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Full text of "Original letters relative to the English Reformation : written during the reigns of King Henry VIII, King Edward VI and Queen Mary, chiefly from the archives of Zurich"

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f!)c ^iifiliratton of t$t SSiorfee of tfjc 









BY THi: 









IN the preface to the Second Series of letters from the 
Archives of Zurich and other repositories in Switzerland, 
published by the Parker Society, it was stated that the 
Council had procured from the same collections more than 
three hundred other letters, written during the reigns of 
Henry VIII., Edward VI., and queen Mary, also having 
reference to ecclesiastical affairs and the progress of the 
Pteformation. The translation of these letters will form the 
present and a subsequent publication : for as the printing- 
proceeded, it was found that the entire series could not be 
conveniently contained in one volume : but as the first portion 
is now completed, the Council have issued it as one of the 
earliest books in return for the subscriptions of the present 
year, various though unavoidable circumstances having de- 
layed the publication of another work originally intended to 
be issued at this time. 

The question respecting the chronological or other ar- 
rangement of the letters now published was long and maturely 
considered : iu the result it appeared best to print those of 
each writer together. As the present correspondence does 
not, like the letters written in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, 
involve that regular view of the history of the times, which 
made the chronological arrangement in that case desirable, 
the plan now adopted has been considered, on the whole, 
the least liable to objection. A table of contents will how- 
ever be given with the succeeding portion, which will em- 
brace the entire series of ante-Elizabethan correspondence, 
in the chronological order of the respective letters. The 
Indices, and a fuller preface, will also be given with the re- 
r a 



maining portion, Avhicli Avill form another of the volumes of 
the present or following year, whichever may be found most 
expedient, and according to the progress made with the other 
works now in course of publication ; the Council not being 
unmindful of the general desire of the members, frequently 
expressed, that the books should be issued as speedily as 
possible in return for the subscriptions of each year. It is 
however hardly necessary to state, that the uncertainties 
attendant upon all literary proceedings will often prevent the 
adoption of that course which would be most in accordance 
with the wishes of those concerned in them. The plan of 
publication adopted by the Society, it will also be remembered, 
is not that of works printed for ordinary circulation ; and 
while its volumes involve far more than the usual difficulties 
of preparing for and passing through the press, the pre- 
cise time of the appearance of any particular book is not a 
matter of so much importance as in publications for common 

The greater part of these letters are now printed for 
the first time : they will be found to contain many details 
of interest, relative to various proceedings of that period, 
and occasionally to give much information respecting the 
customs and manners of the times, as well as the private 
history of the writers and other individuals to whom they 

October 1, ]84(>. 

C O N T B N T S. 


I. Edward VI. to the Senate of Zurich. .Westminster, Oct. 20, 1549. I 

II. Lady Jane Seymour to Bucer and Fagius, Sion, June 12, 1541) 2 

III. Baku of Suffolk to H. Bullinger London, Dec. 21, 1551 3 

Lady Jane Grey 

IV. To H. Bullinger Bradgate, July 12, 1551. ... 4 

V. To the same Bradgate, July 7, 1552 7 

VI. To the same Before June, 1553 y 

Archbishop Cranmer 

VII. To Joachim Vadian 1537 11 

VIII. To Wolfgang Capito Without place or date 15 

IX. To John a Lasco London, July 4, 1548 10 

X. To Albert Hardenberg Cambridge, July 28, 1548.. 18 

XI. To Martin Bucer London, Oct. 2, 1548 1!) 

XII. To Philip Melancthon London, Feb. 10, 1549 21 

XIII. To H. Bullinger Lambeth, March 20, 1552... 22 

XIV. To Calvin Lambeth, March 20, 1552... 24 

XV. To Melancthon Lambeth, March 27, 1552... 25 

XVI. To the widow of M. Bucer Lambeth, April 20, 1552 ... 27 

XVII. To Conrad Hubert and others ...Lambeth, April 20, 1552 ... 28 

XVIII. To Peter Martyr From Prison, 1555 2y 

Miles Coverdale 

XIX. To Calvin Frankfort, March 2G, 1548. . 

XX. To Fagius Windsor Castle, Oct. 2 1,1 548 

John Hooper 

XXI. To H. Bullinger Strasburgh, Jan. 27, [1540] 33 

XXII. To the same Without place or date 38 

XXIII. To the same Without place or date 40 

XXIV. To the same After St,-pt. 10, 1547 43 

XXV. To M. Bucer Zurich, June 19, 1548 44 

XXVI. To H. Bullinger Basle, March 28, 1549. ... 48 

XXVII. To the same Strasburgh, March 31, 1549 50 

XXVIII. To the same Mayence, April 8, 1549 51 

XXIX. To the same Cologne, April 14, 1549. ... 55 

XXX. To the same Antwerp, April 20, 1549. ... 5? 

XXXI. To the same Antwerp, May 3, 1549 G2 

XXXII. To the same London, May 31, 1549 G4 

XXXIII. To the same London, June 25, 1549 G5 

XXXIV. To John Stumphius London, Aug. 1, 1549 07 

XXXV. To H. Bullinger London, Nov. 7, 1549 69 

XXXVI. To the same London, Dec. 27, 1549 71 

XXXVII. To the same London, Feb. 5, 1550 74 



Bishop Hooper 

XXXVIII. To H. Bullinger. London, March 27, 1550.... 7 

XXXIX. To the same London, June 29, 1550 86 

XL. To the same Gloucester, Aug. 1, 1551 ... 91 

XLI. To the same Gloucester, Oct. 27, 1551 ... 95 

XLII. To John Stumphius ....Gloucester, Oct. 27, 1551.... 98 

XLIII. To II. Bullinger London, Feb. 28, 1553 99 

XLIV. To the same From prison, Sept. 3, 1553 . 100 

XLV. To John a Lasco From prison, Nov. 25, 1553 101 

XLVI. To H. Bullinger From prison, May 23, 1554. 102 

XLVII. To the same From prison, May 29, 1554. 103 

XLVIII. To the same From prison, Dec. 11, 1554. 104 

Anne Hooper 

XLIX. To H. Bullinger London, Apr. 3, 1551 107 

L. To the same Gloucester, Oct. 27, 1551 ... 108 

LI. To the same Frankfort, April 20, 1554... 110 

LIT. To the same Frankfort, Sept. 22, 1554 ... Ill 

LIII. To the same Frankfort, Nov. 12, 1554 ... 112 

LIV. To the same Frankfort, April 11, 1555... 114 

John Ponet 

LV. To H. Bullinger Strasburgh, April 14, 1556. 115 

LVI. To the same Strasburgh, June, 1556 117 

LVII. Maria Ponet to Peter Martyr Strasburgh, July 15, 1557... 118 

Richard Cox 

LVIII. To H. Bullinger Palace, Westminster, Oct. 22,1549 119 

LIX. To the same London, Nov. 1, 1550 120 

LX. To the same Westminster, May 5, 1551 . 121 

LXI. To the same Windsor, Oct. 5, 1552 123 

LXII. Owen Oglethorp to H. Bullinger Oxford, Oct. 30, 1548 124 

Robert Horn 

LXIII. To John Wolfius Frankfort, Feb. 2, 1556 125 

LXIV. and R. Chambers to Senate of Zurich, Frankfort, Feb. 3, 1550 126 

LXV. To H. Bullinger Frankfort, Feb. 3, 1556 129 

LXVI. To the same Frankfort, Sept. 19, 1556 .. 131 

James Pilkington 

LXVII. To R. Gualter Geneva, April 7, 1556 134 

LXVIII. To H. Bullinger Cevennes, June 27, 1556. ... 136 

LXIX. Earl of Bedford to H. Bullinger Venice, April 26, 155? 138 

LXX. Sir A. Cook to P. Martyr Strasburgh, Jan. 20, 1558 ... 139 

Sir J. Cheke 

LXXI. To H. Bullinger Greenwich, June 7, 1553. ... 140 

LXX1I. To John Calvin Strasburgh, Oct. 20, 1555... 142 

LXXI 1 1. To H. Bullinger Strasburgh, March 12, 1556 145 

Sir R. Morison 

LXXIV. To Calvin Strasburgh, April 17, 1555. 147 

LXXV. To H. Bullinger Strasburgh, Aug. 23, 1555... 148 

Thomas Lever 

LXXVI. To R. Ascham Without place or date 150 

LXXVII. To H. Bullinger Geneva, April 11, 1554 153 

LXXVIII. To the same Geneva, April 23, 1 554 155 




Thomas Lever 

LXXIX. To H. Bullinger Geneva, June 28, 1554 156 

LXXX. To the same Geneva, Jan. 17, 1555 157 

LXXXI. To the same Frankfort, Feb. 12, 1555. ... 15!) 

LXXXII. To the same Strasburgh, Jan. 4, 1556. ... 160 

LXXXIII. To the same Berne, May 12, 155G 162 

LXXXIV. To R. Gualter Basle, May 27, 1556 163 

LXXXV. To H. Bullinger Arau, Sept. 18, 1556 165 

LXXX VI. To R. Gualter Arau, Aug. 11, 155? 160 

LXXX VII. and others to H. Bullinger Arau, Oct. 5, 1 557 1 G9 

T. Sampson 

LXXXVIII. To John Calvin Strasburgh, Feb. 23, 1555... 170 

LXXXIX. To H. Bullinger Strasburgh, Aug. 6, 1555... 1?2 

XC. To the same Strasburgh, April 6, 1556... 173 

XCI. To the same Without place or date 175 

XCII. To the same Lausanne, Aug. 12, 1556... 176 

XCIII. To the same Lausanne, Sept. 13, 1556.... 177 

XCIV. To the same Lausanne, Oct. 13, 1556. ... 179 

XCV. To the same Strasburgh, April 23. 1557 . 180 

XCVI. To Peter Martyr Frankfort, April 8, 1558. ... 181 

XCVII. To the same Strasburgh, July 10, 1558 .. 182 

Christopher Hales 

XCVIII. To R. Gualter London, March 4, 1550 184 

XCIX. To the same London, May 24, 1550 186 

C. To H. Bullinger London, June 12, 1550 188 

CI. To the same London, Dec. 10, 1550 189 

CII. To R. Gualter Before Jan. 26, 1551 191 

CIII. To the same London, Jan. 26, 1551 195 

R. Hilles 

CIV. To H. Bullinger August, 1540 1!I6 

CV. To the same London, 1541 200 

CVI. To the same Frankfort, Sept. 18, 1541.... 216 

CVII. To the same Strasburgh, Nov. 23, 1541... 222 

CVIII. To the same Strasburgh, May 10, 1542... 224 

CIX. To the same Strasburgh. Dec. 18, 1542.. 228 

CX. To the same Frankfort, March 24, 1543. 239 

CXI. To the same Strasburgh, Sept. 26, 1543. 240 

CXII. To the same Strasburgh, Nov. 15, 1543. 242 

CXIII. To the same Strasburgh, Sept. 26, 1544 . 244 

CXIV. To the same Strasburgh, April 15,1545. 246 

CXV. To the same Strasburgh, Jan. 28, 1546... 250 

CXVI. To the same Strasburgh, April 30, 1546 . 252 

CXVII. To the same Strasburgh, Jan. 26, 1547... 255 

CXVIII. To the same Strasburgh, Feb. 25, 1547... 257 

CXIX. Tothesame Strasburgh, May 19, 1547... 259 

CXX. Tothesame Strasburgh, June 18, 1548,. 261 

CXXI. Tothesame London, June 4, 1549 265 

CXXII. Tothesame London, Nov. 17, 1549 2C7 

CXXIII. Tothesame London, June 25, 1550 268 

CXX1V. Tothesame London, March 22, 1551 ... 2?1 

(XXV. To the same London, July 9, 1553 272 


John Aylmer 

CXXVI. To H. Bullinger Bradgate, May 29, 1551 . ... 275 

CXXVII. To the same London, Dec. 23, 1551 277 

James Haddon 

CXXVIII. To H. Bullinger Bradgate, May 29, 1551 .... 279 

CXXIX. To the same London, Dec. 28, 1551 280 

CXXX. To the same Richmond, Aug. 1552 281 

CXXXI. To the same About October, 1552 288 

CXXXII. To the same London, Nov. 30, 1553 290 

CXXXIII. Tothesame Strasburgh, July 9, 1554.... 291 

CXXXIV. Tothesame Strasburgh, Aug. 31, 1554. . 292 

CXXXV. Tothesame Strasburgh, Dec. 9, 1554.... 294 

CXXXVI. Tothesame Strasburgh, Jan. 8, 1555.... 297 

CXXXVII. Tothesame Strasburgh, Jan. 15, 1555... 298 

CXXXVIII. Tothesame Strasburgh, April 24, 1555. 299 

CXXXIX. Tothesame Strasburgh, Dec. 7, 1555.... 300 

CXL. To the same Strasburgh, March 12, 1556 301 

John Banks 

CXLI. ToH. Bullinger London, March 15, 1554.... 303 

CXLII. To the same Strasburgh, Dec. 9, 1554.... 306 

CXLIII. Tothesame Strasburgh, Jan. 9, 1555 308 

CXLIV. Thomas Harding to H. Bullinger ...Oxford, Oct. 19, 1551 309 

CXLV. Henry Sidall to H. Bullinger Oxford, Oct. 4, 1552 311 

CXLVL Ralph Skinner to H. Bullinger Oxford, Jan. 5, 1550 313 

CXLVII. John Willock to H. Bullinger Oxford, May 12, 1552 314 

Barthol. Traheron 

CXLVIII. To H. Bullinger London, Feb. 20, 1540 316 

CXLIX. Tothesame Before Feb. 18, 1546 317 

CL. Tothesame London, Aug. 1, 1548 319 

CLI. Tothesame London, Sept. 28, 1548 321 

CLII. To the same London, Dec. 31, 1548 322 

CLIII. To the same Oxford, June 12, 1550 323 

CLIV. Tothesame London, Sept. 10, 1552 324 

CLV. Tothesame London, June 3, 1553 326 

CLVI. To John Calvin Without place or date 328 

CLVII. Peter Alexander to Paul Fagius Lambeth, March 24, 1549... 329 

Paul Fagius 

CLVIII. To Ulstetter Calais, April 18, 1549 331 

CLIX. Tothesame Lambeth, April 26, 1549.... 332 

CLX. To Conrad Hubert Croydon, May 7, 1549 333 

Bernardine Ochinus 

CLXI. ToMusculus London, July 17, 1548 334 

CLXII. Tothesame London, Dec. 23, 1548 336 

CLXIII. Musculus to H. Bullinger Berne, March 12, 1549 336 

CLX1V. Peter of Perugia to H. Bullinger Cambridge, Feb. 10, 1550... 338 

CLXV. Thomas Norton to Calvin London, Nov. 13, 1552 339 

CLXVI. Hierome Mas.sarius to H. Bullinger. .Basle, Dec. 21, 1553 342 

CLXVII. John Byrchman to H. Bullinger Dec. 10, 1549 344 

William Salkyns 

CLXVIII. To H. Bullinger Strasburgh, Nov. 26, 1554. . 345 

CLX IX. To the same Strasburgh, Dec. 28, 1554.. 34fi 





Francis Dryandw 

To H. Bullinger Cambridge, March 25, 1549. 348 

To the same Cambridge, June 5, 1549 350 

To Joachim Vadian Cambridge, June 5, 1549.... 352 

To H. Bullinger Basle, Dec. 3, 1549 353 

To the same Strasburgh, May 2, 1552 354 

Francis Warner to H. Bullinger Strasburgh, July 8, 1543.... 355 

Thomas Knight to H. Bullinger Venice, Jan. 23, 1547 357 

Richard Masters to R. Gualter Oxford, June 14, 1551 358 

Augustine Bernher to H. Bullinger... Baxterley, May 31, 1552.... 360 
M. Parker and W. Haddon to C. Hubert and Chelius, Camb. 1551 361 

M. Bucer's widow to Abp. Cranmer, Before April 29, 1552 

U. Chelius and C. Hubert to Parker ~) . , T on ,, ro 

and Haddon } Strasburgh, June 20, 1553 ... 

Julius Terentianus to J. [ab Ulmis], Strasburgh, Nov. 20, 1553, 
M. Reniger to H. Bullinger Without place or date 




p. 25, 1. II, fur you read your. 

p. 80, 1. 17,/w the sixth Sunday before Easter, read Good Friday. 

p. 113, 1. penult, for Jenkins read Tomkins. 



Dated at WESTMINSTER, Oct. 20, 1549. 

EDWARD the sixth, by the grace of God, of England, 
France, and Ireland, king, defender of the Faith, and of the 
church of England and Ireland supreme head upon earth, 
&c. To the honourable and valiant Lords of Zurich, our 
right entirely beloved friends, greeting. After we had taken 
upon ourselves, by ancient and hereditary right, the govern- 
ment of our kingdoms, nothing was more ardently desired by 
us than to conciliate, and most firmly retain, the friendship 
of those sovereigns who had been especially esteemed by our 
most serene father of most happy memory : and as in the 
number of these he always regarded, as long as he lived, 
your most noble and valiant nation ; so we likewise cannot 
but regard you with especial esteem, and exceedingly value 
your friendship ; and the rather, because we have understood 
by the frequent letters of our faithful and beloved servant, 
Christopher Mont, both your favourable disposition towards 
us, and ready inclination to deserve well of us. In addition 
to which, there is also a mutual agreement between us con- 
cerning the Christian religion and true godliness, which ought 
to render this friendship of ours, by God's blessing, yet more 
intimate. We therefore return you our warmest thanks for 
your singular and favourable disposition towards us, which 
you shall always find to be reciprocal on our part, whenever 
an opportunity shall present itself. We have therefore com- 
manded this our servant to salute you most cordially, to 
inform you more fully of our aifection and good-will, and to 
lay before you, in our name, some other things which we 
have thought fit should at this time be made known to you. 
We therefore earnestly request you to place assured and un- 
doubting reliance upon what he shall communicate. So farewell. 
From our palace at Westminster, Oct. 20, A.D. 1549, and of 
our reign the third. 

Your good friend, 






Dated at SIGN, June 12, 1549. 

I HAVE perused your letter, most reverend fathers, which 
has not only pleased, but highly delighted me. For I easily 
perceived therein your singular good-will towards me, a grace 
and eloquence equal to that of Cicero, together with a most 
abiding remembrance of me, which, as it is in most persons 
of very rare occurrence, I cannot sufficiently admire in you. 
But when I consider in what way I can recompense the 
sincerity of your friendship, I plainly perceive that this is 
quite out of my power ; and that I can only offer you, as I 
shall do as long as I live, my warmest acknowledgments. 
I dare not presume to write to you how very acceptable 
were the books that you presented to my sister and myself, 
for fear lest my ineloquent commendation of them may appear 
impertinent. From your exceeding praise of the addresses 
of myself and my sister, which we might more truly be said 
to babble than to recite before you, I perceive your incom- 
parable benevolence and friendship, abounding in such kind 
exaggeration respecting us. For neither my sister nor myself 
assume to ourselves a single atom of this commendation, 
nor have we any right to do so. My mother, thank God, 
is in good health : she desires her best respects to you both, 
and also thanks you for your salutations to her grace. Fare- 
well, both of you, and may your life long be preserved! 
Dated at Sion 2 , June 12, 1549. 

Your attached well wisher, 


[ l This lady was the third daughter of the protector Somerset, and 
intended by him to become the wife of Edward VI. She afterwards 
became one of the maids of honour to queen Elizabeth, and died un- 
married in 1561. Strype, Mem. 11. ii. 7, and Ann. I. i. 399.] 

[ 2 Sion House was built on the site of the dissolved monastery of 
that name at Isleworth, by the protector Somerset, to whom the site 




Dated at LONDON, Dec, 21, 1551. 

THAT you have not received, my very dear Bullinger, 
any letter from me before now, by which I might testify 
towards you that good-will which you have on so many 
accounts deserved, and also thank you most heartily for your 
exceeding courtesy to me, which I most entirely appreciate, 
has been solely attributable to those affairs of state, upon which 
I had to bestow all my zeal, labour, and diligence, unless I 
would fail in satisfying my duty to God, my own dignity, and 
the expectation of the public. You will therefore, I know, 
easily pardon my delay, especially as I would have you 
assured that my regard for you can be diminished by no 
circumstances, and much less by time. For the book 4 which 
you have published under the auspices of my name, I return 
you, not only for my own sake, but for that of the whole 
church of Christ, the thanks I ought ; and I acknowledge the 
divine goodness towards his church, and, as Paul expresses it, 
the love of God to man 5 , that he has chosen to adorn and 
illuminate his church with such lights, as that we who are 
less enlightened, may follow those guides in the beaten path 
of true religion, who may both be able, by reason of the gifts 
they have received from God, and willing, by reason of their 
affection to their brethren, diligently to point out the way in 
which we ought to walk. It would indeed have been all 

was granted by Edward VI., who, on the duke's execution, hestowcd 
it upon John Dudley, duke of Northumberland. It was afterwards 
given by James I. to Henry Percy, the ninth earl of Northumberland, 
in which family it now remains.] 

[3 Henry Grey, third marquis of Dorset, having married Frances, 
daughter of Charles first duke of Suffolk, by whom he had lady Jano 
Grey, was created duke of Suffolk, Oct. 10, 1551. He was beheaded 
in 1554.] 

[ 4 Bullinger had dedicated a volume of his Decades to the duke of 
Suffolk in March, 1551. See Strype, Mem. II. i. 397.] 

[ 5 (friKavdpuTriav. Tit. iii. 4.] 



over with us, had not he provided pillars of this kind to sup- 
port his church, which otherwise would beyond all doubt have 
been overthrown. 

I acknowledge myself also to be much indebted to you 
on my daughter's account, for having always exhorted her in 
your godly letters to a true faith in Christ, the study of the 
scriptures, purity of manners, and innocence of life ; and I 
earnestly request you to continue these exhortations as fre- 
quently as possible. Farewell, most accomplished Bullinger, 
and may Almighty God prosper your endeavours in the 
church, and evermore defend you ! From my house in Lon- 
don. Dec. 21, 1551. 




Dated at [BRADGATE, July 12, 1551 '.] 

I GIVE you, most learned sir, unceasing thanks, and shall 
do so as long as I live, for I cannot engage to requite the 
obligation; as I seem to myself quite unable to make a suitable 
return for such exceeding courtesy, unless indeed you should 
be of opinion that I return a favour while I retain it in my 
remembrance. Nor are these professions made without reason. 
For I have received from you a most weighty and eloquent 
epistle, which was indeed very gratifying to me, not only 
because, to the neglect of more important engagements, you 
have condescended to write from so distant a country, and in 
your declining age, to me, who am unworthy of the corre- 
spondence of so distinguished a personage ; but also because 
your writings are of such a character, as that they contain, 
not mere ordinary topics for amusement, but pious and divine 
thoughts for instruction, admonition and counsel, on such 
points especially, as are suited to my age and sex and the 

f 1 This letter was sent to Zurich inclosed in one bearing the same 
date from John ab Ulmis.] 


dignity of my family. In this epistle, as in every tiling else 
that you have published to the great edification of the Christian 
commonwealth, you have shewn yourself not only a man of 
exquisite learning and singular acquirement, but also a skil- 
ful, prudent, and godly counsellor; one who can relish nothing 
that is not excellent, think nothing that is not divine, enjoin 
nothing that is not profitable, and produce nothing that is not 
virtuous, pious, and worthy of so reverend a father. Oh ! 
happy me, to be possessed of such a friend and so wise a 
counsellor ! (for, as Solomon says, "in the multitude of coun- 
sellors there is safety 2 ;") and to be connected by the ties of 
friendship and intimacy with so learned a man, so pious a 
divine, and so intrepid a champion of true religion ! On 
many accounts I consider myself beholden to Almighty God ; 
but especially for having, after I was bereaved of the pious 
Bucer 3 , that most learned man and holy father, who unweari- 
edly did not cease, day and night, and to the utmost of his 
ability, to supply me with all necessary instructions and direc- 
tions for my conduct in life ; and who by his excellent advice 
promoted and encouraged my progress and advancement in all 
virtue, godliness, and learning ; for having, I say, afforded mo 
in his place a man so worthy to be reverenced as yourself, and 
who, I hope, will continue, as you have begun, to spur me on, 
when I loiter and am inclined to delay. For no better fortune 
can await me than to be thought worthy of the correspondence 
and most wholesome admonitions of men so renowned, whose 
virtues cannot be sufficiently eulogized ; and to experience 
the same happiness as was enjoyed by Blesilla 4 , Paula, and 
Eustochium, to whom, as it is recorded, Saint Jerome im- 
parted instruction, and brought them by his discourses to the 
knowledge of divine truths ; or, the happiness of that vene- 
rable matron 5 , to whom St John addressed an exhortatory 

[ 2 Prov. xi. 14. In the original, written in Latin, Lady Jane quotes 
the Hebrew.] 

[ 3 Bucer died at Cambridge, Feb. 27, 1551.] 

[ 4 Blesilla was the eldest, and Eustochium the third, daughter of 
Paula, who was descended from the Roman family of that name. 
They were instructed in the Christian religion by Jerome. Paula 
followed him to Bethlehem, where she died, after having lived there 
twenty years in a monastery erected by herself.] 

[ 5 Called in the English version the elect lady. 2 John, 1.] 


and evangelical epistle; or that, lastly, of the mother 1 of 
Severus, who profited by the counsels of Origen, and was 
obedient to his precepts. All which personages were less 
indebted for their renown and celebrity to their beauty of 
person, nobility of birth, and large possessions, than to the 
glory and happiness they derived from the instructions of 
wise men, who, though singularly eminent for erudition and 
piety, did not disdain to lead them, as it were, by the hand 
to every thing excellent, and to suggest to them such thoughts 
as might especially conduce to their eternal salvation and 
happiness in the life to come. And I request again and 
again, that as you cannot be deemed inferior to any of these 
in understanding, or learning, or godliness, you will condescend 
to manifest a like kindness to myself. My unreserved re- 
quests may carry with them an appearance of boldness ; but 
if you will consider the motive by which I am actuated, namely, 
that I may draw forth from the storehouse of your piety 
such instruction as may tend both to direct my conduct, and 
confirm my faith in Christ my Saviour, your goodness cannot, 
and your wisdom will not, allow you to censure them. 

From that little volume 2 of pure and unsophisticated 
religion, which you lately sent to my father and myself, I 
gather daily, as out of a most beautiful garden, the sweetest 
flowers. My father also, as far as his weighty engagements 
permit, is diligently occupied in the perusal of it : but what- 
ever advantage either of us may derive from thence, we 
are bound to render thanks to you for it, and to God on 
your account ; for we cannot think it right to receive with 
ungrateful minds such and so many truly divine benefits, 
conferred by Almighty God through the instrumentality of 
yourself and those like you, not a few of whom Germany 
is now in this respect so happy as to possess. If it be 
customary with mankind, as indeed it ought to be, to return 
favour for favour, and to shew ourselves mindful of benefits 
bestowed; how much rather should we endeavour to embrace 
with joyfulness the benefits conferred by divine goodness, and 

f 1 Mammsea, mother of the emperor Alexander Severus, caused 
Origen to come from Alexandria to Antioch, that she might hear him 
preach, A. D. 229.] 

[ 2 This was a treatise on Christian Perfection, dedicated in 1551 
to Henry II. of France.] 


at least to acknowledge them with our gratitude, though we 
may be unable to make an adequate return ! 

I now come to that part of your letter which contains a 
commendation of myself, which as I cannot claim, so also I 
ought not to allow : but whatever the divine goodness may 
have bestowed upon me, I ascribe solely to himself, as the 
chief and sole author of any thing in me that bears any sem- 
blance of what is good; and to whom I entreat you, most 
accomplished sir, to offer your constant prayers on my behalf, 
that he may so direct me and all my actions, that I may not 
be found unworthy of his so great goodness. My most noble 
father would have written to you, to thank you both for the 
important labours in which you are engaged, and also for the 
singular courtesy you have manifested by inscribing with his 
name and publishing under his auspices your fifth Decade, 
had he not been summoned by most weighty business in his 
majesty's service to the remotest parts of Britain ; but as soon 
as public affairs shah 1 afford him leisure, he is determined, he 
says, to write to you with all diligence 3 . To conclude, as I 
am now beginning to learn Hebrew, if you will point out some 
way and method of pursuing this study to the greatest ad- 
vantage, you will confer on me a very great obligation. 

Farewell, brightest ornament and support of the whole 
church of Christ ; and may Almighty God long preserve you 
to us and to his church ! 

Your most devoted, 




Dated at [BRADGATE, July 7, 1552.] 

I SHOULD seem altogether ungrateful, unmindful of my 
duty, and unworthy of your favours, could I do otherwise 
than thank you, most accomplished sir, for your many acts of 

[ 3 See the preceding Letter written subsequently to this.] 


kindness to myself. I do this however with diffidence, inas- 
much as the great friendship which you desire to exist between 
us, and the many favours you have conferred upon one who 
is so entirely undeserving of them, seem to demand something 
more than mere thanks ; and I cannot satisfactorily repay by 
my poor and worthless correspondence the debt of gratitude 
I owe you. The consideration also of my unfitness to address 
a letter to a person of your eminence, greatly adds to my 
uncomfortable feelings ; nor indeed should I either desire or 
presume to disturb your important labours with my trifles and 
puerilities, or interrupt your eloquence by my so great rude- 
ness of speech, only that I know I have no other means of 
testifying my gratitude, and that I have no doubt of your 
accustomed and long experienced indulgence. 

With respect to the letter I lately received from you, 
you must know, that after having read it twice over, (for one 
perusal did not satisfy me,) I seemed to have derived as much 
benefit from your excellent and truly divine precepts, as I 
have scarcely obtained from the daily perusal of the best 
authors. You exhort me to embrace a genuine and sincere 
faith in Christ my Saviour. I will endeavour to satisfy you 
in this respect, as far as God shall enable me to do ; but as 
I acknowledge faith to be his gift, I ought therefore only to 
promise so far as he may see fit to bestow it upon me. I 
shall not however cease to pray, with the apostles, that he 
may of his goodness daily increase it in me. And to this I 
will add, as you exhort me, and with the divine blessing, 
such holiness of life, as my (alas !) too feeble powers may 
enable me to practise. Do you, meanwhile, with your wonted 
kindness, make daily mention of me in your prayers. In the 
study of Hebrew I shall pursue that method which you so 
clearly point out. Farewell, and may God protect you in the 
task you have undertaken, and prosper you for evermore ! 

Your most religiously obedient, 





Before June 1553. 

THE tardy performance of a duty, most learned sir, ought 
not to be censured, especially if it has not been omitted 
through neglect. The truth is, I am at a great distance from 
you, the couriers are few, and news reaches me slowly : but 
as I can now avail myself of the messenger, by whom my 
letters to you, and yours to me, have usually been conveyed, 
I must not be wanting in my duty of writing to you, but as 
diligently as possible, by word and deed, discharge the obli- 
gation. For so great is your authority with all men, so 
great, as I hear, is the solidity of your preaching, so great 
too is the integrity of your conduct, according to the report of 
those who know you, that foreign and remote nations, as well 
as your own countrymen, are excited not only by your words, 
but by your actions, to follow after a good and happy life. 
For you are not only, as St James 1 says, a diligent herald 
and preacher of the gospel, and of the holy commands of God, 
but also a true observer and doer of them ; and you manifest 
in your own life the practice that your precepts enjoin, not 
deceiving yourself. Neither, indeed, do you resemble those 
who behold their natural face in a glass, and, as soon as they 
have gone away, forget the form of it ; but you preach true 
and sound doctrine, and by your manner of life afford an ex- 
ample and pattern for others to follow what you both enjoin 
and practise. But why do I thus address your gravity, when 
my ignorance is such that I can neither adequately praise your 
piety, nor sufficiently eulogise your integrity of life, nor set 
forth your profound and admirable learning in a becoming 
manner ? Were I indeed to extol you as truth requires, I 
should need either the oratorical powers of Demosthenes, or 
the eloquence of Cicero ; for your merits are so great, as to 
demand not only length of time, but an acuteness of intellect 
and elegance of expression far beyond that of my age to set 
them forth. For God, it seems, has looked upon you with 

[ l See James i. 2224.] 


such complacency, as to have fitted you both for his kingdom 
and for this world : for in this earthly prison you pass your 
days, as though you were dead ; whereas you live, and this 
not only to Christ in the first place, without whom there can 
be no life, and in the next place to yourself; but also to 
others without number, whom you strenuously labour and 
assiduously endeavour to bring, by God's blessing, to that 
immortality which, when you shall have departed this life, 
you will obtain yourself. And that your piety may accom- 
plish what you desire, I will not cease to implore of God, the 
supreme ruler of the universe, nor constantly to importune 
the divine ears for your long continuance in this life. 

In writing to you in this manner I have exhibited more 
boldness than prudence : but so great has been your kindness 
towards me, in condescending to write to me, a stranger, and 
in supplying the necessary instruction for the adornment of 
my understanding and the improvement of my mind, that I 
should justly appear chargeable with neglect and forgetfulness 
of duty, were I not to shew myself mindful of you and of 
your deservings in every possible way. Besides, I entertain 
the hope that you will excuse the more than feminine bold- 
ness of me, who, girlish and unlearned as I am, presume to 
write to a man who is the father of learning ; and that you 
will pardon that rudeness which has made me not hesitate 
to interrupt your more important occupations with my vain 
trifles and puerile correspondence. Let me but obtain your 
indulgence, and I shall consider myself on every account ex- 
ceedingly indebted to your kindness. For if I have been to 
blame in this matter, you must ascribe it rather to the ex- 
cess of my regard for you and for your virtues, than either 
to a boldness which ought not at all to exist in our sex, or 
a temerity which is for the most part adverse to our better 
judgment; inasmuch as the splendour of your endowments is 
so dazzling to my mental perception, whenever I read your 
works or meditate upon yourself, that I do not consider what 
is becoming to my condition, but what is due to your worth 
and excellence. My mind, moreover, is fluctuating and un- 
decided : for while I consider my age, sex, and mediocrity, or 
rather infancy in learning, each of these things, much more 
all of them, deter me from writing ; but when I call to mind 
the eminence of your virtues, the celebrity of your character, 


and the magnitude of your favours towards me, the higher con- 
sideration yields to the inferior; a sense of what is becoming 
me gives way to your worth, and the respect which your 
merits demand usually prevails over all other considerations. 

It now only remains for me, most illustrious sir, earnestly 
to entreat you cordially to salute in my name, though I am 
personally unacquainted with him, the excellent Bibliander 1 , 
that pattern of erudition, godliness, and authority. For so 
great is the reputation of his learning in our country, and so 
renowned his name among all people, by reason of the singular 
endowments which God has bestowed upon him, that though 
I have acquired but little learning myself, I cannot resist my 
inclination to pay respect to the piety and integrity of such a 
man, who, if I am not mistaken, has been sent to us from 
heaven. And I pray God that such pillars of the church as 
you both are, may long enjoy good health. As long as I 
shall be permitted to live, I shall not cease to offer you my 
good wishes, to thank you for the kindness you have shewed 
me, and to pray for your welfare. Farewell, learned sir. 

Your piety's most devoted, 




Dated [1537.] 

HAVING obtained a release, or rather a respite, from public 
affairs and deliberations, and beginning, illustrious and most 
learned Vadian, at the turn of the year, to reply to you 
among my other learned correspondents, to whose letters I 
had long been owing an answer, (to you, I say, as having 

[* Theodore Bibliander, or Buchman, was born in 1504, at Bis- 
choffzel near St Gall. He was professor of theology at Zurich, where 
he died in 1564.] 

[ 2 The original of this letter is published by Colomesius and others: 
(see Strype, Cranmer, 94, 740) also in Jenkyns's Remains of Cranmer, 
Vol. I. p. 193.] 

[ 3 Joachim Vadian was born at St Gall in Switzerland, in 1484. 
He was distinguished as a scholar and mathematician.] 


received your letter last winter, together with a literary 
present, which kind of presents I always regard as of the 
greatest value,) I first begin to consider with myself, and en- 
tertain some apprehension, lest by my so long protracted 
silence I may have given occasion in your mind to some 
suspicion or opinion not altogether favourable to me. For I 
know that it is usual among the generality of mankind, that 
when one person sends his commendations to another, he 
anxiously expects an acknowledgment of them by the very 
first opportunity : and if this be delayed, he will suspect that 
it has been owing to pride, or neglect, or at least forgetfulness; 
and will conclude beforehand that the party will continue such 
through the whole of his life, as he has been found to be upon 
a first introduction. Whereas the person who sends a speedy 
reply, is judged to have done so from kind and friendly 
motives, and is therefore regarded as courteous, accessible, 
and grateful ; he on the other hand, who is tardy in his 
acknowledgments, is considered hard of access, and a person 
of rude and disagreeable manners. So true it is, that what- 
ever a man does quickly and without delay, he may be 
said to do twice over. But I promise myself a far better 
reception from your more than ordinary discretion and cour- 
tesy, and am confident that you will take in good part this 
my involuntary tardiness or delay, and not ascribe it so 
much to my manners as to my engagements. The nature 
and importance of these has, I think, long since been made 
known to you by report; and I have written something 
respecting them to our common friend Grynaius, who will, I 
doubt not, as the rights of friendship require, make you ac- 
quainted with every circumstance. To him therefore I refer 
you, in case you are offended with me in this matter, as to 
one who will render me more excusable in your eyes. 

I perceive in your letter, and readily accept and embrace, 
your good-will towards me, and inclination to cultivate a more 
intimate friendship with me. For I consider you as one who, 
by reason of your extraordinary erudition, (by which I shall 
not scruple to acknowledge that I have myself derived bene- 
fit,) and of your probity of morals, confirmed by the testi- 
mony of many most excellent persons, is worthy of being 
regarded by me with all love, favour, and respect. Never- 
theless, if I may candidly express my sentiments, (as ought to 
be the case between good men,) the subject you treat of in 


those six books 1 which you sent me as a present, is altogether 
displeasing to me ; and I could wish you had bestowed your 
labours to better purpose, and commenced an agreeable friend- 
ship with myself under better, or at least more approved 
auspices. For, unless I see stronger evidence brought forward 
than I have yet been able to see, I desire neither to be the 
patron nor the approver of the opinion maintained by you. 
And I am plainly convinced, and from this circumstance espe- 
cially, that the cause is not a good one, because you who are 
so shrewd, so eloquent, and so perfectly accomplished in all 
arts and learning, do not seem to defend and support it with 
sufficient vigour. I have seen almost every thing that has 
been written and published either by CEcolampadius or Zuin- 
glius, and I have come to the conclusion that the writings of 
every man must be read with discrimination. And perhaps 
one might apply to these men, and not without reason, the 
remark of Jerome respecting Origen, that where they wrote 
well, nobody wrote better, &c. : you know what follows. As 
far indeed as they have endeavoured to point out, confute, 
and correct papistical and sophistical errors and abuses, I 
commend and approve them. And I wish that they had con- 
fined themselves within those limits, and not trodden down 
the wheat together with the tares; that is, had not at the 
same time done violence to the authority of the ancient doc- 
tors and chief writers in the church of Christ. For how 
much soever you may exercise your ingenuity, you will cer- 
tainly never convince me, nor, I think, any unprejudiced reader, 
that those ancient authors are on your side in this controversy. 
You have been, in fact, more than enough inquisitive in your 
investigation of errors ; and while you are endeavouring to 
purify every thing, you have fancied error to lurk in places 
where none existed. And this error most certainly, if error 
it be, has been handed down to us by the fathers themselves, 

[! Namely, Aphorisms upon the consideration of the Eucharist, in- 
tended to disprove the corporal presence, which tenet was held by 
Abp. Cranmer up to the year 1546 ; when by more mature and calm 
deliberation, and considering the point with less prejudice, and the 
sense of the fathers more closely, in conference with Dr Ridley, after- 
wards bishop of Rochester, and his fellow-martyr, he at last quitted 
and freed himself from the fetters of that unsound doctrine. Strype, 
Cranmer, 94, 97; see also Cranmer's works on the Lord's supper, 
published by the Parker Society.] 


and men of apostolical character, from the very beginning of 
the church. And what godly man could endure to hear this, 
much less to believe it ? Not to mention in the mean time, 
that our gracious Lord would never have left his beloved 
spouse in such lamentable blindness for so long a period. 

"Wherefore, since this catholic faith which we hold respecting 
the real presence has been declared to the church from the 
beginning by such evident and manifest passages of scripture, 
and the same has also been subsequently commended to the 
ears of the faithful with so much clearness and diligence by 
the first ecclesiastical writers; do not, I pray, persist in wish- 
ing any longer to carp at or subvert a doctrine so well 
grounded and supported. You have sufficiently made the 
attempt already. And unless it had been firmly founded 
upon a solid rock, it would long since have fallen with the 
crash of a mighty ruin. It cannot bo told, how greatly this 
so bloody controversy has impeded the full course of the gospel 
both throughout the whole Christian world, and especially 
among ourselves. It brings very great danger to yourselves, 
and occasions to all others a stumbling-block greater than I 
can express. Wherefore, if you will listen to me, I exhort 
and advise you, yea, I beg, beseech, and implore and adjure 
you in the bowels of Jesus Christ, to agree and unite in a 
Christian concord, to exert your whole strength in establishing 
it, and at length to afford to the churches the peace of God 
which passeth all understanding, so that we may, with united 
strength, extend as widely as possible one sound, pure, evan- 
gelical doctrine, conformable to the discipline of the primitive 
church. We should easily convert even the Turks to the 
obedience of our gospel, if only we would agree among our- 
selves, and unite together in some holy confederacy. But if 
we go on in this way to " bite and devour each other," there 
will be reason to fear, lest (what I abhor the mention of), 
according to the warning of the apostle, we ; be consumed 
one of another." 

You have, worthy Vadian, my true and genuine opinion 
respecting that entire controversy, together with a free and 
faithful admonition. To which if you will pay attention, I 
shall enrol your name not only among my friends, but among 
my best friends. Farewell. [1537.] 





Without place or date 1 . 

THE treatise 2 , my friend Capito, which you had dedicated 
to the king's majesty, I presented to him with my own hand, 
lie received it, as I thought, with pleasure and satisfaction. 
I also hinted to him that he should recompense your labours, 
and he promised to see to it. Not long after, when the bishop 3 
of Hereford and I were together in company with the Lord 
Crumwell, the keeper of the privy seal, who is one of the 
privy councillors, and who has himself done more than all 
others together in whatever has hitherto been effected respect- 
ing the reformation of religion and of the clergy ; we united 
in requesting him to put his majesty again in mind of you, 
which he has done, and a hundred crowns are assigned to you 
as a present, which he has ordered the bearer of this letter 
to take with him. Do you still desire to know whether your 
offering was acceptable ? Well, I will state, not what I myself 
know to be the fact, but what I have heard from others who 
have been at court more recently than myself. The king, 
who is a most acute and vigilant observer, is wont to hand 
over books of this kind that have been presented to him, and 
those especially which he has not the patience to read himself, 
to one of his lords in waiting for perusal, from whom he may 
afterwards learn their contents. He then takes them back, 
and presently gives them to be examined by some one else, 
of an entirely opposite way of thinking to the former party. 
When he has thus made himself master of their opinions, and 
sufficiently ascertained both what they commend and what 
they find fault with, he at length openly declares his own 
judgment respecting the same points. And this, I understand, 

[} Dr Jenkyns, who has published the Latin original of this letter 
from the archives of Zurich, assigns the date of 1537.] 

[ 2 This treatise is entitled, Responsum de Missa, Matrimonio, et 
jure magistratus in religione, 11 Martii, 1537, Henrico VIII. inscrip- 
tum. Jenkyns, Cranmer, i. 192.] 

[3 Edward Foxe, bishop of Hereford, 1535, died in 1538.] 


he has done with respect to your book; and while he was 
much pleased with many things in it, there were also some 
things which he could by no means digest or approve. I 
suspect they were the statements you made concerning the 
mass. You now have every thing respecting that book which 
I have been able either to hear and sec in person, or to 
gather and collect, when absent, from the report of others. 
As to myself, be assured of this, that I love and reverence 
you from my heart, and regard you as one who, by reason 
of your remarkable erudition united to an equal integrity of 
manners, is deserving of the friendly offices of all good men. 
And I wish that my ability corresponded with my inclination 
to serve you ; for you should then perceive, my Capito, how 
greatly I esteem you. I request you in the mean time to 
take in good part from me this trifling present, small indeed, 
if your deserts are taken into account, but yet not to be de- 
spised, if you duly consider, either the feelings of the giver, 
or the necessary and manifold expenses with which I am 
burdened almost beyond my strength. In fine, I request 
you to favour and assist for my sake, as far as you can, this 
my friend Thomas Tybald 1 , who is the bearer of this letter. 




Dated at LONDON, July 4, 1548. 

I AM sorry that your coming to us has been prevented 
by the unlocked for intervention of some other engagement; 
for I have no doubt but that I should easily have satisfied 

[i Cranmer wrote a letter to Crumwell, dated 22d July, [1537], 
especially to recommend Tybald as "a very honest man, and both 
loved and trusted of the learned men in those parties," namely, Ger- 
many and Switzerland. See Jenkyns's Cranmer, I. 191.] 

[ 2 The original of this letter is published in Jenkyns's Cranmer, 
and also in Gabbema Epp. Clar. Virorum.j 


you as to your invitation 3 , if I had had an opportunity 
of conversing with you upon the subject. But as you are 
not able to come at present, but write word that you intend 
to come at some future time, if you shall have previously 
been informed by a letter from me as to the nature of your 
vocation amongst us ; I will converse with you by letter, and 
briefly explain in writing, what I shall perhaps state some- 
what more copiously to you in person. We 4 are desirous of 
setting forth in our churches the true doctrine of God, and 
have no wish to adapt it to all tastes, or to deal in ambigui- 
ties ; but, laying aside all carnal considerations, to transmit to 
posterity a true and explicit form of doctrine agreeable to the 
rule of the sacred writings ; so that there may not only be 
set forth among all nations an illustrious testimony respecting 
our doctrine, delivered by the grave authority of learned and 
godly men, but that all posterity may have a pattern to imi- 
tate. For the purpose of carrying this important design into 
execution we have thought it necessary to have the assistance 
of learned men, who, having compared their opinions together 
with us, may do away with all doctrinal controversies, and 
build up an entire system of true doctrine. We have there- 
fore invited both yourself and some other learned men ; and 
as they have come over to us without any reluctance, so 
that we scarcely have to regret the absence of any of them, 
with the exception of yourself and Melancthon, we earnestly 
request you, both to come yourself, and, if possible, to bring 
Melancthon along with you. I am now sending a third letter 
to Melancthon 5 , in which I exhort him to come to us ; and 
if your exhortation be added to my letter, I have no doubt 
but that he will be persuaded to accept an invitation so 
often repeated". He need not, I think, be under any fear of 
the attacks of enemies, or the dangers of the roads, which, if 

[ 3 Dr Jenkyns is of opinion, from a letter of John a Lasco to 
Hardenberg, in Gerdes, Serin. Antiq., that this invitation had been 
given in the preceding year. Jenkyns, Cranmer, i. 329.] 

[ 4 For an account of Cranmer's design to unite all the protestant 
churches, see Strype, Cranmer, 584.] 

[ 5 See Strype, Cranmer, 574, and Latimer's Sermons, Parker So- 
ciety Edition, Vol. i. p. 141.] 

[ c John a Lasco, Jenkyns states, (Remains of Cranmer, i. 331) 
forwarded Cranmer's letter to Melancthon by ^Epinus, as appears from 
a letter to Hardenberg, July 28, 1548, given in Gerdes.] 

r -, 2 



they exist at all, are however far less than where he now is 1 . 
You may add too, that by undergoing a little inconvenience 
for a short time, he will procure to himself ease for many 
years, and to the state everlasting benefit. If I anticipated 
that his visit to us would be either useless or unpleasant, no 
one would dissuade him from it more earnestly than myself. 
But now, when I perceive that he can in nowise act more 
advantageously cither for himself or for the state, than by 
coming over to us at this juncture, I am the more urgent 
upon the subject, and exhort you to exert all your diligence 
and consideration to this one end, namely, to make our friend 
Philip ours in reality. I explained to you, a short time since, 
what will be the situation of you both ; but I so explained it, 
as desiring that you should learn to be pleased with England 
from your own experience rather than by my commendation 
of it. Farewell and happily. London, July 4, 1548. 
I am exceedingly desirous of your presence. 




Dated at CAMBRIDGE, July 28, 1548. 

BUT if our friend Philip will consider for what purpose 
he is invited, and also by what persons, those, assuredly, who 
are most friendly both to himself and to true religion ; and 
also with how great anxiety he is both invited and expected ; 
truly I know not whether he can neglect this summons, espe- 
cially as he must perceive that he has no certain vocation 
yonder which he can properly place in opposition to it. If 

[* Cranmcr alludes to the attempt of Charles V. in 1548, to force 
the Interim on the German protestants.j 

[ 2 A fragment only of this letter has been preserved, a portion of 
which will be found in the preceding one, from the words " We are 
desirous," &c. p. 17, to "my commendation of it," p. 18. Cranmer 
then proceeds as is here given. The Latin original is published in 
Jcnkyns's Cranmer, and in the Parker Society edition of the arch- 
bishop's works.] 


he felt unwilling to refuse the venerable elector of Cologne 
upon a like invitation, he cannot certainly decline the present 
one, upon an occasion of much greater importance and neces- 
sity. His friends perhaps will be unwilling to let him go, 
and he too will be unwilling to part with his friends at this 
particular juncture : but 1 fear in the mean time that all 
parties yonder do not attend to him from such motives as we 
could wish ; and even if they do, I know not whether he can 
now remain there with as much advantage as can now be 
derived from his presence in our England, and which never- 
theless ought not to be disregarded by us, inasmuch as we 
think it our duty to seek truly and heartily the glory of 
Christ our Lord. I wish he would once make up his mind, 
and acquaint us with his intention, or that he would come 
over to us immediately, and anticipate every messenger. We 
will provide for the expense, either through you, or else- 
where, as soon as we know to what extent, and in what place, 
he wishes provision to be made. Cambridge, July 28, 1548. 



Dated at LONDOX, Oct. 2, 1548. 

GRACE and peace of God in Christ. I have read your 
letter to John Hales 4 , in which you relate the miserable con- 
dition of Germany, and inform us that you can scarcely 
preside in the ministry of the word in your city. With 
groanings therefore I call out with the prophet, " Shew thy 
marvellous loving-kindness, thou that savest them which 
trust in thee from those that rise up against thy right hand." 

[ 3 The original of this letter is printed in Strype, Cranmer, 844 ; 
Jenkyns, I. 335, Bucer, Script. Angl. p. 190, and in the Parker Society 
edition of the archbishop's works.] 

[ 4 John Hales was a learned and good man, and clerk of the 
hanaper to Edward VI. and queen Elizabeth. In queen Mary's time 
he was an exile at Frankfort. See Strype, Mem. n. i. 47 ; m. i. 405 ; 
Cranmer, 280.] 

9 o 


(Ps. xvii. 7, marg. ver.) Nor do I doubt but that God will 
regard both this and the like lamentations of godly men ; and 
that he will preserve and defend the true doctrine, which has 
hitherto been sincerely set forth in your churches, against all 
the rage of the devil and of the world. Those, in the mean 
time, who are unable amidst the raging storm to launch out 
into the deep, must take refuge in harbour. To you, there- 
fore, my Bucer, our kingdom will be a most safe harbour, in 
which, by the blessing of God, the seeds of true doctrine 
have happily begun to be sown. Come over therefore to us, 
and become a labourer with us in the harvest of the Lord. 
You will not be of less benefit to the universal church of God 
while you are with us, than if you retain your former posi- 
tion. In addition to this, you will be better able to heal the 
wounds of your distressed country in your absence, than you 
are now able to do in person. Laying aside therefore all 
delay, come over to us as soon as possible. We will make it 
manifest that nothing can be more gratifying or agreeable to 
us than the presence of Bucer. But take care that you suffer 
no inconvenience from the journey. You are aware of those who 
pursue your life : do not therefore commit yourself into their 
hands. There is an English merchant yonder, Richard Hilles, 
a godly and most trustworthy man, with whom I would have 
you confer respecting all the arrangements for your journey. 
Moreover, I pray God, the eternal Father of our Lord Jesus 
Christ, with my whole heart, that in the midst of wrath he 
may remember mercy, and look upon the calamities of his 
afflicted church, and kindle the light of true doctrine increas- 

* O 

ingly among us, and not suffer it to be extinguished, after 
having now shone with so much splendour for many years 
among yourselves. May he likewise, my Bucer, guide and 
preserve you, and bring you over to us in safety. Farewell 
and happily. London, Oct. 2, 1548. Most anxious for your 

THOMAS CRANMER, archbishop of Canterbury. 




Dated at LONDON, Feb. 10, 1549. 

WE are experiencing, most learned Melancthon, the truth 
of all that our Lord Jesus Christ has foretold respecting the 
trials of his church. " But God is faithful, who will not suffer 
his people to be tempted above that they are able, but will 
also with the temptation make a way to escape, that we may 
be able to bear it." For though from his hatred to the Son 
of God the devil exercises a horrible tyranny over the mem- 
bers of Christ, yet God has promised that his church shall 
never perish ; nay, of these last times he expressly declares, 
" To hoar hairs will I carry her ; I will bear, I will deliver 
her 2 ." And God has always willed some civil societies to be 
the refuge of his churches, and that their rulers should sup- 
port the friends of heavenly doctrine ; just as Obadiah be- 
friended the hearers of Elias, whom the kings of Israel were 
persecuting on every side. Wherefore, eternal Father of our 
Lord Jesus Christ, I give thee thanks for having rescued our 
island from the waves, like the ark of Noah, and for having 
granted us such rulers as seek thy glory, and who devote 
their houses and possessions to the church and its service, as 
in old time the cottage of the widow of Sarepta afforded a 
home to Elias. And I pray God to direct us, and to gather 
unto himself a perpetual church amongst us, not only out of 
our own countrymen, but also from among those of foreign 
nations, as according to his infinite mercy he has already 
begun to do. For many pious and learned men have come 
over to us, some from Italy, some from Germany, and we are 
daily expecting more ; which society of the church if you will 
vouchsafe to increase and adorn with your presence, I know 
not by what means you will be able more effectually to set 
forth the glory of God. 

I am aware that you have often desired that wise and 
godly men should take counsel together, and, having com- 

[! The original letter is printed by Jenkyns, and in the Parker 
Society edition of Cranmer.] 
[ 2 See Isaiah xlvi. 4.] 


pared their opinions, send forth under the sanction of their 
authority some work, that should embrace the chief subjects 
of ecclesiastical doctrine, and transmit the truth uncorrupted 
to posterity. This object we are anxiously endeavouring to 
accomplish to the utmost of our power. We therefore 
request you to communicate your counsel and opinions with 
us in person, and not so to shut up your mind as to seem 
wanting even to your own wishes, or acting in opposition to 
so manifest a calling of God. I could relate many things 
upon this subject, which would bring you over to our opinion; 
but the brevity of a letter will not contain them all. I would 
rather, therefore, that you should learn them from the bearer, 
John a Lasco, a most excellent man. For he has resided with 
me upon the most intimate and friendly terms for some 
months past ; and I pray you to give credit to whatever he 
may relate to you in my name. May our Lord Jesus Christ, 
the guardian of his church, who has said, None shall pluck 
my sheep out of my hands, preserve and defend the ministry 
of his gospel, and bring you in safety to the harbour of our 
church! Farewell. London, Feb. 10, 1549. 

Most anxious for your arrival, 


Our German friends who are with us, request you to 
bring with you doctor Albert Hardenberg, as Jonas 1 will tell 
you in my name. 



Dated at LAMBETH, March 20, 1552. 

MUCH health. That I reply, after a year's interval, to 
your letter dated at Zurich on the 24th of February, you 
must impute partly to my want of leisure, and partly to a 

[! This was Justus Jonas the younger, who "ame over with letters 
commendatory from Melancthon. Strype, Cranmer, 581.] 

[ 2 The original letter is printed by Jenkyns, and in the Parker 
Society edition of Cranmer.] 


kind of dislike to a duty of this nature, and which I must 
candidly admit myself to entertain. But as it is better to 
perform a duty tardily than not at all, you shall now receive 
a reply to the whole of your letter. 

You Avrite to me upon two subjects, one of a public, the 
other of a private nature. With respect to that Avhich is 
public, namely, that I Avould advise the king's majesty not to 
send any delegate to the council of Trent 3 , there was no need 
of any advice of mine to dissuade him from a measure which 
never came into his mind : but I considered it better, foras- 
much as our adversaries are now holding their councils at 
Trent to confirm their errors, to recommend his majesty to 
grant his assistance, that in England, or elsewhere, there 
might be convoked a synod of the most learned and excellent 
persons, in which provision might be made for the purity of 
ecclesiastical doctrine, and especially for an agreement upon 
the sacramentarian controversy. To which plan (as consider- 
ing it most useful to the Christian commonwealth) I perceived 
that the mind of his majesty was very favourably disposed. 
We must not therefore suffer ourselves to be wanting to the 
church of God in a matter of such importance. I have written 
upon the subject 4 to masters Philip [Melancthon] and Calvin; 
and I pray you to devise the means by which this synod may 
be assembled with the greatest convenience, either in England 
or elsewhere. 

The private affair upon which you wrote to me, was, that 
I should put an end to the controversy between the bishop of 
London and Hooper, bishop of Gloucester, respecting which 
it is now too late to reply. For I am aware that you have 
been informed long since r> , that this controversy has been en- 
tirely settled. And master Hooper is in such great esteem 
among us, that he is now appointed bishop of Worcester , and 

[ 3 The first session of this year was held on the first of May. 
For an account of its proceedings, see Burnet, n. 299.] 

[ 4 See the next and following letters.] 

[ 5 Namely, by Hooper, whose letter to Bullinger, dated Aug. 1, 
1551, is given in a subsequent part of this volume. Peter Martyr also 
wrote to Bullinger upon the same subject in the April of the same 
year. Strype, Cranmer, 309.] 

[ G Hooper was appointed to the see of Worcester in October 1551, 
and held it in commendam with that of Gloucester, to which he had 
been consecrated in the preceding March.] 


IS at this time living in my house upon the most intimate 
terms, during the sitting of parliament, May the Lord Jesus 
guide and defend you by his holy Spirit ! Farewell. Lam- 
beth, March 20, 1552. 

Your reverence's most attached, 




Dated at LAMBETH, March 20, 1552. 

MUCH health. As nothing tends more injuriously to the 
separation of the churches than heresies and disputes respect- 
ing the doctrines of religion, so nothing tends more effectually 
to unite the churches of God, and more powerfully to defend 
the fold of Christ, than the pure teaching of the gospel, and 
harmony of doctrine. Wherefore I have often wished, and 
still continue to do so, that learned and godly men, who are 
eminent for erudition and judgment, might meet together in 
some place of safety, where by taking counsel together, and 
comparing their respective opinions, they might handle all the 
heads of ecclesiastical doctrine, and hand down to posterity, 
under the weight of their authority, some work not only 
upon the subjects themselves, but upon the forms of ex- 
pressing them. Our adversaries are now holding their 
councils at Trent for the establishment of their errors ; and 
shall we neglect to call together a godly synod, for the 
refutation of error, and for restoring and propagating the 
truth? They are, as I am informed, making decrees re- 
specting the worship of the host 2 : wherefore we ought to 
leave no stone unturned, not only that we may guard others 
against this idolatry, but also that we may ourselves come to 
an agreement upon the doctrine of this sacrament. It cannot 

[ J The original of this letter is published by Jenkyns, and in the 
Parker Society edition of Cranmer.] 

[ 2 nfpl rrjs dproXaTpeias. The decree of the council of Trent on 
the Lord's Supper was passed on the llth of October, 1551. Sleidan, 
de Stat. Rel. Lib. xxnr; Jenkyns, Cranmer, i. 346.] 


escape your prudence, how exceedingly the church of God has 
been injured by dissensions and varieties of opinion respecting 
this sacrament of unity ; and though they are now in some 
measure removed, yet I could wish for an agreement in this 
doctrine, not only as regards the subject itself, but also with 
respect to the words and forms of expression. You have now 
my wish, about which I have also written to masters Philip 
[Melancthon] and Bullinger; and I pray you to deliberate 
among yourselves as to the means by which this synod can 
be assembled with the greatest convenience. Farewell. Lam- 
beth, March 20, 1552. 

You very dear brother in Christ, 




Dated at LAMBETH, March 27, 1552. 

WE read in the Acts of the Apostles, that when a dispute 
had arisen, as to whether those who from among the Gentiles 
had been turned to God, should bo compelled to be circum- 
cised, and keep the law of Moses, the apostles and elders 
came together to consider of this matter ; and having compared 
their opinions, delivered the judgment of their council in a 
written epistle. This example I wish we ourselves could 
imitate, in whose churches the doctrine of the gospel has been 
restored and purified. But although all controversies cannot 
be removed in this world, (because the party which is hostile 
to the truth, will not assent to the judgment of the church,) 
it is nevertheless to be desired that the members of the true 
church should agree among themselves upon the chief heads 
of ecclesiastical doctrine. But it cannot escape your notice, 
how greatly reh'gious dissensions, especially in the matter of 
the Lord's supper, have rent the churches asunder : had they 

[ 3 Calvin's reply to the above proposals will be given in the Ap- 

[ 4 The original of this letter is printed by Jenkyns, and in the 
Parker Society edition of Cranmer.J 


been settled before, the emperor, I think, would never have 
made war against you. And it is truly grievous that the 
sacrament of unity is made by the malice of the devil food 
for disagreement, and (as it were) the apple of contention. I 
could wish therefore, that those who excel others in erudition 
and judgment, should be assembled together, after the example 
of the apostles, and declare their judgment as well respecting 
other subjects of dispute, as likewise especially respecting this 
controversy, and attest their agreement by some published 
document. But you will perhaps say, " And I also have often 
expressed the same wish ; but this matter cannot be effected 
without the aid of princes." I have therefore [consulted with] 1 
the king's majesty, who places his kingdom of England at 
your disposal, and most graciously promises not only a place 
of security and quiet, but also his aid and assistance towards 
these godly endeavours. I have written likewise to masters 
Calvin and Bullingor, and exhorted them not to be wanting 
to a work so necessary, and so useful to the commonwealth 
of Christendom. You wrote me word in your last letter that 
the Areopagites of the council of Trent are making decrees 
respecting the worship of the host. Wherefore, since the ad- 
versaries of the gospel meet together with so much zeal for 
the establishment of error, we must not allow them to be 
more diligent in confirming ungodliness, than we are in pro- 
pagating and setting forth the doctrine of godliness. Your 
commendation of master George Major 2 has greatly increased 
that regard for him, which his merits have produced in 
me ; and if I can be of service to him in any way, he shall 
find my ability will fail sooner than my inclination. Farewell 
and happily. Lambeth, March 27, 1552. 

Very desirous of seeing you some time, 


f 1 One or more words arc wanting in the original.] 
[ 2 George Major was a zealous disciple of Luther, and minister at 
Eisleben. He died in 1574.] 





Dated at LAMBETH, April 20, 1552. 

GREETING. The especial favour with Avhich I regarded 
your husband during his lifetime, is by no means diminished 
now that he is no more. His remarkable piety indeed, and pro- 
found learning, has produced not a transient but an everlasting- 
benefit to the church ; whereby he has not only bound all 
godly persons, but myself more than all of them, under per- 
petual obligations to him. You must not therefore on any 
account allow yourself to be deterred from writing to me, 
should there be any thing in which I can be of use to you or 
to your affairs. For stirred up by your letters, I shall not 
only recal to myself, and not without satisfaction, the agree- 
able remembrance of a very dear friend; but will also most 
readily perform to you, his widow, those offices of kindness, 
which the word of God commands to be paid, and which 
shall be afforded you as occasion shall offer. With respect 
to what you have lately informed me, that it is necessary for 
the expediting of your affairs that it should be certified and 
attested by some formal document that the sum of a hundred 
marks which you received as a present from the king's 
majesty, when you left this country, belongs especially and 
exclusively to yourself, I have written a letter to the guard- 
ians 3 of Bucer's children, whereby they may clearly ascertain 
what was the intention of our most serene king upon the 
matter in question. I send you a copy of the letter of the lords 
of the council to master John Hales, his majesty's treasurer, 
(who is now, I think, at Strasburgh,) or to his deputy in his 
absence, written in English, which clearly testifies that a 
hundred marks were presented you by his majesty, and that 
too, after the death of your husband, inasmuch as that letter 
was written on the last day of March, and your husband de- 
parted this life at the end of February. May God, who is 

[ 3 These were, Conrad Hubert, Quintcr Andernach, and Huldric 
Chelius, to all of whom Cramner addressed the following letter.] 


the fountain and father of all comfort, vouchsafe to comfort 
you, and preserve you with all your family ! Farewell. Lam- 
beth, April 20, 1552. 

Yours to the utmost of his power, 




Dated at LAMBETH, AprilZO, 1552. 

GREETING. As I have lately understood, from a letter 
written to this place by the widow * of master Buccr of pious 
memory, that for the purpose of dividing the property of her 
deceased husband amongst his children, a certain declaration 
or certificate is necessary respecting the sum of a hundred 
marks, presented by his majesty, as to whether it belongs to 
the widow or to the children ; whereby the fact may be 
ascertained, and all doubt entirely removed ; I affirm and 
attest that the said sum of a hundred marks was especially 
bestowed by his most serene majesty upon master Bucer's 
widow, after his death, and intended for her especial use ; as 
is clearly manifest from the letter which the lords of the 
council wrote to the treasurer, a copy of which I have sent 
to master Bucer's widow. May God direct you by his holy 
Spirit, and grant you success in the labours of your calling ! 
Farewell. Lambeth, April 20, 1552. 

Yours heartily, 


f 1 The name of Bucer's widow was Wibrand Bucerin. The uni- 
versity gave her an hundred crowns on the death of her husband ; 
the king an hundred marks more, besides her husband's half yearly 
pension, though he died before Lady-day, when it became due. 
Strype, Cranmer, 358.] 




Dated [from prison, 1555.] 

AFTER much health in Christ our Saviour. As letters 
are then only necessary, when the messenger is either not 
sufficiently discreet, or is unacquainted Avith the circumstances 
we wish to communicate, or not thought worthy to be en- 
trusted with secrets ; and since by the goodness of God the 
bearer of this has fallen in my way, a man, as you know, of 
signal discretion, most faithful in all matters entrusted to him, 
exceedingly attached to us both, and possessing an entire 
acquaintance with the circumstances of our country, from 
whose mouth you may learn all that has taken place here ; I 
have not thought it needful to write to you more at length, 
especially as letters are wont to occasion so much danger and 
mischief. Yet I have not deemed it right to pass over this 
one thing, which I have learned by experience, namely, that 
God never shines forth more brightly, and pours out the 
beams of his mercy and consolation, or of strength and firmness 
of spirit, more clearly or impressively upon the minds of his 
people, than when they are under the most extreme pain and 
distress, both of mind and body, that he may then more 
especially shew himself to be the God of his people, when he 
seems to have altogether forsaken them ; then raising them 
up when they think he is bringing them down, and laying 
them low ; then glorifying them, when he is thought to be 
confounding them; then quickening them, when he is thought 
to be destroying them. So that we may say with Paul, 
" When I am weak, then am I strong ; and if I must needs 
glory, I will glory in my infirmities, in prisons, in revilings, 
in distresses, in persecutions, in sufferings for Christ." I 
pray God to grant that I may endure to the end ! Nothing 
is at this time more distressing to me, than that no answer 

[ 2 This letter is printed for the first time by the Parker Society. 
It was discovered at Zurich by the Rev. Steuart A. Pears, in 1843. 
The Latin original is subjoined.] 


has as yet been given to M. A. 1 , to whose subtilties, and 
juggling tricks, and ravings, a reply would not have been 
wanting long since, had not books and liberty been wanting 
to myself. I have written to no one but you, nor do I wish 
any one to know that I have written to yon : wherefore 
salute no one in my name. 


Thomce Cranmeri Epistola ad P. Marty rem. 

POST plurimam in Christo Servatore nostro salutem. Quando 
turn demum necessarire sunt liters;, quum aut non satis prudens est 
nuncius, aut rerum quas sigiiificaro volumus ignarus, aut non fidus 
cui arcana credas ; quumquo mihi Dei benignitate sese obtulisset hie 
tabcllarius, vir ct prudentia (ut nosti) insigni, et qui rebus in cre- 
dendis ftdissimus sit, et nostrum utriusquo amantissimus, et rerum 
nostratium scientissimus, c cujus ore quse hie acta fuerint intelligas 
omnia; non necessarium ut prolixius ad to scriberem, 
pncsertim quum scripturse tot pericula damnaquc afferre soleant. 
Illud tamon ununi prsetermittendum non censui, quod expcrtus didici, 
nunquam Deum splcndidius illucescere, et dementia; suce, consola- 
tionis, aut roboris ac fortitudinis aninii radios suorum mentibus clarius 
aut pressius infundere, quam in summis animi corporisque angoribus 
atque pressuris ; ut turn vel maxime sese declaret suorum esse Deum, 
quum illos deseruisse prorsus videtur; turn erJgere quum dejicerc 
atque prosternere, turn glorificare quum confundere, turn denique vivi- 
ficare quum occidere putetur. Ut cum Paulo dicere liceat, Quando 
infirmor tune fortior sum, et si gloriari oportet, in infirmitatibus meis 
gloriabor, in carceribus, in contumeliis, in necessitatibus, in persecuti- 
onibus, in augustiis pro Christo. Faxit obsecro Deus, ut in fincm 
perseveremus. Hodie nihil magis animum angit meum, quam quod 
hactenus M. A. nihil est responsum ; ad cujus astutias, prsestigias, ct 
insanias jamdudum non defuisset responsum, nisi mihi defuissent et 
libri et libertas. Prseterquam tibi scripsi nemini, nee scire velim 

[* M.A. signifies Marcus Antonius, under which name Gardiner, 
bishop of Winchester, replied to Cranmer's " Answer to a crafty and 
sophistical cavillation, &c." which see in Cranmer's writings, published 
by the Parker Society. The above letter confirms the statement of 
Strype, that the archbishop was very desirous to prepare another book 
in confutation of Marcus Antonius, and in vindication of his own 
writing. Strype says, " He lived long enough to finish three parts ; 
whereof two unhappily perished in Oxford, and the third fell into 
John Foxe's hands, and for ought I know, that by this time is perished 
also.'"' Strype, Cramner, I. 371.] 


quenquam quod ad te scripserim : proinde nomine nieo salutabis 


Hsec in manu Archiepiscopi Cantuarensis. 
Scripsit hsec ex carcere ad D. Pet. 
Martyrem. M. A. significant Marc. 
Antonium, nimirum Wintoniensem. 



Dated at FRANKFORT, March 26, 1548. 

I CANNOT but avail myself, most illustrious sir, of the 
offered opportunity of saluting your worthiness. There was 
brought hither three days since, during the time of the fair, 
a certain little book in English, containing that Order of 
Holy Communion which the king's majesty has set forth, as 
suitable to the present time 3 . And as I perceived many 
persons were desirous of obtaining it, I forthwith translated 
it both into German and Latin. And therefore, when I 
understood the godly bearer of this letter to be a townsman 
of yours, I thought I should gratify your reverence by send- 
ing you this trifling present. One of the translations I in- 
tended for the Germans ; the other, namely the Latin one, I 
am exceedingly anxious should be forwarded to your reve- 
rence. And should you feel inclined to make known to 

[ 2 The signature is added by another hand, and the subjoined note 
is in that of Bullinger. Cranmer was burned at Oxford, March 21, 
1556 : this letter, which appears undoubtedly to be his autograph, was 
written only a few months previously.] 

[ 3 The English work, the Order of the Communion, is printed in 
the volume containing the Liturgies of King Edward VI., published 
by the Parker Society. The translation into Latin by Coverdale, hero 
mentioned, does not seem to have been printed ; but there is a Latin 
translation extant, printed apparently in 1548, with the initials A. A. 
S. D. Th, probably indicating Alexander Alesse, who also translated 
into Latin the first Liturgy of King Edward VI. A.D. 1549. It is a 
very rare small volume, bearing the title of " Ordo distributions sacra- 
ment! altaris sub utraque specie, et formula confessionis faciendse in 
regno Anglicc. Hsec Londini evulgata sunt octavo die Martii Anni 
MDXLVIII." See " The ancient Liturgy of the Church of England," by 
Rev. W. Maskell, p. xlv; also Burnet n. 247, and Strype, Mem. n. i. 96.] 


others this cause for congratulation, and first-fruits of godli- 
ness, (according as the Lord now wills his religion to revive 
in England,) you will be able to commit this token of my 
affection for you to the press more easily than I can. I am 
now on my return to England, having been invited thither 
after an exile of eight years. Farewell, most excellent master, 
and affectionately salute your wife, Avho deserved so well 
from me and mine, when we went up to Strasburgh. Frank- 
fort, March 26, 1548. 




Dated at WINDSOR CASTLE, Oct. 21, 1548. 

PEACE and joy in the Holy Ghost ! Your letter, most 
excellent sir, dated on the 22nd of August, I received from 
my wife on the 8th of this present month, with exceeding 
compassion for those individuals whom this dreadful tyranny l 
so greatly distresses. I also shewed your letter yesterday 
to the most reverend the archbishop of Canterbury ; who, as 
he has undertaken to educate your dear son (whom he has 
just sent away to Canterbury, by reason of the plague that 
is raging at this place), both in religion and learning, at his 
own expense ; in like manner, reflecting upon the lamentable 
condition of your churches, he truly sympathises in your 
misfortune : wherefore he desired you most especially to come 
over to us, rather than to go away either into Turkey or 
Hungary. Oh ! my master, if you should seek a refuge any 
where else than with us, since the faithlessness of mankind is 
every where so great, how will that most excellent gift, which 
the good and gracious God has bestowed upon you, grow 
cool ! If the most reverend archbishop, whose answer I 
inclosed in my letter to you, had foreseen so much danger 
to the church, truly what I wrote to you would have been 
no impediment. You must think therefore that we are both 
of us sorry for what we did, although there was nothing 

[! Namely, the persecutions in Germany by Charles V., to enforce 
compliance with the Interim.] 


stated in those letters but what the occasion then called for. 
For myself, indeed, my master, I am in no little apprehension 
both for yourself and for our churches and schools deprived 
of your most happy ministrations. Wherefore, although our 
rulers may not invite you by name, eminent as you are 
among the best scholars of Germany, and this probably, as I 
have before hinted to you, from secret motives ; yet we. who 
know you well, entreat you most solemnly to come over to 
us, where you need not doubt but that you will be most 
acceptable, and therefore treated with the greatest kindness. 
Farewell. From the king's castle, which we call Windsor. 
Oct. 21, 1548. 

Yours from my heart, 




Dated at STRASBUHGH, Jan. 27, [probably in 1546]. 

NOT many years since, most honoured master, and much 
loved brother in Christ, when I was a courtier, and living too 
much of a court life in the palace of our king 2 , there most 
happily and auspiciously came under my notice certain writings 
of master Huldrich Zuinglius 3 , a most excellent man, of pious 
memory ; and also some commentaries upon the epistles of St 
Paul, which your reverence had published for the general 
benefit, and which will prove a lasting monument of your re- 

These singular gifts of God exhibited by you to the world 

[ 2 Hooper probably refers to the period, when he was retained 
as chaplain and steward in the house of Sir Thomas Arundel, who 
was executed in 1552, as a partisan of the duke of Somerset. See 

[3 The collected writings of Zuinglius were published by Rodolph 
Gualter, in four volumes, folio, in 1544. He was slain in a battle 
between the five Roman Catholic cantons of Switzerland, and those of 
Zurich and Berne, Oct. 11, 1531 ; having attended the troops as one 
of their ministers.] 



at large, I was unwilling to neglect, especially as 1 perceived 
them seriously to affect the eternal salvation and happiness of 
my soul; so that I thought it well worth my while, night 
and day, with earnest study, and an almost superstitious 
diligence, to devote my entire attention to your writings. 
Nor was my labour in this respect ever wearisome to me : for 
after 1 had arrived at manhood, and by the kindness of my 
father enjoyed the means of living more unrestrainedly, I 
had begun to blaspheme God by impious worship and all 
manner of idolatry, following the evil ways of my forefathers, 
before I rightly understood what God was. But being at 
length delivered by the goodness of God, for which 1 am 
solely indebted to him and to yourselves, nothing now remains 
for me in reference to the remainder of my life and my last- 
hour, but to worship God with a pure heart, and know 
my defects while living in this body, since indeed the 
tenure of life is deceitful, and every man is altogether as 
nothing ; and to serve my godly brethren in Christ, and 
the unii'odly for Christ : for I do not think that a Chris- 

o v / 

tian is born for himself, or that he ought to live to himself; 
but that, whatever he has or is, he ought altogether to as- 
cribe, not to himself, but to refer it to God as the author, and 
regard every thing that he possesses as common to all, ac- 
cording as the necessities and wants of his brethren may 
require. I am indeed ashamed beyond measure, that I have 
not performed these duties heretofore ; but that like a brute 
beast, as the greater part of mankind are wont to do, I have 
been a slave to my own lusts : but it is better to be wise late, 
than not at all. 

By reason of my love and respect towards you, I had 
often proposed to visit you, though 1 have always been pre- 
vented hitherto, partly by my ill-health, and partly because 
I am mistrustful of the favour of fortune ; for my father, of 
whom I am the only son and heir, is so opposed to me on 
account of Christ's religion, that should I refuse to act ac- 
cording to his wishes, I shall be sure to find him for the 
future, not a father, but a cruel tyrant. Shortly however, in 
about a month's time, I mean to go down to my native place 1 
to bid farewell to the honours, pleasures, and friends of this 
world ; and I will then endeavour, if possible, by the assist- 
[* Hooper was a native of Somersetshire. Godwin de Prscsul. 552.] 


ance of my friends, to obtain at least some portion of what I 
am entitled to, wherewith I may be able to subsist upon my 
slender means among you at Zurich : and should God order 
it otherwise, and see fit to visit me with poverty and want, 
or in any other way, I will bear it with an undisturbed mind, 
and choose rather, as an exile, to suffer affliction with the 
people of God, than to enjoy the pleasures of sin for a sea- 
son ; esteeming the reproach of Christ (I use the words of 
St Paul) greater riches than the treasures in Egypt ; for I 
have respect unto the recompencc of the reward, and hope for 
eternal life, obtained, not by my merits, but by the blood of 
Christ. I entreat you, therefore, man of God, by our 
Lord Jesus Christ, that you aid me in this journey by your 
prayers to God for me. For I am in fear, and not without 
reason, of those perfidious bishops, to whom nothing is more 
acceptable than the spilling of the blood of the godly, and 
whose temper and disposition I have often experienced to the 
great peril of my life". I desire therefore, to defend myself 
against their treachery and tyranny with the remedies that 
God has given me ; and I seek the aid of your church, that 
by the help of her prayers I may derive some comfort, ac- 
cording to the promise of God, who is ever present with all 
who call upon him in truth, and from whom alone assistance 
is to be sought for in every kind of danger. For there can- 
not be a more powerful safeguard than believing prayer : by 
this Hezekiah overcame the king of the Assyrians, Elijah 
called down fire from heaven, and Jehoshaphat obtained a 
signal victory. But I will dilate no longer upon this subject, 
for fear of offending your pious and learned ears by so rude 
and unpolished a letter. 

[ 2 While Hooper was Sir Thomas Arundel's steward, " his Blaster, 
having intelligence of his opinions and religion, which he in no case 
did favour, found the means to send him on a message to the bishop 
of Winchester [Gardiner], writing his letter privily to the bishop, 
by conference of learning to do some good upon him. Winchester, 
after long conference with master Hooper four or five days together, 
sent him home again, right well commending his learning and wit, 
but yet bearing in his breast a grudging stomach against master Hooper 
still." See Foxe, Acts and Monuments, vi. 637; and Soames, Hist. 
Ref. in. 559. Shortly after this occurrence took place, Hooper found 
himself obliged to flee for his life, to avoid the operation of the act 
of the Six Articles.] 

3- -2 


Accept, my very dear master, in few words, the news 
from England. As far as true religion is concerned, idolatry 
is no where in greater vigour. Our king has destroyed the 
pope, but not popery ; he has expelled all the monks and 
nuns, and pulled down their monasteries; he has caused all 
their possessions to be transferred into his exchequer, and yet 
they are bound, even the frail female sex, by the king's com- 
mand, to perpetual chastity. England has at this time at 
least ten thousand nuns, not one of whom is allowed to marry. 
The impious mass, the most shameful celibacy of the clergy, 
the invocation of saints, auricular confession, superstitious 
abstinence from meats, and purgatory, were never before 
held by the people in greater esteem than at the present 

I have just been informed by letter, that the treaty 1 , 
which was concluded two years since betAveen the emperor 
and our king, is renewed : may God direct every thing to 
the glory of his name ! There is no hope of peace between 
France and England, but we arc in daily expectation of a 
bloody war. 

The chief supporters of the gospel in England are dying 
every hour : many very illustrious personages have departed 
within these two years; the lord chancellor Audley 2 , the 
duke of Suffolk'", [Sir Edward] Baynton, the queen's first 
lord of the bedchamber ; Poinings 4 , the king's deputy at 
Boulogne ; Sir Thomas Wyat 5 , known throughout the whole 
world for his noble qualities, and a most zealous defender of 

[ l The alliance here referred to was concluded between the 
emperor Charles V. and Henry VIII., on Feb. 11, 1543, for an 
account of which see Robertson's Charles V., in. 246, Soames, n. 535.] 

[ 2 Thomas Audley, Lord Chancellor, 1532, created baron Audley 
of Walden, co. Essex, 29 Nov. 1538, died 1544, when the barony 
became extinct.] 

[ 3 Charles Brandon, created duke of Suffolk, Feb. 1. 1514, married 
to his third wife, Mary Tudor, daughter of Henry VII., and queen 
dowager of France. He died Aug. 24, 1545, and was buried in St 
George's chapel, Windsor. His epitaph, written by Parkhurst, is 
printed in Strype, Annals, n. ii. 496.] 

[ 4 Sir Thomas Poinings died in August, 1545. See Hollingshed, 
Chron. n. 969.] 

[ 5 Sir Thomas Wyat died in 1542, aged 38. He was the first that 
put into English verse the "seven penitential Psalms."] 


yours and Christ's religion ; Dr Butts 6 , a physician who had 
the charge of the king's person : all these were of the privy 
council, and real favourers of the gospel, and promoted the 
glory of God to the utmost of their power. They all died of 
the plague and fever ; so that the country is now left alto- 
gether to the bishops, and those who despise God and all 
true religion. 

The bishops of Winchester and Westminster 7 are now on 
an embassy from our king to the emperor in Brabant. 
Another bishop, namely, of Durham, who was sent into 
Picardy to treat there with the ambassadors of the king of 
France respecting a peace between the French and English, 
has lately returned to England without the accomplishment 
of that object. The state of affairs between the Scots and 
English is still very doubtful and uncertain: the English however 
have sacked their principal cities and villages ; but I shudder 
to mention the devastation of that country, which was effected 
last summer by the earl of Hertford 8 . The queen of Scot- 
land, together with the cardinal [Beaton], is lying in con- 
cealment in the mountains, where they possess fortresses 
beyond the reach of attack. 

The conference at llatisbon. as far as I understand by a 
letter from master Bucer, is suspended : I am more inclined 
to believe this, because Philip Melancthon is neither yet come 
to them, nor does he intend it. And Bucer, as I hear, is 
about to come to us sooner than I expected : but as yet we 
have nothing certain ; as soon as this shall be the case, I will 
inform your reverence forthwith, and you may expect a more 
copious letter whenever any new tidings shall require it. The 
count Palatine has lately provided for the preaching of the 
gospel throughout his dominions : but as far as relates to the 
eucharist he has descended, as the proverb has it, from the 

[ 6 Dr William Butts died Nov. 17, 1545. An interesting letter 
written to him by Sir John Choke, during his last illness, is given in 
Strype, Cheke, 27.] 

[ 7 Namely, Stephen Gardiner and Thomas Thirlby. The bishop 
of Durham here mentioned was Cuthbert Tonstal.] 

[ 8 Edward Seymour, earl of Hertford, landed 10,000 men near 
Leith, in May, 1544, which, with Edinburgh, was abandoned to pillage, 
and then set on fire. See Hall's Chronicles, p. 860, ed. 1809 ; also 
Robertson's Hist. Scotland.] 


horse to the ass ; for he has fallen from popery into the 
doctrine of Luther, who is in that particular more erroneous 
than all the papists; and those who deny the substance of 
bread to remain in the sacrament, and substitute the body of 
Christ in its place, come more closely to the truth than those 
who affirm that the natural body of Christ is with the bread, 
in the bread, and under the form of bread, and yet occupies 
no place. God I hope will at length give him a better mind. 
Master Richard [Hilles] the Englishman, and his godly 
wife, salute you affectionately in Christ. He has now in his 
house two sisters of noble family, the younger of whom, 
named Anna, is exceedingly favourable to true religion. She 
prays for your continued happiness, and commends herself, 
whom I hope you will see shortly, to the prayers of your 
church. Salute affectionately in my name those excellent men 
masters Bibliander and Pellican, with the other godly brethren. 
Farewell, most learned and godly sir, and suffer me, I pray 
you, to be numbered amongst those who truly and from the 
heart admire the majesty of your religion. Strasburgh, Jan. 
27, [1546]. 

Yours entirely, 




Without place or date '. 

IF your engagements would permit, I should much wish 
to ascertain your judgment and opinion. I certainly do not 
consider it lawful for a godly man to be present at the mass 
and impious observances of the like kind among the papists ; 
but yet there are some arguments which in some measure 
press my mind, and for a time keep me in suspense. Master 
Calvin has written much upon that subject ; but, as it appears 

t 1 This letter is without date or address, but appears from the 
subsequent letter to have been written to Bullinger, and probably 
from Strasburgh, in 1546.] 


to me, he hardly satisfies the arguments which may be al- 
leged against him, one or two of which I will propose to your 

Concerning Naaman the Syrian, though it is not allow- 
able to bring forward a private individual by way of general 
example, yet it very much bears upon the subject before us ; 
for the prophet said, "Go in peace." Persons, who are unac- 
quainted with the Hebrew, understand this expression as 
though the prophet had said, "If you choose to return, it will 
be at your peril, but I do not sanction your doing so :" in 
my opinion, however, the Hebrew words will not bear this 
interpretation ; for ublLb "ifb? go in peace, is an expression of 
command and confirmation, and therefore the prophet per- 
mitted Naaman to worship the true God in the house of 
Blmmon, with the hope of gaining over the king of Syria 
and others to the true God : and, if I rightly interpret this 
passage, as the prophet gave this permission to a godly man, 
so we ouijht also to make the same allowance ourselves. 


In the time of Elijah, when he complained before God 
that he was the only worshipper of the true religion then 
remaining, he was informed by the divine voice that there 
were left seven thousand. Now certainly, if this great number 
of men had kept themselves aloof from the idolatrous wor- 
ship, there must have been at least some few of them known 
to the prophet of God ; nor do I see how any one can deny 
that though these pious men, by the mention of whom God 
comforts his afflicted servant, were often openly and publicly 
in the idol-temples together with a yet more numerous as- 
semblage of the ungodly, they nevertheless retained in their 
hearts a pure and holy reverence for the one true God. No 
argument moves me more than this. 

In the same way as God forbids idolatry, does he also 
prohibit adultery, fornication, and other kinds of wickedness; 
nor does he condemn one more than another : but no one is 
bound to leave his country, as they say, by reason of either 
one or the other. 

I do not write these things, my accomplished friend, merely 
for the sake of learning your opinion 2 ; but when I have once 
ascertained it, I shall, by God's blessing, most diligently follow 

[ 2 It appears by the following letter that Hooper's objections were 
satisfied by the arguments of Bullinger in his reply.] 


it without any deceit or dissimulation : not that I am in any 
doubt upon the subject myself; but I desire to satisfy some 
godly men who are not yet sufficiently instructed in the faith. 
May the Lord Jesus long preserve you in safety ! Salute, I 
pray you, your wife in my name, and my English brother 
and friend in Christ, master Burcher, who resides with you 
at Zurich. 

Yours to serve, 




Without place or date 1 . 

MUCH health. I received, most excellent and revered 
friend in Christ, at Strasburgh, almost a year ago, your equally 
learned and godly letter, in which you desired altogether to 
convince me that the true worship of God could have nothing 
in common with outward idolatry : you therefore considered 
it more advisable and consistent with godliness, that I should 
rather endure the loss of home and fortune for Christ's sake, 
than participate in the ungodly worship of the mass. I re- 
verence and cherish this advice, and willingly come into the 
same opinion. I cannot repay to your excellence the thanks you 
deserve ; but I pray that he who worketh all in all, and who, 
when called upon in true faith through his Son Jesus Christ, 
will do far more than we can believe, may be, according to his 
mercy and loving-kindness, your exceeding great reward and 
recompence. Of this I have no doubt, that you will be, 
when this frail tabernacle is dissolved, the everlasting friend 
of God. Meanwhile, as long as you continue in this life, 
defend your churches, deliver them from wolves and hirelings, 
gather together the people of God, and bring back his flock, 
now miserably scattered, to Christ the true and only shep- 

f 1 This letter was probably written from Basle, and shortly after 
Dec. 12, 1546. See p. 42, note 1.] 


herd : fight the good fight ; there is laid up for you a crown 
of righteousness, which you shall receive from the righteous 
Judge in that day. 

I will relate to your excellence in person the events of 
my long and most dangerous journey to England. I suffered 
many things by land; twice I suffered bonds and imprison- 
ment; whence being marvellously delivered by the mercy 
of God, though with the heavy loss of my fortune, I was 
wretchedly harassed by sea for three months both by 
enemies and storms. But the end is not yet ; and I 
pray God that whatever may yet remain to me of this 
wretched life, may be for the glory of his name, and for the 
edification of his church. Having been delivered from fire 
and water, I came upon war : I see nothing but the death of 
all godliness and religion ; the enemy of God will destroy (if 
it be possible that the faith of Peter can perish) every mouth 
that speaks of Christ, and the mother with her children, that 
is, the universal church : but the Lord, I doubt not, will look 
down upon his people, and not suffer the tyranny of this cruel 
enemy to rage at pleasure. In the mean time let us be 
heartily and truly turned unto the Lord, and he will un- 
doubtedly look upon our tears. But alas ! gracious Lord, we 
are sleeping in the greatest security, while in the greatest 
danger ; and it is therefore no wonder if we terribly expe- 
rience the wrath of God, and the heavy consequences of our 
ungodliness. Let us amend therefore, lest he inflict upon us 
yet greater severities, namely, to become after this life the 
everlasting enemies of God : let us patiently bear, as the time 
requires, the chastisement that our sins have deserved; for he 
punishes the children of men for their iniquities. 

The bearer will inform your excellence of the good news 
we received yesterday from Strasburgh. There will be a 
change of religion in England, and the king will take up 
the gospel of Christ, in case the emperor should be defeated 
in this most destructive war : should the gospel sustain a loss, 
he will then retain his impious mass, for which he has this last 
summer committed four respectable and godly persons 2 to the 

[ 2 These were, Ann Askew, John Lacels, John Adams, and Nicholas 
Belenian. They were burned at the stake about the month of June, 
1546, according to Foxe's account (v. 550.) or on July 16th, according 
to Stowe.] 


flames. Our kino; has now confined in the tower of London 


the duke of Norfolk 1 , together with his eldest son and heir: 
they say that both father and son had conspired the death of 
the king and of our prince, a horrible deed, if my account is 

My wife most dutifully salutes your excellence, with the 
other learned and godly persons among you. We hope to 
visit you shortly, God willing. Master do Valys, together 
with his wife and all his family, wish for you every happiness. 
There is in his house a certain godly and learned youth, whom 
I intend to bring down with me to Zurich : I request you, for 
Christ's sake, if it be possible, to procure him a tcachership in 
some class in your school. He is studious and diligent, and will 
not shrink from the severest labours ; and if he can but meet 
with some moderate means of subsistence, he will be of service 
to the church of God : remember him for Christ's sake, and let 
your excellence, if possible, write me an answer. Nothing can 
come to me more acceptably than a letter from you. May the 
Lord Jesus long preserve you in safety, to the glory of his 
name, and the benefit of his church I Amen. Salute in my 
name masters Bibliander, Pellican, Gualter, and all the rest. 
I earnestly commend myself to the prayers of your church. 
Excuse, I pray you, my pen running on too fast. I request 
your excellence to salute in my name, and that of my wife, 
the godly matron Falkner, who came with us to Basle from 
Strasburgh, which place she left unmarried, but I have now, 
with the consent of her parents, bestowed her in marriage. 

Your excellence's most attached, 


[ l The duke of Norfolk, and his son, the earl of Surrey, were com- 
mitted to the Tower of London, Dec. 12, 1546 ; the latter was executed 
on Tower Hill on the 19th of the January following.] 




After Sept. 10, 1547. 

THE order of battle 2 between the Scots and English in 


Scotland on the 10th of September, four miles from Edin- 

Lord Grey, the king of England's deputy at Boulogne, 
and the commander in chief of the English cavalry in this 
battle, after the artillery was silenced, made a charge upon 
the Scottish front, with a view of throwing them into confusion; 
but disappointed of his expectation, he was forced to retreat 
with the loss of forty-eight of his cavalry. The earl of War- 
wick, who commanded the archers, perceiving the cavalry to 
give way, immediately and suddenly advanced with 4000 
archers, and attacked that part of the Scottish army where 
the artillery and baggage were stationed. He so pressed the 
Scots by the discharge of his arrows, that they were unable any 
longer to stand to their guns, which having gained possession 
of, by his cannon-balls and volleys of arrows he compelled the 
whole Scottish army to fall back from their former position into 
one where they had not only the enemy both in front and rear, 
but also the sun shining full in their eyes. Which when lord 
Grey perceived, he made a second attack with his cavalry on 
their flank with much noise and clamour, shouting, " The Scots 
are running away, the Scots are running away." The Scots, 
being inferior in cavalry, were quite unable to keep their 
ranks, which being thrown into disorder, they betook them- 
selves to flight; in the which there fell 15,000 men, and 2,000 
were taken prisoners, among whom was lord Huntley, the 
chancellor of Scotland. On the same day the English ships 
sailed into the various Scottish harbours, and took possession 
of all their vessels which were adapted either for trade or 
naval warfare ; the rest they burned. The queen, upon the 

[ 2 For a full account of this battle, called the battle of Pinkey, in 
which the Scots sustained a signal defeat, see Ilollingshed's Chronicles, 
Vol. m. p. 984, &c., or the other histories of the period.] 


receipt of this unfortunate intelligence, gave herself up to the 
protector upon his own terms. Taking with him six of the 
nobility as hostages for the fidelity of the queen, and leaving 
troops in five places of the kingdom of Scotland, for fear lest 
any rebellion should take place during his absence, he re- 
turned to London, where parliament is daily expected to meet, 
in which, if it please God, this quarrel will be settled. This 
is a true statement; for my informant was present at the 
battle, and witnessed the close of it. 

Your excellence's ever devoted, 


The number of soldiers belonging to each army were, 
of the English seventeen thousand, of the Scots thirty 



Dated at ZURICH, June 19, 1548. 

MUCH health. The day before I wrote this letter, I met 
master Pellican, whom I saluted in your name, and at your 
request. He has received into his family the widow of master 
Matthias, a godly and upright woman : I understood from 
him that you had sent me a letter by her ; and he requested 
me that, if I had any thing to write in reply, I would do it by 
the morrow, for on that day the widow was about to leave us. 
I was unwilling therefore that she should return to you with- 
out a letter from me, lest you should think me undeserving of 
your godly epistle, which I read with the greatest possible 
affection and delight. You say well, that in this shall all men 
know that we are Christ's disciples, " if we have love one to 
another:" let us love therefore, "not in word, neither in 
tongue, but in deed and in truth." For love is the most cer- 
tain evidence of our justification, and the heavenly seal of our 
acceptance in Christ Jesus ; as John saith, " Every one that 


loveth is born of God, and knoweth God ; he that loveth not, 
knoweth not God, for God is love." If indeed we have tasted 
that the Lord is gracious, " let us cast off the works of dark- 
ness, and let us put on the armour of light, walking honestly, 
as in the day, not in strife and envying, but putting on the 
Lord Jesus Christ ; " that Ave may restore the infirmities of 
our brethren in the spirit of meekness, or patiently bear with 
them. Let all malice, and all guile, and hypocrisies, and en- 
vyings be put away, for we are new-born babes, to the end 
that we may desire the sincere milk of the word, and grow 

My master, I pray you in Christ Jesus, not to pay too 
much regard to envious and slanderous calumniators. You 
are not ignorant that the malevolence of envy is ever wont 
to tear most persons in pieces ; that detractors invent many 
falsehoods, and that brotherly love is disturbed by envy and 
detraction. Away with the persons who would sow dissension 
between yourself and those men. This I promise you, that 
they very frequently make mention of you in friendly and 
honourable terms. And although they may dissent from your 
opinion in the matter of the eucharist, as I do myself, yet 
they do not make any breach in Christian love, much less 
regard you with hostility, but are anxious to aid by their 
prayers both yourself and those whom the Lord has en- 
trusted to you in his church ; and they earnestly hope that, 
on your part, you will do the same for them. For Christ's 
sake therefore, who by his own blood hath triumphed on the 
cross over all enemies, hell, and sin, be ye not at variance 
through strife and emulation, that ye may neither quarrel any 
more with your tongue, nor give ear to those persons who are 
deficient in nothing but religion and virtue. Let controversy 
be settled by the authority of the word. Let no one defend his 
opinion with obstinacy ; but let us rather return unto the way 
of truth, and humbly acknowledge our errors, than continue 
always to go on in error without repentance, lest we should 
seem to have been in the wrong. Let us bear in mind that 
we were made for friendship and concord, that in this most 
miserable age we may, by our mutual kindness, relieve the 
distresses of each other, and at last reign together with Christ 
in everlasting happiness. For what frenzy is it, what folly 
or madness, to pursue with hostility here on earth that in- 


dividual, who, should he die in Christ, will pass from death 
unto life, (whither I also, Christ being my guide, hope to 
flee away after this darkness,) and with whom we shall be 
united in perpetual love and everlasting joy! I entreat you, 
my master, not to say or write any thing against charity or 
godliness for the sake of Luther, or burden the consciences of 
men with his words on the holy supper. Although I readily 
acknowledge with thankfulness the gifts of God in him who 
is now no more 1 , yet he was not without liis faults. I do not 
say this by way of reproach of the departed individual, be- 
cause I know that no living man is without blame, and that 
we all stand in need of the grace of God. After the dispute 
with Zuinglius and CEcolampaclius respecting the [Lord's] 
supper had begun to grow warm, he did violence to many 
passages of scripture, such for instance as the following, "He 
ascended that he might fill all things 2 ;" "I am with you 
alway even unto the end of the world 3 ;" and "we are flesh 
of his flesh, and bone of his bones 4 ;" that he might establish 
the corporal presence of the body of Christ in the bread ; but 
how mistakenly, is declared by the very nature of the pas- 
sages. Did we not at this present time stand in need of con- 
solation rather than of controversy, I could easily prove to the 
satisfaction of every one, that these places cannot properly 
be brought forward in confirmation of his opinion. Every 
one too is aware, with what calumnies and reproaches he 
attacked even the dead. Christ taught his disciples another 
doctrine. He rebuked James and John, who wished that fire 
might fall from heaven to consume the people of Samaria. 
And he has commanded us to do good to our enemies, and 
bless them that curse us. He, my good sir, who knoweth the 
secrets of the heart, may judge what spirit occasioned so much 
wrath to be kindled among the ministers of the word of God. 
Nevertheless all the ministers of this church 5 were grieved at 
his death, not as if they had lost an adversary or a detractor, 
but rather an ally and partner in their glorious work. These 
things are, in my mind, great and real evidences of kindness 
and charity. I do not write thus by way of reproach of a 
most learned man, but that no one may swear by his opinions, 

[i Luther died Feb. 18, 1546.] [2 Eph. iv. 10.] 

[ 3 Matt, xxviii. 20.] [ 4 Ephes. v. 30.] 

[ 5 Namely, of Zurich, whence this letter is dated.] 


as if whatever he wrote were an oracle of Apollo, or a leaf of 
the Sibyl. 

You write word, reverend sir, that you cannot believe the 
sacraments to be bare signs. Far be such a belief from the 
most unlearned Christian ! The holy supper is not a bare sign, 
neither in it is the true and natural body of Christ corporally 
exhibited to me in any supernatural or heavenly manner : 
nevertheless, I religiously and with all honour venerate and 
reverence the institution of Christ upon other grounds, be- 
cause it is a sign of the good-will of God towards me, and 
an outward testimony added to the promise of grace. Not 
that this promise is applied to me by means of any sacra- 
ment, but because the promise previously applied to me by 
faith is thereby confirmed. In like manner the church of 
God publicly receives him in baptism, who had been pre- 
viously received by grace. Thus Abraham, saith Paul, "' re- 
ceived the sign of circumcision, a seal of the righteousness of 
the faith which he had yet being uncircumcised";" that is, a 
testimony by which God bare witness that he was received 
into grace, not that he was to be received by the sacrament, 
but rather confirmed in it. Thus the holy supper is a testi- 
mony of grace, and a mystery of our redemption, in which 
God bears witness to the benefits bestowed upon us by Christ : 
not that the remission of sins, which in believers ought to pre- 
cede all use of sacraments, is there applied ; nor that the true 
body of Christ, which is in heaven and not on earth, is ex- 
hibited together with the bread ; but that it may confirm that 
faith which I have in the death and passion of that body 
which was alive, died, and rose again. And the minister 
gives what is in his power, namely, the bread and wine, and 
not the body of Christ; nor is it exhibited by the minister, 
and eaten by the communicant, otherwise than in the word 
preached, read, or meditated upon. And to eat the body of 
Christ is nothing else than to believe, as he himself teaches in 
the sixth of John. It is necessary therefore to bring Christ 
to the sacraments by faith, and not to look for him there. 
And thus the promise of grace is received by faith, as are also 
the sacraments, of which faith they are the testimonies and 
the seals. There are many other ends, but this is the chief; 
and those who thus use the sacraments do not make them 
[6 Rom. iv. 11.] 


bare signs. Thus John the Baptist said, that he baptized with 
water, but that there was one to come after him who should 
baptize with the Holy Ghost. He had water in his hand, by 
which remission of sins was confirmed in those who believed ; 
but he had not in his hand the Holy Ghost, that he might 
give remission of sins to all that were baptized ; for he bap- 
tized many hypocrites. From these sensible objects therefore 
faith teaches us to recognise things insensible and invisible. 
Regard these things, I pray you, in a godly spirit. I do not 
write for the sake of dispute, but that I may testify to you, 
that the sacraments with us are not bare signs. For if faith 
shine forth in the mind of the recipient, the bridegroom 
is thereby joined 1 to the bride, so that none may put asunder 
what God hath joined together. 

I do not rightly understand what you write respecting 
Calvin. I had never any intention of using my pen either 
against him or Farell, although his commentaries on the first 
epistle to the Corinthians displeased me exceedingly. I should 
have written my thoughts upon the Interim, had I not been 
told for certain that you were about to do so; which I 
earnestly entreat you to do, as you possess great and peculiar 
gifts of God, and in a thousand ways are far more fitted for 
this undertaking than I am, wlio have but lately, and as yet 
only in a cursory way, studied the Greek language. May the 
Lord Jesus ever preserve you both in body and soul, to the 
glory of his name ! My wife salutes you. Zurich, June 19, 

Your very loving, 




Dated at BASLE, [March 28,] 1549. 

MUCH health. By the mercy of God, most reverend 
master and gossip, we arrived at Basle about 10 o'clock on 

[i The word is illegible in the MS.] 


the 27th of March, safe and sound ; and if the sailors are to 
be relied upon, we shall sail from hence to-morrow morning. 
To spare expense therefore, I send away the driver with the 
carriage and horses, and hope your worthy citizen will receive 
all his property safe and uninjured by to-morrow evening. 
That I have been longer delayed upon my journey than he 
expected, to his inconvenience and my great expense, must 
be attributed to the roughness of the journey, and not to any 
loitering o% my part or fatigue of the horses. I entreat you 
to offer my warmest thanks to this excellent man ; or else 
impose this duty of courtesy in my name and at my request 
upon our very loving friend, master Gualtcr, who, if I mistake 
not, is related either by consanguinity or affinity to the owner 
of the horses. 

Nothing new is as yet reported to us at this place, ex- 
cepting only that some persons who have just arrived from 
Strasburgh, affirm for certain that the mass is not yet ad- 
mitted by the citizens. For this reason the bishop of that 
city is not merely angry, but rages as it were with madness 
and fury, and has appointed a conference in his own territory 
about two [German] miles from Strasburgh a ; and all those 
who have visited me here in a way of friendship, tell me 
that he is bringing forth some horrible monstrosity ; but it 
will, I hope, prove abortive. 

You will receive from the bearer one sheet, a blanket, 
and a pillow, with many thanks ; all the other things that I 
borrowed to make use of upon my journey I shall send back 
as far as Basle. In haste. Basle, 1549. 

You shall hear more, God willing, in the course of three 
days. I send back a flask ; to whom it belongs, I know not. 
Inquire, I pray you, of my landlord, and do not grudge to 
undertake this office for my sake, who so boldly presume to 
impose all my burdens upon your shoulders. 

Your most devoted, 


P. S. We salute most respectfully your dear wife with 
all your family, masters Theodore [Bibliander], Pellican, 
Gualter, Butler, and all the rest 3 . 

[ 2 Namely at Saverne, about 20 miles W.N". W. of Strasburgh.] 
[ 3 Foxe gives an interesting account of Hooper's parting interview 
with his friends at Zurich. Acts and Mon. vi. G38.] 





Dated at STRASBURGH, March 31, 1549. 

MUCH health. Grace and peace from the Lord. I obey 
jour command, my very dear friend and gossjp 1 , that I 
should acquaint you with the progress of our journey. We 
arrived at Strasburgh on the 29th instant, all of us, by the 
blessing and favour of God, safe and sound. We think of re- 
maining here till the third of April, that we may join some 
worthy and excellent companions who are now on their 
way to the fair. The fretfulness too of our little daughter 
Rachel in some measure prevents our journey; for she is 
cutting her teeth, and exposure to the air aggravates the 
painfulness of incipient illness. 

I believe there is no truth in the reports respecting 
Hedio 2 . On the 30th of this month I was present at his 
lecture, which was upon the 10th chapter of the epistle to 
the Romans. He spoke very clearly and openly upon the 
excellency of the word of God, and warned his hearers most 
carefully to beware of the beguiling snares of the Interim. 
What he said however, I think, proceeded rather from ex- 
cessive terror and alarm, than from actual dislike. He is 
not wanting in godliness, but he has too great a dread of 
offending the emperor. On the same day I was present at 
his evening sermon, where, among other things that he said, 
and which I heard with pain, he absurdly inveighed with 
great bitterness against the Suvermerians 3 . May the Lord 
forgive him, and bring him to a better mind ! 

Paul Fagius left this place before my arrival. Bucer, 
I believe, will depart this evening, but I do not yet know 

[ l Bullinger was God-father to Hooper's daughter Rachel.] 
[ 2 Caspar Hedio was professor of theology at Strasburgh, where he 
died in 1552, and was succeeded by Hierome Zanchius.] 

[ 3 The Saxon divines were exceeding hot against the Swiss divines, 
on account of their rejecting the doctrine of consubstantiation held by 
the Lutherans. In their ordinary discourses, Strype says, "they styled 
them heretics, false prophets, Suvermeros, Sacramentiperdas." Strype, 
Cranmer, 508.] 


whither he is going. He is invited into England, Poland, 
and Saxony. He received me at dinner yesterday, where I 
met John Sturmius, Sapidus, and Christopher Mont. They 
were very much delighted at the concord of the people of 
Switzerland, which I pray the Lord to continue and confirm. 
I myself, my wife, Rachel, and Joanna, diligently commend 
to our good and gracious God in our prayers the well being 
of yourself and all your family, and that of the other most 
godly ministers of your church, all of whom we sincerely and 
cordially salute. Farewell, most excellent and ever esteemed 
sir. Strasburgh, March 31. 

Your most devoted, 




Dated at MAYEXCE, April 8, 1549. 

MUCH health. I hope, my worthy friend and gossip, that 
the letter which I wrote to you on my journey was safely de- 
livered ; by which you would ascertain our route and progress 
as far as Strasburgh. We sailed from thence on the second 
of April, all of us by the goodness and favour of God in good 
health. The first day of our voyage from Strasburgh was a 
prosperous one, with the wind and stream in our favour : on 
the second day also God was not less gracious to us. We 
passed the night of this day in a village near Spires, where 
on the same day there had been dining sixty-four Spaniards, 
all cavalry, who were going up towards the duchy of 
Wurtemberg, so sharpened by hunger, that they left the 
landlords neither flesh nor fish for us. We fared very spar- 
ingly, satisfying ourselves with their broken victuals. There 
is no distinction of meat among them, nor any observance 
of days, for which such abundance of Christian blood is 
shed by the madness of the papists. The third day of our 
voyage passed most comfortably ; the fourth was somewhat 
dangerous. We met with a contrary wind, high waves, 
ignorant and careless sailors, so that we were twice exposed 



to great peril ; and unless we had reached the land, which we 
effected with great difficulty, we should all of us have been 
lost. This happened about half a mile from Mayence: 
we all entered the city on foot, safe and sound. The other 
vessel which accompanied us suffered far more than we did ; 
much of the cargo was spoiled by the water, and the master 
of the vessel, knocked about by the violence of the storm, 
just as he was about to cast anchor, got his leg entangled in 
the cable which sustained the whole weight of the anchor, and 
was hurt very severely. At Mayence we sojourned at the 
Golden Swan, where we found six merchants who had come 
from the city of Liege. They told us that the emperor was 
now at Brussels with his son Philip in great triumph and 
magnificence. They say that the wily and bad landgrave 
is detained prisoner near Ghent. I inquired whether the 
emperor was preparing a second expedition into upper Ger- 
many. They replied that no rumours of that kind had been 
spread amongst them. I asked too concerning the people of 
the lake territories. They told me that the emperor would 
lead all his forces against them this summer. May the 
victory be on their side, who most desire the safety of the 
church of Christ ! Let us pray God, and he will deliver his 
people out of temptations. I have great hope that this will 
be the case, provided only they are cemented by a holy 
concord, which alone can destroy the power of the emperor. 
The affairs of Saxony are fluctuating and uncertain, and, as 
it is reported here, are placed in the greatest danger by 
reason of intestine discords, by which, if they are not healed, 
they will mutually destroy each other. 

I have nothing to write respecting England, except that 
she is miserably and dangerously exposed to a bloody war, 
and is safe on no side. The French and Scots are open 
enemies; there is a third in secret, more powerful than 
either of them ; and I fear that he will take advantage of 


the present juncture. I have often earnestly besought you 
and your people to interpose your mediation between France 
and England; and I now again and again suppliantly 
entreat and beseech you the same thing, for the sake of 
Christ, who is the restorer of peace. Bear in mind that 
reward which is promised you by him who cannot lie : 
" Blessed are the peace-makers, for they shall be called the 


children of God." Let not the majesty of the royal name or 
the vapouring of any other title deter you. Moreover, the 
state and condition of the king and the realm of England is 
now very different from what it was formerly : he is your 
brother, he worships the same God with yourselves, and, I 
hope, in the same manner. But if they will go on as they 
are doing, and will admit of no equitable terms, one or the 
other of them must necessarily yield before long. 

A new gold coinage is now being struck in England 
of a purer standard than that which was coined under the 
late king ; but what is increased in one way is diminished in 
another, for the standard weight of the crowns is diminished 
by nearly a fourth part. I will not be unmindful of the 
cloth which I promised you, but will send it as soon as I 
possibly can. 

While I was writing the above, the letter, my most reverend 
master and gossip, was delivered to me, which you wrote on 
the 26th of March. In truth I receive nothing with greater 
pleasure than this evidence of your good health, which may 
the Lord, the Almighty Maker of heaven and earth, long 
preserve to you safe and sound ! I wish you had written one 
word respecting that pious matron, my good friend, the wife 
of master Bibliander. I hope in the Lord Jesus that she has 
had a happy delivery: were it otherwise, I should be much 
concerned. I should now write to my worthy gossip, master 
Bibliander, if there were any subject to supply me with an 
occasion for writing. When I have proceeded lower down on 
my journey, I will write to you more at length. Meanwhile 
farewell, and may our most merciful heavenly Father grant 
that you may be always well, through the blood of his Son 
Jesus Christ our Saviour : and remember, my dear friend, to 
persevere with energy, as you do, in your holy and danger- 
ous warfare. If but the least doubt of your perseverance 
disturbed my thoughts, I would add spurs to a running 
horse. But I know you well and intimately, and doubt not 
but that you will in many ways surpass my expectation. This 
at least I can assuredly promise myself concerning you, that, 
like a good shepherd, you will lay down your life for your 
sheep. And I have the same persuasion respecting our learn- 
ed and vigilant brother, master Gualter. Let others talk, and 
extenuate, and make what excuses they please, who, when the 
wolf is coming, have left their sheep to be torn in pieces by 


thieves and robbers : unless they repent, they will wretchedly 
suffer the punishment of hirelings in that day when the true 
Shepherd shall come to separate the sheep from the goats. 

According to your singular kindness and benevolence to- 
wards me, when my amanuensis shall come to you for the 
purpose of writing out for me the heads of your sermons, 
urge him, I pray you, carefully to copy out not only your 
remarks on the epistle to the Romans, but also those on 
Isaiah and the other prophets; that I, though distant, may 
benefit others by the gifts of God bestowed upon you. Will 
you also make the same request in my name to my masters 
and brethren, master Gualter and the most learned Theodore 
[Bibliander], men most truly esteemed by me? I left suf- 
ficient money at Zurich, and will liberally recompense their 
labour if they will but comply with my entreaties. I have 
desired them to forward my wishes in this respect, and to 
use all diligence in copying out the sermons and lectures at 
my expense. Do you only, my kind friend, exhort them to 
this; I do not ask you to do it yourself; sufficient burdens 
are imposed upon your shoulders from other quarters. 

I shall say nothing as to the civility of the innkeepers 
from Strasburgh to this city ; they are barbarous Scythians, 
and harsh and uncivilized Getas. Once more farewell. My 
wife and daughter, Stumphius, Joanna, and Martin, salute 
you, as I do myself, with your dear wife and all your family ; 
likewise masters Bibliander, Gualter, Pellican, excellent and 
most deserving men, with their families. Moreover, I com- 
mend to Almighty God your holy church, and commonwealth, 
and most worthy magistrate Lavater, that he may defend 
you against the enemies of his name. Mayence. In haste. 
April 8, 1549. 

Yours in body and soul, 


P. S. Sleidan 1 of Strasburgh has written a book of 
history for our king. Doctor Andernach too, a physician of 

[i In March 1551, archbishop Cranmer procured for John Sleidan, 
from king Edward, an honorary pension of 200 crowns a year, as some 
aid for the carrying on his commentaries, which he was then busy 
about ; and, as it seems, encouraged by Cranmer to take in hand and 
prosecute. See Strype, Cranmer, 595.] 


Strasburgh, has translated a work upon medicine from the 
Greek into Latin, and dedicated it to the archbishop of Can- 
terbury. You see how active all persons are in running after 
gain. Beyond doubt, if there were no danger hanging over 
them, both our king and his kingdom would be without their 
favour and support. I hear that Bernardino's wife exhibits 
herself in England both in dress and appearance as a French 
lady of rank. But I shall soon know more about her, and 
so shah 1 you. Respectfully salute, I pray you, the preacher 
from Memmingen, and also my host and hostess Zinchia. 



Dated at COLOGNE, April 14, 1549. 

GRACE and innocency of life from the Lord. If you are 
well, my most esteemed master and gossip, with your dear 
wife and family, it is well ; and we are all of us by the divine 
mercy in good health. I hope you have received all my 
letters, which gave you full information respecting the success 
of our journey as far as Mayence. "We arrived at Cologne 
on the llth of April without any thing untoward in our 
voyage, except a contrary wind and rough weather. We had 
however a favourable landing. On the 8th of April two other 
ships suffered much more than we did, namely, shipwreck, 
with the total loss of their respective crews. Two other 
vessels here at Cologne sustained the same misfortune during 
the late carnival: in one there were twenty-eight men, and 
twelve in the other, not one of whom, with the exception of 
two sailors, escaped with life. 

I have nothing to write respecting the affairs of England, 
except that the gospel of Christ our Lord is daily striking 
root more deeply. The admiral 2 is dead. He was beheaded, 
and divided into four quarters ; with how much unwillingness 

[ 2 Lord Seymour was beheaded on Tower Hill, March 20, 1549. 
See Latimer's Sermons, Parker Society Edition, p. 161.] 


he suffered death, master John Utenhovius 1 , who is the bearer 
of this letter, will fully explain to you by word of mouth. 
When he comes to you, receive hjm with that ancient kind- 
ness, which the country of Switzerland has ever manifested 
of her own accord towards all strangers. He is a man illus- 
trious both by his birth and virtues, most sincere in the true 
religion, and entirely opposed to all the mischiefs of secta- 
rianism : he is very dear both to myself and my wife, and by 
long habits of familiarity and intercourse exceedingly attached 
to us ; and he is moreover exceedingly intimate with master 
John a Lasco. There is no occasion for me to commend him 
to you more at length. His noble qualities and remarkable 
learning will sufficiently recommend him to all pious and 
learned men. He is coming to you on my recommendation, 
that he may hear your godly sermons and theological lectures, 
and observe the mode of administering the Lord's supper, 
which as it is most simple among you, so is it most pure. 
He will board with his old friend master Butler, an English- 
man. It would be foreign to my present purpose to inform 
you how much he has suffered from the emperor for the sake 
of the gospel of Christ. 

May the Lord preserve you all, your church and com- 
monwealth ! My wife, my little daughter, Stumphius, Martin, 
and Joanna dutifully salute your excellency, your whole 
family, and all the other godly members of your church. 
Cologne, April 14, 1549. 

Your excellency's most attached, 


P. S. I send you a compendium of the doctrine of the 
eucharist, which I know will much please you. See that he 
[Utenhovius] be introduced to and form a friendship with 
masters Gualter, Pellican, Gesner and the rest. I would 
write a general letter to the whole assembly of the learned 
men at Zurich in favour of this good brother, if I had time. 

[i Bullinger thus writes of Utenhovius in a letter to Burcher, dated 
June 28, 1549. "The nobleman, Utenhovius, of Ghent, has far ex- 
ceeded your commendation of him ; and I thank you, that through 
th.e instrumentality of yourself and Hooper I have contracted a 
friendship with a man every way so worthy."] 




Dated at [ANTWERP, April 26, 1519.] 

MUCH health. Grace and innocency of life from the Lord. 
How mercifully God has hitherto been present with us, and 
made our journey prosperous, we hope, most honoured friend 
and gossip, you have learned from the letters written at 
Dietikon, Basle, Strasburgh, Mayence, and Cologne. That 
which I wrote from Cologne you will receive by master John 
Utenhovius, an excellent and worthy man, born of an honour- 
able family at Ghent. We earnestly pray you to receive him 
with kindness. Moreover, should there occur any mention of 
the holy supper of the Lord, diligently admonish and instruct 
him upon the subject ; you will find no one more tractable, 
or more ready to learn. 

We left Cologne on the 14th of April, and directed our 
course through the barren and sandy plains of Brabant to 
Antwerp, where we all of us arrived, by God's blessing, safe 
and sound, on the 18th of the same month. Compelled by 
the entreaties of the commissioner 2 of our king, who is now 
attending upon the emperor, I went over to Brussels with 
John Stumphius, that he might see the effeminacy and 
wretchedness of the court, and also the bondage of the good 
citizens of Brussels, who are now forced to endure the im- 
periousness of the Spaniards, their depredation and robbery, 
the violation of their daughters, the corruption of their wives, 
and lastly, threatenings and blows from that most profligate 
nation 3 ; to the end that he might more feelingly consider the 
state and condition of his own country, pray for it more 
ardently, and more earnestly warn his countrymen, and 
by letting them know the misfortunes of others render them 
more cautious. We did not see the emperor, who very 
seldom leaves his chamber, nor yet his son, who was keeping 
Easter in some monastery out of the city. John Stumphius 
saw the duke of Saxony at a window. I was twice at his 
house, and very courteously entertained by his German at- 

[2 Namely, Sir Philip Hobby. See Burnet, in. 289.] 
[ 3 The particulars mentioned in this letter are confirmed by Slei- 
dan and Brandt.] 


tendants, who arc about thirty in number. The duke wished 
two or three times to admit me to an interview, but the 
presence of the Spanish general always prevented him. He 
abides stedfast in the faith, and is in a very good state of 
health. There is no hope whatever of his deliverance, unless, 
which will not I trust be the case, he should change his re- 
ligion : he does not despair of the word of God. The Land- 
grave 1 of Hesse is in confinement at Oudenarde, seven miles 
from Ghent: he is a man thoroughly wretched and vacillating; 
at one time he promises all obedience and fidelity to the em- 
peror, receives the mass and other impious idolatries with 
open arms ; at another time he execrates and abominates the 
emperor, with his Interim. May the Lord have compassion 
upon him ! he is in a state of great wretchedness, and is 
now paying the just penalty of his perfidiousness. We saw 
likewise that traitor Lazarus Schuendi 2 , with whom you are 
acquainted. There is no need for me to write about 
Brandenburg and the other Germans who are in bondage to 
the Spaniards. 

The pope's legate has been preaching in his palace 
during the whole of Lent, with what impiety I shall not 
write. This however I know for certain, that there is not 
a friendly feeling between the pope and the emperor, nei- 
ther between the king of France and the emperor. Both 
of them are greatly afraid of him, and he, in his turn, is in 
the greatest fear of the fulminations of the pope. It is now 
seriously disputed between them, whether the general council 
shall be held at Trent or Bologna. The pope urges, bids, 
entreats, commands the emperor to consent to Bologna. He 
resists, refuses, opposes in every possible way, and says that 
he would rather break off all alliance with the pope, than allow 
of that locality, namely, Bologna. It is easy to conjecture 
what mischief lies hid in this proposal on the part of the 
pope. He is in great apprehension for his kingdom ; for I am 
informed by our ambassador, that if the emperor's confessor 3 

[* The Elector of Saxony and the Landgrave of Hesse became 
prisoners of the emperor after the battle of Muhlberg in 1547.] 

[ 2 Lazarus Schuendi is mentioned by Sleidan as having been sent 
by the emperor with a party of soldiers to raze the castle of Gothen, 
and set at liberty marquess Albert of Brandenburg, who was there kept 

[ 3 Peter de Soto, a Dominican, was confessor to Charles V. He 


were but moderately religious, there would be the greatest 
hope of shortly bringing him into the knowledge of Christ ; 
for he openly told me that both the emperor and all his 
councillors were guided, persuaded, led and dragged about by 
their confessor, who acts in every respect at the bidding and 
advice of the pope. And I easily believe this ; for when the 
emperor was in upper Germany seven months since, he was 
deserted by his confessor, because he would not act with 
severity against some godly persons, and restore popery al- 
together. The emperor offered him a bishoprick in Spain 
worth twenty thousand crowns per annum. He put a slight 
upon the liberality of the emperor, and upon the emperor him- 
self, in these terms : " I owe myself entirely to the church of 
Christ, but neither to you nor to your gifts, unless you choose 
to serve the church more zealously than you have done." 

And now as to the emperor's views in regard to Switzerland. 
All parties agree in this, that he is enviously opposed to your 
liberty, and will therefore leave no stone unturned to destroy 
your union. Should he not succeed in this way, he will 
attempt every thing by promises. Beware therefore, lest he 
deceive you with vain expectations. Last of all, he will with- 
out doubt attack you with an hostile army, not with a view 
of overcoming you in this way, or exposing many of his troops 
to danger, but merely to strike terror into you. I pray you 
therefore to preserve your mutual regard and unanimity : 
fear God, live holily, fight bravely, and expect the victory 
from God, who will without doubt stand by and defend you. 
People think that you are not in imminent danger at present; 
but still you should always be prepared against a feeling of 
security, lest he should overwhelm you when you little think 
of it. The emperor is hitherto well aware that he cannot 
manage the affairs of Germany as he desires. He has been 
more troubled, as I have been informed upon good authority, 
that he has made any alteration in religion, than if he had 
promised the Germans the utmost liberty in that respect. They 

afterwards accompanied Philip into England, where he was employed 
at Oxford to lecture, and as much as possible to undo all that Peter 
Martyr had done. He was afterwards accused for heretical opinions 
to the Inquisition at Valladolid, but died at Trent in 1563 before the 
preliminary proceedings had been completed. See Zurich Letters, 1st 
Series, p. 33, and Llorente Hist. Crit. de 1'Inquisition, in. 88.] 


say that the emperor will shortly proceed to Ghent, and from 
thence return to Brussels, or go up towards Spires. He 
has troops stationed near Bremen and the towns upon the 
coast, but they are inactive ; they neither make any progress, 
nor are they much feared by the citizens, who are daily 
adding to the strength of their cities, and have provisions for 
live years, and do not any longer court the favour of the 
emperor. You are, I think, aware of the severity of the 
exactions the emperor now demands from his subjects : I will 
relate, however, an affecting and lamentable statement which 
a godly matron, my landlady, made to me in Brabant. " If," 
she said, " I could carry in my arms my large and troublesome 
family of children, I would flee away, and obtain my liveli- 
hood by begging. For the tax-gatherers of the emperor and 
the queen exhaust all the fruit of our labours." The English 
too, are now sadly oppressed in this respect. A fifth of all 
property has been granted to the king. But I must tell you 
one more thing respecting Switzerland. Yesterday, April 
25th, I was invited to dinner by a citizen of Antwerp, who is 
well acquainted with Switzerland from having frequently ex- 
posed his goods to sale in all their cities. He told me that since 
the emperor had left upper Germany, he had often seen in 
his palace the public officers of the canton of Lucerne ; for he 
knew them well by the colour of their dress. It is to be 
feared that the secret affairs of that country may be revealed 
by this means, or that some yet greater evil may be latent. 

On the first of May there will be fresh rejoicings at 
Brussels in honour of the prince of Spain. You have, I sup- 
pose, heard of the former ones from master John Utenhovius; 
but as he did not see the new gates and columns erected 
in the city, you must know that at the first gate there is 
a column on which is inscribed, " Happy are his subjects !" 

Quis genus Austriadum, quis stirpem Cecsaris altam 
Herculei vere generis esse negat? 

On the other side is written, 

Alcidem jactant nugse et fictitia monstra ; 
Caroleos ausus fortia gesta probant. 

On the second gate : 

Sancta fides merito collaudat vosquo patresquc, 
Auxilio quorum crcpit et aucta fides. 


On the other side : 

Se ter felicem hoc fausto tempore clamat, 
Prole quod Augusta vindice tuta manet. 

The third gate bears the representation of Hercules sailing 
with his pillars, on each of which is placed a statue of a man. 
The first says, " go," the other, " come." The verses are these, 

Adsit Caroleo coelestis palma labori, 

Et maneat soli gloria prima Deo. 

Fida lacessiti cunctatio restituit rem, 

Christicolainque fidem provehat ulterius. 

At Antwerp there is represented an eagle with expanded 
wings, beneath whose feet is written this impious application 
of scripture, " Protect us under the shadow of thy wings." 

On the first of May, at the rejoicings at Brussels, the 
prince of Spain, and the son of the duke d'Arschot, a native 
of Brabant, engaged with spears on horseback. Whether by 
chance or carelessness I know not, but the prince's helmet was 
badly fastened on, and could not withstand the force of the lance 
of d'Arschot's son ; so that the prince was twice wounded in 
the face, once in the chin, the second time in the forehead, 
but the wounds are not dangerous. The emperor however, 
in alarm, put off the tournament till the following week. 

I hear that east Friesland has received the Interim. If 
this be the case, master a Lasco will soon return into England. 
I greatly regret his absence, especially as Peter Martyr and 
Bernardine so stoutly defend Lutheranism, and there is now 
arrived a third, (I mean Bucer,) who will leave no stone 
unturned to obtain a footing. The people of England, as I 
hear, all of them entertain right notions upon that subject. 
Should not master a Lasco come to us in a short time, I will 
send him your letter with the writing. But, if it please God, 
I could wish to meet the parties in person. We have re- 
mained here a fortnight for the sake of passing over from 
hence into England more conveniently, with a well-informed 
and skilful English captain who is staying here, and waiting 
for a cargo. But I am afraid lest the wind should turn 
against us, in which case we shall lose both our time and 





Dated at ANTWERP, May 3, 1549. 

I HAVE desired for some days to take care of the health 
of my wife and our little girl, who, though they were entirely 
exhausted by the fatigue of the journey, have now by resting 
tolerably recovered their strength. You will receive with this 
letter a piece of cloth for hose, of a better quality than that 
which you bought of me before, but yet at the same or a 
lower price. It contains, I suppose, at least 20 Zurich ells : 
should it contain more or less, let me know in your next 
letter, which I pray you to send to our old friend Eichard 
Hilles. It will then, I hope, be faithfully delivered to me. 
Let this cloth be divided between master Mayor and yourself: 
I would have sent you another piece, could I have met with 
any upon sale at this place. As soon as I arrive in London 
I will send you some, God willing, not inferior to this, nor more 
expensive. All those persons in this place who import cloth 
from England, sell it at a profit, and it is with difficulty that 
I have met with that which I now send. They have many 
thousand [pieces], but they will not sell except to those who 
will buy ten or twenty whole pieces together, for fear of 
mixing the different qualities of the cloth ; as the best, the 
middling, and the inferior, mutually help each other both in 
the price and the sale. If you or the Mayor will, either 
of you, keep the cloth now sent, I will send a second piece 
to the one who shall be without it. I bought this for forty 
shillings, that is, six ducats, before it was dyed. A ducat is 
equivalent to forty stivers of Brabant, and forty stivers of 
Brabant make twenty-four batzen of Constance. I paid for 
the dyeing eight shillings of Brabant, which make twenty- 
eight batzen of Constance, and a little over : I do not know 
what I am to pay for the carriage to Strasburgh, but, exclu- 
sive of all expenses, you will have a Zurich ell for ten Zurich 
batzen. If there are twenty ells, this will amount to two 
hundred batzen, which make eight French solar crowns, which 


is the price of the entire piece. When I reach London, I may 
probably send you some at a less price ; meanwhile take in 
good part my services, which I owe and shall owe you, as a 
father and a most esteemed master, as long as I live. I wish 
this cloth to be divided between master Mayor and yourself, 
that when I send you another piece you may be upon an 
equal footing both with respect to the quality of the cloth and 
the price. And if in future you should wish to wear English 
cloth for your coats or hose, (and state this also in my name 
to our brother Gualter,) I will always most willingly use my 
endeavours in your behalf. And you, as you love me, see 
that those who are taking copies at my expense, are most 
carefully supplied with the notes of your sermons. If they 
are not sparing in their labours, I will not be sparing of my 
money. Keep in your possession the money for this cloth, 
until I shall let you know by letter to what use I wish it to 
be applied. 

My wife and all who are with me salute your reverence, 
your wife and all your family ; and you will salute in all our 
names masters Gualter, Pellican, the Israelite indeed, and all 
the other learned and most loving brethren. Do not more- 
over omit to salute with the greatest respect and honour most 
dutifully in my name master Mayor, to whom and to the 
commonwealth of Zurich I most ardently wish every happi- 
ness. May the Lord long preserve you by his Spirit safe, 
pious, and sound ; and may you defend the fold of Christ 
from wolves and hirelings until the coming of the glory of 
God ! Antwerp, May 3, 1549. 

Yours always in mind and body, 


P. S. Take care, I pray you, that the other letters 
which I send, may be delivered to those to whom they are 
directed. After Easter my wife wrote to her mother, who 
lives about fifteen miles from Antwerp. The messenger found 
her father dead. Her mother received the letter and gave it 
my wife's brother to read, who immediately threw it into the 
fire without reading it. You see the words of Christ are 
true, that the brother shall persecute the brother for the sake 
of the word of God. 




Dated at LONDON, May 31, 1549. 

MUCH health. Pardon, most loving master and father, 
the shortness of my letter. You will learn from our brother, 
master Butler, by what circumstances I am hindered, and with 
whom I have to contend within these two days on the subject 
of divorce. In the commentaries 1 which I lately wrote on 
the decalogue, I allowed both to the man and his wife an 
equal liberty of divorce on account of adultery, if they are 
disposed to use that liberty which Christ has permitted in the 
gospel of his church, where the marriage contract is dissolved by 
adultery. My opponents allow the husband to divorce his wife 
by reason of adultery, and to marry another ; but they do not 
allow the same liberty to the wife. In your next letter, as you 
love me, either confirm my opinion, or correct my error. 

"We are all well ; I have sent John Stumphius to Ox- 
ford, recommended by many honourable men, and especially 
by Treherne, who is much attached to you. When I gave 
your letter to the archbishop of Canterbury, he did not 
vouchsafe a single word respecting either yourself, or your 
most godly church. Bucer has very great influence with him, 
and the bishop will appoint him to the regius professorship 
[of divinity] at Cambridge. Master a Lasco is absent, which 
is a great grief to all godly persons. I shall send your letter 
to him to-morrow by a good and trusty friend, together with 
the book and writing. You may expect, God willing, a longer 
letter within the next fortnight, with which you will also re- 
ceive the cloth. My wife always makes mention of you in 
her prayers; she salutes you with your dear wife and all 
your family. Our little daughter Rachel with Martin and 
Joanna do the same in spirit. Do you, most esteemed 
master, salute in our names masters Gualter, Pellican, Gesner, 
and all the rest. London, May 31, 1549. 

Your ever most affectionate, JOHN HOOPER. 

f 1 See a Declaration of the ten holy Commandments of Almighty 
God, in Hooper's early writings, Parker Society edition. The passage 
here referred to will bo found in pp. 378, 379, where Hooper complains 
of the uncharitable construction put upon it.] 




Dated at LONDON, June 25, [1549]. 

MUCH health, I cannot express, my much honoured 
master and gossip, the delight afforded me by your letter, a 
most certain token as it was of your exceeding love to me. I 
earnestly entreat you to act always thus; for nothing can be 
more agreeable to me than to hear often of your welfare, and 
of the safety of your church and commonwealth. You shall 
always in return receive every intelligence from me respecting 
my own circumstances and those of our church. Great, great 
I say, my beloved master and gossip, is the harvest, but the 
labourers are few. May our most indulgent Father send 
forth labourers into the harvest ! Such is the maliciousness 
and wickedness of the bishops, that the godly and learned 
men who would willingly labour in the Lord's harvest are 
hindered by them ; and they neither preach themselves, nor 
allow the liberty of preaching to others. For this reason 
there are some persons here who read and expound the holy 
scriptures at a public lecture, two of whom read in St Paul's 
cathedral four times a week. I myself too, as my slender 
abilities will allow me, having compassion upon the ignorance 
of my brethren, read a public lecture twice in the day to so 
numerous an audience, that the church cannot contain them. 
The anabaptists 2 flock to the place, and give me much trouble 
with their opinions respecting the incarnation of the Lord; for 
they deny altogether that Christ was born of the virgin 
Mary according to the flesh. They contend that a man who 
is reconciled to God is without sin, and free from all stain of 
concupiscence, and that nothing of the old Adam remains in 
his nature; and a man, they say, who is thus regenerate 
cannot sin. They add that all hope of pardon is taken away 
from those who, after having received the Holy Ghost, fall 
into sin. They maintain a fatal necessity, and that beyond 
and besides that will of his which he has revealed to us in 

[ 2 For an account of the opinions of the anabaptists of this period, 
see Strype, Mem. i. i. 552.] 



the scriptures, God hath another will by which he altogether 
acts under some kind of necessity. Although I am unable to 
satisfy their obstinacy, yet the Lord by his word shuts their 
mouths, and their heresies are more and more detested by 
the people. How dangerously our England is afflicted by 
heresies of this kind, God only knows ; I am unable indeed 
from sorrow of heart to express to your piety. There are 
some who deny that man is endued with a soul different from 
that of a beast, and subject to decay. Alas ! not only are 
those heresies reviving among us which were formerly dead 
and buried, but new ones are springing up every day. There 
are such libertines and wretches, who are daring enough in 
their conventicles not only to deny that Christ is the Messiah 
and Saviour of the world, but also to call that blessed Seed a 
mischievous fellow and deceiver of the world. On the other 
hand, a great portion of the kingdom so adheres to the 
popish faction, as altogether to set at nought God and the 
lawful authority of the magistrates; so that I am greatly 
afraid of a rebellion and civil discord. May the Lord re- 
strain restless spirits, and destroy the counsels of Achito- 
phel! Do you, my venerable father, commend our king and 
the council of the nation, together with our church, to God in 
your prayers. 

I have not yet seen my parents, but hope to do so 
shortly, if the Lord permit. It has hitherto been out of my 
power, both because I am daily expecting my baggage with 
books and other necessaries, which were detained at Antwerp 
by an unfavourable wind ; and also because through the in- 
stigation of the devil and wickedness of man there has lately 
arisen in my part of the country 1 a commotion of the people 
against the government, not unattended with danger, and as 
yet hardly composed. Tumults of this kind are taking place 
not only in my country, but almost throughout the whole king- 
dom. The people are sorely oppressed by the marvellous 
tyranny of the nobility. Let us pray that all occasions of 
discord may be piously removed, and that the people may be 
kept in order to the glory of God's name. The state of 
our country is indeed most deplorable : we are however in 
expectation of a happy issue, when we shall feel pleasure in 
the recollection of what is past. When I visit my friends, I 
[! Namely, Devonshire and Somersetshire. See Strype,Mem. n. i. 259.] 


will purchase for yourself and master Mayor the other cloth 
that I promised, and also another piece for master John 
Butler ; I could not buy it here at your price. 

Bucer is with the archbishop of Canterbury like another 
Scipio, and an inseparable companion. Faulus Fagius too, 
and Peter Alexander, formerly chaplain to queen Mary, the 
emperor's sister, are also there. Within a fortnight, God 
willing, you shall know more. Salute very much in all our 
names your wife with all your family, masters Gualter and 
Pellican with their wives, and all the other members of your 
church. I wish you were acquainted with our language, and 
that master Gualter also knew it for six months : I doubt not 
but that God would convert many hearts to the knowledge 
of himself. Farewell. London, June 25. 

I send herewith a pattern of the cloth of this kind which 
is manufactured either in your neighbourhood or in Suabia. 
You will ascertain this from the wife of master Musculus. 
Ask master Butler to send me four or five florins worth, and 
send word how much it costs per ell. I have often grieved 
over my departure from you; for the Lord has opened my 
eyes to perceive the sad and dangerous situation of the clergy. 
I will endure it however, God willing, as long as I can do so 
with a pure conscience. 

Yours ever most attached, 


P. S. My friend Martin, an excellent young man, affec- 
tionately salutes your excellency. You will deign to salute 
in my name my master, your most worthy Mayor, who is 
on every account so respectable. I hope you have received 
one piece of cloth. You shall receive the second in a short 



Dated at LONDON, Aug. 1, [154'JJ. 

MUCH health. You will receive, my very dear brother, 
by the bearer of this letter all your books, which I doubt 



not you have been long and anxiously expecting. The 
party to whom I gave in charge my luggage at Strasburgh 
anwered my expectation in this respect negligently enough. 
You need not be troubled about the carriage, as I have paid 
both the Avaggoners and sailors. Should you be in want of 
money, you can let me know by letter every week ; I will 
never be wanting to your necessities. I am obliged to remain 
here in London and in the family of the lord protector, till 
things become more settled : I tell you this, that you may 
know for certain where to direct your letters. Since you 
left me, I have received two letters from master Bullinger, 
from which I learn that the affairs of Switzerland are as safe 
and flourishing as ever. A letter, however, has lately reached 
inc from Germany, which states that five cantons have lately 
entered upon a solemn treaty with the king of France against 
the English, but that the evangelical states had piously and 
boldly rejected it. Do you, my brother, as your love to your 
country requires, aid them together with me in your diligent 
and persevering prayers unto the Lord ; and he who has 
begun a godly work in the people of Zurich, will perform it 
even unto the end. Farewell, and respectfully salute in my 
name the wife of Peter Martyr, together with his attendant l ; 
and also John ab Ulmis, Avith the Hessian who lately came 
over to you. I would salute my old friend master Garbrand a , 
only that I have so often done so without any greeting in 
return, that I know not whether he can bear with patience 
to be saluted by me. London, August 1. In haste. 

Yours ever to serve in any way, 


You will also receive three shirts. The fourth is still 
packed up among my baggage, which I have not yet unpacked. 
I will send it you next week. 

[i This was Julius Santerentianus, so often mentioned in the pre- 
ceding series.] 

[ 2 One of this name is mentioned by Strype, as a prebendary of 
Salisbury, and friend of bishop Jewel. Strype, Ann. n. i. 146.] 




Dated at LONDON, Nov. 7, 1549. 

MUCH health. The favour and blessing of God be with 
you! If you have not yet received my letter, with two entire 
pieces of cloth, one for yourself, and the other for master 
Butler, you will receive them, my much esteemed master and 
father, in a short time. They are detained a longer time at 
Antwerp on account of the dyeing ; but by the blessing of 
God they will all safely reach you. You must not wonder 
at your not having yet received the cloth ; for I have been so 
overwhelmed by difficult and constant business since my 
arrival in England, that I have not yet been able either to 
visit my native place or my parents. 

The face of things is now changed, and the state of Eng- 
lish affairs in some respects altered. My patron 3 , who was 
first minister and protector, is now imprisoned with many 
others in the Tower of London, as you will better learn from 
a letter which is now on the road to you. We are greatly 
apprehensive of a change in religion ; but as yet no alteration 
has taken place. Help us in Christ by your prayers. The 
young king by the mercy of God is alive and well, and is a 
prince of great learning and wisdom. The papists are hoping 
and earnestly struggling for their kingdom. The bishop 4 of 
London, the most bitter enemy of the gospel, is now living in 
confinement, and deposed from his bishoprick. This was done 
when the aifairs and fortunes of the duke of Somerset were 
more prosperous than they are at present. I had a sharp 
and dangerous contest with that bishop, both publicly from the 

[ 3 Namely, the duke of Somerset, who was sent to the Tower, Oct. 
14, 1549.] 

[ 4 Bishop Bonner, against whom a commission was issued out 
from the king to archbishop Cranmer, bishop Ridley, the secretaries 
Petre and Smith, and Dr May, dean of St Paul's. Strype, Cran- 
mer, 269. A full account of the proceedings is given in Foxe, Acts 
and Mon. v. 741, &c. See also Collier's Ecclcs. Hist, of Great Britain.] 


pulpit, in my turns at Paul's cross, and also before the king's 
council. Should he be again restored to his office and epis- 
copal function, I shall, I doubt not, be restored to my country 
and my Father which is in heaven, Fourteen days since 
silence was imposed and enjoined upon all lecturers and 
preachers. But this only lasted seven days ; and liberty of 
teaching is again allowed them. I read in public every day 
to a most crowded audience at London, and take John and 
Daniel by turns. I lectured upon the Psalms at the king's 
court as long as the situation of the duke permitted me to 
do so ; but that lecture is now laid aside, 

Will you kindly undertake, most reverend sir, out of 
your love to Christ and to myself, to have your notes on 
Isaiah copied out and forwarded to me with all fidelity, (for I 
am greatly in need of your assistance ;) and also all the other 
comments which you have written on the other prophets, or 
upon the JS T ew Testament ? I know that they are all pure in 
doctrine, and learned, and holy. I will satisfy the writer or 
copyist for his pains. I make, too, the same request from 
master Gualter, and from our gossip, master Bibliander, with 
respect to his lectures, which are doubtless holy, pious, and 
full of learning. You will receive with the cloth the dispu- 
tation 1 of Peter Martyr with the papists at Oxford on the 
subject of the eucharist. 

John Stumphius is well, and conducts himself with much 
credit : tell his parents, that should he stand in need of any 
assistance in any way, I will never be wanting to him. John 
ab Ulmis is also in good health. You will do well if you will 
admonish him by letter to pursue his studies with diligence, 
and remain at home. I am afraid that by his so frequently 

-j Backwards and forwards between Oxford and London, 

packed uP cur a ^ oss n0 ^ on ^ ^ ^ me ' but ^ mone y- Use 

I will scn(1 discretion in this matter. In haste. Salute all my 

s and instructors, together with all our friends 

n r^is wa cdly wives in the name of us all. 

ceding series.] 1 "' you most kindly to salute that excellent man, 

[ 2 One of r , to whom I am not now able to write a letter ; 

Salisbury, and ^ m to give two florins in my name to the widow 

sed Zinkius. You will also tell this afflicted 

^ount of this disputation, which was afterwards pub- 
Vlartyr, see Strype, Cranmer, 283.] 


widow, that we shall all of us bear in mind, as long as wo 
live, the kindness with which she treated us. 

Your excellence's most attached, 




Dated at LONDON, Dec. 27, 1549. 

THAT you so seldom receive any letter from me, my very 
reverend master and gossip, I pray you to ascribe to the 
calamity of our time, and the alteration in my circumstances, 
rather than to any forgetfulness of your signal courtesy and 
kindness, which both reason and affection entirely forbid on 
my part. 

We were in much alarm, and very great fear possessed 
the minds of the godly, as to the success that the religion of 
Christ just now budding forth in England would meet with 
upon the fall of the duke of Somerset, who is still confined in 
the Tower of London. We have as yet no certain information 
as to what will become of him. We hope that his life will 
be spared. May God grant this for the glory of his name, 
and the benefit of his church ! although we see many dangers 
hanging over him, yet we hope and expect a favourable issue. 
We easily indeed give credit to what we wish. 

No change in religion has taken place among us, and we 
hope that no alteration will be made hereafter. Although 
our vessel is dangerously tossed about on all sides, yet God 
in his providence holds the helm, and raises up more favourers 
of his word in his majesty's councils, who with activity and 
courage defend the cause of Christ. The archbishop of 
Canterbury entertains right views as to the nature of Christ's 
presence in the supper, and is now very friendly towards my- 
self. He has some articles of religion, to which all preachers 
and lecturers in divinity are required to subscribe, or else a 
licence for teaching is not granted them; and in these his 


sentiments respecting the eucharist are pure, and religious, 
and similar to yours in Switzerland. We desire nothing more 
for him than a firm and manly spirit. Like all the other 
bishops in this country, he is too fearful about what may 
happen to him. There are here six 1 or seven bishops who 
comprehend the doctrine of Christ as far as relates to the 
Lord's supper, with as much clearness and piety as one could 
desire; and it is only the fear for their property that prevents 
them from reforming their churches according to the rule of 
God's word. The altars are here in many churches changed 
into tables. The public celebration of the Lord's supper is 
very far from the order and institution of our Lord. Although 
it is administered in both kinds, yet in some places the 
supper is celebrated three times a day. Where they 
used heretofore to celebrate in the morning the mass of 
the apostles, they now have the communion of the apostles ; 
where they had the mass of the blessed virgin, they now 
have the communion which they call the communion of the 
virgin ; where they had the principal, or high mass, they 
now have, as they call it, the high communion. They still 
retain their vestments and the candles before the altars ; in 
the churches they always chant the hours and other hymns 
relating to the Lord's supper, but in our own language. 
And that popery may not be lost, the mass-priests, although 
they are compelled to discontinue the use of the Latin lan- 
guage, yet most carefully observe the same tone and manner 
of chanting to which they were heretofore accustomed in the 
papacy. God knows to what perils and anxieties we are 
exposed by reason of men of this kind. 

You will apologize for me to master Mayor, and also to 
master Butler, respecting the pieces of cloth. Three months 
have elapsed since I sent them off, but they are detained at 
Antwerp ; they will shortly, however, be delivered to you, 
God willing, and possibly before the receipt of this letter. 
I have just come from my lecture ; I pray you therefore to 
interpret with kindness the shortness of my letter. I am 
obliged to lecture in public twice a day both to-morrow 
and the day following. May it be for the glory of God ! 

[ l It appears by the following letter that the bishops hero referred 
to were Cranmer of Canterbury, Ridley of Rochester, Goodrich of Ely, 
Farrar of St David's, Holbeach of Lincoln, and Barlow of Bath.] 


I shall finish the sixth chapter of John, and have proceeded 
thus far upon that evangelist. For my other lecture I ex- 
pound Daniel, as affording a subject well-suited to our times ; 
and I am now engaged in considering the third beast in the 
seventh chapter, towards the elucidation of which subject your 
remarks and annotations upon Daniel have contributed no 
small assistance. 

I pray you, most reverend sir, by your great regard for 
me, to take care that all your annotations, especially those on 
Isaiah, be copied out with all speed, and sent to me with the 
greatest care. I will pay every expense : you know not 
how wonderfully they promote the glory of God. If I am 
able to effect anything, and my slender powers are of any 
benefit to the church of Christ, I confess, and by the blessing 
of God will confess, as long as I live, that I owe it to your- 
self and my masters and brethren at Zurich ; whom I pray 
the Lord ever to preserve in safety for his name's sake. 
Moreover, if you have any thing which you purpose soon to 
send to the press, you should dedicate it to our most excellent 
sovereign, king Edward the sixth. On this subject I wish 
you would advise those learned men, namely, master Bibli- 
ander, our co-sponsor, and master Gualter. If you will com- 
ply with my wishes in this respect, you will advance the 
glory of God in no small degree. Believe me, all the Eng- 
lish, who are free from popish tyranny and Romish craftiness, 
entertain correct views respecting the [Lord's] supper. 

There are various other reasons which induce me to 
make this request to you ; but I cannot at present state 
them by reason of the danger of the journey. Be alive, 
fight with that old serpent. Behold, your reward is great in 

Salute masters Bibliander, Gualter, Pellican, with their 
wives, my most faithful master Butler with his wife, and all 
my other Zurich friends so much esteemed by me. Tell my 
excellent friend, master Gessner, that there is on the road for 
him a Welsh dictionary, and some writings in the language 
of Cornubia, commonly called Cornwall. 

Yours now and for evermore, 

P. S. My wife and your little god-daughter, Rachel, to- 


gether with Martin and Joanna, salute your excellence with 
the good lady our gossip, your wife, and master Bibliander 
with his wife, our very dear gossips, and all the rest. 

Eachel is endued with a most happy memory, and retains 
with the greatest facility every thing that is said to her, and 
of all other languages she best understands the Latin. 



Dated at LONDOX, Feb. 5, 1MO. 

GREETING. I much regret, most esteemed master and 
gossip, that the two letters which I sent you at the feast of 
St John the Baptist, are, as I understand from your letter, 
either intercepted or lost. Had they reached your excellency, 
you would neither have been ignorant of my present circum- 
stances, nor of my affection towards you. I am, however, 
entirely persuaded of this, that we are united in such bonds 
of friendship as neither the miscarriage, nor even the intermis- 
sion, of our correspondence will ever be able to break. But 
henceforth, God willing, I will make amends for my blameable 
silence by my diligence in writing. As far as I know, the 
letters of my wife to our very dear gossips, the wives of 
yourself and of our gossip master Bibliander, have not been 
delivered ; or you would at least have learned from them the 
situation both of myself and of this kingdom. But as I now 
promise in this respect greater zeal and diligence than I have 
hitherto used, I trust to your kindness to forgive me. I will 
not now allege the just excuse, that the difficult and dangerous 
nature of my labours, very reverend sir, would call for at your 
hands ; but proceed at once to comply with your injunctions. 
First of all, then, receive in a few words what relates to myself. 
Since my return to England, I have neither seen my native 
place nor my parents, by reason of the frequent and dangerous 
commotions stirred up in those parts on account of religion, 
and which indeed are not yet calmly and quietly settled. 
May God send a better state of things! My father is yet 


living in ignorance of the true religion, but I hope that the 
grace of God will at length teach him better. I have been 
explaining the holy scriptures here at London, and sometimes 
at court, by order of the duke of Somerset. In the city I 
have finished the epistle to Titus and about seven chapters of 
John. At court I have been lecturing upon the Psalms, and 
God knows at what risk I interpreted the sixth chapter 
of St John. I am also occupied at this time with the latter 
part of the seventh chapter of Daniel. I thought it best 
to explain the sixth of John and the seventh of Daniel by 
turns, that the people might rightly discern Christ from the 
one, and antichrist from the other. Thus much, then, re- 
specting myself. My wife always remembers you in her 
prayers, that she may repay what she owes to your kindness : 
her health is not what it formerly was at Zurich, but is af- 
fected by the air of England and the relaxing nature of our 
climate. Our little Rachel is making progress both in body 
and mind. She understands the English, German, French 
and Latin languages very tolerably, and especially the Latin. 
While I was writing this, namely on the fifth of February, 
on which day I received your last, the archbishop of Canter- 
bury sent for me, and ordered me in the name of the king 
and council to preach before his majesty (who is now at 
London, and will not go anywhere else before Easter) once a 
week during the ensuing Lent. May the Lord open my 
heart and mouth, that I may think and speak those things 
which may advance his kingdom! I shall make choice, I 
think, of a very suitable subject, namely, the prophet Jonas 1 ; 
which will enable me freely to touch upon the duties of indi- 
viduals 2 . Do you, my reverend friend, write back as soon 
as possible, and diligently instruct me as to what you think 
may conveniently be said in so crowded an auditory. It 
must necessarily be great when before the king ; for even in 
the city there is such a concourse of people at my lectures, 
that very often the church will not hold them. 

[ l These sermons on Jonas, of which there are seven in all, were 
preached on the Wednesdays during Lent, in the year 1550, before the 
king and council. They are published among the Eai-ly Writings of 
Bishop Hooper, edited by the Parker Society, p. 435.] 

[ 2 Additional reasons for making choice of this prophet are given in 
the Early Writings of Bishop Hooper, p. 445.] 


Now as to what is doing in England. The bishops of 
Canterbury, Rochester, Ely, St David's, Lincoln, and Bath, 
are all favourable to the cause of Christ ; and, as far as I 
know, entertain right opinions in the matter of the eucharist 
I have freely conversed with all of them upon this subject, 
and have discovered nothing but what is pure and holy. The 
archbishop of Canterbury, who is at the head of the king's 
council, gives to all lecturers and preachers their licence to 
read and preach : every one of them, however, must previously 
subscribe to certain articles, which, if possible, I will send you; 
one of which, respecting the eucharist, is plainly the true one, 
and that which you maintain in Switzerland. The marquis of 
Dorset, the earl of "Warwick, and the greater part of the 
king's council favour the cause of Christ as much as they 
can. Our king is such an one for his age as the world has 
never seen. May the Lord preserve him ! His sister, the 
daughter of the late king by queen Ann, is inflamed with 
the same zeal for the religion of Christ. She not only knows 
what the true religion is, but has acquired such proficiency 
in Greek and Latin, that she is able to defend it by the most 
ust arguments and the most happy talent ; so that she en- 
counters few adversaries whom she does not overcome. The 
people however, that many-headed monster, is still wincing ; 
partly through ignorance, and partly fascinated by the in- 
veiglements of the bishops, and the malice and impiety of the 

Such then is the present state of things in England. 
Receive thus much concerning the affairs of government. On 
the sixth of October the king, together with the protector 1 , 
fled from the palace, which we commonly call Hampton-court, 
to another castle, called in our language Windsor, for this 
reason, that the other members of the council in London had 
determined, as it was right they should, to make inquiry into 
the protector's conduct. Large numbers were collected by 
each party. As to myself, I determined not to interfere, because 
I had great enemies on both sides. The king was accompanied 
in his flight by his uncle the duke of Somerset, the arch- 
il 1 For an account of the conspiracy against Somerset, see Holling- 
shed, in. 1014, Tytler's Reign of Edward VI. Vol. i. 204, &c., Turner's 
Edward VI. i. 281, &c.j 


bishop of Canterbury, the comptroller 2 of the household, and 
some of the lords of the bedchamber. All the other nobility 
and men of rank had lent their influence to the council, who 
conducted this affair in London : however, by the mercy of God, 
the business was at length settled without bloodshed. On the 
14th of October the duke of Somerset with some others 3 was 
sent to the Tower of London, from whence he is not yet come 
out ; but by the blessing of God he will be set at liberty, either 
this evening 4 or to-morrow. Be not alarmed at Dryander's 
returning to you; he consults his own interests, and cares but 
little for ours when gain is out of the question. Master Cox 
has received with the greatest respect your letter and present : 
I suppose you have received an answer from him before this 

The archbishop of Canterbury, to say the truth, neither 
took much notice of your letter, nor of your learned present. 
But now, as I hope, master Bullinger and Canterbury enter- 
tain the same opinions. Should it be otherwise, you shall 
shortly hear. 

With respect to what you write about the marquis of 
Dorset, if you have anything suitable in the press, contrive, 
I entreat you, to dedicate it to him. He is pious, good, and 
brave, and distinguished in the cause of Christ. You will not 
a little advance the glory of God by giving encouragement 
to him and others by your writings. Your reputation, be- 
lieve me, is most honourably spoken of, as you Avell deserve, 
by all the learned and godly of this country. Take in good 
part the unpolished style of my letter. After some days you 
shall hear more. London. February 5, 1550. 

Yours ever, 


[ 2 Namely, Sir William Paget, who was appointed to that office in 
1547. The other persons here referred to were Sir William Petre, Sir 
Thomas Smith, and Mr William Cecil, master of Requests, and private 
secretary to Somerset. Tytler, i. 206.] 

[ 3 At the same time that Somerset was secured and shut up in 
Beauchamp's tower, [Sir Thomas] Smith, Cecil, [Sir John] Thynne., 
[Sir Michael] Stanhope, and some others of his servants, were confined 
in their own apartments. MS. privy council books, quoted by Tytler, 
I. 243.] 

[ 4 The duke was restored to liberty on the 6th of February. Grafton. 
Hollingshed. Stow.] 


P. S. You Avill remind masters Gualter, Bibliander and 
my other Zurich friends, that if they arc about to print any 
religious work, they should dedicate it either to our king, a 
most excellent and learned youth, or to some one or other of 
the nobility. I charge and enjoin you, my most learned 
gossip, and every way most esteemed master, to send me 
something of yours in print for our king. I will take care 
that the work shall come to his hands, and that the offering 
shall not want a commendation from myself. 

I entreat you not to mention this letter to any one. I 
would write, as I ought to do, to masters Bibliander and 
Butler; but God knows I have no time. I wish you all every 
happiness. In three days time I will write again. You shall 
hear in a few days respecting the Interim and other matters, 
The duke of Somerset will now come out of the Tower, and 
many other persons will be sent thither, Avhom I am not now 
at liberty to mention. 



Dated at LONDON', March 27, 1550. 

GRACE and innocence of life from the Lord ! That I may 
in some measure extenuate, if I cannot entirely excuse, my 
blameable neglect of correspondence, (touching which, my 
much esteemed master and most loving gossip, you so deserv- 
edly and severely expostulated with me in your last letter,) 
this is the third letter that I have taken care should be sent 
you by the post since' the end of January. I hope that you 
have received the others, and that you will receive this with 
all possible speed. I have already informed your excellence 
both as to my individual circumstances, and the news of this 
kingdom ; but lest my letters should have been lost on the 
road, as has very often happened heretofore on both sides 
through the carelessness, or rather the dishonesty, of the 
courier, I think it worth my while to repeat the leading par- 
ticulars in a few words. 

Concerning me and mine, with whom you are acquainted, 


I wrote that we are all of us in good health. My wife how- 
ever is weak and valetudinarian as usual, but, by the blessing 
of God, in no danger of her life, Rachel, by the mercy of 
God, is in the enjoyment of excellent health : she grows both 
in stature and in talent, and holds out the best promise of a 
most happy memory. She understands no language so well 
as she does Latin. I have not yet visited my native place ; 
being prevented, partly by the danger of the rebellion and 
tumult in those quarters, and partly by the command of the 
king that I should advance the kingdom of Christ here at 
London : nor indeed am I yet able to stir even a single mile 
from the city without a numerous attendance. I comfort my- 
self however in this, that the employment on which I had 
entered under [un] promising and difficult auspices is blessed by 
God every day more and more ; and he has given a suffici- 
ently large and glorious increase to the seed sown by Peter 
and Paul. We do not water and plant in vain. May the 
name of the Lord be for ever blessed ! But there has lately 
been appointed a new bishop 1 of London, a pious and learned 
man, if only his new dignity do not change his conduct. 
He will, I hope, destroy the altars 2 of Baal, as he did here- 
tofore in his church when he was bishop of Rochester. I can 
scarcely express to you, my very dear friend, under what 
difficulties and dangers we are labouring and struggling, that 
the idol of the mass may be thrown out. It is no smah 1 
hindrance to our exertions, that the form which our senate 
or parliament, as we commonly call it, has prescribed for the 
whole realm, is so very defective and of doubtful construction, 
and in some respects indeed manifestly impious. I sent it to 
our friend, master Butler, about four months since. I am so 
much offended with that book, and that not without abundant 
reason, that if it be not corrected, I neither can nor will com- 
municate with the church in the administration of the [Lord's] 
supper. Many altars have been destroyed in this city since I 
arrived here. I commenced with the epistle to Titus, having 

[! Namely, Ridley, bishop of Rochester, who was translated to the 
see of London on the deprivation of Bonner.] 

[ a On this subject see Ridley's Injunctions to the diocese of Lon- 
don, and Reasons why the Lord's board should be in the form of a 
table. Parker Society edition of Ridley's works, pp. 319, 321. See 
also Soames, Hist. Ref. in. 571, and Burnet, n. 252.] 


finished which, I lectured on the gospel of St John, and am 
now engaged upon the eighth chapter. I freely held forth 
upon the sixth- chapter to my audience, as God enabled me, 
respecting the Lord's supper, for the space of three months, 
and lectured once or twice every day ; and it pleased God to 
bless my exertions. A wonderful and most numerous con- 
course of people attended me, and God was with them ; for 
he opened their hearts to understand the things that were 
spoken by me. But I incurred great odium and not less 
danger from the sixth chapter. The better cause however 
prevails; and during this Lent I have plainly and openly 
handled the same subject before the king and the nobility of 
the realm. In this city an individual of the name of Croine 1 , 
a man of excellent erudition and holiness of life, a doctor in 
divinity, and well known to master Butler, is combating my 
opinions in a public discourse. 

The bishop of Westchester will preach on the sixth Sun- 
day before Easter, and will deliver his sentiments upon the 
[Lord's] supper, the invocation of the saints, and the autho- 
rity of the scriptures. God grant that he may teach the 
truth ! We all piously agreed in the same opinion respecting 
all the articles, in the presence of the king, this Lent ; I will 
let you know the result immediately after Easter. 

The bishops of Winchester, London, and Worcester 8 are 
still in confinement, and maintain the popish doctrines with 
all their might. The bishop of Winchester, who is a prisoner 
in the Tower of London, came forward and challenged me to 
a disputation about a month since : he doubtless assured him- 
self of a glorious victory ; should he fail in obtaining which, he 
would submit himself to the laws and to the king for punish- 
ment. The keeper of the prison had at first accepted the 
conditions. The day was fixed. But when the bishop knew 
for certain that I would not shrink from that duty, but that 
I would firmly maintain the best of causes even at the peril 
of my life, he changed his mind, and said, that if the king 
would set him at liberty, he would take his part in a dispu- 
tation, in full reliance on the help of God, that he should 
obtain the victory. What will at length be done I know not. 

[* Dr Edward Crome was Rector of St Mary's Aldermanbury. A 
full account is given of him in Strype, Mem. in. i. 157, &c.] 
[ 2 These were Gardiner, Bonner, and Heath.] 


Meantime let us pray that God may be present with us, and 
that we may fearlessly advance his glory. 

A book has lately been published here by the bishops, 
touching the ordination and consecration of the bishops and 
ministers of the church. I have sent it to master Butler, that 
you may know their fraud and artifices, by which they pro- 
mote the kingdom of antichrist, especially in the form of the 
oath 3 ; against which form I brought forward many objections 
in my public lecture before the king and the nobility of the 
realm : on which account I have incurred no small hostility. 
On the fourth day after the lecture an accusation was brought 
against me before the council by the archbishop of Canterbury. 
I appeared before them. The archbishop spoke against me 
with great severity on account of my having censured the 
form of the oath. I entreated the judges to hear with impar- 
tiality upon what authority I had done so. The question 
Avas long and sharply agitated between the bishops and my- 
self; but at length the end and issue was for the glory of 

If the ensuing summer should be free from disturbances, 
we hope for much good to our church ; for peace is arranged 
between us and the French, but I am not yet informed upon 
what terms. I only pray our great and gracious God, that war 
may not lie hid under the name of peace. The day before I 
wrote this letter to your excellence, the emperor sent two most 
beautiful Spanish horses as a present to our king. On the 
same day a German Lutheran sent to [Sir John] Cheke, the 
king's tutor, a book which has lately come forth against the 
anabaptists and sacramentaries : he gave the book to the 
king to read, but it nowise pleased either the king, or his 
tutors, namely, Cook and Cheke, both of whom, as well as the 
king, have a pious understanding of the doctrine of the eucha- 
rist. Master Bucer is now lying dangerously ill at Cambridge. 
The subject of his lecture is the epistle to the Ephesians, and 
of his sermon, on holy-days, the sixth chapter of St John. 

[ 3 Hooper's objection to the oath was the " swearing by God, the 
saints, and the holy gospels," when none but God himself ought to 
be appealed to in an oath. This clause was afterwards omitted. See 
the Parker Society edition of Hooper's Early Writings, p. 479, and 
compare the Liturgies of Edward VI. pp. 169, 339. Also Reeling's 
Liturgise Britannicee, pp. 373, 390, and Burnet, Hist. Ref. n. 246.] 



Master Valcrandus 1 has recommended him by letter not to 
raise any controversy on the matter of the eucharist. He replied 
that he should teach nothing contrary to the opinion of Peter 
Martyr, which I sent you in manuscript about the middle of 

Touching the Interim, (you know what I mean) I have 
not hitherto been able by any entreaties to obtain permis- 
sion for committing it to the press ; but I shall probably in 
a few days meet the king upon business, and I will give it 
him for his perusal. Believe me, my much esteemed friend, 
you have never seen in the world for these thousand years so 
much erudition united with piety and sweetness of disposition. 
Should he live and grow up with these virtues, he will be a terror 
to all the sovereigns of the earth. He receives with his own 
hand a copy of every sermon that he hears, and most diligently 
requires an account of them after dinner from those who 
study with him. Many of the boys and youths who are his 
companions in study are well and faithfully instructed in the 
fear of God, and in good learning. Master Cox is no longer 
the king's tutor. He still remains almoner, is much attached 
to you, and (as I have often told you before) most warmly 
thanked you for your present. You know how it was re- 
ceived by the archbishop of Canterbury. Now however, as 
far as I know, he has become my friend. The marquis of 
Dorset sends his best regards to your reverence. I could 
wish that you would dedicate either to the king or to him 2 
the work you are shortly about to publish. Moreover, if 
our excellent and most learned friend, master Bibliander, or 
that learned and most faithful minister of Christ, master 
Gualter, are about to publish any thing, let them also dedicate 
it either to the king, or to the duke of Somerset, the king's 
uncle, my patron, (who is now living at Sion, eight miles from 
London, and in good health, but not at present one of the 
king's council, though I doubt not but that he will be 
shortly.) or to the marquis of Dorset, or to that most faith- 
ful and intrepid soldier of Christ, the earl of Warwick. He 
is ill at this time, but I hope in no imminent danger : unless 

[ l Valerandus Pollanus was the preacher and superintendent of the 
French and Walloon church at Glastonbury. ] 

[ 2 Bullinger dedicated the remainder of his Decades to the marquis 
of Dorset, in March 1551.] 


he had been on my side in the cause of Christ, it would have 
been all over with me five months since, wjien the duke of 
Somerset was in such difficulties. Traheron is well ; I think 
you have received a letter from him not long since. Your 
dictations on Isaiah, which you gave in charge to Christopher 
Hales, have not been delivered to me. I must make allow- 
ance for the misfortune of the man ; for when he was sailing 
from Calais to England he was in so much danger from the 
French, that they threw all the ship's cargo overboard. I 
entreat you to have a new copy made with all speed, not 
only of [your notes] on Isaiah, but also of those upon the 
books of Kings ; and I will satisfy both by prayers and pay- 
ment the labours of the copyist. Do not send me any 
thing for the cloth, which I hear you have received; but, 
as you love me, pay for what I am now asking from 
you out of the price of the cloth, and also for what I 
may request from you in future, until you shall hear further 
from me. But I wish to inform you upon this point, that 
when you write to me in future, you may inclose your letter 
to me either in the letters of Richard Hilles or John Stum- 
phius, or else they will scarcely ever come to my hands ; such 
is the envy and hatred of some parties, that if they see a 
letter addressed to me they will retain it. Unless therefore 
you should meet with a trustworthy courier, it will be neces- 
sary to suppress what otherwise ought not to be concealed. 
Such is now-a-days the perverseness of men's temper, that 
they can interpret nothing with an upright and unprejudiced 
mind. Let me know how many letters you have received 
from me since the first of January. I do not ask this, as 
though there would arise any danger either to your rever- 
ence or myself from the loss of the letters. I value it not 
a rush, into whosesoever hands they may have fallen ; but I 
Avish to know, that I may learn to estimate the trustiness of 
the bearer in future. If you would sometime, as is befitting 
your erudition and piety, send a letter of encouragement to 
our king, take care to do so as soon as possible, and also to 
the earl of Warwick and the marquis of Dorset : believe me, 
they would receive it most gratefully ; send it to me, and I 
will place it in their hands with all fidelity. 

The worshipful the Mayor will soon, I hope, receive 
another good piece of cloth at the usual price, namely, ten 



Zurich batzen the ell. Master Butler will also receive one, 
partly white, ancj partly black. We thank you very much 
for the present which you sent to your [god-daughter] 
Rachel. In return, I faithfully promise you in Christ that, 
as long as I live, your children shall be to me as my own, if 
I can in any respect be of use to them. John Stumphius is 
residing very creditably and studiously at Oxford. You may, 
if you please, in your letters apply a stimulus by way of 
exciting him to persevere honourably in what he has under- 
taken. Should he be in need of any thing, I shall always be 
ready to assist him. There is no occasion for his parents to 
be anxious about him in any way. Salute them in my name 
and in that of my wife. John Stumphius is a great favourite 
with her. John ab Ulmis is also well, and, as I hear, very 
diligent in his studies. He has been munificently and honour- 
ably presented, by the marquis of Dorset, with a yearly stipend 
of thirty crowns. Salute most dutifully in all our names the 
lady your wife with all your family, and masters Bibliander, 
Gualter, Pellican, Otto, Frisius, and Sebastian, with their re- 
spective wives. Martin Micronius wishes dutifully to salute 
your excellence and all his other friends at Zurich. I heartily 
salute master Haller, the most faithful minister of the church 
at Berne, and master Musculus. When you write to master 
Ambrose Blauer, and master Thomas his brother, salute each 
of them in my name. May the Lord Jesus preserve your 
church and commonwealth, that you may live in peace, fear, 
and holiness all the days of your life ! Day and night do I 
remember you in my prayers, that God may guide, strengthen, 
and defend you by his holy Spirit against the snares of the devil 
and of the world. Do you also remember me and my labours 
in the Lord's vineyard : by the help of your prayers I shall 
raise a more glorious trophy in the church of God over our 
adversaries. With the exception of the church of Zurich, and 
those which agree with it in religion, the word is in no part 
of the world preached more purely than in England. 

Write back, I pray you, immediately, if only one or two 
lines ; for until I hear from you, I shall think that this letter 
also has been lost on the road. If you will always ask master 
Burcher to send your letters by the post, I will pay the ex- 
pense. I desire to salute master Mayor, who is a man of God, 
most dutifully and affectionately in the bowels of Jesus Christ. 


A certain native of Zurich, by name Valentine Wormulus, 
is detained here in prison : he is, if I mistake not, related to 
master Otho, the minister of the church at Zurich. I do not 
yet know for certain the cause of his imprisonment: whether 
he offered violence to a woman, or obtained her consent, I am 
not informed, but some offence of this sort is alleged against 
him ; besides which, he is charged with having stolen a small 
sum of money. I shall send to-day to the prison, that I may 
learn more by means of master Utenhovius. I wish you 
would shortly let me know whether he is a native of Zurich 
or not. If the law can be satisfied by a pecuniary penalty, 
I will willingly pay it, as soon as your reverence shall 
authorise me to do so, provided the money be repaid me 
at Zurich. Farewell, most honoured master, and continue 
to love me. London, March 27, 1550. 

On Wednesday next, God willing, I shall finish my ex- 
position of the prophet Jonas before the king. 

Yours ever, 


P. S. Master Utenhovius dutifully salutes your worship, 
and doubtless aids you all in his diligent prayers to God. 
You would be quite astonished, did you know how many 
times he has thanked me for having sent him to Zurich. 
There is one request I have to make of you, my most faith- 
ful friend, that when you have read this, you will write to 
master Ccelius the younger, who resides at Basle, and apolo- 
gize to him for my not writing to him at present. I wrote 
some time since, and gave him intelligence respecting all the 
things that he had entrusted to my confidence ; nor have I 
ever been unmindful of him, as he will know from me next 
Easter. I have exerted myself in his favour, as you shall 
hereafter know. Entreat him to persevere in his purpose, and 
not to be afraid. God liveth, from whom he will successfully 
obtain what he desires. Salute the widow, my landlady, in 
my name ; and should she be in need of any thing, I shall 
not be unmindful of the kindness with which she treated me 
during my sojourn with you. 




Dated at LONDON, June 29, 1550. 

GREETING. The letter which you wrote on the 13th 
of March, I received at London on the last day of April, 
by which I fully understood your ancient and fatherly affec- 
tion towards me. I rejoiced much [to learn] that you and 
your church are regaining your former influence and repu- 
tation ; but am much grieved to hear that my letters written 
so frequently and with so much pains have been lost on the 
road. I will in future inquire more carefully as to the trust- 
worthiness of the messenger. I cannot too sufficiently wonder 
that master Butler has so seldom heard from me. I have 
frequently written to him respecting his brother-in-law, who 
not only holds an honourable employment at court, but most 
honourably defends the cause of Christ in the palace ; nor is 
there any individual who is more fervent in this cause, or 
more ardent in imparting to others the word of God. He 
is one of the four stewards of the royal household. His 
deceased wife, who was master Butler's sister, went to heaven 
a year ago ; and he has now married another pious and 
godly virgin, of honourable rank and lineage. He dutifully 
salutes master Butler, and promises to exert himself to the 
utmost of his power, if he should any way require his services. 
Let master Butler know this. 

I now return to the course and tenour of your former 
letter, that I may reply to each head in its turn. First 
of all, receive this intelligence concerning me and mine. 
We are all of us in good health. I had an opportunity 
of visiting my native place and my parents for a fortnight 
at the Whitsun holidays. I found my father still alive, and 
though not a friend to the gospel, yet not an enemy to it. 
My uncle also I found still living, and a favourer of the 
cause of God; and my native country, considering the ex- 
tent of its population, apt and docile. "We must pray God 
to send forth labourers into his harvest. Having returned 
to London on the fourteenth day, I am going, by the king's 
command, to-morrow or the next day into Kent and Essex, to 


the lord chancellor of the realm, who is now, for various 
reasons, residing in the country. That district is troubled 
with the frenzy of the anabaptists more than any other part 
of the kingdom. May the Lord assist me, that my efforts 
there may be attended with success! At Easter, after the 
sermons were ended which master Ponet and myself preached 
before the king and council, he on the Friday, and I on the 
Wednesday, during Lent, it pleased his majesty and the 
council to offer the bishoprick of Rochester to Ponet 1 , and that 
of Gloucester to myself. On many accounts I declined mine 2 , 
both by reason of the shameful and impious form of the oath, 
which all who choose to undertake the function of a bishop 
are compelled to put up with, and also on account of those 
Aaronic habits which they still retain in that calling, and are 
used to wear, not only at the administration of the sacra- 
ments, but also at public prayers. All these things came to 
the ears of the king, and he wished to know the reason of my 
having refused to serve God in so pious and holy a calling. 
He understood that the causes which I have mentioned above 
altogether withdrew me from it. On last Ascension-day I was 
summoned before the whole council to state my reasons, that 
it might be seen whether I could justly and lawfully decline 
the royal favour. The matter was seriously agitated in the 
way of interrogatory. At last, for the glory of God, the dis- 
cussion ended to the satisfaction of myself and that of all godly 
persons, not through my instrumentality alone, but by the 
grace of God, and the favourable inclinations of the council, 
and their love for God and for the purity and comeliness of the 
rising church. But you will say, I do not yet know the result. 
It was such as to set me clear from all defilement of super- 
stition and from the imposition of the oath 3 . On these terms 
I took upon myself the charge committed to me. Aid wretched 
me with your prayers, that I may diligently and truly seek 
the glory of God, lest that little flock should perish, for which 
Christ died. 

[! Ponet was declared bishop of Rochester on June 26, 1550.] 

[ 2 For an account of Hooper's troubles on his nomination to a 

bishopric, see Strype, Cranmer, i. 302 ; Burnet, n. 243 ; HI. 304 ; and 

Soames, in. 560.] 

[ 3 See a letter from Micronius to Bullinger, dated Aug. 28, 1550, 

which will be given in a subsequent part of this volume.] 


I will not at present write much respecting myself, ex- 
cept only to inform your excellence, that I am now occupied 
upon the tenth chapter of St John, for my lecture in the 
New Testament, and upon the fourth chapter of Zechariah 
for my lecture in the Old Testament. I have finished Daniel, 
and also Jonah and his interpreter Nahum. I shall proceed as 
I can ; and / can do all things through CJirist ivho strength- 
eneth me. Unless his lovingkindness had assisted me, I should 
very often have looked back from the plough, since I begun. 
I could not have imagined that the office of preaching was 
exposed to so many and such painful anxieties. The agree- 
ment of Calvin and yourself touching the [Lord's] supper, 
and the letter in which the new-year's gift was inclosed for 
your little daughter Rachel, (for I so call her, as your sons 
and daughters are mine,) I have received, and replied to 
each. The marquis of Northampton, a man active in the 
cause of Christ, laid before the king's majesty, in my presence, 
your book that was intended for him, together with your 
letter. I should have presented it myself, had it not been 
forbidden by our laws for any one to lay before the king 
either a letter or anything else brought from foreign parts, 
without previously making it known to the council ; and this 
law no one may dare to violate, until the king shall have arrived 
at the steadiness of mature age. But as far as relates to your 
letter and your book, he received them with the greatest 
courtesy and kindness, and not without many thanks ; for he 
most earnestly inquired both respecting yourself and the 
welfare of your church. He moreover ordered the marquis 
to send you a royal present in token of his good-will. As 
soon as I understood this, I desired the marquis to thank his 
majesty in your name, and that you would esteem it a suffi- 
cient token of his gratitude, if he would himself actively and 
piously bestow his exertions on the vineyard of Christ ; be- 
sides, that you were not in the habit of receiving presents 
from any one ; and lastly, that it was forbidden by your 
municipal laws to receive gifts from princes or any other 
persons whatsoever : but if he wished to testify his appro- 
bation either by a letter from himself or through me, that 
an act of this kind would be most gratifying to you. The 
king then ordered me to salute you on every account in his 
name, and present his thanks, entreating you to remember him 


in your prayers, and to commend to God both himself and 
his kingdom. Master Cox also, whom, having been engaged 
in other matters of importance, I have not been able to call 
upon for many weeks, received your present in the same 
spirit. I have dutifully saluted all the earls and marquises 
in your name. They all salute you in return. The earl of 
Warwick has had a long illness, but by the blessing of God 
is now recovered, and will be present at the council on Wed- 
nesday next. To tell the truth, England cannot do without 
him. He is a most holy and fearless instrument of the word 
of God. May the Lord strengthen him ! We have many 
other excellent councillors, the duke of Somerset, the marquises 
of Northampton and Dorset. [The archbishop of] Canter- 
bury has relaxed much of his Lutheranism, (Avhether all of it, 
I cannot say ;) he is not so decided as I could wish, and dares 
not, I fear, assert his opinion in all respects. As to your 
advice in your letter, that I should make friends of the 
bishops, I should be much to blame, if I did not endeavour by 
all means to do so, provided it can be done with a safe and 
pure conscience; and to speak the truth, there are six or 
seven who altogether desire and wish to promote the glory of 
God. These I venerate and reverence from my heart. 

Now I most earnestly entreat you kindly to comply with 
the following request. If you can procure from master Fros- 
chover at the trade price, that is, the price at which he sells 
them to the booksellers in sheets, all the works of Zuinglius, 
your own, those of Bibliander, Pellican, Gualter, CEcolampa- 
dius, Gesner, both his Bibliotheca and the treatise on Birds, 
which he is now reported to be writing, you will exceedingly 
oblige me ; and as soon as I know that he has agreed to this, 
I will take care that he shall have the money at the next 
Frankfort fair, nor will I require the books till the amount is 
previously paid. I request you also to salute dutifully in my 
name master Ccelius Secundus 1 , whom I have constantly borne 
in mind since my arrival here, although I have not told him 
as much by letter; and let me know, when you write next, 
what are his present circumstances at Basle : I know him to 
be a man of profound learning, and one of whose services I 

[! Coelius Secundus Curio was of a noble Pieclmontese family. Ho 
abjured popery, and embraced Lutheranism, and was professor at Basic 
from 1547 till 1569, in which year he died, aged 67.] 


would gladly avail myself, Avhcn I come to know the state of 
my bishoprick. As primitive antiquity employed the revenues 
arising from this office to the edification of the church and 


the education of the young, I could wish each of these objects 
to be restored by me, which can in no way be effected unless 
I shall be aided by the assistance of pious and learned men. 
On this subject I would gladly hear and follow your advice. 
Send me therefore by letter, as soon as possible, an answer 
to my inquiries. For I know you to be discreet and attached 
to me, and besides this, one who is well able to look forward 
to the future. 

I doubt not but that the cloth sent to master Mayor and 
master Butler has reached you long since. I request that 
your notes on Isaiah, on the books of Kings, and on the 
epistle to the Romans, from the beginning of the thirteenth 
chapter to the end, may be copied out for me as soon as 
possible. I Avill recompense the copyist, and Avill not be un- 
mindful of the kindness of master Haller, for his having taken 
so much trouble for me before with respect to Isaiah. You 
here have the proper form of dedication of your book to the 
marquis of Dorset : when I return from the lord chancellor a 
fortnight hence, I will send the style of the earl of Warwick 
and the marquis of Northampton ; you shall then receive farther 
and more certain intelligence. Meanwhile I pray the Lord to 
preserve you in prosperity, together with your whole family 
and the church ; and I congratulate you and your daughters 
on so happy and, I hope, so holy a marriage. My wife and 
Rachel pray for you all happiness in Christ. Make my apo- 
logies to masters Butler, Bibliander, and Gualter, for not 
now writing to them. The trustworthy bearer will assign 
weighty reasons for this. Do you, my most honoured master 
and most loving friend, take in good part what I have now 
written with a hasty pen. I will write more in a few days. 
Your most wished for and delightful letter of the seventeenth 
of May I received on the 25th of June, and will reply to it 
in my next letter. Live and fare well in Christ long and 
holily. London, June 29, 1550. 

Your reverence's most devoted, 





Dated at GLOUCESTER, Aug. 1, 1551. 

GRACE and peace from the Lord ! I am not only- 
aware, my much honoured gossip, that this long silence 
of mine is displeasing to your kindness, but I am also 
greatly displeased with myself for that very reason. But 
when you are acquainted with the arduous and important 
nature of my engagements, you will easily be induced to ex- 
cuse me, and I shall free myself from the reproach of in- 
gratitude to so dear a friend. But although, as your letter 
states, as well as that of my brother and singular good friend, 
master John Butler, I have suffered all those who have visited 
you from England to quit this country without any letters 
from myself, I have, nevertheless, written them to you very 
frequently ; but for their having either been intercepted or 
lost on the road, I must blame the carelessness of the couriers, 
who have not only disappointed my labours, but also deceived 
the expectation of my best friend. And yet, if I have written 
to you less frequently than your exceeding kindness to me has 
deserved, it has not, my most learned gossip, arisen from for- 
getfulness of you, but from the difficulty and magnitude of 
my engagements. I was occupied during the past year with 
constant and important business, as you have doubtless heard 
from others. The question respecting the habits, which was 
always exceedingly displeasing to me, was gravely discussed 
between the bishop of London and myself. For my part, I 
very properly, if I am not mistaken, found fault with the use 
of them in the church, and contended for their entire removal. 
He, on the other hand, most urgently and pertinaciously de- 
fended their use 1 . But as the Lord has put an end to this 
controversy, I do not think it worth while to violate the 

[* A copy of bishop Ridley's " Conference by writing with M. Hoper 
exhibited up to the council in the time of King Edward the sixth," 
was in the possession of archbishop Whitgift. See his Defence of the 
answer to the Admonition, A. D. 1574, p. 25, but its existence was un- 
known (see Ridley's life of bishop Ridley) in later years, till a copy, 
slightly imperfect, was discovered in 1844, in the extensive collection 
of MSS. belonging to sir Thomas Phillips, Bart.] 


sepulchre of this unhappy tragedy. In future, even if my 
engagements should not admit of any cessation, I will perform 
my duty in writing to you, and will not suffer any person to 
go from me to you without a letter. As I now rely upon 
the readiness to forgive, which is a part of your character, I 
shall desist from offering any further apology for my silence. 

My whole family is well, as I hope also that yours is, 
and I daily pray God that they may both long continue 
so. You must know however, that I have had no addition 
to my family since the time that I quitted your godly society. 
If the Lord will preserve my little daughter Rachel, so that 
she may embrace his Son Jesus Christ, and promote his cause, 
I shall think my desires abundantly accomplished in my old 
age, even though I should have no more family. She very 
frequently hears from her mother the great commendation of 
the country and place where she was born ; and she is with 
great care and diligence instructed in the promises which she 
formerly made to the church by means of your kindness and 
that of the wife of master Bibliander. She sorely complains 
of my not more frequently saluting by letter so holy a church 
and such faithful ministers of Christ. She now sends an 
entire piece of cloth as a token of her reverence and respect, 
one half to yourself, the other to the wife of master Bibli- 
ander ; and she heartily thanks her heavenly Father, that by 
you as her sponsors she has been received into the society of 
his holy church. Should it seem good to you that your sons 
should visit England for their education, you need not feel 
much anxiety as to what it would cost them to live here. I 
will take the charge of them upon myself, and that too, faith- 
fully and cheerfully. 

I have never been able to procure the printing of those 
writings of yours (you know what I mean) which I brought 
away with me from Zurich : not that they are unacceptable 
to godly and learned men, for they are exceedingly ac- 
ceptable to all to whom I have given them for perusal ; 
but it has been prevented by the calamity of the time, or 
rather by the timidity of men who prefer their own coun- 
sels to the glory of God. Many persons of learning and 
rank desired to read that book, and I allowed them to do so, 
as it was right I should ; and it is now in the hands of master 
Cecil, his majesty's principal secretary, a man endowed with 
very great learning and piety, and a great favourer of the 


gospel. Your other books, which you sent to the king's 
majesty, I delivered most carefully to the marquis of North- 
ampton 1 , the lord high chamberlain of England, to lay before 
the king in your name, which he did carefully and readily, 
and the king ordered him to salute you in return with many 
thanks ; nor do I doubt but that the king will always re- 
member you in future. I request that you will in your turn 
commend him for his godly procedure, and always in your 
letters exhort him to perseverance in it. For the king reads 
your letters with attention, and takes a most lively interest 
in the perusal. You must not therefore think your labour 
ill-bestowed, although you do not receive an answer. My 
lord of Canterbury, who is in truth a great admirer of you, 
when I received your last letter in his palace, and acquainted 
him with its contents, could hardly refrain from tears, when 
he understood your feelings in regard to the king and to 
the kingdom, and also the perseverance of your church in 
these most lamentable times. He made most honourable 
mention both of yourself and of your profound erudition. 
You have no one, I am sure, among all your dearest friends, 
who is more interested about you, and who loves you in Christ 
more ardently than he does. I know of a truth that he loves 
you from his heart. In my conversation with him I requested 
his kind offices with the king on behalf of the Italian of whom 
you wrote: he promised to use all his endeavours, and you 
need not doubt him. If our gracious and most merciful God 
would once deliver us from this harsh and cruel tyranny of 
the enemies of Christ, by which we are so dangerously [sur- 
rounded 2 ] on all sides, all the godly and learned men will be 
as well provided for as our poor circumstances will admit of. 
You asked me to settle with master a Lasco about those 
eighteen crowns, which you lent to some Italian ; I have done 
as you requested, but know not whether you have yet been 
repaid. I know that you will not, with your own consent, be 
a burden to any one, (although what you may call a burden, 
your friends would consider an honour ;) but your most splen- 
did gifts, received from God, have so greatly benefited the 
commonwealth, and the church of Christ more especially, that 
we owe our all to you, and you may make what trial you please. 

[ l William Parr, marquis of Northampton, was brother to King 
Henry the eighth's last wife.] 

[ 2 A word is wanting in the original Latin.] 


After I had begun this letter, my wife and five others 
of my chaplains and domestics were attacked by a new kind 
of sweating sickness, and were in great danger for twenty- 
four hours ; I myself have but very recently recovered from 
the same disease. Pray the Lord that he may have com- 
passion on us, and that we may always be waiting in the 
fear of God for the day of death. The infection of this 
disease is in England most severe, and, what is a most re- 
markable token of divine vengeance, persons are suddenly 
taken off by it 1 . You shall know more fully respecting my 
affairs next Michaelmas, when I shall have some little inter- 
mission of my engagements. My wife and the other invalids 
have, through the favour of God, escaped the danger of the 

I commend your whole church and commonwealth to 
God, and especially the most reverend father, master Pellican. 
For master Eodolph Gualter, your two sons-in-law, master 
Gesner, with their respective wives; for all others who em- 
brace with you the religion of Christ ; for our sister your 
wife, and all your family, and master Bibliander, and his wife 
and family, we sincerely and heartily wish salvation in Christ. 
May the Lord also preserve master Mayor. When you 
write to master Ccelius Secundus, salute him, I entreat you, 
in my name as much as you can, and you can as much as 
you please. Persuade our friend master John Butler to re- 
turn to England ; he may be useful in many respects both to 
the church and commonwealth. You know that we are born 
for our country, and not for ourselves : were it not so, I 
should not now be discharging the office of a bishop. At 
least ask him to visit us once in England, and he shall learn 
from me in what way and by what means he may best pro- 
vide for himself and his family. May the Lord Jesus long 
preserve you to the glory of his name ! 
Gloucester, Aug. 1, 1551. 

As heretofore and for so long a time, 

your most loving brother and gossip, 

Bishop of the church of Gloucester. 

[ l The sweating sickness was very fatal this year, especially in 
London, where eight hundred persons died of it within the first week. 
Seven householders supped together, six of whom were dead before 
morning. Stowe's Annals, A. D. 1551.] 


P. S. I have lent to the student who is the bearer of 
this letter to you, and to his companion, both natives of 
Zurich, forty-five English crowns. You will oblige me much 
by sending me books printed at Zurich, those especially which 
contain your works, to an equal amount. If the young men 
of Zurich who come over here for the sake of study, should 
stand in need of my assistance, I will aid them as far as my 
slender means will allow. I return you my warmest thanks 
for your books and letter to me. When I shall have emerged 
from the waves of danger, most reverend and learned friend, 
I will send a messenger of my own, from whom you shall 
learn all my affairs. Do not, I pray you, be surprised, that 
I make no mention of your letters, which I very frequently 
kiss ; for I can never forget either yourself or your kindness 
towards me. You shall hear in a future letter, on what sub- 
ject and on what occasion so fierce and quarrelsome a dispute 
arose between the bishops and myself. I agree that the con- 
test should be set at rest by the arbitration of godly men. 
I will explain in a few words the cause and ground of the 
dispute. The use of vestments peculiar to popery in the 
ministry of the church has been the occasion here of great 
disturbance. Master a Lasco alone, of all the foreigners who 
have any influence, stood on my side. Farewell. I pray 
God that you may live long and happily, and may all the 
people of Zurich fare well in Christ. Amen. I have written 
what I can ; you know what I mean. Altogether yours, and 
deservedly so, if I am my own. 



Dated at GLOUCESTER, Oct. 27, 1551. 

GREETING. If, my much honoured gossip, you had re- 
ceived the letters which I wrote to you towards the end of 
August and in the month of September, yours dated at Zurich 
on the 29th of August, which I received at Gloucester on 
the 22nd of October, would not have been so full of com- 
plaint. I hope that you are by this time fully aware of the 
feelings and spirit which I entertain towards you. I will 


make no answer by way of apology, although I have many 
weighty and allowable excuses which would avail with you, 
yourself being the judge. But you shall learn at another 
time, what it is still necessary for me to keep silent. You 
and all that belongs to you are not displeasing either to God 
or our king, but quite the contrary, and on that account 
you are acceptable to both. You say that they are dis- 
pleasing to me, but I know you only say so : far be it that 
your writings should be lightly esteemed by me. Of all the 
learned men under heaven, I have none more dear to me than 
yourself, and deservedly so. In many ways I have received 
benefit, as I still do, from you and from your writings. 
Should it please God that I can in any respect be of service 
to you, you will find me most ready, and mindful, and 
grateful, both to you and yours. I return you my warmest 
thanks for your kindness in sending to me, together with 
your letter, your godly and learned meditations, which you 
are preparing by way of popular discourses : since, however, 
I left Zurich, I have received no manuscript besides your very 
useful and excellent Decades, except your commentary on 
Isaiah as far as the 40th chapter, and on the epistle to the 
Romans. I much wish for your other writings, and will 
amply recompense the copyist. I have not yet seen the 
remainder of your commentary on Isaiah ; and I mourn over 
the faithlessness of the men to whom I from time to time en- 
trust grave and honourable duties. But I would have you to 
be especially assured, that should I from henceforth fail to 
write to you every month, either sickness or death will be the 
occasion of my silence. You are altogether unconscious how 
deeply your complaints affect my mind. You have, I am 
sure, no one who loves you more in Christ than myself. 
Moreover, when I go to London, I will undertake, as I may 
be able, that a letter shall be sent you from the king, by 
which he may testify his good-will towards you ; and I will 
endeavour too to relieve, if I can, by means of his royal 
majesty, the distress of that godly Italian, who is now suffer- 
ing under the painful necessity of exile : I without doubt am 
entirely his debtor to serve him. You need not be anxious 
about the expense of sending letters from Strasburgh ; I will 
willingly bear it. I wish that all the letters would reach me 
which you have sent already or shall send in future. I am 
greatly grieved at my letters having been lost on the road. But 


they always regarded, as they ought, both God and man, 
and therefore make me somewhat less anxious. 

The report concerning the death of Peter Martyr, I thank 
God, was false and groundless ; he is alive and well, and boldly 
stands forth as a brave and godly soldier in the army of the 
Lord. If he has any thing which he intends to print, I am 
sure that he will send it you. He has not yet determined to 
publish his annotations on Genesis; he is meditating something 
upon the epistle to the Romans. I will take caro, to the 
utmost of my power, that none of his writings shall be lost. 
Meanwhile, do you always act, as you now do, for the glory of 
God. Your writings are exceedingly delightful to me, and to 
all who have the true worship of God at heart. I doubt not 
but that, while you are actively labouring in these endeavours, 
you incur the hatred and envy of the accomplices of the devil 
and of antichrist; but happy are those dangers, which are so 
much connected with the glory of God. You will receive an 
account of my labours, which are but small and slight in the 
vineyard of Christ, through John Rodolph, a worthy and 
godly youth, whom I entreat you to receive on his return 
with paternal kindness, and honour him, thus recommended 
to you by me, with your favour : he has conducted himself 
here modestly, piously, and studiously, as you will afterwards 
learn, if you please, from the letters of all the learned and 
godly students at Oxford ; and, to tell the truth, I do not 
easily bear his going away. Let him return to us, if it 
please the Zurich authorities and yourself, for a year or two, 
and I will take a portion of his expenses upon myself. When 
the two young men from Zurich left this country, I gave 
them forty-five English crowns; if they will repay me in 
books printed at Zurich, I shall be quite satisfied. Among 
other books I wish for the Bible in one large volume. 

You will learn from the messenger who is travelling 
between us and Zurich, by what important and perpetual 
engagements I am overwhelmed. Excuse, I pray you, my 
unpolished and too hasty pen. Salute the lady your wife, 
with all your family, masters Bibliander, Gualter, Pellican, 
with their wives; my countryman master Butler with his 
wife, and pray tell him from me, that he is not born for him- 
self and his friends alone, but that his country also has a 
claim upon him. I wish he would at least come over to us 



once, and perhaps he would not repent the journey. May 
the Lord Jesus be always present with the Mayor, your whole 
senate and commonwealth, and protect his church ! In haste, 
as you see, at Gloucester, Oct. 27, 1551. 

Your ever most attached, as I ought to be, 

JOHN HOOPER, bishop of Gloucester. 

P. S. I request you Avill salute in my name those most 
excellent and learned men, masters Gesner and Otto, whom I 
dearly love in Christ. And should master Gesner Avish at 
any time to come over to us, I will provide him with suitable 
companions who will shew him the rivers, and fishes, and ani- 
mals of this country. I defer, for the present, any further 
communication. Again farewell, and pray that I may long 
fare well in Christ. 



Dated at GLOUCESTER, Oct. 27, 15fll. 

GREETING. Your son l will, I hope, return from his tra- 
vels as safe and prosperous as you sent him forth. Receive 
him on his return, I pray you, as a father should do. I have 
been endeavouring to prevent his going away, by reason of 
the lateness of the season; but he has altogether made up 
his mind to undertake the journey in company with some 
other Germans, who flock over to us for the sake of study. 
He has conducted himself soberly, piously, and studiously ; 
and should he happen to return, he will find me his friend. 

[i John Stumphius the younger, afterwards Antistes, studied at 
Oxford with John ab Ulmis. In his letters to Bullinger he mentions 
evil reports which had been spread about him, and his father's anger 
in consequence. Hence Hooper's request that he would receive his 
son paterne. His father did not wish him to be a pensioner on royal 
bounty at Oxford. Note by Rev. S. A. Pears.] 


Make him evermore to fear God, to whom I commend you ; 
and salute your wife in my name. Gloucester, Oct. 27, 

Of yourself, and all the people of Zurich, 

I am the most loving friend, 
JOHN HOOPER, bishop of Gloucester. 



Dated at LONDON, Feb. 28, 1553. 

GREETING. The Englishman, Richard Hilles, promised 
me a month since that he would faithfully forward you my 
letter. If you have received it, it is well : if not, I hope that 
you will receive it. I request you not to impute the inter- 
mission of my letters either to ingratitude or forge tfulness, 
but to the weighty and important engagements by which I am 
continually distracted, and to other reasons which I suppress, 
until the time shall arrive, when I may be able to correspond 
with you more freely. I know that you are expecting an 
answer to the petitions which you have chiefly preferred by 
letter : wait a little ; you will obtain your wish soon enough, if 
it is only well enough. If you have any of the Decads, which 
many godly persons are expecting from you every fair, al- 
ready prepared, I would have you dedicate them to the duke 
of Northumberland. He is exceedingly partial to you, and is 
a diligent promoter of the glory of God. I left master Mar- 
tyr on the 20th of this February, at Oxford, sick of a fever. 
May the Lord be with him, and restore him to health ! His 
wife departed to the Lord on the 16th of this month. My 
wife and all my family salute your excellence. Salute your 
wife in my name and theirs ; we wish your sons and daughters 
every happiness. Salute the Mayor, masters Bibliander, 


Gualter, and Pellican, with their wives, and master Butler 
and his wife. London. Feb. 28, 1553. 

Your ever most devoted, 

JOHN HOOPER, bishop of 
Worcester and Gloucester. 



Dated from prison 1 , Sept. 3, 1553. 

GREETING. You have been accustomed, rny very dear 
gossip, heavily to complain of me, and very properly, for 
having so seldom written to you. But I have now written 
you many letters during the past year, without having re- 
ceived a single one in reply. I know that you are not unac- 
quainted with the state of our kingdom. Our king has been 
removed from us by reason of our sins, to the very great peril 
of our church. His sister Mary has succeeded, whom I pray 
God always to aid by his Holy Spirit, that she may reign 
and govern in all respects to the glory of his name. The altars 
are again set up throughout the kingdom ; private masses are 
frequently celebrated in many quarters ; the true worship of 
God, true invocation, the right use of the sacraments, are all 
done away with ; divine things are trodden under foot, and 
human things have the pre-eminence. May God be present 
with his church, for the sake of his only Son Jesus Christ ! 
All godly preachers are placed in the greatest danger : those 
who have not yet known by experience the filthiness of a 
prison, are hourly looking for it. Meanwhile they are all of 
them forbidden to preach by public authority. The enemies 
of the gospel are appointed in their places, and proclaim to 
the people from the pulpit human doctrines instead of divine 
truths. We now place our confidence in God alone, and ear- 
nestly entreat him to comfort and strengthen us to endure any 
sufferings whatever for the glory of his name. In haste, from 

[ l Hooper was committed unto the Fleet from Richmond, Sept. 1, 
1553. Letters of the Martyrs, p. 97, Ed. 1844.] 


prison, at London. Sept. 3, 1553. Salute your very dear 
wife, masters Bibliander, Pellican, and Gualter, with their 
wives, and all the other godly brethren ; likewise my country- 
man master Butler with his wife. 

Yours wholly, 

JOHX HOOPER, bishop of 
Worcester and Gloucester. 



Dated from prison, Nw. 25, 1553. 

THERE is no need for me to commend this noble person 
to your excellency in many words ; for I think that he is 
known both to yourself and all the other godly persons who 
have lately left England. I only request that he may not 
be deprived of your good offices, should he have any occa- 
sion for them. You will learn from him every thing con- 
cerning myself, and also the present condition of the church. 
It is indeed a wretched and miserable one. May the Lord 
mercifully look upon us with complacency, and weaken the 
power of our adversaries ! They are becoming more furious 
and insolent every day. But he, who now seems to us to 
sleep, will at length make his appearance, and cast down his 
enemies. Should the Father of mercy grant this favour to us 
in this life, his holy name be praised; if otherwise, his will 
be done. He himself commands us to die for the glory of 
his name. May he grant what he commands, and then com- 
mand things yet more painful, if it seemeth him good ! I 
am now writing in haste and by stealth from prison, being 
now kept in more close and severe confinement 2 than when 
your excellency left us. But, by God's help, I am prepared, 
both to endure these things, and the yet more painful trials 
that are about to come. Salute my old and godly friend, 

[ 2 For an account of bishop Hooper's harsh treatment from Ba- 
bington, the warden of the Fleet, see Foxe, Acts and Mon. vi. 647 ; 
Strype, Mem. in. i. 284, and Letters of the Martyrs, p. 96.] 


master Martin, the noble personage Utenhovius, and all the 
rest of our brethren ; and I entreat you to commend both 
myself and my fellow-prisoners in Christ Jesus to our Al- 
mighty Father which is in heaven, that by means of our 
death his glory may shine forth more and more upon this 
most polluted world. From prison, !S"ov. 25, 1553. 

Your excellency's much remembered before God, 

JOHN HOOPER, bishop of Gloucester. 



Dated from prison, May 23, 1554. 

HEALTH. It is now, my most honoured gossip, the ninth 
month since I have endured the filthiness 1 of a prison. Mean- 
while, however, I have sent you many letters by the hands 
of godly persons, to the end that by their means I might 
excite your reverence, with all the other learned ministers of 
your church, to shew yourselves kindly affectioned and mer- 
ciful to those wretched and unfortunate individuals who have 
fled from hence for the sake of the Christian religion. I wrote 
very briefly, as I was able, because I was not allowed, neither 
am I at present, to write as I wish ; and I write by stealth, 
which, as you know, is the miserable condition of those in 
prison. Yet, as far as I know, you have not sent me even 
the shortest answer in return. I am much distressed at this ; 
for, if I am not mistaken, you are aware how greatly I 
esteem you. I have always looked upon you as a most 
revered father and master. Of all those who are attached 
to you, you have never found any one dearer than myself ; 

[i " Having nothing appointed to me for my bed, but a little pad 
of straw, a rotten covering, with a tick and a few feathers therein, the 
chamber being vile and stinking, until, by God's means, good people 
sent me bedding to lie in: of the one side of which prison is the sink 
and filth of all the house, and on the other side the town ditch; so 
that the stench of the house hath infected me with divers diseases." 
Hooper's report of his imprisonment, in the Letters of the Martyrs, 
p. 97.] 


nor have I, to say the truth, ever met with a more sincere 
friend. Those who have brought you letters from me, since 
the death of our most godly king until the present tune, were 
very dear friends and brethren ; but the bearer of this is 
master James Haddon, not only a friend and very dear bro- 
ther in Christ, but one whom I have always esteemed on 
every account, by reason of his singular erudition and virtue. 
And I do not think that I have ever been acquainted with 
any one in England, who is endued either with more sincere 
piety towards God, or more removed from all desire of those 
perishing objects which foolish mortals admire. I commend 
him most earnestly to your good offices. Salute your very 
dear wife in my name, your children, and all your family, 
masters Gualter and Pellican, and all the ministers of your 
church, master Lavater the mayor, and your whole city. I 
would write more openly, if I dared ; but I have often been 
deceived by my friends. From prison, May 23, 1554. 

In a short time, unless the Lord should restrain the 
tyranny of our enemies, I shall go in the blood of Christ to 

As heretofore and at all times, your most attached, 




Dated from Prison, May 29, 1554. 

MUCH health. I hope, my very dear gossip, that you 
have received my former letters, which I have hitherto written 
from prison, to be delivered to you by those godly men who 
have gone over from hence to you. As in those letters I 
entreated your accustomed kindness towards my fellow-coun- 
trymen, so by this I entreat the same on behalf of the bearer, 
my friend Guido, my most faithful associate in the labours of 
the gospel. I have had no one with me who is so devoted 
to the flock of Christ, or who has undergone continual 
labours with greater equanimity : I commend him, from whom 
you will learn all the circumstances of my present condition, 


to your kindness, and to all the godly members of your 
church, as the companion of all my labours in the vineyard 
of Christ. I would write in his favour to the other godly 
men, who are now, like yourselves, soldiers of Christ, but 
the keeper of the prison will not allow me to do so. It is 
with difficulty that I have been able to write thus briefly 
from prison, whence you may understand that my life is in 
very great danger. Aid me in your prayers to God. I am 
not unmindful of you. I salute the lady your wife, all your 
family, and all the rest whom you know. From prison, 
May 29th, 1554. 

Yours, as I ought to be, most lovingly, 




Dated from prison, Dec. 11, 1554. 

GRACE and peace from the Lord! Your letter 1 , my 
beloved brother, dated at Zurich on the tenth of October, 
I received on the eleventh of December. It was very de- 
lightful to me, because it was full of comfort, I readily 
perceived therein your ancient feelings of love and affection 
towards me, and am most thankful to you that in these most 
dangerous times you have not forgotten me. I have always 
entertained an especial love for you on account of your pre- 
eminent good qualities, and the excellent gifts of God in you. 
And if, as you write, you have not received any letters from 
me for a whole year, this has not been occasioned by my not 
having written, but by my having confided my letters to 
careless and dishonest persons. Nor have I received all that 
you have sent to me, but they have been either lost by the 
carelessness of the postman, or intercepted by the malice 
of the evil-disposed. The same thing has happened both to 
the letters and the book of master Theodore : for I never 

t 1 The letter here referred to is printed in Foxe, Acts and Mon. 
VI. 675, and Coverdale's Letters of the Martyrs, p. 126, Ed. 1844.] 


heard of [his book respecting] our Lord's sermon on the 
mount, which he sent me, till some days after the death of 
our most holy king Edward ; and then [I saw it] on the 
borders of Wales, in the library of a certain godly man whom 
I had appointed dean over some churches there. But what 
you have now written, I will take care shall be sent to all 
my brethren and fellow-prisoners for their perusal. 

I congratulate you all upon the safety and stedfastness of 
your church, and I pray to God for his Son Jesus Christ's 
sake evermore to fortify and defend it against the tyranny of 
antichrist. In this country the wound which he received is 
entirely healed, and he is once more regarded as the head 
of the church, who is not even a member of the church of 
Christ. You will learn from others both my own situation 
and the state of public affairs. We are still involved in 
the greatest dangers, as we have been for almost the last 
eighteen months. The enemies of the gospel are every day 
giving us more and more annoyance ; we are imprisoned 
apart from each other, and treated with every degree of igno- 
miny. They are daily threatening us with death, which we 
are quite indifferent about ; in Christ Jesus we boldly despise 
the sword and the flames. We know in whom we have 
believed, and we are sure that we shall lay down our lives in 
a good cause. Meanwhile aid us with your prayers, tbat he 
who hath begun a good work in us will perform it even unto 
the end. We are the Lord's ; let him do what seemeth good 
in his eyes. 

I entreat you to comfort occasionally by your letters that 
most exemplary and godly woman, my wife, and exhort her 
to bring up our children carefully, Rachel your little god- 
daughter, an exceedingly well-disposed girl, and my son 
Daniel, and piously to educate them in the knowledge and 
fear of God. I moreover send your reverence two little 
books for your perusal, consideration, and correction, if they 
contain any thing not agreeable to the word of God. I have 
entitled the one, An Hyperaspismus touching the true doc- 
trine and use of the Lord's Supper; and I have dedicated it 
to the parliament of England, that we may publicly reply to 
our adversaries in the court of parliament. The title of the 
other is, A Tractate upon discerning and avoiding false 
religion. And I beg that you will cause them to be printed 


as soon as possible. Both the books 1 arc approved by all the 
godly and learned in this country. I have moreover written 
many other letters to the bishops, that they should bring 
forward the books in parliament ; and I wish these also to be 
printed, that all may perceive how unfairly and unjustly 
we are dealt with. But I need not write to you at length 
upon this subject ; you will understand my wishes from the 
books and letters themselves. And if your friend Froschover 
should be prevented from printing- them by more important 
engagements, I wish he would send them to Basle to master 
Oporinus, who prints very correctly, and sends out all his 
publications in a superior, manner. I know he will do this, 
if only the books are sent to him with a recommendation 
from you, and which I earnestly entreat you to supply. 
There is no occasion for you to fear for me, as though the 
enemies of the gospel would rage more fiercely and with 
greater cruelty on account of these books. I have a most 
faithful guardian and defender of my salvation in our 
heavenly Father through Jesus Christ, to whom I have 
wholly committed myself. To his faithfulness and protection 
I commend myself: if he shall prolong my days, may he 
cause it to be for the glory of his name ; but if he wills that 
my short and evil life should be ended, I can say with equal 
complacency, His will be done ! I am writing by stealth, and 
therefore my letter to your excellence is shorter and more 
confused [than I could wish] ; take it, I pray you, in good 
part. In haste, from prison, Dec. 11, 1554. 

Salute for me dutifully your excellent wife and all your 
family at home and elsewhere; and all others, as you know. 

Your excellence's most affectionate, 

as I ought to be, 


[ l Neither of these books appears to have been printed. Search 
has been made for the manuscript copies here mentioned, but without 
success. The epistle dedicatory to the latter is given in Strype, Mem. 
m. i. 283. ii. 267. Bale mentions among Hooper's works written in 
Latin from prison, Pro doctrina coence Dominicoe Liber, and De pseudo- 
doctrina fugienda, Lib. i. and quotes the commencing sentence of 
each of them. Bale, Script. Illustr. Basil, 1559.] 




Dated at LONDON, April 3, [1551.] 

I HAVE received your letter, most cliristian sir, in which, 
as in a glass, I perceive how greatly you are interested for 
us. But though I acknowledge myself quite incapable of re- 
turning you the thanks I ought for your especial friendship 
towards us, I will not cease from offering them; and I heartily 
pray God and the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, that he 
may abundantly recompense you, as I am unable to do so 
myself. I will not acquaint you with the reason of master 
Hooper's imprisonment 11 , until I have communicated to him 
your letter, which at present is quite out of my power ; for 
he went down to his see as soon as he was discharged. I doubt 
not but that he will satisfy your desire as soon as he is in- 
formed of it; and this seems to me far more convenient, than 
for me to make the attempt without consulting him. But as 
you inquire how my daughter Rachel is going on, I consider 
it my duty to give you some information concerning her. First 
then, you must know that she is well acquainted with English, 
and that she has learned by heart within these three months 
the form of giving thanks, the ten commandments, the Lord's 
prayer, the apostles' creed, together with the first and second 
psalms of David. And now, as she knows almost all her 
letters, she is instructed in the catechism. If I could write 
in German, I should more frequently take pen in hand. 
But if your son should happen to come to England, I shall 
have a better opportunity both of writing, and also in some 
measure of repaying your paternal affection for us, and which 
I value more than the richest treasures of gold or silver. 
I have no news to communicate respecting Ireland, except 
that the French king is reported to have prepared a fleet 
for the purpose of invading and taking possession of it, but 
his design was discovered by the activity of some faithful 

[ 2 Hooper was committed to the Fleet for objecting to the prescribed 
vestments, (see p. 9l) by order of the privy council, Jan. 27, 1551. 
Ho was consecrated at Lambeth on the 8th of March. See Soames, 
Hist. Ref. in. 566 ; Burnet, m. 305.] 


I send you a small gold coin, in which the effigy of the king 
of England is very well expressed, as a return for the token 
you sent to Rachel, for which she thanks you in her childish 
prattle, and sends her best love. I entreat you to recommend 
master Hooper to be more moderate in his labour : for he 
preaches four, or at least three times every day ; and I am 
afraid lest these overabundant exertions should occasion a 
premature decay, by which very many souls now hungering 
after the word of God, and whose hunger is well known from 
the frequent anxiety to hear him, will be deprived both of 
their teacher and his doctrine. We are much disturbed by the 
apprehension of riots; for there is great danger of them very 
shortly by reason of the dearness of provisions and other 
things, although there is great plenty of wheat and other 
grain : but on whom the blame is to be laid you know better 
than I do. I have forwarded your letter to master Hooper, 
and will take care to send you his reply. Farewell. Salute 
master Bibliander and his wife, masters Gualter and Pellican 
and their wives, master Zuinglius and his wife, to whom also 
I send a golden coin stamped with the king's effigy. London, 
April 3, [1551]. 

Your most dutiful, 


My maid Joanna salutes you, as does her husband, the 
servant of the French church. When you write to master 
Hooper or myself, take care that your letters are carefully 
sealed; for there are certain busy-bodies who are in the 
habit of opening and reading them, if by any means they 
can do it. 



Dated at GLOUCESTER, Oct. 27, 1551 l . 

GREETING. When the bearer of this was with us, there 
were two reasons which prevented my answering your letter; 

[ l This letter was probably sent together with that of bishop 
Hooper's of the same date, given above, p. 95.] 


the one, because I am unable to express my sentiments in 
German ; the other, because I was overwhelmed by so many 
and urgent engagements that scarce any leisure was allowed 
me. Yet the regard I bear you drew me aside a little while 
from iny employments, and compelled me altogether to put 
them off to another time. At length then I have prepared 
myself with much satisfaction for a diligent though hasty cor- 
respondence, that by this effort I might, in some measure at 
least, gratify your mind with my most insignificant letter. 
For I love, and esteem, and reverence you most especially, 
and I return you my best thanks for having condescended 
to write me a most elegant and kind letter, though I have 
hitherto been very negligent and remiss in writing. But the 
receipt of your letter divested me of all sloth, though indeed 
at this time my engagements will not admit of its indulgence : 
everything however that I intended to write to you I have 
turned over to this Mercury ; and I pray you to give him 
credit for what he may tell you, as time forbids my entering 
more into the subject. I justly lament your absence, who 
have stood forth as my most excellent friend, nay, rather I 
may say, my patron ; and who have so obliged me by your 
favours, that were I even to pledge my life, much less my 
property, I should be unable to return your kindness. Where- 
fore since my life and property are not sufficient to repay my 
obligations, I must still remain in debt. Oh! I wish that 
the distance of place did not separate us at so long an interval, 
that we might enjoy the same intimacy as heretofore. But I 
hope that you will shortly visit England, which if you will 
accomplish, I shall then consider myself most fortunate in be- 
ing again permitted to enjoy your long wished for society. I 
pray you, my father, to salute your wife, my mother, affection- 
ately in my name, as also all my other friends. Gloucester, 
Oct. 27, 1551. Farewell. 

Rachel, thank God, is in excellent health, and salutes 
you and your wife, and begs your blessing, and prays that 
in your blessing God may deign to bless her also. 

Ever your entire and obliged friend, 




Dated at FRANKFORT, April 20, ]ff>4. 

MUCH health. I recognised, my venerable friend, in the 
letter you lately wrote me, your wonted kindness : you shew 
yourself so anxious about me, that I could not expect more 
even if you were my father. And indeed that letter was 
doubly acceptable, both because I perceived that I was not 
neglected by you, and also, because God had at that time 
visited me with a calamity in which I was forced not only to 
lament the common condition of the church at large, but also 
my own individual affliction. My woman's mind being bat- 
tered with these two engines, what wonder if it seemed 
immediately about to give way ? But the Spirit of the 
Lord was with me, and raised up his ministers to give me 
comfort ; among whom you were one, by whose letter I was 
especially refreshed. May the Lord Jesus repay you with 
his blessing ! For after I had received and read it over, I 
began by God's assistance to bear myself up against such a 
weight of calamity ; and I am hitherto supporting myself, as 
far as I am able, by the word of God, often reading over 
again your letter, to add spurs to this dull flesh. You will 
perform an act therefore worthy of your kindness, if you will 
continue in this manner, by more frequent letters, to uphold 
one whom you have in some degree already raised up. 

I thank you for expressing your wish that I were with 
you yonder, nor is there any other place I should prefer. But 
since the Lord, by my husband's bidding and the advice of 
my friends, has at length driven me from England, and con- 
ducted me safe to Antwerp, I availed myself of an opportunity 
of accompanying a party every way suitable, and joined my 
female relative at Frankfort, where now, by the mercy of God, 
the senate has granted liberty to the foreign church for their 
whole ecclesiastical ministry both of the word and sacraments. 
On this account I shall prefer remaining here in my own 
hired house, until I see how the Lord shall deal with my 
husband, concerning whom, as T have not yet received any 


intelligence, I am not a little anxious. But yet I know that 
he is under God's care; and I therefore acquiesce in the 
providence of my God : and although this burden of widow- 
hood is very painful, yet I comfort myself as far as I am 
able by prayer and the word of God. I entreat you for 
Christ's sake, to aid me both with your prayers and corre- 
spondence. Salute, I pray you, most dutifully, my very dear 
gossip your wife, with all your family. I salute masters 
Bibliander, Pellican, Gualter, Sebastian the schoolmaster, and 
all the brethren. I pray Almighty God continually to afford 
you an increase of his Spirit. Farewell, my much esteemed 
and revered friend in Christ. Frankfort, April 20, the day 
after the opening of the church of the white virgins to us, when 
master Valerandus Pollanus, the husband of my relative, and 
the chief pastor of the church, preached a sermon, and bap- 
tized his young son in the Rhine. May God grant to this 
church a due increase, and worthy of his name ! Do you 
pray for it. The pastor himself, my kinsman, earnestly 
entreated me to salute you in his name, and to commend his 
ministry to your prayers and those of your colleagues. 
Again farewell in Christ. 1554. 

Your god-daughter Rachel salutes you and your wife. 
Daniel is still in England, and I shall send a certain most 
respectable matron, who has hitherto been living with me, 
to bring him hither. I commend my honoured husband to 
your prayers. 

Your very loving friend, 




Dated at FRANKFORT, Sept. 22, 1354. 

GREETING. Your letter, my loving friend, was very 
gratifying to me, and I thank you for continuing to be so 
anxious about me. I thank you too very much for your 
anxiety about master Hooper. By the grace of God he 


bears every thing, even his threatened death, with constancy 
and fortitude. Your letter I know will be very acceptable to 
him, as he has already told me more than once. I entreat 
you for Christ's sake, deny him not this comfort. If I re- 
ceive your letter, I will easily take care that it shall be 
delivered. For hitherto, by the goodness of God, he has 
always been allowed to write to me, and to receive my 
letters: only take care that your letters are delivered at 
Strasburgh, either to master Burcher, or to master John 
Garner, the minister of the French church. I have been 
hitherto tolerably well, and bear this calamity as firmly as I 
can. The Lord will aid and succour my weakness. I have 
need of the prayers and sweet consolations of my good 
friends : wherefore I earnestly entreat you not to neglect me. 
As to news, there is not any that I know of but what you 
may learn from the merchants who return to you from this 
place. Salute, I entreat you, in my name my excellent 
gossip, your most honourable wife, masters Gualter, Bibli- 
ander, Pellican, and their wives. Master Cechelles salutes 
you, as does Valerandus Pollanus, who also sends you this 
little book, from which you may know the constitution and 
general order of our little church : in which should there be 


any thing which you think requires correction, you will ex- 
ceedingly oblige him by letting him know ; and I entreat you 
to do so, for Christ's sake. I commend myself and my 
children to your piety and most devout prayers. Farewell. 
Frankfort, Sept. 22/1554. 

Your very loving gossip, 



Dated at FRANKFORT, Nov. 12, 1554. 

I RETURN you everlasting thanks, very dear and honoured 
friend, for your delightful letter, which has afforded me much 
comfort. I acknowledge, and experience in myself, and per- 


ceive also in many others, what the Lord Christ foretold ; 
and I often soothe my mind, when wounded by anxiety, with 
the sweet reflection, that our God is faithful. I earnestly 
entreat you therefore, not to cease pleading for me with the 
Lord in your prayers, and by a letter from time to time to 
arouse my spirit, which, to say the truth, I very often feel to 
be all but dead through grief. And I now require the aid of 
all godly persons, although I am never entirely forsaken of 
the Lord, who sometimes refreshes me with the anticipation 
of a better life. But you yourself know how suitable to a 
diseased mind is the conversation of a sincere friend. I trust 
in the Lord, that the letter which you are writing to my 
dear husband, Avill afford him no less consolation than the one 
to myself; and in his name I thank you for that service. 
He is indeed worthy of the kind attention of all godly 
persons. I wish indeed I may some time have it in my power 
worthily to repay your kindness ; my very readiness to do so 
would shew that I am not wanting in gratitude. But you 
know me well. 

There is no news much worth your notice. For there 
has not been of a long time any certain intelligence from 
England ; except that those persons who arrived from 
thence on the 10th instant, assert that a meeting of parlia- 
ment had taken place respecting the coronation of the 
Spaniard ; and that the hand of an individual 1 had been 
burnt off, because he refused to hear mass, and chose rather 
to be brought to the stake ; also that some godly persons had 
lately been thrown into prison for the sake of religion. If 
this be the case, I am more than commonly anxious about my 
husband. May the Lord Jesus preserve us both ! The 
lesser assembly of the states of Germany commenced here 
on the fourteenth of October; but this has no concern with 
religion, about which they have not yet said a single word. 
They are labouring for the tranquillity of Germany, that it 
may be safe from the attacks of the marquis of Brandon- 
burgh. I cannot say Avhat is proposed respecting the French 
(king), for I have not heard. I wish the people of Germany 
would not so rashly trust in foreign princes who are of a 

f 1 This, probably, was Thomas Jenkins, a weaver of Shoreditch; 
for an account of whose martyrdom see Foxe, vi. 717. Ed. 1838.] 



different religion to themselves : but you will hear more from 
the very respectable man who will deliver this letter. 

I salute my very dear gossip your wife, and all friends. 
My Daniel and Rachel also salute you. Masters Valerandus 
Pollanus and Secelles, whom you desired me to salute, salute 
you in return. The peace of our Lord Jesus Christ be 
with you ! I commend myself to your prayers. Frankfort, 
Nov. 12, 1554. 

Your very loving gossip and sister in Christ, 



Dated at FRANKFORT, April 11, 1555. 

MUCH health. When I received, most loving gossip, the 
book of my dear husband, I desired, as he bade me by his 
letter, that it should be published before this fair. For 
which reason I sent it to master Peter Martyr, that he might 
get it done at Strasburgh. He excused himself on account 
of the doctrine of the eucharist, which is not received there. 
It might be printed here by permission of the senate; but it 
is better that you should first of all revise the book, and pro- 
cure it to be printed yonder. But as I am well aware that 
his memory is most precious to you, I do not doubt but that 
you will be equally ready to oblige him in this matter, as if 
he were now alive : indeed, he is alive with all the holy 
martyrs, and with his Christ the head of the martyrs ; and I 
am dead here till God shall again unite me to him. I thank 
you for your most godly letter. I certainly stand much in 
need of such consolations, and of your prayers. I pray you 
therefore by the holy friendship of the most holy martyr my 
husband, of whom being now deprived I consider this life to 
be death, do not forsake me. I am not one who is able to 
return your kindness; but you will do an acceptable service 
to God, who especially commends widows to your protection. 

t 1 The original Latin of this letter will be found in the Appendix.] 


I and my Rachel return our thanks for the elegant new 
year's gift you sent us. Salute your excellent wife, my very 
dear gossip, and all friends. Farewell. Frankfort, April 11, 

Your very loving gossip and sister in Christ, 


Your [god-daughter] Rachel sends you an English coin, 
on which are the effigies of Ahab and Jezebel 2 . 



Dated at STRASHURGH, April 14, 1556. 

MANY thanks, most excellent master Bullinger, are due 
from us exiles to our Lord God, for having placed over his 
church in this calamitous age such a teacher as yourself. 
For we perceive you to be one who is willing to afford every 
consolation, and who is able to afford very much, to the 
afflicted servants of Christ yonder. But how greatly your 
kind offices towards them have bound the rest of the English 
to you, I had rather imagine than express, lest, in attempt- 
ing to declare your acts of kindness towards them, extensive as 
they have been, I should seem either to obscure their great- 
ness by recounting them, or, by treating of them too lightly, 
to diminish their importance. But in speaking of myself, 
namely, an exile, and weighed down with various crosses from 
the Lord, I can neither refrain from speaking of the great 
consolation you have afforded me, nor can I adequately ex- 
press my thanks. Master Burcher, and others, have often told 
me of your friendly greetings. My friend Chcke also has 
repeated to me your salutations in your letters to him, and so 
likewise has Sampson in his ; in which I have perused from 
your pen many things most gratifying to me. For I have 
perceived therein your distress and vehement sorrow of 

[ 2 The English money of this period bore the effigies of king Philip 
and queen Mary.] 


mind for the universal flock of Christ. I have perceived 
also, at the same time, a signal manifestation of your benevo- 
lence and regard towards mo. The Lord God, I acknow- 
ledo'o, has taken from me all that I had, which indeed was 

O ' 

most ample. But why should ho not ? He who gave 
has taken away. But what ? worldly, earthly, perish- 
able things; while ho is intending, I hope, yea, I do not 
doubt, to bestow upon me things heavenly and imperishable. 
What is exile? A thing which, provided you have where- 
withal to subsist, is painful only in imagination. I know 
that it is the scourge of the Lord ; but with what mildness 
and fatherly affection he deals with me, I can readily learn 
even from this, that he has afforded me for my comforters 
Bullingcr, Mclancthon, Martyr, and other most shining lights 
of his church. Happy was the widow of Sarepta in expe- 
riencing the morcy of God, and the consolation imparted by 
Elijah ; wretched and most unworthy were those lepers who 
rejected Christ their only comfort. But since it has seemed 
good to my God to raise up in you such an Elijah as can 
support me in my affliction ; I write these things to you, not 
so much to express my thanks for your so great and truly 
Christian care bestowed upon me, (although those are espe- 
cially due to you from me,) as to acquaint you at the same 
time that I have both derived the greatest pleasure from those 
letters of yours to your friends respecting me, and that I 
acknowledge myself exceedingly indebted to you for them. 

My friend Cheke bade me, on his departure for Antwerp, 
to salute you in his name : he told me also, that he had heard 
that Ignatius, in Greek, had been sent over to some printer 
at Zurich to be printed ; if this be the case, will you allow 
me to trouble you so far as to procure me a transcript of 
that passage from the epistle to the Philadelphians respecting 
the marriage of Paul and the other apostles ? I have now a 
controversy about this matter with a most impudent papist 1 . 
I am ashamed to say more about this request ; but you must 
know that I am of necessity compelled to make it, for I have 
no other means of obtaining what I wish. But as often as I 
consider the character that Bullino;er bears in the general 

O O 

opinion, my mind tells me before-hand that this little trouble 

t 1 For an account of this controversy with Dr Thomas Martin, see 
Strype, Mem. n. ii. 54, and in. i. 524, &c.] 


will not be displeasing to you. Excuse, I pray you, this 
liberty. Excuse also my hasty pen. Farewell, and count 
me, I pray you, in the number of your friends. Strasburgh, 
April 14, 1556. 

Yours wholly, 

JOHN PONET, Anglus, 

formerly bishop of Winchester. 



Dated at [STRASBURGH, June, 1550.]- 

Do not, I pray you, most excellent master Bullinger, take 
It ill that I have not sooner replied to your last letter. The 
long delay of master Martyr, who wished to be the bearer of 
my letter, has been the cause. His departure from hence to 
you is a proof of the exceeding favour of God to your church. 
I wish my affairs had been so circumstanced as to allow 
of my accompanying him ; as much indeed for the sake of 
hearing him as yourself. I return you my best thanks for 
having procured the transcript of that passage of Ignatius by 
master Gessncr. The name of that individual is of so much 
authority with me, that the very paper, which from your 
testimony I know to have been written upon by his hand, I 
lay up among my choicest treasures : for I am willingly 
superstitious in preserving the memorials of such men. 
Nothing affords me greater pleasure than to hear from your 
letter, that you will take care that our friendship confirmed in 
Christ shall be a durable one; for I seem thereby to be alto- 
gether united to you. I wish that what you wrote to me 
concerning sir John Cheke 3 may not prove prophetic. I 
doubt not but that he will seal his testimony to the gospel 

[ 2 A note annexed to this letter, in Bullinger's hand, states this to 
have been Ponct's last letter to him, and adds, that he died at Stras- 
burgh, in August 1556.] 

[ 3 For an account of Cheke's recantation and subsequent repent- 
ance and death, see Strype, Cheke, 113, 130.] 


with his blood. What will not Pharaoh attempt against Israel, 
especially on his return from exile ? I acknowledge myself 
very much indebted both to yourself and your church, on the 
behalf of the Englishman, master Parkhurst. My services, 
although my power is altogether nothing, yet such as they 
are, are entirely at your command, if I can be of use to you 
in any thing. Salute, I pray you, in my name master Gessner, 
to whom I certainly would have written, had not my modesty 
overcome my courage. But if I am wrong in this respect, I 
pray you forgive me. But I hope that ho will shortly take 
care that Ignatius be printed in Greek. May our great and 
good God long preserve you both in safety to his church ! 

Yours wholly, 

JOHN PONET, Winton. 



Dated at STH.ASBURGH, Juty 15, 1557. 

IT is not from any fault of mine, most accomplished sir, that 
you have been so long without your books. My dear husband 
has died and left me a wretched widow, and entirely unac- 
quainted with these things : he left also I know not how many 
or what kind of books, all of which, as I thought they be- 
longed to me, I sold to that excellent person, and my very 
good friend, master Cook ; which when I had done, master 
Jewel informed me by letter, that some of them belonged to 
your excellency, and that you were making inquiry after 
them. As soon as I understood this to be the case, I ad- 
dressed myself with all diligence, and frequently too, to 
master Cook, that I might be permitted to re-purchase, at 
whatever cost, those books of yours, which I had before 
sold him by mistake for my own. But from some cause or 
other I could not obtain my request. Since therefore I was 
exceedingly anxious to restore you your books, and could 
find no other way of doing so, I have purchased new ones 


at the booksellers, which I have destined for your reverence, 
and caused to bo forwarded to you by my worthy friend John 
Abel. For although I am but a poor widow, I had rather 
die than do an injury to any one, or than not pay every one 
their due, as far as lies in my power. It truly grieves me 
very much, that I have put off this business till the present 
time : but your kindness will excuse me, for I should have 
accomplished it sooner, if I could any where have met with 
the books on sale before. Farewell, very learned and dear 
sir : I request you too of your kindness not to forget me in 
your prayers, and 1 will always pray for you. Strasburgh, 
July 15, 1557. 

Your reverence's most devoted, 




Dated at the Palace, WESTMINSTER, Oct. 22, 1549 1 . 

THERE are many things, my very dear friend in Christ, 
which ought justly to inspire me with veneration for your- 
self; namely, your singular erudition and piety, so renowned 
throughout all Christendom. Many and splendid are the 
monuments of your talent, which have everywhere most 
clearly set forth the glory of God. These things however, 
important as they are, being of general interest, are not 
so likely to affect individuals : but the instance of your kind- 
ness with which you have lately favoured me, has more inti- 
mately and powerfully impressed my mind ; I mean, your 
having done me the honour of presenting me with your most 
learned letter, and jewel of a book. For there shine therein 
the jewels, not of earth, but heaven; not those which 
attract the sight, but which wonderfully delight the mind. 
I thank you therefore most heartily, and I implore the 

[* See the letter of John ab Ulmis, dated Oct. 20, 1549, in a sub- 
sequent part of this volume.] 


great and good God very long to preserve both yourself 
and those like you, as the most solid pillars of his church. 
Farewell. From the king's palace at Westminster, Oct. 
22, 1549. 

Your most devoted, 




Dated at LONDON, Nov. I, 1550. 

I SEEM very much indebted, very dear brother in 
Christ, to the divine goodness, for having requited my short 
and barren letter with such an exuberant and copious trea- 
sure of your writings. This is the manner of the Lord our 
God, who is wont to bestow all things in rich abundance upon 
those who diligently seek him. You have followed his ex- 
ample, and, in imitation of his fruitful fields, which return 
more than they receive, you have repaid my letter with 
abundant interest. 

Your letter ought, on these accounts, to be most gratify- 
ing to me ; first, because it is full of all kindness and affec- 
tion towards me, and a most certain evidence of it ; secondly, 
because it exhibits a heart glowing with all the ardour of 
piety and divine love; lastly, because it declares that not 
only the queen dowager, but likewise others of the more 
pious nobility of this kingdom, regard their Bullinger 
with so much love and affection. Your little work presented 
to the queen dowager was received by her most kindly, and 
read with the greatest interest and attention. Nothing can 
be more gratifying to her than studious labours executed by 
godly men. I return you my best thanks for having again 
favoured me with another present, and that not so much a 
paper one, as one that breathes heavenly ambrosia on every 
side. Moreover you have no reason to fear any exception 
being taken to your books, as long as the divine mercy 
shall preserve to us our king ; in whom, believe me, there 


already shines forth an incredible measure of learning, with 
a zeal for religion, and a judgment all but mature. 

I have carefully saluted in your own words the most re- 
verend the archbishop of Canterbury, the earl of Warwick, 
and the marquis of Dorset, all of whom desired me to salute 
you most courteously in return. We are anxiously expecting 
those other works which you promised shortly to publish, 
that you may never cease to deserve well of us, and receive a 
most abundant recompence, not from us, but from him in 
whose service you are especially enlisted. Farewell. 

After I had written the above, my letter being long 
detained either through my own negligence, or by reason 
of the infrequency of the post, it was reported to me that 
certain other of your works had been published ; which 
diligence of yours I congratulate both on your account and 
our own. Again farewell, my very dear brother in Christ. 
London, Nov. 1, 1550. 

Your much attached, 




Dated at WESTMINSTER, May 5, 1551. 

YOUR having deigned, most esteemed brother in Christ, 
to honour and distinguish me with such abundant favours, has 
added very considerably to my former obligations to you. 
You have requited my laconic and barren letter with almost 
an entire volume, and that too a most learned one, and most 
gratifying to me in the perusal. You proceed, moreover, to 
make me happy with a double present, namely, the treatise 
of master Calvin concerning that most Christian concord 
established between you in the matter of the eucharist 2 , and 
the fifth Decade of your sermons, which John ab Ulmis 
brought me yesterday night. For these presents I return 

[! The original of this letter is given in Strype, Mem. n. i. 532.] 
[ 2 This refers to the Consensus Tigurinus in 1549, when Calvin 

came to an agreement with Bullinger and other divines of Zurich 

respecting the doctrine of the Lord's supper.] 


you the best thanks in my power. I am exceedingly delighted 
with them both. Oh that the most merciful God would grant, 
some time or other, that in treating of the holy supper the 
universal church of Christ would aim at the same mark of 
truth ! 

In reading your books, especially when any passage shall 
occur which may peculiarly aifect me , by its piety, I will not 
cease to bear you in my remembrance, and to importune God 
in my prayers, that he may very long preserve you to his 
church, and more and more endue you with his holy Spirit. 
And when in so candid and Christian a manner you remind 
me of my duty, and so seriously excite and so solemnly 
engage me to the right performance of my office ; I con- 
sider this as done by the most holy Spirit of the Lord, that 
I may not be inactive or negligent in his work. For I daily 
feel how supine we are in the Lord's business, and how dili- 
gent and earnest in our own. 


Moreover, I embrace your sound and wholesome counsel 
respecting the reformation of the church of God, with the 
greater readiness, inasmuch as you so entirely coincide 
with me in that belief which a merciful God has given me 
in these things. For I am of opinion that all things in the 
church should be pure, simple, and removed as far as possible 
from the elements and pomps of this world. But in this 
our church what can I do, who am so deficient both in 
learning and authority ? I can only endeavour to persuade 
our bishops to be of the same mind and opinion with my- 
self, and in the mean time commit to God the care and 
conduct of his own work. 

You are most worthy, my Bullinger, of receiving the 
greatest favours, since you so gratefully accept those which 
are either of no value, or at least, of very little importance. 
Those two youths, who resided some time with me, are from 
their piety, and ardent desire of learning, worthy of the 
favour and good-will of pious persons. The other two, who 
have lately arrived, and whom you so greatly recommended 
to me, I will treat, were it only for your sake, with the 
greatest kindness in my power. I will not fail to salute in 
your name those two noble personages, and your great ad- 
mirers. May the Lord Jesus very long preserve you in 
safety, and give you both strength and courage for the re- 


storation of his church ! Farewell. Westminster, May 5, 

Your much attached and 

very loving brother in Christ, 




[Dated at WINDSOR, Oct. 5, 1552.] 

ALTHOUGH I have nothing of any consequence at this time 
to write to you, very dear brother in Christ, yet I am loth to 
dismiss our friend John [ab Ulmis] altogether without a letter 
from me ; and he himself would be much grieved at my doing 
so. As to what concerns the true religion, blessed be the 
Lord God, a ray of whoso glory is wonderfully shining upon 
us from day to day, we have now for the second time altered 
the administration of the public prayers and even of the sa- 
craments themselves, and have framed them according to the 
rule of God's word ; but the severe institutions of Christian 
discipline we most utterly abominate. We would bo sons, 
and heirs also, but we tremble at the rod. Do pray stir us 
up, and our nobility too, by the Spirit which is given to you, 
to a regard for discipline ; without which, I grieve to say it, 
the kingdom will be taken away from us, and given to a na- 
tion bringing forth the fruit thereof. 

But there is one thing, my Bullinger, respecting which I 
most anxiously desire to be thoroughly instructed. I read in 
the place where you treat of the. Lord's supper, in your fifth 
Decade *, these words : " Since it is not a public or general 
assembly when four or five communicate with a sick person, 
those who affirm that the supper may be administered to the 
sick at home, if others also receive it at the same time, say 
nothing to the purpose." What if, when the congregation is 

f 1 See Fiftic godlie and learned Sermons, divided into five Decades, 
conteyning the chiefe and principall pointes of Christian religion, writ- 
ten in three severall tomes or sections, by Henrie Bullinger, &c. London, 
1577. Tom. m. p. 1080.] 


duly called together, three, four, or five only, out of many 
hundreds, are willing to receive the sacrament of the eucharist, 
all the rest refusing to do so, is it not allowable for them to 
receive it either in the presence of the others, or after they 
have left the church? Why then should a sick person be 
deprived of this benefit ? I much wish for fuller information 
upon this point, as soon as you shall have leisure to afford it. 
May the Lord Jesus very long preserve you to us in safety, 
to the glory of Christ and the edification of his church ! 
Windsor in England, Oct. 5, 1552. 

Your brother in Christ, 




Dated at Magdalene College, OXFORD, Oct. 30, [1548]. 

GRACE and comfort of the Holy Ghost ! "JTour illustrious 
reputation and singular learning, most accomplished sir, have 
for many years past excited in my mind a great regard for 
you ; so that it has for a long time been my most earnest 
desire that a fitting opportunity might sometime be afforded 
me, if not of personal communication with you, at least of 
addressing you by letter, that a mutual regard might be 
established between us. And this ardent desire of mine was 
in a measure accomplished, when about ten years since 
Nicolas Partridge, a person most dear to me upon many ac- 
counts, being overtaken with sickness on his way into Italy, 
was entertained by you at your house, and having recovered 
his health by means of your liberality, on his return to 
England together with your friend Rodolph 1 , was the bearer 
of a letter to me from you ; which as I preserve by me no 
less willingly than carefully as a signal token of your regard 
to me, so I most earnestly embrace and reverence your 
courtesy, who, easily excelling as you do all persons in learn- 
ing, have nevertheless condescended to write to an individual 

t 1 Rodolph Gualter accompanied Nicolas Partridge of Lenliam, 
Kent, on his return to England from Zurich in 1537.] 


like myself, and, as you have most politely said, to court my 
friendship. And availing myself at that time of the favour- 
able opportunity of writing, I sent your excellency by that 
same attendant of yours my unpolished letter, with the in- 
tention of writing more frequently, had a suitable means of 
communication been afforded me. But I am now once more 
addressing your reverence in this letter with the greater 
freedom, because John ab Ulmis, a young man of good hopes, 
has lately brought me a salutation from you, with the ex- 
pression of your desire (as he informed me) in your letter to 
him, that John llodolph Stumphius, a youth no less amiablo 
than studious, who has most courteously offered me his ser- 
vices, might not return to you without a letter from me. I 
willingly commend him to you; and if you will assist him in 
his studies, according to your exceeding kindness, there is no 
doubt but that he will some time or other be of great benefit 
to the state. Farewell, most illustrious sir, and may the Lord 
Jesus long preserve you, and prosper your studies! Oxford, 
from Magdalene College, Oct. 30. 

Your excellency's most attached, 




Dated at FRANKFORT, Feb. 2, 1556. 

SINCE, my dearest Wolfius, nothing is more becoming a 
Christian man, than to have a mind full of love towards all, 
and feelings of compassion and kindness towards those who 
are miserable exiles for the sake of the true religion, (feelings 
which all the English who heretofore sojourned at Zurich 
ought to recognise in yourself, and which I myself experienced 
beyond the rest ;) so nothing is more unbecoming him who 
professes even the least regard to what is right, than to shew 
himself unmindful of, or ungrateful for, a benefit received. 
The slightest possible suspicion of such conduct I earnestly 
desire may be removed from me as far as possible. And I 
have therefore thought it better to let you know this by a 


letter, however brief, than by my silence to afford you any 
occasion of suspecting evil of me. Receive then this short 
letter, as a testimony of a mind ready and prepared to return 
your kindness, had not fortune denied me the ability cor- 
responding to the readiness of my inclination. My dear 
brother Richard [Chambers] salutes you, and acknowledges 
himself bound to you by an equal obligation with myself. 
Salute, I pray you, in our name our very dear friends in 
Christ, masters Pellican, Gualter, Bibliandcr, Simler, Zuing- 
lius, Lavater, Haller, Frisius, John ab Ulmis, and both the 
elder and younger Froschover. And especially salute most 
affectionately in my name one who deserves so well of me, 
Peter Stainer, Avith his most amiable wife : nor would I desire 
to pass over our landlady, who, as she wrote word to master 
Richard, sold, by your assistance, the two beds for fourteen 
florins, and I know not what other articles besides ; which 
amount we desire to be transmitted by Froschover, or some 
other confidential person, to Frankfort at the next fair, toge- 
ther with a small portmanteau which we also left to be 
forwarded by your kindness, and that of John ab Ulmis. 
Farewell, most excellent sir. Frankfort, Feb. 2, 1556. 

Yours wholly, in Christ, 


P.S. Out of the money which our landlady has in charge, 
please to give her one florin for her trouble, and send the 
balance to us. 



Dated at [FRANKFORT,] Feb. 3, 1556. 

HOSPITALITY indeed is always commendable in every 
one; and in you, most grave and potent lords, it has been 
truly admirable : for that those whom nature, or rather God, 
has rendered brave and powerful in war, for the purpose, as it 
should seem, of fighting the Lord's battles, that you, I say, 
should become so compassionate, as to be the entertainers of 


the humble, wandering, dispersed and wretched members of 
the church, cannot indeed be passed over without great ad- 
miration ; and chiefly for this reason, inasmuch as not having 
been disturbed in your own persons by any storms of misfor- 
tune and calamity, your not having hitherto been under any 
necessity of requiring assistance, your not having had recourse 
to any one for support, in a word, your not having been in 
the way of experiencing the benevolence of others in this 
respect, proves that this your hospitable feeling cannot arise 
from the desire to return a kindness, or from your having 
been subjected to the like calamities yourselves. Many per- 
sons indeed are led by the feelings of commiseration to relieve 
those who have suffered the like misfortunes with themselves ; 
and all persons, those at least who have any regard to prin- 
ciple, consider themselves so obliged, as it were, by the law of 
requital, as that, having been in circumstances of trouble and 
distress themselves, and having therein experienced the libe- 
rality of others, they are unwilling, through an instinctive 
sense of natural justice, to refuse to persons labouring under 
the like afflictions that assistance, which the more fortunate 
are always able to afford to those in need without any detri- 
ment to themselves. 

I will not, however, any longer praise you, but rather 
acknowledge in you the efficacy of the word, or the power 
of God in his Avord, which was mighty in you also who 
believed unto salvation. " The voice of the Lord is powerful, 
the voice of the Lord is full of majesty," as the Psalmist 
says; and it has certainly the power of renewing and 
transforming us into other men. That frequent exclamation 
of master Zuinglius has also reached my ears, where he is 
wont to affirm, speaking from experience, that evangelical 
doctrine (though it has done much beside), yet, if it had 
effected nothing else, has however produced this advantage, 
that by the preaching of it men are rendered much more 
civilized in their manners, and altogether much more humane 
in their feelings. If that most excellent man, so worthy of 
everlasting and pious remembrance, were now living, I should 
address him in the same language that formerly in the gospel 
the citizens of Samaria addressed to the woman of that city, 
" Now we believe, not because of thy saying, for we have 
heard and know ourselves ;" yea, we have experienced, we 
have felt it. For with what entire liberty, as far as our re- 


ligion was concerned, did we exercise freedom of conscience 
among you! how exempted were we from all tributary ex- 
actions, which you might justly have demanded for the 
public necessities even from your own citizens! Nay, how 
favoured were we by the liberality of your townsmen as well 
as your own ! Why should I mention the advice, the conso- 
lations of your ministers ; the lamentations of the citizens 
sympathising with us on our condition ; the gratuitous ser- 
vices of the apothecaries and physicians ? So that we were 
evidently not regarded and considered by you as guests, but 
as citizens, and, if possible, yet more. What pains you took 
to examine into our wants, our deficiencies, that out of your 
plenty and abundance you might provide for their supply ! 
Lastly, how did you spontaneously offer us, on our departure, 
in case we should have occasion to return, the same kindness, 
the same quiet habitations, the same liberty of permission to 
reside among you ; so that you have, as it Averc, your gates 
always open to ourselves and our countrymen ! Truly this 
your affection towards us Avas more than paternal. We never 
indeed experienced in our OAVH country greater compassion, 
kindness, and munificence; so that AVC all of us regarded 
almost as a proverb the saying, " It is good to be here." We 
should never have suffered ourselves to be torn from you, had 
we not been invited, and almost compelled as it were, by the 
two importunate letters of our countrymen, to relieve the 
extreme necessity of the IIOAV almost ruined church of our 
exiles at Frankfort 1 . Forgive us therefore that Ave could no 
longer be onerous to those to Avhom AVC desire to do honour. 

And since we can in no Avay gratify you more than by 
a grateful commemoration of the benefits AVC have received 
from you, we will not cease, in returning thanks for them, to 
have a continual remembrance of you in our petitions to God, 
that since we ourselves are unable to repay or discharge our 
debt, he may repay and discharge it [for us] in his Christ. 
Moreover, taking fresh occasion from our late experience of 
your hospitality, we earnestly desire that you should be en- 

[! Horn was "in the election" to succeed Whitchead in the pasto- 
ral office at Frankfort, where he "entered the churche the first off 
Marche, Anno Domini 1556, &c." See a Bricff discours aboute the 
troubles begonne at Franckfort in Germany, Anno Domini 1554, 
aboute the Booke off common prayer and ceremonies, &c. p. Ixii. 
London reprint, 1845.] 


treated and prevailed upon, that, in case any reason of im- 
portance should arise to drive us from our present abode, we 
may still meet with some place among you sufficient for our 
necessities. In the mean while may the eternal Lord God, 
the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, the giver of the Holy 
Ghost, bless you with all spiritual benediction, make you 
fearers of God, and feared and dreaded by your enemies ; 
may he furnish you, as the constant patrons of gospel truth, 
with unflinching boldness, courage, and power, to the edifica- 
tion of his whole church, and the glory and power of his holy 
name! Amen. Feb. 3, 1556. 

Your most attached, 




Dated Feb. 3, 1556. 

THOUGH I had long since intended to write to your 
reverence, I have been prevented by continued and almost 
endless engagements, as you know is usual with persons who 
are constantly changing their place of abode : but thus it has 
pleased God to try us, and the necessity of our church required 
this very thing, that we, who of late enjoyed among you the 
most entire liberty, together with no small degree of literary 
repose, are now on the contrary, through the magnitude of 
our affairs, scarcely able to obtain leisure for writing a single 
letter. We will not therefore entertain a doubt but that you 
will kindly bear with this our tardiness in writing, when you 
have considered the extent of our necessities, and understood 
the affection, love, and esteem of our hearts towards you ac- 
cording to our power. And since we have no other method 
of expressing it, we think it better to do so late than never 
by a letter addressed to yourself. But if we should here 



attempt to enumerate all the benefits you have conferred upon 
us, it Avould probably be too disagreeable to yourself, who 
prefer rather to be active in doing good, than to have the 
reputation of it ; and it would be also too troublesome a task 
for ourselves. For how much should we have to record of your 
counsel, sympathy, and protection ! You it was, who conciliated 
to us the good-will of your townsmen, and who procured the 
munificence of the government to be extended towards us. Nor 
did you content yourself merely with obtaining for us the good 
offices both of your family and your country ; but in addition 
to this, by letters to those at a distance, you occasioned the 
liberality of other and unknown individuals to be poured out 
upon us from all quarters. By your writings also you sought 
to reach even those our friends at home, by whose kindness 
we have been supported ; and this, that you might not be be- 
hind-hand in exciting them to so godly a purpose, and in aid- 
ing us that we should not be deprived of their assistance. It 
is indeed far more easy for us to relate these benefits than in 
any measure to requite them. We therefore commend you and 
your ministry to God, who will repay you in that day. 

Meanwhile we entreat you to do us this kindness, namely, 
to take upon yourself the charge of returning, to the whole 
senate, more suitable and abundant acknowledgments than 
such as we could include in our scanty and short epistle ; 
and (forasmuch as we cannot look forward to so long and 
continued a peace as to effect any change in our condition, 
before a free permission is granted us to return into our 
country,) most earnestly to entreat them in our behalf, that if 
there should, by any possibility, arise such a change, as to 
expel us from our present abode, we may nevertheless once 
more freely return to, and obtain a quiet sojourn among you. 
But we have no fear, either concerning yourself or those ex- 
cellent men, but that you will grant us this favour. In the 
meantime salute in the name of us all your most amiable 
wife, and at the same time all the ministers of the word 
among you, our reverend masters Pellican, Bibliander, Gualter, 
Lavater, Simler, Zuinglius, Haller, Frisius, John ab Ulmis, 
Stumphius, and others, as your occupations will allow. We 
think master Gessner, whose kind offices to us were innumerable, 
must by no means be passed over ; neither must the two 
Froschovers and their wives, whose extreme kindness to- 


wards us demands rather our letters than our salutations : .we 
have at this time however contented ourselves with the latter, 
because on account of so many engagements we are unable to 
write more. The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with 
you all ! Amen. Feb. 3, 1556. 

Your very affectionate, 


> Anf/li, 



Dated at [FKAXKFOHT,] Sept. 19, 1556. 

GRACE and peace from God our Father and our Lord 
Jesus Christ! 

We have received, most excellent master Bullinger, your 
letter, in which we easily perceive how much you esteem 
us, and that you are not forgetful of us. Not indeed 
that we should have had any doubt upon this point, if 
you had not written to us at all. But now, on the perusal 
of this most delightful letter that you have sent to us, 
we consider it as most evident, that your regard, fear, and 
solicitude extends not only to ourselves, but to the whole of 
our country ; by which feelings we hope you will be more 
effectually stirred up to offer also more fervent prayers to 
God on our behalf, for the reformation of our church, respect- 
ing which we certainly conceive better hopes, in that you, and 
other men of God like you, are earnest in your prayers for 
this very thing ; whose supplications, for the sake of Jesus 
Christ our only mediator, cannot be in vain, but acceptable to 
God, as being sprinkled with the blood of Christ, and inspired 
(as it were) with the breathings of the Holy Spirit. We 
acknowledge your good offices, your labours, your exertions ; 
and we pray the Lord to direct, establish, and confirm all 
things for the good of the church, the honour of God, and 
your own comfort. 

The much esteemed master a Lasco still remains at 



Frankfort, in daily expectation of a summons to bring him 
back into his own country. We communicated to him your 
letter. As to the matter of Brentius, we only pray that 
the Lord may compose the dissensions of the church, and 
multiply its peace. Nor are there every day wanting those, 
who, desirous of novelty, by their novel errors impugn the 
truth. It is indeed wonderful with how much loquacity, with 
what proud bombastic philosophy, certainly not " scientific 
demonstrations" (as he calls them,) but with the swelling 
blasts of Pelagius, and vain conceits of human wisdom, a 
certain Justus Yelsius 1 has filled the schools, conceded to us 
by the kindness of the magistracy who preside over this state, 
with doctrines opposed to the eternal predestination of God. 
We send you his conceits : his blasphemies against God, his 
railings and invectives against master Calvin, (and indeed 
they are quite severe enough.) we would rather omit mention 
of than defile our paper with such foul abuse. 

We expect no good news from England : all things seem 
to be growing worse and worse. So great is the number of 
the martyrs, who in their cheerful profession of the word 
of God are most cruelly dragged to the flames and to tor- 
ments, that those godly men who, on former occasions, 
made it their business to inquire into this matter, are now 
unable to ascertain either the number or the names of the 
suiferers. Nor can the ferocity of the queen, and of 
Bonner the pseudo-bishop of London, and of the other 
papists, restrain itself, satiated with domestic blood, with- 
out moreover crossing the sea, and raging so furiously, that 
no godly person can now remain at Antwerp in security 
and free from danger. Sir [John] Choke 2 and Sir Peter 

[ x For an account of Justus Vclsius and his opinions, see Strype, 
Grindal, 135.] 

[ 2 Sir John Cheke, in the spring of 1556, on his return from Brus- 
sels towards Antwerp, was, with Sir Peter Carew his companion, by 
king Philip's secret commandment, suddenly apprehended in the way 
by the provost marshal, bound, anil thrown into a cart, with his legs, 
arms, and body tied to it, and so conveyed on shipboard, brought a 
prisoner into England, and clapped up, as some great malefactor, in 
the Tower of London ; and at length was forced to acknowledge and 
subscribe to the popish doctrines, and recant publicly his former good 
profession of the gospel, there being no other way to save himself from 
burning. He fell into exceeding melancholy and trouble of mind, 


Carew 3 , both taken by treachery, and carried before the queen, 
were thrown into prison, but are now, it is said, set at liberty, 
or are shortly to be so. But, alas ! it is stated, (yet we hope 
the report is untrue,) that most iniquitous conditions of their 
restoration to, and enjoyment of, liberty, have been proposed 
to and accepted by them both. However it be, we may learn 
this, that it is vain to place our confidence in man. 

Charles, not yet enough broken by disease, and his 
sister 4 , together with his son Philip, being about to visit 
England, I know not for what reason, are recalled while on 
their very journey. Neither the nobility nor the people will 
patiently endure the arrival of these princes, nor do they 
in the mean time dissemble their impatience in this respect * 
notwithstanding that the queen with some of the nobles of 
her party are using all thoir influence and endeavours to 
aggrandize Philip with the hereditary right of government, 
the royal crown, and other distinctions ; and this, with 
consent of parliament, as they call it. In Suffolk, they are 
proclaiming the lady Elizabeth queen, and they associate lord 
Courteney 5 as her supporter ; by which bold attempt has been 
occasioned the execution of at least sixty or eighty persons 
by an ignominious death on the charge of treason. Respect- 
ing the number, however, nothing is known for certain. It is 
more certain, that on this account not only the lady Elizabeth, 
but also the lord Courteney 6 , are brought into suspicion of 
treason, and in no small peril of their lives : but may God 
change all things for the better ! Thus much concerning the 
affairs of our country. 

Still, however, not yet satisfied with these things, 
we are keeping secret a thing which is rather to be de- 

and in great repentances ended his miserable life within less than a 
year after. See Strype, Mem. in., i. 515; Cheke, 106, &c. Soames' 
Hist. Ref. iv. 565.] 

[ 3 Sir Peter Carew had fled abroad on account of having been 
concerned in Wyatt's rebellion. He was sent to the Tower at the 
same time with Sir John Cheke. See Strype, Mem. in. ii. 7.] 

[ 4 Mary, queen of Hungary and governess of the Low Countries.] 

[ 5 The real lord Courteney, earl of Devon, was personated by a 
young man of the name of Cleobury, who was afterwards executed at 
Bury in Suffolk. Lingard's Hist, of England, v. 112. 4to Edition.] 

[ 6 Lord Courteney died of an ague at Padua a few months after 
the discovery of the plot here mentioned.] 


sired than expected. We will however communicate it to 
you. We are in fact desirous of a conference about the 
affairs of religion ; but we are not yet able to affirm for 
certain whether it will take place. Should there occur any 
thing of the kind, we are in hopes that master Calvin will 
come back again, and that he will have both yourself and 
other learned men as his companions not only of his journey, 
but of his labours in this business. May the eternal Lord 
God grant this through Christ, that you may, some time or 
other, being assembled in the fear of God, (with Christ pre- 
siding in your council,) set forth at length a pure confession 
without any stain of error, to the confusion of the adver- 
saries, the peace of the church, and the glory of God; to 
whose protection we commend you, your wife, family, and all 
your friends. Farewell. Sept. 19. 1556. 

Your reverence's most devoted, 




Dated at GENEVA, April 7, 1556. 

COME, Lord Jesus, come quickly ! Health and peace in 
Christ Jesus ! 

Since Paul in all his epistles is so earnest in the saluta- 
tion of those brethren, whom he perceived to love Christ in 
sincerity, though many persons think lightly, or rather not at 
all, of this duty, because it consists only in a few bare words ; 
yet for my part, most illustrious sir, induced by so weighty 
an example, I can by no means consider it as of no import- 
ance. This being the case, whom can we English salute with 
greater reason than you, our good masters at Zurich, by whom 
we have been regarded as brethren? and to whom else can I 


especially, whom you have so liberally entertained far beyond 
my other friends, wish grace and life in my frequent and 
affectionate letters, rather than to yourself? Your prudence 
knows how to estimate things according to the intention of 
the giver, and not according to the value of the gift ; and 
you are able likewise so to compare the power of shewing 
kindness with the opportunities of doing so, as not so much 
to regard what each may have given : but if you could have 
been enriched by kind words, I should long since have made 
you happy ; for I am unable to gratify you in any other way. 

You will be much surprised at my departure from you, and 
not indeed without reason, for I was surprised at it myself; 
but when I had considered with myself what a people we are, 
and what we proverbially say of ourselves, I then ceased to 
wonder. For we commonly say of ourselves, that the English 
will never let well alone. Allow us, therefore, to be Englislk- 
men, that, when we have learned wisdom to our cost, we may 
perceive the constant evil of being inconstant. I do not say 
this because we have been in need of any thing, or suffered 
any ill-treatment, but that you may know that we had 
learned by experience the happiness of living at Zurich ; 
and though we have met with many persons who are willing 
to do us a service, we have found but few who have shewn 
us the same kind attention as yourselves. And though it 
is a great alleviation of sorrow for those who are afflicted 
to pour out their griefs into the bosom of a faithful friend, 
who may be able by wholesome counsel and soothing words 
to relieve their distress, and who will entreat the Lord for 
them with earnest prayers ; I had rather that you should 
commune with yourself upon the unhappy aspect of our 
church, (both that portion of it which is oppressed by wolves 
at home, as well as that which is dispersed abroad,) than that 
I should attempt to relate what cannot be described. You 
have formerly acted a part in this tragedy yourselves, but 
the Lord has granted you a happy issue : we are now brought 
upon the stage, that, being humbled by adversity, we may 
discover him, whom in our prosperity we did not acknowledge 
as we ought, to be a kind and merciful father. 

Let this my letter, I pray you, salute as affectionately as 
possible that common father of the afflicted, master Bullinger, 
to whom, as he so richly deserves, I wish every happiness ; and 


since the Lord has made you witnesses of my affliction, go 
on, as you have begun, to love me, to help me by your 
counsel, and entreat the Lord for me in your prayers, that I 
may again be restored to you, Avhen it shall seem him good. 
I thank also master Gessncr for all his exertions on my be- 
half, and for the letter full of good advice, which I lately 
received from him ; for by his means, next to the Lord who 
Avorketh all things, the pains in my stomach are daily so 
decreasing, that I cherish good hopes of regaining my former 
health. I have not yet tried any of the remedies which he 
last prescribed; but should I be compelled to adopt them, I 
will write to him that he may know their effects. I commend 
to you master Parkhurst and his wife, my friends Spenser and 
Frensham, and would especially desire to be commended to 
the venerable Pellican, the most learned Bibliander, masters 
Wolfius, John ab Ulmis, and all the other ministers. If I 
can do any thing for you, I am at your service. May the 
Lord keep you pure from this world unto his day! Amen. 
Farewell. Geneva, 7 April, 155G. 

Yours, as you so well deserve, 




Dated at CEVENNES, June 27, 1556. 

COME, Lord Jesus, quickly ! Since nothing is more fo- 
reign to a human being than inhumanity, and humanity adorns 
a human being more especially from the connection between 
its name and nature ; that you may not with reason think me 
inhuman because I, whom you have often treated with so 
much humanity, have not written to you, your humanity has 
induced me to address you by my letter. For since the 
Lord always abhors the ungrateful, who do not acknowledge 
benefits received, and the ungrateful are odious to mankind 
themselves ; lest I should fall into that fault of my own accord 
which I had always condemned in others, my duty has 


required, your dignity demanded, and both together have 
impelled me to write, that in words at least I might acknow- 
ledge an obligation, which in deed I am unable adequately 
to discharge. May you live then, I pray, with all your 
friends, long and happily ; and for the hospitality with which 
you have so kindly received all the exiles, and with the 
agreeable recollection of which I delight myself, may the 
Lord, according to his kindness, for ever bless you. Continue, 
moreover, as you have begun, and do honour to yourself and 
all your friends by your kindness to the exiles: for the Lord 
is pleased by such offerings, he has them in everlasting remem- 
brance, and can never forget your beneficence towards his 
proscribed people. But though your numerous noble actions 
are quoted by many with much grateful acknowledgment, 
there is not any thing in which they really rejoice more, than 
in that you are endeavouring to draw over to you Peter 
Martyr 1 . Many persons remark how unbefitting it is, and 
especially in these times, that the mouth of such a man should 
be stopped ; and many persons are promising themselves great 
things concerning him, when they perceive how great an 
accession he will be to the cause of truth in your most free 
city. And though it is agreeable and almost necessary to our 
exiles, that all we English should meet together in the same 
church, and by our united complaints and ardent prayers im- 
portune, supplicate, entreat the Lord on behalf of our ruined 
church ; yet both my inclination leads me to return to you as 
soon as I hear that he has arrived, and a light occasion will 
bring me. Whatever you may wish to know respecting me, 
the good bearer of this letter is willing and able to give you 
faithful intelligence in every respect. Salute for me my dear 
master Gualtcr, with the rest of your fellow-ministers, and 
especially master Gcssner, through whose means, by the 
blessing of God, I am still living, and daily somewhat im- 
proving in health. May the Lord Jesus continue to preserve 
you and your church, and in his mercy restore our fallen 
one ! Amen. Cevennes. 27th June, 1556. 

Yours most deservedly, 


[ ! Peter Martyr was invited to Zurich by the magistrates of that 
city in 1556.] 




Dated at VEXICE, April 20, [1557.] 

MY singular regard for you, and the constant esteem I 
have ever entertained towards you for the sake of religion, as 
well as your incredible kindness, experienced by me in many 
ways when I was at Zurich, have occasioned me, most learned 
Bullinger, to give this young man this letter to you, as a 
most assured token of rny affection towards you, and as it 
were a sealed evidence, which I was anxious to afford, of my 
continued love to you. And herein I thank you in such 
wise for your kindness, that I promise to repay it, if I ever 
have it in my power to oblige you in any respect. And I 
would have you regard this as said by me, not as men do, 
who now-a-days make a certain outward shew of words, and 
a mere parade of serving you, and this, rather that they may 
seem to be what they assert themselves, than be such in 
"eality ; but rather that you may persuade yourself, that it 
proceeds from a mind altogether sincere and entirely devoted 
to yourself. Wherefore, should I ever have it in iny power 
to do you any service, (I am aware how trifling it will be,) 
yet, trifling as it is, it shall bo altogether yours. But enough 
of this, and perhaps too much ; especially since it is my in- 
tention, should not other circumstances intervene to call me 
elsewhere, to visit you on my return to England, when I shall 
confirm in person what I can only express noAV by bare words. 

The young man who bears this letter, has informed me of 
the death of Conrad Pellican 1 , (of whom I make honourable 
mention ;) which when I heard, I grieved exceedingly as I 
ought to do, not so much for his sake as for that of the whole 
church. For he has most gloriously finished his course in 
labours, watchings, constant studies, and encouragement of 
learned men ; and at length, by dying as he lived, he is 
translated to a better life in heaven. But the church will 
long regret a man who was every way so perfect ; so that 
while I rejoice on his account, I cannot but grieve most 

[ ! Conrad Pellican died Sept. 14, 1556. J 


exceedingly for her sake. But your presence, as I hope and 
wish, will easily mitigate the occasion of this sorrow ; and 
may Almighty God in his mercy long preserve you safe to 
his church and to all good men ! Venice, April 26, [1557]. 

Your most attached, 


P. S. Diligently salute, I pray you, my dear friends 
masters Gessner and Gualter. 



Dated at STRASKURGH, Jan. 20, lf58. 

UNLESS our friendship, my worthy sir, had been too 
firmly established to be affected by any light matter, I should 
probably have been charged with neglect for not having 
hitherto replied to the most gratifying and courteous letter 

you sent me by master 2 ; by the admonition of 

which, however, I am the more reminded of my duty, and 
by the repeated perusal of it, from time to time, I console 
myself in this winter of our calamity. But I well know 
your candour, and silence does not always imply forgetfulness. 
For what the comic writer asserts with respect to asking 
advice, that shame forbids it in one quarter, dignity in ano- 
ther, the same may also take place in respect to letter-writing. 
For if I were not ashamed to write to you as often as I 
desire to address you, to hear you, to enjoy your society, not 
a day would be without its letter. Besides, since (as you 
state) more painful and severe trials are daily arising to us, 
it not only distresses our minds to relate them, but even to 
think about them. Such an one is that which we have lately 
heard concerning Calais 3 , that the town is either taken by the 

[2 The name is illegible in the original MS.] 

[3 The duke of Guise encamped before Calais on Jan. 1, 1558, and 
four days after, it was surrendered by lord Wentworth the governor, 
after it had been in the possession of the English above 200 years. 
See Stowe, 632. Godwin Ann. 331.] 


French, or in the greatest danger. Should we have lost it, I 
do not choose to conjecture, though it is not difficult to 
foresee, what mischiefs will ensue, and which, if we would 
only have been quiet, might so easily have been avoided. But 
alas ! for our carclessnesss, or (shall I say ?) our blindness ; 
who, though we have treacherously forsaken the Lord, are 
yet without fear of the punishment due to our wickedness, and 
denounced against us by the voice of God. 

I wish it were in my power to converse with you at 
large upon these and other matters, that in the abundance of 
my grief and tears your learned and godly discourse might 
afford me comfort. Frequently indeed have I intended to 
come and see you, and I may probably pass a month with 
you during this next Lent. But do not mention a word of 
this to any one ; for I am not yet sufficiently able to form my 
plans, and if I should undertake this journey, it will be known 
to very few persons beforehand. I pray our Lord Jesus to 
be pleased to shew compassion upon England, in many ways 
so afflicted, and to aid his troubled church according to the 
working of that mighty power, whereby he is able to subdue 
all things to himself. May God long preserve you in safety 
to all godly persons ! Strasburgh, Jan. 20, 1558. 

Yours wholly, 




Dated at GREENWICH, June 7, 1553. 

WILL you then, my Bullingcr, strive to be received into 
my friendship, which I ought rather to have offered, and not 
wait till it was solicited ? But that which is to be commended 
in you, I think is blameable in me ; for those persons who 
cultivate real friendships, resemble good husbandmen, and 
those who receive them, good land. I therefore, being anti- 
cipated by yourself, and also more tardy in cultivating friend- 
ships, have the inferior position : for in proportion as the 


husbandman is superior to the soil ho cultivates, in that same 
proportion am I excelled by yourself. To bestow a benefit 
is a virtuous act, to recompense it is a duty ; and it is far 
more blessed to confer a favour than to receive one, yea 
indeed, than either to be grateful for it, to remember it, or to 
requite it. But as your learning, your zeal for true religion, 
and your published works are universally known, and the 
affection which I had long since conceived for you had nowise 
shewn itself ; you must still bear in mind, that even if my 
regard had been unknown to you, I have notwithstanding been 
for a long time your admirer. 

The books which you have written to the king's 

majesty, have been as acceptable to him as they deserved 

to be. A large portion of them I delivered to him myself, 

and am able therefore to inform you how kindly and 

courteously he received them, and how greatly he esteems 

them ; and I can offer you my congratulations upon the 

subject. But since the king's majesty, debilitated by long 

illness, is scarcely yet restored to health, I cannot venture 

to make you any promise of obtaining a letter from him to 

yourself. But should a longer life be allowed him, (and I 

hope that he may very long enjoy it,) I prophesy indeed, that, 

with the Lord's blessing, he will prove such a king, as neither 

to yield to Josiah in the maintenance of true religion, nor to 

Solomon in the management of the state, nor to David in the 

encouragement of godliness. And whatever may be effected 

by nature or grace, or rather by God the source of both, 

whose providence is not even contained within the limits of the 

universe, it is probable that he will not only contribute very 

greatly to the preservation of the church, but also that he 

will distinguish learned men by every kind of encouragement. 

He has long since given evidence of these things, and has 

accomplished at this early period of his life more numerous 

and important objects, than others have been able to do when 

their age was more settled and matured. He has repealed 

the act of the six articles ; he has removed images from the 

churches ; he has overthrown idolatry ; he has abolished the 

mass, and destroyed almost every kind of superstition. He 

has put forth by his authority an excellent form of common 

prayer ; he has published good and pious homilies to lessen 

the ignorance of uneducated ministers. He has invited the 


most learned men to teach at the universities, and has done 
many other things of the same kind, every one of which 
would be considered as a great action in other men, but as 
nothing in him, by reason of the magnitude of what he has 
accomplished. Besides this, he has lately recommended to 
the schools by his authority the catechism of John 1 , bishop 
of Winchester, and has published the articles of the synod at 
London, which if you will compare with those of Trent, you 
will understand how the spirit of the one exceeds that of the 
other. Why should I say more ? I send you the book itself 
as a token of my regard, and believe me yours in Christ. 
Fare thee well. Greenwich, June 7, 1553. 7 Ed. VI. 

Yours in the Lord, 


Salute, I pray you, masters Rodolph Gualter, and Conrad 
Gessner, to whom I am shortly about to Avrite 2 . 



Dated at STRASUURGII, Oct. 20, 1555. 

AT one and the same instant I have been informed of the 
arrival of master de Sancto Andrea and of his departure. I 
am anxious, however, to address a few words to you. As far 
as I can perceive, I shall pass the winter in this place, enjoy- 
ing in this my exile the society of my old friends, from whose 
kindly intercourse I shall not willingly withdraw myself. I 
rejoice that the Lord has delivered you not only from the 

[ l This catechism set forth by bishop Ponet, with the articles 
appended, is printed in the volume of Liturgies, &c. of Edward VI. 
published by the Parker Society.] 

[ 2 A note added to this letter in Bullinger's hand, states it to have 
been Sir John Cheke's last letter to him a little before the death of 
the king, and his subsequent imprisonment. Ho was committed to 
the Tower as a traitor, July the 28th, together with the duke of 
Suffolk. See above, p. 132. n. 2.] 

[ 3 The original of this letter is preserved at Geneva.] 


violent illness with which you were afflicted, but also from a 
calamity 4 which would have been utterly fatal both to your 
church and state. Though these events are now of long 
standing, yet they are new to me, Avho now hear of them for 
the first time. I therefore heartily thank God for having 
afforded these extraordinary and remarkable manifestations of 
his providence to others, that he may call forth their faith and 
veneration of himself. Nothing is more effectual in bringing 
over the minds of our enemies to entertain correct thoughts 
respecting God, than when godly persons are defended by his 
protection against the snares and machinations of the wicked. 
And I pray that in this general confusion and overthrow 
the Lord may afford some aid and assistance to wretched 
England, wherein there are very many manifestations of his 
most heavy displeasure, and but very few of his goodness 
and mercy. For good men, and, what is yet more distressing, 
those who take the lead in learning and authority, by whose 
counsels and prudence many and important measures have 
been effected in the church, are not only brought in danger of 
their lives, but are actually under condemnation, and are daily 
expecting a death, which though desirable to themselves, will 
yet be lamentable and disastrous to the church. These 
ought by their example and constancy not only to give en- 
couragement to those of the present age, but to afford an 
eminent example to future generations. Among whom, Cran- 
mer, Ridley, and Latimer, the bishops of Canterbury, London, 
and formerly of Worcester, having firmly and boldly perse- 
vered in the Christian doctrine they had embraced, and not 
allowing themselves to be led away from it by the terror of 
punishment, death, and the flames, are now condemned, and 
degraded, as they call it ; and are either, I understand, 
already burned 5 , or are shortly to experience the power of 
the flames and the cruelty of their tyrants. It is most 
painful and distressing to us to be deprived of those, whom, 
if God should be pleased to effect any alteration of affairs in 
our wretched and now greatly ruined England, we should not 
be able, or at least should hardly be able, to dispense with. 

[ 4 This may refer to the conspiracy formed against the ministers 
of Geneva in 1555.] 

[ 5 Ridley and Latimer were burned at the stake Oct. 16, 1555, and 
Cranmer on the 21st of March following.] 


But why should I mention those things to you, who are 
well aware that this example of constancy and fortitude will 
tend to strengthen the universal church, scattered as it is far and 
wide, and that the living cannot be so useful by their teach- 
ing, as the dead can by their example ? But I must confess, 
and, humanly speaking, I am confirmed in my opinion, that 
what Paul said respecting his own life, I think may be 
applied to them, if this divine chastisement were to have a 
respite and cessation in England, and to bring us away from 
ungodly worship to true Christianity 1 . But what must Ave 
expect from God in this slaughter of godly men? It may 
be that our people, like the Amorites, must fill up the 
measure of their impiety, that the more heavy severity of 
divine justice may be exercised upon them. But whatever be 
the Lord's purpose, whom I ought to obey and not prescribe 
to, I know and believe that he will effect it in such a way as 
that all things may tend to the good of his elect, whose 
support and protection he undertakes. So that I feel less 
anxious about whatever may happen, and think it my duty so 
to judge of the Lord's purpose, as to consider it replete with 
wisdom and goodness, and that it neither can, nor ought to 
be, either amended or found fault with, by our opinions or 

You see how, when I am writing to a friend, I write 
every thing that comes into my mind. But while you 
are wearied by my prolixity, pardon my freedom, who am 
less careful in writing to those who love me, as not fearing 
reproof where the offence is rather worthy of pardon than 
censure. May the Lord preserve you for yourself, and 
for me, and his church ! Salute, I pray you, master Staf- 
ford, and his wife and family, and also his host of St 
Jerome's with whom he sojourns ; and your friend the mar- 
quis, if he has yet returned to you, Normandy, masters 
Budaeus, Parr, and your brother. Strasburgh, Oct. 20, 1555. 

Your most devoted, 


[! The meaning of this and some other passages in this letter is 
difficult to be made out, from the circumstance of some words being 
rendered illegible by the binding of the MS. The allusion seems to 
be to Phil, i.] 




Dated at STRASBURGJI, March 12, 1556. 

OUR people frequently converse respecting the kindness 
not of yourself alone, but also that of men of all classes, and 
of your whole commonwealth, towards the English who came 
to reside among you by reason of the change of religion in 
their own country. I consider this not kindness merely, but 
hospitality, to be especially acceptable to God, and approved 
of men ; and that it will never perish from the memory of 
any of our countrymen. As to me, should I ever have it 
in my power to render any service to yourself, or your godly 
friends, or your commonwealth, I pledge myself to be so 
ready to perform it, as that the anxiety of a grateful mind 
and the desire of returning an obligation may evidently 
appear. I ought also upon other grounds to shew both to 
yourself, and to masters Bibliander and Bernardino, as much 
respect as is due to learned, pious, and friendly persons, who 
have deserved well of the church of Christ. This your hos- 
pitality, therefore, is not only praise-worthy in itself, but is 
yet more so by comparison with the ill-treatment of others. 
For I suppose you are not ignorant, that those parties who 
maintain the body of Christ to be every where s can nowise 
endure the members of Christ to be any where, and have 
harassed them with all kinds of cruelty and atrocity, in order 
that with the absurdity of the opinions they have imbibed 
they may also join a savageness of disposition, and a brutal 
ferocity towards the meek children of God. But if the truth 
of opinions is to be judged of by their fruits, and there is as 
wide a difference between men's sentiments as there is in the 
Christian life, truly they ought to have been long since con- 
vinced, and to have given up so stubborn an opinion. But of 
the stupidity of these parties at another time. May God en- 
lighten their blinded mind with the light of his Spirit, and bring 
them out from this thick darkness of error to a better percep- 
tion of the truth, and a more harmonious consent of feelings. 

[ 2 This refers to the Ubiquitarian controversy. See Zurich Letters, 
first series, p. 92, n. 1, and second scries, p. 245. n. 6.] 




I hoar that Ignatius has been sent to you to be trans- 
lated and printed, a measure which I suppose has been adopt- 
ed for certain reasons. I had seen the book at Augsburgh, 
and had copied out some passages where the name of the 
mass was mentioned, and where he speaks of the wives of the 
apostles 1 . I request you, my Bullinger, and implore you 
a^ain and ajmin, to take care that the Greek bo printed toge- 

O o 7 l O 

ther with the translation. For it is of very great importance 
to scholars to read the author himself in his own language, 
and especially where grave and controverted matters are to 
be considered. I never read a translation without requiring 
the author himself as an interpreter of it. And I wish this 
had been done, not only in this author, but in all others, and 
in Frocopius. It would have removed suspicion in regard to 
many passages, which appear to have been introduced by the 
translator, where the meaning of certain Hcbmv and Latin 
words is discussed by a Greek unacquainted with those lan- 
guages. But now translations are so obtruded upon us, to 
the depreciation of the authors themselves, that there must of 
necessity arise that inconvenience which the papists object to 
us in the eucharist, namely, that we use the antitypes instead 
of the prototypes. Wherefore, if you will take care that good 
authors, when put in print, shall either be printed with the 
translations, as master Gesner has properly done in Stobaeus 
and others ; or even separately, if that should be thought more 
expedient, lest the translations only should bo cried up, and 
the authors themselves perish; you will confer many and im- 
portant benefits both on the present and succeeding generation. 
You see with what familiarity I address you : forgive me, 
I was only intending to salute you, and to thank you for your 
kindness towards our people; but when Ignatius and the 
other authors of whom we are deprived came into my mind, 
I could not but commend to you the cause of those authors, 
and entreat you, as it were, in their name not to suffer them 
to speak only through interpreters, when they might readily 

[! The following passages, from the interpolated Epistles of Igna- 
tius, seem to be referred to : QVK f6v ecm j^oapls TOV ITTKTKOTCOV ovre 
/3cBTTieo> ovre Trpocr^fpfiv ovre dva-iav 7rpocrKOp,ifiv ou're do^rjv eViTeAeu>, 
whore the last words in the Latin translation are, neque missas celebrare. 
Ad Srnyrn. p. 197. Ed. Voss. Lond. 1680. cos TLerpov ical UavXov Kal ru>v 
a\\a>v aTroo-roAwi', T>V ya.jj.ois Trpoa-o/j,i\r](j-dvT(ov. Ad Philadelph. p. 178.] 


be seen and heard by many in their own language, and be 
rescued from the danger of destruction which usually attends 
the Greek writers. Should there be any thing in which I 
can be of use to you, pray command me : and I beg you to 
say the same from me to masters Bibliander and Bernardine. 
I wish an opportunity were afforded me of performing these 
my promises. Salute, I pray you, the good old man, master 
Pellican, masters llodolph Gualter, Conrad Gesner, and espe- 
cially your wife. May the Lord preserve you ! Strasburgh. 
March 12, 1556. 

Your friend and brother in Christ, 




Dated at STUASBURGH, April 17, 1555. 

IF Chekc has sinned against your kindness, so I cannot 
but confess, most learned Calvin, that I have now for many 
months acted in the same manner. He can aggravate my fault, 
but can nowise acquit me, nor I him, from the charge of neg- 
lect. Nay, there is rather reason to fear that you should 
withdraw the hospitality you have so kindly afforded to the 
English. Is it for this that you have given up to us your 
house, and become a mere tenant in your own home, that in 
so many months from that time you should receive from me 
not a single atom of gratitude ? I am writing to the marquis ; 
and if there is nothing in that quarter to clear me in your eyes, 
I know with whom I have to do, and had rather acknowledge 
my fault, than offer you a new injury while I in vain attempt 
to palliate the old one. And yet you must know that I have 
written to him nothing but what is true, namely, that I and 
mine are at this very time exposed to the greatest danger, 
and that there are not wanting those who wish me either to 

[ 3 A note in the Simler collection states this to have been sir John 
Chekc's last letter before his capture, respecting which see above, 
p. 132, n. 2.] 

[ 3 The original of this letter is preserved at Geneva.] 



return home, or, like an outcast, to pass the life of an exile in 
a foreign country. And as I am not wanting in friends, who 
make other promises, so I am afraid that my bitter enemies 
will do more to injure me, than my lukewarm friends will do 
towards the restoration of my affairs. As to what is going 
on at home, since every one knows it, I suppose that you 
cannot be ignorant. This our friend Luke will easily tell 
you all that I know. I must tell you in the last place, that 
I had rather requite your deeds by corresponding deeds on 
my part, than seem to wish to recompense your exceeding 
kindness by a verbal acknowledgement. Luke will tell you the 
rest. Farewell, most courteous Calvin, and forgive me, I 
know not whether to say my silence, or my tedious letter. 
Strasburgh, April 17, 1555. 

Yours heartily, 




Dated at STRASBURGH, Aug. 23, 1555. 

I HAD been informed, most learned Bullinger, before the 
arrival of your letter, that it had been decreed, both by the 
authority of the chief magistrate, and the order of the senate, 
that no foreigners newly come should be admitted within 
your city : not indeed that foreigners are not most kindly 
received by you, and when received, treated with the greatest 
hospitality. But the necessity of this enactment has been 
solely occasioned by the influx among you at this time of 
Italians from Lugarno being so great, as hardly to leave 
room in your city for any new guest. When these things 
were related to me, as my friend Bernardino had not then 
written an answer to our friends here, the winter too 
threatening a true German frost, I considered it to be my 
next best plan, not to decline the house voluntarily offered 
here, and which by reason of the garden adjoining is very 
convenient. For it seemed to be quite time to procure wood, 


and hay, and other things necessary cither for the support of 
a family, or for guarding against the cold : for among the 
people of Strasburgh, when the cold regulates the price of 
wood, scarcely an ounce is offered for sale ; and when it is 
sold, you would scarcely be able to procure it at the most 
exorbitant price. I would ask you therefore, again and 
again, that if I have been at all to blame in this matter, you 
would pardon me for having caused you to wait upon the 
most illustrious chief magistrate to no purpose ; unless I 
knew for certain that you would easily pardon me both this 
and far greater faults : although what is not done at this 
time can easily be arranged at the beginning of spring, 
should not our affairs induce us to return to England. Do 
you, meanwhile, only let the chief magistrate understand, as 
regards myself, that I have not changed my purpose through 
any want of decision, but that I was of great necessity com- 
pelled to put it off to another time. This, indeed, is some 
part of the inconvenience, which men who are compelled to 
undergo a voluntary exile are wont to suffer, that when they 
desire above all things to arrange their affairs with some 
degree of certainty, they arc seldom or never rightly able to 
effect this. Unforeseen events are so apt to disarrange all 
our purposes and designs with the greatest ease. 

This anti-Paul 1 , Paul of the apostasy, the servant of the 
devil, this antichrist newly created at Homo, thinks it but a 
very small plunder that is offered to him, that he is again 
permitted in England to tyrannise over our consciences, unless 
the revenues be restored to the monasteries, that is, the pig- 
sties ; the patrimony, as he calls it, of the souls which arc now 
serving in the filth of purgatory. Our ambassadors, who went 
to Rome for the purpose of bringing back the wolf upon the 
sheep of Christ, are now with the emperor, and bring us 
these demands of the chief pontiff : God grant that he 
may urge them in every possible way! Perhaps those who 
have suffered the gospel of Christ, that is, the sceptre by 
which Christ both governs his kingdom and extends its 
borders, to be taken from them by threats, will not allow 

[* Cardinal Caraffa was elected pope, May 23, 1555, and took the 
name of Paul IV. He published his bull Rescissio Alienationum, in 
which he annulled without exception all alienations of the old eccle- 
siastical possessions. See Ranke's Hist, of the Popes.] 


their revenues, the life and blood of mankind, to be taken 
away, even by force. At all events, that will come to pass 
which Almighty God knows to be best for his people. If 
Socrates was accustomed to make no definite request from the 
gods, shall it be a great thing for us to depend altogether 
upon the good pleasure of God our Father ? Since he is our 
Father, he cannot for ever be angry with his children. Nay 
rather, when he has an assurance of our improvement, he will 
then certainly think of punishing both his enemies, and ours 
for his sake. Saul sought to destroy David, but did no 
more than attempt so great a crime. Among us, how many 
living members of Christ are thrown into the flames ! Saul, 
who was his own murderer, saw his three sons slain in one 
day ; and shall Winchester always live ? Shall he live to in- 
crease, and not to lay aside his boldness ? God liveth, and is 
no less a hater of wickedness now than he has ever been here- 
tofore. But I must conclude. Farewell, excellent Bullinger, 
and love me. Strasburgh, Aug. 23, 1555. 

Yours as you so well deserve, 




Without place or date. 

YOUR friends, masters Ncvinson, Alen, Butts 2 , the king's 
physician, and Redman 3 , have departed this life since I last 
wrote to you. Dr Bill 4 , the master of our college, has by his 

f 1 The original of this letter is preserved at Geneva. The writer's 
name is not mentioned ; but it appears, from internal evidence, to have 
been written by Lever in 1552.] 

[ 2 See above, p. 37, note 6.] 

[ 3 Dr John Redman was originally of St John's college, but was 
appointed master of Trinity in 1546. An account of his opinions, 
confirmatory of the statement made in this letter, is given in Strype, 
Cheke, 67 ; Mem. n. i. 527, &c. lie died in November, 1551.] 

[ 4 A grant of the mastership of Trinity college to Wm. Bill, D.D., 
for life, void by the death of John Redman, was dated in November, 


majesty's favour succeeded Redman in Trinity college, and 
I have succeeded Bill in St John's college 5 . Dr Redman 


died of consumption after a long illness, in constant expecta- 
tion of death, and in continual discourse respecting God and 
true religion, as one who ardently desired to be delivered 
from the prison of this body, and to be with Christ. 

I will communicate to you, my Ascham, a part of the 
communication 6 which John Yong (who, as you heard at 
Cambridge last year, was the most violent opponent of Bucer 7 
in the public schools) received in person from the mouth of Dr 
Redman immediately before his death. First, Redman was 
requested, as Yong himself informed me, by himself and the 
other learned men standing by, to deliver his opinion upon 
certain points of religion ; whereupon he forthwith under- 
took to answer as in the presence of God his judge, according 
to his real sentiments, upon any subject that they might 
think proper to propose. Being asked what ho thought of 
the see of Rome, he answered, that it was a sink of wicked- 
ness, whence was derived the stream of filthiness which had 
burst forth like a torrent upon the church of God. Being 
asked his opinion respecting purgatory, he said that there was 
not any such purgatory as the one imagined by the school- 
men ; but that when Christ shall come, surrounded by fire, 
all who meet him will be purified, as I believe, said he, my- 
self, and as many of the ancient doctors are of opinion. 
Being questioned respecting the mass, he said, that those who 
regard the mass as a sacrifice for the dead, arc opposed to 
Christ himself, and to the benefit of his death. As to the pro- 
position concerning justification by faith only, he declared it to 
be a delightful doctrine, and certainly full of comfort, provided 
it Avere understood of a true and living faith; and that no 
works were deserving of eternal life, not even works of grace 
in the person justified. When he was asked his opinion re- 
specting transubstantiation, he replied that he had for the last 

p Thomas Lever was appointed master of St John's, by royal 
mandate, in November, 1551, and ejected in 1553.] 

[ 6 For a full account of the communication between Dr Redman, 
011 his death-bed, Yong, and others, together with a letter from 
Yong to sir John Cheke on the same subject, see Foxe, Acts and 
Mon. vi. 2G7 274.] 

[7 For an account of the controversy between Yong and Bucer, 
see Zurich Letters, second series, p. 18. and Strype, Mem. n. i. 327.] 


twelve years directed all his studies and attention to that 
subject, and had remarked that the writings of Tertullian, 
Irenrcus, and Origcn were openly opposed to that doctrine, 
and that it was neither maintained nor delivered in other 
ancient writers : and when he had long and vainly expected 
to find some certain and undoubted statement upon that sub- 
ject in the writings of the schoolmen, he discovered in them 
nothing whatever sound and solid, but only deceit and gross 
error. With respect to the presence, he said (as Yong re- 
lated the conversation), that Christ was really and corporally 
present in the sacrament : but when he was asked whether 
that was the body of Christ, which we see the priest lift up, 
he affirmed, that the body of Christ was now incapable of 
being lifted up or let down by any human hands ; and it is, 
he added, a very corrupt custom to carry about the sacra- 
ment to be adored. He affirmed also that the wicked do not 
receive the body of Christ, but the sacrament of it. He 
earnestly exhorted Yong diligently to read the bible itself, 
and to beware of the doctrine of men. He added, moreover, 
that it was an excellent book 1 which the most reverend arch- 
bishop of Canterbury had lately written upon the eucharist, 
and he recommended Yong to read it Avith much attention. 
Yong told me himself, "As heretofore," saith he, "I myself 
would have encountered death with willingness and alacrity, 
in defence of transubstantiation, and that too more readily 
than in defence of the doctrine of the incarnation of Christ 
himself; so it shall be my endeavour for the future that all 
my studies and opinions may rest upon a more solid founda- 
tion than that common agreement of individuals, which they 
have erroneously denominated the church." 

I hope, my Ascham, that not Yong only, but many per- 
sons will be led away from the doctrine of men to the true 
religion of Christ, by means of this divine discourse of Red- 
man just before his death. 

t 1 The original edition of Cranmcr's Defence of the true and 
catholic doctrine of the Sacrament was published in 1550; his answer 
to Gardiner, in 1551.] 




Dated at GENEVA, April 11, [1554]. 

MUCH health in Christ Jesus. On the first night of our 
journey we arrived at Lcntzburg, when father Gervase, having 
read your letter to him, seemed to me to pour out upon us, 
as though we were his dearest friends, the admirable benevo- 
lence of a pious mind. For he brought us in the evening 
from the public inn, and took us to the delightful quiet of his 
own house ; and early the next morning he accompanied us 
for two hours on our way, and so exactly pointed out to us 
the description of the road, and the names of godly persons 
(in our route), that profiting by their advice, and by the 
marks previously pointed out to us, we arrived at Berne 
without any difficulty. We were there informed that 
Musculus, Haller, arid other learned men were exceedingly 
well disposed, and, in consequence of your letter to Haller, 
were ready to afford us any assistance : for many of them 
being assembled in the same house invited us to a good 
supper. Ilallcr too, in addition to supplying us liberally 
Avith a gratuitous lodging for three days, took us every day 
to whatever we wished to sec or hear. At Lausanne also 
Bcza 2 and Virct proved both by word and deed, that we were 
recommended and made welcome in consequence of your letter 
to them. At last, however, on the seventh of April, we 
reached Geneva, where, in the absence of Calvin, to whom I 
stated that you had given me a letter, AVO were immediately 
received as guests by a pious and worthy man, who is ex- 
pecting Calvin to return within these few days. I perceive, 
therefore, and acknowledge, that your fatherly care for mo 
not only provided for myself and my companion a most 
delightful lodging in your own house, but has also procured 
for us in other places and with other persons favour and 
kindnesjj far beyond our expectation. And for this cause, 
Avhich next to God I attribute to yourself, I have long since 
begun to consider myself not so much a traveller exiled 

[ 2 Bcza was appointed professor of Greek at Lausanne in 1549, 
and continued in that office ten years.] 


from my country, as a fellow-citizen of the saints now so- 
journing in the household of God. 

I now therefore feel no anxiety respecting myself, but an 
almost incurable solicitude for those whom I suspect to be 
overwhelmed by most grievous perils at home. For a certain 
Englishman, passing througli Berne, wrote to his countrymen 
at Geneva, that the Bernese government had been informed 
by a letter sent to them from the court of the king of France, 
that the queen of England had been slain by a mob, exaspe- 
rated by her perfidious cruelty. Another person, however, 
who left London on the 13th of March, has to-day informed 
me that no priests were executed in the rebellion raised by 
Wyatt, and that very few were put to death after his appre- 
hension. He said that only the duke of Suffolk 1 and his 
daughter lady Jane, Avith her husband, Avere beheaded, and 
that they all continued stedfast in the profession of the true 
religion. He affirmed too, that he had heard it for a certain 
fact, that Cranmcr 2 , archbishop of Canterbury, Ridley, bishop 
of London, Latimer, a very celebrated preacher, and [sir 
James] Hales 3 , a pious lawyer, had all been removed together 
from London to Oxford, to be burnt at the stake, after 
having been condemned for heresy by the doctors of that 
university. From all these circumstances I can only conclude, 
that either, if the queen is alive, there is a most grievous 
persecution of the church; or if a turbulent mob have the 
upper hand, the kingly government in England will be irre- 
coverably lost. But the hardness of my heart, which ever 
prevents my melting into tears, either of commiseration for 
these calamities, or of repentance for my own misdoings, is 
often wont to disturb my mind, to blunt my temper, and to 
confuse my memory. Wherefore I pray you, my father, in the 
bowels of Jesus Christ, to invoke with me my heavenly Father 
in my behalf, that regarding our miseries, the merits of Christ, 
and his own mercies, he may pardon me my neglect and 
wickedness, take away my hardness of heart, and bestow upon 
me the Spirit of repentance and sanctification. Give, I pray 

[i The duke of Suffolk was executed on the 23rd of February.] 
[ 2 Cranmer, Ridley, and Latimer, were sent down to Oxford about 

the 10th of April.] 

[ 3 A full account of Judge Hales is given in Foxe, Acts and Mon. 

vi. 710.] 


you, from myself and Hugo my companion, our salutations 
and very many thanks to your wife and all your family. And 
I again request you to salute in my name the venerable old 
men, Pellican and Bibliander, and the other learned and pious 
men, Gualter, Gesner, Lewis [Lavater], Zuingler and Zuing- 
lius. May Christ long preserve you for the benefit of his 
church! Farewell. Geneva, April 11. 

Your son, 




Dated at GENEVA, April 23, [1354]. 

MUCH health in Christ. As I told you before, so I now 
also acknowledge myself very much indebted to your fatherly 
foresight, through which, by means of your letter, I received 
from many persons to whom I was unknown the greatest 
kindness on my travels. No fresh tidings have reached me 
from England, except the contradiction of those rumours by 
which it was stated here for some days that the queen had 
been murdered. For she is still alive, persevering and in- 
creasing in wickedness. 

I hear that some Englishmen have come to you at Zurich, 
together with that very godly man, Richard Chambers' : I am 
sorry that they have reached you sooner than my letter could 
reach them. For Richard Chambers is the person who has 
actively devoted himself and all his property to provide for 
the safety of the ministers during this persecution ; and, 
though my journey ought to have diminished his labours, yet 
the vain expectation of a letter from me has increased both his 
toil and anxiety. But Christ, through whom all things work 

[ 4 Richard Chambers is represented by Strypc as a great friend of 
learning and favourer of the oppressed. He allowed Jewel 61. a-year 
for the purchase of books in divinity. He was one of the exiles ac 
Frankfort, and was agent with Grindal to the Strasburgh exiles to 
treat about the English service-book. Strypc, Mem. in. i. 225. 
Grindal, 14.] 


together for good to them that love God, will turn this also 
to the honour of God, and the comfort of those who seek the 
glory of Christ with all their heart. I hope therefore that 
the opportunity now afforded you by God of manifesting 
your kindness towards true Christians, faithful ministers, and 
wretched exiles, will not prove unacceptable, and that the 
contemplation of your church worshipping God with such 
holiness and purity will not be without benefit to them. Take 
care, I pray you, that the letter addressed to the above- 
named Richard Chambers, Englishman, may speedily be de- 
livered to him. Forget me not, I entreat you, in your prayers 
to God. Master Calvin, like many others, was more favour- 
ably disposed towards me for your sake; whence you may 
understand that you are now much indebted to many for my 
sake. I will always do what alone is in my power, namely, 
entreat God long to preserve you for the benefit of his 
church. Farewell. Geneva, April 23. 

Your most devoted son in Christ, 




Dated at GENEVA, June 2!>, [1554J. 

MUCH health in Christ Jesus. The fatherly benevolence 
and kindness which you have manifested towards me since 
my arrival in these parts, as an exile from my native land 
for the sake of religion, has mitigated my distress at leaving 
my country, and enabled me with cheerfulness to bear the 
cross of Christ. It has also been of great service to others 
of my countrymen ; and I cannot doubt of its continuance to- 
wards us, because I seem to myself to perceive, not our 
merits, but your kindness, in your continual favours conferred 
upon us. When indeed I received a little book and letter 
from you not long since, in both which I may daily hear, by 
the perusal of them, the words and voice of my most esteemed 
father in Christ ; I considered it as an admonition and en- 
couragement to me, to proceed and advance with the diligence 


of a son in the path of your paternal piety and instruction. 
And in truth that book seems, not only to myself, but to very 
many other pious and learned persons, to be worthy of being 
translated into many languages. Peter Tonvillanus, the bearer 
of this letter, has translated it into French, and left it here 
to be printed, as he was called from this place to advance the 
cause of the gospel in Poland. And since in my lamiliar in- 
tercourse with him I have found him to be a learned, godly, 
and honourable man, I have willingly entrusted him with this 
letter to you, by which he hopes likewise to become better 
acquainted with you, and on a more intimate footing. Your 
kindness towards all persons of this character will not allow 
him to be disappointed of his hope. Should my friend Spen- 
ser not return, master John ab Uhnis will, I hope, take care 
that your annotations on the lesser prophets, or any other 
that you may have entrusted him with for me, may be copied 
out. For as I desire nothing more fervently than such 
writings of yours, I earnestly requested master John ab 
Uhnis, by letter, to lend me his assistance in this matter ; with 
which request I hope he will faithfully comply. 

We have had of late no news from England, except that 
persecution still continues, or rather increases. May God 
have pity upon us, and sending power from above may he 
put forth such labourers into his harvest, who may thrust out 
the foxes from his vineyard, England ! 

Salute, I pray you, in my name, your wife and the rest 
of your family, to all of whom I always wish the choicest 
blessings in Christ. May the Lord long preserve you to us 
and to the church of Christ ! Farewell. Geneva, June 28. 

Your most devoted son in Christ, 




Dated at GENEVA, Jan. 17, [1555]. 

MUCH health in Christ Jesus. For that true fatherly 
affection and beneficence, which you have manifested both to- 


wards the other Englishmen who are in exile for the cause of 
religion, and also to myself, as though I were your own son, 
I cannot sufficiently return due and adequate thanks ; but 
as far as is in our power, we will earnestly and prayerfully 
entreat God for yourself, for the church committed to your 
charge, for your family, and for all your friends. May God 
grant that we may sometime prove by our actions, that we 
have learned from you to treat with affection, and courtesy, 
and benevolence, those who arc wandering about for the 
cause of Christ ! 

Since you have conducted yourself as a father to me, re- 
ceive, I pray you, from me as from your son an account of 
my manner of living and of my studies. I am residing here 
free and unfettered by any public employment. I attend all 
the sermons and lectures of Calvin, and some of those of 
other persons, and have hitherto employed the remainder of 
my time in the publication of a little book 1 in our vernacular 
English ; it is now in the press, and, God willing, will shortly 
be sent to England. After I shall have sent forth this book, 
I have determined to bestow as much time and attention as I 
can upon the study of the prophets. I should certainly pro- 
ceed in that study with greater alacrity and advantage, if I 
were able sometimes by any means to consult you. Where- 
fore, my reverend father, who have never refused me any 
thing hitherto, I pray you now to impart to my friend, master 
Spenser, some of your Avritings which may conduce to the 
understanding of the prophets, and which are not yet printed ; 
so that he may get them copied out for me, in the same 
manner as he is now procuring me what you are writing upon 
the Revelation of St John. 

I have not at this time any thing new or important to 
write to you about : Avhatever reports there may be, you 
may, if you choose, hear more easily from the relation of this 
messenger, than from my letter. For he is a pious and worthy 
man, by name Richard Harvel ; and having left England, his 
country, for the sake of religion and learning, he is anxious 

f 1 Entitled, " The right way from danger of sin and vengeance i n 
this wicked world unto godly wealth and salvation in Christ." Written 
at Geneva, and published in the time of queen Mary; afterwards 
reprinted in London 1571, 1575. Tanner, Bibl. p. 479; Herbert's 
Ames, n. 976.] 


to sec and converse with you. Such has been my intimacy 
with him here at Geneva, as to make me wish that this re- 
commendation of mine may be of use to him. 

Salute, I pray you, your very dear wife, as my own 
mother, and that worthy matron who ministered to us Eng- 
lish, like the mother of a family, when we were all together 
under the same roof. May God long preserve you to us for 
the benefit of the church of Christ! Farewell. Geneva, Jan. 17. 

Your attached in Christ, 




Dated at FRANKFORT, Feb. 12, [1555J. 

EVERLASTING health in Christ Jesus ! As I always found 
in you, when I was at Zurich, godly counsel, learning, and 
example, to my exceeding comfort and advantage, so now, 
most revered father in Christ, I hope that I shall obtain the 
benefit of your pious prayers for the edification of the church 
of Christ of the English at Frankfort. And as many others 
of my countrymen regard you as their patron, so do I 
acknowledge you to have been a father to myself, as I hope 
and desire that you will continue to be. And since I perceive 
that I am destitute of all power and opportunity of returning 
my obligations, I write this, that you may understand me to 
be neither unmindful nor ungrateful. 

There is no certain intelligence from England ; but I have 

o O ' 

heard from uncertain rumours, that the queen has never been 
pregnant, and that the council, which they call the parliament, 
was suddenly dissolved ; and this, because the king not only 
rejected, but treated with contempt, three petitions preferred 
by the magistrates ; one of which was, that he should restore 
the true religion, the second, that he should make peace with 
France, and the third, that he should not admit into his 
councils any one born out of England. I understand that 
more persons are seeking comfort from empty reports than 


from true repentance. Do not think it a trouble to salute 
my mother your wile in my name, together with the rest of 
your family, to all of whom I shall over wish every blessing. 
J\Iay the Lord Jesus long preserve you for the welfare of 
his church! Farewell. Frankfort, Feb. 12. 

Your most devoted sou in Christ, 




Dated at STHASHUIUIII, Jan. 4, [IfiftlJJ. 

Muni hojilth iii Christ Jesus ! While T was so engaged at 
Geneva, hoth in my private studies, and in hearing the dis- 
courses of the preachers in the public congregation, as that 
nothing at that time seemed to ho more desirable both for my 
own individual improvement Jind the edifying of the church ; 
some of my fellow-countrymen, who were banished from 
England on account of religion, and had settled at AVesel, 
sent a letter to me, wherein it was stated that by the majo- 
rity of their votes, and the common and united consent of 
them all, in a free election, I hail been chosen as their pastor. 
They therefore earnestly entreated me by letter, and im- 
plored me in Christ, that I would neither decline the charge 
which (iod (in answer to their prayers, and overruling their 
votes) had imposed upon me, nor delay my journey to them, 
who were anxiously expecting me. For since their late 
pastor had already left them of his own accord, and the 
magistrates had forbidden them the use of the sacraments, 
they hoped to be enabled by my arrival both to have a 
minister, and re-obtain the permission of the magistrates for 
the free use of the sacraments, or ;it least that they should 
receive some useful and necessary counsel. Having therefore 
perused their letter to this effect, and with prayer to God, 
after consulting master Calvin and my pious and learned 
brother-ministers of the church of England, I am now on 


my road from Geneva to Wesel ; entertaining such a view 
both of their state and condition, and of my own slender 


abilities, as tliat I am persuaded that I ought neither to un- 
dertake the office of their minister, nor yet to refuse any 
diligence or lahour of instructing them. For the ministerial 
office neither seems to myself, nor to others whom I have 
consulted, to be capable of being exercised either with or 
among those to whom the ministry of the sacraments is for- 
bidden : and indeed I do not as yet find in myself those 
qualities which the word of God declares should exist in a 
minister. Whatever gifts of God I may discover in myself, I 
shall never refuse, by God's help, to impart all of thorn 
freely and diligently to my brethren in Christ at their 
request. In accordance therefore with your fatherly good- 
will towards me (which I have so often experienced from our 
iirst acquaintance unto this present moment) I entreat you, 
my reverend father, in the bowels of Christ, to continue 
always mindful of me in your prayers to God ; and some- 
times too by your letters to me to advise and instruct me, 
as your son, how 1 may better learn to serve Christ and his 
church with humility, alacrity, and fidelity. And as I have 
no means of repaying you, I will diligently endeavour in my 
daily prayers to obtain for you and yours every blessing 
from God. 

1 pray you likewise to salute in my name masters Peter 
Martyr, Bernardino Ochinus, Gualter, and the other ministers 
of your church ; to all of whom, for your kindness to myself 
and to my countrymen, 1 acknowledge myself your debtor to 
the utmost extent of my power. Salute too, I pray you, 
from me in the Lord your wife and all your family, and 
lastly, that worthy matron who attended upon us English, 
or rather, supported us in the same house. May God long 
preserve you to the edifying of the church of Christ, and the 
overthrow of the kingdom of antichrist ! Farewell. Stras- 
burgh, on my journey, Jan. 4. 

Yours faithfully in Christ, 


n n 





Dated at BERNE, May 12, [1556]. 

MUCH health in Christ Jesus, with my warmest thanks 
for your constant fatherly kindness and good-will towards 
me, And though you have often bestowed many favours 
upon me, yet nothing could have ever happened to me more 
acceptably, or agreeably, than that by my reliance on your 
advice, and by making use of your letter, I have at length 
met with an asylum where my very dear countrymen and 
^brethren in Christ, who arc exiled from their country 
for their avowed and faithful profession of Christ, may by 
reason of the same profession be kindly and willingly re- 
ceived. For master Haller, upon the receipt of your letter, 
so advocated our cause, first, Avith many of the senators of 
Berne collectively and individually, and at last in a full 
assembly in the senate itself, that there is now permitted us 
the liberty of sojourning in any part of the Bernese territory. 
And master Haller requires or rather recommends us, that 
after we have examined a number of localities, we should 
return to Berne to make known to them what place within 
their territory will best suit us, that we may receive from 
the magistrates of Berne themselves especial letters of com- 
mendation to the mayor and inhabitants of that place. With 
regard too to the free use of the word of God, and of the 
sacraments, and also with respect to the manufacture of English 
cloth, when the subject was mentioned, the Bernese seemed 
candidly to acknowledge, that this was the very art which 
they wished us to exercise among them, and that there would 
be no difficulty in our obtaining permission from them. I am 
expecting therefore to-day a general letter from the magis- 
trates of that state to all who arc under their authority ; on 
the receipt of which I have resolved to set out to-morrow on 
a journey to the English at Basle, that I may consult to- 
gether with them upon the hastening all the rest who are 
still loitering on their road towards Basle, and upon survey- 
ing the district around Berne, with the view of discovering 
and providing the most suitable place of residence. I pray 


you therefore and beseech you in Christ, that, as you have 
hitherto done, so you will always continue (whenever God 
may give you an opportunity) to pour out abundantly upon 
me your paternal kindness. I should wish indeed to have 
placed myself with my friends under your wings, had it been 
possible, in the territory of Zurich. But not what I will, 
but what our heavenly Father willeth, will be done : to him be 
all honour and glory, and to us mercy and salvation in Christ 
Jesus ! Do not, I pray you, be displeased at my asking you to 
salute your wife as my own mother, and all the rest of your 
family as most dear to me in Christ in domestic love. I do 
not so much ask, as I wish and hope, that you will always 
be ready to give me advice upon such matters as you think 
may tend to the glory of God, and to the comfort and edifi- 
cation of me and mine in Christ Jesus. Farewell. Berne, 
May 12. 

Let us pray for each other. 

Your son faithfully in Christ Jesus, 




Dated at BASLE, May 27, 15515. 

JESUS Christ God with us ! Much health in Christ 
Jesus. Your great kindness, and the very prudent advice 
you gave mo in your house at Zurich, was an exceeding com- 
fort to me ; and your letter to master Steiger for the magis- 
trates and senate of Berne has been of great service to our 
cause. That you may not be wanting in an opportunity of 
persevering in your godly commiseration and diligent atten- 
tion to us, behold ! we are daily coming into greater difficulties 
and tribulations. For we English, after our banishment from 
England, our removal from Wesel 1 , and wanderings over 

[! At "Wesel the English were under some trouble ; and the senate 
were about to command them to depart thence, because of their 
different sentiments from the Augustan confession in some points. 
Strype, Cranmer, 507.] 



almost all Germany, have suffered a repulse in Basle 1 , and 
are at length compelled to have recourse to the hospitality 
of the people of Berne. For the councillors of king Ferdi- 
nand, who are at Emsen, will not allow any Englishmen, 
who are exiles for the sake of religion, liberty of passage 
through that territory of Ferdinand which lies between Stras- 
burgh and Basle. Whence you may easily perceive the 
length, fatigue, expense, difficulty and danger of our journey, 
and how greatly AVO are in need of protection, advice, libe- 
rality and assistance. Remember us, therefore, I entreat 
you, in your prayers to God, and in your correspondence 
and conversation with such individuals as you may know to 
be both able and willing to aid us in the cause of Christ. 
Farewell. Salute, I pray you, master Parkhurst and his 
wife. The bearer is in haste. Again farewell. Basle, May 27. 

Yours faithfully in Christ, 


[* The following account of this repulse is given by John Young, 
in a letter to Bullinger, dated May 17, 1557. " Measures had been 
taken by the brethren for receiving the English exiles, before I had 
returned from Constance ; but they suffered a repulse from our magis- 
trates, to the great sorrow and lamentation of the brethren, and of all 
godly persons. On my return, by the advice of the brethren, I again 
endeavom-ed to obtain from the senate that a residence might at least 
be afforded to those who were already on their journey ; for that it 
would be a most cruel procedure, and an offence to all Christian 
people, to cast them out. But this appeal also was made in vain ; for 
they would not allow them any greater indulgence than what is 
granted to the veriest mob that flock into the town, namely, the 
liberty of using the public houses. Alas ! my brother, how blind and 
impious must those persons be, who so rashly, so irreligiously, to say 
no more, repel from themselves and their families, to the great scandal 
of the churches of God, so great a blessing offered them from the 
Lord ! Which indeed as it has now returned to the people of Berne, 
\ve congratulate both them and the exiles, as much as AVO justly deplore 
our own misfortunes. Pray God for us ; for unless he support us in 
our distresses, I perceive that entire destruction will ensue."] 




Dated at ARAU, Sept. 18, [1556]. 

JESUS Christ God with us ! Much health in Christ 
Jesus. I have lately received two letters from your reve- 
rence, and your truly useful and delightful book for the use 
of the English church in this place. We plainly perceive 
therein your true fatherly affection towards us, and must 
candidly acknowledge, that while we promise you as much 
as will ever be in our power, we are utterly unable adequately 
to return our thanks. And as it is a father's nature to re- 
joice when he beholds his children profiting by his instruction 
and kindness, and eagerly and successfully making progress 
towards piety and happiness ; so shall it be our earnest endea- 
vour both to derive this advantage from your writings, and to 
afford you the happiness of observing our improvement. 

And now to discourse with you somewhat familiarly respect- 
ing myself, I would have you assured that your advice with 
respect to not contending about things indifferent was exceed- 
ingly gratifying to me. For I had previously come to the 
same determination myself, and, being now supported by your 
authority, shall persevere with much greater firmness and 
alacrity in taking care to avoid offences and useless contro- 
versies ; so that every thing may be more easily and effectu- 
ally accommodated to the peace, and concord, and edification 
of the church. For when I sent my friend master Richard 
Burcher to Berne, to consult master John Haller with respect 
to the use of ceremonies here in our church, I pointed out 
the reasons which induced me to wish that leavened bread 
might be used in the administration of the Lord's supper ; 
but in the mean time I was unwilling either to prefer any 
petition to the government, or to act in all respects as I was 
empowered to do, but only in reference to such things as 
seemed in his judgment both lawful and expedient. And 
indeed he wrote back the very same advice that I received 
from you in your letter ; so that I shall readily follow your 
suggestion not on this subject only, but also upon any thing 


else which with your wonted piety and discretion you may 
recommend or advise to be done or to be abstained from : 
and I pray you to write me word at the very first moment 
you have to spare, what you think I ought to do. If a man 
wishes to marry the sister of his deceased wife, or if he has 
already done so, ought ho to retain her or send her away ? I 
request also that you will peruse this little book upon the 
church discipline of the English at Geneva, and let me know 
your candid opinion of it. You see how boldly, relying upon 
your clemency and kindness, I address your reverence, whom 
I know to be always engaged in numerous and important 
affairs. You must therefore defer compliance with my re- 
quest until a suitable opportunity of leisure shall occur. All 
the English who are here most cordially salute your reverence 
in Christ, and we all of us beg to offer our best acknowledg- 
ments for your letter and the book. 

Salute, I pray you, in my name, the ministers of your 
church and all your family, for all of whom I shall always 
remember to pray to God, and for you especially, that you 
may enjoy long life, and ability to adorn the church of Christ, 
to the confusion of antichrist, and to our comfort. FareAvell. 
Arau. Sept. 18. 

Your most devoted in Christ, 




Dated at AIIAU, Aug. 11, 1557. 

JESUS Christ God with us I Much health in Christ 
Jesus. After a long and wearisome tossing about 1 I at 

[ l On the English congregation leaving Wesel, they passed by 
Frankfort, and "perceiving the contention to be among them so 
boiling hot, that it ran over on both sides, and yet no fire quenched, 
many had small pleasure to tarry there, but went to Basle and other 
places; while M. Lever made suit to the lords of Berne for a church 
within their dominions, whose letters he obtained with great favour to 


length seem to myself to have arrived with some of my 
friends at Arau, as at a harbour of refuge. For we have 
explored the whole Bernese territory, both in Germany and 
Savoy, and found in each country one place especially, namely, 
Arau in Germany, or rather in Switzerland, and Vevay in 
Savoy, that was both able and willing to afford a comfortable 
home to the English exiles for the sake of religion. And in 
these two towns we found the inhabitants favourable to us 
beyond all expectation. But the people of Arau 2 , by reason 
of their confined situation, are unable at present to supply 
and accommodate us with more than seven houses. And the 
people of Vevay, though in a short time they will be able 
and willing to receive the whole twenty-five families, arc yet 
a great way off, and difficult of access. Wherefore we have 
judged it far better and more practicable, that some few per- 
sons here in this neighbourhood, commencing with a small 
number, should gradually advance from small beginnings, and 
daily increase by fresh additions, than that all of them should 

all their subjects for the friendly entertainment of the British nation. 
These letters obtained, M. Lever, M. Boycs, M. Wilford, M. Pownall, 
and T. Upchcr, came to Geneva to have the advice of that church, 
what was best to be done touching the erection of .a new church. They 
of Geneva gave God thanks for that it had pleased him so to incline 
the hearts of the lords of Berne towards them, and gave encourage- 
ment that they should not let slip so good an occasion. Passing- 
through many parts of the lords of Berne's dominions in Savoy and 
Switzerland, they found such favour in all places where they came, 
as verily may be to the great condemnation of all such Englishmen as 
use the godly stranger so uncourteously. M. Lever and the company 
at length chose Arau for their resting-place, where the congregation 
lived together in godly quietness among themselves, with great favour 
of the people among whom for a time they were planted." Brief 
discourse of the troubles begun at Frankfort, p. 185. reprint, 1845.] 
[ 2 A letter from Young to Bullinger, dated Basle, Aug. 5, 1557, 
states that " a large portion of the English are remaining here. The rest 
will go to Arau, unless more eligible terms are offered them at Vevay. 
I went up to Arau with them last week, and easily obtained leave of 
residence for them among the citizens themselves, but we could not 
meet with suitable houses and apartments for more than seven 
families. The church of St Ursula is appropriated to them, and 
licence to engage in the manufacture of wool, in spite of the oppo- 
sition of some of the more wealthy of the inhabitants. God be 
praised !"] 


contend at once with great expense, and labour, and peril, for 
the attainment of their object. As many persons therefore 
as the seven houses which Arau supplies us with can contain, 
are now established there with their wives and children. The 
remainder, wishing rather to join us here than to remove as 
far as Vevay, are lingering in other places, hoping and 
desiring an opportunity of coming hither. And thus we 
English, driven from our country by popery, and from Wesel 
by Lutheranism, are now, most of us, by our mutual wishes, 
counsels, and assistance, tending to one spot, where it is still 
permitted us freely, sincerely, and openly to acknowledge and 
worship Christ. And we shall all at length come together 
to such a place, if God see fit : if otherwise, his will, and not 
ours, be done ! But certainly, whatever may happen to us 
in future, we shall all acknowledge ourselves exceedingly 
indebted to master Bullinger and yourself, by means of 
whose advice and commendatory letters I found and obtained 
for our countrymen from the people of Berne far more and 
better accommodation than I could have previously believed. 
Wherefore I entreat you both to continue to assist me by 
your letters, counsels, and admonitions, that I may retain and 
improve the favour, kindness, and all other comforts necessary 
for the gathering together, and consolation, and edifying of 
those, who, having quitted their country for the cause of 
Christ, are still looking out for a place where they may best 
be able to worship God in sincerity, and by mutual kind 
offices to supply each other with the necessary means of sub- 
sistence. Salute, I pray you, in my name, with many thanks, 
masters Henry Bullinger, P. Martyr, B. Ochinus, and the 
other godly men ; also master Parkhurst and his wife. Fare- 

Yours faithfully in Christ, 





Dated at ARAU, Oct. 5, 1557. 

GRACE and peace in Christ Jesus. "While others are 
wont to dedicate their writings to princes and great men, 
with the view either to popularity or reward, you alone, most 
illustrious sir, have made choice of us poor exiles to whom to 
address your midnight studies and lucubrations, to commend 
us in your discourses, and to render our condition (miserable as 
regards this world, but glorious if we regard him to whom we 
have consecrated ourselves, namely, Christ crucified,) memo- 
rable to all posterity. Your motives for having thus acted 
we can admire as well as account for. For we are almost 
ail of us unknown to you, and have no means of returning 
the obligation. But herein appears your zeal for the Lord's 
household, in that you not only diligently feed the flock over 
which the Lord has placed you, and instruct all other churches 
by your learned commentaries ; but also this our exile, in 
which we are deserted by our friends, laughed to scorn by 
many, spurned by others, assailed by reproaches and revilings 
by the most, you alleviate by your learned discourses, that we 
may not sink under the pressure of these evils ; and, like a 
good shepherd, you tend, strengthen, and cheer us all in our 
dispersion. We accept therefore your princely gift, and em- 
brace it with the feeling we ought ; and in return send you 
what alone we can do, namely, our thanks, our affectionate 
regard, and a frequent mention of you our master in our 
prayers. For your divine and honour-giving present, which 
no time shall ever bury in oblivion, receive this perishable 
paper filled with lasting thanks ; and as often as we shall 
take your book into our hands, so often shall we seem to 
ourselves to hear you preaching, or rather the Lord himself 
revealing his mysteries to us by your ministry. 

Farewell, very dear father and much esteemed master in 
Christ, and always regard us poor exiles with the love you 
are wont to do : for by your kindness is it that we this day 
experience, (nor are we alone in this feeling,) how true that 


is, which so many histories bear Avitness to, that the Swiss 
have been at all times remarkable for hospitality. Continue 
therefore to edify the church of the Lord by your unwearied 
labours and studies, to commend us to your countrymen, and 
to let pass no opportunity of befriending the distressed. May 
the Lord Jesus long preserve you for the good of his church ! 
Amen. Arau. Oct. 5, 1557. 

The exiled congregation of the English at Arau, most 
devoted to you in the Lord, has commissioned the following 
persons to subscribe their names in the name of all the rest: 




Dated at STRASUUUGH, Feb. 23, 1555. 

I DO not cease from doing here, as I did at Lausanne, 
that is, I am expecting a reply from your kindness. And 
indeed I am more anxiously expecting it, in proportion as I 
perceive the flame is lighted up with increased vehemence 
amongst us English. For a strong controversy lias arisen, 
while some desire the book of reformation of the church 
of England to be set aside altogether, others only deem 
some things in it objectionable, such as kneeling at the 
Lord's supper, the linen surplice, and other matters of this 
kind; but the rest of it, namely, the prayers, scripture les- 
sons, and the form of the administration of baptism and the 
Lord's supper they wish to be retained. Some contend for 

[* Richard Langhern, Kobert Pownall, Walter Kelly, and Thomas 
Turpin, afterwards received ordination from bishop Grindal, in 15GO.] 
[ 2 Probably an error for Allyn, but it is thus in the MS.] 


retaining the form, both because the archbishop of Canter- 
bury defends the doctrine as sound, and also because the op- 
posite party can assign no just reason why the form should be 
changed. They exclaim on the other hand, that the sole object 
of these persons is the establishment of ceremonies. You see, 
most excellent Calvin, how Satan is permitted both at home 
and abroad to rage against the English. May Gocl have 
compassion upon us ! and I entreat you by Christ our com- 
mon Saviour, to give your best consideration to these dis- 
turbances of ours, and shew me how we may best remedy 
this present evil. I well know how much weight the autho- 
rity of your letters will have with both parties in the settle- 
ment of this dispute. 

I have few things, and those far from pleasant, to tell 
you about the affairs of England. On the dissolution 3 of 
parliament the bishop of Winchester summoned before him 
all those who were in prison in London for the word of the 
Lord, in number eighty*, and he urged them by promises, 
rewards, and threatenings, to sign their recantation. All 
persevered most stedfastly, these two only excepted, Barlow"', 
formerly bishop of Bath and Wells, and Carclmaker 6 , arch- 
deacon, I believe, of the same church : for these submitted 
to him. Five of them, after a few days, were again brought 
to trial, condemned as heretics, and, as we say, delivered up 
to the secular authority to be burned. Whether the execution 
has taken place, I know not; but all the English arc of 
opinion that they will most assuredly suffer. Their names 
arc Hooper, Rogers, Taylor, Bradford, Saunders ; all of them 
formerly celebrated as ministers of the word. The three 
bishops are still alive, and it is thought that a conference will 
be held between them and Pole. Philip has not got possession 
of the crown. The bishops are authorised to seize at pleasure 
upon all suspected of heresy. You see, excellent sir, the 

[ 3 This parliament was dissolved on Wednesday, Jan. 1G, 1555. See 
Foxe, Acts and Mon. vi. 584, last edition.] 

[ 4 The preachers were summoned to the bishop's house at St Mary 
Overy's, on Tuesday, Jan. 22. Foxe, vi. 587.] 

[ 5 Bishop Barlow got free, and escaped into Germany, where he 
" did by exile constantly bear witness to the truth of Christ's gospel." 
Strype, Mem. in. i. 431. Foxe, vu. 78.] 

[ <; John Cardmaker, prebendary of Wells, was burned in Smithficld, 
May 30, 1555. See Foxe and Strype as above, and Soames, iv. 410.] 


state of England ; I commend it to your prayers and those 
of your church. Farewell, and write to me in return. In 
haste. Strasburgh, Feb. 23, 1555. 




Dated at STRASBURGH, Aug. 6, 1555. 

GREETING. There are two motives which now induce me 
to write ; one, that I may not be so neglectful of my duty, 
as, after having received from you so many friendly saluta- 
tions in the letters of others, not to salute you, most learned 
sir, in return. I both express and desire for you, and that 
from my heart, eternal blessings. The other reason is, be- 
cause I wished to make use of your name, under which I 
might transmit to master Chambers these letters and the 
parcel which I send along with them. If I have taken too 
great a liberty in this respect, your courtesy towards the 
English has given me this licence. But I know that you 
will undertake this trouble with the same kindness that you 
are always wont to exhibit towards the English who are in 
exile for Christ's sake. Merciful indeed and faithful is our 
God, who, though we have left our natural parents, does not 
withdraw from us parental kindness. I wish I could sometimes 
seriously bear this in mind, and both shew myself not 
wholly ungrateful to God, and in some measure also grateful 
to yourself and those patrons who are like-minded with you. 
And because, as I hope, my brethren at Zurich far excel me 
in this respect, so I am bold more freely to interest you in 
their affairs than in any private business of my own. Fare- 
well. Master Martyr, who is in good health, salutes you. 
You will hear the English news, which is but little, from 
master Chambers. Once more farewell, my father and most 
revered master. Strasburgh, Aug. 6, 1555. 






Dated at STRASBURGH, April 6, 1556. 

I HAVE received your letter, most reverend sir, in which 
you state that you have received a packet of letters from 
me. I am glad that those letters were so faithfully delivered. 
The kind messages which you sent to the English, I dis- 
tributed, and especially to our bishop. [Sir Richard] Morison 
was already dead. Sir J. Cheke has left this place. I have 
thus acquainted you with these things as my duty required. 
Dr Cranmcr was burned at Oxford on the 21st of March. 
A certain absurd recantation 1 , forged by the papists, began 
to be spread abroad during his life-time, as if he had made 
that recantation : but the authors of it themselves recalled 
it while he was yet living, and he firmly and vehemently 

[! See Soames's Hist. Reform, iv. 515, for a full account of the 
recantations attributed to Cranmer ; also Todd, Life of Cranmer, n. 
476. Sampson seems to refer to the fifth of the papers afterwards 
published by Bonner as a part of "All the submyssions and recanta- 
tions of Thomas Cranmer, &c.," printed by Cawood, 1558. Dr Todd 
says : " To these artifices Cranmer yielded, and to the words on the 
'little leaf of paper,' which they brought, subscribed, as it should 
seem, in their presence. 'This recantation,' says Foxe, 'was not so 
soon conceived, but the doctors and prelates without delay caused the 
same to be imprinted and set abroad in all men's hands. Whereunto, 
for better credit, first was added the name of Thomas Cranmer with 
a solemn subscription ; then followed the witnesses, Henry Sydall and 
John do Villa Garcina.' The privy council were displeased at the 
hasty publication of this paper, and the two printers of it were com- 
manded to deliver all the copies to be burned." See also Foxe, vm. 
82, and Burnet, in. 375. Soames, p. 525, notices and answers Dr 
Lingard's theory, that the paper thus printed alone, by Rydall and 
Copeland, was destroyed as an infringement on Cawood's copy- 
right, and thinks it was suppressed lest it should be disavowed by the 
prisoner or his friends. It is to be noticed also, that the continuator 
of Fabian's Chronicles, speaking of the burning of the archbishop in 
1556, says, "after he had recanted his supposed recantation." The 
original words of Sampson in the letter hero translated are, " Recanta- 
tio qufcdam absurda et a papistis conficta ca)pit co vivente spargi, 
quasi ille cam palinodiam cecinisset ; sed auctores ipsi earn, eo vivo, 
revocarunt, et ille fortiter reclamabat vivens perncgabatque." They 
are worthy of notice in connexion with the circumstances already 
recited. The whole of the " submyssions and recantations," as printed 
by Cawood in a pamphlet of six leaves (see Herbert's AmcCj n. 794), are 
reprinted by Dr Jenkyns in his Remains of Cranmer, iv. App. p. 393.] 


denied it. The enemies of God are plotting dreadful and 
most cruel schemes against England. May Almighty God 
turn away his anger from us ! Mary declares that her 
husband Philip shall be crowned in spite of every one. 
She is so bold as to say this, even contrary to the advice 
of her council. She is making great preparations both of 
money and arms. You see whither these things tend ; en- 
treat therefore the Lord for us. 

As to what I had Avritten in my last letter respecting the 
"Antichrist" of master Gualter, the matter now stands thus: 
while I was preparing to translate it into our language, I was 
informed that some other Englishman had not only undertaken 
the same task, but had also completed it. I think therefore 
that it is now cither in the press, or already printed. Satan 
is here trying in many ways to disturb the peace of the 
churches ; nor does he stir up only the turbulent Westphalians 
and those who are like them, but he is scattering his seed also 
among us exiles. The French church at Frankfort is now 


suffering under this disease : for there is a great contention 
between the pastor and some of his flock, if indeed they are 
true sheep. Do you, excellent father, since these devices of 
Satan cannot escape your notice, oppose your prayers against 
his subtle attacks. I wish we did this with the earnestness 
that the occasion demands. 

I ask but one thing more. When I was at Zurich, it was 
permitted me (such was your singular kindness towards me) 
to hear and learn from you by conversation and conference 
those things in which I had need of advice and instruction. 
You will do me the greatest kindness if you will allow me, 
since I am now absent, to experience the same favour by 
correspondence. I promise you that I will not be too trouble- 
some, neither will I expect from you such speedy replies, as 
not to be willing always to wait patiently for the immense 
pressure of your engagements. I dare not however make 
the experiment before I have obtained your consent, lest I 
should be a hindrance to one who is so diligently labouring 
in the Lord's vineyard. May the Lord, whose servant you 
are, and in whose affairs you are engaged, preserve you long 
in life and health to his church ! In haste. Strasburgh, 
April 6, 1556. 






Without place or date l . 

GREETING. Although, most learned sir, you have no 
time to waste upon reading my trifles, yet since the letters 
which I have received from our brethren at Frankfort must 
be wrapped in paper, I should wish even the blank paper to 
salute you for me, as my duty requires. Your sermon has 
long been circulated in English, and, as I am informed, is by 
no means unacceptable to the English. The afflicted flock of 
Christ is still suffering the misery of persecution ; for on the 
27th of January there were seven 2 burned at London, and 
on the same day five 3 at Canterbury. This is the power of 
darkness. Heath, archbishop of York, obtains the office of 
chancellor * ; AVhite of Lincoln is now made bishop of Win- 
chester 5 : our languishing Penelope 6 is waiting the return of 
her Ulysses, who is celebrating bacchanalian orgies at Antwerp 
on account of his happy attainment of the dukedom. Uncer- 
tain tidings are reported about a truce between Philip and 
the king of France ; but most disgusting accounts are given 
of their dancing, nightly buffooneries, and ravishing of virgins, 
to which things he has now entirely given himself up at 
Antwerp. God will at length appear as an avenging judge : 
to him do you stretch forth your suppliant hands, even to 
weariness, as Moses did, on behalf of England. 

f 1 This letter seems, from internal evidence, to have been written 
from Strasburgh, and probably in June or July, 1556.] 

[ 2 These were, Thomas Whittle, priest ; Bartlctt Green, gentleman; 
John Tudson, artificer ; John Went, artificer ; Thomas Brown ; Isabel 
Foster, wife ; Joan Warne, alias Lashford, maid ; in 1550. See Foxe, 
Acts and Mon. vn. 715, &c., and Strype, Mem. in. i. 470.] 

[ 3 These were, John Lomas, Ann Albright, Joan Catmer, Agnes 
Siioth, and Joan Sole. See Foxo, vii. 750, &c. who says the martyr- 
dom took place Jan. 31st.] 

[ 4 He was appointed Jan. 1. 1556. Strype, Mem. in. i. 469.] 
[ 5 This appointment took place, April 15. Strype, Mem. in. i. 487. j 
[ c One Mr Kemp came from king Philip about the 19th or 20th of 
June, with the news that he had deferred his coming for two months 
longer ; whereat the queen was much cast down, and for several days 
after Kemp's coming she was not in case to hear any suitors. See 
Strype, Mem. in. i. 495.] 


Farewell, most excellent father. Salute, I pray you, that 
excellent man, and great patron of the English, master Gualter. 
May Almighty God requite you all ! I am now employed 
upon his " Antichrist," that the English may see an epitome 
of that hook saluting the pope in English. Again, farewell; 
live most happily in Christ. 



Should master Gualter have any thing else, which, inserted 
in [my translation of] his work on antichrist, may be a means 
of improving it, he will do a service most acceptable to myself 
and profitable to the church, if he will please to send it me. 
If not, I shall publish his Antichrist, by God's blessing, just as 
it is, only a little abridged. Now, for the third time, farewell. 
In haste. 



Dated at LAUSANNE, Aug. 12, 1556. 

GREETING. The letter, most excellent Bullinger, that 
you gave me to be delivered to master Haller, has been of 
considerable service to me. For when I came to Berne, and 
found none of my friends there, he arranged matters for me 
most admirably, not only by entertaining me with the greatest 
hospitality as his guest, but most diligently procuring me a 
fellow-traveller to accompany me to Lausanne. And all this 
he has done, because you had made mention of me in your 
letter to him. I have therefore to express my thanks to you 
for having so kindly designed to commend me to so kind a 
friend ; and I entreat you to convey to him my thanks for the 
courtesy he manifested -towards me. I acknowledge myself 
indeed most exceedingly obliged to you both. May our great 
and good God long preserve you as an useful minister of his 
church ! Salute, I pray you, in my name, my most obliging 
host, master John James Wickius. Farewell. In haste, 
Lausanne, Aug. 12, 1556. 

Yours in Christ, 





Dated at LAUSANNE, Sept. 13, 1556. 

I WROTE to you, my excellent Bullinger, as soon as I had 
arrived at Lausanne, but am in doubt whether you ever re- 
ceived my letter ; so that I think it well now to repeat what 
I had also written before, namely, that I am by no means 
unmindful of my duty towards you, and that I both know 
and acknowledge myself to be on many accounts much in- 
debted to you. This acknowledgment is due both to your 
kindness, and to that of Haller, afforded me for your sake. 
Enrol me therefore, most reverend father, among the number 
of your friends. Oh ! how much am I indebted to Almighty 
God, who has so provided for me the privilege of possessing 
such patrons, while my beloved England is in such miserable 
bondage. I have received from doctor P. Martyr the follow- 
ing account of her servitude, that Philip is now arrived in 
London, where he was received with the general applause of 
the people. Thomas a Becket is publicly set up as a saint 1 . 
Inquiry is made after all those who refuse to go to mass. 
Some Friars minor have arrived, and arc residing at Winches- 
ter. So far concerning public calamities. Respecting those of 
individuals, he adds, that judge Hales threw himself into the 
river 2 , and so was miserably drowned: such is the punishment 
of his apostasy. But to return to England : you see how she 
is compelled to be in bondage to the Spaniards, the worst of 
all nations, pretended saints, most degraded children of anti- 
christ, and of the worst kind of idolatry. But it is not only 
this bondage that is to be lamented, and to which we are 
involuntarily subject ; but that also by which we are willing 
slaves to our impenitence. This slavery it is that so miserably 
oppresses us ; this it is that keeps us in bondage within the 
stone walls of our hearts, and compels us to be in slave-like 

[ l The image of Thomas a Becket was set up in stone in 1555 over 
the gate of Mercer's chapel. Strype, Mem. HI. i. 333.] 

[ 2 See Strype, who says "it was a shallow pond, near his own house, 
which is shewn to this day." Mem. m. i. 276. A long account of 
judge Hales is also given in Foxe, Acts and Mon. vi. 710, &c.] 
, r 12 



subjection to most filthy swine ; yea, it almost turns us into 
swine and dogs ourselves, and yet there is in us no desire of 
returning to our Father : and albeit this is the only way for 
our recovery, to obtain from our offended Father reconciliation 
for Christ's sake, with tears ; this only way wo disregard, 
although wo are desirous of being thought over careful in 
every thing else. Hence proceeds apostasy, hence despond- 
ency, or desperate recklessness in impiety. 

I am complaining to you of these things, my excellent 
friend, that you may the more earnestly entreat God on our 
behalf, in proportion to our own neglect ; and also, that I may 
be allowed more freely to beseech you, if you have leisure, 
to give some exhortation and advice to the English, (among 
whom your influence is very great,) by which they may bo 
instructed how best to conduct themselves at this critical period. 
If you will do this in Latin, there will bo those who will 
translate your discourse into English. Master Bucer, of pious 
memory, published a congratulatory epistle 1 to the English, 
when England first received the gospel : and let Bullinger 
publish something now, by which the godly may be comforted, 
and the wicked admonished. Should I seem too urgent in 
this request, I am ready to bear the charge of importunity, 
provided only you will confer this benefit upon our church. 
I call it a benefit, because I am most fully persuaded that 
very many of our people will hence be led to a solid re- 
pentance. And as soon as the Lord shall have found this to 
be the case among us, he will then shew himself a compas- 
sionate Father, and will freely restore to us both the gospel 
and our country likewise ; and how great a blessing this will 
be, any godly person may easily determine. Conic then, my 
excellent Bullinger, if your other engagements, so useful to 
the church, will allow you leisure, come, and direct your 
attention to what you consider will most profit our afflicted 
church. May our eternal God, and the Father of our Lord 
Jesus Christ, evermore guide you by his Spirit into all truth I 

Your most devoted, 


[* This was published in 1548, and entitled, Gratulatio Buceri ad 
ecclesiam Anglicanam de religionis Christi restitutione. Strype, Mem. 
II. i. 229.] 


Salute, I pray you, in my name, master Gualter, to whom 
also I commend the care of our church. I know indeed that 
he has an exceeding regard for her : may he always retain 
this, and earnestly entreat God on her behalf; and may he 
also stretch out his hand to her in her state of lanffuishinG; ! 

o C5 

Salute also master Wickius my host, and our English friends. 
Give this letter, I pray you, to one of your boys, to take to 
my brother. May the Lord Jesus bless you and all yours ! 
If you will do me the favour to reply, master Beza can always 
forward me your letters. 

Lausanne, Sept. 13, 1556. 



Dated at LAUSANNE, Oct. 1,'?, L556. 

GREETING. Such is your favourable inclination towards 
England, most learned Bullingcr, that I can easily persuade 
myself that your kindness will pay the same attention to what 
I requested of you in my intercessory letter, as if I had 
addressed you more fully and frequently upon the same 
subject. I therefore commend to you my petition for my 
country England, the state of which is deserving of commise- 
ration in proportion to its wretchedness. Our affairs are 
indeed getting worse every day. For I have just heard from 
England, that the carl of Sussex 3 has been sent with some 

O * 

troops into Norfolk and Suffolk, to compel the gospellers to 
attend mass. What tyranny is this ! Do you not think that 
the truly pious now stand in need of comfort, and the weak 
of exhortation? Come then, if you have leisure, most ex- 
cellent father, and address our friends by your letters. Philip 
has demanded of the council to be inaugurated, that is, as we 

[2 Henry Ratcliffc, carl of Sussex, was appointed by queen tylary 
commander-in-chief of the temporary army raised in the beginning of 
her reign, and justice of the forests south of Trent. She also entrusted 
him with the direction of the numerous spies and informers, who were 
distributed in his counties for the purpose of detecting the protestants. 
See Lodge's Illustrations, &c. i. 263.] 



coiuinonly say, to bo crowned king of England ; he has also 
required ten thousand English troops to be sent to serve under 
the emperor in the French war. Both requests, however, 
were denied him. From hence most deadly evils will arise to 
England, unless Almighty God of his great mercy shall avert 
them; which that he may do, do you earnestly implore him 
for Christ's sake, and make some mention of me, if only at the 
end of your prayer. 


Lausanne, Oct. 13, 1556. 



Dated at STRASBUHGH, April 23, 1557. 

I HAVE received your letter, my learned friend, together 
with the sermon concerning the confession and denial of Christ 
our Lord. But, as I was about the next day to go to Frank- 
fort, I was neither able to answer your letter, nor to satisfy 
myself even up to this present time with respect to the object 
I had in view. Having now returned, and obtained some 
leisure, I have no other answer to make, save to express my 
thanks for your kindness, and this not in my own name only, 
but in that of England. For you have not only performed 
a most agreeable service to myself, but a most useful one to 
England, unless we stand in the way of our own advantage. 
I have already determined with myself to translate that 
sermon of yours into our vulgar tongue as soon as possible, 
and thus present it to the perusal of Englishmen. That I did 
not undertake to have it printed in Latin, is owing partly to 
the terms of my request, in which I only pleaded for the 
English ; and partly because I was unacquainted with your 
wishes on the subject. I leave the Latin therefore to your 
discretion ; respecting which, however, if I may be allowed to 
give an opinion, I should say that it is very necessary in this 
declining age. However, I will execute as faithfully as I can 
what I have willingly taken upon myself. England owes you 


thanks, and, I hope, will pay them. May God of his mercy 
long preserve you in life and health to his church ! Believe 
me exceedingly attached to you ; for I am yours, 


We all commend to your kindness our brethren, who will 
give you every information respecting our affairs. 
Strasburgh, Apr. 23, 1557. 



Dated at FHANKFORT, April 8, 1358. 

MUCH greeting. Though I have had no letter from you 
since my reply respecting the Hebrew books, and though no- 
thing has arisen since that time about which it was necessary 
to write to you ; yet I have now thought it proper to address 
you, lest I should seem to be wanting in my duty. For 
the friendship of such a man must not be buried in silence ; 
and I feel it to be for my advantage to retain your friendship 
for me by all possible means. I am writing therefore, in fact, 
from self-love ; for my little writing-desk, so empty of all 
erudition and knowledge, desires to be replenished with the 
crumbs which fall from your table : on which account I have, 
God willing, decidedly resolved upon visiting you towards the 
end of May, and will then have some conversation with you 
respecting my intentions. Meanwhile I must request (I dare 
not say, Peter Martyr to receive me into his house : this is 
denied me ; yet I should be very glad if that sentence could 
any wise be recalled ; but if not, I must request) Julius to look 
out a lodging for me. I wish to have a bed-chamber to 
myself. I do not intend staying there beyond three months 
at farthest. Should Julius find any difficulty in meeting with 
such a lodging, let him call upon master White in my name, 
who was my landlord when I was there last ; and if he can 
procure a separate bed-chamber at his house, I will willingly 
engage it, if I can obtain one no where else. I requested also 
our friend Jewel to receive a parcel from the bearer of this 


letter, and take charge of it till I come. You see what trouble 
I am giving both to you and yours by my proposed visit ; 
but you always pardon my importunity, and therefore I treat 
you with greater freedom. I will only add, that, should it be 
convenient, I shall be glad to hear respecting the receipt of 
the parcel, and also what is done about the lodging ; and this 
before the middle of May, namely, before I leave Strasburgh. 
I have requested Julius to write ; do you also charge him to 
do so. 

We have no news from England, except that the queen 
is wholly occupied in raising money and troops, it may be, 
possibly, to make war against herself. However this be, a 
war is threatened. You have, I suppose, heard of the ex- 
tinction of the most splendid of all the masses throughout 
Europe. I was present at its funeral, and saw the emperor 
crowned 1 Avithout the mass. I have here met with Beza, who 
obtained from the princes, while they were here, a letter to 
the French king for the liberation of the prisoners of Christ. 
What has been done by us besides, I will tell you when Ave 
meet. Salute your friend Julius, and all your friends in my 
name. In haste. Frankfort, Apr. 8, 1558. 



Peter Perne has my things, and will send them to you ; 
I will pay the carriage when I come. 



Dated at STRASBURGH, July 10, 1558. 

BY the blessing of God I have returned in safety to 
Strasburgh, and find all my friends well ; and I am glad to 
hear that you are well also. I venerate and embrace that 
holy and inviolable friendship, which you promise me in the 

The college of electors assembled at Frankfort, Feb. 24, 1558, 
and declared Ferdinand of Austria the lawful successor to Charles V. 
See Robertson, iv. 2G7.] 


cause of Christ. Besides, I regard with the greatest delight 
this most useful kind of study, though I am now, through the 
fault of certain individuals, compelled to put off till another 
time that which, for the sake of my studies, I had intended 
to accomplish immediately after the fair : and that is my 
journey to you ; at the thought of which, as I often turned it 
over in my mind, and rejoiced exceedingly, so I am now 
obliged, not without much regret, both to witness and to desire 
its postponement. I shall come however, I hope, shortly : in 
the mean time, I entreat you for Christ's sake, let there exist 
between us that inviolable friendship which you promise ; let 
there always be in you the same mind, the same desire of 
assisting me in my little studies, and, aided by the divine 
blessing, I will not neglect the opportunity afforded me. But 
I will give you notice of my coming. Your promise about 
the Hebrew books is most gratifying ; and I beg that you will 
act altogether in this matter just as if it were your own con- 
cern, and you shall neither find me dissatisfied nor ungrateful. 
When you have agreed with Perno or others, whom you may 
think qualified for this business, about the means of obtaining 
the books, and will let mo know, I will send you the money, 
together with a list of the books that I Avish to purchase. I 
only add, what you do, do quickly. Master Heton and his 
wife salute you. He hopes to visit you at Zurich before the 
end of September. Master Chambers salutes you. All our 
friends are well. My wife and our Joanna salute you. The 
people of Frankfort (I mean the English there) are in a per- 
petual motion, more perverse than useful. Philip is still in 
England. Almost all arc making preparation for a war with 
England. But your countrymen on their return from the fair 
will be full of news ; so I will make an end of writing. Fare- 
well, and live most happy in Christ. Affectionately salute for 
me master Bullingcr. Strasburgh, July 10, 1558. 

Your most devoted, 





Dated at LONDON, March 4, [l- r >50.] 

ALTHOUGH I promised, most learned Gualter, to write to 
you from Antwerp, and tell you all the occurrences of so 
long a journey ; yet, to tell the truth, I was so fatigued with 
riding, that scarce any part of my body, much less my hand, 
could perform its office. But now, lest I should seem alto- 
gether forgetful of our friendship and mutual promise of cor- 
respondence, I write at length, not, as I had intended, from 
Antwerp, but from London, where I arrived from Calais with 
greater difficulty and danger than I had met with through 
the whole of my previous journey. For thus far I had brought 
all my property in safety, with the exception of a dog, which 
in the open plain of Brabant, on this side Bruges, refused to 
follow me any farther : but on our passage over we fell in 
with a French pirate, (for the truce of fifteen days was on land 
only, and did not extend to the sea,) by whom our vessel was 
very near being captured. And had not the tide, as God so 
willed it, failed the privateer which was in pursuit of us, we 
should without doubt every one of us have been taken prisoners. 
But the matter did not end thus. For after we had waited 
on the shore seven hours in expectation of the flow of the 
tide, we did not get off without the greatest danger, and some 
damage to our property. We were compelled, unless we pre- 
ferred learning French, to run our vessel on shore, sailing and 
rowing as expeditiously as we could ; in which flight the sailors, 
as usual in the greatest extremity, that they might more 
quickly reach the shore, threw overboard whatever first came 
to hand, without any regard to its value. Among these was 
my trunk, in which, as you know, were contained my books, 
and the letters of my excellent friends. I care very little about 
the destruction of my own property ; but the loss of the letters 
of those worthy men, to whose kindness I am so deeply 
indebted, grieves me most exceedingly. But I hope, when 
they know of my escape, (such is their friendliness and 
good-will towards me,) that they will not so much regret the 


loss of their letters, and feel angry with me, as praise the 
Lord with me, who has delivered mo from such great and 
imminent danger. 

Thus much then of myself ; I now come to other matters. 
Throughout my whole journey I could have no suspicion what- 
ever of the emperor being at war, as all things were as quiet 
as possible ; but when I reached home, I heard that a large 
fleet was in preparation by him, though what he is intending, 
or in what direction, I have no certain information. This 
only I know, and I am very glad of it, that no injury can be 
done you by sea. I found all my friends and property safe 
and well at home, to my great pleasure and delight. The facts 
were true which I had related to you concerning my brother ; 
but God, the just judge, and best defender of innocence, de- 
livered him from prison almost at the very time I left you. 

Hooper is daily setting forth with all boldness the heavenly 
doctrine of our heavenly Father : he is to-morrow to preach 
before the king l . The bishop of Rochester, by name Ilidley 2 , 
a worthy minister of Christ, succeeds the bishop of London, 
who is deprived. Another post is allotted to the bishop of 
Westminster 3 , where he will do less mischief. Salute in my 
name all the brethren in the Lord, and especially that ex- 
cellent soldier of Christ, and chief minister of your church, 
master Bullinger, to whom, I pray, make my excuses for 
having lost his annotations ; and request him at the same time 
to procure me another copy, when I will satisfy the copyist 
for his trouble. Salute the reverend presbyter, master Pellican, 
Theodore [Bibliander] learned in the Lord, Otto, Zuinglius, 
Wolfius, and the witty Frisius, with all the rest ; as also eacli 
of my fellow-countrymen, whose letters I have lost, which 
you will mention to them, that they may write them over 
again. Salute your very dear wife in my name, to whom I 
would have now sent a small present, if I had any means of 
forwarding it. When an opportunity is afforded me, I will 
certainly send it. Meanwhile, I request you, my dear Rodolph, 
to procure your Apelles to paint for me the following portraits, 

[! This was on Wednesday, March 5, 1550. See above, p. 75, n. 1.] 
[ 2 Ridley was translated to the see of London, in April 1550, by 
the king's letters patent. Strype, Mem. n. 1, 338. See above, p. 79.] 
[ 3 Bishop Thirlby, who, on the dissolution of the see of West- 
minster in 1550, was preferred to Norwich. Strype, Cranmer, 129.] 


those namely of Zuinglius, Pellican, Theodore, master Bui- 
linger, and yourself, holding books in their hands ; of the same 
size as that oval one of yours which you shewed me, and on 
wood, not canvass ; and I request you to see that four verses, 
the subject of which I leave to your discretion, be written 
underneath. Make an agreement with the painter that the 
colours be good and carefully set off, even though the expense 
be increased. When finished, let them be packed up in a 
wooden box, and sent to Burcher, who will pay for them. 
The sooner they are done, the more acceptable will they be. 
And if you think the artist can paint a good likeness of 
CEcolampadius 1 , I would have it in addition to the other five. 
Do not take it ill of me, my worthy host, that I impose 
upon you this trouble : for did I not love you, and think 
myself loved by you, I should not do so. If life be granted 
me, you shall not find me an ungrateful guest. Take care 
that you be well in the Lord. Send an answer, I pray you, 
as soon as possible, but take care that the painter put his 
hand to the work as speedily as he can. I leave the whole 
matter to your fidelity and discretion. London, March 4. 

Your most attached, 




Dated at LONDON, May 24, 1550. 

I HAVE received your letter, my excellent Ptodolph, by 
which I learn with very great regret how little honour there 
is among men, and how few persons there are in whom any 
confidence can be placed. But I hope that such is the courtesy 
of your senate, united with the greatest discretion, that they 
will endeavour to arrange this whole business, whatever it 
be, to the glory of God's great name ; and I have no doubt 

[ l (Ecolampadius died Dec. 1, 1531.] 


but that the Author of peace will grant them a happy issue. 
Let us diligently pray in the mean time that he may be 
pleased to do this as soon as possible. For godliness has no 
voice in the midst of arms, the truth of which saying we, alas ! 
as you well know, have lately experienced in our grievous 
intestine discords. And I could wish that others, being warned 
by our example, would lay aside their arms, and learn to lead 
a peaceable life in all godliness, a thing we have but lately 
begun to understand. But now at length, thank God, we are 
in the enjoyment of great tranquillity : may our good and 
gracious God grant that we may employ it to his honour, and 
the benefit of our neighbours ! John a Lasco 2 came back to 
us ten days since, in consequence of things in Poland not 
turning out according to his godly desires. His king would 
not grant him an audience, for fear of the bishops. As soon 
as I have heard from him how your friend Florian is going 
on, I will let you know in my next letter. Hooper was made 
bishop of Gloucester two days since, but under godly con- 
ditions : for he will not allow himself to be called Rabbi, or 
my lord, as we arc wont to say ; he refuses to receive the 
tonsure, he refuses to become a pie, and to be consecrated and 
anointed in the usual way, with many other things, which you 
shall hear at another time: from this bishoprick he has two 
thousand crowns per annum. God grant that he may so pre- 
side over his flock as to afford a godly example to the other 
shepherds ; and I would desire you, my llodolph, and the 
other learned ministers of that church to labour earnestly in 
his behalf. Your friend Oglethorpe, as I hear, is imprisoned 
for superstition, and is about to lose, it is said, the presidency 
of Magdalene college. The new bishop of London is now 
employed in his visitation 3 , and threatens to eject those Avho 

[ 2 John a Lasco arrived in England for the first time in September, 
1548, upon the invitation of Cranmer, with whom he resided at Lam- 
beth for six months. He returned to Embden in the spring of 1549; 
but the introduction of the Interim into Friesland accelerated his 
departure from that country, which he quitted in October, and having 
resided for some time at Bremen and Hamburgh, he embarked from the 
last named town, and reached England in the spring of 1550, where 
on July 24th he was appointed the superintendent of the foreign pro- 
testant congregation established in London. See Burnet and Strype.] 

[ 3 For the injunctions given in this visitation see Ridley's works, 
Parker Society edition, p. 319.] 


shall not have come to their senses before his next visitation ; 
and if I know the man, he will be as good as his word. 

I wrote to you in my last letter about some portraits ; 
and I now repeat my request, that you Avill be mindful of me 
in this matter. Salute in my name your excellent wife Rachel, 
to whom I send two candlesticks, and twenty dishes, some of 
them of pewter, and some of wood. I wish indeed that they had 
all been silver; for the kindness of you both has deserved that 
from me and a great deal more. Salute moreover in my 
name all the ministers of your church, and especially masters 
Bullinger, Pellican, Theodore [Bibliander], Otto, Wolfius, and 
Zuingiius, my friend Butler too, and John, if he is over yonder, 
and your merry friend Frisius, and all the rest. Farewell, 
master Rodolph, and command my services. London, May 
24, 1550. 

Your friend and brother in Christ, 




Dated at LONDON*, June 12, [looO.] 

I WAS exceedingly rejoiced, my most excellent Bullinger, 
at hearing from our worthy friend Abel, that you were alive 
and well : but when he delivered me your letter, I then knew 
for a certainty that this was the case ; and that you have not 
yet laid aside from your remembrance our friendship con- 
tracted in the intercourse of a few months, which circumstance 
I am inclined to attribute to your singular kindness. But I 
wish that an opportunity may sometime be afforded me of 
being serviceable in any way either to yourself or any of 
your friends. I would certainly take care that mutual fidelity, 
faith, and good- will, should nowise be wanting in myself. As 
to the pictures, I will endeavour that no oifence be occasioned 
by that matter. And not only in this, but also in every thing 
else, I will defend, as far as lies in my power, the fame and 


reputation of you all ; which I know to bo entirely pure from 
any of those things which can in any way impair the glory 
and praise of God. I think that my elder brother, John Hales, 
who was the cause of my quick and sudden departure from you, 
will come over to you this summer from Augsburg. Should 
he wish to make use of your most prudent counsel in any 
matter, let him perceive that my recommendation has been 
of some use towards the attainment of that object. And any 
kindness you may shew to him will be much more gratifying 
and acceptable to me than if you had shewn it to myself: 
which though it may appear to you a bold assertion, yet 
such is my love towards him, that when I have said every 
thing, I seem to myself to have said but little. Farewell, 
most excellent sir, and believe that I am yours. Salute in my 
name all the most worthy ministers of your church and school, 
to whom I wish every happiness in the Lord. Farewell. 
London, June 12. 

Yours heartily, 




Dated at LONDON, Dec. 10, 1550. 

MUCH health, most excellent sir. Your letter has been 
brought to me, wherein I perceive the candour of your mind, 
and your more than common kindness towards me. Your 
candour appears, in that you have borne the loss 1 I occasioned 
you with so much courtesy and good temper : although I 
was entirely free from blame, since it arose not from any 
fault of mine, but from, I know not whether to call it, the 
wilfulness or bad faith of the sailors. But however it be, 
you have afforded me no common pleasure by so kindly inter- 
preting the whole matter. Your exceeding kindness appears 
in this, that you have both sympathised in my misfortune, 
and so courteously congratulated me on the favourable state 
of my affairs. What you say, that I have you in my remem- 

[! Namely, of the letters mentioned above, p. 184.] 


brance, is indeed true; and not one year only, nor all the 
years of my future life, will be able to efface that remem- 
brance ; as you shall certainly find to be the case, as soon as 
I shall meet with any opportunity of shewing it. 

I have delayed to write respecting the study of medicine 
at Oxford, and the expenses there, until I could give you a 
correct statement. I have however learned from a friend, who 
is resident there, that the university of Oxford is not to be 
compared with that of Paris or the schools of Italy ; but still 
it is one in which a studious youth may be occupied with great 
advantage. The same is to be said of Cambridge, but I 
rather recommend Oxford on account of the greater salubrity 
of the air. Cambridge, by reason of the neighbouring fen, is 
much exposed to fever, as I have experienced more frequently 
than I could wish. With respect to expense, my friend 
informed me, that thirty French crowns would suffice tolerably 
well for a year ; to which if other ten could be added, a man 
might expect to live very comfortably. In my time, ten 
years since, twenty crowns were a sufficient allowance ; but in 
these latter days, when avarice is every where increasing, and 
charity growing cold, and this by a divine scourge, every 
thing has become almost twice as dear as it was. And this I 
attribute to no other cause than our proud and Pharaoh-like 
rejection of the spiritual food of our souls so liberally and 
abundantly offered. May God have mercy on us, and give 
us better minds, that we may at length truly and heartily 
repent ; lest, abusing the singular mercy of God, we should 
call down upon ourselves a more grievous retribution I 

I have written to master Gualter to procure six portraits 
to be painted for me, which he writes word that he has done, 
but has retained four of them for two reasons ; first, because 
there is some danger lest a door shall hereafter be opened to 
idolatry ; and next, lest it should be imputed to you as a 
fault, as though it were done by you from a desire of empty 
glory. But the case is far otherwise. For I desired to 
have them on this account, both for an ornament to my 
library, and that your effigies might be beheld in the picture, 
as in a mirror, by those who by reason of distance are pre- 
vented from beholding you in person. This is not done, 
excellent sir, with the view of making idols of you ; they are 
desired for the reasons I have mentioned, and not for the 


sake of honour or veneration. For except myself, who always 
desire your reputation and honour in all respects unimpaired, 
there is no one who knows for what reason these pictures are 
coming to me. I request therefore, most excellent sir, that 
I may be allowed to obtain from you this favour. Do not, 
I pray you, shew yourself obdurate in this matter, which is 
both trifling in itself, and not capable of occasioning injury 
to any one. Farewell, most accomplished sir. London, Dec. 
10, 1550. 

Your most devoted, 




Between June 12, 15f)0, and Jan. 26, 1551. 

MUCH health, my excellent Rodolph. I have received 
two letters from you, by which I clearly understand your 
affection for me, and that the commission which I too freely 
imposed upon you, has been executed by you with the greatest 
fidelity and diligence. And this I do not so much gather 
from the result itself, as from the favourable disposition of 
your mind towards me. I know that every thing was most 
diligently undertaken by you, and rather choose to lay the 
blame upon my own fate than to entertain the slightest suspi- 
cion of any fault on your part ; so that there was no occa- 
sion for making me any apology. You have indeed admi- 
rably discharged your office, and I certainly consider myself 
undeserving of so much kindness. You must not therefore 
suppose that I view the matter in any other light than if the 
whole affair had succeeded according to my wish. I am 
greatly surprised that Burcher should persist in thinking that 
portraits can nowise be painted with a safe conscience and a 
due regard to godliness ; since there is not a single letter in the 
holy scriptures which appears really to sanction that opinion. 
For, if I understand aright, images Avere forbidden in the 


sacred books for no other reason, than that the people of God 
might not he drawn aside from the true worship of one true God 
to the vain worship of many false gods. And if there be no 
danger of this, I do not see why pictures may not be painted 
and possessed, especially when they are not kept in any place 
where there can be the least suspicion of idolatry. Who 
Avorships the monkey that is placed in your fish-market ? 
Who worships a cock fixed on the church-steeple, as your 
father-in-law actually has, who is so determined an enemy 
of idolatry ? Who bows himself before your Charles l placed 
on the top of the tower ? Who is so senseless, as to wor- 
ship a painting or picture deposited in the library ? Sup- 
posing that there are those who honour them when hung up 
in churches and sacred places, which I by no means approve; 
yet where is the man so devoid of all religion, godliness, 
fear of the most high and Almighty God, and so entirely 
forgetful of himself, as to regard with veneration a little por- 
trait reposited in some ordinary place in a museum ? 

But it is said that times may occur, when there will be 
danger lest encouragement be given to idolatry by their means. 
Well then, it may in the same manner be argued, that no 
image or likeness ought to be made of any thing whatever ! 
But I am so far from suspecting you of an opinion of this 
kind, that I do not suppose it is entertained by any man 
upon earth. Indeed, my worthy friend, if I thought it pos- 
sible that the worship of idols could be re-established by such 
means, believe me, that if I had the pictures, I would tear 
them into a thousand pieces with my own hands. 

Another reason is next alleged, which if I had considered 
a true one, I certainly, my Rodolph, should never have made 
this request. I know your disposition, and that of the rest 
of you. It is impossible that you should ever suppose me 
capable of thinking so unfavourably of yourself and of the 
other ministers of your church, whom I consider to be as far 
removed from all anxiety for display as any persons living. 
But you have no occasion to fear what others may think of 
you, as there is no one, or at least very few, with the excep- 
tion of our two selves, who know from what source these pic- 

[! The south tower of the Gross-munster or cathedral at Zurich is 
called Charles's tower, from a statue placed there, which is supposed 
to be that of Charlemagne.] 


tures will be brought to me. Who lays it to the charge of 
the Romans of old, that we have their resemblances engraved 
upon numerous medals ? Who blames Luther, Bucer, Philip 
[Melancthon], CEcolampadius, and very many others now 
living, because their likenesses are every where to be met 
with? This is nothing extraordinary, but a thing of very 
frequent occurrence among all nations, for men fond of learn- 
ing to adorn their studies with the memorials and images of 
literary characters ; and this I think no one would say is 
done Avith a view to the establishment of idolatry. These 
tilings are done in general for the sake of ornament, not to 
do honour to individuals ; so that you need not imagine that 
you will ever become the instruments of some impious and 
ungodly purpose. 

As to your telling me that each of you has retained his 
own portrait for himself, I have no right to find fault, since 
you seem to have done this under the excitement of godly 
zeal. I know that you are prudent and Avell-judging men, 
and that you have not rashly changed your purpose, Avhich 
I certainly wish you had not done without being influenced 
and supported by grave reasons ; and if they had known me 
well, they would not have thought they had any thing to 
fear from such a circumstance. For I am not one who would 
have the true worship of God adulterated in any, even the 
least, matter; much less would I "wish the reintroduction of 
gross idolatry, so hateful to the Lord of heaven and earth. 

Wherefore I request you, my beloved brother in Christ, 
to explain to them these my sentiments on this subject, and 
to ask, in my name, permission for me to obtain from their 
kindness this single request, namely, that the remaining four 
portraits may be sent me. And if you cannot obtain this, 
(though I hope otherwise,) I at least beg and indeed insist 
upon this, that your Zeuxis shall be paid at my expense. 
For I by no means consider it fair, that those worthy men 
should pay the penalty of my offence, if offence it be : I 
have been in fault, and I must bear the blame. In the 
next place, I entreat you, my worthy friend, that should I 
not be able to obtain all the portraits, I may at least obtain 
the two others, namely, that of Theodore, which you tell me 
was taken without his knowledge, and as it were by stealth, 
and also your own ; for I am well assured that you are of 




quite the contrary opinion, unless you have lately very much 
changed it, or else you would never have had the portraits 
taken of your wife and little girl. I am now dealing with 
you upon what you have set your own seal to, as they say; 
see what reply you have to make. But I know that not 
only yourself, but that the most excellent master Bullinger 
is of the same way of thinking, and this too from your own 
statement. For you tell me that the portrait of CEcolam- 
padius is taken from the copy which ho has in his possession; 
which if he had considered to be unlawful, I am sure that a 
man of so much piety and godliness would never have allowed 
so impious an act. But enough of this. Excuse me if I have 
dwelt somewhat too long upon the subject. 

And now respecting the expenses and studies at Oxford ; 
I have been more diligent in my inquiry, because the youth 
was a connexion of yours, and the son of that excellent man, 
the senator Cellarius. You must know then, that I have 
ascertained from an Oxford friend, who has himself tried 
it, that medicine is so studied there, as that a man may 
devote himself to literature with great advantage. In the 
next place, that the expense of living is such, as that thirty 
crowns a year Avill be amply sufficient; but if ten more be 
added, there will be no deficiency of means for every 
proper purpose. And if I may interpose my opinion, I 
would rather that such allowance should be provided, as 
that there should be ten pounds too much, rather than one 
too little. Should ho come hither, I shall most willingly 
shew him every kindness for your sake. Lastly, with respect 
to the pewter and the cloth, I cannot send them at present, 
but, God willing, you shall certainly receive them at the next 
Frankfort fair. Christopher Froschover is now at Oxford ; I 
have received a letter from him, but have not yet chanced to 
see him. Your Zurich courtesy will not allow me to refuse 
any service that he may require. I hear that your wife is 
in the family-way ; wish her from me a happy delivery. 
Take care of your health, Rodolph, my very dear brother in 
the Lord. Salute from me all our godly brethren sojourning 
among you. Though Butler is named last, let him know 
that he has not the last place in my friendship. Salute him 
therefore, and his wife, Avhen you have an opportunity. 
Although the church of God be oppressed, it cannot be 


destroyed. Our godly bishops are planning, for the second 
time, a more complete reformation of our church. God 
grant that all things may turn out to the glory of his name ! 
Amen, Amen. Farewell, my beloved Rodolph. 

Yours heartily, 




Dated at LONDON, Jan. 2fi, 1551. 

MUCH health, most excellent Rodolph. You desired me, 
in your last letter, to send you some of the pewter ware of 
this country, and some cloth suited for hose. This commis- 
sion I have executed as faithfully and diligently as I could, 
and I hope that it will meet your approval. I have delivered 
the articles to our friend Richard Hilles, who has promised 
to take care that they shall be handed over to Froschover at 
Frankfort at the next fair. And that you may know more 
certainly what you are to receive from him, you must know 
that I have inclosed in the package six dishes of a larger 
size, and as many smaller, to which I have added six saucers. 
There are also twelve plates, which, if I am not mistaken, 
are of the kind you wished for. They cost six and twenty 
shillings and seven pence of our money : if this price ap- 
pear to you too great, I assure you, that not only ware 
of this kind, but also every thing else, is twice as dear as 
usual. As to the cloth, I purchased it for seven shillings of 
our money, which, at the present rate of exchange, amounts 
to one French crown and two batzen. As you gave me no 
positive direction in your letter, I have sent as much cloth 
as will make one pair of hose. Should I understand that 
this expensive kind of cloth meets your approbation, I can 
easily contrive for you to have at any time as much as you 
may require. 

And now as to the pictures and the labour of the artist. 
I must again entreat and implore you that, if it be possible, 
you will let me have them. But if I cannot obtain this, at 
least let the work of the artist be paid for at my expense. 



For I do not think it right for me to impose such a burden 
upon those excellent men. Farewell, my worthy Rodolph, 
and number me among your friends. Salute in my name 
all the worthy ministers of your church, together with your 
excellent wife and our friend Butler. Entreat the Lord con- 
tinually for us in your prayers; for his church was never 
placed in greater danger. The affair of the bishop of Win- 
chester 1 is now going on, and he will probably ere long be 
deprived of his office, together with some other not godly 
bishops. May Christ grant, (for the Avhole cause is his,) that 
other godly men may be appointed in their stead I London, 
Jan. 26, 1551. 

Yours heartily, 


The whole cost of the pewter and cloth together amounts 
to five French crowns and one or two batzen. 



Dated [in August, 1540.] 

PATIENCE, that when you have performed the work of 
God, you may obtain the promise ! God knows, my most 
honoured master, how greatly I have always desired to write 
to you, and how slenderly I am furnished with materials for 
writing in Latin. He who dealeth to every man the measure 
of faith, and gifts according to his will, has bestowed upon me 
some little knowledge of Latin, but not the ability of express- 
ing myself at all clearly in that language, so that I have never 
yet ventured to write in Latin to any one. But as you have 
so often challenged me with your hortatory and truly com- 
forting letters, and, so to speak, have compelled me to write 
you something in reply ; and especially as I am persuaded 
that with your wonted courtesy and kindness you will take 
every thing in good part that will anywise admit of a right 

For an account of the proceedings against bishop Gardiner, see 
Foxe, vi. 64, &c. Soaraes, in. 607.] 


interpretation ; I have now sent you this ill-composed letter, 
which however I certainly should not have sent at present, 
had I not previously lost all hope of seeing you this year. I 
certainly intended to have gone into Switzerland with my 
wife this present August, chiefly for the sake of paying you 
a visit ; but my brother Butler, who is now busily engaged 
in courting a widow of Strasburgh, has been away with 
her relatives the whole of this month ; so that unless we 
choose to travel by ourselves, wo are at present obliged 
to remain here, though I do not expect to have so much 
leisure time again for a whole year. Do not, I pray you, 
mention this to any one ; but he is at present uncertain 
whether she will marry any body, and I am afraid she will 
hardly become his wife, by reason of a disorder under which 
she has long been suffering, even during her late husband's 
lifetime. It has often come into my mind to write you the 
news from England, and the changes that are continually 
taking place ; but I have been prevented by a becoming- 
modesty from persevering in my intention ; for I not only 
write Latin as barbarously and ungrammatically as I speak 
it, but even the words themselves fail me. Relying, how- 
ever, upon your wisdom and good nature, by which you know 
how to be unlearned among the unlearned, that you may 
Unite them to Christ, I send you herewith a summary of those 
matters respecting the state of our kingdom last year, which I 
have gathered from the letters of brethren worthy of credit, 
and which I had intended to communicate to you in person. 
I only request you to receive in good part what has been 
written, though in a rude and barbarous style, with a friendly 
disposition towards you. 

As to the state of our commonwealth before the feast of 
Easter last passed (namely in the year 1540), I hope you 
have been sufficiently informed by our aforesaid brother 
Butler. For in my letters to him I described very care- 
fully, as far as my abilities would allow me, all the events 
that had occurred, and this that he might afterwards com- 
municate them to the learned and godly men yonder, and 
especially to yourself. I received your letter dated on the 
sixth of this month, and also the one you had previously 
forwarded by that Frenchman, at the same time, and heartily 
thank you for them both ; and especially because you thought 


fit therein to afford me such true and godly consolation from 
the holy scriptures, and so diligently to exhort me to patience 
and longsuffering, in which graces I am greatly deficient. In 
the next place I have received from your letter, by God's 
blessing, this great benefit, namely, that I have considered 
and deliberated much more carefully and discreetly than 
before, what it is to leave one's first love, and how unbe- 
coming it is for a Christian to return to his vomit ; and how 
fearful a thing it is for any one to fall into the hands of 
the living God ! Blessed be God, even the Father of our 
Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of mercies, and the God of 
all comfort, who has doubtless oftentimes comforted you in 
your tribulation and distress, that you may thereby be more 
able to comfort them which are in any trouble ! 

Meanwhile however, that you may know the state of mv 
affairs, it is as follows. When I perceived that there was no 
place left for me in England, unless, as Ustazades 1 replied to 
the king of Persia, I chose to become a traitor both to God 
and man I forthwith left the country, but on the pretext 
of carrying on my trade in this place. This motive how- 
ever is known by all my godly acquaintance to be a false 
one, and also suspected to be such by my ungodly adver- 
saries. But as I have not been indicted for heresy, or 
summoned before the courts of law, all my property yonder 
is at present tolerably safe ; so that I remit to England at 
every fair, for the purpose of importing a fresh supply of 
cloth, the money that I receive both here and at Frankfort. 
I have mentioned this with the view of making you acquainted 
with my affairs, lest, in case you should hear any report of 
my voluntary exile in these parts, the account of my troubles 
in England should fail of being noticed. Meanwhile, I freely 
confess to you, (though it would not be safe for me to make the 
same acknowledgment to every one,) that I have determined 
not to return thither, unless it should first please God to effect 
such a change, as that we may serve him there without hlnder- 
ance, and without being forced to sanction what is evil. My 
wife, thank God, makes provision for our comfort here quite 
as well, or indeed better than myself. Although, by God's help, 

t 1 See Historia Tripartita, Lib. m. cap. ii. p. 325-fi. of Auctores 
Historic Ecclesiastical, Basil. 1533. Also, Pilkington's Works, Park 
Soc. Ed. p. 637.] 


I do not doubt of my perseverance even unto the end, I 
entreat you to pray the Lord for us, that he which hath 
begun a good work in us may perform it until the day of 
Christ. Our brother Butler returned to England after the 


last Frankfort fair ; but so miserable was the state of things 
in that country, that he did not remain there more than 
eighteen days. 

Furthermore, I entreat you for God's sake not to mention 
to any one what I am now writing, except to masters Theo- 
dore Bibliander, Pcllican, Leo Juda3, and other godly and 
learned men of the same stamp ; and above all, let it not 
bo known as coming from any Englishman. And I implore 
you not to let them read my letter, for fear they should 
ridicule, as it deserves, my rash and foolish presumption in 
writing in this unpolished and unconnected manner. I should 
have given my letter to Butler, if he had been at home, or to 
seme other Englishman in this place, to be put into better 
Latin, only that I am not willing for them to know (though I 
do not distrust them) that I have communicated so many 
things to all of you together ; lest probably, when they are 
writing to England, they may, with a good intention, acquaint 
some godly person or other, who, without sufficient caution, 

as frequently happens, will 2 

I thank you much for the information you give me 
respecting Falckner ; and I request that if there are any other 
pious and God-fearing men yonder, who are in the habit of 
purchasing English cloth, you will let me know their names, 
that, should they at any time wish to obtain sonic cloth from 
me upon credit, I may let them have it. For I do not feel 
disposed to credit any persons with any large sum, except the 
people of Zurich, and a few, it may be, at Schaffhausen : 
wherefore, if you will do me this favour, I shall be much 
obliged. I will pray Christ to requite you in return, for 
whose sake I know that you love me ; just as you hate the 
ungodly for the devil's sake, and for his imago in them, as did 
the prophet David, and all holy men besides. How well do we 
learn by daily experience the truth of that verse of Solomon, 
The righteous abhor the wicked, and those who are in the right. 
way are abominable to the ungodly. Farewell, honoured pas- 
tor, most happily in the Lord, and may Christ, the chief 
[ 2 The remainder of this sentence is altogether unintelligible.] 


Shepherd, grant you so to fulfil your ministry, that when he 
shall appear, you may not be ashamed, but have confidence, 
and obtain the incorruptible crown of glory promised to those 
who arc like you. Amen. My wife dutifully salutes you, 
and especially your wife. We both of us very much desire 
to visit you. You have no need to wish for us, for we cannot 
in any way be of comfort or service to you, but in many ways 
a hinderance and impediment to your studies. Again farewell 
in Christ, my very dear master, and do not, I pray you, for- 
get to salute in my name your godly wife, and joint heir with 
yourself of the kingdom of heaven. 

Yours heartily, 
11. II. 



Dated at [LONDON, 1541]. 

BEFORE Whitsuntide three persons were burned in the 
suburbs of London, in that part of the city belonging to the 
diocese of Winchester, because they denied transubstantiation, 
and had not received the sacrament at Easter. And as these 
things took place in the diocese of Winchester, it was re- 
marked by many persons that these men were brought to the 
stake by the procurement of the bishop ; just as he burned, 
shortly after, a crazed man of the name of Collins 2 . This 
man had previously been kept in prison for two or three 
years, but I do not exactly know for what reason. Once, as 
he was passing by a crucifix, to which processions had some- 
times been made, (principally by the Spanish sailors on their 
arriving safe in harbour,) he aimed an arrow at the idol, and 

[i This letter is quoted by Burnet, in. 215, &c. "It is writ," ho 
says, (226) " with much good sense and piety, but in very bad Latin ;" 
which indeed in some places renders it very difficult to find out the 

[ 2 Collins became insane through the evil conduct of his wife, who 
deserted him for another. He was burned in 1538. See Foxe, 
v. 251.] 


striking its foot, called out to it to defend itself, and punisli 
him if it were able. Many persons, however, say that this 
was not the cause of his imprisonment ; but rather, because he 
was wont to exclaim against the nobility and great men of 
the kingdom, and rashly to bring forward against them many 
passages of holy scripture, especially the prophets, wherein 
there was any mention made of unrighteous judgments, or the 
cruel treatment of neighbours and dependents. Meanwhile, 
I know this for a fact, that when Lambert was confined with 
him in the same prison, (that Lambert 3 , namely, who was 
condemned by the king himself for his opinions respecting the 
cucharist, a short time before Burcher fled from England,) 
four or five days before he was brought to the stake, this 
Collins was not so crazy or ignorant but that he was able to 
bring forward and apply very cxpeditiously and aptly on 
Lambert's behalf, against the bishops and other ungodly per- 
sons who appeared against him before the royal tribunal 4 , 
various passages from the New Testament, and from the 
Psalms, such as these, " Blessed are they which are persecuted 
for righteousness' sake, &c." " The Lord knoweth the days 
of the upright, and their inheritance shall be for ever." [Ps. 
xxxvii. 18.] " The wicked shall not dwell with thee, neither 
shall the unrighteous stand in thy sight." " Thou hatest all 
workers of iniquity, thou shalt destroy all that speak leasing." 
[Ps. v. 5, &c. vulgate.] " The Lord abhorreth the bloody 
and deceitful man ; they shall not live out half their days," 
&c. [Ps. Iv. 23.] Now to other matters. 

Before the feast of John the Baptist it began to be 
whispered about that the king intended to divorce his queen, 
Anne, the sister of the duke of Gclderland, though he had 
married her publicly with great pomp, in the face of the 
church, on the feast of Epiphany, after last Christinas. This 
was first of all whispered by the courtiers, who observed the 
king to be much taken with another young lady 5 of very 

[ 3 For a full account of the proceedings against John Lambert, 
see Foxe, v. 181, and Soames, n. 324. lie was burned in Smithfield 
in 153S.] 

[ 4 The king determined to hear the cause in person, and West- 
minster Hall was prepared for the purpose. Soames, 11. 327.] 

[ 5 This was Catharine, daughter to Lord Edmund Howard, and 
niece to the duke of Norfolk.] 


diminutive stature, whom ho now has. It is a certain fact, 
that ahout the same time many citizens of London saw the 
king very frequently in the day-time, and sometimes at mid- 
night, pass over to her on the river Thames in a little boat. 
The bishop of Winchester also very often provided feastings 
and entertainments for them in his palace ; but the citizens 
regarded all this not as a sign of divorcing the queen, but of 
adultery. After a few days, Cromwell 1 , the king's vicegerent 
in causes ecclesiastical (for such was his official designation) 
fell from the king's favour, and at the beginning of June was 
sent to the Tower of London, from whence he never went 
forth till the twenty-eighth of July, when he was beheaded, 
together with another nobleman, the lord Hungerford a , whom 
they charged with having attempted to calculate the day 
when the king should die. I know nothing for certain as to 
the cause of Cromwell's execution, because he was not brought 
for examination before the tribunal, as had always been the 
case heretofore with all noblemen, and especially when accused 
of treason against the king. But it was commonly said by 
most persons, and with great probability, that the real cause of 
his execution was, that he did not support the king, as Win- 
chester and the other courtiers did, in his project of a divorce, 
but rather asserted that it would neither be for the king's 
honour, nor for the good of the kingdom. Not long before 
the death of Cromwell, the king advanced him, and granted 
him large houses and riches, and more public offices, together 
with very extensive and lucrative domains ; (and in the same 
way he also endowed queen Anne, a short time before he 
beheaded her.) But some persons now suspect that this was 
all an artifice, to make people conclude that he must have 
been a most wicked traitor, and guilty of treason in every 
possible way ; or else the king would never have executed 
one who Avas so dear to him, as was made manifest by the 
presents he had bestowed upon him. It was from a like 
artifice, as some think, that the king conferred upon Crom- 

[i For an account of Cromwell's fall, sec Foxe, v. 398, and Soames, 
ii. 40!).] 

[ 2 Walter, lord Hungerford, was accused, among other crimes, of 
ordering Sir Hugh Wood, one of his chaplains, and one doctor Maud- 
lin, to use conjuring, that they might know how long the king should 
live. See Burnct, i. 580.] 


well's son Gregory 3 , Avho was almost a fool, his father's title, 
and many of his domains, while he was yet living in prison ; 
that he might more readily confess his offences against the 
king, at the time of execution, and that his majesty might not 
be provoked to take back the presents and estates that he had 
bestowed. There are, moreover, other parties who assert, with 
what truth God knows, that Cromwell was threatened to bo 
burned at the stake, and not to die by the axe, unless at the 
time of execution he would acknowledge his crimes against 
the king ; and that he then said, "I am altogether a miserable 
sinner. I have sinned against my good and gracious God, 
and have offended the king." But what he said respecting the 
king was carelessly and coldly pronounced by him. 

Our sins have doubtless deserved this change in our affairs, 
because, when God sent forth his word amongst us, it was 
riot regarded by us as the word of God, nor were we suffi- 
ciently thankful to its author ; but we have been dreaming that 
it was understood by our own strength and ability, and have 
constantly ascribed its success to the conduct of some, and the 
learning of others, while Ave fancied that God was all the while 
asleep and inactive. Wherefore the Lord, purposing gradually, 
but not all at once, to manifest his mercy towards us, as well as 
his power in the general course of his providence, has taken 
away, together with purity of doctrine, those individuals also 
upon whose wisdom we so much depended for support ; willing 
that his providence should herein be shewn forth, by frustrat- 
ing and destroying our expectations from men, and our boasting 
that interfered with his glory ; and manifesting too his mercy, 
by permitting these things to be gradually taken away, together 
with those persons in whom we trusted ; and this, that, being so 
often deceived in our expectations from the creature, we might 
place all our confidence in him alone, and acknowledge him as 
the continual agent, as well as the original source, of all grace 
and goodness. This long-suffering of God, so tempered with 
instruction, ought to have worked repentance in us, unless we 
had been a stiff-necked people. But such was the wretched- 
ness of our condition, that we did not consider it was the 
Lord's teaching : but as soon as he had destroyed the hopes 

[ 3 Gregory Cromwell was summoned to parliament 28tli April, 
1539, and created, by patent. Baron Cromwell, 18th Dec. 1540. Ob. 


we had reposed in one individual, we raised up to ourselves 
another in whom we placed our confidence ; until at last God 
has taken them all away from us, and has inflicted upon us 
such a want of sincere ministers of the word, that a man may 
now travel from the east of England to the west, and from the 
north to the south, without being able to discover a single 
preacher, who out of a pure heart and faith unfeigned is 
seeking the glory of our God. lie has taken them all away. 
(And here I mean queen Anne, who was beheaded, together 
with her brother ; also the Lord Cromwell, with Latimer l and 
the other bishops.) Oh the great wrath and indignation of 
God ! yea, rather the far greater mass of our sins, by reason 
of which the tender severity of God could not but inflict upon 
us this punishment ! But whither am I wandering ? It is as 
though a swine should endeavour to instruct Minerva. I will 
therefore return to the subject. 

At the time when the lord Cromwell was imprisoned, the 
king held a public assembly of the nobility, bishops, and cer- 
tain of the citizens, according to the custom of this country, 
and which our people call a parliament ; in Avhich were pub- 
lished more than forty-eight new statutes, (and the king in- 
tends them to be of perpetual obligation,) of which I here only 
mention a few, but not all, of those which concern religion. 
The following is the title of one statute, thus set forth by the 
king and parliament : A bill 2 for moderating the penalties 
inflicted upon priests for incontinence. You haye heard, I 
know, my honoured master, of the statute that was put forth 
among us in the year 1539, against six articles 3 of the Chris- 
tian religion. One clause of it, if you remember, provided that 
priests were to put away their wives, upon pain of being con- 
demned as felons, upon the first conviction. But by the same 
statute it was allowed priests to commit fornication once or 
twice ; but if they were detected a third time, they were to 

[! Latimer resigned his bishoprick July 1st, 1539, in consequence 
of bis opposition to the statute of the Six Articles.] 

[ 2 This bill was brought in on the 16th July, for moderating the 
statute of the Six articles in the clauses that related to the marriage of 
the priests, or their incontinency with other women. By it the pains 
of death were turned to forfeitures of their goods and chattels, and 
the rents of their ecclesiastical promotions, to the king. Bui-net, I. 453 ] 

[ 3 These articles are given in Bui-net, i. 416 ; Soames, n. 368 ; 
Foxe, v. 262 ; Strype, Mem. I. i. 542.] 


be hung as they do thieves in this country. Felony has from 
olden time been punished among us with the gallows, if the 
thing stolen exceeded the value of six batzen. The king has 
considered the punishment provided by the statute, namely, 
that aforesaid, the title of which you have heard, of hanging 
upon a third conviction, to bo too severe, or, as we say, ex- 
treme. And it is therefore the king's pleasure for parliament 
to enact, that priests should for the first offence be punished 
by fine ; then, upon a second conviction, by the loss of one 
benefice, if the priest should have more than one ; and for 
the third time, by the forfeiture of all their temporal goods, 
together with all their preferment whatever, and perpetual 
imprisonment during life. And yet meanwhile it does not 
appear to the king at all " extreme " still to hang those cler- 
gymen who marry, or who retain those wives whom they had 
married previously to the former statute. 

Another bill bears the following title, "An Act to dissolve 
the king's pretended marriage with the lady Anne of Cloves." 
I will procure this that you may have it translated into Latin, 
word for word. And yet, what is pretended shortly after the 
preamble, that the commonalty of the realm have had many 
doubts and perplexities respecting that marriage, is altogether 
false. For not a man would have dared to open his mouth 
to mention such doubts and perplexities, even if they had 
existed, which was not the case. What a termination will the 
godly expect to this bill, which is thus founded upon falsehood ! 
It is false too, what the statute declares, that the nobility 
and members of parliament petitioned the king to refer the 
whole matter concerning this marriage to the consideration of 
his clergy : whereas it is certain, that no nobleman or citizen 
would have dared to utter a single word about that business, 

O 7 

either openly or in secret, until they had perceived that the 
king's affections were alienated from the lady Anne to that 
young girl Catharine, the cousin of the duke of Norfolk, 
whom he married immediately upon Anne's divorce. As to the 
reply of the archbishop of Canterbury and the other bishops 
to the king's letter, requiring them to examine and decide 
upon the case, "that they had found Anne of Cleves was still 
a maid, and had never been carnally known by the king 4 ," 

[ 4 The answer which the council wroto to the English ambassador 
at Paris was, that the queen herself affirmed that her person had not 


this is a likely thing forsooth! Who, judging of the king 
by his fruits, would ever believe him to be so chaste a 
character ? Especially when he was in such a hurry as to 
send for her before Christmas, and to have her alone with him 
every day in his chamber, and in public, as a queen, during 
five or six months. This single pretended fact was, as far as 
I can conjecture, that which these five courtiers, the bishops 1 , 
with their episcopal brethren so gravely considered, and 
weighed, and sifted, as you find in their reply above men- 
tioned. Our preachers, in all their sermons, used to pray for 
her in these terms, " The most noble queen Anne, the right 
lawful wife of our sovereign Henry VIII." &c. 

This bill, moreover, gives indemnity to all those persons 
who had spoken, or taken any measures, against the king's 
marriage with queen Anne. But this was done with a view to 
deceive, as though there were any such persons to be pardoned. 
Let all England stand forth and produce even a single in- 
dividual of this stamp, if it can. And those parties who 
endeavoured to promote the dissolution of the same marriage, 
have no need of a pardon from parliament, since it is most 
certain that they would never have made the attempt without 
the sanction and approval of the king. 

By the authority, too, of the same parliament, the king 
has imposed many burdens upon his subjects. For there 
was granted him a fifth of all the yearly revenues of the 
bishops, and the benefices of the clergy, in addition to the 
tenths which he annually receives from them. From the laity, 
as well the nobility, as citizens and peasantry, there was 
granted him the tenth of all their yearly income, patrimony, 
and lands ; and from those who have not any patrimony or 
yearly revenue, there was granted the king a twentieth of 
their monies, goods, cattle, fruit, and all kind of property what- 

been touched by king Henry ; that a learned convocation had judged 
the matter ; that the bishops of Durham, Winchester, and Bath, were 
known to be great and learned clerks, who would do nothing but upon 
just and good grounds ; so that all persons ought to be satisfied with 
these proceedings, as she herself was ; and here the matter ended. 
Burnet, m. 223.] 

[ L The case was referred by convocation to a committee, consisting 
of the two archbishops, the bishops of London, Durham, Winchester, 
and Worcester, and six others, doctors of divinity and law. Strype, 
Mem. I. i. 558.] 


ever. The north of England, however, where the rebellion 
took place immediately after the execution of queen Anne, 
was now excused these payments by the favour of the king. 
Moreover, this business was so artfully managed, that the 
archbishop of Canterbury and the other lords spiritual (as 
these carnal persons are called) offered the king, of their own 
accord, the payment of this money, in the name of all the 
clergy, because the king had delivered them from the yoke 
and bondage of the Roman pontiff. As though they had 
ever been, when subject to the pope, under such a yoke as 
they now are ; when all their property, and life itself, arc at 
the king's disposal ! In like manner too, the laity made the 
king a voluntary grant of this money, which they are bound 
by parliament to pay under a heavy penalty. But every 
thing is given freely and voluntarily in this country ! 

In the same parliament, too, the king published a general, 
or, so to speak, an universal pardon, by which he forgave the 
nobility and others of his subjects all heresies, treasons, felo- 
nies, with many other offences against the laws and statutes 
of the realm, committed before the first of July, 1540, (with 
the exception of such crimes as might fairly be interpreted as 
having; been committed by word or deed against the royal 

Of v 

person;) and also voluntary homicides, robbing churches, and 
many crimes of the like nature. It was however provided 
that this act of indemnity was not to extend to the lord 
Cromwell; nor to doctor Barnes 2 , Thomas Garrard, William 
Jerome, three preachers who were then in prison for the 
sake of the gospel ; nor to the two sons of a certain marquis 
(who had been beheaded,) and of the lord Montague", the 
brother of Pole, an Englishman, a cardinal of Rome. The 
name of him [who was beheaded] was marquis of Exeter : 
he would have been the heir 4 to the throne, had the king 

[ 2 For a full account of these martyrs, who were burned in Smith- 
field in July 1540, see Foxe, v. 414 43K. Soames, n. 430, &c. See 
below, p. 209.] 

[ 3 Dr Lingard observes tha,t our historians are ignorant of the 
attainder, and even of the existence of the son of lord Montague. He 
is mentioned however in Cardinal Pole's Epistles, n. 197, as well as in. 
the text. Lingard, iv. 284.] 

[ 4 Henry Courtenay, 17th earl of Devon, and marquis of Exeter, 
was son of Catharine, youngest daughter of Edward IV., and con- 
sequently first cousin to Henry VIII.] 


been -without lawful issue. Many other also of the nobility 
were exceptecl from this pardon ; among whom was the popish 
bishop of Chichcster, and a man of the name of Wilson (who 
had, on a former occasion, been pardoned by the king, and 
set at liberty after two years' imprisonment for his support of 
the pope), together with some other priests, who, as they 
maintained the supremacy of the pope, would not admit the 
Icing's title, wherein he styles himself " supreme head of the 
church of England." All anabaptists too were excepted, and 
sacramentaries, as they are called, and all those who do not 
admit transubstantiation ; and those, likewise, who affirm that 
every kind of death, together with the time and hour of the 
same, is so certainly appointed, foreordained, and determined, 
that neither the king can change it by the sword, nor any 
one prevent it by his own rashness. These are the very 
words of the statute. 

A little before the aforesaid pardon was granted, very 
many persons, especially the preachers of the gospel, were 
imprisoned in every part of England ; and at London four or 
five of the principal of them. They made search too after 
Doctor Crome 1 , a man of great gravity and wisdom, (who, to- 
gether with Latimer, was the first who in our times sowed 
the pure doctrine of the gospel ;) he, when he heard from 
a certain Nicodemean individual that he was denounced, went 
privately to the palace, and falling on his knees before the 
king, (after he had first informed him of the cruel treatment 
of some preachers and citizens at London,) prayed him for 
God's sake to put a stop to these severities, and of his 
wisdom and godliness to apply a remedy. The king forth- 
with gave order, that no further persecution should take place 
on account of religion, and that those who were then in 
prison should be set at liberty, upon their friends giving 
security for their appearance whenever they should be called 
for. The king, probably, as you have heard, was partly in- 
duced to grant this indulgence, in the hope that when these 
things were once set at rest, and the old errors (as he con- 
sidered them) forgiven, the people would be more quiet and 
obedient in future. I am aware, nevertheless, that it is 
usual for his clemency to bestow pardon upon his subjects in 

t 1 A full account of Dr Crome is given in Strype, Mem. in. i. 157. 
Burnet, in. 223.] 


this way (some particular crimes, as in the present case, ahvays 
excepted), after they had allowed him by their liberality (as 
they have now done) to scrape together a large sum of 
money ; or when, by authority of parliament, they have 
entirely released him from the payment of every penny 
that he had borrowed from them. 

Soon after the dissolution of parliament, namely, on the 
thirtieth of July last year, were executed six of those men 
who had been excepted from the general pardon. Three of 
them were popish priests, whose names were Abel, Powell, 
and Fetherston 2 , and who refused to acknowledge the king's 
new title, and his authority over the clergy. They were 
dealt with in the usual manner, first hung, then cut down 
from the gallows while yet alive, then drawn, beheaded, and 
quartered, and their limbs fixed over the gates of the city ; 
but the heads, in general, of as many priests or monks as are 
executed in this city, are fixed on the top of a long pole, and 
placed upon London bridge, as a terror to others. The re- 
maining three were preachers of the gospel, and of no mean 
order ; their names were Barnes 3 , Gcrrard, and Jerome. 
They were first brought from the Tower of London, and 
drawn on a sledge through the middle of the city to a 
place called Smithficld, where they were tied to one stake, 
and burned at the same place where the others were executed. 
This place had never been used before, as far as I remember, 
for the execution of any persons excepting heretics. They 
remained in the fire without crying out, but were as quiet and 
patient as though they had felt no pain ; and thus they com- 
mended their spirits to God the Father by Jesus Christ. I 
could never ascertain, though I have made diligent inquiry, 
the true reason why these three gospellers were excepted 
from the general pardon ; so that I can conjecture none more 

[ 2 For an account of these persons, see Foxe, v. 438. Burnet, 
I. 477. Soames says that " Powell and Abel were two political pam- 
phleteers, on the queen's side, during the ferment occasioned by 
Catharine of Aragon's case, who, together with another Romish 
partizan, named Featherstone, were notorious for their opposition to 
the royal supremacy." Hist. Ref. n. 439.] 

[3 Dr Robert Barnes had been prior of the Austin friars at Cam- 
bridge ; Thomas Gerrard (or Garrett) was curate of All-Hallows, in 
Honey-lane; and William Jerome was vicar of Stepney. See the 
authorities quoted above, p. 207, n. 2.] 




likely, than that the king, desiring to gratify the clergy and 
the io-norant and rude mob, together with the obstinate part 
of his nobility and citizens, appointed these three victims, as 
he probably considered them, as it were for a holocaust, to 
appease those parties, or to acquire fresh popularity with 
them. I think however, that they would not have had more 
than one, or at most two of them in the same year, only that 
the clergy and the greater part of the nobility and common- 
alty might pay more readily the money granted to his majesty 
by parliament. If any one should assert that these three per- 
sons were burned on account of their preaching and doctrine, it 
then appears strange that they were not brought before the 
judges, and condemned by due course of law, as had always 
been the practice in such cases before this instance. Then 
again, in my opinion, the parliament did not deal justly, if it 
condemned them for their doctrine. For I know this for a 
fact, that from the twelfth of July, 1539, (on which day the 
bill l by which the truth was condemned began to take effect,) 
until the day when they were apprehended, they never once 
opened their mouths expressly against that statute, either in 
their public preaching or private conversation, except when 
they found that they were with honest and godly men, and 
sufficiently safe from their enemies. They were committed to 
prison in Easter-week of the following year, 1540, even after 
they had in many things submitted to the king in their sermons 
at Easter-. Thus we sec that neither the king nor his parlia- 
ment could justly condemn them to death for their doctrine, 
unless they chose to assert that all those opinions, which in 
the statute aforesaid they condemned as heresy, were not par- 
doned before that appointed day, the twelfth of July. And if 
this were the case, it was then only an artifice and a snare to 
entangle men, thus to fix and appoint a stated day when the 
act was to begin to take effect. I am here more brief, by 

[ l Xamcly, the Act of the Six Articles.] 

[ 2 By certain complaints made to the king of them they were 
enjoined to preach three sermons the next Easter following, at the 
Spital; at which sermons, besides other reporters who were thither 
sent, Stephen Gardiner also was there present, sitting with the 
mayor, cither to bear record of their recantation, or else, as the Pha-. 
riseos came to Christ, to trip them in their talk, if they had spoken 
any thing awry. Foxe, v. 420.] 


reason of ci little book printed in German, concerning the pro- 
test of the said Robert Barnes at the stake, where he acknow- 
ledged that he did not know for what reason he was brought 

~ O 

thither to be burned. In the week following the burning of 
these preachers, were executed many others of those who had 
been excepted from the general pardon. The reason of their 
execution is unknown to me ; but it was reported to have 
been for treason against the king. However, to confess the 
truth, people were not so active in inquiry, or in investi- 
gating matters, as they were wont to have been, because 
it is now no novelty among us to see men slain, hung, 
quartered, or beheaded ; some for trifling expressions, which 
were explained or interpreted as having been spoken against 
the king ; others for the pope's supremacy ; some for one 
thing, and some for another. The bishop of Chichester, 
however, and doctor Wilson, such a papist as Eckius 3 , were 
set at large by the king, notwithstanding they had been ex- 
empted out of the general pardon. The crime of treason, as I 
hear, which they had committed against the king, was the send- 
ing some alms to the papist Abel 4 , when reduced to the great- 
est distress from having been long kept in a most filthy prison, 
and, as the papists here affirm, almost eaten up by vermin. 

And now I am about to say somewhat of that learned 
and godly man, doctor Crome. At this time (as had always 
been his practice, whenever any storm arose that seemed to 
do injury to the truth) feeling the necessity of the case, he 
preached with more zeal than ordinary, until the approach of 
Christmas. And on that day those who were his enemies on 
account of the gospel, brought together against him some 
articles which they alleged to be heretical. Meanwhile the 
clergy set up their champion Wilson, to oppose the purer 
doctrine of Crome, and to affirm the falsehood of whatever 
truths he had preached. This those wise children of this 
world did with the greater readiness, that they might have a 
better handle for accusing Crome (as though it was through 
his preaching that such a controversy had arisen in the city 

[ 3 John Eckius was professor in the university of Ingoldstadt, 
where he died in 1543. He is memorable for his opposition to the 
reformation, and his controversial writings against Luther, Melanc- 
thon, &e.] 

[ 4 See above, p. 209, n. 2.] 



of London), and so for bringing- him forth to answer for 
himself either before the king or his council. Which object 
they effected after a few days. For after Christmas-day they 
were both of them forbidden to preach, until either the king 
or his councillors should hear the case and determine it ac- 
cording to their pleasure. After Christmas-day, 1540, (for 
our people begin to reckon the new year from the feast of the 
annunciation of Mary), a day having been appointed for the 
appearance of both parties, namely, Crome and Wilson, the 
enemies of Crome produced against him, as impious and 
heretical, nearly thirty passages from his late sermons ; the 
sum of which, as far as I am able to judge, is as follows : 

" No works can justify in the same manner as Christ 
does, nor do they so satisfy as he satisfied by suffering for us. 
For he is the only oblation, and price of redemption, &c. 

" No truth is necessary to be believed or obeyed by us 
under the penalty of sin or eternal death, unless it be some- 
where expressly revealed to us in the holy scriptures, or can 
truly, piously, and justly be collected and deduced from them. 

" To offer masses for the dead is plainly contrary to holy 
scripture, and is a superstition. And it was first," he says, 
"introduced into the church by means of a vision, yea, rather 
a delusion of Satan, in the time of pope Gregory." 

" The king himself confesses, with his bishops, in his 
Institution 1 of a Christian Man, that the masses scalce co&li, 
ordained by the pope, are altogether unprofitable to the dead. 
But this is the principal kind of mass for the departed, by 
reason of the prayers, &c. Wherefore, if these masses profit 
not, much less do others. Again, if the mass were profitable 
to the dead, the king and parliament have done wrong in 
destroying the monasteries, where so many masses were en- 
dowed and celebrated for the dead. 

[! The passage referred to is this : " Wherefore it is much neces- 
sary that such abuses be clearly put away, which under the name of 
purgatory hath been advanced ; as to make men believe that through 
the bishop of Rome's pardons souls might clearly be delivered out of 
purgatory, and all the pains of it; or the masses said at Scala Cceli, or 
other where, in any place, or before any image, might likewise deliver 
them from all their pain, and send them straight to heaven; and other 
like abuses." The Institution of a Christian Man. Loud. 1537. Ed. 
Oxford, 1825, p. 211.] 


" Those who teach men to pray to the saints, if only that 
they may pray for us in the same way as here we pray for 
each other, inculcate a practice neither necessary nor useful. 

" The church of Christ is the spouse of Christ. But she 
must certainly be an imperious and pert wife, who should 
speak and exercise authority above her husband. You call us 
seditious preachers, and say that we introduce new doctrine ; 
but you speak falsely. For you are the seditious parties, who 
defend superstition and human traditions, and refuse to obey 
with us the word of God, and to listen to the voice of Christ. 

" Men wonder that we preachers cannot agree together. 
But this is not to be wondered at. For they teach the com- 
mandments of men ; we. on the contrary, those of God alone. 
And yet, if they would give over preaching their dreams, 
falsehoods, human traditions, and puerilities, and would preach, 
as we do, the word of God only, we should forthwith come to 
an agreement. 

" The church of Christ is suffering, and ever will suffer, 
persecution, as some parties have suffered of late among our- 
selves. And though the world tried to persuade them, it was 
by no means able to overcome them. Neither, I hope, shall 
you conquer us, notwithstanding your persecution of us. For 
you would be able to say that you had conquered us, if you 
could prevail with us to speak as you do. But we should then 
be liars like yourselves, and chaplains of the devil, as you 

When the king and his council had received these and 
other like articles, of which Crome was accused, they allowed 
him a certain time wherein to answer them. Which when he 
had done, (as appears from the royal injunction which he was 
ordered to recite to the people,) his reply was beyond doubt a 
manifest confirmation of the articles alleged against him ; for 
he persisted in affirming that they were true and orthodox. 
The king, however, whether from a secret horror, or fear of 
the people, (or from the working of God, in I know not what 
other manner,) were he to condemn to death so eminent a 
man, who was, as it were, a father in religion, would not 
deliver him to the flames to be sacrificed as a burnt-offering, 
like Barnes and the others ; but sent him a certain paper, 
with which he was to comply in all respects, as you shall now 
hear ; for the following is a copy of it : 




The king's majesty, having received the answer of Edward 
Crome, doctor in divinity, to certain articles about which he 
was examined by chosen commissioners appointed by his ma- 
jesty on that behalf; the king's excellency, too, being advised 
that the said doctor Crome was so manifestly persuaded in 
his heart, as he confessed in his answer subscribed with his 
own hand, and laid before his majesty ; the king, out of 
his most godly benignity, and accustomed goodness and mercy, 
is content for this time to relax the rigour and severity of the 
laws which his majesty might justly execute against the said 
Crome. Moreover, his royal majesty, being desirous of 
establishing a Christian peaceableness and tranquillity among 
his subjects, by an uniform agreement in the office of preach- 
ing, has determined as follows, &c." 

The king then enjoined Dr Crome to preach on a certain 
day in Lent, at London, in St Paul's church-yard, (namely, 
that of our principal church,) and there recant all the pre- 
ceding articles. Then at the end of this royal document there 
was added the following, which Crome was to repeat, after 
he had read his recantation : " Moreover, his majesty makes 
this known to all his subjects, that if the said Crome shall 
hereafter be accused of these or the like articles, the se- 
verity of the law shall be executed upon him without any 
favour." Against Crome's assertion, that masses did not be- 
nefit the dead, it was objected at the trial, that he had preach- 
ed in that article expressly against the royal statutes, which 
enacted that private masses had been properly retained in the 
church of England, by reason of the many advantages that 
Christians receive from them. But the statute does not specify 
those advantages ; so that Cromo answered, that he under- 
stood them to be, the commemoration of the death of Christ 
by the ceremonies of 'the mass, and also prayers for the living; 
especially as the king had abolished so many monasteries. 
This evasion did not avail him, for the king enjoined him in 
his instructions to read his recantation of that article in these 
terms : " Public and private masses are a profitable sacrifice 
as well for the living as for the dead. And although masses 
and other prayers and helps profit the departed, yet the king's 
majesty and the parliament have piously and justly abolished 


the monasteries in his realm." For what reason, it was not 

You have here the sum of the king's judgment respecting 
Dr Crome in this matter. Now when the Sunday came, on 
which he was to recant, he preached a godly discourse, and 
at the end of it told the people, that he had received a written 
document from the king's majesty which he was ordered to read 
to them. And after he had read it, he committed the congre- 
gation to God in a short prayer, and so went away : whereas 
the king certainly intended him to receive that writing as a 
specimen of the doctrine which he was to follow in his sermon; 
and also to extol to the skies his wisdom, learning, and mercy, 
as doctor Barnes and the two others had done, when they 
preached at Easter, and yet were burned notwithstanding. 
It certainly was not the king's intention that Crouie should 
read his judgment so carelessly, and then go away as he did : 
wherefore I am afraid that the clergy will not let him off 
thus. For immediately after he was forbidden by the king to 
preach any more, as he had before forbidden Latimer, bishop 
of Worcester, and Shaxton, bishop of Salisbury ; who by the 
providence of God, as I think, (and as also is evident from 
their having been so long preserved by him in this dangerous 
world,) were delivered from death by the general pardon. 
Those two bishops were a long time under restraint, because 
they would never give their sanction to the statute published 
against the truth in the year 1539, as the other Ecebolian 
bishops did at once. But how favourable to them the king 
now is, and how much he appreciates their sound and pure 
doctrine, is evident even from this, that he has not only pro- 
hibited them from preaching, but also from coming within two 
or three German miles of our two universities, the city of 
London, or their own dioceses! atrocious deed, thus to 
drive away faithful shepherds from their flocks, and intrude 
ravenous Avolves in their stead ! God will not, I hope, allow 
this tyranny much longer. Meanwhile, you perceive how much 
iniquity abounds among us, and therefore that in many respects 
charity is growing cold. Farewell in the Lord ! May our 
good and gracious God long preserve you in safety to us, and 
for the edification and comfort of his church ! Amen, Amen. 




Datetl at FRANKFORT, Sept. 18, 1541. 

GRACE and perseverance in the truth from the Lord, &c. 
I received, my revered master, three days since, your pious 
and consolatory letter, dated on the 31st of August ; on 
account of which I consider myself exceedingly indebted to 

v O t/ 

your kindness, for having so condescended to correspond with 
me, a worm, and not a man, (as the world accounts me,) 
and also so frequently and in such comforting terms. 

Falckner wrote to me for the black and red cloth, which 
I send you by Conrad Eblie, that it may be for you to fix and 
determine whether Falckner shall have it upon credit. For 
he owes me already about a hundred florins, to be paid 
here at Frankfort at the next fair, besides forty-five which 
(as he writes me word) Christopher Froschover ought now to 
pay me, but which I doubt whether I shall ever receive : for 
he says in reply, that he is willing to pay these same forty- 
five florins for Falckner, should he have a good sale at the 
fair, but not otherwise. The black cloth contains fifty-five 
Frankfort ells ; the red fifty and a half. The black cloth is 
tolerably good and strong, but I had sold all my best before 
Falckner's letter was delivered to me. I inquired after it of 
the above-named Christopher at the beginning of the fair ; but 
he denied that he had any letters for me, because he hardly 
knew who I was. I met him afterwards, and he found Falck- 
ner's letter for me. The price of forty ells of that cloth is 
twenty-two florins. I have sent you also another piece, of a 
better sort, which I have left at this fair, and which contains 
forty-five ells. Should it seem adviseable to you, I wish 
Falckner to have this, in case he declines the black. But this 
cloth bears a higher price, namely, twenty-eight florins for 
forty ells, reckoning sixteen batzen to a florin. Falckner knows 
that we are accustomed to receive this value for every florin. 
I pray you to dispose of whatever cloth he may leave to some 
one else, and lay out the amount this year for the benefit of 
the poor, (if you have among you any who are exiles for the 
gospel's sake). If you decline doing this, by reason of not 
having among you exiles of this description, (and I admit no 


other claim,) I then wish you to make over the same sum to 
master Calvin for the same object. I am thinking moreover 
of sending you, by the Conrad above-mentioned, a fifth piece of 
cloth, of another colour, which a great number of my country- 
men are accustomed to wear. I have much pleasure in 
making you a present of this, as being the stoutest. If you 
decline accepting it (which I hope you will not), you shall 
pay the money for it when I come. The price is thirty-two 
florins. Both here and at Strasburgh I am beginning to sell 
some cloth of the same colour, which has hitherto been very 
little in use. 

I cannot, by reason of my engagements, write this letter 
over again, either in a better or a larger hand. For I am 
here alone. At Strasburgh likewise I have no domestics, 
except one female servant. I have left them all but one in 
England ; for I have still an establishment in that country, 
such as it is. I only brought one servant with me from 
England, who at that time appeared to every one to be 
most zealous ; and certainly, as long as he lived with me 
there, he was truly pious : but after he had seen the simpli- 
city of the religious worship in this country, and especially not 
having his friends with him, and abundance of provisions and 
meat in the larder, as with us, he seemed to me very much 
to wish to return home. When I discovered this, I discharged 
him, after having given him a letter, by which he might 
obtain a situation with another master in the same line of 
business. I previously, however, set before him, as well as I 
was able, the wickedness of falling away from the truth on 
any ground of superstition. He left me notwithstanding ; but 
I hope that he still continues to savour of Christ in some 
measure. He is now living with a certain merchant, who in 
the time of liberty, three years since, professed the gospel 
among us after his way. But what indeed am I saying ? I 
scarcely know any one (with the exception of learned teachers,) 
who had a greater knowledge of religion than our friend 
Peterson. My late servant requests you to send his letters 
to Clare : I have inclosed them in my own letter, which in 
addition to this I have already sent you by Froschover. 
After he returned home from Strasburgh, from which place 
he fled with the greatest danger, he could not be compelled 
by the severest threatenings of his master; but said that 
things were optional, and indifferent, and I know not what. 


By what means or by Avhat persons he has been thus in- 
fatuated, I know not ; but this I know, that before my 
departure he voluntarily attended masses for the departed, 
and now docs so on every feast-day through almost the 
whole autumn, as is the custom here. His wife indeed had 
a tolerable fortune ; he had with her, as I think, above three 
or four hundred golden angels of our money. 

My wife requests you to be kind enough to ask Falckner 
to send hither to Strasburgh, as soon as possible, a hundred, 
or at the least eighty pounds of the best butter. If he cannot 
contrive to send so largo a vessel to my house, T wish him to 
send it to my friend, John Burcher, (who lodges either with 
master Myconius or master Iscngrinius,) that he may send 
it to Basle for me, and I will pay whatever expense he may 
have incurred. I gave Christopher Froschover for you an 
English cheese with this mark +, wrapped in a linen cloth. 
My wife wished me to send one of the same kind to you and 
your wife, that you might make trial of our cheese as we do 
of your butter. But I would not have you return any thanks 
for this. I would not indeed on any account that you should 
trouble yourself to write your thanks for things of such little 

/ t/ o 

value as the trifling presents of my wife. I will diligently 
salute brother B. in your name. I do not understand the 
other matter about which you wrote. I shall therefore say 
nothing about it, lest I should still more cast down the mind 
of him who is sufficiently cast down already. Should he 
happen to be summoned and sent for home, and should refuse 
to come, he will lose all that he now has. He is now anxious 
upon this subject, but more especially because, if that event 
should take place, it is not likely that he will obtain the 
lady 1 he wishes to marry; one who is truly pious, but, as I 
hear, from some constant disorder unsuited to the married 
state. Farewell. 



P.S. I am not a citizen of Strasburgh, for fear of losing 
the privileges I already enjoy in England and Brabant. The 
senate of Strasburgh is very well disposed towards me. I 
pay them ten florins every year. I have not taken any oath. 

It has happened, honoured sir, that before this my letter 

[i Sec above, Lett. CIV. p. 197.] 


was sealed, Christopher Froschover has paid me the forty-five 
florins owing to me by Falckner, and which were to he paid 
at this fair. He offered also to be answerable for whatever 
cloth I might choose to send to the aforesaid Falckner : so 
that there is no occasion for you to keep by you the cloth 
which I have above stated I would send you by Conrad Eblie; 
excepting only that black cloth at twenty-eight florins, to- 
gether with those eight ells of yours, at thirty-two florins, as 
I above stated, I request you also to be kind enough to tell 
Falckner, that it has just come into my mind how often he 
used to speak to me about the yellow cloth ; and that I have 
therefore sent him thirty-one ells by the aforesaid Conrad, 
together with thirty-one ells and a half of white cloth, and 
twenty ells of green. The price of these is the same as that 
of the two entire pieces above-mentioned, namely, twenty-two 
florins for forty Frankfort ells. I request you, in case he should 
refuse any of these pieces of cloth, kindly to take them under 
your care, till I send you word by letter to whom you may 
deliver them ; unless you should happen to know any friend 
of yours who will take them at the same price, and send me 
the amount without fail by master Christopher Froschover, 
at the next Frankfort fair. For he has given mo a bill in 
Falckner's name for one hundred and three florins and six 
batzen, which is the exact price of the two entire pieces, with 
these last half pieces that I mentioned above. All these 
cloths, of which I have made mention in this letter, with the 
exception of your eight ells (which I have not cut from the 
same cloth that Conrad Eblie bought of me, lest you should 
perhaps wish to have another ell), are stamped upon their 
leaden seal with this my mark in the margin (x). 

You will receive, together with this letter, the opinion of 
our friend Capito on original sin. I have no news from 
England this fair, except that the king has not yet returned 
to London from the northern parts of the kingdom ; whither 
he proceeded with one thousand soldiers, after a new fashion, 
and a great number of tents, after the French fashion, to 
reduce a rebellious and very superstitious people. About 
twenty persons (of whom about twelve had formerly been 
monks) had endeavoured, five 2 months since, secretly to raise 

[ 2 The northern countries broke out in open rebellion in April, 
1541. Sir John Neville was their leader, but, with several of his ac- 
complices, perished by the hand of the executioner. So;r.uep. n. 47.".] 


a new disturbance in those parts : they were beheaded, 
hung, and drawn, after our custom, the June following, at 
London and York, which are the two principal cities in the 
kingdom. The king, before his setting out, beheaded also 
the mother 1 of our countryman the cardinal, with two" others 
of our oldest nobility. I do not hear that any of the royal 
race are left, except the nephew of the cardinal 3 , and another 
boy 4 , the son of the marquis of Exeter. They are both 
children, and in prison, and condemned, I know not why, 
except that it is said that their fathers had sent letters to 
Home to the pope, and to their kinsman, the cardinal. The 
king's son by the third wife is still alive, but I do not speak 
about him. There is also living a natural son of king Ed- 
ward, whose daughter Henry VII., the father of our pre- 
sent kine;, married after the death of Richard the second 


[third]. But shortly before I left England he was sent from 
Calais (where he had formerly been the king's lieutenant, 
and, as you know, too near upon France,) to the Tower of 
London, the receptacle for such persons, where he was im- 
prisoned by parliament at the same time as lord Cromwell 
was condemned, and still remains there waiting for the king's 
pardon. This illegitimate old man, when at Calais, was a 
most grievous persecutor of the gospel. (Edward left two 
sons, heirs of his kingdom, under the protection of the afore- 
said Richard, their uncle. This Richard privately put to 
death these two amiable youths, his nephews, and for nearly 

[! Margaret, countess of Salisbury, the mother of Cardinal Pole, 
had been kept in close confinement in the Tower since 1539, on sus- 
picion of having carried on a secret correspondence with her son, by 
means of the rector of Warblington, a parish on the Hampshire coast, 
within a few miles of her seat at Cowdray, in Sussex. She was be- 
headed on the green within the Tower, on May 27, 1541, on the rising 
of the new disturbances in Yorkshire. See Soamcs, n. 359, 475.] 

[ 2 One of these was lord Leonard Gray, deputy of Ireland, who 
was beheaded for suffering his nephew, proclaimed an enemy to the 
state, to make his escape. The other was Thomas Fynes, lord Dacre 
of the south, for having murdered a poor man who resisted him in an 
attempt to steal deer. He was hanged on the 25th of June. Soames, 
n. 477.] 

[ 3 Cardinal Pole was a younger son of sir Richard Pole, earl 
Montague, and had several brothers.] 

[ 4 This was Edward Courtenay, who was restored in blood and 
honours by parliament, Oct. 10. 1553. He died in 1556, s. r., when 
all his honours became extinct.] 


three years hold forcible possession of the kingdom.) Another 
of the chief nobility, a most cruel tyrant, not long after, fell 
from his horse, who was galloping of his own accord ; but he 
never afterwards spoke a word, for he miserably broke his 
neck. This was the earl of Essex 5 , whose property and 
lands, with his great manors and riches, Cromwell immediately 
obtained, but not for any length of time, as I know you have 
heard before now, if you have received the former letter sent 
by Froschover 1 "'. 

Strasburgh, Sept. 25. The king has appointed Thomas, 
archbishop of Canterbury, and the chancellor of the king- 
dom, (both of whom are now considered as our friends,) to 
be his deputies in the south of England. But immediately 
on the king's departure they burnt at the stake in London, 
for fear, (as our English gospellers think,) a young man 7 
eighteen years of ago, on account of his entertaining the 
Lutheran opinion touching the eucharist. He did not alto- 
gether deny a corporal presence, but asserted, as our Wy clitic 8 
did, that the accident of bread did not remain there without 
the substance. Again farewell. The son of that great light 
of the world, master Zuinglius, is dead here, or rather has 
fallen asleep ; as have also many others, of whom there were 
the greatest hopes, in the college of Strasburgh. Once 
more farewell, and live happily in the fear of the Lord ! 

[ 5 Henry Bourchier, carl of Essex, was killed by a fall from his 
horse in 1539. Thomas Cromwell was raised to the earldom 17th of 
April of the same year, and obtained all the property that fell to the 
crown on the decease of his predecessor, but was beheaded and at- 
tainted the year following. See Soames, n. 402. Buruet, in. 21G.] 

[ See the preceding letter, p. 217.] 

[7 This was Richard Mekins, a boy according to all accounts not 
above fifteen years of age, and both illiterate and very ignorant, who 
had said somewhat against the corporal presence of Christ's body in 
the sacrament, and in commendation of Dr Barnes. See Burnct, i. 
4 SI. Foxe, v. 441.] 

[ 8 " Of all the heresies that have ever grown up in the holy church 
of God, none is m;>re abominable than that which makes this vener- 
able sacrament an accident without a subject. " Wycliffe's Trialogus, 
B. iv.] 




Dated at STRASBURGH, Nov. 23, 1541. 

THE consolation of the Holy Ghost in your studies, at- 
tended as they sometimes are with so much anxiety ! 

I received, most learned sir, your very gratifying 
letter on the twentieth of November. For your loving me 
as a brother (as I have frequently perceived to be the case 
from your former letters) I return you my warmest thanks. 
I now repent of having sent Falckner the cloth, because he 
is annoyed at my having sent him so much. I should not 
have sent him the black undipped cloth, of which he com- 
plains, had not his letter been delivered to me so late at 
Frankfort. Nevertheless, 1 cannot let him have that cloth 
for eighteen florins ; for it cost me more than twenty florins in 
England. Still, however, as it is now yonder, and especially 
as the texture is so thick, and the wool coarse, I will be con- 
tent with twenty florins, if he chooses to keep it. If he 
does not like to do so, I pray you to receive back the cloth 
from him, and keep it by you until I write you word about 
it after next fair, or sooner. For I may probably think fit, 
if Falckner should decline it, to devote it to another purpose. 
I did not reckon the fine cloth at more than twenty-eight 
florins. I sold Falckner some of the same quality, and at 
the same price, at the last Strasburgh fair. And yet I 
hardly know what to say about that cloth, as your merchants 
think it so dear, except that you advise master Falckner to 
return it to me next Lent, by some carrier of his ac- 
quaintance, who will pass through this place on his way to 
Frankfort. For I have no doubt but that I can sell it 
here at the same, or perhaps a greater price. If Falckner 
sends back the cloth, he will very much oblige me by sending 
at the same time three reams of the best paper that is 
manufactered by master Froschover. A ream contains twenty 
quires, and is called in German ein Riecks. I am greatly 
in want of paper of that sort. I have written this letter 
on a sheet of such paper as I require ; but should he have 
any of a better quality, I wish he would send one or two 


reams more, for Miles Coverdale, and tlie other English 
who are here. I will pay Froschover or Falckner for this 
paper, God willing, at the next fair. I request, moreover, 
master Froschover to pay you yonder on my account fifteen 
florins and twelve batzcn for half the entire piece of fine 
black cloth, intended for the use you know of, (if Falckner 
will forward it to me here,) and I will faithfully repay the 
amount to Froschover at Frankfort. I am satisfied with 
your proposal respecting the other half pieces of cloth, 
namely, that Falckner may retain them, on condition that, 
if he is able to dispose of them, he shall pay me the money 
at the next fair : if not, he is to deliver them afterwards to 
some one at Frankfort, whom I will point out to him. 

I have sent some maxims to your excellency, not that you 
may write back your opinion respecting them, for I cannot 
desire such an interruption to your studies on my account; but 
I shall be greatly obliged to you, if, when I come, you will 
condescend to tell me what you think about them. Salute, 
I pray you, my dear brother Falckner, and thank him in 
my name for the butter, which has been of great use to my 
family this winter. Request him too to remember the paper 
above-mentioned. He wishes me to let him know whether 
I have yet received your letter from the Frenchman, Von 
Homberg. In my last letter, if you remember, I informed 
your excellency of my having received it. I purpose send- 
ing you by the bearer a quart of fenugreek 1 , if he does not 
refuse to take it with him. My Avifc salutes yours, and do 
you also salute her in my name. May the God of all might 
preserve you from the baneful pestilence, and protect you 
under his wing, that his kingdom may be more widely ex- 
tended by you on earth, and your reward be so much 
greater in heaven ! Amen. 

Yours in the Lord, 


P. S. I have sent the fenugreek to Basle, to John 


Burcher, an Englishman, who lodges at the house of master 
Myconius or Isengrinius. 

[! Fenugreek was considered to possess many medicinal qualities: 
a decoction of it was recommended for diseases of the chest. Jolm- 
son's Gerarde's Herbal, Loud. 1636, p. 1197.] 




Dated at STIIASHUIIGH, May 10, 1542. 

HEALTH and perseverance in the truth of Christ ! After 
I returned home safe from Venice, I received your letter 
written on the 31st of March, and was affected on the perusal 
of it with no small delight, that you were engaged about a 
work so pious and so useful to the church, as to have it in 
contemplation to publish some books of commentaries upon 
Matthew. May our great and good God prosper your in- 
tention, and give it a happy issue ! 

Nothing has yet been done with II. Falckner at Frank- 
fort respecting the fine cloth, and there is no reason why he 
should expect that I cither will or can abate him a single 
batz. If, however, there should be left any of the same 
quality, I am content that he should send it me here to our 
fair ; and I shall be as willing to receive the remainder of 
the cloth as the money itself; for I am well aware what kind 
of cloth it was. I scarcely charged eleven batzen and a 
krcutzer for a Frankfort ell. And if I had the same cloth 
here, I could soon sell it by the piece at twelve batzen for a 
Strasburgh ell. I entreat you, my master, that we no longer 
defer the appropriation of that money, which I have destined 
out of the produce of this same cloth for the use of the 
poor exiles, namely, half the price of the same, or, if you 
choose, the whole of it. For I have already given master 
Calvin some money for the like purpose, although I mentioned 
not a word to him about you or that cloth, and never intend 
to do. Distribute therefore, Avhat I have desired of my own 
free-will to be applied to the poor by your instrumentality ; 
whether you choose to retain either the price of half the 
cloth, or, if need so require, of the whole. For the more I 
devote to them through you, so much the less do I leave 
to be applied to the like object by myself. Whatever I do 
in this matter, I do it voluntarily and cheerfully, and without 
a murmur. I therefore pray you, that, whether you deter- 
mine to retain half the sum, if you prefer it, or the whole 


sum, as I prefer myself, you will let me know by letter at 
our next fair. For I desire that, immediately on the receipt 
of this letter, you receive from II. Falckner thirty-one florins 
and a half (reckoning sixteen batzen to a florin) on account 
of that cloth ; so that when Falckner shall come, there may 
be no occasion for any farther reckoning between him and 
me respecting it. Should he object, that he docs not choose 
to purchase the cloth at that price, I pray you in that case 
to receive from him what is left, and sell it there, if you can, 
to your friends, or (which I would prefer for fear of inter- 
rupting your studies) take care that it may be forwarded by 
some merchant to me here, and I will in return faithfully 
send you the amount in money to Zurich. 

I am glad that you have commended to me by letter 
Peter Hurtzel, and especially Andrew Rappenstein ; and if 
my wife had known as much at the last fair, she would not 
have required C. Froschover to be surety for them. I beg 
however that they will not be offended at what my wife did 
in this business ; for she had never seen them before, nor, 
as I remember, had ever heard them commended by me as 
they deserve. Those two honest men dealt honourably with 
me at Frankfort at the preceding fair ; for they owed me 
at that time about one hundred and thirty-three florins, all of 
which, save three, they sent me by master Conrad Eblie. But 
Henry did not act by me with so much good faith : for he 
owed me at the last fair (besides the fine cloth above-men- 
tioned) near two hundred florins; out of which 1 he has 

only paid forty-six florins and fourteen batzen for a friend of 
mine at Basle ; and these he paid so long after they were 
due, that my friend was obliged to send his servant from 
Strasburgh to Basle, during Lent, with twenty out of those 
forty-six florins, because Falckner, even in so small a matter, 
had not performed what he had promised. 

My brother Butler, as I hear by letter, sold his whole 
patrimony in England last Lent; but he had not then re- 
ceived the whole amount. And I am in fear for him, lest, 
when what he has done shall have come to the king's ears 
by means of his sister's husband, who belongs to the court, 
he may be forbidden again to leave the kingdom. Elliot is 
studying the civil law, or, to speak more properly, the laws 
[! A word is here unintelligible in the MS.] 



of our realm, in which ho has made such proficiency, that he 
is now holding an office, from whence he derives an annual 
income of nearly two hundred florins. But Bartholomew 
Traheron has, with much difficulty, retired from court into 
the country, where he is about to marry the daughter of a 
gentleman who favours godly doctrine ; and with this young 
lady he will have a yearly income, as I hear, of one hundred 
and twenty florins, for sixty years, out of some estate which 
is leased to him for that time by his father-in-law for a 
certain sum. He intends, moreover, to teach grammar, and 
to keep a school for little boys, in some small town in that 

Eespecting the state of the kingdom at largo I have 
nothing certain to communicate, except what I imagine you 
must have heard these three months, namely, that the king 
has beheaded his wife, Catherine Howard, whom he married 
immediately after his divorce from Anno of Clcves. This 
Catherine was condemned upon a great suspicion of adultery 
(as is universally reported by the English) with two gentle- 
men, who had also intercourse with her before the king 
married her. The lady liochford too, the widow of that 
nobleman who was capitally punished, as you know, for incest 
with his sister, queen Anne, was beheaded at the same time. 
This widow, as they say, was privy to the licentiousness of 
that Catherine who was lately beheaded : for she used often 
to sleep with the queen ; and when she knew her once to 
have been a long time absent from her bed-chamber in a 
private place, at the same time, as they say, that one of those 
gentlemen who were beheaded was there, she nevertheless 
refrained from mentioning the circumstance to the king. 

The old duchess dowager of Norfolk is also condemned 
to perpetual imprisonment in the Tower of London, and like- 
wise lord William Howard, a brother of the duke of Norfolk, 
because they were cognizant of the vicious life of queen 
Catherine, when the king first fell in love with her, and did 
not acquaint him with it before that hasty marriage had 
taken place. One of the parties 1 , who was first hanged, 
and afterwards beheaded and quartered, for adultery with the 
queen, was one of the king's chamberlains ; and two years 

[! This, probably, was Culpepper, who was a gentleman of the 
privy chamber. See Holinshed, in. 823. Ed. 1808.] 


before, or less, had violated the wife of a certain park-keeper 
in a woody thicket, while, horrid to relate ! three or four of 
his most profligate attendants were holding her at his bid- 
ding. For this act of wickedness he was, notwithstanding, 
pardoned by the king, after ho had been delivered into 
custody by the villagers on account of this crime, and like- 
wise a murder which he had committed in his resistance to 
them, when they first endeavoured to apprehend him. God, 
who is just, will not always suffer wickedness, either here 
or elsewhere, to go unpunished. 

You cannot, without danger to my affairs, write me any- 
thing concerning the Christian religion : besides, if you could, 
I am not worthy of such honour. I have therefore to return 
many thanks to your benevolence for your favourable incli- 
nation towards me ; and I pray you to confer this honour 
upon some one else, who may be worthy of it. I received 
your cheese before sealing this letter, and I am very sorry 
that you have spent so much money on my account ; and 
most of all, that you are ill of a fever. But all the works 
of the Lord arc just judgments, who chastiscth those whom 
ho lovcth, and scourgeth every son whom he rccciveth. I 
pray you to accept, as a present from me, those eight ells of 
cloth, and not to send the money ; for I heartily wish you 
to keep it, and to make use of the cloth, if you please, as a 
token, such as it is, that I love you in the Lord, and have a 
real affection for you. After having read over again this 
barbarous letter of mine, I was so ashamed of it, that I was 
almost determined to tear it, and not to write to you at all ; 
and I certainly should have done so, had you not invited mo 
to write to you upon the state of all our affairs. 

And now, my most esteemed master, farewell in Christ : 
for in future I have no intention of writing to you again, 
except, perhaps, by some amanuensis when necessity obliges 
me. My wife salutes you, and your most amiable lady. 
Deign also to salute your wife in my name. Once more, 
farewell in God, who is our portion in the land of the living, 
and our hope in eternity ! Amen. 

Yours, you know who, 


15 2 




Dated at STRASBURGH, Dec. 18, 1542. 

I RECEIVED your books, most esteemed master, together 
with the letter ; and I feel more gratitude for them in my 
heart than I can express with my pen. And yet, had I 
known that you were about to present me with those books, 
I should certainly have bought a copy for myself at Frank- 
fort, and not have said a word to you about them. For why 
should I lay an additional burden upon your kindness, after 
the great expense you have already incurred there on my 
account? I wish, sir, I had consulted you sooner about 
reading authors and studying histories. For first I read 
Bernard Justiniani 1 on the affairs of the Venetians, the 
Tripartite History 2 , and the Ecclesiastical History of Eusebius, 
together with his Evangelical Preparation, and Demonstra- 
tion. I do not so much regret having read them, only that I 
now perceive from your letter, that I could have employed 
the time I spent in perusing them to better purpose. 

The Demonstration of Eusebius was rather wearisome to 
me, because the holy scriptures are every where explained 
so absurdly, if I may use such an expression, especially with 
respect to the WORD 3 , and against the Jews 4 . He seems, 

[ l Bernard Justiniani or Giustiani was nephew of the patriarch of 
Venice of that name. He went many times to Rome as ambassador 
from the republic, and died in 1489, leaving several works, the princi- 
pal of which is, a History of Venice, printed in 1492.] 

[ 2 The Tripartite History is a compilation by Cassiodorus from the 
Latin translations of the ecclesiastical histories of Socrates, Sozomen, 
and Theodoret.] 

[ 3 Hilles probably refers to the third chapter of the fourth book 
of the Evangelical Demonstration of Eusebius, in which he discusses 
the nature of Christ, the Logos ; which, he says, God produced from 
himself, as the sun produces his light, or the flower its scent, &c. 
The passage is too long to quote.] 

[ 4 The object of the second book of the Evangelical Demonstration 
is to prove the vocation of the gentiles, and the rejection of the un- 
believing Jews.] 


moreover, to entertain wrong notions about free-will 5 , the 
marriage of the clergy 6 , and the fifth chapter of Matthew. 
I found some things, however, in that work which pleased 
me exceedingly; for instance, his opinion respecting the new 
testament, and about Daniel's seventy weeks 7 . I ran through 
these books before I came to Zurich; and also Tertullian, 
whom 1 found to bo such as you had commended him to me. 
I was not so much displeased with the difficulty of his style, 
as I was delighted and profited by his remarkable piety, 
simplicity, and right judgment respecting the eucharist, as 
well as on many other points. I collected many things from 
him, (as also from the ecclesiastical histories,) by which I shall 
be able to stop the mouths of many of my countrymen, who 
are always telling us, that to the pure all things are pure ; 
that God is a spirit ; that he only requires of us our heart, 
and a mind well imbued with knowledge, and the like epicu- 
rean sentiments. 

I happened to light upon that author on sale here in the 
market, on which occasion (not, as I think, without the pro- 
vidence of God) I bought and read him over. But as he 
was scarcely known to me by name before, he procured me 
this advantage, namely, of affording the first handle for my 
pouring forth my questions to you when I was with you. 
Not however, thank God, that I am ignorant of what has 
been observed by many, and as you well know, that the 
opinions of this writer are frequently to bo rejected; and that 
in other places he must be read with judgment, even in the 
treatise De prcescriptione Hcereticorum : as when he says, 
that one must not dispute with heretics 8 , nor must they be 

[5 The following passage may perhaps be referred to. TOVTOV yap 
aTrdar] "^vxfj (pvcnKov vop.ov [3or]6oi> avrrj KCU eW t TO>I> TrpaKTffov 6 
ru>v 6'AcBi> 8rjp.iovpyos {7recm?craro, K. r.A. Prcep. Evang. VI. p. 250. Ed. 
Viger. 1688.] 

[?> MaAiora S' ovv TOVTOIS (sc. SiSacrKaAois KCU Ki]pv{;L TOV rrjs Beoa-e- 
fifias Adyou) dvuyKaiats ra vvv Sta TTJV ?repi ra Kpeirrco cr^oA?;!/ T) rStv 
ydfiayv oi/a^cop7;crts a7rouSaerai, are TTfpl TTJV evdeov KOL aaapKov TTCUOO- 
Trouav acr^oAov/iez/oij, ov% evos ov8e 8vflv Traidcw, aAA adpoats pvpiov 
Tr\ij6ovs TTJV 7rai.8oTpo(j)iav, Kai rrjv Kara Qebv Traiftevcriv, rrjs re ctAA??? 
dywyr/s rov jSt'ou TTJV fTTtp-eXfiav ai/aSeSey/neVoi?. Dem. Ev. I. p. 32. J 

[7 The passages here referred to are in the Dem. Ev. Book i. ch. 
5, 6, and Book viu. ch. 2, but are too long to quote.] 

[8 Hunc igitur potissimum gradum obstruimus, non admittendos 
eos ad ullam de scripturis disputationem. De Prsescr. Heer. Cap. 
xv. p. 207. Ed. Rigalt. 1695 See also cap. xxxvii.] 


permitted to have or compare holy scripture with catholics : 
likewise, that what the apostles preached ought not other- 
wise to be proved than by means of the very same churches 
which they themselves founded 1 , &c. Although indeed he is 
speaking of real heretics, and of the church in his age ; whoso 
doctrine was the same as that of holy scripture, and which 
invented nothing of its own to remedy by omission, addition, 
or change any contrariety supposed to be discovered in the 
scriptures 2 . 

After I returned from you, I read, first, Cyprian, and 
then Lactantius, the reading of which authors I do not alto- 
gether regret. I regard the one -as the defender of my 
cause, yea, as I think, the cause of God, against the adver- 
saries ; and the other I have become acquainted with (as you 
told me I should do) not without abundant fruits of godliness. 

From the death of queen Anne, who was beheaded, until 
my departure, some of my neighbours in London grievously 
detracted from my character, because I refused to give a 
small piece of money (for the honour of God, as it is com- 
monly said), according to the annual custom of the parish, for 
placing largo wax candles in the church before the crucifix 
and the sepulchre. They first of all acted kindly with me, 
through my parents and friends, (whoso opinions they knew 
would have great weight with me in this matter,) and brought 
forward a custom of I know not how many five hundred 
years, when a custom of only one hundred years' continuance 
had with them the force of law. I replied, that I knew of 
no custom that could prevail in opposition to Christ, who 
saith, that " God is a Spirit, c." Joh. iv. They immediately 
objected, having been taught by the minister of the parish, 
"' Do you then deny that God is worshipped by external 
" observances ?" No. For Christ, who is not " custom," but 
the truth, saith : " Let your light so shine, &c." And for 
this reason I think he added in John iv. [24], " and in 
truth." Which clause I thus explained to them : "In truth, 
that is, truly, and according to the word of God ; that is to 
say, in innocence, piety, mercy, and holiness of life, without 

[* Quid autem prscdicaverint, id est, quid illis Christus revelaverit, 
ct hie proDscribam non aliter probari debere, nisi per casdem ecclesias 
quas ipsi apostoli condiderunt, ipsi eis pnedicando, tarn viva (quod 
aiunt) voce, quam per epistolas postea. Ibid. p. 209. cap. xxi.] 

[- The concluding part of this sentence is confused in the original.] 


which no one shall see God. But the divine Majesty is by 
no means worshipped by external observances, which are 
merely invented or devised by men for worship ; for he need- 
eth not any thing, neither is he pleased with these vain and 
corruptible things." Then, after some months' time, when 
they began to have some hope of a change of affairs, they 
often returned to mo with menaces ; and threatened that, in 
case of my not coming to my senses, they would lay an in- 
formation against me before the bishop 3 of our diocese. This 
they did, as I continued firm in my non-compliance. But the 
bishop ordered them to be quiet for a short time, (at least so 
it was told me,) and that all things would at last turn out as 
they could wish. For he was in expectation that the happy day 
Avould shortly arrive, but he did not live to see it ; for being- 
much harassed by Cromwell and others on a frivolous suspi- 
cion of not having aided the king's attempts in abolishing the 
pope's supremacy, and the destruction of the monasteries, he 
died miserably, being, as it appeared, almost worn out with 
grief. But to return to my subject. The year but one be- 
fore I left England, the public orders 4 of the king were sent 
to the bishops and to the principal laity in every parish, that 
by reason of the superstition of the common people they were 
not to permit any wax candles to be burned or placed before 
images in the churches, except only before the crucifix, and 
at the festival of Easter before the sepulchre of Christ. The 
churchwardens immediately sent for me, and inquired of me 
in the church, whether I still continued obstinate in my pur- 
pose against the king's majesty's injunctions. I replied that 
those orders did not concern me, respecting which they 
appeared to me to triumph before they had gained the 
victory. For I am neither, I told them, a bishop nor a 
churchwarden ; nor, supposing I held any office of the kind, 
do these orders enjoin me to maintain your lights, but only 
not to remove them from the church, which I do not attempt 
to do. Moreover, I said, from this letter, coming from the 
king, I have great hopes that after no long interval you will 

[ 3 This was probably John Stokesley, who preceded Bonner in the 
see of London. He died in 1539.] 

[ 4 These injunctions were issued by Cromwell in 1538, for the 
direction of the parochial clergy. They are printed in Burnet, iv. 101. 
See also Strype, Mem. i. i. 490, and Soames, Hist. Rcf. n. 30G.] 


not be at liberty to burn those candles of yours any longer, 
either before the crucifix or at the sepulchre. For the same 
result is to be expected from this tradition as from other 
superstitions, when it is manifest to every one, that the same 
planting is the work of an earthly high-priest, and will be 
plucked up by our heavenly Father, just as that is, which is 
now extirpated by the king's commandment. They then 
dismissed me, saying, "You tell us that you do not attempt to 
remove the holy lights from our churches, when yet you en- 
deavour by your example to draw, if they dared, all men 
after you, (especially foolish boys, and young men like your- 
self;) refusing to do what your own and your wife's parents, 
grave and prudent persons, and what all your honest neigh- 
bours, do not disdain to do." Which is certainly true ; for 
my mother, as I have just heard, has paid the sum for me 
for one or two years, that she might appease the fury of the 
dogs, and that I might not fall into worse peril, as she much 
feared would be the case. 

After this I heard no more about this affair, except that 
the day after I left London for this place, or at least for 
Antwerp, [the bishop of] Winchester, who had just been 
appointed the king's lieutenant in ecclesiastical matters, to 
whom I had probably been known by name, (for his diocese 
extends to the middle of London bridge.) being openly about 
to examine some of my neighbours who were apprehended 
before my departure, endeavoured to fish out of them some- 
thing about me. And he said to one of them, in the presence 
of them all as they were standing in his palace, " And you, 
you foolish man, for what purpose did you daily receive so 
many persons into your house, seeing you are a poor and 
needy mechanic ?" The man replied " There was no such 
assembly of persons at my house, especially of suspected 
ones." " What," said the bishop, " you are lame with those 
who halt," (or he used some proverbial expression of the kind :) 
" was not Richard Hilles every day at your house, teaching 
you, and others like you ?" The accused denied this altoge- 
ther ; and my most bitter enemies, who were men of wealth, 
were unwilling openly to inform against me of their own accord, 
in compliance with the last injunction of the king, and to be 
regarded in the sight of all as guilty of treachery against 
their neighbours. The bishop too, not perhaps being aware 


of my absence, made open inquiry respecting me, and said 
that I should take myself off, and no longer continue to 
poison his flock. 

You now see, my most reverend master, what I meant by 
saying that Lactantius was the advocate of my cause, and that 
I was glad, or at least did not regret, that I had read him 
through. I wondered, however, what he meant by his discourse 
about the pollution of demons, and of their intercourse with 
women 1 ; about the virtue of almsgiving-; on the passion of 
auger, which he ascribes even to God himself 3 ; on the ab- 
staining from the use of flowers and perfumes, which he calls 
the allurements of pleasure, and the weapons of the enemy 
of mankind 4 : also, about the comparing and weighing good 
works with evil ones 5 ; about the life of the just upon earth 
after the day of judgment, with Christ reigning a thousand 
years 6 ; who, during those years, shall give all nations in 

[ l The passage is as follows : Illos (scilicet angelos) cum homini- 
bus commorantes dominator illo terra) fallacissimus consuetudine ipsa 
paulatimad vitia pellexit, ot mulierum congressibus inquinavit. Instit. 
Div. ir. 15.] 

[ 2 Quod si moi-talis conditio non patitur esse hominem ab omni 
macula purum, debent ergo largitione porpetua peccata carnis aboleri. 
Ibid. vi. 13.] 

[ 3 Quidam putant ne irasci quidem Deum omnino . . . quse persuasio 
veritatem atque religionem funditus tollit. Ibid. n. 18. 

Et gratia et ira et miseratio habent in Deo materiam, recteque 
illis utitur summa ilia et singularis potestas ad rerum conservationem. 
De Ira Dei. xv. 

In some cases, he says, non cohibenda ira, sed etiam, si jacet, 
excitanda est. Quod autem do homine dicimus, id etiam de Deo, qui 
hominem similem sui fecit. Ibid. xvm. 

Ubi ira non fuerit, imperium quoque non erit. Deus autem habet 
imperium; ergo et iram, qua constat imperium, habeat necesse est. 
Ibid, xxiii.] 

[ 4 Illecebrse istse voluptatum arma sunt illius cujus opus unum est 
expugnare virtutem. Div. Instit. vi. 32.] 

[ 5 Judicabuntur ergo qui Deum scierunt, et facinora eorum, id est, 
mala opera cum bonis collata ponderabuntur ; ut si plura et gravia 
fuerint bona justaque, dentur ad vitam beatam ; si autem mala supe- 
raverint, condemnentur ad poenam. Ibid. vn. 20.] 

[ 6 Ille (scil. Christus) cum deleverit injustitiam judiciumque maxi- 
mum fecerit, ac justos qui a principio fuerunt ad vitam restauraverit, 
mille annis inter homines versabitur, eosque justissimo imperio reget, 
Ibid. VH. 24.] 


bondage to the elect, who nevertheless shall again lie con- 
cealed a short time under the earth, through fear of the 
prince of the dromons ! then unbound, who shall attack them, 
and of the multitude of the nations who shall rebel against 
them ; with other things of the same kind, in his epitome. 

Cyprian likewise in many places seems to be too severe ; 
especially in the 2nd Epistle of the 4th Book, where he treats 
of those who come to a late repentance. He also prates most 
wonderfully about the purging of sins by alms-giving 2 , and 
about the trial of the good by fire 3 . Besides, it may be doubted, 
in my judgment at least, whether the various passages about 
satisfaction can be so reconciled, as that he may appear to 
have a godly and correct notion of the righteousness of Christ, 
especially in Book i. Ep. 7, and Book in. Ep. 14, and on the 
merits of the martyrs and righteous, Discourse v. Moreover, 
what he writes about free-will, in the Epistle to Quirinus ; 
about the same subject, and the primacy of Peter 4 ; and on 
the meaning of the Avord water, which every where, with 
him, signifies in holy scripture baptism 5 ; also respecting the 
admixture of the holy cup with water, which he affirms Christ 
to have appointed at the supper . 

[ l Idem (scil. princeps Dscmonum) cum millo anni regni, hoc est 
scptcm millia ccepcrint tcrminari, solvctur denuo, ct custodia emissus 
exibit ; atque omnes gentes quse tune crunt sub ditiono justorum con- 
citabit, ut infcrant bcllum sanctcc civitati ; et colligctur ex omiii orbe 
terra innumerabilis populus nationum, et obsidcbit, et circumdabit 
civitatem . . . Populus autem Dei tribus illis diebus sub concavis terra: 
occultabitur. Ibid. vn. 27.] 

[ 2 The following passage may perhaps be referred to among others. 
Nee habcret, quid fragilitatis humansc infirmitas atquo imbecillitas 
faceret, nisi iterum pietas divina subveniens, justitiso et miscricordise 
operibus ostensis, viain quandam tuendcc salutis aperirct ; ut sordes 
postmodurn quascunque contrahimus, eleemosynis abluamus. De 
Oper. et Eleemos. See the second part of the Homily of Alms-deeds, 
where Cyprian's doctrine is explained.] 

[ 3 Aliud pro peccatis longo dolore cruciatum emundari, ct purgari 
diu igne, aliud peccata omnia passione purgassc. Lib. iv. Ep. 2. Erasm.] 

[ l See the treatise De Unit. Eccles. pp. 10G, &c. Oxon. 1G82. with 
Fell's notes upon the passage.] 

[ 5 Quotienscunque autem aqua sola in scripturis sanctis nomina- 
tur, baptisma precdicatur. Lib. n. Ep. 3.] 

[ G Calix Domini non est aqua sola, aut vinum soltun, nisi utnimquo 
sjbi misceatur. Ibid. The remaining references in this paragraph are 
too long for quotation.] 


I determined with myself, as soon as I should have 
leisure, to read Origen for the sake of his antiquity ; but I 
have now changed my mind, because you have made no 
mention of him in your letter to me. Wherefore I shall sub- 
stitute in his place some work of Augustine, or perhaps 
Jerome upon the prophets, only that this is contrary to your 
judgment. I once heard master Capito, in a lecture on Isaiah, 
severely censure him, and say that Jerome was good for no- 
thing except as a rhetorician. I had not believed this before, 
but he seemed to have his reasons for thus finding fault with 

If at any time you deign to write to me again, advise 
me, I pray, as to the best means of retaining in memory 
what I have once read. Hitherto I have been accustomed to 
collect into one book the heads of many common-places and 
sentences ; but this is troublesome to me, as I am a very slow 
writer. Moreover, sir, I want your books on the authority 
of scripture, on the office of bishops, and on the origin of 
error ; and all of them, if it shall seem good to you, bound 
together. I pray you also to send at the same time with 
these books the bible of Leo JudaV, if it is yet completed, or 
as soon after as you may meet with a lit opportunity. But 
first of all fix the price, and receive it from Henry Falckner, 
or else I will not on any account receive the books from any 
one. Lastly, I earnestly entreat you to salute the same II. 
Falckner and Peter Hurtzel in my name, and tell them, that 
such is the state of lower Germany, that I scarcely think any 
English cloth will arrive at Frankfort at the next fair, by 
reason of the war between the emperor and the duke of 
Guclderland. Wherefore, I pray both of them to pay the 
money that they owe me (although it is but a small sum) 
cither to myself, or my wife (in case of my absence), here at 
Strasburgh ; or else to provide for the payment of it through 
some citizen of Zurich. For I am now in great want of it, 
especially during Lent, because I have neither cloth nor 

[7 Leo Judce was minister of Zurich, where he undertook the trans- 
lation of the old Testament, but died June 9th, 1542, before the com- 
pletion of the work, leaving unfinished Job, the last forty Psalms, 
Proverbs, Ecclcsiastes, Canticles, and the last eight chapters of 
Ezekiel, which were translated by Theodore Bibliandcr. The cntiro 
work was edited by Conrad Pellican.] 


money with me. For all the money which I could scrape 
together from my friends in every quarter, I have sent to my 
friends in England to lay out in cloth, and send it to Ant- 
werp, where it now is ; and they dare not transmit it into 
upper Germany on account of the cruel war, which may God 
soon deign to put an end to, for the sake of Christ our Lord 
and our hope ! Amen. 

My wife salutes you most respectfully, and also your most 
amiable wife, to whom I desire my best thanks for her great 
favours conferred upon us, Avhen we lived with you in those 
parts. Either your wife, or the wife of Megandcr, wrote to 
my wife about something or other ; but really we cannot make 
out what it is. I therefore request that they will let us know 
what they wish for, and it shall be diligently attended to at 
the next fair. I was aware that the black cloth they wanted 
may be bought here, only that it may be had, every one says, 
with you at a much cheaper rate. 

I commend myself most dutifully to masters Megander, 
Theodore Bibliander, and Pellican, and pray you to salute 
their wives in my name. I desire also my most respectful 
salutations to master Erasmus and his wife. And if, my very 
dear master, I can serve you in any way whatever, only com- 
mand me, and you shall find me most ready to do your 
bidding. But I had not intended, as your reverence knows, 
to write to you any more, and you know the reason ; but 
on account of your excellent presents I am now compelled 
to write, and I must entreat you to take in good part my 
barbarous and vain prattling. But I implore you for the 
Lord's sake, to promote in your senate, as far as you may 
be able, the cause of my brother and fellow-countryman, John 
Burcher l ; respecting which my brother Butler, who is, as I 
well know, beloved by and dear to you, has lately written to 
you from Basle. 

I have received no news from Eng-land since the Frank- 


fort fair : but then (as I requested Peter Hurtzel to inform 
you) my friends wrote me word that a war had suddenly 
arisen between the Scots and our countrymen, and that it was 
reported to have begun in the northern borders of England 
and the south of Scotland ; whether by the Scots or ourselves, 

[! John Burcher wished to obtain permission from the magis- 
trates of Zurich to export wood for making bows.] 


is not certainly known ; they so accuse each other and excuse 
themselves on both sides. This however is certain, that on 
account of an inroad made by the Scots, in which some of our 
men were slain 2 , our king threatened that he would shortly 
declare war with Scotland. The Scot was not much pleased at 
hearing this, but sent ambassadors into England for the main- 

O 3 o 

tenance of peace. The king, as our people tell the story, pro- 
mised peace upon these conditions ; namely, that the king of 
Scotland should, at every parliament, do homage to our king 
and his successors, as to his superior and a potentate of more 
exalted rank, (as was formerly done by some of his predeces- 
sors ;) that he should promise to depose the Roman pontiff 
with his monks, as soon as might possibly lie in his power ; 
and admit our religion in other respects (which you are well 
acquainted with) into his country ; that he should engage in 
the next place to make satisfaction to our king for damages 
sustained in the north, arid for the great expenses which he 
has incurred in fitting out an army by land and a fleet by 
sea. For while these matters were in treaty between these 
sovereigns in August and September, all necessary prepara- 
tions for war were making on both sides. The Scotsman 
briefly refuses almost all these conditions, except the payment 
of a certain sum of money which he granted to the king 
of England for renewing the peace, and for the expenses he 
had incurred. Then the king, trusting, as I fear, in chariots 
and horses, and in the multitude of men, rather than in the 
name of God, sent into Scotland 3 more than a hundred and 
twenty thousand men, who, as I have just learned from 
England by a letter of the 30th of November, have again 

[ 2 Sir Walter Lindsay led the van of the Scottish army, com- 
manded in chief by the carl of Huntley, at a place called Haldanrig ; 
where two hundred of the English were killed, and six hundred taken 

[3 Lord Erskine and others proceeded to York, where the duke of 
Noiiblk, the lord privy seal, and the bishop of Durham were ordered 
to treat with them. The conference was unsuccessful ; wherefore the 
duke advanced to Scotland, which he entered on Oct. 21, with forty 
thousand men, according to the Scottish historians ; but only twenty 
thousand, according to the English. As soon as he had passed the 
Tweed, he was so harassed by the foraging parties of the earl of 
Huntley, that he thought it adviseablc to retreat, and recross the river 
at Kelso. See Ilolinshed, m. 828 ] 


returned from Scotland. But the reason of their return was 
so closely confined to the leaders, that it was not generally 
known among us. Meanwhile, it is hero stated by those who 
exercise their traffic in France, that our people have suffered 
a loss of fourteen thousand men in Scotland. How true this 
statement may be, I am at present unable to say, although 
I suspect something of the kind has taken place. I know 
that you have already heard almost all these things from 
our friend John Burcher, for I acquainted him with them 
as they occurred. But that you may not think that I have 
consigned your wish to forgctfulncss or neglect, I thought 
it worth while to repeat the same account to you, who de- 
serve so well of me in many respects. 

God has lately taken away from me, by two or three 
debtors who (as I hear from England) have become bankrupts, 
and by other casualties, about two hundred florins, perhaps 
so much the sooner because I am not there myself to manage 
my affairs. But lot this bo told to a stone wall. Besides, I 
have promised, within this month, to afford yearly (if God 
do not take every thing away from me) a certain sum of 
money to some strangers, who, having been lately banished 
from their country for Christ's sake, have come hither; so that 
I cannot now afford you so much for the poor exiles as I would 
have done most cordially, had you desired me. Neverthe- 
less, cease not, I pray you, to remind me of my duty, and 
you shall find me ready according to my power. For I 
know that you will not ask me to aid the poor out of my 
necessity, but of my abundance. And I know what Paul 
requires of the rich in 1 Tim. vi. and what Christ requires 
every where. But the flesh, forgetful of divine and heavenly 
things, and covetous and tenacious of earthly things, can- 
not be too often reminded of its duty. Write to me there- 
fore freely, whatever you will, because it may be profitable 
also to others. And I hope that I shall bear your exhorta- 
tion and warning as it becomes me to do. Farewell in 
Christ Jesus, and live happily in God; and love your 
Richard as you are wont to do. 






Dated at FRANKFOIIT, March 24, 1543. 

PRAISE to God ! I most humbly commend myself to your 
piety, my revered master. I have lately received your letter 
by Falckner, in which you apologize for not having been able 
to answer me at that time as fully, as you say, as I might 
probably expect. But I must reply in my turn, that I did not 
require an answer of such length, though really useful and 
most gratifying to me, lest I should be, as I no doubt Avas, too 
troublesome to you. I am exceedingly obliged to you on 
account of John Burcher, for having served him the more 
readily, as you say, upon my recommendation of him. 

I wrote to John Butler a little after Christmas, respecting 
the king of Scotland, that he was certainly dead, and that it 
was reported by some persons at Antwerp that he had died 
of his wounds. This was not indeed mentioned for certain in 
my letter, but it is allowed by the Scots themselves, that 
their king died immediately after some of his nobles l had been 
taken prisoners by the English. From that time I have re- 
ceived no positive intelligence from England, except that our 
king, without delay, sent those nobles back to Scotland, to in- 
tercede with the Scots on his behalf, and to exert themselves 
to the utmost of their power that the kingdom should be given 
or offered to him by the Scots. But, as I have just learned 
from an English nobleman at this place, they obtained hardly 
any thing from the Scots, but returned back to the king, who 
was completely disappointed in the result of their endeavour. 
Others however of our countrymen at Antwerp boasted that 
the estates of Scotland, upon the entreaties or by the con- 
trivance of these noblemen, had sent into England the Scottish 

f 1 Namely, the earls of Cassilis and Glencairn, the lords Maxwell, 
Fleming, Somerville, Oliphant, and Gray, with above two hundred 
gentlemen. James V. is generally supposed to have died of grief at 
the event of this expedition, which is to this day called the Raid of 
Solway Moss. His death took place Dec. 14, 1542.] 


cardinal [Beaton]. But my English informant above-mentioned 
told me just the contrary, namely, that the Scots had chosen 
a new king from among themselves, had implored the aid of 
the French king, and determined with all their power to drive 
back our king. I do not hear that the king of England is in 
alliance with the emperor, or that he has renounced the French 
alliance ; although it is very probable that, should the latter 
assist the Scots, he will shortly do so. Nevertheless, news is 
brought me at this fair, that the Scots, who have taken some 
ships from us, are forbidden by the estates of Scotland to sell 
their cargo, till they have ascertained the pleasure of our king 
respecting it. Some artifice may however lie concealed in this 
matter, for fear that the king of England may adopt stronger 
means of defence, and sooner prepare for war. 

Farewell, and commend me most diligently to your very 
dear wife, and to all those godly and learned persons with 
whom I have there, by your means, been made acquainted. 
May God preserve you, and those like you, and do you pray 
for me ! Amen. I am now setting off to Nuremberg (whence 
I shall return, God willing, in about a month) to sell my cloth, 
which those friends of mine, who manage my concerns at 
Antwerp, did not dare to send hither this fair, on account of the 
duke of Juliers 1 . They have therefore sent them to Nurem- 
berg, for the fair now approaching. Again farewell, and live 
happy ! Amen. 





Dated at STRASBURGH, Sept. 26, 1543. 

PRAISE to God ! Health in the Lord, my most esteemed 
master and brother in Christ, our hope. I send herewith to 

[! William, duke of Clevcs and Juliers, had at this time some 
differences with the emperor Charles the fifth, on account of the 
succession to Guclderland. See above, page 235.] 


your piety ten Italian crowns, which 1 desire to be laid out 
according to your pleasure, as occasion may offer, upon the 
poor exiles, (rich however in Christ,) and those especially, if 
such there be, who are in distress among you. 

My wife is expecting shortly, that is, in three weeks, her 
time of confinement, and earnestly entreats both you and your 
wife to commend her in your prayers to the Lord, whose 
strength is made perfect in weakness. 

At our last fair I gave the four florins for your books to 
Henry Falckner, to whom I pray you to commend me, and to 
tell him, that although he most solemnly promised me that he 
would take care that I should bo paid all tho money that he 
owed me at this Frankfort fair, (amounting to about one hun- 
dred and twenty-four crowns,) in golden ducats, yet that 1 
have not received above four from master Christopher, but in 
other money as usual, which he most honestly paid me. But 
the case was this. Henry Falckner at first agreed to give 
me one hundred and seventy-five florins at our Strasburgh 
fair. He then requested me to extend the time of pay- 
ment till the Frankfort fair, when he would pay the whole in 
golden ducats, as appears from his note, written with his own 
hand. I agreed to this, on condition that he would keep his 
promise, as a merchant ought to do. He told me that he 
could get a large profit with those one hundred and seventy- 
five florins by the purchase of arraas- and merchandise of 
that kind. But I am sustaining this inconvenience from this 
business, that had I sent those ducats from the Strasbargh 
fair, together with the rest of the money I then had, fresh 
cloth would have been bought in England with that money 
before this time ; whereas, too, in this city of Strasburgh I 
could soon have bought among my friends, with those one 
hundred and seventy-five florins which Falckner ought to 
have paid me in ready cash, golden crowns for twenty-three 
bat/cn, I was obliged at Frankfort to give a Jew twenty -three 
batzen and a quarter : so that I lost two florins, besides the 
interest of the money. But I hope that another time he will 
perform Avhat he has promised. 

I have no leisure to write more, except that our king has 
within these two months, as I wrote to John Burchcr, burnt 

[ 2 It is thus in the MS. Arras is probably intended.] 




three 1 godly men in one day. For in the month of July he 
married the widow 2 of a certain nobleman, of the name of 
Latimer ; and he is always wont to celebrate his nuptials 
by some wickedness of this kind. Farewell in Christ ! 

Yours, Rych. H. 


P.S. I pray you to give, together with these letters 
addressed to Germans, ten other French crowns and my 
other letter, to John* Burcher. 



Dated at STKASBURGH, Nov. 15, 1543. 

HEALTH and peace from Christ our hope! You must 
know, reverend sir, that, according to what you told me in 
your letter of the 13th of October, Henry Falckner wrote to 
me shortly after, to inquire about the price of my cloth. I 
send you my answer to him inclosed in this letter, and request 
you will kindly explain it to him at your leisure. You will 
thereby do me an acceptable service : for, as you are aware, 
I cannot write Latin sufficiently; and as to German, I am still 
more ignorant, for I cannot yet master the idiom of your 
language. But to return to my subject. If master Falckner 
(after you have explained my mind to him from my letter, or 
procured some one else to do so) should return my cloth to 
vou, I pray you, my master, to take charge of it, and keep 
it in your house till the arrival of John Burcher, to whom I 
will write my mind respecting it, as to what he should do 

[! These were Antony Person, Robert Testwood, and Henry Fil- 
mer, who were burnt at Windsor, July 27, 1542. For an account of 
their trial and martyrdom, see Burnet, i. 523 ; Soames, I. 538, and 
Foxe, v. 486.] 

[ 2 Katherine Parr had been formerly married to Neville, Lord 
Latimer, and was married to Henry VIII., at Hampton Court, July 12, 


with it. For in good truth I cannot part with it for a less 
sum, as times now are, than what I stated to Falckner. If I 
Avere solely intent upon gain, I could make more money by a 
thousand florins employed upon other wares, especially in this 
time of war, than I can by two thousand florins laid out 
upon cloth. But I always have in mind what the apostle 
says, 1 Tim. vi. 17, respecting those who desire to be rich in 
this world. I was never very anxious about those four florins 
which I sent you by Falckner from the fair ; but I wrote 
about them, merely to know whether the letter of the young 
man who is in my house, and which I sent by Falckner at 
the same time with the money, had been delivered. That 
letter treated of some ungodly laws enacted about that time 
by our parliament : if you have received that letter, it is 
Avell. For this young man, Avhosc name is Francis Warner, 
has often inquired of me whether it had arrived safe : I 
replied that I had no doubt of it, because we gave it in 
charge to Falckner. My wife heartily wishes for you and 
your wife every happiness ; and says she has no doubt but 
that God helped her the sooner in her confinement by reason 
of your good prayers. On the second of this month she 
brought forth to the church of Christ a son, who. as the 
women say, is quite large enough for a mother of tall 
stature, and whom I immediately named Gershom. I am 
in daily expectation of a letter from England, but not of 
any news. My wife very affectionately salutes above all 
others your most godly wife, and says that she wishes, I 
know not what, but that as she has already so many fine 
children herself, she would pray for the wife of master 
Megander, that she also may have a family. Salute, I pray 
you, in my name all those learned men among you, to whom 
the church of Christ is so much indebted ; and may our Lord 
Jesus, the chief Shepherd, recompense them all in that day, 
and especially yourself! Amen. 







Dated at STIIASBHUUII, Sept. 2fi, liiii. 

PRAISE to God ! Health and peace from the Lord ! Your 
letter, my reverend and very dear friend in Christ, dated in 
the month of June, I received by Falckner at this our fair ; 
and I offer my warmest thanks for your answer to Cochlaeus's 1 
book, of which you have made me a present : for I read it in 
the month of August, and it has confirmed me not a little in 
the true religion of our Lord and Saviour. 1 think myself 
too exceedingly obliged to your piety for having condescended 
to exhort me a second time in your last letter by Froschovcr, 
that I should so use the world, as not to lose heaven ; that I 
should love the Lord God before and above all thino-s and 

O * 

not be too much immersed in perishable concerns, business, 
and money. I now know that the love of Christ abideth in 
you, because you keep his commandment, as it becomes a 
good shepherd. " If thy brother," saith the Lord, "sin against 
thee," &c. Doubt not, beloved master, but that the more 
you admonish me of my duty, or reprove me for neglect, 
the more I shall value and love you from my heart. I con- 
fess that I am engaged in various, and perhaps too many, 
occupations ; but, except at the Frankfort fairs, I am seldom 
absent from home. And hence it is, that I apply myself 
to the reading of scripture less frequently than I could wish ; 
because, having no servant, I transact almost all my business 
myself, especially here in Strasburgh, and I am almost always 
engaged in correspondence, settling my accounts, and things 
of the like nature. Yet last winter, by God's blessing, I 
read the whole of the holy Bible which you gave mo, besides 
the new Testament, with as much attention as I was able. 
From this sacred reading, if I have derived no other advant- 
age, I have at least learned this, that when the prophets, 

[* John Cochlscus, the well known antagonist of Luther, was a 
canon of Breslau, where lie died in 1552, aged 72 years.] 


according to this your translation, intended to describe a 
knave or impostor, they called him a merchant 2 . I learn 
from hence, as you also say, what a dangerous and slippery 
thing is trade, in which occupation I may fall very soon, and 
I wish I may not have fallen very frequently. Moreover, 
from that reading I learned repentance. Do you, my master, 
aid me by your prayers as well as by your very godly and 
frequent and seasonable advice, by which you are truly, as 
you write, performing the part of a friend and brother, and 
are watching over my welfare : may God reward you for this 
in that day! Amen. 

Furthermore, I received here from my wife, after my 
return, that book of yours which you lately sent mo by 
Froschovcr ; and as soon as I have any leisure, God willing, 
I will read it. For it is much commended by those of our 
countrymen who favour the gospel, as our Michael** (I mean 
Miles Covcrdale) immediately after my arrival from England 
in these parts clothed it in an English dress ; but I am, 
more pleased with reading it in Latin. For the same book I 
also return you many thanks ; but am sorry that you should 
bo always sending me presents, when I have here nothing 
worth sending to your kindness in return. My wife also 
desires her thanks (as I doubt not but that you heard from. 
Falckner) for that old medal representing concord. If there 
is any news from England, our friend John, the bearer of this 
letter, will tell it you much better than I can describe it in 
this most barbarous and, as I fear, incongruous style. The 
same person will bring you with him, inclosed in this my 
letter, twelve Italian crowns for the poor exiles. I request 
you will distribute them, as you may have opportunity, at 
the beginning of the year ; and pray the Lord for me, that 
he may mercifully regard this little offering, and have mercy 
on us all. Amen! Deign to salute in my name Theodore, 
Pellican, Megandcr, and your other pious and learned men. 
My wife salutes you and your most amiable wife, whom I also 
beg you to salute in my name. And may the Lord Jesus, 
our hope, grant you to make full proof of your ministry 
even to the end; that when the chief Shepherd shall ap- 

[2 See Hosca xii. 7.] 

[ 3 Covcrdale was known during his exile by the name of Michael 


pear, you may receive a crown of glory that fadeth not 
away ! Amen. 

Yours in the Lord, 




Dated at STRASBUIIGH, April \5, 1545. 

PRAISE to God ! Health in our Lord and Saviour Jesus 
Christ ! Although I never doubted of your love to every 
member of Christ, and have often experienced your especial 
kindness to myself, you nevertheless do not cease to make it 
every day more apparent by your presents ; which indeed are 
so far most gratifying to me, inasmuch as they are the mani- 
festations of that regard towards me, which it has ever been 
my earnest desire that you should entertain : they have how- 
ever been less acceptable, because I would wish rather to 
spare you any expense in this respect, and especially since 
I know of no way of returning the obligation ; and if I did, 
your kindness would not allow me to do so. But of these 
things at another time ; it seems best now to come to the 
chief subject of this letter. 

My countryman, John Burcher, has lately informed me 
by letter, that he is exceedingly desirous of obtaining the 
freedom of your canton ; which however, according to the 
laudable custom and law of your city, he is prevented from 
obtaining, until he can produce a testimonial signed by some 
persons worthy of credit, to shew that he was born in lawful 
wedlock, and that he has not fled from his country by reason 
of any crime against the state ; but rather for having em- 
braced the pure and Christian doctrine, and freely made a 
profession of it. But now, since it would be too great an 
expense to send to England for a testimonial of this kind, 
and since also John Burcher feels quite confident that the 


testimonials of any persons of approved credit and probity, 
resident in these quarters, respecting him will .be favourably 
received by the magistracy of Zurich, (according to the kind- 
ness by which they are distinguished ;) he has requested me 
to obtain for him the testimonials of at least two Englishmen 
of sufficiently known reputation and piety. One of them is 
named William Swerder l , a gentleman, in whom with zeal for 
learning are united piety and sobriety of life. The other I 
think is somewhat known to you, both by my commendation, 
and also by his own letters sent to you some time since. He is 
called Miles Coverdale, and is truly one who is very dear to 
and honourably esteemed by all the ministers of the word, 
and other learned men in these parts. He is the master of 
a grammar school at Bergzabern, a town not far from Weis- 
semburg, where, by translating in his leisure hours, for the 
sake of the more extensive advancement of the kingdom of 
Christ, various religious works into our language, partly yours, 
and partly those of other learned men, he is of very great 
service in promoting the scriptural benefit of those persons in 
the lower ranks of life, who are anxious for the truth, and in- 
flamed with zeal and desire of obeying the will of God. He 
is one of those who, after the example of Moses, rather choose 
to be banished, and suffer affliction with the people of God, 
than with a wounded conscience to enjoy the pleasures of sin 
in their native Egypt. But that I may dismiss this subject in 
few words, and reduce it into a narrow compass ; since, I say, 
this John Burcher has not very long since written to me, and 
not only that, but another Englishman also, of approved 
character, has borne testimony to the above named William 
and Miles, that they can, if they choose, bring sufficient evi- 
dence that it was only for the sake of true religion, and for 
no other reason, that John was compelled to abandon the 
excellent prospects which he had in England before he came 
into Switzerland, where, as is not altogether unknown to you, 
he has been seeking to maintain himself by manual labour ; I 
called upon William Swerder, who is now on business at 
Strasburgh, to ask him that, as it is well known to him that 
John Burcher is a man of spotless character, and suffering, as 

[! William Swerder was at one time master of the ancient hospital 
of St Thomas, of Eastbridge, in "Canterbury, from which he afterwards 
had an annuity often pounds out of the rents. Strype, Parker, I. 56G.] 


I before stated, for the sake of the gospel, he would not refuse 
to confirm that testimony respecting John with his signature, 
which you perceive he has done. 

But since the same Burcher has likewise entreated me, 
that in my journey either to or from Frankfort I would pro- 
cure a similar testimony from Miles Coverdalc at Bergzabern, 
(and indeed a more ample one, as I am told by the bearer of 
this letter, that he is the best acquainted with him of all the 
English who are sojourning in Germany,) I could not in any 
way do this without great inconvenience. For although I 
will not deny that Bergzabern is not much out of the high 
road from Strasburgh to Frankfort ; yet, because on that side 
of the Rhine the journey is not so safe, to those especially 
who are supposed to have money about them, as through the 
territory of the Margrave of Baden, I have neglected to pro- 
cure the testimonial of my brother Miles ; and the less reluct- 
antly, because I hope that you, by reason of your piety and 
benevolence to the afflicted people of Christ, will so commend 
to the mayor and most worshipful senate of your city the tes- 
timonial which I send with this letter, that they may consider 
it as sufficient, and receive Burcher into the number of their 

But now, as far as regards my testimony, I must confess 
that this person was entirely unknown to me before his de- 
parture from England ; for the place where he was born is 
very far distant from my native place, that is to say, by an 
interval of seven or eight German miles. This report however 
prevailed there concerning him, among those who are counted 
gospellers, and it also came to iny ears when I was still re- 
siding in England, that he had not left the country for any 
other reason than because he was discovered to maintain the 
orthodox opinion concerning the eucharist ; but that in other 
respects he always conducted himself with piety and sobriety, 
wherever he resided. And indeed as he has never, since he 
has been personally known to me, given me any reason to 
think otherwise of him, so, in truth, it has never been my lot to 
hear from any person any thing in opposition to this character ; 
although both in England, and also after I came to reside 
here, I have frequently heard him spoken of, and at times too, 
when, if there had been any thing to find fault with in him, 
a fit opportunity offered of doing so. Moreover, I may be 


allowed to bear this additional testimony respecting him, that 
I have seen a long letter of his to the lord Cromwell, the 
king's chief councillor, and one who at that time possessed 
the greatest authority with the king in England ; in which 
letter he explained the whole cause of his banishment, and 
how unjustly he was treated by the sanguinary bishops and 
the ecclesiastical order : from which writing no other sus- 


picion could possibly arise either to myself or any one else, 
than that he had suffered persecution only for the sake of the 
gospel, and not for any thing else, either a criminal oifence, 
or the maintenance of any erroneous doctrine. In fact, as 
I perfectly remember to be the case, the principal, and indeed 
the only scope of his appeal was to this effect, that since he 
had been in many ways so unjustly dealt with, as that the 
impious bishops were within a very little of passing sentence 
of death upon him, he [Cromwell] would deign to obtain 
for him, through his influence with the king, that without 
denying the truth (for that he constantly declared he would 
not do) permission might be granted to him to return to 
England in safety from the fury of his enemies. Hence 
therefore it is easy to conclude (and when I read it, it re- 
moved all doubt whatever from my mind), that he would never 
have employed so much diligence and pains, as it is evident 
he did, in the composition of that letter, in endeavouring to 
explain therein to a man placed in such a post of dignity 
and authority, as Cromwell was at that time, the entire cause 
of his banishment, if that persecution which he then endured 
for the profession of the truth, had not been the chief, nay, 
the only reason of his seeking refuge in your canton. 

Wherefore, my very dear master Bullinger, I entreat you 
by Christ, for whose sake doubtless he is now an exile, 
not only to aid him in this object of obtaining the free- 
dom of your city, but to shew yourself easy of access and 
kind to him in whatever other matters he may chance to 
need your assistance and faithful counsel. And God, who, 
as you well know, and most truly teach, leaves no act of 
piety without recompence, will bestow upon you abundant 
mercy in the world to come. And if in my turn I shall be 
able to oblige you by a service of this kind towards any of 
your friends, I hope that you will not find me less willing and 
ready on my part, as our Lord Jesus Christ knows, who is 


our life and hope, and in whom I wish you all safety and 
every happiness, to the glory of his name and the welfare of 
your neighbours ! Amen. 

I know of no news from our country, except what the 
bearer of this letter can inform you of. My wife most duti- 
fully commends herself to you and to your most faithful wife ; 
and she also thanks you for that godly prayer which in your 
late letter to me you poured forth to God on behalf of our 
little son Barnabas, and also for the Swiss shoes given to my 

Salute, I pray you, in my name Theodore Bibliander, 
Pellican, Gaspar Megander, Erasmus Schmidt, and especially 
your friend Gualter, and the other learned men who have 
deserved so well of the church of God. May almighty God 
very long preserve you all in safety to the glory of his 
name ! Amen. 





Dated at STRASHUHGH, Jan. 28, 1540. 

PRAISE to God ! Health and peace in the Lord ! As it 
is a long time since I have written to your piety, it is not 
right for me longer to abstain from writing. And first of all, 
I am exceedingly obliged to you, sir, for having deigned to 
send for my perusal, although not as a present, the books 
you last forwarded to me. But since this is your pleasure, 
I receive them gratefully, and, the Lord willing, will soon 
finish reading what yet remains in them to be perused. May 
God grant that I may be able to read them with great ad- 
vantage, as you have published them with great labour, to 
the glory of God's name, and the edification of his church ! 

Lewis Lavater (I know not through what circumstance) 
.did not remain with master Matthew Zolle, but, as he told 


me, is now with one master Marbach, whom I understand 
from your letter, dated in October, not to be one with whom 
the father of Lewis would like his son to have any inter- 
course. You mention, as a reason, that Marbach is altogether 
a Lutheran : but this is no new thing among us, that any 
preacher should savour of Lutheranism, because almost all 
the preachers and lecturers here are chiefly imbibing and in- 
culcating Lutheranism : so that either Luther has drawn 
them over into his error, or else, fascinated by the world, they 
pretend themselves to be Lutherans. So that if we consider 
this, there is no occasion for your friend Lewis again to 
change his lodging ; since he will have just such another, if 
he should lodge with any learned man in this place. And as 
for myself, sir, there is indeed scarcely any one here, with 
whom I am acquainted, who takes boarders, with whom I 
should think him better placed than with master Matthew 
Zolle. For I have not only heard him well spoken of by 
Gerard Frisius and others, but also by the scholars who 
board with him ; among whom, however, I have known very 
few since I came to reside here. I am prepared, and I made 
him the offer, that if Lewis should desire it of me, I would 
lay out money on your account for the youth's tabling, either 
for a quarter or half a year. Yet, as his father is a man of 
property, I think it will be no loss to him to pay down the 
sum beforehand to John Burcher, that I may be able to pay 
for him the same amount here afterwards. For in truth I 
scarcely ever keep any money by mo for a week together, 
but lay it out forthwith in merchandise. Do not, I pray, be 
offended at my writing to you with such freedom ; for I am 
only pointing out to your reverence the state of my affairs, 
as to the employment of money. Meanwhile, however, I 
will by no means refuse to lay down the sum here, before I 
receive it from you by John Burcher, although the amount 
should be three times as much as I think it will be. 

If there is any news here, or from England, you will 
learn it by the letter of a certain countryman of mine who 
is studying here, whose name is John Hoper, formerly in the 
court 1 of our king, but now a disciple of Christ, the King of 
kings, and glowing with zeal and piety, and most attached 
to your name among those of all other divines. He was 
[! Sec above, Lett. XXI. p. 33.] 


sick at my house, almost unto death ; and when, to all appear- 
ance he was on the point of departure, he uttered the language) 
and profession of a most godly Christian breast respecting 
the matter of the cucharist, and all the articles of the Christian 
faith, before many by-standers. May the great and good 
God give him grace to persevere unto the end, that he may 
be saved ! Amen. 

When I first read your letter, I was grieved at the death 
of Megandcr ; but now, when I look upon the condition of 
this world, and the happiness of those who die in Christ, I 
begin to praise God for him. Meanwhile, however, may God 
repair the loss, which, as you write, the church of Zurich 
suffers by his departure. John Burcher lately wrote mo 
word, that either you or your pious wife had intended to 
send us a cheese against Christmas. But I am glad you did 
not, for we have received more gifts and favours from you 
than we shall ever be able to return. Wherefore be sparing, 
I pray you, sir, of your presents, and notwithstanding enter- 
tain no doubt of our regard towards you. For wo love you, 
as we have been wont to do, in the (Lord. My wife salutes 
you and your wife, as I also do, and likewise the widow, if 
she is still a widow, of Megandcr, and especially Pellican, 
Theodore Bibliander, and your beloved Gualter, as he de- 
serves. Farewell in Christ Jesus our Lord and hope, in 
whom live happily ! Amen. 



P. S. Lewis tells me that he has agreed with master 
Marbach for board at thirty florins a year. But he has 
doubtless himself informed you of this by letter long since. 



Dated at STHASRURGH, April 30, 1540. 

PRAISE to God I Health, and the peace of God which 
passeth all understanding ! Your letter, my master, beloved 


in the Lord, dated on the first of this month, I have to-day 
received from your friend Lewis, who kept it for mo until 
my return from Frankfort. I cannot altogether acquit my- 
self either of ingratitude or indolence, for not having as yet 
replied to your letter of February the sixth. For that letter 
of yours was not, as you write with your accustomed kind- 
ness to plead my excuse, of such a nature as to require no 
answer ; for I must confess that it was so full of godly and 
pious admonitions, and so necessary to me who am employed 
in so dangerous a calling (if indeed trade can be so called, as 
the world now conducts it), that if there were nothing else 
that might seem to require an answer, I ought at least to 
have returned you long since, on account of that letter, the 
thanks due to your kindness and Christian love. But O 
unhappy me! who am so overwhelmed with worldly business, 
as thus to neglect my duty to my father, and spiritual and 
godly physician. I therefore entreat you, my master, ho- 
noured in the Lord, that you will deign to persevere in 
praying for me (as I collect from all your later letters that 
you do) to the Lord Jesus Christ, that the thorns of riches 
may not so pierce me, as to call away my attention from the 
study of godliness, and meditation upon heavenly things: our 
life is indeed, as you say, short upon earth, and we die daily. 
These things I have always before my eyes, whether at leisure 
or engaged in business, eating and drinking, yea, even in my 
dreams when I am asleep. May the great and good God 
grant (and I hope he will grant it the sooner for your 
prayers), that I may not bear these things in mind, or in a 
manner desire death, because it is said to put an end to the 
cares and anxieties of this life, (by which we arc continually 
harassed in heaping up and preserving riches,) rather than 
because I desire with the apostle to be dissolved and to be 
with Christ. Thus in me the flesh oftentimes secketh its 
own, and not only the glory and life of Christ. But I have 
not now leisure to write to you upon this subject as fully as 
I could wish. 

You will obtain information, as to the state of England, 
from the bearer of this letter, more fully and conveniently 
than I can write it. Meanwhile, however, I would have you 
to know, that while those arc alive Avho now hold the reins 
of government and authority, it is not probable that the 


gospel will bo purely and seriously received there. For the 
king, the leading men, and almost all the bishops of that 
nation, are altogether intent upon war. They desire to retain 
the good-will of the emperor by every means in their power, 
and regard the simplicity of the protestants for the most part 
as idle folly, and court their friendship (provided only they 
may not be compelled to admit religion in the first place,) 
not, as I think, because they love them, but that they may 
have them partakers in the wars, and in the hatred with 
which they are regarded by the French. As for an alliance 
with them, I believe they revolt from it on account of the 
free confession that they make of the truth. But God, who 
knows all things, knows whether I am deceived in this opinion, 
or not. I wish I may be. Moreover, the bishop of Win- 
chester 1 has very lately republished a book against Bucer, 
altogether full of bitterness and invective, in which he pro- 
fesses his contempt of him on every account, attacks his 
learning, and considers yours as the most impious of all. 
What kind of a book this is, the bearer of this letter can 
inform you at length ; for he has read it through at my 

Nothing else, but what you write, is to be expected from 
those unclean birds now assembled at Trent. May God there- 
fore grant, according to your prayer thereupon, that the 
antichrist, who is now wounded by the sword of the Spirit of 
the wrath of God, may be entirely destroyed by the coming 
of our Lord ! Amen. 

Meanwhile, I pray you, do not cease to admonish me as 
you are wont, as frequently as your necessary engagements 
will admit, and (as you think me to deserve it) to reprove 
and rebuke me, that by the grace of God I may continue 
sound in the faith even to the end, and have my confidence 
stedfast in that glorious and awful advent. 

I have not as yet advanced any money for our brother 
Lewis, but am at all times ready to obey your wishes or 
those of his father in this matter. Your attached friend, 
master Hoper, is now in England, but will shortly return to 
us, God willing, and afterwards to you. Let us pray our 

[! Bishop Gardiner wrote two letters in condemnation of a work 
of Bucer against the celibacy of the clergy. See Strype, Mem. n. i. 


God to bring him back with success ; for he desires, and in- 
deed it is the only object 2 of his present absence from us, to 
procure, if he can, some money, with which he may be able 
always to reside either here, or with you, in holiness and 
with a good conscience, far from the impurity of Babylon. 
My wife prays for all happiness to your wife, and tells me 
that she has sent, by master Froschover, I know not Avhat 
trifle for her acceptance. We both of us thank you as much 
for the cheese about which you wrote, as if you had really 
sent it us. Salute, I pray you, masters Bibliander, Pellican, 
Gualter, and all the rest of you who are very dear to me in 
the Lord. And I regret, had not God so willed it, that I 
can no longer send any introductions or recommendations to 
master Erasmus; for Froschover tells me that he is dead. 
Farewell in Christ, our only hope, and live always most 
happy in him ! Amen. 





Dated at STRASBURGII, Jan. 26, 1547. 

PRAISE to God ! Health and perseverance in the Lord 
Jesus Christ, our hope ! I now at last reply to your letters 
dated Oct. 28th and Dec. 4th. And first of all, I owe you 
infinite thanks, my most esteemed master, for your conde- 
scension in presenting me with your Commentaries upon Luke, 
as you had before presented me with those upon the other 
evangelists and apostles. I pray almighty God that I may 
be able continually to meditate upon them, and, as you ex- 
hort me, to devote the best part of my Me uninterruptedly 
to the study of godh'ness and to good works. And I en- 
treat you to pray the Lord for me, that I may do this, and 
cleave to the Lord, even to the end. 

[ 2 See above, p. 34.] 


I told our brother Lavatcr Avhat you commanded, or at 
least wished ; and I doubt not but that he will always well 
employ his time here, and be diligent in learning ; and my 
constant exhortation shall not be wanting to that effect. I 
fear, lest, as you write, the time bo at hand, when the Lord 
will visit our iniquities by a cruel war, and Avill give us over 
into the hands of our enemies for correction and punishment. 
For I hear (though I hope it is not the case) that master de 
Buircn is now attempting to set up the mass at Frankfort in 
some of the churches, though in the mean time he permits 
those who wish to hear the gospel and follow the truth, to 
do so without hindcrancc. 

There has lately been, as I think John Burcher. wrote 
vou word, some change in Enojand, and there will doubtless 

*' ~ O J 

be one yet greater. For England has now had for some years 
only one 1 duke, namely, of Norfolk, whom, together Avith his 
son, the king committed to prison, for having, as they say, 
when he was in a declining state, endeavoured to restore the 
pope's supremacy ; and 1 have lately heard (but I have not 
yet received a letter from that quarter), that both father and 
son have been beheaded, and that that spirit of godliness or 
rather of popery, the bishop of Winchester, has succeeded 
into their place, I mean the Tower of London. God grant 
that all these things may be subservient to the glory of his 
name and the propagation of evangelical doctrine, as many of 
our friends think it will be! And this may be the case, after 
God shall have visited the sins of this kingdom. For the 
new queen and the earl of Hertford, Avho is the uncle of the 
prince, the king's son, are Avell disposed to pious doctrine, and 
abominate the fond inventions of the papists. 

Salute Bibliander, Pellican, Gualter, and the rest who are 
known to me there, and especially your most pious Avifc, to 
whom also my wife desires to be commended. 

Farewell, and live always happy ! 



t 1 This letter was written Jan. 26, 1547. Shortly after the acces- 
sion of king Edward VI. the earl of Hertford was created duke of 




Dated [at STRASBURGH], Feb. 25, 1547. 

I HAVE no later news to tell you of, than that it is 
certain that our king in England died on the twenty-eighth 
of January 2 ; and that on the following Monday his only 
son was publicly proclaimed 3 king, according to custom, 
throughout the country ; and on last Sunday he was publicly 
crowned 4 ; which they write me word from England is all 
true. The young king aforesaid is called Edward, the sixth 
of this name. 

About one or two weeks before the death of the afore- 
mentioned king Henry, he commanded, as some say, by his 
will, that the duke, who in this country is called the duke 
of Norfolk, together with his only son, who in England is 
called the earl of Surrey, should both of them be beheaded 5 . 
The government of England, according to the king's will, 
which is also confirmed by the parliament or diet, is placed in 
the hands of sixteen persons, eight of whom, it is said, arc 
bishops' 1 , until the young king be grown up". The most 

[ 2 Henry VIII., departed at Westminster on Friday, Jan. 28, about 
two of the clock in the morning. Strype, Mem. n. i. 18.] 

[ 3 For the ceremonies and circumstances that attended the pro- 
claiming of the king, see Strype, Mem. 11. i. 19.] 

[* King Edward was crowned by archbishop Cramncr on Feb. 2()th, 
being Shrove Sunday. For an account of the form and solemnity 
attending it, see Strype, Cranmcr, 202.] 

[ 5 The earl of Surrey was arraigned at Guildhall on Jan. 13, on a 
charge of having quartered on his shield the arms of Edward the 
confessor ; and perished on the scaffold six days after. The duke of 
Norfolk was attainted and condemned ; but his execution was pre- 
vented by the death of the king. He remained, however, a prisoner 
in the Tower till the accession of queen Mary. See Burnet, i. 554, c.] 

[ 6 Cranmer, archbishop of Canterbury, and Tonstal, bishop of 
Durham, were the only prelates nominated in the king's will. A list 
of his executors is given in Burnet, n. 5 ; and Strype, Mem. n. i. 19.] 

[ 7 Xamely. till he should arrive at eighteen vcars of age.] 



distinguished of them, however, is not a bishop, but the king's 
uncle, or his mother's brother. He is also appointed lord 
protector or governor of the king his nephew, and of the 
whole realm. This said guardian of the king is called the 
carl of Hertford : ho is not very favourable to the priests 1 , 
and a great enemy to the pope of Rome. 

Now if I thought that you did not know it already, I 
would also tell you the news that was sent me on the 
fifteenth of this month from Erfurt ; namely, that the elector 
of Saxony, after having laid siege to Leipsic 2 for three 
weeks, with an army of thirty thousand men, composed both 
of cavalry and infantry, was unable to take the town, al- 
though he had bombarded it very severely, and had done 
much damage to the houses. He was forced to retreat with 


his army, and is now five miles from Leipsic ; at about 
four miles from which duke Maurice is encamped with his 
troops, with king Ferdinand and the Margrave of Colbach. 
But on the duke of Saxony's side arc the king of Denmark, 
and the Saxon towns, Bremen, Hamburgh, Brunswick, with 
some others, so that both parties arc considered equally 
strong ; and if they do not shortly make peace, (as some 
hope they will,) a battle must ensue. I have likewise re- 
ceived intelligence from Erfurt, that the kings of England 
and France sent ambassadors to Hamburgh, who have been 
there together ever since Christmas, with the elector of 
Saxony, and the diet of the Saxon towns above-mentioned. 
The king of Denmark has also been with them ; but what 
they have done or determined amongst themselves, time will 
shew. May Almighty God sometime bless us with a long and 
lasting peace ! 

Your servant to command, 


[! The nation being then divided between those who loved the old 
superstition, and those who desired a more complete reformation, the 
protector set himself at the head of the one, and the lord chancellor 
at the head of the other party. Burnet, n. 7.] 

[ 2 This siege began on January 13th, and was raised about the end 
of the month, Nevertheless the town was miserably shattered and 
defaced by the batteries of great guns that continually played upon it. 
Sleidan, B. xviii.] 


P.S. Health in the Lord Jesus, our Saviour and hope ! I 
would have informed you, my revered master, of the most 
certain intelligence which I have lately received from England, 
by an express letter from myself, unless, as is frequently the 
case, I had been so much engaged upon other business. 
Meanwhile, however, that you may not be without any in- 
formation from me, though upon matters which I think you 
must have heard from others some days since, I forward to 
your reverence this copy of a letter which I lately sent from 
Strasburgh 3 to a fellow-countryman of mine now resident at 
Basle. Commend me most affectionately to all your brother 
colleagues in the Lord, and to your godly wife, and also to the 
wife of John Burcher 4 ; and tell her that I have lately re- 
ceived a letter from Cologne, by which I learn that he 
arrived there safe with all his wares, with Avhich he happily 
set sail for Dort in Holland about ten days since. Fare- 
well in the Lord. Dated February 25, 1547, by yours, 

Ft. II. 



Dated at STRASBURGH, May 19, 154/. 

PRAISE to God ! Health and peace in the Lord Jesus our 
Saviour ! I would have you know, my most honoured 
master, that I have received your most acceptable letter, 
dated two months since ; and I owe infinite obligations to 
your piety for thus keeping me in your remembrance, and 
so constantly exhorting me to an innocent and upright con- 
duct, and the continual study of the holy scriptures. But as I 

[ 3 The original of the preceding letter is written in German, the 
postscript alone is in Latin.] 

[t John Burcher was at this time a partner with Hilles as a cloth 



do not perceive any thing in this your letter which of necessity 
requires an answer, except that I ought to return you my 
thanks for that German book which I received together with 
it, and also for your having condescended to write to me 
concerning what the French king's ambassador required of 
your townsmen, I have till now deferred my reply. And 1 
pray you not to be displeased at this ; for I have scarce 
leisure to reply forthwith to the letters of all my corre- 
spondents without great inconvenience to myself. 

They state here as a certain fact, that the duke elector of 
Saxony has been taken prisoner 1 by the emperor's troops; 
and the various statements of those who bring this news, are 
so consistent, that it seems highly probable, and is univer- 
sally believed to be the case. I have lately, however, re- 
ceived intelligence from Cologne, (but I do not altogether 
believe it,) that this news was circulated in all quarters by a 
courier from Hesse, and in Hesse itself ; but that the land- 
grave had discovered that the report was false respecting 
the capture of the duke, and had in consequence severely 
punished at Marpurg, as he deserved, the messenger who 
first spread the report, and who declared himself to have 
been present at the battle, when the elector was taken pri- 
soner. But in the same letter it was stated that a letter 
had been written from Erfurt, on the first of May, to an in- 
habitant of Cologne, by name John Pelmke zum llynberch, 
to the following effect : 

"As to our own affairs, very dear friend, I have to inform 
you that the emperor's troops made an unexpected attack, 
as it were by forced marches, upon the army of the duke of 
Saxony, on the 24th of April ; and that there fell on the 
duke's side two thousand infantry, and one hundred and fifty 
cavalry ; and that the son of the elector was severely wounded, 
but escaped with his life. It was also generally reported at 
that time that the duke himself was slain ; but he was found 
upon the ground unhurt 2 , to the great joy of the whole army. 

[! This took place April 24, 1547, at the battle of Muhlberg, for 
an account of which see Sleidan, B. xviii, and Robertson, Charles V., 
B. ix.] 

[ 2 This was not the case. Having received a wound in his left 
cheek, he was taken, and brought to the duke of Alva first, and then 
to the emperor. Sleidan.] 


Moreover, it is stated that on the 25th of April a certain 
gentleman, named William Thunsern, fell upon the forces of 
the emperor with some thousand men from Bohemia, and 
took from them fifteen pieces of artillery, together with some 
wagons laden with silver, which had before been taken from 
the troops of the duke of Saxony ; and that on the emperor's 
side there fell five thousand men ; so that he himself was 
forced to retire towards Ep-ra " &c. 

O * 

But I look upon all these things as fabulous. I have 
no news from England, except what I wrote to John Burcher 
about a month since. Farewell, and commend us to all your 
godly colleagues, and also to your faithful wife. 





Dated at STRASBURC.!!, June It!, 154!!. 

PRAISE to God ! Much health. You must know, my very 
dear friend and master, that I have at last received a third 
letter from you since my return from my native land; one 
too, which, besides many other things contained in it, abounds 
in holy exhortations to patience and perseverance, and every 
kind of virtue. I return you for it my warmest thanks, arid 
pray our good and gracious God to enable me to practise 
what you have so properly recommended. 

In the first of the letters above-mentioned, you speak 
much of Josiah Simler, for whom at his baptism you under- 
took the office of sponsor. I will most readily do for him, 
for your sake, what you request. But I do not think it will 
answer to me to advance him in future any money, which is 
to be repaid yonder, after our friend John Burcher has left 


you ; nor will there then remain any hope of procuring the 
bows. If, however, you will receive from his father those 
fifteen florins which I was to send you for this year, for the 
purposes you know of, I will hand them over to his son here, 
and am ready to pay them whenever he thinks fit. Should, 
however, the young man be in want of money, I will supply 
him, upon the condition that it shall be remitted hither from 
you by a trustworthy person. 

In your second letter you desire to know the circumstances 
of the most learned John a Lasco. All that I know about 
his condition I have learned from a citizen of this place, to 
whom he wrote last autumn. For he was then at Embden 
in Friesland, and in good health ; but very much grieved and 
dejected on account of the present state of Germany. 

And now to come to your third and last letter. The 
book which you have sent to the archbishop of Canterbury, 
I will undertake, shall ere long be safely delivered ; but this 
can hardly be done before our fair in July, except by means 
of a courier on purpose, which would be very expensive : for 
I must give five kreutzers for every half-ounce, as far as 
Antwerp, in addition to the carriage from thence to the arch- 
bishop. If it had been brought but an hour sooner, I could 
have sent it by a native of Antwerp, who was then at my 

It is most certain, God willing, that I intend to return to 
England with my wife and children at the next Frankfort 
autumn fair. I thank you for your friendly prayers, that God 
may prosper our journey. You desire, moreover, to know by 
what means, and through what persons you may be able to 
write to my countrymen during my absence. Our common 
friend, John Burcher, will most readily forward my letters. 
For we have agreed to carry on our business in partnership 
for two or three years, or even longer, should it seem ex- 
pedient ; and on this account he has purchased a convenient 
residence in this town, which he will begin to occupy as soon 
as he shall have returned from the next Frankfort fair. 

You may also most readily obtain information respecting 
the aifairs of England through master John Hoper 1 , as long 

[ l It appears by Letter XXV, that Hoper was now resident at 


as he shall remain with you. To whom, and to his pious 
wife, I pray you commend me ; as also to that most learned 
man, master Theodore, master Pellican, doctor Gesner, and 
the pious widow of Megander, together with your wife. My 
wife heartily salutes all the above-named, but especially your- 
self and your wife. 

The last news I have received from England is to this 
effect ; namely, that some persons had presumed to marry a 
second wife while the first was living, but divorced, and even 
to have two wives at once. This liberty has been prohibited, 
as it ought to be, by a public proclamation 2 of the king and 
council. The chancellor too, as they call him, of the kingdom, 
in a speech delivered in the king's name before the judges 3 
of the whole realm, warned them to take serious cognizance 
of the like offenders. There arc also papists who, by their 
false rumours, endeavour to excite the people against the 
kino; and nobles of the realm. Their lies are to the effect 


that the king is intending to oppress the people by a new and 
unheard of kind of tax ; namely, that when any person marries, 
he must pay half a crown to the king ; and so in like manner 
for baptizing an infant, or burying the dead ; with various 
lying surmises of the same kind 4 . Against these also he [the 
chancellor] inveighed most severely, warning the judges to put 
a stop to these falsehoods as soon as possible, and to punish 
the authors of these wicked errors. 

I received this speech, together with the proclamation, 
about the end of May, and sent it long since to my friend 

[ 2 This proclamation was dated April 24. The king charged all 
archbishops and bishops, and others that had spiritual jurisdiction, to 
proceed against such as had or should hereafter have two wives, or 
any that should put away his wife and marry another ; and to punish 
such offenders according to the ecclesiastical laws, that others might 
be afraid to fall into such insolent and unlawful acts. Strype, Memor. 
n. i. 142.] 

[ 3 The judges and justices of the peace were required by procla- 
mation, dated at Westminster, April 30, to appear before the king's 
council in the star-chamber, where the lord chancellor Rich gave 
them a charge. See Strype, Memor. n. i. 143.] 

[4 See Strype, Mem. n. i. 141, who says that "hereby many were 
seduced and brought into such disorder of late, and in some parts in a 
manner to insurrection and rebellion."] 


John Butler, that when he had read them both he might send 
them to master John Hoper, who might interpret them to 
you in Latin, as they are printed in English. 

Before sealing this letter, I have heard from England 
that the bishop of Winchester, doctor Edmund Redman 1 , and 
another, named Robinson, have been summoned to London by 
the king's council, I know not for what reason. All the women 
and children are sent away from Boulogne; for there is some 
apprehension that the French are about to attack it. The 
lord Cobham 2 , however, the king of England's deputy at 
Calais, has written to me within this month, that he does not 
think it at all probable that the French will feel disposed to 
contend with us this present year. Besides, our people have 
a great deal of work upon their hands in Scotland. They 
have lately taken there a certain town named Iladdington 3 , 
distant only about twelve English miles from Edinburgh, and 
the English are daily fortifying it, as also very many other 
fortresses in Scotland. I commend you, your wife and children, 
to our only Saviour and Redeemer. Farewell, and long live 
happily in the Lord ! Amen. 

Yours from my heart. 


t 1 Dr John Redman is probably intended ; for an account of whom 
see above, note 1, p. 150. He was concerned in drawing up the first 
Liturgy of king Edward, as was Thomas Robertson or Robinson, 
archdeacon of Leicester, also mentioned in the text, and who, as well 
as Dr Redman, was supposed to be favourably inclined to popery.] 

[ 2 George Brook, lord Cobham, was summoned to parliament in 
1529, and died in 1558.] 

[ 3 Haddington was surprised by the English under William lord 
Grey of Wilton, in April 1548.] 




Dated at LOXDOV, June 4, 154'J. 

PRAISE to God ! Much health in the Lord ! You are 
surprised, as you write me word in your last letter, dated 
March 24th, that I have been able to refrain from writing to 
you since the day I left Germany, and especially since you 
have now written me a second letter. But you will receive, 
you tell me, whatever excuse I may patch up for the discon- 
tinuance of our correspondence ; if I do not write, that no 
excuse, however ingenious, will avail with you, c. I reply, 
my master and most honoured friend, that I have not written 
to you all this time, because I have scarcely had leisure, 
since my return, to arrange and write about such affairs as I 
was necessarily obliged to complete. For Germany did not 
very well agree with me, as the air was unfavourable, nay, 
even most inimical to my constitution, and the mode of living 
and wine of that country, and especially the stoves in winter, 
suited me but little better ; so that now, since my return to 
England, especially from the month of February, my strength 
seems to be so exhausted, as that I have hardly any energy 
left me. Wherefore, unless God should restore my health, 
of which there is no sign, I shall from henceforth write to 
you much less frequently than I have done these two years, 
and principally, because I am not in the habit of writing Latin 
(which is a most troublesome business to me) to any but 
yourself. And I hope you will not take it ill, because you 
may as readily be informed respecting the state of the realm 
of England, the Avar in Scotland, and my own affairs, 
through masters John Butler and John Burcher, as by letters 
from myself. In the mean time I admire your truly pious 
admonitions, and will diligently attend to what you so abun- 
dantly bring forward in your letter from holy scripture, as 
well the examples of the godly, as the threatenings of the 
Lord against the impious despisers of the divine word ; and 
I will daily implore the great and good God in my prayers, 
not to lead me into temptation on account of my grievous 
past sins, but to deliver me from all evil. 


I return you many thanks for the two decades of your 
sermons, which I believe master John Hoper will here present 
me with in your name. I much wish to send you some good 
thing from hence in return ; but theological books are rarely 
printed in this country except in our vulgar tongue. When I 
find any book of this kind worthy of perusal, I will send it to 
one of my countrymen in Germany for master John Butler, 
that he may interpret to you the substance of the work in 
Latin. I have saluted in your name master Bartholomew 
Traheron ; besides which you desired me moreover to exhort 
him to be faithful to the Lord, and to continue constant in 
the truth. And ho most certainly does so ; for he is a truly 
pious man, and one who fears God. He endeavoured as far as 
he could, (for he was one of the burgesses in the last parlia- 
ment,) that there should be no ambiguity in the reformation of 
the Lord's supper ; but it was not in his power to bring over 
his old fellow-citizens to his views. Therefore, as master John 
Butler will more fully inform your reverence from my letter, 
we have an uniform celebration of the Eucharist throughout 
the whole kingdom, but after the manner of the Nuremberg 
churches and some of those in Saxony ; for they do not yet 
feel inclined to adopt your rites respecting the administration 
of the sacraments. Nor do I doubt but that master M. B. 
[Martin Bucer] and the other learned men from Germany 
and Italy, (who arc here with the most reverend the arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, and are lecturing in the universities of 
this country,) teach, nay, exhort and persuade that there is no 
occasion for it, and perhaps even, that it is not becoming. 
Thus our bishops and governors seem, for the present at 
least, to be acting rightly ; while, for the preservation of the 
public peace, they afford no cause of offence to the Lutherans, 
pay attention to your very learned German divines, submit 
their judgment to them, and also retain some popish ceremonies. 

I can make no answer to your letter written Nov. 9, 1548, 
because you therein desire me to let you know, if possible, 
how the archbishop of Canterbury received your letter and 
your book. For I have no such familiarity or intercourse 
with him, or with persons of his rank and authority, as to be 
acquainted with such matters ; and I therefore pray you not 
to take it ill that I have not, during this whole year, given 
you any information on the subject. Be kind enough to 


salute in my name all your fellow-ministers, and especially 
your wife and all your family. My wife also salutes you 
much, as likewise your most chaste partner. May the Lord 
Jesus preserve you for ever ! Amen. 





Dated at LONDOX, Nov. 17, 154'J. 

PRAISE to God ! Much health in the Lord ! It is only 
two days, my honoured master, since I received your most 
courteous letter, dated August 31, together Avith a packet of 
letters for master John Hoper and certain other brethren 
and friends of yours, which I immediately delivered to those 
to whom they were directed by you. To Avrite a few words 
respecting my own letter, I owe in the first place many 
thanks to your kindness in continuing to exhort me to the 
duties of religion, and to caution mo against the too great cares 
of this world. And I must confess, that we ought to admo- 
nish each other in turn by mutual letters and discourses of 
this kind. I hear with pleasure of the agreement between 
you and master John Calvin respecting the sacrament 1 , and 
doubt not but that master Hoper will shortly allow me to 
read it. I will deliver your salutations to master Bartholo- 
mew Traheron and master Bernardino with much pleasure 
at the earliest opportunity, and will pray them, as you desire, 
in your name, that although you had not at this time leisure 
for writing to them, they will not, on that account, omit their 
office of writing to you. I gave your very kind salutation to 
my wife, who salutes your piety in return, and most cordially 
desires your advancement in sacred learning, to the glory of 
God and the edification of the church. She has been afflicted 
with severe illness ever since the month of August, so that 
for a long time we all of us despaired of her life. But the 
Lord liveth, who bringeth down and raiseth up ; and he has 

[ l See above, p. 121, note 2.1 


now afforded her a little respite, so that we have begun to 
cherish some hopes of her, that she will shortly be better, 
and at length be restored to health. To this end I pray you, 
and all your fellow-ministers and brethren yonder, earnestly 
to entreat the Lord. She was first afflicted for a long time 
by a suffocatio matricis, and then by fainting fits, which lasted 
occasionally for a whole week ; and lastly, she is severely 
suffering with a quartan fever up to this very day. 

You will, I know, be informed as to the existing state of 
our kingdom bv the letter of our verv dear brother, John 

O i/ / 

Burcher. On the whole, we are hoping that Christ may yet 
remain with us, though but a month since it seemed to many 
that he was inclined to depart from us. even beyond sea. 
But the strength of the Lord is perfected in weakness. 
Salute Pellican, Bibliander. and your other friends with 
whom I am acquainted, and especially master Butler together 
with his wife, and your most pious partner. And give, if you 
please, to master Butler the printed paper inclosed in this 
letter, that he may read it, and interpret it to you. Fare- 
well. May the Lord Jesus long preserve you to us ! Amen. 





Dated at LOXDOX, June 25, 1550. 

PRAISE to God ! Much health ! This day, my very dear 
master, I have delivered some letters of yours addressed to 
master John Hoper ; and I doubt not but that, if there is 
occasion, he will shortly reply to them. I have received the 
letter which was inclosed in one of John Burcher's, addressed 
to me in this present month ; for I have for a long time 
occasionally received most of your other letters through 
Burcher, and have taken care that they should be delivered, 
as soon as I conveniently could, to the persons to whom they 
were addressed : and you will always find me most ready to 
do the like, whenever occasion shall require. 


In the month of May last I received your letter, dated 
March 13th, together with a copy of the third decade, which 
you therein mention ; and I feel exceedingly obliged to your 
piety for having thought tit thus to bear me in your remem- 
brance. I have not yet read the book itself; but the subjects 
which you therein promise to treat of, please me very much, 
and I am especially anxious to read what you have written 
respecting trade. As I know you rejoice in the prosperity 
of England, i can assure you, that never before in our time 
has there been such hope of the advancement of the pure 
doctrine of the gospel, and of the complete subversion and 
rooting up of antichristian ceremonies and traditions ; so that 
we are daily expecting some Balaams to preach the truth, 
and bless the people of God. And it is reported that the 
bishop of Winchester will shortly be discharged from the 
Tower of London, where he has been detained for his obsti- 
nacy these two or three years, and will publicly assert the 
pure doctrine of Christ ; with what mind, God knows, pro- 
bably an unwilling one. But, however this may be, we arc 
all of us, who favour the gospel, rejoicing in the mean time, 
that Christ Jesus will be plainly preached. But of these 
matters I have lately written more at length to master John 
Butler, whom I entreat you to salute in my name, together 
with his pious wife. 

As to what relates to your letters to others, or those of 
others to you, I will most willingly perform what you desire ; 
and I have long since carefully cautioned the aforenamed 
Burcher respecting them. And I doubt not but that he will 
willingly do as you desire, provided only that he can receive 
at Strasburgh the money Avhich he will have to pay for the 
postage of such letters. 

My wife, who by the blessing of God is now recovered 
from a most severe illness, desires heartily to be commended 
to you and your most pious wife, and likewise to her, who 
was formerly the wife of master Megander, and to her other 
acquaintance yonder. I doubt not but that the Lord, our 
heavenly Father, hath heard the pious prayers of yourself 
and others on her behalf ; for she was all but expiring on 
two or three alternate nights in the month of December last, 
when you wrote to me and others at this place. 

You write, that you arc deprived of some pleasare. so long 


as I do not Avritc to you, and that you arc delighted with 
my letters. Wherefore I now at last answer your letter, 
though I do not perceive any grounds from whence you 
could derive such gratification, excepting only that I occa- 
sionally write in haste concerning the hope which all godly 
persons entertain in this country respecting the advancement 
of the kingdom of God and of Christ. 

The reason of your letters having been sometimes so de- 
layed in their delivery, and loitering so long on the road, is, 
that John Burcher hands them over, as occasion offers, to the 
seamen at Strasburgh, and also to the wagoners and carriers 
who convey merchandise by the Rhine to Antwerp. And 
this he especially docs, when the packets of letters are of any 
great size ; otherwise he would be obliged to pay for every 
ounce weight ten kreutzers to Spires, and not much less to 
Antwerp and London, if they were sent thither by the post. 
For at Antwerp the post receives for the conveyance of a 
sheet of paper to London two stivers of Brabant, besides as 
much at London ; that is, four stivers for a single sheet of 
paper. But when AVC give our letters in charge to the mer- 
chants, AVC make them no payment whatever, either at the 
one place or the other. 

Masters Bernardine and Bartholomew Traheron salute 
you very much in return. And I pray you, my master, to 
commend me to all yonder who Avish me well, namely, to 
masters Gualter, Bibliandcr, Pellican, Zuinglius, Lewis Lava- 
ter, and the rest. In Avhat state are the affairs of master 
Hoper, Avho tAvo months since was nominated by jthe king's 
majesty to the bishoprick of Gloucester, you Avill doubtless 
learn from his own letters. He perseveres, by the grace of 
God, to be a most constant asserter of the gospel ; and he 
preaches every where with the greatest freedom agreeably to 
your orthodox doctrine in the matter of the eucharist. He 
exhorts, yea, he persuades all. For our people, as many as 
sincerely love the truth, have been always inclined to that 
opinion respecting the eucharist. Your most amiable Avife, 
I pray you, salute for me, in the Lord Jesus, whom I pray 
evermore to lead us in the Avay of truth ! Amen ! Farewell. 

Yours from my heart, 

R. H. Anglus. 




Dated at LONDOX, March 22, 1551. 

PRAISE to God ! Much health ! I have received to-day, 
my most honoured master, together with your letter dated 
the twenty-fourth of last February, one from you to the wife 
of master John Iloper, to whom I forthwith delivered the 
same. As you so much desire me, in the letter aforesaid, to 
write you a full statement of his, namely, master John 
Iloper's condition, I reply, that I have nothing to make 
known to your piety respecting his troubles, beyond what I 
wrote on the first of last February to our common friend, 
master John Butler, and which I have no doubt but that he 
has before now made you acquainted with. But now, thanks 
to God! this same master Hoper is discharged from custody, 
and restored to his former condition. Previously, however, 
he yielded up his opinion and judgment upon certain points 
which are here regarded by us as matters of indifference. 
And this Lent, habited in the scarlet episcopal gown 1 , after he 
had been initiated or consecrated after the manner of our 
bishops, he preached before the king's majesty ; many of the 
[bystanders] either approving or condemning his dress, just 
as they were guided by their feelings. Master Hopcr is 
now gone to Gloucester, which is the seat of his bishoprick ; 
but, as I hear, he will shortly return. I grieve that the 
Germans have, in great part, gone over to the council of 
Trent. But I think our countrymen, by the grace of God, 
are so firm and rooted in the truth, and especially in those 
articles which make against the primacy of the bishop of 

[i " His upper garment was a long scarlet chimero clown to tho 
foot, and under that a white linen rochet that covered all his shoulders. 
Upon his head he had a geometrical, that is, a four-squared cap, albeit 
that his head was round. What cause of shame the strangeness hereof 
was that day to that good preacher, every man may easily judge." 
Foxe, Acts and Mon. vi. 641.] 


Rome, that they will never, at least in our time, give in their 
adhesion to this same Tridcntinc council. 

In your letter to me of the twentieth of August you re- 
late good news from Italy, that she is beginning to receive 
the gospel. May God increase in those who live there faith 
in the Lord Jesus Christ, and may he perfect unto the day 
of Christ the good work that he has begun in some of 
them ! Amen. 

I have to thank you very much for your present of the 
decades of your sermons. I cannot easily recompense this 
kindness. But I will certainly requite you in some measure, 
when opportunity shall offer, both for those three or four 
decades, as also for the many other books which you have 
long since presented me with. Salute, I pray you, in my 
name, your most excellent wife, together with my other 
friends yonder. My wife salutes you, and all yours, especially 
your wife. Fare well in the Lord our Saviour Jesus Christ ! 


E, II. 



Dated at LOXDOX, July 9, 1553. 

PRAISE to God ! Much health ! Yesterday, my faithful 
and very dear friend, the lord mayor 1 , with some of the 
aldermen and merchants, citizens of London, were summoned 
to the king's palace at Greenwich, on the banks of the river 
Thames, and about a German mile from the city. When they 
arrived there, in the presence of the king's most honourable 

[ l " The 8th of July the lord mayor of London was sent for to the 
court then at Greenwich, to bring with him six aldermen, as many 
merchants of the staple, and as many merchants adventurers, unto 
whom by the council was secretly disclosed the death of K. Edward, 
and also how he had ordained for the succession of the crown by his 
letters patent, to the which they were sworn, and charged to keep it 
secret." Stowe's Annals, p. 1058. King Edward died on the 6th of 


councillors, the lord treasurer, the president of the same 
council, addressed them to this effect, namely, that our very 
pious and holy king Edward VI. (who has now departed from 
this world and valley of tears, and, his earthly tabernacle 
being dissolved, is now, I doubt not, in the enjoyment of his 
eternal mansion in heaven,) bearing in mind that, mighty 
sovereign as he was, he was nevertheless subject to death, and 
the rather, because he had lately been weak and in bad health ; 
studying too, not a little, that this English nation might bo 
ruled and governed after his departure in tranquillity and 
peace; and considering that both his sisters (of whom the 
elder, Mary, is ill-disposed to the pure doctrine of the gospel) 
have been, by certain statutes enacted by authority of par- 
liament in the reign of his father, declared illegitimate, as 
born of an unlawful marriage; earnestly required his honour- 
able councillors to agree among themselves, in case the Lord 
should take his majesty from them, to admit, and account for 
his lawful heir and successor, the son of the lady Frances, 
now duchess of Suffolk, (provided she have a son during the 
king's life-time,) who is the daughter of the lady Mary, the 
nunt of his majesty, and formerly queen of France ; and after- 
wards the lady Jane, a truly learned and pious lady, who 
has this very year married the lord Guilford, youngest son of 
the duke of Northumberland, provided the said lady Frances 
have no lawful male issue during the life-time of king Edward. 
He stated, moreover, that all the king's honourable councillors, 
together with nearly all the chief nobility of the realm, had 
faithfully promised and bound themselves by oath and manual 
subscription to a writing to the same effect, that they would 
accomplish and perfect this arrangement, conceived by the 
king's majesty during his illness. Wherefore they desired 
the lord mayor and aldermen of London to be in like manner 
conformable, and to sign this document, which they readily 
did. So that, though Almighty God, in punishment of our 
heinous sins, has taken away from us the most holy prince 
Edward our sovereign, concerning whom all persons who have 
ever known his majesty state, that they never saw a more 
excellent or more godly mind in any mortal body ; yet we 
are not altogether without his mercy, since he has now 
ordained such a successor to so pious a king, under whom we 
have great hopes (for, praised be the Lord, we do not see any 



thing to prevent it) that we, her subjects, shall nevertheless 
be able to live a godly, quiet, and tranquil life, in all peace, 
virtue, and righteousness ; and that the pure word of God 
will always be sincerely preached in this realm, and the true 
doctrine of the gospel maintained to the great comfort of all 
believers who dwell here, which may the Lord Almighty 
grant ! Amen. 

When I had written thus far, my honoured friend in the 
Lord, the 10th of July arrives, when it is publicly proclaimed 
here, in the name of the aforesaid lady Jane, now queen of 
England, that the aforesaid king Edward is dead, that the 
lady Frances aforesaid, .the queen's mother, had no son, and 
therefore, as I understand, that the government of this realm 
has devolved upon this queen Jane, to which event may our 
good and gracious God grant his blessing ! Amen. 

I thank you very much for the little book you presented 
me with, and which I received together with your letter dated 
March the 10th, and I pray our good and gracious God, that, 
as you pray for me in that letter, I may stedfastly persevere 
in faith and charity, and all good works, the unjust gains and 
sinful pleasures of this world being trodden under foot. And 
if I can be of any service to you in forwarding your letters 
to your friends, I will faithfully and willingly use my best 
exertions to that effect. You kindly consider it a great 
service, as I understand from what you have written, that 
I have caused your letters to be delivered to the parties to 
whom they were addressed. But I do not consider myself as 
having any claims upon your acknowledgements for any ser- 
vice that I can render you, much less for one so trifling. 

My wife heartily salutes you and your wife, and wishes 
every happiness to you and to all your children. Salute affec- 
tionately in my name master Pellican, and your son-in-law 
Lewis Lavater; and especially master Theodore Bibliander, 
and be pleased to tell him that I have delivered his two little 
books to master Cheke and master Hooper, as in his letter 
written in March he desired me to do. And I return him my 
best thanks for having deigned to oblige me by such a present. 
Salute too. I pray you, my very dear brother in Christ, master 
Butler, and let him know that I received in the month of 
June his letter dated May 18th, but have not now time to 
write an answer; nor indeed is there much occasion for me to 


do so, because I wrote very fully respecting all that required 
an answer, in my former letter. Farewell and happily ! 

Yours Avholly, 




Dated at [BRADGATE '], May 29, [1551]. 

SINCE we are accustomed, most accomplished sir, to regard 
any favours conferred upon our friends as extending also to 
ourselves, I must consider myself on many accounts exceed- 
ingly indebted to your kindness; and first of all, for your 
having so studiously and diligently exerted yourself to instruct 
the family of our most noble marquis 2 by your very learned 
works, and by your excellent advice to retain them in the 
true religion. For, believe me, the letters of that holy man 
Bucer, whom when alive we reverenced as a father, and the 
remembrance of whom, now that he is no more, we most con- 
stantly retain as of a messenger of God ; and also your own 
letters, which you sent to my most noble patron, were of great 
use both to confirm his stedfastness in the religion we had 
embraced, and also to rouse and stir up the minds of those 
who had begun to be either inactive through length of time, 
or fastidious through weariness of the subject in which we 
profess an interest, or careless through levity and fickleness 
of disposition. For they always thought it right to submit 
to your authority, and to follow your important admonitions. 
And as to myself, whenever my lord placed in my hands 

]} Bradgate, near Leicester, was the residence of the Suffolk family. 
See Nicholls's Hist. Leicestershire, Vol. nr. p. G67.] 

[ 2 Becon thus speaks of Aylmer, in The Jewel of Joy, Parker 
Society's Edition, p. 424. " In Leicestershire I had familiarity only 
with one learned man, a countryman of ours [viz. in Norfolk], called 
John Aylmer, a master of arts of the university of Cambridge, a 
young man singularly well learned both in the Latin and Greek 
tongue, teacher to my lord marquis Dorset his children."] 



either Bucer's letters, or your own, (and he always received 
them from both of you with the greatest satisfaction,) I used 
to consider myself as highly favoured in being the guardian 
of such valued treasures. For as often as I read them over, 
I seemed to myself to hold converse with the two most 
precious lights of the church of Christ. In the next place, 
the singular regard you entertain towards my pupil 1 , compels 
me to declare my respect for you, if in no other way, at least 
by letter. For what favour more useful to herself, or gratify- 
ing to the marquis, or acceptable to me, can possibly be 
afforded her, not only by you, but also by any other person 
of equal learning and piety, than that she, whom her father 
loves as a daughter, and whom I look upon with affection as 
a pupil, may derive such maxims of conduct from your godly 
breast, as may assist her towards living well and happily ? 
And you are well able to determine, in your wisdom, how 
useful are the counsels of the aged to guide and direct young 
persons at her time of life, which is just fourteen. For at 
that age, as the comic poet tells us, all people are inclined 
to follow their own ways, and by the attractiveness of the 
objects, and the corruption of nature, are more easily carried 
headlong unto pleasure, which Plato calls the bait of mischief, 
than induced to follow those studies which are attended with 
the praise of virtue. In proportion therefore as the present 
age teems with many disorders, must more careful and dis- 
creet physicians be sought for ; that the diligence, and labour, 
and exertion of excellent men may either remove or correct 
such evils as are implanted by the corruption of nature, and 
the infirmity of youth : for as we feed off the too luxuriant 
crops, and provide bridles for restive horses, so to these 
tender minds there should neither be wanting the counsel of 


the aged, npr the authority of men of grave and influential 
character. You have acted therefore with much kindness in 
administering to the improvement of this young lady ; and if 
you will proceed in the same course, you will afford great 
benefit to herself, and gratification to her father. 

Your singular regard for my pupil, as well as the impor- 
tunity of that excellent and talented youth, John ab Ulrnis, 
has induced me to write thus much to your reverence. I was 
indeed afraid to interrupt so learned an individual, and one 
[ J Lady Jane Grey. See Letter IV., p. 4.] 


so diligently employed in the vineyard of Christ ; but as ho 
pertinaciously urged me, and assured me of your incredible 
kindness, I have banished all shame and fear from my mind. 
Receive this, therefore, I pray you, with kindness and com- 
placency; and if I have erred in any way, impute it to my 
affection for you, and to the importunity of my friend. Fare- 
well, most reverend sir, and pardon this extempore cifusion. 
May God, for the sake of the church, extend your years to 
those of Nestor ! 

Your excellence's most devoted, 




Dated at LONDON, Dec. 23, [1551J. 

GRACE and peace in the Lord Jesus Christ our Saviour, 
and a life of blessedness in him, &c. 

I have received, most worthy sir, your letter, abounding 
not only in affection and kindness, but also in true godliness 
and piety, wherein you describe me as highly favoured in 
two respects; both in having such a pupil whom God has 
thought fit to adorn with so many excellent gifts, and because 
her family is one that is both well disposed to good learning, 
and sincerely favourable to religion. In this respect, excellent 
sir, I agree with you, that for these reasons I may be ac- 
counted to have attained such happiness as falls to the lot of 
man; but I consider myself far more favoured in having 
formed a friendship with you, and which God, who searcheth 
all hearts, knows how greatly I value. It has always indeed 
been my disposition not only to set the highest esteem upon 
all kinds of learning, but to regard with the greatest affection 
those who cultivate and profess it. For I well know how 
brutish this life of ours would be, were not the understanding 
of mankind cultivated by useful learning and liberal pursuits. 
And while I have much delight in all these, I am yet ravished 
by my fondness for theology, and am often lost in admi- 


ration of it; so that I give more honour to its professors 
than to any other class of mankind soever. For there flows 
forth from such persons, as from the purest fountains, all 
godliness, knowledge of religion, and innocency of life. All 
good men confide in the teaching of such, and approve their 
sayings as the most holy oracles of God. Hence faith towards 
God is acquired, charity is imparted, hope is increased, and in 
fine, all things that appertain to Christianity have their origin. 
Since then the Lord has so abundantly heaped his riches 
upon you, as that you are in a position not only to inform 
your own mind, but to be a teacher and guide in the church 
to those who would otherwise err ; it is our duty to love and 
reverence and look up to you, both for his sake who has been 
so gracious to you, and also for your OAvn. For thus does 
St Paul exhort us in these words, " Let a man so account of 
us, as of the ministers of Christ, and stewards of the mysteries 
of God," &c. [1 Cor. iv. 1.] ; and in another place, " Let the 
ciders that rule well be counted worthy of double honour :" 
[1 Tim. v. 17.] whence we are taught to pay no less honour 
and respect to the ministers of Christ, than to those who, 
previously taught of God themselves, treat of, deliver, and 
explain, the most sacred mysteries of faith and salvation. 

It now remains for me to request that, with the kindness 
we have so long experienced, you will instruct my pupil in 
your next letter as to what embellishment and adornment of 
person is becoming in young women professing godliness. In 
treating upon this subject, you may bring forward the ex- 
ample of our king's sister, the princess Elizabeth 1 , Avho goes 
clad in every respect as becomes a young maiden ; and yet 
no one is induced by the example of so illustrious a lady, and 
in so much gospel light 2 , to lay aside, much less look down 

t 1 Aylmer, in his Harbour for faithful subjects, speaking of the 
princess Elizabeth, says : " I am sure that her maidenly apparel which 
she used in king Edward's time made the noblemen's wives and 
daughters ashamed to be dressed and painted like peacocks, being 
more moved with her most virtuous example, than with all that ever 
Paul or Peter wrote touching that matter. Her plainness of dress," 
he continues, "was especially noticed on the occasion of the visit of the 
queen dowager of Scotland, Mary of Lorraine, to the court of Ed- 
ward VI., in October 1551, two months before the date of this letter."] 

[ 2 When lady Jane Grey was urged to wear a costly dress, pre- 
sented to her by Mary, she replied, " Nay, that were a shame to follow 


upon, gold, jewels, and braidings of the hair. They hear 
preachers declaim against these things, but yet no one amends 
her life. Moreover, I wish you would prescribe to her the 
length of time she may properly devote to the study of music. 
For in this respect also people err beyond measure in this 
country, while their whole labour is undertaken, and exertions 
made, for the sake of ostentation. If you Avill handle these 
points at some length, there will probably, through your in- 
fluence, be some accession to the ranks of virtue. 

Farewell, most illustrious sir, and may the supremely 
great and good God grant you a long life ! London. From 

O O O */ 

the house of the duke of Suffolk, late marquis [of Dorset]. 
Dec. 23. 

Your reverence's most devoted, 




Dated at BRADGATE, near LEICESTER, May 29, 1551. 

HEARTILY wishing you health from the Lord ! Though 
no correspondence, most illustrious sir, has ever taken place 
between us, nor have I even seen you in person; yet I seem 
to myself to be acquainted with you, both from your pub- 
lished writings, and also from your letters to my patron the 
marquis of Dorset ; and especially too, from the conversation 
and discourse had concerning you with John ab Ulmis, a 
godly youth, and one much attached to you, who has at 
length almost compelled me after long delay, and at first 
almost reluctant, to write somewhat to you. If therefore I 
have been to blame by this freedom and extemporaneous ef- 
fusion, and, to speak plainly, this trifling address, I beg you to 
lay the fault upon him; though I must candidly confess that, 
from a desire of a more intimate acquaintance with you, I am 

my lady Mary, who Icavcth God's word, and leave my lady Elizabeth, 
who followcth God's word." Aylmcr, as above.] 


in some measure implicated therein myself. May tlic Lord 
Jesus evermore bless your ministry, and every way defend 
and guide you by his Spirit ! I hope that you remember me 
in your prayers to the Lord. Bradgate, near Leicester, May 
29, 1551. 

Your piety's devoted, 




Dated at LONDON, Dec. 28, 1551. 

MUCH health in the Lord! Your letter, I perceive, 
breathes the same spirit of benevolence that you are univer- 
sally reported to possess. Wherefore, although at this time 
no certain intelligence of any great importance presents itself, 
yet as I have met with a person by whom I can send a letter, 
I am unwilling to let him depart without one. Your having 
received my former letter with so much kindness, I consider 
as an evidence of your regard for mo ; and you have now 
given me such encouragement, that if I write nothing of an 
important or serious character, I will at least write for the 
sake of establishing the correspondence we have now begun. 
I conveyed your respects (as you desired me to do) to my 
patron, who is now duke of Suffolk, in such a way, that he 
has sent you a letter 1 . You can indeed confer no greater 
obligation upon his grace than by continuing (as you have 
once done already) to impart godly instruction to his daugh- 
ter. For, although she is so brought up, that there is the 
greatest hope of her advancement in godliness, yet your ex- 
hortations afford her encouragement, and at the same time 
have their due weight with her, either as proceeding from a 
stranger, or from so eminent a person as yourself. You com- 
mend to me John ab Ulmis, with the rest of the Helvetians : 
I wish I could be of as much use to them as I desire. But 

[ J This letter is given above, p. 3.] 


though God docs not sec fit to give me any power in this way 
at present, yet they shall always find rny labour, diligence, 
and zeal ready to serve them, as far as I can, and especially 
John ab Ulmis, with whom I am acquainted, and whom I 
believe to be a young man of integrity and pure morals. 
Farewell. May Christ every way preserve you, and ever- 
more bless your ministry ! Remember me, I pray you, in 
your prayers. London, Dec. 28, 1551. 

Your attached, 




Dated at RICHMOND, near LONDON, August, 1552. 

HEALTH in the Lord, most honoured father! While I was 
thinking what I should best write to your reverence, in comes 
John ab Ulmis, and tells me that it would much gratify you 
to be informed cither of the progress and establishment of 
religion among us, or respecting the management of the house- 
hold of my patron the duke of Suffolk. As to religion hoAvever, 
after the demolition and overthrow of the idols, and the weak- 
ening and downfal of idolatry, and after our approach to the 
true light of the gospel, by the blessing of God now restored, I 
think that you are not ignorant of the path we have entered, 
the measures we have adopted, and the order we have main- 
tained for these four years past. At this moment, however, 
it is reported, that the book, called the king's book 2 , in which 
is contained and explained the manner of divine worship and 
the mode of prayer to God, commonly set forth among us, 
(and to be used of all persons in public) is about to be amended 
in certain places; in what, however, and in how many, doth 
not yet appear. There were certain prayers for the dead 3 , 
which did not seem very convenient. Moreover, in the cele- 

[ 2 Sec Liturgies of Edward VI., Parker Society's Edition.] 
[ 3 See Liturgies, &c., as above, p. 88.] 


bration of the Lord's supper there is something either to be 
altered or entirely expunged. The book too, which is set 
forth concerning the election and ordination, as they call it, 
of ministers, seemed to contain some things which were partly 
absurd, and partly impious. We are in the expectation, 
by God's help, of their being amended, at least in some 
measure, if they do not reach the entire perfection they 
ought and should do, and which, however we may desire it, 
we cannot perhaps as yet fully hope for. But, thank God, 
we are in great hopes that ungodly superstition will be en- 
tirely abolished. 

As to the regulations of the duke's household, you arc 
rather to be entreated of me again and again to point out the 
method that you think best yourself, than that I should explain 
to you our family arrangements, of which John ab Ulmis can 
give you a better account than I can. There is one thing 
however, respecting which I will lay before you my sentiments 
and intentions, and on which too I shall request of you your 
own opinion and advice. You are aware, that in the houses 
of our men of rank there are practised not only such recre- 
ations as refresh both the body and mind after a moderate 
and godly manner, but such also as occasion sloth, and beget 
idleness and ungodliness : of this kind are games of cards and 
dice. The duke has forbidden all his domestics to risk any 
money upon amusements of this sort ; but yet he himself 
and his most honourable lady with their friends, not only 
claim permission to play in their private apartment, but also 
to play for money. As to myself, however, I am of opinion 
that I can nowise admit it to be allowable for a Christian so 
to risk his money at any game whatsoever, as to leave off as 
a winner, with some pecuniary advantage, or else as a loser, to 
his pecuniary loss. And the matter is frequently discussed in 
this way. Those who are on their side bring forward for the 
most part these principal arguments, that they do not wish for 
another person's money, but that it is the same thing to them 
whether they win or lose ; that the game loses all its interest 
without a stake, so that its sleepy character, as it were, must 
be awakened ; that no one feels any excitement, unless there 
be a stake laid down ; that in many other things there are 
superfluous and unnecessary expenses, as in diet, and clothes, 
&c. Wherefore, in this respect also, we must yield somewhat 


to fashion, and not act with so much strictness, or bring every 
thing to the test of conscience and of duty, since no one can 
live entirely without faults of some kind ; with much more to 
the same effect. It is therefore lawful to hazard a small 
amount, only the risk must not be excessive. I tell them, on 
the other hand, that I cannot be brought to believe that the 
human mind is so equable and indifferent in matters of chance, 
as not to regard gain more than loss, or to avoid loss rather 
than gain. Were it not so, gaming would not be a risking of 
money, but rather a constant inclination to be generous. Be- 
sides, if any one possesses so even a temper, he will then act 
very blameably in endeavouring to destroy this equanimity and 
to expose himself to the inconsistency, by introducing a stake, 
of incurring the danger of exciting the calm and heretofore 
settled and quiet affections (if indeed they can be such, which 
I do not believe), whence there forthwith arises the coveting 
of another's property, anger, envying, strife, &c. Let the 
game then be cold and lifeless, and (lest it should become 
worse) let the act of playing itself, which is, or ought to be, 
the chief motive, be a sufficient reward in any kind of game, 
and the prize, if it seems fit, be as it were a garland of 
praise. If a person cannot be sufficiently induced and ex- 
cited by these motives, it cometh of evil, which is an 
additional argument. But the case is different in public 
games, which have their certain appointed prizes for the sake 
of exercise, and of a contest in other respects laudable and 
necessary, and for the good of the state. As to what may be 
superfluous in food or clothing, if one's table be too exquisite 
and redundant, and one's dress too gaudy and expensive, or 
in any other respect beyond what is necessary, this is a 
voluntary superfluity and a self-sought sin. Besides too, 
there is a great difference between money risked without any 
necessity, and an expense of this kind, which is in some measure 
necessary, because the ends are different. For clothes and 
other ornaments are made and wrought for the very end and 
purpose of being used and worn out by some persons or other. 
The fault consists only in their being over abundant, and 
superfluous beyond what is proper, and when their cost is 
disproportioned to the rank of the wearer. The same judg- 
ment must be given too with respect to diet, except only that 
its use is more necessary. But money is intended for use, 


and by the sanction of law, as a standard of value for the 
property of mankind, as Aristotle has admirably shewn both 
in his Ethics and Politics. Moreover, we must of necessity 
have some clothing or other : to risk money at play is not 
necessary, because games are of themselves an exercise with- 
out any stakes being produced. And though moderation ought 
to be observed both in dress and diet, according to the dis- 
tinctions of rank, yet it is not so in gaming. For it is 
equally an offence towards God in all persons, inasmuch as 
by all persons the money might be applied to better and 
more necessary uses. And because, by reason of our innate 
corruption, we arc always prone to evil, and even when we 
purpose rightly, unless God assist us by his grace, our very 
purpose ends in sin ; yet, though notwithstanding the greatest 
possible diligence no one lives without sin, we must not seek 
after premeditated opportunities of committing sin or of acting 
wrong, and allow ourselves in them; and it is very inconsistent 
with Christian piety to do so. It is not therefore allowable to 
risk the smallest sum for the purpose of gain, and in such a 
Avay as that loss may hence accrue to any one ; for, however 
small may be the amount, if it be only a penny, it may be 
employed to better purposes. And there is no reason why 
money should be introduced, if not for the sake of covetous- 
ness, or at least of gain, since play is play of itself, without a 
single farthing being played for, &c. In this manner and to 
this effect the dispute is often carried on. 

I am much influenced too by the fact, that I perceive 
gain of this kind is not approved in any well-ordered form of 
government. That it is allowed by some of the schoolmen 
seems to me too trivial, not to say, absurd; though indeed all 
the sounder writers altogether condemn it, if it is for the 
sake of lucre, or exceeds the expense of a dinner, or some- 
thing of the kind, whence no harm can arise, but rather much 
advantage from the mutual good will and kind feeling which 
accompanies such entertainments ; and when both parties have 
agreed beforehand as to the expense, so that a stated sum 
may be laid out. But the expense attendant upon gaming is 
by no means necessary, and depends upon the mere fickleness 
of fortune. And you know far better than I can tell you, 
how much the civil laws forbid things of this kind, and how 
the right of recovery becomes void. With us, however, a 


wager won at archery may be recovered by law, and an 
action may be brought by the winner against the loser, just 
as in the case of those contracts which are sanctioned both by 
the civil law, and our common law and acts of parliament. 

You now perceive my boldness, in that, for fear of writ- 
ing nothing at all, I have troubled your reverence with 
these trifles. But however, these light matters, and as some 
may think them, ridiculous, sometimes occasion great and 
serious mischief by the losses caused and sustained, to say 
nothing of other evils that have occurred. Indeed, I always 
consider them as matters of serious importance. For whatever 
is wasted in this way, (for I must call it by that term,) how- 
ever trifling in amount, might nevertheless be applied to far 
better and more useful purposes. I daily see many evils arise 
from this practice, and not one advantage. And although 
these evils are not necessarily connected with the thing itself, 
because all persons do not thus abuse it ; yet I perceive that 
games of hazard are almost always attended with this mis- 
chief, that the shadow follows the substance. And so much 
for my opinion. 

As to my purpose, it is this. I bear with it for the pre- 
sent, but in such a manner as to reprove it as often as a good 
opportunity presents itself; but this I do in private, or in 
conversation with a few, and not by openly preaching against 
it. Once indeed I publicly denounced it from the pulpit, last 
Christmas, because at the very time, as you know, when we 
ought most of all others to sing praises to our most merciful 
Father, and rejoice in the Lord, people more especially amuse 
themselves by indulging in mummeries and wickedness of 
every kind ; and rejoice together Avith the wicked, and are 
especially serving the devil, in imitation, as it seems, of the 
ancient Saturnalia, as you know better than I do. I am not 
now speaking of the family in which I reside, for the case is 
not so with them ; and I am quite ignorant how the case is 
with you, or in other places. But with us, in general, through- 
out the whole country, (although not separately in the house 
of every individual,) at this time more especially, and at these 
holidays 1 , we abound in examples of the worst and most aban- 
doned character, and most inconsistent with our profession. 

[ J The statute 33 Hen. VIII. c. 9. prohibits to all but gentlemen 
the games of cards, dice, &c. except in the time of Christmas. See 
also Latimer's Sormons on the Card, p. 8. Park. Soc. ed.j 


And the evil practice has become so prevalent, that unless 
people will make merry (as they call it) at these holidays, 
and merry too, in the worst possible way, or one at least of 
Avhich they will be ashamed at the season of Lent, as they 
say, they not only consider them stupid and unfit for any 
thing, but it is almost a part of their religion to act in some 
measure in this way ; and they fancy that they are merry 
after this fashion on account of the birth of our Lord. 
This still prevails among the vulgar and the country folk, 
who arc not yet instructed. In our family, however, there 
is nothing of the kind, nor anything so greatly unbecoming, 
concerning which I shall say more presently. But I have 
described to you the general practice through almost all 
England, except in a few particular places ; and I explain it 
to you more fully, because John [ab Ulmis] told me that you 
would be gratified by my doing so. If therefore I seem too 
verbose, you must lay the blame upon him, and excuse me. 
To proceed therefore. Although the nobility and greater 
part of the commonalty (now by the grace of God better in- 
structed) plainly understand that it is not their duty so to 
conduct themselves, yet partly from the force of habit, and a 
desire not to appear stupid, and not good fellows, as they call it, 
but partly and principally, as I think, from their not having yet 
so far advanced as to be able perfectly to hate the garment 
spotted by the flesh, or to feel as yet the genuine fear of God 
implanted in their mind, they have no settled intention, much 
less any desire, to conquer and crucify themselves. 

But to return from this digression, and explain the rea- 
son why I once reproved my flock in my sermon, and what 
followed thereupon. It is as follows. When I had openly 
reproved the whole thing altogether, and those too, though 
in common and general terms, who played for money, I saw 
that it was taken in bad part, because in the household of 
the duke, my master, the domestics do not play, or at all 
events in no wise play for money, so as to be found out. But 
since the duke himself and his lady have secretly played with 
their friends in their private apartment, they thought it was 
my duty merely to have admonished them in private. But 
you must hear the reason of my acting as I did. For this 
open rebuke was not immediately administered by me at first, 
but long after ; and in the mariner, and with the consideration 
and caution that I shall now state. When I had frequently 


done this, and, as I perceived, without any effect, although 
they had nothing to say against it with any shew of reason ; 
and having forewarned them that I would at length sometime 
or other plainly and openly reprove them, if they should 
repeat the practice of playing in their apartments, provided 
they played for money, (for that otherwise I had no fault to 
find with their playing, as an exercise both of mind and body ; 
but that I could no longer put up with that kind of game, 
when they played for money, because I saw no sufficient 
reason adduced by them for that very unnecessary expense,) 
and having said very much to the same effect, they left off 
for a time : upon which I was very glad, and began to en- 
tertain great hopes. Afterwards, however, on the Christmas 
following, when I perceived they were beginning to return to 
their old habits, I publicly reproved, as opportunity offered, 
both the thing itself, and those who practised it, but in the 
way that I have above stated, that is, in general terms, with- 
out naming or describing any individual. Understanding how- 
ever that offence was taken at this, I was from thenceforth 
silent, contenting myself Avith a private and individual reproof, 
whenever the subject was brought forward in conversation. 
And so far I put up with and allow the practice, that I 
do not reprove it publicly and in my sermons. But since 
they consider me too strict, and under this pretence choose 
to be their own interpreters in other matters, contrary to 
what they have been accustomed ; and say, " In this or that 
point Haddon cannot agree with us, though they are just as 
much matters of indifference as the play which hardly any 
one finds fault with but himself;" and they are thus advancing 
to what is really evil: lest, I say, they should err in that way, 
and go on by degrees into intolerable evil, I bear with this, 
as I have above explained, against my will. I bear with it 
of compulsion, that I may gain them over in other things of 
greater importance ; I bear with it, just as a man who is hold- 
ing a wolf by the ears. But I perceive some good arising 
from this concession, which in fact is no concession at all, but 
in some measure a remission of duty, or rather of strictness in 
the performance of it ; because I do not find fault in public, 
although individually and in conversation I always reprove in 
the same way as heretofore. But because they see that I in 
some measure yield to them, even against my own opinion, 
and consider that I deal tenderly with this infirmity of theirs, 


they are willing to hear and attend to me more readily in 
other respects. 

I have now explained, more fully perhaps than is con- 
sistent with your engagements, both my own opinion upon 
this subject, as also my purpose and manner of tolerating 
it. I request that you will plainly write to me upon this 
matter, and fully state your own opinion respecting it, and 
how you think I ought to act : state what you approve, and 
what you disapprove, as far as it may seem good to you ; and 
give me your advice as to how far you think I may concede 
in matters of this sort, and to what extent I may connive 
at them. But do this at your leisure ; for I should be 
unwilling to interrupt you when occupied in things of greater 
moment. Unless I judged of you in some measure by myself, 
(as far as is allowable for so slender a scholar, and one who 
is but just beginning to learn,) to be a most accomplished and 
learned man, and one who is perfect in every kind of know- 
ledge, I should not have dared to interrupt you in this way, 
whom I have scarcely saluted in these three letters. But be 
this as it may, you are yourself to blame for having wished 
me to write. I will carry my boldness a little further, and 
pray you to salute for me that most honoured man master 
Bibliander, whom I seem to myself to be well acquainted with 
from his published works. Farewell, ye two lights of the 
church. May Christ protect you, and by his Spirit aid both 
you and your ministry ! Richmond, near London, August, 

Your attached and most devoted, 




Without place or date. [About October, 1552.] 

GREETING. I have heretofore written you tolerably long 
letters ; I now send you a short one, and the rather, as you 
tell me you are in a weak state of health. I shall pass over 
the formal and almost courtier-like custom of returning you 
my thanks for having written to me, notwithstanding you 


were either actually indisposed, or at least a valetudinarian. 
Your very short letter, most courteous and honoured sir, was, 
you may be assured, exceedingly gratifying to me, not only 
because you seem entirely to agree with me, but also for the 
description of the beginning and progress, and the order now 
observed among you ; all of which things I had a wonderful 
desire to know. I have conferred with the duke, my master, 
respecting your friend Schmutz ; and he promises, for your 
sake, to be exceedingly kind to him, and to bestow upon him 
the same pension as he formerly did on John ab Ulmis. It 
will be necessary for you some time to recal this to his 
grace's memory, as I am shortly about to leave his roof, 
having been summoned by the king^s majesty to undertake a 
certain office 1 in the state, in which, though it is not very lucra- 
tive as to my individual benefit and emolument, I purpose to 
the utmost of my power to promote the gospel. I am telling 
you this, that when you write about Alexander Schmutz, you 
may not address the duke as if I were with him, but as 
though I were absent, as I intend to be. For though I shall 
not be able to be altogether and entirely separated from his 
grace, yet I shall be for the most part, as soon as I shall be 
able to discharge the debt already contracted, and yet to be 
contracted, for the payment of the first-fruits. But it has pleased 
God to render his grace so much attached to me, and me too 
in my turn so devoted and attached to his grace, that I cannot 
entirely separate from him, but must occasionally visit him. 
You can however yourself write more fully about Schmutz, or 
any one of the like sort whom you may wish to recommend to 
his grace, as supposing that I am not with him ; and there is 
no doubt but that his excellency (such is his kindness towards 
yourself and those who are like you) will take it in good part. 
I commend your health and your whole self to God. I would 
willingly exhort you to preserve it as you can, and as you 
know you ought. I earnestly pray you to salute master 
Bibliander in my name. May God be with you by his Spirit, 
and with your ministry ! 

Your attached, 


[i A gift to James Haddon, B.A., of the prebend of Westminster, 
void by the death of Antony Bellows, LL.D., and master in chancery, 
was dated in August 1552. He was appointed in October, this year, 
to the deanery of Exeter. Strype, Mem. n. ii. 272, 274.] 





Dated at LONDON, Nov. 30, 1553. 

I SHOULD have to write very much to your reverence, if 
I could indulge the feelings of my mind. But by reason of 
the manifold engagements with which I am at present over- 
whelmed, I can scarcely write to you at all. Indeed all 
that I have to say could not well be committed to writing, 
and the bearer John Schmutz will give you far better in- 
formation in Avords. Alas ! what a severe loss have we sus- ; 
tained ! Alas ! how true religion is banished ! Alas ! how 
justly is the wrath of God stirred up against us ! I dare not 
write more; you must understand the rest. We were not so 
much in the hope of restoring true religion, as we are now 
in fear of recalling impious and abominable idolatry. Pour 
forth your prayers, I entreat you, for me and those like me. 
A few individuals of this sort are compelled to afford their 
testimony to real godliness and religion. All our leading men, 
I mean the bishops and persons of that sort, are overwhelmed 
by this calamity, and thrown into prison. May God help us ! 
We also are speaking to no purpose, for unless God order 
it otherwise, it is already determined what is to be done : 
only that we may profess in whom we believe, and what 
religion we hold, we accepted an offer made us of encounter- 
ing our enemies. What will be the result, God knows, and 
whether this may not be the last letter that I shall be able 
to write to you. I very much regret that I was unable so 
fully to provide for your friend Schmutz by means of the 
duke of Suffolk, as I hoped and expected, had not this event 
taken place, which I cannot relate without tears. Pardon me 
therefore, if I do not write more upon the subject. I doubt 
not but that the order, as it were, of the whole tragedy will 
be related to you. The duke 1 himself holds to the true God, 
and I hope by God's help will fully retain his opinions about 
true religion, in opposition to the devil, whose agents are 

[i The duke of Suffolk was committed to the Tower, Feb. 6, 1554, 
and beheaded on Tower-hill on the 23rd of the same month.] 


striving with all their might to lead his lordship astray : that 
he may do this more effectually, I commend his lordship to 
your prayers, and I commend too myself, and those like- 
minded. Salute for me, I pray, master Bibliander. May 
God be with you by his holy Spirit unto the end, and ever 
glorify his name by you, as he hath hitherto done ! London, 
Xov. 30, 1553. 

Your most attached, 




Dated at STRASBURGH, July 9, 1554. 

I HAD intended to see your excellence, and deliver to you 
in person this letter written to 'you by master Hooper. But 
having met with some godly persons and brethren in the Lord, 
I cannot leave this place at present. I have thought it there- 
fore my duty not to retain by me any longer the letter of 
one who is so much attached to you. I entrust it to Park- 
hurst, that brother in the Lord, who is able to give you as 
much information about our friend Hooper as almost any one 
else. For they were most intimately united, as well by dis- 
position as by vicinity of residence 3 . As for myself, I intend, 
by God's assistance, to visit some time or other both yourself 
and the other distinguished men in your church. Among 
whom salute, I pray you, for me the reverend father in 
Christ, master Pellican. I am now writing to the worthy 
and excellent Bibliander to the same effect as I have written 

[ 2 Next to this letter, in the Archives, comes a Latin version of the 
dying speech of the duke of Northumberland. " Joannis nuper ducis 
Northumbriee in Anglia, quum ad supplicium productus esset, oratio. 
Vienna;, ex officina Mich. Zimmennanni. 1553." See Soames, iv. 44.] 

[3 Parkhurst was rector of Bishop's Cleeve, near Cheltenham, when 
Hooper was bishop of Gloucester.] 

19 2 


to you. May God every way be with you, and preserve you 
for the benefit of his church ! Strasburgh, July 9, 1554. 

Your attached, 




Dated at STRASBURGH, Aug. 31, 1554. 

MUCH health. I perceive in your letter to me, most 
honoured sir, that of which I never doubted, namely, your 
grief for the downfall of the church of England, and your 
kindness and good-will towards me. Of the former I will 
say nothing, lest the wound should break out afresh. Of the 
latter, however, I can rather conceive in thought, than ex- 
press in words, what I ought to say, because I know that 
you will not willingly hear it. Passing over these things 
therefore, as to your wish that I should inform you respecting 
your friend Hooper, whether or not any letter of yours 
written to him will be safely conveyed, and delivered into 
his hands, I have not yet obtained any certain information 
upon this point ; nor am I able to do so, for he writes word 
that he is now thrust down to the very lowest dungeon, and 
that his servant 1 has been taken away from him. Still there 
have been, as I hear, many ways and means devised, by 
which good men have communication with him, and he in 
turn with them. Wherefore I have conferred here with one of 
his friends, who has promised to take care that your letter 
shall be sent to London, and given in charge to some godly 
person who, if he can deliver it safely, will do so ; if not, it will 
remain in his keeping. You will act therefore as you think 
best. But your letter to him will doubtless afford him great 
comfort. For this it is that he complains of, respecting many 

[ l William Dounton, whom Babington, warden of the Fleet, im- 
prisoned, and stripped him out of his clothes to search for letters. 
See Foxe, vi. 648, Letters of the Martyrs, p. 97, and above, p. 102, 
n. 1.] 


persons, that he cannot hear from them ; and he almost thinks 
himself deserted by his friends, which (as you yourself know) 
is the greatest grief to persons in distress, and especially to those 
who arc of a naturally benevolent and well-ordered mind. 
And the word well I refer to teaching in general. For we 

O O 

do not here lay aside our natural feelings, but seek for con- 
solation in adversity elsewhere than from God alone. But 
to seek it from those more especially, who approach nearest 
to God, that is, the godly, is not so remote from godliness, 
(since means are not to be rejected, especially when of a 
kindred character,) although we ought to depend upon God 
and his Spirit exclusively. I need say no more to one of 
your wisdom and piety. Whatever you may determine upon, 
if you wish for my assistance, you will find me entirely at 
your service. Farewell very heartily in the Lord. Stras- 
burgh, Aug. 31, 1554. 

Your most attached, 


P. S. There is one Banks 2 who has written to you about 
the lady Jane. He has shewn me your letter in answer 
to his, from which I infer that he wrote something to you 
which you did not deem it prudent to publish. It is well 
that you came to this determination, and I beg of you by no 
means to make it public, or suffer many persons to copy it. 
For although he wrote it without my knowledge, yet I know 
for certain that it will occasion the greatest danger to me, if 
it be published or appear in his name, because I brought him 
over from England, and he is with me as my friend. If it 
were evident that all the statements were certainly true and 
proved, and that their publication would tend to the glory of 
God, I would then prepare myself to meet the danger. But 
I am rather afraid that all the facts are not as described by 
him, but that he has gathered them from common report, and 
being himself too in some measure biassed by his zeal. Were 
the statement published, it would probably do more harm to 
the truth, and to our cause, than it would do them good ; to 
say nothing of the certain risk and peril which would hang 
over others. Nor could the whole account be defended with 

[2 See below, Lett. CXLL] 


a sufficiently safe conscience, since, probably, some things have 
been stated as facts, which may not be found to be such. 
But as to what regards the lady Jane herself, and what is 
said in her name, (as for instance, her exhortations to a certain 
apostate, and her discourse with Feckenham,) I believe, and 
partly know, that it is true, and did really proceed from 
herself. It will now be sufficient for me to have pointed 
out to your prudence, what you have already perceived of 
yourself, that is, that these things should not be published, 
and especially the other matters under any circumstances 
whatever, and I pray you again and again not to allow it. 
Should it be thought expedient that they should come forth 
some time hence, this can be done whenever you may think 
fit; but the present time is most unsuitable for such a 
measure, even if it were certain that the whole statement is 
correct. For we have too many matters of fact to make it 
necessary to collect mere rumours, and those perhaps alto- 
gether invented. Our adversaries already partly lay this 
calumniously to our charge : what will they do if they have 
sufficient grounds of accusation ? Let me soon hear from 
you, that I may know you have received this, and that I may 
be assured that the letter neither is nor will be published. 



Dated at STIIASBUIIGH, Dec. 9, 1554. 

MUCH health. As the letters of the absent are a kind of 
substitute for personal intercourse, I therefore write to you, 
most honoured and kind sir, with much pleasure; and the 
rather, because I not only perceive your kindness towards 
me in your letter to me, but am also informed of your regard 
for me from the report of others ; and not that merely, 
which you entertain towards all the members of Christ our 
Saviour, but an especial regard arising from the leaning of 
your mind towards me, and which, I am told, you manifest 


by your frequent inquiries about me. God be thanked, who 
has implanted in you this kind feeling ! I would give you 
news from England, if any good tidings were to arrive. 
As to bad, there is nothing certainly known at present, 
and the bearer of this can inform you of what is reported 
better than I can. In short, every thing seems to be de- 
clining, and getting worse and worse. I could tell you a 
great deal about myself and my present condition, but I am 
unwilling to trouble your kindness with unnecessary details. 
As to that Banks, however, about whom I wrote to you 
before, I have an earnest request to make of you on his 
behalf. I have hitherto relieved his necessities out of my 
own slender means. But now, owing to the calamities of the 
times and the fury of my enemies, I am stripped of almost 
all my property. And they are so violent against me and 
those like me, that God only knows what else will follow. 
To his will and providence I resign myself, as to that of a 
most kind and merciful Father ; and I earnestly implore you 
to entreat the same with me and for me, that I may continue 
to do so even unto the end. The reason of this rage of my 
adversaries is, I hear, the testimony openly given by me to 
the truth in that convocation held at London 1 last year. 
But in the mean time they have been seeking with the 
greatest possible diligence some other plausible pretext; and 
not being able to find one, they at length denounce me as 
a heretic on account of my freely declared opinion 2 against 
their abominable doctrine of transubstantiation, &c. I call it 
a freely declared opinion, not only because it was freely set 
forth by me, but also because that assembly ought to have 
been most free, as likewise the opinions which were therein 

[i This convocation was opened Oct. 16th, 1553, by a Latin sermon 
by Harpsftekl. For an account of the proceedings, written by Phil- 
pot, archdeacon of Winchester, and who bore a principal part therein, 
gee Foxe, Acts and Mon. vi. 395. Burnet, n. 407. Soames, iv. 103.] 

[2 Iladdon's argument is thus given in Foxe, vi. 405, and Phil- 
pot's writings, Parker Soc. Ed. p. 200. It was to prove the substance 
of bread and wine to remain after the consecration of the eucharist. 
The same thing, saith Theodoret, that the bread and wine were before 
they were symbols, the same they remain still in nature and substance, 
after they are symbols. But bread and wine they were before; 
therefore bread and wine they are after.] 


advanced. Concerning which the bearer of this, Chambers 1 , 
iny very dear brother in the Lord, can give you fuller infor- 
mation, as well as in what manner our adversaries, filled 
with the greatest hatred against the truth, acted in entire 
opposition to what is just and good, and against all laws, 
human and divine. 

But to return to Banks, he will think himself very well 
dealt with, if he can obtain a situation with some respectable 
and pious printer, as a reviser or corrector of the press. And 
he hopes that this may' be accomplished by your recommen- 
dation. There is no need of commending him to your kindness 
with many eulogies, or of enlarging upon the ability which 
he possesses for such an employment. He is well acquainted 
with Latin, as you can judge for yourself, and not un- 
skilled in Greek ; of peaceable disposition, glowing with true 
religion, and exceedingly devoted to literary pursuits. In my 
opinion you will confer a benefit upon any one with whom 
you may be able to place him. And yet, for Banks's sake, I 
shall consider the favour in some measure conferred upon 
myself, because, as it appears, I can no longer support him at 
my expense, as I should wish, unless things turn out other- 
wise than they seem to be, and really are, at present. I 
might have written these matters with less plainness, but I 
did not think it right to do so, but rather to explain nakedly 
and clearly to your kindness the whole state of the case. 
May God every way be with you, and preserve you to the 
glorifying of his name, and the benefit of his church ! Stras- 
burgh, Dec. 9, 1554. 

Your most attached, 


P.S. I have the greatest regard for that most excellent 
man, master Bibliander, and for the most honoured father, 
master Pellican. I request your kindness to salute them both 
from me. 

[ l Chambers and Grindal were sent with a letter from the congre- 
gation of Frankfort to that of Strasburgh, Dec. 3.] 




Dated at STRASBURGH, Jan. 8, 1555. 

GREETING. Your letter, most honoured sir, was most 
gratifying to me, both on account of the sympathy which you 
manifest in my misfortunes, and of the regard and truly 
paternal affection towards me which I now perceive you to 
entertain. A fortnight after I had written my last letter to 
you, one was delivered to me from England, informing me that 
I have been entirely stripped of all my property, as I before 
explained to you, but that there was now some hope from 
other quarters. I thought it my duty therefore to inform 
you of this by the very first opportunity, that as you were 
heretofore distressed on my account, so you may now with 
me return thanks to God our Father, to whom I doubt not 
but that you have prayed together with me, and commended 
me and my cause to him. 

I have also to thank you very much on behalf of Banks. 
For my very dear brother Lever has informed me, that 
master Sultzer 2 has arranged for me to send Banks to Basle 
at the Frankfort fair ; for he has met with one Parkes, 
a printer, I believe, with whom he will place Banks. I 
would say more, but am suddenly interrupted by the bearer, 
who will convey this letter early to-morrow morning. I 
pray you therefore to take this, as you do every thing of 
mine, in good part. For I thought it my duty to send you 
this by the present opportunity, rather than nothing at all, 
lest I should occasion you greater concern and anxiety than 
would become me ; because I have not only perceived from 
your letter, but have gathered from others, the anxious 
inquiries you had determined to make on behalf of Banks, if 
this had not succeeded. May God long preserve you for the 
benefit of his church and the comfort of many ! Strasburgh, 
Jan. 8, 1555. 

Your most attached, 


[2 Simon Sultzer was a divine at Basle.] 




Dated at STRASBURGH, Jan. 15, 1555. 

GREETING. Most honourable and my very good friend, 
I send you herewith certain heads of a discourse held by 
him 1 whom the inscription points out. It is possible that he 
embraced many more topics at that time, but most likely 
they were all to the same effect. I have translated them 
from the English, just as they were brought here, word for 
word as nearly as I could. Shall we wonder at the unheard 
of boldness of the man in inventing, or his singular shame- 
lessness in lying, or his subtle and versatile talent, and (so to 
speak) most godless mind, for that, having so long stored up 
in his remembrance so many slaughters and such heavy 
charges of treason, he could cherish and foster them with 
such hypocrisy and dissimulation ? I think there was never 
heard tell of such a turncoat and monster of a man, and pest 
of the state, if the book 2 he published many years since in a 
quite contrary sense, and written too with such emphasis and 
asseveration as that nothing apparently can exceed it, be 
compared with his present assertions. But we have justly 
deserved portents of this kind, for having almost despised the 
godly and those who told us the truth. May God now take 
compassion on us, and hear the prayers of his own people, as 
in his mercy he is wont to do ; and may he succour our not 
only distressed but deplorable, and, as far as human aid is 
concerned, desperate condition ! Many signal examples shew 
that he has done so ; nor do I doubt but that he will again do 

f 1 On Sunday, Dec. 2, 1554, Gardiner, bishop of Winchester, 
preached at Paul's Cross before king Philip and cardinal Pole, upon 
Bom. xiii. 11. An account of his sermon is given in Strype, Mem. in. 
i. 259, and more fully by Foxe, Acts and Mon. vi. 577, whose statement 
is so nearly identical with the Latin heads here referred to, as to 
render it unnecessary to retranslate them.] 

[ 2 Haddon refers to Gardiner's book De vera Obedientia, published 
in 1534, to justify the parliament in giving the king the title of 
supreme head of the church. An account of this book is given in 
Strype, Mem. i. i. 264. See also Foxe, vn. 594.] 


it in his own time. In the mean time, all things are working; 
together for good to his people. He who keepeth Israel will 
neither slumber nor sleep. And that noble act related by 
Moses in Exodus, and mentioned by you, and so often re- 
corded in the Judges and Prophets, affords abundant con- 
solation. I will not at this time trespass any longer upon 
your kindness. I hope that my last letter has been delivered 
to you ere now, bearing testimony to the good result of your 
letter to master Sultzer on behalf of Banks, and for which I 
again thank you in his name. May God every way be with 
you! Strasburgh, Jan. 15, 1555. 

Your most attached, 


P. S. My countryman and friend, Abel the merchant, 
warmly salutes yon. He was with me at the beginning of 
the winter, and it is from him that I have the copy of the 
writing which I send you. 



Dated at, April 24, lf>;Vi. 

GREETING. Your letter, most honoured sir, testifying 

v O 

your affection and exceeding love towards me, was delivered 
to me on my return from Frankfort. You tell me that you 
write to me in all the hurry of business, whereat I partly 
rejoice, and am partly sorry : for your letter, short as it is, 
contains singular consolation drawn from the examples of 
Joshua and Jehoiada ; but I am sorry that I was an hinder- 
ance to you when so well and so actively employed. For I 
am aware that the charge of many and most weighty concerns 
is laid upon you, and that you are almost continually distract- 
ed by matters of the greatest importance. I must therefore 
beg of you not to withdraw yourself in future, even a single 
moment, on my account from any business whatever, unless 


when a breathing-time and leisure shall be afforded you. For 
although, being not now engaged in any public labour or 
employment, I am able frequently to write to your reverence, 
the case is not the same with you. Wherefore, although I 
hear from you most gladly and with the greatest eagerness, 
yet I shall be content if you do not answer my letters, except 
at the times and on the terms above stated. On which subject 
the bearer also will communicate with you by message from 
me. I have learned also by the information of our friend 
Chambers the exertions made by your kindness in respect to 
Banks. He is not yet recovered, but is better. He will 
always acknowledge himself very greatly indebted to you, 
and I offer you my best thanks on his behalf. We commit 
the repayment of this favour to God, who alone can accom- 
plish it effectually, and whom I pray to preserve and direct 
you for the advantage and benefit of his church. In whom 
farewell. Strasburgh, April 24, 1555. 

Your reverence's most devoted, 


P.S. I have saluted our friend Sampson and the others 
in your name. 



Dated at STJIASBURGII, Dec. 7, 1555. 

MUCH health. My very dear friend in Christ, I have 
been often thinking of writing to you for some months past; 
but nothing has occurred which seemed worthy of being com- 
mitted to paper, especially as reports were spread abroad with 
various degrees of uncertainty. But it is now certain that 
that bitter scourge 1 of divine justice, the most cruel of all men 

[! Stephen Gardiner, bishop of Winchester. See Foxe, vn. 585. 
Sti-ype, Mem. in. i. 465, and Philpot's writings, Parker Society's 
edition, p. 269.] 


within our memory, and who most eagerly thirsted for the 
blood of the saints, has been removed from this life. But 
though our sins had richly deserved so great an evil, and 
even a punishment yet more severe, on account of the listless- 
ness and ingratitude which for the most part pervaded our 
country when the free course of the gospel was allowed us, 
yet our heavenly Father and Almighty God has manifested 
his usual kindness and power. That illustrious pair, masters 
Ridley and Latimer, offered themselves to God a short time 
before 2 , an admirable and noble sacrifice ; and their ashes 
(together with those of others who had gone before them, 
and who now live in the presence of our Lord and Saviour) 
have, methinks, called down the judgment of God upon the 
above-mentioned scourge of heaven. We have no other certain 
or confirmed intelligence, as far as I am at present aware, 
worthy of being communicated to you. Besides, I think that 
you have been made acquainted cither previously or more 
fully from others with the facts I have above stated, though 
I considered it also ^my duty to write to you to the same 
effect ; for it seems very long since I had any intercourse 
with you. Salute for me, I pray you, master Gesner. Please 
to remember me, and the condition of our country, in your 
prayers, as I doubt not but you will. May God be with you 
and your ministry, and preserve you for the benefit of his 
church! Strasburgh, Dec. 7, 1555. 





Dated at STRASBURGH, March 12, 1556. 

HEALTH in the Lord. I have written to you before, but 
I now doubt whether my letter was delivered to you; not 

[2 Gardiner died in the next month after the burning of Ridley 
and Latimer, which took place, Oct. 16, 1555.] 


that I wish to interrupt you, occupied as you are in most 
weighty affairs, much less to draw you away from them for a 
moment by replying to my letter; nor indeed were the matters 
upon which I wrote to you of such consequence as to require 
an answer. They informed you of the tidings which we 
had then received from England. What I have now to 
write is much less worth your notice; but I nevertheless send 
you this letter, because it seems to me a long time since I 
have corresponded with your reverence, or have heard from 
yourself. Our friend Burcher, when on his return from you, 
replied to my inquiries concerning you, that you were not in 
good health. But as I have not yet received any further 
account, I very much desire to hear from yourself, how you 
do. I ask nothing more, and not even this, except at your 
leisure. There are many reasons why I am anxious to hear 
of your health. Nor is it to be wondered at that I am ex- 
ceedingly anxious about you as an individual, since I have 
discovered your regard for me to be such as it has been 
declared to be by the report of some of our friends. I doubt 
not but that these times occasion much grief to yourself, as 
to all godly persons, and cause many and deep sighs to be 
breathed forth. But what can you do? He who sitteth 
in the highest heavens looks down upon lowly things in 
heaven and earth. He wills his people to be tried, but will 
not suffer his church to be left altogether destitute; but as 
that man of sin has already been partly detected by yourself 
and those like you, so he will at last be destroyed by the 
breath of the mouth of the Lord. Amen, amen ! May the 
Lord be with you by his Spirit, and preserve you for the good 
of his church ! Strasburgh, March 15, 1556. 

Your most devoted, 


P.S. I wish every happiness, according to the will of 
God, to masters Bibliander, Pellican, and Gesner. 




Dated at LONDON, March 15, 1554. 

You will probably be surprised, most excellent sir, at my 
writing to you in these turbulent times, which I have never 
done before ; and the rather, because I had no personal 
acquaintance with her 1 [of whom I write], and am about to 
address you upon those subjects which would occasion the 
greatest danger to myself, in case my letter should be inter- 
cepted before the bearer of it leaves England. But I have 
not thought this consideration of sufficient consequence to 
retard my purpose, since it was both godly in itself, and 
truly deserving of being known by every one, and especially 
by your reverence, by reason of that kindness and good- will 
which you entertain towards the very noble family of Grey in 
this country, and which you have not hesitated to illustrate 
by your own recorded testimony. But though this family is 
now overthrown and almost extinct, on account of their saving 
profession of our Saviour, and the cause of the gospel ; yet 
all godly and truly Christian persons have not so much reason 
to mourn over the ruin of a family so illustrious, as to rejoice 
that the latest action of her life was terminated in bearing 
testimony to the name of Jesus; and the rather, because 
those who rest with Christ the Lord in the kingdom of his 
Father, will not have to behold with their own eyes the 
wretched and lamentable overthrow of our nation. It is we, 
we who are wretched, who are not only hearing every day 
the name of the Saviour loaded with reproach, but witnessing 
the most horrible slaughter of those who have endeavoured to 
promote his glory, and extend his kingdom. 

But to return to the Greys, about whom I purposed to 
commune with you in this letter, both on account of your 
peculiar regard for them, as evinced by your godly writings ; 
and by reason of my own affection towards those now dead, 
to whom I diligently endeavoured, during their life-time, to 
prove my respect. 

Jane then, the daughter of the duke, was truly admirable, 
f 1 Namely, lady Jane Grey.] 


not so much by reason of her incredible attainments in litera- 
ture, by which in the seventeenth year of her age she excelled 
all other ladies, as by reason of the remarkable firmness with 
which, though a young girl, she surpassed men in maintaining 
the cause of Christ ; insomuch that she could neither be 
defeated by any contrivances which the papists imagined 
against her, nor be deceived by any of their artifices, as your 
reverence will understand from a discourse of hers which I 
now send you. 

This conference was held by her with master Feckenham ', 
a clever and crafty papist, upon some controverted points of 
our religion, upon which she explained her opinion with much 
learning and ingenuity. And that she persevered in this 
confession of faith even to the last, is sufficiently evident 
from the statement 2 she made a little before her execution. 
This I have thought fit to send together with the other, 
because they seemed to me worthy of being universally 
known. Moreover, it may be seen how her truly admirable 
mind was illuminated by the light of God's word, by two 
letters, one of which she herself wrote to the lady Catharine 3 , 
her sister, a most noble virgin, to inspire her with a love of 
the sacred writings, and the other to a certain apostate 4 , to 
bring him back to Christ the Lord. I have taken the pains 
to translate both of these letters from our vernacular 5 lan- 
guage into Latin, that your excellence may perceive that the 
pains which you have taken to enlighten that family and 

[ J See this discourse given in Foxe, vi. 415.] 

[ 2 See Foxe, vi. 424.] 

[ 3 This letter is also given in Foxe, vi. 422. The lady Catherine 
was afterwards married to Henry, son of William, earl of Pembroke, 
by whom she was divorced. She was committed to the Tower by 
queen Elizabeth in 1562, for her clandestine marriage with the earl of 
Hertford. See Zurich Letters, first series, p. 103, n. 7.] 

[ 4 This was Thomas Harding, afterwards known as the antagonist 
of bishop Jewel. Foxe, who gives the letter, in his first edition, 
refrains from naming him, " partly reverencing the worthy learning of 
the person, and partly, again, trusting and hoping again of some better 
towardness of the party hereafter." See Foxe, vi. 418.] 

[ 5 It is interesting to find that lady Jane Grey wrote to Harding 
in English, as some expressions in the Latin version, printed in her 
Remains, have given occasion for reflections, which, from this letter of 
Banks it appears, rather apply to him as the translator than to her as 
the writer.] 


incite them to the love of godliness have not been ill bestowed. 
For I can bear testimony, which, if not very abundant, is at 
least that of an eye-witness, that the whole family of the 
Greys, and Jane especially, derived incredible benefit from 
your writings. She indeed had not only diligently perused, 
but also committed to memory, almost all the heads of your 
sixth Decade. 

The duke also himself devoted as much time as he could 
steal from the affairs of the nation, in which he was engaged, 
to the reading of scripture, and especially to your writings, 
with the milky eloquence of which he used to say that he 
was wonderfully delighted. From the reading of which too 
he derived the greatest benefit, when certain wicked wretches 
endeavoured to draw him away, while in prison, from the 
faith and confession of the true Christ. But they were in 
no wise able to move him ; for he confessed the Lord Christ 
even to his latest breath 6 . And at the time he was led to 
execution, though the papists brought forward one of the 
council, a swine out of the herd, who defended the catholic 
church, the mass, the fathers, and customs established by 
length of time, yet he would not acknowledge any other 
atonement than that which was perfected by the death of 
Christ : by this faith he supported himself, and in this faith 
he at length ended his life. I would speak of the entire 
overthrow of religion in England, and the fury of antichrist, 
only that those who are continually coming over from 
England to Zurich, that most wealthy mart of all good learn- 
ing, will make you acquainted with it. It now remains for 
me earnestly to entreat your reverence again and again to 
take this my service in good part, and to enrol me among 
the number of your friends ; and to beseech the Lord that 
our England may at length be delivered from that tyranny 
of the papists by which she is now oppressed. Farewell, 
most excellent Bullinger, and continue, as you do, to set 
forth the kingdom of Christ in your writings! London, 
March 15, 1554. 

[ c This statement is confirmed by the account given in Foxe, Acts 
and Mon. vi. 545, where Dr Hugh Weston is stated to have attended 
the duke of Suffolk at his execution.] 





Dated at STRASBURGH, Dec. 9, 1554. 

No circumstance has ever afforded me greater pleasure 
than the condescension of your reverence in not only admit- 
ting me among the number of your friends, but in so courte- 
ously declaring this by your written letter ; in which, when- 
ever I peruse it, as I do very frequently, I seem to observe 
two things especially worthy of commendation. In the first 
place your singular kindness appears from this circumstance, 
that a person like yourself, so justly admired by every one, 
should condescend, in the midst of so many and important 
engagements, to write to an obscure individual like myself. 
Your rare judgment in the next place is shewn by your dis- 
approving of the publication 1 of what possibly may be inju- 
rious to many individuals ; a circumstance which I had not 
before considered. I now, however, perceive that our adver- 
saries in England are most mightily disturbed by certain 
pamphlets, and that they are endeavouring to exclude us 
from the liberality of those from whom we were expecting 
the necessary means of subsistence. Nothing indeed now 
seems to be left for us, but either that we English, who are in 
exile from our country for the sake of God's word, must 
support ourselves by the labour of our hands, or else implore 
the assistance of godly individuals to enable us to continue 
our studies ; whereby, should it please God to restore us to 
our country, we may be able to refute the doctrines of the 
papists, and to explain to our people and nation the artifices 
by which they have been circumvented and deceived by 
them. The godly men, by whom we have hitherto been 
aided and supported, are either all of them cast into prison 

I 1 See above, Letter CXXXIV. p. 293. It seems that together 
with the preceding letter, Banks had sent to Bullinger the conference 
of lady Jane Grey with Feckenham, her letters to Harding and to her 
sister, with a view to their being published, but to which Bullinger 
made some objections from a fear of injuring the cause of the reform- 
ation in England.] 


on our account, or, if any are still at liberty, they arc so 
carefully watched by the papists, that they can afford us no 
assistance without the greatest danger. Whence it is, that 
we are at this time placed in great difficulty; and it is come 
to this, that each individual must look out how he can best 
provide for himself. For my own part, I have no hope of 
being able to continue in the course of studies I had deter- 
mined to pursue; for he who has maintained 2 me hitherto, is 
now reduced to the like straits as the rest of the English, 
being spoiled of all his property, and (such is the malice of 
his enemies) without any hope. I speak of master James 
Haddon, a man who deserved to be rich for his liberality to 
the poor. Since, therefore, my condition is such, that I am 
unable, through want of means, to pursue the course of study 
I had proposed, I would willingly follow that which seems 
desirable in the next place, and engage in that kind of life 
which is most nearly allied to literary pursuits ; in which 
object, as I understand your excellence has it in your power 
greatly to benefit me by your recommendation, relying upon 
that kindness which you have so manifestly expressed in your 
letter, I make bold to implore your aid and co-operation. 
There is a printer in your town, of the name of Froschover, 
of whose integrity and diligence in his art the bearer of this 
letter speaks most highly, and has advised me to use my 
endeavours to induce him by any means to employ me as a 
corrector and reviser of such books as are printed at his 
press. Your recommendation, I believe, will go far to effect 
this object. Wherefore, should your excellence grant me 
this favour, I shall consider myself to have received an 
especial benefit, and will use my best endeavours that you 
may not seem to have recommended an unworthy person. 
Farewell, most excellent sir, and most esteemed by me in the 
Lord. Strasburgh, Dec. 9, 1554. 

Your piety's most devoted, 

JOHN BANKS, Anglus. 
[2 See Letter CXXXV. p. 295.] 





Dated at [STRASHURGH], Jan. 9, [1555]. 

I HAVE perceived by the letter of your reverence, not 
indeed written to me, but to my singular good patron and 
much esteemed master in Christ, master Haddon 1 , about me, 
that you have no less exerted yourself on my behalf, than if 
I had been your own son, and not a stranger, and only known 
to you by letter. I cannot therefore express the thanks due 
to your reverence for the pains you have taken on my behalf. 
But when I reflect that you were born for this very purpose, 
to succour the brethren, and to shew yourself a true Christian, 
namely, one who devotes his talents to the good of all, not 
only the men of this present age, but of posterity also ; I 
consider you in no respect inferior to the greatest characters, 
and that in your brotherly affection and incredible diligence 
you easily excel them all. There are indeed some very 
learned and truly pious persons, but who will not readily 
allow themselves to be withdrawn from their studies, even 
though from such interruption great advantage might arise 
to their brethren. But you on the contrary, seem to regard 
nothing as of more importance, than in the midst of your 
ministerial labours to allow of an interruption in those studies 
so necessary and beneficial to the church of Christ, and this 
too for no small interval, for the sake of affording aid to 
a poor wretch like myself, when placed in circumstances of 
some difficulty. Most gladly therefore would I express by 
some grateful attestation, how much I value your good will 
towards me; but this your more than paternal kindness 
towards me exceeds all power of expression or even of 
thought. I will diligently endeavour therefore, and it is all 
I can do, that you may not seem to have recommended an 
unworthy person. But as to your excusing yourself to me, who 
indeed am I, that one like yourself, so justly and universally 
respected, should think it necessary to excuse yourself in the 

[i See above, Letter CXXXVI. p. 297.] 


midst of your important engagements, for not replying to 
such an insignificant individual as I am, and who is moreover 
so greatly indebted to your kindness, and had rather undergo 
any thing than be in any way a hinderance to your studies ? 
Wherefore I return my best possible thanks to your piety, 
and since I can do nothing else, I will always bear your 
goodness in mind in my prayers ; and I pray our great and 
good God, through Christ our Saviour, very long to preserve 
you to his church. January 9, [1555]. 

Your piety's most devoted, 




Dated at NEW COLLEGE, OXFORD, Oct. 19, 1551. 

IF, as it has been observed of 3 old, friendships have often 
been dissolved by neglected intercourse, what is there, most 
learned Bullinger, to preclude the hope that the friendship of 
good men may be obtained and cemented by their being 
addressed with courtesy and respect? and especially when 
this is done upon just grounds, and without any suspicion of 
flattery or self-interest. 

For my own part, a regard to my duty, as well as the 
very reasonable request of these young men to be introduced 
to your notice, has afforded me a sufficient occasion of writing 
to you. For who can be so insensible to every courteous 
feeling, as not to be compelled to write and return you thanks 

[ 2 Thomas Harding was elected fellow of New college in 1536, and 
afterwards appointed Hebrew professor by Henry VIII. He became 
a papist in the reign of queen Mary, by whom he was preferred to a 
prebend of Winchester, and the treasurership of Sarum. He is best 
known by his controversy with bishop Jewel ; for an account of which, 
see the Zurich Letters, first series, Letter LXVII.] 

[3 IloXXaj 8f] (f)i\ias anpoarjyopla 8u\v<TfV. Arist. Ethic. VIII. 5.] 


for those kind offices you did me when I was with you about 
the first of May three years since, on my way into Italy, 
whither I was then proceeding for the purpose of study? Nor 
can I ever forget with what kindness you received me, and 
with what liberality you entertained me ; not to mention in 
the mean time, with what learned and grave discourse you 
detained me, who was exceedingly desirous of an interview 
with you, for some hours in your house ; and, to speak plainly, 
satisfied my mind, when, inquiring and hesitating about some 
matters, as they appeared to me, of no small importance, you 
relieved me entirely from all doubt and perplexity. To this 
I must add that other token of no common regard and esteem, 
(for such I ought to consider it,) in that you then inquired my 
name, just as if I were a person of consequence, and inscribed 
it among your papers. 

As often indeed as these acts of kindness recur to my 
mind, as they do very frequently, I think of what Timotheus l 
said respecting a supper of Plato, to which he was invited by 
him, when he met him the next day, namely, that the suppers 
of Plato were not only agreeable for the present moment, but 
for the day following. The same thing may be affirmed in a 
larger sense respecting your kindness, that it was not only gra- 
tifying for the moment, but has now been so for many months, 
and will be, I hope, for many years. And indeed, had not 
my circumstances ordered it otherwise, and drawn me away at 
that time to other places, almost against my will, I should on 
no account have suffered myself to have been so soon separated 
and disunited from your most learned society, of which I had 
then first begun to taste the enjoyment. But as the state of 
my affairs has, contrary to my inclination, continually precluded 
me from this happiness, it only remained for me to propose 
to myself the occasional enjoyment of your society and in- 
tercourse by epistolary correspondence. And just as I had 
returned to England, and was seeking how to carry this into 
effect, and was purposing to write to you, John ab Ulmis, 
who was (as he says) formerly your pupil, paid me a most 
opportune visit. He prays me to commend these young men 
to you by a written letter ; which indeed I have promised very 
readily, both for his own sake, with whom I have had some 

[! See Cic. Tusc. Disp. v. 35. Athenreus, x. p. 419. Ed. Lugd. 
and ^Elian, V. H. n. 18.] 


acquaintance, and also for their sakes, as perceiving them to 
be such, as for their peculiar modesty, probity, and erudition, 
are most entirely deserving of the warmest commendation. 
You will not therefore, I entreat you, according to your most 
kind disposition, think lightly of this my commendation, but 
will receive into your kindness and good-will these youths, 
Andrew Croariensis and Stumphius, on their return to you. 
I dare assure you in the mean time from their very honour- 
able and gentlemanly conduct, that however great may be 
the advantage that may accrue to you from the regard of the 
most worthy characters, no less will accrue to you from the 
attachment of the persons in question ; and that you will 
acknowledge them to be young men of tried probity, courtesy, 
and honourable feeling, as well as of unvaried good temper. 
You will certainly confer upon me the greatest obligation, if 
you will so conduct yourself towards them, as to make them 
know that this my recommendation has had some weight with 
you. Farewell. Oxford, New College, Oct. 19, 1551. 

Salute very affectionately from me our friend Butler 2 . 



Dated at CHRIST CHURCH, OXFORD, Oct. 4, [1552]. 

MUCH health. Last year, most honoured sir, I received 
a letter from your excellence in favour of this youth ab Ulmis, 
which was on many accounts very gratifying to me, but, if 
I must speak the truth, altogether superfluous. For his piety, 
integrity, and zeal for learning had already so interested me 

[ 2 John Butler, of a noble family, having travelled about Germany, 
and thence into France, and afterwards into Italy, seated himself at 
last in Zurich, where he became greatly acquainted with John Wol- 
phius, the learned printer, who dedicated to him, in the year 1552, the 
second edition of P. Martyr's tract of the sacrament. See Strype, 
Mem. I. i. 545.] 


in his favour, that I should consider myself to have received 
a benefit by having it in my power to confer one upon him. 
For any individual, in whom I discover such good qualities, 
cannot but be very dear to me, to whatever country he may 
belong ; for I heartily detest all respect of persons. In this 
large college my trifling exertions cannot have been of much 
advantage to him ; but my mind has at all times been well- 
disposed towards him, which I can promise will always be the 
case, provided only, which I hope will not take place, he shall 
not change his conduct. But since he has now gone back to 
you, and is, it seems, somewhat doubtful of returning to 
England, I do not see how I can be of any service to him in 
future, except perhaps by imploring your clemency to regard 
him with greater kindness and affection than hitherto, which 
I most ardently entreat your piety to do. For his conduct 
in this numerous society of learned men has always been so 
amiable and unpolluted, and so obedient to all our statutes 
and domestic regulations, that it has most justly earned for 
him the greatest commendation from all persons, and a more 
than paternal regard from myself. Moreover, his discretion 
has always been exceedingly approved by me, inasmuch as 
he has so accommodated himself to our habits, that he never 
could justly be reproached by any one as a foreigner, but 
has deserved universal commendation as one conversant with 
our laws and country. I have thought it my duty to acquaint 
your excellence in good faith with these matters, lest any 
suspicion should arise on your part that he has conducted 
himself otherwise in this place than would become a youth of 
the most excellent character. I should have written to you at 
this time concerning our university of Oxford, and the resto- 
ration of religion, and the number of the godly among us, 
only that this youth will be able to relate all these things to 
you better at your leisure. Your piety may know this for 
an undoubted truth, that many among us are exceedingly 
united to you in spirit, although personally separated by sea 
and land ; among whom I wish to be counted the chief. For 
although I am far inferior in many other respects, in this 
I will yield to no one. Farewell in the Lord. Oxford, 
Christ Church, Oct. 4, [1552]. 




Dated at OXFORD, Jan 5, [1550]. 

HEALTH and peace in the Lord. John ab Ulmis has 
frequently requested me long since, most excellent Bullinger, 
to send you a letter ; but latterly he has left no stone un- 
turned to extort from me these few lines, and I must candidly 
confess that he has not without difficulty induced me to write 
now. Not that I entertained any doubt of your kindness, or 
that the ingenuousness of your disposition has not been well 
known long since both by your own writings and the report 
of others ; but partly from my having forgotten how to write 
Latin by reason of long disuse, and partly because I am too 
modest to presume to trouble, with my unpolished letter, you 
who are occupied in so many and important affairs of the 
church. I readily admit, most learned sir, that I owe you 
this duty; and I acknowledge also, that I owe you many and 
great thanks for the honourable mention which you made of 
me in your letter to my patron, the marquis of Dorset. 
I have certainly long regarded you with the greatest love 
arid veneration, for the sake of the true religion, and con- 
sidered myself much indebted to you in the name of all 
Christian people. But latterly, my Bullinger, you have so 
bound me to you for my own sake and that of my country, 
that you cannot in future attach me more. For you seem to 
be affected with as it were a father's feeling, and no. ordinary 
regard towards our England. You have every where pub- 
licly eulogised that country in many ways by your excellent 
lucubrations and most learned writings. And on this account 
you have obtained true and just praise with all good and 
learned men, of whom, thank God, a great number is at this 
time found among us. And you may learn from this, that 
you have not laboured among us in the Lord's vineyard to 
no purpose ; and how much honour arid gratitude is owing to 
our excellent king, and how much we owe to our rulers, who 
not only are favourers of the truth themselves, but are also 
good and firm patrons of all who embrace it. And you have 


certainly bestowed upon them in these your writings no un- 
deserved or unworthy commendation. For they justly deserve 
it, and are to be praised on every account ; and we very 
properly rejoice, whenever it has happened that you have 
dedicated your lucubrations to men of this character. For an 
useful stimulus is hence afforded to them in their progress, 
and encouragement given, that they may not be weary of 
completing in the best way what they have well begun. And 
this I hope will very soon be the case. For they have lately 
assembled a convocation, and appointed certain persons to 
purify our church from the filth of antichrist, and to abolish 
those impious laws of the Roman pontiff, by which the spouse 
of Christ has for so long a time been wretchedly and 
shamefully defiled ; and to substitute new ones, better and 
more holy, in their place. It will be our duty meanwhile, 
diligently to implore God our Father and the Lord Jesus 
Christ, that true, pure, and undefiled religion may at length 
begin to flourish, not here only, but throughout the whole 
earth. I have written, excellent Bullinger, at greater length 
than I at first intended, and yet there remain many things, with 
which I could wish you to be acquainted, did time suffice for 
that purpose. But I will defer them for the present. I shall 
in my next letter possibly impart all my grievances. Mean- 
while, excellent sir, farewell, and I pray God that he may 
long preserve you to us for the manifestation of his glory! 
Oxford, Jan. 5. 

Yours heartily, 




Dated at OXFORD, May 12, 1552. 

HEALTH in Christ. I came over to Oxford on the llth 
of May, which as soon as John ab Ulmis knew, he has never 
ceased asking me, most excellent sir, to send you a letter. I 


could not therefore refuse him, as he requested what is proper, 
and rightly reminded me of my duty. I wrote you a letter 
soon after Christmas, but know not whether it ever reached 
you. I will therefore only at present briefly touch upon 
the heads of what I then wrote. First of all, I return ever- 
lasting thanks for the kindness by which you were induced 
to make such affectionate mention of me in your dedicatory 
preface to our prince. I have ever admired your universally 
acknowledged learning and erudition ; but I now embrace 
again and again, and most readily recognise, your exceeding- 
kindness and incredible regard to myself. The prince cer- 
tainly received that little present of yours with a most grate- 
ful and well-disposed mind ; and you must know that you 
have not acted more honourably, than usefully and piously ; 
for, as Socrates says, the exhortations of great men are as a 
whip and spur to happy perseverance in a praiseworthy course 
of life. Every night, when we were employed on the Scottish 
borders, after the book had been received there from John 
ab Ulmis, with great difficulty on his part, his highness was 
not satisfied with having a large portion of your book merely 
read to him, but would have it diligently examined; by which 
I perceived him, endued as he was with a most excellent 
disposition, greatly to improve; and indeed ho very often 
expressed himself greatly obliged to you for it. 

You will truly learn the state of my affairs from the bearer 
of this letter. I had intended at first to have written more, but 
business and my journey itself necessarily call me elsewhere. 
I will however add a few things to which you will exceedingly 
oblige me by sending a reply. First then, I ask, whether 
that be a legitimate and true marriage which is contracted 
without the knowledge or consent of parents; and whether 
those persons can be said to live piously and lawfully in holy 
matrimony, who being so married, continue in the same ; or 
whether they may be allowed to separate themselves again at 
the desire of their parents. I ask, secondly, whether a 
woman leaving her own husband, and attaching herself to 
another during his life-time, may be allowed to marry him 
after the death of her own husband, to whom during that 
husband's life-time she had attached herself. I inquire, 
thirdly, whether those are to be considered as living piously 
in holy wedlock, who through fear of death in time of perse? 


cution have mutually betrothed themselves without witnesses, 
but have nevertheless declared before many persons that 
they were married, and have lived together for the space of 
twenty years. I entreat you again and again briefly to 
explain your sentiments upon these points. I have written 
hastily and in confusion : take it in good part, as I doubt not 
but that you will do. Farewell, most excellent and very 
dear master Bullinger, and always commend my ministry in 
your prayers. Oxford, May 12, 1552. 

Your honour's most devoted, 




Dated at LONDON, Feb. 20, [1540J. 

I SHOULD indeed be uncourteous, most learned Bullinger, 
not to address you by letter, who, when I was among you 1 , 
treated me with so much kindness. You can however guess 
the reason of my not having written last fair. And though 
the same reason may possibly still exist, I have thought it 
right to break my silence, lest my delay should seem not so 
much to arise from the state of the time, as from forgetfulness 
and neglect. But this, believe me, is not at all agreeable to 
my disposition. For my mind is by no means insensible 
to mutual friendship, and I am of all persons least unmindful 
of any kindness that has been shewn me. I have nothing 
to relate at present, except that all the monks in this country 
have lost the appellation, that some of the principal monas- 
teries are turned into schools of studious men, and that three 

f 1 Bartholomew Traheron was a favourer of the reformation, and 
had been much persecuted when at Oxford by Dr Loudon, warden of 
New college, in 1527, or 1528. Strype, Mem. i. i. 581.] 


of the most wealthy abbots 2 were led to execution a little 
before Christmas, for having joined in a conspiracy to restore 
the pope. I must not omit to tell you that the bishop of Win- 
chester preached a very popish sermon, to the great discon- 
tent of the people, on the first Sunday in Lent, and that he 
was ably answered by Dr Barnes on the following Lord's 
day with the most gratifying, and all but universal, applause. 
The points which the bishop principally handled I have 
related to John Butler, from whom you may learn them. 
You will hear other news from other correspondents. The 
Lord Audley 3 , an excellent man, and in the king's service, 
has conceived a great regard for you from my commendation, 
and has bidden me not only to salute you respectfully in his 
name, but to tell you, that if you send over your son to this 
country, he will treat him Avith the attention due to the 
offspring of a very dear and honoured man. I salute much 
your mother, wife, brothers, children, and the whole family. 
Salute likewise in my name those worthy and excellent men 
masters Pellican, [Leo] Judas, Rhelican 4 , and Megander. 
Farewell. London, Feb. 20. 




[Before Feb. 18, 1540.] 

HEALTH in the Lord. I wrote to you many weeks 
since, and gave the letter to our most loving friend, master 

[ 2 These were Richard Whiting of Glastonbury, Hugh Faringdon 
of Reading, and John Beach of Colchester. The abbots of Glaston- 
bury and Reading had been found to have aided the northern in- 
surgents by large supplies of money and plate. See Soames, n. 278, 
and Burnet, I. 384.] 

[3 Thomas Audley, lord chancellor, was created baron Audley of 
Walden, in 1538. He died in 1544, when the barony became extinct.] 

[ 4 This is probably an error, but it is so in the copy.] 


Calvin, who was going to Berne, that it might be forwarded 
to you from thence. But as far as I can judge by the letter 
which you sent by master Butler's messenger, mine has not 
yet reached you; and as I make no doubt but that you 
would have made some mention of it, this circumstance annoys 
and vexes me not a little. For as the rest of my country- 
men have written to you, and as I myself too have addressed 
others in your city by letter, you might well charge me with 
ingratitude for having neglected you, to whom I owe so 
much. Had I really done so, I doubt not but that some time 
or other I should have suffered the just vengeance of Jupiter 
the protector of strangers. But believe me, I thought of 
nothing less, and therefore sent off my letter to you before 
my singular good friend and very dear brother, master Butler, 
had procured this messenger. But, as I perceive, the matter 
turned out unfortunately. It has indeed vexed me most 
exceedingly, not that there was any thing in the letter which 
I considered worth your reading, but from the fear that I may 
possibly be regarded by you as either undervaluing your friend- 
ship towards me, or being unmindful of your kindness. And 
I hardly know which of these two I should choose the least. 
It is a proof of your singular courtesy that you have joined me 
in your letter to master Butler. Whence also I have good 

"* O 

hope that you will not unwillingly accept this my vindication, 
although I call heaven to witness that I have not in any way 
offended against our friendship, unless perhaps this may be 
called an offence, that I did not write you another letter 
when a regular messenger was at hand; and in this I 
acknowledge myself to be somewhat to blame. But who 
would have thought that the letter would not reach you 
which I gave to master Calvin, and he again to master 
Megander? If I ever allow from henceforth any messenger 
to come over to you from us without a letter from me, you 
are at liberty to esteem me among the number of the ungrate- 
ful, or even of those who hate their friends; which however, of 
all deeds of wickedness, I would least wish to attach to myself. 
For I am, if any one is, so disposed to mutual affection, that 
sometimes I do every thing but doat even upon those who wish 
no good to myself. At all events, I have such an affection 
for all learned men who have deserved well of me, that 
nothing affords me more pleasure, or is more deeply rooted 


in my mind. How then can I forget you, whose erudi- 
tion has always been most delightful and profitable to me, and 
whose acts of kindness to me are so numerous ? There is no 
reason, therefore, why you should suppose that it arose from 
forgetfulness of you, that my letter has not yet reached you ; 
but there is a reason why you should make inquiry of master 
Megander, who has neglected to forward it. You perceive, I 
hope, that I am not at all to blame, excepting that I did not 
write to you twice. I heartily congratulate you on the acces- 
sion of a little son, and one too, who was christened on the 
day of his birth ; and I no less rejoice that the very ex- 
cellent lady, your wife, is delivered from this danger. We 
are very anxious to know what Luther and his party are 
doing about the eucharist. There is I know not what report 
here, that the minds of the Bernese are somewhat inclined to 
Bucer's opinions. Here, as far as we have been able to 
judge hitherto, all things are properly set forth. 

To yourself, all your children, your excellent wife, grand- 
mother, and Rodolph, I wish all happiness and prosperity, 
and true joy in Christ. Farewell, my very dear friend 
master Bullinger, with all belonging to you. 




Dated at LONDOX, Aug. I, [1548]. 

WHAT more delightful gratification could possibly be 
afforded me, than to receive a letter from so great a distance, 
from one who is on many accounts so dear to me, and whom, 
by reason of his singular piety and erudition, I can never 
sufficiently admire ? You have also, my excellent Bullinger, 
anticipated me in deserving the commendation of courtesy: 
but as there is perhaps no occasion for me to state the reason 


of my so long silence, nor indeed can I do so without much 
pain, I shall let it pass, and express my thanks to you for 
your most agreeable letter, which has indeed cheered me 
more than I am able to express. For I am thus led to con- 
sider that the pure form of religion is now set forth among 
you, and that your own exertions in this cause have been 
such as to render the remembrance of you at all times most 
delightful to me. 

As to our own affairs, and the extent to which we 
have made progress in matters of religion, I do not think 
you can be ignorant. You must know that all our country- 
men, who are sincerely favourable to the restoration of 
truth, entertain in all respects like opinions with you ; and 
not only such as are placed at the summit of honour, but 
those who are ranked in the number of men of learning. I 
except the archbishop of Canterbury and Latimer, and a very 
few learned men besides ; for from among the nobility I knoAv 
not one whose opinions are otherwise than what they ought 
to be. As to Canterbury, he conducts himself in such a way, 
I know not how, as that the people do not think much of 
him, and the nobility regard him as lukewarm. In other 
respects he is a kind and good-natured man. As to Latimer, 
though he does not clearly understand the true doctrine of 
the eucharist, he is nevertheless more favourable than either 
Luther or even Bucer. I am quite sure that he will never 
be a hinderance to this cause. For, being a man of admirable 
talent, he sees more clearly into the subject than the others, 
and is desirous to come into our sentiments, but is slow to 
decide, and cannot without much difficulty and even timidity 
renounce an opinion which he has once imbibed. But there 
is good hope that he will some time or other come over to 
our side altogether. For he is so far from avoiding any of 
our friends, that he rather seeks their company, and most 
anxiously listens to them while discoursing upon this subject, 
as one who is beyond measure desirous that the whole truth 
may be laid open to him, and even that he may be thoroughly 
convinced. But more upon this subject when I have more 
time. , 

Salute, I pray you in my name, those excellent and 
most learned men, masters Theodore Bibliander, the ornament 
not only of Switzerland, but of all Germany ; Gualter, and the 


rest, together with the most courteous mayor, my host, and 
your amiable wife. Farewell. London, Aug. 1. 



I have not yet been able to see the young man whom 
you commended to me, because I was absent from London 
when he arrived. If I can be of service to him in any way, 
I shall most readily exert myself for your sake. I hear that 
he is now at Oxford. Again farewell. 



Dated at LONDON, Sept.2Q, [1548]. 

How greatly am I indebted to you, most excellent 
Bullinger, who have thought proper not only to address me 
in a most courteous letter, but to present me also with your 
learned and pious lucubrations. I feel myself unable to ex- 
press by words the pleasure which this your regard to me 
has afforded. I should most gladly have addressed you by 
letter long since, but such painful events have occurred among 
us during this year, and altogether so unheard of, that I could 
not apply my mind to write ; indeed, I scarcely wished to 
live. I doubt not but that you will have heard the whole 
history. All things, through the wonderful goodness of God, 
seem now settled. The religion of Christ, which appeared to 
be giving way, stands firm; and this we attribute solely to 
the providence of God. We fear, however, lest Flanders 
should occasion some disturbance. We have a king who is 
firm, learned, and pious beyond his age. If there has ever 
existed a Josiah since the first of that name, this is certainly 
he. And do you also be pleased to implore our common 
Father in your public prayers to preserve him to us in safety. 
Believe me, my Bullinger, a more holy disposition has no 
where existed in our time. He alone seems to sustain the 
gospel by his incredible piety, most holy manners, prudence 
altogether that of an old man, with a firmness at this age 
altoo-ether unheard of. So great a work of God ought not to 




be unknown to the godly. But that you may add yet more 
to the praises of God, you must know that Latimer l has come 
over to our opinion respecting the true doctrine of the eucha- 
rist, together with the archbishop of Canterbury 2 and the 
other bishops, who heretofore seemed to be Lutherans. Let 
us implore God with our united prayers, to complete a work 
so favourably begun; and may he long preserve you and 
yours ! Salute very much my dear brethren masters Pellican, 
Bibliandcr, and Gualter. Farewell. London, Sept. 28. 




Dated at LONDON-, Dec 31, 1548. 

I CANNOT refrain, my excellent Bullinger, from acquaint- 
ing you with circumstances that have lately given us the 
greatest pleasure, that you and your fellow-ministers may 
participate in our enjoyment. On the 14th of December, if 
I mistake not, a disputation was held at London 3 concerning 

f 1 "It was but seven years before his burning that he relinquished 
that old error," namely, his opinion for a corporal presence, "that is, 
about the year 1547, as he confessed to Dr Western." Strype, Cranm. 

[ 2 See above, p. 13, n. 1. For a full account of Cranmcr's sur- 
render of the Lutheran tenets, sec Jenkyns, Pref. to Cramner, LXXVI. 

[ 3 This seems to be the disputation mentioned in K. Edward's 
journal, as given in Burnet, iv. 204. " A parliament was called, where 
an uniform order of prayer was institute, before made by a number of 
bishops and learned men gathered together in Windsor. There was 
granted a subsidy, and there was a notable disputation of the Sacrament 
in the parliament house." This parliament sat Nov. 24th March 15th. 
It appears from the journals of both houses, that K. Edward's First 
Liturgy was read the first time in the Commons on Wednesday, 
Dec. 19 (not 9, as Burnet says, u. 148), and in the Lords on the day 
following. This disputation therefore was probably held to give in- 
formation to parliament upon the subject to which it referred, and 
to teach them how to deal with the new Book of Common Prayer 
about to be placed before them by the committee of bishops.] 


the eucharist, in the presence of almost all the nobility of 
England. The argument was sharply contested by the bishops. 
The archbishop of Canterbury, contrary to general expectation, 
most openly, firmly, and learnedly maintained your opinion 
upon this subject. His arguments were as follows. The body 
of Christ was taken up from us into heaven. Christ has left 
the world. " Ye have the poor always with you, but me ye 
have not always," &c. Next followed the bishop of Rochester 4 , 
who handled the subject with so much eloquence, perspicuity, 
erudition, and power, as to stop the mouth of that most 
zealous papist, the bishop of Worcester 5 . The truth never 
obtained a more brilliant victory among us. I perceive that 
it is all over with Lutheranism, now that those who were 
considered its principal and almost only supporters, have alto- 
gether come over to our side. We are much indebted to the 
Lord who provides for us also in this particular. I was un- 
willing, my dear friend, to defraud you of so great a pleasure, 
and which I pray God you may long enjoy. Cordially salute 
master Bibliander and the other dear brethren. I heartily 
wish every blessing to your wife and children. Farewell. 
Dec. 31, 1548. 

[Postscript, added by John ab Ulmis.] 

Lo ! just as master Trahoron was about to send his letter, 
I happened to come into his room, and can do no otherwise 
than send you this brief salutation ; for, owing to the great 
impatience of the messenger, I am unable to write more. I 
will tell you every thing in a few days. In haste. London. 
The foolish bishops have made a marvellous recantation. 



Dated at OXFORD, June 12, 1550. 

How greatly am I indebted to you, most excellent Bui- 
linger, who not only condescend to greet me with a letter, 
couched in the most friendly terms, but also to instruct me 
by your very learned treatise ; while I, for my part, have 

[4 Bp. Ridley.] p Bp. Heath.] 



nothing wherewith to repay you, but a heart much attached 
to you, and which, believe me, I shall retain such as long as 
I live. And should any thing else at any time be in my 
power, I will not forget how much I owe you. Do you 
meanwhile continue to advance the Christian religion by your 
erudite writings ; you have all of us in this country favouring 
and applauding you. If you desire to know the state of 
our affairs, religion is indeed prospering, but the wickedness 
of those who profess the gospel is wonderfully on the in- 
crease. The people have made no disturbance this year, but 
there is reason to fear, lest roused partly by their own unquiet 
temper, and partly by the avarice of the higher orders, they 
should occasion some confusion, unless the Lord himself 
should think fit to avert it for the sake of our sovereign, 
who is making wonderful progress in learning, piety, and 
judgment. Be pleased to commend to God in your prayers 
this prince of the greatest hope, who is even now a de- 
fender of the Christian religion almost to a miracle. For 
unless God, offended by our sins, should take him away 
from us before he is grown up to manhood, Ave doubt not 
but that England will produce another Constantine, or a 
character yet more excellent. I entreat you therefore, for 
Christ's sake, that you supplicate for him every happiness. 
For, although you are so far distant, even you may hence 
derive some advantage. For he both loves you, and acknow- 
ledges the religion of Christ to be exceedingly well established 
among you, and would have it ever to remain sound and un- 
impaired. Farewell, my most honoured brother. Oxford, 
June 12, 1550. 





Dated at LONDON, Sept. 10, 1552. 

You have conferred a great obligation upon me, most 
learned Bullinger, who have both deigned to address me in 


your most delightful letter, and moreover to present me with 
one of your productions. For nothing can proceed from you 
but what is, and ever will be, most agreeable. It occasions 
me, meanwhile, no slight vexation that my circumstances 
have not hitherto permitted, and do not yet permit me, to 
declare how much I both love you, and acknowledge myself 
your debtor. But should my affairs ever take a better turn, 
I Avill certainly endeavour to make you understand, that I 
both regard your singular kindness as I ought to do, and that 
I bear in mind the especial courtesy which you shewed me 
at Zurich. But I am now compelled to ask of you a new 
favour, even while I can find nothing wherewith to oblige you 
in return. I am exceedingly desirous to know what you and 
the other very learned men, who live at Zurich, think respect- 
ing the predestination and providence of God. If you ask 
the reason, there are certain individuals here who lived 
among you some time, and who assert that you lean too 
much to Melancthon's views l . But the greater number 
among us, of whom I own myself to be one, embrace the 
opinion of John Calvin as being perspicuous, and most agree- 
able to holy scripture. And we truly thank God, that that 
excellent treatise of the very learned and excellent John 
Calvin" against Pighius and one Georgius Siculus should 
have come forth at the very time when the question began to 
be agitated among us. For we confess that he has thrown 
much light upon the subject, or rather so handled it, as 
that we have never before seen any thing more learned or 
more plain. We are anxious however, to know what are 
your opinions, to which we justly allow much weight. We 
certainly hope that you differ in no respect from his excellent 
and most learned opinion. At least you will please to point 
out what you approve in that treatise, or think defective, or 
reject altogether, if indeed you do reject any part of it, 

[' For a statement of Melancthon's early doctrine, and subsequent 
change of views on the subject of predestination, see Scott's Contin. 
of Milner, n. 191, 207, &c. See also two letters from Calvin to Me- 
lancthon, dated Nov. 28, 1552, and Aug. 27, 1554, in Calv. Ep. Ed. 
Gencv. 1575, pp. 107, 133.] 

[2 Calvin's Treatise, " De JEterna Dei Prsedestinatione," is here re- 
ferred to. It is printed in the eighth volume of his works, Amsterdam, 
1667, and in the dedication and commencement is express mention of 
its being an answer to Albert Pighius and George Siculus.] 


which we shall not easily believe. And now enough of this 
subject. That worthy young man, John ab Ulmis, who is 
recalled home by a letter from his family, will better inform 
you of the situation of our affairs. Religion remains pure. 
Our most excellent king is in the best health, and makes 
daily progress in learning and piety. But, as I said, John 
ab Ulmis will give you a far more full and able account 
of these things. Farewell, my very dear sir, and love 
me much. Respectfully salute in my name master mayor 
my host, together with the other worthy and most learned 
brethren. London, Sept. 10, 1552. 

Yours heartily, 



Dated at LOXDOX, June 3, [1553]. 

I ACKNOWLEDGE, my excellent Bullinger, your especial 
kindness, who for the sake of satisfying my earnest request 
have thought it no trouble to write to me so fully and accu- 
rately respecting the providence and predestination of God. 
But though I admire both your exceeding learning and mode- 
ration in this writing of yours, nevertheless, to say the truth, 
I cannot altogether think as you do. For you so state 
that God permits certain things, that you seem to take away 
from him the power of acting. We say that God permits 
many things, when he does not renew men by his Spirit, but 
gives them up to the dominion of their own lusts. And 
though God does not himself create in us evil desires, which 
are born with us; we maintain nevertheless, that he deter- 
mines the place, the time, and mode [of bringing them into 
action], so that nothing can happen otherwise than as he has 
before determined that it should happen. For, as Augustine 
has it, he ordains even darkness. To be brief, we ascribe all 
actions to God, but leave to men whatever sin there is in 
them ; which Augustine has, I think, stated in these words : 
" To sin is in the power of men, but to produce this or that 
effect by sinning belongs not to them, but to God, who ordains 


darkness 1 ." Again, "God fulfils liis own good purposes by the 
evil purposes of evil menV And to this belongs that saying, 
that in some wonderful and ineffable manner that does not take 
place without his will, which is done even against his will. 

But I am acting very indiscreetly in reminding you of 
these things, to whom all the writings of Augustine are so 
well known. You do not approve of Calvin, when he states 
that God not only foresaw the fall of the first man, and in him 
the ruin of his posterity, but that he also at his own pleasure 
arranged it 3 . And unless we allow this, we shall certainly take 
away both the providence and the wisdom of God altogether. 
I do not indeed perceive how this sentence of Solomon contains 
any thing less than this : " The Lord hath made all things 
for himself: yea, even the wicked for the day of evil." [Prov. 
xvi. 4.] And that of Paul : " Of him, and through him, and 
to him, are all things." [Row. xi. 36.] I pass over other 
expressions which the most learned Calvin employs, because 
they occur every where in the holy scriptures. But I cannot 
think it either foolish or dangerous to follow that mode of 
speaking which the Holy Ghost useth. And did it not seem 
superfluous, I would entreat you again and again, to beware 
lest any disagreement be occasioned between you by reason 
of these things. For it will retard the course of the gospel not 
a little ; and unless I am altogether mistaken, you will not 
be long able to support a cause that is tottering of itself. 

If you will send your children hither, they shall be re- 
garded by me as my beloved brothers. I have spoken with 
my dear friend master Cheke respecting Coalius Secundus, 

[! Est ergo in malorum potestate peccarc : ut autcm peccando hoc 
vel hoc ilia malitia faciant, non est in eorum potestate, sed Dei divi- 
dcntis tenebras et ordinantis eas. August. Op. Par. 1679-1700. De 
Prcedest. Sanct. cap. xvi. 33. Tom. X. cols. 811, 2.] 

[ 2 Nam Deus quasdam voluntates suas, utique bonas, implet per 
malorum hominum voluntates malas. Id. Enchir. do Fid. Spe et 
Carit. cap. ci. 2G. Tom. VI. col. 234.] 

[3 See Calvin. Instit, nr. xxiii. 7. In Bullinger's reply to the 
preceding letter, which is much too long for insertion, after quoting 
the above passage, he says : " Ego certe sic loqui non ausim, utpote qui 
existimem gratice sinceritatem defend! posse, utcunque non dicamus 
Deum homines creare in exitium, et in ilium finem ipsos deducere aut 
impellere indurando et excoecando." He adds, " Quis autem inficias 
ierit, Calvinum magnis a Deo ornatum esse muneribus ?"] 


who lias, I think, informed you by letter either what he has 
done or is about to do. Farewell, very dear Bullinger, and 
salute all the brethren in my name, especially my most 
worthy host the mayor, master Gualter, my countryman 
master Butler, &c. Once more farewell. London, June 3, 

Your most loving 




Without place or date. 

I AM now learning by experience, most accomplished 
Calvin, that whatever men may have proposed or determined, 
nevertheless every event is dependent upon the will of God ; 
and that it often happens, that what we have purposed to do 
immediately, is accomplished either not at all, or after a long 
interval. For whereas 1 had fully resolved in my mind soon 
to visit you, it has now so happened that I really cannot tell 
when I shall be able to do so. For I have received a letter 
from home of such a nature, that I must go to England forth- 
with, whether I like it or not. I know not whether any event 
more painful could have occurred to me, certainly none more 
disagreeable ; for I was desirous of passing at least a year 
with you, as with one whose society appeared to mo most 
delightful and profitable. But, as I perceive, I must follow 
where fortune leads me. I pray you therefore, that, though 
we are far separated in person, we may yet bo united in 
spirit. For you have deserved of me far otherwise than to 
make it possible for me ever to forget you ; and I can no 
otherwise repay your favours to me than by the faithful re- 
membrance of our friendship, which I shall most diligently 
and everlastingly retain. As to the rest, with respect to the 
ten crowns I placed in your hands, I would not ask for them, 
Avere I not afraid of wanting money for my journey. But 
take care that you do not put yourself to any inconvenience. 
Salute for me the worthy master Farell, with all our other 
friends by name. Farewell, my dear friend, long and happily ! 





Dated at LAMIIETH, March 24, 1519. 

THAT I have not yet written to you, my dear friend, 
vou must attribute to no other cause but that I considered 


the letter which I wrote to that illustrious man, master Bucer, 
as intended also for yourself. But now, since I am commis- 
sioned by the most reverend the archbishop to address you 
in his name, I cannot forbear sending you at least a short 
letter, to inform you of his exceeding good-will and most 
favourable inclination towards you and your affairs. That I 
may not, therefore, detain you by any longer preamble, you 
must learn in few words the friendly feeling of our most 
reverend [archbishop], and his singular anxiety for the ad- 
vancement of all the ministers of Christ. This excellent 
personage, who is the principal instrument in replacing the 
church of Christ in this kingdom, and restoring it to its 
purity, has been informed of your having been dismissed by 
the senate of your city 2 ; and as, from his great anxiety for 
all godly ministers of the churches, he has taken a very 
lively interest in you and your affairs, he said it would be a 
very grievous thing both to you and your family, to be so 
unexpectedly deprived of a regular means of subsistence. And 
since these churches of ours are in great want of learned 
men, and as he supposes that you will not any longer be 
able to obtain an honourable livelihood in your own country, 
he desires to see you in this kingdom as soon as possible, 
and has commissioned me to invite you by this my letter in 
his name. I pray you, therefore, to come as soon as you 
possibly can, and cheer the most reverend archbishop, your 
attached friend, by your very early arrival. There is no 
doubt, excellent sir, of your obtaining some honourable situa- 
tion in this country ; for I know for certain that you will 
be appointed to a most distinguished office in the university, 

[i Tho original of this letter is preserved in the archives of St 
Thomas at Strasburgh. The letter of Alexander to Bucer of the same 
date and to the same effect is printed in Buceri Scripta Anglicana.] 

[2 Both Fagius and Bucer were forced to leave Germany, upon the 
business of the Interim. Sec Burnet n. 1-10, Strype, Cranm. 281.] 


either at Oxford or Cambridge, where you will derive a 
greater salary from your lectures than you ever received in 
your own country from your most important duties as a 
preacher. Do not therefore, I pray you, any longer put off 
your journey, but come over to us immediately. We have 
here the most reverend the lord archbishop of Canterbury, 
the most faithful son of the church, together with the most 
illustrious prince the lord protector, who, like another Joseph, 
next in rank to the king, is able to accomplish whatever he 
will, if only for the sake of Christ and the advancement of 
his glory. And this he does most admirably, for he is in no 
wise wanting in his exertions and endeavours for the church 
of Christ and its faithful members in this kingdom ; as what- 
ever we see likely to turn out to the praise of God, and the 
advantage of the church, he endeavours with all the powers 
of his mind to effect as speedily as possible. There is, more- 
over, that aged bishop master Latimer 1 , who is most desirous 
of seeing you both, and who, since he has no little influence 
with the king, offers you his assistance in every possible way. 
Come over, therefore, sir, without delay 2 . Salute your wife 
in my name, together with your [daughter] Charity. Fare- 
well. Dated at Lambeth, March 24, 1549. 

Yours, and your host that is to be, 


[* Bishop Latimer was probably at this time nearly seventy years 
of age. He had for some time taken up his residence at Lambeth with 
his friend archbishop Cranmer, and refused to dispossess Heath, who 
had succeeded him in the see of Worcester, which he had resigned in 
consequence of the " six articles' act." See his sermons, Parker So- 
ciety's Edition, p. 127.] 

[ 2 Bucer and Fagius arrived safely in England in the end of April, 
and abode with the archbishop above a quarter of a year, until to- 
wards the end of the long vacation, the archbishop intending they 
should be at Cambridge, when the term should begin, Bucer being no- 
minated professor of divinity, and Fagius of Hebrew. Strype, Cranm. 
281. Soames, Hist. Ref. III. 499.] 




Dated at CALAIS, April 18, 1549. 

I GREET you much, my beloved son-in-law. Master 
Bucer and I quitted Strasburgh on the sixth of April, and 
having passed through Lorraine, Champagne, Picardy, Flan- 
ders and Artois, we arrived at Calais, the frontier city of 
England, without any difficulty whatever, on the eighteenth of 
the same month. We were no where better accommodated 
than in the dominions of the emperor, from whom we were 
only distant two clays' journey. We were most kindly re- 
ceived at Calais by the city authorities, all of whom were 
most anxiously expecting us : we found also master Peter 
Alexander, who had been sent thither by the archbishop to 
await our arrival. Most desirable appointments are in store 
for us : only may the Lord enable us to accomplish somewhat 
that may tend to his glory, and the edification of his church, 
and then all will be well. Do you also, with your wife, my 
very dear daughter, render hearty thanks to the Lord for 
having with such fatherly care conducted us through all 
our enemies ; and who wo doubt not will mercifully protect 
us for the time to come. We shall have to remain at Calais 
for one or two days on account of the high winds. When 
we have crossed the sea, with Christ our guide, and have 
arrived in England, I will endeavour to acquaint you with 
my affairs at the earliest opportunity. Do you also endea- 
vour to let me know, as soon as possible, the situation of your 
own affairs. Send your letter to Strasburgh to master Conrad 
Hubert, who will always be able to forward it to me without 
any difficulty. My son Paul 3 is at Canterbury, and, as mas- 
ter Peter tells me, in good health. I hope to see him on 
Easter Monday, if not before. Fare you well and happily, 
my very dear son-in-law 4 , with your spouse, my very dear 
daughter ; and salute for me most dutifully all my brethren, 
especially Erbius and Scriba. In haste, from Calais, April 
18, 1549. I hope also my son Timothy is in good health: 

[3 See above, Letter XX. p. 32.] 

[ 4 John Ulstetter married Fagius's daughter Sarah, Nov. 11, 1547.] 


if he continues to improve his morals, as you have led me to 
hope, he will in future be not less dear to me than heretofore. 
Be sure and let me see his letter by the first courier. 

Your father-in-law, 

PAUL FAGIUS, the elder. 



Dated at the Palace, LAMBETH, April 26, 1549. 

MUCH health, my dearest son-in-law. I doubt not but 
that you are very anxious to learn how and when we arrived 
in England. You must know therefore, that on the eighteenth 
of April, under God's guidance, we happily reached Calais 
the frontier sea-port of England, where we were obliged to 
remain till the twenty-third of the same month owing to the 
roughness of the sea. On that day we crossed the channel, 
and reached London on the twenty -fifth. We thence proceeded 
by water to Lambeth, the palace of the archbishop of Canter- 
bury, who received us with the greatest kindness. He wishes 
to send me to the university of Oxford, over which master 
Peter Martyr presides, for it is the most celebrated ; and 
master Bucer to Cambridge. But we are urgent with his 
grace not to separate us, but to allow us to remain together 
for some time, which will be a great comfort to us both. We 
are however, still ignorant of our destination; for every thing 
is done by the king's order. May the Lord grant that, 
wherever we may be, we may approve ourselves unto him ; 
which I request you to implore with us from him by fervent 
prayer. I cannot at present give you any certain information 
about English affairs. This however we have observed, that 
the harvest is plenteous, but the labourers are very few. Let 
us therefore entreat the Lord to send forth suitable labourers. 
We found my son Paul at Canterbury in good health. He 
has become well acquainted with the English language, and 
has a tolerable understanding of French ; so that he now acts 
as my interpreter. He has so conducted himself, as to gain 


the favourable opinion of all good and learned men, which 
has cheered me exceedingly. We are still remaining with the 
archbishop at Lambeth, in daily expectation of being sent to 
the post assigned us. I request you again and again to 
acquaint me with the state of your affairs. I hope we may 
shortly meet. Farewell, together with my very dear pledges, 
Sarah and Timothy. Salute all my brother-ministers most 
dutifully from me, especially masters Erbius and Scriba. In 
haste, from Lambeth, the palace of the archbishop, April 28, 
in the year of salvation 1549. 

Your father-in-law, 

PAUL FAGIUS, the elder. 

Master Bucer, with Negelin 1 and my son Paul desire 
their dutiful respects. 



Dated at CKOYDOX, May 7, 15-1!). 

MAY the only-begotten Son of God preserve you, your 
wife, and all your family unto life eternal, my very dear 
brother in the Lord ! You will abundantly learn the present 
state of our affairs both from the letter of master Bucer, and 
the one I wrote to my wife, which I am very anxious for you 
to read. On the first of May we removed from Lambeth to 
Croydon, where the archbishop generally passes the summer. 
On the fifth of the same month we were taken to court, where 
access to the king's majesty was granted us immediately after 
dinner. I cannot express with what kindness we were re- 
ceived by him, as well as by the lord protector, and others of 
the nobility, and how he congratulated us upon our arrival. 
This, indeed, exhilarated us beyond measure. Though he is 
still very young, and very handsome, he gives for his age 

[ : Matthew Negelin, afterwards a minister of Strasburgh, accom- 
panied Bucer and Fagius into England, and was then with them at the- 
archbishop's house at Lambeth. See Strype, Cranmer, 279.] 


such wonderful proofs of his piety, as that the whole kingdom 
and all godly persons entertain the greatest hopes of him. 
May our good and gracious God preserve him in safety many 
years, that he may be able to govern his kingdom long and 
happily, and at the same time to advance in various ways the 
kingdom of Christ, which we ought all of us to entreat for 
him from God with fervent prayers. We hoped that we 
should very soon have gone to Cambridge, but the plan is 
altered. For it seemed good to his majesty, the lord protector, 
and the archbishop, that we should translate the holy scrip- 
tures 1 from the original sources into Latin, with some brief 
explanations of the difficult passages in each chapter, and the 
addition of summaries and parallel places. All of which they 
wish afterwards to be translated into English, for the use of 
the preachers and people. It is certainly a work of much 
labour ; may God grant us strength ! 

These things, my excellent brother, I wish briefly to 
acquaint you with : I pray you communicate them to my wife. 
Every thing else you will learn from other letters. Farewell, 
with all your household, and all our brethren in the ministry, 
especially masters Marbach, Lenglin, Christopher, Martin, and 
Udalric, and also master Andcrnach, together with their dear 
wives. In haste, from the archbishop's house at Croydon, 
May 7, 1549. 

Yours wholly, 

PAUL FAGIUS. the elder. 



Dated at LONDON, July 17, 1548. 

GREETING. A letter has been brought me from Augsburg, 
in which are contained sad tidings respecting the state of the 

f 1 Fagius was to have taken the old testament, and Bucer the 
new, for their several parts. But their death put an end to the 

[ 2 See first Series, Letter XXIV. p. 58. For a further account of 
him sec Mosheim, Eccles. Hist. cent. xvi. Part n. chap. ii. 42.] 


church and commonwealth. For I am informed that the 
impious doctrine set forth by the emperor Charles has been 
received in many cities of Germany, some of whom influenced 
by fear, and others by foul superstition, had not courage to 
resist the ungodly edict. And, indeed, this most heavy 
chastisement from God, which leads men's minds into a denial 
of the truth, and into extreme destruction, is much more 
hurtful and calamitous than an internal and civil war could 
be to their bodies. But among the other states which have 
arrived at this wretchedness, is mentioned that of Augsburg 3 , 
which, impelled by the menaces of the emperor, is forced to 
receive that abominable Interim 4 . They write too respecting 
yourself, that as you were unable to maintain with integrity 
and fidelity the office to which you had been called, you had 
abandoned the city 5 , and sought refuge in a place of greater 
security. When therefore I made mention of your virtue 
and learning, and present misfortunes, to the most reverend 
the archbishop of Canterbury, he replied, that if you thought 
fit to come over into this country, he would provide you with 
some honourable means of subsistence. I considered that I 
owed this service to our long friendship; and I recommend 
and exhort you, by my love for you, not to despise the voca- 
tion offered you, in which you will probably be employed with 
much greater usefulness than, under existing circumstances, 
in any part of Germany. Farewell. I could not but com- 
mend you to him, and point out of what great use you would 
be, if you would come hither ; and he said that he would 
provide for you and for your family. London, July 17, 1548. 


[ a In Augsburg the emperor displaced the magistrates, substituting 
for them creatures of his own, each of whom was sworn to observe 
the Interim. See Slcidan, 409, 470.] 

[ 4 Interimendum illud Interim. Grig.] 

[5 Wolfgang Musculus was minister of the church of Augsburg 
till 15-18, when, on the entry of Charles V. into the city, and the 
consequent re-establishment of popery, he retired to Berne, where ho 
was elected professor of divinity, and where he died in 1563.] 




Dated at LONDON, Dec. 23, 1548. 

GREETING. I gave your letter to the most reverend the 
archbishop of Canterbury, having read which, he declared 
himself exceedingly desirous that you should come hither : 
he said moreover, that there Avas but little hope of Upper 
Germany, and repeated his promise of providing every thing 
necessary for yourself and family. He has commissioned a 
certain merchant, by name Richard Hilles, to supply you by 
his order Avith the money required for your journey, in case 
you should come. You will receive, I think, the letter of this 
merchant together Avith mine. I Avill add, that there are in 
London more than five thousand Germans, to Avhom you may 
preach and administer the sacraments; and if you wish to 
lecture at Cambridge, you will be able to do so. .All things, 
I hope, Avill be reformed. I have now done my part ; may 
Christ direct you ! My Avife and daughter are well, and salute 
you Avith your Avife and children. Farewell, and remember 
me in Christ. London, Dec. 23, 1548. 



Dated at BERNE, March 12, 1549. 


BERNARDINE (Ochinus) is inviting me to England by 

his letters, two of which I have now received dated on the 
23rd and 31st December, to this effect : "I have shewn your 
letter to the most reverend the archbishop of Canterbury, 
which when he had read, he most decidedly manifested his 
great desire that you should come to England, and he again 
confirmed what he had before promised. But as you Avrote 


that you had still some expectation in Germany, he imme- 
diately subjoined that such hopes were of a very slender 
nature ; but that as you stated that you had a large family, 
and feared the expense would be greater than you could 
afford, he had been speaking to a certain merchant to supply 
you with every necessary. He will send, I think, a hundred 
crowns for your journey. Now if you require my sincere 
opinion, I recommend and exhort you to come. A lectureship 
will be provided for you at Cambridge ; and should not that 
situation meet your wishes, you might preach publicly in 
London, where a numerous auditory would not be wanting. 
For there are more than five thousand Germans 1 here, to whom 
you would doubtless be most acceptable. I am therefore very 
desirous that, if you can do so without great inconvenience, 
you should come over as soon as possible. I have nothing 
more to write about the archbishop, except that he is daily 
becoming more favourable to evangelical truth. And though 
some reports of a contrary character have hitherto prevailed 
respecting him, he is now really shewing himself to be a most 
godly person, and that he has nothing more at heart than 
that Christ should flourish and be triumphant. We are there- 
fore upon the most harmonious and friendly terms." 

Thus far he. As to myself, I have no thoughts of this 
invitation, unless (as I before wrote to Bernardino) there should 
not be afforded me an opportunity of serving Christ in Ger- 
many. I am however very much pleased that the pure form 
of Christianity is daily more and more prevailing in that 
kingdom, which will doubtless receive many exiles flying 
thither for refuge. Wherefore we must unceasingly pray God 
to put an end at length to that perilous war with Scotland, 
whence evils of no ordinary kind may arise to that kingdom, 
unless the mercy of God avert them. Farewell, most illus- 
trious sir. Berne, March 12, 1549. 

Yours in the Lord, 


[! The king's letters patent to John a Lasco and the German con- 
gregation are given in Burnet, iv. 308. They arc dated July 24, 1550. 
Among the ministers is mentioned Ricardus Gallus, of whom sco be- 
low, p. 339. n. 1.] 





Dated at CAMBRIDGE, Feb. 10, 1550. 

GREETING. Although I am personally unknown to you, 
most learned and accomplished Bullinger, this circumstance 
need not prevent me from addressing you with every feeling 
of affection and respect, and desiring to gratify you to the 
utmost of my power. For I am not so ignorant as not to 
perceive the extent of those obligations which all those who, 
like myself, embrace the pure doctrines of the gospel, owe to 
you and others of the like character, by reason of those 
admirable exertions and services by which you have again 
purified the church of Christ itself, which had been miserably 
defiled by antichrist. I pray you therefore, most godly 
Bullinger, to assure yourself of every service from me which 
a grateful pupil can render to his instructor, and which I 
would desire to prove to you rather from the active per- 
formance of them than from a mere verbal declaration. 

The state of England is at this time entirely tranquil, 
compared with what it was during the last year. The duke 
of Somerset, who had been the lung's governor, and who was 
so ignominiously committed to the Tower of London, is now 
at length delivered by the divine blessing, and most honour- 
ably set at liberty. And although he is deprived of his former 
office, he will nevertheless be able to live with honour and 
magnificence upon the revenues that they have left him. You 
see therefore the wonderful mercy of God towards his elect : 
for from the beginning it was the general opinion that he 
would suffer death; but it has turned out far otherwise. The 
gospel in this country is rather extending itself more widely 
than suffering any change. Masters Bucer, Bernardine, and 
Peter Martyr, are most actively labouring in their ministry, 
and are indeed most useful. 

[ x Pietro Bizarro of Perugia is mentioned in a letter of Languet 
to Sir Philip Sidney, with high commendations of his eloquence, and 
remarks on the want of wisdom in the English in not "earning the 
good- will of such a man." See the Correspondence of Sidney and 
Languet, collected by Rev. Steuart A. Pears, p. 2. He was entertained 
divers years with the earl of Bedford; and expecting preferment here, 
failing of it. he departed and lived abroad. Strype, Ann. in. i. 660.] 


We have great hopes of a peace with France, although we 
do not yet know upon what terms it will be effected. May our 
most gracious God grant that all things may turn out happily : 
and I earnestly pray him long to preserve yourself, together 
with masters Pellican, Bibliandcr, Gualter, Vergerius, and the 
whole church, to the glory of his name. Master Bucer, who 
is now at the university of Cambridge, where he is lecturing 
with the greatest eloquence and godliness upon Paul's Epistle 
to the Ephesians, most affectionately salutes you and your 
church. Cambridge, February 10, 1550. 

Your most attached and devoted, 

PETER of Perugia, 

an exile from Italy, his native country, by reason of 
his confession of the doctrine of the gospel. 



Dated at LONDON, Nov. 13, 1552. 

HAVING understood from your letter to master Richard 2 , 
the preacher of the word here in the French church, that 
you were desirous to know what had become of the children 
of my late master, the duke of Somerset, the consideration of 
your kindness affected me with exceeding delight and satis- 
faction ; and I seemed to recognise the kindly feeling of an 
excellent and truly Christian pastor, who do not account as 
unworthy of your remembrance and regard, in their present 
fallen state, those individuals who have been cast down from 
the pinnacle of prosperity on which they had formerly been 
placed. Wherefore, although it may hardly seem to be within 
my province to answer for another, yet induced by the re- 
quest of master Richard, partly because no one can give you 

[ 2 A memorandum written about the end of the 16th century, 
speaks of Richard Vauville as "a man sound and perfect in Christian 
piety," the minister of a church at London, in which "French was 
spoken," on the authority of the preface of a work written by Poulain, 
printed in 1552. See Burns, Hist, of Foreign Protestant Refugees, 
Lond. 1846, p. 24. Beza says, " Vauville cst mort, ministre en 1'egliso 
Fran9oiso de Frankfort, apres la dissipation d'Angleterre, ou il avoit 
long temps servi heureusement." Hist. Eccles. Anvers, 1580., i. 57. Ho 
also bore the name of Richard Fra^ois.j 



more certain information upon this subject than myself, who 
am still attached to them, and partly because, from your most 
courteous reply to my last, I perceive that a letter of mine 
Avill not be unacceptable to you, I have thought fit to acquaint 
you in writing with their present circumstances. After God 
had taken away from us the duke himself by the hand of the 
executioner, because, alarmed for his own life, he was reported 
to have plotted the destruction of certain others of the royal 
council; it was enacted in the collective assembly of the realm, 
(which from a French word we call a parliament, from the 
freedom of speech there allowed,) that himself and his sons 
by Anne 1 his wife, who cannot be unknown to you, though 
you have never seen her, and whom he married upon the 
decease of his former wife Catharine 2 , should be deprived of 
the dukedom, earldom, and barony, as it is called, and also of 
any other titles of honour bestowed by reason of services 
rendered to the state ; and that they should be reduced to 
the lowest rank of nobility. With respect to their main- 
tenance, the following provision was made. The eldest 
daughter Anne 3 , with whom you have corresponded, has been 
married nearly three years to the earl of Warwick, son and 
heir of the duke of Northumberland, and is happily and 
honourably settled. The other four, Margaret 4 , Jane, Maria, 
and Catharine, are unmarried, and committed by the council 
to the care of their aunt 5 , the widow of the lord Cromwell, to 
whom four hundred marks are yearly paid by the king for 

[! The duke of Somerset married for his second wife, Anne, 
daughter of sir Edward Stanhope of Sudbury, co. Suffolk. She died 
in 1587, aged 90.] 

[ 2 This lady was daughter and coheir of sir William Fillol.] 

[ 3 This lady was afterwards married to sir Edward Ampton, knight 
of the bath. Strype, Mem. n. ii. 8.] 

[ 4 Margaret was sought in marriage by the lord Strange in 1551, 
and with the approval of the king. But that match did not take 
effect, and she died unmarried, as did her sisters Catharine and Jane, 
the latter of whom it was said the duke secretly endeavoured to 
match with the king. Strype, as above.] 

[5 Elizabeth, second daughter of sir John Seymour, and sister of 
queen Jane Seymour and the duke of Somerset, married successively 
sir Anthony Oughtred, and Gregory, lord Cromwell, son of the earl of 
Essex. He died in 1551. His widow was originally to receive 300 
marks, or 50. for each of these four ladies per annum, which salary 
was, November 1. increased to 100 marks a year apiece. Strype. 
Mem. ii. ii. 7.] 


their maintenance, according to the act of parliament. Each 
mark is worth thirteen shillings and fourpence. The youngest 
daughter, Elizabeth, who is now in her second year, is with 
her aunt Smith 6 , who lost her husband about four months 
since, and to whom in like manner a hundred marks are 
yearly assigned for her support. To Edward 7 , his son and 
heir, thirteen years old, and as it were the living image of 
his father, out of the estates which yielded annually to his 

father [ ] 8 thousand pounds of our money, each of 

which is equivalent to four golden crowns, as they call them, 
there is reserved, by the same act of parliament, about two 
thousand four hundred pounds, more or less. The surplus, 
with all the personalty, was paid, as is wont, into the exche- 
quer. He, with his two brothers, Henry and Edward 9 , the 
latter five years old, and the other twelve, is with the lord 
treasurer of England. They are wards of the king, to whom, 
so long as they are under age, belongs the guardianship of 
noble orphans, and also the use, enjoyment, and management 
of their estates. They are liberally educated, and have no 
other attendants or governors but those to whom they were 
entrusted by their father in his life-time. Philip Gilgate, a 
worthy gentleman, is their governor, and I retain my old 
office of instructing them. But you may perhaps feel uncom- 
fortable at their residing in the house of that individual, the 
marquis of Winchester 10 , of whose religion you may have been 

[6 Dorothy, youngest daughter of the above sir John Seymour, 
married sir Clement Smith, knight, a gentleman of Essex, who died 
August 26, 1552. In February, 1552, there was a warrant to the 
exchequer to pay this lady an annuity of 100 marks towards the 
finding the lady Elizabeth during her abode with her. This Elizabeth 
afterwards married sir Richard Knightly of Fawsley, and died in 1602.] 

[? A patent was granted in the fifth and sixth years of Edw. VI., 
to the duke's eldest son, to be restored to as many of the lands as 
were his mother's, and sold away by the duke without her consent; and 
that this should be made good to him out of the lands that the heirs 
begotten of the body of the lady Anne, his second wife, should have. 
Strype, Mem. n. i. 543.] 

[8 Fere millia, MS. Probably a mistake of the copyist for decem.] 

[9 Edward, the duke's eldest son by his second marriage, having 
been dispossessed of all his titles by act of parliament, as above re- 
lated, continued without estate or title, until created by queen Eliza- 
beth, before her coronation, baron Beauchamp, and earl of Hertford. 
He died in 1621.] 

[io See his character in Strype, Mem. in. i. 141.] 


led, from the reports of others, to entertain a doubt. This 
doubt, however, I am able to remove. As far as I can per- 
ceive, ho is a Avorthy and religious man, nor do I see in what 
respect he differs from us : so that, even supposing he were 
to think differently, which I do not believe to be the case, 
yet as he docs not draw us aside, but even goes before us in 
religion by his own example, there is no danger; and still 
less so, because their minds are both strengthened by education, 
and fortified against popery by the presence of us who reside 
with them. Their mother 1 still remains in the prison, which 
we call the Tower of London. As she is guarded there with 
great care, we are ignorant as to what she is doing, or for 
what offence she is suffering. We hope, however, that she 
will shortly be set at liberty, because some parties are of 
opinion that she was not imprisoned for having committed a 
crime, but to prevent her from committing one ; so that when 
they perceive that the government has no cause for alarm, 
they will doubtless restore her to her friends. I now think 
that I have satisfied your inquiries. Wherefore, if I can 
only obtain this from you, that you will gratify me by 
writing again, I will cease to give you any further trouble. 
Farewell. London, Nov. 13. 

Your much attached, 




Dated at BASLE, Dec. 21, 1553. 

I WAS lately at Strasburgh, where I saw and spoke to 
your son : I inquired after his health, and what company he 
kept. He frequently visits master Zanchy, from whom I 
had an excellent account of the youth ; and when I took my 
leave, I told him that I was about to go to Zurich, and that 
I would convey thither any letters he might have to send. 

[* The duchess of Somerset remained in the Tower during the 
whole of king Edward's reign. In 1553, 100. was assigned her out 
of the profits of the late duke's lands, to be paid to the lieutenant of 
the Tower for her use. And bishop Hoper, formerly the duke's chap- 
lain, was allowed to visit her. Strype, Mem. n. ii. 8.] 


He gave me the inclosed, and at the same time requested me, 
should I meet with a courier at Basle, to forward them by 
him, as I. told him that I intended to go to Berne previously 
to my visiting Zurich. I therefore send them. I shall leave 
this place for Berne in about four days, and after staying 
there two or three days, I shall proceed straight to Zurich, 
that I may enjoy the delightful society of you all for some 
little time. But enough of this. Masters Peter Martyr and 
Zanchy affectionately salute you. 

There is no good news from England. We have heard 
by letter that the most godly archbishop of Canterbury is 
condemned, first of all to be hung, and then quartered as a 
traitor 2 to the queen's majesty. All the sons of the duke of 
Northumberland have also been condemned, and those too of 
the duke of Suffolk, together with that same Jane who was 
proclaimed queen ; but whether any of them have yet suffered, 
we do not certainly know. The day before I left Strasburgh, 
all the baggage of Peter Martyr arrived there by the favour of 
God, and I hope that he will again obtain a most honourable 
appointment from the magistrates. He had hired a house, 
which he was daily supplying Avith various furniture, in 
expectation of the aid and calling of the Lord. Public 
prayers have been had every day for the English church; 
and it is ascertained that queen Mary 3 , the sister of the em- 
peror, is on her way to Calais, whither also that most ungodly 
Jezebel of England is about to come. It is the general as- 
sertion that a marriage has taken place between the king of 
Spain and Jezebel ; and though this was not allowed by the 
papal laws, it is said that the pope has consented to it upon 
this condition, that he himself be again recognised as the 
supreme head of the church in England. We must therefore 
use diligent prayer on behalf of that miserable and almost 
ruined church. Farewell, and love me, and salute, I pray you, 
master Gualter in my name. Basle, December 21, 1553. 

Yours heartily, 


[ 2 Abp. Cranmer pleaded guilty of high treason on Nov. 13, 1553. 
The queen, however, pardoned his treason that he might be burned as 
a heretic, which he was adjudged to bo on the 3rd of May following. 
See Strype, Cranmer, 458. Burnet, in. 341. Soames, iv. 91.] 

[3 Queen Mary was the widow of Lewis II., king ot Hungary. 
She was appointed regent of the Low Countries, and died in 1558.] 




Dated Dec. 10, 1549. 

MOST accomplished master Bullinger, I have received 
your letter which was very gratifying to me : I should have 
answered it by my corrector [of the press] whom I sent to 
master Froschover, if I had received it sooner. If master 
Froschover needed any exhortation, I could wish for your 
assistance in printing the English bible : my good friends in 
England are very importunate, and desirous of its completion. 
For the emperor had strongly urged upon the English am- 
bassadors the settling a form of religion agreeable to the 
Interimistic doctrine. But upon due consideration they con- 
firmed by public decrees throughout the kingdom the form 
established by master Bucer. He had been attacked with 
very severe illness, but is now recovered, and in the enjoy- 
ment of great authority and estimation among the people of 
London. I have not heard any thing of the Pole, Florian. 
The maritime cities are urgent with those of Hamburgh, 
Lubeck, and Luneburgh, respecting an accommodation with 
the cities of Bremen and Magdeburgh ; but nothing will be 
done, unless they come to an agreement about religion. If 
your reverence has any thing to tell me about the newly 
elected pope 1 , do not refuse me the information. All persons 
here seem to be in doubt about him. The emperor has 
changed his intention, and means to celebrate his birthday at 
Brussels. He is preparing for a journey into Italy. We 
are expecting your letter to our archbishop, and also your 
book, and that of Calvin. Peter Martyr has published in 
forty -three pages his disputation 2 concerning the sacrament 
of the eucharist, held at the university of Oxford in England. 
I would have sent it, had I a messenger who was going to 
Basle. I have given this letter to master Froschover, that he 

f 1 Namely, pope Julius III., who was elected Feb. 7, 1550. His 
predecessor, Paul III., died Nov. 10, 1549.] 

[ 2 For an account of this disputation see Foxe, vi. 298. Strype, 
Cranmer, 283.] 


may arrange the finishing of the bible as soon as possible. 
Salute all our friends. 

Yours heartily, 




Dated at STRASBURGH, Nov. 2C, [1554.] 

HAVING met with so opportune a messenger, most reve- 
rend father, to whom I might very conveniently entrust a 
letter for your reverence, I cannot by any means neglect so 
favourable an occasion of writing ; but will write by him ac- 
cording to my capacity, and detain your prudence, for the 
time you are reading this, from those matters of far greater 
importance, in which you are always occupied. And herein 
I must pray you to excuse my freedom ; for I can neither 
consign to oblivion the extreme kindness with which you en- 
tertained me when I was at Zurich, nor anywise refrain from 
speaking about my master in whose service I now am. The 
former topic indeed demands a grateful recollection and re- 
membrance, which I hope never to lay aside. And of the 
latter my duty requires me to say somewhat at this time, and 
to endeavour now to obtain from your piety, by letter, what I 
could not so readily accomplish in words when I was with you. 
For your telling me that from the long intimacy that formerly 
existed between you and my master, Richard Hilles, you felt 
inclined to write to him, has very often come into my mind 
since I left you. For I thus thought with myself : if master 
Bullinger, who has so much influence, and is so famous for 
learning, would insert in the letter, which he intends to write 
to my master, a few words upon fleeing from the abomination 
of the mass, (by the frequenting of which in England my 
master is now placing his soul in jeopardy 4 ,) the result would 

[3 William Salkyns was the servant of Richard Hilles.] 
[* It is a curious circumstance that Richard Hilles brings precisely 
the same charge against one of his servants, above, p. 218.] 


bo, that either convinced by his argument, or moved by ancient 
friendship, (which I know has very great weight with him,) 
he will yield to his exhortation above all others, and consider 
how he can flee away from such abominable idolatry. I 
thought too, that your piety would perhaps effect this object 
without any hint from myself; but on account of my duty and 
obligation to my master, the love I bear him, and the great 
anxiety I shall labour under, until I see him extricated and 
delivered from these defilements, I could not but especially 
bear the matter in mind, and now, most reverend sir, recall 
it to your remembrance. To which end I implore and entreat 
you by Almighty God, that when you write to him, you will 
not forget this ; and I would wish you so to write, that no 
suspicion may fall upon myself as having persuaded you to 
do so. But when you have finished what you have to say, I 
will take care that the letter shall be safely conveyed to him 
with all diligence. Farewell. May the great and gracious 
God long preserve your piety to his glory and the good of 
his church ! Strasburgh. From the house of Peter Martyr, 
jNov. 26, [1554.] 

Your most devoted, 


Servant of master Kichard Hilles. 



Dated at STRASBURGH, Dec. 29, 1554. 

YOUR two letters, reverend father, written both to my 
master and to myself, I received, as the saying is, in the very 
nick of time ; for to-morrow, God willing, I purpose to go to 
Antwerp, whence I will take care that your letters, which 
otherwise must have been given in charge to some one else, 
shall be conveniently and safely forwarded. Your letters 
then were most gratifying to me on two accounts, both by 
reason of the opportuneness of their arrival, as also of the 
great and abundant advantage which I certainly hope will be 


the result. And while I acknowledge this as a singular token 
of your kindness, so I doubt not but that the great and good 
God will abundantly recompense you, as it is far beyond ray 
power. But your wishes will be quite satisfied when your 
letter has answered the end for which you wrote it, and has 
produced that effect which we both of us so much desired, 
and which will be salutary to him 1 . In future, however, if 
you should kindly think fit to write to him, you can send it 
most conveniently to Christopher Goodman, at the house of 
master doctor Peter Martyr ; and he will take care to for- 
ward it, whatever it be, to me at Antwerp. I shall henceforth 
make use of his assistance, in communicating such news as 
may occur there, and which it may be desirable for you to 

Your reverence asks me for news from England : many 
events have occurred, though of a very painful and distressing 
character, yet such as the wisdom of God may make use of 
both for the setting forth of his glory, and the greater conso- 
lation of the godly in time to come. Cardinal Pole 2 , the legate 
of antichrist, was some time since received in England, after 
the popish fashion, with great pomp and solemnity, in the 
presence of Philip the Anglo-Spanish king, with his queen 
Mary, at Paul's cross, a most celebrated place in the middle 
of London ; where Gardiner, bishop of Winchester, preached 
a sermon 3 before a great concourse of people of all ranks, in 
which with an impudent and shameless forehead he maintained 
the supremacy of the pope which he had formerly impugned 4 , 
and asked forgiveness (as he said) for his previous error. But 
when the cardinal addressed the queen, and no human lan- 
guao-e occurred to him worthy of such a woman, he did not 
scruple to pervert the holy language of scripture ; but ad- 
dressed the queen on his first interview in the same words 

[! Namely, Richard Hilles. See the preceding letter.] 
[2 For an account of the proceedings on cardinal Pole's arrival as 
legate, and the subsequent submission of England to the pope's au- 
thority, see Foxe, vi. 567, &c. Strype, Mem. m. i. 246. Burnet, n. 
453. Soames, iv. 256.] 

[ 3 A full account of this sermon is given in Foxe, vi. 577.] 
[* Namely, in his book, De vera Obedientia, published in 1534, to 
justify the parliament in giving the king the title of supreme head of 
the church. See Strype, Mem. i. i. 264. Foxe, vi. 139, vn. 594.] 


with which the angel saluted the mother of God, and thus the 
monstrous flatterer begun : " Hail, Mary, full of grace, &c." 
Shortly after they introduced the primacy of the pope, and 
proclaimed Pole archbishop of Canterbury, chief primate of 
England, and introduced him into the senate, or, as we say, 
the parliament, where the aforesaid bishop of Winchester de- 
manded, with fox-like cunning, the pope's pardon and indul- 
gence for all the peers, who were then disgracefully prostrated 
at the feet of the cardinal, of which however he said they 
were wholly undeserving. The queen is said for certain to 
be pregnant. Philip is not yet crowned, nor is it thought 
that he will be during this parliament, which will shortly 
be dissolved, and a new one appointed in due time, in 
which the papists are in great confidence of obtaining the 
accomplishment of all that remains for them to wish for. 
Many individuals arc daily committed to prison, and the 
bishops are still confined in the same place. I have heard 
from persons worthy of credit, and who have received the 
information by letter, that the emperor is about to go to 
Spain, and there wait for the last extremity; but that Philip 
will come to Flanders, and remain there. This is what I 
now have to communicate. Should I hear any thing more 
favourable, I will not fail to let you know. Farewell, most 
reverend sir, and take in good part this my writing. Stras- 
burgh, Dec. 28. 

W. S. 



Dated at CAMBRIDGE, March 25, 1549. 

SHORTLY before I left Strasburgh, I acquainted you with 
my intended journey. I have not written in the mean while, 

[ l Francis Enzinas, known also by the names of Dryander and 
Ducliesne, was born at Burgos about 1515. He became a scholar of 
Melancthon, and translated the New Testament into Spanish in 1542; 
for which he was imprisoned, but after fifteen months made his es- 
cape, and fled to Calvin at Geneva. He came to England in 1548, to 
avoid the persecution occasioned by the Interim, and brought with 


as I had no opportunity of sending a letter ; and I employed 
the greatest part of my time in travelling, a thing which was 
indeed very irksome to me, till at length, after being long 
tossed ahout, I have fixed my abode in this university, where 
I am Greek professor, in which situation I endeavour to 
bestow tolerable diligence and fidelity. As I have now 
therefore some breathing-time, and an opportunity is afforded 
me of sending a letter by persons going to the Frankfort 
fair, I have resolved to write to you, that I may renew our 
ancient friendship, and give you a motive for writing in 
return. I am indeed personally separated from you by a 
long distance, but in mind, in studies, in religious opinion, I 
am truly most united. For to pass over the religious teach- 
ing, in which you excel, I have always ascribed to you the 
praise of integrity and faithfulness ; and wherever I am, I do 
not fail to set them forth, as virtues which I find wanting in 
many other nations. But I am of opinion that I am placed 
in this corner by the especial counsel of God, that I may be 
preserved for some space of time safe from those snares 
which tyrants laid for me, even when I was at Basle. But I 
am in the hand of God, who can every where preserve his 
own ; and I ought to render him this obedience, that I may 
always be ready to depart from hence, whenever I shall bo 
summoned by our Captain. With respect to the public state 
of this kingdom, you must know, that the parliament is just 
ended, in which I understand that, by the common act of 
both houses, the lord admiral, the brother of the lord pro- 
tector, who was said to have been in various ways guilty of 
treason, was condemned, and he is also beheaded. I hear also 
that a praiseworthy reformation has taken place in matters of 
religion : it has not yet seen the light, but its promulgation 
is daily expected. It is generally reported that the mass is 
abolished, and liberty of marriage allowed to the clergy : 
which two I consider to be the principal heads of the entire 
reformation, the object of which, as I think, is not to form 
an entire body of Christian doctrine, and to deliver a fixed 
and positive opinion without any ambiguity upon each article, 

him letters of commendation from Melancthon to king Edward, and 
Cranmer, by whom, as Strypo says, (but which seems to be contra- 
dicted by this letter,) he was placed at Oxford. See Strypo, Cranmer, 
580, Mem. n. i. 188.] 


but is entirely directed to the right institution of public wor- 
ship in churches. I hear that there was a great dispute 
among the bishops about transubstantiation; all which things 
were managed in secret, like the mysteries of Eleusis, as it 
would have been impious to communicate such great mysteries 
to lay-men. I think however that, by a resolution not to bo 
blamed, some puerilities have been still suffered to remain, 
lest the people should be offended by too great an innovation. 
These however, trifling as they are, may shortly be amended. 
But I can say nothing for certain, until I am better informed 
of the facts. As soon as the act shall be published, I will 
send it you, if it be in Latin; if not, I will give you an 
account of every article. You can relate these things to 
master Hooper, to whom I will now write, if time permit. 
But I wish he would perform the duty he owes to his country, 
which is sadly distressed at this time for want of good 
preachers. And in a calling the most honourable of all 
others, to lend one's aid to the churches is the duty of a 
man not only of eminent talent, but of heroic courage; and I 
think he would do this with dignity. Salute in my name 
master Pellican and the rest of the brethren, in whose 
prayers I desire the whole course of my life to be commended 
to God. Farewell. Cambridge, March 25, 1549. 

Yours heartily, 




Dated at CAMBRIDGE, June 5, 1549. 

I WROTE to you lately, before the reformation of the 
churches was publicly known. A book 1 has now been published, 
a month or two back, which the English churches received 
with the greatest satisfaction. A compendium of this book 
written in Latin I send to master Vadian, on the condition of 

[ l Namely, the first book of Common Prayer. See Liturgies of 
Edward VI. Parker Society's Edit.] 


his communicating it to you. You will see that the summary 
of doctrine cannot be found fault with, although certain 
ceremonies are retained in that book which may appear use- 
less, and perhaps hurtful, unless a candid interpretation be 
put upon them. But in the cause of religion, which is the 
most important of all in the whole world, I think that every 
kind of deception either by ambiguity or trickery of language 
is altogether unwarrantable. You will also find something to 
blame in the matter of the Lord's supper ; for the book 
speaks very obscurely, and however you may try to explain 
it with candour, you cannot avoid great absurdity. The 
reason is, that the bishops could not of a long time agree 
among themselves respecting this article, and it was a long 
and earnest dispute among them whether transubstantiation 
should be established or rejected. You perceive therefore by 
this certain proof, that there are no true and solid principles 
of doctrine in these men, who take a great deal of pains 
about the most minute and even absurd matters, and neglect 
those points on which they ought chiefly to have bestowed 
their attention. But this is the fate of the church, that the 
majority overpower the better part ; and though many things 
may be improved, there are nevertheless some causes of 
offence still remaining. Meanwhile this reformation must not 
be counted lightly of; in this kingdom especially, where 
there existed heretofore in the public formularies of doctrine 
true popery without the name. Anabaptists, and other 
fanatical spirits, are now beginning to shew themselves, and 
will occasion much trouble to the church ; so that we shall 
ever be in this life under the cross and in a state of most 
painful disquiet. Bucer and Paul Fagius have arrived here 
in safety. They are at this present time in the palace of 
the archbishop of Canterbury, and will come hither within two 
months to give lectures in divinity. I lately wrote to masters 
Bibliander and Gesner, whom salute diligently in my name, 
together with masters Pellican and Frisius. Farewell. Cam- 
bridge, June 5, 1549. 

Yours heartily, 





Dated at CAMBRIDGE, June 5, 1549. 

GREETING. As no possession in life is more valuable 
than the friendship of good men, it should be preserved and 
strengthened with great diligence ; and no distance of place 
ought either to prevent the intercourse and connexion of the 
good, or to diminish their mutual good-will. For my own 
part, indeed, most learned Vadian, I retain in mind the most 
entire and perfect remembrance of you, although you are 
absent, nor will the most delightful recollection of so dear a 
friend ever perish from my memory. The same I ask from 
you, and by the right of kindness and friendship, which you 
cannot neglect without deserved reproof. You have long 
since, I suppose, learned the state of things in this country 
from master Hierome : I now send you the public reformation 
of religious doctrine which has been effected in this kingdom ; 
in which though you may desire a more judicious and atten- 
tive consideration of some important matters, you will never- 
theless be tolerably satisfied with the true setting forth of the 
principal articles of religion. I wish this letter to be com- 
municated also to master Bullinger, that he too may under- 
stand, not from general report, but from the truth itself, the 
alteration that has taken place in England in respect to 
religion. Should there be any more news, I will send you 
word. The Germans are allowed to have their own church 
and preachers in London, where there are said to be four 
thousand of that nation. Musculus could most ably undertake 
this ecclesiastical charge, to the great advantage both of 
himself and of the state. I know what he replied to Ber- 
nardino's letter, when he invited him to England in the 
name of the archbishop of Canterbury ; and in my opinion 
he replied very prudently. But I do not consider that the 
office of preaching and administration of the sacraments to 
his fellow countrymen would be attended with any incon- 
venience. If he feels inclined to a situation of this kind, 
upon being informed of it I will point out the most eligible 
way. But I write this for no other reason than because I 


wish well both to him and to the community. Farewell, with 
till our godly friends, and let me have from your letters some 
certain information respecting the state of Switzerland. Cam- 
bridge, Juno 5, 1549. 

Yours heartily, 




Dated at BASLE, Dec. 3, 1549. 

As I hear many reports are here circulated no less painful 
than groundless, both respecting the realm of England itself, 
and also our own countrymen, who are professors of learning 
and religion in that country; I have thought it my duty to 
deliver you from all anxiety, as I have already done to the 
people at Basle. It was the persuasion of many persons here, 
that Bernardino and Buccr had been apprehended together 
with the lord protector of the kingdom, and that with him 
the entire form of religion which they had established a short 
time before, had fallen to the ground. But this is not the 
fact. I was a spectator of the whole calamity, and not only 
I saw the external and wretched appearance of the change; 
but the purposes of the leaders are well known to me, and 1 
will, by God's blessing, acquaint you with them in person, 
when the times shall be more quiet. I affirm this, meanwhile, 
of Bernardine and Bucer, that in my opinion they never lived 
more happily or usefully than at this time. For Bernardino 
employs his whole time in writing, and this too with a force 
and rapidity, as he tells me, beyond what he ever did before ; 
and he has a son lately born, in whom he takes great de- 
light. Bucer is created regius professor of divinity, and, 
as he is now nearly restored to his former health, was to 
go to Cambridge a clay or two after my departure. I say 
too, that religion is now in a better condition than it was 
before the imprisonment of the protector. For I have seen a 
public edict proclaimed by royal authority, and printed, in 
which is not only confirmed the reformation of which I sent 
vou an account, but it declares that some other matters, yet 



untouched, shall be reformed according to the tenor of the 
gospel. This is the truth; and on the fifth of November I 
was at Lambeth with the archbishop of Canterbury and 
Bucer, on which day both our public and private affairs 
were in the same state as I now describe. AVhat has taken 
place since I know not, nor do I think that cither the people 
of Basle or Zurich can know. For I came as quickly as 
any one could do, and for no other reason, but that I might 
publish here this winter what I had written in England, 
having meanwhile left my family at Cambridge; to whom, by 
God's blessing, I shall return at the beginning of spring. I 
wished you to know these things, as being the true state of 
the case. I would write yet more, if time permitted, or I 
did not think it better to defer them till my arrival. For I 
long to see you, whom I have always acknowledged, and in 
many places openly declared, to be true ministers of God; and 
to be refreshed with you by the mutual communication of our 
faith. Salute all the brethren and the church at large in my 
name. Farewell. Basle, Dec. 3, 1549. 

Yours heartily, 




Dated at STRASUURGH, May 2, 1552. 

ALTHOUGH I do not often write to you, I can truly 
declare that my regard for you is the same as ever. And 
if I thought there were any occasion, I could prove this by 
a variety of reasons. For both your eminent virtues and 
admirable doctrine deserve the perpetual favour of all good 
men, and teach honourable persons to make a prudent choice 
of characters whom they may love, and to retain their friend- 
ship. And had not these troubles of war kept me at home, 
it was my intention to have visited you, and to have refreshed 
my mind, languishing as it is after long continued exertion, 
by communion with you. But I must remain at my post, and 
together with the commonwealth encounter the danger that 


seems to be impending, unless it be by God's mercy averted 
from us. Since therefore the young Paul Fagius, the son 
of that most learned man of most honourable memory, is in- 
tending to go to Zurich, I determined to write you a short 
letter, to renew our ancient friendship, and to commend the 
youth to your friendly notice. He has within these few days 
arrived from England, in which country he devoted himself 
to learning; and you may learn from him some particulars 
respecting the state of that kingdom, which would not per- 
haps be mentioned in your other correspondence. And since 
schools here are not very numerous, he intends, by the advice 
of his friends, to enter himself at your school, to be there 
instructed in literature and religion. You will provide there- 
fore, with your usual kindness, that he may be placed in 
some good situation, where he may be able to make much 
progress both in learning and godliness. He would wish 
to lodge with master Gualter, who would willingly, I think, 
afford him room in his house. You will learn from the young 
man what is going on here ; and if God shall grant us some 
tranquillity, I will either come to you, or write more copiously. 
Meanwhile, I only say that the prediction which you wrote 
me at Basle respecting Frisius, has turned out most true. 
But I was deceived by the appearance of piety which I 
thought was in the man, since experience has taught me that 
nothing could be more impious than he was. Salute in my 
name masters Pellican, Bibliander, Gesner, Lelius, and our 
other friends. Farewell. Strasburgh, May 2, 1552. 

Yours heartily, 




Dated at STRASBUHGH, July 8, [1543]. 

GRACE and peace in the Lord! When I heard from 
master Richard Hilles the great desire that you sometimes 
feel, most accomplished sir, to be informed of what is going 
on in foreign parts, and among our English more especially ; 
and when he urged me to acquaint you by letter with the 



disgraceful events that have very lately taken place among 
my countrymen; I much hesitated to do so at first, as being- 
well aware of the rashness of the undertaking in a man like 
me, of no learning or talent, presuming to address by letter 
you who have long been placed on so high a pinnacle of 
learning and popular reputation. But after he had fully as- 
sured me of your easy access and courtesy of manners, exhibited 
towards persons even of the lowest station and condition of 
life ; and when you had also yourself (in your last letter to 
him, wherein you so kindly salute me) afforded a sufficient 
evidence of your kindness; I am at length overpowered, and 
impelled both by his request and the state of existing circum- 
stances to take upon myself this office. For the fact itself 
seemed to both of us not unworthy of notice, and I considered 
it too very greatly to the interest of my countrymen and the 
church at large, that you, and those like you, should be 
acquainted with it. For inasmuch as, with the Lord's bless- 
ing, the most excellent means of protection are afforded to 
us by Almighty God against all storms of all times, one of 
which is your good opinion, the other, the imploring of 
divine aid; the relation of this tragedy may perhaps conduce 
in no ordinary degree to our obtaining both of these with 
more advantage and effect : inasmuch as when the enemies of 
the gospel arc pointed out, and the devices, and weapons, and 
mode of attack of our adversaries arc altogether laid open, it 
will be more easy to determine, upon due consideration, how 
to oppose them : and we shall also be more ardently excited 
to the conflict, when we know that such bitter and shameless 
opponents arc yet remaining ; and again, when we sec before 
us the recent calamity of the church, we shall be greatly 
stirred up to implore from Christ in its behalf, a deliverance 
from these evils and anxieties ; which may God of his good 
pleasure grant to it in due time! Amen. 

But now to come to the thing itself: you will receive 
herewith inclosed a certain proclamation 1 fixed up in public, 
in which the reading of holy scripture is forbidden to men 

[ J In the " Act for the advancement of true religion, and the abolish- 
ment of the contrary," it was provided that every nobleman and gentle- 
man might have the bible read in their houses : and that noble ladies, 
and gentlewomen, and merchants, might read it themselves; but no 
men or women under those degrees. Strypc. Cranm. 142.] 


of a certain, rank. I had intended to have translated this 
decree verbatim into Latin, and have done so, with the omis- 
sion of some adulatory matter, as far as the thirteenth sec- 
tion ; but when I had proceeded thus far, I perceived that 
for Avant of time, and by reason of my slowness in matters 
of business, I was unable to pursue my design as I had 
intended ; (for the printed copy did not reach me till Thurs- 
day, when I was so engaged in other matters by reason of 
the fair, that I had hardly leisure to transcribe it ;) so that 
I am obliged only to give you the sum and substance of the 
remaining sections. It is now your place, with your wonted 
courtesy, to take these things in good part ; and should there 
be any thing unpolished, obscure, or savouring of a solecism, 
(as there probably will be,) to excuse it. Farewell. You 
are saluted, together with your wife, by master Richard 
Ililles and his wife, from whom you will receive a pair of 
knives for your wife, which master Henry Falkner will de- 
liver to you. In haste. Strasburgh, July 8, [1543.] 




Dated at VENICE, Jan. 23, 1547. 

HEALTH in Christ. As I know, reverend and godly 
father, that you are not an ordinary acquaintance, but a 
most especial friend, of master Richard Hilles the English- 
man ; I have thought it right, in case the Englishman John 
Burcher, an inhabitant of your city, has not yet returned 
from his journey to England, to commit to your care this 
small portmanteau, that it may reach the aforesaid Richard 
with greater safety and dispatch. Should you have paid any 
thing for the carriage, John Burcher will repay it upon his 

The gospel is daily preached here with greater purity 
than in any other places in Italy; and it is ordained by a 
decree of the senate, that a sermon shall be preached every 
day in the Palazzo maggiore, during the approaching Lent, 


a thing that has never been seen since the foundation of the 
city. The number of the faithful is daily increasing more 
and more. Your commentaries are daily becoming more 
esteemed by the Italians ; and, were they not so bulky and 
expensive, no books would meet with a better sale. It will 
be therefore an act of kindness on your part to continue 
writing, and to bring forth out of the treasures of your 
abundance those rare spiritual gifts for that little flock, hungry 
and thirsting as it is. Should there be any news, you will 
obtain it from the bearer of this letter. May the Lord, who 
has chosen you as our pious and faithful pastor, long happily 
preserve you to us, and grant that we may at length reach 
together the promised land! Commend me, I earnestly pray 
you, to Christ, with your other friends. Venice, Jan. 23, 

Your humble son, and servant to command, 

THOMAS KNIGHT, Anglus, Bookseller. 

P. S. You will receive together with this parcel a cask 
marked with the name of Richard. You will have the kind- 
ness to endeavour that it may be forwarded to him by means 
of some of your friends. You will not receive the jar of figs 
at this present time, because there was not room for it in the 
carrier's chest ; so I only send you by him a small parcel 
marked with the two letters R. H. 



Dated at OXFORD, June 14, 1551. 

THOUGH I have not replied, my dear friend, to your so 
frequent appeals as well by your friendly letters, as by your 
repeated salutations, I cannot plead my occupations as an 
excuse for my not having performed that duty ; but you must 
rather impute it to my being unaccustomed, not to say un- 
skilled in writing, and not to any forgetfulness of you. For 
I was afraid, unlearned as I am, to intrude upon a man so 
learned and accomplished as yourself with my unpolished 
letters. At length, however, I have divested myself of this 


rustic shamcfacedness, as I esteem your sincerity and candour 
more than I fear my own rudeness of style. You request, 
and from your kindness towards me readily obtain, that I 
should inform you of my state and condition. You must 
know then that, after the lapse of a year or two from your 
departure hence 1 to your friends at home, a very lucra- 
tive benefice was procured for me, which, to speak plainly, 
because I was not well qualified for the function of a good 
clergyman, both from my want of sufficient acquaintance with 
the word of God, and of the duties connected therewith, 
and also because popery, however it was abolished in name, 
still flourished among us in reality, I decidedly refused, and 
resigned into the hands of the patron. Since that time I 
have devoted myself for ten successive years to the study of 
medicine, and am now maintaining myself by the practice of it, 
having become, from a bad divine, a tolerably good physician, 
like the person mentioned by Augustine, as having become 
from a bad monk a good divine. But I have not so entirely 
taken leave of theology, as not to welcome from my heart, 
value, and delight in, whatever the most godly Bullinger and 
his like-minded disciple, Gualter, may write. 

I had intended to have written to you long ago, but have 
been unable to do so from having been detained in my native 
place, and at a distance from Oxford, by a quartan ague of 
three months continuance ; in addition to which, after I had 
recovered my usual health, my worthy father fell into the 
like disease, and at length died at the age of sixty 2 . John 
ab Ulmis, having lately met with an opportune messenger, at 
the same time that he informed me of him, has also reminded 
me of my promise, or rather of my duty ; so that I could not 
allow him to come to you empty, and without a letter, which 
I doubt not will be gratifying to you, inasmuch as it has pro- 
ceeded from a heart full of kindness, and which prays for you 
every happiness. I was eagerly expecting the arrival of your 
relative, and hoping that from this circumstance some oppor- 
tunity would arise of doing you a service : but as he is now 
travelling elsewhere, there is no means by which you can make 
experiment of my love towards you. Your countrymen are in 
excellent health, and highly esteemed by all good men for 

[i R. Gualter visited England in 1537.] 

[2 A few words arc here illegible in the MS.] 


thoir probity of life and conduct : among whom John ah Ulmis, 
who is as it were their leader, is removed from our society 
into the king's college, and distinguished by the degree of 
bachelor in arts ; and, I believe, will shortly take his master's 
degree, so that he may now be called an incepting master. 
This individual is a most active defender of the true religion, 

O 7 

and a valiant opponent of that which is false; and is not only 
known to be such in college, but also at court, where he is 
placed in so honourable a situation by the marquis of Dorset, 
that it is easier to imagine than express, how greatly he 
values him for the sake of religion. But now, as I am called 
away elsewhere, I must bid you farewell, and pray God long 
to preserve you in safety to his church. Oxford, June 14, 

Yours heartily, 




Dated at BAXTERLEY, May 31, 1552. 

HEALTH in the Son of God ! Our friend John ab Ulmis 
being about to return to his native country, earnestly entreats 
me to write to you ; and he is so urgent, that without being 
considered as regardless of my duty, or as wanting in grati- 
tude, I am altogether unable to refuse compliance. Your 
kindness to me, as long as I lived at Zurich with my most 
revered preceptor, master Wolfius, was exceeding great, and 

[ l Augustin Bernher was in the household of bishop Latimer, 
whose sermons he published with a preface. He was greatly service- 
able to the martyrs in queen Mary's reign, in the letters of whom he 
is often mentioned. Robert Glover in his last letter to his wife and 
children, before his martyrdom, wrote : "As Christ committed his mo- 
ther to John, so I commit you in this world to the angel of God, 
Augustine Bernher." He was instrumental in saving the life of 
bishop Jewel in the Marian persecution; during which period he, 
together with Seamier, afterwards bishop of Peterborough, Bentham, 
afterwards bishop of Lichfiekl and Coventry, John Rough, a martyr, 
and some others, acted as pastor of a congregation in London. In the 
reign of Elizabeth he obtained a living in the country, called Sutton, 
[Southam,] and died in peace. Strype, Mem. in. i. 227, &c. n. 132.] 


I am fully sensible of the obligation. But I am now indebted 
to you more than ever, for your having so diligently and so 
lovingly commended my sister's son Alexander 2 to some noble 
personages. I would have you, most learned sir, be entirely 
persuaded, that without any exception of time or place I 
shall never cease, as long as I live, my endeavours to promote 
your interests. I should make this promise more at length, 
if I thought you could entertain any doubt of my sincerity 
and gratitude, or if I did not choose to prove it by deeds 
rather than by a bare assertion. You will fully learn from 
my friend John my circumstances in life, and the nature of 
my studies. My master, doctor Latimer, had intended to 
write to you, but he has to-morrow to undertake a long and 
arduous journey, so that the excellent old man, and your 
most loving friend, is unable to send you a letter at this time ; 
but he especially commands me to salute you in his name as 
honourably and lovingly as possible. Lastly, farewell, and 
continue your regard for us, namely, Alexander and myself. 
May God the Father of mercy and loving-kindness faithfully 
reward you in the last day ; and I heartily pray and beseech 
him long to preserve you in health and safety. Again and 
again farewell. Dated at Baxterley in England, May 21, 

Your most attached, 




Dated at CAMBRIDGE, 1551. 

FORASMUCH as master Martin Buccr, of happy memory, 
when he was dying, committed to our fidelity some particulars 
of his last will, and appointed us his executors ; we, having 
had due regard to every thing, as far as time and cir- 
cumstances allowed, have made so much progress in that 
business, as that we doubt not but that we have satisfied our 
duties and our consciences. And should your worships desire 

[2 This was probably Alexander Schmutz, of whom see Strype, 
Mem. 7i. i. CH4.] 


any farther information upon the case, you will easily ascer- 
tain the facts by an inspection of the respective portions into 
which the property has been divided. But now, since the 
widow is about to be with you, we have transferred our 
authority to her; and we have no doubt but that as a mother 
she will love her children, and that as a wife she will observe 
inviolate the last will of her husband. We therefore present 
her to you, together with all the property, and authority to 
administer the will; that, as we have applied all our diligence 
to the utmost, yours may follow, and guard this entire will of 
that worthy and most excellent man, master Bucer, perfect 
and inviolate in all its parts : this we ourselves have done to 
the extent of our power, and we feel persuaded that you will 
do the same. If any other points require a separate con- 
sideration, they will appear in the minute accounts which wo 
have made out for this purpose, that, as far as the hurry of 
Bucer's wife's departure has permitted us, we might leave the 
whole affair as clear as possible. FareAvell, our worthy masters 
in Christ. In England, Cambridge, A.D. 1551. 

Your worships' loving friends, 



The total amount, exclusive of the things not sold or' 
valued, as on the other side, is 380. 

Various items 1 are stated from whence this sum was 
obtained, as stipend, sale of library, fyc. Then two or three 
small legacies are set against this. The account then 
proceeds as follows : 

Account of goods which were not sold, but taken home. 

Two green carpets. Two long bolsters full of feathers. A red 
counterpane. All the vessels of tin, weighing xxiv Ib. Five brazen 
pots. A large brass kettle. Eight copper covers. A mortar. Three 
copper shaving-pots. Two pans of copper. Four upper coverlets, 
with feathers. Three large, and six smaller pillows. Four bolsters. 
Five counterpanes, two red, the others green. Two green cloths for 
covering benches. Twenty-six pau-s of sheets. Twenty napkins. 
Twenty-one towels. Thirty table-cloths. Two black trunks, adapted 
for journeys. Three long gowns. Two shorter vests, one trimmed 
with fur. Two pair of hose. Three doublets. A cloke. 

f 1 The particulars of those sums are not given in the transcript.] 




[Before April 20, 15r.2.] 

I HEARTILY implore for your reverence the grace and 
favour of God the Father through our Lord Jesus Christ. 
Although the rank and dignity of your reverence would 
greatly deter me from writing, yet the exceeding benefits 
bestowed by your reverence both upon my husband in his 
life-time, and on myself since his decease, prevent the pos- 
sibility of my being silent, unless I would be branded with 
ingratitude. But though I am unable to recount them as 
they deserve, or worthily to praise them, I nevertheless 
thank God, and daily implore him on behalf of your 
reverence, that he who is most rich and most powerful, 
may regard you with his unexhausted goodness and in- 
finite beneficence. I remember, most reverend prelate, that 
when I was yet in England, your reverence promised me 
some document in Avriting, whereby the gift of his most 
serene majesty would be confirmed to myself alone, and 
remain undivided : which indeed seems just and proper, foras- 
much as the civil law and statutes allow of the division only of 
such property as is proved to have been in the possession of 
the testator previous to his decease ; while that which is 
given after his death, ought of right to remain entire and in- 
violate to the party on whom it is bestowed. Since therefore 
your reverence has premised me this document, and I am in 
hopes that by its authority and efficacy I may be able to 
obtain for myself and my little daughter, who very greatly 
needs it, the donation of his most serene majesty ; I beg and 
implore your reverence to send it me either by .Richard 
Hilles, or in any other way. For if I can procure it, I am 
in hopes of retaining this donation for mine own use and that 
of my little girl, which otherwise cannot be effected as being 
contrary to the laws of our government. But I would not 
have your reverence suspect that I am seeking this from any 
motives of avarice, or of envy towards the other heirs, but 
solely for this reason, that I may be able to aid and supply 
the slender means and wants of iny little girl, who inherits 
the smallest portion of her father's property, and who has 

[ 2 For Abp. Cranmer's reply to this letter, see above, Letter XVI. 
and also Letter CCXCIX. in Cranmer's Works. Vol. IT. p. 434. Park. 
Soe. Ed.] 


scarcely sufficient to provide her with a decent education 
and the necessaries of life. For the other children have 
mostly arrived at such an age, that (to say nothing of their 
having inherited a far greater patrimony than my little 
daughter) they may easily gain a livelihood for themselves. 
Wherefore 1 again entreat your reverence, that you will take 
up this cause, and forward me the required document as soon 
as possible ; for which favour, as for all others, you shall 
always find me grateful, and constantly praying God on your 
behalf. May the Lord God deign to defend your reverence 
from all evil, and enrich you with all good things ! Amen. 



Dated at STRASBURGH, June 20, 1553. 

WE have to inform you, that after the return to us from 
England of the honourable matron Wibrandis, widow of the 
late excellent Martin Bucer, a careful account was taken of all 
the property that he left behind him ; after which, according 
to the municipal law and custom of the state of Strasburgh, a 
division was made in favour of those parties to whom the 
inheritance belonged. For which reason both of us having 
been nominated, I, Ulric Chelius, as guardian to Elizabeth, 
daughter of the said Martin Bucer, and I, Conrad Hubert, 
guardian of Nathanael, son of the said Martin Bucer, we ac- 
knowledge by this letter to have received that portion which 
is due to our wards, and to be divided between them by 
right of inheritance, and that we are therewith well satisfied. 
Wherefore, reverend sirs, who are appointed executors by 
Martin Bucer, of happy memory, as far as we are concerned, 
we release you and others of your trust by this present 
acquittance, which we have sealed with our seals. Moreover, 
both of us guardians, together with Windelicius Richelius, the 
trustee of the widow, most earnestly request your kindness to 
endeavour, with the same diligence that you have hitherto 
employed, that the remainder of the debt, which has duly 
been ascertained by us, may be discharged and forwarded to 
us at the earliest opportunity : by which you will do us a 
most acceptable service, and one which shall be requited in 
due time. Farewell. Strasburgh, June 20, 1553. 



Dated at STUASBUKGH, Nov. 20, ]/i53. 

To your very kind letter, my Avorthy John, Avhich I re- 
ceived on the 18th of September, I now make a brief replv, 
as I am occupied by various engagements. And first of all, 
us you desire, I will touch upon the state of England. 
The most godly Josiah, our earthly hope, died on the Oth of 
July; of consumption, as the physicians assert; by poison, 
according to common report, for this is rumoured by the 
papists for the purpose of exciting a general hatred against 
Northumberland : nor, to tell the truth, were there wanting 
many and strong suspicions : but still, if I may say what I 
think, I believe the papists 2 themselves to have been tho 
authors of so great wickedness ; for they have expressed no 
tsigns of sorrow, and no inquiry has been made respecting so 
frcat a crime. This death, and the other evils which now 
oppress England, were apparently portended by a dreadful 
storm, to which I do not remember any equal : it was accom- 
panied by the most extreme darkness, most violent wind, 
innumerable flashes of lightning, terrible claps of thunder, 
and an immense body of water, so that our kitchen was 
entirely flooded. The walnut-tree, planted in the corner at 
our house, was torn up by the roots, and another tree also 
was blown down in our garden. 

A few days before his death the king made a will at tho 
instigation of Northumberland, by which he disinherited both 
his sisters, and appointed the lady Frances, wife of the duke 
of Suffolk, to bo his heir. She declined it, and the kingdom 
was made over to her daughter Jane, who had been married 
two months before to the lord Guilford, the third son of the 
duke of Northumberland. Almost the whole of the nobility 
subscribed to this testament, some of them, as it Avas after 

[i The original of this letter is printed in Fucslin, Lett. LXXVI.J 
[ 2 Osorius, bishop of Sylva in Portugal, affirmed expressly, in a 
letter wrote to queen Elizabeth, that king Edward was poisoned in his 
childhood. But Walter Iladdon, who replied to that letter, esteemed 
this report to be but a fable, raised by idle people, and carried about 
by such as favoured popery. Sec Strypc. Mem. n. ii. 1 is.] 


wards discovered, with the view of more easily deceiving 
Northumberland, by whose advice all these things appeared 
to be done, and of concealing the plot they were preparing 
in favour of Mary, who is now in possession of the crown : 
others added their names from fear of Northumberland, for 
you know the character of the man ; and some of the better 
of them, with the hope of protecting religion, which they per- 
ceived would be altogether overthrown, should Mary obtain 
the crown ; and Northumberland himself excited great expec- 
tations that he would favour religion. In addition to this, 
the king himself in his will alleged as a reason for disin- 
heriting Mary, besides her illegitimacy, the cause of religion. 
In fine, he had the assent of almost the whole of the nobility : 
Jane is brought down to take possession of the Tower, and on 
the same day is proclaimed queen at London, and in the same 
week in many parts of the kingdom. Mary, who had most 
faithful councillors, by their advice went, as though defence- 
less, into Norfolk, where she is received and hailed as queen 
with general applause. . She forthwith procures herself to be 
proclaimed queen in as many places as possible, in all of 
which it was stated that the kingdom was being wrested from 
her by the treachery of Northumberland ; wherefore she 
enjoins all her subjects to preserve it to her. Almost the 
entire nation rise to her assistance ; first of all the people of 
Norfolk and Suffolk, and then those of Oxfordshire, Buck- 
inghamshire, Berkshire, and Essex. A portion too of the 
nobility, who had given in their adhesion to Jane, merely for 
the purpose of deceiving her, revolt from her forthwith, and 
exert all their energies in behalf of Mary. As to the Lon- 
doners, some of them through fear, and others through 
treachery, urge upon Northumberland the protection of the 
state, and the necessity of seizing upon Mary's person before 
her forces can be assembled. He therefore exerts himself 
like one whose fortunes are involved in the result, oifers 
large pay, and engages a soldiery partly unwilling, and 
partly treacherous ; for they consisted in great measure of 
the dependants of those noblemen who secretly espoused the 
cause of Mary. Northumberland sets forth, well supplied 
with cavalry and artillery, which however were to be turned 
against him. Those who remained at London, as though 
for the purpose of protecting Jane and retaining the city 


in its allegiance, begin forthwith to consult about deserting 
her; for which they plausibly allege, partly their fear of the 
people, all of whom are flocking to Mary, and partly the 
well-being of the kingdom, lest it should suffer from intestine 
war. Why should I say more? They immediately pro- 
claim queen Mary, with general applause, and threaten with 
death the duke of Suffolk, in case he refuses to leave the 
Tower. The good duke yields. They write to Northumber- 
land to dismiss his troops ; and being now forsaken by the 
people, and betrayed by others, not knowing what to do, with 
his soldiers deserting every day, he proclaims queen Mary at 
Cambridge, and three days after is carried prisoner in her 
name by the earl of Arundel, together with all his sons and 
many other noble and influential personages, to London, 
where he was received with unbounded abuse on his way 
to the Tower. 

Thus Jane was queen for only nine days, and those most 
turbulent ones. After some days Mary made her entry with 
great triumph into the city, to take possession of the Tower ; 
on entering which she immediately set at liberty the bishop 
of Winchester, the duke of Norfolk, lord Courtney, and the 
widow of the duke of Somerset. She enrolled the bishop of 
Winchester and the duke of Norfolk among her councillors. 
The case of Northumberland and the other prisoners was 
then brought forward. But after five days the queen removed 
to Richmond, during which time Northumberland and two 
others 1 were executed. You have heard of the ungodly and 
shameful end of Northumberland 2 . The most godly king is 
buried ; the good archbishop of Canterbury performs the 
funeral service at Westminster 3 according to the established 

[! These were sir John Gates, captain of the guards to king Ed- 
ward, and sir Thomas Palmer, the first accuser of the duke of Somer- 
set. They were executed on Tower Hill, on Tuesday, Aug. 22. 
Strype, Mem. in. i. 41. Burnet, in. 335.] 

[ 2 The duke was attended by Heath, bishop of Worcester, whom 
he called to bear witness that he was a stedfast believer in the old 
religion. See Burnet, n. 370, in. 334.] 

[3 Dr Lingard states that it was in compliance with the wish of the 
emperor Charles V., who advised her to proceed with temper and 
caution, that she suffered the archbishop to proceed according to the 
established form at the funeral of her brother. Hist, of England, 4to. 
Ed. v. 25.] 


form, that is, in English, or in a Christian way, with many 
tears; but before the queen Winchester 1 himself performs 
the obsequies after the popish fashion. Our preachers, who 
now perceive the gospel is threatened with imminent destruc- 
tion, exhort the people to repentance, admonishing them to 
persevere in sound doctrine. Winchester, in conjunction with 
other parties Avho had together meditated the overthrow of 
the gospel, appoints a most thorough papist, of the name of 
Bourn 2 , as preacher at Paul's cross. A great multitude is 
assembled to hear what he intends to say. As soon as they 
hear his blasphemies and falsehoods, they begin to raise a 
tumult ; some of them demanding capital punishment for the 
man, and others calling out for silence. The lord mayor and 
some of the aldermen endeavour to quiet the people, but 
without any effect. Courtney interposes his authority, but 
is disregarded. Bradford himself comes forth in alarm; but 
the mob immediately cheer him, and promise silence, because 
he is a faithful preacher of the word. Some one in the mean 
time hurls a dagger at that popish preacher, when the mob 
becomes again excited ; and it would have been all over with 
that wicked knave, had not God by Bradford's instrumen- 
tality reserved him to a worse fate. But what thanks do you 
suppose were given to Bradford for so noble an action ? 

[! Within the Tower was a mass of requiem sung for him [Edward 
VI.] the same day; at which the queen was present, and the bishop of 
Winchester, with his mitre on, performed it after the old popish form. 
Strype, Mem. in. i. 31.] 

[ 2 On Sunday, Aug. 13, 1553, Gilbert Bourn, who had been ap- 
pointed by Bonner a canon of St Paul's, delivered an inflammatory 
discourse at Paul's cross in praise of Bonner, against the late monarch, 
and in favour of popery, which so excited the populace that they were 
ready to drag him out of the pulpit. Bradford, who stood in the 
pulpit behind him, came forward and addressed the people, and ex- 
horted them to submission and obedience to so good eifect, that the 
multitude, after hailing him with affectionate expression, dispersed 
quietly. He besought Bradford not to quit him till he was in a 
situation of safety ; and whilst the lord mayor and sheriffs preceded 
Bourn to the grammar-school house, Bradford and Rogers (another 
martyr) kept close to him behind, concealing him with their gowns, 
and thus conducted him safe through the mob. He was afterwards 
made bishop of Bath and Wells in the room of Wm. Barlow, who had 
lied on the accession of Mary. Sec Stevons's Memoirs of Bradford, 
p. 32. Strype, Mem. in. i. 32.] 


Truly such as might have been expected from monsters of this 
kind. On the next day he was thrown into the Tower, upon 
no other charge but that, as he could so easily disperse the 
mob, he must have had some hand in exciting it. Some other 
preachers are also thrown into the same prison ; all preaching 
is forbidden, and the place is wholly left to papists, who are 
surrounded by the queen's guard, that they may safely pour 
forth their poison ; and all persons are prohibited 3 from 
coming near Paul's cross, for fear of raising a fresh disturb- 
ance. And because in London there seemed to be some 
likelihood of a tumult, word was sent by the queen to the 
lord mayor, that he must either keep the city quiet himself, 
or that they must look for a guard of soldiers and the depri- 
vation of all their privileges. Then every family, especially 
of the gospellers, was in great distress. The queen, partly 
with a view of ascertaining the popular feeling, and partly 
for the encouragement for her partizans, sets forth a procla- 
mation, in which she declares her adherence to, and protection 
and support of, popery, and exhorts all persons to conform 
to it ; but nevertheless at that time she would compel no one 
to embrace it. 

The -papists, who had been always longing for this most 
wished for day, dig out as it were from their graves their vest- 
ments, chalices, and portasses, and begin mass with all speed. 
In these things our Oxford folk lead the van ; and respecting 
them I must tell you a little farther. At the proclamation of 
Jane they displayed nothing but grief. At the proclamation 
of Mary, even before she was proclaimed at London, and when 
the event was still doubtful, they gave such demonstrations of 
joy, as to spare nothing. They first of all made so much 
noise all the clay long with clapping their hands, that it seems 
still to linger in my ears; they then, even the poorest of 
them, made voluntary subscriptions, and mutually exhorted 
each other to maintain the cause of Mary; lastly, at night 
they had a public festival, and threatened flames, hanging, 
the gallows and drowning, to all the gospellers. 

Master Peter Martyr is forbidden to leave his house ; 
and Sidall 4 , a truly excellent man, is ordered to guard against 
his running away ; and thus master Peter has had his own 

[3 Part of this sentence is unintelligible in the original.] 
f 4 See a letter from him to Bullinger, above, p. 311 ] 



house made a prison of these six weeks. But I, perceiving 
that the danger was manifest, went to London to seek assist- 
ance from my friends. They were now reduced to a very 
small number, and were so far from being able to assist 
us, that they were exposed to the greatest peril themselves. 
Whittingham and I conceive the project of presenting a peti- 
tion to the queen and council, in which we embrace the entire 
circumstances of master Peter ; how he had been invited over 
from Strasburgh by the deceased king, and had been recalled 
by the magistrates of Strasburgh during the last year, but 
that the king would not give him licence to depart ; that the 
correspondence relative to all these facts was in the royal 
archives, and that, moreover, many of the council could bear 
abundant testimony to their truth. We added, that master 
Peter had committed no offence cither against the queen or 
the laws of the realm ; that if his enemies chose to bring 
any charge against him, he was prepared to meet it ; that he 
now perceived that the queen had no longer occasion for his 
services, and therefore he petitioned her for a licence to enable 
him to leave the kingdom. Whittingham and I proceed to 
Eichmond ; he presents the petition respecting Peter to the 
secretary, who, as is customary, lays it on the council table, 
and bids us wait. On that day nothing was done, we are 
ordered to come again on the morrow ; we are there at the 
hour appointed, but still nothing is done. We feel at last 
that we are imposed upon. We agree therefore among our- 
selves, that Whittingham should return to Oxford and remain 
with master Peter ; for he was now almost entirely by himself, 
since every one, except only Sidall and master Haddon, had 
withdrawn from his society. As to me, I remain in London 
to make what interest I can. At length Whittingham re- 
turns after some days : we both of us wait upon [sir John] 
Mason, who at first declined interposing in so disagreeable a 
case, and said that he was altogether out of favour ; after- 
wards however he was urgent that master Peter might be 
allowed to come to London, and plead his cause before the 
council. He obtains his request, and we have moreover per- 
mission to remove all our goods. Master Peter comes to 
London. He calls upon the archbishop of Canterbury, his 
ancient and most revered host. Who can express how welcome 
he was ? He had so earnestly wished for his coming, that 


he had often importuned the council to that effect, and 
offered to give all his property as a security, if they had 
any fear of master Peter's running away. When master 
Peter arrives, [the archbishop of] Canterbury tells him how 
he had caused bills 1 to be posted all over London, in which 
he offers to prove that the doctrine, which was received in 
the time of Edward the sixth, is sound, agreeable to scripture, 
the same with that of the primitive church, and approved 
by the authority of the ancient fathers, if only they will 
allow Peter Martyr, and one or two others, to be his col- 
leagues. Master Peter commends this act, and says that had 
it not been done, ho had intended to propose it to him. They 
prepare themselves for the disputations. But you should 
know, that the popish preachers, when they perceived that 
many of our priests were already cast into prison, and that 
others had consulted their safety by flight, made a great 
boast about disputing with us. But when the placards of the 
archbishop were posted up, they began to change their note, 
and said that no disputation ought to take place ; that they 
would abide by the received doctrine ; that this was a matter 
in which faith, and not reason, was concerned. But those 
placards of the archbishop so strengthened the spirits of the 
gospellers, that they no longer hesitated to lay down their lives 
for the truth ; but their enemies were so exasperated by them, 
that they instantly brought forward a new charge of treason 
against the archbishop, and cited him into court 2 , on what 
day of September I do not recollect, but I know it happened 
on a Thursday. Master Peter then dined with the archbishop, 
who after dinner came into his chamber, and informed him 
that he himself must of necessity abide a trial; and that it 

[! For the declaration hero referred to see Burnet, iv. 331, and 
II. 385. He says that the archbishop had drawn up this writing with 
a resolution to have made a public use of it ; but Scory, who had been 
bishop of Chichester, coming to him, he shewed him the paper, and 
bid him consider of it. Scory indiscreetly gave copies of it ; and one 
of these was publicly read in Cheapside, on the 5th of September. 
See also Cranmer's works on the Lord's supper, Parker Society Edi- 
tion, p. 428, where the declaration is printed with the variations of 
different copyists.] 

[2 On Sept. 13, both Cranmer and Latimer were called before tho 
council : Latimer was that day committed, and Cranmer was scut to 
the Tower the day following. See Burnet, n. 387.] 


was certain that he should never see him again : he recom- 
mended Martyr to be urgent for his passports, on obtaining 
which he should depart ; but should he fail in obtaining 
them, he must consult his safety by flight, for that no justice 
was to be expected from his adversaries. But, God ! who 
can explore the depth of thy counsels ? About five days 
after the archbishop of Canterbury had been committed to 
the Tower, a safe conduct, and a most honourable one, was 
given by the queen to master Peter ; who therefore, on the 
public guarantee, at the persuasion of his other friends, and 
also bearing in mind the words of the archbishop, commits 
himself to sea, spreading a report that he was going to Ham- 
burg, when in reality he was proceeding to Antwerp. This 
he did, to escape the snares of the papists in the dominions 
of the emperor ; and to deceive them more effectually, he 
wished me to remain some days in London. Meanwhile, after 
a fortnight's time, having obtained a wind, I set sail towards 
Antwerp ; and on the same day both master Peter and my- 
self arrived at Antwerp in different ships, each of us being 
ignorant of the other's arrival ; which was indeed remarkable, 
for I thought that he had by this time almost reached Stras- 
burgh. But I think that God intended to relieve us from our 
mutual anxiety, and moreover, to provide for my expenses. 
I will not however mention what perils we escaped of the 
pestilence, of the troops, and of the Rhine ; and also what 
mild weather we had in our journey as far as Strasburgh, 
whereby any one might conclude that God had certainly re- 
called us thither. But just as we entered the city, James 
Sturmius 1 , who was waiting for nothing else than the arrival 
of master Peter, departed this life, and thus we were disap- 
pointed of our hope. 

But to return to England. During this disturbed state 
of the kingdom, these persons, namely, lords spiritual, were 
thrown into the Tower ; the archbishops of Canterbury and 
York, the bishop of London, Latimer, Hooper, Coverdale, 
and the bishop of Bath. Ponet, bishop of "Winchester, and 
Scory, bishop of Chichester, are also deprived of their bishop- 
ricks. The bishops of Ely, Lincoln, and Hereford are re- 
moved from parliament ; and all the married clergy must 

[ l James Sturmius died at Strasburgh, Oct. 30, 1553, after lan- 
guishing of a fever for two months.] 


either relinquish their wives, or be deprived of their benefices. 
Master Cox is stripped of all his preferment ; Marshal has 
succeeded him at Oxford, and Wcston at Westminster. What 
must we not expect when such men are promoted ? More- 
over, all the papists, whether bishops or others, are restored. 
As many as are really godly students at Oxford, have all 
bidden farewell to that place, and some have already been 
ejected from our college. The fire of purgatory is now really 
kindled in England, and the nature of every one's faith is 
now made manifest. Curtop 2 has wonderfully fallen away ; 
and so has Harding, with numberless others. But the bare 
mention of this is too painful. The queen was crowned on 
the twenty-eighth of September 3 . They began parliament on 
the first 4 of October : transubstantiation was revived ; but 
where is the wonder? no room is left for truth. The deans 5 
made a strenuous resistance : their names do not occur to me. 
Moreover it was enacted in parliament, that on the twentieth 
of October 6 the popish mass should every where be publicly 

[ 2 James Curtop was a canon of Christ Church, and had been a 
hearer and friend of Peter Martyr. He recanted in queen Mary's 
days, and was sworn a witness against Cranmer at his trial. See 
Strype, Cranm. 285, 536. Respecting Harding, see above, p. 309.] 

[ 3 On the 28th of September, the queen, in order to her corona- 
tion, removed from St James's to Whitehall, and from thence to the 
Tower. The coronation itself took place on Sunday, October 1. For 
an account of the ceremony see Strype, Mem. in. i. 55. Burnet, in. 
390. Soames, iv. 78.] 

[ 4 Parliament was opened Oct. 5. See Strype, Mem. m. i. 57. 
Burnet, n. 391. Soames, iv. 82.] 

[ 5 Decani, MS. "Among the assembled clergy (in the convocation 
of 1553) no individuals were present, as it seems, favourable to the 
Reformation, who were not either deans or archdeacons, dignitaries 
entitled to seats in the lower house. The members who discovered 
this feeling were Walter Philips, dean of Rochester ; James Haddon, 
dean of Exeter ; John Philpot, archdeacon of Winchester ; John Ayl- 
mer, archdeacon of Stow ; Richard Cheney, archdeacon of Hereford, 
and another, said to be Thomas Young, precentor of St David's." 
Soames, Hist. Ref. iv. 103.] 

[<5 The bill for repealing king Edward's laws about religion was 
sent from the lords 011 Oct. 31, and argued six days in the house of 
commons. It passed Nov. 8, and provided, that from the 20th of 
December next there should be no other form of divino service but 
what had been used in the last year of king Henry VIII. Burnet, 11. 


restored. On November the fourteenth Jane, formerly queen, 
together with the archbishop of Canterbury and all the sons 1 
of the duke of Northumberland, was arraigned before the 
judges at Whitehall 2 : you know the place at London. Sen- 
tence of death was pronounced upon them all : but a peculiar 
punishment is intended for the archbishop of Canterbury, 
namely, hanging, and afterwards the dividing of his body into 
four parts 3 . But we must expect things yet more atrocious, 
unless God in his mercy look upon that church, on behalf of 
which I do not think I have any need to request your 
prayers; for you know from your own experience, how ex- 
cellent are the members of Christ in that country. Farewell. 
Nov. 20, 1553. Strasburgh. 

Yours in the Lord, 




[Without place or date.] 

NOTWITHSTANDING, honoured sir, such is the perplexity 
and pressure of your engagements, that you can scarcely 
obtain any relaxation from your most important avoca- 
tions ; yet since your kindness and indulgence towards us 
all is such, that you consider the management and arrange- 
ment of our affairs to be a part of your own duty, I have 
made bold, both from the necessity of the case, and the 
persuasion of your good-will towards us, to address you by 

f 1 The lords Guilford and Ambrose Dudley.] 

[ 2 These four individuals were arraigned in Guildhall, on the 13th 
of November, when they pleaded guilty.] 

[ 3 Cranmer was originally arraigned and condemned for high 
treason. See above, p. 343, note 2.] 

[ 4 Michael Reniger was on the foundation of Magdalene College, 
Oxford, whence he was expelled by bishop Gardiner in 1553, and 
became an exile. He was afterwards made chaplain to queen Eliza- 
beth, and prebendary of Winchester. This letter was probably 
written at Zurich in 1556.] 


letter. And lest it should occasion you any surprise, that 
when our houses are so near as almost to be united, I prefer 
addressing you through the intervention of a letter, rather 
than by a personal conference, you must account for it in 
this manner ; that I have still about me a kind t)f foolish 
shamefacedness, which shrinks from any discourse and conver- 
sation concerning my private affairs ; and also, that the 
person who is the bearer of this letter is able to explain all 
the feelings of my mind just as if I were present myself. 
Your kindness will thus briefly understand the whole matter. 
Master Burcher, at the persuasion of one of my friends, pre- 
sented me with twenty florins a year. This assistance I did 
not think proper to decline, though I still continued to live 
together with the English [exiles ;] first, because a necessity 
was imposed upon me to receive it : for a certain agreement 
and regulation was established among us, that each individual 
should exert himself among his relatives and friends to pro- 
cure for himself such a livelihood and means of support, that 
admission might be afforded in their room to the more 
indigent English who at Strasburgh; on which 
account these means of support were not to be rejected by 
me, both by reason of the force of that obligation, and from a 
regard to others. Added to this, the offer was such, and so 
exceedingly liberal, that it was not consistent with my can- 
dour or gratitude to refuse it : and in the third place it 
affords great assistance to the advancement and convenience 
of my studies. In a word, I applied to master Richard 
[Hilles,] that, since this allowance was scarcely sufficient for 
my maintenance, he would make some addition from the 
general fund : he replied, in my opinion reasonably enough, 
that the doing so would introduce a most dangerous precedent 
to the whole society, and that other persons, from any quarter, 
would claim a like addition for themselves. I then asked 
him, whether I might be allowed to write to some of my 
friends and connexions, who are merchants, respecting their 
affording such increase of allowance as might be necessary ; 
but he thought also that I could not do this without injury 
to the society. Being shut out from these means of support, 
I had communication with that most friendly man, master 
ab Ulmis, by reason of the intimacy which has so long ex- 
isted between us : the result of which, most accomplished 


sir, is, that having tried and explored all possible methods, 
we have discovered this last resource ; for it would savour of 
too much want of moderation, and intolerable importunity, to 
expect any increase of allowance from master Burcher, who 
has, besides, written very doubtfully respecting his own affairs, 
and that he would continue this pension some time hence, 
should his circumstances admit. It has occurred to us, that 
master Vergerius has addressed us with so much affection 
and sincerity of heart, as to manifest that he was ready not 
only to do every service in his power to all in general, 
but also individually to such as may be willing to make 
trial of his kindness. When we had thought this over toge- 
ther, it occurred to us that we should derive little benefit 
without the interposition of a letter from you : which I men- 
tion on this account, because master ab Ulmis with his usual 
kindness and good-will towards every one, and especially to 
myself, is not satisfied with regarding himself as the guardian, 
of my affairs, but is also ready (if only you think it will 
be of any use) to undergo with me both the trouble of the 
journey, and the soliciting and management of the business. 

The matter now rests with yourself, to whom, as the patron 
of the miserable men now exiled from England, application 
has often been made before now, and is now made by myself 
under like circumstances ; and to whom also any thing, what- 
ever it may be, which may procure any alleviation to our 
misfortunes, is not wont to appear troublesome ; that your 
prudence may ascertain, first, whether it is expedient to try 
this plan, and in the next place, may aid me, as far as you 
conveniently can do, with your advice and assistance. This 
is a short statement. I know how foolish it is to use pro- 
lixity with one who is more moved by his own kind feeling 
and desire to do good than by any private partiality or cir- 
cumlocution. May the Lord Jesus preserve you to his church, 
and repay to you out of his riches that kindness with which 
you daily refresh the bowels of the saints ! 

Your most attached in Christ, 




[FOR THE YEAR 1845.'] 

arter ocutj) t 

t&c $uftl(cati<m of tfje S3orBs of tfie jTatfjers antr 
rs of t^e Kcfonnefc (Sngltsfj 


In One large Volume, &vo. well bound in extra cloth? 
Price Ten Shillings and Sixpence. 










(ffamirtuge : 




his Volume contains the English Translations of both Series of "The Zurich 
Letters," excluding a few letters of no interest. Part of a limited impression of the Work 
is now offered to the Public, to meet the general demand for it; but the Parker Society will 
not again re-print this correspondence. Subscribers to the Parker Society may apply for 
copies of this Volume at the Office, 33, Southampton Street, Strand For them ONLY the 
Price will be Seven Shillings. 


about to publish a collection of the Letters of Archbishop Parker, it is 
earnestly desired that it should be rendered as complete as possible. Any 
communication upon the subject, and especially references to letters 
of the Archbishop preserved in any public or private repository, or 
in any Work not likely to be referred to for such a purpose, will be esteemed 
a favor. Communications may be addressed to the Editor, JOHN BRUCE, 
Esq., Hyde House, near Stroud, Gloucestershire. 



{EJje |)arto ^ocietg, 





COLLECTS suitable to the occasion were read by the Rev. M. M. PRESTON, 
Vicar of Cheshunt. 

The Report of the Council, and the Statement of the Receipts and Expen- 
diture having been read, 

The following Resolutions were moved, seconded, and agreed to. 

That the Report and Statement of the Receipts and Expenditure, which have 
been read by the Honorary Librarian and Secretary for General Business, be 
approved, and that they be received and adopted, and printed for the information 
of the Members ; and also, that the thanks of the Society be given to the 
President, Treasurer, Council, and Auditors, for their care in preparing the 
Report and Statement, and their other valuable services during the past year. 


That the following persons be the Council and Officers for the year ensuing, 
with power to fill up vacancies : 

was elected President. 

was elected Honorary Treasurer. 

was elected Honorary Librarian. 

REV. C. BENSON, Canon of Worcester. 







REV, T. TOWNSON CHURTON, Fellow of Brasenose College, Oxford. 

Rsv. W. II. Cox, Vice-Principal of St. Mary Hall, Oxford. 


REV. THOMAS DALE, Canon Residentiary of St. Paul's. 




REV. T. II. HORNE, Canon of St. Paul's. 

Hox. AND REV. B. W. NOEL, 

With the REV. JAMES SCHOLEFIELD, Regius Professor of Greek in the 

University of Cambridge, 

Were elected as the COUNCIL, with power to fill up all vacancies occurring 
during the year ; and 




FRANCIS LOWE, Esq., were elected Auditors. 


That the best thanks of the Meeting, and of the whole of the members of 
the Parker Society, are due to the Right Honourable Lord ASHLEY, for his 
invariable attention to the interests of the Institution, and for his kindly 
presiding on the present occasion, under the pressure of many important public 


That a special vote of thanks is due to GEORGE STOKES, Esq., the 
Honorary Librarian, for his continued zeal and activity on behalf of the Insti- 
tution, and for his unceasing attention to its interests. 


That the thanks of this Meeting be given to the Local Correspondents and 
oth^r friends of the Society, who have assisted the objects of the Institution 
during tiie past year. 








" Ho (Archbishop Parker) was a great collector of ancient and modern writings, and took especial 
care of the sale preservation of them for all succeeding times; as foreseeing, undoubtedly, what use 
might >.e im.le of thorn by posterity : that, by having recourse to such originals and precedents, the 
true knowledge of things might the better appear." 

" As he was a gvent patron and promoter of good learning, so he took care of giving encourage- 
ment to printing a great instrument of the increase thereof." 

Strype's Life of Archbishop Parker. 

THE COUNCIL of the PARKER SOCIETY, in presenting to the members, 
at the General Meeting, a full Report of the proceedings of the past year, 
are happy to be able to state that the delivery of the books for the year 
18-15 has been completed, and the cash account closed. The particulars 
will be printed in the edition of the Report annexed to the first book for 
1846. The amount received was 6966 l()s. lid. and the expenditure 
68'r2 15s. 9d. A balance of \ 13 15s. 2d. remains, which has been 
brought forward to the present year. 

The volumes for 1815 were five in number. 1. The remaining 
portion of Bishop Latimer, which contains some interesting letters from 
the State Paper Office, never before printed. 2. Another volume of letters 
from the Archives of Zurich, and other repositories in Switzerland, written 
during the reign of Queen Elizabeth. These are a portion of the docu- 
ments procured by the Rev. Steuart A. Pears, and supply many chasms in 
the former series. Upon the value and importance of these communi- 
cations it is unnecessary to enlarge. 3. and 4. Select Poetry, chiefly 
devotional, of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. This work was announced, 
in the original prospectus of the Society, but various circumstances pre- 
vented it from being given at an earlier period. It is an important 
publication, shewing how thoroughly the principles of the Reformation 
imbued the general literature of that age, a fact not apparent in former 
literary reprints, from which works of a religious nature usually have been 


omitted. The original intention was to have given only one volume ; but 
the researches of the editor discovered so many authors whose poetry had 
remained unnoticed, even by bibliographers, that it was found needful to 
extend the selection, though only giving specimens, to two volumes. The 
work is also interesting and valuable, by furnishing literal reprints, 
exhibiting the spelling then usual, thereby shewing how necessary it was 
to adopt an uniform system of orthography in the other publications of 
the Society. 5. A portion of the works of Bishop Jewel. This has been 
called for by the members from the first commencement of the Society, 
and has never been lost sight of by the Council, who have been unre- 
mitting in their endeavours to expedite the publication. Those who are 
competent to express an opinion, need not to be reminded of the peculiar 
difficulties to be overcome in properly editing the works of this valuable 
writer, and the time and application necessary to attain the requisite 
degree of acquaintance with the numerous authors quoted by him, in 
some cases existing only in manuscript. The Council have therefore much 
pleasure in sending forth such an important volume, edited in a manner 
which they believe will be found satisfactory. If the health of the 
indefatigable editor be spared, they confidently hope to deliver a further 
portion in the early part of each of the three next years ; and thus they 
expect to be enabled to publish, what has been in vain desired by the 
members of our National Church during the last two hundred years a 
new and corrected edition of the most important English theological 
author of the sixteenth century. If the Parker Society completes this 
publication, its originators and promoters may look with satisfaction on 
the result of their eiforts, even if nothing else were accomplished by their 

The Council would briefly allude to the difficulties which must ever 
attend the editorial proceedings of an effort like that of the Parker 
Society. Few persons are aware of the very great and peculiar hindrances 
and difficulties attendant on these labours, and how small was the number 
of individuals who, at the commencement of the Society, were fully com- 
petent to all that is now required in editing such works. Those who 
possessed the requisite ability and experience were so engaged in other 
duties, that scarcely any could be found to undertake the work ; while, of 
those few, several have been compelled to relinquish what they had begun, 
by new appointments of various descriptions engaging all their attention. 
Each year, however, has added to the number and ability of the editors ; 
while, as in the case of Jewel, more time has been devoted to preparation ; 
so that the Council can now state that their exertions in procuring com- 
petent editorial assistance have been far more successful than at first could 
have been hoped. They have always discharged their trust to the best of 
their power, and it is hardly necessary to add, that the responsibility for 
each book must in all cases rest with its editor. They would, however, 
remark, that in an undertaking of this nature, especially under the 
peculiar difficulties of this class of writers, the publications should be 
taken as a whole, when any estimate is formed of the proceedings of the 
Society. It would be invidious to refer to other proceedings, whether of 


public bodies or of individual publishers ; but the Council feel that it is 
due to the members, as well as to the editors, and to themselves, to state 
their full conviction that no similar effort has accomplished so much, and 
with fewer imperfections. Still they wish that more could have been 
effected, though they are aware that all literary undertakings will be found 
imperfect in a greater or less degree, so that objections may easily be 
raised against any book that ever has been printed. 

It may be well here to explain what has been stated respecting the 
text of the volumes reprinted. The spelling and punctuation have been 
brought to an uniform standard ; but in all other respects they are literal 
reprints, given as correctly as possible, and, it is believed, far more 
correctly than is usual in similar publications, with the advantage in many 
cases of exhibiting a collation of the different editions, and the correction 
of typographical errors. 

As to future proceedings, the Council have learned from experience 
the impossibility of stating precisely what is to be expected. Another 
painful instance has occurred in the last year, by the death of an editor 
who had already devoted some time to the works of Archbishop Whitgift. 
It is desirable, therefore, only to state, that at the present time fourteen 
authors are in preparation. Among them is a volume of Archbishop 
Parker's correspondence, which it is expected will contain many letters 
that have never been published. 

The Council are glad to observe that a continued demand exists for 
the early publications of the Society, notwithstanding the very large 
number of 7000 copies actually issued of each book. The two volumes 
of Zurich Letters in particular have been purchased at high prices when 
offered for sale, which shews how desirable it was they should be re- 
printed, to meet the wish of the members, as stated in the last Report, in 
one volume, and in regular chronological arrangement. This book is now 
ready, and may be had by subscribers and booksellers for seven shillings, 
or by the public in general for ten shillings and sixpence. The number 
printed is limited, and the Council are decidedly of opinion that no other 
edition should be printed by the Society ; nor should any other re-print 
be undertaken, unless, as in this instance, under very peculiar circum- 
stances, not likely to arise with reference to the books in general. 

The researches at the State Paper Office, the Rolls, and some other 
repositories, both public and private, are in progress, and incur con- 
siderable expense ; but the results promise fully to justify and repay the 
proceedings. The Council have much pleasure in reporting the kind 
willingness with which every application hitherto made by them, for per- 
mission to examine such repositories, has been acceded to. 

At the commencement of the Society many subscriptions were paid, 
the names and addresses for which were imperfectly sent, or incorrectly 
recorded by the booksellers or bankers through whom they were trans- 
mitted. Most of these have been traced and the books delivered ; but 
about thirty sets of the publications of the year IH-ll remain, the owners 
of which cannot be found. As nearly five 'years have now elapsed since 


tliese books have been ready, it is considered unnecessary to retain them 
longer than until the close of the present year. The Council therefore 
propose, after the first of January next, to place these books in various 
public libraries destitute of funds for purchase, and that the like course 
should be adopted with the few sets which may be similarly circumstanced 
in future years. The books will bear the names in which the subscriptions 
were paid, and be subject to be reclaimed by the subscribers, or their 
representatives, if applied for hereafter, and the list of names may be 
seen at the office. 

The Society has more than seven thousand names on its list of sub- 
scribers, but many of the subscriptions now due are still unpaid. It is 
therefore proposed to continue the usual course of subjecting all 
subscriptions not sent by the first of June, to an additional payment of 
five shillings, and to allow fresh applicants to have the unclaimed books 
of 1846, so far as they will go, for the like amount in addition to the 
original subscription. This proceeding has been approved in former 
years. It may be well to mention, that several applications for the books 
of 1844 have lately been made by parties who neglected to pay the 
subscription of that year, but the books had been previously issued to 
other applicants, after the notice duly given. And it is requisite now, as 
in former years, to impress upon the members the importance of paying 
the subscriptions immediately after the first of January in every year ; 
for the Council cannot otherwise continue to send the volumes to press 
without considerable and injurious delay. In answer to some inquiries it 
may here be stated, that the books of the past years now to be obtained 
at the office, are a few sets of those of 1843 and 1845 with the surplus 
volumes of the Liturgy of Edward VI. printed for extra applications, and 
the reprint of the Zurich Letters just completed at the Press. The other 
back volumes will, however, be found on sale among the booksellers ; 
and in special cases the Secretary will assist the applicant, by pointing 
out where it is probable they may be obtained. 

The objects of the Parker Society have been so fully explained in the 
Plan and the previous Reports, that nothing need be said respecting them 
in the present document. The return of twenty-two valuable books for 
an annual subscription of one pou;>d, paid during five years, also has 
afforded to the members an assurance of the value and efficiency of the 
proceedings, so long as adequate support is given. 

The main desire of the Parker Society may be briefly summed up in 
these words of Bishop Jewel : " God give thee the spirit of understanding, 
that thou mayest be able to judge uprightly : God give thee eyes to see, 
that thou mayest behold the comfortable and glorious face of God's 
truth ; that thou mayest know the good, and merciful, and perfit will of 
God ; that thou mayest grow into a full perfit man in Christ, and no 
longer be blown away with every blast of vain doctrine ; but mayest be 
able to know the only, the true, and the living God, and his only-begotten 
Son, Jesus Christ : To whom both, with the Holy Ghost, be all honour 
and glory, for ever and ever*. Amen." 



I. Tbat the Society shall be called THE PARKER SOCIETY, and that its 
objects shall be first, the reprinting, without abridgment, alteration, or 
omission, of the best Works of the Fathers and early Writers of the 
Reformed English Church, published in the period between the accession of 
King- Edward VI. and the death of Queen Elizabeth ; secondly, the printing of 
such remains of other Writers of the Sixteenth Century as may appear desirable 
(including, under both classes, some of the early Elfish Translations of the 
Foreign Reformers) ; and thirdly, the printing of some manuscripts of the same 
authors, hitherto unpublished. 

II. That the Society shall consist of sucli a number of members, being sub- 
scribers of at least One Found each annually, as the Council may determine : 
the subscription to be considered due on the First day of January in eaeii year, 
in advance, and to be paid on or before such a day as the Council may fix; 
sufficient notice being given of the day appointed. 

III. That the Management of the Society shall be vested in a President, a 
Treasurer, and Honorary Librarian, and a Council of twenty-four other subscri- 
bers, being Members of the Established Church, and of whom not less than six- 
teen shall be Clergymen. The Council and Gnicovs to be elected annually by the 
subscribers, at a General Meeting to be held in the month of May ; and no per- 
sons shall then be proposed who are not already members of the Council, or Offi- 
cers, unless their names shall have been transmitted to the Secretaries on or 
before the 15th of April in the current year, by nominations in writing, signed by 
at least five subscribers. And that there be two Secretaries appointed by the 
Council ; also, that the Council have power to fill all vacancies during the year. 

IV. That the accounts of the receipt and expenditure of the Society shall 
be examined every year, previously to the General Meeting, by four Auditors, 
two of them selected from the Council, and two appointed by the preceding 
General Meeting. 

V. That the funds shall be expended in payment of the expenses incurred 
in producing the works published by the Society, so that every member not in 
arrear of his or her annual subscription shall receive a copy of every work published 
by the Society during the year, for each sum of One Found subscribed, without 
any charge for the same; and that the number of copies printed in each 
year, shall be limited to the quantity 'requhecl for the number actually 
subscribed for. 

VI. That every member of the Society who shall intimate to the Council a 
desire to withdraw, or who shall not pay the subscription by the time appointed, 
shall cease to be a member of the Society ; and no member shall, at any time, 
incur any liability beyond the annual subscription. 

VII. That, after the commencement of the proceedings, no rule shall be 
made or altered excepting at a General Meeting, and after notice of the 
same has been communicated to the Members by circulars, or by adver- 
tisement in two London daily Newspapers, at least fourteen days before the 
General Meeting. 

VIII. Donations and Legacies will be thankfully received ; the amount of 
which shall be expended by the Council in supplying copies of the publications 
to clerical, or other public libraries, destitute of funds to purchase the same, 
and for such other purposes, connected with the objects of the Society, as the 
Council mav determine. 




RECEIVED. s. d. 

Balance brought from 1844 Account 15 12 5 

Amount Received for the Subscriptions of Members ) r^n\ o <j 

for the Year 1845, and previous Years 

Amount Received for Subscriptions for future years. ... 800 

Dividend on Stock 2410 5 

From Exchequer Bill Account for 1845, being Balance ^ 9 '5 11 

of Premium and Interest * 

Second Donation from Rev. Martin S. Wall . , 1000 

Total .6.958 16 6 


YEAR 1845. 

PAID. . s. d. 
Paid for Printing and Paper of the books published 1 

by the Society for 1845 / 3555 

For Binding and Delivery 1618 2 7 

For Volumes purchased to complete sets 21 15 6 

For Editorial Expenses 631 13 8 

For Insurance from Fire 512 6 

For Books purchased, for the Library, Copy for I 

Printing and use of Editors J 

For Transcripts, and Examining Libraries and Public ) 

., r 107 11 5 

Offices J 

For Printing Plans, Reports and Circulars, and for } m~ i < r 

r LOj 1O 

Advertisements ) 

For Rent of Office, Salary of Secretary, and Wages j ,q- ,Q ^ 

of Clerks and Porters ) 

For Furniture and Fittings 38 14 4 

For Stationery and Account Books 25 16 5 

For Incidentals, including postage, carriage, coals, and") 

various petty expenses (deducting re-payment of > 96 3 3 

7 14s. 5d. from T. Champion) \ 

Balance carried to 1846 113 15 2 

Total .6958 16 6 

HENRY POWNALL, ~| , ,.. 

>. Auditors. 








His Grace the Duke of Devonshire. His Grace the Duke of Manchester. His 
Grace the Duke of Sutherland His Grace tae Duke of lioxburghe. 

The Most Honourable the Marquesses of Bute, Cholmondeley, Conyngham, 
Downshire, Northampton, Ormonde, and Salisbury. 

The Right Honourable the Earls of Cavan, Chichester, Clancarty, De Grey, 

Essex, Galloway, Howe, Jerinyn, Nelson, Rosse, and Spencer. 

The Right Honourable and Rev. Lord Wriotliesley Russell. 

The Right Honourable Lord Viscounts A dare, Alford, Arbuthnott, Campdeu, 
De Vesci, Fordwich, Hill, and Lorton. 

The Right Honourable the Lords Ashley (President), and Lindsay. 

The Right Honourable and Very Reverend Lord Edward Chichester. The 
Right Honourable Lord Henry Cholmondeley. The Right Honourable 
and Reverend Lords Charles Thynue, John Thynne, Arthur Hervey, and 
George A. Hill. 

The Right Honourable and Right Reverend the Lord Bishop of London. The 
Right Reverend the Lords Bishops of Durham, Winchester, Chester, 
Chichcster. Hereford, Lichfield, Lincoln, Llandt.ff, Peterborough, Ripon, 
Rochester, Worcester, Oxford, and of Sodor and Man. 

The Right Honourable and Right Reverend the Lords Bishops of Clogher and of 
Meath. The Honourable and Right Reverend the Lord Bishop of Killaloe 
and Clonfert. The Right Reverend the Lords Bishops of Down and Connor, 
of Ossory and Ferns, and of Cashel and Waterford. 

The Right Reverend the Lords Bishops of Calcutta, Bombay, Colombo, Toronto, 

Guiana, Australia, and of Tasmania. 
The Right Reverend the Bishops of Ohio, New Jersey, South Carolina, 

Virginia, Maryland, Georgia, and of Delaware. 

The Right Honourable the Lords Bolton, Calthorpe, Farnham, Littleton, Ray- 
leigh, and Teigmnouth. 

Her Grace the Duchess of Argyle. Right Honourable the Countess of Annesley. 
Right Honourable Viscountess Valentia. Right Honourable Lady Ward, &c. 


The Rig] it Honourable the Lord Chief Justice of Ireland. The Right Honour- 
able Lord Justice Clerk, Scotland. The Honourable Mr. Justice Jackson. 
The Chevalier Bunscn. The Right Honourable Henry Goulburn, Chan- 
cellor of the Exchequer, M.P. for the University of Cambridge. The Right 
Honourable W. E. Gladstone, M.P. 

The Honourable and Very Reverend the Deans of Norwich, Windsor and Wolver- 
hampton, and Manchester. The Very Reverend tlve Deans of Chester, 
Durham, Gloucester, Peterborough, Salisbury, and NYinchester. The Deans 
and Chapters of Lichlield, Worcester, &c. 

The Right Honourable and Very Reverend the Dean of Raphoc. The Honour- 
able and Very Reverend the Dean of Clogher. The Very Reverend the Deans 
of Cloyne, Connor, Cork, Deny, Cashel, Emly, St. Patrick, Ossory, Kildare, 
Kilmacduagh, and Limerick. 

The Honourable and Worshipful T. W. Law, Chancellor of Bath and Wells. 
The Worshipful II. Raikes, Chancellor of Chester ; John N. Wood- 
ruffe, Chancellor of Cork; K. T. M, Phillips, Chancellor of Gloucester; 
F. R. Sandys, Chancellor of Ossory; Marsham Argles, Chancellor of 

The Venerable Archdeacons Bather, Berners. Bevan, Browne, Buckle, Davys, 
Dealtry, Hare. Hodson, Hoare, Law, Lyall, Mac Donald, Philpot, Shirley 
Spooner, C. Thorp, and J. R. Wilberfcrce. 

The Venerable Archdeacons Bell, Beresford, Creery, Digby, Mant, Mousell, 
Oldileld, Power, Stuart, Verschoyle and St. George. 

Reverend Dr. Symons, Warden of Wadham Coll. Oxford, and Vice Chancellor 
of the University. Reverend Dr. Plielps, Master of Sidney Sussex Coll. 
Cambridge, and Vice Chancellor of the University. Reverend Dr. Graham, 
Master of Christ Coll. Cambridge. Reverend Dr. Archdall, Master of Em- 
manuel Coll. Cambridge. Reverend Dr. Tatham, Master of St. John's Coll. 
Cambridge.- -Reverend Dr. Phnntre, Master of University Coll. Oxford. 
Reverend Dr. Fox, Provost of Queen's Coll. Oxford. Reverend Dr. Cotton, 
Provost of Worcester Coll. Oxford. Reverend Dr. Jeunc, Master of Pem- 
broke Coll. Oxford. Reverend Dr. Thackeray, Provost of King's Coll. Cam- 
bridge. Reverend Dr. Ainslie, Master of Pembroke Hall, Cambridge. 
Reverend Dr. French, Master of Jesus Coll. Cambridge. Joshua King, 
Esq. D C.L. President of Queen's Coll. Cambridge. lievereml Dr. Procter, 
Master of Catherine Hall, Cambridge. Reverend Dr. Webb, Master of Clare 
Hall, Cambridge Reverend Dr. Hampden, Principal of St. Mary's Hall, 
and Regius Professor of Divinity, Oxford. Reverend Dr. Cramer, Prin- 
cipal of New Inn Hall, Oxford. Reverend E. Cardwell, Principal of St. 
Alban's Hall, Oxford. 

The Reverend Dr. Sadleir, Provost of Trinity Coll. Dublin. The Venerable 
Archdeacon Thorp, Warden of the University of Durham. The Very 
Reverend Dr. Lee, Principal of the University of Edinburgh. Reverend 
J. Wheeler, President of the University of Vermont, U. 8. Rev. R. P. 
Buddicom, Principal of St. Bees College. Reverend Dr. Williamson, Head 
Master of Westminster School. Reverend Dr. Tait, Head Master of Rugby 
School, &c. &c. 

LIBRARIES. The Royal Library, Berlin. Balliol Coll. Oxford. Gonville and 
Cains, Pembroke, and Queen's Coll. Cambridge. Wadham and Worcester 
Coll. Oxford. Trinity Coll. Dublin. University of Edinburgh. King's Coll. 
London. Advocates' Library, and Library of the Writers to the Signet, 
Edinburgh. St. Bees Coll. Cathedrals of Chester and Cashel. The London 
Institution. The London Library. The Chetham Library, Manchester; 
and many other Collegiate, Public, and School Libraries, &c. &c. 





REV. R. G. BAKER REV. C. BENSON, Canon of Worcester. REV. E. 


Brasenose College. Oxford. HON. WILLIAM COWPER. REV.W. H. Cox, Vice 
Principal, St. Mary Hall, Oxford. REV. J. W. CUNNINGHAM. REV THOMAS 
DALE, Canon Residentiary of St. Paul's/ TEN. DR. DEALTRY, Archdeacon of 
JOSEPH HOARK, Esa. RKV. T. II. HORNE, Canon of St. Paul's HON. 

Honorary Librarian. 
GEOROE STOKES, ESQ., Cheltenham. 

Editorial Secretary. 

REV. JAMES SCHOLEFIELD, Regius Professor of Greek in the University of 


Secretary for General Business. 

WILLIAM THOMAS, ESQ. at the Office of the Parker Society, 33, Southampton 
Street, Strand, London. 


MESSRS. HERUIES, FARQUHAR, AND Co., No. 16, St. James's Street. 



I. They will be delivered, free of expense, at the Office, or within three miles of 

the General Post Office, London. 

II. They will be sent to any place in England beyond the distance of three miles from 

the General Post Office, by any conveyance a Member may point out. In this 
case the parcels will be booked at the expense of the Society, but the carriage 
must be paid by the Members to whom they are sent. 

III. They will be delivered, free of expense, at any place in London which a Member, 

resident in the country, may name. 

IV. They may remain at the Office of the Society until the Members apply for them, 

but, in that case, the Society will not be responsible for any damage which may 
happen from fire, or other accident. 

V. They will be sent to any of the Correspondents, or Agents of the Society, each 

Member paying the Correspondent or Agent a share of the Carriage of the 
parcel in which the books were included. Arrangements are made for the 
delivery on this plan, in many of the cities and large towns where a sufficient 
number of members reside ; and it will be esteemed a favour if gentlemen who 
are willing to further the objects of the Parker Society, by taking charge of the 
books for the Members in their respective neighbourhoods, will write to the Office 
on the subject. 

VI. They will be delivered in Edinburgh and Dublin as in London, and forwarded 

from thence to Members in other parts of Scotland and Ireland, in the same 
manner as is mentioned above with respect to England. 

n Htst of tfje OTorfts 



The Works of Bishop Ridley. 

The Sermons and other Pieces of Archbishop Sandys, 

The Works of Bishop Pilkington. 

The Works of Roger Hutchinson. 


The Examinations and Writings of Archdeacon Philpot. 

Christian Prayers and Meditations, 

Letters of Bishop Jewell, and others, translated from the Originals in the 

Archives of Zurich, (1st Series). 
The Writings of Archbishop Grindal. 
Early Writings of the Rev. T. Becon, Chaplain to Archbishop Cranmer, and 

Prebendary of Canterbury. 


Fulke's Defence of the English Translation of the Bible. 
Early Writings of Bishop Hooper. 
Writings of Archbishop Cranmer on the Lord's Supper. 
The Catechism and other pieces of Becon. 


The Liturgies, Primer and Catechism of the Reign of Edward VI. 
t*: Writings of Bishop Coverdale. 
Sermons of Bishop Latimer. 
The Flower of Godly Prayers, and other Pieces of Becon. 


Second Series of Letters from the Archives of Zurich. 

Writings of Bishop Jewel. 

Remains of Bishop Latimer. 

Devotional Poetry of the Reign of Queen Elizabeth. 

Preparing for publication in the Year 184G, and following Year, as tfie 
subscriptions allow, and the volumes can be completed. 

" A further portion of Bishop Jewel. 
Another portion of Bishop Coverdale. 
Calfhill's Answer to Martiall's Treatise on the Cross. 
u Writings of John Bradford. 
The Remains of Archbishop Cranmer. 
Liturgies and Occasional Services of Queen Elizabeth. 
Original Letters relative to the English Reformation. 


Hist of SZtorft* 


In Royal Octavo. Becon* Cranmer* Jewel* "Whitgift Parker Bullin- 
gcr's Decades Alley Whitaker. 

In Demy Octavo. -R idley*Pilkington*Philpot*Fulke*Nowell Cover- 
dale* Curtis Bale Tyndale Fryth Barnes Sandys* Hutchinson* 
Grindal* Hooper* Latimer* Bradford Cooper Fox Taverner 
Calf hill, and others; Royal Authors, Documents of the Reign of Edward 
VI.* Documents relative to the Reign of Queen Mary Documents of the 
Reign of Queen Elizabeth Letters from the Archives of Zurich* (three 
series) Letters and Documents from Archbishop Parker's MSS, in C.C. 
C.C. Occasional Services oi' Queen Elizabeth's Reign The Homilies 
Some volumes of Sermons preached before King Edward VI. and Queen 
Elizabeth, at St. Paul's Cross, in the Universities, and on various occasions 
Several volumes of Tracts and small Pieces Various Letters and "Docu- 
ments Reformatio Legum Ecclesiasticarum Queen Elizabeth's Prayer 
Book Devotional Poetry of the Sixteenth Century* Christian Meditations 
and Prayers, and some other Devotional Manuals.* 

It is calculated that the Works above stated may be included in about 
18 or 20 volumes royal octavo, and 50 volumes demy, and that the whole may 
be completed in sixteen years from the commencement. A few pieces of peculiar 
interest may probably be printed as fac similes. The list, however, is not to be 
considered as definitely settled. It is not possible to state the order in which 
the volumes will appear, but each will be complete in itself. The whole series 
(fully equal to a hundred volumes of demy octavo), when completed, will have 
cost the original subscribers only about sixteen pounds, paid in as many years, 
and in proportion for parts of the series. 

The Parker Society is also engaged in a complete examination of the State 
Paper Office, and is under engagement to print the Letters and Documents from 
that Repository in a separate form, by the express desire of Her Majesty's 

The Works of the Authors to whose names this mark (*) is appended, have been 
already printed, in whole or in part, and delivered to the Subscribers. 

All correspondence respecting subscriptions, or the delivery of the Books, is to 

be addressed to 

WILLIAM THOMA.S, Esa., Secretary for General Business, 

To whom all Bank and Post Office Orders are to be made payable, 



Printed at the Milton Press, 
corner of Charing Cross Hospital, Strand. 

Original letters. BX 

1531-1558. . P2 


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