-iil-'Aliidln. -.11 .,i Husain. 

5. (J Muhammad Baqir, son oi Zain- 


6. Imam Ja'far Sadiq, -on "t Mu hamma d 


7. Imam Husa Kazim, son of 2 diq. 

8. ,, All MiW Ka/a, -oil "1 Mu-a 


9. Imam Muhammad Taqi, bot ol W 


10. Imam 'AH Naqi, bod <>t Muhammad 


11. Imam Hasan 'Askari, boh "i 'Ali Naqi. 

12. .. Mahdl, bod m Hasan 'Askari. 

As to the place of 'All's burial, authors 
differ; bui the mosl prohable opinion i-. thai 
In' was buried in that place which i- now 
called Najaf Ashraf, in Kufa, and this i- 
visited hv the Muhammadans a- hi- tomb. 

The followers oi 'Ali an- called Shi'as, 
which Bignifii - -' cl tries or adhen nts in 
general, a terra first used about the fourth 
century of the Hijra. 

All is reputed tin- author "t Beveral work- 
in Arabic, particularly a collection oi one 
hundred sentences (paraphrased in Persian by 
Bashld-uddln-WafcwaJ;), and a Diwan oi di- 
dactic |i'i<in-. often read in Madrasahs. 

In mentioning 'All's name, the Bhi'a use 
thr phrase " 'alaihi as-salam," which i- used 
after the names oi prophets; the Sunnis e 
" karrama ollahu wajhahu," may God honour 

his fare. 

son of Ahmad bin-Abu-Bakr Kufi, a n-i- 
dent of Och and author of the history "t 
Sindh in Arabic called Tuhfat - ul - Kiram. 
This work was translated into Persian and 
called Chaeh Nama, a translation ol which 
was made in English by Lieutenant Postans 
and published in the Jour. As. Soc. in 1838. 

'Ali ( -_\^1 tfjyt&AW XfcP-1 ^ L5 Lc), 

son of Ahmad, commonly called Wabidi, was 
an Arabian author who wrote three Com- 
mentaries, viz. : Wasit, Zaklr, and Ba&it, 
aud also Ktt'ih Nuzul. He died in a.d. 
1075, a.d. 468. 

'Ali (Jixlj ^.-— ^- ^jJ — - ) . boh "f 

Husain Wauj KashifT, the famous •■• 

th, ; i. author oi lb, w,,rk 

calhd - / ■ 

anecdotes "i Muhammad, ol th' tn 
[mams, oi the ancient kings oi Persia, and 
oi rarious other \» reons. II- 
author oi another work entitled Rtuhhat, 
t : i i 1 1 i 1 1 •_•- the Memoirs ol the $ufi shaikhs 
oi th. Nakshbandi order. 'All died in a.d. 
1632, a. ii. 989. He i- also Ali 


- fi-nddtn Muhammad.] 

'Ali ( c ^"w~J A^sr* c j yXe), bob of 

Muhammad Qnsanji, an astronomer, and 
author "t thi x h-ul-J d, the m w 
oommi Li ry. lb died a.d. 1 17 1. a.m. 

'Ali (..itaix J lx). -on of 'Usman 

GUini, author oi the Kathf-ul-Mal 
containing i mil ription oi the tv 

- . , t. .. written in A.D. 1 - 
v ii. 005, He ii ■ ailed l'ir 'Ali 

1 1 «riri. 

named Ahnl lla-an. 

Vidi Abul-Hasan 'Ali. 

'Ali (s\*=>. ^j -L.e), son of Hainza, 
author of the Tarikh Isfahanl. 

'Ali ( 

1 Ahnl 1 

'Ali ( lc jJu t, ycX^? ^jL*), the 
]..-. tical name ol Mulla Nash ' kli, whi •' 

'Ali ( Lc\ the poetical name of a | 

who converted the Gluteals oi HafU into 

'Ali 'Adil Shah I. (»Li JjLc ^J_i 

c,*jLs£uO, of Bijapur, Bornamed 

\ lul-Musaffar, bu led to the throne ol 

that kingdom alter the death oi bis lather 

Ibrahim 'Adil Shah I. in a D. 1668, l.H. 

11, r, ign< il about 22 lunar years, and 

no -on. he appointed in the year 

a.d. 1679 his nephew, Ibrahim, son ol his 
brother T&hmasp, his successor; and the 
following year on the nighi oi Thursdaj 
Huh April, L680, 23rd Safar, A..H. 988, 
he was assassinated by a young eunuch. He 
was buried in the city of Bijapur, win re 
his tomb or mausoleum is called by the 
people, " Bauza All." 

[Vide Am Translation, i. p. 545.] 

'Ali 'Adil Shah II. (»Li JjLc ^Le 
^•.jUsA-j ^-3U), of Bijapur, 

succeeded his father Muhammad 'Adil Shah 
in his childhood in November, a.d. 1656, 
Muharram, a.h. 1067, and was unable to 
remedy the disorders which had occurred 
in his kingdom, by the rebellion of the 




celebrated Marhatta chief SewaVjI, who had 
possessed himselt of all the strongholds in the 
Kokan country, and erected several new forts. 
Under pretence of making his submissions 
tn the Sultan, he begged an interview with 
the Bijapur general, Afzal Khan, whom he 
treacherously stabbed in an embrace. Rustara 
Khan was afterwards sent against him, and 
defeated. 'Ail 'Adil Shah died in the year 
a.d. 1072, a. ii. 1083, after a turbulent 
reign of eleven or twelve years, lie was 
succeeded by bis son Sikaudar 'Adil Shah. 

'Ali Ahmad (Shaikh) (^ j^^\ \ £ ) 

the son of Shaikh Husain NaqshI, a learned 
man and engraver who died suddenly on 
hearing a rerse of the poet Khwaja Hasan 

of Dehli repeated in the presi nee oi the 
emperor Jahangir on the 13th April, o.s. 
1609, 18th Muharram, a.h. 1018. 

'Ali Akbar (j.+S\ ^Xs), the eldest son 

of Imam Husain, killed in battle together 

■with his lather on the 10th October, a.h. 

'Ali Akbar ( ^J\ \-) } author of the 

work called Majma'-ul- Julia, containing a 

detailed account of all the Muhammadan 
saints, dedicated to the emperor Shah Jahan, 
who was a great admirer oi saints, ad. 1628, 
a.h. 1038. 

'Ali Akbar (^oL-l^Jl j-S\ ^Xs), 

of Allahabad, author of the Fasul Akbari 

and Usui Akbari, and several other works. 

'Ali Asghar (jtj\ Jlc), proper name 
of Imam Zain-ul-'Abidin, which see. 

'Ali Asghar ( -s- ..-J JLJ C -L:), of 

Qanauj, author of a commentary on the Quran 
called Sawakib-ut-Tunzll. He died in the 
year a.d. 1727, a.h. 1140. 

'Ali Bahadur (.jLn-j 

■^1> J LT^' 

Nawab of Banda, eldest son of Shamsher 
Bahadur I. and grandson of the Marhatta 
chief Bajl Rao Pesbwa I. He received the 
investiture of Bundelkhand from Nana Far- 
nawis, the Puna minister, about the year 
a.d. 1790, and accompanied by his brother 
Ghani Bahadur, and supported by a powerful 
army, invaded Bundelkhand, but was opposed 
by Nana Arjun ^the guardian of Bakhat 
Singh, a descendant of Raja Chatursai), who 
falling in the contest, and Raja Bakhat Singh 
being taken prisoner, All Bahadur acquired 
the whole of that part of the raj of Banda 
which belonged to Bakhat Singh aud all the 
raj of Panna. He reigned about eleven or 
twelve years, and as at the time of his death, 

which happened in a.d. 1801 or 1802, his 
eld. -i Mm, Shamsher Bahadur II. was absent 
at Puna, his youngest son Zultikiir AH was 
proclaimed [in violation of the title of his 
eldest brother) as his successor by bis ancle 
Ghani Bahadur and his Dlwan Himmat 
Bahadur Goshain. Ghani Bahadur, how- 
ever, was Boon after expelled by Shamsher 
Bahadur, who took possession of the raj. 

'Ali Bahadur Khan (^U- j^\j .J^X 

the la-t Nawab of Banda and son of Xullikar 
All Khan Bahadur. He is the author oi a 
dlwan and a masnawi called Mehrullah. He 

was removed for alleged complicity in the 
rebellion of lbo7. 

'Ali Bai (^Lj .Le), (whose name is 

spelt in our English Biographical Dictionaries 
All Bey] was a native oi Natolia, son of a 
Greek priest. In his thirteenth year he was 
carried awav bv some robbers as he was hunt- 
ing, and sold to Ibrahim, a lieutenant of the 
Janissaries, at Grand Cairo, who treated him 
with kindness. 'Ali distinguished himself 
against the Arabs, but when his patron was 
basely assassinated in a d. 1758, by Abrahim 

the <'in ssian, lie avenged bis death, and 
slew the murderer with his own hand. This 
violent measure raised him enemies, and his 
flight t" Jerusalem and to Ptolemais or Acre 
with difficulty saved him from the resentment 
in the < Ittoman Porte, thai bad demanded bis 

bead. Time, however, paved the way to his 
elevation. Those who bad espoused the cause 
of the Circassian were sacrificed to the public 
saiet\ ; and 'All, recalled by the public voice, 
governed the country with benevolence and 
equity. In a battle fought against a re- 
bellious Mamlnk to whom he had entrusted 
part of his army, 'Ali saw some of his troops 
desert, and unwilling to survive a defeat, he 
defended himself with the fury of a liou, till 
he was cut down by a sabre and carried to the 
conqueror's tent, where eight days after he 
expired of his wounds, April 21st, a.d. 1773, 
in his 45th year, aud left behind him a cha- 
racter unrivalled for excellence, for courage, 
and magnanimity. 

'Ali Bai (^Jb ^J-^). The titles by 

which he was known in the Muhammadan 
countries were al-Amir, al-Hakim, al-Faqih, 
al-Sharif, al-Hai 'All Bai ibn Usman Bai al- 
Abbas, Khadim Baitullah al-Haram, i.e. the 
prince, the learned, doctor of the law, of the 
blood of Muhammad, pilgrim, 'Ali Bai, son 
of Usman Bai, of the race of the Abbasidesi, 
servant of the house of God. He was master 
of the Arabic language, and had carefully 
studied the mathematical and nataral branches 
of science and knowdedge. It was in a.d. 
1802 that he visited England. In June, a.d. 
1803, he sailed from Spain to Morocco, and 
travelled through Tripoli, Cyprus, Egypt, 
Arabia, Syria, and Turkey, and wrote a 
history of his travels, which was translated 



A I.I 

into English and published in London in the 
year a.i>. 1816, entitled Tin Travel* of 'Alt 
Bai. In his riaii to the isle oi Cyprus he 
surveyed Borne curious remains oi antiquity 
thai have been asuallj overlooked. Earing 
been admitted in bis character oi a Muham- 
madan prince to sweep the interior of the 

Ka'ba a1 Mecca, the most - I ■ fl i thai 

a Musalman can perform, and to riaii it 
repeatedly, be has given, from personal in- 
spection, a more minute and exact accounl 
of the Temple oi Mecca than other travellers 
cmild lay before the public. Bis notic< oi 
the venerated mountain beyond Mecca, tin- 
last and principal objed oi the pilgrimagi 
thai city, and bis description oi the interior 
oi (lie T< 11 1 ] >1* of Jerusalem, which uo CI 
tian is permitted to enter, is Baid to contain 
much new information. 

'Ali Barid I. (jjj ^Le) succeeded his 

father, Amir Band, tothi throne oi Ahmada- 
bad Bidar in the Deccan in the year ah. 
1542, and was the Brsl oi this family who 
assumed royaltj , Ee dii d aft< ran ign "t 
more than twentj years in \ i>. L562, i u. 
970, and was succeeded by hie Bon [brabim 

'Ali Barid II. succeeded Li< father 

Kasim Barid II. in the government oi Ah- 

madabad Bidar in a.d. 1572, and wasde] I 

in A.n. 1(30'.) by his relative Amir Barid II. 
who succeeded him, and was the last oi this 
d\ nasty. 

'Ali Beg (lXj lc), a Pole, born of 

Christian parents. WTk d young he was made 
prisoner by the Tartars and Bold to the Turks, 

Who educated liini ill the M ulialiiiuadali laitli. 

lie rose in the Turkish court, and was ap- 
pointed interpreter to tin Grand Signior, and 
translated the Bible and the English Catechism 
into the Turkish language. Bis great work 
is on the liturgy oi the 'link-, their pilgrim- 
ages to Mecca, and oth< r religious cen monii -. 
translated into Latin bj Dr. Smith. Eedied 
A.i). 1675. 

'Ali Beg (Mirza) (\j^ c_C_< ^Juc), 

a native of Badakhshan who held a high rank 
in the service of the eni])eror Akhar ; and w - 
honoured with the office oi 4,000 in the n ign 
of Jahangir. Be accompanied the emperor 
one day to visit the shrine ot the celebrated 
saint, Shaikh Main-uddin Chishia at Ajmir, 
and happening to see the tomb of Shah ha/ 
Khan Kambu, he embraced it. and erring out 
with a loud voice, that "he, when living, 
Mas one of bis oldest and best friends," gave 
up the ghost. This happened on the 11th 
March, o.s. 1616, 2nd Rabi I. a.h. 1025. 

'Ali bin al-Husain al-Masa'udi al- 
Hudaili (^y^ ^ 1 ^\ ^ J^), 
the far-famed author of the Maruj-uz-Zahab, 

and who ha- bo n. with 

tin Id rodotus ot thi I 

on the Shia' traditions. E( ■:.• d a d. 


'Ali Buya or All ibn Buyu I fcjj ^J 

. titled 'Imid-ud-daula, Ihi firsi "t a r.i 

kin i I - "t 

this family, which ia called Dilami or Diaiima 
(from tin- name oi th< ii native \ illagc, hi 
and Buya or Bui it' - (from t: "i their 

am i -t 'i - named I'm ' to 

tin ami' lit kin. . hut tin 

thi- race that hi-t"I\ notil I - w a- a Bshl I 

ot Dihun whoee name was Buya. Hi-' 
Bon, 'Aii Buya, was employed by mat 

oi hi- native country, named Murawij, ami 
- in tin command oi tin ehu I I hi" 

army, with which he encountered and i 
"i LkQt, tin ban, ami bj 

immense plunder that he obtained from that 
torj . In ita- 

D and "I DOW( r. II' pUTSUI d 1 l akut into 
I ■ ted him again, and took possession 

ot tin- whole ot that pl"\ince a- Will 

1. 1 K 1 1 iii in. hlio/ and 'Iraq in ah. 
\.h :;.'! . 'I in- 1 hi' t was aft< rwards U m 
by tin weak ami dial f the Kj 

I aliphatt . t" ■> still higher ent 
ompanit d by hi- two brothi rs, II 
Ahmad, he man Ind t.. Baghdad. Tin Khalif 
al-Ruzi Billab tied, bul n induced to 

return, ami hi- tir-t ad was to heap honours 
mi those who had taken possession "t bis 
capital. 'AH Buya, on agreeing t.. p \ 
annual!) 600,000 dinar- oi gold, was ap- 
pointed viceroy "t Pars and 'Iraq, with 
rank ot Amir-ul-Umra, ami the title 'i 
* 1 in nl-ml-daiila. Hi- younger brother Ah- 
mad received tin titl. ot Maizz-ud-daula, 
ami was nominated waxii t" the khalif. 
Baaan, who waa his second brotl ived 

tin till. "1 Kukn-uil-daula. and act. d. during 

the lite ot 'Ali Buya, under that chief . 'All 
Buya fixed hi- residi I Shiraz, ami died 

on Sunday the lith November, a.h. 949, 
1 6th Jamad I. a.m. 338, much n gn tted by 
bis soldiers ami subjects. B< waa succeeded 
by hi- brother Rukn-ud-daula, 

Sulfatu of tie raet of Buya, who reigned 108 
Umar yeai - . ; ia. 

'Imad-ud-daula 'AH Buya; Maizz-ud- 
daula Ahmad; Kukn-ud-daiila 11. -an, 
-■■ii- ot Buya. 

Azd-ud-daula; Mouyyad-ud-daula; Fakbr- 
inl-.laiila Abul Hasan, sons of Rukn- 

Majd-ud-daula, boh of Fakhr-ud-daula. 

Ezz-ud-daula Bakhtyiir, sou of Mai/z-ud- 

'Ali Durdazd (Moulana) (t):J.J 


of Astarabad. 

A poet who was contemporary with Katibi 
Tarshizi, who died in a d. 1435, A.n. 840. 
He is the author ot a diwan. He was living 
in A.n. 1436, in which year his wife died, on 
which account he wrote a beautiful elegy. 




Alif bin Nur Kashani ( ._j >__£_! I 
^^il^J), author of another Matla- 

ul- Anwar, besid< - the on< of the same Dame 
written by Mulli Busain Waez. This is a 
complete history of Muhammad, his descen- 
dants, with Memoirs of the khalifs. 

'Ali Ghulam Astarabadi (+LJ. ^i-^ 
,_cjlj! y^J), a poet who served under 

the kings of Deccan and was living in a.d. 
1565, a. 11. 972, in which year Ramraj the 
raja ul Bijanagar was defeated and Blain in 
a battle against the Muhammadan princes of 
Deccan, of which event he unite a chrono- 

'Ali Hamdani ( Jlju^Ji Ir). Vide 
Sayyid 'All Hamdani. 

'Ali Hamza (ij_*. 

.Jwx), author of 

the Jawahir-ul- Asrar, a commentary on the 
ahstruse meaning of the verses of the Quran, 
etc., being an abridgmenl oi the M\ftah~ul- 

Asri'ir, written in a.d. 143G. 'All Ilam/a's 
poetical name i- 'A/nrl, which see. 

'Ali Hazin (Shaikh Muhammad) 

,Lc). Vide Hazin. 


\ ^Xs-), general 

'Ali ibn Isa ( i^ 

of thekhalit al-Anmi, killed in battle against 
Tihir ibn Ilnsain, the general of the khalif 
al-Manrun, in the year a.d. 811, a.h. 195, 
and his head sent as a present to the khalif. 

'Ali ibn ul-Rijal (JU-^Jl ^\ ^L^), 

author of the Arabic work on astronomy called 
Albara' ahkam Najum. 

'Ali Ibrahim Khan (^Li- *Jt>\ j\ ,-L:), 

a native of Patna, who became judge of 
Banaras. He was the author of twenty-eight 
mans and several other works, and a tazkira 
or biography of Urdu poets, which he 'wrote 
about the year a.d. 1782, a.h. 1196, and which 
he entitled Gubzur-i -Ibrahim. His poetical 
name is KJialil. He is called Hal by Ishki 


'Ali Jah (iU- Jx), the eldest son of 

the Nizam of Haidarabad. He rebelled 
against his father in June, a.d. 1795, was 
defeated and made prisoner, and died shortly 

'Ali Lala (Shaikh Razi - uddin), 
a native of Ghazni. His father Sayyid Lala 
was the uncle of Shaikh Sanai the poet. He 
was a disciple of Najm-uddin Kubra and his 
title Shaikh-ul-Shaiukh. He died a.d. 1244, 
a.h. 642, aged 76 lunar years. 

'Ali Mahaemi ( jjL« lc). a native 

of Mahaem in the Deccan, was the son of 

Shaikh Ahmad, and is the author of the com- 
mentary on the Quran entitled Tafslr Rah' 
mdni. He died a.d. L431, a.h. 835. 

'Ali Mardan Khan ( J.^ ^}^y «!-), 

AmTr-ul-l nira, was a native of Persia and 
govi rnor "i Qandahar on the part of the king 
oi Persia, but finding himself exposed to much 
dang i from the tyranny of hi- sovereign Shah 
Sail, he gave up the place to the emperor Shah 

Jahan, and him-eli took refuge at Dehli in 
the year a.d. L637, A.H. 1047. He was re- 
ceived with great honour, was created Amir- 
ul-Umra, and was, at different times, made 
governor oi Kashmir and Kabul, and employed 
in various wars and other dutii s. He i xcited 
universal admiration at the court by the skill 

and judgment oi his public works, of which 
the canal which hear- his name at Dehli still 
affords a proof, and the taste and i Legance he 
displayed on all occasions oi show and Festivity. 
Ee died on his waj to Kashmir, when- he was 
going for change of air, on the 16th April, 
a.d. ii.s. 1657, 12th Rajah, a.h. 1067, and 
was burn d ai Lahore in the mausoleum of his 
mother. He hit three -on-, viz., Ibrahim 
Khan, [sma'il Beg and Is-haq Beg, of whom 
the two last wire slain in the battle which 
took place between Dara Shikoh and 'Alam- 
gir at Dhaulpur on the 29th May, o.s. 1658, 
7th Ramazan, a.ii. 1068. He is believed to 
have introduced the bulbous Tartar dome into 
Indian architecture. 

'Ali Mosi Raza (Li . L~>-* <A-&)> the 

eighth Imam of the race of Ali, and the Bon 
of Mii-i Kazim the seventh Imam. II is 
mother's name was I'min Sayyid ; he was 
born in the year a.d. 764 or a.d. 769, a.ii. 
147, and died on Friday the 12th August, 
a.d. 818, 9th Safar, a.h. 203. His wife's 
name was TJmm Hahll, the daughter of the 
Khalif al-Mamun. His sepulchre is at Tus 
in Khurasan. That town is now commonly 
called Mash-had, that is, the place of martyr- 
dom of the Imam. To the enclosure wherein 
his tomb is raised, the Persians give the name 
of " Rauzat Rizawi," or the garden of Raza, 
and esteem it the most sacred spot in all 
Persia. The chief ornament and support of 
Mash-had is this tomb, to which many thou- 
sands of pious pilgrims annually resort, and 
which had been once greatly enriched by the 
bounty of sovereigns. Nasir-ullah Mirza, the 
son of Nadir Shah, carried away the golden 
railing that surrounded the tomb, and Nadir 
Mirza, son of Shah-rukh Mirza and grand- 
son of Nadir Shah, took down the great 
golden ball which ornamented the top of the 
dome over the grave, and which was said to 
weigh 60 maunds or 420 pounds. The carpets 
fringed with gold, the golden lamps, and 
everything valuable were plundered by these 
necessitous and rapacious princes. Ali Musi 
Raza, was poisoned by the khalif al-Mamun, 
consequently is called a martyr. 


A I.I 

'Ali Muhammad Khan (A-^-sr* 


i^ArO, founder of the Rohila govern- 
ment. It Lb mentioned in F 
that in tlic rear a.i>. 1720 Basharai Khan 
and Daud Khan, of the tribe of I 
accompanied by a small number oi their 
adventurous countrymen, came into Hindu 
iu quest of military service. They were firsi 
entertained by Madan Shah, a Hindu chii 
Serauli (a .-mall town "ii the the north-west 
quarter of Rohilkhand) who by robtx ry and 
predatory excursions maintained a large p:irt \- 
of banditti. In the plunder "t an adjao nl 
village, Daud Khan captured a youth oi the 
Jat sect, whom he adopted and brought op in 
the Muhammadan faith, by the name "i 'Ali 
Muhammad, and distinguished this boj by 
pre-eniinent marks of paternal affection. 
Some years the Rohilas quarrelling 

with Madan Shah, retired from his country, 
and associating themselves with ('hand Khan, 
the chid' ni Bareli, they jointlj i 
the ser\ ice oi Azmai Khan, the i ■■! 

Moradabad. After the death oi Daud Khan, 
who was slain by the mouni lineers in on "i 
his excursions, the Rohila party in a -hurt 
spar- nl time a ized on the d 
Shah and 'All Muhanmiail K .ml 

chief of the part] . From the m 
governmeni and the W( ak state oi the empire 
of Dehli iu the reign oi Muhammad Shah, 
he possessed himseli "i the districl oi Katir 
(now called from the r ndence oi thi Etol 
Rohilkhand) and assumed independence oi 
the myal authority. II' was bes _ 1 in 
March, a.d. 1745, S \ n. 1168, in a 

fortress railed Banker and 'Aoula and taken 
prisoner, hut was released after some time, 
and a jagir conferred on him. The emp 
Muhammad Shah died in April, A.D. 171^. 
a.h. 1161, and 'All Muhammad Khan some 

time after him in the same year at 'Aoula, 
which he had ornamented with numerous 
public and private edifices. He lefi four 
sons, viz., Sa'd-ullah Khan, Abdulluh Khan, 
Faiz-ullah Khun, and Dunde Khan. Sa'd- 
ullah Khan succeeded to his tat: 
sion, being then twelvi yi its old. 
[l't<h Sa'd-ullah Khan.] 

'Ali (Mulla) CL„ ^J_x ). Muhaddis or 

the traditionist, whose poetical name was 
" Tan," died in the year A.D. 1573, a.h. 
981, and Mulla 'Alain wrote the chronogram 

of his death. 

'Ali Murad Khan (\.^. 




a king of Persia of the Zand family. He 
succeeded to the throne after the death of 
Sadiq Kjian in March, a.d. 1781, and assumed 
the title of wakil. He reigned^over Persia 
five years, and was independent oi the govern- 
ment two years prior to this period. Persia 
during this time enjoyed a certain degree of 
peace. He continued to confine his rival 
'Aka Muhammad Khan to the province of 
Mazindaran. He died in a.d. 178-3. 

'Ali Murad (Mir), present chief of 

Kh.aiq.ur (1^' 

'All Naqi (Imam) („L*1 


th Imam oi the \:i, and 

tin son oi Imam Muhammad Taqi, win. 
tin ninth [mam. II' was born in the 

1 dud on the 17th 

June, a I.. 869, Srd Etajab, a.h. -J.'..',. II - 

t.'llili i- ill S died 

aira in Baghdad, where his son Muham- 
mad A ■ buried afterward 

'Ali Naqi Khan (Na-aab) ( xJ Lc 

» — M«j ^,w<-). tin latin r-in-law and 

Iirime minister "t Waiid 'All Shah, tin 
il: ImOW. Hi iln d at I.Ui'knov 

chol. ra alu ait tin- 1-t December, 1871, 17th 
lis, A.M. 1 1 

'Ali Naqi ( Jj ^Ic), Dlwan ol I'rince 
Murad Bakhsh. -"ii oi Shalyahl, whom he 

with hi- OWH hand. 

'Ali Nawcdi ( W s-V;^ Jle), :i ] 

pupil oi Shah Tahir Andjini, came t I 
where he was patronised by Abul Fatha 
Husain Nizam Shah I. in t 

with hi- patron 
and .hail.-, d hi- I khalluH or poetical name 

N i-umaidi it Impel 
1|. di. .1 in A.i>. I567j a.m. AhmacU 

r in th., in. 

'Ali Quli Beg. 


Shah Afghan 

' - 

'Ali Quli Beg of Khurasan ( Jj 

k-^'w-<_.'V author of a ta/kiru ur bio- 
graphy ol p 

'Ali Quli Khan (Nawab) ( Jj A_c 
^\s>~). Vide Granna Begam. 

'Ali Qusanji (Mulla) ( -*■■■• j.-). 
Vide Mulla -Ali Qusanji. 

'Ali Qusanji (Mulla) (^rL-J J.;), 

author of the 8harah Tajrid, and Hashia 
Kashshaf. He died iu a.d. 1405, a.h. 808. 

'Ali Shahab Tarshizi ((_->L.-i ( -Lc 

^-•-^i-i), a poet who was a native 

ot Tarshish. He flourished in the reign of 

Shah-rukh Mirza, and loiiud a patrou in 
bis son Muhammad JogT, in whose praise he 
wrote several panegyrics. He was c.mtem- 
porary with the poei Azuri, who died a.d. 
1462, a.h. 80(3. 




'Alisher (Amir) {^^\^.J^2S), surnamecl 

Nizam-uddin, was the prime minister of the 
Sultan Husain Mirzi [q. <•.), ruler of Khura- 

sfui. 11 -plan-- from an illustrious family of 
the Jaghtai or Chaghtai tribe. His father, 
Gajkina Bahadur, held >>nr of the principal 
offices of government during the reign of Abul Qasim Babar Bahadur, j 
grandson of Amir Taimur. His grandfather, 
by his mother's side, was one of the principal 
Amirs of Sultan Baiqara Mirza, the grand- 
father of Sultan Husain Mirza. 'Alisher, 
who was horn a.d. 1440, and educated at 
the same school as his future patron, attached 
himself originally to Sultan Abul Qasim 
Babar Mirza, who was greatly attached to 
him, and called him his son. After his death 
he retired to Mash-had and continued his 
studies there; which place he subsequently 
quitted for Samarqand, on account of the 
disturbances which broke out in Khura 
and applied himseli diligently to the acquire- 
ment of knowledge in the college of Khwaja 
Pazl-ullah. When Sultan Husain Mirza 
became uncontrolled ruler of Khurasan a.d. 
1469), he requested Sultan Ahmad Mirza, 
at that time ruler of the countries beyond the 
Oxus, to send 'Alisher to him. On his 
arrival he was received with the greatest 
distinction, and raised to the highest posts 
of honour. 'Alisher's palace was open to all 
men of learning: and notwithstanding that 
the reigns of government were placed in his 
hands, in the midst of the weightiest affairs, 
he neglected no opportunity of improving 
both himself and others in the pursuit of 
knowledge. He was not only honoured by 
his ownSultiiu aud his officers, hut foreign 
princes also esteemed and respected him. 
After being employed in the capacity of 
diwan and prime minister for some time, 
love of study induced him to resign, and 
bidding a final adieu to public life, he passed 
the remainder of his days in composing 
Turkish and Persian works, of which Sam 
Mirza recounts the names of no less than 
^* twenty-one. Daulat Shah, the biographer, 
Mirkhund and his son Khundamir, the 
historians, dedicated their works to him, 
and amongst other men of genius who were 
cherished by his liberality may be mentioned 
the celebrated poet Jami. His collection of 
""" Odes in the Chaghtai or pure Turkish dialect, 
which he wrote under the poetical name of 
Nawai, amounts to 10,000 couplets, and his 
parody of Nizami's live poems, containing 
nearly 30,000 couplets, is universally admired 
by the cultivators of Turkish poetry, in which 
he is considered to be without a rival. In 
the Persian language also he wrote a collec- 
- tion of Odes, under the poetical name of Fan! 
or Fanai, consisting of 6000 distiches. He 
was also a proficient in painting and some of 
the plastic arts. -Alisher died on Sunday 
the 6th December, a.d. 1500, 15th Jamad 
I. a.h. 906, five years before his royal Mend 
and master Sidtan Husain Mirza. Khun- 
damir has recorded the year of his death in 
an affectionate chronogram : " His highness 
the Amir, the asylum of divine guidance, in 

whom all the marks of mercy were con- 
spicuous, has quitted the thorny brake- of 
the world, and lied to the rose-garden of 
compassion. Since the ' light of mercy ' lias 
descended on his soul, those words represent 
the year oi his departure." One of his works 
i- called Majdlis-ul-Nafdi t. 

'Ali Tabar (Prince) (ijV^ ,Ur le), 

was the son of prince 'Azim Shah, and grand- 
son <»f the emp ror 'Alamgir. He died iu 
the year a.d. 1734, a.h. 1147. 

'Ali Waez (Ucij ,1c), the son of the 

famous Husain Waez Kashifi of Ilirat. 
[Vide 'All, son of Husain Waez] 

'Ali Warcli Khan ( ,U- o^.» 1:), 
also called Alahwardi Khan, which see. 

'Ali Yezdi (^J^J [ JJ). 

Vide Sharaf- 

uddin 'Ali Yezdi. 

Aljaitu (j_^_«Lp\), a Tartar king of 

Persia, who assumed the title of Muhammad 
Khudi Banda on his accession to the throne, 

w i.ich see. 

Al-Khassaf (^iLz.^). Vide Abu 
Bakr Ahmad hin-'l'mar al-Khassaf. 

'Allama Dawani. Vide Dawanl. 

'Allama Hilli (Shaikh) ( U- <L*Lc 
'^"^^), the great Shia lawyer, whose 

full name is Shaikh al- 'Allama Jamal-uddin 
Hasan bin Yusuf al-Mutakhir Hilli, was the 
author of the Khulasat-ul-Aqwal, a bio- 
graphy of eminent Shias. His chief works 
on the subject of traditions are the Istikm 
al-Ya'tbar, the Masabih al- Anwar, and the 
Durar-wa al-Marjan. He died in a.d. 1326, 
a.h. 726. 

[ Vide Jamiil-uddin Hasan bin Yusuf.] 

'Allami. Vide Afzal Khan. 

'Allami ( ^Lc), the poetical name of 

Shaikh Abul Fazl, the favorite w\azir and 
secretary of the emperor Akbar. 

'Allami Shirazi (^\\ ^ ^*Lc), or 

the philosopher of Shiraz, a very learned 
man, so generally called that his proper name 
is almost forgotten. He is the author of a 
celebrated collection of tracts on pure and 
mixed mathematics, entitled Burrat-ut-Tdj. 



A I M \ 

Al-Mahdi (^j^Jl), the third khallf 

of tin- race of Abbas, succeeded hie father, Abo* 
Ja'far al-Mansur, to the throne ol Baghdad, 
and was inaugurated on Sunday the 8th 
October, a.i>. 77"), 6th Zil-hijia. a.h. L68. 
From the accession ol al-Mahdi to the j 
a.d. 781, a.m. 164, the most remarkable 
event was the rebellion of al-Maqna or al- 
Maqanna), which see. All this time war had 
been carried ou with the Greeks, but without 
any remarkable bucc -- on either Bide. Bui 
alter the suppression of the rebellion "t al- 
Maqna, the khalif ordered lii- son EarOn-al- 
Basmd to penetrate into the Greek territories 
with an army ot O'j.uoo nun. Harun then, 
having entered the dominions "t the empress 
Irene, defeated one ol her commanders that 
advanced against him; alter which he laid 
waste several oi the imperial provinces with 
fire and sword, and even threatened tie 
of Constantinople itself . Bj this the empress 
was so terrified, that she purchased a pi 
with the khalif by paying him an annual 
tribute of 70,000 pit > , - ot gold, which for the 
present at Least delivered her from the di : 
dations of thesi barbarians. After thi signing 
of the treaty, EarQn returned home laden with 
spoils and glory. This year i.e. thi 164th 
year of the Bijri or a d. 781 according to 
Borneo! the oriental historians, tie sunoni da v. 
a little alter his rising, totally lost his ' 
in a moment without being eclipsed, when 
neither any fog nor any cloud ot dust appear d 
to obscure him. This frightful darkni ss con- 
tinued till noon, to the great astonishment 
of the people -'ith d in the countrii b when 
happened. Al-Mahdi was poisoned, though 
undesignedly, by one of his concubines, named 
Ilasana. she had design d t.. destroy 
her rivals whom Bhe imagined to have too 
great an ascendancj ov( r thi khalif, by giving 
her a poisoned pear. This the latti r, not 
Busnectmg anything, gave to thi khalif ; who 
had no sooner eat, n it than he i, It himself 
in exquisite torture, and soon after expired. 
This event took place on the i w ot Thursday 
the 1th August, a. i.. 7^">. 23rd Muhurram, 
a.h. 169, in a village calli d Ar Bad in tie ,1, - 
pendencies of Masabadan. II,' was suco i di ,1 
by Ids eldest son al-IIiidi. 

Al-Mahdi (^jc^-JO, a khallf of 

Barbary. Fide Obeid-ullah al-Mahdi and 
Muhammad al-Mahdi. 

Al-Mamun ( Ur$ lA\\ surnarncd 'Ab- 
dullah, was the seventh khallf of the race of 
the Abbasides, and the second son of Ilarun- 
al-Rashld. He was proclaimed khallf at 
Baghdad on the 6th October, a.d. Mo. 6th 
Safar, a.h. 198, the day on which his brother 
al-Amju was assassinated. lie conferred the 
government of Khurasan upon Tahir ibn 
Husain, his general, and his descendants with 
almost absolute and unlimited power. This 
happened in the year a.d. 820, a.h. 205, 
from which time we may date the dismem- 
berment of that province from the empire 

ot the khalifa. During t ,,t this 

khilit nothing remarkable happened ; only 
th<- African Moslems invaded the island oi 
Sicily, where they made tl matter 

of si m i.d i- - v .n , onqm 

of < In t, . Ii id the Greek writ* r- ti 

lated into Arabic, and made a collection •■! 
the l» si author-. It alculated 

astronomical tables and founded an 
at 1; gbdad. In KhurA-in be i I 

that time th.- capital of th<- kingdom, his 
place oi i Under hi- patrol 

Khurasan becami th, resort of learned n 
and the , it\ ot TOs, th, great rival i 

dad. II, ,!i,,| ,.I a BUrfeit on t: 

. a h B ■ i, 17ih Rajab, ah. 218, 
ait. r a r, ign ,,i jo months 

in A-ia Miii,,! 
hut • I ma, :i , itj on tie- fronl 

ot A-ii Minor. 1 1 i — wife named Burin, 
daughter of Easan ibn Sahl, hi- prime 
miiii-r • r . out-lived him 

on Tie 22nd S> pti ml,, r. a.h. SM. 

27th Rabi I. a.h. 271, aged 80 \ 
Al-Mamun was succeeded bj hi- brother 
al-M,,'t.i-im Billah. 

Al-Mansur (.. .n V 4.N), 2nd khallf o! 

I barj ot th,' l-'atimit. i.e , . },;. [small, 
Burnamed al-Mansur. 

Al-Mansur < ,»_^^!' i. whose fori 

nam, was Abu Ja'far, was called al-Mansur, 
th, victorious, by his overcoming his enen 

H' was th, -< ,oiid khalit ,,t the noble bouse 
oi Ban! Abbas ,,r Abbasides, and succeeded 
to the throne ot [rak at I; _-> ,■•■ i the 

death ,>t hi- brother Abul Abbas Burnamed 
al-Saffah, in a.h. 764, a.m. L86. II, 
opposed by hi- ancle, 'Abdullah, -"ti ,,i AH, 
who caused himself to be proclaimed khalit at 

I I ■ -' u-. hut was d, t< at, d by al-M 

ral, Aba Mas im II. laid th,- fom 
ti,.n ,,| the city of Baghdad on the hank 
the Tigris in a.h. 762, and finished it t,,ur 
rs after. Ei n - a prince of extraordinary 

talent and taste. and all ardent loVBT ol -, i, Q( ,■ 
and lit, ratun-. 11. jjof the I'ahlawi e,,p\ ,i 

Pilpay's I es translated into Arabic. In 

the year a.i>. "■'>. a.h. 168, th,- khalit - I 
out from Baghdad in order to perform the 
pilgrimage to Mecca : hut 1„ im.' taken ill on 
th, road, he expired at Bir Maimun, whence 
hi- body was carried t,, Mecca, where, alter 
100 graves had been dug, that his sepulchre 
might he concealed, he was interred, having 
lived, according to some »'>■'•;. according to 
others 68 years, and reigned 22 lunar years. 
He i- -aid t,, have been extremely covetous, 
and to have hit in hi- tr. -a-urv 600,000,000 
dirhams and 24.000,000 dinars. He is re- 
ported to have paid hi- cook by assigning him 
the head- and legs of th,' animals dressed in 
his kitchen, and to have obliged him to pro- 
cure at hi- own expense all tie fuel and 
vessels he had occasion for. He was bui a di d 
by hi- son al-Mahdi. A Christian physician, 
named Bactishua, was very eminent at the 
court ot al-Mansur, who understanding that 




he had an nil] infirm woman for his wife, Benl 
him three beautiful Greek girls and 3,000 
dinars as a present. Bactishua Bent back the 
girls and told the khalif thai his religion pro- 
hibited his having more than one wife at a 
time; which pleased the khalif so much, 
that he loaded him with presents, and per- 
mitted him, at his earnest request, to return 
to his own country of Khurasan. 

Al-Maqna or al-Maqanna (< 


a famous impostor of Khurasan who lived in 
the reign oi al-Mahdi the khalifa of Bagh- 
dad. Sis true name was Eakamibn Easham, 
and he had been an under-secretary to A.bu 
Muslim, governor of that province. Ee after- 
wards turned soldier, and passed thence into 
Mawarunnahr, where he gave himsell out as 
a prophet. The name oi al-M qna, as also 
that of al-Burqal, that is, the veiled, he re- 
ceived from his custom oi covering his I 
with a veil or girdle-mask, to conceal his 
deformity ; he having losl an eye in the wars, 
and being otherwise of a despicable appear- 
ance, and a Btutterer ; though his followers 
pretended he did this for the same reason that 
Moses did, viz., lest the splendour ol his 
countenance should dazzle the eyes oi his 
beholders. Iu some places he made a great 
many proselytes, deluding the people with 
a number of juggling bricks which they 
swallowed as miracles, and particularly by 
causing the appearance of a moon to rise out 
of a well for many nights together; whence 
he was also called in the Persian tongue, 
Sazinda Blah, or the Moon-maker. This 
wretch, not content with being reckoned a 
prophet, arrogated to himselt divine honours; 
pretending that the Deity resided iu his per- 
son. He had first, he said, assumed the body 
of Adam, then that oi Noah, and subsequently 
of many other wise and great men. The last 
human form he pretended to have adopted 
was that of Abu Muslim, a prince of Khu- 
rasan, from whom it proceeded to him. At 
last this impostor raised an open rebellion 
against the khalif, and made himsell' master 
of several fortified places in Khurasan, so 
that al-Mahdi was obliged to send one of his 
generals with an army against him about the 
year a. d. 780, a.h. 163. Upon the approach 
of the khalifa's troops, al-Maqna retired into 
one of his strong fortresses which he had well 
provided for a siege. But being closely be- 
sieged by the khalifa's forces, and seeing no 
possibility of escaping, he gave poison in wine 
to his whole family and all that were with 
him in the castle ; when they were dead, he 
burnt their bodies, together with all their 
furniture, provisions, and cattle ; and lastly 
he threw himself into the flames. He had 
promised his followers, that his soul should 
transmigrate into the form of an old mau 
riding on a greyish coloured beast, and that 
after so many years he would return aud give 
them the earth for their possession ; which 
ridiculous expectation kept the sect in being 
for several years. English readers will re- 
member the use made of this story by the 
author of Lallah Kookb. 

Al-Mo'tamid Billah (<dJl-J A^jsJI), 

the fifteenth khalif of the house of Abbas, 
was the son oi al-Mutwakkil Billah. He was 
raised to the throne of Baghdad by the Turks 
afti i the murder oi al-Muhtadi in a.d. 870, 
a. ii. 256. This year the prince of the Zan- 
jians, Ali or al- Eabib, made incursions to the 
very gates of Baghdad, doing prodigious mis- 
chief wherever he passed. In the year a.d. 
874, Ya'kub-bin-Lys having taken Khurasan 
from the descendants of Tahir, attacked and 
defeated Muhammad ibn Wasil (who had 
killed the khallf's governor of Fars, and 
afterwards made himself master oi that pro- 
vince), Beizing on his palace, when he found 
a sum oi money amounting to 4(>,o0(),0oo 
dirhams. In the year a.d. 879, a.h. 265, 
Ahmad ibn Tiilan rebelled against the khalif 
and set up for himself in Egypt. There were 
now four independent powers in the Moslem 
dominions, besides the house of Emyya in 
in, viz., the African Moslems, or Ajrhla- 
bites, who had for a long time acted indepen- 
dently ; Ahmad ihn Tfilan in Syria and Egypt ; 
Ya-kub ibn al-l.v- in Khurasan, andal-HabiD 
in Arabia and ['raq. In the year a.d. 883, 
a. n. '27(1. al-IIabib was defeated and slain by 
al-Muwafiq, the khalif 's brother and coadj utor, 
who ordered his head to be cut off, and carried 
through a great partoi that region \\ bich he had 
so long disturbed. In the year a.d. 891, a.h. 
278, the Qarmatians first made their appear- 
ance in the Moslem empire, and gave almost 
continual disturbance to the khalifa and their 
subjects. Al-Mo'tamid reigned 22 lunar 
years 11 month- and some days, and died in 
the \,ar a.d. 892, a.h. -21'J.' He was suc- 
ceeded bj hi- qi phew, al-Mo'tazid Billah, the 
sou of al-Muwafiq. 

Al-Mo'tasim Billah (jJJL> ^**!0 

was the fourth Bon of Haruu-al-Ilashid, and 
the eighth khalif of the house of Abbas. He 
succeeded to the throne by virtue of his brother 
al-Manum's express nomination of him to the 
exclusion of his own son al- 'Abbas, and his 
other brother al-Qasim, who had been ap- 
pointed by Harun-al-Rashid. In the begin- 
ning of his reign, a.d. 833, a.h. 218, he was 
obliged to employ the wbole forces of his 
empire against one Babak, who had been for 
a considerable time iu rebellion in Persia and 
Persian Iraq, and had taken upon himself the 
title of a prophet. He was, however, de- 
feated and slain. In the year a.d. 838, a.h. 
223, the Greek emperor Theophilus invaded 
the khallf's territories, where he behaved with 
the greatest cruelty, and, by destroying Sozo- 
petra, the place of al-Mo'tasim's nativity, 
notwithstanding his earnest entreaties to the 
contrary, occasioned the terrible distinction of 
Amorium. He is said to have been so robust, 
that he once carried a burden of 1,000 pounds 
weight several paces. As the people of Bagh- 
dad disturbed Mm with frequent revolts and 
commotions, he took the resolution to abandon 
that city, and build another for his own resi- 
dence. The new city he built was first called 
Samira, and afterwards Sarmanri (for that 

A I. -Mo 

A I. Ml - 

which gives pleasure at firsl ad >t-.< ><1 

in the Arabian 'Iraq. Ee was attached to 
the opinion of the Matazalites who maintain 
the creation of the Quran; and both he ami 
his predecessor cruelly persecuted 1 who 

believed it to be eternal. Al-Mo'tasim died 
on Thursday the 5th January, ah 842, 1 8th 
RabI J. a. it. 'JJ7. Be r igni d i ighl j 
< Lght months and i-i _rlit days, « is born in the 
i ighth month Shaban oi the y< - the 

eighth khalif oi the house oi Abl ided 

the throne in the 218th year oi the Hijri, 
died on the eL r litf n:li oi Rabi I. lived forty- 
eight years, fought eight battles, built eight 
palaces, bi gal i dght sons and 
had 8,000 slaves, and had 8,000,000 din 
and 80,000 dirhams in his treasury at his 
(1 ath, whence the oriental hist 
him the name of al-Musamman, or the (| - 
tonary. He was the firsl khalif tint added 
to his name the title oi BitiaA, equivalent 
to the Dei Gratia oi Christian 
II was bui d-Wathiq or 

Wasriq Billih. 

'Al-Mo'tazid Billah (*)J\j JuaJJwJt), 

tli> al-Muwafiq, the son oi al-Mut- 

wakkil Billah, was thi sixteenth khalii oi 
race of Abbas. Hi i une to the throm 
Baghdad after the death of his ancle al- 
Mo'tamid Billah in ah. 892, \ n. 279. In 
the firsl year of his r> ign, he d I in 

marriage the daughter oi Khamai Sultan 

or khalif of Egypt, the son oi Ahmad ibn 
Tulan; which v d to by him with the 

utmost joy. and th ir nuptials \\. re solemnizi <1 
with greai pomp in the year \.\ - l.h. 
282. Ei carried on a war with the Qarma- 
tians, lmt very unsuccessfully, hie 
defeated with great slaughter, ami his 
al-Abbas taken prisoner. The kha i 
time after his man ated to BarQn, 

son of Khaniaraw ia. the perpetual prefecture 
oi Awasam and Kinnisrin, which he ann 
to that oi Egypt and Syria, upon condition 
that he paid him an annual tribut oi l->.000 
dinars. Ee reigned nine years, eight months 
ami twenty-five days, and di 1 in a.h. 9 
a.h. 289. Hi- Bon al-Muktafi Billah - 
ceeded him. 

Al-Mughira (^._^_i_^JM, the son of 

Sayyid and governor oi Kufa in the tin; 
Mu'awia, tlic first khalii of the house of 
Umyya. Be was an active man. and oi very 
good parts; he had lost one of his e; - I the 
battle of Yersnouk, though some say that it 
was with looking at an eclipse. By the 
followers of Ali he was accounted to be oi 
the wrong party, and one of the chief of 
them. For thus they reckon : There are 
five elders on All's side : Muhammad, All, 
Fatima, Hasan and Busain : and to these are 
opposed Abu Bakr. 'Umar, Mnawia, Amru 
and al-Mughira. He died in the year ah. 
670, a.h. oo. at Kufa. A great plague had 
been raging in the city, which made him 
ii tire liom it: but returning upon its violence 
abating, he nevertheless caught it. and died 
of it. ° ' 

Al-Muhtadi (^j±_u_.._*l' ). the fonr- 

!• • nth khalii of th. 

oi one "i Watl :\iirl>, 

who i- mi, 

thr •. r the di th: 

l-.Mutt aiv Billih i;. 
The beginning of his reign it 

irruption of tl 
Nubia, Ethiopia, and the country oi 
into Arabia, whi n thi \ |m netrat< 
the neighbourhi and Kui 

chief ol th -a!; ibn 

Muhammad ibn Abdul I 
al-IIabib, who | 
of 1 'i Abu I 

made such an impression upon the Shias in 
tie t.i him in . 

nun 1 him t ipon 

th . \, n to 

at the ! 

v. In the year a d. 870, \ u. . 
Muhtadi \\ 
To i him to th" throm Be 

by i iid. 


brat- il 

Ifuhammadan chiel who had beaten all I 
■ the khalife F< id, Mam 

i . - he 

■ ■ 
II ity : he never p 

ot those who had declared t! 
to the - . nor tie- who, 

. h ol dipped tie ir h nds m 
lb. tions. He 

-ullah th> son of 
el. who was sent by the khalii Abdul 
M j ■, t • \ ads Kufa with leave to plunder 
it for I him in buttle in 

August, a : i, a h. 67. Al- 

Mnkhtar was killed .t Kufa in a battle 
fought with Misaa'b, the broth rol Abdullah, 
tie -"ii of Zuh nor ol 1! isra, in the 

nth "t April, a.ii 687, 1- 
in the 67th year ot his age. It is -aid that 
he killed marly 50,000 nun. 

Al-Muktafi Billah (aUU ^C*!') 

was the -ev. nteenth khalit -■■ of 

A is who reigned in Baghdad. He buc- 
ded his father, al-Mo'tazid Billah, in a.d. 
902. A..H. 289, and proved a warlike and 
ul prince. He gained several advan- 
■ _ ur the Qarmatians, but was not able 
to reduo them. The Turks, however, hav- 
ing invaded the province of Mawaruunahr, 
were defeated with gr I - ghter; after 
which al-Muktafi carried on a successful war 
against the Greeks, from whom he took 
Seleucia. After this he invaded Syria and 
Egypt, which provinces he recovered from 
the house ot Ahmad ibn Tulan iu a n. 905, 
a.h. 292 : he then renewed the war with 
success against the Greeks and Qarmatians. 




Al-Muktafi died in a. d. 90S. a.h. 295, after 
a reign of about sis years and a hah. He was 
the last of the khalifs who made any figure 
by their warlike exploits. Hi< > - al- 

Muqtadir, al-Qahir, and al-Razi, wen 
distressed by the Qarmatians and nui 
usurpers who were every d ting up, 

that by the 325th year of the Hijri, a.d. 
937, they had nothing left but the city oi 
Ba gh dad. 

Al-Muqtadi Billah UJJLj ^-jcJU!'\ 

Burnamed Abul (J "i-im Abd-ullah, the son of 
Muhammad, and grandson of al-Qaem 
Billah, was raised to the throne of Baghdad 
alter the death oi his grandfather in A.D. 
107o. a.h. 467, by order- oi Sultan Malikshah 
Saljuki, wh then the real master oi 

the empire. He was the J7th khalif oi the 

of Abbas, reigned 19 lunar 
months and died v.n. 1094, a.h. 4S7. His 
death induced Barkayaraq the Saljuki, the 
reigning Sultan of Persia, whose brother 
Mahmud had died about the same period, to 
go to Baghdad, where he confirmed al- 
Mustazhir, tlie son of the late khalif, as Ins 
successor, and was himself hailed by the n< w 
lord of the faithful, as Sultan of the empire. 

Al-Muqtadir Billah UJJLj ,jcjU!'\ 

the eighteenth khalii of the house oi Al 
was the son oi al-Mo'tazid Billah. \i- 
succeeded his brother al-Muktafi to the 
throne of Baghdad in a.d. 908, A.H. 2 
He reigned 24 lunar year- 2 months and 7 
davs, and was murdered by a eunuch on the 
29th October, a.i>. 932, 25th Shawwal, a.h. 
320. He was succeeded by his brother al- 
Qahir Billah. 

Al-Muqtafi Bi-amr-illah ( s .A _•;.,£ -»_'^ 

4l]\j*\j), the son of al-Mustazahr, 

■was the 31st khalif of the house of Abbas. 
He succeeded his nephew al-Rashid in ad. 
1136, a.h. 530. reigned about 24 lunar years 
and died in a.d. 1160. a.h. 555, leaving his 
kingdom to his son al-Mustanjad. 

Al-Mustaa'li Billah (al!b Lg»*A\), 

the sixth Fatimite khalif. succeeded his father, 
al-Mustanasar Billah. in the government oi 
Egypt and Syria. During his reign, the 
power of that dynasty was impaired, and 
its authority weakened, their political in- 
fluence having ceased in most of the Syrian 
cities, and the provinces of that country 
having fallen into the possessions of the 
Turkmans on one hand, and the Franks on 
the other. This people (the Crusaders' 
entered Syria and encamped before Antioch 
in the month of October, a.d. 1097, Zil- 
qada, a.h. 490 ; they obtained possession 
of it on the 20th June, 109S. 16th Rajab, 
a.h. 491 ; the following year thev took 
Maaratun Nbman, and in the month of 
July, 1099, Sha'ban, a.h. 492, they became 

masters oi Jerusalem, alter a siege of more 
than 40 days. This city was taken on a 
Friday morning; during the ensuing week 
■ multitude oi Moslems perished, and 
upwards of 70,000 were slain in the Masjid 

al-Aqsa or mosque of Dinar) al-Musta- 

a'li was born at Cairo on the 24th August, 
a.d. 1076. 20th Muharram, a.h. 46'.'. pro- 
claimed khalif on Thursday the 28th 
December, a.d. 1094, 18th Zil-hijja, a.h. 
4 S 7. and died in Egypt on the K»th 
D( ember, a.d. 1101, loth Safar, a.h. 495. 
Hi- son Amar hi Ahkam-ullah Abu All 
Mansur sue -ceded him. 

Al-Mustaa'sim Billah ( a\J \j 


Burnamed Abu Ahmad Abdullah, was the 
thirl - '.h and last khalif of the race of 

Abbas. He succeeded his father, al-Mus- 
. to the throne oi Baghdad in a.i>. 
1142, a.h. 640. In his time Halaku Khan 

•ar. emperor of the Mughals and grand- 

t conqueror Changiz Khan. 

besieged B ghdad for two mouths, and 

having taken thai | . - ized al-Musi 

'sim and his tour sons, whom he put to a 

; cruel death with 800,000 of its inhabi- 
11 daku Khan was very desirous of 

.'iu r upon 1! ghdad, and of adding the kingdom ol Mesopotamia to his already 

• and numerous conquests; but, partly 
on account of his own scruples, and partly 
from d lending the | s oi his 

- :ni followers, who were all of the same 

th with the khalif, he refrained for a time 
from entering the sacred dominion of • 
who w - I as the head of their 

holy religion, and the true representative of 
tluir beloved prophet. But the glorious days 

the hous ly been 

d. the effeminate Mustaa'sim had 
personal vices enough to bad to and ex. 
the final extinction of his race! Ibn al- 
Qama. his prime minister (who hated him 
more than any other of his oppressed subjects) 
from within, and Nasir-uddin Tusi, the 
preceptor of the Mughal prince (who ow< d 
him an old grudge) from without, urged the 
conqueror to tin _ tes oi Baghdad. Nasir- 
uddin had a few years before been at Baghdad. 
seeking shelter from persecution, and when he 
was introduced to Mustaa'sim. the latter asked 
him to what country he belonged? "Tus, 
please vour holiness.*' answered Nasir-uddin. 
"Art thou of the asses, or of the oxen of 
Tus?" said the khalif (meaning the two 
principal branches of the Shia faith — 
Akhbaris and Usnlis). Mortified as the 
illustrious refugee was at this inhospitable 
insult, he still submissively answered. "Of 
the oxen of Tus. please your highness." 
"Where, then, are thy horns,'* said the 
insolent buffoon. " I have them not with 
me," replied Xasir-uadin, "but if your 
holiness permit, I will go and fetch them." 
"Make haste, hence, thence, thou deformed 
animal,'* said the khalif, "and never again 
appear in my pi sence in so imperfect a 
state ! " Nasir-uddin kept his promise well, 
for, at the moment when Baghdad was on 




the point of being surrendered, and the 
khalii driven to the lasl extremity, he mil 
liiiu a message to the effect thai the "\ 
of Tu- was .it the gate with Am Aom*,and 
inquiring, when it would please his holin 
to receive him? Nasir-uddln had in the 
city another old offender, whom he was 
anxious also to chastise. This was ibn 
Hajib, also one ol the khalii*- ministers, 
and a person of smut reputation for his 
loiiriiin»- ; Imi 1m in- an Arabian Bnnni, and 
;i wrv bigoted one too, he had behaved -till 
more cruelly than his mast* t to the distn an d 
Persian Shia when he soughl protection at 
Baghdad. Ibn Hajib, having been seized 

with depressi Bpirits, the physicians had 

rec mended him (and the priests had 

granted him dispensation to take, occasion- 
ally, a little wine. This happened when 
Nasir-uddin was al Baghdad. One day, ibn 
Eajib feeling himseli particularly melancholy, 
and bin ing, in consi qui a< . take d a lai 
dose than usual, hi became unusually merry, 
ami requested Nasir-uddln to accompany him 
on the Tigris. Having reached the middle 
of the stream, he stopped the boat, and 

produced t lit- si viral volumes ol Na-Tr-uddiif - 
works, which the ham. d n tu-. '■ had : 
m iitnl to the khalii some ol thi m in the 
original manuscript, and not \<t transcribed, 
ami in the presence ol their anxious author, 
he tlinw them all, one after another, into 
the river, with such Bpiteful force, that the 
water was splashed ah. an in everj direction; 
when turning himself, on each occasion, to 

his i tinea gm -t. he exclaimed with a 

sarcastic smile ..t triumph, ' 1 1 - « %s wonder- 

fully it bubbles 

When the turn ol \ 

uddin came he, too, gave foil renl t.. his 
revenge. Ee orden d ibn Hajib to be i 
ii|) to his neck, in an ox's hide, jusl taken ..IF 
the animal, and, having tilled the -kin with 
air, he laid it for a few hours in the sun, till 
it became quite dry. and sounded like a drum. 
Then the \ ictor advanced close to his halt 
exhausted enemy, gave him a kick ol triumph, 
and, as he rolled on the ground, exclaimed, 
'• How wonderfully it rattle- ! " The tall oi 
Baghdad took place on Sunday the H'th 
February, a.d. 1258, 4th Safer, a. it. 666, 
from wnich time Baghdad was added t<> the 
other conquered provinces .•! this proud 
emperor. Al-Mustaa'sim reigned 15 Lunar 
years and 7 months. 

Al-Musta'in Billah (<di\j .jjX^JO, 

the son of Muhammad, the son of al- 
Mo'tasim Billah, was the twelfth khalit of the 
race of Abbas. He ascended the throne of 
Baghdad in a.d. 862, A..H. 248, after the 
death of his cousin or brother al-Mustanasar 
Billah, hut was toned to abdicate the throne 
iu a.d. 866, a.h. 252, by his brother al- 
Mo'tiz Billah. who afterwards caused him to 
be privately murdered. 

Al-Mustakfi Billah (aJJI) . J&Ju*^) 

was the 22nd khalif of the Abbaside family, 
and the son of al-Muktafi, the son of al- 
Mo'tazid Billah. He succeeded his uncle 

al-Muttaql in k.v 9 t 5, \ b. 333, • 

! ! id \ear and t..ur months, an 

■ 1 by his wazir in a d. 946, a.h 
After him al-Mutia' Billil to the 


Al-Mustanasar Billuhi . 


— i. ' , 

the son ..i Tahir, was the fifth khalii ..f 
I \ pt ..l the Fatimit* ran II - 
his lathi r a d. 1036, and with t ! 
ol a 'lurk nam 

i and imprisoned al-Kaeni Billah al 
tin- year a.d. 1064, and for a v< ar and a half 
was acknowledged the only fegitim 
.•I all I 1 .-ui was di fi at. .1 

and killed by Tughral Beg a.h. 1059, a.h. 

in. Al-Mustanasar died in 
In'.' i. having r> igni d l 

by hi- son al-Mustaa'li Billah 
Abul Qasim.] 

Al-MustansirBillah I. *Ul .^Uw^), 

lie ; i khalit ••! the re. of Al 

. 1 the throni ol B ghdod ati. i the 

murder ol hi- tailor, al- M wt in 

1 i . . in!., r. \ le 861, Shaw wal. a.m. 'JIT, 

and had reigned only -i\ months, when Io- 
wa- . ut bj the hand ol di ath in a D. t 
a.h. 248 II. wa led by his cousin 

al-Musta'in Billah. 

Al-Mustansir Billah II. ( 


A.ULA Burnamod Al>fi Jafar al- 
M n-ur. a- .ii. 1..1 the throne ol Baghdad 

alt. r the death «.t hi- lather, al-Talur. in 

a i.. 1226. a e II- w i- the 36th 

khalit ..i the house ..t Abbas, reigned about 
17 yean, and died a.h. 1242, a.h. 640, 
Leaving hi> kingdom to hi- son al-Mustaa'- 
sim Billah, tin Lasl ol the khalifa. 

Al-Mustanjid Billah (*JJb _\- 


the 32nd khalit oi the race .•! Abbas, suc- 
led t" the throne ..t Baghdad after the 
death "i hi- father al-Muktafi, in a.i>. 1160, 
a.h. •">.">,">, reigned 11 lunar years and died in 
A.H. 1171. a.h. 566, when hi- son al-.Mu-ta/i 
SUCe. t d> d him. 

Al-Mustarashid Billah (<d^ 

the twenty-ninth khalii "t the Abbaside 
family, succeeded his father, al-Mustazahr, 

t.. the throne of Baghdad iu a.d. Ills, 
a.h. 512. It is related by ibn fiballikan 
thai when Sultan Masaud, the son of Muham- 
mad, the son of Malik-hah Saljuki, was 
encamped outside the town of Maragha in 
Axurbejan, al-Mustarashid was then with 
him, and on Thursday the 28th or, according 
to ibn Mustaufi, the 14th or 28th Zil'qada, 
a.h. 529 (corresponding with the 24th 
August or 7th September, a.d. 1135), a 
band oi assassins broke into the khalif s tent 
and murdered him. Al-Mustarashid reigned 
17 lunar years and some mouths, and was 
succeeded bv his son al-Rashid Billah. 




Al-Mustazhir Billah UlUj^ki^l), 

the son of al-Muqtadl, was the twenty-eighth 
khalif ot the dynasty of Abbas. He was 
placed "ii the throne of Baghdad after the 
death of bis father in a.d. lorn. a.h. 187, 
li\ Barkyaraq Saljuki, the Turkish Sultan oi 
Persia. He reigned 25 lunar years and some 
months, and at his death, which happened 
in the year a.d. 1118, a.h. 512, be was 
succeeded by his son al-Mustarashid. 

Al-Mustazi Bi-amr-illah ( ^ji^^!' 

<M^Ij), the thirty-third khalif of 

the Ahbaside family, succeeded his father, al- 
Mustanjad, to the throne of Baghdad in a.d. 
1171, \ ii. 566. He reigned abonl seven 
rears and died in a.d. 117'.', a.h. 575, when 
his son al-Nasir Billah succeeded him. 

Al-Mutaa'zz Billah (<jJJlj yc^\), the 

son of al-Mutwakkil, was the 13th khalif of 
the race of Abbas. He deposed hi- brother 
al-Mustain in a.d. 866, a.h. 252, ami ha. 

caused liini to lie murdered privately, ascended 
the throne of Baghdad. He did not, how- 
ever, long enjoy the dignity oi which he had 
so iniquitously possessed himself, being de- 
posed by the Turkish Militia (who now 
began to set up and depose khalifa as they 
pleased) in the year a.d. 809, a.h. 25 >. 
After his deposition, he was sent under 
an escort from Sarr Manrae to Baghdad. 
where he died of thirst and hunger, after a 

reign of three years and about seven i iths. 

The fate of this khalif was pi culiarly hard : 
the Turkish troops had mutinied tor their 
pay ; and al-Mutaa'z/ not having money to 
satisfy their demands, applied to his mother, 
named Kabiha, for 50,000 dinars. This she 
refused, telling him that she had no money at 
all, although it afterwards appeared that she 
was possessed of immense treasure. After 
his deposition, however, she was obliged to 
discover them, and even deposit them in the 
hands of the new khalif al-Muhtadi. They 
consisted of 1,000,000 dinars, a bushel of 
emeralds, and another of pearls, and three 
pounds and three quarters of rubies of the 
colour of fire. 

Al-Mutia' Billah (<d!b j-JaJI), the 

twenty-third khalif of the race of Abbas, was 
the son of al-Muqtadir Billah. He ascended 
the throne of Baghdad after al-Mustakfi in 
a.d. 946, a.h. 334, reigned 29 lunar years 
and 4 months, and died in a.d. 974, a.h. 363. 
It was in his time that the temporal power 
of the khalif s of Baghdad, after having been 
long sustained by Turkish mercenaries, was 
completely and finally broken by the Byzantine 
Romans, led by Xicephorus Phocas and John 
Zimisces. [Smith's Gibbon (ed. 1862), vi. 
pp. 106, 422, 427-8.] His son al-Taya' 
succeeded him. 

Al-Muttaqi Billah («dllj -fcuM), the 
son of al-Muqtadir, was the twenty-first 

khalif of the dynasty oi Abbas. He succeeded 
his brother al-RazI Billah to the throne oJ 
Baghdad in a.d. 941, a.h. 329, reigned 3 
years 11 months and 15 days, and died in 
a.d. 9 15, a.h. 333. He was succeed d by 
his nephew al-Mustaqfi, the son of al-Muktafi. 

Al-Mutwakkil 'Al-allah (J<y. ^\\ 

AlMjtx). This was the name and 

title assumed bj Abul Ka/1 Ja'far on his 
accession to the throne of Baghdad. He was 

th<' tenth khallt of the bouse of Abbas, and 
the son oi al-Mo'tasim Billah. He suc- 
ceeded his brother al-Wathik or Wasiq in 
the year a.d. 847, a. ii. 232, and began his 
reign with an act of the •_ cruelty. 

The late khilii's wazir baving treated al- 
Mutwakkil ill in his lirothei\ lifetime, and 
opposed his election to the khilafat, was on 

that account now sent to prison, and after- 
wards thrown into an iron furnace lined with 
spikes or nails heated red hot, when' be was 
miserably burnl to death. During this reign 
nothing remarkable happened, except wars 

with the Greeks, which were carried on with 
various success. lie was very intolerant, 
icially oi the Jews and Christians, oil 
whom he beaped many indignities, lie did 
not stop there. In his imbecility and ferocity 
he forbade the pilgrimage to Karbala, and 

caused the sailed repository ot' the ashes of 

Husain and the other martyrs interred there 

to he razed. He reigned it Veal's 1) months 
and 9 days, and was assassinated and cut into 

seven pieces on the 24th December, a.d. 801, 
17th Shawwal, a. ii. 247, at the instance of 

his son al-Mustanasar, who succeeded him. 

Al-Muwaffiq Billah (tdl'o J^ **!!), 

the son of al-Mutwakkil Billah, the khalif 
of Baghdad and brother and coadjutor of the 
khallt al-Ma'tamid, to whom he was of much 
service in his 1 Kittles against his enemies. 
He died of elephantiasis or leprosy in the 
year a.d. 891, a.h. 278, and while in his 
last illness could not help observing that of 
100,000 men whom he commanded, there 
was not one so miserable as himself. His 
son Mo'tazid, after the death of his brother 
al-Mo'tamid in a.d. 892, succeeded to the 
throne of Baghdad. 

Al-Muwyyid(Isma'il)( L*^ Jo^*M), 

whose name is spelt in Lenipriere's I'n i versa I 
Biographical Dictionary " Alombuadad," 
and in Watkin's Biographical Dictionary 
" Almuvadad," was an Arabian historian, 
who gave a chronological account of the 
Saracen affairs in Sicily from a.d. 842 to 
904. This MS. is in the Library of th? 
Escurial, in Spain, and a Latin version of 
it is inserted in Muratori's Rerum Italicarum 

Al-Muzani ( Jl*Ji). Vide Abu 
o J 
Ibrahim Ismail. 

Al-Nasir Billah (<d!\j ^liM), or al- 
Nasir-uddin allah, the son of al-Mustazi, 



ai i:a 

succeeded his father to the throne oi B igl lad 
in a.u. 1 1 70. He professed the Shia' faith, 
and after a lone reign oi 16 lunar years and 
1 1 months, died in the rear a ,i>. 1225. Ei 

was the 34th khalif oi the I se oi Ah 

and was succeeded by bifl son al-Tahir Billah. 

Alp Arsalan v.,L~,\ ^_^J'), (which 

means in the Turkish langn igj " the valiant 
lion "), was a kin?- oi P< hii "i the Seljukian 
dynasty, and the bou of Daud !!■ •_-• Saljuki. 
He succeeded his uncle Tnghral Beg in a.u. 
1063, a. n. •!■")•"), married the Bister oi the 
khalif Qaim Billah, and his name » 
nounced in the public prayers oi th Mu- 
hammadans after that of the khalif. Bi was 
a warlike prince; and, having spoiled the 
Church of St. i!n-il in Ca - Lrea, di fi ated 
Romanus Diogenes, Emp< n i of i G 
in a.u. iocs. \ h. 460, who was Beized and 
carried to the conqueror. Alp Arsalan i 
manded of his captive, at th< first confi n 
what he would have done it fortun had 
reversed their lot. " 1 would have given 
thee many a Btripe," was the imprudeni and 
virulent answer. The Sultan only Bmiled 
and asked Romanus whai he expected would 
be done to him. "It thou art cruel," - 
the Emperor, "pui me to death. It rain- 
glorious load me with chains, and drag me in 
triumph to thy capital. It generous, granl 
me my liberty." Alp Arsalan was aeither 
cruel nor vain-glorious, he nobly released his 
prisoner, and, gn ing all his offici ra w ho w< re 
captivi s dri ssi - of honour, senl th. m away to 
their homes. Alp Arsalan ait- r a r< ign "i more 
than nine years was stabbed aboul the 15th 
Di cembi r, i.d. 1072, 30th Babi 1 . a.m. 
465, by a Kbwarizmian desperado whom he 
had taken prisoni r and sentenced t<> death, 
lie was buried a1 Marv in Khurasan, and the 
following is the translation oi the inscription 
engravi d on his tomb : " All ye who b 
seen the glory oi Alp Arsalan exalted to the 
heavens, come to Marv, and yen will behold 
it buried in the dust." He vi d by 

his - n Malikshah. 

Alp Arsalan, who is by some called 

Anal Arsalan, was the son of Atsiz, a Sultan 
of Khwarizm, whom he succeeded in a d. 

HUG, a. ii. ool-ool, and died in a.u. 11(32. 

Alptakin or Alptagin ( , _^ £_" ^ \ \) 1 
Vide Alaptakin. 

Al-Qadir Billah (aJL< jjUJ\), the 

twenty-fifth khalif of the Abbaside family, 
was the son of Is-baq, the son oi Muqtadir 
Billah. He ascended the throne of Ba gh dad 
alter the dethronement of al-Taya' in a.d. 
991, a.h. 3S1. He was a contemporary of 
Sultan Muhmiid of Ghazni : reigned 41 lunar 
years and 3 mouths, and died a.d. 1031, a.h. 
422. He was succeeded by al-Qaimbi-amr- 

Al-Qadiri or Qadiri CcjiAft-H), a sect 
of Muhammadans. These are a branch of the 

Mm tazillis, and difFi r in tin ir opinions from 
the orthodox in that thej deny 
God's d( i n ■■. and b b vi ill ; amrming 

that th«- contrary opinion makes God 

author oi . ril. 

Al-Qaliir Billah (<JLj / J»UJ\) > the 

nineteenth khalii oi the race oi theAl 

and the third son ,,| al-Mo'tazid 

- led his brother al- Muqtadir to the 

crown of B Ocl »b r, i.d. 

Shawwal, a.h. 320. Be had i only 

months and twi nty-one days 
when his wazir ibn M qla deprived him of 
his sighl with a hoi iron on Wednesdaj the 
23rd April. \ d. 934, 6th Jamad 1. a.h. 
!, and raised al-Razi Billah, th< son "i 
qtadir, to the i It i- said that al- 

ii . aft* r this, as long as he li\< d, 
obliged to beg tor charity in the mosqui 
I'. gb I id, calling oul to the p< opl< that 
mbl< d there, "Have pity and 
rity to one. who had once been \"iir 

Al-Qaim ( .. \ ' | khalif of the 


1 • ' oi Barbary ; hi eedi d 

hi- ia! 1 1 id-ullah al-Mahdi a.d. 

a ii. 812. Daring his reign we read of 

markable, i v • pi the n roli 
S id ilm Koiidat. a man oi mean extraction. 
Al-Qaim reigned marly 12 years and died in 
a.h. '.'i'i. a.h. 334 Hi- -"ii [small al- 
M insur BUi i ' ' ded him. 

'Al-Qama (<u-k,._- ). son of Qya, was one 

oi the pupils of Abdullah bin Masaud, and 
an eminent man. lie died in a d. I 

A.H. 61. 

Al-Qaim Billah or Al-Qaim-bi-amr- 

illah (<l]Li *_j\JLH), Bumamed Abu 

Ja'far Abdullah, the 2 th khalif of the ho 
oi 'Abbas. II" succeeded his father Qadir 
Billah to the throne of Baghdad in a i>. 
1031, a.h. 122. reigned it lunar years and 
8 in. nth-, and died in a D. 1075, A.H. 41 7. 
which was Boon after Sultan Malikshah the 
S Juki had ascended the throne oi Persia, 
ami as thai monarch was the real master of 
the empire, the nomination oi a successor was 
deferred till he was consulted. He deputnl 
a son of his prime minister Nizam-ul-Mulk 
to Baghdad with orders to raise al-Muqtadi, 
the grandson of al-Qaim, to the (nominal) 
rank of the commander of the faithful. 

Al-Rashid or Harun al-Rashid ( .,, ,Ls 

±*JS>J\), tlie celebrated hero of the 

Arabian Nights, was the tilth khalif of the 
race of Abbas and son of al-Mahdi; he 
succeeded his eldest brother al-Iladi to the 
throne of Baghdad in a.d. 786, A.H. 170. 
This was one of the best and wisest prim • - 
that ever sat on the throne of Ba gh dad. He 
was also extremely fortunate in all his under- 
takings, though he did not much extend his 




dominions by conquest. In his time the 
Moslem empire may be said to bave been in 
its most flourishing state, though, by the 
independency of the Moslems in Spain", who 
bad formerly Bel up a khalif of the bouse of 
Umyya, his territories wen nol quite so 
extensive as those of some of hi- predecessors. 
He possi ssed, bowever, the proi bices of Syria, 
Palestine, Arabia, Persia, Armenia, Natolia, 
Media or Azurbejan, Babylonia, Assyria, 
Sindh, Sijistan, Khurasan, Tabristan, Jurjan, 
Zabulistan, Mawarunnahr, or greal Bukharia, 
Egypt, Libya, .Mauritania, etc., SO that his 
empire was still by far the most powerful of 
any in the world, and indeed extended farther 
than the Roman empire ever bad done. 

In the beginning of the year a.d. sol', a.h. 
186, he divided the gov rnmenl of his ext< n- 
sive dominions among his three sons in the 
following manner: To al-Amin the eldest, 
he assigned the provinces of Syria, Irak, the 
three Arahias, Mesopotamia, Assyria, Media, 
Palestine, Egypt, and all the pari of Africa 
extending from the confines ot Egypt and 
Ethiopia to the Straits of Gibraltar, with the 
dignity of khalif; to al-Mamun the second, 
he assigned Persia, Kirman, the Indies, 
Khurasan, Tabristan, Kabulistan and Zabu- 
listan, together with the vast province of 
Mawarunnahr ; and to his third son al-Qasim, 
he gave Armenia, Natolia, Jurjan, Georgia, 
Circassia, and all the Moslem terril 
bordering upon the Euxine sea. As to tin- 
order of succession, al-Amin was to ascend the 
throne immediately alter his lather's decease : 
alter him al-Mamun ; and then al-Qasim, 
whom he had suraamed al-Mo'tasim. 

The most considerable exploits performed 
by this khalif were against the Greeks, who 
by their perfidy provoked him to make war 
upon them, and whom he always overcame. 
In the year a.d. 803, a.h. 187, the khalif 
received a letter from the Greek Emperor 
Nicephorus, commanding him to return all 
the money he had extorted from the Empress 
Irane, or expect soon to see an Imperial army 
in the heart of his territories. This insolent 
letter so exasperated Harun, that he im- 
mediately assembled his forces and advanced 
to Heraclea, laying' the country through which 
he passed waste with fire and sword. For some 
time also he kept that city straitly besieged, 
which so terrified the Greek Emperor that he 
submitted to pay an annual tribute. 

In the year a.d. 804, a.h. 188, war was 
renewed with the Greeks, and Nicephorus 
with a great army attacked the khalif s forces 
with the utmost fury. He was, however, 
defeated with the loss of 40,000 men, and 
received three wounds in the action ; after 
which the Moslems committed terrible ravages 
in his territories, and returned home laden 
with spoils. The next year Harun invaded 
Phrygia; defeated a.> Imperial army sent to 
oppose him, and having ravaged the country, 
returned without any considerable loss. In 
the year a.d. 806, a.h. 190, the khalif 
marched into the Imperial territories with an 
army of 135,000 men, besides a great number 
of volunteers and others who were not enrolled 
among his troops. He first took the city of 

Heraclea, from which he is said to have 
carried 16,000 prisoners ; after which he 
made himself master of several other places, 
and, in the conclusion of the expedition, he 
made a descent on the island of Cyprus, 
which he plundered in a terrible manner. 
This success so intimidated Nicephorus, that 
he immediatel) sent the tribute due to Earun, 
the withholding of which had been the cause 
of the war; and concluded a peace upon the 
khalif s own terms. Charlemagne respected 
his character, and Harun in token of his 
friendship presented to the European prince a 
clock, the mechanism and construction of 
which wen regarded among the prodigies of 
the age. II. nun reign d 23 years, and died 
in Khurasan on the eve of Saturday the 24th 

March, a.d. 809, 3rd Jamad II., A.H. 193, 
and was buried at Tus, which is now called 
Mashhad. Ee was succeeded by his eldest 
sou, al-Amin. 

Al-Rashid Billah (<d]lj ^>\J\), the 

thirtieth khalif of the Abbasides, succeeded 
his fatlnr, al-Mustarashad, in August or 
September, a.d. 1135, Zil'kad, a.h. 529, 
and died in the year A.D. 1136, A.H. 530. 
Ei was succeeded by al-Muqtafl, the son of 

Al-Razi. Sec Razl. 

Al-Razi Billah («dlb ^o))\\ the son 

ni al-Muqtadir and the twentieth khalif of 
the housi oi Ahbas, was the Last whodeserved 
the title of the Commander of the Faithful. 
lie was raised to the throne of Baghdad. 
after the dethronement of his uncle al-Qahir 
Billah by the wazir Ebn Maqla in April, a.d. 
934, Jamad I. a.h. 322. In the year 936, 
the khalif finding himself distressed on all 
sides by usurpers, and having a wazir of no 
capacity, instituted a new office superior to 
that of wazir, which he entitled Amir-ul- 
Umra. This great officer, Imad-ud-daula 
All Boy a, was trusted with the management 
of the finances in a much more absolute and 
unlimited manner than any of the khalif s 
wazirs ever had been. Nay, he officiated for 
the khalif in the great mosque at Ba gh dad, 
and had his name mentioned in the public 
prayers throughout the kingdom. In short 
the khalif was so much under the power of 
this officer, that he coidd not apply a single 
dinar to his own use without the leave of the 
Amir-ul-Umra. In the year a.d. 937, the 
Moslem empire so great and powerful, was 
shared among the f ollowiug usurpers : 

The cities of Wasat, Basra, Kufa with the 
rest of the Arabian Iraq, were considered as 
the property of the Amir-ul-Umra, though 
they had been iu the beginning of the year 
seized upon by a rebel called al-Baridi, who 
could not be driven out of them. 

The country of Fars, Faristan, or Persia 
properly so called, was possessed by Imad-ud- 
daula All ibn Boya, who resided in the city 
of Shlraz. 

Part of the tract denominated al-Jabal, 
together with Persian Iraq, which is the 




mountainous pari ol Persia, and the country 
of the ancient Parthians, obeyed Rukn-ud- 
daula, the brother oi [nad-ud-daula, who 
resided at Isfahan. The other pari >>i the 
country was possessed by Waahmakin the 

Dayar Babia, Dayar Bikr, Dayar Modar, 
and the city of Musal, acknowledged i"r 
their sovereign a race oj princes called 

Egypl and Syria no longer obeyed the 
khalifs, but Muhammad ibn Taj, who had 
formerly been appointed governor "i those 

Aiiica and Spain had long been indepen- 

Sicily and Crete were governed by pi 
of their own. 

The provinces of Khur~i-5n and Malvarun- 
nahr were under the dominions "t al-Ji 
ibn Ahmad, of the dynasty ol the S 

Tlic provinces ol Tabristun, Jurjan or 
Georgia, and Mazindaran, had kings ol the 
firsl dynast] oi the I Man I 

The ]n'o\ ince oi Kirman opied by 

Aim AH Muhammad ibn I : mini, 

who had made himseli master ol it a short 
time before. And 

Lastly, the provinc* a of Y( m tm i 
Bahryn, including the district oi Hair, were 
in the possession of Abu Tahir tl B itian. 

Thus the khalifs were deprived oi all their 
dominions, and reduced to the rank oi 
sovereign pontiffs; in which light, tl. 
tin \ continui d for some time :■ 
bj the neighbouring princes, yet their power 
never arrivi d to any hi ight. In thi- low 
state the khalifa continued till the extinction 
oi the Khilafal bj II a iku Khan thi Tartar 
in tin w ii \.n. 1258, \ .ii. 656. 

Al-Bazi Billah reigned 7 years 2 months 
and 11 days, and died in a.d. 941, a. a 
Ee was succeeded by his brother al-Mnttaqi. 

Al-Saharawi (^.Ls^i). 

fide Abul 

Al-Saffah LLuJl), surname of Abul 

Abbas, the son of Muhammad, the Bon of 
All, the Bon oi 'Abdullah, the bod of Al 
the uncle oi the prophet. II. was proclaimed 
khalifa by the inhabitants of Kufa on Friday 
the 29th November, a.d. 749, 13th Rabi 
II., a. ii. 132, upon which a battle took 
place between him and Marwan II.. the last 
khalifa of the house of Omyya and ( Immaidi b, 
in which the latter was slain, 5th August, 
a.d. 750, 26th Zil-hijja, a.h. 132. ' Al- 
Saffah atter this victory investing himseli 
with sovereign power, laid the foundation of 
the dynasty of the Abbasides, which continued 
to be transmitted to his family from father to 
sou for 524 lunar years, during a succession 
of 37 khalifs, till they were dispossessed by 
Halaku Khan the Tartar king of Persia iii 
A.r>. 1258, a.h. 656. By the elevation of 
the house of Abbas to the dignity of khilafat, 
began that glorious period during which 
Arabic aud Persian literature reached its 
highest perfection. With some few ex- 

"I kings thai • I thi tl 

m\ . Abul Abl 
oi more than lour 

on Sui 9th June, \ i, 75 1. 13th 

Zil-hijja, a ii . by 

bis brother Abu Ja'far Almansur. 

the kl ii f .i)il>iit 

who reigned lit Baghdad. 
1. Al-Saffah, ..r Abul \\ -fi ,h. 


l Al-Hadi, - Mahdi. 

5. A1-] hid, -"ti i 


\ - : II • fill. 

7. Al-M ■ in, -"ii "i Hirun. 

Ibrahim, boo ol Mahdi. competitor. 
!i. bod ol Hirun. 
9. Al-Wathiq, or \\ n ol Mo'taaim. 

10. Al-' tkil. 

11. Al-M. i Billah. 

12. Al-Mustain Billah. 

13. Al-Mo'tia* Billah. 
II Al-Mubtadi Billah. 

15. Al-Mo'tamid. 

16. A -M : rid Billah. 

17. Al-Muktafi Billah. 
Al-Muqtadir Billah. 

19. Al-Kahir Billah. 

B lah. 
21. Al-Muttaki Billah. 
1 lah. 
Al-Mutia Billah. 
24. A -I i 5 Billah. 
r Billah. 
a bi-amr-ullah. 
27. Al-Muqtadi Billah. 
A -M • ahir Billah. 
Al-Mustarashid Billah. 

30. Al-Rahhid Billah. 

31. Al-Muktafi bi-amr-ullah. 
Al-Mustanjad Billah. 

33. Al-Mustazi bi-amr-ullah. 

34. Al-Nasir Billah. 

35. Al-Tahir bi-amr-ullah. 
Al-Mostanasar Billah II. 

] Al-Mirta-im BiUih, the last khalif. 

Al - Tahir bi - amr - illali Muhammad 
(a^st* dli^lj J»UaJ!) succeeded his 

al-Nasir Billah, to the throne of 

Baghdad in a.d. 1225. a.h. 622. II. was 
the thirty-fifth khallt of the house ol Abbas, 
reigned i 1 months and 11 days, and died in 
a d. 1226, \ a. 623. His -'iial-Mu-tana-ar 
II. succeeded him. 

Al-Taya' (or al-Tayi') Billah {mJM\ 

<dll>), the son of al-Mutia' Billah, 
was the twenty-fourth khallt ol Baghdad. 
He succeeded his lather iu a.d. 974, reigned 
17 years and 4 months, and was deposed by 
Baha-ud-daula iu ad. 991, when Qachr 
Billah, the son of Is-haq, the son ot Mnqtadir, 
was raised to the throne. 

Altimsh ( 


- - V 


Vide Shams- uuYlin 




Al-Walid (±Jjl\). Vide Walid. 

Al - Wathik or al - Wasik Billah 

(j3y\) t the ninth khalif of the 

family of the Abbasides, succeeded his father, 
al-Mo'tasini Billah, on the 5th January, a.d. 
84.'. 18th Rabi I., a.h. 227, to the throne 
of Baghdad. The following year, lie invad d 
ami conquered Sicily. Nothing remarkable 
happened during the resl "i his reign. Ee 
reigned 5 lunar years 7 months ami :> days, 
and died in a.d. SIT, ah. 232. Ee was 
succeeded by his brother al-Mutwakkil. Ee 
is the Vathek of Beekford's well-known tale. 

'Alwi (^c»l-\ poetical name of Shaikh 

Waji-uddTn, which - 

'Alwi (t^Lc), poetical name of Mir 

Tahir 'Alwi. who died at Kashmir previous 
to the year a.d. L723, A.H. 1 136. Ee is the 
author of a dlwan and a Masnawl ; the latter 
contains the Btory of the blacksmith and the 
cotton cleanser called Qissae Baddad wa 

'Alwi Khan (Hakim) (^U- ^d-c), 

a physician, who was invited from Pi rsia by 
the Emperor Muhammad Shah, and died at 
Dehli in a.d. 1748, A.H. 1161. Hi- title 
was Mo'tmid-ul-Maluk Sayyid 'Alwi Khan 
Hakim. He is the author of a medical work 
called Jama'-ul-Jawa'ma'. 

'Amad ( w >Un), 'Amad Shah. 'Amad- 
uddin, etc. Vide Imad, Imad Shah, elc. 

'Ama-'aq. or TJma-'aq Bukhari ( ^xas. ). 

Vide Aliul Xajib-al-Bukhari. 

Amanat (cu-ol*'), poetical name of 

Sayyid Agha Hasan, son of Agha Razwi, 
author of a Dlwan. 

Amanat 'Ali (Maulwi) ( lx ij^OUU, 

author of a small work entitled Baluir Ajam, 
containing 121 letters written by him to 
different persons, in pure Persian. 

Amanat Khan Mirak (^,1^. l^— j^\ 

i_J v~«\ title of Mir Ma In-uddin 

Ahmad Khan Kliwai'i. a native of Khwaf in 
Khurasan. He was a nobleman of high rank 
iu the time of the Emperor 'Alamgir, and 
died in the year a.d. 1684, a.h. 1095, at 
Aurangiibad. He is the author of the work 
called Shariat ul-Isldm. 

Amanat Khan (,.,U> euoU), title 

of Mir Husain, sou of Amanat Khan Khwafi. 
He was honoured with the title of his father 
about the year a.d. 1688, a.h. 1100, by the 
Emperor 'Alamgir, and raised to the rank of 
a nobleman. He held different offices under 
that Emperor, and died at Surat a.d. 1699, 

A.H. 1111. 

Amanat Khan (A^s*. u^-wL*'), a 

celebrated Nastaliq writer, who in the 11th 
year oi the reign of the Emperor Shah Jahan 
wrote the inscriptions on the Taj at Agra. 

Amani (Mir) (^ ^Ul), of Kabul, 

died in a. ii. 981, or a.d. 1573. 

Amani ( c jL^), poetical name of 

Mirza Aman-ullah, the eldest son of Mahabat 
Khan. Ee nourished in the time of the 
Emperor Shah Jahan, and died in the year 
a.d. 1637, a.h. 1047. lie is the author of 
a dlwan. 

[ Vide Khan Zaman Bahadur and Mahabat 

Aman-ullah (Hafiz) (k£l». <dH .,U), 

of B oares, was an author and Qazi of Luck- 
ii"« in the time of the Emperor 'Alamgir. 
Ei died in a.d. 17-1 , A.H. 1 L33. 

Aman-ullah Husaini (a_1J1 ^\.^*\ 
), author of an Insha which 

goes by hi- name, Inshae Aman-ullah 
II taiw. 

Ahmad Shah Abdali (>l_ 

JiJkJi) on his seventh invasion of 

Hindustan arrivi d at the Sat la j in a.d. 1764. 
Amar Singh waited on him, but was ordered 
to shave Ins head and beard before entering 
the royal pn sence. J!y a nazarana or pre-, ni 
oi a lac oi rupees, he purchased permission to 
appear bearded and unshorn, and received 
investiture with the title of Maha Raja 
Rajagan Mahindar Bakashr, which title is 
now borne by the head of the Patiala family. 

Amar-ihn-obaid. Vide Umar-ibn-ubaid. 

Amar Singh (ajli_- , j^»\), Raja of 

Patiala, was the son of Sardal Singh, who 
survived his lather. Raja Ala Siugh, two or 
three years. Ahmad Amar Siugh, vide Rana 
Amar Singh. 

Amar Singh Rana, son of Rama 
Pallal Singh of Chittore, died iu a.h. 1028 

Amar Singh (^^ •/), son of Gaj 

Singh, a rajpiit chief of the tribe of Rathor. 
He killed Salabat Khan Mir Bakhshi in the 
17th year of Shah Jahan in the presence of 
the Emperor, on Thursday evening the 25th 
July, o.s. 1644, 30th Jamadi I., a.h^ 1054, and 
was' by the order of the Emperor pursued and 
cut to pieces after a gallant defence near one 
of the gates of the fort of Agra, which is to 
this daj called Amar Singh Darwaza or Amar 
Singh Gate. An account of this prince's 
early history will be found in Tod's Edjasthan. 




Amar Singh (&&,^ ^), of Benares, 

whose poetical Dame was Khushgo, held a 
governmenl appointment in the Koel district. 
Ee compiled a shori history of Akbar'e 
and of the Taj oi Agra, and pul the Bahar 
Danish into verse and called it Tarjuma Bahar 
Danish. This book is to be distinguished 
from tin [zhar Danish, an Urdu translation 
oi Bahar Banish by Mullazada at Palnar. 

Amar Singh (Rana), son of liana 
Purtab Singh. VtcU Rana Sankar. 

Anibaji Inglia, a general of the Gwa- 
liar State who Bern d under Mahadaji Sindhia 
from I787j and who continned hi- Ben 
both military and political, under hi- nephew 
Daulat Rao. The last mention oi him is 
in Lake's war in Eindnstan, in which he 
succeeded Gen. Perron [Keene's // 
India, i. pp. 274, 360, 37 

Amili ( LJ ), a p ( 1 who waa 

author oi b I >iw in. This \- 1 jon app< a 
be tin same with Shaikh Baha-uddin 'Amili. 

Ainin ( cr ~«U, the sixth khallf of the 

house of Abbas. )'ui, al-Amin. 

^j-^i), poetical nam. of shrill 

Amin ( 

Amin-uddin of Azimabad, \\h" flourished 
ahoutthi yeai \ u. 1716, a.ii. 1127, and lefl 
a diwan oi Ghazals, ■ \> , 

Amina (cU.J). the wife of 'Abdullah, 
and mother oi Muhammad the prophet of the 
Musalmans. She was t! i .t. r oi 

Wahab the Bon of 'Abdul M - I She is 
represented as the mosl beautiful, prudent, 
and virtuous lady of her 1 1- i I • « - . and coi 
quently the most worthy oi such an extra- 
ordinary person as 'Abdullah. She died 
sis y< ars afb r the birth oJ hi r son Muham- 
mad, aboul the year a.h. .">77. 

Amina Begum ( , \ g ,, di^l). Fidt 
< rhasiti B gum. ' 

Amin Ahmad or Amin Muhammad 

Razi ( - ; l, s*^\ ,.~« , ) ) the author 

of the Biographical Dictionary called Haft 
Aklim. (The seven climates.) This hook. 
which he finished in the time of the emperor 
Akbar in a.d. L594, ah. 1002, contain- a 
short description of the seven climates of the 
Temperate /one, and the Topography oi 
their principal cities; with memoir- of the 
illustrious persons and eminent poets which 
each has produced. 

Amin-uddin Khan, Nawab of Loharu, 
descended from Ahmad Bakhsh, a Minister of 
the Alwar State in U 03-1826. The Nawab 
succeeded his unhappy brother Shams-ul-din 
(q.v.) in 1835; and died on the 31st December, 
A.n. 1869, aged 70 years. His eldest son, 
Mirza 'Ala-uddin Khan, succeeded to bis 
estates at Loharu, on the 11th January, 1870. 

Amini ( c u^. «' ». poetical nan \tnlr 

Sultan Ibrahim, 

•A-.iti. who di. d in a D. 1520, \ n. 
Annul \\rot« a chroi on. 

Amin-uddin (Mir) ( ^* .^ S-S .— *'), 

a po< t and ' ontempor iry 

with the poets Molilalia All Kahi and 
Ki Ui Shahab. 

Amin-uddin (Amir) ( ..,' .. _v' .~.*\). 
/ \> min-uddin (Amir and Tughrai. 

Amin-ud-daula Abul Jin (^'._v' ^.%\ 

>r S » SUrnamed tin- Samaritan, 

- a physician, and had been wazir to Malik 
Sal di [sma'il. ll> was strangled 
in a.d. 1260, ah. 648, and then wert found 
in his house, amongst other precious artii 
about 10,000 volumes ol valuable works, 
copii d by the mi 

Amin-ud-daula Khan <_._>!' - •! 

kst ), a rebel, waa blown from the 

uth oi .i gun on I August, 


Amir bi Ahkuni Allah (*3J! JCa*j+\), 

Burnamed Abu All Mansur, seventh klialif 
oi thi Fatimite dj a Egypt, succei ded 

1 » i — father, al-Mustaa'li BiUah, in December. 
1101. Prom this turn to tl i 

li-din Allah, during which period five kh 
ended the throm oi Egypt, the histoi 
that countrj affords little else than an account 
oi the i 1 1 1 - -tiii. broils and contests between 
the wazirs or prime ministers, who n 
h. ■ .. w. it ill . that tin y had in a gn at 

measure stripped tie khalifa oi their civil 
power, and hit them nothing but a Bhadow 
ol spiritual dignity. These contests at last 
n rotation, by which the 
I itimite khalifa were totally extin- 

[/ \ id li-din Allah.] 

Amir (-*•'), poetical name of Amlr-ud- 

daula Nasir Jang, commonly called Mirza 
Mendhu, sou oi Nawab Shuja-ud-daula and 
brother to Nawab Asaf-ud-daula. 

Amiran Shah (*Li 
Miran Shah. 


..J). Vide 

Amira Singh Tappa {ijj aij^ *r^), 

also called Amar Singh, a Gurkha general. 

Hi was the highest in rank and character 
of all the military chiefs of Nipal. In 1814 
during his campaign against Sir David 
Ochterlony in the Kamaon hill-, he evinced 
eqnal yalour and patriotism ; but was com- 
pelled to surrender, at Malaun near Simla, 
10th May, 1815. 

[Keene's History of India, ii. p. 21.] 




Amir Barid I. (jjj j~*\), the son of 

Qlsim Band, whom he succeed <1 in the 
government of Ahmadabad Bidar in a.d. 
1504, a ii. 910. Daring his rule the king 
Sultan Mahmud Shah Bahmaul died in \.\>. 
1517, ah. 923, when Amir Barid placed 
Sultan 'Ala-uddin III. on the throne, and 
atter his death Sultan Kalim Ullah, who 
being treated with greal rigour by the Amir, 
rli-d from Bidar to Ahmaonagar, where he 
died shortly after. With Kalim Ullah ended 
the dynasty of the Bahmani kings o\ I» ccan. 
Amir Barid reigned over the territories ol 
Ahmadabad Bidar with full power more than 
25 years, and tli ■> -« 1 at Daulatabad in a.d. 
1542, a ii. 949. He was buried at Ahma- 
dabad Bidar, and siht.hI d by his -mi All 

Amir Barid II. ( ^U Ju 


succeeded to the government of Ahmadabad 
Biwar after deposing his relative Ali Barid 
Shah II. in a i). 1609, and was the last of 
the Band Shahi dynasty. 

Amiri (^Jj+aX), the poetical name of 

Maulana Sultan Muhammad, a distinguia 
man who lived in the time of Shah Tahmasp 
Safwi I. Hi' praised this sovi reign in his 
poems, and is the translator of Amir All 
Sher's Ta/.kira, called Mnjalis-ul-NaJ 
from Turki into Persian. lie is also the 
author of the Boston ul-Khayal. 

Amir Khan (J^. J ^ t \), title of Mir 

Abiil Wafa, the eldest son of Mir Qasim 
Khan Namkin, was a nobleman in the time 
of the emperors Jahangir and Shah Jahan. 
At the time ot his death lie was e.\>vernor 
of I'hatta, where he died a.d. 1647, ah. 
1057, aged more than 100 years. His former 
name was Mir Khan, but having made a 
present of one lac of rupees to Shah Jahan, 
he was honoured with the title of Amir Khan. 

Amir Khan ( ,^ 

*■* ~+^* 

surnamed Allr Mrran, the son of Khalll-ullah 
Khan Yezdi, was a nobleman of high rank 
in the time of the emperors Shah Jahan and 
'Alamgir, and a great favourite of the latter. 
He died at Kabul on the 28th April, a.d. 
1698, 27th Shawwal, a.h. 1109, and the 
emperor conferred the title of Amir Khan on 
his son. 

Amir Khan (Nawab) (e^y ^U- j~*\), 

entitled U'mdat-ul-Mulk, was the son of the 
principal favourite of the emperor 'Alamgir, 
of the same name, and a descendant of "the 
celebrated Shah Na'mat-ullah Wali. He 
was himself a favourite of the emperor 
Muhammad Shah ; was appointed governor 
of Allahabad in a.d. 1739. a.h. 1152, and 
re-called to court in a.d. 1743, a.h. 1156. 
He was naturally free of speech, and the 
emperor, fond of* his repartee, had allowed 
him more license in his conversation than 
was consistent with respect to his own dignitv. 

when he was on business with the emperor, 
which by degrees disgusted Muhammad Shah 
and made him wish his removal from office. 
He was consequently, with the consent of the 
emperor, stabbed with a dagger by a person 
who had been discharged from his service, 
and tell down dead on the spot. This circum- 
stance took place mi Friday the 26th 
1 1 cember, 1717. 23rd Zil-hijja, a.h. 1159. 
He « as buried after four days in the si pulchre 
of Khalll-ullah Khan his grandfather, which 
is close to the Sarae oi Etuh-uUah Khan at 
Dehli. His poetical name was An jam. He 
composed logographs, and has left Persian and 
Rekhta Poems. There is a lull account of 
Amir Khan in the Sujar-ul-Mutukhat 
while he is said to have died in the same 
year as the emperor. 

Amir Khan (^,U- rr-^X the famous 

ally of the Pindaris and ancestor to the 
present Nawab of Tonk. He was originally 
in the service of Jaswant Rao Holkar, who 

1 roing insane in 1806 and incapable of the 

administration of his own affairs, this Mu- 
hammadan chief endeavoured to establish an 
ascendancy at his court, but soon left it with 
the army he commanded to pursue the separate 
object "i his ,,wn ambition, and became the 
chief supporter of the Pindaris. A treat} 
ratified with him by the British Government 
on the 19th December, 1817. He had on 
various pretexts avoided the ratification ol the 
engagements which his agent had concluded 
with ilir resident of Dehli, hut the movement 
ni troops t" hi- vicinity, and their occupation 
nl positions which left him only the option 
between engaging in an unequal conflict and 
signing this treaty, induced him to adopt the 
safer course. He was confirmed in the pos- 
- -ion of all the territories he held from the 
Holkar family, hut compelled to surrender 
his large trains of artillery to the English 
Government, and to disband that greal body 
of plunderers which had been for more than 
two years the scourge of Malwa and Rajpu- 
tana. Amir Khan died A.n. 1834, a.h. 1250. 
His life was written by a Hindu named 
Basawan Lai ; and the Memoir was translated 
into English by the late Thoby Prinsep. 

Amir Khan ( X^- -*/•!), whose proper 

name was Mir Khan, but was changed by the 
emperor 'Alamgir by adding an alif to it into 
Amir Khan. On a spot of seven blghas of 
ground, he had built his house close to the 
place called Guzur Tijara, including the ma- 
halla of Chhipitola. In the first year of the 
emperor 'Alamgir he was appointed governor 
of the fort of Shahjahanabad, and in the 
eleventh vear of the reign of the emperor he 
was appointed Subadar of Kabul. 

Amir Khan Sindhi ( jbXw: l j[^~j 1 ^»\) ) 

title of Mir Abdul Karim, son of Amir Khan, 
the son of Mir A lml Qasim Xamkln. He was 
employed in various offices during the reign 
of 'Alamgir, Bahadur Shah and Farrukh- 
sivar, and died some time before the accession 
of Muhammad Shah to the throne of Dehli. 



Amir Khond (jj, 

Kliuinl or Kli iwind Shah. 

J). Vide Mir 

Amir Khusru (. 
Khusro (Amir). 



t\). Vide 

Amir Mahmud ( jjJI «— j 4 *.s'* -wJ), 

Burnamed Fakhr-nddin, and commonly called 
Ibn-Yemin, was the boii oi Amir xemin- 
uddin, entitled Malik-ul Fuzla, i.e., the 
prince of the learned. Amir Mahmud wi - 
;hi excellent poet, and died on Saturday 
the 2!»tli January, a i.. i:;t;s, Jumad i I L. 
a.m. 769, iii Persia. lie i- mi ationed in Dr. 
Sprengi r's Catalogue, p. 67, to have died in 
749 llijii corresponding with a.d. L348, and 
in the Tazhvra Daulat Shahi it is mentioned 
that he died in a. a. 746, a.i>. 1344. Ei 
left a Diwan. 

Amir Mirza (Nawab)(< j^»j \\^.* -~*^) 

was the bod oi Georgi Eopkins Wait re, a 

fiensioned European officer, who. with his 
amily, consisting of a wife, two daughters 
and one Bon, had established himself in Luck- 
now as a merchant many years ago. After 
his death his family, through the intrigui - oi 
one Bakhsh All Khan, embraced the Muham- 
madan religion, and the younger daughter not 
long alter was oonsigned t<> the Seragli 
king NasIr-uddTn Eydar and became one <•! 
the queens of that monarch, under the title 
of Wilayeta Mahal, or the King's European 
consort. The elder daughter also received the 
nunc and title of Ashraf-un-nisa Begam. 
She remained unmarried all her lite. The 
brother. Joseph Walters, received the name 
ni Amir Mirza. lie was brought ii]> a- a 
Musalman of the Shi'a sect, and always took 
a pride in showing himself as an orthodox 
follower ni tin' Crescent. Alter Wilayeta 
Mahal's death, her i Id. r sister Ashraf-un-nisa 
Begam succeeded to her estate, consisting "I 
Government Securities valued at 11. Kin 
rupees besides jewellery, movable ami im- 
movable property of considerable value. In 
lSo'2 Ashraf-un-nisa died, and was succeeded 
by Amir Mirza, her brother, who squandered 
almost the whole property by his reckless 
prodigality. Amir Mirza died on the 10th 
January, 1870, iu his GOth year. 

Amir Mo'izzi (jjjw^l), a celebrated 

poet of Samarqand, who served under Sultan 
Malik Shall and Sultan Sanjar Sal Juki, and 
■was honoured with the title of Malik-ush- 
Shua'ra, or the Royal Poet. He was accident- 
ally killed by an arrow shot by the latter 
prince. His Diwan contains 15,000 verses. 
His death happened in the year a.d. 1147, 
a.h. 512. His proper name was Amir All. 

Amir Shahi (^,1.;^ c >li j~*\), of 

Sabzwar, a poet who flourished iu the time of 
Shahrukh Mirza, about the year a.d. 1436. 
Vide Shahi (Amir). 

Amir Taimur ( AjL^X* „*J _V), 

styled Sahib Qiran, because In- reigned i 
than :;•' .-, I,, w.i- born in a 

conjunction "t the plant I I . 

also called Timurlang Tamerlani from some 
di !< it in hi- ii ■ t : was horn at Ku^h in anci< nt 
S jrdania on Tuesday, the 9th April, a.d. 1 
27th Sha'ban, a.h. 736. Somi Baj In- was 
the son oi a Bhepherd, and others that he 
w - descended in a right line from Qajuli 
Bahadur, son oi Tumana Khan, oi tie same 
li in a_o- with Chang ebrated 

conqueror of Persia. Hi- fathi r's aami 
Amir Turaghai and mother's Takina Khatun : 
however, hi- obscurity was -non • M iu 

tin L-lory oi his exploits. Distinguished by 
hi- ami unbounded ambition, he 

mil a number oi faithful adherents, ami 
d tin citj oi Balkh. the capital of Khu- 
rasan, and having put to death Amir Eusain, 
tin nili r oi that place, wh< hi had 

married, he ascended the throne on V 

day the loth April, A.D. 1870, 12lh I 

a.h. 771. Be then subdued Kandahar, 1' 
and Baghdad, and seconded byanenthusi 
army he penetrated to India, took Debit mi 
Tuesday tie 17th Deo ml" r, a d. 1398, 7th 
I: bi 11 \ ii . B01, with it- immense tn a- 
sures, and returned to punish Baghdad that 
shook oil hi- yoke. Tin offending eit\ was 
given up to pillage, and SO, 000 oi her inhabi- 
ts put to th, -word. Now master oi 
fairer part oi Asia, he int. rf< ml. at tin r> q 
oi the Greek emperor, in the affairs oi Baiazid 
Bajazel . emperor oi the Turk-, and com- 
manded him to abandon tie -*• _o oi < Constan- 
tinople. Tin ii iusi d the indignation 
ot Baiazid : he marched against the ni w 
enemy, and was di feated by him in Phrygia, 
alter a battle ot thne dav-, mi Friday the 
21-1 July, a d. 1402, I9th Xil-hijja.' a.h. 
80-1. Baiazid tell into the hands ot tin em- 
peror, ami was carried about in mockery in 
an imn cagi - I o tie Be conqi I Imur 

added Egypt and tin- trea-llli- oi < aim, and 

tlnn fixed tin- -i at oi his , mpire at Samarqand, 
where he received the homage oi Manuel 
Palseologus, emperor of Constantinople, and 

of Iliiirv III. Bong of Castile, by their 
ambassadors. Taimur was preparing fresh 
victories by tin- invasion of China, whin death 
stopped his career on Wednesday the ImIi 
February, a.d. 1405, 17th Sha'-ban, a.h. 807, 
iu the 36th year of his reign, aged 71 pears, 
and was buried at Samarqand. Be was the 
ancestor of Babar, who founded the dynasty of 
the Mu gh ul emperors oi Dehli. Aid r his death 
he received the title of "Firdaus Makani," 
i.e., "May paradise be his place ot residence." 
He had four sons, viz., Jahangir Mirza. Umax 
Shaikh Mirza, Mlran Shah and Shahrukh 
Mirza. Tamerlane on his death-bed named 
his grandson Pir Muhammad, son of Jahangir 
Mirza, the universal heir of all his dominions : 
but the contempt with which his will was 
treated after death was equal to the venera- 
tion which had been paid to his authority 
during his life. The Sultan Khalil, another 
of his grandsons, immediately took possession 
of the capital of Samarqand, and proclaimed 




himself emperor. Tir Muhammad did not 
live long enough to assert his rights, bi t was 
assassinated six months alter the death of 
Lis grandfather. Alter his death, Shahrukh 
Mirza, the youngest of the two surviving suns 
ut Tamerlane, succeeded to the inheritance 
assigned for l'lr Muhammad. 

List of the kings of Samarqand of the race of 
Ami'i I mr. 

Khalil SultAn, the son of Miran Shah. 

Shahrukh Mirza. sen of Amir Taimur. 

Ala-ud-daula Mirza. 

Ulugh Beg Mirza, sun of Shahrukh. 

Mirza Babar, who suhsequently conquered 

Dehli, and became the first emperor of the 

Mughulfl in India. 
Mirza Ahdul-Latif. 
Mirza Shah Muhammad. 
Mirza Ibrahim. 
Sultan Abu Sayyid. 
Mirza Yadgax Muhammad. 

Amir Yemin-uddin ( j jj| 

,v**i, yr* 


entitled Mfilik-ul-Fuzla, ie., the prinee oi 

the learned, was a Turk and an excellent 
poet. He flourished in the time ol Sultan 
Muhammad Khudfi Banda, and died in a.i>. 
1324, a.h. 724. [ Fide Tughardi.] 

Amjad 'Ali Shah (s\jj J^z ^*z*\) 

was the son of Muhammad All Shah, whom 
he succeeded on tlie throne of Lucknow as 
kin<;' of Oudh, with the title of Suria Jah, 
on the 17th May, a.d. 1842, 5th Rabi II. 
A.H. 1258, and died on the Kith March, a.d. 
1847, 26th Safar, a.h. 1263. lie was suc- 
ceeded by his sen Wajid Ali Shah, in whose 
time Oudh was annexed to the British Govern- 
ment on the 7th February, a.d. 1856. 

'Ammar ibn Hissan (^Lo^ ,A ,Uz) 

was All's general of the horse, and was killed 
in battle fought by All against Mu'awia, the 
first khalif of the house of Uiuaia, in the 
month of July, a.d. 657, Safar, a.h. 37. He 
was then about 90 years of age, and had been 
in three several engagements with Muhammad 
himself. He was one of the murderers of 
Usnian, the third khalif after Muhammad. 

Amra-al Qais (^JW *\j*\\ the son 

of Ha jar, one of the most illustrious poets 
the Arabians had before Muhammadanism. 
He is one of the seven poets whose poems 
have, for their excellency,' been hung in the 
temple of Mecca. These poems were called 
Muallakat (suspended), and as they were 
written in letters of gold, they we're also 
called Muzahhibat. The names of these 
seven celebrated poets are Amra-al-Qais, 
Tarafa, Zuhir, Tabid, Antar, AnirO. and 

[Amra-al-Qais is the same person who is 
commonly called Majnun, the lover of Laila, 
and Labid was his friend and master. Amir 
Khussu's Loves of Majnun and Laila has been 
translated into English.] 

Amrit Rao (J, lU..^), a Mahratta 

chief who had been placed on the masnad of 
Puna by Holkar in a.d. 1803, but deposed 
by the British, and a pension of 700,000 
rupees was assigned for his support annually. 
He was the ><>n of Raghunath Rao, commonly 
called Raghoha. For some time he resided 
at Banaras and then in Bundelkhand, and 
died at the termer station in a.d. 1824. 

'Amru bin Mua'wia (\vj.U,« t j »,+-), 

an ancient Arabian poet whose collection of 
poems are to be found in the Royal Library 
at Paris, No. 1120. 

'Amru ibn Al-'As C^oLd ^\ ;j-*-z), 

a celebrated Muhammadan, at firsl the enemy 
and afterwards the friend of Muhammad, of 
whom it is reported by tradition that Muham- 
mad said, •• There is no truer Musalman, nor 
more steadfast in the faith than 'Amru." 
He served in the wars of Syria, where he 
bi haved with_singular courage and resolution. 
Afterwards Umar the khalif sent him into 
I gypt, which h.e reduced in \ d. 641, a.h. 
20, and became lieutenanl of the conquered 
country. Usman continued him in that post 
four v'ears, and then removed him ; where- 
upon he retired to Palestine, where he lived 
privately till Usman's death. Upon this 
event, he went over to Mu'awia upon his 
invitation, and took a great part in the dis- 
pute between 'All and Mu'awia. The latter 
n stored him to the lieutenancy of Egypt, and 
continued him in it till his death, which 
happened in a.d. 063, a.h. 43. Before he 
turned Muhammadan he was one of the three 
poets who were famous for writing lampoons 
upon Muhammad, in which style of composi- 
tion 'Amru particularly excelled. There are 
some fine proverbs of his remaining, and also 
some good verses. He was the son of a 
courtezan of Mecca, who seems to have num- 
bered some of the noblest of the land among 
her lovers. When she gave birth to this 
child, the infant was declared to have most 
resemblance to 'As, the oldest of her ad- 
mirers, whence, in addition to his name of 
Amrii, he received the designation of Ibn- 

'Amru (±.*.x^i ^j jj-a^^z), the son of 

Sa'id, was a cousin of the khalif ' Abdul - 
Malik. In the year a.d. 688, a.h. 69, the 
khalif left Damascus to go against Misaa'b, 
the son of Zuber, and appointed Amru to take 
care of Damascus, who seized upon it for 
himself, which obliged 'Abdul-Malik to re- 
turn. After three or four days the khalif 
sent for him and killed him with his own 

'Amru bin Lais (c^^J ^j t-A-c), 

brother of Ya'kiib ibn Lais, whom he suc- 
ceeded in the government of Khurasan, etc., 
in a.d. 878, a.h. 265, and ruled over those 
countries for 23 years. He was at last 



A\ I A 

seized by Amir [ema'U Samani in a.d. 9 
a.h 288, ::ii'l-(iit to Baghdad, when he was 
confined for some time; In- execution w;i- 
the Lasl act of the Khalif Al-Mo'tasid, who 
gave orders for it a few months before his 
own death in a.i». 901, a h. 289. Hi 
blind of one eye. With Amrn fell the for- 
fcuni - "I his family. Hi- grandson Tfihir 
struggled for power in his native province; 
lint :itt. c a reign oi ais y< irs, during which 
ho conquered Fars, his authority was sub- 
verted by one of bis own officers, by whom 
In was seized and s nt prisoner to Baghdad. 
The only other prince ol the family ol Ban! 
Lais that attained any eminence was a chiel 
of the name of Kh ilaf, who establish d him- 
Belf in Slstan and maintained hi- power over province till th ■ time ol Sultan Mahmud 
of Ghazni, by whom he was defeated and 
made prisoner, 

Amurath, nam< - of several emperors ol 
Turkey, as written by English writers, being 
a corruption oi M cu id, which 

Anandpal (JbjoJl), son of Jaipal I . 

raja of Lahore, whom he succeeded ahonl the 
year a.m. 1001, and b tributary to 

Suit fin Mahmud ol Ghazni. Be died about 
the year 1013, and was succeeded in the 
government by his son Jaipal II. 

Anarkali ( li .\j\), the name of a lady, 

otherwise "Nadira Begam," who li\<d in 
tlic time of the emperor Jahangir. 1 1 ■ r 
mausoleum is at a place called Anarkali in 
Lahore, whicli has been recently used as a 
church. 1 lifEi renl storii - are told one. rning 
tli»> name Anarkali. by which the mausoleum 
a- well as the station in its vicinity is known. 
According to Borne, it was the name ol a 
princess in Jahangir' a time, while others say 
that Anarkali was a beautiful handmaid with 
whom Jahangir fell in love, and who, on 
Akbar becoming awari of it. was buried alive. 
These stories may not be true; but this much 
is at least certain, that the woman after \\ hose 
name the building is called, lived in the time 
of Akbar, or his son Jahangir, that Jahangir 
or some other prince was madly in love with 
her, and that her death took place under such 
mournful circumstances as broke the heart <>t 
the fond lever, and led him to compose the 
following couplet, still found engraved on her 
tombstone : " Oh ! could I see again the lace 
of my lest friend, I would thauk my God 
until the day of judgment." 

Anand Rao, Gaikwar ( ,\£j? J . suj\), 

a Marhatta chief of Baroda, with whom the 
English Government had in 1812 concluded a 
subsidiary alliance. Before the treaty he was 
a nominal dependant of the Peshwa. 

Anas (i^J \ ), a poet of Arabia. 

'Andalib (« ~l±u~). Vide Khwaja 


Anls (iwuJ\), poetical nami of Mohan 
1 . w hich - 

Anisi Shanilu (... .Ll • »•»-} t), a poet 

named Vol Quli Beg. II' was an intin 
tie ml and constant companion ol prim i I hi i- 
liliu Mirzu, a grandson ol Shah I-ma'il Safwi, 
consequently t....k the takhaUas ol Anisi. 
When 'Abdullah Khan rfzbaq took Birat 

lie made ;i proclamation ill Ills army, that 

the lite oi Anisi he spared, and treated him 

with great respect, lie cami t.. India and 

■\ ol 60,000 rupees and a 

i II. do d at I'.irh "mpur in A.l». 1 ' 

.. 101 1. ami has hit a Diwfin and . M - 
nawl called Mehm&d -/• 

Anger Ungrh Khan. ;> king of the Trit 

I rtars, who resided at Karakoram, and to 
whom t li<- celebi I Khan was at one 

time a tributary. lie i- also called Pn 
John by the Syrian Missionaries. Jai 
K . i ii having thrown off hi- allegi 

w ,r i n~n. d. which end. d in the di ath of 
Ang Khan in a.h. L202. 

Anjani ( + ^ x '), tin- poetical name of 

Naw&h Umdat-ul-Mulk Amir Khan. I 

Amir Khan. 

Anup Bai ( Jli <__:»^). the wife of 
the emperor Jahandar Shah, and mother <>f 

Alamgir II. king "t D< hli. 

Anushtakin ( ., 

J^), th 

c cup- 

bearer ol Suit ".n Sanjar. and father ol Sultan 
Quth-uddin .Muhammad ol Khwarizm. 

Ans bin Malik (< OL* .j-J u~-''). 

YitU Aim Hamza bin Nasr-al-Ansari. 

'Ansuri {^j^^z), a poet of the court 
of Mahmud. Vide Unsari. 

Antar (,l^jl), one of the seven Arabian 

poets, whose poems were hung up in the 
temple of Mecca in golden letters, and from 
that circumstance were called Mua'lhvkaf (sus- 
pended), or Muzahhibat (golden). The first 
volume of the history of Antar. called The 
Life and Adventures of Antar, was translated 
into English and published in Decemher, a.d. 
1818, in England. 

[ Vide Amra-al-Kais.] 




Anwari (^c t »JA), a famous Persian poet 

surnamed Ashad-uddin. He formerly took 
for his poetical name "Khafwarl," but he 
changed it afterwards to "Anwari." From 
the superiority of his poetical talents he was 
called the king of the poets oi I<liutr,- r , n . 
He was a native of Abiward in Khurasan, 
was the favourite of Sultan Sanjar SaljukT, 
and the rival of the poel Rashidi surnamed 
Watwat, who espoused the cause of Atsiz, 
tho Sultan of Khwarizm. Whilst the two 
princes were engaged in war, the two poets 
assailed one another by rhymes sent on the 
point of arrows. He 'is also said to I 
been the uTeate>t astronomer of his a ge. It 
so happened in the year a. n. 581 or 582, 
September, a.d. L186, that there was a con- 
junction of all the planets in the sign of 
Libra ; Anwari predicted a storm which 
would eradicate trees and destroy every 
building. When the fatal day arrived it 
was perfectly calm, and there was the whole 
year so little wind, that the people were 
unable to winnow their corn. He was there- 
fore accused for his predictions as an astro- 
loger, and was obliged to fly to Balkh, where 
he died in the reign of Sultan Alauddin 
Takash in a.d. 1200, a.h. 596. His death 
is mentioned in the Khulasat-ul-Asha'ar to 
have taken plaee in a.h. 587, and others have 
written a.h. 592. Anwari, when very young, 
was sitting at the gate of his college, called 
Mansuria in Tus, when a man richly dressed 
rode by him on a fine horse, with a numerous 
train of attendants; upon his asking who it 
was, he was told that it was a poet belonging 
to the court. When Anwari reflected on the 
honour conferred on poetry, for which art he 
had a very early bent, he applied himself to 
it more ardently than ever, and having finished 
a poem, presented it to the Saltan, who ap- 
proved the work and invited him to his palace, 
and raised him even to the first honours of 
the State. He foitud many other poets at 
court, among whom were Salman, Zahlr and 
Eashldi, all men of wit and genius. Anwari 
has left us a collection of highly esteemed 
poems on various subjects, called l>hc<~/» An- 
wari. Verses from his poems are quoted by 
Sa'di in his Gulistan. 

Anwari Khan (^L>- ^.JD, a cor- 
ruption of Abu Raihiin, which see. 

Anwar-uddin Khan (^l^ ^-^ j*^X 

Nawab of the Carnatic, a soldier of fortune, 
who had attained power by treacherous con- 
nivance to the murder of the legitimate heir, 
a child whose guardian he had been appointed 
by Nizam-ul-Mulk. He at first served under 
one of the emperors of Dehll, and was ap- 
pointed governor of Kora Jahanabad. Ill 
success, or perhaps ill conduct, preventing him 
from being able to pay the usual revenues of 
his government to the throne; he quitted it 
privately, and went to Ahmadabad, where 
Ghazl-uddm Khan, the father of Nizam-ul- 
Mulk, gave him a post of considerable trust 

and profit in the city of Surat. After tho 
thiilh of Ghazi-uddln, his son, who had suc- 
C .1 d in the Subadari of tic southern pro- 
vinces, appointed him Nawab of the Carnatic, 
or Vellore ami Rajmandrum, countries which 
he governed from a.h. 1725 to 1711, and in 
a.d. 1711 he wa- formally created governor 
of the country. lie was killed in battle 
fought against Muzaffar .lan--. tic grandson 
of Nizam-ul-Mulk, on the 23rd July, o.s. 
a ii. 1162, who took possession of the Car- 
natic. Anwar-uddin was then 107 years 
old. His eldesl son was made prisoner aud 
his second son, Muhammad All, fled to Tri- 
chinopoly. A heroic poem called Anwar 
\ '. in praise of this Nawab was written 
by Abdi, in which the exploits of Major 
1. ., u . and the first contests between the 
English and French in India are recorded 
with tolerable accuracy. (Vide Sa'adat- 
ullah Khan.) His son Muhammad All was 
confirmed by Nawab Nasir Jang in the 
government of the Carnatic in a.d. 1750. 

Aohad Sabzwari (Khwaja) (j_»-J 

<L=>^»-:>- ,_£,^ .-.--. a), poetical name of 

Khwaja Fakhr-uddin, aphysician, astronomer, 
l po it, ol Sabzwar. Ee died a.d. 1 163, 
\ ii. 868, aged 81 lunar years, and left a 
I Hwan in Persian containing Ghazals, Qasidas, 

Aohadi (jji>J), the poetical came of 

Shaikh Aohad-uddin of Isfahan or Maragha, 
a celebrated Persian poet who put into verso 
the Jam-i-Jam, a hook full of Muhammadan 
spirituality, which he wrote in imitation of 
the Hadiqa of Sanal ; he also wrote a Dlwan 
containing verses. He was liberally rewarded 
by Arghun Khan, the kin-- of the Tartars. 
He was a pupil of Aohad-uddin Kirmani ; 
died in a.d. 1337, a.h. 738, and was buried 
at Maragha in Tabreiz. 

Aohad - uddin Isfahani (Shaikh) 
( .jLjLJ ,.,--' -v J U-5-.0, a Persian 
poet. Tide Aohadi. 

Aohad - uddin Kirmani (Shaikh) 

( j{*£ , ,jJ^J^J), author of the 

Misbah-ul-Arudh. He flourished in the 
reign of Al-Mustanasar Billah, khallf of 
Baghdad, and died in the year a.d. 1298, 
a.h. 697. His poetical name is Hamid. 
He was a contemporary of Shaikh Sa'di of 

Aohad-uddin (,.,jjJta^jO, the sur- 
name of the celebrated Anwari, which see. 

Aoji ( -s-.l), a poet who died in 

A.D. 1640, A.H. 1050. 




'Apa Sahib (, ^L> l»l), a nephew of 

RaghSji Bhonsla II. and cousin to Parsaram 
Bhonsla, commonly called Bala Sahib, raja 
of Nagpnr or Berar. The Latter succeeded 
his father in March, a.d. L816, bul being 
an idiot and unlit to rule, 'Apa Sahib assumed 
the chiei authority under the title oi Regent, 
and had tin- sole conduct <>i tin.- public affairs. 
Although he was in a great degree indebted 
for his elevation to the English Government, 
he early evinced a disposition as inconsistent 
with the gratitude which he owed to that 
State, as with tin obligations ol good faith. 
It was also discovered thai lie had Becretly 
murdered his predeci -- .1 . Bala Sahib (Par- 
saram), in order to obtain thai elevation 
which lie had so disgraced. Ee was conse- 
quently seized in the beginning ol the year 
a.d. 1818, and broughl to the Residency, 
where he continued in confinement till directed 
to be sent under a strong i "rt to the Com- 
pany's territories. When arrived at Raichoro, 
a nllage within one march from Jabalpur, 
he contrived, by bribing some oJ his guards, 
to make his esoape. It is believed thai after 
having for a short period found a refuge in 
Asirgurh, he fled to the Punjab, where he 
remained a mi- rable dependant on the charity 
of Raja Ranjil Singh. After the dethrone- 
ment of 'Apa Sahib, th< grandson "t Raghoji 
Bhonsla was raised to the masnad ol \ igpur. 

\_Viilf Keelle's I mini, ii. 34, f. f.] 

Apa Sahib (, ~^U IjT), also called 

Shalyi, third brother of Partap Singh Nara- 
yan, raja ol Satara. After the dethronement 
of his brother in a.i>. 1839, he was placed on 
the masnad ol Satara by the British Govern- 
ment, and died on th< 5th April, 1ms. 
Before his death he expressed a wish that 
he might adopt as a Bon, a hoy by name 
Balwant Rao Bhonsla. It was, however, 
determined to ann< \ Satara. 

Aqa Muhammad Khan Qajar (Ijl 

,l_5-l_jj ,..U^> •*— 

'), king of 

Persia, of the tribe of Qajar, and son of 
Muhammad Hasan Khan Qajar, ruler ol 
Mazanderan. He was made an eunuch in 
his childhood by 'Adil shah, the nephew and 
immediate successor oi Nadir Shah. After 
the death of 'Adil Shah he obtained his 
release, and joined his father, who was after- 
wards slain by Earim Khan Zand, king of 
Persia. Agha, or Aqi Muhammad, was 
obliged to surrender himself to him, and was 
a prisoner in the city of Shiraz. He had 
for some time been very strictly guarded, and 
•was never allowed to go beyond the walls of 
the town, but afterwards he was permitted 
to go a-hunting. When the last illness of 
Kaiim Khan assumed a dangerous appearance, 
he contrived to have that city on the usual 
pretext of hunting. When intelligence was 
brought to him that the founder of the Zand 
dynasty was no more, accompanied by a few 
attendants, he commenced his flight, and. 

owed by the i onfusion oi the momi m. 
reached his proi ince oi Mazandaran in safi t\ , 
ami proclaimed himseli oneoi the competit 
for the crown oi Persia. Soon after the 

•h oi 'Ali Murad Khan, ruler ol Pa 
in ah. 1 786, be made him- It n 
Isfahan without a battle, hut had foi 

:it< lid With I. Ut! "All KJ. in, the 

last prime oi the Zand family, before he 
became Bole master oi Persia. lart 'Ali 
Khan was pul to death by him in a.d. 17 
14th .Muharram. a.m. 1212. Aqa Muhammad 
Khan was murdered on the loth July, ah. 
17 '.'7. by two oi his att. udants, whom he had 
•. do d to d ath, in the I r ol his 

He had he. n a rill' r ol a gr< at pa: 

Pi rai i fox 2 . bul had onlj tor a Bhoii 

period enjoyed thi undisputed sovereigntj ol 

that country. II- was Bucceeded by his 

nephew, lath 'Ali Shah, who died in a.i>. 

i. \.n. 1260. After him, bis grandson, 

Muhammad Shah, tin Bon ol 'Abbas Mil/a, 
mounted the throne, and died in >I7. when 
his -on. NaMI-uddill Ahmad Shah, the 

pn - nt kiii^r oi Persia, bucci i ded him. 
Aqa Razi ( c J , Ul ), a poet of Persia, 

w ho came to I odia, and aft r bjfl n turn home, 
di< d iii a.d. 1616, a. ii. 102 i. 

'Aqidat Khan (^A^ lUJuJU), title 

oi Mil M dimml. brother ol \ Khin 

M ishhadi. II to India in tin 1 Ith 

\. ur ol 'Alamgir, a i>. 1670, and was rai 
to the rank ol 1,000 and loo - ,v\ ire. 

'Aqil (J-ic), 'Aqil the brother of 'Ali. 

There is a story oi him that being displeased 
with his brother 'Ali the Khalifa, In- wenl 
over to Mu'awiya, who received him with 
.t kindin-- and respect, hut desired him 
to curse "All : and a- hi would not admit of 

any refusal, 'Aqil thus addressed the congre- 

■ ion : •• ( I ] .11 know that "All, 

the -..ii oi Abu-Talib, i- my brother; now 
Mu'awiya has ordered me to curse him, 
therefore, may the curse ol God be upon 
him." So that the curse would ( itln r apply 
to 'Ali or to Mirau : 

'Aqil Khan (^U. 

z), Aqil Khan, 

nephew of Afzal Khan wazir, a nobleman of 
3,000, who served under the emperor Shah 
Jahan, and died a.d. 1649, A.n. 1059. 

'Aqil Khan (Nawab) (^y ^U- J~ : U), 

the title of Mir 'Askari. He was a native of 
Khawaf, in Khurasan, and held the_offiee of 
wizarat in the time oi the emperor 'Alamgir. 
He was an excellent poet : and as he had a 
great respect for Shah Burhan-uddm, entitled 
Raz-i-Hahi, he chose the word Razi for his 
poetical title. He is the author of several 
works, among which are a Masnawi and 
Diwan. He died a.d. 1695, a.h. 1108. Vide 




'Arabshah (iLlt_j>-»c), author of a 

history of Amir Taimur (Tamerlane) called 
Ajdeb-ul-Maqdur, and of a treatise on the 
unity of God. He was a native of Damascus, 

■where he died in a.i>. 1450, a 11. 854. He is 
also called Ibn 'Arabshah and Ahmad Ilm 

Aram Bano Begam (*x-_' yb *U ), a 

daughter of the emperor Akbar, who died 

in the -10th year of her age in A..D. 1(121, 
a. ii. 1033, during the reign of Jahanglr, her 
brother, and is buried in the mausoleum ol 
Akbar at Sikandra in Agra. Her tomb is 
of white marble. Her mother's name was 
Bibl Daulat Shad, and her sist. r's name 
Shakr-uu-nisa Begam. 

Aram Shah (Sultan) (4L*, *U), king 

of Dehli, succeeded his father, Sultan Qutb- 

uddin Aibak, in \.i>. 1210, ah. 007, and had 
scarcely reigned one year when he was de- 
posed by Altimsh the adopted son and Bon- 
in-law of Qutb-uddin) who assumed the title 
of Shams-uddiu Altimsh. 

Araru (,,\,l ), a zamindar of Kora in 

the province of Allahabad, was of the tribe 
of Khichar, who, taking advantage of the 
weakness of the empire, slew Nawab Jan 
Nisar Khan (brother to the wazir's wifi . 
chakladar of that district in a.d. 1731, a.h. 
1144, upon which 'Azim-ullah Khan, the 
son of the deceased, was sent with an army 
to chastise him, but the zamindar took refuge 
iu his woods, and for a long while eluded his 
pursuer, who, tired out, returned to Dehli, 
leaving his army under the command of 
Khwarizm Beg Khan. Araru, emboldened 
by the Nawab' s retreat, attacked and slew 
the deputy ; upon which the wazir Qamar- 
uddin Khan applied for assistance to Burhan- 
ul-Mulk Sa'adat Khan Subadar of Oudh, for 
the reduction of the rebel. Sa'adat Khan 
marched against Araru iu a.d. 1735, a.h. 
1148, killed him in a battle and sent his bead 
to the emperor Muhammad Shah. The skin 
of his body was flayed off, aud sent stuffed 
with straw to the wazir. 

Ardai Viraf ( v 

\\j) t_£J>0» a priest of 

the Magian religion, who lived in the time of 
Ardisher Babagan, kimr of Persia, and is the 
author of the Ardai Viraf Nama, which he 
wrote in the Zend, or the original Persian 

[See Nousherwan Kirmani.] 

Ardisher Bahakan (^JCAi ^djS), 

or Babagan, the son of Babak, was, we are 
told, a descendant of Sasan, the son of Bah- 
man and grandson of Isfandiar. He was the 
first king of the Sasanian dynasty. His 
father Babak, who was an inferior officer in 

the public service, alter putting to death the 
governor appointed by Ardawan (Artabanes) 
made himself master of the province Fars. 
The old man survived but a short time. His 
son Ardisher, alter settling the affairs of 
Fars, not only made himseli master of Isfa- 
han, luii oJ almost all Iraq, before Ardawan, 
who was the reigning prince, took the held 
against him, about the year a.d. 223. The 
armies nut in the plains of Hurmuz, where a 
desperate battle ensued, in which Ardawan 
losl his crown and his life; and the son of 
Babak was hailed in the held with the proud 
title of Shahan Shah, or King of kings. He 
was contemporary with Alexander Severus, 
the Roman emperor. Ardisher (whom the 
Roman historians call Artaxerxes) having 
reigned fourteen years as absolute sovereign 
of Persia, resigned the government into the 
hands ol his son, Shahpur, called by the 
Romans Sapor or Sapores, in the year a.d. 

The following is a list of the kings of Fersia 
of the Sasanian rave : — 

1. Ardisher. 

2. Shahpur I. 

3. Hurmuzd 1. 

4. Bahrain I. 

5. Bahrain 1 1. 

6. Bahrain III. 

7. Narsl. 

8. Hurmuzd II. 

9. Shahpur II. 

10. Ardisher II. 

11. Shahpur III. 

12. llab ram IV. 

13. Yezdijard I. 

14. Bahram Gor. 

15. Yezdijard II. 

16. Hurmuz, or Hurmuzd III. 

17. FirGz. 

18. Balas or Palash. 

19. Kubad. 

20. Jamasp. 

21. Nausherwan (Kasra). 

22. Hurmuzd. 

23. Khusro Parwez. 

24. SherSya. 

25. Ardisher III. 

26. Shahriar. 

27. Turin, or Puran Dukht. 

28. Azarmi Dukht. 

29. Farruzkhrid Bakhtiar. 

30. Yezdijard III. 

Ardisher {.^dX), (or Artaxerxes) IT. 

succeeded his father Shahpur II. in the year 
a.d. 380, aud sat on the throne of Persia 
only four years, during which period no event 
of consequence occurred. He was deposed in 
a.d. 384 by his brother Shahpur III. who 
succeeded him. 

Ardisher ( .*J^dj\), (or Artaxerxes) III. 

a king of Persia, of the Sasanian race, who 
reigned about the year a.d. 629, after 




Ardisher Darazdast 


ancient kin 

f S.J.1 

— »,bj), 



Persia, the Artaxerxes Longimanus "i I 
Greeks, surnamed Bahman, was the son oi 
Isfandiar. Ee succeeded his grandfather, 
Gashtasp, as king of Persia in b.c. 164. 
Ee is celehrated for the wisdom he displayed 
in the internal regulation oi his empire. In 
the commencemenl of the n ign of this 
monarch, the celebrated Etustam was slain 
by the treachery of his brother. This prince 
is supposed to be the Ahasui ras oi Scripture, 
who married Esther, and during the whole oi 
his reign shewed th< greatesi kindness to the 
Jewish aation. The long n ign oi this 
monarch includes thai oi two or more oi his 
immediate successors, who are nol noticed by 
Persian writers. Accordii I lem, he 

ruled Persia 1 12 years, ana « 
by his daughter Queen Bumai. 

Arghun Khan (^Ui. \j*e-j\), the 

of Abaka Khan and grandson oi Balaku 
Khan, was raised to the throne oi Persia after 
the murder oi his uncle Ahmad Khan, sur- 
named Nekodar, in August, a.i>. 1284, 
Jamad I. a.m. 683. Bis reign was marked 
by i'i \\ events of consequi ace. Be n called 
the celebrated Shams -ud- din Muhammad 
Sahib Diwan, his I wazir, who, dis- 

gusted with court, had retired to Isfahan: 
hui this able minister was hardly re-estab- 
lished in his office, before his enemies per- 
Buaded the prince thai he had actually 
poisoned his father ; and the aged wazir 
was in tin r made ovi r to the public 

executioner. Amir Buka, the rival oi Shams- 
ud-din, ruse, upon his fall, to such power 
thai he was tempted to make a grasp ai the 
crown ; bui he was unsuccessful, and losi his 
life in ih atix nijii . \r-li in Khan died on 
Saturday, the LOth March, \ d. 1291, 6th 
Rabi I. \ii. 690, after a reign oi 6 yi 
and 9 months, and was succeeded by hU 
brother Kaijaptu or Kaikhatu. Bis mother 
was a Christian. 

[/'. Sup. Aha Kaau.] 

Argliun Shah Jani Qurbani (Amir) 

reigned in Naishapur and Tus about the year 
a.m. 1337, and was defeated by the Sarbadals 
oi' Sabzwar. 

'Arif (( ij\z), the poetical name of the 

son of Ghulam Husain Khan. He was an 
excellent Urdu poet of Dehli, and died in 
a.d. 1852, a. it. 12G8. 

'Arifl (Maulana) (J ,U), a Persian 

poet who flourished in the time oi the wazir 
khwaja Muhammad bin Is-haq, and wrote a 
work in his name called Diih Ndma. He 
lived in the 9th century of the Hijri era. 

'Arifi (Maulana) ( j \_ z ), son of 

Mubarik M:i-L' ara, w is a b arm d Musalman, 

and was living iii a. ii. 1580, a.m. 988, when 

chronogram on the death of 

-im K.dil. who died in that _\ear, during 

the reign oi the emperor Akbar. 

Arjuniand Bano Begam (y\j 

a-^O, entitled ftfumtaz Mahal (now 

\ " 

corrupted into Taj Mahal and Taj Bibi waa 
the favourite wife of thi Shah 

Jahaii. and daughter oi 'Asai Khan, wazir, 
tin- brothi r oi the celebrated N it •' than 
1- B ni in lie y< ar \.i>. 1 

\ ii l' and marrii <1 to the prim i M 

Khurram afterwards Shah Jahan in ah. 

1612, a.m. 1021, by whom >le had several 

children. She died in child-bed a i> w hours 

afti r the birth oi her Ia*t daughter, named 

Dahai Lra, on the 7tli July, o - 1631 . 1 7th 

/ \ ii. 1040, at Burhaopur in the 

I ' ■ first buried there in a garden 

led Zainiibad, bui afterwards her remains 

were removed to Agra, when a most splendid 

asoleum was buili over her tomb, with a 

ting oi white marble decorated with 

mosaii s, whi< h for the richni ss of the 

mat. rial, the chast< th< di sign, and 

the effect at once briUiant and solemn, ia not 

surpassed by any other edifice either in 

Europe or Asia. Ii was completed in a d. 

i >. \n. 1055, and i- now called the 

I aj," or " Taj Mahal." which is said to 

have coat the enormous Bum oi £3,000,000. 

The chronogram oi her death contains the 

date in the word "Gham," <<v Grief. She 

9 dl( d Kudsia B< am and Nawab 

'Alia B< earn. 

Arjun Singh (^ ^ ,') was one of 
the three sons oi Raja Manaingh. 
[Vidi ./ i f*o», i. p. 485.] 

Arpa Khan C-U- b ,\), one of the 

princes oi thi Tartar family, was crowned 
king oi Persia after the death oi Abu Said 
Khan Bahadur, in November, a.d. 1335, 
a ii 736. Hi reigned five months and was 
killed in battle against Musi Khan in a.d. 

I, who succeeded him. 

[I'ult Abu Said Khan Bahadur.] 

Arsalan Khan (^U- ^JLtS), title of 

Arsalan Quli, the son of Alahwardi Khan I., 
was a nobleman in the service ol the emperor 
Alamgir, and was living about the year a.d. 
1696, a.m. L108. 

Arsalan Shah (*Li ^)Lj.\), the son of 

Sultan Masa'ud III. of Ghazni. He murdi red 
his brother Sherzad in a.d. 1115, a.ji. 509, 
and having ascended the throne, he im- 
prisoned all his other brothers excepting 
Bahrain Shah, who fled to Khurasan and 
sought assistance of Sultan San jar his uncle. 




Sanjai in the year ad. 1118, a. jr. 512, 
marched to Ghazni, and in a battle defeated 
Arsalan Shah, who made his escape to 
Lahore, but was soon alter taken prisoner 
and put to death, when Bahrain Shah ascended 
the throne. 

Arsalan Shah (>Li ^)L.-.i), a king of 

Khwarizm, and son of Atsiz. Vide Alp 


Arsalan Shah Saljuki (>Li ,L«j,1 

Jif?), the son of Tughral II 

and grandson of Sultan Muhammad, brothi r 
to Sultan Sanjar. Arsalan Shah died in 
January, ad. 1176, a.h. 571. His son 
Tughral 111. who succeeded him, was the 
last Sultan of the family of the Salju- 
kides, who reigned in Persia. 

'Arsh-Ashaiani ( jL-£>! . jl-), the 

title given to the emperor Akhar I. alter his 

'Arshi ( J&js), whose proper name 

was Mir Muhammad Momin, was a brother 
of Mir Salah Eashifl, the sou of Mir Ab- 
dullah Mushkin Qalam HusainI, who was 
a celebrated caligrapher under Jahangir. 
Arshi is the author of a poem called Shdhid- 
Arshi, composed in the year a.i>. 1659, a.m. 
1070, also of another work entitled Mehr tea 
Wafa, and of a Dlwan. 

Artaxerxes. Vide Ardisher. 

Arzami Dukht (c^-=50 *-*\$), a 

Li J y 
queen of the Persians, whose general named 
Mehran being killed in a battle against the 
Saracens, she was deposed by the people, who 
placed Yezdijard III. upon the throne in her 
stead, a young man of the royal family. But 
this did not much mend the matter, the 
government of the new king of theirs being 
even more inauspicious than that of the 
queen ; for in her reign the confines of the 
empire were only invaded, but in his all was 
entirely lost, and the whole kingdom and 
country of the Persians fell into the hands of 
the Musalmans. The accession of Yezdijard 
is placed by Sir John Malcolm in a.d. 632, 
a.h. 11, but Major Price fixes it in a.d. 635, 
a.h. 14. 

[ Vide Taurandukht.] 

Arzani Begam (JL> \\- \) wa s the 

daughter of Shahriar, who was marrii d, in 
the 16th year of Jahanglr's reign, to Mihr- 
un-nlsa, the daughter of Nur Jahan. 

[Vide Am Translation i. p. 331.] 

Arzu (j^O, the poetical name of 
Siraj-ud-din All Khan, which see. 

Asa Ahir ( ^Jt>] U ), a shepherd chief, 

who built the fortress of Aslrgarh in the 
Deccan in the 11th century: he had some 
2000 retainers. The hill had long before 
bi en encircled by a wall to protecl the cattle, 
and it was to employ the | r that Asa con- 
structed, instead of the fortifications, which 
still remain, beyond all comparison, the 
strongest native built fortress in India. Asa 
was put to death by Malik Nasir, the Muham- 
madan chief Khandais, who possessed himself 
of the stronghold by breach ry, and com- 
pli till the fortifications. Two centuries later 
Aslrgarh and all Nimar were conquered by 
Akhar and incorporated with the Mughal 
empiri s. It was taken by the British in 1817. 

Asad (j, A), the poetical name of 

Mirza Asad-ullah Khan, usually called Mirza 
Noushah. His ancestors wen- of Samarqand, 
but he was born at Agra ; but was brought 
up and lived at Dehli, where he rose to great 
tame as a poet and writer of the Persian 
language, whilst his compositions in Urdu 
were not less admired. He won the favour 
hi Bahadur Shah, the last king of Dehli, 
who conferred upon him the title of Nawab, 
and appointed him royal preceptor in the art 
of poetry. He is the author oi a Persian 
1 isna, a Masnawl in praise of 'All, and a 
Dlwan in Persian and another in Urdu. 
Both have be< n printed. He was in a i>. 
1852, when sixty years ot age, living at Dehli, 
and was engaged in compiling a history of 
the Mughal emperors oi India. His poetical 
name is Ghalib, which see. He died in the 
year a.d. 1869, a.h. 1285. 

Asadi Tusi ( ,^»'^ JuJ), a native of 

Tiis in the province of Khurasan, and one 
of the most celebrated Persian poets at the 
court of Sultan Mahniud of Ghazni, whom 
the Sultan often entreated to undertake the 
legendary history of Persia, but he excused 
himself on account of his age. His best 
work is supposed to be lost. He was the 
master of FirdausI, who afterwards composed 
the Shah Nama. It is said that FirdausI 
ou his departure from Ghazni requested 
him to finish the Shah Nama, which was 
yet incomplete, and that Asadi composed 
that part of the poem between the Arabian 
conquest of eastern Persia under the khalif 
'Umar, to the end, consisting of 4000 
couplets. The year of Asadi' s death is un- 
known, but it appears from the above cir- 
cumstance that he was living in a.d. 1010, 
ah. 4 01, in which year FirdausI departed 
from Ghazni. The most celebrated of the 
other works of Asadi now extant is his 
dispute between Day and Night, a transla- 
tion of which in English verse is to be found 
in the Rose Garden of Persia, by Louisa 
Stuart Costello, published, London, 1845. 

Asad Khan (Nawab) (. >\j> ^^ S~i\), 

entitled Asaf-ud-daula and Jumlat-ul-Mulk, 

was descended from an illustrious family of 




Turkmans. Tlis father, who fl< -<1 from the 
oppressions of Shah Abbas, oi Persia, into 
Hindustan, was raised to high rank by the 
emperor Jahangir with the title oi Zulfiqar 
Khan, and married to the daughter oi a new 
relation to bis empress Nur Jahan. Sis son 
A -id Khan (whose former name was Ibrahim 
was very early aoticed by Shah Jahan, who 
married him to a daughter of bis wazir 'Asaf 
Khan, and promoted him to the cilice of 
second Bakhshi. which he held till the 16th 
year of 'Alamgir (a.d. 1671 , when he was 
raised to the rank oi 4000, and a few y< 
afterwards to the office of wa/.Ir and highest 
order of nobility, seven thousand. In the 
reign of Bahadur Shah lie was appointed 
Wakil Mutlaq (an office superior to wazir), 
and his son tsma'il made Mir Bakhshi or 
chief paymaster, with the title of Amlr-ul- 
'Umra Zulfikar Khan; hut mi the accession 
of Farrukhsiar. he was disgraced, his estates 

seized, and his son put to death. Alter that 

period, he lived upon a scant] p< osion in a sorl of 

contineinent. hut mueli respi cted by all rai 
He died in the year ad. 1717, a. h. LI 
aged 90 lunar years, and was burii d with 
great funeral pomp ai the expense oi the 
emperor, in a mausoleum, erected by bis 
father for the family. 

Asad-ullah al-GhaUb(v_Jlil! «UUJ), 
the conquering lion oi God, an epithei of AH 

the son-in-law oi .Muhammad. 

Asad-ullah Asad Yar Khan (Nawab) 
(^,U- j\\ ^~*\ <^ JuJ); lie lived in 

the time of the emperor Muhammad Shah, 
and died in a.d. 1745, a.h. 1158. His 
poetical name was [nsan, which see. 

Asad-ullah Khan (Mirza) ( tw J! j^l 
I;-** .\s-). Vide Asad and Ghalib. 

Asaf ("__£.« I), a native of Qnmm in 
Persia, who came to India in the reign of thi 
emperor Shah Jahan. and is the author of a 
Diwan. [The name conns from the legendary 
minister of Solomon, who appears to have 
been merely a musician; vide I. I'hron. 
c. xvi. 7.] 

Asafi (Khwaja) (a^\^ Ju>\), son 

of Khwaja Na'mat-ul-lah, was an elegant 

poet. Asafi is his poetical name, which he 
took on account of his father having served 
iu the capacity of wazlrto Sultan Abu Sa'Id 
Mirza ; for, they say, Asaf or Asaph of the 
Scriptures, was wazir to king Solomon. He 
was one of the contemporaries and com- 
panions of Jauii, and took instructions from 
him in the art of poetry. He died about the 
mouth of August, a.d. 1520, 16th Shaban, 
A.n. 926, aged more than 70, and was buried 
at Herat ; hut according to the work called 
Khulasat-ul-Asha'ar, he died iu a.h. 920. 
He is author of a Dlwan or book of Odes 
called Dlwan Asrrfi, and a Masnawi in the 
measure of Makhzan-ul-Asrdr. 

Asaf Jah («U- u-a-el ), the title of the 
i. it'll Nizam-ul-Mulk of Haidara 

Asaf Khan I. (^U- * c - -T ). surnamed 

Abdul Majid, was a nobleman in the tim< oi 
tie- emperor Akbar, who in a.d. 1565, a.h. 
973, distinguished himself by the conquest of 
G rrakota, a principality on the Narbada, 
bordering on Bnndelkhand. It ••■ i m il 

by a Queen or Rani named Durgawati, who 
opposed the Muhammadan general in an un- 
successful action, and when Beeing her army 
routed and herself severely wounded, Bhe 
avoided falling into the hand- ol the enemy 
by stabbing herself with a dagger. Her 
treasures, which were oi great value, fell 
into the hand- ol Asai Khan; h< secreted a 
great part, and the detection oi this embezzle- 
ment Wafl the illlllH dial. I hi- revolt. 

lb was, however, subsequently pardoned, 
and after the conquest ol Chittour, that 

.. n to \\-ai Khan in jagir. 

Asaf Khan II. (J.±. ±jj\) } title of 

Khraj-Ghayas-ud-din All Qaiwani, the boo 
oi Aqi Midland, ancle to Asai Khan Jafar 
Beg. 11. In Id the Bakhshigari in the time 
..i the i mpi ror Akbar, and alter the conqui -t 
oi Gujrat in a.i>. 157:i. l.h. 981, in which 
he distinguished himself, the title Abbas 
Khan \\a- conferred on him. Be died at 
Gujrat in a.h. 1581, a ii. 989, and alter his 
death hi- m phi w Mirza .1 Lfai B< g was buried 
with the titli ..i Asai Kl an. 

Asaf Khan III. ( 


c_*^-..'), commonly ealL '1 Mirza Ja fax 

I w.i- the son oi Mirza Badi-uz-Zaman 

and -rami-. .n oi Aqu Mulla* Qazwini. He 
was horn at Qazwin, and came to India in 
his youth, a.d. 1577. a.h. 985. At the 
recommendation of hi- uncle Mirza Ghaiia- 
ad-din, who was a nobleman at the court of 
tin emperor Akbar, and bore then the title 
of Asat Khan, was received with honour, 
and after the death oi his ancle the office of 
Bakhshigari was conferred on him with the 
title of Asai Khan, a.d. L581, a.h. 989. 
11. was an excellent poet, and was one of 
the many that were employed by the em- 
peror iu compiling the TdriJeA -lift, and 
alter the assassination of Mulla. Ahmad iu 
a.d. 158S, a.h. 996, the remainder of the 
work was written by him up to the year A.H. 
997. He i- also called Asaf Khan Mirza 
Ja'far Bakhshi Begi, and is the author of a 
poem called Slrirhi ica Khusro. The office 
of chief Dlwan was conferred on him by the 
emperor in a.d. 1598, a.h. 1007, and iu the 
reigu of Jahangir he was raised to the high 
post of wazarat. He died in the year a.d. 
1612, a.h. 1021. In his poetical composi- 
tions he used the name of Ja'far. One of 
his sous, who also bore the name of Ja'far, 
became an excellent poet aud died iu the time 
of 'Alamgir, a.d. 1682, a.h. 1094. 




Asaf Khan IV. (^U- (_aJT), the title 

of 'Abul Hasan, who had several other titles 
conferred on him at different times, such as 
Ya'tqad Khan, Yennn-ud-daula, etc., was the 
sun of the celebrated wazir Ya'tmad-ud-daula, 
and brother to Xur Jahan Begam. Alter his 
father's death in a.d. 1621, a.h. 1030, he was 
appointed wazir bythe emperor Jahangir. His 
daughter Arjumand Biino Begam, also called 
Mumtaz Mahal, was married to the prince 
Shah Jahan. 'Asaf Khan died at Lahore in 
the 1.3th year of Shah Jahan on the 10th 
November, o.s. 1641, 17th Sha'ban, a.h. 
10.51, aged 72 lunar years, and was buried 
there on the banks oi the Raw! opposite to 
the city of Lahore. Besides .Mumtaz Mahal, 
he had four sons, viz., Shaista Khan ; Mirza 
Masih, who was drowned in a drunken frolic 
in the river Behat in Kashmir; Mirza Hu- 
sain, of moderate abilities and little note; 
and Shahnawaz Khan, who rose to much 
reputation and distinction. 

Asaf-ud-claula (<l!.jJ1 
of Asad Khan, which see. 

), a title 


Asaf-ud-claula (Nawab) (a!.jJ1 

t_-?'^-j), the eldest son of Nawab 

Sbujaa'-ud-daula of Aiulh, after whose death 
in January, a.d. 177-3, Zil-qada, a.h. 1188, 
he succeeded to bis dominions, and made 
Lucknow the seat of his government, which 
formerly was at Faizabad. He died after a 
reign of twenty-three lunar years and seven 
months on Friday the 21st September, 
a.d. 1797, 28th RabI I. a.h. 1212, and 
was buried in the Imam Bara at Lucknow, 
of which he was the founder. His eldest 
adopted son, "Wazir All Khan, agreeably to 
his request, was placed on the masnad, but 
was after four months deposed by Sir John 
Shore, then Governor of Calcutta, and Sa'adat 
Ali Khan, the brother of the deceased, raised 
to the masnad. Asaf-ud-daula is the author 
of a Diwan in Urdu and Persian. 

Asalat Khan (^U. t^JU), title of 

Mir Abdul Hadi, son of Mir Miran Tezdi, 
was a nobleman in the service of the emperor 
Shah Jahan. He died in the year a.d. 1647, 
a.h. 1057. 

-JU), title of 

ksalat Khan (^l=L 

Mirza Muhammad, son of Mirza Badia' of 
Mashhad. He came to India in the 19th 
year of Shah Jahan, a.d. 1615, a.h. 1055, 
and was raised to the rank of 5,000 by the 
emperor 'Alam^ir, in whose time he died, 
a.d. 1666, a.h. 1076. 

ksam or Atham (*J\), poetical name of 
Hafiz-ullah, which see. 

Asar (y|) } poetical name of Akhund 

Shafa'i or Shafla'ai of Shiraz, who died at 
Lar in the year a.d. 1701, a.h. 1113, and 
left a Diwan containing 10,000 verses. 

Asar (p\) } poetical name of Nawab 

Husain All Khan, son of Amir-ud-daula 
Haidar Beg Khan. He is the anther of a 

Asgrhar (^U. ^^^^ jJua\\ Husain 

Khan (Nawab) of Furrukhabad, in 1874, 
went to Bombay, intending to proceed to 
Mecca on a pilgrimage. 

Asha'ri (^jxJiS), the surname of one of 

the most celebrated doctors anion? the Musul- 
mans, named Abul Hasan All bin-Isma'il. 
Originally a resident of Bassora and a teacher 
of the seit which flourished there in the 
t' nth century a.d. ; be publicly renounced 
their doctrines and finally removed to Bagh- 
dad, where he died in his 70th year, after 
writing more than half a hundred works on 
the side of orthodoxy. He died about 952. 
[Vide Mu'tazila.] 

'Ashiq ( <, poetical name of Mahdl 

Ali Khan, grandson of Nawab Ali Mardan 
Khan. He is the author of three Diwans in 
Urdu, two in Persian, a book called Hamla 
Haidar i, and several works. 

'Ashiq (^^U), poetical name of Shaikh 

Nur-ud-din Muhammad, the author of the 
Masnawi called Aish wa Tar ah (Enjoyment 
and Merriment), composed in a.d. 1668, 
a.h. 1079. 

'Ashiq Pasha (lib Jh-U), a Turkish 

poet, who was born at Hirshari, in the reign 
of Sultan Orkhan, the successor of Othman, 
and died at no very advanced age, in the reign 
of Murad I. He was, says Yon Hammer, 
one of the richest Shaikhs of his time, but 
lived nevertheless the life of a simple darvesh, 
from conscientious motives. His Diwan or 
great work, in imitation of Jalal-ud-din 
Bumfs, is a collection of mystical poetry, 
exceeding ten thousand disticbs, and divided 
into ten books, each book into ten parts. 

'Ashiq ( JL^lc), poetical name of Mau- 
lana Abul Kliair of Kbwarizm, which see. 

Ashir-ud-din (^JjJ^ r-""*^> P ronouilce( l 
by the Indians Asir-ud-din, which see. 

Ashk (l_ £.JL\), poetical name of Mu- 
hammad Khalil-ullah Khan, which see. 




Ashna (L^l), poetical name of Mirza 

Muhammad Tahir, who had the title of [nail 
Khfui. He was a son of Nawab Zafar Khan 
Ihsan, and died iii a. n. L666, a.h. 1 <> 7 7 . 
His <-<)iii j ili t < • work is called Kulliat ' ./ thna, 
in which Easidae are to be found in praise of 
Shah Jahan and Dara Shikoh. 

Ashna (L..£>1 ), poetical name of Ghaias- 
ud-dln, who died in a.d. 1G62, a.h. 1073. 

Ashob {^ r jJ^\), poetical name of Mu- 
hammad Bakhsh, a poet who flourished in 
Audh during the reign oi Asaf-ud-daula and 
his father Shujaa'-ud-daula. He is the 
author of a Diwan. 

Ashraf (, •— ll), or Darwesh Ashraf. 

He flourished audi t Baisanghar's son, and 
has li ii a Diwan. 

Ashraf Ali Khan Koka ( Jlc 
t££ < ^^-)- I " ,r Fighan. 

Ashraf ( ( 


— Si'), poetical name of 

Mirza Muhammad Sa'id oi Mazandaran, boo 
of Mulla Muhammad Qana'. He cami i" 

India and was appointed to iii-truit ZebuD 

Nisa Begam, the daughter oi tin emperor 
'Alamgir. He died at Mungair. 1 1 . i~ the 
author oi a Diwan and w ?( raJ hfasnawiB. 

Ashraf (u-i^lO, poetical name of Mu- 
hammad Hasan, son oi Shah Muhammad 
Zaman of Allahabad. He was probably alive 
in a.d. 1852, and i- the author <>i a M tanawi 

called Mn'ihiH J'niz. 

Ashraf (,__ i^il), a chief of the Afghans 

of the tribe of Ghilzai, who waa elected on 
the 22nd April, o.s. 1726, by the Afghani 
successor of his cousin or uncle Mahmud, 
another chief oi the same tribe, who had 
usurped the throne of Persia in the time "i 
Sultan Husain Safwi, whom he k. pt in con- 
finenient. Ashraf on hi- aco BSion murdl red 
the latter, and sent his corpse to be interred 
in Qumm. He was defeated by Nadir Quli 
(afterwards Nadir Shah; in a.d. L729, a.h. 
114'J, who placed Shall Tahmasp II. son 
of Sultan Husain on the throne. Ashraf 
was afterwards s, ized and murdered by a 
Billoch chief between Kirman and Qandahar 
in January, a.d. 1730, a.h. 1143, and Ms 
head sent to Shall Tahmasp. 

Ashraf Khan (,. A_>- 

>\), title of 

Mirza Muhammad Ashraf, the son of Islam 
Khan Mashhadi. In the reign of Shah Jahan 
he held the rank of 1500. and the title of 
Ya'tmad Khan. In the time of 'Alamgir he 
was raised to the rank of 3000 with the title 
of Ashraf Khan, and died five days after the 
conquest of Bijapur on the 17th September, 
a.d. 1686, 9th ZU-qada, a.h. 1097. 

Ashraf Khan (^Uk ^J^Ji'), whose 

proper name was Muhammad Asghar, 
a S Mashhad, and held the office 

oi Mir Munshi in the time oi the emperor 
Akbar. He wrote a beautiful hand, and 
was nil ezcellenl poet. He composed a 
chronogram on the death "t Muhammad 
Yusai in a.d. 1662, a.h. - • 7 < ► : another on 
tin- completion oi the mosque oi Shaikh 

S Km (hi-hli at Fathapiir Sikri in A.D. 

1671, a.m. 879 : and one "ii the conquesi 
nt Sural by Akbar on the l-t January, a.d. 
1673, 26th Bha'ban, a b. B80 E( accom- 
panied Munaim Klein Khankhanan to Bengal 
and died at Lakhnauti in the Mar a.h. 1676, 
A.r time "i bis death he held 

the rank oi 2,000. 

'Ashrat (, 

^). Vnh I -1 1 1 ;it . 

'Ashrati ( JJ**c). VitU Mi rati. 
'Ashrati ( " JLz), the name of a | 


'Asi (^-L\ the poetical name of 

i . B irwar, author oi tin ma, 

ich consists l da, all the r< rw - ■■! 
which end in Qaf, hence the name; another 
peculiarity is that the first letter oi everj ?i 
of thi first ( ■ /:il is Alii, oi the second B . 
■ 'i the third I '■ . etc., a ghaaal for i \< r\ letfc r 

nl the alpha 1 

'Asif Khan. ViJ, leaf Khan, 

'Asimi ( aS^zK an Arabian poel who 

lived in the time of Khwaja Nizam-ul-Mulk, 
and wrote beautiful panegyrice in his prai 

Asir (-*-»'), poetical name of Sayyid 

Gulzar Ali, the son "i Nazir, a poel oi Agra. 
He is the author of an Urdu Diwan, and is 
-till living in Agra (1878). 

Asir (- r ^ , ) ) commonly called Mir/a 

Jala! Asir, a celebrated poel oi Persia and 

a relation of Shah Abbas the great. He 
flourished about the year a.h. 1600, never 
came to India, and is the author of a Diwin 
in Persian. He died in a.d. 1630, a.h. 


Asir-ud-din Akhsikati ( ,_<jj\ _. ,\ 

^\\ a native of Akhslkat, 

a city in the province of Farghana, was an 
excellent poet and contemporary with Eha- 
kani. He died in a.d. 1211. ah. 608. 
He spent the greatest part of his life at 
the corrrts of the Atabaks, and stood in 
high favour with Arsalan Shah, the son of 
Tu gh ral, Eldiguz and Qizil Arsalan. 




Asir-ud-din Aomani or Aamani ( ^\ 

LS^ J cH-^^' a P oe ^ °^ Samdan, 
who was a pupil of XasTr-ud-dln Tiisi. He 
is the author of a Diwiin in Persian and 

Asir-ud-din ibn-Umar al-Abkari 
(^^j^ll^c (^jI i^,-^ jir^\ author 

of the Kashf, Zubda, and Hidaya, which is 
also called Hiddyet-ul-Sikmat, the Guide to 
Philosophy. lie died in a.d. 1344, a.h. 

'Asjudi (^jxs^ z ), a powerful poet at 

the court of Sultan Mahniud of Ghaznl, was 
a native of Mary, and one of the scholars 
of 'Unsari. He evinced in his works much 
genius; but they are scarce, and the great* si 
part of them are lost. 

Askaran (Raja) (<fc>-^ ^J*^), brother 

of Eaja Bihar! Mai Kachhwaha. He served 
under the emperor Akbar for several years, 
and died some time after the year a.d. 1588, 
a.h. 99(i. After his death, his son Ri.j 
Singh was raised to high rank and honours. 

'Askari (Imam) (A»\ ^ lf ), Vide 
Hasan Askari. 

'Askari (Mirza) {\\^ ^jj^z), third 

son of the emperor Babar Shah. On the 
accession of his eldest brother, Humavun, to 
the throne of Dehll, the district of 'Sarkar 
Samhhal was conferred on him as jagir. He 
was subsequently kept in confinement for some 
time on account of his rebellious conduct by 
Humayun on his return from Persia. He 
afterwards obtained permission to go on a 
pilgrimage to Mecca, but died on his way 
across the deserts of Arabia in the year a.d. 
1554, a.h. 961. He left one daughter, who 
was married to Yusaf Khan, an "inhabitant 
of Mashhad. 

Asmai (j*^J), surname of Abu Said 
Abdul Malik bin Qureb, which see. 

Asmat (w-^*w*2_.z), or Ismat, poetical 

name of Khwaja Asmat-ullah of Bukhara. 
He was descended from a noble family of 
Bukhara tracing his ancestry to Ja'far," the 
son of Abu Talib, the father "of All. He was 
successful in all kinds of poetical composition ; 
and flourished in the time of prince Mirza 
Khalil, the grandson of Amir Taimur, whom 
he instructed in the art of poetry. He died 
in the year a.d. 1426, a.h. 829, 'and has left 
a Diwan consisting of 20,000 verses. 

'Asmat-ullah (<lJ\ 


'Asmat-ullah (Mulla) (<L.J,! 

L»), of Saharanpur, was the author 
of the work called Shurah Khulasat ul-llisab. 
He died in a.d. 1626, a.h. 1035. 

Asoka (tJsyJ\), the sou of Bindusara 

and grandson of Chandragupta, raja of Patali- 

putra in Magadha. He reigned for al t 

forty years, until the year b.c. 223. II i- 
reign is most important. Numerous inscrip- 
tions made by his order have been discovered 
in various parts of India. In hi> (diets he 
styles himself " Plyadasi." 

'Assar {J^S) (oil-presser), the poetical 

name of Shams-ud-din Muhammad. He was 

a native of Tain. /. and author of a romantic 
poem called Mehr wa Mush tart, the Sun and 
Jupiter, which he completed ou the 2uth 
I unary, a.d. 1377, 10th Shawwal, a.h. 
77s, and died in the year a.d. 1382, a.h. 

Aswad (jy^i\), or Al-Aswad. Vide 

'Ata (lliz), the poetical name of Shaikh 

Ata-ullab., a pupil of .Mirza Bedil. He died 
at Dehli in a.d. 1723, a.h. 1135. 

Atabak (cXjlj'0, or Atabeg. This is 

a Turkish title, formed from the word Ata, 
father or tutor, and Beg, lord; and signifies 
a governor or tutor of a lord or prince. 
From the time of the decline of the dynasty 
of Saljukto the conquest of Persia by Halaku 
Khan (which occupies a period of more than 
a century), that country was distracted by the 
contests of a number of petty princes, or 
governors, called Atabaks; who, taking ad- 
vantage of the weakness of the last mouarchs 
of the race of Saljiik, established their 
authority over some of the finest provinces 
of the empire. One of the most distinguished 
of these Atabegs was Eldigirz, a Turkish 
slave, whose descendants reigned over 'Azur- 
bejan. The Atabegs of Pars were descended 
from Salghur, a Turkish general. 

[ Vide Eldiguz and Sal gh ur, also 'Imad- 
ud-din Zangi. There were four dynasties 
of these Atabaks.] 

Atabak Abu Bakr ( r £j .jl ( Cj\j\), 

the son of Atabak Muhammad, the son of 
Eldiguz, succeeded his uncle Qizal Arsalan as 
prime minister to Tughral III. Sal Juki, iu 
a.d. 1191, a.h. 587. He appears to have con- 
tented himself with the principality of 'Azur- 
bejan, and fixed his residence at Tabrez. His 
long reign was only disturbed by one war 
with his brother Qutalaq, in which he was 
victorious. Qutlaq fled into Khwarizm aud 
encouraged Ala-ud-din Takash to advance 




against Tnghral HI. whom he defeated and 
.slew in A.D. 1194, a.m. 590. Abu Bakr 
died in A.D. 1210, a.h. 607. and was soc- 
ceedi m1 by liis lnot her Atabak Muzaffar. 

Atabak Abu Bakr bin-Sa'd bin-Zangi 

( v _j*Jj ^ -^*-^ ^ J^. }->} U-CjIj\). 

Tide Sunqar. 

Atabak 'Ala-ud-daula (*Lc uJoUl 

<U^jJl), the son of Atabak Sain, on* 

of the Atabaks of Isfahan of the race oi the 
Dilamites. He died in a.d. 1227. a.m. 624, 
aged 81 years. 

Atabak Eldiguz (lTjJu l. -C-LjI). 
Tide Eldiguz. 

Atabak Muhammad (_v^sr* ( C ... 

was the eldeei boo oi Eldignz, whom he 
succeeded as prime ministei in \ .n. 1172, 
a.h. 568. When Tnghral III. a prince oi 
the Saljukian dynast] (who was a child "i 
seven yean oi age), was placed on the throne 
in a. n. 1 176, Muhammad, \\ ho was lii- ancle, 
became the actual ruler of Persia. This chief 
after enjoying power L3 year- died in March, 
a. n. 1 186, /il-liijja. a.m. 681, in which 
the conjunction 01 all the planets t<ink p] 

lie \va> suci ceded by hi> lip it her Qizal Ar-ahm. 

Atabak Muzaffar ( i % . + L^Ci\j\), the 

son of Atabak Muhammad. He succeeded 
his brother Abu Bakr in a.h. 1210, a.h. 
607. and not only inherited Azurbejan, but a 
considerable part of 'Iraq. He enjoyed this 
power Ifi years; after which 'Aznrbejan was 
invaded and conqui red by Jalal-ud-din, 
the monarch oi Khwarizm, a.i>. 1225, a.h. 
622. Muzaffar shut himself up in the fori 
of Alanjaq, where he died; and with him 
perished the power oi the family oi Eldignz. 


Muzaffar - ud - din Zangi 
_Xjlji), a prime of 
Shiraz, and brother of Sunqar, which see. 

Atabak Sa'd bin-Zangi. fide Sunqar. 

'Ata Husain Khan ( .[£. it ^u^- Ikz), 

whose poetical name was Tahsm, is the 
author dt the Nautarz Murassa', an Urdu 
translation of the Cluihar Danoesh. He 

flourished in the time of Nawab 'Asaf-ud- 
daula of Lucknow, about the year a.d. 1776, 
a.h. 1189. As a specimen of the Urdu 
language the Nautarz Murassa* was rendered 
objectionable for students, by his retaining 
too much of the phraseology and idiom oi 
the Persian and Arabic. On this account a 
simple version was executed by Mir Amman 
of Dehli in a.d. 1802, a.h. 1217, which is 
styled the Bagh-o-Bahar. 
[ Vide Tahsln.] 

Atal (JoU, a name assumed by Mir 

Abdul J.i 111 Dehli in Ins poetical composi- 
tions, who "/a\e nut that he was by inspira- 
tion the pupil oi .briar Za&alli, and w 
po< try in Persian and Arabic. 

'Ata Malik (v_£L liac). Vide Ata- 
ud-din Burnami d 'Ata Malik. 

Atash {tuu ' ). pot tieal name of Khw aja 

Ilaidar Ali <it Lucknow, «hu i- tin author 
oi two Diwins >>r books of 
Persian and Urdfl vers - lb died in a.d. 
1847, ah. ;_ 

'Ata-ullah (dL^J! Ua-c), Burnami 

reral Mnsalmin authors, but particularlj 
oi Ti|-ud-din Muhammad bin-Ahmad bin- 

Ata-ullah, who is the author oi a 1 k 

entitled Hakam - a/ - .Iff. which treats on 
M isalman law, and i» to be found in the 
Royal Library ai Paris, No. 672. There is 
one Ata-ullan who i- the author ol a dic- 
tionary calli . / • - ■ 

'Ata-ullah (&A] Ike), bin-Muhammad 

-al-Hnsaini NaiBhapuri, author ol the TLauzaU 
ul-Ahbdb, containing the history oi Muham- 
mad, nt his companions, and oi the i« 

[mains. This 1 k was written at Hi 

and di dicated to Amir 'Alisher in a.h. l , 
a.h. B99 II - died Amir Jamil -ud- 

din Ata-ullah. He also wrote another work 
on the art ol writing poetry, entitled Eitdb 
1 ... Sanaa' t, dedicafc d to tin Bame 

Amir, in which he calls himseli 'Ata-ullah 
bin-Muhammad-al-Husaini Naishapuri. He 
was wazir to Sultan Husain Mini oi Herat, 
and died in the beginning <•! the Mar 
a.h. 917. 

At-har or Athar Khan ( ,\£. _i-'\ 

the son oi Amir Xizfim-ud-din Bazwi; he 
was a native oi Bukhara, and came to India 
in the time oi the emperor 'Alamgir, where 
he collected his poems into a Diwan. 

Atma' (&x*b\), a poet whose proper 
name is Abu Is-haq Hallaj, which see. 

Atsiz (LuuJJ), one of the Sultans of 

Khwarizm called Atsiz ibn - Auk by Ibn 
Khallikan. Tutush or Turtnsh, sod oi Alp 
Arsalan, who was lord oi the countries to the 
ia-t hi Syria, caused him to be arrested, and 
having put him to death on the 21-t October, 
a.d. 1078, 11th Rabi II. a.h. 471, took 
possession of his kingdom. 

Atsiz (\m3\), a Sultan of Khwarizm 

called by ibu-Khallikfui. Atsiz, the son of 
Qutb-ud-din Muhammad, the son of Anush- 
takin. He was contemporary with Sultan 




Sanjar Saljuki, with whom ho had several 
battles. He died in a.d. 1166, 6th Jamad 
II. a.h. 551, and was succeeded to the 
throne by bis son Alp Arsalan, who is also 

called Aj'ia Arsalan. He died in a.d. 1162, 
19th Rajah, a.h. 557. 

Atsiz ( ;^ji), son of Ala-ud-dln Hasan 

Jahan S5z, kin- oi Ghor. II i reigned after 
Baha-ud-din Sam, and was killed in a battle 
against Taj-ui-din Elduz, prince of Ghazni, 
some time about the year a.d. 1211, a.h. 
608. He was the last of the kings of Ghor 
of this branch. 

'Attar ( ,Lk_e), poetical name of Farld- 

ud-din Attar, which see. 

Aurang (LjCii^), name of a lover 

whose mistress was Gulehehra. 

Aurangabadi BegamC^Cj ^oIjUj ,ji), 

one of the wives of the emperor Aurangzeb 

Aurangzeb (\^^i'SJ ^\), the son of 

Shah Jahan, emperor oi Dehll. On liis 
accession to the throne, he took the title of 
'Alamglr, agreeably to the custom of the 

Eastern princes, who always assume a new 
one on that occasion. 

[Tide 'Alamgir.] 

Aurangzeb (c-^o jXi .S), private name 

of the emperor 'Alamgir 1. which see. The 
Mughal Emperors changed their names on 
accession, like the Popes of modern times. 

Avank Khan (jjlrk i >jS), or Ung 

Khan, a prince of the tribe of Karit or Kirit, 
a tribe of Mughals or Oriental Tartars, who 
made profession of the Christian religion. 
He was surnamed Malik Yuhanna, or king 
John. From the name of this prince we 
have made John the Priest, who was stripped 
of his dominions by Changez Khan in a.d. 
1202, a.h. 599. They have since applied 
the name of John the Priest or Prestre John 
to the king of Ethiopia, because he was a 
Christian. Avank Khan is by some authors 
called Avant Khan. He was a very power- 
ful sovereign, and the greatest part of 
Tartary was tributary to him ; but he was 
defeated and put to death by Changez Khan. 

Aven Rosch. Vide Ibn RashTd. 

Avenzur. Vide Abdul Malik bin-Zohr 

Averroes. Vide Ibn Rashid. 

Avicenna. Vide Abu Slna. 

Aweis Qarani (Khwaja) ( Jja (j*JjO, 

an upright Musalman of the Sufi sect, who 
had given up the world, used to say to those 
that sought him, "Do you seek God? If 
yon do, why do you come to me? And if 
Vou do not Beei God, whal business can I 
have with you?" He was an inhabitant of 
Yeman and ot the tribe of Qaran. He was slain 
in a battle fought by All againsl Mu'awia I. 
in a.d. 657, 17th Shawwal, a.h. 37. This 
man had never seen Muhammad, and yet the 
Musalmans say, that when he heard that 
Muhammad had lost a tooth in battle, and 
not knowing which, he broke all his teeth. 

Aweis Jalayer (Sultan) (SLs>- {j**-.^ 
i^LLLj) succeeded his father, Amir 

Hasan Buzurg, as king of Baghdad in July, 
A.D. 1356, Rajab, a.h. 757, and alter a 
reign of nearly nineteen lunar years died on 
Tuesday the 10th October, a.d. 1374, 2nd 
Jamad I. a.h. 776. He was succeeded by 
bis son Sultan Husain Jalayer. 

Aweis Mirza (\\j~+ (_/*-;>. J^' a P r i nce 

nearly related to Baiqara Bahadur, was 
nephew to Abul Ghazi Sultan Husain Baha- 
dur. He was murdered by Sultan Abu Said 
Mirza, between the years a.d. 1151 and 
1 157. 

'Ayani ( ,JLj:), whose proper name 

was Abu I«;-ha(j Ibrahim, probably nourished 
previous to the 8th century of the Ilijrat. 
He is the author of a Ma-mawi called Anliin 
Nama, a history of the prophets who pre- 
ceded Muhammad. 

Ayaz (ilji), a slave of Sultan ITahmud 

of Ghazni who, being a great favourite of his 
master, was envied by the courtiers ; they 
therefore informed the Sultan that they 
frequently observed Ayaz go privately into 
the Jewel office, whence they presumed he 
had purloined many valuable effects. The 
next time when the slave had entered the 
treasury, the Sultan followed by a private 
door, and, unobserved, saw Ayaz draw from 
a large chest a suit of old dirty garments, 
with which having clothed himself, he 
prostrated himself on the ground and re- 
turned thanks to the Almighty for all the 
benefits conferred on him. The Sultan, 
being astonished, went to him, and demanded 
an explanation of his conduct. He replied, 
"Most gracious Sire, when I first became 
your Majesty's servant, this was my chess, 
and till that period, humble had been my lot. 
Now that, by the grace of God and your 
majesty's favour, I am elevated above all the 
nobles of the land, and am intrusted with the 
treasures of the world, I am fearful that my 
heart should be puffed up with vanity ; I 
therefore daily practise this humiliation to 
remind me of my former insignificance." 
The Sultan being much pleased, added to his 
rank, and severely reprimanded his slanderers. 




'Ayaz (Qazi) ( ^13 ^L), son of 

Musa, and author "i the Sharah 8ahlh 
Muslim, 3£ashariq-ul-Anivdr, and Beveral 
other works. Ee died in a.d. 1149, a.m. 

'Ayesha (^LAulc), daughter of Abu 

Bakr, and one of the most beloved wives ol 
Muhammad, though she bore him no child. 
She was bis third wife, and the only one 
that was a maid, being then only seven 
years of age; on which account (some Bay) 
her father, whose original name waa Abd- 
ullah, was named Aim Bakr, that is to Bay, 
the fathi r ol the virgin. An Arabian author, 
cited by Maracci, says. 1 1 1 ; < t Abu Bakr waa 
very averse to giving him hi- daughter bo 
young, hut thai Riuhammad pretended a 
divine command for it; whereupon he aenl 
her to him with a basket oJ dates, and when 
the girl waa alone with him, he stretched ou1 

hl8 hand, and rudely took hold o| hi r cloth) - : 

upon which she looked flercelj at him, and 
said, " People call you the faithful man. 
but your behaviour to me -hew- you are a 
perfidious one." Bui thisstorj Lsmosl pro- 
bablyone oJ those calumniee againsl Muham- 
mad which were invented and found favour 
in the Middle Ages. Affe r the death of hi r 
husband she opposed the succession ol All. 
and had several bloody battli - with him ; 
although violent, her character was respected, 
and when taken prisoner bj All she wa- dis- 
missed without injury. She was tailed 
prophetess and moth t of the faithful. She 
died, aged 67, in the year a.d 678, \.n. 
58. Her brother Abdur Rahman, one ol the 
four who >tood out againsl Yezid'a inaugura- 
tion, died the Bame year. There i- a tradition 
that 'Ayesha was murdered by the direction 
of Mirawia I. and the following particulars 
are recorded : 'Ayesha having resoluu ly and 
insultingly refused to engage her allegiance 
to Ye/ul, Mirawia invited her to an enter- 
tainment, where he had prepared a ray deep 

well or |iit in that pari ot the chamber 

reserved for her reception, and had thi 
mouth of it deceptively covered over with 
leaves and straw, a chair was then placed 
upon the fatal spot, and 'Ayesha, on being 
conducted to her seat, instantly sank into 
eternal night, and the mouth of the pit was 
immediately covered with stones and mortar. 
There is, however, no trust worthy authority 
in support of this story. 

'Ayn-uddin (Shaikh) (^ ... a! \ ,~c), 

of Bijapur, author of the Mulhiqat, and 

Kitab-ul-Jnwar containing a history of all 
the Muhammadan saints of India". Ee 
nourished in the time of Sultan Ala-uddin 
Hasan Bahmani. 

'Ayn-ul-Mulk (Hakim) (ujCU!! ^c 
f-^X a native of Shlraz, aud a \vell- 

educated and learned Musalman, was an 
officer of rank in the time of the emperor 

Akbar. Ee was an - li ganl pi .t, and hi- 
poetical name mu Wafa. II. died in the 
•tilth year ol the emperor in a.i>. 1694, \ n 

'Ayn-ul-Mulk (Khwaja) (i_<Lv' ..„_- 
te>~\^-), a distinguished noblemarj in 

the court of Sultan Muhammad Shah 
Tnghlaq and his Bucceesor Sultan Firos 
Shah Barbak, kin-- ol Dehh~. 1I> is the 
author ot Beveral works, one of which is 
called Tarail l Ayn-ul-M Hi also 

apt • be the author ol anothi r work 

called Fatha Wdma, containing an account 

ol the Conquests d Sultan 'Ala-uddin Sikan- 
dar Sfnii, who reigned from a.d. 1296 to 
A.i>. 1316. 

'Aysh fjjLfcc), poetica] name of Mu- 
hammad 'Askari, who lived in the reign of 
tie c mperor Shah 'Alam. 

'Ayshi (JS^c), a poel who u the 

author ol B M.i-nawi called /.' tar, 

"i the -'\«n plamt-. which he Hint, in 
a d. 1676, a. it. IOC 

Azad (jljl), poetical name of Mir 

Qhulam All of Bilgram, horn about 1703. 
II - tatlnr Sayvad Nuh, who died in a.d. 
1762, a. ii. 1 166, waa tin bos of th 
brated Mir Abdul Jalil Bilgrami. Hi was 
an excellent poet and is the author ol Beveral 
work- in Persian and Arabic, among which 

h . hat - ill -Mil 
Khazana 'Atnira, and Tazkira Sa * '.< 
Bi died in the %, ar a.d. 17m;. a. h. 1200. 

Azad (j ! j1), the poetical name of 
Captain Alexander Eiderley, in the -nice 

Ol the raja ot Alwar. 1 1 • «:i- a food 

and has hit a -mall Diwan in Urdu. His 
father's name was Jam.- Eiderley, and his 
brothi r'a Thomas Eidi rl< y. Be died on the 
7th July. L861, Zilhij. a.'h. 1277, at Alwar, 
aged o'J \< ar-. 

Azad Khan (^,U. dtjT), governor of 

Cashmere, of the Afghan tribe, succeeded his 
fatler. Eaji Karim Dad, a domestic officer 

ol Ahmad Shah Abdali, and who was at the 
death of that prince advanced to the govern- 
ment of Cashmere by Taimur Shah, as a 
reward for quelling the rebellion of Amir 
Khan, the former governor. Azad Khan waa 
only IS years ol age (in 1783) when he was 
governor ol Cashmere, but his acts of ferocity 
exceeded common belief. 

'Azaeri (^lac). Fide Uzaeri. 

Azal (JjU, poetical name of Mirza 
Muhammad Aurin, who died iu a.d. 1728, 

A.H. 1141. 




'Azam Shah (aLi Jir^), the third son 

of the emperor Alamgir, was horn on the 
lltli July, o.s. 1653, 25th Shahan, ah. 
1063. After his father's death (his eldest 
brother Bahadur Shah being then at Kabul) 
he was crowned in the garden of Shalimar 
at Ahrnadabad in the Deccan on the 4th 
March, o.s. 1707, 10th Zil-hijja. ah. 1118, 
but was soon after slain, together with his 
two sons, Bedar Bakht and Walajah, in a 
battle fought against his chhst brother at 
Jajowan between Agra and Dholpur. This 
took place on Sunday the 8th June, o.s. 
1707, 18th Rabi' I. a.h. 1119, three lunar 
mouths and eighteen days after bis lather's 
death. His mother's name was Bano Begam, 
the daughter of Shahnawaz Khan. He was 
buried in the mausoleum of Humayun at 
Dehli. His two youngest suns who survived 
him were 'All Tatar and Bedar Dil. 

Azdihak. Vide Zuhiik. 

'Azd-ud-daula (<d«j^ s*dz), a Sultan 

of the Boyites, succeeded his father, Rukn- 
ud-daula, in September, a.d. 976, Muharram, 
a.h. 366, to the government oi Fars and 
'Irak, as well as in the office of wazlr or 
Amir-ul-Umra to the khallf Al-Taya Billah 
of Baghdad, in the room of his cousin I/.z- 
ud-daula, the son of Maizz-ud-daula, whom 
he killed in battle in a.d. 978, a.h. 367. 
He built the mausoleum of 'All at Najaf 
Ashraf , embellished Baghdad and other places 
by magnificent public buildings, and died on 
Monday the 27th March, a.d. 983, 8th Shaw- 
wal, a"h. 372, aged 47 lunar years. At his 
death the reigning khallf read the prayers at 
the funeral of this good and great man. His 
name is still fondly cherished in a country 
over which he endeavoured during the reign 
of Ms father and his own, being a space 
of 34 years, to diffuse prosperity and joy. 
His power and possessions became from the 
moment of his death a subject of contest 
between his brothers and nephews. 

'Azd-uddin (Qazi) ( ^\j ,.js\\ Jmxc), 

of Shiraz, author of several works, one of 
which is called the Muwaqif 'Azdia, a cele- 
brated work in Arabic on Jurisprudence. He 
flourished in the time of Shah Abu Is-haq, 
governor of Shiraz, to whom he dedicated 
the above work. He died a.d. 1355, a.h. 

<tai ^ a -- 

fi ^ ^ 

f^jl&l Juslc 

'Azid la din-allah-hin-Yusaf-hin 
Hafiz ( 

liiW), the eleventh and last khallf of 

Egypt of the Fatimite dynasty, succeeded his 
father, Faez-bi-nasr-allah Isabm-Zafir, in the 
year a.d. 1158, a.h. 553. But the state of 
affairs in Egypt was now tottering to its fall . 
The descendants of 'Ali from the death of Al- 
Musta'ali Billah, a.d. 1101, had become 

puppets in the hands of their wazlr or Anrir- 
ul-Javush (generalissimo), who wielded all 
the regal authority of the state : two Amirs, 
Dargam and Shawar, had contested in arms 
this high dignity ; and the latter, defeated 
and expelled from Egypt, sought refuge and 
aid from Nur-uddln, styled Malik -uI-'Adil 
Nfir-uddin Mahmud, the celebrated ruler of 
Syria. The sovereign of Damascus eagerly 
embraced the opportunity of obtaining a 
footing in Egypt, and in a.d. 1163, a.h. 
558, despatched a force under Asad-ud-dln 
Shirakoh (the brother of Aiyiib) and Ids 
nephew Salah-uddin to reinstate Shawar, 
whose rival called in the Christians of Pales- 
tine to bis support ; but ere Aniaurv (the 
brother and successor of Baldwin III.) could 
enter Egypt, Dargam had been overpowered 
and slain by Shirakoh, who replaced Shawar 
in his former power. But Shawar, faithless 
alike to friend and foe, now entered into 
arrangements with the Franks in order to 
elude the fulfilment of his engagements with 
Xur-uddln ; and Shirakoh, alter maintaining 
himself tor some time in Belhes against the 
joint forces of Jerusalem and Egypt, was 
compelled to enter into a convention with 
Amaurv and evacuate the country. But he 
was soon recalled by Shawar to deliver him 
from the vengeance of his new allies, to whom 
he had proved a- perfidious as to those of 
his own faith; Cairo was closely besieged 
by the Franks, and the Fatimite khallf, 'Azid 
le-din-allah, sent the hair of his women, the 
extreme -vmbol of Oriental distress, to im- 
plore the succour of Nur-uddin (a.d. 1168). 
Shirakoh again entered Egypt with an army, 
forced Amaurv to retreat, and after beheading 
the double traitor Shawar, installed himself 
in the twofold office of wazir to the Fatimite 
khallf and lieutenant of Egypt in the name 
of Nur-uddln ; but dying the same year, 
was succeeded in his dignities by his famous 
nephew Salah-uddin, who, after the death 
of Nur-uddln in May, a.d. 1173, Shawwal, 
a.h. 569, became the sole master of Egypt 
and Syria. The khallf 'Azid died in a.d. 
1171, "a.h. 567, and the name of the Abba- 
side khalif Mustazi was substituted in the 
public prayers till the death of Nur-uddln. 

'Azim (,, 


j, : ^r)^ the son of Mulla Qaidl, 

and a nephew of Mulla Naziri, was a Persian 
poet of Naishapur. He flourished about the 
year a.d. 1663, a.h. 1074, and is the author 
of a Diwan, and a Masnawi called Fauz 

[Vide Azim Naishapuri.] 

'Azim (Jjic\), poetical name of Siraj- 

ud-daida Muhammad Gliaus Khan, Nawab of 
the Karnatic. 

'Azim ( Jii\), poetical name of Sayyad 

'Azim 'Ali of Allahabad, author of a Diwan 
in Urdu, composed in a.d. 1855. 





'Azim Ali (Mir) (^ 1* Jacl), of 

Agra, author of b Sikandar Name in Brdfi 
verse, translated from the one in Persian, in 

a. ii. 1844. 

'Azim Humayun L,»jL«Jb *Ja-cO- 
Pi<fo Adil Khan Faruqi II. 

'Azim Humayun Shirwani ( x '• -' 

Lsi/ - * \^jy Ajt> ^ a nobleman of the 

court of Sultan Sikandar Sh'ili Lodi. Bi 
\va- imprisoned by Sultan Ibrahim and died 
in prison. 

'Azim Jan (jrU- +^Lc), Nawab of 

Aikat, died 1 1th January. 1874, aged 71 
He was the b< cond son of Azim Jah, on 
the Nawahs of the Carnatic, and the ancle 
of tin late Nawab Ghulam Muhamm i l 
Khan. Be reo iveS a pi osion oi 2500 rnpi i - 
from the GrOVI unci. nt. 

'Azim Jah (Nawab) ((_ 

Siraj-ul-Umra, the son oi Azim-ud-daula, 
Nawab oi the Carnatic, was installed bj the 
British Government as Nawab on the 3rd 
February, 1820. Be died on the 12th 
Nbvi mbi r. L826, agi d 34 yi 

'Azim Khan (J^ ^\) t or Kh 

'Azim, an officer oi state in the time ol 
llnniavun and Akhar. emperor of Dehli. 
He was commonly called Anka Khan, sur- 
named Shams-uddin Muhammad, and was the 
father oi Mirza A/i/ Koka, who also after- 
wards held the title of 'Azim Khan. II, 
was a native oi Ghazni, and formerly served 
under Prince Kamran Mirza. It i- -aid thai 
he saved the life oi Bumuyun, or had been 
of some service to him after his di t. at by 
Sher shall at Kanauj ; for which service he 
was handsomely rewarded by thai emperor 
after his having recovered the kingaom. 
Be accompanied the emperor to Persia, and 
n- his wife, JijI Begam, became the wi t- 
nurse oi Akhar, the emperor's son, he was 
consequently called Atyak Khan. Be was 
the firsl person thai was honoured with tin- 
rank of •• Halt Bazari," or Seven Thousand, 
by Akbar. The office oi Wakll, 
which was taken away from Maham Anka. 
was also conferred on him : on which account, 
Adham Khan Kokaltash {q.v.), the son of 
Maham Anka, took offence, and assassinated 
Khan -Azim on Monday the I8tb May, .\.i>. 
1562, 12th Ramzan, a.h. 969, in a room 
adjoining to thai occupied by the emperor. 
Adham Khan was immediately hound hand 
and foot by order of the emperor, and thrown 
down headlong from a window of the court 
at Agra, where this circumstance had taken 
place, and crushed to death. The remains 
of Khan 'Azim were sent to Dehli, and 
buried in the vicinity of the Dargah of 
Nizam-uddTn Aulia, where a mausoleum was 

1 over 1 m Mirzfi Aziz 

Koka, which i- —till to \x Been ai Ii<hli. 
Maham Anka died with griei one month 

alt- t the dl ath oi hi- son Adham K 

The tomb "i Adham Khan, who it 
buried at Dehli, is called Bhul Bhulian. 

'Azim Khan ( .A 

k-ct). The 


ha I thi town ol Azimgarh, which 

i- neat Jaunpur, say thai the torn.- and 
town nt Azimgarh was founded by a person 
\\\i<> belonged to the family oi thi \. 
oi thai place, and who was forced l>\ the 
■I ror Jahangir to l>< oomi a Muhainmadan, 
ana received the titli of Azim Khun. 

'Azim Khan (^U- Jbe\), commonly 

called Mirza Aziz Koka or Kokaltash, was 
d oi ' \zim Khan oi K h iii 'Azim. 
II' was called Koka or Kokaltash on account 
ot hi- being foster-brother and playroat 
Akbar; for bis mother, whose name was JijI 
Begam, was Akbar's wet-nurse. !!• was 
on< of the best generals oi the emperor, who, 
in thi 16th year ol hi- reign, conferred on 
him the titl. oi 'Azim Khan. II. hi Id the 

rernnu nt «.i i i,,. 

• ii. i. and 1m iiiL r aba nt from the pn -■ 
tor a long period, was summoned to • 
by Akhar in ah. 1592, a ii. 1001, but 
that chid had alw.c\- . lit. l tain, d t li< wi-ll 

to pr I on a pilgrimagi to Mecca, and 

his friends representing to him that the king 
was displeased with him, and mereh soi 
an opportunity to imprison him, he pi 
hi- family and treasure on board a vessel, 
and on the 13th March, ;. Isl I: 

ah. 1002, - t -ail lor Bejaz without Ii 
or noii. , . in a -hoit time, howt \> r, he 
found his situation irksome in thai country, 
i n turn, d to India, where he mad. his 
submission, and « - restored at onci to his 
former place in the emperor's favour and 
( onfidi nee. II. dii d at Ahmadabad <;< 
in the 19th year of thi i Jahai 

A.n. 1624, a ii. 1033. Hi- remains were 
transported to Dehli and buried close to his 
father's mausoleum, where a Bplendid monu- 
iik ut was t rectod over hi- tomb all oi marble. 

It consists oi sixty-four ]>illars. and i- called 

by the people "Chaunsa'th Khambh." 

'Azim Khan (^Ari- 

\ac\), title of Mir 

Muhammad Baqir, thebrothi r< I 'Asai Khan 
Jafar B g. In the second year of the r 

oi the emperor Jahangir, ad. 1606, a.h. 
1015, he was honoured with the mansab 

of 1000 aud title ot Inula! Khan. In the 
first year of Shah Jahan, a.h. 1628, a.h. 
1037, the rank of 200t) was conferred on him 
with the office oi Wizaraf Kull ; in the third 
year ot his reijrn he rem ivi d the title of 
•Azim Khan. He was appointed at different 
times governor of Bengal, Allahabad, Gujrat 
and latterly of Jaunpur, where he died in 
a.d. 1649, a.h. 1059, aged 76 lunar year-, 
aud was buried there. After his death the 
title ol 'Azim Khan was conferred on his 




eldest son, who was slain in the battle which 
took place between Dara Shikoh and his 
brother Alamgir in a.d. 1658, ah. 1068, 
at Aura. His second son, Mir Khalil, was 
honoured with the title of Khan Zaman. 
During the government of this viceroy in 
a.d. 1634, the English obtained permission 
to trade with their ships in Bengal by the 
emperor Shah Jahan, but were restricted to 
the port of Pipley, where they established 
their factory. 

'Azim Khan (^s>- +r:~}), ex-amir and 

a brother of Slur All Khan, Amir of Kabul, 
died at Shah Hud on the 6th I >ctobi r, 1869. 

'Azim Khan Koka (Ai»i .,1^ +^-z\), 

the title of Muzaffar Hnsain, commonly 
known by the appellation of Fidal Khan, a 
title conferred on him by the emperor Shah 
Jahan. His elder brother held the title of 
Khan Jahan Bahadur Kokaltash, and were 
both foster-brgfhers to the emperor Alamgir. 
Fidal Khan dishonoured with the title ol 
'Azim Khan oy Alamgir about the year a.d. 
1676, a.h. 1086, and appointed governor of 
Bengal ir a.d. 1676, a.h. 1087, which 
situation he held for a whole year, and died 
on his way to Behar on the 21s1 April, 
o.s. '.678, "9th llabi 1. a.h. 1089. 

'Az^m Naishapnri ( - ,^jl^-.j +&z\) 

author of a Diwan found in the Library of 
Tipu Sultan. 

'Azim-ud.-d.aula (Nawab) (ai.jj^ J~r 

t_-?'»j), of the Camatic, was the son 

of Nawab Amir-ul-Umra, the brother of 
Umdat-ul-Umra. On the death of Umdat- 
ul-Umra, the English resolved to take the 
functions of government into their own hands. 
'All Husain, the next heir, refused to comply, 
consequently Ayim-ud-daula, the nephew of 
the deceased, was placed on the masnad by 
the British Government on the 31st August, 
a.d. 1801. He died on the 2nd August, a.d. 
1819. His son 'Azim Jah was installed as 
Nawab of the Carnatic on the 3rd February, 
a.d. 1820. 

'Azim-ul-Umra (^J1 *-lac), minister 

of the Nizam of Hydarabad. He succeeded 
Rukn-ud-daula about the year a.d. 1794. 

'Azim-ullah Khan (^Ari- <d!\ *-li^), 

says Mr. Sheppard in his Narrative of the 
Mutiny, was a charity boy, having been picked 
up, together with his mother, during the 
famine of 1837-1838, when they were both 
in a dying state from starvation. " The mother 
being a staunch heathen, she woidd not con- 
sent to her son being christened. He was 
adopted in the Cawnpore Free School under 
Mr. Patan, schoolmaster. After ten vears 
he was raised to be a teacher. After some 
years he attached himself to the Nana, who 

sent him to England for the purpose of 
bringing bis case before the Home Govern- 
ment, llr became a favourite in English 
soi iety, and visited the tamp before Sevas- 
topol, returning to India in ISoO. He 
intrigued with Dehli, and persuaded the 
Nana to join the mutinous Sepoys in 1^57. 
lie i- believed to have instigated the Cawn- 
pore massacre. lie tied on the re-occupation 
of the place, and his further fate is unknown. 

'Azimush Shan (^Ifijl ^lar), second 

son of the emperor Bahadur Shah of Dehli. 
II. was appointed by his grandfather, the 
emperor 'Alamgir, governor of Bengal ; he 
made Patna the seat of bis government and 
named it Azimabad. On the news of his 
mdfather's death, leaving his own son 
Farrukhsiar (afterwards emperor) to super- 
intend the affairs of that country, he came 
to Agra, and was present in the battle which 
took place between his father and his uncle 
'A/aiu Shah, in June, a.d. 1707, a.h. 1119. 
He was slain in the battle which ensued 
after his father's death between Jahandar 
Shah and his other brothers, in the month 
ot February, o.s. 1712, Muharram, a 11. 
1124. Hi- second son, Muhammad Carim, 
was taken prisoner after the battle and 
murdered by order of Jahandar Shah, who 
asc< uded the throne. 

'Aziz (jj J-c), whose proper name was 

Abdul Aziz Khan, was a native of Deccan. 
Ho is the author of a Diwan, also of a prose 
composition called Oulshdn Hang. 

'Aziz Koka (Mirza) (\ ; r + i&£ I) le), 

the foster-brother of the emperor Akbar. 
Vide •Azim Khan, the son of Khan 'Azim, 
commonly called Anka Khan. 

'Aziz-ullah Zahidi (.cjjfct: t}]\ *j \z) 

w J J- j ' 
author of a Masnawi, which he composed in 
the year a.d. 1407, a.h. 810. He is com- 
monly called Aziz. 

'Azmat-ullah (Shah) (aJj! 

author of the Mazhar-ul-Asrar, being a long 
dissertation on the nature of the divinity, the 
soul, and other abstruse subjects on Sufiism. 

'Azra (\j±c), name of the celebrated 
mistress of Waniiq. 

Azraqi (*-iCs~ lA>J^' commonl y called 

Hakim Arzaqi or Azraqi, was a physician 
and a poet. He was a native of Mars, and 
flourished in the reign of Tughral III. 
Sal Juki, kiug of Persia, in whose name he 
wrote several books. Arzaqi died in a.d. 
1189, a.h. 585. His Diwan contains nearly 
2000 verses. He is also said to be the author 
of a work called Kitab Sindbad. His proper 
name is Abu'l Mahasin Abu Bakr Zain-ud- 
dln, sou of Isma'il Warraq. He introduced 
himself into the society and confidence of the 
Saljuki prince Tughan Shah I. the seat of 

A /.i i; 


whose government wai Naiahapur. by the 
composition ol ;i moat obsoene book, which 

!„• rail,,! ((/fa, 1 1 1 II -t I a I , d With 

pioturea This book appears to be n version 
,.i the Kok Sh&shtar. He i- oalled \ > \a\ 
in the ./"■■"' I- ■ s "' "i Bengal i"i 1844, vol. 
\ui pari ik p B 10, and stated to be the 
miii hoi ,,i !i oiaton oi Mecca, oi which 
ancient work several MSB are in Europe, 
especially one at Cambridge, formerly tli«' 
proport] ol Dr, Burokharat, who in the 
preface to bis Trav*tt <>i Antbi* professes 
to have Largely made use oi ii 

Abut (jOOi the poetioal name oJ Lutl 

• Mi Beg, author ol thi Ta ikii > < ailed 
Ataiah '.,/,/,; Ashy He waa ongaged iu the 
compilation oi this work in v d 176 •. i h 
i i v i> . mi. I was alive in \ d, its.', l,h. i IM 
lie u, \, i oame to India, 

A.'.un ku'.m i^-, 1 , uTi»i')j ;i native "t 

Uri ui Persia, was > i eh bi it< d poet who 
lived ;ii tlio oourl of Sultan ofahmnd ol 
(;ii. i in. On «>n,' occasion he received :< 
present oi 14,000 dirhama trom the Suljau 
i, 'i ,i short i' in, gj in'. 

\\ I. nal nam, \\a- .lalal -ii,Min Han 

was a pioUS \l ii-ilinan and all OXColh III [in, I. 

He oame t,> the I', i can from Persia in the 

mi n ,,i Sultan Ahmad Shih VI i I Bah- 

m<ii i . \ i> 1 132, \ ii "I n t u i ned 

.m to kliui sain, Ins native oountry, where 

he dii 'l in the jn u id i 162, v d 868. 

,1 s_' 1 mi ■ i years He is the author of 

reral works, among which are .i<iu,\lm-ul- 

Atltlr, I ■:' II •', anil Stiiiin'it 

I *, which oonsista oi tour books, i 
llmakrl Tilma, I S-ud-dtinit -ul- 

• t: i an,l i-j He also lefta BTw. in 

<«r ;ii>,iiiio rai Hi adopts .1 the poetical 

name ol l A art, beeausi be waa born in the 
Pi rsian month ol \.m lli^ tomb is ;it 
[sfaraen, and waa at the time ot Daulat shah 
s,, sacred, that i"iui,i- found an asylum then 
trom the hands ot justii i He ia also the 
author ot another poetical work, called 

[ Vidi Ali llain/a] 
A /.-mldm Abdul A'/.i/, (tV p ,^s.\ jc 

J\). I ■ I addln. 




taba (IjIj), a Turkish impostor, who 

announced himself in a.d. 1260 as the 
ss nger of God : and collected a number 
of adherents, at whose head he laid 
Anatolia. Be was at last overpowered and 
his soot dispt • 

taba Affeal Kasbi (. 

an author. 


-ail A . 

Saba Figrhani *, jUi \j\j), a poet of 

ma who served under Sultan Ya'qub, the 
sou of Unan Hasan, and died iu the year 
a. p. 1519, a. u. 92$, at Khurasan. He has 
lott a Diwan containing 6o00 ■• - - 

against the power of the khalifa for upwards 
of . -. during which time he had cruelly 

massacred 250,000 people, it being his custom 
to spare neither man. woman, nor child of 
the Muhammadans or their allies. 

Baba Kaikhusiz c^-^.i l»l>) (Father 

without Ana dervish who flourished in 

the reign of Murid III. and was author of 
the • A i. 

Baba Lai Guru (. , J "J b\A a Hindu 

of the tribe of Khattris, who was a Hindi 
poet, and flourished in the time of Jahangir. 
H« was an inhabitant of Bfalwa. 

Saba 'I^a i _^_ 

Langotes) I His tomh is in Tatta in 

Sindh. The inscription gi 1 3 the year a.d. 

1514, a.h. 920. 

labak It-Job), the father of Ardsher 
Bal ikan, which s 

Sabak (u^&y), au impostor, who firsl 

appeared iu a. p. S16. a.h. 201, when he 
began to take upon him the title of a prophet. 
What his particular doctrine was. is now 
unknown : but his religion is said to have 
differed from all others then known iu As 
He gained a great number of proselytes iu 
A . iijan and Persian "Iraq, where he 

- n grew powerful enough to wage war 
with the khalif Al-Atamuu. whose tr 

he often beat, so that he was become ex- 
• mely formidable in the beginning of the 
khalif Al-Muta'sim's reign. The general 
sent by the khalit to reduce Mm was Haidar- 
ibu-Kaus. surnamed Atshiu q r.\ a Turk by 
birth. By him Babak was defeated with 
prodig] - - _ liter, no 
men being killed iu the tirst engagement. 
The next year. a. p. 335, a.h. 220, he 
received a still greater overthrow, losing 
100.000 men either killed or taken prison - 
By this defeat lie ^ - eed to retire into 
the Gordiau mountains, where he fortified 
hiaiseli iu such a manner that Atshiu found 
it impossible to reduce him till the vear a. p. 

- ". a.h. 222, when he was forced to sur- 
render to Atshiu upon that general proniis- 

g him pardon. But Atshiu no sooner had 
him iu Ms power, thau he tirst caused Ms 
hauds and feet, and afterwards Ms head to 
be- cut off. B.ib.;k ha - rted hin - 

UL.0, or 'Isa Blllu Ratan < U J / J*J *M sur " 

named Abu Raxa, a pious Musalman, who 
- - '. by Daulai shah, to be one of the 
disciples of Jesus Christ, and that he lived 
to the advanced age of 1400 years, and died 
about the beginning of the 13th century of 
the Christian era. 

Babar Shall { 




.v^s^V surnamed Zalrir-ud din Mu- 
hammad, the ancestor of the Mughal 
emperors of Dehli, was the sixth iu di - 
from Amir Taimur Tamerlane". His lather 
"Uniar Shaikh Mirza, was the sou of Abu 
Sa'id Mirza, the sou of Muhammad Mirza, 
the son ot Miranshah, the son of Amir 
Taimur. His mother's uame was Kul a 
N a Khanam, daughter of Yunas Khan. 
king of Mughalistan and sister to Mahmud 
Khan, a descendant of the famous Chaiiirez 
or JeugMz Khan. He was born on the loth 
February, a. p. 1453. 6th Muharram. a.h. 
888, and succeeded his lather iu the govern- 
ment of Farghaua. the capital of wMch is 

in, iu June. a. p. 1494. Baniazau. a.h. 
s During eleven years he fought several 

- with the Tartar and Uzbak princes, 
but was at last obliged to leave Ms country 
and fly towards Kabul. wMch place he cou- 

i. without opposition, together with 
Qandahar and Badakhshau. He reigned for 
- \ er those countries before Ms con- 
quest of India. He then proceeded to Hindu- 
stan, slew Ibrahim Husain Lodi, the Pathan 

of Dehli. in a battle at Pauipat on 
Friday the 20th April, a.p. 1526, 7th B 
a.h. 932. and became the founder i : 

". il dynasty of India, wMch ended iu 
L857 ' his own life — Tizak- 




i-Bdbari — in the Turkish language, with 
such elegance and truth, that the performance 
is universally admired. It was translated in 
the reign of his grandson Akhar, by Abdul 
Rahim Khan Khankanan into Persian, and 
recently into English from the Jaghatai 
Turki, by Dr. Leyden and Air. W. Erskine. 
This monarch ascended the throne in hi- 12 th 
year, and reigned 38 lunar years, viz. : at And- 
lan 11 years, at Kabul 22, and nearly 5 Mar- 
in India, and died in Agra on Monday the 26th 
December, a.d. 1530, Gtli Jamie! I. a.m. 
937. He was at first buried in a garden "ii 
the left hank of the Jamna, then railed the 
Nur Afshan, and now Rambagh. from which 
place his remains were transported alter -i\ 
months to Kabul, where a splendid mausoli am 
Mas built over his tomb by his great-gri - 
grandson, the emperor Shah Jahan, in a.d. 
1640. Hi- tomb on a hill near the city, 
surrounded by large heils of flowers, com- 
mands a noble prospect. The chronogram 
of the year of his death was found to consist 
in the words " Bahisht-rozlbad," or " May 
heaven be liis Lot." Alter liis death, he 
received the title ot " Firdaus-Makani." Ii< 
was succeeded on the throne oi Dehli by his 
eldest son, the emperor llumaj on. 11 18 three 
other sons were Mirza Kamrau. Mir/a 
'Askari, and Mirza Eandal. Firishta says 
that Babar, whowas much addicted to women 
and wine, on occasions when he was inclined 
to make merry, used to fill a reservoir in a 
garden in the neighbourhood of Kabul with 
wine, over which was inscribed a rase to this 
purpose : 
Bright Spring blooms hi re, from day to day. 

Young girls stand by, old wine to pour; 
Enjoy them, Babar, while you uuvj 

Your Spring, once gone, returns no more. 

Babar (Sultan) (^LkL-j^jL), sur- 

named Abul Qasim, was the son of Mirza 
Baisanghar and grandson ot Shahrukh Mirza. 
After the death of Mirza Ulagh Beg and his 
son 'Abdul Latif, he succeeded in .January, 
a.d. 1452, Zil-hijja, a.h. 855. in murdering 
his own brother Sultan Muhammad and 
establishing himself in the government of 
Khurasan and the neighbouring countries. 
A few months before hi.s death, the comet of 
a.d. 1450, a.h. 860, made its appearance 
and alarmed the inhabitants of Khurasan. 
He died at Mashhad on Tuesday the 22nd 
March, a.d. 1457, 25th Rabl II. a.h. 861. 
After his death Khurasan was taken possi s- 
sion of by Mirza Abu Said, the grandfather 
of the emperor Babar Shah of Dehli. 

Baba Soudai. Tide Soudal (Baba) 

Babawia (Ajyb), or Bin Babawia, 

father of Ihn Babawia. Vide Ahu'l Hasan 
All Bin-al-Husdiu at Kumari. 

Badakbsbi ( s A£s-Jd), a Persian poet 

who was a native of the province of Badakh- 

Bhan. He flourished in the i ign ol the 
khilit Al-Muktafi, about the year a.d. 905, 
a. n. 294. His Diwun or collection oi poems 
is written upon the fortune- ol the great men 
of the court ; and be say- that the varied 
seeia- in human affairs ought not to create 
surprise as we see thai life lb measured bj an 
hour-glass, and that an hour is always above 
and the othi r below in alt. nut. 5U< C( --ion. 

Badakbshi (Maulana) (Ul' 

Lp 5 , jc5-4-«s), of Samarqand, flourished 

in the reign oi Ulagh Beg Mirza, thi son of 

ihrukh Mirza, and is the author ot a 


Badan Singh Jat (<J1:U- iS±~: a ,^j), 
tin gou oi Churaman Jat, a raja of Bhartpur 

and the foundl r ol the fort at Dig. Ee «as 

living at the time of Nadir Bh&h's invasion 
ot India in \ o. 1739, a.h. 1162. Alter his 
death his son Snrajmal Jat succeeded him. 
[ I' id: < Ihuraman 

Badaoni ( Jjtju). Abdul Eadlr of 
Badaon (j.r.). 

Badi-uddin C.jjJI cju). Vide Shah 



Badi-uddin (Shaikh) (^r- 

of Saharanpnr, was a disciple of Shaikh 
Ahmad Sarhindi. Ee died in the year a.d. 
1632, a.m. 1042, and lies buried in the yard 
of the masjid erected bj him at Saharanpnr. 

Badi'-Uzzaman Mirza (^l^jj! «_'.y> 

\\**), was the eldest son of Sultan 

Husain Mirza, alter whose death in a.d. 
1506, a.h. 912, he reigned conjointly with 
his younger brother, Muzaffar Eusain Mirza, 
over Khurasan. Ee was subsequently com- 
pelled by the victorious Ozbaks, and the 
usurpation oi hi- brother, to take refuge in 
'Iraq; and in the year a.d. 1514. a.h. 920, 
went to the court" of the Ottoman Sultan, 
Salim I. where, ait. r a few month-' residence, 
he died of the plague. He was the last of 
the race of Tainmr who reigned in Persia. 
In a work called Ship of the Turn, a Persian 
Anthology, there are to be found verses of 
the royal poet's composition. The following 
is a translation of a few lines — 

Since not for me thy cheek of roses shines, 
My bosom like the i ading tulip pines; 
Who in his burning heart conceals its flame, 
And mine, in absence, perishes the same. 
Pour wine— and let me, as I drink, suppose 
I see the colours of that blushing rose ; 
Pour wine — and let it borrow every hue 
Born in the tulip's petals wet with dew ; 
Till I believe thou may 'st e'en yet be mine — 
And let me never wake, nor that sweet 
dream resign. 




Badr (,jo), poetical title of Ganga 
Parshad, a Hindu. 

Badr Chachi ( ,>U- ,jj). surnamed 

Fakhr-uz-zaman, a celebrated poet of Chach 
(the ancient name of Tashkand , who flourished 
in the reign of Sultan Muhammad Tughlaq 
Shah, kins? of Dehli, and died some time 
after the year a.d. 1344, a.h. 745. 

Badr Muhammad C^Ajjo iX-mC* y^S), 

of Dehli, author of the Persian Dictionary 
called Adab-ul-Fuzala, dedicated to Qadr 
Khan hiu Dilawar Khan, written in a.d. 
1419, a.h. 822. 

Badr Shirwani (Maulana) (,j*_j 

\jiy% e j\»-*JZi), a Musalman scholar 

and poet, who was contemporary with Katibi, 
who died in a.d. 1435. 

Badr (Pir). Vide Bir Badar. 

Badr-uddin Aintabi( e *^j\ .^jJKjo), 

an historian, who relates that the Qazi Ihn- 
al-MaghulT, who died in a.d. 1231, a.h. 628, 
bequeathed a part of liis \a>t collection of 
books to the library of the college founded in 
Cairo by Malik 'Ashraf Borsabai. 

Badr-uddin (Balbaki) ( >t _.'jkJI ,.x_j 

<Li*j), a Syria c physician, who 

wrote a book called JTiisan-a/i-al-Xufs. He 
lived in the 7th century of the Hijrah. 

Badr - uddin, Isma'il - al - Tabrizi 
K^jjjj^j] u L*^.«j1 ^.jjj' j^-j), an 
Arabian author, surnamed Bazil. 

Badr-uddin Jajurmi ( <t _jjk_]l ._\_j 

ic'*^ W X an author who died in 

a.d. 1287, a.h. 686, in which year also died 
Majd-uddin Hamkar. He was a contem- 
porary of Shams-uddin Muhammad Sahib 
Dlwan, and of Sa'di. 

Badr-uddin Lulu (^J ^jj| jSj), 

ruler of Mausal, who was living in the reign 
of Halaku Khan, the Tartar, in a.d. 1258, 
and was in his 90th year. 

Badr-uddin Mahmud ( ._>aJ1 ,Xj 

Ay4>sr*), known by the name of 

Ibn-al-Qazi Simawana, is the author of the 
Jama' -al- Fusiilain, a collection of decisions 
on mercantile matters. He died a.d. 1420, 
a.h. 823. 

Badr-uddin Mahmud Bin Ahmad-al- 

\\ j^ 

'Aini (j^^>.\ ^j ^^'* ( 

JU*J'), author of a commentary on 

the Kanz - ul - Daqaeq, called Ramz - ul - 

Saqaeq. lie died in a.d. 1451, a.h. 855. 
He is also the author of a collection of 
decisions entitled the Masael-al-Badria. 

Badr-uddin Muhammad Bin Abdur 
Rahman-al-Dairi (j^jsr* ^^\ sj 

< -^/'- cJ^-f '-V ; ivt-'X author of a 
commentary on the Kanz-ul- Daqaeq, entitled 
Matldb-ul-Faeq, which is much esteemed in 


Badr-uddin Shashi Shirwani (,S-i 

^3^^-i .iLi ^a^j died in a.h. 
754 or 854. 

Badr-uddin Sufi (^Jy* ^jJI jJj), 

author of the Bahr-ul-Sayat (the sea of life), 
containing many good rules for moral conduct. 

Badr-uddin (^^\ jSj), of Sarhind, 

author of a Persian work called Hazrat-ul- 
Quds, containing the miracles performed by 
Ahmad Sarhindi. 

Badr-un-nisa Begam (L^_;J1 ,S-i 
♦x-j), the daughter of Alamglr, died 
in March, a.d. 1670, Zi-Qa'da, a.h. 1080. 

Badshah Bano Begam (*jU x\ * m \1 » 

♦X^-j), one of the wives of the 

emperor Jahangir. She cbed in a.d. 1620, 
a.h. 1029. 

Badshah Begam (JLj aLS>jL), wife 

of the emperor Jahangir, died in the year 
a.h. 1029. 

Baghdad Khatun (^J'Ul jUxj), a 

daughter of Amir Choban or Jovian, who 
governed the empire of the Tartars in the 
reign of Sultan Abu Sa'id, the son of Aljaitu. 
Her father refusing to give her in marriage 
to that prince, because she had been betrothed 
to Shaika Hasan Jalaiar, was the occasion of 
the Amir's disgrace and death. Hasan, who 
had married her, afterwards repudiated her 
and gave her into the hands of Abu Sa'id. 
The prince publicly married her, and for some 
time was entirely governed by her ; but being 
at last disturbed, and dying a short time after 
in a.d. 1335, a.h. 736, she was suspected to 
have poisoned him, and Baidii Khan, the 
successor of Abu. Sa'id, put her to death. 




Baghuri (,jyu), or BaghshGrl, Bur- 
name of Muhammad bin Is-haq, an Arabian 
author who wrote on moral subjecta, died in 

the year a.d. 12h0, a.d. 679. 

Baghwi( t c.i;). Fide Abu Muhammad 
Farai-ibn-Masa'ud al-Baghwi. 

Bahadur Ali Husaini (Mir) (.jL^j 

.~* ^»-^u.s- Xz), chief MunshI of 

the college of Fort William, author of the 
AkLlaq Hindi, or Indian Ethics, translated 
from a Persian version, also "i the Nasir 
Benazir, a prose translation of the enchanting 
fairy tale entitled Sehr-ul-Bayan, commonly 
called Mir Hasan's Masnawi. This latter 
work was written by the request oi Dr. 
Gilchrist in a.d. L802, ah. 1217, and j m 1 >- 
lished at Calcutta in 1803. 

Bahadur Khan Faruqi ( .,L>- ,S^..j 

^jj. ,li), succeeded his father, ELaja 

All Khan, in 1 1 1 « - government oJ Khandesh 
in a.d. 1696, a. h. 1005. When the emperor 
Akbar a few years afterwards arrived at 
Mando, with the avowed int ation ol in- 
vading the Deccan, Bahadur Khan in~t« a.l 
of adopting the policy <>! his father in relying 
on the honour of Akbar, and going witn 
an army to co-operate with him, shut himself 
up iii the fort of Asir, and commenced 
preparations to withstand a siege. When 
Akbar heard of these proceedings he Ben! 
orders to the Khankhaiiaii 'Alidur Ha him 
Khan and the prince Danial Mirza to con- 
tinue the siege of Ahmadnagar, while he 
himself marched to the smith and occupied 
Burhanpur, leaving one oi his generals to 
besiege Asir. The blockade oi this fortress 
continued for a length of time, till it sur- 
rendered, and Bahadur Khan, the lasi of the 
Faruqi dynasty, humbled himsi it before the 
throne of Akbar in the year a.d. 1599, a.h. 
l(i()S, while the impregnable fortress oi Asir 
with ten years' provisions and countless 
treasures tell into the hands of the conqueror. 

Bahadur Khan Rohila (..A_ 


<d-JS i), son of Daria Khan, was an 
amir of high rank in the reign of the i mperor 
Shah Jaha.ii. He accompanied prince Auraug- 
zib to Qandahar. and died there during the 
siege, on the 19th July, a.d. 1649, " 19th 
Rajah, a.h. 1059. 

Bahadur Nizam Shah ( +\lhj ( jLj 

>Lij), the last of the Nizam Shah! 
kings of Ahmadnagar in the Deccan. On 
the death of his father, Ibrahim Nizam Shah, 
which took place in August, a.d. 1595, Zil- 
hijja, a.h. 1003, several factions arose in 
Ahmadnagar, each setting up a nominal 
sovei'eign. Mian Manju who possessed the 
city, and acknowledged the title of Bahadur 

Nizam shah, then an infant, being besi* 
bj his competitors, invited Suhaii Murad, 
oi the emperor Akbar, then governor 
oi Gujrat, to hi- assistance, tor which ha 
offered to become tributary to the Mughal 
power. Sultan Murad embraced the ]>r<>- 
posal, and arrived before Ahmadnagar with 
a considerable army. Mian Manju by this 
time, having overcome hi- ri\:il-. repented 
oi hi- offers, and prepared to oppose the 
prince. Having committed the citj to the 
ih ii_. ..l Nasir Khan, his deputy, ouder 
the care oi Chand Bibi, great aunt to Sultan 
Bahadur, he departed to raise levies and 
implore the assistance oi Qntb Shah oi Gol- 
kaiuli and 'Adil Shall oi Bijapur. Sultan 
Murad besieged Ahmadnagar, on the 16th 
December, ■> ». 1695, 23rd Babi 11. a.h. 
1004, which \\a- gallantly defended. Bn achi i 
were made, but were immediately repaired 
by the heroic condud "i Chand Bibi, who, 
covering herself with a ml, headed the 
troops. At length in the month oi March, 
a.d. I59i . I; id, a.m. 1004, supplies Row- 
ing scarce in the camp, and the :iili>- of 
b | Spur and Golkanda approaching, Sultan 
Murad thought proper to accepl oi some 
offers ol tribute from Chand Bibi, ami i 
the siege. Some monei was paid, and the 
tricts in lliiar belonging to the Nizam 
Shahi governmi nt \m re o d( d to the Mughal*. 
In tin year a.d. 1600, beginning oi a.h. 
lOO'.t. Ahmadnagar was taken by the Mnghals. 
ami Bahadur Shah with all tin children of 
lmtb sexes nt the royal family wen taken 
prisoners ami -i nt to perpetual confinement 
in the fortn as oi < >« iliar. 

Bahadur Shah (^.'-ii^ >Ll ,jL_>), an 

Afghan, succeeded hi- father, Mahmud Khan, 
a- governor oi Bengal in the time "i Salim 
Shah, ami became independent and reigned 
the years. He was deposed in a.d. lot:'. 
a. ii. 966, and succeeded by another oi the 
noble- oi Salim Shah, named Sulaimaa 

Bahadur Shah (ill 



JlLsr), the second son of MuzafFar 

Shah II. of Gujrat. At the time of his 
father's death, he was absent at Jaunpur, but 
when Mahmud Shall, his younger brother, 
ascended the throne of Gujrat. alter the 
murder of his eldesi brother, Sikandar Shah, 
Bahadur returned from thence, and having 
deprived Mahmud oi bis kingdom, ascended 
the throne on the 20th August, a.d. 1526, 
15th Zi-Qa'da, a.h. 932. He conquered 
Malwa on the 26th February, a.d. 1531, 
9th Shaban, a.h. 937, and the king ol that 
place, Sultan Mahmud II. who was taken 
prisoner and sent to Champanir, was put 
to death on the road. In the y< ar a.d. 1536, 
a.h. 942, Malwa was taken by the emperor 
Huniavun, and Bahadur being defeated was 
obliged to fly towards Oambay, where, on 
his arrival, he heard that a fleet, in which 
there were between 4.000 or 5,000 Europeans, 
had arrived off the Island of Diu. He im- 




mediately repaired thither with a reinforce- 
ment of troops, and on his arrival there he 
ordered his barge and went to visit the 
admiral with the intention of killing him ; 
but perceiving that he was betrayed he arose 
and was attacked on all sides by the Portu- 
guese, when a soldier struck him over the 
head with a sword and threw him into the 
•water, where he was drowned. This event 
took place on the 14th February, ad. 1537, 
3rd Ramazan, a.h. 943, and has been com- 
memorated in two Persian chronograms, 
comprising the numerals which form the date 
of the year when it occurred. Their meaning 
is this: "The Europeans were the .-layers 
of Bahadur," and ••The king of the land 
became a martyr at Sea." Bahadur Shah 
Mas 20 years of age when he asci aded the 
throne, reigned 11 lunar years, and was slain 
at the age of 31. Alter his death his nephew 
Mirfui Muhammad Shah was raised to the 
throne of Gujrat. 

Bahadur Shah I. ( k 


surnanied Qutb- 

JU all 

uddin Shah 'Alam, formerly called prince 
Mu'azzim, was the second son of the emperor 
' Alanigir I. born at Burhanpur in the Deccan 
on the 4th October, o.s. 1643, 30th Rajab, 
a.h. 1053. At the time of his father's death, 
which took place at Ahmadabad, on the 21st 
February, o.s. 1707, 28th Zi-Qa'da, a.h. 
1118, he being then at Kabul, his younger 
brother, prince 'Azim, was proclaimed 
sovereign of all India in perfect disregard 
of the late emperor's will. Prince Mu'azzim, 
with better reason, assumed the crown at 
Kabul with the title of Bahadur Shah ; and 
both brothers prepared to assert their pre- 
tensions by force of arms. They assembled 
very large armies, and met at length between 
Dhaulpur and Agra. A bloody battle ensued 
on Sunday the 8th June, o.s. 1707, 18th 
Rabi' I. a.h. 1119, in which prince 'Azim 
and his two grown-up sons, Bedar Bakht 
and "Walajah, were killed. Bahadur Shah 
reigned nearly five lunar years, and died at 
Lahore on Monday the 18th February, o.s. 
1712, 21st Muharram, a.h. 1124, in the 
71st lunar year of his age. He was buried 
in the environs of Dehli, near the tomb of 
Khwaja Qutb-uddin, where he had built 
during his life a mosque entirely of white 
marble named Moti Masjid. His tomb is 
also built of the same stone. He received 
the title of "Khuld Manzil," i.e., "May 
his mansion be in paradise," alter his death". 
He left four sons, viz., Ma'iz -uddin Jahandar 
Shah, Azim-ush-Shan, RaiT-ush-Shan, and 
Jahan Shah, among whom a battle ensued, 
wherein the three latter brothers were killer), 
and Jahandar Shah ascended the throne. 

Bahadur Shah II. L&J^ all ; jl^ 

-^-S'* jjJjJl -7^), tne last kin o °f 

Dehli, whose title in full was Abii'l Muzaffar 
Siraj -uddin Muhammad Bahadur Shah, a 

lineal descendant from Amir Taimiir, the son 
of Akhar Shah II. on whose death he suc- 
ceeded him on the 28th September, a.d. 
1837, 28th Jumada II. a.h. 1253. He was 
born on Tuesday the 24th October, a.d. 
1775, 28th Shahan, a.h. 1189; and Abu'l 
Muzaffar is the chronogram of his birth. 
His mother's name was Lai Bai. A stipend 
or pension of one lakh of rupees monthly 
was allowed him by the British Government. 
He was an excellent Persian scholar and an 
elegant Urdu poet, and Zafar was his poetical 
name. His Diwan or Book of Odes was 
printed some years ago at Dehli. He was 
supposed to be the principal instigator of 
the mutiny of the native troops throughout 
India in a.d. 1857, and was deposed and 
tried, but his life was spared. In October, 
a.d. 1858, he was sent down to Calcutta, 
from which place he embarked on board 
H.M. ship Megara on Saturday the 4th 
December, a.d. 1858, for Rangoon, accom- 
panied by two of his wives, a son and a 
grandson. He died there a few years later, 
and thus ended the royal race of Taimiir 
in India. His sons Mirza Mughal and Mirza. 
Khwaja Sultan, and a grandson named Mirza 
•Abu Bakr. who were known to have taken 
a prominent part in the atrocities attending 
the insurrection, were captured on the 22nd 
September, a.d. 1857, .at the tomb of Huma- 
yiin, and shot on the spot by Major Hodson. 
During the mutiny in a.d. 1857, Bahadur 
Shah had struck a new coin with the following 
inscription : — 

U ,«a) 4>~ > J: ,\i 


^ & 

Siraj -ud-din, that hero bold, 
Adorned his triumph with this gold. 

Bahadur Singh (a^u-j .jl^), the only 
surviving son of Raja Man Singh Kachwaha. 

Bahadur Singh Kuehwaha ( jJL._j 

l^^ <Ui~j), brother to Sakat Singh, 

died of hard drinking in the year a.d. 1621, 
a.h. 1030. 

Bahadur Singh (Rao). Vide Rao 
Bahadur Singh. 

Bahai (Jl_^_j). Vide Baha-uddin 

Bahar (.l^j), poetical name of Tek 
Chand, which see. 

Bahar Bano (jj\j jl^j), Daulat-un 

Xisa, and Begam Sultan, daughters of the 
emperor Jahangir. All of them died in their 




Bahar Bano (.A- Xtf), daughter of 

tin emperor Jahangir; married to Prince 

Tahinurns, tin -.m ( ,1 I'riuce Dunial, in tin ii 


Bahar Bano Begam (*£*j j\j ,Lj), 

another daughter of Jahangir, was married 
to Tahmur, a bod of princi Danial. 

Baha-uddin (jjJ! *Lj), a learned 

Arabian, known as a favourite of Sultan 
Salah-uddin Saladdin and the historian oi 
thai prince's life. 1 1 « - flourished .-11111111 the 
year a. d. 1190, a.h. 686. An edition oi bis 
work appeared al Leyden in a.d. 1765. 

Baha-uddin (\ 

jjJI «Uj 

^jJi), the son of Shams-uddlu, the 

smi of Fakhr-uildln. His father was the first 
king "t the Becond brancb oi the Sultans oi 
Ghor. Baha-uddin was the Becond king, and 
is said to have r< igned 11 \> an. unam 
Fakhr-uddln K.1/1, who flourished in his 
time and died in a.d. 1210, l.h. 606, dedi- 
cated tin work called Risala Haiyat <>r 1 k 

i>t geometry to him. After the death oi 
Baha-uddin, his boo Jalal-uddin succeeded 
him. Be was slain by Muhammad 
of Khwarizm, and appears to bav< been the 
last of this branch. 

Baha-uddin ( ,LU *£U- ^jJI Atf), 

governor of Isfahan, and author of the Mun- 
titkit<ii>-//i-ji;i,}, l ir. an abridged bistorj oi the 
patriarchs and prophets, also oi Muhammad 
and his descendants, with a good description 
of the cities of Mecca and Madina. II 
fiouriahed about the year a.d. 1271, a.h. 

Baha-uddin 'Amili (Shaikh) (*Ll«j 
^•-i , X«U ,.J j!\), a native of 'Amul 

in Persia, and son of Shaikh Husain. His 
poetical name is Bahai. He is the author 
of several works, one of whicb is a Masnawi 
or poem called Nan-wa-HaUca (bread and 
pudding). He Nourished in the time "t Shah 
'Ahhfis the Great, kin"; ot Persia ; died at 
Isfahan on Tuesday the 21st August, o.s. 
1621, 12th Shawwal, a.h. 1030," and was 
buried agreeably to his request at Mashhad. 
Iniad-ml-daula Abu Talib, the prime minister 
of Shah 'Abbas, found the chronogram of 
the year of his death in the words •■ Shaikh 
Baha-uddin Wae." Besides the above-men- 
tioned Masnawi and many Arabic works, he 
lias left a Diwan and a Kashkol, or Adversaria. 

Baha-uddin Muhammad ( ..jjJl L._) 

'<f^ M * JtA 5 ?" £<**£■'*), Jalal or Jalil 

(Shaikh) of 'Amil. This person is mentioned 
by H. M. Elliot, Esq., in. his Historians of 
India, and appears to be the same with the 

preceding. He was a Persian mathematician, 
Bays he, and lived in the r< ign oi Shah \\ 
the Great. He was celebrated among his 
countrymen for a supposed peculiar power 
which he possessed over the magi and writers 
oi talismans, and was one "t the most p 
devotees "i bis time. His work- on vai 
subjects an- much read in Persia, particularly 
one entitled Kashkol, or the B ^. ' w 
being an universal miscellany oi literature. 
Tin- Ju'ma'-ul-Abb&si, a concise and com- 
prehensive treatise on Shia law in twenty 

1 ks. 1- generally considered as the work oi 

I iha-uddin Muhammad 'Amili, but that 
lawyer only lived to complete the ftrsl Ave 
hooks, dedicating hi~ wort to Shah 'Abbas. 
Tin- remaining tiit< en hooks were subs* qui ntly 
add. d by Nizam Ibn-Husain-al-Sawai. 

Baha-uddin Naqshband (Khwaja) 

(<Sj?-'».>- JCwJL^.' .. : ;a! I.-'), :i famous 

learned Musalman, who died on Monday the 
l-t March, a.d 2nd Etabi I. a.h. 791, 

and was buried at Bukhara. 



Naqshband (Shaikh) 

„jjjJ! Lyj ), a ct li bratt '1 

saint and the founder of an Order oi Sutis, 
distinguished by the title oi Naqshbandi. 
II' is the author of the J/"i<it Kama, an 
esteemed moral poem. He died at Harafa 
in Persia, a.d. 1463, a.h. B67. Hi app 
also to In the author oi a work on Sufiism 
called DalU-ul-'Athiqln. 

Baha-uddin Sam (J^ t jjJ| Lj), son 

Ghayas-uddin Mahmfid, king oi Ghor and 
1 . lazni. He Buccei ded his rath r in a.d. 
1210, a.h. 607, at the age oi fourte< 

but \\ as, att' r thn s month-, d. feafc d by Alii- 
uddin Atsiz, Bon oi Jahan Boz, who reigned 
four years in Ghor and Ghazni, and fell in 
battle against Taj -uddin Elduz in a.d. 1214. 
B ha-uadin Sam was, after his defeat, taken 
captive by the governor of Hirat, and sent to 
Khwarizm Shah, who at the time of the 
invasion of Chingiz Khan, threw him, along 
with his brother, into a river, where both 
\\i re drowned. 

Baha-uddin Shirazi ( ._'A_^ 1_j_j 

L^iVi-wi), a celebrated KazI of Shiraz, 
who died in the year a.d. 1380, a.h. 782. 

Baha-uddin Wald (Maulana) (L.._J 

\i\+* ^« ,.^a!^), a native of Ualkh 

and the lather of the celebrated Jalal-uddin 
Maulawi Rumi. He flourished and enjoyed 

distinguished honours in the time oi Sultan 
Muhammad, surnamed Qutb-uddlu of Khwar- 
izm. He was an enthusiastic follower of the 
doctrine of the Sufis, and became so celebrated 
as a preacher and expounder that people 
flocked from all parts of Persia to hear him 
discourse. In the latter part of his life he 




".try and went and dwelt at 

'ilium i: re he 

.bout the year a.d. 1230 or 1233, ah. 

628 md his son succeeded him as 


Baka-uddin Zikaria (Shaikh) (' i 

-jt~~ up; .— A. .a Muhammadan 

saint of Mnltan, was 1 son of Qnfl - 
Muhammad, the son of £ 
H - rn at Kotkaror in Multan in a.d. 

1170, a.h. 565. \v. - shejounn 

| a of S .ikh 

-uddln S rdi. II <rds 

with Farid-ud.. - . qj. He died at 

. A. IP. 12 

7th 8 

! India. II 
his heir-. Hi- son Shaikh £ :-- uddln died 
at Multan in a.d. 1309, a.h. 7 

Baha-uddin (^r [^) (Badl'-uddin 

or Bogo-neddin . a Muhammadan saint w I 
- ■ . 

. '-neddm. Duri 
invasion of tht 

said that a book, written in verse in I 
Persian lang - >und in - 

:.t. It i> said in ( ... 

82nd ;. -he Hijrah. a.d 

wfll rush q kand Hke a 

riv c r. In the 84th year, a.] ' - will 

.e a 
prickly thorn. In the ft 

ns will - 
Te: " " In the 

"- the Khwariz- 
niians will run out of their own a 
: them like children. 

Bahishti (^Lj), poetical name of 

E .ikh Eamza:. the £ L odnl Muhsin. 

an author, who died a.d. 1571, a.h. 93 

Bahjat (^^srv* ) } or Belijat, author of 

a Dlwan wl ■ . and 

Tnd a t 
Europeans. E in Eucknow in 

a.d. 1797. a.h. 1212. 

3ahlol (J.L.A who lived during the 

i the khalif Harun-al-Eashid. was 
one of tko- - - - 

Mnsahnlns either foi - -- or madm 

ne T ' deal of wit. 

3ahloli (^Lj), a poet, whose Diwan 
-d in the Library of Tipu Sultan. 

3aklol Lodi (Sultan) ( c *J. !J 

^ -!.._■), a king of Dehli of the tribe 
of Afghans called Lodi. His father, Malik 

Kila, was the son of Ibrahim Khan or Malik 
tram, L^over: 'laltan. In the year 

a.d. 1450, a.h. 854, ] 

I I 8 dtin Ala-nddin, son 

Muhammad Shall, took p of 

D til- He. e e place to the 

E the S • ime time in the 

khutba : but w . 1 to 

oditioD j ■ 
a him to live quietly in 

8 -an Bahlol im- 

iiatt-ly threw the name of -Ala-uddin out of 

the khutba and - be crowned 

on • 5th January, a.d. 1452. 25th Zil- 

hijja, a.h. 855. Bahlol r s 

7 months and 7 and died on the 

July. a.d. 1489. 2n.. S in, a.h. 894. 

tomb of 
Nasir-uddin Mahmud, surnamed Chiragh 
Dehli, a Musalman was e 

by K in, who assumed the 

of 8 8 r th. 

' ' >f Dehli of 

/ .' Afy 


ihim II - ndar. who was 

i and 

Bahman (^^A an ancient king of 
Pen • nown in Liis title 

Bakmani, name of a dynasty in the 
nded by an Afghan adventurer, 

- - - . A.D. 1 

a.h. 7.- 

Bahman Yar Kkan ( A&. Aj .**_j), 

sen of Shi Khan and grandson of Asaf 

Khan, a nobleman oi at of the emperor 


Bakram I. (J^) (Yaranes of the 

Gi- - urth kino- f ti - -.ian 

km son of Hurmuz (Hormisd 

whom he succeeded to the Persian throne iu 
the year a.d. 273. He was a mild and 
nun ' nd much beloved by his 

sal The most remarkable act of his 

rt:'- ution oi I lebrated 

Mam Manes), the founder of the sect of the 

[Fiofe Manl. Bahram reigned only t 

three nioi r which he died 

an*. - - e crown - - -on Bahram IE 
'. I - year a.d. 27 

Bakram II. (a\^), {some authors 

term him the fourth of that name', was the 

Bahram I. whom - the 

crown of Persia in a.d. 276. He reigned 17 

nd after his dem: eded by 

- son Bahram III. about the vear a.d. 




Bahram III. (+\^j) 

succhmIm! hi- 

father, B ihram [I. tothi Pei Lao throne aboul 
the year a.d. 293, reigned onlj four months, 
and was succeeded by bis brother, Nars! or 

Bahram IV. (J^), the twelfth king 

of Persia of the Sasanian race, succeeded his 
brother Shahpur Saporea q.v. aboul thi 
year a.d. 390, and is distinguished from other 
princes of the same name hj histitli oi Kirman- 
shah, which he received from having, during 
the reign of his brother, filled the station of 
ruler oi the province oi Barman : and he 
perpetuated it bj founding the city oi Kirman- 
shali. He reigned, according to some accounts, 
eleven years : and to others fifteen. II 
killed by an arrow when endeavouring to 
quell a tumult in his army, and was sine eded 
by Yi/ilij.inl I. who i- called [sdigerd a by 
the Gri ek authors. 

Bahram V. (J^j) (or Varanea V.), 

the fourteenth king oi Persia oi the Sasanian 
dynasty, who is known, in Persian history, 
by the nam.' of Bahram Gor. He was the 
son of Xezdijard I. whom he - I to 

the throne of Persia in a.d. 420. The word 
Gor signifies a wild ass: an animal to the 
chase oi which this monarch was devoted; 
and ii was in pursuit of one "t these th I 
lest his life; having suddenly come upon ;i 
deep pool, into which his horse plunged, and 
neither the animal nor bis royal rider were 
ever seen again. The firsi rhythmical com- 
position in the Persian Langu ig< is rei ord< d 
to have been the production oi Bahram and 
bis mistress Dilaram. Bahram visited India, 
was contemporary with Theodosius the 
emperor oi Constantinople, and ruled Persia 
eighteen years. He died in a.d. 438, and 
was succeeded by his sen Yezdijard II. 

Bahrain (*L^0, an author who wrote 

the History of the Parsis of Bombay in a.d. 

1599, entitled Qissai Sioy'fui. 

Bahrain Chobin (,.—>*>■ J^A or 

Jovian, a general of Hurmuz III. king oi 
Persia, whom he deposed; he reigned eight 
months, about the year a.d. 590. 

[ Fide Hurmuz III.] 

Bahram Mirza (V 


j\j* (♦y x -- / '' son °^ 

Shah Sama'il Safawi. He was a good poei 
and died in the prime of youth in a.d. 1550, 
a.h. 957. 

Bahram Saqqa (iJL> J^tf), a poet, 

was of Turkish extraction and belonged to 
the Bayat tribe. It is said that the prophet 
Khizr appeared to him, and a divine light 
tilled him. He renounced the world and 
became a water-carrier. 

[Vide Aln Translation, i. p. 5S1.] 

Bahram Sarakhsi (^.^ , tJ J „_.\ a 

Prosodian oi Sai khs, a town \« tv. 
ir and M 

Bahram Shah (»lib ^,:), son of 

S I in M - t'ud 1 1 1 aso nd< d the thron "t 
(ill izul by tli- 5 - ajar 

his uncle, alter hi- brother Arsalan Shah, 
who was put to deatli in ah. Ills. a.h. 512. 
B ii im Shah, after a prosperous reign <>f 

• d in a D. 1 162, 
a.m. 647, by 'Ala-uddin Hasan Ghori, and 
Bed to Lahore, where he died thi same year, 
and bis -"ii k S I him in 

the government oi Lahor I poets Shaikh 
S 'nil and Abu'l Majd-bin-'Adam-a G 
nawi flourished in the time oi Bahrain Shah. 

Bahram Shah (t\JSt *'-,-'• surnai 

Ma'iz-uddin, wa SuljanB kn-uddin 

I II I to thi throne "i 

I I dj ;■' r the murdi r oi Suljtai the 
qn Monday the 2 lsl April, a.i>. 1240. 
II I littli more than !••'■ and 
was slain by the instigation o M I b-uddin 

sir, ahout the 15th May. a.d. 1242, when 
Sn ,-uddin Masa'nd, anothi i 

fan Altimsh, w I to the thron,'. 

Firishta erroneously sava that Bahrain was 
the -"ii oi Altimsb and brother "t Sultana 

Bahramand Khan (,ol-»> A***-^'), 

of Mirza Bahram, and on oi the empi ror 
'Alamgir's oldest nobility and his friend. 
After the death oi Ruh-ullah-Khan, he 
raised to tl llr Bakhshi or chief 

paymaster by the emperor in a.d. 1692, a.h. 
1 103, and di d in the 1 » < < an on the 17th 
11 toh r, o.s. 1702, 6th Jumada II. a.m. 1111. 
Hi was buried ai his own request in a small 
tomb at Bahadnrgurh. II was succeeded 
in his office by Zulfiqar Mian NTasral Jang, 
who notwithstanding this appointment con- 
tinu d in the command oi the army against 
the Marhattas in tin. Dei 

Bahr-ul Ilifz (^J\ jS r) } ( r the Sea 

of Memory,) is the title of Abu Usman-bin- 

'Amn'i, who wrote a hook on the manners 
and qualities of princes. lie died A.D. 8 
A.H. 255. 

Bahu Begam ( JL< .->->), the mother 

of Nawab Asf-ud-daula of Lucknow. She 
died on the 28th December, 1815. She was 
one of the "Beganis" on whose ill-treat- 
ment was based a charge in the impeach- 
ment of Warren Hastings. 

Baian C.l*j) ; the poetical name of 

Khwaja Ahsan-uddin or Ahsan-ullah Khan 

of Aura, who was living at Dehll iu a.d. 
1760, a.h. 117.4. 




Baiazid I. (Sultan) (^ALL; JuJjIj), 

whom we call Bajazet, surnamed Ilderim, or 
Lightning, succeeded his father, Murad I. 
Amuratb in a.d. 1389, \.n. 791, as Sultan 
of the Turks. II ■ caus d his elder brother 
XVkub, his rival for the throne, t" be 
strangled, an act of barbarity which since his 
time' pi is a custom at the Turkish 

court. He conquered Bulgaria, Macedonia, 
ami Thessaly; ami after lie had mad,' the 
emperor of Constantinople tributary to his 
power, he marched to attack Tamerlane in 
the east. He was, however, totally d feati d 
near Angora on Friday the 21si July. a.d. 
1102. L9th gil-hijja, A.H. 804, ami taken 
prisoner; and when the proud conqueror 
asked Mm whai he would have done with 
him it he had obtained the victory, Baiazid 
answered that he would have confined him 
in an iron cage. " Such then shall he thy 
fate," rejoined Tamerlane, and ordered him 
to he carri d aboul with his camp in an iron 
cage. Baiazid died on tic 8th .March, a.d. 
1403, loth Sha'ban, a.h. 805, at Antioch 
in Pisidia during his confinement in Taimur's 
camp. His son Musa, who was with his 
lather at the time o! his death, broughl his 
remains to Brusa and buried th m th 
During his (Muea's) absence in the camp, his 
brother Sulaiman had ascended the throne. 

Baiazid. II. (Sultan) (^UaL: <Hk^\ 

emperor of Turkey, succeeded his father 
Muhammad II. to the throne of Constanti- 
nople in May, a.d. 1481, Main I. a.h. 886. 
He extended 'the boundaries of his kingdom ; 
and obliged the Venetians to sue for peace. 
His reign was distracted by intestine discord, 
and he fell by the perfidy of his sou Salim I. 
who caused him to be poisoned in a.d. 1512, 
a.h. 918, in the 60th year of his age and 
31st of his reign. He was a man of un- 
common talents, and did much for the 
improvement of his empire and the promotion 
of the sciences. 

Baiazid. Ansari (^ .L2JI Jj JjIj), the 

Afghan Apostle, called Pir Roshan, founder 
of the Sufi sect called L- Roshania," or "the 
enlightened." He had established amid the 
mountains of Afghanistan a temporal power 
upon the authority of his spiritual character, 
which enabled him and his successors to 
disturb the tranquility of the empire of Dehli, 
when, under the celebrated Akbar, it had 
reached the very zenith of its power. 

Baiazid Bustami (Kliwaja) (juLjIj 
<k>-\y~». ^Ik^j), the famous ascetic 

of Bustam, whose original name was Taifuri : 
he is therefore sometimes called Baiazid 
Taifini-al-Bustami. His father's name was 
'Isa -ibn- Adam-ibn- 'Isa-ibn- 'All. His 
grandfather was a Gabr or niagian, but 
bi c nil.' a convert to Islamism. These two 
brothers, Adam and 'All, were, like himself, 
devout ascetics, but in an inferior degree. 

He was born in the year a.d. 777, A.H. 160, 
lived to a great age, and died between the years 
a.d. 845 or 848, a.h. 231 or 234, but 
ording to Ibn-Khalikan his death took 
place in a.d. 875 or 878, a.h. 261 or 264. 
He i> <aid to have hen a contemporary of 
Ahmad Khizroya, who died a.h. 240. 

Baiazid Khan ( <l>- aj; : ;Ij), Faujdar 

of Sarhind, who was commanded by the 
emperor Farrukh-siyar to punish the Sikhs, 
wdio had risen in rebellion ; he took the field, 
hut was assassinated in his tent when alone 
at evening prayers, by a Sikh commissioned 
tor that purpose by Banda their chief, ami 
the murderer escaped unhurt. This circum- 
Lce took place about the year a.d. 1714, 

A.H. 1126. 

Baiazid (Sultan) (^LLd — : JujJju). 

There is a cenotaph at Chatigaon (Chitta- 
gong , called the Rauza of Sultan Baiazid. 

It is related that he was horn at Bustam in 
Khurasan, of which country he was king; 
hut abandoning regal pomp and cares for the 
tr inquiHty of the ascetic fife, he came with 
twelve attending disciples to Chatigaon. 
Their arrival was promptly opposed by the 
kin-- of the fairies and tin"' attendant genii, 
who desired them forthwith lo depart. Sultan 
Baiazid, with feigned humility, entreated to 
be allowed to remain that night and to occupy 
only as much ground as could he illumined by 
a single lamp, called in Bengali chati or 
chat.: on obtaining their consent, he kindled 
from his urine a lamp of such radiance, that 
it- light extended to Tlk Naof, a distance of 
120 miles, and scorched the terrified genii, 
who fled from its flame in dismay. In 
commemoration of this event, the place was 
named Chatigram, in common parlance, 
Chatgaon, signifying the village of the lamp. 
This insult and breach of confidence led to 
implacable war on the part of the genii, 
whom Sultan Baiazid, in various conflicts, 
drove from the field; and in his strenuous 
exertions chopped a ring where the cenotaph 
now stands — bis Karanphul, or ear-ring, fell 
in the river, which thence was named the 
" Karanphuli " ; and a sankh, or shell, 
dropped from his hand into the other stream, 
from which it derived the name of Sankhautl. 
Sultan Baiazid then became a G-orchela (i.e. 
did penance in the tomb) for 12 years: after 
endowing it with lands to keep it in repair 
and defray the expenses of pilgrims and the 
twelve disciples, he proceeded to Makanpivr, 
and was succeeded by his disciple Shah, who, 
in the hope of an eterua' reward, performed 
the penance of standing for 12 years on one 
leg, after which be also proceeded to Makan- 
pur ; leaving the cenotaph under the charge 
of Shah Pir, an attending disciple of Baiazid. 
This place was therefore in after ages held in 
great repute, and visited by numerous pilgrims 
from distant parts. It is situated on a hill, 
ascended by a flight of steps, inclosed by a 
wall about 30 feet square and 15 high, with 
mitred battlements, and a pillar rising two 
feet above them at each angle, similar to the 




buildings of the time of Akbar. The tomb, 
about 1- feet bj 9, ifl in the centre ot the 

area, with some shells and corals deposited at 
its head. 

Baiazid Taifuri-al-Bustami (a_< jj\j 




(Lis). Vide Baiazid 

Baidu Khan (^\>- *± : \^), the sun of 

Turaghai and grandson ot Ealaku Khan. 
succeeded Kaikhatu or Kaijaptu Khan in 
January, a.d. L295, Safar, \.n. 694, and 
enjoyed the crown oi Persia only seven 
months: ho was dethroned and shun by his 
aephew, Gjhazin Chan, the bod of Arghun 
Khan ; \\ ho was compi 11< d to attack bis 
unele and sovereign to piv-rrve himseb from 
destruction. This event took place in ( Ictober 
the same year, Zil-hijja, a.ii. 694. In 
English Eistories be it Batu. In 

L235, at the la ad of half a million ..i 
Keptchak Mongols, be conquered the easl 
of Russia, destroying Riazan, Moscow, 
yiandimir and other towns. 

Baihaqi ( JL^j), Burnamed Abu 1 

Fa/.l, and whose proper name is Abu Bakr 
Ahmad, was the son ot Eusain Baihaqi. E< 
is the author of the works in Arabic called 
Sunon Kubra and Sughra and "t one 
entitled Sha'b-ul-Iman, Ee died in the 
year a.d. 1066, \.u. 158. Hi- collection oJ 
Traditions is also oi the highesi authority. 

Baiju (*_r«aj), one of the mosl cele- 
brated songsters of Iudia, besides Naek, 

Gopal, and Fansin. 

Baiqara Mirza (Sultan) ; ..« 1-JuL) 

(olLLc), the son of Umax Shaikh 

Mirza, the second Bon of Amir Taimur. 

IJaupira sueeeeded his hrother OS governor 
of Persia in a.d. 1301. a.ii. 796. Eis 
eldest brother, l'ir Muhammad Jahangir, 
was slain in a.d. 1405, a.ii. SOS. Baiqara, 
Mirza was slain by his ancle Shahrukh 
Mir/a in a d. 1410," a.u. 819 : he left a 
son named Mansur, who became the father 
of Sultan Husain Mirza, surnamed Abu'] 
Gliazi Bahadur. 

Bairam (*!.»;), sometimes erroneously 

written by us for Bahrain. It is the T. 
name of the planet Mars. 

Bairam Beg (i-jL< J^) was father 

of Munim Khan. The latter was a grandee 
in Humayun's Court. 

[Vide Ain Translation, vol. i. p. 317.] 
Bairam Khan (^Li. +\-+j), styled 

Khan Khanan, or Lord of lords, was one of 
the most distinguished officers of the Mughal 

court. IP was a Turkman and di so i 
from a line "t ana Btors who si rved for many 
generations in tie- family "i Taimur, Bairam 

ompanied tin- emperor Eumaynn from 
Persia to India, and on the accession « • t 
his son Akbar, he was honoured with the 
tit'a "i Khan Khanan and th i prime 

minister; and had the whole civil and nub- 
Ian powers rested in his hand-. When 
Akbar in a.d. L558, a.m. 965, thought he 
w i- capable oi acting for himself, hedismi 
I: iram Khan from the wizarat. Bairam at 
first had recourse t" rebi Ition, hut b< ing un- 
successful, was compelled to throw him- It on 
the clemency of hi- n, who not only 

pud. >md him hut assigned to him a pension 
oi 50,000 rupees annually lor Ins support. 
B dram Boon afb t took l< i\<- ol th < mperor 
with tie- design "t making a pilgrimage to 
Mecca, and had proceeded to Gujrat in order 
to embark for Mecca, hut was slain by 
one Mubfirik Khan Lohani, whose lather 
Bairam Khan had -lain in battle with his 
own hand during the reign ol tin- emperor 
Humayon. This event took place on Friday 
the 31-t January. a.d. L561, 1 Mh Jumada I. 
a.u. 968 II was at first buried m ar the 

ib oi Shaikh Eisam at Gujrat, but after- 
wards his remain- were transported to 
Mashhad and buried there. Ei is the author 
ci a Dlwan. 

Baizawi (Qazi) ( ^l« iC.ld-j), the 

o - 

surname ><\ Nasir-uddin Abu'] Khair Abd- 
ullab-ibn-TJmar al Baizawi. II' was a 
native "i Baiza, a village of Shiraz, on 
which account In- i- styled Baizawi. Ee 
held the office "i <r>/i or Judge ot tie city 
oi Shiraz for a considerable time, and died 

at Tabriz or Tauris ill the year A.U. 1 

a.h. 685, or a- "tii re Bay in a.u. L292, 
a ii. 691 . Ee i- the author "i th< «< 11- 
known Commentary on the Quran called 
/ . which i ar- 

ul-Tanzll, and Asrar-ul-Tawil. Some say 
that he i- also the author of a history entitli a 
.\ . . u Tatcartkb, hut tie- author ot this 
work is said hy others to he Abu Sa"id 
Baizawi, which 

Baisanghar (Mirza) ; ft JCujjjXj), 

son of Mirza Shahrukh, tb son "t Amir 
Taimur. Ee was a learned and noble prit 
a great protector oi letters and learned men. 
IN himself wrote -i\ differ nt hand-, com- 
posed \ rses in the Persian and Turkish 
lam uages, stantly had in his employ- 

ment fortj copyists lor transcribing M v >. 
Ee was born in the year a.d. 1399, a.h. 
802, and died before his father in a.d. 1434, 
a.h. S37, at Herat, aged 35 lunar years. 

Baisanghar (Mirza) (\ ; .,« jL*ujIj), 

son of Sultan Husain Mirza of Herat. He 
was killed hy Khusro Shah, king of Qundaz. 

Bajazet, name of several Turkish 
emperors spelt so in English, being a cor- 
ruption of Baiazid, which si e. 




Baji Bai ( Jl> c 5-l>), also called 
Bija Bai, which see. 

Baji Rao I. (Peshwa) (\JL+) i\ , ^b), 

the son of Balaji Rao Bishwanath Peshwa, 
whom he succeed, d in October, a.d. 17-0. 
He was the ablesl of all the Brahman dynasty, 
and perhaps of all the Marhatta nation, excepi 
Sewaji. He died on the 28th April, <>.s. 
1740, 12th Safar, a.h. 1153, and left three 
soil-, r/:. Bahiji Baji Ran, who succeeded him 

asPeshwa; Ra gh nuath Rao, commonly called 
Raghoba, who was at one time much con- 
nected with the English, and was the father 
of tin' laM Peshwa Baji Ran II.; and Sham- 
sher Bahadur, to whom though an illegitimate 
son by a Muhammadan woman, and brought 
up in his mother's religion), he lefi all his 
possessions and pretensions in Bimdelkhand. 

3aji Rao II. (\yL*j fa ^ty, the 

last Peshwa, was the eldesl son of Raghoba 
or Raghunath Rao of ambiguous memory. 
He succeeded Madho Rao, the infant Peshwa. 
who died suddenly in October, a.d. 1795, 
During the reign of Madho Rao ho and Ids 
brother Chimuaji were confined in the fort 
of Juneir, near Puna, aud alter his death 
Chimuaji was furtively invested, but be was 
soon alter deposed and Baji Rao was pub- 
licly proclaimed Peshwa by Daulat Rao 
Scindhia on the 4th December, a.h. 1796. 
In May, a.d. 1818, a proclamation was 
issued by Government deposing him for re- 
bellion ; and the Raja of Sitara, Partap 
Singh Narayan released from confinement, 
had a part of the Puna territories assigned 
for his support, aud was vested with the 
reality of that power of which his ancestors 
iu latter times had enjoyed only the name. 
Baji Rao was compelled to surrender himself 
to the English, aud was pensioned on the 
3rd June, a.d. 1818. The pension allowed 
him by Government was 800,000 rupees per 
annum. He died at Bithur, near Cawnpore, 
in December, a.d. 1852, and was succeeded 
by his adopted son Dhondu Pant, commonly 
called Niina Sahib (q.v.), who became a 
rebel in the distirrbances of 1857. 
[See Colebrooke's Mountstnart Elphi>i stone. ,] 

Bakhat Singh (d£u~> CL~=z"), or Bakht 

Singh Rathor, son of A jit Singh and brother 
of Abhai Singh, Raja of Jodhpur. He was 
poisoned in a.d. 1752. 

Bakhshi 'Ali Khan (^,U~ b ^sr), 

whose poetical name was Hashmat, flourished 
in the time of Nawab Salabat Jang of Hydera- 
bad, about the year a.d. 1751, a.h. 1164. 

Bakhshi Bano Begam (,jl_> ( _.A.r^ 

*x»j), a sister of the emperor Akbar 
the Great. 

Bakhtaiar Beg Gurdi Shah Mansur 
(ali ^f I — Cj jLisr), Turkman, 
was an Amir, and governed (1001) Siwistan. 
[Vide Am Translation, vol. i. p. 474.] 

Bakhtaiar Khilji ( 

I'idc Muhammad Bakhtaiar Khilji 


Bakhtari (^jjJs?), one of the most 

celebrated Arabian poets, who died in the 
year a.d. 823. According to some writers, 
he was horn in a.d. 821, a.h. 20S, flourished 
iu the lime of the khalif Al-Musta'in ltillah, 
and died in his 63rd year at Baghdad. He 
is also called liin- Rakbtari. 

,U jX^r), 


Bakhtawar Khan ( 

amir who served under the emperor Alamglr. 
The Sarae of Bakhtawarnagar. near Denli, 
was constructed by him in a.d. 1671, a.h. 
1082. He is the author of the work called 
Mirat-uW Alam, a history of the first part 
of the reign of 'Alamglr. He died iu a.d. 
1684, a.h. 1095. 

\Vide Nazir Bakhtaiar Khan.] 

Bakhtishu ( c ..A.-.:. Js? ) , name of a 

Christian physician in the service of Ilarun- 

Bakshu (.Aisr), a singer, lived at the 

Court of Raja Bikramajit Mansur; but when 
his patron lost his throne lie went to Raja 
Kirat of Kalinjar. Not long afterwards he 
accepted a call to Gujrat, where he remained 
at the Court of Sultan Bahadur, a.d. 1526 
to 1536. 

[Vide Aln Translation, vol. i. p. 611.] 

Baktash Quli (^li .jlLixJLj), a 

Musalman writer of the Persian sect, who 
wrote a book called Bo&tan-al-Khayal, or the 
Garden of Thoughts. (Watkiu's Biographical 
Dictionary.) See also Amiri, who also wrote 
a book of that name. 

Balaji Rao Bishwa Nath Peshwa 

OjA-j ^)\j yiJ fa f^rM, the 

founder of the Brahman dynasty of Peshwa, 
was the hereditary accountant of a village 
iu the Kokan. He afterwards entered into 
the service of a chief of the Jado family, 
whence he was transferred to that of the 
Raja Sahu, son of Sambhaji, chief of the 
Marhattas. His merits were at length re- 
warded with the office of Peshwa, at that time 
second in the State. He died iu October, 
a,d. 1720, aud was succeeded by his son 
Baji Rao Peshwa. 

List of Hereditary Peskwds of Tuna. 
Balaji Rao Bishwauath Peshwa. 
Baji Rao Peshwa, son of Balaji. 




BalaVji Tiaji Rao, son of Bali Rao. 

Madho Rao Bilal, son of Hair, ji, 
under the regency oJ his uncle Raghunlth 

Narayan Rao Peshwa, brother of Madho I 

Raghunath Rao, Bon oi Baji Rao Peshwa I. 

Madho Rao J I. posthumous son of Narayan 

Baji Rao II. son of Raghunath Rao, pro- 
claimed himself, and was taken by Bindhia. 

Chimnaji, furtively invested at Puna, -loth 
May, 1796. 

Baji Rao II. publicly proclaimed, 4th Decem- 
ber, L796. Surrendered to ami pensioned 
by the English, 3rd .Inn.'. 1818, and I' 
Smgh Narayan. tin Raja oi Sittra, r< I 
from confini mi nt. 

Balaji Baji Rao (;\, ^ ~»}\j) 

J J Li • • LS • 
also called Bala Rao Pandit Pradhan, 
the son of Baji Rao Pi ahwi I. : ■:: d ni ■ di d 
liis father in April, a.d. 17 1". 11 
Puna when the battle between th " 

and A! I Shah ^bdali took place inJanu 

A.n. 1761, but died in the month of Jui 
the same war. leaving three sons, 
Rao, who W as kill I in th battle of Panipat, 
Madho Rao, and Narayan Rao. 

Baland Akhtar ( « 

' JcJj), a brother 

of the emperor Muhammad 

Balash ( >%). ride Palash or Pali 


Balban (^^^Juj), a king of Dehli. 
Vide Ghayas-uddin Balban. 

Balbhaddar Singh (^^ ; jjj) f a 

Raja lineally descended from the ancieni 
Hindu monarchs of Audli, who, havi 
100,000 Rajputs at his command, considered 
himself as equal to theNawab Wazirof Lu - 
now, whose authority he disclaimed. To 
reduce this Raja an army was sent about 
the year a.d. 1780, composed partly oi the 
Nawab's troops, and partly of the Company's 
sepoys ; but owing to the intrigues oi II 
Beg Khan, the minister oi theNTawab Wazir 
Asaf-uddaula, and the native collectors, who 
extorted large sums from the zamindars, this 
expedition failed of success. Dunn- two years 
he was frequently defeated aud pursued;' and 
at length being surprised in his camp, he was 
killed iu endeavouring to make his escape. 

Baldeo Singh (<l4_, jjjL), the Jat 

Raja of Bhartpur, was the second son of 
Eaujlt Singh. He succeeded to the Rhj 
after the death of his eldest brother, Randhir 

Baligh (j.Jj), author of the Baluel 

Zahira, Talauwan Qudrat, and MaMlima. 
He was a native of India and was living iu 
a.d. 1772, a.h. 1186. 

Balin, erroneously written by Bomi 
I: dban, which • 

Balqini ( 

i), / '<■'< BilqainL 


Balti (jA\j) [tide Jodh Bat), tl 

danghti r oi 1: I daia Singh Rafhor, 

commonly called Motha 1. ried 

to the • mp ror Ji h ingir i ud the 

mother oi shah Jahan. .She died in a.i>. 
1619, a.h. i 

Balwan Singh {tS^a u ^), [who was 

alv d by th 

K -walaB oi tin ci l< 'rated 

Chaii Singh, 1 in Singh 

9 - boi d at ' rwaliar, and after his 

d ith, hi and his family lived in th 

ra for manj d a monthly p nsion 

oi 2000 in] o es. II' losi his onh K iwar 

Chakarbati Singh, on the 1 7 1 ': : Deci aber, 

1^71. and alter B f< w days, on the 

ie month, h' d hi- unusually 

prolonged life. Th i riving 

oi this family « ividow oi I i bati 

Singh and hi- children, a boj aged nim and 

a ; I. ' w "in Sin 

the author ot a Diwiin iu Urdu. 

Balwant Singh Uf-_- u^-J»10, :1 Raja 

or zamindar of] ther 

or hroilier of the famous Chaii Singh who 
iu-t the British, and ' d 

1 by Mr. Eastings in L781. 
I. dwani Singh 1 hi- father M 

I' m in a.m. 1 7 1 <». reigned 30 years, died in 
1770, and a dedbyBaVjaChait Singh. 

Balwant Singh ((j&^a L£-oAj), Raja 

of Bhartpur, succeeded hi< lather, Baldeo 
Singh, in August, 1824 : was displaced by one 
ot his cousins, named Durjan Sal, in March, 
1826 : bui i 1 by the British Govi rn- 

ii m nt on the I9th January, L826. Bhartpur 
w is tormed and taken by the Bengal troops 
under Lord Combermere, on the 18th January. 
The British lost during the siege 4") offii 
killed and wounded, and 1500 men; the 
enemy losi some thousands, and the usui 
Durjan Sal was seized and sent to Allahabad. 
His lather. Baldeo Singh, was the second 
brother oi Randhir Singh, the eldesi of the 
four sons of Ranjii Singh the son oi Kehri 
Singh, the brother of Ratan Singh, the 
brother of Jawahir Singh, the son of Surajmal, 
the son of Cburaman Jat, the founder of the 
principality. Balwant Singh died aged 34 
years ou the 16th March. 1853, and was 
succeeded by his infant sou Jaswant Singh. 

Banana (<OLj), an Arabian poet whose 

full name is Abu Bakr-bin-Muhammad lu'n- 
Bahana. There has been another Bin- 
Banana, viz., Abu Nasr-ibn-ul-' Aziz -bin 

Banana, who was a poet also, aud died at 
Baghdad iu a.d. 1009, a.h. 400. 




Banda (i_uj). Vide Razi (Maulana). 

Banda (iA^j), a guru or chief of the 

Sikh-, and suit 3 ir of G tru Gobind. This 
man obtained greal power, and committed 
greal depredations in the province of Lah 
in the reign of Bahadur Shah I. and while 
the emperor was in Dcecauagainsl his brother 
Kam Bakhsh, Banda collected bis followers, 
to revenge the death of bis predecessor's sons, 
who were taken pris m< rs ami had been put 
to death some time before. He commi 
the greatest cruelties mi the Musulmans, in 
every advantage shewing no quarter to age 
or sex, and even ripping up women with 
chilil. The emperor found it necessary to 
march in person againsl him, ami he was 
besi -''(1 in tin' fortress of Lohgarh, which 
w - i '. i. but Banda found means to 
escape, and raise new insurrections,. In tin' 
reign of the emperor Farrukhsiar, 'A' 
Samad Khan, governor of Kashmir, was 
against the rebels with a great army. After 
many - i aents, be forced Banda to 

taker fuge in afortress, which was blockaded 
so effectually as to cut off every supply. 
The garrison was reduced to the necessity of 
eating cows, lea- -. and other animals 

forbidden by their laws; when at length, 
having no provision of any sort left, ami 
beiun' reduced to the extremity of famine ami 
disease, they begged for quarter. 'Abdus 
Samad Khan, having planted a standard on 
tlie plain, commanded them to come out ami 
lav their arms under it, which they did. He 
then divided the meaner sort among his chiefs, 
who cut off their heads; and threw their 
bodies iuto a river near the fortress. Banda 
and many other captives were sent to Dehli, 
through which he was carried in an iron cage 
upon au elephant, dressed iu a robe of gold 
brocade. The Sikhs bore the insults of the 
populace with the greatest firmness, aud 
steadily refused the emperor's offers of life 
if they would embrace the Muhammadan 
faith. They were put to death, a hundred 
each day, on the ensuing seveu days. On 
the eighth day Banda aud his son were put 
to death without the city. A dagger was 
put iuto his hands, and he was commanded 
to kill his infant sou ; but refusing, the child 
was slain by the executioner, his heart torn 
out, and forced into the father's mouth. 
Banda was then put to death by the tearing 
of his flesh with red hot pincers and other 
tortures, which he bore with the greatest 
constancy. This event took place in the 
year a.d. 1715, a.h. 1127. 

Bano Begam ( Ji^ yb), the daughter 

of Shahuawaz Khan, the son of the Wazir 
Asaf Khan, wife of the emperor Alamgir, 
and mother of 'Azirn Shah. 

Baqai QJlJb), surname of Ibrahim- 
bin- 'Umar, a learned Musalman, who is 
the author of several treatises on ancient 

philosophers, on divination by numbers, a 
commentary en the Quran, etc. He died in 
the year A.D. 1 ISO, A.H. 885. 

Baqai (Mulla) QL* ij^), a poet who 

lived in the time of the emperor Babar Shah. 
He i< the anther of a poem or Masnawi, which 
he dedicated to the emperor. 

Baqalani ( J&ilj), the author of a 

work called Ai'jaz-ul- Quran, or of the diffi- 
cult things in the Quran. See Abu Bakr 

Baqi Khan ( .Iri. ,c^A a nobleman 

of the court of the emperor Shah Jahan, by 
whom he was appointed governor of the fort 
of Agra. In the 24th year of the reign of 
the emperor he was raised to the rank of 
1500. In the 40th year of the emperor's 
reign, be still held the governorship of the 
fort of Agra, and was raised to the rank of 
200i» the following year. He had built in 
the froni of the gate called Hathiapol, which 
i- situated towards the Chauk ami the Jama 
Misjid, a fine bungalow, which was still 
standing about the year a.d. 1830. 

Baqili ( XL'), surname of Abu 1 Fazl 

Muhammad-bin-Qasim-al-Hiwarizml, who 
from his learning has the title of Zain-uddin 
and Zain-ul-Mashaekh, or the ornament of 
the doctors. He wrote a book on the prayers 
of the Musalmans, on the glory and excellence 
of the Arabs, called Salat-ul-Baqill. He 
died in a.d. 1167, a.h. 562, but according 
to Haji Khalfa in a.d. 1170, a.h. 566. 
There was another Baqili, also a Muham- 
madan doctor, who died in a.h. 982. 

Baqi Muhammad Khan Koka ( ^jLj 

6&£ ^U- A/*.^:'*), eldest brother of 

Adham Khan, the son of Maham Anka, 
was an officer of 3000 in the time of the 
emperor Akbar. He died at Garb. Katka, 
where he had a jagfr, in a.d. 1585, a.h. 993. 

Baqir ( Jl.. 1 ), the poetical name of 

Muhammad Baqir All Khan, who flourished 
iu the time of the emperor Muhammad Shah 
and wrote a Masnawi or poem called Bamuz- 
ut-Tahirln, composed in a.d. 1726, a.h. 
1139, also another work entitled Gnlshani 
Asrur, which he wrote in a.d. 1732, a.h. 
1145. He is also the author of a Diwan, 
and another poem called Mirat-ul-Jamal. 

Baqir Ali Khan ((jL>- ,c-i-£ ;-'W^ 

Vide Baqir. 

Baqir (Imam) (+\.,+\ j.j\.j). T'tde 
Muhammad Baqir (Imam). 




Baqir Kashi ( *^ _jLj), whose 

poetical name is Khirad, was a contemporary 
<>i Zahuri who flourished about the year a. D. 
L600, and i- the athor "i a Diwan. 

Baqir Khan (^U- 3\)), a nobleman 

in the service of the emperor Shah Jahan. 
In the latter part oi his life, he was appoint) d 
governor of Allahabad, \\ here he <li. a in a i>. 
1637, a.m. 1047, in which year died also 
Khan Zaman Bahadur, in Daulatabad. 

Baqir Khan (^JU *js^ ^l^^Jb), 

surnamed Najm Sani, an amir oi the reign 
of Shall Jahan. Ee was a very liberal man, 
fond of literature, and was himseli a i 
He died in a.d. Kilo. a.m. 1060, but, accord- 
ing tn tin- work Mdzir-ul-Umrd, in \ d. 
1087, a.h. loir. Hi- i- the author -.i a 
Diwan in- Book oi < * « 1 « <. 

Barahman ( {£ y&j) f poetical title of a 

Brahman whose name was Chandar Bl 
which see. 

Barbak (cX.< ,l>), the bod of Bahlol 

Lodi, king of Dehli. Vide Husain Shah 

Barhak Shah (iU lJjJj), rarla. 

the son of Nasir shall, whom he succeeded 
to the throne of Bi ngal in a.h. 1468. Ee 
reigned tm- a period oi 17 years and died in 

a.i>. 1 17 1. a.m. 879. 

Barbarassa (aJ^Ij^Ij), the famous 

Corsair. Sulaiman, emperor of the Turks, 
gave him the title oi Khair-uddin, ami made 
him afterwards Pasha oi the sea. He suc- 
ceeded his brother Aruch, who conquered 
tho kingdom of Algiers, after having killed 
Salim tho Arabian king, lie took Tunis 
A.D. 1533, a.h. 940, alter having driven out 
the Venetians, hut Andrea Dona retook it 
again a.h. 1636, a.h. 943. After this, lie 
ravaged several parts of Italy, and reduced 
Yemin, in Arabia Felix, to the Turkish 
government. Ehair-uddin died at Constanti- 
nople in A.D. 1516, a.h. 953, aged 80. 

Barbarassa (Aruch) U_I-,L> ,1-- '), a 

famous pirate. Being called in to assist 
Salim, prince of Algiers, against the Spaniards, 
he murdered that monarch, and took posses- 
sion of his throne. He afterwards laid siege 
to Tunis, which he took, and caused him- h 
to be proclaimed sovereign. lie was besieged 
by the Marquis of Gomarez and reduced to 
the greatest distress. He escaped by a sub- 
terraneous passage, but was overtaken with 
a small number of Turks, the whole of whom 
died sword in hand in a.d. 1518. 

Barbud (a_>,L:), a famous Persian 
musician, mast r oi music to Khusro Parwi /. 

kin- oi 1'. i -ri. II ' impoa d an air called 

Aorangi, and is '• instrun 

(a -nit ■'! lyre which b. an his name : 
Bai bud or Barbut. 

Barizi ' ^- ;.'_•). the son of Abdul 

I: lilm. an Arabian author who wrotn 
commentary on thi work called ./ - - 

eU. lie died in a.d. 13 .7. a.h. J 
This author appears to b. with 

1. ./in. whi 

Barkali ( Jiij), tin- name of two Mu- 

•ainadan dm tor- ; t! died in ah. 

. and the othl r in \ i>. 1 
A.H. 982. i -onietinii .- called ltirgili, 

which - 

Barkat-ullah (Sayyad) (jjj.' uu^J 
Ju^), styled & iI-JBarkdt, v 

• S I Avw i-. tin -i.n Ml Mir 

u oi Mir -Abdul Wahid 
Shahidi >.i i m. Hi- poetical i. 

was 'Ishqi, ndlathir'- tomb 

was in M.'ibara in the district oi Agra, be 
win! and lived in that village till the day 
oi hi- death, which happened on the 26tn 
July, A.D. 1729, loth Muliarrain, a.h. 1142. 

Barkayaraq (Sultan) ( .,llilwj •; ,Ls r >), 

tin- eldest -"ii oi Sultan Malikshah Saljuqi, 
whom be succeeded in a.d. 1092, a h. i^>. 
1 1 is usual ri sidence was Baghdad. Hi- brothi r 
Muhammad ruled hmt Azur-baijan; while 
B ajar, hi- third brother, established a 
kingdom in Khurasan and Transoxiana, from 
whence he extended his conquests over the 
tall, n princes oi Ghazni. Barkayaraq n igni .1 
twelve years and died in Id cember, a.d. 1104, 
a. ii. 198. Eis brother Snlifm Muhammad 
siiec. ..led him. 

Barmak (< C*j), the name of a noble 

fauiilv, originally from Balkh in Kburasan, 
and highly c.l. brat. .1 all over the East for generosity, magnificence, and dis- 
tinguished patronage oi men ot genius. One 
of the most illustrious was governor to the 
khalif Earun-al-Rashid, and his son Ja'far, 
afterwards minister to that prince : but having 
incurred his displeasure, lie with several of the 
beads of the family was put to death. Vide 
Ja'far-al-Barmald. '.The "Barmecide" is 
familiar to readers of Gallaud's Arabian 
A >hts.) 

Baroda Oj.j), Raja of. Vide Pelaji. 

Barq ( tjS), poetical name of Mu- 
hammad Raza (<?.<.)■ 






Lo ("Glutton") was 

the nickname, and afterwards the surname 
(>t Arsalan, who from a slave bei ime Com- 
mander-in-Chief of the armies oi Baha-ud- 
danla, the wazir of the khalif of Ba gh dad. 
Having quarrelled with him he fled to Egypt 
and put himself under the protection oi Al- 
Mustanasii Billa, the fifth khalii of Egypt 
of the Fatimite dynasty. Alter some time 
lie came to Baghdad. He took Qaem, the 
26th khalif oi the Ahhasides, prisoner in 
Baghdad, deposed him, and caused Mustanasir 
to lie acknowledged the only and legitimate 
chief "t all the Musalmans. He maintained 
Mustanasir in the khilafai for one year and 
a half, after which Tughral Beg, Sultan of 
the Saljuqides, put Qaem on the throne of 
Baghdad again, defeated and killed Basasiri 

A.I). 10.59, a. ll. 451, and sent his lead to 

Qaem, who caused it to be carried on a pike 
through the streets of Baghdad. 

Bashir-ibn-ul-Lais (cj JJ! j\ -JL>), 

C/- J" • 

the brother of the arch-rebel Rafa-ibn-ul- 
Lais, who had revolted against Harun-al- 
Rashid the khalif of Baghdad in the year 
a.d. 806, a. H. 190, at Samarkand, and 
assembled a considerable force to support him 
in his defection : notwithstanding all Harun's 
care, the rebels made in a.d. 807, a.m. 191, 
great progress in the conquest of Khurasan. 
According to Abu] Faraj, in the year a.h. 
809, a.h. 193. Bashir was brought in chains 
to Harun, who was then at the point <>t 
death. At the Bight of him the khalif 
declared, that if he could speak inly two 
words he would say kill him ; and immediately 
ordered him to be cut '• pieces in his 

Basiti ( Ip^u), poetical name of a 

Dp^^u who is the author of the biography of 
poets called Tuzkira Basiti. 

Basus ( w^-l;), an Arabian woman, 

from whom originated a war, called Harb-i- 
Basus, which has since become a proverb to 
express, "Great events from little causes." 
Two Arabian tribes fought about 40 years 
because a camel belonging to this woman 
broke a ben's egg ; the owner of the egg 
wounded the camel with an arrow, and the 
two tribes were instantly in arms. 

Tiatalmiyusi C^^j^LLj), an Arabian 

author, who died in a.d. 1030, a.h. 421. 
He wrote a treatise on the qualities requisite 
in a secretary and good writer, and another 
on genealogies. 

Batu Khan (^U> jjb), tbe son of 

Jiiji Khan, and grandson of Changez Khan. 
He ruled at Kipchak and was contemporary 
with Pope Innocent IV. 

Bauwab (c_^2j) (or Bouwab), surname 

of Ahii'l Hasan 'All Kala, who is better 
known under the name of ibn-Bouwab. It 
is he who improved the form of the Arabic 
Alphabei alter [bn-Maqla. He died in a.d. 
1022, a.h. 413, or as some si y in a.d. 1032, 
a.h. 123. Alter him Ya'kiib, surnamed 
Mustaa'simi, reduced it to its present form. 

Baz Bahadur ( (jL^-i 

l_>) whose 

original name was Malik Baiazid, succeeded 
his father Shujaa' Khan to the government 
ui Malwa in a.d. 1554, a.h. 902. and having 
taken possession of many towns in Malwa 
which were previously almosl independent, 
he ascended the throne under the title of 
Sultan Baz Bahadur. His attachment to 
Rupmati, a celebrated courtezan of that age, 
became so notorious, that the loves of Baz 
Bahadur and Rupmati have been handed 
down to posterity in song. He reigned about 
17 years, alter which the kingdom of Malwa 
was taken, and included among the provinces 
of the empire oi Dehli, by the emperor 
Akbar in the year a.d. 1570, a.h. 978. 
Baz Bahadur afterwards joined Akbar at 
Dehli and received a commission as an officer 
ni 2000 cavalry. Baz Bahadur and Rupmati 
are both buried in the centre of the tank at 

[Vide Rupmati.] 

Baz Khan (^l.>- jl>), an amir in the 

rvice of the emperor Bahadur Shah. He 

was killed in the battle against A/im Shah 
(q. v.) on the Sth June, o.s. 1707, 18th Rabi' 
I. a.h. 1118, near DhaulpQr. 

Bazil (Jjb). 

Vide Bafl Khan Bazil. 

Bazil (JjL>), the poetical name of 

Badr-uddin, Ismall-al-Tabrizi, an Arabian 


Baziri (^-,-Lj), author of a p 



entitled Koukdb-al-Darriat or the Brilliant 
Star, in praise of Muhammad, who cured 
him, as he said, of the palsy in a dream. 
Every line of the poem ends with an M., 
the initial of the prophet's name, and it is 
so highly valued that many of the Muham- 
madans learnt it by heart, on account of its 
maxims. (Lempriere's Universal Dictionary 
under Bausirri.) BarizI and Baziri appear 
to be the same person. 

Bazmi ( c <+'y), author of the Padmawat 

in Persian verse. He was a native of Karkh 
and resided for some time at Shiraz. He 
came to Gujrat during the reign of the 
emperor Jahangir, and composed the above- 
mentioned poem in a.d. 1619, a.h. 1028. 
He was living at Dehli in the time of Shah 
Jahan about the year 1634. His proper 
name was 'Abdul Shakur 




Bazzaz (jU-j), the author of the 

.; ■ - - i. or a treatise on the par- 

ticular conditions and propi rti - oi traditi 
and some other works on the Mnhamm 

Bebadal Khan (^U- J^.y), a poet 

of Persia who came to India in the reign oi 
the emp ror Jahangir, and flourished in 
liiu o S ah Jahan, who conferred on him 
tlic title of Bebadal Khan. Under ],i- sup r- 
intendence the Peacock throne was construct) d. 
B had J Khan appears to be the former title 
oi Aim Talib Kalim. 

Bedar (.^Juj), the poetical name of 

Sanath Singh, a Hindu, who was living in 

A.D. 1753, A.M. 1106. 

Bedar (.\juj), an author whose proper 

name was [mam Bakhsh, a native oi Ambala. 
II. is the author oi the work called 
Sa'adat, being an account oi the progress oi 
the dynasty which ruled over Audi from 
Shujaa'-uddaula to I "All Khan, to 

whose name the title is an allusion. I 
composed in a.d. L812, ah. L227. He is 
also the author oi -< v< ral M isnawis, or 
which contains the praisi - oi Naw Ih 
'All Khan, called Gukhdn-i-Sa'ddat. He 
■was living in the timeoi Nasir-uddin Haii 
king of A inlh. 

Bedar Bakht (Prince) (c^c< } \Xj\ 

sun of 'A/im Shah. He was killed in the 
battle ton: hi by his father against the 
emperor Bahadur Shah on the 8th June, 

o.s. 1707. a. u. 1119. 

Bedar Bakht 

Ahmad Shah, 
elevated to the 
September, a.i> 

king oi Dehli. 
throne oi 1 1< hli on 

son of 


the i.-t 
1788, 27th a. li. 
1202, when G-hulam Qadir imprisoned Shah 
Alam. Bedar Bakhi continued to reign until 
the approach of the Marhattas towards Dehli, 
when he fled upon the 12th October, 1788, 
luii was subsequently apprehended and put to 
death by the orders oi Shah Alam. 

Bedil (Mirza) ;,_,<• 


i), the 

poetical name of Saidai Gilani, which see. 

Begani Sultan (^UaLs SS), a lady 

of rank, whose tomb is to he seen to this 
day, outside of the gate of Ya'tmild-uddaula's 

mausoleum iu Agra. From the inscription 
that is on her tomb, it appears that she died 
in the time of the emperor Humayun in a.d. 
1538, a.h. 945, and that she was the daughter 
of Shaikh Kamal. 

Begana (<u\sLj), the poetical name of 
Abu'l Hasan. 

Bekasi (Maulana) ('_■.._• ^^.C \) 

a po< t who lived in the tim 

Bekasi (Maulana) (..'.'._« t „ .0.0, 

a | ShTras wl n ith 

< izall, wlm died in the year a.d. 1111, 

A.H. •'in.'). 

Bekhabar (^JsXj), I tical n 

nt-ullah, -"ii «.i Lutf-ullal 

II died in ad. ,' i.l 142, 

;. II is th authi i oi thi work 


Bekhud (jyiru), poetical 

Mnlla Jami Lahauri N Khani, which 

Bekhud (_yi^._<\ poetical name of 

' : i "Ali. - 1 Na-ir 'All 

d author oi a 1 liwan. 

Bengal, Bnltl of. 

I ihammad Baghtaiar KhiljT. and Khan 

Beni Narayan. A Hindu by birth, 

but followi r oi Say] id 

H( ■■ <■■'■ i gorl oi biographic 
antholo - - published 

L812 and many other work- in prose and \. i 
(Di I - . Hist. dt l,i /ill. hind. 116. 

Berar {t^\j .\jj), Raja oi Vide 
B ighoji Bhosla. 

Betab (t_j\ijj), whose proper name 
i- Abbas All Khan, which - 

Bhagwan Das (Raja) ( ^jjUJL^J 

fc>-\ ,), called by Abu 1 Fa/1 Bhagwant 

1 ■ oi Raja BiharaMaJ Kachhwaha 

Ambhar orAmer, now Jaipur. His daughter 
was married to the prince nfirza Salim after- 
wards Jahangir) in the year a.d. 1585, a.h. 
993, by whom he had a daughter named 
Sultan-un-nisa Begam, and then a son who 
became Sultan Khusro [g.v.). Bhagwan Das 
died five days after the death of Raja Todar 
Mai, i e. on the 15th November, a.d. 1-589, 
19th Muharram, a.h. 998, at Lahore. Alter 
his death, the emperor Akbar, who was then 
at Kabul, conferred the title of Raja on his 
son Man Singh with the rank of 5000. 

Bhagwant Singh (<>ol~o li_-o»JL„<), 

ran! of Dhaulpur (1857). He died on the 

14th February, 1S73. 

Bhanbu Khan ( ,l>- 4-w„'), the son 
of Zabita Khan, which see. 




Bhartrihari, brother of Raja Viiram 

(Bikramjit). lli~ Century of Sentences has 
b i d translated into English by Prof. Tawney, 
of Calcutta. 

Bliara Mai (Raja) (.U^.l-O. Vide 
Bihar! Mai. 

Bhartpur U^l 

'J J ft 
l Churaman Jat. 


.-.:), Raja of. 

Bhaskar Acharya (lj ,U^ ..C~_j), a 

most celebrated naer of the Hindus, 

who was born at Bidai . ;i city in 
in the year oi Salivahana, 1036, corresponding 
with the year a.d. 1111. a.h. 508. II 
the author oi - vi ral ti oi which the 

Lilaivati and the Bl G t, relating 
iii'ithni I ometery and algebra, and the 

s ni, an astroi tri atise, are ac- 

counted the most valuable authority s in those 
sciences which India possesses, 'i i mni 
is delivered in two sections, the Gula-Adhj 
or the Lei ture on i . and the Ganita 

Adhyaya, or the Lecture on N 
applied to Astronomy. The Lildivuti was 
translated into Persian by Faizi in the reign 
oi Akbar, and an English translation has 
also been lately made by Dr. Taylor and 
published at Bombay. Bhaskar died at an 
advanced age, being upwards of 70 yi 
Lilawati was the name of his only daughter 
who died unmarried. 

Brian (iLA a Mahratta chief. Vide 
Sadasheo Bhau. 

Bhau Singh (&<L~: »LA, also called 

Mirza Raja, was tie- second son of Raja 
Bhagwan Das Kachhwaha, Raja of Amber 
(now Jaipur). He succeeded to the raj alter 

his father's death in a.d. 1614, a.h. 1023, 
was raised to the rank of 5000 by the emp iror 
Jahangir, and died of drinking a.d. 1621 , 
a.h. 1030. Two of his wives and eight con- 
cubines burnt themselves on his funeral pyre. 
Among Jahangir' s courtiers the Rajas of 
Amber were the most addicted to drinking. 
His eldest brother Jagat Singh, and Maka 
Singh his nephew, had lik> wise paid with their 
lives for their drunken habits, but their fate 
was uo lesson for Raja Bhau. 

Bhim Singh (< 

Udaipur, was living in a.d. 1750. 



by di feat of Zalim Singh, and died in 
1803. He was succeeded by Man Singh. 

Bhira {^-\j ^j), Raja of Gujrat, in 

whose time Sultan Mahmud GViaznawi took 
the famous temple of Somnath in a.d. 1027. 

Bhim Singh Rathour (djlx-j t+-a-\r J 

,y^\ ,). He usurped the throne of 
Jodhpur in a.d. 1793, on his grandfather's 

Bhoj (Raja)Up^, _*A Pufe'Baia 

Bhori Rani ( j\. ^ jw j). the last of 

the wives of Maharaja Ranjit Singh; she 
died childless at Lahore on the 5th April, 
1872. Her adopted son Kuwar Bhiip Singh 
distributed large sums of money before and 
alter h r d ' alius to the poor. The 

funeral was and. Her remains were 

burnt near the samadh of the late Maharaja, 
and th - t to be thrown into 

thi I Lwar. She drew a pension 

oi 800 rupees p r mensem from our Govern- 
ment anil held jaglrs of upwards of 60,000 
rupees per annum. 

Bhnchchu Us**). Vide Zarra. 

Bhuya (^l-^* &•*.?), a nohleman of 

the court of Saltan Sikandar Lodi, who built 
the masjid Math in Delhi, but was afterwards 
1 by that prince without any crime, 
only because people used to assemble at his 

Bibi Bai ( c J L> , J, c -j), the sister of 

Muhammad Shah 'Adil,king of Dehli, married 
to SalTm Shah Sur, by whom she had a son 
named FirSz. After the death of Salim Shah, 
when Firoz, then an infant, was beingmurder* d 

by bis uncle Muhammad Shah, she defended 
h r son for some time in her arms, presenting 
her body to the danger, but her cruel brother 
tore the young prince from her embrace, and 
iu her presence severed his head from his 
bodv. This event took place in May, a.d. 

( eH<^ 

Bibi Danlat Shad Begam 

0, one of the 'wives 


J^J jit 

of the emperor Akbar, and the mother of 
Shakrunnisa Begam, who survived her father, 
and died in the time of Jahangir. 

Bibi Marwarid (A.', 1 ,^ > >). -wife 

of the late Amir Afzal Khan, diedin September, 
a.d. 1874. 

Bibi Zinda Abadi (_Cw\.-l x&j •. j _>), 

commonly called Bibi Jiud Wadi by the 
people of Uchcha, was one of the descendants 
of Sayyad Jalal. She is bmied at Uchcha 
iu Multan. The dome in which she rests is 
erected of burnt bricks and cemented by 
mortar. The whole of the edifice is ornamented 
by various hues, arid lapis lazuli of the 
celebrated mines of Badakhshan. The size 
of this grand building may be estimated at 
50 feet high, and the circumference 25. 


I - 


Bihari Lai (J.*! o'V'X ;i celebrated 

Hindi poet, called by GilchriBl the Thomson 
oi the Hindus, ;iik1 much admired among 
them ; be appi at - to bave flourish d about 
the beginning of the L6th < < ntury. B( ing 
informed thai his prince Jaisah oi Jaipur 
w;i tuated w itb the beauty "t a very 

young girl he had married (so as to neglect 
entirely the affairs of his country, for he d< vi r 
came abroad, having Bhut himself up to 
contemplate the fascinating charms oi his 
beauteous, though immature bride), Bihari 
boldly ventured to admonish him by bribing 
a Blare girl to convey a couplet, which he had 
composed, under his pillow ; the translation 
of which is thus given by Gilchrist, " Winn 
the flower blooms, whal will be the situation 
ni the tree, (hat is now captivated with a 
bud, in which there is neither fragrance, 
sweets, or colour." This had nol only the 
desired effect of rousing the prince from his 
lethargy, but excited in his breast a gem 
regard for the man, whose advice cami 
seasonably and el< gantry disguised. Bihari 
received, ever after, a pension from cant. 
with a present of more than one thousand 
pounds, tin- a work he published under the 
name of Satsat, from its consisting oi seven 
hundred couph ts. 

Bihari Mai (J,« Um^X also called 

Bharamal ami Puranmal, a Raja of Amber 
or Ameir, now Jaipur, was a rajpul oi 
the tribe of Kachhwaha. He paid homage t" 
Babar about the year a.d. 1527, and was on 
friendly terms with the emperor Akbar, and 
had at an early period given his daughter in 
marriage to him, of whom was born the 
emperor Jahangir. Both he and his -,,,, 1 ; fi i : i 
Bhagwan Has were admitted at tin same time 
to a high rani in the imp< rial army by the 
emperor. Bhagwan Das gave his daughter in 
marriage to Jahangir in a.d. 1585, who was 
married next year (1586 to the daughter of 

Raja Ddai Singh, son of Rao Maldeo Rajbor. 

Bija Bai ( J)\i Isruj), or Biza Bai, 

the wife of Maharaja Daulat Rao Scindhia 
of Gwaliar. Alter the death of lnr husband, 
who died without issue, she elected Jhanko 
Rao Scindhia as his successor on the L8th 

June, 1S27. She was expelled hy him in 
ISoo, and went over toJhansi, where she had 
a large (state. She died at Gwaliar about 
the middle of the year 1863. 

Bijaipal (JLj _^r), a famous or 

fabulous Raja of Bayana, regarding whose 
power, riches, and extent of dominion, many 
curious tales are still current among the 
Bhartpur Jats, who assert their (spurious) 
descent from him. In the Bijaipal Rasa, a 
metrical romance or ballad (written in the 
Birj Bhakha) the Hindu scholar will find a 
full and particular account of this great 
Hindu monarch, who is fabled to have con- 
quered Raja Jumeswar, the father of HrthI 

1 ; . i . thi ' lebrated chauh&n kin.- ol DehlT, 
and to have ruled despotically over tin- w hole 
oi India. The Karauli Raja t"" b( 
di so u? from Bijaipal, and it any faith can he 
placed in a •• I; insaoli or gi m alogicaJ b 
he has a fair claim to the . or 

imaginary, r< suiting m. 

Bijai Singh (<&i-a .sr), son of Raja 

A ■ '■ i v igh, the son oi Mai \ j It . 

Singh, Radnor oi Jodhpur, succeeded to 

l'aj ill A H. 1752, A. 11. Ill, 7. He became in- 

lated with fondness for a young concubine ; 
alter having fought tin- Moghole tor in j 
he organised a confederacy against them in 

17*7 and w ' d li\ d 

Patan and Nirta in 17!»i»: bis chiefs rebelled, 
his family were in hostility with each other, 
and la- hit at hi- death the throne it—. It in 
dispute. Raja Man Singh at length ■ 

. ■ diil. in 1804, to the honour-, and tin ii ads 
oi Bijai sinu'h. 

Bijai Singh (yJow.- ^f), Bon oi Raja 
Bhagwan Das. ' B imji. 

Bikramajit ( v 


or mole 

properly Vikramaditya, a mythical Boven 
oi Malwa and Gujrat, whose capital was 
CTjain. Hi- era caU< d tin Sambai i- -till am d 
in the north oi India. Bikramajit died or 

nded the throne in the Kali Jul: J 
3044, according to Wilford, whi - in 

tli • 9th and loth volumes oi the A- 
1; In - contain information on the history 

oi the three supposed prince- oi this name 
and ol tlnir common rival Salivahana. 

fir-t Sambat year, therefore, concurs with the 
year 3045 oi the Kali Jug year, or 57 J 
before the birth of Christ. Thi- prince was a 

ii patron oi learned men; nil t whom 

at hi- court are called nine gems, and are -aid 

to have been Dhanwantari, Kshapanaka, 

Aiinra Sifiha. Sanku, Yctalahhatta. Ghata- 
karpara, Kalidasa, Virahamihira, and Yirfi- 
riiehi. Hi- real date i- -till an open question. 

•• I D him to the first year ol hi- i ra 

might be quite a- great a mi-take as placing 
Po] iry .XIII. in tin- year one ..i the 

Gregorian Calendar." — Holtzmann. 

[Vide Weber's Sansk-Ziter. Eng. tr., 1882, 
p. 202.] 

Bikramajit (Rajah)(<*c>^ , i^i^UXj), 
Vide Rae Patr Das. A Khatre. 

Bikrami ( ^ C<), the poetical name 

of Mir 'Abdur Rahman Wizarat Khan, 
brother of Qasim Khan, the grandfather of 
Samsam-uddaula Shahnawaz Khan. He was 

promoted in the reign of the emperor 
'Alamgir to the Diwani of Malwa and 
Bijapur. He was an excellent poet, and has 
left a Diwan composed in a most beautiful 




Bilal (JiL), the name of the crier, 

who used to announce to the people when 
Muhammad prayed. He was an African, 
aad a freed slave oi Muhammad. He di d in 
th ■ time of Omar, the second Khalif after 
Muhammad, in the year a.d. 641, a.h. 20. 

Bilal Kunwar ( ,»;.£ J10, the wife of 

the emp iror 'Alamgir 1 1, and mother of Shah 
'Alain, king of Dehli. Her title was Ziuat 

Bilqaini ( ^JiL 1 ), whose proper name 

was Abu IlaK is the author of the works 
called Mahasin-ul-Istilah, Sharah Bukhari, 
and Tarandl. He died in a.d. 1402, ah. 
8u5. See Siraj-uddin, sou of Nur-uddin, 
and Aim Hafs-al-Bukhari. 

Binai (Maulana) (^bj). His father 

was a respectable architi cl at Herat, tin- birth- 
place i>t the poet, and his takhallus or 
poetical name is derived from Bina or Banna, 
a builder. lie is the author of a work called 
Bahrdmwa - Bahroz, a story which be 
dedicated to the Sultan Ya'qub the -on oi 
Uzzan Hasan. Ili< conci it had rousi d 
jealousy of Amir Alisher ; Binai tried to con- 
ciliate his favour by writing a Qasida in his 
praise, hut receiving no reward, he therefore 
substituted the name of Sultan Ahmad Mirza 
for that of Alisher, saying that he would not 
give away his daughters without dowry. 
Alisher was so enraged at this, thai 
obtained a death-warranl againsl him. Binai 
fled to Mawarunnahr. He was killed in th 
massacre of Shah Isma'il in A..D. 1512, a.h. 
'.•IS. lie has also hit a Diwan consisting ol 
6,000 verses. 

Bin Ahmad (_w^ ,.,„•). Vide Abii'l 
Faiz Muhammad. 

Binakiti ( _^_il_^_.'). Vide Abu 

Sulaiuian Daud. 

Binayek Rao (Raja) (aj>-l..U i_£.;Lj), 

the son of Amrit Rao, a Marhatta chief. 
He died iu July, 1853, aged 50 years. 

Bin Banana (jjL.. ^y), surname of 

Abu Xasr-ibn-ul-'Aziz bin-'Amru, au 
Arabian poet who died at Baghdad iu a.d. 
1U09, a.h. 400. 

Bindraban (^ jco), a Hindu author 

who flourished in the reign of the emperor 
'Alamgir, and wrote a work called Lubbut- 
Tawarikh, a summary history of Hindustan. 

Birbal (J_j ,»_j), or Birbal, was a 

Brahman of the tribe of Bhat. His proper 
name was Mahes Das. He was a man of 
very lively conversation, on which account he 
became one of the greatest personal favourites 

of the emperor Akbar, who conferred on 
him the title of Raja and the rank of 5000. 
11 ■ was also an excellent Hindi poet, and was 
honored with the title of Kabrae or the royal 
poet. He was slain, together with Mulla 
Sherl and other officers of note, in a battle 
fought against the Yiisafzal Afghans of 
Sawad and Bij or (places between Kabul and 
Hindustan) iu February, a.d. 1586, Rabi I. 
a. n. 1)94. Akbar was lor a long time incon- 
solable for the death of Birbal, and as the 
Raja's body was never found, a report gained 
currency that he was still alive among the 
prisoners, and it was so much encouraged 
by Akbar, that a long time afterwards an 
impostor app and in bis name ; and as this 
ill Birbal did before lu reached the 
court, Akbar again wore mourning as for his 
friend. Manj oi Birbal' s witty sayings are 
still current in India. 

Birbhan, founder of the sect of 

Sadhs (Hindust. "Quakers") horn near 
Narnaul at a.d. 1040. Date and place of 
i h unknown. 

Bir Singh (<^\. AXu~, _o), a Raja of 

the Bundela tribe of Rajputs. lie was the 
founder of this family, and from him the 
family of the Qrcha chj i i- descended. The 
greater part of his dominions was wrested 
from him by Raja Uhatar Sal, wdio was 
the last sole possessor of the Bundelkhand 
province. At that period its capital was 
Kalanger, but the resid nee of the Raja was 
Panna, celebrated for its diamond mines. 

Birgili ( A£j), surname of Mulla 

Muhammad-bin-Pir 'AH, a celebrated Arabian 
author, who wrote the Sharah A.rba,ln, 
ami died a.d. 1573, a.h. 981. He is by some 
called Barkali. 

Birjis Qadar (j jjj ^^.^.r^j), whose 

original name was Ranizan 'AH, was son of 
Wajid 'AH, the ex-king of Lucknow. His 
mother's name was Ma'shiik 1! gam. At the 
outbreak, he was created king with the unani- 
mous consent of the rebel soldiery in 1857 at 
the instance of Barkat Ahmad, Risaladar, 
late loth Regiment Irregular Cavalry, who 
subsequently tell in battle. Birjis Qadar was 
then 10 years of age. Before his accession, 
bis uncle Sulaiuian Shikoh was much per- 
suaded by the rebels to accept the crown, but 
refused. Birjis Qadar was driven out of 
India and took refuge with his mother at 
Katmandu in Xepal. 

Bir Singh Rao (,\ ax^-j .-.j), other- 
wise written Nar Sin^h, a Bundela chief 
suborned by Sultan Salim, eldest son of 
Akbar, to slay Abul Fazl, the emperor's 
favourite minister. The Rao was hotly pur- 
sued for his crime but escaped. On Salim's 
accession he was rewarded. 

[Vide Jahangir.] 




Bisati Samarqandi (^jci^^Lj), 

a poet nf Samarqand who flourished in the 
time of Suli.,11 Khalll-ullah, grandson oi 
Amir Taimur. He was formerly a weavi r oi 
carpi ts, and had assumed for his poi fcical title 
"HasTri," |, in he changed it afterwards to 
Bisati He was contemporary with 'Asmat- 
ullah Bukhari. 

Bishr Hafi (^.jU-^Lj) (i.e. Bishrthe 

barefoot), a Muhammadan doctor who was 
born ;it .M;irv. and broughl up at I!; ghdad, 
where he died on Wedn 3day the 10th No- 
vember, a.d. .ski, loth Muharram, a.h. 226. 
Different dates are given of his death; bul it 
is certain that he dii d sev< ral years before 
Ahmad Hanbal, and the one " given b 
appears to be very correi i. 

Bishun Singh (Kachwaha) ( , 



< ^- : ' ) Raja of Ambhar or Ameir, 

was the son oi Ram S ad the father oi 

Mirza Raja Jaisingh Sewal. He died about 
theyear a.d. 1693, a.ii 1105. 

Bismil (J^yuj), the poetical name of 

Mirza Muhammad Sha'fi oi Naishapur, uncle 
of Nawab Safdar Jang. 

Bismil (J<4y«*j), the poetical name of 

Amir Hasan Khan of Calcutta, who was 
hiving in a.d. 1815, a. it 1261. 

Biswas Rao (^ (jj^uj), the eldest 

son of Bala Rao Peshwa, the Marhatta chief. 

Ur was killed in the battle againsi Ahmad 
Shah Abdali on the Mth January, .vs. 1761, 
together with Sadasheo lihfui and other 
Marhatta chiefs. 

Bithal Das Gaur ( ,,f , Jj , LJLjj 

son of Gopal Das. Raja of Sheopur. On a 
spot of 10 bhigas towards Tajganj on th 
hanks of the river Jamna he had built his 
house and a garden. In the town of Shali- 
ghan he was raised to 3000. and was appointed 
Kiladar of the fort of Agra. lie was after- 
wards raised to the rank of 5000, and in the 
year a.h. 1062 went home and there died. 

Bo 'Ali Qalandar ( AjJj 
[Vide Abu 'All Qalandar.] 


Boigne (or le Borgne) Benoit,Countde, 
a Savoyard who. after holding commissions in 
the French and Russian armies, came to India 
and entered the East India Company's ser- 
vice at Madras, 1778. After some adventures 
he entered Sindhia's service m 1784, andtrained 
four regular brigades. In 1796 he returned 
to Europe with a large fortune, much of 

which 1 ted to public pit 

charity at Chamberi, his native town, n, 
died tie n on the 21st .June. 1830. 

[Vide Keen's Fall of the Mughol I 

Bughra Khan (^U. \ju\ surname oi 

r-uddfn Mahmud, the second boh oi 

n Ghayaa-uddin Balban, king oi Di hli 

11 was : ! ovi rnor of Li khnt mi us 

a] by his lather, at v. - , th in A.D. 
1286, he hi bag th. n in that provino . I i- 
Bon Kaiqubad was raised to th,. throne oi 


[/ ,.'<■ Nasir-uddln Mahmud.] 
Bukhari (^\sr). Fide Al-Bukhari. 
Bulbul (JJlj). Fide Mirza Muhammad 

Mlinanied Bulbul. 

Burandaq (jliy), the poetical name 

of Maulana Baha-uddln. He was a nat 
oi Samarqand, and a sprightly satirical poi t ; 
much dn aded by hi- emit', mporarii -. on 
"Miit oi hi- wit and « - . • i ~ : i . - humour. He 
was the esp rial panegyrist oi Sultan Bail 
Mirza, the Bon oi 'Umar shaikh and grandson 
oi Amir Taimur. When Prince Baiqara 
d the throne in a.d. 1394, he ordi n d 
that the sum of five hundred ducats in Tnrki 
bish yuz altfin should be paid t,i Burani 
By a mistake of the Secretary, he received 
only two hundred ; and tie ddi - ,1 

the following lines to tie Sultan : — 
"Th- Shah, the terror of his 
Who well the Bound oi flatt'ry know-. 
The conqueror oi the world, the lord 
Oi nation- vanquish'd by hi- sword, 
1 ■ re, while he prais'd mj \ i - . to 
Five hmi, In d dm 

(in at Was tie Sultan' - - mood, 

Greal i- hi- -. r litude, 

And greai the sum ; hut strange to say ! 

Perh ps tlie word- in Turkish tor 
-\c nil nt i' derive; 

( lr i I- ■ my gri i dy i ax was wrong, 
That turivd two liendn d into live.'' 
The Sultan was extremely entertained at the 
lini -> oi the po t : and & nding for bin, 

"rid him that tie words " bish yuz altun " 
signified in Turkish a thousand ducats, which 
lie ordered to he immediately paid {Dublin 
University Magazint for 1840). The year of 
Burandaq' s death is unknown. He was 
contemporary witli KhwaVja 'Asmat-ullah 
Bukhari who died in a.d. 1426, a.h. 829. 

Burhan C^U^j), a poet of Mazindaran, 

came to DehlT and died there shortlv after 
Nadir Shah had pillaged that city. ' lie is 
the author of a Diwan. 

Burhan C^U^), the poetical name of 

Muhammad Hasan, the author of the Persian 
Dictionary called Burhan Qata. 
\Vidt Muhammad Hasan.] 




Burhan 'Imad Shall (iLi l>U..c ^bbj), 

one of the priuccs of the 'Imad Simla dynasty. 
He succeeded his lather, Daria 'Imad Shah, in 
the government of Berar when but a child. 
His minister Taufal Khan became regent ; 
and before the prince was of an ag to assume 
the reigns of his empire, Taufal Khan, 
assisted by the ruler of Khandesh aud by the 
Nizam Shahi court, usurped the government. 
He eventually confined his sovereign in irons 
in the fort of Parnala, and assumed the title 
of king. In the year a.d. 1568, a.h. 980, 
Nizam Shah marched against Taufal Khan, 
under the pretence of releasing the imprisoned 
prince from his confinement. He took the 
fort of Gawal by capitulation, d ifeated Taufal 
Khan and made him prisoner with his son; 
but instead of placing the captive monarch on 
the throne of Berar, sent him with the 
usurper aud his son to be confined in one of 
the Nizam Shahi forts, where they were all 
subsequently strangled by the king's order. 
Thus the family of 'Imad Shah and that of 
the usurper Taufal Khan became extinct. 

Burhan Naqid (Si\j ^Uj), a poet 

who is the author of the poem entitled Dil 
Ashob, dedicated to the emperor Shah Jahan. 

Burhan Nizam Shah I. (Viij ^UbJ 

ili) ascended the throne of Ahrnad- 

nagar in the Deccan after the death of his 
father, Ahmad Nizam Shah, iu a.d. 1508, a.h. 
914, in the seventh year of his age. He 
reigned 47 lunar years aud died at the age of 
54 in a.d. 1554, a.h. 961, and was buried in 
the same tomb with his father. 

Burhan Nizam Shah II. (*Uaj lj^V 

il-i), brother of Murtaza Nizam II. 

ascended the throne of Ahmadnagar in the 
Deccan on the loth May, o.s. 1591, 1st 
Sha'bau, a.h. 999, after deposing and con- 
fining his owu sou Isma'il Nizam Shah, who 
had been placed on the throne during his 
abseuce at the court of the emperor Akbar. 
He was advanced in years ; but notwith- 
standing his age, gave himself up to pleasures 
unbecoming his dignity. His reisrn was 
marked by an unsuccessful war with the kiug 
of Bijapiir, and a disgraceful defeat from the 
Portuguese, who had seiz d the sea coasts of 
his dominions. He died after a reign of 
four years and sixteen days, on the 18th April, 
a.d. 1595, 18th Sha'ban, a.h. 1003, in the 
40th year of the reign of Akbar, and was 
succeeded by his son Ibrahim Nizam Shah. 
Maulana ZahurT dedicated his Saqinama to 
Burhan Nizam Shah, containing nearly 4,000 

Burhan-uddin Abu Is-haq-al-Fazari 

(<> s ** s ' yv (ji^' {J^jOi commonly 
called Ibn-Firkah, author of the Faraez-al- 

Fazari, a treatise on the law of Inheritance 
according to Shafa'I's doctrine. He died in 
A.D. 1328, a.h. 729. 

Burhan-uddin Bin Mazah-al-Bu- 
khari ( t _ Jk \_M ,.A_A._>), author of 

the Zukhirat-ul-Futdwa, sometimes called 
Zakhlrat ul-Burhania, aud of the Muheet-al- 

Burhan-uddin Ali Bin Abu-Bakr-al- 
Marghinani (Shaikh) (,yjJl ^lay 

jsi"?*'' iX~), author of the ZLiduya 

Sharah Badjya, or the Lawyer's Guide, a 
very celebrated hook of Muhammadan Juris- 
prudence, which during the period that Mr. 

Hastinu'-- governed the British dominions iu 
India, was by his ord srs most ably translated 
by Charles Hamilton, Esq., and published in 
London, in the year a.d. 1791. Burhan- 
uddin was born at Marghinan, in Transoxania 
iu a.d. 1135, a.h. 529, and died iu a.d. 
1197, a.h. 593. The Hidaya, which is a 
commentary on the Badaya-al-Mubtada, is 
the most celebrated law treatis • according to 
the doctrines of Abu Hanifa, and his disciples 
Abu Yusaf and the Imam Muhammad. A 
Persian version of the Hidaya was made by 
Maulwl Ghulam Yehia Khan and others and 
published at Calcutta in 1807. He also 
wrote a work on inh ritanee eutitled the 
Far'".:-///- Usmdni, which has been illustrated 
by several comments. 

Burhan-uddin Gharib (Shah or 
Shaikh) Uli _,.i jjj] Uj) 

a celebrated Musalman saint much venerated 
in the Deccan. lie died iu a.d. 1331, a.h. 
731, and his tomb is at Barhanpur in Daula- 
tabad, and is resorted to in a pilgrimage by 
1h' Muhammadans. lie was a disciple of 
Shaikh Nizam-uddin Aulia, who did in a.d. 
1325, a.h. 725, 

Burhan-uddin Haiclar Bin Muham- 

mad-al-Hirwi ( j ,.^±S\ ,.,Uj>.j 

vX4^s-*), author of a comtnentaiy on 

the Sirajia of Sajawaudi. He died in a.d. 
1426, a.h. 830. 

Burhan-uddin Ibrahim Bin Ali Bin 
Farhun (Jx ^ ^\y\ ^J>\ J*j 

i^y^i t : 0, chief biographer of the 

Maliki lawyers, and author of the Dibdj-ul- 
Muzahhib. He died in a.d. 1396, a.h. 799. 

Burhan-uddin (Qazi) Lj-JjJ! ^l.^-- 

^s\i), Lord of the city of Sivas in 

Cappadocia or Caramenia, who died iu a.d. 
1395, a.h. 79S. After his death Bayezld I. 
Saltan of the Turks, took possession of his 





Burhan-uddin Mahmud Bin Ahmad 
(x*»J ^j JUw^cjr* ,-j.vM .,Ls>_j), 

author of a Muhll, which, though known in 
India, is noi bo greatly esteemed as the 
M 'ithit -as-Sarakhsl . The work of Burhan- 
uddin is commonly known as the Muhlt-aU 

Burhan - uddin Muhammad Baqir 
(Mir) ( ^ Jlj s*sz* jjJl ...Lfcj 

J^\ (I'i'/.i of Qashan. Tie wrote 

a Dlwan containing ahonl 5,000 verses. Il< 
was living aboul the year a. d. L585, a.m. 993. 

Burhan-uddin (Shaikh) ( .»>jjl jolteJ 
ir*~ i ) > or Sayyad. Pi'rf« Kutb 'Alam. 

Burhan-uddin (Sayyad) ( jjj) X&j 

c ■■ c > • 

Ju—<), surnamed Muhaqqiq. He died 

in the year a d. 1247, a.ii. 645, and was 
buried at Caesarea. 

Burhan - ul - Mulk Sa'adat Khan 

(^U- lTjjI*-, l_<U1 ^U^j). FtVfo 

Sa'fulat Khan, and Mirzi Nasir. 

Burzuj (lS»\jJ), a Persian physician 

who lived under Naushirwan the .Inst. T I • 
was sent by thai prince to India to procure a 
copy of the book call d the // f ail 

Ages; which he afterwards translated into 
Persian. That which now exists is greath 
altered from the original version. 

Bus-haq (jLs~y), the abbreviated 
poetical nana of Abii Is-haq Atma', which see. 

Buzarjimehr^.^^j.-), the celebrated 

minister oi Naushirwan the Just, king of 

Pi reia. II* is -aid to have imported i 

Imliii tin- game oi Chess and the Fables of 
Pilpay. Such ]i:> luc n the tana oi Ids 
wisdom and virtues, thai the Christians chum 
him as a believer in the gospel; and the 
Mhhammadans revere him a- a premature 
Bfusalman. II» li\ . ■! to a greal age, and 
died in the time oi Burmuz III. son and 
successor oi Naushirwan the Jn-t. between 
the y< an a.i>. 580 and 590. 

Buzarjmehr Qummi ( ^i ^ts>- ,'j), 

a celebrab d 1'- raian Prosodian of Qumm, who 
lived before the time oi Saifi, the author of 
the Urue Saiji. 

Buzurg Khanam (*jl^- i»_f,'j), the 

daughter oi Bail Khan, by Malika Bano 
B gam, the daughter oi Asai Khan Wazir, 
and wife oi Zafar Khan, a nobl< man oi the 
reign oi tin emperor 'Alamglr. She died 
1" ion- her husband in the month oi May, 
a.u. 1G0!». Shawwal, ah. LI 

Buzurg Umaid Khan (. 

c _, La*-), son of Shaista Khan, an 

officer of rank in the time of the emperor 
Alamglr. At the time oi his death, which 
took place in a.d. L694, a.u. L105, he was 

governor oi Bi liar. 

Buzurg Umaid (ju^l <_ f % y>\ or Kaia 

Buzurg Umaid, one of the Ismailis, who 
succeeded Sasan Sabbah, the old Man of 
the Mountain-, in June, a.u. 1124, Rabi II. 
a.ii. 518, and reigned 24 years. After his 
death his son Kaia Muhammad succeeded 
him and reigned 25 y< 




Caragossa. Vide Qara Glmz. 
Chaghtai Khan C..jV_j=i- J l •,:.,■ 




Qaan, the most pious and accomplished of all 
the sons of Changez Khan ; and although he 
succeeded, by the will of bis father, to the 
kingdoms of Transoxiana, Balkh, Badakbshan, 
and Kashghar in a.d. 1227, a.h. 624, he 
governed these countries by deputies, and 
remained himself with his eldest brother, 
Oqta Qaan, by whom he was regarded with 
the reverence which a pupil gives to his 
master. He died seven months before his 
brother in the month of June, a.d. 1241, 
Zi-Qa'da, a.h. G3S. Qarachar Nawian, who 
was the tilth ancestor of Amir Taimur, was 
one of his Amirs, and, at length, captain 
general of all his forces. Tin- dynasty that 
founded the so-called " Moghul, or Mughol 
Empire" of India was nam. d haghtai. 

[ Vide Keene's Turks in India. Chap, i.] 

Chaghta Sultan (tjLLL-o L^L^) a 


handsome young man of the tribe of the 
Mughols ami favourite of the emperor Babar 
Shah. He died at Kabul in a.d. 1546, a.h. 

Chait Singh (.< { ■. ., 

— --s-), Raja, 

son of Balwant Singh, zamindar of Banaras. 

He succeeded his father in a.d. 1770. In 
August, 1781, demands were made upon him, 
by the Governor-General, for additional tribute 
to be paid to the Company, as the sovereign 
power now requiring assistance in its exigency. 
The Raja declined, pleading willingness, but 
inability. He was arrested by Mr. Hastings' 
order, at Bauaras ; a revolt took place in 
his behalf on the 20th August ; nearlv two 
companies of Sepoys aud their officers were 
destroyed, — and the Raja escaped in the con- 
fusion. The Governor-General immediately 
assumed control of the province ; and troops 
•were called in to oppose the Raja, who now 
headed the numbers flocking to his support. 
He was defeated at Latlfpur, in Bundelkhand, 
where he had taken refuge ; and lastly, his 
stronghold of Bijaigurh was seized, and his 
family plundered by a force under Major 
Popham. His post vas declared vacant, and 
the zamindari bestowed on the next heir, a 
nephew of the Raja, a minor. After these 
transactions at Banaras, the Governor- General 
proceeded to Audh, to obtain an adjustment 
of the heavy debts due to the Company by 
the Wazir 'Asaf-ud-daula. The territories 
of the Begams (one, the mother of Shuja'-ud- 
daula, the late Nawab— the other, the mother 

of the TTazIr) were seized, on a charge of 
aiding tie- insurrection of Chait Singh. The 
Raja found an asylum in Gwaliar for 29 
years, ami died there on the 29th March, a.d. 
1810. _ See Balwanl Singh. His estates, 
with title of Raja, were presented to his 
nephew Babii Muhip Narain, grandson of 
Raja Balwant Singh. 

[Vide Warren Hastings ; by Sir A. 
Lyall, K.C.13.] 

Chand (_Ol^), or Chand, called also 

Trikala, from his supposed prophetic spirit, 
was a celebrated Hindu poet or bard. He 
flourished towards the close of the twelfth 
century of the Christian era. He may be 
called the poet laureate of Prithiraj, the 
Chauhan emperor of Dehli who, in his last 
battle with Shahab-uddin Ghori, was taken 
prisoner and conveyed to Ghazni, where his 
bard, Chand, followed him. Both perished 
by their own hands, after the death of their 
implacable foe, Shahab-uddin. Like the 
Greek bard, Homer, countries and eities)have 
contended lor the honour of having been the 
place of birth of this the most popular poet 
of the Hindus. Dehli, Qanauj, Mahuba, 
aud the Panjab, assert their respective claims, 
but his own testimony is decisive, whence it 
appears that he was a native of Lahore. In 
his Prithiraj Chauhan Rasa, when euumerat- 
ing some of the heroes, friends and partizans 
of his hero, he says, " Niddar was born in 
Qanauj, Siluk aud Jait, the father and son, 
at Abu ; in Muudava the Parihar, and in 
Kurrik Kangra the Haoli Ra5, in Nagor, 
Balbhaddar, and Chand, the bard, at Lahore." 

Chand Saudagar ( <Hj.~j jJU~), a 
Bangali merchant. 

Chand (jjU-). Vide Teik Chand. 

Chanda Kunwar ( ,»_,•,_£ \&_'^_~~.) 

_y J v 

also called Jindan Kour ; the wife of Maha- 
raja Ranjit Singh, of Lahore, and mother 
of Maharaja Dilip Singh (q.v.). She died 
at Kensington, 1863. 

[ Vide Griffin's Ranjit Singh, " Rulers of 
India," also Lady Login's Sir John Login 
and D u hep Singh.'] 

Chanda (UJ *L, Lv ,v..^-), also called 


Mah-hqa, a dancing girl, or queen of Haidara- 
bad, was a poetess of much taste and merit. 
She is the author of a Diwan, which was 
revised by Sher Muhammad Khan Lman. In 
the year a.d. 1799, in the midst of a dance, in 




which she bore the chiel part, she pres nted 
a British officer \\ itli :i copy of her poi ms, 
accompanied with the following complimentary 
observations, in the form of the usual gazal: — 

Since my heart drank from the cup of a 

fa jcinating eye, 
I wonder beside myself, like one whom wine 

Thy searching glances leavenothing imsi i ti d ; 
Thyface, bright as dame, consumes my heart. 
Thou soughtesi a Nazar : 1 offer I!.''- my 

bead ; 

Albeil thy heart is not unveiled to me. 

My eves fixed <»n thy lineaments— emotion 

agitates my soul, 
Fresh excitement beats impatient in my heart. 
AH that Chanda asks is, that, in either world, 
Thou wouldst preserve the ashes of her I 

by thy side. 
[Garcia de Tassin informs us that th< re is a 
copy of her Dlwfm in tli I India House 
Library, which she herself presented to 
Captain Malcolm on the 1st October, a.d. 

Chanda Saliib(t a*. bl.XX>-), surname 


of Husain Dost Chan, a relation oi Dost 'Ali 
Khan, Nawah oi Arcot, whose daughter he 
had married. He had made hi> way to the 
highest offices of the gov< rament by the a rvia - 
of his sword, and was esteemed the ah 
soldier that had of late years appeared in the 
Carnatic. He cajoled the queen ol Trichi- 
nopoly, and tnit possi ■ssinn ol tlie city in A..D. 
1736. lie was taken prisoner by the 
Mahratfcas on the 26th March, a.d. 1741, 
and imprisoned in the fort of Sitara, hut was 
released by the intervention of Dupleix in 
1748, and appointed Nawah ot the Carnatic bj 
Muzaffar Jang. He was pul to death in 
a.d. 1752, 1st Sha'ban, a.h. 1165, by the 
Mahrajjas, and his land sent to Muhammad 
'All Khan, made Nawah of Arcot by the 
English, who reigned for ov< r 10 yi ars. 

Clianclar Bhan (^jAJbJ ^Lj ,w\;o-), 

a Brahman of Patiala, well-versed in the 
Persian language, was employed as a Munshi 
in the service ol the prince Dara Shikdh, the 

eldest sou of the emperor Shah Jahan. He 
is the author ol several Persian works, i.e., 
Guldasta, Tvhfat-ul- Anwar, Tuhfat-ul- 
Fus-hd, Majma'-ul-Fuqrd, one entitled 
Char Chaman, another called Mansh&t Brah- 
man beiug a collection of his own letters 
written to different persons, and also of a 
Diwan in which he uses the title of Brahman 
for his poetical name. After the tragical 
deatli of his employer, he retired to Banaras 
where lie died in the year a.d. 1662, a.h. 
1073. He had also built a house at Agra, of 
which no traces now remain. 

Chanel Bibi (Sultana) ( c _j j JuU>-) 

was the daughter of Ilusain Nizim Shah I. 
of Ahmadnagar in the Deccan, sister to 
Murtaza Nizam Shah, and wife of 'All 'Adil 
Shah I. of Bijiipur. After the death of her 
husband in a.d. 1580, a.h. 98^, she had 
been queen and dowager -regent of the neigh - 

uring kingdom of Bijapur during the 
minority "i her nephew Ibrahim 'Adil 
Shah II. and was one "i the most able 
politicians of her day. Tin- Mnghols under 
prince Murad, the boh of Akbar, proceeded 
m November, a.d. L596, Etabi' [I. a.h. 1004, 
and besieged Ahmadnagar for some months, 
while Chand Sultana defended the place with 
masculine resolution. At the same time, 
there being a scarcity oi provisions in the 
Mnghol camp, the prince and Khan-Khanan 
thought it advisable to enter into a treaty 
with the besieged. It was stipulated by 
('hand BTbi that the prince should keep 
possession ■ B r, and that Ahmadnagar 
ami its dependencies, should remain with her 
in the name of Bahadur, the grandson ol 
Burhan Shah. Sin- was put to death bj a 
fai linn in tin yi ax a. ii. 1599, a.h. 10 

Chandragupta (U.o'.jcj^), called by 

the Greeks Sandracottus. He seized the 
kingdom ol Magadha, after the massacn ol 
the Burvivors "i the Naida dynasty, wl 
capita] was the celebrated city Pataliputra, 
fled by the Greeks Palibothra. Married a 
Gr» ek Princi ss, daughter oi S( li ai us Nikator, 
and ndfather to Asoka q. 

ChanduLal (A J),J&>.). a Hindu, 

who was appointed Diwan t" the Nizam 
i.i Haidarabad in a.d. L808. His poetical 
name is Shadan. He died in the year a.d. 

Changez Khan (jjLsJ- l-.-C^^), also 
called by us Gengis, Jengis. and Zint 


surnamed Tamujin, was the Bon oi Yesuki 

B Khan or chirl nl tin' tril I Mnghols. 

||. was born in a.i>. 1154, a.h. 549, and at 
the age ol L3 he I" gan to reign, but the 
conspiracies ot his subjects obliged him t" By 
for safety to Avant Khan, a Tartar prince, 
whom he supported on his throne, and whose 
daughter he married. These ties were not 
binding. Avant Khan joined against Changez, 
who took signal vengeance on his enemies, 
and alter almost um sampled vicissitudi - he 
obtained, at the age ot 49, a compli te \ ictory 
overall those who had endeavoured to effect 
his ruin, and received from the Khans of 
Tartary the title oi Khaqan in a.d. 1206, 
A.H. 602, and was declared emperor of 
Tartary. His capital was Qaraqurm. In 
space oi 22 years he conquered Con a, 
Cathay (part of China) and the noblest 
provinces of Asia, and became as renowned a 
conqueror as Alexander the Great. He died 
on Sunday the 29th August, a.d. 1227, 
Ramazan, a.h. 624, aged 75 lunar years, 
leaving his dominions (which extended 1800 
leagues from east to west, and 1000 from 
north to south properly divided among his 
four sons, Juji, Oqtai, Chaghtai and Tull 

list of the Mughol emperors of Tartary. 
Changez Khan, 1206. 
Till Khan, his son. 1227. 
Oqtai, brother of Tull, 1241. 
Turklna Khatun, his wife, regent for 4 years. 




Kaviik Khan, son of Oqtai, 1246. 
Ogulgan-mish, his wife, regent on his death, 

Mangu Khan, son of Tuli Khan, 1258, died 

After the death of Mangii, the empire of the 

Mughals was divided into different 

branches, in China, Persia, in Qapchaq, etc. 
Khublai Khan, the brother of Mangu Khan, 

succeeded in China, and founded the Yuen 

dynasty, 1260. 
Chaghtai Khan, son of Changez Khan, 

founded the Chaghtal branch in Trans- 

oxiana, 1240. 
Juil, son of Changez Khan, founded the 

Qapchaq dynasty, 1226. 

[Vide JLalaku Khan, Khublai Khan, etc.] 

Char Bagh (cL> A-=-X name of a 

garden constructed by the emperor Babar on 

the bank of the Jamna, which it is said was 
also called Hasht Bahisht ; it bore all sorts 
of fruits ; no traces of this famous garden are 
left now. 

Chatrapati Appa Sahib (M ,c^A>- 

i ,^L?), Raja of Sitae, who died 

in, or a year before, a.d. 1S74, whose adopted 
son was Raja Ham. 

Chatr Sal ( JLs .£5*0, or, according 

to the author of the Mdsir-ul- Umra, 
Satar Sal, was the sou of Chait Singh, chief 
of the Bundelas or inhabitants of Bundel- 
khand, of which province he was Raja. To 
secure the independence of his posterity 
against the encroaching power of the 
Marhattas, he entered into a close alliance 
with the Peshwa Baji Rao I. about the year 
a.d. 1733, a.h. 1146, and at his demise he 
bequeathed him a third of his dominions, 
under an express stipulation that his 
posterity should be protected by the Peshwa 
and his" heirs. Chatr Sal died a.d. 1735, 
leaving two sons, Hirde Sah and Jagat Raj. 
The division of the dominions of Bundel- 
khand, bequeathed to the Peshwa, comprised 
the Mahals of KalpT, Sirounj, Kunch, Garra 
Kota, and Hirdainagar. Gangadhar Bala 
was nominated by the Peshwa as his nftib to 
superintend the collections. Afterwards the 
principal leaders in Rundelkhantl having 
fallen in battles, and the ruin of the country 
having been completed by the subsequent 
conquest of the Raja of Panna by Nana 
Arjiin, the grandson of Bakhat Singh, a 
descendant of Chatr Sal, it hence became 
the object of Nana Farnawis, the Puna 
minister, notwithstanding the stipulations by 
which the former Peshwa obtained from 
Chatr Sal one-third of bis dominions, to 
annex the whole of Buudelkhand to the 
Marhatta States. For this purpose he gave 
the investiture of it to 'Alt Bahadur, son of 
Shamsher Bahadur, au illegitimate son of the 
Peshwa Baji Rao, whose descendants became 
Nawabs of Banda. 

[ Vide Muhammad Khan Bangash.] 

Cliatur Mahal ( L 





the Bejrams of the ex-kino- of Oudh. 


Qurban "All, who had held a subordinate 
position, and was latterly a Sharistadar under 
the British Government, suddenly became a 
rich man by marrying her. He formed the 
acquaintance of this young and beautiful 
woman, and they resolved to lie married. 
But the Begam did not wish the union with 
a man so inferior to herself to take place 
where she was known, and so obtained the 
permission of the Chief Commissioner to 
leave Oudh on the pretence of making a 
pilgrimage to Mecca. Once clear of Lucknow, 
she was join id by Qurban 'Ali, and made for 
his home at Bijuaur in Buudclkh and. 

Chirnnaji 'Apa (L>! , ^=-1^.^.^), the 

•t "j ' V 

younger son of the Mahratta chief Ragbuuath 
Bao (Raghoba) was furtively raised to the 
masnad at Puna some time after the death 
oi Madho Rao II. the son of Narayan Rayo 
II. on the 26th May, a.d. 1796; but was 
deposed afterwards, and succeeded by his elder 
brother Baji Bao II. who was publicly pro- 
claimed on the 4th December following. 

Chin Qalich Khan ( .,U- ^Ai 
I'tdc Qulieh Kuan. 

Chin Qalich Khan ( ..U- *A 





former name of Nizam - ul - Mulk Asaf J ah 

Churaman (^*\ <^), an enterprising 

Jat who having enriched himself by plun- 
dering the baggage of the emperor 'Alamgir's 
army on his last march to the Deccan, 
built the fortress of Bhartpur, fourteen kos 
from Agra, with part of the spoil, and 
became the chief of that tribe. The present 
Rajas of Bhartpur are bis descendants. He 
was killed by the Imperial army in the battle 
which took place between the emperor 
Muhammad Shah and Qutb-ul-Mulk Sayyad 
'Abd-uuah Khan in November, a.d. 1720, 
Muharram, a.h. 1133. His sou Badan 
Smcrh succeeded him. 


The following is a list of the Rajas of 
Bhartpur : — 

Churaman Jat. 

Badan Singh, son of Churaman. 

Surajmal Jat, the son of Badan Singh. 

Jawahir Siugh, the son of Surajmal. 

Bao Batan Singh, brother of Jawahir Singh. 

Kehri Singh, the son of Ratan Singh. 

Nawal Singh, the brother of Batan Singh. 

Ranjlt Singh, the nephew of Nawal Singh 

and son of Kehri Singh. 
Randhir Singh, the son of Ranjlt Singh. 
Bakleo Singh, the brother of Randhir Singh. 
Balwant Singh, the son of Baldeo Singh. 
J a -want Singh, the son of Balwant Siugh and 

present Raja of Bhartpur. 




Dabir-ud-daula Amin-ul-Mulk (Na- 

walD)(t_j!y t_£U!l ^^1 AjjjJ^j), 

title of Khwaja Farid-uddin Ahmad Khan 
Bahadur Muslah Jangithe maternal grand- 
father of Sayyid Ahmad Khan, Munsii oi 
Dehli. Whilst the British were in Bengal, 
and the Wakil of the king of Persia 
killed in Bombay in an affray, il be* 
urgent for the British Government to Bend 
a Wakll on deputation to Pi rei i. Dabir-ud- 
daula was selected for this high office. <»n 
his return, after fully completing the trust, 
he was appointed a full Political Agent ai 
Ami. After this, in latter times, hi held the 
office ni Prime Minister to Akbai Shah II. 

Daghistani ( g Jl.u.^.,.-.''j), a poet of 

Daghistan in Persia, who is the author oi a 
Persian work called Rayaz-ut - <ra. 

[Vide Walih.] 

Dalian ( Aj^j), whose proper name is 

A 1 1 fi Muhammad Sa'id, sun of Mubarik, betfa r 
known as Ihn Dahan-al-Baghdadi, was an 
eminent Arabic grammarian and an excellent 
poet. He died in a.d. 1173, a.h. 569. 

Dai ( |cij), whose full name is Nizam- 

uddin Muhammad Dai', was a disciple oi 
Shrdi Na'mat-uUah Wall, and i- the author 
of a Diwan which he completed iii the year 
a.d. 1460, a.h. 865. 

Daqiqi ( JLij), a famous poet at the 

court of Amir Nuh II. -mi <>t Amir Mansur 
Samani, by whose request he had commenci d 
to write the Shall XHdui, but helore he could 
finish a thousand verses of the story of 
Gashtasp, he was slain by one of his slaves. 
The year of his death is not known, but this 
event appears to have taken place during the 
reign of his royal master, who reigned in 
Khurasan twenty years, and died in a.d. 997, 
a.h. 387. His proper name, according to 
the Aitashkada, was Mansur bin-Ahniad. 

Dalpat (jj^-St)), Raja of Bhojpur near 

Buxar, was defeated and imprisoned, and when 
he was at length set at liberty by Akbar, on 
payment of an enormous sum, lie again 
rebelled under Jahangir, till Bhojpur was 
sacked, and his successor Baja Partab was 
executed by Shah Jahan, whilst the Ban! 
was forced to marry a Muhammadan courtier. 

Dalpat Sah (*L O~L0, the husband 
of Rani Durgawati, which - 

Damad (jL#\j), poetical name of Mu- 
hammad Baqir, which si . 

Darnaji ( j^ULO, the first Gaeqwar 
ni Baroda. His bui a asor was P< laji. 

Daniishqi ( fc .g,fl, +S), an illustrious 

Persian poet, named Muhammad Damishqi, 
who nourished in the time oi Fa/1, the mhi 
<ii Ahia or labia, thi Barmecide or Barmaki. 

Danial Mirza (Sultan) 0;_* JLj-'j 

.X^lLJ), the third son of the emperor 

Akbar. He was burn at Ajmir on Wednes- 
day the LOth September, a.d. 1672, and 
received the name of Danial on accounl oi 
}i\- having been burn in the house "i a 
■ braii d Darwesh named Shaikh Danial. 
J I i — mother was ;1 daughter oi Raja Bihar! 
Mai Kachhwaha. After the death oi his 
brother, prince Sultan Mnrad, he was sent 
tn the Deccan by his father, accompanied by 
a well appointed army, with orders to occupy 
all the Nizim Shah! territories. Ahmadnagar 
was taken in the beginning of the vear a.h. 
IOO'.i. or \ n. 1600: Sultan Danial died on 
tin 8th April, a.d. L605, 1st Zil-bijja, a.h. 
1013, in the city of Burhanpur, aged 33 years 
and some months, owing to exec as in drinking, 
nis death and the circumstances connected 
with it so much affected the king hi> lather, 
who was in a declining state oi health, that 
In became everv day worse, and died not long 
after. From the chronogram it would seem 
that the prince Danial died in the year a.h. 
1012, or a.d. 1604, a year and six months 
before his lather. 

Danish (^JLjL^), poetical name of Mir 
BazT who died in a.d. 1665, a.h. 1076. 

Danishmand Khan ( .,l>. &*aJ!Lj\<S), 

whose proper name was Muhammad ShafT or 
Mulla Shall, was a Persian merchant who 
came to Surat about the year a.d. 1646, a.h. 
1056, from which place he was sent for by 
the emperor Shah Jahan. He was soon 
after raised to the mansab of 3000 and 




paymastership of the army, with the title of 
Danishmand Khan. In the reign of 
'Alamgir he was honored 'with the mansah 
of 4000, and after some time to that of 5000, 
and appointed governor of Shah Jahanabad, 
where hechedin the month of Jidv, a.d. 1670, 
10th RabI I. a.h. 1081. He used to sp 
much about the Christian religion. Bernier, 
the French Traveller, who accompanied 
'Alamgir to Kashmir in 1 G » » 4 . was attached 
to his suite, and has mentioned him in Ids 

Danishmand Khan (^Ui- Jc**liL\), 

whose original name was Mir/1 Muhammad, 
and poetical, All, was a native of Shiraz. In 
the year a.d. 1693, he was honored with the 
title of Na'mat Khan, and the superinten- 
dence of the royal kitchen by the emperor 
'Alamgir. After the death of that monarch, 
the title of Nawab Danishmand Khan All 
was conferred on him by Bahadur Shah, by 
whose order he had commenced writing a 
Shahnama or history >>\ the reign of that 
emperor, hut died Boon alter in the year a.u. 
1708, a.h. 1120. 

[Fwfe Na'mat Khan All.] 

Dara or Darab II. (, >Vi\j ii^j), the 

■J s 

eighth king of the second or Kaianian 
dynasty of the kings of Persia, was the son 
of Queen Humai, whom he succeeded on tin- 
Persian throne. His reign was distinguished 
by several wars; particularly one against 
Philip of Macedon. Ee n igned 12 years, and 
was succeeded by his son Dara or Darab II. 

Dara or Darab III. (<__. >\.\ j \\ S) is the 

celebrated Darius Codomanus of the Gre 
He succeeded his father Dara II. as kinu' of 
Persia, and was slain in battle against Alex- 
ander the Great in the year b.c. 331. He 
was the ninth and last king of the 2nd or 
Kaianian dynasty of the kings of Persia. 
[ Vide Achaemenes.] 

Dara Bakht (Mirza) (\ • ^ l^sT \.\j), 

son of Bahadur Shah, the ex-king of Dehli. 
His poetical title is Dara, and he is the 
author of a Dlwan. 


Vide Joy a. 

Darab Khan (^U- c_Ata,) commonly 

called Mirza Darab, was the second son of 
Abdul Rahini Khan Khan Khanan. After 
the death of his eldest brother Shahnawaz 
Khan in a.d. 1618, a.h. 1027, he was 
honored with the rank of 5000 by the 
emperor Jahangir and was appointed 
governor of Berar and Ahmadnagar in the 
Deccan. He was also governor of Bengal 
for some time, and on his return to the 
Deccan the emperor, being displeased with 

him on some account, ordered Mahabat Khan 
to -trike off his head, which he did, and 
sent it to the king. This circumstance took 
place a.d. 1625, a.h. 1034. 



Darab Khan (^il>- l~j\ ,\<S), 

Mukhtar Khan Subzwari, a nobleman in the 
service of the emperor 'Alamgir. He died 
on the 24th June, a.d. 1679, 25th Jumada I. 

A.H. 10'JO. 

Dara Shikoh (xJj* \ i^), the eldest 

■J y 

and favourite son of the emperor Shah Jahan, 
was horn on the 20th March, o.s. 1615, 29th 
Safar, a.h. 1024. His mother, Mumtaz 
Mahal [v. Arjumand), was the daughter of 
'Asaf Khan, wazir, the brother of Xur 
Jahan Begam. In the 20th year of his age, 
i.e., in the year a.d. 1633, a.h. 1043, he 
was married to the princess .Vidua, the 
daughter of his uncle Sultan Parwez, by 
whom he had two Bons, viz., Sidaiman 
Shikoh and Sipahr Shikoh. In a.d. 1658, 
during the illness of his lather, a great battle 
took place between him and his brother 
Aurangzib 'Alamgir for the throne, in which 
Dara being defeated, was at last obliged to 
fly towards Siinlh, where he was captured by 
the chief of that country and brought to the 
presence of Aurangzib, loaded with chains, 
on a sorry elephant without housings ; was 
exposed through all the principal places and 
then led off to a prison in old Dehli, where 
alter a few da vs. in the night of the 29th 
August, o.s. 1659, 21st Zil-hijja, a.h. 1069, 
he was murdered by the order of Aurangzib ; 
his body exhibited next morning to the 
populace on an elephant, and his head cut off 
and carried to the emperor, who ordered it 
to be placed on a platter, and to be wiped 
and washed in his presence. "When he had 
satisfied himself that it was the real head of 
Dara, he began to weep, and with many 
expressions of sorrow directed it with its 
coqise to be interred in the tomb of the 
emperor Humayun. Sipahr Shikoh, his son, 
who was also taken captive and brought with 
his father, was sent away in confinement to 
Gwaliar. Sidaiman Shikoh, his eldest son, 
who, after the defeat of his father had taken 
refuge in Srinagar for some time, was 
subsequently, in a.d. 1670, a.h. 1071, given 
up by the Raja of that place to the officers of 
Aurangzib and conveyed to Dehli. He was 
then sent to Gwaliar, where he and his 
brother Sipahr Shikoh both died within a 
short space. Dara Shikoh is the author of 
the work called Safinat-ul-Aulia, an abridg- 
ment of the Life of Muhammad, with a 
circumstantial detail of his wives, children, 
and companions, etc., also of a work entitled 
Majrrwf -ul- Bahrain (i.e., the uniting of 
both seas), in which he endeavours to 
reconcile the Brahman religion with the 
Muhaniniadan, citing passages from the 
Quran to prove the several points. In 1656 
he likewise, with the same intent, caused a 
Persian translation to be made by the 
Brahmans of Banaras, of the Apnikhat, a 
work in the Sanskrit language, of which the 




title signifies "the word thatisnottobesaid;" 
meaning the secrel thai is aol to be revealed. 
This book he named Sarr-i-jfsrdr, or Secret 
of Secrets ; but his enemies took advanj 
of it to traduce him in the esteem of his 
fathi r's Muhammadan soldii rs, and to 
stigmatize him with the epithets 'it Kafir 
and Rafizi (unbeliever and Blasphemer), and 
finally effected his ruin ; lor Aurangzit) his 
brother made a pretence of that, and con- 
sequently had all his bigoted Muhammadans 
to join him. Anquetil an Perron has given 
a translation of this work, in two large 

volumes in quarto, on which a wrv g 1 

critique may he found in the Second Number 
of the Edinburgh "Review. There is also a 
copy of the Persian version of this work in 
the British Museum, with a MS. translation, 
made by X. B. Rallied. The authorship of 
other works has been ascribed to this prince. 
His poetical name was Qadiri. Catron 
that Dara died a Christian. 
[Turks in In i'<i. Chap, v.] 

Dard (Mir) (^ j,j) is the poetical 

name of Khwaia Muhammad Mir of Dehli, 
a son oi Khwaia Nasii who was *<\\<- of the 
greatest Shaikh- of the age. Dard was tin' 

II«' was formerly 
up that profession 

greatest poet of his time 

in the army, hut he gave 

on the advice of his father and led th.' 

of a devotee. When during the fall of Dehli 

everybody tied from the city, Hard remained 

in povi rly contented with his lot. lie was .1 

Sufi and a goodsinger. A crowd of musicians 

used to assemble at his house on the 22nd of 
every month. Some biographers Bay that 
he was a disciple of Shah Gulshan, meaning 
Shaikh Sa'd-ullah. Besides a Diwan in 
Persian and one in Rekhta, he has written a 
treatise on Sufiism called Risala Waridat. 
He died on Thursday the 3rd January, a.u. 
1785, 21th Safar, a.u. 1199. 

List of his Works. 

All Nala-wa-Dard. 

All Sard. 
Dard Dil. 

Diwan in Persian. 
Diwan in Urdu. 

Dardmand (jCw»J.j), poetical name 

of Muhammad Taqih of DehlT, who was a 
pupil of Mirza .Ian Janan Mazhar, and 
the author of a and of a Diwan. 
He died at Murshidabad in the year a.i>. 
1762, a.h. 1176. 

Daria Ihniad Sliala (>'.£, jLkc b ,j) 


the son of 'Ala-uddin 'Imad Shah, whom he 

succeeded on the throne of Berar in the 
Deccan about the year a.d. 1532, a.h. 939. 
In a.d. 1543, a.h. 950, he gave his sister 
Rabia' Sultana in marriage to Ibrahim 'Adil 
Shah, and the nuptials were celebrated with 
royal magnificence. Iu a.d. 1558, a.h. 
966, he gave his daughter iu marriage to 
Husain Nizam Shah, and reigned in great 
tranquility with all the other kings of the 
Deccan until his death, when he was 
succeeded by bis son Burhan 'Imad Shah. 

Daria Khan Rohela ( 4 -„L»>. ii.Asi* l> ,S) 

a nobleman in the service of prime Shah 
Jahan, who, on his on to the throne, 

raised him to the rank of 60 Beafteni 
joined the rebel Khan Jahan Lodi. In a 
battle which took place between him and 
Raja Bikarmajil Bundela, s<.n of Raja 
Chhajjar Singh, he was killed, together with 
one of his gons and 100 Afghans. .\.i>. LG 
A.u. ln-10. His head was -. nt to 


Dariqutni ( 

nusain 'All-bin-'I'mr. 

Vide Abu 1 

Darimi (^-•-LO, the son of 'Abdul 

Rahman of Samarqand, is the author oi the 
work called Musnad Darimi. He died in the 
year a.h. B69, \ .11. 256. Be i- also called 
by Borne authors Abu Muhammad 'Abd- 
ullah-al- Darimi. 

Darki ( ^j i j) „f Qumm in Persia. 

was a contemporary of Shah 'Abbas. lie 
died in the Deccan and left a Persian Diwan. 

Dasht Baiazi Cg^Lj l^-^j). Vide 
Wali oi Ha-ht Bayaz. 

Dastam Khan ( /,<- ^j), son of 

Rustam Khan Turkistani, was an Amir of 
3000 in the service oi the emperor Akbar. 
He did in a.d. 1680, a.h. 988, of his 
wounds which lie had received in battle 
in-t the three nephews of Raja Bihari 
Mai, who had rebelled against the emperor 
and were also killed. 

Data Ram Brahman ( .-*Jb^j *\ b'^j), 
a poet who wrote beautiful Persian verses. 

Dattaji Sindhia (<u> 


son oi Ranaji and brother of Jaiapa Sindhia, 
a Mahratta chiei who had a cavalry of 80,000 
horse under him, and was slain in battle 
against Ahmad Shah Abdali in the month of 

January, a.d. 1760, Juniada IT. a.h. 1173, 
a year before the death of Bhuu, the famous 
Mahratta chief. 

[ Vide Ranaji Sindhia.] 

Daud Bidari (Mulla) (^,_\^j S^j), 

a native of Bidar in the Deccan. When 
twelve years of age, he held the office of page 
and seal-bearer to Sultan Muhammad Shah 
Bahmani I. king of Deccan about the year 
a.d. 1368, a.h. 770. He is the author of 
the Tahfat-us-Saldtin Bahmani. 

Daud Khan Faruqi ( J, ,\i ^,U*» Oita) 

succeeded his brother Miran Ghani to the 
throne of Kbandesb in September, a.d. 1503, 




1st Jumada I. a.h. 916, reigned seven years 
and died ou Wedn sday fch • 6th August, a.d. 
1510. He was succeeded by 'Adil Khan 
Farcpri II. 

Daud Khan Qureslii (^JSjJJ*^^ ^ J ) 

sou of Blilkan Khan, was an officer of 5000 
in the reign of the emperor 'Alamgir. In 

the year a.d. 1670, a.h. 1081, he was 
appointed governor of Allahabad. 

Daud Khan Panni ( jj 

son of Khizii Khan Panni, a Pathan offia r, 
was renowned throughout India for bis reck 
courage, and his m imory -till survives iu the 
tales and proverhs oi the Deccan. II - srved 
several years under 'Alamgir, and when 
Bahadur Shah, on his departure from the 
Deccan, gave the viceroyalty of that kingdom 
to the Amir-al-Umra, Zultikar Khan, as 
that chief could not be spared from court, he 
left the administration of the government to 
Daud Khan, who was to act as bis lieutenant. 
In the reign of Farrukh-siyar, when the 
Amir-ul-Uini'il Kusain 'All Khan marched 
towards Deccan, Daud Khau received secrel 
orders from the emperor to oppose and cut 
him off. Accordingly when the Amlr-ul- 
Umra arrived at Burhanpur, Daud Khan, 
who regarded himself as the hem of his 
prepared to receive him. The engagement 
was very bloody on both sides; a matchlock 
hall struck Daiid Khan, and he fell down 
dead on the seat of his elephant. This event 
took place iu the year a.d. 1715, a.h. 1127. 

Daud Qaisari (Shaikh) {^jyaJa SJj> 
!£***), author of another commentary 

called Sharah Eadis-ul-Arba'ln, besides 
the one written by Birgili. He died a.d. 
1530, a.h. 751. 

Daud Shah Bahmani (Sultan) (j«\j 

i^lisLo le**-^ a^-i), the son of Sultan 

'Ala-uddin Hasan, ascended the throne of 
Deccan, after assassinating his nephew 
Mujahid Shah on the 14th April, a.d. 1378, 
21st Mnharram, a.h. 780. He reigned one 
month and five days, and was murdered on 
the 19th May, the same year in the nioscpie 
at Kulbarga where he weut to say his 
prayers. He was succeeded by his brother 
Mahuiud Shah I. 


Daud Shah ( j\J >li jib), a k 

of Gujrat, who was placed on the throne 
after the death of his nephew Qutb Shah in 
a.d. 1439, and was deposed after seven days, 
when Mahuiud Shah, another nephew of his, 
a youth of only 14 years of age, was raised to 
the throne. 

Daud Shah (*l*. j»j\j) } the youngest 

son of Snlaiman, succeeded to the 
kingdom of Bengal after the death of his 

eld fst brother Baiazid in the year a.d. 1573, 
a.h. 981. This prince was much addicted to 
sensual excesses ; and the propensity was 
rendered more degrading by his inclination to 
ass ! i ite with person- oi low origin and mean 
connections, by whom he was induced to 
attack the frontiers of the kingdom of Dehli, 
He had several skirmishes with Munaim 
Khau, Khan Khanan, governor of Jauupur, 
who was subs iquently joined by his master, 
the emperor Akbar, when an obstinate battle 
took place on the 30th July, a.d. 1575, 21st 
E ibi II. A.H. 983, in which Daud Shah was 
d ted and obliged to retire to a fort ou the 
borders of Katak. After this a peace was 
concluded, by which Daiid Shall was invested 
with the government of Orisa and Katak, 
and the other provinces of Bengal were 
occupied by Munaim Khan in the name 
of the emperor. The year of this event 
is commemorated in a Persian II imistich. 
Alter the death of Munaim Khan, which took 
place the same year at Lakhnauti, Daiid 
Khan re-took the provinces of Bengal, but 
was soon attacked by Khan Jahan Turkman, 
who was appointed governor, when after a 
engagement Daiid Khan was taken 
prisoner, and suffered death as a rebel. From 
that period, the kingdom of Bengal was 
subdued, and fell under the subjection of the 
emperor Akhar. Thus ended the rule of the 
1'urbl or independent eastern kings of Bengal. 

Daud Tai (^LL* Jj^j), a Musalman 

doctor who was master of several sciences. 
He bad s srved Abu Eanifa for 20 years, and 
was one of the disciples of Habib Rai. He contemporary with Fazail Aiaz, Ibrahim 
Adham and Ma'ruf Karkhi, and died in the 
reign of the khalif Al-Mahdi, the son of 
Al-Mansur, about the year a.d. 781 or 782, 
A.h. 164 or 165. 

Daulat Rao Sindhia ( .1 , c^J.j 

dt._^_>A_^— —•), son of Anantli Rao, 

nephew to Madhoji, by whom he was 
adopted. Made war against the British, 
1803, but was beaten in one campaign ; died 
a.d. 1827. 

[ Vide Doidat Rao.] 

Dawal Devi (.c^j , Uj), or Dewal 

[Vide Kaida. Devi.] 

Da-w-ani ( ,_jl.j), the philosopher, 

whose proper name is Jalal-uddin Muham- 
mad Asa'd Aldawani, the son of Sa'd-uddin 
Asa'd Dawani. He flourished iu the reign 
of Sultan Abii Sa'id and died, according 
to Hiiji Khalfa, in the year a.h. 908 
(corresponding with a.d. 1502.) He is the 
author of the Sharah Hawked, Akhttq .Tahiti, 
Isbat Wdjib (on the existence of God), Risala 
Zaura (on Sufiism), Hashia Shamsia, and 
Anwar Shdfia. He also wrote the Sharah 
'Jqaed, and marginal notes on Sharah 
Tajrid. The Akhlaq Jalali is a translation 




from the Arabic, the original of whi h 
appeared in the LOtb centuryunder the name 
of Kiiab-ut-Taharat, by an Arabian anthor, 
minister of the imperial house ol Boya. Two 
centuries after, i1 was translated into Persian 
by Abu Nasr, and named Akhlaq Nasirt, or 
the morals ol Nasir, being enriched with 
some important additions taken from Abu 
Siua. In the 15th centurj it assumed a Btill 
further improved form, under the preseni 
designation, the Akhlaq Jalall or moral- ol 
Jalal. ThN book, which is the mosl i ste< m< d 
ethical work ol middle Asia, was translated 
into English by W. F. Thompson, of the 
Bengal Civil Service, London, 1839. 

Dawar Bakhsh ( Sultan) (^jLs? % ,Jj 

(^ILLj), surnameel Mirza Bulaqi, was 

the son of Sultan Khusro. When bis 
grandfather, the emperor Jahangir, died on 
his way from Kashmir to Lahore in October, 
o.s. 1627, Safar, a.ii. 1037, 'Asaf Khan, 
wazur, who was all along determined to 
support shah Jahan, the son ol the late 
emperor, immediately senl off a n r to 

summon him from the Deccan. In the 
meantime, to -auction his own measures by 
the appearance ol legal authority, he released 
prince Dawar Bakhsh from prison, and 
proclaimed him king. Nut Jahan Begam, 
endeavouring to Bupporl the cause ol Shahriar, 
her son-in-law, was placed under temporary 
restraint by her brother, the wazir, who 
then continued his march to Lab 
Shahriar, whowas already in that city, forming 
a coalition with two, the -mis ol his uncle, 
the late Prince Danial, inarched out to opp ise 
'Asaf Khan. The battle ended in hisdi fi ai : 
he was given up by bis adherent-, and afb r- 
wards put to death together with Dawar 
Bakhsh and the two son- of Danial, by orders 
from Shah Jahan, who ascend d the throne. 
Elphinstone in hi- "History of India Bays that 

Dawar Bakhsh found mean- to (-cape to 
Persia, where he was afterwards seen by the 
Holstein ambassadors. 

Daya Mai ( J.* \S). Vide Imtiyaz. 
Daya Nath (*$j\j bj). Vide Wafa. 

Dayanat Khan ( .,Ul c^obu)), title 

of Muhammad Husain, an amir of 2,500, who 
served under the emperor Shah Jahan, and 
died at Ahmadnagar in the Deccan a. d. 1G30, 
a.h. 1040. 

Daya Ram (J, \jS), Pattha, a hero, 

renowned in the west of Hindustan for extra- 
ordinary strength of body, extraordinary 
courage, and extraordinary achievements. 
He was a Gwala by caste, and flourished in 
the reign of the emperor Farrukh-siyar. 
The wonderful feats of this man are sung 
or recited accompanied by the beat of a dhbl 
throughout Hindustan. A full and affecting 
account of this hero is given in the Btvgal 
Annual, published at Calcutta in 1833, p. 1(39. 

Daya Ram ( *\. LjJ), a chief of 

Hatras, tributaryto the East India Company, 
who, aboul the year a.h 1814, confiding in 
the extraordinary strength ot hi- fort, showed 
a spiril ol contumacy and disobedien e. A 
train of Artillery was broughi against this 
place from Cawnpore, nnder Major-General 
Dyson Marshall: and a few hour- of its 
tremendous fire breached the boasted fortifica- 
tion. Daya Ram effected bis escape by a 
Bally-port, and was never heard oi aitir. 

Deo Narain Singh (.-jl^ ,.j\.\j %iS) 

(K.C.S.I.,S ofBanaraa,diedsuddenly 

on the 28th August, L870. 

Dewal Devi (,_c»_jj ' ._.o\ Fide 
Kaula DevL 

Dhara (! ,l_>->), the son of Raja 

Todarmal. B( was killed in a battle fought 

m-t Mir/a Jani \'"-s. ruler oi Thatta, in 

November, a.h. 1691, Muharram, a.h. L0I 0. 

Dhola Rao (J , ))jbj), the ancestor of 

the Kachhwaha Rajas of Ambir or Jaipur; 

he lived aboul the year a.h. 'jG7. 

Dhundia Wagh U.i\ c'oAJ »>->), the 

free-booter, who had for Beveral years with 
a formidable band, pillaged and laid w 
the frontiers oi Mysore. This robbi r assumed 
the lofty title oi king of the two worlds, and 
aimed, doubtless, at carving oui for himself 
some independent principality, after I 

mple ot Eaidar 'All, in who-,, service he 
originally commi need his advt nturous can er. 
Subsequently he incurred the displeasure of 
Tipu Sultan, who (hailed him like a wild 

bi asi to the walls oi hi- dungeons in S< rang- 
apatam, from which ••durance rile" he was 
liberated by the English soldiers aft< r the taking 
of Serangapatam. He proceeded to threaten 
Mysore with 5,000 cavalry. The Govern- 
ment of Madras instructed Colonel Wellesley 
to pursue him wherever he could be found 
and to hang him on the first tree. Hi- sub- 
jugation and subsequent death [in L800) with 
the extirpation ot his formidable band of free- 
booters, relieved the English Government 
from an enemy who, though by no means 
equal to Haidar and Tipu, might eventually 
have afforded considerable annoyance. 

Dil (Jj), poetical name of Zorawar 

Khan of Sirkar Kol. He is the author of a 
Diwan and a few Masnawis. 

Dilami ( -*!Jj) and Sarnanl were two 

dvnasties which divided between them the 
kingdom of Persia towards the beginning of 
the 10th century. They both rose to power 
through the favour of the Khalifs of Baghdad, 
but they speedily threw off the yoke. The 




Dilami divided into two branches, exercised 
sovereign authority iu Kirmfin, Iraq, Faris, 
Khuzistan, and Laristan, always acknov* ledg- 
ing their nominal dep mdence on tli i Khalifi, 
and during the whole period of their rule, 
one of the southern branch of this family was 
vi sted with the dignity of Anur-ul-Urora, or 
vizir, and managed the affairs of the Khalifate. 
Several of the Dilami were able and wise 
rulers, but Mahmud oi Ghazni put an end to 
the rule of the northern branch in a.d. 1029, 
and the Saljuqs subjugated the southern one 
in a.d. 1056, by the capture of Baghdad, 
their last stronghold. Their more powerful 
rivals, the Samani, had obtained from the 
Khallf the government of Transoxiana in a.d. 
874 ; and to this, Isuia-il the most celeb 
prince of the family, spi i dily added Khwarizm, 
Balkh, Khurasan, Sistan, and many portions 
of northern Turkistan. Rebellions of pro- 
vincial governors distracted the Samanida 
monarchy towards the end of the 10th century; 
and in a.d. 999 their dominions north of 
Persia were taken possession of by the Khan 
of Kashghar, the Persian provinces bung 
added by Mahmud of Ghazui to his dominions. 
See Samani. 

Dilawar Khan ( ' 

,.'-'_>), founder 

of the dynasty of the Muhammadan kings 

of Malwa. The Hindu histories of the 
kingdom of Malwa go back as far as the reign 
of Raja Bikarmajit, whose accession to that 
kingdom has given rise to an era which 
commences 57 years before Christ. After 
him reigned Raja Bhoj and many others who 
are all mentioned among the Rajas of 
Hindustan. During the reign of Ghayas- 
uddin Balban, king oi Dehli in the year a.d. 
1310, a.h. 710, the Muhamniadans first 
invaded and conquered the provinces of 
Malwa ; after which it acknowledged allegi- 
ance to that crown until the reign of 
Muhammad Shah Tughjaq II. a.d. 1387, 
a.h. 789. At this period Dilawar Khan, a 
descendant on his mother's side from Sultan 
Shahab-uddin Ghori, was appointed governor 
ot Malwa, previously to the accession of 
Muhammad Takhlaq, and he subsequently 
established his independence. In the year 
a.d. 1398 a.h. 801, Mahmud Shah, king of 
Dehli, being driven from his throne by Amir 
Taimur (Tamerlane), made his escape to 
Gujrat, and then to Malwa, where he remained 
three years, after which, in a.d. 1401, 
a.h. 804, he, at the instance of the Dehli 
nobles, quitted Malwa, in order to resume 
the reins of his own government. Dilawar 
Khan shortly afterwards assumed royalty and 
divided his kingdom into estates among his 
officers whom he ennobled. Dilawar Khan 
on assuming independence, took up his 
residence in Dhur, which place he considered 
as the seat of his government, but he fre- 
quently visited the city of Mando, remaining 
there sometimes for months together. He 
only survived his assumption of the royal 
titles a few years ; for in the year a.d. 1405, 
a.h. 808, he died suddenly, and Ms son Alp 
Khan ascended the throne' under the title of 
Sultan Hoshang Shah. Including Dilawar 

Khan eleven princes reigned in Malwa till 
the time of the emperor Humayun, whose 
son Akbar eventually subdued and attached 
it to the Dehli government. Their names 
are as follow : 

1. Dilawar Khan Ghori. 

2. Hoshang Shah, son of Dilawar. 

3. Sultan Muhammad Shah. 

4. Sultan Mahmud I. KjiiljT, styled tho 

Great, son of Malik Mughis. 

5. Ghayas-uddin Khilji. 

6. Nasir-uddln. 

7. Mahmud II. 

8. Bahadur Shah, king of Gujrat. 

9. Qadar Shah. 

10. Shujaa' Khan, and 

11. Baz Bahadur, son of Shujaa' Khan. 

Dilawar Khan (^U. jflS), a noble- 
man of the reign of the emperor Shah Jahan, 
was the son of Bahadur Khan Rohila. He 
died at Kabul in the year a.d. 1658, a.h. 1068. 

Dildar Aga (UT ^UL>\ one of the 

wives of the emperor Babar, and mother of 
Mirza Ilandal. 

Diler Himmat Khan (^jl>- L^-v*^ -J S), 

original name of Nawab Muzaffar Jang of 
Farrukhabad, which see. 

Diler Khan (^U. Jj), a Daudzal 

Afghan, whose proper name was Jalal Khan. 
He was the younger brother of Bahadur 
Khan Rohila, and one of the best and bravest 
generals of the emperor 'Alamgir. He held 
the rank of 5,000, and died inthe year a.d. 
1683, a.h. 1094, in the Deccan. 

Diler Khan (^l_^ y --._!j), title of 

'Abdul Rauf, thesonof 'Abdul Karim, formerly 
in the service of the king of Bijapur. After 
the conquest of that country, he joined 
'Alamgir and received the title of Diler 
Khan and the mansab of 7,000. He died 
in the reign of Bahadur Shah in the Deccan, 
where he held a jagir. 

Dilip Singh (aj^ i -Jj), Maharaja, 

often miscalled by Europeans " Dhideep 
Sing," the son of Rani Chanda Kunwar (q.v.). 
He became titular ruler of the Panjab a.d. 
1843, but was deposed by Dalhousie 1848 ; 
became a Christian and settled for some years 
in England. Married an Egyptian lady, by 
whom he had issue. "Went to India, alleging 
grievances against the Government, but was 
not allowed to land. Abjured Christianity 
and declared himself a foe to the British race. 
Was living on the Continent in 1890. 
[ Vide Lady Login's book cited above.] 

Dilras Bano Begam (*$Lj Jlj ^Ij), 

daughter of Shahnawaz Khan Safwi, the sou 
of Mirza, Rustam Kandhari, and wife of the 
emperor 'Alamgir. She had another sister 
who was married to Murad Bakhsh, brother 
of 'Alamgir. 




Dilshad Khatun (^^'L^ jLfiJj), 

daughter of Amir Damishq, the son of Amir 
Juban or Jovian, and wife oi Sultan Abu 
Sriil Khaii. Amir Easan Buzurg, alter the 
deatb of the Sultan in a.d. 1335, took 
possession oi Baghdad and married her, but 
the reigns of government remained in ber 

Dilsoz (u_^_b), poetical title of 

Khairati Khan, a poet who lived about tbe 
year 1800. 

Din Muhammad Khan (a +./<?* ,.?J 

i^j\d>-), the son of Jani Beg Sultan, 

and 'Abd-ullah Khan Uzbak's sister, was 

raised to tin- throne "i 5 the 

death of 'Abdul Momin Khan, the son 
oi 'Abd-ullab Khan, in a.d. L598, ) a. 100G. 
II ' was wounded in a Kittle fought against 
Shah 'Abbas the Great, king of Persia, and 
died shortly after. 

Diwan ( ^._> w a collection of odes. 

The word is oi frequent occurrence in Persian 


Diwana (<u^j), poetical name of 

Muhammad Jan, who died in the year a.d. 

1737, a.k. 1150. 

Diwana (cG^jO, poetical name of Rae 

Sarabsukh, a relation of Raja Malifi Naxiyan. 
lie wrote two Persian Diwana of more than 
10,000 verses; most poets oi Lucknow were 

his pupils, lie died in a.d. 1791, a.ii. 120(3. 

Diwana (aj^jj), poetical name of 

Mirza Muhammad 'Ali Khan of Jahanabad. 
He was employed at the office of .Mr. Colebroi 
at Jahanabad. 

Diwanji Begam (JL> t ss?\*iS). She 

was the mother of Arjumand Bano Begam 
Mumtaz Mahal, and the wife "i 'Asaf Khan, 
wazir. On a spol of fifty hidn~ oi land on 
the hank of the river Jainna. close to Tajganj, 
is to be seen her tomb of white marble. 

Dost 'Ali ( J..s 

i,j), Xawab of 

Arkat and a relative of Murtaza Khan. Under 

him the atrocious seizure of Trichinopoly was 
perpetrated by Chanda Sahib. He was suc- 
ceeded by his sou Safdar 'All, who, after 
overcoming the effects of poisou prepared for 
him by Murtaza Khan, fell by the poniard 
of a Pathfm assassin, hired for the work by 
the same person. A storm was raised which 
he had not the courage to encounter ; and 
disguising himself in female attire, he escaped 
from Arkat to his owti fort of Yellore. 

Dost Muhammad Khan ( Jus' e: -w>.> 
ruler of Kabul and Qandahar, was one of 

tb • brothers of Fatba Khan, the celebr 
wazir oi Mahmud, ruler ol Hirat and chief 
oi the Barakzai clan, lie was the most 
powerful chief in Afghanistan, and had tor 
Bome years previous to th tion oi Shah 

Shujaa' -ul-Mulk by the British in 1 
ruled thai country. He was taken to < lalcutta 
during the war. as related below; but his 
sou Akbar Khan (q.v.) defeated and for a 
time expelled the invaders and killed Shujaa' 
(q.v. . The following i> a summary of the 
Dosl i : — 

(»u the death oi tbis prince, Dost Muham- 
mad again assumed the reins of government, 
the bas - and cruel murder of Fatha 
Khan by Mahmud. at the instigation oi Prince 
Kamran, his brothers revolted from their 
allegiance under the guidance of Azim Khan, 
tie Kashmir, and drove Mahmud 

and his son Kamran from Kabul. Azim 
Khan in the first instanci offered the vacant 
throne to Shah Shujaa', but offended by some 
persona] slight withdrew hi^ support, and 
placed in hi- room, Aiyub, a brother of Shah 
Shujaa', who was confa nt to take the trappings 
with the power of royalty. On Azim Khans 
th, his brothers dissatisfied with their 
po ! ion conspired againsl his son. Habib- 
ullab Khan, and bi izing his person, by thri 
ot blowing him from a gun, induced his 
mother to deliver up the residue oi Azim 
Khan's immense wealth. Aiyub's son was 
killed in these disputes, and he himself, 
alarmed by these seen a oi violence, lied to 
Lahore, it, .st Muhammad Khan, the most 
talented oi the broth rs, then took possi — i • • i l 
of the throne and became de facto king of 
Kabul. Sher Dil Khan, accompanied by four 
brothers, carried ofl about ball a million 
sterling of Azim Khan's money, and seated 
himself in Kandahar as an independent 
chieftain. He and one of bis brothers died 
some years ago : and Kandahar was until 
lately ruled by Kohan Dil Khan, assisted by 
bis two surviving brothers Rahim Dil and 
Mir Dil. In the year 1839 the British army 
entered Kabul and placed Shah Shujaa' -ul- 
Mulk on the throne on the 8th May, and 
Dost Muhammad Khan surrendered to tbe 
British Envoy and Minister in Kabul on the 
4th November, after having defeated the 2nd 
Bengal Cavalry, who wi re disbanded for tluir 
behaviour in the action of Parwan Darra. 
He was subsequently sent down to Calcutta, 
where he arrived, accompanied by one of his 
sons, on the 23rd May, 1841. He was set 
free in November, 1842, and returned to 
Kabul, where he reigned as before till his 
deatb. which took place on the 0th June, a.d. 
1S63, 31st Zil-hijja, a.h. 1279; his youngest 
son Amir Sher All succeeded him. 

Doulat Khan Lodi (^-Jj! ^l^- i^J.j), 

who, according to Firisbti, was an Afghan 
by birth, originally a private Secretary, who 
after passing through various offices was 
raised by Sultan Mahmud Tu gh laq. and 
attained the title of 'Aziz Mumalik. After 
the death of Mahmud, the nobles raised him 
to the throne of Dehli in April, a.d. 1413, 
Mubarram, a.h. 816. In March, 1414, 15th 




Rabi I. a.h. 817, Khizir Khan, governor ot 
Multan, invaded Dehli, and after a siege of 
four months obliged Doulat Khan on the 
4th June, 1414, Jamada I. a.h. 817, to sur- 
render, lie was instantly confined in the 
fort of Firozahad,. where he died after two 

Doulat Khan Lodi (^ J J[~>. L£-4j S), 

who invited Babar Shah to India, was a 
descendant of the race of that name, who 
heretofore reigned at Dehli. He was a poet 
and a man of learning. He died a short 
time before Babar conqu red Dehli, i.e. in 
the year a.d. 1526, a.h. 923. 

Doulat Khan Lodi Shahu Khail 

(J-»>- ^i-l-i Lj-iyt A~- l^-Lj) was 

the father of the rebel Khan Jahan Lodi. 
He served under Mirza 'Aziz Koka, 'Abdul 
Rahiin Khan Khanan, and Prince Danial 
tor several years, and was raised to the rank 
of 2,000. He died in the Deccan a.d. 1600, 
a.h. 1009. 

Doulat Rao Sindhia (Maharaja) 

U^.l^-i a.-J5>_\;^ fa l^JjJ), of 

Gwaliar, a Mahratta chief, was the grand- 
nephew and adopted son ot Madhoii Sindhia, 
whom he succeeded to the Raj of Gwaliar iu 
March, a.d. 1794, a.h. 1208. His violence, 
rapacity and lawless ambition, were the main 
causes of the war in 1802 with the confederate 
Mahratta chieftains. Hostilities having broken 
out with the British, Sir Arthur Wellesley 
(afterwards Duke of Wellington) defeated 
Doulat Rao at Assaye in 1803, while Lord 
Lake drove the Mahrattas from the whole of 
theDoab. He married Baiza Bald, daughter 
of Sherji Rao, Ghatgai, reigned 33 years, and 
died on the 21st March, 1827, 21st Sh'aban, 
a.h. 1242. He was succeeded by Jhanko 
Rao Sindhia. 

Doulat Shah (,\l_. 




Bakht Shah of Samarqand, and author of the 
Biography of Poets called Tazkira Doulat 
Shahl. He flourished in the reign of Sultan 
Husain Mirza, of Herat, suruamed Abul 
Ghazi Bahadur, and dedicated the work to 
his prime minister, the celebrated Amir 
Nizam - uddin ' Alisher. This work was 
written in a.d. 1486, a.h. 891, and contains 
the Lives or Memoirs of ten Arabian, and one 
hundred and thirty-four Persian poets, with 
various quotations from their works, and 
anecdotes of the princes at whose courts they 
resided. It also gives an account of six poets 
then residing in Herat ; two of whom w r ere 
principal ministers of the Sultan ; viz. 
'Alisher and Amir Shaikh Ahmad Suheli. 
He died in a.d. 1495. 
[Vide Faizi KirmanL] 

Dundi Khan (<lL*->j, ^U*- c_Ju^j), 

a Rohila chief, and son of Ali Muhammad 
Khan, the founder of the Rohila Government. 

In the partition of lands which were assigned 
to the chiefs, in the time of Hafiz Rahmat 
Khan, Dundey Khan obtained the districts of 
Bisauli, Mura.da.bad, Chandpur and Sambhal 
in Rohilkhand. He died previous to the 
Rohila war which took place in a.d. 177 t, 
leaving three sons, the eldest of whom, Muhib- 
ullah Khau, succeeded to the largest portion 
of his territories. 

Dunyapat Singh (Raja) (l^-oL*JJ 

<Ls»-ij &.->~u.~). His father died in 

a.d. 1790, at which time he was only 
seven years of age. He inherited from his 
grandfather Rup Rue the Chaklas of Kora, 
Fathapur and Kara, but was dispossessed 
by the Nawab Wazir, and a Nankar allow- 
ance of 24,000 rupees granted to the Raja 
ou his exclusion. This was subsequently 
reduced to 7,500 rupees. The original grant 
amounted to 52,000 per annum, payable from 
14 mahals, but in a.d. 1770, the Nawab 
Najaf Khan acquiring unlimited dominion 
over these provinces, dispossessed his father 
of eleven of the villages, by which his income 
was reduced to 20,000 rupees. In 1787 his 
father was dispossessed of the remaining three 
villages by Zain-ul-'Abidiu Khan, the 'Aniil, 
but as the Raja was about to proceed to 
hostilities, the 'Amil agreed to allow him 
10,000 rupees for the first year, and 20,000 
thereafter, but failed in the fulfilment of his 
promise. In a.d. 1792, Zain-ul-'Abidin 
died, and was succeeded by his son Baqar, 
'Ali Khan, and from that period up to 1802 
the Raja Duniapat Singh was allowed 8,000 
rupees per annum, which was confirmed by 
Government in 1805 iu perpetuity. 

Dupleix, Joseph Francois, a French 

officer, governor of Pondicherry. In a.d. 
1750 he was elevated to the rank of a Haft 
Hazari, or Commander of seven thousand 
horse, and permitted to bear an ensign, 
assigned to persons of the highest note in the 
empire, by Muzaffar Jang, viceroy of the 
Deccan, after his victory over his brother 
Nasir Jamj, who fell in battle on loth December 
of that year. But the ambitious plans of 
Dupleix were not approved by the French 
Government. He was suspended and sent 
home in 1754 ; and died in disgrace and 
poverty Nov. 10th, 1764. 

[Vide Malleson's Dupleix, "Rulers of 
India," 1890.] 

Durduzd (jjj.j). 

of Astrabad. 

Vide All Durduzd 

Durgawati (Rani) C<-^j L _ 5 -'j^j J )» 
daughter of Rana Sarika. 
[Vide Silhaddi.] 

Durgawati (Rani) C^i ^JiySjS), 

the daughter of the Gond Raja of Mahoba, 
who was much celebrated for her singular 




beauty. Overtures had been made for an 
onion with Dalpat Bah, Raja of Singalgurh 
(which is situated on the bro^ oi a hill that 
commands a pass on the road about halfway 
between (tarda niid Sangar) ; bul the proposal 
was rejected on the ground "i a previous 
engagement, and some inferiority of caste on 
the part of the Garha family, \\ ho were of the 
race of the Chandeil rajputs. Dalpat Bah 
was a man oi uncommonly fine appearance, 
and this, added to the celehrity of his latler a 
name and extent of his dominions, no 
Durgawati as desirous as himseli for the 
union, but he was by her given to understand, 
that she must be relinquished or taken by 
force, since the difference oi caste would of 
itself be otherwise an insurmountable obstacle, 
lie marched with all his troops he could 
assemble, met those of her father and his 
rival, — gained a victory and broughl off 
Durgawati as the prize to the fori oi 
Singalgurh. Dalpat Bah died four y< 
alter their marriage, leaving a son named 
Bir Narayan about three years of age, and 
his widow as regenl during his minority. 
Asaf Khan, the unperial viceroy at Kara 
Manikpur on the Ganges in the province oi 
Allahabad, invited by the prospect oi 
appropriating so fine a country and bo much 

Wealth as she was reputed to possi — , invaded 
her dominions in the year a. D. 1664, at the 
head of 6,000 cavalry and 12,000 well 
disciplined infantry, with a train oi artillery. 
He was met by the Rani at the head of her 
troops, and an action took place in which Bhe 
was defeated. She received a wound from an 
arrow in the eye; and her only son, then 
about 18 years oi age, was severely wounded 
and taken to the rear. At this moment she 
received another arrow in the neck ; and 
seeing her troops give way and the enemy 
closing round her. she snatched a dagger 
from the driver of her elephant, and plunged 
it in her own bosom. Her son was taken off 
the field and was, unperci Lved by the enemy, 
conveyed hack to the palace at Churagarh, to 
which Asaf Khan returned immediately after 
his victory and laid siege. The young prince 
was killed iu the siege; and the women set 
fire to the palace under the apprehension of 
suffering dishonour if they fell alive into 
the hands of the enemy. Two females 

door oi the palace the following 

are said to have escaped, the sister of 

the queen, and a young prino as, who had b< i a 
betrothed to the young prince liir Narayan; 
and these two are said to have been -< iit to 
tie emperor Akbar. In this district of 
Jabbalpor the marble rocks and the palace 

called Madan Mahal are worth seeing. There 

is some doggrel rhyme al t this palace 

which i- not generally known, though ol Borne 
interest. This building Btands on a single 
granite boulder, and was constructed by the 
Grond princess Rani Duragawati al the time 
of the .Muhammadan invasion of Central 
India. Years alter the cession ol the country 
to the British, a wag oi a Pandit wrote on the 

lilli - : 

Madan Mahal k<~ chimin me, 
1 to tangdn ke Inch, 
tiara nan lakh rupl, 
Aur BOllS k.t do int. 

Translation — 

In the -hade of Madan Mahal, 

Bi tw( en two boulders, 

There are buried nine lakhs of rupees 
And two bricks of gold. 

It did Hot take long foi the Q6W8 of the 

appearance of thi* writing on the door to 
spread abroad, and the very person to fall a 
dupe to the Pandit's trick was Captain 
Wheatley, at thai time a Political Assistant 
at Jabaljiur. He mustered Borne peons and 
labourers, and having proceeded to the spot 
commenced digging for the treasure on the 
part "i Government. The native lady, in 
whose possession were the village lands on 
which the palace stood, came rushing down 
to the Agent to the Governor- General and 
represented thai Bhe was being plundered of 
her treasure by Captain Wheatley. "Pagli" 
replied Sir \Vm. Sleeman, " he is as mad as 

you are; the Pandit would not have divulged 
the secret were it of much value." Many 
years have since elapsed, and many others not 

Sossessed of Sir William's wisdom have fallen 
upes to the Pandit's poetical trick: and, but 
for the very durable nature of the martas, 
have been enough excavations made in 
and about the building to raze it to the 




Egypt, Kings of. Vide Moizz-li-dln- 
allah Abi Taniini Ma'd. 

Ekkoji ( -^Jo), the founder of the 
Tanjore family, was the son of Shahji Bhosla, 

the brother of Siwaji, but from another 
cousort. The principality of Tanjore was 
one of the oldest in the Mahratta confederacy, 
of which province Ekkoji obtained possession 
in a.d. 1678. 

[Vide Letter Y.] 




Faghfur ( .Jiki), the general name of 
the kimrs of China. 

Faghfur Yezdi (^.G- ^J'j ,,ixi), 

\ ■• TT >'• >/ 

(Hakim), a physician ami poet of Persia, born 
at Yezd. lie is tin- author of a Dlwan or 
Book of Odes, and lias written several 
panegyrics in praise of the kings <>t Persia. 
He came to India in a.d. 1603, a.h. 1012, 
and was employed by prince Parwez, and died 
at Allahabad about the year a.d. 1619, 
a.h. 1028. 

Fahmi Kirmani (Maulana Sadr-uddin 
Muhammad) (U^ ,-JL^ ^-^---J 

t-\^s'* ^tJ^Hi Jus), a poet who is the 

author of a Masnawi called Surat- wa-Ma'ani, 
and also of some Qasldas, Ghazals, Satins, etc. 
He died in the year a.d. 1584, a.h. 993, in 
the fort of Tabrez, dining the time it was 
besieged by the Turks. 

Faiq (jL'li), or Fayeq, poetical name 

of Moulwi Muhammad Faiq, author of the 
work called Makhzan-ul-Fawaed. 

Faiz (^Jjli), or Fiiyez, poetical name 

of Shaikh Muhammad Faiz, a pupil of 
Muhammad Sa'id Ayaz. He is the author 
of a short Diwan, and was probably living in 
a.d. 1724, a.h. 1136. 

Faiz (^LJ), the distinguished mystical 

philosopher and theologist, Mulla Muhsin of 
Kashan, commonly called Akhimd Faiz. He 
flourished under Shah 'Abbas II. of Persia, 
who treated him with threat respect. He has 
written a great number of books, of which 
Kitab 'Asafi, and Kitab Soft are two 
Commentaries on the Quran. He died at 
Kashan in the time of Shah Sulaiman of 
Persia, and his tomb is a place of pilgrimage. 

Faiz (^i), poetical title of Mir Faiz 

'All, an Urdu poet of Dehli. His father, 
Mir Muhammad Taqi, was also an elegant 
poet, and had assumed the title of Mir for 
his poetical name. Both Faiz 'Ali and his 
father were living at Dehli in the year a.d. 
1785, a.h. 1196. 

Faiz (j^i-i), a pupil of Alirza Qatil, and 

author of a poetical work containing amorous 
song's in Persia, called Dlwan Faiz. lie was 
living in the time of Muhammad 'All Shah, 
king of Lucknow, about the year a.d. 1840, 
A.H. 1256. 

Faiz (^Li), poetical title of Faiz-ul- 

Hasan of Saharanpur, author of the Rauzat- 
///-J-'iii:, a poem composed in a.d. 1817, 
a.h. 1263. 

Faizi ( e _.i_.»_i), of Sarhind. Vide 

Faizi Kirmani ( ^-L^ ^L;U), a 

poet who rendered the Tazkira of Doulat 
Shah in Persian verses in the time of the 
emperor Akliar, and altered the division of 
the original, making ten periods instead of 

[ Vide Lutfullah Muhammad Muhaddis.] 

Faizi (Shaikh) (^> 

f), whose 

proper name was Abii'l Faiz, was the son of 
Shaikh Mubarik of Nagor, and eldest brother 
or Shaikh Abu'l Fazl, prime -minister and 
secretary to the emperor Akbar Shah. He 
was horn on the 16th September, a.d. 1547, 
1st Shaban, a.h. 954, and was first presented 
to Akbar in the 12th year of his reign, and 
introduced his brother Abu'l Fazl six years 
later. After the death of the poet laureate 
Ghizali of Mashhad, about the year a.d. 1572, 
or some years after, or, accoi-ding to the 
Mdsir-ul- Umra, in the 33rd year of the 
emperor, Faizi was honoured with the title of 
Malik-ttsh-Shua'rd, or king of poets. In 
history, philosophy, in medicine, in letter 
writing, aud in composition, he was without 
a rival. His earlier compositions in verse 
bear his titular name of Faizi, which he 
subsequently dignified into FaiyazI, but he 
survived to enjoy his last title only one or 
two months, and then met his death. Being 
desirous of rivalling the Kharnsa or the five 
poems of Nizami, he wrote in imitation of 
them his Markaz Adwar, Sulaiman and 
Bilkais, Kal Daman, Haft Kiskwar, and 
Akbar Nama. The story of Nal Daman is 
an episode of the Mahabharat, which he 
translated into Persian verse at the command 
of the emperor Akbar. He was the first 
Musalman that applied himself to a diligent 




study of Hindu literature and Bcience. 
Besides Sanskrit works in poetry and ]ihil< >- 
sophy, he made a version oi the Bija I 
and Lilawati of Bhaskar Acharya, the 
Hebrew works on Algebra and Arithmetic. 
Ho was likewise author of a greal d al of 
original poetry, and of other works in Persian. 
He composi d an elaborate I !omm< ataxy upon 
the Quran, making use of only those 13 oul 
of the 28 letters of the Alphabet which 1 
no dots, and wliirh he named Sawdta'-ul- 
llham ; a copy of this extraordinary 
monument of wasted labour (t Elliot] 
is to seen in the Library of the East India 

House. There is also another 1 k oi the 

same description which he wrote and called 
Mawarid-ul- Kalam._ Faizi suffered from 
asthma and died at Agra on Saturday the 
4th October, o.s. 1595, LOth Safar, a.h. 
1004, aged 49 Lunar years and some months; 
and, as man] supposed him to have been a 
deist, several abusive chronograms n 
written on the occasion, oi which the follow- 
ing is one — " The Shaikh was an infidel." 
There is also an Insha or collection "i Letters 
w hieli goes alter his name. His mothi r dii d 
in January, a.d. 1590, ah. 998, and his 
lather in August, ah. L593, {Jeqa'd, a.h. 
1001. He was a profound scholar, well 
versed in Aral » 1 1 - literature, the art of poetry 
and medicine. He was also one of th i most 
voluminous writers that India has produced 

and is said to hive composed L01 1 ks. 

Faizi had been likewise employed as teacher 
to the princes ; he also acted as ambassador. 
Thus in a. ir. 1000 he was in the 1 teccan, from 
win nee he wrote the letl c to the historian 
Budaoni, who had been in temporary disgi 
at Court. 

[Vide Ain Translation, i. 490.] 

Faiz-ullah Anju (Mir) (,srl <*JJ1 ,^J 

**-+), a Qazi who presided on the 

seat ul' justice ill the iviirn of Sultan 
Mahmud Bahmani, king oi Deccan, who 
reigned from a.d. 1378 to 1397, a.h. 7^<i to 
79!). He was a g 1 poet, and a contem- 
porary of the celebrated Khwaja llaliz. 
Once presenting the Sultan with an ode of 
his own composition, he was rewarded with 
a thousand pieces of gold, and permitted to 
retire, covered with honours, to his own 

Faiz-nllah Khan ( 


chief of the Rohelas and Jagirdar of Rampur, 
was the sou of 'All Muhammad Khan Rohela. 
After the battle of Kutra in a.d. 1774. he 
retired to the Kamaon hills. By the treaty 
under Colonel Champion, he had a territory 
allotted to him of the annual value of 14 lakhs 
of rupees. He chose the city of Rampur as 
the place of his residence, and after an un- 
interrupted and prosperous administration of 
20 years, he died in September, a.d. 1794, 
Safar, a.h. 1209, and was succeeded by his 
eldest son Muhammad 'All Khan. This 
prince, in the course of a few days, in 1794 

was imprisoned and assassinafc dby his younger 
brother Ghulam Muhammad, who forcibly 
took possession oi the government. The 
English, having espoused the can- oi Ahmad 

All. the infant BOD oi the murdered prince. 

ed and took Ghulam Muhammad prit 
al Bithoura. II. was conveyed to Calcutta, 
where, u:i ..i going on a pilgrim- 

• .Mecca, he embarked on board a ship, 
probably landed at one of the ports in Turn 
Sultan's dominions, and thence made his way 
to the court oi Kabul iii a.d. 17'.<7. a.h. 1212, 
where, united with the agents oi Tipu in 
clamours against the English, he urged 
Zamaii Shah, the BOH of Tainiiir Shah, to 
invade Hindustan, promising that, on his 
approach to Dehli, he should be joined 1> 

the whole tribe of Rohelas. The Nawa 
Ahmad All Khan died about the year a.d. 
. a ii. L255. After the death oi Ahmad 
All Khan, Muhammad Said Khan ascended 
the Masnad in 1840; after him Muhammad 
Yusui AH Khan succeeded in L855, who was 
living in 1872. 

Fakhri (^Jr), son of Maulana Sultan 

Muhammad Amiri of Herat. Hi is the 
author oi the Jawahir-ul-'Ajacb, Gems of 
Curiosities, being a biography of poetesses. 
He informs us that with the intention to 
rform the pilgrimage to Meci i, he came 
during the reign of Shah Tahmasp Husaini 
to Sindh; the ruler of thai country was then 
Lsa Turkhan (who died about i! \.i>. 

L566, a.h. '.'7 1 . llahi the poet 'calls the 
above-mentioned work Tazkirat-ul-Nisa. lie 
is [so the author of the Tahfat-ul- Eabib, a 
ion of Ghazals from the besl authors. 

Fakhri ( -^s-), a Persian poet who 

wrote a Diwan of 10,000 verses in which he 
imitated mosi oi the ancient mastt rs, but i 
had not much education he was noi acknow- 
ledged by other poets. He dug a grave for 
himself outside tne Isfahan Gate and made 
hims >lf a tombstone, and \ isited his very 

Friday. He was living in a.d. 1585, a.m. 993. 

Fakhr-ud-daula (^.jj^sr), title of 

Abu'l Hasan 'All, a Sultan of the race of 
Bdya, was the son of Sultan Rukn-ud-daula. 
Ho was born in a.d. 9.32, a.h. 341, and 
succeed d his brother Mowaiyad-ud-daula to 

the throne of Persia in January, a.d. 984, 
Sha'ban, a.h. 373. He was a cruel prince, 
reigned 14 years, and died in August, a.d. 
997, Sha'ban, a.h. 387. He was succeeded 
by his sou Majd-ud-daula. 

Fakhr-ud-danla (^._\!^ .sz 1 ), a nohle- 

man who was governor of Patua in the reign 
of Muhammad Shah, emperor of DehlT ; he 
held that situation till the year a.d. 1735, 
a.h. 1148, when it was taken away from him 
and conferred upon Shujaa'-uddln Nawab of 
Bengal, iu addition to that government, and 
of the province of Urissa. 




"jkj o< 

Fakhr-uddin ( ,,.<j^..s"), one of the 

princes of the Druses, who, early in the 17th 
century, conceived the idea of rendering him- 
self independent of the Porte. lie was 
betrayed, carried a prisoner to Constantinople, 
where he was strangled by order of Sultan 
Murad IV. hi a.d. 1631, a'.ii. 1011. 

Fakhr-uddin Abu Muhammad-bin- 

Ali az-Zailai (.v^s-* *J\ ,.,..' j^JL^r 

^i), author of a Coni- 

mentary on the Kunz-uJ- ])<t<jaeq entitled 
Ta'ba'in-ul-Haqaeq, which is in gn at repute 
iu India, on account oi its upholding the 
doctrines of the Hanafi seel against those oi 
tlie followers of Shafa'I. lie died iu a.d. 
1342, a.h. 713. 

Fakhr-uddin Bahman (Malik) (J~ 

t_JvL* ,.^J ,.r>-*M), third Sultan of 

the dynasty of Kart or Kard, was the son 

of Malik Shams-uddiu Kart II. win mi lie 
succeeded to the throne of Herat, Balkh ami 
Ghazui in September, a.d. 130.). a.h. 705. 
He was contemporary with Sultan Aljaitfi, 
surnamed Muhammad Khuda Banda, king of 
Persia, who seut an army against him which 
he defeated. He died about the beginning 
of the year a.d. 1307, a.h. 706, and was 
succeeded by his brother Malik Ghayas-uddin 
Kart I. who died iu a.d. 1329. 

s-j. He 

Fakhr-uddin Ismat-ullah 

died iu a.d. 1426, a.h. 829. 
[ Vide Asniat.] 

Fakhr-uddin Junan (Malik) (_s^ 

( C* ^f? 

c - 

;jJl), eldest son of 

Sultan Ghayas-uddin Tughlaq Shah I. On 
the accession of his father to the throne of 
Dehli, he was declared heir-apparent, with 
the title of Ulagh Khan, and all the royal 
ensigns conferred upou him. The names of 
his other brothers were Bahrain Khan, Zafar 
Khan, Mahnmd Khan aud Nasrat Khan. 
After the death of his father in a.d. 1325, a.h. 
725, he succeeded him with the title of 
Muhammad Shah Tughlaq I. 

Fakhr - uddin Kha'lidi (Maulana) 

(lj^L» ^.xlld-. ,.< j^..s"), who was 

commonly called " Bihishti," is the author of 
a work called Sharah-Faraez. He was the 
master of Maulana Mo'm-uddin Jawlni. 

Fakhr - uddin Mahrnud Amir ( ,^ J 

^.*-»l wV.^.^'* ,.jjJ^), son of Amir 

YemTn-uddin Muhammad Mustufi. He is 
generally known by his Takhallus or poetical 
name, Ibn Yemin, i.e. the son of Yeniin- 

uddin. According to Dr. Sprenger's Cata- 
logue, he died in a.d. 1344, a.h. 745, and 
left panegyrics on the Sarabdal princes aud 
some ghazals, hut it is particularly his Qita's 
which are celebrated. 

[ J'ide Amir Mahnmd.] 

Fakhr-uddin Malik (<_£!, ,.jjj!_^). 

[ Vidt Malik Fakhr-uddin, king of Bengal.] 

Fakhr-uddin Mirza(l;^ ^jJLsr"), 

the eldest son of Bahadur Shah II. ex-king 
of Dehli. He died before the rebellion, ou 
10th July, 1856. 

Fakhr-uddin (Maulana) ( ..jjj^..^- 
lj- »-•«), son of Nizam-ul-Haq, was 

styled Saiyad-ush-Shua'ra, or chief of the 
poets, lie is the author of several works, 
among which are the following : Isizam-ul- 
\l<i<~~t"i, Risala Marjia and Fakhr-ul-Sasn. 
He died iu the year a.d. 1785, a.h. 1199, 
aged 73 year-, and lies buried close to the 
gate of the Dargah of Qutb-uddin Bakhtyar 
Kaki in old Dehli. His tomb is of white 
marble and has an inscription mentioning his 
name and the year of his demise. His grand- 
son Gliulam Nasrr-uddln, surnamed Kali 
Sahib, was a very pious and learned Musalman; 
he too was a good poet aud died in the year 
a.d. 1852. a.h. 1268. 

Fakhr - uddin Muhammad Razi 

(Imam) (X*\ ^Aj ^.st* ^.-jj^s') 

was a doctor of the Shafa'i sect. He sur- 
passed all his contemporaries in scholastic 
theology, metaphysics and philosophy. He is 
the author ot sevi ral instructive works, among 
which is one called Hadayek-ul- Anwar, a 
book on diffen nt subjects which he dedicated 
to Sultan 'Ala-uddm Takash, ruler of 
Khwarizm ; aud another called Risala Haiyat, 
or Geometry, dedicated to Sultan Baha-uddin 
Ghori. He was born at Kei on the 26th 
January, a.d. 1150, 25th Ramazan, a.h. 
544, and died at Herat on Monday the 29th 
March, a.d. 1210, 1st Shawwal,"A.H. 606, 
aged 62 lunar years. His father's name was 
Ziya-tiddin-biu-Umar. The title of Razi 
attached to his name is because he was born 
at Rei in Tabristan. He is the father of 
Khwaja Xasir-uddin Tusl. 

Fakhr-uddin Sultan( ALLj .,.< j^j-s 3 ), 

also called Fakhra, was the kiug of Sonargaon 
in Bengal, which adjoins the district of 
Pandua. He was put to death by Shams- 
uddin, king of Lakhuauti, about the year a.d. 
1356, a.h. 757, who took possession of his 

Fakhr-ul Islam ( "^V A~$[^\ of 

Barod, the sou of 'All. He is the author 
of the works called Usul-ud din and Usui 
Ftqha, and several other works. He died in 
a.d. 1089, a.h. 482. 




Fakhr-ullah Asad Jurjani (^J^,^ 3 


He flourished 

under the Saljuq princes, and is the author 
of tlio love adventures ol Wais and king 
Ramin, originally in the Pahlawi language, 
called Wais-wa-Ramm. 

Fakhr-un-nissa Begam (LuukjJlpSr' 

pJL*.]), the wife of Wawab Shujaat 

Khan. She is the founder of the mosque 
called " Fakhr-ul-Masaiid," situated in the 
Kashmiri Bazar at Dehli, which Bhe erected 
in memory oi her late husband in the year 

a.d. 1728; A. II. 1111. 

Falaki ( .CLO, takhullus of a Persian 

poet whose proper aami was Abu 1 ] Nizam 
Muhammad Jalal-uddin Shirwani. Si 
also commonly styled Shams-ush-Shua'rit, the 
sun of the poets, and Malik-ul-Fuzla, king 
of the learned. His poems are preferred to 
those of Khaqani and Zakir. Hamd-ullah 
Mustaufi calls him the master ol Khaqani, 
but Shaikh 'Azuri mak - mi ution in liis 
Jawahir-ul-Asrar that Khaqani and Falaki 
both were the pupils of Abu'l 'Ala of Ganja. 
There has be< d also another Falaki surnamed 
Abu'l Fazl, who was an author. Falaki died 
in a.d. 1181, a. ii. .377. liis patron was 
Manochehr Shirwani. 

Fanai (^Jui), poetical name of Sharns- 

uddin Muhammad-bin-Hamza. He was an 
author and died in the year a.d. 1430, a.h. 8 I. 

Fani ( Jli) (perishable), the poetical 
name of Muhsin Fani, which see. 

Fani ( Jli), the Takhullus of Khwaja 

Muhammad Mo'in- uddin - bin- Muhammad- 
bin-Mahmud Dihdar Fani. 1 1 < came to 
India and stood in high favour with Abdul 
Rahim Khan the Khan Khanan. lie died in 
a.d. 1607, a.h. 1016, and left several works 
on Sufiism, as Sharah Khutba, Hdihia Rdsha- 
hai, Hdshia Nafhat, Hdshia bar-Gulshan A'<'r, 
and Albayan. He is also the author oi a 
Diwan in Persian, and a Masnawi or poem 
called Haft Dilbar, i.e., the seven sweethearts, 
dedicated to the emperor Akbar. 

Faqir (,-JLJ), poetical name of Mir 

Nawazish 'Ali of Bilgaram. He died in 
the year a.d. 1754, a.h. 1167. 

Faiqr (Mir Shams-uddin) ( * _^.I_j 

also the poetical name of Maftun. From 
Dehli he went to Lucknow in a.d. 1765, 
a.h. 1179, and is said to have been drowned 

i»), of Dehli, who had 

aboul the year 1767. Be i- the autfa 
Diwan and also oi a Masnawi call 
Muhabbat, containing the Btory ol Ran 
('hand, the son oi a betel-vendor, composed 

in a.d. 1743, a. n. 1156, and i I ether 


Farabi (^ ^ \j^V^> comm only 

called so because he was a native ol Farab, 
a town in Turkey. His proper name i- Abfi 
Nasr. He was one of th I Musalmaa 

philosophers, remarkable lor his gen 
and greatness ol talents, whom we call 
Alfarabizs. He was murdered by robbers in 
Syria in a.h. 954, a.h. 313, thirty years' 
before the birth of Abu STna. Imad-uddin 
M .'.infill and Ahmad-bin-Muhammad were 
two authors who ware also called Farabi. 

Faraburz (jjt\j\ the son of Kaikaua 
(Darius the Med< ), king oi Persia. 

Faraghi (Mir) ( 


.*1 .-•), the 

brother of Hakim Fath-ullah Shirazi. Tie 
was living in a.d. 1563, \ h. 971, in which 
year the fort of ELanthanbur was conquered 
by the emperor Akbar, <<u which occasion he 
wrote a chronogram. 

Farai (*»J), whose proper name was 

Ahfi Zikaria Yehia, was an excellent Arabic 
grammarian who died in thi year a.d. 822, 
a.h. 207. 

Faramurz (;_V y _i), son of Hustara, 

the Hercules of thi Persians. Ee was assas- 
ited by the order ol Bahman, also called 
Ardisher Darazdast, king ol Persia. There 
i- said to have also Keen an author, named 
Muhammad bin-Faramurz, styled Shadid. 

Farasquri (^..JL^.-i), surname of 
Muhammad bin - Muhammad - al - Hanifa, 

[mam oi the mosque named Gouride, at 
Grand Cairo, who flourished about the vear 
A.D. 1556, A.n. 964, and was an author. 

Fard (j.i), poetical name of Abu 1 

ITasau. the son of Shah Xa'mat-ullah. lie 
died in the year a.d. 1848, a.h. 1265, and 
left a Diwan. 

Farghani ( ^U.i), commonly called 

so because ho was a native of Farghana, but his 
full name is Ahmad orMuhammad-ibn-Kasir- 
al-Farghani, a famous Arabian astronomer 
whom we know under the name of Alfragah 
or Alfraganius. He flourished in the time 
of the Khalif-al-Mamun, about the year 
a.d. S33, a.h. 218, and is the author of an 
introduction to Astronomy, which was printed 
by Golius, at Amsterdam, in 1669, with notes. 




Farhad (jVju'i), the lover of the 

celebrated Shlrin, the wife of Khusro Parwez, 
king of Persia. The whole of the sculpture 
at Behstun in Persia is ascribed to the chisel 
of Farhad. He was promised, we are told 
in Persian Romance, that if he cut through 
the rock, and brought a stream that flowed 
on the other side of the hill to the valley, 
the lovely Shlrin (with whom he had fallen 
distractedly in love) should be his reward; 
he was on the point of completing his labour, 
when Khusro Parwez, fearing to lose his 
mistress, sent an old woman to inform Farhad 
that the fair object of bis desire was dead. 
He was at work on one of the highesi parts 
of the rock when he beard the mournful 
intelligence. He immediately east himself 
headlong, and was dashed in pieces. I'iile 

Farhat (, 

(), poetical name of 

Shaikh Farhat-ullah, son of Shaikh Asad- 
ullah. He wrote a Diwan in Urdu and 
died in the year a.d. 1777, a.h. 1191, at 

Farhat Kashmiri ( ( 


a poet who was living in a.d. 1724, a.h. 1136 
Farid Bukhari (Shaikh) (,cAs£ 

V^ ±'r 


i), commander of the Agra city 

guards when Akbar died. Great honours 
were conferred on him by the emperor 
Jahangir, on account of his services. He 
received the title of Murtaza Khan, and 
managed the affairs of the empire till he was 
rendered unfit for business by a stroke of the 
palsy, which opened the way for the promotion 
of Ya'timad-uddaula, the father of the empress 
Nur Jahan. He died a.d. 1616, a.h. 1025. 

Farid Katib (* 

uddln Katib. 

oK Jo i). Vide Farld- 

Farid or Farid-uddin Ahwal («x_j j 

J»s^' ^jjjl) (the squinting), a poet 

of Persia who was a native of Asfaraen in 
Khurasan and contemporary with Imam! 
HirwT. Khwaja Nizam-uddfn Abu Bakr 
the "Wazlr of Azd-uddin Sa'd was his patron. 
He died at Isfahan and left a Diwan contain- 
ing 5,000 verses. 

Farid or Farid-uddin (Shaikh) (jj • 


Jit Jo _j 

^6 .£Li J ^\), a cele- 

brated Muhammadan saint, who is styled 
Shakar Giwj, on account of his having, it is 
said, miraculously transmuted dust or salt 
into sugar. His father's name was Shaikh 
Jalal-uddin Sulaiman, a descendant of 
Farrukh Shah of Kabul. He was a disciple 
of Khwaja Qutb-uddin Bakhtyar KakI, and 

was contemporary with Shaikh Sa'd-uddin 
Hamwia, Saif-uddiu Makharzi, and Baha- 
uddin Zikaria, all of whom died successively 
a short time after one another. He was born 
in a.d. 1173, a.h. 569, died on Saturday the 
17th October, a.d. 1265, 5th Muharram, 
a.h. 66 1, aged 95 lunar years, and is buried 
at Ajudhan, a place commonly called Patau 
or Pak Patau in Multan. The anniversary 
of his death is celebrated every year on the 
5th of Muharram, when a great crowd of 
Muhammadans assemble together to pray at 
his tomb. 

fl£ ^JjJljjJ), com- 

Farid-uddin ( 

monly called Farid Katib, was a pupil of 
AuwnT, a good poet and secretary to Sultan 
Sanjar. When that prince was defeated by 
the monarch of Qara Khatai iu a.d. 1140, 
a.h. 535, and fled with a few followers to 
Khurasan, Farid consoled him by composing 
an ode upon the occasion, in which he says, 
" that every thing must change, but that the 
condition of God alone was not liable to 

Farid-uddin Attar (Shaikh) (a_< ~i 
^..-i jUa-c ^jjull), surnamed Mu- 
hammad Ibrahim, was a dealer in perfumes, 
from which he took his poetical name '"Attar." 
He afterwards retired from the world, became 
a disciple of Shaikh Majd-uddin Baghdad!, 
and lived to a great age, namely, that of 114 
lunar years. He was born at Shady akh. a 
village in Naishapur in the reign of Sultan 
Sanjar in November, a.d. 1119, Sha'ban, 
a.h. 513, and, when at the siege of Naishapur, 
the son-in-law of Changez Khan, the Tartar, 
was killed, a general massacre of the inhabi- 
tants of that place was made by the Mughals, 
among the number that were slain being 
Farid-uddin. This circumstance took place 
on the 26th April, a.d. 1230, 10th Jamad II. 
a.h. 627. He is the author of 40 poems and 
several prose works, amongst the latter 

The following are 

Asrar Xama. 
Ashtur Xama. 
Ausat Xania. 
Besar Nauia. 
Bulbul Xama. 
Gul-wa- Khusro or 

Haidar Xama. 
Haft Wadi. 
Hallaj Xama. 
Khusro Xama. 
Kanzan Makhfia. 
Kunt Kauz Makhafia. 

Besides the above, he is also the author of 
a Diwan containing 40,000 verses. 

Faridun (^ju-i), an ancient king of 
Persia, the son of Abtln, an immediate 

his poems : — 

Ilahi Xama 
Khayat Xama. 
Mansur Xama. 
Ma zhar-ul- ' A j aeb . 
Mukhtar Xama. 
Musibat Xama. 
Pand Xama. 
Sipah Xama. 
Wald Xama. 
Wasiat Xama. 





descendant of Tahmurs, kino; of Persia. He 
had escaped, it is said in a miraculous manner, 
from Zuhaq, when that prince had seized and 
murdered his father. At the age of 16 he 
joined Kfiwa or Gawa, a blacksmith, who 
had collected a large body of his countrymen; 
these fought with enthusiasm under the 
standard of the blacksmith's apron, which 
was afterwards converted into the royal 
standard of Persia, called the Durafsh 
Kawani. Zuhaq, after numerous defeats, 
was made prisoner, and put to a slow and 
painful death. Faridun, who was a very 
just and virtuous king, had three sons, viz., 
Salm, Tiir, and Iraj, among whom he 
divided his kingdom; hut the two elder, 
displeased that Persia, the fairest of lands and 
the seat of royalty, should have been given to 
Iraj their junior, combined to effect his ruin, 
and at last slew him, and sen! his bead to 
Faridun. The old man fainted atthi Bight, 
and when he recovered he called upon Heaven 
to punish the base penetrators of so unnatural 
and cruel a died. The daughter of [raj was 
married to the nephew of Faridun, and their 
young son Manucbehr proved the image of 
his grandfather. When he attained manhood. 
the old k i 1 1 lt made every preparation to enable 
him to revenge the blood of [raj. A war 
commenced; and in the first battle Salm and 
Tur were both slain. Faridun soon after- 
wards died, and was succeeded by Manuchehr. 
Persian authors assure us that Faridun 
reigned 500 years. 

Faridun f^Ju^J), a Turk who wrote 

a Commentary in the Turkish language on 
the Ghazals of Hafiz. 

Farigh (c ; U), author of the poem 

called Masnawi Farigji, which he composed 
in A.D. 1592, a. ii. 1000, in whieh year, lie 
says, Shah 'Abbas conquered Gllan, and to 
whom it was dedicated. 

FarisEoohidiak( crj U),anArabicpoet 

and litterateur, horn about the year a.d. 1796. 
In religion he was a Syrian Christian. He 
is the author of several works. When in 
London he published his revised text of the 
New Testament in Arabic. His Dlwan in 
Arabic is highly spoken of by whose who 
have seen it. He was living in' 1860. 

Fariz (^Li), or Ibn Fariz, surname 

of Abu Hafs Sharaf-uddin Umar bin-al- 
Asa'dl, bin-al-Murshid, bin-Ahmad al Asa'di, 
a very illustrious Arabian poet. He was born 
at Cairo a.d. 1181, a.h. 577, and died there 
in the year a.d. 1234, a.h. 632. 

Farkhari (^Ul^J), a poet who was 

in the service of Amir Kaikaus, and is the 
author of the story of Wamiq-wa-TTzra, in 

Farkhunda Ali Khan (Mir) (s±u>. j 

j^ ,jlri. ^_X~), Nizam of Deccan. 

He succeeded his father Sikandar Jab in the 

government of Ilaidarabful in a.d. 1829. 

[ Vtdt Afzal-uddaula.] 

Faroghi Kashmiri (, 
a poet who died in a.d. 1666, a.h. 1077. 



Faroghi (Maulana) Qjly ^.4), of 

Qazwln in Isfahan ; he was a dealer in 
perfumes, but an excellent poet, and lived in 
the time of 'Abbas the Great. 

Farrukhi ( =L i), or Farkhl, a poet 

who flourished in tin time ol Sultan Mahmud 
of Ghaznl, was a pupil of Chsari the poet, 
and a descendant oi the royal race of the 
kiiiL r s oi Si-tan. He is the author of a work 
called Tariumdn -ul- Bala ghat, and of a 
Dlwan in Persian. He wrote several pane- 
nics in praise of Abu'l Muzaffar, the son 
oi Amir Nasr and grandson of Xasir-uddin, 
ruler of Balkh. 

Farrukh Fa'l (\\i • j) a son of the 

emperor Eumayun by Mali Chuchfik Begam, 
horn at Kabul in a.d. 1555, a.h. 962. 

Farrukh-siyar (Muhammad) (_^ _: j 
J^s"*), emperor of DelilT, horn on 

the 18th July. o.s. 1687, 18th Ramazan, 
a.h. I 1 the -"ii ,,] AzIm-ush-Shan, 

the second -on ,,i Bahadur Shah I. and great- 
grandson oi the emperor Alamgir. Hi- lather 
was killed in the battle foughl against 
Jahandar Shah, his uncle ami predecessor. 
One of Jahandar Shah's first acts on his 
accession to the tin-one had been to put all 
the princes oi the blood within his reach to 
(hath: among those whom he could not get 
into his power was Farrukh-siyar. who was 
in Bengal at the time ot his grandfather 
Bahadur Shah's death. But when the 
information ot his father's death reached 
him, he threw himself on the compassion and 
fidelity of Saiyad Husain All Khan, the 
governor ot Behar, who warmly espoused bis 
cause, and prevailed on his brother, Saiyad 
Abdullah Khan, governor af Allahabad, to 
adopt the same course. By the aid of these 
noblemen, Farrukh-siyar assembled an army 
at Allahabad, marched towards Agra, 
defeated Jahandar Shah, took him prisoner, 
and having murdered him, ascended the 
throne in the fort of Dehli on Friday the 9th 
January, o.s. 1713, 23rd Zil-hijj'a, a.h. 
1124. The former Amir-ul-Umra Zulriqar 
Khan and many other nobles and dependants 
of the late emperor were put to death by the 
bow-string and other punishments. Raja 
Sahhchand, Dlwan to the late Amir-ul-Umra, 
had his tongue cut out : Aziz-uddin, son of 
Jahandar Shah, 'Ali Tabar, the son of 'Azim 




Shiih, and Humayun Bakht, younger brother 
to Farrukh-siyar were deprived of their 
sight by a red hot iron drawn over their eyes. 
On Farrukh-siyar's accession, Abdullah 
Khan, the eldest brother, was made Wazlr 
with the title of Qutb-ul-Mulk, and Husain 
All Khan raised to the rank of Amlr-ul- 
Umra (Commander-in-Chief) which was the 
second in the State. The emperor's nuptials 
with t he daughter of Raja Aj it Singh of Marwar 
were celebrated with unprecedented splendour 
in the year a. d. 1716, a.k. 1128. Farrukh- 
siyar had not long enjoyed the throne, when 
a jealousy arose between him and the WazSr 
Qutb - ul - Mulk ; and upon the emperor 
trying to form schemes for the recovery of 
his independence, he was deposed, blinded and 
imprisoned by the two brothers. This event 
took place on the 18th February, o.s. 1719, 
8th Rabi' II. a.h. 1131, and not long after he 
was murdered on the 16th May, a.d. 1719, 
9th Rajab, a.h. 1131, following, and buried 
in the court of the mausoleum of the 
emperor Humayun at Dehli. He had reigned 
6 years 3 months and 15 days. After his 
deposal the Saiyads set up a prince of the 
blood to whom they gave the title of Rafl- 
ud-Darjat. It was from Faxrukh-siyar that 
the East India Company obtained their 
Farman of free trade, with have to purchase 
thirty-seven districts in Bengal, besides 
various privileges ; little attention was how- 
ever paid to it by the Subahdar till the 
English acquired force to give it weight. 



i), a prince of 

Persia of the Sasanian race. 
[ Vide Turan Dukht.] 

Farrukhzad (jh- i) son of Sultan 

Masa'ud I. of Ghaznl, began to reign after 

the death of his brother Sultan Abdul Rashid, 
in March, a.d. 1053, A.n. 444. He reigned 
6 years and died in the latter part of the year 
a.d. 1058, when his brother Sultan Ibrahim 
succeeded him. 

Farsi ( .,lj \> _.„;) r Farasi, sur- 

name of Abu'l Fawaris Ibrahim, a Persian 

Farsi ^l5**!/- ; ^ P oe tical name of Sharif 
Khan Amir-ul-Umra, which see. 

Faryabi. ride Zahlr-uddin Faryabi. 

Faryad (A: J), the poetical name of 

Lala Sahib Rae, a Kayeth of Lucknow. He 
originally had assumed Qurban, for his 
poetical name, but latterly changed it to 
Faryad. He was living in a.d. 1782, a.h. 

Farzada Quli (, Jjj \j. i) author of a 

Catalogue of books in the Arabic, Persian, 
and Hindi languages, amounting, on a rough 

estimate, to upwards of 2,000 volumes. From 
its mentioning the Diwan of Sanda, it 
appears that it was written within the last fifty 
or sixty years. It also mentions the Mustafa 
Noma, in the metre of the Shah Kama, 
embracing the history of Persia from Muham- 
mad to Tahmasp Shah Safwl, amounting to 
104,000 couplets; also of a Persian trans- 
lation of the Muqamat of Haiizl. Jour, of 
the Roij. As. Soc. No. XI. 

Farzadaq ( -i^jji), the son of Ghalib, 

called the master of Arabian poets, was an 
author, and had the whole Quran by heart. 
He died in a.d. 728, a.h. 110, aged upwards 
of 70 years. He flourished in the reign of 
Abdul Malik, the son of Marwan I. who 
imprisoned him because he wrote a panegyric 
in praise of Imam 'All Zain-ul-'AbidTn, son 
of Imam Husain, but was released, after the 
death of the khalif, by his son Walid. His 
Diwan in Arabic is much esteemed in Hajjaz 
and Iraq. 

Fasihi Ansari (tjTjJb ^LaJl { js^ai), 

of Herat, a Persian poet, who flourished 
about the year a.d. 1595, a.h. 1004. He 
never came to India. He died in a.d. 1636, 
a.h. 1046. 

Fasih - uddin Muhammad Nizami 

Maulana (_ ^UaJ a^^ sj£\ ^^s 




u^L*), author of the Sharah Ju gh mirii. 

Fassi ( j^j), surname of Faqih-ucldin 

Muhammad-ibn-Ahmad 'AlI-al-Husaini : he 
was a native of Pass (Fez), on which account 
he was called Fassi. He was an author and 
QazI of the city of Mecca, and died a.d. 1429, 
a.h. 833. 

Fatha Ali Husaini ( z^^^- , _Lc *^i), 

author of the biography called Tazkirat-ush- 
Shua'rae Hindi. It contains the Memoirs 
of 108 Hindi and Deccani authors, with 
numerous extracts from their works. 

Fatha 'Ali Shah (ali Jtz. Jij), king 

of Persia, was a Turkman of the tribe of 
Kajar. He succeeded his uncle 'Aka 
Muhammad Khan to the throDe of Persia 
in a.d. 1797, a.h. 1212. He had received 
an excellent education, and possessed some 
literary accomplishments ; was a tolerable 
poet, and fond of the society of the learned, 
whom he generously patronized. He reigned 
nearly 40 years and died in the year a.d. 
1834, a.h. 1250. After him Muhammad 
Shah, the son of 'Abbas Mirza and grand- 
son of Fatha 'AH Shah, mounted the throne 
and died in a.d. 1847, when his son Naslr- 
uddln Ahmad Shah, the present king, suc- 
ceeded him. It was to the court of Fatha 
'All Shah that Sir John Malcolm in 1800 
led the magnificent embassy which Lord 




Wellesley had despatched from Calcutta, with 
tlie view of tramping Bonaparte's cards in 
the Bast, and of playing off a Persian ally 
on our Indian frontiers against an Afghan 
ill-wisher, the ambitious Zaman Shah. 

Fatha Haidar ( ,j^:>- JS). the eldest 


son of Tippu Sultan. 

Fatha Khan (^U*. ~-"-i), the son of 

Sultiln Flroz Shah Barbak, king of Dehli, 
and brother of Zafar Khan. 

[Vide Flroz Shah Barbak.] 
Fatha Khan ( U. Ju), Nawab of 



Fatha Khan (^U- Jis), brother of 

Dost Muhammad Khan, ruler of Kabul. 
The celebrated Wazir of Mahmnd, ruler 
of Herat and chiei oi the Barakza! clan, 
whose family drove away the descendants oi 
Ahmad Shah Abdali from Kabul. 

Fatha Khan (^U- Jii), the son of 


Malik 'Ambar, the Abyssinian chief of Ahmad- 

nagar in the Deeean, who had the Nizam 
Shahi dominions under his coutrol for some 
years. After his lather's death in a.i>. 1626, 
A.n. 1035, he succeeded to his authority : 
but Murtaza Nizam Shah 11. being weary 
of his control, took him prisom r In treaeherv, 
and confined him in the fort of Khybar. 
Having made his escape, he rebelled, hut 
was again taken, and confined in Daulat- 
abiid. He was released in time, and appointed 
generalissimo by the influence oi his sister, 
mother to Nizam Shah. He shortly, to 
prevent another removal from office, confined 
the Sultan under pretence of insanity, and 
put to death twenty-five of the principal 
nobility in one day, writing to the emperor 
Shah Jahan that he had thus acted to 
prevent them from rebelling against him. 
The emperor in reply commended his attach- 
ment, and ordered him to put the captive 
prince to death, which he did about the year 
a.d. 1628, a.h. 1038, and placed his son 
Husain, an infant of ten years, on the throne. 
Fatha Khan, by offering a present of eight 
lacs of rupees, and agreeing to pay tribute, 
was allowed to keep what territory yet 
remained to the Nizam Shahi sovereignty. 
In the year a.d. 1634, A.n. 1044, Fatha 
Khan was forced to surrender ; and the fall 
of this place put a final period to the Nizam 
Shahi dynasty, which had swayed the sceptre 
for 150 years. Husain Nizam Shah was 
confined for life in the fortress of Gwaliar, 
but Fatha Khan was received into favour, and 
was allowed to retire to Lahore on a pension 
of two lacs of rupees, which he enjoyed till 
bis death. 

Fatha Naek (J_Clj JS). the father 

of Haidar "All Khan, the usurper of Myt 
and Seringapatam. He died in a.h. 1738, 
and was buried at Kolar, a capital ot seven 
parganas, about 35 miles east oi Bangalore. 

Fatha-puri Mahal (J.^-* \Jrf —"-•), 

or Begam, one of the wives of the emperor 
Shah Jahan. Sin- was the founder of the 
Fathapuri Masjid in Dehli. 

Fatha Shah ( _j,*j al*. J.3), Turin, 

succeeded Yusaf Shah to the throne of 
I; Dgal in a.d. 1 is.', a.h. 887, and after a 
reign ot about eight years was murdered in 
a.d. 1491, A.H. 896, by the eunuch Sultan 
Shahzada, who succeeded him. 

Fatha-ullah Imad Shah (<U_M ^_s 

*L& u)L*-c), originally in the service 

of Sultan Mahmud Shah II. Bahmani, king 

ot Deccan, was made gover ■ oi Berar. 

He became independent about the year a.d. 
1484, and died about the year a.h. 1513. 
lli~ son 'Ala-uddin 'Imad Shah succeeded 

[Ft* imad-ul-Mulk.] 
Fatha-ullah Mustaufi (a._LM J 



•«), Burnamed Fakhr-uddin, 

w;i~ a L r 1 poet and Berved under Khwajd 

Rashid-uddin, Fazl-ullah and hi- -on Ghaya*i 
uddin Muhammad, as secretary. He 1- the 
brother of Khwaja Hamd-ullah Mustaufi, 

who died in A.D. 1349. 

Fatha-ullah Shirazi Amir (<lLM —J 

_»»*1 y^c'X ^i), one of the most learned 

men of his time. He came from Shiraz to 
Deccan and passed a few years in the service 

oi Sultan Ali Add Shah of Bljapur. After 
the death of that kin;:, he left Deccan and 
came to Dehli in the year a.d. 1582, a.h. 
990, and had an honourable office assigned to 
him bv the emperor Akbar, near bis person, 
with the title of Azd-ud-daula. He died on 
Wednesday, the 3rd Shawwal, 997 Hijri, the 
24th Amardad Mah Ilahi, in the 34th year of 
Akbar' s reign, corresponding with the 6th 
August, o.s. 1589, at Sirmagar the capital of 
Kashmir, where he had proceeded with his royal 
master. The emperor was much grieved athis 
loss; and Shaikh Faizi wrote an appropriate 
epitaph on the occasion. Fifteen days after 
his death died also the Hakim Abu'l Fatha 
Gilani, the brother of Hakim Haman, who 
was then with the king proceeding to Kabul. 
Sarfi Sawaji wrote the chronogram of their 




Fathi (^.-sli), a poet of Ardastan, 

who died in a.d. 1635, a.h. 1045. 

Fathi 'Ali Husaini Gurdezi. Vide 


Fatima (<ukli), the daughter of Mu- 
hammad and Iris wife Khudija. She was 
born at Mecca five years before her father 
gave himself out for a prophet, i.e., about 
the year a.d. 606, and died about six months 
after him, in the city of Medina on the night 
of Monday the 23rd November, a.d. 632, 
3rd Kamazan, a.h. 11. She was married to 
All, Muhammad's cousin - germau, and 
became the mother of the Imams Hasan and 
Husain. She passes for a very holy woman 
amongst the Musalmans, and is also called by 
them Batiil, Tahira, Mathara, and Zahra. 

Fatima bint Asad (±J\ u^oj <utU) 

the daughter of Asah, the son of Hashim. 
She was the wife of Abu Talib and mother of 

Fatima Sultan (^IkL, ^i-li), one of 

the wives of Uniar Shaikh Mirza, and 
mother of the prince Pir Muhammad 

Fatimites, or kings of Barbary and 

Egypt of the Fatimite dynasty. 

[fide Mnizz-li-din-allah and Obeid- 
ullah Almahdi.] 

Fattahi Naisliapuri Maulana ( >-l^i 

> j}y*^X an author who died 
a.d. 1448, a.h. 852. 
[JldeYahia (Mulla).] 

Fau Ji (^j^T}'*), poetical name of Mirza 

Muhammad Muqim ; he was born at Shiraz 
but came to India in the time of Shah Jahan, 
and was attached to the service of his son* 
Shah Shuja'a in Bengal. After a long 
residence in India he returned to his father- 
land, but died in a short time after bis 
arrival there. He was living in a.d. 1649, 
a.h. 1059, and has left a Diiwan in Persian 
verse. As he was employed in the amiy he 
derived his poetical title from Fauj, i.e. army. 

Faulad Khan (Shidi) (A, 


-1), an Abyssinian who was at 
KotwaJ in the time of the emperor Muham- 
mad Shah, about the year a.d. 1737, a.h. 
lloO, and on whom a satire was written by 
the poet Sauda. He had built a fine garden 
m Agrah, of which no traces are to be seen 

Fauraq. (j^-i), surname of Abu Baler 

Muhammad, bin-Hasan, bin-Fauraq, com- 
monly called ibn-Fauraq, was a great 
Metaphysician and Schoolman, for which 
reason he is styled Mutkallim. He was born 
at Isfahan, and died in the city of Naishapur, 
in Khurasan, a.d. 1015, a.h. 406. 

Fawad Muhammad Pasha (jL.j 

Liu SA.SL"*), a Turkish statesman 

and litterateur of Constantinople, son of Izzat 
Mulla, and nephew of Laila Khatun, a 
Turkish poetess. He is the author of several 
works. He was living in a .d. 1870, and has 
been loaded with distinctions by European 

Fayyaz (^ili). 
of Lahijan. 

Vide Abdul-Razzaq 

Fayyazi (^Li). Vide Faizi (Shaikh). 

Fazal Khan (^U. J^i), governor or 

kiladar of the fort of Agra, was turned out by 
Surajmal Jat, who took possession of the fort 
and plundered everything he could lay his 
hands upon. 

Fazil (J^ili), a poet who flourished 
about the year a.d. 489. 

Fazl Ali Khan (^Uk \x u l^.i), a 

poet who nourished in the time of Hie 
emperor Muhammad Shah of Dehli, and 
was living in a.d. 1739, a.h. 1152. 

Fazl Ali Khan 

gU. 0< .U J.^i\ 

whose entire title was Nawab Ya'timad-ud- 
daula Zaya-ul-Mulk Saiyad Fazl 'Ali Khan 
Bahadur Sohrab Jang, was the prime 
minister of the king of Audh Ghazi-ud-din 
Haidar, and was living in a.d. 1829. 

Fazl Barmaki ( i" ^ J-^ii), brother 

of 'Jafar-al-Barmaki, the minister of Hariin" 
al-Iiashid Khalifa of Ba gh dad. 

[Vide Jafar-al-Barmaki.] 

Fazl Haq (j;^ J^ii), the son of Fazl 

Imam. He wrote prose and poetry as did 
also his father. His Qasldas are much 
esteemed. At the outbreak of 1857, he joined 
the rebel Nawab of Banda and others, and was 
said to have been killed at Narod in an attack 
made by General Napier on the 1 7th December, 
a.d. 1858, a.h. 1274. The Dehli Gazette, May 
17th, 1859, mentions, however, that sentence 
of transportation was passed on the rebels Loni 
Singh. ex-Kaja of Mitauli, and the Maulwi 
Fazi Haq. 




Fazli ( jLai), a poet and author of the 

Loves of Shah-wa-Mah, a poem containing 
12,2G0 Persian verses, which he completed in 

the year a.d. 1G41. 

Fazl Imam (A*\ u LiJ), an inhabitant 

of Khairabad, who 'wrote prose and poetry, 
and died in the year a.d. 1828, a.h. 1244. 

Fazl Rasul Moulvi (,cA+* , L'i , Lai 

k — j J ** j J ^ 

, J.'jj), of Badaon, son of Maulvi 

Abdul M.ijld, and author of the works ca 
Bawdrik and Tashlh-ul-Masdel. He was 

living in a.d. 1854, a.h. 1271. 

Fazl-ullah U_L!\ J_^Li), surnamed 

Khwaja Rashid-uddin, a oative oi Qazwin or 
Hamdan and a Persian historian, who v. 
at the desire of his master, the Sulfai 
Persia, a hist i irv of the Mughals. finished in 
a.d. 1294, to which he afterwards added a 
supplement. He was beheaded in July, a.i>. 
1318. His name is spell in Bome oi our 
Biographical Dictionaries, Fadl-allah. From 
the work lit Rashid-uddin, called Jama'-ut- 
Tawarlkh, and from other materials, Abu'l 
Ghazi, king oi Khwarizm, composed in I 
Mughal language his Genealogical History. 
[Vide Rashid-uddin.] 

Fazl-ullah Khan Nawab (iSl\ L^.i 

^,1^), an Amir of the court of the 

emperor Bahax, who buili a mosque in Dehli 

in the year a.d. 1529, a.h. 93t>, which is 
still standing. 

Fazl-ullah Maulana (UlV* dJJI JLii\ 

Physician to Amir Taiimir, and the most 
celebrated and skilful practitioner of the age 
in which he lived. 

Fazuli Baghdadi (^j^\^Ju J« ,A >), 

an author who was a native of Baghdad, and 
died in the year a.d. 1562, a.h. 970, and 
left us a Diwan in the Persian and Turkish 


Fidai Khan (^l&. ^LvJ), former 
title of 'Azim Khan Koka, which see. 

Fidai Mirza (^ Jlji), name of a 

Fidwi CjjjJ), of Lahore, the poetical 

name of a poet of the end of the 18th century ; 
was son of a Hindu chandler but converted 'to 
Islam by Sabir 'All Shah ; became a client of 
Zabita Khan (q.v.) and died at Moradabad 
about 1780. lie is the author of a poem in 

Urdu entitled Yusif-u>a-Zalei]chja 't 1 
of Joseph and Potiphar' Mir Patha 

Ali Shaidi has satirized him in his story of 
the Bum and Baqqal. 

Fidwi ( j._\.'), author of a Persian 

Diwan. He flourished in the year a.d. 1G49, 
a.h. 1059. 

Fighan (^Jx:), the poetical title of 

Ashraf 'All Khan, the son of Mirza 'Ali 
Khan, and the Koka or foster-brother of the 
emperor Ahmad Shah of Dehli. He is the 
author of a Diwan in the Urdu langu 
containing about 2,000 verses. Ee died at 
Patna in a.d. 1772, a.h. 1186, and was 
buried ti. 

Fighani ( JUi). Vide Baba Fighanl. 

Fikrat (c^Xi), poetical title of Mirza 

Fikri (^-jLi), poetical title of Sa'id 

Muhammad of Herat. Hi was a weaver and 
i- therefore called Jamabaf. 1 1 < came to 

India in a.d. 1561, a.h. 969, and gained, 
through hi< great talent- for making epigrams, 
the favour of the emperor Akbar. Ilecom- 
posed only Buba'is, and died in a.d. 15G5, 
a.h. 973. 

Firaqi ( ^Li), poetical title of an 

author named Abu'l Barkat, who died in the 
year a.d. 1507, a.h. 913. 

Firdausi or Firdausi Tusi (l.« ^.-.Ji 

■ c-aja ^--.J.j), the poetical title of 

Alifrl Kasim Hasan - bin - Sharaf Shah, a 
famous Persian poet, sometimes railed the 
nomer of Persia, whose epic poem, called 
Shahnama, written by order of Sultan 
Mahniiid of Ghazni, is justly celebrated. It 
contains the legendary annals of the ancient 
kings of Persia, from the reign of the first 
king, Kaiomurs, to the death ot Yezdijard III. 
the last monarch of the Sasanian race, who 
was deprived of his kingdom a.d. 641. by the 
invasion of the Arabs during the Khilafat of 
Tmar, the second Khalif after Muhammad. 
It was the labour of 30 years, and consists of 
60,000 verses, each of "which is a distich. 
The following circumstances respecting the 
origin of the poem and the life of the poet 
are chiefly derived from the preface to the 
copy of the Shahnama, which was collated 
a.d". 1426, a.h. 829, by order of Baisanghur 
Mirza the grandson of Amir Taimur. It 
appears from that preface, that Yezdijard, 
the last king of the Sasanian race, took 
considerable pains in collecting all the 
chronicles, histories, and traditions connected 
with Persia and the sovereigns of that 




country, from the time of Kaiomurs to the 
accession of the Khusros, which hy his 
direction were digested and brought into one 
view, and formed the book known by the 
name of Siar-ul-MaluJc, or the Bastdn Nama. 
"When the followers of Muhammad overturned 
the Persian monarchy, this work was found 
in the plundered library of Yezdijard. In the 
tenth century one of the kings of the then 
dynasty, directed Daqiqi (q.v.) the poet to 
versify that extensive work, but the poet only 
lived to finish a thousand distichs, having been 
assassinated by his own slave. Nothing 
further was done till the reign of Sultan 
Mahmud. when a romantic accident furnished 
the Sultan with a copy of the Bastdn Nama, 
the existence of which was till then unknown to 
him. From this work, he selected seven 
stories which he delivered to seven poets to be 
composed in verse, that he might be able to 
ascertain the merits of each competitor. The 
poet Unsari gained the palm, and he was 
accordingly engaged to arrange the whole in 
verse. Firdausi was at this time at Tus, 
his native city, where he cultivated his 
poetical tahnts with assiduity and success. 
He had heard of the attempt of Daqiqi, and 
of the determination of the reigning king 
Mahmud, to patronize an undertaking which 
promised to add lustre to the age in which he 
lived. Having fortunately succeeded in 
procuring a copy of the Bastdn Nama, he 
pursued his studies with unremitting zeal, 
and soon produced that part of the poem in 
which the battles of Zuhaq and Faridun are 
described. The performance was universally 
read and admired, and it was not long before 
his fame reached the ears of the Sultan, who 
immediately invited him to his court. It is 
related that when Firdausi, on the invitation 
of the Sultan, reached the capital Gliaznl, he 
happened to pass a public garden where the 
three royal poets, Unsari, Asjadi and 
Farrukhi were enjoying themselves. The 
poets observed him approach and at once 
agreed that if the stranger chanced to have 
any taste for poetry, which they intended to 
put to test, he should be admitted to their 
friendship, and in order to decide as to his 
merits they settled among themselves to 
repeat each in hum a hemistich, and leave to 
Firdausi to complete the fourth, but at the 
same time satisfied in their own minds that 
there was no other word in the Persian 
language that wovdd rhynie with the three 
which they had taken care to pre-occupv. 
Firdausi joining them and hearing the 
proposal, promised to exert his powers. 
They then commenced each with an extem- 
poraneous line : — 

Farrukhi .. 
Firdausi . . 

The light of the moon to thy 

splendour is weak, 
The rose is eclipsed by the bloom 

of thy cheek ; 
Thine eyelashes dart through the 

folds of the Joshan, 
Like the javelin of Geo in the 

battle with Pushan. 

The poets were astonished at the readiness 
of the stranger, and ashamed at being totally 

ignorant of the story of Geo and Pushan, 
w bich Firdausi related as described in Bastdn 
Nama. They immediately treated him with 
the greatest kindness and respect, and after- 
wards introduced him to Mahmud, as a poet 
capable of undertaking the Shdhnama. 
Mahmud considered himself never so much 
honoured as when Firdausi set his foot at 
Ghazni ; he was never more proud than 
that Firdausi was by his command, composing, 
in his faultless verse, a history of the 
monarchs of Persia, his predecessors. No 
reward then appeared to him too great to 
offer, to induce the poet to undertake the 
task, no promise too splendid to excite him. 
" Write, unequalled one," cried he, " and 
for every thousand couplets a thousand pieces 
of gold shall be tbiue." Firdausi obeyed, 
but resolved to accept no reward till he had 
completed the work he had undertaken, and 
for thirty years he studied and laboured that 
his poem might be worthy of eternal fame. 
In this he succeeded, and presented an elegant 
copy of his book to Mahmud, but the patience 
of the Sultan was exhausted, his enthusiasm 
was ^one, his liberality had faded away, and 
when the 60,000 couplets of the Shdhnama 
W( re ended, there was a pause, which brought 
to the poet disappointment and to the monarch 
such everlasting disgrace as has obliterated 
all his triumphs. Mahmud received the book, 
coldly applauded his diligence and dismissed 
him. Many months elapsed, and Firdausi 
heard no more of his work ; he then took 
occasion to remind the king of it by the 
following epigram : 

'Tis said our monarch's liberal mind 
Is like the ocean unconfined, 
Happy are they who prove it so, 
'Tis not for me that truth to know. 
I've plunged within its waves, 'tis true, 
But not a single pearl could view. 

Shamed, picqued, and offended at this 
freedom, the Sultan ordered 60,000 pieces of 
silver dirhams to be sent to the author, 
instead of the gold which he had promised. 
Firdausi was in the bath at the time the 
money arrived, and his rage and amazement 
exceeded all bounds when he found himself 
thus insulted. He immediately distributed 
the paltry sum amongst the attendants of the 
bath and the slave who brought it. The 
excited poet then relieved his mind by a satire 
full of stinging invective, and caused it to be 
transmitted to the favourite Wazlr who had 
instigated the Sultan against him ; it was 
carefully sealed up, with directions that it 
should be read to Mahmud on some occasion 
when his mind was perturbed with affairs of 
State, as it was a poem likely to afford him 
entertainment. Firdausi having thus prepared 
his vengeance, quitted the court and was 
safely arrived in Mazandaran, where news 
reached him that his lines had fully answered 
the purpose he had intended they should do. 
Mahmud had heard and trembled, and too 
late discovered that he had ruined his own 
reputation for ever. After his satire had 
been read by Mahmud, the poet feared to 
remain too long in one place ; he sought 




shelter in the court of the khallf of Baghdad. 
in trhose honour he added a 1000 couplets to 
iheShaknama, and who rewarded him with the 
60,000 gold pieces which had been withh< Id 
by Mahmud. Mahmud pretended to have 
discovered thai his Wazir had deceived him 
iu attributing impiety to Firdausi, and he ;it 
once sacrificed that favourite, dismissing 
him with disgrace. Thinking, by a tardy 
act of liberality, to repair his former meanni as, 
Mahmud dispatched to Firdausi the 60,000 
pieces he had promised, a robe of State, and 
many apologies and expressions of friendship ; 
but the poet was dead, having expired in his 
native town full of years and honours, sur- 
rounded by his friends and kindred. Firdausi 
died at Tus (now called Mashhad hi> native 
country in a.d. 1020, a.ii. 411, aged 89 years, 
but Etaji Khalfa -ays he died in a.i>. 1025, 
a.h. 416. Besides the Shahnama, he was 
the author of other poems called Abtdt 

Firdausi-al-Thihal ( L-^l 


a Turkish historian, and author of the 
Shahnama, which corn- 

Turkish WOrk railed 

prises the history of all the ami, m kings of 
the East. Bayazld or Baiazet [I. to whom 
tin 1 book was dedicated, ordered the author to 
reduce it from its original bulk oi 300 
volumes to 80. Firdausi however, fell bo 
mortified al this proposal, that he preferred 
leaving the country altogether, and emigrate d 
to Khurasan, in Persia. Firdausi flourif 
in a.d. 1500. 

Firishta (<&£ J), whose proper name 

was Muhammad Qasim, and who was the 
author of the history railed Tarikh-i- Firishta, 
was born at Astrabad on the borders ol the 
Caspian Sea. between the years a.d. 1570 or 
1650, a.h. 978 or 958. His fathi r, a learned 
man, by name "All Hindu Shah, li fl 
his native country when our author was very 
young and travelled into India. He even- 
tually reached Ahmadnagar in the Deccan 
during the reign of Murtaza Nizam Shah I. 
and was appointed by the Sultan to instruct 
his sou Mrran Susain in the Persian Language, 
but he soon died alter his selection, and 
Firishta was left an orphan in early youth. 
After the death of Murtaza Nizam Shall, in 
a.d. 1589, a.h. 996, he proceeded to Blj Spur, 
and was presented by Dilawar Khan, minister 
to Ibrahim 'Adil Shah II. by whose request 
he wrote the history which goes by his name, 
in the year 1023 Hij'ri (a.d. 1614). The year of 
his death is altogether unknown. Briggs 
supposes that it occurred iu a.d. 1612, a.h. 
1021, making him only 41 years of age. 
M. Jules Mohl supposes him to have revised 
his work up to at least a.d. 1623, a.h. 1033, 
making his age not less than 73, as he 
supposes him to have been born in a.d. 1550. 
Firishta styles his work Gulshan-i-Ibrahimi 
and Nauras JS'ania. Its former name is 
derived from the king to whom it was 
dedicated ; and hence it is frequently quoted 
under the name of Tarlkh Ibrahtmi. The 

latter name was given to it in commemoration 
oi the new capital, Nauras, which his patron 
Ibrahim 'Add Shall, commenced building in 
the year a.d. 1599. The j i i — t and second 

1 ks, giving an account ol the Dehli 

emperors down to Akbar, were translated 
into English by Colonel Dow In 1768; the 
history ol thi Deccan by Captain Jonathan 
S u. But the translation oi the entire work by 
<;. neral Briggs in t"iir volumes Bvo., 1829, baa 
according to Elliot thrown others into the 
shade, and i- by tar the nio-t valuable store- 
house of facts connected with Muhammadan 
dynasties "i India. 

[Vtdt Dowson's Elliot, vi. 207.] 


a celebrated Sufi of 

Agra, author of a Persian work on Theology 
called '. /'/.;<(/ Sufia, written in a.d. 16: 
a.h. 1036. 

Firoz I. ( ij-jj) (the Peroses of the 

Greeks), b king oi Persia "i the Sasinian 
race, was the eldest Bon "t Yezdijard II. He 
succeeded his younger brother Eurmuz, 
whom lie dethroned and put to death in a.d. 
s. Be lo-t his Hie in a battle against the 
king ot Transoxiana, alter a reign ol 26 years, 
in a.h. 184. B is or Palas or Balasus, his 
Bon, succeeded him ; and after his death his 
brother Qubad mounted the throne. 

Firozabadi (^jLI ;•---?), surname of 

Maid-uddin Muhammad- bin -'Yaqfib bin- 
Muhammad, a hanied Persian, bo called from 
his birth-place Firozabad, a village in Shiraz. 
The stupendous work called Qdmut oi Qfimus- 
ul-Lughat, renowned as the niost perfect 
Arabic Dictionary, was written by him. Those 
who are acquainted with the peculiarities of 
the Arabic language cannot open this work 
without feeling amazed al the literary services 
rendered by this learned man. lie died a.d. 

1411. A.H. 817. 

[ Vidt Majd-uddin Muhammad-bin- 'Taqub.] 

Firozabadi (^dl^Ut-o), a learned 

Musalman, author of Al Tanbidh, or To/biz, 
or general information on the Muhammadan 

law in the 11th century. Lempriere's Uni- 
versal Dictionary. 

Firoz Jang Khan (^l>- Cjdcj- j i^-i), 

the inscription on the gate of the old fort of 
Patna, dated in the Hijra year 1042 (a.d. 
1633), attributes its erection to Firoz Jang 

Firoz Khan Khwaja Sara ( ,Ul ;,^J 

*!-^s <t-j^»-r^), who held the rank of 
300 in the time of Shahjahan. 




Firoz Mulla (^i^ _.> L,* ji.--.-i), son 

of Kaiis, chiei priest of the Pars! Qadimis of 
Bombay, author of the George Ndma, a 
history of India from its discovery by the 
Portuguese to the conquest of Puna by the 
English in a.d. 1817, a.h 1233. 

Firoz Shah (jLi ;.^i), the son of 

Sallm Shah, was raised to the throne of 
Dehli at Gwaliar after the death of his father 
wh( n he was only about 12 years old. He had 
scarcely reigned "three months (or only 3 days) 
when his mother's brother Mubarik Khan 
murdered him on the 2nd May, a.d. 1554, 
29th Jumada I. a.h. 961, and ascended the 
throne with the title of Muhammad Shah 
'Adil. See Blbl Bai. 

Firoz Shah Bahmani Sultan (;,._^i 

,A.kJ — j ^w*—-^ iL^j), king of the 

Deccan, was the son of Sultan Daud Shah. 
Alter having deposed and confined Sultan 
Shams-uddln, he ascended the throne on the 
loth November, a.d. 1397, a.h. 800, with 
the title of Sultan Firoz Shah Roz Afzun. 
He excelled his predecessors in power and 
magnificence, and in his reign the house of 
Bahmani attained it> l < ati ~t splendour. On 
ascending the throne, he appointed his 
brother Ahmad Khan, Amir-ul-Umra, with 
the title of Khankhanan, and raised Mir 
Faizullah Anju, his preceptor, to the office of 
Wazir-us-Saltanat, with the title of Malik 
Naeb. He reigned 25 years 7 months and 
15 days, and died on the 25th S< pt< mber, 
a.d. 1422, 15th Shawwal, a.h. 825, ten days 
alter resigning his crown in favour of his 
brother Ahmad Khan, who ascended the 
throne with the title of Sultan Ahmad Shah 
Wali Bahmani. 

Firoz Shah Khilji Sultan (,\li ;...J 

i . A n L. 


), surnamed Jalal- 

uddin, son of Qiiem Khan, ascended the 
throne of Dehli after the murder of Sultan 
Muiz-uddin Kaiqubad in a.d. 1282, a.h. 
688. He reigned about 8 years, after which 
he was obliged to go down to Kara Mauikpur 
in the province of Allahabad to punish his 
nephew and son-in-law 'Ala-uddin, the 
governor of that place, who had rebelled 
against him. 'Ala-uddin, hearing of the 
king's departure from Dehli, crossed the 
Ganges and encamped near Manikpur upon 
the opposite bank. When the king reached 
the lauding place, 'Ala-uddin appeared upon 
the bank with his attendants, whom he 
ordered to halt. He advanced alone, met 
his uncle and fell prostrate at his feet. The 
king, taking him by the hand, was leading 
him to the royal barge, when 'Ala-uddin 
made a signal to his guards, and one of his 
officers struck his head off. 'Ala-uddin 
caused it to be fixed on the point of a spear 
and carried through the camp and city. This 
circumstance took place on the 19th Julv, 
a.d. 1296, 17th Bamazan, a.h. 695, and 

'Ala-uddin ascended the throne of Dehli 
with the title of Sikandar Sani ("second 
Alexander"). Firoz Shah was the first Sultan 
of the second branch of the Turko -Afghan 
dynasty called Khilji. 

List of the Kings of the Khilji dynasty. 

1. Firoz Shah ghilji. " 

2. 'Ala-uddin Khilji. 

3. Shahab-uddin Umar. 

4. Mubarik Shah Khilji, the last of this 

dynasty, was murdered in a.d. 1321, 
by Malik Khusro, a favourite slave, 
who ascended the throne, but was soon 
afterwards slain by Ghaias-uddin 
Tughlaq Shah, the first of the 3rd 
branch of Afghan kings of Dehli. 

Firoz Shah Purbi ( ^y i\^ Uj+i), 

a king of Bengal, whose former name was 
Malik A mill, an Abyssinian chief, who after 
killing the eunuch Sultan Shi.hza.da, was 
elevated to the throne of Bengal in a.d. 
1491, a.h. 896, with the title of Firoz Shah. 
He repaired the city of Gour, commonly 
called Lakhnauti, where he gave universal 
satisfaction to all classes of his subjects. He 
died in a.d. 1494, a.h. 899. 

Firoz Shah Tughlaq Sultan (t,.^.i 

.jllaLs /dii" il-i), called Firoz Shah 

Barbak, was the son of Sipahsalar Rajab, 
the brother of Sultan Ghaias-uddin Tughlaq, 
and cousin to Sultan Muhammad Tughlaq, 
whom he succeeded to the throne of Dehli on 
the 20th March, a.d. 1351, 21st Muharram, 
a.h. 752, at Thatta. He was a just and 
learned prince. His soldiers and his subjects 
were equally happy under his administration, 
nor did anyone dare to exercise oppression in 
his time. He was himself the author of the 
work called Fata hat Firoz Shahi, i.e. the 
conquests of FirSz Shah. In August, a.d. 
1387, he abdicated the throne and resigned 
the reins of government to his son Nasir- 
uddiu Muhammad, but the prince giving hims< If 
up entirely to pleasure, was soon after expelled 
and obliged to fly with a small retinue to the 
mountains of Sinndur, and Firoz Shah again 
resumed his full authority. He constructed 
numerous buildings and canals, as also the 
fort of FTrozabad at old Dehli, and after a 
reign of of 38 lunar years and eight mouths, 
died on the 21st September, a.d. 1388, 18th 
Bamazan, a.h. 790, aged upwards of 80 years. 
The words "Waf at Firoz" (the death of F'iroz) 
comprise the numerical letters of the year of 
his demise. He was buried on the banks of 
the Hauz Khas, a tank built by him in old 
Dehli ; and was succeeded by his grandson 
Ghaias-uddin (the son of Fatha Khan) who 
was slain after five months. After him 
another grandson of the late king, named 
Sultan Abu Bakr, the son of Zafar Khan, 
was raised to the throne. He had reigned 
one year and six months, when his uncle 
Nasir-uddln Muhammad Shah, the son of 
Firoz Shah, deposed him and ascended the 
throne of Dehli in August, a.d. 1390. 




Firoz Shall 

one of the 

sons of the ex-king Bahadur Shall II. 
king of Dehli, and one of tin- chief rebels in 
the outbreak of I "•")?. II'- fought the British 
boldly, and for a linn acted with Tantia 
Topiinl85S; so that the British Government 
offered a reward of 10,000 rupees lor his 
apprehension. It was reported in 1864 that he 
had made his appearance in theSeronj Jungles. 
Some Arabs who arrived at Haidarabad in 
1866 reported that they had seen him in 
Arabia, and supporting himself by begging 
among the rich merchants. [Since this was 
written nothing more has been heard of 
this Prince.] 

Fitrat (ti^iaJ), the poetical name of 

Mir Moiz-uddin Muhammad Muswi Khan, 
a mansabdar in the time of 'Alamgir employed 
as Diwan of Suba Behax. Ee was a Sayyad 

and lineal descendant of 'All Musi Baza. He 
subsequently chose lor his poetical name, 
Muswi. He was horn in Persia in A..D. 1640, 
a. ii. 1050, and came to India, where he was 
much esteemed for his talents as a pool and a 
critic. He is tin author of a Tazkira or 
biography called Grulskan-i-Fitrat, also oi a 
Diwan. He died in a.d. 1600, A.n. 1100. 

[Vide Muswi.] 

Furati ( JUi). 
Furqati ( ^Ji _ 

Fids Mulla Furitl. 

), whose proper name 
He died in the 

Lira Turab, was a poet. 

year a.d. 1617, a.h. 1026. 

Fursat (w^-.^.i), poetical title of 

Muhammad Beg, a poet, who was in the 
Bervice oi Shah 'Abbas II. and died under 
Shah Bulaiman, kings of Persia. He has 
left a Diwan of Ghazals. 

Fursi (^ji), poetical title of Ilusain 

All Shah, author of the Kubat Noma Shah- 
raiari, a history oi the Qutbshahi dynasty 
of Golkanda in 18,600 verses, from its com- 
mi mi in, nt to Muhammad Quli Qutbshah, who 
died in a.d. 1612, a.h. 1021. 

Fuzail Ayaz CjoLc 


a pious 

Musalman, whose native country was either 
Kuta. Khurasan, orSamarqand. He received 
instructions from [mam Ja'far Sadiq, and 
was tin masti r oi Bishr Bafi and Sari Saqta. 

Hi- suddi nly fill down and died at the time 

of prayers at Mecca in January, a.d. 803, 
Muharrani, a.h. 1ST. 




Gaj Singh Rathor (,»J), iS~-~~ > ^ 

< . S 

<LJs>U_^_sr), a Raja of Marwar or 

Jodpur of the tribe of Rathor rajputs, was 
the son of Suraj Singh and the father of 
Jaswant Singh. He reigned about 18 years 
and died in the year a.d. 1630, in Gujrat. 
The building called Kala Mahal at Pipal 
Mandi in Agrah, was constructed by him. 
His son Amar Singh killed Salahnt Khan. 
Sultan Panvez married Gaj Singh's sister in 
a d. 1624, and Sulaiman Shikoh, the son of 
Sultan Parwez, married the daughter of Gaj 
Singh in the year a.h. 1065. 

Gakkhar (^XO, a tribe whose resi- 
dence is amongst the mountains that lie between 
Bhat and Siudh. 

[ Vide Kamal Khan Gikhar.] 

Ganga Bai ( J}{j \L£), Rani of Jhansi 

and widow of Raja Gangadkar Rao. At the 
outbreak of 1S57 she joined the rebels, and 
was the cause of the massacre at Jhansi. She 
was killed in the battle of Gwaliar on the 
17th June, 1858. She fell with her horse, 
and was cut down by a Hussar ; she still 
endeavoured to get over, when a bullet struck 
her in the breast, and she fell to rise no 
more. The natives hastily burnt her dead 
body to save it from apprehended desecration 
by "the Firingis on the night of the 17th 
and 18th. 

Ganna Begam (Xj l^f ). Vide Gunna 



Gajpati (^J^^), a Raja of Jagclespiir 

in south Bihar, who, with his brother Bairi 
Sal, during the reign of the emperor Akbar, 
defied the Mughal armies for several years, 
though the unequal combat led to " their 

Garshasp (^Jj^S), an ancient king 
of Persia. Vide Karshasp. 

Gashtasp (, 


i ) was, according 

to Persian history, the son of Lohrasp, and 
the filth king of the Kaianian dynasty of 
Persia. In his time flourished Zardasht or 
Zoroaster, who converted the Persians to the 

worship of fire. Gashtasp, it is said, reigned 
60 years, and was succeeded by Bahman his 
grandson, whose father Isfandaiar (q.v.) was 
a great warrior and was killed by Rustam 
some time before. He is supposed to have 
been the Darius Hystaspes of the Greek 

George Thomas (^^IL ^-jlsj-). The 

district of Harriana was once the field of the 
exploits of this famous adventurer. The Jats 
are a stalwart and brave race, and showed 
what they could do under his leadership, 
though when left to themselves they were 
so divided by factions, that Harriaua has 
always yielded to every adventurer who had 
been aide to attack them. Thus it was over- 
run by the Mahrattas, under Messrs. Bourquin 
and Perron, by the Rohillas under Amir 
Khan, and another leader, and finally by the 
British. George Thomas came out to India 
as a common seaman, and having deserted 
his ship first took service with Madho Rao 
Sindhia about the year a.d. 1782. The 
famous Begam Samru of Sirdhana was then 
in the zenith of her power, and he left 
Sindhia to serve her. Shortly after, having 
collected a body of men, he left her, and 
marched down to Harriana, and in no time 
carved out a kingdom for himself. He made 
the city of Hausi his capital and built a 
strong "fort in it. He built another fort 
about 20 miles to the south of the town of 
Rohtak, and called it after his own Christian 
name Georgegarh, which (perhaps from his 
maritime origin) the natives call Jahajgarh, 
or "ship-castle." After a few years the 
Mahrattas under Louis Bourquin invaded his 
territories. He hastened to give them battle, 
and throwing himself into the small fort of 
Jahajgarh, he fought them for three days, 
though his force was infinitely smaller than 
theirs. His cavalry, which was composed 
principally of Raughars, having gone over 
to the enemy, and his Lieutenant, an English- 
man of the name of Hopkins, being killed, 
his troops at length gave way, and he fled on 
a favourite Arab horse to Hansi, a distance 
of about 60 miles. Bourquin assaulted the 
city and Thomas, after a defence of some 
weeks, gave himself up, and was allowed to 
join the British Brigade at Anupshahr. De- 
parting thence, in charge of a Capt. Francklin, 
he died on his way down the river, as he was 
seeking to return to Europe by way of 
Calcutta. His great-granddaughter was the 
wife of a writer on a" humble salary (1867) 
in one of the Government offices in Agra. 




There is a Life of George Thomas, written 
by Francklin, of which a copy is to 1"' Been 
in the Dehli institute Library. [See Keene's 
Fall of the Mughal Empire, part iii. ch. ii. 

Gesu Daraz (j^j y^)- Vide Mu- 
hammad Gesu Daraz. 

Ghaeb (^_^j\i), a poet who died in 
a.d. 1750, a.h. 1163. 

Ghafil (^M S\ JiU), a poet of 


Ghairat Khan (^U» ^JjJ), title of 

Khwaja Kangar, the nephew of 'Abdullah 
Khan, Firoz Jang and boh of Sardar Khan. 
In the year a.d. 1631, he brought the bead 
of Khan Jahan Jodito Shah Jahan, and was 
raised to the rank of 2000 with the title of 
Ghairat Khan. He died in a.h. 1640, a ii. 
1050, at Thafta of which place he \\as 
governor. lie is the author oi the Jahangir 

Ghalib (c^JLc), the poetical title 

assumed by Muhammad Sa'd, author of a 
Diwan which he completed in the year a.d. 
1690, a.h. 1101. 

Ghalib (c_^JLi), the poetical name of 

Mir Fakhr-uddin, author of a book oi (Jasidas 
which he finished in the 6th year oi Muhammad 
Shah the emperor of Dehli, a.d. 1734, a.h. 

Ghalib (UU), poetical title of Shaikh 

Asad-ullah, son of the sister of Shaikh 
Muhammad Aizal of Allahabad. lie died 

in a.d. 1750, a.h. 1163. 

Ghalib (» -!li), poetical name of Mirza 

Asad-ullah Khan, author of a Diwan, and a 
history of the Mughal emperors of India. He 
was the son of 'All Bakhsh Khan, the brother 
of Nawab Ahmad Bakhsh Khan of Firozpur 

and Lohiiri. He died at Dehli in the month 
of February or March, a.d. 1869, a.d. 1285. 

Ghani ( ^-i), the poetical name of 

Mirza 'Muhammad Tahir. He is commonly 
called Ghani Kashmiri on account of his 
being a native of Kashnnr. He was a 
pupil of Shaikh Muhsin-FanI, whom he 
excelled in his learning and became an 
elegant poet. He wrote a book of Odes 
called I) i wan Ghani, and died in Kashmir 
two years before his master a.d. 1668, a.h. 
1079. It is said that the emperor 'Alamgir 
wrote to Saif Khan the governor of Kashmir 
to send Ghani to his presence. Ghani refused 
to go, telling him at the same time to inform 
the emperor that Ghani had become insane 
and was not worthy to be sent to his presence. 

Sail' Khan said that In- could li"t call a 

man like him mad; upon which « . . ; 1 1 1 

immediately really wenl mad. tore his 

and died after three days. He was a young man 

at tin- time of his death, having -enjoyed a 
brilliant reputation foi poetical excellence lor 
about eighteen years. 1 1 « - sometimes uses 
Tahir for his poetical name. 

Ghani Bahadur ( ,jLj ^i), son of 

Shamsher Bahadur I. ami younger brother of 
' A 1 i Bahadur, the Nawab oi Bauda. 

[ Vide -All Bahadur.] 

Ghanimat (i^v*-Xc), poetical name of 

Muhammad Akram, author oi a short Diwan 
and a Masnawi containing an account oi the 
Loves oi A/I/ and Shahid, called Nairang 

Ishq, composed in the reign of 'Alan,. 

Gharib (**_— _' .~z), poetical name of 

Shaikh Nasir-uddin oi Dehli. He is the 
author of a Diwan in Persian. 

Gharib (, — o_i), poetical name of 
Sayyad Karim-ullah of Bilgrfim. 


i^5 J ' - AV A 

Ghasiti Begam (au.*\ 
aJL*-.'), the wife of Sh.aha.mat Jang, 

and Amina Begam, the mother oi Nawab 
Siraj-uddaula, were daughters oi Nawab 
Mahabal Jang "i Bengal; they were drowned 

in the river, dose to Jahangirnagar, by order 
oi Mlian tip -in oi Nawab Ja'far 'Ali Khan, 
in June, a.d. 1760. 

Ghaus Muhammad Khan (d,>»_i 

*Uu Sas''*\ whose title is Mohta- 

shim-uddaula. was {1870) Nawab of Jiiwara. 
Ghaus-ul-'Alam (*.!l_*J! Cj*-£), 

famous Sufi. 

Vale Muhammad Ghaus of 


Ghaus-ul-'Azim (, U. *»W c^»_~), 

title of the Muhammadan saint 'Abdul Qadir 

Ghauwasi (^JJj ^^i), of Yezd, a 

poet, whose proper name is Izz-uddin. He 
is said to have composed 100,000 verses. 
This fertile poet, in a work which he wrote 
in a.d. 1543, a.h. 950, says: "The poetry 
which I have written amounts to 1,950 books." 
He made 500 versi s a day, and it would 
appear that he put the Eauzat-ush-Shohada, 
the history of Tabari, the legends of the 
Prophets, Kaleila-wa-Damna, and the Medical 
work called Zakh'ra Khwarizm Shahi, and 
many other works into verse. He died in 
a.d. 1553, a.h. 960, at an age of more than 
one hundred years. 




Ghayas Halwai (^^.Ls*. LlA--c), of 

Shiraz, was blind and died by a fall from 
the terrace of a house in the time of Shah 
Sail. He is the author of a Diwaii. 

Ghayas-uddin (,.j^\ luLc\ author 

of a Persian Dictionary called Ghayas-ul- 
Litghlt. Vide Muhammad Ghayas-uddin. 

Ghayas - uddin Bahmani (Sultan) 

(^IkLs (A^^ c ; : '.^^ ti->Li), the 

eldest son of Sultan Mahmud Shall I. He 
ascended the throne of the lKecan in his 
seventeenth year, alter the death of his father 
in April, a.d. 1397. He had reigned 
only one month and twenty days, when 
Lalchin, one of the Turkish slaves, not 
being appointed prime minister — to which 
office he had aspired— put out his eyes with 
the point of his dagger, and having sent him 
in confinement to the fortri ss of Sagar, placed 
Shams-uddm, the late king's brother, on the 
throne. This circumstance took place on 
the 14th June, a.d. 1397, 17th Ramazan, 
a.h. 799. 

Ghayas-uddin Balban (Sultan)(,^_;Li 

^li^Lj (j«-<Ju (.t-jaJ^), king of Dehll. 

In his vouth he was sold as a slave to Sultan 
Altimsh, who raised him by degrees to the 
rank of a noble, and gave him his daughter 
in marriage. On the accession of his son 
Nasir-uddin Mahmud to the throne of Dehll. 
Ghayas-uddin was appointed his wazir. Alter 
the king's deposa] or death in February, a.d. 
1266, a.h. 664, he ascended the throne and 
reigned 20 years. He died in a.d. 12s6, 
a.h. 6S5, aged 80 years, and was succeeded 
by his grandson Moiz-uddin Kaiqubad, the 
son of Nasir-uddin Baghra Khan, governor 
of Bengal, who was then absent in that 

Ghayas-uddin Kart I. (Malik) (i^>Li 

0, fourth king of 

SL. ^< 

. t-J -S- 

J~ is- 

the race of Kart or Kard. He succeeded his 
brother Malik Fakhr-uddln Kart in a.d. 1307. 
a.h. 706, reigned more than 21 years over 
Herat, Balgh, and Ghazni, and died in the 
year a.d. 1329, a.h. 729. He was suc- 
ceeded by his son Malik Shams-uddin Kart. 

Ghayas - uddin Kart II. (Malik) 

( ^SL* uiji ,.j jj! i±A-i), the eighth 

and last kin? of the dynasty of Kart or Kard. 
He succeeded his father or grandfather Moiz- 
uddin Husain Kart in a.d. 1370, a.h. 771, 
and reigned 12 years over Herat, Ghor, 
Sarakhsh, and Naishapur, and conquered Tas 
and Jam. He was a great tyrant, and had 
several battles with the Sarbadals of Sabzwar 
and the chiefs of Jam Qurbani. In the year 

a.d. 1381, a.h. 783, Amir Taimur (Tamerlane) 
con uered Herat, when Ghayas-uddin, together 
with his sou and brother, were taken prisoners 
and put to death. This dynasty lasted one 
hundred and nineteen lunar years aud two 

Ghayas-uddin Khilji (Sultan) (^iA»i. 

^ILLj ic?- iji*^ succeeded his 

father Sultan Mahmud Khilji on the throne 
of Gujrat in May, a.d. 1469, Zi-Qa'da, a.h. 
873. When he had reigned 33 years and 
arrived at an advanced age, his two sons 
anxiously looked for his death as an event 
which would secure to one of them the throne 
of Malwa ; a jealousy arose between the two 
brothers, who conspired against each other, 
till Nasir-uddin, the eldest, bavin? put his 
brother, Shuja'at Khan to death on the 22nd 
October, a.d. 1500, 24th Rabi II. a.h. 
906, assumed the reins of government. A 
few days alter, his lather was found dead in 
the Seraglio : and it was supposed that poison 
had been administered to him by his son. 

Ghayas-uddin Mahmud ( jjJI uijLi 

J»^s*), the son of Ghayas-uddin 

Muhammad Ghori, succeeded his uncle 
Shahab-uddln in the kingdom of Ghor 
and Ghazni in a.d. 120.5, a.h. 602. He 
reigned about four years, and was assassinated 
by the people of Mahmud All Shah on 
Saturday night, the 31st July, a.d. 1210, 7th 
Safar, a.h. 607. He was at first buried at 
Firo'. Koh, but was afterwards transported to 
Herat and buried there. He was succeeded 
by his son Baha -uddin Sam, who was after 
three months defeated by 'Ala-uddiu Atsiz 
(son of Ala-uddiu Hasan surnamed Jahan 
Soz) who reigned in Ghdr and Ghazni for 
four years, and fell in battle against Malik 
Nasir-uddin Husain Amir Shikar in the year 
a.d. 1214, a.h. 611. After his death Ala- 
uddin Muhammad, son of Abu All, cousin of 
Malik Ghayas-uddin Muhammad, was raised 
to the throne by Taj -uddin Elduz. 

Ghayas-uddin Mahmud Ghori (i^?Li 

l/,»_c ±.*-<?* .,—JjJi), the son of 

Ghayas-uddin Muhammad Ghori, and nephew 
of Shahab-uddln Muhammad Ghori, whom he 
succeeded to the throne of Ghor and Ghazni 
in a.d. 1206. Mahmud being naturally 
indolent, remained satisfied with the throne 
of (jh° r < aQ d proclaimed Taj-uddin Elduz, 
king of Ghazni. He died in a.d. 1210. 

Ghayas - uddin 

Muhammad Ghori 
Li.), king of 

GliSr and Ghazni, was the son of Baha-uddin 
Sam, the youngest brother of Ala-uddin 
Hasan Ghori. He succeeded to the throne of 
Gh5r and Ghazni after the death of his cousin 
Malik Saif-uddin, the son of the latter, about 




the year A.n. 1157, and conferred the 
government of Ghazni on his brother 
Shahab-uddln surnamed Mo'iz-uddlu Muham- 
mad ; this illustrious general subdued 
Khurasan and a great part of India in tin- 
name of his brother Ghayas-uddin, who 
annexed those countries to Ids own dominions. 
Ghayas-uddin died on Wednesday the L2th 
March, a.d. 1203, '27th Jumada I. a.m. 
5!)9, and was succeeded by his brother 

Ghayas-uddin Muhammad (Sultan) 
(jjIkLd aa^st* i^JJ^ C_A-x), the son 

of Malik Shah of the Saljuk dynasty. In 
the time of his eldest brother Kirkayaraq the 
empire was divided, Barkayaraq retaining 
Persia; Ghayas-uddln Muhammad, Syria 
and Azurbejan : and Sultan Sanjar, Khurasan 
and Mawarunnahr. lie reigned about the 
year a.d. L095. 

[ Vide Muhammah (Sultan.)] 

Ghayas-uddin Purbi ( ,jjj| l >■_ \ A • 

, ,_j,o) succeeded his father Sikandar 

Purbi on the throne of Hi iu I in A.n. 136", 
a. ii. 775, reigned Eor a period <>i si yen y< are, 
and died iu 1373. lie was succeeded by bis 
son Sultan-U8-Salatin. 

Ghayas - uddin Tughlak Shah I. 

(Sultan) (JbL> jlkJ ^oJl CljUj:), 

king of Dehli also known as Ghazi Malik). 
His lather Tughlaq was a slave of Sultan 
Ghayas-uddin Kalinin. He ascended the 
throne of Dehli after murdering Khusro Shah 
on the 26th August, a.d. 1321, 1st Shaban, 
a.h. 721, reigned three years and some 
months, and was crushed to death by the 
fall of a temporary wooden building which his 
sou had raised for his entertainment on his 
return from Laklmautl in February, A.D. 
132o, Rabi' I. A.n. 725. His sou Muham- 
mad Tukhlaq succeeded him. The celebrated 
poet Amir Khusro of Dehli, who lived to 
the end of this king's reign and received a 
pension of 1000 tangas monthly, wrote the 
history of this prince under the title of 
Tughlaq Nama. Ghayas-uddin was the first 
king of the 3rd branch of the Afghan dynasty 
which is called Tughlaq Shahi. The follow- 
ing is a list of the Sultans of this branch : — 

1. Ghayas-uddin Tughlaq I. Mahmud Shah 

Tughlaq, last of this family, expelled by 
Amir Taimur. 

2. Muhammad Shah Tughlaq I. 

3. Firoz Shah Tughlaq. 

4. Ghayas-uddin Tughlaq II. 

5. Ahu'Bakr Shah. 

6. Muhammad Shah Tughlaq II. Ala-uddln 

Sikandar Shah. 

7. Nasrat Khan. 

8. Mahmud Shah. 

9. Ikhal Khan Mahmud Fhan restored a.d. 


Ghayas-uddin Tughlak II. (Sultan) 
(^jllaLi J^*j' ■.»£«*)! fciA*c) was the 

! of prince Fath i Khan ami grandson of 
Firoz Shah Tughlaq. lie ascended the 
throne in place ol Firoz Shah in l),hli on 
tl" death ui bis grandfather in a.d. 1388, 
a.h. 790, hut giving loose to his youthful 
passions, and neglecting the affaire of the 
State, the chiefs together with the household 
troops n volted, and put him to d( ath on the 
19th February, a.d. 1389, 21>t Safar a.h. 
791, alter he had reigned >i\ months. Ee 
was succeeded by hi- cousin Abu liakr 
Tughlaq the bod oi prince Zaiar Khan, the 

third sou ot Firoz Shah. 

Ghazali ( \\'A\ Vide Ghazzall. 

Ghazan Khan (^Ul J Li), seventh 

king ot Persia of the Tartar tribe and fourth 
in descent from Halaku Khan, was the boh of 
Arghun Khan. He succeeded to the crown 
ot Persia after the dethronement oi Baidu 
Khan liis ancle in October, a.d. 1 _".<">, 
/il-hijja, a.h. 094. Hi was the second 
emperor ol the rare of Changez Khan who 
embraced the religion of Muhammad, and 
with him mar one hundred thousand of Ins 
followers followed their leader into the pale 
of Islam. lit was the first oi this race of 
kings who threw off all allegiance to the 
Khaqan of Tartary, by directing that the 
name of that monarch whom he now deemed 
to be an infidel] should no! in future be 
struck on the coins oi Persia. After 
embracing Muhammadanism, be took the 
title of Sultan Mahmud. lie reigned nearly 
nine years and died on Sunday the 17th May, 
a.d. 1304, 11th Shawwal, a.h. 703. at 
Qazwin; he was interred in a superb mosque 
which he had constructed near Tanris or 
Tabrez. IK' was succeeded by his brother 
Aljaitu, who took the title oi Muhammad 
Khnda Kanda. 

Ghazanfar Khan Col«rf» JL,*ii), son 

of Alawardi Khan I. and brother of Alawardi 
Khan II. a nobleman of the reign of Shah 
Jahan and 'Alamgir. He was three times 
at different periods appointed governor of 
Saharanpur and afterwards ot ThaJJa in Sindh, 
where he died on the 1st May, a.d. 1666, 17th 
Zi-Qa'da, a.h. 1077. His remains were 
brought to Dehli and buried there. 

Ghazi (^li), the poetical title of a 

person who served as Kiirbegi under the 
prince Sultan Muhammad Muazzim the son 
of the emperor 'Alamgir. 

Ghazi (t_cjli), or Al-GhazI, the son of 

Ortak, the first of the Turkman Ortakite 
princes who seized Jerusalem and reigned in 




Hardin and Miafarkin in Syria. The follow- 
ing were Ms descendants : — 

A.D. A.H. 

Husani-uddin Taimurtash, son of 

Alghazi, began to reign . . 1122 516 

Najm-uddin Abu'l Muzaffar Albi 

or Alpi, son of Taimurtash . 1152 547 

Qutb-uddin AlghazT, son of Albi. 1176 572 

Husam-uddin Yulak Arsalan, the 

son of Qutb-uddin .... 1184 580 

Malik Almansur Nasir-uddin 
Ortak Altaian, son of Qutb- 
uddin 1201 597 

Malik -us- Said Najm-uddin 
Ghazi, son of Nasir-uddin 
Ortak 1239 637 

Malik-ul-Mazaffar Qara. Arsalan, 

son of Najm-uddin .... 1255 653 

Shams-uddin Daud 1291 691 

Malik - a 1 - Mansur Najm - uddin 

Ghazi 1293 693 

Albi Malik-ul-Adil Tniad-uddin 

'Ali 1312 712 

Malik -us- Salah Shams-uddin 
Salah, the last prince of this 
race 1312 712 

Ghazi-uddin Haidar ( ._jjj^ c_?°,^-J 
.J^^-), the eldest of the ten sons of 

Nawab Sa'adat 'Ali Khan of Audh. On 
his father's death, which took place on the 
11th July, a.d. 1814, 22nd Rajab, a.h. 
1229, he succeeded to his dominions as 
Nawab Wazir, and five years alter, assumed, 
with the concurrence of the British Govern- 
ment, the regal dignity. His coronation 
took place on Saturday the 9th October, a.d. 
1819, 18th Zil-bijja, a.h. 1234, at Lucknow, 
when he took the title of Abu'l Muzaffar 
Maiz -uddin Shah Zaman Ghazi-uddin Haidar 
Padshah. On ascending the first step of the 
throne, the minister delivered to him a crown, 
studded with diamonds and jewels of great 
value. He then put it on his head and was 
congratulated on the occasion by the Resident, 
who saluted him as king of Audh. Jewels 
and pearls to the value of 30,000 rupees were 
then scattered over the heads of the spectators, 
many of which were picked up by English 
ladies. Ghazi-uddTn Haidar died after a reign 
of more than 13 years, on the 19th October, 
a.d. 1827, 27th Rabi' I. a.h. 1243, aged 58 
lunar years, and was succeeded by his son 
Sulaiman Jah Nasir-uddin Haidar. 

Ghazi-uddin Khan I. ( , r jjJ^ ,_c :Li 


L-X.-.=>- ) % r^' 3 ^^-l styled Fir 

Jang, whose original name was Mir Shahab- 
uddin, was the son of Kulich Khan Sadr-us- 
Stidur. and was raised w the rank of an Amir 
with the title of Firoz Jang, after his father's 
death, by the emperor 'Alamgir in a.d. 1687, 
a.h. 1098. His son was the famous Nizam- 
ul-Mulk 'Asaf Jah whose descendants are 
known to Europeans as Nizams of the Deccan. 
In the reign of Bahadur Shah he was 
appointed governor of Gujrat, and died at 

Ahmadabad in a.d. 1710, a.h. 1122. His 
remains were transported to Dehli, and 
interred in the yard of the college built by 
him outside the Ajmiri Gate. 

Ghazi-uddin Khan II. ( . r .jJkJ^ ^:Lc 

\-,-ti\ J-*-*' cA-=*-), Amir-ul-Umra, 

also styled Firoz Jang, was the eldest son of 
the celebrated Nizam-ul-Mulk 'Asaf Jah. 
He was elevated to the rank of Amir-ul- 
Umra after the death of Khan Dauran, and 
departure of Nadir Shah to Persia, iu a.d. 
1739, a.h. 1152, by the emperor Muhammad 
Shah. Some years after the death of his 
father, when his brother Niisir Jang, who 
had succeeded him, died in the Deccan, he 
proceeded from Dehli to regain his possessions 
in that country, but died on his way at 
Aorangabad on the 16th October, a.d. 1752, 
7th Zil-bijja, a.h. 1165 (new style). His 
remains were brought to Dehli and buried 
there. After bis death the office of Amir-ul- 
Umra was conferred on his son Shahab-uddin 
with the title of 'Imad-ul-Mulk Ghazi-uddin 

Ghazi-uddin Khan III. ( ^jjJI ±S'\^- 

j-V-i «-£-"• i ^y-^-\ Amir-ul-Umra, 

styled 'Imad-ul-Mulk, was the son of Ghazi- 
uddin Khan Firoz Jang, the son of Nizam- 
ul-Mulk 'Asaf Jah. His original name was 
Shahab-uddin, but after the death of his 
father in a.d. 1752, a.h. 1165, he was, by 
the recommendation of Nawab Safdar Jang, 
wazir, appointed Amir-ul-Umra, by the 
emperor Ahmad Shah of Dehli with the title 
of 'Imad-ul-Mulk GhazT-uddin Khan. This 
is that Ghazi-uddin Khan, who afterwards 
became wazir, imprisoned and blinded his 
master the emperor Ahmad Shah, and 
assassinated 'Alamgir II. His wife was the 
celebrated Ganna, or Gunna (q.v.), Begam, 
who died in the year a.d. 1775, a.h. 1189. 
The year of Ghazi-uddin Khan's death is 
unknown, but according to the biography of 
the poet called Gulzar Ibrahim, he was living 
in a.d. 1780, a.h. 1194, in straitened circum- 
stances. His poetical name was Nizam. Ac- 
cording to the work called Mdsir-ul- Umra, 
he went to the Deccan a.d. 1773, a.h. 1187, 
and received a jagir in Malwa ; subsequently 
he proceeded to Surat and passed a few years 
with the English, and thence on a pilgrimage 
to Mecca. He composed Persian and Raikhta 
poetry, and left Arabic aud Turkish Ghazals 
and a thick Persian Diwan and a Masnawi in 
which the miracles of Maulana Fakhr-uddin 
are related. Some say he died at Kalpi, a.d. 

[Vide Jour. As. Soe. Bmg. 1879.] 
Ghaznawi ( -jjji). Vide Muhammad 

Khan (Mir). 

Ghazni ( JLc), Kings of. Vide 




Ghazzal (,j\jJ) (a seller of thread), 

title of Wasil-bin-'Ata, a celebrated Masai- 

man doctor who was thus surnamed. 

Ghazzal (JUc). Vide Wasil. 


>U JlU), 


Ghazali (Imam Ahmad), younger brother of 
Imam Muhammad Ghazzali. He v 
doctor of the sect of Shafa'I, and died al 
Qazwin in the year a.d. 1123, a.ii. 517, but 
according to Ibn Khallikan iu a.h. 620, 
corresponding with a.d. 1126. 

Gliazzali (s.. 


»t.t , JU 


Ghazali (Imam Muhammad , who is also 
entitled Hujjat-ul-Islam, is the surname of 
Ahu Hamid Muhammad Zain-uddln-al-TusI, 
one of the greatest and most celebrated 
Musalman doctors, and author of a treatise 
on the different classes of science which 
concern religion, called, Kimiae Sa'adat, and 
many other works such as the Yakut-ut- 
T'unh, aNo called Tufxir hi icuhir-ul- Quran, 
Akaed Ghazzali, Ahia-ul-'Ulum, and Tuhfat- 
-ul-Filasafa. He was horn in the year a.d. 
1058, a.ii. 45i), in a village called Ghazzala 
or Ghazali, in Tiis, whence he and his 
brother derived their names of Ghazzali. He 
died on the 18th December, a.d. 1111,4th 
Jumada II. a.h. 505, aged r>o lunar years. 
Some authors say that bis name should be 
spelt Ghazali and not Ghazzali, but the 
following verses from the Mukhbir-ul- 
\YasilIn confirm the latter. 





Jlc A^^jj 

He is said to have written ninety-nine works, 
mostly in Arabic, a few in Persian. 

Gliazzali (Maulana) (U' 


of Tiis or Mashhad, the royal poet. He 
mentions in one of his Qasidas named Rauzat- 
us-Safd, that be was born in the year a.d. 
1524, a.h. 930. He first came from Mashhad 
his native country to the Deccau, where being 
disappointed in his prospects, be went over to 
Jaunpiir, and was employed for some years 
by Khan Zaman 'AH Quli Khan, governor 
of that province, during which time be wrote 
a poem called Naqsh BadVa, for which be 
received from bis patron a piece of gold for 
each couplet. Afer tbe death of Khan Zaman, 
who was slain in battle against tbe emperor 
Akbar in a.d. 1568, a.h. 975, be fell into 
tbe bands of that monarch, who took him 
into his service, and conferred on him the 
title of Malik-ush-Shua'ra, or tbe King of 
poets. He was the first poet that was 
honoured with this title in India. He accom- 
panied his royal master to the conquest of 

Gujrat, and died there oi venereal disease, on 
Friday the 5th December, a.d. 1572, 27th 
Rajab, a.h. 980. He is buried al Ahmada- 
bad, Gujrat, at a place called Barkij. He is 
also the author oi a Diwan, and three 
Masnawis or poem-, containing ' from 40 to 
50,00o v( rees ; their titles are : Kitab Asrar, 
Eishahdt-ul-Saidt and Mirat-ul-Kaendt. 

Ghulam Ahia ( \ 

,Li.), author of 

an Arabic work on Logic, which goes after 
hi- name. It- marginal notes written by 
anothi r author are called Shamt-ue-Zuha 

Ghulam 'Ali (^1- ^JU), author of the 

work called ShaA 'Alam Noma, a history of 
the reign oi the emperor Shah 'Alam, who 
died in a.d. 1806, a.h. 1221. 

Ghulam 'Ali Khan (^U- Ac Ac), 

author of the Lama'at-ut-lBhirm, a pane- 
gyric "ii the actions of Muhammad, and a 

number ot mystical poems, dedicated to the 
emperor 'Alamgir. 

Ghulam 'Ali, Mir (jtjT^, J^z *lz), 
a pot t whose poetical title is 'A/Ad, which see. 

Ghulam Husain Klian (^.^^2- aJLc 

ijl>-), author of the Persian History 

of Bengal called Eayaz-ussalatin, which be 
wrote about the year a.d. 1780, at the 
request oi Mr. Geo • Oclney oi Malwa. lie 
was a learned and respectable character, once 
of great consequence, and afterwards a 
member oi the native court of judicature 
under the Nawab 'Ali Ibrahim Khan. 

Ghulam Husain Khan, NawahSayyad 

( jj LLr Us A-.-- ^__- \y ^ :>- ,^~^- fie ) , 

surnamed Tiba Tibai, son of Hidayat 'Ali 
Khan, Bahadur Asad Jang, author of a 
Persian work called Siar-ul-Mutak£irin 
written in the year a.d. 1780, a.h. 1194, 
and translated soon alter iuto English by a 
French Creole, named Raymond, calling 
himself " Haji Mustafa." He is also author 
of a Poem entitled BasMrat-ul-Imanat. He 
was a client of M. Raza Khan [q.v.). 

Ghulam Imam Shahid, Maulana 

{\>$y Juy-i A^ Ac), a poet who 

is the author of a Persian Diwan, and of a 
celebrated Qasida comprising the dispute 
between Love and Beauty. His poetical title 
is Shabed and he is living still, a.d. 1879. 

Ghulam Muhammad Khan ( &is?* Ac 

i^lrO, present Nawab of the Karnatic, 

whose title is Amir -ul -Hind \Yala Jab 
Umdat-ul-Umra Mumtaz-ul-MumaMik. 




Gliulam Muhammad Khan, Nawab 

ullah Khan 



:* *U). VuleFaiz- 

Gliulani Muhammad (Prince) (*Li. 


.>_*- st*), grandson of Tippu Sultan, 

was installed as a Knight Commander of the 
Star of India on the 2 7th February, a.d. 
1871. Seventy-two years before he was a 
prisoner in the hands of the English, and 

since then a recipient of the highest honours. 
lie died in Calcutta on the night of the 11th 
August, 1»72, aged 78 years. 

Ghulam Qadir Khan ( \£. .j'J *li), 

son of Zabita Khin, and grandson of Najib- 
uddaula, the Rohila chief. This is that 

traitor who, alter extorting as much money as 
he could from hi> royal master, the emperor 
Shall -Alam of Dehli, ordered his Rohilas to 
pluck out his eyes from their sockets and 
placed lied tr IJiklit. son of Ahmad Shah 
and grandson of .Muhammad Shah, on the 
throne. This tragic scene happened on the 
10th August, a.d. 17SS, 7th Zil-Qa'da, 
a.h. 1202. After this, the traitor endeavoured 
to make his retreat to his own territory 
Ghousgarh, but was pursued by the Mahrattas 
who took him prisoner, cut off his ear-, uose, 
arms, and legs, and in this mutilated state he 
was sent to Dehli ; but died on the road in 
the month of December the same j 
Rabi I. 1203. His tomb is in Aul, 
Parganna Furrah, Zila Agra. 

[ Vide Keene's Fall of the Mughal Empire.] 

Gliulam Qutb-uddin Shah ( 

;*\i\ «U1 ali ,.+jd\), of Allahabad, 


li U «' «^1 OW { j-.-^ 

whose poetical name is Musibat, was the son 
of Shiih Muhammad Fakhir. He was an 
elegant poet eminently learned and accom- 
plished, and is the author of a work called 
Nan Qalia (Cakes and Steaks) which he 
wrote in answer to a work eutited Nan Ilahca 
(Cakes and Pudding) . He was born on the 
29th August, o.s. 1725, 1st Maharram, a.d. 
1138, went on a pilgrimage to Mecca, and 
died there 

in the year a.d. 1773-4, a.h. 

9 * * 

Ghunchacha-i-Umaid (jw«l 4^-*^), 


(i.e. a small bud of hope), was one of the 
wives of Uinar Shaikh Mirza, the son of 
Sultan Abu Sa'id Mirza, and mother of Nasir 
Mirza and Mahd Bfmo Begam. She was a 
native of Andjan. 

Gilan Shah. Vide Kabus. 

Girami (^-^.f ), the poetical name of 

a poet whose Diwan was found in the Library 
of Tipu Sultan. 

Girdhar Das (^Jjy^.jf ), f Dehli, 

author of the history of Ram, entitled 
Ramayan, translated from the Sanskrit in 
a.d. 1722. This is a very celebrated Hindi 
poem, containing the exploits of the famous 
demigod Ram, who reigned over India for 
many years. His capital was at Audh, and 
his conquests extended to Ceylon, where the 
chain of rocks which nearly unite that island 
to the continent is still called Ram's Bridge. 
Besides this, there are two other Ramayans, 
one translated by TulshT Das in the Bhakha 
dialect, and another by Khushtar in Urdu. 

Girdhar Singh U£x«> JbJ^), or Gird- 
har Bahadur, a Rajput chief who was 
governor of Malwa in the reign of the 
emperor Muhammad Shah, and fell in battle 
against the Peshwa BajT Rao's officers in 
a.d. 1729. His nephew, Daya Ram, who 
succeeded him, and had opposed a gallant 
resistance for some time, was defeated by 
i rimnaji the Peshwa' s brother, and lost his 
life in battle about the year a.d. 1732. 

Gobind Guru (jS Jl."» .}j£), a chief of 
the Sikhs. 

[Vide Guru Gobind.] 

Gopal or Nayek Gopal (JJoU Jj^O, 

a celebrated singer of India, who was a native 
of the Deccan, and flourished during the reign 
of Sultan 'Ali-uddin Sikandar Sani. He 
was a contemporary of Amir Khusro, who died 
in a.d. 1325. It is related that when Gopal 
visiti d the court of Dehli, he sung that 
specii s of composition called Git, the beauty 
of which style, enunciated by the powerful 
and harmonious voice of so able a performer, 
could not meet with competition : — At this 
the monarch caused Amir Ivhusro to remain 
hid under his throne, whence he could hear 
the musician unknown to him. The latter 
endeavoured to remember the style, and on a 
subsequent day, sung Qoul and Tarana in 
imitation of it, which surprised Gopal, and 
fraudulently deprived him of a portion of his 
due honour. 

Goshyar ( ,L^, »i ), an astronomer whose 
proper name is Abu'l Hasan. 

Gouhar Shad Begam (*Cj jliyicf ), 

the wife of Mirza Shahrukh, the son of Amir 
Taimur. She was slain by Sultan Abu Sa'id 
Mirza for creating disturbances, iu a.d. 1457, 
a.h. 861, at Herat, where she lies buried on 
the left bank of a stream called Anjir. The 
ve is covered by a very high gilt dome. 
She is said to have been the most incom- 
parable lady in the world. Some erroneously 
say that she was the daughter of Amir 
Taimur and sister of Shahrukh Mirza, and 
that she never married, but devoted herself to 
the perusal of the Quran. 
[Vide Mohan Lai's Journal.] 





Goya (Lu_S ), poetical name of Hisam- 

uddaula Kawab Faqir Muhammad Khan of 
Luckuow. lie is the author of a Diwan. 

Goya (\jy£) f poetical name of Mirza 
Kumran, a brother of Joyii, which see. 

Goya (IjjX), poetical name of Shaikh 
Haiat-ullah of Furruthabad. 

Gujar ( ,^-^S), grandson or son of the 

daughter of the Peshwa Raghoji Bho 
daughter. He was raised to the masnad oi 
Nagpur alter the dethrom men! oi 'Apa Sahib 
iu a.d. 1818. 

Gulab Singh (<ijo^ i^Jit ), of Jammu 

(Maharaja), t lit- independent rul< rof Kasha 
and the hills, which were made oyer to him 
by the British "im a consideration," after 
the Punjab war (1846). lie dii d2nd August, 
a.d. 1857, aboul three months after the out- 
break of the Bengal Army. 11. ■ was succe< d< d 
by liis son Banbir Singh. 

Gulbadan Begam (*.x. 

daughter of the emperor Babar Shah, Bister 
to Humayun and aunt to Akbar Shah. She 
was married to Khizir Chan, a descendant of 
the kings of Kashghar. Khizir Khan was 
made governor oi Lahore in a.d. 1555, a.m. 
963, and afterwards of Behar, where he died 
about the year a.d. 1559, a.m. 'J6G. 

Gulbarg Begam (, 


daughter of the emperor Babar Shah; she is 

also called Gulrang 
Begam, which see. 

Begam and Gulrukh 

Gulchehra Begam (*JL-j *r^-f^ ,) a 

daughter of the emperor Babar Shah, and 
youngest sister of Humayun. hy whom she 
was given in marriage to Abbas Sultan, an 

Uzbak prince, at Kabul in a.d. 1548. 

Gul Muhammad Khan (a^-st* \^ 

^.IrU ^Li-), a poet of Dehll who 

died in the year of the Christian era a.d. 
1848, a.h. 1264. His poetical name was 
Natik, which see. 

Gulrukh Begam (JLj rj^^> a 

daughter of the emperor Babar, who was 
married to Mirza Nur-uddlu Muhammad, a 
person of respectable family, by whom she 
had a daughter named Saliuia Sultana Begam, 
who was married in the beginning of the 
reign of the emperor Akbar, to Bairam Khan, 

Khankhanan. after whose death in a.d. 1661, 
a.h. 968, the emperor married her himself. 
Gulrukh Begam is called in thi Maair-uU 
Utnra Gulb m, and bj some Gulrang 

Bi -am. 

Gulrukh Begam (*JLj rj^\ a 

daughter of Kamran Mirza, the brother of 
the emperor Humayun and firsl cousin to 
Akbar. She was married to Ibrahim Husain 
Mirza, the bou of Muhammad Sultan Mirza, 
a descendant of Amir Taimur. Ibrahim 
Husain, who together with his other brothers 
had created great disturbances in the country, 
was taken prisoner in a.d. l ■'> 7 ■ j , a.h. 981, 
and shortly a:ter put to death and his head 
sent to Akbar, who orderedil to be pla A 
over one of the gates ol Agra. Gulrukh 
I; jam survived him for several years and was 
living at Agra in a.d. 1614, a.h". lO'JIJ. 

Gulsnan (^uiS ), the poetical name of 

Shaikh Sa'd-ullah, a mystical poet, who 
it sided tor Bome ■ Dehll, and left 

nearly 100,000 verses oi Ghazals. He \i 
di- [pl( oi Shah 'Abdul Ahad SarhindT, and 
made with him a pilgrimage to Mecca, lie 

died A.D. 17-8, a. n. 1141. 

Gulshani ( c ^llf ), the poetical title 
of Shaikh Sa'd-ullah, which Bee. 

Gunna or Ganna Begam (,»-£-»_< US'), 

a ] .i in. uated for her personal accom- 

plishments, as well as for the vivacity oi her 
wit, and the fire of her poetical genius. 
Several oi her lyric compositions in the 
Hindustani language are still sung and 
admired, one of which is to be seen iu the 
first volume of the Asiatic Researches, p. 55. 
Shi was thi daughter of Nawab 'All Qui! 
Khan, commonly called Chhanga or Shash 
Augushti (from having six lingers on each 
hand), a mansabdar of 5000 horse. Ganna 
B gam was betrothed to Shuji'-uddaula, the 
son of Nawab Safdar Jang of Audh, but 
afterwards married to 'Iniad-ul-Mulk Uhfizl- 
uddin Khan, wazir of the empire, and this 
rivalship i< said to have in part laid the 
foundation of the mortal enmity which after- 
wards subsisted betwei n thai wazir and Safdar 
Jang. Adjoining to the village of Xurabad 
near Dholpur, two miles from Chola Sarae, 
is a pretty large garden, the work of the 
emperor Alamgir, built in the year a.d. 1688, 
a.h. 1160, over the gate of which is an 
inscription bearing the chronogram of the 
year of its erection, viz. " Dida liagh 
Jamal." Within this garden is the monument 
of Gunna Begam. Her shrine bears the 
following inscription: "Ah gham Gunna 
Begam," winch is the chronogram of the 
year of her death, viz. a.d. 1775, a.h. 
1189. The poets S6z, Souda, and Mimiat 
corrected her versi s. 

Gl T B.D 



Gurdezi Fathi Ali Husaini. 


Guru Gobind (su:S . i'), the son of 

Tegh Bahadur, a famous chief of the Sikhs. 
Alter the death of his lather, who was 
executed hy order of the emperor 'Alamgir 
in the year a.d. 1673, having collected his 
followers, he gave them arms and horses, 
which till this time they had never used, and 
began to commit depredations, but he was 

soon obliged to fly, and two of his sons 
bein»- taken prisoners, were put to death. 
Being desirous of returning to his home, he 
prevailed on some Afghans to conduct him, 
disguised as one of tin ir devotees, through 
the army stationed at Sarhind; and for the 
remainder of his life kept himself retired, 
having lost his faculties in grief for his sons. 
He ordered his disciples to wear blue, and 
leave tlnir beards and the hairs of their heads 
unshaved, which they do to this day. He was 
succeeded hy Banda, one of his followers. 
[ Vide Hughes, Diet, of Isliita, in voc. 




Habib Ajmi, Khwaja ( 

&?-^»rO. He was called Ajmlorthe 

Persian, on account of his not being able to 
read the Quran, or that he could not 
pronounce the words of it dis'inctly. He was 
a pious Musalman and disciple of Khwaja 
Hasan Basri. lie died on the 2Sth August, 
a.d. 738, 7th Bamazan, a.h. 120. 

Habib-ullah (<&]\ c_--.~> ), author of 

an Arabic work on philosophy called Bahr-ul- 
Mantiq, or the Sea of Logic. 

Habib-ullah, Shaikh (<lU1 ^^.^^ 
^~^ i ), a celebrated poet of Agra. 

Habib-ullah, Shah or Mir (<, „*_^_~>. 

&L& A-1J'), a descendant of Shah 

Ni'mat-ullah Wall, and an Amir in the service 
of the Bahmani kings of the Deccan. He 
was imprisoned, and afterwards put to death 
in June, a.d. 1460, Sha'ban, a.h. 864, by 
Sultan Humayun Shah II. Bahmani. a tyrant, 
who at the same time cast his brother Hasan 
Khan, who had rehelled against him, before 
a voracious tiger, that soon tore the wretched 
prince to pieces. 

Habshi or Habashi ( 

), a poet 

who having lost an eye in a scuffle, was asked 
by Ibrahim Pasha, '""Where is thine other 

eye?" and making answer, "It grew tired 
of stopping at home in the socket, and flew 
out to see the world ? ' ' was imprisoned ten 
years for his wit in the tower of Hero and 
Leander, where he daily tjave vent to his 
feelings in such verses as the following : — 

I will groan, till every stone iu this cold 

prison-tower shall weep, 
I will cry, till earth and sky, and each 

dark rolling hour shall weep, 
I will make, that hearts shall break, and 

even the dewless flower shall weep, 
Yea, for me, the wronged Habshi, both 

Musulmau and Gabr shall weep ! 
[So Mr. Beale : We shall perhaps ran no 

great risk of error if we suppose Habshi 

to have been an Abyssinian domiciled in 

Egypt. — Ed.] 

Hadi (^Ifc), a khalif of Baghdad. 
Vide Al-Hadi. 

Hadi (^-jlfc), poetical name of Mir 

Muhammad Jawad 'Ali Khan, who died in 
the year a.d. 1800, a.h. 1215, and left a 
Diwan in Urdu. 

Hah ( c iU>-), which means barefoot, is 

the surname of Zain-uddin Muhammad, an 
author, who led an austere life, and who 
always walking barefoot, was thus surnanied. 

Hafiz Abru («_.'! liiLsO, surnamed 

Niir-uddin-bin-Lutf-ullah, author of the 
history called Tarikh Rafiz Abru. He was 



II A 11 

horn in the city of Eerat, but passed his 
infancy in Eamdan, where he received bis 
education. Ee was fortunate enough to 
secure the esteem of Amir Taimur, who 
sought every occasion to do him service. 
After the death of that tyrant, he attended 
the court of his son Shahrukh Mirza, and 
received from the young prince Mirza Baisan- 
ghar every demonstration of kindness and 
regard. To him he dedicated hi- works under 
the name of Zubdat-ut-Tawarikh Bdisanghar, 
which contains a complete history of the 
world, and an account of the institutions and 
religions of different people down to a.d. 
1425, a. ii. 829. Ee died five years after- 
wards in the city <>t Zanjan, about the year 
a.d. 1430, a.h. 834. 

Hafiz Adam (*jl JaiU-), a Musalman 

devotee and disciple of Shaikh Ahmad S 

hindi, who al t the year a.h. 1673, in 

conjunction with the Sikh Guru Tegh Bahadur, 
having collected bis followers, levied con- 
tributions with the greatest oppression from 

the inhabitants of bis neighbourh 1 and 

pretended to royalty. Be was banished from 
the kingdom across the Indus by ordi r ol the 
emperor 'Alamgir. 

Hafiz Halwai 



a con- 

fectioner and poet hi Eerat, who flourished 
in the reign of Shahrukh Mirza, the -on oi 
Amir Taimur, about the year a.d. 1430, 
A.H. 834. 

Hafiz, Khwaja (te>-LrL lasUO, whose 

proper name is Shams-uddin Muhammad, was 
the most elegant Lyric poel of Persia. E< 
was born at Shiraz in the reign of Muzaffarians, 
and was living at the time when Amir Taimur 
(Tamerlane defeated Shah Mansur, the 
Sultan of that dynasty. The language of 
Hafiz has hem styled among tin' Musalmans 
" Lisfui-ul-Ghaib," the language of mystery. 
From his frequent celebration of love and 
wine in his odes he has very appropriately 
been denominated, by some Orientalists, the 
Anacreon of Persia. Ee died in a.d. 1389, 
a.h. 791, at Shiraz, where his tomb is yet 
to be seen at a place called Musalla, and is 
visited as a sacred spot by pilgrims of all 
ages. After his death a collection of 569 of 
his odes was made by Say-yad Qasim Anwar, 
entitled Diwan Hafiz. A few of his poems 
may be understood in a literal sense ; but in 
general they are figurative, and allude to the 
Sufi doctrines ; most of them have been at 
different times translated into some of the 
European languages. At the head of the 
English translators stand Sir W. Jones, 
Messrs. Richardson and Carlyle. [There 
have been two other Persian poets of the 
name of Hafiz, one of them surnamed Halwai, 
that is to say, the confectioner, who lived 
in the reign of Sultan Shahrukh, the son of 
Tamerlane, and the other was named Ajan 
B,uuil.] Many zealous admirers of Hafiz 
insist that by wine he invariably means 
devotion; and they have gone so far as to 

compose a dictionary of word- in I age, 

as they call it, of the Sufis; in lb I alary 

ilained by meditation on the divine 
perfections, and perfume by hope oi the divine 
favour; gales are illapses of grace; kisses and 
embraces, the rapture of piety : i 
i>tjiilils, and libertines, are men of the purest 
religion, and their idol i- the Creator himself ; 
the tavern is a retired oratory, and it- •_/.,,■, 
a sage instructor; beauty denote- the por- 
tion of the Supreme Being ; tresses are 
the expansion of hi- glory ; lips the bidden 
mysterv - ol hi- i -- nee ; n the cheek, 

the world ot spirits who encircle his thro 
and a black mole, the point of indivisible 
unity; lastly, wantonness, mirth, waft inebriety, 
in religious ardour and abstraction from 
all terrestrial thought 

Hafiz Muhammad, author of the 
J I ■nil Saghlr. 

Hafiz Rahmat Khan 



^.L<-). a celebrated Rohila chief. 

Ee joined hi- countrymen •luriiiLf theadminis- 
■ taonol 'Ali Muhammad Khan, whoadvai 

him to an important station, and Pilibhit 
and Bareilywere given to him and Muradabad 
i i another chief named Dunde Khan. [laving 
attain, d his office, by military ability and 
genius, he at length wholly superseded the 
authority ot Sa'd-ullah-Khan, the son of 
•Ali Muhammad Khan, and was advanced to 
the supreme administration of affairs, lie 
failed in his engagement t.. pay forty la. 
rupees t i Nawab Shuja-uddaula of Audh for 
the protection of his country from the r..vaL r es 
of the Marhatjras, was killed' in a battle fought 
bythe Nawab bythe assistance ot tin En j li-li 
oh the 23rd April. A.D. 1774. 10th Safar, 
ah. 118S. His Life has been translated by 

[Vide Strachey; Hastings and the JRohila 

Hafiz Rakhna (<tir>-. iiiU.) is the 

name of the person who planted a lanre 
rden at Sirhind in the reign of the Emperor 
Akbar and called it " Bagh Noulakh." He 
died in a.d. 1592, a.h. 1000, and a beautiful 
chronogram was written on the occasion. 

Hafiz-uddin Ahmad, Mouhvi (li-i^ 

lcL S*>\ ,.*>jM, author of the 

Khirad Afroz, an Urdu translation of the 
Aydr Danish, or Pilpay's Fables, which he 
translated for the use of the College of Fort 
William in a.d. 1803, a.h. 1218. 

Hafiz - uddin Nasafi - bin - Ahmad 

author of the commentaries called Maddiik- 
ut-Tanzilscaft Hakdeq-ut-Tanawil, in Arabic. 
He died in the year a.d. 1310, a.h. 710. 
[Vide Nasafi or Al-Nasafa.]] 




Hafiz-ullah, Shaikh (v---- £\ ]aJ^) 

a relation of Siraj-uddin 'All Khan Arzu 
Hi- poetical name was Asam. He died iu 
the 21st year of the emperor Muhammad 
Shah of DehlT, a.d. 1767, a.h. 1181. 

Hafs (^.L^). Vide Abu Hafs-ul- 

Hafsa {i^^Jusf), a daughter of the 
Khalif Uniar, and wife of Muhammad, in 
whose hands Abu Bakr, the - r of the 

prophet, deposited the original Quran. She 
outlived her husband 33 years and died iu 
a.d. 66-5, a.h. 45. 

Haibat Jang- {^J^>- u^^-Uk), title 

of Zain-udilln Ahmad, the youngest son of 
Haii Ahmad, ami nephew and son-in-law 
of AJahwardi Khan Mahabat Jan- governor 
of Bengal. He was the father of Nawab 
Siraj-uddaula, who succeeded Mahabat Jane 
in the government of Bengal in a.d. 17.56 

Haibat Khan (^ UL~~Jb). He is 

the author of the TarlM man Jahan 1. 
Makhzan-i- Afghani, containing the history 
or Khan Jahan Lodi aud of 'the Afghans. 
Ivhaii Jahan was a general of great reputation 
during the reign of the emperor Jahaneir 
but rebelling against Shah Jahan, was killed 
m an engag ment with the royal troops, v i. 
1631, a.h. 10S7. The above work was 
written m a.d. 1676. There is also an 
abridgment of this work, by the same author, 
called Majm ua ' Afghan j. 

Haidar (jj^), a title of 'All, the son- 
in-law of Muhammad. 

Haidar LJ^ 

also called Haidar Kuhij or Haidar Kulieha, 
because he was by profession a baker. He 
was a native of Herat, and is the author of a 
Diwan in Persian and one in Urdu. 

Haidar (^^ ) } or Mir jJaidar Shah, 

a gallant soldier in the service of Xawab 
oarfaraz Khan, governor of Bengal. He put 
the Diwan of Wall the Deccani iuto Mu- 
khammas and interspersed that of Hafiz with 
verses of his own. He died at Hugh in the 
mgn of the emperor Ahmad Shah, "a year or 
two before or after a.d. 1750, a.h. 1164, 
aged 100 years. Garciu-de-Tassv thinks that 
he is the author of a Masnawi entitled A'issai 
Uiandar Badon and Mahyar. 

Haidar Ali, known to contemporary 

Europeans as « Hyder Naik," son of a 
±-unjabi_ adventurer, boru in the Deccan about 
a.d. 1,02; distinguished himself iu the 

service of the Maisur (Mysore) State about 
1/40. Deposed the Raja and assumed the 
power of the State twelve years later and 
ruled for 20 years. His extraordinary efforts 
and occasional successes against the' British 
are matter of history. Defeated by Sir Eyre 
Coote at Porto Novo 1781, he ' died 7th 
December, 1782. He was succeeded by his 
son Ilpu (Tippoo). J 

Haidar Ali Moulwi (^!^ JU- jS^ 

<-> J ^ u*z' s \ of Faizabad, author of 

the Muntahl-ul-Kaldm and several other 
works. He was living in Dehll a.d. 1854 
a.h. 1270. 

Haidar Mir (^ J j^. ). Vide Haidar 


Haidar Mirza (^ j±^\ AV ho 

also called Mir Haidar and Mirza Haidar 
Doghlat, was the son of Muhammad Husain, 
and his wife was the aunt of Babar Shah! 
He was formerly in the service of Kamran 
Mirza, brother of the emperor Huniayun, 
but being disgusted with his conduct abandoned 
his standard about the year a.d. 1.539, a.h. 
946, and joined the emperor, to whom he 
was afterwards of great service. Iu a.d. 
1540, a.h. 947, he was deputed by the 
emperor to conquer Kashmir, which he took 
m a short time ; but as that emperor was 
soon ait. r expelled from India by Sher Shah, 
Haidar became the king of that country. In 
the year a.d. 1548, a.h. 955, he invaded 
Little Thibet, and not only succeeded iu con- 
quering that country, but "subsequently added 
Great Thibet, Rajora and Pogla "to his 
dominions. lit reigned nearly ten years, aud 
was killed by an arrow in a night-attack made 
upon his camp in a.d. 1551, a.h. 958. 

Haidar Khan, Mir (^ ^U-^ju^), 

the grandson of Mir Haidar, who was the 
author of the Tarikh Rashidi. This person, 
on plea of presenting a petition, killed Husain 
'Ali Khan Amir-ul-Umra, at the instigation 
of the emperor Muhammad Shah, on the 
18th September, o.s. 1720, 27th Zi-Qa'da, 
a.h. 1132, and was himself cut to pieces. 

Haidar Malik (LJCUUjJusO, entitled 

Rais-ul-Mulk Chughtai, author of the most 
authentic history of Kashmere down to his 
own time. He was a nobleman in the service 
of the emperor Jahangir, and was living 
about the year a.d. 1619, a.h. 1028, in 
which year he accompanied that emperor to 

Haidar Muammai, Mir (, tUjc* iJus» 


), surnarned Eaflsgi KashI, a 

punster who flourished iu the time of Shah 
Ismail II. king of Persia, and wrote a chrono- 




pram at his death, which tool place in a d. 
1577, 985. He was distinguished by 
his skill in making chronograms and i aigmas. 
He came to India in the time of Akbar, and 
was drowned when returning by sea to Persia. 
lie was in charge of copies oi Faizi's works 
for distrihution in Persia, and they were 
also lust. I'tiir Mir Haidar. 

Haiclar Razi (,*:\. «*>-=»-), a Persian 

historian who wrote in the 17th century of 
the Christian Era. 

Haidar, Shaikh or Sultan ( ,.>_*_-*. 

^jUa-L-s), father of Shah Ismail I. 

Safwi. ITe was the son of Sultan or Shaikh 
Junaid, the Bon of Shaikh Ibrahim, the son 
of Shaikh or KhwaVja All. the s^n of the 
celebrated Shaikh Sadar-uddin Musa, the 
son of Shaikh Sail or Safi-uddin Ardiheli, 
who was the '.'1st in a direct line from Musi 
Qazim, the seventh [mam, He was killed 
in a battle against Ta'kub Beg the son oi 
Uzzan Ilusan. at Shirwan in the month of 
July, a.d. 1488, Sha'ban, A.H. 893. 

Hairan (^^-rO, poetical name of Mir 

Haidar 'All. He was killed in zfflah Bihar, 
but had the assassin put to death before he 

Hairani, Maulana (\j}j 

y* uHW 

j\s*Jz), of Hamdan. He is the 

author of several Masnawis or poems, viz. 
luiltnhn-ifii- Xuiihi. Dispute between Heaven 
and Earth, entitled Manazira Arz-wa-Sa 
Dispute between the Candle and the Moth, 
called Manazira Sftama'-wa-Panrana; and 
Dispute between the Roasting Spit and the 
Fowl, named Manazira Sikh-tca-Mu rgh . He 
died in a.d. 1497-8, a.h. 90J. 

Hairat (^j_\!1 *lJ C^s^), poetical 

name of Qayam-uddln, the author of the 
biography called Tazkira Maqalat-ush- 

Shtucra, which he completed in a.d. 1760, 
A.H. 1174. 

Hairat (^Jj^.^, poetical title of 

Pandit Ajuddhia Parshad, a native of Kash- 
mere, who resided at Lucknow. He is the 
author of a small Diwan and a few Masnawis. 
He died a.h. 1234, in the 35th year of 
his age. 

Hairati ( J. -.a*-), a poet of Marv. In 

reward of a Qasida which he composed in 
praise of Shah Tahmaspl. Safwi, he obtained 
the title of Malik-ush-Shua'ra or kino,- of 

poets. Besides the work called Bahjat-ul- 
hi), he is the author of a Masnawi to 

which he gave the ol GulzGr. All his 
- amount to about 40.000. He was 

murdered at Keshan a.o. 1654, a.h. 962. 

Hairati ( 

) was the greatest 

po.t ot his time. ID had studird at Dfahan, 
and was alive when Taqi Kashani wrote his 
Tazkira a d. 1585. Though he received a 
liberal allowance from the Persian Govern- 
ment, owing to hi- extravagance, it was quite 
insufficient tor his support, and in a.d. 1581. 
a.h. 989, he came to India being attracted 
by tin- prodigality oi 
ot Golkand 1. 

the Qutb-Shahi 1, 

Hajar (^sr^) } a very great man among 

the followers ot -All. and remarkable for his 
singular abstinence, pietj ami strictness of 
lite, his constant purifications according to 
Muhammadan law. and exactness in obs< n ing 
the hours of devotion. He was put to (hath 
in ,\ i>. 666, by order oi Mu'awia I. tor 
speaking reproachfully of him. affronting his 
brother Zayad, governor oi Kufa, and affirming 
that tie govi rum. nt did not, oi right, belong 
to any hut the Family of 'AH. 

Hajari. Vide Hijrl. 

Haji Begam (*JL_< ,__;^L=-), wife of 

I •• • ^ • 

the ( mperor Humayun. 

[ Vide Ilamida Bano Begam.] 

Haji Khalfa (sjjL.^. 

•LO, a cele- 

brated author commonly called Mustafi Haji 
Khalfa. He is the author oi the work 1 1 
Fazlaka, also of the Biographical Dictionary 
called Kashf-uz-Zunun, and tie- work called 
Taqwhn-ut-Tawarikh Rumi. The latter is a 
Chronological Table of remarkable events 
from the Creation of the world to a.d. 1G48, 
a.h. 105h, translated from the Turkish 
during the reign ot Sultan Muhammad IV. of 
Constantinople. The Kashf-uz-Zunun was 
printed for the Oriental Translation Fund in 
1835-50, together with a Latin translation by 
Professor Fluecrel. It appears that Haji 
Khalfa formerly hore the title of Kfitib Chilpi, 
and if this is correct, he died in a.d. 1657, 
a.h. 1067. 

[In Chambers' Encyclopaedia the month and 
year of his death are given as September, a.d. 
1658, and he is also said to have been the author 
of the Tarxkh Kablr, tin Great History, which 
is a history of the world from the creation of 
Adam to a.d. 1655, containing notices of 150 
dynasties, principally Asiatic; also a history 
of the Ottoman empire from a.d. 1591 to 
165S, and a history of the maritime wars of 
the Turks, which has been translated into 




Haji Muhammad Beg- Khan ( r^L>- 

ti)U- L-. -Cj .We'*), the father of the 

celebrated Mirza Abu Talib Khan, author of 
the Maslr Talibi. He was by descent a Turk, 
but born at 'Abbasabad in Isfahan. Whilst a 
young man, dreading the tyranny of Nadir 
Shab, he tied fmm Persia, and on his arrival 
in India was admitted into the friendship of 
Nawah Abu'] Mansur Khan Safdar Jang. 
Upon the death of Raja Nawul Rae, Deputy 
Governor of Audh in a.d. 1750, a.h. 1163, 
Muhammad Quli Khan, the nephew of the 
Nawab, was appointed to that important 
office, and he (Haji) was nominated one of 
his assistants. On the death el Safdar Jang 
in a.d. 1753, a.h. 116", his sun Shuja- 
uddaula became jealous of his cousin Muham- 
mah Quli Khan, arrested him and put him to 
death. Haji tied with a few of his faithful 
servants to Bengal, where lie passed a number 
of years, and died at Murshidabad in April, 
a.d. 1769, Zil-hijja, a.h. 1182. 

Haji Muhammad Jan (s*sl-* ,-^U- 

4_c^A.i» ^j\^~), of Mashhad. His 

poetical name is Qudsl. He nourished in the 
reign of the emperor Shah Jahan, who 
conferred on him the title of Malik-ush- 
Shua'ra, or the Royal poet. He is the 
author of a poem containing the conquests of 
the emperor, which he named Zafarmma. 
He died in the year a.d. 1645, a.h. 1055, 
and alter him the title of the royal poet was 
conferred on Abu Talib Kalim. He i. also 
the author of a Diwau, and an Insha. 

Haji Muhammad Kashmiri Maulana 

One of his forefathers, who was a native of 
Hamdan, came to Kashmere with Mir Said 
'All Hamdani. Haji was born in that 
province, but came to Dehli in his youth, 
where he received his education. He was an 
excellent poet, flourishing in the time of 
Akbar, and died on Thursday the 22nd 
September, a.d. 1597, 19th Safar, a.h. 
1006, o.s. He was a religious man, and had 
many disciples, one of whom, named Maulana. 
Hasan, wrote the chronogram of his death. 

Haji Muhammad Khan Sistani 

(^y u^^ i^^ o.^sr* =>>lrs-). He 

was at first in the service of Bairam Khan 
Kliankhanan, after whose dismissal he was 
honoured with the rank of 3000 by the 
emperor Akbar. He accompanied Munaim 
Khan Khankhanan to Bengal and died at 
Goirr in a.d. 1575, a.h. 983. 

Haji Muhammad Qandahari ( ~~U_ 

lSJ&Azj S*s:"). He is the author 

of a history which goes by his name, viz. 
Tarikh Haji Muhammad Qandahari. 

Haj j aj -bin- Yusaf-al-Saqafi or Thaqafi 

(^-aiLiJI i-c-sy, ^-J --l-s-^), one of 

the most valiant Arabian captains, who was 
made governor of Arabia and Arabian Iraq, 
by Abdidmalik the fifth Khalif of the 
Ommaides, after he had defeated and killed 
Abdullah - bin-Zubeir, who had taken the 
title of Khalifa at Mecca. In the year a.d. 
693, a.h. 74, he pulled down the temple of 
Mecca, which Abdullah had repaired, placing 
the black stone on the outside of it again and 
restoring it to the very term it had before 
Muhammad's time. He was a great tyrant; 
it is said of him, that in his lifetime lie had 
put to death a hundred and twenty thousand 
persons, and when he died had 50,000 in his 
prisons. He died in the reign of the Khalif 
Walif I. in the year a.d. 714, a.h. 85, aged 
54 years. 

Hakim I. (»Jl^), the poetical title of 

a person who was a native of Mashhad, and 
was living about the year a.d. 1688, a.h. 
1100. He Mas an Arabic and Persian scholar, 
and is the author of a Diwan and a Masnawi. 

Hakim II. ( / ^S.^) ) the poetical name 

of Shah Abdul Hakim of Lahore. He is the 
author of a work called Mardum liula, 
compiled at Aurangabad in a.d. 1761, a.h. 
1175. It contains an account of those poets 
with whom the author was acquainted. 

Hakim-Ain-ul-Mulk (^.-..r *-*~C^ 

c_N-L^Ji), of Shlraz. He was a 

learned man and a clever writer. He traced 
his origin, on his mother's side, to the 
renowned logician Muhaqqiq-i-Dawanl. The 
Historian Badaoni was a friend of his. Akbar 
also liked him very much. Hakim was a 
poet and wrote under the Lakhalus of 
Dawani. He died at Handiah on the 27th 
Zil-hijja, a.h. 1003. 

[Vide Am Translation, i. p. 481.] 

Hakim Ali (^JL-.f ^U +-~-L^), of 

Gilan, came to India in indigent circum- 
stances, but was fortunate enough to become 
in course of time a personal attendant and 
friend of Akbar. In the 39th year of Akbar's 
reign, he constructed the wonderful reservoir 
which is so often mentioned by Mu glial 
historians. In the 40th year Ali was a 
commander of 700 and had the title of 
Jalinus Uzzamani the ' Galinus of the Age.' 
He died on the 5th Muharram, a.h. 1018. 

[Vide Ahi Translation, i. p. 466.] 

Hakim Muhammad (s.a.-sz'* +^S~s>~). 

He was half-brother to the emperor Akbar, 
being born of a different mother. 

[ Vide Muhammad Hakim.] 




Hakim Nur-ucldin Shirazi (,»j 


^jy^J^ ,u!'), who appears to have 

been »il lur grandson or sister's son of Abu'] 
Fazl, asserts in his preface to the Hajat Dara 
'<>, ih it he commenced his work in the 
14th year of the reign of Shah Jahan, a.d. 
1642, a.h. 1052, the above name oi tin- book 
gives the year oi the Eijra, and brought it to 
a conclusion in a.h. 1u.')6. 


XlLf^Jl *.X>-), 

title of Mir Muhammad Mahdi, a physician 
who held the rank of 4000 in the reign of 
the emperor 'Alamgir. 

Halaki ( jlj^js, ./!*), of Hamdan, 

a Persian poet, though illiterate, wrote a 
panegyric on th ion of Shah [sma'il 

Safwi II. tn tin throne oi Persia, in the year 
a.d. 1576, a.h. 984, Cor which he received a 
handsome preseni from the king, while other 
poets who wrote on the san ision 

received nothing. 

Halaku Qaan or Khan (^lla £b&), 

also called Ilkhan, was the son ot' Tuli Khan, 
and the fourth ir and grandson oi 

Changez Khan the Tartar. In the reign of 
his brother Mangii Qaan, king of Tartary, 
he was detached, in May, a.d. 1253, Etabi' I. 
a. n. 651, attended by one hundred and fifty 
thousand horse to subdue Persia, which he 

s i conqui r< d, affa r which h< extirpati d the 

power "i the [sma'ilis, the descendants oi 
Hasan Sabbah [q.v. . the founder oi the 
sect, and destroyed their strongholds in 
November, a.d. 1256, {Jil-qada, a.h. (>">4. 
Hi' nr\t intended to march direci to Constan- 
tinople, lmt was persuaded bj Nasir-uddin 
TusI (whom he had made his prime minister) 
to turn his anus against Baghdad. He 
marched againsl thai capital, and after a 
siege of some months took ii in February, 
A.i). 1258, 1th Safar, \.n. 656. The Khalifa 
Mustaa'sim Billah and his son were seized, 
and with 800,000 of its inhabitants were put 
to death. After these successes Halaku was 
desirous of returning to Tartary to take 
possession of the governmeni of ins native 
country, which had become vacant by the 
death of his brother Mangu Qaan ; but the 
great defeat which the general whom he had 
left in Syria suffered from Saif-uddin Firoz, 
the prince of the Mamluks of Egypt, com- 
pelled him to abandon his design ; and after 
he had restored his affairs in Syria, he fixed 
his residence at Maragha, in Azurbaijan, 
where he died on Sunday the 8th February, 
a.d. 1265, 19th Rabi' II. a.h. 663, after a 
reign of twelve years from his first coining to 
Persia, and eight years from the death of his 
brother. During his prosperous reign, the 
literature of Persia resumed its former 
flourishing state ; and the illustrious Persian 
Bard Sa'di of Shiraz was living in his time. 

Halaku was d by his Bon Aba Qfidn 

in the kingdom oi I 

List of Mughal- Tartar or Ilkhain dynasty of 

l'i , 

Halaku Khan, the son of Tuli Khan, sucr 
■ d his broth c M ingu Qaan iu the 
kingdom of Pi rsia. 
Aba Qaan, the son oi Halaku. 
Nikodar <>r Ahmad Khan, brother of Aba 
linn Khan, son of Aba Qaan. 
I\ ikhatu Khan, Bon oi Aba Qaan. 

Iu, gran Ison oi Halaku. 
Ghazan Khan, sua of Arghun Khan. 
Aljaitu, the sun oi Arghun Khan. 
Abu Said Bahadur Khan, son of Aljaptu, 
after whose death the dyi came 


Halati ( gJ'oO, poetical title of Kasim 

B r. who was born and brought up in 
leran, and spent ater part oi his 

life at (\ izwin. He flourished in th< i 
of Shah Tahmasp Safwi, and wrote the 
chronogram oi the accession <it Shah 
I lail II. iu a d. 1576, a. n. 984. He is 
athor oi a Diwan in i't r.-iau. 

Halima (<L**^Jls»-), the name of Mu- 
hammad's nurse, who, it i- said, had formerly 
no milk in lur breasts, but immediately 
obtained some when she presented them to 
the new born prophi t to suck. 

Hallaj (-JU-). This word, which 

properly signifies the person that prepares 
cotton before it is manufactured, was the 
surname of Aha MughTs Husain-bin-Mansur. 
[ Via\ Mausur Hallaj.] 

Hamd-ullah Mustoufi-bin-Abu-Bakr- 
al-Qazwini, Khwaja (<kl}\ Ss*..=>- 

also called Hamid-uddin MustoufT, a native 
ot Quzwin, ami author oi the Tarikh Guzlda, 
or Selected History, which he composed in 
a.d. 1329, a.h. 730, and dedicated to the 
minister Ghayas-uddin, the son of Rashid- 
uddin, author of the Jama'-ut-Tawarid', to 
both of whom Hamd-ullah had been Seen tary. 
The Tarlkh Guzida ranks among the bi 
general histories of the last eleven years ; alter 
the completion of this history, the author 
composed his celebrated work on Geography 
and Natural History, entitled Nuzhat-ul- 
Qulub, The delight of hearts, which is in high 
repute with Oriental Scholars, and which has 
ohtaine.1 for him from D'Herbelot the title 
of le Geographe Persan. Hamd-ullah died 
ad. 1349, a.h. 750. He was the brother of 
Fakhr-uddin Fath-ullah Mustoufi. See also 
Ahmad-bin-Abu Bakr. 




Haniid .(a.-..,*-:?-), a poet, who is the 

author of a poem called Ismat Ndma, contain- 
ing the loves of Satin ami Mlna, composed in 
the year a.d. 1607, a.h. 1016, during- the 
reign of Jahanglr. 

Hamid (j^U. ), or Abdul Hamid Yahia, 

a celebrated caligrapher, who reformed the 
Arabian characters in the reign of the Klialif 
Muawia II. of the house of Umaiya. He 
died in a.d. 749, a.h. 132. 

Hamid Ali, Mirza (\- ^ 1 



or more properly Prince Mirza Hamid 'All, 
son of Wajid 'All Shah, the last king of 
Lucknow. He accompanied his grandmother 
the Dowager Queen of Lucknow to England 
to claim his right, in 1856. 

[ Vide Jawad Ali.] 

Hamida Bano (»Jlj *A-w*_£»0, the 

daughter of Malika Bano, the sister of 
Mumtaz Mahal, was married to Khalil-ullah 

Khan, who died in a.d. 1662. 

Hamida Bano Begam (»jL> iX^A^=>- 

A-..0, styled (after her death) Mariam 

Makani, and commonly called TIaji Begarn, 
was a gn at- granddaughter of Shaikh Ahmad 
Jam. She was married in a.d. 1541, A.H. 
948, to the emperor Humayun, and became 
the mother of the emperor Akbar. She is 
the founder the Sarai called Arab Sara, 
situated near the mausoleum of her husband 
at old D( lili. She had gone on a pilgrimage 
to Mecca, and on her return brought with 
her 300 Arabs, for whom she built this place 
in a.d. 15G0, a.h. 968. She died at Agra 
on Monday the 29th August, a.d. 1603, 
17th Shahrewar, a.h. 1012, aged about 78 
years, and was buried in the mausoleum of 
Humayun at Dehli. 

Hamid Kirmani ( c jL«.i' A^UO, 

poetical name of Shaikh Aohad - uddin 

Hamid-uddin Ali-al-Bukhari (a.- 


o^^sa'i l \z ,jaM), author of a short 

Commentary on the Hidaya, entitled the 
I'awaed. He died in a.d. 1268, a.h. 667. 

Hamid-ullah Khan (^U- t&\ &~*^), 

author of the Ahadls-ul-KhawCothi, also 
called Tdrlkh-i - Hamid, which contains a 
history of Chatgawn (Chittagong) . Printed 
at Calcutta in 1871. 

Hamid-uddin Mustoufi, Khwaja 
[Vide Hamd-ullah Mustoufi.] 

Hamid-uddin Nagori, Qazi ( s^.*.**. 

^tf-tfVi ^jjjSKj ^H^h a native of 

Nagor who held the appointment of Qazi, 
and died on the 11th July, a.d. 1296, 11th 
Bamazan, a.h. 69.3, and is buried at Dehli 
close to the tomb of Khwaja Qutb-uddin 
Bakhtiar. commonly called Qutb Shah. He 
is the author of the book called Tawala-ush- 
Shamus, containing religious contemplations 
and speculative opinions of the essence and 
nature of the divinity, etc., etc. The year of 
his death is taken from an inscription over his 

Hamid-uddin Qazi ( J,\i ^aH A-^w 

^ylJbS), of Dehli, was the author 

of the Sharah Hidayat-ul-Fiqah and several 
ether works. He died in a.d. 1363, a.h. 764. 

Hamid-uddin Umar, Qazi (a.~. 

^*?'i .a,- rj-,^) nourished in the 

time of Sultan San jar, the Sal Juki king 
of Persia, was a contemporary of the poet 
Anwari, and is the author of a Commentary 
on the Quran called Muqamat. 

Hammad (jL^_^), the son of Abu 

Hanifa, who was a learned man, and died in 
the year a.d. 792, a.h. 176. 

Hamza, Amir (j+*§\ ^> ), the son of 

Abdul Muttalib, and uncle of Muhammad, 
who gave him the title of Asad-ullah, or the 
lion nt ( J-od, because of his courage and valour, 
and put into bis hands the first standard he 
ordered to be made, which was called " Baet- 
ul-Islam," the standard of the faith. Hamza, 
who was also called Abu 'Umar, was killed 
in the battle of Ohad which Muhammad 
fought with the Qureshitt s, of whom Abu 
Sufian was chief. Alter the battle Hinda, 
the wife of Abu Sufian, pulled Hamza's 
liver out of his body and chewed and 
swallowed some of it. This battle took place 
in the month of March, a.d. 625, Shawwal, 
a.h. 3. 

Hamza Bano Begam ( JLj y b jU>), 

daughter of Shah Jahan by Kandahar! Begam, 
daughter of Muzaffar Husain Mirza, of the 
royal race of Shah Isma'il SafwI. She was 
born in the year a.h. 1019. 

Hamza Mirza 0: ** *\as>-) } the eldest 

son of Sultan Muhammad Khuda Banda, and 
the grandson of Shah Tahmasp I. of the 
SafwI family of Persia. His father, on 
accouut of a natural weakness in his eyes, 
which rendered him almost blind, had at 




firs! i ntrusted the charge of the i mpire to his 
wazir, .Mir/a Sulaiman; when that nobleman 
was slain, he created his own son, Ham/a 
Mirza, regent of the empire. This prince, 
by his valour, extricated his weal father from 
ail liis difficulties with which lie was 
surrounded. But lln's gleam of good fortune 
soon vanished. This gallant prince was 
stabbed by a barber, in liis own private 
apartments on the 24th November, a.d. 1586, 
22nd Zil-hijja, a.ii. 994. 

Hanbal, Imam( AJ J-^s-), or Ahmad 

Tim Hanbal, the son of Muhamm - 
ibn-Hanbal, was the fourth [mam or 
founder of one of tin' four orthodox Beets oi 
the Sunnis called Hanbalites. This 
made a great noise in B ighdad in the r< ign of 
the KlialTt Al-Muqtadir in a.d. 929, a.ii. 
317. Merauzi, chi i of the sect, had asserted 
that God had Muhammad on liis 
throne, which assertion he founded upon the 
passage oi the Quran : " Thy Lord shall Boon 
give thee a considerable place or Btation." 
All the other sects of the Musalmans regard 
the explication of the Hanbalites as a shocking 
impii ty. I lintain thai this consider- 

able place or station was the post or quality 
of a mediator, which they affirm to belon 
their prophet. This dispute passed from 
schools to the public assemblies. At Length 
they came from words to blows which cosl 
the lives of several thousands. In the year 
a.d. 935, a.ii. 323, the Hanbalites became 
so insohnt, that they marched in arm- on the 
city of Baghdad, and plundered the shop- on 
pretence that wine was drunk in them. 
Ahmad was a traditionist oi the first c] 
and composed a collection oJ authenticated 
traditions called Masnad, more copious than 
those any other person had. till thou, been aide 
to form : it is said that he km w by heart one 
million of those traditions. He was horn in 
the year a.d. 780, a.h. 164, and died on the 
31st July, a.d. 855, L2th Rabi' I. a.ii. 241, 
in the reign of the Khalif Al-Mutwakltil, and 
was buried at Baghdad. It was estimated 
that the number oi men pn s< at at hi< funeral 
was 800.0(10, and 60,000 women; and it is 
said that 20,000 Christians, Jews and 
Magians became Moslems on the day of his 
death. In the year a.d. 835, Ramazan, 
a.h. 220, some time in the month Septembi r, 
be was required by Khalif Al-Motasim Billah 
to declare that the Quran was created, but 
would not, and although beaten and imprisoned 
persisted in his refusal. The eternity of the 
Quran, considered as the word of God, is the 
orthodox Moslem doctrine. [The modern 
Wahhabis are bebeved to he partly followers 
of this teacher. See Hughes' Dictionary of 
Islam, in roc. " Ibn Hanbal."] 

Handal Mirza 0;...* J1a.^ > ) ) 

the emperor Babar Shah 
Humayun, was born in 



and brother of 
year a.d. 1518, 

the . 
a.h. 924. He lost his life in a night attack 
made by his brother Kamxan Mirza on the 

emperor Humayun m I aibar in the 
province of Kabul, on the 19th November, 
a.d. 1551, 21sl Zi-Qa'da, a.h. 958. Be is 
buried at Kabul close to the tomb oi the 
emperor Babar shah. Humayun, out of 
affection to the memory oi Handal Mirza, in 
the Bami year gave the daughter oi that 
prince, Baqia Sultana, to hi- son Akbar in 

Hani ( J*z>-), surname of Muhammad- 

hin-'Ali, a poet who died in tin- Mar a.d. 
L333, ah. 733. 

Hanifa Imam ( *LJ 

), also called 

Abu Hanifa and Imam 'Azim, was one 
oi thi four Jurisconsults "t M 
viz. Imam Hanifa, Imam Hanbal, Imam 
Shafa'i and Imam Malik, from whom are 
derived the various Codes of Muhammadan 
Jurisprudi mi'. He "t the most 

celebrated do the Musalmans, and 

chief of th I Hanifitee; and though hia 

-• ■ i i- the principal <>\ the four which they 
now indifferently follow, ho was ill-uBed 
during hia lifetime. Hi- principal work- are : 
the .'.' i.e. the foundation or support, 

wherein ho established all the points "t the 
Musalman faith ; a treatise i ntitled Filkalam 
or Scholastic /' ': and a catechism 

called Mua'Uim-ul- litem, i.e. the Instructor. 
Another "t hi- l>ook> is entitled the Fiqh- 
ul- Akbar : it treats oi the Dm-ul-Kalam, 
ami ha- been commented upon by various 
writers, many of whom arc mentioned by 
Haji Khalfa. Some Bay that the Masnad 
was written by Imam Hanbal. liy tip- shias 
ho i- a- much detested and coii-urod a- liy 

their antagonists ho i- admired and exalted. 

For allowing Ids disciples to drink >mln:, 
which is a wme made "t dates, he is accused 
by the Persians oi departing from the clear 
injunction <>t the Prophet against all intoxi- 
cating beverages. [At the time of his birth 
some ul the "companions" of the Prophet 
wiio still living, which adds to his authority 
among the SuuuT denomiuatiou.] 

Haqiqat (» 

), poetical title of 

S dyad Husain Shah, son of Saiyad Arab 
Shah. He accompanied Col. Kydd to 
Chinapatan in Madras as head Munshi and 
died there. lie is the author of an Urdu 
Diwan and seven other works, some of which 
are named Tahfat-ul-'Ajam, KJiaz'niat-ul- 
Amsdl, Sanamkada Chin and Haslit Gulyusht. 

[Vide Husain Shah.] 

Haqiri (^—^iLs-), poetical name of 
Maulana Shahab-uddlu Mua'mniaT. 

Harindar Narain Bhup, Maharaja 
(cL^^l^ L-^J ^^ jS-Jj-z), the 

Eaja of Kiich Behiir, who died at Benares 
on the 30th May, 1839, and was aged 70 years. 
He was of the Ra jbansi caste, and a follower 
of Siva, but his style of living was very 




unlike that of a Hindu. He used to marry 
without anv regard to cast:', and entered iuto 
the connubial relation with any women he 
took a fancy to. He did not even spare married 
women. The number of his wives or ranis 
was no less than 1200 ! 

Hari Rao Holkar (^..G-Jb »\j ^jj.z), 

Raja of Indor, was the cousin and successor 
of Malhar Rao III. the adopted sou and 
successor of Jaswant Rao Holkar. He died 
on the 24th October, a.d. 1813. 

Hariri (^.j..^), whose full name is 

Abu Muhammad Qisim - b in - ' All- biu- 
Usman-al-Hariri-al-Basri, was a native of 
Basra. He was oue of the ablest writers of 
his time, ami is the author oi the Muqamat 
Hariri, a work consisting (if titty Oratorical, 
Poetical, Moral, Ecomia-aic, and Satirical 
discourses, supposed to have been spoken or 
read in public assemblies ; but which wen.: 
composed by the author at the desire of 
Anusherwan - ibn - Khalid, wazir to Sultan 
Muhammad SaljuqI. He died at Basra in 
the year a.d. 1122, a.h. 516. Poets, 
historians, grammarians and lexicographers 
look upon the Muqamat as the highest 
authority, and next to the Quran, as tar at 
least as language is concerned. His book has 
been translated either entirely or partially 
into nearly every Eastern and European 

Harkaran (^jtj*), the son of Mathura 

Has, a Kamboh of Multan, was a Munshl in 
the service of Nawab Ya'tbar Khan, ami is 
the author of a collection of letters called 
Inshae Harkaran, or the Forms of Harka- 
ran, translated iuto English by D. Francis 
Balfour, M.D. The second edition of this 
work was printed in 1804. 

Harun - al - Rashid ( 

Vide Al-Eashid. 


J! ^>). 

Hasan (J.-^,~j ^j ,*^>-), son of Suhail 

or Sahl, was governor of Chaldea about the 
year a.d. 830, under the Khalif Al-Mamun, 
who married Turin Dukht his daughter. 
Some attribute to this Hasan the translation 
of the Persian book entitled Jawed hi Kliiracl 
into Arabic. 

Hasan ( 


■ ), poetical name of ITu- 

hammad Hasan, who flourished in the reign of 
the emperor Shah 'Alain of Dehli. 

Hasan Abdal ( J^Ju*s ^=0, or Baba 

Hasan Abdal, a famous saint who was a 
Sayyad at Sabzwar in Khurasan. He came 
to India with Mirza Shahrukh, son of Anser 

Taimiir, and died at Qandahar, where bis tomb 
is resorted to by pilgrims. Jahanglr says in 
ill Tuzak that the place Hurasadak is jo kos 
from Kashinere. 

Hasan 'Ali (^jLc ^^.r^), the poet 

laureate in the service of Tipu Sultan of 
Mvsore. He is the author of a book called 
Bhogbal, or the Kok Shastar. It is a curious 
but obscene satire on women, said to be a 
Translation or paraphrase from the Sanskrit 
in Hindi verse. There is another translation 
of the same book in Persian prose called 
Lazzat-un-Nisa, by Ziya-uddin Xakhshabi. 

Hasan Askari, Imam ( .-„C~.c ,.,^&..), 

or Abu'l Hasan 'All-al- 'Askari, was the 
eleventh Imam of the race of 'Ali, and the 
eldest son of Imam 'All Naqi who was the 
tenth, lie was born at Madina in the year 
A.i). S46, a.h. 232, and died on the 6th 
November, a.d. 874, 22nd Muharram, A.H. 
261, aged 28 years. He is buried at Sar- 
manrai in Baghdad close to the tomb of bis 

Hasan Basri, Khwaja (j^jj li t^- > - 

4=>-L:>-), a native of Basra and a very 

pious Musalman, who is said to have possessed 
all the branches of science, and was noted for 
Belf -mortification, fear of God and devotion. 
He is the author of a Diwan or book of Odes 
in Arabic. He was born in a.d. 642, a.h. 
21, and died on the 11th October, a.d. 728, 
1st Itajab, a.h. 110, aged 89 lunar years, 
and was buried at Basra. 

Hasan Beg (Khani, Badakhshi) 







Shaikh Umari was a good soldier. He was 
made a commander of 2,500 for his services in 
Bangash, and was put, towards the end of 
Akbar's reign, in charge of Kabul, receiving 
Fort Rohtas in the Pan-jab as jagir. Hasan 
Beg, after making a useless attempt to in- 
criminate others, was put into a cow-hide 
and in this state he was tied to donkeys and 
carried through the bazaar. He died after a 
few hours from suffocation. 

[Vide Am Translation, i. p. 454.] 

Hasan - bin - Muhammad Khaki -al- 
Shirazi ( S _£L>- X^s* ,j { j-^-=>~ 


Jl), who came to India in the 

time of the emperor Akbar and obtained 
different offices under the government. lie is 
the author of a history also called Muntakhib- 
ut-Tawarlkh, besides the one written by 
Abdu Qadir Badaoni. He commenced the 
work before the close of Akbar's reign, i.e. 
a.d. 1010, a.h. 1019, in which year, he tells 
us, he was appointed Diwan of Patna. 




Hasan-bin-Muhammad Sliarif( ,.**». 

wV-^.^:" < 

)), author of the 

Ama-ul-'Ushshaq, the lover's companion, 
containing an explanation oi all the metaphors 
and phrases used by the poets; with numerous 
quotations from those Ik Id in the greatest 

\Vide Qhadim.] 

Hasan-bin-Sabah (__L^ ^j ^u_^-). 

Vide Ilasan Sabbah. 

Hasan Buzurg ( 


-), also 

called Sheikh Hasan, Amir Hasan Elqani, 
and Amir Hasan Narian, Kayukai, the son 
of Amirllqan Jalayer. He was an immediate 
descendant oi Sultan Arghun Khan, king of 
Persia (whose sister was his mother), and 
one of the principal chiefs ol the Mughals in 
the reign ol Sultan Abu Said. He married 
Baghdad Khatun, daughter oi Amir Cho 
or Jovian, but the prince being deeply 
enamoured of her charms, Amir Hasan, after 
the death of her father, was forced to resign 
his consent to him in a.i>. 1327, a.ii. 7. 
A few years after the death oi Abu Said, 
Amir Hasan married Ids widow Dilshad 
Khatun, went t" Baghdad, seized thai city, 
and became the founder of a petty dynasty 
of princes. His life was passed in contests 
to establish his authority over tin territo 
of Baghdad, and he died b fore this ob 
of bis ambition was accomplished, in July, 
a.d. 1356, Rajah, a.ii. 757. His son Sultan 
Owes Jalayer was more fortunate; he nol 
only succeeded in completing the conquesi 
bis father bad commenced, bui carried bis 
arms into Azurbejan and Khurasan. Sultan 
Owes died in October, a. d. 1374, a.ii. 776, 
and left his government to his second bod Husain Jalayer. This excellent prince, 
who is also alike celebrated for his benevo- 
lence and love of justice, lost bi~ life in an 
action in a.d. 1382, a.ii. 784, with bis 
brother Ahmad, surnanied Elqani, a cruel and 
unjust ruler, whose enormities compelled his 
subjects to invite Amir Taimur (Tamerlane) 
to their relief iu a.d. 1393, and almost the 
whole of the future life oi Ahmad passed in 
au ineffectual struggle with that conqueror. 
He fled to Egypt for safety, and when, after 
the death of Taimur, he returned to recover 
his dominions, he was taken and put to death 
by Qara Yusaf, a Turkman chief, in a.d. 
1410, a.h. 813. 

Hasan Gang-a. Vide Ala-ad-din I. 

Hasan Imam (A*\ ^.?-), the 


son of 'All, the son of Abu Talib, and 
Fatima, the daughter of Muhammad ; was 
born on the 1st March, a.d. 625, loth 
Ramazan, a.h. 3. After the death of his 
father in January, a.d. 661, Ramazan, a.h. 40, 
he succeeded him as second Imam, and was 

proclaimed Khallf by the Arabians, but 
perci iving the pi ople di\ id< d and 1 i 
ill-used, be alter m\ months resigned tbe 
Khilafai to Mu'awia, who assigned to him 
about 15,000 pounds a year, besides large 
ats. Alter thi- Hasan and his brother 
Husain retired and lived privately at Madina, 
whereafter a few years be died oi poison, 
administered to him by one oi his wires, 
whom Va/id, the son oi Mu'awia, sub 
to commit that wickedness, on the promise 
of marrying hi r afterwards ; though insti I 
a new husbai was forced to be con- 

tented with a good sum of money which 
Mu'awia gave her tor her pains; tor Va/id 
was nol bo mad as to trust to her 
embraces. Hasan's murder took place on 
the night of the 17th March, a.; 
670, 7tli § ii. 49. H « as burii d in 

Madina at a place called Baqia. Hasan is 
said to hftve been in person very like bis 
grandfather Muhammad, who, when he was 
Born, -pit in his mouth and named him 
Hasan. He bad twenty children — I 
son- and five daughters. Though lus wires 
were remarkably fond oi him, yei h 
rerj frequently to divorce them and marry 
new on< b. 

Hasan Kashi, Maulana ( J^\& 

l/.VA b poel who ^y;ls a native of 

Kasban. He is the author of many Qiisi 
and Ghazals. The year of his death i- Dot 
known, luit he appi ars to have flourished 
about the 8th ccntun oi the Hijri era. 

Hasan Klnvaja (i^L^i. ..^.r^). 
T(d< Hasan Sanjari. 

Hasan Klrwaja (<L:s^ 


darwesh, the son oi Khwaja [brahim. lie 
is the author of a Diwan oi Ghazals, in the 
last rersi - oi i ach oi which he has meutioned 
the name of his beloved. 

Hasan Kochak, Shaikh 
-»i), a 


grandson of Amir 

Chouban or Jovian. He was one of the 

chiefs who, during the period of trouble and 
contusion which took place after the death 
oi Sultan Abu Said, king of Persia, in a.d. 
1335, rose to eminence: He fought several 
battles with Amir Hasan Buzurg (q.v.), and 
nut his death accidentally by the hands of a 
quarrelsome wife, in December, a.d. 1343, 
Rajah, a.h. 741. 

Hasan Maimandi (^s^A^t 



It is asserted by some that he was one of the 
ministers of Sultan Mahmud of Gbazni. 
This statement is altogether incorrect and 
unfounded, says Sir H. Elliot, as it is not 
mentioned by any great historian. But his 




son who is commonly called Ahmad-bin-Hasan 
Maimandi was a minister of that monarcli. 
Hasan Mainland! was. during the lifetime of 
Sultan Nasir-uddin Subaktagin, employed as 
Diwan or Collector of Revenues at Qasba 
Bust ; but Nasir-uddin was led by the - 
machinations of his enemies to entertain an 
unfavourable opinion of him, till he was at 
last, in consequence oi his having been con- 
victed of extortion and fraud to a large 
amount, hanged by order of that Sultan ; so 
that the general notion which prevails thai 
he was the wazir of Sultan Mahmud, is 

Hasan, Mir (^^ 


-), a Hindustani 

poet of Lucknow, and author of the noyel 
called Masnawl Mir Hasan, containing the 
loves of Badr-i-Munir and Benazir in Urdu 
verse, which he completed and dedicated to 
Nawab 'Asaf-uddaula in the year ad. 1785, 
a.h. 1199. It is also called Sahr-ul-Bayan. 
His ancestors were of Unfit, but he was born 
at Dehli and went early in life to Lucknow, 
where he was supported by Nawab Safdar 
Jang and his son Mirza Nawazish All Khan. 
He is also the author of a Diwan of about 
8000 verses, and of a Tazkira of Urdu poets. 
HediedinA.D. 1790, a.h. 1204. His father's 
name was Mir Ghulam Husain Zahik. 

Hasan Mirza 0;...« ,._**..>.), son of 

Miilla Ahdur Razzaq of Lahijan. He has 
left some noble compositions, such as The 
True Light on the articles of Faith, The 
Beauty of good Men i>i their Works, a pious 
treatise, and some others. He died in the 
beginning of the 18th century. 

Hasan, Maulana (L' S J».-« 



learned Musalman who lived in the time of 
the emperor Jahanglr and wrote a chronogram 
on the sudden death of Shaikh 'All Ahmad, 
son of Shaikh Husain Naqshi, in the year 
a.d. 1609, a.h. 1018. 

Hasan Mutkallim, Maulana ( .._***-=- 

\J$*-* *J_XJw«), a poet and pupil of 

Maulana Muzaffar of Herat. He flourished 
in the reign of Malik Ghayas-uddin Kart II. 
in whose name he composed a book on the 
art of poetry. 

Hasan Ran (^^j , ,,^=0, a Persian 


r^j M_r^= 

), the 

Hasan Sabbah (_l_*_,j _>. 
Z • ^ 
founder of the dynasty of the Isma'ills in 
Persia. He was styled Shaikh-ul-Jabal, an 
Arabic title, which signifies " the chief of 
the mountains." The name by which this 
ruler and his descendants are indiscriminately 
known in European history is, "The Old 

Man of the Mountain." nis followers or 

idants were also called Hasani, and the 

English word " assassin," is supposed to 

have been formed from a corruption of this 
term. Hasan Sabbah was at first a mace- 
bearer to Sultan Alp Arsalan; but in con- 
sequence id' a quarrel with Nizam-ul-Mulk, 
the minister of that prince, he retired to Lai, 
his native country, and from thence, to 
Syria, where he entered into the service of a 
chief of the family of [sma'il the son of 
Ja'far Sadiq, and adopted the tenets of that 
sect. The first object of Hasan was to 

ss himself of a stronghold; and he 
succeeded in gaining by stratagem the moun- 
tain tort of Alahmut, situated between 
Qazwin and GUan. The fort was built by 

n-bin-Zaid in the year a.d. 860, a.h. 
246, and Hasan Sabbah took it in a.d. 1089, 
a.h. 482. From this fortress be commenced 
depredations on the surrounding country, and 
added several other hill forts to the one he 
had already seized. That of Rodbar, which 
i- also near Qazwin, was next to Alahmut in 
consequence. Malik Shah Saljuki, the reign- 
ing Sultan, had sent a force to reduce him, 
but without any success. In the month of 
October, a.d. 1092, Ramazan, a.h. 485, 
Nizam-ul-Mulk, who was then following the 
mval camp from Isfahan to Ba gh dad, was 
stabbed by one of the followers of Hasan Sabb ih 
who was his personal enemv. Hasan Sabbah 
died in a.d. 1124, 26th Rabi II. a.h. 518. 
Rukn-uddin, who was the last of this family, 
and who is better known under the name of 
Qahir Shah or Khur Shah, alter a weak and 
ineffectual struuu'le fell In tore Halaku. That 
conqueror not only made him prisoner, but 
took and dismantled all his strongholds. This 
event took place in the month of November, 
a.d. 1256, Zi-Qada" a.h. 654. It was his 
father Ala-uddin Muhammad who forced 
Nasir-uddin Tusi to remain with him lor 
some years, till he was released by Halaku. 
Ivhan. Vide Ismail and Ismailis. The 
successor of Hasan was Buzurg Umaid. 
[Hasan Sabbah and the minister had both 
been schoolfellows at Umax Khayyam (q.v.).~\ 

Hasan Salimi ( 


c/ A 

) . Vide 

Hasan Sanjari, Khwaja ( .. 

d^^>- ^j. stLj), also called Khwaja 

Hasan Dehlawi, a celebrated Persian poet 
of Dehli, who was a contemporary- of the 
famous Amir Kluisro, and had become at 
the age of 50 years a disciple of Shaikh 
Nizam-uddin Aulia. He died, according to 
the author of the Mirat-ul-Khayal, in the 
Dcccan in the year a.d. 1307. a.h. 707, and 
is buried at Daulatabad. He is the author 
of several works, amongst which is a Diwan, 
and one called Fawaed-ul-Fawad, a collection 
of letters written by Nizam-uddin Aulia to 
his disciples. Talib says he died in a.d. 
1337, a.h. 73S. His father name was Alui 




Hasan, Shaikh (^rr-' ,.-«.-»), the son 
C *-' 
of Shaikh Nazar-ullah. He i- the author oi 
a work called Sarat Istakam. lie died iu 
Mlrat in the year a.h. 1078. 

Hasan Khan Shamlu ( A->- .<-»*-=>- 
•Ju^»L«Jb), governor of Herat under 

Shah Abbas II. and his bod Shah Sulaiman. 
He died in a.d. 1697, a.h. 1 109, and is the 
author of a Diwan. 

Hasan, Sayyad ( J:i A-~.- -^=-), of 

Ghazni, a poet who flourished in the reign of 
Sultan Bahrain Shah the Ghaznavida, and 
is the atithi'i' of a Diwan. J 1 • i died 

Sayyad Easan-al-Husainl. He died on the 
way while returning from Mecca, in thi year 

A.D. 1170, A.H. 565. 

Hasham (i^jCL*! 1 A r x ^ *11a), the 

son of Abdul Malik, and the tenth Khalif 
ni the house oi (Jmai aco eded 

his brother Yazid II. in a.d. 7'Jl. a.h. 105. 
He conquered the Khaqan oi Turkistan, and 
made war against Leo III. the Isaurian. II- 
was always attended by GOO camels to carry 
his splendid wardrobe. He died after a reign 
of IS) years 7 months and 11 days in the year 
a.d. 743, a.h. 125, and was succeeded by 
Walid II. son of Yazid II. In his time 
lived the celebrated Majnun, the lover of 

Hashim (*«£,U), a poet who nourished 

at Burhanpur in the I U ccan in the reign ol the 
em pi ror Jahangirand was a disciple oi shaikh 
Ahmad Faruqi, commonly called Shaikh 
Ahmad Saihindl. He is the author of a 
Diwan and several other books, and was alive 
in a.d. 1646, a.h. 10.J6. 

Hashim (*JLljs\ the son of Abdul 

Manaf, was the father of Abdul Muttalib, 
who was the father of Abdullah and grand- 
father of Muhammad the prophet of the 
Musulmans. He succeeded his father as 
president of the Ka'ba, aud raised the glory 
of his people to the highest pitch ; insomuch 
that the neighbouring great nun and In ads 
of tribes made their court to him. Nay, so 
great veneration is the memory of Hashim 
held in by the Arabs, that from him the 
family of Muhammad among them are called 
Hashimites. He died at Ghaza in Syria, 
and was succeeded by his son Abdul Muttalib, 
who became president of the Ka'ba. 

Hashimi Kirmani ( ^U.S" ,^-tU), 

o J 

author of a poem or Masnawi called Mazhar- 
ul- Astir. He died in a.d. 1541, a.h. 94S. 

Hashmat (^-.^Jl.=0, the poetical 

name oi Mir Muhtashim All Khan, whose 
ancestors were oi Badakhahan, hut he 
born in 1). hli. He died about the year a.d. 
1748, a.h. 1161, aud ha a Diwan of 7oo 

\. i 

Hashmat (c^-^J-^ ), the poetical 

name of Bakhshi All Khan, which 

Hasrat (^j^s^), the poetical name 

of Sayyad Muhammad, who died in the reign 
ol tin emperor .Muhammad Shah. 


), poetical name of 

Hasrat d, 

Mir Muhammad Hayal oi Patna who had 
the title of Ilaibat Quli Khan. 1 1 ■ was i"r 
Bome time attached to tin Bervic< oi Nawab 
Shaukat Jang at Purania, and for some time 
tn that i.t Siraj-uddaula ol Murshidabad. He 
died in a.d. L800, a.h. 1216, ami hit a 
Diwan of 20U0 m i - 

Hasrat (o.y^rO, poetical appellation 

of Mir/a Ja'far 'All, an Urdu poet who 
flourished in the latter part oi the 18th 
century, and gave instructions in the art of 
poetrj t" Nawab Muhabbat Khan at Lucknow. 

Hasrati ( 

). Vide Shefta. 

Hatifi, Maulana (\J}yt Ju\jb) t the 
poetical name of Abd-ullah, the son of 

Maulana Ahdlir Kahmall Jalni's sister. He 

was born in Jam. a city oi Herat, ami died 

there in tin year a.h. 1521, a.h. '.'21, and 
was buried in the village of Kharjard. lie 
was a good poet, and author ol several works. 
1 [aving finish d his studii -. and* r the patron- 
age and instruction of his uncle Hatifi, with 
his permission, secluded himself from the 
world. When Shah Isma'il Safwi fought 
the Ozbak Tartars in Khurasan, and slew 
Shahibeg Khan their chief in a.d. 1508, a.h. 
914, he prevailed on our poet to quit his cell, 
aud come to court. Solely ambitious of 
rivalling th< Khamsaor five poems oi Nizami, 
he wrote iu imitation of them his Laill and 
Majnun, Khutro and Shvrxn, Haft Manzar, 
tin Taitnur Noma, which is also called 
Zafarnama, and in imitation of the Sikaudar 
Nama, he undertook a heroic poem in praise 
of his patron, called Fatuhat Shahl, which he 
did not live to finish. Among the numerous 
Persian poems on the story of Laill aud 
Majnun, that of Hatifi seems universally 
esteemed the simplest aud most pathetic. 

Hatim ( JIL *}UO, commonly called 

Hatim Tai, a famous Arabian Chief of the 
tribe of Tai, celebrated for his liberality, 
■wisdom and valour. He flourished before 
the birth of Muhammad, and his sepulchre 
may still be seen at a little village called 




Anwarz iu Arabia. There is an account of 
his adv.n'iur, s in the romance entitled Hatim 
Tdl ia Persian, whichhas alsob en translated 
into Urdu. An English translation of this 
romauee was made by Duncan .Forbes, A.M., 
from the Persian. 

Hatirn (^\ *JU0, surnaraed Al- 

Asamm, that is to say, the di at', \v;is a gr< ;it 
Musuluiau doctor, much esteemi d for his piety 
and doctrine. He was a disciple of Shaqiq 
BalkLI and master of Ahmad Khizroya. He 
died a.d. 861, a.h. 237, in the reign of 
Mutwakkil the Khalif of Baghdad, and was 
buried at Balkh in Khurasan, his native 

Hatim Kashi, Maulana ( *,\£ J,"U- 

u^«), a poet of Kashiin in Persia, 

■who nourished in the reign of Shah Abbas 
the Great. 

Hatim U_vl_^), or Shah Hatim, 

poetical name of Shaikh Zahlr-uddin, a poet 
who was a contemporary of Wall (q.v.). He 
was horn at Dehli in a.d. 1699, a.h. 1111, 
and was a soldier by profession. He gave 
the first impulse to Urdu poetry in Dehli. 
Iu a.d. 1720, a.h. 1132, the Diwan of Wali 
was brought to Dehli and verses of it were 
on everybody's lips : this induced him and 
three friends of his, Nail, Mazrnun, and 'Abru 
to apply th. m- d\( - to id khta poetry. Up to 
the time of Hatim, it would appear that 
the Dehli poets wrote in Persian. He is the 
author of two Diwans in Urdu, one in 
imitation of Wali, and the other in imitation 
of Sauda and Mir Taqi. The date of Hatim' s 
death is unknown. His line?, a Zuda appeared 
in 1750. 

Hatim Ali Beg-, Mirza ( 
\jf ^J^i). Vide Mehr. 



Hawas (^yb), poetical title of Is T awab 

Mirza Taqi, son of Nawah Mirza Ali Khan. 
He is the author of the story of Laili and 
Majnun in Urdu, and of a Diwan iu which 
every Ghazal contains the name of Laili and 

Haya (L^), poetical title of Shio 

Pamelas, a Hindu, and brother of Raja Dava 
Mai Imtiyaz. He was a pupil of Mirza 
Abdul Qadir Bedil, and is the author of a 
Dlwan of about 5000 v srs . 

Hayat-ullah Ahrari (<lU1 c^L.^ 

oj^), author of the work called 

Hahata Alarfin, which contains the life of 
Abrsala. He died in a.h. 1061, and his 
tomb is in Agra. 

Hayati Mulla (1,„ ^L^), of Gilan, 

a poet. 

Hazin ( \ z jc^sr* ^.. 


the poetical name of Maulana Shaikh Muham- 
mad 'All, a Persian of distinction, eminently 
learned, aud accomplished. He fled into 
Hindustan from his native country to avoid 
the persecution of Nadir Shah hi 'a.d. 1733, 
a.h. 1146. He was a voluminous author 
both in prose and verse. He wrote his 
Memoirs in 1741, eight years alter his settle- 
ment for life in India," and it contains a 
variety of personal and historical anecdotes, 
excellent observations on men and manners, 
besides an interesting account of his travels, 
and remarks on many modern literary 
productions. A translation of this work, 
entitled The Life of Shaikh Muhammad Ali 
Jliizii/, was mail' by F. C. Belfour, F.B.A.S., 
and published in 1830. His father's name 
was Shaikh Abu Talib of Gilan, a descendant 
of Shaikh Tajuddin Ibrahim, commonly 
called Shaikh Zahid Gilani, who was the 
spiritual guide of Shaikh Safi-uddin Ardibeli. 
He was In nn at Isfahan on the 7th January, 
1602, o.s., 27th Rabi' II. a.h. 1103, was in 
Dehli at the time of Nadir Shah's invasion, 
and died in 1766, according to Sir Win. 
Ouseley, a.d. 1779, a.h. 1180, aged 77 lunar 
years, at Banaras (where he had built his 
own tomb some time before his death) ecpually 
admired and esteemed by the Musalman, 
Hindu and English inhabitants of that place. 
He is the author of several works in Persian 
and Arabic. 

Hazuq, Hakim (pS*. &<*[*•), son of 

Hakim Humam, the brother of Ahu'l Fat ha 
Gilani. He was a noble of the reign of the 
emperor Shah Jahan, a physician and a poet, 
and is the author of a Diwan in Persian. He 
died a.d. 1658, a.h. 1068. 

Hessing, Colonel John William, 

of Holland. He came to India and was at 
first employed by the Nawah Xiziini All Khan 
of the Deccan in the year a.d. 1763, a.h. 
1177, and afterwards by Madho Rao Sindhia 
iu 1784, alter whose death iu 1794, he 
continued in the service of his nephew Daulat 
Rao Sindhia, by whom he was appointed 
a Colonel in 1795, with the command of the 
fortress aud city of Agra. He died on the 
21st July, 1803, and was buried iu the 
Roman Catholic Burial- ground at Agra, 
where a splendid mausoleum of red stone was 
built by his children, with au English 
inscription on his tomb which is of white 

Hidayat (cuoU-Jb), poetical name of 

Hidayat Khan, the uncle of Nisar-ullah Khan 
Firak. He died in the year a.h. 1215, and 
leit a Diwiin. 




Hidayat-ullah (<dJ! e^A-Jk), author 

of a work on arte an 1 sci< tic Bcal mt- 

ul-Ramal, written in ad. 1601. 

Hidayat-ullah Khan (<lLJ1 c^X-Jfc 

u'.rk), great grandson of Khan 'Aziin 

Mirza Koka. He is the author of m history 
called Tarikh Hidayat-ullah Khan written in 
tin' year a.h. \<> 

Hijri (^js*), the poetical title of 

a poet who was a native of Konban bui lived 
in Bengal. He is the author of a Diwan in 
which tin re is a Q isid i oi a most wond rful 
composition. If you read the lii-t 1 n r oi 
ever] Misra', you b ive a Qita' in ] 
Nawab Sayyad Muhammad Riza Khan 
Muzaffar Jang. Some letters in thi ' ) 
axe writfc n in red, if you read them bj tie m- 
s slves, you have a Ghazal, and certain I> tl 
in the <ili i/ il form l: ba'I, and certain 
letters in the Ruba i \| -i.r. 11 n is 

living in A.D. 1766, a.h. 1 180. 

Hilal Qazwini ( 

author who died in a.d. L527, a.h. 934. 


Hilali ( -j\j1^\ JL), of Astarabad, 

was a Tartar of the tribe of Jhghtai or 
Chughtai. and author of a Diwan consisting 
of amorous odes. In his youth he travelled 
to Khurasan, and resided at Herat, where 
the illustrious Amir 'Alisheir conferred on 
him many favours. He was a Sunni by 
religion, and was, by the contrivance of his 
enemies, who were Shias, pui to death by 
order of one of the I'zbak chiefs in the year 
a i). 1530, ah. 936, bul accordiug to a honk 
called Tuhfa Shahi, in a.d. 1533, \ . n. 9 
IN is the author ol the following works, i 
Hhdh-wa-Darwesh, Laili-wa-Majnun, S 
ul-'JLshiqlm, and a Diwan. 

Hilni (*_Lp~), poetical name of Prince 

Mirza Said-uddin, commonly called Mirza 
Faiyaz-uddin, son oi Mirza Rayaz-uddiu a 
Mirza Muhammad Jan, son of Mirza Khurram 
Bakht, son of Mirza Jahandar Shah, son of 

Shah Alam, king of Dehli. He is the author 
of a Diwan. 

Hinimat Bahadur Gushain (, 

!^A^S i^v^), Diwan of Ghanl Baha- 
dur, Nawab of Bauda, and one of the 
Peshwa's (Baji Rao II.) principal officers in 

Bundelkhaud. lie joined the British troops 
under the command of Lieutenant- Colonel 
Powell in September, 1803, and gave battle 
to Shamsher Bahadur, Nawab of Banda, who 
was defeated and compelled to retreat with 
loss. Ilimmat Bahadur was a powerful 

commandi r of a large body "I h 

mi run- party ol (rushains or . 

i ir class of armed 1» . ; 
devotees of whom he was nol only the military 
had r, hut also the spiritual guide. II 
at K dpi in 1804, ami hi- familj waa pro- 
vided i. a- by tie British Government. 
[ Fide Hunt 


Himmat Khan ( .,' 

), was tlic 

in Jahan Shayasi 
oi the wazir Asai Khan. II buill hi- hi 

on the hanks c na in a year 

with many other buildh a- gard 

irs, hath-, etc., , tc.j ,,, u nich 

a reservoir, ■■< I: toll, 1 1, .. , t,-., : „v still r 

Hispro] - M tizaffar. 

Shah Jahan conferred "ii him the name 
ol Himniat Khan. In the L9th year of 
AJamgir he w.i- appointed governor of 
Allahabad. In the -jith year ol AJamgir, 
the appointment oi Bakhigani was conferred 
on him : and in the 30th year <>t Alamglr, he 
■in appointed governor oi Allah a 

Himu (»^sA. a banian or Indian shop- 

k ■ ;■■ r "i i : ! r. whom Salim 

a. king oi Dehli. had ma le supi rin 
of the markets. In the reign of Muhammad 
Shah 'Adil, he was appointed his wazir, and 
intrusted with the whole administration of 
affairs. Thi- person in the beginning "t the 
reign oi the emperor Akbar laid -i gi t.> 
Agra, and having reduced it proceeded to 
I' bli which also surrendered, and Tan I 
governor ol that place, who fled to Sarhind, 
w - -■ ized by Bairam I\_h in the 

minister "i Akbar, and beheaded for abandon- 
ing Dehli, wlnr.- he might have defended 
himself. Himu was afterwards defeated and 
made prisoner in a battli fought al Panipat 
on Thursday the 5th November, \ d. 1556, 
2nd Muharram, a.h. 964, and broughl into 
the presence of the king by Bairam Khan, 
who begged him to kill the infidel with his 
own hand. Akbar who w.;- then ill his 
tin. i i- in order to fulfil the w ish of 

hi- minister, drew his sword and touched the 
head of the captive, while Bairam Khan, 
drawing his own sabre, at a single blow 
severed the head oi Himu from his body. 

Hinda (ssj*Js), the daughter of Utba 
and wife of Ahii Sufi an. 
\_Vidc Hamzii (Amir).] 

Hindal Mirza Oj.-* JLl^.a0. Vide 
Handal Mirza. 

Hindu Rao (A. ,jojs>), the brother of 

Bija Bai [q.v.), the wife of Maharaja Daulat 
Rao Sindhia. His Kothi or Rekka House 
on a hillock is well-known at Dehli. He died 
in a.d. 1855. [He was fond of the society 
of Englishmen in India, among whom he was 
very popular.] 




Hira Singh (lX; ? M , Jyb), a Sikh 

Chief and minister of Maharaja Dilip Singh 
of Lahore. He was murdered with many 

others about the beginning of January, 1845. 

Hirpaldeo (yjjbyu), the son-in-law 

of Ramdeo, Raja of Deogir, who by the 
assistance oi the other Rajas of the Deccan, 
had recovered his country from the Musal- 
mans, lmt Mubarik Shah, the son of Ala- 
uddin Khilji, in the second year of his reign, 
a.d. 1318, a.h. 718, marched towards the 
Deccan, took Hirpaldeo prisoner, flayed him 
alive, and hung his body at the gate of 
Deoeir which is now called Daulatabad. 

Hisam-bin- Jamil (I 



» w.>-), 

surname of Abu Sahl - al - Baghdad!, who 
passed for one of the best traditionists of 
Musalmanism. He died in a.d. "'-''2, a.h. 

Hissan (c^lj ^: ^L^O, the son of 

Sabit, was a poet and companion of Muham- 
mad. He is tlir author of a Diwan in Arabic. 
"When Muhammad overcame his enemies at 
the battle of Khandaq, Hissan wrote a lew- 
verses on that occasion ; the prophet was so 
much delighted, that he gave him Shiiin 
the sister of Maria Qabti, for wife. 

Hissan-al-Hind (jCv_^J! ^Lu^), that 

is, the Hissan of India, a title which Mir 
Gulam 'All Azad assumed. 

Holkar. Vide Malhar Rao I. The 
word means "Ploughman." 

Hormisdas. Vide Hurmuz. 

Hoshang (LjCiwi^Jb), second king of 

the first or Pishdadian dynasty of Persia, was 
the son of Sayamak, and grandson of Kyomurs 
whom he succeeded. He reigned 40 years 
and was succeeded by his son Tahiiiurs, 
commonly called Deoband, or the Magician 
binder, a title he derived from the success 
with which he warred against the enemies of 
his family. 

Hoshang Shah (*L*, ^jLu-^^S) (for- 
merly called Alp Khan), was the first Muham- 
madan king of Malwa, and the son of Dila- 
war Khan Ghori who was governor of that 
place from the time of Muhammad Shah, 
a.d. 1401, son of Firoz Shah Tughlaq, king of 
Dehli. After his father's death, which happened 
about the year a.d. 1405, a.h. 808, taking- 
advantage of the times, he became entirely 
independent and assumed the title of Sultan 
Hoshang Shah. He reigned 30 lunar years, 
and died on the 17th July, a.d. 1434, 9th 
Zil-hijja, a.h. 837. He' was buried in a 
stone vault, and a splendid mausoleum of 

white marble was built over it which is still 
to be seen at Mando. The date of his death 
is to be found in the three last words of a 
tetrastich translated thus by General Brisffs. 
Wli ii deatli had sealed the Hoshaug's fate, 

And he prepared to tread on Lethe's shore, 
I asked a poet to record the date, 

Who briefly said, 

Shah Hoshang is no 


He was succeeded by his son Sultan 
Muhammad Shah, who was poisoned altera 
reign oi one year and nine months by 
Mahinud Khan (the son of his Wazir), who 
took the title of Malimud Shah and ascended 
the throne of Malwa on Tuesday the loth 
May, a.d. 1136, 29th Shawwal, a.h. 839. 

List of the kings of Malwa, whose capitals 
were Dhar, Mando or Shadiabad. 

Dilawar Khan Ghori, governor. 

Hoshang Shah Gtiori. 

Muhammad Shall Ghori (also called Ghaznl 

Malimud Shah Khilji. 

Sultan Ghayas-uddin Khilji. 

Suhan Nasrr-uddln Khilji. 

Sultan Malimud II. the last of the Khiljis. 

Iu his time Malwa was incorporated with 
the kingdom of Gujrat by Bahadur Shah 
(about a.d. 1523). 

Hoshdar Khan (^U- \^t>^b), a title 

of Hidayat-ullah Khan, the son of Iradat 
Khan Wazah. He was honoured with this 
title by the emperor Farrukh-siyar, and after 
his father's death with that of Iradat Khan 
and the Faujdarl of Dfihipeivya in the 
province of Malwa. Iu the sixth year of 
Muhammad Shah, a.d. 1724, a.h. 1136, he 
attended Xizam-ul-Mulk 'Asaf Jah to the 
Deccan, and after the victory over Mubariz 
Khan, was appointed Diwiln of the Deccan 
with the rank of 4000. He was afterwards 
appointed governor of Kulburga in the Deccan 
and died in the year a.d. 1744, a.h. 1157. 
He had many sons, most of whom died in his 
lifetime. His eldest surviving son, Hafez 
Khan, succeeded him in the government of 
Kulbarga which he held at that time. Shah- 
nawaz Khan wrote the Masir-ul-Umra, or 
Biography of Nobility. 

Hoshmand Begam (^~Co X*aJ**&), 

daughter of Sultan Khusro, married to Prince 
Hushang, the son of prince Danial in the 
year a.h. 1035. 

Hujjat (c^-s^), poetical name of 
Nasir Khusro, which see. 

^^), a 
a celebrated 

Hujjat-ul-Islam (,»L^ 

title of Muhammad Gliazzall, 
doctor of the Musalman law. 
[ Vide Gliazzall.] 

Huma (Ujb), poetical name of Sayyad 

Imtiyaz Khan, a son of Mo'tmid Klian, and 
a brother of Sayyad Ahmad whose takhallus 
was Zaniir. He is the author of a Diwan. 




in ma 

Humai, Queen (^L^.fc), was the 

daughter of I! dnmm, who is also called 
Ardisher Darazdast (Artaxerxes Longimanus 
of the Greeks). Sin- succeeded ber fathei as 
queen of Persia, in the fourth century before 
Christ. She built the city called Simrah, 
which the author of the Labb TawartJA - 
bore also the name of Simirem, and is the 
same which is at this day called Jarhadakan. 
The Persian authors Btate, that when she 
ascended the throne, Bhe was pregnant by her 
own father. Shame led ber to conceal this 
circumstance; and the child, of which sin 
was delivered, was given over to a nurse to 
be put to death. The life of the child. 
however, was miraculously preserved; and 
the unnatural mother firsi recognis d her son 
when his fortune and valour bad advanced 
biin to the rank oi a \ ictorious rem ral in her 
army Humai immediately resigned the 
crown to him. and retired to a private life 
alter she had reigned 32 vears. Ber son 
reigned about 12 years, and is called by the 
Persians Dara or Darab I. 

Humam, Hakim (*-£=»- aUa), brother 

of Hakim Abu'l l-'atht Gilani, a well 
educated and learned man in the service of 
the emperor Akbar. He was sen! by that 
monarch on an embassy, in company with 
Sayyad Sadr Jahan, to Abdullah Khan 
Uzbak, ruler oi Khiurasan, aboui the year 
A.n. 1589, ah. 997. He died iii a. li. 1595, 
a. ii. LOO*, and I it two sou-. Hakim Sadiq 
and Hakim Khushhal. 

Huniain (^L^Jb), poetical name of 

K a in a 1 -mid In Muhammad bin- Abdul- Wah- 
hab, styled by Arabshah, " One oi the mosl 
illustrious doctors of the member of the 

Sadat."' that is to s iv. oi the race "I All. 
lie lived ill the time ■ •! Amir Tainiur 
(Tamerlane and died in ah. 1457, a.m. Mil. 
lie i- author of a Comm< ntary on the Hi day a 

His proper name is Kanial-uddln Muhammad- 
al-Siwasi, which sec. 

Huinam Tabrezi, Khwaja (*L^_j> 

JmjJ), a celebrated Persian poet of 

Tauris or Tahrez, and author of a collection 
of Rubais or quatrain verses called Eubaydt 
Mir Humam. He was a contemporary and 
rival wit of Shaikh Sa'di. Me tin- Sa'di one 
day in a bath, Humam, observing Sa'di to be 
very bald, presented to him a basin with the 
bottom upwards: asked him "Why do the 
heads of the people of Shiraz resemble this ?" 
Sa'di, having turned the basin with the 
empty side upwards, replied, "First tell me, 
why do the heads of the people of Tabrez 
resemble this':" Many other anecdotes are 
related of them. Humam died in the reigu 
of Aljaitii, emperor of the Mughals, in 
a.d. 1313, a.h. 713, and was buried at 
Tabrez. He is also called Khwaja Humam- 
uddiu Tabrezi. 

Huniam-uddin Tabrezi ( *}jl\ A*j& 

LJ " r 

,__> *„• -»1* ) . Vide Humam Tabrezi. 

Humayun (a^jst* ,.jjJ! ^ 

emperor ol Hindustan, surnamed Naslr-uddin 
Muhammad, was the eldest sonoi the emperor 
Babar Shah, was born at Kabul on the night 
>>\ Tuesday tin 7th March, a.h. 1508, 
•lih JJi-Qa'da, A .n. 9i3 | and his mother's 
n ime was Maham Begam. II succeeded 
bis father on the throne at Agra on the 
20th December, a.d. 1530, 6th Jumada 1. 
a.h. 937, ami conferred tin- government of 
Kabul, Qandahar, Ghazni, and tie- Panjah 
on his brother Mir/a Kainiraii : t" Mir/a 
Askari he gave the government oi Sarkar 
Sambhal, to Mir/a Handal, Sarkar Alwal, 
and the government ol Badakhshan t<> Mini 
Sulaiman, the son of Khan ML "ii of 

Sultan Muhammad, thesonoi Sultan Abu Said. 
Humayun was d Feated the first time bj Sher 
Khan afterwards Sher Shah) in a battle 
fought "ii the banks ol thi Chaunsa in B( bit 
on the 26tb June, a i>. 1539, 9th Safar, a h. 
'.Mi'., and tin- second time at Qannoj on the 
17th May. a.i>. 1540, lotli Muharram, a.h. 
The capital no longer afforded him a 
ol d Eug< : < ven hi- brothers became 
his i in inies. ami would not grant him shelter 
in their provinces. He fled from one place 
to another, subject at tinns to the L r i 
hardships; and was at last obliged to quit 
the kingdom and Beek an asylum in Persia, 
where he arrived in July, a.d. 1541, a.m. 
951, and was hospitably and honorably enter- 
tained lor some time by Shah Tahmasp of 
Persia, who assisted him with troops. During 
the absence "t Humayun, which extended to 
a period of fifteen years, five kings ascended 
the throne ol Dehli, viz. Sher Shah, hi- son 

Sallm Shah. M iihaininad Shah Adill, Ibrahim 

Khan, and Sikandar Shah. Humayun having 
overcome his brothers at Kabul and Qandahar, 
commenced his march from the former city 
in the month of January, a.d. 1555, Safar, 
a.h. 962, toward- India. He took the 
Punjab, and advancing toward- Dehli defeated 
Sikandar Shah on tin- 22nd June, a.d. looo, 
2nd Shaban, a.h. 962, in a battle fought at 
Sarhind. Sikandar. alter his defeat, fled 
to the mountains oi Sewalik, and Humayun 
having reached Dehli in triumph, became a 
second time emperor of Hindustan. Bairam 
Khan (q.v.), to whose valour and talent the 
king was principally indebted tor his restor- 
ation, was rewarded with the liist offices in 
tin state with the title of Khan Khanan. The 
year of this victory was found by Bairam 
Khan to be contained iu the words. "The 
sword of Humayun." Seven mouths alter 
this victory, on the 21st January, a.d. 1556, 
as Humayun was coming down at the time 
of evening prayers from th- terrace ot the 
Library at Dehli, he fell headlong down the 
steps, and died on the 25th Januarv, a.d. 1556. 
11th Rahi I. a.h. 963. The words "Alas! 
my sovereign fell from the terrace," are 
the English of the line recording the year 
of his demise. He was buried at Kiloghari, 





a distance of tour kos from the city of 
Shahjanabad on the banks of the river 
Jumna ; and a splendid monument was 
erected over his remains some years after by 
bis sun Akbar, who succeed d him. Humayun 
died at the age oi 49, alter a reign of 25 
ye ii's, including the tiite n years of his banish- 
ment from his capital. The foundation oi 
his mausoleum was laid in a.d. 1565, a.h. 
973, was superintended by Haji Begam, 
mother of Akbar, and was finished in 16 yi ars 
at a cost ot 15 lakhs of rup ies. Farrukh- 
siyar, 'Alamgir II. Dara Shikoh and other 
princes are also buried in this mausoleum, 
where the last of the dynasty took refuge in 
1857 (see above, in rue. Bahadur Shah II). 
Humayun, after his death, received the title of 
Jannat ' 

[For Humayun's character vide Keene'e 
Sketch of 'the History of Hindustan.] 

Humayun, Amir (j-^J ^.jL+Jfc), of 

Isfaraen, a poet who went early in life to 
Tabrez, and was supported by Qazi 'Isa, 
and Sultan Ya'quh, who called him Khusro 
Sam, that is, the second Khusro and Khusro 
Kochak. After the death of his patron, he 
went to Kashan and died there in a.d. 1496, 
a.h. 902. He is the autluir of a Diwan. 

Humayun Shah, Bahmani, Sultan 

named Zalim, or the Cruel, was the eleventh 
king of the Bahmani dynasty. He succeeded 
his father Sultan 'Ala-uddin II. Bahmani in 
the year a.d. 1458, a.h. 862, and causing 
his brother Hasan Khan's eyes to be put out, 
ascended the throne of the Deccan. According 
to the will of his lather, he conferred the 
office of Wakil - us - Saltanat ou Khwaja 
Mahmud Gawan, with the title oi Malik-ut- 
Tajjar and the government of Bijapur. He 
was an unjust prince and a great tyrant, on 
which account he was surnamed "the Cruel." 
He reigned 3 years 6 months and 6 days, and 
was murdered with one stroke of a heavy 
club on the 1st September, a.d. 1461, 28th 
Zi-Qa'da, a.h. 865, during a fit of intoxica- 
tion, by his own servants, who were wearied 
out with his inhuman cruelties. He was suc- 
ceeded by his sou Sultan Nizam Shah, then 
only eight years of age. See above in roc. 

Hunain (^ t ^.-..^), surname of Abu 

Zaid 'Abdur Bahman Hunain, son of Is-haq, 
son of Hunain, was a celebrated Christian 

physician who translated many books out of 
the Greek into Syriac and Arabic. 

Hurmuz or Hurmuzd I. (L> ',.,*..& 

OjsijJb), the third king of Persia, of 

the Sasanian race, was the son of Shahpur I. 
whom he succ< eded in a.d. 272. He is the 
Hormisdas of the Greek authors, and is said 
to have resembled, both in person and cha- 
racter, his grandfather (v. Ardisher Babegan). 
The mother of this monarch was the daughter 

of Mahrukh, a petty prince, whom Ardisher 
had put to death, and whose family he had 
persecuted, because an astrologer had pre- 
dicted that a descendant of Mahrukh should 
attain the throne of Persia. This lady had 
fled to the tents of a shepherd, where she was 
seen by Shahpur when hunting. This prince 
became enamoured, and married her privately. 
His father Ardisher, going one day unexpectedly 
to his son's bouse, saw young Hurmuz. He 
was greatly pleased with the appearance of 
the child and made inquiries, which compelled 
v Labpor to confess all that had happened. 
The joy of the old king was excessive " The 
prediction of the astrologers," he exclaimed, 
••which gave me such alarm is, thank God, 
continued, and a descendant of Mahrukh 
shall succeed to my crown." Hurmuz was 
a virtuous prince, but reigned only one year 
and ten days. He died about the year a d. 
273, and was succeeded by his son Bahrain I. 

Hurmuz or Hurmuzd II. ( c jl3 jui), 

the eighth kins: of Persia of the Sasanian 
race, lie succeeded his father Narsi about 
the year a.d. 303, ruled Persia seven years 
and five months and died a.d. 310. No 
events of any consequence occurred during 
the reign of this prince. At his death he 
lit no son; and the kingdom was on the 
point of being thrown into confusion, when 
it was declared that one of the ladies in the 
harem was pregnant, and that there were 
certain indications of the embryo being a 
male. Wlun the child was brought forth, it 
was named Shahpur, and every care was 
taken to give the young sovereign an education 
suited to his high duties. 

Hurmuz or Hurmuzd III. (j\.s$ Js 
l^-J.Ij), the second son of Yezdijard 

II. succeeded his father, of whom he was 
always the favourite, a.d. LjO. His elder 
brother Firoz, though at first compelled to 
fly across the Oxus, soon returned to assert 
his right at the head of a large army, which 
aided by a general defection of the Persians, 
who deserted his weak brother, obtained au 
easv victory, and the unfortunate Hurmuz 
was, after a short reign of little more than 
one year, dethroned and put to death a.d. 457. 

Hurmuz or Hurmuzd IV. (i_^ , Jl*^) 

(the Hormisdas III. of the Greeks) was 
declared successor to his father the great 
Chosroes, surnamed Nausherwan the Just, 
and ascended the throne of Persia a.d. 579. 
His subjects revolted against him at the 
instigation of Bahram Chobin or Varanes, his 
general, whom he had offended by sending 
him a female dress because he had been 
defeated by the Borosns. They confined 
Hurmuz and put out bis eyes to disqualify 
him from ascending the throne, and soon 
after put him to death a.d. 590. His son 
Khusro Purvez having collected a force to 
oppose Bahram, who with the intention of 
taking the government into bis own bands 
was advancing towards Madain, was defeated, 




and h iih gri it diffi ailty eff t sd his i -■ 
i i the territori - ol the R im ins Greeks , 
from whose emperor, Maurice, li ■ m it with 
the in ■-! friendly and hospitable reception. 
Bahrain Chobin took possession of tli i vacant 
governm nt, but his rule was Bhort, for 
within eight months from the period of his 
taking possession of Madain, he was defeated 
by an army of Romans and Persians com- 
mand d by Khusro, and fled to Tartary. 

Husain ( .,^^u^»-), poetical name of 

Muzaffar Eusain, an author who is also 
called Shahid or Martyr. He i- the author 
oi the work called Kayaz-w-Salikim. 

Husain Ali Khan Bahadur ( .,^_^_>- 

^Lv-j ^Ls- uL:), second son of 

Alahwirdi Khan, a nobleman ol high rank 
who served under the emperor 'Alamgir, and 
died on the 3rd October, a.d. 1686, 2oth 
Zi-Qa'da, a.m. 1097, a day alter the fori ol 
Bljapur was taken. See abov< in voc. Alah- 

Husain Ali Khan, Sayyad ( . n ... f^ 

•X-* — j (jLc*- J_z), Amir-ul-Umra. 

Vide Abdullah Khan (Sayyad). 

Husain-bin-Alim (^Jlc ^ ^j****-), 

author of the Nuzhat-ul- Arwah, containing 
interesting anecdotes ol the most celebrated 

[ Vide Husain-bin-Hasan-al-Hasani.] 

Husain - bin - Hasan - al - Husaini 


j .h^m.=»- ), a native 

of GJhor and author of several works, viz. Kanz- 
ul-Ramuz, Si A . \ izhat-ul- Arwah, 
Ziul -id- Musa farin . Ta rab-ul- M aj <l I i 8 . 
Huh - hI - Arwah, Sirat - ul- Mustaqim, and 
of a DTwan in Arabic and Persian. He died, 
says Jami, in the year a.m. 1317, a.m. 717. 
and is buried at Herat. Firishta calls him 
Amir Husaini Sadat and says that he with 
his father Sayyad Najm-uddin came to India 
as merchants and became the disciples ol 
Shaikh Baha-uddln Zikaria at Multan. and 
died at Herat on 1st December, a.d. 1318, 
6th Shawwal, a.h. 718. 

Husain - bin - Muhammad, as - Sa - 

ma'ani ( .jU^odl j^s* j ,**>), 

author of the Khazanat-al Muftiln, which 
contains a large quantity of decisions, and 
is a book of some authority in India. It 
was completed in a.d. 1339, a.h. 740. 

Husain Dost Sambhali, Mir ( 

-.-.—-* fr *. 

Talib of Sambhal. 

i~*ij), son of Abu 
He is the author of a 

biography oi i ► •■ t - called TazHra Wutainl, 
which appears to have been compiled a fe* 

yi ire alter the death oi Muhammad Shah 
th ■ emp r ir ol 1» hli, who died La a.d. 1748, 

A.H. 1101. 

Husain Ghaznawi (^jjlx , „ ,..q ) 

author of the story of Padmawal in Persian 
p .. try called Qistai Padmawat. 

Husain Hallaj , Shaikh (_^e>- *»**>. 

&?"*), the son of Mansur Hallaj. 

Many fables hive been invented to account 
for tin- imprudence oi this wj, teacher. One 
of the>e stab s, tint he obs irved his sister go 
out ever] evening; he followed her; having 
a her communicate with the Huries, and 
r. ■!■< ive from t i stial uymphs a cup 

ol nectar, he insisted on drinking one or two 
drops that remained ol this celestial liquor. 
Hi> sister told him he could nol contain it, 
and that it would cause hi- death. He per- 
sisted : from the moment thai he swallow d 
it he kept exclaiming " An-ul-Haq ! " that is, 
•■ I am the truth !" till he was put to death. 
[ Vide Mansur Hallaj.] 

Husaini ( ■..„....„.■»>), author of the 
Asindi Husaini and Maktubat Husaini. 


ibn - Muin - uddin Maibadi 

author ol 





religion, entitled 

Husaini Fathi-Ali, a Sufi of Dehll, 

author ol b biographical dictionary published 
1750-1. Mentioned as >till living in 1806 
by Qasim of Agra (q.v.). 

Husain, Imam (*LJ 

■), the 

1 son of "All. the son-in-law of Mu- 
hammad. He was born at Medina in January, 
a.d. 626, Shaban, a m. 4. and was the third 
Imam oi the raci oi 'AIT. Having refused 
to acknowledge Ya/Td the son of Mu'awia 
for the lawful Khahf, he was obliged to 
leave Medina and to fly to Mecca, but was 
overtaken on his way and killed by order 
of Ubaidullah-ibn-Zayad, one of Yazid's 
captains, on the 10th October, a.d. 680, 10th 
Muharram, a.h. 61. "Winn his head was 
brought to Ubaidullah at Kufa, he struck it 
over the mouth with a stick, and treated it 
with great contempt. He then sent it along 
with his family, who were made captives, to 
Damascus, where Yazid then reigned. The 
day on which lie was killed is still a great 
day amongst the Musalmans. He is buried 
at a place called Karbala in Babylonian Iraq 
or Chaldea near Kufa. Some pretend to 
show that Husain' s head was buried near the 
river of Karbala ; others say that there are 




no other traces of it remaining. However, 
the first Sultan of the race of Boyaides built 
on that spot a sumptuous monument, which 
is visited to this very day with great devotion 
by the Musulmans. It is called " Gunbaz 
Faiz," or the dome of grace. 

Husain Jalayer, Sultan (j*i 


I.L.L-j), grandson of Amir Hasan 

Buzurg, succeeded his father Sultan Awes 
Jalayer to the throne of Baghdad in ( (ctober, 
a.d. 1374, a.ji. 776, and tost his life in au 
action with his brother Sultan Ahmad, in a.d. 
1382, a.h. 784. 
[ Vide Hasan Buzurg.] 

Husain Kashi ( *,!£ 
author, who died in a.d. 1544, a.h. 951. 

), an 

Husain, Kashmiri {^^tS , 


author of the Persian work entitled Hiddyat- 
ul-'Aml, the Guide to the Blind, containing 

essays ou various religious subjects, Sufi 
doctrines, etc. 

Husain Khonsari (^Ljyt. ^^aO 

was one of the celebrated philosophers of 
Persia, surnamed from his birth-place Khonsar, 

a town between Teheran aud Kashan. He 

flourished in the latter part of the 17th 

Husain Langa I. (ifj ^mo^X third 

king of Multan, succeeded his lather Qutb- 
uddln Mahmud Langa in a.d. 1469, a.h. 
874. He entered into a treaty of alliance 
with Sikandar LodI, king of Dehli, and died 
about the year a.d. 904, or according to 
some, on Sunday the 28th August, a.d. 1502, 
26th Safar, a.h. 908, after a reign of 30 or 
34 years. He was succeeded by his grandson 
Mahmud Khan Langa. Firishta says that 
the Tawarlkh Bahadur ShaM, which contains 
the history of this prince, is full of error-, 
and the author of the Mirat- Sikandarl 
declares it to be absolutely unintelligible. 

Husain Langa II. (\£j ^^), fifth 

and last king of Multan, was, after the death 
of his father Mahmud Khan Langa in 1324, 
raised to the throne, although a minor. He 
was only a pageant in the hands of his sister's 
husband, Shujaa'-ul-Mulk, who assumed the 
office of protector. Shah Husain Arghun, 
king of Thatta, under the orders of the 
emperor Babar Shah, soon after besieged 
the place, which was at length, in the year 
a.d. 1526, a.h. 932, carried by escalade, after 
a siege of fifteen months. Husain Arghun 
having nominated one Lashkar Khan his 
deputy, returned to Thatta. When Babar 
Shah, during his illness, abdicated the throne 
in favour of his son Humavun, the latter 
prince gave the Pan jab in jagir to Mirza 

Kamran his brother, who on his arrival at 
Lahore sent for Lashkar Khan and made 
over the district of Kabul to him, in li u of 
that of Multan, since which time the kingdom 
of Multan has continued a province of the 
empire of Dehli. 

Husain Marwi (^, - 
Khwaja Husain Marwi. 


). Vide 

Husain Maibazi, Muin-udclin ( ._**«.->. 

C^. litf** IS 1 *-??*)} author of the 

Sajanjal-ul-Arwah, ox Mirror of Spirits, a 
selection from the Persian and Turkl poets. 
He flourished in the tenth century of the 

Husain Mashhadi (^jx^JL* tl>w *uj>»), 
a Persian poet. 

Husain Mirza (\ \^+ 

Sultan Husain Mirza. 

). Vide 

Husain Muammai, Mir ( rt _ AM _>^_ 

j-+-* iiUJ-«), a celebrated punster 
who died in the year a.d. 1498, a.h. 904. 

Husain Muin-uddin ( #t _^_*^* >yM*»- 

^Jjl), author of the FawStah Saba 
on Theology. 

Husain Naqshi, Mulla ( jUaj ..-wtto- 

L*), a learned Musalinan of Dehli. 

who was a good poet and an excellent 
engraver in the time of the emperor Akbar. 
He died on the 16th July, a.d. 1581, 14th 
Jumada II. a.h. 989. 

Husain Nizam Shah I. (^llij **«**>- 

&\j*) ascended the throne of Ahrnad- 

nagar in the Deccan in the 30th year of his 
age, after the death of his father Burhan 
Nizam Shah I. in the year a.d. 1554, a.h. 
961. In a.d. 1565, a.h. 972, an alliance 
was formed between him and the three 
Sultans, viz. 'All 'Adil Shah of Bijapur, 
Ibrahim Qutb Shah of Golkanda and Amir 
Band of Admadabad Bidar, against Ramraj, 
Raja of Bijanagar, who was defeated and 
slain. Husain Nizam Shah died eleven days 
after his return from this expedition, on 
Wednesday the 6th June, a.d. 1565, 7th 
Zi-Qa'da," a.h. 972, and his son Murtaza 
Nizam Shah succeeded him. The death of 
Nizam Shah has been commemorated in the 
following chronogram: "The sun of the 
Deccan has become obscured." 




Husain Nizam Shah II. (*Uaj -^.^ 

i li^ 

(jJLi »\-£>), a nominal prince of the 

Nizam Shah! dynasty. 

\Vide Fatha Khan, the son of Malik 

Husain Sahzwari (^,1.:^- .^^ ), 

a native of Sabzwar, and author irks 

entitled Lataef Wazdef and Eahat- 
Arwdh, books on Sufiism, containing 
1"-: means of obtaining salvation and rules 
for moral conduct. 

Husain Sadat, Mir (_^;L % Lj -**u5*. 

^._-._^»). Vide Eusain-bin-Hasan-al- 

Husain Shah (j 

I * 


Vide 'Ala-uddin Husain Shah. 

Husain Shah Lohani, Pir ( ,.^.> 

j~^ ^_'l_i>»j sui), a Muhammadan 

saint whose tomb is in Munghlr, where both 
Hindus and Muhammadans make offerings 
especi illy on their marriages and other special 

Husain Shah Sharqi, Sultan ( , 

yj> Vt V ,. i ^-ij-* ~ sLi»), ascended the 

throne of Jaunpur alter his brother Muham- 
mad Shall, who was slain in battle aboul the 
year a. i). 1452, a.ii. 856. He (ought several 
battles with Bahlol Lodi, the kin- oi Dehli, 

and was at last defeated, and bo closely 
pursued that he Kit his horse and escaped on 
toot. The army oi Dehli advanced without 
any other check to Jaunpur, which fell to the 
arms of Bahlol, while Husain Shah, abandon- 
ing his capital, was obliged to content Inn, 
with a small trad ol country yielding only 
a revenue of five lakhs of rupi s. Bahlol 
having delivered over Jaunpur and its 
kingdom to his own son Barbak, enjoined 
him no1 to deprive Husain Shall ol the -mall 
tract to which he was confined, termini.'- it 
his family estate. This event took place 
about the year a.d. 1476, a.ii. 881, and the 
subversion of the Sharqi dynasty may be 
dated from that year. The reign of Husain 
Shah lasted for a period of H) lunar years. 
Some years after the death of Bahlol Lodi 
(which happened in a.d. 1489, a.ii. 894) 
Husain Shah incited the prince Barbak to 
rise up against his brother Sikandar Lodi, 
king of Dehli, and wrest th i government out 
of his hands ; but Barbak was defeated in 
the first action and retired to Jaunpur, to 
which place he was pursued by the king. 
Jaunpur fell shortly after, aud was added to 
the kingdom of Dehli. Husain Shah was 
now induced to seek refuge with 'Ala-uddin 
Purbi, king of Bengal, by whom he was 

1 with the respect due to hi- si ition till 

hi- death, which took plaee in A.D. 1 I'.t'.t. 
a ii. 905. With him the royal 1; 
Jaunpur was extinguished. 

Husain Shah, Sayyad <\Li ^ - ... ~ 

a-—-\ author of the story of Bahrain 

Gor, entitled Hasht Gulgasht, which he n 
into prose from the Hasht Bahisht ol Amir 
Khu-ro in the year a.d. 1800, am. 1215, on 
the requisition oi M. C 1F1 rron, who 
s< rved inch r Daulat Rao Sindhia. 

{Vide llak-Ik-at.] 

Husain - uddin Husain 


c-C ,.-' 

is -aid to have been a pupil of Burhan-uddin 
'Ali, was the first who wrote a commentary 
on the Hidaya, entitled theAlAaya. 

Husain Waez, Maulana (lacl, ^^->. 

ity), surnamed KashifT, was a man 

ol c ina qui nee in the time of Sultan Husain 
Mirza, surnamed Abu'l Ghazi Bahadur of 
Khurasan, and held the i d hi raid 

in the city ol Unfit till th. Hijri year 910, 
on tin- la-t day oi which he expired, i.e. on 
the 3rd June, \.u. 1505, 30th Zil-hijja, 
a.ii. '.Mn. He i- the author of a commi ntary on 
the Quran, commonly caUi <■■ . ini, 

which he i nt it' / ib ' ' 

one * nt it 1. d Jawdhir- ut- i Besides 

these, he wrote s. vera! other work-, anioi 
which are the fi - sh-Shuha . an 

exceUenl history oi Muhammad with a minute 

detail of the battle I I 1\ i ; dedicated to 

Sultan Husain Mirza in a.d. 1501, an abridg- 
iii nt of which is called Dah Majlis. His 
Akhldq Muhsinl is a very vain item of 

Ethics, treating upon worship, prayer, 
patience, hope, chastity, etc., dedicated to 
the same Sultan A.D. 11 nt. a.ii. 900, the 
title of which gives thi yearol it- completion. 
The Anwai • . Rays of the star Canopus, 
is a translation of Pilpay's Fables in 
1' lsian, dedicated to Amir Shaikh Ahmad 
Suheli, - irer to the Sultan. II. calls 
himself in thi- book Maulana Husain-bin- 
'All-al-Waez surnamed Kashifi. He also 
made an abridgment of Moulwi Bumfs 
Masnawi which he called Lubb-i-Labdb. He 
i- also the author of the works caUed Makhzan- 
ul-Inshd, Saba Kashifia (on astrology), Asrdr 
Qdsiml, Matla-'ul- Anwar, and of a collection 
of Anecdotes called / - i-Tawdef. This 

author is by some writers called Kamal-uddin 

Huzuri, Mir ( ~*-* 





Amir Sayyid 'All Mnhtasib. He lived in the 
time of Shall Isma'il Safwl, and wrote a 
chronogram on his accession to the throne of 
Persia in the year a.d. 1576, a.h. 9S4. He 
is the author of a Diwan. 



Ibn-Abi Tai ( i, .1 A), author of 

the work called JTtlad Ar Sauzatain. 

Ibn-Abu Usaiba, Muwafliq - uddin 
Abu'l Abbas Abmad (L^*/ ,J 

S*z~\ (jwLj«J'»j1 jjJI^L'h), author 

The Arabie work called Ayun-al- Anba-fi- 
Tabqat-ul-Atibba, i.e. Fountains of inf on 
tiou respecting the class Physicians. 

This lio^k was translated hy the author into 
Arabic from the Sanskrit at the comniei. - 
ment of the 13th century of our era. In the 
12th chapter of tlii- work, he gives au account 
oi all the Physicians who were from India. 
Of one. whom he calls Kanka-al- Hindi, he 
says : He was skilful as a philosopher aim 
ancient philosophers of India, and one of I 
greatest of men. He ii. 1 the ari 

physic, the power of medicines, the nature of 
compound substances, and the properties of 
simple substances. He was the most Learned 
of all men in the form of the universe, the 
composition of the heavenly bodies, and the 
motions of the planets. An extract from 
the above work is given iu the Jour, of 
the Royal As. S c. No. 11. by the Rev W. 
Cureton with remarks by I" H. H. 

Wilson. Ibn-Abu Usaiba died iu a.d. 1269, 
a.h. 668. 

Ibn-Amin ( ,^.*\ <'). 
Tamin or Amir Mahmud. 

Vide Ibn- 

Ibn-'Arabi ( 

—z j.--^), surname of 

Shaikh Muhl-uddln Abu 'Abdullah - bin- 
Muhammad-bin -'Ali-al-Tai-al - Hatimi - al- 
Andalusi. a celebrated doctor of Damascus to 
whom, the Muhanmiandans pretend, was 
dictated or inspired, or m heaven, hy 

their prophet iu the year a.d. 1229. a book 
of mystical divinity, called Fasus-tUSakam. 
It contains 27 Hukanis or Instructions ; each 
of which is attributed to one of the ancient 
patriarchs or prophets, excepting the last, 
which belongs to Muhammad, and is entitled 
Haham Fardiyat Muhammadiat. The Musal- 
nian doctors are very much divided as to the 
merit of this work : for some praise it. and 
others absolutely reject it as being full of 
superstition and falsehood. He is also the 
author of several other works, one of which 
is called Fatuhdt Makkia. He died in a.d. 

1240. a. it. 63S. — There appears to be another 
Ibn - 'Arabl, who died in Sarmanrae, in 
Baghdad, in the year a.d. 1040, or a.h. 431, 
and who was also an author of several works. 

Ibn-Arabshah (il 



of Ahmad -bin- Muhammad, a native of 
Damascus, w les a collection of Tales, 

wi'. " - ral other works in a very polished 
stvle, the most celebrated of which is a 
history of the Life of Amir Taimur 
Tamerlane) entitled Ajaeb-ul-Maqdur. He 
died at Damascus in the year a.d. 1450, a.h. 

[Also called Arab Shah (;.«.)]. 

rbn-'Asir(_J! , : \) y al-Shaibani Majtl- 

uddin, also called Jazari, a most celebrated 
Arabian author, of whom we have several 
works. He is the author of the Arabian 
work on Jurisprudence entitled Jatno l -ul- 
Usui, a work having great authority. 
Another of his works is called Kamil-ut- 
Tatcarikh. He is also known as Abu'l 
S "mat. Mubarik-bin-Asir-al-Jazari. com- 
monly called Ibn-Asir. He died a.d. 1209, 
a.h. 606. 

[ Vide Jazari.] 

Ibn-'Askar( <L«*i .jJi), an author who 
wrote the history of Damascus. 

Ibn-Babawia (<tujlj ,^). Vide Abu 
Ja'far Muhammad bin-'Ali-biu-Babawia. 

Ibn-Batuta (^ 

the Arab 

traveller whom Muhammad Tughlaq [q.v.) 
made Judge of Dehli. author of the 

work called Travels of Ibn-Batuta, which has 
been translated from the Arabic bv the 
Bev. S. Lee. B.D. London. 1829. Ibn- 
Batuta performed his pilgrimage to Mecca 
in a.d. 1332. a.h. 732. His work contains 
few facts concerning Arabia. His whole 
account of Mecca is, " Mav God ennoble it." 

Ibn-Bauwab (< 



Ibn-Daban (cO'^J ,y\). Vide Dahan. 





Ibn-Darastuya (dUjJ^J t-^), com- 
monly called so, bul his proper name is Abu 
Muhammad 'Abdullah, the son oi Ja'far, a 
very learned Musalman who died a.d. 958, 

a. ii. •'117, at Bagh Lad. 

Ibn-Dured (ju ,J ,.+j\), author of a 

dictionary and of a work entitled Gharib-ul- 
Quran, which is also called Jamhira. He died 
at Baghdad in a.d. 933, a.ii. 321. 

Ibn-Fakhr-uddin Anju ( >t ,»jjl^ 3 ,j| 

ys^\), author of tlio Farhang Jahun- 
fflrJ. Vide Jamal-uddin EusainAnju. 

Ibn-Farat (c^« ^1), author of the 
Geographical Memoirs of Egypt. 

Ibn-Farghani CjU^i ^,A), Shaikh 

Aliu T>:ikr Wasiti, a saint, who died about 
A. n. 320. 

Ibn-Fouraq (j ( y ^\). FiVfc Fouraq. 

Ibn-Ghayas (cL?l_-_i ,.._>!). J 77, 
Kamal-uddin Muhammad (Khwaja). 

Ibn-Hajar, Shahab-uddin C^sr*" ,j1 

jjJfcJol c_-?l^-i), son of 'All Usqalani, 

an Arabian author who wrote inure than a 
hundred books, anion;: wliieli are Lisdn-ul- 
Mizan and Asaba. lie died in a.d. 1449, 
a.h. 853. 

[ Vide Shahab-uddin Abu'l Fazl-al- 


Ibn - Hajar Yehsami or Yehthami 
(^♦a**^J \jS^~ ^}), son of Badr-uddln, 

author of the work called Sawaiq Muhriqa, 
and several other hooks. He died in a.d. 
1566, a.h. 974. 

Ibn-Hajib (, — ^U*. .1) an Arabian 

author of several works. He died at 
Alexandria in the year a.d. 1248, a.h. 646. 
He is the author of the two commentaries 
called Kafia and Slmjia. 

Ibn-Hanbali ( 



of Muhammad-bin-Ibrahim Hanbali, author 
of the TJddat - til - Hasib - ua - Umdat - id- 
Ma sahib, a hook of Arithmetic. He died 
a.d. 1563, a.h. 971, and is the author of 
several other works. 

Ibn-Hasham (*ll> ^), the author 

ol tli'- Slrat-ul-Rasul or Biography of //*>■ 
Prophet. His native place was Old Cairo, 
where he died in \.n. 828, a.h. 213. An 
abridgment of his work was m ide al Damascus 
in a. ii. 1307, a.h. 707. by one Alnnad Ibu- 

Ibn-Hasham (cjL-jJ ^ *ll> ^1), 

son of Yusaf, author of several Arabic 
works, anion-' which are Touzih, Sharah 
Alfia, etc. He died a.d. 1361, a.h. 702. 

Ibn-Hibban (,Jus- ^1), whose proper 
Lfir-uddin Muhammad, the son of YVa- the author of several woi-l-'-. 

II died at Damascus in th( year a.d. 1314, 
A.u. 745. 

Ibn-Hilal ( J)b> ^\), also caUed Alfu, 

is the author of a work entitled Minhaj-ui- 
Tdlibin, which is also called Tarikh 'Aldi, 
and i> dedicated to Shah Shujaa* Kirmani. 

Ibn-Houbal (JjyJ* ^1), a celebrated 

physician and author, who died in the year 

a.d. 1213. 

Ibn-Houkal (j£yfc ^A), an Arabian, 

and author of the work entitled Ashkal-ul- 
Bildd, containing maps and geographical 
description <>i several countries which he 
wrote in the year a.d. 977, a.h. 367. 

Ibn-Humam (*Us ^}) } author of a 

Commentary on the Hidaya, entitled Fath- 
ul-Qadir, which is also called Sharah Hidaya. 

II died in the year a.d. 1457, a.h. 861. 
Ei is also called Humam, w bich e 

Ibn-Husam (A***. ^\), of Khawaf, 

surname of Shams -uddin Muhammad, author 
of an heroic poem in praise of 'All, containing 
the principal events of his life, his disputes, 
wars, etc., entitled Khawar Noma. He died 
a.d. 1470, a.h. 875. 

Ibn-Ibad (jLc ^\), surname of Abu'l 

Qasim Ismail, Kail, who was wazlr and first 
minister of state to the Sultans Muwaiyad- 
uddaula and Fakhr-uddaula of the race of 
Boya. He died a.d. 995, a.h. 385, and is 
said to have left a library consisting: of 
112,000 volumes, and to have passed for 
the most generous and most liberal man of 
his time. He was also styled Kafi-ul-Kafat. 




Ibn-Iniad (jl_,*._.c m-^), a poet of 

Khurasan who flourished in the hitter end of 
the 14th century of the Christain Era. He 
resided in Shiraz, and is author of a Dlwan 
or a love story, called Bah Nama, in Persian. 

Ibn-Jinni ( 

..*)}), whose proper 

name was Abu'l Fatha 'Usmam, a learned 
Musalman, but hliud of one eve. He died at 
Baghdad a.d. 1002, a.h. 392. 

Ibn-Jouzi (^jjy>- ^)- Vide Abu'l 

Ibn-Kamal Pasha (Lib JL£ A), 

surname of Mufti Shams-uddln Ahmad-bin- 
Sulaiman, author of the Sharah Hadis-al- 
l Arbaln. He died a.d. 1533, a.h. 940. 

Ibn-Khaldun ( .,,a, 


A), the 

African philosopher. His name aud titles are 
in Arabic: " Wali-uddin Abu Zaid 'Abdur- 
rahman - bin - Muhammad - al - Hazrami-al- 
Ishblll," but he is better known by the single 
patronymic name of Ibn - Khaldun. His 
father surnamed Khaldun was a native of 
Amazirg or Berber [in Africa), but his wife, 
descending from a family of the Arabian 
province Hazramat, made her son adopt the 
surname of Al-Hazraml. He was born in 
Tunis in the year a.d. 1332, and passed his 
youth in Egypt. He then served a short 
time under Taimur, as chief justice at 
Damascus. He returned to Egypt, where he 
became Supreme Judge, and died in the year 
a.d. 1406. His principal and most remarkable 
work is the history of the Arabs, the Persians, 
and the Berbers. The whole composition is 
commonly called Tarlkh-ibn-Khaldun. 



,y\), whose 

full name is Shams-uddln Abu'l Abbas 
Ahmad-ibn - Muhammad - ibn- Abu Bakr -ibn 
Khallikau, drew his descent from a family 
of Balkh. This very eminent scholar and 
follower of Shafa'i doctrines, was born at 
Arbela, hut resided at Damascus, where he 
had filled the place of chief Qazi till the year 
a.d. 1281, a.h. 680, when he was dismissed, 
and from that time till the day of his death 
he never went out of doors. He was a man 
of the greatest reputation for learning, versed 
in various sciences, and highly accomplished ; 
he was a scholar, a poet, a compiler, and an 
historian. By his talents and writings, he 
merited the honourable title of " the most 
learned man," and was an able historian. 
His celebrated biographical work called the 
Wafiat-ul-Aiyan, or deaths of eminent men, 
is considered the acme of perfection. This 
work was translated from the Arabic by 

Baron McGuckin De Slane, Member of the 
Council of the Asiatic Society of Paris, etc., 
and published in a.d. 1842. The work is 
in four volumes 4to. and in English. It was 
printed in Paris for the Oriental Translation 
Fund of London. This translation is a most 
valuable work to those who wish to gain 
a knowledge of the legal literature of 
the Muhamraadans, as the translator has 
added to the text numerous learned notes, 
replete with curious and interesting informa- 
tion relating to the Muhammadan law and 
law vers. Ibn-Khallikan was born on Thursday 
the' 22nd September, a.d. 1211, 11th 
Rabi' II. a.h. 608, and died on Thursday 
the 31st October, a.d. 1282, 26th Kajab, 
a.h. 681, aged 73 lunar years, in the 
Najibia College at Damascus and was 
interred at Mount Kasiyun. 

Ibn-Khurdadbih (cLjj'j^ i ^-]\), an 

historian, who died about the year a.d. 912. 
[ Vide Khurdaziba.] 

Ibn-Maja (<^U ^\), whose proper 

name is Abu Abdullah Muhammad -bin - 
Yezid-bin-Maja-al-Qazwinl, was the author 
of a collection of traditions, and of a com- 
mentary on the Quran. The first, which is 
entitled Kitab-us-Sunan, is the sixth book of 
the Sunua, and is commonly called Sunan 
Ibn-Maja. Ibn-Maja was born in the year 
a.d. 824, a.h. 209, and died in a.d. 886, 
a.h. 273. 

Ibn-Malik (i_<JU „j\). Vide Abu 
Abdullah- ibn- Malik. 

Ibn-Maqla (<diU ^\), wazlr of the 

khalif al-Qahir Billah of Baghdad, whom, 
with the consent of other Umras, he deposed 
and having deprived him of sight raised 
Al-Razi Billah to the throne. Kot long 
after, his hands and tongue were cut off by 
the order of Razi, because he had written a 
letter to the Khalif s enemy without his 
knowledge, and he died from the injuries in 
the year a.d. 939, a.h. 327. Ibn-Maqla is 
the inventor of the present Arabic character 
which was afterwards improved by Ibn- 

Ibn-Marduya {dj^dy ^), commonly 

called so, but his proper name is Abu Bakr. 
He is the author of the work Mustakharij 
Bikhari and of a commentary and history. 
He died a.h. 410. 

Ibn-Muallim (^J._*_, 
Shaikh Mufid. 

{ J-i 

\). Vide 




Ibn-Qattaa (,i*>- ^ ^ cUaS ^1 

Aj.j^«w*Ji IjLs), .surname of Ali- 

bin-Ja'far Siqilli, an Arabian author, who 
died a.d. 1121, A.ii. 515. 

Ibn-Qutaiba (&++£ ^\), surname of 

Shaikh al-Imam Abu Muhammad Abdullah- 
bin-Muslim Dinwari, author of the Ayun- 
ul-Akhhrn\ and many other works. He di d 
a.d. 889, a.ii. 267. ' 

Ibn-Rajab. Vide Zain-iiddln-biii- 

Ibn-Rashid (a. 

bHO, . 



Abu'l Walid Muhammad-bin-Ahmad, whom 
the Europeans (.-ill Averroes and Aven Roach, 
was one of the must subtile philosophers thai 
ever appeared among the Arabians. He was 
born at Cordova in Spain (a.d. 1149;. where 
his father held the office of high priest and 
chief judge, under the emperor oi the Moors. 
His knowledge of law, divinity, matin matics, 
and astrology was very extensive, and to thi< 
was added the theory rather than the practice 
of medicine. On tie' death of bis father, be 
was appointed to succeed him. Falling und< r 
the suspicion of heresy, he was deprived of 
his posts and thrown into prison, from 
whence be was at Last delivered and reinstated 
in his office of judge. He wrote a treatise 
on the art of physic, an epitome of Ptolemy's 
Almagest, a treatise on astrology, and many 
amorous verses : but when he grew old, be 
threw the three last into the Ore. E< is best 
known as a translator and expositor oi 
Aristotle ; his commentaries were published 
at Venice a.d. 1489-1560. He was a 
pantheist, and a despiser of all suppos d 
revelations, as to which his opinions wi 
that Christianity is absurd; Judaism, the 
religion of children : and Muhammadanism, 
the religion of swine. A further edition of 
his works is that published at Venice 1608. 
He is said to have died at Morocco in a.h. 
595, corresponding with a.d. 1199, though 
Lempriere in his Universal Biography says 
that he died in a.ii. 1206. 

Ibn-S'abbagh-al-Shafa^ (cL~-tf ^j\ 

g-jtiLiij'), surname of Abu Hasr 

'Abdul Said-bin -Muhammad, author of the 
Uddat-uW Alim Wat Tariq-ul-Salim. He 

died a.d. 1084, a.h. 477. 

Ibn-'Sad ( w \_*.^ ^A), author of the 

Ibn-Shahab-uz-Zohri (t-A^i l2j j\ 

^j k \X) } an Arabian author who 

flourished during the Khilafat of 'TJmar-ibn- 
' Abdul 'Aziz. 

Ibn-Sina (L^ ^\). vide Abu Staa. 

Ibn-Siraj (J^ ^\), whose proper 

name is Abu Bakr Muhammad, was au 

Arabian author, and di id in a.d. 928, a.h. 

Ibn-ul-'Arabi(^_y^ {ji \). Vide Ibn- 


Ibn-ul-HajarCyt^l ^X). Vide Ibn- 


Ibn-ul-Jazari-bin-Muhammad ( .A 

t^i^i), an Arabian author who died 
in the year ,\.i>. 1 Do. a.ii. 833. 

Ibn-ul-Khashab (<_*L^1 ,j1 ), whose 

>—> • 

proper nami is Aha Muhammad 'Abdullah, 
an excellent penman. !!■ died at 
Baghdad in a.d. 117-'. a.h. 

Ibn-Uqba Ql.Lt ^), surname of 

Jamal-uddin Ahmad, author of the Umdat~ 
vt-T&lib. He died a.i.. 1 124, a.m. 828. 

Ibn-Uqda (y.yj.r. ^A). Vide Abu'l 
'Abbas Ahmad-bin-Muhamm id. 

Ibn-ul-Rumi (^+))\ ^}), a famous 

Arabian poet, who was contemporary with 
Avicenna. li< i- the author of a Diwan in 

Ibn-ul-Warda (LO ^}), author of 

nn Arabic history called VuJchtasir-Jama-ut- 
Tawarlkh, a valuable general history from 

a.d. l(i'.»7 to 1513. 

Ibn-us-Saleh (JU=J\ ..tjt), whose 

proper name is Abu 'Amru 'Usman-bin- 
'Abdur Rahman-ash-ShahrzurT, author of a 
collection of decisions according to the 
doctrine of Shafa'i, entitled Fatawa-Ibn-us- 
S '•//. He died in a.d. 1244, a.ii. 642. 

Ibn-Yeniin (,.t-*J „j\), a celebrated 

poet, whose proper name was Amir Mahniud, 
which see. 

Ibn-Yunas (i^^J*.; ,jJ>), astronomer to 

the Khalif of Egypt, who observed three 
eclipses with such care, that by means of 
them we are enabled to determine the 
quantity of the moon's acceleration sine ethat 
time. He lived about a century or more alter 

Ibn-Zohr ( _Jb .A). Fide Abdul 
Malik Ibn-Zohr. 




Ibn-Zuryk (c_X-.;..i? ..*j\), Tanuki, an 


Ibrahim (*_«j,_i>!._j , ) J the patriarch 

Ibrahim (+^.A), an emperor of the 

Moors of Africa in the 12th century, who 
was dethroned by his subjects, aucl his crown 
usurp id by 'Abdul Mumin. 

Ibrahim (*^ j\), the son of Alashtar, 

killed in a.d. 600, a.h. 71, in a battle fought 
between the khalif 'Ab lul M ilik and Misaa'b 
the brother ol 'Abdullah, the son of Zubair, 
whose faithful friend he was. 

Ibrahim (*^ .A), the son of Ibrahim 
\ " J ' 
Mahritn, a very famous doctor of the sect of 
Shufa'i, and author of sevi ral works. 

Ibrahim Adham (+2>j>\ +<jA.A), a king 

of Balkh, who retired from the world, 
became a Dervish and died between the years 
87-5 aud 880, aged 110 years. It is said 
that he saw in a dream a man on the top of 
a house looking for something. lie a 
him what he was looking for. The man 
replied that he had lost his camel. " What a 
fool you must be" - id the kin--, "to be 
looking tor your camel on th srooi of a house! " 
The ma i n joined "and what afool youmusl 
be to look tor God in the cares and troubles of 
a crown!" Ibrahim from that day d 
bis throne, aud became a wandering Dervish. 

Ibrahim 'Adil Shah I. ( JjU +~Jb\j)\ 

*Li»), Sultan of Bijapur, surnamed 

Abu'l Nasr, sou of Ismail 'Adil Shah, 
succeeded his brother Mallu Adil Shah ou 
the throne of Bijapur iu the Deccan in a.d. 
1535, a.h. 941. He married the daughter 
of 'Ala-uddin 'Imad Shah, named Rabia 
Sultana, iu a.d. 15 43, a.h. 950, reigned 24 
lunar years aud some months, aud died iu 
A.D. 1558, a.h. 9(5.5. lie was buried at 
Kiikl mar the tombs of his father aud grand- 
father, aud was succeeded by his sou 'All 
'Adil Shah. 

Ibrahim 'Adil Shah II. (, talc **ata\ 

aLi), of Bijapur, surnamed Abu 1 

Muzaffar, was the sou of Tahmasp the 
brother of 'All 'Adil Shah, whom he 
succeeded in April, a.d. 15S0, Safar, a.h. 
988, being then only iu his uiuth year. The 
management of public affairs was given to 
Kamal Khan Dakhani, aud Chand Bibi 
Sultana, widow of the late king, was entrusted 
with the care of the education of the minor 
monarch. For some time Kamal Khiu 
behaved with due moderation iu his office ; 

but at length was guilty of some violence 
towards Chand Sultana, who turned her 
thoughts to means for his destruction. She 
secretly seut a message to Haji Kishwar 
Khan, an officer of high rank, who caused him 
to be murdered. Alter this eveut Kishwar 
Khan, by the support aud patronage of 
Chand Bibi, grasped the authority of the 
Slate, and ruled with uncontrolled sway till 
he was assassinated. Akhlas Khan uext 
assume. 1 the regency ; but after some time he 
was seized by Dilawar Khan, who put out 
his eves, and became regent of the empire. 
11 was expelled by the king in a.d. 1590, 
and his eyes put out aud himself confined in 
a.d. 1592. Ibrahim 'Adil Shah died after a 
reign of more than 3S years in a.d. 1626, 
a.h. 1036, and was succeeded by his son 
Muhammad 'Adil Shah. The first building 
of any importance we me. t at Bijapur is the 
Ibrahim Rauza, the tomb of Ibrahim 'Adil 
Shah II. On a high-raised platform of 
-tune, separated by a square, in the midst of 
which is a ham or fountain, stand the rauza 
aud mosque opposite each other, and corre- 
sponding iu size aud contour. The tomb is 
most elaborately ornamented, the walls being 
covered with inscriptions from the Quran 
in raised stone Arabic letters, which formerly 
were uilt, on a blue grouud, though now the 
colouring has worn away. The mosque also 
i> a beautiful buildiug. 

Ibrahim Ali Khan (^U- Xc *JS>^), 

the chief of Malair Kntla, was a minor of 
about 15 years of age (1872), and was re- 
ceiving his education in the Wards' School 
at Umballa. 

Ibrahim Ali Khan (^l^. 1c *.*i>tal), 

Nawab of Tonk, grandson of the famous 
Pindari chief Amir Khan. His father Mu- 
hammad 'Ali Khan was deposed by the 
British Government on account of the Lowa 
massacre iu lb 07. He was installed as 
Nawab of Tonk on the 19th January, 1871, 
by the British Government. 

Ibrahim Astarabadi( ^j j\j \jx~>\ *-Jb ta \ ), 

an author who translated the Risala or Kitab 
Basania of Abu'l Fatah RazI Makki from 
the Arabic iuto Persian iu a.d. 1551, a.h. 958. 

Ibrahim Barid Shah (jLi ju v f-*^) 

succeeded his father 'All Barid iu the govern- 
ment of Ahmadabad Bldar about the year 
a.d. 1562, a.h. 970. He reigned seven years 
aud died about the year a.d. 1569, a.h. 977. 
His brother Qasim Barid II. succeeded him. 

Ibrahim Bayu, Malik (^j ^.stSjA 

i CL*). In the province of Behar 

there is a hillock called Pir Pahari, on the 
top of which there is a tomb with Persian 
inscriptions in verse, intimating that Malik 
Ibrahim Bayu died iu the reign of Sultan 

IB 11 A 



Piroz Shah on a Sunday in the month of 
Zil-hij j:i, a. ii. 75:;. which corresponds with 
January, a.d. 1353, bui who be was we are 
not informed. 

Ibrahim - bin -Aghlab ( ,j ^^j^^ 

U.-Jlti), an Arabian captain who was 

appointed governor of Egypi and Africa by 
the Khallf Earun-al-Rashld in a.d. S00, 
a. ii. 184. Tin- descendants of this governor, 
who settled in Africa, bore the nami oi 
Aghlabia or Aghlabites. and formed a dynasty 
of princes who reigned there till the year 
a.d. 90s, a. ii. 296, when they were driven 
out by the Fatimites. 

Ibrahim-bin-Ali ( _Lc ,.,j *- k _^_^) 1 

author of the work called Majma'-ul-Ansdb, 
or the Genealogy of the different dynasties oi 
Persia, till a.d. 1233, a.h. 630. 

Ibrahim - bin - Hariri ( .,j 


ijj-l f-^")> author of the Tarlkh 

Ibrahlml, an abridged history of India from 
the earliest times to the conquest oi that 

country by the emperor Bahar Shah, who 
defeated Sultan Ibrahim 1 1 1 1 — . i i 1 1 I, will, king 
of Dehli, and became the founder oi the 
Mughal dynasty. It was dedicated to Bahar 
Shah in a.d. 1528. a.h. 934. 

Ibrahim -bin -Muhammad-al-Halabi, 
Shaikh ( 

s)l .X^sr* ^J ^Jt>]jj\ 

*A-Z>), author of a Persian work on 

Theology called Aqaed Sunnia and oi the 
Multaqa-al-A.bhar. This work, which i- an 
universal code of Muliaminadan law. contains 
the opinions of the four chief Mujtahid 
Imams, and illustrates them by those of the 
principal jurisconsults of the school oi Abu 
Hanifa. He died a.d. 1549, A.H. 95(3. 
\Vide Imam 'Alam-hiu-'Ata.] 

Ibrahim-bin-Nayal ( J Li ^j ^&\jX), 

brother of Tugliral Beg's mother, a chief who 
defeated Tughan Shah I. a prince of the 
Saljuqian family, in battle, took him prisoner 
and blinded him. Ibrahim was murdered 
after some time in a.d. 952, a.h. 451, by 
Tu gh ral Beg, the uncle of Tughan Shah. 

Ibrahim-bin-Saleh (Jul ^j ^LjI), 

cousin of Haruu-al-Ilashld. A curious story 
is given of him iu the Jour. As. Soc. 
No. 11, that when he died Mauka-al- 
Hiudl, the philosopher, restored him to life, 
aud that Ibrahim lived loug after this 
circumstance, and married the princess 'All 
'Ahhasa, daughter of Al-Mahdl, aud obtained 
the government of Egypt and Palestine, aud 
died in Egypt. 

(,.j ,-^U 

Ibrahim-bin-Walid II. 

^J'L ; -X-J.), a Khallf of the race of 

Umaiya, succeeded his brother Yazid III. 
in a.d. 744, a. ii. 126, and had reigned but 
Beventy days when be was deposed and slain 
by Mu'awia II. who ascended the throne in 


Ibrahim Husain, Khwaja (^j*Lj! 

A-js-u-rU „^*-u.>), a celebrated cali- 

grapher in the service oi the emperor 'Akbar, 
who wrote a beautiful Nastaliq hand. Ee 
died in ill y< ar a.d. 1593, a.m. 1001, and 
•Abdul Qadii Badaonl found the chronogram 
oi bis death to be contained in bis rery name 
with the exception oi the firsi 1< tti r in [hrihim, 
pus. Alii. 

Ibrahim Husain Lodi, Sultan (+*j*\ _>1 

..Iki-, .oJ 

•), ascended the 

throne of Agra after the death oi bis father 
Sikandar Shah Lodi in February, a.d. 1510, 
Zi-qa'da, a.m. 915. lie reigned 16 years, 
and was defeated and slain in a battle foi 
ai Panipai with the emperor Bahar Shah on 
Friday the 20th April, a.d. 1526, 7th Rajab, 
a.m. 932, an event which transferred the 
empire of Dehli and Agra to the family of 
Ainir Tainnir. From this battb- we may 
date the fall oi the I'athaii empire, though 
that race afterwards made many efforts, and 
recovered it for a few years in the time of 
the emperor Humayun. 

Ibrahim Husain Mirza ( ,*^~». +jb\ ,A 

\y= ( • J- 

\ \~+~*), a son-in-law of the emperor 

Humayun, and th< second bod oi Muhammad 
Sultan Mirza, who had four other sons besides 
him, vis. 1st, Muhammad Eusain Mirza, 
2nd. Ibrahim Husain Mirza, 3rd, Masa'ud 
Husain Mirza, 4th. Ulagh Mirza, who died 
iu a.d. 1507. a.m. 975, and 5th. Shah Mirza. 
They were styled "The Mirzas," and wire, 
on account of their ill-conduct, confined in 
the Fort oi Sambhal bv order of the emperor 
Akbar. When that monarch marched iu the 
year a.d. 1567, a.h. 975, for the purpose of 
subduing Malwa, they made their escape and 
sought an asylum with Chingiz Khan, a noble- 
man at Baroch. They took Champaner aud 
Surat and also Baroch iu a.d. 1569, a.h. 
977, aud created a great disturbance in the 
surrounding countries. Ibrahim Husain was 
taken prisoner in a.d. 1573, a.h. 981, and 
shortly after put to death by Makhsus Khan, 
governor of Multan, aud his head sent to the 
emperor, who ordered it to be placed over 
one of the gates of Agra (vide Gulrukh Bejram) 
and caused his brother Masa'ud Husain Mirza 
to be confined in the fort of Gwaliar, where 
he soon afterwards died. 




Ibrahim - ibn - Ag-hlab (...A *-»j&Lj1 

k^-J_il), a king of Barbary. This 

country was reduced by the Saracens in the 
Khilafat of 'Umar, and continued subject to 
the Khalif of Arabia and Baghdad till the reign 
of Harun-al-Raslud, who having appointed 
Ibrahim-ibn-Aghlab governor of the western 
parts of his empire, that prefect took the 
opportunity, first of assuming greater powi rs 
to himself than had been granted by the 
Khalifs. The race of Aghlab continued to 
enjoy their new principality peaceably till 
the year a.d. 910, a.h. 29S, during which 
time they made several descents on the island 
of Sicily, ami conquered a part of it. About 
this time, however, one Obedullah sumamed 
'Al-Mahdi rebelled againsl the house of 
Aghlab. and assumed the title of Khalif of 

Ibrahim, Imam (^U1 *-JfcLj^). This 

Ibrahim, who bears the title of Imam, or 
chief of the religion of Muhammad, i- aoi of 
the number of the twelve [mams of the 
posterity of 'All. He was a son of Mu- 
hammad, the sun of 'All, the son oi 'Abdullah, 
the son ol 'Abbas, the uncle of the prophet, 
and eldest brother of the two first KJialits ol 
the house of 'Abbas; but was himself never 
acknowledged as a Khalif. He was put to 
death by order of Marwan II. surnamed 
Himar, last Khalif of the house of Umayya, 
in the mouth of October, a.d. 749, Safar, 
a.h. 132. 

Ibrahim Khan ( ,1^ *-j*L^), the son 

of the celebrated Amir-ul-Umra "Ali Mardan 
Khan. He was honoured with the rank of 
ooou in the second year of the emperor 
'Alamgir, a.d. 1659, and appointed governor, 
at different periods, of Kashmere, Lahore, 
Bihar, Bengal and other places, and died in the 
reign of Bahadur Shah. 

Ibrahim Khan Fatha Jang (, 
C— \^z>- ^.J ,.,l>-) was a relation of 

the celebrated Nur Jahan Begam, whose 
mother's sister he had married. When Qasim 
Khan the grandson of Shaikh Salim Chishti 
was recalled to court from the government of 
Bihar in the twelfth year of the emperor 
Jahangir, a.d. 1616, a.h. 1025, Ibrahim 
Khan was appointed governor of that province 
with the rank of 4000. He was killed at 
Dacca, a d. 1623, a.h. 1032, in battle against 
prince Khurram (afterwards Shah Jahan) who 
had rebelled against his father Jahangir. His 
wife Ruh l'arwei. Khanam lived to a great 
age, and died in the reign of the emperor 

Ibrahim Khan Sur ( ,^> .[&. ^jA.A) 

son of Gliazi Khan, governor of Bayana, was 

the brother-in-law of Muhammad Shah 'Adili, 

whose sister he had married. He raised a 
considerable army and took possession of Dehli 
and Agra on the 28th February, a.d. 1555, 
6th Jumada' I. a.h. 962. He had no sooner 
ascended the throne than another competitor 
arose iu the province of the Panjab, in the 
person of Ahmad Khan, a nephew of the late 
Slier Shah. He defeated Ibrahim Khan iu 
a battle, and the latter retreated to Sambhal, 
while Ahmad Khan took possession of Agra 
and Dehli, and assumed the title of Sikaudar 
Shah in May the same year. Ibrahim Khan 
was killed by Sulaiman, king of Hengal, in 
Orissa in a battle fought in a.d. 1567, a.h. 
975, and is buried there. Amongst the 
incidents of the year a.d. 1555, a.h. 962, 
was the explosion of the fort of Agra, when 
enormous stones and columns were sent flying 
several kosto theotber side of the Jamua, and 
many people were destroyed. As the whole 
Fort was called Badalgarh, the date was 
found in the words •• The fire of Badalgarh." 

Ibrahim Khawas ( u o\^. +.*jb\ r A), 

a pupil of Abu 'Abdullah Ma gh rabi. who died 
a.d. 911. He was called Khawas, which 

means a basket-maker. 

Ibrahim Qutb Shah (aL&c_^4as*-J^ A) 

was the son of Quli Qutb Shah I. sovereign 
of Golkanda. On the death of his brother 
Janishid Qutb Shah, the nobles of the court 
elevated bis son Subhan Quli, a child seven 
years of age. to the throne; but as he was 
unable to wield the sceptre Ibrahim was 
sent for from Bijanagar, where he then 
resided, and was crowned on Monday the 28th 
July, a.d. 1550, 12th Rajah, a.h. 957. In the 
year a d. 15h5, a.h. 972. lie, in conjunction 
with the other Muhammadan monarchs of 
tin- Dcccan, marched against Ramraj, the 
Raja of Bijanagar, who was defeated and 
slain, and his territories occupied by the con- 
querors. In a.d. 1571, a.h. 979, the fort 
of Rajamandri was taken from the Hindus by 
Rafa't Khan, the general of Ibrahim; the 
following chronogram commemorates the date 
of its occurrence : ' ' The temple of the infidels 
has fallen into our hands." Ibrahim Qutb 
Shah, after a prosperous reign of 32 years, 
died suddenlvon Thursday the 5th June, a.d. 
1581, 21st Rabi' II. a.h. 989, in the 51st 
year of his age, and was succeeded by his son 
Muhammad Qutb Shah. 

Ibrahim Mirza (\- „ ~J!>!jI), the son 

of Bahrain Mirza and grandson of Shah 
Ismai'l Safwi. His poetical name was Jahi. 
He was murdered by order of his grandfather. 

Ibrahim Mirza, Sultan ; _,* *^l._j\ 

(^jLbJu-s), was the son of Shahrukh 

Mirza and grandson of Amir Taimiir. He 
was governor of Fars during the life of his 
father, and died a few years before him in 




A.D. 1435, a.h. 830. After hi- death, bis 
i 'Abdullah Mirza succeeded him, and waa 
killed in battle against Mirza Abu Sa'id hie 
cousin-german in a.d. L451, a.h. 855. 

Ibrahim Mirza ; * *-Jb1 j\) a Saffavi 

of literary tastes; tetwjo. Shah Jahan; bis 
poetical name was Adham, which 

Ibrahim Mirza 0;^ a-J&Lj!), the son 

nl Mirza Sulaiman oi Badakhshan, was born 
in the year a.d. L534, a.h. nil. When his 
father, with the intention oi conquering lialkh. 
went to that country, prince [brahim accom- 
panied him, and waa taken prisoner in battle 
and pul to death by order oi Pir Muhammad 
Khan, ruler of Balkh, in the month oi 
September, a.d. L560, Zil-hijja. a.h. 967. 

Ibrahim Nayal ( Jl-J **fcLj\). Vide 
Ibrahim -bin -Naval. 

Ibrahim Nizam Shah ( A U» i + „ s \ .A 

»L^J») succeeded his father Burhan 

Nizam Shah II. in the kingdom of Ahmad- 
nagar Deccan in the month oi April, a.d. 
1595, Sha'ban, a.h. 1003, and waa slain in 
action againsl the troops oi [brahim 'Adil 
Shah II oi Bijapur, after a reign of only 
lour months, in the month oi August, a.d. 
1595, Zil-hijja, a.h. 1003. Mian Manju, 
his \\a/ir. raised to the throne one Ahmad 
a hoy, said to be of the Nizam Shah! family. 

Ibrahim Pasha ((^ll_> / »^»_i>^_«\) an 

adopted son of Muhammad 'AH Pasha oi 
Egypt, was horn in a d. 1789, and gave the 
lirst proofs of his gallantry and generalship 
in a.d. 181!' in quelling the insurrection oi 
Wahabis. He afterwards made several con- 
quests. In a.i>. lsis. when Muhammad 
'AH had sunk into absolute dotage, [brahim 
wont to Constantinople, and was recognized by 
the Porte as Viceroy of Egypl : after a short 
visit to England, on the 9th November, a.i>. 
1848, he dud at Cairo. 

Ibrahim Shah Sultan (_\l_ 


i^l.Kl.«.i ^J—l), called Sharaqi, or 

" Eastern," ascended the throne of Jaunpur, 
after the death of his brother Mubarik Shah 
in a.d. 1402, a.h. 804. lie was famous 
during his reign for the encouragement he 
afforded to literature ; and we find that in 
those times of anarchy and confusion which 
prevailed in Hindustan, Jaunpur became the 
scat of learning; as appears (says Firishta) 
from several works now extant, dedicated to 
Ibrahim Shah. He died in a.d. 1 -1 -10, a.h. 
844, after a long reign of upwards of 40 
years. He was beloved iu life, and he was 
regretted by all his subjects. His eldest son 
Mahmud Shah Sharqi succeeded him. 

Ibrahim Shah Pir {-^i ill *»Jk1 j\), 

a Muhammadan saini who-, tomb ia in the 
district of Each thirty miles abovi Lakpat. 
Vide Trans. Roy. At. Soc., rol. iii. p 

Ibrahim Shaikh (^rr- . - »>i M the 

kh Mu-a. the brother oi Shaikh 
B 1 Tin Cbishti. Hi Lkbar for b \. ral 

\< ura in the military profession; and, 
whi n thai emp proa edir . I i Kabul 

ait. r the d his brother, Muhammad 

Hakim, Shaikh [brahim accompanied him as 
Ear as Thanesar, where be fell sick through 
. kci sa ot drinking and di< d on the 16th M 
in the 30th \. arol Akbar'a n ign, correspond- 
ing with September, a.d. 1586, Shawwal, 
a. ii. 992. According, however, t.. a later 
work, the Mdtir-ul-Umra,he waa hit behind 
by the emp ror and ord< n .1 to take ch 
oi the fori \ be died a, d. 

1591, a.h. 9 

Ibrahim, Shaikh, ibn-Mufrij-us-Suri 




c- > - C 
author of the hi I Alexander the G 

and ..t Kjii/ir in Arabic, called Kitab 'I'm kh 

(ll - 1 r Zulh - - i . ': - ii il - 

Wazirat - al- Khizr. This i- one oi ti 
substructures oi myth upon which Eastern 
nation- hav< d a large and romantic 

edifice oi fable, much in thi am r as 

the t Ii - of chivalry of the Middli 
which, though fictitious, were partly attri- 
buted to real characters, as in the romai 
ot tin Enighte ..i the Bound Table and the 

P( . r- ot ( 'harh •; 

Ibrahim Shaibani ( jL^Jj ,» r .Js , _' , ), 

ot Eirman Shah, a pupil ot Abu 'Abdullah 
Maghrabi. lie lived about the year a.d. 'joo. 

Ibrahim Shirwani, Shaikh (^.^^ 

^-*~ ) , J l.-l). ruler (if Shirwan, who 

reigned about the beginning of the ninth 
century of the Hijra. Maulana Eatibi 

flourisjicd in bis time and died in a.d. 1435. 

Ibrahim, Sultan (^,'LL; ^a>\jj\), the 

son of Sultan Masa'ud 1. of Ghazni, suco edi d 
his brother Farrukhzad in a.d. 1059, a.h. 
450. II. was a pious, liberal and just prince. 
In the first year of his reign he concluded a 
treaty of peace with Sultan Saujar the 
Saljukide, at the same time his son Masa'ud 
i spoused the daughter of Malikshah, sister to 
Sultan Sanjar, and a channel of friendship 
and intercourse was opened between the two 
nations. He afterwards came to India and 
took several forts and obtained the title of 
conqueror by the extent of his victories. 
Sultan Ibrahim had 36 sons and 40 daughters 
by a variety of women, the latter of whom 
he gave in marriage to learned and religious 


J 7o 


men. He died alter a reign of more than 
forty years in a.d. 1098, a.h. 492, aged 76 
lunar years, and was succeeded by his son 
Sultan Masa'ud II. or III. According to 
the 1 work called Tarikh Guzlda he reigned 30 
years and died in the year a.d. 1088, a.h. 

Ibrahim, Sultan C^lki— a a-jJ&LjI), 

emperor of the Turks, was the sou of 
Ahmad (Achmat). He succeeded his brother 
Murad IV (Amarath) in February, a.d. 1(510, 
a.h. 1049, and spent a great pari of his 
reign iu the war of Crete against the 
Venetians, but without any great success. He 
was assassinated for his debaucheries and 
repeated cruelties in a.d. 1649. a.h. 1059. 
His son, Muhammad IV. succeeded him. 

'Ibrat (^j^s.), the poetical name of 

Ahmad 'All Khan, cousin of Nawab Sa'adat 

Khan Zulfiqar Jang. 

'Ibrat (tSJj+z), the poetical title of 

Mir Zaya-uddin, a poet, who wrote the first 
part of the story of Padmawat in Urdu vu» . 
and died; cons quently the second part was 
written by Ghulam • Ail 'Ishrat, and finished 
in the year a.d. 1 7 9 » > . a.h. 1211, the chrono- 
gram of which he found to contain the words 
"Tasnii Dosha'ir." 

'Ibrat (sji^. r x), the poetical name of 
'Abdul Mannan, which see. 

'Ibrat (_i_-* ..»-), the poetical name of 

Ahmad, a musician of Dehll. who from the 
instructions that he received from Mirza 
'Abdul Qadir Bedil, became an excellent poet. 
He at first had assumed "Maftun" for Ms 
poetical name, but afterwards changed it for 
"Ibrat." He was a contemporary of Nasir 
'All the poet, and was living about the year 
a.d. 1688, a.h. L100. 

'Ibrat (i2J>-+z), the poetical title of 

Mir Ziya-uddin, author of the first portion of 
the story of Padmawat in Urdu verse. He 
died about the year a.d. 1795. 

[ Vide Padmawat.] 

Iclris or Adris - bin - Hisam - uddin, 

Mulla (I* ^y\\ *L^ ^: l^jD, 

author of the history called Tarikh Sasht 
Bahisht, or the Eighth Paradise, containing 
the Memoirs of the most illustrious characters 
of the Muhammadan religion, who flourished 
from a.d. 1451 to 1506. 

'Idrisi ( .^.j,j\) (Abu 'Abdullah 

Muhammad-ibn- 'Abdullah IdrTs), als> called 
Sharif-aUTdrisi-al-Siqili, author of a system 

of Arabian geography, composed in a.d. 1153. 
He is said to be one of the most eminent 
Arabic geographers and to have belonged to 
the royal family of the Idrisites. He was 
born at Ceuta or Sibta [ad septem) in the 
year a.d. 1090. The title of his work is 
Nuzhat-al-Mushtaq, and it has been trans- 
lated into Latin bv several authors. 

'Iffat Bano (jlj 




the emperor Jabangir. Her mother was the 
daughter of Said Khan of Kash gh ar. She 

died at the age of 3 years. 

Iftikhar Khan ( U U. jlxfcl), title of 

Sultan Husain, the eldest son of Mir 'Abdul 
Hull, entitled Asalat Khan Mir Bakhshi, 
who died at Balkh in the 20th year of the 
i mperor Shah Jahan a.d. 1647, a.h. 1057. 
Iu the first year of 'Alamgir, Sultan Husain 
was honoured with the title of Iftikhar Khan 
(fr. Arabyi 5 = " glory"). Some time before 
his d alb he was appointed Faujdar of Jauu- 
pur, where he died iu a.d. 1681, a.h. 1092. 

Ihsan (^Lu^^), the poetical name of 

Mirza Ibsanullah, commonly known by the 
title of Nawab Zafar Khan, who at one time 
was governor of Kabul when the poet 
Muhammad "All Saeb of Persia came to see 
him there. He died in a.d. 1662, a.h. 1073, 
and was the author of a Diwan in Persian. 

Ihsan (^l^,^-) ), the poetical name of 

'Abdur Rahman Khan of Dehll, who wrote 
excellent poetry in Urdu, and died some time 
alter the year a.d. 1814, a.h. 1260. 

Ihsan ( .,L«.-J), the poetical title of a 

Hindu named ClmuuT Lai, who flourished at 
Agra in a.d. 1760, a.h. 1171. 

Ihtisham Khan (^U- *lA-=>J), title 

of Shaikh Farid of Fathapur Sikri, the son of 
(J itb-uddln Shaikh Khiban {q.v.). He served 
under the emperors Jahangir, Shah Jahan 
and 'Alamgir; and was raised to the rank of 
3000. He died in a.d. 1661, a.h. 1075. 

Ijad CjLsT\), the poetical name of Mir 

Muhammad Ihsan, who died in the year a.d. 
1721, a.h. 1133. 

Ijtihad (jL/is*-'), inspired interpreta- 
tion ; authoritative application of texts. 
[ Vide Mujtabid.] 

Ikhlas Khan Husain Beg- C^LsJ 

t— Cj ..*****>- ..\=>~), a nobleman of 

the reign of the emperor Shah Jahan who 
died in the year a.d. 1639, a.h. 1049. 




Ikhlas Khan Ikhlas Kesh CpLsU 

{j^-^> u a s b>-\ ijl>-) was a Hindu of 

the tribe called Khattri of Lahore. He was 
well-versed in Persian, and served under the 
emperor 'Alamgir, who conferred on aim the 
above title. In the time "i Farrukh-siyar 
Icire. 1715) he was raised to the rank oi 7,000. 
He wrote the history of that emperor and called 
it Badshah Nama, 

[ Vide K islam Chand.] 

Ikhwan-us-Safa (\U\ ^^\), "The 

Brothers of Purity." A society of thinkers 
and writers about a.d. 990, who lived 
together in I!a-ra. ami produced 51 treatises 
on science and religion; of which the one 
best known is on the relations between men 
and beasts. They arose on the decay of the 
Mu'tuzilas '/■('.). 

Ikram Ali (Jtz JJ\), author of the 

Urdu Akhin'ni-its-Siafi, which he translated 
from the Persian iu the year a.d. 1810, 
a.h. 1225. 

Ikram Khan (^U- J^), the son of 

Islam Khan and Ladli Megani, tin- sister ol 
Abu'l Fazl, prime minister oi the emperor 

[ Vide Islam Khan.] 
Ikram Khan {J..+. f!/^)i title of 

Savyad Hasan, an anur. who served under 
the emperor 'Alamu'ir, and died iu a.d. 1G01, 
a.h. 1072. 

Ikram-uddaula (*JjjJl J^), the 

brother of 'Ali XakI Khan, the prime 
minister of Wajid 'All Shah, king of 
Lucknow, died August, a.d. 18G9. 

'Ikrima (<U.£c), son of Abu Jahl. 

'Ikrima (<U,Cc). 

Tide Akrima. 

Iksir, Mirza (\>^ ,^\). Vide Aksir. 

Ilahi (^Ju, nn author who, according 

to the work called Kfiuldsat-ul - Asha'dr, 
died in a.d. 1538, a.h. 945. 

Ilahi, Mir ( 


J\), m 



poetical title of a person who was a descend- 
ant of the Sayyads of Rasbidabad in 
Hamadan. He came to India iu the latter 
part of the reign of Jahangir, and served 
under his sou Shah Jahan. He is the author 
of a biography called Khazina Ganj Ilahi, 
and of a Diwan containing amorous songs. 
The author of the Mirat Jahan says he died 

in a.d. 1648, a.h. 1057. but from the 

dm gram which Ghani Kashmiri wrote al 

bis death, it appears that be died in a.d. 
1654, corresponding with a.h. 1u64. 

Ilahi, Shaikh (----^ '<), a philo- 

sopher oi Bayana, who in the time ol Khan, 
or Salim Shah, son oi Slur Shah Bur, made 
a great -tir. by introducing a new system of 
religion. He called bimseli Imam Mahdi, who, 
according to the Shla tradition. is -till living 
ami i~ to conquer the world. Having rais a 
a great disturbance in the empire, he was in 
the year a.d. 1517. a ii. '.e',i. scourged to 
death by ord at oi the emperor. 

Ildiguz, Atabak (^S:\j\ \£&>) was 

a Turkish slave, Bold to Sultan Masa'ud, on ■ 
ol the Saljuqi prim -. 11 is said to have 
- i completely established himself in the favour 
oi bis myal master, thai the latter advanced 
him to the highest stations in the kingdom ; 
and the able manner in which Lldigui 
executed every dutj that was assigned to him 
led at la-t . not only to his charged with 
the education of one oi the young prim 
which gave him the title ol Atabak or Atabeg, 
but to bis marriage with the widow oi 
Tughral II. (the brother ,,t Masa'ud and 
nephew oi Sultan Sanjar), and within a shori 
period he became the most powerful noble of 
the Persian empire. He died at Hamdan 
in a.d. 1172, a.h. 568, in the reign of 
Arsalan Shah, and h tt bis power and station 
to his eldest son Atabak Muhammad. 

List qj ■■' Atabakt of the raa of Ildiguz. 

Atabak Ildiguz died 117'2 

,, Muhammad, son oi Ildiguz .. 1186 
,, Qizal Arsalan, son oi ildiguz, 

slain ..-...'.. 1191 
,, Abu Bakr, Bon oi Muhammad, 

died 1210 

,, Muzaffar, son oi Muhammad: he 
was deteateil by Sultan Jalal- 
uddin of Khwarizm. and died 
some time after. He was the 
last of the Atabak- ol the race 
oi Ildiguz who reigned in 
•A/urhai jail 122 .5 

Ilham U\A\). PnfoMalul. 


Ilmas 'Ali Khan C^U. Jus ^LN), 

the celebrated rich and powerful eunuch of 
the Court of Nawab-Asaf-uddaula. He died 
iu a.d. 1808. 

Iltitmish (jjJUJl). Vide Altamish. 
'Imad-al -Katib or Imad -uddin-al- 
Katib fjjJ! jUx l- i JU3^ jW 

i_^J \Q. I), that is, Imad the Secretary, 

was the surname of Muhammad, the son of 
'Abdullah, the sou of Samad, also called 




Isfahan!. lie was a celebrated author, and 
lias written in Arabic the history of Salah- 
uddin (Saladin) the Sultan of Egypt and 
Syria, in seven volumes, entitled Barq-ush- 
Shaml, the Lightning of Syria. He died 
A.D. 1201, a.h. 597. 

'Imad Faciih Kirmani, Khwaja 
(ij>-\yL ^U/ «U&i <_>Ux), a Mu- 
hammad doctor who lived in the time of 
Shah Shujaa' of Shiraz. His death is 
mentioned in the Jawahir-ul-Asha'dr to have 
happened in a.d. 1391, ah. 793, but 
according to the poets Ilabi and Daulat Shah 
he died in the year a.d. 1371, a.h. 773, 
which appears to be correct. Ilahl also 
mentions having seen 12,000 verses of his 
composition, adding that he is the author of 
the works called Muhabbat Nama and Mehnat 
Nama, and also that he wrote in all a Panj 
Ga>/j, that is to say, five Masnawls or Poems. 
It is mentioned in the Hablb-us-Siar, 
Khwaja 'Imad had a cat that would stand up 
to prayers with him, and do what he did. 
This was believed by Shah Shujaa' to he a 
miracle of the Khwaja; hut Khwaja Hafiz, 
who was his contemporary, ami would nol 
take it tor a miracle, but 'a trick played by 
the doctor, wrote a ghazal on that occasion'; 
the following is the translation of a couplet 
from the same: "0 thou charming bird, 
where art thou going ; stand still, and be not 
proud (or think thyself to he safe) because the 
cat of the saint says prayers." 'Imad Khwaja 
was buried at Kirman, the place of his 

'Imadi (^Ikc), surname of Jamal- 

uddfn-bin-Imad-uddin Hanafi, author of the 
Arabic work called FusM-ul-' ImSdi. 

'Imad Khwaja (a^-^L jUc). Vide 
Imad Faqih. 

'Imad Shah (jU> jUc). Vide Imatlul 
Mulk, commonly called Fatha-ullah. 

'Imad-uddin (^l\ jUs), surname of 

Qara Arsalan - bin - Daud - bin -Sukman-bin- 
Artaq. Nur-uddin Mahmud was his son, to 
whom Salah-uddin (Saladin) the Sultan of 
Egypt gave the city of 'Amid or Qara 
Amid, a.d. 1183, a.h. 579. 

'Imad-uddin KatibC^l^jJI jU*). 
Vide 'Imad-al-Katib. 

'Imad-uddin ( jjj| jUx), author of a 

poem called the Guldasta or the Nosegay, 
which he composed in a.d. 1664, a.h. 1075. 
He was a native of India. 

'Imad-uddin (^.\s\\ jUc), author of 
the history of the Saljukiihs. 

'Imad-uddin Zangi ( fj • jjJbUc). 

the son of Afsaqar, was one of the Atabaks 
or ruling ministers under the latter princes of 
the Saljukian race. He was the first of that 
branch that had the government of Musal. 
He received the governorship of that province 
in a.d. 1127, a.h. 521, from Sultan Muham- 
mad, the son of Sultan Malikshah Saljukl, 
reigned 19 years, and was murdered by one of 
his slaves in a.d. 1145, a.h. 540. 

The following is a list of the princes of 
this race : — ■ 


'Imad-uddin Zangi began to rule . . 1127 
Saif-uddin GhazI - bin-Zangi, who de- 
feated the French at Damascus . . ins 
Qutb-uddln Maudud, son of Zangi, 

a.h. 569 1149 

Nur-uddln Mahmud, son of Zangi ; he 
ri ign< d at Aleppo and formed another 

branch ; died a.h. 5 9 

Malik Salah, son of Nur-uddin, suc- 
ceeded his father and reigned at 

Aleppo ; died 1 174 

Al-Muizz Sail - uddin GhazI - bin - 

Maudud 1170 

Azz -uddin Masa'ud-bin-Maudud . . 1180 
Nur-uddin Arsalan Shah-bin-Masa'ud 1193 
Malik-ul-Qahir Azz -uddin Masa'ud- 

bin- Nur-uddln 1210 

Nur-uddln Arsalan Shah- bin-Qahir . 1218 
Nasir-uddln Mahmud-bin-Qahir . . 1219 
Al-Malik-al-Eahlm Badr-uddln Lulu . 1222 
Al-Malik-us- Salah Isma'il-bin-Lulu . 1259 

Haluh or Aleppo branch. 

'Imad-uddin Zangi 

Nur-uddin Mahmud-bin-Zangi . 

Al-Malik-us- Salah Isma'il-bin-Nur- 

'Imad-uddin Zangi -bin - Qutb - uddin - 
bin-Maudud, delivered Aleppo to 
Salah-uddin (died a.d. 1197) . . . 

His son Muhammad reigned at Sineara. 




'Imad-uddaula (&jj ^J.z &}jS>\ jUx), 
sinnamed 'All Buya. Vide 'All Buya. 

'Imad-ul Mulk (<_£L«J! jU_c) com- 
monly called Fath-ullah 'Imad Shah, founder 
of the 'Imad Shahi dynasty in the Deccan, 
was descended from the Kanarese infidels of 
Bijanagar. Having been taken prisoner in 
the wars with that country when a boy, he 
was admitted among the bodyguards of Khan 
Jahan, commander-in-chief and governor of 
Berar. In the reign of Muhammad Shah 
BahmanI, through the influence of Khwaja 
Mahmud Gawan, he received the title of 
'Imad-ul-Mulk, and was subsequently raised 
to the office of commander of the forces in 





Berar. After the murder of his patron 
Khwaja Mahmud Gawan in a.d. 1481, a.h. 
88ti, lie retired to his government of Berar. 
On the accession of Sultan Mahmiid Bahmani, 
he was honoured with the oilier of wizarat, 
which he held for some time, but bi ing soon 
after disgusted with the court, b ■ left it and 
declared his independence in the year a.i>. 
1485, a.h. 890. Elichpur was his capital. 
He died about the year a.d. 1513, a.h. 919, 
and was succeeded by liis eltlesl son 'Ala- 
uddin 'Imad Shah. 

List of the kings of the 'Imad Shahl dynasty 
of Berar. 

Fath-ullah 'Imad Shah. 

'Ala-uddiu 'Imad Shall, BOB oi Falh-ullah. 

Daria 'Imad Shah, son of 'Ala-uddln. 

Iiurliall '1 mad Shall. 

Tufal Khan, prime minister of Burhan 'Imad 
Shah, who usurped the throne, but was 
opposed from Ahmadnagar; and the family 

of 'Imad Shah and Tufal I" came i \tin- 
guished in a.d. 15G8. 

<Imad-ul-Mulk (^_£L^ jUc), title 

of the Ghazl-uddin Chan who murdered his 
master 'Alamgir II. empi ror of Dehli. 

[Vide Ghazi-uddin Khan III.] 

'Imad Zangi ( ^.Cjj <_>L*.x). Vide 
'Imad-uddiu Zangi. 

Imam (*L^) (lit. "pattern" or 'ex- 
ample"), a high priest or head or chiei in 

religious matters, whether he be the head ol 
all Mahamiiiadans, as the Khalifa or the 
priest of a mosque, or the leader in the 
prayers of a congregation. This sacred title 
is given by the Shias only to the immediate 
descendants of 'All the son-in-law of the 
prophet, who are twelve, 'All being the first. 
The last of these, Imam Mahdi, is supposed 
by them to he concealed (not dead), and the 
title which belongs to him cannot, the] 
conceive, he given to another. Their doctrine 
is somewhat mystic ; but among the Sunnis 
it is a dogma that there must be always a 
visible Imam or " lather of the church." 
The title is given by them to the four learned 
doctors who are the founders of their faith, viz. : 
Imams Ilanlla, Malik, Shaia'i, and Hanbal. 
Of these four sects, the Hanbalite and 
Malikite may be considered as the most riind, 
the Shafa'ite as the most conformable to the 
spirit of Islamism, and the Hanlrite as the 
freest and most philosophical of them all. 
Two other Imams, Abu Daud-uz-Zahiri and 
Suflan-us- Sauri, were also chiefs of the 
orthodox sects, but their opinions had not 
many followers, and after some time were 
totally abandoned. Ilm - Jarir - ut - Tahari, 
whose reputation as an historian is so familiar 
to Europeans, founded also a particular sect, 
which disappeared soou after his death. The 

following are the names oi the twelve Sh'a 

Imam- ol the ia. B ol "All : — 

Imam 'All, the son-in-law oi the prophet. 
,, Hasan. 

,, Husain. 

,, Zain-ul 'Abidfn. 

,, Baqir or Muhammad Baqir. 

,, Jafar Sadiq 

,, Musi Ka/im. 

„ 'Ali Musi Baza. 

,, Taqi or Muhammad Taqi. 

,, 'All Naqi. 

,, Hasan Askari. 

,, Mahdi. 

[Vide II u l: Ik — " Dictionary of Islam in roc."] 
Imam 'Alam - bin - 'Ala - al - Hanafi 

(^L*sz-\ )Lc J *lls /•^•^), author of a 
— * — - • t i 

large collection ..t Fatwas in Beveral volumes, 
entitled Fatatca Tdtdrl&ania, takin from the 
Muhit-al-Burharii, the Zaktirat, the ghania 
and Zahiria. Afterwards, however, a selec- 
tion was made from these decisions by the 

Imam Ihiahim- bin - M iihamniad - al- Ilalahi, 

and an epitome was thus formed, which is in 
one volume, and still retains the title of 

Imam Bakhsh, Shaikh (^JLJ^T >»L«\ 

j^-rr— ). Vide Sahabl. 

Imam Bakhsh, Shaikh (yL-s? jX**\ 
l, -l). Vide Nasikh. 

Imam Bakhsh, Moulvi (^LisT A-,*\ 
. ;■!»*). Vide Salibal. 

Imam 'Azim, title of Abu Hanila. 

Imami Hirwi, Maulana {>j*j> .<*bl 

\jiy). He is called Hirwi, because lie 

was a native of Herat. He was an excellent 
poet and contemporary with the celebrated 

Shaikh Sa'dl of Shiraz, whom, in the opinion 
ot some writers, he surpassed in the Qasida. 
He died about the year a.d. 1281, a.h. 680, 
and has left a Diwan. 

Imam Malik (j^*Jl ^ <_£-!l« fbi), 

son of Anas, one of the four Imams or 
Jurisconsults of Mecca. He died on the 28th 
June, a.d. 795, 7th Rab'i II. a.h. 179, in 
the time of the Khalif llfuun-al-Rashid. 
[ Vide Malik-ibn-Anas.] 

Imam Muhammad (^JL* ^.st* *^), 

a Mufti in the reign of Hariin-al-Eashid the 
Khalifa. He died at Baghdad in a.d. 802, 




a.h. 186, and is said to have written 999 
works. He was a pupil of Imam Abu Yusaf, 
who committed bis notes to him, and he 
(Muhammad) made great use of them in the 
composition of bis works. 

[Vide Abu 'Abdullad Muhummad -bin- 

Iniam-uclclin Amir Katib-bin-Amir 
Umar (^,1 ^j l^O'K^I ^a!'i *U\ 

, author of a Coinrnentary on 

the Hidaya entitled Kifdya, which he finished 
in a.d. 1346, a.h. 747. He had previously 
written another explanatory gloss of the same 
work, and entitled it the Ghayat-ul-Bayan. 


Several of these tales were published by 
Colonel Dow, under the title of The Tales 
of ' Inayet-ullah, and the whole work was 
translated in the year a.d. 1799, by Jonathan 
Scott, in three volumes, octavo. 

Imdad Ali {^Ls. o\±^\), the rebel 

Deputy Collector, who was hanged at Banda, 
together with the rebel Tahsildar of Pailanl, 
Muhammad Muhsin on the 24th April, 1868. 

Imtihani ( jUrUl), poetical name of 
Imam-uddiu Beg. 

Imtiyaz (jL-^t), the poetical name of 

Raja Daya Mai, whose lather was Dlwan of 
Asad Khan, the Wazir of 'Alamgir, and he 
of Ghazi-u.ldin Khan, styled 'Imaa-ul-MuIk. 

Imtiyaz Khan, Sayyad ( .U. A^\ 

O j - 

^.W- A-«;), whose poetical name is 

Khalis, was a native either of Isfahan or of 
Mashhad. He came to India in the time of 
the emperor 'Alamgir, was appointed governor 
of Gujrat for some time, and was slain by 
Khuda Yiir Khan in a.d. 1710, a.h. 1122, 
in Sindh. It is said that Qasim All Khan, 
the Nawab of Bengal, was his grandson. He 
is the author of a Dlwan. 

Ina'amullah Khan (^U. <&]\ Axj\). 
Vide Yeqin. 

Inayet Khan (L^T ^U* u^oU-c), 

whose poetical title is 'Ashna or Ahsan, and 
proper name Muhammad Tahir, was the son 
of Zafar Khan. He was an excellent poet, 
and is the author of the work called Shah 
Jahan Nama, a history of the emperor Shah 
Jahan. Besides the above-mentioned work, 
he is the author of a Dlwan and a Masnawi. 
He died in a.d. 166a, a.h. 1077. 

'Inayet-ullah, Shaikh (<di) c^jLj 

c/j-Lfcj **-i), of DehlT, author of 

the work called Bahar Banish, a collection of 
amusing tales, principally satires on women. 

'Inayet-ullah Khan (&\.\\ 



tjv&-), the son of Shukr-ullah Khan, 

a descendant of Sayyad Jamal of Naishapur. 
His mother Hafiz Mariam was tutor of the 
princess Zeebun Nisa Begam, the daughter of 
the emperor 'Alamgir; by her influence her 
son 'Inayet-ullah Khan was raised by degrees 
to the rank of 2500. In the reign of Farrukh- 
siyar the rank of 4000 was conferred on him, 
and in that of Muhammad Shah, of 7000. 
He was the author of the work called Ahkam 
'AlaiDi/iri and compiler of the Kalmat 
Taiyabat. He died a.d. 1726, a.h. 1139. 

Indarman Bundela, Raja (..,*.Sj\ 

A^-', dbjco), the brother of Raja 

Sujan Sindh. He died in the Deccan about 
the year a.d. 1675, and bis zammdari of 
Orcha and the title of Raja were conferred 
upon his sou Jaswaut Singh by the emperor 

Insaf (, jLail), the poetical name of 

Muhammad Ibrahim. His father was a 
native of Khurasan, but he was born in 
India. He was a contemporary of Sarkhush, 
the poet, was living about the year a.d. 
1688, a.h. 1100, and died young. 

Insan (^Lj^), the poetical title of 

Nawab Asad-ullah Asad Yar Khan. He held 
the mansab of Haft Hazaii 7000), in the 
reign of Muhammad Shah, and died in April, 
a.d. 1745, Rabi' L a.h. 1158. His remains 
were brought to Agra and buried there in 
the cemetery of his ancestors. 

Insha or Insha Allah Khan (L» \Jij\ 

.,L~- <lUL£*J0, a poet and son of 

Masha Allah Khan. He is the author of 
four Diwans of different kinds. 

Intikhabi ( -jlsfti), a poet who was 

a native of Khurasan, but was brought up in 
India. He is the author of a Dlwan. 

Intizam-uddaula Khan Khankhanan 

(^LjU. u U- aIjJI JJis-rt), the 

second son of Nawab Qimar-uddin Khan 
Wazir. He was appointed to the rank of 
second Bakhshi on the accession of Ahmad 
Shah to the throne of Dehli in a.d. 1748, 
a.h. 1161, and was honoured with the 
appointment of Wazir in a.d. 1753, a.h. 


1165, alter the dismissal of Nawab Bafdar 
Jang from the office. Ee was murdered bj 
'Imad-ul-Mtdk Ghazi-uddin Khan on the 
20tli November, a.d. 1759, 6th Rabi' II. 
a.h. 1173, three 'lays before the assassination 
of the emperor 'Alamgir II. 

Iqa Pandit (c^i^j l5l), a Marhatta 

Brahman who, in the time of Shah Alain and 
Madho Rao Sindhia, held the appointment 
of the Subadarship of the fort of Agra. 

Iqbal Khan ( ,U- Jl-30 was the 

son of /alar Khan, the Bon of Firoz Shah 
Tughlaq. Ee defeated Nasrat Khan and 
ascended the throne of Dehli about the 
beg innin g of the year a.h. 1400, \ h. 802, 
and was slain in a battle against Khizr Khan, 
the governor of Multan, in Nbv< mb( r, a d. 
1405, L9th Jumada 1. a.h. 808. Aft« r bis 
death Sultan Mahmud Shah, who was 
defeated by Amir Taimur and had fled to 
Guirat ami then to Qanauj, return id on the 
invitation of Danla Khan Lodi, who com- 
manded at Dehli, and took possession oi the 

ITbal - uddaula Muhsin Ali Khan 

son of Shams-uddanla Ahmad 'All Khan. 
the son of Nawab Sa'adat 'Ali Khan of 
Lucknow. Ee sailed for England to claim 
the throne of Andh in January, a d. 18 8, 
and alter trying in vain to obtain the 
recognition of his claim from England, 
determined upon passing the remainder oi bis 
davs in a life of sanctity in Turkish Arabia. 
Ee is the author of the work called Iqbal 

Iradat Khan (,jU- CL>S\j\), the title 

of Mir Ishaq or Ishaq Khan, the son of 
Nawab 'Azim Khan, who held a high rank in 
the reign of the emperor Jahangir. Iradat 
Khan held various offices under Shah Jahan, 
and in the first year of 'Alamgir's reign he 
was appointed governor oi Andh. hut died 
alter two moaths in October, a.d. 16.38, 
Zil-hijja, a.h. 1068. 

180 'ISA 

our present subject was appointed Faujdarof 
Jagna, and at other periods oi Aurangabad 
and Mando in Malwa. Was equerry to Prince 
Bedar Bakht (q.v.) intheshorl war oi 1707, 
oi which In- wrote an account. In the reign 

Oi Shah 'Alain or Bahadur Shah 1. h was 

governor oi the Doab, and the intimate 
friend of Mnav/im Khan, Wazir. In the 
latter part oi hi- days he li d a retired life, 

1,, rani.- a Kalalidar. and died in A.D. 1716, 

a.m. 1128. Hi- abilities as a poel were great, 
| ]„ 1, ii a volume oi poems b hind him. 
II, i- tie- author oi the Ealmat A 
(Sublime discourses), Mtna J;<~i:ih- and oi a 
historj oi Aurangzeb'a - ssors, which 
latter was translate d into English by Jonathan 
- itt. Esq., in a.d. L786. Alter his death, 
which happened in the time oi Farrukh- 
Mvar. his -on Mir Bidiet-ullah received 
til,- titl- oi Boshdar Khan, held the rank of 
i. and died at Aurangabad a.d. 17 n, 
a . 1 1 . 1 1 5 7 . 

; tf»B" Aj<A\ JL50, the 

Iradat Khan (^ a \ t 


^\j\), the 

title of Mirza Mubarik-ullah, whose poetical 
name was Wazah. His father Is-liak Khan 
(who afterwards held the title of Kifayet 
Khan) was the son of Nawab 'Azim Khan. 
Both his grandfather and lather were noble- 
nun of high rank. The former was Mir 
Bakhshi to the emperor Jahangir, and was 
afterwards appointed Faujdar of Jauupur, 
where he died in a.d. 1649^ a.h. 1059. The 
latter was the subject of the last article : and 
his title of Iradat Khan was conferred on bis son 
alter bis death. In the 33rd year of 'Alamgir 

'Iraqi ( r « , ..~), whose proper name 


Fakhr-uddin IbTahTm-bin-Shahryar, was a 
i Eamdan in 'Iraq, and a pupil and 
grandson by the moth, r's side of the great 
Shaikh Shahab-uddin Suharwardi, author of 
a host oi mystical works highly < -t emed by 
the Suils. 'Iraqi offended hi- parent and 
n: ;-!. r, in consequence ot a love affair, ami 
w nt t.. India, whi n he remained Bome time, 
regretting hi- native country, and uttering 
hi- complaint- in moving \. ree. U< lived in 
company with the Shaikh Baha-uddin Zikaria 
oi Multan. whom he accompanied on his 
journey and became his disciple. 'Iraqi, 
ait. r a long sojourn in India, proposed return- 
ing to his own master, Shahab-uddin ; but 
the latter had died, and our poet continued 
hi- wanderings to Syria, where he expired 
ait.r a Ion- bio "t eighty-two years on the 
23rd November, a.d. L289, 8th &i-Qa'da, 

A ,,. 688, and was buried at Salahi in 

Damascus i losi to tin tomb oi Shaikh Muhi- 
ud.lin Ibn-ul-'Arabi. Hi- -on Shaikh Kabir- 
uddin is also buried tin re. 'Iraqi is the 
author of a work called Lama'at. 

[Vide Fakbr-uddin 'Iraqi.] 

'Irfan ( .,\_i_i), poetical name of Mu- 
hammad Riza, the son of Muhammad Jan 
Irian, author of the Ear Nama, containing 
the praises of 'Ali Mardan Khan, the Amir- 
ul-Unua of the emperor Shah Jahan. 

Irtiza'Ali Khan Bahadur (^ laJj\ 
^Uu), author of the Fardiz 

Irtizia, a concise treatise in Tersian on the 
law of Inheritance, which appears to be the 
principal authority of that law m the 
Deccan. It was printed in Madras, but 
without a date. 




— .-.-s, 

x), Jesus Christ. 

'Isa Masih(_w,»JI 


For Arabic titles of and doctrines regarding, 
vide Hughes' Dictionary of Islam in voc. 

'Isam - uddin Ibrahim - bin - Mu- 
hammad Isfaraeni ( , t „<jJ] *L<3_c 

J *+JtSji\), s 

an Arabian 

l_5 ••> C7 

author who died a.d. 1536, a.h. 9-13 ; he 
is the author of the Arabic note-book called 
Hash ia Isam- uddin . 

'Isa-ibn-Musa (J^^, ^j\ ^....r), 

the cousin-german of the Ivhalif Abu Ja 'far 
Mansur, alter death in a.d. 775, a.h. 
158, he entertained thoughts of setting up 
for himself at Kufa, where he then resided ; 
and in order to facilitate the execution of 
his scheme, fortified himself in that city. 
But al-Mahdi, the son of Mansur, being 
apprised of his defection, sent a detachment 
of 1,000 horse to bring him to Baghdad; 
which being done, al-Mahdi not only pre- 
vailed upon him to own allegiance to him, 
but also to give up his right to th< succession 
(he being the next apparent heir to the crown) 
for 10,000 according to some, and according 
to others 10,000,000 dinars. 

♦Isa Sawaji (^>L J^c), a poet of 

Sawa who was a Kazi. He died in a.d. 896, 
a.h. 291. 

'Isi Turkhan, Mirza ( A ^ v | _ Jlll ^~ 

\)s*\ was a Turkman and commander- 
in-chief of Shah Beg Arghun, king of Sindh's 
army, after whose death he took possession 
of Thatta, of which he was then governor, 
and assumed the title of king. He reigned 
13 years and died in a.d. 1567, a.h. 975, 
when he was succeeded bv his eldest son 
Mirza Muhammad Baqi Turkhan, who during 
his rule always maintained a friendly inter- 
course with the emperor Akbar of Dehli, 
frequently sending presents, and acknowledg- 
ing fealty to that monarch. He died after 
a reign of 18 years in a.d. 1585, a.h. 993, 
and was succeeded by bis grandson Mirza 
Jam Beg. 

Isdigertes («J^>-djj). 

Tide Yezdijard. 

Isfahani (^jl^.jLj), author of the 
Danish Nama, a system of natural philosophy. 

Isfan or Stephen (^UJ) i s the name 

and takhallus of a Christian poet born at 
Dehli. His father was a European. He 
was alive in a.d. 1800, a.h. 1215. 

Isfandiyar (Jj&JlJ), the son of Kish- 

tasp or Gashtasp (Hytaspes), the fifth king of 
the Kayanian dynasty of Persia, was a great 
warrior, the son of Darius I. and great- 
grandson of Achaemenes. Isfandiyar answers, 
in some respects to the Xerxes (Slier Shah) of 
the Greeks, and Ahasuerus of the Jews. He 
is the Kihayarsha, of the Cuneiform inscrip- 
tions. [But vide Malcolm's Persia, where it 
is shown that, according to native historians, 
Isfandiyar was never king, but only com- 
mander-in-chief of his father's armies". He is 
said to have been killed by the hero Rustam 

Is-haq (jLs~>t), the poetical title of 

Jamal-uddin, a cotton-carder of Shiraz. He 
was an elegant poet, and has left us a Diwan 
called Aksir-ul-Ishtiha, the Elixir of Hunger, 
full of amorous songs and parodies on the 
odes of Khwaja Hafiz, each verse of which 
contains either the name of a sweetmeat or a 
dish. He lived in the time of Prince Sultan 
Sikandar, the son of Umar Shaikh, who much 
esteemed him. His proper name is Abu-Is- 
haq, which he uses in poetry by abbreviating 
it into Bus-haq. 

Is-haq - bin - 'Ali ( L; ^j jLs-1), 

author of a Diwan iu Arabic, and of a work 
called Zuhr-ul- l Adab. He died in a.d. 1022, 

A.H. 413. 

Is-haq-bin-Husain or Hunain ( A&**\ 

^.^.s-. u ^j-^-^s*. !j~>), an Arabian 

author who translated the Almagest of 
Ptolemy from the Greek into Arabic under 
the title of Tahrlr-al-Majasti. This book 
is to be found in the French National Library. 
ShlrazI has written a commentary on this 
work, and entitled it Hal Mushkilat-al- 

Is-haq Khan (^Ui. JlLsH), styled 

Mo'tamin-uddaula, whose original name was 
Mirza Ghulain 'Ali, was a nobleman of high 
rank, and a great favourite of the emperor 
Muhammad Shah of Dehli. He was a good 
poet, and used for his political name Is-haq. 
He died in the 22nd year of the emperor, 
a.d. 1740, a.h. 1153, and after his death his 
daughter was married to Shuja-uddanla, the 
son of Nawab Safdar Jang, and the nuptials 
were celebrated with uncommon splendour, 
a.d. 1746, a.h. 1159. 

Is - haq Maulana (l_j !'»_,* iLs-'l), a 

learned Musalman who was born at Uchcha 
in Multan. In his youth he dedicated himself 
under the guidance of his uncle Sayyad Sadr- 
uddin Raju Qattal, whose sister was his 
mother. He died in a.d. 1456, A.n. 860, 
and was buried in the compound of his own 
house at Saharanpur. 




Is-haq Mousali ( 

vLs.*-^), a 

celebrated Arabian author, born at Masai. 
It is related in the Kitab Alaghanl thai 
when he was on a journey he carried with 

him eighteen coffers lull of 1 ks, though he 

declared thai ii he had not been anxious to 
make his luggage as light as possible, he 
would have brought double the quantity. 

'Ishq (j^A_c), poetical title of Shah 

Rukn-uddm, who flourished in the reign of 

the emperor Shah 'Alara. 

'Ishqi ( ii^Lc), the title of a poet who 

flourished in the reign of the emperor Mu- 
hammad Shah, ami is the author oi a Diwan. 

lie died in a. d. 1729, a. ii. 1112. 

'Ishqi {^iJLz), poetical title of Shaikh 

Muhammad Wajih, son ( ,| Ghulam Eusain 
Muirim of Patna. Ee was for ten years 
under the English governmenl Tahsildar oi 
Kharwar ; was living in a.d. 1809, a.ii. 
1224, and is the author "i a Diwan. 

Ishrat ( k 

« A 

■z), poetical name of 

Mirza 'All Riza, who collected his poems 
int<> a Diwan under Muhammad Shah iuA.D. 
1747, a.h. 1160, and died shortly alter. 

'Ishrat ( ( 



), author of the last 

part of the story of Padmawai in Urdu \erse, 
which was completed by him a.d. 1796. 
[ Vide l'admawat and Ibrat.] 

'Ishrati (^J^JL-c), poetical name of 

a poet who is the author of a small Diwan. 
His name is Aka 'AH of Isfahan : he came to 

India, and on his return died at Mashhad. 

Ishtiyaq (jL^J^), poetical name as- 
sumed by Shah Wall Ullah of Sarhind, who 

was the grandson of Shaikh Ahmad Sarhindi. 
He was a distinguished theologian and Suit. 
He died in a.d. 1748, a.h. 1161, and left 
several works. Shah 'Abdul 'Aziz of Dehli, 
the most celebrated Indian theologian in 
modern times, was one of his sous. 

Ishurior Ishwari Singh. (dL~s lJj^j}), 

the son of Raja Jai Singh Sawai, whom he 
succeeded to the Raj of Jaipur in a.d. 1743. 
He died in a.d. 1760, and was succeeded by 
his son Madho 

Parshad Narain Singh Ba- 


hadur (j J[^ &t^ ^ \j jli^j ^jjAi) ), 
Raja of Benares (1869) 

Iskandar (.,*_xiL^), Alexander the 

Great. Vide Sikandar Zulkarnaiu. 

Iskandar Manisni ( c Jl~~* ,_v_x_0), 

whom Stewart in his Catahgtu of Tippu 
Sultan's Library calls Bikandar Hamnashlni, 
is the author of th< Tariff •Alum •.; 
'Abbott, a history oi the I'< rsian kings oi the 
Bafwi dynasty, from Shah Isma'il to Shah 
'Abbas the Great, to whom it was dedicated 
in L.D. 1616, a.h. L025. 

Islam Khan ( .\j>- V.LJ), title of Mir 

Ziva-uildln Ilusain Badakhshi. whoa poetical 
name was Wala. H< Berved under the 
emperor 'AlamgTr, and was raised to the 
rank of 5000 with the title of Islam Khan. 
11. di( d in the year a.h. 1663, a.h. 1074, at 
.\. ra, and the chronogram oi his death was 
written by Ghani Kashmiri. He was the 
father oi Nawabs Himmai Khan, Sail Khan 
and 'Abdur Rahim Khan. 

Islam Khan ( .L>- /*^-J), the son of 

Sail Khan and grandson of [slam Khan M 
hadi. was Subadar oi Lahore in the time oi 
the eiii]n ror Farrukh-aiyar, and was raised to 
the rank oi 7uuo in I d oi Mu hamm ad 


Islam Khan Mashhadi, Nawab (AJ\ 

t Ayj ^s.JL-i ^AjL) (he is by some 

called Islam Khan Rumi,but that is a mistake). 
Ee was a native oi Mashhad. and Ins original 
name was Mir 'Abdus Salam. In the time 
oi Jahangir he held the mansab of 5000, and 
the Subadari oi Bengal : and in the time 
ol Shall Jahan was raised to tin' rank of 6000 
with the title ot Motam-uddaula and laid 
the appointment of second Bakhshigari and 
governorship oi the Deccan. lie afterwards 
was again appointed governor "i Bengal. In 
the L3thyearoi Shah Jahan he was raised to 
the rank of Wizarai with the title of Jumi 
ul-Mulk. Shortly after he was raised to the 
rank of 7000, and the Subadari of the Deccan. 
He was wa/ir to Shah Jahan and held the 
mansab of 7000, with the title oi Islam Khan. 
He was some time before his death appointed 
governor ot the Deccan, where he died in the 
21st year of the empi ror, on the 2nd November, 
a.d." 1647, 14th Shawwal, a.h. 1007, and 
was buried at Aurangabad. 

Islam Khan Runii, "Turk," (*U 


^,, m^-X title of Ilusain Pasha, 

son of 'All Pasha. ne was governor of 
Basra, but being deprived id' that situation 
by his uncle Muhammad, he left that country 
and came to India in a.d. 1689, a.h. 1080, 
where he was received by the emperor 
'Alamgir with the greatest respect, and 
honoured with the rank of 5000 and title 
of Islam Khan. He was killed in the battle 
of Bijapur in the Deccan on the 13th June, 




a.d. 1676, 1 1th Rabi' II. a.h. 1087. He 
had built bis bouse at Agra ou a piece of 
ground consisting of four bigas and seven 
cottas, and a garden on a spot of three bigas 
and nine cottas, on the banks of the river 
Jamna near the Ghat called Tajara close to 
the fort of Agra. Byzantine Turks were called 
Burnt inmediseval India; and officers of that 
race were often employed in the artillery. 

Islam Khan, Shaikh (^.^ .^U*. ,JJuJ), 

styled Nawab Ya'tzad-uddaula, was a grand- 
son of Shaikh Salini Chishti, and son-in-law 
of Shaikh Mubarik, the lather of the cele- 
brated 'Abii'l Fazl, whose sister, named Ladli 
Begani, he had married. He was appointed 
governor of Bengal by the emperor JahangTr 
in a.d. 1608, a.h. 1017. Nawab Ikram 
Khan was his son, and Qasim Khan his 
brother. The latter succeeded him in the 
government of Bengal in a.d. 1613, a.h. 
1022, in which year Islam Khan died. His 
remains were transported to Fathapivr Sikri, 
where his monument is still to be seen. 

Islam Shah (ali J.LJ). ride Sallm 

Isma'il ( J^.J), or Ishmacl, the son 
of the patriarch Abraham. 

Isma'il (jA^yuts^ f»U1 ^ J~x*J\), 

the eldest son of Imam Ja'far Sadiq, from 
whom the sect of Isma'ilis or Isma'ilias take 
their name. They maintain that Isma'il 
Ibn Ja'far, who was the eldest son, but died 
during his father's life, should have succeeded 
to the dignity of Imam, and not Musi Kazim, 
who was his younger brother, and became 
the seventh Imam. For their other opinions 
see Hughes in voc. Ismdiliyah. Hasan 
Sabbah was of this sect. 

\Vide Isma'ilis.] 

Isma'il I. Safavi, Shah (.cJLj , Lx^.«J 
iLi;), the son of Sultan Haidar, was 

the first monarch of the Safavi dynasty of 
kings who reigned in Persia (a.d. 1500). 
He traced his descent from Musi Kazim 
the seventh Imam, who was descended in 
a direct line from 'All, the son-in-law of 
Muhammad. Almost all his ancestors were 
regarded as holy men, and some of them 
as saints. The first of this family who 
acquired any considerable reputation was 
Shaikh Safi-uddin, who had settled at 
Ardihle, and from whom this dynasty takes 
its name of Safwia or Safavi. His son 
Sadr-uddm Musa, as well as his immediate 
descendants, Khwaja Ali, Shaikh Ibrahim, 
Sultan Junaid, and Haidar, acquired the 
greatest reputation for sanctity. Contemporary 
monarehs, we are informed, visited the cell 
of Sadr-uddin. The great Tainrfir (Tamerlane), 
when he went to see this holvman, demanded 
to know what favour he should confer upon 

him. "Release those prisoners you have 
brought from Turkistan," was the noble and 
pious request of the saint. The conqueror 
complied ; and the grateful tribes, when they 
gained their liberty, declared themselves the 
devoted disciples of him to whom they owed 
it. Their children preserved sacred the obli- 
gation of their fathers; and the descendants 
of the captives of Taimur became the sup- 
porters of the family of Safi, and enabled 
the son of a devotee to ascend one of the 
must splendid thrones in the world. Khwaja 
'Ali, after visiting Mecca, went una pilgrim- 
age to Jerusalem, and died at that city. His 
grandson Junaid, sat on the masnad as a 
spiritual guide alter the death of bis father 
Shaikh Ibrahim ; and so great a crowd of 
disciples attended this holy man that Jahan 
Shah, the chief of the tribe of the Black 
Sheep, who at that time ruled Azurbaijan, 
became alarmed at their numbers and banished 
him from Ardibel. Junaid went to Dayar- 
bikar, whose ruler, the celebrated Uzzan 
Hasan, received him kindly, and gave him 
his sister in marriage. He afterwards went 
with bis disciples to Shirwan, where he wis 
slain in a conflict with the troops of the king 
of that province in a.d. 1456, a.h. 860. His 
son Suit fin Haidar succeeded him, and his 
uncle Uzzan Hasan, who had now by bis 
overthrow of Jahan Shah and Sultan Abu 
Said become powerful in Persia, gave him 
his daughter in marriage. The name of 
this princess, according to Muhammadan 
authors, was 'Alam Shao', but we are informed 
by a contemporary European writer that she 
was called Martha, and was the daughter of 
Uzzan Hasan by the Christian lady Despina, 
who was a daughter of Calo Joannes, king 
of Trebizond. Sultan Haidar also lost his 
life from the wound of an arrow which he 
received in a battle with the troops of 
Shirwan Shah and Ya'qub Beg in July, a.d. 
1488, Shaban, a.h. 893. Sultan Haidar 
had three sons by this princess— Sultan 'All, 
Ibrahim Mirza and Shah Isma'il. When 
Isma'il attained the age of fourteen (his 
elder brothers having died some years before), 
he put himself at the head of his adherents, 
and marched against the great enemy of his 
family the rider of Shirwan, called Shirwan 
Shah, whom he defeated a.d. 1500, a.h. 
906 ; and soon after, by another victory 
gained over Alwand Beg, the son of Ya'qub 
Beg, a prince of the dynasty of the "White 
Sheep, he became the master of the province 
of Azurbaijan, and established his residence 
at the city of Tabrez ; and in less than four 
years became the acknowledged sovereign of 
the kingdom of Persia. He was born on the 
17th July, a.d. 1487, 25th Rajab, a.h. 892, 
died after a reign of 24 lunar years on 
Monday the 23rd May, a.d. 1524, 19th 
Rajab a.h. 930, aged" 38 years, and was 
buried at Ardibel. "Muhammadan historians 
fix the commencement of his reign from the 
year a.d. 1500. He left four sons— Tahmasp, 
who succeeded his father, Sam Mirza, 
Bahrain, and Ikhlas Mirza, and five daughters. 
He composed a Turkish Diwan in which he 
uses the Takhallus of Kitabi. 




The folio iv in j in a lis' of the Sxfavi kings 
of Persia : — 

1. Shall Isma'il Safari, first son of Sultan 


2. Shah Tahmasp Safavi I. son of Isma'il 


3. Shah [sma'il II 

4. Muhammad Khu la I! ra la. 

5. Hamza, son of Khuda Banda. 

6. Shfili Isma'il III. son of Khuda Banda. 

7. Shah 'Abbas I. sua of Khuda Ban la. 

8. Shah Safi, the sou of Safi Mirza, the 

s ! 'Abbas. 

9. Shah 'Abbas II. son of Shah Safi. 

10. Shah Sulaiman, son of 'Abbas II. 

11. Shah Husain, son of Sulaiman. 

12. Shah Tahmasp II. last of the Safavi 


Mahmiid, :m Afghan. 
Ashraf, an Afghan. 

13. Shah 'Abbas III. Vide Nadir Shah. 
Isma'il II. Safavi, Shah ( L_*^_.J 

iLi jIj 


>), second son of Shah 

Tahmasp I. Safavi, whom he succeeded on 
the throne of Persia in May, v.n. 1576, 
Saiar, a.m. 984, by the aid oi his sister 
Pari Khanam, who Benl for him from the 
fort of Qahqah, when' he hail been confined 
by his father for 18 years. The shorl reign 
of this unworthy prince was marked by 
debauchery and crime. Immediately on his 
accession, he directed the massacre oi all the 
princes of the blood-royal that wire at 
Qazwin, except "All Mirza, whose life was 
spared; hut even he was deprived of sight. 
His eldest brother .Muhammad Mirza, who 
had a natural weakness in his eyes, which 
rendered him almost blind, and was during 
his father's life employed as governor oi 
Khurasan, was then at Shiraz. Orders were 
seut to murder him and his son 'Abbas, hut 
before they could lie e\ cuted [sma'il was 
found dead one morning in a confectioner's 
house, supposed to have been poisoned by his 
sister. His death happened at Qazwin on 
Sunday the 24th November, a.d. 1577, 13th 
llamazan, a.h. 985, after a short reign of 
one year and six months. He was succeeded 
by his eldest brother Muhammad Mirza, 
who, on his accession to the throne, took the 
title of Muhammad Khuda Banda. 

Isma'il ( J^.*,*^'), surnamed al-Mansur, 

third or fourth Khalif of Barbary of the race 
of the Fatimites, succeeded his father al- 
Qaem a.d. 945, a.h. 334, and having 
defeated and slain Yezid-ibn-Kondat, who 
had rebelled against his father, caused his 
body to be flayed, and his skin stuffed and 
exposed to public view. Al-Mansur died 
after a reign of seven years and sixteen days 
in a.d. 952, 30th Shawwal, a.h. 341, and 
was succeeded by his sou Abu Tannin Ma'd, 
surnamed Mo'izz-uddin-allah. 

Isma'il 'Alii Shah, Saltan (J-jfMiJ 

a Li JjLz), of Bijapur, surnamed 

Abu'l Fatha, succeeded bis father Yusaf 

'Alii S'nah on the thron oi Bijapur in the 

I) can in a.h. 1510, \ K. 9 1 5, and di d alter 

a glorious reign oi 25 lunar years on Wee 
day the 27th August, \ i>. 1534, the 10th 
Safar, a. it. 941, and was buried at Kuki 
near the tomb of his father. II- was 
bucc teded by hi~ son Mallu 'Adil Shah. 

Isma'il-bin-HasanC^^^^,; Ju**.J\ 

author of the work called Zakj,\ra K 

Shah. lie flourished in the reign oi Ala- 

uddin Takashj Saltan of Khwarizm, who died 

in A.D. 1200, a.h. 596, and was a i "lit in- 

porary oi Khaqani th- pot. 

Isma'ili or Isma'ilia ( ^.-^.r-^—^ 

i^l^x^J I), sect of Esmall-ibn- Ja f ai 

[g.v.). Their tenets were held by a man 
who had through the means ,,i superstition 
established an influence over the mind- of 

his follow rs, that enabled them to strike 

awe into tie- bosoms oi the most powerful 
sovereigns, and to till kingdoms with horror 
and dismay for a period of nearly two 
centuries. Their ruler, who became the 
chief oi tin- Assassins, resided on a lofty 
mountain called Alahmut, and late was in 
his hand-: for there was no shape which 
his followers could uol assume, no danger 
that they could not brave, to fulfil his 
mandates. Th se \\> re tie- [sma'ilis or 
Assassins, well-known by the Crusaders, as 
subjects of the old .Man of the mountain. 
They were completely extirpated by Halaku, 
the Tartar kin"- oi Persia, in the Mar a.d. 

\Vidi Hasan Babbah.] 

Isma'il Haqqi, Shaikh ( Ji^ J^jc*-^ 

ir?*" - ), author of a commentary on 

the Quran called Ruh-ul-Bayun, and of the 

Isma'il Mirza (1:^ J^jt^— j1), of 
Isfahan, an author. 

Isma'il Nizam Shah (*lli5 (J-*.*.,*-^ 

iLi). His father, prince Burhan 

Shah, having been defeated in an attempt to 
dethrone his brother Murta'za Xizani Shah, 
had fled for protection to the court of the 
emperor Akbar. On his departure he left 
behind him two sons, named Ibrahim and 
Isma'il, who were kept confined in the 
fortress of Lahagurh. On the death of 
Miran Husain Shah, the younger being 
raised to the throne of Ahmadnagar by Jamal 
Khan in the mouth of March, a.d. 1589, 




Juruada I. A.n. 997, took the title of Isma'Il 
Nizain Shah. His father Burhan Shah, 
having received assistance from the emperor 
Akbar, marched against His son, hut was 
defeated. However, in a short time after this, 
he renewed his attempts, and being joined by 
a 'great majority of the chiefs and people, 
attacked Jamal Khan the king's minister, 
who was killed in the action on "the 27th 
April, o.s. 1591, 13th Rajab, a.h. 999. 
Isma'Il, who had reigned little more than 
two years, was taken prisoner and confined by 
his father, who ascended the throne of 
Ahmadnagar with the title of Burhan Nizam 
Shah II. 

Isma'il Pasha (LiL> . L»_*-^-J), a 

recent Viceroy of Egypt, the successor of 
Muhammad 'All Pasha, who died iu August, 
a.d. 1849. 

Isma'il Samani, Amir ( jL«L: Lx*~^ 

^-.^t'), the first King of Amir of the 

race of Saman, called Samani, traced his 
descent from Bahrain Chobirt, the warrior 
who contended for the crown of Persia with 
Khusro Parvez. Saman the great-grandfather 

of Isma'Il, is termed, by the European writers, 
a keeper of herds, and a robber ; but this 
merely designates the ordinary occupations of 
a Tartar chief. His father Nasr Ahmad, the 
son of Asad, the son of Saman, was appointed 
governor of Mawarun Nahr by the Khallf 
Mo'tamid iu the year a.d. 875, a.h. 261. On 
his death His son Isma'Il succeeded him. 
Isma'Il, after his conquest over Amru-bin- 
Lais, whom he seized and sent to Baghdad, in 
a.d. 900, became independent. The power of 
the dynasty of the Samaras extended over 
Khurasan, Seistan, Balkh and the countries 
of Transoxania, including the cities of 
Bukhara and Samarqand. This justly 
celebrated prince died after a reign of twenty 
years in a.d. 907, Safar, a.h. 295, aged 
60 years, and was succeeded by his son Amir 
Ahmad Samani. 

The names of the kings of this family, who 
were called Amirs, and who continued to 
reign for a period of 128 lunar years, are as 
follow: — 

1. Amir Isma'Il Samani. 


5 ) 

Ahmad Samani. 



Nasr-bin- Ahmad. 


> ) 

Nuh I. son of Nasr. 



Abdul Malik. 


) ) 

Mansur I. 


) > 

Nuh II. 


) 5 

Mansur II. 



'Abdul Malik II. the last of 
this race. 

Isma'il, Sayyad-bin-Husain Jurjani 

author of two medical works in Persian, 
called Atjhnlz- ut - Tibb and Kliijf-i-'Altll, 
which he dedicated to Alp Arsalan, Sultan of 

'Ismat (^^~). Vide Asmat. 

Istaghana (UjL^J), poetical title of 
'Abdul Rasul. 

'Istarushi ( ^_^^. £ ). Vide Mu- 

I'tabi ( jtc), a poet, who died in the 
year a.d. 1614, a.h. 1023. 

I'tmad Khan Khwaja Sara (jUxsl 

j~* ^"'9^ liA^X an eunuch and 

officer in the service of the emperor Akbar. 
He was stabbed by his servant Maqsud 'All 
in a.d. 1578, a.h. 916, and was buried at a 
place called I'tmadpur, twelve miles from 
Agra, which he had founded in his lifetime. 

I'tmad Khan (^jU- J[^.z\), title of 

Shaikh 'Abdul Qawl, an Amir of the reign of 
the emperor 'Alamgir. He was murdered by 
a Qalandar in a.d. 1666. a.h. 1077. 

I'tmad-uddaula (a\»s\\ jUocI), title 

of KhwaVja Ayas or Ghayas the father of the 
celebrated Nur Jahan Begam, the favourite 
wife of the emperor Jahangir. He was a 
Tartar and came from Persia to India in the 
reign of the emperor Akbar. In the time of 
Jahangir, he was raised to the high rank of 
I'tmad-uddaula, and his two sons to the first 
rank of 'Umra with the titles of 'Asaf Khan 
and I'tqad Khan. He died near Kot Kangra, 
where he had accompaniedJahangir on his way 
to Kashmere iu February-, o.s. 1621, Rabi' I. 
a.h. 1030. His remains were transported to 
Agra and buried on the left bank of the 
Jamna, where a splendid mausoleum was 
built over his relics by his daughter Nur 
Jahan. It was completed in a.d. 1628, and 
is still in a high state of preservation. It is 
said, but it seems not to be true, that she 
intended to raise a monument of silver to his 
memory, but was reminded by her architect 
that one of less covetable material stood a 
fairer chance of duration. After his death 
his son 'Abu'l Hasan was appointed Wazlr 
with the title of 'Asaf Khan. No private 
family ever made such alliances with royal 
blood as this Tartar ; for his own daughter, 
his son's daughter aud the daughter of his 
grandson, were married to three successive 
emperors of Hindustan ; and another daughter 
of his grandson, to prince Murad Bakhsh, who 
disputed the tbroue with 'Alamgir, aud for 
some days thought himself in possession of it. 
The place where he is buried was a garden 
planned by I'tmad-uddaula during his lifetime. 
There are two tombs of yellow stone under the 
Rauza, or tomb ; one of which is that of I't- 
mad-uddaula, while the other is said to be his 




wife's. It lias a very large gate towards the 
cast, luiilt o! red Mime Ii has two miliars 
mi both sidrs in tin- Bame number a< there 
two on the side of the Jamna towards the 
west. There is on the chabiitra towards the 
Jamna a fish made of -tone ; it the water 
runs in ami vises as far as its mouth, the 
whole of Allahabad will be inundated. 

I'tmad-uddaula (<*!.jjl jU^sl), title 

of Muhammad Amir Khan, the prime minister 
of the emperor Muhammad Shan. 
[ Vide Muhammad Amir Khan.] 

I'tmad-uddaula (dl.jjl jU^'), sou of 

Muhammad Aniiii Khan, Wazir. 
[Vide Qamar-uddin Khan.] 

I'tqad Khan (J^>. jli^l), the 

brother of 'Asaf Khan, Wazir, and son o\ I't- 
mad-uddaula. He was appointed governor 
of Kashmere by the emperor Shah Jahan, 
which situation lie held for several rears. Hi 
1650, a. ii. 10 

died at Agra in a.d 

I'tqad Khan (^Uk j\ 5, -.M), the title 

of Mirza, Bahman Yiir, the son ol 'Asaf Khan 
and grandson of I'tmad-uddaula. He was 

raised to the rank of 4000 in the 25th rear oi 
Shah Jahan, a.d. 1651, ah. 1061, with the 
title of I'tqad Khan, which hi- lather held 
for some time as well as his ancle the brother 
of 'Asaf Khan. In the 6th year of 'Alamgir, 
A.n. 1662, a. n. 1072, the rank of 5,000 was 
conferred on him. In a.d. 1667, a.u. 1077, 
he proceeded to Dacca in Bengal, to visit his 
brother Shaista Khan, who was then governor 
of that province, and died there in the year 
a.d. 1671, a.u. 1082. 

I'tqad Khan {^J.^- iAJLxjii), former 

title of Zulfiqiir Khan Xasrat Jang. 

I'tsani-uddin, Shaikh ( jjj] *\.axc\ 
^-^), author of the Shoffar/ JYuina- 

i- Wilaet, being the travels of the author in 
Great Britain aud France, some time before 
or after the year a.d. 1766, a.h. 11 SO. This 

work has been translated into English. 

Izid Bakhsh, Mirza (\ 

\J*'~* {J^^S? J 'fl M ). 

u Ji 

His poetical name was Rasa ; he was the 
grandson of 'Asaf Khan Ja'far Beg, who was 
Wazir to Jahangir. Izid Bakhsh was at 
first employed by the prince 'Azim Shah, and 
then by his father the emperor 'Alamgir in 
the capacity of Munshi. On the accession of 
Farrukh-siyar, he Avas disgraced by that 
emperor for having cast some reflections 
on his father Azim-ush-Shan on account 
of the battle which took place between 

'Azim Shah and his broth t Bahadur 
Shah. By the order of the emperor, the 
hairs of his mustaches were plucked oui one 
by one, and afterwards he was cruelly 
murdered. This evenl took place about the 
inning of the year ah 1713, a.h. 1125. 
His tomb is still to be seen in the compound 
"i the Agra Coll 

'Izzat (^_* ;_.;). poetical name of 
(Shaikh) 'Abdul 'Aziz, which 

'Izzat (c^L-c), poetical name of San- 
gham Lai, which see. 

'Izzat (iSJiz), poetical title of Jaiki- 
shun, whioh - e. 

'Izzat (tiJlx), poetical appellation of 
Shaikh Wajih-uddin. 

'Izzat-uddaula Mirza Muhsin (^j 

^^■s^ \\j+ Ajk!'), brother of Nawab 

I lie was sent to Persia on an 

embassy to Nadir Shah aft) r his invasion of 

Hindustan, by tie i mp ror Muhammad Shah. 

[Vide Najaf Khan and Muhammad Quli 

'Izz - uddaula Bakhtyar (<l!.jJ1*~ 

jL^isr), the son of Mu izz-uddaula- 

ilm-Buva. lie succeeded to the kimrdom of 
'Iraq the same day on which his father died, 
. Monday the Isi April, a.d. 967, 17th 
Rabl' II. a.h. 356. The Khalif-al-Taya 
Billah in the year a.d. 974, gave him his 
daughter in marriage, on whom a dowry of 
one hundred thousand dinars was settled by 
her husband. He was a noble prince, and 
possessed Buch bodily strength that he could 
take an enormous bull by the horns and throw 
him to the ground. A contest which arose 
between him and his cousin 'Azd- uddaula 
relative to their respective possessions, caused 
a breach between them which led to a war, 
and on Wednesday the 29th May, a.d. 978, 
they met and fought a battle, in which 'Izz- 
uddaula was slain, aged 36 years. His head 
was placed on a tray and presented to 'Azd- 
uddaula, who is said, on seeing it, to have 
covered his eyes with his handkerchief and 

'Izz-uddin Abdul Aziz - bin - Abdus- 
Salam Damishqi, Shaikh ( ,,jjJiLc 

author of the Shajrat-ul-Ma ( arif. He died 
in the year a.d. 1261, a.h. 660. 




'Izz-uddin Husain 


He was created by Sultan Ibrahim of Ghazni, 
Amir Hajib (Lord Chamberlain), ia which 
station be conducted himself so well, that the 
kirn;' gave him a princess of the house of 
Ghazni in marriage. He rose daily in favour 
and estimation, till Sultan Masa'ud, the son 
of Ibrahim, put him in possession of the 
principal it v of Gh5r. By the princess of 
Ghazni li> : had seven sons entitled the seven 
stars. One of them, Fakhr-uddin Masa'ud, 
became king of Bimyan. The second was 
Qutb-uddiu Muhammad, who married his 

cousin, a princess of Ghazni, the daughter of 
Sultan Bahrain Shah. The third was 'Ala- 
uddin Hasan, prince of Ghor, who destroyed 
Ghazni circ. a.d. 1152). Izz-uddin during 
his life-time paid tribute to the Saljuqs as 
well as to the Gja/.uaviil s. 

'Izz-uddin Khalid Khani ( 

,jl>- w\!l>-), author of the work 

oalled Balail Firoz Shahl, which he translated 
into Persian by order of Firoz Shah, from a 
Hindi hook which treated on philosophy, 
astrology and divination. 


J A 'FA 

Jabali ( JL^-), the son of Ayhani, 

last king of the tribe of Ghassan, who were 
Christian Arabs. He became a Muhammadan, 
and afterwards attempted to assassinate 
Umar, the second Khalif after Muhammad. 
He died a.d. 673, a.h. 53. 

Jabali ( !L=^), surname of Abu All 

Muhammad-bin- 'Abdul Wahab, who was the 
master of the celebrated Abii'l Hasan al- 
Asha'ri, chief of the sect of the Asharians, 
and one of the four Imams of Musalmanism. 

Jabali ( L^), poetical name of Abdul 

Wasa, who was born in the mountains of 
Ghuri'istan, hence his takhallus which means 
mountaineer. He found a patron in Bahrain 
Shah of Ghazni, and served Sultan Sanjar 
Saljuki fourteen years. He died in a.d. 1160, 
a.h. 555, and left a Diwan of Kasidas. 
[Vide 'Abdul Wasa.] 

Jabar ( .*>-), poetical name of Abu 
Musa Ja'far-al-Safi, which see. 

Jabila Ram Nagar ( Jo A, dL-^), 

J \^J ■■■ • 

a Hindu chief who was governor of Allahabad, 
and died there in the commencement of the 
reign of Muhammad Shah in a.d. 1720, a.h. 
1132. His nephew Girdhar was appointed 

governor of Audh after his death, and in 
a.d. 1724, a.h. 1136, the government of 
Malwa was conferred on him, and the 
Subadari of Audh was given to Burhau-ul- 
Mulk Sa'adat Khan. Raja Girdhar died in 
Malwa during the invasion of Baji Rao 
Peshwa of the Mahrattas, acting in the name 
of the Raja Sabu, about the year a.d. 1729, 
a.h. 1142'; he was succeeded by Dayl Baha- 
dur his relation, who continued gallantly to 
resist the enemy, and fell in battle about the 
year a.d. 1730, a.h. 1143, when Muhammad 
"Khan Bangash was appointed governor of that 

Jabir (Al^-.c ^ jl>), the son oi 

'Abdullah, was a companion of Muhammad 
and a traditionist. He was present in nine- 
teen battles which Muhammad fought, and 
died in the year a.d. 692, a.h. 73, aged 9-1 


Ja'far ( ,Lr.>- ), poetical title of Asa! 
Khan, commonly called Mirza, Ja'far Beg. 

Ja'far ( .ix>~), a soldier by profession 

He is the author of a Masnawi, which h< 
dedicated to the emperor Shah Jahan. 

Ja'far-al-Barmaki (^j 

<J^J- ] 




r), son of Ahia or Yahia anc" 

grandson of Khalid, the son of Barmak wh( 
w^as originally a fire-worshipper. He suc- 
ceeded his father Ja'far as wazir to th< 




Khalif Harun - al - Rashid ; hia grandfather 
having been wazir to Abdu.'] 'Abbas Saffah, 
who was the firs! of all the Khalifa who had 
a wazir. This wazlr Ja'far, was a great 
favourite of Harun-al-Rashid who gave him 
'Abbasa, hia Bister, in marriage, under the 
condition that he waa to have no earns 
nection with her, but he trai d the 

command, for which the Khalii ordered hia 
head to be struck off. He also threw li i- 
brother Al-Fazl and his lather Ahia into 
prison, and there left them to die. Ja'far 
was only 28 years old when he waa i secuted, 
having been in the favour of Harun-al- 
Rashid for the space of seventeen years. 
Ja'far was beheaded on Sunday the 29th 
January, a.d. 803, 1st Safar a.h. 187. his 
body was gibbetted on one side of the bridge ol 
Baghdad, and his head stuck up on the other. 
He was the ancestor of the " Barmecides." 


'far Ali Khan (J^ Jus Jm^), 

commonly called Mir Ja'far, whom the 
English placed on the masnad as Nawab oi 
Bengal, Behar and Orissa, after thedefeal and 
death of Nawab Siraj-uddiula, in June, a.d. 
1757, Shawwal a.m. 1170. He was, however, 
deposed in a.d. 17(30, a.ii. 1174. on account 
of alleged negligence in the affairs oi hia 

government, and was obliged to retire on an 
ample pension, when his son-in-law, Mir 
Qasim 'Ali Khan was raised to the maenad. 
This man after his elevation, intending to 
drive out the English from Calcutta, waa 

defeated ill a battle fought at I'dwa Xala on 

the 2nd of August, a.d. 17h:'>, 22nd Muhar- 
ram, a.h. 1177, and expelled, ami Mir 
Ja'far was again placed on the masnad by the 
English. lie died on Tuesday the 5th 
February, a.d. 1765, 14th Shabiin, a.h. 
1178, and his son MirPhulwari, who assumed 
the title of Najm-uddaula, was elevated to 
the masnad. Ja'far All's cemetery is at 
Murshidabad, where his Begam and his son 
Miran are also buried. 

ra'far Barmaid (X^J jSm>~), see 

ra'far -bin -Abu Ja'far- al- Mansur 

( j^2U^\ ji-*s>- »ji ^ j^x^tX the 

Khalif of Baghdad. His daughter Zubeda 

was married to Harun-al-Eashid. He died 
in the year a.d. 802, a.h. 186. 



ra'far-bin-Abu Talib (»^ } 

t—^lk) was the brother of 'All the 

son-in-law of the prophet. He was killed in 
a battle fought at Muta in Syria against the 
Roman army in a.d. 629, a.h. 8. 

Ja'far - bin - Muhammad Husaini 

(c*^n A^s.'* ^.ixs^-), author of 

the Mwitakhib-ut-Taivurlkh, a very judicious 

abridgment o tal history from Adam 

down to Shahrukh Mirzi, - • • 1 1 oi Amir 
Tainiur. This work was dedical d to 
Baisanghar Bahadur, third son of shahrukh, 
in a.d. 1117. a.h. 820. Many authors, have 
compiled works under this title. .,: 
which was written by Shaikh 'Abdul Q&dir 

Ja'far-bin-Tufail (,UL ... .i.^) ( 

an Arabian philosopher in the 12th century, 
author ol a romance, called the history of 
Bai-ibn-Yokdhan, in which he asserts that 
by the lighl of nature, a man may acquire a 

knew ledge "t things and "i <>"d. 

\VieU Lempriere's Universal Dictionary, 
under Jaaphar.] 

Ja'far Khan ( 


" T 'mdat -ul-Mulk." was the son of Sadiq 
Khan Mir Bakhshi, and sister's son and son- 
in-law of yemin-uddaula 'Asai Khan, wazir. 
He held the rank ol 5000 under the emperor 
Shah Jahaii. was appointed prime mini-H r by 
'Alamgir about the year a.h. 1662, a.h. 
1073, and died in the 13th year oi that 
empi ror, a.h. 1670, a h. 1081, at Dehli. 
Alter his death the office of wizaral was 
conferred upon Asad Khan with the title of 
Asad-uddaula. ft - ma thai alter the death 
of Ja'far Khan hia remains were transferred 
to Agra, where his tomb ia to be Been still 
standing on the right bank of the Jams 

Ja'far Khan ( 



), whose 

first title had been Mursliid Quli Khan, was 
appointed governor ol Bengal by the i mp< ror 
'Alamgir in a.d. 1704, a.ii. 1116. He 
founded the capital oi Murshidabad and 
nam. d it after his origina] title. He was the 
son of a Brahman, converted v> Muham- 
madanism by Haji Shafia' Isfahani. He 
died in the reign of the emperor Muhammad 
Shah about the year a.d. 1726, a.h. 1138, 
and was succeeded In his son-in-law Shuja- 
uddlu (also called' Shuja-uddaula). the 
following is a list oi his dynasty: — 


Murshid Quli Ja'far Khan .... 1704 
Shuja-uddin, son-in-law of Ja'far Khan 1726 
'Ala-uddaula Sarfaraz Khan .... 1739 
Alahwardi Khan Mahabat Jang . . . 1740 
Siraj-uddaula, grandson of ditto . . 1756 
Ja'far 'All Khan (dethroned in 1760) . 1757 
Qasim 'Ali Khan, son-in-law of ditto . 1760 
Ja'far 'Ali Khan, restored in . . . 1763 
Najm-uddaula, son of ditto .... 1764 
Saif-uddaula, brother of Najm-uddaula 1766 

Mubarik-uddaula 1769 

Nazim-ul-Mulk Wazir-uddaula, (died 

April 28th, 1810) 1796 

Sawad Zain-uddin 'Ali Khan, son of 

ditto 1810 

Sawad Ahmad 'Ali Khan .... ■ 

Humayun Jab 1824 

Mansur 'Ali Khan, Nasrat Jang . . 1858 








Ja'far Khan ( jj 

i^lrO, son of Sadiq Khan, king of 

Persia of the House of Zend. He was recog- 
nised by the principal noblemen in Fars, after 
the death of -All Murad Khan iu 1785, and 
the people were forward in acknowledging his 
authority, but unable to n sist his enemy 'Aqa, 
Muhammad Khan, who now ventured to 
embrace a more extensive field for the exer- 
tion of bis talents, and commenced his march 
against Isfahan. Ja'far Khan was treacher- 
ously murdered in 178S ; his head was severed 
from his body, and cast before the citadel, the 
sport of children, and the outcasts of the city. 

Ja'far Khan (^Iri- j**^ ), a nobleman 

who in the first year of the emperor Bahadur 
Shah was appointed governor of Kashmere 
in the room of Nawazish Khan a.d. 1707, 
a.h. 1119. He proved to be a bad governor 
and a mob si t fire to his residence. He died 
in Kashmere of drink and excess a.d. 1709, 
a.h. 1121, and according to the record of his 
death, must be faring badly at present. 

Ja'far Nasiri (^jj^aj _JL*_s>-), an 

author, who completed the work called Lataif 
Khayal, in a.d. 1742, a.h. 1155, which was 
commenced by Mirzi, Muhammad Sahib. 


Ja'far Sadiq ( v w >U> jix^-), or Ja' 

the Just. He was the eldest son of Mu- 
hammad Baqir, the grandson of Imam Husain. 
He is reckoned the sixth Imam ; was born 
at Madina about the year a.d. 702, a.h. K3, 
and died in the same city under the khilafat 
of Abu Ja'far Al-Mansur, in a.d. 766, a.h. 
148. He was very famous for his doctrine 
amongst the Musalmans, was invited to court 
by Al-Mansur, that he might profit by his 
counsel : Ja'far returned lor answer, " Who- 
ever has a view duly to this world, will not 
give you sincere advice, and he who regards 
the next, will not keep your company." He 
was buried iu the cemetery of Al-Baqia at 
Madina. The same tomb contains the bodies 
of his father. Imam Bakir, his grandfather 
'Ali Zain-ul 'Abidin, and his grandfather's 
uncle, Hasan, son of 'All. His mother's 
name was Umm Farwah, daughter of Kasim, 
the son of Muhammad, the son of Abu Bakr 
Sadiq, the first Khalif after Muhammad. He 
is said to be the author of a book of fate 
called F<il Nama. 

Ja'far Zatalli, Mir (^$ 15 \ Axs>-). 

a Sayyad of Narnoul, contemporary with Mirza 
Bedil. He served under prince 'Azim Shah, 
the son of the emperor 'Alamgir, who was 
slain in battle in a.d. 1707, a.h. 1019, Ja'far 
was the most celebrated humouristic poet of 
Hindustan : his compositions are a mixture 
of Persian and Urdu. He is the author of a 

Shahnama in Rekhta. He was put to death 
in a.d. 1713, a.h. 1225, by order of the 
emperor Farrukh-siyar, on account of asatirical 

verse he had written on the accession of that 
emperor to the throne of Dehli. 

1 f 

Jagat Goshaini ( uj\J^^ 


Y'ulc Jodh Bui. 

Jagat Narayan ( J\ ,lj u: 

Hindu poet who wrote some kasidas in praise 
of Nawah 'Asaf-uddaula of Lucknow, who 
died in a.d. 1797, a.h. 1212. 

Jagannath, Raja (\s>-\. rfL^-jLiJLs^), 

the son of Bhara Mai. He held the rank oi 
5000 in the time of the emperor Jahfuigir, 
about the year a.d. 1605, a.h. 1014. 

Jagat Singh (j 



r ), the 


of Makund Singh Hara, lived in the time ol 
the emperor 'Alamgir, a.d. 1659. 


Jagat Singh (^^ i*z-~£s>-), Raja ol 

Jaipur or Jainagar, was the son of Rajc 
Partap Singh, the son of Madho Singh, the 
son of Ishuri Singh, the son of the celebrated 
Raja Jai Singh Sawai, who lived in the timt 
of the emperor Muhammad Shah. Jagal 
Singh succeeded his father in a.d. 1803, anc 
i- said to have been an effeminate prince 
though he died without issue, he was succeedec 
by Raja Jai Singh, a posthumous son, believei 

Jagnath Kalanwat (t^Jil£ <k,J'LG>-) ; 

a musician who was employed by Shah Jahan 
who conferred on him the title of Main 
Kabraj . 

Jaghtai ( , 


Vide Chaghta' 


Jagnath (<uj*L1^-), brother of Raj; 

Bhagwan I his. He distinguished himself ii 
the war with Raja Partap Singh. He slev 
the renowned champion Ram Das, son o: 

Jahan. Vide Beni Narayan. 

Jahan Ara Begam (J^ \j\ u^f^r); 

daughter of the emperor Shah Jahan, b] 
Munitaz Mahal, daughter of 'Asaf Khan 
wazir ; was born on" Wednesday the 23rc 
March, a.d. 1614, 21st Safar, a.h. 1023 
One of the most beautiful examples of femah 
modesty to be found in the annals of womai 
is recorded of this princess, celebrated iu sonc 
and history as the heroic, the witty, th< 
generous, the elegant, the accomplished, anc 




the beautiful Jahan Ara Begam. One nighl 
(26th March, a.d. 1644, 27th Muharram, 
A . ii. L054), as Bhe was returning from h< r 
father's apartments to the harem, in one of 
th( p issages which conned the latter building 
with tin' bodj "i the palace, her flowing 
drapery waa unhappily ignited by the flame 
oi a lamp. Her w hole dress, « hich w is oi 
the finesl muslin, waa instantly in flames, 
and of course her life was in iinmini nt peril : 
hut, knowing thai Bh i was then within hearing 
of many young nobles of the court, Bhe would 
not raise an alarm, leal they Bhould run to 
her assistance, and behold her unveiled, or 
lay their hands upon her in order to extinguish 
the flames. Heroically enduring all the agonies 
which fire could inflict, Bhe withheld hi r cries, 
and rushed forward until Bhe reached the 
women's apartments, and there Mink upon 
the Hour, almost lifeless. For a long period, 
no hopes were enl rtained of her recovery, 
hut she was ultimately restored to health by an 
English physician named Gabriel Boughton 
who was then al Smut, and had bei d sent 
for by the emperor her father then in the 
Deccan, although her beauty was cruelly 
impaired. The emperor, in reward for Dr. 
Boughton'a services, besidi a other favours, 
granted him, at hia disinterested request, a 
patenl for his countrymen to trade free of 
customs throughout hia dominions. The large 
masjid of red stone adjoining the fori of 
Agra near the Tripolia aow demolished was 
built by her (or in her honour, in th i year 
a.d. 1648, a. ii. 1058, al a coal ol five lacs 
of rupees. She died in the reign ol her 
brother the emperor 'Alamgir on the 5th 
September, a.d. 1680, 3rd Ramazan, ah. 
1092, and lies buried in the yard oi the 
mausoleum of Nizam-iiddln Aulia at Dehli. 
The name of Jahan Ara will ever adorn the 
pages of history as a brighl example of filial 

attachment and heroic S It-d-votion to the 

dictate- of duty, more especially when we 
view it in contrasl with the behaviour oi 
her Bister Roshan Ara, who, by aiding the 
ambitious designs of Aurangzib, enabled him 
to dethrone Shah Jahan. The amiable and 
accomplished Jahan Ara not only supported 
her aged lather in his adversity, hut voluntarily 
resigned her liberty and resided withhim 
during his imprisonment in the fort of Agra. 
Her tomb is of white marble, open at the 
top, and at the head is a tablet with a Persian 
inscription inlaid in black marble letters, to 
the following effect: "Let no one scatter 
over my grave anything but verdure, for such 
best becomes the' sepulchre of one who had a 
humble mind." On the margin is written, 
"The perishable faqir Jahan Ara Begam, 
daughter of Shah Jahan, and the disciple of 
the "saints of Chisht, died in the year of the 
Ilijra, a.h. 1092." 

Jahan Bano Beg-arn ( JL< y\j u^r), 

the daughter of Prince Murad, the son of the 
emperor Akbar. She was married to Prince 
Parwez, the sou of Jahangir, by whom she 
had Nadira Begam, who was married to Dara 
Sheko, the eldest son of Shah Jahan. 

Jahandar Shah ($\£ .'jjl^sj-), sur- 

named Muhammad Mui'zz-uddin, was the 
eldest son oi the emperor Bahadur Shah. and 
grandson of 'Alamgir. He was horn in the 
D ccan on Wednesday the 8th April, a.h. 
;. LOth Ramazan, a ii 1073. The death 
of lib lather, which took place in February, 

A.H. 1712, Muharram. A..H. 1124, wasfollo 

by the usual struggl among hi- sons for the 
crown. The incapacity ol Jahandar Shah, 
tin eldest, had given a great ascend in j to 
th second whose name was Azim-ush-Snan. 
He was supported by moBt of the nobility 
and ot th army, but his other brothers joined 
their int. n sts, and wi re ki pi togethi r by the 

suasions and false promises oi Ziufikar 
Khan, the Amir-ul-'Umra. Their i lord 

- oi short duration, and lasted only until 
the defeat and death oi Azim-ush-Shan; 
after which a bloody bat le ensued between 
the time surviving brothers, two oi whom, 

. Jahan Shah with hia -on l-bikhunda 
Akhtar, and B atl-ii-h-Shaii. being killed. 
The sub j eel oi this notice, bj the intngui a and 
Bupporl oi the Amir-ul-'Umra, remained un- 
disputed mastei Ol the throne, and wa- crow tied 
at Lahore on Thursdaj the Huh April, a.d. 
1712, llih Rabi' 1 . a ii. 1124, with the 
title oi Jahandar Shah. He waa in him-, It 
a weak man. effeminately careful ol hi- p< reon, 
fond oi ease, indolent, and totally ignorant 
oi the art ot government, lie made the vast 
empiri ol llindu-tan an offering to the foolish 
whim- oi a public courtezan, named Lai 
l\;in\\ar, thus vexing the mind- ot worthy 
subji eta loyal to hi- family. He n igni a 
only nine months, being defeated in a battle 
fought near Agra, and afterwards taken prisoner 
and murdered in the month of January, a d. 
171:;, gil-bijja, a.h. 1 124, by ord< i "i his 
nephew Farrukh-aiyar tie -on nt the 1 ite 
Azim-ush-Shan . win. became emperor. His 
corpse wa- exposed to public view, and then 
interred in the platform before the mausoleum 
ei the emperor Humayun at Dehli. His 


other's nun u.i- Nizam Bai. 

Jahandar Shah, Prince ( ^Jkjl^_s»- 

»Jily-t il-l), the eldest son of the 

emperor Shah 'Alam. Born about a.d. 1749. 
Appointed Regenl by Ahmad Shah Abdali in 
1761, alter the overthrow ol the Mahratta- at 
Panipat, he administered the remain- of the 
Empire until his lather's restoration in 1771. 
His private appellation was J a wan Bakht 
(Mirza). In April, a.d. 1784, on account 
of the unsettled affair- of his lather, he made 
his escape from Dehli and repaired to Lucknow, 
where the British Governor of Bengal, Warren 
Hastings, had arrived to regulate the con- 
cerns between the wazir, Asaf-uddaula, and 
the Company. He accompanied Mr. Hastings 
to Benares,' which place he chose for his 
residence. He had an allowance of five lacs 
of rupees per annum from the Nawab wazir 
at the earnest request of Mr. Hastings. 
He died in Benares on the 31st May, a.d. 
1788, 25th Shaban, a.h. 1202, after an illness 




of little more than twenty-four hours ; aged 
about 39 years, and was buried with every 
honour due to his rank near the tomb of a 
venerated Muhammadan in Benares. The 
English Resident and principal people of the 
city attended his funeral. He left behind him 
three sons, whom, with the rest of his family, 
he recommended to the care of the English, 
under whom they still enjoy a comfortable 
asylum and allowance at Benares. Garein 
de Tassy informs n<, that there is a work of 
his in the Indian House, which has the title 
of Bayaz In lyet Marsh idzada. The narrative 
written by this prince, was translated by Col. 
Scott, and published in the appendix to Mr. 
Hastings' Review of the state of 1! sngal. 
[Vide Fall of the Moghul Empire.~\ 

Jahangir ( ^ JLj L^sf- ), a cousin and 

husband of Sikandar (q.r.) Begam of Bhopal. 
His ancestor, Dust Muhammad, about the time 
of Aurangzib's death, d iclared himself inde- 
pendent at Bhopal. Jahangir's uncle was the 
third Nawab, on whose death his widow was 
declared Regent by the army, and his daughter 
Sikandar Begam, heir. She married Jahangir 
Avho died in the year a.d. 1843. 

Jahangir (emperor) ( ^ ^\ ,y ^£>l^- 

Aa.js.''*), surnamed Nur-uddm Mu- 
hammad, was the eldest son of the emperor 
Akbar the Great; was born in the village of 
Sikri on Wednesday the 31st August, a.d. 
1569, 17th Rabi' I. a.h. 977, and was named 
Mirza Salim on account of his coming into 
the world, as supposed, by the prayers of 
Shaikh Sallni Chishti, a ven irable Shaikh and 
dervish who resided in the village of Sikri, 
now called Fathapur Sikri in the province 
of Agra. His mother, who received the title 
of Mariam Zammam, was the daughter of 
Raja Bihari Mai Kachhwaha. Alter the 
death of his father, which took place on the 
16th October, a.d. 1605, he succeeded him by 
the title of Nur-uddin Muhammad Jahangir. 
He reigned 22 lunar years, 8 months and 
15 days from the day of his father's demise ; 
and died in camp on Sundav the 28th October, 
a.d. 1627, 28th Safar, a.h. 1037, on his 
way to Lahore from Kashmere, aged 59 lunar 
years, 11 mouths and 12 days; and was 
interred in the suburbs of Lahore in the 
garden of his favourite wife Nur Jahan Begam. 
He was succeeded by his son Mirza Khurram, 
who took the title of Shah Jahan. His 
favourite Sultana Nur Jahan, who survived 
him 18 years, is also buried in the mausoleum. 
Jahangir, after his death, received the title 
of " Jannat Makanl." It was to this prince 
that Sir Thomas Roe was sent as ambassador 
by King James I. Sir Thomas has given a 
good description of the grandeur of the court 
of Hindustan ; but very little notice is taken 
of this embassv in the chronicles of the East. 
In 1612, Jahangir permitted the Company 
to establish factories at Surat, Ahmadabad, 
and Cambay. Jahangir wrote his own mem oir 
in Persian, called Tuzak Jahanglri, which 

has been translated by Major David Price, 
London, 1829, 184 pages 4to. It is also 
called Jahangir Xiima. 

Jahangir Mirza (\\j.+ _Jol^), the 

eldest son of Akbar Shah II. king of Dehli. 
He was, in consequence of having fired a 
pistol at Mr. Seton, the Resident at DehlT, 
sent as a State prisoner to Allahabad, where 
he resided in the garden at Sultan Kliusro for 
several years, and died thei'e in a.d. 1821, 
a.h. 1236, aged 31 years; a salute of 3l 
guns was tired from the ramparts of the fort 
of Allahabad at the time of his burial. He 
was at firs! interred in the same garden, and 
subsequently his remains were transferred to 
Dehli, and buried in the court-yard of the 
mausoleum of Xizam-uddlu Aulia. 

Jahangir Mirza (\ ■ _* .^L^^), the 

eldest son of Amir Taimur. He died before 
his father a.d. 1574, a.h. 776. His son's 
name was Plr Muhammad, which see. 

Jahangir Quli Khan ( c li ^Jol^ 

,jL~-), son of Khan Azim Mirza 

'Aziz Koka, served under the emperors Akbai 
and Jahangir, and died in the fifth year oi 
Shah Jahan a.d. 1631, a.h. 1041. 

Jahangir Quli Khan, Kabuli (^J Lj»- 

JjI^ ,.\z>- ^i), an amir of the 

rank of 5000, who was appointed governoi 
of Bengal by the emperor Jahangir, in a.d. 
1607, ah. 1016, and ilied there in a.d. 160S, 
a.h. 1017. 

Jahanian Jahan Gasht, Makhdum 

[ Vide Shaikh Jalal.] 

< L ■ 


Jahan Khatun (^^j\.s>- ^L^), a 

famous lady, who after the death of her first 
husband was married toKhwaja Amln-uddln, 
minister to Shah Abu Is-haq, ruler of Shlraz. 
She is said to have been a very beautiful 
woman, and a good poet. 

Jahan Shah (Prince) (\', 


HJ>\\jJ^) f the third son of the emperor 

Bahadur Shah. He was slain in the battle 
Avhich took place at Lahore, after the eleath 
of his father, between his brothers in March, 
a.d. 1712. His mangled body with that oi 
his brother Rafi-ush-Shau and his son, was 
conveyed to Dehli and interred without 
ceremony and pomp in the mausoleum of the 
emperor" Humayun, the general receptacle oi 
the murdered princes of the imperial family. 




Jahan Shah Turkman (iLl cA-irT" 
■ oU^j), son of Qara YQsaf Turkman, 

was the brother of Sikandar Turkman, after 
whose death in a.d. L437, a.h. 841, the 
government of Azurbejan was conferred on 
him by Shahrukh Mirza, the Bon of Amir 
Taimur lie held it till the death oi thai 
prince in a.i>. 1447, a.m. 850, afterwhich he 
conquered most pari oi Persia, and earned 
his aim- as Ear as Dayarbikar, and fell in a 
battle which be fought against Hasan B 
commonly called Lzzati Hasan, the ruler ot 
that province, on the loth November, \ d. 
1467, L2th Rabi' LI. a. 11. 872, aged 70 years. 
He reigned more than 30 lunar years, and as 
he was -lain in battle againsl Hasan Beg, the 
chronogram <>i the warm hisdeath was found 
to contain the word's " .slain by Hasan B< 

Jahan Soz (;»_-= (jL^p-), a title of 
Sultan 'Ala-uddin Hasan Ghori. 

Jahi ( JbU-), the poetical name of 
Ibrahim Mirza Sultan), which see. 

Jahiz or Aljahiz (ii^ls.^ \i iis^U-), 

the surname of Abu 'Usman 'Umax bin- 
Mahbub Kana'ana, a man oi greai learning, 
but of a verv eccentric tendency ot mind. 11'' 
wrote a book on the Commerce ot the 
Arabians early in the third century of the 
Hijra entitled Kitab-al-Nazrat fil Tajarat, 
which i- frequently quoted by Nawari. 
Jahiz die.l a.d. 868, *A. 11. 20.3. at the age ot 
( JG years. 

Jaiapa (Ub_\^.-: l>^r\ Sindhia, suc- 
ceeded his father Ranoji Sindhia, the founder 

Of the Sindhia family, in A.D. 1750, a.ii. 
1163, and was murdered in hi- tent in A.D. 
1759, a. ii. U72. He was stieeeeded by his 
brother Madhoji Sindhia. 


a Kashmiri 

Jai Chand ( .J5\ 

■ ), the last 

Rather monarch of Kanauj. He ruled the 
country from Buxar to Kanauj and reigned 
about the Samhat year a.d. 1400. ah. 1343. 
His favourite residence was near the city oi 
Jouupur which he had built in a.d. 1359, 
Sainbat 1416. The present city of Jaunpur 
Avas built by Firdz Shah iu the year a.d. 
1370, a'.h. 772, iu honour of his uncle 
Fakhr-uddin Muhammad Julian, the date of 
which is found in the words " Shahr 
Jaunpur." According to Colonel Tod, 
Jaichand reigued about the 12th century ot 
the Christian era, and one of his o Ta ndsons 
named Seoji, with a few retainers, planted 
the Rathor standard in Marwar iu the year 

A.D. 1212. 

Jai Chand (. 

-), a Raja of 

Nagarkot or Kangra, who lived in the time 
of the emperor Akbar. 

Brahman whose poetical name was 'Izzat, 
was the agent of Nawab Is-haq Khan. 

Jaimal (J-a~*.s^), a Raja, famous in 

history as •• the bravest of the brave." In 
A i,. 1668 Udai Singh, tin son of ELana 
Sanka or Banga, and the founder ot the 
,ital Qdaipur in Chittor, came under the 
displeasure ot the emperor Akbar. The 
recreant chiei fled and hit the defend ot his 
capital Chittor to Rlia Jaimal, who was 
killed by Akbar himseli i" the course oi the 

. A.D. l 

Jaipal I. (Jjl J\^2r), son of Hitpal, 

l; A a ,,i Lahore ot the Brahman tribe, who 
j on d ovt r the countrj extending in length 
from Barhind to Lankan, and in breath 
from the kingdom oi Kashmert to Multan. 
11,. xvas once d. feated by Bubaktagin, the 
Sultan ot Ghazni, with great slaughter, and 
again on Monday the 27th November, a.d. 
[001, by hi- ~ou Sultan Mahmud, when 

Jaipal with titteen ot his principal chi 
being his sons and brethren, were taken 
prison! IB, and 5000 of hi- troop- were slain 
,,,, the tield ot battle. He was afterwards 
1. 1, ased by Mahmud, but in compliance with 
:1 custom which prevailed among the Hindus, 
that whatever Raja was twice overpowered 
1,\ strangers became disqualified to reign, he 
ordered a funeral pile to he prepared, and 

having B( 1 lire to it with his own hands, 

perished therein. He was succeeded by his 
sun Anandpal. 

Jaipal II. (iaAj ^ JW^' Tl "''i a 
,,t Lahore, -on ot Anandpal. whom he suc- 
ceeded in a D. 1013. He was routed in a 

,_,,,:,, battli by Sultan Mahmud in a.d. 1022, 
on the hanks' , lt the river Ravi : the result 
was the permanent occupation ot Lahore by 
a Muhammadan governor, and the appoint- 

ln ,. nt oi a VicerO] Oi Lahore by Mahmud. 

Jaipal fled to Ag'mir. This has been con- 
sidered the foundation ot the Muhammadan 

empire in India. 

Jai Singh I. (Raja) ( Jy iS-^: <s ^- 
^\j), of the tribe of Kacnhwaha, 

commonly called Mirza Raja, was the son of 
Raja Maha Singh, the son of Partap Singh, 
the son of Raja Man Singh. He served 
under the emperor Shah Jahan, and was 
made governor over the conquered provinces 
of the Deccan about the year a.d. 1664, by 
the emperor 'Alamgir. He was recalled to 
court iu a.d. 1666, but died on the road, 
soon after bis arrival at Burhanpur, 28th 
Mubarram, a.h. 1078. According to Orme s 
Historical Fragments of the Mughul Empire, 
Jai Singh died at Burhanpur soon after the 
pretended revolt of Sultan Muazzim, the son 




of the emperor, and was said to have heen 
poisoned by the procurement of 'Alamglr. 
There never was a prince among the Rajputs 
equal to him in accomplishments. He was 
conrpetely learned in Hindi, and understood the 
Turkish, Persian, and Arabic languages. 
He left two sons, Earn Singh his eldest, 
aud Kirat Singh. The former was honoured 
after his father's death with the title of 
Raja, aud put in possession of his father's 
territories. _ Jai Singh had built several fine 
edifices at Agra, of which no sign remain now, 
but the name and place on which the buildings 
stood is still called Jaisinghpura. 

Jai Singh II. Sawai (^^ diow; e s>- 

^Ij), a Biija of the tribe of Kachh- 
waha rajputs, was the son of Bishn Singh, 
the son of Kishun Singh, the sou of Rani 
Singh, the son of Mirza Raja Jai Singh. He 
is commonly called Mirza Raja Jai Singh 
Sawai. He was the zamindar or Raja of a 
considerable territory in the province of Ajmir 
named Amer, but since the prince founded 
a new city called Jaipur the Rajaship has 
also taken that uame. Bishn Singh, the 
father of Jai Singh and Bijai Singh, died 
about the year a.d. 1693, Sambat 1 7 ■"> < » , and 
after his death the title of Raja was bestowed 
on Jai Singh by the emperor 'Alamglr with 
the rank of 1500, aud subsequently with that 
of 2000. After the death of that emperor 
he espoused the cause of 'Azim Shah, the son 
of 'Alamglr, whilst his brother Bijai Singh 
aided Bahadur Shah, who on his accession to 
the throne conferred the rank of 3000 on the 
latter. Bijai Singh quarrelled with his 
brother for the Raj ; and the emperor, 
not willing to displease either, confiscated 
their estate, and appointed Sayyad Husain 
Ali Khan of Barha, as Faujdar of that place. 
When the emperor marched to the Deccan to 
punish his brother Kambakhsh, a.d. 1708, 
a.h. 1120, Jai Singh, with the aid of Raja 
Ajit Singh Rathor, engaged the Faujdar in 
battle aud having killed him took possession 
of the province. In the reign of Farrukh- 
siyar he was honoured with the title of 
Dhrraj Raja Jai Singh, and in the time of 
Muhammad Shah with that of Sawai (q.d. 
"exceptional"). Iu the year a.d. 1732, a.h. 
114.5, he was appointed governor of Malwa. 
His love of science makes him one of the most 
remarkable persons of his nation. He built 
five observatories for astronomical studies, 
namely, at Dehll, Banaras, Mathra, Ujain 
and Jaipur, and published a work on 
astronomy called Zij Muhammad Shahi. He 
also erected a Karavansarai and market in 
every province of Hindustan for the conveni- 
ence of travellers at his own expense. After 
his death, which took place in September, 
a.d. 1743, 9th Shaban, a.h. 1150, three of 
his wives, with many concubines, bm-ned 
themselves ou his funeral pile. He was 
succeeded by his son Ishuri Singh, after 
whose death" in a.d. 1760 Madho Singh his 
son succeeded him. 

List of Kachhwaha Rajas of Amer or 

Bhara Mai. Jai Singh Sawai. 

Bhagwau Das. Ishuri Singh. 

Man Singh. Madho Singh. 

Bhao Singh. PirthI Singh. 

Maha, Singh. Partab Singh. 
Jai Singh .Mirza Raja. Jagat Singh. 

Ram Singh. Jai Singh. 

Bishun Singh. 

Ram Singh. 

Jai Singh III. (Raja) (dX; 

L^OlJ), of the tribe of Kachhwaha 

rajputs and Raja of Jaipur, was a posthumous 
son of Raja Jagat Singh, who died iu a.d. 
1818. Jai Singh was muni 'red by his kamdar, 
whose name was Jhota Ram, in the Sambat 
year 1891, or in January, a.d. 1834, and his 
infant son Ram Singh succeeded him. 


Jai Singh (^ 

-), or Rana Jai 

Singh of Udaipur, a descendant of Rana 
Sanka who lived in the time of the emperor 
Akbar, succeeded his father Rana Raj Singh, 
a.d. 1680, a.h. 1091. 

Jalal Asir ( _*J Jl>-). Vide Asir. 

Jalal 'Azd, Sayyad (j^ j^ Ji>-), 

a poet who flourished in the reign of 
Muhammad Muzaffar, ruler of Fars and 
his descendants. He is the author of a 

Jalal Bukhari (<_£ .LsT JiLs>-), or 

Sayyad Jalal Bukhari. He came to India from 
Bukhara and became a disciple of Shaikh 
Baha-uddin Zikaria of Multan. He resided 
at Uchcha in Multan and died there. He 
had three sons, Sayyad Ahmad Kablr, Sayyad 
Baha-uddin and Sayyad Muhammad. Sayyad 
Ahmad Kablr, who succeeded his father as 
spiritual guide, had two sons, Makhdiim 
Jahaniau, also called Shaikh Jahal and 
Shaikh Sadar-uddln, commonly called Raju 

X.B. — There is some confusion between 
this man and Shaikh Jalal. 

[Vide Shaikh Jalal.] 
Jalal Bukhari, Sayyad (^AisT Jib>- 

iX»~j), a descendant of Sayyad Ahmad 

Kablr and son of Sayyad Muhammad 
Bukhari. He was boru 'in the year a.d. 
1594, 5th Jumada II. a.h. 1003, and was 
highly respected by the emperor Shah Jahan, 
who conferred on him the office of Sadarat 
(chief justiceship) of all Iudia with the 
mansab of 6000. He sometimes amused 
himself in writing poetry, and had adopted 





the word Raza for hie poetical title. He died 
on the 2oth May, 1647, o.s. 1st Jumada I. 
a.k. 1057, and is buried at Tajgani in Agra. 
His grandfather Sayyad Ahmad Kabir lies 
buried at a place in Dehli called Bijai Mandil. 
Jala] Bukhari left three suns, viz. Sayyad 
Ja'far, Sayyad All styled Razwi Khan, and 
Sayyad Musa, on whom high titles were 
conferred by Shahjahan, and bis eldest son 
Ja'far obtained the place of bis latin r. 

Jalal (Hakim) (^X^ ^'Iv^ Jk*)» 

a physician and poet, who was a native of 
Shirwan. He nourished in the reign of 
Muhammad Muzaffar and his sun Shah 
Shujaa', rulers of Shiraz, both of whom 
reigned from a.d. 1353 to 1384. He is tin- 
author of a poem entitled Gul-toa-Niatt 
which he wrote in a.d. 1334, a.m. 734. He 
is also called Jalal-uddin Tabih. 

Jalali or Jalal ( UL>- L> , Jl?-), com- 

monly called Sayyad-i-'Alam Jalal or Jalali, 
was a native of Ahmadahad. and his father 
and spiritual guide was Mir Sayyad Jalal 
bin-Hasan. He is the author oi a Diwan. 

Jalali ( J^Ls-), poetical name of Badr- 

Jalal, Shaikh (ir-^ Alp*). Vide 

Shaikh Jalal. commonly called Makhdum 
Jahanian. He was the son ol Sayyad Ahmad 
Kalilr, and grandson of Sayyad Jalal Bukhari 
the first. 

Jalal, Shaikh (,c.*amJLJ i^~* 

of Thanesar. 

[Vide Shaikh Jalal of Thanesar.] 


Jalal - uddin Ahmad Afzal - bin - 
Muwaiyad (,Li^ a*»-\ ...jjM . 15L>- 
(AJj^i ^i), au author. 

Jalal-uddin Aldawani ( .,_'jJl JL:>- 

^JuuO'), author of several works. 
[Vide Dawani.] 

Jalal-uddin Farahani ( _»jjl . ]^L>- 

j U^i), a poet. 


Jalal-uddin Firoz Khilji ( jjJ| JL 


Jalal-uddin Mahalli ( jjjJ! J^>- 

l^r*), see Jalal-uddin Bayutl. He 

i- sometimes called Jalal-uddin Muhammad 

Jalal-uddin Malikshah ( ,Jjj! J^>- 
iliXL*). Vide ^Iuliksliah. 

Jalal-uddin Khan (jjlri. ^jJ! J^X 

the brother <>i Mahmud Khan, nawab of 
Bijnor, a rehel of 1857. 

[Ft* Sa-d-ullah Khali.] 

Jalal - uddin Muhammad Akbar 
(_-i\ Jl^st* ..jjJ! JLp-). HVfc 

Jalal-uddin Muhammad -bin- Asa'd 




J^j^ Joe-; 1 ). P«fo Dawanl. 

._- J). F/^c Firoz Shah 



Jalal-uddin Purbi( < )% j „jjJl . liU-), 

king of Bengal, whose original name was 
Jitmal. asoi in l< d the throne ol Bengal on the 
death oi bis father Raja Kan- in a d. 1392, 
a. ii. 794. lie became a convert to the 
Men immadan faith and received the name of 
Jalal-uddin. He ruled with such justice 
thai lie became entitled ti> the appellation of 
the Nausherwan oi the age. II d 17 

ad died in a.d. 1410, a.h. 812, when 
hi- Min Ahmad succeeded him. 

Jalal-uddin Rumi, Maulana (jLr»- 
lj]L* jc^tj i^^JO, commonly called 

Maulana or Manlwi Rumi, was the son of 
Baha-uddin Wald Balkhl, He is not li ss 

esteemed as a poel than as a metaphysician, 
aud is the author of the astonishing work 
entitled the Mamawi Maulwl Rumi. He 
founded an order of Derwishes or Sufis in the 
city of Conia [conium) in Asiatic Turkey. 
He was born at Balkh on the 30th September, 
a.d. 1207, Gth Rahi* I. a.h. 604, aud died in 
the time of Abka Khan on the 17th December, 
a.d. 1273, 5th Jumada II. a.h. 672. He 
was buried in a monastery at Conia, and his 
tomb was visited for many centuries by his 
devout countrymen, who considered his works 
as the effect of inspiration and only inferior to 
the Quran. His Diwan contains 30,000 
verses, and his Masnawi more than 47.000. 
Iu his Diwan, instead of his own title, he 
has inserted the name of Shams Tabrezi his 




Jalal-uddin Sayuti ( ..jjJl JLr>- 
( J?^ r -j), son of Abdur Rahman bin- 

Abi Bakr, an Egyptian author of some merit, 
who diwl in a.d. 1.50.5, a.h. 911. He is said 
to be the author of 400 works, amongst which 
are the commentary on theDurr-Al-Munshur, 
and the last half of the Tafslr Jalalam ; the 
author of the other half was Jalal-uddin 
Mahali, who died in a.d. 14-50, a.h. 854. 
Another work of Sayuti is called Lubb-ul- 
Lubab. It is a dictionary of patronymic 
names, and of others under which the Arabic 
authors are much more frequently quoted 
than under their proper names. The con- 
fusion under which the Arabs labour to 
identify men known under different names, 
has induced them to prepare dictionaries for 
obviating this difficulty. Samanl (or Sam- 
nan!) in the sixth century of the Hijra 
published one, entitled Fil Ansab, in which 
he does not only explain the sense and origin 
of these names, hut also mentions with regard 
to every word the true names of the authors 
who have had them. This work was abbre- 
viated in the succeeding century by Ibn-ul- 
Aslr, and this extracl shortened by Sayuti. 
There is another work of Sayuti called 
Kashfm-Sahala-un- Wasfuz Zalzala, contain- 
ing an account of all the earthquakes which 
took place from the year a.d. 713, a.h. 94, 
to his time. He wrote this work on the 
occasion of an earthquake in Egypt, with a 
view of shewing to his countrymen that 
earthquakes are ordained by God to punish 
men for their sins. This work was translated 
from the Arabic by Dr. A. Sprenger. Vide 
Jour. As. Soc. vol. xvii. part ii. p. 741. 
Sayuti was also the author of the Jama'-ul- 
Jawama, containing a collection of Traditions, 
of which he afterwards made an abridgment 
and called it Jama'-us-Saghtr. 

Jalal-uddin, Sultan LjJjJI Ji^r 
(jLL-L-j), the son of Sultan Mu- 
hammad, surnamed Qutb-uddin, Sultan of 

\Vide Muhammad (Sultan).] 

Jalayer LjLs*-), the name given to a 

race of kings of Baghdad, the first of whom 
was Hasan Buzurg, commonly called Hasan 
Jalayer (q.v.). 

Jalinus C^^-JL-^), "Galen," or 

Galenus, prince of the Greek physicians after 

Jam Afra (\y 3 \ *U-). Vide Nasir- 
uddln Qabbacha. 

Jama Baf (_,\j UU-). Vide Mir 
Sayyad Jama Baf. 

Jamal ( JL*j>-), the name assumed by 

Abu'l Fazl Muhammad, the son of 'Umar, 
the son of Khalid. He is the author of the 
Sarah, a dictionary of Arabic words explained 
iu Persian by him, being a translation of a 
very celebrated Arabic dictionary, entitled the 

Jamal Faqih, Khwaja (<L-Ji_i JUp- 
<Ls- '»:>-), a poet. 

Jamali Khalifa (<uLL>- J Up-), sur- 

name of Is-haq Karamam, another author 
of the commentary called Sharah Hadls-ul- 
Arba'in. He died a.d. 1526, a.h. 933. 

Jamali, Shaikh (i^ JUs*-). Vide 
Shaikh Jamali. 

Jamal Kill, Shaikh (^~> ^JJ JU^), 

an inhabitant of Qazwin in Isfahan. He 
lived iu the time of Sultan 'Ala-uddin the 
Isina'Ili, ruler of the fort of Alahmut, who 
highly respected him. It is said that he 
secretly followed the tenets of the Isma'ilis, 
but the people thought otherwise. He died 
on Monday the 29th September, a.d. 1253, 
4th Shawwal, a.h. 651. 

Jamal Khan (^IrL JUp- ), a man- 

sabdar, or commander of 5000 horse, in the 
reign of Shall Jahan. It is related that the 
emperor had ordered that all the ladies at 
court should provide precious stones and 
bring them to a market-place that he had 
erected, and there shew their wares publicly 
to all the noblemen at court, who were 
ordered to buy them at whatever prices the 
lailies put upon them ; and that the king 
himself was to be a buyer, to put the greater 
honour on the new erected market. The 
ladies obeyed, and took their booths as they 
thought fit. On the market day the king 
and the noblemen came to market, and bought 
the jewels and other trifles the ladies had to 
dispose of. The king, coming to the booth 
of a very pretty lady, asked her what she had 
to sell. She told him she had one large fine 
rough diamond still to dispose of. He desired 
to see it, and he found it to be a piece of fine 
transparent sugar-candy of a tolerable diamond 
figure. He demanded to know what price 
she set on it, and she told him with a pleasant 
air that it was worth a lakh of rupees, or 
£12,500 sterling. He ordered the money to 
be paid, and falling into discourse with her 
found her wit was as exquisite as her beauty, 
and ordered her to sup with him that night 
in his palace. She accordingly went and 
stayed with him three nights and days, and 
then went back to her husband, whose name 
was Jamal Khan. The husband received her 
very coldly, and told her that he would 
continue civil to her, but would never live 




with her again hut in the same manner as if 
she was his Bister, rpon which she went to 
the palace, fell at the empi ror'a feet, and told 
him what her husband had Baid. The king, in 
arage, gave orders to carry her husband to 
the elephant garden, and there have him put 
to death by an eli phant. The poor man was 
soou apprehended, and as they dragged him 
from his house he begged to have have to 
speak to the king. A friend of his ordered 
tiic messengers of death to stop awhile, till 
he had acquainted the king with the request, 
which was accordingly done, and he was 
ordered to he carried into the court of the 
palace, that the king might hear what he had 
to say: and being carried thither, the king 
demanded what he would have. Ee answered 
that what he had said to his wife was the 

greatest honour which he w a- capable ol doing 

his king, because, alter he had honoured his 
wife with his embraces, he thought himself 
unworthy ever alter to cohabit with her. The 
king, alter pausing a little, ordered him to be 
unbound, and brought to his own mora, 
where, as soon as he came, the king embraced 
him, and ordered a royal suit to be put upon 
him, and gave him command oi five thousand 
horse more, but took his wife into bis own 
harem. — As. Jour. vol. xxx. p. 215. 

Jamal-uddin Ahmad, Shaikh (JU.=>- 
US** S*=^\ (jJJjO, a celebrated Mu- 

hammadan saint of Eansi, and grandfather of 
Shaikh Qutb-uddin Manawwar, 

Jamal-uddin-Ataullah, 'Amir ( JU^- 
^»\ &11\ Ua-c ^jjJI), nephew of 

Sayyad Asil-uddin 'Abdullah. He is the 

author of the work called Rauzat-ul-Ahbab. 

[ Vide Ataullah bin-Muhammad al-Husaini 

Jamal - uddin - bin - 'Abdul Razzaq 
(j\\Ji\^~ ^ (jJjJl JU^), a cele- 
brated poet of Isfahan, and author of a 
Dlwiin. lie is the father of Kamal-uddin 
Isma'il and Mu'in-uddm 'Abdul Karim, both 
of whom were also poets. Jamal-uddin died 
in a.d. 1192, a.h. 588. 

Jamal-uddin Hasan bin Yusaf bin- 
al-Matahhir al-Hilli C.,jjJl JU.r* 



C^ cT 

■ ), entitled Shaikh 

al-'Allama, is called the chief of the lawyers 
of Hilla. He is the author of the Khulasat- 

ul-Aqtcdl. His legal works are very numerous 
and frequently referred to as authorities of 
undisputed merit. The most famous of these 
are — the Talkhls - ul - Mai dm , the Ghaet-ul- 

Ahlt'nn and the Tahrir -ul-Ahkam, which 
last is a justly celebrated work. The MukJi- 
talif-ush-Shiq is also a well-known composi- 
tion oi this great lawyer; and his Irshdd-al- 
.1 han is constantly quoted as an authority, 
under the name oi the Irshdd-i- l Alldma. 

[Vide Allama al-IIilli.] 

Jamal-uddin Husain Anju (JL*j»- 
^s^\ ,.mww*5»- .-'-O), son of Fakhr- 

uddin Kashmiri, author of the Persian 
Dictionary called Farhang Jahangiri, which 
he dedicated to the emperor JahangTr in a.h. 
1605, a.h. 1014. 'I'h- author ,,i the Maeir- 
ul- l TJmra calls him Mir Jamal-uddin Anju, 
and Bays that he is a descendant ol the 
Bayyade ol Shiraz, and came to the Deccan 
and thence to Agra ah. 1585, a.m. 993, in 
the time et Aibar, who raised him by d> u r rees 
to the rank oi 3000. In the reign ol Jahangir 
the rank ot 1000 was conferred on him with 

tie till. ..I •A/d-iiddaiila. 

Jamal-uddin-ibn-Malik ( jjj| 
u_£!l« , t *i\) author of an Arabic work 

on philosophy, called Alfa. 

Jami ( ,,Uc>. J^-- ....'-v 1 

# vT 


the poetical name of Nur-uddln 'Abdur 
Rahman, a celebrated Persian poet, the son 
oi Maulana Muhammad or Ahmad Isfahan!; 
was born on the 7th November, a.h. 1414, 
23nl Shaban, a.m. 817, at a villas in Herat 
called Jam. from which he derived his poetical 
nam. •• Jami." He was remarkably polite, of 
a v. rv gentle disposition, and endued with 
such extensive learning that it was supposed 
there was nol throughout the empire of 
Persia so complete a master ol the language 
as himself. Even princes who wen- them- 
selves men of erudition and exalted talents 
have lavished upon him the most unbounded 
praises and the highest honours. He was very 
intimate with Sultan Abu Sa'id Mirza of 
Herat, who continued the friend oi Jam! so 
long as he lived. Alter his death, our poet 
enjoyed the same favours from his son and 
successor Sultan Husain .Mirza. lie was a 
contemporary of the esteemed biographer 
Daulat Shah, who recorded his lame in the 
Lives of the Persian poets, called Tazhira 
Daulat Shdhl. Jami was the author of more 
than 44 works. His poem on the Loves of 
Joseph and Zalikha is one of the finest 
compositions in the language ; it contains 
about 4000 couplets. He is also the author 
of the book called Nafahdt-ul-Ins, a very 
celebrated abridgment of the Lives of the 
Suil Shaikhs, translated from the Arabic 
Tabkat-us-Sufia, and dedicated to the 
celebrated wazlr 'Alisher in a.d. 1476, a.h. 
881. It may be here observed that the 
celebrated poets, as Hiifiz, SadI, Jami, etc., 




133 "5 

c — - 
M - ~ 


were professed Sufis. The following are the 
works commonly known composed by Jaini: — 

(1. Silsilat-uz-Zahab, dedicated to 
Bayazid II. 

2. Salaman-wa-Absal. 

3. Tuhfat-ul-Ahrar. 

4. Sabhat-ul-Abrar. 

5. Yusaf-wa-Zalikha. 

6. Laill-wa-Majnun. 

7. Ivhirad-naina. 






Lawaeh Jami. 


Jam! died at the advanced age of 81 lunar 
years, on Friday the 9th November, a.d. 
1492, ISth Muharram, a.h. 898, mourned by 
the whole city of Herat ; bis funeral expenses 
were defrayed by Sultan Husain, and a 
magnificent train of the most illustrious 
nobles accompanied his body to the tomb. 
'Allsher his friend laid the first stoue of a 
monument which he caused to be raised to 
his memory, and his lame became immortal 
in the minds of his countrymen. He was 
also the author of a TafsTr or commentary of 
some note. [Saldman and Absal has been 
translated int6 English verse by the late 
Mr. Edward Fitzgerald.] 

Jarnila (zj^;*-), the poetical name of 
a Persian Poet. 

Jamil-ibn-Mi'mar (,L.v« yl J-*p-), 


a celebrated Arabian poet who lived in the 
time of the khalif 'Abdulmalik, and died iu 
the year a.d. 701, a.h. 82. He was contem- 
porary with two other famous poets named 
'Uniar the son of 'Abdullah and Kathir Azza. 
Jamil was the lover of Shanba, one of those 
pairs of lovers whose constancy and fidelity 
the orientals praise in their histories and 

Jaruil-uddin Kashi ( _jjjl , ]l_^,_=>- 

^-iili), author of the history called 

Zubdat- ut - Tawarikh. A work of the same 
title is mentioned under Shaikh Xur-ul-Haq 
of Dehli. 

Jamil - uddin Muhammad Abdul 
Razzaq (^.jjjl J>_*_sr* JL^_s>- 

jj'jyiJuc). Vide Jamal-uddin bin- 
'Abdid Eazzak. 

Jamshed (j^A^-) (also called Jam) 

was one of the ancient mythic kings of Persia, 
and the fourth of the First or Pishdadian 
dynasty. He is celebrated as the founder of 

Persepolis, which is to this day called Istakbr 
and Talent Jamshed. He is said to have 
introduced the solar year and ordered the first 
day of it, when the sun entered Aries, to be 
celebrated by a splendid festival. His country 
was invaded by Zuhak, a Turanian king, and 
the unfortunate Jamshed was obliged to fly 
before the emperor. He was pursued by the 
agents of Zuhak, through Sistan, India, and 
China, and was at last seized and carried 
like a common malefactor before his cruel 
enemy, who ordered him to be placed between 
two boards and sawn asunder with the bone of 
a fish. "We are told by FirdausI that his reign 
lasted 700 years. He is supposed to have 
flourished 800 years before the Christian era. 
His goblet, called Jam Jamshed and Jam 
Jam, was wondrous. A hundred marvellous 
tales are told of this celebrated cup, which 
used to dazzle all who looked in it, and has 
often been employed by the poets to furnish a 
simile for a bright eye. 

Jamsbed (&JLk>-), this title is some- 
times given by the Musalmans to king 
Solomon the son of David, and they say that 
his magic ring and throne possessed extra- 
ordinary powers, and his control was absolute 
over genii and men. 

Jamsbed Qutb Shab ( t ^jj sJ^^z*- 

ali), son of Quli Qutb Shah I. 

ascended the throne of Golkonda in the 
Deccan after the death of his father in 
September, a.d. 1543, Jumada II. a.h. 950. 
He reigned seven years and some months, 
and was succeeded by his brother Ibrahim 
Qutb Shah in a.d. 1550, a.h. 957. 

Jan (t ,^-L? rj^-), or Jan Sahib, 

poetical name of Mir Tar 'All, who is the 
author of a Diwiin. 

Janabi ( j\u^-), the surname of Abu 

Muhammad Mustafa bin-Sayyad Hasan-al- 
Husaiui, a celebrated historian and author of 
a work called Tarlkh-al-Jawbi, of which the 
correct name is supposed to be Bahr-uz- 
Za tKkhd r, the Swelling of the Sea ; it com- 
prises a general history from the beginning of 
the world to a.d. 1589, a.h. 997. It was 
originally written in Arabic, and translated 
by the author into Turkish. Janabi died in 
a'.d. 1591, a.h. 999. 

Jan Fisban Khan Bahadur (^Lsf- 

L-jly .<A^ <jU- jjlAi), Nawab of 

Sardhaua. A Cabuli of Persian extraction 
who for his conspicious loyalty during the 
mutiny of 1857, was ordered by Government 
to be rewarded with a pension of 1000 rupees 
a month in perpetiuty to his male heirs, and a 



.1 A N 

grant of confiscated villages of 10,000 rape* - 
per annum to be conferred apon him with 
remission oi one halt oi revenue for his life, 
and a quarter for two generations. 

Jangez Khan (J^. jJo^). Vuh 
Changez Khan. 

Jani (^«jIj>-). There have been three 

authors of this name The Brat, 'Aha 'Abdullah 
Muhammad ibn- Malik Atai, a native oi 
Damascus; the second, Sasar Jani ; and the 

third, Mansur-biu' Umar - al - Adib, a native 
of Isfahan, who died a.d. 1025. 

Jani (jJVs*-), the poetical name of 
Mirza Jan, the father of Mirza Jan Janan. 

Jani Begam (ALj ^U-), daughter 

of 'Abdul Etahlm Klein. Khan-Khanan, who 
was married to prince Danial, the son of the 
emperor Akbar in a.d. L599, a.m. ll>07. 

Jani Beg Sultan (J^L^ i Cj JU-), 

son of 'Abdullah Khan Ozbak's sister. lli- 
son, Din Muhammad Khan, was raised to the 
throne of Samarqand alter the death "i 
'Abdul Moiniin Khan, the son of 'Abdullah 
Khan Uzbak. 

Jani Beg Turkhan, Mirza ( ,_jl_=»- 

\jf i£)\£j3 L — N^)> ru ^er of Thatta, 

succeeded his grandfather Mirza Muhammad 
Baql, in thegovernmeni of Thatta, the n main- 
ing province of Sindh, in a.d. L584, a.h. 
993. Akbar Shall who before the death of 
Muhammad Baqi had gone to Lahore, and 
had remained there tor some years, expected 
a personal visit from .lain Beg; but beinu r 
disappointed lie proceeded to take measures 
for the subjugation ol that country. If 
therefore in the year a.d. 1591, a.h. 999. 
directed his commander-in-chief "Abdul 
Rahim Khan, the son of Bairam Khan, to 
proceed and occupy the place in his name. 
The first action took place on the 3rd Novem- 
ber, a.d. 1591, 26th Muharram a.h. 1000, 
when the Sindhis were totally defeated. 
Notwithstanding, daily skirmishes took place 
between the two armies ; at last Mirza Jani Beg 
offered to acknowledge fealty to the emperor 
and to proceed to the presence. Shortly 
after 'Abdul RahTm Khan .celebrated the 
nuptials of his son Mirza irieh with the 
daughter of Jani Beg, and after the rainy 
season of the year a.d. 1592, a.h. lOOl", 
accompanied Mirza Jam Beg to the presence 
of Akbar, who created the latter a noble of the 
realm ; and from that date the whole kingdom 
of Sindh reverted to the sovereignty of the 
empire of Dehli. Mirza Jani Beg died at 
Burhanpur in a.d. 1599, a.h. 1008, and the 
government of Thatta was conferred on his 
son Mirza Ghazi. 

Jan Janan, Mirza (U^ ^UU- J&-), 

son of Mir/a Jan. a learned Musalman and a 

id poet, distinguish d no h - for the . 
and spirit oi his compositions than tor the 

independent spirituality and anti-idolab 
nature oi hi- -eiitimi nts. Hi- poetical name 
was Afazhar; was horn at Agra about the 
year a.d. 1698, a.h. 1110, hut resided at 
Dehli. In the month of Muharram or 3rd 
January, a.d. 1781, 7th Muharram a.h. 
119.», having expressed hi- contempt tor a 
superstitious ceremony -tin commemoration 
of the death oi Eusain- lie was -hot on the 
terrace oi his own house, by a vindictive 
partisan oi that martyr, and died on the 6th 
oi that month, 10th .Miiharram. a.h. 1195. 
H' " i- the author of a Diwan. 

Jan Muhammad, Munshi (x*^-* 


^^JLu,*), author of an In&ha or col- 

1' ction oi l( tt< r- which l'ocs by bis name. 

Jannat Ashani ( J Li! c^-^;*-), the 

title given to tin- i nip, rOT IIuinaAun alt. r iii- 


Jannati ( < _^._^_^-), a poetical name. 
[From Jannat =" Paradise." 

Jan Nisar Khan ( .lr^ ,bj ,jU~), 

title oi Kamal-uddin Husain, an Amir of 
3000 under the emperor Shah Jahan. At the 
time oi hi- death lie was governor oi Sistan, 
and died there a.d. 1639, a.h. 1049. [The 
word i- tile same as Jaiii-ary.] 

Jan Nisar Khan, Nawab ( ,l*j \~*- 

<— J^j ^^-X was brother-in-law to 

the wazir Qamar-uddin Khan who had 
married his sister. He was appointed 
Chakladar of the districts of Kora Jananabad 
in the province of Allahabad, and was 
assassinated by ArSru Bhagwant Singh, a 
zamlndar of that place in a.d. 1731, a.h. 

Jan Nisar Khan, Sayyad ( ,li5 , >r U- 

Jk^ ^j^-), son-in-law of the wazir 

Qamar-uddin Khan, was put to death, 
together with several others, by Nadir Shah, 
on account of the resistance shewn by them 
in endeavouring to protect their family in the 
general massacre. This event took place in 
March, a.d. 1739, Zil-bijja a.h. 1151. 




Janoji Bhosla (<*L»jjJ ^>~)j\z>-), the 

second Baja of Berar, succeeded his father 
Baghojl Bhosla in a.d. 1749, and died in 
a.d. 1772. He was succeeded by his younger 
brother Madhojl Bhosla. 

[Vide Baghojl Bhosla the first Eaja of 

Jansipar Khan Turkman ( .L-j^b- 

i^U^y u^O, an Amir of 4000 in 

the reign of the emperor Jahangir. He was 
appointed governor of Allahabad in the first 
year of Shah Jahan a.d. 1628, a.h. 1037, 
and ched there the same year. 

Jansipar Khan 

(^zM- jV**cJ • ^» 

second son of Mukhtar Khan Sabzwari, an 
amir of the reign of the emperor 'AlamgTr. 
At the time of his d< ath he held the subadari 
of Haidarabad, and died there in a.d. 1701, 
a.h. 1113. 

Janubi (^ll^Ju , J«iJ»-), of Badakh- 

shim, a poet and punster who flourished about 
the year a.d. 1521, a.h. 927. 

Januni ( l j^^). Vide Jununi. 

Jarbardi (^J.-J \->~), surname of 

Fakhr-uddm Ahmad bin-IIusan, an author 
who wrote the Sharah Shqfia, and the 
marginal notes on the Kashshaf. He died 
a.d. 1345, a.h. 746. 

Jarir ()?--). Vide Jurlr which is the 
correct pronunciation. 

Jarjis ( { j M .^.p^ J .p r ), George, and in 

particular St. George the martyr, very well 
known in the East, and even by the Muham- 
madans, who put him amongst the number of 
the prophets, and confound him with Elias. 

Jarj Tamas ( t ^^IL? _ ,Ur)- 



George Thomas. 

Jarraz (•/ >) the surname of Ahmad 

bin - Ibrahim - al - Tabid - al - Afriki, who is 
often cited under the name of Ibn-Jarraz. 
He was a physician and an author, and a 
native of Africa. He died a.d. 1009, a.h. 

Jarullah Zamakhshari (<S._1J! \—^- 

l Cjj!L^'\), surname of Mahmud bin- 

'Umar-al - Zamakhshari, the Ma'tzalite of 

Zamakhshar, a village in Khwarizm. He was 
the author of an excellent commentary on the 
Quran called Kashshaf, which he wrote in 
the name of one of the princes of Mecca. He 
obtained the surname of Jarullah (or neigh- 
bour of God) on account of his residing for a 
long period at Mecca. He was born in a.d. 
1074, a.h. 467, and died in the place of his 
nativity in the year a.d. 1142 or 1144, a.h. 
537 or 539. He was also the author of many 
other works, such as — 

Kitab Fasl-dar-Xahr. 



Fasiis - ul - Akhbar - wal - Faraez - dar - Ilm 

Sharah Abiat Sebxiya. 
MustaqazI-dur-Amsal 'Arab. 
Sawaer-ul- Islam. 

Muqaddima - al - Adab . 
Diwan-ush- Shua'ra. 

Jassas (^1^2^-), surname of Shaikh 
Ahmad bin- 'All Eazi, which see. 

Jaswant Rae (^. 

.^-wj »_*u»=i>- ), 

Hindu who was a poet and the author of a 
Dlwaii, a copy of which was found in the 
Library of Tipu Sultan. 

Jaswant Rao Holkar 



£X&), the son of Takojl Holkar, and 

brother of KashI Eao, whom he succeeded 
as chieftain of Indor about the year 1802. 
He made a rapid incursion into the Doab 
and committed some ravages, but was defeated 
and pursued by Lord Lake to the Sikh 
country as far as the Bias in 1803, and all 
his territories occupied by a British force. The 
whole was restored to him at the peace. He 
became insame in 1806, and Tulshi Bai, his 
wife, was acknowledged regent. He died on 
20th October, 1811, and was succeeded by 
Malhar Eao III. his son, by a woman of low 
birth. Tulshi Bai, however, continued to 
act as regent. On the 20th December, 1816, 
a company of armed men seized Tulshi Bai, 
conveyed her forcibly to the neighbouring 
river of Slpra, and cutting off her head on 
■ the bank, threw the lifeless trunk into the 

Jaswant Singh (<lL^., 

J r 


Ea]a of Jodhpur Marwar, succeeded to the 
gaddl after the death of his father Takhat 
Singh in February, a.d. 1873, a.h. 1289. 




Jaswant Singh (^ 

-j r 



of Balwant Singh Maharaja of Bhartpur. 
Ee was born on the 28th February, L861, 
and succeeded liis father ou tlie 16th March, 
18o3, when he was bui two years old. 

Jaswant Singh Bundela (, 

AL;^ aSo^), son of Raja Indarman. 

He held a suitable rank in the army in the 
reign of the cmpi ror Mlaminr, and died about 
the year a.d. 1687, a.m. 1099. An. r his 
death the zamindari of Urcha was conferred 
mi Bhagwanl Singh bis son, an infani oi four 
years, with the title oi Raja, Imt he dying 
about the year a.d. 1693, a.h. 1105, then 
remained n.o one of the family oi Rajas 
Shujaii Siii'jh or of big brother Indarman, 
to Bucceed him ; upon which the Ran! Amar 
Kunwar, grandmother to the deceased prince, 
placed on the Raja Cdaul Singh, who was 
descended from Madhukar San, father to 
Raja Bir Singh Deo, which was approved by 
the emperor, who conferred on him the title 
of Raja with a suitable mansab. 


Jaswant Singh, Kunwar (< 
jf£ <uJm»j). Vide Par wan a. 

Jaswant Singh, Maharaja (i,_- .i,...^ 

^bV* &**»), tne celebrated Raja 

of Jodhpur or Marwar, of the tribe ofRajhor 
Rajputs, who acted so capital b pan in the 
competitions of 'Alamgir and hia brother 
Dara Shikoh whose cause be espoused, and 
was guilty of great impropriety. He was the 
sou of Raja Gaj Singh and a descendanl oi 
Rao Maldeo. Jaswanl Singh, subsequently 
became one of the besi generals of 'Alamgir, 
and held the rank oi 7000 for several yi 
He died mar Kabul aboul the l lth December, 
a.d. 1678, 6th £il-qada a.h. 1089. He had 
built a fine house at Agra on the hank- oi 
the Jamna, the surrounding walls oi which 
are still standing, and Ids followers brought 
his infant children and his women who did 
not burn with him, towards their native 
country. Orders wore sent by the emperor 
'Alamgir to conduct them to court, when-, on 
their arrival, he insisted ou the children being 
made Musalmans. Upon this the rajpiit 
attendants determined to die rather than 
submit to this order, tied with their charge 
towards the Raja's territories, and being 
pursued by the emperor's troops foughl 
valiantly, aud were mostly cat to pieces, but 
the women and infants arrived safe at 
Jodhpur; they were, however, compelled to 
take refuge in the hills and the woods, and 
on the death of 'Alamgir in a.d. 1707, 
regained their former possession. A jit Singh| 
his son (q.v.), was restored to the throne" of 
his ancestors in the year a.d. 1711, by the 
emperor Farrukh - siyar who married his 

Jat (ciL>U-), a tribe of Hindu labourers 


who made no figure in the Mnghul empin 
a nation, till the reign of 'Alamgir, in h I 
expedition to the Deccan, they were 
heard oi aa a gang of banditti,- under an 
intrepid leader Churaman. They were then 
so daring aa to harasa the n it oi the 
imperial army. After the death oi that 
monarch they took advantage oi the growing 
imbecility oi the empire, and fortifying 
themselves, spread their depredations to the 
gates "t Agra. Mukham Singh, who alter 
the death oi Churaman commanded the J .'it- 
and took upon hiniselt the title oi Raja, but 
th. ir powi r inert aa d under Badan Singh and 
Surajmal '/•'•■). 

I • Churaman Jaj .] 

Jawad 'Ali, Mirza (\- _* U jL^) 

JJ "-S " > ■ ' 

or more properly Mirza Muhammad Jawad 
'All Sikandar Hashmat Bahadur, boo oi 
Ami ad 'Ali Shah, and brother oi Wajid 'Ali 
Shan, the ex-king oi Lucknow. Il< accom- 
panied hi- mother, the dowager Q u en of 
Audh. alter tin annexation oi that country to 
the British possessions in 1856, to England, 
and died then- after the death of bis mother, 
on the 25th February, 1858, aged 30 lunar 
yean. The body oi the prince was trans- 
ferred from London to Pans, to be buried on 
I'n in h soil beside that oi the Quei n bis 
mother. An immense crowd assembled to 
witness the procession, attended by Mirza 
II imid 'Ali, the ni phi \\ oi the <!■ < aa d. 

i J^»^-). Vide 

Jawahir Singh ( 

Jawahir Singh (a^L» »*W), the Jat 

Raja of Dig and Bhartpur, was the son of 

Surajmal .1 "it. II, succeeded to the Raj alter 
his father's death in Decembi r, a.d. 17 
a.h. 1177. was secreth murdered in 1768, 
and was succeeded by his brother Rao Ratafi 
Singh, who did not escape suspicion oi having 

been ac ry to his brother's murder. 

Ratan Singh reigned ten months and thirtei n 
days and was .-tabbed by a faqir named 
Rupanand, who pretended to transmute 
copper into gold. 
[ Vide Ratan Singh.] 

Jawahir Singh (&,** y>W), a Sikh 

chief who became the minister of Maharaja 
Dilip Singh after the death of Hlra Singh, 
and was murdered by the troops a t Lahore 
on the 21st September, a.d. 1845. Raja 
Lai Singh succeeded him. 

Jawahir Singh, Maharaja ( js^ ._.=>- 

&>-\j\jif* te*u~i), son of Dbyan Singh 

and nephew of Maharaja Gulab Singh, 
ruler of Kashmere. 




Jawan (^»s^), the poetical appellation 

of Mirza Qazim 'All, a Hindustan! lyric poet, 
attached to the colli ge of Fort William. He 
is the author of an Frdu Diwan and also of 
a Barah Masa, which he composed in a.d. 
1802, a.h. 1217. He was alive in 1812. 

Jawan Bakht, son of Shah Alam. 
[Vide Jahanda Shah II.] 

Jawan Bakht, Mirza 

\)j*), the youngest son of Bahadur 

Shah, the ex-king of Dehll, who accom- 
panied his father to Rangoon in 1858, where 
he resided under surveillance at that place 
till his death in September, a.d. 1884. The 
British Government sanctioned the grant of 
a separate pension ami an allowance of 250 
rupees to his wile ZamanI Begani in a.d. 

Jaweni ( ^j«s»0, whose proper name 

was Alm'l Ma'ali 'Abdulmalik bin- 'Abdullah, 
was a doctor and a very celebrated meta- 
physician, who bore the title of "Imam-ul- 
Haramain." He flourished in the reign of 
Malik Shah the Saljukide, and professed the 
doctrine of ShGfa'i at Naishapur, where the 
famous Ghazzali {q.v.) was his disciple. He 
was the author of several works, amongst 
which are the two following: TdriJA Jahan 
Kushde and Aqidat-ul-Nizamiat. He died 
in a.d. 1085, a.h. 478. 

Jawera (s.jjr*-), one of the wives of 

Muhammad whom he married in the sixth 
year of the Hijra a.d. 627. She is said to 
have been a woman of great beauty, and was 
brought among the captives after a fight. 
She died about the year a.d. 670, a.h. 56. 

Jawid Khan ( ,l>- jo •!;>-), an eunuch 

and a great favourite of the emperor Ahmad 
Shah and his mother, who raised him to the 
rank of an Amir with the title of Xawab 
Bahadur. Xawab Safdar Jang, who was 
much digusted at the influence he had over 
the emperor, invited him to an entertainment, 
and murdered him during the banquet. This 
event took place on the 28th August, o.s. 
1752, 28th Shawwal, a.h. 1165. 

Jawini ( ^..«».^). Vide Moin-uddin 

Jayesi ( tMJ j\s>-). Vide Malik Mu- 
hammad Jayesi. 

Jazari (,_£,>-), surname of those who 

were born at a city called Jazarat-ul-'Umar, 
situated on the Tigris, to the northward of 
Nineveh and Mausal. One of the most 
illustrious amongst the men of letters this 
city has produced, was Ibn-Asir ul-Shaibani 
Majd-uddin, who died a.d. 1209, a.h. 606, 
and of whom we have several works. 

[Vide Ibn-Asir.] 

Jenghis Khan (^U- J^S-^-). 
Changez Khan. 

Jent Parkas, Lala (^Ky cr— 



author of a poem called Dastur Ishq, contain- 
ing the story of Sassi and Pauuu in Persian 
verse. It is believed that his correct name 
is Jot Parkash. 

Jhankoji Sindhia ( c _rs-»_^_*_^,_5>- 

<UJbJc-wj), son of Jiapa or Jyapa 

Sindhia, was killed in the great battle which 
took place between Ahmad Shah Abdali and 
the Marhattas on the 14th January, n.s. 
1761, at Panipat. 

Jhanko Rao Sindhia L\ . »_<L-_^_r>- 

X^Sb^u^S), also called Mukki Eao, on 

the death of Daulat Rao Sindhia, was elected 
by his widow Baji Bai as llaja of Gwaliar, 
and was put on the masnad on the 18th June, 
a.d. 1827 ; but being then only nine years oi 
age, Baji Bai acted as regent. He assumed 
the reins of government in a.d. 1828, reignec 1 
15 years and some months, and died on tht 
4th" February, a.d. 1843, aged 24 years. 
He was succeeded by his adopted son Jlaj; 
Sindhia the late Raja of Gwaliar, with whom 
Blja Bai appears to have resided until the 
time of the mutiny. 

Jiaji Rao Sindhia L\. .flj-L^-s*- 

JLJ&Jc^-j), the late Raja of Gwaliar. 

whose name in full is, Maharaja 'AH Jal 
Jiaji Eao Sindhia, was the adopted sou o; 
Jhanko Eao Sindhia, on whose death ht 
succeeded to the government on the 4tl 
February, a.d. 1843. His installation tool 
place on the 20th January, a.d. 1844, whei 
Lord Ellenborouo-h visited the fort. He wai 
made G.C.B. and a British General, and die< 
in a.d. If 

Jiji Begam (*Cj js^.>~), the wet 

nurse of the Emperor Akbar, and the mothe: 
of Mirza 'Aziz Koka, who was raised to ! 
high rank by the ernperor with the title o 
Khan 'Azkn. She died in the year a.d 
1599, a.h. 1008. The emperor carried he: 
coffin on his shoulders and shaved his bean 
and moustache. 



.11.1 1 

Jiwan, Mulla (JL* ^.^s>-). Vide 
M alia Jiwan. 

Jodha Rao (J, UbJ^r^). Raja of 

Marwar, and a descendant of Seoji, the 
grandson of the celebrated Jaichand, tie 
l; -I h' ■!• monarch of Kanauj. Ee, in the 
year a.d. 1432 founded the modern capital 
of Jodhpur, to which he transferred the Beat 
of the ii < >\ i -in in : nt from Mauddr. 

Jodh Bai (^J\j iJ^) (whose maiden 

name appears to be Jagal Goshaini and also 
Balmati), was the daughter of Raja Udai 
Singh of Jodhpur or ofarwar, the boh of 
Raja Maldeo. She was called Jodh Bai, 
because she was a princess oi Jodhpur. She 
was married to Mir/a Saliin (afterwards 
Jahangir) in a.d. 1585, \.\\. 994, and 
became the mother of the Empi ror Shah 
Julian, who was born as \.n. 1592, a.h. 
1000, at Lahore. She poisoned berseli at 
Aura in a.d. 1619, a.h. L028, and was 
buried in Sohagpura, a village founded by 
her, where her palace and tomb are still to 
be seen in a ruinous state. 

Jogi, Sultan (^UaLa /•>•)• Fide 

Muhammad Jogi. 

Josh ( Ly>-), poetical title of Ahmad 

Easan Khan, who Ls familiarly called Achchhe 
Sahib. Ee was living in Lucknow in a.h. 
is.j:>, a. ii. 1269, and was the author ol an 
Urdu Diwan. lie was the son oi Nawab 
Muqlin Khan, the sun of Nawab Biuhal 
Khan, the son of Eafiz Etahmal Khan (y.c). 

Joshish (JLZ,^), poetical title of 

Muhammad Easan or Muhammad Roshan of 
l'atna, who flourished in the time of the 
Emperor Shah 'Alain. 

Jot Parkash, Lala ($} ^j eJ»=~), 

a Hindu Kayeth and an anther. This 
appears to be the correct for Jent Parkas, 
which see. 

Jouhar (Jby>-), the poetical appella- 
tion of Jawahir Singh, a Hindu, who was 
the pupil of the poet Mulla Natiq of Naisha- 
piir. He w T as the author of a Diwan in 
Persian and Urdu, and was living in a.d. 
1851, a.h. 1267. 

Jouhar (ybjsj-), the poetical name of 

MunshT Sewa Bani of Shahjahanpur, who 
flourished in the time of Akbar Shah II. 
and was the author of several works in 
Persian, such as Jouhar -ul-TaUm, Jouhar- 
ul-Tarkib, etc.: the last-named work he 
wrote in a.d. 1820, a.d. 1235. 

Jouhari Farabi t^li l^*J=t)i sur- 
name ni Ahu Nasr F-ma-il bin-Bammad. 
A 1th ugh lie was a Turk, yet he made Bucb 
progress in the Arabic language, which he 
studied in Biesopol tmia and Egypt, thai 
was styled " Imam-ul-Lughat, or mash rof 
the laiuu .••■. . Ee i- the author oi a very 
large Arabic Dictionary entitled Sahah-ul- 
l uk~'t. the purity of the tongue. 11 
often called alter till— work. " Sahib-us- 
3 tab," or the author of the S diah. II.- 
i- commonly called Farabi or Farabi-al- 
Turki. because he was a native "t Farab 
in Turkiel in. Ee di d a.i>. 1002, a.h. 
393. Some authors say that hi- death took 
in A.i.. 992, \.n. 382. 

Jouhari Zargar (J^j _.-.>.-). a poet 

who flourished in the time of Sulaiman Shah 
1 Arsalan shah of the hou* ol Saljuq. 
II'- La the author of a poem containing the 
storj ..t " Amir Ahmad and Mahasti." 

Jounpur Cij-Jf*-), kinga of. Fide 

4 y y y • 

Khwaja Jahan. 

Jouzi (^;^_ =r ). Fide Abu'l Faraj 

Juban Choban or Jovian, Amir 
(^•"•' ^b*^-), the tutor and general 

of the armies ol Bulfcan Ahu Bald Khan. 
a oi Aljiitu, kin- oi Persia. He was 
put to death by Malik Ghayas-uddin Karl 
in November, a.d. 1327. Mubarram, a.h. 
728, by order oi the Sultan, because he 
refused to give him hi- daughter Baghdad 
Khatun in inarri 

[Vide Baghdad Khatun.] 

Juber (j.+—*_5>-) } a companion of Mu- 

Judat (^JJ^), a poetical appellation. 

Jugal Kishor ( , 4 JLi' ' L\j=-), an in- 

habitant of Dehli whose poetical name was 
Sarwat. lie was wakil to the Xiizim of 
Bengal for several years. 

Jughtai (^1^0. Fide Chaghtai. 

Juji Khan (^,U. ^fr^) "was the 

eldest son of Chingiz Khan the Tartar, from 
whom he had received for his share the wide 
regions of Qapchaq ; but this prince died a 
few months before his father in a.d. 1226, 
and left his territories to his son Batu 
Khan, who conquered Russia and Bulgaria, 
ravaged the countries of Poland. Moravia, 
and Dalmatia, and had marched into Hun- 
gary in order to attack Constantinople, when 
death ended his victorious career. 




Junaid Baghdadi, Shaikh (a_*_i_.=>- 

'^~* i^j'j^ij), a celebrated ascetic 

whose father was a glass-blower, of Xaha- 
wand. He was born and brought up at 
Baghdad, and became one of the best disciples 
of Shafa'i, but followed the system of Suflan 
Souri. He made thirty pilgrimages to Mecca, 
alone and on foot. He died at Baghdad in 
the year a.d. 911, a.h. 298, and was buried 
near the tomb of his master and maternal 
uncle, Sari Saqti. 

Junaid, Shaikh or Sultan (s.+-U-s>- 
jjUal-j), third in descent from the 

celebrated Shaikh Safi-uddin ArdihelT, and 
grandfather of Shah Ismail I. of Persia, 
founder of the Safwi dynasty which was 
extirpated by Nadir Shah. He was a Sail 
or mystic philosopher, hut being expelled 
from Azurbejan by the Turkman ruler Jahan 
Shah, established himself in Dayarbikar. In 
the latter period of his life, he went to 
Shirwan with his disoiples, and was killed 
in a.d. 1456, a.h. 860, in a conflict with 
the troops of Amir Khalll-ullah, rider of 
that province. 

[Vide Isnifril T. Safwi. The book called 
Nukkat Unlil, written by Mirza Bedil, con- 
tains his Memoirs.] 

Juna Shah (all \J •.==- ), a brother of 

Muhammad Tughlaq Shah, king of Dehll, 

win i built the city of Jounpur, which goes 
after his name. 

Jununi ( 


■), author of a poem 

called Latfief Shouq, a collection of enter- 
taining and witty tales, which he composed 
in the year a.d. 1689, a.h. 1100, and 
dedicated to the emperor 'Alamgir, but 
many were rather obscene. 

Jununi, Maulana Q$y *>^0, a 

sprightly satirical poet of Herat who flourished 
in the time of Amir Ghayas-uddm Sultan 
Husain, son of Firoz Shah, about the 9th 
century of the Hijri era. 

Jurat (^^_;sO, poetical title of 

Kalandar Bakhsh, a son of Tehia Anian 
and pupil of Hasrat. He was first supported 
by Nawab Muhabbat Khan, but in a.d. 1800, 
a.h. 1215, he was in the service of prince 
Sulaiman Shik5h at Lucknow. While still 

in the prime of life he became blind, but 
became a good musician and an excellent 
player on the guitar. It appears that Jurat 
and his family had the family name of Tehia 
Man, because they said that they were 
descended from Yehia Rai Man, who resided 
in a street at Dehll which is close to the 
Chandni Chouk, and is still called the Rai 
Man Street. It is also stated that this Rai 
Man was executed by Nadir Shah. Jurat 
died in the year a.d. 1810, a.h. 1225. He 
was the author of an Urdu Dlwan and two 
Ma sua wis. 

Jurir ( jj>-), or Abu Hazra Jarir ibn- 

Atiya, was one of the greatest and most 
celebrated poets. He flourished in the reign 
of the Khalif 'Abdulmalik of the house of 
Umayya, and received from him a handsome 
salary. He was once rewarded by the prince 
for a single panegyrical ode, with 100 camels, 
18 slaves, and a silver jug. Abu'l Faraj 
ibn-ul-Jauzi places the death of Jurir in the 
year a.d. 729, a.h. Ill, aged 80 years. 

Jurir -ibn- 'Abdullah ( ..A ._j ._r>- 

CJ • J "J • 

d\l\j>*£.), a general of the army in 

the time of 'Umar, the second Khalifa after 

Jurjani ( jl?-^-), which see. 

Jurjani ( ,jW- t&-), a native of Jurjan 

or Georgia. Al-Sayyad-ush- Sharif Abu'l 
Hasan ^or Husain) 'Ali was thus surnamed 
because he was born in that country. He 
was one of the most celebrated Musalman 
doctors ; was born in a.d. 1339, a.h. 740, 
and died at Slnraz a d. 1413, a.h. 816. 
There have beeu several other authors of this 
surname, as Al- Sharif -al-Husaini, a son of 
the first, who was a famous physician and 
lived in the time of Atsiz, Sultan of the 
Khwarizmians. Also Abu'l "Wafa, a mathe- 
matical Abu Bakr bin- 'Abdul Kahir, a 
grammarian, and Muhammad Jirjani, a 
valiant captain of the Sultan of Khwarizm, 
and governor of the city of Herat, who was 
killed in defending that place against Tuli 
Khan, son of Changez Khan. 

Juya (b »=>-), poetical appellation of 

Mirza Darab Beg, a poet whose native 
country was Kashmere. He died in a.d. 
1706, 'a.h. 1118, and is the author of a 
Dlwan. The poetical name of his brother 
Mirza Kamran, was Guya. 


Ka'b (^j ^1 u^), or Kaa'b ibn- 

Ziililr of Mecca, was an Arabian poet, and 
author of the Qasaed Banal 8a' ad, a ]ioem 
iu Arabic held in the highest estimation, 
containing a panegyric on Muhammad, A 
translation of pari oi it may be found in 
Sir William Jones's second volume of the 
Asiatic Researches. Theauthor was a Jewish 
R tbbi, contemporary and opponent oi Mu- 
hammad, .-iiul had written some satirical 
verses upon him : but afterwards bi iug 
desirous oi a reconciliation with the prophi t, 
lie wrote the above poem, which had the 

desired effect. Some authors saj thai he 
died in the firsi year oi the Eijra, thai is, 
A.p. 622, \.n. l. But, according to Ockley's 
History of the Saracens, " Eaa'b came in the 

ninth year of the Hijra, and mad, his p 

with Muhammad with a poem in his praise." 
By this it appears thai he was living in a..d. 
631. He is said to have assisted Muhammad 
greatly in the compilation of the Quran. 
/ ide Wilkin's Biographical Dictionary under 

Ka'b-al-'Ahbar (,-^1 i^oc*), a 

famous traditionisf of the tribe oi Eamyar, 
who embraced [slamism in the reign oi 'Umax' 
and died a.d. 652, a.h. 32, during the reign 
of 'Usman. 

Kabir ( Ji ^) ) a celebrated Hindi poet, 

by trade a Musalman weaver, who, according 
to the Akbar-nama, was contemporary with 
Sikandar Shah Lodi, king of Dehli. Kabir 
was a Sufi or Deist of the most exalted senti- 
ments and of benevolence unbounded. Hi- 
poems, which are still universally esteemed, 
inculcate the purest morality, good will and 
hospitality towards all men! and breathe so 
fine a spirit of toleration that both Hindus 
and Musalmans contend for the honour of his 
having been born of their religion. From 
the disinterested, yet alluring, doctrines his 
poems contain a' sect has ' sprung up in 
Hindustan, under the name of Kabir Panthi 
who are so universally esteemed for veracity 
and other virtues, among both Hindus and 
Musalmans, that they may lie with propriety- 
considered the Quakers of' the country. The 
time of Kabir' s death seems involved 'in equal 
obscurity with the manner of his decease and 
burial. They relate that he lived a lono- time 
at Kasi (Benaras) and Gaya, and sojourned 
also at Jaganath, where he 'gave great' offence 
to the Brahmans by his conduct and tolerant 
doctrine. "When stricken iu years, he departed 


this life among a concourse oi his disciples, 
both Musalmans and Hindu-. II, i- buried 
al Etatanpur, where his tomb is said to be 
seen to this day. 

Kabir, Shaikh (i*-^ ^J) t surnamed 

Bala I'lr. was the shaikh Qasim Qadiri, 
whose tomb is al Chunar. Shaikh Kabir 
died at Qanauj on Monday the 4th \,,\, m!„ r , 
a.d. 1644, L2th Ramazan, a.h. 1054, where 
a -pi, ndid mausoli um was built on bi- tomb 
by one oi hi- sons, named Shaikh Mahdi, who 
died a.i>. 1077, a.m. loss, and i- also buried 
then . 

Kabir-uddin (, vM Jj .... ^ € 

^yyO, son of Taj-uddln 'Iraqi, 

lived in the time of Sultan Ala-uddin, king 
oi Dehli, and wrote a book on bis conquests. 

Kabuli Mahal ( J<r« L&), a wife of 
Shahzahan. ^" 

Kachhwaha, the title of the Rajas of 
Amber or Jaipur. Vidt Bhara Mai. 

Kafi ^^s^^ surname of Taql-uddin 

•Ali bin-' All. an Arabian author who died in 
the year l.d. 1355, \.n. 756. Hi- nam, i- 
sp, It in some of our biographical dictionaries, 

Karl or Kami (^i%), poetical name of 

Mirza" 'Ala-uddaula, who flourished in the 
reign of the emperor Akbar. 

[J'iitt Ala-uddaula (Mirza] and Kami.] 

Kafi ( Jo), whose proper name was 

Kifayet 'Ali. was a poel of Muradabad, and 
author of the Bqhar Khuld, which is a trans- 
lation of the Shimael. 

Kafi-ul-Kafat (luU^ ^iK). Vide 
ibu-'ibad. ^ 

Kafur, Malik (i^UjjiK), a favourite 

eunuch of Sultan 'Ala-uddin Khilji, king of 
Dehli, probably of Hindu birth, who was 
raised to the high rank of wazir. After the 
kinti-s death the" first step which the traitor 
took was to send a person to Gwaliar, to put 
out the eyes of Khizir Khan and Shadi Khan, 
the two sons of the deceased Sultan. His 




orders were inhumanly executed. He then 
placed Shahab-uddin, the king's youngest 
son (a boy of seven years of age) on the 
throne, and began his administration ; but 
was assassinated thirty-five days after the 
king's death, in January, a.d. 1317, ah. 
716, when Mubarik, the third son of the 
king, was raised to the throne. 

Kahaj Tabrezi, Shaikh (^j'j >r J ^ 

irrr - ), a learned Musalman who held 

the office of Shaikh -ul- Islam at Tabrez during 
the reign of Sultan Awis and Sultan Husain 
of Baghdad. He was the author of a Diwan. 

Kahi ( JbK). 

Vide Qasim Kahi. 

Kaikaus {^sXJs), second king of the 

Kayanian dynasty of Persia, was the son of 
Kaiqubiid. He was vain and proud; and 
appears to have be< n in continual distn ss 
from the unfortunate result of schemes that 
his ambition led him to form, but which he 
wanted ability to execute. II is life is con- 
nected with a thousand fables, which though 
improper in this place form excellent materials 
for Firdausi, who has given, in his history of 
tliis period, the extraordinary and affecting 
tale of the combat between Rustam and his 
unknown son, Suhrab, who is killed by his 
lather. This part of the Shah-nama has been 
translated iu English verse by J. Atkinson, 
Assistant Surgeon on the Bengal Establish- 
ment, and member of the Asiatic Society in 
1814 . Kaikaus, when grown old, resigned his 
crown in favour of his grandson Kaikhusro, 
the son of Siawakhsh (corresponds to Cam- 
byses I. ; vide Achaemenis). 

Kaikaus, Amir ( r ^\ aXj£), grand- 
son of Qabiis, prince of Jurjan, and one of 
the noblemen who lived at the court of Sultan 
Maudud, the grandson of Sultan Mahmud of 
Ghazni. He Is the author of the work called 

Kaikhusro (, *»*i.\i), the third king 

of the Kayanian dynasty of Persia and the 
grandson of Kaikaus. He ascended the throne 
in the lifetime of his father, who resigned the 
crown in his favour. He had several battles 
with Afrasiab the king of Turin, who was 
at last defeated, taken prisoner, and slain. 
Soon after these ev< uts Kaikhusro resolved to 
devote the remainder of his life to religious 
retirement : he delivered over Kabul, Zabu- 
listiin and Nimroz to Rustam, as hereditary 
possessions ; and resigned his throne to 
Luhrasp, the son-in-law of Kaikaus and his 
own son by adoption and affection. After 
these arrangements, he went, accompanied by 
some nobles, to a spring which he had fixed 
upon as the place of his repose. Here he 
disappeared, and all those that went with him 
were destroyed on their return by a violent 
tempest. He lived 90 years and reigned 60. 

Kaikhusro (. _*^_:k\_£), the son of 

Sultan Muhammad Khan, governor of Multan, 
who was the eldest son of Sultan Ghayas- 
uddin Balban, king of Dehli. After his 
father's death in a.d. 1285 he was made 
governor of Multan by his grandfather, and 
after his di ci ase in a.d. 1286 was murdered 
at Rohtak by Malik Nizam-uddin, wazir of 
Kaiqubad, who ascended the throne as king 
of Dehli. 

Kaiomurs (^ ,*»..£), the first monarch 

of Persia, according to all Muhammadan 
writers. This king is stated to have re- 
claimed his subjects from a state of the most 
savage barbarity. They say he was the grand- 
son of Noah, and the founder of the first 
dynasty of Persian kings, called Pishdadian. 
liis son Sifunak was "killed in one of the 
battles with the barbarians or Devs ; and 
when that monarch carried Hoshang, the 
infant son of Siawak, to share in the revenge 
he meant to take upon his enemies, his army 
\\ as joined by all the lions, tigers and panthers 
in his dominions, and the Devs were routed 
and torn to pieces by the auxiliaries, who 
had left their native forest to aid the just 
king. After this victory, Kaiomurs returned 
to liis capital Balkh. He reigned 30 years, 
and was succeeded by his grandson Hoshang. 

The following is a list of kings of the frst 
or Pishdadian dynasty: — 

1. Kaiomurs. 

2. Hoshang. 

3. Tubulins, surnamed Deoband. 

4. Jamshed, reigned at Persipolis. 

5. Zuhak, surnamed Alwani. 

6. Faridun, restored by Kawa. 

7. Manuchchr. 

8. Naudar or Xauzar. 

9. Afrasiab, king of Turkistan. 

10. Zab, brother of Xaudar. 

11. Garshasp. 

Kaiqubad (jLjL£), the founder of the 

second or Kayanian dynasty of the kings of 
Persia, was a lineal descendant of Manuchchr, 
according to some accounts he was his great- 
grandson. This prince had retired to the 
mountain of Alburz, from which place he was 
brought by Rustam the son of Zal and pro- 
claimed king of Persia. He committed the 
administration of government into the hands 
of Zal, whose son Rustam was appointed to 
lead the Persians against the dreaded Afrasiab, 
who had again passed the Oxus and invaded 
Persia. In this battle Rustam overcame 
Afrasiab, and afterwards a peace was con- 
cluded, by which it was agreed that the Oxus 
should remain as it had been heretofore, the 
boundary between the two kingdoms. Kai- 
qubad lived some time after this in peace : he 
is said to have reigned 120 years, and to have 
left four sons — Kaikaus, "Arish, Ruin and 
Armen. To the former he bequeathed his 
throne, and enjoiued all the others to obey him. 




Legendary list of king* of th second or 
Kayanian dynasty. 

1. Kaiqubad. 

2. Kaikaus. 

3. Kaikhusro. 

4. Luhrasp. 

5. Gushtasp or Darin-. 

6. Islandiar. 

7. Bahman or Ardisher Darazdasl X< rxes). 

8. Humai, daughter and wife oi Bahman. 

9. Darab or Dara, son of Bahman. 

10. Dara, son ol Darab Darius overcome 

by Alexander the Great). 
[ Vvlv Achaemenes.J 

Kaiqubad (jlJLi), surnamcd Mu izz- 

nddTn, the grandson of Sultan Ghayas-uddih 
Balban, whom he succeed* '1 in a.i>. 12 
a. ii. <is.'>. nil the throne of Dehli in the 
absence <»i' liis father Nasir-uddln Baghra 
Khan, who was then in Bengal. In the year 
a.d. 12s;, |j..h. 686, bis father, having heard 
the state (it affairs at Dehli, marched from 
Bengal to risil and advise his sun. They mei 
on the banks of the Ghagra at Bi har, and the 
whole scene was bo affecting thai almost all 
the court shed ti are. ( >n this occasion the 
celebrated poel Amir Khusro wrote the poem 
called the A" ""■ or the conjunc- 

tion of the two plan ts. K riqubad was 
assassinati d in a.d. 1288 through the instiga- 
tion ni the Fiii"/. Malik Khilji, who ascended 
the throne by the title ol Jalal-uddin Firoz 
Shah Khilji, and became the firai Sultan oi 
the second branch ol the Turk dynast] tailed 

Kaiuk Khan 


Kakafi (^.iil<). 

<). Vide 

Vide Ahmad bin- 

Idrls. lie is mentioned in some ol our 
Biographical Dictionaries under the name of 

Kakafi ( j£&). 

Vide Ahmad bin- 


Kalb Ali Khan {J^ <-Lr l 
Nawab of Rampur in 18G9-70. 

Kalb Husain Khan, Mirza ( v 


\ ; r* ,.j l - 

), Deputy Collector 

of Etawah, the sonof Ahtaxam-uddaula Dabir- 
ul-Mulk Kalb 'All Khan Bahadur. He is 
the author of four Diwans and a biography 
called Shaukat Nadirl. He was living in 
a.d. 1864, a.h. 1281. 

Kalhana (djLJ-i), a Brahman and 

author of a history of Kashmere, called Raja- 
tar angini. There are four chronicles of the 
history of Kashmere written in Sanskrit verse ; 
the first by Kalhana, bringing the history of 

Kashmere to abont 1148 after Christ; the 
ond, a continuation of the former, by 
Jauaraja, to a.d. 1412; the third, a con- 
tinuation "i the second, by Srivara, a pupi] 
oi Jauaraja, to a.d. 1177: and the fourth, by 
Prajyabb itta, from that date to the conq 
• > t the ralley by the emperor Akbar. The 
author ol the work, the Paridil Kalhana, of 
w 1 1 > 1 1 1 1 we men Lj kno^ thai I a< son 

oi Champaka, and lived about a.d. 1150, 
under the reign oi Bifiha Devaol Kashmere — 
reports thai before entering on his task he 
had studied eleven historical works written 
previously to his time, and also a history of 
K shmere by ti. Mia. which Beems to 

be the oldest oi all. Kalhana begins his 
\\<>rk with the mythological history of the 
country; the first king named by him is 
<. mania, who, according to hi~ chronoli 
would have reigned in the year b.< . 2448, and 
the last mentioned by him is Bifiha Di 
abont 1 160 aft< t Christ. 

Kali Das (^J J^X * celebrated 

Hindu litionallv -aid to have lived 

towards the commencement oi the Christian 
era, and to have been one oi the nine splendid 
gems that adorned the court oi Raja Bikar- 
majit Vikramaditva). 5 saj that he 

flourished in the tine oi i 1040-90 

a.d. . lb wrote th \ i for the pnrj • 
oi exhibiting his unbounded skill in alliter- 
ation. In tour hook-, containing on the 
average fifty-four stanzas each, he has given 
such illustrations of this art as can never be 
surpassed. This work has been published in 
Europe, with a Latin translation by a con- 
tinental scholar. Ferdinandus Benary. No 
son can be imagined why Kali Das Bhould 
again write the history oi Nala and Dam lyanti, 
ait' r it had 1" en so el gantry w ritten in 
flowing verse byVyasa Deva, except that he 
intended in this ample Btory to Bnew forth 
his ingenuity in alliteration. lb is also the 
author oi the poem called A Sambhava, 

and oi another called Mate Natak. 

Kalim (*_.»_1_£), the poetical name of 
Abu Talib Kalim, which see. 

Kalim-ullah (<lL^— JJ), a title of 

Moses the prophet. 

Kalim-ullah > (<d! , *Ji') ) the last king 

of the Bahman! dynasty of Kulbarga or 
Ahmadabad Bidar in the' Deccan. He was 
expelled in a.d. 1527 by Amir Barid his 
wazir, who mounted the throne and took 
possession of that kingdom. 



author of a 

work called Kashkol Tasauwaf, an exposition 
of the mystical phrases of the Snfis. 




Kali Sahib (i .^L> , «JK), surname 

of Ghulam Nasir-uddin, the son of Maulana 
Qutb-uddin, the son of Maulana Fakhr- 
uddin. Although he was the Murshid or 
spiritual guide of the king of Dehli, he 
preferred the habit of a Derwish. lie died 
in a.d. 1852, a.h. 1268. 

Kamal ( JUi), a poet of Isfahan. 

Kamal (JUi), poetical title of Mir 

Kamal 'All of Gaya Manpur. He wrote 
Persian and Rekhta verses, and is the author 
of a large work called Kamal-ul- Sikmat, on 
philosophy, and one called Chahardah Darud, 
i.e. the fourteen blessings, containing an 
account of the Imams. lie died in a.d. 
1800, a.h. 1215, and the chronogram of the 
Hijri year of his death is contained in the 
word Daregha. 

Kamal Ghayas, Maulana (JL*_i 

^cAj^ii \j^y , -Li), of Shlraz, a 

poet and physician who flourished in the time 
of Ibrahim Sultan. 

Kamal Khan, Gikhar (^U*- J^i 

.^..(if) prince of the Gikhars, was the 

son of Sultan Sarang, the son of Malik Kalan 
II. the son of Malik Kalan I. the son of Malik 
Khar, who was the founder of the principality 
of the Gikhars. Their country lies among 
the mountains between Bhat and Sindh, which 
formerly belonged to the government of Kash- 
Malik Kalan II. had several battli a 


with Sher Shah, but was at last taken prisoner 
and put to death by that monarch, and his 
son or grandson Kamal Khan imprisoned in 
the fortress of Gwaliar. He was, however, 
after some years released by Salim Shah the 
son of Sher Shah, hut during his confinement 
his uncle Sultan Adam had taken possession 
of the country. In the first year of the reign 
of Akbar he was introduced to that monarch 
and was employed in his service. He by 
degrees rose to' the rank of 5000, and was 
afterwards put iu possession of_ his dominions 
by that emperor, and Sultan Adam his uncle 
taken prisoner and made over to Kamal Khan, 
who put him iu confinement, where he died. 
Kamal Khan, who became tributary to Akbar, 
died in a.d. 1562, a.h. 970. 

Kamal Khujandi (^s.u-^r~ JL*-£). 
Vide Kamal-uddin Khujandi. 

Kamal Qazi ( ^[.'i JLo). Vide 
Abul-Fath BilgTami. 


Kamal-uddin 'Abdul Razzaq, Shaikh 
(^vJb jyU f c ^jjJ\ JU£), is the 

author of several works, anion"; which are the 
following : Tafslr Tawllat, Kitab Istildhdt 
Sufla, Sharah Fasus-ul-Hikdm, Sharh Ma- 
nnzib-ul-Sabirin, etc. He was a contemporary 
of Shaikh Rukn-uddin 'Ala-uddaula. He 
died in a.d. 1482, a.h. 887. 

[ Vide 'Abdul Razzaq.] 

Kamal-uddin Isma'il ( ._>jj\ JL*^ 

J^v*-^), son of Jamal-uddin Mu- 

hummad 'Abdul Razzaq, of Isfahan, a cele- 
brated poet of Persia, styled Malik-ush- 
Shu'ara, that is to say, king of the poets, 
and is the author of a Diwan. In the year 
a.d. 1237, 2nd Jumada I. a.h. 635, on the 
21st December, when Oqtai Khan, the son 
of Changez Khan, invaded Isfahan and 
massacred the inhabitants of that city, he 
also fell a martyr. It is said that he was 
tortured to death by the Mughuls, who 
expected to find hidden property in his 

Kamal - uddin Khujandi, Shaikh 
(^~£> LfA^sr*- ,. t ;jJUU£), was a 

great Shaikh and lyric poet, and a contemporary 
of Hafiz, who, though they never saw each 
other, much esteemed him, considering him 
and Salman Sawaji as amongst the first poets 
of their time. He is commonly called Kamal 
Khujandi, born at Khujand, a town situated 
in one of the most beautiful and fertile districts 
of Persia. After having made the pilgrimage 
to Mecca he settled at Tabrez, a place which 
he found extremely agreeable during the reign 
of the princes of the family of Jalayer. The 
principal personages of Tabrez became his 
pupils, and he led a life of literary ease and 
enjoymeat; but when Tuqtamish Khan sur- 
prised Tabrez, Shaikh Kamal was made 
prisoner, and was carried to Serai iu Kapjak 
by order of Manga Khun the grandson of 
Changez Khan, where he remained four years, 
alter which he was permitted to return to 
Tabrez, near which city the Sultan Awes 
Jalayer built him a house. Kamal did not 
sing" the praise of princes in Qasida, nor did 
he "write Masnawis, but only Gliazals and 
fragments. He died in the year a.d. 1390, 
a.h. 792, anil was buried at Tabrez. A MS. 
of the Diwan of Kamal, which had been the 
property of a Sultan, is possessed by the 
Imperial Library at Vienna, and is a great 
treasure as a specimen of splendid writing, 
and also for the superbly executed miniatures 
which adorn it, illustrating the poems. These 
pictures are not more than a square inch in 
size : there are two on each side of the con- 
cluding- verse ; and though so small, represent 
with the greatest correctness, either alle- 
goricallv or -imply, the meaning of the poet. 
— Dublin University Magazine, 1840. 


2i »8 


Kamal - uddin Masa'ud, Maulana 

i.i Shirwan, a celebrated logician and author 
of the marginal aotea on the Sharah Bikmat 


Kamal-uddin Muhamniad-al-Siwasi 
( ^^Jl S*«i'* ^J^JUi), com- 
monly called Humani and Ibn-Humam, 
author of a commentary on the Hidaya 
entitled Fath-ul-Qadir HI l Ajiz-al-Faqlr. It 
is the mosl comprehensive ol all the comments 
on the Hidaya, and includes a collection oi 
decisions which render it extremely useful. 
He died in a. d. 1457, a. h. 861. 

[ Vide Humam and Ibn-Humam.] 

Kamal-uddin Muhammad bin-'Abdul 
Muna'im Jujari, Shaikh ( ,_> jj\ JLo 

an author who died iu a.d. 1481, a.ii. 889. 

&A ^}^ry- 

Kamal-uddin Muhammad, Khwaja 
(i^-\^ s^sz* ^jJIJU^), ibn- 

(lliayas-uddin Shirazi, was a physician and a 
pott, and flourished in the time oi Sultan 
Ibrahim Mirza. For his poetical title he 
used Ibn-Ghayas. 

Kamal-uddin Musa bin-Yunas bin- 
Malik (^uj ^i ^lyt ^.-.OjUi 
i sL* ^j), name of an Imam, who 

was one of the most celebrated Musalman 

Kamal-uddin Shah (*\£ ...<aM 1U£). 
Vide Lutf-ullah. 

Kam Bakhsh (prince) (. A An ^ 

JOK^i), youngest son of the emperor 

'Alamgir, a vain and violent young man, 
who had received from his lather the kingdom 
of the Deccan, but as he refused to acknow- 
ledge the sovereignty of the emperor Bahadur 
Shah, his eldest brother, and struck coin in 
bis own name, that monarch, after attempting 
in vain to win him over by concessions, 
marched against him with a powerful army to 
the Deccan, and defeated him iu a battle near 
Haidarabad, where Kam Bakhsh died of his 
wounds on the same day iu the mouth of 
February or March, a.d. 1708, Zil-hijja. 
a.h. 1119. His mother's name was Udaipuri 
Muhal, and he was born on the 25th 
February, a.d. 1667, 10th Ramazan, a.h. 

Kami ^e<*^' wn,jS0 proper nann fa 

Mirza Ala-uddaula Qazwinl, was the son of 
Mir Yah\a luii--Ah.ini l.atil. and is the 
author oi the work called Nafaia-ul-Mi 
a Biographical Dictionary oi P( rsian p 
It contains not aboul 350 po te in 

alphabetical order. Most of them flourished 
in India during the n ign oi Akbar, to whom 
the hook is dedicated. It was finished in 
a. t«. 1571, a ii. 979, hut there occur much 
later date- in it. 1 1 « i -- supposed by some to 
have died in a.d. 1563, ah. 971, and by 
others in a.d. 1573, a.h. 981, hut the latter 
date appears to be correct. Thi discrepancy 
arises from the chronogram oi his death, iii 
which the Dumber of the la>t word i- con- 
sidered by Bome to be uU and by others 70, 
a difference oi t< u \< bj s. 

\Txdi Yahya bin-'Abdul Latlf.] 

Kamil (J.«li), author of a poetical 

work, entitled Chiraghndma. It consists of 
Ghazals all of which rhyme in Chiragrh 
(lamp), and the first Letter oi everj rerae of 
izal is \ oi A. ol tin -i cond •—> or 
B, and 90 on. 

Kamran Mirza (h^ ^t^JO, second 

son nt the emperor Babar Shah, and brother 
to th emperor Bumayun, who, alter his 
ace, ssion to the throne in a.i». 1630, A.H. 

". ferred on him the government oi 

Kabul, Qandahar, Ghazni and the Panjab. 
II was deprived ol hi- Bighi by Bumayun 
when at Kabul in the year a.d. L553, a.h. 

9 0, on unt ol his rep ated offem 1 -, and 

continually raisins: disturbanc sint rn- 

ment. The operation was performed by 
pi rcing his eye- repeatedly with a lam t. 
K - 'in ft 11 hole the torture without a groan 
until lemon-juice and Bali were Bqueez d 
into his eyes, when he called out "0 Lord 
my God! whatever sins 1 have committed I 
have been amply punished in this world, have 
compassion on me in the next." Kamran 
itually obtained permission to proceed to 
M cca, whi re he resided thn 1 md di d 

a natural death in A.D. 1556, A.H. 964. II 
hit three daughters and one son. named 
Abu'I Qasim .Mir/a. who was imprisoned in 
the tort of Gwaliar, and put to death by 
order of the emp ror Akbar, his cousin, iu 
the year a.i>. 1565, A.H. 973. 

Kamran Shah (*L-i ^—^10, the 

present ruler of Herat, is the son of Mahmud 
Shah, the son of Timur Shah, the son of 
Ahmad Shah Abdali. <>n the death of his 
father. Mahmud Shah (in a.d. 1829), he 
succeeded him ou the throne of Hi rat. 

Kapurthala Rajah. Tide Xihal Singh. 

Karam { + £), author of the Barbae 

Haidarl, a history of All and his son Husain 
in verse, composed in a.d. 172o, a.h. 1135. 




Karim (+>J), poetical name of Mir Karshasp (u^U^ or Garshasp, 

Muhammad Kfizim the son of Fikr. He 
flourished iu the time of Kuthshah of the 
Deccan, and is the author of a Diwfiu. 

Karim Khan (^L-k +- : \j-{), the 

murderer of Mr. W. Fraser, Commissioner of 
Dehli. See Shams-uddln Khan (niiwab). 

Karim Khan (^U- ^J), a Pindar! 

chief, who surrendered himself to the British 
Government on the loth February, 1818, and 
received for his support the " Tahiqa of 
Burhiapar in the Gorakhpiir district, which 
was held by his descendants up to the 
mutiny in 1857. 

Karim Khan Zand (jj 




The history of Persia, from the death of 
Nadir Shah till the elevation of 'Aqt Muham- 
mad, though it occupies nearly half a century, 
presents no one striking feature, except the 
life of Karim Khan, a chief of the tribe of 
Zand. He collected an army chiefly composed 
of the different tribes of" Zand "and Mali, 
defeated the Afghans in several engagements, 
finally drove them out of the country, and 
secured to himself the kingdom of Fars, or 
the southern division of Persia, while 
Khurasan partially remained in possession of 
the descendants of Nadir Shah; and the 
countries bordering on the Caspian Sea were 
retained by Muhammad Hasan Khan Qajar, 
ruler of Mazindaran, the great-grandfather of 
'Aqa. Muhammad Shah Qajar. "Karim Khan, 
after subduing his enemies, enjoyed inde- 
pendent power for twenty-six years; and 
during the last twenty, viz. from 1759 to 
1779, he had been, without a competitor, the 
acknowledged ruler of Persia. His capital 
Avas Shiraz. He died at an advanced period 
of life on the 2nd March, a.d. 1779, 13th 
Safar, a.h. 1193, being nearly 80 years of 
age. After his death Zaki Khan assumed the 
reins of government, and was assassinated two 
months after. Saeliq Khan, brother of Karim 
Khan, took possession of Shiraz after the 
death of Zaki Khan, and was put to death on 
the 14th March, a.d. 1781, 18th Rabi' I. 
a.h. 1195, by 'All Murad Khan, who now 
became the sovereign of Persia, and died on 
the 11th January, a.d. 1785, 28th Safar, 
a.h. 1199. After his death Luff 'AH Khan 
reigned for some years at Shiraz. He was 
defeated in 1794 and slain afterwards by 
'Aqa Muhammad Khan Qajar, who took 
possession of the throne of Persia. 

Karim - uddin, Professor in Agra 

College, published in 1845 an Urdu Anthology 
which became very popular. It is prefaced 
bv a dissertation. 

the son of Zu, and the last king of the first 
or Pishdadian dynasty of Persia. 
[ Vide Zu.] 

Kart (CLlJ), kings of the dynasty of. 
Vide Shams-uddln Kart I. 

Kashfi (^jLio), the poetical name of 

Shah Muhammad Salamat-ullah. He is the 
author of a Diwan iu Persian, which was 
printed and published before his death iu 
a.h. 1279. 

Kashfi ( J^) } takhullus of Mir Mu- 

hammad Salah, who flourished iu the reign 
of the emperor Jahangir, and is the author of 
a Tarjihband called Majmua 1 It<~iz, which he 
composed in a.d. 1621, a.h. 1030, containing 
270 verses. He died in the year a.d. 1650, 
a.h 1060, at Agra, and lies buried there. 

Kashi, Mulla (L, ^K), surname 


Kamal-uddin Abdu'l Ghanam 'Abdul Razziiq 
bin-Jamal-uddin, a celebrated doctor, placed 
amongst the Musalman saints, was author of 
several works. He died young about the 
vear a.d. 1320, a.h. 720. 

Kashi Rao Holkar ( fljt, A. ^1^), 

the eldest of the four sons of Tukajl Holkar, 
after whose death in a.d. 1797 disputes arose 
between Kashi Rao and his brother Mulhar 
Rao, and both repaired to the court of the 
Peshwa at Puna, where, on their arrival, 
Daulat Rao Sindhia, with a view of usurping 
the possessions of the family, espoused the 
cause of Kashi Rao, and made a sudden and 
unexpected attack in the month of September 
on Mulhar Rao, whom he slew with most of 
his adherents. After this, Sindhia pretended 
to govern the possessions of the Holkar family 
in the name of Kashi Rao, whom he kept in 
a state of dependence and appropriated the 
revenue to his own use. A long contest 
ensued between Daulat Rao and Jaswant Eiio 
Holkar, the brother of Kashi Rao, and con- 
tinued till the year a.d. 1802, when Jaswant 
Rao appears to have taken possession of Indor, 
the territory of his father. 

Kashifi ( Jl*J^^) } the poetical name 

of Maulana Husain bin-All, also known by 
that of Waez or the preacher. He wrote a 
fidl commentary on the Quran in the Persian 
language. He was a preacher at the royal 
town of Herat in Khurasan. He died in 
a.d. 1505, a.h. 910. 

[Vide Husain Waez.J 





Kashmcre, kings of. Vide Shah Mir. 

Kasir (\je .-ii), or Kathir Azzii, one 

of the celebrated Arabian pouts of the court 
of the Khalif 'Abdul Malik. Vide Jamil. 

Kathir (^0. Vide Kasir. 

Katihi (^^.i^' ,.-.1'^), poetical name 

nf Maulana Shams-uddln Muhammad bin- 
'Abdullab-al-NaisbapuxI and Tarshizi. He 
wrote a very beautiful hand, on which account 
he assumed the title of " Katibl." Ee came 
to Herat in the reign of Biiisanghar Mirza, 
and afterwards became one of the besi p 
of the courts of the prince Sultan Mirza 
Ibrahim of Shirwan, in whose prais be ■ 
wrote a panegyric, and received from that 
prince a present <>t 10,000 dinars. We have 
BeveraJ oi his works in the Persian language. 
In the latter period of his life be fixed his 
residence at Astrabad, and died there in a.d. 
1435, a. ii. 839. Hi- works, which contain 
live poems, are called Majma' -ul - Bahrain, 
the story of NTasir and Mansur, which may be 
read in two different metres ; Dad I 
Susnwa Ishq anil Bahrain ami Galandam. 

Kaus. Vide Kaikaus. 

Kayuk Qaan (^lli <__ U+>), or Kayuk 

Khan, was the son of Oqtai Qaan, the son of 
Changez Khan. He succeeded bis rather in 
January, a.d. 1242, a.h. 639, to the 
kingdom of Tartary, and his uncle Jaghtai or 
Chaghtai Qaan to the kingdom oi Trans- 
oxiana, Badakhshan and Kashghar. Ee 
reigned one year, and died about the beginning 
of a.d. 1243, a. ii. 640, when Manga Qaan, 
the eldest son of full Khan, the sou of 
Changez Khan, succeeded him and reign d 
nine years. 

Kazim Ali Khan (^l^L 1c J&6 

a^x.^). A physician of the Lodi 

period, who made a garden at Agra on the 
banks of the Jamua opposite Bam Lagli. 
Some traces of this garden still remain called 
Hakim ka Bagh. It was made in the year 
a.d. loot. 

Kazirn, Hakim (*_*_£_:*. *_1?10, a 

r •• \ 

physician who had the title of Haziq-ul-Mulk 
and was the son of the Mujtahid Haidar All 
Tushtarl Najafi. He is the author of the 
work called Farah-nxma Fatima, which he 
composed in a.d. 1737, a.h. 1150. 

Kazim, Hakim (^ij^ J&ty. Vide 

Kazim Zarbaya U_jl_j^j *-k^), a 

Persian poet who died at Isfahan in the year 
a.d. 1541, a.h. 918. 

Kerat Singh (<u^j c^-^), second 

son of Mirza Raja Jaisingh. II served 
under the emperor 'Alamgir, and after bis 
father's death was honoured with the rank of 
00. Ee was living in the Deccan a.d. 
1673, a. n. 1084. 

Kesari Singh (cCo~: ^j*~~&), Raja of 

Jaipur who lived in the time oi Muhammad 
Shah, < inp ror of Dehli. 

Kesho Das Rathor, Raja ( J j *!l£ 

is>-\ , ,«yU), ^ho gave his daughter 
• ^ ^> • ^ 

in inai : the i mp ror Jahangir, by 

d Bahar Bano Begam. 

Khadija (iVsTJo-), Muhammad's wife. 

Although this is the correel pronunciation of 
under Kinayja. 

Khadim (*jl>-), the poetical name of 

Nazar Beg, a poet. He was a pupil of 

Muhammad A/.ial Sabit, and died Borne time 
before tie year a.d. 17(30, a.h. 1171. 

Khadim (*jU-), the takh alius or 

poetical appellation of Shaikh Ahmad 'All 
oi Sandila and son of Muhammad Haji. He 
is the author of several works, amongst 
which i- one called Anis-ul- 1 Ushshaq, an 
anthology. He flourished about the year 
a.d. 1752, A.H. 1165. 

[Vide Hasan bin-Muhammad Sharif.] 

Khaef Kashmiri, Maulana (■_£_? Ui. 

Khafi ( jUO, poetical title of Mir 

Abiil Hasan Khan, author of a poem called 
Vhahdr Dervish. 

Khafi Khan (^U- ic*^"^ wnose 

original name is Muhammad Hashim, was 
the author of the work called TariM Wj&fi 
Khan, which is also called Muntakhib-ul- 
Lubab, an excellent history of Hindustan, 
commencing with the invasion of the emperor 
Babar Shah, a.d. 1519, a.h. 925, and 
continued to the accession of Muhammad 
Shah ; comprehending the whole of the reign 
of the emperor 'Alamgir, also those of 
Bahadur Shah, Jahandar Shfih, Farrukh- 
siyar, and Rafl-ud-darjat; all of which, 
except the first ten years of 'Alamglr's reign, 




Colonel Dow was obliged to pass over, for 
want of documents. There are few works in 
the Persian language (says Stewart) so 
worthy of being translated. The author was 
a person of good family, who resided at 
Dehli during the latter part of the reign of 
'Alamgir, where he compiled his history ; 
but iu consequence of the well-known pro- 
hibition of that monarch he was obliged to 
conceal his intentions, and for some other 
causes did not publish it till the 14th year of 
the emperor Muhammad Shah, a.d. 1732, 
a.h. 1145. The work was well received, and 
the author was honoured with the title of 
Kliafi Khan, or the "concealed." 

[English extracts may be found in Dowson's 
Elliot, vol. vii.] 

Khair - uddin Muhammad, Maulvi 
(i^Syy* wV*^'* ^>m\ r-^-), author of 
the history of Jaunpur. 

Khair-un Nisa Khatun (Lm.;JI ^^. 

(jyl^O, a poetess, who was the 

daughter of the Qazi of Samarkand, and 
lived at Khurasan. 

Khaju (y>- U- ). Vide Khwaj u. 

Khaki ( iU-), author of the Mwnaqib- 

ul-'Arifin. This book contains the memoirs 
of three very celebrated Sufi Shaikhs, viz. 
Khwaj a Baha - uddin, Burhan-uddiu, and 
Jalal- uddin. The former of these was 
reputed a great saint, and was the founder of 
an Order of Sufis, distinguished by the title 
of Naqshbandi. He died at Harafa in Persia, 
a.d. 1453, a.h. 857. The two others were 
authors of commentaries on the Quran, and 
were held in much veneration. The above- 
mentioned book was dedicated to Baha-uddin. 

Khaki Shirazi ( l c-\.^Ji ) e _<l_j^), 
author of a Persian Diwan. 

Khaksar (\Li\ci.), poetical name of 

Shnkr-ullah Khan, who died in a.d. 1696, 
a.h. 1108, and has left a Diwan. 

Khalclun (^jJUO. Vide Khalidun. 

Khalid ibn-Barmak Cj—jI u\_!l_>- 

( S-^.-j) was the first of the 

Barmacides, who acted as wazir to Abii'l 
'Abbas Saffah. He was the grandfather of 
Ja'far, wazir to Harun-al-Bashid. He died 
in the year a.d. 780 or 782, a.h. 163 or 165. 

Khalid ibn-Walid (jj^ ^\ jJU.), 
who became a proselyte to Muhammadanism 

in a.d. 630, and afterwards so terrible to the 
Greeks, was called from his coinage, the 
Sword of God. In spreading the doctrines of 
the Quran, aud the dominion of the prophet, 
he committed atrocious cruelties, and was at 
last cut off by the plague in a.d. 639, but 
according to Ockley's History of the Saracens 
Abu Ubeda died that year, and Khalid 
survived him about three years, and then 

Khalid ibn - Yezid ihn - Mua'wia 

(jojj i^\ jJLO. He is reported to 

have been the most learned of the tribe of 
Quresh in all the different branches of know- 
ledge, and skilled in the art of alchemy. He 
died in a.d. 704, a.h. 85. 

Khalidi (^.\!l^), surname of Abu 'l 

Faraj, one of the first poets of the court of 
the Sultan Saif-uddaula Hamdani. He was 
a native of Khaldia or Chaklea, consequently 
he is called Khalidi. 

Khalidun (^.jJUl), or Abdul Rahman 

bin - Muhammad bin - Khalidun, surnamed 
Alhazrami, was an author and Qazi of the 
city of Aleppo when Amir Timur took it, 
who carried him away to Samarqand as a 
slave, where he died a.d. 1405, a.h. 808. 

Khalif or Khalifa (ilAjJ). This Arabic 

word (which signifies vicar or successor), from 
which we have formed that of Khalif or 
Caliph, is the name of a sovereign dignity 
amongst the Musaluians, which comprehends 
an absolute power, and an independent 
authority over all that regards religion and 
political government. Not only the first 
four immediate successors of Muhammad, but 
the rulers of the house of Uniayya (written by 
us Ommaides), who reigned in Damascus, and 
the 'Abbasides, who reigned in Baghdad, 
were also called Khalifas. There were in all 
56 Khalifas, 4 of whom were of the house of 
the prophet, 15 of the house of Uniayya, and 
37 of the house of 'Abbas. 

Khalif or Khalifas (dJc].^), of the 
house of Muhammad. See Abu Bakr Siddiq. 

Khalif or Khalifas (±~*\ <U-Li-), of 
the race or Uniayya, who reigned at Damascus. 
[Vide Mu'awia I.] 

Khalif or Khalifas (<-~sLc aJLLO, of 

the house of 'Abbas called 'Abbasi or Abba- 
sides, who reigned at Baghdad. 
[ra-Al- Safffth.] 

Khalil (JJ.rO, the poetical title of 
Ali Ibrahim Khan, which see. 




Khalil (J-isO, the poetical appella- 
tion of Mirza Muhammad Ibrahim, whose 
title was Asalat Khan, Me - irved under the 
emperor 'Alamgir, mid was living in Patna 
in A.D. 1690, a.h. 1102. He was a oatire 
of Khurasan, but brought up in India. 

Khalil bin-Ahmad (j^^] 


^jj^zi), of Basra, a very learned man 

who is said to be the first that wrote on Hie 
art of writing poetry. lie wrote several 
works and died about the year A.H. 175. 

Khalil ibn-Is-haci ( *U-»Lj1 J-L*0, 

author of a Mukhtaair which goes alter bis 
name. Tins is a work professedly treating ol 
the law according to the .Malik! doctrines, 
and has been translated into French by 
M. Perron and published in the year 1849. 

Khalil Khan (^U- JJlr>-), a man- 

sabdar of .5000 of the court of Shah Jahan, 
but of a very bad temper. It was he who 
instigated 'Alamgir to confine bis father 
Shah Jahan. He bad built a fine house at 
Agra on the banks of the Jamna, of which 
some traces are still to be seen. 

Khalil, Maulana (Ol'._t J^.l_<- ), a 

poet of Persia, who flourished in the time of 
Shah Tahmasp Safwi, and was living about 
the year a.d. 1539, a.h. 946. 

Khalil, Sultan (^ILLo J-lrt.), son of 

Shaikh Ibrahim Shirwani, ruler of Shirwan. 
He reigned about the beginning of the loth 
century of the Christian era. 

Khalil, Sultan (^ItaLs J-ir&-), also 

called Mirza Khalil and Khalil-ullah, was the 
son of Miranshah, and grandson of Amir 
Timur, at whose death he, being present with 
the army at Samarqand, took possession of 
that country. This prince, who was a person 
of excellent temper and had many good 
qualities, might have preserved the power he 
had acquired, had not his violent love for 
Shad-ul-Mulk, a celebrated courtezan, whom 
he had secretly married, diverted him from 
the cares of government. He had scarcely 
reigned four years, when he was seized by 
the chiefs who had raised him to the throne, 
and sent a prisoner to the country of Kash gh ar 
iu a.d. 1408, a.h. 811, where instead of 
endeavouring to effect his release and recover 
his power, he spent the whole of his time in 
writing verses to his beloved mistress, who 
had been exposed, by the reverse of his fortune, 
to the most cruel indignities. He was at 
last released by Mirza Shahrukh his uncle, 
who had taken possession of his kingdom, 

and who not <>nlv gave him the governmenl 
of Rei, Cum and rtamdan, hut restored his 
beautiful mistress to his arm-. After ibis 
be lived two year- and a hali and died 6th 
November, a.h. 1411. I8th Rajab, a.h. Ml, 
aged 28 years and Shad-ul-Mulk, on the 
occurrence oi this event, acted a part which 
has given tame to her memory— she struck a 
poniard to her breast: and the lovers were 
buried in one tomb iu the city of Rei. 

Khalil-ullah (<dM J-L^X the Friend 

of God, a title of Abraham the patriarch. 
Khalil-ullah Hirwi, Mir (<dJ| U L!^ 

J+* |J>99&)} a descendant of Shaikh 
Na'mat-ullah Wall. 

Khalil-ullah Khan (J^ &\ J-LO, 

entitled Hmdat-ul-Mulk, brother of Asalat 
Khan Mir Bakhahi. served under the emp ror 
Shah Jahan, was appointed governor oi Dehli 
about the year a.d. L653, a.h. 1063, and was 
raised to the rank <>i 6000 in the tir>t year of 
'Alamgir, a.d. 1658, a.h. 1068. He died 
on the llth February, a.d. 1662, 2nd Rajab, 
A.H. 1072. 

Khalil-ullah Mirza (\\^ <d!l JJt^). 
Vide Khalil Sultan. 

Khalis (j^JUv), the poetical name of 
Imtiyaz Khan of Isfahan, which see. 

Khallikan (J£ . \ ± ) Vide Ibn- 

Khamosh ( *^»U-), poetical name of 

Rae Sahib Pain o\ D hli. He was tor some 
time Tahsildar under Mr. Jonathan Duncan 
in Benaras. He has left a large Diwan. 

Khan (jjLs*-). This word, which 

appears to be a corruption of Qaan, is a 
Turkish title and means powerful lord. The 
most powerful kiugs of Turkistan, of Great 
Tartary and of the Khatayans have borne this 
title. Ghangez, the great conqueror, had uo 
other, and it makes even part of his name, 
for he is called by the Orientals, Changez 
Khan. It means the same as Khakan or 

Khan ( k J^) J the poetical name of 
Mirza, Sharif. 

Khan 'Alam ( JU ^U.), title of Mirza 

Barkhurdar, son of Mirza 'Abdul Rahman 
Dauldi, a nobleman who served under the 




emperor Shah Jahan and was raised to the 
rank of 5000 ; he was also in favour under 
'Alamgir (Auraugzeh). In the latter part of 
his life, he was pensioned by the emperor 
and received one lac of rupees annually. He 
had a house and garden in Agra on the hanks 
of the river Jamna built of red stone touching 
the northern Burj of the Rauza of Tajganj 
in a spot consisting of 50 bighas. In the 
latter part of his life he was raised to 6000 
and appointed governor of Bihar. 

Khan 'Alam (JLc ^LO, title of 

Ikhliis Khan, the son of Khan Zaman Shaikh 
Nizam. He served under the emperor 'Alamgir 

and was raised to the rank of 5000 in a.d. 
1689, a.h. 1100, with the title of Khan 
'Alam. In a.d. 1696 the rank of 6000 was 
conferred on him. After the death of that 
emperor he espoused the cause of 'Azim Shah 
against his brother Bahadur Shah, and fell in 
battle a.d. 1707, a.m. 1119. After his death 
his son was honoured with the same title. 

Khanam Sultan (^Lkl—: *JL^), a 

daughter of the emperor Akhar, married to 
Muzaffar Husain Mirza, the son of Ibrahim 
Husain Mirza, in a.d. 1593. [The word is 
the feminine of Khan, as Begam is of Beg.] 

Khan 'Azim (*ke ^U-). Vide 'Azlru 

Khanazad Begam (JLj jV.djUA the 

f ••• y 

sister of the emperor Babar, was five years 
older than he. Another daughter of 'TTmar 
Shaikh was Mehr Biino, eight years younger 
than Babar. Another daughter was Yadgar 
Sultan Begam, whose mother name is A glut 
Sultan Ghuuchichi ; the fourth daughter was 
named Ruqia Sultan Begam, whose mother's 
name was Makhduma Sultan Begam, who was 
also called Qara Qur Begam ; the last two 
daughters were born after the death of their 

Khanazad Khan (^L>- j!j<Ljl^L). 

Vide Khan Zaman Bahadur and Ruh-ullah 

Khanazad Khan (^U- i)1:djWO, son 

of Sarbuland Khan, was governor of Peshawar 
in a.d. 1723, a.h. 1135. "When the govern- 
ment of Allahabad was conferred on his father 
by the emperor Muhammad Shah, in a.d. 
1732, a.h. 1145, he was deputed to act for 
him as governor of that province. 

Khan Bahadur (^L^j ^L^), son of 

Raja Mittra Jit of Patna. He is the com- 
piler of the work called Jama 1, Bahadur Khani, 

an epitome of European Sciences in the 
Persian language, including treatises on 
astronomy, optics, and mathematics, and 
copious "tables of logarithms for natural 
numbers, sines, tangents, etc., also of a small 
octavo volume of Perspective called 'Ihn-ul- 
Manazarat, in the Persian language, which 
he presented to the Asiatic Society in a.d. 
1835, a.h. 1251. 

Khan Bahadur Khan. A descendant 

of Hafiz Rahmat (g.v.) who was sub-judge of 
Bareli in 1857, and took advantage of the 
Sepoy mutiny to assume power there. He 
committed many crimes, but was driven out 
at the end of the year. The date of his death 
is uncertain. 

Khan Bahadur Khan^U^ )t >Lj -Ul), 

the sou of Jalal-uddln Khun, the sou of Hatiz 
Rahmat Khan. Vide Masruf. 

Khande Rao Gaeqwar L\. ^A-jl-f^ 

.\Jii^), Raja of Baroda. He died in 

a.d. 1870, and was succeeded by his brother 
Malhar Rao, the deposed (1875) Raja of 

Khande Rao Holkar ( Gfc A , ^jjl^), 

the only son of Malhar Rao Holkar I. He 

was killed in a battle at Dig against Siiraj 
Mai Jat in a.d. 1754, many years previous 
to his father's death, and left an only son, 
Mali Rao, who succeeded his grandfather and 
died nine months after. 

[Vide Malhar Rao I. and Ahlia Bai.] 

Khan Duran I. ( -^ ^ijd J^-^-), 

whose proper name is Shah Beg Khan Kabul!, 
was an Amir in the time of the emperor 
Akbar. He received the title of Khan Douran 
from Jahangir in the year a.d. 1607, a.h. 
1016, and was appointed governor of Kabul. 
He died in Lahore iu the year a.d. 1620, 
a.h. 1029, aged 90 years. 

Khan Duran Khan II. (^\. ,j ^L^. 



;_*aJ ,JVJ L .\^), Nasrat 


Jang, title of Khwaja Sabir, son of Khwaja, 
Hisari Naqshbandi. He was an orhcer of 
state in the service of the emperor Shah 
Jahan and held the rank of 7000. He was 
stabbed one night whilst asleep by a young 
Kashmerian Brahman whom he had converted 
to Muhammadanism, and died after a few days 
on the 12th July, a.d. 1645, 27th Jumada I. 
a.h. 1055, at Lahore. His remains were 
transported to Gwaliar and buried there in 
the cemetery of his ancestors. 




Khan Duran III. U..^ J\j^ o ,l^ 

i^^- CLJj^aJ), Nasrat Khfin, son of 

Khan Douran Nasrat Jang. He held the 

rank of 5000 in the reign of the emperor 
'Alamgir. In the latter pari of his life he 
was appoint .1 governor of Orissa, which 

lie held for several years and died there a.d. 
1GG7, a.h. 1077. 

Khan Duran IV. Uj^f- Jj.J ^U). 
Vide Abdus Samad Khan Bahadur Ji 

Khan Jahan (^L^ ^1=0, title of 

Husain Qull Hc<j, a mansabdar of 5000 in 
the reign of the emp sror Akhar. II 
appointed governor of Bengal after the d< ith 
ofMunai'm Khan, aboul the year \.\<. 1676, 
a.h. 984. Ee defeated, took prisoner, and 
slew Dand Khan, the ex-king of Bengal, who 
had again rebelled againel the emperor, and 
sent his head to Agra tfa pear. Chan 

Jahan died at Tanda in a.ii. 1678, a.h. <JiS6, 
and was succeeded by Muzaffar Khan. 

Governors of Bengal. a.d. 

Khan Jahan l" 

Muzaffar Khan 1579 

I! ija Todar .Mai 1680 

Khan 'Azim 1582 

Shihbaz Khan 1- 

lvaja .Man Singh ] 

Qutb-uddin inn; 

Jahangir Quli 1607 

Islam Khan 1608 

Qasira Khan lm :; 

Ibrahim Khan 1* 

Shah Jahan 1622 

Khanazad 1625 

Mukarram Khan n 

Fidai Khan 1> _ -, 

Qasim Khan Jobuu 1 

'Azim Khan 1632 

Sultan Shuja' 1639 

Mir Jumla 1G60 

Shaista Khan Id 1 

fidai Khan 1C>7 7 

Sultan Muhammad 'Azim . . . 1678 

Shaista Khan 1680 

Ibrahim Khan 1GS9 

Mirza 'Azim-us-Shan .... 1097 

Khan Jahan Barha ( ,L =>- A ~L 

U,lj), title of Sayyicl Muzaffar Khan 

of Barha Zilla Muzafarnairar, au officer of the 
rank of 6,000, who died in the time of the 
emperor Shah Jahan at Lahore, a.d. 1G45, 
a.d. 1055. 

Khan Jahan Kokaltash (.. A. -=- Ul 

(j^^J-^j-j )» whose proper name was 

Mir Malik Husain, the son of Mir Abix'l 
Ma'ali Kliwafi. He was a nobleman of hi<di 

dignity, and being the foster-brother of the 
emperor 'Alamgir, thought hima It superior 
to all the other 'Umra. Ee was appointed 
pernor of the Deccan in a.h. 1G70, a.h. 
1081, and promoted by that monarch about 
the year a.d 1674 from the rank of 700 to 
that nf 7000 horse, and the title of Khan 
Jahan Bahadur Kokaltash Zafar Jang. His 
fin was Bahadur Khan. Ee died on 

the 24th November, a.d. 1697, I9th Jumada 
I. a.h. 1109. II - ms to he identical with 
the author oi the Tiirikh Atam or the Invasion 

Oj\L* hit. 

Khan Jahan Kokaltash Khan Zafar 
Jang (J± J}^<.< J^ ^U 

L_ »\_^>- j-i-lr), a title of All Murad, 

a foster-brother of Jahandar Shah. In the 
time "t Bahadur Shah he was honoured with 
the till'' oJ Kokaltash Khan, and when 
Jahandar Shah ascended the throne, the rank 
1. 1 9000 was conferred on him with the title 
oi Khan Jahan Zafar Jang and the offio "i 
Mir Bakhshigari. Bui he did not long 1 ajoy 
this high station, for he soon affa r fell in the 
battle which too]; place between his master 
and Farrukh-siyar a.d. 1713, a.h. 1125. 

Khan Jahan Lodi (^cj^ ^~>- \J^X 

an Afghan probably of obscure birth, but 
with ail tlir pride and ambition oi his nation 
in India. Be i^ by some Baid to have been 
a descendant of Sultan Bahlol Lodi, ami by oi Daulat Khan Lodi Shahu Khail. 
II'' had held greal military charges, was 
raised to the rank ut .",0011 in the reign of 
the emperor Jahangir, and commanded in 
the Deccan under prince Parwez at the time 
1 'i that prii ill. On the accession of 

Shah Jahan, he < nb n i into a close intimacy 
with his late enemies, and si emed to In- aiming 
at independence. He was at last killed, to- 
I her with his son. in an engag mentwith 
the royal troops on the 28th January, a.d. 
1631, 1st Rajah, a.h. 1040, and their heads 
sent as a most acceptable present to Shah 
Jahan. An affecting account of his death 
ma] be found in the third volume of Dow'a 
Eistory. The Tdnkh Khun Jahan Z<~<li, 
which is also called Mahhzan A fgh ani, con- 
tains the memoirs oi this chief, written by 
Eaibat Khan in a.d. 1G7G. 

[Vide Sketch of History of Hindustan.] 

Khan Jahan Maqbul, Malik (^Lri. 

u_£.L^ J^.iL* ^L^,.^-), entitled 

Kawam-ul-Mulk, was the prime minister of 
Sultan FirGz Shah Barbak, who ascended the 
throne of Dehli in a.d. 1351. He was 
originally a Hindu by name Kattu. On his 
conversion to Muhammadanism in his youth, 
Sultan Muhammad, the predecessor of Firdz 
Shah, changed his name to Maqbiil, and 
appointed him to the government of Multan. 
He afterwards became Naib wazir under the 




wazlrship of Kliwaja Jahan, whom he at 
first supported in his attempt to place a son 
of Sultan Muhammad on the throne, but 
went over to Sultan Firoz on his approach 
to Dehll, and was appointed by him wazir 
of the kingdom. According to the historian 
Shamsi Siraj Aflf, he died in the year a.d. 
1374, a.h. 776, but by others in a.h. 772. 
After his death his son Jahau Shah was 
honoured with his place and title of Khan 
Jahan by the king, who placed as much con- 
fidence in him as he had done in his father. 
He filled the office of prime minister for 
twenty years. 

Khan Khanan (Jjl^ ^UO. This 

word is a title of honour, and means Lord of 
Lords. Bairam Khan and his son 'Abdur 
Rahim Khan, botli ministers to the emperor 
Akbar, aud several others were honoured with 
this title. Like the later title, Amir-ul- 
Amra, it originally implied military command 
of the highest rank, but became an honorific 
title iu later days. 

Khan Mirza (\jj-<+ ^A-^X ru ^ er °^ 

Badakhshan, was the son of Sultan Mahmud 
Mirza, the son of Sultan Abu Said Mirza, a 
descendant of Amir Tainiur. He died in 
a.d. 1521, a.h. 927, leaving behind a son of 
seven years of age named Mirza Sulaiman. 
Khan Mirza was a cousin of the emperor 
Babar, who on Mirza's death appointed his 
own son Humayiin to that government. 


Khan Mirza (}\j-* ^A-^O, surname 

'Abdur Rahim Khan {q.v.), Khan Khanan 
in the time of the emperor Akbar. 

Khan Zaman (^L*: ^;L>-), title of 

'All Quli Khan ; he and his brother Bahadur 
Khan were the sons of Haidar Sultan Uzbak, 
who was an officer of state in the service of 
the emperor Humayun. In the reign of 
Akbar Shah, these two brothers, for their 
good services, were raised to higher ranks and 
honoured with the post of jagirdar of Jaunpiir 
and the lower provinces. They at last raised a 
rebellion in the name of the emperor's 
brother Mirza Hakim, which induced the 
emperor to march against them with a large 
force ; a battle ensued wherein both brothers 
were slain. This event took place on Monday 
the 9th June, a.d. 1567, 1st Zil-hijja, a.h. 
974, at a place some distance west of Alla- 
habad, which on account of this victory was 
named Fathapur. The date of this transaction 
is commemorated in the words ' ' Fatha Akbar 
Mubarik," i.e. May this great victory be 

Khan Zaman (^L.: ^UO, title of 

Mir Khalil, second son of 'Azim Khan the 
brother of 'Asaf Khan Ja'far Beg, and son- 
in-law of Yemin-uddaula 'Asaf Khan. He 
served under the emperor Shah Jahan for 

several years, and iu the reign of 'Alamgir 
Avas raised to the rank of 5000. At the