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Translated from a Manuscript in his own Possessiony collated xcith one 

preserved in the Library of Eton CollegCj 





Printed^ at the Oriental Press, by Tfllson (§' Co. 
















IN compiling, Jrom the Manuscript Works of several 
Persian and Arabian Authors, whatsoever they had written 
on the Geography of the Eastern World, 1 found that, in a 
variety of detached extracts, I had imperceptibly translated 
almost half of that treatise which I now offer to the Publick as 
complete in an English version as the obscurities and imper^ 
fections of the original would admit. 

Besides the intrinsick merits of the work, its authenticity 
and antiquity induced me to regard it as the most important 
of all compositions on the subject of Oriental Geography. 
Abulfeda informs us, that Edrisi^ £sn Khordadbah^ and 
many other writers of high reputation, have only traced, on 


paper, the footsteps of Ebn Haukal*, who, it appears from 
' his own words, had actually visited most of the places which 
he describes. 

Although the exact epoch of his birth and death is still un- 
known to me, I have not hesitated to announce Ebn Haukal 
as an author of the tenth century. That he wrote before the 


building of Cairo, we learn from his account of Egypt in the 
following work, page 30 ; and after the accession of Abdar- 
RAHMAN^ who, in his time, governed Andalus^ or Spain, 
appears from p. 2b/ Tht fwmdation of modem Cairo was 
laid in the yisar gCfS (of the Christian JEra, am2 Abdarrah* 
UAJS assumed the govenwtent (^ Spain in the year go2 of the 
same Mra, or of the Hegira 2^0^ Thxs we may ascertain, 
that Ebn Haukal Jlourished before the year q68, and after 
the year 902 ; and we cannot err eonsiderably if we place 
him in the middle, or, perhaps, in the beginning, of the tenth 
century f. He is styled, iy Edrisi and Abulfeda, simply 

* Ch^rasmia et Mmmralnahr deuriptio, ex tabtilh JhttfeJa, He. Quarto, Lcmdon, 
16^0, p. 2. 

t This date is confirmed by another passage in our Author's description of Mawcralnahr, 
orTrztiSoxznisi, page 22s* He there informs us, that he conversed with a respectable 
personage, who had served in the armies of Nasser Ahmbd. Tim Prince, of tixe 


Jo^ Haukal> . or J^S^ ^\ £bn Haulul : But it appears^ 
from one copy of his work deposited ^ among the Oriental 
manuscripts in the Library at Leyden *, that his name was 
^1 j»MiUJI ^^1 Abi l'Cassem £bn Haukal. 


The work itself in the original Arabick, according to the 
Catalogue of the Leyden Library, above quoted, is called 
UCll^l UClU^I vl^Kitab al Mesalck alMemalek. The 
Persian translation which I have used, and the copy preserved 
at Eton f, bear the same title, with the omission of the Ard^ 
bick article, and ('in my copy) the addition of the copulative^ 
thus : <S3L^ j UjUa-o v'-^ Under this name the ancient 
Tarikh, or Chronicle of Tab a ri, quotes it in a passage which 
I shall hereafter adduce. 

Samanian family ^ became Scvereign of Maweralnahr^ Anno Hegira 301, (A. D. 
913.) If Ebn Haukal could have spoken with a contemporary of Nasser 
Ah MED) one who had been of sufficient age to attend him in his battles, we cannot, rea^ 
sonably, assign a later date to the composition of this work than the middle of the tenth 

* See No. 1 7 04, page 47 8, of the CataU Libr. tarn impress, quam manuuriptor. Btblioth. 
publ. Universit. Lugduno-Bataua^ folio, Lugd. Bat. 1716. 

t Eton Oriental MSS. No. 418.— 7%ii manuscript is an octav$ v&lwnt, containing 
above three hundred pages, written in an uniform, but very difficult and ine^eurate hand; 
most of the proper names wanting their diacritical points. My own copy, wlnih I punbaud 


< # 


It is probahle, hmveuer, that it bore a second, or more de- 
scriptive and ample title ; for Mons. D'Hbrbelot mentions the 


work of Ebn Haukal as entitled *' Giagrafiah fi Marefat al 
Boldan * i And in the Leyden Catalogue^ we find, after Al 
Mesalek al Memalek, these additional names r 

The words Mesaliek Memalek seem to form either the whole 
er part of the titles to many other Geographical manuscriptlsr^ 
Among the^ various original treatises which fijarnished ma- 
terials to Hamdallah Mustoffi, the celebrated Persian 
geographer, in the composition ofhisl^ozahet al Ck>loub^ he 

wthmany other MSS. about three years ago, is a large amtibln octvuo volume, coniainhtgtwo 
hundred and twelve pages : it is imperfect at the end; but on a collation with the Eton MS. 
appears only to want the last leaf* The character is sufficiently neat ; but the proper names 
are most inaccurately written, and whole lines, in various places, are without a diacritical 

♦ Bibliot. Orient* art. HaucaK As this article contains a very just account of our 
4utbor's defects, I shall give it entire :— " Haucal,"— Ebn Haucal,— " Auteur d*un 
livre intitule Giagrafiah fi Marefat al Boldan. Cest une Geographic fort prolixe\ Abulfeda 
qui ie cite souvent, se plaint de ce qu*il ria pas designi assez clairement les nomspropres des 
lieux, faute de sitre servi des voyelles qui servent el en fixer la prononciation. Cet Auteur 
est aussifort defecteux en ce qu*il ne marque ni les longitudes ni les latitudes des lieux dont it 
park, defaut qui lui est commun avec la plupart de geographes de tOrient, qui ont laiss^ ce 
soin aux astronomes." 


enumerates, in the Preface to that most excellent work, the 
^^'MeaaldL al Memalek, by Abi Gaasem Abdallah ben Khordad^ 
ef Khorasan */* 

A geographical book, entitled Al Mesalek ou al Memalek (^of 
which Mons. 'D^Herbelot thinks the author may have been 
Abou Alt, sumamedMA'RAKSHi), is quoted byEBN alYardi, 
inhisEhendet al^Ajaiebf^^ 

The learned Gn AY EBi who published ABULFSDA'sChorasmia 
and Maweralnahr ^^ mentions the celebrated composition of > 
Edvlisi; whom we generally style the Nubian Geographer^ as. 
entitled Meaidltk al' Mesakk, . although ^ it pore nuzny other 
names, whickHA KTMANisfenumerates in his admirable commenr 
tary on this work%. Indeed the name Mesalek al Memalek seems i 
ti) have signified .an JJmyersal Geography, or, rather^ a Work; 

♦ \jU>sL Ab^ ^^ aWju* ^\S ^\ «JuJUi ^UJi *^U^ ' 

t Bthliot. Orient: article Marakcschl; yet I ^ suspect ^ that in this' pitcej the learned 
author of the Bihliotheque Orient ak has fallen into some error: he seems, however, to have 
corrected it in another article, SeeMciAck,- 

X Before quoted* '- See. note, p.iu " Nobilis al Bdrisi ^^mtJ^'SS vJuJ^I in lilr» 
jClUw^St j3UH ^ de regnis et imperiisy urhfum Jocorumque situs j t^c. 

§ Edrisii Africa, cura]. M. Haktmann, Getting. 1796, octavo, p. Ixvii. &c. 


describing several Countries ; Jbr Abulfeda complainiy f^ Thai 
^/ the greater number of those books which are caUed * Al 
'^ Mesalek ou al Memalek (of Countries and KingdomsJ treat 
" only, with accuracy, of those regions wherein the Mussul- 
'^ man religion is established,'* &c.^ 

Such were the observations I made, while uncertain to 
whom I shoidd ascribe the composition of a maimscripi 
treatise which fell into my hands about three years ago, 
bearing the same title, but without any authors name. AU 
though the copy preserved in the publick Library at Leyden 
Jurnished the name of Abi l'Cassbm £bn Haukajl, yet I was 
not, when visiting that magnificent collection in the year 
l'70^> interested in a minute examination of any particular 
volume, and therefore could not afterwards ascertain whether 
my manuscript was a Persian translation of his work ; and 
the copy deposited in the College Library at Eton, wanted, 
like my own, the authors name. But a comparison of the 
various extracts given by Abulfeda in his account of 


* Ahulftdte Chtrasmia et Maweral. descript, (ifc, p. 3. 

The plan of Ebn Haukal's wori will be found to correspond exactly with this description. 
Seep. I, 2, 2, 4fifc. 


Khorasmia and Maweralnahr, frotfi Ebv Hauxal's hook, with 
thosif which describe the same places in my manuscript, suffi-^ 
ciently diimonstrates the identity of their author. I shajl 
refer the reader, in particular, to Abulfe0a's account of 
COoaj Tuncat, the chief place of Aihak^near Chaje or Shash ; 
its numerous gates ; wuter running in the city ; its wall to 
prevent the inoursioni of the T\kks, . re€u:hing from the 
Tfimmtuiik cHUed ^U^ Shabakg, to the valley of Chqje; the 
river ndm^A Ailak *, ^c. All these the reader will find more 
fuUy dkvarihed hy ^e^ Haukal in thefoUojwing viarh (pages 
i6Qr^ 26f)i; ' with u variation occasioned merely by the differ^ 
9ht collocation of diacritical pxAnis in the names of Tuncat 
knd Shabaleg. The account of Naksheb and of Kash^ as ex- 
tracted [y Abulfjed A f /ro/n Ebn Haukal*s book, will be 
fowftd to correspond esMctly with the description of those cities 
given in' the fblioming^ translation, pages 259j 2Co^ ^c. A 
comparison of these passages wiU convince the reader, that the 
Mesalek al Mraraldk^ of which an English version is now 
before him, must be the work of Ebn Haukax., so often quoted 
irj/" Abulfeda. 

• Chorasm^ et Mawerabi. p. 4.9. t Chorasm. lie. p. 43. 

vui t'REFACE. 

But there are some more striking passages, which (as the 
work of Abulfeda may not always be at hand) I shall pre- 
sent in the original Ardbick, with a literal translation. 

Abitlf. page 19. 

jjlt ^\ Ju^ v>a«j ^l^^ J^a- (^ J J^>^ en' J^ 

^ylJ/l CUxjJI UJtS J^a^^jl cXaJ I^a^. Jl j ^OU^ 1 j* j 

'' Ebn Haukal relates, that in the mountains ofAlBotem 
^ there is a certain cavern, inwhich, when every passage for air 
is stopped up, a thick vapour arises, resembling fre by night 
and smoke in the day-time ; and this is the nushader ("or sal 
ammoniac. J Nobody, with safely, cari enter this cave, 
unless covered with thick garments ft ting close to his body, 
*' and he must be expeditious in taking away the nushader. 
The vapour moves from place to place, and they seek for it 
by digging until it appears. This vapour would not be 








^^ noxipus to those who approach it, if there were not an 
'f arched house or vault erected, to prevent its evaporation.'' 

Thereaderwho is acquainted with the very vague and inr 
accurate, manner of Eastern writers^ loth in their quotations 
and translations, must acknowledge this to he the same pas^ 
sage given in the following work, page 204. 

, « 

Anjother . extract will be sufficient to prove the identity of 
our' author with the Ebn Haukal^ quoted by Abul^eda^ 
page 45. 

** Ebn Haukal says — J saw on a gate at Samarcand, 
which is called the Gate of Kash, an iron plate with an 




inscription. The people report this to have been in the 
Hamariah character, and that the gate was erected by the 
Tobha, the king of Yemen, (Arabia Felix) ; that (the m- 

scription signifies) *' Prom Sanaa to Samarcand » & thousand 

___ • • 

farsang.^ This was written in the days of the Tobba. IShen, 

says he (Ebn HAtrKAL)^ a riot or tttmidt Iiaaing happened 

*' at Samarcand, during my std^ there, the gate was burnt 

^' and the inscription destroyed^ After that, Mohammed Ebk 

^* Logman Ebk Nasir Ebis^ Ahmed, the Sanumian*, caused 

** ^e gate to be rebuilt, but did not restore the inscription^' 




In page 25 A of the following work, this passage will be 

* > 

found with less vatiation from the original than Persian 

translations eenermlbr exhibit : and as it leads t^. a curious 

anecdote in Oriental history, an article of the Appendix is de^ 
voted to its illustration. 

The Author of the AjaLeb al Bokiau (Fifth Clinuite) also 
quotes Enisi HavkaIm on this subject i and he seems to have 

'^ F$rwtte iutiimi of ike Smiummn dgaasty, set tht JfptndiM,, No* ly. 


used the original work in Arahick rather than our Persian 
translation : his words are. 

-'' CjS^W y J f***n^ ^^^jr>**i L^y A/*X?^Jij». (^\ 

wKamLLm >^«cXx>« v«J>f-^U I^V^A/ (^14 v^Av^ ^yj 'aJuo i*«^j^ 

Ebit Haukal ^^^j ^' Once I went to Samarcand, and upon 
one of the Gates of that city, which they call the Gate of 
Kash, I saw a plate of iron, and on it were inscribed some 
words ; and the people of Samarcand were of opinion that 
this inscription had been written by the people of Homer 
(^or the Hamyarites), and that the builder of that gate had 
*' been the Tobba, or King of Yemen.'* The same person 
(£bh Haitkal) also says, '^ at the time when I resided in 
*' Samarcand, a twnult or riot happened, and that gate was 
*' destroyed byfre.'' 






Having mentioned in the beginning of this Preface, that the 
Mesalek Memalek is quoted in the ancient Chronicle of Tabari^ 

c 2 


it may be necessary to account ^ for \ a seeming anachronism \ 
as the reader who learns from Pqcocke*, DTlERBELOxf, or 
OcKLEY J, that the venerable historian died early in the tenth 
century ^y will not readily believe that he cqtdd have quoted 
the work ^^ Ebn Haueal, whom I have Assigned, Co the 
middle of Hie same century, and consequently supposed to 
have existed several years aftei\TABA^ij although At is 
possible that they /night have> been contemporaries:. But 
the Chroniclf of Tab^ri undertvetit a Persian translation \ 
which work, as it was performed by a man of learning and 
ingenuity, f vizier to one cfi^ftpSatnanian princes), and en- 
riched by him with much' curious additional matter, M. D*Her- 
BELOT prefers to tl/je original Arabick)^. This, indeed, is hot 

« « 

• Specimen Hist. Arabumi^'^&'i, Q)^9rd,,quart^, it $0^,^ .\ . ; / 

t Btbllot. Orient, article Thabari* 

J History of the Saracens. Vol. H.p. 350. 

§ Af^o Hegine iio,CA. D. g22.) ' 

I Onrem^r^uera encore ici que re vioJr n\i pas seulement traduit le iexte. de Thabari, 
mais quUl y d encore qjoute tout ce qu'il a cru pouvoir renricher, et ce sont pour laplupart 
des remarques et desfaits qu'il d tirez, comme il le dit lui menu dans sa Preface^ des Livres 
des Astronomes, et des Historiens des Ghebres, ou anciens Persons^ adorateurs du feu, des 
Juifs et des Musulnums : de sorte que cette traduction est beaucoupplus euricuse que le texte 
Arabique" Bibliot. Orientaje, art. Thabari. 

It was this passage which gave occasion to the following note in Mr. Gibbon's 
History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire.— -Chap. li. note 33. 

PREFACE. xiii 

to he found complete in any lihrary. Of the Persian transla- 
tion, Jiowever, there are many copies in Europe*: it was 
made in the year of the Hegira 352, (^A. D. 963), probably 
very soon after the time of Ebn Haukal. To the Persian 
translator I would attribute that quotation from the Mesalek 
al Memalek, which thus occurs in Tabari's History of the 
Virgin Mary ; and of her fight, with the infant J esvs) to a 
village in the territories of Damascus^ 

" Amidst our meagre relations, I must regret that D'HerbbloT has. not found ami 
used a Persian translation of Tabari, enriched, as he sayt, with many extracts from the 
native historians of the Ghebers or Magi,*^ 

• In the Puhlick Libraries of Paris, Oxford^ ifc* Of this most valuable work I am 

m • • ... 

fortunate in possessing three fine copies ; one of which, uncommonly correct in the hand' 
writing, was transcribed A. D. 1446. From this manuscript ^ which the learned Tychsen, 
in a letter from Rostock, entitles a Phoenix Librorum, collated with the other two copies, a 



'' It is said that this village also belonged to Syria, one of the 
*' villages oftheGhautah of Damascus; and in the &oofc Mesalek 
" ou Memalek it is thus related among the descriptions of ua- 
rious countries, that in the world of pleasantness and 
beauty there are four places most remarkable; one, the 
Soghd of Samarcand ; another, the Ghoutah of Damascus ; 
" the third, Nahr Ailah *, which is Basrah ; and the 
^^ fourth, Shaab Bouan; this is in Persia, one of the terri^ 
*' tories belonging to Shiraz. Now the place in which Mary 
^^ nursed Jesus, was a village of the Ghoutah (of Damascus) 
^* situated on the summit of a rising ground,'' &c. 




From the following passage of AauLFEDAf, it appears 
that Ebst Haukal must have been the author of that Mesalek 

perfect tmd accurate text might be obtained: this, if correctly translated and illustrated from 
^ther Asiatich compositions, the Biblical records ^ the classicks of Greece and Rome, and the 
more modem productions of European writers, would form a complete body of Oriental 
History and Antiquities ; since it comprehends not only the Persian and Arabian annals, but 
the most ancient traditions of the Jews, the Egyptians, and the Greeks. 

* jJLft fnth two diacritical points under the second letter, for aLI Ablah with one. By 
a mistaki also, of the transcriber j^ tin word jkyAi Basrah, h one copy ^ Tabari^ is written 
t Chorasm^p. 8. 


Mcmalek alluded to in the preceding extract from Tabaei*8, 

*^ The Soghd of Samarcand is one of those places esteemed 
" the most delightful in the world; these are the Soghd of 
** Samarcand, the Ghoutah of Damascus, the Nahar al Ahlahf 
" or river Ahlah^, near Basrah, and Shaab Bouan in Persia ; 
^ but Ebn Haukal says that the Soghd (^ Samarcand is th& 
** pleasantest of all the four places above enumerated.'' 

It would be surprising t&fiad a passage from ar^ Ck-ientdl 
manuscript renmin uncorrupted or unaltered through different 
translations. My copy of the Mesalek al Memalek (see p. 237,) , 
' gives this in the following words : 

^^ I have followed G^AViiS, the translator ^Abulfeda, in writing Ablah; tut it 

SmJ J 

is properly called Ubbullah, ieing thus accented idijS-'^According to the ^^IJsJLjJI fii^ 
Takouiin al Boldan or TabUs of Longitude and Latitude, by ^I^am^I 6^Li9 


*' They say that in the whole world there is not any place 
^^ more delightful than these three ; one, the Soghd of Samar^ 
" cand ; another, the Rud-i-Aileh {or Ablah) ; and thirdly, the 
^' Ghoutah of Damascus.'' 

. The reader will find in page 237 of this work, that Ebn 
Haukal prefers the Soghd of Samarcand (as in Tabari*s 
Chronicle, and Abulfeda) to the rival Tempes, and de- 
scrihes those points in which its superior beauty consists. ffTiy 
the Shaab Bouan has been omitted, I cannot pretend to have 
discovered^. The deplorable inaccuracy of Oriental tran-- 
scribers, as well as translators, has been so often noticed, that 
it is unnecessary for me to dwell on the difficulties attending 

Mohammed Saduk Isfahani, the Nahr Ubbullah is within four farsang of 

• Similar omissions (though not so important J may be detected in other passages. Ebn 
Haukal^ as quoted by Abulfeda, tells us, that the Hamyaritick inscription before 
mentioned in this Preface^ was on the Gate of Kash at Samarcand. — Our Persian trans^ 
lator has^omitted the name of the gate ; but we find, in some places, thai he has retained 
more of Ebjx Haukal's particular descriptions ihan Abulfeda. 


any endeavour to reconcile the various readingSj and tp 
supply the d^ciendes, or to correct the errors of manuscripts. 
The instances, however frequent, of incorrectness and vari-^ 
ations which occur in the present work, do not hy any meanfi 
surprise me. After 0, dose application .to Eastern literature 
for nine or ten years, during which I have turned over ^wie 
thousands of written volumes, and attentively collated pM^ 
sages in several hundreds, I no longer expect to find in 
Arahick, Persian, or Turkish manuscripts (the Koran always 
excepted), either accuracy of transcribing, fidelity of trofiSr 
lotion, or eoMctness of quotation. Thus, a heavy clQud of 
Wicertainty €md confusion still hangs on the Geography of 
Edrisi^ notwithstanding the learned labours of Kurzmann 
and of Hartmank^ who notice the pumerous defects of the 
printed editions, the variation^ of the manmeript copies, the 
different titles of the same booki the uncertain age and 
country of the author, &c. 

Of Ebn Haukal's work, had there been found a perfect 
copy in the original Arabick, it is most probable that the 
pleasure of offering this translation to the Publick would not 
have been reserved for me. *' fFe must lament,'' says the in- 

zriii PREFACE. 

gerdous Ko£hlsr*, ** that no better copy of the Mesalek al 
'' Memaldcf exists, than the manuscript preserved in the Lir 
brary at Leyden, which is exceedingly imperfect and very 
badly written.'' It seems, indeed, the lot of Ebn Havkajjs 
work, in whatsoever form it appears, to he censured for 
incorrectness and defects, by writers of different ages, and of 
different countries ; for to the passage above quoted, we may 
add the following Jrom Abulfeda.^ 

" The book of Ebn, Haukal is a work of considerable 
" length, in which the different countries are described with 
** sufficient exactness. But neither are the names cf places 
'* marked by the proper points, nor are their longitudes or 
" latitudes expressed ; ' this frequently occasions an uncer^ 
*' tainty respecting the places, proper names, &c.'' 

* ** Ebn Haukal, de quo dokndum modo non integrius exemplum extare illo quod in 
Bibliotheca Lcidensi asservaiur, valde tnutilum ac pessime scriptum,** iJc. Proem, ad 
AbulfedaTabul. Syr.p. ii. Leips. 2d edition^ 1786, 

t Set the Leyden Catalogue before quoted. 



Thex are censures of the original Arahick. I must now 
hear testimony against the Persian transcripts which I have 

Of the difficulties arising from an irregular combination of 
letters, the confusion of one word with another, and the total 



omissidn, in some lines, of the diacritical points, I should net 
complain, because habit and persevering attention have ena- 
bled me to surmount them in passages of general description, 
or sentences of common construction ; but in the names of 
persons or of places never before seen or heard of, and which 
the context could not assist in deciphering, when the diacriti- 
cal points were omitted, conjecture alone could supply them, 
or collation with a more perfect manuscript. The former I 
have seldom indulged, and the latter has enabled me, in se- 
veral instances, to ascertain the true reading ; and even the 
few names in which I have supplied the diacritical points from 
conjecture, are pointed out to the reader by a note, or other- 

Notwithstanding what I have just said, and although the 
most learned writers on Hebrew, Arabick, and Persian Litera- 
ture, have jnade observations on the same suhjectt it may 

d 2 


perhaps^ he necessary to denwnstmte, hy a partictdOr example, 
the extriwrdinary ir^kiente of ikMB diacritical points, wkich, as 
they are essential parts of letters, must not be confounded with 
the vowel points or accents. 

One example wiU suffice'^^Let us suppose the three letters 
forming the name CXaJ Tibbet to be digested of their diacriti- 
cal points, and thus written u^wu — The first character mxj^ be 
rendered, by the application if one point above, an N, thus, J— • 
of two points a T, j-^^-of three points a THor S, j ; if one point 
is placed under, it becomes a B j-^^if two points, a Yj — and 
if three points, a P j. In like manner the second character 
may be (iffected, and the third character may be, according 
to the addition of points, rendered a B, P, T, and TH, or S. 

Thus, amidst the multiplicity of names which may be 
formed of those three characters, it would be almost impos- 
sible, without the aid of context, or previous consideration, 
to ascertain the true reading: and, to use the words of Gol,ius, 
that most learned Orientalist, on a similar occasion, one 
must act the part of a diviner before he can perform that of an 
interpreter *• 

As the whokpaisage, in which GoJiu$ apologizes for the mistakes of Erpenius in his 

FKEFACir. xxt 

Of ihe Urms usesi in meirsuratUm, or the eomputation oj^ 
distances fy- time, I must here notice this extreme uncertain^' 
which still pervades them^ although many ingenious Orien^ 
talists have endeavoured to remove it. 

We are sometimes informed that one place is distant from 
another one month*» joiimey: the extent ef this could de 
easUy ascertained, were the number ef miles or leagues in a 
day's joumejr {fi\j oj *p Ou) exactly known; but we cannot 
expect precision in this computation, since much depends on 
the particular mode of travelling, the state of the roads, the 
nature of the country, and other circumstances. Equally 
vague and uncertain are the terms ^d^w« merhileh and ijj^ 
menzil which occur in the following pages. 

Graves^ in his Preface to Abulfeda's Chorasmia^ translates 
merhileh by static, diseta, mansio. According to Edrisi's Geo- 

translation of Elmakin, is much to my pnsent purpose, I shall give it here. ** Nam licet 
^' Niloiicus hunc Codicem Calamus exaraverit, nimium tamen festinantis ittcuria eum/em 
" pessime deformarat, crehra imprimis omissione orthographic^ punctuationis : quod quidem 
*' vitium in metris prasertim et propriis nominiius commissum, did hand potest quam omnia 
" luxet et incerta reddat : ita ut sapenumero vatem priiis agere deiuerit quam interpretem 
** possit.*' Golii Prof at. ad Erpenii Hist. Saracen. Arab. Lat. folio. 


gnphy ^» the merhileh consisted of thirty miles {{d^^&Xj iS:%y 
Jl^)» but Abulf£Da considered it as various and undeter- 
mined. Both merhileh and menzil signify a stage or halting 
place, after a days journey f. 

Of the parasang or fur sang (U^m J) q^ Persia we can 
speak with greater certainty and accuracy, although it ap^ 
pears, from the Greek and Roman, as well as the native writers, 
that this measure was not always exactly ascertained, even 
among the Persians. Xenophon computes the pharsanga at 
thirty stadia ; and Pliny informs us, that, like the schasnos, it 
was a measure variously determined %• 

Hamdallah Mustoofi, the celebrated Author of the 
Nozahet al Coloub §, prefaces his account of the roads and 
stages of Iran by some observations on the several measure* 

• Clim. y. Sect. I. 

t Bui the number of miles or farsangs in a days journey is mi ascertained ; and we 
accordingly find mention in the following work of a short merhileh, and a long merhileh ; 
perhaps thirty miles may be the average. 

\ Persa schanos et parasangas alii alia mensura determinant, 

§ V>^^ ftl^^^J A most valuable workf frequently quoted by D*HBItBBtOT| who styles 
the author (»MCT i^o^ijv) " Lc Geqgraphe Persan." 


merits iJt different provinces. The farsang or parasang (he 
says J f in the time of the Caianians^ or second dynasty of Persian, 
sovereigns^ contained, according to ancient writers, three 
miles of twelve thousandfeet. According to Malek Shahi, the 
farsang of Khuarezm consisted of about Jifteen thousand yards,, 
i^^)' In Azerbaijan, Armenia, and the neighbouring pro- 
uinces, it contained only twelve thousand yards; while in the- 
two Iraks, in Curdistan, Laristan^ EJiuzistani Fars^ ShebangareU^ 
Diarbekre, &c. the farsang was reckoned to contain only six ' 
thousand yards; in other places it consisted of eight thousand, 
hut nuiybe^ generally computed at twelve thousand cubits, 
i^-jj)* The following passage, however, from the Borhau: 
Kattea seems to fix the measure with precision jl 

Uf. ••♦^- O/ 

Ou^j^ fj^tMM /«aJU C>u*»i Aa/taj ^j^m^ vyT' J cJJ^*y> 



'^ Farasang, with the vowel accent feiihsi over the first and 
third, equivalent (in rhyme or metre) to Sar-i-chang, is a cer^ 
tain fixed measure for roads, consisting of about three niiles^ 

aaefar PREFACE- 

f^ each .mile containing four thousand ^az; so that ihefarsang 
^' altogether consists of twelve thousand guz: the length ofemdh 
^' guz is equal to twentyfour fingers measured in breadth 
'' f sideways J, andnuiking six handfitls, or six measures of the 
** clenched fisty 

In another excellent Dictionary, the k:d\Ji^\ y^JUL^ KMobnf jsI 
Loghat^ we find the following article : 

{j^J\:^^ a/ ^^yJ^J ojJ^A^ t,y^^ v^uj ^ U— 4Jll*.y 

" Farasang, with the vowel accent fadm^ and the Persian 
^^ letter gaf, three krouhs of ground. In Arabick they call it 

The oaj/^ kroiih, according to the Borhan Kattea, 


jy i^} 

" consists of three thousand guz, or, as some say, of four 
** thousand, lut it does not exceed this number." 


,T}iegux(as above describedj may he computed from twenty 

to twenty-four, inches. JUr. Richardson* informs us, that 

the parasangi or league, contains about eighteen thousand 

feet; and Captain Tr an CKhiNf, whose computation I would 

adopt, makes it nearly equivalent to four English miles. 

These and many other matters, which in the following work 
appear obscure or difficult, it was my intention, when I under- 
took this translation, to investigate with minute re3earch, and 
to illustrate with ample explanations. On those subjects, also, 
which seemed of the most curious and interesting nature, '/ 
collected a variety of notices, and extracted from several 
other Oriental Manuscripts, and from the works of European 
Antiquaries, Historians and Travellers, every passage that 
could contribute information. 

I endeavoured, byexamining^ the most ancient traditions pre-- 
served in Persian records, to ascertain whether the celebrated 
Ruins of Istakhar, often mentioned in the course of this work, ex- 
hibit any monuments of the scriptural Q/'^y Elam J, EXvfialg, 

• Jrab. and Persian Diction, art. ^J^ 

t Tour to Persia, quarto edition, Calcutta, 1788,/. 17; Lond. edit, ocfava, 1 7 90, ^* 41 • 

X yeremiak, xlix. 


Elymaisi ♦ : whether it iua$ the PersepoU* of ehtsskk histqtyf f ^ 
the palace of Darius ; or whether^ apfordiKig^ to^ Qt^ mosi 
learned Orientalist %, an ed^e of jnotr^ r^^ent 4ate^ (os^ 
structed by the Arsacides. But $a much did my inquiries tm 
this subject eocoeed the limits ^ « mte>^ that the^c f^naedp ro^ 
ther, a distinct essay. 

The various L^gimges of Persia, and oth^r CQwitriesif. no- 
ticed by Ebk IIauica]^! w^rei also the s»ifje^ qf lahorioius re*- 
search: through th^ modern D^ri 6vid FarUx the aiii:ien/t 
FehJlavi and jSendf J Imve trac^ every vesti^ that remains 
€^ th^ dialects used in Iran during^ ^^. earliest ages §; aud I 
hfiLife collected^ rather as an^ Antiquury tjvun an Etymologist, 
many hundred Greek an^cf Pewian ieojrd$, of mbiiph thfi. identic 
cannot be disputed, and must ha^^ ^rigi/iaied from $tm» 
other cause than accidental resemblance : that interchange of 

X Tjchsin de Cuneaiis Inscripiiombus PersipoStanis. R^stocb. 1798* 

§ In this research I haoe aomlid myself if the teamed ^Bmton^s aid (see his " Veteris 

Lingiue Persica AEITANA"), the more powerful assistance ^Reland (see his Dissert, 
de Vet. ling. Pers. He. J, and that ofWihl (in his ^^AUgenuiueGtschichte dtr MorgenUmdi^ 
scpen ^eifJ9en. und JUtteratur'^Js hut I hi^ had access to original sources tmcxploredif them. 


nations and of pwple, to which Seneca ^ alludes^ must na^ 
. turally have occasioned a confusion of languages ; and thi 
intermixture of Greek and Persian dialects would he a pro- 
bahle consequence of the Macedonian conquest4 

Several pages, dlso, w6te filUd with obsefMtiohs on 'SiBUt 
Haukal*8 account of the Mdgi, or Yite-^y^or^ppets : oiii 
passage, which, for obvious reasons, t have translated into 
Latin, will he found to hear testimony in favour of Anquetit 
du Perron* 

On another part of this volume I was induced to hestouf 


some inquiry, since it serves to illustrate, and is itself con-- 
firmed hy, a Rabbinical work <f high reputation. I allude to 
Ebn HjLVKMif'^ description of the Laiul of KJMtr; and fa ihi 
Hebrew compositiont entitled^ •nHS ISO 8e^h« CtHii, wtit^ 
tenahout the year \ 140 of the Christian a^a, by if?n nilJT ^ 

♦ Consolaf, ad Helvtam, cap* vs. '* Videbis gentes populosque mutasse sedem. ^id 
titi vohmt in muUh Bgriurwam tegimnitti Gntctt urbes f ^Id intef tndds Persa$que 
MoiidonUus sermo ? tf^'. Athtnknm in Ana turba iStJ* thafOk dtr/atfy hddhcciimii h 
^uote these passages in the Prefaie t& the '* Cfriental Ceffetth^nls.** 

. ^^ , 

L • 

e 2 

xagviii PREFACEf 

Rabbi lehudoh the Levite, in honour of the Jew i^- monarch 
of that country*. 

From a multiplicity of Eastern traditions concerning the 
land of Yajouge and Majouge for Gog and Magog) j I col- 
lected whatever could illustrate that subject, over which a veil 
of obscurity still hangs, notwithstanding the endeavours of 
Bochartf and UHerhelotX *^ remove it. It is unnecessary 
to mention any other European writer, however ingenious, 
since, if not skilled in the languages of Asia, or not having 
better sources of irformation than those eminent Orientalists 
above named, all that he can offer is mere conjecture. 

Ebn Hxvka'l's account of Spain affhrded subject for many 
observations, and my remarks "^^ on the Pyramids of Egypt oo 
cupied several pages. The vestiges of Jewish and Christian 
e§tuhlishments pointed out by our Author in various parts of 
the following Work, appeared worthy of being examined with 

• This work was puilisbed iy the learned Buxtoff, wkb « Laiisi tfansktiw, at Bastl^ 
1660^ quarto; and in bis Btbliotheca Rabbinica^ p. 298 {Basil, duod. l6i3}> bt 
celebrates it as Liber multiplicis doctrinae ac moltie laudi8» 

t Geograph. Saen Lit. III. cap. xiii. 

X Bibliot. Orient, article lagiouge^ 


attention > and I took some trouble in comparing his account 
of many natural curiosities with the descriptions giuen us by 

I found, however, that these illustrations, whether to be 

printed in the form, of notes, or as an appendix, would 

retard considerably the publication of my' book, and render 

it doubly expensive by the addition of so much as another 

volume of equal size would scarcely contain* 1 therefore re^ 

solved to content myself with offering to the Publick a mere 

translation of Ebn Haukal s work, retaining what the Geoe^ 

grapher and Critick will probably esteem the most essential 

part of the original, all names of places in the proper cha^ 

racter ; and so' exactly have I followed the orthography of 

my manuscript, that in many pages the same word will be 

found spelt differently, and even erroneously *. Some of tks 

most obscure, difficult, or doubtful passages, I have remarked. 

in short notes^ or endeavoured to illustrate in the Appendix,, 

where many are given in Persian. 

t'*- 'K- 

• Thutwefind: inf. 4%,ij^y^ Tibenah «ir^' Ai^xb Tibcrthah— i/i sif)eral placer^, 
Isfahan, Sfehan, Ispahan, &c. The Pyramids of Egypt (properly written Aj^\o9r 
(^^U!jJ^iM Ahram or Elheraman) are styled, in page 33, qjU>^ Houman or (j^Uj^IB 

•> I 


The chief obscurity, as well as importance, consists in the 
proper names. From my accuracyy therefore, in observing 
the original orthography of these, every advantage which 
could result from a perusal of the manuscript is presented to 
the reader ; for the passages merely descriptive or narrative 
contain few difficulties, and these few are noticed. 

The illustrations and notes above mentioned^ as I have 
reason to hope that the time and labour spent in collecting 
them were not employed in vain, shall soon be offered to the 
Publick. They will form part of a Work in which I propose 
to examine the Geographical System of the Asiaticks — to ex^ 
tract, from, a multiplicity ofArdbick and Persian Authors, their 
descriptions of Countries and Cities, Rivers, Mountains, Seas, 
Islands, &c.^^o give exacf, imitations of many original Maps 
preserved in rare and curious manuscripts ; and to inquire 
how far the Geographers of Asia agree with those of ancient 
Greece and Rome, and with modern Europeans. J shall col^ 
lect all the traditions that can illustrate local History and 
Antiquities ; and construct Maps, according to the best au- 
thorities, not only cf the Asiatick regions, but of Africa cmd 
Europe, as described by Eastern writers *. 

• Besides the Geographical Treatises of Abulfcda, Edrisi and otkersy well kaoum to the 

PREFACE. xxxi 

In preparing for publication the Geography of Ebn Hau- 
KAL, had I solicited, I would most probably have received, 
assistance from many learned friends ; and I should, in this 
place, with equal pride and pleasure, have followed the exam- 
pie of those writers who appropriate a department of their 
Prefaces to a publick acknowledgment of their numerous 

But on this subject I shall not long detain the reader ; for 

publick, I hann used, in compiling materials for this fFork^ a varietyi of Oriental Mann* 
scripts but little known in Europe. Among these are the ^jSSS CjL6 Heft Aklim> or 
Seven Climates, by Emir Rauzi ; the x<tU jt^ Shiraz Nameh, by Sheikh Zarkoub ;* 
the ^^SA Ck^'jj Nozhat al Coloub of HamdaDah Mustoufi, so often quoted by D*Her- 
btkt ; tbi^ (j3'«>AaM V^jl^ Ajafch »I Boldan, or " Wondcre of Region* ; the 
vV^^' JU^ Tahkik al Ijab» a Geographical Dictionary^ by Mis^mmed Sadlik Is£i. 
hani j tbe^\^\ CS^ Tohfut al Iiakein^ or Poetical Description of the two Iraksr 
Arabian and Persian provinces, by the celebrated Khakani ; the vv.|/^' V^^^ Ajaieb 

al Gheraieb ; the cAi^J:^^ cajL^ Ajaieb al Mahkloucat ; the ^\S'S\jyc Sour al A- 

kalim ; the ^^Lam* Seir al Belad ; the Geographical Indfx at the end of Mirkhond'x 
Rozet al Sefii, lie. These, with the assistance of Ebn Haukal's work, have enabled 
jffr to construct a Adkp' of Pensia and the adjacent provincex, mp m largt a scah or to^ 
admit a multiplicity of names not found in any other. It comprehends (on a sheet measuring 
six feet by five J nearly the same extent as Mr. JVahts celebrated Map, prefixed to his 
" Altes und Ncucs Vorder und Middel Asicn ;" and the names of places are written^ not 
only in European characters^ but respectively in Arabick, Persian, Armenian, tic. 

xxxii PREFACE. 

my debt of gratitude is single. To the Provost and Fellows of 
Eton College / am indebted, not only for frequent opportunities 
of collating their manuscript with my own, but for the most 
liberal hospitality and the most polite attention. Through 
their indulgence I liave been enabled to supply some deficien- 
cies, and correct several errors, which must otherwise have dis- 
figured this translation : whatever imperfections still remain, 
would probably have been removed by the collation of a third 
copy with the two which I have used. A third copy, however, 
I sought in vain; although, from information, communicated 
by an ingenious friend, I have reason to believe^ that Ebn 
Haukal*5 work is among the manuscripts belonging to a 
certain learned Society : but I must regret that it is not found 
in any other library of this metropolis to which I have been 
admitted. Such as it is, I am not without hopes that this 
work will prove acceptable to the Orientalist, the Antiquary, 
and the Geographer. If their approbation be withheld, I shall 
acknowledge that I have toiled in vain ; for the result of my 
former labours has taught me to expect no qther recompense 
than praise, and the hopes of substantial profit have bben ex- 
tinguished by successive disappointments. 



Introduction 1 

The Author's Design, and the Plan of his Work - . ^ . 2 
General Outlines of the Countries he proposes to describe - 5 

Description of the Seas ---6 

Of the Sea of Roum, or the Mediterranean, and other matters - 7 
Yajouge and Majouge, Cheen, Africa, Caspian Sea, Franks - 8 
Cheen, Maweralnahr, Nubians, Constantinople, Canouje, Sik- 

lab, Yajouge 9 

Tibet, Rous, Jews turned into Monkies - 10 

Dejleh, or Tigris, Yemen, Oman 11 

Of Bajeh, Abyssinia, and Nubia - -- 13 

Of Magreb (or the West) Part of Africa, its Distances and 

Stages \6 

Andalus, or Part of Spain --18 

Account of Eg3T>t --29 

Sham or Syria ..37 

Distances of Places in Sham and Jezireh 47 

Mediterranean Sea -- -51 

Jezireh, or Mesopotamia ----.-•.-54 
Distances of Places in Jezireh --.-.--.55 

Towns and Districts of Jezireh -55 

Description of Diar Modhar - - - - -- - - 58 


Cities and Towns of Irak Arabi ^63 

Province of Khuzistan 72 




Description of Pars, or Farsistan - 81 

The Kourehs of Pars -82 

Joums of the Curds - ----83 

Rivers of Pars -.-..-•.-..g* 

Lakes of Pars ---84 

Fire-temples 85 

Districts of the Koureh of Istakhar - 86 

Ardeshir Koureh .--.-•- .--^87 

Ardeshir Khereh --- 88 

Account of the Territories of Darabgird - - - - - - 89 

Koureh Shapour .--------..89 

Koureh Arghan - 90 

Account of the Zems .---..----92 
Of the Fortresses and Castles of Pars, and Fire- temples of Pars 95 

Rivers of Pars -.-96 

Lakes of Pars ----98 

Great Cities and remarkable Edifices ------ xoo 

Koureh of Shapour ---- 103 

Koureh of Darabjird -... io4« 

Distances of Places in Pars - 105 

Road from Shiraz to Jenabah 106 

Road from Shiraz to Sirgan 107 

Road from Shiraz to Kattah -------- 108 

Road from Shiraz to Isfahan - - - - - - --IO9 

Road from Shiraz to Arjan 110 

^ Stages and Distances between the principal Towns of Pars - J 1.1 
Of the Water, Climate, and Soil of Pars - - - -^ - 112 
Of the Persons, Manners, Languages, Religions, and chiief 

^ Families of the People of Pars - 114 

Account of the most extraordinary Edifices in Pars, and other 

Curiosities ----------- 128 

Commodities and Productions of Pars - - - - - -132 

Money, Weights, and Measures of the People of Pars - - 1 34 

The Gates of Wealth, or the Manner of raising the Revenue - 136 
Of the Province of Kirman - --138 



^Mountains, Inhabitants, aud chief Cities of Kirman - - 140 

Distances of Places in Kirman - - - - - - --•144' 

Of the Country of Sind, and Part of Hind - - - - - 146. 

The Cities and Towns - - - 147 

Distances of Places in Sind -«..---.- 153 
Rivers of Sind --------.-.. 155 

Description of Armenia, Aran, and Azerbaijan - - - • 156 
Rivers and Lakes of those Countries, and other matters - - I6I 

Distances of Places -..-. I63 

Description of Kouhestan, orlrakAjemi - - - - - 165 

Road from Hamadan to Deinour - - - - - - -I67 

Cities and Towns in Irak Ajemi - - - .. . . • igg 

Provinces of Deilman and Taberistan - - - - - -174 

Stages and Distances - - - - - - - - - -180 

Road from Rey to Khorasan - - - -.- - - -Ifrl 

From Taberistan to Gurkan .182 

From Amol to Deilem ----------183 

Of the Sea of Khozr, or the Caspian ---.... 133 

Roads and Stages of Khozr - - - - - - - -ipi 

Deserts between Pars and Khorasan 192 

Route from Rey to Isfahan --..-•--- 195 

From Mabein to KLhorasan -I96 

Road of Shour ---.-....-• 1^7 

Road of Ravan -- -.-'. igg 

Road of Khebeis - - - -- - .*i. - . . 199 

Stages and Distances from Yezd to Khorasan - . - . 200 
The New Road --..-a.-... go2 
Account of Seiestan, or Sejestan - . ^ - . . . 203 
Rivers of Sejestan -- - - - - - - - -- 205- 

Distances and Stages -- • - -• . *- -.• 209 
Road from Sejestan to Bost -----.-.. 209 

From Bost to Ghizni - - - - - -.- .. -210 

From Sejestan, by the Desert - .- *.i.211 

Road from Sejestan to Kirman and Fars - - - - * - 12 1 1 
Account of the Province of Khorasan - - - - --212 



Road» and Stages of Khorasan 227 

of Meru - 230 

1 ■ 

—- ^ of Balkh 230 

Distances and Roads of the Towns in Kuhestan - - - - 231 


Account of Maweralnahr, or Transoxania 232 

CityofKash 259 

City of Naksheb 260 

Setroushteh 261 

Road from the River Jihoun to Ferghaneh 273 

Distances of Stages on the Road of Chaje 274 

Road from Samarcand to Balkh -- - 275 

Distances and Routes of the principal Cities of Maweralnahr, 276 

Distances and Stages of Termed and Cheghanian - - - 277 

Distances and Routes of the Towns of Bokhara - - - - 278 

Distances and Stages of the Towns of Soghd and Samarcand - 279 





In the name of God, the Clement, the Merciful! 

x RAISE be to God, the origin of all good ! and may the blessing 
of God be on Mohammed, the Prince of Prophets ! Thus says the 
author of the work : " My design, in the composition of this book, 
is to describe the various climates and regions of the face of the 
earth, comprised within the circle of Islam, or Mohammedanism, 
and their several divisions, in such a manner that every remarkable 
place belonging to each region shall be noticed, and all the boun- 
daries and territories depending on them, their' districts, cities, 
mountains, rivers, lakes, and deserts/' 

( 2 ) 

^^ .wx cxfce particular details of all these seemed unnecessarily 

xK\ ^^^ ^^ ^^ compressed withm « small compass ; and in 

.V whtv««c volume, which is entitled Mesalek u Memalek, our plan 

>.x ;v\ic^cribe^ and to^ieHneate on raaps> the rarious ^seas or t)oeans 

^ hioh surround the land, the inhabited and the desert islands, and 

e\rrv climate and region of the earth ; affixing the name of each> 


so that it may be known in the maps ; and con^jiiiig ourselves to 
those countries which are the seit of Islatn^ and the residence of 
true believers. 

We begin with Arabia^ because the Temple of the Lord is 
situated there, and the holy Kadba* is the Navel of the World ; 
and Mecca is styled, in the sacred writings^ " the Parent City,' or 
" the Mother of Towns \. Then we proceed to describe the 
(j^^ (S^fJ^ Deryai'Pars, or Persian Sea, which bounds a 
portion of Arabia: then we speak of the western countries, 
S-^T*^ {tJ^frt) ZeTneen-i'Magreh (part of Africa) ; then we describe 
4he land df Egypt, y^o JMHsr ; then Syria, JJU Sham ; then the 
fJJ ^^'J^ Deryai Roum, or Mediterranean Ocean ; then the 
]^MYmcex)f <>jj^ Jezireh, Mesopotamia; then LpjS, ^Ij^ Irak 
AtHjtbi'y then ^UmJ^ JL/u^zt^to then (J^^Pfl^^ or 

Farsistan ; then ^jU->^:Krrmaii ; ithen .oi^A£u«e Mansoureh, the 
places bordering on Ju^ j oJm Sind and Hind, the confines of 

* nAxf The squaxe Temple at Mecca ; built, accordkig to Mohammedan tradidoDj^ 
by Abraham. 

i Omm'alkura. 1sy}^ A 

( * ) 

Hindoostan^ axni such towns of these as contain Mussulman m* 
habitants: then we describie {j\^\^ ^of Azerbaigan^ and its 
territories; then (^Iw^^JjKbu&e^ ton; then ^L^^ci De(7?na/i; 
then the ^jdL C^ljj^ Deryai Khozr, or Caspian Sea, and the 
rarious na^ons siirrounding it ; then the deserts between (^LmI 
Khorasan and Far& ; then the province of (^U*M^km Seiestan ; 
then Khoraswi ^^d rJ^t^jU Maiveralnahr, 07 Ttaoso^aoia^ 

CHere, in the original manuscript, a hlank page occurs, on 
uihich was to hav^ heen delineated a general Map of the Worlds 
or the JEiastern ffemisphere.J 

The author of this work informs us, that such is the form of 
the earth, it* variqxis parts« inhabited and uninhabited. We have 
divided it into empires or states, Ouly^ memaleh : and the signi<- 
iication of thi9 word is L^l^O^ kingdoms; in the singular, 
^»::O^Ay^ memlehet, one kingdom or sitate. Of all the regions of 
this earth, none is more populous, cidtivated, or flourishing, thai) 
the empire of (^lyl Iran, or Persia; the chief glory of which, 
in former times, was J^t/ Babel (Babylon.) This is the country 
of (j-^lj Pars : and the extent of this empire, in the time of the 
ancient Persians, is well known ; but the Mussulmans have since 

B 2 

( 4 ) 

jj^^p^j,^,^^^ «^MiM9«^Kes of the countries above enumerated ; such as 
^^ s IC^.^04rfW% Natolia; and ^Li Sham, Syria; and ^a^ Misr, 
k^^l^'- •^^^^ (j*JoJl Andalus, Andalusia or Spain; and 
AAiiC^v^. the west (part of Africa), and part of Hindoostan ; 
^\\k\ the territories of ojjjjotX^ Marisoureh, as far as (^UJU Multan ; 
and ^JU**JbL> jRTa&oZwtaAi ; and the borders of (^U»*j;Ls::' Tok- 
harestan ; and of (^^j^ Cheen, China or Tartary ; and ^Jj ImU 
Maweralnahr, or Transoxania. The author says, that he reckons, 
OS belonging to ^jj Roum, the borders of L-Oijuw Siklah, Scla- 
vonia ; of (j^jj Rous, Russia, >i^ Serir, and ^^^ I Allan, and 
i^j^^ Armen, Armcma,, where the Christian religion is professed ; 
ahd he places, as belonging to Hindoostan, c>JL»m Sind, and 
Cashmere, and part of cxy Tibet. " As for the land of blacks^ 
in the west (Africa), and the (jUioJ Zingians, ^Ethiopians, and 
such tribes (says the author), I make but slight mention of them 
in this book ; because, naturally loving wisdom, ingenuity, religion, 
justice, and regular government, how could I notice such people 
jEis those, or exalt them by inserting an account of their countries ? 
Yet one race of them has some degree of civilization and religious 
observance, the (^tujj Nubians, and (^Uii^x^ Habbeshians, 
Abbyssinians : the reason of this is, their vicinity to the other 
more polished countries ; thus ^uaj Nubia and ^k^.*Jp^ Habbesheh, 
Abyssinia, are situated on the borders of the ^ iXS Cy^U^c^ Derydi 
Kolzum, the Sea of Kolzum, or Red Sea. Nothing farther can 
be said in their favour/* 

( 6 ) 

The region of Islam is superior to the others, because it is more 
extensive; from south to nojth, and from the western bay or 
gulph, connected with the ocean, to the borders of ^^^Jk^L« {j^ff^^ 
Cheen Macheen (the southern parts of China), and another bay or 
gulph, likewise joining the ocean, from the west (Africa), to 
qjmJoJI AndaluSy Spain. The author informs us that he has 
drawn a iine through this map, dividing it into two parts, and 
passing from the Persian Sea . to the land of Hindoostan, 
through the midst of the region of Islam ; likewise from the land 
of Egypt to the west of Africa. The inhabitants of the northern 
parts of these coimtries are of a fair complexion ; those who dwell 
still farther north are more fair skinned, and their climate is cold. 
The inhabitants of the south are of a dark complexion, and the 
blackness of their skins increases as they dwell farther to the 
south. . • 

On the east of the land of Islam are the regions of Hindoo^ 
Stan and the -^ji^lj ^Lijci Persian Sea; to the west lie ^yj 
Roum, and (j^\ Armen, and (^ifl Allan, and y^w Serir, and 
^jdL Khozr, and (j*^jj Rous, andj\Jdj Bidgar, and c-jXiu^ 
^ Siklab, and part of (^U*jgJy Turkestan. The land of Islam has 
to the north the empire of ^;^•A^ Cheen, and its various territories 
from the borders of Turkestan ; and to the south the Persian 
Sea, and the region of OOSow Sind. The Ocean bounds it to 
the west and to the south. 

( ) 

Description of the Seas. 

The chief Seas are the (ji^^lj Cj^bjO Persian, ind j,jji C^Mj^ 
the Sea of Roum, or the Mediterranean, which are nearly op- 
posite : both join the great ocean. The Persian Sea is more ex- 
tensive in length and breadth, reaching to the land of ^^^^ao^ Cheen, 
and to the ^ii5 (^\jji^ Sea of Kolzum. From Kolzum to 
Cheen, in a streight line, is a distance of about two hundred men^ 
zil^ ; and from Kolzum to v-jJl-c Irak, by the way of the desert, 

is a journey of two months. From the (m^s:^ Jihoun, or 
Oxus, to the extreme boundary of Islam, on the borders of ^JLc J 
Ferghanah, is above twenty inerhileh* ; and, from those places 
to the coast of Cheen, is a very tedious way, because in these seas 
are various windings and turnings. 

* See the Preface. 

( 1 ) 


Of the Sea Ojf Jioufn^ or the Mediterranean, and other matters. 

, Tbtis sea comes firom the ocean, and extends from that narrow 
bay, or pass, between the west (Africa), and the land of qmJOsJJ 
idndahis, JSpam, to the coast of A^ Sham, Syria, a distance of 
seven months journey. This sea is of a more regular and even 
outline than the Persian; for, afler you pass the mouth of 
that bay before mentioned (Gibraltar), it is protracted in one line 
to the «id. 

From yau9 ^E^ypt to the extremity of the west V 7*^ Magrehp 
b a distance of an hundred and eighty merhileh. From the ex- 
tremity of the east to that of the west, is near four hundred 
meiiiil^. From ^^ Eoum, one comes to JJL Sham (Syria) 
in the course of sixty merhileh. From Sham to yo^ Egypt i^ 
thirty jneiMeh. The distance of the journey between the land of 
yj>l(; Yqjouge and jUJLj Bulgar, and the country of v^Xiui 
Siklab, is about four hundred merhileh; and from Siklah to 
^^ Roijun, to the borders of Sham, sixty merhileh. From Roum 
to the extreme boundary of the {j^j^i^j-ii^ land of the Nubians,: 
about eighty merhileh*. ^ 

( 8 ) 

Between ^rj^^ J ttJ^^- Yajouge and Majouge, and the 
northern ocean, and between the deserts of the Blacks and the 
other hmits of the ocean^ all is desolate and \¥^aste, without any 
buildings. I know not what are the roads or stages of those two 
deserts which are on the coasts of the ocean, because it is impos- 
sible to travel in them on account of the excessive heat, which 
* hinders the building of houses, or the residing there. Thus, 
also, in the south, no animal can exist, so excessive is the heat> 
nor any person dwell there. But between {j^^^ Cheen and the 
west S^jii^ Magreb, all is inhabited, and the ground cultivated, 
and the ocean surrounds the land like a collar or necklace. 

From this ocean proceed the (j^U iS^j^ Deryai Fars, Per- 
sian Sea or Gulph, and >^_^C^^<^ Deryai Rown, Mediterranean, 
but not the^jsL (^Ly^ Deryai Khozr, or Caspian Sea. If any 
person wish to make a circmt round this sea, he must set out from 
Khozr, and proceed throi^h the land of (^LvJL{c> Deilman, and 
(^U>m^^aL Tabaristan, and o^r^ Gurkan, and, turning by the 
desert, in the ticinity of o^ ^^-f^ Siah Kouh, or the Black Moun- 
tain, thus come back to the place from which he had set out, as 
nothing would impede him but the river which falls into the 
Caspian Sea. 

The Franks, in general, we speak . of as belonging to ^jj 
Roum (Europe), because they have the same religion and king> 
though speaking various dialects. 

< .9 ) 

The empire of {jj^ Cheen extends, in length, a distance of four 
months journey; and in breadth^ three. And when one comes 

from the mouth of the bay or gulj^ ^f^^ to the land of Mussul* 

.mans, the borders of ^Jj IjjU Mauweralnahr, Transoxania> 

it is a journey of three months* And when one comes from the 

east, and wishes to proceed to the west, by the land of the 

(jLu^ Nubians^ and the land of jff^f^ Khurkhiz, and of itjt 

GhurgheZ', Mid by viX^l^jJ' Kaimak to the sea, it is a journey of 

about four months. In die r^ons of Cheen there are various 

dialects : but all (^U^wJy Turkestan, and itjt Ghurghez, anjd 

^Mts, Assah, and jtf^f^ Khurkhiz, and K^X^^jp Kaimak, and 

AJyc Ghurneh, and Axy^ fk. Khurnjiah ; the people of all these 

have the same language, and are of one kind. The chief place of 

the empire of Cheen is called (^fcX,.^ Humdan, as AAxLaxL^ 

Costantineh, Constantinople, is of Europe, or c^lOciu Bagdad, 

of the land of Islam, or ^ jaS Canouge, of Hindoostan ; but the 

land of Turk, ^^jf ij-frt) is separately situated, it Ghuz is the 

boundary of it from j^ Khozr to lSI^jJ^ Kaimnk, and to 

Khurnjiah and j\Jdj Bulgar, and the borders of the 

land of Mussulmans frcmi ^^UJ^ Gurkan to vijW Barah, 

9Xi^ to K^\s^Senjah. 

When you pass from the territories of Kaimak, then it is the 
land of -.^c>cL Khederje, lying to the north, between it Ghuz 
and jAsL.^ Khurkhiz, and behind L-;XiuM Siklab ; and the land 
<?f ^j^Li Yc^ouge is situated in the north, when you turn from 

< to ) 

Sikldb, and pass the botihcb of Kaimak ; but the iixtcnt of 
Yajoii^e, and the number of its inhabitants, are known to God 
Almighty alone. There is a plade of Khurkhiz,. situated between 
Ghuz, and Kaimak, and the ocean, and the land of ^jJ^ 
Khederje. The country of vJXjJ Tibet is situated brtween 
Khurkhiz and the emph^ of Cheen. Chien lite between the sea 
and the land of Ghuz and Tibet ; aiid Cheen itself coAstitutes this 
climate (or division) ; but the othfef pirts of Tibet^Were^^anileied to 
it, as in Europe the lesser plaices dej^nd on' Constantih6ple, and ib 
the region of Islam on Iran, which is the land of JuU BabeL 

Of i^^XiLa SiJclab, the extent is about two inontfis journey ; 
jbUb Bulgar is a small town, which has hot taany territories, and 
for that reason the places bdonging to it have been well known* 
The {j^\j Rous are a people between whom and JBi/Zgyir is a 
tnbe of {^ySJ Turks \ in one place here some fi^ermcn resi( 
and there are a few date trees, as far as ,{^\j\ji Sdran, ^W 
\^^^^j^ Cheilak, and opposite the- inountaiiis to aXj\ Ableh. 
Ableh is a small town, well mhabited, wife a Uttltf tilled aiid 
cultivated land. *^In that place wfeie some Jews; those tx> 
" whom it was forbidden to hunt on the Sabbath (or Sunday): 
^' and God transformed them, and caused them to become 
" monkies*. 


3 ^ f 

^ ^11 (^cV •9^<o^^^ ^^ i^s tepatories, as 1^ as ^j^, Fe- 
Kj^e/^ (Ajabia F^lix), apdto, o^^ Qv^¥^h ^^ f^jsif Bahrain, 
(i^^^nds in die Fei^uuDi Qulph)^ as iax ^ o'^^^ Abadan; of all 
th^se ly^ d^ribe tha^^oads as belon^iig to Arabia : but Abadan 
is, ^^ smaE fof^ 9r c^tte^^ iftbahited^ on ^e sea-Qoast, an<l the 
waters of the aX^O Dejleh (or Tigr^) come iip there. T%is is a 
rebat, or station^ where sentinels used to be placed, that they 
might watcl\ the Lr^<^ o.l^^ robbers of the sea, or pirates. 
The river ^J^c^ Dejleh, or Tigris, passes here ; and thence we 
cpjp^ by tlie^ siea-shor^, to. O^JJ L5^^ M^i-r^ouian, on the 
borders of Pars, or Persia. On this journey it is necessary in most 
of the places to go by water ; because the river of ^U^wJ^sL Khu-- 
^^ijaif wifld^ abput s->jj^ DajiraJc, ?wid flowa to (^Oy^, i^^j^fs^ 
Ely^nMohdi, axx/i {^li^\j Rammm, ,9Xid then falls into the sea at 
oh^J (^^MahUrouiofii andthisMa/ii-roiaa/iisasmalltownV 
ifr^llrinhabited, and pleasant, the port for o^^' Jrghan, or the 
paf^s to it^ Then we qoi^e ^9 ^iywv*w Sinir, Y(Hdi is larger than 
Mahi-^roifiu^ ; and this £|i^ is the port of all Pars or Farsistan. 
From thence the s^^of e ^^irinds on to >jsr^ Bijerm. Betw^n 
A^Ua^. ^naheljL ^^i^(/gj|r^;t,,th^e are groves^ and ineadows, and 
villages ; and the air becomes very warm h^e. Froin this yo^ 
proceed to v^I-a*w Siraf, one of the most ample harbours in all 
Pars. Siraf is a large town {j^j^ (^[^j^ o'^' wJ' ^^^ of the 
eyes of the towns of Pars. Here there is not any husbandry or 
cultivation of ground ; and they bring water from a distance. 

c 2 

( 12 ) 

Passing from this along the shore, by places where there are 
hills and deserts, you come to the ojl^ (jjI {^y^2^ Hysn ehn 
omarreh. This is a very strong castle : in all Pars there is not 
any fort more strong, or in better condition; and it is thought 
that there is an allusion to the lords of tliis castle in that passage 
of the Koran, where it is said. 

'* And there was, behind them, a king who forcibly seized on 
•' every (sound) ship*. 

From this place you proceed to Jvcj* Hormuz, which is the 
port of (jL^jS^ Kirman. Hormuz is a well-inhabited and flbu- 
rbhing city : it abounds in dates, and the air is exceedingly warm. 
From this you go to J^^ Daibul, where there are merchahti^, 
who trade in all places. This is the port of the land of OJs^ Sind r 
and Sind is the same as ojjaoX^ Mansureh ; axid the re^on of 
^Ulo) Lattian, as far as (^)J^ Cheen, txttatAs along the coast 
of Hindoostan, to cxy Tibet, and (^^j^I^ O^ Ckeen Macheen, 
beyond which no cme passes. 

• Koran, iJUsH CtjyM ChapUr (f the Cavern* This king^ according tt> some Mb* 
hammedan commentators, reigned in Oman. See Sale's Koran, Cbap* xviii.— -Po* 
cocK&'s Specim« Histor. Arab. p. 42»&c» 

-- ' 

( 18 ) 


OfBajehf and Abyssinia, and Nubia. 

From ^i}J^Kolzum, on the west of the sea (the Red Sea), the 
dry deserts stretch very far, to the land of A3r^ Bajeh. The in- 
habitants of Bajeh are blacker than the Abbyssinians, like the 
Arabs* ; and they have not either cities, villages, nor cultivated 
knd — nothing but what they bring from Yemen, Abbyssinia, 
Egypt, or the land of the Greeks ^jIj^j i^j-frt)^ 

This country (BajehJ is situated between {J^^j^ Habesh, 
Abbyssinia, the land of iujj Nubia, and Egypt. In it are gold 
mines, which extend from near the borders of Egypt to a certain 
castle on the sea-coast, which they call cjLMX^^^a^f ; a distance of 
about ten merhileh. Among these mines is a place called i^^^ks, 
Allami, situated on a level ground. There are not in any quarter 
of the world such gold mines as these. In Bajeh they worship 
idols, or any thing that seems pleasing to their eyes. Those who 
immediately border on the land of Abbyssinia are Christians, and 
of the same complexion as Arabians. 

♦ Probably it should have been " Blacker than the Arabs, and like the Abbys^ 

t This word is sa equivocally written in the MSS. that it may be Assab, icc^ 

( 14 > 

On the sea-coast there is a place called ^^j 2^ilaa, which 
is the port for those who go to Yemen and Jts:^ Hejaz. 
Then begin the deserts of ^uy Nubia. Hie Nubians are Chris* 
tians ; and their country is wider than that of the Abyssinians ; and 

the ^Egyptian Nile passes through their territories, and goes on 

to the land of the Zingians (Ethiopia) ; and one cannot proceed 

beyond that */* 



The sea continues to the land of ^UXj^ Zingbar, Ethiopia, 
opposite (jcXc Aden : thence it departs from the regions of Isl^m. 
Ethiopia is a dry country, with few buildings, and very little, 
cultivated ground* The leopard skins, and other spotted skins 
which are brought into Yemen, come from this place. Hie in- 
habitants are at war with the Mussulmans. There is in Zingbar 
a race of white people, who bring from other places articles of 
food and clothing. This coimtry produces little : the inhabitanta 
are not much inclined to the cultivation of arts or sciences. 

So far we have spoken of those countries bordering on the 
Persian Sea: Now we proceed to describe the regions of the 

The last sentence (which seems obscure) is literally, <^ and after that it is impossible to 
go on." 

i w ) 


CfMagreb (the WesiJ, or part of Africa. 

This western region is situated along the ^jj C^L? ;^ Medi^ 
terranean Sea, and is divided into two parts— -one, the eastern 
— the 4>ther, western. To the east»n division belong aSy Bar- 
kah, axiA ajjU^^^ lL^U Tahouth, and ^^^^gJ^ 

Melinjeh, snd (j^j^ Sus, wkd ^aJLmj Zouilah; and all on . 
: the sea. The western division esteonds to ^mJcXjI Andalus. 

The sea, to the east, reaches as far as Egypt From Egypt we 
proceed to ^.cX^ Mohediah, and i^j (<^ ^r? j^ Jezireh Beni 
Rebehi (or t^j RaaiJ, and o^^juoj Basireh, and aXj;1 Arblek, 
and (j^jM Sus, where are deserts without aiiy sort of habitations^ 
To the south of these places is sand» 


( 16 ) 

Alhdkem hen Hesham hen Ahdarrahman hen Moawiyak hen 
Hesham ben Ahdalmulk hen Merwan hen Alhakm*. The 
first of those who passed over to qaJcXjI Andalus was Ahdar^ 
rahman hen Moawiyah ; he conquered it in the beginning of the 
reign of the sons of Ahhas (Abbasides) ; and the government of 
it remains still in his family. 

Magreh (the west) or Africa, is chiefly remarkable for the 
black slaves : it is the land of blacks. The white slaves come from 
the quarter of Andalus ; and damsels of great value, such as are 
sold for one thousand dinars or more ; and mules fit for the saddle ; 
and the coarse woollen stuff, called /^-jL« cX^J Nemed Magrehi ; 
and coral, and ambergris, and gold, and honey, and silk, and 

yL. j\^A oUL^ /c 

The Distances and Stages of Magreh, or part of Africa. 

From y^^ Misr to aS-i Barkah, twenty merhileh ; from 
Barkah to qmXjIJ^ Trahlis (Tripoli), twenty merhileh; from 
Trahlis to o'jrt^ Kirouan and v^-JtxLaii Shatif, sixteen merhileh; 

( ^7 ) 

from Shatif to <L)^yj Tahouth, twenty merhileh; from Tahouth 


to (j#rfli Fas (Fez), fifty merhileh; from Fas to f^^^^\(j^jM 


Sus-aksi, or Sus the boimdaiy, near thkty merhileh; from 
Kirouan to Siis-aksU about one hundred and sixteen merhileh. 
The whole distance from Misr to the botmdary of the eastern 
division of the west, on the Mediterranean Sea, is about six 
months journey. 

From Kirouan to aJLj j|J 2ioiulah, is a journey of one month; 
from Kirouan to Mohadieh, two days journey ; from Kirouan 
to the town of (j*Jy or (j*^j^ * three nderhileh ; from that to AiJo 
Tarfah, ten merhileh; from Tarfah to (jmjJLj Teneis (Tunis ^ J 
about sixteen merhildi; from Teneis to the (<y^ ^J^T^ 
Jezireh Rah^, five days journey; frwn kL>j^ Tahouth to 
^^ U Bakour, thirty merhileh ; from Tahouth to AmL^Xs^ Se- 
je/maWtt fifteen merhileh ; and from ^j^li Fas to o^a^ Basireh, 
six merhileh ; and frrom Fas to ^ue;l Armeh, eight merhileh : and 
from Kirouan to A^wL^Asr*** Sejelmasah, by way of the desert^ 
is a journey of near fifty merhikh. 

• This name is so equivocally written Ui the MSS. that it may be Luks, Tules^ 
Bouks, Nuks, Sec. or Boutes, Nnbes, Tunis, &c. 


( " ) 

Of Amdatui, f^ part cf Spain. . 

From aaL J Cor tub ah (which is the chief town of All* 
dalus) to aaXam4 Sebiliah, is a journey of three merhileh; 
from 'Cortuhaft t^ • d^^ Stttfassah ot Sarkassah^ fiye 
^-fn jobiiiey ; atid tK> ^J^ti^ Batilak^ thirteen days journey ( 
fipOtti Bdttilah l& 6^j\ Afdah, four merhUekj from Cortuldh 
io UjC Miikiahj i^^ee or four days journey i ftiMn Corfti- 
Irtlffc to ^jfj^ ^outieh, t^felv* days journey ; from K(AJtirieh 
U dt^iie Mar^h^ (oigA ^ys jtWrtiey ; froto Kdui4di t«> A^U 
NkKiah^ six days jdMMey ;< ^gvAn C^tubah tb AxLxldb T^letkth^ 

«kdfty»jd*tttiey; firdttl t&letlok to j^^jj^^li^i^lj flTadi drffc*yv»v 
twt) xkys jouimey ; frota &a2^U Mdftidh, 6t A2^U Mtjf^, td 
X^yJjf^ Sirth, twelVfe days jottitt^y ; and to tiie exJtfttnity X}f thfe 
district of S/r/n, (^Hj^ o^^^/^ livtj^ 'feyii : fhrfh Cortubah t6 
L^-UJI {^j/sa^ Fahas-alilout, or Kahas-alitout, to the town 
called v^JJilx Chafek, one day^s joumciy; from Fahas-alilout to 
^djdj Bilbilah, four days journey ; from Cortubah to a^*j^ J^^r- 
nouiah (or ^juiy3 Kornouifah), in the west, four days journey. 
Between a:^L^ Majeh and aaJUkm Sebiliah, on the road to o^Lo 
Mardah; from Farmouiah (or ^j^f Carmourah), to Sebiliah^ 

( 10 ) 

tvdve days jomney; ifi»m 4s^' Asijeh* to 4JiJU Malaca^ 
near tem days journey; and from Mcdaca to the Jezireh, oyjsr ' 
Aljezireh, of the 0[jlL o^J^Jfcfoiicn*-^ Tarefe (Gibfaltar), fpur days 
journey ; from Cortuhah to a^^X^ Melisah, twelve days ; from 
LMj JU TizrsouiiiA to Melisah, twielye days lourney. 

(Here is a sudden transition to the African coast, not mark- 
ed itk the utrigindi Manusjsript by a^ny^iuisim, pr IJe^ad of a 
nem Section.) 

/dji Borkah 19 a town of a middlmg mzt, neillier gzeat nor 
small, wifdi an impioyed and wdl-inhabited neigbbouiiiood, all 
about which, on eyery side, is Ae desert wherein the (^IjjJjJ 
Barbarians reside- A Collector of Revenues, or Tax-gatherer, 
used to come here annuaUy from E^gypt, until the time that 
Ahdallah assumed the goymiment of tibie West. 

^jJ^\Jk9 jrira^a2fis belongs to theji^^on of a^JI Africa. It 
is a town built of stone, on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea, 
and a very strong place. 

.«yK>yo Ma^elia/iisasmall town, which was built by Abdailah 

* Probably for »>li|^ dseliUabf ^ tihe name.of Seville is sometimes written. 

D 2 

( 20 ) 

when he conquered the West : he gave it this name after him- 
self *• It is situated on the sea coasts From oUj^i Kiroium 
to this place is a journey of two days. 

iSu-aL Tiheriah is a smaH town, which produces deadly scoi> 
pions, like those of Leshkurf ; and here, out in the sea, coral is 
founds such as no other part of the world affords. 

The i^yrfj (J^ ^j^-r^ Jezireh Beni Rebehi is a populous and 
well-supplied town, inhabited by the -iw Berbers. Jf^^. Bdkour 
is a considerable town on the sea-coast, well-inhabited and strong. 
OjKaoj Basirek is also a large town, and well-supplied, situated 
opposite o-i j:^ Jezireh f or the place which they call v^jUa i/Ui?^ 
Jebal-tarek, Gibraltar. Between this place (Basireh) and Jezireh, 
the breadth of the sea is twelve farsang J. 

'aXjj\ Arbilah is a large town on the sea-side: Arbilah and 
Basireh belong to the district of as^ Tanjiahy Tangiers, — 
(<^ ^ (j^y^ Sus-asJci is a considerable and fisrtile district, inhabit- 
ed by o^yr? J5er&er5. Aqs:'^ Tanjiah is an extensive district, 

♦ Thi$ founder of the Fatemite Dynasty assumed the title of Mebedi, or Director 
of the Faithful; and began to reign Anno Hegirae 296, (Anno Domini 908.) 

1" jXiU y^ The town of Leshkur, or Asker Mokreniy in the province of Khuzistarty 
in Persia ;— a considerabk city of die third elimate-— according to the Nozhat al Cohuby 

** Of more salubrious air than any other place in Khuzistan, but abounding in scorpions J^ 
X On the subject of this> and other measures^ see the Preface. 

( 21 ) 

in which are citie6, villages^ and deserts on the borders of jJjJ 
Berber, Barbary. The capital of this country is (j^^li Fas, Fez, 

in which resides ^^^Jc^U i^s^Xj lahia the Fatemite; for 

•• «• 

^^^^yLU ,iiSS\o^ Abdallah the Fatemite has not yet conquered 


that place*. 

Bakour, andJezirehBeniRehehi, which we have before men- 
tioned, and about ten other towns in the vicinity of Tahouth^. 
are considerable. .<±^Ij Tahouih i^ the chief: it is a large 
town, well inhabited and supplied. The inhabitants practise 
agriodture :— rthey have been conquered by a people called ULujU 

aj^iLyJLar*** Sejelmasah is a town of middling size, belonging 
to the territories of Tahouth. One cannot enter Sejelmasah but 
by the way of the desert, which the sand renders difficult. This 
town is situated near the gold mines, between them and the land 
of the Blacks, and the land of aXjjJ 2jOuilah. These mines are said 
to be of the most pure and excellent gold ; but it is difficult ta 
work them, and the way to them is dangerous and troublesome. 
Tliey say that the district of l^ahouth is reckoned as belonging ta 
*^^l Africa^ - , 

• The Fatemite Djmasty commenced in theyedr of theHegira 296, (A. Df 908,) 
and lasted 172 years. — See D'Heubblot, Art. Fathemiah. 

( 22 ) 

Shateif, is a considerable town, and wetl-inhabited, 
between l^ahouth and o|juaS Kirouan. The inhabitants are a 
tribe of Berbers, and called A^UJ^Xienama/i. Abdallah has sub- 
dued them ; and Abu- Abdallah, who was a servant of Abdallalh 
resides among them, and governs them. 

{j^jjfp Kirouan is the largest of all the towns. The tribes of 
Magreb all resided there ; and it was their chief place until the 
decline of tiieir government, when Abu^Abdaliah came forth, 
and conquered them ; «ince which time Abdallah dwelt at JfTir- 
mum, until he built the town of AjOyo Moh^diah x>n the sea- 
coast, and removed to that place. 

aJLijiJ Zoidleh is a town of middling size, with many territories 
belon^g to it : ' it is situated near the countiy of the Blacks. 
This land of tihe BSacks is a very extensive r^ion, but extremely 
dry. In die mount«ns of it are to be &nuKi all dae &uks whidi 
lihe Mohammedan world produces ; but they do not eat of them ; 
they have other fruits and natural productions &>r dieir food. 
Haeir skins are of a finer and deeper blackness than .that of any 
other blacks, whither i^Lk^s^ Habeshis, Abyssimans, or (^^^ 
Zingians, Ethiopians. And their country is more- exten^ve than- 
that of any other nation of Blacks : it is situated on the coast of 
the ocean to the $outh : to the north they have deserts which extend 
towards the deserts of Egypt : from behind -.L Wahh the desert 

( 23 ) 

rtkches to near the Nubians ; then to the desert in the vicinity of 
^^UjCT) ZUnghar. Whatsoever they get, comes to them from 
the weatem side, because of the cUfficulty of entering their country 
from any other quarter. 

Now we proceed to speak of the West, and be^ with an 
i^Dcaunt of fjhJiXi\ Andalus, or Spain. Andalas is an extensive 
and considerable country, with many large and flourishing cities, 
the chief of which is called aaL? J Cortuhah (Cordova), situated in 
the midst of the country* The ocean is on one side of Andalus, 
and the ^jj (^UjO Sea ofRoum (the Mediterranean) on the 
other, as &T as the Uu J {j^f^ Land of the Franks (France.) 
The first of die cities is (^wm Serin; thtrt a^^k^m^^ Husiniah, 
AaJL^mJ JsebUiah (or Sebilah, Seville), /J^cX»m Sedounah, Sido« 
ma, Jji)\j4 Maiuca, to the country of AmJ^ Afoulsah, and to 
AmJJL) Tolsah^ »m1 Jb^j^Jp TarMusc^ ; where there is {j^jf^^ 
Bar is, a town on the sea-side. Thence along the sea, belongs to 
the latid of the ihratoks } and on the dry side belongs to the cot»itry 
of .(ju^sKT^ jitf^kes^ 1^ oow»try ii» inhabited by a race of 
Qirfttians, and 'as :&r as tthe IsvA of ^j^jXL^ Biscowies belongs 
to the C3nistifims, as itkewide the territorkts of (;-^UJi;^ Jalekwi. 
There are two boundaries to Andalus ; one, the land of the Infi- 
dels (or ChriiitianB) ; the other, the Bea : and all those towns 
whidi we have spoken of, as being situated on the sea-coast, are 
considerable places^ and weU-inhabited* { 

( 24 ) • 

Andahis is now in the liands of the aa^I ^^^^ Beni Ommiah, the 
Ommiades* ; and the ^jUkwUc AhhassianSj the Abbassides, have 
not yet snatched it from them ; nor has Ahdallah yet obtained the 
superiority over them. At the time that the glory of the Beni 
Ommiah was declining, one of that family, who was at aJL/T" 
Ahilahf passed over to the v^lLJoji:^^ ^r^j^ Jezireh JiheUta- 
rek, Gibraltar, and subdued Andalus, which still remains in the 
possession of the Ommiah race. 

These are the most remarkable cities of Andajtus ;— AJUaxJlL 
Toleitlahy ^ujcXm Sedounah, o^i/ Lardah, o^lsr^' (S^^J 
Wadi al hejareh, aJIsL-j Barkhalah, ^jjj Bournah {^[^us^ 
Hesan, o^U Mardah, ^p^U Mahou, v^Jiili Ghafek, aJU) 
Leilah, ^j^f Fermouiah (or ^j^f Karmouiah), oC^jjj^ 
Mouroudah, ajXka^ I Asebiliah. Hiese are all considerable towns, 
and for the greater part their buildings are of stone. 

Aj[s^ Behaneh is situated in the vicinity of deserts. Sirinf, 
on the coast of the ocean : there ambergris is found, but not in 
any place on the Mediterranean Sea. The author of this book 
says, " At the time when I was in JJL Syria, on the coast of the 

• The Ommiades retained their empire in Spain long after they had ceased to 
govern the other regions of Islam; where the Abbassides began to reign A. H. 132, 
(A.P, 748.) The Ommiades possessed Spain until the year of the Hegira 424, 
(A. D. 1032.) — Bin Shonah in D'Herbelot, Art, Ommiah. 

t ^^ Sometimes written ^^^ Nesrin and ^^jm»>j Basrin. 


( 25 ) 


f* ^jU (^\jji^ Mediterranean Sea, something was thrown up, 
f^ and I afterwards heard that at Sirin such was every year 
^' thrown on the shore : this is a certain thing which they caU 
^_^ mouhi. ,«embli,« fme beaver, or .uw sUk , it rub, 
itself against the stones on the seashore, and its plumage , or' 
f^ down, comes ^*, which tiie people come and gather, and 
•** weave intQ garments." The kings of Andalus are very fond of 
this stuff, andi Will not allow it to be exported ; and they, have 
garments ^df it which. cost above a thousand dinars. 




JLe Malaca produces the JuLmj 
make the halidles of iswords. 

v-JJjlL ou^ Jezireh Tarek, Aljezireh, was the first seat of 
Islam, in this country. The u^tU Juai» JeheU Tarek, Gibraltar, 
is a well-inhabited mountain, with villages or small towns on it ^ 
it is the extreme point and last pass of Andalus^ 

^ « 

^SiifSia Toletilah Isl a city situated cm a lofty mountain : the 
buildings are of marble, or hard stones, fastened with lead. About 
this city there are seven hills, all «ciiltitated and inhabited; and 

* This thing <fy^ feems here to be an animal. Thc> original b as follows : 

t I muft acknowledge my ignorance of this creature, and my suspicion that there is 
'^ error in ^e writing of die word. 

( 20 ) 

likewise a river equal to the aJL^O Dejleh, or Tigris : the name 
of that river is ^u:^U Nahiah ; it proceeds from the town called 
o UM Sarrah, and they call that district JLm /Ju ^Out Me- 
den heni Salem. 

q03 Kedah is a considerable district, the chief town of whidi 
is called o^cXd^t Arhadouh : from this place came ftAOta^ ClH J jr^ 
Omru hen Hafsou. i^^JbJ t {j^is:? Fahas^ilout is a flourishing 
and considerable district, the capital of which is called v.Jiit^ 
Ghafek. ^^j-i Bourmah was a large city, but has been ruined 
during a contest between two tribes or parties who were in the 
town, one of which called to their aid the (^UiUl^ JalekicaUy 
who came and plimdered and destroyed the place. 

In Andalus the Beni Ommiah, or family of the Ommiah sove- 
reigns, are pre-eminent. The Khutbah* is read in their name* 

The cities of the JaUkians are, o(^;L« Mardah, oJ^ Herahy 

j\s^^ C^Olj Wadi al hejar, AiLAIb 
country of the JaUkians bordering on Andalus, whidi they call 
ojyi^\ Astourah ; and the king of the Jalikians resides in a city 
called kJuI Abnez, which is far from the land of the Mussulmans- 

But of all the tribes of Infidels (Christians) who border on An- 

* juLi^ A prayer for die refgning lung, read every Friday in the.prinoipal mosques* 

i i7 ) 

4ahis> the most' itmnerouft are the kSjS Franks. Their king is 
caSied 6^ Farah*. The Jalekiam> though a considerable people, 
are n6t so nnmetxHis as ^ese. Tbe smaUest tribe of all these Infidels 
an^ those whom they call qmJ^umI Askounes ; but they are said 
Ho be one of the most biaYe and manly. There is a race alsacalled 
QigJuiiJLar^ Ajilsekes, a tribe of veiy bad people, who live betwtoi 
Askounes and Frank. 

Of the jj-j Berbers, who inhabit Andalus and Magreb (Spain 
and Africa), there are two kinds ; one called Berber, the other 
qmJU Beranes. ^J^ Feikerah, and aiUXo Mekianah, and 
oOl^ Houadah, and aJ^jOo^ Mediounah, are of the Berbers in 
Andalus ; and ^u«lJLf Kenamah, and ajIj^ Rebaiah, and oi^A.yjwa« 
Masmoudah, and aXJLj Bilbilah, and aa^U^I^ Tehiahiah, are 
of the Berai^s. The Rebaiah dwell in the districts of ^jd^J Ta-^ 
houth ; and the Kenamah in the vicinity of ^wiJajS;! Shateif. In 
Andalus are several mines of gold and silver. In the district of 
o^ Sarrah and ajuj.^, Marsafah, near aaJo J Cortuhah, there is 
a plice called {j^y Koules. Here, and at aJLtixJLL Tolitelah, 
are many sables or martins ( jj^**')- 

aJLijJ 2^uialahf is a place which abounds in black slaves; 
but the inhabitants are of a brown complexion, though at a dis- 

♦ Or }ij\5 Karak. 

t Here feems a fuddcn transition (not unfrcqucnt in Oriental writings) from Spain to 
Africa —This place is, probably, the aLjjJ Zouileh before mentioned. 

£ 2 


C 2a ) 

tance from the south. In the eastern parts they are darker^ and 
have light-coloured eyes — some- more remote, have fair com- 
lexions, with blue eyes, and reddish hair: one race of them 
has black eyes^ , and black hair — these are said to be descended 
from the Arabs of the tribe of JLwx ^^^Ju Ghusaz. Between 
Magreb and the country of the Blacks, there are deserts, of 
which but a few places are accessible by any road. Between 
AAJuJt Afiikiah and vi^^lj Tahouth, there is a small tribe», 
called ol^ Sberah*, 

The kings of Andahis are of the Beni Ommiah family, and the. 
Abbassides have not yet had the Khuibah^ in their name. These, 
kings .of Andalus are descended from Ud^lo^ (^ JJL 
Hesham hen Ahdalmolk, and still have the Khutbah in their^ 
own name. Their kings, at this time, are Ahdarrahman Mo^^ 
hammad ben Ahdallah.hen Mohamnied.Ahdarrahmaji^. 

^ Sec Note, p. afr." 

t ^^ps^J!^ 0^ «W^ (2^ ^ <XAa * (23^<>4Ni^^ (j-^^y <^ '^^ original has«^ 
^^L&^L kings, in the plural. But it appears that our author alludes to Abdarralmian^ . 
the third of that name, who (according to D*Herbelot, art. Abdalrahman) reigned 6o 
years in Spain, and died in the year of the Hegira 350, (A. D. 961), after violent con^^- 
testa about the.rig^t of suocefCon between the Ommiades and Abbassides. 

( 29 ) 

Account of Egypt: 



One of the boundaries of Egypt b^ns from the ^jj c^bjii 
Sea ofRoum, between ajjcXaXmiI Isfcanderia/i (Alexandria) and. 
i3jj Barkah, at the deserts behind ^Jj fTahh; proceeding to the 
land of the. Nubians, and to the land of Aar^ Bajeh, and back 
from (^U>wi Asouan to the Sea of Roum; and from Bajeh, 
to the ^ilS C^ljji^ Sea of Kolzum (the Red Sea), till it comes 
to the Uaj*» j^ Tour Sina (Mount Sinai), in the territories of 
the Child]?en ^of Israel; ^ 

From the coast of the Sea of Roum to the land of the Nubians 
biehind ^Jj Wdhh, is twenty-five merhileh. From the borders of 
Nubia you must go eight merhileh to the south; from ^jA^ 
Kolzum, on the coast of the Red Sea, to the Jolj**il (^ aaj 
Tiah heni Israel, or Desert of the IsraeHtes, six merhileh ; and 
from the sea to the borders of that Desert,- or Tiah, where it is 
bounded by the Sea of Roum, eight merhileh ; from ^^1^ I Asouan^ 

to the Sea of Roum, twenty-five merhileh. 


Now we present a map of this country;. 

( ao ) 

The chief city of Egypt is called LUami Fostat,* situated on 
the bank of the River Jk^* Nile to the north. The Nile flows 
from the east ; and all ^lis city is situated on one side of it. 
Near to it are certain edifices, called v t!j^ Jezireh, or the Island, 
to which they pass from Fostat on a bridge ; and from this 
Jezireh they have constructed a bridge to the other bank, 
where there is a place called vjA^^^ Jeirah. The extent of the 
city is about two thirds of a l^sang c it is very well inhabited, 
and supplied with provisions ; all their houses are seven or eight 
Stories high. Near the town is a place called <JiSj^ Mouekaf, ^ 
the soil of which is less marshy^ and more firm and solid. It is 
said that Fostat was the name of a certain tribe. 

1-y^ Hamra is a town situated on the bank of the river Nile. 
It has two principal mosques ; one in the middle of the town, 
built by (ji^lx (^ Jrr^ Amru hen Aas ; and the other in the 
place called 'wiS^ Mouekaf, erected by {^^^ {j-i j^ Laaher 
hen TouLovn. Without the town is a certain place of above a 
mile in extent, which that Laaher Touloun caused to be built for 
his troops : this they call ^U^ Fetaia or Ketaia. • In like man- 
ner were the dwellings, called ^OUI Afadeh, of the u^Jxl ijT 
AUi-Agleh (or family of Agleb), situated without the town oi^\jjf3 
Kirouan. In this place agriculture is much practised. 

♦ Fostat is now, according to Mr. Browne (Travels, p. 80), " A long street, 
running parallel to the river, and occupying part of the space between Kahira (Cairo) 
and its bank." Of modem Cairo the foundation was laid A. D. 968. 

( 31 ) 

There are great quantities of dates, and many com fields, along 
the banks of the Nile, from that to near (^1^1 Asouan, and to 
the borders of ajjOsJJCmI Eskanderiah. AVhen the weather be- 
comes very wariji, the water increases ; and when it sinks, they 
sow their grain ; after thftt, there is no necessity for water. In 
the land of Egypt there falls not either rain nor snow ; nor is 
there in the whole country any running stream beside the river 

MjM Fioum is hot a very considerable town. It is said that 
the prophet Joseph, on whom be the blessing of God ! brought 
the water to that place, and called it CJ^J/ Lahout : And there 
is not any person who knows the fountains or source of the river 
Nile ; •on this account, because it issues from a cavern in the ter- 
ritories of j^^ij Zinghar, from a certain spot, which a man 
may very nearly approach, yet never can arrive at : after this, it 
runs through the inhabited and desert parts of the land of the 
Nubians to j^c^ Misr (Egypt) ; and there where it first becomes 
a river, it is equal to the vc^l J j AXs^i^ Deljeh and Frat (Tigris 
and Euphrates.) And the water of the Rjver Nile is the most 
pure and delicious of all the waters on the face of the earth. 

The Nile produces ^^J^^>y^ crocodiles, and the fish j^juJuw /^U 
sekenkour : and there is also a species of fish, called oO^\j raa- 
dah, which if any person take in his hand while it is alive, that 


( 33 ) 

person will be affected by a trembling of his body* ; when dead^ 
this fish resembles other fishes. The crocodile's head is very long^ 
so long as to be one half of his whole form ; and he has such 
teeth, that, if a Hon were to come within their hold, he would be 
destroyed. It sometimes happens that the crocodile comes out of 
the water on the dry ground ; but he has not then the same powers 
as when in the water. EQs skinis so hard that it resists the blows 
of all weapons when stricken on the back : they therefore wound 
him where the fore l^s join the body (literally, under the arm 
pits) J and between the thighs. The jJuiuj sekenkour is a 
species of that fish (the crocodile), but the croqodile has hands 
and feet ; and they use the sekenkour in medicinal and culinary 
preparations. This creature is not found any where but in the 
river Nile. • 

From (^1^1 Asouan, along the batiks of the Nile, as far as 
the sea, the country is all inhabited and cultivated. On the 
southern side of the Nile there is a place called u\ax>m Saied, 
where are mines of tX^^^-j^ zeherjed*, and emeralds (Ow«J zem- 
md) far in the desert ; and beside these there are not any mines 
of those precious stones. On the northern side of the river Nile, 

• The original is very obscure : it may signify that the fah*s body is afiected by aa 
extraordinary tremulous motion while life remains, 
t Chrysolite, kind of emerald, topaze, beryl, &c. 

( 33 ) 

near Fo8tat> there Is a certain hill^ called Jdx^ Moazem, in die 
Ticinity of which is found the stone ^jiJ^L^ khemahen; and 
this hill extends to the land of ^e i^lijj lounans (Greeks) : And 
near that hill^ in the district of Fostat^ is a buiying-place, where 
the tomb of Shafsei^ is situated ;— the Lord be merciful to him { 

^ujcXaXmjI Eskanderia, Alexandria^ is a considerably town, 
built on the sea-side : the houses, and other edifices, are of marble. 
And out in the sea there is a o^UU minareh, or watch-tower, of 
hard stone, and very lofty ; it contains about three hundred houses : 
No one without a guide can arrive there. 

Of the buildings at Fostat, on thie bank of the Nile, all 
that are above the city are called cXxxm^ Saied, and all that are 
below the city are called ^^iij 2^if. At the distance of two far- 
sai^ from Fostat, there are some ancient structures, called Jj^\ 
Ahouam; of which two are very lofty piles, and called (^U^ 
How nan : these are each, in height, four hundred y guz\ : And 
on the walls thereof are inscriptions written in the Greek language 
{^\jyS) ; ahd^this writing is said to signify, " the building of 
^ Hounuin and Sertaier {was) in the sign Cancer X.'* These 

* ^li» One of the chief Doqtors of the Mussulmans, who was born at Gaza, A, H. 
150, (A. D. 767,) and died A. H. 204, (A. D. 819.) 

t See the Preface. 


(, 34. ) 

edifices are quadi:!mgular> and, gradually diimnish towards the 
summits, which are about large enough for a caimiel to stand on ; 
within them there are passages in which a man cannot go without 
some difficulty. And in Houman is a cleft, or excavation, under 
the ground, supposed to have heen, with some appearance of pro- 
bability, the burial-place of the ancient sovereigns of this country. 

. The land of c^Ui*lj fFafiat ,was a pleasant -and ctiltivated 
district, with trees, and water, and matiy inhabitants ; but nond 
at present remain. It abounded also in fruits. From the Egyptian 
Saied jkq^ ^^^t^-^^ Saied Misr, to the land of ^\j.ff7ihh, in the 
south, is a journey of three days ; arid from that a small desert 
extends towards the land of the Blacks. ' v 

The sea which borders Egypt ip bitter ; but whwe the river 
Nile poiu"s into it, and overcomes it, the. waters of the sea- are 
rendered sweet. Farther out, when the waters of the Nile are 
confounded with the sea, the bitterness again predominates. In 
this sea there are islands, to which one may pass ovier in. boats or 
Vessels. Of these islands are ^jmaJu Tenets (or xj**^ Teihes\ 
and LU^^ Damiat. In each of these agriculture is practised, 
and cattle are kept ; and the kind of clothes called ^^j rejia, (dr 
2^aSj rekia), comes from these places. 

The waters of this sea are not very considerable, and vessels 

( aa ) 

move on it by help of men^. It produces a certain fiah lX^ 
like meshkf, which is called (jjSii^ delfin (dolphin) ; and tins 
is a fish of which if any person eat, he will be troubled with hor- 
rible dreams. From the. borders of this sea, to those of the sea of 
Am Syria, it is all sand. 

. The town of m«jua^I Ashmouein is small, but well-inhabited^ 
and unproved by agriculture; it produces dates: ahd opposite 
(j^ju^yMjl Ashmoueiti, on the north of the river Nile, there is a 
httle town called J^jJ Bouseir, where Merwan heruMohammed 
was slain. It is said that the magicians of Pharaoh were from 
this jMij BjBSein {pt jtt^yi Bouseir, as beforie written.) 

(^1^1 Asouan is a place which produces dates. Agriculture 
is there much practised, 

wkyTiLl Akhmim is situated amid the sands of the desert ; but 
it is inhabited, and affords dates. It is said that DhuVNounXi 
the Egyptian, was of this, place. . 

, • • • , 

L«y Ferma is situated on the sea-shore. It is a pleasant and 
cultivated spot. In it is the burial-place of fjf^jX^[:ji^ Jalinous 

t Meshky or mlshk^ signifies mush. 

X (jj>^' ^^ Much celebrated among the Mussulmans for his piety, and founder of 
4he religious sea called Soufi, died in-EgypU A, H. MS (A. D. 859.) 

F 2 

< «0 ) 

(Oalen) the Grecian. From Fenna to ^jujSj Tweis u a distance 
of two farsang by this sea. 


Teneis is a vast pile or heap erected oyer thfe bodies of die dead^ 

• • • • 

which were placed one above another until they formed a pile ; 
which pile was called ^ J Terkown : and this must have been 
done before the time of Mbses^ on whom be the peace and bless- 
ing of God ! — for, in the time of Moses, according to the religion 
of the Egypidans, the dead were interred— -a custom whidi w^s 
continued afterwards by die Christians, and is still practised by 
the Mussulmans. The author of this book says, that he himseff 
had seen some of those bodies in their shrouds, or winding-sheets; 
with bones and skeletons of immense size. 

There are some places on the river Nile which the croco^es do 
not infest, near Fostat and Bouseir ; and the (j*-v**^ ' {j^ Aien-- 
aUshems, or Fountain of the Sun, lies to the south of Fostat. 
These two places are said to have been villas or pleasure-houses of 
Pharaoh. On the top of Mount Jom^ Moazem there is a place 
which they call the stove or furnace {jy^) of Fharaoh. 

In the vicinity of Fostat, there grows a plant, called j^mjAj 
balsam, from which the oil is extracted. This is not to be 
found in any other part of the world* 

The lefl side of the Nile is called w[^ Khouf. In this divi^ 

i i^ ) 

%ion are sittiated AMaL^ Kiasah, and jf^f^ Jerjeir, and^^U 
Kdkour. The c^posite division, on the right side of the river 
Nile, they call 'wSl) Zeif. These two places contain the 
chief villages of Egypt. The gold mines are in the land of Aa^ 
Bajeh. From (^1^1 Asouan to that place is a journey of fifteen 
farsang. The country where those mines are situated is sandy^ 
and without any hills, fields, or tilled land : it furnishes slaves for 
Egypt. Th^re are asses and mules, of considerable value, in Egypt : 
no other country produces such. The district of Asouan afibrds 
asses not larger than sheep, which will not live when brought out 
of that country; and in the land of cXax»m Saied there are Sclavo- 
nian asses, (^yji^ (j^f^ Kheran SiJclahi. The Egyptians say 
that the land of Khefa, or ^UUaL Khefakar, was inhabited and 
cultivated in the time of Pharaoh. 

Description of Sham, or Syria. 

The western side of Syrm is bounded by j^j^ Rown*; the 
eastern, by the desert from aAjI Aileh to the v^l J Forat (river 
Euphrates), and from the Euphrates to the borders of Roum. To 

* Perhaps the word b^ {Sea) hat beenlierc omitted : The Sea of Roum, or Mcv 

( 38 ) 

the north of Syria lies the land of Roum; and to the south are th^ 
borders of Egypt, and the Jof^l ^^ aaj' Tiah heni Israel, 
or Desert of the Children of IsraeL 

("Map of Syria. J 

Of the cities and towns which are situated on the east and 
west of Syria, it is unnecessary here to make any mention, as we 
have already pointed them out in the map. Some places are 
called AiijAju Seghur Sham, or frontiers of Syria: others are 
called o-ii^ Seghur Jezireh, or frontiers of Arabian Irak, or 
Mesopotamia, because all bordering on one half of the Euphrates 
belongs to Syria; and from axIoLo Meltiah to {J^j^ Meraash 
is called the Seghur of Jezireh, because people of Jezireh reside 
there, and it belongs to Syria. 

The hills of ^ KJ ojf LeJcam extend for two hundred farsang 
into Roum; and the OLmI jI^ Dar aVsalam (the mansion of 
salvation or peace) is between Meraash and JuJjjld Harauniah ; 
and the euj I ^jj^ Aein Arbah, or Fountain of Arbah. After having 
passed JiA^oJ Ladikiah, it is called ^K) o^ Mount Lekam. 
From that, the continuation of this mountain is called j^^ Soukh, 
as far as (j^ezsr*^ Memehes ; and from that, throughout all Syria, 

( 3Q ) 

■ • 

it is called ^jUJ Libnan (Lebanon), till it comes near the Sea of 
Kciznm (Red Sea.) The borders of i^^A^t^Ai Palestine are two. 
days journey to the west, from the place called x^ Remaa to 
the borders of jij^ Behour ; and the breadth of the borders of 
Palestine, on the western side, is also, from that place to UUb 
Bilkd^ two days journey; and the land of the tribe of Lot, 
i^ ^j3 (Sodom, &c.) and ojs^ Baherah, and Taberah, all that 
is situated between the two mountains, they call jji: Ghour. 
It is lower down than the land of Syria; and part of it is 
reckoned as belonging to {^^j\ Arderiy and part to Palestine. 
The water of Palestine is rain water, Palestine is about one half 


of Syria ; and the chief cities of it are aX^ Ramleh^ and the 
Q#AjJiyJI OiAj Beit-almokeds, Holy House, or Jerusalem, which 
iB situated on a hill. Here is a mosque (cXs:***^), or temple, than 
which there is not, in all the land of the Mussulmans, one more 
large. Here also is the v^I jss!^ Mehrah, the chief altar of David, • 
on whom be peace! — a building of about fifty guz high, and 
thirty broad, of stone. On the top of this is the Mehrab of 
David; and this is the first object that presents itself as one comes 
from Ramleh. 


At a distance of six miles from Jerusalem is a village called 
^^sr*^' Caaj BeitAllehem (Bethlehem or Bethlem.) Here 
Jesus, on whom be peace! was.boim of his mother; and it is 


said that the date or palm tree, of whose fruit Mary ate. 

( 4(> ) 

tod which is celebrated by mention in the Koiatif^ has been?, 
placed in the dome or vault which is here, and held in high ve- 
neration and respect. 

From Bethlehem, on the southern side, there is a small town, 
called the >>^'yl Ocsc***^ Mesjed Ibrahim, or Temple of Abra- 
ham : and in the mosque where they pray on the high feasts, are 
the burial places of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, (may peace be 
on them!) and those of their wives are opposite. Here are many 
hills and trees : all the hills of Palestine are covered with trees ; 
and there is much fruit, olives, and figs. 

^j*AjIJ Naholis is a town of which the inhabitants are called 
(^.j^Lm Samarian; a people who have not any other residence* 

In the extreme borders of Palestine, in the vicinity of Egypt, 
there is a city, called oic Ghazah, which ^JJIcXxc (j^ jJL\J> 
Hashem ben Abdullah conquered^ and in which /^xiU* Shafcei^ 


was bom. 


iJ\j^Jebal, and of Ja Sherah, are two well inhabited and 
pleasant districts. The chief town of Jebal is called o;Ol Ade- 

* Koran, chapter 19, ^^ Cr^^ Chapter of Mary, 
t Sec Note, p. 33, 

( 41 ) 

mh; of Sherah, Rouad. These have been conquered by the \ 


{jC^j\ Arden, the chief town of which is AjyJL^ Tiberthah, or 
Tiberiah, on the banks of the cC^aJ" (S^.J^ Small Sea, or lake/ 
whose wateis are sweet, and its length twelve miles, and its breadth 
two or three &rsang. — Here is a running stream of water, very 
warm, which goes on for about two farsang, and, when it reaches 
the town, is exceedingly hot. 

In the. district of j^ Ghour, snow is almost imknown; but 
dates, and streams, and fountains, abound. It commences at the 
borders of {^Ckj\ Arden; and when it passes them, it extends to 
the boundary of Palestine, and in like manner reaches to aJLjI 

jy^ Sour (Tyre) is a very strong town, situated on the sea- 
shore. It is the most ancient of all the cities on the coast ; 
and all the Grecian philosophers (^Luj (jL^J^ came from this 
place. o^J^ Arden was the dwelling-place of Jacob, to whom 
be peace! 

Demeshk (Damascus) is a chief city, the right hand 
of the cities of Syria.^ It has ample territories among tlie 

f U tfU^ ^^^. '^^J^jji tfj<A 

( 4* ) 

fifiGFuntains; and is well watered by streams which flow arouod. 
The land about it produces trees, and is well cultivated by husband* 
men. This tract is called Asjt Ghouteh. It extends about one 
merhileh by two. There is not, in all Syria, a more delightful 
place. There is a bridge in the midst bf the city of Demeahk, by 
which a horseman may pass over the il^rater, which goes on to the 
villages cf Ghouteh, and runs amongst their imis^ and hot-baths^ 
and shops. 

Here is one of the largest mosques in all the land of the Mus- 
sulmans, part of which was built in ancient times by the (^Lw''^ 
Sabians. Then it fell into the possession of the Greeks, and 
became a place of religious worship to them. Aft^ that, it fell 
into the hands of the Jews, and of certain princes who adored 
idols ; and at that time they put to death Yahiah, the son of Za- 
chariah, bj/o ^JJ (<^ t^ whom be peace ! and fixed his head 
upon a pole, before the gate of this temple, at the place which 
they call ^jf^ vL* Bab Jeroud (probably ^^^^ Jews*-gate.) 
It then passed into the hands of the Quistians, who performed in it^ 
likewise, their religious ceremonies, until, at length, it came into 
the possession of the True Believers (the Mussulmans), to whom it 
serves as a mosque. At the same spot where the head of Tahia 
ben Zachariah had been fixed, the head of Hosein, the son of Ali, 
to whom be peace ! was also exposed. JFalid ben Abd-aUMolk, 
^<SS^\ cXac ^JJ OuJj in his time, caused this building to be 
repaired, and beautified with pavements of marble, and also pil- 

( 4S ) 

lars of vari^ted marble, the tops of wbidbi were ornamented 
with gold, and studded with precious stones, and all the ceiling 
he caused to be eorered with gold; and it is said that he ex- 
pended the revenues of all Syria on this work. 

Beyond the borders of D.emeshk is UCJju Baalbek, situated 
on an eminence. Here are the gates of palaces, sculptiiu-ed in 
marble ; and lofty columns, also of marble. In the whole region 
of Syria, there is not a more stupendous or considerable edifice 
than tibis. 

^j*Ju\Ja TraJbolis (Tripolis) is a town on the shore of 
the fiea c^ Roum, well-inhabited, and abounding in dates. The 
diief town of this district is (j>^,a^ Hemes (Emessa), a place 
well-supplied with provisions, and of excellent air. The inhabit* 
ants are celebrated as being handsome. Neither scorpions nor 
serpents are found here. It is copiously watered ; the lands are 
oultiTated, and rthere are many trees. There is also a church 
l(AA»MiJLr aOlusistbonehurch, JEccZes/a), to which there is not, in size, 
way church of Syria isqual : <mt half of this building is a church ; 
the other;, a mosque. The streets here are paved with stone. 

QM^ Jo}! Aztarsous^ is a castle or fortress, situated on the 
coast of the Sea of Roum. AMjjk^A^M Selmisa is a town on the 

* The syUaUcjyt Az seems to have been prefixed through mistake or carelessness. 

6 2 

( 44 ) 

borders of the desert: most of the inhabitants are t^^li^ Hashes 
mites. The district of Kanserin ^jj-mJo oj^ is the pass be*- 
tween Irak and Syria. jy>^ Shehirz and L^^^ Hema are two 
small towns, agreeably situated, with good water, and many 
trees, and much cultivated land, qm^^k^ Mesres is a town and 
district supplied with rain water. oyAjcL Khenaserah is a small 
town on the borders of the* desert. 

JLsai^l^ Gherahelm is ft district, of which the chief town is 
aaJTUojI Antdkiah. After Demeshk, there is not any place more 
delightful. It has a fortification of stone, and abounds in planta- 
tions of palm and other trees, cultivated fields, water, and mills, 
Round the territories a horseman may go for two days. The Water 
flows through the streets, and amidst the chief buildings. There is 
a place which they call the t^j^ ^r*^ Sekhreh Mousi, or Rock 
of Moses, to whom be peace ! 

(j*J \J Balis is a town on the banks of the river Euphrates* 
^i^^ Menje is situated in the desert : rain-water is made use of 
there. A3rA-*^ Saiheh is a small town, where there is a bridge of 
stone, called the A3z^^ »j1^ Kentereh Saiheh, than which, in 
all the land of Islam, there is not a more extraordinary bridge. 
LLwjkY*** Samisat is a town situated on the river Euphrates. 
jy£tX^ (jj<a^^ Hysn Mansour is a small fortress, the land about 
which is watered with rain-water : here are oratories and mosques. 
vi^cX^ Hedeth end (j^t< Meraash are two small towns, plea- 

( 45 ) 

sandy situated^ with trees and cultivated lands. »jtyj Zeitrah 
is a considerable fortress in the vicinity of Roum (Natolia), and 
the4{.oumians have sacked and plundered it. auvJj^l^ Harou^ 
niah is situated to the west of the ^ K) ^jf^ Mount Lekam : it is 
a small castle, erected by order of Haroun Arrasheid* 

^ujjOJSm\ Eskanderouiah is a fortress situated on the coast 

of the Sea of Roum : it is small, but has some plantations of date 

> • 

trees. o'-^Vi^ Nethinan is a fortress on the sea-coast : from this 
place they send into Egypt and Syria the wood of the fir-tree, 
( -jaJLa^)- A*wjkj Keisah is also a castle or fortress on the sea- 
shore, ^jij (i>^ Aien-Tkiriah is a place which produces dates 
and other fruits, and much com. 

dj^OLK^a^ Masisah and \^jjJl^ Kufertoiuna are two towns 
situated on the banks of the river ^isd^^^ Jihan. Between these 
two towns there is a bridge of stone. The situation of these 
towns is so high, that if a person should look, from the top of the 
mosque, he would see almost as far as the ocean. aJol Adneh is 
a little town, about half the size of Masisah, on the banks of a 
small river called ^jls-i^ Seihan. The town is pleasant,, and 
well-supplied. The river Seihan is less than the river Jihan : 
over it there is a very lofty bridge of stone. Both the Seihan and 
Jihan come from Roumu 

{j^j^Ja Tarsous is a considerable town, with a double wall of 

( 46 ) 

Stone. The inhabitants are valiant men, horsemen, and fond of war* 
like achievements. It is a strong and pleasant place. From it to the 
borders of Roum are many hills and mountains of difficult aaeent. 
They say that in Tarsous there are above a thousand horsemen ; 
and in all the chief cities of Islam, such as Seiestan, and Kirman, 
and Pars, and Khuzistan, and Irak, and Hejaz, and Egypt, there 
are inns, or public places, appointed for the pe<^le of tliis town. 

Q^i'jl Awlas is a fortress situated on the sea-shore : the inha* 

|>itants are a people who worship God* ; and it is the ex- 
treme boundary of the Mussulman territories on the coast of tlic 
Sea of Roum, m3j Rekem is a town situated near UJLj Bilka: 
all the walls and houses are of stone, in such a maimer that one 
would imagine they were all of one piece. 

The land of the tribe of Lot (iaj)^) is called AjJLiLyJI vj^^l 
Aredz - Almokloubah ; that is, the land turned upside-down. 
Neither com, nor herbage, nor cattle, are foimd here : the ground 
is black ; and stones are seen scattered about, which one would 
imagine to be the stones showered down on that wicked racef . 

t Sec Koran, %ar^' '^^^ chapter ofHejr, (so called from a district in the province 

3^- y^ cj^ ^^ u>.5 ^i^Jis L. i«Ji* uw ^^ i::cct«i' f^i^ii 

" Wherefore a terrible storm from Heaven assailed them at sun>rise, and we turned 

( ^1 > 

^^bu Moan is a small town in possession of the {i^ Ls^) 


Ommiades. (j^'t^J Bagheras is a town in which there are publick 
inns, erected by ocXjjJ Zeibdeh, or Zebideh ; and in all Syria 
there are not any besides, ^^jf** Serout is a pleasant town, in 
the district of Demeshk, on the borders of the Sea of Room. 
Auzai, the author of the Chronicles 9 dwelt there*. 

Distances of Places in Sham and Jezireh. 

The length of the roads of Sham is taken from AxiqAJU Meli-^ 
tiah to i^j Remah. From Melitiah to ^^ Menje is four days 
journey; from Menje to v^L^ HaZe&, Aleppo, two days jour- 
ney ; from Haleb to (j^^^^ Hemess, five days journey ; and fron* 
Hemess to v-Jimj^^ Demeshk, five days journey; from aJU^ 
Ramlah, to ,^^ Remah, two days journey : total, twenty-five 
days journey. Between ^j^l Ardeny and {^^'^ Hemess, and 
v.Jimj^^ Demeshk, the extent is not more than a journey of 

the city (Sodom) upside down, and rained on them stones of baked clay," The first 
passage is translated by Maracci, (Alcor. Vol. II. p. 383,) " Sustulit erg^i eos clamor 
(Gabriclisj ad ortum soils pervenientes." I have offered some remarks on this passage 
in the Oriental Collections, Vol. I L p. 131, 

( 48 > 

three days ; because that from Demeshk to ^jmJUI Jd TrdboUs is a 
journey of two days along the sea towards the west ; from the 
extremity of dXayt Ghoutah, to that place where it joins the desert 

towards the east, is a journey of one day ; from Hemess to ^u^^jJLmi 
Selimiah, in the desert, one day's journey to the east ; from 
ajjaL Tiheriah to jya Sour, in the water (l-^I j^), one day*s 
journey ; from that to the borders of v^Jui FeiJc, in the territories 
of the vj^f L5^ Beni Farareh, to the east, about the same 

Such are the length and breadth of Syria; and the distances 
from one place to another are these, beginning from Palestine, 
which is the chief part of Syria to the south, and its capital ^Xcj 
Ramlah, from which to the town of Lo;lj Barmah is half a 
merhileh ; from Palestine to (j^XiuwJC Ascalon, is one merhileh, 
to 9 j£ Azzah, one merhileh ; from Ramlah to the fj^OJi^ I 
Beit Almokeds, or Holy House (Jerusalem), one day's journey ; 
from llamlah to ^u^Lwjo Caisariah, one day's journey; from 
Ramlah to (j*AjLJ Naholis, one day's journey ; from that to y^ 
Zaar, one day's journey; from that to the o\Ji4 o^j Mount 
Sherah, one day's journey ; and from the Mount to the extremity 
of the country, three days joiuney. 

The chief town of ^OjV Arden (or Orden) is ^uydo Tiber- 
theh, or Tiberiah ; from which to^^^ Sour is a journey of two 

( 40 ) 

fiursang ; from that to (j^tyU Bahias, two days easy journey ; 
from that to a^ujJ^ Akehseh, one day's journey. i^C^JVArden 
is the smallest district of Syria. 

v.JumoO Demeshk is the chief town of the district of that 
name. From that to UCJiju Baalbek is a journey of two days ; 
and to Trabolis/two days ; and to IcXajw? Seida, two days ; and to 
lx;^l Aderaa, four days journey ; and to the extreme boimdary 
of Ghouteh, one day's journey ; to {j\jj^ Houran and ik/JuBeniah, 
two days journey. 

The chief town of tibe district of ^^-mjJo Kanserin bears the 
sam^ename; biit the governor's palace^ the markets/ great mosques^ . 
and public buildings^ are at u^ds^ Haleh.* From Haleb to v^Ij 
Thar eh is. one day's journey ; from Haleb to {j^j^ Kons, also one 
day's journey; and from Haleb to ^^Menje, two days journey. 

A^JllaJl Antdkiah is the chief town of the district of f^^ 
Gherasem. From that to ^uoOJ/ Ladikiahis a journey of three 
days : from that to (j^^j^ Bagheras is one day's journey, and to 
i-jjLi Thareb, two days journey ; and to Hemess, five merhileh: 
from that to (ji^y« Meraash, two days journey ; and to ^Oc^ 
Hedeth, three days journey. This frontier has not any common 
capital ; but each town is independent in itself. 

f^ Menje is situated near this frontier. From Menje to the 


( 50 ) 

Euphrates is one easy merhileh : from Menje to (jm^ KouSt two 
merhileh; and from Menje to aaIoJU Melitiah, four days journey ; 
and from Menje to LLMXy^ Sumisaty two days journey; and 
from Samisat tojyoX^ {^hrr^ Hysn Mansoijr, one day's journey; 
from Hysn Mansour to Melitiah, two days journey ; and from 
Hysn Mansour to vjxLxi Netirahy one day's journey; and frtmi 
Hysn Mansour to d^cXsw Hedeth, one day's journey ; and from 
Hedeth to (j^y« Meraash, a journey also of one day. 

Those are the distances of the Ojj^ jjju Seghur Jezirah. 

Now we proceed to the distances of places in the J^ j^^ 
Seghur Sham. From ^ujjOJJ^l Eskanderouiah to (jJj<j\ 
Anhas, is one merhileh. ; from Anbas to &^a^f>a^ Masisah, as far 
as Ajxil Aditheh, one day's journey; from Aditheh to (j^^vm J> 
Tarsous, one day's journey; from Tarsoiis to {j]jjss^ Houran, 
two days journey ; and from Tarsous to (j*^^jl Aulas, on the 
Sea of Rx)um, two farsang : from Anbas* to ^k***JJoKenisah, and 
AfJjjli^ Harouniah, one day's journey, or less ; and from Haroun- 
iah to Meraash, which belongs to the S^hour, or frontiers of 
Jbezireb, is a journey of one day. 

* (^LJt jfnias, undoubtedly the same that was before written crX^t Julas^ 

( «1 ) 

^X> f^' /^ 
Description of the Sea of Rown, or Mediterranean. 

The Sea of Roum is a bay or gulph^ proceeding from the great 
(dcean at qmJc>J| Andahis. Between 9 jAj^ Basireh, and between 
the lan4 of ax^ Tanjeh and z^f.^f^ Jezireh, there is a certain 
knoUntain^ which they call v,J[^lUl ^\j<s^Jehal al Tarek, situ- 
lited on the poi^t of the borders of Aridalus. At that place the 
breadth of this sea is twelve farsang ; and it becomes broader, 
and more considerable, ais it extends to the coast of Vt^ Magreh, 
on the eastern Side (of Gibraltar), till it approaches the lahd of 
Egypt, and from that proceeds towards Syria, along those places 
which we have above described : it turns, and passes by the cities 
of RouiA^ as far as aa/LUi I Antakiah ; then it joins the s^ 
which forms the bay of AxiJoxla^KO Costantiniah, Constantinople'; 
then it proceeds along the coast of (j*-UjJ ^i^^^ * ; then along 
^he coast of aa^ Roumiah ; and then to L-CLi Frank, France, 
^ong the shore to ^ouj^Jb Tarsousah, on the sea of Andalus ; 
and then, continuing along the coast of AndiEllus, it at last joins 
the ocean at Jebel al TanSk, opposite Basireh, and proceeds as 
for as {jJtf*^ Besirin, which is the extreme point of the land of 
> islam. 

• Or (^IaJI Anbas. 
H 2 

( 52 ) 

A.yAXS Kelimah, or ax^ Kelmiah, is a town which belonged 
to tlie cj^^jj Roumians; and there is a gate at fj^j^Ja 
Tarsous, which they call A^jJii i-jU Bab Kelimah, or the Gate 
of Kelimah* Kelimah is at a distance from the sea. About a 
merhileh*s distance from that, there is a village on the sea-shore, 
called (VNuo^ Lames ; from that village the country is Roum. 

aa/^UoiI Antakiah \b a very strong fortress, belonging to the 
Roumians, situated on the sea-shore. It is well-inhabited, and 
has many villages depending on it. The bay on which it is situated 
is of bitter or salt water ; and they call it the Bay or Gulph of 
Costantinah ^uuJqJLLmo ^f^ *' A chain is (or may be) drawn 
across this gulph, to hinder any one from passing there from the 
sea or elsewhere ;" ♦ and this gulph falls into the Sea of Roum. 

On the side of Roum there are shores which they call the coasts 
of Asas* (jJ^\ (Jo^l^ and Roumiah ^<^jj These are two 
well-inhabited and considerable towns, with villages and tilled 
lands : they belong to the Christians, and are situated near the 
sea. Asas is the place from which came the i^^jj, (^L^xXa^ 
(Grecian Philosophers. Roumiah is one of the props of the king- 
dom of the Christians ; they have one throne {i^J^) at Anta- 
kiah, one at ^jOJLCmI Eskanderouiah, and one at Roumiah; 
and the throne which they have at ^j^oJiyJ I cxu Beit al Mokeds 

• «^^ b^ jl A,i.C l^' u-.JC^lJ AiL Q J^ aLJL. jfA^ ^^ 

( 53 ) 

(Jerusalem) did not ddst in the time of the Apostles {^\jj\jsL), 
but has been introduced for the greater honour v and aggrandise^ 
ment of that city. From those places the sea prdceeds towards 
the coast of Udy Frank, and, passing by aaJULm 
(Sicily), goes on to a^j^hJo Tarsousah, belonging .to the land of 
(jiJoJl Andalus. 


I *. 

.We hayealrwdyspofcen of the cities, towns, and coasts, of 
Magreb, and Egypt, and Syria, to the extremity of Islam : it is 
not necessary to say more on those subjects. In this Sea of Roum 
there are islands, great and small. ^uJUua Sikaliah is the most 
considerable of them all,. There are, besides, omJoj J I Akrites, 
(j^j^ Kibres, and 4he moimt called iJXiUI Ju^^ Jehel al 
KellaL \- 

f . Sikalidiiiis nfeav/i'jrank: it is 9n island of near nine merhileh 
in extent ; and prodvtees more corn and proyisions, male slaves 
snid female attendajits^ and cattle, than any other island belong- 
ing to the Mussulmans, in this .sea. Akrites is a smaller island 
thai) .Sikdiliah: it is inhabit by the Mussulmans and (^bJL^ 
Ghaziqns ; and amoi^st them there is a tribe of Christians. The 
inhabitants of Kiln^ ai:e all Christian. Aluites is a very strong 
island : at present the inhabitants are on terms of peace with the 
Mussulmans. They bring /^XLaa* Mastiky fix)m Kibres to the 
countries, of Islam. 

( 54 ) 

The place called ^IXiUf ^^jfi^Jehelal KeUal has-been nmied^ 
but is now inhabited by Mussulmans i and it aifi^rds sufficient 
water and land. It is^ in extent, two days journey, situated on 
the frontiers of Frank ; but the Franks have not been able to get 
possession of it There are not, any where, shores so delightfully 
interspersed with buildings on both sides, as the ^ores of this 
sea. Here the ships of Mussulmans and of Infidels sail about, 
and sometimes oppose each other in battle, to the number of an 
hundred ships on each side. 


Description of Jezireh, or Mesopotamia. 

The tract of country called Je^^h is that which lies between 
the rivers ixJL:^^ Dejleh (Tigris) and CjtJ Forat (Euphrates.) 
The Forat rises in Roum, at a distance of two days journey from 
^uJoLo Melitiahy and then proceeds to LUaAvMi Samisat. On the 
eastern side of the river Dejleh, and on the western adB of the 
Forat, are various cities and towns, which are reckoned, oh ac- 
count of their vicinity, as belonging to Jezireh, although in fact 
not so. 

< t ■ . 

Now we shall lay before the reader a map of this country, 
with the names of its several cities* 

( « ) 

djja^ jbO oUU^ y^ 

JMstctnces of Places in Jexireh. 

■ . . ^ ■ - * 

• - 

From the source of the Euphrates (c>l J Forat) to the bordere 
of M^ti^hi to Samisat^ two days journey: from Samisat ta 
^^jT^ Hasermerye, four days journey ; to i3j Raccah, two 
days journey : from Racca to ^LjjI Anhar, twenty merhileh ; 
from c^Ju 2'acrith to Anbar^ two days journey; fromTacrith 
to ^^j^j^Mousid, six days journey j from Mousiil to O^ Amid, 
four days journey; from Amid to Samisat^ three days journey; 
from Samisat to Melitiah, three days journey; from Mousul to 
OJb Baled, one merhileh ; and from Bded to {j^f^M^ Nisibin, 
three merhUeh; from Nisibin to (ji^^l (j*^l^ila^-aZ-^^^ three 
merhileh: fpom Ras^-iden to a>" j Racca, a journey of four days. 

y^ Sr**^ J ^JT^ /^ 

Of the Towns and Districts ofJezireh, 

(^yJi^ Nisibin is rendered, by its river and delightful verdure^ 
one of the pleasantest places of Jezireh.. It is a considerable 
town, situated on a level ground^ watered by a stream which 

( 50 ) 

issues from a motintain called L?^ U Balousa, and thence pro- 
ceeds among the gardens and corn-fields. {^\i^S^ Cutdan is a 
place inhabited by Christians. It produces deadly scorpions : And 
thefe is a very strong castle or fortress, which caimot be taken by 
force of arms ; and the hill bn Which it is situated abounds in ser- 
pents, whose stings occasion death. In the vicinity of Nisibin 
there is a mountain called (^(>;U Mardein, which, from the 
bottom to the summit, measures two farsang ; and on it is another 
impregnable castle. This mountain produces chrystal (jAj). 

(J^j^j^ Mousid is a city, the buildings of which are all of stone 
and mortar: it is a considerable place. cXXj Beled is a small 
town on the banks of the river Dejleh (Tigris) to the west ; 
and there is a stream running out of the Dejleh : it is planted 
with trees, and has some cultivated lands, jtss^ Senjar is a 
town situated near a mountain, which produces date trees in great 
number ; and in all the land of Jezireh there is not any other 
place that produces dates, except CJLa^ Meileth, on the banks 
of the Euphrates. 

I^lo ^tyl Anhar Dara is a small town, with water and cul- 
tivated lands. LejjjiJ Kufertowna is situated on a plain : it is 
larger than Dara (the Anbar Dara before mentioned) ; it has 
streams, and trees, and cultivated fields. ^^^<ax)I (j^]j Ras-aU 
aien is likewise situated on a level ground. Cotton grows here 
in great abundance. Near three hundred streams proceed from 

this, spot : the watci: is so clear, that one may see whatever is at 
the bottom. Those streams are collected together, and are the 
source of the river (^[j^isLKhahouran, on which, as far as Um*S J 
Karkesia, there are about twenty hamlets and villages. Ras-al- 
aien is larger than Kufertouma, and has many trees, and much 
cultivated land. 

Os^ Amid is situated on the eastern side of the Dejleh (Tigris), 
and has strong walls^ trees> jand cultivated lands, j^ (^1 pt^^^ 
Je»ireh Ebn Omar is a small town, with' some trees, on the 
western side of the river Dejleh. JoLmx^jm Samisai is the last 
town of Jezireh, situated on the east of the Dejleh and Forat. 
aaLxLo Melitiah, and the JJis jjju Seghour Sham, or frontiers of 
Syria, as we before mentioned, are reckoned as belonging to 
Jezireh, because the people of that province occasionally reside in 
those places. aXjcX±i» Haditha is situated on the banks of the 
Dejleh, to the east; it has many com*fields, trees, and gardens. 
The river Dejleh runs by the skirts of the U^b ojS Mount 
Barma ; and 'V on these hills there are springs or fountains that 
yield gold dujst and bitiunen^;" and these mountains extend 
through Jezireh towards the westf , till they come to the borders 

1 1^^^ iSytt It certainly should be ^j& ^ym towards the east 

( M ) 
iff {ji^jf^ Kimutn : mnA it is isaid that theie are 4lie >iiioxiiitadnB of 

■J ^., 

y^ j^ f^ 

Description of Diar ModJiar. 

iautdl^ J ^J JRo^feJba and Rqfika iare two towns e£ this pr(>- 
irlncc, situated on the eastern side of the river Forat; they bodi 
liave mosques, and are planted with trees : and on the western 
side of the Forat, between Rctkka and ^j*JLj Bcdes, is the burial<» 
^lace of ^U {^jj^ Gmru-ften- Yaser. 

^jlOc^ Jedton is a town of middling size, inhabited by a race of 
peoplfe whom they call / ^U» Sabians. Their place of rel^ous 
worship is on a lofty pile or Ticap (OJLVj fjj -j), which tht^ 
ascribe to Abraham, on whom be the blessing of God ! This 
place they hold in high veneration ; esteeming it holy, and makii^ 
'pilgrimages to it from other quai^ers. There are but few tsree^ 
and little water at Jetton. 

t^j Zb/ia is a place of nearly the same size, llie Christians -are 

* ^1 JJmiL« or Nasedan q^^J^JJ But the word is so badly written> that the true 
reading may be quite different. 

( «o ) 

Hete predosniintnt In Urn town there are above three hundred 
churches or monasteries (ooLiJ jji^ (Unini). The land is well 
watered and enltirated; and there is here a Chrisdan chuich 
{(^[m^jJj), than which in all Islam there is not any greater. 

•• • • 

^A^^>M^ jra5ir Menje and JULmx^jm Samisat, a»e two town^ 
with gardens and cultivated lands^ well- watered ; both situated 
OR the western side of the river Forat. Li^ Jl KarkUa is on the 
banks of the river ji^U^ Khabour: it abounds in fine prospects, 
cultivated lands, and gardens. ^jLx ^ UULe ams^ Rahabah 
Malek ben Tawk is a town, well-watered, and planted with 
trees, situated on the eastern side of the river Forat. l^-sa^ Heith 
IS cm the western side of the Fbrat 2 it has k strong castle, and is 
opposite vi^ Ju Tacrith. Tacrith isi situated on the western side 
of the river Dgleh. jtyl Anbar is a town of middling size> 
aXJU w»jUJt (jmLoJI ajI Abou al Abbas al Kaiem Billah resided 
tfaere^ and the remains of his palace are still visible. It is a plea- 

smt place, prddtidng ^ceellent crops, and good provisions and 
dates. The territories of this place are ert«isive ; and there is in 
lesareh a race of people, ftom aaju; Rebcda and ja^ Medhar, 
who possess horses, and mules, and sheep. Some of these people 
dwell in the desert, and some in the villages on the borders of 

(^^julj Zabein (the two Zabs) are considerable streams ; each 
about half as great as thcDcjleh. They rise among the mountains 

I 2 

( Oo ) 

of ^; Kib jCTT Azerhaigan. Of these the larger is that wfaicH 
runs towards aJocX^ Haditheh. These streams forbi part of the 
i^yer Dejleh, and water the district of o^^Lm Samerah. 

ajLc Aaneh is a small town, situated where the river Forat 
forms a "bay or gulph. This place is called the d^^km^ (^j^^^^^^ 
Jfysn Maselamah. They say that it belonged to Moselamah ben 
Abdal Mulk. A branch of the Ommiades (aa^I iJ^ Beni-Oni'^ 
miah) is settled there* It is a pleasant place, and well-supplied 
with provisions. It belonged to (^jjJj\ j^\ (^ (j^^ Abbas 
ben al Omar al Gharvoui^ 

^U»** i^. J^ ^^^ ^^^'* Seiar (the heap or pile of the sons of 
Seiar) is a small town, inhabited by a tribe of Arabs of the 

Beni Ghunni, 

(CO^ Joudi is a mountain near Nisibin. It is said that the 
Ark of Noah (to whom be peace !) rested on the summit of this 
mountain. At the foot of it there is a village called (jj^lyj The^ 
mabin ; and they say that the companions of Noah descended 
here from the ark, and built this village. 

^^ Ser^^^e i> a large town, abounding in fruit, at the dUtance 
of one merhileh from the town of (^ I ^a^ Jeran. 

( 01 ) 

Vjc vjJi^ yo 

Description of Irak Arahi. 

The length of Irak is taken from ^^,J^ Tacrith to ^loUc 
Ahadani and the breadth^ from c^lOou Baghdad to dijf'Cufa, 
to A>^03 Cades iah, to (^t^As^ Bolwan; and from L^\j Wdset, 
to v.^Ji3 JSTeZ^^, and y^y> Karkoub ; and from oy^ Basrah to 
the borders of ^^^^ Hey; and from Tacrith to jjJjy^ Shehr^ 
zour, and the' borders of HolWan and ^Uwy^ Seirwan, and o_aad 
Seimereh, and the borders of uaxU TeiZ;, and of (j^j^ Sus ; 
again to He J, to the seal. From Tacrith to the sea there is> 
according to the liile we have described^ a considerable inflexion^ 
or winding, towards the west, behind the Ol^ souad* of Basrah 
in the desert ; to the sonad of Basrah, as far as ^.Uoj Betaiah ; 
to the sonad of aSaJ^ Cufd^ to the river Forat, to^tjJl Anbar, 
to v^ Ju' Tacrith, between the rivers Dejleh and Forat ; and m 
this lihe.of borders ^om the sea to Tacrith, there is likewise a 


winding or curve. 

* The villaget and 9mall towns of Irak are, in general, called souad. 

( 6« ) 


Ijc cA^Lw^ 

Distances of Places in Irak. 

From Tacrith to the sea-shore^ by the wuiding line cm the 
eastern side, is a joumej of one month ; and from the sea to 
Tacrith^ by the outline on the western side^ is likewise a journey 
of one month. From Baghdad to oy«W Samereh is a distance of 
three merhileh ; and from Samereh tip Tacrith, two merhileh : 
from Baghdaa to Cufa, four merhileh ; from Cufa to Aj^i^ 
Cadesiah, one merhileh: from Bi^hdad to Lm^Ij JFasety eight 
merhileh; and from Baghdad to ^UW Holwrni, six merhileh: 
from the borders of ^j^^^ Seimereh and (^ ^Jrf^ Seirwan, the 
same distance. From Waset to oyAf Basrah is a distance of eight 
merhileh ; from Cufa to Waset, six merhileh ; from Basrah to the 
sea, two merhileh : from Holwan to Cade»ah^ eleven merhileh. 
The breadth, from Ow«Ui Samereh, on the banks of the river 
Dejleh, to the borders of jjjjJ^ Shehrzout* and ^jlac?'- Ij^ciT 
Azerbaijan, is a distance of fifteen merhileh, or perhaps one 
merhileh more ; and4he breadth at Waset, four merhileh ; and the 

* Called, by the modem Turks, Shekfrzoul. According to Persian Chronicles, 
Alexander the Great died at this place. — See the " Epitome of the Ancient History cf 
Persia^' page 26* 

( 08 ) 

bfeadth of 'Basrah, from tbe city of Basrah to the borders of Hej, 
is ^ne merhildL 

ISuch axe the distances of places in Irak Arabi. 

• • * 

Accouni of the Cities and Towns of Irak Arahi. 

# - - 

oy^ Basrah is a considerable city, the foundation of which 
was laid in the time of vyLLs: (^ ~c Omar ehn Alkhitah — 
(may God reward him!) — and the building performed by 
o'jt^ <iH' *-I^ Athah ehn Ghazouan. On the western side 
of Basrah the desert approaches, which is without water. ^' It is 
'* said, that the rivers or streams of Basrah were reckoned in the 
time of Belal ben Abi Bordeh> and amounted to the number of 
one hundred and twenty thousand streams, on which boats were 
employed. Thisaxiecdote astonished me : I went there, and be- 
*' held, within the space of about an arrow's single flight, several 
" small streams, on which little boats were employed*/' 




( 64 ) 

The extent of Basrah comprises about fif^ farsang from /y#»1t 
Sey, to (^loUc Jbadan,which is the palm-plantation ((^U^wJLdkr') 
of Basrah. At Basrah is the tomb of aJU IcXac (^ as;^ Tal- 
hah hfn Abdallah ; may God reward him ! And there are several 
places^ also, to which pilgrimages are made ; such as the tomb of 
jf.f^ ^ 'ysr Al Hara hen Serir, and other learned men. The 
rirer ciLdbj Zohad runs four farsang: it is so thickly interspersed 
with villas and gardens, that you would imagine the whole place 
was one garden. Many streams belong to this place, and palm- 
trees are here in great number. When the water of the sea rises 
or increases, the waters of those streams go back amongst the 
gardens, and fields, and orchards ; and when the water of the 
sea sinks or diminishes, the river- waters return to their channels, 
but are all brackish, or of a bitter taste. dSj\ Ableh is situated 
on this river ; and there is a dangerous place, called Hawer Ableh, 
in it, against which vessels from the sea must be well guarded, 
lest they should be sunk there. Ableh is a small town, but well 
supplied with * provisions, and pleasantly situated, one side being 
towards the Dejleh. That river (above mentioned) comes. from 
the Dejleh, in a direct line to ^jlciUc Ahadan. The soil 
or earth of Basrah is white. The towns of this district are, 
Ableh, ^JuU Mentah, and^lcX« Medar; all small towns, situ- 
ated on the river Dejleh. The chief of diese is Ableh. 

• Or ^ Hey. 

. ' 

(0" ) 

In the temtortei of Basrab we L^l Jhma wA ^- • Betaiah. 
Boats or yesseb are moved here by the strength of men. Near this 
place are great gulphs or abysses : one would imagine that the 
land had been dry at some former time ; and it is possible that 
the water, making its way from the rivers of Basrah, had sailed 
wYiefc^Cf it found a deep furrow or pit, 

ioMiU JFaset is situated on the two banks of the Dejleh. It has 
been built since the introduction of Islam. The foundation was 

laid by v^-i*^ ?r^'^'^ Hejaje Yiisuf. It is strongly built ; and 
the castle of Hejaje is there, on the western side, with a few fields 
belonging to it Waset is a populous town, and well supplied 
With provisions— of a purer air than Basrah : the vicinity of it is 
idanted'wiil^ gardens, and well cultivated. 

dij^Cufd is siualler than Basrah, but resembles it in some 
lespects. The air and water of Cufa are better than those of 
Basrak It is situated near the river Forat. The suburbs of Cufa 
were built by {;^\3j (jj Ooum Saad hen WdhcLs. 

Aj^J \ji CctdesicJi, and Ojff^ Heirah, and uXJjrpL Khawr'- 
nakf are situated on the skirts of the desert, tdwards the west; 
the river (Euphrates) running by them on the east : they afibrd 
dates, and have some cultivated lands* From Cufa to these places 
is a distance of one merhileh. Heirah is an ancient city, and large ; 
but when Cufa was built, Heirah was drained of its inhabitants. 

( 66 ) 

Heirah enjoys a pure air, and is one farsang distant frdm Cnfa. 
At Cufa is* situated the tomb or meshed of the Commander of the 
Faithful, u^lL /^l (^ C5^ -^^** hen Abi Taleby on whom 
he peace ! Some say it is in the cloister at the entrance of the chief 
mosque; and others say it is at a distance of two farsang. 
aa>*»oIj) Cadesiah is situated on the border of the desert : it has 
running water, and cultivated lands. From Cadesiah, on the con- 
fines of Irak, until you come to Medinah (^.iLwJ'l aajcX« Medi- 
nah Alssalam, the city of Islam), there is not any running 

i^\oJJ Baghdad is a celebrated city, erected since the intro- 
duction of IsUm. It was built by jy.^}^ t**^ J^' Ahou Jdffer 
Mansour'^. At first the western quarter was built, and everyone 
settled himself there in any manner he thought fit. Afterwards 
it became populous; and when (^Ol-^ Mo/idi succeeded to the 
khalifat f, he encamped his troops on the eastern side. Buildings 
were then erected, and that quarter also became thickly inhabited. 
The villas and palaces extended for near two fkrsang from • 
Baghdad to the river, and this city became the residence of the 
khalifs. The buildings were continued from' the river to the 
district of la***1j JFaset, and from above the Dejleh to au^lyj^ 

• This Khallf (of the House of Abbas) began to reign A. H. 136, (A, D. 754*) 
The fbund^ion of Baghdad was laid in the year of the Hegira 145. 
t He began to reign A. H. 158, (A. 0.775.) 

( 67 ) 

ShetnasidJi^ a distance of nearly fire &rsang. The eastern side 
lihey call a^L^ OUJI k^[j Bab al Tank Resetfeh, and also 
(^4X~JI jX*Mf Asker al Mohdi. It is said that the name Bah 
al Tauk is deriyed from a certain great dome, or cupola^ in the 
principal bazar or market-place, called wdixM ^j^ Souk al 

Resafeh is a considerable suburb, built by Ouy^ Rashid, near 

tl^ . ^icf^ Ocs!^ ^^^M the western side is called 

^j^Korkh. Here. are three mosques ; one, the Mesjed Jamia al 
Mansour ; another, situated at the Bab al Taidc ; and the other, at 
the aSJIst' j\C^Dar al Khali/ah, or palace of the Khalif: and 
the buildings continue as far as. nj^lj^ Kelwazi, where there 
is a mosque.. Over the river Dejleh a bridge has been constructed 
of boats; and from the ^jUwIyrL ^'j^^ S^^^. ^f Khorasari, to 
the place called ajji^LJ I u^b Bah alia Sertheh^ the breadth of 
the city at both sides is about six miles. 

Korkh is very well inhabited, and considerable commerce is 
there carried on ; but the trees and streams are on the eastern side. 
The T^-ater they drink is of the river o^Jjv^ Nehrwan. On the 
western side there is a stream, called the ^^^^^^jJ Nehr Isa, 
or the river. of Jesus — a branch of the Forat, which, passing by 
Baghdad, falls into the Dejleh. 

Between Baghdad and aS «/ Cufa there are many districts and 

K 2 

( «8 ) 

tillages, through which run streams from the river Forat. Here 
is situated the town of f^f^ Sarsar, on the stream called Sarsar» 
at a distance of three farsang from Baghdad. It is a pleasant 
town, with land well cultivated. After that, at a distance of 
two farsang, is the UOLyJ 1 ^ Nehr al Molk (or the Ring's river.) 
There is a bridge over it ;' and it is much more considerable than 
the river of Sarsar. The district of Nehr al Molk is better culti- 
vated, and affords more com and fruits, than Sarsar. From that 
one proceeds to Ojfj^ y^\ y^ Kesr Ebn Habeirehy situated on 
the river Forat, and one of the most considerable places between 
Cufa and Baghdad. Here are several streams, so that the water 
is much augmented, and passes on to the town of [jy^ Soura. 
The great river Forat has not any branch more considerable than 
this. From Soura it proceeds to the souad {^[y^) or villages in 
the neighbourhood of Ckifa ; and afler that falls into the river of 

'^^ Betaiah. 

^jS^Kerbela is situated on the west of the Forat, opposite to 
or near (jj't?) Kesr ebn H^beireh. 

Oj^Um Samereh is altogether situated to the east^. In this 
quarter there is not any running water, but the river AUkatoul, 
ijjidljU^ that runs at some distance from the town. Buildings, 
and streams, and trees, are opposite, on the western side, and 


( «o ) 

extend for near one merhileh. The first founder of this place was 
MtaHjL^ Motasem ; and it has since &llen into the hands of Jk>^x« 
Motawdkel*, and is all in ruins, so much that within the space of 
a farsang there is not any building or cultivated land to be seen. 
The air and fruits of Samareh are better than those of Bagh4ad. 


(^LyJ Nehrwan is situated at the distance of four farsang front 
Baghdad. Jb considerable stream flows there, and proceeds under 
A9^lsr ' jl(^ Dor al Khalifah, in the souad of Baghdad, to 
the place which they call cXaJv:^ /^ wlX**»l A&kaf heni 
Haneid, and other districts ; and when one comes from Nehrwan 
too^X^O Desker^h^ the waters are less, and the dates fewer : and 
from De^k^eh to the borders of (^I^As^ Holwan is a desert, 
without any buildings or inhabited places between it and Samereh, 
or between j^jjA* Shehrzour and the borders of *^ Jo 

(jftjilcX^ Madaien h a little town, at the distance of one mer^- 
hileh from Ba^dad« In former times it was a very considerable 
city, and a favoutoite dwelling-^lace of kings. The (Sf**^ o!>?' 
Aiwan Kesri^ is isituated there, buik of stone and mortar. The 

• Motawakel became Khalif in the year of the Hegira 232, (A. D, 847.) For 
anecdotes relative to the building of Catml and Samanh by the Khalif Mofiissem, see 
P'Herbelot's Bihliot. Orient. Art. Motassem. 

t Called also the iSytS olfc Tawk^i-Kesri, or palace of the Persian monarchs, 
styled Khosrus, or J&mV. It mts butk by Nmbirvan, in the middle of the fixth centuiy 
of the Christian aera. 

( 70 ) 

Kesris had not anyediJ&ces greater than this; and Madaien was 
laiger than any place, except Baghdad, which we have before 

^ J^lj Babel is a small village, but tl^ most ancient spot in all 
Irak. The whole region is denominated Babel, from this place. 
The kings of ^^IxiJ^ Canaan resided there, and ruins of great 
edifices still remain. I am of opinion, that, in fpSmer times, it 
^as a very considerable place. They say that Babel was founded 
by ^-r^*w^JAJ LJ Isi^ Zohak Piurasp f ; and there was Abraham 
(to whom be peace !) thrown into the fire. There are two heaps^ 
one of which is in a place called v«Ju Jo (^i^jjKoudi Tereik, the 
other, KoudiDerharj\j)i^i in this the ashes still remain; and 
they say that it was the O^jjyJ (J^^ fi^^ of Nimrod into which 
Abraham was cast ; may peace be on him ! 

^lcX« Madaien is situated on the east of the river Dejleh ; 
and they reckon it one merhileh from Baghdad to that place. It 
is said that (jjJ JUjO Zhu VKernein (Alexander the Great) 
found at that place the divine mandate, (i. e. died there) ; but I 
Suspect that this tradition is not true, because he was poisoned at 
the time of his returning from Cheen, and his coffin was taken to 

• Of this passage, as far as the word littleness on the qpposite pajp, I have given the 
original Persian in the Appendix. 

t Fifth king of the Pcishdadian, or first dynasty of the Persian sovereigns, supposed 
to have reigned about 780 years before Christ.«-*See the •* Epitme of the Ancient His'- 
tory efPersia^' p, 6 and 8. 

( 71 ) 

Alexandria to hi«. modier. It is also said, that there has been a 
bridge at Madaien^ on the river Dejleh; but I did not see any 

vestiges of it. 

■ -■'.■ ' • 

(yjCc Akbera, and (j^^jf Berdahj and ^l^JL^ Neamaaiak, 
and Jl^\jiJljj^;Deii>alaakoul, and c^S>(^ Dejeil^ and LiI^j:w> 
Jerjeraya*, and ^JLA^JI^i Fomas'salah, and (j*ajL*j -J iVeAr 
Sales, and other places on the banks of the river Dejleh,- which 
"Wie have mentioned, are sitnatied , one n^ar another, and are 
nearly equal in greatness and littleness. 

(^IJLafc. Holwan is a well-inhabited and pleasant town. After 
Cufa, and Basrah, and^Waset, and Baghdad, and Samereh, and 
Hobeireh, there is not any city more considerable in Irak. Snow 
i^ls there. i^\ and .on .the mountains in its vicinity there is at aU 
times snow. 

^' OjXm-O DesJcereh is a pojpnloxis ahd pleasant place, with a 
strong castle, and com fields. It is said that a kingf from time 
to time resided' theire, * on Vhich account it was styled ojdii^ 
UCXyJl DesJcereh al Mofk." From Deskereh to above Samereh, 

* In the Eton MS. this name is written lj[^^ Jerherana. 

t According to the Persian manuscript, intituled ^{Jy&^ Leh-(d-Tffwarikh, Ht^s 
castle of Deskereh was built by Hormuz, the son of Shapour, third king of the Sassanian 
or fourth dynasty, who began to itign A. D* 2 7 2. Sec " Epitome ofihe Ancient History 
•fPerfia^" p. 42. 


( 72 ) 

till one comes near \i^S^ Aayeth in this line^ and likewise to tbe 
borders of the district of Waset, from the borders of Irak to the 
borders of ojjKouh'^, the buildings are few, and the greater part 
is pasture land of the Arabs, Thus, to the west of Tacrith, to 
Anbar, between the rivers Dejleh and Forat, there are not any 
buildings^ unless those opposite (or near) Samereh : almost all the 
rest is the bare and barren desert. 

It were unnecessary to dwell longer on the account of Irak^ 
as it is a country so famous and so well known amongst men. 

Description of the Province of Khuzistan. 

The eastern boundaries of Khuzistan are the borders of q^Ij 
Pars and (^l^U*** Spahaunf. Between the borders of Pars and 
of Spahaun, there is a certain river called v-jIL jJ Nehr Tab, 
in the vicinity of j^Ijj j C5*^ Mahi-rooyan : from that, the 
boundary is between ^j¥^ Dourek and Mahi-rooyan towards 

* 03^ signifies a mountain, in general ; but here, perhaps, is the name of a fortress 
situated on the mountains of Merdin, mentioned by Petis de la Croix^ in his Hist. 
^ Ttmuvy Vol. I. ch. 39. 

t Ispahan^ Sfahaxiy or hfahan^^^hi name ia variously wiitlen m the course of this 
work, as in most other MSS. 

( 73 ) 

t|ie sea-side. On the western side, the boundaries of Khuzistan 
are the territories of Waset, and that place which they call 
^^gXfcwUjIijO Durahouasty. On the north it has the bcmiers of 
o«yAM0 Seimereh, and a:^ S^ Kurkheh, and/ iJ Louri as iar as 
l^e borders of iJU:^ Jebal, adjoining the territories of Spahaun. 
It is said that Lour was once reckoned as belonging to Khuzistan ; 
but at present it is comprehended within Jebal. 

The boundaries of Khuzistan towards F^s and (^I^Ul^ Sfahan, 
and the borders of Jebal and Waset, are straight lines on the four 
sides : But on the southern side, from ^^IciUc Abadan, to the vil- 
lages about Waset, the boundary is an irr^ular line ; and from 
Abadan to the sea, and the borders of Pars : then this southern 
boundary proceeds along the sea shore ; then to the Dejleh, and 
passes frdOiil^lj Barma: thence winds from above ^JuL» 
Meftah and ^lcX« Medar, among the villages of Waset, there 
Ifirhence we first set out. 

(Map of Khuzistan. J 

j\^\ ^ojjjKoureh Ahwax is also called j^ i^Jb Hormuz , 
Shehr. The other places of Khuzistan are the JCjL) ^^ Shehr 
Leshkur, which they also dall ^jC« JCmX Asker Mokrem; 
JLi^ Shushter ; jji}^ Cj^OJ^ Jondi Shapour ; (j^jm Sus ; 
j^j^ fSj Rcun Hormuz ; and j[)^ Bazar : all these are the 

( 74 ) 

names of cities^ but Bazai, which they call v.J^^ Souk, and its 
town ^jj^ Dourek ; -. cXil Aidah, (Sjf^ jJ Neher Tiri, 
o'/.^ Khaizan, Jai)l a^jj^^ HoumaA al net, ^^LJI a^j:^ 
Howneh al San, JuajLmI ^jm Souk /isunbeil, (Sj^^^^^^-^ 
Mehader al Kehri, c^JUaJI ^c^Lyo Mehadar al Sagheri, 
Hei, L^ Teb, (^[yJ^ Keliwan, are all towns of this di 
/^aoj Bosi, mj\ Arem, Iju^-^l v.J[^ Souk al Arbaa, i^yix^ 
(^cXy^ Hysn Mohdi, (^U*Ij Basan, (j^UJom Selsan, (^UL^^JUi 
Solymanan, ^J^f Carcoub, oj^ji Berdoun, and as^j^ 

The land of Khuzistan is level. It has many running streams, 
the chief of which is the river of Shushter : and Ring Shapour * 
caused to be constructed on this river a wall (or mound) called 
(j^ Ij^oLS* Shddervan ; by means of which the town of Shushter^ 
situated on an eminence^ might be supplied with water. This 
river comes from jCsJ Leshkur (or Asker Mokrem) to ^|^l 
Ahwaz, and falls into the river Sedreh, o;cXxm ^j^ and goes on 
to the Hysn Mohdi, on the sea side* Another river of ELhuzistan 
is called (^UyS;*^! ^* Nehr al Miishirkan, on which, at Lesh- 
kur, a great bridge has been erected ; and by this river one may 
go from Leshkur to Ahwaz, a distance of eight farsang : but 

• Shapour Zhukctafy who began to reign A. D.' 309. He was the ei^th king of 
the fourth or Sassanian dynasty. (See " Epitome of the Ancient History of Persia^** 
p. 46, &c.) The Tarihh Gozideh^ and other MSS. speak of tfiis Shadervan, in pasMgci. 
which shall be given at length in a fixture work on Asiatick Geography. 


'( Jt5 ) 

when onie has gmie six ^arsaag, all the water is dnuned off, for 
various ptirposes of husbandry and agriculture ; and for two far* 
sang the bed of the river is altogether dry. In the land of Khu^ 
kistan there is not any place more populous or cultivated thak 


The streams of Khuzistan, from Ahwaz, and Dourek, and 
Shofihter^ and all that rise in this quarter, are collected together 
ttt Hysn M<^di, and there, forming one great river, fall into the 
sea.* Them u ndt any of the eea in Khuzist^ti, except a little of 

the (ji^jLf (S^j^ Persian Sea, from o'^^ C.5^^ Mahi 
rooyan, to near (^ULyjJLi Solymanan, opposite (^loUc Aba^ 
dan: nor is there in all Khtezastan, any mountain, tior sand, 
•xcept at Shushter, and jjyf}^ (^OJc^ Jondi Shapour, and 
j^\ Aid(^4» ^as tibe bordem of (jU^Uy^ Sfahan : all the rest 
is soft oky and 161^ ground t And m asiy of the cities of 
Khuzistan I know net that ^di^ 'drink- wdl« water : and the land 
of this proviiice *is' more dry, in proportion as it is distant from 
the river ]i>ejleh: that 'part fiearer the Dgleh is like the soil of 
Basrah, and liiat 'region. 

Threu^tout Kbusustaft there is not either ice or snow ; nor is 

there any part of it widch do^ not afford dates. It is a very 

unhealthy coimtry. All kinds of fixiit are to be found in Khu^ 

zistan, except walnuts ((^ lS"0-J^), and the fruit of trees peculiar to 

a cold climate. 

L 2 

( 76 ) 

', For the greater part, Arabick and Persian are spoken in this 
province: there is also a particular dialect in Khuzistan. The 
fashion of the people, in their dress, resembles that of the inhabi- 
jtants of Irak. They are in general of bad dispositions; arid 
niostly of a yellow complexion, with scanty beards ; and of the 
Motazelite sect (Mahommedan schismaticks.) 


Among the wonders of Khu^istan, is the Shadervan of Sha-- 
pour (before mentioned) at Shushter. It is said to be a mile in 
length, constructed of stone and mortar, for the purpose of con- 
ducting water to Shushter. 

In the city of (jw^ SuSy there is a river ; arid I have heard, 
that, in the time of (^AiA i^'yyi^ Abou Mou^a Ashoari, a 
coffin was found there : and it is said the bones of Daniel the Pro- 
phet (to whom be peace !) were in that coffin. Thes^ the people 
held in great veneration ; and in time of distress^ or famine from 
droughts, they brought them out, and prayed for rain. Abou 
IV^ousa Ashoara ordered this coffin to be brought,, and three cover- 
ings or cases to be made for it ; the first, or outside one, of which was 
of boards, exceedingly strong ; and caused it to be buried, so that 
it could not be viewed. A bay or gulf of the river came over this 


grave, which may be seen by any one who dives to the bottom 
,of the water. 

( 11 ) 

iTiere is also, in the district of JouJLmj Sumbeil, near the bor- 
ders of Pars, a mountain, from which fire issues at air times. At 
night this fire gives light ; and smoke comes forth in the day-time ; 
and the general opinion is, that there is here a fountain of ooLf 
Naphta, or of pitch (c:o J), which has taken fire. There is also 

a spedes of scorpion (^Oj/) which they csiH ojjiS^kezoureh : 
they are like the leaves of (^IcXsr*' anjedan (the herb laserpitium 
or pellitory), and are more destructive than serpents. 

Very rich garments of brocade are manufactured at Shushter. 
At Sus there is a species of orange, which they call Ov^Jul -^ 
penj-angusht, (or five fingers,) said to be exceedingly fragrant. 
In this district there is a place called (<aaj Bosi, where they 
tweave beautiful tapestry; as also at f^\jjJu Keliwan, and at 
^MjO ji Berdoun. ., - . 

j^jj\J4 (j£OJ^ Jondi Shapour, or jjA^ (^OJJ^ Gondi Sha-; 
poun is a considerable city, populous and pleasant, abounding 
in dates and the produce of agriculture; <^^^ {^ ^j^aju lacoub 
ben Leith, of tfefc Soffarian Dynasty*, resided in this city; and 
his tomb is there. iSrf^ j^ Neher Tiri is a town in which 
they manufacture garments like those of Baghdad. (^^5=^ H^ 
is a town with territories dependent on it, and cultivated lands. 

• lacoub ben Leith, fomd&r of the Sofiarian Dynasty, died in the year of the Hegira 
265, (A, D. 878.) \ ' 

( 7B ) 

with date trees in abundance : the imam of the Motezalah sect 
jJLc: ajI Abu Aly, was of this place. At ^j[} Zawieh, near 
(^cXy^ {^yo:^ Hysn Mohdi, on the sea-side, a great many streams 
are collected into one body of water, afiected by tides, flux and 
reflux, v.-^^ Teib is remarkable for its manufectory of cXJu^l^U* 
shelwar bend, or fastenings for breeches and drawers; they are 
like those made in Roum : and none are found equal to them in 
any place except Armenia. 

jj Lour is a pleasant and well-inhabited place ; the mountaia 
air prevails there : it was formerly reckoned as belonging to Khu- 
^istan: but now they comprehend it within the territories of 
^\Sm^jJ^ Kouhestan. ^J^aaamj 5E^m2;ei7 is a district, which, in 
the time of J^j^^Ij {^ cXyZtf* Mohammed ben ffdsel, was 
reckoned among the territories of Pars ; at present it belongs to 
the province of Kiiuzistan. JLaJ Nat and (^liil-L Khaizan are 
situated on a river. J^^mI Asel has a small plantation of date 
trees : there was a battle at this place, in which, it is said, forty 
men of olJL Sherah defeated a thousand men of the army of 
Baghdad, o^^' Arghan is a/ town where v-jLijci doushab* is 
made, and sent to all parts of the world. C^j>-^0^'-^^ Meba^ 
der* al Kebri, and (^ juaJI ^c^La^ Mebader al Sagheri (the 
greater and lesser), are two well-inhabited and pleasant places^ 
aboimding in dates. 

* A particular kind of syrup, of a thick consistence, used in the composition of 
sherbet, &c. 

C 7Q ) 

Distances of Places in Khuzistan. 



From Pars to Irak there are two roads; one by the way of 
Basrah^ the other by way of Waset. The Basrah road is this : 
From otcjl Arghan to J^***! Asel, two easy merhilehj from 
that to a village called (;;1c>jO Deidan, one merhileh; fromi 
Deidan to ^jj(^ Dourek, and from that to (^LwLw Sasan, a 
pleasant town> through which a river flows : from Sasan ta 
Lf^\^ {:y^^^ ^ysn Mohdi, is a journey of two merhileh r 
from these two places one must go by water: and from H3^sii 
Mohdi to cjUu Benaty two merhileh ; and they go from Dourek 
to (^Lwlj Basan by water, it being much easier than going by. 
land. This is the extreme boundary of ELhuzistan. Benat is 
situated on the banks of the river Dejlehf and, if one chooses he 
may go by water to Ablah, or by land, crossing oyer wheh. !» 
comes opposite Ablah. 

The road from Ears to Irak, by way of Waset, is from Arghan 
toj\j[j Bazar, one merhileh; from that to i^\j Ramnz (pro- 
bably for y^J^ Jj Ram HoPmuz), two merhileh ; from Ramuz to 
jXJLi Leshhur, or Asker Mokrem, three merhileh ; from that to 
JLi^ii Shushter, one merhileh : from Shushter to J^.U* (^OJc^ 

( 80 ). 

Jondi Shapour, one merhileh ; and from Jondi Shapour to (j^^^^ 
Sus, one merhileh ; and from that to v-Ja5 J Corcouh, one mer- 
hileh. From Shushter to Jondi Shapour^ is one merhileh ; from 
that to v.-^okL Teib, one merhileh ; this place borders on the terri- 
tories of Waset. From Leshkur to ^U^l Ahwaz, is one merhi- 
leh; from Ahwaz to <w3[ijci Dourak, three merhileh; and this 
is a shorter way from Leshkur to Waset than that which passes 
by Shushter. From Leshkur to' ^0<j\ Aidej is four merhileh ; 
from Ahwaz to Ramuz^ three merhileh, " because Ahwaz and 
Leshkur are situated on the same line, and Bamuz forms a triangle 
with them*/' From Leshkur to ^]j\j Bazar ^ one merhileh; 
arid from Bazar to Hysn Mohdi, one merhileh ; from Ahwaz to 
iSjt^ yj Neher Tiri, one day's journey ; and fix)m Sus to /^aoj 
Bosi, not so much as one merhileh; and from Sus to f^^^j{ 
Bardoun, one merhileh ; and from Sus to c^Jw« Matoutf, one 

Those are the whole of the distances, and stages in the province 
of Khuzistan. 

t Or vy^ Matoub, according to the Eton MS. 

i «1 ) 

•^ •• « . ^^- 

Description of, the \Pv»vince of Pars, 
{or Far sistan— Persia Proper.) 


> I ■* » 

: • ■ • 1 i . « • ' I ' ' .. { . . : : . i . . 

' jr»? Q§4*prai.«i^\0f Pv8 ifi\bov»^ by th^ province of o^r^ 
'JKJr/wwtA'^t? wfest^n jsidi? fcy ii)UMi,>^ JKftwisi^^an, and^^Ljjiiel 
J^ahan. On the the north. It haa ithe deserts of \yU1jB*. JBTAor 
raseuh and part gf U^fitemtones of Isfahan: and it -is bounded 
•QU the eoutb hy the Persian Sea, (j^-Aj <^^J*^ 

We shaU describe fhe whole face of this country, except the 
smaller villages and hiUs, which are too numerous and diversified 
£oT particular mention. 

(Blank page for the Map of Pars.) 


( B2 ) 

fjsjjls (S^VJ^/^^ 

Account oftheKourehs, or Districts, in the Province of Pars,, 

er Pars. 

There are fiveKourehs in this province, the most considerable 
of which is the jdfc"*^! ^ojjS^Koureh of Istakfiar: ojiS jAj^^f 
Ardeshir Dereh, in which are the. cities of^l^xA Shiraz and 

i \jAM Siraf. Jawr jy^ also belongs to this district of Ardeshir> 
because it was built by him, and was his capital. ^I-^I Arghan 
is also a large city. The j^}^ ^JJ^ Koureh Shapour is the 
smallest of these districts of Pars : the town is called after Sha- 
pour^ who built it, in the vicinity of {^%jj ^ Cazeroun. 

But there are five places in Pars, which they call ^ Zem ♦• The 
signification of this word is, a tribe, or race (Arab. aXa-o). One 
of these is more considerable than the others — the iuA^p^ ^ 
Zem Heilouieh : this is called (^Ls::^^ ^ Zem Senjan. The 
second is the vJaaJ I ^ cX^^.1 ^ Zem of Ahmed hen Leith : 
it is called Zem\ *****. The third is called ^L^ (^ cX^s^l. 

* In the Eton MS. there is a title in red ink prefixed to this passage — \j»*J^^^^yj 
•* The Zemoums of Fars ;** an extraordinary plural of Zem. As this section, and that 
which follows, aflbrd some curious matter, they are given in the original Persian, at 
the end of this volume. 

t The word following Zem in my MS« is rendered illegible by a blot of ink ; and in 

( 83 ) 

2^m Ahmed hen Saleh. The fourth is the^U-yjl ^ Zem Sheh- 
ryavy which they call (^Lsr'olj ^ Ze/n Badenjan. The fifth 
is the (^A»»»"^ (^ cXyS^l ^ JZem Ahmed hen Alhosein, called 
U^J^ ^ Zem Karma; and this is the jAji*0;i ^j Zem Ar- 


Account of the Jowns of the Curds *. 

The Joums of the Curds are more than can be exactly num- 
bered ; but it is said that in Pars there are above five htmdred 
thousand houses (^Jld^ or families), which, during winter and 
summer, remain on the pasture-lands. Some of these Curds 
maintain two himdred persons, such as shepherds, and labourers, 
and grooms, and boys or serviuits^ and such, like. Their number- 
cannot be ascertained* 

the Eton MS. (like too many odier proper names) it is written ifiAout any diacriticd 
points, thus .Ur* V^"""^!^ consequently capable of various readings. 

* If the the word youm had not been too plainly written in this place, and the fol- 
lowing passage, I would have altered it to «y» Koum, tribe, people, family, &c.-— 
Captain Framcklin, in his 72»ir ro P/rxM (London edition, 1790, octavo, p. 1919^, 
mentions ** some hundreds of wandering Curds and Turkomans," whom his party met 
in the vicinity of Persepolis. They were then removing, with their families, flocks, 
and herds, to the southward of Shiraz ; and resembled, in their sun-burnt, tawny com- 
plexions, the Gypsies of Europe. 

M 2 

( 84 ) 

Account of the Rivers of Pars. 

The Rivers of Pars, which are navigable for boats, are the 
VU^ j^ Nehr Tab, ^^^ ^ Nehr Shirin, ^J \^Li C^jj 
Rood Shakan, cXJl^O ^\j Rood Derjend, (^IcXi^ ^JL^ 
Rood Jouidan, {j-f^jj ^jj Rood Rjovyiriy (^ '^ ^JJ I^ood 
SeJcan, j^yL. cijj Rood Koshhii, (j^k&*^ ^jj Rood Ku- 
shein, (j^ C^jj Rood Kas, ^jf ^jj Rood Forkab, and 
the Ci^J^ CSjj Rood Herdeh. 

erjU l*c^ij^<3 y^ 

Of the Lakes of Fars. 

The chief Lakes are the (^Lxa3^ iS^fJ^ Derayi BaJchtegan, 
the CX^O C^^;^ Deryai Desht, the jJU I ijtfsif Beheiret (lake) 
Alsour, and the ^^ ULuacr ' » wcasr^ Beheiret al Hurbaian. 

( 85 ) 

Of the Fire-Temples ofFars. 

There is not any district, nor any town of Fare, without a 
Rre-Tempk. These are held in high veneration. We i^all, 
hereafter, more miniitely describe them. Also, throughout Pars, 
therQ are castles in every quarter, one stronger than another, 

{fj[y^^ T^.^ ^' C..5^.)- '^^ greater number of them are 
situated in the district of j[juai\ /Jo 'wiA**^ Seif heni al Se^ 
ghar. All these we shall describe in the course of this work, so 
that they shall be known. " And there are many considerable 
districts, which possess essential importance, yet have not been 
much celebrated or £^ken of; but we shall notice all these 
places, and give a concise description of them, in this work*/' 

^^j isL^ r^y^ <^^ Ci^^ 3f^^^, Li^V fcji'*^T^ L^^^j'*^^ 

( 80 ) 

Account of the Districts of the Koureh of Istdkhar. 

The district of J y Yezd is the most considerable division of 
the Koureh of Istakhar. There are in it three places with 
mosques, aXJ^ Kattah, and cXaak Meibed, and (^^^U Mahein. 
Part of this district was formeriy reckoned as belonging to the 
province of (^Lo S^Kirman, but now is included in the territories 
of Fars. 

The extent of the district of Istakhar is about sixty farsang, 
o^^l Aberkou/i is one of the cities. OyJ^I Aklid and v.Jc«yM 
Surmek, are two towns which, in Persian, are written cXaJL) 
Kelid and a^^m Surmeh. i^[3ljj2^ Houbakan they call (^ I^^mo 
Meshkan. o^-v^' Azhaman is a town, (^^j^l^ Jori/i, and 
{^^ Kouin, and (^UjJLssL-Io Tarkhinsan, have not any ora- 
tories or pulpits ( vjJU). oi^UT Abadeh is the village of Abdar'- 
rahman ^^^^yS^JIcXAC aa^^. Mehndan, o'^tv^ ^^^ Sahel 
al Kebri, (Sj^ ' cM^L^ have not oratories or pulpits ; neither 
have ^^^Xm4Jj^ Maroiisef nor ULiU Fanek, {j^^jj olJ^Harah 
Rudgan, ^j^ASKeles, Ojif^^ Deheireh, (j^j\ Arkan, UC^^m 
Sershek, (j\i^\j Radariy LAkj Beiza, (^'j* Heran, ^j<A*Li 
Mahein, nor C^jsT^U Ramjerd. 

( 87 ) 

Of the district, or ^j^**^ Tesouje, the principal towns are 
A^js^ Hhoumah, VJ^y*' Sirouah, r^^ Meki, {j^\j Radarit, 
(mJ/ Lawen, \L)j^^ 2jakoureth, j^U^ Kellar, (^^A^wcilyw Se- 
radsin, (^lcX**il Asedan, (ji^j^ Serden, (j^C^jJ Lourdegan, 

ijXwl Aselan, ^l^lj Baman, {j^iSjl^Khemardegan, (^^JUu* 


Account of the Districts of Ardeshir Koureh. 

^I-aj5i Shiraz is the centre for the (^.X«lc Aumilans (IntenJ-*- 
ants or Colfectors of the Revenue) of Pars. There are twelve 
_jMjJU Tesoujes (portions or tracts of land.) In each of these 
is a district with buildings. Each Tesouje is an fJ^^^x Aumily 
(or certain tract under one Aumil or Collector of Revenues.) 
These twelve Tesoujfes are, the Tesouje UJbJI oJlS Kafrah" 
aUaaliUy the Tesouje /JUuJI oSS Kqffrah al Sejli, the Tesouje 
jfjJ^ Kahi?% the Tesouje wcXs^ Hedim, the Tesouje (^^yO 
Deirgan, the Tesouje o'^'-^' iJ^^ Taihoul al Kawian, the 
Tesouje ^^LJlJ^L^Jl Anbarbanan, the Tesouje i^[jOJ<j\ Aben^ 
diauy the Tesouje UCj^Uj Shahrung, the Tesouje i^^^jyJi^ 
Shehristan, the Tesouje^ I vJo Tirar^ and the Tesouje {^Ks^^y^^A^ 

( 88 ) 

Account of the Districts of Ardeshir Khereh. 

jy^ Jawr and cXa^^ Memeid. The principal places of these 
are ^jjJU Manein, {^U^ Memkan, and o'lv^ Shehran, and 
^jlXyjuo Samgan : these have not any oratories or pulpits ; neither 
(jls^J FarkhaUy nor ^jUaJcL Khanifan. (^U^U Nadouan, 
(^L*j lAsL Khoorsan, (^las^ci Derijan, O^Vr^ Hemeid, (j*^jr^ 
Hamres, j^ -* Hormuz, c^UUC^a Sekanat, j[Jua} I /y^ ^*-Sy*^ 
Se(/^ fce/ii «Z Seghar, (^^^s^ Hdijan, ^Lw^ Koumgan, 
i^f^ Kesri, (^UC1jj>. Heslcan, (^J^l ^--Syw Se(f aZ -^Z;i, 
5jL^ ^*-Sy*» TtV*^ Deheir Seif Omareh : these places have not 
pulpits or oratories; but v^^I^amj Sircf has three, ^j-S?^ ^^* 
jirem, ^ Khem, c^^ Desht, (jjj^j ff^azin, (^1:^cX**jx 
Asdejariy (^U^yC^a^ Destikan ; the chief town is ojULw Sefareh: 

aj^ — jj Noah Kherik, the chief town of ^U*w yiJ/ Laghe- 
ristan; jfS^ Shekeir, (j^ijj^ Karzein, (jO<^\ Ante den, 
(^IjA^^j** Semiran, i^\jf^ Kouan; (^[s^j^ Keherjan, a large 

( 89 ) 

• • « • I ' 

Account of the Territories of Darahgird. 

^ . • * 

The district of ^c/ Koum has two principal towns, oc^U' 
madeh and k^S^ Girdx L*^./a> Keserisa. /mImjjuJd Tebisan. 

iJjss::^ Behoideh, f^L^iSjS Kirdman, jAx^::^ Hembeir, (^Isi^***^ 
Jdesihan, (j^^ Rekan, o\jjj\ Arirah, (^Lw 5a/i, f^^f^Jouim, 
\^ Hije, (jUlxglo^k^l Astehefaian^ (ih?j* Herin, o'j^Uo -Ma- 
rouan, U*^k2^ Hesoua, ^jj Rouiah, k^[^ ^^^J^ Roustai 
Reshak, ^cX^ Medah, ^U Bazem, cj(JLMj*jw^. Mesakendt, 
oiaJo Kant er eh, (^Lsr'l^ Souanjan, vti'UiJI v^JCSi lS)/^^^i: aZ 
reshak, cijJI vJLi S/iiifc aZ rud, oJ/b' TaZaf, ^^UUL^I vJLS,- 
S/iufc aZ masanan, %)^j^ ^j Zem Shehrazu. 

j^\JU Qj^ cijcX:^ ^ 

Account of the Borders or Territories of the Koureh Shapour. 

j^Li Shapour, (djjj^ Kazeroun, jtsr^ Hejar, (^U*jU 
Basan, mj^ Hafieh, v^Jiijci Dertek, jjy^ Khouaje, 
Khisht, ^^^ Keiawem, jy}}^ (^Ls^'Oob Hedijan Shapour, 


{ 90 ) 

(^1^ w« ^* Tir Merdan : except Shapour and Kazeroun^ all these 
towns are without pulpits or oratories. (^ ^OJuy Nubendgan, 
\..;AXMa wjJU Member Shaah, (j[^ Bouan, ijy-t^ Beinoul,j^\ 
Jlmour, (^Isr^vi Derenfan, OJcf^i^ Derjend, (^UJU O^jJS 
Kumbnz Malghan^ oli^t^' Ambouran, Jo^l As el, c>Km[ia^ 
Fertast, OjtJjL Skekireh, ^ji^ Bahaleuk^ jo^-^^^^^\^ BaheU 
segan, Jjjfp ^^ Kam Firouz; this place has five villages be- 
longing to it : ij^i Arzu, j^\J Nader^ ^li^Ui«il Astadan, 
^^>^^ Kakan, o'^*^^*'*^ oU^T Ateshgah Mesihan (or the 
Fire-temple of Mesihan)^ ^ [sb^ Syan,^/X§ Meder^ ^U^ Heyaz, 
i^Uul^ Khemaigan, ^j^^ Balaien, (^I^mujum Seisekan, 
i^^\^}y^ Sourdadh o^^^^ Arjan^ (J^s-m*^ Besmeil, {j^j^ 
Nebulis, j^^sr^' Aseljar, \zjj}\Ooi^ Deidalout, w^y.^ Deir 
Omr, U^o Fardek^ o^Jr9^ Mehruian, ^ulks^ JenahaK 
AM Sets, (j*^ j[y^ Souar al Khess. 


Account of the Territories of the Koureh Arglian. 

To every ^ Zem there is a town and territory, in which re- 
sides a chief {i^**^)y who collects the tolls and tributes ; and in 


his charge are the guides {\)A\)^j^) upon the roads. 

The Aj^Jua^ ^ Zem Heilouieh is also called ^jls::^^ Senjan: 

( 01 > 

it lies near Isfahan ; and one side of it borders the Koureh Istakhar, 
another the Koureh Shapour, and another the (^U^l ^J^ 
Koureh Arjan. Besides these, it has a boundary (O^jcX^) near 
L^aju Beiza, another near Isfahan, and a third near Khuzistan ; 
, one also near the borders of Shapour : and the towns and villages 
of these difierent quarters are all reckoned as belonging to this 

The (jl^ci ^ Zem Delouan belonged to ^Ls ^jj Ebn 
Saleh : it partly borders on the Koureh Shapour : one border of 
it lies next Ardeshir, and three boundaries of it turn back on the 
Koureh Shapour. The Zem (^lar'li^Li Badenjan belonged to 
c^ ^JJ cX^^fc,! Anted ben Leith : it is of the Koureh Ardeshir ; 
one border on the sea, and three on oj^ .a^c^I Ardeshir 
Dereh. The Zem qjIjj^ Karian has one border on the 
^liua) 1 v«^^u*M Self al Seghar, and one on the Zem Badenjan ; 
three on the confines of Kirman, and another on the Ardeshir 

N 2 

( 02 ) 

1^1 ^J.j/^ 

Account of (other J Zems* in that Country. 

(^LkjL^j}^ Kirmanian, O^^^^ Dermanian, cs^jji fi} 
Zem Beroufii, ^xj (j^ <Js-2sr* Mohammed hen Besher ; the 
i^^xossf** (^ <^v^=s^ ^'^y^ Kabilah Mohammed hen Ish«k, 
(^Iai^Ua^ Sehahian, (^Lola:^! Ishakian, i^^^j^^ Ader-- 
ganian, ^U/1^ Sheher Kohar, (^b^tJt^ Taharian, (^Ls^Ijj 
Rehadian, {^^jj^ Sheheruhan, (^bjysi. Khoruian, (^LOu^ 
Zingian, (^LiJLv^ Seferian, {j^^^-x-^ Shehmarian, ^J^UJJfiua 
Mutlesany ^^tAJL^ Memalian^ (^L^^I^m Semakaman, {^[jXJ<sL. 
Khalilian. These are what we know of them : but if any person 
wishes to be informed of all, he must recollect that we have before 
mentioned (see p. 83), that this people (ajuIL) amount to near five 
hundred thousand families; and onef tribe (ixXxxS) of them goes 
forth two thousand horsemen ; and there is not any tribe of less 
than an hundred horsemen. Summer and winter they pass on 
the feeding or pasture lands. A few of their people dwell on the 

♦ It would seem, that in usFng the word liem here, and youm in the chapter where 
these people are before mentioned, some confusion or mistake has occurred, which I am 
not at present able to correct, as the Eton MS. agrees with my own. 

t That the reader may satisfy himself, on the subject of this extraordinary people^ 
I have given the ori^nal Persian of the whole passage, in the Appendix* 

C 93 ) 

bOTders'of Tj JiD iSflto'Our find^jj.^ Jarour^ ajid4qpart not from 
those' places* Their ^^reapons and accoutrements^ their numbers^ 
war-horses, and troops, are such that they are able to contend with 
kings ; and it is said that their race is originally Arabian. They have 
i^eep, and nxares (or (^^LiOLo she asses), and camels, but not so 
many : and I have heard that this peopl<e consist of above one 
hundred tribes ; but I only know between thirty and forty * of 
the tribes. 

Of the Fortresses and Castles of Pars. 

There are certain cities surrounded with, strong walls; and 
others, in which there are citadels with strong outworks; and 
there are some castles, exceedingly strongs situated on hills and 
moiuitains. Among the, cities which ^ have citadels,, is ^jJ^*^' 
Istahhar, round the (rastle of which are strong fortifications. 
LsiAJ! BeizitJihaLS a citjtdel with. fortifications; also a^^m Sermeh, 
and iXfXJ Keleidz (jwi^l AJJi Kurnah alias, in Persian called 
^jj^ A^^ DAey Moured, has an ancient ^\i dez, or castle; 
and the fortifications of ^l^-Xii* Shiraz have a jnOJ^ kohendezy 

• The word'.xSl and, according to that most excellent Dictibnaiy, the Furbung Bov^ 
ban Kattu, signifies lomcp afewy any number fr$m thne to mne,^ &c.. 

( 94 } 

or an aneieut jcastle. j^^ Jour has a ciUtdidf but no ontworki. 
) ^ Kazeroun, has a kohendez aho^ with fortificatioas. 
imi Fesa, has a kohendes, with fortifications. O^zsr^j^lo Darab^ 
Jerd has a cadtle and walls. And I have heard^ that in the pro- 
rince of Fars there are more than five celebrated castles^ situated 
in towns and on hills, which no king has ever been able to take. 
One of them is the castle of Ebn Omareh, o^l^ (j^l aaAS 
which they call (jUJlo ajdS Kelaa Danban. There the family 
of Omareh used to seize upon every tenth ship. The castle of (^LjO ^ 
Kadban is situated on a mountain : neither <J^^tj (^ ^X^^s^ 
Mohammed ben fFasel, with his army, nor (jjy^^ (^ cX^^f 
Ahmed ben Allosein, were able to take it. 

The castle of viUT cXxx>ja Saied Abad (the residence of Good 
Fortune) is one farsang from the Koureh of Istakhan' It was ori- 
ginally called the Castle ofybcXot*wl Asfendiar. In the time of the 
Commander of the Faithftd, the Prince of the Saints of God, 
l^JUoajI jju (J^ Ali ben Abitaleb, to whom be peace ! this 
castle was the residence of ^u^l ^*^ ^UJ Zeyad ben Ommiah, 
and from that circumstance was called after him. In the time of 
the aa^I iJJ Beni Ommiah, Juiak ^^ cXyScT* {^ jy^i^ 
Mansour ben Mohammed ben Jctffer w^ Governor of Pars, and 
resided. in this castle* which then received its name from him. 
Some time after that, it was ruined ; and soon again repaired by 
Jou>lj {^ <X^x^ Mohammed ben Wasel, who was Governor 
of Pars. When it was taken by vi^J ^jj ^j^. Yacoub ben 

( 05 ) 

Leith, he caused it to be once more demolished ; it was, how- 
eYCTf ag2^n repaired, and they used it as a prison. 

The castle of (m^JLCwI Asknouri is supplied With water by a 
stream flowing from the heights of ^;^Lo Manein, and it is very 
difficult of access. The castle of 0)v3^ Khouderth is situated 
on the borders of Kam Firouz : it is strong, and difficult of access. . 
The castle of (^U^I Jrjan is exceedingly strong; and it is im- 
possible for me to describe all the castles which cannot be taken 
either hy force or stratagem. 


Account of the Fire-- Temples of Pars. 

There is not any district of this province, nor any village, 
without a Fire-temple. One, near Shapour, they call Kunhud 
Kaiish* (J^j^ vXaJLTT At {jyjj^ Kazeroun there is a Fi 
temple, called aJusL Kheifeh : and another, called ^Cs^KjTKuL^ 
laden and f^Kjy*^^ Mesouban : And in the religion of the 
Guebres it is thus ordained, that '' omnis foemina quae tem- 
'< pore graviditatis aut tempore menstruorum, fornicationem seu 

* So written both in the Eton MS. and my own ; but it should, probably, have been 
(^^IT Kaus, the name of an ancient king o^ersia. 

( 00 ) 

" adulterium fecerit, piira non erit, donee ad Pyrseum (scu tem- 
" plum Ignicolarum) accesserit (et) eoram Heirhed (Sacerdote) 
** nuda fiierit et urini vaccae se laverit*. 

Account of the Rivers cf Pars. 

The river Tab l-^Ud Oju issues from the moimtains of Isfa- 
han, near — j Berje ; and, being joined by another stream from 
the same quarter, at the village of ^jm,^ Mes, proceeds to (jU^I 
Arjan, and passes under the bridge called (^^O Dekan, and 
affords water to Pars, and Khuzistan, and ^ C^^-^JJ Roustai- 
Zem, and falls into the sea. 

The river Shadgan (^fe^vilA i^jj comes from ^^Xj^Jif 
Barzik ; and, passing imder the bridge Merek o-^ ^^ waters 
the villages of ji^yf.^ DeirAber, and ^jjyU Manein, and ^^L^lJ' 
Kehergan : and, bordering the i)Uu&^ Ou&c:^ DeshUReshtikal, 
fells into the bitter or salt lake. 

The river Doujend OJsdi^c^ cij^ comes fix)m (j toJu^ Jou- 

* This is the literal translation of a passage which the reader will find in the ori- 
ginal Persian, among the articles of the Appendix. 

■ ( 07 ) 

iendan; and, proceeding to {j]jj^ Hour an and ^^l^ila* 
Jeladan, falls into the sea. The river (j^f^ Remin, runs from 
(^KjL^jcL Khaimaigan to ^^^-y Lahein, and falls into the 
river of Shapour, j^\^ ^^J^ ^^^ thence proceeds to IgjU -^ v« 
Mouje Maiha, and falls into the sea. 

The river Khashein (^^jyixsL O^j^ issues from the mountains of 
(^>ilci Dadein ; and when it reaches ^j\jLff^ Heifan, it falls into 
the river Mouje -^ a^ ^JJ* 

The river Sekan (^ 1^ Oj^ flows from the village of (jlss:^^ 
Deihan, from the place called Cj^'j^'^l^ Shadafzai, and wa- 
tering the meadows and fields there, proceeds to ojjf Koureh, and 
to the territories of (j ^^v^ Jemgan, and {jjj) ^ Kazeroun, and 
falls into the sea. 

The river v.jiaxw-^ Harestek issues from the village of ^ji^U 
Maserm; and, proceeding to the village of jlsi^V**^ Mesihar, 
runs under the bridge of \\y**^ Mesoul, which is an ancient 
structure of stone ; and from that goes on to the village of o 
Harehy and at the village of i^jj ^ Karzein joins the river 
^^kamI^ KJiashein. 

The river d3\i^ J^ Curdaneh comes from {^\i^J Curdan, from 
the borders of cl; I Aurd *, or Ord, and derives its name from Cur- 

' ♦ The wandering Curds or Turcomans, whom Captain Francklih met in the 


( 08 ) 

dan: it waters the territories of JjuaS J^Kam Firouz; and, going 
by ^j \^^ Kasegan and i^y^ Tesoiikh, falls into a lake called 
jj^ Omru ; it is said that this water runs subterraneously into . 
the sea. 

The v'jj^ Foruah comes from the place of the same name^ 
and runs under the (^Lwlj&^ -J^ Khorasan bridge^ near tfie 
gates of 'sr^^\ Istakhar. But the rivers are very numerous in 
this province, and cannot be all described here. 

Of the Lakes of Pars. 

The Persian Sea is a bay of that great ocean which extends as 
&r as ^j^Afi^ China, along the coast of Hindoostan. In Persian 
it is called the Sea of Pars, or of (jl^j^ Kirman, because that 
none of the countries situated on it are more populous, cultivated,, 
or deUghtful, and because, in ancient times, the kings of Pars 
were the most powerful and iQustrious ; and even at this present 
time the people of Pars are famous in all quarters. 

One of the lakes is called (j IJ^Asr^ Bakhtegan, into which falls 

vicinity of Persepolis, informed him, that the name of dicir tribe was Orf.^-^Tour to 
Persia., &c. octavo edition, p. 199. 


( 00 ) 

the river ""^ J>KaT^ and it reaches to the borders of Barman. It 
is in length about twenty farsang, and its waters are salt. This 
lake is in the Koureh of Istakhar. There is a small lake in the 
Koureh of Shaponr, at the Desht C^v3 (or waste) of \^xj\ 
Ar%eny the length of which is ten farsang : its waters are sweet 
and pleasant ; they were at one time dried up ; no water remained 
in this place : all the small sturgeon (jX^r^U) are taken here. 
There is another small lake in the Koureh of Shapour, near 
\^^j ^ Karzein, the length of which is about ten farsang. Near 
jj^ Mour the water is bitter, or saltish ; and there is much fish- 
ing in it. 

The lake ^^ ^Sk>^ Heikan is of bitter water : it is twelve far- 
sang in length. Salt is collected on its banks. It is part of 
ojyS^ jfJii<\)\ Ardeshir Koureh, and they say belongs to yf^^j\ 
ojL, Ardeshir Khereh. Its beginning is at the distance of two 
farsang from Shiraz, and it ends near the borders of Khuzistan. 
The lake of ^y^^Juw Sefhouiah is near eight farsang in length : 
it affords much fishing: On its banks are thick forests, and 
reeds or canes in great abundance : it belongs to the borders of 


o 2 

( 100 ) 

\^f^ c^i^to ^ uC^ <4^jr/^ 

Description of the great Cities and remarkable Edifices. 

j3sr^^\ Istakhar^ is a city neither small nor great, more ancient 
than any city whatsoever of Pars* The extent of it is ahout one 
mile ; and the sovereigns of Pars had their dwellings there, and 
Ardeshir resided in that place ; and there is a tradition that Solo- 
mon, the Prophet (the blessing of God be on him !) used to set 
out from AjjAi* Tdbertha\ in the morning, and at night arrive at 
Istakhar. There is in Istakhar a mosque, which they call the 
Mosque of Solomon, the son of David : and some people afBrm 
that w^ Jenif who reigned before O Is^ Zohak,. was Solomon ; 
but that opinion is erroneous. In ancient times Istakhar was 
well inhabited; and the bridge called Pool-i-Khorasan i]^ 
(^Lwl-sL or the Khorasan bridge, is without the city. 

jjC^\JLj Beshadour was built by King Shapour* It has 
strong ramparts, and a ditch with water, in which weeds and 
thorns grow as high as the waist of a man, so thickly entangled, 
that one cannot, without considerable difficulty, be extricated 

• The reader will find the original Persian of this passage in my " Epitome of the 
Ancient History of Persia,'* Appendix, p* 91. 
t Ot Tibenab. 

( 101 ) 

from them. This place has four gates ; and in the midst of it is 
a singular hill, or eminence, like a tower or dome. The build- 
ings are of clay. 



jy^ Jawr was built by Ardeshir. It is said that this place 
was formerly a small lake, and that Ardeshir, having there ob- 
tained a victory over his enemy, desired to build a city on the 
spot, and ordered the water to be drained away. The walls are 
of clay. There are four gates : Oiie is called the -^ L-^b Bab 
Mihr 'y it leads to the east : another is the Jj^^ y^\j Bab Beh- 
ram, leading to the west.. On the right hand is situated the 
i^J^ oj^jj^ Defwazieh Hofmuz, or Gate of Hormuz; and on 
the . left the gate of Ardeshir jxiicijl ojljjii This gate was 
erected by Ardeshir ; and from it there is a view of all the districts 
and territories* Opposite to this is a hill, from which water 
gushes with great force, and falls into an aqueduct, which was 
formed of stone and mortar, but is now fallen to ruin. The city 
is well supplied with running water ; and in the vicinity of each 
gate there is about a farsang laid out in gardens and pleasure- 

Jl -Aji ShirazAs a modem city, built by <J^.Ia^ j^lHi I (^ cXy3i^ 
Mohammed ben alcassem Okail, uncle (or cousin-german) 
of ^^i^jJ (^ t:^^ Hejaje ben Yousuf. The productions of 
every city are brought to Shiraz, and are not taken from that to 
any place. This was chosen as the station of the army of Islam>. 

( 103 ) 

on account of it5 vicinity to Istakhar^ during the war*. The city 
was at that time built : it extends about one farsang, and has not 
any walls. Here is a (^[^ci Divan (Court of Revenue, Tribunal, 
&c.) and the Collectors of the Revenue go there. 

{JJ.JJ ^ Karzein is a small town, about the size of Istakhar, 
and the best in that Koureh. The town called aX« Mekehf 
is situated near the borders of O ii Vezd and o^jj\ Aberkouhp 
iand near the territories of Kirman; and iu^ Herieh goes be- 
tween from the (^Uj> vJLS* Shek of Kirman and the borders 
of Isfahan ;{;. M ekeh is situated on the skirt of the desert : it is 
a pleasant town, and well supplied with provisions. There is a 
town with a castle and two iron gates ; one called jji\ k^[j Bab 
Ahroui the other cXsi***^l vW -Sa& al Mesjed. Here is a 
mosque ; and they drink water conveyed in trenches or canals ; 
and there is a stream also which flows from the castle. In this 
village there is great abundance of fruit, and many trees and 

o^*-jl Aberkouh is a plentiful town, about the same size as 

* The war which gave the Mussulmans possession of die Persian empik^, in the 
middle of the sevendi century of the Christian aera. 

t Probably for aa£) Katfa. 

X The reader must recollect, that I have only undert^en, in the present volume, 
a mere translation. The numerous obscurities of the text, I shall endeavour to illus- 
trate in a future work, of which I have given an outline in the Preface. 


( 103 ) 

Istakhar: it has not any trees, {j^^jj Rudan resembles Aber- 
kouh in every respect, but that it produces more fruit, and is 
better supplied with provisions, jj j*** Serour is a small town ; 
but plentifully supplied. Liu Beiza is one of the largest towns 
in the Koureh of Istakhar : it is a pleasant and well-inhabited 
• place : its walls are white ; and it was the station of the Mussul- 
man army at the time of the conquest of Istakhar. From this 
place th^ send com to Shiraz. 

Cy the Koureh of Shapour. 

One of the chief cities in the Koureh Shapour, is {jjjj^ 
Cazeroim. It is about the size of {j^OsXjy Nubendjan; but 
Cazeroun is more populous, and stronger, and of better air : the 
air of Cazeroun is the purest of all Pars. TTiey drink there, well- 
water ; and have abundance of fruits and crops. Cazeroun and ' 
Nubendjan are the most plentiful places of all the Koureh of 

( 104 ) 

Of the Koureh of Darabjerd. 


The largest town in the Koureh of Darabjerd is L*kj Besa. 
It is of the same size as Shiraz ; and the air of Besa is better, than 
that of Shiraz. In their buildings they use cypress wood. It is 
an ancient city, with a castle, and walls and ditches. All t&e 
productions of a warm and cold climate are to be found there; 
dates, oranges, &c. All the towns of Darabjerd are near 
each other. 

Of the towns of o^ii yvjiii^l Ardeshir Dereh we have already 
mentioned Shiraz. After that is v^I-xmj Siraf^ about as large as 
Shiraz. Here are very wealthy men, such as merchants, and 
others, who expend thirty thousand dinars on the building of 
' their houses. There are not any trees immediately about Siraf. 
TTbere is a mountain on the east of the city which they call w^ 
Jem ; this affords fruits and water for the town. Siraf enjoys 
a warmer climate than any of those other towns. 

^jla^;! Arjan is a considei^able city, producing dates and olives 
in great plenty. From Arjan to the sea is a distance of one mer- 

( 105 ) 

hil«h: so that it partakes of the land and sea, of the mountainous 
and level country. 

The greatest cities of Pars are Shiraz, and v^l ^amj Sir of, and 
j^Lc^l Arghan. 

(^IrbuJJLiAj Nuhendjan enjoys a warm climate : it has. a few 
date trees. (^ Lj u^ouSa Shaab houan is within two farsang of 
Nubendjan : it consists of several villages, with running water, 
and so many trees that - the sun with difficulty shines upon the 
ground. ^^-^ Jenahah, and jAa*** Sinir, and {^^j^ ^5*^ 
Mahirooyan, are of very warm air, situated on the sea coast, and 
abounding in the fruits of a warm climate. 

The Distances of Places in Fars. 

From Shiraz to Siraf, five farsang ; from Shiraz to JJ^Kefer^ 
five farsang ; from Kefer to ysr^ Beher, five farsang ; from Beher 
to (^LySi^ Beryeman, fiv^ farsang ; from Benjeman to j^s^ 
KouaTi six farsang ; from Kouar to v'jy** OjS^O Desht Shou- 
rah (the waste or desert of bitter water), five farsang ; from that 
to cijici (J Li. Khan Daoud (David's Inn), from which there is 
a desert for about three farsang ; from the ajO \j (j[:L Khan 

( 106 ) 

Badyeh, six farsang ; from that to ^^^ ^^i^ Dhey Mei, six far- 
sang ; and from Dhey Mei to ^uulc^m Serakiah, six farsang ; 
and from ^j'S^cilj Badergan to ^J Terka, to the (jLi. Khan, 
four farsang; from that to v^I-a*w Siraf, seven farsang; and 
from (j^j^ Douhein to Serakiah : In all^ is a distance of sixty- 
eight farsang. 

Road from Shiraz to Jenahah. 

From Shiraz to jKm^\::L Khan-^Sheir, on the river (^IXw 
Sekan, six farsang ; from (j^j^ Douhein to aaJlc^ Serakiah, 
four farsang ; from o^ vy^ Sir Kouh, to the town of _. 4j Touje, 
twenty-four farsang; from Touje to Jenabah^ twelve farsang: 
In all forty-four farsang *. 

* In this, as in the Nozehat al Coloub, and most other Asiatick Works on Geography, 
the reader niust calculate the distances himself^ if he wishes for an accurate total 

( 107 ) 

Route from Shiraz to Sirgan. 

From Shiraz to Istakhar, twelve farsang ; to the Reseid Gah 
Kelouder, j^j^J o \^iXf^j eight farsang ; from Reseid Ga& to 
JL/TbLiJ Zyad'-Abad, which has been reckoned as part of 
(jUwiiAsL Khuristan, five farsang ; from Zyad-Abad to the vil- 
lage of (j\j{jj^ Herbaian*, where there is a small lake, six 
farsang: from Herbaian to the ^J•.y:5fc.JltXxc <3l-iO Dhey Ahdar^^ 
rahman, three farsang ; from Abdarrahman to ^jj^ ^.^ Dhey 
Mouredy where is a town called (^tac*^^ Boudenjan, six far- 
sang ; from Dhey Moured to (Sy^ ' <J^t^ Sahel al Kebri, 
eight farsang; and from Sahel al Kebri to the ^UC«j*w io[j^ 
Rebat Sirmkan, eight farsang ; from Sirmkan to Rebat ^cL 
Posht Khem, nine farsang ; and from Rebat Sirmkan to (^ ^jf^ 
Sirgariy of Kirman, nine farsang ; the Rebat Sirmkan belongs to 
the borders of Kirman« 

* I must acknowledge, that in this name I have supplied by conjecture the diacritical 

points of the ya^ as in my MS. the word is thus written, ^^UL^— I had hopes that 
die Eton MS. might enable me to ascertain the true reading ; but I found it in this as 
in most similar cases, still more unsatisfactory and equivocal than my own, the points 

being altogether omitted, and the word appearing thus, q^LL^— I have noticed in 
the Pre&ce the various pronunciations of such a character, according to the application 
of points. 

P 2 


( 108 ) 

Road from Shiraz to Kattajk ♦. 

This is the. road of ELhorasan : From Shiraz to v^lSj^^ Dukak, 
six &rsang ; from Dukak to -ir"^*^ Istakhar, six farsang ; from 

Istakhar to aj3 ^ Pir Kurieh, four farsang ; from Pir Kurieh to 
^OJ<^ Kohendiz, six farsang; from Kohendiz to OJLi. A^^^Dhey 
Bend, eight farsang ; from Dhey Bend to Aberkouh, ^j^' twelve 
farsang ; from Aberkouh to vvj^ ^A Dhey Shir, thirteen far- 
sang ; from Dhey Shir to^^^^ Hawr, six farsang^; from Hawr to 

the {j^ys^ A«J^ Kelaa-Majioas (or the Castle of the Magi), 
which is now in ruins, six farsang ; and from the Kelaa Majious 
to the town of ^jO Kattah, five farsang; from Oii Yezd to 
o J^ Her eh, six farsang ; and from Hereh to Katta, seven farsang. 
This is the extreme point of the territories of Faxs. The totaI> 
eighty-seven farsang. 

• This section has been given in the ** Epitome b/ the Ancient History §f Perumi 
p. 9 1 , Appendix. 

( >09 ) 

Account of the Roadjrom Shiraz to Isfahan. 

^ From Shiraz to^Iid^ Hezar, nineteen farsang; from Hezar to 
^y^*U Manein, six farsang ; from Manein to L**jJj Rekisa, which 
is the o bT cXajv^ Reseid Gah (the place of watching)*^ six farsang; 
from Rekisa to ^[^ Kumar, four farsang ; from Kumar to Kesr 
Aaien, {^j^\ ^ seven farsang; to (^l^sr*^' Istakharan, 
which is a village, seven farsang ; from Istakharan to (j^^f (^l^ 
Khan Aweis, seven farsang; from Elian Aweis to j^S^ d^C^ 
Dhey Gouz, seven :^sang; from Dhey Gouz to o,J Kerch, 
eight farsang; from Kerch to (j^ls/^ o^ Khan Lenj an,. seven 
farsang ; and from Khan Lenjan to Isfahan^ nine farsang. The 
bordCTS of Pars extend to the Khan ; and from Shiraz to that, is 
forty-three farsang ; and from Shiraz to Isfahan, seventy-two 
farsang ; from Shiraz to (^ ^jyr ^^^^S^^> seven farsang ; and 
from that to (^[X^ijyL Khurestan, a. small town, nine farsang ; 
from Khurestan to a I^Ij^ rebat, foiu* farsang; from the 
rebat to ^jj^ Keroum, four farsang ; from Keroum to Lm^ 
Besa^ five &rsang; from Besa to the town of ^Lmjv^ Te- 

* oir«XA^ without the ^ would signify ** the place of the chace, the huntii^- 
ground," &c. 

( 110 ) 

misariy four farsang ; from Temisan to (^lae:***^ ^^^^ Joumeh 
Mesehan, six farsang; from (^1=^ ^Jr^ Merzend Khan to 
(^Ln San, four farsang; from San to the village of oJl-^IjIo 
Darahgird, to (^Oy« ^ Zem Mohdi, five farsang; from 
U*#ijj Rousta (the village) to -;.ji Firkh, eight farsang ; from 
Firkh to ^U Bazem, fomteen farsang. The total from Shiraz, 
eighty-two farsang. 

O^J^ J';^ J'^'j 

Road from Shiraz to Arjan. 

From Shiraz to the town of {^^^ Jouein, five farsang ; from 
that to (^.^IsL oO Dek Khellan, four farsang ; from Khellan to 
o;!^ Khouareh, five farsang ; from Khouareh to (^ ^jf Gurkan, 
five farsang; from Gurkan to (jlsi^J^ Nubenjan, six farsang; 
from that to ^ U J^ Hhourwan, four farsang ; from Hhourwan 
to OJcs^ji^ Derchendy four farsang; from Derchend to <^l,r^ o^ 
Khan Khamrnad, four farsang : from Khan ELhammad to /JcXaj 
Bendil, eight farsang; from Bendil to V!;Ut£ \^.^ Dhey Akareb, 
(the village of scorpions) called also jfJ^ Heir, four farsang ; from 
Heir to (j^f^\j Rasein, four farsang; from Rasein to (^^^1 
Arjan, the end of the journey : In all, from Shiraz to Arjan, 
sixty farsang. 

( 111 ) 

^j? ^j^ O^ U^J^ v:l^UL^ yo 

Account of the Stages and Distances between the principal 

Towns of Fars. 

From (jjjj ^ Cazeroun to Shiraz, fifty farsang; from L^u 
BesaAo f^y^ Jehrem, ten farsang; from Shiraz to Istakhar, 
twelve farsang ; from Shiraz to {j[^ Kouan, ten farsang ; from 
Shiraz to L^ Beiza, eight farsang ; from Shiraz to ci-/CJljl<^ 
Darabgerdy fifty farsang; from Shiraz to j^i^ Jawr, twenty far- 
sang ; from Shiraz to v^ I vy*j Siraf sixty farsang ; from Shiraz 
to (jLs::^^' Nubenjan, twenty-five farsang; from Shiraz to (^i; 
Yezd, seventy-four farsang; from Shiraz to Aberkouh, o^jjI thirty- 
two farsang; from Shiraz to AjUc^Jena&aft, fifty- two farsang; from 
Shiraz to ^^^y^ Hoiunah, fourteen farsang ; from Shiraz to ^j^^ 
Jehrenif thirty farsang ; from j^ Jawr to (mj^^ ^ Cazeroun, 
sixteen farsang; from v^l^yw Siraf to ^tV?^ Bejirem, twelve 
farsang; from o^-JJi^^ Mahi Rooian to o^L^ ^^^1 (j^^*^ 
Hesn ebn Omar eh, which is the extent of Pars, one hundred, 
and sixty farsang. 

From Kirman to the borders of Isfahan : From, [j^^j^ Roudan 
tojUl Anar, eighteen farsang ; from — -^ jUI Anar Meherje 
to x^f Kattah, five farsang; from Kattah to O^^^ Meimed, ten. 

( n^ ) 

farsang ; from Meimed to ocXxc Akdeh, ten ^rsang ; from 


Akdeh to (j^l^ Maneiriy fifteen farsang; from Manein to Isfa- 
han, forty-five farsang; from Roudan to Manein, eighty-three 


U ^Jl^j \j^j ^ /<^ 

Of the JFateVy and Climate, and Soil of Fars*.- 

The land of Pars is divided into the warm region, lying to the 
south, as far as {^jj ^ Karzin, and ^ Zem; and ci-/L^ljlO 
Darabgird, to ^J Firkh and ^j* Hereje. The northern 
division is cold. 

In the warm region are comprised ^j'-^l Arghan, and 
(^.U^xXa^ Nuhendjan, and (^Uj--^ Mahrooian, and -aam# 
Sinir, and ajUcs^. Jenabah, and — jj Touje, and v^*Lij^ Cam^ 
Deshti Reihaky and o,^ Her eh, and (^^lo Darein, and 
lAT^ Jawr, and (^jx)^ Cazeroun, and (^^l^ Marein, and 
(^l-AyMj Semiran, and ^jLCiLysL Khemaigan, and o'r t^i* 
Hormuz Reran, and Cil-xwj Siraf, and ^j?r? Bijerem, and 
o;Ly^ ^jjI (^^j^^jssi^ fle5/i e&/i Omareh, and other places ; but these 
are the principal. 

* The title of thk section is given from the Eton MS.— 'In mine a blank space is 
left for it. 

( 113 ) 

To the colder region belong -sr^^' Istdkhar, and Liuu Beiza, 
and (jJuLo Manein, —Ool Aideje and JjjtV^ ^ '^ Kam Firouz, 
and ' c^^^^/^ Gonred, arid j^kjKellar, and yy^j**» • Sersir, and 
(^Isir^j' Awlenjan, and iiii Fezd, and Jjj RouZy and (^ly> 
Jera/i, and OCijJlj ^azrik, and ^<iyw Serder, and A^«pN 
Houmah, and o-^ Jekrefi, and^i^jX^ Setouder, and vi^UlX^j^^ 
Meshkanath, and (jL^Lisu^l Astehajan, and ^.j Berrri, and 
(jL^ Rahban, and ^ly Louar, and (^UjJI^ JL> Tarjensan. 
iXfJ3\' Akleidy iJLeJ^ Sermek, arid many other places, all belong 
to this cold part of Pars. But Jawr, and Besa, arid Shiraz, and 
iaOImj^ Beshadour, and Cazerounj are nearly alike in climate^ 
The cold r^on is that in* which fruits do riot arrive at perfection, 
and where com only is produced, such as Tezd, and C^jfjS 
Goured, and Iw?Umj jj Roustak; and Istakhar, and Rahban. 

In the warm places, during the summer season, no bird remains 

on account of the excessive heat. In some parts of it, flesh, if 

laid upon the stones, in summer time, will be roasted. The cli- 
• ... » . • 

mate of the cold region is very healthy : that of the warm parts 

is not so goodjt especially of Darabgird. Arghan enjoys a better 

air, such as Siraf and Jenabah. Shiraz, and Besa, and Cazeroun, 

and Jawr, are of a more temperate and salubrious climate. The 

water at Darabgird is bad. ' ; 

( 114 ) 

Of the Persons (also of the Manners^ Languages, ReligiimSp 
and Chief Families J of the People of Fars. 

The inhabitants of the warm parts of this province are of 
slender make^ and brown complexions^, with little hair. In the 
colder r^on they are fatter, and have more hair, and their com* 
plexions are fairer. And they have three languages : The Parsi 
(^^j**;^U {j^j)% which they use in speaking, one to another; 
though there may be some variations of dialects in diffisrent dia* 
tricts, yet it is in fact all the same, and they all understand the 
language of each other, and none of their expressions or words 
are unintelligible : The Pehlavi lai^uage, C,^^^ o^ which 
was formerly used in writings ; this language now requires a com- 
mentary jAmJu or explanatory treatise ; and the Arahick language, 
(Sj^ (jbj which at present is used in the Pivans, or Royal 
Ck)urts of Justice, Revenue, &c. 

The dress and ornaments of the princes are, short coats, ot 
timicks, open before ; and large cloaks, or outer garments ; small 
sashes wrapped round the turbans, and swords hung by belts> 

* Literally wheat^olwred {^j^ ^ OJL^ 

( 116 ) 

^th tight boots. The Cam (or magistrates) wear on their heads 
caps (o^U^), so that their ears are covered, the end hanging 
<« thdr shoulders. Their shirts are of a fine texture ; but they 
do not wear boots, nor the outer cloaks The secretaries, or writers 
(ci> ^jf^^) ^ ^^^f wear the cloak and boots, and their habits re- 
jemble those of the Arabians. 

As to the manners of die people in Pars, those ivho are the 
chief men, and who occupy the higher offices in the service of 
the sovereign, are polite and courteous : they have fine palaces, 
and are very hospitable. The people, in general, are kind and 
civil in their manners. The merchants are remarkably covetous, 
and desirous of wealth. I have heard that there was a certain 
man of Siraf who had passed forty years at sea, never leaving 
his ship during that time : whenever he came to a port, he sent 
some of his people on shore to transact his commercial afikirs ; 
and when that business was finished, he sailed on to some other 
place. The inhabitants of Siraf devote their whole time to com- 
merce and merchandize. The Author of the book says, " I my- 
self saw at this place several persons who possessedybor thousand 
thousand dinars ; and there were some who had still more ; and 
their clothes were like those of hired labourers.** But the people 
of Cazeroun and Besa traffick on shore ; and they derive their 
fortunes from this kind of commerce : they are persevering and 
patient in the acquiring of riches ; and the men of Pars, where- 
soever they go, are powerful and wealthy. 

Q 2 


( 116 ) 

As to the different religious sects of the people of Pars^ those 
who inhabit the sea-shore are of the same sect as the people of 
Basrah. From Siraf to Mahi-rooyan^ and to i^itj\ Arghan, arc 
nearly all the same. The inhabitants of ^^j^/^ Jehrem are of the 
Moatazelite heresy : Those who dwell in the warm r^on are of 
seven different sects : and those of the cold r^on^ of Shiraz, 
and Istakhar^ and Besa^ are believers in the Sonna (or traditions 
of Mahommed); and some are like the people of Baghdad, and 
have the Fetwa, according to the rules of those who follow the 
Hadith, or holy traditions. 

In Pars there are Fire- worshippers, or Guebres ((^^ta/), and 
Christians ((^Li^ji% and some Jews ((^Ic^a^); " and the books 
of the Guebres, their fire temples, and their customs or cere^ 
monies of Guebrism, or Magism, still continue among the people 
of Pars ; and there are not in any country . of Islam so many 
Guebres as in the land of Pars, which has been their capital or 
chief residence*.'* 

In the books of the Persians ((^tA>w^lj) it is recorded that se- 
veral of their kings were of Pars, such as Zohak, and Jem, 
and Feridoun, and others, till the time that Feridoun divided the 
earth among his sons ; and they were the kings of the earth till 
the time that ZhuTkarnein (Alexander the Great) came, and slew 

* See the original of tfiis passage in the Appendix^ 

( n7 ) 

Dara^ the son of Darab ; and thje empire declined until the time 
of Ardeshir. After him there were kings^ such as Shapour^ and 
Baharam^ and Kobad, and Firouz, and Hormuz*, and others; 
most of whom were of Pars, or of Arabia : their dominion ex- 
tended to the borders of ^^ Roum. But when an Arabian 
race conquered the whole world. Pars becanie as a considerable 
province to them, and the seat of empire was removed to Irak. 
The kings of Pars have been highly celebrated ; their history is 
so well known, that it were unnecessary to say more of it in this 

Since the introduction of the true faith (Islam), there have 
been many illustrious men from this province, (Pars.) One of 
these was y^J^ HormuZy a Guebre, who, in the time of Omar 
ebn Alkhitab, may God reward him ! was taken by Abdallah ben 
Omar, and put to death. 

/^wajU (^L^X*j Selman Farsi (Selman the Persian) also was 
one of those illustrious men : his piety is celebrated throughout 
the world : he sought the truth of religion in all quarters, imtil 
he found it at Medina, with the prophet, the peace and blessing 
of God be on him ! in consequence of which, Selman became a 
true believer'f . 

• Sec the series of all these kings in the " Epitome of the Ancient History of Persia J* 
t Fide D^Herbelot BihL Orient. Art^ Selman» 

( 118 ) 

The race of Omareh oj\^ JjT also called (^OJULai. ^JT Je- 
lendi, formerly possessed extensive territories and wide domi- 
nions in this country, on the sea-coast, in the vicinity of Kir- 
man. It is said that their empire eidsted before the time of 
Moses, on whom be the blessing of God ! and that it is to some 
princes of this family the Koran alludes in that passage, 

Uao^ aaaxm Jo «>cLIj UJU f^^ljj o ^ J 

" And there was behind them a king, who forcibly seized on 
every (sound) ship*." And to this very time they have sol- 
diers, and plunder on the sea, and pay not tribute to any king : 
and it was with (^cXJJLsr^ iX^\ (j^ aJUIcX^c Abdullah hen 
Ahmed al Jelendi that ^.ioJiJ I (j-!^^r^ Omru hen Leith made 
war for two years ; and he did not conquer him imtii he had 
called to his assistance two of the family of Omru. 

The ^UuflJI /Ju Beni Alseghar are also of the race of 
Jelendi (^cXJULq^ JT It is said that jUjoj I v.aj^ Seif al- 
Seghar is called after them. Those we have mentioned are the 
more ancient kings of Pars. 

yf^jjj\ Abu Zeheir was of the family of (Sji liH a*«U*# 
Sameh hen BouL -a^ Cs^ ^^-^^^f:^ ^^\f ^^^^ Zeheir was 

* This king is before mentioned, p. 1 2» 

( 110 ) 

called after him. o;L*j jjI Abu Sareh, who seized upon Pars, 
was of this family : he retained possession of Pars imtil the 
Khalif QV«U Mamoun sent oouiJ/l ^j^ iX^3^ Mohammed 
hen alashaath against him, when, in the desert of Shiraz, his 
army was defeated, and himself slain. To jfJ^) /^l (^ y^*^ 
Jcfffer hen ahi Zoheir, cXxiii J I ^j j^'^ Haroun Arrashid gave 
the viziership. O^Ujj ,ix> ^^ JtlL« Muziiffer hen Jqffler 
Reshak has it, and is Lord of the Scymetar jAm^^v^ OojIcXsL 
and from the border of (^^2^ Hei to j^y?:^ Bejerm, belongs to 

The race of Khanteleh, edLiX^L jjT the sons of Temim: 
ffj^ /JLi They are of the family of ajO I ^^ oj ^ Arweh hen 
Adyeh, who crossed over from (^. jsr^ Bahrein to Pars, in the 

time of the Ommiades (aa^I (^^). After the death of Arweh, 


they settled in Istakhar, where they accumulated great riches, 
and lived in splendour. One of them, called jj^ Omru, was so 
wealthy that he purchased a book ♦ (v-JCasi*^^) at the price of 
one thousand dinars, and bequeathed sums of money for religious 
purposes,, and alms, throughout all the cities and provinces of 
Islam ; and the income and taxes of their estates were ten thou^ 
sand thousand direms. 

wv^i u1 i^jjy^ Omru hen Ibrahim received from the Khalif 

* Moft particularly the Korarw 

( 120 ) 


Mamoun the sovereignty of the sea. After him, jjr^ (j^ (j^^j^ 
Merdas hen Omru, who was called (j^X^ Bouyellan, possessed 
such estates, that every year his taxes amounted to three thou- 
sand direms. His son, J^j^U (^ cX^sf* Mohammed ben IFasel, 
was equally rich. The chief of this tribe was a^ac (^ Jjr^ 
Omru hen Aiseh. At the time the Turks assumed the Kha- 
lifat, they desired to remove them from court ; anS the pro- 
vince of Fars was divided among forty nobles of the Turks, the 
chief of whom was oJ^ Molded : Having reproved them for 
their tyrannical conduct and wickedness, they all conspired against 
him, and sought to kill him : he applied for protection to Mer- 
das, who saved him from those nobles, and sent him to Bagh- 
dad. The Turks then gave the command to 1^1^^^*** o? f^^ji^ 
Ibrahim hen Simara ; and r^^e?? (^ aXJ IcXac Abdallah ben 
Yahia sent a letter, desiring that those nobles might b!e seized, 
and put to death. Ibrahim ben Simara took four of them, and 
slew them ; and pardoned the others. From that time forth he 
was chief of the Tiu-ks (^ ^TJ' ^oJU j {j^j) ^ Pars. 

Jo^lj (^ <Js-^s^ Mohammed ben Wiasel was in possession of 
Pars; and ^^JUU (^ ^^^.^a^ JlcX>x Abdarrahjnan hen Mqflah 
was sent from Baghdad with a great army, and a general, named 
*jilL Tashem. In a battle with Mohammed ben Wasel, 
this Tashem was slain ; and Abdar'rahman, being taken prisoner, 
was put to death. Pars continued in his ^possession until his 
kinsman Merdas invited Tacoub ben Leith» who came into Pars, 

'( 121 ) 

and defeated Mohammed ben Wasd, who fled froih L£aj Beiza 

».. »--* ••• 

to «y« Merdu. At the time that Mohammed ben Wasel re- 
turned from battle, with Abdarrahmian ben Moflah^ Yacoub ben 
Leith defeated Mohammed^ who went to sea (or fell into the sea, 
iiUol Oj^Osj), and was brought from that to Tacoub: he wa^ 
confined for. some years in a castle ; but, whilst Yacoub was 
absent, having gone to the borders of jjAM^ Nishapour, 
Mohammed, with a band of the prisoners, got possession of the 
castle, and Yacoub sent people to put them to death. 

The race of Saman i^UUw A^ (the Samanides) are descended 
from J^ Bahram, and Bahrahi was of ^a=L Kheir inO,>.xiSii^j1 
Ardeshirgerd : there he resided, and went from that to ic;! J^ 
Herflt, and conquered the army of the Turks (^ \^J, and was 
so successftil that the army of i^f^ Kesri (the Persian mo- 
narch) was terrified at his exploits *. But the story is very long. 
Xhe family of Saman is descended from him ; and for many years 
the government of ^-Jjl jjU MaweraVnahr and i^ Balkh 
and the countries bordering on the o>*^ Jihoun, or riva- 
Oxus^ was injtheir hands* 

OomI (jJ cX^I ^J^ JukXyMjl Ismael hen Ahmed hen Asad 
possessed so extensive an empire, that Khorasan, and Mawarlnahr, 
and Tabaristan, and ^ ^r^ Gurhan, and {Ju^^ KJoumesh, and 

* Sec D'Herbblot BibU Orient. Art Sanum and Baharam Giubin. 

( 122 ) 

(^j Risy, Ahd ^j jS Casvin, and -jI Ebher, and (^1X3^ fen* 
g'an^ were all under his dominion ; at no other time were all 
these comihies or places in the possession of an indiyidual : and 
he raised himself to such glory and power^ that the kings of 
Cheen and Turkestan were stricken with terrcn* ; and he was 
as renowned in those countries as in the land of Islam. To him 
succeeded cX^^I ^ y^ Nasser hen Ahmed. In his time no* 
' body co«ild oppose or controul his sway. 

f*y izH (c>^y**^' izH Ls^ "^^^ ^^^ Alhosein hen Bashr 
was of the tribe of Ojl Azd, which dwelt at t^lssr^ BokharaK 
He ent«ed Pars, and acquired power, until Tacoub ben Leith 
exposed him in battle, and overcame him at o JLo Kantereh, a 
place near Shiraz. He was taken prisoner^ and for some time 
confined, and after that put to death. 

The kings of the Zems (^L^ (jy^l&xib : These kings had in 
their courts not less than a thousand horsemen. The ^jlsi****^ ^ 
Zem Mesejan, which was called the Ze/n of Jelouiah ai 

mehrjan ben Ruxhah ajJjj ^^ o'^ rr^^ *:i5^^A^ ^' Jelouiah 
went to this Zem from (<Ax*w ^jlXiLySSi. Hemaigan Sqfly of 
tfie Koureh of Istakhar, and served aXim Seleh. When Seleb 
died (vJUiU (^UJ) Jelomah took possession of the Zem, which 
from that time was called after him. His success continued, and 
arrived at such a degree that he attacked the family of Budolph 
^^i^jj ill, and -slew /ywyvg (j^ (JJtiu« Maakel ben Isa^ the 

( 128 ) 

htatiysT of Budal£ Thoi Bitdolf came and slew him^ and cut 
off lu5 head ; and the family of Budolf, as long as thej. exiBted^ 
considered this head as ludky^ and productive of good fortune to 
them. For some time they put it on a spear^ and. bore it about 
in front of the army. The skull was set in silver, and continued 
till* the time that c^^ ^ J 7^ Omru hen Leith defeated 
iijxll Osxs, (^ cXy^l Ahmed hen abdalaziz, when that curiosity 
having fallen into his hands^ he ordered it to be broken. The 
government of this Zem ia still in the hands of the family of 

The {^\jji^ mj 2^m Divan : The chief of this was Azad 
Murd of Kouhestan ^^U**J>^ li-o ciljT The government of 
this still continues in his family; and it was M^ji^ (^ 
Mohammed ben Ibrahim who drew forth an army against Azad 
Murd, imtil at last he fled before him. 

'^'^ O^J^ fij -Zem Karian is in possession of the race of 
Sqffar {j\jua JT). Their chief is [jm^\ (^ Os^isn.! ^^ ys^ 
Hajer ben Ahmed ben Alhassan, 

^^ • 

The ^^^Isr^iiLi ^ 2^m Badenjan : the chief of this was 

J^.jyj^ Shehriar. Now it has passed to >>i*lyl C^J^ Musa 
Ibrahim. Some of this tribe have removed from Pars to Isfa- 
han : their estates in Ywcs are very considerable, and the govern-* 
mcnt is still in their family. 

R 2 

( 124 ) 

OF the Debiran ((^^jAjOj Writers or Secretaries) of Tars, who 

were illustrious there, was (^^^e?! (j^ cXxyasrl cXxc Jlbd al 


Hwneid hen Yahia : he was of the Ommiah family, and his 
stoiy is well known. 




^ju^Jl ^ aJUIcXac Abdallah ben alMefakaa was of Pars: 
he dwelt in Basrah ; and was slain there in the time of i*a^jU 
Mansowr. The occasion of this was as follows : he had grren a 
passport, or letter of secmity, for jyok^ ^^ L5^ LH ^ f*-^>^ 
Abdallah ben Ali ben Mansour; and in it was written. "If this 
" promise of protection should not be observed, or if violence 
" should be ofiered to him, Mussulmans shall nevertheless be free 
*' from any blame." Mansour, enraged at this, sent an order to 
the Aumil (or Chief Collector of Revenue), at Basrah, that he 
should privately destroy Abdallah ben al Mefakaa; 

aj^, Yahouiah, the Grammarian and Scribe, was originally of 
Istakhar: he resided at Basrah, and died at Shiraz, where his 
tomb is. He composed a Treatise on Grammar. 

A great many officers of the Khalifs Divans (or Courts of 
Justice, Revenue, &c.) were of Pkrs; some viziers, such as the 
aXoU Barmeks (Barmecides). At all times the offices of state 
were filled by men from Pars, who are peculiarly qualified for 
those situations, because they are rendered so expert in business, 
by the multiplicity and various forms of their Courts and Tribu- 

( 125 ) 

nals, that one person will discharge the functions of several diffi- 
cult offices. I have not seen any odiers who were so universally 
acquainted with business, except two or three : y^ I ^ (J^^^ 
Maali hen al Nasser,^ who was secretary to U^ cjj**^^^ Hassan 
Reja ; he came from Irak, and was killed at Shiraz. Hassan 
Reja, who managed the war department, caused a tomb to be 
erected for him at Shiraz. . 

/^L^4 ^' y^ i^ v^ltX* J^^ Bedar Hedaf hen Zerar al 
Mazeni was fifity years employed in the Divans, and lived six 
years afler he became blind. /•'j\r? (j^ (^Ul* Haman hen 
Behram was of Shiraz, and belonged to the Divan of Ali hen 
al hosein hen. Basher:. J^ ^ (^m^^I ^j^ lJ^ ^^ ^^ 
afterwards transferred to the Divan of ij<^\j (^ cX^asf^ Mo- 
hammed hen ^^5e/, and. superintended every Divan except that 
of Ambassadors. . 

aJUIcXxc (^ (^^.AMj.2!^ Hosein hen Ahdallah, who was sur- 
named cXolmj jj\ Ahu Saied; his proper name was AhdaU 
lah henAhnerzian o'Vw^tt^' o-^ aXJIcXxc He was originally of 
Lw^ Besa, and dwelt at Shiraz, and traced his descent, by the 
mothers side, from the race of oL?/* Merwan: he was intro- 
duced into the Divans of Pars, and resided at IjLsrf Bokhara. 

There is a race or family in Pars, called the vii^^ JJ^I Ahil 
Biout, to whom the business of the Divans belongs by hereditary 
right. The family of UjcX^ v-r^^^/c^ Hahih Medrek, and the 

( 120 ) 

family of Faxl, the son of that Habib, are of thb tribe, which 
is originally of jjyf^ a ^ Kam Firouz. They settled at Shiraz, 
aind managed important matters, and became great; and the 
EiiaUf Mamoun invited v-t-^aa:^ (^ lSjO^ Medrek ben Hdbih 
to Baghdad, and held him in high esteem. His death happened 
in Baghdad, in the time of m ^okx^ Motazem. It is said that 
JLH i^s^* Yahia Aksem hired some person to murder him 

* m 
The race of the Beni Sefar j\jud ^^^Ju /JT are of the tribe 
of isJLqIj Bamlah. i^ss^- Yahia, and ^;^•yai. J IcXac Abdarrah- 
man, and aJUIcXac Abdallah, of the children of Mohammed 
ben Ismael Juol^^I (^ Os^s^, resided in Pars dming the 
reign of Mamoun, and filled the offices of the Divan. The 
family of ajjIJ (j^ oW jr« Merzban hen Zawieh of Shiraz. 
Ju^L cX^jsf* (jhVj'<^^^ oWJr* {^y**^^ Hassan Merzban hindar 
ben Mohammed IFasel. After him was v^^aJ (^ ^jxju^ 

lacoub ben Leith. \o^J>t^^ (iH cJ^^V** ^ j^^> ^off^^ hen 
Soheil ben al Merzban was secretary of q^^juJ vij^l^^ Hareth 
Feriaoun. There was not any family more ancient or more 
great than the race of oIcX*mI J ^j^ {^[j J j^ Merzban ben Feras- 

OlcX:^ i^ cXy.^.1 (^Ij^-yJI Abu Saied al Hassan, ben Abdallah 
Nasser benMansour, ben al merzban Ahmed ben Hedad, at this 
time conducts the business of the Divan ; and Merdshad ben all 





( 127 ) 

Merdshad oUk^^o (^^5^ {j^ ^^^/« ^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^ Hassan^ 
cX^I J (^^jkMA^ Hosein and Ahmed, are Aumils of the Divan. 
((jLjci ilLr^) Many other men of Pars have arrived at high 
religious dignity in various places. 

— Xasr ' jjm2X^ i^ ^^jj^M^s^ Hosein ben Mansour al Hellah 
was of Beiza. He was a man of probity, and virtue, and wisdom ; 
and arrived at considerable eminence. He said, " Whosoever 
honestly strives with all his heart, and, separating himself from 
the allurements of pleasure, shall hold fast the bridle of sensual 
desire, and patiently wait, shall ascend to the court of honours 
by the steps of uprightness, and gradually be purified from the 
*' infirmities of human nature ; or if human nature should occa* 
tonally shew itself in him, it will be such as was imparted to 
Mary the Virgin, by the- power of the spirit of Almighty God, 
•* the fruit of which was Jesus, on whoin be peace ! All that 
*^ such a man shall utter, will be, as it were, the voice of the 
'* Lord ; and all his actions, as it were, divine ; and all his com- 
•' mands like those of Heaven." In this manner spoke Hosein 
ben Mansour, and preached to all the people about him, till many 
of the viziers and officers of the Divan began to imitate him ; and 
he gained ii^uence over the nobles and princes of Irak, and Je- 
zireh, and Jebal, and Rei. He would not i*eturn to Pars ; and 
meditating on his own business, he went to Baghdad, and was in 
the palace of the Khalif, and had attendants, porters, and slaves, 
tUl at length he was hanged alive. 



( 128 ) 

^^^.Mjj^ Hassan, sumamed Osjoum jj\ Abu Saied, was of low 
origin. He introduced the heresy of the ^jULam^yJ Karmes^ 
tians. Having gone to Bahrem on mercantile business^ he 
preached to the people of Arabia, and great numbers followed 
him ; and he acquired such power that he defeated armies, and 
took a castle from the people of (^Ly^ Oman, and seized some 
towns of Arabia ; but was at last slain. 

O***^ (^ o't^ Selman hen Hassan was a man who went 
into the road of the hadjes, or pilgrims going to Mecca, and 
robbed and slew them: and at last proceeded to such lengths, 
that he plundered the treasures of the Kaaba, and killed the pious 
men who devoted themselves there to incessant prayer. In conse- 
quence of this, ^^^^ Hejaje ordered his kinsmen to be seized, 
and brought to Shiraz : they were kept a while in confinement ; 
but, being men of good character, were not made responsible for 
his offences. . 


Account of the most extraordinary Edifices in Pars, (and 

other Curiosities.) 

In the territory of js ^ ^ ^ - Istdkhar is a great building, with 
statues carved in stone; and there, also, are inscriptions^ and 

( 129 ) 

psdntings. It is said that this was a temple of Solomon^ to whom 
be peace ! and that it was built by the Dives, or Demons: similar 
edifices are in Syria, and Baalbeck, and Egypt. 

'. In the territory of Istakhar, also, there is a kind of apple, 
half of which is sweet, and half sour. Merdas ben Omni 
mentioned this circumstance to Hassan Reja : he denied the possi- 
bility of it, and Merdas sent and caused one to be brought^ and 
shewed it to him*. 

' At the village of Abdar rahman \j-^::^y IcXxc a^j^^ there is 
a certain great pit, the bottom of which is dry all the year, 
except at the season for watering the fields, when water issues 
from it, and serves for the purposes of agriculture and for 
drinking. When it is not any longer necessary for the husband- 
man's use, the water disappears. 

In the territory of jjjj^ Shapour, there is a mountain ; and 
in that mountain are the statues of all the kings, and generals, 
and high priests (cXj^ Moubed), and illustrious men, who have 
existed in Pars : ^' And in that place are some persons who have 
representations of them, and the stories of them written f;" and 
this tribe belongs to the territory of ^j Li; I Arghan, at Hysn 
Mohdi C^<-)y« c:.j***j^=!^ 

• Sec the Persian of this and the preceding passage in the Appendix. 


( 130 ) 

At the city of jy^ Jawr, near the northern gate, is a pond» or 
pool of water, in which a brazen yessel is so placed, that, from a 
hole in it, the water issues with great violence. 

In the vicinity of o^yt Aberkouh are considerable heaps of 
ashes. The common people say, that here was the fire of Nim-^ 
rod (into which he caused Abraham to be thrown.) But this is 
not true : the fact is, that Nimrod, and the kii^ of Canaan, dwelt 
in the land of Babylon. 

In the Koureh of Arghan, at the village called S-yti^ JJ^Lst 
Sahil al Areb, there is a well, from which proceeds water enough 
to turn a mill, and water the fields. The people here say, that 
they have made various efforts to ascertain the depth of this well^ 
but have not ever been able to reach the bottom^ 

In the Koureh of 0>UC**jJI v^U**j; Rostak arrostak, there 
is a place between two hills, from which smoke constantly issues ; 
and it is said, that if a bird should fiy near that place, it would 
drop down. 

In the {^j^^j cUilO DeshuVarein, there is a village calkd 
^^^jJ^ywcL Khosruheirir in which there is not any tree. Here is 
a family, of whose sorceries and magick I have heard such aa 
anecdote as cannot be repeated. 

( 131 ) 

In 0j^ jf^^J^ Ardeshir Dereh, near the gate of Shiraz, 
is a fountain, of which they drink the water as a purgative ; 
one cup full operates once upon the body ; two cups full, twice : 
if one drinks many, it occasions vomitings, and excessive evacu- 

Near Afghan, on the borders of Khuzistan, is a remarkable pile, 
or heap, called the /^^Ajii Jwi" Tel Deilemi, with a vault or 
recess, two hundred paces broad, and so high that a man, mounted 
on a mule, with a standard in his hand, cannot reach the top. 

In the territory of jjU/' Kouan, there is a certain flower, 
which they eat green, like the leaves of the jOJScy Chukenden 

In the territory of Shiraz there is a plant, or herb, which they 
<^ O^f {j^^ Susen Nergus, (the lily Narcissus.) 

Near (jjj^j Varein there is a river, called {;y^ jJ Nehr^ 
Cheen, the water of which is pleasant to the taste, and is used 
for the purposes of agricultiu^; but when clothes are washed 
in it, it becomes green. 

S 2 

( 132 ) 


Account of the Commodities and Productions of Fan 

The rose-water of Shiraz is most remarkably excellent, and 
highly esteemed in all parts of the world. It is chiefly made at 
lAi^ Jawr, and sent by sea to ^^^f^ Hejaz^ and (^j^^ Yemen r 
it is also sent to Syria, and Egypt, and Magreb or Africa, and 
Khorasan. Here also is made oil, better than that of any other 

place, except the oil of Kheiri i^jt^ {J^J J^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^ Aij-X^ 

At yy^ Sinir, and bU^ Jenahah, and ojLiJ ^ Kazerounr 
and — aj Tooje, linen (i^Ia^) garments axe manufiictured ; and 
the embroidery and clothes made at Lku Besa are esteemed by 
the princes in all countries, and sent into all parts of the worid. 
The gold brocade worn by the princes is. made at Besa. This 
embroidery is performed with a needle : and here they also weave 
cloth of gold, and fine garments, and hangings, and silk, , and; 
camel's hair. 

At C^y Yezd and oo-jf Aberkouh they manufacture clothes 
of silk and cotton j at ^j^^ Jehrem, fine carpets. At (^I^^cXac 
Abdejan, which is a town of the {j^,j^j ^^:^^ Desht-i-Fareiny 

( 133 ) 

they make beautiful tapestry and carpets. Besa is remarkable for 
needle- work ; and they excel there, in respect to that art, the 
people of S-H^yi Corcoub. 

At v^l -A*w Siraf they abound in marine productions, and com- 
modities brought by sea ; such as aloes, ambergris, camphire,* 
pearls, canes, ivory, and ebony: pepper, sandal, and various 
kinds of drugs and medicines, are sent from that place to all 
qiiarters of the world ;. and in this city there are such wealthy 
merchants, that several of them possess fortunes of sixty thousand} 
thousand direms; and I have seen them. 

At (^14^1 Argharty in the village called UCL^UI Afaresk^ 
they make such excellent v^LijO doushab (syrup), that no other 
place can eqiial it in that respect^ except (^X^m Seilan. 

At ojLiJ L> Kazeroim there is a certain species of date, called 
^yXA2L kheilan, which they send into Irak and Isfahan. At 
^y>^\j\i^ Darabgird, in the ditches which surround the town,, 
there is a certain fish extremely pleasing to the taste, without 
any bone.. 

In the vicinity of Darabgird, mummy (S^J^ is found. Once 
every year they open the place where it is produced, and a cer- 
tain quantity of it is taken for the king's use, in presence of 
confidential persons, who then seal up the place.. And in the ter- 

( 134 ) 

ritory of Darabgird there are hills of salt, white, black, yellow 
and green. 

In the land of Pars there are mines of silver, and iron, and lead, 
and sulphur, and naphta. The silver is scarce, and found in the 
cold region called (^^U Manein. Iron is brought fix)m the 
mountains of Istakhar, and firom the place called Darabgird. 

The striped stuffs of Shiraz are well known ; and in the Koureh 
of Istakhar they manufacture fine linen. 

^j^jii JJ>\ C^jJii y6 

Of the Money, the fTeights, and Measures, of the People of 


In buying and selling, they use direms and dinars : but since 
the time of the Kesris *, to the present day, there has not been 
any coinage of direms in Pars, imless in the name of the Emir al 
Moumenin (^^jyU^t jA^I Commander of the Faithful. 

* The fourth Dynasty of Persian kipgs, or the Satsanides are called the Akasnh or 
Ktsris ; of these Noushirvan was peculiarly styled Ktsri : in his reign Mohammed was 
bom. The last of this Dynasty was Tizdegerd, who died Anno Hegirae 32, 

(A. D. 652.) 

( 135 ) 

In Pars the weight of the direm is two ijUJU methkals. The 
stone (UCa*w) is of two kinds^ great and small : the great stone is 
ene mun (^j-«) ct thousand and forty direms, like the stone of 
ArdeMl JouO^I UClk*j ; the small stone is the stone of Baghdad 
and the stone of Loaj Beiza, one mun eight hundred direms. 
At Istakhar four hundred direms make the stone. At o. 
Bekreh, two hundred and eighty direms ; at Shapour, three hun- 
dred direms ; and at ojsL v^kM^Ojl Ardeshir Khereh, two hundred 
and forty direms.. 

The Srfkj^^Jereii) of Shirar contains ten jxiS kefiz; and a 
kefiz, sixteen JkL; rotels, a little more or less. The jereib is one 
hundred and thirty rotels ; and that is divided into half, third, 
and quarter. The jereib of Istakhar is half the jereib^ of Shiraz. 
The measure or weight (cJ^s^) of Beiza is more than that of 
Istakhar by about a tenth and half a tenth ; and the measure of 
Kam Firouz is greater than that of Beiza, by about one tenth. 
The measure of Arghan exceeds that of Shiraz by a fourth : and. 
the measure of Kazeroun and of Shapour is a sixteenth more. 

( 130 ) 

JLJ\ v>^'/A 

Account of the Gates of Wealth, or the manner of raising ' 

the Revenue. 

The gates of wealth, or those by which, money is supplied in 
tlie Divans, are the taxes or tribute : a tenth on ships ; a fifth on 
the mines, on com, fodder, the mint, the roads, the canals, fruits, 
iced waters, salt, &c. 

The tribute of lands is of three kinds : by diviaon, and by 
regulations and statutes. All the proportions are exactly ascertained, 
and admit not of any diminution. Whether the ground be tilled, 
or not tilled, the measurements and divisions take place: if the 
ground is cultivated, it pays tribute; if not cultivated, it is so 
much lost 

The greater part of the country is subject to measurement, as 
far as the Zems are. The taxes of Shiraz are more considerable, 
in proportion as their jereib is the great jereib for such things as 
wheat and barley. The jereib is two hundred and thirty-seven 
direms. The garden jereib is one thousand four hundred and 
twenty-five direms. The small jereib is sixty l> guz, of the 
king's cubit or yard {}^SXJ\ 9'[j^) i and the king's cubit is nine 

( 137 ) 

iu^ Jcehsets, or handfids. The great tax is the tax of Shiraz^ 

because ^fJ^j /^l (j^ j**^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^i 2k>heir spoke to 
Haroun ArVasheid on the subject^ and he ordered that a third and 
a fourth should be paid. The tribute of Istakhar is not so con- 
siderable as that of Shiraz* 

The tax of division is of two kinds* The better is that of the 
Emir al Moumenin Omar, (may God reward him !) and the other 
khalifs, which divides into tens, threes, and fours. These are 
taxes paid on the products of agriculture, and various other 
duties and tributes^ nearly the same as in other countries. 

In all Pars there is not any mint, except at Shiraz. The land 
belongs to the sovereign : he lets it out to farm at certain rents. 
There was not any tax in Pars on shops, or work-houses, or gar- 

dehs, or trees. (^_^>**ac (^ L^^ -^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^ *^^ ^^ them 
in the year 302 *. 

^ A« D. 9 X 4— most probably our author's own time. 

C 188 ) 

Of the Province of Kirman. 

To the east of Kii^man lie the land of {J^Js^ Makran, and 
the deserts of that country, and {j^.jS^ Bahrein (the two seas), 
on the borders of ^ jXi Boloiye, To the west of Kirman lies the 
land of Pars, which we have before described. On the north are 
the deserts of Khorasan and Sejestan ; and on the south the Per- 
sian sea and (^ ^yf^ Seirgan ; and, in a comer, a part of Pars. 

In the region of Kirman the climate is both warm and cold. 
The fruits are of all kinds ; chiefly those of the warm dimates. 
Part of Kirman is bordered by the sea. Here are their harbours 
and ports, which are subject to excessive heat, such as jy^^ 
Hormuz, and ^jjt^ Jaroun, and some others ; and the air in 
general is not pure. 

Now we proceed to describe the cities and mountains of Kir- 
man, and to lay before the reader a map of that province, such as 
we have seen it. 

(Page left blank for a map of Kirman. J 

( m ) 

{j^jKM Sirgan, ^^^jf^ Jireft, ^ Bam, uJ^ Hormuz, 
[jj^j^ Douhin : these cities are, by some, reckoned as belonging 
to Pars ; by others to Kirman. {^\3jj^f>^ Jiroukan, (j^jyc Mezer- 
kun, (jUi4Mi Sourkan, (j^il\ Alias, (Sj^Keri, (jj^^ Maaurii 

Between [j^jf^ Sirgan and the desert of ciii Yezd are , 
the towns of oi^j^ Jirdeh, OJjj Zerend, f^.^f Ferdin, (j^L^L© 
Mahan, anA\j^i^j^ Khebis; and on the side of the desert, 
near Bam, is yf^^yt Bemuzsir. ^jf^ Mehreje, -^ Sinje, 
situated in the midst of the desert, and remote from Kirman> 
though reckoned as some of its territories. ^j^U^^ Khouas, the' 
boundary of Kirman, is said, by some, to be a territory of Se- 

The moimtains of qjIS Karen : (^Uu! Aikan, it^j^ J^ii 
Deher Houmah, are hy some assigned to wLc ajI (^UJj^a/^ 
Kouhestari ahou Ghanem. Between Hormuz and Jireft are the 

towns of (jJi^^ Koumin, (^ ^^^j^ Merzingan, ^^lij^^JU Menu^ 
Jan. On the sea-coast are the mountains or hills of Kefes^ 
(jAo jj^^ Baren (^b and the mountains of the silver mines. 

In Kirman there is not any lake or great river : there is that 

bay, or gulph, called the Persian Sea, which comes from the 

ocean hear Hormuz ; the water is salt, and ships pass on it to and 

fro« In parts of Kirman th6re are several mines. 

T 2 

( 140 ) 

Of the Mountains of Kirman, (the Inhabitants, and Chief 


The mountains of (j^sJtS Kefes lie on the southern border, near 
the sea. To the north, near the borders of Jireft, are o'^JL' 
Rudan and the Kouhestan, or hilly country of *jLc *jl AbU'- 
ghanem. On the east is (jj^U:^ Khouas, and the desert ex- 
tending towards Kefes, and the province of Makran. On the 
south of that is ^j^^ Bolouje, or Bolouche, and the borders of 
Mirjan (^l:^.jy« 

In the mountains near Hormuz, it is said, there is much culti- 
vated land, and cattle, and many strong places. On every mountain 
there is a chief : and they have an allowance from the Sultan or 
Sovereign ; yet they infest the roads of Rirman, and as far as the 
borders of Fars and of Sejestan : they commit their robberies on 
foot ; and it is said that their race is of Arabian origin, and that 
they have accumulated vast wealth. " The ^ji^ Boloujes, are 
" in the desert of Mount Kefes {j^j6 o^S^and Kefes in the 
" Parsi language is ^^ Kouje ; and they call these two people 
" Koujes and Boloujes. The Boloujes are people who dwell 



( 141 ) 

in the desert * ; they infest the roads, and have not respect for 

any person. 


The mountains of t^U Mar en belong to the cold region of 
Kirman : they are fertile and strong ; snow falls on them : and in 
the time of the Guebres, or Fire- worshippers, they used to come 
down from these mountains and rob ; but in the reign of the Ab- 
bassides they became converts to the true reUgion, and have kept 
their hands from evil actions. These mountains afford mines of 
iron. The mountains of the silver mines are near the borders of 
Jireft, and extend to the pass of \^\jj^ Derban ; from that to 
the silver mountains is a journey of two merhileh. There are 
pleasant and fertile valleys, with small towns, and many delight- 
ful villas. 

The warm part of Kirman is more extensive than the cold ; in- 
somuch that there is not above one-fourth of the province liable 
to the cold, from the borders of ^j^vv*» Sirgan to the desert, 
in the vicinity of w Bam. The warm region extends from the 
borders of Hormuz to Makran, and to the confines of Pars, and 
of Sirgan, throughout Hormuz, and (^ ^j^ Miougan^ and Jireft, 

* The epithet Sehra Nishm (Sec Appendix) is sometimes used to express a solitary 
retired man, a hermit, &c. The Ferhung Borhan Kattea informs us, that ^^^ Bo- 
louche is the name of a peopU inhabiting the desert (^5 >^^ <r*>*) ' *'^ *^ "^"^^ °^ ^ 
country of Iran or Persia. I write the name Bolouche, on the authority of this excellent 
dictionary, which accents the first syllable with damma, and describes the last lettec 
chim Fani* 

( 142 ) 

and the hills of ^jS^ Kouje, and the o^j^J ^-^^^ desht viran, 
or " the dreary waste ;'* also throughout Bam and the desert, 
and to the borders of Kirman, and to {j^u^ Kheis. 

The inhabitants of Kirman are lean and slender, with brown 
complexions*. Towards the west of Jireft, snow falls. Among 
the hills of silver, and as far as Derban to Jireft, and likewise from 
before the hill of ^b Bar em to near Jiieft, and the place called 
^^lai^***^ Mcsihan and (^Lj^ii Dermatiy there runs a consi- 
derable river, with such a rapid stream, that it is not to be crossed 
without difficulty : it turns about twenty mills. 

jy^f^ Hormuz is the emporium of the merchants in Kirman, 
and their chief sea-port : it has mosques and market places, and 
the merchants reside in the suburbs. 

\ji6jff^ Jirefi is in extent nearly two miles; it is situated near 
the sea : here they enjoy at once all the productions of both 
warm and cold climates. 

w Bam is a considerable town, with extensive suburbs. 
Prayers are said on the chief festivals, in three different great 
mosques, and there is a small one!* in the market-place. Some of 
the people are of the Sonnite sect. In the castle of the city 
there is another mosque, with a publick treasury, and other offices. 

^ Literally wheat-^ohured ^^jyf ^OJkS 

( 143 ) 

The town of ^ (^ ^y^M Sirgan is watered by subterraneous 
trenches or aqueducts : in the suburbs they raise water from 
wells. This is the largest of all the cities in Kirman. The in- 
habitants are observers of the Hadith, (or holy traditions.) The 
people of^Ucijj Rudbar, (^U**jyJ Kohestan, *jlx^ Bou Gha-- 
hem, and ^Ju BoloiLJe, are all of the Shiah sect : and from the 
borders of q>*^ Maaoun, and ^ SmU Lashgird, to the terri- 
tories of Hormuz, the people are industrious and honest ; they 
^ eultivate si^ar^ and eat bread made of millet {(jjj^y They 
give one tenth of their dates to the king, like the people of Bas- 
rah : and whatever dates are shaken from the trees by the wind, 
they do not touch, but leave them for those who have not any, 
or for travellers : and it happened one year, that half the dates 
were thus blown off the trees, yet the owner did not take one of 

The territory of \j>lm^aj Rouiest is a dry soil. The people 
are, for the greater part, robbers and plunderers. There are a 
town and a village on the sea-coast, where they catch fish. It 
is a stage on the road to Pars. 

The language of the inhabitants of Kirman is the Persian ; but 
the Kouches have another language, and also the Bolouches. 

Fine linen and striped stuiSs are manufactured at Ojijij Zareid, 
and are sent into Pars and Irak. 

( 144 ) 

The ^jA'U^ii Khouas are a tribe of the desert : they have camels, 
and date trees; and their houses are made of reeds. 

The Distances of Places in Kirman. 

From o^jA^ Sirgan to i^ji^l^ Kahoun, two merhilch; 
from Kahoun to oIjU*m^ Husnabad, two farsang ; from Hus- 
nabad to v3*Uj^ Reshak, two merhileh : from Sirgan to Roudan 
Hemed <X^ O^^JJ' ^^^^ farsang; from Hemed to (^^O-T^ 
Kirdgari, two farsang; from Eardgan to (j^^IjI Abaus, one mer- 
hileh: from that to Roudan^ one merhileh: from Sirgan to 
^jUjiii LUj Rebat Shirkan, two long merhileh* 

On the road of w Bam, one goes from Sirgan to v^l,jy*i 
Simab, one merhileh ; from that to ^O Behar, one merhileh; 
and to V^^=^ Hebab, one merhileh : to I-a^ Ghira, one merhi- 
leh: to (j^jj Keraoun, one farsang; to i^^]j Rabein, one 
merhileh. One goes to a town on the Bam road ; and, from that 
turning back on the right hand, one comes to the village of J^ 
KouZy one merhileh ; frpm that to c:o vcji. Jirefty one merhileh ; 
from Jireft to the Silver-hills, one merhileh ; from them to C^lj^ I 
Azerbai, one merhileh ; from that to Jireft, one merhileh ; frx>m 
Sirgan to O^jij Zareid, and from ^ ^J Terkan to rt^^j^. Ber- 

( '45 ) 

dasir, tw^ in»faileh$ from Beidasir, diat is, ^^Ij FasMr, to 
Oj-ydL Khemrud, one long merhileh; am^ fr^ ^Lhemrud to 
Zaieid, one merhileh; and from 2^reid to the desert, one long 

On the road from Sirgan to o^^ KkeheSy one first goes to 
«aj^Um Bermashir, ope merfaildi: £com Bermoshir to .^--i 
Beherje, one merhileh ; this is on the skirts of the desert : from 
fBam tP Jirefit, one meihileh. 


^ars is, from Jirefit to q^^?^ Ma(ioun, 
Kashgird, one mechUeb ; from Kashr 
gird to (j^liii^ Sour dan to o'jLiJ^ Mourouan, one merhileh ; 
^m Mourouan to (j\jjf^ Jirouan, one farsang ; from Jirouan 
to {^\.^uj^^^ Kesisan, one; to [j^j^ Bonhin, on^ merlMleh; 
-to ^b Barem, one merhileh. 


The distances on the Toad from Jireft to Hormyz are these : 
From Jireftt to Kashgird, and from that, going on the lefit hand^ 
to (M^^JjJf Kouneirij one merhileh ; from Kounein to ^^ ^Jj}/^ 
Beherrengan, one merhileh ; from that to (^IsrJ^x^ Menunjan, 
one ; from that to Hormuz, one merhileh ; from Hormuz to the 
city (^ Shehr) and the sea- side, one merhileh. 

Thesd are all the roads ^nd distances of Kirman. After this, 


( 14C ) 

we shall proceed to speak of the Land of cXam Sindy and part of 
cXa^ Hindy if God permit. 

Of the Country of Sind, and part of Hind. 

We proceed to describe the land of Sind^ and some part of 
Hind, and the country of {j^j^ MaJcran, and {j]jjia Touran, 
and ^JkXj Nedeheh, and the bordering territories which belong 
to the possessors of Islam. 

The eastern bomidary of these regions is the Persian Sea. On 
the western side lie Kirman, and the deserts of Sejestan^ and some 
territories of that province. On the north is the land of Hind^ 
and its territories. The southern boundaries are the deserts of 
Makran, and the territory of the Bolouches ; and a part of this 
borders on the Persian Sea, which is winding and curved on these 

Now we shall l£^ before the reader a map of those parts of 
Hind and Sind, and describe the curious and extraordinary places 
of them. Some parts belong* to Guebres (i^l yy ), and a greater 
portion of this country to oM ^ Kafers (Infidels) and Idolaters 

( 147 > 

((^U»Mj^. Ou) ; a minute description of these places would, there- 
fore, be unnecessary and unprofitable. 

("Blank page for a Map of Sind and Hind. J 

Of the Cities and Towns situated in these Countries^ 

* QjJ I Alis, o*jJ* KuJsr, oj^f Fermoun, ^jC^ Derek, UCLlj 
Rasek, cXJu y waS Kesrbend, o_xXJr Kelaahereh, /^Xmj^ Meski, 
ijkj^ Meil, JoU^I ArmaieL Of (^Liji^ Touran the towns 
are, /JLazT* Mehali, {j\^^f<{J Kibrkaman, ojj^ Surehf 
JouloJo Kandahil. The other cities of Sind are, ojyotX^ 
Mansourah, which they call aucXJUM Sindiah, Jcyi> Danbul, 
(Sjj^ Meroid, (Sy^ Manoui, (Sjf) Airi, (Sj^ Baloid, 
^^^l^Mi^ Mesouahi, f: j\fi Beherje, a*mU Maseh c^'-as***^ 
Meshari, (jUmacX^m Sedusan. 

There are (jIcXai^ Seidan, q^vA^ Meimoun, (^(JJU Midtan^ 
• acXasw Hetdour; names of cities in Sind and part of Hind« 
These, for the greater part, are inhabited by Infidels : but there 
are, in this country, some Mussulmans, who have mosques, and 
on stated days read the Khutbah : and the Incyan sovereign who 
dwells here has a very extensive empire. 

U 2 

( 148 ) 

The dtj of M^nstrarah i& about a mile in breadth^ and as much 
in length ; and a bay or arm of the river o' jv^ Mihran passet 
by it^ and renders it like an island. The inhabitants of M ansoureh 
are of the descendants of cWmJ/I ^( jt^i^ Hebar ebn Alasoud. 
He took the place^ and it continues till this time in the possession of 
his family. It enjoys a warm climate, and produces dates, apples> 
and pears, and a fruit resembling the peach : it is a place aboimd- 
ing in provisions. Their coins are the C^j^lS Kaheri, every 
direm of which is equivalent to (or weighs) fifty direms ; and 
another of silver, which they call (CJoLU Tautooi, one direm of 
which is fifty direms ; tiiey also use gold in their commercial in- 
terconrse. Their dress and habits resemble those of the people of 
Ir^ ; but their kings afiect the appearance of Indian kings, and 
wear jpendants in their eats. 

The city of (^UJk^ Moultan is about half tihe site off Man- 
^uteh. It is called the '^ Grolden House ;' for there is in the city a 
i*c!rtain idol, to which the Indians of the country come as on a re- 
ligious pilgrimage, every year, and bring gteat riches with them ; 
and those who pray in the temple of this idol must pay a tribute. 
This temple is situated in the centre of Moultan ; and in the middle 
of the temple there is a great cupola or dome. All round this 
building are various houses, in which the servants and attendatitl^ 
of the idol reside. Moultan is not reckoned as belor^ng to Hin- 
doostan ; but theje is in it a race of idolaters who worship in thfe 
temple. The idol is made in the form of a man, with the fei 

:( HO ) 

cm a bendi, formed of tiles/ or bricks and mortar: it is clothe^ 
in a red garment^ resembling Morocco leather ((^U^ck*^)^ and no 
part of the body is to be seen except the two eyes. Some 
people say the body is made of wood ; but they do not permit 
any one to see more of it than the eyes, which are composed of 
precious stones. On the head is a diadem of gold. It sits upon 
a square throne, the hands resting on the knees. 

All the riches which are brought to this idol, from Hindoostan, 
are taken by the vy«l Emir of Moultan, who distributes a portion 
among the servants of the temple. When the Indians come there 
in a hostile manner^ and endeayour to carry off the idol from 
them, the peofde of Moultan take it forth, and seem to make pre- 
parations for breaking and burning it ; when the Indians perceive 
that, they desist from fighting, and return back. If it were not 
for this circumstance, the Indians would destroy Moultan. There 
is here a castle^ or citadel ; but Mansoureh is more populous and 

Moultan was styled the u^dt cuaj Beit Alzahab, or Golden 
House, because the Mussulmans were in great distress^ when 
they seized on this town, and found in it vast quantities of gold, 
and acquired power. About half a farsang from the town is a 
•villa, in which resides the Emir of Moultan-— on the appointed 
festivals he goes into the town — ^he is a ij^*4f Coreishi of 
the children of Sam the son of Noah, who conquered Moultan ;, 

( 150 ) 

and he is called' the Emir of that place. He has not any power 
over Mansourah ; but the ELhutbah is read in the name of the 

cXxy^M^ Besmeid is a small town. Besmeid/ and M oultan, and 

^IjcXo^ Chendvar, are situated on the eastern side of the- river 

of M oultan^ each at the distance of one farsang from the bank 


of the river. The water used in these towns is well-water. 

Jojj^ Danhul is situated on the eastern side of the river 
{j^jyf^ Mihran, on the sea coast; it is the port of this country. 
In the cultivation of their lands^ the inhabitants do not use water. 
It is a barren place ; but people dwell there for the convenience 
of transacting mercantile business. 

(Mj Jcxj Bileroun is a town between Dambul and Mansourdi, 
on the west of the river Mihran; and ^ ^ Beherje, and (^\jm^ 
Mesouai, and ^Lmj(Xm Sedousan, and iuJJ^ Helhehy are situated 
on the western side of the river Mihran. (^cXJl Andi and (^ J 1^ 
Daloui are both on the eastern side of it^ at a distance from Che 
river^ in going from Mansoureh to Moultan. 

Baloui is situated on the banks of the river Mihran, near a bay, 
formed by that river behind Mansoureh. cK\r*U Famhel is a 
town on the first borders of Hindoostan. 

" ( 151 ) 

aJU Manah is a small town^ built by q;U^ jjjxllcXxs ^&- 
dalaziz Hebareh, the ancestor of that race which took Man- 

4^kXi Nedehehjs, a tract of ^at land between oli^ Touran, 
and Mekran^ and Moultan^ and the towns of M ansoureh. This 
territory lies on the west of the river Mihran. It is a place 
remarkable for camels. The chief town of this district is a 
place of much commerce; it is called JuuloJo KandalHL The 
men of tlus town resemble those of the desert ; they have 
houses constructed of reeds, along the banks of the river Mihran^ 
as far as the borders of Moultan^^ and to the sea side ; and be- 
tween Mihran and Famhel they have pasture lands and meadows. 
They are a numerous tribe. Famhel, and Sedousan^ and {j^x^ 
Meimoun, and &j[jJJ Keniabeh ; all four have mosques, in which 
the religious ceremonies of Islam are publickly performed : there 
are great quantities of the Indian -wall-nut {(S^'^^J^)^ ^^^ 
of the fruit called )yo Mouz,, with various kinds of herbs, and 
much honey. 

^j^[} RahouJc and (j[J^ Kelwan are two districts between 
J^.U;! ArmaieL and jfj^ Kair : both these are without wtiter : 
they abound in cattle^ 

{:j\j^ Touran is a little district, with many small villages and 
hamlets belonging to it. _x^ ^ cX^c^l Ahmed hen Maamr 

( 1S3 ) 

possesses them^ and the Khutbah is read in the KhaliTs name. 
The town in which he resides is a considerable place^ well 
supplied witli provisions, and abounding in fruits ; it is never 
subject to cold weather. Between aajL« Maniah and Famhel 
there is a desert ; also between Famhel and ikAjJj^ Keniabah. 

• •« 

(M^^AA^Li Tasimoun is a populous district, in which the Mus- 
sulmans and Indians are intermixed. In this place the only gar- 
ment they wear is the^ljl azar, or sash round the middle, as the 
heat renders all others unnecessary: it is also the custom at 
Moultan. In the province of Makran they speak the Persian and 
Makrani languages. The merchants wear the cloak and turban. 

Makran is an extensive country> but liable to scarcity and want 

of provisions. ^jlOsju« (^ (<*»*^ {j^ Cir^V*'^^ Hosein ben Isa 
hen Maadan took possession of the district called 1-^ Mihra, 
and dwelt in the town of jKf Kair, which is as large as Moul- 
tan, and a good harbour : it has many date trees : in the territory 
of it is a well called the ** Well of Makran.'* It is the krgesft 
town in Makran. 

There is a district called — j ^ Kheroiye, the capital of which 
is Odwlj Rasek, and there is a village belonging to it called 
yj^f^ Herman : these places belong to U^ (^ Jdo Zefer hen 
Reja, and the Khutbah is read in the name of the Khalif. .His 
territory extends near three merhileh ; it affords some himdred a£ 

( 153 ) 

date trees^ and furnishes cXaJU Faneid (a kind of sweet paste or 
candied cakes)^ to all quarters ; its villages border on those of the 
province of Kirman^ at the place called ^^^^jCm^ Meskeni. 

(JkAMLo^ Resasil and (<X^ Kanteli are two large towns 
within two menzils : from Resasil to the sea is half a farsang. 

JuuloJo Kanddbil is a considerable city situated in the desert. 
(^Ub^^A/ Kirkanan is another large town in the desert. 

In the district of OJjl Azend the Mussulmans and infidels are 
' all intermixed. Here they have cattle and gardens. ^ The name 
of a man who took this place was JuU Naiel (or JuU Nabid), 
and it is called after him. 

Distances of Places in Sind. 


From (jju Bein to yJ^Kelr, five m^erhileh; from Kebr to 
Q^ Jli Fetrioun, two merluleh; and if one goes from the road 
of Fetrioun, by the road of Makran^ it is the same distance: 
from Fetrioun to U^^ Derek^ three merhileh; from that to 
^uuu^l Asofkah, two merhileh ; from that to cX^ Medy one mer- 
hileh ; from Med to yaS Kesr, one merluleh ; from yS' Kebr 

( 15^ ) 

to JuU^' Armaiel, six merhileh ; from Mansoureh to (^jjJtj 
Touran, fifteen merhileh; from (^IcX^* Kesdan to Moultan^ 
twenty merhileh. Kesdan is the chief town of Toman. From 
Mansourah to the borders of ^JkXj Nedeheh, five merhileh ; and 
from Kebr> which is the residence of Isa ben Maadan^ to oOJ 
Nedeh, ten merhileh ; from Nedeh to ^jm Bein, fifteen merhi* 
leh ; from Bein to Kesdan, twelve merhileh ; from (^UJa^ aS^Xj 
Nedeheh of Moultan, to the extremity of the borders of jUJ 
Tetar, which they call (j*JO Bales, ten merhildi ; and when 
one goes from Mansomah towards Nedeheh, to ^jLwjO^ Sedu-- 
san, the way is by the bank of the river Mihran. From Kanda- 
bil to ^w^AoM^ Mesbah, In the territory of Bein, four merhileh ; 
from Kesdan to Kandabil, five farsang; from Kandabil to Man- 
sourah, about eight merhileh ; and from Kandabil to Moultan, 
ten merhileh of desert ; from Mansourah to Famhel, twenty 
merhileh ; from Famhel to ajIajJ Keinabah four merhileh. 

o[jjy^ Sourbah is near the sea: from ^j1cXa«j Sindan to 
Sourbah, is five merhileh; from Moultan to Osx^iM^ Besmeid, 
two merhileh ; from Besmeid to <3jj Bud (or the River), three 
merhileh; from that to c^ vl Aberi, four merhileh; from Abari 
to (^cXli Feldiy four merhileh ; from Feldi to Mansoureh, one 
merhileh ; from Danbul to JjjAJ Pirouz^ four merhileh ; from 
Pirouz to Q£jj\:s:r^ Mehaberi, two merhileh; from (Sj^^ Faloui 
to ^loJj Beldan, four fiirsang. 

C 155 ) 


Of the Rivers in this Country. 

Op the o'jv^ Mihran it is said that the source is the river 
^jjsifi^ Jihoun ; it comes out at Moultan^ and passes on to the 
borders of Besmeid^ and by Mansourah^ and falls into the sea on 
the east of Dambul. The waters of the river Mihran are pleasant 
and wholesome ; and they say it is liable to tides^ or flux and 
reflux, like the Nile, and that it is infested by crocodiles. The 
lijy vAamj Sind Rud, at three merhileh from Moultan, is of pleasant 
water, and joins the river Mihran. Water is very scarce through- 
out the land of Makran ; there is some near Mansoureh. Many 
of the inhabitants of Makran resemble the Arabs ; they eat fowl 
and fish : others of them are like the Curds. Here is the extreme 
boundary of the land of Islam in this direction. 

Now we shall turn back, and begin to describe ^ua#«^I Ar- 
menia, and {j\j\ Aran, and (j l^U^ol Azerhaigan. 

x 2 

( 15ft } 

Description of Armenia, and Jrany and Azerbaijan. 

All the boundaries of these countries^. (^UmjJ^^ Kouhestan 
on the east^ and the banks of the Caspian Sea^ and the provinces 
adjacent to ^j^l Armen, and ^^Jfl Alan, and (^\j\ Aran, and 
the mountains of uJ^IsTv' Kipckak^, and the borders of Irak and 
Jezireh^ on the south ; all these boimdaries we lay befbre the 
reader in the annexed map. 

o ^.^j*^tj ob^j ^^j^ ^jy^ 

(Blank page for a Map. J 

m I , 

Juuci/l Ardehil is the most considerable city of Azerba^an : it 
is about half a farsang in length and breadth^ and contains the 
Governor s palace : it has walls, and four gates, and is a pleasant 
town, and well supplied with provisions. It has extensive sub- 
urbs ; and within two farsang of it there is a mountain called 
^j.Xx*w Seilan, which is never free from snow either in winter 
or summer. 

* 6Lm^ Kibshaly according to the Arabian mode of expressing the Persian or 
Turkish letters Ba and Chim. 

( 157) 

t\yc Meraghah is nearly of the same size as Ardebil ; in for- 
mer times it was the seat of government: it has villages, and 
suburbs, orchards, and gardens,^ and land improved by agricul- 
ture. The town had walls i but -.LJI ^^1 Abi al Sah demo* 
lished them. 

Armenia is an extensive and fertile p^on, bounded by the sea> 
and full of delightful situations : the towns are (^Lm^ Misan, 


AjyL Khounah, ^jUU-j Bervanan, (Sy^ KhouU (j*^M^ ^^^'^ 
mas, (Sj^ Neshoui, cXj w« Marend, jJjAj Tabriz, cXJj-j Beze^ 
rend, (j^j^ Derban, {^\3j^.Moiik(in, and i^\j}[:L Khaberan; 
and seyeral smaller towns. 

cciy Berdaa is a popidous and flourishing city, with culti- 
vated lands and much fruit. After Rey and Isfahan, there is not in 
Irak or Khorasan a city more large, more beautiful, or pleasant,. than 
Berdaa. At the distance of one farsang from Berdaa, between aj-T 
Kerieh, and K:Dy^ Lesont, and near (^Uoiu Bektariy there is a 
well called ^\j<^J\ Atiderab -, and for one day's journey the 
whole country is laid out in gardens and orchards. The fruits 
are excellent ; .their fllberds {yJ^OJ3) are better than those of 
Samarcand,.:and their chesnuts (i^JLj oU;^) superior to. the chesnutd 
of Syria ; and the figs of Berdaa are more delicious than those of 
any other place. There are also mulberries ; and silk is sent frouL 
that to Khuzistan, and to Irak.. 

( 158 ) 

In the river Kur J^ C^^j they take fish of two kinds, (jijj 
Rafen and y*ix Aasher, which are better than any other fish. 
At the Curds Gate (o'^j^^Uj^) ^b^re is a market'^pkce, or 
bazar, called (<^V" Gurki : every Sunday the people assemble 
there: it is about a farsang square. Men from Khorasan and 
from Irak meet there- The Revenue Office is in the great mosque, 
and the bazars on the ramparts. 

OJsjjjO Derbend is a city built on the shore of the sea, on two 
banks of a bay, with two walls constructed so as to render the 
navigation of ships more convenient and safe; and a chain is 
drawn across the entrance, that ships may not enter or sail out 
without permission ; and these two walls are formed of stone and 
lead : and this town of Derbend is situated on the coast of the 
sea of (^U>My^l^ Taheristan. It is larger than Ardebil, with 
many fields, and meadows, and cultivated lands. It does not pro- 
duce much fruit; but the people supply that from other quarters. 
A wall of stone extends from the city to the moimtain; and 
another of clay, to hinder the i^^f^ Cajres (Infidels) from 
coming into the town. Part of this wall projects a little way into 
the sea, so that ships may not come too near the ramparts. This 
wall is a strong building, and was the work of ij^lc o^Jjf^J^ 
Noushirvan Aadel (the Just.) 

This city of Derbend is very large, and remarkable: it is sur- 

( 169 ) 

rounded by enemies, who have different languages. On one side 
of Derbend is a great mountain called uajO I Adeih ; on this they 
assemble every year, and make many fires, that they may confound 
and disperse their enemies from the borders of Azerbaijan, and 
Armenia, and Arran : they are as numerous as the waves of the 
sea that come up to the walls of the city. It is said that this 
mountain, which is close to Derbend, contains above seventy dif- 
ferent tribes, who have each a peculiar dialect, and imderstand 
liot one the language of another. 

The sovereigns of Persia have considered the possession of this 
city as a matter of great importance, and have established a race 
of people to guard it, called (^UjaL Tairberan; and there is 
another tribe called iU^jX^c^ Heilabshar, and another called 
^^1 jd Lekzan: there are also two other tribes, the i^lvyJ Le- 
niran and (^ Ijy** Servan : the foot soldiers are mostly of these 
tribes ; they have few horsemen. Derbend is the port- town for 
j^Khozr, and -jy*i Serir^ and (^^yiGurkan, and (^U*wjxL 
Tdberistariy and ^S^ Kurge, and v^*ls;:v^ Kapchak; and 
from it they send linen clothes to all parts of Aran and 
Azerbaijan. Here they also weave tapestry, or carpets, and cul- 
tivate sa£Fron. 

On the coast of this sea (the Caspian) is another town called 
^;)UUj Shaberan; it is a small place, but pleasant and well 

( 100 ) 

supplied with provisions : it has many villages belonging to it. 
Above those is the village of (^IcX^mj^ Jesmeden, as far as the. 
borders of {j[^j^ Shirvan, and 9jS\j Baku, and v.JujjO Derir 
tuk, and dj Lekez; and in this village is a castle so very exten- 
sive that all the cattle in the country may be secured in it, 
without any guards or centinels left to watch them. 

(jmaJju Tejlis is a smaller city than Derbend : it is a pleasant 
place, and abounds in provisions : it has two walls of clay, and. 
produces much fruit, and agriculture is practised in its territories. 
It has hot baths, in which, as at ^ jaL Tiberiah, the water is 
warm without fire. . In all Aran there are not any cities more 
considerable than Berdaa, Derbend, and Teflis. 

As for (^UJju Bilkan, and (^Ijj Reyan, and ffDji Berzenje, 
and /^2LL^ Shamakhy, and ^JUliS* Shaberarij and (^^jj^ 
Shirvan, and ^jlsr'i/l Alenjan, and iSlLo Kablah, and asst^ 
Kaujah, and jjJi^ Shemkour, and OJ^j^ Sherousend; they 
are small towns, but pleasant and plentiful. 

JJo^ Deinel is a larger city than Ardebil, and the chief town 
of Armenia; the palace of the governor is there, as at Berdaa, 
the capital of Aran, It has very wide and extraordinary ram- 
parts. There are great numbers of Christians and Jews here; and 
the churches . are interspersed among the mosques. Here- they 
manufacture fine hangings, and carpets, and make the beautiful 

( 1«1 ) 

colour called y^^ kerinez. I have heard that this kermez is a 
oertairi worm *. 

This place has heretofore been in the hands of i^^ I ^ JpLyj^ 
Shenhat ben Ashout, and at all times has belonged to Christian 
princes ; the greater number of the people of Armenia are Chri- 
stians. Armenia is bordered on -one side by Berdaa ; on another by 
the confines of Jezireh; on another by Azerbaijan, and Jebal, and 
Dilem, and Rey : the south side is bordered by the Seghour of 

)\Ja Trabzowi is situated on the extreme confines of 
Roum; it is much frequented by merchants. (^^*^l^Ly« Mia- 
Jarekin and ^jy** Serouah are smallbut pleasant towns. 

Of the Rivers and Lakes of this Country {and other Matters). 

The most considerable rivers are the jjKur, the ^j^^jT Aras, 
and the Oj^tXJuuwl Asfendrud, which is between Ardebil and 

* The Persian Dictionary, intituled Firhattg Borhan Katteai informs us, that Kermez is 
the name of a substance with which they tinge or dye ; and that it is said .to be an 
insect gathered from certain shrubs, and afterwards dried ; and that the Arabians style it 

j^l>jiflJ! ^^i DuJ-aUSehMghem, " the Dyer's Worm." 

( 162 ) 

(^LCj^ Zemgan. The waters of the river Kur are sweet and 
wholesome ; it comes from the mountain of ^xX^I Auhileh, and 
goes on to the borders of A-y^ Kenjah, and passes by »^X^ 
Shemkour, and through the midst of (j^aaXJu T^is, and to the 
land of the Infidels. The river Aras has also pleasant waters; 
it comes from Arm^a^ and^ falling into the river Kur^ at the 
borders of (^t**^ Moukan, near oUI i^j^s:^ Mahmoud abad^ 
falls into the sea. 

There is a lake in Azerbaijan called the Lake of Armia 
(i9uyo;l C^LycS) ; the water is salt or bitter, and contains not any 
living creature. All round this lake are villages and buildings : 
from the lake to ds.\j^ Meraghah is a distance of three farsang ; 
to (^^^1 Armi two farsang. The length of this lake is five days 
journey, by land ; and by water, with a fair wind, a person may 
traverse it in the space of one night. 

In Armenia there is a lake near (jaaasi^I Arjeis ; in it are great 
numbers of the fish c Jo Teraa, which they send to all quarters. 
The Sea of Khozr is also on this border. Derbend and Baku are 
^tuated on it. Naphta is foimd at Baku. A small part of the 
river Tfigris (AJLa^O Dejleh) runs on the confines of Armenia. 
The borders of Azerbaijan extend from ^(J Tar em to ^^LXjJ. 
Zingan, to JuLk^ Deinel^ and {^\jX^^ Holwan, andto^j^-^i 
Shehrzour, to the river Dejleh, and back to the borders of Ar- 
menia. All the necessaries of life are very cheap in this country : 

( 163 ) 

in it are places where they sell sheep for two direms^ and a munn 
of com for one direm. 

There are powerful princes in this region : such as oIm (jUy& 
Shirvan Shah, and others. All this country belongs to the cold 

The stone of Ardebil weighs twelve hundred direms. Through- 
out this country the Persian and Arabian languages are understood. 
The inhabitants of Ardebil use also the Armenian tongue ; in the 
mountainous coimtry belonging to Berdaa, the people use a dif« 
€erent dialect 

In Azerbaijan, and Aran, and Armenia, gold and silver coins 
are current 

Uii ^:^\ oUU^ /ts 

Of the Distances of Places in this Country. 

From Berdaa to (j^jj Vernan, seven farsang ; from that to 
^jUAaj Bilkan^ seven farsang; from wXjJ-j Berzend to Ardebil, 
fifteen farsang ; from Berdaa to Berzend, eighteen farsang; from 
that one passes the river Kw j^^jj^ t^ CV^W^ Shamakhy, 
fourteen farsang ; from Shamakhy to (^Ijmm Shirvan, three far- 

T 2 

( 164 ) 

sang; from Shirvanto (jlsr^i/ Lanjan^ two days journey; from 
Lanjan tp the (mwA^ l}^. Poul-i-meimoun (Bridge of Meimoua), 
twelve farsang; from the Poul-i-meimoun to Derbend, twenty 
farsang; from Asi^ Kanjah tojf^X^ Shemkour, four farsang; 
from Shemkour to ^jUs^ Heban, eleven farsang ; from Heban to 
the Castle of jiber Kendman i^l^OJS jj\ ajiAjJ, ten farsang ; 
from that to y^^^^Jju Tqflis, twelve farsang. 

The road between Berdaa and J^.ii Deinel : from Berdaa to 
(jjJa\jiJ3 Kelkaterin, twelve farsang ; from that to (j^jf^^ Mires, 
to (j^'kA^O Doumw/i, twelve farsang; from Doumish to Kelil- 
goun i^j^^^^, sixteen farsang; from that to Deinel,. sixteen 
farsang; all this space belongs to iojJi^l (^ LUam Senbat ben 

From Ardebil to <ij^ Rud, or the river, two merhileh ; from 
that to aJacL Khouneh, two days journey ; from Khouneh to 
{j\j\jM ^^^jj Tawet Souaren, one day's journey ; from that to 

^ ^J) Zengen, one day's journey. 


From Ardebil to ixcl^^ Meraghah, the road is this: from Ar- 
debil .to A-Jtjyo Mianehy twenty farsang ; from Mianeh to i 
Khouneh, eight farsang : from Meraghah to ^jU^sL yci Deir 
Kherkan, two merhileh ; from that to UytJ Tabriz, two merr 
hileh J from Tabriz to >Xjy« Merend, two merhileh ; from Me- 
rend to y*.L^-Lw Selmas, two merhileh; from Selmas to (Sy^ 

( 165 ) 

Khoui, eight &rsang; from ELhoui to (Sj^ji Berkeri, thirty 
fkrsang; from Berkeri to (j^a^I Arjeish, two days journey; 
from Arjeish to L^XsL Kkullaty three days journey ; from Khul- 
lat to ^jMuJOu Bedlis, three- days journey; from Bedlis to Mia- 
farekein ^j^jliU*«' three days journey ; and from Miafarekein to 
cX^I Anted, four days journey. 

The distance from Maraghah to jji<fjf^ Deinour, is thirty far- 
sang; from 15^ I Armi to Selmas, fourteen farsang; from Sel- 

•• » • 

mas to Khoui, eight farsang; from Khoui to i^\js^^ Nakhje- 

van, three merhileh i from. Nakhjevaa to Deinel, four merhileh : 
from Maraghah to Deinour, sixty farsang. 

Description of Kouhestan, that is, Irak Agemi. 

On the east of Kouhestan are the deserts of Khorasan, and part 
of Fars, and Isfahan, and the eastern side of Khuzistan. On the 
west of Kouhestan lies the province of Azerbaijan. On the north 
is ^jLyAjci Deilman, and {jJtj'f Cazvin, and (^j Rey, and 
Cj-fJ^J^ Mardein. These towns, Rey, and Cazvin, and ^1 
Abher, and (^LCjJ Zengan, we have not placed in the map as 
belonging to Kouhestan ; we rather assign them to the province 
of Deilman, because it winds irregularly along Kouhestan. The 

( 16(J ) 

southern boundaries of Kouhestan are Irak, and part of Khu* 

There are many great and celebrated cities in the province of 
Kouhestan; such as i^\Os^ Hamadan, and j^<3 Deinour^ 
^jl*Uu»l Isfahan, and JJ Kom: the smaller cities are (^Lil^ 
Kashan, and <^j^ Nehavend, and j^ Lour, and j^UiiUy^ 

(Page left blank for a Map of Irak AgemLj 

Distances of Places in this Province. 

From ^jIcX^ Hamadan to oUtOvwal Asedebad, nine farsang; 
from Asedebad to (j li^O y^aS Keser Duzdan, seven farsang ; 
from that to ^jl^JuJ I o JoiS Kantereh al Naaman, seven farsang : 
from Kantereh al Naaman to the c^4jt v^ aa^i^ Dehieh abou 
Ayoub, four farsang ; from thence to qJImjju Bisutoun, two 
farsang ; from Bisutoun to (^l*l& (j Uj/ Kirman ShaJuin, eight 
ikrsang ; from Kirman Shahan to ajcXuJ Zeibedieh, eight far- 
sang ; thence to -.^c Merah, which is a castle (ajOLS), nine far- 

( 107 ) 

sang ; from Merah to ^:)iy^2^ Hidwan, ten farsang ; from Hul- 
wan to oaLw Saveh, thirty farsang; from Saveh to (^j Rey, 
thirty farsang; from Hamdan to Azerbaijan, to jU Bar or 
Yar, thirteen farsang ; from (^jJ^j^ Marsin to i^j\ Aoudj 
eight farsang; from Aoud to {^jj> Cazvin, two days journey; 
and betweeii Hamadan and Cazvin there i^ not any town ; and 
from Cazvin to ^j\ Auher, or Avhar, twelve &rsang; from 
Auher to ^j ^\j Rakati, fifteen farsang ; and one may go to 
Rakan from Hamadan by the road of O^j ^^ Sherwerd. 

Kjj b- otos^ Jt 

From Hamadan to Deinour. 

From Hamadan to i^JJ (^\ ji^L^ Maderan Roud, and thence to 
Seheneh, four farsang; from Seheneh to jAJuci Deinoury 
four farsang ; from that to ^j^jj Rugird, or ci-Aiij ffirdgird, 
eleven farsang ; from Wirdgird to o-> Kurreh, fifteen farsang ; 
fromKurreh to — -i Berah, twelve farsang; from Berah to Khou- 
menjan (^[s^yL, ten farsang; from Khoumenjan to iMl^tyw 
Spahan, thirty farsang ; desert from Hamadan to the jj\j Oj^ 
Rud Rawer, seven farsang ; from the Rud Rawer to ^J^jLj iVe- 
havend, nine farsang ; from Nehavend to JH^iJ Lashter, ten 
farsang ; from Lashter to c^vmI^ ^L^, Shaber Khuast, twelve 

( 108 ) 

ikrsang ; from Shaber Khuast toj^ * Lour, ovjjj Bour, thirty fer- 
sang of an uninhabited dreary country ; from jJLour to (jSmocXjM 
Andemesh, two farsang ; from ^j^MelcXJl Ajj Piil Andemesh t^ 
jAjLi i^OJc^ Jondi Shapour, two farsang ; from Hamadan to 
ojLw Saveh, thirty farsang: from Saveh to JJ Kom, twelve 
farsang ; from Kom to ^jLiU Cashan, twelve farsang ; from (^j 
Rey to (j^rMjS Cazvitiy twenty-seven farsang; from Hamadan to 
Dinour, between twenty and thirty farsang; from Dinour to 
jjj j^Shehrzour, four merhileh; from Sherzour to Holwan, 
four merhileh; from Dinour to o-x^^ Semireh, five merhileh; 
and from Dinour to Shehrzour, four merhileh ; from Dinour to 
^Ij-xmj Sir van, four farsang ; from Sirvan to Oy^juus Simrehy one 
day^s journey; and from the j^ V^^ Dehieh Lour to o^S^ 
Kurreh, six merhileh; and from ^Jl^U**- Spahan to jjUjIT 
Cashan (before spelt (^U^lS) three merhileh. 

Names of Cities and Towns in Irak Agemi. 

Hamadan, ji^ljOj^ Rud Rawer, j^\j Ranter, iij/0;j fFerd-- 
gerd, ocXJjlJ Feravendeh, Ck*wbL ^Lw Saber Khast, (j^-am^J/ 

* Ihave already taken occasion to remark the indistinctness of my manuscript, and 
of the copy at Eton, in the writing of proper names. 

( 169 ) 

Ldusin, (jlojo y^ Kesri Duzdan, iSLf\0<M\ Asedahad,jjXji^ 
Dinour, (^l*U* ^^l^ J^ Kirman Shahan, ^y^Merah, a^^^JJ^ 
Turezhwneh, ^jjyr^ Shehrud, -^1 Abeher, (^Lv** Sernnan, 
Ji Kom, j^U-LS Kashan, oOjj Rudeh, a J Kurreh, O-j Berd, 
(^b"oUj/^ Gerbadcan, ^yAv^ Semireh (spelt before QjK^), 
(^Ijyw Sirvan,jji^ Dur, /y*ijj JJo^i, ^j'^iy Bordan, ^jI^La^w 
Spahan, o^^^-^^^v^ Jehudistan, (jlsr (^UL Khan Lekhan, 
(^UUd Takaun, {^j^ Casvin, ^^Ol-Jly^ Kesralberadin, 
(^lasrjj Renjan. 

Hamadan is a considerable city, of about one farsang in length 
and breadth. It has four iron gates : the buildings are of day. 
It abounds in gardens and orchards, jvs!^ Deinour is not quite 
so large as Hamadan. Both places have mosques. 

(^L^l Ispahan is the most flourishing of all the cities in 
{^[X^^jj Kouhestan, and possesses more riches than all the 
other places ; and it is the pass between Kouhestan> and Pars, and 
Khoraisan, and ELhuzistan. The garments of silk {mx^jj\), and 
fine linen ((j**Ijj/ ), of this place, are carried to all parts of the 
eppire, as well as the fruits. 

a jj Kurreh is a town of scattered houses : it is called Kur- 
reh of Budulph ^^Ji}i^JJ OjS his children resided there till the 
tiine that they ceased to govern ; but the ruins of their villas and 
palaces still remain. This place abounds in cattle; and the land 

( iro ) 

about it is well cultivated. Fruit is brought to it from Werdgird. 
It is a long town^ about one farsai^ in length. It has two 
bazars ; one near the gate of the chief mosque. Between the two 
bazars the distance is considerable. 

i^Si^jj Werdgird is an extensive and flourishing city: its 
length is two farsang. Saffiron is cultivated here. 

cXJaLJ Nehavend is situated on a hill. It has many pleasant 
gardens and orchards^ with excellent fruits> and two mosques; 
one modern^ the other ancient. Saflron also comes from Neha- 

jj\j i^jj Bud Rawer is a village^ and there is a small town 
which they call jj\j Ojj o-/ Kurreh Rud Rawer. It is a 
well*inhabited^ plentiful^ and pleasant place^ where saffron is 
cultivated in greater quantities, and of a better kind, than any 
where else : it is therefore sent from this place to all parts. 

(^LJL^ Hulwan is a town of these mountains. All its wbUs 
are of clay and stone. Its air is warm ; and here are many fig- 

o^Ay^ Semireh, and {j^jf** Sir van, have both a hot and cold 
temperature; and running water flows among the houses of these 

( in ) 

jjjjJ^ Skihrzour is a small town^ which the ( 
seized cm; also the town ^w& Shehrwerd: these 
are m the hands of the Curds. 

Shehrwerd is a pkce of which the inhabitants are mostly Curds 
(i^lyi), and notorious robbers and plunderers. Saul (ciJlU), 
the king of the Children of Israel, was of this place. 

^jij^ j3 Casuin is a great city, with walls and a castle, and 
running water just enough for the people to drink ; but the gar* 
dens, and meadows, and orchards, are well watered. This place 
affords much almonds, and the fruit called )y§ Mawz; and 
here they weave excellent camelot, or stuiK made of the under 
or woolly hair of goats. 

IS Kom has not any walls, and the inhabitants drink well- 
water. In q>ring and summer a great river runs by the gate of 
this city. In all Irak, date trees are not to be foimd, except at 
S^nirah, and ^)UjAm Sirvan, and OumI^ wLm Saber Khast, 
where there are a few: and the people of Kom and Kashan are 
all of the Shiah sect, and originally from Arabia. 

^li&U Kashan is a small town. Here are gr^at numbers of 
black scorpions, who kill, and another species called oj\jff^ 

z 2 

( 172 ) 

In all i^\jiM^ Kovhistan there is not any sea^ or great laker 
it is all a .hilly country, except from Hamadan to Rey, or Kom^ 
where the hills are fewer, and less considerable. 

From Shehrzour to Hulwan, to o-a^^j^^ Semireh, to (j Ut^y*^ 
Sirvan, to^yi Lour, to the vicinity of j^LJu^J Isfahan, and the 
borders of Saber Eiiast,. and from that in the direction of Kashan 
and Hamadan, to Shehrzour and the borders of Azerbaijan, it is 


all a mountainous country, and there is not aay spot ftom which 
the hills may not be seen. 

Rey, which we have mentioned, on the confines of Deilman 
(^lyJOii ^^,ilj, is equally belonging to ij^Jii^ Jehal and Kho- 
rassan ; and after Baghdad, there is not any city of the east larger 
or more flourishing than it, except joL^u Nishapour^ 

Among the mountains of this country, the* principal is pama-- 
Trend OJaL«0 o^/T fromf which one can see fifty farsang aroimd^ 
and I have never heard that any man ever ascended to its summit ; 
and, in the romances of the Persians (^jbyw;b i^i^lil j^ji>)> it is 
said that Zohak is confined in chains within this mountain. And 
the mountain of (mja***^ Bisetoun is likewise very lofty and dif- 
ficult of ascent ; the face of tjie mountain you would suppbse to 
be carved, or hewn out ; and they say there was a certain king 
who wished to make a summer house, or palace, of this mourn 

( 173 ) 

tain, in order to display his power to the people *. " And at the 
back of this mountain, on the side of the road, there is a cavern, 
or grotto, from which a fountain of water issues forth ; and there 
they have carved the statue of a horse, and the figure of a giant 
sitting on its back f ." ^ 

The mountain of {^^if^ Seilan is greater than that of Da- 
mavend ; and here is a race of people who practise a kind of 
magism, or fire-worship ((^j>J ). 

It lis said that the mountain of O j^ Jerth is called in Persian 
o^ OumU Maset Kouh, and is laiger than all the others. 

I have not heard that there are in Kouhestan any mines of 
gold or silver. Antimony is fbimd at Isfahan* This country 
abounds in. sheep^ 

* Rather to gratify the whim of a favourite mistress, according to the Persian ro- 
mances.— See the story oi Khofru and Shireerif m the Oriental Collections, Vol. I. 

Perhaps ^'yx&y which I have translated G/W, may signify here an illustrious per- 
90DaLgt^ or (in its most obvious sense] a Guebre, a Pagan, or ancient Persian.. 

( 174 ) 

Of the Provinces of Deilman and Taberistan. 

The southern borders of Deilman are t^j^ Cazvin, and ^^lU 
Tarem, and part of Azerbaijan, and part of (^j R^. On the 
north it has the Caspian Sea (j j^ CS'tL'^)* ^^ Sea of Khozr. 
On the west, part of Azerbaijan, and the towns of that country. 
On the east are the mountains of Rey, and the hills of q;U 
Karen, and ^ ^jf Gurkan, and the Caspian sea. The r^km 
of Deilman is partly moimtainous, and partly flat ; the level tract 
is that of (j^ifJ^ Gilan, on the borders of the Caspian sea» under 
the mountains of Deilman. The sovereign (oU*Olj) of Deilman 
resides at j^^^jj Rudhar. This territory is covered for the 
greater part with forests and woods. 

(^Umi wJo Taberistan is a flat country^ and well cultiTated : 
here they breed much cattle ; and they have a peculiar dialect^ 
neither Arabick nor Persian ; and in many parts of Deilman their 
language is not understood. Until the time of Oo) (^ jAs^ Hair 
ben Zeid (may God reward him!), the inhabitants of Taberistan, 
and of Deilman were Infidels (f^)- then many of them became 
Mussulmans ; but it is said that in the mountains of Deilman some 
of them still continue to practise the rites of Paganism. 

( 175 ) 

The mountains of (^tS Karen are difficult of access^ and very 


strong : in every hill there is a diief Here are lofty trees, and 
forests, and streams, but no towns except ^Lyv^ Shehmar. 

To (jJj^ M Sarein* (or c^l ^ Sari) one merhileh. This 

was the residence of q;I i Karen, who was their king 

(O^ (^Uot oLiOlj ^u> ) ; and the seat of government, aijd the 
place where the treasures were deposited. From the mountains 
of Bardestan ^j Uimi^Ij i1Us> to Sari, is one merhileh. 

From the borders of Deilman, and the coast of the sea, to 
tlUlJCMal Asterahad, is one day's journey; it is not more. The 
district of (^j Rey is adjoining to Cazvin. ^1 Ebher, and 
(^Ki^ Rengan, and ^jUULL^ Talekan, and ^j^Ol J( ys^ Kesr 
al radein, are in these territories; and (jsj^^ Kownes, and 
(^U.y>M Semnany and ^^UUtO Damghan, and jXk^ Bustam, 
are all connected one with another. 

And J^l Amol, and JuJU Melil, and ^j^^La Salous, and 

jH^ Kellar, and ^^^jj Rouhan^ and dS^^ Mesleh, and Men 

alhem ^\ {^^j^, and Ax^ Memta, and C^^ Sari, and 

(jljj^ Mehrwan, and UL*wl-^l Aimer asek, and ^<^*j^ Bemi- 

shell, are reckoned as belonging to Taberistan. 

* I have before remarked the extreme obscurity and inaccuracy of several passages 
ia this work. I shall endeavour, in a future publication, ta illustrate and correct them^ 

( 176 ) 

jA>i4jJa Temseir, and oljly!>*»l Asterahad, and ^m^-Xm^I Ahis- 
goun, and (^U>^<3 Dehestan, to (j ^ S^Gurkan ; and in the 
mountains I know not of any towns, besides ^jIa^jw Semnan, 
and ^j3 Kouim ; and those belong to o^ (^^U Karen Kouh. 



The most considerable city of those we have mentioned is (Cj 
Rey. After Baghdad there is not in the eastern regions any city 
more flourishing. Its gates are much celebrated : one of them 
is called the ^jLLjU o)\jji^ Derwazeh Natan, facing the moun- 
tainous country, or the ^'y^ i^\ji^^ Kouhestan of Irak ; 
another leads to Cazvin: another, called the Uk3-^ o)L^i> 

are many remarkable streets and quarters in this city ; such as 
oi^jj Rudeh, and (^LmjJj> Kelisan, and jj Okj^i^ Dehek Nou, 
and i^[j\ yf^* Nasrahad, and (^UU^Lj Sarbanan, and Bab al- 
Jebal iJLcsz"^' ^jU or the Mountain Gate; and the ^LSJ^ii 
Der-i-Hesham, or Hesham's Gate ; and the (j^f^i^^^^ Der-i- 
Ahenin, or the Iron Gate; and the gate called v^LicjO Der-U 
Ithab ; but the quarter of Rudah is the most populous and flour- 
ishing of all. 

In this place are many bazars, and caravan seras, and market- 
places. Ifi the suburbs there is a mosque. The citadel is in good re- 
pair, and there is a wall round the suburbs, which is, however, fal- • 
ling to decay, and almost desolate. Here they have both river water 

Derwazeh Gurhek, is in the direction of Ji Kom. And there 

( ^77 ) 

and water Imn^t by canals or trenches : one of these is called 
the c5^tSa uj ^ Kareiz Shahi^ or Royal Aqueduct ; it passes by 
iSarbanan: anothCT, called f^^kK> Gilani, also passes through 
Sarbanan. For the most part the inhabitants drink the water of 
these aqueducts. There are many canals besides. Here they ciil« 
^Tate the land^ and practise husbandry, and traffick for gold and 
direms. The people of this place are hoi^i table and polite. Here 
they manufacture fine linen^ cotton, and camelots, which are sent 
to all parts of the world. 

j\y^ Khar is a small town, supplied with water by a river 
•which runs from OJ^L«i> Damavend. iL^CS Dehmeh*, and 
AxJUi Shelineh, are two towns belonging to the territories of 
Damavend ; they are smaller than Khac 

Dehmeh is larger than Shdineh ; it abounds in cultivated fields, 
gardens, and orchards, and fruits. There is not any place in the 
whole country of a more cool temperature. 

In the territory of Rey there are villages larger than those 
towns; suchas jA^lj Fameiz, and^^^l Arinou, and (j^t^j^ 
Dersein, and Ij^i Dera, and (^i-^yw^ Kouseia, and Ou^^jyw Seist, 
and jy*^ Khosru, and others : and I have heard that in every 
one of these villages there are two thousand inhabitants or more. 

• Or »#ir^ fTehmh. 
A A 

( 178 ) 

From the territory of Rey, cotton and linen clothas are sent ta 


Baghdad, and into Azerbaijan; and in those places which we 
have spoken of, there is not any navigable river: a stream flows 
from the summit of Damavend ; and all round this mountain are 
considerable villages, such as (^'jAjO Debiran, and aa^O Der^ 
meyah. Of this place was i^^j^ (^ C5^ ^'* ^^^ Sherouin, 
who was taken prisoner on the banks of the river ^ 

The mountain of Damavend is the most eastern of all the 
motmtains in Taberistan, and may be seen from all parts of the 
country: they c^U it cJ3f^, because that on it there are not 
many trees. 

But (j^j^y Kownes belongs to Damavend; (^IjL«I^ Dam" 
ghan is larger than j[fL Khar of Key; (^liv*j Semnan is 
smaller than Damghan ; and ^Umaj Bustam is smaller than Dam- 
ghan : it is remarkable for excellent fruit. 

{^^ji Cazvin has two suburbs, with walls. The chief 
mosque is situated in the great suburbs. Here are two small ca- 
nals or aqueducts, of which the water is used for drinking, and 
for the purposes of agriculture ; yet, with this scarcity of water, 
the city is pleasant, and abounds in provisions: It is the pass iata 

+ Or ^yS\ 

( 179 ) 

Deilnuui ; and there are constant quarrels between the people of 
these places. It produces fruits^ such as grapes and almonds^ &c. 
to plentifully that they are carried to other parts of the coun- 
try. This city is one mile by one mile. 

jyjl Abher and ^j \^jj Zengan are two small, but pleasant 
and well supplied towns ; of which Zengan is the lai^r : but its 
inhabitants are idle and not industrious. 

(^U»»j-xt Talmristan is a considerable proyince. The build- 
ings in it are of wood and reeds. It adjoins ^jl^l Aran. 

t<ilMi Sari is laiger than Cazvin, well inhabited, and supplied 
with provisions. Silk is produced in great quar^ities throughout 
all quarters of Tabaristan ; it is sent, for the greater part, to Jo^f 
Amoh The people of Tabaristan have very thick and long hair, 
with heavy eye-brows ; they speak very fast, and their usual diet 
is bread made of rice : they eat much fish, rice, and milk : they 
manufacture garments of silk and wool. In all Tabaristan there 
is not a river on which boats can be employed ; but the sea is 

(^ llT j> Gurkan is a small place, less liable to rain and damps 
than Tabaristan. The people of Gurkan are amiable in their dis- 
positions, of a generous and manly nature. Without the city is 
a piece of ground called ^\j\jXj Behrabad, through which 'runs a 

A A 2 

( tea ) 

considerable stream; it produces much silk. This district is very 
well watered and cultivated : after you pass Irak, no spot is more 
abundant than Gurkan : it yields the fruits both of warm and 
cold climates ; and snow is to be found even in summer. Many, 
eminent men have come from this country. Dinars and direms 
are current in Tabaristan; and the (^^ mun of that land, is six 
hundred diren^. 

i^ljl JC>Mf Asterahad is situated near the Caspian Sea; from that 
you go to Q«X>Mjf Abisgourif and by the sea to j^ Khozr^ 
and cXJu^^ Derbend, and (^LyJUt^ Deilman, and other places: 
in all this country there is not any port or harbour more commo- 
dious or l&rger than Abii^oun. Here is a place called (jIumJM^ 
Dehestan, very fertile ; and the Turks * come here from. ^^}jsL. 

The Stages and Distances of this Country^ 

From c,^ ^^ to (jJj j3 Cazvin, four merhileh ; frt)m Gar- 
vin to Jb^ Deher, two short merhileh. Whoever desires to go 
from Rey to ^^ \^ Zengan^ without going to Cazvin, must 

* Cu^P Turks.<tf Khoianniii, or Tuikestan, Tutan, Scythians, &c. 

( 181 ) 

take the roiad by a village near Rey, called iiUlciy Berdahdd, 
one of the villages of the waste or desert. From Rey to JoUaMO 
Kestaneh, one merhileh ; from Kestaneh to aj^xI^*^ Meskoubeh, 
one merhileh ; from that to ojLm Saveh, nine farsang. Saveh is 
sometimes reckoned as belonging to the province of ijLj«:> Jebal, 
and sometimes to Rey.- 

From Rey to ^jJSf<^ Mehein, a merhileh of nine farsang ^ ; 
from Mehein to^Aj Belour, one merhileh; from Bdiour to 
tj)^^ Kelazil, a merhileh of six farsang (or one merhileh, six 
farsang) ; from Kelazil to the Castle of Laiizer j^j^ ^lxU, one 
merhileh ; from that to Oi^wyJi Kehrest, one merhileh, six far- 
sang (or a merhileh of six farsang) ; and from that to Jk^t Arnold 
one merhileh*. 

(^jLwI^st^ (^j j\ 

• Stages and Distan€es from Rey to Khorasan: 


From Rey to [jjiOuj^ Merhedein^ one merhileh ; from that to 
ofyXyS Kohendehy to ji\y^ Khar^ one merhileh; from Khar to* 
UCyJ ^u^i> Dhey Nemeky one merhileh ; from that to Ras al 
Kelb uaXX) I (jJj (or the dog's head), one merhileh ; from Ras. 

^ Of a merhileh and nine fitnang JJsmji *i aX»^< 

( 1»2 ) 

al Kelb to ^UyM Semnan, one meiiuldi ; and to C^j\ (J<& AU 
Ahady one merhileh ; from iSf^ ^f^ Jerm Jery, one mer^eh ; 
to (^IjL«Io Damghan, one merfaileh; from Damghan to 
o^^XsL or oaIOoL Khelawah or Khedaweh, one merhileh ; 
from that to ^jajjJo^ Bedlis, one merhileh; from BedUs to 
(^U^ M Mourjan, one merhileh ; from Monrjan to ^vi cXft^ 
Heft Der (or the seven gates) one merhileh ; and from Heft Der to 
oIjIc>omI Asedabad, one merhileh. Asedabad belopgs to the 
borders of Nishapoun 

Road from Taheristan to Gurkan. 

From Jo«I Amol to <9Xm^ Mesleh, two farsang ; from that to 
/^J Terjy/ one merhileh; from that to C^L- Sari, one 
merhileh ; from ^xa^Ij Bamieh to lX**jI w« Merasik, one merhileh ; 
from that to aAa,U Temisheh, one merhileh; from Tenflsheh 
to oUIJCmjI Asterabad, one merhileh; from Asterabad to Rebat 
Hafs (j^L^ -^^W^ ^^^ merhileh; fit)m Asterabad to i^^j^ 
Gurkan, one merhileh. Whoever desires to go forth from Aste- 
rabad must go to the oj\^j ^W^ Rebat Wedareh, one mieFhileh; 
from that to {^^j^ Jerhan, one merhileh. Whoever will ga 
from Amol must go to U U Malet, one merhileh ; ' and from 
Malet to C,^^ <Saria one merhileh. 

( 183 ) 

f^J^ j^i ji oif 

Road from Amol to Deilem^ 

From Amol ta cJub Bayel, one merhileh; from that to 
^j^lm Solus, one i^rt merbileh ; from that to j^^ Gullar, 
mxt merhildi.;. from Gullar to Jui^ Dilem, one merhileh ; from 
Amol to ^1 ^jj^ Aien Alehem, one short merhileh. From 
^2^^ j^ Gurkan to C^j^Uo Demarzari, one merhileh ; from 
that to JLm^I Amromlou, one merhileh ; from that to ^£^\ Ajaa^ 
one merhileh ; from Ajaa to cx^uMjIcXxMa Sendanest, one merhi* 
leh ; and from Sendanest to ^Jy^ Serain, one merhileh ; from 
Oiirkan to AJU^ Jehineh, one merhileh ; from Jehineh to jXL^ 
Bustam, dne 

Of the Sea of Khozr, or th6 Caspian. 

The western side of this Sea belongs partly to (^Lr^.^ Deilman, 
and ^jUw^-aId Taheristan, and ^j ^^ Gurkan, and its borders ; 
and part of it is bordered by the deserts of ^j\j^ Khuarezm. 
On the western side is {j\j\ Aran, and ^yUv^ Moukan, and 

( !«■* ) 

the territories of -Ij>*j Serir, and part of the deserts of ^yx 
Azziah : and on the north it has the desert of Azziah^ to the ter- 
ritories of oa^ oU>w Siah Kouh; and on the south, cJsv^W 
Bdkeil, and (^lyJli^^ Deilman, and the neighbouring places. 
This sea is not connected with any other ; and if a pei:son wishes 
to make a tour completely round it, nothing will impede him but 
a few rivers which fall into it from various quarters. The .waters 
of this sea are bitter and dark-coloured ; its ' bottom is a blackish 
clay, differing in this respect from the Sea of ^Jii Kolzum, or of 
(j^ly^ Oman, or of (j*^Li Pars. This Sea of Pars is of such 
clear water that one may see the while stones at the bottom ; but 
the waters of this Sea of Khozr are dark-coloured, and in it there 
are not found any such things as pearls, or coral, or similar marine 
productions. It is, however, much frequented by the ships of 
merchants who traffick from, one town to another ; and it affords 
mitch fishing. In this ocean there are not any inhabited islands^ 
as in the Sea of Fars and of Roum ; but there are many trees and 
forests *. 

C Blank Page for a Map of the Caspian Sea.) 

^J^^ *^j^ i^_P<sLj^ ^J It is not dear whether those trees occupy the 
islands of this sea, or ikirt iu borders. ' 

( 185 ) - 

/ • 

iOne island is considerable^ with a fountain of water .and many 
trees; and there is another large island on titie< borders of (jt^XXJ 
Ztekzan^ which has also fresh watw. To this island they bring 
cattle from ^^jt Berdaa in boats^ and turn them out to graze, 
and leave them until they become fat 

, Near q^^jLjI Abisgoun is a place called (^Umh^c^ Dehestaiu 
with very sweet and wholesome water. Here the peqple of the 
neighbouring places ^assemble for the purpose of fishing; It is 
caid that there is a race of Turks (^ \fy ) dwelling in the vicinity 
of 04/^ oU^a Siah Kouh (or the black mountain.) 

After one passes (^^m Monkan to cXo^i^ Derbend, for two 
idays journey the country is (^U^am Shirwan; 6rom that to 
jOuLyM Semender^ fourteen days journey ; and ^m Semender to 
JjI AteL This Atd is a certain river which comes from (j»^jj 
Rons and^LxJLi Bulgar. One half of this river belongs to the 
wiest«m side, the other to the eastern. The sovereign of Atel 
jesides on the western side : he is styled King, and sumamed ilU 
Bead. Here are many tents ; and in this country there lure but a 
few edifioes of clay, such as bazars (market-places) and bathing 
houses. In these territories are about ten thousand Mussulmans. 
The king*s habitation is at a distance from tl^ shore : it is con- 
structed of burnt bricks ; and this is the only building of such 
materials in all the country : they will not allow any body but 
the king to erect such a dwelling. 

B B 

( 186 ) 

The city of Jjl Atel has four gates. One of those gates 
faces the tiver ; another looks towards Iran^ in the direction of 
the desert. Tlie king of this countiy is a Jew: he has in hia 
trait! four thousand Mussulmans^ and i^j^ Khozrians (Chris^ 
tians)^ and Idolaters ; but his principal people are Jews : And this 
king has twelve thousand soldiers in his service^ of whom when 
one dies^ another pmson is immediately chosen into bis place ; 
and they have no other commander but him. And this king has 
under him nine magisttutes or judges (^^^^IS) : these are Mussul- 
tnans^ Jews, Christians^ and Idolaters. The smallest in number of 
the inhabitants of this country are the Jews ; the greatest in num^ 
her are the Mussulmans and Christians: but the king and his 
'^ehief officers are Jews* lliere are magistrates of each religion ; 
and when they sit in the tribunal of justice^ they are obliged to 
report to the king all that passes, and to bring back his answer 
and opinion^ and put his sentence into execution. 

This city has not any suburbs; but the cultivated fields and 
grounds extend for near twenty farsang. Agriculture is much 
practised, and the husbandmen carry the produce of their labour 
in boats and carriages to the dty. The chief diet of this people 
is fii^ and rice : they bring honey and wax from the borxiers of 
(j^jj Rous. The principal persons of Atel are Mussulmans and 
merchants: their language is like that of the Turks (O^* or Tar- 
tars), and is not understood by any other nation. 

( 187 ) 

The riyer of Atel comes £ron| the borders of ,a>a> Jerjir^ 
and from that goes on to U^ L,^ Kahndkt and to j:i Ghiiz^ and 
so on to jiiks Bidgar, and &\ls into the sea near (j^^jf Ber^ 
tas. It is said that this river^ at the season when all its waters 
are collected, is greater than the river ^ysif^^ Jihoon ; and that it 
rushes into the sea with such a body that it seems tp conquer the 
water of the Caspian; and one can see ita stream uomixgd 
the sea water, as far as a journey of two days. 

^ Injrjai^ Khozr there is a certain ^city called OuiyiMl /hitlid, 
wliidi has so many ordiards and gardens, that fi'om OJkjjt^ 
Dbrbend to «jyM Serir the whole country is coyereld with the 
gardens and piantaUons belonging to this city. It is said that 
tJieie are above forty thousand of them. Many of these produce 
grapes. In this town are many. Mussuimans, who have motquea ; 
and their houses are built of wood. The king is a Jew, in friend- 
ship with the Padshah of Khdzr, and on good terms with the 
F^ulshah of y^ Serir. From this place to tJie borders of Serir, 
is two farsang. 

The inhabitants of S«rir are Km J Tersasot Quistians; It is iaid 
that in this Serir was a throne, Und H^t there was a certain Imig 
of the kings of Pars, who, when he gave a principality to one of his 
sons, sent Mm here wiA a golden throne ; which principality has 
continued established to this time. A son of Behram Chopin is 

B B 2 

(I 1«8 J 

said to Bave first possessed it ^t The inhabitants of Serir ar* o» 
good terms with the Mussulmans. In this part of Khozr I know 
not of any other town than cXa.v>m Semid (before - written 
Asmid.)^ X ' 

near ELhozr; on- the banks 
called. (jJ^ji ; but the re 
»% / w^ I Rous^ er Seriit 

The people of ELhozrr ar^ near the Turks (^^ ^y )> whom tfaqr 
ipesemble; They are of two classes ; one of bladkish complexions^ 
and siidi dark hair that you would suppose them .to be descended 
fi!oni the Hindoos: the other race - fair complexioned; these seM 
Aeir> children ; but it is not allowed among the Jews; and the 
Christians to sell, or make one another slaves,. 

They bring fit>m other- countries tliose commoditiies 
Khozri does not produce,, such, as tapestry, or curtains^ 
candles,, and similar articles. The people of Khozr have i 
terials for making garments or clothes : they therefore 
them from (^ ^J Guarkam. Armenia^ Ajserbaijan, and' 
king is styled the ^^ . (^jUtan. Khacan of Khozr. 

* BduramCbo^is said to have flquriihed in the latter end of the tixth oenturf ot 
tie Christian aera. See.D'HuBEtOT's Bikl. Orient. AiJ. Bahanun and Serir^ 

( 180 ) 

When a' prince is to be raised to the Khacanship, they brii^ 
him forth, and tie a piece of silk about his throat, so tight that 
he can scarcely draw his breath. At that moment they ask him, 
how long. he will hold the sovereignty ?. He answers, " so miany 
years/* He then is set at liberty, and becomes Khacan of Khozr. 
But if he should not die before the expiration of the time he 
mentioned,, when. that soaceis. fulfilled,, they put him to death. 

The K£acan must be always of the Imperial race. No one is 
allowed to approach him but on business of importance : then 
they prostrate themselves before him, and rub their faces on the 
groimd, uxitil he ^ve& orders for their approaching him, and 
speaking. When a Khacan of Khozr dies, whoever passes near 
lus tomb must go. on foot, and pay his respects at the grave ; 
and when he is departing, must not .mount onhorseback, as long 
^ .the. tomb is within view- 

So absolute is the authority of this sovereign, and so implicitly 
are his commands obeyed, that if it seemed expedient to him that 
one of his noblea should die, . and if he said to him, '' Go and kill 
yo4£rself,'' the man would iomiediately go to his house, and kill 
himsdf accordingly. The succession to~ the ILh^canship being 
thus established. in the same £amily; when the turn of the, inhe- 
ritance arrives to any individual of it, he is confirmed in the dig- 
nity, thou^ he possesses not a single dirhem. And I have heard 
from persons worthy of belief, that a certain young man used to 


( 190 ) 

^t in a little shop at the public market-place, selling petty 
articles ; and that the people used to say, *' When the present 
E^can shall have departed, this man will succeed to the throne." 
But the young man was a Mussulman, and they give the Khacan* 
ship only to Jews. 

The Khacan has a throne and pavilion of gold : these are not 
allowed to any other person. The palace of the Khacan is loftier 
than the other edifices* 

In the district of Bertas the houses are built of wobd. Th* 
people are of two tribes or classes; one near the extreme con- 
fines of jt Ghuz, near jixXj Bidgar, about two thousand in 
number, under the dominion of the Bulgarians; the other next the 
Turks. The language of Bulgar and of Khozr is the same. 
Bulgar is the name of a city, where there are Mussulmans and 
mosques ; and near Bulgar is another town called^jM *, where 
there are also Mussulmans and mosques. 

In these two cities there are about ten thousand inhabitants. 
Here tihe length of a summer s night is such that a man canmit 
go more than the distance of one farsang — ^rather, not so m«oh ; 
and in winter the day is equally short as tihe night in summer. 

* Doubtful in (he Eton MS. and mine. 

i m ) 

Of the fjyjj Rous, there are .three races or tribes : one near 
jBulgar ; their kiog dwdls ina town calle4 ^l/U^* : this is latger 
than Bul^. Another race is called (^*l^l Orthani or Ar- 
thai; their kir^ resides in a place called Ij^I Arthai but the 
other tribe» called ^^Xs^. Jellabeh, is superior to those ; but no 
one goes for the purposes of traffick farther than Bulgar. No one 
goes to \jj\ Arthaf because that there they put to death any 
atranger whom th^ ^d. Artha producer lead and tin^ and the 
animal called {o\.f^jy^) Black Martin or Scythian Sable. The 
Rtisses bum their dead; and it is an established rule amongst 
tiiera not to shave one another's beards. Bulgar is next to Roum. 
It is a powerful aiwL numerous people^i for the greater part 



ULkn^ ^iO 

Of the Roads and Stages of Khozr^ 

Fbom q^XmuI Abisgoun to the borders of Kho2T^ three hun- 
dred faraang ; from Abisgoun to ^Um^O Dehestan^ about six 
merhileh; and, when the wind blows fair> one goes on latitudi- 
nally (Ljj^ (^Ia^S) in the sea to Derbend ; from Jk^l Amol to 
^ A^JCmj Sut&nder is eight days joumey> or Sumteder^ or^cXyA^M. 

* Gounaidior Gcmudkh.. No point under the last sfUabtei or over.. 

( 102 ) 

Samsider^ i and from Sutemder to Derbend, four days journey ; 
{ojjj J^y^) fr^™ Derbend to the R^on of Serbr (yywCxXJL^), 
is three days journey ; and from Amol to the extreme boundary 
of Bertas^ twenty days journey; from Bertas to ij^J<^ Jehal or 
Bejebal, ten merhileh; and from Amol to ij^J<ss:^ Bejbal, one 
month ; also one month from Amol to Bulgar, by way of the 
desert, or, if one goes by water, it may be two months. From 
Bulgar to the borders of Roum, ten merhileh ; and from Bulgar 
to Gunaieh, or ajU^-J Gunaheh, &c. twenty merhileh. From 
Bejebal to ey;J- f Tosher etK or Bashkouth, or y±>^sP Toth- 
Jcereth, about ten days journey ; and from vl^^sfc^ Bashkouth 
to Bulgar, twenty merhileh.-^-Grod knows -the t»ith. 

Of the Deserts between Pars and JDiorasan. 

On the east the desert of Khorasan partly borders the pro- 
vince of (^tj^ Makran, and partly (^U^mamj Seiestan; to the 
south it has (jL^ji Kirman, and Fars, xtnd part of the borders of 

In this desert there are not many habitations of men^ as in 

* Obscure. t No point. 

( »03 ) 

the (Ajiib) desert, where the Arabs have their dwelling ; or the 
other desert between Oman andYemameh (or a^\^ Hemameh), 
towards the sea, on the borders of Yemen, where also they 
reside ; or the deserts of Makran and cXa»w Sind, in which, 
likewise, are the habitations of men, and meadows for the pasture 
of cattle. But this desert of Khorasan is almost totally unin- 
habited and waste. To the north it has Khorasan and part of 
f^iX^^AM Seiesian; to the west it borders on (j^^jS Koumis, 
(^ Rey, and JJ Kom, and (^LilS Kashan. 

Tins desert is the haunt of robbers and thieves, and without 
a guide it is very difficult to find the way through it ; and one 
can only go by the well-known paths. The robbers abound in 
this desert, because it is situated on the confines of so many dif- 
ferent provinces. Part of this desert belongs to Khorasan, part 
of it to Sejestan; parts also to Fars, Kirman, Isfahan, Kom, 
,-,L5al3 Kashan, Rey, and the borders of {j*^j^ Koumis, and 
its vicinity. 

(^Uil^ J (j^U (jlf^ oW^ ^Jj^ 

(Map of the Deserts between Fars and Khorasan.J 

One of the mountains in this desert is called o^f" (j*^jf Karges 
KouJi, with its four sides towards the desert. The circumference 
of this mountain is not more than two farsang : in the middle of 
this mountain there is a spring called ocXu uiT Aub Beideh. 

c c 

( 104 ) 

o^ oUkm Siah Kouh, or the Black Monntaih^ belongs to the 
province of Jebal. 

In this desert ai*e some springs ; but I never heard of any 
towns, except, periiapis, one little city (^P^. *) of Kirnian, on tibe 
road to Seiestan. 

In this desert, on the road from Isfahan to Nishapour, there is 
a place called a^y^ Jurmeh. On the confines of this desert are 
some well-known towns : on the borders of Pars, Mabin or Ma- 
hin {^yf^^f Yezd, ocyjic Akedeh, (^Uiwc!Sjl-4rdi5te>i of Isfahan; 
and on the Kirman iside, (juflioi^ KhUbeis, khd C^j J Ruzi, land 
'jf^l^jj Bermashir. On the bordcri? of (^U^mJ^aS Kuhestitn are 
jP JKbm, (^UjIj) Kdshajiy and ojO Durreh : so on to the bor- 
ders of Rey and of ^ly^ Khar, also (^Lv^ Semnan, and 
•^bUlc^ Damghan, on the borders of (j*^j^ Koumes. 

The principal roads through this desert are those from Isfahaii 
to Rey, from Kirman to Sejestah, from Fars and Kirman to 
Khorasan; the road of Yezd, on the borders of Fars; the road of 
iSjJJ R^^^h and (j^xAcL Khuheiz, and another called ^*olj> 
or the new road from Khorasan into Kirman. These are the best 
known roads. 

• Obscure. 

( 195 ) 

Route Jrom Rey to Isfahan. 

From Rey to q;0 Durreh, one merhileh ; all this way, except 
two farsang, is cultivated and inhabited. 

From Durreh to (^^jcsr y>i Deir Kahein, (no distance 
marked) : the well-water here is bitter, and they drink rain-water, 
and have two cisterns or reservoirs without the town. 

From Deir to -.^^ Kcih is all desert ; two farsang to JJ Kom; 
this is a village ; and then two i^sang are desert. From Kom to 
{^\jfJ^AjJ^i^ Dehieh Giran, (or Guebran, ^j ^f^) ^^^ merhileh ; 
cultivated and inhabited. From Dehieh Giran to (^U^lS Kashan, 
two merhileh ; well peopled, and cultivated on the edge of the 
desert. From Kashan to o^cXj l^bj Rebet Bedreh, two merhileh; 
cultivated and inhabited on the borders of the desert. Rebat 
Bedreh contains about fifty houses; the inhabitants are good hus- 

From Bedreh to J^j^j jJ L5^ ^^J Rebat ali ber Rustam *, 

• Perhaps for ^Xmj ^^ ^ io\^j 

C c 2 

( 100 ) 

one merhileh ;— desert. To the borders of this desert belongs the 
fj^So^ Kouk Karges. At this Rebat are men stationed, who 
guard the road : they have reservoirs, into which they bring run- 
ning water from other places. 

From this to /^sr^'^ Danchy, one merhileh: this is a large 
village, and weU inhabited. Thence to Isfahan, one ^ort mer- 
hileh. In going from Rey to Isfahan, the Karges Kouh is on 
the left hand, and the o^ oUxw Siah Kouh on the right : The 
Siah Kouh is a notorious haunt of robbers. From Karges Kouh 
to ^jj^sr jji^ Deir Kehein is a journey of four farsang ; from 
Deir Kehein to Siah Kouh, five farsang ; and from Siah Kouh to 
Karges Kouh, nine farsang. 


Road from Mabein to Khorasart. 

From (^^U Mabein, or ^^jjub Babern, to a^^ j^ Mezraiefir,. 
which is situated on the skirts of the desert, one merhileh : here 
are fountains and running water, and but a few inhabitants^ 
From that to a^ y^ Harmek, four merhileh : at every interval of 
two farsang is a vaulted building and reservoir of water. From 
Harmeh to /^Li^ Nu Khani, four merhileh : at every four 
farsang is a vaulted building, with a cistern of water. From 
/^l:i./^l ^ Nu ahi Khani to (^li^ ^^.J Kebat Houran^ 
one merhileh. From this Rebat to the village of ^LXij^ 

( »07 ) 

Muskehan, one short merhileh: thence to (j^jjJJo Telis, one 
merhileh ; from ^ that to Lamjc^ ^i Berdsir, two merhileh : thence 
to Nishapoiir> fiye merhileh ; and the road to the village of C^j^ 
Chzi is altogether three farsang. ^j^^^aXL Telis is a large village, 
containing one thousand inhabitants. 

JJ^ of/ 
Road of Shoar. 

jmiU Skaur is the name of a stream of water in the desert. 

lis road begins at the village of o y Bereh *, on the edge of the 
desert toward the Kiiinan side. From that village the road 
winds to the fountain, one merhileh: In this journey there is 
not any building seen.. Thence to Omru Bersereh, ^f**jf j 
one merhileh: here are great pits of red clay, and wells 
from which the water runs into a reservoir. And in this 
desert of jm Shour, as you go from EJ]Lorasan* to Kirman, 
** on the right hand,, at the distance of two farsang, is a grove 
of trees : they say that here are trees and statues of men f •" 
From that to the jyi vF M Shour, one merhileh : some 

• Napoim being marked, it maybe Nirchj Tireh, Yerch, &c; 

( 1Q8 ) 

vaulted buildings are erected over this fountain of Sbur. From 
this to {Sj> Gozi, one merhildx ; and in this day s journey, itf: 
four farsang from (Sj^ Gozi, is a reservoir of rain^-water. 


Of the Road of Ravan. 

This road begins at the village of Ravan, on the borders of 
Kirman. From (^Ujj Ravan to g^^jJo Deku Khovi, one 
merhiieh, where a stream flows. Thence to oc^Uo jy^ Sur 
Duardeh (probably ocl^Lc^ jiy^ or j^), one merhileli. 
Thence to o'/J ^^-^ Rebat Firan (or the ruijEied Rebat de^ 
serted. Sec), one merhileh : this place is never free from robbers. 
Tlience to (^ISy wci Deir Berkan, one merhileh: tha:>e we 
about twenty houses in this place, where is a fountain ; the people 
here are good husbandmen, and they have date trees. At the 
distance of two farsang is likewise a fountain, with date trees ; 
but no one lives there, as it is the haunt of robbers. At every 
two farsang is a cistem or reservoir of water, as &r as ^Sji^jf^ 
Bireshk : The water of Bireshk is sweet. From Bireshk to 

1^ Jawr is one merhileh : from Jawr to Ou*J Lest or c:-u*aj 
Vest, two merhileh; and from Jawr to i^j^ Gozi, three 


( 109 ) 

\>2j^ o\;f y<i 

Road of Kkebeis. • 

. Kflt'Eb^Tsis a town on the borders of this desert, "with runnmg 
^miter and date 'trees. From ^lat to ^\jji^ Durak is one mer- 
Mieh; and during 6his stage, as l&r as the eye can Teach, eycry 
flnilgTvters the 4ppeai«baee of ruin and desolation ; for there is 
hot Miy kitid of Iviter. <[)ne merhileh to jf^ Shour^ where is 
B, broad water-^cchirse t>f rain watfer : the stream of Shour waters 
these -grounds^ ^smd tontents fidl iiito this wat^-course. Thence 
to^(J^*M^I Arsel, where is a^mall hill, vone merhileh : thence to a 
p<md, or reservoir of rain wdtca:, one merhileh: thence to a Re- 
biEit, two m«hildbL:; here is ^ la fountain: • of runnii^ water^ and 
about two hundred inhabitants, who live by husbandry. Thence 
toj^y\y^ Kou Kour, one merhileh ; this is a populous village on 
the borders of (^ Um*3^^ JfCouhistan. Ff om >Kou Kour to o 
Skusty two merhileh: and on this road of Khebeis, w^hen one 
:goes two ^Eireang from the Rebat, where is the fountain on the 
way towards Khorasan, there are, for about four fkrsang, black 
stones. From Arsel to Kur {)^^ ox l^J^^^j^) are small 
stones, some white, some blackish, like camphor (^^ i^), and 
some greenish, like glass. 

( 200 ) 



Stages and Distances from Yezd to Khorasan. 

From Yezd to ^^ Jehr, or ^^^ Hamr, one merfaileh : iiv 
this stage are fountains and reservoirs of rain-water, but no in- 
habitants. From o,^r^ Hamreh to aJUsL Khouaneh, one mer- 
hileh : this is the desert ; but at Khouaneh are about two hundred 
inhabitants, who cultivate the fields, and keep, four-footed 
creatures. From Khouaneh to. (Ouuyw j oLyw Jj) the black and 
white tel, or heap, one merhileh ; in this day's journey are not any 
buildings to be seen ; at this place is a reservoir of rain-waten 
From Tel-i-Siah ve Sepeed to uXa^Umj Sebaaid, one merhileh : 
this Sebaaid is a large village, containing four hundced and seventy 

From the Rebat to Uo j Rik, one merhileh : at this stage is a 
reservoir of rain-water, and a caravansera, but no inhabitants. 
From this to the {^[jy ^^^ Rebat Gouran, one merhileh: 
this Rebat is constructed of stone and mortar ; and there are three 
or four persons residing in it, who take care of it : here also is a 
spring of water. 

From Rebat Goui:an to o-J iaijj Rebat Gurreh, one merhileh. 

( 201 .) 

At the caravansera of ^^^Ic^lJ Zadakhour is a well of water; 
but there are not any inhabitants. From d^jiLfc^lo Zadakheret 
(before jasLIoIJ) to (jjjlo Ujju Beisha Daran, one merhileh: 

• « 

this is a village containing three hundred inhabitants ; they have 
water in trenches or ditches, and cultivate their lands. From 
Beisha Daran to another village, jXj^y Aa^^ Dhey Digur (per- 
haps a proper name), one merhileh : this is a well cultivated and 
inhabited place, containing about five hundred persons, who are 
husbandmen ; here they have running water. Hence to Bernar- 
aduieh ^UJ^[J[JJJ, one merhileh. At this stage is a caravansera 
with a well ; but there are not any inhabitants. From this, to 
Bebat 'i^SJj Zingy, one merhileh : at this Rebat are three or four 
persons ; there is also running water. 

From Rebat Zingy to C^lmJLamiI Astelesht ; here is a reservoir 
of rain-water, also a caravansera, but without any inhabitants. 
From c^iiLUMal Astelesht to -ajj Berir, one merhileh: this 
Berir is on the borders of OsmJ Lest, belonging to Nishapour : 
at two farsang of this stage they have erected khans (inns), and 
reservoirs of water ; and the roads of this desert are here men- 
tioned together, viz. the road of Isfahan ; then the road of Rey ; 
then the road of Mabin ; then the road of Khorasan ; then that 
of Shour ; then the road of Khebeis ; and after that the road 
called rah nuh (new road), which is that of Kirman. 

D D 

( 202 ) 

*j o\j j/O 

The New Road. 

From yy^U^i Bermasir to (^(JU^ Resnan, one merfaiieh: 
here are date trees. From this^ passing into the desert^ no huild-- 
ings appear. Thence to S-^l jXm AyA^ Cheshmeh Sirab (a qpring 
of clear water), one merhileh. From that to the village of Salm, 
fX^ aa^O four merhileh of desert; they say this village belongs to 
Eirman: thence to vi;!^ Herat, two dap journey {oij ojjjj^) 

But the road of Seistan is this: From «a>mL«^ Bermasir to 
^^ Basekh, on the bcnrders of Eonnan, five daysjoum^* From 
BesdJi to Seiestan, seven merhileh^ whidi appears :firom the map 
of Seiestan and Eirman. 

(Blank page for the Map^J 

( 303 ) 



Account of SeiestanOr Sqfestan. 

Thb east df Seiestan is bounded by the (j}y^ O^^ desert of 
MaJcran, and of the land of Sind OuLm (jJi^j$ and partly by the 
territories of i^^j^ Multan. To the west it has Khorasan and 
pftlt of thil tiirrkoriiiis of Hind: To die north it has Hindooitan; 
k i» bounded on tha fiouth by the deserts of Seiestan and KirmaiL 

^j TUirirye is fortified, and has a castle, with walls and 
ditdies : tibe water whioh supplies! these ditches^ s]prings up in 
4lmm ; and it hsA other sUp^es of water. It has also fire gateil. 
Oike gat^ is called ^^^1 jO Deri Ahen (iron gate) ; another, thfe 
Clhr^^Lj-^^ Dervazeh Kohen: a road passes through eajdbdf 
these gates. The third gate is that of d3yS^ Gurkouneh, on 
the Khorasan road. The fourth^ called (^^^^^j^ Der Beleski^ 
(|>erhaps for /y^ Bosti) leads to c^u**^ Bost : this is the most 
frequented of any of these gates. All these hare gates of iron. 

The fortifications hare thirteen ^atesr one called Ua^ "^J'jJ^ 

Dervazeh Remina, or Uwu^ MeirMt which leads to Pars ; aiiother, 

•• ■ 

the (J ^J^ oj \jj<^ Dervazeh Ourkan ; the thirds Dervazeh 
Ashirek ^^-TjAjS*! ojUj^ ; the fourth, (^Lm^O Deri Sdni the 

D D 2 

( 204 ) 

fifth, v-j'voijSj oj\jji^ Deruazeh Shaieh ; the sixth, ^^^j=^ J^ 
Deri Khouiek; the seventh, j^ j^ Deri Kar y the eighth^ 
/^XlwjJlj^c^ jDer/ jBeZfcifci, or Beliski ; the ninth, Jj^oj\^i^ 
Dervazeh Taam ; the tenth, is (j^j-jf ^c^ Deri Aireis ; the 
eleventh, oys^ ^%^ Deri Anjmceh; the twelfth, (jUwo^ ^'j^^ 
Dervazeh Restart ; the thirteenth, is the qI>-5uJ ^^ Deri Zin-- 
gian. All these gates are built of earth or clay, because wood 
becomes rotten, and decays^ 

Here is a noiosque, situated without the Dervazeh P»s. The 
Governor s palace is situated between the Axio ^^j^^ Derwd^ 
zeh Taam and Dervazeh Pars. 

Between ttese two gates> also, is a lodge or dwellings erected 
by <t^ ^ 4^^juu Yacoub ben Leith ; and the Grovemor & pa- 
lace is one of those which belonged to C^ ^ j_c Oanru ben. 


Near the Der Gurkoimeh, and the Dervazeh Biseky, there i» a 
krge building, which was the treasury of Omru ben Leith. The 
bazars of the town are situated about themesjed or mosque: tiiey 
are ample, and well supplied ; as are those of the citadel, one of 
which was buih by order of Yacoub ben Leith, who also be- 
queathed a legacy to the mosque, and another to an infirmary 
((^U>^Lyju) or hospital for the sick. And from this bazar there 
is a daily revenue of a thousand direms. 

( 2ro6 ) 

- In this city are streams of nmning water : one passes by the 
Dervazeh Kohen ; another by the Dervazeh Nu ; and another by 
the gate of Taam : where these three meet together/ they turn a 
miU. Near the mos^e is a large feservoir of water ; from which 
a stream flows^ and enters the gardens belonging to the principal 
houses. The greatest number of houses are about the suburbs ; 
th^ citadel^ howerer^ hajs its ^rdens and running streams. 

Some land in the vicinity of this city is barren and sandy. The 
air IS very warm. Here they have dates: there are no hills. In 
winter there is no snow : in general there is a windj, and they 
have windmills accordingly. 

Between Kirman and Seiestan there are some considerable 
buildings^ the remains^ it is said^, of the antient city called 
^Cj^^ryi^ Aj Ram Sh^hristan i , ^nd^ tb^^ say the river of 
Seiestan (^Umaa>m i^jj runs through this place. The city of 
Zerenje was bvUt by men ori^ally of this Ram Shdir. 

Of the Rivers af this Country (Sejestan.} 

The most considerable river of Sejestan is called the ^ 
i^jt^ Rudi Heir mend, which comes frQm jmt Gham 

( nod ) 

the cify of cUmj Bast, and from that runs to Sejestan^ to the 
lake Zareh ojj (^b ^O. This lake is vwy small> when the 
waters of the riirer a« not copious ; when the riTer is fVill, the 
lake increases accordingly. The length of this lake is about 
thirty farsang from the quarter of Oojf^Gouid, on the Kouhistan 
rokd ((jUi*<J^^/^), to the bridge of Kirman o^r^ (J>v' ^^ *^ 
road of Pars. In breadth this lake is about one merhileh. Its 
waters are sweet and wholesome, and afford abundance of fish. 
All about this lake are situated villages and Si^i^l towns, eitcept- 
ing on that side next the desert, where there are not any habita^ 
tions or buil^ngs. 

The cXJUjA^ <^j^ Heirmend is a large river, and goes one 
Stage {ijji^ ^<^) f^Ofn Seistan. There are some other streams^ 
as that which runs to JuJ Lesker; another called Ojyyyjj 
Sebirud 6t c^Uaam Seibud ; and another called Ojj ojLm Siareh 
Rud, Or Sibareh : and in the seasons that these streams are fuU^ 
boats come down the Heirmund from Bost to Seistan ; and the 
rivers of Seistan all proceed from the ojU**j Siareh Rud. 

There is another stream called &AXi& ^^J Bud Shaabeh, 
which affords water to thirty different villages. There is another 
river here, called .Xa^ i^JJ Rud Meila, which is said to fall 
into the lake Zareh. On the road to cZ'um^ Bost, over this river, 
they have constructed a bridge of boats, like those bridges which 
are in Irak. Of the streams which fall into the lake ZardL one 

( 207 ) ^ 

13 the J^tc i^jj Bud Jamil, which comes from the low 
groiuds of o J Fereh ; and Uumj &^j^ Rudi Sek, which comes 
out of j^t Gkawr : its waters are almost consumed in passing 
through the land ; but what remains of it £dls into the Zareh 

Sejestan is a fertile and fine country: it produces dates in 
abundance. Most of the inhabitants are wealthy and opulent^ ' 
In the district called W^ Reheje, they apply themselves very 
much to farming and husbandry. In this district are the towns 
of Jo Tell, and (j*-xjO Darghes, on the banks of the OJL«^x^ 
Heirmend ; and (^^^%ij Toghahiy and ^f^^ Khilje, and Ju \^ 
Kabul, and jjt Ghaur, are of jtbe colder climate. 

The Khiljians are o£ a Tuikish {{j^J Tartar) race, who, 
in ancient times^ settled in this country, between Hindoostan and 
jdie borders of Sgestan. Tbey resembk liie Turks or Tartars in 
personal appeu»aee^ and^ retain the dress and customs of that na- 
tion ; and all speak the Turkish language* 

J Bost is one of the principal cities in the prorince of Se^ 
jestan ; except ff[j^ Zirenje, no city is larger than it. The in- 
habitants of Bost are polite and generous, resembling, in dress and 
manners, the people of Irak- It is a city well supplied with 
provisions, fruits, and dates: they trade from this city with 

( 208 ) 

^«^*^ Ghaznein is a small city, one merhileh firom Seiestan. 
From the vicinity of this place came the * (^Lj^tLb SqffdrianSp 
who conquered Pars, Sejestan, Khorasan, and Kirman: they 
were four brothers, OuJ (jlOo) J f^^^^ JMd jj^ k^jxxj Ya^ 
couhy Omni, Taker, and Ali, the sons of Leith. Taher was 
killed at the gates of Bost. Tacoub died at his return from Bagh- 
dad, and bis tomb is at Nishapour. AU spent some time in 
(^(T-/ Gurkan; then settled in ^jU>MJ^ii Dehestan. Tacoub, 
it is said, had originally been the servant of a coppersmith ; and 
Omru, a camel-driven 

LL l^auk is a small town near Bost : it has a suburb, or 
neighbouring village, which suppUes fruits and grapes for all parts 
of Seiestan : it has also reservoirs of water, oy Fereh is a large 
town. In the neighbouring villages there is much farming car- 
ried on ; and there, also, are dates in great abundance, jjli^ 
Daver, and (^UUli> Talecan, are at two menzils distance from 
them : they are small towns near OJk^jjjf3 Firouzmend, with 
running water and cultivated grounds. 

* For aoecdoCes of this eztraordiiuuy £iinily, see Ihe BiUiotbtfUe Oriifitali of 
D'Hkrbelot, articles Soffarian^ and Leith, &c« 

( 20Q ) 

» 9 ■ ■ •> 

■ » ., ■ ' 


Tilt! '^ • !' * '-',; , 't^Ax 

r I 


^ylXiM-jiw v:yUl*»*-« -/ 



Distances and Stages of Sejestan. 

The first mertuleh from Sejestan to Herat is called aJa/IT 
Gurkouneh, three farsang. From ^ Guiicouneh to jKj Peir, 
four farsang: tlicnce to jJa. Herir, one mefhileh: thence to the 
bridge of the river of o J Fereh, one merhileh ; and from the 
bridge to Fereh, one merhileh : from q^O Dereh to (^Lwa-T Kou- 
&an, one nierhileh: thid is die boundarj of Sejestan. From Kou- 
san to (jlJbtil Asferdn, one merhileh : frotla^\JbiA'Asferar to 
ijj^'Kiriz, one m^hileh: from Kariz to Siah &ouh, one 
merhildi. > 

« A^^W''- ■ 

,. I • • . ■ 

« ■ 

v,^\)«kJ ^ U^-^^MJ^^ ^1 vIj 

Boad from Sejestan to Bost. 

TflS first merhileh of this way is called ^jmj ResouJc : to 

j>jf^ Serur, one merhileh ; to the Dhey (^j^ Heruri, one 

merhileh. A narrow river (Udj perhaps the river*s nflme) crosses 

this road : over it there is a bridge constructed of brick. From 

this bridge of Heruri to Rebat UC^i^ Dhehek one menzil : thence 

£ £ 

( 210 ) 

to Rebat j4MiJt Azsour, one menzil: then another Rebat; also 
the Rebat (^UmJ^ Hestan; from Rebat Hestan to Rebat AXJIcXxfi 
Abdallah ; and from Rebat AbdalUh to Bost ; and from Rebat 
UL^O Dhehek to within one farsang of Bost^ the whole is 

Mwtdfnmi Bott to Qhizni. 

FllQM Bost tfii Rc^t O^i^j^ FUvuanenet, one raenztt: 
^enfi^%9^ RldMt Q^tiw# Mckaun,, <»e nenxdL: from A&aun to Rc^ 
hat y Kkr^ oae kiqmiL; thence to the place called J^jjJL 
Roha or Rohaje, one menzil : thence to i^\JT (^>*aXmJ Nufkeen 
dbad (or Tuskeen)^ one menzil : thence to ajLil^ Khorasaneh, 
one menzil i thence to v'tA*** ^^-ij Rchat Sirab, one menzil ; 
thence to (<^<^l Audqfi, ox Adeli# ovifi menzil ; thence to Rebat 
i^bU^A:^ Chungalabad, one menzil ; thence to ^jc ^^^ Dhey 
aoum, one menzil; thonce t» IHiey C^l:^ Khast, one menzil; 
thence to Dhej A^ji^ Jumah; one menzil; thence to ^ImuUL 

fUMbtm^f one mfinsil. 

Tbe^ boisiidwiy b thft ^dlkgie or Dhey ^^y^UicL Khescyly; axui 
the Rebat (<*0 j\ji Heitar Hhey is v«py laige^ and the first 
ithin the bocdcm of ^ji Qhizali thence to (^^ Ghbsm » 

sixteen merhileh. 

( an ) 

Road from Sejestan by the Deserts 

From ^^ Itohah to Rehat {jifSAM Senkin, ond meniul: 
thence to Rebat f^Bom; thence to (^las^^^^ iSe/ti/a/i; total, 
fourteen merhilehi 

(j^[i J o^-y^ O^^^******* J' ^b 

Road from S^estan to Kirman and Fars. 

Th£ first stage on the Fars road is {^[jj^ Khaveran: the 
second, Rebat U^'^ Daruh ; from Daruk to ^^ Berin, and 
thence to lXJLI^ j\^ Gau Pelenk; thence to i^mU io^u 
Rebat Masi; thenctf to Rebat i^^ Cazii thence to Rebat 
(^IsT^I J^ Keramhan i which fire stages, altogether, are eight 
merhildi. There are five towns on the borders of Kirman, be- 
longing to Seistan, built by ki^ jj^ Omni Leith : here is the 
(^Uj/^ o JLui Kantereh Kirman, which is a bridge ; and vJ^Uj 
Tauk, on the road of jfj/^ Cfouir, five farsang. From Seistan 
to Oj^ Hareh, (or oJ Fereh), one merhileh; between Fereh 
and (^ J Kutreen, and between ♦*♦ and o-i Farreh, three merr 

E s 2 

( 212 ) 

hileh; and this Farreh is opposite Kumeen or (j^jS Kerhin, 
near the desert. vJilL Tauk is on the road of jj^ Gouiri 
From Bost to (jUy^ Sirvarif two 'merhileh; on the road of 
lUii DuaVy cross the river Heirmend^ one merhileh : thence to 
jji^x^O Durghesh, one day's journey : from (jmju Naas to 
(C\^sr Hejrai, about one fisu'sang; from c^lysr Hejrai ta 
(^Va-AM-t ^^jfy^;^ three melftileh. 

Now we proceed to describe the region of Khorasan^ 

Account of the Province of Khorasan.. 

'' Khorasan, on the east^ is bounded By part of Sejestan and 
Hindoostan ; because all that lies beyond Gbaur may be esteemed in 
Hindoostan. To the west lie the desert of aJ ^ Ghazneh, and the 
borders of ^j ^jTGwrkan. To the north of Khbrasah^ jyiXJIijl^ 
Maweralnahr, ihd some towns of i^[jLiJ^J Tiirhesfan. Te 
the south the deserts of Fars and (j*j^jS Koumis, part of which 
extends towards the borders of (j^jf^Gurhan, (^U»MyiJlo Ta- 
haristan, (Sj ^^f and the hills of SjC^ DilemV 

Now it is time to exhibit a Map of Khorasan, and to describe 
itfe various divisions. * 

( 218 ) 




(Blank Page for Hie Map.} 

: From the borders oi \^\j^ J^ Kirman to the coast of the Caspian 
jfL. C^bjii, iand to the boundary oi j/}j\yL, Khuarezrn is all well 
mhabited^ and cultivated, and fertile* 

The citiies of (jfhief note m Khorasan- are these four : • w« Merui 
and ^•Balkhy andj^UijJ Nishapour, and i \J^ Herat The others 
belong to the various Kourchs (^l#^): or districts ; as (^U*w^ 
Kuhestan, L*J NesarSndfj^j^L^Sarkhes, and (jj Juwl Asferin, 
and O^^ Bouskek, and (j*4jsyj\j Barghis^ and 0*Lij^ ^^^ 
£i£Ay> JRe^/iafc, andOjJfj w« Meru-al-roud, and (^UISja^ Gour- 
kananj and' (jIamj^^^* Ghurjestan, and (jtycb Bamian, and 
(^tXfcwjlskr' Tokharestan, and ^ Zam, and Jk^ ^moZ. We 
speakof >J;I^^ jKftuareism} as belonging to •Jj[^jU Mawcr- 
alnahr, or Transoxania. 

The city of Nishapour is situated on a level" groundi and extends 
one fiarsang in every diifection : the buildings^ are of clay- There* 
are two considerable suburbs, well inhabited^ with mosques. Here 
is a place which they call olf^J^ Leshkur gah *; and the go- 

' ^ Station of Ac araiy. 

( 214 ) 

vernor s palace is situated in the (^^jiM^i. (j ^<^^ Meidan 

near which is also the prison. The goyemor s palace was buih 

by order of Omru ben Leith. 

There are four gates. One is called i]^.j^ Der-i-poul ; ano- 
ther^ Juojiuo (^^^oj^jj^ Derwazeh Goui Mocuel ; the third 
is ddled^OJLyj jC^ Der-i^Kohendez ; and the fourth, Derwaxeh 
poul Nekein ^j^fSj Jjjj o)UjO. Kohender is without the sub* 
urbs. The gate which leads toward Balkh and Maweralnahr is 
called UCj^rk oj\jjO Derwazeh Khehuk ; and ^e gate towards 
^j^jf Gurkan and ^IjC Irak b called ujUi^ ^^JJ^ Der^ 
wazeh Ishab. On the road leading to Fkrs and Kuhestan there ii 
a gate called (ju^jf^ ^^J^^ Derwazeh Seirpes. In the suburbt 
are two market places, or bazars, and fountains of water. 

The.dty of Nishapour is watered by a subterraneous stream, 
which is conveyed to the fields and gardens, and falls into cisterns 
and reservoirs without the town; and there is a considerable 
stream, that waters the city and villages about it : this stream is 
called Uum Seka. In all the province of Khorasan there is not 
any city larger than Nishapour, nor any blessed with a more 
pure and temperate air. Here they make garments of silk and 
fine linen, which are in such esteem that they send them to all 

The places depending on, and bounding Nishapour, are nume- 

( 919 ) 

toQB and extensiye ; as (^ \(jj^ Bourkan, and ^lU Mcuaip and 
kSjjXjm Sebitek, and (j^J Turkan, and (^^jj Zozen^ and 
^jis^jjJJJ^ Kanderuhan, and qjI^ Daue/i, and^Uo^t ^rd- 
£;ar/ and cVjXjiyMcL Khosrugird, and oUU^yi Bahmanahad, 
and o^r^ Kherinan^ and ^j ijj^ Saruan, and oOl^^ iZem« 
vadeh, and ^U^n^y^ Mihrjan, and (^JJumI Asferin, and ^^.jcX;^ 
Zeidin, and ^ ITy Gurkaih and Tons, ta the north of Nisha* 
pour» where is Ihe meshid of All ben Mousa al Redha, on whom 
be the blessii^ of God! There, also, is the bunal*place o£ 

In the mountains of Nishapour and Tous they find Turquoiises. 
In former times the goyernors of Khorasan resided at Meru, or at 
Balkh; but the Taherianf family made Nishapour the capitals 
Many illustrious personages and learned men, as is well known^ 
have issued from this place. 

The city of jw# Meru, which is also called (j^Lsry*** jy€ Meru 
Shuhjcui, is yery ancient. Some say it was originally built by 
Tahmuras> or by Dhul Kemein (Alexander the Great). Here 
are three celebrated mosques : . one which was erected at the first 
introduction of Islam, they call the old mosque. Four streanM^ 

^ The Khalif Haroun Arrashid died in the year of the Hcgira 1 93, (A. D* 808.) 
t The Taherian Dynasty began in the year of the Hegira 225, (A. D. 839), and 
hst^A fifty-six yean : it eonsicted of fiyci Brinoes*. 


( 216 ) 

water this city : near one of these the ancient walls and bniMhiga 
were situated, of which some vestiges may yet be seen. TTien;* 
are four gates : one, the qUi;Ui jO Deri Sharistan, near the 
great mosque: the second is called ^^[s:!^ ^i^ Deri Shehjan; 
the third, ^j ji^ Deri Ber ; the fourth, (^ ^$Cj^ jii Deri Mish- 
hart ; this is the gate oi Khorasan. Near this gate was the camp 
and palace of Mamoun, where he resided until his succession to 
the khalifat. The J^^l Ojj Rudi Amol is a considerable river: 
those streams which we have mentioned, all proceed from it; 
and it is called the V^j^ Murghab or the Water of Meru 


Here Yezd^rd, the last Persian monarch, was slain in a mill ; 
which circumstance gave to the Mussulmans possession of Far- 
sistan: From Meru also rose the splendour of the Abbassides ; and 
Mamoun was at Meru when he became heir to the Khalifat. Various 
gallant generals and illustrious learned men has Meru produced ; 
so that m more remote times, it was remarkable above all other 
places of Iran, ^jjji Barzouieh, the physician who excelled' 
all others of his profession, and cXjj^U Barbuda the musician 
who composed such del^htful airs, were of this place. The 
melodies of Barbud are still imitated in this country. 

The fruits of Meru are finer than those of any other place ; and 
one cannot see in any other city such palaces, with groves, apd 
streams and gardens. They manufacture silk at Meru; and I 

( 217 ) 

heave heard that the art of making it was originally transferred 
from Mem to Taberistan, and that they still send to Mem for the 
eggs of the silkworms, from the other cities. The cotton and 
linen of Mem are also highly esteemed. 

lol J^ Herat * is the name of a city to which belong the follow- 
ing places: ^.JiJl^ Malef, (^Lm^2^ Hessan, i^{lj^\Aserinanf, 
AjJ Auheh, iiLiljU Marabad, (^Uilo Dashan, ^jJ^Kerukh, 
^Sa^u:^ Htist, (jl-iiU Masheran^ jC^\ Ader, io^j\yJ<^ Sheker 
Kuaran, y^JL^jj Kousef, {^\^\ Ashran. The city of 
has a castle with ditches. This castle is situated in the center of 
the town, and is fortified with very strong walls. ^cXaJJ 
Kehendiz, with its mosque, belongs to this city. The governor V 
palace is situated iii the suburb called c^bl (^iMityrL Khorasan 

Herat extends about half a farsang on the road of Busheng or 
Pusheng ^^JJjLjj. There are four gates ; one on the road to 
Balkh ; another, on the Nishapour road, called C^c^bJ Zk^adi ; 
another, which they call UC^jdn. ^|5^^ Derwazeh Khushk. All 
the gates are made of wood, except that on the road to Balkh, 
which is of iron, and situated in the midst of the city. In all 
Kborasan and Maweralnahr there is not any place which has a 
finer or more capacious mosque than Heri (or Herat). Next to it 

* Or fSj^ Heri. t Aserinan or QjliU^I Aserbenaiu 

F F 

( 218 ) 

aay rank the mosque of Balkh ; ^ 
^UCmAMi Seiestan. 


At the distance of two ^irsai^ from Herat there is a mountain, 
between which and the city there is not any garden, orchard, nor 
water, except the rirer of the city and a bridge. In all the other 
directions there are gardens and orchards. This mountain, of 
which we hare spoken, produces not either grass or wood. Or any 
thing but stones, which serve for mill-stones. Here is a place in- 
habited called ^jCm Siccah, with a temple or church of Christians. 

The most flourishing quarter of Herat is that in the direction of 
the gate called ^jjf^ j^ Deri Pirouz (or Firouz). The water 
here rises in the vicinity of the f^\^J^ ^Wj R^^(^t Kirdan ; and 
when it approaches Herat, other streams branch o£F from it.. 
One of these is called (^jcLu li •; Rud Varkhoui, and^ it waters 
the district of UCL^f Ou^A^a Sepid Asmk : another stream runs 
through the villages of i^UmIj/ Kirasan and (^L^jUm^ Siaveskan^ 
The river called ULO Kuhuk, waters the villages of (jLjJfc 
Aariarif and ^XjJ^Gurigu^ There is also the river ijfyk^ 
Saaveki running towards ^^JJJLjj Pushertg ; and the river 
^^bsr'iijl Ardenjan, which runs towards the viUage of (^UnSiwy^ 
Seirshian ; and the river (^ I^^^XmJ Neskukan, which waters 
the village of (jJ jj Ferin ; and the river v^-^ Khehrki, 
which runs amidst the gardens and orchards of the city of Herat. 
On the Seiestan road the whole way is planted with gardens. 

( 219 ) 

\jill^ Malan is a smaller place than ^jji Keroukh; it has 
many orchards and gardens. (^Lmj^ Hessan is smaller than 
Malan, and has but few gardens^ and little running water. 
^(Juy^t Aserinan is more remarkable for pasture and tillage> 
than for orchards and gardens ; and the inhabitants of this village 
arehereticks or schismaticks ^. cAj\j\^ Marabad is well sup'** 
plied with water, and abounds with gardens. (j( JumI Asferan 
has four towns belonging to it. 

Uumjj Pouskeng is abomt half the size of Herat, and built on 
the same plan. The towns depending on Poiisheng are, oy^^ 
Khosrugird, (^ f*iy Kouseri and oy:^ Hereh. Poui^eng pro- 
duces such a number of ararf trees, as is not to be found in all 
KJhorasan beside : thejr are sent to afl parts. The river of Pou- 
sheng comes from Hen, and runs on to fj^^y** Sarkhes ; but in 
a season of excessive heat the water does not run so far, Pou- 
sheng has a castte, with a ditch : it has three gates. 

C^yM^ Kaiiseri is a smaller town than Pousheng ; but it is 
well watered, and has gardens, groves, and orchards. 

(jMAiCOU Badghis has several places within its territory : Thtf 

• t 

t I find in the MS. Dictionary Bortian Kattea, that^^ is the Arabick for 
mountain cypress, ^^y^^y^ 

F F 2 

( 220 ) 


^am 04/ Kouh Seim, iiblv^ (^jS^Koui Ummabad, and l5^**ju/ 
Best, and >jl^'-=^ Hharur^ and oJt?^ Kaberoun, and (j^^ 
Kaloun, and ^Ia>mJ^O Dehestan. The inhabitants of Koui Umr 
mabad are of the Shian * sect. The Kouh Seim contains mines of 
silver. There are runnii^ streams at Koni Ummabad^ and at 
Hanif; but for the purposes of husbandry rain water is used 
there ; also at ELaloun and Kaberoiin, where they have well water*^ 
The silver mines are oil the road to Sarkhes. 

v-^ijsJ JSTei^is a smaller place than (jju Bein. Bein is lai^r 
then Pousheng.. Both Keif and Bein are well- watered^ and abound 
in gardens and orchards. 

OjJIj^^ Merural-rud-f is a larger town than Pousheng^ with 
a considerable river, which is the same that runs to Meru 
(Shahjan). Here are extensive gardens and orchards. The town 
' of v-Jis^l kS^jX^ Koushek Ahef is also well watered,, and has 
gardens, but not equal to those of Meru-al-rud. The air of 
(j^UUtlft Talkan is whotesomcr than that of Meru-al-rud^ The 
river runs between these, and is crossed over by a bridge, Here 
are many gardens and plantations. Talkan is about the same 
Mze as Meru-al-rud : it is situated amid hills; but has running 
water, and orchards that produce good fruit. 

• ^^L^ia t OrMcni'nid. 

( 221 ) 

J^j^ Gofi^kam is the name of a district, where there is a co- 
lony of Jews. {:j^jyi^ Shiur Kan is a district, with a village 
called a^cXJLT Kanderm. ^C^ San is a small town, the inhabi- 
tants of which are of the Shian sect ; it is smaller than Meru-al- 
rud : it has running water with some cultivated grounds, and gar- 
dens, and orchards. In the dbtrict of Gourkan the Sekhtian 
Gourkani f^^\fjj/ (^Ifj^^ (a kind of Morocco leather) ii^ 
prepared, which they send to all parts of Khorasan. From 
Shiurkan to jUI -^mar is one merhileh; and from Shiurkan to 
iw4 rb Barah, two meifaileh ;^ and from Shiiyrkan to Kanderm,; 
four mierhileh. 

X •' 

Two towns belong txr ^L^j^s^-fc Gfuajestan, one cafied*, 
Neshin, the other {^^f^jj^ Surmin, nearly of equal size. Ne- 
shin produces great quantities of rice * ; and Surmin of dried 
grapes. From Neshin one goes to the aji^ Derreh of Meni-al-rud ;- 
and from Neshin to Surmin is the distance of one merhileh. 
j^ Gkaur, which is a considerable district, I shall enumerate 
among the r^ons of Islam, or Mohamedanism : because many 
True Believers dwell there. It is a mountainous country, well 
inhabited, with runnins streams, and sratdensv 

QjMcLyM Sarklte& is a city between ISferu and Nishapeur, 
situated on a level, without any running water but that which: 

♦ ^/i In the MS; ^y without points, may also be orangesi g;^ 

( 222 ) 

comes from Fousheng *. It is computed that Sarkhes is as large 
as Meru-al-rud : It is a populous and thriving city: the air is 
wholesome : the inhabitants drink well-water, and they employ 
horses or asses in their mills. 

L)M Nesa is a city of the same magnitude as Sarkhes : it is plea- 
sant and well supplied with water running amidst the houses and 
streets, and various orchards, groves, and gardens. 

^U Hiaein \» as large as Sarkhes ; all the buildings aie of clay; 
it has a fort, with ditches, and a mosque, and a governor's house ? 
the water which they drink there is conveyed in trenches; it has 
but a few orchards or gardens, and the air is cold. 

.. «• 

Teisin\ is smaller than Kaien : it has some trees^ and 
the water is conveyed in trenches. 

{jiy^ Chun is smaller than Teisin ; it has fine gardens, and 
very little water : the inhabitants have sheep and other beasts. 

43ut>J^ Kuhabeh is larger than Chim, and has two villages be^ 
longing to it : the water which they use is brought in trenches. 
Of all these places which we have just mentioned the air is cold ; 
and an ampZe diefiert stretches out between them, where shepherds 

* See page 2i9v t DopbtfuL 

( 223 ) 
In the district of Kaieh, on the road leading to l^hapotir, is 


found such excellent chalky that it is sent into all parts. Through- 
out dll the region of i^\jo^Lf Kouheitan there is not any river 
water: the inhabitants^ therefore, drink water preserved in 
trenches, or well-water. Here they manufacture very fine linen, 
hair-cloth,, and similar stuffs. 

mT^^ jBrtZifc/i.— Of Balkh the^ are the various districts and divi- 
sions : (^UMojliir' ToJcharestan, Jbk. Khidm, ^jIXa^j^ Semert" 
gan, {j^Ju Baghelan, oJJjjC*^ SeJcilkend, i^j^^jj Zualein, 
ji^\ Arher, jj\j Raw^r, (^liulL Taikan, Ov*#*y-S/^ Sehekemest 
[±jj ff^erwa^ j^t^(^luM Setai Adsim, uajI.:^ Hesheb, ol^Oul 
Anderab, jOs^ Mudr, and a \^ Kah. The towns in the hilly 
part of this country art, (^Ij^iw Shehran, Ojjil^ Hellaverd^. 
and OJSji) Lavakendf J<jj^ Kaweil, cM^ Helil, o^cXJLXIm 
Sehandereh, Ju ^ Kabul, jy^^- Penjehir, which is also called 
jfSo^ Satir : but we descibe these cities of the hilly country as 
belonging to Maweralnahr ; but some may be esteemed rather in, 
the territory of ^jUj.^^ Badakshan., 

The city of ^ Bdlkh is situated on a level ground, at the 
distance of four farsafig from the mountains: it has ramparts, 
with a castle and mosques; and extends about half a ^rsang: 
the buildings are of clay. There are six gates. The first of these 
is called ^^^ j^ Deri Nubehar ; another, the ^Us^J^t^ Deri 
Rehab eh: another, the ^\jOJJ^ ^^JJ^ Derwazeh Hindouan 

( 224 ) 

(the gate of the Indians) : another is called (^l0>4y:^ jt^ Deri 
Jehudan (the Jew's gate) : another^ cXJu Ow^^^c^ Deri ShesU 
Vend ; and one called i^s^j^ Deri Yahia. Through the town 
runs a stream called the (jmI^ Oj^ Rudi Haas, which passes out 
at the gate of the Nubehar: this stream turns ten mills, and 
waters several villages and districts, and flows as far as 0«iolxMi 
Siahgird. In the direction of every gate there are gardens and 
orchards. The walls of Balkh are made of clay, and thoe is not 
any ditch. 

Of (jjU*w;ILir' Tokharestan the largest city is (^UulL Taikan, 
situated on a plain, in the vicinity of mountains. It is watered 
by a considerable river, and has many orchards and gardens. ' 
43ul^cXjl Anderaheh is situated between the mountains and jft^s^- 
Penjhir. There are two rivers, one the aj\jOJ\ Oa> Rud An-' 
deraheh; the other ;^L*i\^ i^jj Rud Kasan ; with gardens and 
orchards. The other towns of Tohkafestan are nearly of the same 
size as these ; but Taikan is the largest of all. 

(^^UJ Zualein and vjj^ Derab are two towns, with run- 
ning water, and considerable plantations of trees. o;cXaX»mI Is^ 
kanderehy or Sekandereh, is situated in the midst of the moun- 
tains. (j:ncL Khesh is the largest town of this mountainous 
country ; also, the towns of lXXo Mank and ^<S1L^ Melenk are 
amongst the hills, where there are various streams, which, as 

( 22« ) 

ihtf approach cX^y Term^df^ are collected together, and fall into 
the river (y^^ac4f^^^*Jiftoo«, (the Oxua.) 

' UlL« iliohl: is a larger town than Mdenk ; but the houses of 
both are made of day. . (jUcLcXj Badakhshan is smaller than 
Maai:. Hie; neighbouring grounds are well cultivated, and the 
flieitrtct populous, with many gai:dens on the banks of the river. 
The hills here abound in excellent cattle; and Badakhshan pro- 
diiees the ruby (J^) a^ l^piz lazuli (O y^). Hie mines are 
ihi^the mountains ; and there is also much musk at Badakhshan. 

; \^.-.- 

V Pe/i/ftir is'a toWn situated on the mountains, contain- 
ing about ten thousand inhabitants, people of bad character : . here 
are gardens and running water, but husbandry is neglected. 
aJb^l:^ Jarianeh is a smaller town than Fenjhir. i Between these 
two places are the mines of ore, in which the people dwell, with*' 
<Mi£ gaixkps^orchardsi or tilled knds. The river of Fenjliir nins 
through the town, and passes from Jarianeh till it comes to (^Uyi 
Ferouan, and so proceeds into EQndoostan. 

I^^Lk^ii Bamian is a town about half as large as Balkfa, situated 
on a hill. Before this hill runs a river, the stream of which flows 
into ^^IXmi^jC Gurjestan. Bamian has not any gardens nor 
orohards,.and it is the only town in this district situated on aiiill: 
all the others have gardens and orchards, except i^j^ Ghizni, 
which has liot^any. A stream runs through Ghizni, than which 

G 6 

( sao ) 

of all the towns in the difltricts of Balkh^ none ig more wealthy 
or commercial^ being the p^as or frontier of Hindoos^ayo* " 

Jkj^ Kahid is a town with a rerj stroi^ cafttte^ aoceaaible 
only by one road : this is in the hands of the Mussulmans.; Imt 
the town belongs to the infidd Indians. They say thst a Idi^gBk 
not properly qmdified to govern^ until he has been iioaqguraitaft 
at Kabul^ however distant he may hare been from it Kabul lA^ 
also (like Ghizni) a pass into Hind<k>stan» The fruits of a 
warm climate^ which abound at Balkh, are brought to Kabul^ 
except dates^ which do not grow at Balkh^ where snow falls^ 
Kabul is situated in a warm climate^ but does not produce date 


y^ Ghawr is a mountainous country. In the places about it 
there ate Mussulmans ; but Ghawr is mostly inhabited^ by hk* 
fidels. Here are great mountains. ThC' dialect of Ghawr ia Mk 
that of Khorasan. It is populous, containing many running 
streams ; and I have described it as belonging to Khoi^aaany be- 
cause it borders on that province ; in like manner including 
Bamian^ and Ftenjhir, and Maweralnaher^ as far as 
The mountains of t^se places all abound with mines. 

But the ^yssl!^ Jihoon (or river Oxus) and .^lyLKhanimn, 
and Jo«t AmoU and ^j Zam, we reckon as bekmging : to 
Maweralnahar (Tranoosmia) ; and shall speak, of tb^QEtacoord- 

( w? ) 

la^y/ Kharezem is aituated on tbebctrders of the (Caspian) tea; 
and thft botinds of it, from Balkh and Mem and its other extre- 
mities, afe all a desert, in which tliere is not anj thing but sand. 
^I]|lii^:de6er| affMi not anjr nmning stream : the people use well- 
wiiter until ydu come as ftr » Meru. \ 

8hee|> Me produced in Ghifcni^ and Ghaur^ and Khilje. Gar- 
tnentdof silk and linen are brougbt from Balkh and Nishapour. 
The best sheep are those of Ghizni; and the best water^ that of 
the fiTcr Jihobn. The men of Balkh are ingenious, and learned 
m niigion and law, and of poHte manners. Nbhapour is the 
pleasantest part of Khorasan, and the inhabitants of the mmt 
amiable and chearful disposition* The warm parts of E^orasan 
are, ^UmjuJ Kouhestan, and the borders of ^jL^J^ Kirman 
and (j^j^. P^rs (or FArststan). The cold part of E^orasan is 
about ^tytlf BamiOn ; for I speak of those places bordering on 
Kharezem as belonging to Maweralnahar. 

I . 

mUU "••'- 


Of the Roads and Stages of Khorasan, 

Wjt shall not here particularly describe the roads and stages of 
Khorasan, because th^ are already suffidentlj known. We 

o G 2 

( 22d ) 

shall content ourselves with mentioning, that from the 1x>rdef]S o^ 
Nishaponry to the village ot ^^\i^J^ AjJ^i^ Dhey Kuirdan, o» 
the confines of (ju^ji Kownes, near i^UIvXmI Asedabad^ is ft 
distance of seven stages or iJja^ menziU ; and from* Dhe^r Kinr^ 
dan to \jIjUIc^ Dantghan, five menzii; from^ K^shapotar- tw 
QM2Ly^ Sarkhes, six menzii ; from Sarkhes to j-^ Meru, three 
menzils r and from Meru to Jk^l Ainol, on the banks of the river 
Jihoun, two menzii : from Nishapour to ^ ^jyt Bduzgan, and 
to ^<SX^js Pousheng, four merhileh^ from Fousheng to\::j\J^ 
Herat, one merhileh: firom Herat to Asferin, three merhilehr 
from Asferin to ojC^Derreh, two merhildi. - This is the l>oun<- 
dary of Herat^ 

From (^.tS Kaien to Herat^ six merhileh : from Meru t(y(^A 
Heri (or Herat), twelve merhileh / from Meru to li^jb Bave^, 
six merhileh; from Meru to is^Neia, four merhileh;; fix>m 
Herat to ^jJ^jy^ Meruar^rudd, six meihileh;. front Heri to 
QjgcLyM Sarkhes, five merhileh ; from ^ Balkh to the bank of 
the river \^ys:^ Jihoun^ by the way of (X« J Termed, two 
days journey (olj ojjj jJ ) ; from Balkh to iu\jOo\ Anderabeh, 
nine merhileh; and to ^jU^Li Bamian, ten merhileh: from 
Bamian to t^j^ Ghizni, e^ht merhileh; from Balkh to 
(^Uj^OcLj Badakhshan, thirteen merhileh. " From Balkh to the 
banks of the Jihoon, and to the sea (or lake) of Kbarazm (Deriay 


Kharazm), from Badakhshan Termed^ by way of the river Jihooi», 

( 229 ) 

thicteen: tnerliileh* : From Termed to ^ Zarn^ five mefhileh ; 
from Zaxn to Amol; four merhileb: fromAmol to Kharazm, 
twdvc: m«rhUeh.: and frpm Kharazm. to the sea (b^i^) six mer- 

are the well-known stages and routes of Khorasan. 

From Nisbapour to (^ ^J^ji Bouzgan', four merhileh : from^ 
Bouzgan, going by the left towards Nishapour, to JU Malez, 
one .meriiileh ; (this is not the Malez belonging to Heri:) from 
Malez to J^Jaum, one menzil; and to ^J\^ Sekan, one 
menzil: from .<X«^JLi Selumed to {jijjji Ruzen,. leaving Sekan 
* * * * fsome words, here illegiblej, one day's journey 
{,q\j (xjaj O^i): from' Ruzen to ^^^U HuaeZ/i, . three days jour- 
n^. Prom Nishapour to j^yj' Bershir, four merhileh; iirom 
Bershir to ^OJJ^ Kanderem, one day's journey ; . from Kan-r 
derem to * * L*i Sa** two days journey ; from Sa * * to (^.LS 
Kaien, two days journey : from Nishapour to Rhosrugird^ four 
merhileh; from Kfaosn^rjd to Ol^t^Vu^ Bahmenabad, one mer- 
hileh; from Bahmenabad to ^jLww« Mersan, by the Koumis 
road, about one farsang: From Nishapour to (^Ijj Li. iir/iat;era/i,. 
six merhileh; . from Khaveran to {^[^J^ Mihrj an, two days 

* This passage, seems so obscure, . that I shall present it to the reader in the original 
Persian : 

( ^3o > 

journey; from &fihrjan to ^^Ub*if Asfermn, two days journey:^ 
mid when you go from Bahmanabad to Mihr|«i> the* first day 
brings you to a o ^i]y^ menzilgah, or haiting'-plAoe ; iS» se- 
cond, to Mihrjan. 


Account of the Stages and Roads of Menu 

FaoM Mem to jy^ Keseher, one menzil : from Keseherj 
the skirts of the desert of Kharazm, and frx)m Meru to {^ 
Dendalekan, two merhileh. The road of (jac^^ Sarkhes, the 

pM Susikan, and [j^j^ Ghazr 
(j^jt Ghurnein, go to Dendalekan. oj^ Chun is a 
three farsang distance between the roads of Sarkhes and 
and Susikan is one menzil farther. 

Roads and Stages of Balkk. 

From iri Balkh to JLiL Khulm, two days journey (ojjj 
from Khulm to {^jj^^j Falein, two days journey ; from ^jUu 
Taikan to (^Uj^cLcXi Badakhshan, seven days journey; 
Khulm to Sebenian* or i*k\^s^ Senian. one dav's \ov 


( «8l ) 

from Sebenjan to ^sjI^^I Anderaheh, five days joum^; from 
Anderabeh to aJU^I^ Jarianeh, three dajs journey ; from Jaria- 
Hch to Penjhir, one day p journey ; from Balkh to (^>Xij Bag*- 
tialan, six merhileh ; to a/ Kah, one menzil ; from Balkh to 
{^^jii^ Shiukan, three merhildi; from ^U Kaien to (^j^^j^L 
Tehsein * ♦ ♦ three merhileh; to ^^UULL Talkan (or Taikan), 
iiiree mertiildi; and from Tallian to 4SjJ\jj^ Menuirrudd, 
^ree merhileh. 

k • 

^yU»Ny c^i^^Y*^ oUU«e ya 

Account of the Distances and Roads of the Towns in 

JKuhestan. . 

Fkom ^^yJS Kaein to \^jjj Ruzen, three merhileh; from 
iaien to (^b^ \^y,f^^4*Jiio Tieksein. Merian, two days . journey ; 
from Kaein to {^y^Chuns one day*s journey ;, from Chun to 
Khust, one fars^ng.; from Kaieii to Tebsein> three 

( 283 } 

Account of Maweralnakr, or Transoxama. 



To the eastern side of Maweralnahr are, the borders, of Hin* 
doostan. To the west it has the land of i^j^i^ Ghaznein, and 
the borders of (^ljji» Tour arty and down to L-j[;li Far ah, and 
OJLXw^ MarJcand, and vXx*m Soghd, and Ouo^^jm Samarcandp 
and the district of l^lat^ Bokhara, as far as ^^LsL Kharazm^ 
and the banks of the sea (tijc^ Deria). 

On the north of Maweralnahr are the borders of {^\ji^*J^J 

Turkestan, as far as aJixJ Ferghanah, and down towards 
JlXzL Khotl, on the river c^b j^ Heriat. To the south, Mawer- 
alnahar begins from {^[m^^LlXj Badakhshan, along the river 
^jjsi!^Jihoon, up to the sea or lake of Kharazm (^j\j:L X^^jiS 
Deriay Kharezm) in a straight line. We place Kharazm and 
Khotl in Maweralnahar, because Khotl is situated between the 
river Heriat and the river Wekhshah v^U^cLj Ou; ; and the 
town of Kharazm is on that side of the river, and nearer to 
Maweralnahr than to Khorasan. 

This is the delineation of Maweralnahr* 

(Here one page is left blank fw a Map. J 

( 233 ) 

The province of Maweralnahr is one of the most flourishing 
tmd productiTe within the r^ons of Islam or Mahommedanism* 
The inhaUtants are people of probity and virtue^ averse from 
evil, and fond of peace. Such is the fertility and abundance of 
this country, that if the other re^ons were afflicted by a scarcity 
or famine, the stock laid up on the preceding year in Mawor- ' 
alnahr would aflbrd ample provision for diem all. Eveiy kind of 
fruit and meat aboimds there ; and the water is most delicious. 
The cattle are excellent: the sheep from Turkestan, (:}^j^ 
Ghaznein, and Samarcand, are highly esteemed in all places. 

^ B 

Maweralnahr aflTords raw silk, wool, and hair, in great quan- 
tities. Its mines yield silver, and tin or lead {jJjj^), abundantly ; 
and they are better than the other mines, excej^t those of alver 
at jf^yfSsiH Penjhir ; but Maweralnahr affords the best copper 
and quickaHver, and other smnlar productions of mines ; and the 
mines of sal ammoniac (j^^jj) (used in tinning or soldering) in 
all Khprasan, are there *. like the paper made at Samarcand, 
there is not any to be found dsewhere. So abundant are the 
fhiits of cXiLM Soghd, and AAAj&yoMl Astersheineh, and ^ixJ 
Ferghanah, and -Aa^ Chaje (or Shash), that th^ are given to 
the cattle as food. - Musk is Inrought from CXy Tibbet, and sent 
to all parts. Fox-skins, sable, and ermine skins, are all to be 
found at the bazars of Maweralnahr. 

• ■ 

* I have translated this passage literally, 

H H 

( 234 ) 

Such is the generosity and liberality of the inhabitaiiits, tha^ na 
one turns. aside from the rites of hospitality; so that a person 
•contemplating them in this lights would imagine that all the 
families of the Icmd were hut one house *• When a traveller 
•arrives the^re^ every person endeavours to attract him to himselfy 
that he may have opportunities of performing kind o^ces for 
the stranger ; and the best proof of their hospitable and generous 
disposition ia^ that every pea0ant^ though possessing but a bare 
^sufficiency^ allots a portion of his cottage for the teoeption of 
a guest- On the arrival of . a stranger^ they contend^ one with 
another, for the pleasure of taking him to their home, and enter- 
taining him. TbiM, in acts of hospitality^ they eiq^mid their in- 
comes* llbe Author of this work says,. " I happened once to be 
^^ in Sogbd, and there I saw a certain palace^ or great buildings 
'^ the doocs of which were fastened badk with nails against the 
T^alk. I adLcd the reason of this; and they informed me, that 
it was an hundred years, and more> since those doors had been 
shut : all that time they bad continued opeUf day and night: 
strangers jnight arrive there at the most unseasonable hours, or 
iu asQr nuQibers; for the master of. the house ^d provided 
every thing neoessaiy . both for the^.men and for tlieir bes^sts; 
. 'f and he appeared with a del^t<B4; ^^d joyful countenance jvhen 







* If the simplicity of this beautiful colqgpum sI)ouId please the reader as much as it 
lias delighted the translator, he will, perhaps, derive additional satisfaction from perus- 
ing this part of it in the original : 

c «» ) 

^ -the gimti( taitnsd a ifliilci. Nardr liave I hewd of ndh ttiiiigd 
'^iDianjr ottier coiictiT. '^Ehe rich and gfc^ lot^d^ of most pthei* 
^' ' plaoest eKpetid^ their traosiiresi on particolar ftrourites, in tlie 
^^ iftdti^eQek of gi^ossi aj^titd^ and sensual' gratnficatiionib. ^The 
^people of Mirwcralnahr employ themselves in a useful and 
^ eatioiial nwinfter t they lay out their nkney in erecting camvan* 
seiaia or inns, building bnd|^, and sudb works. You cannot 
see any town or sti^, or eveni desert^ in Maweralnahr, with- 
out a convenient inn or stage-house for the accbmmodaticm -of 
travellers, with eveiy thing necessary. I have heard that there 
'^- toe^ above twir tiunisand vebats cm- inni isi "^/hmea^ioBbt, where 
<« as many persons as miy arrive, shall find sufficient, forage foif 
*^ their beasts, and meat for them^lves.'* 






The Author of the book! fttrtha says, ^^ I have heaffd from a 
le^ectable person who was with cXyfib.1 yc\S Nassier Ahmed ^ 
m the war of Samaroand, that of all his mimense a^y, the 
greater piart vnsre menl of Maweralnahr ; and I have heard that 
wkoXx^ Motasem wrote a letter to J^IL (j^ ^JJIcX^c Ahdallah 
*frftTO.3Vi/ier> and senta letter to \SL\ ^ ^y Noah hen 
^^ Asek. 'Hie dnswer of AbdaUah was> that in Maweralnahr 
^ there are thiee hundred thousand k^^^Kj Kidahs :' ieach' Kulab 
^' furnishes one horseman and one foot-soldier ; and the absence 
of these men, when they go forth> is not felt, or is not per-* 
ceptible in the country. I have heard, that the inhabitants of 
V A^ Chaje and AiKtS Ferghaneh me so numerous, and so 



H H 2 

( 236 ) 

** wdl ^sdpUned^ and iurhiahed with mipleinehts c^ vnt, tbaf 
'' they are not to be equalled in any region of Islam. And among' 
<^ the lower classes there are fanners, who possess ^m one hun^- 
^^ dred to five hundred head of cattle; Notwithstanding all this, 
'' there are not any people more obedient to their kings ; and at 
" aU times the Uy Turk sbldiem had the precedence of d««y 
^ other race, and the EJialifs always chose them on account of 
*' their excellent senrices, their obedient disposition, their bcayoy; 
and'their fidelity." 


Maweralqahr has produced so many great princes and generals; 
that no region can surpass k. The faravery of its inhafaitantsr 
cannot be exceeded in any quarter of the Mnssuhnon. w^arhh. 
Their numbers and their discipline give them an advantage over 
other nations, which, if an army be defeated,. or a body of tro^pt 
lost at sea, cannot furnish another army for ^considerable time 7 
but in all Maweralnahr, should such accidents happen, one tribe 
is ready to supply the losses of another without any delay. 

In all the tegicms of the earth, there is not a more itouriiiiing' 
or a more delightful country than this, especially the district of 
Bokhara. If a person stand oh the JoJLJi Kohendiz (or ancient 
castle) of Bokhara, and cast his eyes around, he shall not see any 
thing but beautiful green and luxuriant yerdure on every side of 
the country : so that he would imagine the green of the earth 
and the azure of the heavens ^were united : And as there are green 

( «/ ) 

fid^ id evisty quftrter^ $o' there are viUas interspersed a 
^reen fidda^ And in all pKhamsan aiid MAweralnahr 
dot 'any; peopkt'more long-liyed thanithose of Bokhara* 

. ; f 


^f It is saidi that' in all; the. world there' is not anj place more"^ 
deli^tful (or sdubrious) than i those th^ one, the Soghd of 
^Samarcand ; another, the Rjad Aileh ; and the third, the Ghu-* 
^ tah of DamasouB V* . >But the Ghutah of Damascus is within 
one l^u-sang of barren and dry hills, without trees ; and it contains 
many places which are desolate, and produce no verdure. ** A 


^^ '£ne piipspectr oughtrtoibe such as completely fills the eye, and 
^ Aothing visible but sky and green f/* Tlie liver 
jykb.afibiids^ ibih one; fidrsang only, this kind of prospect; and 
tiiepe'is not, • in die vicuuty of it, . any eminence from which one 
can seo^ beyond ft faoTsaiijp^ and the verdant ;spot is either sur- 
rounded: by or opposite to a dreaiy desert. But the. walls, and 
buildings,. and cultivated plains of Bokhara^ ettend above thirteen 
fe^sang by twelve facsang ; and the. OJ^ Soghd, for ei^ht days 
jouriiey, is^* all delightful » country^ . affording fine prospects, and 
full of gardens, and^orchacds^^ and<villag^> com fields, and villas; 
and runningrstreams,' nesefvoirs^ and fountains, both on the right 
handandon^ the .left* . Yon pfiss fields into ^rich mea-^ 

* To this passage the fh\Hb'Taart allddei, in a ctApUr retiring the Vligin Mary'fi 
flight from Jerusalem with Christ. — The original Persian is given in the Prefisux. 

( MS ) 

dow» afid pastare lands ; and tbe S<^hd is fitr PMre Imdtby itiaii 
the Rud Aileh, or tWs-Ghttteh of Ijttiikshk (or Banudras^ ; attil 
the fruits of Soghd are the finest, in the workL Aibong tho 

and palaces flow running streams, gl^^^^g between the trees. In 
Ferghanah and ^[^ Chofe^ in the niountaina between Fergiiailah 
and Tuii:e8tan, there are all kitids^of fruits,^ of herbSji and^flowen; 
and rarious ^ciea of the violet : all these it is: lawful far any one 
who passes by, to pull and gather* In aam^ jAm Sirtmshteh 
there are flowers of an uncomnxm ipedesw 

< ». •. • 

We have placed, as first of the borders of iBokharau horn tht 
banks of the Jihoon, the Kourehs and Districts of Mawerahudir: 
From the JUiqon is the territory of Soghd, and SuBai«and> anA 
Siroushteh, and Chaje, and Ferghandi, and back; fi*om the bor^ 
ders of Samarcand to ^^^^Kisk, and (^^LcJlibhi Ckeghaniani 
and (^.XasL Khotlan, till one comes to thie river Jihoon. cX«jr 
Termed and ^^^Lk^Lo Cobadian, a%£sa: ^as A)j\jsL.Kh4sen 
and vL^W Barab, and ^Jtar^^ Siryan^ and (^1 J9 Temn, and 
Vw^JLif Ailak, are reckoned as belonging to Chaje, ^ and included 
in Ferghanah. Khuarezm we have -^assigned to Mawerahiahr) 
and we must reckon as part of Soghd, Bokhara, and Kish; and 
x^^^mss^ Naksheb: but our design in this was to render the de^ 
scription more easy. We begin with Maweralnahr, and the 
district of Bokhara ; and then we speak of the river Jihoon. 

This river rises within the territories of cvUoUXi Bddakshan, 

( 230 ) 

tii4 Kceives the waters of many othi&t strttaina. The river (^fAj 
iFekhesh joins it : then the river (^U^ Nouman, which is the 
river of Uu.^ Menek. The third is the river t^j^ Farghi ; 
the fourth river is that of cl^lsr'cXjl Andenjaragh ; the fifth, the 
river L^lm^^jfFekhshab, near (jlyRyLpjKk^adiaa. Ail tib^se rivers 
fstH into the Jihoon : the river Wekhshab oomes out of Turkestan^ 
into the land of (j^<^ Wekhsh, near a mountain, where there is 
a bridge between Khotlan and the borders of C^^i^j ffeishkird. 
Erom that it runs towards Balkh, and falls into the Jihoon at 
Termed. The Jihoon then pcoceeds to v^ ^ Kalef, and from 
Jtalef to ^ JZam, and from Zam to (^£j^ jfoioM , ' and from 
Amotii to ^^1^ Kkuarezn%,.3nd flows into -the lake of Khua^ 
Be^m. Thei^eris. not .any tqwi^ watersd by the Jihoon, until ypu 
GMoe to Zam: there the inhabitants derive some benefit from it:; 
^1 mpie ati An^ow ; but the chief advaiitage of the Jihoon results 

The first district of Maweraloahr, situated on the river Jihoon, 
is Khotlan : there are also Wekhsh, and other districts. Near 
Wekhsh there ^aie ^some districts, such as (^Uk<3 Dekhan, and 
^us^uum i^efciueh : diese two belong to the Infidels. Boys and girls 
are .byrqug)[^t ;firom th/^se^ places^ There are mines of gold and 
^1^imT iU'WeUjishahb The iXH>untaiiK)iis country, bordering i^on 
Tibet, is ,y^y ^populous, well cultivated^ abounding in fruits, and 
excellent cattle ; and ^the climate is very pure and healthy » 

i. . 

( 24e ) 

xXkJ l^ermed is a city situated on the banks of the Jihooni H: 
has a castle and suburbs^ and ramparts r^'^the government palace is in 
the kohendiz^ or castle ; the prison is in the town ; the mosque, 
and the bazars, in the suburbs. The buildings are of clay ; all 
the streets and bazars ue paved wi& burnt tiles. They drink 
the water of the Jihoon ; and use, for the purposes of agriciidtiure^ 
the water of the river Che^hanian (^LJbb^ ^JJ* 

(^UiiLo Kohadian is smaller than Termed. <3 Jo^ijj Weish" 
gird is about the same size as Termed. JFrom the borders of 
Weishgird to (^Ltj& Shwnan, to near Gheghani^i, they culti- 
vate sa£B:on. o^^^ Kohadian produces madder {(j^^jj)* 
C3ieghanian is larger than Termed ; but Termed is more populous, 
and better supplied. UlIxm^I Akhseik is opposite ^j ZAim. 
ToLXtk is on the borders, of Khorasan, but reckoned among the ter- 
ritories of Maweralnahr : it is a small town, and the iidiabitants 
deal in cattle. Zam, and Akhseik, on the banks of the Jihoon, 
ace both at the exti^mity of the de^sert^ 

Khuarezm is the name of a region distinct from Khorasan. All 
round Khuarezm the desert extends. One side of it borders on 
s^yt^'^ Ghaznein ; that is the western side. The western and 
southern sides are bounded by Kiioras^i and Maweralnahr. After 
Khuarezm and Jihoon, there is not any town until you come to 
the lake. Khuarezm is situated on the northern side of the Jihooh. 
On the southern side of the Jihoon is ^ ^J^Korkanje: it is a 

( 241 ) 

smaller town than Khuarezm; biit it is the pass into various 
parts : from it the caravans set out for Khorasan and (^ ^jTGwt^ 
kan, and t^j^ Ghiznij and^j^L Khozar, and other places. 

It so happens^ that one half of Khuarezm should appear in the 
map of Khorasan^ and the other half in the map of Maweralnahr : 
but we have wished not to separate those parts^ or render the re- 
ference to the map more difficult. 

These are the other -cities of Kharezm^ (^>^<^ Deraan, 
^^rf^]j^j^ Hesarasp, o-^ Chereh, j:^Ckj\ Ardejer, (^jyiUi Saf- 
zoun, i^]jjJ Nounm, (^\ih ^^ Kirdan, (j»^\j^ Khoiias, jC^J 
Kirder. The villages are, [;jjSj NeJcin, Iii^^ Merda, (^U^ Jefan, 
L-^ Mentha, L^O Deha, JumL^ Hasker, U^>i,».-sr' ^ KanjesJc. 
The chief place of that territory is called l-jK Kah ; it has a 
castle now in ruins. There was d town here which the water 

destroyed, and the people built another higher up ; and the water 

• * . 

has approached the castle, and, it is feared, will ruin it also. 
The mosque is in this castle, and near it is the palace of the 
oImi ^^LsL Khuarezm Shah : near the castle is the prison : 
and in the midst is a little river called jjiiyrL Kherdour, and the 
bazar is on the banks of it ; the length of it is about three &r- 
sang. The gates of the city are, for the greater part, demolished ; 
but they have prepared new ones. 

The first border of Khuarezm is called aj J^IU Taheriah, in 

I I 

( 242 ) 

the direction of Amoui, an inhabited country on the south of the 
river Jihoon. On the north side of Khuarezm there is not any 
population or cultivation^ until one comes to the village which 
they call aast I jlc Ghar-aUhaiah ; from that to Khuarezm there 
is some appearance of inhabitants and of buildings. At six far- 
sadg distance, before you come to this village, there is a river 
which joins the Jihoon, and on the banks of this are many vil-» 
lages and hamlets; this river is called oj\y;L.j^ Gaw-^Khareh; 
in breadth it is about five i/^ guz ; boats ply on it. After run- 
ing two farsang, there is another river Jbranching from it, which 
they call Gurbah ajjS iSjj ; it waters many villages, but is not 
very broad: from this, for about one merhileh in breadth, the 
villages and buildings become more numerous ; and when you 
come to ^^ jS^Korkanje, at two farsang back, there is the ex-< 
tremity of the borders of Khuaifezm ; and at five &rsang a ruined 
village, called $^lj> Koragh, near a mountain: from which, 
and from Hezarasp, on the western side of the Jihoon, there are 
streams running from that river : Here is Amoui ; and there is 
another river about half as laige as the Gaw Khareh, on which 
boats ply at within two farsang of Hezarasp. Tliis river is called 
(jmI^ ci-J Ojj Rudi Kurd Khouas, and is larger than the river 
of Hezarasp. There is also the river oyp^ Heireh, on which 
boats ply. 

From the river jjlii Dal to Kliuarezm is two farsang. • The 
river ojj Bouh is in the district of Korkanje. The water of the 

( ii48 ) 

river Dal comes tb the village of JUjOJl Anderbaz, where there 
is a bridge that admits boats ; from this place to Korkanje is a 
distance of one merhileh. 

Ttom the river Gaw Khareh to the city is twelve farsang ; 
and there is another river beloW Khuarezm four farsang, which 
receives its waters from four difierent places; when they are 
united, they form a stream about as large as that of the river Bouh# 
it is said that the Jihoon crosses this river ; and that^ when the 
titers of the Jihoon sink, the stream is also diminished. There 
are many streams on the northern side of the Jihoon, at one far- 
sang from the town called 4XaJU^cX« Medeminiah ; and all the 
villages along have small streams. The Jihoon Mis into the lake 
at a place ealled (^Isr^* Khiljan, where there is not any village, 
nor any buildings ; the people live by fishing. On the banks of 
this lake is the land of yi Ghuz ; fix)m this, when they are at 
pesLce, they go from this side to the village of j^Sk^ST Aubgir^ 
and from the other to Korkange ; both of these are on' the banks 
of the Jihoon. 

Before tme comes to the the river Gaw Khareh there are some 
mountains, amidst which the Jihoon runs : this place is called 
Amoaj Boukeseh ; and from the place where the Jihoon falls into 
the lake or sea (tjj<3), to that place where the river of Chaje falls 
into it, is a journey of ten days. The river Jihoon is frozen in win- 


I I 2 

( 344 ) 

ter^ 6o that loaded carriages pass cxv^er it. The ice b^ins at Khua- 
rezm^ which is the coldest place upon the Jihoon. 

On the banks of the sea or lake of Khuarezm {^j\j^ CS^J^) 
there is a mountain called j^L^ Cheghagher : here the ice con- 
tinues from winter till near the end of summer. Tlie circum* 
ference of this sea or lake is an hundred farsang : its waters are 
|alt or bitter ; and the river Jihoon^ the river .^.l:^ Chaje, and 
many other streams, flow into this lake : yet this increase of 
water is not perceptible ; and it is generally supposed that there 
is a communication between this lake and the Caspian Sea (Der- 
yai'i Khozr j^ ^u^) • ^'ween these two is a distance of 
twenty merhileh. 

Khuarezm is a town well supplied with provisions^ and abound* 
ing in fruits ; it affords not any walnut-trees. Linen and wool are 
manufactiu*ed there^ and also brocade. The inhabitants are people 
of high reputation and polished manners : the men of Khuarezm are 
great travellers ; there is not any town in Khorasan without a co- 
lony of them. The lower parts of the land of it Ghuz belong to 
Khuarezm : the inhabitants are active and hardy. The wealth 
of Khuarezm is derived from its commerce and merchandize. 
They have carpets of v^^Xjuw Siklab, and of ^^ Khozr, and 
they bring to Khuarezm, from Khozr> the skins of foxes, and 
martens, sables, and ermines. 

( 245 ) 


Of the other places on the river Jihoon^ we shall place \j\js^ 
Bokhara in Maweralnahr first : at all times it has been ^the seat 
of government. Bokhara is called c^Jocr^ Bounheket : it is 
situated on a plain ; the houses are of wood^ and it abounds in 
villas^ and gardens, and orchards; and the villages are as close 
one to anotherius the groves and gardens, extending for near twelve 
^sang by twelve, farsang : all about this space is a wall, and 
within it. the people dwell winter and summer ; and there is not 
to be seen one spot uncidtivated, or in decay. Outside this there 
is another wall, with a small town. and.a castle, in which the Sa- 
xnanian.^ family ((^UjL^Uj iI T),^who 'vjrere governors of Kho- 
rasan, resided. This kohendez, x>r castle, has rampar^]B, a mosque, 
and bazar. . 

In all Maweralnahr (^ Rhorasan, there is not any place more 


« ^^^ 

populous and flourishing than Bokhara. The river of Soghd 
(cXjum Oaj) runs through the midst of it, and passes on to the 
mills and meadows, and to the^ borders of OJJCkj Beikend; and 
much of it falls into a pond or pool near Beikend, at a place 
called {j^%^ ^t*** Sam Kous^ 

Bokhara has seven gates: one is called the ^JU**yL&^c^ Deri 
Sharestan; the second, jjO jiS Deri Derou; the third> 

* For some account of this dynasty, and of Nasser Ahmed, mentioned in page 235, 
see the Appendix. 

( 246 ) 

OiJjJji^ Deri Kandeh ; the fourth, (j^-A^U^ ^^^ Ahenin ; 
the fifth JOJy jC^ Deri Kohendiz; the sixth is called the 

'- Ls^Tf^ ^J'jL'^ Derwazeh Mihrgy, or cX^mI ^^^ ?^'jl/^ -D^" 
wazeh Beni Ased ; and the seventh is the (^LkXjum oj^jj^ Der-' 
waz£h Soghdian. The kohendez, dr castle, has also two gate; 
one the (^U*wJOj j<3 Deri Rike^an; the other the<Aaif*^ ^'jj^ 
Derwazeh Mesgid. The raitiparts also have some gates, such 
as the {j^Osj^^iS Deri Meidan, leading towards Khorasan ; the 
wJ^I-^l oj\jjC^ Derwazeh Ibrahim^ towards the east; the 
v^JlkJc^ oj\j^^ Derwazeh Khedik ; the A^^jijjf oj^jj^ Der^ 
wazeh Beroukeseh; the ObXf^ojIj^O Derwazeh Oulabad; 
the^Lpj^* ^'jj^ Derwazeh Nubehar; the OJLS-yMi oj^jj^ 
Derwazeh Samarcand; the^uU^I oj\jjC^ Derwazeh Amineh ; 
the jjjKwcX^ oj\jj^ Derwazeh Hedi Serowr, which ii on the 
Khuarei&m road ; and the ^^jC^ Deri Ghunje. 

There are, besides, some gates among the bazars, such as llie 
(^^jjuLdTTjii Der Ahenin^ or iron gate ; the (^La:^ ij^ ^li 
Deri Pool Hesan; and a gate near the mosque of ^U Maje; 
and between these two gates there is another called aai^ji^ Der 
Rejieh : there is also a gate near the villa of wil^jjl Abu Ha* 
$hem, and near the bazar ; and one near the (^bU <Sj^ Goui 
Moghan (or the magi*s dwelling), and the cXo_mj^c^ Deri Sa* 


( 247 ) 

pf the kohendez • they bring water from the main river ; and this 
river furnishes some other streams: CHie is a con3idierable river called 
oOjMii Fiserdeh, coming from the river of Bokhara^ at a place 
which they call cjj fTera ; and it descends by the gate of Serou^ 
heseh A^jj^^jiS, till it comes to the landa of ^a^Ij^I j^l Abow 
ll^rahim; aqd thence proceeds to the gate of Jl^^^^I Sheikh^ 
AhouL Fazels and falls into the river Nukendeh, oOJjj^ i^j^ 
On thi3 river are situated near two thousand villas and gardens, 
«Kclusive of com fields and meadows ; from the mouth of this 
river to the place where it &lls into the Nukendeh is a course of 
about half a farsang. 

There is another stream^ called the (^ l^b %^jj RudBctsegun^ 
proceeding from the main river through the middle of the city 
near the mpsque called (^jJljS Kezazan; and there is another 
stream which comes from near the mosque called o4^^ Aarez, 
arid flows into the Nvkendeh; this is called the u^U: ^Ljj^. 
Jouibari Aarez. 

There is another stream, called OJJyf BerJcend, which 
waters part of the fortifications, and falls into the Nukendeh. 
This river Nukendeh comejB from the main river, near Nubehax^ 
and rups apiong palaces, and houses, and mills, till it comes to 
the mills on the lands of cXaJu^^ Beikend, and affords water to 
them. The river aXa/ Keiseh runs on to c y« olj^ Gharan 
Murgh. The river Rebah ^Ijj CSj^ issues from the main river 

( i4» ) 


Bear ^JU»wJkJJ Reikestan, and flows on to the villa of Rebaki 
and waters a thousand summer-houses^ and gardens^ and groves* 
The river of Reikestan passes throi^h that place to which it af- 
fords water, and to the kohendez, the suburbs near &e ramparts, , 
and the government house ; and after that it proceeds to the villa 
of o lJ%^ ij^^ Jelal Deizeh. The river sinks into the ground 
near the bridge of Hamdowiah ^j<X^ ^Jjj , and flows sub- 
terraneously till it comes to the ponds of cX^wl ^5^ Cj^\y^ji:^ 
Beni Asad ; and the remainder of it runs into the reservoir or 
Cistern of the kohendez. There is another river proceeding from 
the main one, at the place called cm fFera, which passes by the 
gate of AA2:a^ Rehieh, proceeds to the Derwazeh Samarcand, and 
from that goes on one farsang. 

The villages Ferghaneh and {^jj^ Derufen, (jk^\^ T^oua- 
bes, AjlxJ ^Jiy Bourek Ferghaneh, i^^ Sqfli, ^w^ 
Boumeh/ ^KX^j^ Roustaka, -^Ider? Bekhajemr, (^lySus^ 
Heshwan, (^lOucXjl Andidan, (^l^OJJ Kendaman, fs^^ 
Samjir, i^jC^Lc Madoun, j^bj^ f?^^ Samjer Mawer- 
alnahr, JJuJl (^<^lji Ferazen al Sqfl, {j\Cu^ Ardan, and 
LJLxJI(^61J Ferazen al Aalia ; all these districts are included 
within the walls. Those without the walls are, ^JM^LU^ Mehdk* 
hes, OJb^ Chend, (j*^j Feis, oOov^y Kurmeideh, ^l^y^ 
Jerghaneh, jU)x Gheliar, uilA Shak, JsJo j^ 4rkand» 
OSXm Sekend, and i^,f Ferin. 

( 240 ) 

Near the distiict of (j^juijl^ Touaveis, before you come to 
the gate of Bokhara^ there are many streams which water the 
villages and meadows. One of these is the river Kaferi Kara 
Ji^ (^J ^ C^jj which runs to aj^j Werkaneh ; and the river 
i^^f^ Jerghan, which waters another district and goe5 on to 
Jermesh, and falls into the main river. The river oOJSaj 
Nukendeh, which waters a district, runs on to the village of 
4»jl J Feranah, and the river O^jJ Berjed, on which is a hamlet; 
and the river ^Ji**j Best eh, and the river aaJUI Ameniah, and 
the river /^XJuJI o<^lji Ferazin al Sqfli, and •the river ^j bsJjiJ 
Telengarij which nms to ^-^ji Berkaa : every one of these 
affords water to its particular district, without the inclosure of the 
wall of Bokhara ; the remainder nms among the suburbs and for- 
tifications of that city. 

Of the rivers we have heretofore enumerated, the greater 
number proceeds from the river of Soghd, on which boats ply. 
The inclosure or wall round Bokhara contains twelve gates. 
There is not any hill or desert ; all is laid out in castles, villas, 
gardens, corn-fields, and orchards. ^Hie wood which they use 
for fuel is brought from their gardens, and they burn also reeds 
and rushes. The grounds of Bokhara and of Soghd are all in 
the vicinity of water ; whence it happens that their trees do not 
arrive at any considerable height ; but the fruits of Bokhara are 
more excellent than the ftiiits of any part of Ma weralnahr. Com 
is brought to Bokhara from Maweralnahr and other places. 

( 350 ) 

There is a mountain called a5jO Zarkah, in tfac Ticinity of 
Bokhara ; it goes between Saiharcand and fJiikS^Kesh, and joitii 
the border of Ferghaneh, aiid j^Ja\ Atrar, and goes on towards 
the confines of Chefeh ; atid this mountain is skirted by a desert in 
the borderiB of Ferghaneh and uJiLiJ Ailak, as far as Oj^jy ^vr^ 

In Ferghaneh there are mines of sal-ammoniac, and of copperas 
or yitriol, of iron, and quicksilver, and brass ; also of gold, and of 
turquoise stone ; and in this mountain there wte springs of naphta^ 
and of bitumen, and resin ; also a stone that takes fire and bums.^ 
There is, likewise, water, which in summTer is frozen, and in the 
depth of winter is warm. There are some districts of Bokhara 
within the walls, and some without : of those within the walls^ 
fj^Jjia Touaveis is the most considerable town ; it is walled, 
and at a stated time, once every year, the people assemble in -it 
from Maweralnahr : it has pleasant gardens, and orchards, and 
running streams, and an ancient castle, with suburbs, and a 
mosque : the inhabitants manufacture linen. 

The other towns within the walls are nearly of equal size one 
^ith another. \:>juc^J Kerjinet is a large town ; oJoIxa 
Jerghaneket, and oJcsf^UcX^ Medmamehelet are of equal size. 
Every town of the territories of Bokhara has a district belonging 
to it, except OJLXaj Beikend, which has not any village, but con- 
tains near a thousand Rebats. 

( 261 ) 

The town of f^S Kevin is near the river Jihoon. The people 
of Bokhfdira speak the langua^ of the people of Soghd : they are 

ingenious : and in biisiness they use direms : their silver is i^jSs, 


Azerki^ or (<S^<^ Ghederki ; and the mode of purchaising used 


in Mawa:alnahr does not pass apiong them* For the greater part 
^y wear t^e tunick lo and the cap oXXT 

At Bokhara, witiUui the city, there are baza^, where, op cer-. 
tUQ appointed dayfi, til^e me^rchants assemble in great numbers, 
and tiansact .much business. Bokhara and its territories produce 
fine linen. I have heard a peculiar circumstance mentioned| 
concerning the Kohendiz or castle of Bokhara ; which is^ that 
they never have brpjught out of it th^ bier or coifin of any prince^ 
jwid :tbat any person pnce conj&ned there is never seen again. ^' Jt 
'^ is said that the inhabitants of Bokhara are originally descended 
" from an ancient tribe, which emigrated from Istakhar an4 
" settled there*." The Samanian princes resided at Bokhara; the 
territoriesofwhidi and Maweralnahr were under their jurisdiction : 
;the people of Bokhara were so obedient, and so observant of their 
treaties, that the sovereigns chose to reside among them. The 
(kings of Khqrasan >were descended from the race of Saman,. 
.cXy£>.l (j^ ^y^^^jL^ hr^aelhenAhinedve^^^ the people 

of Khorasan had behaved treacherously towards him ; and his 
children also resided at Bokhara. Before that, the goyemors of 

K K 2 

(252 ) 

Maweralnahr dwelt in Samarcand^ at -p.1^ Chaje, or AiltS 
Ferghanah ; but since that the seat of government has been re- 
moved from Khorasan to Bokhara. 

o^l3r^<3 Denjareh is situated near the road of cXaXl^ Beikend i 
between that, and between the road, is a distance of one farsang;. 
(^ ^^juc Moghkan is five farsang distant from the city, on the 
right hand of Beikend, and from it to the road is a space of three 
farsang. AjcXy Rendieh is at four farsang from Bokhara. 
oJCszTVi Bumeheket is on the road of (j*^JjL Touaweis at a 
distance of four farsang. 

From ^uJ<^yJKermeniah to Beikend is one farsangin the borders 
of Soghd. Bumehekiet is situated on the river of Soghd. Soghd 
is adjacent to Bokhara. After passing Kermenieh one comes to 
/^**j«jO Dehousi^ 

The capital of Soghd is Oj3j^ Samarcand ; it is situated' 
on the southern side of the river of Soghd. It has a castle, and 
suburbs, and fortifications, with four gates ; one, the j^^^a^^ jii 
Deri Cheeriy or the China gate, on the east ; the ^Lj aj ^^1 
Deri Nuhehar, or the spring gate, on the west ; on the north, 
the I^Lsr^^O Deri Bokhara^ or Bokhara gate; and on the south, 
the (^y*J oj\jjC^ Derwazek Kesk, orKeshgate. 

There is running water through the streets and bazars of Sa- 

( 253 ) 

diarcancl. Tde city is surrounded by a deep ditch, and a dyke, 
by which water is conveyed. The most flourishing and populous 
quarter of Samarcand is that called the ^[ia jm Seri tauk, 
where there is the fountain of jjjjl Arziz : and the shops of the 
bazar in this place are very numerous ; for many legacies and 
gifts have been appropriated to the buildings about this fountain, 
which are in tihie charge of Guebres (or Fire- worshippers) who 
watdi winter and summer. 

There is a mosque in the suburbs, near the [jOJ^ kohendiz : 
and in the riTer Aniz there are springs, and rivulets from it water 
the gardens and orchards. The government palace is in the 
kohendiz; and the citadel is near- the river of Soghd; and the 
walls of these fortifications are about two farsang in extent. 
There are many villas and orchards, and very few of the palaces 
iare without gardens : so that if a person should go to the kohen- 
diz, '^^ from that look around, he would find that the villas and 
palaces were covered, as it were, with trees ; and even the streets 
and shops, and banks of the streams, are all planted with trees. 

Samarcand is the great pass into Maweralnahr ; and the seat of 
empire was at Samarcand until cXy^f {^ JkAjLy>wI Ismael hen 
Ahmed removed it to Bokhara. 

The walls of the fortifications have several gates ; such as the 
cXjx jO Deri Abed, the AJUj&il jO Deri Afsheineh, the 




( »W ) 

yj^j^ jxbi J^eri Kouhekt the 4:^^^^^ j«> J>eri JSocKein* 
tb« Oj^O ^<^ DeW i>{u;ou4, and the i^icf,^ jO Peri Fou- 

The author of this work aaysj ^^ I saw a gate at Samarcand, 
" of which the front was covered with iron ; and there was 
written on it, in the Hamiri language ; that '^ SenHa is distant 
from Samarcand a thousand farsang ;' and the people preserved 
the explanation of this writing, in hereditary tradition. After 
*' that I had heen at Samarcandf a tumult or insurrection happen- 
*^ ed ; and this gate was hurnt, and the inscription mislaid 
^^ or destroyed. Afterwards, Abu Mozafier Mohammed ben 
^^ Nasser ben Ahmed ben Ased, caused the gate to be again 
^' constructed of iron, but the writing was lost.*" 

The houses of Samarcand are made of day and wood : the m^ 


habitants are remarkable for their beauty : they are gentle and 
poUte in their manner, and of ojouahle dispostions. From Samar-* 
cand to the mountain {ojj) is one merhileh : and there is close 
to the city a small eminence which they accordingly call UI3a/ 
JcQuh^k (a diminutive of oyS) the little mountain : that moun- 
tain is about half a mile in length ; it produces clay, and marble^ 
and stones of various kinds ; and I have heard that in it were 
also mines of gold and silver, but they are not, worked. 

* The reader will find the original Persian of this passage iii the A|^ndix, No. I. 
Stc also tfie Pxdace and AppcMddixi No. III. 

( 255 ) 

The watier of Samarcand is all from the river which comes 
from the moimtains above (^UJUb^ Cheghanian. There is a 
reservoir for that water, which they call jtjj Bergher; from 
this that water flows till it comes to a place called cxJ^si^ Bihe^ 
ket, and thence to (jMiij fFarghes, where, there is a bridge ; 
from that the rivers of Samarouid are divided to the east and west. 
Those on the eastern side proceed from near Warghes, at the 
place called aa^^ju *, because the mountains there are fewer, and 
the cultivated ' fields more numerous : from this the river flows ; 
and the river (j^ Bous also comes to Samarcand, to which, 
with the villages, it aflbrds water. 

The river (jm-^Ij Barmis rises in the vicinity of that river, in 
the southern territory, and waters many villages there. The Bous 
and Barmis are the lai^est of all those rivers ; they both are navi- 
gable for boats, and many streams branch ofl^ from them, which 
water many villages and meadows. From the territory of 
Warghis to the village called j^j^ Zarghem, ten farsang in 
length, and from four to one farsang in breadth; from the dis- 
trict of (j^ji Barghis, and ^ JuL© Manferenje, and Zarg- 
hem, and jyS^- Bikheru, above Zarghem, and the rivers which 
flow from the desert of Gherban*(^ljjt c^^lyac*^, the river 
' Istakharf, and the river v:l;IjLm Sawat, and the river 

* I have given this word as it appears in my MS* In that of Eton a blank space is 
left for the name. 

t Istakhar of Pars, is generally written ji^^ but sometimes like thb ^^aS?^'* 

( 250 ) 

^U)^ Mourmajez ; the river Sawat passes near the Mourmajez 
and waters many places, and proceeds to the village of ^jlOj 
jreddan, and to the borders of the district of Istakhar : the river, 
in all, runs about two merhileh. 

The rivers Sawat and Mourmajez run towards the city, and 
water near seven farsang of territory, till they come to Samarcand ; 
from the mouth or entrance of this valley, or water-course, to 
Samarcand, is a distance of twenty farsang. After passing Samar- 
cand about two merhileh, a river branches off called (JJOj^ 
Rudeki, which waters one of the most fertile and populous tracts 
of land in all Soghd : other streams branch off from this channel, 
until it approaches the territory of Bokhara, a journey of dear 
six days, watering so many gardens and orchards, that if any 
person were to look from a hill along the valley of Soghd, he 
could not behold any thing but trees and green herbage, with 
here and there a villa and an old castle. 

In the district of Barghis are many gardens and dykes. From 
this valley (or channel) come the rivers above mentioned, and pass 
imder the bridge of Kouhek ^Jjb^ ijji* ^' ^^^ Samarcand 
gate v>Jo_>**j<3. The waters of this valley are augmented, in 
summer by the snow from the mountains of ^[jj^^jt Ghurge'- 
Stan and the vicinity of Samarcand. 

In the territory of c .^U Famurgh there is a certain place called 

( 257 ) 

C^jjj Reboud, in which dwelt cXam;i^I Aksheid, king of Samar- 
cand ; and his villa or palace yet remains. 

The village of ^J^) Zerghem is adjoining to that of Famurgh. 
Famurgh is the most populous and fertile of all the villages of 

(^Ij^Lm Sarouan is a mountain dn the south of Samarcand: 
it enjo3rs a pure air^ and the inhabitants of it are healthier and 
handsomer than those of the other territories. The extent of this 
hill^ and the villages on it^ is about ten £axsang. At Sarouan is a 
place which the Christians have built for religious worship, and 
which is richly endowed*. (This place is called ^^\JJ 

The district of w^w Bermer is without water, but is well inha- 
bited, and produces much cattle ; the air is good, and the inhabit- 
ants are wealthy. The length of this district is two merhileh ; 
and every village in it is above two farsang in extent. Tlie pas- 
ture lands are better here than those of Maweralnahr. 

Those are the territories of Samarcand, on the right hand of 
this valley. These on the left hand are,^ oJ/jl Aidad, and 
iC\fJj[j Barkeit, near aXmj^JCm Setrushtah; the village of 

L L 

i 258 } 

O^jji Kourgkedy ott tbe torderd of Setrusbtab, adjc^iiiiiig to Bar-> 


Ml the boYders of Samaresaiidr From the 1 
those of Samarcand is about one merhileh, 

\2)^^j ff^eddan » a pojptiloua aiad fertSe disCiict, with: iiills and 
^iakis. H^ t^mni of Weddttm and of y^t^ Ki$h stre situated 
near eaefr eCh^ : th<»Si& Cwo places baye belonged to tribes oi 
AjAbkMts> <aalled (j^Uft^ S^cmicuts. This people had dwellings* 
M SaflSMcaAd. (^^^^^ (^ oW J r* Merzehan hen Kashfi wad 
a maft ef thtii districty^ w%oiii> all the illastnoas and chief persoitf^ 
invited to the sovereignty of Irak* 

Hiere are sbL vill:ag«9» of Soinairdiaud €« the rijght side dif the tal- 
ley ef Soghd, tfnd sii «n tlie kft In farmer thnes the village of 
(jUW Laiati w% a»m€3ied to the t^rtitoties of SaifiareDand, bot 
afterwards becttrae ti dif^trict of Setrushtah. Pectoaii^ affilirs ate 
transacted in SanMretod bj m^ans of gold> and of direms of Ismatt^ 
broken, dJi^S^ fj<s\,.^\ ^O ; and there is another coin, called 
(^c>^rsi^ Mohatnmedi, Which i» not current in any other pkce 
t^ided the^ tewitories of Samarcand. This country aboundid itt 
gardens, and orchards, duA corti fields, and pleasant prmpeets*; 
and the Soghd is a delightful and fertile region. djL^^K^ Keisaneh 
is the eye of all the towni^ of Soghd ;. it is, inhabited by rich and 
powerful people. 

( 550 ) 


Account «f the City of Kish. 

^JkiS^ Kish is a city with a kohendiz and ]:aiDgpaFts^ and ivro 
suburban one of which (the interior) and the jkohendiz ace ruiiued:; 
the mosque also, which was here, is in ruins ; the bazar i» on tibe 
ramparts, and the extent of this city is diree farsang by three 
farsang. The climate here is warm : the buildings are of wood 
and clay. Here are four gates ; one, the x^^jy^l jC^ Der Ahenin, 
or Iron Gate; another, the aAJI cXa>x o)\jjC^ Derwazeh Abeid 
Allah ; the third, thc,(jbU«i\j^i Deri Kesaban; the fourth, the 
(^lX*jjLi ji^ Deri Sharestan. The inner town has two gates ; 
one called the f^jj%^ (^U»**jLiS» ^O Deri Sharestan Deruni; 
and the other the (^Uiax/J' ^^ Deri Turkestan. Turkestan ia 
the name of a certain village^ Near this gate are two rivers ; the 
^yULaS C^jj RiuU Kesaban, which comes from the town of 
Uj^ Siam. The two rivers pass by the gates of the city ; and 
there are other streams in the vicinity ; such as the iij^ ^[s^ 
Chaje Rud, on the Samarcand road, at the distance of xme far- 
sang from the city ; and the river O 4^ UCacL Khebek Rud, on 
the Balkh road, also at one farsang distance from the city ; and 
another, called the river (jly^ Jeran, on the Balkh road, at a 
distance of eight ^Etrsang from the city. These streams fall into 

L L 2 

( 20O ) 

the valley of v.^vMjcsr' NaJcsheb, and water all the palaces of this 
city ; and the gardens and villas of this place extend near four 
days journey. From this city of (jxJ" Kish much fruit and wood 
is produced : there are many villages bdonging to Eash ; such as 
Ojj Werd, and (jJijOo^ Belanderin, and ^jL^Akwl^ Rasiman, 
and.UuJ' Kenk, and 4^1 Arou, and jjlj^^ Her an, and oi^j^jm 
Surudeh, and {;^jj^ o^S UcLm Senk Kerdeh Deroubein, 
and {j^^jji oi^J' Uuv#M Senk Kerdeh Beroubein. Those are 
the territories of Eash. 

Account of the City of NaJcsheb. 

Th e city of Naksheh has a ruined kohendiz. The ramparts 
have four gates ; one, the c^Lsr^ o)\j^SDerwazeh Bokhari; 
another, the cXo_>m o)^jj<^ Derumzeh Samarcand ; the third, 
the (Juj ^jjj^ Derwazeh Kisfi i and the fourth, the Deri 
Ghaznin (j-aJ^ ^O. Naksheh is situated on the high road to 
v-jl^li Fareb, and to ir^ Balkh : it stands on a level ground ; 
from the city to the hills is a journey of two days, in the direction 
of Kish ; from Naksheb to the river Jihoon the intermediate space 
is all desert. In the middle of the city is a considerable river, 
which comes from the collection of streams at Kish, and waters 
the territoriies of Naksheb. TTie palace of the chief governor is 

( 201 ) 

situated near this stream^ at the place called iL^ jm Seri Poid, 
near which> also^ is the prison. The mosque is near the Deri 
Ghaznein, or Ghaznein gate; and an oratoiy near the Derwazeh 
Bokhari^ or the Bokhari gate : the bazars are on the ramparts, 
between the governor s palace and the mosque*. 

Naksheb possesses many territories; two very considerable 
are a^jxMerdeh vcaA ^uJLj Keshteh ; and there are some vil* 
lages as large as dtiea :. but in Naksheb and all its territories there 
is not any river besides that above mentioned ; and even that river^ 
in. a very hot summer^ becomes dry, and they use well-water for 
their gardens. Naksheb is abudantly supplied with provisions. . 


Description of Setroushtehi 

^uCj^jJCmi Setroushteh is the name of a tracts or country like 
Soghd ; there is not any dty or village in this country that bears 
the name of Setroushteh. It is a mountainous region, bounded 
on the east by part of Ferghanah ; on the west, by the borders of 
Samarcand ; on the north, by -.Uj» Chaje ; on the south, it lies 
near Kish and ^Uibb^ Cheghanian, and ^I^j^ Sheman, and 
oJiiJi^ Dileshkird, and c:\*wl; RasL The chief town of Se-^ 
troushteh is called, in the language of that country, vS^Jcs^^ 

i i62 ) 

J^oumheket; and the distiicts of it are, i^\j\ Jnua^ CvJCUm 
$€uneket, ^^fJ^Koukih, ^j^ Gherk, vi^jCp^ fFaak^fiaUM 

SahaU {z^trAj ^^^9 ^>^ji^ Dehzek, oSxT^^ Baumheket^ 
and ^Uy^ Herkanah. Boumheket 15 the residence of the go- 
vernors ; it contains ten thousand inhabitants : all the buildings 
of this town are made of clay and wood. The inner town has 
two gates ; one called the (^;JwJ/if oj\^jC^ Derwazeh Balamein ; 
and the other, ^U^Ui oj|>J^ Derwazeh Sharestan. Theoe 
is a mosque in this inner town, and a kohendiz : there is abo a 
con^derable river, which turns mills ; its borders are planted with 
trees: lliere are also bazars ; and the extent of this towiais^ne£ir^ 
sang. The water of the ditch nans among the villas, and gardens, 
and meadows, and corn-fields. The citadel has four gates ; one, 
the Derwazeh (j^]j Ramin ; another, the Derwazeh ^OJLy**i (j^l 
Ebn Samender ; another, Hxc Derwazeh c:oCL. jjjI Ebn Heket ; 
and the fourth, the Derwazeh {^\jX^ Kehilhan. This town 
has six streams or rivers ; the {jjj\^ Sarin, which runs into the 
suburbs, the ^j^ff^jj Berjin, the (jjf^^^r^^ Resmajin, the 
ysr^^*^^^' Iskenkejr, the ^^^stj^ Rouleji, and the -J^s^ 
Seheker : all these six streams proceed from one fountain, and 
turn ten mills. From this fountain to the town is not so much 
as half a farsang. 

ilj Ramin is about the same size as SetrushteSi, situated on 
the Fer^ianeh road, in the direction of Soghd : the people hew 
call this plaoe^ in their language, (j^Aj oi>M^jS^Selisedeh Belis. 


. ( 263 ) 

TIttS town has walls. The carayans on the high road from 
Fei^haneh ta So^bd pass through it. There are many runmng 
streams and gardens^ and much tilled land ; and the back of this 
town extends to the hills of Setrooshteh, and the front is to^ 
Wariis the desert of the country of it Ghuz.^ 

The town of U^^ Dehzekis built on fevel ground ; it is the 
chief town of a cKstrict r at two farsang distance from it there is 
a Rebate which they call the (jJujOdL i^ijj Rebat Khedisk : it 
WHS built by {j^fJi^^ Afshirti ^nd is the best Rebat ; the people of 
Samarcand have not one better. . In the midst of the Rebat there 
is a spring of water, orer which a dome has been erected. 

UCi/i Deirek (otDebzek) is a pleasant and well-stipplied town, 
with running water, gardens^ and orchards. . All the towns of thisr 
Kgion,. whidi we have i^ken of, are nearly equal to and resemMe 
one another, but ocXa^m* Semendeh, which has running water, 
bvt has not any gardensir tlie cold being excessive. It is, howerer, 
a.hsge towft^ and in sufmmer lias pleasant meadows. . 

{^jJi^\j Ranuifi and ibUM# Stbat are on the road of Ferghaneh 
and Chaje. If you wish to go the road of cXJcs^ Khojend, by 
the way of oS^Koukety (or Kqukih) you must go to Fergha- 
neb, nine f«9ang fk)m Samarcand. 

In all iSetroushteh there is not any river considerable enough to 

( 264 ) 

admit of the plying of boats ; but there are running streams^ and 
fountains, and meadows, and groves. The villages of the moun«- 
tainous part of Setroushteh are these : jtli^ Beshagher, jjtS 
Ferghour, ^IxJt; Baloam, lXm.^ Mesek, (jjC*J LesJcen, U^iX^ 
Besenk. These are situated on steep hills: and the cold part of 
the country, also, has many strong fortresses. Here also are 
mines of gold, and silver, and copperas, and sal ammoniac. The 
nlines of sal ammoniac (^oUi^* Nushader) are in the mountains, 
where there is a certain cavern, from which a vapour issues, ap- 
pearing by day like smoke, and by night like fire. Over the spot 
whence the vapour issues, they have erected a house, the doors 
and windows of which are kept so closely shut and plastered OTer 
with clay that none of the vapour can escape. On the upper part 
of this house the copperas rests. When the doors are to be 
opened, a swiftly-running nian is chosen, who, having his body 
covered over with clay, opens the door; takes as much as he can of 
the copperias, and runs off; if he should delay, he would be burnt. 
This vapour comes forth in difierent places, from time to time; 
when it ceases to issue from one place, they dig in another until 
it appears, and then they erect that kind of house over it : if they 
did not erect this house, the vapour would burn, or evaporate 

In the territory of oOJLyXM Semendeh they make excellent iron. 
Iron is also manufactured at Ajliy Ferghaneh. At Semendeh 

( 205 ) 

ibffK are market-days established, when people come from a 
great distance; these days occur once ereiy month. 

(jjy«UJ Neshamein and ^Xil Ailah are two districts, the 
extent of both which is two days journey by three. In all Soghd 
and Mawerabiahr there is not any country equal to this in popu* 
lousness and in buildings: one of its borders is the yalley or water- 
course of j^Uj» Chaje, which falls into the lake of Khuarezni 
jJ(j\jsL (S^.J^ J it is bounded also by the ^jJ^I ^ IT Kar Ahen 
(oar iron-works) on the confinejs of uAzs^ Sinkhab; another 
of its boundaries extends to the mountains, adjoining the territories 
of (^i^lj&J Neshamein ; and another extends to Benagur of the 
Christians i^^jj^J j^^ (Bena^r l^ersaian.) All the land ia 

Chaje IS the most considerable of the frontiers of Turke&ftan : 
it has many fine bmldings. £y«7 palace In it has nmning water, 
and delightful verdure. All the buildings are of clay. The 
capital of that district is called CxCm Seket ; and die other towns 
are, CuJUajc^ Divemaket, <:>j3oiys^ Hedinkety \^\jS<jS Kan-^ 
kouan, oJ^lsr^ NehakeU c^J'Lm Saket, %2\jCL^^ Housket, 


Jo^-c Arsel, i) j^ Ghuzl, c^Jo^l Alaudket, -p.Lc Aaje, j%^jas^ 
Jenuder, ij^jj ff^erdil, ^Jp Kerneh, UJI^cXc Adedalek, 
^ Boufieket, UCoJ Laahek, (j^^ji Berkous^ \J>Jli\^^ 

M M 

oIOjxmj Saoudad, c:OoJ/j fFelanket, 

( 266 ) 

Hanerket, cx/Cjb^ Jegherlcet, cxJuw^ MerinJcet, ij\oS Kedal^ 
and UJ IT Kalek : all U^ese are towns of Chaje. 

)kj\ AiUik are these: c:OCi^ BounkeU the 
diief town ; Ov/bsM^ Sekaket, CkJo^t Azenket, ijjgS^ Hamerelr 
kZ\x^ Basket, fJU^Keheshm, CO^^ Weheket, (.^IdL £7105^ 
i::^l^y^ Herkat. 

•■'■'•■ , • " 

Boiinket^ the capital, has a kohendiz without the citj; but 
the walls of the town and of the kohendiz are the same. There 
is a citadel with a wall^ and another fortification outside that, 
with g^ndens and palaces. The kohendiz has two gates,' one of 
which is towards the town. The town has a wall, and three 
gates, one of which is called the ^j*^LoJI jj\ oj\jji^ Derwazek 
Ahou al abas ; the second is the ^Juj oJU;^ Derwazeh Kish ; 
and the third is the (^^-aJJ^^cS Deri Ahenin, or iron gate. 

The citadel has ten gates on the inside ; one, the Derwazeh 
(jijOl,^ Hamdein i the second, the Derwazeh (^^jy^^l Ahenin ; 
the third, the Derwazeh yK^ Mir ; the fourth, o^y J^ ^^" 
Ferkhan.; the fifth, Deri ooS^ Kedehy the sixth, Deri ^^j^ 
Kouafah; the seventh, Derwazeh Jy*» (Sj^ Kouy Sohel; the 
eighth, Deri v^Ls??cX&l Asliedbehak; the ninth, Deri ^^ 
KhaJcan; and the tenth Derwazeh, ^JU*0 ^S^j^ j^ Der 


Koushek Dehkan. 

( 267 ) 

. . On the outer side^ the dtadd has ^even gates ; one, the Der- 
.wazeh cuX^i^ Deghket ; the second^ Derwazeh cx> l:L Khakhet ; 
the third. Deri Cf Isr^ cXxXxi Beikend Behak ; the fourth^ Der 
i^)jS^\ Ahenin ; the fifth, Deri {^\cs^ S Kerenjan ; the sixth, 
Derwazeh JCi Sheker ; and the seventh, Derwazeh c^U Ju Seg- 
herbad. The governor s palace and the prison are in the kohen- 
diz; and the chief mosque is on the walls, of the kohendiz. In 
the ixmer town is a small bazar ; but there are great bazars in the 
titadel. The length of this city is one farsang. Hie inner town 
and the citadd are watered by a running stream. There are 
estensive and fine gardens ; and there is a great wall, reaching 
fvpm the hjU called ^OLiUm Sailaa, to the brink of the channel or 
water-course of Cbaje. This wail was erected, to separate the 
^ormtFy- from Turkestan, and prevent incursions. It was erected 
by order of Abdullah ben Hamid. From this inclosure, to the 
ditch or fosse, is a distance of one farsang. Here is another river, 
called the ijlX^jJy ^jj Rudi Turkestan, which partly comes 
fitMn (^1$vmJ Neikan, and partly from the country of tjj^ 
Chekrel : it reaches the town of oJtar^ BehakeL 

There is in. v^XiJ AUak a river called by the same name 
( Ailak) : this also rises in Turkestan ; and runs, for the greater 
part, into the river of Qiaje. kjZ\X^jj Boumeket is the chief 
town of Chaje. Chaje and Ailak border one upon the odier. 
The buildings, and gardens, and orchards of Ailak, are continued 
to the valley or water-course of Chaje, without any inter- 


M M 2 

( 208f ) 

val. In the moimtains of Ailak • there are mines of gold and 
of silver: these mountains are on the borders of Feighanefa. 
COCajcS Deinket is the largest of all the towns in Ailak. In all 
Maweralnahr there i& not an^ mint, except at Samarcand and at 
Deinket. . . 

Senjat is a town, with a kohendiz and citadel ; the 
former now in ruins. The town is in a flourishing state ; the 
inner part of which extends for near a farsang. Near the citadel 
are gardens and running streams ; from the town to the foot of 
the mountain is three farsang. The town has four gates : the 
vJCL^ jtS Deri Bouchek, the otsLJ jiX Deri Farkhan, the 
aJf^LM ^<> Der Sakeraneh, and the \jlsri j^ Deri Bokhara4 
There is a bazar both in the town and in the citadel. The 
mosque^ and the goyemor & palace^ and the prison, are situated in 
the inner town. 

The tOMms in the territories of Senjat are> oS^a^Oo Bedheket, 
and c:.iX^Lw Sarneket, j\Jo Teraz, J~ Atlah, (^^Xxj Beily^ 
jif^Kezr, and (j^lyyw-c Ghersiran; but Sameket is the chief 
town of the Koureh of Kunjideh Q\X(fs^ 9J^* ^^^ is the 
chief town of vl;^ Farah. o^ Mian is a town to which 
the people of ^ Ghuz come for the purposes of traffick ; and a» 
there are not any hostilities carried on at Mian, the town flou- 
rishes^ and abounds in all the necessaries of life. 

C 209 ) 

»ljU Farab is the name of a district, the extent of which is 
near one day's journey ; all the places in it are very strong : it is 
a hilly country, and contains much land sown with grain. In 
the eastern part there is a valley with a water-course, which is 
supplied by die river of Chaje, and runs towards OJLXju Beikend 
to the west. 

.p.1:^ Chaje is a city flourishing and populous,, and the inhabit- 
ants are Mussulmans of jt Ghuz, and of ^f^ Khilje, all of the 
(CjLc Ghazi sect. Between Farab, and Kenjideh^ and Chaje^ 
there are many fields sown with grain : the people live in tents, 
and are all Mussulmans ; but they are not powerful* 

. ^\Ja Teraz is on the extreme border, between the land of the 
Turks and Mussulmans ; and all about there are strong castles, 
called in general after Teraz. The region of Islam extends as far 
as this spot. 

In die territories of OJJ^^\ Azerkend there is a city, with a 
iLohendiz, and a mosque, and ramparts, on which is situated the 
governor s iiouse ; and the prison is in the kohendiz : this is a 
pleasant town, affording good fruits, and inhabited by a courteous 
and handsome race. Com is brought to this place from Fergh- 
aneh, and Setroushtdi, and other countries, in boats, by the river 
of Chaje, which is a considerable stream. 

( J70 ) 

The ^jr^ Anoid rises in Turkestan, in the borders of Aacr- 
kend ; also die rirer v^U^^ Khersab, and the rirer (jml^J 
AweiSf and Lo Keha, and the htct fA^Oc^ Hedali, and otber 

The people ofjt Ghuz are for the greater number Mnssolmans. 
Ghuz is the capital^ where the kings of this countiy reside durii^ 
the summer. The kingdom of Ghuz extends in a strai^it line 
ten merfaileh from Khuarezm to this place; and from tibus to 
i^l^U Barab, twenty merhilek 

aJU^Jl Ferghaneh is the name of an simple and fertile pnmnco^ 
which contains many towns and villages : the capital is called 
CUXaamjeLI Akhsiket : it is situated on a level ground^ on a river ; 
and has a kohendiz, and subu]i)s^ and a castle. The govemor*6 
palace and the prison are in the kohendiz> and the mosque is in 
the town : There is an oratory on die banks of the river Chaje. 
The extent of this city is near three farsang. The casde is 
walled; aiid the inner town has five gates: the citadel has run- 
ing water: and there are gardens and groves at each of the gates ; 
and there are rivers at the distance of about two farsang* 

Aj Keba is one of the pleasantest places in this country ; it^ 
has suburbs, and a kohendiz, and a citadel : the kohendiz is fallen 
to decay ; but the mosque is there. The bazars^ and the govet-* 
nor*8 palace^ and the prison, are in the citadel. The citadel is 

( 271 ) 

walled round; and has gardens^ and orchards^ and running 

^j\ Awesh is about the size of Keba^ with suburbs and a 
kohendizy in which are the governor s palace and the prison : it 
has also a citadel^ with walls, which are connected with the 
mountain. On this mountain are stationed the sentinels who 
watch the motions of the Turkestan army^ . Awesh has three 
gates: the o^ oj\^j%^Derwazeh Kouh, or the mountain*gate ;, 
the K^V oj\jjC^ Derwazeh Ah, or the water-gate; and the 
ocXXjU c>j\jjC^ Derwazeh Moghkedeh, or the gate of the 
temple of the magians. 

OJJ^jl Awerkend enjoys the wannest climate of any place 

in the province of Ferghaneh : it is next to the enemy, and 

is twice or thrice as large as Awesh ; it has a kohendiz and 

suburbs, with groves, and ^rdens, and running streams. In all 

Maweralnahr there is not any village more considerable than that 

of Ferghaneh ; it extends one farsang in length, and in breadth ; 

it is well inhabited; the people are good husbandmen, and pos*. 

sess much cattle. The territories of Ferghaneh are. Best ay 

Zeirin i^jjjf c^U^kjj, oj\ Areh, ^\jj Touan, ^U^jL^-^ 

Memaroujan, {J<^ ^-X:^ Hed Ali, O^^jJ Awrest. The first of 

these territories is Bestay Zeirin, as one comes on die road from 

Khojend. The towns of this district are, cXJCilj 

", fj^ Besoukh, tXJLXl 

( 272 ) 

4nd the towns of Bestay Zeirin are, {^Lyi yc M^ghenhOiU 
(jM^f^cXJ^ Rendwames, <J^O Del el, ^jIjla**j1 Ashekan, {^ \S\oJl 
Andukan. This territory consists of both hilly and lerel ground, 
(jMsLLyx/^ Kaimakhes, .(jmsL I^U Mamhdkhes, .^jm Soukh: 
There is a certain city called aJLcX^ Medouaneh. OJJjjl 
Awerkend is also the name of a city, and there is not any other 
city in the territory. oj\ Areh is the name of a territory, the 
chief town of whkh is called ^^ki^ Khenlam ; this was the 
birth-place of aJUI yoi (j^m^s^ vs^I Emir Hassan Nasser 

(^IjJ' Kerouan is the name of a city, all aromid whidh are 
many villages. ci^m^ImI Aurast, uKaJCJUm Selikend, ^.aXjm 
Selab, are towns which belonged to Turkestan, but have lately 
fallen into the power of the Mussulmans. 

In the territories of Feighaneh there are mines of gold and 

Bilver, and die district of Bestay Zeirin affords springs of bitumen 


or pitch ; and they say that in the mountains of o «^t Ashehreh 
there are fountains of naphta, and mines of copper, and of tur- 
quoise, stone, of lead, and of iron : all these are in the borders of 

In the mountains here diey bum a kind of coal, and, having 
moistened the ashes with water, use it as soap in washing their 
<:lothes« In these mountains, also, is a^ certain stone, part of 

( 273 ) 

which is red, and part green, and part white- From Turkestan 
to Awerkend there are mines of sal ammoniac, as in the mounr 
tains we have before described. 

Road from the River Jihoon to Ferghaneh. 

From (j^.j3 Kerin to OJLCu Beikend, one merhileh; and 
from that to (j»^j\jia Towaweis^; from Towaweis to AaJUj/ 
Kermeniah ; and from Kermeniah to /j**^.^ Diuesy, to y^j ' 
Azinjer\ from that to {^^jj Zerian, and from that to Samar- 
cand; from Samarcand to ^^^>J^^^ Abarket, and from that to ' 
cXjLm ia[jj Rebat Soghd ; in all ten merhileh. From the Rebat of • 
Soghd to ^jj^ Mezrgheh, one merhileh ; from that to (^^^a^Ij 
Ramin, one merhileh ; from that to LU*w Sebat, one merhileh ; 
from Awerkend to cuSj\m4 Saweket, one merhileh ; from that 
to Khojend, one merhileh ; from (j^l Auesfi to Awerkend, one 
merhileh. If one wishes to go from Khojend to c:^aJu1jcL Kkes- 
keit, he must proceed from OJS Kend to OJ3\j:L Khuakend, 
one merhileh ; and from Khuakend to Kheskeit, one long * mer- 
hileh. From {^3 Kerin, which is the first place of Mawer- 
alnahr, to Awerkend, on the extremity of the borders, is a journey 
of twenty- three merhileh. " • 

N N 

( 274 ) 

Distances of Stages on the Road of Chaje. 

From Chaje to the extreme boundary of the land of Islam : 
from Ck/;ljl Aharket to (^1 JaS Ketran, the road of Chaje and 
of Ferghaneh is the same, as far as the cXyC^I ia[j^ Rehat Ahmed ; 
there it turns off on the right hand : if one wishes to go to Ketran 
it is one merhileh ; and if one .wishes to go to. ajL« j:^^ Jermaiah, 
it is likewise one merhileh ; from that to O^O Deiruk, from 
Deiruk to / •>a**x:^ v^JLS* Shuk Hosein ; from that to OJJJ^ v.JL§i 
Shuk Kenend ; from that to ^Sj^ Feik ; from that to 0\/j^l 
Ashourket : from that to OJCo Beiket ; from that to the Rehat 
Ahou alAhhass q^LoJI^ILU^, which is called ^Jlj\ Aikeren\ 
from that to the village of c^^/cXac Abdikerd; from that to 
^jlar"*^ Senjan; from that to cxXk^b' l^ajeket ; and frojn Taje- 
ket to^lJo Teraz, two days journey ; during which there is not 
any inhabited place. If one wishes to go the road of yJi\flkj 
Benaket, he must proceed from Ov/UI Abraket to ^j»a^|^ 
Zamin ; from that to (j^ji^^ Hawes ; from that to COCIm^ Selket ; 
from that to jy^ Sour; from the banks of the Jihoon to ^IJa 
Teraz, is a distance of twenty-two merhileh; from that to 
Q^l J Ferajun, one merhileh ; from ^J W L**^ Mesalkal, one 

merhileh ; from js^-jU Maberbouaar, one merhileh ; to u^ 

( 275 ) 

Nejeh, one merhileh; to ^y**^ NesoijJch, one merhileh; to 
^jjOtS Deirken, one merhileh ; to Uojl L[jj Rebat Azik, 
one merhileh; to k^^-^ iVafe/i5/ie2;^ one merhileh; from Bokhara 
to Balkh^ thirteen merhileh. 

^ \j OSA 

CXOjyMi ^1 0\j 

Road from Samarcand to Balkh. 

• It is a journey of two days from Samarcand to yiJ" Kash ; 
from Kiish. to i\OsX> Kendil; is three merhileh : as far as this 
stage^ die road of Bokhara and of Balkh is the same. Road from 
Bokhara to Samarcand: From Bokhara one merhileh to 

Ferjeneh ; from that, for eight menzils, or stages, the road is a 
desert and uninhabited; but there are some pasture-lands and 
water. When one wishes to depart from the river Jihoon, from 
(C^l Atnoui to Qjfj Feireh, is one merhileh ; from Veireh to 
/^jC^yc Merdumin; from Merdumin to ^j>-Lwl Asas ; from 
Asas to Aj\Jt^ Moghaneh ; from that to aj J^LL> Taheriah ; from 
that to (^lijcS Derghan; from that to <JJuj::^Jerhend; from 
that to (MjcXi^ Sedoun ; from that to \^^f^\j\ ^ Hezarasp ; from 
that to ^Jfj\j:L Khuarezm : the whole, by the inhabited road. 

twelve merhileh. 

N N 2 

( 37ft ) 

Distances and Routes of the principal Cities of Maweralnahr, 

From Samarcand the road to Setroushteh is the same as that 
to Ferghaneh, which we have described ; wherein, as soon as 
one comes to i^fj<^\ j Zamin, he ceases to be ia the territories 
of Setroushteh. We commence the stages of Maweralnahr with 
(j^JCfL Khotlan; from Ud^ Meneh to the bridge {ijjj)f 
which we have before described, is six merhileh; to k^ImsLj 
tFekshab, two merhileh ; from Wekshab to cX^Xlil Aberkend, 
two merhileh ; and from that to i^j^^K^ Hallarudy two mer- 
hileh J from o^^ OJjKend Gah to lXXLp Melenk, two dajrs 
journey; and from Melenk to UCl^ Hehek, two days journey; 
and the heights of the pass of f^jJ>JT Arhen are at one farsang 
from Khotlan, from the stone bridge (^j.aXa**i A^) four farsang ; 
from the pass of (^IIm^cXj Badakshan to the village of ^sXy^^ 
Helleh, is two merhileh. 

( 211 ) 

Distances dnd Stages of Termed and Cheghanian. 

From Termed to (j\^j^j^ Herrnigan, one merhileh ; , from 
that to /^XjJ ^ItS Dar Zingi, one merhileh ; fix)m Dar Zingi to 
Cheghanian, two merhileh ; from Cheghanian to /JLs^ J^^^h 
and from that to ^L«yi Shouman, two merhileh; from Shouman 
to (j;Ljy i Alouhan, one day's journey ; from Alouban to O ^Xmjj a. 
fFeishgird, one day's journey; from Weishgird to v^JJJljl Ailak, 
one day's journey ; from Ailak to J^A^ci Derhend, one day's 
journey; fromDerbend to i^^j^ Kaukan, to the castle (axXS), 
two days journey ; from Cheghanian to cmVS?J Zeitoun, one 
merhileh ; from Cheghaiiian to cz-vwl i^JSLOora^t*, one merhileh ; 
from Cheghanian to Owjc^ lXjj Rik Desht (the sand-desert), 
six merhileh; from OwJ 2'ermed to ^jIj^Lo Kobadian, two 
merhileh ; from Kobadian to Ch^hanian, three merhileh ; from 
Weishgird to {j^f^S^ Jjj^Pool Senkin (the stone bridge), one 
day's journey. 

These are the roads and distances between Cheghanian and 
{j[Xu*Juy Kouhestan : from Cheghanian to <JJcL Khetl, from 

♦ In the Eton MS. it appears to be (for it is negligently written) Lourast. 

( 278 ) 
Kliuarezm to ojjfL Kheiweh ; and secondly, to (^ ISjj Werkan ; 

and thirdly, to ff^^ Korkarye; from Hezarasp to Kirdan 

Khas (j^^ o'^r^* ^ three farsang ; and from Kirdan Khas to 
ovo^ Heir eh, five farsang ; from Heireh to (mj JLw Saferoun, 
five farsang : and from Saferoun to the city {jyf^)f three fiursang ; 
from Khuarezm to Q^lrr^jci Derkhas, two merhileh; from 
Derkhas to (^Ic^j^ Kirdan, one merhileh ; from Kirdan to the 
village of {j-f^^ yf Berankein, two days journey. The city and 
the village of Berankein are near each other : from the city to the 
river Jihoon is a distance of four farsang ; from ^ 1^1^^ Afur- 
dangan to the Jihoon is two farsang* 

Distances and Routes of the Towns of Bokhara. 

From OJGs^^ Boumheket, which is the chief place of Bok- 
hara, to cXJUOu Beikend, one merhileh; from Boumheket to 
o^Ls:^ Hejareh, three farsang ; from the city (jy^) to ^ KjLo 
Moghkan, five farsang on the right of Beikend : ajuXj^ Zebediah 
is situated within four farsang of the city ; (j*jjj\jia Towaweis 
at four farsang also. C\X2sr*LctX« Medmameheket is situated in 
the direction of cXxmj Soghd, at one farsang distance; and 
ijUXAsj ffaaiket is near Medmameheket. 

( 270 ) 

Distances and Stages of the Towns ofSoghd and Samarcand. 

From Samarcand to cuijUl Amarket, four farsang; from 
that to (j^j^ Derghes, four ifkrsang ; from that to 
Beiheket, five farsang ; from the city of Samarcand to Beiheket, 
nine farsang; from Samarcand to (^l<ij Wieddan, two farsang; 
from that to cOosf* i^yJ^Keboud Meheket, two farsang ; from 
Samarcand to js:t**\ Aseher, seven farsang ; from Aseherto^^LwlT 
Kasan, five farsang ; and from jsz*** Seher to (^IS^l Arkan, 
three farsang ; from Kasan to ysr^j' Arenjer, two farsang. 

Distances between ^j;S^ Kash and v^jLmJ Nesef:—Yrom Kash 
to u^Mj^^ Naksheh, three merhileh ; from Kash to- Cheghanian, 
six merhileh; from Kash to cx/Ij Bouket, five merhileh* ; from 
Kash to Simekhf , two merhileh ; from Naksheb to dJJUJ^Kishteh, 
four farsang ; and from Naksheb to oci^j Berdeh, six farsang : 
these are the distances of the territories. The distances of the 
cities of <9uCijJC>Ml Asteroushteh : from aulS,;:^ Herkaneh to 

* * I have used the Eton MS. in my translation from this place to the end, my copy 
wanting the last page. 





Doubtfully written. 

( 280 ) 

cxJjtS Derket*, five farsang; and from Herkaneh to {^)J^[} 
Zamin, nine farsang : from Zamin toLULM Sahat, three farsang ; 
and from COCs^ Bouheketf to Ferghaneh, two farsang ; from 
xj Beiket J, which is on the borders of Ferghaneh, and from 
'km Setroushteh to that place, seven farsang; from Se- 
teh to vi^ixA WdaketK three farsansr: on the road of 

Khojend, and from Waaketh to O* ^c Arek, two ^u'sang 
tn Arek to Khojend, six fersang. 

Distances of A^Mah% and v^lasr^' Isahah \\ : vi^Uj Bena- 
kethy is situated on the banks of die river of -^1^ Chaje ; fitim 
that to oJCaJLm j:L Klierseliket, one farsang ; from Khersdiket to 
c:OCaj Benket %, one farsang ; from that to OuJ^^^a*** Sehourket, 
three farsang; and from that to (^U^ci * * * * Dehekan\\f 
two farsang; and from that to OoJvaaJIJ Zalinkiet XX^ ^^^ ^r- 
sang ; and from that to vJxXl^ Heiket § §> two farsang. 

• Or Sf^ Dcrk. 

t I have supplied the points in this nanne, as they are omitted in the Eton MS. 

J Doubtfully written. 

§ I suspect an omission of some points in this word^ and perhaps it should be ^L^ 


g Doubtfully written. 

% I have supplied the pcnnts of B and N in this word. It is so doubtfully written in the 

Eton MS. as to appear like cXCt Meket\ perhaps It should be cS\xkBenaket/ 

1 1 The name following Dehekan is so written in the Eton MS. as to be capable of 

various readings ; I therefore give it as in the MS. ^ ^ 0^ 

^ I have here supplied, by conjecture, all the points, except those of the first and last 


§§ Doubtfully written. 

( 281 ) 

Thiis terminates the Oriental Geography of Ebn Haukal> 
according to the Manuscript preserved in the College Library 
at Eton — (My copy wants the last leaf. J ^However abrupt 
it may seem^ I am induced to believe that this is the proper 
conclusion of the fVork ; for a considerable part of tfie last 
page in the Eton Manuscript is left blank — a circumstance 
which could not have happened^ had it been intended that 
any more should follow , as the Eastern Penmen are so scru- 
pulously exact infilling every page with an equal number of 
lines, that they frequently begin a new Section or Chapter at 
the very bottom of a page. The Author, besides, appears to 
have accomplished his design, intimated in the second and 
third pages of this Volume. 

o o 



No. I. 



Passage translated in Pages 70 and 71. 
JuU v..;-^»»*^^. (.Jl:^*^ ^y tXJu^ c:*>**l otijj ^_^tJ (S^ 

v-v^ c^^j-^bc^ ^jfoL^l^j o^U' ^>*** c^j^ (S<^y 

(^Ij ^X*JI A-Jl£ ^^-f^ ^ Cio**! OtijJ tijjY-' U^'^ ^ *^^ 


284 APPENDIX. No. I. 

jii OJtilti ^j \jj\ ^^yj ^^>^**^ yj:^»*tji^ ^as*. {jJ ^ ^f, oW^ 

c:^! oO^ {^y, AXa^ci J ^jjjcX-ojO a/OuJjJj tXiti J (j%;*iU 

Passage translated in Pages 82 and 83. 

^^- cx;ji^ o^**^^ r-^-''^:;Y^ r-^ r-^V^ c ^ ^ "^^^^ i«^ 

^^^^' ^*^' (t3 (j^J OJJl^ ^jK (t) ^j-fi'**^^ eH ^^^^' (ti 

* In the Eton MS. this passage begins with the following words in red iiik 

^MjU ^\^y*^ Uti ^ and then continues (in black ink) itl^l*' Jsi^ ilXwi 
" But the Zemtunu of Fars are five : these are some places," &c. &c. 

APPENDIX, No. I. 285 

^Um (*)|^^ o^'^ 

Passage translated in Pages 92 and 93. 

• «Xaj^ Literally, " /*^ say." I tave' translated this word accordingto Its general 
sense, " 1/ is said,'* dicitur, fertur, i^c. in which it is used throughout the MS. ; because 
the audior does not mean that ** the men (thitnsilvis) said thai their (dum) ori^ 
gin, {^Tr."— he would, to express this, have used, after 3^1, the possessive ^y^ or (fr»y^ 
their, their own, instead of (jjLSul. 

286 APPENDIX, No. I. 

Passage translated in Page 96. 

«• •• •• ^ 

Passage translated in Page ii6. 

j^ jy^ c^^ vi^« J ij>oaUjT J o'^c^V^ 

Passage translated in Page 129. 

APPENDES, No. L 287 

(jrf (^^ J ^-jf^ L^ '^W c„5^ty** jsJ^ ^^^'^M^j 

Passage translated in Page 141. 

Passage translated in Page 254. 


LxJw»^l 49j'cXjl Aam*a> ^jIjJ (C-x,^ O^ J '^^ ®<^^iy*V^. <:>*W 

OvMJ Ajt«^ ^jUo (j;;<.^^ (^a:^1>w <3«^ Ju ^wca^I 

288 APPENDIX, No. II. 

No. II. 

The Reader will find, among the passages in the preceding ar- 
ticle of this Appendix, a short account of the Boloujes, mentioned 
in pages 140 and 141 of the work. It is necessary here to point 
out an iiicongruity between Ebn Haukal's description of this 
people, and that of other writers. This, however, may be recon- 
ciled, if we suppose (w^hat indeed occurs in every page of the ori- 
ginal MS.) an error in the writing. For cXaJJ o\j (they do not 
infest the roads J ^ we must read cXJuyj o\j *^ they do infest the 
roads," and alt6r the remainder of the sentence accordingly. I 
was induced to adopt this reading,- from the concurrent testi- 
monies of various Eastern Authors, who all bear witness against 
the character of the Bolouches. 

It will be sufficient to quote two dictionaries; first, the Ferhung 
Borhan Kattea ^IS o^t^ <Sj^^, article j^^^ — which thus 
ascertains the true pronunciation of the name : 

" Bolouche — ^with the vowel accent damma on the first and 

Aa?i?ENDIX,. No. II. . 289 

*' second; the tiiird quiescent^ with the Persian letter cAim, 
'' (i. e. with tliree diacritical points.) A race of people who in- 
*' habit the desert." (Barbarous, or uncivilized) of very little 
understanding— fierce, &c. 



Under another article, the same excellent Dictionary furnishes 
more ample information on the subject of this people: 

•» • ■ . . . . 

^t> AiT" ^^Ua-sj r^ ji cxib AX(Uo. ^u— ^y> J ^y^ • 

i^lijt Jl \^\c^jS J o3j\c> ^^^Joy ^jUj/- ^\^ <^Ly*j/ 
c^^l'j c^*^J*b <SyJy^ J ^-^ o^^ "^J^j '^J^ 

'^ Kouche and Bolouche — the names of certain races of bar- 
'* barous people who inhabit the mountains on the borders of 
^^ Kirman. It is said that they are descended from the Arabians. 
" of Hejaz. Their employments are fighting and shedding of 
*' blood ; thieving, and robbing on the roads. If at any time it 
'' happens that they cannot find strangers, they murder one 
" another, plundering and destroying each others property. 
'* Thus, even brothers, near relations, and friends, quarrel; 
*' and they consider this as a pleasant occupation." 

p F 


I shall extract a passage, on the same subject, from another veiy 
valuable work, the i^jjf** <-iJ^f Ferhwig Sururi, 

" Bolouche — a people extremely stupid or void of understand- 
** ing, who inhabit the deserts and plunder the caravans, and for 


*' the greater part are warlike and good archers ; they are also 
" styled Kouche Bolouche.'' 

The (CjxXjI^ Ud^J Ferhung Jthanguiri gives the same 
account and nearly in the same words as the Borhan Kattea above 

If the origin of this extraordinary people were to become the 
subject of antiquarian investigation, the character of the ancient 
inhabitants of Hejaz (Arabia the Stony or Rocky) should be com- 
pared with that of their reputed descendants ; and I believe that 
such a comparison would in some measure confirm this traditional 


origin. Of the barbarism which prevailed among the Scenites* or 

* Strabo (Geograph. Lib. xvi.) describes the Scenite Arabs ** as plunderers or rob- 
bers, and feeders of cattle."— *XxifWT«/ A^adg Xfj^fiKOi rufig j^ TtoifiBVMol — 
who almost totally neglected the arts of agriculturci devoting their attention to the feeding 
of cattle of all kinds, but especially camels.— ^Bu^yovvTig fii¥ vj ovSbv fj fJUKpeCfVOfiag 

APPENDIX, Nofll. 291 

Nomades, or, as they are emphatically styled by Ebn olathir ♦, the 
' ^-'^ people of the rock, it would be easy to collect a 
variety of anecdotes. But one quotation from an Arabian author 
will serve to prove, that if the ferocious Bolouches are descended 
from the Hejazians, they are not, by any means, a Regenerate pff- 

On the subject of these Arabs we are informed, that 

A disposition for war and shedding of blood, a love of slaughter 
and violence, and a spirit tenacious of anger and of hatred, were 
among their peculiar qualities and characteristicks f ." 



To their imcivilized state Sir William Jones alludes in the 
following passage ; 

" The manners of the Hejazi Arabs, which have continued, we 
^' know, from the time of Solomon to the present age, were by 
" no means favourable to the cultivation of arts ; and as to 
sciences, we have no reason to believe that they were ac- 
quainted with, any, &c. J** 


It remains to discover at what time any colony of this people 

* See Pococke's Specimen Historic Arabutti, 4to, Oxf. 1650, p. 87. 

t Pococke, Spec. Hist. Arab. 87. 

X Discourse on the Arabs. Asiatick Researches* 

P P 2 


e&tablished themselves in the c6nfines of Hindustan and Persia : 
that a commercial iptercoiirse subsisted from the earliest ages 
between the inhabitants of ^J^bia and the Hjindus, cannot well 
be doubted. The same learned authcH*, Sir William Jones, 
declares, that the '' ports of Yemen, (or Arabia Felix,) must bamp 
" been the emporia of considerable commerce between Egypt and 
*^ India, or part of Persia*.'* 

But it was not merely a few traders or merchants that settled 
in Hindustan; according to a writer f quoted by Pococke,, whole 
bodies of Arabians having emigrated from their own country, inr 
vaded and occupied the territories of India, in an age of very 
remote antiquity J. 

■ 'j ' 
I have not leisure at present to trace the . subject with more 

minute research ; but I think it one that affords matter for inte- 
resting and curious investigation. 

* Discourse on the Arabs. 
^ Smi^yj, ^ «X«^t Ahmed the son of Joseph. 

X ^' Reliquos Arabiae (inibus egressos Indiae regiones occupasse," &c. Pocockc 
Spec. Hist. Arab. p. 40, 

APPENDIX, No. UI. 293 

No. III. 

The foUowmg extract iiram the ancient Chronicle of Tabari 
is referred to in the Preface, page x, and -may serve to illustrate. 

£bn Haukal*s account of the Hamyaritick inscription, on the gate 

- • -- . ■ 

of Samarcand. See p. 254, and 287* 

The transactions here recorded are said to have happened early 
in the sixth century, when Cobad, the Persian monarch, was slain, 
and his dominions invaded and plundered by the Arabs, imder 
Samar/. a nephew of the Tobba, or king of Yemen. The account 
of this Evasion, and of Cobad*s death> as related by Tabari, with 
a literal translation; will be found in the Oriental Collections, 
voL iii, p. 150; where I have^Ven it ^ a specimen of the most 
pure and ancient Parsi. The original Chronicle of Tabari was 
written in the Arabick language! and this Persian translation 
was made in theydar of the Hegira 352, (A. D. 963), by a vizier 
of the Sanianian princes^^ who inserted many curious traditions 
and observations of his own. See the Preface, p/xii. 

• D'Hcri)elor, Bibliot. Orient. Art. Tarikh and Thabari. 

294 APPENDIX, No. lit 

^jjOu Ov-I c^Oy# Aa. ^ ^^\ «JXo o^xi^ l^jl J i^jjr 

And Samar also passed from the river Jihoun (the Oxus) and 
went to Samarcand. This city had a castle very strongly forti- 
fied, in which the king resided : one whole year Samar continued 
before the gates of this castle, without being able to effect any 
thing against it. At length he himself went the rounds, and 
took prisoner a certain man, one of the porters of the castle, and 
brought him into the camp, and said to him : ^^ What kind of 
person is the king of this place, whose skill and ingenuity are 
such, that, after trying every stratagem for a whole year, I am 
" not able to take this castle." The man answered, ^* This king 
" is not by any means a person of sagacity : he is one of very 
*' foolish conduct ; whose only employments are drinking of 
wine and festivity : he is intoxicated day and night : but he has 
a daughter who manages all these affairs, and takes care of the 






*^ army and of the castle." Samar said within himself, " It is 
** easy to defeat the arrangements which women make/' Then 
he asked the man> Whether this daughter of the king had a hus* 
band ? — ^the man informed him, that she had not. Samar having 
bestowed him a present, said, " I have occasion for your services; 
*^ you must bear a message from me to this damsel :" — ^the man 
consented. Samar then brought out a golden casket, and filled 
it with rubies, and pearls^ and emeralds, and said, '^ Present 
" these to that damsel ; and tell her, that I have come from 
" Yemen in search of her ; that the conquest of this kingdom is 
'' not my object, for all Khorasan and Persia already are mine ; 
'' but she must'give herself to me as a wife. There are with me 
'' four thousand chests full of gold : ^ these I will send to her ; 


^^1 C^*.*3:r'JI L-^ (jf^j cXtU Ijjl ^jUmUa:^ j ^ (<^ 

ciLjUi.lj' tiUi** j JU Oy« (jT «--kA (^7 -* J *V^ Cj^Ij V^*^ 
j\^J^^Jjj^c> f^S^j^j^ ^\oS k::^ c^yji^ j\^ 

"and I will bestow this city on her fethcr, wheneTer these 
" afikirs shall be finally settled : and if she sh()uld bear unto me 
" a son, the empire of Persia and of Cheenistan shall be his. I 
** shall first, as an earnest, send her, by night, the chests of 
" gold ; and afterwards espouse her." 

• . . . t . . • 

The man having gone into Samarcand the same night, de- 
livered this message to the damsel, who deliberated on it, and 
then sent back that person to ratify the bargain ; and to desire 
Samar that he should on the following night send the chests of 
gold into the city, and come there himself in such a manner that 
no one might perceive it. SamarCiand had four gates, and she 
told him which of these gates should be opened. 




oLa^ Ij cVp. J Oly o'/^/ V^^ 7*^ ^-^^^/^ V^^ ^^- 1->*^- 

On the next day Samar brought out four thousand chests, and 
put into each two men completely armed ; and when the night 
became dark, he placed each chest on the back of an ass, and to 
each he appointed a man as a superintendant, likewise completely 
armed : thus there were to the amount of twelve thousand men. 
These he sent on into Samarcand, and told them that he would place 
his army in proper disposition, and station them all round the 
castle ; and he directed them, that when they should be within 
the city, they might open the lids of the chests, and come out, 
and ring bells (for he had given a bell to every man), so that he 
might know how matters went ; and then they were to open the 
gate and let him enter with the army. When it w'as midnight, a 
messenger came from the damsel, sayiijg, " The gate of the city 
** is opened ; let some of the chests be now sent.*^ Samar placed 


298 APPENDIX, No. m, 


OJ'^ CkMk^J^ 

^jT \jj^j^ Ai^c:v*.l ^;,loJLJl A-s-*.*y v^j*^ J ^Wj 

the chests on the asses, and took his station with the army. When 

the chests arrived at the castle, all the men came forth from them, 

and hegan to ring their bells, and threw open the gates of the 

city ; and Samar entered with his troops, sword in hand, and they 

continued to slaughter until it was day ; so that blood ran in 

streams : the king was slain and the damsel taken prisoner ; and 

Samar remained in this city one year. In the book entitled 

Tesmiah al Boldan, it is mentioned, that in those times Samar- 

cand was called Cheen, and the Cheenians were there ; and these 

people first made the paper of the Cheenians. But Samar called this 

city after his own name. In Persian Samarkand (with the letter S ). 

Kand (OJu ) in the Tartar or Turkish language signifies a city. 

But when this name was used in Arabick, it became Samarcand 

cXoj^, (with the letter i.) After this Samar led forth his army 

and proceeded into Turkestan and to Tibbet, &c. &c. 


The ancient tradition, here recorded, is unknown to most of 
the modem Persian writers, or, at least, imnoticed by them *. 
Emir Rauzi, however, in his excellent geographical compilation, 
the Heft Aklim, or Seven Climates, informs us that 

^>^jr^. o^ J' uH ^^^^->^ c^y ^jK- O^J^ ^\^ 



" a person named Shamar who was of the family of the Tohha, 
^^ or sovereigns of Yemen, destroyed that city, so that no vestige 
*' remained of its (principal) building, (a castle of immense extent, 
'^ and said to have been erected by Gurshasp, and repaired, at 
^^ different times, by Lohorasp and Alexander the Great). After 
that it acquired the name of Shamarkand (with the letter J ) 
which the Arabs, according to their idiom, call Samarcand, 
^^ with S)." 

The same account is given in the Ajaih al holdan and other 
manuscripts, which agree in assigning to this city the highest 
degree of antiquity. If the tradition preserved by Tabari is 
founded in historical fact, we may suppose the gate on which the 

* I must also acknowledge that in one copy of Tabari, in my possession, it is not 
found : but the other two preserve it. From the more ancient of these, transcribed 
A. D, 1446, this extract has been given* 

Q Q 2 

300 APPENDIX, No. III. . 

Hamayritick inscription was fixed, to have been that which the 
avaricious princess opened to the wily Samal*; and it is probable 
that this inscription commemorated *n the language of that Arab, 
the success of his stratagem, although we only learn from Eba 
Haukal that it mentioned the distance from Samar to Samarcand. 
Seepage 254 — 287, and Preface, p. ix, x, xi. 

The paper of Samarcand, to the manufacture of which Tabari 
alludes in the preceding extract, is celebrated by various writers.^ 
Although the Arabians do not pretend to have known the inven- 
tion of it before the eighty-eighth year of the Hegira (A. D. 7o6)> 
yet the use of paper was universal among the Persians and Chi- 
nese in ages of more remote antiquity *• According to Ali ben 
Mohammed cXv^sf* (^ L5^ (quoted by the learned Casiri) the 
art of making paper was introduced at Samarcand in the thirtieth 
year of the Hegira (A. D. 65 o) ; and he adds, 

" heretofore the use of paper was only known at Samarcand and 
*' among the Chinese."^ And Casiri f thinks it most probable 
that the Arabians learned it from the Persians or Chinese. '^ Unde 
" verisimile profecto est Arabes hujusmodi usum a Persis et 

* Biblioth. Arabico-tiisp. Casiri, Tom. II. p. 9» 
1 Bibl. Arab. Hisp. Tom. II. p. 9. 

APPENDIX, No, rV". 801 

^ Sinensibus, quorum regiones partim expugnanmt partim per- 
" liistrarunt jamdhi accepisse; id ipsum luculentissim^ demon- 
*' strant complures codices manuscripti Escurialensis Bibliothecas^ 
^^ quorum aliqui exarati sunt amio Egirae 400 (Christi loog) ; alii 
',^ amio 50O, Charisti veto 1 1 oO..** 

No. IV. 

In pages 235, 245, 254, the reader is referred for some account 
of the Samanian Dynasty to this article of the Appendix ; and in 
the Preface also, p. x, a passage is quoted from Abulfeda, which 
mentions a prince of this family. 

The learned D'Herbelot, in his account of the Samanians*^ 
(which he collected from a chronicle, expressly written on the 
subject of their history, and another excellent work, the Leb- 
tarikh) notices a difierence of calculation in respect to the dura- 
tion of this dynasty, which commenced in the year of the Hegira 
201 (A. D. 374), and terminated in the year 388, (A. D^ 998.^) 

* Bibliot. Orient. Article Samaniah.. 

802 APPENDIX, No. IV. 

I find that, according to the Tarikh Gqzideh, it lasted 102 
y^ears, 6 months, and 2o days : according to the Tarikh Kipchak 


Khani, 103 jears, 2 months, and ll days : there are still greater 
variations in other accounts ; but all may be reconciled by ob- 
serving that some historians do not consider Ismael as king, 
although he possessed all the power of one, imtil his government 
was acknowledged by the Khalif* 

The names of the Samanian princes in the order of their suc- 
cession are here given according to the Tarikh Gozideh, the KJie- 
lassut al Akhbar of Eliondemir, and other manuscripts. 

1. cXy^l (jj ;Jxly>wl 
Ismael ben Ahmed. 

2. j^jCLyMjl (J^ vXyl^l 

Ahmed ben Ismae], 

3. CXy.^^i (M^ y^ 

Nasser ben Ahmed< 


Nouh ben Nasser. 

Abdalmalek ben Nouh. 

APPENDIX, No. IV. 303 

Mansour ben Abdalmalek. 

7. jyaX^ (jj ^ 
Nouh ben Mansour*. 


Mansour ben Noi^. 

9. ^ (^ LilyJIcXj^ 

Abdalmalek ben Nouh* 

The Tarikh Jehan Ara and some other chronicles add the name 
of another ^y ^ J^Ly*wl Ismael hen Nouh; but the Sama-^ 
nian Dynasty is generally said to consist of nine princes, those 
who are above enumerated. 

The third, Nasser hen Ahmed, is the person who, according 
to our author, Ebn Haukal, rebuilt the Gate of Samarcand (see 
p. 254), and under whom a respectable person at Maweralnahr is 
said (in p. 235) to have borne arms. This prince is styled, by 
Abulfeda (see a passage quoted in the Prefece, p. x), Mohammed 
Ehn Locman Ehn Nasir hen Ahmed^ And, in the Tarikh 
Kipchak Khani, I find him entitled, Saied AhouVhassan Nasser 
hen Ahmed cXy^^l (^ y^ai ^v^'^\ yA cXajum. He succeeded his 
father in the year of the Hegira 301 (A. D, 913), and died Anno . 

304 APPENDIX, No. IV, 

Hegira 330, (A, D. O^l.) According to Kipchak Khan, the poets 

i^^^j Rudeki and /^s?!J ^j*^UxJI jj\ Ahoii V abbas Zeichi 
•• •• 

flourished in the time of Nasser Ahmed. 

The Cazi Ahmed al Ghufiari, in his Tarikh Jehan Ara, informs 
us, that 

&C. I ^JXj^a^^ /^a^JU ocXaJuu ^ cXO—MJ 

'^ in the geographical work, entitled Moajem al Boldan, it is 
'^ observed that Saman was a town belonging to Samarcand, or, 
'^ according to some, j\ place in the territories of Balkh, from 
^^ which the ancestor of the Samanian family derived his name.'* 




N. B. This Index does not refer to any Articles of the Preface or 


Alexawdek the Great, 70, 

116, 215 
Abbassides, 16, 66 
Abraham, 40, 58, 70, 150 
Asses not larger tban sheep, 37 
Animal (uncommon), 25 
Altar of David, 99 
Apostles, 39 
Apple (extraordinary), 129 


Babylon, ancient capital of the 

Persian Empire, 3 
Balsam, 36 
Bodies of the dead, at Teneis, in 

Egypt, 36 
Bodies of the dead burnt by the 

Russes, 191 
Book purchased for 1000 dinars, 


Barzouieh the celebrated phy- 
sician, 216 

Bolouches, a people of Kirman, 
140, 143 

Barbud the musician, 216 

Basrah (number of streams at), 63 


Curds, 83, 92, 97 
Crocodiles, 31, 36, 155 
Castles (impregnable), 94 
Christians, 13, 14, 23, 26, S6, 42, 
43, 52, 53, 56, 58, 59, I60, 
161, 186, 187, 188, I9I, 218, 
257, 265 


Daniel the prophet, his bones 

found, 76 
Dolphin, 35 

R R 




Fertility of Maweralnahr, 233 

Fatemites, 20, 21 

Fish without bones, 133 

uncommon, 31 

Fire temples, 85, 95, 116 

worshippers, 116, 146, &c. 

: extraordinary 

rites, 95, 173 
Sire issuing from a mountain, 77 


Grecian philosophers, 41, 52 
Gog and M agog, 8, 9 
Gypsies, 83 
Guebres. See Fire-worshippers 


Hospitality of the Transoxanians, 

Hamyaritick inscription, 254 


Idols (worshipped), 13, 146 

Idol at Moultan, 148 

Jews, 10, 42, 116, 160, 186, 

187, 188, 190, 221, 224 
Jewish king, 185, 189 
Jesus, 39, 67 y 127, 237 
Israelites, 29, 38, 171 
Joseph, 31 


Kaaba, 2, 128 

Kouche, a people, 140, 143 

Kings of Spain, 28 

Khacan, or King of Khozr, 189 

Kermez, the dyer*s worm, l6l 

Language Pehlavi, 114 

' Parsi, 114 

of Khuzistan, 76 

Pars, 114 

Ghawr, 227 

— • ^Tabaristan, 174 

Kirman, 143 

Makran, 152 

Derbend, 159 

Ardebil, 163 

Bokhara, 251 

^the Kouches and 

Bolouches, 143 
Land of Lot, 46 

Mary (Virgin), 39, 127, 237 
Magick and sorcery, 1 30 
Mummy, 133 

Nimrod, 70, 130 
Noah's Ark, 60 



Noushirvan, 69, 158 


Ommiades, 24, 26, 60, II9, 124 


Palace of Noushirvan, 69 
Pyramids of Egypt, 33 
Pharaoh, 37 

-^ ^his villa, 36 

Paper of Samarcand, 233 


RoseM^ater of Shiraz, 1 32 
Romances of the Persians, 172 
Ruins of Baalbek, 43 


Shapour or Sapores, 74, 100 
Sassanides, 71, 134 
Samanides, 121, 245, 251 
Sabeans, 42, 58 
Scorpions, 20, 56y 77, 171 
Sea fights, 54 

SofFarian dynasty, 77 
Scull set in silver, 123 
Statues of kings, 129 

at Bisutoun, 173 

in the desert of Shour, 197 



Temple of the Sabeans, 42 

of Solomon at Persepolis, 

or Istakhar, 129 

Wall at Derbend, built by Nou- 
shirvan, 158 

Water of the Caspian Sea, dark 
coloured, 181 

Wealth of the inhabitants of Si- 
raf, 115, 133 


Yezdegird slain in a mill, 216 


Zohak, 70, 116, 172 




Page. Line, 

28 2, 3 • • For comlexion, Read complexion. 

84 12 Derayi, Deryai. 

90 3 after v-^^^^jS*, add o!>^j 2,iid read the English 

Shaab-bouan, as one name. 

100 16- • • - • • -ot, or. 

146 8 possessors, f professors. 

172 16 nevtr, • -not 

196 21 Kebat, Rebat 

220 10 then, — than. 

228 22 ^jUiOcLi, •;.^JU^2LcXi. 

241 9 Chereh, • • h -Chehreh- 

Pages 258, 259> 260, (et passim,) for ]^sh, rmi Kash. 

( 300 ) 


iV, B. As the preceding Index has not appeared sufficiently copious for this 
fVorky the Names of Places are added in that which follows. The re- 
ferences to the Preface are expressed in Roman numerals. 


Aajbj 266 

Aalia, 248 

Aaneh, 6o 

Aaien, IO9 

Aamil, 207 

Aarian, 218 

Aasim, 223 

Aarez, 247 

Aaycih, 72 

Abadan, \l, 6l, 64^ 73, 75 

Abadehy 86 

Abad, 2 17 

Abarkct, 273, 274 

Abdikerd, 274 

AbyiBnia, 4, 13, 14, 22 

Abendian, 87 

Ablah, xiv, xv, 64, 79 

Aberkouh, 86, 102, 103, 108, 

111, 130, 132 
Abdarrahman, 86, 107, 129 
Abdejan, 132 

Aboughanem, 139, ^40, 143 
Abaas, 144 
Aberi, 154 
Abenjan, 160 
Abcrkendman, l64 
Abhcr, i65j 169^ 170 

Abisgoan, 176, 180, 185, 19O, 

Abshour, 197 
Abdallah, 210 
Aberkend, 276 
Abnez, ^6 
Aden, 14 
Adereh, 40 
Adeib, 159 
Adneh, 45 
Aderaa, 49 
Adithah, 50 
Adeki, 210 
Ader, 217 
Adcdalek, b65 
JEgypu Sec Egypt 
Africa, 2, 4, 5, 7, 15, 16, 19, 

21, 28, 132 
Afadeh, 30 
Afaresk, 133 

Agemi, 165, 168 , 

Ahmah, 65 
Ahouam, 33 
Ahwaz, 74, 75, 80 
Ahcf, 120 
Ainaff, 51 
Aien al Shcms, 86 
Aien Zarieh, 54 

S S 

Aien Arbah> 38 

Ailek, 37 

Aikan, 139 

Aidah, 74 

Aidej, 75, 80, 113 

Airi, 147 

Aien Alhem, 175, 183 

Ailak, vii, 238, 250, 264, 

265, 266, 267, 268, 277 
Aikeren, 274 
Aiiah, xiv 
Ajia, 183 
Akareb, 110 
Akereh, 194 
Akhseikh, 240 
Akebseh, 49 
Akhmim, .35 
Akrites, 53 
Akbera, 71 
Aklid, 86 
Akdeh, 112 
Aljezireh. Sec Jezireh 
Allami, 13 
Al Botem, viii 
Alsoar (lake), 84 
Allan, 4, 5, 156 
Alexandria, 29, 31^ $9, 45, 

50, 52j 70 



Allu, 13Q 
Allepo. SeeHaleb 
Almour, 90 
Alaudket, 2(J5 
Almerasek, 175 
All Abad, 183 
Alouban, S77 
Amarkec, 279 
Anwui, sag, na, 675 
Anud, 270 
Amedi, t6s 
Amadeh, sg 
Amcden, 88 
Ameniah, 349 
Anur, S21 

Arool, )75, 179, 181, 18f, 
183, 190, 191, ISO, S13, 

ss6, sss, 229 
Amrauilou, 163 
Amid, iS, 57 
Anbouraii} 90 
AnbubaiwD, 8? 
Antaldah, 44, 49, 51, s« 
Anbas, 50, 61 
Anbar, is, b6, sg, fil 
AnarMebeije, ill 
And), ISO 
Anderab, 157 
Andemeth, i6S 
Anbereh, 1 93 

Anderabeh, S33, an, asa,asi 
Andenjaragli, 239 
Anderbaz, 243 
Andtdan, 248 
Anduken, S72 
Andaija, ii, 4, 5, 7, IB, 16, 

81, 25, 26, 27t 28, 51, 93 
Aoud, 1G7 
Aieb, 271, £79, 230 
Annjet, 279 
Arkan, 86, 279 
Arhen, S76 

Arou, 2fi0 

Arlcand, 248 

Ardan, 248 

Aidejcr, 341 

Arlier, 223 

Ardenjan, 218 

Ardvar. 215 

Arse], 199 

Arthai, 191 

Ajiha, 191 

Arinou, 177 

Arjeith, 169, l6s 

Armi, 162, 165 

Annia, 162 

Aras, 161, 16a 

Ardcbil, 64, 135, 156, 157, 

158, 160, 161, 162, 163 
Armen, 4, 5, isG 
Aran, 1 55, 1 56, L5g, l6<i, 

16S, 179, 183, 362. 
Armenia, xxiii, 78, 155, 156, 

157, 159, iCo, 161, 163, 

1C3, 188 
Armaiel, 151, 154 
Arjan, 90, 91, 95, 96, 104, 

Afghan, 78, 79, 82, 105, 113, 

131, IS5, 130> 129, 119, 

133, Ll6> 11 
Atzen, 99 
Arem, 7* 

Afghan (KourehJ, 90 
Ardohir (Khereh), 88, 185 
Ardtshri [KourehJ, 37, &!> 99 
Ardeshir (Derch), 82, 91, 33, 

104, 131 
Ardeshir, 82, 8S, 9L 
Arirah, 89 
Ardeshirgird, 121 
Arzu, 90 

Arden, 39, 40, 47, 48, 49 
Arhadouh, S6 

Armeh, 17 

Arbilah, 15, 20 

ArJan, 110 

Asas, 53, 274 

Asker Mokicm, 20, 73, 79 

Asijeb, 19 

Asiat, 13 

Alkcr al mohdi, 67 

Ase), 78, 79, 90 

Ascdan, 87 

Asclan, 87 

Astourah, 90 

Asouan, 3g, 35, 37 

Ascalon, 48 

Ashmouein, 35 

Astadan, 90 

Aseljar, 90 

Astehajan, 113 

Aidejan, 88 

Aitefahaian, 89 

Asknoun, 95 

Asfendrud, iSl 

Atcdabad, 166, 228, 169^ 183 

Asterabad, 175, 176, 180 

Aiteletht, 201 

Aaferar, 209 

Ailjai, 212 

Aifcrin, 213, 315, 298 

AKTinan, 217, 219 

Ashran, 217 

Aienk, 218 

Asferan, 919, £30 

Ashiket, 270 

Atbejan, 272 

Ashereh, 279 

AsbouTket, 274 

A«eher, 279 

Asterougbieh, 379 

Atlah, 268 

Atrar, 350 

Aiel, 185, 186, 187, 18* 

Audafi, ISO 



AulenjaDy 113 

Aurd, 97 

Auhileh, 1 63 

Auher, or Auhar, 167 

Aabgir> 243 

Aubchy 217 

Aubul, 257 

Aorast, 172 

Awlas, 46, 50 

Aweis, 109, 270 

Awerkendy 27 1| 27^ f ^9 

Awent, 271 

Aweshy 271 

Ayoub, 166 

Azhaman, 86 

Azzehy 48 

Azcrbai, 144 

Azcndy 152 

Azerbaijan, xxiii, 3, 60, 62, 
155, 156, 159, 161, 162, 
163, 165, 1^7, 172, 174, 
178, 188 

Azziah, IM 

Azsour, 210 

Aaenker, 96& 

Az«dieiktr 26^ 970^ 

Babel (Babylon), 3> 19, 79, 

Basrin, 24 

Baghdad, 9, 61, Of, 66> &!,. 
68, 69, 70, 7ly 77f 78, 
116, 120, 126, 127, 135, 
172, 176, 178, 208 

Barab, 9, 221,. 23B, 27O 

Bahrein, 11, 11 9, 1128, 188- 

Barbary, 19^ 21 

Bajeh, 13> 29> 97 

Barkah, 15, 16, 19, 29 
Basireh, 15, 17> 20, 51 
Bakouo 17> 20, 21 
Batileh, 18 
Basna, 2 1 

Bab al Tauk Resafeh, 67 
Bab-alia Scrtheh, 67 
Basan, 79> 74, 89 
Bazar, 73j 74, 79> 80 
Bakhtegan (lake), 84 
Baman, 87 
Bagheras, 47, 49 
Baherah, 39 
Baalbek, 43, 49, 129 
Balis, 44y 58 
Barmah, 48, 57> 73 
Balousa, 56 
Bardoun, 80 
jbasrah, xir, xvi, 61^ 62^ 63,' 

j 64,^65,^71, 79 

Barem, 142, 145 

Badcnjan, 83, 9I, 123 

Balaien, 90, 1 96 

Bajirem, 88 

Bazero, 89, 110 

Bahalouk, 90 

Bahelsegan, 90 

Bazrick, 96, 113 

Balkh, 121, 213, 214, 215, 
217j 218y 223, 224, 225, 
226, 227, 228, 230, 231, 
239, 259, 260, 275, 304 

Badcrgan, 106 
Bam, 144, 145 
Baren, 139 
Banias, 49 
Bardan, 71 
Baloui, 147« 150 
Bales, 154 
Baku, 160, 162 
Bar, 167 
Bardestan, 175 

Bamieh, 182 

Bayel, 183 

Bakeil, 184 

Bashkouth, 192 

Bisekh, 202 

Barghis, 213, 255, 256 

Bahmanabad, 215, 229, 230 

Badghis, 219 

Bagheian, 223, 231 

Badakshan, 223, 225, 228, 

230, 232, 238, 276 
Bamian, 213, 225, 226, 227, 

Baverd, 228^. 230 
Barmis, 255 
Barkeit, 257, 258 
Baloam, 264 
Benat, 79 
Beiza, 86, 91, 98, 103, 111, 

113, 121, 127, 185 
Behour, 39 
Beit al Mokeds, 3;), 48. See 

Bethlehem, 39, 40 
Beniah, 49 
Besirin, 51 
Beled, 55, 56 

Betaiah, 61, 65, 68, 71 
Berdan, 71 

Bermasir, 139, 194, 202 
Besa, 104, 109, 111, 115,. 

115, 116, 125, 132, \S9 
Berdoun, 74, 77, 80 
Beinoul, 90* 
Besmeil, 90 
Bendil, llO 
Beshadour, 100, 113 
Behreh, 135, 197 
B^nd, 108 
Bcrje, 96 

IBehouleh, 89 
Benjeoian, 105 



Berm^ lid 

fiehar, 144 

Belid, 55, 56 

fieher, 105 

fieskct, 266 

Behaket, 267 

fiedhekety 268 

Beily, 268 

Bestay Zeirin, 27 1> 27s 

Besoukhy 271 

Beiket, 274, 280 

Benakety 274, 280 

Beiankeiny 278 

Befiieket, 279 

Berdch, 279 

Benaketh, 280 

Benket, 280 

Boherje/ 1479 150 

Be$,mtid, \50, 154> I5d 

Beiiiy 163, 164, 220 

Beldan, 154 

Bervanan, 157 

Bezerend, 157 

fierdaa, 1579 160, 161, 163, 

\64, 185 
Bektan, 157 
Beirzenje^ 160 
Berzend, l63 
Berkeri, 165 
Bedlis, 165, 182 
Berah, 167 
Berd, 169 
Berdabad, lOl 

Beftas, 1879 188, 190, 19s 
Bejibal, 192 
Bedreh, 195 
Belcin, 196 
Berdsir, 197 
Beisha Daran, 201 
Bemaraduiehj 201 
Bcrir, 201 
Berin, 211 

Best, 220 

Bershir, 229 

Beikcnd, 245, 250, 252, 269, 

273, 278 
Berkend, 246, 247 
Beni Asad, 248 
Bekhajemr, 248 
Bcsteh, 249 
Berkaa, 249 
Bergher, 255 
Bermcr, 257 
Belanderin, 2 60 
Bcrdeh, 261 
Berjin, 262 
Beshaghir, 264 
Besenk, 264 
Benagur, 265 
Berkous, 265 
Bijerm, 11, 112, 119 
Bilbileh, 18, 27 
Bikroun, 150 
Bilkan, 160, l63 
Bisutoan, 166, 172 
Bireshk, 19s 
Biheket, 255 
Boukeseh, 243 
Bour, 168 
Bourkan, 215 
Bou, 243, 242 
Bouzgan, 228, 229- 
Boushek, 213 
Bom, 211 
Bost, 203, 206, 207| 208, 

209, 210, 212 
Bordan, 169 
Bouket, 279 
Bounkct, 266 

Bumeheket, 252, 262, 278 
Busheng, 217 
Bulgar, 185, 187, 19O, 19I* 

192* 5, 7, 9, 10 
Bastam, 183, 175 

Bounnah, 26 

Bosi, 80, 74, 77 

Bokhara, 122, 125, 232, 236, 

237, 238, 245, 247, 249, 

250, 251, 262, 263, 275, 

Bou (or Abou) Ghanem, 143 
Boloaje, orBoloache, 138, 140, 

141, 143, 146, 288, 296, 

Boudenjan, 1 07 
Boukur36, 36 
Bouheket, 246, 26s, 280 
Bourmaket, 258 
Boos, 255 
Boameh, 248 
Boarek Ferghanefa, 248 
Bustam, 178 


Carcoub, 74, 80, 133 

Cazvin, 122 

Cazeroun, 82, 96, 103, 111, 

112, 113, 132, 133, 135 
Canaan, 130, 70 
Cadesia, 61, 62, 65, 66 
Caaba (orKaaba) 2 
Caspian (or Deryai Khozr), 

See Khozr 
Canouge, 9 
Carmourah, 18 
Cashmere, 4 
Cairo 11, 30 
Caisariah, 48 
Cazi, 211 
Cashan, 168 
China. See Cheen 
Chdlak, 10 
Cheen, 4, 6, 6, 8, g, 10, 19, 

70, 250, 298 



Chekrel, 267 

ChajeRud, 269 

Chendi £48 

Cheghagher> 244 . 

Chereh^ 241 

Cheghanian, 238, 240> 265, 

261, 277, 279 
Chaje, vii* 283, 285, 2a8, 243, 
244, 252, 261, 263, 265, 

266, 267, 269f 270, 274, 

Chun, 222, 230 231 
Chungalabad, 210 
Cheshmeh Sirab, 202 
Chcndwar, 150 
Cortubah, 18, 27 
Costatineh (Consuntinoi^e) 9, 

10, 51, 52 
Corcoub, 80 
Cobadian, 238 
Curds, 155, 15S, 171 
Curdistan; xxii 
Curdan, 56, 97 
Cufah, 61, 62, 65, 66, 67, 

6S, 71; 132 


Darabjerd, 89, 94, 104, 110, 
111, 112, 113, 133, 134 

Dartak, 89 

Darein^ 112 

Dauraky 1 1 

Dadicn, 97 

Daibul, 12 

Damiat, 34 

Damavcnd, 172, 173, 177, 

Darenjan, 90 

Damascus. See Demeshk 

Danbul, 147, 148, 150, 154, 

Daloni, 150 

Damghan, 175, 178, 182, 194, 

Danchy, 196 
Darghes, 207 
Daver, 208 
Daruk, 211 
Daven, 215 
Dashan, 217 
Dal, 242, 243 
DarZingi, 277 
Dehekan, 280 
Derket, 280 
Derghes, 279 
Derkhas, 278 
Derbend, 158, 159, 160, 162, 

164, 180, 185, 187, 190, 

191> 192, 277 
Derghan, 275 
Deirken, 275 
Deiruk, 274 
Debel, 272 
Deinket, 268 
Debzek, 262, 26S 
Debousi, 252 
Derban, 141, 142, 157 
Denjaneh, 252 
Desht Varein, ISO, 131, 132 
Deniaen, 248 
Derwazeh Samarcand, 248 
Deizah, 248 
Deha, 241 
Deraan, 241 
Delouan, 91 
Dekhan, 239 
Deihan, 97 
Deria, 232 
Dendalekan, 230 
Derab, 224 
Dereh, 209, 228, 82 
Deiman, 142 
Deir Berkhan, 198 
Deher Houmah, L39 

T T 

DeUeh Giran, 195 

Deir Aber, 96 

DeirKaheim, 195, 196 

Derjendy 90 

Demarzari, 183 

Deidelout, 90 

Deher, 180 

Dermeyah, 178 

Derberan, 178 

Dera, 177 

Dersein, 177 

Demeh, 177 . ^ . 

Dehestan, 176, 180, 185, IQt^ 

191, 208, 220 
Deheihlour, 168 
Deheih Abou Ayoub, 166 
Deilman, l65, 172, 174, 175b 

178, 180, 183, 184 . . 
Deinour, 94, l65, 167, l68f 

Deir Kherkan, i64 ....... 

Deinel, 160, 162, l64, l65 

Derituk, 160 

Derek, 153, 147 

Deheireh, 86 

Demeshk (Damascvs) xlii, xiv, 

XV, xvi, 40, 43j -44, 47f 

48, 49, 237, 238 
Deirgan, 87 
Dcjeil, 71 
Dehmeh, 177 
Deshkereh, 69, 71 
Dcsht (lake) 84, 88 
Deiralaakoul, 71 
Deidan, 79 
Derjend ( River) 64 
Deilman, 3, 8 
Dejleh (or Tigris) 11, 26, 81, 

54, 56, 57, 59, 60, 64, 

66, 67, 70, 71, 72, 7 if 

78, 79# 16« 
DehkeUan, no 



Derijan, 88 
Dehein Seifomarch^ 88 
Destekan, 88 
Derteky 89 
Dhcy Nemeh, 181 
Dhcy Digur, 201 
Dhcy, 20g, 210 
Dhehck, 20g, 810 

Dheyaoum, 210 

Dhey Jumah, 210 

Dhey Moured, gs 

D(iey Kurdan, 228 

Diarbekre, xxiii 

Diar Modhar, 68 

Divesy, 273 

Divemaket, 965 

Dileshkird, 261 

Dilem, 161, 183, 212 

Doumish, 164 

Dourek, 72, 79, 80 

Doakaky 108 

Doubein, 106 

Dorenjan, 90 

Dozdan, 166 

Dur, 169 

Durreli, 194, 195 

Duardehy 198 

Durak, 199 

Duar« 212 


Ebher, 175, 122 

Egypt (Misr) ii. xxvii, 2, 4, 5, 
7, 13, 14, 19, 22, 29, 31, 
34, 37> 38, 51, 53, 40, 
45, 46, 129, 132, 292 

Emcssa, 43 

Eskanderiah (Alexandria), 33 

Ethiopia, 4, 14, 22 

Euphrates, Si, 37, 38, 44, 
50, 54, 55, 57, 58, 59, 

€0, 65, 68, 69, 72, Sec. 


Fars, Farsistan, or Pars, xxiii, 

2, 3, 8, 81, 82, 84, 85, 86, 
95, 108, 140, 165, 192, 
193, 194, 211, 212, 216 

Fanck, 86 
Farkhan, 88 
Fardek, go 

Fahas (Alilout), 18, 26 
Falestine. See Palestine. 
Faz (or Fez) 17, 21 
Fataih, 30 

Famhel, 150, 151, 152, 154 
Faloui, 154 

Farab, 232, 260, 268, 269 
Farghi, 238 
Famurgh, 256, 257 
Fetrioun, 153 
Feldi, 154 
Ferasendeh, 168 
Fereh, 207, 208, 209, 211, 


Ferouan, 225 

Ferghanah, 6, 232, 233, 235, 
238, 248, 250, 252, 26l, 
263, 263, 264, 268, 269, 
270, 271, 272, 274, 276, 

Ferma, 35 

Feik, 48, 274 

Ferdin, 139 

Fertast, gO 

Fermoun, 147 

Fermouiah, 18 

Feikerah, 27 

Feserdeh, 247 248, 249 

Ferin, 248 

Feranah, 249 

Ferghour, 264 


Ferajan, 274 
Ferjench, -275 
Fir9uzinend, 808, f 10 
Firou^ (Kam) go, 98t IIS^ 

126, 135 
Firkh, HO, US 
Fioum, 31 

Font. See Euphntea 
Fomapalah, 71 
Foroab, River, 84 
Fostat, 30, 33, 36 
Frat. See Euphxitet 


Gaza, 33, 40 

GawKhareh, 242, t4S 

Gerbadcan, 169 

Ghurghaz, 9 

Ghumeh, 9 

Ghuz, 9, 10, 843, 844, 86a» 

268, 269, 270, 187, 190 

Ghafek, 18, 26 

Ghica, 144 

Ghour, 39, 40 

Ghouteh, xiv, xv, xvi, 40, 48, 

237, 238 
Gherahelm, 44 

Gherasein, 49 

Ghersiran, 268 

Guhzl, 265 

Gherk, 262 

Ghurgestan, 256, 813, 88I» 

Gherban, 255- 258 
Ghehar, 248 
Gharan Murgh, 247 
Ghar al Naiah, 248 
Ghurnein, 230 
Ghaznih, 218 
Ghizni, 210, 225, 226, 227$ 

228, 241 


^ M5 

Ghaznein, SOB, 990, tS9p 

Ghaur, 205, 20?/ 912, 221, 

296, 227 
Gilan, 174 
Giran, 195 
Gird, 8g 

Gibralur, 7, ^9, 20, 2^, 61 
Gondi Shapour. See Jondi Sluu 

pour, 77 
Gouz, 109 
Goured, 113 
Gourkam, 221 
Goukanan, 213 
Gouvi, 211, 212 
Gouid, 206 
Gozi, 197, 198 
Gounabeh, 191, 192 
Gounaieh, 191, 192 
Gurki, 158 
Gorkan, 8, 9, llO, 12 1> I69, 

174, 175, 176, 179, 180, 

182, 183, I8S9 208, 2X2, 

214, 215, 241 
Gullar, 183 
Goebran, 196 
Gurkooneh, 209 
GuhPelenk, 211 
Gurigar, 218 
Gorbah, 242 


Hawr, 108 
Hancid, 69 
Hadithah, 57> 60 
Hafidi, 89 
Haijan, 88 
Habeirah, 68, 71 
Hawer Ableh, 64 
Harah Radgan^ 86 

Hadejan Shappor, 89 

Hairah, 62, 66 

Hareh, 97 

Haran, 86 

Hajr, 46, 89 

Harouniah, 38, 45, 60 

Hakb» 47> 49 

Hasirmenje (or Jasirmenje) 55, 

Hameres, 88 

Habbesh(Abby86inia) 4, 13, 22 

Hamrah, 30 

Hamadan, 166, l67> 168, 169 

Hamdan, 167, 172 

Hafs, 182 

Harroeh, 196 

Hamr, 200 

Hareh, 97, 211, 219 

Hasker, 241 

Hamdoanah, 248 

Hanerket, 266 

Hamerel, 266 

Hawes, 274 

Hallured, 276 

Heiket, 280 

Herkaneh, 279t 290, 2d2 

Hcjareh, 278 

Heireh, 65, 66, 278, 242, 108, 

Hermigan, 277 
Heileh, 276 
Hebek, 276 

Hezarasp, 241, 242, 275, 278 
Hcdali, 270, 271 
Herket, 266 
Hedinket, 265 
Heran, 260 
Heshwan, 248 
Hcriat, 232 
Helil, 223 
Hcllaverd, 223 
Hesheb, 223 

Hessan, 217> 219 

Hejrai, 212 

Hczar, 26, IO9, 210 

Hcstan, 210 J 

Heruri, 209 

Herin, 89, 209 

Heirroend, 205, 206, 207, 212 

Herat, 121, 202, 209, 213, 

2179 218, 219, 228 
Hemaneh, 1 93 
HeftDer, 182 
Heban, l64, 166 
Heilabshar, 159 - ^ 

Hesn £bn Omareh, 12, 111, 

Herman, 152 
Helbeh, 150 
Heidour, 147 
Hebab, 144 
Hemed, 144 

Hey, 61, 63, 64, 74, 77, 119 
Hemaigan Sefly, 122 
Hedim, 87 
Heyaz, 46, 90 
Hcilouieh, 82, 9a 
Hesouah, 89 
Heran, 86, 260 
Heskan, 88 
Heir, lip 
Herbazan, 107 
Herieh, 102 
Heifan, 97 
Hembeir, 89 
Heraje, 112 

Hemeid, 88 * 

Herah, 26, 65, 66 
Heith, 59 
Hejr, 46 

Hemcss, 43, 47, 48, 49 
Hemah, 44 
Hejaz, 46, 132, 289, 290, 


' I 



Hedim> 87 
Herdeb (River) 84 
Hhoumahx 879 113 
^Mharar, 220 
Hind, 2, 147, 203 
Hindoostan, 3> 4, 5, Qf \9, 

18, 203, 207, 212, 225, 
226y 232, 292 

Hejar, 46, 89 
X Hije, 89 
Homer, xi 
Houbakan, 86 
Holwan, 61, 62, 69, 71, 162, 

167, 168, 170, 172 
Houran, 49, 60 
Houman, 33, 34 
Honadah, 27 
Hormuz, 12, 88, 138, 139, 

140, Ul, 142, 143, 145 
Houran, 97 
Hormuz Keran, 112 
Houmah, ill, 139 
Husnabad, 144 
Houmah al Net, 74 
Houmah al San, 74 
Housket, 265 
Hust, 217 
Humdan, 9 
HysnMohdi, 11, 74, 75, 78, 

79, 80, 129 
Hysn Ebn Omarreh, 12, 111, 

Hysn Mansour, 44, 50 
Hysn Mosclamah, 60 

I. J. 

Jawr, 82, 88| 94, 100, 111, 

112, 113, ISO, 132, 198 
Jarin, 86 

Jasermenje (or Hasermenje} 55 

Jarour, 93 
Jarouen, 138 
Jarianeh, 225, 230 
Jaum, 228 
Jczireh, 47, 54, 55, 56, 59, 

127, 156, 161 
Jesmeden, 160 
Jcbal, 40, 74, 127, 161, 172, 

181, 192, 194, 277 
Jehan (River) 45 
Jehudistan, 169 
Jerth, 173 
Jermjery, 182 
Jerhan, 182 
Jehineh, 183 
Jerjer, 187 
Jellabeh, 191 
Jehr, 200 
Jefan, 241 
Jelal Deizeh, 248 
Jerghaneh, 248 
Jerghan, 248 
Jermesk, 249 
Jerjerch, 38, 250 
Jeran, 259 
Jerjeir, 38 
Jenuder, 265 
Jegherket, 206 
Jermaiah, 274 
Jerbend, 275 
Jeladan, 97 

Jehrem, ill, 116, 132 
Jehreh, 113 
Jenabah, 90, 105, 106, ill, 

112, 113, 132 
Jemgan, 97 « 

Jeran, 113, 60, 259 I 

Jerusalem. See Beit al Mokeds 

39» 48," 52^ 
Jezireh Ebn Omar, 57 

Jedan, 58 

Jebal al Kellal, 53, 54 

Jerjeraya, yi 

Jircft, 139, 140, 141, 14f^ 
144, 145 

Jiroukan, 139 

Jirdeh, 139 

Jirouan, 145 

Jibd (Tarck) 20 

Jihoun (River) 155, 178, 187/ 
225, 226, 228, 232, 238, 
239, 240, 243, 244, 245, 
251, 260, 278, 275, 278 

Jouakend, 271 

Jouibari Aarez, 247 

Jondi Shapour, 73, 75, 77, 79p 
80, 168 

Joubendan, 96 

Jouim, 89, 85 

Joumeh Mesehan, no 

Jouein, 110 

Joudi, 60 

Jouidan (River) 84 

Irak(Arabi) xxiii, 1, 2, 6, 38, 
46, 61, 62, 63, 66, 71, 72, 
76, 79> 125, 127, 183, 148, 
156, 157, 158, 165, 16^ 
168, 171, 176, 180, 200, 
207, 214, 258 

Isfahan, 75, 81, 91, 96, 10«, 

100, 112, 123, 133, 157, 

192- 193, 194, 195, 19§, 
201, 165 

Iskandereh, 224 

Ispahan, 169, 172, 173, I99 

Istakhar, xxv, 82, 86,9], 9s, 
94, 98, 99* 100, 102, 103, 
107, 108, HI. 118, 116, 
119* 128, 129, 194, 185, 

Iskenkejr, 262 

Isashab, 280 



Istakhanuii 109 
Iskanderiah. See Alexandria 
Jurmeh, 194 


kandabil, 1479 15 19 153> 154 

Kair, 15\, 152 

Ranteli, 153 

Kapchaky 159 

Kablak, 160 

Kanjah, 160 

Kantereh al Naamon, 166 

Kashan, 169^ 17l> 17S> 19S9 

194; 195 
Karen, 174> 1759 176 
Karges, 193, 196 
Kahein, 195 
Kahy 195, 22s, 231 
Kabul, 207> 223, 226 
Kariz, 209 
Kantueh Kirman, 211 
Kanderuthan, 215 
Kaberoun, 220 
Kaloon, 220 
Kankouan, 265 
Kalek, 266 
Kaimakher, 272 
Kankan, 277 
Kasan, 279 
Kan, 221 
Kanderm, 221 
Kaein, 222, 223, 228, 229, 

Kaweil, 223 
Kabal, 223, 326 
Kasan, 224 
Kash, vii, ix, xi, xri, 258, 

259, 260, 279 
Kanderim, 229 
Kalcf, 239 
Kanjesh, 241 

Kab, 241 

KaferKam, 240 

Kafra al Alia, 87 

Kanserin, 44, 49 

Kahira (Note) 30 

Kakour, 37 

Karma, 83 

Karcoub, 61 

Kattah, 86 

Kales, 86 

Karma, 83 

Karcoub, 61 

Kattah, 86 

Kas (River) 84 

Kales, 86 

Karma, 83 

Kafra alSefli, 87 

Karzein, 88, 979 96, 102, 

Karian, 91, 123 
Kattah, 86, 102, 108, 111 
Kadban, 94 

Kaaba (or Caaba) 2, 128 
Karkheh, 74 
Kazeroun (Cazroun) 89, 90, 

94, 97 
Kakan, 90 
Kantereh, 89, 122 
KamFirouz, 90, 95, 98, 113, 

126, 135 
Kashgird, 145 
Kahas (Alilont) 18 
Kabul is tan 
Kaimak, 9, lO 
Kelaahereh, 147 
Keniabeh, .151, 152, 154 
Kelwan, 151 
Kebr, 153, 154 
Kesr, 153, 175 
Kesdan, 154 
Kerieh, 157 
Kenjah, 162, 164 

U U 

Kendman, i64 
Kelkateiin, l64 
Kelilgoun, l64 
Kerkhan, 164 
KeserDusdan, 166, 169 
Kesralberadin, 169 
Kellar, 87> HO, 175 
Kestaneh, 181 
Kelazil, 181 
Kehrest, 181 
Kenunhan, 211 
Kerbin, 212 
Kemkh, 217 
Kehendiz, 217 
Keroukh, 219 
Keif, 220 
Keseher, 230 
Keiseh, 247 
Kendaman, 248 
Kerjinet, 250 
Kerin, 251, 273 
Kermtniah, 252, 273 
Keisaneh, 258 
Kesaban, 259 
Kenk, 260 
Keshtch, 261 
Kebout Meheket, 279 
KendGah, 276 
Kendil, 275 
Ketran, 274 
Kend, 273 
Kerouan, 272 
Keba, 270, 27 1 
Kenjideh, 269 
Kezr, 268 
Keheshm, 266 
Kedal, 266 
Keimeh, 265 
Kelenjek, 265 
Ketaiah, 30 
Kenamah, 27 
Kesrbend, 147 




Kesisan^ 145 

Keraoun, 144 

Kcllan, 110 

Keri, ISQ 

KeleSy 86 

Kelidy 86, 93 

Kesri, 88 

Kcherjan, 88 

Keferisa, 89 

Keliwazi, 67 

Keliwan, 74, 77 * 

Kefer, 105 

Kerar, 1 1 2 

Kereh, 109 

Kehrgan, 109 

Kelouder, 107 

Keiawem, 89 

Kesr Aaien, 109 

Kelimah, 52 

Kelimiah, 5iS 

Kesr Ebn Hobeireh, 68 

Kellal, 53, 54 

Kerbda, 68 

Kedah; 26 

Keisa, 45 

Kenisa, 50 

Keber, 87 

Khemardegan, 87 

Khan, 87 

KhanBadieh, 106 

Khar, 177> 178, 181, 194 

Khouf, 36 

Khefa, 37 

KhefarKar, 37 

Khenaserah, 44 

Khabour, 59 

Khabouran, 57 

Khoshbu, 84 

Kawmak, 65 

Khuzistan (Susiana) xxiii^ 2, 

111 .20, 29, 78, 80, 81, 157> 

165, 166, 169 

Kharizan, 78 

Khorasan, 3, 67» 81, 108, If 1, 
132, 138, 157> 165, 169, 
172, 181, 192, 193, 194, 
165, 197, 199* «00, 801, 
203, 208, 212, 214, 215, 
216, 217, 219, 226, 227, 
229, 232, 233, 237, 240, 
244, 245, 251, 262, 295 

Khouareh, 1 1 
Khemrud, 145 
Khozr, xxvi, 3, 5, 8, 9, 159, 

162. 180, 183, 187, 188, 

190, 191 
Khoorsan 88 
Khebis, 139 
Khan, 87, 106 
Khan Daouid, 105 
Khosruhein, 130 
Kheis, 142 
Khanifen, 88 
Khem, 88, 107 
Kherik, 88 
Kheir, 121, 132 
Khan Shur, 106 
Khan Khamad, 1 1 
KhurKhiz, 9, 110 
Khuzn.jiah, 9 
Khederge, 9, 10 
Kherouje, 152 
Khounah, 157, l64, 200 
Khoui, 157, l65, 198 
Khaberan, 157, 158 
Khullat, 165 
Khuast, 167, 168, 171, 172, 

Khan Lekhan, 169 
Khosru, 177 
Khorasmia, 180 
Khclawahf 162 
Khedaweh, 132 
Khubeis, 194, 199 

Khust, 199, 9«1 
Khebeis, 199, 901 
Khilje, 207, 227, 269 
Khorasaneh, 210 
Khabzar, 210 
Khesajy, 210 
Khaveran, 211, 2Sg 
Khuarezm, xxiii, 213, 2t6, 

227, 278 
Khosrugird, 215, 2 19, 829 
Kherinan, 215 
Kherki, 218 
Khulm, 223, 230 
Khesh, 224 
Kharasm, 230, 232, 238, 239, 

241, 242, 243, 244, 8469 

365, 270, 275 
Khoti, 232 

Khoslan, 288, 239, ^76 
Khozar, 241, 244 
Khonas, 241 
Kherdour, 241 
Khiljan, 243 
Khebek Rud, 250 
Khojend, 263, 27 1, 273, 880 
Khas, 260 
Khersab, 270 
Khenlaro, 272 
Khesehirt, 273 
Khetl, 277 
Khersaliket, 280, 
Kishteh, 278 
Kiidan Khas, 278 
Kish, 238, 250, 258, 839, 

260, 261. 275, 879 
Kirdan, 241, 248, 818 
Kirman, 2, 12, 46, 58, 81, 

86, 61, 98, 99, 102, 107, 

111. 118, 153, 1166, 193, 

194, 196> 198, 201, 202. 

203, 205, 206. 208, 811^ 

213, 227, 289 ' 




Kirder^ 241 

Kisaban, 25g 

Kishteh, 279 

Kihsest^ 181 

Kirasan, 218> 228 

Kibrakanan, 147 

Kirkanan^ 1 53 

Kipchak, 156 

Kipshak, 156 

Kirman Shahan, 169, I98 

Kirman, 16, 17> 20, 22, SO 

Kirouan, 16, 17j 20, 99, SO 

Kirdman, 89 

Kirdgan» 144 

Kibres, 53 

Kiasah, 37 

K0U8, 49, 50, 245 

Kouh, 72> 173, 176, 184, 185, 
193, 194,196,209 

Kouhcstan, S, 78, 123, 143, 
156, 165, 166, 169, 172, 
173, 176, 19^, 206, 21s, 
214, 223,227,231,277 

Kouin, 86. 88, ill, 131 

Kounein, 145 

Kouz, 144 

Kooingan, 88 

Kooin, 89 

Kouheftan abu Ghancm, IS9 

Koumin, 139 

Kouje or Kouche, 140, 142, 
289, 290 

I^oureh, 97 

Kohendez, 108 

Kouar, 105 

Koumdb, 121 

Korkh, 67 

Kolzum, 4, 6, 13^ 29, 89 f 


Komouifahy 18 

Kourieh, 18 
KoqIcs, 27 

Koasein, 177 

Kouim, 176 

Koumb, 175, 178, 193, 194, 

212,228, 229 

Kom, 168, 169, 170, 171, 

172, 176, 193, 194, 195 
Koamenjan, 167 
Kohhendez, 181 
Koukour, 199 
Kousen, 2 09 
Koushck Ahef, 220 
Kouscf, 217 
Kouseri, 219 
Kouh-seim, 220 
Kouh Umroabad, 220 
Kobadian, 239,240,277 
Korkanje, 240, 242j 243^ 278 
Korasan, 241 
Koragh, 242 
Kourek, 256 
Kourghed, 258 
Koukib, 269, 26s 
Koureh of Kimjidehi 268 
Kourast, 277 
Kuakend, 173 ' 
Kubabeh, 222 
Kurmeideh^ 248 
Kur, 158, 210 
Kurge, 159 

Kurreh, 167, 168, 169, 17O 
KuarczOD, 183, 228, 220 
Kurreen, 211, 212 
KunjeReshak, 213 
Kuaran, 217 
Kubuk, 218 
Kurkheh, 73 
Kumar, 1 09 
Kurich, 108 
Kumah Allas^ 93 
Kumbuz Malgan, 90 
Xushein (River), 84 
Kufertouma, 45, 56, 57 

.. ^ 

.V / 

r I ■ 

Laristan, xxiii 

Lattian, 12 

Lahout, 31 

Lawen, 87 

Ladikiah, 38, 49 

Lames, 52 

Lashgird, 143 

Lagheristan* 88 

Lahein, 97 

Lanjan, 1 64 

Lashter, 167 

Lansin, 167 

Lawzer, 181 

Lavakend, 223 

Laian, 258 

Laorast, 277 

Laabek, 265 

Leshkur, 80, 20, 74, 79» 

Lest, 198,201 
Lekhan, 169, 264 
Lebez, 160 
Leniran, 159 
Lekzan, 159, 18( 
Lesout, 157 
Lebnon, 39 
Libnan, 39 

Lour, 73,78, 168, 172 
IxMirdegao, 87 
Louar, 143 


Malaca, 2, 19 

Mardah, 18 

Magreb (Part of Africa), 2, 4, 

7, 8, 15, 16,22, 27,28,51^ 
53, 132 
Mansoureh, 2,4, 12, 147, 148^ 
150, 151, 154, 155 

• A 




Maweralnahr fTrantoxanu), 3| 
4, 0, isi, S12, ei7t as3, 

S26, S37) 892, £33, SSS, 

£36, Z37> 238, 839, S^O, 

£4t, 345, 248, 649, SSO, 

2S1, SS3, S5S, £57, 264, 

S65, 368, S7ii £73, 870, 

Madalen, 69, 70, 7i 
Mahirouiin, 11, 79 

MlcbMD, 5, 18 

Marouan, eg 

Mijouge, 8 

Madaien, li, 6g, 70,71 

Mana&h, 87 

Maidali, £6 

Maienn, 97 

Maidein, 56 

Mariiein, S6 

Maren, 141 

Maimoadah, 8? 

Marcin, 11 8 

Maiidao, 58 

Malghan, 90 

Maxem, £S, 36 

Matinan, B9 

Masua, 45, 50 

Manein, as, g5, 96, 109, ll£, 

us, 134 
Matoaf, 80 
Mahein, 86 
Maiouief, 86 
Maban, 139 
Matoub, 80 
l^akran, 13B» 140, i4i 
Maooui, 147 
MaKh, 147 
Manah, I5l> 158 
Majeli, 18 
Marend, 157, l64 
Maaonn, 145 
MahmudAbad, i63 

Mantn, 167 
Makran, 146 
Maderan Roud, 167 
Matet Khouh, 173 
Malet, 188 
Mabin, 194, 196, 801 
Mahiah, 18 
Mahin, 194 
Maann, 210, 314 
Masi, 3 1 1 
Malgai, go 
Malef, 817 
Marabad, 8l7i sig 
Matheran, 217 
Malan, 319 
Mank, 884,235 
Matez, £28 
Markand, 333 
Madoiin, 848 
Manfercnje, £55 
Makakhea, 878 
Maberbouaar, 874 
Mah, 880 
Meket, 380 
Medmamehcket, £78 
Mebaderal Kcbri, 74, 78 
Merdangan, £78 
Melenk, S76> 884, £85 
Menek, 276, 8S9 
MerduRien, 875 
Mnalkal, 374 
Mcirgheh, ?73 
Medina, 66, 11? 
Medonaneh, 37£ 
Mergfienban, £7£ 
Memarujan, £71 
Meritikei, 266 
Meiek, 264 
Meaonjan, 145 
Melakhei, £48 
Medeminiah, 843 
Memha, 341 

Merda, 841 

Mersan, ££9 

Mcmur-rudd, £28 

MeruShahjan, 880 

Methkan, 86 

Merdin, 78 

Meroni, 147 

Mei, 106 

Metoaahi, 147, 150 

Meron, l£l 

Mcihari, 147 

Meimoun, 147, 151, l64 

Metihan, I4fi 

Mekran, 151, 15e, 158, I56» 

193, 193, 803 
Methkaneth, 113 
Me»keni, 153 
Med, 159 
Methkan, S6 
Matbah, 154 ' 
Meibed, 86 
Mehabari, 1 64 

Mcraghah, 157, i6£( 164, 166 
Merah, 166 
Memeid, 88, 111, us 
Mehil, 175 
Mealeh, 175, 188 
Memkan, 88 
Mcinta, 175 
Meikoubch, 181 
Mehein, isi 
Merdan, 90 
Meratik, 188 
Mezraiek, ig6 
Meila, 306 
Men, £13, eis, SI6, 8I7, 

££1, ££7, 888, 8S0 
Meterkan, isg 
Menulnid, 8IS, 814, tfO, 

£21, 882, £81 

Mcdar, 64 
Meniah, 64 

/■ ■ • ♦ 



Meki, 87 

Mehaian> 86i 

Meibed, 86 

Mesihar, 97 

Mcbadcral Kaberi, 74, 78 

Merzend Khan, 110 

Meden beni Salem, 26 

Mesoul, 97 

Mekianah, 27 

Mcdiounah, 27 

Meileth, 56 

Mesopotamia, 2, 38, 54, Sec. 

Medah, 89 ^ 

Meltiah, 38, 47, 50, 34. 55, 

Meraash, 38, 41, 49, 50 

Merzingan, 139 

Menajah, 139 

Mdireje, 139 

Memehes, 38 

Meftah, 73 

Mesjed Ibrahim, 40 

Medar, 73 

Mesrcs, 44 

Mesakenat, 89 

Menje, 44, 47, 49, 50 

Mecca, 128 

Mes, 96 

Mediterranean Sea, 2, 6, 7, 8, 

15, 19, 25,29,37,51, 51 

Mekeh, 102 

Mekia, 18 

Mehsah, 19 

Mifr (Egypt), 2, 4, 5, 7, 16, 

Mihra, 152, 169 
Mian, 268 
Mihran, 148, 150, 151, 154, 

Mihrjan, 229, 230, 140, 215 
Misan, 157 
Mihra, 152, 169 

Miougan, 141 

Miafarekin, 161, l65 

Mires, l64 

Mianeh, l64 

Mohar wan, 175 

Moghken, 252, 27 8 

Moumajez, 256 

Moghaneh, 275 

Moan, 47 

Mousul, 55, 56 

Moukan, 183, 162 

Mourjan, 182 

Mahirooiaa, 75, ill, 112, 116 

Mahrooian, 86, 90, 105 

Mourid, 93, 107 

Mouje Maiha, 97 

Mouje, 97 

Mour, 99 

Moaronan, 145 

Mohdi, no 

Mouekaf, 30 

Mourouan, 145 

Modhar, 58, 59 

Mohediah, 15, 17, 19* 22 

Multan,4, 147. 150, 151, 152, 

154, 155, 203. 
Maskehan, 197 
Mushirkan, 74, 75 


Nadonan, 88 

Naiel, 153 

Nabul, 153 

Nader, 90 

Nakhjevan, l65 

Naaroan, 166 

Naas, 212 

Naksheb, 238, 26O, 261, 275, 


Nat, 78 

X X 

Nahlah, 18 

Nahia, 26 

Nabolis, 40, 48 

Nasedan, 58 

Natdia, 45 

Nahr Saies, 71 

Nahr Allah, xiv 

Neamaniah, 71 

Netirah, 50 

Nethenan, 45 

Nesrin, 24 

Nehr Tiri, 74, 77, 80 

Nehrwan, 69 

Nebulis, 90 

Nedeheh, 146, 151, 154 

Nedeh, 154 

Neshoui, 157 ' '•' 

Nehavend, 167, 170 

Nemek, 181 

Nesa, 213, 229, 228 

Neshkukan, 218 

Neshin, 221 

Nekin, 241 

Neshamein, 264, 265 

Nehaket, 265 

Neskan, 267 

Nejcb, 275 

Nesoukh, 275 

Nescf, 279 

Nishapoar, 121, 172, 182, I94, 

197, 201, 208, 213, 2l4t 

215, 217, 221, 223, 2t7f 

228, 229 
Nile (River), 14, 30, SI, 99, 

33, 34, 35, 36, 37 
Nisibin, 55, 56, 60 
NoahKherik, 88 
Nourman, 239 
Nouran, 241 

Nubia, 4, 7, 9» 13, 14, 29, 31 
Nubehar, 224, 247 
Nukendeh, 247, 249 


Nuskeen, s 1 

NuKhani, ig6 

Nubendejan, go, 103, 105, 

Oman, ii, is, na, t84, ig3 
Omarehj IS, B8, 94, 1 1 1, lU 
Omm (Lake), 138 
Omm Bersereh, 197 
Ord (or Aurd), 97 
Ortbani, igi 
Orden. See Arden. 
Oxus. See Jihoun. 

Pars, 2, 3, 1 1, IS, 46, 78, 73, 
75, 77, 76, 79, 82, 83, B4, 
85, 86, 87, 9s, 94, 98, 100, 
105, 145, 169, 184, 192, 
194, 203, 206, eOb, 814, 

Palestine, 39,40, 48 

Pelcnk, 211 

Peir, 309 

Penjehir, 223, B24, 225, 226, 
Ml, ssa 

Fenian Sea, s, 4, 5, 6, 7, B, 
14, 81 

Pcrsepolis. See Istakhar. 

Pirouz, 154 
■ PirKurieh, 108 

Poul-i.nn-imoun, 164 

Pool-Scukin, 877 

Pol Andcroesh, 168 

Pasheng, 817, 218,219,222, 


Rahouk, isi 
Rasck, 147) 152 
Rakan, 167 
Ramer, 168 
Rasi, 169 
Ratal Kibb, 131 
Ravan, I9B 
Ram Sheheristan, 805 
Rawer, 223, l6e 
Rasiman, 260^ 
Rasf, 261 

Ram Hormuz, 73, 79 

Ramuz, 79, 80 

Rasein, 1 10 

Radan, 86, 87 

Ramjerd, 86 

Rahban, US 

Ramleh, 3g, 47, 48 

Razika, 58 

Raccafa, 55, 58«n, 55, 56, 57 

Rahabah-malek-ben Tawh, 59 

Ramnan, 11 

Raai, 15 

Rahey, 17 

Rebaiah, 27 

Red Sea {Sea of Kolzum), 4, 6, 

Rebehi, I5, 20, 21 

RebaaU, t-f) 

Rctnah, 47 

Remaa, 39 

Rekem, ■(■g 

Resajeh, 67 

Rey, 188, 1S7, 157, 161, l65, 
1G7, 168, 178, 174, 175, 
176, 177) 178, 180, 181, 
193, 194, 195, 196, 801, 


Rem in, 97 

ReKndgah (Keloudv], 1 07» 

Rekisa, 109 
Rchan, 8g 

R»hak, eg, 112, i44 
RcsatU, 153 
Reyan, IGO 
Renjan, iGg 
Rengan, 122, 179 
RcbacKass, 482 
Rcbat Wedarch, i82 
Rebaifiedreh, I95 
Rebat Aliben Rustam, 195 
RebatViran, 198 
Rebat Gouran, 200 
Rebat Gurreh, 300 
Reheje, 207 
Reha, 210, 811 
Remvadeb, 815 
Rebat Kirdan, 2i8 
Rebat, 247, 248, 250 
Reihestan, 248 
Rehieh, 848 
Rendieh, 252 
Rebond, 257 
Resmajen, 262 
Rebat Khedifli, 2G3 
Resban, 271 
Rendwamesj 272 
Rcbat Soghd, 273 
Rebat Ahmed, 274 
Rebai Abou AI Abaui, 274 
Rebat Azik, 275 
Rik Desht, 877 
Rik, 200 
Roum, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, e, 14^ 97, 

38,43, 45, 46, 47, 50, 51, 

52,54, 78, 16I) 188) I9O, 

Rous (Russia), 4, 5, lO, 185, 

186, 188, 190, 191 



Roumiah, 51| 52 

Rouad, 40 

Roudan Hcmed, 144 

Roubin, 145 

Rondan, 111, 112> 140 

Rouz, US 

Roustai Zem, gd 

Rouicst, 143 

Rouiahy 89 

Roustai Reshak> 89^ ISO 

Roustaky 11S> ISO 

Roud, 167 

Roha, 210, 211 

Rohaje, 210 

Roustaka, 248 

Rouleje, 262 

Rudi Turkestan, 267 

Rudi Kesaban, 259 

Rudeki, 256 

Rud Basegan, 247 

Rudi Kurd Khouas, 242 

RudAilch, 2S7f 2S8 

Ruzen, 229, 23 1 

Rud Kasan, 224 

Rud Anderabeh, 224 

Rudi Haas, 224 

Rud Yarkhoui, 2t8 

Rudi Amol, 216 

Rudi Sck, 207 

RudAamil, 207 

Rud Meila, 206 

RudShaabeh, 206 

Rudi Heirmend, 205 

Ruzi, 194 

Rudbar, 174 

Rudeh, 169 

Rud Rawer, 167, 168, 170 

Rugird, 167 

Rud, 154, 155, 164, 206 


SahdalArab, 130 

Sarsan, 68 

Samereh, 68,69, 7I972 
t Saidabad, 94 

Samarcand, ix,x, xi, 157, 232, 
233, 234, 237) 238, 248, 
249, 251, 252, 258, 254, 
255, 256, 257, 258, 259, 
260, 261, 262, 263, 268, 
273, 275, 276, 278 

Sahelal Kebri, 86, 107 

San, 89, 110, 221 

Samgan, 88 

Sarour, 93, 103 

Sasan, 79 

Saf-beni^al Seghar, 85, 88, 91, 

Saied, 32, 33, 37 
Salimiah, 48 
Samereh, 60, 62 
Salem, 26, 202 
Saiheh, 44 
Samisat, 44, 50, 54, 55, 57, 

Sanjan, 56 

Sarbanana, 177 

Sarrah, 26, 27 

Sarfasseh, or Sarkassass, 1 8 

Saveh, 1679 168, 131 

Sarien, 175 

Sari, 175, 179, 182 

Salous, 175, 183 

Sarbanan, 177 

Sarkhes, 213, 219, 221, 222, 

228, 230 
Sarnan, 215 
Satri, 2, 3 
Sa, 229 
Safzoun, 241 
Sam Kons, 245 

Saman, 304 

Samjir, 248 

Samjer Maweralnahr, 248 

Sawat, 255, 256 

Sarouan, 257 

Sameket, 262, 263 

Sabat, 262, 263, 273 

Sarin, 262 

Saket, 265 

Saoudad, 265 

Sailaa, 267 

Saweket, 273 

Saferoun, 278 

Sabat, 280 

Scythian, 180 

Sclavonia (Siklab), 4, 5, 7, 9, 

10, 37 
Sebourket, 280 
Seher, 279 
Scdoun, 275 
Selket, 274 
Senjan, 274 
Selab, 272 
Selikend, 272 
Senjat, 268 
Sehaket, 266 
Seket, 265 
Semendeh, 263, 264 
Selisedeh Bclis, 262 
Scnk Kerdeh Beroubin, 260 
Senk Kerdeh Deroubein, 260 
Setrushtah, 257, 258, 261, 

262, 263, 264, 269, 276, 

Sehcker, 262 
Senaa, 254 
Seif Omareh, 88 
Sefli, 87, 122, 248, 249 
Seroukeseh, 246 
Serigan, 138, 139, 143 
Sekinch, 239 
Sedreh, 74 



Scboijan, 230 

Senkub, il6 

Sener^ 1I3 

Serder, 113 

Setouder, 1 13 

Sef«reh, 88 

Seluined, 22g 

Selmba, 43 

Sckaiut, 88 

Sckan, 3ag 

Seghur Sham, SB, 50, &7 

Sekandereb, 323, 2S4 

Seif-beni Zohcir, 1 1 8 

Serai Aasim, 233 

Scghar Jeiirah, 38, ^o 

Sehekemctt, 333 

Senjan, 83, 90, 330, S31, 

Sckilkend, 339 

Senjir, 56 

Selian, 74 

Senxngan, 339 

Sey, 64 

Seira, 330 

Senkdc, aii 

Seida, 49 

Sejestan, 46, 218 

Seradsin, 87 

Seiishian, 3 is 

Setden, 8? 

Semcian, 86, 113 

Sepid Asenlc, si8 

Selutik, eia 

Serout, 47 

Sehizan, 2 1 1 

Senlcin, 111 

Serur, 309 

Sek, S07 

Seibnd, 306 

Sebirud, 306 

Sebaaid, 300 

Seis, 90 

Sekan, 106 

Seicstan, 3, 138, 139, UO, 

192, 193, 194, S02, 303, 

805, 206, S07, 308, a09, 

311, 312, 318, 283 
Seinid, 188 
Semender, 185 
Senije, 60 
Scrain, 183 
Scndaneit, 183 
Selimiah, 48 
Semnan, 169, 175, 17C, 178, 

183, 194, 196 
Seiit, 177 

Sdlan, 133, 156, 173 
Seinireh, 73, 169, 170, 171, 

Sebeneh, 167 
Scronali, )6l 
Seirwan, 61, 62 
Serir, 159, I84, I87, 188,193 
Servan, 156, I68, I69, 170, 

171, 172, 218 
Seimcreh, 61,63 
Selntas, 157, lG4, l6s 
Senja, 69 
Seidan, 147 
Sejelmarah, 17, 31 
Sedusan, 147, 150, 151, 154 
Serin, 4, 5 
Scrlaier, S9 
Sham (Syria), 2, 4, 7, 35, 37, 

38, 39, 4S, 45, 47, 48, +9, 

51, 53 
Sherah, 38, 40, 48, 78 
Sfacbirz, 44 
Shchrzour, 61, 62. 69, 16s, 

71, 172 
Shateif, 16, 2e, s? - 
Shehr, 145 
Shirkan, 144 
Shetmsiah, 67 
Shouiab, 105 

Shushter, 75, 76, 77, 79 

Shaab Bouan, xiv, xv, 90, tOj 

Shekireh, 90 

Sliek Kimun, )02 

Shapour, 82, 89, 90, gi, gs, 
97> 99i 103, 129, 135, 168 

Shabaleg, yH 

Shehran, 88 

Shekel r, 88 

Shukal-:cshjk, 89, sg 

Shehr Leshknr, 73 

Shushter, 73, 74 

Shir, 108 

Shcrazu (Zem], 89 

Shiraz, 82, 83, 87, 93, 99, 
100, 103, 104, 106, 107, 
108, no, 113, 116, 119, 
122, 135, 128, ISl, 132, 
135, 137, &C. ■ 

Shahning, 87 

Shehristan, 87, 205 ■ 

Shadafzai, 97 

Shaberan, 159 

Shirvan, 160, 163, l64, 186 
oakhy, 160, 163 

Shabenu), 160 

Shemkour, 160, l6s, 164 

Shroasend, 160 

Shahan, 166, 169 

Sherwend, 167, 171 

ShaberKbout, 167* 168, I7I, 

Shehnid, l6g 

ShehnuT, 175 

Shelineh, 177 

Sbour, 197, 19s, igg, soi 

Shaabeh, soW 

Shcker Kfaaran, 217 

Shiurkan, 221 

Shehran, 233 

Shebangateh, xxiii 


Shiukan, 231 

Shuh, vii, 333 

ShumaD) 240 

Shik, 248 


Shuk Hosein, 91* 

Shuk Kenmd, 874 

Shouman, S?9 

Sheer, 106 

Sikaliah (Sicily), GS 

Singe, 139 

Sir Kooh, 106 

Sihan (Rirer), 46 

Sirin, le, 95 

Siraf, 11, SS, 88, 104, lOS, 

111, 11^ lis, 115, 193 
Sinir, 11, 105 
Sind, i, 4, S, ISy li7, liB, 

155, 19s, S09 
SikUh (Sclavonial, 8, 5, 7j Oi 

10, 97, 244 
Sah Koah (^Kk Mounain), 

8> 1B4, 185, 194, 8O9 

Sironab, 87 
Sino Kan, 107 
Seif-alAbi, 88 
SiaichRod, «0S 
Sibaieh, 206 
Sirab, 210 
Stacab> 2 LB 
SiaTCthan, 818 
Siroiuhteh, 838 
Siodiah, 147 
Sindan, 154 
Sinai, eg 
Simieh, l68 
Siam, 859 
Slnkh^ 266 
Sour iTyft)t 40, 4B, *7* 
Sonkh, 27s 
. 104 

Soghd, 838, 83<, 837« £98i 
845, 849, 3SI> B6^> £901 
256, e5«, 862, sCie, £68j 
264, 265, S7B, 879 

Sourbah, 1 54, 167 

Soara, 6s 

Souk Asunbeil, ?4 

Souk.aUarbaa, 7* 

Sool^Khest, loe 

Soak, 74j 98 

Seoanjan, 89 

Solymanaiw 74, 75 

Souidadi, go 

Soordan, 145 
I, 61 

Souad, 61 

Sodom, 47 

Spain, See Andalus. 

Spahawn, or Iipahan, 78, 781 
167, i6e, l6g. Sec. 

Sunideb, 960 

Surim, 268 

Sunekh, 279 

Sureh, 147 

Sutemder, 191, 192 

Sam teder, 1 9 1 

Sumiider, 192 

Sui Dnardeh, igS' 

Surmin, Sfil 

Siuikan, 2S0 

Sui, 15, 79, 76,77,80 

Sumbei], 77, 78 

Svrmek, 90, 113 

Sanneb, 86,93 

Siu Akii, J7, 20 

Syria (Sham). 2, 4, 7, 35, 51, 


Tar&h, 17 

Taraoiuah, 19, 51, S3 

Tanjah, «0, 5J. 

Taboath, is, 17, 21,22,87, 

Taiek (GibralUr), 19, 20 
Tabertba, or Tiberiah, 48^.100 
Tab (River), 84 
Tangiera. See Tanjah. 
Tarkhinfan, 86 
Tabaristan, 3, J81, J58, 159, 

174, 175, 178, 179, !«>» 

182, 183, SI2, 817, ice. 
Taiboul a1 KatriaD, S7 
Taberah, 3g 

Tanous, 43, 4S, 46, £0, Ji 
Tacrith, 56, 59, Gi> 6s, 69, 

Tawb, 59 
Tarkbinian, or Tarjeniaa, $9, 


Talat, 89 

Tasimoixi, 158 

Tabriz, 157, 164 

Tairbcran, IS9 

Tarem, 168, 174 

Tawet Sonareo^ i64 

Taknn, 169 

Talebw, 176, 206, 920 

Tauk, flOS, 811, 212 

Taikan, 229,884,290,881 

Taheriah, 841,875 

Tejeket, 874 

Teb, 74 

Teib, 61, 78, SO 

TewHije, 87 

Tebisan, sg 

Tel Deilemi, 131 

Tescnkb, 98 

Temiun, lio 



Terican^ 144 

Tel beni Seiar, 60 

Tehiaihah, 27 

Teran, 87 

Tends (Tunis, orTeinisc, 34, 

Terkoam, 36 
Tetar, 154 
Teflis, 160, 162, 164 
Teraa, l6« 
Temseir, 176 
Tcrjy, 182 
Temisheh, 182 
Terka, 106 

Tdis, 197 

Tel-i-siah ve Scpced, 200 

Tel, 207 

Tebin, 222 

Termed, 225, 228, 229, 288, 

239, 2t0, 277 

Tebsein, 231 
Tebsein Merian, 231 
Teran, 238 
Telengan, 249 
Teraz, 268, 269, 274 
Tharcb, 49 
Themabin, 60 
Tirar, 87 
TirMerdan, 90 
Tibcriah, 20, 40, 48, 160 
Tigris (see Dejleh), 162 
Tibet, XX, 4, 10, 12, 233, 239, 

Tiah beni Israd, 29 
Tokharestan, 4, 213, 223, 224 
Toletiah, 18 
Tolctilah, 25, 26, 27 
Tour Sina (Mount Sinai), 29 
Touje, 106, 112, 132 
Touran, 146, 151, 154, 232 
Toshereth, 192 
Toghahi, 267 

Touabes, 248 

Tous, 215 

Tooaveis, 249, 250, 252, 2^3, 


Touan, 271 

Trabolis, 43, 48, 49 

Trablis, 16, 19 

Trabzoun, 161 

Turezhumeh, 169 

Turkestan, 9, 180, 212, 222, 
226, 232, 233, 238, 239, 
259, 265, 267, 270, 271, 

272, 273, 298, &C. 
Tuskeen, 210 
Turkan, 213 
Tuncat, vii 
Tyre, 40, 48 

Ummabad, 220 ^ 


Varein (Desht), 130, 131, 131 

Vameiz, 177 

Valein, 230 

Vashir, 145 

Vernan, 163 

Verin, 218 

Veis, 248 

Veireh, 275 

Viran, 193 


Waset, 61, 62, 65, 66, 71, 72, 

Wazin, 88. 
Wahh, 22, 29, 34 

Wadi al hejar, 18, 26 
Wahat, 54 
Warghes, 255 
Waakes, 262 
Wanket, 271 
Waaiket, 278 
Waaketh, 282 
Wehmeh, 177 
Wedarch, 182 
Werwa, 223 
Wekshab, 232, 239, 276 
Wekhsh, 239 
Weishkird, 239, 240, 277 
Wera, 247, 248 
Werkaheh, 249 
Weddan, 255, 258, 279 
Werd, 260 
Welanket, 265 
Werdil, 265 
Weheket, 266 
Wdrkan, 278 
Wirdgird, 167, 168, 170 


Yajooge, xxvii, 7, 8, 9, 10 

Yar, 167 

Yarkhoui, 218 

Yemen, 11, 13, 14, 132, 194, 

292, 293, 299 
Yezd, 86, 102, 111, 113, 182. 

139, 194 
Yemameh, 193 
Yest, 198, 200 


Zareid, 154, 145, 143 
Zawieh, 78 
I Zakoureth, 87 



Zabein, 59 

Zaar, 48 

Zarieh, 45 

Zamin, 274, 276, S80 

Zalinkieti 980 

Zadakhour, 201 

Zadakherft, 201 

Zarinje, 200 

Zam, 213, 226,229,239.240 

Zarkah, 250 

Zarghem, 255, 237 

Zamkird, 257 

Zebidiah, 166, 278 

Zeitoun, 277 

Zerian, 273 

Zeirin, 271, 272 

Zeidin, gl^ 

Zerinje, 205, 207 

Zemgen, l64, 165, 179> 180 

Zemgan, 162 

Zeitrah, 45 

Zeilaa, 14 

Zem, 82, 112 

Zcif, 33, 37 

Zem Shehrazu, 89 

Zerend, 139 

Zingbar, 14, 31 

Zingan, 162 

Zingy, 201 

Zozen, 215 

Zoha, 58 

Zouilah, 15, 17} 21, 22, 27 

Zouialah, 27 

Zubidieh, 166 

Zualien, 223, 224 

Zyad Abad, 107* 

[See thofe already noticed in page 308.] 

Preface, Page iv, line 20, for iV, read le. 

Page 42, . . 23, for Molk^ read Malek. 

5, for Molk^ read Maiek. 
7, for Kosbhuf read Kbosbbu. 
. T 6, for Kaujaby read Kanjab. 

. 10, for jr|il read JS^j\ 

- 84, 


NOV 2 7 1019^ 

WILD-COURT, Lincoln's inn fields, London*