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Full text of "The Oriental herald and colonial review [ed. by J.S. Buckingham]."

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THE 



ORIENTAL HERALD, 



AND JOURNAL OF 



GENERAL LTTERATUKE. 



VOL. X. 

JULY TO SEPTEMBER, \(;v ^ v^ 
1826. 



V 




PRINTED FOR THE EDITOR, AND SOLD BY ALL BOOKSELLERS 

MDCCCXXVI. 



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THE ORIENTAL HERALD. 



No. 31.— JULY 1826.— Vol. 10. 



D*HBRBEL0T'8 BIBUOTHBQVB OSlBfTTALB. 

The stndy of Oriental languas^^s is never likely to become 
popular in Europe ; for, besides tnat we have g^enerally little 
interest in making ourselves conversant with them, their genius? 
and stmcture appear alien from our tastes 'and* notions. The 
BiU^, to be sure, leads ua very early to enteitfun a cnrioslty . 
respecting thenations of Western Asia, both ancient and QB/Or 
dem, and this, in some instances, conducts the enterprising! 
scholar beyond the limits of Hebrew literature,- to the lain'guage. 
of Arabia, and the r^nnants that remain of ^ the learning of 
Chaldea and Syria. But, although we ..cpinmohly continue to 
neglect the conjugation of Oriental ve)rbs. Eastern history and. 
manners are far from being indifferent to us. We, in fact,t 
peruse with avidity those numerous Travels and M^noirs which 
describe the countries of the East ; and with great reason, for 
in them, human nature has always worn ita strangest .aspects. 
From thence, whatever is most true and most false in .reliffipn, • 
most noble and most degraded in manners, mpst splendid in : 
science and most contemptible in Ignorance,'. has pipiceeded. ,- 
Whether, therefore, we contemplate Asia as the mother of idols, 
or as the inventress of sciences and arts, still she is an august 
spectacle; and the author that paints her as he ought, can be^^ 
no vulgar individual. 

Compilation may, at first, appear to require but little genius.' 
Reduced toniere CQpying, it, ot course, asks nothing except in- 
dastry ; but properly to compile, a man nmst know bow,to.sd,ect / 
Ilia nuiteridh' with judgment, and arrange them ,w;ith* art ; ap- . 
preciate testimonies and actions ; examine motives; delineate 
character, comprehend the importance of events; and, lastly, , 
to ddiver the knowledge he extracts from various men in a per- , 
smcnoos and pleasing style. The difficulty of accomplishing 
tbis h very much increased, if the writer have to compile from 
the Oriental tongues, should he understand them ever so well ; 
because, whether the Eastern style of composition be worse than 
OrUnM Herald, Vol, la B 



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2 JJHerbelofa Bibliotheque Orientale. 

ours or^not, it is exceedingly different, and, with one or two 
exceptions, has never been relished in Europe. Yet it is very 
hard for a writer, habituidly conversing with particular forms 
of exp^e^sionV so to leep'wutch over fis style ai that none of 
these barbarisms, as we call them, shall creep into it. Indeed, 
it is nearly impossible. For, g^rantiiig that the writer sets out 
an orthodox critic, his reverence Cor the canons of his language 
lessens perpetually, till he ends at ^ength in admiring what at 
first it was h's chief endeavour to avoid. A man maj very justly, 
therefore, claim indulgenc , if, in such a task, he fails of guarding 
entirely against foreign idioms ; but indulgence is not praise ; 
and the more frequentlv an author makes claims upon our gene- 
rosity, the farther is he from our admiration. However, we 
relax much of our demands, if, as in the case of the ^ Bibliotheque 
Qrien^\^,' the andertakii^g of t^ie writer be of great ma^ituoe ; 
as oth^r cares then call away the attention from the elegaacie& 
of langu^e. 

But Oriental scholars are sometimrs liable to adopt the 
opini&»0, as well as the rhetorical igures of the East. Sale 
was nearly, if not altogether, a Mohammedan ; and other travel- 
lers of tnore modern date hav been knovm to prefer the Koran 
to the Hebrew Scriptures. We wish not, in the least, to insi- 
nuate that D'Herbelot was infected with Islamism ; his eulogist, 
Hie President Cousin, assures us of the contrary ; for, as he was 
no Mohammedan, we may consider his attributing 9oUd piety to 
our great Eastern scholar, a complete proof tnat he meant 
Christian piety, though he does not so qualify it. Our design 
in mentioning the fact, that the study of Oriental literature 
has been known to generate a belief in Oriental creeds, ia 
merely to show how very prone we may expect men to be, to 
pass from those studies to the adoption of a foreign taste, a 
thing of so much less importance. 

The * Bibliotheaue Orientale' is one of those books which are 
chiefly known to «ie public at second-hand, from a few scanty 
ektr&cts scattered about in move popular productions. In itseff 
It is too voluminous to be popular. But we have frequently 
tho^ht it deserved to be much more extensively known than it 
has hitherto been ; and shall now endeavour, by succinctly in- 
forming onr readers what sort of entertainment it affords, to 
recotofneryd it to as many as delight in extending their intel- 
i^tual ei^ire. To render our notice of this vast compilation as 
complete as we can, we shall first speak a little of its author, pre- 
mising only, that we have never yet seen any thing resembling 
a good biography of him, and gather what we are about to say 
from the meagre hints of Mr. Cousin's Eloge, and the * Bio- 
graphie TJniverselle.' 

M.D'Herbelot wasbom, at Paris, on the4th of I>ecember,1625. 



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He was descended from a fetpeetabU fiutulp,, liid received fronr 
hrk pat eats the radiinent* of a laaracd edacatmi. A predilection' 
for Oriental literature Beeau to have taken very early possession 
of his mind, and may ^ibaps be trai^Q^ |o the desire he con- 
ceived of acquiring an intimate knowIecTge of the laag^uaee and 
history of the Bible. He applied him elf Avith particular in- 
dustry to the Hebrew language, and passed by an easy transi- 
tion from thence ta the Arabic. His enthusiasm for the branch 
of literature he had chosen, at that time cultivated but little in 
Europe, BOW led him into Italy, wbere he expected to meet with 
considerable aid in the prosecution of his studies, from the con- 
versation of those Armenians, and other Eastern people^ whom 
commerce attracted to the ports of that country^. lie was re- 
ceived in a very flattering manner by the Car^nals Barbarini 
and Grimaldi, at Rome ; and formed in the same city an inti- 
mate friendship with Lucas Holstenius, and Leo AUatius, two 
ot the most learned and celebrate 4 men of those times.. Chris- 
tina, queen of Sweden, was then at Marseilles, in France, andr 
fts that princess affected great admiration for learned men,, 
Cardinal Grimaldi introduced our g^reat Orientalist to Her Ma- 
jesty, who felt exceedingly astoni^ed at his immense erudition. 
On his return to Paris, after an absence of about eighteen 
months, Fouquet, the superintendant of finance, invited him to 
reside at his house, and granted him a small pension, agreeably 
to the mode then prevalent of rewarding literary nierit. After 
the disgrace of Fouquet, for whom^ we are told, D'Herbelot 
had a particular attachment, the Court promoted him t3 the 
post of Oriental Secretary and Interpreter. 

Some few years afterwards, he made a seetrnd j<Miraey ' inti^ 
Italy, daring which he was introduced to FerdinaBd II., Grand 
Duke oS Tuscan y, who did him the hononr te h Id frequent con- 
versations with aim ; and mtoreover, out of respect for his learn^ 
iDfir and agreeable manners, gave him k moat pressing invitatlen 
to his royal palace at Florence. Onr author's elogist, the Pre-> 
sident Consm, speaks wi h peculiar emphasis of the ^egantlv 
furnished house, well covered taUe, and fine carriage, which 
His Serene Highness placed at the serriee of I>'HerbeIot« 
daring his stay at Florence ; bat, ahhongh we ondervalae not 
ihe carriage and the good dinners, we are much better pleased 
with another instance of His Highnesses generosity, wbieb ia 
one thai really reflects honour on his memory. It seems that 
while the great Orientalist was at Florence, a lavge collection 
of HSS. in the languages of the East, was offered for sale : Fer- 
dinand, being desirous of purchasing the most valuable of them, 
requested his illu&trious visitor to examine the whole, and having; 
selected the best, to fix what be might consider a just price for 
them. D'Herbelot, who must have felt a pleasu,re in choosing 
for the library of so munificent a prince, readily did as he wfi3 

B9 



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4 Jyaerbelofs Biblioihefuii OHeniak. 

desired. When the selection had been made, the Grand Duke 
became the parohaser, and, to give his gaest a lasting token of 
his friendship, presented him with the whole. 

The munificence of Ferdinand operated stiB more for the 
good of D'Herbelot in another way : it excited the jealousy of 
tne French Government, which, although it might occasiunaUj 
think proper to neglect a learned man at home, could not con* 
sent to stand tamely by, and see him driven to accept the pa- 
tronage of a foreign prince. Observing, therefore, that D'Hcp- 
belot was about to become domiciliated at Florence, to the no- 
small reproach of France, Colbert now caused him to be invited 
back to his country, with strong assurances that he would meet, 
on his return, with solid proofs of the reputation and esteem he 
had acquired. It was not, however, without much difficulty 
that he obtained the Grand Duke's permission to leave Florence ; 
for Ferdinand seems to have possessed sufficient tact to discern 
in him the marks of an extraordinary man. Returning to 
Fraince, he had the honour, and a vast honour it was, in the 
bpinion of his elogist, to converse several times with the king* 
who, to do him justice, was remarkably desirous of buying up 
Yearned men almost at any price, and therefore granted D'Her- 
belot a pension of fifteen hundred livres per annum. Possessed 
of leisure, and what was equivalent to a small independence, he 
now pursued the desigp he had formed in Italy of writing the 
• Bibliotheque Orientale.' At first he very strangely compiled 
his materials in Arabic ; and it was intended by M. Colbert to 
have Arabic types cast expressly for the purpose, and have the 
work printed at the Louvre. Fortunately this foolish design, 
which would have efi'ectually extinguished all M. D'Herbelot 's 
chances of fame, was abandoned ; the portions of the work 
already written were translated, and the remainder continued 
ia French. He lived not to su<:erintend the publication of the 
*• Bibliotheque Orientale,' which fell to the lot of Antoine Gal- 
land, the immortal translator of the ' Arabian Nights' Enter- 
tainments.' D'Herbelot did not, however, die young, being 
within a few days of the" threescore years and ten," fixed by 
the Bible as the natural period of human life. His character, 
according to his biographer, was that of an amiable, modest 
nan ; his immense eruption having not tended in the least to 
disturb the original equanimity of his disposition. 

It is exceedingly difficult at present to understand the cha- 
racter of a scholar of the seventeenth century : his capacity to 
labour, his patience in research, his readiness to store nis mind 
with the languages of various nations, are almost inconceivable 
now. Anxious, as scholars ever must be, to acquire reputation, 
he never rushed impatiently before the public to demand their 
praise ; his love of fame he nourished in secret, and was abund- 



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D^HerbOofs BibH&thiiue Ortentak. I 

iiitly deli||;lited If the pej hair and the bay appeared upon his 
temples tomther. This was especially the case with Oriental 
schdan. Certain they could have bat few genuine admirers, 
because but a small number of their countrymen understood the 
leamine on which their ^lory was founded, they patiently 
awaited the gradual spreading of their name, and sometimes, as 
in the case of D'Herbelot, rdied upon posthumous publication 
for going down to posterity. 

The learning of D'Herbelot consisted not in the knowledge 
of mere words ; for, although he understood critically the Latin, 
die Greek, the Hebrew, the Chaldaic, the Syriac, the Arabic, 
the Persian, and the Turkish languages, he was still more pro- 
foundly versed in the laws, history, and manners of Oriental 
nations ; his sole object, in studying the various dialects of the . 
Eastern people, bein^, to ac^nire oy that means a more com- 
plete acquaintance with their ideas and opinions. He does not 
seem to have been led accidentally to tnink of publishing his 
researches, as is the ease with many authors, but to have formed 
from the beginning the dteign of aiming at literal^ fame ; and 
though the fruit of his studies was produced late, this was owing 
to the vastness of his plan, not to any relaxation in the ardour 
and energy with which he pursued it. WhOe merely engaged 
in nreparing himself to execute this great undertaking* he ac- 
tuaJly accomplished an enterprise that would have been consi- 



dered by many a task sufficient to occupy a whole life ; ob- 
serving that, for want of proper helps, the acquiring of Oriental 
languages was rendered exceedingly tedious, he actually com- 



piled a Turkish and Persian Dictionary, in three volumes folio, 
which Galland reckoned the best by far that had ever been 
written. 

Having acquired the necessary langna^, his next step was 
to majLC collections, which he translated mto French, of what- 
ever was curious or instructive respecting the East ; these 
materials he afterwards divided into two parts, to the first of 
which he gave the name of ' The Oriental Library,' the work 
now before us ; the second, which he denominated ' Florile- 

g'lum,' or ' Anthology,' we believe was never published. • M. 
aUand, the editor of the ' Bibliotheque Orientale,' observes, 
that tills work in reality is an abridgement of all the Oriental 
books DUerbelot had ever read, and contains the history of the 
East, from the creation down to the times in which the authcH* 
lived, together with a species of introduction, in which are re- 
lated the exploits of the pre-adamite Sultans, princes who 
reigned before the period assigned by the Mosaic chronology, to 
the creation. 

In perusing the history of all ancient countries, we first pass 
through the dominion of fable, peopled with beings mteresting. 

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or olherwise, aceordingf to Ae genius of the nation who eroated 
them. Heroes and demi«ffods amuse U8 in the ancient relations 
of Greece and Egypt ; and the Asiatic nations have their Diret 
and Peris, races of creatures that inhabited the world, and 
warred and loved before the creation of Adam. Perhaps the 
fkbles, which are in the mouth of every Persian poet, relating^ to 
these beings, may be built upon certain obscure traditions of 
creatures and events not altogether fabulous : the vast anti- 
quity which nearly all Oriental nations attribute to the world, 
is not by any means so improbable as is vulgarly imagined ; for 
fdthough the peiiod anterior to the birth ofgenuine history has 
been usurp^ oy poets and mytholc^ists, there is, even in their 
tsarvellous commonwealth, sufficient light to show the homan 
OQuntenanoe, however dimly and imperfectly. 

But, setting aside all speculations of this kind, the mythology 
of the fiast is a collection of splendid Ibneies, richly poetieu, 
and wonderfully various. Every European reader has bad hia 
Imagination stirred and ennobled by the genii and magical 

{ersonagfes of the ^ Arabian Nights,' which is commonly the 
rst book by which we are initiated into the mysteries of in- 
vention ; and recently, all admirers of sublime fiction, enlivened 
by singular wit and humour, have again been led back to the 
Wild vagaries of Oriental fancy, by the History of the Cal ph 
Vathek. In P'Herbelof , the rea er will meet with dil the my- 
thological personages of the East, elofhed with an air of vera-^ 
city, and all the distinguishing attributes bestowed on them by 
the poets. 

By their manner of relating the history of patriarchs and 
prophets, the Arabs have transformed the heroes of scripture 
into a kind of mythological existences. Ail the events of the 
Jewish history are distorted in their version from their orinrinal 
form, being, in most instances, adorned with new supernatural 
ornaments, much more sarp* ising than their original accom- 
paniments. Ignorant nations know of no impossibilities, be- 
cause they never reason on the laws of nature. To t em, mi- 
racles and prodigies appear every-day occurrences, and are ad- 
mired in proportion to their extravagance. As civilization 
advances, supernatural events become of more rare occurrence ; 
nations think more of themselves, and less of the powers abore 
them ; actions drop down to the level of possibility, and the 
historian abandons prodisries to the poet. Nevertheless, an. 
examination of the legends of the East, of those trore especially 
which relate to Palestme and its ancient inhabitants, may not 
be without its utiKty : in them we see the principal characters 
of the Hebrew Scriptures as they appear to the Arabs, who, re-* 
M i m x fmn ttme immemorial m. the neighbourhood of the coun- 
Uj where they petformrd their explwts, have some claim toi be 



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lieard on the snl^eet. Josephus's version of the Jewish history 
in different I in many respects, from that of the Bible ; the Arabic 
aecount of the same transactions is distinguished 9t6m both, 
and chiedy bj being more marvellous and circumstantial. 
Oriental historians spare no expense of miracles to give splen<- 
dour and piquiincy to their relations; and in default' of exact 
testimony, suppose themselves present at certain actions, and 
detail what they imagine must have taken place. They can 
tell to a syllable what Joseph said to Zulieka, the wife of Foti- 
^lar, in reply to her amorous advances ; nay, five an exact 
report of the dialogue which passed between Goa and Eblis on 
the creation of man. 

Following the vicissitudes of the human race, the first great 
event after the deluge, which wri find noticed by Oriental 
writers, is the establishment of?|he Persian monarchy by 
Kalumarth, the founder of the Pischdadiaiidyiiasty. After these, 
succeeds the race of the CaTnides, which ended in the person 
of l>arius, defeated and slain in the wars with the Macedonians. 
The achievements of Alexander enter also into the story of the 
East, where they appear in the light in which they were viewed, 
when they happened, by the Asiatic nations. A th'rd race of 
Persian kings, the Ashcanian dynasty, next come under our view ; 
and these, again, are succeeded by the Arsacides arid Sassanians ; 
the latter of which fell, in the person of Yexdejerd, with the 
emtiire itself, the sovereignty of which then passed into the 
hands of the Mohammedans. All these revolutions are related 
in the ' Bibliotheque Orientale,' upon the authority of original 
historians. 

The series of events next in order of time, relate to the esta* 
blishment of the northern empires of Asia. Reposing upon the 
authority of the Bible, and working out its succinct narratives 
into extensive and minute details, the nations of the East deli- 
neate authoritatively the migration and settlement of tribes ; the 
origin and p ogress of nations and languages ; the f tundirig of 
institutions and cities ; and the particulars of wars which, >^ the 
remotest times, disfigured the surface of Asia. Immediately 
after the delude, the adventurous posterity of Japhet pushed their 
migrations, they say, through Scythia, and the neart of xAsia, to 
China and the limits of the old world ; scattering, as they pro- 
ceeded, the seeds of those mighty races of men, which, a ter- 
wards, under the name of Scythians, I'artars, Mongols, Huns, 
Yandals, and Goths, overflowed their obscure seats, and carried 
terror and desolation over the habitations of civilization and the 
arts. "Whatever decree of credit the reader may think due to 
these ti^itions of Japhet and his offspring, he will not fail to 
tfekiiowled^e that the vast movements of rafe tribes of central 
Asb, Whktt, i^ ^ ^^i fa&ve pressed upon and terrified the 



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9 D'H^rifilofs Bimaiheque OrieabOe. 

less warlike inhabitants of the south, are^ sutjects worthy hil 
profoundest attention. Thence have issuea, aaccesstvelyy 
Attila, Genghis Khan, Baton, Holagou, Timour, and Nadir 
Shah, names rendered celebrated by the gpreat, but destructive 
qualities of their possessors. 

A distinct series of erents, taking their rise in the hypocrisy 
or fanaticism of Mohammed, occupies a large portion of the 
' Bibliotheaue Orieatale.' It is a subject, too, which deserres 
to be profoundly contemplated. Temporal empires, whether 
founded by policy or the sword, are transient and fleeting, 
compared wito those spiritual dominions established by religious 
enthusiasm. Chains and yokes may be shattered by courage ; 
but an idea, an opinion, a oelief, once firmly seated in the mind, 
bids defiance to revolution, and is only to oe worn away by the 
blow-wasting footstep of time. Look at the history of mankind ; 
see the miraculous eff'ects of indefatigable zeal. A man, formed 
apparently, both in body and in mind, like other men, starts up. 
among his species, by art and eloquence subdues their aversion, 
to servitude ; insinuates into their minds what roots of action 
he pleases, (for opinions are the roots of action) ; and moreover, 
contrives that they shall flourish, in spite of refinement and civi- 
lization, until half the world has been bewildered and infatuated 
by them. The origin of those opinions which now pass current 
in the streets of London and Paris is lost in the obscurity of 
antiquity ; some of them were hatched in the head of a man 
who tended sheep 4,000 years ago, in the neighbourhood of the 
Red Sea ; some sprang up in the mitred heaids of the Babylo- 
nian Magi. Opinions, in fact, appear to be almost indestruc- 
tible, like the first matter. They are the instruments of great 
men, and the' lords of the vulgar ; land may, like veils be thrown 
over beauty of mind, or conceal, beneath their folds, the hideous 
features of depravity. 

D'Herbelot very justly regarded the vicissitudes of the Ca*. 
liphate as a matter most worthy of his study ; he perused the 
Oriental vnriters, who treat of this subject, with peculiar atten- 
tion ; he amassed the most ample materials for the history of it ; 
and it may, we think, be said, even now, that no work in any 
European language contains so large and complete an account 
of the fortunes of Mohammedanism as the ' Bibliotheque Orien- 
tale.' To one splendid period of the Caliphate, the reign of 
Haroun al Rascbid, our minds are very early directed by the 
Arabian Nights, which are read by every body ; to its decline, 
by the Crusades, and the romantic exploits of our King Richard, 
and his great rival Saladin. BecMord's tale of ^ Yathek,' 
which must be as lasting as our language, has also its share in 
conferring glory on the Caliphate ; for fiction runs more ex- 
tensively through society than history, being written on pur- 



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pose to please ; whereas, history is c<Himosed merely to inform 
posterity what has happened in the world. In D'Herbelot. the 
reader may make the acoaaintance of Haroun and his Vizier 
Giafar, with Zobelde, ana the ladies of her court ; though we 
will not answer for his finding them quite so interesting as 
in the story of the * Sleeper Awakened/ or, the 'Three 
Calenders.' 

In onr estimation, this portion of the *• Bibliotheque Orien* 
tale,' which relates to the Caliphs of Bagdad, is by far the most 
delightful ; for the mind loves to find itself standing on firm 
gronnd, where it expected to meet with nothing but baseless 
fiction. The manners, likewise, of the early Commanders of 
the Faithful were splendid and striking ; they were, many of 
them, g^reat conquerors or great scholars ; their seat of empire 
rose preeminent over all the cities of the East ; and their sub* 
jects were more thoroughly imbued with enthusiam, piety, and 
valonr, than any nation then existing. It might be expected, 
therefore, that I)*Herbelot's account of these spiritual princes, 
and their subjects, would be full of interest, and it is so. 
Amaied himself at their magnificence, he paints, but with a 
diflident hand, the glories of Bagdad, Damascus, and Samarah ; 
the pomp and luxury of the princes who inhabited them ; their 
palaces, libraries, retinues, and armies. 

The picture which D'Herbelot has given, from Oriental 
writers, of the manners of the Tartars, agrees, as M. Galland 
observes, exactly with that anciently drawn of the same people 
by Qnitotus Curtius; their simplicity, their candour, their 
sentiments, their contempt of ambition, and, in short, their 
whole manner of life, remaining still unaltered. But were we 
disposed to convert our notice into a naked table of contents, 
it would still be impossible to enumerate the rich materials of 
so vast a work, which contains no less than eight thousand six 
h mdf g d articles ; to convey a general idea, however, of what is 
to be found in it, in addition to what we have already spoken of, 
we may briefly mention that it gives an ample account of the wars 
of the Caliphs and of the Ottoman Sultans with the Greek Em* 
perors ; of the Crusades ; of the Musulman religion, its schisms^ 
neresies, sects, and the wars these have carried on against each 
other ; the doctrines thev have professed ; their agreement or 
disasri^eement with the &oran ; the biography of Musulman 
sheikhs or saints ; of its doctors, lawyers, philosophers, mathe- 
matieians, historians, physicians, poets ; as well as that of 
every kind of writers on sciences or arts that have ever flourished 
in the East. 

In general, it is customary in Europe to look upon the 
Orientals as nations overrun entirely with barbarism and igno- 
rance ; and less civilized than we, they undoubtedly are. But, 



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10 lytterheiofi BibttoiK^u^ Ortmiid^ 

IbrtneriT at least, the Persians and Arabs possessed b6th team* 
ingr and civilization ; and M. Galland, whose opinion is corrobo- 
rated bj that of D'Herbelot, contends for the same honour for 
the Turks. From the commencement of their empire, thet 
have, he asserts, been addicted to the study of laws and reh'- 

Sion ; and thoug^h, in respect to the latter, they are still in 
arkness and error, this is rather to be attributed to a lack of 
trace than of learning'. Great lawyers, historians, and poets, 
ave sprung up 4nd acquired fame in Turkey ; and, in the opi« 
nion or GalTand, the study of poetry bespeaks very great re6ne-» 
ment of manners. We profess not to be in the least behind 
H. Galland in our admiration of poetry ; but reflecting that 
Homer flourished in a barbarous aee, that the Romans had their 
Ennius and we our Chancer, long* before either possessed learn- 
ing or refinement, we can by no means consent to conclude the 
Turks a polished people, because they possess five hundred and 
ninety poets in their language. 

To return to the * Bibliotheque Orientale,* the learning, in- 
dustry, and taste displayed in the collection of the materials, 
must excite the admiration of every reader ; but undoubtedly 
their order and arrangement are exceedingly defective. Much 
allowance should certainly be made, on account of the circum- 
stances under which the work was originally published, the 
author dying before it went through the press ; it does not ap- 
pear, however, that BHerbelot meant to give it any other 
shape than that it now wears, and therefore he is liable to the 
censure which criticism must always inflict on a slovenly, con- 
fused manner. The alphabetical plan is exceedingly faulty in 
itself, when applied to matters of history ; for, besides occasion* 
ing endless re^ietition, and accounts contradictory, because 
copied, at wide intervals, from diflerent wi iters, it breaks that up 
into scraps and fragments, which should, if possible, be seen in 
the strictest continuity. With the partiality of an editor and 
$, friend, M. Galland endeavours, in his preliminary discourse, to 
exculpate the alphabetical order from the charg^e of begetting 
confusion ; and, as a set-oiP against its inconveniences, if it shonld, 
at last, be found to have any, observes that it aDows an authw 
to introduce much interesting information into his work, which 
could not otherwise be inserted in it. Allow the entire truth of the 
latter position, and that helps nothing to remove the accusation 
of con.usion and repetition made against the alphabetical order 
arrangement. In lact, it must be given up, as rdgards history ; 
and the practice of modem compilers, who in their Encycio* 
psedias, condense all they have to say of a country into one 
article, altogether preferred to it. On one or- two occasioas, 
we have hiuted this before ; and if any of the learned Orien** 
talis ts, who now shed a lustre on the literature of France, 
should ever nndertake a ilew octavo edition of t&e * Bibliotheque 



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8ang—Oo4tUce lAheriy. 1 1 



Orienittle/ we hope it will oeenr to him that a great nmaber 

of the historical articles require to be re-written and melted into 
one ; and that, in numerous others, there are contradictions to 
be removed, and gross faults to be corrected. 

The additions made to the edition before us,* by Father Vis- 
delflii, are much less to our taste than the work itself; they are 
more connected, certainly, but they are dull and awkward, and 
little calculated, in our opinion, to interest the general reader. 
We cannot say the same of the collection of prorerbs, sayings, 
repartees, anecdotes, &c., of the Orientals, translated by our 
faroufite Galland ; it is in the same naive style as the * Mille 
et une Nuits,' and exceedingly well calculated to eonrey a true 
notion of the spirit of the Eastern nations. 

With all the defects we bare ventured to point out, D*Her- 
belot is a charming writer, and his work one of the most valuable 
of all compilations. In the perusal of each separate article, 
the reader will often forget the want of that connection which 
chiefly recommends historical composition; and in those ar- 
ticles purely biographical, will find very little to reprehend. 
In fact, the ' Bibhotheque Orientale' is a work without which it 
is almost impossible to acquire an extensive knowledge of the 
history, laws, or manners of (he East. 



80KO« 

Godlike Liberty, 

Who deaies that life and love, 
GiAs of beaTeo, ahoaid cherished be \ 
Yet priie we still those gifts above, 
. . Godlike Liberty I 

Life Is like a branching tree, 
Valued for the frtiit It gives : 
Who plucks not from It L'berty, 

Tell me why he lives f 

Of the gloriout gifts of art 
Br%htest is the n littering swoid. 
Waving round the patriot heart, 

Spondng earthly lord. 

Miiite*s voice Is sweetest then 
Whea it shrills to hero's name, 
Giving baek those sonnds again 

Thai kindle FnadQin** flnme. 

BlON 



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12 



PROGltESS av 6B6LMtCAL fiCIENCE^ AND CONFLlttlNO OnNIONtf 
AS TO THE CAUSES AND HISTORY OF FOSSIL REMAINS. 



Of all the dapartmenls of natural history, g^l<^y 
le most ample field for speculation ; aad it is probably 



affords 
the most ample field for speculation ; and it Is probably to this 
cause, no less than to its connection with the interests of landed 
proprietors in mining districts, that it is. indebted for its present 
nigh popularity among us. The imagination of the poet roves 
scarcely with more freedom thatt that of the geologist through 
the regions of fancy ; and facts would, doubtless, be as readuy 
set at nought by the man of science as by the iicensedpnrveyor 
of fic'Jon, were it not for th^ occasional collision of opinion, 
which compels a return to the evidences furnished by Nature, 
in the productions daily before him, and limits him, for a while, 
to the soberness of reality. To become acquainted with the 
structure of the earth on which we live, and to endeavour to de-* 
rive from that structure, rather than from any other testimony, 
a knowledge of the mode in which it was originally formed, is' 
indeed a question, the solution of which well deserves to occupy 
the faculties of a rational being. Such an inquiry must, how- 
ever, be conducted on philosophical principles, based on facts 
unperverted and unstrained, and assuming to know an<f to prove 
no more than is fairly deducible from them. 

But is this question, in the large extent which many men of 
deep science nave given to it, within the grasp of man 1 Are 
we furnished with data on which to found our reasoning, or have 
we the means of obtaining them ? We are not, it is true, ex- 
actly in the situation of those minute insects of a day, which, 
inhabiting the crevices of the bark of the forest oak, 

Whote lialM a thottssnd yesrt bsve won, 
may be supposed to theorize on the origpina) production,* and on 
the changes which have taken place in the composition of the 
mighty mass of matter, to which their existence has been at- 
tached. But, with all the advantages that we are enabled to 
derire irom the wisdom of our ancestors, (which, by the bye, 
seems to foe almost entirely, a* dwe might add, justly, neglected 
by the geologists of the present day,) and from the researches 
of our contemporaries, by what means could a knowledge of the 
origin of this planet be obtained, without instituting die' (to 
man) impossiUe comparison of its structure with tibat' of Uie 
infinity of bodies vdiidi constitute the universal whole, of which 
it forms so trivial^ we had almost said so oontenptible, li part. 
And even supposing that we regard the eartfi as an ieNMated 
bodv, to be investigated without reference to any other portion 
of the g^reat system of worlds, to how small an extent have the 



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Progfei9 of Oeological Science. 18 

researches of man, whether prosecuted with a view to profit or 
to science, laid open to him its internal structure, or placed him 
in a condition to determine with certainty tiie elemeiits of 
which CTen its surface is composed. In this utter impossihilitv 
of connecting our geological investigations in any manner with 
&e system of the universe, and in the equal impossibility of 
scrutmiiin^, in a complete and satisfactory manner, the mys- 
teries of the globe which we infaalnt, we must be content to 
forego all general theories, as the mere Hctions of a heated 
imagination, and to apply ourselves to the study of those few 
facts which are really within our reach, and to the elucidation 
of some partial views of the changes ^ch this our earth has 
ohvionsljT undergone, ih that small portion of its crost which 
we have it in our power to explore. „ 

That various phenomena, exhibited by the more superficial 
strata of the Earth, afford ample evidence of certain changes 
having been effected in it siace its original formiition, is a pro- 
position in which all coincide ; but the moment we proceed to. 
uquire into the cau3es by which these modifications have been 
produced, the concord ceases, and, according to the class of 
geologists which we may chance to consult, the most opposite, 
agents, fire or water, or even a partial combination of these two 
incompatibles, are successively named to us by the disciples of 
die different schools. The Neptunian theory, or that which' 
regards water as the general, if not the universal, cause of these 
changes, is that at present most generally adopted ; its supporters, 
however, differ among themselves as to the mode in which their 
agent has been applied ; and are equally in dispute as to the ' 
number of applications requisite to account for many palrtial 
and anomalous appearances. Thus, %hile some conceive that 
the whole of the phenomena may be explained, by a single and 
gradual subsidence of the waters from the face of the earth,' 
others contend that their disappearance must have been sudden, 
and almost instantaneous. A third class has maintained, that 
the waters having receded from a portion <^ the surface of the 
primitive globe, a universal deluge was subsequently produced, 
by the sinking of the land, thus left to a level below that of the 
seas, which consequently rushed into and filled the newly-formed 
cavity, leaving dry the bed which they had occupied in the anti« 
delnvian ages, and which now forms the habitable portion of 
the earth's gurCace. Bat one or two general deluges are wholly 
insaflicient, in die opinion of others, to explain a number of 
facts, which, according to this class of geologists, can only be 
aeconnted for by rej^ted inundations. In the chalk basin of. 
Paris, for instance, it is stated that no less than six successive 
inundations can have taken place ; three of which must have 
been produced by- salt, and three by fresh water. Many again. 



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iregai4ing Qoal us eTideoU^ of vegetable ongin^ hi^Y^ coiMudered. 
eftch layer of tfiat useful miaQrai as the result of a 4eluge ; a. 
supposition wfcuk^h would require no less than one buftdred and 
twenty-two successive inundations to aceount for the formation 
of the strata in the neighbourhood of Lieg^ I Speculators of tbia 
east can, in fact, never oe at a loss to explain any ajipearance 
whatever, by some of those ' thousand and one revolutions or 
catastrophes, which C4n be so instantaneously p oduced^ by the 
mere touch of the enchanter's wand/' to u^ the words of a 
French g^oJogist, M. Patrin, who was himself as bold a theorist 
as the rest ; witness his favourite doctrine, that the diamond is 
neither more nor less than condensed and concentrated light, 
l^ld numerous other hallucinations of a character almost as 
absurd. 

. It is time, however, that we should take our leave of theory, 
and come to facts. The most striking evidences of the modifi- 
cations undergone by the crust of the earth, are furnished by 
the fossil remains of organized beings, both vegetable and 
animal. Of the former, it will be sufficient to observe, that but 
little is yet satisfactorily known. The mere fragments of trees 
pr plants, crushed and mutilated a& they are generally found, 
are quite insufficient to sjapply the data which are necessary to 
enable the botanist to determine, with accuracy, whether any 
of them can, with certainty, be referred to families or g oups. 
not now known to exist. The animal remains are differently 
circumstanced. In the lower departments of animated Nature, 
the fossil reliquise of many genera and families are found, which 
are allowed, by universal consent, to be now entirely extinct, 
'the number of lost species appears to be immense ; of shells, 
for instance, 2776 diflerent sojrts have been found fossil ; only 
64 of which are now known to exist in a living state. As, how- 
ever, we advance higher in the scale of organization, and ap- 
proach the more perfect animals, the number of those known to 
exist in both states increases considerably. But even here, we 
fi^d an important discrepancy between tne preographical posi- 
tions of the same animal, inhabiiin? the surface or the earth, 
and buried beneath it. In the northern parts of Europe and 
Asia are found the bones of animals, the living analogues of 
which exist at present in India and in Africa. But by what 
means have the bones been transported to regions so remote 
from those, to which the animals are now confined ? Various are 
the explanations which have been offered of this anomaly. It 
has been contended, that the hopes l^i^ve been conveyed from 
their native countrv by 'means of currents ; but it seems highly 
improbable, that toe remains of Asiatic, of African, and of Eu"* 
roj^eaa animals should be thus heaped together in one spot. 
It is« moregver, not meielj^ in, strata, evidently deposited fcuoi 



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vMer, ib^,% 4hes« remuoa are met wU|i ; tbey fMre (owd «Jsa ia 
fissures of rocks, through inliich water has never penetrated 
vince the bones have remamed in them. Tq account for these 
instances, it has been conjectured that the bonqs have been thQ 
relics of the repasts of some carnivorous apimals, to which th^ 
fissure has served as a retreat ; the well-knowp cave fit Kirk- 
dale, beinff readily quoted as the den of a byena. On this sup- 
position, the d fEculty is by no n^eans diipinished : either th^ cou^i 
stitulion of the Kirkdale byena niu«t have been so entirely 
different from that of Africa, ^a to enable it to exist in a clknat^ 
totally dissioular, in whiclf case its bones should have presented 
alarms of a different org^ani^a^ion, none of which are perceptible ; 
^ the climate of the north of England must have been so much 
warmer than it is at the present day, as to allow of the hyena 
ewtiag in it with the same ea^e as it now does in the south of 
Afirica The attempt to ex^plain away the difilcttltiea, attendant 
9n either of these suppositions, may be left to their respective 
advocates, whose ingenuity and ^al have been already ampljf 
proved. 

To a third theory on the subject, which has hnea recency ad<* 
Tocated with rnicomnion industry by Mr. Johp Rankincr, we 
shall advert with somewhat more detail, as the work* dedicated 
to its illustration contains much discursive matter, of peculiar 
interest to the student of the history, topogfraphy, and manners 
of the East, during the middle ages. It wiU, however, be seen 
that we regard the geological views maintained by him aa 
equally open to ob^tions with tho^^e just aUuded to, and as nd 
less sun;onnded with difficulties, seme ef which appear to he 
insoperable. 

Martini, Bayer, and other writers, historians rather than 
geologists, had advanced and supported an opinion which natu 
rally connected itself with the course of their previous studies, 
that the tropical and southern animals, the bones of which have 
so repeated^ ooourred in the northern regions of Europe and 
Asia, had formed part of the conquering armies of the Romans 
and Mongofo, or had been the relics of the combats between 
wild beasts, in which the former people especially deKo^hted. 
The same views were entertained by our illustrious countryman, 
Camden, who iiegarded the bones of elephants discovered ia 
Britain at belone^ing to those brought hither by the Emperor 
ClawBus. On tlese hints Bit. Rankmg has entered upon a 

^ HlBtoricsl^ Researches on the Wats i^nd Syorf a of tl^e Mongols and Romans, 
in wfaMi cAe^hantii and wiM* heasts were employed or slain. And the remarkabtv 
lo«lsgrn«iiiwit of hiitorywUk the remains of |iic1\ ^mal9'fQi^4 i? Euvope 
and ^bQrif ; costat^ing^^ife of GenghU Khan, &q. &c. &c By John EAnklo&s 
njpident upwards of twenty yes^s in Hindoostan and Rvissia. 4(0,. p. dlo. With 
a uiap saSr ten plates. ' " 



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16 Progrew of Oeologicat Science, 

very extensive series of historical researches, and has collected 
together, from every accessible quarter, the testimonies of his- 
torians in support of the employment of elephants in war, and 
of their exhioition, together with other animals brought from 
distant regions, for the amusement of the people under the do- 
minion of the Roman empire. By furnishing also a complete 
list of the places at which the remains of these exotic animals 
hare been round, he endeavours to show the probability, in al- 
most every case, of their being the relics of those elephant; 
which accompanied the armies, or of the wild beasts which pe- 
rished in the san^^inary combats of the amphitheatre. lae- 
phants were first mtroduced into Italy by Pyrrhus ; they were 
subsequently employed in gfreater numbers by Hannibal ; and 
Mr. Ranking traces the route pursued by the latter, for the 
purpose of showing that, at about twenty places, in and near 
the line of his march from the south of France into Italy, the 
bones of these immense animals have been found imbedided in 
the earth. These living masses were afterwards introduced 
into the composition of those armies, which reduced, under the 
dominion of Rome, nearly the whole of Europe, to the conqu st 
of the western parts of which, especially, the terror Inspired by 
their unusual appearance must, m the first instance, have ma- 
teriidly contributed. It is, indeed, said by Polycenus, though 
Bo allasion whatever is made to the circumstance by Caesar 
himself, that the hardy Britons, while defending the passage of 
the T araes against the conqueror of Gaul, were thrown into 
disorder only by the advance of an armed and turreted elephant. 
In England, they were afterwards made use of in large num- 
bers, under the emperors Claudius and Sevems ; they also ac- 
companied the armies which subdued Switzeriand, France, and 
Germany, having been previously employed in Spain by Han- 
nibal, and in Greece immediately after the conquests of Alex- 
ander in the East. 

As the Roman empire extended itself eastwards, and in- 
cluded Egypt within the scope of its vast dominions, the faci- 
lities of acquiring elephants for the purposes of war or exhi- 
bition were, of course, considerably increased. Other exotic 
animals were also more readily obtained ; and the nunerical 
amount of the supply became at length almost incredible. The 
brains of six hunored ostriches are said to have be«i served up 
to the monster Ifeliogabalus in one dirii. Five hundred bears * 
were killed in one day, in a combat with as many other wild 
animals from Africa. No less than one hundred lions were on 
one occasion slain by the hand of Commodus in the amphi- 
theatre ; and it is related, as a proof of the pnidenee and mo- 
deration of Hadrian, that it was only on his birth-day that a 
thoQsand wild beasts were annually slain in the shows* It 



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Ivoidd b« diifintifip'to imftll on fte Bumermis; anS appttiMtljr 
^banttleftS) Auth^ntieated iAstattces of these wantbn atrctcititSi 
•atigttrtiat^ aa man eifteiitially is, in the Romans the ox^aa.of 
d^trnetiTeness ihust hat^ been develot)^ to the fullest extent* 
Bleodshed wouM ioem to hate been their sola occupation atid 
delight. While resting ttovk the slaughter of their feUow-meil^ 
it was theiV irecr^ation to witness the wholesale destraclion of 
olh^ aniiAlLtfi. Wat^ ahd s{>orts indeed i The titles may ap>' 
t»ear captiTkting, but are Ih^jr ttot alto]B^ther delusive 1 rfhua 
applied to t^e history o^ Ronie, can they have any eth^ sieaw^ 
bug than Be§nsed murder and wanton barbarity ! 

It was noU however, m^relv at ^ome that these spectacles of 
butchery were exhibited. XWe, indeed, ttey sholie in theti' 
fullest splendour ; but all the lafg'e citieB of the empire wert$ 
partakeis in the sava^ g)*4tific'ation. ISvery where throughont 
die West, where Romaii garrisons were stationed, amphir 
theatres, were erected, and animals were exhibited to be 
llanghlered, eitber by the exeited fiiffy 'Of their Mlows, or by 
the hands of eqaally brutal nion. Italy still -aboandis with tha 
remains of these amphitheatre^, whioh ate also statM to be ex» 
tremdy nameroas in England. Taking these as this point sff 
departate, Mir. Ranking shows that almost evorf ooUaotion sff 
die bones of qnadrupeds, hitherto dkoov^ered, has been in thtf 
aeighboarhood of these estabUshments, of which he giUBs a t^ty 
complete list, illustrated by an enanetafion of the fossil i^Hoi 
found in their Tieinity. F^ so extenslre h collection nf <iett 
he u entitled to oar thanks ; bnt wtnl^ we are oonvineod that 
by bis industrioas inquiries he has famished prools amply sa^ 
ficient to satisfy even the most sceptical', thht animal* i^m 
slaaghtered i^ the Romans, in nmnber tea, nay^ a haadrad- 
fold, exceeding the skeletons hitfaeito iband, we oamot by any 
means concur with him in referring the latter to the origin io^ 
vUeh he so ingeniously contends. 

To every theory which contemplates the fossil bones c^ quad- 
mpcids as the remains of animals co^existient wfth issan, the 
foreifale ob^eetion presents itself^ diat these akel^ons ia« never 
accoaipanied by those of Ae human taco. Thet e exiMs Ho an* 
therrttc aioaount of any portion oT a hamaa skeleton having ye| 
been iband in a fossil sta%6, a circutuatance which strongly fa«r 
voars tfce pc^nkSSky that aian had not been created at the 

Seriod when thosb .catastrophes occaited which involved the 
estmction oT sO many other anin^s. It is a known ftrct, thai 
human bomss are not more perishiAle t^an those of horses, 
since, on tfaie field of battle, ami in the half pronriscnoos grat^ 
occasionldJh^ lesorted to in its vicinitv, they am f o'und com* 
ndngled V og e t hfe r at thn^ very distant nrom tho$e at which they 
fell. But fte bones of the horse have repeatedly been disco* 

Ori€nM UerM, Fof , 10, * B 



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14*^ FrogruB of Cfeohgie^ Seienee, 

yered in a fosisQ stete: onglit we not, tiien, eqnally to meet 
with those of man, if he ouated at the same time with the horse ! 
We know that the resti^s of a wound from an anrow, or a 
■pear, haye been said to oeyisiUe on one of tiie bones of the 
elk, so repeatedly fonnd in the peat-boss of Ireland, and that 
diis has been recently adduced as a proof of the activity of man 
during the existence of that animal at least. But eten if we 
grant the fact, and admit the justice of M^ up^fe^fBAce, it alters 
not in the least our general ar^umeot. Tjbia elkjof Irelaad does 
not fairiy fall under the denomination of fosail, sO'^neraUy ap- 
plied to It ; the causes whifch have engulphed it baYing evidently 
originated in the rapid growth of vegetable, n^atti^r, wliich is 
stiQ actiyelv proceeding in ail such situations. That animal is 
never found aeepl^ imbedded in the soil, a^d thjef efbre cannot 
be regarded as smularly situated with the elephauti whose bones 
are discovered beneath one hundred, or one hundre4 and fifty 
feet of marl. 

The existence of midoubted human skeletons in a limestsm 
rock, on the coast of Goadaloupe, may perhaps be objected to 
us ; but various oircumstakic^ are conclusive against the elaim 
ot these bones to any thing like the antiquity of fossil remains, 
of the characters of which they are moreover destitute. Into 
these circumstances, our limits forbid us from entering, but the 
Mlowing extract fttwa the paper in which Mr. Kcsnie^nrst made 
the fact known to the Royal Society, will show Sat, in the 
opinion of that gentleman^ which has since received the decided 
sanction of M. Cuvier and all the leading geologists, no parallel 
can be in tituted between these skeletons and tue fossilremains 
^nammifbrous quadrupeds. 

AH the ciiCttVistBiices wider wlUck tiie known deposit'ons of bones oecnr, 
both is ftlhivial bed*, end in t* e ceverns and flMoiet of fleets limestone, tend 
to prove ihat the eoimals W> which they lelonged, met their fate in the Teiy 
fdaces where they now lie tnried. Hence it may te considered as an axiom, 
that man and other animals, whose bonps are nul found intermixed with them, 
did not oo-exist in time and place. — Phil. Trann, I art 1, 1611. 

Another objection might be raised, from the existence of bones 
of the Asiatic elephant in North America, a continent in which 
neither the testimony of historians, nor the evidence supplied 
by any vestiges now remaining, affords (he slightest ground for 
the suspicion of the conquerors of the old world having ever 
gained a footing. By them, then, we should uige, the elepiiants 
whose remains have been discovered could never have been in- 
troduced into the New World. This has also struck Mr. Ran- 
king aa a weak point in the position he has taken up, and as he - 
expresses a hope of being able, at a future period, to throw 
some light on the subject, we refrain for the present from 
pressing it. We also abstain from urging a consideration of 
the utmost weight, dedncible from the discovery of the fossil 



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and HUtorff of Fowil Remains. "^5 

nnains of no leM than twelre genera of raaoimiferous quadru- 
peds cdone, wUek aie now oiiiversally regfavded aa extinct. It 
u true that with, the zoolog^y of several extensive districts wer 
are still but very imperfectly aeqaainted ; and it is just possible 
that soiae of tiiete animals may still he found to. exist on the 
surface of the .gloibe. While a doubt remains on the subject, 
the advantage :of that doubt we are willing to concede.- 

Other objeetioiM 9^g<est ihemselv^, on the perusal of the 
catalogue oif the amnrals exhibited at Rome. Although the 
mater number of those contained- in liie list supplied- by Mr. 
Bankingy aie now found > in the fossil st«te, there are sereral, aa 
the eameleopard, the ostrich, Jtc, no remains of which have yet 
occurred in any part of Europe; and it is particularly pro- 
voking, that among t' ese lost animals , should be included that 
one w&ch is the most interesting of the whde. If the slL^etoa 
of the onyx so common at Rome as to be used for drawing car- 
riages, could be recovered, it would materially assist us in veri- 
fyssff the existence^ or explatniag the true nature of. the 
mu«- talked of, but probably fsbulous, unicorn ; to which it 
an ..ease to have appreaehed more nearly than any other animal. 
We fear, however, that little elucidation of the subject can be 
anticipated from this source. Crocodiles also are enumerated 
in the list of animals exhibited at Rome, but the fossils ef this 
genus could not possibly have been co-existent with the mam- 
miferous quadrupeds, whose relics are now discovered. With* 
out entering into any particular description of the different 
strata, it will be sufficient to state that no bones of the latter . 
dass ef animals have at any period been found, except in 
formations of more recent origin than chalk, while, on the coa« 
trary, the remains of crocodiles are invariably found unbedded 
in formations more ancient than the chalk itself. The croco*- 
diles must, therefore, have been deposits in their present posi- 
tm at a time far anterior to that at which the other animals 
were engulphed. 

In thus attempting to show the untenable nature of the po- 
sition, that tiie fossil bones now discovered are referrible to 
animals which have been brought together by the hand of man, 
we have combated no new theory. With the partiality of any 
living author for the hypothetical progeny of his own brain, we 
have not interfered. • Mr. Ranking does not claim the merit of 
a new discovery ; he barely claims, what we are willing to allow 
him to an extent iar beyond that which he assumes for himself, 
the merit of furnishing data sufficiently extensive and authentic 
fo the elttcidatioq of the Question. His industry and reseaich 
are entitled to our best tnanks, which we are most ready to 
tender to all who support their reasonings by facts, which, 
without an energetic stimulus of some kind, would still remain 
buried in obscurity. While from those who zealously exert 



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1^ Smmdii m S h ^ k^a ar e . 

tii^miielTei to display the iprMnds w^lui& thcfte theomii fwi 
we are sure to derive bot)i infermatioa and i^Useiaeat. The 
ttrrangementi in a OQrd form* ef eld and neglected materiab, 
thie pacing' them in a new light, and the clearing away of error 
and fiction, from disputed points, are tasks labemus to an 
author, hi&t cannot fail at once to instruct and g^ratify hit 
readers. 

As the leading object of this Article has been to exhibit some 
ofthe hypotheses advanced for the purpose of explaining the 
origin of the fossil remains of distant periods, if not, as t*drkin*> 
•an terms them, of a formed world, aiid as that portion of M^. 
Aanking^s work which refers to the West was amply saffitienl 
•to illustrate his views on the subject, we have hitherto scarcely 
Eluded tA that greater portion of it which regards the East. 
JBut our limits now warn ns to be brief. We may, therefore only 
tnentioB that the histories of Genghis Khan, of his successor^ 
•Knblai, and of the great conqnemr of the Bast, Tamerlane, an 
advert'^d to at considerable lengtii; that the progTessiofthei eon- 
quests, until they became masters of nearly the whole of A«ia U 
careAiUy traced ; thatexcnrsrre illnslnUions are given relative to 
the geographical position, topogtmphy, and manne s of manv of 
the coantries and cities which successively fell beneath thei^ 

S\e, from the works of Marco Polo, Rubrnquis, and other neg- 
ted and partially rtjected travdlers of the middle ages ; and 
lastly, that the employment of elephants in war and in the 
pomp of state, the extensive huntings ii| which whole armies 
w^re frequently employed, and the combats of animals con- 
dacted with all the msiniificence of the East, nrift narticularly 
noticed and described. Much, in fact, is contained in this de- 
partment of the wo k which, while it affords aiuttsement to the 
general reader, will also oontriba«e to the information of th4 
historical and <»pographical student. 



SONNETS ON 6HAK8PEABB. 
No. 1.— iis Fob lite iL 



A leafy rsttUng fills tht »army »ir. 

And the gla^ IniBimiog of xhe forest * ^, ^ 

Wlio o'er eweei wild-flowers wtiies her nlnstrelif , 

An the stream** munour, makes a masic rare, 

Soothing the hear\ tfUevery trace of care 

Fades like the ftirrow from a summer sea. 

Who woetd not IWe in forests ! Doth the pall 

Of pwvle end of goU g leim half so bright 

As the blse sky and silver waterfall t ^ . 

Do Vi.igs and courtiers in rich er ines ^JifJjJ* 

'Midst perfomed chambers, feel the puw deWght 

That the fk^sh foreet breeze here yields to all t 

We wsat hut RosaMsii— with sach s wnd 

'Twere bwiTen to dwsU hs nwtti tliB greenwood sbsde, 

Wif»^NASD WTCtlFFf, 

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IMPROMPTU. 

[fn Spain, wheneTer the king travels, and sojottrns any where, even for a 
tingie night, he allows the innkeeper, or proprietor of the house, if a private 
dwetling, where he has so lodged, to suspend outside the house an iron chain 
(Cadena)^ which is universally done (much as over the gateways of our county 

Saols) and this marks the king's having honoured it with his presence. Ofi 
rst observing this, an English traveller made an impromptu in Spanish, to the 
sorprise of his fellow travellers in the Diligence, who were not accustomed to 
such boldness from a stranger. The following is a correct English versioo of 
the thought it embodied.} 

When monarchs travel, as of late they*ve, done. 

Throughout the various realms that own their sway, 
A snuff-box, seal, or ring, they're wont anon 

To give their hosts in token of their stay ; 
Far other boon, howe*er, this king bestows, 

As on he journeys through the land of Spain — 
He gives his/riffufs what others would their /oef, 

(Fit emblem of his rule I)— an Iron Chain. 

P. M. W. 



LIBERALITY OF THE INDIAN GOVERNMENT TOWARDS THE 
NATIVE MEDICAL INSTITUTION OF BENGAL. 

There are two modes in which the Press exercises a salutary 
infiaence on the destinies of mankind : — ^by encouraging, with due 
praise, wliatever is just, virtuous, and benevolent; and, on the other 
band, repressing, by censure, whatever appears injurious to the com- 
mon weal, and hostile to <' the greatest happiness of the greatest 
number for the greatest length of time/^ How much shall be devoted 
to prai8e**fitad how much to blame does not depend upon the honest 
and impartial public writer, but on the times in which he lives, and 
the events by which he happens to be surrounded : since he cannot 
alter the nature of things, but, if he discharge his duty faithfully,, 
must characterise them as he finds them. If, therefore, in our 
political disquisitions we have lately felt ourselves too often called 
upon to raise the voice of blame, we cannot but lament it as a 
public misfortune that existing circumstances have assigned to us so 
painful a task ; and we rejoice that an opportunity is now afforded 
us of showingthat it is the aspect of the times, and not our own in- 
clination, which makes us so often pursue that cheerless course. We 
have DOW the more agreeable duty of bestowing the just meed of 
praise on Lord Amherst and the other members of the Government 
of Bengal, for a series of measures which redound highly to their 
honour, as enabling the Natives of India to enjoy the benefits of 
medical science, a brief history of which will, we trust, be found 
interesting as well as useful. 

In the year 1822, at the close of Lord Hastings's administration, 
a school was founded at Calcutta by the Government, under his 
auspices, for the instruction of Hindoos and Mohammedans in medi- 
cal knofwledge. This new institution was first intrusted to the care 

Oriaiiai Herald^ Vol.10. C 



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18 Native Medical Inetitutiim of Bengal. 

of Dr. Jamieson, and, as this feiitleinan held several other sitaa- 
tions at the time, the appointment and the discussions to which 
these pluralities gave rise, with other circumstances which eventually 
arose out of them, excited much public attention, and will not soon 
be forgotten in Bengal. If, amid the distraction necessarily at- 
tendant on sb many different duties, that gentleman was able to 
undertake anything of importance for promoting the objects of the 
institution, his life unfortunately was not prolonged to carry his de- 
signs into effect. The severe scrutiny exercised on the propriety of 
the first appointment may perhaps have had a beneficial influence on 
the selection of his successor. However this may be, the present su- 
perintendent of the Native Medical Institution appears to be highly 
qualified for his situation, and to be happily endowed with a 
sufficient quantity 6i industry tb turn his learning ahd his talents to 
the best account. At the last annual examination of the College of 
Fort William the Govemor-Genehil observed, " l*he management 
of the (Native Medical) Institution had been confided to the zealous 
and able superintendence of Dr. Breton ; and that gentleman has 
already prepared, in the native languages, various essays and short 
treatises, calculated not only to promoted the insthiction of the 
pupils under his charge, but gradually to disseminate among the 
Natives of India a highly usefiil knowledge of thb prineiples of 
medical science.'^ We have the pleasure to add, that these works 
hBvt fortunately reached our hands; having been transmitted 
by the author to the learned Dr. Gilchrist, who has committed them 
to US for public use. We here subjoin a list, e^cpllEmatory of their cha- 
rticter and contents : 

1. A Vocabulary of the Names of the diflTerent Parts of the ITuman body, 
ahd of the Medical and Technical Tentas applied to them — ^In English, Arabic, 
FertlffD« Hanacrit, and Hloduwee. 

9. Hindoostanee versions of the London Pharmacopeia in both the Persian 
and Niguree characters, in two yolumes. 

.S. Treatise on Suspended Animation, flrom the Effects of Submersion, 
Hanging, Noxiotis Air or Lightning, and the Means of Resuscitation ; ih the 
Naguree character aad in the Hindoostanee language. 

4. Substance of a Lecture on the Cholera Morbus, delivered to the Studeata 
of the NfLtiFc Medical Institution ; In the Naguree and Persian characters and 
Id the Hindoostanee lan^^ua^. 

6. Introductory Lecture on Anatomy ; In the same characters and language 
as the preoediiig. 

6. Demoastmtions of the Brain and lis Appendages ; also in the same oha- 
meters and langua^. 

7. Essay dn the Venotaa of Serpenh ; in the same characters and language. 

8. Essay on Intermittent Fever ; In the same. 
.9. Essay on Rheumatiam ; in the same. 

la Essur OD Cataract ; in the same. 

11. On the Structure of the Eye ; in the same. 

12. On Osteology ; in the same. 

{$, DemonAralion bf thiie Abdominal Viscera ; in the sakne 
4. Demonstration of. the Thoracic Viscera; in the same. 
1ft. Essay on the Cbotera Morbus ; in the Bengalee language. 

Hiese works, with tkree or four others by the eaine author, ane 
now before us ; and we cannot but express our great surprise^ as well 



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kHive Medical tnetituHon ojT Sengat. iS 

^ satisfaction, thai so inncli. lias heen dohe in so short a space of 
time. The whole have been liibographed at» the Government litho- 
mphic press at Calcutta, by which means the various forms of the 
Naj^ree, Persian, dnd Roman characters, according to the several 
languages of which they consist, have been executed with great ac-: 
curacy and beauty ; one of the latest improvements in the art of 
printing having thu^ fortunately stepped in to overconie one of the 
most serious obstacles to the diJfiision of knowledge in the Native 
languages, for representing which on paper, lithogi-aphy is admirably 
adapted. The learned Orientalist to whom these works were 
sent from India having consigned them to us for public use, ac- 
companied with various high testimonials of approbation, we think it h 
duty we owe to I>r. Breton, as well as to his patrons, the Govern- 
ment of Bengal, to lay them before the British public. Dr. Gil- 
christ expresses himself in the following terms : 

To the BdUor qfthe Orifintal Herald. 
81 a, — ^The accompanying works, with a letter frem the author, have jost 
fetched me from India, and as their contents may prove highly usefbl to the 
British Indian public, as well as profitable to their meritorious author, you 
ara at liberty to lay those portions of either before your numerous readers, 
which yon may conceive will be most interesting to them all in both hemi- 
spheres. Tou will also receive a Calcutta newspaper, containing the speech 
of Lord Amherst at the Annual Examination of the College of Fort William, 
which, amongst other things touches on the great services of Dr. Breton,-who 
Is, I perceive, amonr the senior medical servants on the Bengal establishment, 
and highly esteemed there, not only for professional talents, but also as an 
excellent Orientalist, whose abilities and persevering efforts will yet render 
the Native Medical Institution, over which he has for some years actively 
tod honourably presided, so efficient that it will soon become a blessing to 
many millions in our Eastern empire ; provided his efforts be countenwcedand 
supported as cordially by the executive at home as he appears to have been 
patronised by the Bengal Government, f^om their conviction of the urgent ne- 
cessity for such an establishment. On this subject, a reference to Dr. Breton*9 
communication to me, and to the judicious comments of the present Governor- 
General, lx>rd Amherst, will make any farther detail from myself altogether 
superfluous on this occasion, except my merely adding that the medical and 
language department seem to have each been executed with competent skill 
and fidelity combined ; so much so indeed, that I would strongly recommend 
the whole set of Dr. Breton's faithful versions of his professional treatises as 
text and school books for alt intend^ British Indian surgeons In future to 
itody ftt their respective colleges, where Oriental instructors would speedily 
be procurable. If a fair prospect of employment were once opened for them, 
without subjecting the honourable Company to the smallest additional ex- 
tens^ on that score, in any way whatever. I presume their present Rxtnunlng 
Physician enjoys a salary more than commensurate with the responsible, but 
very eaay duties ne has to perform In that capacity ; U would therefore be no 
great stretch 6f industrious zeal on his part were he to qualify himself as an 
Eastern Uogaist also, and grant the reqolsite certiflcates to candidates for me- 
dkal apjioinuiieots in In^Ua, previously to their actual nonrinatien- by the 
Difectors. . ^his office was originally, conferred upon an old and able Bengal 
surgeon, who bad retired perhaps rather prematurely from the service in con- 
Mqaehee of bad health, a^d tio doubt there may yet be others equalfy de- 
serving and similarly sttoated who would gladly perform the uidted task of 
Examiner in local diseases and languages whenever a vacancy in thai ptosi 
should happen, which, comparatively spcsiklng, in its present form (occupying 
one or t#o iMm oJdhf with #f ery protiatioiier out of sixty (Mr onntmj) is umoat 

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20 Native Medical InetituHan of Bengal. 

I hate already attentiyely perused Dr. Breton*8 essay on Cholera Morbus, 
and, if the others are all as well executed, he certainly deserves whatever lu- 
crative situation his Honourable Masters can bestow upon him either at home 
or abroad, if they really wish to rewaurd able, old, and faithful servants accord- 
ing to their respective capacities or deserts. In my time, some forty years 
ago, the cholera morbus, as a fatal epidemic, was hardly known, and I never 
encountered this formidable malady, in that predic ment, but once, while 
marchiug across the country from Bombay to Bengal in the month of January, 
when the weather was rather cold at night, contrasted with the heat from a 
cloudless sky all day. An elderly gentleman, then old enough to have been 
my father, was my colleague as attending Assistant Surgeon at the Detach- 
ment General Hospital, into which six or eight patients were brought in rapid 
succession, and the whole died of the very cholera which has since proved so 
fktal in various parts of Asia. The first patients were, of course, treated se- 
eundiim arienij and every one of them slipped through our hands, under even a 
cautious expulsion of the peccant matter from the viscera, which we then 
Aaturally enough conceived was the sole cause of the disease ; but before this 
eould be effected, the poor fellows were thus, legitimately enough, despatched 
to their long homes. I began to get alarmed, and held a consultation with my 
reverend senior assistant, lest the Superintending Surgeon might hear of the 
havoc committed by death or the doctors in the General Hospital, and we 
might be blamed not only for our imprudent silence but for our baneful pre- 
scriptions. I honestly told the old gentleman that we must think and art for 
ourselves in every subsequent case ; for to me it seemed clear we wer.' wrong 
in practice, however right in the theoretical treatment of our late patients. 
Taking a hearty pinch of snuff, and casting a signiflcaiit glance towards the 
unfortunate creature who had recently expired amidst excruciating evacuations, 
he said very coolly, " Well, what would you advise 7 " My reply was short, 
that we could not do worse than had been done, and it was possible we might at 
least have letter luck were all the ordinary rules laid aside, and some remedies 
in the Bnnpnonian style immediately tried. To this the grave doctor readily 
consented, and we desired the Native Assistants to put a quantity of finely 
powdeied bark and cinnamon, with a due proportion of laudanum, into a bottle 
of Madeira wine, to shake the mixture well, and the moment any person was 
sent to the Hospital he was to take a wine glassful of the medicine, to be re- 
peated every half hour, until one of ourselves could attend in person. This 
experiment was tried with the utmost success, for we never afterwards lost ano- 
ther man, and always had leisure enough to apply proper remedies, by having 
thus in the first instance preserved the vis vitte long enough for that purpose. 
Those who were affected had been generally exposed, as centinels or bazar 
people, during the night, to the cold air or dews so common in the winter 
months of India ; but what is very singular, 1 never again saw the cholera for 
the space of twenty years afterwards, though for many seasons of late I find it 
has been a species of plague, traversing the whole Peninsula, and that my 
random recipe has very often acted as a charm in this terrific complaint, but 
whether as an accidental specific or a nostrum of ours is more than I can as- 
sert. — I remain, Sir, your obedient servant, 

J. B. GiLCBUST. 

To this letter we are fortunately able to add the testimony of 
yarions individuals in India, of learned Ni^tives of the country as 
well as Europeans, whose names are a sufficient guarantee that it is 
no ordinary merit which has secured such general approbation. In 
a letter to Mr. Breton, from Rammohun Roy, acknowledging a 
present of his work, the illustrious Hindoo reformer, who has so 
long been labouring to turn his countrymen to a better faith, and is 
alike distinguished by his talents, fails learning, and his virtues, 
thus writes : 

I beg you will accept my best thanks for the valuable present of your pro- 
ductions. They are indeed foil of instruction, and better calculated to furnish 



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i^oHde Medicai Insiituiiofi of MehgOl. 21 

die MatiTe* with useful knowledge than aU the worktf published in this e6iltitt]r 
on tiistrase snbjeets. 

The above is dated the 4th of May (1825) ; and itt another let- 
ter, dated the 28th of September, the same practical philosopher, 
who even here takes an opportunity of expressinjc hiH opinion of 
these mystical notions, against which his whole life has been a 
continued struggle^ thus writes concerning Dr. Breton's labours : 

Ailing as I have been, I have perused with great pleasure the tracts you 
kindly sent me ; and while reading them, I could not help anticipating the 
blessings which these and similar publications are calculated to bestow upoii 
the Natives of this part of the globe ; since they contain real facts, established 
by experience, and not mere speculations, supported only by prejudice and 
opinion. I hope and pray that your exertions' may be crowned with success. 

Anotlier Native of learning and respectability, and we believe an 
oitbodox Hindoo, Radhakant Deb, expresses similar sentiments on 
the subject, though in a style somewhat more Oriental: 

I have (he says in a letter to Dr.. Breton) attentively perused the work (on 
Chtrfera), and find the observations, symptoms, and remedies of the dreamul 
malady contained in it to be very wise, proper, beneficial, and effectual. I 
shall introduce and recommend your advice and medicioe both here and in the 
ialerior, and the human lives which will thereby be saved will, I trust, be an 
ample reward for the trouble you have taken, ond the expense incurred in 
pobliahing and circulating the pamphlet gratuitously. 

Our European testimony is still more ample and conclusive. 
Capt. Macan, the Persian interpreter to the Commander-in-chief, a 
gentleman, whose acquirements in Oriental learning are acknow- 
ledged to be of a high order, observes, addressing Dr. Breton on the 
subject of his work : 

None bat Oriental scholars can properly appreciate the difficulties you have 
eneottBtered ; and as you have got over the first step, which is always the 
■Met difficult, I sincerely hope you will go on. Hitherto we have been in- 
atmcting the Natives in their own errcneouM system of philosophy, and pai ti- 
eularly astronomy, and it is ooly by doing in other branches of science what 
you are doing in medicine, that we can hope to give them the light of truth. 

In order to place the merits of Dr. Breton on the most unex- 
ceptionable grounds, by adding to the testimony of individuals that 
of public bodies, we give an extract of a letter from Capt. Ruddell, 
secretary to the College Council of Fort William, dated 21st of 
July last, addressed officially to Dr. Breton : 

The College Council were so much pleased with your pamphlets presented 
to them, that they expressed d wish to see the whMe publisned and distributed 
tkrvmghoul the eomntry. 

Again, the highest of all professional authorities on the subject in 
Bengal, the Medical Board, caused the following official conmiuni- 
caUon to be made through their secretary : 
To Peter Breton^ Esq., Superintendent qf the School for Native Doctors, 
Sib, — Adverting to a letter froni Uie military aecretary to Government, 
containing an extract of the proceedings in the judicial department, with re- 
ference to a correspondence with the Government of Bombay on the subject of 
education, I am directed by the Medical Board to request that you will be 
pleased to send to this office, at your earliest convenience, six copies of each 
of the different works composed by you for facilitating the acouisition of 
nedScal and physical knowledge by your pnpils, in order that they may be 



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d$2 Naiive Medical fn^iUution of Bengql. 

forwarded to Bombay. The Board cannot omit this opportunity of eongnita- 
latlng you on thd usefulness of jronf labours, and the important' advadtajt«s 
which seem likely to be derived from them by the medical branch of tll6 
aerrice throoghoat the thre^ pr6sidencies.--jl have, &c. 

(Signed) J. Apan, 

Fort William Medical Board OiBce, Secretary, Medical Board. 

i8th Aug. 1825. 

It would be a waste of time to adduce any further evidence on 
this subject, though we have more in our possession ; bui we cannot 
resist the inclination we feel to place on public record, to the honou^ 
of Mr. Bayley, then chief secretary to the Govempient, and now a 
member of the Supreme Council of Bengal, the humane and liberal 
conduct of that gentleman during the period when the cholera morbus 
was raging so dreadfully in Calcutta, in August and September 
last. We bear testimony to his virtues, when we meet with such 
proofs of them aa these, not the less reactily, though he was an ac- 
cessary, if not the principal, in bringing ruin on our own heads, 
without even any just pretence for the wanton exercise of power. 

When the terrible malady to which we have alluded was afflict- 
ing the unfortunate natives of Bengal, and mfiny hundreds were 
fialllng victims to it daily in Calcutta, Mr. Bayley wrote to Dr. 
Breton the following note : 

Mt dear 8iR,^t has occurred to me, that if your treatise on Cholera in 
Bengalee were wlddy distributed in Calcutta and its neighbourhood just tfow, 
it would be asefol. 

Perhaps the best way would be to send neariy all the spare co]ues you have 
to Mr. C. BarweU, at ths l*oUce OAoe, to*norrow ; thence they might be 
given to the Native Doctors employed under the police, to the Thanadars, 
and other Native officers who can read Bengalee, and' to the Nt^ti^c' schools : 
a new edition, to a considerable extent, might be strubk off ; and If you %ill 
report the expense which may be Incurred in doing ao, either I will pay It 
myself, or ask Government to pay it. A few copies in Persian might also be 
nsefuUy 'distributed from the Police Office.— Yours sincerely, 

(Signed) W. B. Bayley. 

From this letter it is evident that to his influe|ice and exertions 
ought to be attribute^ the following o£^cial communi cation from t)ie 
Government to the magistrates of Calcutta, dated the }st of Sep- 
temb^er last, ^hich passed through his department ': 

The temporary employment, with the sanction and concurrence of Dr. 
Breton, of twenty of his most* experienced pupils, in those parts of the town 
where the sickness chiefly prevails, as welt as the distribution of Dr. Breton's 
treatise on the cure of the dholera, in the Native langtiages, appear to GoveilN 
ment to be measures calculated to be of great immediate advantage ; and his 
tK>rdship In eouneil desires that you will communibate to Dr. Breton the sense 
which Ooremmeot entertains of his prompt and zealous co-operation wi h 
you, and of his compliance with your suggestions at a time when an official 
reference for formal sanction would have involved serious delay and incon- 
venience. * 

The result is stated in a letter from the magistrates of Calcutta, 
dated some weeks afterwards, which, as a public document, we 
think of sufficient importapce to be also given entire : 

To p. Breton, Esq. 
8iR,.We beg leave to inform' you hat the decrease in the number of cases 



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«(eii«l«mia^kRt9:wn irUloowadiiil^ftlieaiaofyoarttadttiUbekiywilk-^ 
4rawQ, i^id reqi^i the favour of y^u to rcG«l them. 

We cannot let this opportmuty pass withoijit reooi^g ouf apiwobation of 
their conduct, and the great benefit derived fro^ their skill and attention. 

We beg leare to enclose the copy of a paragraph [quoted aboYe} of a lettec 
from the chief secretary to GoYemment, expressive of the sentiments his Lord 
ship in council entert^os of the n^easures adopted, in the deputation of your 
stodeots ; wd we return you thanks for the hearty oo-operation we have ex- 
perienced ft om you persopally in averting the caUmity with which the town 
was aflELicted.— We are. Sir, your moat o&dient servants, 

(Signed) C. R. Baawb!.!., Chief Magistrate^ 
OUcntta Police Office, W* G' 9ipAqui««b, Magistiate. 

ISth Sept. 182^ 

Now what waa the nature of the ealainity which this Native Me- 
dical Inatittttioa eontributed bo essentially to avert ? It wba a mor« 
tality which, according to the public papers, was carryiag off in the 
town of Calcutta and ite^ suburbs from foui^ to seven hundred hitfaaii 
beings daUy ! The great majority of these miserable victims were of 
eouiBo too indigent to procure the aid of the few European phy- 
sicians, even if they could possibly have attended to them ; ana the 
want of paedical adyice could therefojre only be supplied by such 
an institution as this^ for educating the Natives theEiselves» so as to 
bring the ^aedical art within the reach of the body of the people. 
Can any thing more be necessary to prove its utility ? An institu- 
tion which, in a single week, had saved perhaps thousands from the 
grave ; which, «s regards the diffusion of science, Mr. Secretary 
Bayley says, ia aaother letter dated September 4th, speaking of 
"Df. Qreton's labquTS, <^ had, already done more than he could have 
expected in mtmy years." We wish therefore we could stop here, 
and conchide by sayings that we feel confident an institution esta- 
blished by that liberal and enlightened ruler of India, the Miarquia 
of Hastings, and so steadily supported by his successors, an institu- 
tion patronized by the rulers of India, and applauded by the people, 
containing at once the source of present blessings and the promise 
of great future improvement, would continue to flourish, and be 
maintained by the joint approbation of all, in fiill health and vigour. 
But will it be credited that the Honourable Court of Directors of 
the East India Company — they who profess to entertain so tender 
a regard for the wel£aje of their Indian subjects, that they scruple 
to let an Englishman settle among them, lest he should hurt the 
" innocent Natives** — ^they who are unwilling to trust them with a free 
press, lest it should opei*ate upon them like ardent spirits on the 
redit men of Amen.car— and who profess to have the same regard for 
their bodily as for their mental health, should, after having sanctioned 
the aappression of all free discussion, now wish to suppress this Me- 
dical School for educating Native Doctoi-s ? WiU it be said that our 
rules for the human constitution ajre as unsuited to them as our 
clothes are to their bodies ; or as the British Constitution is to their 
poMtiGali oondttioD % That, in short, our pilL^ and our potions would 
pnva aahurtfel to them as our political nostrums t — that the kncet 



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tf4 Native MedkallnHUutiM of Bmgai. 

and scalpel of the surf eon are as dangferous in their hands as the 
pen and the press ? But whatever he the reason of this new cnisade 
against the spread of knowledge in India, the fact is stated in the. 
following letter from Dr. Breton, communicated to us hy Dr. Gilchrist, 
with those already quoted, for puhlication : 

My dear Sir, — ^My friend, Mr. Roberts, of the firm of Mackintosh and 
Go. wrote me some time since that you had been kind enough to notice, in fa- 
vourable terms, the Native Medical Institution, lately established in^Calcutta, 
for the instruction of Hindoos and Mohammedans in medical knowledge. 

Of all the sciences studied by the Asiatics, thpt of anatomy and medicine, 
is the least understood and cultivated, and therefore in India it is universally 
admitted that the Bri ish Government could not have established an Institu- 
tion calculated to be of g^reater public benefit not only to the Civil and 
Military branches of the service, but to the Natives generally, than the Native 
Medical Institution. 

You, who have been in India, are well aware of the acquirements of the 
Native medical practitioners. Their knowledge of anatomy borders on 
nonentity, and their skill in physic is not far above their anatomical know- 
ledge. What a blessing then it will be to the Natives generally, to have 
amo igst them their own countrymen, educated on system to the medical pror- 
fession, and capable of alleviating human affliction, which at present consigns 
to a premature grave mjrriads of deceased inhabitants of our £astem empire. 

The Native students are beginning to make themselves useful ; eight having 
been already posted to corps, and four are alM>nt to be attache 1 to two dispen- 
8 iries, now forming for the relief of the suffering Natives ; and, in theacrom- 
pa lying records, you will observe a pleasing public testimony of the students* 
exertions in arresting the progress of that dreadful scourge the cholera mor- 
bus, and I have no doubt that, in course of time, they will prove a highly 
ueftil class of public servants of the British Government in India. 

Notwithstanding the acknowledged utility, and indeed necessity of the 
Native Medical Institution, the Honourable Court of Directors have unfortu- 
nately, with a view to economy, order d its abolition ; but the Government of 
India, bound by their sa red duty to their Native subjects, have unanimously 
recommended in the strongest possible terms its continuance, and the Insti- 
tution remains, pending, however, the result of the forcible remonstrance to the 
Honourable Court against its abolition. 

The late Commander-in-Chief, Sir Edward Paget, it is reported, avowed- 
his sentiments in council, that as there was a great deficiency of medical 
officers. Native doctors became indispensably necessary to afford medical 
aid to the numerous detachments from corps in the extensive dominions of 
India, and as it was not possible to procure them when required, it behoved 
Government to establish some kind of institution from which capable Native 
doctors might on all occasions of exigency be obtained, and it rested with 
Government to consider whether a better or more economical system could be 
devised than that which existed in the school for Native doctors. His Ex- 
cellenry further observed, that without a due complement of medical staff, 
he could not answer for the efficiency of the Bengal army, a point of vital 
importance to the state. This occurred in April last, and fortunately the 
ge leral voice being in favour of the institution as it stood, an unanimous vote 
was given fur its permaneacy. 

The expense of the school for Native doctors is not worthy of a thought, 
being in reality nothing in comparison with the benefits likely to accrue from 
the institution. The latter is pleasingly adverted to by the Governor- 
General, in hit speech to the College Council, and hailed by the Natives with 
gratitude. 

The anatomical plates and works published from time to time, for the use 
of the Native students, are printed at the Government Lithographic Press, at 



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KaiiwMeHealln^Htution of Bengal. 25 

no other expense to GoTernment Hian thtt df Ink tnd piper. In short, while 
every measure is adopted to eosare the utility of the school for KattTO doc- 
tors, rigid economy is studied and observed ; and on the score of expense the 
Honourable Court of Directors will never have reason to complain. Indeed 
the medical Institution may be said to be in unison with the Hindoo and 
Mohammedan colleges, established for the disseminatioD of general knowledge 
among the Natives of India. 

I am, my dear Sir, 

Your obliged and obedient servant, 

P. Breton. 
Superintend, of the Native Med. Instit. 
Gsleotta, October 81, 16SA. 

This article having already extended to so great a length, we 
hasten to a conclusion, confident that such a case needs very little 
comment. For after the simple statement of the fiacts, we think 
the Court of Directors will hardly venture to persevere in their 
efforts to subvert this in^nt institution. Will it be for a moment 
tolerated, in this enlightened age and country, that they should sup- 
press almost the only institution yet established by the British in 
India, for introducing among our Native subjects useful and prac- 
tical European science ? If the British public countenance this, 
instead of being any longer spoken of as an enlightened, a liberal 
or generous people, they deserve to be nuked below the very Goths 
and Vandals. For even these barbarians, if they had possessed 
any learning, would have imparted it to the nations they oven-an. 
It was the boast of the Romans to civilize the nations which they 
subdued ; but if such a measure as this be carried into effect, no 
doubt will remain in the opinion of the world that the systematic 
policy of the British is to keep their subjects plunged in the most 
degrading ignorance. 

We would warn the Directors that if they bring such a stigma 
upon the national character, the time is fast approaching when it 
will be considered whether they shall have the power of doing so 
any longer. The smister influences which lead to such measures 
will be appreciated and provided against. It is true that if a re- 
spectable body of Native physicians were created in India, these 
might fill many subordinate offices, at a much more moderate 
charge, and render so large a body of European medical officers 
unnecessary. Hence a certain diminution of the patronage of the 
Directors, who would no longer have the appointment of so many of 
their friends from England. But if they venture, on such grounds, 
to put a stop to the cultivation of useful science among the natives 
of Bengal, and leave their Native subjects literally to '^ perish, in 
millions, for lack of knowledge," by those dreadful scourges which 
afflict tropical clinuites, it will afford the strongest ground for in- 
stituting an inquiry whether a body influenced by such motives can 
be any longer intrusted with the government of a vast empire. 



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»Tw sweet to steal abroad at grey of eye, 

Wli^en a^r^ Qome throDgiog on the gaaing eye. 

As Day's pale wheels' fiast-fading traces leave 

To Hespor's train the champaign of the sky \ 

And, seated by some streamlet rippling by» 

Babbl\og, lUi^e Joye*a old oracle, ita i\o|e, 

To stray with Fancy where Futurity 

Marshals her Tisions, bright as clouds that j^o^t 
Burning o'er Temal skies, on which fond poets doat. 

For then, unshackled by all meaner fears^ 

The thoughts that people thick our inmost soul. 

Go crowding forth, f^id wander to the spheres, 

Or seek the icy brightness of the pole ; 

Or touch on earth some more enchanting go^l, 

Tile arms of beauty, or the trump of fame ; 

Or those delights which prouder minds control— 

The sweets of power, that oft, we find, inflame 
gouls dead to weaker joys, and reckless of a name. 

'Pie Future is the poor man'a heritage : 

Who builds hifi cot amidst Its sunny bowers. 

And hopes to shun the pinching cams of age. 

Close sheltered (com the winda and beating ahowera. 

Forgets the pr^seia^ want that fierce A^ojara 

Hia strength ^o bear, and aptitwio to bliaa, 

And feaata on bounties of the unborn hours. 

Heedless that those to come must spring from thia 
Ia which h^ circled is by fortunea ajll ao^lsjS. 

Yet will imagination cheat our eares, 

And gild the dawning acene with riclieat dwia 

So that the toiling wretch, ae on he fhrea, 

^ees, cYer, lovely lands before him rise ; 

And still o'erwhehned in present agoi^iea, 

Looks onward ^r some tigming in the way, 

|n ^hich the vi^on that befi^^e him flie^ 

A|ay overtaken be, or choose to stay. 
And glad his weary iv>ul, and tur^ his night to day I 

And I, I also gaze towards the goal 
Which Fancy bids me hope may yet be won. 
Though the tenth hour has en my musings stole, 
As on him parabled by Judah's son, 
Who, though hard labour's heavy sands had run 
Nearly through all the day, was yet allowed 
To overtake by diligence the aun. 
And mingle with the earlier toiling crowd. 
Though they, like eovious churls, bawled out their clamonn loud* 



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27 



ON TUB L4W OF FRUfOQENITyBf.* 

Im tnnea like the present, when want and calamity are every day 
becomuig more and more nreyalent lunong the great maas of the 
people, it seems to he the duty of every puhlic writer, who can feel 
for maolcind, honestly to mdicate what appear to hin^ the causes of 
these evils. The indispensable bi^evity of peri94ical composition 
must always, however, confine the writer of a pubUc journal to 
certain V^'anpl^es only of eveiy gr^t subj^c^ at a tin[ie ; hut perhaps 
ther^ is little evil in this ; t^ji^e lapse of fl^ ^lonth brings him again 
fiefore the public, witfik another part of h|;9 ipvestigation, wtach^ 
thoi^igh merely the continua.tion oi^ a former inquiry, can hai;dly failji 
1^ pursued with moderate judgment, to appear novel and agreeable^ 
At least, suc^ is the persuasion with which we now q;nd thjei^i enter 
repeatedly upon topics like t|ie one l^efore us, which, whatever their 
importance and utility may be, are much less calculated than many 
others that could he chosen, to ^ wrought up into fashionable 
essays. On th^e occasions, howeyer, we waive all ^nsideratioi^ 
Qf fame ox plea3ure, ^onteqt if ^ any means we can be useful. 

The question at present to be determined is, whether it he for the 
good of the community that all the lands of the kingdom should 
belong to a few aristocratical fioniUes, to the entire disinheriting of 
a vast majority of mankind ; or that they should lawfully descend 
in ^ual portions from the father to all his children, and thus, by 
degrees, be equitably divided among the citizens of the state. By 
the laws of England, as they stand at present, all the landed pro- 
perty of the father descends, along with his rank and title, to the 
eld^ son. Against the injustice, and the mischievous and (kspotic 
tendency of these lawa, we now contend ; as it is principally from 
them that the poverty and enslaved condition of the majority of the 
English people have, in our opinion, been derived. 

A man without political rights is a slave, and undoubtedly the 
majority of Englishmen have no political rights. It is vain to talk 
of the right of petitioning ; while man has a tongue he will com- ' 
plain ; but, unless he can command the redress of his grievances, 
his complaining will prove of little benefit to him. Of the poverty 
and misery of the people no proof is wantbg ; as it is acknowledged, 
we believe, that more than one-fifth of the population has long been 
reduced to the condition of paupers. Moreover, at this very mo- 
ment, tens of thousands of people are bordering on starvation, or 
actuaUy dying for want, ana, if they survive, they must owe their 
lives to the charity of their fellow-citizens. Were these calamities 

* Discours de Mirabeau sur lVgalit6 des partages dans lea successions ; 
pr^c^^ dtt NoQveau Projet de Loi, de la Loi exlstante, et de leurs motives. 
SMrao. Paris, tML 



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2d On the Law of PrimdginUure, 

occasioned by any convulsion or iiregnlaritv of natnre, falling in its 
consequences upon all alike, thel-e ti^idd then be no room, at least 
on their account, to call in question the excellence of our institu- 
tions. But the famine that now ravages the country, passes every 
moment by fuU granaries and stately and plentiful mansions, whose 
owners never experienced any other embarrassment than that which 
arises from superfluity of riches. 

There are therefore imperfections somewhere in our laws. Dis- 
tress, overwhelming and almost universal, exists ; and it cannot have 
arisen from the minute division of landed property, or property of 
any kind, for never were there so many immense proprietors of 
laiid, so many unwieldly capitalists more wealthy than Croesus, so 
many princely bankers and merchants, so manv well-paid bishops, 
priests and deacons, so many rich generals, admirals, pensioners, 
placemen. Here, then, great estates and great poverty exist to- 
gether : the law of primogeniture, if it does not cause, does not, at 
all events, prevent almost national pauperism. Seeing that this is 
the case, it appears rather surprising that a worthy Baronet, one of 
the most popular friends of the people, a politician of long standing, 
and a man of ability likewise, should, in a late speech in Parlia- 
ment, have given it as his opinion '' that it was the so much carped-at 
law of primogeniture that kept up the wealth of the coimtry"l 
Keep up the wealth of the country, indeed ! Yes, this so much 
carped-at law does certainly keep up the wealth of the country-^ 
for it keeps it entirely out of the reach of the nmjority. But let us 
not anticipate. On subjects of this kind, which have generally been 
regarded as legal questions, it is customary, we believe, to imagine 
that none but lawyers are qualified to write. In our opinion, how- 
ever, they, of all men, are the least qualified: versed in the history 
of particular cases and precedents, and habituated to the forms of 
existing institutions, it is but seldom that they look so far as the 
first principles of legislation, and examine the reasons of laws. Yet, 
in speaking of the prerogative of primogeniture, it is necessary to 
understand, not what has, at various periods, appeared just and poli^ 
tic to certain legislators, but what really is so. 

Plato, in his Republic, undertook to prove that what is just iapo-^ 
litic. Whether it be so or not, it will always, we think, make rather 
against the character of a law to know that, whatever else It may 
be, it is utterly and radically unjust. In this predicament the law 
of primogeniture stands. For, upon the supposition that the father 
has a right to bestow his property as he pleases, and that it is for 
the good of society that great families should be founded and pre-^ 
served, all the estate of the father descends after his death to his 
first-bom son. It is clear from this that the prerogative of the 
eldest son is erected upon two fallacies ; because it may be incon- 
tesdbly shown that, first, the father neither has, nor ought to have, 
the right to dispose arbitrarily of his wealth ; and, seooadly, that if 



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On Ae Law ef PrimogenUur^, 29 

he bad, the ezxsteiice of great ikmiliesy m£avoiirof which alone 
primogeniture ismaintainedy is an evil that ought not to be tolerated 
in a free state. 

With respect to the father's right : philosophers have very clearly 
developed the manner in which the right of property is created ; 
the savage inserts a sharp stone into a stick, and thus by his labour 
creates a new form, which from that moment b his property. Prior 
to this, the materials were free. With this axe he fells trees, shapes 
them, and erects himself a hut, which likewise becomes his own. 
He tames wild animals, and encloses a spot of ground to prevent 
their flight, and the animals and the ground become his property. 
But he does not labour alone ; his wife and his children share his 
toils, and enable him to support them : while he raises the hut, or 
forms his enclosures, the sons range the forests for game, and the 
wife and the daughters prepare it for food. When not thus cm- 
ployed, they engage directly in his labours; some sharpen stakes, 
others weave the willows into the fences, others run about for the 
materials, and carry poles and reeds to form or roof the hut. When 
the work is completed, can the father rise up and say, — ^* All these 
things are mine"? Grant that the infancy of the children is sup- 
ported by his sole labour; old age and sickness and diseases come 
upon him ; he can no longer labour ; then are repaid the debts of 
infency ; filial affection watches round his bed, provides him savoury 
and nourishing food, or leads his tottering footsteps to the sunny 
bank before the hut. Without children how could he avail him- 
self of his property? Who would assuage the miseries of age, or 
keep off, by watchful tenderness, the hand of death, for a time 1 
But having children, he is enabled, during manhood, to multiply, ten- 
fold, the property of the family ; every hand increases it ; every eye 
watches over it. Should he, then, attempt, in the dotage of old age, 
to defraud his children of their shares, and bestow the common 
property upon some guest, brought by chance to his habitation, 
every clown of his neighbourhood would exclaim against his in- 
justice. They would do the same, were he to call all his family 
round his death bed, and say to them — " Children, it is very true 
that the sheep I hear bleating without in the cotes were caught 
and tamed by you all; that you likewise lent your hand to raise 
these walls, and gathered the reeds that roof them, and shelter 
us from the rain ; that, in short, all we have is the product of our 
joint labour ; nevertheless, as it is highly expedient that posterity 
should know such a man. as ' Mumbo Jumbo' existed, I must now 
bestow on you a loaf a-piece, and turn you out of doors, that your 
elder brother, Mumbo, may remain here with his wife, and preserve 
the name and honours of the Jumbos to all eternity/' 

To know upon what principle the possession of wealth and power 
should be regulated in a state, we ought to consider how we would 
now distribute them in case we were to take men from the equality 



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to OSfi We Laid tjf PtimagenHurk 

bf nature to form i n^w cofomnnity. Stipposinff its ac'quAlntiBd \rtth 
their minds and habits, it is probable ^e shoQld i^ot select a driink- 
ard and an adulterer to be King, or President ; nor weak-minded, 
superstitious persons for oi^ senators ; quite the revehre ; our choice 
would single out, for exalted 6tat?ons, the loftiest intellects, and the 
most unblemished characters, and servile and mean employments 
wouM fall to the Tot Of those to whom nature should be found to 
have given low and imperfect minds. But in this distribution eVety 
thing should re scard the individual, and noticing the iumily ; it being 
important to know whiat a man can do, but not whos^ son he is. 
When astatte, however, has been f6rmed, as most states have, by ac- 
cident, and grown to unwieldy size and power in the course of ages, 
the laws exacted from time to time, to answer some immediate exi- 
gency, adhere most commonly to the body politic long aifter the 
circumstances which gave rise to them have ceased to exist. By 
every bad law there are some gainers, (there are, at least, some wh6 
reckon themselves such^) and these individuals, having an interest 
which is not that of the public, will always labour to promote " the 
craft by which they live.^' It is no wonder, therefore, that elder 
brothers, like political Cains, should approve of the law of primd- 
genitore, as it fs to theih a Fegal instrument by which they ^tiietly 
^ssess theittselves of the rights of the younger. 

Hie principle, however, upon which all public business is con- 
ducted in this country — the prevalence of a majority, would quickly 
put lain end to what Gibbon called emphatically " the insolent pre- 
rogative of primogeniture," for, were all mankind to give their suf-- 
frages on the question, the first-born, we suspect, would be gieatly 
outvoted, tn fact, it is this law that has maintained the " monar- 
chical principle" jn feurope, and kept the great body oiF the people 
in the condition of aliens and strangers in their own country. The 
privileged orders, always directing the powci-s biF government, con- 
trive successftilly to mast their domestic policy From the people, 
and abandon a large portion bf their own class, the younger brothers, 
to conduct the brute forces ot the populace in foreign wars, or, in 
the shape bf teachers, to stultiiy and enslave their understandings 
at home. If, by any miracle, a poor ban rises to some 9ommanding 
eminence in society, the privileged ranks are opened to him, and 
his ehergies, like a piece of artillery taken in battle from^ the 
eU'emy, are pointed against the ranks from whence he came. As to 
younger brothers, being scions frohi the {irivileged truiik, they arie 
planted ih the great champaign Of tank aiid honours, and either 
sh'bol up to a level with the jiarent trefe, or quickly wither and die 
away in the shade of their pestilent neighbours. ^'^^' 

It is the law of prinriogeniture which creates andj^reserves an 
hereditary aristocracy, the greatest evil which political instttutibna 
have ever brought upon a country, tbir what but miscnief could 
^^Ibly spring from an brder of men bom with every favdiir and 



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On M» Law (ff Pf^mogenitit^h HI 

ad^fkAtiitgd of fbttttn^ in ibeir IiAbdfi f Ootenlt c^tAnvMi 65i:pert«t)e^ 
ftnd bbservd the effects of snch to Order of things upon the {>riv1- 
leged, and npon the despoiled : in the fotmer, the tii^t thittg it 
does ifl, to destroy industty and the virtues which spring f^ott it ; 
in the latter, it entirely effaces the stamp of independence, and de- 
bases the mind, in some instances so fkr as to make it exnlt in its 
own deghuiation. The best type of a state that chertshes aa 
aristocracy in its bosom, is a large ikmily in which one child usnrps 
the wholte f^vonr of the parents : on a different scale the Same 
effects eicftctly take place in each ; the favourite, protected against 
labotir abd the irksome and dangerous vicissitudes of life, is in- 
dulged with splendid toys, and furnished with all the means of sa- 
tisfying his capricious appetites. The other children, having ho 
lOod to enioyment, except through the gtiiciou^ smiles of the do- 
mestic darlibg, and bein^ actuated no less than he by the thirst of 
pleasure. Immediately have reoout^e to cringing and hypocrisy, pre- 
tend extraordinary anxtiety fbr his gratification, ai^d eagerly pro* 
vide him with delights, hi the hope that they may, by this meaAs^ be 
allowed to share them with him. Let any parent who is iii doubt 
abo«it this bestow a cOUme of exelttsive favours on otie of hid child- 
ren only, and observe the distinction it will create for that one, aUd 
the meanness and adulation it will cause in the others. The sturdy 
brother^ who would previously have struck him for the least provo- 
cation, now grows humble and submissive, obeys his beck and call, 
and fears to look amiss lest it should deprive him of his share of 
the pleasures which the caprice of the favourite may withhold from 
him altogether. On the other hand, the possessor of the parents' 
distinctions seems to grow taller with conceit, tosses up his head, 
walks about in a stately pafce, runs now here, now there, seeming to 
be quite delighted to put his retinue into the most humiliating posi- 
tion, to gratify his pride and Ibve of potrer. It is true that any 
sudden suspension of the exclusive smiles of the parent restoi-es the 
little urchins to their original equality, and, perhaps, procures the 
ftiyourite a severe beating or two, in revenge for the degradation he 
inflicted during his good iTortune ; but this supenority cotitinuing, 
or ofteh Repeated, would essentially corrupt the ftivourile, and de- 
base his brethren. 

The gross and palpable favouritism which should prompt a fia- 
ther to feed , his eldest son on white bread, and the younger on 
brown» or lead him to convert the latter into the personal attendants 
of the former, would be abominated and decried by all mankind; 
Yet thb would be l^y no means a more unjust proceediOff than is 
now authorized and pi-actisc^d under the law of primogeniture^ ^i 
which, in reality, confers the hereditary wealth of the family on oilb 
son, and employs the rest in the church, the ahny, or the navy^ as 
aatellltes to defend and preserve him in the possession of it. 

But although it may perhaps be allowed thftt Ihte H|ht bf the Jtn^ 



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82 .On the Law of PHmogeniture. 

born 18 not founded in nature olr in justice, but it may still be urged 
that it is a useful fiction, or, at least, one which has appeared such to 
the great majority of mankind. Nobody can deny that when once the 
world begins to patronize any particular piece of folly, it generally 
continues its patronage in secula seculorumy and, being judge of its 
own conduct, calls this proceeding, wisdom. But in regard to pri- 
mogenitnre, the opinions of the majority have been nearly always 
heretical. Among the Jews the eldest son inherited only a double 
portion ; at Athens all the sons obtained equal portions, while the 
daughtera were left dependent on their brothers ; the Roman laws 
originally made no distinction between the sexes, sons and daughters 
inheriting an equal share. In Mohammedan countries, the paternal 
estate descends in even portions to all the sons ; as it also does in 
Hindoostan. The laws of Japan differ from all others m respect to 
succession, no child inheriting in that country except those of the 
wife bestowed by the emperor. Among the benefits conferred on 
France by the Revolution, the abolition of the law of primogeniture 
was not the least, as it removed the greatest stain of barbarism 
from her code, and restored that equality among brothers, which 
the abolition of feudality had established among the citizens in 
general. 

As the Constituent Assembly contained, when this question was 
agitated, a number of lawyers attached to the old maxims of juris- 
prudence, Mirabeau introduced into the speech he prepared for the 
occasion, the title of which we have quoted at the commencement of 
this article (but which he never lived to pronounce), sharp invectives 
against the imperfections of ancient law : full of the daring spirit of 
the times, his eloquence always seemed to burst from him, like the 
strains of the Delphian priestess, in involuntary inspiration ; but in 
speaking against the law of primogeniture, death, then fast ap- 
proaching him, appeared like a whirlwind to drift away all the 
chaff of declamation from his periods, leaving nothing remaining but 
the pure grains of truth. 

This speech, which will bear to be compared with some of the 
best orations of Cicero, was read to the Assembly by M. Talley- 
rand, then bbhop of Autun. Before commencing it, he informed 
his hearers that he went the day before to the house of Mirabeau, 
then on his death-bed ; crowds of admirers or friends thronged the 
rooms ; sadness was on all their countenances. The orator only 
was calm and cheerful. During the interview, Mirabeau, who re- 
gretted that he should not be present at the debate on the law of 
primogeniture, delivered into his hands the speech he had prepared 
for the occasion. It was his last labour, and his best ; the reading 
of it was frequently interrupted by the enthusiastic applause of the 
hearers, and the splendid and forcible reasoning it contained had 
undoubtedly much influence on the decision to which the Assembly 
shortly afterwards came. 



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Oa tM Law of Prunoj^emture. d;i 

To give any thing like an analysis of this speech would cany us 
into too great length, for it emhraces a large field, and is remark- 
able for the closeness of its style. As on otiier occasions, we must 
confine ourselves to a few remarks and extracts ; but we shall en- 
deavour, in the latter, to select such as are likely to do most honour 
to the memory of Mirabeau, and draw the attention of the reader to 
a speech which cannot be too assiduously studied. In quoting such 
a writer, we shall religiously abstain from all attempts at transla- 
tion ; eloquence, as well as poetry, appearing in a foreign language 
much more awkward and clumsy than a Turk or a Hindoo would 
look in the costume of Paris or London. Much must, of course, be 
passed over in silence. Indeed, as a great part of the speech turns 
on free gifts and testaments, a branch of the subject which we 
avoid touching upon at present, this might very well be done, 
without breaking the connection of his arguments against the right 
of primogeniture; but we can cite but a small number even of 
these. 

The Ambs, wc know, are accustomed to speak of the times before 
Mohammed, as their " days of ignorance ;" and the French of 1791 
judged in a like manner of the period preceding the Revolution : 

Dans les sieclesde tenebres (says Mirabeau), ces lois (lomaines) ont 6t6 
ootrr settle lumicre ; mats dans un siecle de lumiKres, les ancien flambeaux 
pilis«eo ; ils ne serTent qu* k embarrasser la Tue, ou m^roe k retarder nos 
pas dans la route de la vdrit^. 

Of all the laws of antiquity relating to succession, those of Rome, 
which appeared to Mirabeau so exceptionable, approached most 
nearly the equality of nature : all the children inherited equal por- 
tio's, without distinction of sex or age ; but as the law ordained 
that property should not pass by marriage from one family to an 
other, the children of a daughter could not succeed to her property, 
which returned at her death to the family from which she sprung. 
Elxperience afterwards taught the Romans that the allowing women 
to inherit introduced pernicious luxury and disorder into the state ; 
and a law proposed by Quintus Voconius, the tribune, and thence 
called the Voconian Law, made it illegal to constitute a woman 
heir, whether married or unmarried. This law was advocated with 
great vehemence by Cato the Censor, at the age of seventy-five. It 
is important not to mistake the spirit of the Voconian law : it was 
really intended to repress hixury, and not wantonly to deprive 
women of their rights ; for, while they were excluded by it from the 
succession to large estates, they might inherit possessions not in- 
cluded in the first census. To encourage marriage, Augustus 
partly removed the prohibitions of this law, making it legal for 
women to succeed in virtue of their husbands' will, and, in case 
they had three children, they might inherit the estate of a stranger 
who should name them as his heir. By the time of Adrian, the 
Voconian Law was nearly a dead letter ; and Justinian abro^atied 
it altogether. 

OritnlUU Herald, Voi. 10. D 



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M puthe Law of Pn$iiiQgeuiture, 

The oridor then advises to abandon entirely all deference lor 
£[>rmer laws^ and in regulating the possessions and determining thp 
lights of a great people, to look solely to reason and nature. 

Or, Mesftieun (he continues), que nous d^i cette nature, dans la inatier« 
que Qous 'iwcutons ? Si elle a ^tabli IVgalirC* d*hoBime k hcmme, k plus fcrte 
raison de fi^re k fiere ; et ce*te ^galit^ en' re les enfans d'uae m'me famille nc 
doi' elle pas '*tre mieuT reconnue encore, el plus respect^e par ceux qui leur 
out doim6 la oaiss ince ? 

Society acknowledges fully the right of children to succeed to 
their fatliers, hut it has hitherto neglected in most cases to decree 
t^at all shall succeed to equal portions. But, 

Cette lol suciale, qui fait succ^der les e ifans aux p^res dans la propri^t* 
des *-ie .s dotnestiquea. doit se raontrer dans toute sa puret^, quand le dief de 
famiUe menrt ab intestat. Alors les enfans qui succ^dent partagrnt selon les 
lols de la natuie, a moiits que la sucii^te nc joue Icl le r"le dc mai fitre, en rrm- 
pant k leur Pgard la loi i.ivi(>la le de Tegili^c. Mais il i.e sulHi pas d*aYcir 
fait disparaitre rfe notre en e ce reste impur des Iris ferdales, qui, dans les 
enfans d*un m'me poie, cri&aient quelquetcis. en d^pit de lui. un liciie et de 
pauvres, un protecfeur liautaiu eld'olscurs sul:ordonnf-s ; Icis cunuptiices, 
qui aemnient.des hai es, \k ou l.i nature avoit ct(-e la frateri.ii^, ct qui cleve- 
Doient complices dc mille dfesordres. si pourtant il n'est plus vr i de diie qu' 
elles les faisaieut naitre. 11 ne sufflt pas d*avoir d^^truit jusqu* au dernier 
▼estige de ces lois funcstes ; il faut prevenir par de sages statnts les passions 
areugles, qui n'auraient pas des effets moins pemicieux que ces lois memes ; 
11 faut empC'cher ralteration qu* elles apportent insensiblemcnt dans Tordre 
dvil. 

The entire disregard of justice oftentimes manifested by tcsta- 
torSy is hut too well known. Services of the most infamous kiud^ as 
well as the smaller delinquencies of cringing and fiatteiy, too fre- 
quently purchase the succession to property, to the injury of the 
ipLtural heirs. Even where the scci'et obligations of guilt exist not, 
old men are subject to be capricious in their preferences, and sonic- 
times bequeath immense wealth to individuals on the strength of 
impressions made upon them instantaneously by a fortunate phy- 
siognomy, or by engaging manners. It is clear that such testaments 
ought not to be respected by the laws, w*hich being the nearest ap- 
proach to pure reason sliould by no means be made subscr\'ieiit to 
the most irrational vagaries of individuals. 

GomUen de oes actes, signifies aux Tivans par les morts, ou la folie seroble 
disputer a la passion ; ou le testateur fait de telles dispositions de sa fortune, 
qu* il n*eut os£ de son vivant en faire confiance & personne ; des dlsposlrions 
telles, en nn mot, quMl a en besoin pour se les permettre de se detacher en- 
tierement de sa memorfe, et de penaer que le tombean aerak son abri coatre U 
ridicule et les reproclies I 

The right of primogeniture^ as it now exists in Europe, arose a^t 
of feudal manners, with which it was perfectly congruous. Never- 
theleas Ht did not come into vogue samultaneously with the pos- 
session of fiefs, for under the first two races of French kings both 
sons and dao^hteiv succeeded equally even to feudal possessions, as 
may he clearly inferred from a law of Edward the Confessor : <' Si 
quia iatestatus obierit, iiberi ejus sucoeduot in capiia.*' It waa 
after the Capet family ascended the throne of France that th^ 
great feudal proprietors, haying united t^geU]^<|r to caat ojff the 



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On ike lam iff Primogisni$ure^ 96 

yoke of royal autliorily, establiBlied the right of ^riwogeoUulre, that 
ill the power of the father might remain muted in the haiidB of one 
man, the better to resist the encroachments of regal power.'*' The 
eldest son being the most early adapted to undergo tti,e fatigues of 
war, and to feel the spur of ambition, was therefore chosen to be 
the representative of the father ; and the whole domain pf the 
family devolved to him, with an injunction to provide for his younger 
brothers so far as to enable them to live respectably. This we find 
recorded as a law enacted by Geotfry, Count of Britanny, in 1185: 
" Majores natu integrum dominium obtineant, et junioribus, pro 
posse sujo providcunt de necessariis^ ut honeste viverent/' When 
the right of primogeniture was once established among the nobles, 
who are generally allowed to coin ideas and fashions for those be* 
low them, it was not to be expected that the commoners would lorg 
remain behind them in the career of absurdity and injustice. Ac- 
cordingly, the eldest son of a clown very quickly acquired the right 
to rob his brothers and sisters as completely as the son of a lord, 
and believed that, by the exercise of this piece of unnatural plunder, 
he was approaching the condition of his betters. As to daughters^ 
they were accounted for next to nothing by the feudal institutions, 
which, on their account, ran riot in every possible absurdity, or- 
daining one thing in this province, another in that ; now securirg 
them a smaU portion, now granting them nothing. So that during 
the glorious times of cliivalry, when a princely beauty had perhaps 
a hundred knights ready to break a lance in her honour, she might 
not possess sufficient property to furnish the palfrey that carried her 
to the tournament, or to provide herself with a veil to shade her 
cheek fjrom the sun. All she could demand was no more than a 
simple chapeau de rose, having which she was portioned for life. 
Tis true there were nunneries, and to these the toasts and beauties 
of chivalrous periods betook themselves, so soon as time had begun 
to make havoc with their features ; for the honest knights of those 
days were no less given to look to the main chance than the knighis 
of our times ; and if they broke each other's skulls to prove the 
virtue and loveliness of their mistresses, they likewise took good 
care to leave those lovely creatures very little besides their beauty 
that they could call their own. Such having been the wisdom of 
our ancestors, and the gallantry of chivalric days, it must be owned 
that we have degenerated sadly how, when, at all events, a lady re- 
ceives a portion suited to her rank, and is not left quite dependent 
on the caprice of her brother. 

Those glorious dawnings of the revolution which dispersed the 
darkness that had so long obscured the laws of Fi*ance , must, un- 
doubtedly, have been viewed by a man like lyfirabeau with the most 
enthusiastic delight. The barbarous curtain of chivalry was with- 
drawn from the national character, men stood up in a proud equality. 



* Dlre-^urs de M. Chabot de rAllier. 



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B6 On ihe Law of Primogeniture. 

claimed and won the honoars and distmctions to which their virttteB 
and their talents entitled them, and trampled under their feet the 
hateful distinction of nohle and commoner, orif^nating in ignorance 
and harharism^ and fitted only to degrade and enslave the great ma« 
jority of mankind. In the speech before us, the great orator of the 
revolution exults over the ruins of the feudal system, a monstrous 
edifice, which his own eloquence had greatly contributed to destroy. 

Le concours de la loi et de Topinion a d^ruit chez nous cette preponder- 
ance generate que les noms et lea titres se sent arrogee trop long-temps. 11 
a fait disparaltre ce pouvoir inagique qu* un certain arrangement de lettreii 
alphabetiques exeri;ait jadis parmi nous. Ce respect, cette admiration pour 
des chimeres a fui deyant la dignite de Thomme et du citoyen. Or, je ne sais 
rien de mieux, pour faire repousser des rejetons k cette vantte easevelie, que 
de laisser subsister des usages testamentaires que la faTorisent, de cultiver en 
quelque sorte par les lois cette fond trop fertile d*ia^gaUti^ dans les fortunes. 
n n*y a plut d^atnia^ plvM de privil^ffidt dans la tprande famiUe nationaU ; 
it H*en/aut plot dans lea petitet families qui la compasent. 

The blessings which the Revolution conferred upon France have 
always appeared to the Bourbons as so many conquests achieved 
over their family greatness ; and, whatever concessions they may 
have thought it necessary to make since their restoration to the 
spirit of the times, it is evident, from many symptoms, that their se- 
cret intention is to replunge the French into all the superstition and 
national slavery, from which they emerged by their courage and 
capacity. On the 10th of February Ijfst, one of the Ministers of 
Charles X. ^the dock-master of Mohammed Ali) presented to the 
Chamber of Peers the project of a law for restoring the right of 
primogeniture ; and in a speech, which, together with the law itself, 
is now before us, attempted to stultify the understandings of the 
peers by various ingenious sophisms, calculated to lead into the be- 
lief that the equal partition of estates would in the end annihilate 
all the advantages of landed property, and reduce the whole body 
of the people to a miserable rabble. That these sophisms have 
already thrown their roots across the Channel, and taken ground in 
this country, we must conclude from the words of the distinguished 
Baronet, previously quoted, for, in this instance, the popular 
English senator has undeniably imported his notions from France. 
However, the right of primogeniture, although it does happen to 
appear so jast and admirable to this great Reformer, is likely to 
have fewer advocates in future. Eyen the speech of the " Garde- 
des-Sceaux," which convinced the member for Westminster, and 
many other elder brothers, of the excellence of this law, will, we 
suspect, have a contrary eflFect upon the generality of readers. The 
French orator, imagining perhaps that he wns wielding an Achilles 
of an argument, insisted chiefly, in support of his motion, upon the 
tendency of primogeniture to uphold the " monarchical principle" ! 
Could he have quite hidden that idea Arom the minds of his hearers, 
perhaps the law might have passed ; but in making it the basis of 
his appeal, it was really like saying, '< Keep your doors open all 
night, as it affords the ^eatest possible facility for the entrance of 



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The LafMfHtfin the Cid. 87 

those 9r\xo will ease you of the wealth your indastiy might accumu- 
late." So successful, indeed, is this gentleman in proving the re* 
verse of what he intended, that we recommend his speech to the 
perusal of our readers, as a more striking document in favour of the 
equal partition of estates than even the splendid discourse of Mira- 
beau lumself ; for it is an example of the utter inefficacy of the best 
reasonings which the whole French Government could marshal in the 
coarse of years against the rights of man. 



THE LAMENT FOR THE CID. 

£!l Campeaclor ! El Campeador I 
Never was sound to 'he turban*d Moor 

Like that of his trumpet *8 tone, — 
It witherM the strength of Moslem war 
If the blast but bore it from afar ; 

Alas 1 for its voice is gone I 

If on proud Cordova's high walls 
To the silent steel-clad sentinels 

Came but a distant hum, 
Each held his breath, and fear'd to hear 
The Cid and his knights in full career ; 

Alas f for that sound is dumb I 

And then throughout the paynym land. 
When the watchers took their anxious stand 

Upon the mountain's brow. 
They stood by the beacons day and night 
With torches ever burning bright ; — 

Alas I they may quench them now ! 

The Moslem maid who tum'd her eyes 
To her false Prophet's paradise. 

For the you*h who fought afar, 
Against the Cid, by Bbro*s tide, 
Or Guadalquiver's grassy side, 

Need tear no more the war. 

They may fling the Moorish banners wide — 
The sacred flags — their f^aith and pride — 

Which, when Ruy Diaz came, 
They hid, as if each silken fol.i, 
Heavy aud stiflf with gems and gold. 

Would bum in bis glance of flame. 

El Campeador ! £1 Campeador ! 
From Ronceval to the Ebro*s shore 

There *8 a voice of woe in the land — 
When will there live so true a knight. 
So kind in peace, so brave in f^ght. 

So strong of heart and hand ? 

Tet even in death, brave Cavalier, 
Thy country's glory thou shalt share, 

For when our banner*d line 
Fix for the charge the laoce in rest, 
Om hope, one with, shall fire each breait 

To iria rtoowa like ttaiiM, 

BlVWAWD WrctiVFi. 



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dd 



THOI70HT8 OP A RESIDENT IN INDIA ON THE CONDITION AND 
PROSPECTS OP THAT COUNTRY. 

One of the greatest difficulties attending our periodical labours 
is that of obtaining from the country, to the improvement of which 
our hopes and efforts are constantly directed, such materials of dis- 
cussion as are to be procured from every other quarter of the globe 
in which any freedom of publication exists. This difficulty is, how- 
ever, every now and then surmounted, by the valuable communications 
of those private friends who still retain a lively recollection of the 
benefit produced by the Indian Press in the days of its short-lived 
freedom ; and who, untired in the pursuit of human good, continue 
to make us the medium of offering their thoughts to the world. 
We cannot too strongly impress our distant friends with the value 
of such communications, and the importance justly attached to them 
in England ; or too earnestly invite their full, free, and frequent 
transmission of their sentime .ts to us on all subjects connected with 
the actual state and the best means of improving the future condi- 
tion of the country in which their lot is cast. The good to be done 
to themselves as well as to others, by such means, must be obvious : 
and while they may repose their confidence in us with safety, they 
will have their reward in living to witness the beneficial effects of 
such of their suggestions as by being made public nlay be adopted, 
but if hidden in theii- own bosoms, may be lost for ever to the 
world. After this brief preliminary, we offer the following as the 
principal portion of a communication made to us from the very heart 
of India, by one whose long residence in the country and superior 
intelligence entitle his opinions to great respect. He says : 

^* People seem to imagine that there is somethmg in Hindoostan 
and Hindoos to distinguish them from all the rest of the world. 
It is true, indeed, that India is warmer than most other countries ; 
but its inhabitants, after all, are made of much the same kind of 
stuff as the other inhabitants of this globe — ' if we prick them do 
they not bleed ? — ^if we tickle them do they not laugh V — and, it 
may be added with more solemnity than the quotation would seem 
to imply, * if we wrong them, shall they not revenge V Alas! we 
have wronged them too deeply already — and the day of revenge, 
come when it may, will not be undeserved. Do hot mistake me, I 
am not preaching up or prognosticating deeds of blood — ^no ! the 
revenge of the Hindoos will be milder, bat not less efffectual ; when 
the day of struggle arrives they will remain mute spectators of the 
conflict, and, heedless of our cries for assistance, will rather proffer 
it to our enemies than to as, ia hopes of gaining by a change of 
masters what they cfinnot expect from a continuance of our rule. 
It is said, indeed, that our empire is one df opinion : nothing is more 
false — ^it is not so, and shame it is to as that after near a century's 



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T/ioug/iis of a Jtiesiuent in inUta. oV 

dvay it is not. Oar empire is that of money. The forty thousand 
Europeans who hold this country give employment to perhaps a 
million of Natives, hut this is done so obviously by means of taxes ' 
levied upon the whole mass, and the regular payment of each in- 
dividual's stipend fluctuates so sensibly with the rise and fall of the 
Government credit, that the very servants of the state are the first 
harbingers of our insolvency or downfal. If, by opinion, any notion 
of our intellectual or moral superiority be meant, that day has long 
gone by ; that it has so, an unprejudiced mind may satisfy itself by 
attending to passing events and perusing the documents now so fre- 
quently laid before the public. 

" The only peculiarity calculated to influence the destiny of India 
was its remote situation as compared with the rest of the world. 
It IS with nations as with individuals, place them in seclusion and 
they inevitably contract notions of their own infallibility and absurd 
theories of one kind or another that totally unfit them for commerce 
with society. India was so placed. Her distance was too great 
from those parts of the worla which had benefited by mutual colli- 
sion to allow her to participate in the general improvement. She 
retained her antiquated institutions whilst almost all the rest of 
mankind were high in the career of advancement — and her station- 
ary position, added to the enervating effect of her climate, mide her 
an easy prey to every invader. Still, however, those who were tempted 
to disturb her repose were so few in number when compared to her 
countless multitude — ^the distance they had travelled, and, it may be 
added, the toils they had undergone, were so great, that, ere the 
work of conquest was complete, the conquerors had, in a great mea- 
sure, lost their energy, and sunk imperceptibly into the habits of the 
conquered. The Moguls of India and the Tartars of China met in 
effect with the same fate : they established a temporary dominion, 
but, after struggling more or less to maintain it, yielded gradually 
to the influence of numbers, and were, at last, entirely absorbed in 
the great mass of Hindoo and Chinese population. 

'^ How long the same causes might have been adequate to produce 
the same effect it is now needless to conjecture, for the discovery of 
a pvsage to India round the Cape of Good Hope entirely changed 
the face of affairs. India was, in a manner, drawn closer to Europe, 
and thereby rendered accessible on all sides to the activity and en- 
terprise of the most powerful as well as the most civilized portions 
of the globe. The Portui(uese, who led the way in this mighty revo- 
lution, were the first to take advantage of it — and what was the 
consequence? — ^So far from there appearing to be any peculiarity to 
prevent the inhabitants of India from benefiting by and adopting the 
notions of any other people, whole provinces cnanged their religion, 
and it is hardly possible to imagine a greater impression made in so 
short a time— or a more intimate amalgamation of conquerors and 
ci^hquered than then took place. Movements in the political world 



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40 Thoughts of a Resident in India 

oi Europe, however , precluded the possihility of the Portuguese con* 
tinuing their efforts to subjugate the whole of India, or even effec- 
tually supporting their first series of expeditions ; — and thus the 
same lot befel them that must inevitably hefal the few when they 
make partial and unsustained attempts to subjugate and change the 
character of the many. Like the Moguls, they were quickly ab- 
sorbed in the population ; and, perhaps from a former infusion of 
Saracen or even African blood rendering them more liable to show 
the effects of a tropical sun, they are now only to be distinguished 
by their having a still darker complexion than the aborigines of the 
country. 

<< But though these repeated instances of failure would appear to 
demonstrate the improbability of effectually colonizing India, it 
must not be forgotten thaC our position is materially different from 
that of any previous interloper. With the Moguls it would be idle 
to make a comparison ; but, with respect to the Portuguese, it may 
be useful to remark that their conquests, though widely spread, 
were confined almost wholly to the sea coasts : they never made 
any deep impression on the ^ bowels of the land,' though undoubt- 
edly, if they had been si pported by the mother country, they would 
have done so ; and there can be as little question but in that cose 
the whole face of the country would, long ere this, have been 
changed. But how vastly superior is our situation — ^how much 
more commanding our attitude ! At home we have power, an over- 
flowing population, riches, and the command of the ocean ; here, 
we have penetrated Asia to the back bone, our dominion embraces 
twenty climates, and every shade of manners and religious faith. 
Colonies, not too hastily collected, might be planted on spots little, 
if at all, unfavourable to European constitutions, and safely left to 
diverge from those points as opportunity and accession to the num- 
bers of the colonists might dictate. This work might be auspi- 
ciously commenced by the Government itself; and invalid stations, 
with encouragement for Europeans of all grades to settle, might be 
advantageously established at Almorah, in Rohilcund, Goruckpoor, 
Tirhoot, or at Boglipoor, or the Nilgherry hills in the l>eccan. 
Who shall say that the British nation would not soon find its ac- 
count in the recruits, whether of whole or half blood, that would 
issue from such qu alters ? 

" The mention of half blood is the principal consideration that 
gives me pause. There are, perhaps, grounds for apprehending 
that this class would increase in numbers, or degenerate by ad- 
mixture with the Natives, and thus expose our giant British oak to 
be strangled by the numerous folds of the creeper by which it was 
overgrown. On this subject I confess my mind is not made up. I 
am disposed to think, however, that the tendency of half blood is 
rather to avoid deterioration ; the females being comparatively 
rarely married to Europeans of whole blood, more of them remain 



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an the Prospecie of that Country. 41 

to pair off with their own kind, and thua illicit connexions, from which 
degeneracy proceeds, do not offer so many temptations, for it is 
more from the difficulty of finding soitahle matches, than from de- 
praved taste, that such alliances are generally formed. Again, the 
few females of half hlood who marry Europeans tend to correct the 
evil, whilst the commixing of half hlood with half hlood, though it 
docs not improve, certainly does not deteriorate. 

''It is urged, indeed, against colonizaticui, that to settle in a coun- 
try already fiilly inhabited, is to endeavour to push a happy and con- 
tented people from their stools, and devote them to misery and 
starvation ; and this consideration is supposed to apply with pecu- 
liar force to India. It might do so, perhaps, if the premise* were 
tmcy hut they are not. India is not fully peopled. Their extreme 
poverty, and the oppressive weight of our system of government, 
force the inhabitants to huddle together in most unhealthy parts^ 
to club an existence as it were ; but for one square mile where the 
population id, on this accoimt only, fearfully dense, there are ten 
wbdch, for the same reason (inability through poverty to cultivate), 
are lying waste. The apprehended displacing of the Native popu- 
lation, therefore, could not occur even if colonists were to arrive in 
crowds of thousands at a time ; but no such precipitated step is in 
contemplation. All that is required is, to throw the country open to 
the industry and enterprise of Europeans ; and for Government to 
commence this work, by making use of the ample means in their 
possession. As to the gradual increase of Creole and Christian 
population, there is only this to be said, that when there is ample 
room and verge enough for the first settlers, their increase will be 
according to their energy and their means, and thus furnish a test 
of the fitness of this part of the globe for such a population. If 
they increase at the expense of the Native population, it will only be 
what takes place in every comer of the habitable globe, the rich 
and the robust increasing at the expense of the poor and weakly ; 
and, canting apart, who will not say that in one century the condi- 
tion oi India would be immeasurably improved by such a consum- 
mation? 

*' But in this argument the happiness and contentedness of the 
people must by no means be taken for granted. Look at the nu- 
merous statements, from men of every way of thinking, now before 
the world. Differing as they do about causes, they all agree in the 
effects of our government ; upon its utter unproductiveness of sub- 
stantial good in any point of view, and the unequivocal increase, if 
not creation, of evil in many. One party insists upon the degene- 
racy of the Natives as a reason for the continuance of our rule, 
though with increased vigour, whilst the other looks upon it as a 
consequence of that rule, and as clearly demonstrating the necessity 
of change : but that the Natives have degenerated, there is nowhere 
aay qaestion. A high authority says, that the practical effect of 



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42 Thoughts of 4 Aesideni in tndia 

our judicial system, on the character and happiness of the Indians, 
is acknoitledged not to have corresponded with what was antici- 
pated from the judgment of those who framed the machinery; 
whilst another writer, who appears pretty fairly to have summed up 
the evidence on hoth sides, states it to he confessed that our rule 
has hcen anything hut a hlessing to the Natives of India. What 
then is the conclusion to he drawn ? That we must revert to the Mo- 
hammedan system, or go still further hack to the institutions of 
Menu ? — No ! thank heaven, there are few who counsel such a re- 
trograde movement now-a-days. (Some wretches of this kind, 
however, there are.) Let the plan suggested hy Lord Hastings be 
followed. Let the population be prepared, by the diffusion of edu- 
cation, to receive oi^r mstitutions ; and, in order that education may 
have free scope to expand itself into practical utility, let coloniza- 
tion be at least not prohibited. It is not that the Hindoos are 
averse from gi^'ing new systems a trial ; what was experienced with 
the Portuguese, what is known concerning the Musulmans, and 
what we have all observed in the immediate vicinity of our settle- 
ments, alike forbid the supposition ; but it is that we are not suffi- 
cient in number and stability to give the tone to society, or to sub- 
stitute, in fact, anything upon which the Natives can rely, in ex- 
change for the sacrifices they might be disposed to make. The 
Natives are called upon for an immense contribution in point of taxes 
6f one krtid or another, and, after that, to surrender their old insti- 
tutions and prejudices to support a system, in the administration of 
which they cannot be said even to assist, in the stability of which 
they cannot confide, and in the expediency of which they cannot per- 
suade themselves. They see a single European planted In the 
midst of an extensive district, applying all his time and abilities to 
enforce a system which, whatever may be its abstract nature, has 
for them no other effect but the sensible one of taking all they can 
possibly spare, to pass into the cofffers of Government, after enrich- 
ing a fe^ of the least respectable of their countrjrmen. And for all 
this what do they ^ei in return ? " Protection to life and property" 
it is triumphantly replied. True, they do so ; but does the most 
blood-thirsty tyrant aim at the life that is quietly, and, above all, 
productively employed ? And as to property, where is the great 
difference between a mild government that takes nine-tenths of the 
produce every year, and a despotic one that seizes the whole every 
ten years ? Really, bating something for the differenee of modem 
manners, there is in all this something like a diBiinotion without a 
difference. 

<^ Lord Hastings is almost the only man of true gentlemanly feeling 
and unbiassed judgment who has ever treated on Indian affairs ; the 
others who have given their sentiments to the world, though many 
tff them men of the highest merit, had mostly some leaven of the 
Ifidiaa monopolist to ndse them k ffaeir otm dteceit, or iome 



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on ih$ Projects 0/ that CtmHtHf. 4t 

tlieoriefl to estabHsb npon no broader ftmndation than their own per- 
Mmal, and very often lliDited, experience. The opimon of practical 
men is no doabt always usefttl, but throttghmit so immense a region 
as that under onr goyemment^ indiriduals, even of the most acute in- 
teUect, are apt to see trhiit passes before them tinder very different 
points of view ; it requires a master mind to compare their various 
statements, and duly to appreciate the effects of that partiality 
which each nnist have for the system he has long toiled to enforce — 
for the reforms, of the efficacy of which he alone may have been 
kd to form an exalted estimate. Such a mind was that which 
Lord Hastings brought to the discussion. It is not necessary, how- 
ever, to dwell upon the many eminent qualifications which his Lord- 
ship possessed to fit him for the perfoi-mance of the task alluded 
to ; hot, as directly connected with the subjeet under review, truth 
cxMnpels the belief that he never has been, nor probably ever will 
be, forgiven by the Company for having, in the face of all the world, 
brought high principles and finished education to bear upon a 
system which was so liable to perish under so powerful an ordeal. 
When first his Lordship began to dcvelope his intention to penetrate 
iflto the obscurities of oar Indian administration, and to conduct the 
government and politics of the country in a fair and open manner, 
he was hated for it by almost every functionary in the service, and 
this hatred followed him, unabated, until he quarrelled with his 
friends of the liberal party ; ftom that period their hostility to him 
was somewhat mitigated by the pleasing consciousness that his 
former friends were it a great measure within their power — and sad 
indeed was the havoc they did commit, and were only just prevented 
from eominitting. But nO more of this ; with all his faults Lord 
Hastings is the best^ in Our present situation perhaps the only man 
for this country. And Ithat were his faults / Only, after all, for- 
getting himself for a moment, and mistaking himself for a mere in- 
habitant of Calcutta, when he belonged of right to Britain — to the 
whole civilized world ! In confirmation, look at the distinction with 
which his Lordship was treated on the Continent — see the Inde- 
pendent States of Italy vying with each other to do him honour, 
some of them entreating Y^ stay for a day amongst them, and 
meanwhile sending crowdb of workmen to smooth the roads before 
him. See the royal fandly of France too granting exemptions of 
police and donane such as were never granted to an individual and 
a foreigner, doing, in fact, all but pay their debts to him — ^to show, 
perhaps, how nmch easier it is to be generotis with other people's 
money than jast with our own. No I Lord Hastings is an hononr to 
his age and country ; and to return, onee more, to our miserable 
selves, the universal desire is to see him again at the head of the 
Indian government. 

^' Apropos of his Lordship— a writer in Blackwood's Magazine 
talks of the notion of bestowing titles of honour upon the Natives 



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44 Hhoughta of a BeMeni in India^ Sfc. 

as calculated to excite a smile in those who are acquainted with the 
constitution of Indian society. Another instance of that exclusive 
reasoning which seeks to make Hindoos different from all other of 
God's creatures, an effect of the utter estrangement which still, 
after eighty years of undisturbed dominion, exists between the con- 
queror and conquered. We live here like a set of haughty heart- 
less mamelukes, disdaining all commerce with the Natives of the 
soil, and then we talk, forsooth, of the constitution of their society ! 
Even now it is in many parts of the country considered highly im- 
pertinent for a Native, of whatever rank (provided he have no 
power), to omit descending from his horse or palanquin and making 
a salaam when an European happens to pass him on the road. 
Pray how much of this is owing to the constitution of their society ? 
Whatever he their situation, a title that would exempt them from 
this degrading homage would not be unacceptable. But to judge 
from the little we do know of them — ^look at those who reside in 
our immediate neighbourhood, does their conduct lead us tosupitose 
that titles and distinctions would not b^ prized ? Let any gentle- 
man who happens to have an establishment of Chuprassies call one 
of their number Jemidaty and observe the bearing and consequence 
of the man ; take a common Sircar and make him the accountant of 
your household, and see how he conducts himself, and whether all 
Ills fellow servants do not immediately treat hint with respect and 
dub him Sahib. Look at the gratitude with which old servants of 
the state receive the privilege of a chatta and palanquin, sometimes 
granted by Government ; and, in short, recollect the instance of 
Buddy Nath, a Native of family and substance, who expended 
upwards of fifty thousand rupees (£6,000) in constructing a public 
road, and merely asked, as a remuneration, for the privilege of 
dressing some of his servants like sepoys, to attend him as a guard 
of honour. This man too it is known is even now using all his 
interest to obtain some additional title or badge of distinction from 
Government. 

'' So far then from the constitution of Indian society leading us to 
believe that titles of honour, the cheap defence of nations, would 
not take the fancy of the Natives, every fact we are acquainted 
with would appear to indicate the very reverse. There is, in short, 
nothing in the Indian character upon which we may presume that 
they differ from more civilized communities, in this point at least ; ' 
or that they would refuse to purchase an empty gratification of 
vanity at the expense, perhaps, of real substantial comfort ; or, to 
push the parallel farther, to barter their independence and integrity 
for glittering stars and ribbons/' 



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4d 



HTDEOORAPHT AND NATURAL HISTORY OF AUSTRALIA. 

It is a matter no less of astonishment than regret, that, with the 
immense naval force which it has heen thought expedient to main- 
tain during nearly twelve years of uninterrapted and nearly universal 
peace, England should have done so little in furtherance of the 
interests of maritime geography. As far as regards voyages of 
discovery, the views of the Admiralty appear to have heen exclu- 
sively and perversely directed to the solution of a prohlem, in 
itself of no practical importance, hut in the prosecution of which 
they have wantonly thrown away a comhination of zeal, persever- 
ance, and talent, which, if employed in almost any other pursuit, 
mast have ensured the happiest results. That pertinacity, how- 
ever, which resisted all attempts at conviction, and continued to 
impel our gallant seamen to attempt the conquest of ohstacles, 
which the opinion of all practical and reflecting men had pro- 
nounced to he insurmountahle, seems at length to have heen wearied 
out, and we trust that the mania for northern expeditions has 
passed away from us never again to return. 

But an ohject of far greater moment than the discovery of new 
lands has occasionally received some small portion of the attention 
of our naval authorities, and a few voyages of survey have been 
undertaken from time to time, with the view of laying down accu- 
rate charts of coasts hitherto imperfectly known, and of obtaining 
other useful information concerning them. A more legitimate use 
for the surplus portion of the marine of a nation which prides itself 
on being essentially maritime could not be devised ; and when we 
consider the trifling expense with which such ex])editions are at- 
tended, and the vital importance of their labours to the interests of 
commerce, we can only lament and wonder that so inconsiderable 
a part of our naval establishment should have been employed on 
services of this nature. 

With the results of one or two voyages of this description the 
public has already been made acquainted, and several others have 
been announced as preparing for publication. At present it is our 
purpose to call the attention of the reader to a survey of a large 
portion of the coast of New Holland, by Captain P. P. King,* 
which, after lingering in the press for a period of nearly two years, 
has at length silently made its appearance in the world. The very 
quiet mode in wliich its publication has been finally effected augurs 

• Narmtive of a Survey of the Intertropical and Western Coasts of Austra- 
lia, performed between the years 1819 and 1822, by Captain Philip P. King, 
R.N. F.R.S. &c. With an appendix, containing various subjects relating 
to Hydrography and Natural History, 9 vols. 8?o Illustrated by plates, 
charts, and wood cuts. 



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46 Hydrography and Natural History 

little confidence on the part of the publisher in its becoming a 
pop alar and generally attractive production. A voyage of survey, 
strictly speaking, presents in fact little to arrest the attention of 
any except the geographer and the practical navigator, and it is 
principally with the design of introducing the present work to the 
notice of these classes that we have been induced to advert to it. 
That it is not, however, entirely destitute of atti-actions for the 
gieneral reader will, we think, be evident from the selections we are 
about to make from it, in illustration of a few cui:Bory remaiks on 
the physical constitution of New Holland^ and on the condition of 
its singular inhabitants. 

Of the surface of this fifth continent, as it has been repeatedly- 
termed, so little is yet known that it is impossible to determine 
whether the general characters of the soil differ equally with its 
natural productions from those of the other portions of the world. 
Its vegetables are well known to be peculiar in many respects, and 
especially in the total absence of any which can fairly be regarded 
as occupying the situation of the forest trees of the old and new 
continents. The trees of New Holland are indeed, if the expres- 
sion may be allowed, merely shrubs of a larger growth : none of 
them possess the properties requisite for ship-building; and the 
absence of timber fitted for this purpose, it may be remarked, by 
the bye, must ever be an impediment almost insuperable to the' 
assumption by any colony established there of political powcr^ 
which so materially depends on a nayal establishment. Tiie ani- 
mals of this island are equally peculiar with its vegetables. In the 
highest order, the mammiferous quadrupeds, not one has yet been 
found in New Holland, which coincides with those that inhabit the 
other parts of the world, imless indeed we except the dog, that 
constant and faithful companion of the human race wherever it 
exists ; and even this exhibits characters distinguishing it strongly 
from the usual varieties. Man himself, on these shores, differs 
from man elsewhere ; but the causes of this difference, consisting 
chiefly in the extreme degradation of intellect, may perhaps be 
traced in a great measure to the circomstanees io w^ich he baa 
been placed by nature. 

To live together in large societies must always have been im- 
practicable to the New Hollander, depending as he did for suste- 
nance on the very scanty supplies of the land, or on the moi*c 
plentiful, but more uncertain, produce of his fishery. In procuring 
these he relied in general on the cunning that sets gins, and awaldi 
patiently until its victim is entrapped in them ; or on entangling 
by means of weirs the inhabitants of the deep, amid the shallow, 
waters, where they fell a ready prey to his voracious indolence. 
Ocuisionally he might be called on to contend with a fish of larger 
dimensions and greater power than usual ; but on the land no such 
exertion could be required. His chace was not, like that of th6 



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ABttricM ladian, a componzK) of address and of courage : he had 
ao deer ]u>r other beast of magnitude to pursue, nor could he ever 
encouAter, in the search for his daily food, any animal, the strcnsfth 
or noble nature of which was calculated to rouse in him the latent 
sparks of energy or manliness. Cunning, i^idolent cunning, was 
usually suificient for the supply of his animal wants, and when ho 
had exhausted the produce <^ one locality, he removed to another. 
On tliue construction of habitations of so temporary a nature, little 
pains would be bestowed ; and his implements and domestic utensils 
most be, of course, iimited in number and light of carriage, as he 
was without a single beast of burden or any that could be rendered 
such to assist him in removing them. The saipe cause would also 
deprive him of all opportunities of internal commerce, except by 
means of rivers, and of these there appear to exist none of any 
considerable extent. From external conunerce he was eqyally 
cat off by the want of timber sufficiently powerful to withstand the 
shock of wi^ds apd waves. The New Hollander has thus been 
prevented from adding, by communication with others, to the very. 
scanty stock of ideas which result from the mere animal nature 
of his existence. We therefore cease to wonder at his low intel- 
lectual condition, and arc prepare4 to regard with interest even 
his rudest attempts at overcoming soi^ of the difficulties by which 
be is sarrouaded. 

Simple as these attempts generaily are, they vary considerably 
in ditferent tribes, and in some exhibit considerable ingenuity. 
Compelled 4Mcasionally, in their migrations from one dbtrict to 
another to pass creeks or rivers, navigation becomes among them 
an art essential to their existence. It is here, among the lowest race 
of man, that we should expect to meet with it ui its rudest form. 
Accordingly, at DaA}pier*s Archipelago, on the western coast, three 
natives were observed in the water apparently wading ; but, on ap- 
proaching them, '^ it was discovered that each of them ijvas seated 
on a log of wood, wbieb he propelled through the water by paddling 
with his faujids.*' Of these marine velocipedes, as Ca{>tain King 
denominatee them, some consisted only of a single log ; in others, 
intended for the conveyance of domestic utensiLs, ^< two or tlirce 
short logs were neatly and even curiously joined together, end to 
end, and so formed one piece that was sufficient to carry, and 
buoyant enough to support the weight of, two people." This float- 
ing log is probaUy the extreme case of the poverty of savage boat 
building a^l round the world. Qeyond it the 6oat of the inha- 
bitants of Hanover Bay, on the north-western coast, is a decided 
advance. It is composed of five mangrove stems, lashed together 
at the extremities, and attached to a frame of smaller wood, and 
is buoyant enough to carry two natives together, with their spears 
and baskets. At Rockingham Bay^ the art hfu^ been carried con- 
sidenMy farther, and oanoes were found ^^ not more than five feet 
long, and faoBraEy^too sma^ for jtwo {>eo^;" and a great im- 



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48 Hydrography and Natural HUtory 

provement had taken place by the employment ' of *^two small 
strips of bark, five or six inches square, serving the double purpose 
of paddling and for baling the water out, which they are con- 
stantly obliged to do to prevent their canoe from sinking: in shoal 
water the paddles are superseded by a pole, by which this fragile 
bark is propelled. *^ Having once attained this point, the further 
improvement was easy, consisting merely in enlarging the proportions 
until the canoe became capable of containing several individnals. 
The material generally employed in its construction is the bark of 
certain trees, which is used either in a single sheet-, each end being 
joined together by strips of a common climbing plant ; or three or 
more sheets of the bark are nailed by the same means. The 
largest of these canoes hitherto seen was that observed by Admiral 
Bligh, at Sunday Island, which was thirty-three feet in length, 
and would hold twenty men. In a few instances only were canoes 
discovered, which were hollowed by fire or some blunt instrument 
out of the trunk of a tree. Of one of this description the "' length 
was twenty-one feet, but its greatest breadth, in the bilge, did not 
exceed fifteen inches, whilst at the gunwhale the opening was only 
from six to eight inches and a half wide." This seems to have 
been the extreme point of perfection in the art of ship-building 
attained by the aborigines of New Holland, who have never at- 
tempted to emulate the Malay proas, which are annually exhibited 
before them in large numbers, while visiting the northern coast in 
quest of the trepang, or bScke de mer, for the Chinese market. 

The habitations of the New Hollander present also some striking 
peculiarities. In caverns, formed by natural causes would probably 
be found the earliest dwellings of roan in a savage state, but the 
geological constitution of New Holland renders such shelter of 
rare occurrence. Only two instances of natural caverns were met 
with, one at Lizard Island, and the other at Clack's Island, both 
situated off Cape Melville, on the eastern coast. Both of these 
had been resorted to as habitations by the natives, and the latter 
was especially remarkable, as furnishing the only specimen of the* 
fine arts, observed during the survey. The roofs and sides of the 
cavern were composed of a black schistose rock, and were covered 
with curious drawings, which " were executed," says Mr. Cunning- 
ham, the botanist to the expedition, " upon a ground of red ochre, 
(rubbed on the black schistus,) and were delineated by dots of a 
white iargillaceous earth, which had been worked up into a paste. ' 
They represented tolerable figures of sharks, porpoises, turtles, 
lizards, trepang, star-fish, clubs, canoes, water-gourds, and some 
quadrupeds, which were probably intended to represent kangaroos 
and dogs. The figures, besides being outlined by the dots, were 
decorated all over with the same pigment in dotted transverse 
belts." " Captain Flinders," continues Mr. Cunningham, " had 
discovered figures on Chasm Island, in the gulf of Carpentaria, 
formed with a burnt stick ; but this performance, exceeding 150 



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ofAu9iraUa. 49 

{gores, wlucb miiBt have occupied much time, appears to be at 
Irast one step nearer refinement than those simply executed with a 
piece of charred wood/' 

In other sitnations where it became necessary to constract habi- 
tatioiis, a variety b observed in their erection equally striking with 
that eidiibited by the canoes. The smallest noticed were in the 
neighbourhood of Mullet Bay, on the northern coast. <' They 
were of a conical shape, not more than three feet high, and not 
larger than would conveniently contain one person ; they were built 
of sticks, stack in the ground, and being united at the top, sup- 
ported a roof of bark, which was again covered with sand, so tha^ 
the hut looked more like a sand-hillock than the abode of a huBUUi 
creature: the opening was at one side, and about eighteoi inches in 
diameter ; but even tlus could be reduced when they were inside, 
by heaping the sand up before lU" In Halifax bay, the huts << were 
of a circular shape, and very ingeniously constructed by twigs 
stuck in the ground and arched over, the ends being artfully en- 
twined 90 as to give support to each other ; the whole was covered 
with a thatch of dried grass and reeds : they were not larger than 
two people could conveniently occupy." At Port Macquarie, where 
the natives are rather numerous, the dwellings are more substan- 
tially constructed, and will contain eight or ten persons : '^ they an^ 
arched Hfvet, and form a dome with the opening on the laud side,*' 
the inhabitants being thus screened from the cold sea-winds. But 
it was only at Careening Bay, on the north-western coast, that ma- 
terials of a lasting nature entered into the construction of the hut. 
In this situation the two ends were formed of stones, piled one upon 
tiie other to the height of three feet, and saplings were laid across 
to support a covering of bark or dried grass. No regular plan was, 
however, pursued in their erection, as no two of them precisely 
agreed with each other. 

In their dress the variation is less. In that considerable portion 
of New Holland which is situated within the tropics, little clothing 
would be required to protect the body of the native ^m the effects 
of cold, and in much of it he is altogether naked. £ven without the 
tropic, and as ^ south as 36 degrees, the men were entirely with- 
out clothing, the women alone wearing a kangaroo's skin over their 
shonldera. This covering was used equally by both sexes at Mac- 
quarie Harbour, and also at Oyster Harbour, where it was thrown 
over the left shoulder, concealing the back and breast, and leaving 
the right arm exposed. This seems to have been the maximum of 
dress observed by Captain King. Dress, indeed, appears generally 
to be considered as an incumbrance by the Australian, who, even in 
the neighbourhood of Port Jackson, can scarcely be prevailed on to 
wear Buropean habits, and in manv instances, as is well known, has 
altogether refused to be confinea in them. The extent of this 
feeling is shown by Captain King's having found, near Macquarie 

Orimiial HetxM, Vol, 10, B 



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50 Hydrography and Natural History 

Harboiir, in Tan tKemen's Land^ a bundle of giirmenis of colbmal 
Manufacture, which had been abandoned by the natives to whom they 
had been given : and the same disposition was also eviiiced by three 
of tlie natives of Gk>old Island, in Rockingham Biaiy, who were par- 
iially clothed in some damaged slops ; **• but as soon as they reached 
a little distance/' observes Captain King, '< they began to divest 
themselves of their attire ; and we had much amusement in witness- 
ing the difficulty under which the wearer of a shirt laboured to get 
lioff/' 

The food of the native of New Holland consists of the seeds spon- 
taneously offered to him by the bounty of Nature, and of tlie pro- 
duce of his hunting and fishing. Of the mode in which his hunting 
is conducted we know little, as Europeans have hitherto pene- 
trated but a very trifling distance into the interior. A very ge- 
neral practice appears to be, by setting fire to the grass to fbrce 
the kangaroo, his principal game, from the woods into the open 
country, where it is killed by spears, propelled commonly by 
means of the throwing-stick. With the various plans pnrsiied b^ 
him in his fishing, on which he seems to have expended the greater 
portion of his ingenuity, we are better acquainted. In many si- 
tuations this is confined to the mere collection of shell-fish, crabs, 
&c. at low water \ at which time, even when it occurs during the 
night, the whole tribe is oiit upon the shore in search of these 
animals, coinpelled by the certainty that they would be deprived of 
their next meal if they neglected the opportunity of |)rocuring it, 
even lit the most unseasonable hours. The weirs, which arc con- 
fetiTicted to intercept the return of such fish as may have been carried 
into shoal water duriii^ the flood, are formed cither b^ sticks stuck 
ill the mud, or by heavy stones. One of the latter description, at 
Oyster Harbour, *^ was ^ hundred yards long, and projected forty 
yards in a crescent shape, towards the sea.'' Fishing-nets, rudely 
made of the fibres of the bark of trees, are occasionally employed ; 
and the same material is also st>un and twisted to form fishing-lines^ 
five or six fathoms long, to which are attached hooks made from the 
■hells of turtles. The mode in which these latter animals are 
caught by the natives of Endeavour River has been described by 
Captain Cook, and consists in striking into their bodies a barbed 
peg, to which is fastehed a staff serving for a float to trace and to 
weary the turtle while swimming. This .contrivance strongly re^ 
minds us of those employed by the Esquimaux in the capture of 
lieals and whales. Another point of reseniblahce between these dia* 
Uint savages is to be found in the feast of the natives of .King George 
the Third's Sound on a raw and only half-dead seal, whi6h had been 
transfixed by ^ spear cast from a throwing-etick, and was after- 
#ard8 despatched by blows fro^ a small hammer upon its head. 
The New Hollander, however, did not appear .to gorge ui>on this 
disgusting food to the same extent aa the Es^^^^vc ; and» more- 
over, as Captain King has particularly remarked^ after having 



I 



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of Auiitalioi, 6t 

craxnineS hid inoutb with the flesh, he exit, or rather sawed, it from 
the remainder, tipwards instead of downwards. 

In thus sketching the condition of the ahoriginal inhatitants of 
New Holland in some of the most important concerns of their exist- 
ence, too great an encroachment has already perhaps heen made 
upon the patience of the reader. His cookery, agreeing in it£l 
highest advance with that of the islanders of the South Sea, his 
domestic utensils, and liis arms of offence and defence, arms co- 
existent every where with that pugnacious animal — man, must therer 
fore be passed over to make room for a brief review of the practical 
and scientific results of the expedition. 

Imperfectly known as much of the coast of New Holland, re-' 
raained previously to Captain King's survey, the field presented for 
his examination was su&cient to require upwards of, four years of 
laborious research, interrupted only by the rainy and dangerous 
seasons. During this period he surveyed and laid down the line of 
the eastern coast between Cape Hillsborough and Cape York, a dis- 
tance of six hundred and ninety mile^ ; and examined carefully the 
northern and north-wiestern coasts, to the extent of sevem hundred 
and ninety miles, from Wessel Islands to Port Geprge the JPourth. 
From this point to Depuch Inland, a distance of five hundred and 
ten miles, the coast still remains unknown, nothing having been yet 
seen except detached portions of islands lying off it ; but from that 
bland to the north-west Cape, an extent of 220 miles, has been 
carefully surveyed by the expedition. On the western coast feW ob- 
servations could he made, the examination being performed during 
an almost continued gale of wind ; and on the southern coast little 
was added to the information formerly obtained with respect to it. 
In the very ample " Sailing Directions," which occupy upwards of 
160 closely-printed pages of the Appendix, Captain King has so 
condensed the materials obtiuned in all the points of his survey, aS 
to furnish a practical manual to the future navigator, which, from 
the known experience and nautical skill of its author, will be found, 
we doubt not, a valuable and essential guide through the numerous 
besetting perils of these seas. 

The most generally useful result of the voyage, is the establish- 
ment of the superiority of the innshore route through Torres Strait 
over that without the reefs. The passage within the reefs is not 
only shorter, but presents also other advantages, the principal of 
which are, aa Capjtaiii King informs us, ^^ that the weather Is more 
generally fine; the sea is. always perfectly smooth; and wood 
aad water may be proci^red upon various parts of ihe coast : with 
only common attentkm there is no risk ; and however laboriously 
the day may be spent, the night is passed without disturbing the 
crew ; for safe and good anchorage may be taken up every night 
under the lee of an islet or a reef, which^ in the ev^it of had wea- 
ther, may be retained as long as is requisite or convenient. No time is 

F9 



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52 Hydrography and Natural Hietory of Auatralia, 

loet by the delay, for tke anchor may be dropped in the ship^s imme- 
diate track ; and if the cargo consists of live animals, such as horses, 
eattle, or sheep, grass may be obtained for them from the islands near 
the anchorage. In the outer passage, the sea is strewed with numerous 
reefs, many yet unknown, which render the navigation at night ex- 
tremely dangerous ; and if, on approaching the part where it is in- 
tended to enter the reefs, the weather should be thick, and the sun 
too clouded at noon to procure an observation for the latitude, the 
navigator is placed in a very anxious and a very unenviable situa- 
tion ; for the currents are so strong, that the position of the ship is 
by no means suflieiently known to risk running to leeward to make 
the reefs. The ensuing night must therefore be passed in the 
greatest uncertainty , and in the vicinity of extensive coral reefs.'' 

It is certainly important to the commanders of vessels navigating 
between our Indian possessions and Port Jackson to be apprised of 
these facts, derived from the experience of Captain King, and con- 
firmed by that of Captain Bremor. Another advantage has also re- 
sulted from the report made by Captain King to the Admiralty, in 
the establishment of a settlement, Fort Dundas, in Port Cockbum, 
between Melville and Bathurst Islands, which is likely to prove 
highly serviceable to ships engaged in trading between the East 
Indies and New Holland. Its local position is well calculated for 
the protection of such vessels, and for affording to them, in cases of 
necessity, the supplies which they may require. 

The papers on Natural History, which complete the Appendix, 
have strong claims on the attention of the naturalist. In proof of 
this, it will be sufficient to mention the names of the gentlemen by 
whom they were supplied. The most extensive contributor in the 
department of Zoology, is Mr. J. E. Gray, who has named and de- 
scribed all the specimens collected by the expedition in that branch 
of science, with the exception of the birds, which have received their 
elucidation from the scientific pen of Mr. Vigors, and of the annu- 
lose animals, which are admirably illustrated by Mr. W.S.MacLeay. 
The general remarks by Mr. Allan Cunningham, on the vegetation 
of the coasts visited, are full of new and interesting facts, and prove 
that the long residence of that indefatigable collector in Australia 
has been well employed in gainhig a thorough acquaintance with its 
plants. But the most interesting contribution in this department 
consists in a paper by Mr. R. Brown, read before the Linnean So- 
ciety, and which, for the importance of its facts and the novel 
light which it throws upon the struotare of the unimpregnated 
ovuiumy and upon the manner in which fecundation is effected 
in phanogamous plants, deserves a place in, and would do ho- 
nour to, the transactions of any scientific society in the world. 
Indeed it is a matter of general regret among botanists that so 
many invaluable memoirs from the same pen, developing the most 
masterly views with respect to the principles of that science, should 



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be scattered m the appendices to the travels of Captains Flindersi 
Ross, Parry, and others, locked up, by the expensive nature of these 
works, from the limited means of the far greater number of natu- 
ralists. Measures are, it is true^ in progress both in Germany and 
in France, for the collection and publication of these precious docu- 
ments ; but it is mortifying to think that in England, to which they 
of right belong, the student of the vegetable kingdom shoi^ld be in 
a great measure precluded from having recourse to those truly 
scientific productions which ought to form the bajus of all his 
investiga'tions. 

The geological sketch of the coast is the work of Dr. Filton^ 
whose ejctensive acquirements in that attractive and daily advancing 
study are well known to all by whom it is cultivated or admired. « 



BONO.— FAREWBLL. 

Since this night 

Of dear delight 
Is the Uut before we sever, 

Fill the cap 

With nectar up, 
And joyful let us quaff as ever. 

Let pleasure still 

Our pulses fill, 
Nor seek the future scenes to scan ; 

But, as we pass 

The sparkling glass. 
Be cpiite as bless'd as mortals can. 

Woman may try 

Her tearful eye 
To ease the soul when ills assail— 

We, wiser grown, 

Will only own 
That wine *s the caie for every ail.. 

Then send around 

The goblet erown'd 
With the red giape sparkling high, 

And bid old Care 

For once despair 
To draw one tear to dim our eye. 



L L.L* 



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04 



■mEOftXnCAL AND PRACmCAf VIEW OF TEE LAW OP UBBL 
IN BNOLANP AND IN INDIA. 

No. ill. 

Theoretical View of the Law of Libel in England. 

As religious bigotry was the rock on which James II. split, so a 
passion more congenial to tyranny, an insatiate thirst of foreign 
conquest and dominion, proved fiitalto the system which Bonaparte 
had constructed, and which time promised to consolidate. A view 
of the facility with which he had reduced the French to the tamest 
servitude, from which they were delivered by no exertion of their 
own, afforded abundant matter for reflection to those who had 
escaped the general contagion. 

Let kommet (says Benjamin Constant) tendeni Un^faurt d g*affranekir de la 
dauleur, Quand ee qu^iU aiment ettt menaei, Um s*efi detaehenJt on It <fe- 
fendetU, 

Les mceare, dit M. de Pauw, se corrompent snbitement dans les villes at- 
taqutes de la peste. On 8*y vole Tan Vautre en mourant. L*arbitraire est 
au moral ce qoe la peste est an physique. Chaam repousse le compagnoa 
d'iofortune qui voudroit s'attacher ^ Lui. Cliacun abjure les liens de la Tie 
passte. II s*isole pour se defendre*, et ne voit dans la foiblesse ou ramitie 
qui rifflploreat qu* un obstacle k sa suret6. 

En Tain direz vous que I'esprit hamain pourroit briller encore dans la litte- 
rature legere, qu*il pourroit se liTrer aux sciences exactes et naturelles, qu*il 
pourroit s'adonner aux arts. La nature en creant rhomme n*a pas consults 
i*autorit6. EUe a voulu que touted ilkos' faetit^A feusseut entre elles une liaisoo 
intime, et qu* aucune ne piilt etre Itmit^e sany que les autres s'en ressentissent. 
L'independance de la peuste est aussi necetsaire mfime k la litteniture legere, aux 
sciences et aux arts, que Pair k la vie physique. L*on pourroit aussi bien faire 
travailler des hommes sous une '|K>ttipe pneumatique, en disant qu*oo n*exige 
pai d*eux qu*ils respirent, mais qu*ils remueot les bras et les jambes, que 
maintenir ractiTit6 de rspirit sur uo sujet dono^, en rempechant de 8*exercer sur 
les objets importans qui lui rendent son energie parcequ lis lul rappeileot sa dig- 
nity. Les litterateurs ainsi garrot^s font d*abora des panegyriques : mais ils 
deviennent peu k peu incapables me me de louer, et la litterature finit par se 
perdre dans les anagrammes et les acrostlehes. 

Et oe ne seroit pas tout encore. &ient6t le commerce, les professions, et 
les metiers les plus neoessaires se ressentiraieni de cette apathie. Le com- 
merce n*est pas k lui seul un mobile d'actiTit^ sufflsant. L'on exagere Tin- 
fluence de rfinteret personel. L^interet personel a besoin pour agir de Tex- 
isteuoe de roplDion.' L*homme dont rofnoion languit etouifige, n'est pas long 
terns excit6 m6me par son interet. 

Lorsque chacun est libre, chacun s'amuse et sUnteresse de ce qu*il ftdt, 
de ce qu*il dit, de ce qu*il ecrit. Mais lorsque la grande masse d*une nation 
est rediAe au role de spectateurs forc^ au silence, 11 Ibut pour que ces spec- 
tateurs applandiasent ou seulement pour quMls regardent, que les entrepreneurs 
du spectacle reveillent leur curiosity par des coups de thtetre, et des change- 
me .s de sce..e. E fi.i. la lethiigle d*u:.e nation, oik il n*y apasd'opiuionpub- 
lique, se commuuique k son gouTcrnement quolqu*U ftsse. 

Les institutions qui serreat de barriere au pouvoir, lui serrent en m^me 
terns d'appuit. Elles le guideot dans sa route : elles le soutiennent dans sea 



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ViewoftheLatiooftAhelinfing\aa^ 65 

eflbrU: elles le moderent dans 198 tcc^s ^ violencp, e{ rencooragfntdans 
ses momens d*ftpathie.* ' . 1 . . 

The practicabiUty of inducing such national debasement was al30 
insisted on by l^ir James Mackintosh, as supplying a powerful mo- 
tive to deter Parliament from further abridging the liberty of the 
press. The oppressions which provoke arme4 resistance and civil 
wars most not only be of a grievous and intolerable kind, but shock 
some sentiment, principle, or prejudice, to which t&e mass of a 
nation are passionately attached; but where such violences are 
avoided, successive ligatures may be applied, till habits of entire 
pliability and submission are confirmed. The degraded and trans- 
formed people make a virtue of the fawning suppleness which 
gradual '^ necessity'' has taught them, and they are not ashamed to 
boast of the gloria obsequii. 

The mind of man, (said Sir James Mackintosh,) is generally in a sUte of ac- 
tivity and excitement, and if it cannot vent itself against those who misgovern, 
it works itself iato a state of sympathy and even affection for what It is not 
dlowed to hate. Those who are not permitted to follow the hent of their 
inclination, frequently become the sycophants of those whom they had before 
detested. Perhaps they would be sometimes insincere in their praises. If the 
mind is not sincere on such occusions, it certainly is a fault, but it is the very 
sincerity of the mind which stamps it with baseness, t 

The fourth argument that may be offered in favour of unlimited 
toleration is founded on the absence of all danger and inconvenience 
from the observance of such a policy. Historical testimony so fully 
establishes the fact, that in every instance libels have oeen the 
effects ?nd not the causes of political disturbances, and that they 
are rather ** the gusts of liberty of speech restrained," than the ex- 
pression of minds entrusted with the free use of their own powers of 
deliberation and discussion, — that this consideration alone ought to 
evince the inexpediency of violently repressing the complaints in- 
stead of liealing the disorders of the patient. Amidst the confused 
cries exhaled by the public uneasiness, the wise and good not only 
can trace the true seats of the evil, but they could not do so if the 
mingled voice of distress, impatience, suspicion, and of the multitude 
of good and evil counsellers, were in any degree obstructed, so that 
tlie whole symptoms of the case were not before them. 

If ^* a species of men to whom a state of order would become a 
sentence of obscurity are nourished into a dangerous magnitude by 
the heat of Intestine disturbances,'*!}: it follows that such men can 
only be disarmed of their influence by reforming abuses, and bring- 
ing back public establishments to their true principles, and 
especially by withholding from them the palm of martyrdom. But 
while the frame of government stands, while its fundamental safe- 

* Pe 1 'esprit de conquete et de ru8arpat|on dans lean rapports avecla* 
cifilixation £arop6ene. 

i- Speech, Dec. 19, 1819. 

X Burke, Caatiat of pteaent Diseontenta. 



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6d f^itHf of the Law 6f Libel 

guards are resyvected, while the orders of society ai'e not inverted^ 
it can scarcely he allowed that there is anything *^ dangerous'' in 
ike mere misrepresentations, however exaggerated and inflam- . 
matory, of such agitators. Has not every generation since the 
Revolution seen the Constitution not only survive nnhnrty hut 
acquire additional securities during periods when ^* the most auda- 
cious lihels on royal majesty have passed without notice ;" when 
** the most treasonahle invectives against the laws, liberties, and 
constitution of the country have passed without the slightest ani- 
madversion ;*' when, " an envenomed scurrility against everything 
sacred and civil, public and private, raged through the kingdom, 
with a furious and unbridled license V It is because these things 
are utterly harmless and insignificant, because the majesty of truth 
prevails over all the discordance, that Government consider it suffi- 
cient to select for the gratification of special vengeance a particular 
victim, spiwU de plurihus unam^ without even admitting the idea 
or contemplating the practicability of a '< general slaughter " of 
libellers and blasphemers. Such selections are the mere in- 
dulgences and pastimes of political animosity, having neither in 
their origin nor in their consequences any connexion whatever with 
the public security or welfare. 

The wantonness and indiscrectness of an arbitrary selection of 
individuals for punishment, and the safety of unqualified toleration, 
are so universally felt, that we have on all hands large acknow- . 
ledgments of them as abstract truths, with an express or implied 
exception in favour of some cheriBhed dogma or institution, and a 
secret protest against unpleasant animadversions on the individual 
himself or his party. But if all the exceptions which are negatived 
by an immense majority of the public were struck out, there would 
remain one deliberate recognition of the Press as a sacred medium 
of intellectual communication never to be questioned in a Conrt of 
Justice, and thereby withdrawn from the impartial and effective 
tribunal to which it was addressed, and spbjected to the control of 
Qne infinitely less impartial and effective. One of the most striking 
instances of the inconsistencies alluded to, is contained in the fol- 
lowing passage from the Quarterly Review : 

We must my that we do not fear evil from the circulation of aiiy opinions, 
hoKfever mitekiepouM in tkemttlvet^ if nothing is done to prevent the equal 
drcuIatioB of the argument on both sides. Aitgiia est Veritas et pr«vale)ilt,-^ 
and the magistrate need $eidom do auve than see fair play, and lat liar fight her 
own battles herself. * 

Now that little word ^* seldom" is enough to let in a flood of per- 
secution ! Under so vague an exception, the magistrate may inter- . 
fere with his temporal sword whenever it appears to him that he 
ought to assist the struggle, or grace the triumph of truth ; and yet 
what secvrity is there that he shall alwa3r8 strike on her side, and 



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in ingloHd emd in Indid. 57 

not against herf N<me can truly profess confidence in the onmipor 
tence of trath, or consult her real mterests^ who consent that the 
magistrate should' ever do more than ^^ see fair play, and let hef 
fight her own hattles f and fair play is violated whenever physical 
force, pnblic or private. Is called into action. 

The impropriety of making the slightest reservation from that 
freedom of debate which ought to prevail in the House of Com-* 
mons, was well reproved by Mr. Fox in his speech on Mr. Adam's 
motion respecting the trials of Messrs. Muir and Palmer, March 

10, 1794. 

My hononn^ble friend (Mr. Grey^ has declared that if any minister should 
dare to introdace into thb country tne law of Scotland, he hoped there would 
be fotnid, in the House, men bold enouffh to impeach him. I caanot agree 
with him oa this poinl % for 10 dearly do I pri^se the freedom of debate, in such 
veoeration do I hold the free and unlimited discussion of any political or con- 
stitutional question within these walls, and so jealous am I of any thing which 
would look like any violation of this our moat valuable privilege, that if the 
minister were to advaoce the moat dangtrons and detestable principles, if he 
were even to propose a bill to this House to alter the succession to the throne, 
and Introduce in the palace of our Sovereign a foreign pretender, I would hold 
him justifiable for the unconstitutional measures he attempted to introduce, 
and would with my voice endeavour to rescue him from a public impeachment 
or prosecution. 

In a very different spirit Mr. Burke once expressed a hope, that 
not only the minister who introduced, but the majority who sup-. 
ported the introduction of what he considered an unconstitutional 
bill, might be brought to trial. 

The (Reganoy) bill meant not only to degrade the Prince of Wales, but the 
whole House of Brunswick, who were to be mUlawed, excommumeated, and 
attainttd^ as having forfeited all claims to the confidence of the country t 
Gentlemen might smile as they pleased at this doctrine ; but the conduct of 
the other side of the House was reprehensible, degrading the Royal Family, 
sowing the seeds of future distractions and disunion in that family, and verging 
to f reosofit, Jcr wMeh the jtutiee qf the evuniiy wmtd, he trusted, one day 
overtake them and Mng them to trial. * 

Mr. Flit asfr^ssed more than sufficient indignation at this sally, 
which I quote aa oiie among many proofs that the suggestions of in- 
toleranee will sometimes make their way through the infirmities of 
even the noblest minds. Why should not that perfect freedom of 
debate, which Mr. Fox justly claimed for the House of Commons, 
be permitted to their constituents? A whole nation cannot be 
packed or eomipted ; and therefore << the most detestable and dan- 
gerous principles" may Ml amongst them with less diance of mis* 
chievoos consequences than in a legislative assembly. 

tf it should be said that it is the duty of a paternal government 
to protect the people from being exposed to the temptation of 
immoral principles, and by preventing the germination of evil pro- 
pensities, to diminish the sum of crime and punishment, it may be 



« 8^d^ Feb. ^ 1780. 



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M. Fiey> of the taw o/Utel 

xepUed^ |;liat w|ien men are conscious of being sobjected fo spell dis- 
cipline} they are provoked to look upon transgressions} not ^ tVey 
v^mii \>e otherwise disposed to do, as derogatory to personal djg- 
i^ty, but as victories over a power which considers them unworthy 
to be trusted with the guard of their own virtue, and which, from 
seenuDg to arrogate to itself the credit of their innocence, they would 
fain make responsible for their vices : that the sophistries of irre- 
ligion and denravitv are among those temptations which it is most 
easy for self-dependent virtue to resist : that it belongs to the Lord 
of the harvest alone to bring men to account for the thoughts of 
their heart and the words of their mouths : and that criminal actions 
never so justly meet with penal visitation, as wjien the criminal has 
been impressed with a conviction, from the unbounded field of in- 
quiry and speculation in which he had been permitted to ran||^e, 
that he was charged with full responsibility for his own deeds, be- 
tween which and words a distinct line, admitting of no possible 
doubt, dispute, or cavil, was drawn. 

Let ffovemment, in what form it may be, comprehend the whole society in 
its justice^ and restrain the suspicious )>y its Tiijilance ; let it keep watch and 
war(l, let it discover by its sagacity, and punish by its firmuess, all delinquency 
agaiftst its p6wer, whenever deHnqventif exisU in the dvert mts ; and then it 
will be as safe as ever God and nature intended it should be. * * 

The man who is judicially attacked for his opinions, has given 
tjie strongest proof that no evil could be found in his conduct, and 
might say with Cremutiiis, verba mea arguuntur, adeofactorum in" 
nocens sum. Nor is there a more revolting juggle, a more perfidious 
qiiibble, than when it is said that opinions are free ; fhtt that, JO use 
the words of the Due de Brogli^, there are " dcs doctrines, des 
pens^s, des opinions, qui deviennent de veritables actions.*' 

Commentaries on the literature of the several states of Europe 
and America afford the best illustration of the comparative merits 
of the various systems which obtain regarding the press. They 
show that in proportion to the severity and jealousy with which it is 
controlled, superstition and atheism abound ; science, arts, and in- 
dustry languish ; bad rulers are unchecked, the good are neither 
understood nor supportied, or perhaps are the objects of libels whose 
influence is not counteracted by any publications that enjoy the 
public confidence. Thus the lower and middle classes in the north 
and south of Europe are degraded by ignorance and superstition ; 
the higher are infected with infidelity ; and in France, '^ between 
1758 and 1770 a greater quantity of Writings professing atheism 
were published, notwithstanding a censure called rigorous, tkan 
have appeared in England since the art of printing was invented, t 

The last queen of France, too, was calumniated and slandered 



♦ Quarterly Review, No. UII. p, ieO» 
' • ^ ^t Ibid. ' • : 

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jn Jingland and in India. 6^ 

witb a Tirulence and effect to wbicb there is nothing parallel in the 
history 0/ £nglahd! From the corrosion of that subtle mischief, 
nothing bat a free press could have relieved hei*. That alone could- 
have coped with her libellers, 'and exposed their n&alice and falser 
hood to the scorn and detestatioii of the world. K she had been 
known then as she is now, the course of the Bevolution nught have 
been very different * 

Still it may be said that there is an essential distinction between 
libels on institutions, and libels on individuals ; and that even if 
the point contended for ^ere conceded in respect to the former, it 
would not follow that the latter should' be covered with the same 
immunity. It may be urged' that libels on individuals have both a 
greater tendency to jprovoke breaches of "the peace, and that they 
mflict a degree of pain and damage for which pecuniary compensa- 
tion is allowed^ a species of remedy of wjiich' Institutions are not 
susceptible. It has indeed been ably copteiidcd, that the liability 
to endanger the king's peace is not the real, but only the technical' 
ground of punishment ; as in actions of seduction, the technical 
ground is the supposed loss of the daughter's service ; in support 
of which posiiion it is urged that indictments are successfully 
maintained* when no reasonable apprehension can be entertained of 
the peace being broken ; that invectives the most liable to provoke 
instant resentment may be spoken with impunity ; and that acts, 
which ar<e pretended to be punishable only as teriding to a breach 
of the peace, are yet visited mtk heavy punishments, while an 
actual breach of the peace escapes with trifling penalties, f 
Poubtless the gui^t of Hbel is' measured more by the supposed 
malice which prpinpted it, than by the practical mischief to which 
it tends ; but it cannot be admitted that the legal theory is merely 
technical and fictitious, for that would be to admit that lihels have 
no tendency to excite acts of violence either against their authors 
or their objects. The tenor of the charge given to the jury on al- 
most every case of libel, shows that it has been considered to afford 
grounds of reasonable apprehension of disturbance of the peace, 
near or remote ; and the definitions recommended to the French 
legislature in the Due de Brogli^s Rfeporti prove more distinctly 
that the criminal quality of libel is, not by a technical fiction, but 
really considered to reside in its instigation to commit some of- 
fence. It is not because libels do not really excite alarms, or are 
not really indicative of malevolence, that the expediency of ex- 
empting them from temporal punishment can be maintained, but 
because the difficulty of estimating the various degrees and kinds 



* See Madame Campan*s Memoirs ; Essai sur Tespiit et Tinfluence de la 
Befonna ion de Luther ; Tableau de la litterature Francaise pendant le ISnae 
necle ; Mr. Bowdler^s Review of it ; the articles in the Edinburgh Review, 
on the comparative merits of English and French Literature* 
f BdhibV hSv. Wo: LHL p. It7, R 



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60 t^ieu) of the Lino of Lihel 

at the effects tbey are calculated to produce^ and of appreciating 
t^ motives of their authorSy is insuperable ; and because the ade- 
quate punishment of avert acts of delinquency affords a sufficient 
protection to society and to the individual. 

Wbien it is considered that seditious libels are more frequently 
prosecuted, and more severely punished, than libels on the public 
characters of individuals, there can be no plea for excepting the 
latter from the general indemnity. Almost all the English states- 
men and members of Parliament, who have been of sufficient im- 
Sortance to be objects of detraction, have displayed so much wis* 
om and magnanimity in manifesting an utter insensibility to, and 
contemptuous disregard of, the slanderous attacks directed against 
themselves, that nothing more is required at their hands than that, 
by concurring in one act of legislation, they should bind themselves 
to regard all other libels with the same dispassionate equanimity, 
and so *^ take a bond of fate," that party spirit should never betray 
them into vindictive measures which they may afterwards contem- 
plate with regret or remorse, and which posterity will certainly 
seal with its reprobation. The article on constructive contempts 
(which will form one of this series of papers on the Law of Libel) 
will afford an opportunity for noticing more particularly the incon- 
sistencies of tolerant individuals, who are at the same time into- 
lerant members of a party ; but one or two quotations may here be 
given. In a debate, Feb. 8, 17S8, on Sir Elijah Impey's complaint 
of libels published against 1dm, Mr. Pitt said. 

By those ptfts ofm pangnph which aifecud him personally, he trashed that 
no gentleman would suppose ne was at ail influenced. He dUregarded every 
thing qftkat kind to entirely, that he would not give it a momai<*s eonH- 
deration. That was no reason, however, whv he should not enforce what he 
conceived to be justice to the dignity and vuthority of the House, as well aa 
to the individual who had exhibited the complaint. 

Now why shoidd not the House have been enabled to treat every 
unfounded attack on its authority and dignity, and every attempt 
to mislead its judgment, with as complete indifference as Mr. Pitt 
did asperdons on his character, and attempts to bias his judgment? 
Would it not, like him, have consulted its true dignity by refusing 
to give them a moment's consideration ? As lor those attacks which., 
cannot be sincerely despised, they can only be deprived of their 
stings by reformation of the abuse against which they are directed. 
In Mr. Burke's speech at the conclusion of the poll at Bristol^ 
Nov. 8, 1774, there is the following passage : 

As for the trifling petulance which the rage of party stira up In Uttle minda^ 
though it should show itself even in this court, it has not made the slightest 
i m pr e asi on on ne. The highest flight of such clamorous hirds is win^ in 
an inferior region of the air. We hear them and we look upon them, just as 
you, gentlemen, when you enjoy the serene air on your lofty rocks, look 
down upon the gulls that skim the mud of yov river when it is exhamted of 
itotide. 

And m his letter to Mr. Montague, which the latter read as 
part of his speech^ May 1/ 17W» he sap. 



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fit England and in India, 61 

No mill sbftll iUl a taeriilcd to a feeble sensibility on mv part, that at this 
tine of day might make me impatient of those libels, iMtk by detpiHng 
tkromgk «o mawjr Mean, I have at length atuined the honour of being joined 



in commission with this committee, and of becoming an humble instrument ta 
the hands of public Justice. 

Finally, it may be said that at least the law should extend its 
protection to the private character of individualsy attacks on which 
are more irritating and inexcosable than on their pablic characters. 
To this it may be replied, that innocence in private life afibrds the 
same panoply that it does in public life ; that all men have the 
same means of refuting calumnious charges affecting private chaF- 
racter which are successfully employed in defence of public charac- 
ter ; and that censure is only painful and detrimental in proportion 
to its truth, that is, in proportion to the degree in which it ia 
merited. In a civil action for damages, however, juries are cout 
stantly tempted to award exemplary or vindictive damages propor* 
tioned to the degree of malignity and falsehood apparent in the 
libel, or to strike some average with reference to the suppo6e4 
malice of the plaintiff and annoyance suffered by the defendant ; 
whereas if they conformed strictly to the law which prescribed that 
** the amount of damages is in all cases to be measured by the 
temporal prejudice sustained by the plaintiff, without regard to the 
penal correction of the defendant er the reformation of his man- 
ners,"^ there could scarcely be a case in which a plaintiff ought to 
recover ; for if the reflections of which he complains are true, there 
must be damnum abeque injuria^ and if false, there must be injuria 
absque damno. 

It is against certain libels of this description that not only the 
protection of the law is often spumed, but its power defied and 
disgraced by the reyenge which the injured party exacts with im- 
punity, with his own hands. To interdict, therefore, the infliction 
of temporal penalties on libellers would not occasion the addition 
of a single duel whieh would not otherwise have happened ; while 
the denunciation of the terrors of the law against them, however 
they may bav« respected the obligations of truth and justice, coun- 
tenanoee and fosters that vindictive spirit which leads to the comr 
niissioo of those most flagrant Ineaches of the peace, where honour 
saacttons homocide, and the practice of the law ratifies the deed, 
hecause the rigour of its theory is inapplicable. To punish the 
publication of irrefragable truth and deserved reproach, carrying 
with it a salutary admonition against the repetition or the non- 
reformation of the exposed abuse or misconduct, and at the same 
time to tolerate duelling, is a state of things which savours more 
of the recklessness of exasperated passion than of the deliberate 
wisdom of legislation. A tolerant government ought sternly to 
repress every act of violence, and every instance of intolerance in 
every member of the community. 

* Starkie^i Law of Ubel, p, 160. 

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62 



HISTORY, OBJECT, AND IMPORTANCE OF OTMNA8TIC8. 

It waB Ingeniously and justly observed by Montesqnieu, that tb6' 
primary principles of dignified existence, which ateong other nations 
were exclusively known to philosophers, and even by th^m frequently 
disfi^red by sophistry, wcr6 by the Greeks at once apprehended 
laid' acted upon, as if from a ^and naltional instinct; which g^ve 
them strong claims to the title of " the favourite people of nature." 
Such were the truths, universally acknowledged among them, that 
** the uncontrolled power of a single individual or corporatidn li 
Subversive of all ideas of social order ;" that " a magistrate not 
liable to responsibility is on the high road to tyranny f that " a 
state which abandons one of its citizens abandons itself ;'' and 
others full of equal wisdom and importance. Among the number 
of these national impressions are to be ranked also the views, upon 
which both the conviction of the necessity, as well as the system of 
manapng, their gymnastics were built, and this accounts for the 
singularity, that th6 Greeks were the only people that carried gym- 
nastics to that degree of perfection which thpy attained among 
them, and the only people that raised them to the dignity of a 
national institution. With the same liveliness and clearness of 
conception; with which they had apprehended those political priri- 
ciples upon which the social arrangements of free communities 
6ught to be framed, they perceived and followed out the princit>les 
iiy which individual existence should also be regulated. It was a 
rule laid down by them, that to enable man to fulfil all the essential 
t>urposes of human nature, a development and cultivation of th6 
powers of his physicsil, as welt as of his mental existence, was. Indis* 
|)ensably necessary ; that such an harmonious uuioii of bdth of these* 
constituent parts of human nature was the 6rA^ means of invigorat- 
ing its strength, and of qualifying it fortheudeof feach; that a 
partial culture of some, and corresponding neglect of the other 
faculties, either of the body or the mind, could not fail to pH>- 
ducc effects contrary to the la^rs of nature, and consequently to 
the destination of man. 

According to these views the breeks divided all tKe means of 
cultivation into two grand sections ; those of mental and those of 
bodily education. The former they callea •Ifiwic (fwitrixij), the 
latter Gymnastics (yoiAvaortxyf). 'the systeni of their gymnastics 
comprised a scries of exercises, skilfully adapted to the end in view, 
and stamped besides with the characteristic of brcek genius — ^the 
charming expression of that beau ideal which embellished whatever 
they said, or wrote, or did. This system was therefore, from its 
origin, as well as from its tehdeiicy, far removed frdin,' and admits 
no comparison with; those cdlpbted feifer^es, which, originating in 



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History and Importance of Gymnastics* 63 

the necewity of bodily exertioiiB for snpplyinff the wtmto and main- 
taining the defence of Kfe, are common to all people in the earlier 
and ruder st^iges of civUization. jlie g;ymnastlcs of the Greeks 
proceeded not from an obscure feeling pf mere animal want, but 
from the clear perception of a philosophical truth ; they were not 
njerely calculated to meet the first necessities of life, but to attain 
the nobler ends of humanity. 

Gymnastics were indeed of the highest importance with this na« 
tibii in another respect. They foimed the chief j)reparation for 
military accomplishments, and the school of discipline for warriors, 
in which respect they formed a particular oliject of political con- 
cern to the legislator. Bitt it would betray a perfect ignorance of 
the |)eculiar genius of the Greek republics, to rank these exercises, 
on this accotint, b ihe same class with our exercises of military 
discipline. It i^ well knowti, that with them, military aptitude was 
iiot the isolated quality of a particular order, but toierely a natural 
result of all those accomplishments, comprised under the idea of 
unirersal individual excellence, which formed the grand object of 
the pursuits of every citizen; and by which every Greek imagined 
himself to be elevated above barbarians aiid slaves. And in the 
system, calculated to effect this universal individual excellence, I.e. 
that universal perfection of human nature, which is the result of 
the developiiient, cultivation; and direction of all the resources and 
powers of the mind and body, gymnasdcs were thought to form 
an esseiitiiBil and indispensable part. 

, In illustration of these views, we could collect a number of pas- 
sages fi^m the Greek orators, historians, and philosophers, for 
these, i>eing n^tion^l Inipressiohs, manifested themselves on every 
i)ccnrrence connected with this subject. We refer our readers 
inore particularly to the excellent letter of Theano) the wife 
of Pythagoras, ^^ On Education," aiid addressed to her friend 
Ecbuiva;- to the beatttiftil dialogue of Lucian, entitled * Ana- 
eharsis,' in which ^lon explains to his Scythian guest the use and 
end of Greek gymnastics • and to Plato, one of the greatest of phi- 
losophers and the most genuine re|>resentative of Greek genius, par- 
^ularly in « Timaeus," " Protagoras," and " De Republica," 
We cannot, however, deny ourselves the pleasure of selecting one 
of these passages, which treats of the influence of gymnastics oii 
teental excellence (de Republica III:) The following is the sub- 
stance of it : 

Tfie combined infiuence of i?iusic* and gymnastics is requisite properly 
fo form the miod* The mind of fiim wiio applies hiinself exclusively to music, 
will become soft and effeminate ; he who pursues only gymnastics will 



* Let it be reeollejcted, that Plato comprises under Music the whole cUcle 
o^the means designed for men/af education ; what ire call muslcj constituted 
only part of what he designated by this term 



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64 History 9 Object, wad Importance 

become hard hearted and nntractable. Bat the softneM of the one ii the bads 
-t»f a phiiosophieal character, which, if too nmeh eac m i r a g ed, degenerates inta 
effeminacy and languor ; if cnltivaled only in a due degree, becomes homanity 
of manners. The rudeness of the other springs from an ardent and fiery tem- 
perament, which, if properly managed, would produce courage and magnani- 
mity ; if too much heated, degeaerates into luurshness and barbarity. Both, 
therefore, should be cherished in due proportion, and then we obtain the 
energetic mind of a wise and manly character. Music and gymnastics were 
bestowed on man by some deity for the improvement of his mind, for the per- 
fection of his fortitude and philosophy, for the harmonious action of all tiie 
iaculties of bis soul. 

The medical importance of gymnastics was a subordinate consi- 
deration with the Greeks, though it be not so in our times. We 
find, indeed, a sort of medical system which prescribed gynmastic 
exercises, not only for the fortifying, but also for the restoring of 
health, mentioned in Plato (de Republica III.) and in other writers, 
but it rose in importance in later times. In the flourishing period 
of the Greek commonwealths, the yery diseases resulting from 
want of bodily exercise must have been altogether unknown to a 
people, one of whose most essential characteristics consisted in the 
development and perfection of the physical powers of man. Nay, 
this was the case to such a degree, that, when some epicures of 
Athens complained of vapours, Plato could say (de Republica III.) 
^' Is it not shameful to require the aid of physic, not for wounds 
merely, and casual transitory evils, but in consequence oi indolent 
inactivity and luxurious living ? Is it not shameful that men, re- 
sejnbling bladders filled with wind and water, should have laid the 
disciples of Esculapius under the necessity of inventing new names 
for diseases, such as vapours and catarrh ?'** 

Sue hwere in general the notions of the Greeks on gynmastics, and 
it is obvious that these exercises contributed not a little to raise 
that people to the rank of masters of mankind, which they have 
now held for more than two thousand years. This system perished 
in the ruins of the ancient world. 

We shall not stop to consider the exercises of the Roman*— the 
disciples of the Greeks, without however equalling them in any of 
those extraordinary performances, for which the human race will be 
fer ever indebted to their favourite people of nature ; nor the bodily 
sports of our savage ancestors ; nor the tournaments of the middle 
ages. For neither of these can properly enter into the considera- 
tion of a system which rests on philosophical principles. We shall 
nterely obser\'e that the tournaments of the middle ages having 
attained their end, not only the regular cultivation of the pbydccU 
powers of human nature, as forming part of a general sye^m of 
education^ but even the partial practice of such exercises was at 
last completely neglected ; and this fact constitutes one of the 
most striking, and, we are concerned to add, one of the most dis- 

* What would Plato say, could he see the swoln and proln^ded corpora- 
tions and the bloated countenances of our days 7 



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of GymnoBties. M 

adyaatageous difereaceB between mod^n edueation and that of 
the antients. 

Althougli in attempting to trace the causeis of this phenomenon, 
the pens of many writers have been employed, the investigation has 
frequently, we think, been conducted on narrow and imperfect 
views. It is beside our purpose to enter here on a discussion of 
this subject; a few hints will suffice for our present purpose. 

The foct has often been deduced solely from the system of educa-' 
don established in the middle ages. It was known to 'Hssot, Rousseau, 
and the whole school of education formed by the latter. Statesmisn 
and historians, such as Montesquieu, Gibbon, and others, knew well,* 
that political causes also entered into the question. The whole^ 
political structure of modem states ; the marked distinctions of the* 
different orders of society according to their pursuits and respee-* 
tive privileges, which went so far that even the tournaments of the 
middle ages were practised, as it were, by a sort of prerogative, 
belonging only to the nobility ; the progressive reduction of these, 
orders to their peculiar employments ; the exertion of the standing 
armies after the fall of the feudal system ; all these circumstances 
progressively caused the extinction of the general system, and even of 
what little had hitherto been preserved of bodily exercises, as the 
nobility were now constantly collected about the courts. The 
finishing stroke was undoubtedly given by the system of education, 
established by the priests and monks, which has been more or less 
perpetuated in some of its principal features since their downfall. 

The evils resulting from this neglect of physical education were 
aggravated by other circumstances which attended the progress 
of ciinlization, though this progress was, in itself, calculated 
rather to heighten than to depress the powers of human nature, 
and not at all incompatible with a proper system of physical 
education. But by the advances made in commerce, industry,. 
and many arts in which we have surpassed the ancients, by the 
division of labour and distribution of business, there has been, 
formed a technical basis to modern culture, opposed to that 
mere personal aptitude and acquirements, by which, among the 
ancients, almost all the important ends of a social community were 
attuned. Machines, and artificial arrangements operating like 
machines, form the basis with us, on which the whole industry and 
management of social life are founded. By this circumstance many 
thoasands are confined to one set of operations, while all other 
parts and powers of the body are left unemployed ; nay, many 
thousands are reduced almost to move but one particular limb, 
through the greater part of their life. Nor has any thing yet been 
devised, to counterbalance the pernicious effects of this isolation 
and suppression of the physical powers. 

The same remark applies to the increasing taste for mental oc- 
cupation, and the consequent habits of reading and studying, which 

OrienUd Herald, Vol, 10, F 



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66 History, Olject, and Importance 

ilftve in thoDBeheB no eneiratin; inflnencey fts hn» been erroneonaly 
asserted, on the human frame. It is the precious result, and, at 
the same time, support of that universal knowledge which is the - 
surest pledge of the moral strength of nations. But that an assi* 
duous occupation of the mind, with continued rest of the body, is 
destructire at least to the latter must be universally admitted. 

Lastly, it is placed beyond doubt, that the refinement in manners 
and in the enjoyments of life, mental and physical, springing up in 
every advancing society, not only liberalizes, but also heightens and 
quickens the faculties and springs of action, when resting on a na^ 
tural basis. But modern civilization in general (we have not to 
deal here with exceptions) is proceeding on a false foundation : 
oontinued excitement of mind and sense, without a proportionate 
and vigorous activity of the bodily powers. 

l^he result of the combined action of these causes was-— the- 
general neglect of physical education : this defect was in itself pro- 
ductive of a multiplicity of bodily and mental evils, but they were 
aggravated by those circumstances of progressive civilization, which, 
though, as we said before, beneficent in every other respect, could 
not but exert a prejudicial influence on a mode of living founded on 
a false basis. 

These evils varied in degree and extent, as the causes were more 
or less operating or combined. It may easily be collected from 
these causes, that they appeared most conspicuously in great cities, 
the necessary, seats of those professions ana occupations which are 
most strictly confined to isolated employments ; and of those orders 
of society among which are assembled most of those stimuli that 
tend to ripen and perpetuate these evils — ^indulgence and luxurious 
modes of life. 

This fact could not fail to excite the attention of thinking men ; 
it then became the theme of a series of interesting discussions and 
investigations by the most distinguished physicians and philosophers. 
This discussion was consequently carried on at the same time in 
the circles of education and medical science; the point of view 
from which they proceeded was rather narrow in the beginning, it 
widened in the progress, and was taken at last at the very centre of 
those sciences which tend in the greatest degree to the cultivation 
of human nature. 

Without mentioning some writers at an earlier time who have 
touched on this subject, we notice Hieronymua MercurialUj as 
the firstj who treated it more fully. He wrote his celebrated work 
on Gymnastics (de arte Oymnastica, Amsterd. 1672) not for the 
antiquarian alone, but, as a physician, to invite his contemporaries 
to rerive these beneficial exercises of the ancients for the strength 
and health of the body. However he produced but little effect ; 
neither was the age in which he wrote susceptible of his considera- 
tions ; nor had he himself sufficient skill to place the matter in the 



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of 0ymna8tic9. 67 

inie point of view. More effect was produced hyFrtmeiaFutter and' 
Locke, The former, a celebrated English physician, wrote, in the 
beginning of the last century, a work^ ^* de Medidna Gymnastica/' 
in which he recurred to the Medical Gymnastics of the ancients. 
His work, which went through a number of editions, contains some 
excellent remarks, founded for the most part on his own experience. 
Locke, in his treatise on education, laboured to the same end. But 
he who knows how difficult it is to make people give up old pre- 
judices, which they have taken in affection, wt1\ not be surprised 
that neither Fuller nor Locke should have done any more than give 
the first impulse to their slow removal. 

A number of distinguished physicians from that time kept up 
the discussion — Sydenhamy Boerrhave, Hoffmann, Boemer, ZUc- 
ktrtf Doublet, Tieeoty and many others. They traced, on the ground 
of the physical principles of the constitution, not only the bodily 
diseases, but also the mental disorders and moral depravities result- 
ing from our irrational habits. '^ Physical decline and moral de- 
pravity (says Doublet) are intimately connected, and those laws 
which preserve health tend also to preserve and improve morals.** 

The greatest sensation however was made by Tissot, throagh his 
well known work on the Health of Men of Letters.'* This impres- 
sion was strengthened by tbe equally well-known work of Rousseau, 
' Emilins.' This extraordinary genius, who was one of those awakeners 
necessary for mankind from time to time, to stir it up from its ten- 
dency to lethargy, passed the whole system of education under a 
review, not so mild and sparing as that of Locke, but in a sweepinj^ 
and unmerciful manner. Great however as the effect of his criti- 
cism was, it would have been still greater, if there had not been a 
defect of principle in it. It is well known, that the action of nofur^, 
as opposed to our artificial arrangements, was the highest principle 
of Rousseau, in the whole range of his inquiries. Now, this prin- 
ciple, though of indubitable value as a subordinate one, cannot con- 
stitute the highest in matters of human interest. 

8mce Rousseau, the discussion of this subject has been pre-emi- 
nently carried on in Switzerland and Germany. Rousseau had al- 
ready hinted at the Greek gymnastics. The school founded by 
this philosopher, the chiefs of which were BaeedoWy Campe^ and 
GeHkey devised a set of exercises, which were gradually introduced 
mto all the better institutions in Germany and Switzerland. They 
regarded these exercises as necessary) because required hy ike 

* It is curious to see, how the men of letters, alarmed by Tissot, sought to 
make a poor shift with various strange, unprofitable, and partly very rMiculons 
exercises, which they practised in a retired room, -t small enclosed garden or 
tome other song little place In their houses. It is remarkable, that they, 
who esicMly studied the Gfteks, did not stnable on the natural thonght. to 
revirelAelr gymnastics. Such is the vast distance between barren leamln(( 
indprsctscaf sense. 



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68 History y Objeci^ and Importance 

laws of nature, and found with all people who had not departed 
from theee laws. By the side and partly out of this school spnmf 
up another, the leaders of which were Salsntann, Niemeyer^ Zerren^ 
ner, Natorp Ftllaume, Novalts, SchwarZy and, ahove, sdl the vener- 
able Peatalozzi and the ingenious Fellenherg. They proceeded from 
the principle of humanity (humanitas) or the highest perfection 
of human nature, and defined it to be the perfect development of 
its two component principles — the physical and intellectual — ^in 
harmonious co-operation. According to this view, the highest 
principle for education was, the harmonious development, invi* 
goration, and cultivation of all the powers and faculties of the 
mind and body. It is such an education as this, they said, which 
ascertains the capability of man for all the important ends of his 
existence, and every deviation from it must be productive of infir- 
mities, vices, or excrescences in one manner or other. It is evident, 
that this principle, the truth of which is raised above cavil and dis- 
pute, was that acted upon by the Greeks, and a farther analvsfs of 
it must necessarily lead to a revival of their gymnastics, adapted 
to the spirit of the age. 

. While this was passing in the department of education, the phy- 
sicians were led to the same result, aiid even in a more extensive 
view, while they sought for an antidote against the host of bodily 
and mental infirmities, springing from our irrational modes of liv- 
ing. We shall mention here only Frank (professor first at Bologna 
and then at Vienna) justly renowned through the whole of Europe, 
Oruner, HoffelaTid, and Faust, and quote but a few passages from 
their excellent productions. Frank, (in his Medical Police,) after 
a full illustration of the subject, and an able demonstration that 
gymnastics should not only be regarded as part of education, but 
as necessary to preserve the result of all education, or, in other 
words, that harmonious and perfect development of the mind and 
body, goes on to say : " it must be evident, therefore, that the 
gymnastic games require to be promoted in every possible way, 
and the welfare of a great town is but half consulted, when 
theatres and concerts are open to the inhabitants and few oppor- 
tunities for bodily exercises are afforded them." Gruner says, in 
his Medical Journal, 1783 : ** The gymnastics of the ancients de- 
serve to be sedulously studied, and introduced with suitable altera- 
tions. I am persuaded they would prove excellent means of ren- 
dering our men and women, youths and maidens, boys and girls, 
whom sentimentality has enervated, once more healthy, strong, 
and hardy. Is it not possible to bring strength of nerves and man- 
liness of mind as much in vogue as weak nerves and sentimentality 
have been for years the fashionable disease ?'* Now it is true, the 
gymnastics of the Greeks were studied enough by deep-learned 
scholars, and described in large tracts ; but what they could not 
aee, through the thick dust of their libraries and the dark shadow 
of their volumes — the connection of these games with the eternal 



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d/ GytmaiHci, 69 

lftW8 of htimail lifltttrei existittg then^ atid &6w« and ef^f^^mJi deen 
by theM physicians^ not only learned men, bat men also of sound 
^practical views. 

At length a pupil of Salsmann's, Mr. Outsmuth, director of the 
cefebrated institution at Schnepfenthal, near Gotha, framed a 
system of exercises on the model of the Greek gymnastics and 
suited to our times. After a careful observation of their eifccts, 
during nine years' constant practice, he published a work on his 
^stemln 1793, which was speedily translated into several languages. 
The English translation appeared in 1800.* Mr.Gutsmuth's system 
was adopted in many institutions in Germany and publicly introduced 
Into Denmark by the Government. The perfecting of this system, 
iiowever, was reserved to Mr. Jahn. The pohtical situation of the 
kingdom of Prussia, after the battle of Jena, caused the ministry 
of that state to bestow a particular regard on a system, which 
promised to revive in the rising generation that energy and power 
of action which is required to release a subdued nation from its 
fetters. Mr. Jahn, professor at Berlin, distinguished alike by 
Us eminent practical talents and patriotic feelings, in conjunction 
with Scbarnhorst, the chief of the Prussian Staff, employed all his 
care and activity in the perfection of this system, and soon raised 
it to that dignity marked out by the physician, Franky and which 
it held among the ancients. Under his direction these exercises 
were not only incorporated into the system of education ; public 
gynmasia were also erected in yarious places, where pupils of all 
orders and ages were seen exercising, as was at one time the case 
in the gymnasia on the banks of the Ilissus and Eurotas, where all 
partook of these exercises and gathered new strength and new 
vigour for the business of Ufe. The national effects of this system 
are well known, and must have been sensibly felt by Frenchmen. 

After the war was finished, the Prussian government called upon 
ihe chiefs of the superior institutions of education to make reports 
on the influence of this gymnastic system on the literary pursuits, 
in particular, of their pupils. All theee reports coincided in ex- 
hibiting the striking power exerted by this system in heightening 
and invigorating all the mental faculties. Want of space prevents 
jQs from making any extracts from those reports ; however we can- 
not deny ourselves the satisfaction of alluding to the report de- 
livered by Mr. Zamack (1818, at Potsdam), director of one of the 
most extensive institutions of Prussia. This report gives a most 
remarkable body of evidence, which proves experimentally ^ that 
those of his pupils who had most improved in gymnastics, were, 
at the same time, those who had most advanced in all the branches 
of science. How could it be otherwise ? Was not this consequence 
anticipated long ago by philosophers, who drew their deductions 
from the eternal and invariable laws of human nature ? 



* London* printed for G. Johnson, St. PauVs Chnreh-yard. 

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70 History f Object, and Importance of Oymnastia. 

At the Bame tune the PrusMan gorernment G^mmissioiied Pr« 
Komen, senior medical counsellor^ and counsellor oi government at 
Berlin, to ascertain the physical effects of this system in all the 
different classes of society. After a carefal examination. Dr. 
Koenen made his report, which was printed at Berlin in a work 
entitled " Results of the gymnastic exercises. By order of Go- 
vernment, Berlin, 1818." The admirable influence of this system 
on the constitution in general, and its beneficial influence in coun- 
terbalancing and rectifying the effects of partial and isolated em- 
ployment of the faculties either of the mind or the body, have never 
been exhibited more strikingly or on a more comprehensive scale 
than in the above mentioned work. 

After these proceedings, it is not to be wondered at, that this 
system should gradually spread and excite the attention of the 
philanthropists of every country. Having already exceeded the 
limits of an article, we must conclude by stating one or two facts 
out of the many we could have wished to introduce. 

The acknowledgment of the superiority of tins system on the 
part of Mr. Fellenberg, though it might not have wanted any 
farther recommendation after such an extensive exx>erience, must 
still be considered as illustrative of its merit as a branch of su- 

Jerior education. For it is well known, that the institution of this 
lustrious educator is intended to form a central point, in which 
whatever is most approved in modem education is to be gathered 
End embodied. By the assistance of Professor F^oeiker, these 
gymnastic exercises were introduced mto that celebrated institu- 
tion. 

The favourable fiat of the French savans was not altogether to 
have been looked for, seeing the permanent effects of these gym- 
nastics which some of their countrymen exhibit since the campaign 
in Germany. However, in a judgment passed on a work which 
contained Mr. Jahn's system, and on the exercises themselves, per«> 
formed before theit eyes, the medical faculty of Paris pronounced, 
a short time ago, in detail, their views of the incompaarMe aptitude 
of th%9 system to preserve ^e natural powers of the organs, and 
also to correct theit defects. 

We cannot help expressing our desire, to see the importance of 
this system more and more acknowledged in this country, more 
especially in the metropolis : at the same time we hail with satis- 
fiaction the measures ^ken by the Mechanics' Institution to bring 
the benefits of these exercises within the reach of one of the most 
numerous, if not the most meritorious classes of society. 



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7i 



Sthx o*er Assyria's laad, and Tanms* side, 
Rolls old Eaphrates his uaconquerM tide ; 
Uochaoged their loveliness, each yalei, each hill. 
In inftwt beauty seems to flourish still ; 
And, fair as d wned Creation's openioi^ day, 
Triumphaat Nature smiles at Time's decay. 

Oh, more than mortal scenes ! blest spot of earth, 
Which gaye Co man bis ftrst and secoud birth. 
Where are the trophies of his lordly hand 
Which rose despotic o'er the fairy land ! 
Where now the bigb-poised dome, the stately tower. 
Imperial monuments of human power 1 
Their day is past— their little race is run. 
And like a dream has vauisbed Babylon I 

And what is Ninereh ? a sound, a wind, 

Of History's foiee, long mute, an echo left behind. 

Peace te their ashes i there no relics lie 

To strike resistless on the mouriiful eye. 

Not one lone wteck to break the boundless blank. 

The tomb in which their glorious beauties sank ; 

'Twere Tain to siy, while wandering o*er that land, 

'' Here stood that mighty city where I sta id ;" 

Time has ta'en all, so worked each vestige out, 

Th4t their existence is almost a doubt, 

Ai'd Faaey, u suppoited, seeks ia vain. 

Some touch of art amidst the level plain* 

But thou. Palmyra, thou, the desert queen. 

Though scares the shade of wh t thou once hast been. 

The sport of time, for long, long years most weepy 

Ere tbou, too, rest in undistinguished sleep ; 

Lone in the wilderness all slowly fade 

The glories of thy matchless colonnade. 

On the wids waste of one unbroken sand. 

In n^ked mij sty ibose pillais sta d. 

No voice, no souod« uo whispers i.itervene 

To breik the intense, deep stillness of the scene. 

Save where the mouldering columns' cmmoliog sound 

A momeatsry eclio strikes around. 

So dost thou sink, and so shall perish all I 
Unssted Buin revels o*er thy fall, 
A .d Havoc still with kee ler veogeanee eyes, 
As Time rolls on, his u.iresr sting prize ; 
Alas! m in *s' proudest monuments confess 
Most strikiogly their aatbor's littleness ; 
In the coarse earth, on Nature*s lowly breast. 
Her marble stores imperishable rest, 
Untouched, the waste of ages they defy, 
Till art deceives them into symmetry. 
And when she bids then hold immoftal sway. 
Each passing year speeds onward their decay. 

* From a woik Just publisbed, entitled « Ulrie of Aymer, and other Poems.* 

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72 

UNPUBLISHED MAmjaCRIPTS OF A TBAVELLER IN THE BAST. 

No. X 

Commerce of Smyrna — Laws of Trade-^Turhieh Justice^^ 

Chreek Mercantile Shipping — Productions and Exports 

of the Turkish Empire. 

The merchants of the different nations of Europe, resident at 
Smyrna, keep their books in piastres, and minor subdivisions of the 
same coin. The English subdivide them into 80 ; the French into 
100; and the people of the country, that is, the Turks, Jews, 
Greeks, and Armenians, into 120 parts. Bills of exchange are 
often drawn on Smyrna in foreign coin, particularly in Spanish 
dollars, which are always to be had there ; but if drawn in a coin 
not in current use, the exchange of the day is established to make 
the payment. From Egypt they almost invariably draw in Spanish 
dollars, or Venetian sequins. 

Current Coins. 
The current Coins of Smyrna are as follows : 

SilTer— nastrcfl of 40 paras, which are the piastres of the Grand Signior. 

Ditto of 100 ditto, worth 10 per cent, more thtin at CoDstantioople. 

Ditto of SOOdino, very commonly called also Turkish dollars. 
Gold— Stamboul of 290 ditto, > with i and | of each; and, like the former, 
Funduc of 400 ditto, ) worth more than at Constdntinople. 

The foreign coins in general use at Smyrna are. 

Silver — Imperial dollars worth 6^ piastres, issued from Austria. 

Spanish ditto, the same nominal ^alue, hut preferred ia large pay- 
ments, as beinff of a little more value in Europe. 
Gold — Ducats of Holland, worth 13| piastres. 
Ditto of Austria and Hungary, 18 ditto. 
Venetian sequins, 181 ditto. 
Spanish doubloons, 15 to 16 Spanish dollars. 

Payments for goods sold are generally made in light monies, 
which cannot be refused without protracting the payment for a long 
period. The merchants here assume the privilege of charging ^ 
per cent. ; and some Europeans charge even 1 per cent, for that 
loss, under the name of shroftage ; but if sales are often made for 
cash, it will sometimes amount to 2 per cent. 

The nominal values of coins in Turkey have augmented in a very 
rapid degree, while those coins have been as rapidly diminishing in 
their intrinsic worth ; an effect which b produced by the frequent 
calling in of the current money by the Porte in moments of demand, 
and issuing it again at a more advanced rate and debased quality. 
The result of this impolitic measure is the real depression of their 
coin, and an augmentation of the price of goods, as well as of the 
rate of exchange on foreign parts. In the year 1808 the Spaoirii 



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dollar was worth 8^ piadtrefl ; in I8O75 it had risen to 4| ; and in 
1812 it passed at 6}, though its true Talne remains nearly stationary. 
The Turkish dollar of 6 piastres is equal in weight with the Spanish 
dollar, and is intended hy the sagacious Turks to represent the 
same kind of money ; hut its intrinsic value does not certainly ex- 
ceed one-fourth of that coin. The Porte, having no silver mines, 
buys up the Spanish dollars for the supply of the mint, in which 
tin and zinc are the prevailing metals used. It is owing to these 
successive degradations of their piastres that, in lending money 
on interest, the sum borrowed is advanced in foreign coin, and the 
obligation is invariably to return the same sort of money, both \ri 
principal and interest. It has often happened, indeed, that between 
the period of a mortgage being made and released, the increase of 
nominal value in current money has amounted to 50 per cent., which 
would thus have ruined the lender. 

The interest on money lent is as under : 

To Fnuiks or Europeans . . 10 per cent, per annum. 
Levaniines of first eredit, IS per cent, per annum. 
Ditto of second credit, 16 per cent, per annum. - 
Turks of first credit, 16 per cent, per annum. 

Ditto of second credit, 20 per cent, per annum. 

Bills of exchange from any one part of Turkey on another^ are 
drawn at eleven days ; those n-om Turkey on Contmental Christen- 
dom, at thirty-one days; and on London generally, at forty-five and 
sixty days. 

Weights and Measures. 

The various denominations of weights which exist in Turkey ge- 
nerally bear a reference to a certain number of drachms ; hut, pro- 
perly speaking, all goods are weighed by the rotolo, which is after- 
wards reduced into the other smaller weights in use for calculation. 
There is also a difference in the weight by a steelyard and by scales 
at a beam, the latter bearing a disadvantage to the scales of about 
3 per cent. ; but there are certain goods only sold by the balance, 
such as cochineal^ cloves, nutmegs, &c. 

1 Rotolo has 180 drachms, and equals \\ lbs. English. 

lOke 400 ditto, 2 4.5ths ditto. 

1 Quintal 45 okes 1600 ditto, 126 ditto. 

1 TalTee of Brusa silk 610 ditto, 4i ditto. 

1 Checque of opium 250 ditto, 1| ditto. 

1 Checqne of goftt*s wool 800 ditto, 6 3-6ths ditto. 

1 Me ical of gold, pearls, Ac. 1^ ditto,- 

1 Kilo of com, Constantinople standard, weighs about 23 okes. 

I DitTo ditto, Smyrna standard, , 33 okes. 

1 Kilo of rice, in all Tui key, weighs 10 okes. 

8^- Smjr ma kUos of com are equd to a psalm, or an English quarter. 

1 Pike, a cloth measure, is 27 inches, or three-fourths of an lihiglish yard. 

106| Endezia, a measure of the shop-keepers, equal 100 pikes. 

Advances on Boitomrp. 
The Greeks have a numher of vessels, particularly in Ipsara, 
Idn, tfc, which are owned hy their captains, who, when they 



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f4 Commerce qf JSaii/rmf* 

engage a crew, give them, in lien of wages, a certain interest iiL 
the freight and in the profit of the cargo. But as those commanders 
never possess money enough to purchase a lading for their vessels, 
they ohtain advances from the Greek merchants of Smyrna and 
Constantinople at a stipulated premium^ both capital and interest 
being made payable on the safe return of the vessel. If she hap- 
pens to be lost, the contract is null ; and all those who have made 
the advances receive nothing. If she returns safe^ but the voyage 
has proved unfortunate, then the crew are first paid their share of 
the freight, and the money-lenders receive the rest. All those ships 
are extremely well manned : (me of 800 tons will have a crew of dO 
men, and one of 400 tons from 60 to 70 men, continuing in the 
same proportion. The premium current for those risks are such aa 
will require a very lucrative business to support. 

From the Archipelago to Malta and Sicily it it 90 per cent. 

From ditto to Majorca and Minorca, 80 per cent. 

From ditto to Barcelona, S5 per cent. 

From ditto to Gibraltar, 40 per cent. 

From ditto to Cadiz and Lisbon, 60 per cent. ; 

with a still further increase in proportion to the ^stance of their 
voyage beyond the Straits of the Mediterranean, and the season of 
the year. 

7!%e Feeeeh of the AtdUpelago are 

From Ipasm 60 sail, from 850 to 800 tons, whose erewsare the most honest. 
From Idra 70 sail, from 800 to 450 tons, whose owners are the. richest. 
From other islands, 100 sail, from 160 to 800 tons, less to be depended on. 

These, together, form the Greek marine. The Turks have a few 
vessels only, which navigate the Archipelago and Mediterranean, 
and these are manned by Qreeks. They confine themselves more 
to the Black Sea. The trade from one part of the empire to an- 
other is carried on in large boats, from 50 to 150 tons, navigated 
without compaas or chart.' The large Turkish vessels seen in the 
Mediterranean are generally from Tunis, Algiers, and Tripoly. 

Conditions of SalCf Credit ^ ^c. 
The only articles which are always sold for cash are cochineal, 
tin. Mocha coffee, and pepper. Other colonial produce sell at one 
or two month's credit, but when articles are scarce, by sacrificing 
one or two per cent, on the price, cash may be readily obtained. 
All manufactured goods, excepting cloths, may be sold in small 
parcels, partly for cash and partly on short credit, when the ar- 
ticles are in demand and scarce ; if, however, there is a plentiful 
supply to answer the demand, the credit is then extended to four 
and six months, and when the market is full, without demand, sales 
cannot be effected at less than eight or twelve months' credit. In 
general, payments are made in three instalments, and in what has 
been already said, it must be understood as fixing the period for 
the final settlement of the account When sales ars forced, in 
9rder to obtain cash» it is necessary to maka a sacrifidB vt twenly or 



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twenty-five per cent, aad even then tbey cannot be effected to any 
mat amount. The buyers of cotton manufactures are not consi-* 
dered so solid in their responsibility as the cloth dealers, yet there 
is not much risk with them, if sales are made with judgment. It 
may be observed that the trading capital of Turkey is very small, 
which forces the shopkeepers to buy on credit, and carry on their 
trade with the capital of the Europeans ; and, as their payments 
cannot be made until the goods themselves are sold, there is an ex- 
treme degree of uncertainty in the most fixed periods. Colonial 
produce may be easily bartered for the produce of the country, ex- 
cepting fruits, opium, silk, and copper, which are always bought 
with cash in hand. Manufactured goods are more difficult to be 
bartered in this way, and never can be exchanged for the whole 
amount of their value only ; as if 1000 piastres of goods are to be 
disposed of, 2000 piastres of produce must be taken, and the ba- 
lance paid in cash. The buyers of cloth, though solid in the result, 
are long paymasters, extending the nominal credit of two or four 
moDtha to one or two years ; and though the Turks buy from the 
Europeans every thing on credit, yet, in the sale of their own pro- 
ductions, they almost invariably insist upon cash in hand. 

7\irkish Mercantile Justice, 
I have given it this head, to prevent wandering into the many 
political topics which so fertile a subject presents, and shall con- 
tinue, therefore, within the circumscribed limits which I first pro- 
posed to myself. According to the Turkish laws, no contract can 
take place, and, therefore, no penalty can be claimed for the failure 
of an engagement. The pubbc weight is the only thing that really 
Axes a sale ; for should the purchase money even have been paid to 
the seller, be^sre the goods are weighed, he is at liberty to alter his 
intention^ dissolve the bargain, and return the money to the intended 
purchaser. In general, the laws of Turkey favour the highest 
bidder, and he who offers most to the judge is always in the right. 
When a debt is contracted, the debtor signs and seals a written obli- 
gation in the presence of two Turkish witnesses ; on the expiration 
of the team of payment, should the person deny the debt, the wit- 
nesses are then called to prove it ; they, however, often decline to 
give their testimony, being silenced by a bribe from the debtor him- 
self, the consequence of which is, the impossibility of the lender's 
recovering. 

In the law courts of Turkey there are neither pleadings nor 
writings, 80 that decisions are very quickly made. The plaintiff 
simply states his case, the defendant replies, upon which the judg- 
ment is almost instantly pronounced in favour of him who has either 
paid or promised the highest bribe. The gainer of the cause in- 
variably pays the expenses, which, in conmiercial transactions, 
aiQonnt to from fifteen to twenty per cent, for rayahs or subjects of 
the Graa4 Slgnior, but not more than^five per cent, for Europeans;! 



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fi Co^Mleree o/BmyrML 

whose eonsnls and amlMunadors they fear. In ciyil contentions te^ 
lative to grounds, possessions, heritages, Scc.^ the expenses of deci- 
sion often amount to fifty per cent. 

Those who are not satisfied with the decrees of the mollah or 
judge, may appeal to the Divan at Constantinople, where, on pay- 
ing handsomely for it, a firman will he ohtained, ordering the mollah 
to render the complainant justice according to the laws ; hut, to 
enjoy the effect of this high command, the mollah must himself he 
also paid before he will fulfil it. 

The Turks, and most other native Levantines who are not Franks, 
keep no regular books, so that in trusting them great reliance is 
naturally placed on their honesty. When Turks and Europeans 
have disputes, the case is decided by the mollah or Turkish judge, 
the European being represented in the court by a dragoman of hia 
nation ; but if two Franks disagree, their differences are adjusted 
by their respective consuls, from whose decisions there is an appeal 
to the minister at Constantinople. From this uncertainty of the ve- 
Bult of Turkish lafvs, to the party on whom they may operate bene- 
ficially or injuriously, Europeans seldom pursue with legal measures 
the dilatory debtor, and from hence arises the equal uncertainty of 
their time of payment, though specifically fixed. 

Some general observations may be added, which though they 
class not under any head, are yet worthy of being noted, as influ- 
encing opinions on the security and profit of trade. The Turkish 
shops or bazars are miserable wooden huts, which are continually 
exposed to the risk of being consumed by fire. When that calamity 
really befals them, the Turks take the misfortune as philosophers, 
believing it to be sent from Ck>d ; they are satisfied, even when 
bereft of every thing but life, and phlegmatically exclaim, " God is 
great !" or, " It was written !" In all speculations by sea, they take 
every risk upon themselves, they practise nothing like insurance ; 
if the voyage succeed, some of its profits are perhaps devoted to 
charity ; if they lose all, the doctrine of predestination consoles 
them. The Europeans, who live in a separate quarter of the town 
called the Prank quarter, have all fire-proof warehouses for their 
security. 

The commerce of Smyrna and of Turkey in general is most lively 
in winter, as the caravans do not travel from the month of May 
until the end of August, in consequence of the great heats that 
prevail at that season. All trade with the interior is earned on by 
means of those land fleets of cameb. In the month of September 
the Turks begin to bring their produce to the sea-port towns, finom 
whence they Uke in return such goods as they may stand in need 
of. In a time of general plague, every kind of business is much 
retarded ; as at such a period all the Europeans, and most of the 
rich Greeks, shut themselves up in their town houses, or retire to 
the villages in the neighbourhood of Smyrna. This dreadful maladj 



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Commerce of Smyrna. , 77 

skowB Itself fint in Jamuury and February, by a (ew deaths. In tbe 
months of April and May it rages with its greatest violence, conti- 
noing so until June, when it gradually declines, and in August all 
danger is supposed to be over. It is thus that, on our arrival here, 
we found the families of the Europeans in general shut up ; and they 
are only now beginning generally to resume their occupations. 
During the time of the plague, the Turks and Jews, however, con- 
tinue to transact their business, each of whom would think it use- 
less to to take precautions against that which has been sent by the 
Almighty. It is calculated that, out of one hundred who are at- 
tacked by this pestilence, about seventy-five die ; but the remainder 
recover with so little care that it can be seldom attributed to the 
power of medicine. 

The British Levant Company allowed all the members of their 
body to charge 2 per cent, on the weight of goods exported to 
England in the invoice ; but on goods shipped to other parts of the 
world this charge b not made. By the same Company they were 
also allowed to charge 3 per cent, commission on invoice and ex- 
penses, and on fruit a double commission, owing to its little value 
and great trouble in collecting and packing. They were privileged 
also with half the commission on the remittances they made, with- 
out guaranteeing the bill, for which 1 per cent, more was charged, 
but most of the houses prefer not to take that responsibility. 

The charge of warehouse rent is fixed at one-half per cent. ; the 
house and street brokerage on importations at 2 per cent., and the 
same on expoitations at 1^ per cent. All other charges are real, and 
must be specified. In the aggregate, therefore, the whole expenses 
on a parcel of goods sold may be calculated to amount to 10 or 15 
per cent, ad valorem, and on those bought it will be more uncertain. 
Articles of Exportation, 

Cotton: The crop of cotton is gathered in the months of Sep- 
tember and October. In a good year the produce in the vicinity of 
Smyrna may amount to 120,000 or 130,000 bales of 2^ quintals. 
In a middliog year the crop is not more than 80,000 or 90,000 bales, 
and in a bad year it may amount to 50,000 or 60,000 bales at roost. It 
is computed that about one-third of the crop is consumed in the 
country, and that the rest is exported to Europe. Those cottons 
are packed in hair sacks. The finest quality is that called Sou- 
bongea, aod is generally worth 120 piastres per quintal of 45 okes. 
This is the only cotton which is exported in a raw state or un- 
beaten ; the shells and seeds are only separated from it, when it is 
sent in general to Germany, Switzerland, and France. The other 
cottons, which are exported in a beaten or clean state, are the Kir- 
gagatch, worth about 107 piastres ; the A guessard, worth 100 piastres ; 
theKinick, 95, and the Bainder 90 piastres. When those are some- 
times assorted without being beaten, they are then called facon 
Soabougea. The different cottons take their names from towns in 



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IB Commerce of Smyrna. 

the neighbourliood of wblcli they grow. Eacli sort has fonr qnali-* 
ties, the 1st and 2nd of which only are exported^ the difference in 
price from 1st to 2nd may he about 10 per cent. ; the 3rd and 4th 
sorts are used in the country for stuffing beds, sofa cushions^ &c. 
When the English used to draw their cottons from Smyrna^ they 
attached themselves in preference to the Kirgagatch, Kinick, ana 
Cassaba cottons, always beaten. Under present circumstances, this 
article would leave a heavy loss on sending to England. The 
cottons of Smyrna are of short staple, and have no strength ; but, 
notwithstanding these defects, they are pleasing to the eye. The 
best season for buying them is from December to February, when 
that article is mostly brought to market. After April there re- 
mains scarcely any in first hands. In order to get the first quality 
of cotton, purchases should be made in the country, which is done 
by factors of repute, in whom reliance may be placed. It is in-* 
dispensable that the purchase money be sent into the country before 
hand, which may be done without risk, though neither receipts or 
bonds of any kind are given. On every Saturday small caravans of 
camels arrive from these places, and in general the goods may be 
expected in town a fortnight after the order is given. It some- 
times happens that speculators send cottons to Smyrna for sale, 
but not often. This article is often bartered against goods, and 
occasionally against biUs from buyers of import articles, at an ex- 
traordinary discount. The cotton-seller then takes all the risk of 
those debts himself. 

Cotton Yarn is spun by the hands of the peasantry. Its 
annual exportation is from 150,000 to 200,000 okes, it comes from 
the country in hair sacks of 50, or 65 okes, each sack containing 
four or five different qualities or numbers, which, from top to bottom, 
differ in the respective values at least 100 per cent. There are in 
all six sorts spun, which are distinguished by being marked and 
numbered from F. 1 to F. 6, beginning at the coarsest and ending at 
the finest, which sells at 6^ piastres per oke. Formerly the EngUsh 
used to export assortments from F S to F 6, numbers 1 and 2 
being too coarse for them. This yam arrives from the interior in 
the grey state, and is dyed red in Smyrna, from whence it is ex- 
ported to Russia. Large quantities used also to be exported to 
France and Germany, but it was subsequently prohibited there. 
The dying costs from 3^ to 3^ per oke. Although each sack 
contains about an equal quantity of each of the four or five sorts 
of yam of which it is composed, yet there are sometimes sacks 
containing either finer or coarser assortments. 

Mohair Yarn comes only from Angora, it is spun from the 
wool of a particular animal called the Angora goat, by the hands 
of the peasantry also. Formerly this was a great article for Eng- 
land, Holland, and France, and 1500 to 2000 bales, of 100 and 110 
okeS; used to be exported in a year. It is now idmost entirely con* 



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Commerce of Bmyma* i^ 

ftimed in Angora in the manufiftctiire of shaloond. The finesf 
quality, which nsed to be sent to England^ is worth generally from 
11 to l!^ piastres per oke. The middling quality, once sent to 
Holland and Germany, is worth 7 to d piastres per oke, and the 
inferior quality, usually sent to France, from 5 to 6 piastres per oke. 
Mohair yam is considered upon the whole, however, to he a dan- 
gerous article, from its extreme liability to spoil by keeping ; should 
it remain two or three years on hand, the combined effects of dust 
and worms cut it to pieces, and render it perfectly useless. 

Goat's Wool : Black goat's wool is of many different qualities. 
That fit for the English market is the best, and is worth about 10 
piastres per checque of 2 okes ; that for the French market is 
worth 11 piastres ; and that for Holland 12 piastres. Red goat's 
wool is worth 8^, and the grey 6^ piastres, both of which sorts are 
sent to Italy. The refuse of the red and black wools is put up in 
bundles or bales, and is worth about 8 piastres. It used to be sent 
to France and liolland. The exportation of all those sorts of goat's 
wool amounts to about 120,000 checques annually. 

SoESp's Wool : The sheep are shorn in the month of May, bnt 
the wool is not washed, which renders the weight deceptive. The 
French nsed to buy large quantities of this wool for their Languedoc 
cloth manufactures ; but of late years there has not been so much 
exported. The finglish have made several essays in this article, 
but it has not been round good enough for them. The finer sort is 
worth 37 to 38 piastres per quintal, but it loses in weiffht at least 
40 per cent, by washing ; the second quality is worth 32 piastres, and 
loses 50 per cent, by washing. Formerly 20,000 to 25,000 quintals 
were eitported annually, but at present it is almost all consumed in 
the mairofactiire of a common stuff, made in the country, and used 
in the dress of the peasantry. 

Carpets are manufactured in Ushac, eighteen days' journey from 
Bmyma by the caravans of camels. It is an article in general use 
throughout all Tnrkey, and is also exported to Europe, particularly 
to England and Holland. They vary in their prices from four to 
five piastres per square pike, and are nuide in different sizes, from 
20 to 130 of those square pikes In measure. Smaller carnets are 
fllao made for the Turks to pray on, which are used only in the 
country ; and the exportation of the others, which is influenced by 
the demand, varies from 50 to 60,000 pikes annually. 

8tLK OF Brtjsa : This silk, as all others, is ready for the market 
in August. It is decidedly the best silk produced in Turkey, and 
is worth about 100 piastres per taffee of 610 drachms. It is put 
up in linen bales of 40 to 42 taffees each, and Is always bought for 
ready money only. Brusa, Aleppo, Damascus, and Constantinople^ 
consume & large portion of it in their manufactures ; but a large 
quantity \A also exported to Great Britam and Russia. Most parts 
of Turkey, near tlie sea-coast, product an inferior sort of silk, 



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80 Commerce of Smyrna. 

worth from 15 to 20 per oent. less than that of Bmsa ; and in 
some of the Turkish manufactures, this sort only is used. A great 
quantity is also employed in making sewing silks, which are worth 
ahout 10^ paras per drachm, and are always of the most lively 
colours. The Morea of Greece, and the coast of Syria, produce 
also an ahundance of silk ; hut while the produce of Brusa is cal- 
culated with precision to be from 3,500 to 4,000 bales, the quan- 
tity produced in the other parts of Turkey is more variable, and 
extremely difficidt to ascertain with certainty. 

Skins : The goat skins of Turkey are used in the tanneries of 
the country ; as all those which are exported come from Candia, 
the Morea, and different islands of the Archipelago. When 
salted, they are worth from two to three piastres per skin, ac- 
cording to their size ; and the annual exportation from Smyrna may 
amount to 20,000 or 30,000 skins. Hare skins are a great article 
for Italy and France, and recently for America also. They come 
from the interior of Anatolia and Romelia ; and the best quality 
are of the winter shooting, large and long-haired, of which 100 
skins should weigh nine okes. They are worth, generally, from 
70 to 72 piastres per 100 skins ; and the whole number exported 
annually may be computed as varying from 500,000 to 700,000. 

Sole Leather is made of buffaloes' skins, and is exported in 
considerable quantities to Italy. The bull hides are worth 85 to 
90 piastres per quintal, and the buffaloes 120 piastres. Large 
parcels of those hides come from Egypt and ^om Romelia to 
Smyrna, where . they are tanned, in sufficiency to supply all the 
country, or leave a residue for exportation. 

Morocco Leather is chiefly made for the consumption of the 
country, but large quantities might be exported, if there was a de- 
mand : the colours they make are excellent — either black, yellow, 
red, or blue ; they are worth from four to six piastres per hide. 

Madder Roots : This article is grown in the country, about the 
town of Ghiordes, and arrives in Smyrna on camels, after a joumev 
of six or eight days. The longer those roots remain in the ground, 
the better would be their quality, but in general they are plucked 
up from the third to the sixth year of their being in the earth, and 
invariably in the month of July, increasing in that period of time 
in size and weight so as to 3rield the planter a profit of about 10 
per cent, per annum. The best season for making purchases is 
from August to October, when there is no rain ; for if bought in 
the rainy season, they both increase in weight, and do not stand the 
voyage so well. Those roots are sent in bales of 2^ to 2^ quintals ; 
and the tare for earth and small stones should not exceed two okes 
per bale. The exportations depend entirely on the price offered 
for it ; if that be low, the planters leave the roots m the earth ; if it 
be high, they send them to market. On an average, the annual ex- 
portation may amount to 7,000 or 8,000 bales ; but when the article 



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Commerce ofSmyma* 81 

IB in demand, 10,000 are sometimes shipped, besides what are con- 
aamed in Smyrna in the dying works. Its price varies from 35 to 
40 piastres. 

Galls are produced in the environs of Smyrna, to the amount of 
1000 to 1500 quintals, of which about one-quarter may be black, 
one-half green, and one-quarter white. The crop is gathered in 
September or October, and the largest portion of them are con- 
sumed in the manufactories of the country. Those which are ex- 
ported from Smyrna are the Nuissall Galls, which come by way of 
Aleppo and Caissa, the annual quantity of which may amount to 
2,000 or 3000 quintals. The usual prices are, for blue 140, black 
120, grey 100, and white 80 piastres, per quintal. 

Yellow Berriks of Romelia or Rudschat were once sent in 
considerable quantities to England; but the fustic has, in a 
great measure, superseded its use. It is a wild shrub, the spon- 
taneous production of the northern mountains ; bears it generally a 
price of from 20 to 25 paras per oke. There is also another sort 
of yellow berries, which come from Caissa, under the name of Per- 
sian, arriving at Smyrna in the month of October, and being worth 
4( to 4} piastres per oke, which is often sent to Holland and Ger- 
many. The whole amount of the exportation of those berries is 
computed at from 40 to 50,000 okes annually. 

Valonea is exported from Smyrna and its neighbourhood, to the 
amount of 20 or 25 cargoes, of from 200 to 300 tons each, in every 
year. It is the fruit of a large wild tree, of which there are many 
also near Trojas, and is gathered in the month of August ; the 
finest quality, the first fruit of the tree, is small, without acorns, 
and may be loaded in December and January ; but neither the 
second or third qualities, with the acorns, can be loaded until May, 
before which they would continue to be moist, and liable, therefore, 
to heat on the voyage. This article should be white, dry, and 
heavy; the first quality is worth about 7 piastres; the second, 
from 5^ to 6 ; and the third, only 4 piastres per quintal. It is of 
little value, compared to its bulk, and is, therefore, loaded with- 
out packages ; being thrown loosely into the vessel's hold, and af- 
terwards pressed with large stone rollers, moving fore and aft. A 
ship of 300 tons would not carry of the first quality more than' 
from 225 to 250 tons ; and of the other sorts, 200 to 225 tons. 

Safflowbr, which arrives here chiefly from Egypt, is the flower 
of a plant that yields a fine pink dye. The best quality is that 
of Upper Egypt, which comes here in boats, in the months of 
August and September, in bales of 4 or 5 quintals each. This 
article, to be good, should be of a fine lively colour, of a soft 
texture to the touch, and clean. When possessing these charac- 
teristics, it sells from 65 to 70 piastres per quintal ; but it cannot, 
safely be kept on hand, since the flower itself must be used while 
fresh. When a year old, it loees one-thnrd of its value ; in the 
OrUnUd Herald, Vol. 10. a 



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84 Commerce of Swtym^. 

second year, it is not worth half the price ; and hi the tlurd, it ^ 
altogether useless. The amraal exportation amounts at least to 
4 or 5000 quintals, which is sent chiefly to Russia, to Germany, 
aad to England. 

Alum is produced, hi great quantities, from a mountam in Ana- 
tolia, at the distance of ten or twelre days* journey Irom Smyrna 
hy the caravans. The sale of this article is entirely monopolized 
by the Grand Sic^nor, as the lord of all territory in his dominiors, 
and it is purchnscd only from his immediate stents at Smyrra; 
from whence there are annually exported 4,000 or 5,000 quintals, 
the best quality of which is worth ^om 30 to 35, and the worst 12 
to 15 piastres per quintal. 

Barilla is produced near Allagar, the site of the ancient Fhila- 
delphia, and is the powder of a vegetable crowing wildly, and burnt 
to ashes. In Tuikeyit is only used in dying; but, besides the 
consumption of the country, there may remain a surplus of 2,000 
or 3,000 quintals for exportation. Some of it has been sent to 
l^ngland, but it scarcely paid charges ; it is worth from 19 to 20 
piastres per quintal, though not in demand. 

Gum Arabic comes to Smyrna through Egypt, in an unpicked 
state, when it is worth 1 10 piastres, per quintal ; after being cleaned 
in Smyrna, it sells at 130 piastres per quintal. For exportation 
it is put in boxes of from 2^ to 3 quintals. The white gum, in 
pieces about the size of a walnut, is of the best quality ; but there 
is another sort ot gum arabic, which is yellow, and is known by the 
name of gum Jidda. This, however, is not sent to England, but 
consumed mostly in Germany and Russia ; it is worth, when cleaned, 
from 70 to 75 piastres per quintal. Of the best sort of gum 
arabic, from 1,000 to 1,500 quintals, and of the gum Jidda, 2,000 
Quintals, may be annually exported. 

Gum Mastic is the produce of the island of Scio, and is collected 
in the month of May, from the tears of a small tree. This branch 
of eommerce is a monopoly of the Grand Signior, who farms it to 
the highest bidder, with exclusive privileges. Throughout all 
Turkey this gum is used only for the purpose of chewing, particu- 
larly by the females. The annual produce varies from 300 to 
500 barrela, each of which, weighmg 70 okes, is worth about 550 
piastres. 

Gum Traoacantb is produced in the neighbourhood of Smyrna ; 
aad ie collected in the month of October. It is made of a wild 
l^ant, whose root bei^g cut, when plucked up, yields a milky sub* 
stance, which, when dried, forms the gum. It must be both white 
and clean. The annual produce is computed to be from 15,000 to 
20,000 okes, and b worth from 7 to 8 piastres per oke. 

Gum BIykrh arrives here through Egypt, and should be of a 
lively yellow colour. OF the first quality, the Annual exportation 



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amy anHnmt to 5 or 6,000 okes ; and of ^e secoad quality, to 
10,000 okes. The former it worth 10 piostreo per oko ; and tho 
latter, from 6 to 7 piastres, per oke, fai general. 

ScAMONY is produced in the yicinity of Smyrna, from a wild 
plant, from which, in the month of May, flows a milky substance^ 
Irfaich is collected, dried, and pnt up in cakes. These are ex-* 
posed to the air until the month of August, when it becomes of a 
fine bottle-green colour. It is, however, very often adulterated, 
by being mixed with dust ; and, therefore, to examine the quality, 
the cake is broken : if the colour is that of a deep shining green, 
and by being wetted and rubbed it produces a milky substance of 
the lightest colour, the quality is good, and it then sells at 69 
pmatres per oke, the annual produce not exceeding 600 or 700 
okes. The second quality is worth from 20 to 80 piastres per 
•ke ; and of this, upwards of 1000 okes are annually brought to 
market. 

GcM Ammoihac : This is an article produced in various parts of 
the Persian empire, and brought to Smyrna for sale. The quantity 
annually exported to Europe varies from 12,000 to 15,000 okes, 
and it is worth from 7 to 8 piastres per oke. When the quality 
b good, the colour should be white, the grain fine, and on brealt* 
ing it, the inside should appear in hue and texture like that of aa 
almond. 

Senna is an Bgyptiaa article, produced from the deserts by 
t'hich that country is surrounded. The best quality is in small 
green leaves, not broken in bits, free from earthy particles, and 
without stems ; nor should the larger leaves, which are called fo- 
licolo, be mixed with it. As it is not at all used in Turkey, the 
whole that arrives from Egypt is exported. If of good quality, it 
is worth six piastres per oke ; but when the leaves become more 
yellow, they are of less strength and value. Of this article there 
are 10,000 or 12,000 okes annually sold. 

Oytom is one of the most important articles of Turkey. It is 
tlie jiiiee of the black poppy, a plant grown in Garissa, Ujaek, and 
Jallah, a cUstance of about ten days' journey from Smyrna. It ia 
sown in November and December ; and in June the plant forms a 
ball, which contains the seed. In these balls incisions are made, 
from which oozes out a milky substance, which is collected grar 
dually, and formed either into cakes about the size of a biscuit, or 
balls aa large as a four-pound shot, when it is sent to Smyrna in 
baskets of from 85 to 90 checques each, about the end of July. 
This is also often adulterated, by being mix,ed with the juice of 
other fruits. For this reason, it is usual to have it examined by 
connoisseurs of the article, who receive j^ per cent, for their in- 
spection, and if found thus mixed, it is returned to the seller. 
This article, if bought from the end of July until November^ wiQ 
Itfte d x»r 8 ^ tebt. in weight. After December, it t»fli sc^c^ 

Q9 



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84 Commerce of Smyrna, 

lose any thing ; and oeither the quality or strength are deteriorated 
hy being kept five or six years, though it hardens. A good crop 
will yield 1500 baskets, and an ordmary one from 1000 to 1200 ; 
of which quantity it is known with certainty that not more than 
200 are used in the Turkish empire, so that the practice of chew- 
ing opium, though still considered general here, is less universal 
among the people than would be imagined. It is even calculated, 
by long residents among them, that throughout the Turks of all 
classes, there are not more than two in a hundred who use this 
pernicious drug. The best qualities are exported by the English 
and Americans for their separate speculations to China, and various 
parts of the East Indies. 

Bor-wooD comes from the forests on the coasts of the Black 
Sea, and is very little used in Turkey. The best quality that i» 
exported is in pieces of five or six feet long, and twelve or eighteen 
inches in circumference — straight, free from knots, and clear of 
rents also. In this state it is worth 10 piastres per quintal, and is 
very frequently taken as dunnage for fruit and wine cargoes. 

Emery Stones are brought here from the island of Naxia, or 
Naxos, in the Archipelago, serving occasionally for ballast. They 
are worth from 65 to 70 paras per quintal, and should be very 
heavy, and of a reddish colour. 

Bees' Wax is collected in August and September ; and a year 
of plenty will produce 2,500 or 3,000 quintals, the good and clean 
quEility of which is worth 200 piastres per quintal. Very little of 
it is used in Turkey, the principal part being exported to Italy, 
where it is chiefly consumed in religious ceremonies, and in various 
services of the churches. 

Copper of Tocat, or Red Copper, comes from a place of that 
name,, in square pieces of 22 to 25 okes, and is worth from two to 
three piastres per oke. When this article was in demand for 
Europe, from 30 to 40,000 pieces used to be exported, and the 
price then did not exceed 30 or 63 paras per oke. Latterly, how- 
ever, there has been Ifttle or none shipped, as it is all consumed in 
Turkey for their cannon-founderies, for the adulteration of their 
silver coin, and for kitchen utensils, which they line with tin. 

Sponges are gathered from the rocks of the Archipelago by 
divers, who descend 20 or 30 fathoms under water after them. 
They are fished also on the coast of S3rria, Caramania, and near 
Rhodes. The finest quality, which Is of a white colour, round, 
dean, and of a middlmg size, is not used in Turkey, where they 
reserve for themselves the largest and coarsest pieces. The first 
are worth from 11 to 12 piastres per oke, and the latter is usually 
five to six piastres per oke. Of each sort, about 20,000 to 25,000 
okes are exported yearly. 

Smyrna Buick Fruit : Those raisins are cut or gathered in the 



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Commirceo/ Sm^nia. ^fi 

nonth of SeptemWy as the grapM lAftHf and aftenrarda dried in 
the 811119 lor whkh eight or ten days are suffioient. They hegin to 
enter the market in the month of September ; but the bulk of 
them is retarded until October and November, during which months 
they are brought by the cultivators into the fiuit bazars. After 
this period, therefore, they must be either purchased from the 
fruit-dealers at second-hand, or sought for in the country, bpth of 
which are disadvantages. The best quality is that which is pro- 
duced in the neighbourhood of Smyrna, which keeps two or three 
years ; the other qualities of Turkish black fruit, which are ex- 
ported horn. Smyrna and the neighbouring ports, will not retain 
their value beyond a year, after which period they shrivel up, 
leaving nothing but the skins and seeds. Of each quality, how- 
ever, there are 20,000 or 30,000 quintals annually exported, and 
both are chiefly used in the distilleries of an inferior kind of brandy. 
It is packed by being trodden into large barrels, weighing from a 
ton to 25 cwt„ and the ordinary price is from 10 to 15 piastres 
per quintaL 

VoimLA Rbd Fruit begins to come to market about the middle 
of September, and continues to arrive in abundance in all October^ 
November, and December. It is in the first of these months, how- 
ever, that the greatest bustle prevails, in order to despatch the 
vessels in loading, to give them an opportunity of arriving first at 
the market. In a good year, the quantity produced is from 40,000 
to 50,000 quintals, and its price is considerably assisted by the de- 
mand. In one season it has been sold for 17 and 18 piastres per 
quintal ; and in the following, 28 and 30 piastres have been paid 
in advance, with prospects of a further rise. 

CBE91CB Bbo Fruit has a strong resemblance to that of Vourla ; 
its colour only is a little darker, and it sells at only one or two 
piastres the quintal less. Of this there are annually produced 
from 50 to 60,000 quintals, the greater part of which is laden at 
the port of €hesm6. 

Gajiabourna Raisins are larger, clearer, and whiter than either 
of the preceding, and sell at five or six piastres dearer per quintal 
than those of Vourla. They are chiefly, however, consumed in 
Turkey, except a small quantity which goes to Russia. 

Sultana Raisins are a small red fruit without stones or seeds, 
which grow iu the neighbourhood of Carabourna, and of which, 
from 30,000 to 35,000 okes are annually produced. They are put 
up in drums of 15 to 30 lbs. English, and sell at about 50 piastres, 
or 1^ piastre per oke. The crops of these delicate raisins depend 
very much on the season of the year ; and it is remarked, that 
when the crop is abundant, the raisins are generally smaller than 
otherwise. If, at this time of the vintage, there are rains, the 
colour is often spoiled, and the quality injured ; and besides those 
accidents, the whole crop is sometimes entirely spoiled by a visit of 



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A6 Co mmef ce e/ ift ny ra d. 

gi«8diopper8» «r kcMts, wlio devoor every tbiag they alight on ; 
nor win the Turks allow these destroyiBg hosts to be at ail mo- 
lested in their ravages. 

Fiofl are brought principally from the interior of Anatolia, par- 
ticularly from a country called Nassaly, and arrive at Smyrna in 
bags of 2 and 2J quintals, into which they are gradually collected, 
after being suffered to dry on the tree until they fall off on the 
ground, which they will do when ready for packing. They begin 
to enter the market at the commencement of September, and con- 
tinue to pour in, in large quantities, from that time until the end of 
November, by which time the whole crop will have arrived. They 
are brought into the bazars by the cultivators, or country people, 
where the merchants or their brokers buy them ; and, after having 
them transported to their warehouses, they collect there all the 
rabble of Smyrna — ** the poor, the maimed, the halt, and the 
blind," — from old decrepitude to tottering infancy. Here they 
are selected ; and those figs which are found in a proper state, 
are washed in clean water, afterwards moulded in the hands of 
these 6Hhy wretches, and fashioned, while moist, with their spittle, 
and by them packed damp in hoxes of one quintal and half a quintal 
each, and in drums of from 15 to 50 lbs. English. The refuse of 
the figs are used in distilleries ; and a giieat quantity are also sent 
4o Egypt, where the poor people buy them for their food, at about 
>one-fomth the priee of those which are sound. The price, like that 
of raisins, is ▼aried by the demand, and fluctuates from 15 to 80 
jiiastres per quintal, unpicked. The general average of the ezpor^ 
Nation, annually, may be taken at firom 80,000 to 40,000 quintals. 

Red Wine is made at twenty-three different places in Smyrna, 
called taverns. About the end of August, the grapes of which the 
black fruit is made, are cut, and after the usual process they are 
pressed by the feet of men, and their juice suffered to ferment, which 
is done in about twenty days. The wine is then drawn off in bar- 
rels, and may be used within two months afterwards. In general 
25 per «eiit«, and even more, of water, is added to the real juice of 
the grapes, notwithstanding which the wine is still very strong. It 
is mostly a dry wine, though some of it is sweet, and when suffered 
to acquire an age of three years is as strong nearly as port. The 
refuse of it is used for making both vinegar and brandy. The 
quality made in Smyrna may amount in each season to 50,000 or 
60,000 Venetian barrels, about 28 okes each ; the half or two- 
thirds of which are exported, and the rest are consumed in the 
country. The average price is 18 piastres per barrel, or 16 paras 
per oke, and 2^ okes are about an English galbn. The Smyrna 
wine has the reputation of keeping well, while that of the Ar- 
chipelago very soon turns sour. 

Brandy, or as it is here more generally called by the Franlcs, 
Aqua Vita or Rakee, is made. of tiie black fndt, wtdoh pelds Ifae 



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dmperce qf Smyrna ^^ 

best qnali^. The second quality is made of the refase of 
wine and of figs, but neither of them are famous bejond their 
place of manufacture. Its ordinary price is 32 paras, but this, as 
irell as son^ white wines also made here, has never yet been ex- 
ported, nor would they promise any profit to the exporter. 

Oil is not permitted to be shipped from Smyrna on account 
of the soap manufactories there. The only parts from which it 
can be exported are Mitylene, Candia, and the Morea, the whole 
of which may make annual shipments of 25 or 30 cargoes from 
900 to 900 tons each, to diff^reut parts of Europe. Its price is 
from 56 to 60 piastres per quints^. 

Oil of Roses is made in Romelia, Layora, and Kigagatch, and 
comes very generally from Adriaiiople. It is sold by the metical 
of 1^ drachm. Very little of it is used in Turkey, where they 
prefer the odour of musk to that of the rose, but the greatest 
portion of that which is exported goes to England, and is worth 
from 4^ to 5 piastres per metical. It is an extremely deceptive 
article, being put up in ornamented glass bottles, and often mixed 
with common oil. Any quantity may be had by orders, but not more 
than 30,000 meticals are yearly exported. 

Grain cannot be exported from Smyrna without a firman, or 
express permission from the Grand Signior ; but though this prohi- 
bition extends over all parts of Turkey, yet it may always be loaded 
from the smaller ports by bribing the custom-house officers, who, 
in the farming of their situations ^om the Porte, calculate such 
gains as necessary an^ honourable profits, and regulate their pur- 
chase money according to the greater or less facility of reimburs- 
ing themselves by such means. The principal places of export for 
grain from Anatolia, are Scalanuova and Sanderlee, but all busi- 
ness at those places is done through the merchants of Smyrna. 
The Gulph of Salonica, the coasts of Caramania, Satalia, and Syria, 
also export large quantities of grain ; but Egypt is the chief 
granary of the East, whose harvests are scattered over all the 
Mediterranean. At all those places grain must invariably be pur- 
chased with cash, and for that pupose, Spanish dollars are found 
to be most generally acceptable. In time of peace between 
Rossia and Turkey, the Black Sea furnishes alsp immense supplies 
of grain ; but if a vessel from that sea should be driven, either 
by stress of weather, necessity, or convenience, into a Turkish port, 
the bakers of the country may stop the cargo, by paying for it a 
price arbitrarily fixed by their own government; which is the 
case with hemp, and other articles from the 31ack Sea, which 
the Turks may, at any time, be likely to want. To obviate this 
evil, vessels touching at ports often anchor without the castles 
which guard their entrance ; while in town, the goods are easily 
sold, and transferred to European vessels. 

Rice, which is an article of food in universal consumption 



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8^ The Summer Sdi. 

tbronghont Turkey, arrived here chiefly from Egypt, and is soldi 
for t^y by the kilo of 10 okes, which is worth, at present, 6j^ 
piastres. Scarcely a meal is made, either by the Turks or 
Christian natives of Turkey, without a pilau, or dish of boiled 
rice, which makes its consumption immense, and there is never a 
scarcity in the markets. Carolina and India rice are well known, 
but, as they are not so much esteemed, they sell, in general, about 
10 per cent, less than the rice of Egypt. 

Hemp is an article of which the importation is also prohibited 
in a raw state ; but its quality is too inferior to make it worthy of 
a trial in England, even if it could be obtained.* 



THE BUMMER SEA. 

Go, visit now the peactfol shores. 
And mark the rippling waters glide 
Along the silent summer strand ; 
No showers are felt, no breaker roars. 
No tempest struggles with the tide, 
Or scars the wary golden sand. 

Now is the time for joyoas Lore 
To bask with beauty on the ware. 
The bed where Beauty first reclined. 
While round the bark light aep .yrs move. 
And the most timid girl is brave 
On seas deserted by the wi.id. 

,Be quick — the hours of summer fly, 
And youth and love are fleeting too, 
Gray locks and wintry winds are near ; 
Feel now the lightning of that eye 
That sheds its lovely rays for you. 
But must grow dim some future year. 



BlON. 



^ A similar detail of the import trade, with the consumption of British and 
other European manufactures at Smyrna, and throughout Turkey in general, 
will be given, to conclude this subject, In our next.— En. 



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PtaVATH JOtRNAL OF A CANVASS POft A dtAt m THA lltA0t 
INDIA DIRECTION. 

To the Editor of the Oriental Herald. 

Sir, — ^Having been occupied for some weeks previous to the 
baUot of the i2th April last, when the election of the six East 
India Directors took place, in making interest for a very particular 
friend, I happen to have kept a Journal of my Canvass. 

The bustle and irritation attending the election having now 
passed away, it has occurred to me, that it may be gratifying to 
your country readers, and both interesting and useful to the 
public, more especially to those who speculate on the fdture im- 
provement of the home administration of Indian affairs, to have 
before them some record of the sort of feeling by which Pro- 
prietors of India Stock are actuated in giving their votes. The 
following extract from my Journal is therefore at your service, for 
publication in your interesting Miscellany, should you deem it 
admissible. 

The commercial concerns of the Court of Directors occupy a 
comparatively small portion of their time and attention ; the civil, 
military, and political affairs of a considerable quarter of the globe 
depend, in a great degree, upon their zeal, their talents, their 
prudence, and their knowledge ; and many persons foretel that a 
few years hence the Court will still less than at present have to 
do with commercial affairs. Is it not then a matter of the highest 
importance, that the selection of the members of an executive, in- 
vested with such high public duties, should rest somewhere else 
than where it does at present ? And does it not stand to reason, 
that so long as the electors care little for, or at best are not 
guided and determined in giving their votes by, any anxiety for the 
good government of India, those elected cannot be the fittest men 
for controlling the counsels of the Indian Governments ? If it be 
asserted that the Board of Control remedies all errors in the ad- 
ministration of British India, arising out of the present defective 
constitution of the Coui't of Directors, there are few either at 
home or abroad of those who are at all acquainted with the present 
mode of conducting Indian affurs, but will deny the fact. If again 
it be contended, that there is no more reason to object to the 
system of trusting to the Proprietors of East India Stock the 
election of the persons with whom the due ordering of Indian af- 
han mainly rests, than there is to object to the election of the 
members of the House of Commons by that portion of the people 
who are entitled to vote, I must be permitted to deny that the 
cases are at all parallel. Be the motives of the electors to seats 
in Parliament pure or impure, selfish or patriotic, at all events it 



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90 Cmvaan/araSeiU 

mnst be allowed, that men, first in property and in inflaence, if 
not in talent, arf elected. Granting that the electors to seats in 
the British Parliament be but little actuated by public spirited 
motives in giving their votes, yet so long as they continue to select 
men of large possessions as their representatives, this attribute of 
property, this holding of so large a stake in the country, ensures 
some, and not an inconsiderable degree of, zeal and anxiety for its 
welfare. But what large possessions do the Directors of the East 
India Company own in India ? What great stake have they in that 
country ? In this case, the imparity of the election is, in its evil 
consequences, not at all counteracted by the circumstance of the 
elected having, in the possession of large property in India, a 
powerful inducement to devote their earnest, their unremitted, 
their whole attention to the furtherance of its interests. Here, 
then, the absence of selfish views in the electors is even more es- 
•ential than in elections to the House of Commons. It still remains 
ft desideratum, for which the happiness of eighty millions of people 
loudly calls, to devise some plan whereby the organuation and 
constitution of that most important body, to which the super* 
vision of the aAiirt of British India is, to a great extent, intmsted^ 
may be rendered less defective than at present. 

I remjEun, Siri your ob^cjUent servant, 
Londop, May 22, 1826. An Baat Indian. . 

Bxtmei fnm the Jaurtial qf a Cannsau fw a CamdUate for a Seai in th^ 
East Indfa Direction. 

JUmrch 90, 1896.— My friend having started as a candidite for one of 

the vacancies in the East India pirection, to be filled up by ballot on the l9t|i 
of April, requested me to assist hitn ia his canfass I did not much relish the 
idea of the trouble, irksomeness, and variety of unpleasant circumstances, In* 
eident to such a task ; I could not, however, hesitate ibr a moment to comply 
wiih bis request ; and havin{[ provided myself with pencil, memorandum- book, 
and a pocket full of my fiieiid^s cards, solicitin; the honour of ladles* and 
gentlemen's votes and interest, and endeavouring to fortify myself with a 
^ttantum tvfficit of assurance, I this day commenced my rounds of solicitatiolk 
Slid canvass at the west-end of the toWn. 

I called at No. 5, square— detained a quarter of an boar at the door, 

when a dirty housemaid bawled out from th^; area, ** The family not in Jtown.** 

Called next on Sir P. ; found him at home ; presented mv friend's card, 

and requested his vote. He expressed his regret that he could hot accede to 
my application, as he had half engaged Is vote to another candidate. I knew 

6ir P to be an honest, independent country gentleman, not llkdy to bo 

swayed bv City interests ; I ventuied, therefore, to urge the su^rioritv of my 
friend*s claims, his long services in India, his talents, experience, ic. &c. 

Sir P begged pardon for interrupting my address ; he ha[d no doubt of my 

friend's qualifications ; but reiUy a neighbour of his had a few years ago 
procured two cadetships, one for the son of his steward, ami another for pi son 
of one of his principal tenants, and ha had ever since made it a rule to vote as 
his neighbour rpquested of him. 

I prD<;eeded on to the Rev. |tfr. , in —street ; bat do better success 

here. He is already engaged to , through the interest of an old friend^ 

to whom he considers himself under obligations. 

At No. 16, in the same street-naot at home. At If 0. 85, 1 fbnnd Mr. -"«» 

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tn ih9 JIm# /unite Mitectttm. Al 

tn i^d Bast In^itt. The litgii ohancter whieh lie elw&yi bore in Bengal, 
and his long residence in India, rendered me confident that he ceald net lynt 
he aeteated hy an anxious desire for the good government of that coimtrf. I 
▼entared to urge to him the importance of selecting men of tried ability, and 
of long experience tn Indian aflmrs, to the Direction ; I put it home to him 
how the halppiness of the people of India being necessarily dependent on the 
wisdom of those councils by which tlie Indian governments are directed, and 
those councils beiag much controlled and influenced by the orders and sugges- 
tions of the Court of Directors here, how im^rtsnt must it be that this Court 
should be composed of men intimately acquainted with the laws, customs, and 
habits, the feelings, the wants, and the grievances of the people of India ; I 
app aled to his knowledge of tne character of my friend, and as he knew him 
to be the best qualified of all the candidates for the vacant seat, I could nol 

but hope that he might be favoured with his vote and interest. Mr. 

replied, that ne one could be more amdous than he was for the weifiue of a 
people amongst whom he liad so long resided ; but that he did not see matters 
lexactly in the same light as I appecutsd to do. According to his view of tlie 
subject, so long as the Court of Directors was constituted as it is at present, 
it mattered little whether a candidate did or did not possess either civil or 
n^Utanr talents, whether he was or was not experienced in the eivil or mili- 
tary affairs of India ; that, under the present regulations of the Court, any 
such qualiftcations were useless ; that, for instance, supposing my friend to he 
successful, for the first twelve or thirteen years he would be employed in the 
import or export wardiouses, or other commercial duties, (for which other 
can^Mates, however inferior in talents and political experience, were just as 
fit as my friend) ; and when at last he shall' have obtained a seat amongst the 
elders in that board, to which the charge of communicating ^ ith and super* 
vising the proeee^tings of the several governments of British India is more 
espesinUy Intmsted, '' The Board of Correspondence ;*' or when, by slow 
giid^tion, he shall have at length reached one of the ohairs, by that time he 
will have forgotten all he now Imows of India ; or even .^hould his memory, 
pi spite of ^ advances of age operaling on a worn-out constitution, be still 
»o lenacions, thai the present state of that country, and the peculiarity of its 
inhabitanto as they are found at .present, sha^l not have faded from his recollec- 
tion, yet it must be cemembered, that, in the course of eleven or twelve years, 
Ihe aspect of civM and military affairs in India changes greatly. The luiow- 
ledge 9i Bsatters as Ifaey existed in India when your friend left it some years 
BOW past, can be of little service eleven or twelve ^ears hence ; by which 
time the civil and military state of our indiaa possessums will probably have 
■ndergooe essential Manses. This (said >*— ) is my view of the subject ; 
and, therefore, not thtnidog it of much importance, on any public ground, 
wUeh candidate I vote for, I have promised to vote for -*-, an old friend of 
— -, with whom 1 was long intimate in India. 

Public duty being thus, in the mind of , reconciled with personal friend- 
ship, I thought further argument useless, and took my leave. I then called 

on old , at No. d, street. The old gentleman will not vote for any 

one, but vows that he will sell out his stock directly, that he may never again 
be bothered as he has been lately. My next visit was to the fashionable 

Mr. ; I found him at three o'clock in his robe de chambre ; he assuied 

toe that he should have been very willing to vote for my friend, but that really 
h was such a bore goiof into the City, he had not been there for five years, 
and he conid not promise his vote, as it was very doubtful whether his nume- 
rous engagements could permit his attempting to find his way to Leadenhall- 

street. Passing through street, I called upon Mr. , the jeweller ; 

lie has already promised his vote to , an old customer ; — then upon Mr. 

- — -, the saddler ; he has not made up his mind whom to vote for ; I conjec- 
tured that lie was waiting to see who would bring him the largest orders. I 

Kent on to place, at Nos. 9, 8, 8, and 12 ; nobody at home at either. 

At Ko. 9, found Genend ; this old gentleman says he always votes as 

' and Co. desire 1dm, irithout troubling himself about the qualifications of 

«a dtdatei. 



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92 CmwMf&raSM 

Ifot^A 81.-^1 oufttflfldtUsdAy in the tklHi of tb0 town; Mr.-— *,lii— ^ 
aqiUtfe, sick uptttirs, sent me down word that he slwayt roted m the btnklof- 

hottse of requested of him. At No. 8, 0, and 11, nobody at home. At 

hill I foutid - — at home ; he must vole for , that candidate haying, 

in return, promised to give his votes and interest hereafter to Mr. , his 

first cousin ; in Tain did I urge my friend's qualificati<ms and India's claims ; 
he feels himself obliged to' further, by every means in his power, his old 

friend's interesU. In place I found Colonel ^ an old Indian, at 

home, and I was delighted to find at last one who had the welfare of India up- 
permost in his thoughts ; he agreed with me as to the superiority of my 
friend's claims, and promised to vote for him, as being the person, in his opi- 
nion, best qualified for the Direction. This old Indian has a large family to 
provide for, but he has the happiness of the country in which he passed bis 
best days too much at heart to vote for any one but the man best qualified to 

legislate for India. Next to , an old retired tradesman ; he says, that the 

India House is ftill of abuses, that he will not vote for any of the old Direc- 
tors, but for all the new candidates. — I afterwards learnt that this public spi- 
rited individual was formerly employed by the India House, but latterly they 
had withdrawn, their custom from him. At No. SO, ^— square, a dirty footboy 
dismissed me with the int mation, that his master had given positive order* 
for lio one who came to canvass for the East India Direction to be admitted. 

At No. 7, I found ^ late of the Stock Exchange ; he told me plainly, that 

he did not pretend to be a judge who was fit, and who was not fit for the 
Direction; that, like most other Proprietors, he was actuated by private 

friendship and private interest in giving, bis votes ; Mr. had obtained for 

him some favours from the India House, and, therefore, he should vote as he 
desired. 

At ^lane. No. 5, Mr. refVised me his vote on much the same ground 

as above stated ;--at No. 8, Mr. was undecid^ whom he should vote for \ 

I cbttld not prevail upon him to declare : I learnt afterwards that this gentle- 
man never comes to a decision until the last day, and then, invariably votes 

for the candidate whom he perceives to be strongest. At No. 80, 1 found ^ 

a great man for Bible Societies, of the highly religious party, I counted upon 
his vote as a sure thing ; being persuaded that his conscience could never 
allow him to vote on any other ground but that of the public good. I did not 
hesitate, therefore, to dilate upon the duty of electing such a man as by his 
experience and abilities might appear best calculated to assist in the para- 
mount object of bettering the condition of the eighty millions of fellow- 
creatures inhabiting our Indian territories. I was not a little surprised at the 
answer of this religious man : he acknowledged the validity of my friend's 
pretensions, and admitted that he would make an excellent Director, but really 

lie was under such great obligations to the house of and Co., Uiat he must 

vote for the candidate they patronised. Thought I to myself, how easily 
does private interest, under the gloss of gratitude, divert even a conscientious 
man from the path of public duty. In the course of conversation, he told me 
that he should certainty never vote for — ^, if he stood fifty times, because 
he had called to canvass him on a Sunday. 

In my way home, I called at No. 45, street, where I found , who 

had only returned a month ago from India ; young , of the firm of 

and Co., was sitting with him. The latter being a proprietor, I availed my- 
self of the opportunity of canvassing him. He said that he knew nothing 

about Indian politics ; but that as was the only one of the candidates who 

had ever been civil to him, he should give him his vote ; besides, was a 

very good fellow, gave excellent dinners, capital Champagne and ices. Whea 

young was gone, Mr. expressed his surprise, tlut the selection of a 

person to fill a seat in a body of men charged with control over the welfare of 
an immense empire should be influenced by wine and ices. ** I am just arrived 
(says he) from Calcutta ; every one there is confident that a man like ^-^ 
cannot find the least difficulty in getting into the Direction." I assured him that 
the good folks in Calcutta were much mistaken, if they imagined that ability^ 
experience, and integrity, ensured an easy election, or that the majority of 



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in ike East India IHrectian. 98 

proprieton bad chiefly «t hmrt, what ought to be the iknt object, to ProTide 
biiectors the best qualified to ezerciae an enlightened, Tigllant, and energetic 
control- oTer the government* of India. There are no doubt many proprietors 
who are actuated by public-apirited yiews ; but, generally speaking, private 
interests and private friendships are the only actuating motives. 

At No. 5, street, I called on — . He has received a letter from a 

very great man, desiring hha to vote for , which prevents him from voting 

as I could have wished. Before closing my day*s labour, I dropt in at ; 

he is one <of the principal men of the committee for conducting my friend's 
election ; I told him of mv ill success, and gave him the details of my can- 
vass. '* My friend, (says this veteran in East India electioneering), you are 
on a wrong scent ; you must change your system of canvass. The arguments 
yon use to induce proprietors to vote for our friend may often vex and annoy, 
but are little calculated to obtain votes. Adopt another plan : inquire and 
hiform yourself of the relations, the connexions and friends, the bankers, 
agents, Ac. &c., of the proprietors you intend to canvass. Having found out 
bow they are to be got at, set these sprhigs to work, and then call upon them, 
and with these appliances and means to boot (should they still be open), you 
will probably secure their votes ; but as to going about, talking of the welfare 
of eighty millions of people, of the good government of our vast Indian empire, 
and of the duty inctimbent upon Bast India proprietors to have those sacred 
interests in view, take the word of a man experienced in these elections, such 
considerations luive very little weight with any proprietor. Some may talk 
feelingly of the interest they take in the good government of British India ; 
but even of those who have the prosperity of India at all ni heart, however 
benevolent their language, their votes are almost always determined^ if not by 
gratitude for favours past, or by expectations of favours future, at the best by 
ties of personal friendship or consanguinity ; they only wimK well to India, 
but their votes are guided by otlier considerations ; and there are a great many 
proprietors, with whom the interests of Colombia or of Peru would have 
orach greater weight than the interests of India.'* I felt the justice of his ob- 
servations, and resolved to follow his advice. 

March SI. — I have been very successful in my canvass of the last three days ; 
I have secured twelve votes for my friend. Following the advice of ray elec- 
tioneering sage, I sought out proper clues to the interests of the several pro- 
prietors falling within my circuits of canvass ; letters of service and recom- 
mendation obtidned from cousins of every degree and friends of every descrip- 
tion, greatly facilitated my success ; and I proved, by my own personal expe- 
rience, what a few weeks ago I could hardly have believed, that in the elec- 
tion of Directors, private interest and private friendship are the prevailing, the 
predominant, nay, almost the only motives, which guide the voters ; and that 
the public weal of our vast Asiatic possessions is a very subordinate, a very 
powerless, and, I might say, almost an unknown consideration. 



THE SAILING OF 1H2 MADRAS BAST INDIAMAN.* 

The unimpressive waters gave lines and breaks of light, as 'f the vessel's 
keel had left its track upon tne rifted bosom of the deep ; yet all irregular, as 
though the wind had battled with her course ; whilst bright and trembling, 
the waters caught the Tyrian dye from Heaven, and the fleecy wanderers 
through the morning sky of Spring, were passing — " like Angel's visits ; 
short and far between." — 

I SAW sail after sail unfbrl'd. 
The cold east breeze to feel them curl'd ; 
Her gallant bearing met mine eye. 
But to my heart 'twas agony. 

* From * Sibyl's Leaves:' Poems and Sketches. By Elizabeth Wttlesford 
Mllb ;Hu^ publialMjd. 



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94 The Sa$tHig «/ ih» Mfadrad BaH tndiaman, 

I gaz0d niioii h6r tisg-wrtpt prow ; 

The ehftiiffefiBl wind wu ste^lfast dow$ 

I look*d on OcMoi's wsrering form. 

It promlBed no retarding storm. 

The pAitinf slgoel hoisted high 

Is flutt'ring 'neath a sonny sky. 

Which seem to gild that yessel o'er. 

To make my bosom ache the more ; 

Her pennon waves its mnte adien : — > 

She roove»-4he heaTes— she *s gliding tbrough V 

The ful) wavers oale c ruleaa blae. > 

I cannot bear to lose her quite. 

Yet — yet she lingers on my sight ; 

She lingers yet — ^though hours have past— 

I feel I *Te almost look'd my last. 

Now, like a Tapoury cloud, she rests 

One moment o'er th* hortzon*s breast ; 

Now, now my mind deludes mine eye» 

That vision'd shape was mockery 

• « « • • 

# • • • • 

And now no more in noon-tide hour, 

He comes to share his slater's bow*r ; 

No more is found the cliffs among, 

listing the rowers* idle song. 

No more like music o*er ray soul. 

His sweetly measured accents roll ; 

His voice, his smile, his langh is gone. 

And I am wandering here alone. 

No more I catch his sunny glance. 

Nor meet his step in glad advance ; 

But sad I stray through every spot. 

Where once he moved*>bttt now moves not. 

How oft I *ve tumM Ids dark brown hair ! 

Smiled when the wild breeze sported there : 

And now one solitary lock. 

With anguish shorn, is all my stock. 

Oh ! turn thee, lum thee from the main, 

Oive me thy dear caress again ; 

Hold me but ottee more to thine heart. 

And theii--and then— and then we 'II part. 

Yes, part; butohl again to meet: 

I will my brother fly V> ipreet^ 

WT^en time ha» press'd his youtMul brow. 

And I am not what I am now. 

We 'II look not for the mimix'd hair. 

Nor weep to find the silver there ; 

We 'II ask not for the roseate bloom 

We loved, and parted fk-om too soon. 

My Soldier ! we will little reck 

My pallid brow, thy s«n-bumt cheek ; 

We ni breathe no sad r<^retful sigh. 

Nor let the full tear wander by. 

But meet with hearts anwotn by lime^ 

My wanderer in a foreign clime ! 

Meet when thy Well-^nt yenth to V0t, 

Proudly and fond— to part no more. 



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»i 



wscomrfeNTB m the n^iTive indun armV. 

To the Editor 0/ the Oriental Herald. 

Bm, Calcutta, January 6, 1690« 

If ever there was a time when public attention fihould be 
called towards the East, it is now. At no former period, since ottr 
establishment in Hindoostan, have affairs worn an aspect similar to 
the present. We have before had foes to contend with, both nu^ 
merous and brave, local difficulties to overcome, and want of means 
to che<ik our exertions ; yet have we seen our arms crowned with 
success, and returned victoHous from the contest. Those days arls 
gone by — ^we have the same army, 'tis true — but. Sir, we have lost 
our niaral force, or rather it has been taken from us ; — I .repeat. 
Sir, never were we so deficient in moral force as at this day. That 
this conviction prevails with you in England also, is evident ; else, 
why are twelve thousand King's troops coming to this country f 
Are our Native troops no longer trustworthy ? If they arid not, 
how and where has the change arisen ? Is it for a moment sup- 
posed, is there one man who will venture to maintain, that Euro- 
pean troops (take, what numbers you please) can successfdlly 
hold possession of India ? Why, Sir, the Indians would only have 
to look on, while their own excesses brought them to a miserable 
end. Our real strength in this country consists not in European 
regiments — not in our reported valour ; this has been more than 
once surpassed by Native courage ; but it consists in a moral force, 
obtained for the Government by that kindness and consideration 
which the officers of the Company's army have invariably evinced . 
to the Natives of the country, as well as to the troops more inune- 
diately under their command, by the forbearance they have shown 
to their prejudices, by entering into their feelings, by remedying 
their real or imaginary grievances, and by teaching them, under all 
circumstances of difficulty or doubt, to look to them for advice and 
assistance, 'this conduct engendered feelings of no common nature ; 
this was the real force of the army ; this, the weapon that foiled 
the nations who dared to try their strength with us : this, the arm 
that drove the European governments from the East, and left us 
an empire, the wonder and admiration of the world. 

Where and how has this force di8at)pcared ? Every one asks the 
queatieiL At this moment circular letters are going round to com- 
mandin|f officers of regiments, to ask them if thep know where it is 
gone to, and what has occasioned the existing discontents amongst 
the men ? I venture to assert, that it is the Government itself, and 
the Court of Directors acting in concert, that have banished the one 
aad introdnceA the other : Have they not j^Ven their sanction to 
aetavM wbleb bat« sapped th« vftly f^4atlon bf mc strength ? 



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06 DUxnUmts in the 

Were they not jealous of the officer's influence with his men ? Did 
they not issue order after order, tillnothbg was left but the shadow 
and the name of influence ? Did they not remove and re-remove, 
till officers and men were as much strangers to each other as his 
Majesty and the Calmuck Tartars ? And did they not, to crown 
all, and to exterminate every atom of respect that might still linger 
in the breast of the sepoy towards his officer, cause the Native 
regiments to be paraded in square, and then have an officer of his 
Majesty, high in Brevet rank, ride into that square, and ask the 
men (on an enemy's frontier, be it remembered) if they had aiiy 
complaints to make against their officers ? And when the men, in 
astonishment, inquired the meaning of such words, were they not 
asked if any of their officers had ill used them, or borrowed money 
from them without repaying them I Yet it is expected that these 
men wiU place implicit confidence in the very officers that have 
but jufit been degraded in their estimation, by being told they 
might possibly ill use or plunder them. The Government and Court 
have deprived them of the esteem and devotion of the sepoy, be* 
cause, of all their scheming, he only understands that they have 
separated him from his officer, whom he loved and trusted, that 
they may the more easily overcome his objections to go on board 
ship, and eat food that he loathes and detests. 

With regard to the superior branches of the army, there was a 
time when the Company's military measures were carried into eflect 
almost entirely by their own officers ; but, since the peace in Eu- 
rope, employment has been wanting for the favourites at the Horse 
Guards, and India presented the only field. From this time it has 
been discovered, that our sepoys are of little or no use, and that 
the Company's officers are a parcel of old women : from this time, 
the rights and privileges of the Indian army have, one by one, been 
swallowed up at the Horse Guards ; and if any thing in the shape 
of remonstrance has been made use of by those who ought to 
guard our rights, they have been given to understand, there was a 
necesHtyfw a controlling power of Europeans to keep down dis^ 
content. Swarms of King's officers, young men in life, but (from 
having been in high favour at Carlton House, or having passed some 
time on guard at St. James's) old in brevet rank, came to this 
country, and no sooner did they arrive than they were latterly so 
distributed, that scarcely a single Company's officer commanded a 
brigade ; and what has been the consequence ? Have our troops 
(I speak of the whole army) distinguished themselves more than 
they were wont to do ? Have they contended with the enemy with 
more success than formerly ? or is the present war likely to be 
concluded with more despatch ? When we see a system which, 
from 116% to 1822, has been invariably crowned with success, 
changed for an unsuccessful one, those who have made the change 
should be able to give good and substantial reasons for it, so shall 
they not answer to the nation, which, from no other motive than the 



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NoHve Indian Arm^. 97 

denre. of exercising patronage, they have humbled- to the dnsti 
They hare attempted to pliick the laurel from the brows of our 
sepoys, have thrown into neglect and cast aside our best and bravest 
officers, and when a sufficient number of their creatures were not 
at hand, have taken them from the sister presidency, created Briga- 
dier-Generals as if solely for the purpose of excluding the Com- 
pany's officers from command, and treating them with such marked 
neglect as could not fail to deprive them of the confidence of their 
sepoys. 

Is it possible, or is it to be supposed, that officers can feel that 
mterest and zeal in the service which they formerly did, when they 
can scarcely take up a newspaper without finding the most unjus- 
liable reflections cast upon the Native soldiery ? One writer only 
wishes that the ** five and twenty thousand Britons in this couutxy 
conid get at the whole Native army, and ** he" should not fear 
the result. Another, impudently setting truth and public docu7 
ments aside, asserts that, they (the sepoys) have never performed 
one gallant action without having King^s troops to lead them on. 
He who would dare to disprove such assertions in Calcutta now, 
Mr. Editor, must be a bold man. Tis nothing that we know them 
to be false. Tis nothing that there are hundreds who could prove 
them so from ocular demonstration. The man who should attempt 
it here, would rush into certain destruction. It is not to be ex- 
pected, however, that such falsehoods shall stand recorded agsdnst 
our brave sepoys, and no man say nay to them. For the benefit of 
such liberal y and no doubt disiwtereeted writers, as I have quoted 
from, I shall take the liberty of stating a few facts. 

I find, in 1781, the 24th battalion of Bengal Sepoys, before Cud- 
dalore, defeated some of the oldest French regiments with the bay- 
onet. This, however, is going too far back. At the battle of 
Ltiswarree, Lord Lake observed to Majors White and Gregory, that 
if they did not advance immediately, his Majesty's 76th would be 
destroyed. The 12th Bengal regiment, with six companies of the 
16th Native infantry, found his Majest3r's 76th driven behind a 
mosque, by a large body of infantry, with a great number of guns ; 
this body they charged, and captured every ^n and colour belong- 
ing to it, and thereby saved his Majesty's regiment. Next day, they 
were publickly thanked by Lord Lake for their timely support of 
his Majesty's 76th. Again, before Bhurtpoor, we find his Majesty's 
75th refusing to advance to the storm, stating the breach to be 
nothing but a slaui^hter-house : Here the 2d and 12th Native infan- 
try occupied their place as volunteers, and led the storm ; thrice 
were their colours planted on the breach ; and when, hopeless of 
success, they were ordered to retire, the men exclaimed : *^ Either 
we must carry the place, or die where we are !" In the Nepaul 
campaigns, the divnions which alone carried success' before them, 
were Sir David Oehterlony's and General Nieholl's ; yet these were 
composed emelneimh^ of Native troops, and were only teo ovt of 

Qrkn'al Heroid. Vol. 10. H 



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M Motive Indian Armg. 

the itve dlHsiond employed. In the lltst M^firatta war, F^re tl^c 
l^atiVe troops backward f Look at the returns of killed fmd wound- 
ed at the battle of Mahidpoor — ^Which of his Majesty's regiments 
headed tl\e rifle corps ? At Nagpoor, thiit same regiment, oir a parp 
of it, the Royals, which, from 5 a. m. till 1 p. ro., were still nB8^(e4 
^th the blood of that most cruelly destroyed regiment, the 47th 
J^^aiive infantry, refused to advance ; and I believe there are noif 
in existence individuals, who, with a few men of the 22d Native 
infantry^ were obli^^ed to bring off the gun which the Royals left 
behind them. Many other instances could I adduce in which the 
Native regiments have stepped forward with a promptitude nothtnt 
could surpass, and offered their services ; but from custom or poliw 
thet have never been accepted* It is not my object to argue this 
policy ; It may be good, or it may not ; but surely there is little jus- 
lice in accusbg men of not doing that which they are not permitted 
to attempt. 

YpU will observe^ Sir, that I have only mentioned instances of 
{gallantry among the Native regiments with bia Majesty's troops, or. 
IIS in the Nepaul war, when contending against the same enemy and 
the same difficulties* The inunepse extent of our empire in tb^ Bast 
makes jany allusion to tb^ir general covrage superQiioup. It waf 
ia^sertedp that '^ they ^lie sepoys) hi^ye never performed a gallant 
action, without having King's troops to lead them on ;" W9 see how 
well the assertion is Dome out by proofs, and what » gre^t regard 
the writer of the assertion has evinced for truth. One only blot on 
the character oi a particular regiment, i^ made by the deaigniiig ^ 
sufficient reason for throwing the merits of the whole Native iirniy 
into the back ground. Have these people forgotten Muttra ? Hi9 
Majesty's 22d regiment mutinied there, disowiied their officers, and 
appointed a seijeant to command them: Was this exceeded by the 
47tb Native infantry 1 His Majesty's 22d was disarmed and <?i«- 
persed by Native cavalry and infantry ^ without one drop qf Uoo4 
oeing spilt ! Need I state the fate of the unhappy 47th in tbe ^aa^ 
sacre at Barrack poor ? Did not the dally papers ^t Calcutta teem 
with the praises of the Royals, for their services on Xh^t melancholy 
occasion ? Services ! against men in full flight, without arms in 
(heir hands ! It was certainly n^ore easy to display their gallantry 
against those unfortunates, than against th^ brava defei^dofs of 
Nagpore. Yet, f be|ieve this regiment, at this moment, bear thf 
word " Nagpore" on their colours, for th^ir distinguished servicea 
at th^t place. 1 wonder his Majesty did not allow thi^m tp embl^ziui 
^ Asseerghur" on their colours abo ; or were they afraid, if they 
Aid, tbajt the ghost of their colonel, left iq the enemy's hands durini^ 
f sort{e, a^d ^bred, would rise up in judgy^ent against thein ? 



iHit flai^h tea been said t« mtisiy any di^piaaaioiiate man, Hmt 
11m aiuideiB heaped Q]k>n oar Native aoldierv are engendered in 
•ad Bpi«D| nd CDtiielj withal foaadMOii. if Ike m^f^ 



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JSoHHet. 99 

of oar Nadve aimy has been destroyed) the Govemment have de- 
stroyed it. If they ^fiab tq restore it, (as by th^ir.circulars it would 
appear they do,) Tet them retrace their steps as soon as possible ; 
let them giro back to commanding officers the powers they hare 
snatched from their hands ; let them invest eommandants of regi- 
ments with the same fiill authority held by colonels in his Majesty's 
army ; let every oMfer of the staff (giving him first the option of 
rejoining if he likes) be struck off the strength of their respective 
regiments, and their vacancies filled up ; let the different local corps 
be thrown into the line, and let the whole army be augmented iii 
proportion to the extent of country it has to protect, with a much 
larger proportion of Enropean officers for each regiment, and to aU 
of them an additional surgeon, for at present, if our army is de- 
tached, it must physic itself. LfCt the sepoys have great coats or 
cloaks given to them, as the Europeans have, and let their health 
and comforts be studied as well as the European soldiers ; let^ in 
short, justice be only done to the Native troops by the Gbvemment, 
and we shall never hear again of circulars sent round to inquire 
into the discontents of the Native army. 

I amj Sir, your obedient servant, Iota. 



SONNET. 

Yf eyes of heaven I what fprms Miio4 you wmr 

Sotih boning glories as ye sbed on earth 1 

Whtfre IB the Bdeii of their heavenly birth? 

Oh ! ^here the dweUiags of tho^ shapes of air? 

Perchance, loved ones who f^lt, like us, despair. 

And all the sickeaiog ills of this world's dearth, 

Released fh>iii clay, may now come harrying forth, 

To wait above, each heart-rcFealiug prayer, — 

To listen to each sorrow of our lot,— 

Apd trU Earth's children, with a voice of light, 

They are for ever in their watchful sight, 

And never can io glory be forgot ;-« 

Oh ! love's a light that sever can expire— 

It pours o*er heaven the radiance of Its Are. 



L.F. 



* That of 1777, four vo|«nes quarto. 



Ha 



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100 



A SECOND VOICE FROM INDU. 

To ^ Editor of the Oriental Heraid. 

SiKy— Before entering on the grieTances of which I haye to com- 
plaiDy it may be as well to state, that I am in no way connected 
with a '* Voice" which arrived some time ago in England from 
Bombay in a very feeble state — and being placed under the care 
of those experienced practitioners Messrs. Parbury, Kingsbury and 
€o.y was swollen into an octavo, and issued forth for the edification 
of the well disposed from amidst the various accents, acute and 
gxave, which resounded from the recesses of the aforesaid gentle- 
men's repository, striving to penetrate the ** dull cold ear'* of the 
leaden heads of Leadenhall-street. It is not for me to raise mp 
" Voice" at the expense of that of Captain Seely ; but any one who 
will take the trouble to attend to the two voices will be satisfied 
that they never could have proceeded from the same lungs. Their 
ouality and portamento (as the Italians have it) are essentially 
aifferent. Mine may be termed " vox populi/' — his, ** vox et 
pneterea nihil." As there is reason however to fear that, spite of 
its dulcet tones, spite of its being puifed, published, and repuffed 
by Messrs. Parbury and Co., and spite of its being honoured with 
the distinguished patronage of the 24 gentlemen to whom, as Mr. 
Murray says in his Representatitfe it would be a sarcasm to 
apply the term '^ statesmen" it might prove too feeble, too ootto 
vo^-etoh^ re-echoed to the Asiatic shores (even under the fostering 
auspices of the Asiatic Journal) — ^I think it right to do justice to 
the motives of my brother ** Voice" ; whatever may be its imper- 
fections, however deficient in taste and feeling, and however mono- 
tonous and wanting in expression, the absence of all sordid and 
base motives is sufficiently proved by the fact (and I call on the 
honourable Company's booksellers to attest it) that Captain Seely's 
** voice" has never been bought ! — and so " requiescat in pace." 
It might be necessary also to disclaim consanguinity with those 
oracular voices which occasionally raise themselves in the Leaden- 
hall senate, and put forth volumes of antiquities and statistics 
which they call upon their hearers to receive as the result of their 
experience and observation in India, and to subscribe to implicitly. 
But my presmble has already been sufficiently long, and I must 
confine myself to the object I had in view in addressing you, viz. 
the wrongs which India receives at the hands of England. 
• To enumerate all the benefits that England has derived from this 
much injured country would require more space than you can afford. 
I will boldly affirm tiiat there is scarcely an art or science, scarcely 
a pursuit, useful, or ornamental that does not draw largely on India 
for some of the essentials to its excellence. Take, for example. 



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A Second Fffteefrm India. 101 

jMintiiig^— liow gtetAly io€B India contribute to th« p6ff(ftctioii of 
thi« art ? Indian rubber, Indian ink, Indian yellow, Indian red, In- 
digo, are all derived from tbis country, the camels' hair of which 
brushes are made, and the ivory on which many paintings are done> 
are also the products of the land, and the finest engravings are 
stmck off on Indian paper. But it is in administering to our 
pleasures and gratifications that India chiefly claims our gratitude, 
need I recall to the mind of the gastronomer the numeroos delica* 
des, the choice condiments, the piquant spices and highly-prized 
esculents, with which India enriches his repasts, the curries, chillies, 
cayenne, &c. which impart so exquisite a relish to the pleasures of 
the table, and multiply the resources of the culinary art? Need I 
name that immortal discovery which was reserved to the genius of 
the present age, and which will confer everlasting fame on its Royal 
inventor. " The King of Oude's favourite sauce'* f — ^Need I remind 
him who languishes from excess or illness, that India is at hand 
with her rhubarb, her castor-oil, and all her benign perietaltice and 
restoratives to assuage his sufferings ? or him who endures acute 
paaa, that opium affords at least a temporary relief, and that ** the 
drowsy syrups of the East" are the only lullaby to anguish? Need I 
impress on your fair readers their obligations to India ? No ! whilst 
pearls and silks are precious in female eyes, whilst ladies pride 
themselves on the grace of their plumes, whilst Dacca throws jif an- 
Chester into the shade, and the ^* vrai cachemire," continues to take 
the pae of the humble *' Glasgow," so long will ladies' hearts beat 
with sympathy for India. 

The benefits derived from India, however, are not merely sensual • 
they are also intellectual. Did not the discussion of the Deccan 
prize money question furnish gossip and conversation for years I 
employing the ^' collective wisdom** of the Treasury Lords for 
several days, and filling the pockets of certam lawyers ? Has not 
the Burmese rath drawn thousands of gaping and wondering visi- 
tors to gaze and moralize on the vanity of the '' Golden Foot"? 
And has not the Burmese war been a never-failing topic of discus- 
rion and speculation ? Conjecture has indeed now given place to 
certainty on this subject, and it is melancholy to think how many 
people will be thrown out of employment by the conclusion of the 
war. 1 do not mean the belligerents, but those who made this war 
the occupation of their lives, who talked of nothing else, wrote of 
nothing else, thought of nothing else. The weather no longer cut 
the conspicuous figure it was wont to do in conversation, in the 
circles about Portland place ; the newspapers teemed with reports 
from the scene of hostilities, and even the House of Commoas 
is siud to have occupied itself on divers occasions for a few 
mbutes with the subject. I think I have said enough to show that 
England ought to take an interest in what relates to India, owing, 
as she does, so much to that country. So far from that being the 
case, mn apathy and iadiffBrence exist (save only where there it 



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lop A Sectmd Faice/nm India. 

^g«r of th^ country being lo$t) on tbe suliject, whicb I am totallf 
At a I068 to accottBt for. If India is mentioned in the Houee of 
Commons, the ** collective wisdom" instantly betake themselves to 
Bellamy's. In private society the subject is received ivith a yawn 
Of with a stare of astonishment.. The ignorance which prevails 
frespecting it is less wonderful, because where people are indifferent 
they are, of course, uninformed. But it would almost seem as if 
ignorance on this subject were meritorious, so little are the pains 
|,a|ken to conceal it. I was lately accosted at a party by a little fat 
lady with a scarlet toque and a diamond sprig, who said she un- 
derstood I was from India, and she wished to know if I .were ac* 
Quaipted with her nephew, who had lately gone out ? On my inquiring 
p} what part of India the youth had gone, she said he had joined 
Jus regiment at Jamaica, and that she was greatly apprehensive of 
bis being ordered against the Burmese, as she understood the 
India Cmnpany were assembling all their forces in that quarter. 
On my endeavouring to explain, as politely as possible, that Jamaica 
formei no part of the Con^pany's territories, and that the West 
India IslanOs were suftciently remote from the Burman Empire^ to 
render it extreitoely improbaole that their respective forces ahonla 
meet, she exclaimed ^< Well, well, of courBe yon know best, having 
been there; for toy part I am no geographer, and know little abon^ 
the IndieSyEastjOrWest ; but I am sure Mr.— ^, the Director, said 
ik» oth»r day that the Burmese country was on the taeH side of 
Indta, And he ought ito know, for be has £2000 of India stock/' 
There was no combating against such authority and audi reaaoidnf > 
no the conversation dropp^ 

An enunenft Engiisfa lawyer expreased to me lately bis wonder 
that the Euft India Company did not bestir themselves mosre 
against the riayery abolitionists, as 4heir slaves, he presumed, 
were the most vahiable part of their property. The learned gen*- 
tleman looked a little surprised when I informed htm that the 
Legislatnre suffered none but the British inhabitants of India to be 
onslaved ; however, he recovered himself in a lawyer-Uke maaneftr, 
by observing, that for thai; vei^ reason the Company shoidd nmke 
common cause with the phnters, as the emancipation of the Uatks 
wouM doubtiless speedily be followed by that of the whites. I lately 
beard a military man, in a cofiEioe^ouse, expressing hisfesn that the 
Burmese would be joined by the Asfaantees, and then, said hie, 
^ take my word for it, Liord Combermere may go to the right abou^ 
for o«r game is vp in the East.'* Some strange coalbsion was pro- 
bably floating in the good man's brain, between the goU co^ai and 
Che golden fooi. These are but a fiew out of the numerous in- 
stances, of ignorance and blundering that I haye met witfi in per- 
sons of education and informiition. 

people in England have also a foolish way of attaching English 
|Apa< t^ Indian ramefi, either from similarity ofsonrd, or from 



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MMf latiou of some sort or other ; hence an infinit j of ridicttloas 
bt tinders. I have been asked whether or no the sepoys In India 
are as expert in nautical matters as our seamen. I have excitea 
the amazement of a whole drawing loom by casually mentioning 
that the climate of Bencoo^en is not and unhealthyi and t can 
scarcely succeed in convincing any one that the Hottentot country 
is remarkably coot and agreeable. Bajee Row, I find, figures in 
the imagination of many as a turbulent Radical, clamouring for 
annual parliaments and uniyersal suffrage ; whilst Runjeet Sing is 
looked upon as the founder of a new school of vocal music in the 
£ast — the Velluti of Hindoostan. Happening to be in conversation 
lately with a friend, on Indian matters, and having alluded to the 
ryoU of Bengal, a grave ^' unpaid^' who chanced to be present, 

(ricked up his ears, and inquired if riots were numerous in India, 
replied they were, in Bengal particularly. He expressed his 
wonaer that, under an absolute governpnent, and so near the seat of 
administration, such popular effervescences should be of so frequent 
occurrence. '' However," he added, " t suppose the distresses we 
feel here have also reached India. This comes of over-tradings 
tampering with the currency, and delusion about the corn laws I 
But I suppose you lose no time in sending for a magistrate to read 
Che Riot Act, and in calling out the yeomanry V I told him that 
unfortunately there was no Riot Act to read, on which he de'- 
clared his intention (if the county returned him to the next Par^ 
liament) to tnove the framing of a Riot Act adapted to the clrcura* 
stances of India. 

I should tire your patience, and that of your readers, were I to 
mention all the hetises and cross purposes of this sort which 1 have 
met with. Leaving the general question of the ungrateful treat*> 
ment India receives from England, I wish to say a few words on the 
uncourteous reception which Indians experience on their arrival 
here. Belonging, as I do myself, to that respectable and bilious 
eommnnity, having spent the best years of my life in that country, and 
having grown yellow in the service, 1 am perhaps inclined to overrate 
the importance which others psay be disposed to attach to the na- 
tural history of our family ; but the majority of your readers being 
Asiatics, or connected with Asiatics^ I may hops for indulgence. 
How sadly have we sunk in the estimation of the people of England 
since days of yore ! Then, we were received with open arms by 
all — ^were greeted with the dignified appellation of Naaboh — ^were 
conrted and caressed by prudent mammas, who had daughters to 
dispose of — ^we were treated with the utmost submission and defe- 
rence by our relatives and dependents— our long stories were lis- 
tened to with attention and without contrad]etion«-M>ur equipages 
were to be seen rolling through the polished regions of St James's 
and May Fair, whilst their owners had the undisputed entrSe to the 
most exclusive circles of fashion. I question if even the doors of 
Almack's were shut against them. Such were the distinctions 



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id4 the ImmrMiy of Mind. 

fonnerly porcbased by a sliott career of 10 or 12 years in tbe fiaet* 
Our dominion in England waa like that in India— one of opinion,— 
we bongfat '^ golden opinions of all sorts of men ; " and if onr con- 
sciences were supposed to be disturbed by the recollection of the 
means by which we had enriched ourselves, and our slumbers to be 
broken by visions of plundered princes and tortured subjects, still 
none were so uncivil as to express their suspicions to us; and onr 
self-importance was undiminished. What a melancholy contrast 
does the present status of Indians in England afford to this! No 
mammas now court us-— no daughters set their caps at us— our 
stories are listened to with yawns and signs of impatience— our re- 
lations presume to argue with us, we are pent up like Jews in a 
separate quarter^ the neighbourhood of Portland Place, Harley 
street, &c. which is sneeringly termed " The Deccan"— our Club in 
Grosvenor Street, which we were obliged to set up in self-defence, is 
the sport of the flippant coxcombs of St James's Street— our Asiatic 
Society is suffered to languish in obscurity ; and as to an Indian at 
Almack's — ^heavens ! the very idea of it would put Lady Jersey 
into fits, and the spirit of Skeffington would rise to rebuke the de- 
generate descendants of the august founders. 

Thus it is that ^^ men of all sorts take a pride to gird at us." 
Our sun is set ! Of the causes which have contributed to our de- 
cline, I will not now treat — perhaps at some future time I may make 
them the subject of inquiry. The above observations may however, 
in some measure, prepare those in India who are panting for home, 
and for all the fancied delights and distinctions which are to greet 
their arrival in England, for the disappointment which will most 
probably await them. 

A Voics FROM India. 



THS imiORTALmr of mind. 



Oi! otn that Mind whose {rare delight 

Is tiuth snd virtQe*8 saered way 
Be lost in everUstiny night. 

And worth and genius pass away ? 

It eannot be I thoagh Nature die, 

And youth and loveliness decay— 
The Inmortal Mind shall rise on high. 

No more to time and grief a prey, — 

like yon majestic orb of light, 
Whole morning smile and evening ity 

Csa only quit the dreary night 
To glory in a new-bom day. 
CamberwsU, J. J. 



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lol^ 



ftmntt^OOBr-IMDUN SNGINfiSAS— ARTlLL£ItV--WAR iN AVA. 

Thb official despatches respecting the assault of Bhurtpoor, and 
the terms of its surrender, will he found in another part of our Jour- 
nal. But, having received, from an intelligent correspondent in 
India, a letter, in which the several suhjects named at the head of 
this article are each alluded to, with reference to the operations 
before that fortress, we think we cannot do better with the miscel- 
laneoos, but at the same time, interesting information it contains, 
than give it in the state in which it is communicated in the letter of 
our intelligent informant. He says : — 

*' The attack on Bhurtpoor was commenced regularly enough ; 
trenches were opened at about 6 or 700 yards from what appeared 
m the plans to be a very assailable angle of the town wall, and bat- 
teries for raking the two adjacent faces were judiciously placed. In 
a few days, however, as the approaches advanced, the guns of these 
batteries were advanced abo, and were made use of to breach the 
place at nearer distances, and in more convenient positions. This, 
at first sight, appears reasonable enough ; but artillery officers say, 
that a great error was committed, for that the raking, or, as they 
call them, the enfilading batteries, should never have ceased their 
fire ; that up to the moment of the assault, and even during that 
operation, they should continue to annoy the besieged in flank ; and 
that the instant of their being withdrawn, in the present instance, 
was the signal for the garrison to repair and strengthen their de- 
fences, and collect all their force for one great effi>rt in the imme- 
diate vicinity of the breaches. All this is easily understood, but 
what staggers our belief is^ that the error should have beeA una- 
Toidable, and that, after the experience of the former siege, after 
twenty years of peace on that frontier, and after the urgent repre- 
sentations of Sir D. Ochterlony, the magazines of Delhi and Agra 
should have been so badly supplied with ordnance, that thirty-six 
peces of battering cannon was all that could be procured, by lite- 
rally emptying those two grand depdts. 

*' The difficulties here hinted at had induced the besiegers to have 
recourse to mining ; and in these operations the engineers conducted 
themselves to the admiration of the whole army, notwithstanding 
the great disadvantages under which they laboured from want of 
experience and want of means ; for almost all the instructed men, 
trained with so much care by Colonel Pasley at Chatham, have been 
made non-commissioned officers to the pontoon train ! at the other 
extremity of our provinces, or have been put into more advantageous 
aitnations, in different parts of the country, than employment in 
their own line aiforded. Still, however, the engineers have done 
their duty; they pushed their galleries in all directions; and 
tboim^ sometimee countennined by the enemy, and sometimes 



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r 



106 Bhuripaor—lnii^fk Engif^eer$, ifC. 

unsuccessful in calculating the effects of their own mineSy yet they 
occasioned the hesieged great annoyance. 

" The successful termination of this siege is ihost foiiiliiate ; ftr 
had we failed here, it would have been impossible for us to attack 
any dther place this season ; unless, indeed, we C4lculat^ mdre tKan 
phid^nce would dictate upon the cO«-operation of that doughty 
Commander, 0&i%et(U Panic, He is, itadeed, so ft'equent and fiiithM 
dn i^lly of ours, that I think Government ought to erect a tetnple td 
Iheir best friend, iHth this inscription over the portico : — ^^ Te no4 
facimus, l^^t-tuna, Deam cceloque locamus ;" and round the base-^ 
f Verum sunt in his quidem mtutis opera magna, sei Wajofft 
fortunae.* 

<< Meantime, affairs in camp have not been going on well ; a bad 
dpirit has appeared amongst the sepoys. A man of the l4th having 
been knocked dpWn senseless by a shot, was carried into the hospi- 
tal, and first the arm and then the temporal artery opened, i»ithout 
effect ; it w^ concluded, therefore, that he was deaa, and the sur- 
geon went oh to other men ; iii a short lime, however, some of the 
soldiers, on raising the cloth with whjch the poor man was covered, 
found him weltering in his blood, and report says, quite dead. Upon 
this they made a great uproar, attracted almost the whole respment 
to the spot, ana exclaiming, that it was not enough to make use of 
their best exertions whilst alive and well, but thai we actually bled 
them to death when disabled, raised the corpse upon a litter, and 
paraded it through their camp, so as, you may imagihe, to create a 
Very extraordinary and very discreditable ferment, considering 
time and place. The disturbance, however, was got over in the 
course of a very short time ; but inquiry will, of course, be made 
into the origin and conduct of the affair. 

<* The next anpleaaant oecurrence W9A tlie blowing op p£ about 
8000 rounds of ammtlBitioB by a shot from the fort. The explooioo 
IB dteciribed as trtsmendoufl^ and the blaie it created, byaettilig firo 
to a large niafis of mateliais for the approaching aaBanli^ awfwlly graiUi 
By the ei^erlaons of the artilleiry ^ aad porticahurly of Captain Brw»k, te 
acting commissary in the ordnance Hoe, the fire vat soon got ond^r ( 
not, however^ before it had done very great damage, and drawn a 
very heavy cannonade upon that part of the trenches^ thereby 
serving to show our troops what they had to expect lyhen tbey ad* 
yanced to the attack ; a spectacle particularly edifying to men vn 
that situation. 

"The last, but not the least, annoyance wo haxe to oonpktB o^ 
h the desertito among our troops ; three or fbnr of tfae foot and oat 
of the horse-artillery, one sapper and miner, and wmm fifty aepoysi 
are said to have deserted to the eneny. What can haVe bora tiM 
Muae of this, it is inpossible to eohjeetare ; bot the efflkct m wbA^ 
oieatly oTideat in the precision with which t^ gun Of tfae fortvwM 
lUrected the ttorpifig aftet the lint arCiHeryiMa had gone oiM 



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He li^ obeerredy it seems^ the epot wjiere the coqiinanderMn-chief 
umially placed himself to observe the progress of the siegei and so 
correctly did he point his gun, that at the first shot he shivered 
the branches of the tree undef which his lordship was sitting, and 
the party bad scarcely time to change its position^ when another 
broke the leg of one of the servants in attendance. Doubtless^ too^ 
it was this man, who, seeing the incautious exposure of our ammu- 
nition, directed the unlucky gun that destroyed it. I am at a loss 
io conceive what can be tiie cause of this desertion ; whether to the 
very snuill number of officers present with their companies, to the 
hard work of the siege, or to the very temptmg offers of the enemy. 
The last reason, however, may account for the fact of no Kuropeans 
of other regiments having been decoyed away ; for the enemy would 
not think it worth while to Jmrchase any but an artilleryman or 
a miner at a high price. The labout is certainly immense ; 
but surely the wretches who go ovef must know that they must 
labour still harder with their new masters. An officer of artHlery 
writes : " 1 have been on duty in the trenches for six days together, 
with only one interval of twelve hours.'* Now, if this occurs to th^ 
officers, the men, ^e may be assured, are not much better off ; and 
that they should be dazzled by the gieat increase* of pay, and pro* 
mises of sensual gratification, that are said to be held odt to them 
by the enemy, is not very surprising. But the fact, whatever may 
be the reason of It, Is exceedingly disgracefiil, and has accordingly 
greatly injured the character of the corps, notwithstanding the 
great and acknowledged exertions of all engaged. 

" But let ns turn to a brighter subject : Though the artillery are 
ontof favour in itindoosta^, they have distinguished themselves very 
much in the AfU tekritory ; and it h^ to them that the conclusion of 

Kflce is mainly to be attributed. By some chance, it appears, the 
adras arttlle'ry were, in the advtinf^ from ft-ome, attached to the 
Bengal dixis^ti of troops ; wMlst the Bengal artillery was doing 
duty with the MadrAs division. l*he Madras, therefore, took the 
lead ; but Sir A. €ampbell was so taken with the praises bestowed 
|yy General Cotton upon the Bengal folks, that he availed himself 
bf the firet opportunity to change the arrangement, and ordered 
them to voitte to the front. And fortunate it was th^t he dfd so ; for, 
a few days after the negociation ibr peace was commenced, the 
army stiH adxuncing. Sir A. Campbell came suddenly upon ah ex- 
tensive stockade, with the enemy's whole force drawn up in im- 
posing order on the opposite side of a small river. In the confri- 
inon of the moment some guns were fired, and Sir A., thinking the 
taegociation was again about to be broken off, sent for his reserve 
artillery. In an instant they were put in motion ; and though the 
distance was nearly six miles, and no other cattle bat bullocks were 
to be had, Colond Pollock, and the whole i»arty, came np at a 
trot, aiid toodc aadi a commaDdtDg poaitidii opposite the enemy'a 
4roHkay that be woold have been able to enfilade two faces of their 



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6tockad6| should an attack he determined on. The SnrnteMy 
however, saw their disadvantage, and snhseqnently agreed to all 
onr terms. The officers who haye come rouna say, th^ scene that 
was ezhihited on this occamon was exceedingly interesting : — ^The 
two armies drawn np facing each other, and only apparently wait* 
ing for an order to pass the intervening stream, and commence the 
attack ; the enemy bold in their numbers, and the strength of their 
position ; when suddenly the opposite bank is crowned by those 
guns which had so often rendered their fortifications of no avail : 
instantly their spirits sink ; an uneasiness and wavering is percep- 
tible throughout their ranks; and the flag of conciliation and 
peace is once more unfurled. 

*^ The terms of the treaty you will see by the public papers, and 
you will ag^ee with me, that most fortunate it is that we have got 
off so well ; for, though the constancy of mind and undaunted in- 
trepidity of Sir A. Campbell, and the excellent conduct of the 
troops under his command, are beyond all praise, and will consti 
tute one of the brightest pages of our history, it can never be de-. 
nied. that the war itself was unnecessary, and this expedition, to 
particular, most unadvisedly entered upon. But, says our quaint 
old friend Montaigne, < La pluspart des choses du monde se font 
par elles-inesmes. Fata ffiam inveniunt L'issue autorise souvent 
une tr^s-inepte conduite.' And so let us discuss the matter no 
farther." 



DISADVANTAGES OP THB MEDICAL BERVICB IN INDIA. 

To the Editor of the Oneniai HeraU. 

Sir, — ^It is extremely humiliaUng to the members of the medical 
profession in India to feel how much their views are overlooked ia 
the different arrangements that take place for the improvement^or 
amelioration of the condition of the military generally. This over- 
sight is the consequence chiefly of a want of community of interests 
between them and the ruling parties, and requires public represen- 
tation to draw the attention of the proper authorities to it Let it 
not be said that these lines, being addressed to you, are the mere 
ebullitions of a discontented imagbation. They are written by a 
person deeply interested in the subject it is true, but purely with 
the view of attracting^ the notice of those able and willing to redress 
our grievances ; memorials from the military in bodies being inter- 
dicted as mutinous, and those from individuals being attended with 
the effect of destroying their prospects in the service, designatmc^ 
them troublesome characters. 

In :the late arrangements for the organiiation of the -army, the 
whole of the military officers, from the colonel doimwacds, have btr 
neflted— i-particnlaiiy in the first, the lieutenant-colonel, majon;, 
and older captains, and that too without reference to the angmeat 



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DUadvmUage9 afOe MetUeal Servhe. 100 

tatkm of tlie army aiuiBg firom' the increased proportion of the 
highest rank» or that of colonel, to the others. The contrary is the 
ease in the medical department. There not heing any increase of 
the highest ra^k or memhers of the Medical Board— the jnniors 
only benefited by the new arrangements or increase. 

Upon comparing the proportions which the highest ranks of the 
different departments, bear to the others, it will be observed how 
lamentably small is that of the medical, particularly of the Bengal 
establishment ; that of the Bombay one to forty ; the Madras one 
to sixty-nine; and the Bengal not one to one hundred and fifteen ! 
whilst in the military • department, the proportion of the highest 
rank, or that of colonel, is as one to twenty-two ! If it be supposed 
that the medical branph has other adrantages, to make up for defi- 
ciency in this point, and slowness of promotion, I can only say that 
I know of none. Their allowances, while in the service (whatever 
they may have been)-, are not superior now, while the retiring pay 
falls very far short of officers of the same number of years' standing 
in the service. There is no instance I believe, or not more than 
one, of a medical officer (I write of the Bengal establishment) at- 
taining the situation of member of the Medical Board, and being 
able to retire on the pension attached thereto, under a service of 
forty years ; and the pension, when obtained, is only about one half 
that of a military officer of the rank of Ueutenant-Colonel Com- 
mandant, which is now obtained under a service of thirty years. It 
b to be observed too, that medical officers, besides not attaining 
their highest rank in equal time with the military officer, labour 
under a disadvantage peculiar to themselves — ^that of not being 
able to retire on the pension attached to the situation of member 
of the Medical Board till after having served two years in the si- 
toation, even although obliged to leave the country on account of 
ill health. 

In the King's army, to make up, I suppose, for the want of gra- 
dation of ranks, the pay of regimental surgeons increases in a 
certain ratio with length of service, and some arrangement of this' 
kind is more necessary in the Company's army, to induce men to 
toil on with ^regiment thirty years and upwards, which they are fre- 
quently obliged to do. As the law now stands, surgeons, on retiring 
after a certain number of years' service, are entitled to full pay, — ^the 
pay to be the same as that of an officer in his Majesty's service of 
the same rank. Does not this entitle the surgeon to the increased 
pay corresponding to the number of years' service at the time of 
retirement ? All the departments in India, both civil and military, 
have been brought forward so much beyond the medical, that unless 
something shall also be done for the latter, it is not to be expected 
that respectably-educated persons will enter the service, in this 
department, five or six years later in life than the others ; consnm- 
ing as much during this time, in their peculiar education, as the 
others should be recdTing. I am. Sir, your obedient servant, 

J. Et 



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110 

4N EAST INDIAMAH DBWHOlnD BY F1»B.* 

S99 rode amid swnshin© and »miles away. 
Lovely as joy, and beaqtiful as day ; 
She laurh'd with light, she proudly bow <l<Miif, 
And o'er the blue wave miff a fhoutiac loiw ; 
Her crimson flag waa streami !g on the breeze, 
And hearts were danciog on the sumriier seas. 
The land of the East was their own— . 
And Hope 'mid the billawa of light, 
Was wreAth.ug aud gemmiag her hair 
Witb rainbows and bubbles all bright. 
The youthful cadet dashed the tear, 
rrom his starry And gladdening eye ; 
He thought of a clondless day, 
Aud he gazed en a sunorob'd |ky. 
But now th' Atlantic bears the spells of night* 
And past are all her heralds of delight ; 
Boldly the Vessel rises o*er the deep. 
Or lets the billow rock bee to her sleep ; 
Begirt with darkness now, her heavy sail 
Is loiyly murro'ring to the midnight gale ; 

The moaning winds across her cold deck swm, 

Whilst young, frail bosoms, fr-ttghl with passioni, weep. 
The voices Which sang through tho morning hour 
Ate vfhisp'ring their Spirits' disturbing pow r ; 
Ai|d the hearts which danced on the sunny sea. 
Are clouded with perils and mystery : 
The bubbles are broken, the rainbows aijs past, 
the light hair of Hope is touching the blast ; 
The hurrying tread of danger is there— 
The heart of ^ismay, the wild eye of care. 
At length, 'mid darkness. stiUness, afid the mghl. 
The hapless vessel bursts in crimson liglit; 
From her full deck the hollow voice is sent, 
The dirge is echoed by eaqh element ; 
The ilamo is rising on the roUleg wave, 
The minute gun is sounding on the grave ; 
And forms of beauty dare the swell ng deep. 
Whilst sterner bosoms bear the flre-Mast « sweep. 
The wayward sisters o'er the ocean press. 
And bait the victims fly»g i«^ di^treas ; 
T¥s hour is thelra-this two-fold hour of doom, 
And they the busy heralds of the tomb. 
The flre-lit billow is lifting its head, 
The winds are rolling the mariner s bed- 
Death's pallid steed uears through the viewless «r. 
And Heath i|i his triumph is reig.ing there. 
The shrieks are louder, crash is heard on crash, 
Her timbeis ere k ucweath ihe billows das.i \ 
Her canvass flitting, blazing to the night. 
Howls to the deep wind's melancholy might j 
The Ship, no longer halwiced on the ▼»▼«' 
Is scourg'd, and torn, a d rocking tp her grave 1 
Her keel is parted— now mu .der nv n. 
Her masts, her sails, are by the storm-winddr.T n , 
Her hapless crew are in their dreamlesssieep, 
And darknesB rests upon the heeying deep. 



• From 'SybU's LeuTes/ Ac, Ac. ; Just published, 

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SlM»AMr AHD JLfBJ^ontXATS TKIBVTi: Of R^PSCf, PRS8KNTBA 

BT TBB HOJfOUBABLB AKNB BBTWOUll DAHBR TO TBB LIBEaAL 

AKB BKLI6&TBNBO KIMO OF TAKJORB. 

^ A VERY fine bronze bust of Admiral Lord Nelson, of an heroic 
size, is just now on the point of beidg sent out to tndia, as a present 
from the Honourable Anne Seymour Darner to the King of Tanjore; 
aad accompanies the diploma by whieh th« Aoyal Asiatic Society 
ef Great Britain and Ireland have appinted his Royal Highness an 
Honorary Member of that Society. Tills original bust of Nelson wa« . 
modelled from life by the Honourable Anne Seymour Darner, soon 
after the battle of the Nile ; it was then executed by her in marble^ 
and presented by her to the City of London ; and is no^ executed 
by her in bronae, and presented by her to the King of Tanjore, aa 
the most appropriate mark she can show him of the admiration 
which she, as an artist, entertains of his Royal Highness, in conse- 
qnence of the liberal and enlightened manner in which he has en- 
eoaraged the introduction and cultivation of European arts and 
sciences amongst his subjects ; and in consequence of the respect 
which he has paid to the naval and military heroes of Great 
Britain, by erecting a splendid mobument, in his country, to com- 
memorate the great achievements which they performed during 
the late arduous and protracted contest which j^revailed between 
France and Great Britain. 

The character of the Ring of Tanjore, the nature ^nd peci^Uarity 
of the early education which he received, the state of the people 
who inhabit his dominions, — the fame of the l^ero whose bust is sent 
to him, the importapce of the battle of the Nile to the B.itish 
ascendancy in lndia,^-the circumstances which led Mrs. Darner, 
from her feelings a^ an artist, to make the bust in question, the 
^igh rimk, the genius and the celebrity of the artist herself, aa 
ifeil On the continent of Europe as in Englapd, — are considerations 
which render the ])resent a subject of more than ordinary interest 
to ail thoee who are acquainted with the character of the Hindoos, 
and who think it of importance, with a view to give them a taste 
for the arts and spiepces of Europie, and to encourage a Hindoo 

(rinee to continue tlie (Srudeiit and ^ell-directed efforts by whicii 
e has already succeeded in removing from ii^e minds of the Nar 
tives of the highest caste in his country the prejudices which they 
formerly entertained against the introduction of aqy IsSuropean in- 
stitution. The King of Tanjore is a Hindoo soviereign of rank, 
influence, ajdd tfeajth, who was originally educated by the late 
Rev. Mr. Swartz, a Europeap missionary of t\\q greatest respecta- 
bility througfaont India; and who has, evet since he has been upon 



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1 12 Htm. A. 8. Damef^0 Tribute of Rupeei 

the throne, used his rank, influence, and wealth in acquiring him- 
self, and in promoting amongst the people of the highest caste and 
highest rank in his country, a knowledge of the arts and sciences 
of Europe. The country oi Tanjore is, for its size, the most po- 
pulous and the hest cultiyated part of the southern division 6f the 
Peninsula of India. In it the effects of the Mohammedan conquest 
are less yisible than in the more northern parts of that Peninsula, 
and the Hindoo religion, laws, usages, and manners, are, from the 
sovereign of the country being himself a Hindoo, kept up in fuU 
force. 

Sir Alexander Johnston, a relation of the Hon. Anne Sejrmour 
Damer, while Chief Justice and First Member of his Majesty's 
Council on the island of Ceylon, formed a plan of giving the 
Natives of that island a direct interest in the government of their 
country, by imparting to them an important share in the admini- 
stration of justice an^ongst their countrymen, and of introducing 
Tri'fl by Jury amongst them, under such modifications as would, 
at the same time that it secured to the people the full benefit of 
this popular mode of trial, make it strictly conformable to their 
respective religions, laws, manners, and usages ; as aD the inhabi- 
tants of the northern provinces of Ceylon are Hindoos, and are 
descended from, and agree in religion, laws, manners, and usages 
with the Hindoo inhabitants of the opposite Peninsula. Sir 
Alexander was extremely anxious, with a view to the regulations 
which he was about to make for adapting Trial by Jury to the 
feelings of the Hindoo inhabitants of Ceylon, not only to acquire a 
thorough knowledge of the Peninsula of India, but also of the 
wise and prudent measures which the King of Tanjore, from his 
knowledge of the Hindoo character, had pursued for adapting the 
arts and sciences of Europe to the feelings and prejudices of the 
Hindoo inhabitants of his country. 

For this purpose Sir Alexander made two journeys through the 
southern provinces of the Peninsula of India, and paid a visit to the 
King of Tanjore, who received him with great attention, and gave 
him a full opportunity of observing the progress which his Royal 
Highness himself, as well as the persons of the highest caste and rank 
at his court, had made in acquiring a knowledge of European arts 
and sciences, and in accustoming the people of the country, not- 
withstanding the prejudices which had formerly prevailed amongst 
them, to view such studies with feelings of the highest respect. 
Sir Alexander was very mucK struck with the effects which the 
King oi Tanjore had been able to produce upon the character of 
his Hindoo subjects, by cautiously removing from their minds the 
prejudices which they had previously entertained against the study 
and adoption of some of the most useful of the arts and sciences 
pf Europe, and was fully convinced that it would be of the utmost 
importance to the British interests in India^ to seize the favourable 



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io the King of Tanjore. 1 

opportunity which was afforded to Europe, hy the peculiar cha* 
Tactcr of the KiDg of Tanjore, to introduce with Baccess a taste 
for those arts and sciences amongst the Hindoo inhabitants of 
India. It seemed to him also to be the true policy of Great 
Britain to encourage, by all means which could be devised, the 
King of Tanjore to proceed in the course in which he had already 
made so great a progress, of exciting, by his example and influence 
amongst the Hindoos of his country, a very general taste and 
respect for studies of that nature ; aud to consider the King of 
Tarjore and his Hindoo subjects as the medium through which 
snch a taste and respect for the arts and sciences might be dis- 
seminated with safety and success amongst all the Hindoo inhabitants 
of Asia. 

Under this impression, Sir Alexander Johnston, as soon as the 
Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland (one of the 
principal objects of which is to communicate to Asia such of the 
arts and sciences of Europe as are applicable to the situ'ttion of 
the people) was permanently established, proposed the King of 
Tanjore as the first honorary member of that society ; and Sir 
Alexander Johnston, — being fully aware of the beneficial effect 
which would be produced upon a character like that of the King 
of Tanjore, who himself, upon principles of policy, had encouraged 
persona of the. highest caste and rank in his country to study the 
arts and sciences of Europe, to receive as a mark of respect for 
such conduct from an artist of high rank and celebrity in Europe 
ime of the finest specimens of her art, — ^mentioned the subject to 
his relation, the Hon. Anne Seymour Darner ; who immediately, 
with the liberality which is peculiar to her character, and with the 
Beal which she displays on every occasion when she can promote a 
knowledge of the arts and sciences of her country, proposed, of her 
own accord, notwithstanding the expense aud the labour which she 
would inevitably incur, to execute, with her own hands, the bust in 
bronze, of Nelson, and to send it as a present to the King of Tan- 
jore ; feeling that no present could be more appropriate to a king, 
who had been so faithful an ally of the British Government, than 
a bust of that hero, who, by the victory of the Nile, had freed the 
British dominions in India from the danger of being invaded by 
the French, and who had thereby finally secured for the King ^of 
Taifjore himself that ttanquillity which enabled him to prosecute, 
without interruption, the plan which he had so wisely adopted' of 
eaeouraging amongst the people of his country the arts aud sciences 
of Europe. 

The king of Tanjore, whose great object it has always been to 
impress upon the minds, both of his own relations, and of all the 
persons of rank in his country, that the people of the highest rank 
in Europe are proud of being distinguished for the progress they 
have made in kuowledge, will perfectly understand how muqh it 

OriaHUU HtnOd, Vol. 10. I 



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114 Hon. A. S. JD^mer's TriMe ^f Reaped 

will rapport the opioion wbioh he has circulated amongst his people^ 
to receive a fine specimen of her art, from an artist like the Hon. 
Mrs. Darner, whose rankf whose cenius, and whose works are no- 
ticedy as well on the continent of Europe as in her own countryi aa 
appears by her bust being placed in the hall of ancient and mo- 
dern painteFB) in the ftoyal Gallery of Flotence, and by the ho- 
nourable mention which is made of her, and of her works, in Dalla- 
way^s * Anecdotes of the Arts in England.' As our publication b 
peculiarly devoted to circulating useful and interesting information 
funongat the inhabitants of India, and to the recording of sUeh 
events as may be deemed of importance in improving and elevating 
the minds and characters of persons of every description in that 
part of the world ; and as the name and works of the Hon. Annp 
Seymour Damer may henceforward be considered as intimately 
connected with the efforts which are making in this country to pto- 
ikiote the improvements and happiness of the people under the 
British Govemlnent in Asia, we feel it our duty, on the present oc-» 
e&sion, to extract, for the information of those persons in India who 
may not hate access to the original sources of this information, th^ 
account which is given of the Hon. Mrs. Damer, and of her works, 
hi the Gallery of Florehce, as well as that which is contained in 
]>a11away's* Anecdotes of the Arts in England.' 

Th^ IbllowiBg is the account given in the Gallery of Florence : 
Tbe Honourable Anne Seymour Damer, sculptris, was bom In Lou- 
doD, of pai^nts the most iUustnous ; the hesid of her femily, on the 
«de of her father, is the Duke of Somerset ; and on the side of her 
mothet*, is the Deke of Argyle. She was married to Mr. Darner^ 
th^ eldest sou of Lord Milton, who was afterwards created Lord 
Doroheater. 

This lady, frorti her earliest childhood, showed indications of the 
talents which have since distinguished her ; and, becoming after- 
wards a widow, and less occupied in the great world, her genius led 
her to follow her taste, which has since, for a long time, occupied 
her understanding, not merely as a dilettante, but as a real artist. 

The Htm. Anne Sejruovr Daner received her first lessons frofei 
the eelebraled sculptor, Ceracehl, who at th4 time happened to b^ 
in London. ShA learnt the techaieal part of working In tnarbl# 
the worinhop of Mr. Baeen, of the Royal Academy of London ; 
studied the elements of anatomy under the aoapiees of Piofb sa o f 
Oalksbank , a»d taade joomies into Italy to contemplate the ehsf 
d'oeuvres of the art, in order that she might perfect herself in thd 
tme and siatple style of the Greeks, which she always endeavoorfd 
to folbw. 

Amonirst her works are to be seen a statne in marble^ eiffbi feet 
hifh, of his Mte Britan^ic Majeetyy George the Third, placed in the 
R'»sri^f«»rN-oflire at Edirbnrf h. 



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to tk$ King of Tanjor^. 115 

Two colossal beads, in relief, executed in Portland stone, repre<« 
sentiDg Tame and Isis, forming the M^^^tofili oil e^dl sidi of fhe 
middle arch of the stone briAye of Henlej upoil Thamefc 

A nidiiamerit, ^xe^iited iri Rdefadltte ^toii^, a bwt (portfait) in 
marble, and erected in SunbridgK ehni'ch, Kent, lb the nienldry of 
ber mother, \]ii late Right Honourable the Countess of Ailesbury, 
wh^ iri» the dlmght^r bi Johh, fourth Duke of Argyle^ ana married^ 
m the first instance, to the Earl of Ailesbury, the father of, the late 
Duehess Of Bicbmondi luid in the second, to the late Field Marshal 
the Right HonouHtDje Henry Seymour Conway, the fa^hei* of the 
Hon, Anne Seymour Darner. On it is tb^ following inscription :, 

JUOATHBUS DI7CIS 

FILIA 

MATRI CHARJEO 

nob HOKuiltNTVM 

PEOPBIA MANU SCULPTUH 

POtfniT 

AH9A SBTlfbuft DAHBtt^ 

1806; 

Many husts in marble, bronze, and ndodels in terra cotta. 

A bust in marble (heroic size), portrait of Adnlifftl Lord Nekon, 
presented to the City of London. 

A bend |tt mfirble, of Bi|cchus Q>ortrait of Prince LobominBkl)i 
placed in the gallery of the University of Oxford. 

A \mAi ekiNsuted in brcma, of 8hr Joseph Banks^ the late pre-^ 
aideit d{ the Rof al Soeietf » presented to the British Museum. 

A host, in mATblis df the iatfe Mr. Fok; vHudi ttie Hdhmnrabl^ 
Anne Seymour Damer bad.t^e honour of presentlug in person to his 
late Inoperial and Royal Maiesty, the Emperoi: Napoleon, on tbe 
1st of May, 1815, at the Palace Elis^Q at Paijs. This bust had 
been promised on a journey which Mrs. Darner bad hiade to Paris, 
ai the period of the treaty of Atniens. Mrs. l^roer quitted Pari^ 
shortly after her presentation of the bust of Mr. Ttfk ; but, before 
her departur'i^, sh6 received, by the hands of Marsh'idLl Cbunt Ber- 
traad, a magnificent Shuff-boz, with tb6 jf^ortmit Ahrroilndbd by 
diamonds, of the Emperor Napoleon, wh& bagged df ber ^' to aci^ept'^ 
of this souvenir," the Very ^oxA% Which were tid^d by the Eftperor. 
'this bust was, by order of ttie Emperor, to have been pft'ct^d m th^ 
Gai:eiry of Great Men, at Fohtainbleau. 

A Aofy executed in marble, presented to her late Maiesty, (Jhieen 
Charlotte of England^ and now in the collection of her Royal High-* 
ness the Landgravine of Hesse fiomberg, 

A group of two Meeping dogs, executed in marblci and given to 
her brother-in-lawj Charles Lennox, Duke of Richniond. Another 
dof^ in nuurbioi a fftvourite of the Hon.. Anne Seymour Damer. 

19 



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1 16 Him. A. 8. Damef^a TritnUe of Respect 

Many'dogA, in terra cotta. 

An Osprey eagle, in terra cotta ; and 

Two kittens, in marble, in the collection of the late Horace Wal- 
pole, Earl of Orford, at Strawberry-hill. 

A bnftt, executed in marble (portrait of herself), placed in the 
Royal Gallery of Florence, in the Hall of Ancient and Modem 
Painters. 

Another bnst, in marble (portrait of herselA, in the collection of 
the late R. P. Knight, Esq. ; now in the British Museum, with thai 
collection. 

Isis — a bust in Greek marble, in the collection of Thomas Hope, 
Esq. 

Bust in mnrble, portrait of Sir Humphry Davy, President of the 
Royal Society. 

The bu5t in marble of the Lady Viscountess Melboum is now 
placed in the collection of the Birl Cowper, at Penshanger. 

Also a bust in marble — ^portrait of the late Honourable Penniston 
Lamb, in- the character of Mercury. 

• Paris— a small bust in marble. 
Thalia — a bust in marble. 

A bust in marble-— portrait of her mother the late Countess of 
Ailesbury. 

* A bust, in terra cotta, of the late Queen Caroline of England. 

A bust in terra cotta — ^portrait of her father the late Field Mar- 
shal the Right Honoueable Henry Seymour Conway. 

A small bustr— head of a muse — ^in bronze. 

The following is the account given of Mrs Damer in Balkwayli 
' Anecdotes of the Arts in England :' 

Mrs. Damer first studied the elements, and was instructed by 
Geracchi,who has represented her as the muse of sculpture, * and 
npceived farther assistance in the school of Bacon. Two kittens in 
white marble, with the shock dogs, and the Osprey eagle in terra 
cotta, at Strawberry HllU now her residence, have merited the ele- 
gant encomium of Horace Walpole. ' Non me Praxiteles fecit ut 
Anna Damer.' These first mentioned are amongst her early per- 
formances, and promised the future excellence to which she has 
attained. 

A statue of his present Majesty, larger than life, at Edinburgh ; 
those of admirable grace and resemblance of Lady Melboum and 
liady Elizabeth Forsteri afterwards Duchess of Devonshire ; of 
Mrs Stddons in the character of the Tragic Muse ; the heads of 

* TMs statue of Mrs. n&mer is placed at the entranoe of tlM British Ma- 
opposite to the great staircase. * 



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to ik€ King p/Ta^'ore. 1 17 

Tame and bis {&f {\i4 bridge at Henley ; a be&titiAd jfreyhonod, 
and the Bacchanal abovementioned, are works Jifjion the m^rit of 
which an artist might iei'ux'ely rest his fame. These lingular proofs 
of genius will command th6 admiration of posterity as well for grandeur 
as elegance ; nor will the observation of Quinctilian upon Polycle- 
ttts be applicable even to a female sculptor, " Quia setatem gra- 
Tiorem dicatur refugisse nihil ausus prseter leves genas/' As a 
statuary, Mrs Damer is uurivalled ; and Darwin has expressed 
nothing beyond the strict limits of truth in the following lines, ia 
which he bears tribute to the power of her art r . 

Long with soft toach fihalt Dun r*8 chisel charm. 
With grace delight us, and with beauty warm ; 
Forster*8 fine form shall hearts unborn engage. 
And Melboum*B smile enchant another age. 

We must conclude this brief account of two interesting person* 
a^es— «ach likely, the one by giving, and the other by receiving, 
the elegant and appropriate tribute of respect described, to be- 
come deeply instrumental in bringing Europe and Asia nearer to 
each other in every thing but climate and geographical distance — 
with the mention of a well-authenticated and striking proof of the 
general capacity of the Native Indians to understand, and their 
skill to apply, the knowledge that may be communicated to them 
from Europe. In the island of Ceylon, soon after the introduction 
Into it of the noble institution, Trial by Jury, a Native of some 
consideration was put upon his trial for murder. The rank of the 
parties implicated, and the circumstances attending the diBed, had 
occasioned this trial to excite the greatest interest throughput the 
country, and the Court was crowded to witness the proceedings. 
After a patient investigation of the affur, the Jury retired to con- 
sider of their verdict ; and so plausible was the evidence against the 
accused, that the whole of the Jury, with one single exception, consi- 
dered bis guilt to be completely established. The individual who (Hd 
not ooncur in this opinion, was a young Native, of about five-and- 
twenty, of superior understandhig ; and the reasons stated by him 
for his dissent were sufficiently powerful to induce the rest of the 
Jury to consent to return to the Court, and give him an op* 
portnnlty to cross-examine the witnesses whose evidence had made 
80 strong an impression of the prisoner's guilt. The witnesses being' 
recaUed, this young Indian went through their cross-examination 
with so much skill, yet in so inartificial and straight-forward a 
manner, as to elicit the most complete proof of the innocence of 
the accused, and to establish, beyond all doubt, the existence oi a 
conspiracy against' his life by parties interested in succeeding to 
bis property. The result was, that the arraigned individual, who^ 
but for this subsequent examination iyf the witnesses, would have 
been oondennied, and executed within four-and-twenty hours, was 
restored to his family, his reputation, and his property^ by the au- 
perior intelUgaDce of one of hia felloir conntryman. 



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i 18 /Ton. A. S. 3me^a TriluU of Reipeety fye. 

When tbe triM was over, the Chief Jnstfce sent for the yojing 
liiTftftiyet mid ejq^ressed a desire (o know what had h^en the cpursis 
of study and occupation which could have given him such penetra- 
tion and such sMU ; when he understood from him that he had 
heen educated only. i» the usual piode adopted for persons of goo4 
condition in the country, ^ni that there was nothing peculiar 




procure on the learning of Europe, hoth in ancient and modem 
authors ; and havin|f met with a Persian translation frnm the Greek 
of Aristotle's Pi{^le(;tics, he had sufi^cient ^quaintance with the 
language into which H had hefin tri^^t^d ti> i^pdarstand it well, 
and was sq struck with its importance, that he n^ade a translation 
of it from the PersiiMi into the Sanscrit. It was to th^s masterly 
yrpductiou of the mind of a Oree)( philosopher that he ^ed all hfs 

Showers of analysis and reasoning ; and t|ie present instanoe of its 
uccessfol application tq the great ends of Justice would pnly sti^ 
mqlate him, he said, to new researches into the wisdom of o^her 
countries ai^d of other days. 

T^\B fact is pf itsflf sufficient to show what wpnder^ n^wU 
ItfjB wroi^ght hya proper encqm'winent oif such a feeling p^^thf 
^art of the iiatiou 'm whos^ haucls the destinies pf the f^ouutleaif 
miUiona of Asia ara pqw placed : Sir Ale^ndar Johnston's ^utro- 
4uotiaa of Trial hy jury ipto Ceyloai is one example that ^s a\? 
Toady pradl^ced immaaae benefit. l|is iUastripHs relatiye, Mrs, 
pamar's pr^sant to th? j^-jah of T^<^^ ^ another honovirahl^ 
a^a^^p^e of such anc^qri^emeat to the study af Pur4^peau w^ 
Ipi^acesx ^i letters, {^et others hut follow their foiats^ps ii( 
gth^ dapart9;^ents of «a^Ml knpwladge, aad they wil^ J¥«0y 4^aan(t 
tha hlftHiiinfls of millM^no vet unborn. 



9«»— His tiM ceho of tiM httntflr's lMl«^ 

T^i^, ilsdly itayiag Ihrouh wr syivui tmlMML 

Cheers dawoi an4 Softies from that hudcUag ihpr^ 

Those treiDuious diiMnoacU that the nUht de^ mi^ef .^ 

There have I seen *• the melancholy Jkcqnes,'* 

What tUM the mid-day mb did pour a flood 

or llf hi through the greea Waxes, that with tMr sbaAa 

Oa th^ short grass a movia^ checqaer 9tt4^ 

Holding communioQ with the solitude. 

And, from the leaves and flowers, in his mood, 

D^wioy QOttcUisioDS, which but Ian >ht at last 

Thia thloca wliiAsra wooM Mrtob Uke thapsim-^ 

A truth tlyit ^ mi^ le^^, fi^ yet aoi acorn 

lilb and its in^oceqt lo^%— t^ii? ctjk^^. fuii^ PQA^l^f lM>n)* 

btiiNAtD Wrctim, 



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lid 



ftTATBHEMT OP ML RICHMOND MSPSCTtKO DlSBASKi 
OP TH£ &TB IN INDIA. 

fPrmmUtsd to tk4 MdUmr./mr pMU^ ti om^Jrom Bomtm^^ 

Absteact of DiRBASci of the Eti, treated by Sorglp*! Opeimti#ii, «l Bwf^ 
wad niifhbovriiif ViUtgM^ from Ibe V^ May, to the lit Deoenbeiv VM* 



f J "—] 

Rdtortdtotigbt Rcwiorcdto Total vamb^r d 
Rettorfd bj o|iermiion*a deicn^ ot CaUncts. Artill' 
U fOAd bat iMt It *f I mefttl pial Pupila, and 
«gbt by I t^rwvda by aiffbt by fnervciuau^MC 
o|ferttioa, fiaprodcttce. ofcrfttioB. cea*fuily trraied. 



DISB^BBt. 



Cataracts . 
CUMedBtpttt 
Pterygiuni. . 



666 

IS 

4 



81 



666 

li 

4 



General total restored to ^ood siglit by Operation, 008 



AsiTttACT of ptsBASBS of tbe Eyb, treated witliont Surgical Operation. 







Relier 


No 




Disaatw. 


OwnL 


«« 


%alt«r. 


BBMABBS. 


Qranular Co^jimctUa . 


914 


80 






Ophtlialmla .... 


186 








Leoeoma 


1 


4ff 


4i 






4 


6 


8 




Vascular Cornea . . . 


8 


6 






a» : : : : : 


9 
8 








Botiofiiiiin 




le 


6 




Ectropinm 

Trichiasis . . . ^ . 


9 


s 






8 








Amaurosis 




10 


98 






8 


10 


78 




Nyctalopia .... 


8 


11 








11 










8 










u 


98 




Fislnla LiAhrynaUs . 




8 


1 




Hordeolum .... 


9 








Incipient Catairaet . . 






199 


Not treated. 


Biructnre destroyed ) 
















180 


Noitraalad. 


wasmade • • • > 










40! 


160 


|«0 


Grand tot^, 1,001 



^Vkm ^kunm wm^%^ v^ *w*8r «r «vmiM ^mm^ 

m tht eye, ind show that the people of Snrat, and its Ticuuty, are 



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120 Biaiemmt of Mr. Richmond 

not less afflicted with tbem, than tliose In other parts of the coontrjT 
through which I haye travelled. 

In visitmg different parts of the town of Surat, I found few fa- 
milies, comparativelvy which were wholly exempt from such diseases. 
The DUmher of children, hlind from the loss of structure of the eye, 
occasioned hy protracted inflammation, bears a great proportion in 
ny monthly returns. 

' Neglected inflammation is the principal cause of so much blind* 
ness among the Natives, and it is brought on by the long dry season 
and the hot winds ; the latter, also, carrying dust into the eyes. 
The people, when attacked with inflammation in the eyes, have no 
means of arresting its progress, but, on the contrary, frequently so 
aggravate its symptoms, by the application of acrimonious and 
stimulating substances, that it endJs in total destruction of the 
organ. 

To cure the disease, some patients have recourse to amulets and 
charms : by so doing, they, without intention, leave the disease to 
the course of nature : and it not unfrequently happens, that persona 
who act in this manner are more fortunate in the termination of their 
complaint than those who apply pernicious ingredients. 

Repeated instances of the father and mother, in one family, both 
blind from cataract, have been brought to me by their son, and 
have been restored to sight ; and there have been some instances 
of mothers of families, blind eight yean by the same disease, who^ 
as soon as the operation was performed, recognised their children, 
embraced them, and shed tears of joy over them. A considerable 
number of people, blind from the same causes, for the space of ten 
years, and some for the space of seventeen, were also Festered to 
sight. 

It sometimes happened, that people with cataract in both eyes, 
but blind only in one, the opacity not being so dense in the other, 
and having sight left sufficient for many useful purposes, have found 
the improvement of vision so great, after the blind eye was restored 
to sight, that they were induced to retnm, and request me to 
operate on the other eye also. ' 

During the first three months of my residence here, as soon as 
the door of the apartment wfd opened in the morning to receive 
the patients for prescription, they thronged in with so much eager- 
ness, as to tread down old people and children, in consequence of 
which I was compelled to admit them by different doors. Among 
so great a number of people, I have occasionally restored twenty 
blind to sight in the conrae of one day. When, 'afterwards, tra- 
velling among the neighbouring villages of Surat, I have, in the 
same space of time, restored twenty-two blind to sightr— all firom 
cataract 

it may be proper tor vm to nentioiiy tbat when operalipg ,of 



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Ml Dtsea9ej9 of A& Bye in India. Ill 

late, jntl^e midst of a crowd of peopk., in .order tjbe wore readily 
to coneiliate their good will to the operation, 1 have found it of 
great advantage to use an instrument having a handle only three- 
quarters of an inch long. By this means it is concealed from the 
view of the bystanders ; or, if it happen to be observed by any of 
them, it has so diminutive an appearance, as to excite in them but 
▼cry little, if any, dislike. 

As I have often heard of ingratitude forming a prominent feature 
in the Hindoo character, I cannot avoid mentioning here, that I 
never saw people more grateful for any favour, than the gene^rality 
of them in this place were for the restoration of sight ; some of 
Ihem were about to express their gratitude in a manner that called 
iastantly for my decided disapprobation ; and I informed them, that 
for whatever benefit they had received, they were wholly indebted 
to Govemment, and, on that account, no acknowledgment was ex- 
pected, ner would any be received from their hands. 

la the number of blind people restored to sight in this town, 
there were three boys bom blind with cataract ; one five years of 
age, another eight, and another thirteen. So little pain did the 
operation appear to give them, that, while . seated on the floor, 
during its performance, they required no person to hold them ; my 
assistant only supported their heads. The patients being so young, 
I was induced not to disturb the eye much, but merely to open the 
vertex of the cataract freely, which soon cleared up, and let in 
the light, when they saw welL 

The acquisition of sight appeared, exceedingly, to raise the hap- 
piness of the oldest boy. The first time he began to perceive ob- 
jects^ and was able to walk without a guide, he proceeded up two 
pair of stairs to me, and requested me to observe how well he could 
walk alone. 

I held a bunch of keys before him, but he could not conceive. 
what they were, until I shook them, when he inunediately ascer- 
tained what they were, by the jingling sound. I laid a small, 
square mahogany box before him, but neither did he know what it, 
was, until he felt it, when the sense of touch immediately informed, 
him. 

I then showed him an infant, bom of European parents, the- 
nght of which very considerably engaged his attention, and raised 
in him the curiosity of inspecting it very narrowly. He seemed 
afraid, however, to touch it, and affirmed he had not the least, 
idea of what it was. I laid his hand on the child's arms, at which 
he started back, aTid ei^pressed a wish to retire ; I then drew his 
hand OYer the child's face, which he immediately recognized to be 
the features of a child. He laughed heartily, and appeared very 
much pleased at his own discovery. 

He waa loager in learning to distingnish colours than in leaaming 



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122 Staiemefii of Mr. Aicknumd 

the ikanea of tUnn. White and red he aoon distuignieked* W 
yellowy green, and blue he coufouaded with blaok ; yet, he aaid^ 
these coioura couti^ined more white than bhiok« When from the 
roof of a high huildipg, he viewed the river Tq[iteeY he pointed 
with hi« hai^d towards it» and showed, by his manner of expression, 
that he felt great pleasure in viewing it ; he requested my aaeistant 
to loojc in that direction, apparently for the purpose of enjoying 
the sight with him, but he had not the least idea of its bebg a 
body of water. 

I showed him many other th^igs, with nearly the sanpe vesah ; 
and a short time after these experiments were performedt I laid 
fU the same things again before him, when he readily reepgniae4 
IhaofL hy the eye. He now follows the occiq^ti«A of a shepherd. 

As a qaestkm of Tory oonsideimUa Isiportaace, whieh has bees 
frequently discussed by writers on tiie subject of calarael, is stin 
undecided, that is, whether it he moat proper to coinch or extract, 
I have availed myself of the many opportunities presented to nae 
during the last year, and extracted a very considerable number of 
catfMracts« In order the better to observe the subsequent efiecta 
of the different operations, I extracted the cataract fro^i one eyas 
and^ immediately afterward^, couchea the other ; while in the casa 
of some other patients, I extracted both cataracts at the sama 
time. 

The result of my experience is hostile t» tha praetioe of eoi« 
traction. The reasons which have led to this ponelumon are, the 
difficulty of being always able to make the oorueal sectk>n suffi- 
ciently large by one puhcturation of the knife \ the unsteadiness ol 
the Hindoo patiept> duriAg puncturation ; the impojssihility of re- 
moving the opake capsule with the lens, except in a few cases, where 
the capsule is exceedingly soft, and adheres to the vertex of the 
opake lens, with which it comes away ; the greater pain connected 
ttrrth the formation of the corneal section, than the passing of the 
needle through the coats \ the greater degree of nritation after 
extraction, than after conchrng; and the untoward treatment 
which the Natives practise on their eyes after the operation. 

Besides, in referring to my register, which contains thirteen 
hundred cases of blind from cataract, restored to sight during 
the last twenty months, I find but 43? purely lenticular cases, ana 
863 lenticular combined with capsular opacity \ of which number 
were 92. fluid, contuning a small, hard, opake lens. So great a 
proportion of capsulo-lenticular cataracts, form, with the preceding 
circumstances, insuperable objections to the operation of extraction 
becoming general ; and of their removal I see no probability. 

I may also observe, that every ona of tbese oata^aots eoaH Ipava 
l^en coi^cbed with ease ; and it iampst probable I could have ss- 
jaoved them alt by coacbfaig, had I not been amdona tor ascerCah 



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\y experieiice tl|e hfist mocje of operating \ w^erefts not more than 
tl^e tnird of the tl^rteen kundrca could have h^en extracted *, f«r 
e^tractio^ is a rude operation, unless performed h^ one puncturation 
of the knife, and the i^cisioq made large enough to callow the cata- 
ract to pass out entire, with s^^cely 5iny ox np pr^ure pn t^e eye- 
baUy and without the introduction of a scoop ; put when so done, it 
is an admirable operation. I have 90t met one instance of the vi- 
treons humour escaping to the detriment of the eye ; nor do I be- 
lieve it possible to happen, except when the eye I9 rudely handled. 

T*»f; pr9.pricty o| oper^ti^g ov^ both eyes «^t the same time 1m 
filsp engaged the ^tteation of i^teia on esit^^nsct ; ft«d as thjis sub- 
text still rema^ undeciaed> I may state» t^iat I have invariably 
0(^ii|te4 W hoth ey^ at tV sam^ time with ^he ?^p3t con^plete 
success ; but great ^9^^ ^wd he ta]|^ t^at tM ^y^ ^e 4is.ti|rbed 
as little as pos8it)le. 

The total, number: of bliqd ifcstoxe^ to, sight, from cataract duria|f 
the last year 19, ^9 fpUowa y 2%6. restQ.]:ed to sjight at| Ahmednu^iic, 
an4 ^86 restored ^9 sight at Siirat ; which mt^ke a, total of 812. 

fesic^ ci^tai?atetoi]i3 ptatieo^ta, lihere mexe ia02« ^ih othei diseassis 
Ml Ih^ eye> tre«t9d at Surat, iMd i«0 at Ahmedong^u]; ; anskin^ a 
fraa4 tolal «f 1%14 oases tf ealed dann^ Ika cotaiaa of tine ^ 
j«»r. 

With resjteet to the Nathre practHipners, f have to report, thai, 
a short time after my arrlral here, I had occasional visits from 
some of tkflos ^ bat apparently they wisl^ toi e^ceal their inten- 
tion. Wkea i dkicoveped their pro^^sion, I communicated to them 
my directions from Government, and how glad I should be to render 
them assistance. They appeared to be in much better circum- 
stances than those I had met in other parts of the ceuntry : they 
practised only the bramch pf pculism. 

They desired to see my mode of operating, and having done so, 
they asked to what purpose would it be for them to learn my me- 
thod, since they wei:e unable to prociije instrqmenta* I requested 
them to attend as oftaa as tliey eouUl die. oon^enisnilif , and sud I 
would undertake to pFocmre some instrumenta when they were able 
to operate. I promijsecl to show them a more certain and easy me- 
thod of operating thaa any whjoh thaykaaw; I pointed out to 
them the exten«va field of praotiae lying, in arery part of the coun- 
try, and how a correct knowledge of their profusion would give 
tlusm an ascendancy over other practiUo^era, and procure them a 
comfortable income^ 

To win and encourage them» I showed them the eo<^dness of vi- 
sion in forty patienta whoia I had just vesliored to. sight. In order 
to draw a correct focus in the eyCji. I fitted on cataractous glasses^ 
when the patients, wi^h pe^t warmth, immi^diately expressed the 
perfeettoA of their visioiu ' One old doctor, however, seemed not to 



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124 SiatemetU rMpecUng Diseases df the Eye. 

relish this. open mode of expression^ and, without the least cero- 
inouy, removed the glasses, and handed them hack to me ; I again 
fitted them on another patient, when the old doctor as readily re- 
moved them. I continued fitting them on other patients, and 
humoured them in their disguise ; while he continued removing 
the glasses, until we went over the whole numher. 

At that time, I had ahout 400 patients attending me daily, and 
,from twelve to twenty operations to perform at the same time ; so 
that my time was wholly occupied in practice, on which account I 
found it impossible to discharge the duty toward the Native prac- 
titioners in a manner satisfactory to myself. They appeared cha- 
grined at the great number of patients. I heard that they had 
endeavoured to dissuade the people from coming to me ; but, judg- 
ing from the increase in number, theii' advice had a contrary effect ; 
not finding employment in the town, they departed. 

I was informed by several patients on whom they had operated, 
that they were in the habit of extorting money from their patients 
in a very cruel manner : when they had proceeded to a certain 
length in the operation, they fastened a crooked instrument in the 
eye, and allowed it to remain until the patient came down with as 
much money as they wanted. I heard the same kind of story from 
a Native practitioner at Ahmednuggur ; but I did not then give it 
credit. I am now, however, inclined to think there is some truth 
in this account of their conduct ; especially when they are appre- 
hensive of obtaining otherwise but little reward. 

(Signed) Gbo. Richmomp, 

Auistant SorgeoD, 4th Light Dragoons, 
and Oculist to the Bubordinate Station of Bombay. 



THE BRIER-ROSE.* 

I oFTRN seek ^ome solitary spot, 
Where idle eyes and foot-treids linger not ; 
Where nature tell? her slill respooMve tale. 
To me, to the wUd-rose, and nightingale. 
And I have thought, io ybuth*s more smiling hour. 
The bright carnations *neath my summer bow *r 
Were far less beauteous tlun the flow'mt wild 
Which all UDCultnr*d on the hedge-row smiled. 
'Twas feeling gave the charm : it «tood so lone. 
So unadmired, uosought — so all mine own ; 
*T had borne the bending of no other eye, 
Ando*erits bosom passM no other sign ; 
And where it grew it faded — and the storm 
Gave to the winds its sweetly petal *d form : 
I've told its chaste and unobtrusive tale,-^ 
I loved this untonchM flow'ret of the vale. 



* From * 8lbyl*s Uavei.* 

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1» 



COMMTITBE OP THE LATE HOI78B OP COMMONS. 

Thbrb are cifcnmstances attending the proceedings before the 
Committee of the House of Commons, appointed to hear evidence 
and report on the case of Mr JBuckingham, which deserve, and will 
be made the subject of exposure. But, from various obstacles, the 
official copy of the Evidence has not yet been obtained ; and we 
are unwilling to trust entirely to notes, however accurate, where 
the documents themselves can be quoted. The delay of a few 
weeks is not material, compared with the superior importance of 
accuracy. But we will venture to say, that by the publication of a 
portion of the evidence and documents in auestion, a scene will be 
exhibited to those who have not had the misfortune to witness or be 
a party to such proceedings, which will both surprize and infonn. 
Tbe hitherto secret despatches of the Bengal Grovernment to the 
Court of Directors here, will also be placed under review ; and, from 
the whole of these, we think it will be shown that a more mean, cow- 
ardly and dishonourable scheme of premeditated injury to a politi- 
cal opponent, than that planned and executed by the Government 
of Bengal towards the proprietors of the Calcutta Journal, was 
never practised in any age or country, or by any persons having the 
least pretensions to the character of statesmen or gentlemen. 



NEW PUBLICATIONS. 



Among the recent publications interesting to Oriental readers 
may be mentioned the second volume of Mr. Frazer's Travels, in- 
cluding his stay in the neighbourhood of the Caspian Sea ; a 
History of the Mahrattas by Captain James Grant Duff, of the 
Bombay Army ; a new translation of Bemier's Travels in the 
Mc^ul Empire ; and a Letter to Sir Charles Forbes, Bart. M. P., 
on the Administration of the Affairs of India, by a Civil Servant. 
We have procured also a copy of Mr Wheatley's second Letter to 
the Duke of Devonshire on the Colonization of India,—- of each of 
which, we hope to be able to give some accoimt in our next. Sir 
John Malcolm's improved edition of his Political History of India 
has not yet appeared at the moment of our writing this, though it 
is announced for immediate publication ; nor have we yet obtained 
a perfect copy of Captain Grindley's Costume and Views in Western 
India. 



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^*40 



BUMMAltT OF THB LATEST INTELLIGENCB PROM INDU AND 
eVlU» OOVNTlUfiS OF THK &MT. 

)» the moAthly dhmmi^ bf Indidh hew^, Wlilch Ve jiresent in 
this di^p&rtkhidut of our Jonrria^ W^ prdfete not mlsrely tb fltitte all 
the impbrtant iT&ct^ that haV^ reached us ; but to draw ^(idh Inf^ 
retibes froiii them d8 will enablie the public td forxA d more corrcbt 
judginent of the real State of our Eastern etnpire, than If they trer^ 
left to be guided by ttie loose snnnises and hasty conjectures bt thfe 
Ordinary jourbals, which Seldom dip beyond the niere surface of 
affairs, and are blown ^bdut by the latest puS 6t rttmour that ihay 
reacK them. La^t knbnth, while dn the subject bf the Burmese 
war, they were all T^th one accdrd making full sail towards the 
haven of a glorious, a secure, ahd a lasting jieace ; We, alone, ren- 
fured an opinion that th^ war was not yet entirely ababdoned, and 
entered into a long argument, In opposition tb th^ popular notion, 
tb prove thkt we had good reasons for dUi* belief ; 1st, that peace 
i^as not concluded ; 2aly, if it had been so, that thb terms of paci- 
fication, reported to Kave been agreed on, Were ndthfcr setuhe, nor 
lasting, nor honourable, 'the very same day dn t^htch our s^ntdhc^ 
went forth to the world, (May dlst,) we were astonished to find, in 
a speech, ottered in the name of his Majesty, (we will not say his 
Majesty's speech, though it was read to the collective wisdom of 
the nation in Parliament ass^tnbled, by the Lord Chancellor, in 
his Majesty's name,) the following sentence : 

His Maj^ bts ihe Satltllwtlon to iafocnl yoiii that the ^i^infitlsliMi sklU, 
br«veiy<» «Dd saeceM with whMi the Dpeiations oi the Bij iah arms in the 



of a seevre and piifmaBcnt pehbe; 

^dw, if ids Majestf had bdhiiultisd ua. iiistead of hiit Jirda^ht 
ministers, we should have piit into his Inoum h Speech on the itfate 
of India ihdt>e creditibl^ to the wisflbih of thk firititih dabbet. Ai 
a proof of this, we shall quote thti opinion we ttUbli^hdd on the Vetf 
same day on Which the txJrds CohimiSSionets batne ddwh to the 
j^al-lldnie'nt with the iibove. Aif^r ur^ng sfeveiiil l^^isdns ror dor * 
bdlief that the treaty of peac6 would not bd ratified by the Sufhies^ 
dotirt, We observed : 

If our suspicions on this head prove well fonnded, ii will be' quite evident 
to the most superficial observer, that the agreeing to an aimistice, the re- ' 
newed hostilities, and, again, the proposition to treat, are nothing more than 
a series of artifices to gain time to retard the progress of the war, and weary 
US oat with fruitlesa struggles ; so as boiEiTo render us more deeirons to 



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Summary of the laUsS Intelligence from the Eaet. Jl'i? 

eonelnde a peace od any terms, and at the same time.favont the schemes of 
Mf i^tl»r Iftnettiies lb ctetnd IMi^ If, lio#elh6¥, %\ie tXvtk ttX AVa; freita k 
flesire t« rul hiiBMU of the pveaeot ansoyaiMMB of ao iBYWofr artDy« tgrae t« 
the ien&a stated, eTerV p^noo, of the least reflection, at all acquaioted with 
ttie character of toe Indian princes, will perceive tnat it is a treaty 6niy mado 
to he broken the moment he toiay find it saih to do So« iffe %hb ^6 lately ^d- 
Jfected limllar tenus with seorn^ and threateiitM to ciit oif the head of the man^ 
however hi^h^ who dared to speak of a payment of money or a cotoioh of 
territory, cannot be supposed to haye consented to it now with any f eriOtti 
Ifltentiota of AilfiUing hid engagement. 

Holding these opinions, Dublished on ^e same day witb the Royal 
address to Parliamenti ^nd also maintaimng that the aeceptanee ol 
one crore oi rupees, and of tlie cession of a large kingdom, less thaa 
had been demanded before the armistice had been violated^ was by 
no means creditable to our arms — if our sober Toic^ had been 
listened to in tbe cabinet, instead of the lofty notes of the Riffh(» 
bonotirable President of the doard of Control, the speech of his 
firltannic Afajesty to his Peers and Commons should have run as 
fbllowd : 

HU Majesty lias the satisfeetion to infonn yea, th%t intelligence has been 
fMelted from in^ia, which holas out a ^op« that the lamentable contest in. 
whleb we hate beto lon^ ^nj^aged with thte Burmese i^uid soon be brought 
te a civee. Ilie bad Aidth altehdy expe^ieiibea>, hoW^VM*, from the Burml^se 
cbwt woeld net warrant any firtfi rolianee oh the pibiimitmry treaty beiuf ra- 
tified ; nor that the peace, if concluded, will be long preserred. ThoogH the 
terms of pacificatioa ar^ far from advantageous or honourable to tlie Biitish 
nani^ It ii eotisdUn)^ to h'Hect, thaldtiKrig d war, nnjust and Impolitic iii its 
eriffii,<tts«atr«U8in itsprogtcas^ ahd disgrai»^nl iti iUI tef^miniittoii, thb British 
ams have eastalned their wonted lustre } and thi^t ddrin -> the hoped for suspensioa 
of hostilities the fury of a brave and iiyured nation may gradually subside, 
tni, by th^ Intervttition of %iser councils in the Government of British 
Ifidia, our relitiohs with them may he ultimately restored to a footinsr of per- 
manent aeewrityi foedded od ihe kaered principles of juStiee &tid lotttid policy, 
as we 1 as the solemn ii^noetions of his Mijeflty's Gevernineat against wanton 
oppression and extension of territory. 

Having thus taken the liberty of respectfully differing from hia 
Majesty and hid Mitiisters, and the event having proved that we 
were right while they were wrong, as the Burmese war ka$ been re- 
newed with fresh vigour, we shall now take the liberty of again 
differing from those '< best public intructors,*' who make this the 
subject of melancholv augury» liVe now think a speedy peace far 
more probable than it was a month past. If we mistake not, the 
netrs of the fall df ifihurtpoor will soon humble the crest of the King 
of Ava. We trust the British diplomatists trill also embrace th£ 
favourable moment for offering suitable terms df accomthddation. 
If» however, the golden opportunity be negieeted^ as more than half 
tli« fair aeaaon haft already be^n Ibst in fruitless negotiiatiofi, tte 
fdr«ft«e thai another British army will be ruined, during the next rdiiis, 
in thia desperate struggle ; for the farther we advance from the sea 
amid the intricacies of an inland navigation, oh whidh we depend 
fdr suppUfts^ the more oUr diffieultles accuThtlllfctej litid the intii-e the 
anemjr acquire facilities of cutting off our r^af. The nation has 
nlffsdy long motirtted (Jver ttie miseries of the dttfay, df which nearly 



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128 Svmmaryo/the 

one half perished of ucknefls and {uoiike at Rangoon. We have been 
again afflicted with accomitB ef theatill more arppalliBg mortalitjr at 
Airaean, thongh both these were quite within the re^ch of onr slups. 
But woe to that army which is doomed to winter in the vicinity of 
^raerapoora ; in the very heart of the enemy's country ; assaulted 
with all the strength of their resources ; and above four hundred 
miles from the ocean, the best ally, the great bulwark of British 
power ! The few surviving English, whose eyes, after such a cam- 
paign, might behold the distant skirts of the cerulean mai.tle of their 
native isle, might well exclaim, SaXarroL, 0aXarra ! with greater 
joy than veer did the residue of the hardy ten thousand of Xenophon, 
on catching a glimpse of the waters of the Euxine. 

Whatever be the result of this war, the millions of treasure which 
have been wasted, the thousands who have fallen, and the thousands 
of widows and orphans who have to deplore them, will form a source 
of deep and lasting regret. No eventual success can atone for the 
error that has been committed in commencing it ; and no extent of 
conquest can compensate for the loss of that character for justice 
and moderation which we might have acquired, or the shock given 
to that reliance on our honour and good faith, on which the security 
of our empire must rest, if it is ever to be perfectly secure. It is 
hardly possible if we foil to conquer them now, that the Burmscse 
should henceforth be sincerely at peace with us, or be other than a 
dangerous enemy, believing themselves to be invincible. And to those 
who think we may get rid of this danger by annihilating them as an 
inindependent state, we would say, almost in the words of Lord Chat- 
ham concerning America, " You cannot conquer Burmah.** They 
are a people too poor, too brave, too faithless, to be reduced to 
submission. Their country is too wild and barren to be kept mlli* 
taiT possession of; and the people hate and despise you and your 
Indian subjects too much ever to submit quietly to you or your de- 
tested yoke. If all the force of England could not reduce the infant 
states of America, it will not be surprising if the innate feebleness 
of the Indian Govemmert, who'-e tressury is already bankrupt, fail 
in its efforts against Ava. Having premised so much, we here insert 
an account of the recommencement of hostilities : 

' The following ig the official account of the renewal of hostilities with the 
Burmese, as contained in a letter addressed to Commodure Sir Jani«*s Brisbane, 
by Captain Ch ds, of his Migesty's ship AUigator^ and timnsmitted by Sir 
James to the Admit alty : — 

" Mblloun, Jan. SO, 1996.— The time granted for the receipt of the rati- 
fication of the treaty of pe )oe by the Court of Ava, having expired on the 
16th instant, and the Purman Chiefs continuing to act with base dupHdty and 
evasion, no alternative was left the Commander of the Forces (Sir A. Camp- 
bell) than the painfull one of renewing hostilities, which was done yesterday, 
and was attended. I rejoice to say, with the complete defHit of the enemy, and 
the capture of Melloun, with all the ordnance, boats, oomndstariat stores, and 
a small quantity ot treasure. 

'' 9lr A. Campbell having msde his disposition for the attack of Mellewit 



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latent IiUellfgenee fivm tke Bast. 129 

alHMit eleren o'clock, md in a ihort time hvvin^ nmOe the ncoeMuy impres- 
lioD, the works weio stormed in a fine, gallut style. The enemy fled in tke 
vteKMt oonfiuioD, with great loss, leaving, as in possession of the stockade, 
with, I regret to say, the gallant Colonel Sale and Major Frilh seyerely 
wounded, and abont twenty casualties. 

[Here follow the nimes of oficers who distinguished themseWes. &c. and 
other minor detaUs.] 

** I have the hononr to remain, 

'" H. D. CHADS, Captain of his M^es*y*B ship 
Alligator, in command of the flotilla.** 
Return of killed and wounded on board the flotilla, at Melloon, Jan. 19, 1886 : 
, ^1\ ®^ ***' M^esty's ship Alligator-Killed, none ; wounded, 4 severely* ; 
1 slightly. ' 

^i'^T'?*?"^*!"- Company's guo-boats— Killed, 1 ; wounded, 6 severely. 
4th Division Hon. Company's gun -boats— Killed, 1 ; wounded, 1, danger- 
ously : 1 slightly. » t> D 

4th Division Hon. Company's gun-boats— Killed, 9 ; wounded, 1.— Total, 
ktUed, 4 : wounded. 14. 

(Signed) H. D. Ch4os, Captain of his Miyesty *s ship, AlUgaiar, 

, ^ . , in command of the flotilla. 

J. Brisbane, Commander. 

CFram private gource§.) 

By an arrival yesterday from the Cape of Good Hope, information was com'- 
monicated of the Tamar frigate having reached Colombo on the 9rh of 
Pebreary. from Rangoon, with news of the renewal of hostilities with the Bur- 
mese ; and we understand that despatches to a similar effect have beeu received 
at the Admiralty from Sir James Brisban \ who commands the naval foice 

I th? Irra • addy. The circumstances which have transpired relative to this 

—1 mre as follows : — 



Sir Archibald Campbell, whose head-quarters were a short distance la 
■dvanee of Prome, on the road to Ummerapoora, had been iodnced to suspect 
treaeberons inteotions on the part of the enemy, by ot serving, that, subse- 
qaently to the sig lature of the preliminary treaty, an augmentation had taken 
place in the force sUtioned on the opposite bank of the river, and that tlie 
l^mese were busily employed in forming ne» stockades. He therefore kept 
his troopa as closely together as possible, and awaited the teimlDatioo of the 
period flxed on for the ratification of the treaty, which it had been stipulated 
should arrite from the capital in fifteen d.ys — L *., on the 18 h of January. 
Tiiai day passedoverwitho<'t any notice or communlca^on that the ratificatiofl 
had arrived. Sir A. Campbell, therefore, felt at once eonvinced of the treafiherjr 
of the Biumese. and of ^h" necessity of striki g some decisive blow, iu order 
to tev;h them that a British negotiator was not to be ttifl d with. Having 
eompleted all his preparations, he passed the river on the 90^h, and stormed 
the eaemy's cimp with such signal success, that the Burmese fled in all diiec* 
tlons. leaving their military stores and the whole mater el of the camp in the 
possession of the Biitish. A large sum of money is said to have been found 
there on the occa* i^n, and the whole of the stockades formed by the e emy 
were destroyed. It is not stated what the intentions of Sir Archibald Camp^ 
bell were with respect to further military operations in consequence of the 
breaking off of the treaty, but it was supposed he would continue to occupy 
the position he then held, until some information could be obtained of the 
Aiture plans of the enemy. He had iss^ed, it is said, a proclamation, in which 
those provinces ceded, or placed under the protection of Great Btitain by the 
treaty, were called upon to declare themselves independent of the King of 
Ava, and promising tnem the support of Great Biitain in maintuniiig them as 
separate states. The desisn of making Rangoon a free port, another stipula- 
tion of the treaty, it is further stated, will be carried into efiisct under the same 
gunrantee. — Timet. 

Orltnial Heraid, Vol. 10. K 



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Wc liftv« btolf biid ike food fortnui to f ocmve fi ctm^9^ file 
•f the new pabUeaticn eetabliahed in Calcutta, entitled, * The Co- 
Iprpbian Press Gazette/ from the commencement of the series i{i 
June 1825, up to the end of last year* Highly as we esteexp the 
principles and the talent which characterise this new journal, what 
we still more admire, is a manly spirit and firm tone of iodepondr 
ence, which we hardlf hoped ever to And again in any periodical 
published in Bengal, under the thraldom of the present laws. It 
appe^Sy howevier, apd i3 plainly stated in the public, pftpers, as 
well ae in private communicatiops, that, from whatever cause, a 
license is now allowed to the press which was totally .unknown 
during the ephemeral reign of oeaaor Adam, and the early d^ys of 
Lord Amherst. Whether it be that his Lordship h»s become 
nehamed of his former puerile hostility to freedom of discussion, or 
that he now knows, by the experience of several hard campaigoa, 
that he has more dangerous enemies to fear, or that his friends at 
home have sent bim a h'nt to save them fwm the ju3t repnoofs of 
Mr. Hume, Sir Charley Forbes, Colonel Stanhope, and other friends 
of Indifri certain it is, that his Lordship and his colleagues, since 
^*eed from the councils of '' the great Indian statesman, now no 
«iore,'* have returned to the liberal policy of Lord Hastings re«> 

Strdittg the press^ in so hr as the peniicious laws^ devised by Mr. 
dam and Serjeant Spankie, wil] suffer a return to the former com- 
paratively salutary state of things. But, in tnitht the breath Of 
fiov allowed to public writers in Seagal is justly eharaeteriaed as 
merely sufferance, not liberty. What is allowed isitfLayt mmj bo 
purfshed t4>Hnorrow : it rests merely with the pleasure of one man, 
whether the truths and the whole truth» or even any part of the 
truth, shall be told with impunity ; or whether the publisher shall 
be condemned to the entire destruction of his literary property, 
and, iu addition to that, perhims, if ao Bnglishnuin, expulsion froia 
Indiat or banishoieat from bis friends and his prospects fof 



The enormous bjustice of such a law, and the wanton cruelty 
displayed in its exercise* are rendered the more flagrant anj 
striking, by tha innvadomble proofs afforded by these papeia, that 
things, infinitely inore offensive than those for whieb Mr. Bnek- 
ingbam was proscribed from India^ or for which Mn Arnot was im-^ 
prisoned, transported, exposed to the dangeis of shipwreok, mi^ 
afterwards banished a second time, are published with perfeet lm« 

Cnity, without an expression of censure. We cannot select ^ 
tter case in point, than the following letter, from tl^e '.Bengal 
Hurkani,' on the identical subject, a slight adverteooe to whioii 
cafsed the two eeU of deportation sJMive refeiTod to : 
Q«^ Ba^Oi 4SO T|is CoutT •w DjaBCToas. 
r« Os Bdiitn* qf ikt Bt9$9l Bwkmm. 
8fii«— For the sake of referense at future le iod, it ins.y p trti a a s »# ostlW f # 
put tofretherthe following quotations from tie remarks cosHil'-^^^n^he^^rtho. 

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latent InimS«9^ Pm ^ ^««'- «1 

4mi o^vm i?f tl>» » Jobs MU' Ml tli0 i)i%ct pr \^ KfST vei^a Pwp^}e^r•| 
remona friN« th^ pf9^ of ClerJ^ tp tbe S^lonery PpmroUtM Vy 1^ WCQaa 
9nler> Utely r^peiy^dfrom the Pqurt pfD|rector9. . . j-t 

1. '' 0* th€9e ordrrt reaching Ipdia, the Supre^ G9vemmetU tooi upon 
iUey to nmstiheir execution, an4 a r^erence wu made ^futf ^ m^ljecf, 
poiutimff out, of we umder$Umdt C/rom whov^ij the in^tt^Up^ and QiufsUj 
%f M f m n wm9 Or. Br^ee,'* 

Ib this vbort pMMf • are fnoludad tvo ehu9«»a||«iMt tfa« QOHflitntod m^J^* 
ritira ; one, against flie Locsl Oovemmoolt, for ''rMistwice offsred to thssx^r 
cation of an order received from the Court of Directors/* and tho othorfgaioal 
the Coart'of Directors thcmselTes, for^'iiyiisttoeaDd cmelty*' in issuing thai 
Older. 

9. "* Thai tiffremei or re^Uiatite tpa$ MmvqUing, 0h4 4^ ^f^iT ^m 
r9faf0d, and rtepi^ed fsmin tke*€/9m ^ajf$>" 

Her^ tb^ aptttil exiHWtioo of an ox^j already ytigniftMs^^ «| ** ttPJHst jipd 
cmeU** lefures tbe Pqh>1 ^'f Directors, the authors ofthai pfder,uofIer tfi.e \^^ 
pvtation of '* iojustice and cpieUy*' towards Dr. Bryce,' in'remoTing Mm from 
the situation or Cierl to the Stationery Committee, to whiofa ho httd been ^V 
pointed 'by Mr. Adam. 

8. *• Ndm we reaHw apprehend thai onr Rfiferm4 Friend hoe the hH$ 
teaeemt in the world (a cprnp^Un qfmha^ took pkige m the occifiip^ qJF 
Mr.Hume'ewmtUm."" 

This refi&rs to JJfr. Wynn> copduct on JMr. Hume hliylngmoyed for the pro- 
duction of papers connected with' i>r. JBryce's appoinr'ment,' when the former 
declared ^* that some delay in refnoVing liim (Dr. Bryce) had taken place, but 
that th« 6rder8 bad been repented.'* Here Dr. ^ryce s said '' to hi^^e |h# bpft 
msoos n the irorld to cqoiplain*- of x)^ conduct of tbe I^esi^.ent qf tb^ 
Bo^rd of jCpntrol, to wboni lie would prescribe a difre^e^t line of conduct from 
|hat whiph l)e pursued. Query — ^Are the columns of the John Bull the proper 
diann^l for giving utterance to ebmplaints made by a eleri^ to the staUoamy 
tonmilnee agahist the anthoriiies in England t 

After oittrghir Hm Court of Directors with *' injuiUiee and cruelty, V ad 
••fr gitinf rent to '* complaints'* against the President of thjB j^ard of pon*- 
tr9|, t)lO ' JShU* pos^ stra^^ely a^ds as follows : — 

4. *' Wpafe t»rif far from mfqninji diaretpect to the antkoritieM at home 
frg ti^se remar^t ; ffut we owe tomethmg to the authorities here,' and to (hh 
SimDteet individual who maif appear to have been n^fuirlg dealt with" 

Here the ^ Bull* evidently proceeds upon the maxim ** divide and conquer.'^ 
Having thus separated the two authort &es in quoftioD, sfid h»viog sifded wilk 
the l««eer oaf, he boMiy inserts that be must act in opDositiji^n to the giiratf^r f 
ft>r, SOy« *Wf " ^e owe something tft the authoriUes here.' He" further 
dia/f^ the authorities in England with Wving '* uiifiirly dealt with th^ 
numolest individual,*''' referring o Dr. Bryce, to \rhoraalso, -** he owes somo^ 
^ng,*' wbentira relative merits of parties -cone to bo iroBsiderod. 

A. *^ The ende ofpnblle expediemcjf ought neter to be eonauUed. wiih^ni 
due regard to what if alto oilfing (o ifrivatf charaetfr and r§putafion," 

Here is a plain and uooqnlvocal tono of dictation towards Ibp aotbpritif^ \n 
Mngiand ; Impiyiog tlni^ they have compM«od '' the ends pf nu'^lic ^pj^r 
dfttoey*' s^ tfao e^pfose of '^ priy^p cbaractier ^oA reputation,*' which they 
op^t ncxpr to have aone.' 

ThoB ooniAS the crownin|r passage of th^ whole. 

0. ** He fPv, Bryce) ie made a eacrifice to a $uppord (apt real) ffpe- 
die^M^ fchifK however WMCi^ it may anewer it^ pftpoep Jor a time, wiB 
^csdUf r0coi$ npfnt thote who have recouree to i^r ' " ' 

' io oll^rr >r9Fd8,thl9 is Uke naying to th^ »Q|Uoiiti^ \u Bn^ifidi '• Vory 

K15 



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132 Bummcvry of the 

Well, gaatlemen, yon KftTO done your wont towards ne ; but I sbftll takeoare 
that the blow you haTc aimed at me, will recoil upon your own heads." 

The foregoing is a hurried sketch of the * BulVs* remarks on the occasion 
referred to ; and t am sure that nothing equal to them ev«r appeared ib the 
pai^ of the late * Calcutta Journal.* The present is a pertontU quarrel be- 
tween Dr. Bryce, late Clerk to the Stationery Committee, and the combined 
authorities in England ; f od it should be remembered that the former vraila 
himself of his situation'of editor and propiietbr of the *• John Bull* newspaper, 
to give Tent to his complaintB and grlmnees agateat the latter. — 1 am. Sir, 
your obedient servant, 

One of th* Public. 

Calcutta, October 21, 1826. 

We axe not a little flattered to find that tbe contents of this 
^ork furnish so much matter of discussion for our brethren of the 
periodical press in Bengal. Every sueeesstTe Number of the 
f Oriental Herald/ as it arrives, seems like a sounding of the tocsin 
fprafresh onset between the friends and the enemies of, truth. 
The long-cherished hatred of the ^ Buir commentators breaks cmt 
monthly ^th unabated fury, and calls forth the energies of tbe 
friends of free discussion to ward off the deadly blotvs ammd ^ onr 
unprotected heads. In this distant . warfare, our ever-watchful 
opponents enjoy an advantage of which they do not scruple to avail 
themselves to the utmost. Among the multitude of facts stated! 
liy lis in our monthly sketch of passing events, some on the autho- 
pty of private letters, others on that of public journals, Indian or 
English, there must be occasionally things in which we are led inta 
errors or misapprehensions. For, as it is well known that many 
years must elapse before the transactions of any given period can 
be sufficiently well ascertained that justice may be done to its his- 
tory, even by those living in the country and possessing the best 
means of information » it is surely vain to hope that our monthly re- 
ports of events happening in a distant country, brought down to 
the very latest period, and formed from aeeoonts reaching us in 
detached portions, through a variety of channels, can, in the nature 
of things, be free from oceasional errors. It is idle, it is puerile and 
contemp^le, to charge such errors against us as an wipardoDable 
offence ; those who do so are either grossly ignorant of the difficul- 
ties we have to struggle with, in our search after truth, among a 
mass often of confused aud contradictory statements, or grossly 
dishonest in not making an allowance for them. Yet a few isolated 
mistakes, real or alleged, selected from the whole, are the gvounds 
seized upon by the ^ Bull* party in Calcutta to aasail us with the 
most rancorous abuse, as if every mistake were wilfitl and mali- 
cious, and the faulty passage a specimen of the whole book. Bven 
when the error originated with others, and its source is pointed out, 
it is notwithstanding charged upon us, without any reference to our 
authority. For instance, a quotation we made from the London 
* John Bull' is' cited by its namesake in Calcutta as an eiampTe of 
the *' abommable falsehood" of the ' Herald* ! With all this we feel 
confident the candid and intell^^ut portion of the public will con* 



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hteit InieiUgeHce/rm the Sail ; 1^ 

fess tlmt 90 tnie a picture of Iniiaii afilurs hAB tiev^r b^/ore been 
presented to Europe as that furoidhed by the * Oriental Heraldi/ . 

By hut the most hoinoussia this work ever committed in the eyes 
of its enemies appears to hmire been the statement contained in the 
Number for August last, at page 324, 825, now called the memo- 
rable page, like the famous No. 46 of the Nbi^th Briton; The 
£me of this page had been resounded all over India by the Bev. 
Dr. BrTce*s pious paper, before his cotemporary of the ' Columbian 
Press Gazette' obtained a sight of what it contained. Having at last 
read it, however, the latter says : 

We did expect to' find in it some extraordinary misrepresentation, some 
diKtorted statement, whieh' might have justified an atUck upon the * Herald's* 
•ecuraey in lonm point, tkoiif h we felt conscioui that neither thia nor any 
other page would bear out the enemies of Mr. Buckingham in the cb yge 
adTaoced against him, of being '* a cowardly si nderer of the living and the 
dead !*' But we were most agreeably surprised, on turning to page 82i of 
the *• Herald,* to find, that so f tr IVom its' containing a single ndsrepre^ientatioii, 
it is occupied by the statement of a plain unTamished tale, the truth of which 



of all. hearts $ but the Aicts stated io that menorable page we defy the Mariae 
Board, or any one connected with it, to disproye ; and since the * Bull* has 
referred to it with so much confidence, we call upon il to prove one tittle of 
what it oontains to be false. We s^y, again, its statements are trvb ; they 
are upon record ; th y have been laid before suiierlors of that Board here, 
and they now wait thejudgmenl of its honourable masteis at home. 

Of the next page (325), in the same Numher, the satne writer 
ohservesy in reply io some charges of rancorous malice, &c. : 

If these dark allusions refer to page 335 of the August Number, those who 
choose to put a foul and infamous construction npon a mere insinuation — that 
there are those here who have owed their appointments to female toflveneSv 
rather than to merit — ^we say, those whose minds are predisposed and poisoned 
by tlw iafiuenee of scandalous romours, that spare neither rank, nor sex, nor 
virtue, choose to put a criming interpretation upon what, to others, who are 
free from such influence, conveys no other charge against the individuals in 

K>wer referred to, than what has been advanced against the Marquis of 
aftmgfl himself, via. tliat of yielding to *' an amiable weakness ;** if this is 
to be eositvued ftato a base attack upon those whom every manly mi.id would 
apare, those who put such a breed co.istruction upon It are alone respohsible 
(or the evil they imagine. Honi Moit qui mal y petite. 

Wo are sometimes, however, so unfortunate, as to have differed 
in opinion even from our friends in India, who then threaten to 
surrender us up, a helpless prey, into the hands of our enemies. 
Yet it is quite probahle we may, in such cases, he more correct 
than those on the spot, who are ready to condemn us ; as it may 
sometimes happen that we possess better information than those 
near the scene of action, where either fear, or party feeling, may. 
uduce individuals to withhold what they know from the conductors 
of the pre^, whereas, to us in England, they communicate with less 



• ItaUesfaitheorigfaiaL 



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Jo4 SfffMMty oj t^ 

reserve. An fnstAAce of tbi* YxtA Qttnftth 111 te^*rd t6 tlt^ Bar- 
rackpoof mlitiny : we had tery good reason for statfirg, thaf thfe 
then editor of the ^ Bengal Hnrkar*/ and Depnty Jndgfe Advofeate» 
ibade that paper an ^' organ of the GoTennnent.'^ We know that 
he pat forth, as editor, the informalaon procured in his offidal ci(- 
flaclty ; and had learnt, on good authority, that he vaa desired hy 
the Comminder-in-Ohief , with whom he was on very gracious tttmi^ 
to aader-rate the number killed bi that lamentable transactinri. 
From this eircamstanee^ we felt warranted to infer that a fthnilar 
influepce had an effect upon his ndnd, in tnducinqg htm to defend the 
dreadful carnage committed on that occasion. Be this as it may, 
he MA defend it ; and this constitnted, in our eyes, a very grate 
political ofPetice, which deserved our severest reprobation, fn all 
other respects, (putting aside his system of personality towards the 
coroner oi Calctttin, his tory predilectkins, and casting a veil ov^ 
one or two other passages of his Hfe. marked by hnfnan frailty,*) 
we have ever regarded the public conduct of the late Depiity Juagd 
Advocate of Bengal, as that of a man of high and independent 
character ; feeling that he had a right to stand proudly on the 
C&yht^nee of real merit, conscious Of talent, ^nd r^o!n(e to do or 
flfuffer nothing unwofthy of the gift0 with which nature had endowed 
£im. We regret the unfortunate causes which removed him fvom 
the sitiiatioii to which he might hnfve long beenf a bright ornament ; 
and though we shonld feel An" objection to having the public press 
so entirely in the hands of Government fanctlonaries, whose official 
prejudiceSf or tiioee of their superiors, are thus insidiously commu- 
nicated to the public, we should never expect to see it in the hands 
fif one who aiight he more safely trusted, for using it wHh impar- 
tiality, iMmeoB, and hidependence. 

One of the latest Indian papers furmehes us with some pregnant 
conimpleff of the aocuracy of those local monftors, who ore so rMNl^ 
00 chastise any slin of ours ; thus richly deserving to be remindba 
6f the saying, ^^ First pull the beam out of thine own* eye, and thenf 
Shalt tho^ sec the morecleiHrly to phiek the mote out of thy hrotherVr 
eye:" 

The ' Bombay Courier/ of fhe d6th of November (says the * Bengal ftur- 
iant*) AirnitliM a very ttrtbiug flhistnrtion of the superior aeeiiTaey Chd an- 
the.nle ioforamtioo of the naeHet of authority. The ipomppo* air of olBeial 
eoDseqaence with which It ia announced renders the article particularly 
ibnusi ng at this I^esidency where we hare witnessed, in the actual anivM 
Of the Enterpritt, the most satistkctory demonstration of its ntter AUacy. 
Tfian followiag U the pleoe of faitcMigenec to which we allade : 

Tkejhttoming t^fatmatim itiajf be depended on a$ earreet, 7%^ lon^. 
'" ' .... - ...... ^ ^ G^pd& Hbpe, kwf 

she woe originaUy camtmited kdt been, tkertfore, aban 

TEe readers of the * Bombay Courier* (proceeds t1ie~ ^HorlariT) iRiriTo doSGf 
fcnn a Tery exalted notion or its iaftdtUliiy« whan they receive the jounials 



^tpeeUd ir«am-M«tef, ineieod qf roilmding the Cape- ^ GiPd& Hbpe, kwf 
teac hrr etmree in anUker dh-eetiam IndividnaU eamld ne^ bejemnd n(|E- 
eUtUlg bold to embark om piueengerefar India, and the pmrpotsejor wkitk 

"andoned,'^ 



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latest tuMUgeim/tmihe East iU 

#f tttt PleikiiBey« Miotmfltiit the interesHng etftnt we hate illttded to-«tM 
MriT»l of the BMerprimt^ with d0 less th«n thirieen paeieD^era, end amotifftt 
those a kidjf ! and oar readers and the public at iarye cannot bnt smile at the 
inromation, which " mav be relied on,** that her destination '^ has been 
changed, " when they see her eff the Bankshall. 

So much for th^ authentie intelligence 6f the Indian gazettes of 
authority. But, retorts the • Bombay Courier/ ** let us adyert^ 
for a moment^ to the inaccuracies of the accuretie * Uurkaru."^ 

Ahout a month ago he '>nnoanced that an aagmentation of the Bennl army 
ef twelve regimen s had passed the Council ; but as yet nothing has be^n 
said oa the sui;ject In Oenefal Orders. 

The '• John fiuU' of the l6th 6f D«cembef, stated a fe|>ort bt the ' Feliettae* 
hiviog btunght important intelligence from itangoon, but eontradieted it oU 
the 17th. On the 19th, however, the * Httrkarn* alludes to what we suppose 
the ftaae IntelUgDoeei and has no doubt that the GoTemment Gaaette of that 
ereoing will contain the despatches. The paper of authoHty, however, tip- 
pears, bat is completely blank in respect to the' interesting news from Ran- 
goon. Ag^o, on the 17th the * Htfrkaru' gives us a piece of iatelligencf*, 
th^ the Government had pnrehased the iin$erprixe ($tekm vessel) for 4^40,000, 
and contradicts it again on the I9th. Such is the general accuracy dispUved 
ht the ^ Harkartty* relative to cl. cumstances occurriug in its immediate 
Tieinity. 

Another InStttnc^, ftot mefely of crrdr, biit of wilful and perv^rs^ 
mis-statement, made by an author writing deliberately in India dn 
Indian subjects, with all the opportunities for consulting authorities 
and making^ careful revision before Hendinff his boolc to the pre^s, 
Which the ^itor of a periodical pdblicatioB can seldom do, is given 
ilk this letter of a correspondent, who says :-^ 

One of the most st -pid of all the books lately written in this eountry, is 
nndoubtedly Miyor Oalleway^s veliime on ' The taw and Constitution of 
India ;* and, to say the tiuth^ I co Id read but very little of that most poivr 
derous production. Such mthgaity against the author of the e^tcellent work 
on * Colonial Poliov,' such crude, undigested wrong^eluiedne^s and Ignofance 
of the Urat prittdpMS of political eeonomy in the body of the text, and ftuoh 
Qliabasfaed devotion to the powers that be, 1 never before saw a^sem'^led in 
one poor volume. At first, 1 thought that my partiality fbr long-indul;^ and 
dcep*fOot«d opinions might h^ve uaAtted me for judging of the book ; hut, 
IbrnhMSely for me, Sir John Franks, our chief-justice, who amused liimself 
wHii it on hi* passage out to lodi i. saii, in answer to some inquii y of a fi iend 
on the subject, '* Yes, the anthof is ningnlarly wrong on almost all subjects.*' 
You know there is nothing like authority ; so, with this one, I decline going 
into a eittieisai, of which the wofk is really unworthy ; and thus elese my 



These are the faithful chroniclers of events passing Uf^der their 
f&rf epm^ whO) though so often at fault themselves, rise in full olry 
aptimt us with one a«cord, whenever they detect in our pages a 
statement which may either be partially inaccurate, or, what la 
more probable, contains facts of such a nature, that, though per- 
fectly true, and communicated to us from the most authentic and 
trust-worthy aources, no ona on the spot dares openly avouch or 
d^fead* With all due respect for the lioiiesiyaad judgment of 
the lotti •ditOTi,. we thiak it neoessary to nmiad them that th^y 
•i« Ml ittfiriUhle ; nay, tfcal) notwithstanding theii' locality/out 



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196^ Summary df the 

saurces of int^lligesce must often be better thu tbeinr: lor, men 
living under a despotic government will be canCions what they com- 
mnnicate to editors writing with a sword suspended over their 
heieidsj, who may at any time be called (as they have before ])een 
called on) to surrender up their correspondeuts, on the pain of in- 
stant destruction ; while to us they can comrouricate their thoughts 
freely and fearlessly, knowing that .the enemies of free discussion, 
whoy iii their blind hatred, thought to annihilate it entirely, have, 
by driving us from India, to shift our ground, placed it upon a 
rock which no human power can reach with its inquisitorial prac- 
tices. It is this security which enables us now to probe these sores 
to the bottom, before only slightly touched ; and no degree of 
elamour which may be raised by those suffering under this. nece0r> 
sary and salutary operation shall deter us from doing our duty. 

Central Indja. 
We are now enabled to give the detailed aeconnt of the capture 
of Bhurtpoor, of which important event we were only able to state 
the actual occurrence in our supplementary intelligence last month/ 
The following is the official report contained in the Calcutta 
Government Gazette : — 

Head»qvarter$^ Bhurtpoor, Januarjf 19, 1 820. . 
To the Right Hononmble Lord Amherst, GoTeruor-Geneial, &c, &c. &e% 
Mt Lord,— I have the satisfaction to acquaint yfar LordtsMp, that the 
town and citadel of Bhurtpoor fell yesterday morning to the BrUiah aimy 
under my command. 

Since my despatch of the 11th inst., the whole attention of the Eagineert 
was directed towards the completion of the mines under the projecting baati^n 
on the left, and the north-east angle on the right. 

On the 14ih inst., a mine, under the b stion on the left, was precipitately 
exploded, and failed in its obiact. 1 therefore directed two more mines to be 
diiven into that bastion, w ich were blown on the 16tfa, and, with the aid of a 
day^s battering, an excellent breach was made. 

The explosion of the mine under the north-east angle, at eight o'clock yes- 
terday BomiAg, was the signal for the storm, when the columns, composed of 
Brigadier«Genisral M*€ombe's brigade on the right, and Brigadier Oenenl 
Edwards's brigade on the left, adyanced with the greatest urder, gatlantry, ■ 
and slaadioeaa; and, notwithstanding a determined opposition on the part of 
tlie enaasy. earried the breaches. In the course of two hours, though yfgoN ' 
ously and bravely defended at every gateway and bastion, the whole rampart . 
surrounding the town, together w th the Cfunmaad of the gales of the citsldol, 
were in our possession ; Major-General Nicholls having moved his column 
to the left, uutil he met a detachment of his Mi^esty*8 14ith foot, commanded 
by Major Everard, at the KomLher gate. The citadel was mirrendesed al 
about four o'clock. 

I regret to state that the mine having exploded in an uoexpeeted direction, 
several men of H. M. 14th foot, at the head of. the column of attack, lost their 
lives ; and Brigadier-General M'Comlre, Brigadier Patton^ and Gaplala 
Irrioe, Mi^or of Brigade of Engineers, reeeited sfvve^ contuaioaB. 

Having, direeted Brigadier-Geiieral Sleigh, oovi^uiandlAg' the cavalry, to pt«* ' 
vent the escape of the enemy's troops after the assMt, I tm happy to say 
thalbesMderadMtdiapotitionof hU forces, that hesuocMded In seearioir 



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late9tInteUigeneir/ramikeEaai ld^7 

Dooijna 8«1^ wW« «itb big-wife, two sons, and « hundred end sixty ^hotflft 
bor«e» attempted to force » p«8Wge througli the dth light earalry. 

I ceiuiQjt comi^te the Iom of the enemy at less than 4000 killed ; and, owing 
to the disposition of the cavalry, bardly a man bearing arms escaped. Conse-' 
auently, as by the surrender of the town, all the stores, arms, and ammuni- 
tloB are in our possession, I may say that the whole military power of the. 
Bhnrtpoor sOate has been annihilated. The prisoners, after baying been dis- 
aimecC were set free. 

1 have the pleasure to acquaint your Lordship, that the conduct of every, 
one engaged was uiaiked by a degree of zeal which calls for my unqualified 
ipprobation ; but I must particularly remark the behaviour of H. M. t4th 
reg:iiieat, commanded by Major fiverard, and fiO.h, coromsnded by Major' 
Fuller, these corps having led the columns of assault, by their steadiness 
and determioalion, decided the events of the day. Two companies of the 
1st European regiment, leadiag a small column un Jer Lieut.-Colonel Wilson, 
co-operating with MjOr-Oeneral Nicoll8*s attack,* behaved wi'h equal gal* 
laotry. llie 6th regiment N. I., commanded by Lieut.-Colonel Pepper; one- 
wing of the 4lst, by Major Hunter ; the 28 i, by Lieut.-Colonel N.^tion ; the 
SIst, by Lieat.-Colonel Baddel y ; the 60th, by Leut.-Colonel Bowyer ; - 
the grenadier company of the 85th, and light company of the 87th, which 
corps followed the .Boropeofis in the aasattU, proved themseives worthy 
the diatinguished places they held, as did the Sirmoor battalion, which covered* 
the advance. 

I beg to acquaint your Lordship, that since I assumed the command, of this 
army, I have received the roost etfectual support and assistance from Migor- - 
Oeoeralt Reynell and Nicolls. The eycellent dispositions made by them for. 
the attack, as well as the manner in which they conducted it, entitle them to 
my warmest thanks, and I theiefore beg most strongly to recommend them to 
yunr Lordship's notice. 

Brigidier itfadeod, C.B., commanding the artillery. Brigadiers Hetsler and* 
Browwi, «9 well as every offleer and private of the artillery, performed their, 
ardnoos and fatigui .g duties throughout the siege ia the most uxemplary 
niamwr, and will, I trust, meet with your Lord ship*s approbation. 

B.igadier Anbury, C.B., and the engineer officers, as also the Native office s' 
and privates of that valuable corps, the sappers and miners, and the pioneer 
coi pa. performed the harassing duties allotted to them with a cheerralness, 
courage, and ze 1 which demand my acknowledgments, and I Veg to recrm-- 
meqd themto your .lordship accordingly. The result of our opofations proves 
the efficiency of the Brigadier's plans. 

The services rendered by Brigadier General Sleigh, C.B., commanding the 
cavalry, during the whole siege, have been most important, and I keg to re*, 
conuneod him, as well as Brigadiers Childers and Murray, C.B., to your 
Lordship's notice ; and I cannot pass over in silence the general good and 
aeti^e conduct of the cavalry, and the spirited manner. in- which they volun- 
teered their services when I conceived ^^efore the arrival of the 1st European 
regiment) that it might have bten expedient to employ them in the storm. 

1 mast also bting under your notice Lieut.*Colonel Skinner, and the two 
rcgisneata of Native irregular cavalry under his command, who have jper- 
forved every serviee that has been required of them in a manner which' 
met its Bay eatke approbation. ' 

To Brigadier Genenis Adams, C.B., MacCombe. and Edwards ; Brigadiers 
Whitehall Patton, C.B., and Fagan, my acknowledgments ate due for the 
manner in whieh they have so ably conducted the duties assigned to them, 
and I.tlMffefofie reeoroaaend then to your Lordship's Ikvourable notice. 

I received every atsistance fh)m Major-General Sir Samfoid l¥hittingham 
and Ue«t.*ColeBel MacGregor, Quarter-Master-General and acting Acyetant- 
Oenaral of the Kiog'a troops. 

The emlBMit and lealoni senrioes of Iieat.-ColoDel Watson and Lieut.-. 



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\M SumihMtjl »/ |A# MB0i ti^Mttg^neeJ^m the East. 

Cdhiml UtoVenfeftn^ A^Jtitaiit-GCiieHl iM QtMaPMNntttter^ftMtS ftf IM 
Army, demand my UrBimett hanks, and I beg pArtieHltely to bring UmM ttttdiHf 
yt)Ur Lordship*! notieo^ as also the oAcers of their nupeictlfe departttMBto. 

The arrAngements made by Lieut.-Colonel CuneUfl^, Cotttmlssary-Generiil, 
for the supply of the army. Were most evident, and I have mnch {deasttre lA 
recommending him to ^onr Lordship. 

I also retju'est to brih^ to your LoWlshfp*s UOttce Llent.-Colonel the tTon. 
John Pinch, my Military Secretary, and the officers composing my personal 
staff, from whoin I receired erery idd. 

. The situations in which Lieut, -Colonel Delamalne, 58th N. t. \ Lieut.- ' 
Colonel Wilson, commanding a detachment; Majors Hunter, 41sl N. I. ; 
]$verard, H.M. 14th; l^uller, ft. M. 59 h, and Bisshopp, H.M. I4r1i, wrfe 
placed, gaYe them opportunities for distinguishing themselres, of which they 
took every advantage. Captain TrVine, Major of Brigade of hngineers, alio 
lirought himself under my particular obserratlon during the course of the 
siege. 

Major-tJetteHtls Reynell and NIeolls, and Brigidier General Sleigh, hava 
expieseed their entire salisfoetioo with the assitlltfiee they received from the 
oAeers of their general Mid personal s aff.. 

The retttrtis of killed and woUBded baVe «ot vet been racelved« b«t I ^m 
faappy td be nble lo sate that bey ar^ Isw eoMldedng the servlee on irhie « 
the troops hare been employed. I, however, transmit a return of llie o<loet« 
who ba^e been reported, i regriet that the sertiee has lost three valiiav.te 
officers in Captain AnnstiWng, H. M. litb. Captain Pitman* H. M. Mih, end 
Gaptain Broww, of the Slst regt. N. I., whio fell leadf g their mea «n the 
rtAipartfi. Brtgadier-Oeneral Bd wards, who was wounded gallaAily leeding 
his bfigkde, it sAbo, I Ibar, past recovery. 

I have sent this despatch by my Aide-de-Camp, Captalli D^wklnt, W%o will 
ahR> take two of the enemy's sttsidaiVIs, of wMeh I t^ueat fwat Lotdshf^'s 
a e ewi U hcet, «nd In referriog to Cttptain Daw^ins lof any Asrther tofarsMtion 
wbioi yonr Lordship may reqnifs, I beg to iwCnmnend hiii to your proiee* 
tion. — I have the henovr to l>e, mfy Lord, yov Lordaklp^s llioa* obedtent 
buBsi)te serraot, 

(Signed) Comb bum kas. 

LUi tf OJ^cert JKilled and VtoundeH in the AtsaUtt </ BJUlrepoor, on MU 
IB^ J«iiMar^, 1930. 

KiLLBD^Captain Armstrong, H. M. l4th Foot ( (l^aptcin l^man. It. M. 
ii0th ; Captain Brown, Slst N. L 

WouKDED— -Staff— Bit s^l^r-aenrml IKToin^^, eoifltnahding )ft Mgiflte ; 
Brigadier-General Edwards, commi^ndlng dd Brigade, dangerously ; P t i y ad ie^ 
R. Patton, C.B. Commanding 5th brigade ; Major Beatsoh, D.A.O. ; ChpiM 
Camp' ell, MB. 

ISngi.ieers— Csptain Colvtn ; Captain ttViflfe, M.B. 

Artillery — ^Lieutenant M*Gregor. 

Uth Foot— Lieutenant Stack; L'etTtenam Daly. 

SO h Foot— Lienten nt Long ; Deittc^iant Ho«lori LMitWiftnt 
Mr. Wright, Tohmteer. 

1st Ktiropeah Reginfent-^aplaMk Davktoon; LlenteflMI WmtMI) 
tenant '^vidy. 

88d K. L— Lievt.*Colonel «. Katrtts. 

tlst N. L-4^/aptain HeptbntatH. 

4Ist N. I. — Major George ITuntcnr. 

6Bth N. L— Capt John Hunter; Lleot. Tnrner; Lient. {^msdallie. 

N.fi. This is from private informaiion. no letuni having been reeeived. 

(^gtied) W. C Wat*o*, a. G. 

Poblished by comnumd of the Right Honourable ib6 6o^enior-t3^0hlffiS )ft 
CMnit5tl| ^ • , ^ 

Gbobob Swiktok, See. to the Got, 



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fc,Zl _ ' **** ♦^•»*«W of filmripoor, on ihb 

"""MM «rtW HIjfctHoaobnWle ttu. ra*_^ 

0*o««« SWI»m)Ki 86te to tlfe W«fi 

«*CttKI»rt A1«D «*-«-, ^ 

£A8TERN WORLD. 

*^- m d«« »rthe^^„^*^r&7*'* ""'"*'^ their «*pectlv« 
7«««I»at»D this, hi^Sft«?"Jil**'''"'*''***^«"<'*«^ *ltec«otm 

*w» »a«j/ ift M w'*il*'i\.** "^^ h&i*iir has, however. W.i6e«tlV 

l»»»y, Md Wh^^Sr™"'' * **"*** ftetvairt *f th* iBaSt India. Com- 
^«r iwWr^^*|y * PAi-twter in the jp^At metcahtile lio«*e o< 
•»fc«» hour l;^" V ^'«*'**av J»a6 ei»t«r«sd ihe li^ts *lth tl»e mtmi 
tWnk. rffc^Lj™"?'"*^ *"* »»««« «-««* ; »nd will T*ry prol>fcl»\5^, we 
Thert&i^ufi^ *** ***^ ftl»l*earte« in «,« iSeM before hit«. 
« «m»mr ! *? l*if. Windiaate* W ^H b* rthdily ftdMiHt«d. Btat it 
«li«n««I^i!*iII********* *'*'«i-e ie nbnniMl tooxA f*r l>en«fiel«l 
ttty ofA »»««fet««»n. To aay ilotMbi; of the nV>t«Ho«ui « nc^p«t- 

|I«M nf k^** **'* ''*"' **^ *•** ordinary qnaliiicBtions foT ftwy 
SbaI, '•®*'*'*^* *»'*i*«* "^ itettri^reHMlrk, xt^ to«e^ ttren- 
of«i3*"*J*'*'*"**>'** sh»^ -hxt^ little «ftine»Br<«*t W* discliArec 
ml 2;^2!/***«» " cdteaidetfiJd necessary iit An Bast India ]>ir«ctor 
fe trj^^ «e«Wid A Riftn mcty vemfcin loiif aft«r «ach Ijttrcat. i1 
»**^ "*****• pobswwted. it, !»•* vitaWy awd undeniably ^rtks*et 

lt»«.i '*¥«r Vill, perhaps, rcimeinber In One, oF our •pire*--*^?^ 
7»Ktlie publication of a^Oirc^lar, addressed to tWProori JV«, 
V ™?' India Stock geuera-lly, and '.'«"«^ ^X tlie whole l»«>^y ' 
w Directors, recommendixigr certain individuals, on wlia.t is <-«^\, 
J««»ffpu8e List, for re-election to ^Tie Direction. He ^vill^ »e 
"P'l aljd reineinlBer Iw-o separate Circulara, bn« algnecl "t>y g 



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140 Mhmts in Europe 

George Aberorcmbte Bobinaooi and tlie other by Mr. Bebb^ eadi 
reconuoending in the strongest terms their respective h,yovB6.t/6 to 
the sereral electors, whom they knew would attend rather to their 
dictation thaa to the sober exercise of their own judgments. The 
fact of Mr. Bebb affecting thus to patronis&e and bring into the 
Direction any particular individual was, the sul^ct of genenJ re- 
mark at the time, inasmuch as it was thought by most persons that 
he himself had long since ceased to be qualified for the post he 
held, and ought, in common deference to public opinion, to have 
retired. Those who thought thus, however, could not have re- 
flected on the tenacity with which men adhere to the possession of 
patronage and power, clinging more closely to it as it seems to be 
in danger of eluding their grasp, and ceosentiog to relinquish it 
only with life itself. 

The continuance of Mr. Hudlestoue and Mr. Elphinstone in 
ofice, the former long after hie health had compelled him to reside 
at a distance from London, the latter long alter he was confiaed 
by age and infinnity to his own residence, are events of but yeater^ 
day. But the ease of Mr. Bebb is still more rem|irkahle than 
either of these. Besides his general inoapacity far basHiessy 'front 
age and the ordinary infirmilaes of advanced life, he has been for- 
some time past equally deprived of the faculty of heairiag and of 
sight. He can neither profit by verbal discussion nor by wdtlen 
arguments. Both the focts and the reasonings of every measure 
on which his vote is required must be equally unknown to him. He 
is so physically helpless as to require to be led about on horseback 
by a groom, when he takes the slow exercise necessary to sustain 
his sinking health ; and so mentally weak as to be literally incapi^ 
ble of taking the part which one, in the full exerdse of such vast 
power as a I>irector possesses, ought to be able to take in the con- 
sideration of the varied and important subjects that require his 
decision. Nevertheless he still retains his seat in the Dihnection, to 
the great regret of all who wish to see that body effidently filled, 
and certainly to the great scandal of those who have not .a sutficient 
iiegard to their own reputation to urge this infirm and Afflicted old 
man to retire. 

The excuse set up for their not doing so is sufficient to .show 
with what views they enter, and on what principles they act when 
they are once fairly seated in, their plaeea. It is uoged that the 
patronage of a Director is as much his private propinty aa tiie fees 
and emoluments of the inferior clerks in ofice ; and that without 
some act of criminality it would be unjust, on the mere score ofy age 
and. in capacity, to urge any one to give it up. They fire wi.se 
enough in their own generation to knpw, that if this n^le were 
generally adopted, the greater portion of the whole body \irould be 
changed ; and they are, therefore, prudent, in the ojdinu^ sense of 
the term, in not setting the example ; as, if once begu^, no one can 
toy where it may end« They leave such resignation'or retirement^ 



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etmneeted with ike Baatem fTarbL 141 

therefore, entirely to the individual lunucflf; aod lie, it is said; 
though not iiiflteiisihie to the disrepute brought on the whole body 
by the superannuated selfishness thus exhibited by an influential 
melnber of it, still clings,' with the most immoveable obstinacy, 
to thi^ post for which he has been so long disqualified, because the 
patiiotiage of the year is not distributed among the Directors until 
October, amd he remains to take his share of this before he can con 
sent to retire ! 

We bave not adverted to the personal infirmities of this gentle- 
man from any feieling of private dislike, or with any view to the 
gratification of evil passions. It is at all times a melancholy spec- 
tacle to witness the decay of life, and the gradual passing of old 
age into decrepitude. When there is nothing that peculiarly marks 
this change, the very sight of it engages the best sympathies of our 
natnre, and we not only conceal the mention of it from others, but 
do ail w« canto soothe the sufierer himself. The sensations ex- 
cited are for otherwise, however, when, instead of the quiet decency 
and disregard of worldly things which ought to mkrk such a period 
of decliao, we see an insatiable' grasping after more power, more 
piaees, and more patro>nage,*-thoagh years of full enjo3rment have 
been already passed, ih which the most greedy appetite might have 
been satisfied. It is this which men of all opinions must silently 
condemn ; and it is, therefore, a matter on which all whose duty 
eaya ^en to express that opinion publicly, may be fairly justified 
in pronouncing the censure which they think it deserves. 

Board of Control. 

The following announcement is made in the ' liondon Gazette,' 
under date of June 2, 1826 ; . 

Whitehall, June 9. 

The King h«s been pleased to direct letters patent, to be passed under the 
great seal of the united kinj^dom of Great Britain and Ireland, consti uting 
■od appoiatiog the Right Hon. Charles Watkin Williana Wynn ; Henry Earl 
Balharst, Koif^t of the Most Noble Order of the Garter, the Right Hon. 
George Canning, and the Right Hon. Robert Peel, his Majesty's three Piia- 
cipal Secretaries of Stale ; Robert Banks, Earl of Liverpool. Knight of the 
Most Noble Order of the Garter, First Commissioner of his Ma.iestv's T^ea- 
•nry ; the Right Hon. Frcderink John Roblnso \ Chancellor of his Majesty's 
£icch«(}iiar ; Arlhnr Dnke of Wellington, Knight of rhe Most Noble Order of 
the Oar er : James Brownlow William Marquis of Salisbury ; John Baron 
T Ignmonth ; the Right Hon. John SulliYan ; the Right Hon. Sir George 
Warrender, B*wt. ; Joseph Phillimore. Doctor of Laws ; and William Yates 
Pferl, jE^« his Majesty's Commissioners for the aflhira of India. 

OftiENTAL Literature. 
Dr. Gilchrist has, during the past month, bronjjht under the 
notice of the Court of Directors a Resolution of theirs, passed last 
year, of a nature so highly injurious, that we should be disposed to 
make it the subject of severe comment, unless we had understood 
that it is no^ yirtuaUy abrogated. The Resolution in question 
had been inserted in some few copies of their * Bed Book/ but 



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Hi Events iff fi^HPf f^ni^Hi ¥«% % J9««|ta*fi fTorld. 

gtm^M m (M Pm(» w if Its i^fithpry rMM^nf^ Ufc^visa 9^ tht^ 
%kQ^gkt^ •f p4)>li9hiflg to the world «o glaring ^ joh %• tl^ new 
literary ii|0|iflpi^y» Having, by aopide^t, faHen upon a copy of thff 
)xH)lr paittaining tbi9 iiigi^Fe pi^^ 9f tb<^ Honoorable PirectqiB, wa 
hara pre^arvpitj 
Ai » Coart of Diraetprp, Md op WeaaMdty, tbe 19t|| qf Aaffust, 18aa, 
lUsolTed— That tlio p«r«Qt4 ta^ friea^ ^ «a4«t» f9c tlip Gomptay'f ar-; 
tillery and engineer corps be eacouraged to place their yquof me^ from 
fourteen to seventeen years of age, either iind^r Dr. Andrew, of Woodford 
WelU, or Dr. Firminger, of Edmonton ; w)th the vldv of fotvardiiipr them, as 
«uieh M pofsible^ is tboff )>nioc|)ap of odaMt|w wIMi tl«ey wUl havo Hi 
pursue at Addisoombo. 

Th^t the above two establishn^ents fonndep6t9, from which the Compi^By'^ 
military seminary be ip ratnre completed ; and thut, di|rlng the pre« are of a 
want of officers', refefence be always made to these depdts Mfore vacaacies •! 
the seminary arci filled up by strangers. 

That the yowig gentleman remain at iMst «lz months at ooa of the dtpdts* 
piofioas to boilig palled aweir iSor wwiiw^io* at AdfUsficwnbe,; ond thit, fit 
t}iA (expiraiioa pf that period, they \» ta]^en \u succ^ssiuo M wanted ; but, if 

?fpt found qualified, they be retunie4 to tn^ depOt for a further period qf at 
east three months. 

That,' as an encouragement to cadets tb exerolse dne dtUgenee, both at tho 
dspats, and sabwqneatly at the Gpinfiaay*e soipinary* U bo kM oat to Iho 
eado^, that if they pas^ t||oir public exai)iii|ation tfi the entire satisiact'oa of 
toe o^iUtary semioary eo|nmiitee, within eighteen months of joining the se- 
minary, aii4 actually proceed to India as artillery or engineer cadet«, but not 
otherwise, they be complimented with ^M to defray tbeir six nsoath«' prepo^ 
mtory edncation t but that, if they pa«f wHhia tv^vo UMplhs, tboy bp o0oi^ 
plimented with #70 towards the like expeoses. 

That no cadet be admitted from these dep6ts without a certificate from the 
masters thereof of their good eharacter, loothict, tad application to study, with 
a dtclaratioo of tbeir having pal4 ^P all pxpentet incurred bj the|r prepora- 
tory instniction under them. 

Th It, in the event of the seminary not being completed from t^^ese two 
dep'^its, recourse be the;} h^ to the individual jiominations of the court a; at 
present ; thi^t those who can pas^ be received, and those who cannot pass be 
seat to one or other of thes/e d(?pots for a period of pot less Ih'^n thr^c months 
to qualify themselves; but thit, in all casps, these auxiliary cadets havo 
prl.01 ily of Admission into Addincombe, when qualified, oyer new pr sulMequent 
UQipiuatioos ; and 

That it bo left exolusively to tha parents to select the d^^p^t tp w)i|ch tliey 
wi)l send their s.bnp, apoordiog to their ability pf iiiclJAatlon iji ma^t^r^ of 
expense. 

Now the simple Bn|^l!8hof all ihia is, that a premiiiai,8t Iho rateaf 

|!50 or £7p for eaicb pupi^ b^ gi^en fro^ tbeCompaiiy's treasury to 
Messrs. Andraw and Farmioger, for taking a number of youQg men 
ufider their charge for a few montba* e4ucation» Without meaning to 
thrp\y any dispamgement on the merits of tlif se worthy doctors, or 
qi^estioulng their cjaims to the favour of the Company^ (vh)ch is so 
careful of the^r interests as to admit no cadet without a certificate 
that their expenses are all paid up !) we sbould think it e^icepd^ 
ingly injudicious thus tfi create ^ iponopply lyhicb would take away 
tb.e stimalus to exertion )n other men of learning who may cul^vat'a 
the Oriental languages with the hope of making them a source or 



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JS^^iiaii(m ^f ths F^p^ M^rim iS^ho^- 148 

mohumfnt by qitalifyiDg yooiif ineB for t^ Pompiioy'^ aefvice. 
Pren with tl|i9 induceiBent, at present no doubt opemtiog to some 
extent, it ia a reproach to this country, having so intimate a con- 
DectioQ with the £ast| that Oriental learning is so mupb P^glect§d« 
Any tueb monopolar will fie? t^ly inereaae the e?il« 



EXAMIT«ATION OF THE VSPERY MISSION 8eHeO|.8 OF THE SOCIETf 
FOR PBOHOTIVO ^PftI9nAN.I(9rQWl4£PG£. 

{Fr^m % Mqdra4 Qmrnm^ Qa^ftU qftkpSOth December, 1834 J 

The i^nqaal exiuntnation of Xhe Tunil and English schools of the mission 

of the Society for promoting Christian knowledge |rt Vepery, took place otl 

Saturday last ^Chri^mas eve) In the New Clyafch, and Was honoured by the 

presenge of Lady Monro, the Honourable 8tr Ralph Palmer, the Honourable 

Mr. Tayior, the Venerable the Archdeacon, the clergy at the Preeideacy. and 

nfwy ledlea aad gentlemen of the settlemeet. The examination of the Tamil 

school, eonsiating of 04 lioys and 49 girls, ifas conducted by the Reverend 

Dr. Itottler ; tad the Reverend W. Roy, aootor ohaplaio at the Presidenny, 

ebllginfly andertook the duty of examining and catechisiag the Bnglish 

dasaee, c«>mposed of 140 boys nnd 77 girls. Medala and miner revards weie 

diittlbuted to the ehildren who had distinguished themselves during the year 

by exemplary dillgeoee or general good aondtict ; and at the conclusioo Lady 

Mamro was kindly pleased to confer a particalar mark of distiBctioD on t|ie first 

boy Md l^st girl e# th0 QsgUsd ssHoel, hy preaepiiiig eiieh with a bible and 

pmyer«book, elegantly bopad, and also hepks coetaining se|s of instru(sliTe 

stories. The fshildren then retnmed le their respective school-ropms, where 

the Tidlofs were much iptsrested in viewing the diffefeqt employments Id 

icbeot exercises, needles-work, book-hindlog, printing, cuttiog and casting 

types. The seeuiaey and quieknesH with which the sefpral exerqises werii 

performed In all the branehes of the examinatipn s0bi^ the mpst pleasing 

proof of the sneoess which cpptinnes to follow the persevering efforts of. the 

reverwnd mission ries entrusted with the oue of this yalua^lp institution : 

and we heartily ooagratalate them op the happy result of their pnxious anj 

piMW labours. The interest of the scene wss much increased by the ciicum* 

stance of the examination being held for the first time in the new chyrch, 

vluoh was opeped ft>rt)ie eccasion. The buildipg, wliich is s Gothic structure, 

sad of Isfge dimstisions, was muph sdmi.pd for the suita' leness of its archir 

taibtnre, ami for its simple elegance ; and we have great pleasure in giving a 

plaee here to the inscription, v)iich appears on s stooe slab ai the principal 

antra ;ee of the church. 

*i The Apfl sttQse of this saere4 Edifioe was Isid on the 8th day of Pecemher, 
iftSS, ift ^ reiga of bM most gmions Mpje^^y King George IV., ^ the gg. 
varmaeni of Atajor-Qeperal Sh- Thomas Mupfo, Bart. K. C. B. The venerably 
Rociety for promotipv phristian Knowledsre, at the earppst solid tatiofji of the 
pioos and lereraad Thpmss Fanshsw jyiiddieti>.n, ftrst Bishop of Calcutta,, conr 
tiibated principally to the expense of the buildipg, which was cprnplefed by 
theaDaiiiice.nMbei?4ity of the Honourable East |t)dia Company of Engird, 
188&. Mo Law, 4rchitecr." ' 

Another correspondent, who was present St the examination, hii$ pbHgfng)y 
i^ MS the £olloirlog nodc^ :'-r- 

" We had the gratification of witnessing, on R^tur^ay tost, the opening <^ 
the new church erected at Vepery. for the use of the mission of the tenerable 
Society for prroiotiag Christian Knowledge, 



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144 E^aminaHim of the Fepery MiuUm SchooU. 

'* The old church has long been fanxA Tery inedequftte to the proper ■eeom- 
iBodfttioii of the congregation ■saembling there, and has fallen greatly to decay. 
The Madras district committee, therefore, anxions for the weliare and efllcieacy 
of the society *s ancient establishment at Vepery, solicited the assistance of 
the parent society at home, and their representations being most earnestly sup- 
ported by the lato Lord Bishop of Calcutta, a liberal grant of money was im- 
mediately Toted, whicb, aided by the bounty of the Madras goTemraent, has 
enabled them to raise an edifice, which is highly ornamental to this city, 
and which, when the fir ting up of the interior his been completed, will be 
erery way sui able to those holy purposes to which It is to be appropriated, 
mad worthy of the Yenerable sociely under whose auspices it has, by God!j 
blessing, been erected. 

** The chunch Is built in the style of architecture usually demoninated 
Gothic. The roof is supported by pointed arches, which rest upon light and 
elegant coVumns ; at the western end is a small tower; the traoery of the 

X»len Jid window at the eastern end is highly finished and extremely beautifnl. 
odwe most sincerely congratulate all parties, eoneeined In th choice and 
execution of the plan, on the sucoess which has attended this first attempt to 
introduce into the ecclesiastical eiifices in this Presidency, a style of building 
•o peculiarly adap ed to the solemn uses of the sanctuary. 

'.' The annual public examination of t' e children edooaled in the Bnglisb and 
Tamil schools of the Vepery mission, which was held in the church, sad which 
rendered the occvion of its opening to public inspection yet more highly in- 
teres lag. exhibited a scene calculated to excite the most pleasing sensationa 
in every benevolent mind. The number of children examined waa, we beliere, 
little sliort of 8M>. These are receiving the blessings of a Christian education, 
and, we hope, are in a course of preparation for becoming useful members of 
society and heirs of eternal life. Some of them are clothed and supported frooi 
Aands placed at the disposal of the nsisaiott. 

*' Lady Munro, in the most obli^ng manner, did the eooaiiltee the heiioar 
of being present during the examination. The Hon. the Chief Jnatioe. tlie 
Hon. Mr. Tsylor, the Venerable the Archdeacon and the eletgy, awl a large 
proportion of the ladles and gentlemen of the Freiideney, also at te n de d. After 
the children had joined in pimyer and praise, the examination took plaee, a ly 
conducted by the Rev. Mr. Roy, s *nior chaplaia. assisted by the Rev. Dr. 
Rottler and the Rer. Mr. Haobroe, the society's miasionnries ; and t*^e state 
of proficiency to which many of the children appeared to have attained, nnder 
the Madras system of education, wis not less gratifying to those who had the 
happiness of beholding it, than creiitaUe *o the reverend misaieearles by 
whose ability and seal these cheering results have, under the ikveer of Divine 
Providence, been produced. 

' *•*• Medals and rewards of books, and other nsefiil articles, were aflerwarda 
distributed amongst the liest proficients in the various classes and deparlmeofa 
by Laiy Munro ; who, in addition to the honorary distlnetlofls ceMferved by 
the society, was pleased to present, to the best boy and the beet girl ie ap e c - 
tlvely, a very handsome bible and prayer-book. 

*' Af>er haviuflT quitted the church, her ladyship'and the visitors proceeded 
to view the printing-office, type-foundry, and the various work-shopa of the 
society. Specimens of needlework, knitting, writing, printing, book-binding, 
Ac. prepared by those employed on the mission premises were exhibited, after 
whicn the company separated, expressing the most unqualified approbation at 
the scene they bad had the satisfaction of witnessing.'* 

The committee for building the church originally consisted of— the Rer. 
W. Roy ; Richard Clarke, Esq. ; John Qwatkin, Esq. ; Miyor Rundall ; 
Gapain Mountford ; and John Goldingham, sen., Esq. 
Y' After the death of Captain Mountford, the Rev. R. W. Mooneoi wae i 
Dated a member of the commltlee. 



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145 



rUBUO MEBTING AT THE THATCHED HOUSE. 

On Satarday, June 8, % public meetinfr was held %t ^e ThatchAd House 
TaFeni* St. Jamea'a-street, puisuant to the following notice : 

PcBUc Mebting this DAY.^-Lord John Russell, M.P. in the Chair.—- 
The object of the Helect Committee, appointed by the House of Commons, to 
inqhire into and report on the c se of Mr. Buckingham, having been entirely 
defeated by the proroga ion of Parliament, before their labours could hie 
brought to a close, a Public Meeting will l:e held This Day, at the Thatched 
Hoase TaTem, St. James's, at two o'clock, for the purpose of considering 
whether aoy further measures can be taken to avert the impending calamities 
which threaten to overwhelm Mr. Buckingham, by the severe and dispropor- 
tionate pmHriunent to which he has been subjected, without trial, and without 
aeces^iry, by the Government of India. On this occasion, the attendance of 
all ESnglishmen, who feel an interest in preventing: a fellow-countryman fiom 
. beiii^ crushed and ruined by an arbitrary destruc^ioil. of property, alto^ther 
nnprecedeated in English h^ory, is earoesdy solicited. 

Although this notice had been issued only two days before, and the period 
was extremely unfavourable, from the circumstance of almost every one coii- 
oeeted with public life having le t town in consequence of the approaching 
elTctfons, yet, before theappointel hour, the great room was com^Jetely 
tiled with most respectable company. 

Do the motion of Mr. Hume, seconded by the Hon. Douglas Kinnaird, 
LORD JOHN ftUSSELL was called to the chair. 

Dr. OffLcaftiBT begged leave, before the proceedings comasenced, to deliver 
a asMi»9e from the Hon. Ramaay Maele, who had desired him to state that 
he WW prereeted frera attending the meeting by boain as which required hia 
imasedirtle pieeanee in Scotland ; and to add that but for this he onld have 
beea h ppy tocoow forward on the occasion, to prove himself the firm friend of 
retioMl lijerty, and thedelermed foeof every thia|r^ ^^ "^R^ °^ oporeaaioii. 

LoKB J«R» RvssBU. then apoka nearly as follows :— Gentlemen, I beUeve 
that I iMive been requested to take the chair on this occarion, because U was 
my Ibftaae to present to the House of Commons a petition from Mr. Baeh" 
highas, prayiog for redress, and because a committee having been appoiatad 
on mj mttUm, to inquire into that gentleman'a case, I.wajJioirfoated chair 
■an of it, Mid have conseiuently heard all the evidence which has beea. pro. 
ducei;and which, thorgh not brought to a conclualon, sUll exleadcd to 
MMMlJeMbto length whilst the committee sat. I am, ®(,<^"'^ poaaeaaloo 
of the fKts whiSi were lai before the committee, aud if it can be of aay va- 
lue to Mr. Buckingham, I am prepared to state, *^»S ^^^^^..'f^f^^^^V 
listeae to lOl that transpired in that committee, my <>P»***^" ^**'® «Jf **^P 
•uflerei by Mr. Buckingham is, instead of *»«»".if. 7^^,!^' "^f*^^^^ 
•treogt^^ed by the experience and knowldge wluch ^ >;»"f^*^'J^J^'lV*'^r 
rJ^««e.J With reJpect to the constl utional quc^Uon < t^^^ 
Lit which Mr. Backingbam has suffered Uom the I°fJ'^/*"7^^r»™f I 
conceive that Parliament liavi.,g decided on the P-J^^P'^Jtlnl^ dS^ «io« '?.^ 
inqui.y into it, and as it probably will again ?«?:f. ^^fL^^J^"^^^^ 3> J» 
acta proper subject for the consideration of this mee^in^.^ 



abject lor me con8iuor»iaw.. w. - — .^„^--_ i;,---, «n«»m«»»«.^~V " 
m^hi^io «>nrider to. the great l-rd'MP' "IS'^^X fr^ra^SSwo^^^^ 
Mr. B«cklnghMi. in consequence otjo^^^^J^^^ ^^l^^^^K ^ny 
Utme to Mm. to. In my opinion, highly '»?"»?'•„? »5^VM«rfM^«J«?"* 
jeH^tJy ^Bformable «o'thSj|e rule, -f --^^'^JllTp'SnXX^ 

Oritnial Herald, Vol. 10. ^ 



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146 Public Meeting at he Thatched House. 

the possession of talents which would probably hare enabled him to acquire 
m foitune in anv of thos^ ¥ariotts.patbs which.itis wellkiH>wn, India opens to 
m man of enterpiise and ability, tt happene i, however, that Lord Hastings had 
about tliat peiiod abolished the censorship of tlie press, and the cry of a " free 
press*' resounded Ihrough India. This cuv, so animating to the earaof |^ man 
ix>m and bred in Kugland, enticed and allured Mr. Buckingham, and be was 
induced to undertake the conducting of a newspaper, by which he hoped !o 
promote firee discussion, to advance the cause of rational knowledge, and to 
promote the geneial improTement of that great portion of the British empire, 
whilst, at th:; same time, he consulted the inter- sts of his own fortune. In 
consequence of transactions which I need not now detail, the Indian Ooyerri- 
nent considered that a free press, Instead of being useful, was injurious, and 
issocd an order for the removal of Mr, Buckingham from India. That, how- 
aver, is not the greitest hardship of Mr. Buckingham's case: the peculiar 
-hardship is, that, after he had left India, in the. full confidence that the pro- 
perty which he left behind him was secure unrler the protection of the laws, 
it was, flrom no finult of his own, but by a series of measures, wholly origl- 
oatiag with others, utterlf destroyed -; and the competency which he ha^ 
aeqniied by his tidents and industry was altogether overwhelmed by one 
single wave, and sunk and buried In the oeean. (Hear^ hear,) This is a case 
^bich calls for the sympMhy of the pepple pf Sngland,. they should feel that 
ope of their oountryroea residing in a, distant part of the gloliii, but at the 
same time retaining the feelings ,of an Englishman, and ruined, for acts on 
•qcQunt of ^hich no^ blame ean be imputed to him* is entitled to expect that 
those who happen to be placed in a more fortunate situation tBtn hims If, 
should fit least come forward to support him under Ms misfortunes. fAp' 
ptaute.) There is but one reason which could induce us to witlihold oip 
support from an individual labouring nnder such a calamity. This reason 
would etist if Mr. Backingham, In the coune of his connection with the 

Cisi in India, had abused his privilege of communicating knowledge to hfs 
low men by convertlog his ptper into a vehicle for personal slander, and 
had disgraced himself by a fhctions opposition, exhibiting not so much a Jnst 
Indignation at oppression as malignity against those in authority; but tor my own 
Bairtj having lately had an opportunity of reading all the articles published in 
Mr. Buckingham's Jonmal, which vrere particularly foniid ftmlt with by the 
Indian Oovemment, I can undertake to say that there is not one of those 
•articles, although they must have all been written and inserted in the hurry In- 
separable from the publlcatioin of a daily paper, which not only does not 
reflect the dightett stain upon the character of the writer, bnt are such as 
would do hononr to any man possessing an honest veal for the weUkre of the 
oommnaity in which he lifed, and such as, there is every reason to believe, 
weie written and pnbllshed with a perfect conviction on the part of the anthdr 
and Mblisber, that he was serving the eanse of truth, and was, therefor^, 
entitled to the thanks of his fellow subjects, and the approbation of a wise 
and l>enevolent gover'iment, (Appkaue.) I will not now trespass further on 
your attention, aa there are others present more fhlly possessed of the parti- 
onlars of Mr.Backingham*s case, who will address you on the subject. (Loud 
ifplamte.) 

The Hon. Douglas tCiNirAinn.>-A resolution has been put into my han^s to 
move, which I will take the liberty of reading before I offer any observations : 

** Resolved— That the case pf Mr. Bucmngham appears to this meeting to 
be one of such unusual hardship and i^nmerited severity, as to give him tl|e 
strongest claim on the benevolent sympathies of his JTeilow countrymen ;. and 
every other avenue of hope for immediate relief being now nnfortunnlely 
alosed, they earnestly solicit the U.eral contributions of the British Publia |n 
his behalf, in order to repair, in some ^f^ffree, the ruin of his fortunes, niid to 
jOMue his (kmily from impending destruction.** 

1 helleve that Mr. Buckngham's c^e is now sifKclently known to tie 
British public to command their sympathy fbr the misfortunes which haye he«Q 



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Public Meeting at the Thatched House. U1 

Vonght upon himsetf and Ws family. Mr. Bnckingrftam' Is ^tititleitij sjHfl*' 
palhy,' as a'gentlemali of onimjpeached character, who is suffering tiBder a p^ 
calamity, without being in any degree the author of his own misfortTAe^.' 
9ut ,there are peculiar c{rt;umstances attending hfs ease, which Would render 
an extension of public sympathy productire of more good^ thain, I belieTe, ever' 
could haye attended any similar measure before. Mr. Buclting^ara is at this 
moment the victim of the ac's of power Which emanate from th^ country, but 
is placed t such a distance from his t>ppressor8, that the terrible and cruel 
effects of its exercbe cannot be conifoUed by the mere expression of public 
opinion here ; and it is admitted by the Government at hpme, that they would* 
^ther sacrifice individuals, than cast any censure upon the conduct of Its 
officers abroad. Mr. Buckingham has, at a very great expense, at the sacrifice 
of much money, as well as time and labour, gone before the constimted au- 
thorities in this country — ^the Privy Council, the Court of Directors, a^d 
the Bk>ard of Control, — appealing to each of them against the conduct of thte 
Indian Government. But the result of nil his labours shows that it wiH In 
future be absurd for ahy oppressed individual to appeal to any of ttiose autho- 
rities for redress : for they reply, thai the constitution of the Indian Govem- 
ment is such, that it is impossible to censure auy one of its acts. On that 
ground it is that Mr. Buckingham has been refused redress. There is not an 
individual Director who would not, with all his heart, make Mr. Buckingham' 
some compensation for his unmerited sufferings, but for this reason. There M 
not an individual in the Direction, with whom I ever conversed on the sub- 
iocs who did not say^hat Mr. Buckingham's was one of the hardest cases he 
had ever heard of. They all .acknowledge that they have not a word to say 
amnst bim as a man and a gentleman ; they would willingly meet him on 
frienldy terms in a private room ; ** but,'* say they,- ** if we afford him redress 
— if we save him from destruction, we pass censure upon the despotic power ex- 
ercised ten thousand miles off, and that we dare not do.*' (H^ar^ kear^ hear.y 
Th re are 40,000 Englishmen living under that despo'.ic power ; and it is me- 
lanchoiy to think how many re'urn home possessed of rreat wealth, with their 
ninds not only tainted, but paralysed, by the baneful influence of the arbitrary 
role which they have been accustomed to see exercised around them. The 
only means of counteracting tliis evil, is to be found in the powerful efforts o^ 
the free press of this country. What the British public is now asked to do, 
U in furt berance of this object ; and not merely to enable Mr. Buckingham to 

Sy his cflebts, and to relieve him from the painful burthens which now weigh 
wn himself and his -family. Mr. Buckingham, being denied the liberty of 
f (peaking to his countrymen in India through the pres> established there, came 
t^me, and in the tali confidence that the valuable property which he had left 
behind him was perfectly secure, he embarked his supposed fortune in a pub- 
iicatioD here, contracting engagements to the ex'ent of four or five thousand 
pounds* nnder the idea that he possessed property in India to more thin e ght 
times that amount. I'his publication is now the only fair channel of commu- 
nication between the two countries ; it is the only instrument by which the 
wrongs done in India can be made known, bo'h to the public thttre and to the 
people of England ; and it is the only means by which we can hope that the 
vices of the Indian system of government will be corrected. Mr. Buckingham 
poMessea the aymptthy of nearly the whole of the community in India, 
ibiHigh they dare no' express it« Our countrymen there, notwithstanding the 
despotism under which they live, qaonot easily forget the liberal sentiments 
whil4l they imbibed ^ their native land ; and the^ will rejoice to see us come 
forward to enable Mr. Buckingham to extricate himself fiom the difficulties in 
w^icb be has been pbinged, in consequence of his uniba'ed zeal in their cause ; 
and to make him the instrument, through the *^OrienUU Herald,* of npTea6\n% 
useful intelligence in India, and procuring for the millions uiider our rule there 
the blessings of a good government, wl\'ch have always bipen the ^reat object* 
of Mr. Buckingham's life. — (Cheert.) — Under these cii-cumstances, I say, thkt 
to enable Mr. Buck'ngh^m to fulfil his engagetncnt^, will be not only doing 
an aet of Justice to him, and of pleasure to oonelves, bdt will at the same 

L9 



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148 PmUie MeeUng ai the Thaiehed Hauie. 

time be doiag one of the greeleitpoetible eeU of public atifitfi bj rapporting 
the only channel of free communication between this country and InduL Mr, 
Buckingham's friends have not made this appeal to public sympathy on hie 
behalf, until erery other attempt to obtain compensation for the wrongs 
which he has suffered haTe failed. The East India Company hare re> 
fused to grant him the sum of if6,000 out of their ample funds, although 
this was but a small proportion of his losses, and although, there is no 
Director, w'th whom I hare ever conyersed, who does not acknowledge 
that he ueyer heard of a stain upon Mr. Bucliingham*s character. All that he 
could be charged wiih was ** contumacy,'* (I think that is the word,) in not 
obeying the " warnings** to abstain fiom writing freely in India. To talk of 
writiag freely, howeyer, would seem absurd ; for if I were to ciuo'e the ar- 
ticles which were so eonsidered in India, and there thought inaicatiye of a 
desire to oyertnm the Goyemment of that country, there is not a gentleman 
present who would not laugh in my face. I will giye only one example : 
a Dr. Bryce, n Scotch clergyman at tba head of the Presbyterian church, was 
lyipointcd to the ofllce of Clerk of the Stationery, whereupon Mr. Buckingham, 
in a yery good^iumoured manner, suggested that the appointment was incora- 
M ible with the sacred character of the reverend gentleman, and for doing this 
Mr. Buckingham was sent from India. (Htar^ hear,) It is material to mark what 
followed. The principal members of the Church of Scotland decidedly dis- 
approved of the conduct of Dr. Bryce, in having thus degraded his cluth by 
accepting the appointment in question ; and the Court of Directors felt it ne- 
cessary to send out orders for the removal of the reverend gentleman from his 
office, in which the Board of Control concurred ; and yet Mr. Buckingham, 
for his merely commenting on the impropriety of the appointment thus subse- 
quently condemned and annulled, was sent out of India, without a trial, a 
hearing, or any of the usual formalities of law. (Hear, hear, hear,) The other 
subjects of complaint against Mr. Buckingham were equally frivolous with 
that which I have mentioned. Lord Hastings, whilst he remained in India, 
was frequently spplied to by the Members of his Council to send Mr. Buck- 
ingham away. On those occasions, public and official letters were addressed 
to Mr. Buckingham, but Lord Hastings was always satisfied by the judldous 
reasoning wl h which that gentleman supported and maintained the positions 
he had advanced. It has been said, that Lord Hastings, if he had remained In 
India, would have found it necessary to banish Mr. Buckingham, as had been 
done by hii successor. But I have it under Lor Hastings's own hand, that 
Mr. Buckingham never wrote anything, and he (Lord Hastings) beMeved he 
never would have written anything, which could induce him to resort to so severe 
a measure. (Hear, heart) I *itate thi> under his Lord«hlp*s own hand, and 
with his antlmrity to nmke it public. For my own part, having had frequent 
and almost uninterrupted personal intercourse with Afr. Buckingham, from the 
moment of his arrival in this country up to the present period, I can declare 
t at I never met with a gen leroan who, under the difficulties and distresses 
wi h which he has had to contend, behaved with more constancy and upright- 
ness, or showed a greater di'^position to behave in a fair and cencillattfiy man- 
ner. (Hear, hear!) It is not a little to his credit, that after standing before 
the public eye for so long a period, with the most searching scrutiny applied to 
every incident of his public and private life^ no roan can lay his hand upon his 
heart and point out any one of his acts, as dishonourable. (Land appknue,) 
On every ground, therefore, he is entitled to the sympathy and support of 
his countrymen in England, as well as in India. 

The hon. gentleman concluded with moving the resolution which he read at 
the commencement of his speech. 

Mr. Huve.— It was not my intention to have addressed the meetinsr at the 
present moment, but to have deferred what I had to say to a later period ; as, 
nowever, some points of importance in this ease have not, in my opinion, been 
dwelt on so strongly as they deserve to be, I will now attempt to supply the 
deficiency. On the present occasion, however much I may be disposed, as C 
bape every Briton is, to support the propriety of fkeedom^f dissuasion in this 



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I'iMe Meeting at i&e Thatched JUou^. 140 

totoirjr tod in Indit (ott whieh «ti1>Jeet I Agf6« wifli dl that liai fkllen from 
taj hon. friend, Mr. Kinnaird), I think it becomes us mora espeeially to look 
at the facts of Mr. Buckingham *s ease which occurred subsequent to ins re- 
raoTal from India, and to consider him as an Englishman who, after his de- 
portation, had a property which it can be proved was worth ^40,000 totally 
destroyed by the acts of GoTemment, and by no fault of his own. The vaine 
of Mr. Buckingham's pioperty was e timated at df 40,000 a few months only 
preceding Mr. Buckingham's reroovdl ; and that this vaiuation was not an un- 
tiir one is proved by the best of all possible tests, namely by his haring sold 
one fourth share of the whole for ^10,000. At ihe time this valuation was 
made, neither Mr. Buckingham nor any other person could have had any id. a of 
what has since happened, and therefoie there was no apparent reason for affix- 
ing a Hctilious valuation upon the property in question. At that period the 
ineome returned to Mr. Buckingham by the ' Calcutta Journal* was ^^8000 a 
year. It had a wide circulation, and received the approbation of the great 
minority of persons in the Bast India Company's service, a strong presnmp- 
tif e proof ihat its tendency was not to overturn the Government, for an the 
stability of that they depended for support and promotion. Every person is 
aware of the importance of the press m this eountry, and they can easily con- 
ceive the use t6 which It can be applied in India in correcting the abuses whieh 
creep into establishments of all kinds ; such an instrument, however, instead 
of being dangerous to a good government, would only have the effect- of con> 
soUdating its power. It was in that view that the Indian community sup- 
ported Mr. Buckingham's Journal, as a vehicle for exposing the abuses eom- 
mitted In the departments, which the dependent situation of persons employed 
would prevent them from making known. Any person who is aware of the 
de-potic nature of the power which prevails in India most know, that a 
junior who should venture to challenge the conduct of his superior must, be 
110 right or wrong, expect to experience the enmity of that superior^ for 
having, in the honest discharge of liis duty, exposed abuses, with n view to 
their oorrecfion. In India, the collee^or8 of the revenue are, in some imtances, 
lemaved to the distance of a thousand miles from the seat of Government, and 
two or three Europeans are left in charge of immense tracts of tenritory ; 
voder such c'rcumsances mal-practices must be tenfold more dangerous than 
in a country like England. Mr. Bdckin^ham's paper was considered the best 
.means of exposing the abuses which existed in this and other departments, 
and thereby oonso idating the British power in India, and of rendering our 
sway acceptable to the community. A fourth of this paper was, as I before 
stated, disposed of, for ^10,000, to 100 individuals, who thus became co-pro- 
prietocs with Mr. Buckingham to the extent of their shares. It is evident, 
therefore, t at at the time of Mr. Buckingham's removal from India, his share 
of tiie property amounted to £Z0,0O0, and would hive yielded him, under 
any tolerable management, if not destroyed by the Government, an income of 

Swards of ^g^S^OOO a year for life. Now, admitting, for the sake of argument, 
U Mr. Buckingham's removal from India was a proper proceeding ; what 
Collowed 1 The moment he got on board ship the Government first passed a 
law, placing that property entirely at their disposal, and then, acting on this 
law, took away the license of the piper, and refused to restore it so long as 
he, or any of Ms former co-proprietors, had any shara in it whatever ; so that 
the property which Mr. Buckingham supposed to be safe there, under the 
protection of the laws, was, by these proceedings of the Government, entirely 
destroyed. The pretence upon which the license was taken away I wi I sta*6 : 
My hon. friend. Colonel Stanhope, published. In this country, a pamphlet, 
pointing out the advantages of the liberty of the press to India ; this pamphlet 
was republished in the ' Calcutta Joicmai,'— Mr. Buckingham, be it recollected* 
being then In England, and having no power or control over the paper. (Hear.) 
He had left the management of it to two editors, and they thought they could 
not employ Its paves better thui in making them the means of corrmunicating 
to the Indian public the very sensible observations of Colonel Stanhope on 
the subject oTthe press. The Government allowed the whole of (he pamphlet 
to be repoblished in i^irate portions, without making any objection to the 



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Itf PMkMeeiimgtdthTkatcMttme. 

proee«dfaif ; bat, gome days after the whole was eompleted« t)iey then pre* 
Uoded that their orders had been disobeyed, and, therefore, they withdrew th^ 
iicease. (Hear, Acor.) Mr. BuckingbaiD*s agents, Messrs. Alexander and Co. 
(one of the most respectable houses in Calcutta) used every means to obtain a 
reoewal of the lieeose. Several months passed in this negociation, and during 
that time a large pot don of the very expensive establishment of a daily paper 
was kept ap. At the end of four mcuitns, Mr. Buokiogham's agents wen W 
formed, that so long as that geoUeman had any property in the paper the 
license never would be renewed. I ask whether it is possible to find a 
stronger instknee of persevering hostility to an individual than this transaction 
presents t Mr. BttckSnghsm*s case ought not to be considered as an isolated 
one. Every one who feels for the situation of his countrymen in the coloniet, 
where da potic power prevails, ought to make common cause with him. (i/aor, 
kear.) £very man ahould consider that, in supporting Mr, Buckingham, he is 
anpporting the rights of Englishmen in the colonies. This may be called a 
oolonial question. It is one of great Importance, and I hope that, when It be- 
comes ptoperly understood, Mr. Buckingham will reeeive tlie support to which 
his talents and misfortunes alike entitle him. I have take* a very warn in- 
terest in the case from the ftrat moment it was made known to me. The Btatementa 
which were originally made by Mr. BudLingham have been most fUlly borne 
out by the evidence given before the Committee of the Hoase. I do not apeak 
of the evidence of fifr. Bnckingham, or his friends, but of the documei^avj 
pvoofaffovded by the East India Company themsdves. ( CSuerg.) Under tbeae 
elroomstnnces 1 oonsider Mr. Buckhighaiin*s case to be not only one of great in- 
dlvid^ hardship, but also of infinite general Importanoe, aa it may bo .the caao 
of any Englishman piaeed in the coloniea, where such power as tha^ to which 
Mr. "Buckingham has been the victim prevails. By supporting Mr. Buddngx 
ham, the Indian and the Eng iah pdblic will at once manifoat their admiration 
of his conduct, and their detestation of the power by which he has been o^ 
p r essed. I, therefore, with great pleasnre second the reaoliitlon propoeed hy 
my hon. friend, and beg pardon for halving occupied k> tiuch of vour tlom, 
although I thought what I h ive stated was necessary to oomplote the Uetory 
Of Mr. Buckingham's persecution. (Appiatue,) 

|tfr. HitL. — ^When I entered the room, I had no intention of offerinfr any 
observations to the Meeting, because I was not aware of the exact nature of 
the proposition to be submitted ; but believing that I can add something to 
what has already been stated, to strengthen Mr. Buckins^ham's claim to the 
gympathy of the British pnbltc, I should consider myself inexcusable did I not 
' advance it. (Cheers.) If Mr. Buckingham were a person of doubtful or even 
of decidedly bed private character, yet when I look to what his public conduct 
;|ias been, I think the public is bound to support htm ; for when a man labours 
for the good pf the public, he labours for the welfkre of every indiv:doa1 com- 
posing tpat public. It has fallen to my lot, however, to be appointed one of 
the counsel to defend Mr. Bncklngham against a charge which orighiated in the 
selfishness and malice of one indlTlduat, (Mr. Bankes) but which yns piopa- 
gated all over India, and sent home before Mr, Buckingham returned to this 
country, for the purpose of raining his private character, and through that of 
t)earing him down in his public capacity. Under such circumstances, Mr. 
Buckingham's private character becomes a part of the case which we have to 
consider. It therefore gives roe great Satisfkction to have it In my power to 
atate (which I do with the same solemnity and the same regard to lesponsl- 

* bility uitl were on my oath,) that after a most severe, and, I may lay, suspi- 
cious examination of every document connected with the cha ge, (which, as It is 
not finally dlsposedof Ui the courU of law, I shall not more particula ly allude to,) 

* 1 reoard It, In its origin and progress, as one of the most foul conspiracies agiinst 
the private character of a man against whom not only no chars e, but not even 
the shadow of a charge could with any justice be brought, as ever came to my 
knowledge. CCkterf,) Looking at Mr. Buckingham as an Englishman who 
hid uwdCs best exertions to benefit the community in which he wasplacvd 
iiTlndia. his cpuutrymen are "bound. In common fairness and honesty to Join ia 
prCn Hnir hiVuHer ruin. Let us t6ok, hoWeter, at Mh Buckingham's ease, if tt 



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l^uUie MetHngai the I'dMU^^a Uui^e, Jiui 

ftflfiKtt Q8 iMANf boue la raltUoo wUb that gratt empire ^ Jn^ whi«h 
^nglami has to satisfy for a heavy debt of mUgoveroraeat. Peraaps it is not 
koowB to some presjent, that aa act of Parliament exists whioh authorises the 
In4iaa GoTeminent to make such regulations as shal^ not he repugnant to 
the law of England. It may huipen that some whom I address nay now 
hear, for the first time, that one of the highest legal tribunals in this eountry, 
the Privy Cooncil, after grave argument and mature de|iber tion, has published 
to the world, as its solenui opinion, that regulations which have utterly anni« 
hilated the liberty of the press in India, and placed it at the beck and call of 
ivcry Governor-General, are not repugnantto the law of England. (Hear.kear.) 
1*hough Mr. Buckingham was unsuccessful in his appeal to the P^ivy Council, 
it arose not from any n^ant of exertion, or talent, or sacrifice of property, on 
his part to bring it to a Aivonrable issue. I must confess I was surprised to 
find that the ^eut question before the Privy Council was so little attended to 
by the country at large. I have always observed, in the course of my reading, 
that when any attack was meditated on the' liberty of the press in this country, 
the cry of alarm resounded ftoim shore to shore. In this instance, however, 
the alantk raised by Mr. Buckingham fell dead, andn6t an echo was neard. But 
if vreh'ave not the manliness to stand forward, as Mr. Buckingham has done, to 
Oppose this gross stretch of power, at least let as repair the misfortunes which 
he has suffered for his superior honesty, courage, and steal. " If,** as one of our 
wisest monarchs said, ^' we are not honest ourselves, let us admire honesty 
in others.** No man betier knows the constitutional history of this countiy 
than our Noble Chairman: and no man has a better hiereditary right\to'th!t 
knowlcMlge. (Applause.) His Lordship will no doul>t recollect that when a 
duestion connected with the liberty of the press was argued before Ix)rd Cam- 
den, (whom I will take the liberty of calling the great Lord Camden, notwith- 
standing that he was a lawyer), his Lordship commented upon the opinion de- 
livered by the twelve judges iii the infamous reign of Charles IL, whose 
opinion was such as any twelve judges would give in such times, namely, 
'^ that the crown had a right to control the press** — and that that aecislon 
had become only a matter of curiosity. *' Keep a th'ng seven years,** sa^s an 
old proverb, *' and it will come again into fasnion.?' And here indeed is an 
illustration. But is it not extraordinary that tho* only a few years since Lord 
Camden had pronounced those barbarous maxims as fit only to be placed on tho 
shelves of a museum as curiosities, they should noW have become the governing 
principle of one of our highest tribunals. '* The mother of mischief is no 
h\ 'ger than a midge's wing** says another proverb.' A cloud no larger than 
my hand is now seen in the East, how long U may be before It spreads over 
the whole of our politic il horizon, I will not pretend to determine ; but thif 
I know, that it is pregnant with danger, and ougnt to rouse us to prepare against 
the coming storm. In conclusion, T tnist, fluit the British public will not bo 
slovK in ducharging the debt of gratitudh to Mr. Buckingham : and that #e 
^lall Boe the oommnolty of India and of England cordially unite to resooo htm 
Ohnb deatraetlon. {CofUinmed appUnue,) 
' The resolution was then put and carried unanimously. 

Mr. Hume. — Before the next resolution is read, I will state the progroas 
which has already been made in the subscription which Is now hisertea. ' 

[The hon. Gentleman then read a list of subscriptions already reoelTed, 
which will appear at the close of the proceedings, where a complete ligi will 
be given of tne whole.] 

Mr. D. KiNicAiMs.'-I think tt nocesfary to state that the^e oontrlbutions 
were not meant to l>e made known to tjie world. They were made at it tliile 
i^bea no idea was antertaaoed that ir would be necessary to make an app^ to 
the public on Mr. Buciiingham*s behalf. This subsoription was made for tho 
p'nrpose of staving off the evil d»y» until Mr. Buckingham obt«in«d justioa 
from th^ quarters whence he had a right to expeot it. But now thn the Oon- 
stito^ed authoiit es have lefused to do that which thoy ought to have done, U 
has t>een Uiought right to make ai^jkppeal to others on bif bfbuf<^ The pnblfe 
In general cihn6\, ofoourse. Be ezpec:ed to shape the amount of their contri* 



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baHoBt by those wUch hate been rend; bat as the tmallett «ibaeriptki«i 
will help to twell the general amount, they will be equally acceptable. Hm 
•um of ^A,000 will, I beliere, enaUe Mr. Backingham to meet all those fn- 
gagementi into which be had entered, under the idea that the property which 
he left In India was perfectly secure ; and w'thout this sum be raised, those 
ongagemenis cannot be AilfiUed ; and the * Oriemtal Heraid^" to which Mr. 
teckingham has devoted his time, and labours, and money, with a zeal which 
does him honour, must fall to the ground. (Hear, Jhcor.) 

Sir Chaulbs Foubbs.— In rising to propose the aeoond resolution, I beg, in 
the first place, to return my tluuUcs to Mr. Kinnaird for the very proper manner 
in wh'cb he has explained the circumstaaees under which tne subscription 
all eady ra sed was entered into. The money which I have subseribed for my- 
self and for others, who will, I hare no doubt, readily approve of what I have 



done, was paid without any reference to the present meeting, or any Idea of 
having the transaction made public On this occasion, howerer. It Is only 
necessaiy for me to tefer to what I haye already done, to show what opinion 



I enter tab of Mr. Buck Bgham*s conduct and eharaetar. (4fipld«je.) I cer- 
tainly should not > ave set down my name as a anbscriber In favour of any 
man of whose conduct and character I did not entertain the highest opinion. 
Mr. Buckingham, ii;hen he came to this country, brought with nim letters of 
recommendation from Mr. John Palmer, a gentleman well known to all con- 
nected with India, than whom a more honourable or husBUie n an does not 
exist. I hare found that Mr. Buckingham has, ever eince his arrival, acted up 
to the character which Mr. Palmer gave him. The more I have seen of Mr. 
Buckingham, the more highly 1 think of his character and talents. A more 
humane man than he is, does not, to my knowledge, exist ; and there are per- 
sons present who can testify that he has afforded relief to others at a time 
when ne has been very much in want himself. (Hear, hear.) I do not wish 
to enter upon the general question, which has been so ably treated by the 
previous speakers, particulaily as my opinions with respect to the liberty of 
the press do not entirely accord with theirs. I wish, on all occasions, to be 
understood as not going the length of advocating the unrestrained llbertv of 
the press In India. (Hear, Jhcor. ) This is a most important question, and re- 
quires serious consideration. I am not yet prepared to say how far the liberty 
of the press in India might prove beneficial or iojurioos. Thus much, how- 
ever, I am readv to avow, that the press, as it exists on its present footing in 
IncUa, is most disgraceful. (LoimI appUM^') ^ would infinitely rather have 
the press put down al ogether, than that it should exist in its present shape, 
as an instrument of tyranny and opprebsion— open only to the praise of Go- ' 
vemment, and shut against the just complaints of indivi uals. {Ckten.) 
The worthy Baronet concluded with moving the following resolution : 

That Messrs. Smith, Payne, and Smith, Lombard-street, and Messia. Ran* 
somand.Co. Pall Mall East, having signi'ed their readiness to receive, at 
their respecive banking-houses, the subscriptions of the public to this bene- • 
volent object, the following Gentlemen be appointed to act as a Committee 
to carry the necessary measures Into execution ; 



M. D. Hill. Esq. 
John Bowring Esq. 
M. T. Bains, Esq. 
Captain BAaxfield 
J. T. Rett. Esq. 
Dr. J. B. Gilchrist. 



Hon. Douglas Kinnaird 
Sir Charles Forbes, Bart. 
John Stewart. Esq. 
£. B. Lewio, Esq. 
Joseph Hume, Esq. 
Hon. Leicester Stanhope 
Sir John Doyle, Bart. 

Sir JonK Dovu.— I had no intention of trespassing on the attention of the 
meeting when I entered the room, and I rise now only for the purpose of se- 
conding the motioa of my honourable Friend. As I agree entirely wi h all 
that has fallen so eloquently from the gentlemen who have preceded me. It is 
the lens necessary that I should ocenpy much of the time of f he meeting. As 
a Proprietor of India Stock, however, nnd having heard all that has been said 



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PtMk Meeting at iki Thaiehed Mouii. iU 

tor wini tf«i09t BIr. Baekincflism at tbfl Iiidla Roiise^ I may be eitcoiei for 'al' 
ladinr to one drcnmitance. I understand that one of the strongest argaments 
relied on in another place (the House of Commons) against Mr. Bu(ikiiigham« 
was, that on his Ust appeal to the Court of Proprietors, the majority decided 
against him. Fortonately for your Lordslilp, you have little or nothing to do 
with that Court ; for my sins, I have had a good deal to do with i^. (^ laugh.) 
When it it sated that .he majority of the Court of Proprietors decided against 
the just claims of Mr. Buckingham, alt that should be understood is, that the 
two gentlemen filling the chajrs in that Court, and therefore technically called 
**the chairs,** had decided against them. {AppUmu,) Every body, who had oc- 
casion to address that respectable Court, must know that all argument or rea- 
son was of no avail, if these same two pieces of wood, these two wooden 
nachinei called Chairs, think fit to decide against it. {Applause aind laughter,) 
It is not that there are not aoany individuals of respectable and amiable cha- 
ncer and ability belonging to the Court in question, but it hapi)ens, some how 
or o:her, that all gr at tiodies are moved by oratory. Now inere is scarcely 
any thinr more eloquent than a cadetship ; but the arguments of a writersh'p 
are wholly irresistible. (JJheerM amd laughter,) This may, perhaps, account 
for the minority which the Court presented against Mr. Buckingham's claim. 
There ia another peculiar circumstance attending this Court all public 
meetinga usually diminish ,in numbers in proport on to the length oi time 
occopi^ in the disoossion ; but the contrary is the cise with this Court. 
Towards the close of the debates, the Court is always favoured with an in- 
iuz of gentlemen, who never, on any occasion, take any other p rt in the 
proceedings except voting; and it is the business of these mutes to 
alfaagie the debate with their silent votes. I took no part in tlie last debate 
at the Indi i House respecting Mr. Buckingham, because I saw that all the 
eloqaeoee and a*)ility of my friends were of no avail, and that I should stand no 
chaoee against the votes of my mute friends. The only argument, if argu- 
ment it could be calied, which was used on that occasion against Mr. Buck- 
ingham, was, that the GovemoMnt did right in sending him from India. That, 
however, is not the question. Taking it for granted that the Government act- 
ed properly in sending him away, the thinflr which is complained of is the 
dcstmotion of his property in his absence. No person knows better than our 
noble Chiiraian, that, according to the law of Knglaad, no man should be 
punished twice for the same offence. It appears to be one of the strongest 
points In Mr. Buckingham's favour, that the offence for which he was punished, 
not by his beina sent from India, but by having his property destroyed, was 
eommitted by deputy, he himself being in this country at the time. Why, 
because a person in India does a wrong thing, (which, however, he could 
hardly suppose it to be, since it was only the re-publication of the opinions of 
his gallant friend. Colonel St nhope,) another man in this country should be 
punnhed, by the total destruction of his property, I cannot understand. The 
gentleman who opened the debate aaainst Mr. Buckingham at the India House 
said, that it was Tor his sins in India ne was punished ; but the argument of the 
speaker who followed him was not that Mr. Buckingham had done wrong in 
India, but that he had done wrong in England, by persevering in his appeals 
to the Court of Proprietors for justice. This puts me in mind of the school- 
master who flogged the boy till he made him cry, and then flogged him for 
crying. {Lauphter and applauae,) I heartily second the resolution of my 
honourable friend, whose character is a sufficient guarantee that the cause 
which he advocates is honest and honourable. (Chem). 

Mr. Rfrrr. — I feel a strong desire to express to th's meeting, which I am 
happy to see so numerous and respectable, the opinion which I entertain of 
Mr. Baekingham. I had the pleasure of being introduced to his acquaintance 
by the Hon. Colonel Stanhope, to whom I feel greatly indebted for the pleasure 
I have derived from that circumstance. When I knew the nature of his va- 
luable work, I felt disposed to offer him my occasional asaistanee ; and nothing 
can be more grmtifyiag to bm than the opportnnity I have thus enjoyed of ap« 
peaiiag foailiMes hi the pagea pf ihe ^OrieiUat Herald.' I consider that work 



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to be Df great iiBportaaoe, whether u regaidi the interetts of Bagltad, or of 

that Tast empire, te whieh it h«a been truly said this country owes a heavy 
debt for miegoTemmeiit. With respect to Mr. Buckingham's character, I 
have always found him to be a man of most amiable disposition, not desirous 
to excite animosity, but, in return for the '* evU** wh ch be has suffered, 
doing ail the " good** in his power, by using his talents for the informatiua 
and benefit of mankind, and on all occasions anxious to promote ** peace on 
earth, and good will among sMm.** (Applause,) 

Dr. GiLcnnisT. — I consider that Mr. Buckingham des-^rres support oti pub- 
Vc grounds, leaving the merits of bis private character out of ine question. 
His private character has buen established upon such a satisfactory foundation 
that 1 shall turn from it to dwell upon his public character. I shall be sorry, 
if, in consequence either of what passes here this day, or of the subscriptions 
which I trust will emanate from it, this vital subject shall be lost sight of by 
Parliament. I hope that the ensuing Parliament will take it up with the care 
which it deserves, and that they will not abandon St till they liave probed H 
to the bottom. (Hear.) The evidence has not been completed within this 
session, in consequence of the dissolution of Parliament. The Committee, as 
I am informed, would not permit the examination of all the witnesses who 
Were ready to have been brought forward, and the witnesses trho were not 
examined are exactly those who would furnish the most damhlnr testimony as 
to the motives of Mr. Buckingham's persecutors. Tour Lordship knows — 

trf^rd John Russblu— I would request the worthy gentleman to abstain 
from the tbpio, which he now seems a^out to discuss. I need not mention to 
him the reasons why it would be improper for me to take any part in such a 
discessioB. (Hear.) 

Dr. Gilchrist. — In deference to the noble Lord, I will waive that sabjeet, 
as I am happy in followin!^ ' the able and gallant geaeml, who ikvoured us 
Wifh so good humoured a speech, and entertain strong hope that I shall say 
nbthl .g calculated to disturb that inftiston of good temper which he has cast 
in among us. I consider England, my Lord, to be in a Mate of danger, so fkr 
as the liberty of the press fs concerned. From India to EnglnHd, by the 
Cape of Gooi Hope, wMch, from recent proceedings, I should rather call 
the Cape of Desp .ir, and from Sydney to England by Cape Hera, there has 
been a geieral Insurrectfon on the part of the Government agaliist the liberty 
of the press. (Hear, hear.) When oppression begitis at a distance froih the 
seat 01 government, those who reside at the ceiifre are not alarmed. The 
tndlviduSs, however, who Join wisdom to the love which thcjr bear their 
country, will, when thev see despotism stalking abroad in its fore'irn depen^ 
dencies, and directing all Its ritulenee gainst th^ press, feel eonvineed that 
Its lavages ViH soon he made hearer home, and will therefore think it more 
fltti ig to strike the mons er down, whilst he is busy at the extremities, than 
to defer the blow, fill he is tugging at their heart. Despotism, I must also 
remark, is most detrimental to mankind, when it is wielded b^ good men. 
When it is In the hands of villains, it is so odfons in itiself that hope arises 
even out of the excess of despair ; for baneful as it is, it still carries its antK* 
dote along with It. Apply tms remark to the cas^ of the press in India; iind 
if you do so, 1 think that you cannot nt agree with the' honourable l!a^^eT, 
who told you that it would be better, for the interests of India and of England 
to have no press at all, than to have it in the degraded condition in which it 
now suffers existence in our Indian empire. (Hear, hear.) T am sorry to say 
that, instead of l>eing applied to noble and benefleici parpoees; it is pctTve^led 
to purposes the most disgusting and the most dangemoa, for it Uackeoa tho 
n otlves and calumniates the'chaimcter of every good n«n, who ts kOoeel 
enough and bold enough to tell the conatitated anthdrHiesthat Ihey are doing 
wrong. (Hemr.) Unfortanately, he who tells thia unpatetable tratb totlm 
powers that bo, is Immediatoiy set dmns' as a wrdtetod reptlie, and overT 
man in olfkse places his foot on Ida neefc to eroshhim'to thogfovnd. tf 
flwn wo do not shcmr our sprnfmlht H^'Mt. BaOikB^m. wmA the pfMauft 
occasion, we may depend upon it that the evil, under which he has suiiered. 

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will Cdon becffne too peweHU for «• to withstand. If, liowevar» we ahow to 
the colonies, bv our sympathy for Mr. l|uckiughaiii, that there U a strong feel- 
ing in England on behalf of the liberty of the colonial press ; those, who 
■eek to crash it, will take the warning, which they say they gave to Mr* 
Piickingbam, and we shall hear no more of tliis species of oppression, which, 
at this moment, appears to haYe been exercised at one and the same time, in 
three or four ^arts of our distant colonies. {Hear^ hair.) I cannot help 
observing that it will be a great pity. If we suiler this meeting to separate 
without carrying along with it those feelings which the honourable and gallant 
fpeaeral eadoAVoured to infuse into our minds. I thank him heartily tor the 
speech which he so eloquently addressed to us. At the same time I cannot 
put notice the able and perspicuous manner, in which the two speakers, who 
gave us a detailed account of these transactions, expressed themselves* I 
■mat also thank my able friend near me (Mr. Ilill) for the manliness which he 
displayed in the remarks he offered to our consideration. There waa so much 
warmth of heart about them, there was such an honest plainness in their style, 
there was such an uncompromising straightforwardaess in every syllable that 
he uttered, that I never should have suspected him of being a lawver. (Hear^ 
gmd a iattgk.) I think that the honourable and gallant general, in telling 
you that the proprietors of East India Stock were governed by tWo chiiirs, 
|old you the plain truth i but that would not be so bad, if there were no^ 
leaden beads in t«eadenhall. (A lauah.) If the proprietors, who are present 
at the general courts, will noi stand up for the rights of tlie proprietors, who 
are absent, they will soon be reduced to mere cyphers ; they will meet for 
flo other pai^so ttum to regtster the acta of the Court of Directors, and their 
^ehateo and tMr meetings will be looked upon at mere fiirces. i will men- 
tion one fact to show how far they are sunk abeady. We were lately called 
upon at the Bast India House, to give a vote on a mass of papers, of which 
we knew nothtng, except fVom the hurried manner in which they were read 
over to us by the clerk. Now, when the executive body presumes to tell the 
delfberatire body that it must decide without deliberation, all check upon the 
two choirs is lost entirely ; and unless some new, and some better blood be 
iofused amoog us, we shall be as badi/ off for a representatii^ of our senti* 
tte Its as those who now live under the legal jurisd.ction of India. I say under 
flie legal jurisdiction, for it often happeus that what is legal is not just. Many 
Acts of PsriiasM^.it, sanctioning gmSs enormities,' havo been legal enough ; 
but the repeal of them, which the good se.tse of the people of Eogladd in* 
slated upon, proved, that though they might be legal, they could never con-. 
llder them as just. I shall lotnide no longer upon the meeting, except to 
thank it for the patience with which it has Mstened to my remaks. 

SdtL-J' B. Li WIN. — I can assure the meeting that It is not my intention to tres- 
pass upou its patience at any length at this late hour of the dav ; but there are 
one or two remarks, which I feel it necessary to press upon its attention. I 
recollect that it was a saying of a man, whom you all roust revere, I mean 
John Locke, the great champion of English liberty — that '' where law ends 
tyranny begins.*' In the case of Mr. Buckingham this adage has received a 
striking Illustration. For, whoever mvestigates Mr. Buckingham's case, from 
the coomencement to the close, will see in it nothing like law, the measure 
of jostice, nothing like legal prosecution, nothing like any intdligible delin- 
f|Uoney. He will see in it, however, that which has always been conaiiered 
io attribute of the Judges ef Hell— -execution without trial. (Hear, kear,hear») 
I theteforo say, that the adage of Locke has leoeived, on this occasion, an 
ilhiatrution most unfortunately apposite. But in addressing an aasembly of 
EoglishmoD, met for the benevolent object which has this day brought you 
together in this room, I am not depressed by the recollection of that drcum* 
stance ; for I also recollect, that where tyranay begins in England, there the 
story is by no means at an end. (Applauie,) I hope that this observation 
Fill bo completely verlfled io the present case ; for never yet has there been 
$A instance, or, if theue has, 1 am i| lorant ot it, in which an individual, who 
JiMbqpwiM^ 4tt^ 4^^ >o ^ pubic, by sUudli^ maofully in the bicach, 



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i5h PuUieM^eHng at the Thaiehed Umt^. 

irhen the rights of the public wei« iiiT«d6d,--*^ho riskftl hlf til, tod thtt^ 
ttot a littlfl, in upholding the principles tit freedom, who spQrned every con^ 
^ideration of danger in a firm reliance on his own conscioifsness of aetinr 
rightly ,-^neTer, I repeat, has there been an instance, in which the BngHsfi 
nation has not started forwaid to gire a substantial Indemnity, as far as money 
coul do so, to such as individual, for the nijnries he may hive sustained, aiML 
to give h m an indemnity still more precious to hfs heatt, — namely. Its nn* 
bought sttffiage and tenimony as to the value of his conduct. (Applauue,) I 
will not weary you with going into a dissertation on the private and public 
merits of Mr. Buckingham. On that point I believe that we are all agreed ; 
the only diifbrence between us, if any diffierenoe there be. Is as to the point, 
whether any public man could have braved better than he has braved the par- 
ticular difficulties of his situation. The question before yon, which, in point 
of fact, I believe to be no question at alt. Is this. Do you not yearn with 
sympathy towards a man, whose private conduct has been admitted on all 
hanas (for what Mr. Backingham has done, has not been done n a comer) 
to be entiiely free from reproach, and whose public conduct, though open 
and manly in the extreme, has been productive to him of nothing but suffering 
and disappointment 7 {Appknue,) Mr. Buckingham ; has done weli, and has 
sttflbred wdl for your sake ; be it vours to provide that he is also indemnified 
well for the losses he has sustained. If ever man deserved the support of his 
fellow countrymen, it is Mr. Budcingham, and with that oonviction upon my 
mind, I take my leave of you all for the present. {HeaVf hear.) 

Captain Maxpiblb.— In rising, my Lord, to address you at this late hoar, 
I can assure you that it is not my intention to trespass long either upon your 
attention or upon that of. the respectable meeting whom I see before me. I 
rise to mention a faot, which, as it is known to me alone, it would be ninnst 
to Mr. Backingham to withhold from the knowledge of the present meetiog. 
It will perhaps be supposed, by those, who may read the description of onr 
proceedings to d ly, that it is only the originid friends of Mr. Buckingh m 
who are now assembled to support him. Now this, as I shall piove to yon, 
ii by no me^s the case. I stand forward here to encourage the work in which 
you are engaged, from a belief that Mr. Buckingham has not only been ii\jured 
in this country but also in Calcutta. It was that belief, which first attracted my 
sympathy to him, and made me determine to bestow upon him all the liule pa- 
tronage which was in my power'. I had originally intecests diametrically op- 
posed to those of Mr. Backingham ; for I had several shfures in a newspaper 
established at Calcutta, before Mr. Buckingham arrived there. As a news- 
paper proprietor, I could not view his arrival In the same field with myself 
with any great satisfaction, and you will credit that assertion, when I tell you 
further that the paper which he established excelled, and ultimately ruioed, 
all the papers which existed previously to it. The exertions, which Mr. 
Buckingham made in behalf of nis paper, so far reduced the value of mine that 
I q ultted it ; and after I quitted it and ceased to write for it, no dividend ever took 
place. You will see from this statement that so far as my pecuniary interests 
are concerned, I have no great reason to be satisfied with Mr. Buckingham. 
I afterwards wrote for some other papers. Mr. Buckingham, I must now tell 
you, had inserted in his paper a correspondence under the signature of ^* Sam 
Sobersides,** in which he attacked our Indian Government, and compaiied it 
with th t of Batavia. I felt that the Government was unfairly treated by that 
comparison, and I stated so In another paper. I there entered into a fVill de- 
fence of the Goremroent, and, strange as you may suppose it, Mr. Bdckinghtun 
inserted in his next number those paragraphs in my letter which were the 
most fl Uttering to the Government. I mention this circumstance to convince 
3rou that Mr. Buckingham was not, as has been stated, the general calumniator 
and abuser of every measure which emanated from Government. I found out, 
however, shortly afterwards, that the writing in any paper made the writer 
obnoxious to the ruliog powers, and I learned, in a veiy little time, thit eten 
I, who had defended them, was marked out for one of their victims. I went 
fif^m Cdldatta to Madras, and, whilst there, staid with the Secretary to Qo- 



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I vho liappeiied to beaa old tnd intinate aeqiudntanee of sune* In 
tlie coorse of conTenation he said to me« ** I wonder who was the author of 
the dafenoe of the OoYemment inserted in such a paper," mentioniDg its name, 
«« for I see that Bnckingham has republished it.** I replied to him, '' vou need 
not woader long-*for 1 can tell you ;** and in confidence I told him that I was 
the author of it. He said to me in return, *' I am concerned to hear it — ^for 
yon are supposed to be just in the opposite scale ; I am sorry, verv sorry for 
it — ^for you have been a consideraLle sufferer in consequence of the mistake 
which has preTailed as to your principles.** Shortly afterwards I returned 
hade to Calcutta, and then I receiyed a communication from those in authority, 
thai if I wished to enter into any commexcijl speculation, I should have the 
adrmntage of all the patronage of Government. I refused the patronage, Le- 
canae I could not accede to the terms which I knew were tacitly connected 
with it. I saw that Mr. Bockingliam was proscribed, liecause he dared to 
think, feol, and write like an Englishman. I saw that all his friends were in a 
ila&iar aitnation ; and I likewise saw that the taking in of his paper was an 
offenee, in tiie eyes of Goyemment, likely to deprive the offender of his place 
under it, on Uie first plausible opportunity that occurred for doing so. From 
that BonseDt I began to write in Mr. Bnckinghara*8 paper ; and 1 Mill say that, 
dttring the time that I was acquainted with it, I never read any thing in it, 
which van not fair and gentlemanly, or any discussion that was not calm and 
temperate. It eontained the arguments on both sides of every question, wh ch 
other papers geoerally relhsed to insert. Yet, notwithstanding this, the offi- 
cers of Government discouraged the circulation of it by every means in their 
power. I mention this fact to you. Gentlemen, because I think it fair, that, 
as yon have been told that Mr. Bnckingham had repeated warnings from the 
Goremment as to the course wh.ch he was pursuing and as to that which he 
ought to pursue, you should also be told that Mr. Buckingham had also re- 
peated goadings from it, goadings, which he could not fail to feel, and to feel 
bitterly. (Hear, hear). I before told you that the Government discouraged, 
by every means in their power, the taking in of his paper ; will you believe 
me, when I tell you, that it was even offended at individuals reading it? 
Many however, who did not dare to take it in openly, read it by stealth, bor- 
rowing it in private from such of their friends as were possessed of stronger 
moral courage. By this statement you will see, fhat long before the Govcin- 
mtut prosecuted Mr. Buckingham openly, as in the case of the six secretaries, 
where they fhiled most lamentably, they had instituted against him a private 
and scarcely less detrimental system of persecution. I rose to make this fkct 
known to you, and having done so, I shall take my leave, but not without 
wishing success to the exertions in which we are all engaged at present in sup- 
port of Mr. Buckingham. (Cheer g.) 

Mr. BowniMo next addressed the meeting. — ^I sympathize sincerely, said he, 
in all the feelings which have been so well expressed by the speakers who have 
preceded me, and so strongly re-echoed by the respectable meeting to whom they 
were expressed. I am fj^ad that I can bear my testimony thus puLlicly to Mr. 
Bockingliam*s excellent character, to his great activity of mind, to his un- 
wearied, industry and to his unceasing perseverance in every course which is 
wine and liberal. {Land applaute,) I leave those topics, however, without 
further remark, because Mr. Buckingham's merits are too well known to yon 
,to require any illustration. I approach to the subject of Ihe persecution 
which he has endured, because I feel that some part of the shame, which is 
wholly due to his unprincipled persecutors, will recoil back upon us, unless 
we, by our voices this day, cover with disgrace the oppressive measures by 
which he has been sacrificed. (Great applauee.) I need not remind you that 
only onee xcuse has been offered for tbe bitter suiTerings which have been in- 
dicted upon him ; sufferings, which have been most cruel in their effects, and 
■for which the only apology that has been and that can be made, is, that they 
were not iLtended. If they were not intended, then I say we are bound to 
protect Mr. Buckingham against them ; and if they were intended, then I say 
that the despotism which emahed Mr. Bnckingham is the more intolerably 



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158 PiiiUe keeiiiig hi the Thatched ffouse. 

etuet. and the more . iperedibly flagitioiis.. (Cheers.) K wonid be unb^comin^ 
in tne, after what you have alr^y heara, to say much on the sufferings, 
which Mr. BuckiD||fhain has nndergone ; t^uf this I must say, that 1 feel then 
keenly as they relate to Mr. Buckingham, and perhaps still more keenly as 
they relate to the Natives of India, for whom he made such generous exertions, 
(Cheers,) I rejoice, however, to see that sympathy is at last awakened to the 
rights an i feel ngs an \ privileges of so many human beings. I rejoice, because 
it IS calculated to lead to the better government of India, and because the 
friends of good government are likelv to join the friends of England and of 
India in a common union, of which the result must be productive of a happy 
influence on the general prosperity of the empire. ^Cheers,) 

Lord John Russul. — Before I put the question upon this resolution, J 
think it right to inform the meeting that I this morning received a note iW>« 
Mr. Abercrombie, stating that he would attend here, if he could get from some 
Rainess, in which he was then engaged. As he hif not made his appearance 
anon ' us, I conclvde that he has been detained by it longer than be expected* 
Mr John Smith expressed also the same intention as Mr. Abercrombie ; and 
many other gentlemen,. I know, would have been here, had they not been 
prevented by other business, which previously occupied them, and ^y the 
shortness of the notice of the meeting preventing their making arangementa in 
time to attend it. 

Lonn John Rusbbll then put the resolution to the vote, which was carried 
nmmimonsly. 

Mr. Buckingham. — I should reproach myself, my t.ord, for a Want of 
respect to this numerous meeting, were I to continue any longer a silent spec- 
tator of Its proceedings, without declaring the reasons which have Induced 
pie to yield to the solicitations of my friends, and to appear before thei^ 
on the present occasion. Yo|i have heard detailed to you, gentlemen, bv 
those who have taken the pains to make themselves masters of the facts, a 
history of the series of persecutions which I have undergone. I shall not re- 
turn to it, because I think those facts speak sufficiently for themselves. Ther^ 
is, however, one hiatus in that history wliich I, and I alone, can supply, as to 
the motives which actuated nie in those proceedings, which by some have 
been deemed to be erroneous, and by offers, such as do honour to my cha- 
racter. When I first landed In Bengal, it was believed that discussion existed 
there on the same footing as it did in England. If I had not entertained such 
a belief, I should have considered it a degradation to quit the profession to 
which I then belonged — that of the sea,< — ^to ally myself to a press which was 
In a stite of thraldom and slavery. In the course of my stay there, however, 
circumstances occurred, which led me to perceive that there was no flxea 
standard on which I could rely for ray guidance ; that discussion in India 
was regulated sometimes by the law, sometimes by the ca}>rtce of Govern^ 
ment, sometimes by a mixture of both ; in dne, that prosecution, negociatton; 
threats, and compulsion, were all resorted to by turns, to give to the press 
snch a tone as the local Oovemment wished it to adopt. It might with truth 
indoed be said, that the moat capricious standard, which the mind of man could 
invent, was not mure capricious than that by which I was required to act as 
the conductor of a public journal. {Hear, kear.) I repeatedly said to the 
Government, ** Leave me not to such a changeable system ; gite me a rule, 
which shall be binding upon others as well as upon myself; and by that rule 
I am willing to stand." (Hear, hear.) I mentloti this olrcdmsUnce, gentlemen, 
not because I think there is any peculiar merit in obeying the washes of 4 
Government, but because I hold that every man, so long as he recelires pro- 
tection from a Government, is b'^und to follow its laws, whenever he knows 
what those laws are. I consider it to be the most powerfhl afN>lo^ for every 
thing that I have done, that in no one instance can any contumacy or j^refli»- 
ditated insuU to Government be laid to my charge. Mli n I say this, I thtnfc 
tt right to add, that I have the testliHony of an Individual to the eorrectness of 
my assertion, whidi all the world mnkt deiosi decisive--*! inean tbni of lib 
Marquis of Hastings ; (cheen ;) testimony, which is so much the more bonoor* 



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PUitt Meekng ai thli t%aieAed ffoush. 1 W 

thU lo tKit ftiiistrtoilSl nobl'ettiaii, a^ he gaye it, after the propriety of his oym 
coiuluct had been submitted to discussion. In a letter to Mr. Doufrlas Kinnaird, 
which he has gireii that geatleman full liberty to make public, ( Cheers.) y^ ith 
regard to all the varied proceeding^ between the Indian Goveromenl and my- 
lelf, I do not think It necessary to recapitulate them now ; I shall merely, stata 
that. In the Interval which elapsed between the time of my receiving notice tp 
duit India and my actual embarkation, being persuaded, that the property 
which I had in Bengal was perfectly safe, though I was not present to super- 
intend and protect it, I left it there, paying thereby a great, but, as it, turn^^ 
out; an undeserved compliment to the Uoveroment which banished me, and 
saying publicly to them and to the world, "■ Although you transport me, 
without trial, on the authority of an Act of Parlioment, your power to do 
which is no doubt legal, though in this instance, a^. I conceive, abused, yet J 
leave my property under the protection of the laws ; for the reliance I have 
dpon your justice is still sumcient to convince me that you will never take 
measures to injure and destroy it." (Cft4?er«.) Very frequent mention has be^ 
made of tlie spirit which actuated my behaviour, during the whole of these 
nroceedings ; a few words will suffice to show the nature of this. A code pf 
fnstmctlons, for the regulation of my paper, was left behind me, when I quittefi 
India, and thlfi has been produced in evidence before the Committee of the 
noase of Commons '; a reference to this will show, that at the very moipept, 
when the foot of Goveniment was upon my neck, — at ^he very moment, when 
it had determined to crush me to the earth, and.had even commenced the carry- 
ing of that, determination into effect, — ^at that very moment, when it was natural 
th it I should (eel indi^^natioh, and when it would have been alipost reproach t^ 
one*s manhood not to £bel indignation, (cheers)— my directions were, that all 
possible caution should be ej^ercised towards the Government, and that no 
stuiiii^d o0ence should be given to either public bodies or individuals in th^ 
country, no mi|tter whether they were m^ enemies or not. (Cheers.) Never- 
theless, it has come to my knowledge, since the perusal of the documents pro- 
duced from the India House before the Committee of the House of Commons, 
that the Government were, at that very moment, pursuing a series of measures 
towards me of the most treacherous description; which were followed op ii4- 
mediately after my departure, and which ended by bringing on me that cala- 
|n:ty with which all of you are now acquainted. As far as I am indivtdui&lly 
concerned, I will say, that if that calamity had fallen upon me, from the failure of 
any mercantile speculatioii, from the wreck of my ship, from the bankruptcy 
of correspondents, or froni any other of those accidents to which men of 
bufiiiMas are liable, I should have been the 1 st person In the world to have 
permitted any appeal for relief to have been made on my behalf to the British 
public. But what I have sttlTered has fallen upon me entirely because of my 
zeal and exertions In the cHuse of others rather than myself; and therefore I 
eonsent that they sha]^l be asked to step forward to my relief. When I left 
India, indeed, and stated thit it was my intention to lay my case before the t^r- 
Uament, the Privy Council, and other legitimate tribunals of my country, I 
was met with the taunt that the people of England would not trouble tne}r 
beada at all- about my j^rievanees, as tney took place in tndia. I replied that, 
wherever the suflterer was ah individual who had made the la^ir the ffuide of 
his aeiieat, and had only endeavoured to protect the rights of Englishmen In 
her distant dependehcies, an appeal on nis behalf to the people of England 
would never be marie in vain. My prediction \^as laughed at then, and many 
indlv>daals eyen now niUce it th^ir boast timt the people of England are too 
apathetic to listen to any such j^ppeal. Their constant assertion is, that the 
beople of England dp not, and wUl not, interest themselves in the fate of tbisir 
cmintryraen in the colonies. I triisl, however, that the proceedings of this day will 
show them they are mistaken ; for it s not my fate alone that you are now called 
upon to consider. An expression of indi^iiatioii at the wfongs I have sufTbied 
will be a pledge of sympathy and support to every one of your oppresed 
countrymen and fellow-subjects in the Ea^t. (Cheers,) There you have a 
Isrge conquest, teeming with wealth, and life, and population, wliich ouly wants 



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160 PfOUeMeeHngatiheThakkmlBtnm. 

ft good. goY«fniiient to prodnee o flopira, B«t only iiii|iumllelad in extent, bat 
ftlso unpanUeled in every thing wl^ch cen adorn end dignify bemen nature. 
' CCkeergJ The Natiyes of that empire have now no adrooate perwitted to plead 
for thcdr rights and privileges on the spot, wheie it ctttbe done with the gteatest 
effect. But, though that advocacy has been remoTed to so.diitant a aeeoe, I 
shall always recollect with pleasure that the best means of improving their 
condition occupied a larger space in the discussions, of which my paper was 
the medium, tlian any of the topics which are u«ually addressed to European 
readers. I have the consolation of knowing, that, in consequence of my ex- 
ert ons on their hehnlf, I bore nway with meDrotn India, *when I qu tted it, the 
-reffrets and the blessings of all the more intelligent part ^f the Native po- 
pulation, — an assertion which. If necessary, I can verify beyond all possibility 
of its being impugned. On my return to England, I might have resumed my 
oHginal profession of the sea; for which, thank Gpd, though, n^y health hu 
been so shattered by the sufferings of mind and body that I have undergone, 
I am not yet nn&t ; bat having onoe set mv. hand to the plough in thia great 
work of the regeneration of India, I should have been ashamed of myself, had I 
turned back (jrom it as soon as I'found that there, wete diiBcuHies in mv path. 
BtilU however, I am bound in honour to tell ydu, that had it not been for the 
kindoefs of some of the benevolent iodividttals who have this day* addres ei 
Tou, my efforts to promote the happiness of the Natives of India must, ere now, 
have been brought to a elose. (hear^ hedr^J Thev have the merit, and let 
them enjoy the praise of having sustained in Bngland the only publication de- 
voted to he advocacy of the rights of the Natives of India ; though I have no 
d«ttht> that when tbie is -known in that country/ hundreds there wll hasten 
with eqnal aeoi to join them In this benevolent dnry. fCkeers.J Here, 
however, we have arrived «t a crisis. My whole fortune hai been destroyed 
by those to whom I never did wrong, and I have made every possible appeal for 
redtess in a legal, a temperate, and a consfitutioilal manner. It is not, there- 
fore, until every effort has ftdled, and the dissolution of Parliament has proved 
that my last hope was as deiusive as all the former ones, that I have consented 
to allow this appeal to be marte on my behalf to the people of England. Gen- 
tlemen, I thank you for the patient attention with which you have heard me. 
Nethermy health nor my spirits are at this moment such as to make the task 
easy or agivesMe to me: and though it has been said ** that out of the ful- 
ness of the heart the men h speaketh; *' yet on this occasion, I feel that veiy 
fulness to operate more powerfully !n fettering my expres^^lons, and must let 
the stren^'of my feelings plead for the feebleness of their utterance. (CkterM,) 
Sin John Dotlb. I believe your Lordship has hitherto gone along with 
us in^ every th ng that has been done in this case. Whether i shall ciivy ^onr 
Lordship along with me in the jn«ti<m whkh l>am now ^loiiig to mrice, I will 
not pretend to decide. But, ipantleraen, yon have all oeen hew ^s Losdohip 
has J 
ness, 
thist 

I sh 11 not be in a minority now, whatever I may have been during th e gw aa t eet 
part of my public life. 1 confine myself wholly to what yom haow witaeased 
th's day ; for though I could call your attention wilUagly to thegeneinl merits 
of the noble Lord, I shall abstain from doing ao on Mm present oecatloB. I 
move that the thanks of the meeting be given to Lord J. Russell for his im- 
partial and amiable conduct in the. chafar. (tamd elteen.J 

llie motion vras pht, seconded, and carried by acdamaUon unanimously 
Loan J OHM Russjbll. I thank the meeting for their -fciadneia, andaasare 

them that my exertions in this cause have been given witli as giaaliliMOikjf as 

seal. 
The meelfaw dlspafied Miout Ox o^eloek. 



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Jffwd io the Pnyfe of India. I6i 

The foUowiflff U ft eepr ^^ ^» ^W^ rtMOtlr fonranM to Indim, solkHliig 
soppuft fir«MB tbftt quarter ; bat the urgent preMura of tiie embamnement* 
tdTerted to, end the greet length of tine thet muit necessarily elapse before 
any letvBS can be had from tnat distant coantry, renders the dd of the British 
oomoHmity ef tho greatest inportanee ; and in the hope of obtaining their cor-' 
dial aad gaocral eo-opetation to promote tlie apeedg acoomplishment of so' 
deirmble an end, the flatenents it contains are accordingly submitted, SA 
equally eailtled to their consiieraiion : 



'* To tk» Rwnpttm amd NtUhe Commmity qf India, 

" 'nie case of Sir. Bnckingham is too well linowQ to every one in India to 
render any details necess iigr. His difficulties ani his distresses are undoubted 
and imminent. Do thev aieilt attention and relief? and if so, by what mesoa 
can soch be most readily and effectually gWea 7 

'* The hialory of his life seems to establish for him a powerftil claim to re- 
speet and sympathy, from all who esteem perseYeritig i.itegrity. But his ex- 
ertions,- when placed by ctrcnmstanoes ia a pablic character, — ^his losses, his 
salfetiBgs, and his seal in what he eotisidered a public duty, give him a more' 
especial claim on all his (^llow-subiects in India, — whether Native, A.glo- 
Ifldian,-or Evropean,--4n whose ea- se, as he conceived it to be, he has made 
shipwreck of his fortune ; and to whom he now turns an eye of hope for sym*' 
pitny and relief, in the hour of his c&tress. 

" Bat there ate ckcuBrntancet in Mr. BocklRgham's reeent conduct, whiclr 
neine can well know or daly appieeiate, except such as have been resident in* 
^g^*°^ of late years. The testiaM>ny of soch persons may be of u^e to htm 
at tids crisis, and is the chief o- ject of this addiess ; — that tesHmmiy referring 
to maiteta of f&et, and le»viag out of consideration opluiens on political ques- 
tions involved ia hU protracted struggles. 

*' The fidelity with which Mr. Buckingham has adhered to what he honesMy 
believed the good C4»se of ladiio impiovemeat, ever Hi.ce his return to 
Englind, — ihe persevermice manifested by him under discouragements that 
would have drivej many men to despair,-7-the expenditure of the remains of his 
Indiin savLigs, in trying every Ifgal channel of redress for puiilic evils and 
p.ivate wrongs, — and ihe putity of Ms-private character, amidst his • ifficulties 
and embairraasiiii^ts,mo well l^uown and tightly estimated by all unprejudiced 
men. 

^* The Uni'mai^^ed, having had opportunities of witnessing the exerdi^e of 
those Tiit«ms in. the eoadnefe of Mr. B chi :gha«: most- readily bear testimony 
to th«HB..a^.wellas to Ms preient distresses : and on these grounds, they make 
thi^ apsaal t* the eommniiity of India.— ^f whatever rank, class, or condi- 
llonv--<4mplori.i.g. them to contribute, ia the mode and m nu**te hestsu^ed to 
their pf»«l ion, and most agreeible to their feellitri« to the ren<*f of a min on 
whevi mi^ortiHm has IMlea with so he^y a hand, and whose intentions are 
believed to have been eetlrely pure and honest. The subseri lers would faiir 
hope* by thlt meuwk to sepeae him from impending destnic-ien,- and res^oie 
him to thai pi ^ee in.soeiety to which his hablu and m^iuirements entitle him. 

*^ The contributions of ill who desire to promote this benevolent objeet, 
may be effected through any house of business .io Calcutta. Madras, or Boa- 
b«y, by geotienmn directing their agents to transfer any spedflc sum from 
their pm» e aeeovnta Io the subacrip^ion opened for the relief of Mr. B'ck- 
inff^mmL Hmre ia no inleotioa to risk offenee. in any qttaiter, by the p«iblica- 
tioo of names*— if, indeed, oflbnce could be taken at the exhibition of good 
leetiagi towards the wifortuoate : — B^t, byt removing, every possible groond 
of objectioa, the work of benevoleace may be extended ; and while this relief 
vrill thus be more effectual, the satisfaction of contributing to this end will l^ 
pr<yportionally greater from that contidention.** 

Oriettua H^r^ld, VoL 10. M 



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IM 



BtO^tHpti&kkfih it^. MiltMkgkam. 



A^bl^tnM itriH gcntlediea : 

5ir Charlet Forbes, Bart. A. P. 
ojin Smith, Esq. M. P. 
iames Barnet*, Esv ^ 

iphi Gecil^e L\nr.tm, Esa M. p. 
William Babiig^oh, Esq. M. t>, 
'I homas Wilde, Esq. 
The Hon. Dpaglas KloiAir4 . . 

Kdward Benjamin Lewin, Esq. 
Thnt^fitf DferrMifi; Esq. M. F. 
TMi Hdfl. Cfcicetfter StanhV>j>e 
air Prands Bnrdett, tUrL at. P. 
Gen. Sir Jalin Doy'e, Bart. G.C. B, 
85 r Jame? MsickitMofih, Mf. P. 
J^^ 'or iJK, Esq. 
Tfife Hon, VV, Karaa*y Maule* 5|. If. 
iobn Stewart, £* i. 



LrtrdJohn RussftU, .tf, 

i 

J. A.shton Talrs. IZs^ 



James Scirt^tt, E 



^U,AP. 

E^q,Af.P 



I 



Joseph fli , r i. M.I^. 
The Rev. Robert AspUnd 
John Cam Hobhoote, Esq. M. P. 
'ona MeUill^, Esq. . ,. 

•qry ^rougbam,,Esq. M. P. . 
..iohafd Gumry, Esq.. 
Yi'sa^ PdUIp Honvwood, Esq. M* P. 
Michael Biuce, Esq. 
John Williams, Esq. M. P. 
Jeremy Befafhim, Eiq. 
Edward Elliee, Eiq. M. P. 
CkfUaih Mi^fleld 
Ttte Hon. Jtaati Abereroinbtl^; M. P; 



Lord Xogent, M. P.. , 

William Vizard, Esq. . 

ColoDel Torr^DS, R. M. F. R. 9. 

Pc^landlfiU, Est. 

The Ho 1. C. H. HM'fhinsop. ML P. 

Walter Couhiori, tsq. Gray s tnn 

Mlphael AnMl6 T^yibY, Es \. M. P. 

Jchn Bgrthwfck Gllchrist,Esq. I^ D. 

Jffenes Ini^farity, Esq. 

i^en. SIrR.C. Fferi^u^n,K.C:B.' Jt.P; 

TheRef.W. J.^ox 

Malth*w W004, Fsf. Hr.P. 

James Macdonald^ Efg. 

James Gra tah^jEsq, M. ft ^ 

Mathew Daveoport liill, Esq. 

James Leman, Esq. 

^M" Robert MS ilson, M. P. 

Nicholas IlaDkey Smitj). Esq. 

James Paterson, Esq. M. u, 

John Towell Rutt, Esq. 

John ^owring, Esq. 

Jamto Morrtson, Esq. 

Henry Meredi h Parker, £sq.«-^wbo 
aidds, aftef biss'goatnre; tbefolto#* 
itig sentence:-^'* Diffeiing entirely 
from Mr Bocklngbam in politfes, but 
ponvineed that he is a sUflfeter fol 
conscience-sake ; and, ^ ^ ") iuter- 
tourse often yter*^. In Inflia fl(nd m 
England, that he 1^ itai Qpri^h't, lib* 
bourtbl^, flihd eitcelleot mab.** 



List of Subscriptions AltttADY Rifbki^b. 



500 



8'r Hias. Forbes Bart., M. P. ^500 
Ditto, for hb Natire Indian 

Friends . . 

Ditto, for John Palmer, £sq.« 

, Calcutta 

fames Voong. Esq., Bengal . 

.Retired Indiao C'iTllian . . 
I Hop. bonglaa Kianaird . 

hn George Lambton, Esq*, 

J, 45l»"._ • ^ ' •.• ^ • • • 

The Hon* Leicester Stanhope 
John Stewart, EUq., of Bom- 

. b^t 

Sir Francis Bttfdett, Bart„M.P. 
Sir Henry Stiaehey, But. . 
Jblitt FoM>ea; Hiiit. . . . ; 
hir Alesarider Jobottoa . . 
Rttb^tt GrtfHUde, fifcq.^ 9f 
..GhBgbi^. ;;.... 190 
WI'tiaA Rklbbbiia, fiiq., •f 

. UNvrtMl 

J. A!(hfon Yates, Esq., ofdll'd 
A Retired Indiaa Ofloer . • 



WO 





800 





«oo 





100 





100 





100 





180 


9 


too 





100 





00 





«0 





190 





«B 





ig§ 


• 


m 






Referend Robert Fellewes JtUb 
An lodiui Fri^n^ '. ' . Ndr 

JimM Morriaoii. Esq. ...MO 
An Indian ChiifAefiti . . . . aO 
James Cropper, Bsq . , off liV^ 

pd6l 00 

Robert Benson, Btd.« of d:ito M' 
John Smith, Eiq.,M. P. ..MO 
James B4rniett,' ' sq'. 00 tf 

Joseph tfone, Esq., Bf . P. . 00 

Captain Mat^Md 00 

John MelvlMe, Esq. ... 60 
Df. J. B. Oilt^hft . . . ' . M 
E.B. Lfe^tt, E«4. . . '. . W ^ 
J, r. Remiti ton, FMjf. ". . if 
An fndian at hnak on liaafe . ^ 
libbert Rickards, jB^q. . . . ]0lf 
J. T. Rntt, Esq. . . . 
Jbtai MHI^h^q*: . . 
0H^ R • -Ci Fer^pssaiA • ; 
A flbUM OfliSef . . ; 100 

Alfntand^r TennT . t . . W t 
The ExasAi* FoMftpk • t 






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Sudecripiiana folf Jir. Buckingham. 



lea 



Two ladiaa Friendi (throogli 

LordJohn RnsacjU) . . ,^100 Q 
M.D.Hill Esq. ... . .5 6 



F. 6, 

The GloVe and tHieliei J .' 
T. Li. 'H 

L' W. Hill anij Syos*. * . .' ,' 
r I John Kusseli ' . • 1 I 
A ProprieAor of India l$tock ' . 

M.T. B 

I a Myi Di.Codkq .^ ., ;. . 
Jobn Gordon . , . . ^ . , . ,. 
Thomas i.<Mr . . . .\^. . 
James M ilcolmsoiivBsq ' ,,ji 
John Heoty J^o! er^ ^. ',\* 
Wm. Spejinao, Ayeis \ ,^ . 
Mr*. OampteU . ^ . . . , . 

t^iSf *?*^ • • •' ^ • • 
J. T. Bennett ..;... 

James WalUc^/ . . , 1 , 

A Leeds Man' / , . I [ , 

I. A. St. John » . . '. '. 

0»f (no^ wiih hh, ' head:V-a 

So?erei^ri for Buckibghaijj 

E. r. >Iacfl4yfiten fes(^. , . 

A' Newspaper Proprielor . 



6 

w o 

1, - 

Id 10 
1 1 

I 

2. 

* y 

? ^ 



. . ^ i 

B. P. Te.inanf, Esq.. ... 9 

Ab Buemy to Monopojy . . ft 

P. ir. vr jrn«h fe'i. *: ... to 

R. Thomas 2 

A Prii^nd of Pros D}soluisio& . 5 

John wniiams Esq. ... 6 

Joha Brown 1 

DaTid James 1 






b 






e 





1 



Thomas Wilkinson E9q. . ^60 
A FeUow 8n«Mw Icoro Op* 

preasioD 10 

A Secret Friopd 9 

Charles Ferguson .... 10 

Win. tiow ...!... So 
A Vot«>agdinstBankes ..60 

H-T.P, ....... 50 

A Propiijetor ot^tdli 9topk . 10 Q 

R. Ditpn ...;... 9ft 

W. 8. L Tfr^lawiiey, Efeq, * ill 

W.Jackson ..... j 10 

An Enaaiy lo Puaishmsiit . 

without Tvial ..... 10 9 

J.CampbeU 1 Q 

Sir Gteg^ry A. litwin ... It 

A Ptinter ^ ..... ^ 94 

f 1?-^ • • • t • f '. • I :0 

Jqhn Green.. , . 1 p 

George CQlvla , /. .... i 

An Englishman I ' 1 . 1 . \ 
Edward Biodip, Esq, Versailles 10 . 

William Henry . . :\ . I Q 

AUdy . ....:.. 50 

ilV'^\^*^: : : : 'S g 

J. Mackintosh . . : . . 8 

An Officer's Widow . . .1 t 1 

J. Alexander ...'... 50 

A PriOnd t 

6. Wakefield 9 (^ 

Capt. Eastwli$k « . . . i . 5 

Got. liiitchinson . . . : . 11 

Ge« nA s|ir 4pha Doyl^, Baru 10 ' 

Lord Kindaird '..'.!! 20 



Ail BtteMy to OppresiWti 

^vw1|l,l|^ {|e^vgll)«t t^fi oflntribqtions alrpjdy cgof iwd Sqt Jtfr 6^ckiMr^Mp•s* 
relter, ha?e been suflicieptly UaerfU to mafk the hl^U sens^ enter ^1 ^dot' h a, 
character and wrongs by the beDevolent contributors. But, as it is desired 
tlial the subscription should be in every sens6 ot tn'e. woffl i public one^ and 
embrace a^\ ranks and classes of society, whether in India of fn England, ^ti^ 
smallest sums will be cheerfully received, with $. ri9fm ib floark the exteofi^te 
aad g999»f»l sympstl^ whioh it is eoosidiMred ||ia( ^is «fi|D || palcul^lcd to 
excite in evory truly English bosom. 

Subscriptions will be received by all the s^ency hou<«es in India ; by the 
KIBei^nl l^ilpisr^ ^i. Eng^apd : by most of tfaye lar^e booksellers ; at the leading 
Ulffafy and other clul^s.^ aoQ by the editors of all the piiblic jo\irnalS in ^ 
ki^dom I of ea^h plf.n-l^om it i$ requesed, tWt a,Ll sums received ot) this ad- 
oifl^i m%f be reii^ittsd t^ Messrs. Smith, Payne, and Smith, 'Minsioa-hodsd 
PUce ; Messrs. j^ansom aod Co., Pall-roalt East ; or to the Committee fbf 
relief of Mr Buckingham, at tb^ llialiihed ^lonse Tavern, St. James*s; 

-T . (tiigniML) ifilCBSTER STAl^HDPE, Sesrstfffy. 

CoBtanttt^ RpOra, ^TiOtldtM^ Jtins ISsiO. 

f f * Ap tl^ts Su)>scriptiea will be kf pt open a sufficient time to admit of Ip- 
slumg ibe retnroa froM the joouttry, and eten fsom India, a ftdthfttf h^rt 
vili be pooid^ from time to iua^4 of the ifdditiond sumi which my )Mr trans-^' 
mitted^by Stibferibers. 'who, f^olii ditftUfde ot •Of othdr eames.^tavie Sell >^ 
luui time or opporttuiity to contribute their aid towards it« object. 

M9 



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164 



Tai3 4»y » Quarterly General dourt of I^bpfietojj^ ^pr^fi I^eld, [ \/, 

■ ' '' ■" *• •• " BrawMs* WAmv •' ■ '^ » r. . 

'The ChaiiTOafi (Sir George Hoblosrin} to<)k bis ^eatat'lli^'o^eloci^i ^<i 'tbe^ 

IWRnutes of the proceeding's of llie last Cour^ ^ajir^jj^^b^eij reJ^," .', ^ /. ', ' ' 

Col. STA29BQPB rp9e tP sjPfalF^ bui7-j. , ,. .| *. j^',_ ^^', '^ | / \'^ ' 

The,C«AHtWAN 8«id, (hat.if >th^ <iop. propi:ie'9|:,^«Ne.f<>r..^ poipo«fr -of 

bringing forward the motion, of which he had giv^jaot^t^.^ebvigged, le^io- 




waa disposed, of,. 

fCoU STAivHorts MMi» hrmerfily. wished t^ w^ g flfl^iiii)#„iwMpely. wjl?«thejr 
%iv joilki«l.iiqc<>fiUs!t)f 4he jrenpwul olihfi yv wMKj^*^ ?HW^f had b.eeD re- 
<v^¥^. fnoro lndift«..uui.w^elihQr. Il^9.,st«ttjmwjt#,r^imy,«|iwde mo thiil, effect 
were true 1 

)Tho rH4iiiifAN.^WMh. r^p^ol t<V(thj^ ptft of 1^^ hpn« Pippri^tor*a qu^- 
tipii,;the object of whioh u to (vsc^rjiaii^ M|hether,«ny, official accounts^ pf^he 
nriiew«A*of iMMtUUIes/wilh Ithe Burmese hikve. bfoen re^^iyed by the Court oJf 
I^ir^torBi J oan answer in ti/tt iM'gi|tii(e. ^Kq such.^ccovintA hft>et^e^.fe- 
C'ived. At tKo sm»o lime, I fAJ^e Jlpiii^ not ihjp leaat doubt pf tlie fycf^ becStUa^ 
the statement is. contained \n a (etter from^Sir Jamei Brisbane to the ^ecfe- 
ti|ry,.of the Admutdty. .;..,.. , , ., , 

The GftAiAiCAitthen stated^j Umt certain papers .^tUfh MJ^W.pr^septfll 
to I^Uantot since ihe last Gencaml Court, werje qo'^l^id befofti^ Coprt^ 
agroaably to the bylaws. • - . . ;t: i< « .• .. 

' GMieral Th OaitfOR MML wliaillerlt:wwhatanua-tO'Ptint'tfa0^papeM,foi'' 
the Infonnirtioii of tbc^PMimetiMMrf ' ' • n , ; .r^r -. i: n„r f fj ... . 

ITi^CiiAiRMABr fepli(w\]|ithe,t^ga(iTi. _[ ^ ; ' ,' . .H'^ 

Captain MAxriKLD«ked whether PrafMrietors ytw al.lil^Kty .tp !tal(e,p9pie^ 
of the papers 7 . . : , . i 

The CHAmiuA replied, that any Proprietor wUrht take ^oplaa if Jhii pjefacil. 
Tba pftpora were publLe paperss t« all intenis and parposies^ ' . . , 

Dr. Oti.e«aia«r hoped that the papers wonld'be Bocess^le'toihe Vto* 
ptfelorff* room, !f called for. ' 

The C^AumAN,— Certainly. ' '\ . 

The ChKMK thiP reMi tha titlea of the papers, ajnd they were laid iip>on Ihe 
table... 

Tua DiTiDENP. 

Tha Ohaikman informed theCoart, that tbe Co«i«<>f Diffclomir^ Hie 0OtJh 
of Jane, 'eame to a reeolnt46n,'Teoomiiiending that the dividead <on tha Cooi- 
paoy'i stock, from the Ml at Jwaxaarto thie M>. of My, ahouVd be 6i per 
cent. He moved that the Court da confina thai fva«lathmr»--CafEW imaal*' 
mously. " " r 

Br-LAWB CoKumraa. • ^ . • •'•, .-/<'-. ^ , r 

A Gentleman said, that in the ahBeiio»#f theC^innan of the Committee 
of By-lAva, who was oonflned by indiiippsition, he.wsji <^Fttt<^,^^l|mpl |lie 
report <>f the Committee. — The report wa^ laid upon ihe XaEIe, , , > , , ! . 

The OnaiRMAsr aai^ that, in pvrsaaaee of the 0th aentlon^aC M»e. 94 c^imt 
of the by-laws, it was the daty of the Court to appoint a new commftteeuof 
flA«ealo.iAS|e«( tba by-laws. He tbeoproppsed jhi^XoU^ifini^ gy^tlf^n^n aa 



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IMatitttOiEaitJridiaHoiM, lad 

laeaiben of the Comipittee! Hwnphrw ^one, B»q. j the H«i. 0. KlantiMl ). 
George Cmnming, Esq. ; pWriAHealley, E^. ; HeaiV teHH. Esq. ; Qeorg* 
liroie, *ii»q. ; Davlp Ly9^» ^^^ 

General Thornton.— Before ypv proceed further. Sir, I wish it Couldiw 
tsccrtamed iiow jjany'times the ^entlemeii, who sat ton this Comftittee last 
year, attended. If it should ap|war/th«t any of them were in the habit of not. 
attcndmg, }t wpuld p^ heiter. t|^ appoint others ip their place, In some places, 
I know. It IS the custom to set do.vn ijie numbe^r of Uines that a member at^ 
tends the Committee to whfch he belongs. 

A PPOPRIBTOR.---I do not recollect how many members may have been fife 
SSidlS^w^r^t^^ Hiat/ins^neruuPthe 

Dr, aiicUfiisxA^X^iikeJ^j^ thit ifh6 statement of the hdn.jjiem: 

ber IS correct : and therefore, if I should,, 6p i tytufp oeeasion, move tfhbt an' 
entry should be made of ihfe nuihber of tfrnes'tbd ihetaabers may attend, those 
who are punctual in their attendance cannot be oflended. I think it essetitial 
^ aome f^tpita«ieMsfht>(^a be«ddpleA^r*ee*rllHrtbeaWendm»eof4n6rabert. 
I win toot«f, ift va^y be kHo^dto dt> w dfor lam neb welt aenualated wltfc» 
the forms hM«>i'««itt«ltfegftite^«h«ll <be kept 6f Iheattettdanoe^the membM 
of the €\>nimittee. < ■' t 

Wn Di^iii.uitVis^ t6 drdef^I-boiWWt*! fhtti tid niMf6n of tlkf^ atttura dan 
bemads at thB^presetltnuym«*nt. 'Th<^ WdH. member' moat *tve nmiee for a; 
ftature day. I dbj wt alt<^gfethbr M the^ WbtiiWi. ' i Ihf nk- U libtprober that- the^ 
gentlHaen sboutfl be treated lik^ achwiboys, havibg the hour at wWdh tbry 
eome W tlje morning m^rke^ *^ h Would be a dangerous precedent. • , 

Dr. GiLCHaisT.—t always nnderstodd that a General Cburt was assembled for 
general purposes, and that any Proprietor was at liberty to propbse what be 
mig«l fliMk'lMMefl^fe] f«rthe Gsttpahy. I praceaded oo thai aalteratatodinff ; 
bdf If H b^'rtdt Ifiroper td mkktf the motioto which I described Jiew, i viU.gKe 
notice for another day. I am far from thinking my- proposal ot^ctiooable* 
Bfan a^«bii^iiiaas,!:ii^t6ad.ol feeiiag.any abame ait Wving their proceedings 
watched, ought rather to glory in being found alwaya at their posts, AUu 
sion has been made to schoolboys: the disciplioe of schoolboys was of ad4 
vantage In youth, and might prove beneHdal itf old age. I do not, however, 
vrtabitlie bo^fS'oraMMdtoet^ f6%e^'reiiiart[ed, buc enly tlle^laya/ ' 

The Chai'jmah.— I have, perhaps, been guilty of a little lrr*g<t!irlty ia 
frf»Htt|f»tMiJwhVef«latfe« to ^ 6ti r ^eieattse, th# profperiRoAv of priiceediair 
was to appoint the e<»fnfailt&^, -lintead : of allowing* myself to bv thaa lutaiQ 
rap«Hei.«^At<the'daaie'time« I am awarOftiiajt after the G«nKBi«Wa sWi^e 
appointed, it is competent for any member of the Court to giv« notice of Mm 
motion he may think proper on the subject. I may, howerer, take this oppo^ 
tunUy of string, that the fact before my eyes affords the best possible answer 
to' the •6b'§e'M(tfons #hibh TiAve beew mader reapectfag the aftendaaee'of the 
members of this Committee. It consists of fifteen members, and at the preaaat 
moment there are twelve in Court. (Hear.} I now beg leare to move 
th4tf lbl»'Mlawtlig g«Aiil«injian{ ih addition to those I have before aamcd: fie 
appAii^etf liMnllMfra of the Committee :-^Robert WiUiam84 Bath; Baumaia 
BarttattI, 'Ba^. v^l^Hehry^ Stvaolwy, Bart^$ JEoha D^by^, Eaq..; Jobn. Heary 
TrfMIH 4Baq.; JohD^Caratalra* Bsq.; Richard Twining, Esq.; aad 8ir 
James Shaw, Bart. 

All the above gentlemen were ananAmouaiy elected. 
' ^ '',"■;'', ' ■'fllBSHtPrU«J'STSTaH. 

Tke CkAinWAi^.-^l W^ to acqmdnt the Court, that on the iOih and 94th 
altiflBo, the Court bf^tMreetora resolved to engage several ships by private 
etfriHMbtV "tAiM r«Mnttfimi t Ht>w lay before this Court agreeably te the bv. 
laafa^''= • '- "-.'• .;.-..•. ^ ' , '. 

l>i'.t¥ii:diicls¥.'-^rbiigl«ale to dbaeinre, that the faauAsome Cfit)plaaiftioii 
irliieh the Chairman gave raapecting the Conmitteeof Ify-Uwabaacompletaly 



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•fctoied »y ibiiMl, ind I do not now vtrii to gif e my iutl6t tA iktmh'^dki 
Whan ^eDilemen perfonn Mnricet irrttultMBly, we oiiflit not U be tot nloo 

wilh respect to them. 

Captniii Hk%wimj.D.r^At ta eaiiy oerlod, I sinll feet it «f dnt^r lo «iib«iit 
n action, towthiBir that part of the MOeorge III. wMch lelatea to \\m bitiof 
of tonnage. That act teems, aa U were, to hare driven as into a corner ; if 
compels na to take up new ahips if old pnet should happen to be boiot, 
whether we need them or not« I »eg leave to ask whether anj ship haa been 
taken up in consequence of the burning of the Royal George t 

Tho Chawsan.— I thought the hon. Piropiieto? would ha;ro boMi aware 
timt no tonnage conid be taken apthls yaartoanpp^ thedeadeoey ooeaalonai 
by the Royal George. In consequenoe of the inereased deOMd for teaa 
dnring fche la<l yoar, new t«Hinage has bean taken up, ii^order to biing an %ddi- 
tionai quantity to this country aext year. 

Captain MAxrini.i>.— The c^l which appears to we now ont of the Aet mt 
l^mliament ia tMs, that the owners of a ship wMoh may be bunt ere at M b ei t y 
te lay d<ywn another keet, wittch rnnat be Mf#d at Am eame-rateof teMMte an 
the former vessel, let that rate he ever to hiprh. Suppnae^lt ahoald be foond 
tneotiveffleilt to engage any more ships of l«d» foan, yet «f ' a veeael nf thit 
descilption should oe burnt, the owners are allowed to lay down n kesl H 
iimi^dimenilonas a4d the Comipany me obliged ta hise it* 1^)0 ia idso 
another pnrt of the Aet which I will take the liberty of remarking ur>n ; |t in 
tMt reipeetiag the Marine ienriee^ 

rrtie CfiAniMAK.— I beg to cirtl tbe hot. Ihroprletor to order. When h 
Prouiletor gives notice of a motion on any subject. It Is iq* ite irregttlar to 
$:iier into a diaeustrtoR on the merits of the caae ; the pl'o|}er time for thdt is 
When the mqtiop Comes befbre the Court. We are not now competent to 
Oome to a decision, and dishntiion, therefore, at the present moment. Is abab* 
Intety thrown away. 

Captain MA^riELn.— T was not going to dihte on the subject, but raere)T 
to qbserve that the Supreme Government was about to act ill'eKalK', from net 
adbe.ing strictly lo the Act of the 5dth George III. I will bi)ng the subieet 
Defo;e me JDourt on a fbture occasion. ' 



CiM^AHf lii«panb.-*Ti» Tam#oiui Cf^^mi9t^t^Hh 

Hie C^amn Air stated, that the Ooart wns made spcoiai, ^r li^ parpmm of 
laying before the Prenrietom, for their approbetiim, a EesoliiiloB •f ^ 
Court of Dlreetore of ttie 8d iaat*, proyidiag, that Captain Michael, of tim 
Mhdfaa EatabiisbaMKit, npoa his Nojaning the military sfirvioe^ |b order thai 
be may eontinue to aet aa Mabimu i Tmnainter to the )u>i<nre CommissieneBa 
ia Rngland, In whieh eapaeity he reoeivca a salary of ^QB8c IQi..per anoiutt, 
ahall be ranted, npim the terms and conditiona therein staled, h aoDtinaanoe 
oftimt salary fer life. Atii ferther providing, that whenever the period shall 
ariiTo, at wbdi, if Captain Mixih^l had continued In the Miiittry lierviasr 
he would have sncoeeded to the command of a aegiment, a^d a share of OflV 
feclboniaga, the Aaid salary of ^OBS : lOs. per anmun, be incref^nd, from that 
dale, to 2l,OdO per ananm for life. 

1 l|e CLCttK read the resolatlen of the Coatt of Dlinetora. 

The CRAihMAN moved, thit the Court do approve 6f thft resoltftton «r thp 
Court of Directors. 

Captain Max pi eld. — I beg to ask whether the business of the '(^artiatic 
Cqmmb^ion is completed ; and if not, what remai is unsettled, and how much 
has been accoh)plished within the last twelve months ? It is, I nndersttbid, 
tome time lace the Commissioners in India completed their part of the bnsl* 
hess. t have been liiformed. that tlie time of the odrnmissloneta ^ere hna 
been much occupied with questions relative to the salaries of the servante of 
the late Nabob. It never was the Inftenlioa pf the Act under which they f re 
^p^iqtod tbai aneh ahonid be tbe ca^^ Uw^$t^ settle the clfims broug)i|| 
against the Nabob both by Europeans and Natives, thA tne Cbmmissioheri 

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9flr»My»lfM« m4 iw^ t/D ^fk^ arrwf fif 99l4m>* Ti^ Copmiftlop hap 
)>««p giuiui /9A for mapy yi^ar9 ft a Urg^e expense, and M U pot unfair tp asjlc 
tber^re l^ what #fat^ the ^as|t)es9 h, im4'\vMHer it is44ktiiy ]tp b^ aopn 
vow^ wp* If thpr^ l^ 4gBy ^.^coriEl in thiji hoii99 iiy vl^cb tl)e pr sent state ot 
Idbe bua|ii?as c«iuld be fscertained, it i^ de^rable that ve aboold Jcupv It. If 
llie affair had g:ot iittp Chancery, it quybl hare )ieea settled ftiy this Mme* 
The CaAiaiiAN. — The Court Is in possession of information relatire to the 

Koceed'ttgs of the Commission. A tepoit on the sn^ject has heen laid befortj 
e Court, and ts accessible to the honourable PropHetor Wheii he pleases \b 
resort to it. I know that lie #ill learn that t9ie labduis'of the Commfssionerti 
are hot yet eoneloded. It tiMty Xf^ neeessary to slate, that ' independently' of 
Ihe daimtr of lai^ -aaiDliinf which wer6 to be eipeeted, ^sims of a minor de(> 
lerl tion haft beM brous^ht ahder t%e oonsiderafion of the ComhifSSielieraL 
f ammvt awaj^ tha» 4n Hie 'A«t vuid^w^oh the CothMMfoaers wei« ap'pMnrild 
any dislittctioa was ma^e as to the devctfptlOR of d^ts to ^Mch they were td 
tl^eet their «lftcDti«B^» I'beUeve that the whM« off the Caniatio debts irere 
T e few e ii 4o theni, whel^iar those deb^s were Urye or smaH fn amount, fo J no- 
tice fee the eoiumtosieaiera, I mnstatate, thai they4iaTel>een extremely anxious 
to ^riny theeomniissioii to a close. (Hear.) la order to eflRrct that object they 
hint m^g^gted the pivprirtf aiC«iimtiiBgv witteKt Amther ih^uiry, ja jceitain 
descriptioa of debt wliich is too small ia amount to be worth investigatio% 
ifuvamch M^fkoemps9 of doisitf Pfh W»lf^ ip ^l ^hahUity* ei^eed Ihe 
finouiU of debtv This is the preaf^ sta^ of th^ busuiej^, aod I am pertaja 
arid am sure .the X^ourt mu&t feel that the Cbipamif s^ooers most aaxioualy de« 
finU> bn iif[ it to a close as |w>oii ^|)os&ib^: but yrhUst the Apt retniui;ied 
ifi force ey,ery qlaiiia,aiat' was entitled to haye hi^ clajims investigated a,aa r^« 
ported o^. JPVith respect to the Commissioners acting i^ India, i^ is filsp 
yerv mti^cb tbeif wisj^ tha|t t\ie Commis ton should t^ put an en4 tp. T^e A,ct 
of jPariuii^ei^t regdere^ U j^p rative l^t the /C^pmmlssioners tt^ere sh(^uld bp 
selected from .the bengal establishmec\t ^d np^ from the Matlra^, and thereforp 
the offices were by no npieans obj^t^ of c^esire tp pe;:sons of respectability 
and talent, because, on being app^juited, they were /separated frpi^ aM their 
friend^ a|id cojanection^. 

Mr. ^xov. — I heg to propose a question tor the sake of informaHon, fof 
o1^ aa I sim, I am never ashamed to' learn. The Resolu ibri of the Court oY 
pirecltors p*-0|^nftes, ifhat a satary ef ^1000 shaN be jtiven to Captain Michael 
IbrllQ^ N^wal appears to nie that this reormmiendation is improper, taas- 
ttttdk aa t»he salary Inay 'l«st longer than the life of the Company. I suhmlt 
tlmt it wHMiUI' he 'better to conCtane the sala^ during the pleasure of the 
Gouft 9 and I jam qutte sure that no person, who oonducta him<<eif with pro« 
pricey In any Mee under tibe Cosapaoy, will ever fed any lack of lioendity 
an tlieir part. I- jam not tfaposed to edll in ques ion the amount of the al- 
hvwancd^'and would not, for thewortd, say a word to iijure Captain Michael ; 
but I wish to k<iow whether the custom of the dourt renders it impprativp 
that the salary - shovM he for Hfe ? 

The Chairman.— It certainly does not ; hut there is noth'o^ new in the 
pn^iple of th's grant. Pensions, when granted by this Ooipopfuiy, ar^ grfinted 
for life. Wi^h respect to the present case, it is founded on an agreemeii;t or 
stipulation. Captain Michael was the only person in this country competent 
ib traaslate the Mahratta language. The period of his furlough was neaily 
expired ; and it became absolutely necessary that he should give up his' situa- 
tion of interpreter, in order to> retain his hnid of the aervice. It was not worth 
his while, ^or the cons-dera^on of £QS2 a-y^r, (his salary as ioternre^ter.) ,to 
reluiquish the ' advantages which fhe military service tiefd cijit to Jiim. The 
first proposi'ion which he made was, that, whflst he retained his situation of 
tatcgqprrteri be should conUat^e toholdhisrankin the* army, with the p^Lrl- 
lege of returning to India (When his aervloea here should no longer be re- 
qairad. To Ovsarpffoitfa^ there wa? a dyqi**^ objecUpn .pii tbe fuf sff the 
fiplW i>f Pi'ectOM^ ji() vJ>J:q<^39^ yM5¥ ^ m^ .?.W »iwiy# ^^ .^jn^crtRllaed 4» 
every instance where such pretensions are put forth,' 1 trust that no of&cer 

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^^V^i»'\iepma^^%6 ftvMi iA«litoeowiti^vmd«Maliifttia4Mtittlii^ 

{Hear^ hear.) It was on that ^ound that Captain Michaers propoailkiB,w«a 
iTJ«cled. ' Ho%ei^ at th« C^npany Iwl.n^ed of t|i^ servW^s of ,thi8 ffnile- 
■uui'ib this. eoQii try, it wa» nttcesauy that the pecaniary part of Uie queation 
ihoald ht ^Msidered. When it was aTideni t^at Claptaiii Mid^ael mu^t giTo 
nil all ojaitoifr of mlBg in h's (Mrofeaa<'oQt U waa onlyAffi^r pr,opu8,tipp on his 
part* that this -loss should be niad« np tohlou . \\ fuSk th^efon;, f^f |e^^ that 
vhen tho period should arme. at wlu«J^.C^>taii>.MM:>if^U if. be, >»d remauied 
in the serviee,iWoilkd havelyeen piaped lAooipniaiKl gt,^,^g^mfn\^ his aUo^- 
fUico.aiMiiild be isoMaaedr^'Ihe ^xMso^ pifopofed^ in opgder that be mf^X not 
be d aidferer by rendAuing in- Ahia «ouAtry< Aa it vi|4 resolved to j^i ve this 
ffontleman an income for Uf«)i i(.w»»atipuM^.tlia9,,Vb^CA<apaoy ithould have 
his services in any other Of wioUk depwtffiedtjthat might be reqciirvd. I am 
happy to. say' that the Compaiiy baft, ^ly opportunity of benefiting materially by 
his. a^fv Ci^s .}it. i]^ col)fge, during the tim^ ,tlv|t h^ js not occupied with the 
Ta!g^e co«mDi0s on. . O^ the whoie, the arcdug/ment wi^ieh ha^ been made 
with uaptuia ^Ubael, is. one which I can safely knd.coi^ien^iqUsly recom* 
mend. (/iear^.AVar.j;, ., . ,/ . » i 

Mr. Dixon. — 1 did not mean to call in qnestioD- Ibe propriety, c^ the allow- 
ance. 

Dr. OiLci^RiST, — ^This is a. subject with which I have some little acquaint- 
ance, and I -therefore may l>o allowed to make a fdw'bbser?ation9tiOori .t. I 
am riot o^e.to find fault with the nirectors foi- rinploying meti of talent titid 
iitegrily in their sprvlce ; and so far am X frott thi ilcihg the sum propoieil 10 
be giren to Captain Michael too much, that I am of opinion ft }s hardly 
enough, conaldel^iflg the duties whieh he has to rxeoate:' If ^ho Cottfl of Di- 
veotol^ fta^e s^tpuUtedi tha', u hen C iptiin Michael ia not Oitg ged (with lb* 
Tanjore Commissicm, he shall go to Hie college, fhey have tertaiuly got i#ieir 
penrnyworth for their money; imd, asmerohants, tbey have doB» t^ht. This 
gentleman, taking warni.ig, peihaps, by the manner in ^riideb soima Hte* ary 
characters have been treated, 'baa stood out, and piadie ajprudent b^rg^in ; 
which, if I had done, I should have been in a very different situation from that 
In which I am placed. I am glad to 0ad that literary men are becoming 
worldly wlae, that they look to what is to oome bvand by, and will^ot give 
their services till they reoei^e what thy are worth. If IhadifMiraiiedAbat 
course, my s'tuatiou wouM-Im^ boen' very di^reat { b«t aa for the pttXUi. 
despite .if. I XohAl rpon thati; aa compared with mf^' nameir aa tralh^ and un* 
wonhv of Bfry attention. I hope the praaeni eaae will bo-an oxanplot^fbrtfuiuife 
imitatfoaf and thai military men, oa their return to this oountty; wiiLbeiem* 
ployed by the Company fci.^ he way for which their talents. may #i>ltassa^ .it 
ap()ears to me singular, that in the report respecting the Tai^ore Goromissiott, 
not a syllable is said about the Mahratta language. I do not deny.thoatU&ty 
of the language. All the languages spoken i« India are, i thtaky* mnvO' usaM 
than the dead. I should, however, be glad to know wby theipersoBanoa^ 
nected wl h the commission in India do not send 'he tranalatloaa- 10 thi4 coiiti',ry 
rea y cur and diied. I do not find ftiuU with i he appointmeat : Owi^ forbid 
that f should. I am glkd to see the Court of Directors behaving^^ith Ubendlty, 
thbugh another person than myself be the object of it. 

The mo ion appro^ log of the resolution of the Court of Dfreetors W«i diMi 
unaiiimously agreed to. . , 

. Mboicax School foir Natits Doctors.- 

* The Chatrman informed the Court that it was fUrthor mabe si^detld, in ptil^ 
suance of the following requisi Ion : ' ' ' ;' ' "''' 

*>ToJoaaiPH.DART, Esq.«. Seoretary to tha Hon, the Cov^ of Diri^^on of 
• the ISast India Conpany. ' i* v» • 
** «r».-«We, tha underalgiied Proptietora of Eaat imUaHBtotk, duly QtttH- 
iadf solicit you to lay before the Hon. tha Court of Directors of the United 



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oir iksfhiifie M$dkatSch0oti m 

tet tMft I96ttnuiy IbfrMliMriAr n0dMv tha^H maybe M^rnktod-io M 
OmM «r Fi%|>ri«t<nrs, nt « Ocwnu Courts iH^cfr we* requeit may be called far 
tli0^piii«(>O0e4 . ■ ^ . . ' .' .. > . • . 

^**ni« It is 9^6«f^Y rfecowmend^d by tfie Court rtf Prdprletors, to their 
Executive Boidy M home; to eincourtg^ tit& support every rational atteoipt oo 
tile |>flrt of the O'overameiits iibnMid to eomiminieate usefttl knowledgfe among 
tlie whole rffttieir British Indian' fitiUjects, moce especially those branches of 
beneficial informaflon n<>ir't»«ght'at the Medical School, some years ago esta- 
Wlsheil ioCalbotta, 'by'MarqiiKi'Hastffifff, and warmly couftfeaMcrd by «1ie 
present 'Ot)veThop.eehei*l; l^i^nl'Aiaherst, forinBtnioting the Nati' e Doefera; 
attached 'to' this Beh|^aff'araiy; kr (The' modem ' art t^ftttr^ery, andlhe exisiing 
practice- <^ ffft^c; Ih^iMitig^ ihosa la^iipemable aeleaces also, or which tha 
tacceaaftil abfClVcaVittrf cf*lDed!ca!'«rt if ItitaMatelt* deti^nd. 

' J '- ' «♦ W*havetheh«)h*mi*tolHj, Sir, 

• ' -" '" •' " •-'♦^^'Yew'ieiy^ifcedloiit Serranti,' ' 

** ttXiCE9Ttn'^T^y^0PE,, ' '''James PATERsojr, M.D.' • 

John Bortfiwick GiLcnmsT,' ' '' William TttouNxok, 
John' tV^iLKs',*' ' ' ' ' ''JosRpn Hume, 

J. AdDINELL,, R. RiCKAftDS.** " 

" London, June, 1836." ^ 

Dr. G LCHRiST.— I thiok that my hon. friend Colonel Stanhope'a motion, 
ahpuld t»k^ precedepc^ of mine, as it wius Hist brou/iht under the notice of the 
Coiutf I aia J<^y to give way to him, if 1 am, by the rules of the Court, per* 
aiitte«l to do so* 

^e 0!f*iaM\x.*— By the ordinary practice of the Court, the motion of tlie 
learned Proprietor would take precedenoe, because the Court was made special 
with re^peict:fo it;' hat this pra'^rioeia by no means im^rative ; and If the 
learned Propfietor ia disposed to. give way to his lion, fiiend^ I hwv:e no 
ebjec^foft to^the arrangement. 

Pr. GjLCQUisT. — I am always glad to yield to a gallaot soldier 
Bombay Police. 

6oli 6nriufBOiPE.*-*-Thoitgh I thiok that^ in reason, I have a right to bring 
fsawaid any nwliba first, fneireilheleas feel maeh obliged to the learned Pro* 
ptksor .fbr vttfanilaflrily giving way to me, becMiae J am not very well, and 
might, if 1 hjd waited longer, been incapable of addrsssing the Court. 
I iriae lor the purpose of describing to. the Court tbe shameful syatf-m 
9i police 'which prevails at Bombay, and of calling oa you, as good men, 
«o ^iadlcate the laws of your country, and to protect the King*s sul jecta, 
ia ft distant part of the globe, from oppression. In ancient times, it was 
cnaaUered rae of the proudest duties of a Roman ci izen to defend 
the fights- of distant colonies ; and I conceive, that^ ia those enlighteoed tiro98« 
it cannot fee leas oar duty to pursue the same straight forward and honourable 
patiu I win demonatrale to you that the police magistrates of Bombay have 
heeo papiuing a syatem of discretion, instead of law ; that they have been 
aoOnyillefaUy^'fayibanislring, by llogigiog. by pfeventiog men from at>taiuing 
the writ of habetu eorfit^ and by calling on prisoners for laig« securities ; 
and I'WiU than. aai( -you to put an end to this system of club-law. I wilU at 
the outset, endeavour to give a slight sketch of the history of the police of 
Bombev. In the course of my address, I shall find it necessary to quote frrm 
a very important charge to theGf«nd Jury of B4irabay, by the Chief Justice, Sir 
£df rdfWest. I have been fortuoale enough to get an authentic copy of 
tnia charge, with which 1 h ve compared the report luthe * Oriental tlerald^* 
and find the latter perfectly crrrect. I will re id a passage from Sir Edward 
Veatlr^at^, hioiMerto'slmw that tMs poMce has always lH»eo aetfng 
contrary to law. The history is chiefly borrSwed from an oficial docu- 
pn^ ttsHMddiyHBir JAnaa BfaaUaloak, almitly befoie he quUted Battbay. 



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pa M|0 M«4if •r /«lf, 1779, tk» Qmat). 4«7 frw iN «M9 iM MfB4 
of lii»qi^y« pTf^fff^ed oo^ Ja^s Tod^ (iheia M^^iimn^ of ^^ce) w^ » p«frM« 
Duiaance, and his office of police as of a most dangerous teQ44|i^ ; Ufd 
fttnuesUy jreiponineiKlQd U)«Lt i^ should )m inugiedjaiely ab!»lijilii»< jss ^ tmiy 
for a despotic goyemmeot wliere a Bastile is at hai^d to eDf^^-qe it# ajiMioiit|r. 
*) be office, howevor, w^s Dot al?olishe4 apou this presen^ent, tut coot^^juel 
in force during eleven yeajs aherwa/ds, whe^ th^ same T.odd w^ tri^ jfor 
corruption, and CQUvicted, a|id the vame of lieutenant of police abolish«yi. 

Id the year i79ls the same oAce, «a<, atfsagB** My, the saine powers «rtn 
Mated in an oAcar den^iviBaied the BuperintoideMiof poUee. A eiren rng t a pee 
'bftd preriottsLy occarred reapecCing the poUee of Bengw, ^^eh i«b ' 
6ir il««ie8 Maddotosh observed, this sfipoiBtnettit fttill moi« ex'n 
Immediately after the Act of 177^ tho Q«irer«ot»>Ofaibnd had 
system of police jat Calcutta, agreeably CotboproYisiona of that Aet, estab- 
lishing a anparioleadMt of police wUh powera Tery eaneoMly limited, both 
resuecMng the mafpiitude of the erime and the aactool of the puoi^faaBent, and 
unaer the obligatiop of' Uyhig his proceedings before the Ooveiaor-Ooneral 
and the Chief Justice. Yet even this system, "with such Uaniied powMs, was 
soon complained of in the Suf^reme Court ; It was puhUcly catted a ^^ de- 
formity** by the excellent S r William Jones ; and his iKlyjesty was at leaglh 
pleased to disallow it by warrant under his sign manual as inconsistent with 
the rights of his suhjects. Eleven years after his late MajestV had given thia 
yfgnd prnof of that hostility to despotism wMeh beedmoa a SriliBb aKvaarch 
or the bouse of Brunswick, continues «ir James Mackintosh, the vei^ ayataia 
which be had beea graeioosly p'aased to annpl jwas establisbed at Bombay 
though in a more mischievous state ; Sir James Mackintosh pravBeds toataia 
hii nea^jis for eonsiderbig t>\e system of aoUce imgal. TheaaquBar|r .cm- 
Tictioos aud punishments of the police are uJbegal on .ey^ary grooi^. 

*' 1st. They are illegal, because tliey were Inflicted under rules whteh, fW)m 
i758 to 16Q7 were not coolirmed by the Court of Qirectors ; and since 1807^ 
have not been registered in his Majesty*s Court. 

** 2d y. TImy trt iHegil, becwiselb^y Were ftotoonvicttomi before -two ma- 
gistrates, as required by the ^ ftai 4^ iOovrge III. ; introduced into this 
bland by the 47 Geoige'UJ[. 

*' Srdly . They are illegal, bceause many of tlism are caaes of felotdeafeapee** 
ing which no power of j^UflMUory cooorictiaD is vieated iu |astiees of Hie ^edet 
in England or India. 

•* 4thly. Tliey are illegal, because the^umsbmen'ts of banlshmeat,'anid co^'- 
dem taUon to bird labour in chajn^, on the pumic works, are not '^uc^ as ca^ 
be inflicted either in England qjr India, iiio^ summary conviction. Byery 
rupee of every fi e imposed since 17»M by the potlce, m?iy, therefore, in sfncU 
ness of law l^e recovered y th^ party fi \e^. Kye. y stripe inflicted uppn'tfie^ 
has been ap assault and b^tter^, ' for which they are enntlci) to coroj^e isa.t loj^ 
i 1 dam^es, and every d^tentio^i xuakes its f^uthors liable to an acUon for t^ 
)mpri.sonuier4t.** 



Haviig (continued Goiouel SUuibope) f^en^ J6rom the (beat .poaablo i 
rity, this short aketch of the history bf the Bofaibay ^police, Iwdii now pi 
to a conrfderation of its nets. First, I wll read tbe eu9flk tried^ iteQiiAlii^ 
1 wHl give an account of the seUteooes, and then I will state- Mw opinionref 
Sir James Mucki itosh and air Edward Went, wiJth respeot »o their pro ceodiunaL 
** Iu the summary,'* s-^ys 'Sir fidwani West, «^ wfafioli extends flnen tiie fth W 
Janimr>', 18SS, to the Slat of M^u^oh in 4he same year, a period oT aboHt-theeh 
hionths*. theie are thirty -Ave instances of ba.tisiime.tt ; aid, in liie iMVl siai* 
mary, which extends from tae 7th of April, 1^99. to the Mbof Juaeto tba 
same year, there are thirty ioataiiees of that pUnislMnettt. ^ToawlliobaeBitf, 
also, the proportion which tbese puniahmeifts beer lk> all tho^ObneM tiiei iiy 
ibe petty tofsloiis. The.irh<donMil>cir iif UBiee trial l»yJlie jibtty aanbw, 
during the first period, is sixty-one, including muny ofibnoesof a triviid iMtui«| 



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I tA ' Mvtev ¥ifShgm h d«c« upon hukeriei,*^ tetegite^hrB lin|tttge/ 
id f- ■^lingr ntpLor wikhoui m liiaeiMe/ Out of tiieM aittynDne ottes, tllero 
we thiriy^ve senteiiM df biinfskiiient: A frnqn^nl aiode of ex^rttaing tUs 
■enteine Df ^Hnirtnneiit is, ' thai tlie pfiAoner lio woeive a pton oote/ TbBs 
ll» Unt MBtnofe ia llie suoMnry 1»^* thAt the i^toner do leeaiTe onedoxed 
teihestuiditiiastiUHe/ luafew c«ae« tlMteateiieete«--<'t)iat theptiKyoiBriie 
leeeive a iMfs-eote to his own emintry* feet of theae latter, tiia fMroportton ki 
tat very tnkaU, then being in tba iiat eemewry but eight of this iescriptSed 
d«i •£ 4lie ifa&rt^^Aee. U rery naay of the cMaa, io the aiffeaei^ aaoMiiwiBS 
the aealanee is,, * thit^theficiaoner i»e i?ot off the ia&aaiA f ia sone^ that '' be 
b ^ hi M Bi ie tl *' " «if jBdw«td W«st states hU t^fUAtm ae to the legally at 
lkBaefM«eediiig9iaitlie/oU««ing words ^i ' To wamnt tbU paniabmeot^ a 
y n ie hw e n t iaiietad o» aenmwy. coat iction, there isnot a shadow of authoriiy^ 
e«aafor aey, 4h« aioit h^ iaeaa otfenoe.** you shaU aow he^r ^v James 
lfacktauisi^^oplaA0«m>o.the«i«ie aulueet t he says, ^* HaaighuBnt aod hard 4a« 
boer i» ebtina^Mi Jthe fwblio ;HU)its aie peniitiesv not such a» the atatnte cails 
iMdenile«ad«aaseaaMe.«>rporal ^aUhaieiit, aer#aafa as the law of £ngUnd 
efer teatota»ipeo m t mv Y eeavictien, Aiefore even two magistiwtea. They are 
a yp fo y ri al e djto (he ^ghw endierof crin^ef, fkf t^ a trial J^ a jujry, aa4 g^ne- 
qsUy to cjoniniHtttt&QiY of the puoUhmc^t of deatj^** N«l,witli»t9iQdia|f jthjis, 
the ijolicf iPAgi»tFal«s. of Bombay Jkave«oiUiQuad to pmnw tjite coui'^ U\«^ 
le^oJMied by these two jei;ilig;bteoed ^^Qlh ^ m'^^ p^^ ef ijiog-law, whether 
•r eat thatUileely)vl4 be glv^n to ^ aonl^ay police system, idoApt kAQw; 
biit^ at all events, it ie cleaAy cooU vy to the ^tafute. \ wll xww proceed Xf) 
Um btfbareitf subrject of flegfii^g. I may premise^ tjl^ this bail>|xouB pracr 
lice if. DOW much disc^meaaace^ amongst ^Wilued aations. P^evio^Ms .t,o ihe 
Frofofi xafohition, JUarshal BrogUo atten^ted tp latrodyce the Oefoiaii 
sys^e^ offlogfiog Intp Fraiiee, aod the r&suU was, tJie de^rtApu of 80.000 
IMO. Mesttrier srates, thai this was ooe of those cau£;es ,of discQAteot which 
led t4» the revolution and the 4ecapiia ion of the king of France. The Freuch 
QoTejnment, aH^er the revolution, \nsely set their faces against this beastly 
pua&slimeot, and Napoleon also ^)anished ^t from Italy. I gjie»e to say, that 
si use the rctftnration of 1 giiimaisy io Fj^ce, the floffgi.ig system has beea 
agwies'eblished, though itot to the s^me ejc'eot ^ formetly. Tiie eiGBct of 
this system m Prussia, Com w^uce Fraooe borrowed it, jinay he inown f.om 
the etal^mentrntf^e hy Fie4«ijc)( t^ fite^ty that when he took ihe field, he 
Ql^teii^aiedDpopl^de^ertioii of f^i^e-thiid of hi$ tmny. Ir, however, gives 
me pkasare t^> s'ate, that owing to t^ exeitions of Geieiais Hiaraowitx ai)^ 
Von Btei.i, thjsi^^tem is now liOarly ^boish^ U Pius^a. In E gland.' owl g 
to the iiow^rful dratory cf -Sir Fiaivcis Burdett, and the wii'i.gs pt Mr. 
Cobb^tt, the practice i«. iu a giefit ^letiiune. /diseontinnnd. Iq Kussia, and 
ether barberods eountries, theprftetioe s'iU leroaias in full force. In India, jn 
former times, and under the Native govemmentSt the pu ishmeot of flogging 
prevail^, but it wss never i wflicted but upon person's of the lowest rank. Having 
mide these ge^^end obsBi wtinus, 1 wiU now s>ate wh^t isthelaw on thes*il^.ect, 
m rrg irds IndSft. By the 39th and 40 h of Qeorge if (. .the Governo^-Ge era! 
aal CoiiooU are empdweied toiq>poiiit raodereAe and reasouaHe corporal punish* 
me 1ft, wbieb, hewever, eaukl x^nj^y be inflated impn a cpj^vietJipA hafore two 
IMlieea^f the fwaee. New I will state the natune of the puo^sh.inent : the sufferer 
Jh^MasUf tied ha a«ln>e, and the panishroent is jiofljicted on his bsjce back, with 
araMao. The poaishmeBiit 4s ee dreadftiUy sev/ere. ^lUt, in some cases* 4he 
piieotter*a body 4e isnej^esed in a Iciod of le ithern cuirass, i^ order to .mitigat/^ 
ih ^ eeyeraty o/ the powerful blows. I npw beg leave to state the epi Aon ,€^ 
the (Mmtff of Bombay* with resyrK^ ^o this pMaishmept^ und that geatl^emaa 
baaing baeftA. mUitury of&cer, is cemfietent to .draw a cooipacison ibetweep the 
peaqeea of.lleggteg by the calr»*idiie-t|uU aed the rattan. The 6her,iir apeiM(# 
Uma, do A Latter to the Chief Juatios : '' My LoiA, the inflietiou of pnnlshinei^ 
by tbexatian, ae«iew practised in jaiM, heiag attended with extvspcdinary 
smmrHy^ drmariiig fcloed «^ roiesy sudpe, mid sometimes Ming off with d^ 
mmdl4|]feoai fif il«*h ; ftaf i« AxU Assuruwe %W f»lie«mr» «9 extn»me.w^ a«Ii 
when Imowo, be sanctionied by yoitr Lordship, I beg leave, in consequence. 



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m Debate a the JEM India HouH 

mpeetfb% to itropofo that a dmim&er's oat be made ttie Af Iq. Iko Jiili ia iiftt 
of the ratUa ; which, however focAUkUe it may he in appeanHMO, ie^fiiMeia 
sierere and iigoiious in iti ttfecU, In au|iyort of this «p4nioiiy I may ih^jp^f*. 
mitted to state, thfit there is now in my custaAyf aiU«tuiUon* iepoy» <wha,<oft 
the Srd inst^. received 800 lashes on his left sho^tdfr h^ the 4M*unar of hit; 
corps, and on the I3th of the same montk <betn9 qonpmifted 4o jaH). >& lashes 
with the rattan were inflicted on the other shoalderv. Oe heiiftg iquestioafd^aa 
to the dilference, in poij of seveii y, of. the tV9 puaisfamsott^Juiilac^anHl 
with con^^dence, that thejr did not bear x^mps^iapn, 4ii¥iv>W!as one ^c the inth^rv 
to be repeated, and a choice given, that ^hf wW^ gia<Uv!>t«Jm'the -fDimar/' 
The opinion of iir. Smytton, the.phyaician./^thejw^* U.^ocrobotative of -that 
of the SheridT. In bis leUe/to the ChJeC.^aarinev.fe^ my**'. <t. In vefereace to 
ypiir iaqoiiieson the sulouect of certain :piipiahnimU«t I:>haMa the honour 4a 
state as my opinion, thai Ho^iriog, with the .witan if ,af ?eiy isevere fwiiish- 
meni in ao far as t may be.ailo^ed. to viiwlge>ifrfM laiyjipvMed'expeciciiee sof 
stitch aases in the jail. When, infliifted. (W <th«. Im^ MI^ ia fliie ,mMii.ir oMial 
in.jaii here, one atruRe is eqiM^, I thinh, ioai4eaAi<a 4^»a«», with. th0< oat, aad 
it;i9 t^ble to ^he much aggravated by a^y AecidaaftM tspUiAlag.af the 4 



I hope, ' gentlemen, (oon*iimed CoI^nH- Stiinh<#filp < 'tfddrmsf ng the report- 
ers;) that you will make thia known lo Ihe people' of ' Btttlobd. 8H- Bd^Artrd 
West proceeds by saying ! ** AMoltHtg to' th^'lrifofmamn' w'hM I Ikave re*- 
ceivei, and on which 1 can rely, the wonqds of the first infliction are (reqoeialy 
scarcely healed before the Second is suffered. Geptlemea, the scara of t^se 
wonnds are never obliterated but by death, and consequent dissolution of the 
bodv J andf you may obser,ve the scars on many a Native as "he toils along the 
streets of the 'town under the burthen 'of a palanquin.^*' Sir Edward, then 
quotes the description given by the Revere.id Mr Jackson, of the flpggiog of 
a Native," who had been convicted of steali.ig sonie cloth : " The piisepervfaa 
thln« and his bones projected considerably, conscquenMy the e0ect of the- 
stroke was most severe, and the sufferings of the poor wretch appeaio I graat 
beyond description. The two first strokes distinctly left on tjw back Uie 
maiksof the cane. The magistrate, on see! ig t e dreadful effect produced, 
humanely ordered the policeman to ^rike.with less violence; but ndtwiti^ 
standing this, the prisoner, on being relesised, was unable to stana: lie was 
supported to an adjoining shed, and some water brought to lei^rore him. The 
pnnishment was most severe, and, to me, most disgus Ing.** This Uthe.com^ 
ment which Sir ^. Weat makes on this statement : ''.Genileme.n, the la^ictifui 
in thi^ case n^as but sIy bloii^s ; what must be the efl^ect of six, times §\i^ or 
three doz n bloWs, som^ of them necessarily falling repeatedly onthe.saiM 
place, uprtii the wounds made by the first blows 7'* I have the authority of ^k 
E.' West for stating, that the putilshment of floggmg Is inflic'ed upon Bfitialb 
as ^^11 a* NAtiVe sybjec^s, on sutnmary conviction before a magisra'e. Whea 
an ffidhldtial Is aeitenced to be flogged, be is not tak m back to jall^ butimr 
meHa^ely fitiffbti the infliction of the punishment ; the consequence Is*. thata%. 
individual has not an opportunity of appealiiff to the Supreme Couii, ^veja it. 
he hav^ the means of doing so. TMs is a hardship which Sir E. West pninta 
out. fTe next complains of the improper practice of requiring securities front 
prisoners without specifying the amount, and gives one instance of the evU 
restilti'ig from the practice: ^^OntheOthof Oct.lBlT, a man named Abdul lUbf 
him Seedy, was sentenced to hard labour, till he should fl id-securiVies,., Under 
this aetitence, he remained in jail till July, 189S, a fieriod of aix years^.whea. 
he died in jail.** It may be said. Why do not the judges prove it these ilj^*. 
gat and oppressfve proceed! igs ?*' Th^ answer is plain : The judges havatta. 
poWer th do sA, u.fless on an application ft-om prisoners; and tbev are usi^lly 
too Igrforant or too poov to seek fot- redress from the judges.. I think It.WQBti 
be' productive of much good. If the' judges were empowered to.revi^^ ^he^pncH 
eeeiiYigs had before the magtstrates. I hope that the IntreductUo Qfkh» juiQr 
svatem* in Itfdia, ata act which dods honour' tb Afr. Wyna and the^ Court oC 
Directora, win h^ of avail in checking thes^ abu5es. I t(uhk.iiiaua.w4 
eoMii^ im prove thai the whole sjrttem of Bombay police is illegal, and that 



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(miheBomtojf.Pfflice* * 174 

the Court of Diroeton, as they haTe the good of thelDdien Eni||ire,«t hearty 
are bolind t<^iakd some ate^ for putting an end to it. Sir James Mackintpsh 
haa stated, tfial, tnid^ this system, hdndreds of persous hare beea punished 
like galiefy slaves: This te the ephrfon of one' of the gr^ates^; statesmen, and' 
one of the must bon^M'able joilgesj this country ever produced. I will now- 
trouble tbe<€o^ iritfa a shoft passage tVomrthe Grand Jury's repiy to i^ir E. 
West's Tsharge t ^' Aft^ a full considemilon of the points there) a discussed, 
and, pevstiaded iiS'W^ aV^ of thefr great importance, vre have only to obseive, 
that, pr^otniAg it Irth^'bjti^lency alone, and not the legality, of the police 
rtgttlatioasfa piaeKtes'lbat'is sabmitted 16 our consid<iratlon, upon the latter 
of whleh we evidently are liot competent to d eide, we are of opinion, that» 
eo«aiA;*riag the pdeuKar cdrounfstaiices of Bombay, as adverted to by his Lord 
shlpw aoyreduciion of the power of the police magistrates, as at present exer- 
daed^ would be MtMd^d with the greatest danger, and would add much to the 
IdCreaMi of crimen ^ifh rfegdtrd to the removal ofal^ens, who are otfender:) of 
bad ehanucttr, fVaM'the isljuvif, and to the penal conse;quence8 of their re:urn^ 
and wish Mjgard also to the pualshment of.flc^gging as at pres nt inflicted, we 
are of opinlbn. fro#r>our^wn experfeoife^, st^engthe.ied by that of the ojdc-st 
ougiatrates'fA Hie pUb^^'thal no ^haitge ii esrpenient, * i her iu th * frequency' 
or a.vei-ity pf thoaa pmiistMMnts^' or i^^.tha. iaslrument with whiah they ire 
inflicted; nf^ thUkk* lurtpeverftbat the linstrum-^t should iu all. oases fau^f one 
uniiCoan st^i^acd*, u^ bo .tixed. by 4he proper aa«horitiea.*' 

"Whit Was' this but h pS^rfect state' of anarchy t Thiere were the magistrates 
of Bombay s^ttin^ themSeTVes up in opposilion to' the law and calliig it ex- 
ped ekt ! Was erliir iSuiih faljdcy as this heard of? Was not such conthict cal- 
culated td dejtroj" ifll gbvemhi^tt' X fancy what I have said is sufficient to 
shofw'tfiat'the^ entire systenp'of the rules and regulations in force a^ Bombay 
is a sys'em ^f opores^ion, and"1 maintain that, if it is allowed to go undis- 
ttfrtyed, tite reign of law is at an end, and that of anarchy commenced. Thp 
Bbttiba^- ddremment Is evidently actl. g In opposition to the Chief Justice- 
It* fa dbin^ this 'In the (Yrat pi ace b^ supporting a regulation that is contrary 
tiTlsw; in the second by countenancing those magistrates, who are stipeud- 
iai^rthiigistrates Arid remPVeabl^ at their pleasure ; and thirdlyt this oppoiiltiQn 
is'moVof ^n'the conduct of Mr. Warden, the chief Secretary to the Govem- 
mitfiX\ Ulio, T Vinderstand is the censor of the press, and the proprietor of a 
news^apek*, and who allowed the proceedings of tne Supreme Court to be 
ga^lM." About this circumstance Mr. Waiden had indeed declaied that he 
kiMHr nbtif ng : but T maihtain that aS censor of the pre s he could not be ig- 
noranf oT'it. In a Word, if is as clear he was acquxunted with it as if he hi^d 
eotiPt^ ed the fact. When a man ftnds he has committed an error, and acknow- 
iad^s ^t; I' am always hap|>y to hear the cluiowledgmeot and to pardon the 
fault *' bht ti^hen he eUdeavours to gloss it over by false or flimsy pretences,, 
I cahbbt shflfcfently condemrt him. As another proof of the opposition dis- 
played tdwards the Chief Justice,' I have to obse.ve, that, two attorneys and 
Iv^lMWvefs had, in deflance of the repeated remonstrance ^ of the Chief Ji^s- 
tf^ establisht^d, a complete monopoly of the proceedings of the Court, (//can) 
THe«e penofiage^ have in fact arrayed themselves against the Chief Justice^ 
who^ thongfa a man diflbrlnr from me in political opinions, is, I can safe y as- 
scft; hn honest, npright and. impartial Judge. {lUat,) On this part of the case 
I %^k nottdog further to say, and t will oow state that the flogging system 
is vot (Sotffin^ to B6mbay ajone, but prevails throughout the whole land. 
In su^t>ort of this assertion 1 will produce facts, for facts I am fond of. In 
th^Drst instance 1 will mention the case of Munnee Doss. This person, a 
ricfl' 7lntiindar, was^ liberated from prison on a limited bail. His child having 
dietiChi^ Was* anxious to discharge the last duties to the deceased, and broke his 
ban td ^ia^f that ^urpos^ into efl'ect ; and I must say, had I been the father of 
tbtf 'ehild \ ,#oUld al^o have brpken hail, .that I might perform those honours 
to fA(i'd^yUl'&hd djre'ei'thoi^ religioi^s ceremonies which it is the duty of every 
HItfdoU ^HJb do on 'si^<^ ' occasions^ Xow what followed ? a police ofilQar was 
d^flptd^cEuM after the matt who topk.bijn into costody, gud tbea the UMtniea^ 



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lU DebUft lit m Mm rmlUf House 

Kottto t6 hoiiMf, and Aot-«ll<^w6(l atMittl<|«lB itt HilMrid liirv^ bdKM a mii« N| 
tM sUttioA. K<y~fife was dtati^etf alcmg and imm^latf^y brattgb^i»efnire i 
mig'tfiUBitu by wftoni Ik^ was ordered to be flo]^ged. He wi^ tied to s^ itlLke 
at tb^ baci of It Brftisb Court of Justlee and received a toggmff. Pour fisytf 
after this Munnee Boss died, and Ms rt'tn^fn^ were; not tre^teidwith tVijat aefres 
of fespect wbtcb was due fo bis ranV i:i life.. Proeeediogs were had against 
the iffttgrstrate who had ordered him to be whipped, who was aequHted by the 
Jwry, k defence baf1)^g beett is« faj> that the ttah ff M of the c/lofetV* mdrbvs. 
The jiroceed'aj^ifif tWs ctt*e I Wave re*d wfih'ier^ ihteris* Tnteresf, irtd f bare 
come to' the cnrtdtisten that Wimrtee l>oSs did not'dfe of tb<* choltra wfoftus, 
but hi conseqnertce of the flo?gi>i t!* bfe^ r<?ee:Ved. T flAiisf hSic^jH^ Srff; that Wad 
I ^eta one 6f the Jury, I mu^t Imve eoinetded in tbe-yerdlctv hecstse I aid 
(jonvlneed the magistrate had no more inteat^oa of floggiitg tht; mtm to dtmfi 
thato I had. But let tfs consider what would be tbe'eiect 'produced In tbt< 
ecu itry, if a man of ranlt, say the Dulie of Norfolk or the Duke of Richmond, 
was to b^ ^rai'ged before a itmgisjtrate, in Consequence of baying broket) ball, 
tied to a tiee artd fjcggedl Wlial would people tl^nk, if, in fonrdavs 
8f!6^ the pcf soii thus punished, wtre io die, sbg we were to be told tbat m 
died of cholera fiidrbus ? Would not emy fifritish heart bp &rod at such art 
otitrageT Would not every firm be raised against such a horribl oppre slon f 
I will next call your attention to the ease of Moadee, a pf irate iir the<6tb reg - 
|Dant of Nat!?e cayalry ; wlio, bayinj^ been sentenced to be flpgged, ^nt his 
own throat to escape JIhe igDomlay oAhe punishment.' I(e did uot succeed in 
etiTectiiig his purpose, and aiae days alt^r he receired a sevete ilog ing. At tb|s 
time ii bappeaeoi that the troops were about to cbaai^e their position, and tfiiii 
solcBer, while his wounds were yet uadosed, with Kis mangled tlirMt aad 
UcC'fttedback, waa marched ia front of bis regiment; (liear^ ftcor,) Av^ 
here allow me to observe tiiat ttieie formerly ex'ste^ a moat dsoojleiit reguta* 
tioA in the Bennl ktmy. When a man focaiv^ a whipping W was 4ha«o<H 
forth copsidoied as nnworthy to remain in the regimaii^ sipd ims coBScqamtty 
l^lcked out of it. Now t believe no such prdetioe BieTalU, forJIoggingti^iHi 
longer cegaided as an indelible disgrace, I sh U bo happy to Mar «e«ntca^ 
fiction of this fact, if I baye misstated i^ ircm my boo* fiiMdoppuste (€;«4onfl 
pislufigtoo). How many .ashes do you suppose a court oMirtial tn BMga^ baa 
the power of ordering to be inflicted? Why |Q0Oi nad (be man raaaivad 
this i^unishment I have now given you • luatory of io (bea^ i tteg al and aKfra- 
judicial prooeedings. But dffedful as these pwoiahiiienta pe,,ffeT«lth|g aB«aii|Bb 
f^ course of injustice uadoubtedly is, yet unkss.a refoitMlion is »tflb8t«d-iba 
ultjirior conseiiuences will be aiofe dreadful and r«T«ltiag aliB ^ far ih^amH 
tag! 00 of exainple is so infectious, that the unlaw Ail powaraa pieaegat 0tm* 
ci«edby the Goyerome^t will, in tba end, be praotiaed 'p aYMy ludivtdMil* 
!rhe baneful influence of this system, I am grieved to aay, i^aftraady vaai* 
$»^Q^ througb the land. I have travelled tbrouf b tbat oiuotry mA hmo. mn 
Dof merely the servants of the Government, but yo««^ iadlviAiila aad ba4 
spirits enforcing this shameful paaotice. I remeaiber im baveiiaard » ymtnB 
add beautiful woman, ond^ her servants to bo iogged. &m had Immb mookh 
cili-a to Uie ^yRtem by its prevalenoe, and hailing tail all tha ayppatkg Df bar 
sex, she Vd likewise nejeetod all womanly feeliag. TIlo avatnn^as. I ftalad* 
pas thecoma so extended and prevalent tbat prior )# Hie aarfral of lawd UmH* 
ings it was a common practice far the superior 4amaftiat to lardoeaboir Mder« 
Un?^. to be whipped. Haying now explained wy aeaNiiwrt»4tt tlila«ffibiMt, 
) wiii read to the Ckmrt the notion I shall presaotly h»r»tbt^basia» r lo^j^tM 
nut to. your decision^ aipdiet me imploaa yoa^ boireuM ywi diMaa».*| ihit 
iBoUoB, to put an end at lenstto tbat abom'iMble« rtMfttiMUiillegftk-aMi iaay 
add anti*b;Bgli*b pradice. These ate the %hwb irf m p >w a ti o»:<»> ^ 

«« 1. That by the 5lh Article of the H6n6uribte (kimpwiy^a B 
)st of 1814, it l& de^ldred lawful fpr Ona of tbe ^}mtfmoT,m^ 



«« 1. That by the 5lh Article of the H6n6uribte Compwiy^a RejAtai^ 
m of 1814, it l& de^ldred lawful for Ona of tbe rh)^mt?m o^my^^ 
p6mrita!nt raade by any ma^i^ r or thi$tre0%|(J:ii!n|t ijpy i^eivaat pi biuu^ an^ 
bff sodr cdm^latm bebg etftitrtuibdd 1) f lAb 6atn of dfib^6fbmbte im^^ td 



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Mdi 6AMltov to be iifi«f«d otf MM &t^ hei> M offihiriitfg. 
" 9. That ihM tegiflfttidn (rfcted upon at Sbtnljay) ii utterly itre^t; for 



Ct^ 




. w. That in de6»iH» ql ^(livS statvt«» w»4 Iha wiw ft<lpio9itiafi« •! Sir Javinr 
Ilackiiitosh apd i^if ^wi^d \Ve4t, qraa baTe bee» iln^> and flofgwl, aitd 
1l%iib^ ;.awiUief« m(UVtr9ii3 pDacUfiW U^ 9fciH oiiitiafitB>y pfil»ev0r«d iaby 
ti|9 inaffts&r^te^t an^ M|9p^ofie<l,t^y tbe Qnmd Jiuf of that aatll^NMnt. 

*' 4. That tM»lOo«rt fk> fiTinWy rMoniMffnd tne* Cimrf of Dlfectior^ t^ ifm 
t€pM the •frfciar«l<M^«f il;|(tt1a1fi>W, Ht df IfHf >i7M«K f« opt)^9^(} t6 ffie 80 
■!tf 4(1 €leor^ HI., «fd t« c^dk th& hi^Mrttiia frtifiWfit of fiog$iag in tlrftiifif 

•* A tiirff yWrn<^Afflt<^^(f«htldionSAjidj)Msfime^^^^ Kaddnd inliicted 
bfert>re fhfc itiigl^tratej Mttlirf lolntty and stparately, and also befoie the petty 
•i!S<(i6n^ at ftbnlhay, Sthce lo!i> be Utd before this Co«rf ;. and that the King's 
jfadg^s 4t Bofnbdy be f^qtibstfed tb caTI upon the magistrates for the i^aia 
miitni. 

** 6, That a il^i o( the ^enteneaa of RegimeotM Courts MartifL. which o«« 
curred Iq tbf Hoqafiunble Cp^paoy « army, Irpm Ji8^ to 188^, by laid belpi« 
tiiU Court/* ........... 

Yoa wUI, by.tuyrOTUaff.lhia nlDCkni, 0iifi|KiM at the s«M thfte the ohrtraoTet 
•f y«iir ••VQtfy ; but if yoaflbwMflfoai doinff your doty oh thia alMmfiortftiil 
•cK^ioii, theii^ l^uat aayi yod «ie iM« flt lo hanra raitlUiifr of hnlnlii botag« 
^pd4r f flMr BMftraL 

Br. ■OlLCfii(r*r.<-4i« fifWr w «c«Wl <he wifMfon, I thirtli It propef (o ob- 
iinfT«; that. Iff «iy'<ypiiitMv tm Gourt in Hsffriitely tad^bt^ in the flrdl!int and 
bDabMAbfef <iflloaf whb has introd«eed ft fo ns. Nu one, surely, who has paid 
tM leaif liMntimi Uf the MbfeH, at detailed by the g^allant Colonel, can fail 
16 iduit; tfaM-tha stAtMMits tn^BA^ Aiat day fire catculated to excite disgust in 
etelf'hMiirtri^ ervry waiily. and. thotigh last, fiot least. In every Chi I tim 
bt^BtfL it f ttift me jialA to observiB, thht, iince the opening of the gallant 
fMottM'V «Mt«8^, Ritny genttetneh haire retired ftom tf e Coun, and others, 
birtaad df befff|: atm^ ititttc with horror ki the frightfbl details they hfea^rd, 
^t^'cMrttlii^ afld tatigb!n^ with ^^ch other, as If they were at table' baling 
fMst-beef - nd pluRi-titiddtn^. Stich eondn«t ^poke, in very olain language, 
tMff ilMftliiieiits on tb« tfubjeet— that they eonsld^rc'd it one of no Importance. 
It ftMly maiite no (iMbren«e iti the atrocity, because the completion of those 
mh9 ha^e been treated in the way dei^crfbed by my hon. tiend, i§ blaclc. 
Gae HMkt be any reasoit for tifrnlng a de<Lf ear to their 6omplaiUts T The soul 
of OM -of iboie tinfbrtaoale beings U, qn^stfonless, as dear to hi4 Maker tA 
tim ef Mm irho hapj^ens to be Aiir. ft grletes nie yery deeply to find that 
te 4yMeili nrf'fioggliig has been ckfrl^d to an ejttBnt in India so disgraceful ; 
eia I titi aeiHy to ftar; thAi, since I left that country, no steeps hate been takeft 
MHferfls'anftfgirtbtg n. I nn speak of It as a nredical man, and am sorry to 
beibto t* kay, that, aniWttrfhe Company's troops, the practice, far from bein^ 
bntif^ ^Mkne, nid actttatty ifn<;reiised. I believe that gentlemen in this Court 
MciilMilly^ htot lata a pubticatlbn, called * The A$taUc Journal:" and 
feUeeelaHy whenari h»tiest member df this Court, ray hon. friend, Mr. Home, 
bipMitf'til hh Pbughly bodied in its pi&ges. They mi£:bt have seen, lately, in 
ilitt>Jbaraidv ^ ti>B|r hpistle from ^' A Retired Madras Officer,'* who, T be- 
nete, Wtti at Oolcmter. i'hiK per^Ott, ih alhtding to corporal punlshmenta 
U tb^ gallant array on tl^at establishment, writes in these terms : '* Wlien \ 
fNll WbbfBffi Vid, ijod ih else of emergency, I received a specific order from 
§iHta-^|mHm. ft) Tir a prisoner, la a Court, fcomppsed of myself and ray own 
IIH«irfMtb Wcm* t wrot^ tbe t>n)ce^diQgS tn £nKU$b, and forwaidaa 



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176 Debate ai »e JSki0t India JSbuie 

tlM«i to head-qMrtcra for ooallnntioB, wlien two addJtioMd dnnraiers wert- 
•out CroatlMMse to oMtoriaiDO «t «Im yurtihwiiit, t ^HHh m IfiU^ dootoff. 
MRiidodtowsMowrtlMliroofhlftfellowortKtMe.". Wliat tMMFMrMftry 
•tftleflMBt If thti ? The Idea of a British oflkerwrlltef Mch «»ooeo«it mMs, 
iB.tlie fkoo of an indo^ritiih pablie, ond at tMa tino of day, perfeeCly «a- 
tonUYiOf nia. ^ He lolls us tliat his own dniMWr% aUd lio^aiavy of^hoai he 
bad at his eoniaiand I kftownot, not boliiff saAeiait; tiree or fraroMtkHaal 
ooeii were aeut him fron head^qaartera. roarld the eoimnhsloD of aoy eihno, 
«Blo«s ft was of th^ 10001 rovoltlefdeteHpflofr, joAiiy thvoallloy of a mao In 
piFccf after ihia nftot It would be boner to'Ohoot a Mmm «t onto, If he eom- 
iska a eilaae de«enrHir •^ vo^^ >L ^^«*1«>I doihltl TM, IndeM, itfllivfer- 
tnrea ofthe InqnkltkMi r TlMv -weronotMif to ui i ^ i H lii i i4d^thoae odw fffae* 
ttaod Id British lQdio--in the Aitioh eoloaio»-->«ad« • «■ alMool •••tttaod^to 
■ay, la the Biitish navy f The w»lter dori not tell m the votnll of 4Me pto^ 
eoedinfr. where four or 6vedniannerallAedo«*of4lleirnHnMbloHio«utrT- 
men within hair*8-breadth of his life ; nor indeed d«»«i heovon Mention the 
ofihnoe the poor. jm» had <iwnm>ltod. .The ti>li>t <l>niii^ who Mralfhed t» e 
aooonnt, if nit were in Court, could donbtleas onUghton na on the anhj ct ; and 
I hope, if be is here, that he w II do an. I hnnld rery ameh like to i o in- 
fbtmed of the crime the mut coinai;tt#d ;. and, Mrbnptk aft a Aimre period I 
■ny move for the proceed!, ga of- the oonrt wartkl. I do «ot donbl hot the 
gallant oAeer, who wrote the aoeonni, will onpport bm In • bmiHob for the' 



production of thoae prooeedinga, for thoy ■aenwiH (tiwngh it aMv ^eeat strange 
in a British oflWser) 4o havooAifMl hi la mantes Isr-hontting. I have heon in 
the si ustion of assistant-snigoon Myself ia India, and had onee the dvaagiee- 
n le oflko to pOrforM of standing by wh'la n ornato in the artillery was 
fogged, in order to see that ho did not Vooa Un lilhfhy the onwrily of the 
pnelshflwnt. This poor follow was atlradsd iy mo in* tiM* hosplKl n short 
tiMO pievii^os to thai pu lishMoot, where he was eAafinedwithnB<lnflBMMalory: 
disordtT. My opinion- of tbi*ae pvnis! manta la. thal« whan a hm* is taJton ont 
en a sultry day-— a day as hot as can will bo iMnginod* th«&lnilctAo»'Of the 
pnuislnnent shculd be as lenient as possible. For anght I haow lo-Shn-non- 
tf ary, the soldier I speak of was condemnad to reoelva W> attiaea ; at all 
ereots, he certainly was to receive a.veiy ^lest ooMhor of Isshea. I • w 
niaoy of those horrible lashes those strokes of the sa«4>Vninef>tniln. nevoss 
the piisooei *s back, which was soon as raw as n pieoe of araat 4inngi<ig at a 
butohei *s shop. J now began to bethii k Myself how Ihiw an n ssms of hnnonr 
and bnmaiiity, I could suffer the pvnishMe»t to psoeeed» wit on vracnint the 
oflAcer, that i. he Isshed he man any moie. hewould-endangnr h'aiUhi A<d, 
giving him notice, that, ifhe lashed him to death, the fault wpmld UoaShiS'Own 
door : as, I thank God» I aM nev raftaid of apeakiiigMV niiad 4eiNonaf «nn, 
I did go up to ihe oflloer, and addrera bM in words to that o lost.. " 

wu a gord man. He was a hot-headed liishnuM; bat he had a i 
He was veiy nnicb surptised at My repieseotation, and aaid, .** Vompraafcho 
gwate, Wr, that if the 600 lashes are not im icted now, the poor devil jaMSra- 
oeive then at another tin e *. so that your humanity, instead of helngi snra las 
able, will be injurious to him.*' I answered, that hennd thopsin^r Slight 
feel and act as they pleased, but that Twonldpin my ^eithooaOBsnn'ailai^, 
but would proceed en m v own impression. The mtortnnsle amn aright #n a 
few days after the infliction of this punishment, and iafaonld not TsHsh'heinf 

htm^tHaiff 



tried by a court martial for not interposing. I thercCiMe 

he ordeied one sii.gle lash more to he miioted, be shenld tnhe the 

on his own shoulders, as I wssbed my hands of thepcoeeedfaig,' Thooflear 

then began to think a little upon the matter^ and he saw that it .i i fwh ad t a<sl* 

deration, whether he should Uke awav the lUo of «• brhve sridien, whM'Imd 

eommitted some trifling otTeoce, by infliotfaiir MO hnh«>a.on hfan. He fSresnw 

that he might be called to account for the bmui*s danrtk The oflenr,'ln aen* 

sequence, ordered the pnnishnentto be snspendndt SMdhMrtef j peHh IMe d 

what I thonght to he mv duty, f gloried te the resnlt; Th^aAear^ h«#<Bfer, 

atovrirds b^gnn to believe thai my ' ' 



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an tfte Bombay Police. 177 

Iy» S fl ii » rfny ; m4 p«rba^ in the tomtm of Ahte c«rBeipQiidflBBe« I mt»t 
Wywid Ui» Uini^a «f i^railMoe «a4 Uwp«. This dit|Nite w«i «Mii<Ml «ft to 
ti^ Miol, .wl)M tliir« Moni^A u b»Bo At^t r way. of B«taU9>it tkaa by « per- 
«oqp4 9W»li9f t^ ,f N*w, > I euk 9mK» Y9^r I woolj nth«r «at ny livtak(!Mt wy 
d«y, Ulnii §• <hU K^ighi* «n». - Bo^ here there wn ii» akeraAtivet amjtl 
oaiUd 90t 8*1 ridof tlia alfidr, irklM>ut re^ovting to tkat mode of adjwetiDg it. 
Th« eo<pinaffaii'iB*ehief» kowererv li4ppeM4.to hear of jt, aed he was doter- 
9Ucd.Jihtt the Urea. of ptaaoM, whom he Valued, ahovhi aot ^e iacrifiord* 
nerely hecauM onejoC <the» hed-don* what he conoeif ed to be his doty as a 
ahMlia*i ataau Tho^a M e^ w eace of. the nediaUen.of the oomniaBdeMa^chief 
waa, the vutaaAfeftiiriilof eiiriatteni* We4hook hands, and oebtioaed the 
flnaeat frienda «aUi the death«f the.pfioerir. But for the ioterr^atfton of the 
eomioaodflir-ia^ehirC* ^^-Mtrntm^hkr^ ahot me dead, or I aiight hare 
> tJie aama ler hiai. ... 



I—peeibetty coawi»wd Ihal ibe>litcticaiif aoggingteiids t6 fender the ftel^ 
faifa eallieaia. Men who are moat eetifaafole eharacters lo all the ao<M 'rela- 
tiooa of lils, invartahly become hardened and Msensible to human avff^rialr, 
by merely wiCkiestlnff the reToltfaig ovstem of ll[og$i ^. My erperience has- 
oonTinced me, that a man may be bromi^t' almost to do any thing, by treating 
htm with miMnest, ev dtlatioii, and reasoa ; buf that the same iodfvidtfai wUl 
be ffoodefwd ooetinate aad ttngoTeniable, and almost converted into a brvte 
hevfi hj the contrary regimen. Wa it then any thing snrprlsldg if those who 
are aobjeetad to the lash, foiget their natnre and act ImfH'operly. It is higb 
tine that the Court should adopt a new system entirely with reftpeet to flag- 
gellatioD in India. We sbonld consider* the effbct it is Ukely to haye on ine 
minds of the Natities of India, when they see their fellow-countrymen' dr g- 
gtA atoiig the eti^ets, bearing the marks of this indelible disgrace on their 
bicks a an exhibition of snch a nature is calculated to do n uch more harm than 
the aysten of flagellation will ever do good. Thi^ system of putiishment « as 
at all timet held in horror naddetettatioa. Among the Romans, and Ood know s 
tey wetv not very finnoos for tbeir hnmanlty, the abhornfnce of the practice 
was *o greA that they would never permit a dtise i to be flogged. He bad 
■irfely to say, ^* I am a Roman," andthat demoralising pnnisbment could not 
bei tieted os iilm. And haU it be said that la this refl ed a:>dChristla i age, 
wo have leaa humanity hi our composition than the Romans could boast of. 
My bms* friend baa very jnstly observed, that In the French army tht^ kind (^t 
naaithaMDt Was verr seldom reported to. And what was the reasoA of this ? 
Why, I nn Inlbmied, that every French soldier, even a private in the raifki, 
hartbevnifitdfa gentleman, and would aever be able to hold up his bi^d 
amasiyhft coaneers for military glufv after sufl^rlng a flogging. He* We^fd 
isa t raimor hmsalf, or the officer who ordered his punlsbmcint. ' Were a «1- 



milar opifit bf honest shame and m nly pride encouraged in our army, the'mo.n 
b cn n ioi al tnsoHs would be the consequence. To act up to this prine*pl«' In 
thtt aanatoxtelided way, would go near to render our military and naval service 
aerfnet, ' OnrsaHots could not then have to reproach the Legislatnte with the 
faei 4haC the Amerfoans did not suffer flogging io their navy. I trust the Totiit 
of Diiweiofs vrfM, nnder all the circumstances, take the proposed resolutions 
int» tkft most aeiiens oon ideratlon ; and I shicerely thank the gallant colonel 
for baviaf ^brsflight them forward. I should not have got op on the present oc- 
caslan, hadtt nbt been for theabsenee of an hon. Bart., (Sir C. Forbes,) who t 
baUbvo'Wbuldliave ecoonded the motion ha I he bcfen pr 'sent. It nrast have 
bo«a ianiMhing of aartpenie imjportanee whieh has kepi the hon. Bart. away. I 

■■asiiy lliii |b11 ml Tnl il has been thus depiived of the exertions of the 

boo. UtLtU^ wUah I have no donbt would have been much more effldent than 
I §m^lfer, Whafttlt is nanerted,* aad without the least attempt at eontradictlonf, 
thm MmJifaMveaof'india.'aiwIreated like gaHev-slaves, 1 would ask, whence 
is U-lbat«f ba Obmpaiy delive their ridmaf The natural ahswer is, thit tbiepy 
mpedf»w»ftwnthei<fcd» of t haae.w h om we sabjeet to such gfeat Mihrint; 
mid if humanity does not call for the alteration of the system, gratltiide and 
jastice surely demand it. 
OrieniiU HmM, Vol. 10. N 



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Debate ai (be B»Undia House 

Mauivld. — ^I am aware of many inataneea In which thia ipedei 
^' ^^ been aVb^rtfrily inmcrfa'/ but t iniiAt ^ leatitaoay U t^ 



OTe GtJTcninierit dldf i)6f, on tMj occasion^ do its duU ; but the G'oiirt _. 

i^ctor9'dld not fktl !n theirs, lliey ordered the offending pfllejer home to ^liis 



country, donslderfhg hini unUt to live ahnong the people Qitndia. (Hear./ t 
h{LTe.now!nttiyeye9be,of'theoiost-al!iIe knd iritelllgeijt omceili who, perhap/ 
had eter jervpi the company,' who. when li? ifais at Culcutta^ was the meaps of 
j^reVentfn^ the raa^^trMiis nroiA acquiring tip a'cc^sfcioh of thi^ ppwerof inflictin|| 
pupishmenf/ Theind^vioiAil TalludCt<^^ iti^Uj^hlthat an adcBtion to that power 
Wq^fi be miel hhd imtmdw, Tlierear^-iireonrst»,1iiail]^ ^e» of lifbftfary pnn- 
Mmiii\f which e*n ^^Tf rHAd tMrwAyib thp CmiHf of Dl^6t«n>8 ; ' but 1 am snre 
Aat they kieTfer received «ttatetfient df thatr imtAhl wlthbtit Imm^fiatefv payhtf 
attention to it. There is but one fcoHfif , I beiic^ve, o* hhW irt^es df the^Cotln^ 
wi^hrea|>eettothilqUeit|pa»«»i4tliatis, tot pieTtnt «h» tmppop^t'lvBWUm of 
pttiilahiiieDt; i ' it. . .. ♦ »'. t . ' . » 

' lihe CiuiEKAW.— >I am confident that no person who hears me will suppose 
I ria^/or.Uie purpose of a^odaUiig the .i?ra0)ioes described by the hQi|. Pro- 
pvetor..: ij^pl^ect is.tq 9^y. a .^ woi^ds in JuMifi(;ation,of the C^urt ojT 
XtUficXqn^ ppt only with relalio^ if their past, b^t to their futuf^ conduct. 
&. ihe 0(9t1plaQa, honr^ver, f will eudeatour to correct the assertion whicH 
the worthy l*rop/l(?tor (Dr. Pflchri^t) ha« «K)a.t unjnptty made, thnt.the gpx^ 
ti^;naQ,jt|^e|nbledin this Co.nrt tpanife^^ed a degree of fevHy w^dlst the pqn. 
qioyec w^ i3|[pi:e$siji( l^i sentiment^. I canjpo.t for i ipome/it b^l) eve those 
ffoa^en^^ h^TC merited such a charge ; on the cofatrary, ] am convipeed, tl»f4 
W ,atn(i98t.d/?c.o''»«n •pd prdet prevailed in the CpnrJ atthe tipe th«^ hon. Pro? 
prieiorw;^ subinlttiog hU upptioo. I will put i\ (o the.. lion, ^pprietbr bimr 
8j^|f io siiy« wjiether be had ever experienced in any public assembly of which 
ij^ .wa8<ajBember« — whether, in (^t, there could haye been ^ Jiiere undivided 
and J^lpy$ attention paid to ^oy ptobllp speaker th^4 yas paid by th<^^Cqari 
te.him?^ Bj^jjel ^s^lpw tljaJ-s^yect to d^op, pn^ pprinit v^ to. .observe, 
tba^ I-,a^ fili: from juretendi^g tP i^P^Pl<l pr jus'iry pie article 0f,re|tii)at|64 
(t|^ Isttof-ilSU) Of. which |he.hon< mover m complained 'in the resfil^aHonf 
hi. aajvd bewe tne.Court,, "Vyi^eiher.Qr |?o| that regulation is punsiste(\( 
witn.th^ ^t^ of the law l do not consider myseU prepared if> assert, but my 
ilnpresaioQ is« that it is nqt so consistent. 9ut it is a regulation duly passed* 
uW*.lhc,priB^n, ed law, ^d cona^quentiypiurht tQ be phj^yed,. in order Uf 
glirexii)^ effiqct fo the le^ulafjona for the goV^nipent of the diflbrent .fff'esi* 
denpi99*> ff i# > by-law, whicli ^as ^ * -v ,^ r ^ .. * 

Qejx4)ay, i(^' transmitted, aorbrding t 

*? ))P rcgitt^^fed in the '3upfpme Couri . ^ ^_^ ^^_^ 

icregttlar |^. tfa# coarse, of prooeeding. Jt might have been Vh^ Qoyetpmei^ 
^jpL|,J|?0* fjijly avrarp what (jeycee of copaistency existed between thia./glp 
a^ regyilatlqn, aad the ^uroyisj o^s of the act, quoted in the motion ;. an(| it ^ui 
tqih^wt^ber* 9*^ that CP^«;t of justice, that mame, ^f blatne irere any whetff 
tQ hf) 9i>9a. i^ tp,hfif^tache i, for.allowing^^ regulation to be i;egi8'tered 9r|iich 
wiaf ,/:Qot^y to, ai^ at y ^rjance ^ith the law. In py opiuioji^the Court,rf 
ni|:ecM)ni ,iril( fio.well tq ef aminfi whethi^r there is no affeeipent bet^e^;thf 
rfXeapd th«i|aY< aadif >hfi^. (! id.nope,at.wlll-<aBrtainly fjothMr duty. t9 d^ 
cpo^inu^ ita ag«'ciiq,, ,|[H<or<Ae0r.>> I shall not.detfi^n tha.pcurt very Lffig 
^th.$4:f94trya4fnapo the^allant^oloqel> Retailed a(a!emjent. It is not my 
t^p^nef B, npr f^^ of Uh^ C^urt qf (Dir^ ef ors tp ta^rq jiqtice^ o{ a)l matfl^rs ifrhicji 
cwa^fllya tt^ i» tJbe alfape of r^portam^^ly. wM ft/ the ac^m«|>y of: ynjph 
"^^JV^'.m^^^J JgV9i1w|- It i^ould . h^. l*«hly wrong Ip pf to be fpffupsffd 
hy st%t^eAt|,( afiSJip forripctaraa ^ Jacofre^ne^ of which w^ absfp||i;vijx.ki\fiji 
n5*f«*-*!.'*» cww|9«?McaUe4 apci t^«i«e ihd«fe|ai<|p h mattq^ij*! jf d A . 
trtmffm "^^ 9( rWot^V ^^ WB9«t f«Ji»Wrf ^fefPi >«l «flslo|b , fife: ^« ^te 



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tloa Uie aeenricy of My of the bon. i^OTor's statements, with one exception 

«Aiy;''"ni» gfimiit ^ovdMi Hts %M, ma: miut nie irwh^ or i^^i^n^t^ 

¥t fadi^ meln^stMi e^«ft^lrfttion was' i^ttertirtl^ ttraetlsed and enforced Th 
tttf Oi^Vehunm Rbuse. "Now; I haWhM the btynoif of Beinf a tcneimh^l' of 
lite 'ifkniiiy of twd ^Oyerapra-Gisherai;' darfofp a snccea^ve 8<rie« br?^<»^ 
%efo^ the Ma^nit'of- HatftiiiffS ^rocbeded (hither, and I wilV without the 
least 'heHtiitiOn/iaktf li^n'iSe ro a^iert, Id e^tnclktlon- to the ^laitt 




9xpeneiu:e i nave personal i;^ ffatnered» \ can bear wupesf to t^ 
Inch a pti|ctip9 u»y^ did ex^(, lior if a« la aoy VUtaoop reported to. 



Ha^tiiigf. ^ was •appressed by that noble Lord. If I ai9 mlsti^en 1 
(dea pf what dropped ftoi^ f he galUnt jpolonel, £ siacr iely reerOt ii. 
Act, howeyer, tnat I hare borpe t0stiniony to,. U not therefore iovaiid 



Hie boil. Colonel SvimiwMrsyN^I h&§- leante to itwol ibo Iiob. ObiiniiaDi« 
I lawely fiMj ..Ibat 4hpre^ i o gg iii g » took'plfeiv M the So ^ ^ieraii t Mmo 
dtfring w •^uy part .of? th^wiadiiifltratioii o# 4he Maiqnis 'ol HtatlDfi,' aa« 
ibaci^aiiiMbb».Loiilba4p«i«iicttl»to4bear. " i- »- • ^ >' ' < 

The'CifAiinrii^.'^l eertafoly Tibd^rstbod the gatlant Colonel to say, tjiaf 
the practice of floggib^ at the GoTemment House waa prevalent dtiring tbe 
BdnujoIstrBtioAa oftbe two GovemorS-OeJJem who precede^ the JICarc^nis'QOf 
** • ' * • •' - '• " * If I ai9 mistiiken In fflji^ 

. . . . ... _. Jidatedt 

t^amely, (bkX during a nunber of years in whieb Iwas a member ef the fiunl** 
llei pf two Goveriiors-Oeoeiral, oo sueh pradtice as the gallaiit 'Colonel baf 
'mentioned ever prevailed. The ot^ryattoni I bate tnad^ will, perhaps, serve 
to expl^n to.th^ Court under what c^rcumstaoees t)ie regula'ioo alluded to I9 
the moUon came before then}. If fsult Is to be any wbeve attrjbvteo ib fl^lof 
iprc^ to that recuUtiou.'le is, as I before statefl, to belaid to t^e aiccaunt <v 
X\^ li^cocd^r oftbe Supreme 9ourt of Bombay* by whom .it was registered'; 
u^ Il0er the reg^terbig bad Ukeli place, tbe magistrates werii perfectly jiia- 
ti^ef fa .acting ub'on itt.aod inflicting corporal pi^pishtaieMt. The second reso 
f ulipQ prop99^<l Py the gallant^ Colonel pronounces th'9 ri^Utioa 10 que^tioo 
to (MS u terly Illegal ; but | should think, t at on a prima fde\^ view pf the 
Q^e, the s|ropie J^ct of a registration would be f suflBcieni j^tlflca ion pg 
tba^ point. But this, as I before sta ^ is a oouslJeration wJiicA will ri^ 
beiveits due sb^re of attention in the proper quarter. The third resnJutioO 
ass^rtt^, '^ that ip defiance of the statute of the 3dth and 40tb Geo. fU.: ao^ 
the %Ufi admonitions of Sir J.JUackia.oah and ^ir^. West, men have l>fcea 
(Tq^d, qpgge i, a^d banisbad ; atKl these monstipus practicep are still obatl* 
bately,pf:ri(;vered in by bo^^ magistiatea, aod sfinctioued by the grand jury pf 
Bom ^ay**.*. ^oW, tor tbis resoiu'ion, it ia qui^e impo^^lble that I can vots^ 
because? I kpQW not, by any record before ibis House, that the 'allp^tioa it 
conuins va coriect, The allega ion is, it is true, stated in a publicstiog 
which was some time si.«ce se.it orth to the world ; but not havUig read a 
single word that pu lication cooiaius, it can hardly 1>e thought I shall talce 
the Btatement as « sufteioat grovmllbr gieingi myeoacmVonOe to a measure 
vhtai is fbuaded upon i^ The gallant Colonet, i 1 bis Ibiirtb r«s0lnt1«ill 
a tviaed the Coutt of Disecton '* to repml the 6th artlofa of legtilatfon, (1st- of 
I8|4.) which is opposed to the SOthaad 40th of Geo. HI., aMi \ to e»ieek thd 
baalsarous practice of floggiag ia India.** I have 1»ef(ore stafed #y dpfnlbni 
tfNit yt 1 be regulationalliidedlo shoul 1 be ibund *o be oppOs«dto 'th« 1a«K ' t 
bttgb^ to be set a^ido. TM« is a poiat whiOh 4leaarTte tie^ airlftedt iftycatll 
gatioo, and should' it be found at varianee with ;tha statute, (he' jpONiper legal 
•waAiifes ^11 certainly be adopted for Ita removal. ' f lf«ar.>> lam not Wk^ 
pained to^iiaaiBriW the aatme.of tlM>a» legal sseaiurta, or to siiy whil^ fll^ 
Aught to be. Whether it is in the power of the Cbvit oT DirwAOrs; by sc*^ 
iur out Auy instructMis to the Oo veiMeOt abreaidv \tt sot Ashle lAidtaial « 
kww whfteb baa. formally saosod, I oaatiol Astoraslaow ThevO ~U do i|deiMb< 
k0wovor,''ihat aooa. metos. or osh^r will W ibmiA t^ effsdl ihO-ganM 
Coiottrt^*6 ob)o«^ if Um fogvktHoiM ebovli bcMtt* il ¥a«l«WB*<irfft «^ Uw: 



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180 Debiae at the Boat India Hauae 

Mid« I CMiMMne hin« I ihaU he rotdy t«Lft9'(«ra.h|n jdl ,tiU «$9i4U]ice I.aa 
abU la 4«fi9iB9 «hM« immm. The ft(tb raiplvtion caUf fpr , '' K«tA^xw 9^ all 
the' oMMVctifMBs and paBishmenti bad «^d infilled hel^Me. theMAtMrlMniiM 
■ittiiif,joldtly.«nd!Mpamtiely; and aUo i^otp j(he ^Uy.9?9(|U>n8 at B09&* 
hayy tiDoe 18U, U> he laid before UiU Court ; a^^ (hat the JiiJ»g*8 H^w at 
Bmobay be rei|iiested to call upon the iiiagi»trate9 for^ha »ai4 rotums." . 

It U far frpm my intention to make trl0lng obseriTatfons on the terms ofthii 
resolution ; but I may remark, that no communication exists between the 
Court of Directors and the judges and magistrates of Ihtfis. The Judges helng 
appointed under the ehsrter granted by his Ilfa^esty Iv the Company., san only 
be eorresponded with throagh she ofAce ol the sieotetary'bf StaAe/oyrlhe Home 
Department. It it evidcntt, thsfetere; that tlMiOonvt^f. Dlseotoraeoiild not 
reqtdre from them any aueh 'tvturas. -'fFhe Oonrtv ^ tmat, ;«illtihe«efer« be> 
lieve that every possible means wM h»»esertedto:biy:.th«.CriMirt of DiiKdora 
to oblahi all the necessary lafermatioo, to the end ithistta stop .may hp put to 
any illegal proceeding that ma^raC presam he ortfvalf aL iH€»r») Under all 
the eircnmstances of f he case^ pevhaps the gaUaat; Ooloittl will see the pro- 
priety of leaTfng the mattef ia tae handa of the Court of Eiireetors« who. will 
give tt dtie attention, and forbear calling on them to act in a way they aie not 
smthortzed to do. While I am on this subject, I must, however,, observe, that 
the laws of England recogniae the legi>lity of flogging* There ace oflences 
Vrhlch, by the statute-law of this country, are puni|»bable by corporal chastise- 
ment, aa well as by fine and imprisonment ; and I cannot see 'A-hy a law which 
m>pUe8 to England, should not, in spme degree, a^pply likewise to India. In 
this view of the matter, I shall not be justified in piomiHing th it the Court of 
Directors will be ready to send out instmctlons wnich shall put an end to that 
kind of punishment. It is a subject whl;h rather calls for the interference of 
the Legislature than thsit of us. (Hear,) I hope the Court ^ill, give me 
credit for that humane feeling, which I possess,, I trust, in common with every 

Sentleman in it ; and, on the part of the Court of Directors, I can assure f hem 
lat fTory mains will be used by them to prevent cruelty in the eterrlse of 
that punUhmeot. I am not, much conversant with the facts the gallant Colonel 
has alluded to ; but I am ready to admit, that cases qfiay occur in which the 
punishment of flogging might be carried to an extent far beyond what I and 
others are willing to haye it enforced ; and the cirr umstabces of such proceed- 
ings would be extrem ly ' disgusting. The subject is one which reqnfrea iM ves- 
tiaation ; and I hope, aft^r whilt T have mentioned, that the galfaat Colonel 
>1U detehnine to leave it in the hands of the Court of Directors, who are 
bounds *by the situation they fill, as well as by the feeling which animates 
every British heart, to enter upon a conslderaHoB of its merits witk calmness 
and deliberation. I trust the gallant Colonel will see the propriety of abatain- 
ing from pressing these distinct resolutions, they mnat, mAderthe etrcumoftaaces 
I have alluded to, meet with opposition. 

Oenera) TH0RNT4>2i.-^The gallant Colonel, to whom we owe so great o^U- 
ffalioBa for brkiglnff the auloect forward^ after the very candid speech wltlch 
baa been made by the honourable Chairman, will, I am sure, See the inisotive^ 
nienee that must julae if he press his resolutions. We aire not dnly obliged 
to the gallant Colonel for introducing this qoestion ; we must also feel extremely 

EUified by the wav ia which the honoarable Chairman, and the other Directors, 
Ke attended to bla statements. My principal object in rising is to show (and 
from having seen much, I am qualified to speak on this subject) ihtt the prac- 
ttoe of fl^sgiag is productive of much evil, and that great benefit will arise 
tnm f uppreaaing it. Those who have firequently witnessed specti^ttt of thU 
iMtttie become fainlliariaed/o its horrors, and do not Tiew the qn^tlon tri^h 
that dMcee of ahhofreoce Ia which U i^ regarded by those wNo are ahaceua* 
toined to u. The formiur of these pecaws are used tp think itkl ther^ ia no 
other way ef enforcing discipline but by the terror of pnnbhmihit. When M$ 
course ia resorted to, the batulion uaually degenerates info a savage state. I 
nsher, that, during the period of the short peace, a few yean ago, eertain 



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6» the JBombtfjf Police, Igl 

iank eomiMUiies were separated from their battalions and brigaded together. 
€H these men, I believe, there was not one bnt one timi or another receired 
corifonn pfitifrfhrtittit. Noir, it "wa» sebn when thejr retdmoifr to theh- hattaliona, 
that sefei^l of them were iff h samage state. They were, howfiprer, plamd oniAer 
the eiAnmand ef a hnniane <Mleer. This offlrer a'topited a diflbreat sysiem^of 
dfsciplhie,^dlhe eonaequenee^as that th» men were reibmied.' Thia showed 
winif ^as the efftct of ■ eiirryf*{[^ E^aishment to so great wn extitMity . I «n, 
however, well aware fhat oth«^ methods of prodnciag di<«cip(Hne mi^ht aSd 
taavo tieen pat in practiee with the best effect. Soldiers wen; sent to the black 
Me, and other pnuishmeots of a similar natnre were occasionally resorted to, 
and prodaced tha inteoded effect. 

I do not apeak this from repo#l, bnt from my own knowledge and personal 
observatloiii ^ amt f have come tgf tho conolusion, that the greatest evils arise 
from resorting tef «hei paiiiBhmeat of flogging. For myself, I have no doubt 
that b«tter meana >of prfoonriag aobontimtlvn may be praetiaed, and tha 
poaiahffl^at of floggU^/entir^y ecooted ftwm tha British army. It was stated 
by tbekon. Glia*#mnn ttaitfchis praotlee iamsogidsed by taw. I know it Is so, 
but no eompartado cato be heid between flogginir in jaili and the aeverlty of 
that ii^i^btooto pbufo iit tha dnay, and.it.waa a moat distressing apoetaole for 
thosie w^o were ndcossilalad to bo witneasei ol it. I am inclined to believe^ 
however, that la oonaeaaenoe of the attention of the publio having been 
directed to the subject, that the pnniahment is now very seldom resorted to ; 
or, at least, is never iaflieced te the extent it Ibrmerly need to be. 

It was at one time the Ikshion to pnnisb by flogging, bat now that is not 
the case. I believe the practice is dlscooraged by the Commander-in-Chief, 
and the principal ofllcera in the army, I, therefore, hope that in a short titoe 
the practice will be entirely laid a^lde. I never knew a man who did not be- 
come more depraved after he had received corporal punishment. I have 
always noticed that a man on whom the lash has been used never continued 
so good a soldier as before. I repeat it, that whenever the practiee is en- 
for^d, mischief is always found to Ih; the consequence, and good has, on the 
contrary, always resulted from its abstinence, t again beg to declare my 
conricuon, that the Court is under great obligations to the gallant Colonel 
lor bringing the question forward, but I think that afler what has fallen from 
tbehoQ. Chairman, it wilt be advisable to withdraw the motion, and leayo 
the aobject ia the hands of the Court of Directors. > 

Mr. Tbant.— *I beg leave to say afew words respecting the particular spe- 
cies of ^punishment altcded to by the sallant officer, and which he has not very 
aceurmel J- Ascribed. The species of punishment denominated the *' corrah. 
Is inflicted by a. long leathern strap, and was something similar to the knout. 
The gallant Colonel was rather in error, when he spoke of a leathern guard 
plaoed bn ^Jha oriminars bock when a certain description of punishroent is jio- 
flteeed. The cnartl is, ou the contrary, placed on the breast, la order to pre- 
vent the flogging instrument, when it twisted round, from lacerating that part 
of the body. I need hardly say, that I should be very glad to see the system 
put an end to altogether, but T concefve the matter more properly belot^sto 
the Coart of Directors, t can of mr own knwledge assert, that it is attended 
with the most e?n consequences. I would not advocate its eicistenee In any 
part of Europe; bat we should bear in mind, when the eriminal code of 
India Is spoken of, that dffencps Hi that country are very rarely punished with 
death, whereas here, that extremity of punishment is fVenuently resorted' to. 
'fhe gaUaht Colonel has stafed that the observations wtdeh have fatlen from 
the hon^ CJiairman gave him great plefisure. A more humane, temperate, and 
honoju^^ statement, I must say, I never heard from any indtyMnal. (fffnw-, 
Afor.) The bon. Chairman sMd, that flogging Is recognised by the hEwi of 
£nglsxid. True, it is so— but Ih what way t Why under dnef lastndnts, and 
cegulate^ by vroper legal fohns; Flogging la neVer praettsed hferaaes it la ia 
loOiM^riAifmiy andlinegaUy. When I last addretaed the Court on tMa aub- 



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Dehale di ike Bdsl tndtd AaiM 

jMt, ; I ^rfot to |Bfntio|il regiiMBtal oioncU BMurilal lo tbii eopnlry Umii^ Mt 
p^irer to inflict ftb<9V6 800. leches in aiiy one iMtanee). wbU<|, itf Mlf^ IQOa 
way \»e iafUoted for pne oifoacc. My MUaot (Head (CoUnel liOthltt|^) im 
fl|MUy set me t^ghx if I havo mis^slaiiBd^.thts f«eA» Tkie Ikm: Cktimin •b- 
wrvtd ^htt'«ie.««igiili«io«.wliioh'«ttjMiii9ed llHglnc.iirM.f^tittQnMi.lli Mi» 
^jA|)reiiie Court at BoinbAjrfr \mi I beliifYoihe Immu CMtomi 9fUl*be/<»WMlM» 
pp^ia «fror. in that pattioiilar. . WitJ^ r •faeti (o.Uia •uHiMiticUy fti l)¥^49mk* 
««oU L lead, that I «■ jMdy to Towib fer« Indoatf* I lmr»4.i my^twasilai^ 
^4re^#«t of the.praaeadiop in.tli0 S^anraMi A»ltrt, 40ff«aM<uail^ ih« 'Mipftrn 
iDte^jdeoce of the learned judge, and beside I quoj|f4/l^)<H9i|^ef>rrf<at,ii0pta«t{Qf 
yhat toolL plaee at a coatt marital. I iotio4uited none biUt autheatie doca- 
ments, tbou h the hon. Chili npao s^med to deny that ftust* . 

. Tlie CpAiRMA2(.l-I said, tbat the oidv docfyiiiMpntt to Whieh we oan hare 
^pcesd Tor the the purpose of Airettliiig: us'ui o t dfciiiona ai^v tacbas are rfr* 

em-ly and ibnnally oorolM in this boitie. Now k ehargr glt^ to a fr siid 
f by the Chief Justice is not a doeuoieiH of thia descilptiosL .h St am a 
QKQi4«« wbtflb ire can pwceMi with pfopfiety*j . It 4<« ««l^ «emir elicitiUiy 
b«lbf» fl% iMor baiKa we seeo it i«. aa^ :otben.sba|* tbaa a* an anttcl*< ia. a 
pvMtsaiiod. -3 i' \ I ► - J. ■;» .; I 1. r I '. .'...j I .1- ••■ . It • ' 

• The Hotn't.. SVA^rtoPE.-^Thiit aw5eirs'td''m^ t«J !»e"4 tW)r greAt Wf^cf fa- 
/obrcdosfibrtbn, for, !n mf o^utoti, ttfWofetd t^ ptotftt that the rtfjprt^ of 
the Chief Jus ic* atrd the ^eat birtc?*« Of "tht trbw.i, findfei' whose diredfiob 
tbetl i#i'wep»fldiiiaistered, diovid be aent .iioaie' td the Court of Direetors. 
Ihar-bM^ ehalHMnisays tbatibftelloffainr r^«datkNi>ia>TO0lfller«d4 laitia 
tlM Mattmeail ao ikot.o«lievd( haiis doneeti To phvva tUs imbt^ I .wiil-rtad 
thartHiioDS osged liy gir iteami INaokiaitebfbrieelMidBriBsri.the pre*aeiiegi> 
warn this Mfftflalkn, ^ttegslu' Sir. Jamea: MariEiMah aayc^^^r TbMsinhr 
^Mdlnga er« iltofralv beoanae p«i^ihsnaftliBa4>een:teAlaked andsb^ufeM, wbkli. 
ftmu' 11EMta|807 wem Bad eonllnnei hf .tb» Couct of Dinctasa, aad«vliiab^ 
iliiee I60?,>IM iio^ bee»f» |bn s 4Mb In- the 4»u|lreiBa.€ewti*; . 1lM4iefeiieerof 
^ ■ "■' • ' ' MiUieiMrti^ ■ ■ - - ^ 



f^fhoACChalnnin Is^ttat the lamrtitfraii isiMgiaCeiwd' in Hiak CobM, jaad that 
i^bhbii^l»t#lib Mlaebad^.tib aiit>4rae^it1s%toaheX;hl«r JtMieafef'BoiiAsqr^ 
*r tartng-irvile^mA Hut^iWhieh w^.ine|«k' Mowv Withe AWef^iMftiew 
tfmrili bi»fetdit«>hM»« Mril IrMgtttasW hi tMssBslfBoe, a«l4itihte iortaaoar 
alone, would the sUteneDt aMule'hy 4iba bo».4lfaaiftiin haL<eflMe«tf-%r'ha>iK 
0^ hlm«elf<#.ware^ ^e fail. . 'IV iv«B.f:ChainiiaR Ukewlae says, that ijaa* 
MJ^if<ttbe pimqtipe §4 Hogginfiwas fpoeirally pre^^ent la ihit.GoTeminmii. 
HoQM, yiwrioiisfcy to ^tlie anriyal o^ |beJllan)aeas of Butlaga io ladia. That^ 
aepertloa | c^rt#|aiy 4id :m|h0:;.ha¥iag observed that the practice piOTai}«i 
pr aome.UpM aiier ^e ani^el ,of th^ noble I^oni,. apd, ^t it was sp^edJ^f* 
p«| jMD. OQ^ to by luu^'k lietoiiOly : eaous^ concluded, that it had pr«Tibiiiilw. 
b^ in Toroe.. Jt ^f^tpe^^Si . howerev, virom what the boo. Chaimaa h$k 
fbairgrad, tl||ft.:],r,waa mipitak^ in this parliculai^. The . bon. Cbainaaa 
liipl% tM address of-.theCbfef austioe as not aatbeotic, becauan he 
hnsnrv«r receive* e«refidtha|^4ognmeBl« i do, howeTer^ oontend,.t)iatlt la 
«r anauthantfq.ehMVCtcr,' beciiiuia it. waf sent by the li^ord Chief Jnstiee t^Tt 
fttr Gharts^Porhet,iWbO'>w^ s^obligiiig ^» to place it in my. baods. . h waa 
nated hy.the hop. Chaipa», thsi^Bo coanaetiini exlsta betwtea the jodfes bi 
Mi» md the Oeoft .of . PUeetosi. . Tbi| statement neaay snimi^ea me, 
IC. heweeei^ it be aec ip the power of. the Court of Direisiois.to foin^sb the 

wtnm JMght kf hmw m^f^^^ «wa4;r it vouJiljs f^^wW? I^.IS*^.*^ 
epplication te the Seer^tery frf State for. the Home D^artment for their pro* 
ductlon, u they eie' bighiy bnportant docinneots. I wjsb, before I si^ 4owflL 
te eeneetfeae-or t#o edtMre i«te whiahmy hoe. fkiend, Dr. Gi^ehrist, bii 
fhUem -M^ hee. f rieeA-^bssrfied tbat4ee s[t«ention wes not affoeded to. me 
itfiilsti waeaidfeesfaig.^be fienrl. s Now tbakfeTe(«slhra« I «q able ^ judge, 
efehewtlBEMM m\ptmt rj l mn> o^9f^mion, wy sl|?wiv. . fhh^p^l fr^m 
Ukewiae ebterred, thet the ilog giog system i» otdy partuuly praetised in the 



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Mi me Education of ifaihe Dociari. 183 

i;^h umj' Now Alie M\a^ tWit l^netec r^aorte4^^ P, aA U tfie jprencli 
•miy. ;i Uwr^ nqthinff :fwrt|vRr }jqF ««y«lMit ivith tb« .gi:e«t^t wUlipgness leav^ 
tli*«iJuJ^eQtM>h9te4fioftb^.Cotin«f DiroGlors.,;« ; \. ■ ....... ; :. 

liot'vtflRv e^M vf^ fklTAttt'fKtilid to Ifo thft^ office fbr me. I tHll t%*irs4ett, Itw^ 
ifafi^the^addrMM of tny gitlhinr fHenA, iiM0K'in8tMtitlo» woo ttiinifeo»ed hi 
tteOomrt ; ttff my gtrttatif fricfnd Mru becopied' hr spoakinf, < !te> eooM not M 
etpfttt«!d tb Tteir«'ob9«¥v«(|-4t. ' * *ikfO iiiof^ tllM otree novModb vA fitift CoorT^ 
66ldsHoft«4M'«oA!Afip^«»lfo shrtiM of' tlMi9t^Yil^rt, wMchtr«r*€li«€tcd 
fgthi^ thdft^^g^lMtiien ^htf/hoMmg libenil c^fniomv' wei« re|r«rdcdaft in^ 
■oTEfors, and, ther^(bH,'liibJ«rod>td'4erfttdni I Mifb ieott fh^ {»ni^rM 
purine oil tnoro.ttian'.oQ^ pccisioti, tod hi^irig" ieett' Ir^ I obn^deffiifB^f 
tathoHsed int Mating t!i« fact. If the; gpdttemen t ftllud^ t& will rise ftnd con^ 
tradict me, \ shall^tand coiroctod; 1>ut Ihave a pdr of eyas, and they are a 
litflo too iharp tO. V casllyriiviposod upon,, . • < , 

The Chairvak.— That t m«y tot m etf fijarht wi^^ tho ipdlaot Coloiiel, 
I -will read the regnlatiop alluded to in bis. motion. £The faon. Chairman horo 
read the reflrulation authorising the magistrates, on 'the testimony of one cre- 
dible witness, \q qrder |h^inflic:j^n of a c^taiaji^mber of \fs\m oMhe indiyi- 
dttil (^iivict'ed.j. This refrutation wa^ pi^ed in ;CoudciI, on tne )2drd of 
MircK. IfilKimjl yas registered in tlie/comt of tne Kecosder of Bombay, on 
ihe$9ih.of.June,> tl^f)mi^.y94^* m • . •• •, o' *<:■ i •♦ - . •- x ^ • 

Colonel LusHiNOTON.-- 1 rise for the purpiosc, Iff osplaUdoflr/ibBttL^ihMM 
ya^ions which dMpad foom my galkmt frieiid <Cok9Kl j^tanhope) ffip^iiig 
eohrtt mar iaL Tbens is * di.feienco ia the king'-aabd the ComMo^^s troopv 
Tlie MutiBy AcL which koonfiaM to the KOTeroment of thfi Kin0*ti troop^t 
is passed aDnually,' and from time to time alterations are made in it, partieu- 
Miy witl^f«ft»eoee te liMting tlw nohiber of iMhes w Ich a eollre iMrtial 
sttJI«be #aftpo#«fed to<iiiiK<^. liMr/ tAe Act whi^ r^latM f» the gotdmmMii 
of tKe 0mnpa*f '^'fo^ces it ui old one, pass(»d4tk the f^fgn of <2eorg^. If;. And 
itt^hf<h>litfriilta«t1<ki» hiP?o'«tne«r been made. I ctmv'horireter, tentwetd 
isserU Utet 4llfr ffpifff of thb rtf^l^tioM whM ^entiled imong- the* KN>g*i 
iBMML'4i abled* upon with ^gavil to -tile Compiny's dmif^, tM that o^'nb 
dfeMtomire move thch 860 Isshei' given •forf one offence. An lion. Pro^ 
prieiol' ^{Of. aikshrist) hta sadd, that for some ye«r» pr^ist^ thepHwHi^ of 
foggifi^liailtient^ed In the Indiahr army.- Itam enabled, on thd eofltr^y. 
f«P*tfi»rt,ifoft\>nlynsflie^cblntAanderdf a regiment, but mk onbivlio ha(s b^ 
eilMsted! wlHI thcrcoiDnnBd of a brig^e^ thai the: practice has» of late, beett 
iuf flsiioh dfteinfshed among'the^t^ompany's troops ; and thai ti haft 'now be- 
ediie^be pHde of dn- officer ter s^w, by Us returns, that no snch punishntetii 
hfeA - X e w en ifo i ^ e d in- the eotopany ender his obmiAaiid; I ani H^tremefy b p^jf 
iiiettfMi^thefeetf'lhrt for motitlM und moAthsno trial has happened anioog ft 
Wvy lasjie bddy^ of men. Ant person who is conTorsant wttB the siibjeot, 
cad if ihe»e iM toy ofSeerv in his Majesty*s seryioe now in Coort, they Will be 
IMdy to sii p p or t uly use^on, that the mimber df ;punishideiits inflictMl' (n 
the^Oompaoy'tdnnsf besrsiM Sbrt ofeompidrisdti with t os» which to w^kljF 
and mofttbly inflicted among the Native troops. The severe orders of'tM 
eoofi «« IMnftMom^ 4ot pv^veMiDg ^jf^amg mm liMHiy p«nlehiisglh«to who 
ofidera, iOM aitaded 1 



arepUefd nnder-'their ofidera, iom aitaded ta wkh the vcaseet str»sfnaspii« 
i>o\mA9iMi(m^%y ihotiHh iirss then withdrawn, with iMve of ihii CoiDrt. 

,.'•' > 1 , ' SpiVCiTIOK ,0F, Ka^IVJI PoOTOUv ;, i ,. . y '.. • , : 

' The C9Af BMtAar.^-l l^te l*iBfosin tl^Ceatt that *t Is fMheenmde speetal 
in eonaeqnenee of niletter'sifiied by. nito pffef»fle«efey whieh I wiU dkwt the 
clavWu».i;Bnd4, [.TOpntfisithm staifha jwmieilsan. j^ . » . .^.. o -^m.. > 

Db. OiLCHViipr. — \ti rising to introduce the motion of which HiaveprfttM^l)^ 
gi«««i»oti0ei I to^lltfppy^o sty tittt w«tMI iMveMbehittda^^ 
ttt>^<c^ and proceed to the diKMiioa of WW wiiidildoaht not w*Ugiv»gs > e irt 

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IM jbebaie at the East India Mouse 

Bfttisl^ioo. . It hu been my lot to be styled* at I onoehappaaedtp call mf 
self, aa o]iipo#itioo man* I certainly «a m oppbsiUoaiaaiii lo tiiis/aettB^ Hiat 
wfaeneT'er I see a body of men acting wrong I sliaUeada«Tottrtoa«ttteeiari(|ki 
whatever may be said of me. Now if I saw the meipljers of this Court |>roo^- 
iog ill a eonrse of cpndaet that would be likely tp 4o us an Injury withthe British 
pablte, I would do every thing that lies to my power to stem the coyrse and 
eifebt its change. It strikes me that such an opposition as this may liecgnsiderDd 
an honour rather than a reproach. Lord Amherst lately ad ressed the youag 
men at the College of.Caiout a: in a style wMeh does him tbe greatest credit. 
By thiaaddr«ssthat.Noble Lord proves himself toposHesSa^honcnirable feelings 
as ever inspured the Ivsmtn breasU I villatand op iS'ttriiK^Mirt and declare, tbat 
his jU»idsk'phas dona much towards placing theinteresls'Of Brifish India on a 
pannaiiettt basis ; and this basis as es Aulished in thd hesrts itad a^ections of the 
NjsAive population, whom tka|; address was caleulatad to^ eonbliiate. ^i he Noble 
Ia)c4 CQNarafnoed his address in the foUowIng wot ds :<.»*' 

^' I cannot omit the opportunity of congratulating you on the new advantages 
which the well-timed liuerality of the HonourableCouit of Directors have in- 
tended to you. Of the benefits none cas be more touohing than tha fuility 
wliich will be afforded to yon- ol roTlsiUng your imtive hind^ and of strength- 
ening and renewing home feelings and home attachments. May your con- 
duct in the stations to which you are now about to proceed be ever such that 
on yotir return io England you ntaf with an honest pride claim to have ma n- 
taioed her hohour to have advanced h^f Interests, w^icb are those of India, 
and to have acted on the principles becoming the citizens of so great and so 
singularly ftivouied a country. 

** The General Committee of Public Instmctiott have continued, during the 
last year, to direct their attention towards the great object ofdifiusing gradually, 
but steadily, an improved system of education tbrougbout British India. 

**A communication ^as been established between the Committee and thrCol- 
lege acceptable to its conductors, and oalculated to n aiatainthe Institncion in 
th^t efficacy which can alpne enUUe it to public support. The progiesamade in 
the English language at the Anj[lo-InaiBn CoUe^^ asdsteimlnedatthelast 
annual public examioat on, at wmch the President of the Gcnesal Committee 
presided, was, in many insiances« raspeciatW, aadthedawnoCanaeqnikitanoe 
with the elements of science was displayed. Tho information aaqnlred by 
the students in this latter res^^ect, is derived from a«f ooise'of leolnres en na- 
tural and experimental |.hilosophy delivered by a Pr<^iBssor attached by-Go- 
yernm^nt to the College, in order to render available to Che seminary an ap- 
paratus of some extent, presented to it by the British Indian Society. Moa- 
sures have also been sanctioned to render this apparatus more conpletev and 
in the continuation of the lessons to which it will be applied it is to he te- 
pectcd that much useful knowledge will be imparted and, much liberal ovrto- 
silv excited, V>; which further pro6cioncy may be attained. In • eonttsetloii 
with this establishment, measures have also been taken for providing- a ool» 
lection ^f useful books, both in literature and science and the other arrange* 
ments for the more advanced cultivation of both have been suggested' by thd 
Committee, which awaits the sanction of the Honouable tho CoUit of Direc- 
tors. , ; 

'' Tho duties of the Clomnitteo of puMtc instructions ar^ of the most elevated 
and impoftant. description. It.U their aim to raise and sttcngthen the cha- 
racter and' nodt^ra'amting. of the people. They seek not only tp give us mora 
able and better agents for that important pait of the civil administration of 
the country which devotvea on Natives (an objet^ in itself of In^nTt^ impqr- 
lattoa, and ooa which Uovmmmettt will -stremiously lend its co-operaffon and 
pntroMia to tecare) bat gradoally t^ Introdnee our Nitlve subjects. to every 
speclas of knowMge that oan enlighten fhelr mindir and iihprove their mond 
leelingn, 

it vivos me the lincerest pleasure to sUte thus paUioly that in 4bn pro- 
infinf tho OMWi. t te a under their leepected Pwtktont, Ihnynpemlvad 

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on the BdMcaihn o/ Native Jboeiori. 165 

ibe happiest powible mrion of aeal and of discretion. ' Witli a just sente of 
tbe nitfMotMadvftntifM ofoUr owii «oaiitrf; tlMrte is tao ot«fw^^flg' eoni- 
teaiptotf^hatottiera dearly ^ae. • * . !...«.. >. 

** TCi^ ktteitttoh to Ihe fc^^lings and prejudices of the NatiTies appears, to have 
gained; as It desei'ted, their Ml^st confidence : and their policy being one ot 
candonrand donclUatfon can scarcely fail to .secure the safe and certain at- 
tainnicnnt of their salutary ends. 

'* It must at pr§^^( |jbLf»iefore>b»^urichiefi4>i960t to facilitate the pogrets 
of thfi higher di^fla-pf ^tJbo ^;.alifo^popttlaAk>o inihcMe studies which are by 
them. cooaidorf4 n^ mneliU) or. fcateaefltia9, to lead. tbeMv whenefw oppor* 
tuoity o^ers, jutf^fOfsWraAd iMra in^pravitts^p^^hs^ andttlMiro all, to habifmite 
their yontht^ tlj^^yatiw.of lOrden iSMi iaifcy and peneresance, wWcHk canMt 
fail ot being tuct>iy,<i^TfMHa9Soaa>to tka-dcaeiopasent of their • InteHeettml' 
facaities and of producing a bcncftmai' oparatloa <m their character -tlirottgli 
life. / I A i»! »'i ii(. I .. / j>< 'I , ' • ' ' 

^^ Id aotieiBg) tba pmgrass of ithe Instniction fbc the eneoamgeinent of ednca- 
tion anong the NaSiv^ H is preper to adtert to the schooffounded hy Go- 
Teinmentla tbe.vear> ISd^fbrthe iastraetlofa'bf IBftdoos and Mohaimnedaus in 
medical knowlddge.. 

** 1%t management of the institution lias h^en confided to the zealovj and 
able superintendence of 1^. Hreton and that gentlemen has already prepared* 
in the Natite languages, viirious essa^^ and $hort treatUes calculated not only, 
to promote the Instruction of the pupils under his charge, but gradnally to dis- 
seminate amongst the Natives of India, a highly useful knowledge of the 
prioclflea of Medical acience/* < 

I irill not (1>r. Gilchrist continued) take up the time of tbe Court by read- 
ing the long lisf of treatises here alluded to by h's Lordship ; hut I can assure 
theCoa^t tliay are every one of them of a highly useful nature. It giv^s me 
great pleasure to find that Dr. BrMon, another gentleman of the medical pro- 
ieesion, ia oniaaTonring to raise a structure — ^the NitiTe Medical School; 
wbcby if^ snppoated with propor spirit, will boproductlye of the most beneficial 
reaatta. I^twhoanlikewiaemniodiealimui, am the humble individual who 
beforar the jeslabUahmant odanj college in India, made the first efforts to ad- 
vaooe illka iatoittsta>of edneation 4n fndia. I know this declaration may be 
stykd ogotialiaal oo my part, but when a man is conscious he has done his 
eoiMtry AsaoTfieoi ho can hardly be blamed for mentioning it. The medical 
body io India, thoogh but • small one, has, I am boimd to say, done the Com- 
pany snuchrsenvlco*- Seme of ovr charters, and soma of the greatest benefits 
weivgoy hafo bean obtained through the means of that body. But to pro-' 
ceed with Lord Amherst's address. In that part of it which I am now going 
to ^ead, «hia< Lordship 'alludee to a aubject which gives me a areat deal of. 
ploMaoft, ..Haadveiiato the exertions made by the respectable Natives them- 
seif ae^ for ther purpose of dilfhsing education. He says, '' It is impossible- to 
quit the subject of the. naaaures taken for the diffusion of education, without 
advartiag. W to meritorioas interest exhibited by two Native gent\einen on 
this iniportant subjeet. Raja Calisunka Ghossand Rsja flurrinath Roy have 
placed at the disposal of the general Committee severally the sums of 20,000 
and 29,000 rupees, to \io applied by them in any way thait they may deem the 
most (Conducive to the objects of the Committee, an act of liberality wh*oh 
does honour to the public spirit, and the enlightened judgment of those from 
whom it edianates. It is to be hoped that the example may not be set in 
vain, bnt may point, out to the elev|ited and opulent, the pith by which they 
m\y tieat bferrfe^d the\r couatrymeo, and perpetvate their own reputation.- 
The mc^ansat'the disposal of any government must be always inadequate to 
the fedd^tfon of the people, bnt tbey are especially disproportionate in a 
conhtry were t^ demand ia so general as in India, and where the endowments 
that had aecnmnlated, through successive years, have been wholly SM^pt 
away bjnpablfc dimtflfafiization, or from their purposes by private coj^dity. 



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iSd JD^e aiihe ^dat India Hous^ 

it is now neaeituy tO'tegH a^Aio^ «iid whMttor soee^tf diat .b« ftitalMd 
by the effoiti of the ralln; power, it mast nttmrnrilj be limited, end ymt* 
titl, unless those efforts are seconded by enlifr^teoed iiidifiduals, uici iD«lly 
crowned by the concurrence snd exertfons of all.^* These are tne enli^^bt- 
^ned and Hbers) views of Lord Amherst, with regai^ to elucatioo in India. 
lia\y naturally be allied by the honoorable members of the Court, why X 
am taking this subject— conld no other person be fuund fb bring It forward? 
]f#w I mm .neither a Joiui BhM nor a balldt^g ( bvl iemwiiit ia a great deal 
bettep^l an- what Is oaeally deaontoaAed a Giledoiiian ferret or' Htfoftcb 
terrier,' andwhenefer I caa lay my paw on a pele*eift or a mt, tbetfcHsame 
imen-of.'tlie oaener the Tentatility of the eMier ^riMH^ot deier me froili 

fviaf tfcem a gripe, which thould pretent them from elu4int my clntchetf. 
wlU now explain the reasons whi<A urged me to taire up the sv Je<l. H 
ia heelnse It is of eorfsider^blto hn^rtandfe, and hecttuto ho persoii else 
seemed inclined to pay any attention to it. It is the plague of my natore'to 
have something to do; and if I were to remilA in a state oMdleheas, this 
w^rld would be a purgatory to me. Now it so h ifipenB that Dr. Breton hai 
^snt me a lettei"; which I will read to the Court, because 4t will at obce Tiiv^ 
die \te me for bringrlng the subject under the consideration of the Court. This 
is the letter I allude to : j " 

*' MV de^ Sir. My friend Mr. Roberts', of the firm of Madnntosh and Co^ 
wrote to rre some time since, (hat you had' been iLind enough to notice* fn 
faTonrable terms, the Native Meiicid Institntlon, lately established in Cal- 
cutta,' for the Instruction of Hindoos and Mohammedans me lica^^nQwledge. 

'' Of all the sciences studiei by the Asiatics, fhsit of aoiairiMDyandmediciii^it 
the leas^ undentood and cultirated, and therf^fore, in it¥lia« itri^ uair^saUy 
adiilttel t*«at (fie BritlshGoverninent coutd not have astabU^ho^aa iiis^iUitioa 
dalcuUted to be 6f greater public benefit, pot only to. .the ci^ril and miUtarT 
by&ncherof the service, but to the Natives generally^ t^a the Native Medical 
Institt^tlbn. . .. ,' : jr , -. :. . i. . . 

'* You wJiQ hare bees in Indiaere well ^waie^ef'^heanplraapBfta of tHe 
Native mediqal pfaetitionsucs. Their kne^led^e of aaaftemy: Imidera o«<«ea^ 
entity, and their skill in physic is not fai.aliove theitianatemie^ fcMiwMiet' 
What a biessiog then it wUi be to the Natures geoerally'to k 
their own eoant,ryaieo,. edacaled.on s]RsMm to^thesaqdlfal | 



bla of alleviating human' afftiolADOv whicbat j pres eat emM%aa to Apsemitne 
grave myriada ofdiseaaed inhaMtanta^of esv JSaatem em|mi «i m ... 

*^ The Native atadentsare<beginBlng toteeke^tneinselves n«i^v eigfht H^ffng 
bean already posted to -corps; atid fbar»are«boM'to*'be attached to two dlapeAi- 
^ce, Mw farming for t^e feller of Hie su ferlng Nafiftnl'^ tmd,* irthe at^ctfift ' 
pwiyiog roeoffda, yon wilLtibserve a pleasing )iuMi« testimony of tfl^ stadtHits*' 
eaerUoBftitterreiflngtiiepftigreasoftlMtdreadfttl seonffetheelia/tfraiileMHK*'^ 
and I have bo doabt tlmt, in tonfift )ef tHae, thiry w4n ptbve a highly useful 
daat of publie servaiita of the Brttisb OoTemment in India.' • < * ■ 
• **NofrlHt1istandlng thd acVnowi^gecT titnity, lind. indeed^ fiecessily of the 
NatHe Medical Inatitntioh, the Hoiionrable Court of Diredoi^.baVe unfortu- 
datdly, ^th it view to economy, ordered its abblitiofa'; but'the Grosemment 
of India, bovnd by their Shcred duty t6 their Native Subjects, 1iaveubaa)imouU][ 
i«eommended, hi the strongest possible terms, its contihuance, and tlie institu- 
tion' remains trending, however, the result of the forcible remonstrance to the 
honotirsble Court against Its abolition. ' , , 

*' The late Commander-in-Chief, Sir Edwafd Paget, it is raportad, avowed 
Us sentiments In counclU that as there was a great deficiency of mediotf* 
offiders, Native doctors became indispensably neoessary to affprd'Hmdiad aid 
to the numeruus detachments from corp« in the ex^eqsiye domiwiofie «f Jodifcy 
and, as it was not possible to procure them whea^i|uired»itbebo!ved^to^eiiii4 



ihent to establish some kind of iaslitution (40m wiim capable ^Mip^ftaelDHr 
mif^t on iAi occasions of e^dgency be obtained, and il rested with Oo?efii<« 

/Google 



Digitized by' 



on i&e mucaiion of l^aiitie Docl&iti. iH 

Tis^ thaa that vihiisi^e^^.i^ thasqhoQl for Nat^fe dootoxfl^ .m^Excelr, 
lencj f«rth«f otl>serT^» t)iM/ifltb«u| a 4u9 ^apu»liiQei[k( pf iBc4if9l A^ff, h» 
^oldi o<it f^ns^^r WJT.tbe «i|cienoy of the Benig^ ariQ^% ^puat. pf viHO, Im., 
yertaoce to th^ fijta^. TbUoccuired ia ^pril.Ust, iikI /foniuMitQl^i iho 
geqerai voic^ being \gx Cnvqui; of the UistitutM>D aa it stood, an uDaniraotts 
vote w«« gi?eQ for its p^man^ooar* • . 

. >• The expe^ae of th* adiool fcir>Nal!Te<aoetofft III titft -Wwt^f of a tlioti(fhf, 
Msff l4 raalhy ntifMBiy in <tot^p«riMMk' #fth^tll6 bMNffifl Ifkdly tb titetne f^otti 
the tMtitvtioDi Tha lotlw^ia ple8iiiKg1jPwltl<7t^ t^ hy*th<f<i^T«htbf-G0fidnA 
ihhla8pfle«htdtll«/:adll^r^<M^«Ddl, tnd hailed l»y tike Nhttt^i with gtMU 
tade." , .. .i .- .. . " ' ' ' • .•..•.■., 

*'* The anatomical ' plates 'ifn'd.w^oris ppWWVea. froSi Unae to ,*time,'%tfto 
i^aeof the Native stiiJeiUs^ ^e printed at the jgoTerpiineut lit^bgcapbic pir^Hir 
1^ DO other expense to Govtrrvipe^^t, tW that of Inka^^ paper. 'In^hoxtf 
while every ;cej^ure. jis a4op>e4. t^ ensure the utility, of the sichool fpr .P^ve 
doctors^ rigid ecpnqmy U stuoif^ fltufA obseifeq, and o^.thp ^co^e of, expense, 
tte hoDooi^h^ ^n^t^ of. Directors w^ll De,x^r Vve refison to c^miiJLaiOr^ in- 
deed* the roedieu institution inay oe said ,to , be in :nnlsoa yith . tWrnndop 
and Mo^a^ivie^an eoUeges, established mf the d^fiSemiqatioa of general luiowi- 
ledge among th^ Natives of It^^-^-t am, pi^ .dear, Si^,,. your, obliged juid 
obedient ,. '^' P.BakTeN, 

' " Superintendent of the Native Med. Instit.** 

♦* Calcntta, Oi^ber »1, 18^*V. , . , 

CRt'lr W fb« itiMfRf^iorth, Bretot^ With rcsnectf to the Native Medieal 
ftiaiifM6ft, akid^I tolM ^ekdto ttie Compiny testhnoiries la favour of it frtiiii' 
tlie MglieM autliDiltie^ tfk' dalctftta. Fdr, frem the QoVemor-Generia down to 
ihe loWejjt pt(%lie (Unctibna/v whofte opinion was worth asking, every one hat 
ettvf^aea (Imiietf in faVodrbt this instStutibn. Seine 'days ago, I. put the! 
<Itiestlmi to the hbnoiit^ible Gha^ihan. whether it wa^tlie intention of the Court 
er DireeMM'tOi pM: dm^ this IhsilliifTon ^,*fLfld I waii told, in eflfeet, that, 
at tlutt tiiAe^ I cPMltf f4f lft» infdHdAiVir on ifa» sublbet. I, ther^ftifre, as a uiaii 
Who iMi^eili^ ilM»CoMb«#y,Md fmd lift lit«»«W« £r ffitidh at hlMirt afe any per- 
son od tMt»thiM> iM^of the «rfi7 t (KnHhe M wh«( I may) ftlt I was Unfltlidd 
tt> eill n^^-^fiti^ of ikf frtm6% «> flt^'Wifk ift» A reqirtsftloit, in order tv 
hrtnjg tiMi aubjeof jin^pMy tmdef fft« c6n^ldef«tl^n df thi» proprietbrt . 1 nMd 
hardly sdy J »im %ery sorry f^ «^^serM the Cna¥t $o thinly attended, be^nse 
fAe sriftjet^t H certainly orte •< th^ htfhesi topdnaiio^. AAy meastfre whieh 
ihay have a tepdeney tb k'ef^ t\i& NtAives ef India in -a'stat^wf ifnbrttice 
#onTd Ddf oiil> bennJusT, bne etlf«mely Mh»<HitliBi Mneh ifto^e ddVlseaMe 
nHiold if i>d tb aoiind thbir aflf^etione-fty ebllgbteatng' tlibir flrtiidvtrtid it-^fag 
Hmii ^fnwtiew ifei 'every ahapdi if th6 NhtiiM* «i^ dMpitM and frampied on 
Aejt wcsnMnatnralty #lufB'8tieli ill bbildbc«with h!iit»ed ; but if ^e Conipcaiy 
afforded fhetn the ittea»^t»f ntqufrfnt knowledge andtlreAtVd tilftm |ih% fUein' 
they, oh the eentrary, behavfe eowardJ^^.hbhieltiy «Ad fhitMMlyi k 1» irdt ft 
natter d^ trfflinj^ iiq^.rttocefhat the NdtlVes sheold hav^tlMmMiai of &lstriie«> 
tlon In tnedicat kno wledge afforded them. It is often the eato' that detaehHieni#> 
dre sent out with only one IStfiropean Stirgeen ; now If thia ea^geon should 
happen to be ctil^ off,' let the Conrt consider in what a *iti]A(t{o» the dbtabhitent 
wotfl^ "be placed. ' l*bM he might be so ciit dff . Was by no liieana impeartblev 
for T myself was once nearly struck by a Miahmtta roeket. In iuoh a caae \t i» 
more than pro' able a Native sturgeon chnnot befbu^dwieha tourniquet to stisp 
the ^loM'of fltny rklHoit officer who happens tb be wounded. It would tins 
he nM^sarr'tcrwlit niitllli European snrgeon could be procure, aod in ihe 
mean' fiihd ahSth ttHttit t^M^t Ms iissis\ailce tf^less. Besides £uro|^ean surw 
gedaw ^jkiil^^yAfii had^at cofnihand, and therefore «uch a course of edufal 
tSott-dMitto'W^'affbrded tb*fheNatjV.e^do<*tbrs sis woutd enable them not oily* 
to sate tAb fl¥e« of gnllafllt oMcefil but also of xattM eitUkuuL The Cmi% 



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188 Debate at the East India H(nM 

of Dtraetors will not then enidioato this inititntlon \ they will not rarely letel 
it to its fo«lideti<Mi. : li it en inmltii^D, > iUMlonbt«dly» ^ M UkM a kiad a« 
wjieyer esl^ifthed in ledie, and with proper oere it mey (prow to a hoed of 
Which we heve no idee. K wee iodeed uipoe»ibl«^ to eejoi^ete the extent of 
the edrantegoa whieh may result fvom the diffoeioyi of e eorreet linowiedfire of 
flhrgery emong the Netiree. The oonmon nin of Ibe Native j^ofegsora are 
at the preaent tiaae ae ignorant of tlie art ee the herbers end ehaveiv who^ 800 
years ago^ professed the art of surgery in thieoonatryj I will newr cell yonr 
etteotlon to the t e a l i m onies i» iaTour 'Of this. .lestMntio^ « which In^sntiooed. 
I will not detain you by reading the whoie of them.tmtwiU only quote one 
or two, whieh heye eouuuaed froas iadlvtdeaia ol JMgh eharscter and talent, 
end if they shall not be considered suQcient toeon'VAnsB yftV otf.the utility of 
tile establlshmeat I will proceed to the test. ^ I hare ia my hand a letter from 
a Nitive gentleman who eaderstaods the English language as well as I do 
myself. He is a gentleman of very extensive iofgimaiieniimd well 'versed in 
the arte and sciences. I speak of the celebrated Ram -Mohnn Hoy : He writes 
thus t — " I beg you will accept my best thanlcs for the valuable present of yonr 
pTodncriotts. They are indtee 1 fUn of ' inStmotiofi endf tietter ciknlated to fur* 
nish the Natives with useful knowledge thsrfi ell the wiorics in this oeentry on 
abstruse subjects.** This Ifetter is dat>ed the^'h of Miy; IBM. In « letter of a 
liter d«te' Ram Mohun Roy thus expresses liimself, in teoommendation of 
the labours of Dr. Breton. '^ Ailing as i have been,! have penlsed irith greet 

Eleasure the tracts you kindly sent me; and while 'reading them I eould not 
elp anticipating the blessings which these and similar publications are ealev- 
la'ed to bestow on the Natives of tMs part oft the giobcf ; since they contain 
real fac's, established by experience, and not mere speculatiovis supported by 
pfejttdice and opinion. I hope and pray that yeerexeitions nmy beerowned 
wi h success.*' Here is a Native of India writing in our own langnage and 
expressing sentiments, the force, truth and justice of whieh would do credit to 
any man in this Court, however enlightened he might be. AnolSier Native of 
g.eat respectability, RadkakaHt Deb, has likewise written strongly in fiTonr 
of the exeitlons of Dr. Breton. He says ''' I have attentively 'perased the 
work (on eholeta) and find the observitlons, symptoms and mmedlea of the 
dreadful malady contained in it to 'be very wise, proper, beneficial, end effec- 
tual. I shall introdtfce and reeommend your advice and medicine both here 
and in the interior ; and the human lives which will thereby be saved, will I 
trust he an ample reward for the trouble you have takflin« and theexpenea in- 
curred in publishing and eircQlatiiig the pamphlets grainitetasly.'* I vrMl next 
proceed to the public functionaries, and shew in what Hght they Tiew the 
matter. I will read the sentiments of Captain Maean, the Persiair Interpreter 
to th) Commander-in-Chief. Captain M*Cenn Is a tentleman, I believe, well 
known as an Oriental scholar, and a person who stands high in tlie estimatioii 
of the Government. In a letter to Dr. Breton, he says, ** None 'but Orientel 
schofars can properly appreciate the diffleelties you have enoonnitered, and 
as you hare got over the first step, wh'ch is always the most diflloult, I shi- 
cerely hope yon will get on. Hitherto we have been instnioting the Naiivee 
in their eirn frroneotif tgttem <^ pkihtophy^ and partieularly astronomy, 
and it is ooly by doing in other branches of science what yoe are doing u 
medicine that we c m hope to give them the light of truth.*' Now the gentle- 
man who thus expressed h'mself is a military man, an officer I believe in the 
King's service, aod I take it to be a eircumstaace much in-histhvour, that he 
hi^ applied himself to the study and made himself master -of the Oriental lan- 
guages. It is a proof of his being a thinking man, and it renders Ms testi- 
mony of additional weight. I will now call the attention of the Court to the 
te'^timony of Captain Ruddet, secret -ry to thc^' College- Conneil of Fori 
William, who, in a letter addressed officially to Dr. Br^toti, tpoke, in these 
terms, the sentiments of that body : **'Thie College Council were so much 
pleased with your pamphlets presented to them Chat they expreseed a wish to 
seethe whole published and dbtributed thronghout the eoaniry.*' The. Me- 
iVei^ Board have also expressed teir opinion in the IMloWing hMsgonge : 



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Ml the EdueaHon of Native Dociare. 180 

** Or, m&twfiag !• ftlMtor Irim tlie miKltfy Mefetery-t» Oo?«iinMiit 
eiHitsi^iig< an esttraef- of tbe* ^ee«dliigs in the j«dklal depotnieDti with 
refemee tv « e di t ga a^ w idenfee with ■ tfce Qowwamtnt of Bombay oa. the snbjoet 
of odaea^ti, I aiif direetod %y the MedteaT Beard to request that yea will be 
pleased to sffid to tKb ollld»; at yonrearlieat eonvenienee, five oopiea of aadi 
of the dfffSr^nt werlrr wmpomA t^ yoo for fhclHtailnff tiie aeavintion of 
nodical and phryiioal kflbn^edffe by your papila« ia order that they may be 
forwarded to Boiabay.' 1^ Board ctonot ottit this oppoHanity of ooagrata- 
lati'g y«aiofi'tbe astiAilQesfr of yeartobottrt, and the important adfantages 
whieh eeem Itkely Uf b«i 'derived ftom theat by the medical branch of the ser- 
Tioe tbroaghottt thd tteeerPresidencles* 

• (Si^ed) «' J. AoAM, 

- '- ^'Seceetary Medical Boaid*V- 

'' Fort William Medleal Bdaird Offlee,^^ 
ISth AuftlM, ISBOi*' 

Now a hiipher medical authority than that i have just quoted could not be 
addnced in snpport of the exertions of Dr. Breton. I will now lay before the 
Court « lelter from Mr. Buiylayi ahiipf Secretary to the Oovemmem, and who is 
now a member of the Supreme Council of Bengt^l. You cannot,' I am sure, 
bat acknowledge him to be a proper official authority, and aaiodi vidua! on 
whose opinion greaA r^iance may be placed. Mr. Bayley says, in a letter to 
Dr. Breton, 

" My dear Sir, — It has occurred to me, that if your Treatise on Cholera 
In Bengalee, were widely distiibu^ed in Calcutta and its neighbouihood 
just BOW, it would be useful. Perhaps the best way would be to send all 
the spare copies you hare to Mr. C. Barwell, at the Police-office, tomorrow ; 
thence ihey mifliA be given to the Na'ic doctors empolyed under the police, 
to the th addets, and other Native officers, who can read Bengalee, and to the 
Native schools : a new edition to a considerable extent might be struck off ; 
and If yon will report the expense, which may be incurred in doing so, either 
I will pay it myself or aak Government to pay it. A few copies in Persian 
might also be osefully distributedfrom the Police-oTice. 

** Yours, sincerely, W. B. Baylby, Chief Bee.*' 

Mr Bayley conm^ered the disHbution of this excellent treatise on cholera 
of so much Importance* that he offered, in the most generous manner, to pay 
for the p. iiitfog an4 publishing of the work himself. I will now submit to the 
aotieeof the <'outtarf official commuaication, from the Government to the Ma- 
gistrates of Chleotta, da ed the lat of December 1825, which passed throngh 
the dopaitBMnt of Air Bayley. It is expressed in the following terms : " The 
tempomry employment, with the sanction and concurrence of Dr. Breton,} of 
twenty of his most experienced pupils, in those parts of the town where the 
sieloaesa chiefly prevails, as well as the distribution of Dr. Bre'on*s Treatise 
on the cure of the dliolera, in the Native languages, appear to Governme'it to 
be oieasttffes calculated to be of great immediate advantage ; and his Lordship 
in Council, desires that you wiU communicate to Dr. Breton the sense whicn 
Government entertatoi of his prompt and zealous co-operation with you and 
of his cottplianee with your suggestions at a time when an official reference 
for formal sanction would have involved aerions delay and inconvenience.*' 
Here we find the Government itself approving, in terms the most unqu lifi,ed, 
not the conduct only but the treatise of Dr. Breton on the cure of the cholera 
moibesL The next letter which I shall read, is equally honourable to Dr. 
Breton. It ia signed by Mr. BarweU. the Chief Magistrate, and Mr. Blaquire, 
ftMagistrvte of. the CfdcuCU Police Office. They say, '' We beg leave to in- 
form yon, that the decrease in the number of cases of cholera in the town will 
BOW arinitof th^aid of your students being withdrawn, and request the favour 
of yotxto recall them.. We.oaaoot let this opportunity pass without recording 
our apprcihirioo^of their conduct,. and the great benefit derived from their skill 
and attention. We beg leave to inclose the copy of a paragraph of a letter 



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fromtlM Chief Seeretttiy to GoTenment, expreMire of tbe MntimentoUt 
%j9tdMp^ 06nMm Wf<rtitlii<l»f>tll» ^ i iM Wi i<wld fijiteaiifi fc iiii t< iMlwi l iii*of 
yittr 4iCttd«liiij tnftiWetliMilt yvk fortliO'lMnf y vb-opoHiioai wf bmre cftpc^ 
tfcoeed tnmyoa fmwbUfUXy teSTMdtif 'th« ulutMf yrm^^^tht tmra^^M 
wmettdr* ' Too tottliMliy of Mfi HnrtMgMa IrUi^'riext I sk«ll lartoftre yo« 
i» ]»ml9e of Dr* Vr0lOti*» e«ortloiW/'Mr. JftrriligtOBl*, i 1^elil$vo;^rell taowi| 
to tho Gowf sof IMMftori.* ' For ^MB^nfty^wd A»r tlitt ^kfloidedge-wlileh is 
HMolial lonho #e«oHty of peteoiuld hai^iaM tv MH«i in m ir6fd, ft>r tho 
eirerfltto of oltory Tfrtilo, I bollof« Mr. lffiiivhi|rto*1i not' e^eettod %y tay ■■« 
4a Mdift, tlmC'coinfrt whtn^'I hid the^illiaMr* of ittioirlO|('hlm*«BT thirty 
yetrtl He HMi exorOflMet Mmsetftf •«^1IIri<i«inilii^<hiis ^oryimiAh oMtjod km 
or. BratoB for his kind and vmlvable prmM df h6bkv, <wMeh euiMit Ml to bo 
of the freatest ki'e tis tlie Nntire stodeiiiv^f the Mectfeal ImtitntioD, as well as 
more goMenilly to the t^atlt^Brof India.'* 

I will not trouble the Court farther with any testimonies in support of tlie 
vsefiilness of tfiis iastitutio|i« I h»ve, | popceive, a|at«4 si^jjlqeat.to ji^ovipce 
every iadiyiduil, on whichever side.of tlie Co^tf of the jvptpef^ity tpere U foK 
li|ihpl<UQg it- • I will therefore entnistlhe m^Ue^ entirely |d. your own feelings, 
tp your own honour, to yo^f owp sense of whiit is d)ie to myriads of JEIind^* 
ikitish ^ul^^fts. IVould you, I as)i, .fortl^e si^e of 'aving a lew tlu>as9ads 
of pounds^ put an en4 ^^ h^9 existence of ai) lAstitutioOy ishic^ sil the fupc^ 
tionaries on the spot' ioined'in praising ? This surely cannot be called a jptrf 
]Clr« Qretop WM npt the person tp be fonnp^^ed witl^ a transaptiop of suok a 
mature: he would dit»dai% to Ipnd himself to aiob. It has beensaid^ sopi^. 
ilmeSy vben I have spoken on paftkulaF fubie^ in thi9 Courti .tM I have 
^n seeking for a job : b^t a- job I oete^t ^fij* defoise ( and 1 would throw* 
with iodignVlon, the charge into the Ik^of him who sha^ meke it. I fa^Hlf 
I need AOl |«(ru<ie.l9F^ ^upoi| the Atlcaftiofi of the Court ; though, if dpn^ 
Blent* were wanting to support the; osefbli^ess of thp Institution, I have nsvy 
ssoee tp produfie* If the Coert. of .Oi^oetors peraeTcre.in 'Overthrowing it, 
they will indeilbly ia^us^ their ossnoharaater, s<» disgust the Natives of Irsaia. 
Those people would say^ *'.You tako whatetef yetioaii out of our pockels« 
bat you reiase t* enlighten oer minds* . Y091 deny^us a drop fVom the bvcKet 
which we ourselves have filled ; you' begruJge fflving us that food— the food 
9f the sai'ui, which is 11019 •;4i»sble thaa igiy ihtng .00 the fiice of the f^h to 
those who estiiiiate the miod above the body.*' .Now, let ino entraat you to^ 
cyui ider the matter well, befose yoa.jresort to a Hae of eoodnet whidi wU| 
lead tp such a ie«ult ss this. . lipeg no not I stand ber^ on light and frivolous 
mptiyes^ to oppos»any measureswhich the Court of pireetorsmay-think. proper 
to' adopt. Far Crora any thing of that sort being my intention^ I proolsim myt* 
sell ^heir fiieed-^iye, tbelr very best friend, because I sn jpesobred, 00 All 09- 
9 sio^, to let th«m know the tiuih. 1 never, in my life, gave eoun^euaace to 
a lie ; and I never will do so as. long as 1 live; aybd I can assure those who 
may thiiik otherwise, that they aie much mistaken in their estioMto of my cha* 
r^ctar. ft w«ui with groat pleasare I gave way to he motion cd the gallant 
Coionel ^ tut. I am eztiemely sorry to observe that almost all the P»opricler| 
h \e <now wi h irawn I'rom- the Court, exo^t the gentUmeo t)ehi(id he bar. 
These, however* who h^ve at aU eopaidered this question^ OUgtH fairly to mgH 
nreiis>te 'm inuiortaiice. The Company are a greet bo^, and' ought to show, 
by heir iijeml treatment of the Natives of In&a, that uiey possess a soul gs 
great as ha- body. You can only mahitaio U kf perfofmiog aetsof the kiB4 
iie^cmineuded U my mo^iop ; and wheuthu time for the renewal of voureh-rtef 
comes TOUiui« acU such as this will aiford, h» the eyes of 1hel4msluture, the 
best ri^Moos to adopt lag umasutei for eeeuaing the stability of t^e Compuur. 
The hon. Proprietor oeocluded by moving aResoltttioo, «o|tfbi|9able to t^ 
Buhstapeoof4hoKoquisiiioA. • . 

Captain Ma^xfisu).— the Court, I hppe, will fif 9 this motion tU te ut- 
tuQiion»aii44UH)^if MU^e^qvos, 4»tt«^}«fii»ia,wmr|,|)i4|f|; 

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on Oe ^i^M ^ IfafiveJOtfie^i. ^1 

eotteek, wImbI wm al Caleutu, that the ■eer«tary of the Mediopl Board was 
lU winaifaitiw^tnl 41I <hk| wuft ighm«»< >Now, l>Mk,< k tli^ 9<ierettrv«r that 
fioai4 a pivpar porson to receit^ »iioh.aii appolatmeot? iBinjr- ideavthatindi- 
trkluiA .haa 4|Mita anlRtlaDt to* eiaplo^A hini« vithout* taking upon %liii<t1w add!* 
tkttai ddtf W aaportnleodant to^h^inatltution. If the Court deei««fthittiiidli«y 
Is to lio laid'ottt oa the eatablwfaaoont, I trust it will be es^pended wiaelf ; ai^ 
tiiat ttponoa ia appointed to. superintend it wlioehall devotothe whole of Ms 
tiaae to thodntiea* oonneeted with it, insaead o( makhig the pbat a sioeeorb. 
fThe IndiTidaal w ho filled that poat at the period I alltide to, 19 dead, but if he 
wcve prwent in thia Court, I would, stiil protest a|^aihst tho apfiolntment m 
hnpropev. My masiia ie to pay iveli, hut pot to give 'severri am>oiiitiDeitt8 to 
oae liKdridiial. I can mention a list of i^poiatments of the most objectionable 
deaerifttion ; I can, indeed, pointiout one instance of eight or nine ofllees beiiijf 
aonfeired on one individual ; and, in my opkiion,- it is entlrelv impoasiBle that 
k single man cap, be his talents what they may, properly fitiffi ttie duties of 
thoser ilifl^?rent o Hces. I repeat it, if money is to be expended (h support of 
thla, or of any ether ektSblismuetft, let persons be 'appointed who are able and 
ariliing M devote the whole of their time to the per^rmance of the duties coii- 
■ectod with if.. I think it right it should be knotiTn ; V^ mv chief object hi 
sow risiiig^is to sAite the ftact, that onehalf bf fhe appointn^enrs in lidla are filled 
hy peraons' who caAubt devote' their time to the nilfflment of th^ necessary 
datiea. I am disposed^ to 'afford to the Natives of Ibdia the means of deriving 
iofirmatkoB on^evefv tubjeet ; but to the support hf bp establishment, formed 
«arf ly'tor the emolument of a few> indfVidaa|s, T will never consent. Many 
wefb) refonlia eatt hb db'ubtbe made'ln'theaAninistraiion of the law in Ihdia ; 
aad'Ifid^, if yon wish to raise' a monuniimf to perpetuate ^our. name in 
lajli, ya« may do' so by intfochicing the English language Into yqur cour^ 
»fUw.' ' *. 

Dr. OiLcvaiiV.— 1 beg to bo allowed to mako ono or two observations 
ineiplao|4ipn« inconifiQueiiee^oC.what btut faUjpi frcinK the hoa. Proprietor 
nha JfaJi iost SB^ down, MYf^t ppt eo«viiiced.|k9U Dtw Qreton^voted ail hie 
energies, t)oih.af aoul aad.hody, to. the a^Gsirs of this ioatttutioiii the sakiieot 
WQttid neves have i^ean Airoiiglkt forward by me ;; for I yield to. no man inmy 
ha redtof p)tvialitife «f everx kix^d* ..The iab^rs of Qr. Braton, however, are 
before the publio; his e»e(tii>iiaiin fiivQur oS the advanoement' of medical 
knp^edge tfP w<>U koowBt ^4 k is clear* that hole aaeaiousiabourer in that 
vi.i£irar « . 4 pow h^ld in my hand a work oaCkvUra ifer^iM irif tten by him, 
a id I Aay. that ihaman wImi has pabli^hed. eight or nipo aueh viahnaeaaB.this 
eaoobt lie considered idle. Dr. Breton has no pluiality of appointments* Ha 
b merely a surgeoo.in the Gompaoy^s service, and does not receive a farthing 
IsejHMid me asaonnt of his pay. It U an hondu" to (he me:'.ical service to 
ha^ro among- Uielr body a gentleman, who proceeds' as Dr. Breton does. 
Hhatover wa^ dc»oe. ha^ been elTected at his own expense, and Government 
hi* givcfii kirn er^t for his services. , I iviU boldly assert that Dr. Breton 
las served .the €ompaiiy fn the most essential pdint in which Ihey can he 
aarvrl, in affoc Jing Instruc ion in mediciue to their Native snbjects. I would 
a<k Hindooalaofe and Naguree' scholar^' to look at the books publi^d by 
Dr. Br»t4in« ^ml say whether he caa be considered an ignorant or unskilfiu 
^a^nr He is< I maintain, neither the one nor the o hefi rie\ her is he a sine- 
aforiat nor n pluralism hut a man .who deserves encouragement for' hif> honest 
eSKOftlohs. It ' la » common saying that '' genius jumps, **^d the variety of 
De«'Be»'oaVaoq«ir(tfnee't$-ls A proof of it. It is rather a ci|iiods colncl ence, 
Mlatl0f. Brntoif hw OMkployvil Ms talents'in fransla^ing into the Hin tons(anqe 
langimge, and-ln thoN&iUree character, a ,' Titeat^e on S <spended A )imaUo4 
flfom^lhe Biecis of StfVversioD, Hanging, Obnoxious' Ah, or ti^htntug, and 
the Means of Resnseltatibn,'* at the safaie time that I was rendering into the 
fWPa lingnagOrt, work ftfai similar natmm, a pamphlal, tamttled* The Methods 
of Treatment for theiH«C0'i|iry of PafSoncapparaollyDead, from' Brarwain|f, 



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192 Debaie ai the Etut India House 

Alywct, of Trinity College, Gembridge. It is inpotsible to caleoUte the 
adTautAf «• of dUtemuiatUig a knowledge of tlie Orlentel langoeget. I some 
tiioe ago Tisited the school of a pupil of mine, . who learned the Persian and 
Nsguree characters lo the ooof^e of three months, and I was snrprised to And 
that some of his pupils were superior to. those I have under my own. care. I 
al ei 



h&Te, at a considerable persoaal expense, and a great deal of tronble, i 
▼oured to establish occidemal and Orieutal institutions in different places. 
Several are ia Lon on ; there is one in Edinburgh, and I hope that some will 
soon be formed in Dublin. I observe, however, in looking over the Com- 
pany *s Red Book, with no small surprise, that they contemplnte mak ng a 
monopoly of this descript on of education. In that publicat on two only are 
named as proper places for instrnelion, previously to the admittance of a 
young man into the seminary at Addiscombe. Now, thlt appears to me to he 
the verv worst species of monopoly, — ^worse than the monopoly of tea and 
sugar, for it is a monopoly of an article essential to our well-being-gleaming. 
M'hy should not the people of Scotland eigoy having their own children edu* 
ca'ed under their own eyes 1 What reason can be named for obstructing so 
desirable a system? I am happy to hear, however, thirt the proposition for 
establishing such a detestable monopoly is not nnden^ood as likely to be 
ac ed upon. Had it been persisted in, I certainly should have demanded of the 
Court to show what right the Company had to establish a monopoly in.Uteim- 
ture. I am obliged to the gentleman who has Infbnned me the idea is aban- 
doned. It was one of your own body (adMremmg Me JNrarter*) who gave 
me to understand that it was a hasty regnlat&on, pulilished without considera- 
tion, and very properly withdrawn. I sincerely hope no obstruction will be 
thrown iu the way of individuals in England, Scotland, and Ireland, in giving 
their children ia<<truction in the AsiaMc languages at home, and then sending 
them to Addiscombe. A London university will, in a short time, be esta- 
blished, and if the excluding regulation had been persevered in, the Oriental 
department of their institution would be of no utility whaever. The thirst for 
education U now become universal. It is travelling into every corner of the 
world. While I am on this subject I will read to the Court one or two reso- 
lutions relative to the Scottish Military Academy, which was formed Isst year 
while I was in Edinburgh. This academy is patronized by the nobility and 
gentry of Scotland, and is now in a flourishing state. From its constitution, 
it is likely, I am convinced, to do the Company a great deal of service. These 
resolutions will, at least, show the enlightened spirit that is stirring abroad, — 
a spirit which narrow, illiberal, and selfish views will never be able to put 
down. 

I have again to mention the satisfaction I feel at the withdrawal of tiie Red 
Book, and am glad that those who pre posed it did so withdraw it on seeing 
they had takeU a false view of the subject, without being reminded of that fact 
by others. The course of education at the Scottish MUit ry Academy, 
is on the most extensive and liberal scale. It was resolved by thos with 
whom the plan originated. " That every branch of military and gymnas- 
tic exercises shall be taught at the academy ; also the modem laognagies, 
vis., Hlndoostanee. Persian, French, Italian, German, Spanish, Ac. ; Ittewise 
fortification, surveying, navigation, mathematics, and every othw branch of 
education that to the Committee may seem progressively nsefnl and expedi- 
ent.** It is seen that in this enumeration, Hindooatanee holds a very distiB- 
guished place. It is at the head of the modem langnagea, and is donbtleas 
considered of such importance from Its being so intlmnlely l>onad np vith the 
interests of British India. Let not this prospcotM be saeeeed.at. It.emaiiates 
IWhu the capital of an ancient kingdom, whoee iahabitanta are net gratuitooaly 
to be deprived of the right of edncating their own ohildrea. 

[The leaned Doctor hve read a passage fnm the proepectns, pointing out 
the advantages likely to result from s«ch an estabtlthiiienr.j 

WhUe inch a spirit as this is abroad, can yo« think of ett^UshlBg Utfuprj 



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Off ik0 BiueaHon of Native Doctors. 103 

iBonopoliea or iastltailiig ezelvshre depots of learning^-^hethor under Dr^ 
Andrews or any other person? If yon do, yon will stifle in the outset eTety 
useM estAblisament. I haTe often been tofd by gentlemen in SeOtSand, that 
they would be glad if they hid the means of educating their chfldv^n in the 
Oriental tonnies in their own country. I offered ttiy services, and taught the 
indiTidttal who is now employed in giving instruction in the Oriental language 
in Edinburgh. 1 rejoice to see the progress of education, and will use my en- 
deaTonr to extend it. f am content to rest my good name on this basis, and 
a good name, in my opinion, is superior to every other earthly consideration. 

The Cbairmak. — I am of necessity compelled to oppose this motion, because 
on its face it implies a censure, and an undeserved one, on the conduct of the 
Court of Directors. It cliarffes them by implication, with doing what they are 
entirely guiltless of; for before I sit down I will prove that the Court of Di- 
rectors, mr from having neglected the sut ject, have bestowed the deepe<<t con- 
sideration on it, and bad treated it with the liberality of feeling it deserves ; 
because if any subject more tluo another requires the stiictest attention, it is 
that of educition. The Court of Directors can say with truth, that they h ve 
entertained the moat anxious desire to propagtte education throughout India, 
were there any extraordinary merit ia that desire, and that they hAve acted in 
fnrtheiaace of that object, the usefulness of which is readily admitted on all 
hanis. {Hear.) I hold in my hand a paper which will explain what has 
been done in extending the means of education in India. 

[The hon. Chairman here read a list of the different schools esUblished in 
Calcutta, ill the provinces under Bengal, Madras, Prince of Walt's *s Islan 1, 
Singapore, and Malacca, and stated the expense incurred by the Company in 
maiotaijiiDg them.] 

Now, (coninoed the honourable Chairman,) it must seem the most absiud, 
the moat extraordinary charge against the Co^npany, to say that they have 
not bestowed a proper degree of attention on the subj-.'ct. (Hear.) In 
justification therefore of your Executive Body, I must not suTer this motion 
to be withdrawn, but am determined to meet it by a d'.rect negative. The 
implications it contains I deny in toto^ and I am sure that every one who has 
listeoed to the reading of the document will see that the denial is founded on 
jun grounds. The motion may be separited und.T two heads: the first 
respects education, in India generally, and the second refers to the instrucri<m 
of the Natives in medical kao ^ ledge. I have expUiue.l myself, I trust, suffi- 
ciently on the last point aircidy, and I will now proceed tp explain what the 
Court of rlirectors have done with reference to the latter. In May, IS92, the 
Medical Board represented to the Government, that as considerable difficulty 
had been axpot^eneed in procuii-jg Native Doctors to supp'y vacancies in the 
diiferent Rogiments, it would be advisable to establish an institution forthe 
purpose of instructing the Natives and qual'fytng them to fill up the difi- 
cteacies. The points of regulation the Medical Board proposed for this 
ostabli-hment weie: thit a superintendent should be appointed to instmct the 
poptla in the el«>mentary t/ranches of med'cal science, and to preside genenlly 
over their education ; that the pupils should be attached to the Residency 
Generiil Hos ital, the Kiog*s ffospital, the Native Hospital, and tlte Dis- 
pensary, as the most oonvenient for their acquiring a Icnowledge of Ph rmacy, 
surgery, and Physic ; chat the pupils should receive a monthly pay of eight 
rupees, as long as theypioseeutel theirstudies, and they were to be allowed to 
contract to serve for a given period, and as vacancies occurre 1 they were to 
be appeini»d,'tf lepofled doty qualified. The representatiohs of the Medical 
Boavd had tiM aObefc of tedaeing the Govomme'it to set the Institution on 
foot, wtnah bap^aed in the io«>e following. Mr. Jameson, the Secretary to 
the Medical Board, was appointed the superintendent, - ith a salary of fMX) 
rupees per mo ith, in. addition to his other salary. I adout that this sppoinu 
meiit constitutes the very 'worst feature of the business. The Court of 
Directors felt this, and therefore applied themselves to a re-consideration of 
the saljeot of the Institution, and to look around at the system esUblisaed in 
OrUiUal Herald, Vol, 10. O 



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194 l>eMfatfk$lMtimirmm 



WM ellBeted ttndar the Madnt Reftidency vitUout a Ba|ierinteBde.tt. There 
the N«tire Doctors receiTe their edueatlon at the differeat hospitals. The 
dourt of Directors then conceived th*t the same principle whidi prevailed at 
AiAdra<K might be acted upon in Calcutta, and tne oiftee of superiDtendent 
atx>lished. In actinar thus, the Court cannot be accused of not approving the 
pla'i of educating Native Doctors for the service of the Company. They 
laerely recommended the adoption of the Madias system, and the removal of 
the aapermtcBdent. Mr. Jameson afterwards resigned, and this post was 
filled Uy Dr. Qreton. After the opinipn of the Court of Diiec ors WM ex- 
preftse4« they received a remonstrance or representation of the Bengal Goverur 
mea^ in which the support of the Institution in question was strongly rep 
commended, pn the origiaal system, and the reply given to this comrounicar 
tioq, when the su* ject was discussed in 16d3-4s was to this elect ;^-The Court 

S' ointed out to the notice of the Bengal Govfrnment tlie plan in fotce at 
ladras, whete boys, balf-castes taken from the Asylum schools, were at* 
tacbed to the Hospitals, and leceived a couise of instiuctiofi |a order te 
Qualify, them tq %ct as assistants ii those hospluls. Thq Court evp^es e^ 
their ftajr that the difficulty apprehendea by the Medical Board them^ielves U 
educating Natives in the pigher ^u-anchfis of m^ical science i^ould prevent 
Hit ni \6 success, and t ^y dcMrea tp be infoimed wt^ther tb^ir fcajw hjti 
been justly founded. .The Court disapprov^ of only one uart of the system, 
and that was the appoin'ment of the :$uj epntendent. They conceived ^he 
^ntiduanee of that office would cause an interference wit^ the Hospital Sur- 
geons, and engender an unpleasant collision of authority between then) and 
the superintendent. The court besides expressed an opinion ttiat the best. in- 
struction was likely to be conveyed by the Surgeons of the Hospitals. The 
Court therefore dirked that at all events the office of superintendent should 
1^ diseoatinued. I have now given you the history of this business, and 
0OnceJV0 th^t the Court of Dhectors are stiengtheoed iq tbe propriety of the 
view they took of i , by the pnictiee adopted at Madras, which is prodvctlve 
ml betttr pnwstieal eflfecM^, though Was eipensive, than that established «l 
Calc^tUt I sfiy hetter prneiioal effeots, hocanse it is oerta'n the stadenu will 
ke rendered mere protlcieni in the pca/etieal part of the science, by -hetaig un- 
der the eye of the burgeon to charge of an Hospital, than from hearing a 
jieriee of lectures. The Govemmeut at Bengal has lately tnnamltted a reply 
to the eommunication of the Court of Directors. 

[Thle reply was read by the hoP- Chairman, and expresses in atrong lernf 
the conviction of the Bengal Government as to the emciency of the Medienl 
iohool as originally constituted.] 

A report allmled to in this reply has not (said the hon. pialrman) been 
vreeived, and the Court of D rectors are therefore not able to say what degrei^ 
of encouragement ought to be extended to this institution. Mr. Jameson *9 
nppointmeat in the first instance, cannot be defended, because ht^ dutii^s as 
leeretary to the Medical Board were quite sufficient to occupy the whole of hi^ 
lime. Of Dr» Breton, the present siiber^ntendent, the Government spoke U 
the highest terms of eomtoendation. He has, it appears, been employiog biip- 
eelf in tranaiatinff the ' London Pharmacopoeia* into If Indoostauee ; fud hai 
also in a state of forwmrdaess several other publications on the subjepi of 
linecUoiae. 

J The hon. Chairman here atated the items of emolument attaehed to the 
oe of eupertnieadent, whieh ogether nmovot to 9109 mpeee per month.] 

The whole question (he continued) turn* on the necessity of the pest of 
kpperintendent. We have decided 1^ the negative, but did %q wiilioui (lerr 
pitting private feelings to influence our de<;;|sipn. pid I conceive the e^r 
Istenceof such an office necessary, t)iere Is QQ man I would sponer appoint to 
ni it tbiia Pr» Brvton. 



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tm tie JUmdiom «/ 2f9ik$ JDoeiors. IM 

Tbe lion. ClwIniiaA eoMlvdM bjr pwpming Xhe foUowisf tnesdmrat ^»^ 

•* That In the opfnion of this Cotirt it \t whollt unnecessary and Inexpe- 
dient to ti^pt tlie fecdRitn«ndMion contained in lie motion now before the 
Court, as due attenttoo ipfeilt^ to haf« beett paid by tfne Court of Diiectors 
to the Important tuhjecrs therein mentioned ; and the Court is satisfied that 
the sttbJecU Alluded to are Very properly lefc in the hands of the executive 
body." 

Mr. Tbant. — I rise for the purpose of eipresslng siy entire satisfaction at 
the amendmeat proposed by the qod. Chaiiman, and if the hoa. Propril^tor 
(Dr. Oilcbiisi) koew a» well as I do what is bow going on in India he would 
never have iutioduced his motion at all. The itoe of conduct pureed by the 
bon. Chairman ha^ giYon me much gratification. Were the motion aUowed to 
be withdrawn, an liJer eace m).ght go abioad, that a kind of compromise bad 
been effected ; and .ho Court of Directora woull not have appealed as they 
now do, to ba?e done theii dufy in affording the utmoat postfibU means to the 
Kaiivea of India for the apqaiiement of knowledge. 

If we look babk oh the 1 ist teh years, we ^hall find that the GoTemment of 
Inlli, beek«d by the GOTemment at hotae, bare been adopti g every s tfe and 
expiedlent measuie, for fkdllia ing the oMect re<;(ntimended by the Legisla- 
fvre, v1 . the Instmctlon of the Natives <n India. It appears that the Com- 
pany bkre more tbajft tiipled the Sum appropriated by t e Legi«;Uture for this 
etjeet. It wouM hardly be fair totjxpect that the Proprietors should defiay 
the entire expense attending the iastruCilon of the Natives. I am one of those 
who Consider t|kat the community at large, bo h Engl sh and India, ought to 
bear a shAre of that expense. I am therefore glad to hear of the present made 
by tbe Bri;lsb- Indian Society of the philosophical apjjaratu$, alluded to by 
tb^ learned Ddctor (Dr. Gilchrist) to the Anglo-Indian College 

I beg leave to eay a few weirds Mtattve Co the late Ut. Jameson, witb wbem 
I had Ihe ittmcmr to beaeqaainted. Those who did not know fbaft i^tlemaa 
might be led to Juplieee tiiat ilia aeeeptanoe of the oAce of enperiiltendeaf of the 
ins itatloQ w.is a job, but those who at all knew him woukl bear tes-imony 4o 
the Act, that be was-atfttn ^iMty cxtracwdlnary powe. s, and mi!?ht tberefore 
eoascient oas.y and efficiently undertake to discharge duties which aiiy other 
individual would aink under. 

Sir J. DovLB. — I have to express the satisfaction I feel, that I did not 
leave tbe Court before the hon. Chairman gave his explanation. The atate* 
aeot laade by the learned Doctor certainly mpressed me very strongly, but 
the clear and ample detail made by the hon. Ch Irman has quite delighted 
rae. Whether the ofllce of superintendent is necessiry or no', is a point • est 
koo vn to the Couit of Directors, as they have Ihe best means of information. 
I am glad to find that so much attention has been paid to the extension ot 
education in India, and I cannot let this opportunity pass without expressing 
my approbation of ihi system adopted with regard to that object. 

Captain MAXViiLn.-I am very ready to Vear testimony ^« *^*,P^^7' _!?! 
Dr. Jameson, t-ut still I think it is impossible for any ;"<*^\^'Ij^Uw'^«^ 
tbe duties which that gentleman undertook. But to i» "^'il*^,^?^^ ^? ^ 
one individuril holding various situations in India. What will you a^y or tm 
iadividnal holding two situations, ani living fourteen imles distant irom xne 
spot where the duties of one of them ought to be performed I 

It haa I am awa.e been directed, that the surgeon ^^9^^"^'^ al?o aVaio 
hospital of the insane at Calcutta, shill be resi lent there ; but » "^ •^*^"^ ^{^l 
that those directions have been disoHeyed The """f?^ beinTlhe Ibct that 
hospital is left to take care of itself. So f.r is ^.^^^J^.J^^Bfngal Govern- 
pluralities are not often seen in India, that the records of tne "« «^^^ ,^ ^^ 
meat will show, not only that they aie not uncommon, uu* * 

oniveraal occurrence, 

08 



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106 DebiUe <U the Ea6i India M(m^. 

Dr. GitctiittST spoke at some leo^h In eicplanatloii* Ke liad feared, ta 
the hon. Chaimian had declined on a former occasion to give himao answer to 
a question oa this sal ject, that it vas the intentiaa of the Court of Directors 
to put an end to this institution, without reference to the office of saperintendent* 
^— He had never accused the Court of Directors of not expending a sufficient 
sum for eiucation ; Lut Lord ^mheist, in his address, says, "1 he endowments 
(for (he purpcjse of education,) that h.td accumulated thiough succes ive yeais, 
hare been wholly swept away by public disorganization, and diverted from 
the proper course." Now this charge s^oWed at least, that formerly a great 
deal of money was expended to very littTe parpe^e. Peihaps, said he. Col. 
Liishligton will say whether the stib-assistant sureremiB, spoken of by the 
hon Chaiiman, an I the Nitive doctors are the same? (To 'which Col. L. re- 
plied they were not.) Then have I and thehoh. Th irman been speaking on 
two diffeient points. • 1 cannot help repeating my opinion^ that if a superin- 
ten'fent is net appoin ed to the institution, it will i^eedily sink to nothing, 
beconse wha is every body's business is nobody *s. The Madras esta' I'shment 
does r.ot Vear tbe slightest analogy to the Medidal Institut'oa at Cclcutta. 
V very regin^ent has three or four Native doctors attached to it, and these 
cannot Ve properly educated, unless schools for them are * stablished. Ex- 
cept a fe young men who have gone through my bauds, there is not one, 
savf^ Dr. Breton, who can explain to the N lives, in their own largiiag«>, the 
teims of anatomy and physic. If Lord Amherst had given too large a salary, 
that did not atTord a sufficient reason for getting rid of the office of spperin- 
tende:it. It does rot give me much concern to find that my motion is to be 
met by a direct negative. The Chairman has endeavoured to persuade the 
Court that T wish to cast a censure on the Court of Directors. I ha« e no such 
intention. My only object is to preserve the credit and character of the Com- 
pany, and I am therefore desirous that this Court should act in such a way as 
to induce the people of India to look upon them as a liberal and e<iligh*ened 
body of men. I was happy to bear what had been said in explanation to day. 
A few years ago I might have expected such an explanation in vain, and 
therefore on that account, at least, I have reason to be satisfied. 

The original motion was then negatived, and the amendment uDaoimously 
agreed to. 

The Court then broke up. 



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mi 



mr^tlM ANB tfflilTABV iMTBIiIiIOSMOM. 

CALCUTTA. 

Civil Appointments. 

Fori WiUiam^ Dec. 8.— The Hon. F. J. Shore, As'-i^tant ta the Commis- 
ftlouer in KainaooD.— 10. CapU Alex. Oavidsoo, 13th N. I. Assi ^tant to the 
A^ent to the GoYomor General on the North East Frontier ; Capt. A. White, 
60 b N. I. di to di*to.--29. Mr. J. J. Hai vey. Register of the Zillah Coui-t of 
Ghazcepore.-<-^aii< 6. Mr. «l. Sanford, Senior Judge of the Provincial Courts 
of Appeal and <:ircttit for the Division of Calcutta; Mr. R. Walpole, Third 
Judge of ittoditto ; Mr. lU Oakely, Fourth Judge of ditto ditto ; Mr W. M. 
Flemiag, Seooad Judge of the Provincial Court > of Appe<il and Circuit for the 
Division of Patna ; Mr* J. B. Elliott, Third Judge of uitto ditto. 

MiLITAbV ' Al^POllTniENTS. 

FvH William, Dec. 20.— Lieut. E. F. Spencer, 32dN. I. transferred, at his 
own request, to the Invali'f E^tab. — SO. Lieut. Col. Com. M'Inne*J, 6Ut N. L 
to have rhe command of he Sou.h Eastern Division, v. Biig. Richards, who 
bfti resigoed his cummand. — Jan. 20. Lii!U^ Col. Com. W. Richards, to be 
Coaiaiand.uit of ihe Fortress oi Agra, in the room of Lieut. Col. Com. D. 
M'LeoJ. C. B., who hxsobt ined Furlough to Kurope ; Lieu . G. H. Cox, d8d N. 
L, to officiate as Super' ntendent of Geatlemen^Cadets at Fort W illiam, v. Blake, 
permitted to proceed to Europe. 

Promotions. 

Infantry — Miy. H. W. Wilkinson to be Lieut. Col. in sue. to CoUyer re- 
tired. 

9ikIUfft. N. /.--Cap \ William Kennedy to be Maj. ; Ueut. T^ B. Hender- 
son to be Capt. of a company, and Elns. T. S. Pi ice to be Lieut, in sue. to 
Wilkinson prom. 

S4Cfc Reyt. N. I — ^Bbs. H. Maynardto be Ueut., v. Wilson placed on half- 

S7lk RegU N. L — Ens. A. B. Ogilvy to be Lieut., in sue. to Robe, dee. 

S8d BeffL N. i. — Ens. J. Woods to be Lieut, in sue. to Spencer, transferrrd 
to the Invalid EsUb. ; Ens. A. P. Graham to be Ueut. v. Boileau, dec. 

9Sd Rest. N. /. — Lieut. O. Barker, to be Capt. of a company, and Ens. A. 
F. Tytler to be Ueut. in sue. to Agoew, dec. 

49^ Reat. N. 1. — ^Ueut. G. F. Agar to be Capt. of m comp. in sue. to Mac- 
kintosh, dec. 

OMk Regt N. L — Ens. R. H. De Montmorency to be Ueut. in sue. to 
Lawe, dec. 

Regt. of AftUieiy.'~U% Ueuts. F. S. Sotheby, R. C. Dickson, E. W. 
Hnthwaite, O. R. Crawford, and H. Delafosse, to have rank of Capt. by Bre 
vet. 

Medical Appoimtmkmts. 

Dec. 96.-^As8isf. Surg. J. Stewart, lately attached to service of the Kinr 
of Oode, placed at the disposal of his Exc. the Commander In Chief.— Jan. 0. 
Messrs. Hart and A. Reonick, surgeons, appointed, temporarily, tododaty as 
Assist. Surg, on this Estab.— 20. Assist. Surg. J. Innes, to be Residency 
Surg, at Malacca ; Assist. Surg. F. 8. Matthews, to have Medical Charge of 
the Civil station of Balasore, v. Barker ; Mr. F. Malcolm admitted to the service 
as an Assist. Surg. ; Assist. Surg. T. Luxmoor, to Le Surg, in sue. to Hardt- 
man, dec. 

RiTlRBMSMTS PBOM THB SSRVICB. 

Dec. 26.— Ueut. Col. J. Clark, 44th N. I. on the pension of his nnk.-^ 
Jan. IS^Uettt. CoL J. J. Leith, 65ih N. L ditto ditto. 



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19a Ctvit and MUitO^ InietUgeHce. 

CADBTS AMIITTEn AlTD PBOMOTBD. 

Dec. S6.— Mr. F. 8. Burt, for Eng. and prom, to Ist. Went.-^. Mr. J. P,' 
Middleton, ^htt, Maivom. tvEMk-^Jsn; flit Mr. Q. RiMtovCavalry, and 
prom, to Cornet ; Messrs. A. F. Macpheraon and H. Spottiswoode for Inf., 
and prom, to Ens. 

FURLOUGHS. 

To Europe.—Dr. Walter OfilTv, lat Menber Medical Board, on account 
of his health ; Assist. Surg. C. B. Francis, on ditto ; Lieut. A. W. W. Fraxer, 
«h L. C. on dUto ; Lieut. R. Steward, 6lh N. T. on ditto ; Lteut. /. Donnelly, 
Idth N. L on ditto ; Superintend. Snrg. Jas. McDowell, on ditto ; Maj. J. C. 
0nmt, 9Sd N. I. on ditto. 

To the Cape rf Good lfojM.*-€apl. W. OuBBipghan, Garrisoa storekeeper, 
for the' recovery of his health, for twelve months ; Lieat. Col. Com. Penny, 
9Sd N. L ditto ditto; Cspt. T. Williams, 9d Extra N. L diMo dUlo; Hbj. 
J. P. Bbileai^ Principal Dep» Com. of OiAiaoee; «mI Mm^. F. Saclnrille, 
55th N. i: ditto ditto. 

BOMBAV. 

MUUTARr APVMITTlCBinrf. 

Bmba^ CMtU, t»ec. 29, lisM.— UmS. Col. Wilson, H. M. 4th Light Bngi. 
\a command Northern Distrieu of Gaaerat. — Jan» 8. Ens. Oil heme, f9d V. !• 
to havecoamiaiid of Local Corpe'ia CandmAh, v. Lieut. MBDJoriLMu.ks, 4m> 

PROMOTIOWa. 

ifVmfery.— Lieut. T. E: Cotgrave, Adj. to ftd Bat. to be Maj. of Brigade to 
Artillery, v. Foy dated l»th Dec. 

/f\/aiUrj(.— Sen. Msj. N. C. Mieiw to be Lieut. Col. t. F. F. Staunton 4^- 
e«toM,.datefl6chJttr;e 1680. 

Ut Europ, Regt, — Ben. Capt. J. Flder^ to be Maj. ▼. Maw dec. ; andLleot. 
O. Waller to be Os^. V. IVyhnr, placed on Pbn^/ton List 

MBDICAL APPOINTMENTS. 

. Qec« yfif^Aio^w^ Jbmnm. SMg.Blaek to ollelite as AtsMuit lo CWHaiid 
Garrison Surg, at Surat, in lieu of Mr. Ormand. — 17. Assist. Surg. Pow^,. 
atUel|BA'tQ^44kh JIfcdna N. L, toieBecotednMeir of Cfvil^llrg. at SHofa^rel^ 
%. Sab. Asa si. Stfrg^ Dickflon.tD hawdMme tff aied; dtttfee fA CV>iflpany*8 
cruizer T^raote, lA roomrol Aaa at. (tairg. Fiiltod, it^rted to be ^k.-*-^J«n: 
9. Hurt* ^ Bird to be Besidioey Sufg. at StUten.^S. Assist. Surg. W. 
Eiskiue to be Civil Surg, in JUt^ar;' «id AsilM. Bur)(. H. Jottnaftone to 
bo df U SMfi^ Bi ^Hiorak 

n%m axvBA uoixBiftf . 

Stores. Gntrsv, Jmi. % 1M6«— Tlie hon. the GoTemorin CotracO harfoK; 
resolved that four extra regiments of Native Idfantry shall be raised for the 
service of this Presidency, tfpMUed to reonest thM the offlcer commanding 
the anny in ebief will give the necesMry oraersfor thetr imnfedlkfe fbrmafton. 

Each reg'ment to ooiieiBt often companies of the sane strength and* estB- 
bVshmeaU'in all respeeis (ezfieptiog the SofopOBn oOeeiv and'sabldar'miljor) 
Bft a reg^ent of Native InTatitcy of the liae* 

Each regiBMAt will ho eomamoded by a CspUdn Contneoltot, wiih oim 
A4iataBt, ono QinrieB-Maalrir, loBerprater, and ftfituikter/ being' sBAi^tettt 
oi&e rs. 

The extra regiments will be raised at the following sUt'ons, — ^viz. iBt ex- 
tra regt. at Pslamcottah t MLoBtni t«|^; at BBBgalMre ; n extra regt. at Cud- 
dajrah; 4th Bstra regt at EUora. 

The hen. the Governor in CoiiQfiJirB]llo4lt«etB, tbkt tho eiCfB ngts* shell b« 
paid, clothed, and equipped' in tiie some manner bb the regnlBr legtB. of thig 



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GkfU tM(t Httik^ fntetUgenci. IM 

mM^tltumi, iM^it^tMtihMtibigm€M tAd itafr IhaTl draw the Hme 
stiff* pay and allowances as the officer commandtdg and thd re|fiiii6tttal eokn- 
■tfsakAed staff of a legular ragti af Natite InilMitry . 
Appointments. 

\U Extra Regt,N. /.— Capf . J. Leighton, 27th N. I. to commaiid ; Utn%. 
F. J. Warrea, SOih N. I., to be AcQ. ; and Lieut. H. L. Hanrb, Iblh N. 1., to 
be Quart. Mast., Interp., and Paymaster.- 

2d XMa^-^-Capt. >V . Btawart, 9d KuropeaQ regt., to coftunand ; Lrent. O. 
HaiPBoad. fiOth N. I. to be Adi. ; and Lieut. \¥. G. T. Lewis, 46th N. L, to 
\te Quart, MaM., Interp., and Pay mast. 

3d Ditto, — Capt. A. M'Farlane, 16th N. I., to commaod ; Lieut. G. La^an^ 
41st N. L, tobe Adij.; andLieaL 4. FUzgiarald lo b6 Qeart. Mast., Inltfrp., 
nd Paymast. 

Uk i>t^o.— Cpcpt. H. Kyd, 9d Etirop. regt., to conMBand ; Liout. W. R. A. 
Freeman, 45th N. L, to bie Ad}, i and End. F. finsor, 47th N. I. (o b)b ^ttan. 
M.st., Interp., and Pay mast. 

KING'S FORCES IW IVDIA. 

IFrom the Indian Oag€ttei.'i 

Appointments. 

Head-qnarten, Camp h(fore Bhurtpoor, Dec 11. --Lieut. Ahrouty, Utb L» 
DragSo to be Aid-de-c mp to Brig.-Gen. Sletgh, y. Maxwell, proceeding on 
Sick Ceiti^cate, ; and Lieut, the Hon. J. Amherst, to be Extra Aid-de-eaipp 
to Maj.-Gen. Nicoll9.--Sl. Capt. Wetherall, IS^h L. Drags., to be Extra ^^id- 
de-camp to Maj.-Gen. Sir T. Pritzler.— Jan. 9. Lieut.-Col. McGregor, ^.h 
Foot, to act ^A Adj.-Gen. of tt. M. Forces in India, until the arrival of 
laeut.-Col. MacdonaSd ; to take effect from the sailing of Maj.-Gen Sir T. 
M'Malioa, Bart 

BasvBT Rank. 

The undermentioned subalterns of fifteen years* standing, are to take rank of 
Capt. by BieTCt. in the East Indiea^onlyi— Lieut. J. M'Dermot, l4th Foot, 
from 13th Dec. 1825 ; Lieut. T. B. M. Sutherland, from 41st Foot, from 2Sd 
Aug. 1885 ; and Lieut. R. C. Newman, from 14.h Foot, from 28th Sept. 1625. 

Promotions. 
[From ti^ London Gazette. '\ 

18»h tt* Drag*, — W. J Hooper to be Cornet by purch. v. Evered, prom«. 

Mh tkfto. — l>m. W. Van, flom Cape Corps, to be Corn., v Brownv 
prom. ; IT. F. Bonham, to be Corii. by pui ch. v. Penleaze. 

\$t Foot, Capt. C.S. Hopkins, to be JStaj. by purch., v. GIotcf, prom. ;: 
Lieut. W. Carter to be Capt. by purch., v. flPopklhs ; Ens. HI W. Xe^ille- 
t6 be tieut. by purch'., v. Cross, prom. ; W. B. J^ohnstori to be Ens., v- 
"H^ood, dec. 

Wi Ditto. L-eut, W. IT. HiU> from halT-pay Uth Fool, to be Uei^.^ r. 
BfO^een, u»p. to 4ith Foot. 

\2tk Foot. S\. G. Cromie to be Ens., by purch., t. Browne, prom, in 4Uh 
Foot. 

XUk Foot. J. May to be EUts., y. Layard, prom. 

44^A Foot. Lieut . S. McQueen, from 6th Foot, to be Lieut., t. E. H. CUrka, 
who retiie^ on half-pay. 

45Cif Foot, Lieut. W. Trerelyah, fh>m Engineers, tt> be Lieut, v. Reamey, 
app. to 86rh Foot. 

472& Foot, Lieut. P. J, Dbufflas, ftoxa half-pay 0'h Foot, to be Lieut., v. 
Wal%er« whose epp. has not taken place ; J. B. Wyatt to be Ens., r. Wyatt, 
K^d resigns. 

ma Foot. Capt. J. Amaud, from half-pay 84th Foot, to be Capt., T. J. Gray, 
wbo extJiailg^s. 



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MO Births t Marriages ^ and Deaths. 

erikPpoL Brev.^Col. N. Biinlaiii« flrott hidt^pf \Uh VooU «o to LieQt,« 

.Co)., ▼. R« Gubbini, who exchanges. 

eotk FooL Lieut. £. Hopwood, from half-p«.y, to be lieot., Y< the Hob. 
R. King, who exch., rec. ditf. 

69M Foot. Lieut. T. G. Twigg, from half-pay 18th L. Drags., to be Lieut., 
replying diif., v. Pi^rk, app. to 81th Foot. 

97th Foot, Eds. T. R. Travers to be Lieut, by purch., t. Maires, prom. ; 
C. Nugel to be Kns. I y purch., v. Travers. 

. Ceylon RegU Lieut. A. Montresser, from 79tb Foot, to be Capt. by purch. 
▼. AuLer ; Lieut. R. G. Davidson, fiom half-pay 99.»h Foot, to be Lieut., t. 
Nowlan, app. to ISth ; J. Woodford to be 2d Lieut, by purch., y. Van Kempen, 
pi'om. 

Allowed to dispose of their Half-pay. Lieut. G. Hagar. 46th Foot ; Lieu*.- 
Col. C. Maxwell. 30 h Foot : Maj. >% . Stewart, ditfo ; Cnpt. D. Grahame. 6th 
Foot : Mai. D. Gregorson. 81 t Foot: Cnpt. A. Pi ole, S3d Foot ; Capt. J. H. 
Holland, e9ih Foot ; Lieut.-Col. W. PerciTal, 67th Foot. 

Mbi>ical Appointmbnts. 

Iff Foot. Assist.-Surg. W. Ballon, from 8d Royal Vet. Batt., to be Assist.- 
Surg. 

9d Foot, Hosp.- Assist. T. Atkinson to be Assist.-Surg., t. Campbell, 
prom. 

\3th Foot, Assist.-Surg. J, Paterson, from 45th Foot, to be Surg., t. 
H. Hamilton, who retires on half-f^ay. 

CefUm Refft, IIosp.-Assist. W. Lucas to be Assist.-Surg., t. Williams, 
i^p. to Sd Foot. 

FURLOUOHS. 

To Europe : Lieut. Domiithoroe, 44th Regt., for one year, for the purpose 
of retiring on half-pay ; Capt. Waring, Queen *s Royals, for two years, on 
account of his health ; Surg. Alexander, same Regt., for ditto ; BreT.-Capt. 
Patience, 90;h Foot, ditto, ditto ; Surg. Jackson, 14th Foot, for one year, on 
furlough. 



BIRTHS^ MABRIAOBS, AMD DEATHS. 

CALCUTTA. 

Birtht. — Dec. 18. Mrs. L. Sweeting, of a still-born male child.— 89. Mrs. 
J» D. Cruz, of a son and heir.— 31. In London Buildings, the lady o* H. P. 
Rnssel, Esq. of the Civil Service, of a son.— Jan. 7, 1826. At Chowringhee, 
the lady of H. Shakespear, E<;q. of a daughter.— 10. In Fort William, the lady 
of thelate'Gapt. D. Thomas, Superintendent of Government. Cadets,*of a daugh- 
ter.— 19. At St. James's School, Mrs. Platts, of a daughter.— 13. The wife 
of Mr. T. Lawrence, of a daughter. — 14. At Chowringhee, the lady of Lteat.- 
Ool. Com. J. A. Faul MacGregor, Deputy Military Auditor-General, of a 
son.— 16. At Chowringhee, the lady of Dr. W. P. Birmingham, H. M. 87th 
Foot, of a son. — 18. The lady of Colin Lindsay, Esq. of a son.— 19. The lady 
of A. Landale, Esq. of a daughter ; in Harrington-street, the lady of John 
Lewis, Esq. of a daughter.^— 21. The lady of Welby Jackson, Esq. of the 
Civil Service of a son.— 29. The lady of W. T. Berry, Esq. of a son. 

Marriaget, — Jan. 7. George, eldest son of W. Wood, Esq. to Charlotte 
Evans, youngest daughter of the late Col. Brietzoke, Bengal Military Ser- 
vice. — 18. M. A. Lackerteen, Esq. of the firm of Messrs. Lackerteen and Co., 
to Miss J. Dissent.— H. C. Watu, Esq. second son of E. Watts, Esq. late of 
Calcutta, to Amelia, only daughter of the late Mr. J. Weldon, of the H. C. 
Marine. — 21. Mr. L. De Almeyda, fourth son of the late J. B. De Almeydi, 
Eftq. to Mrs. A. M. Rebeira.— 93. £. Maxwell, Eftq. of the Bengal Civil Ser- 
Tice, to Rosina, yoiugest daughter of the late W. Hogg, of Limum, eomOy 



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Birihi, 'Marriages, tM Ueaths. Sai 

6f Afltrdn, %t^.^^ Mr. C: Criehton, to Mrs* D. Peanoii, relief of (to faite 
Mr. J. Pearson ; J. Marshall, £sq. Surgeuro, on the Bengal Establishment, to 
Mrs. E. Lyons, reliet of the late Capt. D. Lyons, H. C. Military Service ; 
J. D. Herklots, Esq. to Miss M. C. Oibsou.— 25. D. M. N. Liddell, Esq. to 
M'ss T. Davidson, third daughter of J. Davidson, of Murrayshire, Esq.-^20. 
Mr. J. J. Carapiet, to Anna, widow of the late A miooo Caspar, Esq 

Dealhi, — Dec. 28. Mrs. L. Carrow, relict of the late Capt. J. Carrow. — 81. 
Mrs, K. Liastcdt, widow of the late VV. Linstedt, Bengal Military Estab. — 
Jan. 1, 1826. H. M. Elliott, Esq. fourih son of the Right Hon. H. Kiliot, iate 
Governor of Fort St. George.-r2. Mrs. R. TT. Money, relict of the late H. 
W. Money, Esq. nged 25. — 3. Mrs. J Williams, relict of the late Mr. C. 
WiHiims, hou^e buiider, aged 42. — 6. At his hou<e at Garden Reach. Col. 
Hes-iag. foimeily attached to the army of Maha Rajah Scindeah. aged 44. — 
8. The Rev. J. P» Warden, Mis'sionaiy, from the Loiidou Mi'tsionary Society, 
aged 26. — 12. Robert Fullou, Esq. late of Mymcnsing, aged 55. — 13. Mr. A. 
Jewell, juiiior, aged 28. — 15. Miss E. E. Swaiiie, daugh er of Thomas 
Swaine, Esq. aged 18.-20. Julia, infant daughter of W. H. Oakes, Esq.— 
88. Mr. C. Jansen, late an iudigo planter, aged 40. 

MADRAS. 

Bir«A*.--Dec. 7. The lady of W. S. Binny, Esq. of a son.— 27. The lady 
of Cap . Maberly, of a son. 

Marriaffe$.—T)ec. 19. Capt. R. S. Wilson, Fort Adj. of Fort St. George, 
to Catherine Alicia, fourth daughter of J. Ewart, Esq. — Jan. 5, 1830. At 
S . Thoma-:*s Mount, Lieut. Midilecoat, Artil'ery, to Miss Hampton. — 25. 
8. Crawford, Esq. of the Civil Service, to H. P. Dyer, eldest daughter of S. N. 
Dyer, Esq. M.D. — Capt. H. Robison, Nizam*s Service, to Mrs. Thomson. 

BOxMBAY. 

Birtkg, — 11. At Colabah, the lady of Capt. Maclean, Queen's Royals, of a 
son. — 31. At ditto, the lady of J. Morley, Es ]. of a son. 

Deaths. — Dec. 20. Mrs. R. D. Pinto, third daughter of Sir Roger de 
Faria. — Jan. 3. At Bycullah, Lieut.-Col. John Ford, C.B. Madras N. I. 

OUT STATIONS. 

Births. — D?c. 1. At Saugor, the lady of Doctor Urquhirt, 4dd N. 1. of a 
daagh'er — 7. At Bellary, the lady of J. Burton, Esq. Garrison Surg, of a 
son. — 8. At Rutnagurry, the lady of Dr. Shaw, of a son. — 13. At Vellore, the 
lady of T. V. Stonhouse, Esq. Civil Service, of a daughter. — 17. At Pnonah, 
the lady of Mig. Hardy, Artillery, of a son.-^I8. On board the H. C. ship 
Jma^ the lady of Professor Craven, Bishop's College, of a son. — 19. At 
Ma^Qlipatam, the lady of Lieut. Codrington, 46th N. I. of a dauarhter. — 25. 
At Fattyghnr, the lady of Lfeut.-Col. S. Nation, Commanding 2Sd N. I. of a 
son.— 86. .\t Malda, the lady of J. W. Grant, Esq. of a daughter.— 28. At 
Delhi, the lady of Lieut. Quart.-Mast. GriflBn, 24th N. L of a daughter.— At 
Meenit, the lady of Capt. D. Bruce, Assist. Com. Gen. of a daughter.— 29. At 
Poooah, the UAj of C. Dacat, Esq. Civil Surgeon, of a son. — 30. At Bhewndy, 
the lady of Maj. Roone, of a daughter — Jan. I. At Cawnpore, the lady of J. 
Wemyss, Esq. of a daughter.— 9. At Tricbinopoly, the Udy of Brig. M^j. 
Maeaeill, of a son.— 4. At Jessore, Mrs. J. B. Lomoss, of a son and heir.^- 
11. At Barrackpore, the lady of C. Govan, Esq. M. D. of a daughter.— At 
Nagpore, the lady of Lieut.-Col. Urlson, Rifle Corps, of a daughter ; at 
Bnrdwaa, the lady of Henry Ricketts, Esq. Civil Service, of a daughter.— 14. 
At Chaademagore, the lady of J. . Bluett, Esq. Planter at Hanskalle, of a 
dsuffhter.— S3. At Trichinopoly, the lady of Maj. Malandaine, S5th N. T. of 
a daughter.— 25. At Midnapore, the lady of Lieut. Shortland, Fort Adj. of 
Fort WiUiam, of a son. 

Jfarria^et^-Dee. 90. At Palmacotah, Ens. L. E. Duval, 27th N. L, to 
Miss J. A. Latter.— 27. At Vellore, Lieut. O. F. Stnrr, lOtb N. L to Harriet 
HiOBMon, fourth daughter of the late J. D. White, Esq. of the Med. Board. 
*-^ao. 8, 1880i Al^^UKtemagofe, Mr. C. F. Pinoetz, to MIm F. Bouchea, 



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sot MrAe, Marriage Md IMKki. 

dtttriiterof Capt. Bonehta, Freneh Naral S^rvice.-^. At Chinwrah, Mr. J. 
OfJyy, of Kislibagiir, llidif o Planter, to MUi JiM BMibow, of Chtaderna- 

JoiiB. — 11. At Chanderntgore, O. E. Hudson, Esq. Atttimey at Law, to Miis 
. E. DeChall ; attd on tame day and at same place, £. W. Hudson, £sq. to 
Jifi»8A.R. DeChall. * 

DeoUt.— Not. ^. At Prome, Ens. G. P. Smlthwalte, 34th N. I.— Dec. i. 
At D poblee, Sonthem Concan, the lady of Lieut. W. F. Allen, 94th N. I. ; 
aeir Prome, LieQt. Southerland, H. M. 41st Regt.-^11. At Prome, Capt. 
W. F. Lewis, Madras Horse Artillery ; on board the H. C. fri^te Hattinj9^ 
oS Low fsland, Lieut. Charles Roye, aged 22. — 12. At Arracan, Assltt. Snrj^. 
Hariison in medical charge of H. M.'s 54th regt.— IS. At Wallajahbad, John 
Anthonv, I fant son of Lieut. G. Brady, 83d N. I.— 17. At Broach, Ueut. 
H. W. Hardle, Regiment of Artillery, aged 21. — 18. At Royapooran, Harw 
riet Lydia, daughter of the Rev^. J. Kindleuger ; t Sea, on board the Sliip 
Camatie^ on his passage to Peiiang, Capt. H. B. Bearborough, Country 
Berrice. — 90. At Anantapoor, G R. Gosling, Esq. acthig head assistant t« 
eoUector and magistrate of 'Bellary. — ^27. At Cuttaek, lient. J, O. Gordon, 
80th N. I. son of A. Gordon, Esq. at Belfast.-^. At Colapore, in the sonthem 
Mahntta country, Lieut. W. Lewis, 4th Regt. L. C. — 81. At Dacca, John 
Carter, Esq. — Jan. 2, 1826. At Trtchinopoly, Anne Caroline, eldest daughter of 
fieuu-Col. Wabab, aged 21 months. 

EUROPE. 

Bi><*t.r-May 4. At Wimbledon, the lady of Capt. D. M. Daniell, Hon. B. 
1. Company's serTice, of a daughter.-— 6. On board the H. C. ship Prlttcest. 
Charlotte of Wales, on her passage from Bengal, the lady of Captain R. H.. 
Hneyd, of a daughter.— June 10. At Jersey, the lady of Maj. Gen. Sir C. 
Hallcett, of a son. — On the 16 h March, at sea, on board the H. C. sh'p the 
Farquharson, the lady of Cloud Qneiros, Esq. of Singapore, of a daughter. 

Menriaffet. — *pril 24. At Carlisle, Sir G. G. Aylmer, bart., of Donadie 
Castle, county Kildare^o Maria, eldest au^te^* of the late Col. J. Hodgson, 
Bengal cstab.'— 26. At Paris, H Harri^', ESn. crtf St. AudrieV, Somersetshire, 
to Agnes, daughter of A. Rntnstty, ' Esq. fomierlv of the E. f. "CompanT'ff 
Civil Seryice.—May ll.^At.Seu h Brent, Capt. E. Herring, 67 h Bengal N. 
L to Charlotte, 2d daugher of >V. Lee, Esq. of Glazebrook house, Devon. — 
17. Capt. H. Carleton, of the Bc'Dgal army, to ]£liza, 2d daugli er of J. Cos- 
sart, Esq. — June 1. \i the new chuich, St- Mary-le-bonc, Capt. G. Probyn, 
of the £. L Company^s tier vice, to Alicia, daughter of Sir F. W. Macnagh en, 
late one of his Majesty's ju^es of the Supiinie Court in Calcutta. — io. At 
9t. Pancras nevchuich, Mr. C. logram, of the Hon. E. I. Company's service, 
to Miss A. E. Biidges of nijc^gite.— -15. At West Lodge, Elgin, C ipt. C A. 
Muuro, of the Hon. East India Cainpinv*8 Military servioe. to Lacy KVza, 
eldest aughter of Maj. J. Jones, of the same service. — 17. At Cbeshunt, 
H rts, Mr. F. Joyce, to Jane, $3 daughter of he 1 tte J. HiU, Esq. of the East 
India House.~-Lately, at B istol, Lieut. Thomas Cleaden, Ig. L N. S., to 
Faany, youngest daugber of the late Thomas Bower, Esq. of that c ty^. 

Deottf.— March 21. At St. Aubin's Jersey, Maj. John Mdrii, «i Gr. Birgt. 
Bombay estab.— April 16. At KanAll, connty of FUb, JMin Brace, finq. 
author of '' Annals of the E. L Company*s Pkns fdh-tfae goirerniieat af 
British India,** dre. &c.— May 2S. At Warfleld, Berica, Satab, reliet dt Xhk 
late S •mnei de Castro, Esq. fonnerly of Madias. — Jane 16. Chailot'e, only 
daugh er of the late John ilorrison, Esq. ttf the Bonhay Crfil serviee.— ft. 
la Kinrfford Place. Mig. Gfeo. Ualdane. C. B., in the bervice of the Han. C 
L Company.*^La^f4y, at sea, oa board the JliaiUmnd^ oh her passage 'roK 
Bombay, Lieut. Col. Tacker, Deputy Adjittant General o: the Bombay artsy ; 
At Wa'erloo, Jean Dacosta, t e peasant who was compelled to act As guide- 
to NapoleoA in the memorable banfe of the ISrh Jtme ;'— At Bel«w, the Em- 
press Ellcabeth, rcAict of the late Emperor AlezaiAler;— At Biftibbufg, in 
France, Cathettne, eldest danghfcr of the lata Lieut Oaa. Deabor^-^ '^ 
the 0«li April, at aea; on boM.tlie ft. C. Mp ma Faitqalafaas, 
Infimt daughter of CUode Queiros, Esq. of Singapore* 



Digitized by 



Google 



tm 



■KXP»INO XNTBUbIO£N0&. 



May 97 
May «7 
May fiO 

May SO 

June $ 
Jaae 5 
Jane 5 
June 5 
June 5 
Jane 7 
Jane 7 
June 8 
June 9 
JuQp 9 
June Q 
June |5 
June 15 
June li^ 
Ji*oe 10 
June 19 
June 19 
June 19 
JHoeSQ 
Jane SO 
Jane SO 
Jane 9l 
Jttoe 91 



1990. 
Jan. 9 
Jan. SO 
Feb. 6 
Feb. to 
Mar. dS 
April I 
AprU 5 



ARRIYALS FROM EASTERN PORTS. 
Port of Animal. Ship's Nine. Commaiider, Place of Peput. Pale. 



Portsmouth 

Weymouth 

Portsmouth 

HdToet 

Portsmouth 

DoDins 

Po:t5mo\ith 

Offl.ofWight 

Off the Start 

WeymoutK 

Weymouth 

Liv rpool . . 

Portsmouth 

LWeqjool . . 

04r Dover ., 

Off^iili^hton 

OiTppyer .. 

Li?eip6ol ,. 

OiT^iightpD 

Portsmouth 

Portsmouth 

Ports|noutb 

OflfLofWight 

Otfl.ofWight 

Weymouth 

Portsmou h 

Off Briybton 



Buckins^hamnhire 
Prin.Chailotte 
Guildford . . 
Wilhelroina . . 
Windsor 
Ld.Hungerford 
Bombay 
Coldstream . . 
Palppibenj? .,. 
buke of York 
M. Wellngton 
Columbia 
David ^cott . • 
Perscveraoce 
Spring . . 

Madeline 
EipUy 
Alffpi 
Victof y 
Kingston , . 
Saab 
Jnlie 

War. Hastiiigs 
War. Hastings 
Eliza 
Maitland 
Albion 



Olasspoole 
Biden 
Jolmstone. . 

Hayiside . . 
Talbert . . 
rbarritie .: 
Hall 
Hyde 
Locke 
Blanshard . . 
t'hapnrian . . 
Tborahill . . 
ProwQ 
Newman .. 
Hayes 

l^unb .. 

Farquharson 

Bowen 

I'ucker . . 

KeuU 

Rawis 

Alason 

Sutton 

btudd 

Weller . . 



6 



.. Jan. 24 
.. Jan. 1 



China 
China 
Bengal 
China . . 

China . . Jan. 16 

Bengal .. Jan. 6 

China . . Jan. Id 

Bengal .. Jan. 2 

Ba^avia . . Jan. 6 

China . . Jan. 30 

Cbini .. Feb. 9 

Bengal . . Jan. 16 
Bengal Dec. 99, 1895 

Bengal .. Jan. 90 

Singapore Jan. 91 

Ceylon . . Feb. 
BaUTia . . 

Bombay Jan. 10 

Bengal .. Feb. 4 

Bengal . . Jan. 98 

Bombay Jan. 9d 

Singapore Feb. IS 

China . . Feb. B 

Bengal . . Jan. 4 

Bengid . . Jan, 99 
BombayDec.98,1896 
Bengal Dec. 99, 1695 



ARRIVALS m EASTERN PORTS. 
Port of Arrival. Ship*a Name. Coainiauder. 



Bombay 

China 

Madcas 

Ceylon 

Cape 

Capfj 

Bt. Helena 



Triumph 

Orient 

Besaurce 

Clyde 

Hope 

CoTentry 

New Times 



Oreen 

White 

Tomlin 

Munro 

Burns 

Purdy 

Clark 



1826. 

n% 

Jane d 
J one Q 
Jone 7 
June 9 
June 9 
June }Q 
Jane 10 
Jane 18 
Jane 14 
June 14 



DEPARTURES FROM EUROPE, 
port of Deport. Ship's Name. Commanoer. 



Deal 

Stockholm . 

Deal 

Deal , 

ipQr^iRoutb 

PlyipQUllji 

Deal 

peal 

Deal 

Deal 

Deal 

Deal 



^arah 

Calcutta 

H^ros . . . 

Prince R^ent 

Hppe 

Success 

Hannah 

Ann oc Amelia 

Asia 

Boyne 

Asia 

Lord Ambem 



Miller 
Molten 
totherlngham 
Richardson. . 
Flint 
Stirling 
f*hepheffd . • 
Ford 
Stead 
Pope 

Balderson •• 
Craigie . • 



PortofDeptrt. 

London 
London 
London 
London 
London 
London 
London 



DeRtinatioB. 

Bengal 

Bengal 

Batavia 

Maui itius 

Madras and Bengal 

Maur'tlns 

Bonibay 

China 

China 

N.S.Wales & China 

Madras and Bengal 

China 



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zed by Google 



204 



Shipping InielUgence. 



Dttc 
JuDe 16 
Jane 17 
June 19 
June 80 
June 80 
June 20 
Jane 81 
June 29 
June 28 
Jane 23 



PMtofDeptrt 
Deal .. 


Sbip'tName. 
John 


OMDmaader. 
Dawson . . 


l>e>tiDtUoD. 
Bengal A Maoritius 


Deal 


Royal George 


Ellerby . . 


Bombay 


Deal 


Corsair 


Petrie 


HingaDore&ftlaailla 


Deal 


Francis 


Heaitl 


Deal 


Florentia . . 


Oldham . . 


Bengal 

Madras and Bengal 


Deal 


Atlas 


Hunt 


Deal 


Monmouth . . 


Rdifhill . . 


Bengal 


Deal 


James Sibbald 


Forbes 


Deal 


Hercules 


Vaughan . . 


Madras and Bengal 


Deal 


Malcolm 


Eylis 


Bengal 



GENERAL LIST OF PASSENGERS. 
PiissENGEBs Outward. 

By the Malcolm, CapUin James Eyles, for Bengal : Sir J. E. Colebrooke, 
Bart. ; Lady Cnlebrooke : Miss H. Stewart : Mrs. Col. Waters ; Mrs. Carle 
ton ; Miss Smith : Major Littler. Bengal N. I. : Capt. Carleton. Bengal Art. ; 
Capt. J. Smith, Bengal N. I. ; Capt. O. Scott, ditto ; Capt. 6. Jenkins, ditto ; 
M. Ffrench, Est. barrister; C. M. Caldeco't, Est. ? Mr. J. H. Mavnw ; Mr. 
E. S. Mackay ; Mr Wm. Cox ; Mr. J. 8. Alston; Master Thos. M. Ffiench. 

By the Buekinghamikire, from China: — J. Fowler, Esq. ; T. J. f?e Pagna, 
Esq.; M. Thersild, late 6th OWcer of the Royal George; M. Tighe, late 
H. C. 8. Latrtker CaxlU ; Mrs. Cclebrook and family ; Mr. and Mr?. Hem 
mini? and family ; Lieut. Treasdale, H. M. IS'h Light Dr'gs. : Lient. Trowaid, 
H. M. .\5tKFool: Messrs. Gre^'tham end Ives, late of the Pcrser r ranee ; Mr. 
Partridge, late of the Lotrther Cattle, 

By the Madeline, from Ceylon : — Mr. Mead. Ordnance Store ; Capt. Wil- 
li'vro^ H. M. 16th Foot ; Lieut. Grant, do. : Mr. Rodi.ey ; Mr. Oswen : Rev. 
M. Galloway, Wesleyan Missionary ; Mr. Roarh. Surgeon : Masters Renny ; 
Lieut. Shepherd, froni the Cape ; Mrs. Gastin, died at the Mauiitius; Misses 
Casti.is, left at the Cape. 

By * the Bombajif, from Ch'na: — His Excellency and Lady Baron Vander 
Capellan, late Go ernor of Netherlan-^s India ; Baron- R. Van der Capellan ; 
Col. and Aid-de-Camp to His Excellency. 

By the Cambridge^ for Madras and Bengal, Capt. Barber: Capt. and Mrn, 
Grove, and Capt. and Mrs. Lang, H. M. ISth Dragoons; Mrs. Keymer; 
Mrs. Thoranon ; M'-ss Torrane ; Miss Drew ; Capt. Drew and Lieut. Taylor, 
Ma Iras N. T. ; Lieut. Tiincomb, and Kns. Daintry, H. M. 5Mh regt. ; 'Ens. 
Bui rowes. Greg?, H. M.SOth regt; E is. Donnellan. H. M. 48lh regt.: Mr. 
PoMe, Assist. Suig. ; Messis. Gomm. Kenny, GrouLe, Durant, Gordon, Doug- 
las, Grant, Manly, and Mayhew, Cadets. 

PilSSENGERS HOMSWARD. 

By the Prineewg Charlotte of fValet, from China:-— Mrs. M. Cleave ; Mrs. 
MacDowall ; Mis. J. Sneyd; Mrs. H. Sneyd; Mrs. Atkinson; Mrs. >%eb- 
ster ; Misses Russell and Patterson ; Lieut. Com. D. Macleod, C. B. ; J. 
MacDowall, Esq., Superin. Surgeon ; Surgeon J. Atkinson : Major J. C. 
Grant. 22d regt. : Capt. J. Pritchard, H. M. 47th regt.. commanding the 
Invalids ; Capt. Walker, 7th regt. N. I., die 16th March. 1626 : G. Malcolna, 
Esq.; J. Pil'ar, Esq.; Miss MacDowall ; Masters Sneyds; Misses Sneyda; 
Masters Atkinson ; Miss Fare ; Ma&ter Lockett ; Miss Chase ; Maatetf 
Chase. 



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THE ORIENTAL HERALD- 



No. 32.— AUGUST 1826.— Vol. 10. 



CONSIDERATIONS ON THE RELATIVE DUTIES AND iNTEREfiTTS OV 
MOTHER COUNTRIES AND COLONIES. 

In reviewing the vi^rlous featares by which England is distin- 
guished from all other nations of the earth > there is not one more 
striking or more important than the vastness of her distant pos- 
sessions, and the successive conquests and complete ^control which 
the little island we inhabit has established over separate portions of 
the globe, each exceeding in size and population the country, on 
which it is dependent, and forming, in the whole, much more' than 
sufRcient for the colonies of every riation in Europe. If> therefor*, 
it be an object of importance to any people, to understand clearly 
the relative, duties and interests of Mother Countries and Coloi»eS, 
it is pi«-eminently so to the people of England. And yet, it is no 
exaggeration to say, that there is no country in Europe where 
the true policy on this subject is so imperfectly understood ; i<6r 
any country, either in ancient or modern times, that ever behaved 
practically towards its foreign dependencies with so little wsdom 
or so little justice as England. This will be considered, no doubt, 
a bold assertion by some. But we think it will be satisfactorily 
supported by the evidence of fact and reasoning, before we con- 
clude. And that we may reach this conclusion through the pro- 
gressive stages of patient inquiry and legitimate deductions, we 
will begin at the fountain head. 

The universal passion — the love of power— which shows itself 
sjt eVery stage of human life, from infancy to old.age, and in every 
state and condition of man, from the lowest extreme of barbarism: to 
the highest pinnacle of refinement, is alone sufficient to aoommt 
far that thirst of foreign conquest which has, at different periods 
of the world, led men in large bodies, first to explore, and then to 
enslave and bring. under their dominion, countries weaker than their 
own. The " glory" of subduing millions to the will of one,. has 
been th6 only avowed iBQtive of nearly all the great invaders who, 
from time to time, have quitted their own countries to overrun, if 
poKsibJe, the whale habitable earth. Alexander of Maccdmii 
though achieraig more than most of his successors, was but a 

OrienUd Ueraid, Voi. 10. P 



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206 RekUiee Duties and Interests qf 

faithful type of that class, of which, his age and prowess place him 
by universal assent at the head. He did, indeed, for himself, what 
Others of less enterprise fmd energy have teen content to liave 
done for them hy delegation. His desert-marches, his hard-fought 
hattles, and his gorgeous triumphs, were alternately endured and 
enjoyed hy him in person ; so that, if he ffrasped at nniveisal do- 
minion, he did not, like others of less pardonahle amhition, shrink 
from the toils and dangehi by which alone it was to be won. The 
same may he said of his imitators in later times, whether among the 
Romans, the Mongols, the Tartars, the Arabs, or even the French ; 
whose latest and greatest leader. Napoleon, was not content to 
sigh in the voluptuous repose of sovereignty, for " ships, colonies, 
and commerce,'' but encountered cheerfully the perils of battle 
and the rigours of opposing elements, to open himself a path to 
these objects of his intense desire. It is on this principle, and with 
this view of extended dominion alone, that Asia has been so often 
overrun by swarms of invaders from the West and North ; that 
the Roman empire, after being itself built up by the conquests of 
other lands, fell a prey to the Scandinavian hordes; the Greek 
empire, to the wandering tribes of Scythian Turks ; the northern 
belt of Africa, to the Eastern Moslems; and the splendid king- 
dom of Grenada, to the warlike Moors. In this succession of na- 
tions straggling in continual strife for mastery, every portion of the 
ancient world, and much also of the modem, has alternately been 
placed in the condition of master and slave ; the lords of' the uni- 
verse have become the dependents of some power once tnfe^r to 
themselves ; and each. In its turn, has shared the common late of' 
being a colony, an appanage, or a dependency on the will of others, 
seated at a distunce from the spot Itself. 

It is true , that conquest by arms is not the only means by which such 
colonies or dependencies have been formed. The ancient Greeks 
established colonies in Asia Minor and Sicily, which appear to have 
consisted of large bodies of men, dissatisfied with their condition 
at home, from political or other causes, and emigrating, voluntarily 
and in concert, under some leader of their own choice, making war 
on no one, but taking peaceable possession of favourable situations 
for the establishment of infant states,. wherever the soil, elimale, 
and other considerations iadneed them to remain. The R^y^ had 
also other colonies, besides those acquired by eonquest, Ibnaed by 
the occasional separation of certain portions of the popaliitlMi from 
the msan body of the nation, settUng in some, province Of the 
empire, yet still contimiiag subject to the laws by which the other 
portions were equally governed. But the latest, and, on the whole, 
the most remarkable of the modes in whkh colonies have been 
planted, are those which led to the possessions of the British in 
Asia, in America, and in the new continent of Australasia. There 
is something sublime in the spectacle of Columbus traversing the 
Atlantic in search of a shorter route to India, and planting the 



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Mother Caunirhs and Cchmies. 207 

■laadard of hiB loyidty and faith upou the shores of a new and 
hitherto unheard-of world. There is that which commands uni- 
versal admiration in the dariiig spirit of Da Gama weathering the 
tempestuous Cape, and forcing his way through all the threaten- 
ing horrors of an unknown passage, to the '' farther Tnd." But the 
manner in which we English liaTe acquired, planted, and used 
almost all our distant possessions, has in it a mixture of meanness, 
perfidy, and folly, disgusting to contemplate, and the stain of which 
will require ages of good goyernment to wipe away. Religious 
persecution, that most hateful, and hitherto most incnrahle, of all 
Uie plagues by which Uie world has yet been aiHicted, first led to 
the peopling with exiled Englishmen of the wilds and savannahs of 
America. The outpourmg of her jails and dungeons first led to 
the settlement of Australasia with her most incorrigible criminals. 
And the mean and treacherous manner in which our first footing 
was obtained in India, where a ievr merchants, humbly demanding 
permission to build warehouses for their goods on the coasts of 
Coromandel and Malabar, had scarcely entrenched themselves 
within the asylums afforded to them, than they turned the very 
protection for which they had sued, against the power that granted 
it, is not to be surpassed in baseness and ingratitude by the annals 
of the world, rich as they are in every variety of crime. 

If, however, the manner in which we have acquired our distant 
possessioiB be less glorious and less honourable than that pursued 
by other nations, the manner in which we have used these pos- 
seeaions is still more remarkable for its difference. It was the 
boast of the €hreeks, that they carried into Asia a fixed design to im- 
part to the barbarians whom they subdued, the superior knowledge 
and civiiization of the Western world ; and although the Indians of 
that day were nmch higher in the scale of all that dignifies existence 
than we have fbund them in their present more degenerate condi- 
tion, no one can doubt but that a large infusion of useful knowledge 
followed the march of Alexander to the Indus, and that he left be- 
huid him more splendid and more durable monuments of Grecian 
excellence than the altars he erected on the banks of the Hyphasis. 
The colonies of Asia Minor, it is well known, made more rapid ad- 
▼anees in all the arts and elegancies of life than even the mother 
cw mt i y that had planted them. And the state of Egypt, Syria, 
aad the Decapolis, while colonies of Rome, was such as to provfe, 
beyond aU doubt, that so fiEU* from any restrietibns being placed on 
the full development of theur resources of wealth and powef, 
the bluest degree of eiicouragement must have been given by the 
parent eti^, to have brought her oftpring to the proud condition 
is whieh they lived; ^e very ruins of their cities exhibiting, after 
a lapse oi nearly twenty centuries, greater indications of splendour 
and enjoyment, within a square of one single degree of latitude and 
JoBgiti^, tinn is to be found at the present moment in all the de- 
pendeacies of England put together, though these are now consi- 

P« 



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208 Relative Duties and Interests of 

dered to be in the zenith of their prosperity, and present a surface 
of more than a thoosand times the same jeztent 1 
' This almost incredible degree of inferiority to those who hare 
gone before us in the self-same path, as far as the mere possession 
of distant dependencies is concerned, thongh the mode of acqnisi- 
tion and of treatment were so different, ought, one would think, to 
humble the pride of those who so preposterously proclaim them- 
selves to be the greatest of people, and seriously believe their con- 
stitution to be '^ the envy of surrounding nations, and the admiration 
of the world." The folly of our countrymen is not, however, greater 
than their ignorance, in all that concerns the welfare of their distant 
possessions. They know just enough to repeat, in cuckoo notes, 
the thousand times reiterated assertion, that *^ India is the brightest 
jewel in the British crown." But they know nothing of the dark 
and deadly spots by which the lustre of that jewel is bedimmed. 
They defend the separation of the Spanish colonies in America 
from the mother country, on the ground of unjust treatment by the 
parent state. But they do not know that their own conduct towards 
their Colonies in India, is more base, more impolitic, and more 
tyrannical than any ever pursued by Spain towards either the 
Spaniards, or the Indians, of which her American viceroyalties were 
composed : And even with the splendid success of the United States 
before their eyes, the successful revolt of the Haytians within the 
same hemisphere, and the still more striking, as well as more recent, 
example of the whole continent of South America shaking off the 
fetters that bound them in vassalage to their European masters^— 
the English Government, and the English nation, go on in that con- 
tented ignorance and apathy on every question involving the hap- 
piness or durability of their Eastern empire, as if it were a colony 
of the moon, or a dependency of the Gkorgium Sidus, with which we 
had no more concern than with the changes of the temperature in 
those distant planets. Never was there so great a responsilnlity, 
moral or political, imposed on any nation, as that which places the 
fate of a hundred millions of sensitive and intelligent beings in oar 
hands in India. Never was there a trust so lightly regaled, so 
shamefully neglected, so grossly abused ; and, it may be safely 
added, never was the guilt of such conduct on the part of the Go- 
vernment more deeply participated .by, or more justly chargeable 
on^, the people of England, than in this particular instance. When 
abuses of power on the part of rulers occur, and notwithstanding 
every effort of those who perceive and abhor the injustice to redress 
it, the strong arm of authority maintauis its vigour, and defeats every 
mode adopted to obtam relieif, the tyrant and the tyranny may alone 
share the blame. But when, aain the case of India, the moet crying 
abuses, the most "odious oppressions, not only happen, but are pro- 
claimedin every street, and at every corner, and yet those eell-nained 
" faithful sentinels" who affect to live only for the purpose of exposiag 
and resisting the enemies of liberty and nnuikuid, are mate as the 



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ifotker CmMtiM amd Coitmies. 209 

tottgft^lefis slftTe; atid deaf to every call,— -what is the natural, nay, 
the neceMftry canolmion, bat that their apathy add their silence is 
even more eriminal than the deeds of the perpetrators ? For pas- 
sion, and a thousand allurements, may tempt to the one, while nothiiiff 
hat nadve inditiferenGe to virtue and vice, or the most abject ana 
grovelling slavery of soul, oould lead to or even account for the 
other. 

But we must pass from these general reflections, important as we 
deem them to be, to the more detailed consideration of the duties 
and interests of Mother Countries, proposed to be examined in the 
present article. We are aware of the various distinctions which have 
been so nicely drawn between colonies and settlements, classing them 
according to the motives which led to their formation, or the modes 
in which they are perpetuated and governed. But, to avoid all 
ambiguity on that head, we desire to be understood, as meaning, 
by the word Colony, any port, place, island, or continental posses- 
sion, remote from the Mother Country, yet subject to her dominion, 
garrisoned by her troops, wearing the national flag, and governed 
by individuals deriving their authority from the parent state and 
acting under orders received ftY>m thence. This definition will, we 
believe, equally embrace the Canadas, Halifax, Bermuda, the West 
ladies, Gibraltar, Malta, the Cape, the Mailritius, Ceylon, India, 
and Australasia, to the whole of which we think the tenp may 
be equally well applied ; for though there are distinctive differences 
in each, if classed according to the divisions alluded to, yet, in th^ 
great general features described, they are strictly Dependencies or 
Colonies, and come equally within the range of our inquiries. 

In pnrmung these, we shall concede at once, that the duty of each 
is to pursue its own separate interest ; and endeavour to show, at 
Uie same time, that tUs separate interest does not, and cannot be 
promoted by the sacrifice of the other ; but that, on the contrary, 
the interests of each will be best promoted by that mutual inter- 
change of productions, industry, and Mendly assistance, which it is 
as much the welfare and happiness of nations as of individuals to 
cultivate. If we succeed in showing that this is the best mode of 
advancing the interests of each, few will dispute that it is their duty. 
And this point being establiahed, we may pass, if our space admit, 
to the consideration of how ftir the Government of our own country 
has perfoimed its duty, or punued its interests, in the policy observed 
towards our own dependencies. At present, however, we shall con- 
sider the question as broadly and as generally as possible. 

The subject naturally divides itself into two branches, — ^firtst. 
Hie interests of the Mother Country ; secondly, the interests of the 
Cdooy. Bndeavmirmg, aa we hicessantly strive to do, througli the 
mediom of this publicatidn, to advocate the rights and interests of 
tiie wealcer party, which is always sure U> be found in the IMJer , and 
to pomtootthe injustice of the strong«r party, bM invariably found 



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9\9 BekOive BuUes and Jnier^iUi d/ 

Ui thd former, we shotokL hftve been dispoedd to . re?«f«e tbe onbr 
4>f this arrangement ; but thet« are two very powerfid reasons wbiek 
induce us to oppose the bios of .our own inclinatioli m this* par^alar : 
this first isy that the Mother Ck»untry has. almost always been the 
first moving party in the alliance, sending ont to conquer or to oa^ 
jokrto suMue or to seduce, dependencies; but these rarely or n^ver 
sending expeditions to seek the protection of distant or power6iI 
states. The second, which arises out of this order of things, is, 
that whatever can be shown to be the interests of the Mother 
Country will obtain a favourable heaxing in the parent state, while 
the interests of the Colony would be regarded as of very inferior 
importance : so that it is prudent at least, if not indisoensable, first 
to open the consideration of that which may be heard, in order to 
prepare the way for that which, the first point being well estaUished^ 
will the more readily obtain attentiou. 

Supposing, then, the origin of the connection between a pareaft 
state and its dependency to have arisen either out of conquest, dis* 
(^overy, or commercial intercouise, we think it will be admitted that 
in each and every of such associations, it must be clearly the inte* 
rest of the Mother Country to make the Colony, —firsts as productive 
of wealth from its own resource8,'-«secoBdlyi as formidable to resist 
invasion from a hostile power, — and thirdly, as happy and as con- 
tented with its allegiance to its superior,— as possible. 

Without the first of these, it will not only be useless as a source 
of gain to the parent state, (the principal object for which modem 
colonies at least are sought,) but it will be unable to defray its 
own expenses ; and therefore, instead of a benefit, become a bur- 
then to the state. Without the second, it would be liable to be 
easily wrested from its original possessor by any neighbouring 
power, who could thus come into the enjoyment of all its matured 
advantages, without the expense with which the first settlement 
And organization of aU such dependencies must be. accompanied. 
Without the third, it would be in danger of perpetual commotion 
from internal dissensions and open revolt, and either require aa 
overwhelming force to crush every symptom of rebellion before it 
iappeared,or be in momentaJ7 danger of the dependency separating 
itfielf t and carrying with it not merely animosity and a desire of 
?eveog^, but much of the materials of knowledge and war, gained 
from the Mother County itself, and capable of being turned with 
advantage against its oppressor. 

Neither of theee evils can b« avoided, without pursmng the line 
laarked oat, for rendering eolonies pfoductive, formidable, and 
(contented : and as it may be safely assumed thattiie motivea wiHi 
which nations seek colonies, are, to tun them to the utmost aeeotant 
while under their dominioD, aad retain^that dondnioa kftthB grealeal 
length of time, it Is clear that the purpose of the Mother Ccm^ 
Its4f is beet aaavered by ebeerWng the poUcy deeeribed. We 



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MMer ComUriBB md CoimiiM: 211 

l^roeeed tiievefore to oMaider by wtet means these ends can be 
nost qpaedily and effeofcnally attained. 

The riches of every Colony must consist, first, in its agrienltural 
capacity to produce a strrphu in articles of food, and materials of 
manvfhetojne^ beyond the wants of its own population, which mnst 
of course be first ^d, clothed, and fnmished, from the productions of 
their own country, before there can be any to exchange for foreign 
commoditfes^ or to form a sarplns, in the shape of wealth, of any 
kind. Bat this capacity of production, beyond the wants of the 
imme&te population, although an indispensable ingredient, and 
indeed the foundation of ail national wealth, is not the whole that 
is requisite towards its formation. Under a certain state of know- 
ledge and goyenunent, Egypt, whose capacity to produce has never 
altered, conld maintain little more than a million of human beings : 
under another state of intelligence and rule, she could sunport as 
many as fifteen millions on the banks of her own majesnc river, 
and pour out her horn of abundance to feed surrounding nations 
besides. Under the theocracy of the Jews, the rocky hills and 
burning plains of Palestine maintained a teeming population in 
affluence, and afforded a vast surplus for the richest commerce 
that belonged to ancient days, when Tarshish, Sidon, Tjre, Aradus, 
Ezion-geber, and Ophir were marts of commercial opulence, hardly 
surpassed in modern times. These, to say nothing of Sicily, 
Oreece, and Mauritania, each in their day the storehouses and 
granaries of the ancient world, are all now as much distinguished 
ftir their unp roductivenees and abject poverty as ^ey were formerly 
for their fertility and wealth : while the small iskind we inhabit, 
wliiefa in the time of Cassar coald be accounted as little better 
thaa a barbarous country, just capable of maintaining it own popu- 
lation, without shil] in agriculture, and manufoctures almost nn« 
kaofwn, has advanced even more than the countries already named 
have receded ; being able, at the present moment, under any toler- 
ably just and intelligent system of government, to grow and pro^ 
eure^ by the sale of her skill and labour, sustenance enough for 
dovble iier present populaMon, and to funiish articles of clothing 
and luxnrioiiB enjoyment to the whole civilised world 1 And yet 
ft IS undeniable, ihM the mere eapadtgof the spil to produce 
Asterials of food or manufocture hB» not decreased in the couih 
tries wldch have fiillen into' such abject poverty, nor increased in 
Mb, wliich haft risen horn lean and hungrv barbarism to a pampered 
plethora of wealth, in the same period of time in which otkev 
natkttislMm) been as rapi<tty declining. The soil, the climate, the 
mers, the shores, the valleys, and thehills, remain as before. Bven 
the ntuaerical strength of the population has not much tfltiNred : or, 
if It Imm, it is clear that any increase of this beyond a just pnn 
portMni to the sustenance requhred for their subsistence, would be 
tayttfioae n^her than b^nefiebl : as the stationary, or ra(^r, retro- 
ftM6a(r s«ate of Chhia, with its 8M,l9e6/)00 o€ hihabttants, wiU 



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212 Relaiive IJtuUea amd Iniereate 0/ 

prove. But, since it ia neidier aa inoreaaed nor decseased eapaeiiff 
of production which has caused these stapendoas and appalling 
changes in the fate and condition of the soTeral countries we have 
named, there must he other causes; and these, we conceive, will he 
found aloac^ in an alteration in the state of knowledge, and of 
liherty to apply that knowledge to the promotion oif the general 
good. It would be easy, indeed, to construct a scale, hy which it 
might be shown that wherever knowledge and liberty have oecreased, 
th^re nations have proportionately declined ; and wherever these 
haVe increased, nations have proportionately advanced from the 
station they held at any given period. It is only necessary to 
name America, England, and France, in support of the latter 
position ; and Greece, Italy, Portugal, and Spain, in illustration of 
the fonner. If, then, it be admitted that it is the duty and the in- 
terest of the Mother Country to make the Colony as productive of 
wealth from its own resources as possible; it has been shown, from 
the experience of history, as well as by reasoning, that the only 
way to do this, is, not merely to admit freely, but to encourage, to 
invite, and to reward, the introduction into the Colony of as much 
of the skill, capital, and enterprise of all other countries as can 
be procured, but more especially from the Mother Country itself, for 
the purpose of improving, by the free and vigorous application of 
aU Uiese, the natural productions and artificial manufactures of the 
country, so as to make it, instead of a burthen, a source of happi- 
ness to itself, and of wealth to the parent state. 

Next to:the wealth of the Colony, we consider it important that 
it should be as secure aa possible from foreign invasion. The 
detailed plana by which this can be best effected, will of co«irse 
differ greatly according to the size, situation, and deseriptton of 
the poaaeasion itaelf, whether insular or continental, large or amall, 
nearer remote. But this at leaat may safely he assumed as a general 
rule, applieable alike to every variety of case : namely, that the 
Colony shosld be as thickly peopled as its resources will admit, with 
persons either bom in, or directly descended from, the Mother 
Country,' and strongly imbued with national attachment, and sen- 
aibility to national defeat or diahonour ; that theae alao, in addition 
to the bond by which patriotiam alone would bind them, ahonld 
have a deep peraonal and pecuniary intereat in the Sipil and pro- 
perty of the country they inhabit ; so that, in case of invaaiefli, 
they ahould not, like foreign mercenariea or mere aojo^mera, be 
ready to desert their poats at every cry of danger, bat that, in de- 
fending their national honour, or their '^altars"; if these were 
dearer to them still, they should be also defending their '^ hearths*' 
and: their '^ homes'* with all the energy and firmneaa with which 
men of every race will shield the partners of thmr boaoms and the 
effspringof theiraSections from harm. AColony held by a fewmliag 
individuals, unconnected with the great body of the people over 
whom they rule, aad having lor their defendm no feUow-euibieeia 



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3Mker Couniries mnd'CoUmiea. 2 U 

infoeaced by the tle» d«Boribedabovey mvBt be liable to &11 a prey 
to any invader who may be able to tuyi^ the mass of the popalation 
agaiuBt them. Bat that coantry is most secure from foreign 
aggreasioB^ and even from internal revolt, which is most thickly 
peopled with individuals of the same nation, class, and caste, as the 
govemiDg body ; and who, besides the mere inconvenience of being 
driven from one certain »iot to some other not so agreeable, which 
is ail that happens to a defeated army of mercenaries, will, if they 
do not repel their invaders, be despoiled of all their property, and 
either turned destitute on the world, or reduced to perpetual 
slavery on the spot. 

The last in order, and, as far as the cares of Mother Countries 
in general extend, no doubt in their estimation the last also in 
importance, is the duty of making the subject-residents of such 
Colonies as contented with their condition and as firm in their 
allegiance as possible. Without this, we have seen that the 
parent will be in continual danger of losing the services of her * 
offspring ; and the means by which this can be best secured need 
but little consideration to determine. 

If love of power be par eminence the universal passion, love of 
ease may claim to share dominion with it over the heart of man: 
But neither ease nor power can be attained without a free enjoy- 
ment of the means by which wealth, knowledge, reputation, and 
all the other component parts of that expressive quality or attri- 
bute, ** influence," is acquired. If the natural taste of man leads him 
to prefer the breathing free air and drinking pure water, to pining 
in an obstructed respiration, and thirsting for that which he cannot 
obtain, it needs no prophet to foretel that he will regard with un- 
friendly eyes whoever may obstruct him in his enjoyment of that 
which is equaUy desired by all. Among the first truths that men 
in a social state discover, and to which in theory universal assent 
is given, (even by those whose practice is at perpetual war with 
sucb an admission,) whether in Mother Countries or in Colonies; 
in savage tribes or civilized communities, are these : that every 
roan should be free to use the powers of thought, motioui 
speech, and action, with which Nature has endowed him, whenever 
by so doing he can benefit himself without injuring another, or 
impeding the legitimate objects of the state ; that property law- 
fvlly acquired should be secured to its lawful posseaaors ; and 
that no man should be punished without a trial by other parties 
titan those against whom the alleged offence is committed* 
These are the first principles of legislation, which the rudest nations 
disoover and act upon in their intercourse with each other, in all 
cases in which tbci tyranny of some oae man does not substitute hia 
will for reason, and hia sole mandate for law. But even then, the 
violation of these simple maxims is soon perceived, and breeds 
in Iho hosom of ^ iigared, vengeance against their violators. 



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By ascertaiiiiflig' first what we ought not to do, the wny is dear 
to* the discovery of what we oaght to do. And in the present 
hiotaome, we acoordihgly percaiTe, that the surest way to make- the 
fnhabitants of any colony contented wi<fi their eondi tkm and faitUbl 
in their allegianeei is to admit them hy graduated ranks t& a par* 
tieipation in the power of goremment ; — to assinulate them as 
much as possiMe to the goreming body^ in iitfoi«iMon, halnts, 
freedom^ inflaenee, te. ;-~to giro the utmost scope for the free 
enjoyment of all the means that may offer for the improvement of 
their property and condition ; — ^to make that property, under all cir^ 
cumstances, secure to its lawAil possessor; — and so to rule them witii 
mildness and equity, and by the smallest possible amount of con- 
tributions on their industry, that on a comparison of their con- 
dition with that of every other colony or country on the globe» 
they may be convinced of the superiority of their own state, 
and be disposed, from that conviction, to reject every offer, and to 
resist every temptation, that might be presented to draw them from 
their allegiance. 

To recapitulate :— We have endeavoured to show that theJirH 
duty of a Mother Country towards its Colonies is to make them 
highly productive, by a full development of all their resources, in 
order, while it enriches its children, to draw from their industry 
the greatest portion of gain that can be received consistently with 
the prosperity of both ; and that this can only be attained by 
freely admitting, encouraging, and rewarding, the introduction into 
the Colony, of all the capital, skill, and industry to be had from 
every other quarter, but especially from the Mother Country 
itself. That the second duty of a parent state towards its depen- 
dencies is, to make them as formidable as possible to resist invasion ; 
which can be best attained by studding the Colonies thickly with 
subjects of the Mother Country, and giving them a deep pecuniary 
interest in the soil and general prosoerity, as well as in the insti- 
tutions of the land. That the third duty is, to make the Colonista 
as contented and as faithful as possible, and that this can only be 
done by admitting them to a participation in those enioyments 
which idl men desire, and so ruling them that they shall see no 
state or country whose condition they should envy as superior to 
their own. 



Fo sse B Sions that wHl not admit of such meaas of happipsas aad 
allegiaiiee do not deserve to* he retained, and it wmM he iM* 
better to be without them. Mankbd are- beginmng to peroiiv« 
thait€veng«o<i things, in the ordinaiy aoeeplatfon of the phiaaa, 
may be too dearly bought; and ceitainly araokg theM an to bo 
mmibered the costly ooloBiesof different nailotts, and of ov mm 
especially, that may be saidto belt the ear^ and ntmi the sea, so 
ihat the boast of Ffailip of Spainr may be repeated by Ua poyal 
eonsin of England, upon wfaooe damiaioos the sua now never aeta* 



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JMkeir €aimirie9 0i$d (kkntet. tld 

Bttt KisM^ muiegpmAtiau^ii tbtoy could tmich any fMig to mo*- 
d*nL8tete8men, (which anf WM be dpshted,) ought long ago to 
hatt taught the instabOitj-^f saoli greatneas as this, and have 
shown the neaaa hj which these mighty iabiies of distant empire 
were destroyed. Nineveh the great, and Babylon the qneea of 
nations, are undistinguishable heaps of dust. Thebes and Memphis 
are without a habitable tenement remaining, though their gigantic 
temples and everlasting pyramids still indicate their former splen- 
dour. Tyre and Carthage, the mother and daughter of maritime 
commerce, are no more ; and Palmyra, the most splendid triumph 
of the industry of man, in turning the barren wilderness into a tra- 
velled way, and making the arid desert fertile with the streams of 
human industry and enterprise, though it lives in its magnificent 
remains, a theme of admiration to the end of time, sees not a 
human being amid its pillared porticoes, except when a hovering 
tribe of Bedouins may lead their flocks for shelter among the 
fragments of its former glory, or some wanderer from the West may 
come to pay his homage to the memory of Zenobia in the gorgeous 
Temple of the Sun, The Great Mogul, whose splendour was the 
wonder and envy of the whole earth, has not a rood of land to call 
his own, and scarce a shelter for his miserable progeny. The 
l>oge of Venice, who wedded the Adriatic with imperial pomp, 
whose fleets covered the sea, and whose fortresses fringed the 
shores of half the Mediterranean, is an Austrian slave. The 
'^ Portugal,'' as he was termed, whose admirals, generals, priests, 
and merchants, won for him the greater portion of the Eastern 
world, is a mere monk, without a revenue sufficient to maintun 
even the mummeries of his monastery. The " Spaniard," who 
haughtUy styled himself King of both the Indies, is a poor bank* 
rupt borrower, whose splendid empire in the West has been split 
into innumerable independent states, while he is almost reduced to 
beg a bare subsistence ; and America« but late a convict-colony of 
E^land, has, in even a shorter space of time than this, sprung 
from her degraded position as the slave of an arbitrary mistress- 
become the first republic of the world — ^beaten her parent upon 
her own elemeat— extended her commerce to countries unexplored 
by England, and derived even from her trade with Indii, without the 
expending of a smgle dollar for possessioas there, infimtely greater 
advantage than Great Britabi, with aU the enormous load of debt 
with which she has so blindly pu^ehwl^d evto tho htile douhifui 
advantage she flatters herself she at la«t enjoys. 

AU these ehangtoe have taken plaee with Batl6M ttfidjieople ^ 
were not inferior in grsatness to ourselvwi. In philosophy ^^^^ 
wte still regaid the Greeks as our superlore. To *^« ^^^^f '"^i 
tiie eeurage, and the grandeur 6f the Ho^^'^*^^^ SnLlS 
homage. To the maritime enterprise of th^J Venetians, ^^^^ese, 
Porteguese, and Spaniards, of their best days, ^"^^^^^ 
hntet5al;an4aU^^«nii^ 



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2 1 6 RekUive BuHea ahd Inter mU of 

we have notiung in our own hktory that <^aa surpaM the daiin^ 
of Columbus and Da Gama ;<-»^hile the palaces of the Incaa, the 
mines'of Potosi, and the argosies of '^Acapulco/'call up aasociations 
of wealth which nothing in the history of our own acquisitions can 
rival or eclipse. 

Since, then, it is undoubted, that no line of policy has yet been 
observed which could secure to Mother Countries the full advan- 
tages that Colonial dependencies might produce to them, it becomes 
a subject of the highest importance, to a nation distinguished froni 
all others by her vast possessions of this description, to inquire 
wherein the Government of this country has done wisely, or has 
erred, in the policy pursued by her towards her dependent settle- 
ments. She has already lost one, by misgovernment — ^America, 
which will as assuredly sway the destinies of the world as Rome 
did before her. She is about to abandon another — Sierra Leone, 
which it would have been wise never to have founded, since the 
experiment intended to be tried there, needed no peculiar spot for 
such a purpose. There is a third — the settlement in the interior 
of the Cape District — ^which must, ere long, share the same fate : 
while Canada and New South Wales will each, no doubt, become 
independent countries in opposite quarters of the globe; leaving 
India, perhaps, to be the last retained of all the great possessions 
of England at any considerable distance from its own shores. 

If it be desirable — ^first, to make the most advantageous use of 
this splendid dependency, for so it may be truly called ;— and se-* 
condly, to retain those advantages for the greatest length of time ; — ^ 
we think we have shown that this would be best accomplished by 
the means already pointed out. But so far from this being the case, 
the policy pursued by Great Britiun towards India is the very re- 
verse of that which wisdom would dictate in each of the three great 
leading features detailed. It not only does not encourage, h%t it 
igaorantly and unjustly opposes, the full development of its re- 
sources of wealth. It not only does not give it the best secnrity 
against invaaion, but it stupidly prohibits the ingress and settle- 
ment of the only class of defenders on which it could safely rely in 
the hour of danger. And so far from doing any thing to make the 
people happv and contented in their allegiance, the whole course* 
of their conduct is not only calculated to produce, but absolutely 
does produce, such hatred to their dominion, that one of thdr 
best officers and highest authorities. Sir John Malcolm, has publicly 
avowed his conviction, from knowledge, that there is scarcely a 
Native of rank or intelligence in the country who does not long 
for a safe opportunity, and who does not, on all lavonralde 
occasions, do his utmost to ineite his fellow-sabjects, to nm and 
ejEpel from their shores theur odious white tyrants ! These are the 
diatinguished General's own wopds, and this his own Ttdantaoly 
drawn picture ; and c(s he enjoyed an experieiioe of thirty yean ia 



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Mother Countries and Colonies, 217 

the country, with more extended, varied, and intimate intercourse 
with all classes of Natives, than falls to the lot of one English 
officer in a century ; as'he was, moreover, at the time of uttering 
this opinion, an aspirant for honours and rewards at the hands . of 
his masters, and delivered it in their presence at the India House, 
i| can hardly be suspected of being a partially unfavourable one. 

It is high time, therefore, that the Legislature of England should 
appoint a Commission to inquire into this important subject ; or that 
such of the people as have more virtue then their legislators,. should 
form an Association for the purpose of instituting such an inquiry, 
and proclaiming the result. But if both remain silent and inactive, 
pn their heads be the disgrace. We have performed our duty in 
calling their attention to the subject. It is for them to inquire, and 
to execute. One of the most intelligent foreigners that has recently 
visited this country for the purpose of prosecuting his researches 
into what are considered, on the Continent, our superior laws and 
institutions, says, m a letter, written within the present month, from 
the heart of the manufacturing districts : '^ I am more struck than 
I can express with the complete apathy of this couotry relative to 
whatever is done out of its limits. The English never think about 
Greece, which they have doomed to destruction ; nor about India, 
where they are answerable for all the good that is not done." We 
can sympathize with him in his surprise at such criminal indifference; 
and posterity, when they read this as matter of history, will join 
their indignation to our own, that the fates of two such nations, and 
the interests of a hundred millions of oppressed human beings, 
should scarcely excite a passing paragraph in the journals of the 
day, while the fight of a lion at Warwick, the disgusting crimes of 
a hoary hypocrite in lawn, or the death of an elephant at Exeter 
Change, shall occupy the public prints and public conversation of 
the whole country for months in succession ! This it is to be '' the 
most thinking people of Europe" ! Never was phrase so misapplied. 

We shall reserve, for another article, the consideration of the 
second branch of our subject — the interests of Colonies-*«nd endea- 
vour to show, more in detail than we have here attempted, wherein 
the interests of India more especially are. wantonly sacrificed at the 
shrine of the meanest, most selfish, and most contemptible system 
of avarice, supported by fraud and oppression, that was ever aigni- 
fied with the name of Government, or ever disgraced the people of 
a country calling themselves moral, intelligent, and free. 



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iis 



ON 8ELF-INflrnif7CTION. 



Mbn seldom begin to educate themselves, till they feel the want 
of education. But so soon as this deficiency is ezperiencedy they 
who have capacity and courage sufficient to sustain them through 
their undertakiDg, generally strike out some peculiar method for 
themselves, which they consider adapted to their particular circum- 
stances. Perhaps no plan of study taken up after the period of 
early youth could ever compensate for the want of proper instruc- 
tion during boyhood ; but as few things are aU disadvantage, it 
seems that one benefit at least men may reap by educating them- 
selves: they can avoid overcharging their minds with knowledge, 
which they are sure must always remaiin barren and unprofitable* 
Education, in fact, is only valuable in so far as it enables a man to 
effect more completely the useful and honourable purposes of life. 
Every thing that directs beside this aim is frivolous or pernicious. 
Were human life less transient, a great part of education might be 
beneficially deferred till towards the verge of manhood, idien it 
would be possible for an individual to understand his own aims, 
and t6 select such intellectual aceomplishments as might enable 
him to reach them. As it is, however, youth must generally be 
the only season of preparation ; for we enter upon manhood and 
the ' business of life at once, and must afterwards fight our way 
through with the weapons we come first provided with. 

As we seem designed to accomplish certain purposes in this 
world, the first object of education should be, to nourish, invigorfite, 
and enlarge those faculties of our mind, by the instrument^ty of 
which we must, if at all, succeed ; but, as we may haply fail, edu- 
cation, we apprehend, should have an eye to that also, and fit qs to 
bear, on an emergency, the blows and bitterness of fortune. It is 
b this latter part that the method of old Greece and Rome chiefly 
excelled our own. In genius they were not superior to ourselves ; 
bat their institutions were better calculated to call it forth, and to 
give it that loftiness and self-dependence which render men steady 
iuid unrepining in adversity. 

The tendency of public education in this country has, we fear« 
been to exalt knowledge above wisdom, and capacity above con- 
duct; so that many a young collegian, perfectly competent to 
lecture upon the whole theory of ethics, and to demonstrate incon- 
testibly the vast superiority of freedom over servitude, is very often 
found too weak to resist the allurements of incontinent beauty, or 
the hollow bounties and deceitful distinctions held out by the court 
to all able betrayers of their country. The intermeddling of the 
clergy in the business of education exceedinglv contributes to coun- 
teract its beneficial influence. Statesmen and soldien, merchants, 



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On S^f^imhwdUm. li^ 

phywriaiWj iawyeis, Uc^ xequire a kind of knowledge, tnd senti- 
BientSy and habits, which may fit them for action and business, and 
shmUd by no means be tanght to conader any fature period of 
their existeaceas of more importance than the present. The 
^^niT^ however, have been appointed professors of that.poitioiL 
only of morab whidi has a reference to a future state ; of this 
they are the proper teachers, and to their discourses men, tho- 
roughly conTeisaut with life, and desirous of poshing their specu-» 
lations beyond it, should haye recourse. But the state betrays its 
own interest, and encroaches unwarrantably on the rights of its 
members, when it deyolves the task of instructing men in their 
moral and political duties, which have reference merely to ihia 
world, upon an order of persons whose whole science relates to those 
modes of tiunking and acting which befit us for IA« nemi. 

jyi governments that desire pennanence and internal tranquillity, 
and especially those founded on the monarchical principle, should 
monopolise the business of education ; because,. as men declare, by 
caagregatiag togetiier, their earnest desire to hunt after happiness 
in packs, they should be guided by exactly the same scent, and 
trmrt to the nice senses of the foremost. The rack of heaven is 
driven about in different directions before a thunder storm, and po- 
litical convulsions are preceded by contrariety of ideas, and £uc- 
t«ating«nd uncertain motions in the minds of the people. To pre- 
vent these, the monarchies of modem Europe have hitherto con- 
fided in iki» exertions of the clergy, but have frequently been 
thwarted in their views by the fiery headstrong zeal of their in- 
atnaaeiits. For the wdl-meaning enthusiasm of pious men, who, 
for the most part, nSstake the object of their callings very often 
originates in the state a system of thinking, or, rather, of believing, 
wlSsh obstructs the designs of the legislator. 

Bat the most dangerous symptom that can appear of innovation, 
is the propensity of the multitude to educate themselves ! For it 
cannot be deniea that, of all men, such as are self-taught are least 
fitted to bend to power and authority. The reasons are obvious. 
Sach persons, relying upon no prerogatives of birth or rank, and 
owing little to others, are vehemently inclined to be proud con- 
temners of those advantages from which they themselves have de- 
rived no aid, but, on the contrary, have experienced obstruction 
and injury. Besides, chance or compulsion may confer on the most 
ordinary minds the stores of knowledge which are communicable 
by education, but notlung short of genius can snatch those blessings 
in spite of fortune, and appropriate them to itself. All the world 
acknowledge, that for a person, bom in indigence, to nass honestly 
from his original condition to a state of opulence and oistinction, is 
sol vast dificttkv ; but it is trifling c<»npared with that of 
, a mind from the oepths of prejudice and ignorance, to con- 
wilh truth and wiMlpni on the steep heights where they 



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2-20 On Self-Instruction, 

teside. None but very poor men are driven to depend entirely on 
self-instruction ; and such, having the best portion of their .lives 
consumed by labour, which, when it ceases, leaves' them a prey to 
lassitude and fatigue, can only devote to study the spare remnants 
of those days which others give to it entire. If, therefore, they 
produce ^th these scanty means results which others, mth ten- 
fold advantages, scarcely ever do, it is not at all surprising that 
they should entertain a high respect for themselves, and be inclined 
to venerate those qualities only which nature, or her handmaid, 
labour, has conferred. 

At present, all liberal persons are full of the mighty results to be 
produced by universal education ; and it is esteemed a mark . of 
Toryism, or exceeding narrowness of mind, to seem to doubt in the 
least of the saneness of these expectations. For our own part, 
however, we do doubt, notwithstanding. It will be allowed, per- 
haps, by most persons, that while society shall subsist at all, men 
will always be distributed into various ranks and conditions ; that 
these different ranks of men will have duties and labours peculiar 
to their station to perform ; and that it must be for the lasting 
good of society that each rank should faithfully execute the task 
^signed it. Whatever men have to do, they will best perform it 
if the instruments they use be exactly suited to the matter in hand, 
and not to some other thing of inferior, or of vaster magnitude. 
Education is an instrument, or rather, it is that which creates that 
vast instrument-^knowledge-^^by which men operate all the laboiin 
of life. Now, it will hardly be maintained that the education of a 
senator, is that which a wise legislator would provide for peasants 
and husbandmen. The daily labourer would hardly perfoim his 
task the better for being conversant inth Locke or Bacon; for 
having read Shakspeare ; or mounted^ with MOton, beyond tho 
** visible diurnal sphere." On the contrarr, finding a vast dispro- 
portion between his powers and his employment, he would pro- 
bably grow dejected and melancholy, and either quit his life of 
labour for more agreeable adventures, or drag on a miserable ex- 
istence in repining and discontent. la all old legends of necro- 
mancers and magicians, mention is often made of ^inskilful prac- 
titioners, who raise spirits which they cannot afterwards lay. 
Knowledge is a spirit of this kind ; and those who call it forth 
indiscriminately in the people may, perhaps, discover, when too 
late, that they have put a principle in action which in' the end, 
will shatter society to pieces. In fact, we fear that ignorance is 
an ingredient no less necessary than knowledge to the composition 
of a perfect commonwealth. 

No doubt it is very easy to make the panegyric of educatioii and 
knowledge ; but it is not quite so easy to determine the exact 
measure of each which should, be communicated to the people. 
Perhaps, mere reading- and writing ought to be the boundnries of 



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On Seif-Instrueiion. .221 

tbat instruction which the Siaie is interested in diffusing; all 
beTond being most safely left to the taste and inclination of indi 
viduals, who should be allowed the fullest liberty to acquire what- 
ever description of. knowledge they pleased. But there is a very 
wide difference between giving birth to an artificial craving after 
knowledge, and affording to minds naturally noble and energetic, 
the proper facilities for expanding their powers. The latter 
course, we apprehend, would, in the long run, prove most beneficial 
to the people ; incapacity and mediocrity would rarely venture 
beyond the province prescribed them by nature ; they would labour 
contentedly on in unpretending obscurity ; while the fire and en- 
thusiasm of genius would lead it to burst over the barriers which 
fortune places between the different ranks of society, and enter 
into the lists with the proudest and wealthiest of the world. 

It is true, the self-taught man has two childhoods, as it were, to 
jmm through, before he can enter upon even terms into the struggle 
of honour with those to whom fortune has been more favourable ; 
bat when he appears, he comes with virtues and accomplishments 
all his own, with the habit of labour, of perseverance, of over- 
coming difiieuHies. Regular scholars sometimes affect great dis- 
dain for the anomalous acquirements of persons who edneate them- 
selves, because they are les^ methodically arranged, and display 
here and there marks of imperfection and negligence ; neverthe- 
iesB, while these scholars receive their ideas by pre-oi^fai^ed tra- 
dition, and are entitled to little more than the praise of docility, 
the man who gathers his conceptions himself, and digests them 
into order by luis own sin^e capacity, approaches the merit of an 
Inventor. It is pardonable in such a man if he now and then falls 
into error ; his mistakes are the mistakes of a discoverer, for those 
regions of knowledge which he explores without a guide, are, to 
him, as undiscovered countries. 

The transmission of knowledge by the ordinary processes of 
education is ftivourable to uniformity of thinking. There are 
always many points upon which, owing to this, whole nations are 
agreed ; for example, the fundamental doctrines of religion, the 
principles of government, laws, manners, dress. We have already 
said, that men destined to live and act together, ought to think and 
believe as nearly alike as possible. Troth and correctness in 
these things are prettv nearly out of the question. No nation ever 
reduced its creed to tne pure truth ; and no government was ever 
conducted upon the principles of pure justice and wisdom. Yet 
the Mohammedan believes his church infallible ; the Hindoo and 
Chinese do the same ; and the inhabitant of Great Britain considers 
Chnrch-of-£nfflandism and limited monarchy the very essence of 
truth and good government. If it be desirable to preserve this 
belief in all its purity and simplicity, the most effectual way to 
secure this would be, to give the government the 'sole direction of 

OrUniai Heraid, Vol. 10. Q 



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fe» Oil S9if''lnHruciimt. 

education in this country, tlftt it miglit aftz its vignattre to all 
ideas, before they should be pot in circulation ; just as it stampa 
the kind's image upon our money, in order to imprees upon us from 
our cradle the twin ideas of wealth and royalty. 

Persons who act as their own preceptors, are guilty, in some 
measure, of contumacy and rebellion, since they assume a greater 
share of certain good things than the government thinks proper to 
confer on them. It is no wonder, therefore, if such individuals 
grow by degrees to entertain democratical ideas, since they coin 
not their thoughts in the public mint, but set up a petty engine 
of their own, where they manufacture strange and unauthorized 
uotione. To them the veneration with which European nations 
have so long upheld the " monarchical principle" is perfectly un- 
intelligible : they can see nothing particularly wise in shutting out 
.from the hopes of all the great men of a countryy the office of first 
•magistrate, that^^eat aim of ambition and patriotism in rapablicaa 
ooi^ntriea; they comprehend not the utility of maintaiiung a noble 
:ca9ie9 in the Dossession of privileges and immomties which are ao 
inault and a di^adation to the rest of the conununity ; they caa 
•ever be convinced that property, not character, ought to be the 
Indiftpensable quali£catiou of a senator or an elector ; tliey ace, in 
iacU ^ headstrong, intractable kinfl of people, and therefore, no 
40ttbt, it is that the wisdom of Pariiamaat is ooaataotly exerted, 
4£ not to extirpate, at least to confound, to repress, and to coun- 
Utfaot Vhat they deem their peraicioiis and heretical opinions. 



xiNta TO A naSMD who had c<M9Lain8d of latb hours. 

Whbn sinking slowly in the west 
The setting sun invites to rest, 
How sweet to And ny toils are o^er. 
And rigid duty claims n6 more. 

Bat doubly sweet, if, when they *re put, 
To thee, my nuich-loved Friend, I haste» 
To court relief from every pain, 
And find my long-lost. homa again. 

How swift the moments fly along, 
In grave debate, of cheerftil tong^ 
it'fth accent bland, and beaming eyes 
Spell bound, in vain I strive to rise. 

Too late I stt— I own it trae ; 
Yet sorely part the fault 's in yoa. 
While the winged hovrt pass ttms away, . 
Tell laa, my ffriead, who would not Itay 3 



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12«3 



OPTTEIt TO 8UI OHA&Lira FOKB6S, ON THE ADMINIBTRATION OF 
INDIAN ArPAIRe. BY A CIVIL dBRVANT."* 

The public spirited and betieiroleut conduct of the bonotirable 
Baronet to whom this letter is addressed, and the deep and sincere 
interest evinced by him on all occasions where the welfare of India 
and the happiness of its Native inhalntants are concerned, has ne- 
cessarily obtained fbr him a degree of celebrity, which, leading to the 
frequent consequence of being publicly addressed as the principal 
depositary of Indian knowledge and Indian feeling, may not be so 
agreeable perhaps to the individual himself, as an exemption from 
aaeh liability to be called on by every tiombatatit in the field of 
controversy. This, however, is the unavoidable tax of popularity : 
and while Lord Liverpool, Mr. Canning, and other distinguished 
members of the British Government, are made the medium of ad'* 
^xtBSiiAg .sentimeato to the world at large, on subjects connected 
with our European poliey, the oourse eeems fair and natural t6 
aelect some one individual, equally distinguished for his knowledge^ 
axperiencey and liberal feeling, on subjects connected with our 
Indian rule, as the medium of c^ering, to the rest of mankind, the 
n^ntiments entertained by any public writer on our Indian system 
of government. 

The present Is the third occasion on which we have had to 
advert to letters addressed to the same individual : first, the ad- 
mirable letters of a Proprietor of Bast ladia Stock^-oa the Fresdom 
of the Press in India, than .which,, we will ventare.to affirm, a mora 
logical or uaanswerable series of -oaaduslve argittnijsnta, admiraUy 
arranged, never appeared in any puUioatioB on that all important 
sobject ;t Uie second, the letter ifottk the Native Iitehttaats of 
Bombay ;— and the third, the le^er of a jCivil Servant. in JEbiglaad, 
the content^of which it ia tte object of .the pceeenit article to 
eJMuuine. 

The wriEter, whose assumed litleisaai-ittdication of seme pre^ 
vfOua ezporience ia the coantry and^^ovetnmeat on mbidh lie SW^f^ 
ins obMrvatms, aad who is, on^ttnit ground at least, niose likely 
to be favourably heard, conunenoes h/^ afodogf^iag fsr a moFS 
luMty compositiQn tkM he. could l^ve wished, beiJig hunji^dT to 
ijainediate publicatloa ^^ &om .a, fear, oi losing, the adv^atage of 
faaaporary intereat,. by . which alone ,^o imperfect :a ,prodaej|a|a 
could be justific^^'' Where an author thus disf^i^ias edti- 
aism by crying ." >g|«arter" at the onaet, U loight.^m ^ime 
to ojaascisa the, p^wer i^e.so much .dreads. , f^^ .asthe.:}hi#ta 
I... . , ... ■ - .ii. -.. 'i , *■ ■ ' ' 

^ A Letter to^lr.tChartes Porbe«r, Bart., M.P., oa the Aamiivst ration ©f 
liiUKaH ^tMes. By a- CIVil S^iiMnt. toMon, T82N^. 
f SseOrtemal Herald, rol. ii. p. 519. 
Q2 



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224 Letter to Sir Charles Forbes, 

applies to the ** arrangement" of the thoughts, and the *' composi- 
tion'* of the language iu which they are expressed, and to theee 
alone, we shall ^ant all that is asked, in miaking every allowance 
for want of order in the one, or deficiency of elegance in the other ; 
and proceed to copsider the value of the ^' thoughts'' themselves: 
for these, heing the result of many years experience iu the service of 
the East India Company abroad, and of much subsequent reflection 
and deliberation at home, may be supposed to be matured to all the 
perfection of which the author considered them capable. We shall 
give, therefore, such portions of the work as appear to us of the 
greatest importance, and offer our remarlu on the extracts as we 
proceed. The author says : 

* In looking at the constitution of the Court of Directors, to whom th0 
daily tnd detsJied superiDtendence of Indian affairs is iot runted, the first 
remark that I would offer is, that it Is not presumed that the whole time of 
the members, admitting the usual seasons of vacation, is devoted to the 
business of the court ; on the contrary, the Directors have Tar ions other 
occupations ; and it may be said, almost without incurring the imputation 
of injustice, UuU the Ume qf mamm qf ^ IHreHare U chit^ff taken mp 
in anewering the varioue applieaHane^ to ithiek their immeme patromage 
renders them liable. If, indeed, the various interests by which the Direc- 
tors are originally appointed, and, as the practice has become, retained, 
dnranie Hia^ in their situations, be considered, offleial qualification would 
seem to be of little moment ;— once In that court, courtesy and ma m mu vre 
maintains them to the end of their natural lives — ^there is no superannuation 
for an East India Director ; and the security of his seat is not affected by the 
difi^ of f^ticationthat he may give the duties of the really important sitna- 
tlon in whicn he has been placed.* 

• Qa tbb short paragraph it would be easy to write a very long 
chapter ; but we shall endeavour to be brief, as there are other 
tonics also to puiaiie. With persons of any judgment or reflection, 
inaeed, the bare meatioQ of such defects in a system would be suf- 
ficient to carry conviction of its injustice or absurdity. Not eo, 
jMwever, with the great body of East India Proprietors : they are 
either bHnd and cannot see,— or corrupt and will not remedy, de- 
fects the most glaring that could well mark a system of govern- 
meat, which, being more recent in its origin and formation than | 
noat others, ought on that account alone to have less antiquated | 
foUyy and more modem improvement, in its composttion, than older 
and more intractable systems of rule. 

ft is a remarkable, but we believe an undeniable fact, that in the 
affsin of this '* admirably-governed'' world, in proportion as the 
ailnations of men are held to be unimportant in rank and remmieT- 
«tion, the necessity for their attendance is held to be indispensable ; 
whtte, in proportion as they rise in the scale of estimation and 
MBoliuiieat, so may their personal exertions and hiime^te attention 
to their datiea be disregaurded altogether. A candle-enuffer al the 
Opera House, though certainly not the most important personage 
there, and whose absence coidd only be attended with a alight 
diminution of the usual brilliancy of the lights, would be dismissed 



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on the JdmmstraUim of Indum j^fbirs. 2*25 

firom Ids place for oae night's absenee, aad no apology woald bo 
recetTed by the indignant audience ; while Pasta or De Begnis 
affoct a cold wheacTer it snits their conTCniencey and their caprice 
commands oairerNd indulgence. A messenger or a door-keeper of 
the House of Commons would lose his place if not found punctaally 
at his post, but honourable members may make journeys over half the 
world, or never appear at their places though they remain at homes 
and yet continue in undisturbeciy nay, even in undisputed, posses- 
sion of all their privileges as firmly as if they attended every 
debated question. In like manner, a clerk at the India House, 
or even a robed porter who exhibits his scarlet cloak and well-fed 
figure at the portals of that lofty edifice, would, without doubt, if 
he were absent for a week, be speedily replaced by other aspiring 
candidates for these distinguished honours ; while any half dozen 
of his Honourable Masters may breathe the bracing air of the 
Scottish hills, inhale the breezes of the sea-coast, or even take up 
their permanent abodes among the mineral springs of Bath — 
without being missed, or without losing a single one of all the 
many privileges belonging to their exalted station ! 

If w« inquire into the principle on which any difference could be 
reasonably made between the license for absence and inattention 
which might be Adi-ly granted to any one class of servants, and with- 
held from any other, we should conclude, that in proportion as the 
duties of the office were important, and the remuneration high, bo 
would be the necessity, as well as the justice, of exacting punctual 
attendance and exclusive devotion to the duties thus held to be 
of great moment, and for that reason alone be speedily rewarded. 
Now, it can hardly be said, that a copying clerk at the I«di^ 
House has more unportant duties than a Director to perform ; that 
the absence of the former would be productive of greater uyury 
to the public than that of the latter ; that there were not so many 
spare clerks to supply the place of a missing one as ^||«^\ ^*^?;,^ 
be spare Directors; or that the remuneration of the humoie 
copyer of despatches was greater than that of his masters, ^ l»o naa 
the higher duty of originaUy framing them. And if this ^^^^: 
which we presume no one will dispute, on what l^ssible groi^O, 
can the punishment to the one, by loss of place \^ ^^^^J^* '^.^^ 
inattention, and complete impunity to the other, in case eveii 
perpetual absence firom his duties, be defendea . 

Again, if a humble individual were to ^«^««^^ * ^"^onTaSa 
the place of a street-keeper, a watchman, or "^yj^rV..^^^^^^^ 
insignificance, his having some other ^^^^P*^*^'?; ^^'^ wo^^ he 
:^Lilj engage the mo?e valuable portiono J £^^*^'ecTor, bo^ 
aa objection &tal to his success. An Kaatinma ^^ 

ever, may have half a dozen other highly '^P'^'^^^'^X^^ without 
safficieut'to engross the whole of ^\V«^ ^° ^t S^l^^^^ ^^* 
their affecting, in thc.slightest degiee, his perfect eiigi 



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inei^Kanl, a banAcer, ttc. w^utd be BnAeieiit for any one iadhridnal} 
bae tb6 Bast India Direef fon contaSns persoas who ara all theM, 
and Elder Brotbenr of fhe THntty HouM, aod Membeft of Paiila*« 
meot besides. 

The same objection would, no doubt» equally apply as a dis- 
qualification for mcmbens of the legislature itadlf. But there is 
at least this difTerence, that members are not largely paid for per- 
forming their duty in ParKament, but, in many instances, purcliAse 
their places at enormous prices ; while East India Pirectors reim- 
burse themselves within the first year for all the outlay ia obtaiidng 
^hcir seats, and hold a mine of wealth aad patronage at their dis- 
posal for ever afterwards. We would willingly see the principle 
of libeial remmieration and strict responsibility, for punctual at- 
tendance and faithful discliarge of duties, extended to both 
ilouses of Parliament, as well as to all other public bodies, in 
whose hands the interests of any portion of the public is placed. 
]but with the East India Company, there is not even a plausible 
excuse for admitting any individual to a scat in the IKrection of 
ite affairs, wi» is not rcMuIy to devote the whale of hiB powers, as 
well OS fais.tlaie, to the duties of his offlce* and ready to relioqaisli 
his seat tlie moment that anything shoukl occur to preveai Us eo 
doing. 

' The candidates themselves, indeed, are so sensible of this belag 
the geuend impression, that in all their addresses to the ** Ladies 
and Gentlemen'* by whose suffrages they hope to obtain ** the honour 
of a seat in the Direction,^* they invariably profess this prospective 
dcTOtion to " the faithful dis<yharge of the important trust which 
they solicit at their bands." It is just barely possible that some 
ftw who make these professions really mean at the time to redeem 
their pledgi>s if they succeed, thotgh they rery seen forget them. 
But it would be much nearer the truth to conclude, that }^ faf the 
larger majority of them consider this, like the phnuse of** obedient 
humble servant," which is used towards persons for whom the ▼oi'y 
wrHer of it entertains the utmost contempt, as a mere profession of 
course, and no more meant to be observed than the pledgee of 
'* eternal ftiendship** which pass between nations on every treaty of 
peace, though the least breath of change makes them hasten again 
to cut cacli other's throats. ' 

To those who have been able to penetrate beyond the mere s«r£ice 
of things, all this Is hxtelligible enough. The motives which lead 
iften to seek seats in the East India Direction are twofold : let. 
To obtain for themselves that iitiBuenee and consideration whidh 
the extensive patronage at their disposal is sure to eompiftnd. 
2aly. In the aispensation of that patronage, to make a^ etrly a 
provision for theii* immediate oflfspring end family connectione as 
the places and appointments tn their gift \n\l enable then to do*.- 



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Oft th^ JUmi»Mrtl&on of IMMh Affairs, W 

Thert wre aomey perhapsy who, in the frafi hfiess of ^ their vixtae, 
while euididalieS) hope to add to theae primary and private ohjecta 
the pvoanotioa of many aecondary oaes, connected with the better 
adnriniatraHeii of pubtic a£Fain. There are even sooote who, after 
they have become tested ia the DirectioB, may continue to indulge 
tUa wish ; bat, alas ! the power to effect it never comes to them 
•atU they are either superannuated by age, or so contaminated by 
a loiig career of subservience, as to be both tmable to rouse them- 
selves to noble resolutions, and incapable, if moved, of carrying 
them into executiQn. 

That the motive of hidividual elevation in rank and importance, 
as well as that of providing handsomely for children and dependents, 
desenrea every praise aad eneouragemeati no man can reasonably 
deahl. These, like the acquisition of wealth, whioh is sought but 
a» am iaatrument with which to effect some ulterior view, form the 
UBtveraai pursuit ; aad without the stimulus of this {lassion for im- 
ptoiviDf their condition, mankind would first become stationary, 
and iken retrograde into barbarism. It is not the end that b de<^ 
prteated, it is the means by which that end is obtained ; and, in** 
apoiaeli ay the honest acquisition of wealth is always a subject of 
cemmendation to the acquirer^ while the open plunderer and the insi« 
AiaBa swindler, who reach the same end by other paths, are de-< 
sarvedly execrated by the rest of mAnkind ; so, we contend, that 
akhoagh the accession to power by the uahought aufi&rages of free 
people, and its retention by the faithful discharge of the duties it 
hivolves, are the highest honours that man can enjoy ; yet, on the 
other hand, the forcible acquisition of such power, by combinations^ 
bribes, aad influence, in the shape of promised places and ^ppoin!t» 
mcnts— «r the delusive solidtationa of the same authority accooH 
paaied with pledges never meant to be redeemed — are nothing 
better than plunder and swindling on a larger scale, a forcible or a 
iraadttlent scheme to raise what is more viiluable than money ou 
fidse pvetenccs ; and the perpetual retention of such power and 
such resources so obtained, by the very, means through which it 
waa^rstaoquired, is a erime against society which should be punished 
with much greater severity than the ooaduct of a robber or cheat, 
wba firit forcibly or fraudulently ohtaiDS the property of another, 
aad then seeke, by VMaas of the very power and wealth ao wrested 
from him, te effect its hiwfid owner's entire destruction. 

Strong as this parallel may appear, we solemnly avow our con- 
viction, that it is a just and faithM description of the greater portion 
of the India Directors ; aad, until the Proprietors of East India 
Stock shake off the degrading fetters by which they suffer them^- 
selves to be bound in a slavery, the more dnsgracei^l because it 
seems to be courted and gloried in by those subject to its debasbi^ 
iailuenco ; or, until the peoplci of England shall demand an alter^^-r 
tioD IB tfaissysteei of iniquity aad folly eoosbined, so it wiU coatinae 



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228 Letter to 1^ Charles Fufheg, 

to remain. The system is not merely defective, but deteetekk ; 
a&d if any excuse is to be found for the ftir good men who enter 
ihA Direction with virtuous intentions^ and uitimately ahaadon 
them, it is in the hideous depravity of the system itself^ which is 
enough to contaminate the purest. But this, while it might be 
urged in personal exculpation, is one of the most powerful of all 
the reasons that could be urged for the necessity of its immediate 
reform ; because, while it continues, it will, like the deadly Upas, 
poison all that comes within its destroying atmosphere. 

Official qualification, the author of the ^ Letter' (and, be it remem-' 
bered, he is himself a Civil Servant of the India Company) admits 
has little or no weight with the electors or the elected. Persons 
of every possible variety of character and acquirements announce 
themselves every year ; and each puts forward his own pretensioas ; 
according to which, a mere indifferent spectator would imagme-^— 
1st, tkiat the Direction would be quite incomplete without the in- 
dividual in question, whether he be a lawyer, a merchant, a ship^ 
builder, a soldier, a banker, a doctor, or a private gentlemao ; 
and 2dly, that the Proprietors, having no other standard by which 
to direct their choice tlmn the perfect eliffibility of the |Vofeaainf 
candidate, weigh well his pretensions, and elect the one who can 
bring into the Direction the quality most wanted at the moment, 
whether it be a perfect acquaintance with the laws of the turf and 
the decisions of the Jockey Club, the learned chicanery o^ an 
experienced Chancery lawyer, or the art of bleeding and pbysick* 
ing, so well known to every tropical doctor. But, whoever riiould 
conclude, either that the qualifications professed, or those really 
evinced, by the candidates, had any influence with the large body 
of electors, would be greatly deceived. The motives of these are 
quite as selfish and wide of the proper object of the power they 
possess, as that of the candidates themselves ; and they, perhapsi 
like the base and venal voters who sell their voices to persons of 
whose principles they literally know nothing in Parliament, have no 
just ground of discontent. But the millions that are disregarded 
by both parties in India, and the great mass of the people who 
must ultimately bear the burthen of the debt aecumulated under 
such a system in England, have both a right to complain ; and it 
is on their behalf alone that we think it necessary to eater our 
protest against its continuance. The writer of the ^ Letter* con- 
tinues : 

* But if official qaalification were the main ground of appoititment, the dis- 
tribniion of the business is such, as to render for years that official qualifica- 
tion useless. A gentleman who may hare held the highest office In India, 
that of Member of the Supreme Conncil in Bengal ; who may have readied 
that distinguished sitoation after a series of years passed In the poliiloal 
department of the service, is employed for some years of probation id 
the Committee of Warehouses, and of Shipping, as if the object Were to ex- 
pel all previously acquired knowledge fW>m his memory, and thus ultimately 
it him for the Committee of Correspoadenee. Military talent and service 

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on the AdmimUiraiian of Indian Affmrs. 2*20 

vo«M IwTe alia to nm tlie siune eowie, and it iMy, therefore, (airly be pra- 
nuned that, on admission to the Committee of Correspondence, the Member of 
Council and the Military Commander will haye reached In the descending, 
the same point as the Snipownerand Merchant in the ascendinip scale, so that 
thera will be do deeld«d saperiority of knowledge to affect the valae of th?ir 
respective oplaiona.* 

The absurdity of ibis division of labour must strike every one! 
We have pointed it out, again and again ; but a^ it is> the Pro- 
prietors have DO real interest in seeing that their affairs are well 
managed, since to them the individual pin is the same, whether 
the general welfare of India be promoted or retarded ; and as the 
majority ot the Directors have a strong interest in maintaining a 
system by which all new candidates are excluded for many years 
from a participation in the power, influence, and consideration be- 
longing chiefly to the elders, it is likely to continue to the end of the 
chuter ; while, to expect any voluntary alteration in the system 
wluch makes the Director's places endure for life, while they can 
prevent it, would be as unreasonable as to expect that the House of 
Commons, or any other house, would have virtue enough to reform 
itself, however " singular" it may appear to the author of the 
^ Letter ' that such a result has not already happened. He continues : 

* A more frequent change in the composition of the Court, than the courtesy 
practised towards the House List (as the six members but by rotation are de- 
signated^ would be desirable, — a life-interest in such an office as that of one 
of the ministers for conducting the aflairs of India, resting merely upon in^ 
tegrity and deeenejf qfbekavtimr, is much too secure a tenure, and leayes too 
little motive for continued exertion. It would also be adyantageous that the 
Chairman and Deputy should be chosen by the Court of Proprietors, an election 
to take place every four years. Under such a mode of election, some refereoee 
to general qaaliflcation, and to fitness for conducting the intercourse with 
his Migesty*s Government, might be expected, for without intending any in- 
vidiona allusion, or the slightest personal disrespect, it may be assumed that 
the deck of a merchant vessel, or the recesses of a London counting-house, 
are not likely scenes for acquiring the knowledge or habits best qualified to 
discuss great questions of empire, either in deliberation with, or opposition 
to, the Cabinet of Great Britain.* 

The reasons why such frequency of change is not likely to take 
place, as well as the utter indifference to the Proprietors at large who 
is the Churman or who his Deputy, are summed up in the single fact, 
that no elector finds himself at all the better or the worse for any 
changes that occur ; and as long as he received his full dividend 
and promised share of jobs or appointments, he would as soon see 
the chair filled by a barber's block as by the wisest head in the 
nation ; nay, if, under the former, he received his profits without 
trouble, while, under the latter, he was called on to take some 
share in the labour of thinking and acting for the general good, he 
would prefer the block to the head of Bacon, Locke, or the greatest 
plulosopher that ever lived. The wished-for changes and desired 
elections will, therefore, never have the general support of the 
Proprietary Body; and never, therefore, be effected, till some 



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ernitri vanee be nade to shmt ^hnm that they will gmin by tkc 
innovation. 

We coAclade that the " Cml Servant'' baa not read BIr* BeiH 
Iham'a * Book of Fallacieay' altbongh we stroii|^y noonuneBd it to 
his attention. If he had, he never coa]d have fallen into the wlgwp 
error displayed tovards the ol<>se of his paragraph, in assuming 
tha^ a ship's deck or a London counting-house had anything i» 
them hostile to the study and consideration of the greatest questions 
that could occupy the human mind. In point of fact, there is no 
material difference between '^ the deck of a merchant vessel" and 
the floor of the House of Commons, which in many respects resemble 
each other. One individual might pass the greater portion of his 
life in pacing the one, and yet become the profoundest thinker and 
most enterprising actor of hjs day ; while a second individual might 
attend eveiy debate that took place on the other, and see the 
mummery of removing the mace by big-wigged messengers a million 
of times in his life, and be no wiser at the end than at the beginning 
of his career. Columbus, Da Gama, Anson, Cooke, Perouse, and i| 
hundred other brilliant names, might be mentioned as showing what 
powers of mind, as well as enterprise of action, n^y be attained bx 
those who trod through a great portion of their lives " the deck of a 
merchant vasael." And while aucb men as are even to be nmnbered 
among the most inferior ninds of Eaglish senators, from his High- 
n^s of Clarence down to Sir Joseph Yorke and Sir Isaac Coflb,are 
QOt deemed ineligible for the highest honours of the state, or unfit 
to take their part in the great councils of the aaUoa, it would be 
the height of absurdity, as well aa injnstioe, to soppote that the 
same career of life, whether passed on '' the deck of a merchant 
vessel" or that of a ship of war, might ^ot produce men equally 
capable of filling the ardu^^t^ posts 9^ East India Directors ! The 
Mlacy of suppoelng the ** recesses" of a London oonntiBg-hoase to 
be also an unworthy school for the great lessons to be learnt, is still 
more remarkable. The deck of a ship, supposing a man to be 
always confined to it, and his mind never occupied by anything bat 
trimming sails and vociferating noisy orders to a crew of unruly 
toilers, mightf by an unreflecting person, be thought unfavourable 
to higher speculations of thought or action ; but a London count- 
ing-house has ffeneraliy been considered a nursery in which the 
greatest men might safely be bred. One would have thought that 
the names of Baring and Ricardo would ha^e occurred to the 
writer as he penned this sentence ; or, if this did not happen, we 
wonder how he could have overlooked the fact, that Mr. Pitt ob^ 
tidned, apd Lord Liverpool and Mr. Canning still continue to re- 
ceive, the greatest assistance fi'om the coun9el ^d information of 
tho^e inen of whom the writer makes so light, because they com« 
from the ** recesses" of a London counting-house. 

The truth i9x that although, siipposing the genius of men equal, 
some situations are more favourable than others to the develop- 



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on the MnUniHraithn ^ hkdkm Jfftura. 881 

ftmtoftaleit, y«l, wtiere tbeM k t«al capacity and strtDgth of 
mimly no^ ^Itaatlea of life will prefteat its breaking down the banien 
that opp00O its vragroM ; and wy)e we vememher the naaMs of 
Shakapejve^^ihe acerHitealer,^-Cooke, the oahfn«-boy of aoollier,-*** 
FkMkUfit the joarneymap printery^Davyy the shoeless errand-boy 
anong the Conueh mines,-«4U)d Napoleon^ the obscure adyentnrer ;--» 
each reaching the very pinnacle of the respective heights to which 
they aspired; and many others, which will rush to every one's 
recoUection» it wiU be in vain, by snch miserable fallacies as as* 
smiing ^ the deck of a merchant vessel " and '^ the recesses of a 
Lfondon counting-house" io be unfavourable to the acquisition of 
knowledge of any kind> to make men decide that they arc so, con* 
trary to tho evidence of reason, fact^and experieace* Indeed, if there 
be any two occupations which afford greater facilities than others 
for the acquisition of such knowledge as must be most essential 
Ua a atatesman to possess, it is more likely to be found in those of 
a ae^p-c^tain, if his voyages are at all varied and made subjects 
of mquiry and refleetion, and a metropolitan merchant : for both 
eijoy opportunities of seeing and knowing more of various countries, 
their laws^ instHations, productions^ interests, powers, and pecu 
Haritiesy than eoald be aaquired on the << floor" of the House of 
Commons, or in the <* recesses'* of a mdveraity, in the longest life 
that man oould pas9 in either. Mliether the parties possessing 
such <^portiinitios, have either tbe industiy or ability to turn them 
to acooont, is another question. Other men, in other walks, may 
fell in this as well ; but we think it is clear, that it is quite a 
vulgar error to suppose that the sea is inferior to the land for 
aequiring useful knowledge, of a countiiig-hoase inferior to a 
eoUege. 

The writer goes on to say, that the present form of dividing the 
labours of the JHrectors takes its rise in the mercantile character 
of the Company. But he thinks that this will be hardly admitted 
as a plea for the retention of '^ institutions unfitted to the times 
and inadequate to their objects," because, as he believes, '^ we 
do not live in an age in which antiquity of form is much respected." 
We wish this were true : but we differ so entirely from the writer in 
this particular as to believe, that this respect fer antiquated forms 
is so strong and so general, as to be in itself a greater hindrance 
to the progress of improvement in almost every department of 
knowledge, than any other single cause that can be named. After 
contending that it is for the interests of the Proprietors, as well as 
of the Directors, (which it clearly is not either fer the one or tho 
ether,} to make a new distribution ai the labour of the Directors, 
^ less cramped by the maxims and practice of the counting-hoose,'* 
(by wfaieh it is not at present cramped at all,) and observingy that 
" the Chairmen of the Court are generally no more fit to decide on 
the fitness of any Governor-General to be sent to India, than on 
that of any Amliassador to be sent to Paris or Vienna," (though 



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«I2 JUUerio Sir Ckmrlei Fari^, 

it iB strange that they alone should be disqualified) since everp 
Proprietor of East India Stock, including infants, old women, and 
the most imbecile of indiiridaalsy may pass a vote of approbation 
or censure on every Govemor-Oeneral when appointed,) he says : 

* In Isttex yean, to remedy this admitted want of kaowledse in the Committee 
of CorrespoodeDoe, gentlemon of UUrarif oiMU(/feaUof» nave been imlnced 
to accept Uie office of examioers or seaior clerks ; they are the rtaden and 
prompteri of the Court of Directors, but the ablest reader and best prompter 
can never transfuse, with sufficient correctness and rapidity, his knowledge, 
so as to secure the principal actor from the appearance of incapacity. Among 
the Proprietors are to be found individuals fully qualified for the discharge 
of the important duty of Directors, but there must be no perpetuity in the 
office, no recommendation from authority of members out by rotation — ^In 
truth, a quadrennial election of the entire number, and that number itself 
reduced to twenty-four, would be the arrangement best calculated to seeere 
fitness and assiduity. Where that fitness and assiduity had been displayed, re- 
election, though no longer a certainty, would be the probable consequence 
and reward. As the uncertainty of re-election would necessarily, under the 
head of patronage, diminish the value of a seat in the Direction, an increase 
ot positive salary would be reasonable, — ^the prosenl salary is so inadeqvate, 
that the patronage must be viewed as the remuneration ; and when it is con- 
sidered that a Director may be said to be elected for life, if he enjoy that 
patronage twenty years, the value in writerships, cadetships, &c.. Is quite 
enormous.* This distribution of patronage, while equal to the highest, much 
eiceeds the ordinary services rendered to the Company by the East India 
Directors, and, in the aggregate, much transcends, as to positive value, 
that possessed by any one mintoter of the crown. Any measure which opened 
the election of Directors, and diminished the duration of individual interest 
in the office, would have the effect of diffusing patronage, and, therefore, 
strengthen the argument in faTonr of renewing the charter, which is deiiTed 
firom the constitutional objection to concentrate thai immense patronage, by 
placing it in the hands of the crown.* 

All this, however well it may sound to the ears of the saperficial* 
is mere verbiage. The writer evidently does not eee the real evil» 
which lies deeper apparently than he can fathom, although it is 
covered hy the thinnest possible disguise. What is wanted, la not 
persons of ** literary qualification" to prompt the Directors ; nor 
would it he any better if these prompters were made themselves 
the actors, so as to get rid of the writer's difficulty as to their in- 
fusing their knowledge into others. The root of the evil is this : 
that according to the ahsurd system sanctioned hy the " wisdom of 
Parliament," and huilt up amidst fears and prejudices of the 
weakest description, no part of the governing body in England, 
from the Board of Control downwards, including the Directors 
and Proprietors, have any interest whatever, either political, pecu- 
niary, moral, or reputationary, (if one nught coin a word for such a 
purpose,) in the good govenunent of the country. On the contrary, 

* It was said, that laht year the patronage of each Director consisted of 
three writerships ami fourteen eadotaldps, eselntlve of appoinbnenU of as- 
sIstant-snrgeoDs. Taking the value of writonbipi al dOOOL eaoh, and that of 
cadetships at 8002., the whole amount of patronage will be, without the assist 
ant-surgeons, in value 80,900^. 



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on the Admhuiitrait&n. 4f Indian Affairs, 233 

all parties hare a direct interest in its misgovemmeiit, up to tke 
extreme limits to which its resources can be made to cover the 
most profligate and nnprincipled expenditure. Mr. Mill, the hia- 
torian of British India, has very truly said : 

'No proposition, in reg^urd to ffOTenameBt, is more universal, more free from 
all exception than this, that as Government always spends as much as it finds 
U safe to extract from the people. The government of the mother countrv 
itself cannot keep its expenses within bounds. It takes from the people all 
it can possibly take, and is still going l>eyond its resources. But if such is 
the course of Government at home, things must be worse in the colonies. The 
fitfther servants are removed from the eye of their master, the Worse, generally 
speaking, their conduct will be. The government of the colonies, managed 
by delegates from home, is sure to be worse, in all respects, than the govern- 
ment at home ; and as expense is one of the shapes in which the badness of 
government is most prone to manifest itself, it is sure, above all things, to be 
in propor ion to its resources, more expensive. Whatever springs operate at 
home to restrain the badness of government, cannot fail to operate with 
diminished force at the distance of a colony. The conclusion is irresistible.'* 

NoWy Mr. Mill is one of the '' gentlemen of literary qualifications" 
who has accepted the office of £Si:aminer or senior clerk in the India 
House, for which, it is said, he receives a salary of 1400/. or 1500/. 
a year, a sum which, though large, is not heyond the price at which 
such talents as his might fairly expect to he purchased. It is clear, 
however, that such a salary would not he given to a mere copyist, and 
is only to he understood as involving the duty of reading and prompt- 
ing to the Directors,'^ so as to secure the principal actors from the ap- 
pearance of incapacity." But of what avail is this ? Not only 
are the Examiners, of whom Mr. Maculloch is the senior, and Mr. 
Mill the junior, not ahle to '^ transfuse" their knowledge into the 
heads of the Directors ; they cannot get them to listen to their 
readings ; or, if they do, it is clear that it is to very little purpose. 
Mr. Mill, it is to he presumed , has not much changed his opinions since 
he wrote his admirahle ' History of India,' and yet the important 
lessons taught in that hook, aided no douht hy all the power of his 
occasional illustration and comment in the *^ readings " referred to, 
have heen like the corn thrown hy the sower, which fell among 
rocks and thorns, and produced no fruit. Mr. Mill has written in 
the ' Supplement to the Encyclopedia,' the most powerful essays 
tltat have ever appeared on the suhjects of Government — Jurispru- 
dence — Liherty of the Press — ^Law of Nations — Prison Discipline 
— ^Education — and Colonies. These were all prohahly written he- 
fore his new duties of reader and examiner to the India Directors 
eommenced. But they have since heen deemed of such importance 
to the spread of tiouna opinions among the people of this country, 
ihftt they have been printed in septtnite pamphlets, at the expiBnse 
of aaociety of pablio-spirited and liberal poHttciaaa, for the p«iw 
pose of gffAtiiitoiu distribution among all clataes ; end as tlua is a 

* Mlirs Essays. 



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n4 LM^ io Sir Ckmi^ Fi^i%es, 

Titeat we itaade of thtte^ $Ai tbttie «!> doobt wHh^kMpttrmiatifllif 
4ti8 dear that the eealineote aad pritadplee tkey avdlr iaad d»- 
•v«k>p« are those still hoMitly eiMrlaitftcl by their tihitnigaMedl 
author. 

Bat what has heen the result of Mr. MHVb afk^atmeht as 

** prompter" at the India House duri!]^ the several ^fears in which 
he has held that office t His ptihlishcd opinions on Government, 
are repuhlican, or deraocraticaly in the highest possible degree. 
Few men have gone so ftir, bo man can go beyond him, in the doC'^ 
trine, that every man should have a share in the government of the 
country in which he lives, and that the will of the many should he 
the only admissible standard by which the few should he permitted 
to rule. But have his doctrtaes or his influence abated one jot or 
tittle of the absolute and irresponsible despotism, under which the 
millions of India groan and. sulfer to the present hour ? Not a 
feather has been removed from their burthens ! His article on 
Jurisprudence evinces the clearest conception of the evils, and the 
most masterly details of the remedies, by which the unintelligible 
and inquitous systems of law that now afflict mankind are dis* 
tinguished, and might be removed. Has the jurisprudence of 
India been in the slightest degree benefited by the application of 
this knowledge and these remedies since his accession to office ? 
We have never heard an instance of it, if it has ever happened. His 
article on the Liberty of the Press goes to advocate the utmost de- 
gree of freedom that has ever yet been claimed by the most licentious 
of its advocates ; and he supports his positions by arguments that 
appear to us irresistible. But, since his appointment at the India 
Bouse, what has been the fate of the Press in India ? It has been 
struck down from the highest eminence of useful liberty that it had 
enjoyed for a few happy years, and is now trampled ignofflfniously 
in the dust, and loaded with fetters worse than even a previous 
censorship ! Has Mr. Mill ever read his admirable advocacy of its 
freedom to the Directors at the India House, or taken any one 
step, which his influential situation as <' promptei*'' itiight give him 
the opportunity of doing, to rescue the Indian Press from its degra- 
dation ? We believe, never ! He is an enemy to the punishment 
of men without trial, he is a professed friend of the abolition of 
licenses of residence, and thinks Cajrourably of CoIoni2ation. But, 
more men have heen punished under this odious system since fiis 
f' readings" began, than for years before, and the Directors are as 
much averse to the colonij^ation of India as ever ! 

imat^^tihen^dMaallr^tiiB {ffwtt CeMiriy^ eMife^th^t Mn MOI 
and the other <«faii«lMe« lof lltdnty^liliBaetibW do aai^parlbda 
f be daty^hich it is tMpotfed tiMf ^ tlHitio^ffriMkuifrto, cr TUmwKfi^ 
tag the Direeton, aad are therefore appelated to office under laJsc 
pretences ; or, if they do sopcoiapt^that the IHrectors neither hear 
nor attend to their promptings ; and that their offices are not 



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om the AdmhtMraffOH nf Ikdi^h Mffairn. 



flMcely vtelflM but fwimdmii, as «en^g to delude th« worid wi^ 
kopes of im p ro ?c« ieBt> wfakh, iuid«r such a tjatem, ave aevelr lilcalj 
to be rtalixed. 

All the petty changes whieh the '' Civil Seirant" wotild effect 
in making quadrennial elections of the whole body, and reducing the 
amnber to tweaty-fonr, would do no more to dimiiiiAh the evil, than 
if he were to attempt to repress tymnny in the Navy, by change 
tag the Captain of each ship every four years, and giving frigates 
three Lientenanta instead of four. It is worse than idleness to 
fancy that this would do any good : neither the number of tlie 
Directors, nor their period of service, is of much consequence, com* 
pared with the worst feature of the whole system, namely, that all 
parties connected with the East India Company, excepting only the 
millions of helpless Natives, ^* the suffering many,'* for whom Mr. Mill, 
in his writings* so humanely pleads, have a direct interest in its 
misgovemment; and gain the accomplishment of all their desiraa 
much more speedily and effectually by a profligate expenditure of 
human life, and of the produce of human labour, plundered or taken 
without their consent firom the Natives of the country, than by all 
the ameliorations which could be introduced into their system of 
government at home or abroad. 

First : the Director who goes in, doing so mainly for the patron- 
age placed at his disposal, is interested in increasing that patronage, 
which can be best done by extorting the utmost possible amount of 
taxation from the country, and increasing, by wars, and other 
equally justifiable pretences, the number of civil and military ap- 
pointments in the country, — saddling, in short, all the dependents he 
can upon its exhausted resources ; because, the greater their numbei*, 
the liu^er will be his portion oi the patronage that appoints them. 

Secondly : the Proprietor of India Stock,^— ^resting his money in 
that fund chiefly because of the jobs, contracts, and appointments to 
be had for friends or dependents, in return for the votes he gives to 
individual candidates before they become Directors, and to the 
whole body in cases where their votes are required to support the 
measures of those in authority, — ^has the strongest possible interest 
in supporting every measure that favours the extension of that pa- 
tronage and expenoiture , for the sake of the portion which it will faU to 
ids share to receive ; and in maintaining the part taken by the Direc- 
tors, whatever that may be, as, without that undeviating subserviency, 
he woold be in danger of getting out of favour, and losing the prin- 
dpAlohjeetforwliidii be bought Usatock. At the same tine, iMle his 
hiterest is so powerful in increasing the taxation of the people, sup- 
porting the most wasteful expenditure, and adding to the debts of 
ttie Coaqiany, be haa no interest whatever in leasening taauUion, re- 
dueibg expenBCy or paying off debt: beeauae, whether the Com- 
pan/a aftdrs yield in reality a profit or a loss, he is quite secure in 
hia receipt of 10^ per cent dividend on bis stock: and as, if the 



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2S6 Letter to Sir Charles Forbes^ 

inTestment be dedrable at all, it la advanta^^eoiiA to render it per- 
tnanenty the more theburtbeas of the Compfinyare angmented by 
wasteful expenditure, and the larger the debt becomes, the lees 
probability is there that the King's Government will take such a 
bargain off their hands. 

Thirdly: the civil and military servants in India generally can 
have but one interest, which is, to quit it and return home as fast as 
possible. During their stay in India, therefore, they are all deeply 
interested in seeing produced from the Natives as much revenue as 
possible ; in securing all the booty that can be captured ; in en- 
couraging wars for the sake of prize-money and promotion ; in rais- 
ing taxes for the sake of admitting increased salaries ; — ^this interest 
continues from the beginning to the end of their career in India : and 
when they leave it to come to England, they fall into the ranks of 
Proprietors or Directors, sending their children and connections out 
to keep up the ever-revolving circle. 

Lastly: the Board of Control and Parliament have no interest 
beyond the mere appointment of Governors, Generals, Commanders- 
in-Chief, Judges, and other o£ficers ; and how they regard the wel- 
fare of India, let the quickly-deserted benches of the House, when 
its very name is mentioned in that ^* august assembly," bear damn- 
ing witoess. 

These are all the classes who are admitted to have a voice in the 
matter. As to the people of England, they are more ** nobly** oc- 
cupied with the momentous subjects of which the British Press 
keeps them so fully informed here. And as to the people of India, 
if their existence even be admitted, after such wise heads as Mr. 
Adam's, and all the enemies of the press, have denied that there is 
any Public at all in that highly-peopled country, their tongues are 
tied, and they have no power of utterance for any wish or thought 
hostile to the existing system. 

To imagine, therefore, that reducing the number of India Directors 
from 30 to 24, and electing or re-electing the whole e%'^ery four 
years, would root out such evils as these, bespeaks at once the na- 
ture of the mind that could perceive an efficient remedy in such a 
change. The writer proceeds : 

*■ Bat, it may be asked, Does not the Board of Control supply all theqaali- 
ficatiens that may be wanting in the Court of Directors? Are not the Com- 
missioners for the affairs of India taken from the same class as the Commis- 
- sloners of the Treasury or Admiralty ? Have we not here men with the vicwr 
^fviUmmeik, and with minds hahitnatad to the UurgeU v^n^mm 0f g^wer^- 
metU i This may be true, but the general operation of the Board of Commia> 
siooers is that of control and supervision, not of origination or execution; 
and it is not to be expected that a public man can, under the pracHoal duties 
> Whieh, as President of the Board of Coatrol^ ha has to peiCsrai, avar UJte Ar 
.amRe Mn-efC^ or apply the powers. of h\B mind and chancier with the aama 
intcntUjfy to a saperutendenqe at 9€Cond kand^ as if be had an original exer- 
cise of authority over the details and circnmstances of the Indian administri- 
tldn: This is tlte less to be expected, when it is reco1lec1r4lhat the nSMh ef 



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on the Administratitm of Indian Affairs. 237 

fbmi m fHbject litaecoimeeted with tlie otber branches' of AdttinUtm- 

ti«i, nd which, contequently, does not enter into the course of preTious study 
and practical information deemed necessary to a parliamentary career. It may 
be.afflrmed, that to control the details of Indian affairs efficiently, the acqiiisi- 
tioh of • new Umguage \i necessary. The terms of judicial, rcTeove, and mi- 
litary detsil are different from those of Europe ; the principles of administra- 
tion, in their application, exhibit great difference and variety : these terms, 
these differences, must be acquired before the correspondence from India can 
be understood ; and although the composition of the Board or Control be, in 
Ikoint of general knowledge and parliamentary talent, unexeepUtrnMe^ it is 
not to be supposed that any three individualg^ ^owBVEa ablb, can be, with- 
out preTious study or local information, qualified to control the details of at) 
administration abounding in peculiarities, and differing essentially from that 
with which they have been before conversant/ 

This description of the Board of Control is sufficiently flatter- 
ing, though few beside the writer would recognize it as at all aj>- 
plicable to the body so named. If the persons who now fill the 
principal offices of that Board may be considered to have " the 
views of statesmen/' with " minds habituated to the largest ques- 
tions of government," it may be as truly affirmed, that the writer 
of the letter before us is either Burke or Junius : which some per- 
baps might dispute. We will nevertheless say thus much to his 
honour, that be is much nearer to either of the illustrious personages 
we have named, than any members of the Board of Control that 
we have yet seen can be said to approach great statesmen. But the 
paragraph under review is remarkable for a very singular admis- 
sion, namely, that the President of the Board of Control cannot 
take a very deep interest, or apply his mind with great intensity 
(whach the writer thinks desirable) to the superintendence of Indian 
afiain, because he does it at second handy and is not the original 
tor of the acts of administration. This is, first, a fallacy : as may 
be shown by simply observing, that if men could not take a deep 
interest in that which originated with others, there would be no 
parties interested in the conduct of ministers but themselves, abd no 
critics but authors; both of which we know to be contrary to expe- 
rience. It is, in this sense, the only one we apprehend in which the 
anthor meant to apply it, a fallacy ; but there is another sense, in 
which be has evidently not applied it, in which it conveys a truth 
of great importance indeed ; and it is this^ — ^that it is quite impossi- 
ble for any person either to understand or regulate affairs not under 
their immediate superintendence, so well as if they were on tbe 
spot where the events themselves are happening. The author baa 
discovered, that a Board of Control at Westminster cannot study 
so intensely, or regard with nearly so much interest, measures ori- 
ginating in the City of London, although, being only three miles off, 
they may know them on the very day they happen, although they 
are in frequent communication with the actors and originators, and 
altlioagb they have the power to stay the execution, if disap- 
proved. But the same writer has not discovered^ that a Board of 
Pirectors in London are not likely to take a deep mterest in mea- 

Orisntai Hertdd,Vol.}Q. R 



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sUreB originating fifteen tboniand mitei Mray, of which they aie no^ 
the authoni, of which they can know nothing till lijt monthn after 
they have occurred^ of which they scarcely ever see the personal 
orighuEtoTB, and which they cannot stay the ezecutioo, nor even 
disapprore, till twelve months after themierliiafto be prodneed hy 
them is over, and even then, have their orders treated with the at- 
most contempt. If ever there was a case In which a second-hand 
superintendence was inefficient and wortUess^it is in the case of the 
lectors pretending to superintend what they cannot effednally 
control. The '^ Civil Servant'' has in his wisaom discovered this 
evil where it can scarcely be said to exist ; but where it reigns in full 
vigour^ and flashes on the conviction of all observers, he has not 
made the discovery ! 

The puerility of supposinff e new langus^e necessary to under- 
stand tlie details of Inoian wairs, is really such as one could not 
have expected : there is no difficulty of this kind wluch may not 
be conquered in a month. But, when it is said or insinuated, that 
the three individuals now composing that Board, meaning Mr. Wynn, 
Dr. Phillimore, and Mr. Courtenay, are great men and able states- 
men, we come at once to a more perfect estimate of the author^s 
understanding, than by any page m his book. To show what these 
three men are, we need only mention three things, one of each« as 
complete illustaations of their several characters and understandings. 

Mr. Wynn umkes a speech in Parliament, well knowing that su^ 
speedi would be printed in all the papers of Eoghind, c<^ed into all 
de papers of India, aad spread therefore by thousands over every 
part of HiBdDOStan,in which hesaya^^^ that the AwneriealiAferiorityof 
the English to the bdians, is a strong reason w^ we should dread 
tiieirattemptsat revolt." He adds» <Uhal: if this fact of their numeri* 
eai superiority to iv were told to them, it wooU set the whole oooa- 
try in a Maae of rebeUion." ^He, on that groaad, deno«nees the free- 
dom of the press in India asfraugiit with danger; while, at ^ very 
same moment, he takes the greatest pains to flf^read aiaoag the li-^ 
dhuwyin the most effectual manner, the veiy knowledge he so much 
dreads ; and tells them, in his official oapaeity, and with all the e»^ 
kamtty of a public assembly, that if they only reflect on the £Mt he 
nesr niakes known to them, it ought to excite them to instant re- 
volt, lor ikm purpose of throwing off thehr s«i^eoti<m ^Thia is 
Mr. wynn, the President. 

Dr. Phillimore is a practitioner of Doctors' Cemmoiw, the ^ re- 
cesses'' of which &A not occur to the '^ Civil Servant* as uofittiBg a 
man for a statesman, though debates on divorces and crimHMms are 
not much more elevated topics than those discussed on ^ thb deck 
of a merchant vessel.'' In a Committee of tiie House of Commons, 
the Doctor hears an indhidual Mty, that a oert^ pamphlet on tho 
fiidian Press, universal)y attributed to Mr. Adam, a copy of wliieb 
Was in the Viands of meet oflhe members of theConsnittee, is tmuk 



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on the JOminMraOtm oJTtndim 4/mra. 88» 

oo a cmnparisoii to e o rroo pwid, word for void, vilh a Mb^te ^Oin 
tained in a pabfie deepatchy than Ijing on tiiie toUa of the Coaiv 
Buttee-fooniy and both opened to pouit out the esaat jreeesiblaiioe. 
The learned Cmliaay in a barst of eager, denoaaeee this ae afccae 
attaek on Mr. Adam, aaealled for, and wheUy out of (he iray ; «nl 
wiads up his violent ebullition by caiSSa^ this wftkwk. uogeQerpua^ 
beeauee Mr. Adiun was dead, and naable to defend hiinsetf i^-^Thia 
is Dr. PhiUinore. 

The other dlstingnished member of this Board, of which the 
'' composition*' Is so *^ unexceptionable,'' is Mr.Courtenay. In the 
same Conmdttee, this gentleman was examining a witness on the 
fubje^ of the remarlcs contained {n the Calcutta Journal of 
Febmary 8, 1823, on the appomtment of Dr. Bryce to be Clerk 
of the Stationary Committee ; and when it was alleged by the wk- 
oessj that these remarlcs in^puted nothing more than that the ap- 
pointaient was an inappropriate oae for a rererend clergyman, which 
might have arisen from error of judgment in the quarter in which 
the appointment originated ; the honourable member gravely asked, 
whether the witness did not think it was a very serious breaeh of 
the laws, and a liighly offensive act, to suppose error of judgment in 
msjf poblie functionary i-^lliis is Mr. Courtenay. 

We think we might challenge any Board whatever, to prodoee 
three such men, and three such anecdotes, all happeaiog witUn a 
day or two of each other: and these are the t^ee oM^ individuals, 
the calibre of whose minds appears so gigantic to their '< Civil " ealoi* 
gis^ He couisludes thus : 

* It jis not by these obsenrMions intended to deny the utili^, or t^e consti- 
tvtional necepsity, of the Board of Control ; the sole point wnieh is meant to . 
he established is, that as the miUaXMU^ of the members of the Board oT Gen- 
trol, and the amend purmtUt pf public man in iSnglaod* leader the poases- 
iioa of detaiiea knowledge very improbable, an improved constitutioB of the 
Court of Directors becomes indispensable, to secure the exercise of efiScient 
■qMrintendenoeyrom home over the aflbirs of oar Indian empire. Indie par- 
Waw^afrry respoosibiUty to which the members of the Board of Control are 
sob^iect, for the general conduct of Indian affiairs, the nation has, unquestion- 
ably, a aredJt geeurttv that no act qfp^dHie or private cpprtuUn wUl beeomr 
mmedhytke 9erwmt9^ftke BmU InMaCompamM; anditwovldbe do&ag 
maA iaiastlos to the akUUjf and high character of the individjuals by whoia 
toe oUces in Question have been and are still held, not to express a convic- 
tion, thet the duty of control has been cometentiouely and ben^fieiaXhf ex- 
erted. TMs control and partiamentary respoDsibility » ^e mere neoessaiy, 
as the Court of Directors, as a body and iadividnally, appear to be irreipon^ 
tUte ; end there can be no doebl, ^lataeither the interests of the Indian epi- 
pi^, nor the rights of Ipdlfidaals, could be considered, in theorv, secure, un- 
dar the seciiet and uncontroUed exercise of an authority, that is not pnicti- 
ci^y subject either to removal or to pubHe investigation.* 

On this we have to offer a very few remarks. In the case of the 
ladia IMrec.tors, it was the permantency of their cootinuance in office 
which -was chiefly objected to, and it was proposed to make them 
more xou^ble. The same writer here mecovers, however, that 
the mutabiUty of office in the members of the Board of Control is 

R9 



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240 Letter to Sir Charier Forbes. 

an evily altbough' these members do not change so often as every 
four years, the shortest period at which he thinks it necessary to, 
change a Director. But the climax of all is the assertion, that 
** in the Parliamentary responsibility to which the members of the- 
Board of Control are subject for the general conduct of Indian 
alBBdrs, the nation has, uNQUESTiOMABLYy a great security; that no 
act of public or private oppression will be committed by the «er- 
vants of the East India Company**! Gracious heaven! Has not 
this Parliamentary responsibility always existed as much as. now ? 
Was not Hastings impeached under it? And has there been no act 
of public or private oppression since then ? The issue of that seven, 
years' trial plainly proved how worthless was that security against^ 
any oppresdons, public or private, great or small : and to say that 
the liability to such responsibility, on the part of a few individuals 
forming the Board of Control here^ is a great security that no op- 
pressions will be committed by any of the thousands of individuals 
in the service of the East India Company, in that distant and ex- 
tensive country, is to make an assertion, which must be seen to in- 
volve an absurdity by persons of the lowest class of intellei;^ to 
whom it may be addressed. 

Whether the duty of control, such as it is, (and, according to the. 
author's previous showing, it is but imperfect at best,) has been con- 
scientiously and beneficially exercised, is a matter of fact and opi- 
nion, on which persons may think differently, according to their ae- 
gree of knowledge on the subject. Thus much, however, we will 
venture to assert, in contrast to such an assumption, that in all the 
cases of which we have any knowledge, in which the Board of Con- 
trol has been appealed to for judgment against the oppressions of the 
Company's servants in India, or, the refusal of the Directors to 
affora the injured party redress here, they have invariably taken part 
with the oppressors, and only lent their aid to trample the victhn 
still lower in the dust. 

As the portion of the work under review which we have last 
quoted, brings to a close the section on what is called the Home 
Admiaistrationof Indian Affairs, we shall for the present suspend our 
remarks on it here, and resume the subject in our next, by analysing 
the opinions of the author on the Indian Administrations at the seve- 
ral presidencies or seats of Government there. After going through 
this, we shall probably sum up a judgment on the whole, separating 
the useful from the worthless, and coming to some general eondtt- 
sion, stating the evidence on which it will be founded. For 
the present, we must content ourselves with saying, that although 
the writer appears to be actuated by just and benevolent motives, 
and has the capacity to see, and the candour to admit, that irrespansi" 
ble power is not favourable to the interests of the community, or the 
ri^ts of individuals, yet,, in his apprehension of the remedies by 
which he conceives this irresponsibility may be connected or coun- 



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Tke Dancing Qirl af Delhi. Ml 

teraeted, he appearsto us to be as completely blind as if he were born 
without intellectual vision : and those who follow such a guide can- 
Dot fail to share with him the fate scripturally predicted of those 
who in that helpless condition attempt to lead each other. 



THE DANCING GIRL OP DELHI. 

Dark was the night, and load the wind. 

And heavy fell the sullen rain. 
Bat, gloomier far than all, the mind 

Of her who cross *d the plain. 

She stood beside the Jiimna*8 flood. 
That darkly roU'd its waves below ; 

In ai^ny of soul she stood 
And li8ten*d to its flow. 

A shivering babe lay in her arms, 

A babe made fatherless that day. 
The first- fruit of her youthful charms, 

The theme of many a lay. 

For he, its sire, who fell beneath 

The Mogul's sanguine brand. 
Had declc'd his brow with song*s bright wreath 

In Persians tuneful land ; 

In Khorosan aud Candahar 

Had raised his lofty strain, 
And, following in the walie of war. 

Breathed di^th on many a plain. 

But now all mute his vocal lyre. 
All cold the hand that touchM its chord ; 

And, ah ! extinct that softer flre 
We paint by softest word ! 

And she, whom once it warmed and cheered, 
Forsaken now, and friendless grown. 

With blighted heart, and bosom searM, 
Feels cold, and sad, and lone ; 

And seeks by night the howling flood. 
And dreams, as wild she hears it rave. 

Her murderM Miraa*s gushing blood 
Still red upon the wave. 

Now to her heart her babe she pressed, 
And, bending o*er the angry stream. 

Plunged deep within its tossing breast. 
And vanish'd like a dream. 



BlOK. 



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242 



jmnomsmoMh and praotical view of thb law op ubkl 
m m^ujQ} AM n tmHA. 



No. IV. 

l^eareHcai Ftew qftke Law o/Likel in England. 

Tn^ fifth, and iast arfpuaent that I shall offer in favour of nn- 
Ihnited toleration, is founded on the failiure of the latest and most 
elaborate attempt wMcb has been made to gire to the law of lihel 
the ntmost improvement of which it is supposed to be susceptible. 
I allude to the bill which Mr. Brougham brought into the House 
of Commons in 1816. The principles on Which it proceeded are 
fully developed in an able article in the Bdinborgh Review, which 
concludes with the following (mmmary of its provisions : 

* 1. It first takes away entirely the power of filing ex officio informations in 
eases of libel and seditious wordtf. 9* It next aboiisbes tke power of reply, 
unless where the defendsot has adduced ettdenee ; thus placing tbe crown 
prosecutions upon the same footing wi(b all others, a. It fiulEer prevents 
any such trial from being by special Juty, unless b^th parties consent ; thus 
placing tbe offence in question upon the same footing with all crimes of the 
highest nature, — ^vis. treasoA and felony, and with all misdemeanours, the pro- 
ceedings for which do not eoMa from the Crown oflee. 4. The bill proceeds 
to talce away the disthMStion between written and spoken slander, and to provide 
that tbe latter be prosecuted as a misdemeanour. A. In the next plaos, 
it allows the defendant, in all prosecutions for libel, or seditious or defema- 
tory words, to give the truth of the sutement in evidence, after due notice to 
the prosecutor ; but it provides that the jury may, notwithstanding of such 
proof, find the defendant guilty : and that the court, in passing sentence, may 
consider such proof in aggravation, or in mitigation, and may also consider 
the giving notice without offering etidedee In aggravatioii. 6. TIm next pro* 
vision is for enabling the defeodiuit to prove tha^ the publication was without 
his privity, and the jury to convict aotwitiistaDding such evidence. 7. It fSv- 
ther takes away tlie distiaotldn between Words imputing an indictable offence, 
and words generally defhmatory, deolaring both to be aotioMible, and tbus i«- 
moving also the distinction between written and spoken slander. 8. Lastly* 
it prohibits the truth of the statement from bdng pleaded in justification to 
an action, whether Ibr libel or for words ; but enables the defendant, upon 
due notice to the plaintiff, to give it in evidence under the general issue, end 
the jury to take such evidence into their consideration, Imt to find a verdict 
for the plaintiff notwithstanding if they shall think fit.' • 

It will be found that the changes above enumerated are more 
apparent than real, and would h«ve existed more in theory tltta 
In practice^ insomneb, that though some of them seem to extend, 
ana others to contract, the liberty of diseuflsi^m, yet, if the bill had 
passed, it is highly probable that its influence <m the state of the 
press would have been absolutely imperceptible. Upon the whole, 
the friends of toleration who rejected it as less favourable to the 



* Edinburgh Review. No. 58, p. 148. 

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Law of LUei in England and in India. 243 

rifhta of the sttbjeet tliaa the existing syBtem, acted more reaeoa* 
nhlf than those who shrank from it as an excessive rekzattoa of 
the restraints which the law now supplies. From the sentimentst 
hideedy which stand in the front of the article referred to, it is 
eTident that the views of the author of the plan coincided pretty 
exactly with those of the advocatee for the law as it is, except in 
eo fkr as his impatleace of private libels incited him to seek the 
means of rendering proceedings against them more effectual. 

* The works of former writers (savs the Reviewer) afford but slender assist- 
ance, consisting generally of vajrae aeelaraatlon or sweeping theory, in wkick 
the grand object of piacttcal ntiuty has been lost sight of. The laboors «f 
logislatora have been still more defeetive, varying ofiy between the opposite, 
and mimo$t squaUjf ptmieiout extremes of strict prohiDition and nnrestrained 
Ucenae ; nor has any attempt been made, as fkr as we know, even in the codes 
Ihshioned by specalatiTe men, for new commnnities to reconcile the two great 
objects of protecting free disosssion, and checking attacks apon ohafaeter.' 

No improvement on the law of libel could certainly be expected 
from one who considered " unrestrained license/' which is In Act 
practically exhibited by the state of the press in England and 
North America, an extreme " almost equally pernicious with strict 
prohibition'' or censorship ; and who attempted to reconcile froe- 
dom of discussion with the arbitrary imposition of penaltin on 
whatever might happen to be construed into an attack upon cha** 
racter, whether written or spoken. The more the subject Is re- 
flected on, and the more carefully the most plausible objections are 
exambed, the more we shall be conrinced that there is nojmint 
between the two extremes of ** unrestrained license " to speak and 
write, and " strict prohibition/' at which it would be wise, just, 
or safe to stop ; and that every attempt to reconcile the free 
exercise and full influence of intellect, as a check on the baser pro* 
pensitiea of our nature in the conduct of human affairs, with the 
panishment of erroneous or uncandid speculation, is but a reservation 
of openings through which individuals and parties naay anno^ those 
who dissent from their own partialities, principles, and prejudices. 
But let us e;camlne the provisions of Mr. Brougham's bill in the 
order in which they have been given : 

1. It first takes away entirely the power of filing tx ojicio infomiations in 
"■"* rds.* 



of libel and seditions won 
In 1816, such a reform might have been supposed to relieve the 
press fropi a most vexatious species of control ; but the operations 
of Uie * Constitutional Association' have since demonstrated, that 
prirate and irresponsible persons may harass their political adver- 
saries with a war of indictments, more active and rancorous thajj 
that which depended upon the temper of an Attomey-GencTal. 
Sir John Hawles has well observed, that " the true reaaou of a 
grand jury is the vast inequaHty of the plaintiff and defendant, 
wUch m an indictment is always between the King and his suljjccts ; 
Imt as in most oases of libel the contest is between opposite Parties 
in church or state, the protection of a grand or petty jury ca» imie 



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244 View of the Law of Libel 

avail a defendant ; the trne plaintifls may be in the jury-box, and 
if tliey are not, the prosecutor has little hope of a verdict. Thoee 
who admitted that owing to the peculiar nature of the sin of lib^l, 
it is a ^ much more important question whether any given publiea* 
tion shall be prosecuted or not, than whether it is libellous or not," * 
should have deduced this inference, that since an impartial prosecutor 
could not possibly be found, nor generated by any legislative con- 
trivance, and it was even a solecism to conjoin the two words, libel- 
ing was a species of crime which ought never to be prosecuted. If 
a jury cannot be trusted, whither shall we resort for an equitable 
judgment ? In respect to all other crimes, it is so fieur from being 
more important to aecide whether they shall be prosecuted, than 
whether they have been committed, that it has been contended that 
'' in all cases in which a grand jury sends a man to his trial, it doe% 
neither good nor evil ; for the man is tried, and sustains the conse- 
quences of his trial exactly as if no such thing as a grand jury had 
been in existence." t To be sent to trial is said to be no evil in 
any case ; but it is obvious that there has been an omission, from 
inadvertence, to except cases of libel, for, in respect to them, the 
fate of the defendant is in a groat measure decided by an affirmative 
or negative resolution respecting his being submitted to the ordeal 
of a trial. It follows, theroforo, that the abolition of e» officio in- 
formations would afford no material alleviation of the evils arising 
from the present law of libeL 

* 9. It next mholikhet the power of reply, unleM where the defendnit hei ad- 
dnced evidence ; thus placing the crown proiecutionB upon the Mine footing 
with all othen.* 

Thb amendment is not open to any objection, though its impor- 
tance may easUy be overrated. The effect of a defence against a 
charge of libel depends so much on the disposition of the persons to 
whom it is addressed, that thero are many instances of the most 
pertinent and effectual reply having been considered as an aggrava- 
tion of the original offence. He who is accused of teaching sedition 
or bksphemy can only justify himself by reasserting his statements, 
remforcing his arguments, and unfolding all the grounds on which 
he endeavours to establish those propositions which constitute the 
crime for which, in so seemingly preposterous a manner, he labours 
to exonerate himself. If the jury are prodisposed to regard the 
man who maintains the propositions in question as a criminal de- 
serving of temporal punishment, they will be confirmed in that opi- 
nion by the tenor of the defence ; and if they are predisposed to 
regard him as meritorious, excusable, or harmless, as worthy of ap- 
plause or contempt, all defence is superfluous. Under such cireum- 
stances, therefore, the prosecutor's privilege of roply is of little con- 
sequence. 

• Edinburgh Review, No. LXXIH, p. 117. 
f Edinburgh Review, No. XXXlIf, p. 107. 



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tit England and in India. 34d 

' '* S. Itlkrtherprateiitsaiiy rach' trial from being by special jary, imlesaboth 
jMities consent ; thoa placing the offence in question upon the same footing 
with all eriines of the highest nature, — yiz. treason and felony, and ^itl^ aU 
'misdemeanours, the proceedings for which do not come from the Crown-office.* 

This would undoubtedly be an improvement ; but it is very re-* 
markable, that the main reason why special juries are objectionable. 
— namelT, the imfair mode of striking them, is not once suggested 
nor allud^ to in this article ! For presisting in that mode, instead 
of " balloting for the jury out of a number of freeholders possessed 
of estates of such a value y' * no excuse whatever can be offered, nor 
any plauuble reply to the conclusive objections which have repeat- 
edly been preferred against it. But even if special juries were £urly 
struck from the same class of persons of which grand juries are com- 
posed, there would still be reason to prefer the judgment of a petty 
jury in all cases of libel ; persons in that rank of life being less imbued 
with the feelings, and less susceptible of the influences whence into- 
lerance proceeds, — ^pride, ambition, and timidity. The substitution 
of petty juries would therefore mitigate some of the evils inherent 
in the present system, but as such a body would still be liable to 
pronounce erroneous verdicts, and would not be intrusted ^ith the 
apportionment of the punishment, such a change would not remove 
half the objections which may be brought against the law of libel. 

* 4 The bill proceeds to take away the difference between written and spoken 
slander, aid to provide that the latter may be prosecuted as a misdemeanour.* 

It is needless to say, that this part of the bill deserved unqua- 
lified reprobation. The objections against prosecutions for written 
libel exist in tenfold force against prosecutions for spoken libel, 
whether relating to the petty quarrels and frivolous turmoils of pri- 
vate life, or the political topics which are in the moutbs of all men, 
and afford occasions to the most treacherous dilations and gross 
misrepresentations. If it requires but a moderate degree of mag- 
nanimity to despise written libels, what must be the rancour or feeble- 
ness of those who would hunt " winged words " into a court of 
justice, and seek penal retribution for the injury thereby inflicted 
on private or public integrity of character ? 

* 5. In the next place, it allows the defendant in all prosecutions for libel, or 
seditious or de&matory words, to give the truth of the statement in evklence, 
after due notice to the prosecutor ; but it provides that the jury may, not- 
wi^tanding of such proof, find the defendant guilty ; and tliat the court in 
passing sentence may consider such proof either in aggravation or mitigation, 
and may also consider the giving notice, without offering evidence in aggra- 
vation.* 

This was esteemed the most important provision in the proposed 
bill, that on which its friends and enemies chiefly rested their oppo- 
fflte opinions of its merits, and one which would make an era in the 
history of the law of libel. And if the practice of the existing law 
corresponded to its theory, as would have been the case but for 
trial by jury, and it had been proposed to make the truth of the 

* Lord Lyttleton*s Txitter to a Member of Parliament, 1738. 

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t46 new of ike Law of Lihel 

statemeiit a complete joBtificatioii in all casee, die adtantaifes of the 
enactment in question could not well hare been exaggerated. But^ 
in tlie first place» in almost all public^ and in many private libels, 
the truth of the facts involTed in the discussion is not questioned, 
but only the propriety and tendency of the inferences drawn from 
them, the epithets applied to them, and the comment iHth which 
they are accompanied. What the jury hare to consider ii, not the 
truth of the fitcts, which is matter of notoriety, nor the abstract se- 
rerity of the animadversions and vehemence of the InTective, btit 
whether the publications " proceeded horn a maiuriaus mind, bent, 
not upon making a foir communication for the purpose of expoeinff 
bad measures, but for the sake of exciting tumult and disaffection.** * 
The defendant would therefore derive little or no advantage ftoM 
being permitted to enppoit the truth of his ** statement'* by evi« 
denee, and would have stood under the proposed law in very nearW 
the same predicament in which he is placed at present. Under both 
systemS) the jury would apply their minds to the solution of the 
same question, namely, the malicious intention of the defendant. 

If *^ the rule which now prevails, operates most injuriously to the 
great interests of liberty, and of good government in general ; ** if 
" it tends to the prevention of public duscussion beyond all the fet- 
ters that ever were invented for the press ; ** if <' it may be ques- 
tioned whether a previous censorship would cramp its freedom much 
more effectually/' t — it might be replied, that the rule which waa 
proposed to be substituted, (and which actually prevails in meet of 
the states of North America,) would not sensibly have alleviated a 
pressure which is described to be so galling. To say, however, that 
the severe letter of the present law, tempered as it has always been 
by the interposition of a jury, tends to the prefoevUion of diecueaiom, 

BEYOND ALL THE FXTTEI18 THAT EVER WERE INVENTED FOR TfltX 

PRESS, (wlule it is doubted whether ** previous censorship,** which 
is far from being the worst description of fetters which have been 
applied to the press, '^ would cramp its freedom more effectually,*') 
is an assertion which Outrages truth as much as it fails in attaining 
the object for which it was advanced. 

Secondly, the illustrations given of the proviso which penaits the 
jury to find the defendant guilty, notwithstanding that he has prored 
the truth of his statement, show still more plainly the coind'" 
dence between the existing nde and that which was proposed to be 
substituted. Thus, 

* It if meaifcit th«f m statement, either sgitest the Ctovenuaenl of aa iadl- 
vldnd, nay be libdloes ; or, la eae a pknae to wUeh ao oae eaaobsieet, tmf 
be crimiaai, aUhoagh fwuiOffi la tnrth. VrndmUtUdftuU ma^ te iawwiwd te 
furious or i^^mmiatorjf in/netive. Some caies may be eonceived (thouc b 
tbey are exceedingly raie) In wbicb a simple itatamtfot of ikets respecnnf ae 
OoffemaieBt would be aa offnet against the pubUe tfaaqnilllty; bat ham^ 

^ Starkie on Ubel, p. Mft. 
t Bdlabargh Review, No. UIL p. 110. 



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Ml Sngktnd tmd in Iniiu. 24T 

wtraU« MlMHlfeyb* pot, iawMobtlMpabUesllOD of Uietrafh, withovtuw 



1 offenee agtiiif t private indiTidiMlfl. ThingB diidoted 

in confiteiee, or discovered by cormptiMi, and tluDgs concealed from motiTea 
of prudence or humfloiity, may be uaiieioiisty promnlgated ta the {^/tmiU ifi- 
jwof er MiUT rvlnqf fMMcene jMrfona.' 

Again, 

* Thai there are pdbllc libels, properly so called, trbicfa may be criminal, 
tbMgli tme, is eatUy sbowit. The laslanceaare no denbt rire, Irai they extol. 
II nay be libeUous to slate, ifi am ftUUmmoimrg wap, that whieh, If plainly 
slated, would be lnaeoeat,-H» to address the passions of the multitttde aboat 
scardtT of provisions, or of soldiers about pay. It may be libellous to address to 
partlciilftr classes, tL plain Statement of that which, published generally, would 
Be faia0e0Bt,--Htt 16 disperse it aftong a mob or an army. U may be libeltoitts I* 
state, e«mi pUdaig^ truths of a delicate nature at a particular erisis,>— as duitef 
an inTtialoa, a rebellion, or a mutiny. Finally, there are certain truths (but the 
nuiBber Is extremely small) of so partieularly delicate a nature, that the plaineH 
statement of them at any time would be libellous,-'«s the legitimacy of the 
fulgldofit SeYerelgn, Ms right to the erown generally, his politieal coadaet, 
for which he is not responsible, his private emidttct, of which the law takes no 
■otice. In all such eases, the truth is evidently not of itself a defence t it 
enters Indeed into the question of malice, and is fkvourable to the defendant 
as Ihr aa it goes, but Is not suAdent to acquit him* In all these, on the other 
head, the lUiehood of the stattmeat is deeistve of guilt.*^ 

It is ihrid^iity from these examples^ that the question in cases of 
pabDe Hbel, is not whether the defendant has erred in point of me^ 
taphysical and liistorical trnth, but whether he has violated moral 
and political truth. ** The epithet /a/:^^/' said the Judges in 1792, 
'* is not applied to the propositions contamed in the paper, hut to 
the aggregate criminal result— liheL We say falsus libellus, as 
we miy/mu9 proM&r in high treason. In pmnt of substance, the 
alteration in the deseription of tlie offenee would hardly be felt if 
the epithet we^ nerM instead of faUus" What evidence, for 
iaataooe, could be adduced to the truth of '^ furious or inflammatory 
iflweetlTe '* f How could tlie verity contaioed b ** addfesses to 
the passions of the multitude about scarei^ of provisions," or " of 
soldiers about pay,** be established by evidence 1 Even if no pro- 
viso had been inserted enabling the jury to find the defendant guilty, 
aolwithstanding the tmth of his statement, they could not have 
l)een delMurfed fi*om finding euek statements libels, if repugnant ta 
their own principles and feelings. 

It ts, however, improvfaig on the narrowest construction of the pre* 
sent law to say, that the plainest and most correct statement ci the 
political conduct of the reigning sovereign, at any time, would be 
libellona; for Lord Ellenboitmgh allowed that, << as the King may 
be misled bv the Mifdsters, and a change of system may be desirable 
from their iaults,'' ** if the passage (which appeared in the Mom* 
iag Chronicle of dd October 1809, copied from another paper) 
only meant that his Majesty, during his reign, or any lengUi of time, 
may havc^ taken an imperfect view of the teterests of the country, 
either respecting our foreign relations, or the system of our internal 



* Edhihnrgh Review, No. LIU. p. 100, lae. 

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'UB View of the Law of Libel 

policy; ifit imputed nothing but honsst error, without moral 
blame, he was not prepared to say that it was a libeL'* The 
" plainest " statement of the King's political conduct would surely 
be a candid and charitable statement ; and we see, that though it 
tended to convict him of having pursued during his whole reign an 
erroneous system of domestic and foreign policy, yet if it avoided 
.the imputation of partial or corrupt motives, it would not be libel- 
lous. Now, to discriminate between ^* honest " and dishonest 
** error,'' to understand what shall be construed to impute the one, 
and what to insinuate the other, — ^these are among the ** glorious 
uncertainties " of the law of libel. Though the influence of the 
affections is predominant over wise or foolish counsels, yet every 
deviation from wisdom must be supposed to be consistent with the 
purest intentions ; the truth which '' bares the mean heart," is 
proscribed as criminal, and the falsehood which corrupts it with 
flattery, is protected and encouraged ! 

While it thus appears that, under the projected bill, a hostile jury 
would have had exactly the same control over the fate of the de- 
fendant that they have at present, the Reviewer offers irrefragable 
arguments why its author ought to have taken the only step which 
can really emancipate the press, by withdrawing it from subjection 
even to the caprices of a jury : 

* In truth, (says he,) we might go much farther, and ask what daiwer can 
ever result from the most mUimUed discussion of public measures t £i what 
circumstances must a government be which ought to fear it t To hamper the 
press may serve the purposes of a usuipe^^ or a wretched and incapable mler; 
a just and lawful ffovemment may safely, and even advantageonsly, encowmgia 
XheJreeH discussion. The influence of those at the liead of affairs secures 
them at least an attentive hearing in their own defence ; it. ensures them also 
the support of a portion of the press. Even if they are in the wrong, they have 
ao many circumstances In their favour, that It requires all the native vigour of 
truth, aided by time, to prevail against them. If they are in the right, how 
much moi^ safely may they trust their support to reason, and rest satisfied 
with repelling or retorting the attack by weapons of the same kind ? What 
is there so very captivating in error, what so bewitching in excessive vio- 
lence, what so attractive in gross and palpable injustice, as to make thoae 
tremble who stand firm in the consciousness of being right ? Surely truth and 
sense have, at the least, an equal chance in the contest ; and if Uie reftitation 
of sophistry may be intrusted to argument, the exposure and condemnation of 
literary excesses may be left to good taste,- without much fear of their proving 
faurtM to any cause but that which they are intended to befriend, ne onljf 
ri^ tkatjuet and wUe rulert eon incur from diseuenon^ is to be found in the 
eoneequeneee qf its reetrietion. Hamper it, and even the best measares, 
the purest systems of government, have some reason to fear. . No mlea 
of law can prevent something of the truth firom getting out ; and if abhm- 
der is accidentally committed, the less free the press is, the mora likely 
are distorted and exaggerated statements to prevail. A people kept" in the 
dark are sure to be easily disquieted ; every breath makes them start ; all ob- 
jects appear in false shapes ; anxiety and alarm spread rapidly without a cans* ; 
and a government, whose conduct might bear tlie broadest i^are of day, may 
be shaken by the delusions which have sprung from unnecessary conceaJment.* 

If the writer entertained theee sentiments^ if he thought, on such 
sitbstantial grounds, that he '* might go farther," the necessary in- 
ference was, that he ought to go farther, and censure the inadequacy 



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in England and An India. 249 

of the proTirioiis in the bill wider his review. A man may display 
generosity or weakness in abating something from what he considers 
himself reasonably, equitably, or legally entitled to ; but it is both 
inconsistent and unjust to compromise the claims of the public, and 
to propose measures which confessedly come short of their ob- 
jects. 

The utmost that can be said in favour of this part of the bill is^ 
that its adoption into the laws of any country would seem to indicate 
that such a country is disposed to give a more manly and dispas- 
sionate hearing to every case of alleged libel ; and more disposed 
to throw off the last vestigia ruris than one in which evidence of 
the truth of the matter published is excluded. Such a conclusion 
would probably be perfectly well-founded with respect to North 
America ; but the example of France, which allows the truth re- 
garding the public conduct of all public functionaries to be freely 
published, and is yet very far behind England in the enjoyment of 
practical freedom of the press, shows that it would not be univer- 
sally applicable. 

* 6. The next proyision is for enabliag the defendant to prore that the publi- 
cation wm wholly withoat his priTity, and the jury to conYict, notwithstand- 
ing such eridenoe.' 

Such an amendment would be liable to the same objections, on 
the score of inadequacy, as the one which has just been examined. 
The rule which now prevails is strictly consonant to the other'parts 
of the law. It proceeds on the supposition that libellous matter 
is as certainly mischievous, and as clearly distinguishable, as a 
physical nuisance or poison. '^ If my servant thi'ow dirt into the 
highway, I am indictable ; " * and *' if a druggist have a boy in his 
•hop totally ignorant of the quality of all medicines, and that boy 
should sell poison, would not such druggist be indictable for a mis- 
demeanour as against the common health and safety of society V* t 
On these grounds, it is reasonable that the master should be punish- 
able for his vincible ignorance and wilful negligence in employing 
an incapable servant in so dangerous a trade. Now, if there were 
a drug supposed to be deleterious, and yet of such difficult analysis 
that the most skilful practitioners continually differed in opinion 
respecting its identity, some pronouncing it of the hurtful, and 
others of the beneficial kind, and so harmless, that it was daily 
administered to millions of persons without any injurious conse- 
quences, it would be most unjust and impolitic to make master or 
man criminally responsible for the sale of such a drug, thereby in- 
curring the greatest hazard of punishing innocent, or over-punish- 
ing culpable persons, and deterring them from the exercise of their 
discretion in supplying the public with the most useful and indis- 
pensable articles. Such a drug is Libel. 

* Per Holt, Chief Justice. Blackstone*s Commentaries, 4SI. 
f HoU*a Law of Libel, p. M. 



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950 ThewrHMlFUmofikeLtMofUhel. 



*7. U fcfAtr tMkeg am%y the dtotjactiim belWfMi inowji \ m 9 M 9g »p Uljltt^ 
Me og wic n ^ ttid voids ceiienll|r deftmafory, dedariog both to beactiomtblc^ 
nd thM naovinf also m digtinction between written and spoken slander.* 

This proTimon it obnoxiaus to the Bame objections which hare 
been advanced against the fourth. 

'a Lastly, it prohibiti the tmth of the stalwntfnf fceas belny pleaded in Jm- 
ti^eatipn to an aetion, whether for libel or for words ; bat enables the de^ 
tedm,«fendiie notiee to Che ftelatf ff, to give it In evideneevndarthege- 
•end. iifiic, nd the jwy to take sach erideaee inlo fheir ponMtmiioa* bat te 
flad a Terdict for the plaintiff notwitfistandUia, if they sbaU think fit.' 

The obeerFations oa this pioTisitn hare also been anticipated 
by those which were offered on the fifth. The fifths however, did 
tend, though it may be eoasidered slightly, to tMmx the sere-* 
lity of the law ; but this has in one respect a contrary tendeo^; 
it would remove the necessity wUch now exists for the lawof speaJ^ 
ing oa one occasion at least, the laaguage of unbounded tpleratiou,'^ 
9mi deprive the friends of £Deedom of souie argum^ts rendtin^ 
from the coatrasted views taken of the public anid private daotage 
which libel is capable of inflicting. If a bad man libelled asks for 
damages, the law says, that '^ the reputation cannot be said to be 
Injured when it was befoia destroyed: he had previously fK<« 
tinguished his own character/' and cannot ^' bring a* aetiou #f 
damage to a thing which does noteidst." t But if he denaadaihe 
pmishment of the iibeUer, lest he should avenge himself, the law 
has so much regard to his evil propensities, that it will resent the 
piovoeation thus given to him more than it wiU punish his own es« 
actfon of penal satisfaction, if he should resort to bsm^ violeaea. 
He who brings an action, dialienges inquiry into his eeatduct, aad 
relies more on the improssion which the rcMlt will prodnoe xin the 
world, than on the amount of damages awarded by the jury. Oa 
ihM other hand, he who prosecutes eiiminally, taeitfy adflutsihfit 
there is so much truth in the diargea as to deter hin from aacesui* 
tering a scrutiny into them. Both the jury aad the puhUc are folly 
loipressed widi this opiniea ; every right feeling is aigoayed againet 
Ite letter of the law, aad the consequence is, are are iM^ that ** no 
oae ever thinks of prosecuting. There is hardly aa inaiaiice «f a 
periodical woik being prosecuted at the instoooe of .a prisnate 
party.^ X Now, in so far aa the proposed chaage teaded to ^bni* 
iMi tMs laudable SArerseness from prosecution, and to encoufage 
men to look to any other forum thau the aodety in whioh tiif 
lived, for the just appnseiation of their character^ it w»uU have 
been a dtange tufinitciy to be deprecated ; far hoaeot man are ae*- 
var so sincerely respected, nor libelleia so severely rahuked, as whoa 
the protection of Ihe one, and the panishment of the other, are ea«- 
dusively intrusted to the uabiassed judgment of the puhUc 

* Blsckatone's Commentaries, p. ItS. 

t Holt, p. SBO. 

: EdlQbnrgh Reriew, No. LIH. p. IfiS. 



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251 



■ODSRN ENCROACHMENTS ON THE ANCIENT RIGHTS OF HINDOO 
FEMALES. BY RAMMOHUN ROY.* 

With a view to enable the public to form an idea of the state 
of olvilicatioa throoghoiit the greater part of the empire of Hin- 
doostan in aneieiit aayB,t and of the subsequent gradual degrada- 
tion introduced into its social and political constitution by aiin- 
trary authorities, lam induced to give as an instance, the interest 
and care which our ancient legislators took in the promotion of 
the comfort of the female part of the community ; and to compare 
the laws of female inheritance which they enacted, aad which 
afforded that sex the opportunity of enjoymeat of life, with that 
which modems and our contemporaries nave gradually introduced 
a&d established, to their complete privation, directly or indirectly, 
of most of those objects that render life agreeable. 

* From a scarce Tract, originally printed for private cin»lati«B la Beagat 
■f* At an early stage of cinlization^ when the division into castes was first 
iilrediieed among the inhabitants of India, the second tribe who were ap- 
poiatMl W defend aad rale the eonntry having adopted arbitrary and deepo* 
tie ptadieea, the others revolted agaiost them, aad under the peraoB^ com- 
namd of the celebrated Punisooram, defeated the Royalists in several battles, 
and out crnellv to death almost all the males of that tribe. It was at last 
rasolved that the legislative authoritity should be confined to the first class, 
who could have no share ki the actual government of the slate, or in maaag* 
ing the revenue of the country under any pretence : while the second tribo 
stould exercise the executive authority. The consequence was, that India 
fligoyed peace and harmony for a great many centuries. The Brahmins bav* 
ing no expectation of holding an office, or of partaking of any kind of politi- 
cal promotion, devoted their time to scientific pursuits and religious austerity, 
aad lived tn poverty. Freely assooiating with all the other tribes, they were 
tfans able to know their sentiments and to appreciate the justness of their 
complaints, and thereby to lay down such rales as were required, which of» 
ten induced them to rectify the abuses that were practised by the seeon4 
tribe. But after the expiration of more than two thousand years, an absolute 
Ibrm of goverament came gradually again to prevail. The first class having 
be«n induced to accept emplo3rments in political departments, became en- 
tirely dependent on the second tribe, and so unimportant in themseWes, that 
they were obliged to explain away the laws enacted by their fore-fathers, 
and to institute new rales acoovding to the dictates of their contemporary 
pfinoes. They weM considered as merely nominal legislators, and the whole 

ewer, whether legislative or executive, was in fact exercised by the 
Spools. This tribe exercised tyranny and oppression for a period of about 
• thousand years, when Musulmans from Ghuznee and Ghore Invaded the 
eovatiy, and finding it divided among hundreds of petty princes detested by 
their reapeetive sufajeets, nonquered them all successively, and IntrodpoaA 
their own tyrannical system of goverament, destroying temples, uniYersltias, 
and all other sacred and literary establishments. At present the whole 
empire (with the exception of a few provinces) has been placed under the 
BrUiiAi power; and sooM advantages have already been derived from the 
pfadsnt nam^enent of its nilen, from whose general cfaaraeter a hope of 
ftitare quiet aad haf^ness is justly entertaioed. The sneceeding genenaiiMi 
win however be more adequate to pronounce on tha real advantages of this 
ent. 



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252 Modem Encroachments on 

All the ancient lawgivers unanimoasly award to a mother an 
equal share with her son in the property left hy . her deceased 
hushand, in order that she may spend her remaining ' days in- 
dependently of her children ; as is evident from the following 
passages ; 

Yagnuvulkyu. " After the death of a father, let a mother also 
inherit an equal share with her sons in the division of the property 
left by their father." 

Katyayuna. ^' The fiither heing dead, the mother should 
laherit an equal share with the son." 

Narudu. " After the death of a hushand, a mother should re- 
ceive a share equal to that of each of his sons." 

Fishnoo the Legislator, " Mothers should he receivers of shares 
according to the portion allowed to the sons/* 

Frihusputi. " After his (the father's) death, a mother, the 
parent of his sons, should he entitled to an equal share with his 
sons ; their step-mothers also to equal shares : hut daughters to a 
fourth part of the shares of the sous." 

Vyasu. " The wives of a father hy whom he has no male 
issue, are considered as entitled to equal shares with his sons, and 
all the grand-mothers (including the mothers and step^mothers of 
the father) are said to he entitled as mothers." 

This Mooni seems to have made this express declaration of the 
rights of step-mothers, omitting those of mothers, under the idea 
that the latter were already sufficiently estahlished hy the direct 
authority of preceding lawgivers. 

We come to the modems. 

The author of the Dayuhhagu and the writer of the Dayututwu, 
the modem expounders of Hindoo law, (whose opinions are con- 
sidered hy the natives of Bengal as standard authority in the 
division of property among heirs,) have thus limited the rights 
allowed to widows hy the above ancient legislators. When a 
person is willing to divide his property among his heirs during his 
lifetime, he should entitle only those wives by whom he has no 
issue, to an equal share with his sons ; but if he omit such a divi- 
sion, those wives can have no claim to the property he leaves. 
These two modem expounders lay stress upon a passage of Yag- 
nuvulkyu, which requires a father to allot equal shares to lus 
wives, in case he divides his property during his life ; whereby 
they connect the term '* of a father," in the above quoted passage 
of Vyas, viz. '' the wives of a father, &c." with the term ** divi- 
sion" understood ; that is, the wives by whom h^ has no son are 
considered in the division made by a father, as entitled to equal 
shares with his sons ; and that when sons may divide property 
among themselves after the demise of their father, they shoula 
give an equal share to their mother only, neglecting step-mothera 



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the Ancient Rights of Hindoo Females, 353 

hi the division. Here the expounders did not take into their con- 
sideration any proper provision for step-mothers, who have na- 
turally less hope of support from their step-sons than mothers can 
expect from their own children. 

In the opinion of these expounders even a mother of a single 
son should not he entitled to any share. The whole property 
should, in that case, devolve on the son, and in case that son 
should die after his succession to the property, his son or wife 
should inherit it. The mother, in that case, should be left totally 
dependent on her son or on her son's wife. Besides, according to 
the opinion of these expounders, if more than one son should sur- 
vive, they can deprive their mother of her little, by continuing to 
live as a joint family, (which has often been the case,) as the 
right of a mother depends, as they say, on division, which depends 
on the will of the sons. 

Some of our contemporaries (whose opinion is received as a ver- 
dict by judicial courts) have still further reduced the right of a 
mother to almost nothing ; declaring, as I understand, that if a 
person die, leaving a widow and a son or sons, and also one or 
more grandsons, whose father is not alive, the property so left is 
to be divided among his sons and his grandsons ; his widow in this 
case being entitled to no share in the property ; though she^might 
have claimed an equal share, had a division taken place among those 
surviving sons and the father of the grandson while he was alive.'* 
They are said to have founded their opinion on the. above passage 
entitling a widow to a share when property is to be divided among 
sons. 

In short, a widow, according to the expositions of the law, can 
reeeiTe nothing when her husband has no issue by her; and in 
case he dies leaving only one son by his wife, or having had more 
sons, one of whom has happened to die leaving issue, she shall, in 
these cases, also have no claim to the property ; and again, should 
any one leave more than one surviving son, and they ^®\^? ,^" 
willing to allow a share to the widow, keep the property undivided, 
the mother can claim nothing in this instance also. But when a 
person dies, leaving two or more sons, and all of them survive aa 
be inclmed to allot a share to their mother, her right «» *^,j?^ 
case only, valid. Under these expositions, and with such - 
tations, both step-mothers and mothers have, in reality, ^®® V^. ^ 
destitute in the division of their husband's property, ^y'^^J^owa 
of a widow exists in theory only, among the learned, hut un 
to the populace. 

• Thia ezpoutioD hu been (I am told) set aside by the ®'*PT®{°® ^J?*^i»«? 
eoDseduence of the Judges hanny prudently applied for V*^^V««inritv of tt»c 
|»ttiidiU, which turned out to be at Tariance with those of the majoniy m 
regular advisers of the Court on points of Hindoo law. 

Oriental Herald, Vol, 10. S 



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254 Modem Eneroachmenta on 

The confleque&ce is, that a woman who is looked u}> to as thif 
sole mistress by the rest of a family one day, on the next beeeme» 
dependent on her sons, and subject to the slights of her datighten** 
in-law. She is not authorised to expend the most trifling sum or 
dispose of an article of the least value without the consent of her 
son or daughter-in-lawy who were all subject to her authority but 
the day before. Cruel sons often wound the feelings of their de- 
pendent mothers, deciding in favour of their own wives, when family 
disputes take place between their mothers and wives. Step- 
mothers, who often are numerous on account of polygamy being 
allowed in these countries, are still more shamefully neglected in 
general by their step-sons, and sometimes dreadfully treated by 
their sisters-in-law, who have, fortunately, a son or sons by their 
husband. 

It is not from religious prejudices and early impressions only, 
that Hindoo widows burn themselves on the piles of their deceased 
husbands, but also from their witnessing the distress in which 
widows of the same rank in life are involved, and the insults and 
slights to which they are daily subjected, that they become in a 
great measure regardless of existence after the death of their 
husbands; and tlids indifference, accompanied with the hope of 
future reward held out to them, leads them to the horrible act of 
suicide. These restraints on female inheritance encourage, in a 
great degree, polygamy, a frequent source of the greatest misery 
in Native families ; a grand object of Hindoos being to secure a 
provision for their male offspring, the law which relieves them from 
the necessity of giving an equal portion to their wives, removes a 
principal restraint on the indulgence of their inclinations in respect 
to the number they marry. Some of them, especially Brahmins of 
higher birth, marry ten, twenty, or thirty women,* either for some 
small consideration, or merely to gratify their Inrutal isclinatioiis, 
leaving a great many of them, both during their lifetime and after 
death, to the mercy of their own paternal relations. The evil 
consequences arising from such polygamy, the public may easily 
guess from the nature of the fact itsefi, without my being reduced 
to the mortification of particularising those which are known by 
the Native public to be of daily occurrence. 

To these women there are left only three modes of conduct to 
pursue f^r the death of their husbands : Ist. To live a miserable 
life, as entire slaves, witliout indulging any hope of support from 
another husband. 2dly. To walk in the paths of unrighteous- 
ness for their maintenance and independence. 8dly. To die on 
the funeral pile of their husbands, loaded with the applause and 
h<mour of their neighbours. It cannot pass unnoticed by those 

* The horror of this practice is so painful to the natural feelings of vuuk^ 
that even Madhuv Sing, the late Rigah of Tirhoot, (though a Brahmin Um- 
telO through compassion, took upon himself, (I am told,} within the Ust half 
century, to limit the Brahmins of hia estate to four wives only. 



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the Ancient Rights of Hindoo Females. 265 

who are acqaamted with the state of society in India, that the 
number of female suicides in the single province of Bengal, when 
eompared with those of any other British provinces, is almost ten 
to one ; we may safely attribute this disproportion chiefly to the 
greater freqaence of a plurality of wives among the natives of 
Bengal, and to their total neglect in providing for the muntenanca 
of their females. 

This horrible polygamy among Brahmins is directly contrary, to 
the law given by ancient authors ; for Yagnuvulkyu authorises 
second marriages while the first wife is alive, only under eight cir- 
cumstances. — 1st. Tlie vice of drinking spirituous liquors. 2dly. 
locurable sickness* 3dly. Deception. 4thly. Barrenness, dthly. 
Extravagance. 6thly. The frequent use of offensive language, 
7thly. Producing only female offspring. Or, 8thly, manifestation 
of hatred towards her husband. 

JffunaOf chap, zi., v. 80 — " A wife who drinks any spiritnon^ 
liquors, who acts immorally, who shows hatred to her lord^ who is 
incurably diseased^ who is mischievous, who wastes his property, 
may at all times be superseded by another wife." 81st. " A barren 
wife may be superseded by another in the eighth year ; she, whosei 
children are all dead, in the tenth ; she, who brings forth only 
daughters, in the eleventh ; she, who is accustomed to speak un- 
km(Uy, without delay." 82d. *' But she, who, though afflicted with 
illness, is beloved and virtuous, must never be disgraced, though 
she may be superseded by another wife, with her own consent." 

Had a magistrate, or other public officer, been authorised by 
the ralers of the empire to receive applications for his sanction to 
a second marriage during the life of a first wife, and to grant his 
consent only on such accusations as the foregoing being substan- 
tiated, the above law might have been rendered effectual, and the 
distress of the female sex in Bengal, and the number of suicides, 
would have been necessarily very much reduced. 

According to the following ancient authorities, a daughter is en- 
titled to one-fourth part of the portion which a son can inherit : 

Frihusputi, — ** The daughters should have the fourth part of 
the portion to which the sons are entitled" 

Ftshnoo. — ^* The rights of unmarried daughters shall be pro- 
portioned aoeording to the shares allotted to the eons." 

MmnoOj ch. ix. v. 1 18.—^^ To the unmarried daughters let their 
brothers give portions out of their own allotments respectively. 
Let each give a fourth part of his own distinct share, and they 
who feel disinclined to give this shall be condenmed." 

Yugmwmikyuj'^^ Let such brothers as are already purified by 
the essential rites of life, purify, by the performance of those rites, 
the brothers that are left hy their late father unpurified ; let them 
also purify the sisters, by giving them a fourth part of their bwA 
portion." 

82 



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2&6 Modern Encroachments on 

r 

Katyai/unu, — ^' A fourth part is declared to be the share of un- 
married daughters, and three-fourths, of the sons ; if the fourth' 
}>art of the property is so small as to be inadequate to defray the 
expenses attending their marriage, the sons have an exclusive 
ri^ht'to the property, hut shall defray the marriage ceremony of 
the sisters** Bat the commentator on the Dayubbagu sets aside 
the right of the daughters, declaring that they are not entitled to 
any share in the property left by their fathers, but that the ex- 
penses attending their marriage should be defrayed by the 
brothers. — ^He founds his opinion on the foregoing passage of 
Munoo and that of Yagnnvulkyu, which, as he thinks, imply mere 
donation on the part of the brothers from their own portions for 
the discharge of the expenses of marriltge. 

In the practice of our contemporaries, a daughter or a sister is 
often a source of emolument to the Brahmins of less respectable 
caste, (who are most numerous in Bengal,) and to the Kayusths of 
high caste ; these, so far from spending money on the marriage of 
their daughters or sisters, receive frequently considerable sums, 
and generally bestow them in marriage on those who can pay most.^ 
Such Brahmins and Kayusths, I regret to say, frequently marry 
their female relations to men having natural defects, or worn out 
by old age or disease, merely from pecuniary considerations ; 
whereby they either bring widowhood upon them soon after mar- 
riage, or render their lives miserable. They not only degrade 
thendselves by such cruel and unmanly conduct, but violate entirely 
the express authorities of Munoo, and all other ancient lawgivers ; 
a few of which I here quote. 

Munoo ch. iii. v. 51. '* Let no father, who knows the law, re- 
ceive a gratuity, however small, for giving his daughter in mar- 
riage ; since the man who, through avarice, takes a gratuity /im* 
that purpose^ is a seller of his offspring/' Ch. ix. v. 98. *< But 
even a man of the servile class ought not to receive a gratuity 
when he gives his daughter in marriage ; since a father who takes 
a fee on that occasion tacitly sells his daughter.'' V. 100. << Nor, 
even in former births, have we heard the virtuous approve the 
tacit sale of a daughter for a price, under the name of nuptial 
gratuity.'' 

Kashyupu, ** Those who, infatuated by avarice, give their own 
daughters in marriage^ for the sake of a gratuity, are the aellers 
of their daughters, the images of sin, and the perpetrators of a 
heinous iniquity." 

Both common sense, and the law of the land, deprecate such a 
practice as an actual sale of females ; and the humane and liberal 

• Rajsh Kissenchnndnt, the great gnuM^fkther of the present Ex-Riyah of 
Knddea, prevented this cruel practice of the tale of dtnghters and tistert 
throughoat his estate. 



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the Ancient BighU of Hindoo Females. 267 

unOBg Hindoos lament its existence, as well as the annihilation 
of female rights in respect of inheritance, introduced hy modern 
. ezpoanders. They, however, trust that the humane attention of 
Government will be directed to those evils which are chief sources 
of vice and misery, and even of suicide, among women ; and to this 
they are encouraged to look forward by what has already been 
done in modifying, in criminal cases^ some parts of the law enacted 
by Mohammedan legislators, to the happy prevention of many 
cruel practices formerly established. 

How distressing it must be to the female community, and to 
those who interest themselves in their behalf, to observe daily 
that several daughters in a rich family can prefer no claim to any 
portion of the property, whether real or personal, left by their 
deceased father, if a single brother be alive ; while they (if be- 
longing to a Kooleen family or Brahmin of higher rank) are ex- 
posed to be given in marriage to individual? who have already 
several wives, and have no means of maintMning them. 

Should a widow or a daughter wish to secure her right of main- 
tenance, however limited, by having recourse to law, the learned 
Brahmins, whether holding public situations in the courts or not, 
generally divide into two parties, one advocating the cause of 
those females, and the other that of their adversaries. Sometimes 
in these or other matters respecting the law,, if the object be con- 
tended for be important, the community seems to be agitated by 
the exertions of the parties and their respective friends in claiming 
the verdict of the law against each other. In general, however, a 
consideration of the difficulties attending a lawsuit, which a Native 
woman, particularly a widow, is hardly capable of surmounting, 
induces her to forego her right ; and if she continue virtuous, she 
is obliged to live in a miserable state of dependence, destitute of 
all the comforts of life ; it too often happens, however, that she is 
driven by constant unhappiness to seek refuge in vice 

At the time of the decennial settlement in the year 1793, there 
were among European gentlemen so very few acquainted with 
Sungscrit and Hindoo law, that it would have been hardly possible 
to have formed a Committee of European oriental scholars and 
learned Brahmins, capable of deciding on points of Hindoo law. 
It was therefore highly judicious in Govcrnmeol to appoint Pandits 
in the different Zillah Courts, and Courts of Appeal, to facilitate 
the proceeding of Judges in regard to such subjects : but as we 
can now fortunately find many European gentlemen capable of 
investigating legal questions with but little assistance from learned 
Natives, how happy would it be for the Hindoo community, both 
male and female, were they to enjoy the benefits of the opinion of 
such gentlemen, when disputes arise, particularly on matters of 
inheritance. 

Lest any one should infer from what I have stated, that I mean 



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258 The Cities of the Plain. 

to impeach UBiversally the character of the great body of learned 
Hindoos, I declare, positively, that this is (m from my intention : I 
only maintain, that the Native community place greater confidence 
in the honest judgment of the generality of European gentiemen 
than in that of their own countrymen. But should the Natives 
receive the same advantages of education that Europeans generally 
enjoy, and be brought up in the same notions of honour, they will, 
I trust, be found equally with Europeans, worthy of the confidence 
of their countrymen and the respect of idl men. 

Ram Mohuk Roy. 
Beogal. 



THE CITIES OP THE PLAIN. 

' H ^9«# Auu^ rUrwetw thihim^, 

*^ Unseasonable joys misfortuiie breeds/* 

At summer eve, when down the azure cope 

Of heaven the blazing sun in glory rolled, 

Shedding his gorgeous splendours o*er the earth, 

When setting, most magnificent,*->Uke hope. 

Most radiant *mid the darkness of the grave, — 

Beneath the shadow of a fan-leaved palm. 

Branching its bowering foliage, silken green. 

Around the Patriarch*s dwelling, at the door 

Of bis lone teot, on Mamre*s fiuitful plain. 

The Father of the Faithful sate alone. 

Flowers of all hues and textures swelling rose, 

And mingled colours gleamed upon the eye, 

Like the blest bow in Oriental skies. 

While through the almond groves arose perfume, 

Like holy Yemen's, on the fanning air, 

Fresh at the evening hour and soft as balm. 

Par o*er the plain, from date-tree groves leapt up 

The gladsome floeks, and from their grateful shades. 

Their shadowing noontide bowers, the panting herds. 

Rejoicing in the eve, and, with raised heads. 

Drinking the air ; then on the flowery mead 

They graaed awhfle, ofl tttming to the spot 

Where sat their princely master, and aloud 

Rendering him joyful homage. Thus he sato, 

Phoenicians stranger prince, the man of Ooo, 

Watching in gratefbl happiness the scene. 

And, silently, from a full heart of love. 

Adoring Him, whose laws vouchsafed had kept 

His erring nature from the paths of ill. 

And on his hoary head conferred a crown 

Of meek rejoicing and true thankAilness. 

While thus he sate and worshipped, suddenly 
Three forms like men,-*4ave that they wore a port 
' Mqjestic more than human, — stood before 
His fixed, lone musing eye ; their presence now 
Sole prelude of their advent — ^for no step 
Rustled, no shadow glunmer*d near to tell 



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Tke Ciiiei of ike Plain. 259 

Of vUitants ; but well the Propbet knew 

Their nature end high ^perties, though clothed 

lo guise of frail humanity. He rote 

To do them rertfeooe m his pilgrim guests, 

And to their seeming and intent did suit 

His hospitalities, fin andent days 

The stranger was a hallowed name, and none 

ftss'd nnprorided on Ids pilgrimage, 

However hnmble.) And them, on their way. 

At their departure, consort held awhile, ' 

And heedeci well, in fiuth devoid of fear, 

Angelic counsel humanly bestowed. 

As thus they joumied, in a moment's lapM 
The more majestic Form laid by his robe 
Of earth, and turning his all-radiant eye 
Fall on the CiUes of the Plain, in wrath 
Denounced the fiat — " They must perish !** — Far 
Through lower and mid and upper air, and theoco 
Through all the starry worids, and upward still 
From heaven to heaven, arose the dread dectee— 
All angels, from the cherub, Aill of love 
And gentleness, to the archangel, throned 
'Mid thunders, crying in the voice of doom 
For ever—" They must perish ! "-Silent stood 
The awe-struck Father of the Faithful there. 
While the stem judgment peal'd along the skie». 
And through the air a biasing besom waved 
Thrice o>r the fated Cities ; then he fell, 
0*erpower*d with glory, and in vision saw 
The terrors of the dreadAil day to come. 

But Faith bath godlike power, and holy »«». 
May plead with^od as with their c^iosenfriwl, 
E'^ when his messengers ajre Ijghtning-boltt. 

Cleaving immensity, and **»« r'^?J!?a« • 
Of rocking thunders uttera Hia commands , 
And, by &e wlorsaking truat j5»t^*iV.^ 
Pure spirits cherish, now upheld, he rose. 
And cned for mercy on the ^}^^y^^'^^ , 
But silence was his wiswer— 't ww ^^^"^'^ 
To the blue heavens, ^'^^^^X^^^^thST 
Serene and burmog lo their 5»i»h*»^*l ;S^ i^Ugirt 
He laised his soul in •»Sf^*^,,;,»^^d^,?Sy 
All hope of mnn, O 1-^*1?^^^^ oSd fSlSd^' 
The ri^teous with the ^^t^l flvilVons 
PerchiSce, there dwell *«^» ^STorsUy 
Of Belial fifty riifhteou. •. wUyhott^i^ 

The sinner and tlie ^^jL^^^gTf^d among 

A voice replied: " ^ ^^^^'^^l iust. 

The Citiei^f the PW«*o,n^y^3;^^^^^^ ^ 



TJeCiti^of the,Phanj^o,n^^^ ^^„ 

They perish not/'— C^r a"y ^ 

The hily man i«nP^^^^ Tye th^ •«»« 
Lessening in <*oP»*~i?^„tIve«rwere vain ; 
Of his petUion— but biB P^«^, ^l^ose head* 
For notamong the *»>oiUiM^»^^ ^^ ^ ^^^^^ 
Destruction huoy, ^^^Z,!f^m the storm of wr«»b— 
That should redeem *^f "^JJai when deferred I 
Almighty wrath-r-m^s* ";^^, »neatb the light 
And 3er the pjeiu ^'j^i^f^l^'wly in grief 
Of the starred firmniaent, « 



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260 The Cities of ike Plain. 

The Patriarch trod his melancholy way. 
And oft tam'd back to look and weep once more 
0*er the doomed Cities, where Destruction lower*d. 
And Ruin flapped the air with blood-red wings. 

In starlight beauty lay the pleasant fields 

Of Jordan, and on every tufted knoll 

Slept the white flocks, that dotted the green grass. 

Ana imaged household hspniness ; the herds 

81unA>ered in silence round the rills, the wealth 

Of their possessor ; and the shepherd's crook 

Stood iJly by, while he, Chaldea*s son, 

Searching out wisdom in his daily walks, 

Watch*d the Tast universe of stars, and, skill'd 

In mystic lore by solitarv thought 

And lone communion with unbodied forms. 

Gave names to separate orbs, and leam*d their lights 

Distinguishable ; from th' high Mssaloth, 

To godlike Mythra and Zohail, he traced 

Ethereal influences, starry forms, 

And airy potentates, that o*er the fkte 

Of man exert their mystic qualities, 

For bliss or bale on earth ; or, by the side 

Of fellow herdsman lying on the turf. 

He wiled away the lingering night by tales 

Of other days— traditions dim of men 

In the world's youth, and wondrous legends, deom*d 

Oracles by simple nature, trusting e*er 

The truth of hoary eld ; then angels held 

Discourse with men ; and Poesy, the child 

Of fiction, told their wanderings o*er earth. 

And with high Fancy's drapery arrayed 

Their glorious properties and power below. 

Silent, the groves gleam *d dewy radiance round. 

And the gay birds, their brilliant pinions fSuled, 

And their bright plumage covering their young 

(Unlike the proud ones of a nobler race) 

From nightly harm, beneath the spreading leaves 

Reposed, their last vesper praises sung. 

The humming bees of Jordan, 'mid their stores 

Of nectar, hung in silent multitudes. 

From Siddim's vale of slaughter to his lair 

Retum'd, the lion slept upon the binks 

Of reedy Kedron ; the hyena's howl 

Had ceased ; the seipent. coil*d within bis den. 

Forgot to sting ; all evil things, save man, 

Obey'd the mandate of the midnight hour. 

It was a stilly and a beauteous scene : 

The flashing brook pori'd bv with such a sound 

As tells of silence, and the distant waves 

Of Jordan munmir'd such mysterious notes 

As 'flout athwart the mind vrhen lofty thoughts 

With inspiration Imrn ! Around the home 

Of the wise son of Haran, peace and love 

Hover'd delighted, and the good man, bow'd 

In meek and solemn worahip, for his foes 

Had otfer'd up his nightly orisons. 

And, penitent for his own secret sins. 

Forgiven all, as he would be forgiven. 

When the angelic visitants appear'd. 

From the outer gate of Sodom, reverently 



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^'^^**^'o/tlte Plain. 
With his lored ««■? f ^5"*"' •» ■ man 

5?:^Jr*rd seiS^JSSr'i*^ Jordan's plain, 
f*^ d •andalTSum^!?'* corporeal guise, 
APPwent sustenance an? "^.'^^y •' ^«^*»«^y toojc 
fne atrdnffer'. r!^f^ "" '®«*» an^i held 
^henl.*SdVrX*?.T^*'1f = how the flocks 
X?S,«<*w>nspi«M\„^*^ how 

P' peace and lore - In^ i!^""* *™»*« 
^conunerce with th!^.?**^ ^^'^ ^**y ^^"v«d 
S;ffoTen,n,«7md uJf ^ thence they spake 

(And wel?Sj^^^!?*^T!^»« «««»*'^ their host. 
^» ke could riJf^i."^^** ***» «"«°t «rief,) 
^^muninir t^h Jf ^*>. »n»^ei— -btit for ill. ^ 
Arose fS oV JS !J*"? ^'^ multitudes 
^ «v^e teio^^^ "^ Hotous cries. 

^'countlL- S^^r?*****"® » "<* *»»e jar 
<^ eiS^SSe th'/lfP'.Tf^^*^ ^~- *«d wide 

O'ia^fcs H«i^^^'^«7»*»» ^^'^ threal'ning voice 
^t siW -% confident of power. 

*l^hU ntl ^^"rJr^^ throws a gleam of light 
That slimtL! • '^li* reTealment of the bolt 
Ontime?^ * K?**^ ***^ thuoder's folds of wrath. 
Uk^lSf "«'*»*««*«» '^om revel loosed. 
And ifSSSSL'^v" ***^ *«"^ cbains of hell 
SemiS^^,*^ l^"^ dwellinjy, with rude oaths 
rS?S5? '^'J**^^ *^« »trwigrer8 ; and the door 
• Of ]tf-!l ? " ^nouaand weapons. Vain the voice 
m,^!I?5 ■ •®" "'^^^ 5 vain Ws mild prayers ; 
,j^w«nd extorted sacrifice to shun 
^ w perpetraUon of the iinliaaiowed deed; 
Iff"' — worse than vain ; his ^vraming voice unheard. 

1^« agonized beseecfaingv oh, how vain 1 

AnJ^^^^*^ upon him tnacUx ; screams and shouts, 
j^atbemas and prayers connniiiffled. peal*d 
jar o er the city, and the starlight skies 
f^^g with the startling echoes. — Suddenly, 
^ek fell, astonish M, the uratat multitude; 
2"ence stood listenin^p tow their blasphemies ; 
^mid the throng- no voice wrais heard, nor sound 



261 



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262 Ttie Cities of the Plain. 

Of human life ; like piUara in the gloom 

Of night, they stood^^bliiid, motionless, and dumb ! 

The earth beneath them heaved ; a moaning sound 

Passed o'er their spirits, like the distant roll 

Of chariots in the battle ; and they fell 

Amid the city, side by side, o*erpower*d 

With terror and despair ; — they rose no more ! 

" Oo, warn thy kindred 1 bid them rise and flee 

From out this Golgotha ; for wrath is o*er , 

The Cities of the Plain T* And forth he went. 

The righteous man, with mingled hope and fear. 

And told of the destruction timt e*en now 

Was gathering in its blackness ; but his sons 

Were feasting, and his daughters would not hear ; 

Lapt in low wantonness, ami erery sense 

Lost in the madness of inflamed desire. 

*' Thy stranger pilgrims will upset the woridf 

A mad old man ! — ^it were a sin to toss 

The prince and beggar, and the fair and foul. 

Without distinction, into chaos-^all ! 

O, let the pilgrims come and quaff a cup 

In the gay banquet I they are welcome now, 

r tlie name o' charity ; red wine is good 

To cheer desponding enyy^-let them come J 

Thy angels will be courteous— mad old man f '* 

Thus to the last dread warning, and the Toice 

Of agonized affiaction, and the groans 

Of a bewailing fiither, made reply 

The reprobate-— lost children of the just. 

They sebm'd the pr6pheey, and they were scorn *d 

In its fulfilment ; mocking the last cry 

Of lingering lote, the blasthig fire-bolt moek'd 

Their unaTailisg prayers of agonj. 

With a sick heart, the wretched mther tum*d 

From guilty grandeur's doom*d abodes, and sought 

His humble but blesi'd home on Jordan's plain. 

'' Haste I haste I" cried the Destroyers. ** Still the storm 

Of Ruin slumbers until thou art passed 

The mountains of thy reftige ; haste away !** 

** Must they be left, the lovely ones that hung 

Upon thy bosom, lore 7 they, that oft climb'd 

My knee, and sought the dear caress ! that slept 

Between us in our earlier years, and went 

Leaping for joy among the flocks and herds. 

And prattling of thei^ bliss, when we were near ? 

Oh, must they perish I--HU>t alone on earth. 

But everiastingly-^hey whom we rear*d 

To Ood's true worship ? Ah 1 forgive my woe ; 

A fether's heart must bleed.*'-— ^* They have been wara'd. 

They spurn at counsel ; be their portion, death !*' 

*T was a stem mandate, and the ^mnI man wept. 

While hurrying his departure, but such tears 

Of grief paternal, that e'en angels felt 

Apdrtiott of their agony, though none 

Flow from the sunlight fountains of their bliss.* 

* The concluding portion of this POem will be given in our next. 



I 



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263 



HISTORICAL SKETCH OF THE RISE AMD PROGRESS OF THE 
BRITISH POWER IN INDIA. 

No. vin. 

The attention of the Government was now called to the condi- 
tion of the reyenue. It had very soon been observed, that the 
plan for collecting it, adopted in 1772, was a complete failare ; 
and therefore, the very next year, it was greatly modified. Exclud- 
ing Chittagong and Tipperah, the provinces were formed into six 
great divisions, in each of which (that of Calcutta excepted) a 
cooncil of five was established, to preside over all officers and afiiEiirs 
of revenue ; and immediately, or by its deputies, to superintend the 
civil courts of justice throughout its division. In Calcutta, a 
committee of revenue was appointed* But these regulations, how- 
ever, were only temporary, and a more complete measure was con- 
templated which should supersede them entirely. 

It was found, too, that the farmers of the revenue, in taking their 
five years' lease, had ill calculated the resources of the country, 
and engaged for more than they could pay : by the terms of their 
contract, the rent was to go on* increasing progressively ; but it fell 
short the very first year, and no reasonable hopes could be enter- 
tained that time would improve matters. Upon this, the Goveroor- 
Qeneral and his colleagues contrived, as usual, to discover ground 
for bickerings and contention ; the latter accusing the former of 
having dec^nved the honourable Directors, by holding forth extra- 
vagant hopes of revenue ; and Hastings defending himself as well 
as he could, by provmg that he had himself been deluded. 

The farm by auction was likewise siud to have originated other 
evils: a great number of the ancient zemindars had been outbid, 
in 1772, and deprived of their possesHons ; a still greater number 
had been successful bidders, and thereby reduced themselves to 
poverty and ruin ; for, like other men, they were ambitious of main- 
taining their rank in society, and therefore led to bid for the revenues 
much more than they were worth. Men thus goaded by ambition, 
were not likely to be moderate or forbearing landlords. They 
turned against the ryot every weapon that could be invented by ne- 
cessity, endeavouring, during their five years' lease, to extract from 
the people beneath them their last penny. 

At length, after much debate, the Governor-General proposed, 
that the several members of Council should transmit to the Direc- 
tors their separate opinions on the best mode of levying the taxes, 
in his own proposal, which was also approved by Mr. Barwell, 
leases for one or two lives were preferred to shorter ones, and 



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264 Rise and Progress 0/ the 

a preference was recommended to be given to the offers of zemin- 
dars, when not inferior to those of other persons. The other mem- 
bers of Council, who had prepared no plan, were satisfied with 
indulging in the bitterest censure of the existing system, and In- 
vectives against the fickleness of the Governor-General. 

However, in January 1776, Mr. l^Vancis entered a minute, re- 
cording at great length his opinions of the ancient government of 
the country, and the means calculated to ensure its &ture prospe- 
rity. He asserted, that the property of the land never belonged to 
the sovereign, but to the zemindars ; and his plan of raising a re- 
venue was, to impose a land-tax, fixed, perpetual, and invariable, 
on that class ol men. To protect the ryots from the rapacity of 
the zemindars, Mr. Francis suggested prescribed forms of leases ; 
and other minor notions were joined with these, to give completeness 
to his theory, but they deserve little attention. 

The imperfection acknowledged by all parties to have ezioted 
hitherto in the administration of justice, Mr. Francis attributed to 
the reduction of the authority of the zemindars, who, he conteoded, 
had formerly exercised a penal control entirely judicial. They had 
been obliged, under the old Government, to make compensation, 
like an assurance office, to persons suffering by theft or robbery, 
and were liable, in cases of murder or riot, to be fined by the 
Prince. Mr. Francis now advised putting them upon the an- 
cient footing. His opinions, however, were slighted by Mr. 
tiaatings, who, in conjunction with Sir Elijah Impey, formed the 
draught of a bill for an act of Parliament, on the civil judicature 
of Bengal. In this plan, communicated to the Council in May, 
. were proposed two courts of record for each of the seven depart- 
ments into which the country, including Chlttagong, had baen 
divided. The criminal branch of judicature was wholly omitted 
in this draught, having, in fact, been palmed upon the Nuwaub's 
Government, and placed under the superintendence of Mahomed 
Reza Khan. 

Colonel Monson dying, November 1776, Warren Hastings re- 
gained the ascendancy in the Council. He had, on the first of No- 
vember, entered a minute, proposing to institute, as a first step to- 
wards reform, an inquiry into the principal sources of revenue ; which 
inqiury was to be conducted by covenanted servants of the Compaay, 
assisted by a competent number of Natives: the whole under 
his own care or control. As every measure proposed by the Go- 
▼emor-^Seneral was systematically opposed by the other party in 
the Council, it was not to be expected that this should be suffered 
to pass quietly into operation. Mr. Francis and General Clavering 
condemned the principle upon which it was intended to institute 
the inquiry ; and the latter, in an angry minute, accused Hastings 
of aiming, through the destruction of the authority of Council > at 
the arbitrary management of our territorial acquisitions. 



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Briiish Power in India. 265 

However, by the death of Colonel Monson, Warren HaBtings had 
now gained the ascendancy, and the office was established. But, as 
great difficulty was experienced in obtaining information, the fire 
years' leases expired (April 1777) before it had been determined 
what plan should be adopted for the future. It was allowed by all 
parties, however, that by the preceding plan the country had been 
grievously overtaxed ; indeed, this was proved undeniably by the 
fact, that a deficiency had taken place in the revenue to the im- 
mense amount of one hundred and twenty-nine lacs of rupees. In 
the mean time, the Court of Directors in England, to whom the 
Governor-General and Mr. Francis had transmitted their plans, 
thought proper to adopt neither, but sent orders directing the lands 
to be let for one year on the most advantageous terms ; the mode 
of letting by auction to be abolished; Natives residing on the 
spot were to have the preference ; and neither Europeans nor their 
banyans were to have any share in the fanning of the revenues. Upon 
these instructions a plan for the ensubg year was founded ; and the 
same mode of settlement, renewed yearly, was continued till 1781. 

Whett information reached the Directors respecting the Office of 
Inquiry, they were highly displeased at the conduct of the Go- 
vernor-General, and in their letter of 4th July, 1777, animadverted 
on it in very severe terms. Mr. Hastings, while he was in the minority 
in Council, had despatched a confidential agent to England with 
authority, under certain circumstances, to tender his resignation. 
This agent, a Mr. Maclean, communicated the Govemor-Generars 
desire, that his resignation might be received, to the Court of Di- 
rectors, which, after considerable discussion, they agreed to accede 
to, and immediately chose a Mr. Wheler as his successor, who was 
presented to the King, and approved of. Until Mr. ^Vheler should 
arrive. General Clavering, as senior Member of the Council, was em- 
powered to take the chain 

News of these proceedings reached Bengal in June 1777> and 
was followed by a degree of confusion, which threatened to end in 
civil war. Mr. Hastings was ready to have recourse to arms, 
but the other party shrunk from this mode of terminating the dis- 
pute, and agreed to submit to the award of the Supreme Court, 
which decided in fieivour of Warren Hastings. 

From some portions of Hastings's conduct it might be inferred 
that his disposition inclined him to practise iniquity upon a large 
scale only ; but this inference would be incorrect ; petty mischief 
and malignity were no less his delight, particularly if they minis- 
tered in the slightest degree to gratify his inordinate pride and fond- 
ness for power. It will perhaps be remembered, that the Opposition 
Members of Council, upon their first acquiring the ascendancy, 
recalled Mr. Hastings's agent, Mr. Middleton, from the court of 
the Nuwaub of Oude, and appcynted Mr. Bristow in his place. 
They likewise despatched a Mr. Fowke, as a kind of ambassador 
to the Rajah of Benares. Against these individuals no complidnts 



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266 Rise und Progress of the 

were prefered ; on the contrary, Mr. Hastings himself acknowled^d 
the great merit of Mr. Bristow, and had nothing to say against 
Mr. Fowke. Nevertheless) one of the first acts he performed, on 
recovering the supreme power, was the recal of these gentlemen; the 
first in order to he replaced hy Mr. Middleton, and the second 
under pretence that his mission had heen accomplished. However, 
a few days afterwards two persons were sent to supply his place at 
Benares. 

These transactions the IHrectors at home condenmed entirely, 
and forthwith despatched the most explicit and positive orders 
directing the re-appointment of Mr. Bristow and Mr. Fowke to their 
former residencies. Bat Warren Hastings entertained the same 
contempt for the Court of Directors as for his colleagues in the 
Bengal Government, and therefore made no account of their orders, 
but continued his own creatures in their situations. By a kind of 
fatality the predominance in Council remained still in his hands ; for 
while the opposition gained an accession of strength hy the arrival 
of Mr. Wheler, they were reduced to their former inferiority by thd 
death of General Clavering, in August 1777- In order to satbfy 
to the utmost the spleen he nourished against his opponents in 
Council, Hastings now determined on a more important step — the 
removal of Mahomed Reza Khan from the superintendence of the 
Nuwaub's household, and the appointment of Munny Begum in his 
stead. As Mahomed Reza's appointment, however, had been sane* 
tioned by the Directors, he thought it would seem somewhat in- 
decorous to annul it without some excuse, and therefore induced 
the Nuwaub to complain by letter of the severe treatment be had 
received from Mahomed, and to request that, as he was now of age, 
he might be allowed to manage his own affairs. This being pre- 
cisely what the Governor-General desired, he of course resolved 
to comply with the wishes of the Nuwaub, remaved Mahomed Reaa 
from his office, and appointed Munny Begum to superintend in his 
stead. This step also was condemned by the Directors, who no 
sooner learned that Mahomed Reza had been removed from his 
office, than they sent out peremptory orders for his restoration. 

The Mahrattas had now for some time occupied the attention of 
the Council ; for, although a treaty had been concluded with them 
by Colonel Upton, neither party were satisfied, or free from jealousy. 
The rulers of Bombay, upheld on this occasion by the authority of 
the Directors, eagerly sought some pretext for infnnging the treaty, 
which the Mahrattas themselves were in no haste to fulfil. While 
affairs were in this doubtful position, a French ship arrived on the 
Mahratta coast : she brought several gentlemen on a mission from 
the King of France to the Government of Poonah ; and the recep- 
tion these persons received in that city, excited violent alarm in 
the English. No assurance of the Mahratta Government could 
satisfy the Bombay Presidency that no evil was meditated agiunsi 



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British Power in India: 267 

the Coippanjr ; they represeuted the matter in a fearful light to the 
Supreme Council of Calcutta ; Colouel Upton, on the contrary, who 
had negociated the late treaty, defended, against the accusations of 
the Bombay Presidency, the conduct and designs of the Malirattas;. 
but Hastings, who knew what politicians generally are, was inclined 
to beliere the worst, and listened to the suspicions of the Governor 
of Bombay. Divisions arising in the Council at Poonah, and one 
party declaring for the exiled Ragoba, and asking aid of the English, 
the rulers of Bombay were induced to promise their co-operation, 
and immediately despatched intelligence of the whole proceeding to 
the Supreme Council. There their conduct was condemned by 
Mr. Wheler and Mr. Francis ; but as the Governor-General and 
Mr. Barwell, who formed a virtual majority, came to a different 
decision, it was resolved that a supply of soldiers and money should 
immediately be sent to Bombay ; that the soldiers should march 
across the Peninsula with all possible expedition ; and that the 
command of the detachment should be conferred on Colonel Leslie^ 
The troops departed for Calcutta, and marched towards Bundel* 
ennd and Berar, but experienced some obstructions on the com- 
mencement of their route. The fluctuating policy of the Mahratta 
Chie& made it doubtful what course ought to be pursued, and at 
one time the Presidency of Bombay, under whose authority these 
troops were placed from the commencement of their march, de- 
spatched orders to Colonel Leslie to halt ; at another to advance. 
At length, upon the intelligence reaching Calcutta that war had 
been declared between France and England, the Supreme Council 
despsitched orders to Colonel Leslie not to advance till further 
orders, beyond the limits of Berar. 

The Governor-General, conceiving it would tend greatly to 
strengthen the cause of the English, if an alliance were entered into 
nitb some of the principal Native Powers, despatched an embassy 
to the court of Berar, to solicit the aid of the Rajah of that pro- 
vince. By two unportant services, the co-operation,, he said, of 
this prince could be ensured : the first, to aid him in recovering 
certain territories of which he had been despoiled by Nizam Ali ; 
the second, to support his pretension to the Mahratta Rajahship^ 
founded on his being a branch of the house of Sevajee. 

The affairs of Uie Mahrattas, perpetually in change and con- 
fnnon, now seemed, in the opinion of the Bombay Presidency, to 
call for vigorous interference : a treaty was concluded with Ragoba ; 
a conffiderable loan advanced to him ; and a division of the army 
despatched at once upon the expedition. These troops amounted 
to nearly 4,600 men. The army began its march early in Decem- 
ber, snd, having passed the mountahis, and arriving at Candole 
about the 2i8d^ came in sight of the enemy. On the 4th of January, 
1770, they 1^ the ghaut, or pass, and proceeded towards Poonah, 
the enemy retiring as they advanced, but cutting off then* supplies, 



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268 Riee ixnd Pro§^eM of the 

and seizing every opportunity to harass them on the road. Con* 
trary to their expectations, no chief of importance joined them on 
their march, nor any considerahle numher of troops. They pro- 
ceeded, therefore, with damped hopes towards Poonah, and finding, 
about sixteen miles from that city, an army assembled to oppose 
them, began immediately to despair. The command of this ex- 
pedition had absurdly been conferred on a Committee, ignorant of 
military affairs, which, now that danger was near, lost all presenee of 
mind, and all capacity to advance or retreat vrith honour or safety. 
Inquiry was then made into the state of the provisions ; and it being 
found that scarcely enough remained to victual the army for 
eighteen days, while, from the military commander, they learned 
that it would be impossible without a body of cavalry to protect 
the baggage, retreat was instantly determined on. In the dead of 
night the army began to retrograde, but its intention being dis- 
covered, it was attacked by the enemy during the darkness, and lost 
a portion of its baggage, and above three hundred men. During the 
whole of the succeeding .day, the enemy maintained the pursuit, 
until about four o'clock in the afternoon, when the English reached 
Wargauro. It was now discovered that further retreat was im- 
practicable, and, under these circumstances, they were compelled to 
negotiate with the Mahrattas, when a treaty, at once dishonoarable 
and injurious to the interests of the Company, was entered into, by 
which they engaged to give up all acquisitions made in those parts 
since 1756, to place Ragoba, their ally, in the • hands 6f Scindia, 
and to leave two Englkhmen of distinction as hostages for the 
fulfilment of these terms. 

The Directors had encouraged, if not commanded, the expedition 
that had been undertaken, and therefore could not pretend to dis- 
approve of the measure itself : they blamed, however, and perbacps 
justly, the manner in which it had been conducted, which seems to 
have been marked by real incapacity and want of courage. One 
of the members of the Field Committee had died during the march ; 
the other they degraded from his office as member of the Council 
and 8elect Committee of Bombay ; and dismissed from their ser* 
vice the two superior military officers who participated in the com- 
mand of the expedition. 

The detachment from Bengal Imgered unaccountably in the in- 
terior, neglecting the urgent orders, both of the Supreme Council 
and of the Bombay Presidency, to hasten with all possible celerity 
to Bombay ; its c<$mmander, Colonel Leslie, being engaged without 
the slightest authority in contracting alliances witii chiefs, whom 
the Directors desired not to reckon among their allies. Among 
these was Modagee Bonsla, Regent of Berar, who hoped, by the 
nasistance of the English^ to rescue the Mahratta throne, to vhich 
he had pretensions, Yrom the hands of the Peishwa, who had long 
usurped the sovereign power. Leslie's conduct was univerBaUy re^ 



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Briiiifh Power in India. ^» 

probated ; Imt tbe Ooyernor-Gteneral, while he recalled that officer, 
and appointed Colonel Goddard to succeed him, continued notwith* 
standing' to court th^ alliance of Modagee, and communicated to 
Colonel Goddard the necessary powers to treat with him. This ne- 
gociation ended, however, unsuccessfully, Modagee artfully declin- 
ing to ally himself with the English, in the hope that fortune would 
enable hiin to accomplish his designs without their aid. 

Colonel Goddard now advanced towards Bombay, receiving, at 
intervals the most contradictory orders, both from the Presidencies 
and from the Field Committee : — ^now he was to advance with all 
possible celerity towards Poonah ; anon, he was to remain in Berar, 
or shape his courae towards Surat ; at one time, his ordei-s were com- 
municated in an authoritative tone ; another, he was cautioned and 
warned against obeying them. His situation became perplexing in 
the extreme ; for, owing to the ambiguity of the letters transmitted 
to him, he could by no means conjecture what was going forward, 
and while the disgraceful retreat and treaty abovementioned were 
taking place, he sometimes imagined the Bombay army had been 
too saceessfnl to need his co-operation. By degrees, however, he 
guessed the true state of afiiedrs, and, although urged by a Mah- 
ratta vakeel to return to Bengal, he pushed on with all possible ex- 
pedition towards Surat, where he arrived on the 30th of February, 
1779. 

As sooti as these events became known to the Supreme Council 
of Calcutta, it was resolved to disavow the late convention en- 
tered Into with the Poonah Government ; but to confer on Colonel 
Goddard full power to negociate a new treaty, on the basis of that 
formerly concluded, at Poorunder, provided the Mahrattas wouia 
engage to form no connection with the French, and would relinquisii 
all claims founded on the convention with the Field Committee, in 
case of refusal, Goddard, now promoted to the rank of ^e»^™' 
was directed to form an alliance, if possible, with the »*eaa oi 
the Guicawar family, and the Regent of Berar, and to renew uic 
war. . , 

It was some months before the inclination of the ^,»*';;^|?f/.^'^. 
be known : they negociated, but meanwhUe made all PJ~*"^J^^ 
paration for wir ; Snd at last insisted on such terms as Utei^rai 
Goddard was not empowered to gmnt. War, ^^^J^.*^^?^^ ^^ ^ 
solved on, and Goddadlrepaired to Bombay to ^ns^^ 

thorities there on the best plan of operations. " , ^ k;« at^T^oint- 

ment an enciioachihent on their own ^'^^^T.^.a^'q^ his behalf, «^^ 
dextrously contrived to interest their *?** a tilan of BostiHti** 
at length obtained their fuU co-operataon. ^p Q^jcawar 

— now determined on ; the alliance oi r^ ^y be kmusod with 



,,if possible, to be secured ; B^^^*^^, service to tK« sucee"* 
h6pw, but, as he could be of little esaentiai serv 

OrimttU Htraid, Vok 10. '^ 



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970 RUe and Progresi of the 

of the war> bis share of the iidTanlaf^eB that aaight tconie from U 
were to he bat snail. 

Having crossed the river Taptee on the %d of Jannary 1780, Qe* 
neral Goddard advanced towards the fortress of Dnhhoy, of which 
he took possession on the 2(Hh, hy this step alone acquiring for the 
Company a territory yielding an annual revenue of two lacs of rupees. 
Futty Singh was also induced to form an alHance with the Company, 
and the kingdom of Guzerat was divided between him aad it. Bemg 
now joined by the cavalry of this chief, the army advanced towards 
Ahmedabad, the capital of the province, which in five days was taken 
hy storm. In the meantime, 8cindia and Holkar were advaoeiBf* 
towards Surat with an army of forty thousand men ; hut the Bag* 
fish General followed n^idly upon their footsteps, and came mp 
with their encampment on the 8th of March. Soaie unaoccesalut 
attempts were made by Scindia to form a separate arrangement 
with the English ; bat as these were siispectea to be only so many 
expedients to gain time, General Goddard endeavoured hy all means 
to bring them to an engagement, which they constant^ nvoidedly 
hy retreating before him. On the 8d of April, however, marching 
hem his camp a shorl time after midnight, he pushed on with great 
vigour, and succeeded in entering into their encampment with tbe 
dawn. This hold stroke threw the enemy into the greatest oonliK» 
sion ; they deserted their camp after a very feeble show of resistance, 
and were psrsned and dispersed hy the Ei^^lish. By this advantage, 
several considerable towns, and a large tract of tenitory, were added 
to the poaseasions of the Presidency ; and the rains oongoneneing, 
Scindia and Holkar retreated into their own countries, and General 
Goddard pat hia troopa in cantonments for the suoeeediag oaai- 

On the death of General Clavering, Sir Eyre Coote had been ap-^ 
pointed Commander-in-Chief, and Member of the Supreme Cenneil^ 
in his room ; he arrived at Calcutta in April I779j aad geaeraUy 
supported the measures of the Govenior-Geneml. In the Noven^ 
her of that year, the Governor-General proposed to enter into aUi* 
anee with the Rajah, or Raana, of Gohud^ a hilly djatrict lyiag on 
the Janaa, between the dominions of Scindia and the Niwaok el 
Oude ; by the terms of this proposed treaty thq Sogliah and the 
Bajah were mutually to assist each other against their respectivn 
enemies, and Qohnd lymg directly on the frontier of the Mahratta 
country, the Govemop-General expected con«deraUe advaatai^ 
from this treaty. It was disapproved, however, hy tiie Oppositiea 
Monbers of Council, and even by Sir JSyre Coote himself ; hut the 
htter hdng absent from Cakutta, Hastings poasessed the oastiBf 
vote, and the treaty was altered into. 

The Mahrattas mvading the Ranna's territoriea in Novendier 
1779, Captain Popham, with a detachment of the Company's anny^ 
was despatched early in 1780 into Gohud, to aid in expelling the 



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^»'ti^P9mer in India. 8TI 

-^7^» 3" • ▼wy short tt»pi.7 J ''" ""to the enemy's territory? 

ISf if *T*^'» «»«« ^Sr«"- '* ^ pe«ei«Hl, however; 
^^ of the war; and^JT'*'"*** *<> i»«»ence materiaUytM 
*;;»« "ad Cptiria Bro^ ""• '~t''«' detachment, under Major 
e^^^fSdndiaand hX.' ^^^^ *• wwx or iii«de the do- 
iJ^T:"""* tfce dasin of «t«^' i" ''^ meantfane, Captain Popham 
"'Pr^"«Me by thTprt^r^-^'"' » fort«« Mtherto deemed 
■^»«»^of Am. Maj^^^ofHwdoostaa. Though aowia the poe- 
««n»d the «ammit«f?t'f >* l»y m the territo^ of Gohnd, and 
•^»«- Btaiag di«corp«^^'^ . *" "»«*f » scarped almost enti<el» 
™e «» part of thesc!™^. "J **", "Piw that it was practicable to 
««», "id the latter tWrt3V*xT^'.(*'»« foiraer of which was six- 
«e»t*enqit, and mada ^- ^'''^ *** immediately reaolved upon 
y»«» ■■ little risk aT^^fff*"""""" *» cairymg it into execution 
J?»k of the reck on th^^ ^a ^* "torming pSrty arrived at the 
5" f™T»» ««« troon.^ 2^ i^«S»t. aad applying their ladders to 
« the walL The i»{!^ ***' ""^ climbed up the rock to the foot 
**« to the top,wfcM ril"*^ *"'*P' "!»» ■■* fastened the rope-lad- 
**»» adranoed into «L. v f P*^ "rcended, andrepalainff the garri- 
■UBtenofit. IvImi. y**^ **^ I^aee. and made themaelTC* 

■****•*«* « haste Sr^^***'"®**^^*'^"**™**®'***"''™*"***' 
^■'* "Bd eonstorJ?" '^ ?*" country, spreading on flOl sides 
*1^ ™»kof M^r^ ' "^ Captain Popham was promoted to 

•*<»sfc>Bed hot^ *9pote9 which these transactione on the JnnuiA 
'"'gth beeam^ *!r" t5® Governor-General and Mr. FnaaolB, at 
*«d •enwatfemTn* *'"™"««^ to be endured by either party :; mu- 
P»«dneed a 6«Z .*[?.* <>' f"***** "ad honour were made ; and tlkestf 

*•»*». fcerettt^'^^'"'' ****• ''**nc»9 »« wounded. So«ni «kfte« 

- «ea CO £iirope. 

tnm oi^atLn^JI consent, for a moment, to lose sight of Ben^&l, and 

^cn estaS !? r ^ ^^"^ ^^^"^ ^^ ^^« Canmtic. Mahomed Ali liac 

o/DOi;rpr*K .,. y *^® English in the possession of botU l>^&iiche 

feeWe chAr«!f°"^^ *"* *^^ financial ; but owing, pa.i-t:ly to Vii 

'« iwis found l^V^i^^^^ ^ the disturbed state of tl^e co^ntrj 

For fwl ^ .''® whoDy incapable of protecting his dominiont 

J* ii ""^T"' ^^^«« ^y powerful motives of ambitloxi, t^^^X 

•x^^fa^^T* *^ themselves the military defence of the coiWntxv aJ 

nft-fi^ "* ^'^^ Nttwanb such a proportion of the rerr^Tx%M.^ »« wah^ 

E «Pei«. But this wretched Rrhice, like all o^^^.^ V^ne 

««roafpn)tection,soon found his revenue unequal i» «v^ deinan 

^aeiiponit,aiidiwks led, by his necessities, tohaverecox&Ti^^ to low 

■«« t^ most iaiqnitotts exactions. T?he eontraetors f^m e^eso lot 

'wc BDgli8b,and, as they had portions of the revonvi^^^ CkMifn 

^» m payment, they always took care to secure, l»y %iW^ «eeTi 

Of tfte gieatest severities, the amount of their debt. 

T « 



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472 Ri^€ and Progress 0/ (ht 

' As bpth thte Nairaub and the Engliflli had conunenced ^t&« 
struggle in the Camadc with very lofty expectations, their dbap* 
pointment was the more bitter at finding the revenues of the 
pountry too limited to defray even the necessary expenses of the 
Goyemment. Each party attribated injustice to the other, and 
cherished secret dissatisfaction. 

At this period, 1770, Sir John Lindsay, who had been appointed 
his Majesty's Mimter Plenipotentiary to the Native Powers of In<^ 
dia, arrived at Madras. The appointment of this commisffloner had 
taken place in consequence of the eleventh article of the Treaty of 
Paris, concluded in 1763 ; and he was empowered, in the first place, 
to take part in all the disputes between the Company and the Nu* 
wanb ; and, secondly, to preserve peace between the English and 
the other powers in India, — In other words, to regidate the whole 
international policy of that country. He had been sent from Bag-« 
land, it should be observed, without the knowledge of the Directois, 
and, therefore, when he arrived in the East, and disclosed the vast 
extent of his powers, the Company^s servants, with great reason, 
grew exceedingly alarmed for their own importance ; and accord- 
ingly, firom the first moment, conceived the utmost jealousy of his 
authority, and put every art in practice to thwart and confound Us 
his views and plans. They refused to appear in his train when he 
went in state to deliver Ids Majesty's letter and presents to the 
Niiwaub ; assigning, as a reason, that they foared such a procedure 
would tend to impair the dignity of the Company in the eyes of the 
Natives. The Nuwaub soon perceived, however, that the King's 
Comnussioner and the President and Council were upon no friendly 
terms, and as he had suffered many grievances at the hands of the 
latter, he hesitated not to denounce them to Sir John Lindsay as 
his enemies and oppressors. Sir John, who seems to have been bat 
a shallow politician, and ignorant besides pf Indian affurs, ga.ve in 
with great simplicity to the views of the Nuwaub ; confided im^- 
citly in his representations ; and transmitted to the English Minis- 
try a picture of the Company's servants, which was £awn in ex- 
aggerated colours by Mahomed Ali's resentment and prejudices. 
But, whatever were the vices of the Presidency and Council, it is 
quite certain that the Nuwaub's imbecility rendered him incapable 
of governing without their aid, and, although he had reason to com- 
plain of their rapacity, it was to th^ that he was indebted for 
having anything to be coveted. 

When his Majesty's Minister Plenipotentiary arrived at Madras^ 
that Presidency was in danger of being enoaged in a war wiik 
Hyder Ali, originating, however, in their own duplicity and want of 
foith; for, by the treaty of 1769, they had mutually engaged to 
support each other in case of war ; and as Hyder was now attacked, 
by the Mahrattas, he very justly claimed their aid, if, as he said, it 
were merely to prove to lus enemies tiiat he possessed allies so 



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BriiiMh Pawir in Jndia^ 273 

powerfdL With thdr charaGteristic MacchiaTelism, however, the 
Presidexicy now hegan to deliberate whether they should be likely 
to ptn most by keeping £iith with their ally, or by betraying him ; 
and, after much reflection, decided to infringe the treaty by with- 
holdmg the stipulated aid, while they abstained from granting suc- 
cour to his enemies, and merely kept out of the contest in order, 
when both should be worn out with the struggle, to pounce upon 
the exhausted victor and make him an easy prey. 

The policy of the King's Commissioner was, if possible, still more 
reprehensible ; he united with the Nuwaub in endeavouring to 
plunge the Presidencies into an alliance with the Mahrattas, who 
were more agreeable to Mahomed Ali than Hyder, against whom 
he indulged a personal antipathy. As, however, the President and 
Council persisted in eluding this disgraceful step, perpetual alterca- 
tiona between them and the Comnussioner ensued, and the Ministry 
at home, perceiving at length that cordial co-operation between 
parties so repugnant to each other was perfectly out of the ques- 
tion, recalled Sir John lindaay, and sent out another commissioner, 
Sir Robert Harland, in his stead. This gentleman differed from 
his predecessor, chie^y in being more headstrong and intemperate ; 
and as he entered into the views of the Nuwaub with more warmth, 
he considerably fomented those animosities he was designed to 
remove. 

In the meanwhile, the progress of the Mahratta arms became 
more and more alarming: in the month of November 1771» they 
were in possession of nearlv the whole of the Mysore ; and advancing 
towards the frontiers of the Camatic, sent forward a few straggling 
parties to plunder and devastate the country. This produced, 
in the English, a disposition to treat with them ; and as they expe- 
rienced the greatest difficulty to subsist their troops in a country so 
imvaged, they were not averse to agree to a suspension of hostili- 
ties, till the pleasure of the King of England should be known, 
cspeciaUyas it appears that they received large sums of money 
among the other arguments used to procure their forbearance.* 



• The conduct of the King's GommiBSioner, during these transactions, «- 
torts from Mr. Mill aremark which ycllectobut little credit on his judgTOent. He 
cootrasu the prudence and firmness of the Company's serrants with the folly 
and ignorance of the King's Minister Pleidpotentiary, and then insinuates that 
if we are to form a judgment from tkU inttanee, India would lose cons.dera* 
Ut by passiag from the Company's goTemment, under the immediate influence 
of th* erowiu Bot no semibfe man would think of forming a j udgment from one 
SQch instance ; especially as on the occasion in question, the serrants of the 
erown were confessedly ignorant of Indian aflWrs. Ignorance, however, whe- 
ther In King's or Company's servants, will giveway before experience, unless 
Mr. MlltMnks, indeed, that whoever serves the King will always be too in- 
dolent to acquire knowledge, while those who serve the Company will not 
be sQlqect to such frailty. 



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274 



THE flTOmi ABATtD. 

O, H£4VBK ! calm tbe windft awhile, 
And bid tlie Ocean cease to roar. 

Dispel its raging with thy smile, 
And bring my Henry safe to'shore. 

Hark ! how the pouring rain descends. 
And thunder rolls in awM peals I 

The forked ilame heayen's curtain itmds. 
And Nature to her centre reels. 

Stem Winter frowns with brow sevare. 
And Tents his wildest fuiy forth. 

While BDffMs stores thn whirilng air 
With all thib rigours of the north. 

Witness, O God ! the anxious sighs 
Still bursting from my woe-worn breast, 

The teara that from my sleepless eyes 
Haye banish'd ev*ry gleam of rest. 

Witness the prayers that fW>m my soul 
Each lengthen 'd hour to thee have fled, 

Tliat thou wouldst stay the dark ware's roll, 
And calm old Ocean's oozy bed. 

With me, my Infiunt, bend the knee 
Before indulgent Mercy's shrine ; 

Soft innocence shall be thy plea. 
And fervency of love be mine. 

Rise, rise, my babe !— *t is past, *t is done ! 

Our prayers are heard, the boon is given : 
The storm abates, the rain is gone. 

The lightnings from the sky are driven ; 

Nature assumes a look serene, 
Th* enliyening sun puts forth a ray ; 

And through the op'ning donds is seen 
The bine expanse of bright 'ning day. 

The glare of elemental strife, 
£ai|Hring, dies without a breath ; 

And Nature seems restored to life 
From chaos and a second death. 



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«76 



DE 81SMOND1 ON THE EXTERMINATION OF THE OREBtt^. 

THEtiB ar« ftom^ subjects, and some dissertations, that cannot 
\i€ permitted to remaia the exclusive property of any individual or 
hny publication : subjects and dissertations of such universal and 
overwhelming interest and importance, as to justify the brealdhg 
down of all the ordinary barriers of courtesy and usage by which 
they may be techinally hemmed around, if by so doing the ends of 
Justice and humanity are to be promoted by their repetition from 
other pens, and in other pages, to spread their influence to the re- 
motest comers of the earth. Such a subject we conceive to be the 
' Extermination of the Greeks ;' and such a dissertation that con- 
tained ID the admirable pamphlet of M. de Simondi, to Which wc 
now refer. 

We are not certain whether this was first published in a separate 
form, and then transcribed in the attractive pages of the * New 
Monthly Magazine,' or whether its first appearance has been 
effected thtough that channel. In either case, it docs honour to the 
Work, as well as to the writer ; and we rejoice to see it in a periodi- 
caly tb« extensive circulation of which will necessarily conunand 
a very general perusal. It is to secure for it, in the peculiar quar- 
ters to which our own publication has almost exclusively access, 
that we willingly lend our ud to make this powerful appeal, on 
behalf of an oppressed and suffering people, still more widely 
known ; and we cannot but think, that every periodical and news- 
paper in the kingdom ought to reiterate its heart-stirring sent!* 
mentsy till all ears shall have drunk in the sounds, and all spirits an- 
swered to their call. 

M. de Sismondi, though an enthusiast, is a profound philosopher^ 
and unites, in an extraordinary and enviable degree, tlie qualities of 
patient mvestigation, deep thinking, logical precision, and an over- 
flowing energy of feeling, which gives richness and grace to all 
that flows from his pen. But his reputation, whether literary or 
political, u too well established to need our feeble eulogium ; al* 
though we most add, that if his splendid talents and varied ac- 
quirements have already won for him the esteem and admiration 
of mankind^ the present noble and disinterested example which, 
as a foreigner, sojourning among strangers for a season, he sets to 
our apathetie countrymen, ought to endear him to all hearts, and 
encircle his name with the most grateful and honourable associa- 
tions* 

He commences his eloquent address by observing, that the pi«* 
sent moment of comparative calm, which has succeeded to the 
intense excitement of a general electioA, appears to offer a favour* 
Me opportunity for recalling to the attention of England the 



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276 De Si^numdi 

fearful crisis of the affairs of Ghreece, and endeavouring to point 
out what humanity, honour, religion, and policy alike demand 
of her. 

It might he conceived, that either of these interests, taken se- 
parately, would he sufficient to move the vast multitude of a nation 
calling itself << the most enlightened," vdth professions of piety and 
philanthropy ever on their lips. But, though invoked hy all that is dear 
to each of these powerful interests comhined,they calmly witness the 
destruction of the oppressed people on whose hehalf their aid is 
implored, because IVlammon is the only God of their idolatry, 
whose perpetual worship occupies all their thoughts ; and any and 
every rite or doctrine that does not, in its performance or belief, 
lead them nearer in their estimation to the shrine of their exclusive 
deity, is regarded as mere dross, and turned aside from with indif- 
ference or aversion. Such is England, and such are Englishmen 
of the present age and character ; for the exceptions to this general 
description are so few, as to be mere units among the niillions. 
Let us see, however, what M. de Sismondi says of other and con- 
temporary nations : 

* Throug^hout the rest of Europe attention is sufficiently called to the condi- 
tion of Greece ; no other subject has ever excited such a powerful sensation. 
The very peasants throughout Switzerland and Germany inquire with anxiety, 
when their afikirs call tl^m to market, what are the last news firom Athens or 
NapoU di Romania ; and they never return to their villages without having 
contributed from their pittance something which may aid in procuring assist- 
ance for their brethren in Greece. In France, subscriptions have been opened, 
and monay solicited throughout every town, in behalf of a Christian nation 
doomed to perish hy the sword or by fiunine. The Duchesses of Alberg, 
Broglio, and de Case ; every Frencliwoman, distinguished by rank, richcHi, 
talent, or virtue, hive divided the different quarters of Paris among them, and 
traverse on foot every street, and enter into every house, demanding the 
charity of their inhabitants for a nation of martyrs. From Denmark to Italy 
one great event enchains the attention of Europe : the rich and the poor, as 
they bring their offerings to the victims of oppression, pronounce toe same 
imprecations upon the aJlies of their exterminators. Posterity will scarcely 
believe that England alone should have remained unmoved by. the general 
feeling of commiseration ; that she should neither have felt pity for so oiacb 
suffering, nor admiration of so much heroism ; and that she has contented her- 
self with expressing her disapprobation of those among the Greeks whose 
excess of gnef has converted itself into fury, and who have revenged by atro- 
cities the murder of their sons, and the dishonour of their daughters.* 

Who can he an English hnshand or father, and read this without 
a blnsh ? Who an English wife or mother, and not hum to emu- 
late the illustrious ornaments of her sex in France f fe it want of 
capacity for zeal, or talent for organization, that is the cause of this 
horrid indifference to what arouses all the world heside f Let the 
zeal of our electioneering agents, and the unexampled organization 
of committes, suh-committees, branch committees, and delegates, 
which ramify through every town and village in England, when 
proselytism to a predominant faith, or corruption to a prevaiting 
political interest, are the objects, answer ; and they will prove, that 
there is no coontry on earth where frivolous or piuvicions objects 



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QH tfie Exterminaiimi of the Greeks. 277 

yriSL exdtc a hotter zeal, or where worthless associations will he" 
supported by a more powerful or efiFective organization for co- 
operative aid, than in this boasted land of liberality, this << enyy 
of SttJTOiinding nations, and admiration of the world/' If not a 
lack of power to feel, or skill to organize, can it be a want of 
money to execute, that indisposes Englishmen and Englishwomen to 
bear unmoved this reproach upon their heartless parsimony ? Let 
the milli^ squandered every year at the gaming-table, on the 
turf, and in the saloons of pleasure, answer : and if this should not 
yet satisfy the credulous, let them hear of two candidates for a 
county, spending each 8000/. a day, for weeks in succession, 
merely to show which was the most powerful individual in his little 
neighbourhood ; let them be informed, a third, in the same contest, 
admitting liimself to have held a seat in Parliament for years with- 
out once attending to its duties, and then spending 80,000/. in the 
most demoralizing manner that can be imagined, to keep out some 
other individual, who spends another dO,000/. to indulge a reciprocal 
pique. Let them learn that, independently of the hourly profligacy 
in which gold enough to save a nation from destruction is squan* 
dered every day, there has been wasted, by the noble and the 
wealthy of England, in riot and debauchery, during the last two 
moatha only, and for the purpose of corrupting the people of their 
own' country, a sum that would purchase the throne of Turkey 
entire, and pension ofT its tyrants and their satraps to everlasting 
peace. It is really monstrous to see millions upon millions in the 
east of Aaia and of Europe perishing under systems of the most 
atr(>cious oppression, stretching forth their hands for help, and 
lifting their imploring eyes for sympathy, without a voice to an-' 
swer or a hand to save. If the daily prayer which men, thus deaf 
to the misery of others, still impiously teach theur infant sons to 
lisp, when they pray that as they meaaure out their mercy to 
others it may be measured out to themselves, were literally ful- 
fiUed en their own heads, the red-arm of vengeance would overtake 
them, and ingulf the whole in one smoking ruin. 

* Bat Bnglaad is yet subject to a deeper reproach ; she has not remaiDed a 
silent speetator of this straggle even to death ; she has lent her aid to the 
strong, and has withdrawn defenders from the weak. At the moment whei^ 
mimsters aaaomiced the success of their negociations, so fatal to Greece, I 
eodeavoared, in a letter addressed to two daily newspapers/ to prove that 
they ought not to leave their labours incomplete. I showed that by the con- 
daet of the Rossians, the Greeks have been so thorooghly compromised for 
the last half-century, that there has only remained to the Turks tne choice of 
massacring them, or acknowledging their independence ; that after the mas- 
sacre of one million three hundred thousand Greeks, the Turks will be driven 
upon Xht destruction of four or five millions of Christians, established in other 

E>vinces of the empire ; and that this massacre will continue for years, until 
gland shall arrest it ; that she alone has the power of doing so ; that she 
can stop it in a single day, without incurring the slightest chance of thereby 

* 8ce the ' Representative* of June I. The ' Times,* which had my letter 
first, announced it two days sneeesiAfely, but did not publish it,«— M. na 8. 



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278 D^ 3i9m4mdi 

9n$tigiug hartslf ia a new war. l^uUy, I showed thai RngUnri haa cmUnelvd 
an obligation to arrest the progress of these massacres, because it was she 
iHio removed from the Q reeks the protection of the Russians, at the ntosaent 
irhea the latter stepped forward td save them.* 

The note appended to thift paragraph in the original will eor* 
roborate What we have so often endeavoured to impreM on our 
teaders, vrlth respect to the public Press of Sngland. The most 
silly and absurd scruples as to priority of intelligence, or acknow- 
ledgment of one paper as its source of information by aiif ther. Will 
so entirely extinguish all feelings of patriotism or philanthropy, if 
Indeed they exist, as to induce the leading journals, as they are 
called, to witlihold entirely, not merely all £cts, but even all com- 
ments on them, when they first appear in some other paper of in* 
ferior note, whether advocating the same principles or not. The 
Weakness and obstinacy of the reputed oracled of the day in this 
inspect, surpasses any thing that could be conceived by the unini- 
tiated : and the bare mention of it here will, we are aware, be re- 
garded as little short of treason against the majesty of the Daily 
Press. But there are so few who dare to speak the truth of them, 
that it becomes more imperative on those few to do their duty. 
We pass to the contintiation of M. de Sismondi's appeal : 

* Let us dgure to ourselves a vessel loaded with men, women, and ehildren, 
eanM aldng by a rapid torrent, and on the point of being swallowed up by 
Uw waves ; If It sfanks, though in the sighl of spectators, not one of whom 
will ozposa himseU to destruction in order to save it, the witnesses of the 
shipwrecli may be accused of a want of heroism, without any charge of being 
gnllty ; but, If the same boat were attached to the bank by a cable, which 
served as her tnoorfng, and if one of the bye-stuiders cuu this eable, Hmo it 
is be who is the real m ur de r er of ^1 those whom the tarrent swallows. His 
crime is in proportion to the number of victims of whose death he has boeo 
the cause, and to the extent of their sufferings. Gn^ece was this vessel ready 
to perish->loaded with 1,800,000 souls ; her safety *eable was the war wltli 
Russia ; the British ministers in Russia and Turkey mete the men ofdend to 
f ttt it ;* and it is they who are henceforth responsible for the asufder of a 
whole nation, and for the sufferings of its expiring moments.* 

Tills k undeniably true, and awful indeed is the truth. Ia thero 
any individual who would hear such a reproach pronounced against 
himself by name, and not either instantly repel it, or strain every 
nerve to wipe it away I Not so the mighty and magnaniBioiis im- 
iion to whom it is addressed. They who are so alive to some slight 
indignity shown to a letter-carrier, a pilot, or a smuggler of their 
own country, when the Ciiriatian subjects of other states are the 
aggressors, think nothing of the massacre of thousands, when 
l^rldsh functionaries and legitimate sovereigns are the murderers. 
This does not disturb for a moment the serenity of their self-satis- 
faction, and they bear the reproach as unmoved as thoy would witness 
the slaughter. The solution, however, is this : that there is suppoeed 
to be something to lose by permitting the Turkish empire to be 
destroyed, and nothing to gain by establishing the Greeks as an 

.. ii. t i.ii I 11 I ■ ■■ ■■ H I III ■■■■ 1 ■ 

" See llie lUog's speech on the dissolution of Part lament. 

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on the ExtemUmUion 6f the Greeks, %79 

iadepead^itt people. M. de Sismtodiy indeed, with the nmpltcity 
10 charaeteristic of genuine rirtue, says : " After having shown 
with what a load of guilt England would charge herself if she fiu^ 
fered the Greeks to perish, I should have thought it an insult t« 
inquire whether the crime was advantageous to her ; '' and so iiw 
dfeed would every other honourable mind. But England is not so 
easily insulted ; at least, certainly not by such an imputation as 
this. Let any foreign writer dispute the justice of our oceamc des- 
potism ; let him call in question the speed of our horses, the prowess 
of our pugilists, and the people of England will repel the naOanai 
insult with scorn. Let him propose any philanthropic plan by 
which the three per cent, consols shall decline the smallest possible 
fraction in value, and the world will ring from one extremity to the 
other with the national injury England is about to sustain. But to 
say, that while she preaches the love of liberty as the first of duties, 
she, in the same moment, consigns to destruction those who reduce 
her theoretic maxuns to practice ; to say, that thousands fidl daily 
victims to an accursed policy, and that she is the murderer, are vt* 
proaches to which she mil listen with a calm and unmoved countenance. 
The eaUghtehed philiMopher of Italy, profound and extended as is 
Ids knovrledge of all other countries, did not yet know enough of 
oiin, or he would have made this '* insulting inquiry,^ of '' how 
fir the destruction of the Greeks waa advantageous to us,'' the 
tery first object' of hie care ; and although we doubt not but he 
would really ^ blush to ascribe such reasoning to any government ** 
as that ** which would suffer thousands to be mercilessly slain, ra- 
Iber than risk the chance of their one day becoming the allies of a 
rival power ; " yet such reasoning, and such practices, are familiar 
enough to England ; so familiar, indeed, that she is not now either 
ashamed or indignant at their open avowal and defence. 

We pass over the intervezung pages in which this false notion of 
^< the independence of the Greeks being fraught with danger to 
England," is successfully combated, and come to the concluding 
passages of this masterly and impassioned adcbees : 

* It is still time to renounce a policy erroneous as it is cruel, and as danger- 
ous as it impious ; it is time to save the independence of the Levant, not by 
allowing its inhabitants to be massacred, but by endeavouring, on the con- 
trary, to augment their numbers, their resources, their energies, their happi- 
ness, and their desire to d^end that happiness. It is time to detach all the 
subjects of Tnrkey from a Russian alUance, by giving them a country to 
flgm for, and an interest in it parallel to Europe. The question is in fact now 
become interesting to all Europe, and all Christendom is called upon to decide 
It in favour of its honour, outraged by the Tnrks ; of its repose, which a cri- 
minal policy compromises ; of the balance of power, which the emancipation 
of the Greeks can alone confirm. 

* The Turks, in fact, in determining upon the extermination of the Oieek 
nation, oroposed not only tho destruction of the allies of the Franks Hying 
among them, but wished ihos to testify their contempt for the Franks them- 
scUes. Humiliated as they have recently been by the Christian powers, they 
take their revenge upon tbem by committing what they regard as a mortal 
iosult ; for they have always distinguished nations by their iWi^km, and not 



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280 De SiBmtmdi 



by tlielr^oiwniiMia. .They hajt^ aiwava confounded all C^rSetinu In. Me 
common mass. As they coiud never beheye that Christiana would Tolontarlly 
giTc up to deatrnctioD a nation of Christians, they persuade themaeWes fhaf 
Mey make all Europe tremble, and that each Greek who Is dellYered to 
Slaughter adds at once to their triumph, and to the abasement of the powers 
of Chcistendom. 

* In the same proportion as th^ Turks propose to outrage the English, the 
French, the Germans, and the Russians, by slaving under their eyes their 
brothers In Christ Jesus, in that proportion must the nations of Europe feel 
themselves insulted by the cruelties of the Musulmans. The land the teost 
dear to our recollection!! — ^the descendants of our instructors in all the arts 
and in all the sciences — are given up to calamities unparalleled in history. 
The number of victims, the atrocity of their sufferings, the heroism they have 
displayed in their last moments, are all calculated to ezeite in the highest 
degree our horror, our pity, and our admiration; Champions fipom Germany, 
England, Frsnce, and Italy, combat in the Greek armies, and thus represent, 
in some measure, their nations, involved in these horrible tragedies; the 
journals which are daily printed in every langnace, and which eircalate even 
through the remotest village, announce to astonished Europe all the drtails 
of these terrible sacrifices. Everywhere committees ara formed in behalf of 
the 'Greeks-^verywhere subseriptions are received— and every dUaen, in 
devoting to their cause his oflRsring, may be said in lome measaie to vote for 
the regeneration of Greece,' 

Let it be obterved, however, that thu is among the peopUty^KoA, 
chiefly among thoee who are sot included in the wealthy clteeee. 
The governments mider. which these people live, their spiritiMd 
pastors^ their temporal chiefs, their great leaders in fortune nuik, 
and influence, think and act very diflerently, and oombiae for hx 
o^er purposes ; and notwithstanding all their professed reverence 
for jpublic opinion, set it at nought with Impunity : 

* Can it bis believed, that when opinioo is so^steonglv prononneed aa it has 
been on the Continent, and when it Is at the aame time in aoconlance with 
every principle both of morals and policy,— can it believed, that there is np 
danger in neglecting or despising it f Nations will learn that England, while 
she boasts of the missions which she sends forth to the extremities of the 
globe to convert the heathen to ChristianUy, actuaUv subscribes to tbe'npas- 
saere of many millions of Christians in Turkey, and to the expulsion pf tl^s 
religion of Christ from all the states of the Grand dignlor; they will leaoi 
that Fnnce, whUe she abolishes the liberty of the Galilean church, while 
she recalls the Jespits, while she demands tokens of the confessianal from 
her public functionaries,. furnishes the arsenals, the fleets, andtbeannlea.of 
the pacha of Egypt, that he may mfissacre more martyrs than ever perisheif 
In the four first centuries of the church ; they will learn, that all the govern- 
ments of Europe, in concert, propose to accomplish an object the most coo-, 
trary possible to the wishes of the people of Europe ; that they trample unde^c 
foot pity, honour, and the interests of Christianity, with the single intention 
of confirming their power ; that no credit can be given to their promises ; and 
that the religion of which they pretend to be the defenders, is with them only 
a criminal hypocrisy. Certamfy, however strong governments may be, they 
are not yet strong enough thus to reveal all their baseness without danger. 
They will be yet weaker if the crime which they meditate is accomplished. 
They count on establishing in the Levant the peace of the grave ; but to 
succeed in this there must be at least two years of massacre and scenes of 
horror. During this time Europe will be gradually filling with ftigitives, 
who will repeat these terrible details, even in the most obseure and rsmole 
cottages; these details will constantly augment the hatred of the people 
agarost all existinff govecnroents, and that hatred will at length prodvoe a ter- 
rible explosion, which will wnp tbem In its blaae and avenge their crimes/ 



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wk ike Exttrmhuaiim of the Greeks. 281 

• ft is tfane that tueh a pvrification of tbe moral and political at- 
■MSplwre of the world should talce place. Delages and couTulsioos 
haye, ^m time to time, remodelled and regenerated the globe we 
inhabit. Storms and tornadoes are foond as ralaable a part of the 
general system of nature, as gentle breezes and refreshing showers : 
and when the milder process of remonstrance, reasoning, solicita- 
tion, and appeal, shall be found inefficacious U> produce the re- 
formation after which so many millions pant in vain, it will bo a new 
bdication of beneficence in that Power from whom some signal and 
effectiye tempest shall proceed to scatter the deadly pestilence, and 
purify the air we breathe. We give the concluding passage of 
M. de Sismondi's article entire : 

*" The preservation of social order in Europe requires the independence of 
Greece ; for the extennimUlon of the Greeks will be closely followed by the 
exteminatloD of those governments which have ftiToured the crime. The 
balaoee of power demands the independence of Greece, because the Greeks 
in slavery, uvite the Russians ; but free, they would repel them. The safety 
of the Turkish empire requires the independence of Greece, because Greece 
revolted, weakens the Ottoman armies ; emancipated, she would strengthen 
them. TTm prosperity of commerce and industry requires the independence 
of Greece; for the same country, of which all the riches are at present 
destroyed by robbery, when it begins to prosper under a protecting govern- 
■ent, would attract to itself, by rich exchanges, the produce of all the universe. 
If you wish nations to be tnmquil, make them happy. This maxim, which 
policy ought to borrow from morals, is so efsHy comprehended, that it makes 
a writer blush to have to develop it. Cease to render life insupportable to 
the Greeks, as it has been for two oeuturies, and they will no longer call 
upon other nations to be their deliverers. Cease to favour their extermination, 
which you have done for live years, and their cries will no longer .disturb 
yenr repoae. Cease to outrage humanity, religion, and the wishes of your 
subjects, and public opinion will no longer invoke avengers to deliver the 
world from your tyranny. But be assured, on the contrary, that the longer 
you pursue your execrable policy, the more you will be heapiiig burning coals 
upon your beads. If you consent to the extermination of the Greeks, you 
must very speedily consent to the extermination of the Macedonians, the Bul- 




power, increase the pieponikraiiee of the Russians, and render more inevitable 
the cataatfophe which you seek to avoid. You will perish then, but you will 
perish with shame and with guilt ; whereas, by now listening to the voice of 
rdlglott and humanity, you wUl save yourselves in saving Greece, and you 
wilfconflrm, as fhr as it depends on you, the peace of all Europe, and the 
halaace of power in the West.' 

We would not willingly weaken the force of the impressiona 
which auch a train of ideas as this must leave on the minds of all 
who follow them to thefa: close. But, without wishing for a moment 
to divert attention from this great and ennobling subject, we have 
only to ask whether, while the voice of Greece and her oppressed 
thousands is heard so near, and yet unanswered — ^the cries of the 
still farther East, and its countless miUions of suffering and ae- 
graded bemgs, can be expected to pierce the ears, or ^^^^/'J;^® 
hearts of Englishmen, without some greater efort than has jei oeen 
made to demand a hearing, and without the never-ceasmg repe- 



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282 The Lwer to tke infimt Mom^ ' 

titioa of its vants and wrongs by roices nearer home ? To thy we 
have devoted onnelves; and nothing but some calAn^y, whieh 
maV drown that voice by its orerwhelming power, shftll ever indttee 
us to acqtuesce in its silence. 



THE LOVER TO TUE INFANT MOON. 
Aim—" Rite^ Cynthia t rijf." 

Hail ! Eyening's Queen, 

Bright GynthiA, haU ! 
Thy infuit creftc«it*8 dawning h«am 
u dear, tlioagb glimmeriiig pi4e ; 
Whan jriiiag from EniiyHiion's bed, 
0*er heairen'B blue vaidt thy light W tbad^ 
Anid thy oovntkM spangled train, 
M\ Natare hails thy towqail raign. 
Bat Lovers siost thy orb adiore^ 
And own thy soft ancbantiBg p»war ; 
For oh ! when buiniDg 
For home's returning. 
Dear is thy bright oonsoUng my 
To Lovers' eyes, when lar away. 

Hail ! loTely Moon ! 
Mild Regent, hail ! 
Whose radtence gilds Nlg1it*s silent noon 
With Memory's 'witching tale ; 
When stealing frort the world's harsh eye. 
To haunts sequester'd. Lovers Hy, 
And there, unseen, unheard, receive 
Delights that Night was formM to giye. 
Thine eye alone the scene surveys ; 
Its only records are thy lays. 
Thus, oh ! while gasing 
On their bright blazing, 
Remembrance then will fbndly stray 
To scenes like these, though fer away. 

Hail! radiant car! 

And ye fleer coursers, hall I 
With every bright and glowing star ' 
That stadi thy impid wheel. 
Oh I had I but the n««ic skill 
Of Samos' San^ those worlds I 'd fill, 
And write on Heaven's extended scroll 
The wamest wishes of nsy soul. 
Then if the eye of \mr I lovn 
Along the bumiag sky ahould rove. 
Each orb reyeallng 
My bosom's feeling, 
In silent eloquenee, would say, 
'" Remenber Me ! thon^h far awny." 



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SCCBNT AOOOVm OF BALKH, KHULM, AND KUNIHS^ CITIBS 
OF BOKHARA.* 

We have extracted from the 8th number of the * Quarterly 
Oriental Magazine and ReTiew/ just published, the follo\ring ex* 
tracts, relative to Balkh, Khulm, and Kunduz ; they are taken from 
the journal of Mir Izzet Ullah, the agent and precursor of Mr. 
Moorcroft, in those countries. This journal, which it appears is 
now concluded, affords more information regarding Western Tibet 
and Turkestan, than any publication since the days of Marco 
Polo. A great part of Izzet Ullah's route, indeed, has never been 
traversed by any European, and the Native descriptions, on which 
alone in consequence the geography of this part of Asia depends^ 
are much too concise and inexact to be considered unexceptionable 
gtudes. 

BAI.KH — a celebrated city entitled Um-al-Bildan^ the mother of 
cities. For one coss the city is uninhabited ; the reat is occupied to 
the extent of about three thousand houses by Uzbeks, Tajiks, and 
descendants of the Afghans ; a large castle of unburnt brick is on 
the skirt of the city ; the bazar is spacious, and is frequented on 
Saturdays and Wednesdays. Several of the tombs of illustrious 
men, two or three colleges, and as many baths, are yet remaiuing. 
There are also twelve canals still open of the eighteen which the 
city possessed. Nejeb Ullah Khan is the Governor on the part oi 
of the King of Kabul, but the real Governor is Khalich All Khan ; 
the city yields an annual revenue of 30,000 rupees, of wluch one- 
third goes to the Governor, one-third to the old dependents of the 
former governments, and the rest to the Uzbeks m the ^1^"^^^^' 
The duty of the old servants is to take care of the fort, wMlst trie 
Uzbeks are bound to perform military service when requirett. 
The WaK of Balkh is one of the sons of Mil" KHaUch Ali ; ms 
duty b to protect the people. The air of Balkh is very *>^^|J^ 
is said to be very dangerous in the hot season, bringing on lew^ 
Wheat is sold at one rupee for two Delhi maundfl. Turcoman mu 
Uibek horses are cheaper here than at K^^**^ '' ,r^'.^ J^ 
cheaper. Balkh is considered to be the plaee ^^«/^:^H ^JT^rtUe 
and it is now a place of gi«at Msort. It is said, that oeror* wt 
time of Genghis Khan, it was well known that the tomb ot AU w«» 
at Balkh, but after his reign the place feU into P^^l;^^^^ 
memory of the circumstaace was almost lost ; at ^^^e^ build- 
Hoeein ftfirza was directed to the spot, and erectca * .Jf "^ ^^^ 
ing, with a dome on it, which is the shrine that has «P^ r ^^y 
scTfiunous* The people here assert, that many^^^J^^ ^^^'^ 

♦ From Uw * MadiM Gwtte' of Febf ti^ry »• »«»^- 



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384 Account of Baikhy Khuim, and Kunduz^ 

iDdividaals are annually restored to the use of their faculties by the 
blessing of the saint. 

. RHutM.— -Khtthn is the capital of Mir Khalich All Khan. From 
Balkh to Khulm the southern road is over mountains. Khulm has a 
cool climate, and is a pleasant and populous place ; many Hindoos 
of Slukarpur are settled, here and carry on trade , for it is the great 
emporium between Balkh and Kabul, and only those articles 
which do not find a sale at Khulm, are forwarded on the remainder 
of the road to those places. Khulm is also sometimes called Tash 
fcurghan, the latter being the old, the former the new city ; all the 
houses are built of unburnt brick and topped with cupolas — the clay 
of which the bricks arc made, is very tenacious, and the houses 
are very substantial ; running water is abundant, and it often flows 
through the houses ; fruits of all kinds abound, and the melpne 
are particularly excellent. The Turcomans bring their horses 
fcere for sale, and the horses about Khulm are also sought for from 
other countries, being large and swift ; but they do not bear work 
like those of the Turcomans. Horses here sell for five to ten 
tomans each, or 100 to 200 rupees, and the horses of the first price 
would sell for 400 rupees in Hiudoostan. The Turcoman horses 
sell for from 200 to 1000 rupees. It is eleven stages from Khulm 
to Sheher Sebz, and no part of the road is subject to Bokhara. 
It belongs to the country of the Kobadians, on the right bank of 
the Amu, which is subjeoj; to two rulers : one is Mural Allk of the 
Uwaili branch of the Uzbeks ; the other is Dost Mahomed Beg of 
the Ilan-li of the Dermenah tribe. There are three stages to the 
K6bad]an country, or Chatrabad : the ferry of Auvachek, on the 
teft bank of the Amu, and the Kobadian. From the Kobadian to 
Sheher Sebz are eight stages— or Ki Ki, Sherabad, Derbend 
Chakchak, Bnzghah Khane, lig-dilli, £k kabal. To this last 
place, the road runs through the state of Hissar, the ruler of which 
is Sayro Be ; the last st^e is Sheher Sebz, the Government of 
Neaz Ghuli Beg, who is indepedent of Bokhara. 

Urgenj is fourteen days from Khulm ; part of the road is thcovgh 
Bokhara. 

Herat is seventeen stages from Khulm. 

The territory of Khulm extends eastward two stages of the 
oonfiaes of Kunduz : to the west, four stages to Mustijarak ; south- 
wards^ six stages to Andoh ; and northwards, two stages to the Sihon ; 
the ruler is Mir Khalich Ali Khan, he is sixty years of age, of 
goodly person and florid countenance ; he wears the Uzbek cos- 
tume ; he holds his court in public, with little or no ceremony, 
and receives complaints, and decides causes, which depend upon his 
judgment : if a legal opinion is necessary; he refers them to the 
Cazi. Thieves are not at first punished with death ; but they are 
suspended with ropes to an iron stake in a wall is the market- 
place, and are kept there on bazar days, so tint they may be i 



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Ciiies4>/fiokhara. 28d 

a«d noted i^y the. people, and may be put to. public shame ; jf, alter 
this, they are coovicted of stealing, they are punished capitally. 
The lex talionis is in force for personal violence, The Mir him- 
self walks through the bazar on market days, and inspects the 
goods and weights. 

Mir Khafich Alt divides his time between two residences, one in 
the aorth» and one in the south of the city ; they are built on high 
ground, of unbaked bricks and pebbles ; the space between them is 
occupied by the dwellings of the Uzbeks ; but there is no house 
witlun gun-shot of either. The booses of Khulm are abont 8000 
in number ; the town is enclosed by mountains on the south, south- 
west, and east ; the country is open to the north and north-west. 
The road to the south, bending towards Kabul, was formerly reur 
dered dangerous by the people of Dehrangi, a tribe of the Hazarehs, 
of the Shia religion, about ten marches from Khulm ; but, in 1812, 
the Mir marched against them, defeated them in an engagement, 
and made a great number prisoners, some of whom he kept, and 
others he sold as slares. 

The Mir has thirteen sons, the eldest of whom, Ahmed Begy 
about tirenty years old, was the Governor of Imak, and the title 
of Wall of Balkh was given him by Mahmud Shah of Kabul, with 
the grant of one of the canals of Balkh, which yielded 7000 rupees 
a year; he died in 1812, under strong suspicions of having been 
poisoned. The Mir^s second son is I^uba Beg, Govemor of Begtl 
Arik; the third, Kulimadar Beg^ Governor at Derreh Yusef ; the 
other sons are all young. The force of the Mir is abont 12,000 
horse, half armfed with lances, and half with matchlocks ; he rer 
yiewB them every year, and keeps an accurate muster-roll of the 
men a.nd their appointments ; they are paid by grants of land. 

Th'e Governor of Balkh is Nejib tJIlah Khan Afghan ; he is ap^ 
pointed by the King of Kabul. The canals of Balkh are of great 
celebrity, and along them cultivation and population extend. Each 
is aaaigned to some chief by the King of Kabul, but several of them 
are in possession of Mir Khalich Ali Khan or Ids dependents ; and, 
in fuct, the Govemor of Balkh is so only in name, the Mir being 
entirely master of both Khulm and Balkh, which he profoeses to 
hold under the Kabul monarch. The canals of Balkh come from 
Ati Bend, a place abounding with springs, amongst Uie mountains, 
two day's march to the west of But Bamiyan. 

KuxDuZ'--a city of celebrity. The chief is Khan Murad Beg, the 
nephew of Mir Khaliph Ali Khan. It was formerly subject to the 
c^f of Kattaghan, but his power has been diminished by the pro- 
gress of Mir Khalich Ali. The rice of Kunduz is famous. The river 
Bengi runs from Khanchabad, past Kunduz, and the citv is between 
.it and the river of Akserai. Many springs rise in this district ; the 
ny^ of Tal^can rises from three springs, one is in Kunduz, the 
second at Mian Sheher, the third, Terishk, which form three 

Menial Utrald, Voi\ 10. U 



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286 Mr. MooTcroft, 

valleys ; the branches of Kundnz and Mian Sheher unite at the latter 
place, on the borders of a district named Weref, throngh which 
runs the third branch, and joins the united streams at a day*to march 
from their confluence^ it is then called the river of Talikan, and 
unites with the Bengi. After flowing through Talikan, near Khajeh 
Ghengal, it then flows near Khaneabad, whence a canal has been 
made from it to the city of Kundnz. The riT«r of Talikaa joins 
the river of Akserai near Aurak. 

Mr. MooRCROFT. — ^The preceding extracts derive additional inte- 
rest from their connection with the latest scenes of Mr. Moorcroft's 
travels. We have been favoured with the perusal of a letter from 
him, dated the 17th August, a few days before his being attacked 
by that indisposition, of which every account we have seen concurs 
in reporting the fatal termination. The vexatious treatment he 
encountered from the Mir of Kundus has already been detailed by 
us, as well as his ultimate arrival at Bokhara, and friendly recep- 
tion by the King. In his expectation of procuring horses, howeven 
he had been wholly disappointed, the markets Iwving be» bnrfceu 
up from various causes, as the death o{ Khalich AH, the ruler of 
Khulm in Lszet Ullah's journey, the open disobedience of Urgeig, 
and the revolt of the Kothai Kipchaks. These drcumstances had 
so much interrupted the intercourse of the states of Turkestan, 
that the horse markets of Bokhara had been suspended for the 
last five years. Mr. Mooieroft had, however, obtained from the 
King of Bokhara permission to noake such purchases as he might 
be able to effect, when his hopes of success were suspended by a 
military levy, against the Kipchaks, of above'20,000 horse, so that 
it became impossible to make any private puidiase. Mr. Moor- 
oroft was permitted to repair to the camp, about four days' journey 
from Bokhara, in the vicinity of Samarkand, where the King was 
engaged in the siege of the principal fortress of the Kipchaks, 
which capitulated after a few weeks resistance, and was subse- 
quently rased to the ground* Mr. Moorcroft's visit, except that it 
gave him an opportunity of traversing the most fertile part of the 
kingdom of Bokhara, was equally unproductive, as the King, after 
granting him leave to purchase, finally countermanded his orders 
to that e£Eect This was the more to be regretted, as he had con- 
cluded bargains for several horses of the best description. One of 
them, a black horse, was sixteen hands high, and of strength pro- 
portionate to his stature. All he could obtain was, a letter from 
the King, and another from the Governor of Balkh, with wlucli 
he btended to proceed to Maimena, after which he purposed to 
return by way of Balkh. A very extensive feeling of interest in 
his adventures seems to have been excited amongst the diflerent 
chie& in that part of Asia. Mir Kammer-ad-din sent a mullah U^ 
accompany him through Badahkshan, if he should wish to go by 
that route, and forwarded letters from the Hill Chiefs and heads df 



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jr<^ nUfw Me. 287 

the Ynsefzais, offering every fud b tbeir power, and assarances of 
the most friendly welcome. The brother princes of Peshawer wrote 
singly to the same effect ; and Mehr Del Khan, and Pir Mohanuned 
Khan, engaged to send persons of trust in their employ to meet 
him on his return, with sufficient escorts to ensure Mm against all 
danger on the road. His premature death is the more to be la- 
mented, -as he seems t6 hare had nothing to apprehend on his 
hemeward journey. We hope the kindly d^positioBB of the iadivi- 
doals mentioned iu his letter, will be extended to hla eoDipanioo 
and sonriTor, Afr« TrebeclL. 



WBSP NOT FOft MB.'^ 

Wkbp not for me, Lete ! weep not for «ie; 
TIm Stan now barn pale, and the night Tapo«r» iee ; 
The sky is all oalm, aa4 fiwa tranqw^l repoae 
The nightingale wakes on the breast of the rose ; 
The tints of the MOffning shall soon paijit the lawn. 
And gladness aad glee shall retarn wD^ the dawa ; 
The earth is all still, aad all qniet the sea,— 
Weep not for Ma« Love ! weep not lor ue. 

Weep not for me, Lore ! weep not fbr me: 
Tile sun in its beauty roTialts the lea ; 
Already the lark trims its plumage, and wiftes 
f ts earol to mora *mld <he dew^hinlng brakes ; 
The flhwn bomids along hi Its frolicsome play. 
And emps all the wild-flowen that bloom in ^ way ; 
And the hare leaves itt Ibiln hi the fen sUentlyi- 
Weep not for me, Lore I weep not Aw me. 

Weep not for me, Love I weep not for me ; 
When evening returns then I'll -Ide me to fhee ; 
Tim hmtsman Is happy with horn and witfi hound. 
In the forest by day must my psatime be foond ; 
With a deer oa my shbuldeif a hare la my hand, 
ini soak thee ete darkness hath eoverM the land; 
And bUihe In the twili^ our SMoling shall bo- 
Weep not for me. Love t weep not for me. 



.Prome, Dee. I8a5. 



PaVMlL. 



* From ' The Madras Courier ' of January 17, 1690. 



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LETTERS OP GEORGE BALLARD AND LADY ANBOKT. 

To the Editor of the Oriental Herald. 

SIR, Jaly 11, ino. 

The present communication, as you will readily perceiye, is 
chiefly designed to do honour to that hetter portion of our race, 
who haye sufficiently yindicated, hefore the " lords of the creaHon/* 
their claim to no inconsiderahle rank among the moral and intel- 
lectual henefactors of human society. 

The first letter, which I copied from the original in the British 
Museum, f Ayacough.) will also senre to introduce to your readers a 
man unenaowed hy fortune, though ^. science frowned not on his 
humble birth," andf the ** talent well employed " enabled him quickly 
to rise above great early disadyantages. 

George Ballard, according to the * Anecdotes of Bowyer,' was 
boni at Campden, in Gloucestershire. While an i^reutice to a 
tailor there, he acquired the Saxon language, during hours of the 
night, stolen from sleep. ^* Lord Gbedworth and the gentlemen of 
his hunt, who used to spend about a month of the season at Camp- 
den, heard of his fiemie, and generously offered him an annuity of 
100/.; but he modestly told them, that 80/. were fully sufficient 
to satisfy both his wants and his wishes. Upon this, he retired to 
Oxford, for the b^efit of the Bodleian library/' < He became << one 
of the Uniyerdity Beadles, but died m 1755, rather young ;** his 
death was probably occasioned by '^ too intense application.'' 

Ballard ** left large collections behiad him," but published only 
the work contemplate in his letter. It appeared in 1752, and is 
entitled, * Memoirs of British Ladies who have been celebrated ibr 
their Writmgs,-or Skill in the Learned Languages, Arts, and 
Sciences.' Tliere has been, I belieye, a later edition. 

The writer of the second letter (Ayscough) was bom under 
another planet ; highly favoured by fortune, while nature appears 
to have been not unpropitious. She was the eldest daughter of the 
great Lord Chancellor Hardwicke, and married, in 1748, to tlie 
celebrated navigator. Lord Anson« 

Dr. Kippis, fai the ^ Life' of that nobleman, (' Biog. Brit.' 1. 290,) 
noticing the death of Lady Anson in 17M> oommends her dia* 
position to perform *^ kind offiees with her Lord for persons who 
stood in need of her asristanoe." He attributes to her *' gieat 
benevolence of ^position, a fine taste, and much vivacity ;" add- 
ing, '' her composition m prose and verse were remarkably lively 
mi elegant, and her whole conduct and behariour were distin^ 
l^hed by virtue, dignity and politeness." 

Otiosits. 



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loiters of GwfgeBaHistd and Lady Amm, 289 

T9 Ike JUvermid Mr. Birth, ai Us Aonte, the lower end qf Norfolk'Street, in 
ikeShramdj London, 

Jesus Coll. Lane, Oxfoid, May 14, 1740. 

Rftv. Sir, — I am eiieoiirag«d by the very worthy Dean of Exeter* to make 
this address to return yon my sincere thanks for the obliging offer you made 
me by him about three months past, of communicating some notes you have 
collected relating to the leaned of the fidr sex. 

Your kind intentions to promote my undertaking are highly generous, and 
deserre my most grateful acknowledgment. With this pleasing view, I have 
entirely put a stop to what I was doing for the honour of the ladies ever since I 
had the pleasure of hearing of your intmded favour, imagining that what I might 
do in the mean time might be to be done again, purely to connect your notes 
and observations with mine. 

The honour of a line from you, to inform me when I may expect your 
favour, will be a great obligation to— Worthy Sir, your most obedient humble 
servant, 

OaoRon Ballaru. 

I shall be vastly obliged by the loan of that book which contains Lady 
Jane Grey*s Letters. 

7b Uie Rev, Dr. Birek. 

Tunbridge Wells, August 9, 174^. ' 

6iR,*^It Is so diiBcttlt to find time for writing, at a place which may so de- 
SOTvedly be called ' The Village' (though not * The Castle*) of Indolence,* 
that I have not till this minute, though I have watched for an ojpportunlty, 
been able to thank you for the obliging and entertaining despatcn last Sun- 
day's post brought me from you. I liave, too, iust vnrote to Mr. Adair, who 
will, 1 dare aay, with allowances for the possibility of his being out of town, 
succeed in his embassy to Admiral Knowles ; and I beg you will make my 
complioMBts to Mr. Edwards,t to whose amusement I shall be very glfd to 
have contributed, as well as to a complete account of a very pretty soecles of 
creatures, who, I hope, will reward him with a song for the trouble ne gives 
himsrif about them. As to Mr. Catesby 's t insinuation, that they will in time 
lose their beauty, I can only say, that they share that misfortune with most 
other pretty things ; and that malice, when it can find no fanlt with a taidy 's 
present bloom, always resorts to that ill-natured prediction, — ^* she will alter.*' 

1 have a grcAt mind to say to you, (but quite " under the rose" though,) 
that I differ from yon in your opiidon of Lora Vere's§ resignation not bdng 
at all rmeUedj for I, who see him every day here, think it is a good deu 
regretted Aw Mmedf; and though his place may be filled with a» mnch loiit- 
faeUon to he tmMle, I very much doubt whether it can be with so mudi 
satisfaction to himself. 

I lamented that your account of the Duke of Montague's || will had not been 
followed by one of the Duke of Bolton's, whom you had done your best 
towards despatching the night before I left London, but it has proved a little 
premalare.9 

As to the Duchess of Bfanchester, I should imagfaie it most likely for her 
to dilute everything that can gratify her with the pleasure of disputing, and 

* Dr. Littleton, an eminent antiqoariaR. 
t Oeorge Edwards, the celebrated naturalist, who died in 177S, aged SO. 
Mr. Edwards had published two of his fouf tolumes of the * IBstory of Birds 
in 1748 and 174^, and was now preparing his third volume, which appeared 
in 17fi0. 

X Mark Catesby, F.R.8.. He published, in 17S1 and 174t, a ' Natural 
History of Carolina and Florida.' 

§ A son of the Duke of St. Albans. 
IT He died io 1740. 9 He died in 1754. 



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!I90 Leittracf George Btiiard and LtayAntom. 

in this eue, I see nothing that can check that plttsnre, vnlflM k te the c«a- 
aideration, that it may be a kindness to Lord Sandwich to let his children stand 
first in tbe entail. 

I am Teiy glad to beer oC anything that is likely to prevent our enemies 
from taking edYsntage of my Lord^s pains and experience, and Mr. Robins*s* 
knowledge, which I own I have been a little in concern about ; for though I 
wish well to the Spaniards natoiallyf yet, whilst they are so entirely governed 
. by France, all that is of service to them does, I doubt, finally return to the 
bsoflfit of the latter. 

Play is Mr. Robies*a second volume almost ready for Prendent Montes- 
qalea*s approbation 7 And pray is the President's book upon * TEsprit des 
hoix* very ii^peniotts and inibnmng ? or is it a little superficial, rather too re- 
fining, and wrote very much like a Frenchman 7 I have heard both characters 
of it. 

I have had the pleasure of a letter from Lady Orey, who seems very happy 
at Wrest,t with good company (Mr. Wray, f Mr. Edwaids,§ and my two 
brothers), . and good business (the building the great room and the her- 
mitage.)) She tells me Mr. Wray talks of coming to Tunbridge, and giving 
a breakfast to the MiMM ; and Mr. Burroughs, who is here, informed me last 
night, that Dr. JlfoM,1[ if that be his name, had spread the same report here ; 
so that I desire you will let Mr. Wray know that there is the greatest ex- 
pectation of him at this place. 

My hand ia as much tired with writing, as your eyes will be with reading 
this shameful scrawl, and indeed I would advise you to begin with it as if it 
were what it looks a good deal like, that is, Hebrew, and satisfy yourself 
with reading the conclusion, which assures you that — I am, your very lUthM 

"*^'°»' B. Aksok. 

* Chaplidn to the Centmion, ffe published the only avthentle account of 
Lord Aiison*s voyages, 
t Lady Grey's seat. 

% Daniel Wray, of Richmond, one of the authors of the * Athenian Letters,' 
first published in 1741. 

§ Thomas Bdwaids, author of the * Gaoons of Criticism,' by which bs 
mortally wounded the repalation of Warburton as a critic on fihakspearo ; 
Mr. Edwards was an intimate friend of the Hardwicke family, and of Mr. 
Wray, who wrote hia epitaph, on his decease in I7A7. 

J Among tlie numerous sonnets of Mr. EdwardB\ which he anneacod to hb 
* Csnons,' Is the folio vring, no doubt designed as an bMcription : 

POR THE ROOT-HOUSE AT WREST. 

Stranger, or guest, whome'er this hallowed grove 
Shall chance receive, where sweet Contentment dwells. 
Bring here no heart that with ambition swells, 
With avariee pines, or bums with lawless love. 
Vice-tainted souls will all in vain remove 
To sylvan shades, and hermits* peaceful cells. 
In vain will seek retirement's lenient spells. 
Or hope that bliss which only good men prove. 
If heaven-bom tmth and sacred virtue's lore. 
Which cheer, ateni, and dignity the mind. 
Are constant inmates of thy honest breast. 
If, umopiniag at thy neighbour's store, 
Thou eouat'st as thine tbe good of all mankind. 
Then, welcome, share the friendly groves of Wrest. 
Tharo is annttlier wamn dedicated to " the Lady Marchioness Grey," and 
entitled, * The Hermitage at Tkrrick to the Root-House at Wrest.' Tsrrick 
was the name of Mr. Edwards's seat in Bucks. 

9 Perhaps l^r. Charles Moss, Bishop of St. David's in 1760, and of Bath 
in 1774. 



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291 



SUPPEKSSION OF LITEBA&T AND RELIGIOUS ASSOCIATIONS AT 
THB CAFE OF GOOD HOPE.* 

Most of oar readers are acqaabted with the attempt made about 
two years ago to establish a Literary Society y with a Library and 
Museum, in Cape Town. Besides the common objects of such in- 
stitutions, the proposers of that Society hoped it would tend to ac-' 
complish that complete union and amalgamation of the old and new 
fixed inhabitants, which every enlightened colonist must consider 
a most desirable and important object. Sir John Truter, and many 
more of the best mformed Dutch, joined the promoters of it, chiefly, 
we believe, on this ground. His Excellency the (Governor, how«« 
ever, was not then in the humour to submit tamely to the progress 
of any sort of improvement. Catching at what he conceived to be 
an informality in the manner of applying for his patronage, he 
charged the whole body of the proposers with having manif^ted a 
wiifdi dioregard to the regnlaUons of the Colony, and consequently 
lefosed his sanction to th^ undertaking. This reastm for 
quashing so useful and promising a project was given officially in 
writing. In a conversation with a gentleman of the learned pro- 
fession, wko, greatly to his honour, zealously defended the Society^ 
of which he was also one of the promoters, his Lordship assigiu^ 
other reasons for his conduct, none of whksh proving capable of 
bearing ^e slightest discussion, he at last let out the true cause: 
^ It originates,'* quoth he, **mth two persons," (naniing them,} 
** and I am determined, so long as I hold the reins of government, 
to oppose and thwart every thing which emanates fipcnn them, no 
matter what it may be*' ! ! This determination, it may be observed, 
he seems to have preserved unshaken ever nnce. Indeed, one of 
hn last public fusts, before taking adfJOtUage of his have of ab- 
seneSjWVi so manifestly bottomed upon it, that nobody ever thought 
of accxmnting for it on any other principle. He will have leisure, 
during his voyage home, to calculate how much he has gained by 
it— 80 fell the South African Idterary Society. 

Our attention has been drawn to it at present by having acci- 
dentally cast our eye, '^ in the course of our morning's reading," on 
some papers, containing an account of a parallel case, which oc- 
curred in the Colony at the same period. The one may, perhaps, 
throw some light upon the other. The case was this: The clergy- 
man of Uite^age, with several of the most respectable inhabi- 
tants, wbhed to form a Society for spreading religious and general 
knowledge throughout that district. A meeting for this purpose 

* Fron the * South African Adfertiser' of April m^ 18S6. 

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492 SuppresHtm of Literary and RettgiouB Aa^odaHwu 

was held in the Chnrch there, on the 6th of Jnly 1824, and dona- 
lions, amounting to 395 dolhurs, and annual snhscriptions to the 
amount of 862 dollars, were immediately offered. The Laaddroat 
was elected President, and the Clergyman, Vice Preddent; A Com- 
mittee, consisting of fifteen ind!yiduals» was also appointed. At 
their first meeting, on the 12th of July, they were informed that 
the Landdrost (Colonel Cuyler) regretted that he could not aoee|it 
the honour of the oflice of Pi'esident, which they had offered to him ; 
uid that the district Secretary and the district Clerk had also de- 
clined serving on the Committee, "as their public UTOcations 
would prevent their attending the meetings of the same, though 
Uiey highly approved of the objeot of the meeting, to which they 
would render every support/' 

Notwithstanding the desertiod of the functionaries, the Com- 
mittee proceeded to form a few resolutions respecting the objeeto 
of the fiociety^ and the manner in which its meetings were to be 
condneted ; aad they addressed a letter to Lord Cluurles Somerset, 
requesting his patronage and support. To this application his Ex- 
cencncy replied : That he hiffhly appreciated the objects faeM 
forth in the proposition, but— (wlmt think yon ? what cause ooald 
be alleged for quashing a society for propagating the gospel, and 
disseminating general knowledge in the district f— -a society hcsded 
by so respectable a clergyman as Mr. Smith !) but — f you will ne- 
ver be able to guess, take it therefore in his own words) but—" it 
deeB not appear'io Aiia, that oompeUiU permm9for prmHoiing Ae 
40$ign €f the profeded Soeieijf are procurable in the preeeni eir^ 
cuauianeee of the Uitenkagedietricijandaeitwouldbe ineo nu e i 
ent wiik hie dniy to fxbmit^— (mark this word) — ^* to psRair 
the ettahU^hmeni of an aoeociation ^Meh would not anewer the 
end of iio in8tiiuiion(!J hia Excelleney, &c. &c. &c/'— We haie 
never elsewhere seen any reasoning equal, to this. Put into iba 
form of a syllogism, it stands thus : 

' Religious and genend knowledge, under my govenimeait, abauid 
be communicated to the learned and pious only. 

The people of Uitenhage are neither learned nor pious: There- 
fore, they ought not to be permitted to raise a fund for the dis- 
semination of religion and knowledge. 

CoroUary .-—-Society shall not advance a step eo long ae 1 hold 
the reine of government. 

The above narrative will appear still more strange, when wc 
have considered for a moment the past and present state of the 
district of Uitenhage, with resjiect to the means of education. Pre- 
vious to the year 1622, when a limited number of schoolmasters 
were sent out to the Cape by the British Government, the oflice of 
district schoolmaster was attached to that of parish clerk, and the 
salary and emoluments seldom exceeded six hundred rix-dollars 
per annum. The qualifications for the ofl&ce could not, therefore. 



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at ike Cape of Good Hope. 299 

with anT modestyi be pitched very high ; and no other provision 
was made by the Colonial Government for educating the yoath o( 
a district perhaps two hundred miles in length. The inhabitant 
residing at a distance from the village, were obliged to hire an 
itmerant teacher, who was generally some discharged soldier, no 
way distinguished for the depth of his erudition, or for the correct- 
ness of his deportment. This brought the profession into disrepute, 
and few persons of respectability could be induced to enter upon A 
laborious avocation, which at the same time degraded them in the 
eyes of their employers. 

The teachers sent out by the British Government were princi- 
pally gentlemen, who had received their education 4Lt some oncT of 
the Scotch Universities, and they have proved themselves every 
way qualified for their trusts. But they are few in number, ana 
only those families residing in or near the villages where the schools 
are established, reap any advantage from them. These are merely 
day-schools, and no means are provided for boarding those children 
whose parents do not reside within a convenient distance. The 
Innlies, therefore, oi the distant farm ers, it is to be feared, will sUU 
remain uneducated for years to come. 

Now, it was chiefly to meet this great evil that the Society at 
Uitenhage was projected. By its endeavours, respectable teachers 
would have been provided for these destitute people. Not idle 
and dissolute characters, thrown by chance in the way oi a father 
of a family, but persons selected by competent judges, and capable; 
not only of eommuoieating to their pupils the rudiments of learning, 
bat also able and disposed to instil into their minds the sentiments 
of religion and virtue. What shall we say^— what can we think, 
of a government that, under such circumstances, could oppose so 
exceUent, so pious a design! Let not, however, the friends of reli- 
gion, of virtue, and of sound learning, be discouraged. The evil 
days of Arbttary Powbr are certabdy numbered. Those who 
have attempted to revive it, and bring it back upon us, swelled 
with the accumulated venom of a RsBTORATtoN, will, it is to be 
hoped, %ce their error, and join with their fellow-subjects in secur- 
ing the enjoyment of peace and liberty, without regretting the soli- 
tary flesh-pot, and the unsocial garlic, heretofore devoured in secret 
by the sycophant and slave. 



IIANU8CRIPT8 OF A TRAVSLbER. 



The Section of the UopublUhed Manuseripts, which contains ui Account of 
the Import Trade of Smyrna and the Turkish Empire generally, is deferred 
until the next Number, which will still include it in the same volume 'wrttk 
the Aeoount of the fixnort Trade of Turkey, given in our last. The Nar* 
ntive of the Scrie* Is tiwrefoie «gain resumed. 



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2d4 



VMPUBLIBHBD MAMUflORlPTB OF 4 TRAVBILBK IN TBM BAIT. 

No. xn. 

Turkish Bridal Procession — Catholic Funeral — Extensive Fire— 
, Dervishes — Turkish Devotion and Amusements, 

This day (the 29th of August) was honoured by the marriage of 
the Governor of Smyrna's daughter to a rich Effendi^ and was cele- 
brated with 411 the usual demonstrations of joy, in addition to a 
grand procession for conveying the bride from the bouse of her 
father to that of the bridegroom. 

The procession was in the following order: first, came fifty 
janissaries, in their dresses of state, each armed with pistols, a car* 
bine, and an inoanense sabre. These were on foot. Their cosiome 
Is not easy of verbal description : its greatest peculiarity was a cap 
of white leather, of the size and shape of the head at the bottom^ but 
square at tbe top, and at least three feet wide, felling over the back, 
and reaching to the less. These were followed by other men on foot, 
with green turbans and green wands, immediate descendants of Mo- 
hammed, as none but those have the privilege of wearing this holy 
colour of the prophet. Next followea the richer Turks on horse- 
back. Their horses are snmJOi, but well made, and have in general 
finely curved necks. It appeared, on this occasion, as if there was 
amonff their riders a general emulation to outvie each other in the 
splenaour ef their decorations. Nothing could exceed the richness 
of the caparisons ; for scarcely a horse among them was inferior to 
that of a Field-marshal on a grand review in Europe, and many of 
them superior. These were succeeded by about ten persons on 
horseback, having a sort of kettle drum, but not so large as a com- 
mon wash-bason, which they beat with a piece of stiff leather^ and 
the noise exactly resembled that of caulkers at work on a ship's 
bottom. Behind them, on foot, were the singers, who bawled in 
the most discordant manner that can be imaged, without order, 
melody, or harmony ; the Indian war-whoop would be musical^ 
compared with it. I could not obtain the exact words of the songs, 
but learnt that the subject of them all was the pleasures of gratified 
passion. After them came a strong guard of janissaries, who were 
followed by two men carrying a sort of wire cage, containing jewels 
of peat value ; among them I could distinguish diamonds, rabies, 
and other precious stones, with an innumerable quantity of pearb 
ot large siae and fine colour ; besides which were a profusion of 
gold chaioa, bracelets, broaches, tec. Five male, and ten fe* 
male black slaves, on horseback, with about twenty mules laden 
with presents, that had been sent to the father's hooae by the 



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Eeiigion and Maniiers in Turkey, 295 

bridegvooniy came next In order ; another goard of jamssaries {bU 
lowed ; aad afler these a enperb litter^ borne by males, richly oa^ 
parifloned; the litter itself, corered with cloth of gold, con*- * 
tained the happy bride; bnt the yehicle waa so completely covertd^ 
as to reofider it imposmble to obtain even a glimpse of her. A body 
of janissaries followed close to the litter, and the remainder of the 
processioo corresponded to that part of it which preceded the 
bride, forming, in the whole, a scene of norelty, interest, and bar* 
baroas, yet imposing, gnmdeiir. The forts discharged their eannon, 
while all the vessels in the harboiyr followed the example, and wore 
dsoorated with the flags of every nation, in compliment to the Go* 
tsemor of the port 

Being with an English gentleman, in a Greek house, when the 
procession first passed, I was anxious to get to one of the Frank 
residences for a better view, and, going Into the street, crept alonff 
close to the wall, to avoid the insolence of the Turks ; but I had 
scarcely moved ten steps, before I received a blow on the back 
With the batt-«nd of a pistol, when I stepped Into a door to avoid 
any ibrther injury. Shortly after, the^ procession halting, and there 
being a large open space, I again ventured to advance, when a 
negro Tark oame up to me and snapped a pistol in my face. A 
French gentleman perceiving this, invited me into his house, where 
I remained until the whole had passed. Arriving at the English 
reBidence, which I had endeavoured to reach, a crowd was as- 
sembled round the door, looking at the marks of pistol balls that 
bad boon fired at some ladies who sat in their window. It appeared 
that two drunken Turin, who were marching in the procession, 
teeliarged their pistols at the window where these ladies wer^ 
dtUng, aad that, being admonished by some of their more sober 
camrades, who told them they would perhaps kill some one, they 
repealled their discharge, exclaiming in Turlcish, ^^ It is a matter of 
no conae^nence ; there irill only be an infidel or two the less in the 
world''! 

In the afternoon we attended the funeral of the French Consul's 
80ii> a lad of about ten years old, who was interred according to the 
rites of the Roman Catholic church. The procession commenced 
with Turkish janissaries, whom the Governor had sent in compli- 
ment to the Consul, it being considered a great honour. Next fol- 
lowed a lK>dy of Capuchin friars, with large wax candles, chaunting 
the service of the dead. After them came the corpse, lying unco- 
Tered on a bier, dressed in a neat blue dress, and bearing flowers in 
its hand. The Deputy-Consul followed as chief mourner, in thfe 
itttiforBi of Us offiee, attended by a Icmg train of French gentlemen 
and ladies, all holding wax candles, and chaunting the soknm ser- 
vice of the dead. It waa a melancholy contraat to the festivities of 
the morning. 

Tiie foUowiag day was passed in an excunaon on the water, firom 



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299 Religion dnd Ma$iner9 in Turkey, 

^lucfa we retumed early in the eyening to join a large party of 
Franks at dinner. We had scarcely, howeyer, risen from the tM^^ 
l>efore the company were thrown into confusion by the sound of a 
erowd> with persons striking large iron-ehod staves against the 
payementy and crying <^ Yangen yar! Yangen var !^— literally, 
" There is a fire !'' Immediately all the popnhice were in commo- 
tion ; and a small engine, which had lately been receiyed by the 
British Consul, and which indeed was the only engine in the city, 
was soon transported to the spot by Greeks. We repieured to tjie 
kiosque, and, it being now past smi-eet, it presented a seene of awM 
grandeur. The houses being constructed with wood, and comma- 
nicating with magazines filled with combustible miiterials, a vast 
column of flame rose from the centre, which, lighting up the 
mosques and contiguous cypress groves, produced an effect of great 
magnificence ; infinitely surpassing the appearance of the largest 
fire in cities of which the buildings are of stone, where the flsmes 
are but partially seen, or are overpowered by smoke. 

Fires in Turkey are, however, so frequent, that few months paas 
without them ; and they are generally so furious, that whole dia- 
tricts are laid by. them in ashes. In 1638, at Constaatineple, 
70,000 houses were burnt ; and, in 1788, the conflagration waa ae 
great, as to threaten the destruction of the whole city ; and ey«n 
at Smyrna, but a short period previous to our arrival, a fire brake 
out in the middle of the public basars, at snn^set, whioh raged isr 
two days, and destroyed 40,000 houaes, besides eight or tea 
mosques. It was remarkable, that not a religious building of may 
other sect was hurt, although the fire raged with great violenee 
around the synagogues of the Jews ; and this circumstance gave 
such offence to the Turks, as nearly to occasion a general massaiva 
of the whole of that people. 

Throughout the Ottoman empire, it is a custom on the brealdag 
nut of a fire, to summon the Sultan, Governor, or Agha of the place 
three times, and he is compelled to come in person before the coii> 
flagration has lasted an hour, and to bring with him mules laden 
with piastres, which he distributes with his own hands to the fire- 
men, who are very inactive before he arrives. These in large cilias 
are armed agunst accidents by peculiar dresses, and are said to be 
extremely expert and adventurous ; but in smaller cities and tovna, 
fires are extinguished by pulling down the adjoining houses, as thare 
are no engines out of Constantinople, and even these, which are not 
more than four or five in number, are so small as to adnut of baiag 
carried to the spot on men's shoulders. 

We saw the Governor of Smyrna pass on horseback at fiill gal- 
lop, with a numerous retinue ; no lives were lost, but at nine o'filMlc, 
by the help of the Gomii's engine, the whole was extinguiilMd : 
40 houses being destroyed. 

The perfect resignation with which a good Biusttlman sees bis 



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Religion and Manners in Turkey, 297 

home consamed by the flames, and himself redaced* from afllaence 
to poTerty, has been often and justly remarked. He exclaims, 
'* Allah Kareem !"- <' God is merciful V without apparent emotion, 
and has persuaded himself, that the same Providence that made hinr 
poor and abject, can also restore him to wealth, if it be his will. 

For the women, they have not the praise of such philosophy, 
they assemble in a gronpe near the Sultan or Goremor, and if he is 
at sll unpopular, unmercifully load him with the bitterest reyilings, 
par^ularicing his own crimes, and the errors of his government, 
aad charging him with the cause of their present calamity. At 
soeh rencounters, the situadon of the Sultan or Governor cannot be 
enviable, as this is the only privileged time of conveying the voice 
of the people to his ears ; and as the women in Turkey are allowed 
to say any thing with impunity, it Is presumed that many of the 
ifus are not accidental. 

In the course of the evening's conversation, I learnt that some 
years ago, a young Englishman, son of a wealthy merchant, being 
OB horseback, taking an evening ride, meeting with two intoxi- 
cated Turks, one of them exclaimed in Turkish, *^ Let us 
shoot that infidel!'' and accordingly fired at him; the Bng- 
hshman, having pistols, fired in self-defence, and one of the Turks 
fell. In consequence of this, the young man was murdered 
by the populace, the father's house raxed to the ground, and the 
iHiole European quarter of the town destroyed by fire, not a single 
Frank building having one stone left, on another. 

Having been invited to join a party, assembled to pass another 
day at Sediquey, the village in the neighbourhood before described, 
I readily assented, and proceeded there on horseback in company 
with a number of ftiends. 

The Governor of Smyrna had sent a message to the Dutch Con- 
sul, to say he intended to honour him with a visit, and had accord- 
ingly sent before him about 20 cooks, and 20 or SO other servants, 
ia prepare for his reception. 

It was in the house of this gentleman, which was indeed a perfect 
palace, both as to extent and furniture, that we were all furnished 
with apartments, and full range of the grounds and gardens during 
our stay to be witnesses of the festival. 

At eight o'clock, the Governor, himself arrived, attended with a 
■omennn train of guards and servants, besides four Bektashi Der- 
TJf ^ In their proper dresses, having mosical instruments with them ; 
mait resctmblea a violin, but had 10 strings ; another was not unlike a 
guitar ; the other was a sort of pipe or oboe, with four holes only, 
and Pandean reed. 

• ]>ervise Is a name given to all Mohammedan monks, though of 
▼arions orders: the most noted among them are the Bektashi, the 
Mavelevi» the Kadri, and the Seyah. The Bektashi, who are al- 



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296 BeHgim md ibmker» in Turkep. 

lowed to maity; and live in dlie» and Ufwn^ aife'oUiged by the 
rales of theSt order to visit remote laods^ aad to salute eTery one 
they aMet with gaxel, or loye-«ong8» and wHh esmat or the inro- 
eations of the uimeB of God, and huinbly to wish him prosperity^ 
which they do by repeating the word '^ elvaUah/' a solemn ezoi*- 
motion of the wrestlers, by which the conquered yields thjB palm to 
to the conquerors. 

The Maveleviy so called from MaTelava, their ibnader) exe used 
to turn round for two or three hoars together^ with mnoh swiftaess' 
that their faces oumot be seen; they are also great lorrans of misfe; 
ia their monasteries, they profess humility and poverty, aad 
when visited make no distinctiim of persons ; tiiey first bmg their 
guests coffee to drink, and if the streets or roads throagh which 
they have come have been dirty, they wash their feet and sandals, 
as a religious duty. 

The Kadri, with a peculiar superstition, emaciate their bodies; 
they go quite naked except thdr thighs, and often join hands and 
dance, sometimes a whole day, repeating with great veh^neace, 
'.' Hu ! Hu ! Hu \" (one of the names of God,) tiU, like aadsieB^ 
they fall on the ground, foaming at the moath^ aad completely 
washed in their own pesspiration. The prime Vizir, Kupruli Ach- 
med Pasha, thinking this sect unbecoming the Mohammedan reli* 
gion, ordered it to be suppressed, but after his death it revived^ 
and is at present more numerous than ever, especially at Ckmstaa* 
tinople. 

Tlie Seyahs are wanderers, and though they have monasteries, 
yet they often spend their whole lives in travelling ; when they are 
sent out, thdr superiors impose upon them a certain quantity of 
money or provisions, forbidding them to come back until they have 
procured and sent it to the monastery ; so that when a Seyah 
comes into a town, he cries alond in the market-place, ^' O, God! 
give me, I pray, five thousand crowns, or a thousand measures of 
rice !^ Many of these dervises travel over the whole of the Moham- 
medan world, entertaining the people wherever they come, with 
agreeable relations af M the cariosities ikey hvve met witiL - There 
axe dervises ia Egypt, who live with their fsmilHSB^ aad ezmneise' 
ibm trades,.of wluch kind are tiie dandng dervises at Daanaaeos. 

They are all distinguished, among themselves, by the dUFerent 
forms and colours of their habits: these of Persia wear bfaie; Ae 
solitaries and waadfiraB waart^nly ra^aof di&reBtedonrs ; trthtaat 
cairy on their heads a plume made ^ the fcalhefBof a ooek; aad 
those of Egypt wear an octagonal badge, of a greeaish white Urn* 
baater at their girdles, and a high stiff cap witiumt any tldag loand- 
it Those Bektashi dervises who were in the Governor's tfamYeffa> 
elad with cloth of holy green, in » flowing dress, aad white tnrbsas. 

The whole of the party partook of a samptnouB sapper, and wen' 
entertained with musk from the dervises, aiach was dreadfitUydia- 



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Religion and Maimers in Twrhi^. 209 

cCNrdant; we were all too much fatigaed to join the entertiuameBt, 
and therefore retired early, to hold ourselves b reserve for to- 



At day-break on the following morning, our ears were saluted 
with aaeadky serenade, which awoke my companioas and myself, who 
slept in a(dQoining rooms; bat it was of that dismal kind which ap- 
proached nearer to the funeral dirge, than any other species of 
music, if indeed it deserved that name. To avoid such harsh disso- 
nmce, we dressed in a great hurry, idthough scarcely daylight, and 
having to pass through the great hall, into which our bcd-roomd 
opened^ found the Governor and his attendant Turks snoring on the 
floor, each rolled up in his own carpet without a pillow, and not a 
garment off; even their turbans and slippers were on. The dervises 
stood at the opposite end of the room, exerting their lungs ; but 
what had awakened us, seemed to have no impression on the sound- 
sleeping Ottomans, whom we left to their repose. 

Such of the gentlemen of our party as had yet risen, enjoyed the 
cod of the momiiig twilight in a second visit to the Fountain of 
Sighs, where we found a devout Musulman, who, travelling with 
a troop of camels, had halted here to perform his morning devotion* 

T*he devotee was not in the least disturbed at our appearance, 
baty after his ablutions, went through the whole of his prayers and 
and prostrations to the earth, which he kissed with fervency, lift- 
ing the hands, accompanied with ejaculations and repeated turnings 
of the whole body to different pomts of the horizon. 

There are five canonical hours of prayer observed by the Moham- 
medans : 1. Between day-break and sun-rise, which they consider 
to have been first observed by Adam, after his expulsion from Para- 
dise. 2. At mid-day, first observed by Abraham, after the sacri- 
fice of his son. 3. In the afternoon, three hours after the former^ 
first observed by the prophet Jonas. 4. At sun-set, first observed 
by Jesus Christ 6. At night, when the horizon is entirely obscured, 
first observed by Moses. 

These are considered to be of divine institution, and are to be 
pefformed with certain attitudes peculiar to each, as prescribed 
by Mohammed, aad stated ablutions^ not to be omitted whether 
travelling or at rest. 

At these five stated homrs, wherever there is a mosque, the 
maeBxin, or ciiery asceads to the gallery of the minaret, or slender 
tower, always aanexad to those buildii^^, and chaints the ezami^ 
the form of anaoancing the hours of prayer, in a very loud and 
dsstisct tone of voice : ** O God ! Most High !" (four times) '< I 
attest that there is no other God but God ! I declare that Mohanmied 
la the mea s e ag er of God ! Come to prayer, come to the temple of 
salvation ; God is great, and there is no other !" all which is twice 
repeated. To the es&aa of day-break is added, ^' Come to prayer. 



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3M Religion and Mtmners in Turkey, 

prayer sboiild be preferred to sleep/' On Friday, whieh it their 
aabbath, some additional prayers are added ; bnt that is all Whicli 
distinguishes this day from any other, as public and private buaioets 
meet DO interruptiou. on. that account. 

With such stMctness are those obligations of prayer enjoined, 
that a good Musnlman is exempted irom them only in sickness 
and during a journey. When interrupted or Tendered ineficacioas 
by impurity, they must be renewed ; andalms.ranst be bequeatbed, in 
proportion to the number of prayers which the testator acknow- 
ledges himself to haye omitted in the whole course of his life. 

We waited until the Turk had risen from his sitting posture, 
when he again washed at the fountain, and proceeded with his 
train of eunels, himself mounted on an ess, at the head of them, 
humming a Turkish song. 

After our return to Sediquey, our time from breakfast to dinner 
was passed principally in observing the peculiarities of the Turkish 
visitors. Just as we were rising from the breakfast-table, the 
chief cook of the Governor came into the room unasked, and seat- 
ing himself with great composure, desired the servant to bring him 
a bowl of tea. One of the largest was presently brought, and 
filled with about three pints of tea, boiling hot. . He was offered 
sugar, but declined it, begging at the same time for a few spoonfuls 
of salt.. When the salt-stand was brought to him, nearly fiill»he 
emptied the whole of its contents into the tea, and drank it off so 
hot that it soon threw him into a viol^it perspiration. On hb 
being asked where he had leam^ that mode of drinking tea, he re- 
plied, that he was cook in the Turkish army, when they were en- 
camped on the frontiers of Russia, and that there he used regulariy 
tp arink five such bowls, thus delick>usly hot and salt, every 
morning. 

The derviaes were busily employed in amusing the Goveaior 
with love-40ngB, chanted in a most vehement style, and accom- 
jpanied by music in the loudest strain; indeed,, it appeared as 
though they were desirous of excelling each other in strength 
rather than in sweetness of voice or grace of execution, imd to en- 
tertain an idea that he who sang the loudest sang the best. TTie 
discord was so grating that we were happy to st^ into the garden, 
where we witnessed an amusement of a k«s noisy kind. 

A swing had been erected among the trees for the amnaement of 
the young children, which some of the Turks dwovering, imaie- 
diately entered, and were swuag in turns by eadi other. Nothia^ 
could form a more ludicrous contrast than the giavityof tbeir 
long beards and the dignity of their flowing robes ei^^ayed In aaeh 
a childish employment ; and that contrast was still hd^tened hj 
their descending from the swing, and kneeling immediately iamm 
on the spot to kiss the earth, and ptarfona their neon devotionB. 
- After prayers and ablutions, they retired to dianer, whieh WM 



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Religion and Manners in Turkey] 801 

fomftd of an iinmeiuie |>arade of diskes/not leisthan 100 in nttmben 
maay «f which were placed on the carpet and taken away untonched.. 
Thaor dinner lasted but a short time, after which every one retired^ 
to deep. Some lolled on sofas, others rolled themselves in carpets 
4KI the floor, and several reposed themselves under the shade of 
the trees in tlie garden. The pipe and th^ viol of the dervises were 
laid aMde, and we enjoyed the luxury of at least three hoars' pro- 
finmd and undisturbed silence. 

At four we dined, and at six visited a Dutch family, whom we 
fcand preparing to visit their Consul, to partake of the entertilin- 
ment likely to be afforded by the'novelty of Turkish society, and a 
view of their manners. We were accordingly prepared, and atcom- 
panied them there. 

' When we entered the grand hall, the crowd was so great that' 
we couid scarcely gain a£nittance. Forcing our way in, we fdund' 
the Turks with the Consul's family, occupying the sofas at the' 
upper .end of the room. To them we were introduced, and seated' 
near the privileged pemons of the party. It ihig&t be literally 
said that all Sediqeuy was present. Not less than 300 individuals- 
were in the room. 

After some desultoiy conversation with the Turks, through the 
medium of their dragoman or interpreter, the hall was cleared for 
a dance. The music consisted of a piano*fortfe, two violins, and a 
qpandean reed, on which a Greek played extremely well. I was 
highly amused with the singular appearance of the Armenians, who' 
joined in the dance. They ar^ at best a heavy and saturnine race,' 
and their square calpacks, «nd long cloth robe, make them appear 
additionally so. With erect figures, like tall cypresses, they paced 
sedately down the rolom', while the more active Frenchmen who 
were of the party, were as light and elastic as these were ponder- 
ous and unwieldly. The Greek young ladies were many of ithem 
exceedingly pretty, and some few really beautiful; they danced 
wHh as much grace as spirit, and evident delight. . ^ 

The dancing lasted until midnight, when the Greek who played 
Ml the'pandean reeds, and who was one of the Governors muBtcal 
train, was called upon by him for the Cossack dance, a sort. of 
hornpipe, wldch some of the Turkish soldiers had learnt ia Russia. 
He acquitted himself with surprising agility and grace, and after 
completely exhausting himself retired to his chmr, aaudst great 
apphuse. 

A poot Greek barber was in confinement by order of the Agha 
of the village, for non-payment of the capitation-tax, to which he 
pl^ed inabiHty from poverty, but without avail. This man hav- 
ing the repute of a necromancer,' or dealer with the devil,*the Agha, 
who was of our party, sent ti^ armed Turks, to bring him thither 
f^rom his dungeon, at this late hour, to exhibit his powers for their 
aamsement. In about half an hour he arrived, and as he eateied 

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302 ReUgiim tmd Mannerk in Turkey. 

the room, kfosing tbe gromid tluree timet, ho Encroached the A^jtuL 
to know Ms will and pleasure, which being signified, glaaseo, and 
other apparatus were proTided, and he commenced his operationBi 
The poor fellow was under erident embarrassment, eidierfrom a 
ftar of not pleasing his persecutor or some other cause. Hiow- 
•f«r, he went through a long series of sTeight-of-haal tricks with * 
admirable skill, though every means were taken to detect and in- 
terrupt him. The last piece of his performance was the appamt. 
tcanaformation of paras, (a small tin coin, value* about a fiurthiag) 
into gold pieces, of 10 jnastres. A number of his other tricks had 
aatoaisbea those ignorant and credulous Turks, who betieved 
many of his deceptions to be realities ; bnt. this last waa u ^ef* 
^mwore of conjuration, and they made him repeat it a dozen timoe- 
in order to detect him. Not being able, however, to effect this,' 
the Turk exclaimed, ^as we learnt from his dragoman,) *' Who 
can disbelieve the evidence9 of their own sense ? This fellow 
surely communicates with the deviL" 

On his eoncluding,the company, partly as Sf reward for the enter-' 
tftV iP if*! he had afforded them,.aiid partly in coauaiseration for 
his unfortunate case, nrnde a very handsome contribution, which ho 
veeeived with great appearance of gratitude : but observed at the 
same time, that they would contribute more essentially to his be- 
nefit, if they would use their interest with the Agha for his releaae^ 
This was accordingly done by some of the most respectable of the! 
company, but the Ag^a expressed his astonishment^Aod exclaimed, 
'< No, no 1 the man that can turn paras into gold, must have money 
at his command, and I shall, before the year is eut^ either have the 
eapitation-tax or his head" ! 

The horror of such a seatence excited the compassion of all* 
pteient, and a second contribution being set on foot, a sufficieat' 
sum was raised to rescue the poor msjo's head from jeopardy.* 
He was, however, remanded to prison under his Turkish guardsy 
and intended to release himself by payment of his arrears in fuU- 
tXHmorrow. 

At two o'clock the Turks began to prepare for supper. A car* 
pet was spread on Uie floor,' and on that a tablo-eloth, around 
which the Turin as well as the Consul and his brother, sat orosa- 
legg^» as. the Turks never .use either tables or chairs. Fovr 
aarvants stood, oao' at each comer of the carpet,* holdiag a candle. 
The Governor observing me to be the only person who remniaed. 
behind, Cxeept the family^ beckoned to me, and iavi^d «ie by hb 
dvagoinian to job them, which I accordingly did with great readi* 
noM, and sat myself down cross-legged with the rest. Our firat 
diflii waa a jmIoh, a well-^own preparation of rice, which wan 
eaten with wooden spoons, as tiimr' religion forbids them the use 
of either gold or silver in their domestic uteasils. There were no* 
]flatee>kaives|yer forics, and, afl(er each takpg a few spooaAili> it 



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Religim and Mmmers in T^utkey, 303 

was remored. Pilau is a dish in lugh esteem among the Tiirks» 
and is genendiy the one with which they commence their meals. 
When the corps of the janissaries receive their annual ]^ay in the 
eonrt of the Seraglio, they are fed with pilau from the grand Sig- 
idor's kitchen, as a mark of great honour* 

The next dish which followed the pilau was a hroiled fowl. This 
the Governor tonria pieces with his hands, and applying his teeth 
to the breast, stripped off nearly one side, and threw the remainder 
into the dish, which a Turk opposite took up With great composure, 
and finished. This was instantly removed, and followed hy up- 
wards of thirty other dishes in such quick succession, that we had 
Bcareely time ib dip our finger Into each. They consisted chiefly 
of ragouts, and stews» but were changed with such rapidity, that 
of some I barely obtained a sight, and tasted but of few. 

After the repast, water was brought to drink and wash. Fruit 
was next served, aitd pipes and tobacco followed. Although it 
was now four in the morning, the discordant yellings of the mu- 
sical dervises were again renewed, by their performing a serenade 
to the G^ovemor, who listened to their strains with the roost evident 
delight ! So variable is that capricious ihiAg, tasted in different 
quarters of the globe. 

At five, the English gentlemen of the party retirfsd to take an 
hour's repose, having t6 perform an early journey to Smyrna to 
avoid the heat of the sun ; but the Turks continued their revels 
until sou-rise, when they repaired to devotion. 

The fatigue of the preceding day prevented our awaking at the 
appointed hour, and the sun was several degrees above the >^^^ , 
when we arose. We regaled ourselves with a breakfast ot Drcau 
and mountain honey, and some fruit fresh ftwm the fearden, wm 
our horses were preparing. 4 v r Turks 

Pasfflug through the court^yard, we observed a numl^r ^* ^ 
assembled round a San-dial, which they bad loosened, ana ^^^^ 
turning and shifting in every position, lost in co^iiecturcs on ^^^ 
could be the purpose for which it was designed, when one ^^^^ 
Franks of the Consul's family joining tliem, explained ine^ .^ 
and use of it, at which some of the Turks lifted "^J^"^ xx^rn^A H 
astonishment, and others laughed at the joke of ^^"8 ^^ \^ 
out of its proper posifion, from an idea that the uonsui 
puzzled to set it right again. . pleasant ride readied 

About eight we left Sddiqeuy, and after a pleasaw nu 
Smyrna at ten. 



X 9 



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804 



MISSOLONGUI. 

Thbt hare perishM ! but they still 
BbaSLl IWe in the years to c<Hiie, 
When, on the noontide snnny hill, 
' Away from the camp*8 deep ham, . 
Some martial minstrers song shall tell 
How trne they fought— how tme they fell 

They haye perish*d t bnt not in vain ; 

For, when Liberty's high command 

Comes like a battie-tnimpet*s strain 

To the sons of some other land. 

They shall rush to the field,' or leagver'd wall, 

And cry, '' Uke them, we live or fall I " 

Where'er home's banners float, 

Where, altar and hearth to save. 

The sword is drawn, and the bngle note 

C^ls on the gathering brave. 

There, watchword and conntertign shall be-* 

** Bfissolonghi ! Dead or free t** 

Bricfat city of the dead, 
l^dlen ! but more glorious far 
Than the brightest that ever flourished, 
Unscathed by the hand of war ; 
PUgrims shall seek thy shatter'd walls 
Before earth's proudest capitals. 

They shall muse by each fragment rent, 
Orey, and with moss o'ergrown, 
From thy long defended battlement ; 
They shall pause by each riven stone, 
More than before the noblest fhne 
That ever made an empire vain. 

To them more sweet shall be, 

At twilight's lonely hour. 

The sound of the giae, sighing monrfeAilly 

Through ivied wall and tower, . 

Than the thousand harps of a royal hall 

At a mighty monarch's festival. 

tkretn Babylon, whose name. 
An awltel shadowy somid. 
Still lingers on earth ; the iron lame 
Of Rome, the conquest-crown 'd. 
Shall cease to be remembered 
Bre thou shalt--^H^ of the dead ! 

When there breathes not on the earth 

One patriotic heart, 

When Freedom dies, and truth and worth 

FVom the base world depart, 

nien, MIssolonghi,— HBot till then, 

Tky naaw shall perish amongst men. 



BaBWAan WTCLirvi. 



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VAllllATIVS OF THS 8HIPWRSCK OF THB ROTAL CBARLOTTBi 
IN THK KAiTSRN SKAB. 

WritUn bg SexhaiU M'lUAerU ^ H.M.'M 4ldth B^gimaU, wkowoiaPoM" 
§enger in UUt iU-faUd 9t9Mi. 

Thb ship iloyii/ CkatiUU, of London, eomnuuided by Captain Joseph Cor- 
l^yn, with male prisoners on boanl, arrired, after a pretty IkTonrable passage. 
In Sydney Core, where the conjicts were landed ; and the ship, alter under- 
going tlie necessary oTerhanl, was eommfissiobed by the €k>loDial OoTemment 
to carry detachments of his Mijesty*s 90th, 41st and 40th regiments to India, 
in order to join their respective corps in that country. 

Tbese troops, commanded by lieutenant Henry Clinton of the 90th, em^ 
harked on the afternoon of the 7th of June, and on the Sunday following, the 
pilot proceeded on board and got the ship underweigh with a fine leading breeie 
down the river. The sun was fkst sinking in the western horixon, as she 
passed between Port Jackson's Head, but the appearance of the weatlier in 
the oiling was gloomy, and the light vapours, as tney scudded rapidly to the 
eastward, and the hoarse murmur of the surf, as it broke on the jutting rocks, 
seemed to presage an approaching storm. The light sails were taken in ; and 
the topsails, as the breese was increasing, single reefed, while the ship left 
the land at the rate of seven or eight knots per hour.— By seven o'clock, the 
reflecting light on the promontory, which at intervals peered over the in- 
creasing waves, was all that was visible to us of the fiur-lhmed land of New 
South Wales; this too was soon lost in the distance, and nought but the white 
foam of the swelling waves and the dark scud over our heads could be seen 
fh>m the ship. 

At eight bells the fore and m^ topsails were double reefed, the misen top- 
sails and main course handed, and every other necessary preparation made ibr 
a stormy night, which we had now every reason to expect. The ship ran be- 
fore the wind under this snug sail, till about half past ten o'clock, when she 
anfoTtnnately broached to in a squall, and split every sail fore and aft thea 
set ; the gale soon increased to a perfect hurricane, and blew the canvass out 
of the bolt ropes, while the shreds that remained poidant to the yards cncked 
dreadfully in the wind, and reminded us of the independent firing of a body of 
faifantry. The ship ran at the rate of ten knots an hoar, and rolled tremend- 
ously : both quarter-boats were washed away fh>m the davito, and several 
other articles were washed overboald, whic