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J. MUIK, D.C.L., 












Printed by Stephen Austin, Fore Street. 


The principal object which I have had in view in this 
volume, as in the two which preceded it, has been to 
assist the researches of those Hindus who may desire 
to investigate critically the most important points in 
the civil and religious history of their nation. Having 
shown in the First Part that the mythical and legendary 
accounts, given in the Puranas, etc., regarding the 
origin of the caste system which has long prevailed in 
India, are mutually contradictory and totally insufficient 
to establish the truth of the popular belief regarding the 
distinct creation of four separate tribes ; and having 
endeavoured to prove, in the Second Part, by a variety 
of arguments, drawn chiefly from comparative philo- 
logy and from the contents of the Kig-veda, that the 
Hindus are descended from a branch of the Lido-Ger- 
manic stock, which dwelt originally along with the 
other cognate races, in Central Asia, and subsequently 
migrated into Northern Hindustan, where the Brah- 
manical religion and institutions were developed and 
matured ;— I now come, in this Third Part, to consider 
more particularly the history of the Yedas, regarded as 
the sacred Scriptures of the Hindus, and the inspired 
source from which their religious and philosophical 
systems (though, to a great extent, founded also on 


reasoning and speculation) profess to be mainly derived ; 
or with which, at least, they all pretend to be in har- 

When I speak, however, of the history of the Veda, 
I am reminded that I am employing a term which will 
suggest to the philosophical reader the idea of a minute 
and systematic account of all the various opinions 
which the Indians have held in regard to their sacred 
books from the commencement, through all the succes- 
sive stages of their theological development, down to 
the present time. To do anything like this, however, 
would be a task demanding an extent of research far 
exceeding that to which I can pretend. At some future 
time, indeed, we may hope that a history of the theo- 
logical and speculative ideas of the Indians, which shall 
treat this branch also of. the subject, may be written by 
some competent scholar. My own design is much more 
modest. I only attempt to show what are the opinions 
on the subject of the Veda, which have been entertained 
by certain distinct sets of writers whom I may broadly 
divide into three classes — (1) the mythological, (2) the 
scholastic, and (3) the Vedic. 

The first, or mythological class, embraces the writers 
of the different Puranas and Itihasas, and partially those 
of the Brahmanas and Upanishads, who, like the compilers 
of the Puranas, frequently combine the mythological with 
the theosophic element. 

The second, or scholastic class, includes the authors 
of the different philosophical schools, or Darsanas, 
with their scholiasts and expositors, and the commen- 
tators on the Vedas. The whole of these writers belong 


to the class of systematic or philosophical theologians ; 
but as their speculative principles differ, it is the object 
of each particular school to explain and establish the 
origin and authority of the Yedas on grounds conform- 
able to its own fundamental dogmas, as well as to 
expound the doctrines of the sacred books in such a 
way as to harmonise with its own special tenets. 

The third class of writers, whose opinions in regard 
to the Vedas I have attempted to exhibit, is composed 
(1) of the rishis themselves, the authors of the Vedic 
hymns, and (2) of the authors of the Upanishads, which, 
though works of a much more recent date, and for the 
most part of a different character from the hymns, are 
yet regarded by later Indian writers as forming, equally 
with the latter, a part of the Veda. As the authors of 
the hymns, the earliest of them at least, lived in an age 
of simple conceptions, and of spontaneous and childlike 
devotion, we shall find that, though some of them appear, 
in conformity with the spirit of their times, to have 
regarded their compositions as in a certain degree the 
result of divine inspiration, their primeval and elemen- 
tary ideas on this subject form a strong contrast to the 
artificial and systematic definitions of the later scho- 
lastic writers. And even the authors of the Upanishads, 
though they, in a more distinct manner, claim a super- 
human authority for their own productions, are very far 
from recognizing the rigid classification which, at a 
subsequent period, divided the Vedic writings from all 
other religious works, by a broad lino of demarcation. 

It may conduce to the convenience of the reader, if I 
furnish here a brief survey of the opinions of the three 


classes of writers above described, in regard to the Vedas, 
as these opinions are shown in the passages which are 
collected in the present volume. And this becomes the 
more expedient, as, since the body of this work was 
composed, I have discovered some additional texts of 
considerable importance, representing the tenets of the 
Mimansaka and Naiyayika schools, either in fuller de- 
tail or under somewhat different aspects, which I have 
had to throw into an appendix, and to which it is there- 
fore the more necessary that I should here draw the 
reader's attention in connection with the other texts of 
the same schools, which are cited in the earlier part 
of the collection. 

The first chapter (p. 1-113) contains texts exhibiting 
the opinions on the origin, division, inspiration, and 
authority of the Vedas, which have been held by Indian 
authors subsequent to the collection of the Yedic Hymns, 
and consequently embraces the views of the first two of 
the classes of writers above specified, viz., (1) the my- 
thological and (2) the scholastic. In the first Section 
(pp. 3-6), I adduce texts from the Satapatha Brahmana, 
the Chhandogya Upanishad, and the Institutes of Manu, 
in which the first three Vedas are described as hav- 
ing been produced from fire, air, and the sun. In 
the second Section (pp. 6-12) are quoted two passages 
from the Vishnu and Bhagavata Puranas, which repre- 
sent the four Vedas to have issued from the mouth of 
Brahma at the creation ; a third from the Vrihad Aran- 
yaka Upanishad, which describes the Vedas, as well as 
other sastras, as being the breath of Brahma ; several 
from the Harivansa, which speak of the Vedas as pro- 


duced from the Gayatrl, or as created by Brahma ; 
another from the Mahabharata, which describes Saras- 
vati as the mother of the Vedas ; with two from the Eik 
and Atharva Vedas, one of which derives the Vedas 
from the mystical victim Purusha, and the other makes 
them spring from Time. In page 227 of the Appendix 
a second passage of the Atharva-veda is cited, in which 
the Vedas are declared to have sprung from the leavings 
of the sacrifice (uchchhishta). Another text is quoted 
from Manu, which describes the Vedas, along with cer- 
tain other objects, as being the second manifestation of the 
Sattva-fficna, or pure principle, while Brahma is one of 
its first manifestations. Two further quotations from the 
Vishnu Purana assert the eternity of the Veda and its 
oneness with Vishnu. The third Section (pp. 12-19) 
contains various passages from Manu, in which the great 
dignity, power, authority, and efficacy of the Veda are 
celebrated ; together with two other texts from the same 
author and the Vishnu Purana, in which a certain im- 
purity is predicated of the Sama-veda; and two more 
from the Vayu and Brahma-vaivartta Puranas, which 
derogate in some degree from the consideration of the 
Vedas, by setting up a counter claim to respect in favour 
of the Puranas. A further passage is quoted from the 
Mundaka Upanishad, in which the Vedas and their 
appendages are designated as the " inferior science," in 
contrast to the " superior science," the knowledge of 
Soul. The fourth Section (pp. 20-31) describes the 
division of the Vedas in the third or Dvapara age, by 
Vedavyasa and his four pupils, according to texts of the 
Vishnu, Vayu, and Bhagavata Puranas; and then ad- 


duces a different account, asserting their division in the 
second or Treta age, by the King Pururavas, according 
to another passage of the same Bhagavata Purana, and a 
text of the Mahabharata (though the latter is silent 
regarding Pururavas). Section fifth (pp. 31-39) con- 
tains passages from the Vishnu and Yayu Puranas and 
the Satapatha Brahmana, regarding the schism between 
the adherents of the Yajur-veda, as represented by the 
different schools of Yaisampayana and Yajnavalkya, and 
quotes certain remarks of Prof. Weber on the same sub- 
ject, with some other texts, as adduced and illustrated by 
that scholar, on the hostility of the Atharvanas towards 
the other Yedas, and of the Chhandogas towards the 

Section vi. (pp. 39-52) contains extracts from the works 
of Sayana and Madhava, the commentators on the Eik 
and Taittiriya Yajur Yedas, in which they both define the 
characteristics of the Yeda, and state certain arguments 
in support of its authority. Sayana (pp. 40-47), after 
'noticing the objections urged against his views by persons 
of a different school, and defining the Yeda as a work 
consisting of Mantra and Brahmana, asserts that it is 
not derived from any personal, or at least not from any 
human, author (compare note 39, p. 51) ; and rests its 
authority on its own declarations, on its self-proving 
power, on the smriti (i.e., non-vedic writings of eminent 
saints), and on common notoriety. He then encounters 
some other objections raised against the Yeda on the 
score of its containing passages which are unintelligible, 
dubious, absurd, contradictory, or superfluous. Madhava 
(pp. 47-52) defines the Yeda as the work which alone 


reveals the supernatural means of attaining future feli- 
city ; explains that males only, belonging to the three 
superior castes, are competent to study its contents; 
and asserts that, inasmuch as it is eternal, it is 
a primary and infallible authority. This eternity 
of the Yeda, however, he appears to interpret as not 
being absolute, but as dating from the first creation, 
when it was produced from Brahma, though, as he is 
free from defects, the Yeda, as his work, is self-proved. 

Section vii. (pp. 52-73) contains the views of Jaimini 
and Badarayana the (alleged) authors of the Mimansa 
and Brahma (or Yedanta) Sutras on the eternity of the 
Yeda, Jaimini asserts that sound, or words, are eternal, 
that the connection between words and the objects they 
represent also, is not arbitrary or conventional, but 
eternal, and that consequently the Yedas convey un- 
erring information in regard to unseen objects. This 
view he defends against the objections of the Naiya- 
yikas, insisting that the names, derived from those of 
certain sages, by which particular parts of the Yedas are 
designated, do not prove those sages to have been their 
authors, but merely their students; while none of the 
names occurring in the Yeda are those of temporal beings, 
but all denote some objects which have existed eternally. 
Some of these notions are further enforced in a passage 
from the summary of the Mimansa doctrine, given in 
the Sarva-darsana-sangraha, which I have quoted in the 
Appendix (pp. 190-206). The writer first notices the 
Naiyayika objections to the Mimansaka tenet that the 
Yeda had no personal author, viz., (1) that any tradi- 
tion to this effect must have been interrupted at the 


past dissolution of the universe ; (2) that it would be 
impossible to prove that no one had ever recollected any 
such author; (3) that the sentences of the Veda have 
the same character as all other sentences; (4) that the 
inference, — drawn from the present mode of transmitting 
the Vedas from teacher to pupil, — that the same mode 
of transmission must have gone on from eternity, breaks 
down by being equally applicable to any other book ; 
(5) that the Yeda is in fact ascribed to a personal author 
in a passage of the book itself; (6) that sound is not 
eternal, and that when we recognize letters as the same we 
have heard before, this does not prove their identity or 
eternity, but is merely a recognition of them as belong- 
ing to the same species as other letters we have heard 
before ; (7) that though Paramesvara (God) is naturally 
incorporeal, he may have assumed a body in order to 
reveal the Veda, etc. The writer then states the 
Mimansaka answers to these arguments thus : What 
does this alleged ' production by a personal author' 
(paurusheyatva) mean ? The Veda, if supposed to be so 
produced, cannot derive its authority {a) from inference 
(or reasoning), as fallible books employ the same process. 
Nor will it suffice to say (b) that it derives its autho- 
rity from its truth : for the Veda is defined to be a book 
which proves that which can be proved in no other way. 
And even if Paramesvara (God) were to assume a body, 
he would not, in that state of limitation, have any access 
to supernatural knowledge. Further, the fact that dif- 
ferent 'sdk/ids or recensions of the Vedas are called after 
the names of particular sages, proves no more than that 
these recensions were studied by those sages, and affords 


no ground for questioning the eternity of the Vedas, — 
an eternity which is proved by the fact of our recog- 
nizing letters when we meet with them. These letters 
are the very identical letters we had heard before, for 
there is no evidence to show either that letters of the 
same sort (G's, for instance) are numerically different 
from each other, or that they are generic terms, denoting 
a species. The apparent differences which are observ- 
able in the same letter, result merely from the particular 
characteristics of the persons who utter it, and do not 
affect its identity. This is followed by farther reason- 
ing in support of the same general view ; and the writer 
then arrives at the conclusion, which he seems to him- 
self to have triumphantly established, that the Yeda is 
underived and authoritative. After noticing the dif- 
ferent grounds on which authoritativeness, and non- 
authoritativeness, respectively, are rested by the prin- 
cipal Indian schools, the Naiyayika is next introduced 
as raising another difficulty, as to the self-dependent 
(or self-derived) authority which is claimed for the Veda. 
What, he asks, is the source of this self-dependent 
authority? He gives four conceivable definitions of 
what it may be supposed to mean, and shows to his own 
satisfaction that they are all untenable. The Mimansaka 
then interposes, and brings forward a fifth definition. 
His conclusion appears to be that authoritativeness springs 
from the constituents or totality of knowledge. 

The question of the effect produced on the Yedas by 
the dissolutions of the world, which is raised- among the 
other Naiyayika objections above quoted, without re- 
ceiving any solution in the Mimansaka reply, is noticed 


in some extracts from Patanjali's Mahabhashya and its 
commentators, which have been adduced by Prof. Gold* 
stiicker in the Preface to his Manava-kalpa Sutra, and 
have been partly reprinted in my Appendix (pp. 228 ff.). 
It is admitted by Patanjali, that, though the sense of 
the Yeda is permanent, the order of their letters has not 
always remained the same, and that this difference is 
exhibited in the different recensions of the Kathakas 
and other schools. Patanjali himself does not say what 
is the cause of this alteration in the order of the letters ; 
but his commentator, Kaiyyata, states that the order was 
disturbed during the great dissolutions, etc., and had to be 
restored (though with variations) by the eminent science 
of the rishis. Kulluka and Sankara, on the other hand 
(see pp. 5, 72, and 213, note 10), maintain that the 
Veda was preserved (unaltered, I presume) in the memory 
of Brahma during the periods of dissolution. 

In the extract given in pp. 65-73 from his commen- 
tary on the Brahma Sutras, 1 Sankara, while he follows 
the author of those Sutras, and Jaimini, in basing the 
authority of the Yedas on the eternity of sound, finds it 
necessary to meet an objection that, as the gods men- 
tioned in the Veda had confessedly an origin in time, 
the words which designate those gods cannot be eternal, 
but must have originated coevally with the created 
objects which they denote, since eternal words could 
not have an eternal connection with non-eternal objects. 
This difficulty he tries to overcome (by tacitly aban- 
doning the ground taken by Jaimini, that the Veda contains 

1 My attention was drawn to this passage by an unpublished treatise by the Key. 
Prof. Banerjea, of Bishop's College, Calcutta. 


no references to non-eternal objects, and) by asserting that 
the eternal connection of words is not with individual 
objects, but with the species to which these objects 
belong, and that Indra and the other gods are proved by 
the Yeda to belong to species. Sankara then goes on to 
assert, on the authority of Brahma Sutra, i. 3, 28, for- 
tified by various texts from the Yedas and the smritis, 
that the gods and the world generally are produced 
(though not in the sense of evolution out of a material 
cause) from the word of the Vedas (see p. 4, and note, 
pp. 4 and 5) in the form of sphota. This last term will 
be explained below. It should also be noticed here that 
in another place (i. 1, 3) the Brahma Sutras (see note 
39, in pp. 51, 52) declare that Brahma was the source 
of the Yeda, and that, on this foundation, Sankara argues 
that Brahma must be omniscient. If, however, the 
Yedas are eternal and apparently self-existent, it is not 
easy to see how they can be at the same time the work 
of Brahma, and a proof of his omniscience. 2 

In opposition to the tenets of the Mimansakas, who 
hold the eternity (or the eternal self-existence) of the 
Veda, and to the kindred dogmas of the Yedanta, as just 
expounded, Gotama, the author of the Nyaya aphorisms, 
denies (Section viii. pp. 73-81) the eternity of sound; 
and after vindicating the Yeda from the charges of 
falsehood, self-contradiction, and tautology, deduces its 
authority from the authority of the wise, or competent, 

8 It is true that Sankara gives an alternative interpretation of this Sutra, viz., 
that it may be understood as meaning that the Vedas, etc., are " the source, or cause, 
or proof of Him, i.e., by enabling us rightly to understand his nature." (Tenth 
karanam pramanam my a Brahmano yatKavat svarupadhigame). But the explana- 
tion given in the text is the first given, and it is not repudiated by S'ankara. See 
Ballantyne's Aphorisms of the Vedanta, pp. 7-10. 


person who was its author. It does not clearly appear 
from Gotama's aphorism who the wise person was whom 
he regards as the maker of the Yeda. If he did not 
believe in a God, (see Appendix, note y. p. 216), he 
must have regarded the rishis as its authors. The later 
Naiyayika writers, however, as the author of the Tarka 
Sangraha (Appendix, p. 209) and of the Kusumanjali 
(Appendix, pp. 211-216) clearly refer the Yeda to 
Ifevara (God) as its framer. Udayana, the author of 
the Kusumanjali, controverts the opinion that the ex- 
istence of the Veda from eternity can be proved by 
a continuous tradition, as such a tradition must, he 
says, have been interrupted at the dissolution of the 
world, which preceded the existing creation (see above, 
pp. xi. xiii.) He, therefore (as explained by his com- 
mentator), infers an eternal and omniscient author of the 
Yeda ; asserting that the Yeda is paurusheya, or derived 
from a personal author; that many of its own texts 
imply this ; and that the appellations given to its par- 
ticular sdkhas or recensions, are derived from the names 
of those sages whose persons were assumed by Isvara, 
when he uttered them at the creation. 

Kapila, the author of the Sankhya Aphorisms (pp. 
81-86), agrees with the Nyaya aphorist in denying 
the eternity of the Yeda, but, in conformity with his 
own principles, differs from Gotama in denying its 
derivation from a personal (i.e., here, a divine) author, 
because there was no person (i.e., as his commentator 
explains, no God) to make it. Yishnu, the chief of 
liberated beings, though omniscient, could not, he 
argues, have made the Yeda, owing to his impassive- 


ness, and no other person could have done so from 
want of omniscience. And even if the Veda have been 
uttered by the primeval Purusha, it cannot be called 
his work, as it was breathed forth by him unconsciously. 
(Compare the passage from the Vedantist Sankara, pp. 
104 and 105.) Kapila agrees with Jaimini in ascribing 
a self-demonstrajting power to the Veda, and differs from 
the Naiyayikas in not deriving its authority from correct 
knowledge possessed by an utterer. He proceeds to 
controvert the existence of such a thing as sphota (a 
modification of sound which is assumed by the Miman- 
sakas, and described as single, indivisible, distinct from 
individual letters, existing in the form of words, and 
constituting a whole), and to deny the eternity of 

In the ninth Section (pp. 86-107) some short reason- 
ings in support of the supernatural origin of the Veda are 
quoted from the Nyaya-mala-vistara (a condensed ac- 
count of the Mimansa system) and from the Vedartha- 
prakasa (the commentary on the Taittiriya Yajur-veda). 
The arguments in both passages (pp. 86-89) are to the 
same effect, and contain nothing that has not been 
already in substance anticipated in the preceding sum- 
maries of the Mimansa doctrine. In reference to their 
argument that no author of the Veda is remembered, I 
have noticed here that the supposition which an objector 
might urge, that the rishis, the acknowledged utterers 
of the hymns, might also have been their authors, is 
guarded against by the tenet, elsewhere maintained by 
Indian writers, that the rishis were merely seers of the 
pre-existing sacred texts. Some further passages are next 


adduced (pp. 90-96) from the Nyaya-mala-vistara, from 
Kulluka's commentary on Manu, and from Sankara 
Acharyya, to show that a distinct line of demarcation is 
drawn by the scholastic writers between the Veda, on 
the one hand, and all other classes of Indian scriptures, 
such as the smriti (including the Institutes of Manu, 
the Puranas, and Itihasas, etc.), on the other, the first 
being regarded as an independent and infallible director, 
while the others are (in theory) held to be only authori- 
tative guides, in so far as they are founded on, and 
coincide with, the Yeda. The practical effect of this 
distinction is, however, much lessened by the fact that 
the ancient sages (such as Manu), the authors of the 
smritis, are looked upon as having had access to Vedic 
texts now no longer extant, as having held communion 
with the gods, and as having enjoyed a clearness of 
intuition into divine mysteries which is denied to later 
mortals. Sankara, however (as shewn in pp. 97-99), 
does not regard all the ancients as having possessed this 
infallible insight into truth, but exerts all his ingenuity 
to explain away the claims (though sanctioned by an 
Upanishad) of Kapila, who was not orthodox, according 
to his Vedantic standard, to rank as an authority. In 
his depreciation of Kapila, however, Sankara is opposed 
to the Bhagavata Purana and other standard works (pp. 
99-100). I then proceed to observe (pp. 101-103) that 
though in ancient times the authors of the different 
philosophical systems (Darsanas) no doubt asserted 
the truth of their respective opinions, in opposition 
to all the antagonistic systems, yet in modern times 
the superior orthodoxy of the Vedanta appears to be 


generally recognized; while the authors of the other 
systems are regarded, e.g., by Madhusudana Sarasvati, 
as, amid all their diversities, having in view, as their 
ultimate scope, the support of the Yedantic theory. 
The same view, in substance, is taken by Yijnana 
Bhixu, the commentator on the Sankhya Sutras, who 
(Appendix, pp. 217-226) maintains that Kapila's system, 
though atheistic, is not irreconcilable with the Yedanta 
and other theistic schools, as its denial of an I'svara 
(God) is only practical, or regulative, and merely en- 
forced in order to withdraw men from the too earnest 
contemplation of an eternal and perfect Deity, which 
would impede their study of the distinction between 
matter and spirit. To teach men this discrimination as 
the great means of attaining final liberation, is one of 
the two main objects, and strong points, of the Sankhya 
philosophy, and here it is authoritative; while its 
atheism is admitted to be its weak side, and on this 
subject it has no authority. Yijnana Bhixu goes on to 
say that it is even supposable that theistic systems, in 
order to prevent sinners from attaining knowledge, may 
lay down doctrines partially opposed to the Yedas ; and 
that though in these portions they are erroneous, they 
will still possess authority in the portions conformable to 
the sruti and smriti. He then quotes a passage from the 
Padma Purana, in which the god Siva tells his consort 
Parvati that the Yaiseshika, the Nyaya, the Sankhya, 
the Purva-mimansa Dar&anas, and the Yedantic theory 
of illusion, are all systems infected by the dark or tdmasa 
principle, and consequently more or less unauthoritative. 
All theistic theories, however, are, as Yijnana Bhixu 


considers, authoritative, and free from error on their 
own special subject. And as respects the discrepancy 
between the Sankhya and the Vedanta, regarding the 
unity of Soul, he concludes that the former is not 
devoid of authority, as the apparent diversity of Souls 
is acknowledged by the Vedanta, and the discrimina- 
tive knowledge which the Sankhya teaches to the em- 
bodied soul is an instrument of liberation; and thus the 
two varying doctrines, if regarded as the one practical 
(or regulative), and the other real (or transcendental), 
will not be contradictory. 

After thus deviating into the Appendix, I revert to 
the close of Section ninth (pp. 103-109) where it is 
shewn that the distinction drawn by the Indian com- 
mentators between the superhuman Veda and its human 
appendages, the Kalpa Sutras, etc., as well as the smritis, 
is not borne out by certain texts which I have cited 
from the Vrihad Aranyaka and Mundaka Upanishads. 
These two ancient treatises seem to place all the dif- 
ferent sorts of sdstras or scriptures (including the four 
Vedas) in one and the same class, the former speaking of 
them all promiscuously as being the breath of Brahma, 
while the latter describes them all (except the Upani- 
shads) as being parts of the " inferior science," in opposi- 
tion to the " superior science," or knowledge of Brahma. 
In the same spirit as the Mundaka, the Chhandogya 
Upanishad also, as quoted in the Appendix (pp. 186, 
187), includes the four Vedas in the same list with 
a variety of miscellaneous sdstras (which Narada has 
studied without getting beyond the confines of exoteric 
knowledge), and never intimates (unless it be by placing 


them at the head of the list) that the former can claim 
any superiority over the other works with which they 
are associated. 

In Section tenth (pp. 107-113) the arguments in sup- 
port of the Veda, adduced in the philosophical systems, 
and by the various commentators, as above summarised, 
are recapitulated, and some remarks are made on these 
reasonings. My observations are chiefly directed to 
shew that the rishis are proved by the contents of the 
hymns to have been their real authors ; and that 
numerous events which have occurred in time, are un- 
doubtedly mentioned in the Vedas. This, as we have 
seen (above, p. xiv.) is admitted by Sankara. 

The Second Chapter (pp. 114-183) exhibits the 
opinions of the rishis in regard to the origin of the 
Vedic hymns. It is intended to shew in detail that, 
though some at least of the rishis appear to have 
imagined themselves to be inspired by the gods in 
the expression of their religious emotions and ideas, 
they at the same time regarded the hymns as their 
own compositions, or the compositions of their fore- 
fathers, distinguishing between them as new and old, 
and describing their own authorship in terms which 
could only have been dictated by a consciousness 
of its reality. The first, second, and third Sections 
(pp. 116-140) contain a collection of passages from the 
Eig-veda in which a distinction is drawn (1) between 
the rishis as ancient and modern, and (2) between the 
hymns as older and more recent ; and in which (3) the 
rishis describe themselves as the makers, fabricators, or 
generators of the hymns ; with some additional texts in 


which such authorship appears to be implied, though it 
is not expressed. Section fourth (pp. 141-164) contains 
a variety of passages from the same Yeda, in which 
(1) a superhuman character or supernatural faculties are 
ascribed to the earlier rishis ; (2) the idea is expressed 
that the praises and ceremonies of the rishis were sug- 
gested and directed by the gods in general, or, in par- 
ticular, by the goddess of speech, or by some other or 
others of the different deities of the Yedic pantheon. To 
illustrate, and render more intelligible and probable, the 
opinions which I have ascribed to the old Indian rishis, 
regarding their own inspiration, I have quoted (in the 
same Section, pp. 165-171) a number of passages from 
Hesiod and Homer to shew that the early Greek 
bards entertained a similar belief. I then advert (pp. 
170-171) to the remarkable divergence between the 
later religious histories of Greece and of India. I next 
enquire briefly (in pp. 171-172) in what way we can 
reconcile the apparently conflicting ideas of the rishis 
on the subject of the hymns, considered, on the one 
hand, as their own productions, and, on the other, as 
inspired by the gods. Then follow (pp. 172-176) some 
further texts from the Eig-veda, in which a mystical, 
magical, or supernatural efficacy is ascribed to the 
hymns. These are succeeded (pp. 177-181) by a few 
quotations from the same Yeda, in which the authors • 
complain of their own ignorance ; and by a reference to 
the contrast between these humble confessions, and the 
proud pretensions set up by later theologians in behalf 
of the Yeda, and its capability of imparting universal 
knowledge. The ideas of the rishis regarding their own 


inspiration differ widely from the conceptions of later 
theorists ; for while the former looked upon the gods, 
who were confessedly mere created beings, as the sources 
of supernal illumination, the latter either regard the 
Veda as eternal, or refer it to the eternal Brahma, or 
X'svara, as its author. The fifth and last Section (pp. 
181-183) adduces some texts from the Svetasvatara, 
Mundaka and Chhandogya Upanishads, which show the 
opinions of the writers regarding their own inspiration, 
or that of their predecessors. 

I have stated above that my primary design in the 
composition of this work, has been to aid the researches 
of Indian students and their European preceptors. But 
the volume, with all its imperfections, may perhaps 
also possess a certain interest for the divine and the 
philosopher, aa furnishing a few documents to illustrate 
the course of theological opinion in a sphere far removed 
from the ordinary observation of the European student, — 
a course which, quite independently of the merits of the 
different tenets involved in the enquiry, will, I think, 
be found to present a remarkable parallel in various 
respects to that which is traceable in the history of 
those religious systems with which we are most familiar. 
In both cases we find that a primitive age of ardent 
emotion, of simple faith, and of unarticulated beliefs, 
was succeeded by a period of criticism and speculation, 
when the floating materials handed down by preceding 
generations were compared, classified, reconciled, de- 
veloped into their consequences, and elaborated into 
a variety of scholastic systems. 


For an account of the printed works or MSS. from 
which my Sanskrit extracts have been made, I may- 
refer to the Prefaces of the First and Second Parts. 
And sources not there mentioned, are, I think, specified 
in the body of the work. 

In regard to the texts quoted from the Kig-veda, I 
have derived the same sort of assistance from the French 
version of M. Langlois, which has been acknowledged 
in the Preface to the Second Part, p. vi. I am also 
indebted for some of the Vedic texts to Boehtlingk and 
Koth's Lexicon. 

In this volume, as the reader will perceive, the Sans- 
krit extracts are entirely printed in the Eoman charac- 
ter. I have no abstract preference for this mode of 
presenting Indian words ; but its adoption has saved me 
much labour in the way of transcription, and it has also 
the advantage of being somewhat more economical. 



v.— xxiv. Preface. 

1—113. CHAPTER I. Opinions regarding the Origin, Division, Inspi- 
ration, and Authority op the Vedas, held by Indian Authors 
subsequent to the collection of the Hymns. 

1 — 6. Sect. I. Elemental Origin of the Vedas according to the Brahmanas, 
Upanishads, and Institutes of Manu. 

6 — 12. Sect. II. Origin of the Vedas according to the Vishnu and Bhagavata 
Puranas, the Vrihad Aranyaka Upanishad, the Harivans'a, the Maha- 
bharata, the Rig and Atharva Vedas ; eternity of the Veda ; miscel- 
laneous statements regarding it. 

12 — 19. Sect. III. Manu's conception of the dignity and authority of the Veda, 
with some statements of a different tenor from him and other writers. 

20 — 31. Sect. IV. Division of the Vedas, according to the Vishnu, Vayu, and 
Bhagavata Puranas, and the Mahabharata. 

31 — 39. Sect. V. Accounts iu the Vishnu and Vayu Puranas of the schism 
hetween the adherents of the Yajur-veda, Vais'ampayana, and Yajna- 
valkya ; hostility of the Atharvanas towards the other Vedas ; and of 
the Chhandogas towards the Rig-veda. 

39 — 52. Sect. VI. Reasonings of the Commentators on the Vedas, in support of 
the authority of the Vedas. 

52— 73. Sect. VII. Arguments of the Mlmansakas and Vedantins in support of 
the eternity and authority of the Vedas. 

73 — 86. Sect. VIII. Arguments of the followers of the Nyaya and Sankhya 
systems in support of the authority of the Vedas, hut against the 
eternity of sound, and of the Vedas 

86 — 107. Sect. IX. Some further reasonings in support of the supernatural 
origin of the Veda, and distinction in point of authority hetween it and 
the Smritis or non-vedic S'astras, as stated by the commentators on the 
Taittiriya Yajur-veda, the Purva Mimunsii, Manu, and the Vedanta; 



difference of opinion between S'ankara and Madhusudana, regard- 
ing the orthodoxy of Eapila and Kanada ; the distinction in point of 
authority between the Vedas and the other S'astras, drawn by later 
writers, not borne out by the Upanishads. 

107 — 113. Sect. X. Recapitulation of the arguments urged in the Dars'anas, and 
by commentators, in support of the authority of the Vedas, with some 
remarks on their reasonings. 

114 — 183. CHAPTER II. The Rishis, and their opinions in regard to 
the Origin op the Vedio Hymns. 

116 — 120. Sect. I. Passages from the Hymns of the Veda which distinguish 
between the Rishis as Ancient and Modern. 

121 — 128. Sect. II. Passages from the Veda in which a distinction is drawn 
between the older and the more recent Hymns. 

128 — 140. Sect. III. Passages of the Rig-veda in which the Rishis describe them- 
selves as the composers of the Hymns, or intimate nothing to the 

141 — 181. Sect. IV. Passages of the Rig-veda in which a snpernatural character 
is ascribed to the Rishis or the Hymns ; similar conceptions of inspi- 
ration entertained by the Greeks of the Homeric age ; limitations of 
this opinion in the case of the Vedic Rishis. 

181 — 183. Sect. V. Texts from the Upanishads, showing the opinions of the 
authors regarding their own inspiration, or that of their predecessors. 

185—231. Appendix. 

185 — 190. Note I. on Page 19, Line 22, containing texts from the Bhagavad Gfta, 
the Chhandogya and Vrihad Aranyaka Upanishads, and the Bhagavata 
Purana, depreciatory of the ceremonial and polytheistic parts of the 
Veda, in comparison with the knowledge of Brahma. 

190. Note II. on Page 22, Line 14. Quotation from Mahidhara's Commen- 
tary on the Vajasaneyi Sanhita, regarding the division of the Vedas. 

190—209. Note III. on Page 65, 4th Line from the foot. Extracts (I) from the 
Sarva-darsana-sangraha, on the Mlmansaka arguments regarding the 
eternity of the Veda ; (2) from S'ankara's Commentary on the Brahma 
Sutras ; and (3) from the Vidvan-moda-tarangim, attributing atheism 
to the MTmansit. 

209—210. Note IV. on Page 80, Line 18. Extracts from the Tarka-sangraha, 
regarding the grounds on which the authority of the Veda, and of 
the other Scriptures, respectively rests. Vatsayana's definition of the 
word apt a, etc. 



210—216. Note V. on Page 81, Line 13. Extracts from the Kusumanjali, contro- 
verting the eternity of the Veda, and ascribing its composition to an 
eternal and personal God. 

216—217. Note VI. on Page 89, Line 12. Quotation from the Nyiiya Sutras, i. 49. 
regarding the technical term kalatyayapadishta. 

217. Note VII. on Page 90, Line 19. Indication of an additional illustrative 

217—226. Note VIII. on Page 103, Line 9. Extract from the Sankhya Prava- 
chana Bhashya (on the reconcilableness of the Sankhya doctrines with 
those of the Vedanta and Yoga), embracing various quotations from 
the Padma-purana, and other works. 

226. Note IX. on Page 112, Line 22. Extract from Sayana's Introduction 
to R. V. 

226. Note X. on Page 126, Line 15. Quotation from R. V. x. 57, 3, = V. S. 


227. Note XI. on Page 148, 4th Line from the foot. Reference to R. V. x. 

90, 9, and to A. V. xix. 54, 3, and xi. 7, 24. 

227. Note XII. on Page 149, 3rd Line from the foot. Reference to Professor 
Benfey's note on S. V. ii. 294. 

227. Note XIII. on Page 176, Line 12. Quotations from R. V. x. 57, 2, and 
Taittiriya Brahmana. 

228—231. Additional Note on Page 5, Line 15. Extracts from Patanjali's Maha- 
bhashya and its commentators, and from the Preface to Prof. Gold- 
stiicker's Manava-kalpa-sutra, on the changes undergone by the Veda 
during the dissolutions of the universe. 


Page 32, Line 23, for " Brahmarati," read " Brahmarata." 

„ 57, „ 7, „ " yangayadyam" read " yaugapadyam." 

„ 70, „ 27, „ " senapati" read " senapati" 

„ 97, „ 27, „ " employs the words," read " employs the words (xii. 91)." 

„ 102, „ 13, „ " Brahma," read " Brahma/' 

„ 112, „ 33, „ " supposed," read " imagined." 

„ 136, „ 26, „ "prinaitlie [?]," read " prinaitke." * 

„ 149, „ 35, „ " devebhyah-devana" read ll devebhyah = devana" 

„ 158, „ 34, „ " interests," read " intellects." 

„ 162, „ 17, „ "A. V." raw* " It. V." 

„ 197, „ 36, „ " recess™," read " regres&us." 

1 This, I find, is a correct Vedic form. Sec "Wilson's Sanskrit Grammar, 2nd ed., 
p. 464. 





In the preceding volume, I have furnished a general account 
of the ancient Indian writings, which are comprehended under 
the designation of Veda or Sruti. These works, which, as we 
have seen, constitute the earliest literature of the Hindus, are 
broadly divisible into two classes : (1) The Mantras or hymns, 
in which the praises of the gods are sung and their blessing is 
invoked ; (2) the Brahmanas, which embrace both the liturgical 
institutes in which the ceremonial application of those hymns 
is prescribed, and the Aranyakas and Upanishads, or theolo- 
gical treatises in which the spiritual aspirations which were 
gradually developed in the minds of the more devout of the 
Indian sages are preserved. It is, therefore, clear that the 
hymns constitute the original and, in some respects, the most 
essential portion of the Veda ; that the Brahmanas arose out of 
the hymns, and are subservient to their employment for the pur- 
poses of worship ; while the Upanishads give expression to ideas 
of a spiritual and mystical character which, though to some ex- 
tent discoverable in the hymns and in the older portion of the 
Brahmanas, are much further matured, and assume a more 
exclusive importance, in these later treatises. 

I content myself at present with referring the reader who 


.<fcsfres to obtain a fuller idea of the nature of the hymns, and of 

r'the attributes there ascribed to the divinities to whom they are 

, ,-.g,ddressed, to the late Professor H. H. Wilson's translation of 

'-.'the earlier portion of the Kig-veda, and to the dissertation which 

he has prefixed to the first volume. At a later stage of this 

work, I hope to return to the mythology of the Veda, and to 

compare the conceptions which the rishis entertained of the 

different objects of their worship, with those representations of 

the deities who bore the same names, which occur in Indian 

writings of a later date, whether mythological or theological. 

The task to which I propose in the meantime to devote my- 
self, is to supply some account of the opinions entertained by 
Hindu writers, ancient and modern, in regard to the origin and 
authority of the Vedas. With this view I intend to collect from 
the Indian writings of the later Vedic era (the Brahmanas and 
Upanishads) as well as from the books, whether popular or 
scientific, of the post-vedic period (the Puranas, the Itihasas, 
the institutes of Manu, the commentaries on the Vedas, the 
aphorisms of the Darsanas, or systems of philosophy, and their 
commentators) such passages as refer to the origin, division, 
inspiration, and authority of the Vedas, and to compare the 
opinions there set forth with the ideas entertained on some of 
these subjects by the writers of the hymns themselves, as dis- 
coverable from numerous passages in their own compositions. 

The mythical accounts which are given of the origin of the 
Vedas are mutually conflicting. In some passages they are said 
to have sprung from fire, air, and the sun. In other texts they 
are said to have been produced by the creator Brahma from his 
different mouths, or by the intervention of the GSyatrt, or to have 
sprung from the goddess Sarasvatl. I proceed to adduce these 
several passages. 


Sect. I. — Elemental origin of the Vedas according to the Brahmanas, 
Upanishads, and Institutes of Manu. 

I commence with a passage from the Satapatha Brahmana, 
xi. 5, 8, 1 ff. Prajdpatir vd idem agre asit \ Eka eva so 
'kamayata sydm prajdyeya iti \ So 'srdmyat sa tapo 'tapyata | 
tasmdeh chrdntdt tepdndt trayo lokd asrijyanta \ prithivy anta- 
rixam dyauh \ sa imams trln lokan abhitatdpa \ tebkyas tapte- 
bhyas trlni jyotimsAy cydyanta agnir yo 'yam pavate suryah \ 
sa imdni trim jyotlmshy abhitatdpa \ tebkyas taptebkyas trayo 
vedd ajdyanta agner rigvedo vdyor yajurvedali sUrydt sama- 
vedah \ sa imdnis trln vedan abhitatdpa \ tebkyas taptebkyas 
trlni sukrany ajdyanta bkur ity rigveddd bhuva iti yajurveddt 
svar iti sdmaveddt \ Tad rigvedenaiva kotram akurvata \ yajur- 
vedena ddhvaryavam samavedena udgitkam yad eva trayyai 
vidydyai sukram tena brakmatvam uckckakrdma. " Prajapati 
was formerly this universe [i.e. the sole existence]. Being 
alone, he desired, ' may I be, may I become/ He toiled, he 
performed austerity. From him, when he had so toiled, and 
performed austerity, three worlds were created,— earth, atmo- 
sphere, and sky. He brooded over [i.e. infused warmth into] 
these three worlds. From them, thus brooded over, three lights 
were produced,— fire, this which purifies {i.e. pavana, or the 
air), and the sun. He brooded over these three lights. From 
them so brooded over, the three Vedas were produced, — the 
Rig-veda from fire, the Yajur-veda from air, and the Sama-veda 
from the sun. He brooded over these three Vedas. From them 
so brooded over, three seeds [or essences] were produced, — bkur 
from the Rig-veda, bkuvah from the Yajur-veda, and svar from 
the Sama-veda. Hence, with the Rig-veda they performed the 
function of the hotri; with the Yajur-veda, the office of the 
adhvaryu ; with the Sama-veda, the duty of the udgatri ; while 
the function of the brahman arose through the essence of the 
triple science [i.e. the three Vedas combined]." 

Chhdndogya Upaniskad.—k similar passage (already quoted 


in Part Second, p. 200) occurs in the Chhandogya Upanishad 
(p. 288 of Dr. Roer's Ed.) Prajdpatir lokdn abhyatapat \ 
teshdm tapyamdndndn rasdn prabrihad agnim prithivyd vayum 
antarixdd ddityam divali \ sa etas tisro devatd abhyatapat \ 
tdsdfh tapyamdndndm rasdn prabrihad agner richo vayor ya- 
jumshi sdma dditydt \ sa etdfr trayifh vidydm abhyatapat \ tasyds 
tapyamdndyd rasdn prabrihad bhur iti rigbhyo bhuvar iti yajur- 
bhyali svar iti sdmabhyali. " PrajSpati brooded over the worlds, 
and from them so brooded over, he drew forth their essences, 
viz., fire from the earth, air from the atmosphere, and the sun 
from the sky. He brooded over these three deities, and from 
them, so brooded over, he drew forth their essences, — from fire 
the Bik verses, from air the Yajush verses, and from the sun the 
Sama verses. He then brooded over thi3 triple science, and 
from it, so brooded over, he drew forth the essences, — from Rik 
verses the syllable bhur, from Yajush verses bhuvali, and from 
Sama verses svar" 1 

Manu.—The same origin is assigned to the three Vedas in 
the following verses, from the account of the creation in Manu 
i. 21—23, where the idea is no doubt borrowed from the Brah- 
manas : — Sarveshdntu sa ndmdni karmdnicha prithak prithak \ 
Veda-sabdebhya evddau prithak samsthdscha nirmame \ Kar- 
mdtmandficha deodndm so 9 srijat prdnindm prabhuli \ sddhyd- 
ndricha ganaih sUocmafii yajnanchaiva sandtanam \ Agni-vdyu- 
ravibhyastu trayam brahma sandtanam \ dudoha yajnasiddhyar- 
tkam rig-yajuli-sdma-laxanam. "He [Brahma] in the begin- 
ning fashioned from the words of the Veda 2 the names, functions, 

1 Passages to the same effect are to be found in the Aitareya (v. 32 — 34) and Kati- 
phitaki Brahmanas. The latter is translated by Weber in his Ind. Stud. ii. 303, ff. 

2 Kulluka wrongly explains this to mean, " Having understood them from the words 
of the Veda ( Veda-sabdebhya eva avagamya)." It is similarly said in the Vishnu Pur. i. 
5, 58, ff. (p. 43 of Wilson's Trans.) Nama rupancha bhutanam krityanancha pravar- 
ttanam \ Veda-sabdebhya evadau devadtnam chakara sah | rishJnam namadheyani 
yath'i -veda-hrutani vai \ yatha-niyoga-yogyani sarvesham apt so *karot. a In the 
brginning he ordained, from the words of the Veda, the names, forms, and functions 
of the gods and other creatures. He also assigned the names and the respective 
offices of all the rishis, as handed down by the Vedas." The same idea is repeated in 


and conditions of all [creatures]. That Lord also created the 
subtile order of active and living deities, and of Sadhyas, and 
eternal sacrifice. And in order to the performance of sacrifice, 
he drew forth from fire, from air, and from the sun, the triple 
eternal Veda, distinguished as Kik, Yajush, and Saman." 

Kulloka Bhatta, the commentator, annotates thus on this 
passage : — Sandtanam nityam \ veddpauruskeyatva-paxo Manor 
abhimatah \ pUrva-kalpe ye vedas te eva Paramatma-murtter 
Brahmaixak sarvqjfiasya smrity-arud/iah \ tan eva kalpadav 
agni-wdyu-ravibhya achakarsha \ srautascha ayam artko na 
sankanlyah \ tathacha srutih \ ' agner rigvedo vayor yajurveda 
dditydt sdmaveda' iti. " The word sanatana means 'eternally 
pre-existing.' The doctrine of the superhuman origin of the 
Vedas is maintained by Manu. The same Vedas which 
[existed] in the previous mundane era (Kalpa) were preserved 
in the memory of the omniscient Brahma, who was one with the 
supreme spirit. It was those same Vedas that, in the beginning 
of the [present] Kalpa, he drew forth from fire, air, and the sun : 
and this dogma which is founded upon the Veda is not to be 
questioned, for the Veda says, ' The Big-veda comes from fire, 
the Yajur-veda from air, and the Sama-veda from the sun.'" 

Another commentator on Manu, Medhatithi, explains this 
passage in a more rationalistic fashion, " by remarking that the 

the Mahabharata, S'antiparva, 8,533 : — Rishoyas tapasa vedan adhyaishanla diva- 
nisam | Anadinidhana vidya vag utsfishta svayambhuva \ Adauvedamayl divya yatah 
sarvah pravrittayah \ Rishinam namadheyani yaicha vedeshu sfishtayah \ Nanaru- 
pancha b hut a nam karmanancha pravarttayan [pravarttanam ?] | Vedasabdebhya 
evadau nirmimlte sa tivarah. " Through devotion the rishis studied the Vedas both 
day and night. In the beginning, wisdom, without beginning or end, divine speech, 
formed of the Vedas, was sent forth by Svayambhii [the self-existent] : from her all 
activities [are derived]. It is from the words of the Veda that that Lord in the 
beginning frames the names of the rishis, the creations which are [recorded ?] in the 
Vedas, the various forms of beings, and species of works." In his introductory 
verses, Madhava, the author of the Vedartha-prakasa, or Commentary on the 
Taittiriya Sanhita, thus addresses Mahadeva : — Yasya nisvasitam vedd yo vedebhyo 
'khUamjagat \ Nirmame tarn aham vande vidyafirtham Makes var am. " I reverence 
Mahes'vara, the hallowed abode of sacred knowledge, whose breath the Vedas are, 
and who from the Vedas formed the whole universe." We shall meet this idea again 
further on. 


Kig-veda opens with a hymn to fire, and the Yajur-veda with 
one in which air is mentioned." — Colebr. Misc. Ess. i. p. 11, note. 
To the verses from Manu (i. 21 — 23) just cited, the following 
from the second book may be added, partly for the purpose of 
completing the parallel with the passages previously adduced 
from the Satapatha Brahmana and the Chh&ndogya Upanishad ; 
— Manu ii. 76, ff. Akdranchdpy ukdrancha makaraficha Praja- 
patili | Vedatraydd niraduhad bhur-bhuvali-svar ititi cha \ 
77. Tribhya eva tu vedebhyali padam padam adudukat \ tad ity 
richo'sydli sdvitrydh parameshtkl prajdpatili \ ... 81. Omkdrar 
pUrvikds tisro mahdvydhritayo 'vyayali \ Tripadd chaiva gdyatri 
vijfieyam brahmano mukham. 76. " PrajSpati also milked out 
of the three Vedas the letters a, u, and m, together with the 
words bhiir, bAuvafy, and svar. 77. The same supreme Prajft- 
pati also milked from each of the three Vedas one of the [three] 
lines of the text called savitrl [or gdyatrl\ beginning with the 
word tad. 3 81. The three great imperishable particles (Mtfr, 
bkuvah, svar) preceded by om 9 and the gdyatrl of three lines, are 
to be regarded as the mouth of the Veda [or Brahma]." 

Sect. II. — Origin of the Vedas according to the Vishnu and Bhagavata 
PuranaSy the Vrihad Aranyaka Upanishad, the Hdrivansa, the 
Mahdbhdrata, the Rig and Atharva Vedas ; eternity of the Veda ; 
miscellaneous statements regarding it. 

In the Vishnu and Bhagavata Puranas we find a quite dif- 
ferent tradition regarding the origin of the Vedas, which in these 
works are said to have been created by the four-faced Brahma 
from his several mouths. Thus the Vishnu Pur. says, i. 5, 
48, ff. : — Gdyatraficha richasckaiva trivrit-sdma-rathantaram \ 
Agnishtomaficha yajMndm nirmame pratkamdd mukhdt \ ya- 
jumshi traishtubham chhandali stomam panchadasam tatkd \ 
Vrihat sdma tathoktkancha daxindd asrijad mukhdt \ sdmdni 
jagattchhandali stomam saptadasam tathd \ vairUpam atirdtraH- 

8 This text, Rig-veda iii. 62, 10, will be quoted in the 6equcl. 


cka paschimdd asrijad muhhat \ ekavimsam atharvanam dptor- 
yamdnam evacha \ Anushtubham sa vairdjam uttardd asrijad 
mukhat. " From his first mouth Brahma formed the gaydtra, 
the rik verses, the trivrit, the sdma-rathantara. From his 
southern mouth he created the yajicsk verses, the trishtubh 
metre, the panchadasa-stoma, the vrihat-sdma, and the ukthas. 
From his western mouth he formed the sdma verses, the jagati 
metre, the saptadasa-stoma, the vairupa, and the atirdtra. 
From his northern mouth he framed the ekavinsa, the atharvan, 
with the anushtubh and viraj metres." 4 

In like manner it is said, but with variations, in the Bhaga- 
vata Purana iii. 12, 34, and 37 ff. : — Kaddchid dhydyatah srash- 
tur veda dsams chaturmukhat \ katham sraxyamyaham lokan 
samavetan yatha pura | . . . Rig-yajuh-samatharvakhyan vedan 
pUrvddibkir mukhaili \ sastram ijydm stutistomam prayaschittam 
vyadhat kramdt. " Once the Vedas sprang from the four-faced 
creator, as he was meditating ' how shall I create the aggregate 
worlds as before?' ... He formed from his eastern and other 
mouths the Vedas called Rik, Yajush, Saman, and Atharvan, 
together with praise, sacrifice, hymns, and expiation." And in 
verse 45 it is stated that the ushnih metre issued from his hairs, 
the gdyatri from his skin, the trishtubh from his flesh, the 
anushtubh from his tendons, the jagatl from his bones." (Tas- 
yoshnig asil lomebhyo gaydtrlcha tvacho vibhoh \ trisktup mam- 
sat snuto 'nushtupjagaty asthnah Prajdpateli.) 

Vrihad Aranyaha. — According to the following passage of the 
Vrihad Aranyaka Upanishad (p. 455 of Roer's Ed. and p. 179 
of Trans. =Satapatha Brahmana, p. 1064) the Vedas, as well as 
other sastras are the breath of Brahma: — Sa yatha drdrendh- 
dgner abhyahitat pritkag dkumd vinischaranti evam vd are f sya 
mahato bhiltasya nisvasitam etad yad rigvedo yajuroedah sama- 
vedo 'tharvdngirasa itihdsah purdnam vidyd upanishadah sloJcdli 

4 See Wilson's Trans, p. 42. As it is sufficient for my purpose that certain parts 
of the different Vedas are intended by the several terms employed in this passage, 
I have left them all untranslated. 


sutrdny anuvydkhydndni vydkhydndni asyaiva etdni sarvdni ni- 
svasitdni. " As from a fire made of moist wood various modifi- 
cations of smoke proceed, so is the breathing of this great Being 
the Big-veda, the Yajur-veda, the Samaveda, the Atharvangi- 
rases, the Itihasas, Puranas, science, the Upanishads, verses 
(slokas), aphorisms, comments of different kinds— all these are 
his breathings." 6 

It is curious that in this passage the Vedas appear to be 
classed in the same category with various other works, such 
as the Sutras, from some at least of which (as we shall see 
further on), they are broadly distinguished by later writers, who 
regard the former (including the Brahmanas and Upanishads) 
as of superhuman origin, while this character is expressly denied 
to the latter, which are represented as pauruskeya, or merely 
human compositions. 

Harivansa. — In the first section of the Harivansa, v. 47, the 
creation of the Vedas by Brahma is thus briefly alluded to : — 
Richo yajufiishi sdmdni nirmame yajnasiddhaye \ sddhyds tair 
ayajan devdn ity evam anususruma. " In order to the accom- 
plishment of sacrifice, he formed the Kik, Yajush, and Sama 
verses : with these the Sadhyas worshipped the gods, as we have 

The following is a more particular account of the same event 
given in another part of the same work; Harivansa, verse 
11,516 : — Tato 'srijad vai tripaddm gdyatrim vedamdtaram \ 
Akarochchaiva chaturo veddn gdyatri-sambhavdn. After fram- 
ing the world, Brahma " next created the gdyattl of three lines, 

4 In another part of the same Upanishad (pp. 50 — 53 of Dr. Roer's Ed.) Prajapati 
[identified with Death, or the Devourer] is said to have produced vach (speech), and 
through her, together with Soul, to have created all things, including the Vedas : — 
$a toy a vacha tena atmana idafk sarvam asrijata yad idam kincha ficho yojunuhi 
samani chhandanm yojnan prajah pcisun. " By that speech and that soul he created 
all things whatsoever, Rik, Yajush, and Sama texts, metres, sacrifices, creatures, 
animals." And in a subsequent text of the same work (p. 290) it is said : — Trayo 
veda ete eva | vageva rig-vedo mano yujur-vedah pranah satna-vedah. " The three 
Vedas are [identifiable with] these three things [speech, mind, and life]. Speech is 
the Rig-veda; mind the Yajur-veda ; and life, the Sama- veda." 


mother of the Vedas, and also the four Vedas which sprang from 
the gayatri." 

A little further on we find this expanded into the following 
piece of mysticism, verse 11,665, ff. : — Samdhita-mana Brahma 
moxaprdptena hetund \ chandra-mandafa-samsthdndj jyoti&tejo 
mahat tada \ Pravw/a hridayam xipram gdyatryd nayanantare \ 
Garbhasyasambhavoyaschachaturdhdpurushdtmahalk \ Brahma- 
tejomayo 'vyaktali sdsvato Hha dhruvo 'vyayah \ na chendriya- 
gunair yukto yuktas tejogunena cha \ chandrdmsu-vimala-prakhyo 
bhrdjishnur varna-samsthitali \ Netrdbhydm janayad deva rig- 
vedam yajuskd saha \ samavedancha jihvdgrad atharvdnaficha 
murddhatah \ Jatamatrastu te vedah xetram vindanti tattva- 
tah | Tena vedatvam apannd yasmad vindanti tatpadam \ Te 
sryanti tada vedd brahma purvam sanatanam \ Purusham div- 
yarupdbham svaih svair bhavair manobhavaili. " For the 
emancipation of the world, Brahma, sunk in contemplation, 
issuing in a luminous form from the region of the moon, 
penetrated into the heart of Gayatrl, entering between her 
eyes. Prom her there was then produced a quadruple being, 
lustrous as Brahma, indistinct, and eternal, undecaying, de- 
void of bodily senses or qualities, distinguished by the attri- 
bute of brilliancy, pure as the rays of the moon, radiant, and 
embodied in letters. The god fashioned the Big-veda, with the 
Yajush, from his eyes, the Sama-veda from the tip of his tongue, 
and the Atharvan from his head. These Vedas, as soon as they 
are born, find a body (xetra). Hence they obtain their charac- 
ter of Vedas, because they jind (vindanti) that abode. These 
Vedas then create the pre-existent eternal brahma (sacrifice or 
ceremonial), a being of celestial form, with their own mind-born 

I extract another passage on the same subject from a later 
section of the same work, verses 12,425, ff. When the Supreme 
Being was intent on creating the universe, Hiranyagarbha, or 
Prajapati, issued from his mouth, and was desired to divide him- 
self, — a process which he was in great doubt how he should 


effect. The text then proceeds :— Iti chintayatas tasya om ity 
evotthitah svarah \ sa bhumav antarzxe cha ndke cha kritavdn 
svanam \ Tanchaivdbhyasatas tasya manak-sdramayam punah \ 
hridaydd deva-devasya vashatkdraji samutthitah \ bhumyanta- 
rlxarndkdndm bhuyah svaratmakdli pardfi \ mahdsmritimaydh 
punyd mahdvydhritayo 'bhavan \ chhandasdm pravard dem cha- 
turvimsdxard 'bfuwat \ Tatpadatfi samsmaran divyam sdvitrim 
akarot prabhuli \ rik-sdmdtharva-yajicshas chaturo bhagavdn 
prabhufi \ chakdra nikkildn veddn brahmayuktena karmand. 
" While he was thus reflecting, the sound om issued from him, 
and resounded throughout the earth, atmosphere, and sky. 
While the God of gods was again and again repeating this, the 
essence of the mind, the vashatkdra proceeded from his heart. 
Next, the sacred vydhritis (bhUr, bhuvah, svar) formed of the great 
smriti, the most excellent emblems of earth, atmosphere, and 
sky were produced. Then appeared the goddess, the most excel- 
lent of metres, with twenty-four syllables [the ydyatri]. Re- 
flecting on the divine text [beginning with] tad, the Lord formed 
the sdvitrl . He then produced all the Vedas, the Kik, Sfiman, 
Atharvan, and Yajush, with their prayers and rites. ,> (See 
also the passage from the Bhag. Pur. xii. 6, 37, ff., which will be 
quoted in a following section.) 

Mahdbkdrata.— The Mahabharata in one passage speaks of 
the goddess Sarasvatl as the mother of the Vedas. S&nti P. 
verse 12,920 : — Veddndm mdtaram pasyamatsthdm devlm Saras- 
vatim. " Behold Sarasvatl, mother of the Vedas, abiding in me." 

I will add here two passages, of a somewhat similar character, 
from the Kik and Atharva Sanhitas, though they ought, strictly 
speaking, to have been reserved for the next chapter. 

Rig-veda. — In the 9th verse of the Purusha Sukta (already 
quoted in Part First, pp. 7 and 8), the three Vedas are said to 
have been derived from the mystical victim Purusha. " From 
that universal sacrifice were produced the hymns called Rik and 
S&man, the metres, and the Yajush." 

Atharva-veda.—- In regard to the origin of two of the Vedas, 


the Atharva-veda says, xix. 54, 3 : — Kalad richali samabhavan 
yajuji kalad ajayata. " From time the Kik verses sprang ; the 
Yajush sprang from time." 6 

Manu. — According to the verses in Manu, xii. 49, 50, quoted in 
Part First of this work, p. 18, the Vedas, with the other heings 
and objects named along with them, constitute the second mani- 
festation of the sattva guna, or pure principle ; while Brahma is 
placed in a higher rank, as one of the first manifestations of the 
same principle. The word Veda in this passage is explained by 
Kulloka of those " embodied deities, celebrated in the Itihasas, 
who preside over the Vedas." ( Vedabhimaninyascha devata vig- 
rahavatya itihdsa-prasidddlk.) 

Vishnu Pur ana. — At the end of Section 6 of the third book of 
the V. P. (p. 285 of Wilson's Trans.) we have the following asser- 
tion of the eternity of the Veda : — Iti sakhali prasankhyatali 
sakhabhedas tathaiva cha \ karttaraschaiva sakhanam bhedahetm 
tathoditah \ sarvamanvantareshveva sakhabhedali samah smritali \ 
Prajapatya srutir nityd tadvikalpas tv ime dvya. "Thus the 
Sakhas, their divisions, their authors, and the cause of the divi- 
sion have been declared. In all the manvantaras the divisions 
of the Sakhas are recorded to be the same. The sruti (Veda) 
derived from Prajapati (Brahma) is eternal : these, o Brahman, 
are only its modifications." 

In another passage of the same book, Vishnu is identified with 
the Vedas. Vish. Pur. iii. 3, 19 ff. (Wilson, p. 274) :—Sa ring- 
mayali sdmamayah sa chatma sa yajurmaydli \ rig-yajufi-sama- 
saratma sa evatma sarlrindm \ sa bhidyate vedamayah sa vedam 
karoti bhedair bahubhili sasakham \ sakhapraneta sa samasta- 
sakhajnanasvarUpo bhagavan anantah. " He is composed of the 
Rik, of the Saman, of the Yajush ; he is the soul. Consisting of 
the essence of the Rik, Yajush, and Saman, he is the soul of 

6 The Vishnu Purana, 1, 2, 13 (Wilson's Trans, p. 9), says : — Tad eva servant 
evaitad vyaktavyaktasvarupavat \ Tatha purusharupena kalarupena cha sthitam. 
" This Brahma is all this universe, existing both as the indiscrete and the discrete ; 
existing also in the form of Purrnha and of Kala (time)." 


embodied spirits. Formed of the Veda, he is divided; he forms 
the Veda and its branches (sdkhds) into many divisions. Framer 
of the Sakhas, he is also their entirety, the infinite lord, whose 
essence is knowledge." 

Sect. III. — MantCs conception of the dignity and authority of the Veda, 
with some statements of a different tenor from him and other toriters. 

Manu employs the following honorific expressions in reference 
to the Vedas (xii. 94 ff.) : — Pitri-deva-manushydndm vedas 
chaxuli sandtanam \ asakyanchdprameyancha veda-sdstram iti 
sthitih || Yd veda-vdhydli smritayo ydscha kdscha kudrishtayalk | 7 
sarvds td nishphaWi pretya tamonishthd hi tdh smritah || Utpad- 
yante chyavante cha ydny ato 'nydni kdnichit \ Tdny arvdk- 
kdlikatayd* nishphaldny anritdni cha || Chdturvarnyam trayo 
lokds chatvdras chdsramdli prithak \ Bhutam bhavad bhavish- 
yaficha sarvam veddt prasiddhyati \\ sabdali sparsascka rupaH- 
cha raso gandhascha paftchamdli \ veddd eva prasiddhyanti pra- 
sUti-guna-karmatali || Bibhartti 9 sarva-bhutdni veda-sdstram 
sandtanam \ Tasmdd etat par am manye yaj jantor asya sddha- 
nam \\ Saindpatyancha rdjyaficha danda-netritvam eva cha \ 
sarva-lokadhipatyaOcha veda-sdstra-vid arhati || Yatkd jdta-balo 
vahnir dahyaty drdrdn api drumdn \ tathd dahati vedajnah 
karmajam dosham dtmanali \ veda-sdstrdrtha-tattvajfio yatra 
tatrdsrame vasan \ Ihaiva loke tishthan sa brahmabhuydya kal- 
pate. " The Veda is the eternal eye of the patriarchs, of gods, 
and of men ; it is beyond human power and comprehension ; 

7 Drishtart?ut'Vakyani l chaityavandanat svargo bhavati* ity Mini yani cha asat- 
tarka-mulani devata- purvadi-nirakaranatmakani veda-viruddhani charvaka-daria- 
riant: — " That is, deductions from experience of the visible world; such doctrines as 
that 'heaven is attained by obeisance to a chaitya,' and similar Charvaka tenets 
founded on false reasonings, contradicting the existence of the gods, and the efficacy 
of religious rites, and contrary to the Vedas." — Kulluka. 

8 Idanintanatvat. " From their modernness." — Kulluka. 

9 Havir agnau huyate, so *agnir adityam vpasarpati, tat iuryo rasmibhir var~ 
s hat i , tenannam bhavati, atheha bhutanam utpattisthitischeti havir jay ate iti brah- 
manam. " The oblation is cast into the fire ; fire reaches the sun ; the sun causes 
rain by his rays ; thence food is produced ; thus the oblation becomes the cause of the 
generation and maintenance of creatures ; so says a Brahmana." — Kulluka. 


this is a certain conclusion. Whatever traditions are apart from 
the Veda, and all heretical views, are fruitless in the next world, 
for they are declared to be founded on darkness. All other 
[books] external to the Veda, which arise and pass away, are 
worthless and false from their recentness of date. The system 
of the four castes, the three worlds, the four states of life, all 
that has been, now is, or shall be, is made manifest by the Veda. 
The objects of touch and taste, sound, form, and odour, as the 
fifth, are made known by the Veda, together with their products, 
qualities, and the actions they occasion. The eternal Veda sup- 
ports all beings : hence I regard it as the principal instrument 
of well-being to this creature, man. Command of armies, royal 
authority, the administration of criminal justice, and the sove- 
reignty of all worlds, he alone deserves who knows the Veda. 
As fire, when it has acquired force, burns up even green trees, 
so he who knows the Veda consumes the taint of his soul which 
has been contracted from works. He who comprehends the 
essential meaning of the Veda, in whatever order of life he may 
be, is prepared for absorption into Brahma, even while abiding 
in this lower world." 

The following are some further miscellaneous passages of the 
same tenor, scattered throughout the Institutes (Manu ii. 10 ff.) : 
— Srutistu vedo vijneyo dkarma-sastrantu vai smritih \ te sarvdr- 
theshv amvmamsye tdbhydfh dkarmo hi nirbabhau | 11. Yo 
'vamanyeta te mule hetu-sastrasrayad dmjaJi \ sa sadhubkir 
vahishkdryyo ndstiko vedanindakah | 13. . . . Dharmam jijfidsa- 
mananam pramanam paramam srutili. " By sruti is meant the 
Veda, and by smriti the institutes of law: the contents of these 
are not to be questioned by reason, since from them [a know- 
ledge of] duty has shone forth. The Brahman who, relying on 
rationalistic treatises, 10 shall contemn these two primary sources 

10 This, however, must be read in conjunction with the precept in xii. 106, which 
declares: — arsham dharmopade&aneha veda-saslravirodhina \ yas tarkenanusandhatte 
$a dharmam veda naparah. " He, and he only is acquainted with duty, who investi- 
gates the injunctions of the rishis, and the precepts of the smriti, by reasonings which 
do not contradict the Veda." 


of knowledge, must be excommunicated by the virtuous as a 
sceptic and reviler of the Vedas. ... 13. To those who are seek- 
ing a knowledge of duty, the sruti is the supreme authority." 

In the following passage, the necessity of a knowledge of 
Brahma is asserted, though the practice of ritual observances 
is also inculcated (vi. 82, ff.) : — Dkydnikam sarvam evaitad 
yad etad abkisabditam \ na hy anadhydtma-vit kasckit kriydphar 
lam updsnute \ adkiyajnam brakma japed ddkidaivikam eva cka \ 
ddkyatmikaficha satatam veddntdbkikitaficha yat \ Idam sara- 
nam ajMndm idam eva vijdnatdm \ idam anvickchkatdm svar- 
gam idam dnantyam ichchhatdm. "All this which has been 
now declared is dependant on devout meditation : no one who 
is ignorant of the supreme spirit can reap the fruit of ceremo- 
nial acts. Let a man repeat texts relating to sacrifice, texts 
relating to deities, texts relating to the supreme spirit, and 
whatever is declared in the Vedanta. This [Veda] is the refuge 
of the ignorant, as well as of the understanding ; it is the refuge 
of those who are seeking after paradise, as well as of those who 
are desiring infinity." 

The following text breathes a moral spirit, by representing 
purity of life as essential to the reception of benefit from religious 
observances (ii. 97) : — Vedas tydgascha yajndscha niyamdscha 
tapdmsi cka \ na vipradushta-bhdvasya siddhim gachhanti karchi- 
ckit. " The Vedas, almsgiving, sacrifices, observances, austerities, 
are ineffectual to a man of depraved disposition." 

The doctrine which may be drawn from the following lines 
does not seem so favourable to morality (xi. 261, ff.) : — Hatvd 
lokdn aplmdms trln asnann api yatastatah \ Rigvedam dhdrayan 
vipro nainah prdpnoti fdHchana \ Riksamhitarh trir abhyasya 
yajushdm vd samdkitah \ sdmndm vd sarahasydnafk sarvapdpaih 
pramuchyate \ yat Ad mahd-hradam prdpya ociptam hshtaik vinas- 
yati | tathd duscharitam sarvam vede trivriti majjati. "A 
Brahman who should destroy these three worlds, and eat food 
received from any quarter whatever, would incur no guilt if he 
retained in his memory the [whole] Rig-veda. Repeating thrice 


with intent mind the sanhita of the Rik, or the Yajush, or the 
Saman, with the Upanishads, he is freed from all his sins. Just 
as a clod thrown into a great lake is dissolved when it touches 
the water, so does all sin sink in the triple Veda." 

Considering the sacredness ascribed in the preceding passages 
to all the Vedas, the epithet applied to the Sama-veda in the 
second of the following verses is remarkable (Manu iv. 123, ff.): 
Samadhvanav rigyajushl nadklyita kaddchana \ vedasyadkltya 
va'py antam aranyakam adhltya cha \ Rigvedo devadaivatyo 
yajurvedastu mdnushah \ Swmavedali smritah pitryas tasmdt tas- 
yasuchir dhvamh. "Let no one read the Rik or the Yajush 
while the Saman is sounding in his ears, or after he has read the 
conclusion of the Veda (i.e. the Vedanta) or an Aranyaka. The 
Rig-veda has the gods for its deities, the Yajur-veda has men for 
its objects, the Sama-veda has the pitris for its divinities, where- 
fore its sound is impure." 

The scholiast Kulltika, however, will not allow that the Sama- 
veda can be "really impure." "It has," he says, "only a 
semblance of impurity" (tasmat tasya asuchir iva dhvanili \ na 
tv asuckir eva). In this remark he evinces the tendency, 
incident to many systematic theologians, to ignore all those 
features of the sacred text on which they are commenting which 
are at variance with their theories regarding its absolute perfec- 
tion. As it was the opinion of his age that the Veda was eternal 
and divine, it was, he considered, impossible that impurity or 
any species of fault could be predicated of any of its parts ; and 
every expression, even of the highest authorities, which contra- 
dicted this opinion, had to be explained away. I am not in a 
position to state how this notion of impurity came to be attached 
to the Sama-veda. The passage perhaps proceeded from the 
adherents of some particular Vedic school adverse to the Sama- 
veda; but its substance being found recorded in some earlier 
work, it was deemed of sufficient authority to find a place in 
the miscellaneous collection of precepts,— gathered no doubt 
from different quarters, and perhaps not always strictly con- 


sistent with each other, — which make up the Manava-dharma- 

Yisknu Pur ana The following passage from the Vishnu 

Parana, at the close, ascribes the same character of impurity to 
the Sama-veda, though on different grounds, Vish. Pur. ii. 11, 5 
(Wilson, p. 235) : — Yd tu saktih para Visknor rig-yajuli-sdma- 
sanjfdtd \ saishd trayl tapaty afhho jagatascha hinasti yat \ saiva 
Vishnuh stkitali stkitydfiijagatahpdlanodyatah \ rig-yajuli-sdma- 
bhuto 'ntali savitur dvija tishthati \ mdsi mast ravir yo yas tatra 
tatra hi sd para \ trayimayl Visknu-saktir avastkdnafh karoti vai \ 
Bickas tapanti purvdkne madkydkne'tka yajumsky atka \ vrihad- 
rathantarddlni sdmdny aknali xaye ravau \ angam eskd trayl 
Vishnor rig-yajuh-sdma-saiyfutd \ Visknu-saktir avastkdnam 
mdsdditye karoti sd \ na kevalam ravau saktir vaisknavl sd tra- 
yimayl | Brahma 'tka Purusho Budras trayam etat trayxma- 
yam \ sargdddv ringmayo Brakmd sthitau Visknur yajurmayalt \ 
Budrah sdmamayo f ntdya tasmdt tasydsuckir dkvanilk. "The 
supreme energy of Vishnu, called the Kik, Yajush, and Saman— this 
triad burns up sin and all things injurious to the world. During 
the continuance of the world, this triad exists as Vishnu, who is 
occupied in the preservation of the universe, and in the form of 
the Bik, Yajush, and Saman, abides within the sun. That 
supreme energy of Vishnu, consisting of the triple Veda, dwells 
in the particular form of the sun, which presides over each 
month. The Bik verses shine in the morning sun, the Yajush 
verses in his meridian beams, and the Vrihad rathantara and other 
Sama verses in his declining rays. This triple Veda is the body 
of Vishnu, and this his energy abides in the monthly sun. But 
this energy of Vishnu, formed of the triple Veda, does not reside 
in the sun alone ; Brahma, Purusha (Vishnu), and Budra also 
constitute a triad formed of the triple Veda. At the creation, 
Brahma is formed of the Big-veda ; during the continuance of 
the universe, Vishnu is composed of the Yajur-veda ; and for 
the destruction of the worlds, Budra is made up of the Sama- 
veda ; hence the sound of this Veda is impure. ,, 


Vayu Pur ana Other passages also may be found in works 

not reputed to be heretical, in which the Vedas, or particular 
parts of them, are not spoken of with the same degree of respect 
as they are by Manu. Thus the Vayu Purana gives precedence 
to the Puranas over the Vedas in the order of creation (i. 56 n ) : 
— Prathamam sarva-sdstrdndni Puranam Brahmaiid smritam \ 
anantaraficha vaktrebhyo vedas tasya vinissritdh. " First of all 
the Sastras, the Purana was uttered by Brahma. Subsequently 
the Vedas issued from his mouths." 

The same Purana says further on in the same section (p. 50 
of Dr. Aufrecht's Catalogue): — Yo vidydch chaturo veddn sdii- 
ffopaniskado dvijali \ na cket puranam samvidyad naiva sa sydd 
vichaxanah \ Itihd&a-purdndbhydih veddn samupavriifihayet \ 
vibhety alpasrutdd vedo mam ay am praharishyati. " He who 
knows the four Vedas, with their supplements and Upanishads, 
is not really learned, unless he know also the Puranas. Let a 
man, therefore, complete the Vedas by adding the Itihasas and 
Puranas. The Veda is afraid of a man of little learning, lest he 
should treat it injuriously." 

Brahma-vaivartta Purana. — The Brahma-vaivartta Purana 
asserts in a yet more audacious manner its own superiority to 
the Veda (i. 48 flf.) \—Bhavagan yat tvayd prishtam jndtafh. 
sarvam abhipsitam \ sdrabkutam purdneshu Brahma-vawarttam 
uttamam \ Purdnopapurdndndm veddndm bhrama-bhanjanam. 
"That about which, venerable sage, you have inquired, is all 
known by me, the essence of the Puranas, the pre-eminent 
Brahma-vaivartta, which refutes the errors of the Puranas and 
Upapuranas, and of the Vedas." (Aufrecht's Cat. p. 21.) 

In the following passage also, from the commencement of the 
Mundaka Upanishad, the Vedic hymns (though a divine origin, 
would no doubt be allowed to them 12 ) are at all events depre- 

11 P. 48 of Dr. Aufrecht's Catalogue of Sanskrit MSS. in the Bodleian Library at 

14 In fact the following verses (4 and 6) occur in the second chapter of the same 
Mund. Up. : — 4. Jgnir murddha chaxushi chandrasuryyau disah srotre vag vivri- 
tascha veddh \ vayuh prano hfidayam vifoam asya padbhyam prithivl hy esha sarva- 



ciated, by being classed among other works as part of the in- 
ferior science, in contrast to the Brahma-vidya or knowledge of 
Brahma, the highest of all knowledge, which is expressly ascribed 
to Brahma as its author : — 1. Brahma devanam prathamah sam- 
babkuva visvasya kartta bhuvanasya gopta \ sa brahmavidyarh 
sarvamdyapratislitham Atharvaya jyeshthaputraya praha \ 2. 
Atharvane yam pravadeta Brahma Atharva tarn purovach ' An- 
gire brahma-vidyam \ sa Bkaradvajaya Satyavahdyapraha Bha- 
radvajo 'ngirase par Wear am | 3. Saunako ha vai Mahasalo 'ngira- 
sam vidhivad upapannah prapachcha \ kasmin nu bhagavo viryate 
sarvam idaih vijndtam bhavatiti | 4. Tasmai sa hovacha \ dm 
vidye veditavye iti ha sma yad brahmamdo vadanti para chaiva- 
para cha \ 5. Tatrapara rigvedo yajurvedah samavedo 'tharva- 
vedah sixa kalpo vyakaranam niruktam chhando jyotisham iti | 
atha para yaya tad axaram adhigamyate. " Brahma was pro- 
duced the first among the gods, maker of the universe, preserver 
of the world. He revealed to his eldest son Atharvan, the 
science of Brahma, the support of all knowledge. 2. Atharvan 
of old declared to Angis this science, which Brahma had un- 
folded to him ; and Angis, in turn, explained it to Satyavaha, 
descendant of Bharadvaja, who delivered this traditional lore [or 
the higher and lower science] to Angiras. 3. Saunaka, the 
great householder, approaching Angiras in due form, inquired, 
4 What is that, venerable sage, through the knowledge of 
which all this [universe] becomes known?' 4. [Angiras] 
answered, 'Two sciences are to be known — this is what the 
sages acquainted with Brahma declare— the superior and the 
inferior. 5. The inferior [consists of] the Rig-veda, the Tajur- 
veda, the Sama-veda, the Atharva-veda, accentuation, ritual, 

bhutantaratma | . . . 6. Tasmad riehah satna yaiumshi dixa yajnascha sarve Jcratavo 
daxinaseha | samvatsarancha yajamanascha lohah somo yatra pavate yatra suryah. 
" Agni is his [Brahma's] head, the sun and moon are his eyes, the four points of the 
compass are his ears, the uttered Vedas are his voice, the air is his breath, the uni- 
verse is his heart, the earth issued from his feet : he is the inner soul of all creatures. 
. . . From him came the Rik verses, the Saman, the Yajush verses, initiatory rites, 
all oblations, sacrifices, and gifts, the year, the sacrificcr, and the worlds where the 
moon and sun purify." 


grammar, commentary, prosody, and astronomy. The superior 
science is that by which the imperishable is comprehended.' " 

It is to be remarked that in this passage (verse 5) as in that 
already quoted above (p. 7) from the Vrihad Aryanyaka Upani- 
shad, the most essential parts of the Yedas, the sanhitas, are 
classed in the same category with the Kalpa or ceremonial insti- 
tutes, and other works, from which they are separated by a 
broad line of demarcation in the works of later writers. 

The following passage from the Katha Upanishad (ii. 23) is 
of a somewhat similar tenor (p. 107 of Roer's ed. and p. 106 of 
Eng. trans.) :—Nayam atma pravachanena labhyo na medhaya 
na bahuna srutena \ yam evaisha vrinute tena labhyas tasyaisha 
atma vrinute tanum svam. " This soul is not to be attained by 
tradition, nor by understanding, nor by much scripture. He is 
attainable by him whom he chooses. The soul chooses that 
man's body as his own." 

The scholiast interprets thus the first part of this text : — 
Yadyapi durvijfieyo 'yarn atma tathapy upayena suvyheya eva 
ity aha nay am atma pravachanena aneka-veda-svikaranena labhyo 
j-neyo napi medhaya granthartha-dharana-saktya na bahuna 
srutena kevalena \ kena tar hi labhya ity uchyate. " Although 
this soul is difficult to know, still it may easily be known by 
the use of proper means. This is what [the author] proceeds to 
say. This soul is not to be attained, known, by tradition, by the 
acknowledgment of many Vedas ; nor by understanding, by the 
power of recollecting the contents of books ; nor by much scrip- 
ture alone. By what, then, is it to be attained ? This he de- 

It is not necessary to follow the scholiast into the Vedantic 
explanation of the rest of the passage. 13 

19 See Prof. Midler's Anc. Sans. Lit. 1st ed. p. 320, and p. 109. 


Sect. IY. — Division of the Vedas, according to the Vishnu, Vayu, and 
Bhdgavata Puranas, and the Ifahabhdrata. 

The Vishnu Purana gives the following account of the divi- 
sion of the Veda, described as having been originally but one, 
into four parts, iii, 2, 18 (see Wilson's Trans, p. 270) \—Krite 
yuge param jfidnam Kapilddi-svarupa-dkrik \ dadati sarva-bku- 
tdndm sarva-bkutahite ratah \ ckakravartti-svarUpena Tretdydm 
apt sa prabhuli \ Dusktdndrr nigraham kurvan paripdti jagat- 
trayam \ Vedam ekam chaturbhedam kritvd sdkhd-satair vibhuli \ 
karoti bahulam bhuyo Vedavydsa-svarupa-dkrik \ veddms tu dvd- 
pare vyasya, etc. " In the Krita age, Vishnu, devoted to the 
welfare of all creatures, assumes the form of Kapila and others 
to confer upon them the highest knowledge. In the Tretfi age, 
the Supreme Lord, in the form of a universal potentate, represses 
the violence of the wicked, and protects the three worlds. Assum- 
ing the form of Vyasa, the all-pervading Being repeatedly divides 
the single Veda into four parts, and multiplies it by distributing 
it into hundreds of sakhas. Having thus divided the Vedas in 
the Dvapara age," etc. 

This is repeated more at length in the following section (Vish. 
Pur. iii. 3, 4 ff.) : — Veda-drumasya Maitreya sdkhdbhedaiji 
sahasrasah \ na sakyo vistaro vaktum safhxepena srinushva tarn \ 
Dvdpare Dvdpare Vishnur Vydsarupz rnakdmune \ Vedam ekam 
sa bahudhd kurute jagato hitali \ mryaw tejo balanchdlpam 
mantishydndm avexya vai \ hitdya sarvabkutdndm teda-bheddn 
karoti salt \ yayd sa kurute tanvd vedam ekam prithak prabkub \ 
Vedavydsdbhidhdnd tu sa murttir Madkuvidviskah \ . . . Ashtd- 
viftsati-kritvo vai vedd vyastd maharshibhiJt \ Vaivasvate 'ntare 
tasmin Dvdparesku punaJi punaJi. " It is not possible, Maitreya, 
to describe in detail the tree of the Vedas with its thousand 
branches (sdkkds) ; but listen to a summary. A friend to the 
world, Vishnu, in the form of Vyasa, divides the single Veda 
into many parts. He does so for the good of all creatures, 
because he perceives the vigour, energy, and strength of men to 


be now but limited. Vedavyfisa, in whose person he performs this 
division, is an impersonation of the enemy of Madhu (Vishnu). 
. . • Eight-and-twenty times in the DvSpara ages of this Vaivas- 
vata manvantara 14 have the Vedas been divided by great sages." 
These sages are then enumerated, and Krishna Dvaipayana 16 is 
the twenty-eighth. 

The subject is resumed at the beginning of the next section 
(Vish. Pur. iii. 4, 1 ff.) : — Adyo vedas chatushpddafy sata-sdhas- 
ra-sammitab \ Tato dasa-gunah kritsno yajno 'yam sarva-kdma- 
dhuk | Tato 'tra matsuto Vyaso ' shtdvimsatitame 'ntare \ vedam 
ekam chatushpddam chaturdhd vyabhajat prabhuh \ yatha tu 
tena vai vyasta Vedavydsena dklmatd \ Vedas tatha samastais 
tair vyasta Vydsais tatha mayd \ tad anenaiva veddndm sakha- 
bhedan dvijottama \ ckaturyugesku rachitan samasteskv avar 
dhdraya \ Kris/ma-dvaipdyanam Vyasam viddhi Nardyanam pro- 
bhum | ho 'nyo hi bhuvi Maztreya Mahdbharata-hrid bhavet \ 
Tena vyasta yatha Veda matputrena mahatmana \ Dvapare hy 
atra Maitreya tad me srinu yathdrthatali \ Brahmartd chodito 
Vyaso teddn vyastum prachakrame \ Atha sishydn sa jagrdka 
chaturo veda-pdragdn \ Rigveda-srdvakam Pazlam jagrdha sa 
mahdmunik \ Vaisampdyana-ndmanam Yajurvedasya chdgrahit | 
Jaiminim sdma-vedasya tatkcdvdtharvaveda-vit \ Sumantus tasya 
sishyo 'bhud Vedavydsasya dtivmatali \ Roimharshana-ndmd- 
nam mahabuddhim mahdmunim \ Sutam jagrdha sishyam sa 
Uihdsarpurdnayofi. " The original Veda, four-footed [or in four 
quarters] consisted of a hundred thousand verses. From it arose 
the entire system of sacrifice, of ten descriptions [or of tenfold 

M For an account of the Manvantaras, see the First Part of this work, pp. 18, 19. 

16 Lassen (Ind. Ant. i. 629, note) remarks : — u Vyasa signifies arrangement, and 
this signification had still retained its place in the recollection of the ancient recorders 
of the legend, who have formed from his name an irregular perfect, viz. vivyasa." 
Lassen refers to two passages of the Mahabharata in which the name is explained, 
viz. (i. 2417), Vwyasa vedan yasinat sa tasmad Vyasa iti smHtah. " He is called 
Vyasa because he divided the Veda." And (i. 4236) To vyasya Vedams chaturas 
iapasa bhagavan rishih | Loke vyasatvam apede Jearshnyat hrishnatvam eva cha, 
"The divine sage (Krishna Dvaipayana Vyasa) who, through intense devotion, 
divided the four Vedas, and so obtained in the world the title of Vyasa, and from his 
blackness, the name of Krishna." 


efficacy ?], and yielding all the objects of desire. Subsequently, 
in the twenty- eighth period, my son (it is Parasara who is the 
speaker), the mighty Vyasa divided into four parts the one four- 
quartered Veda. In the same way as the Vedas were divided by 
the wise Vyasa, so had they been divided by all the [preceding] 
Vyasas, including myself. And know that the sakha divisions 
[formed] by him [were the same as those] formed in all the 
periods of four yugas. Learn, too, that Krishna Dvaip&yana 
Vyasa was the lord Narayana, for who else on earth could have 
composed the Mahabharata? Hear now correctly how the 
Vedas were divided by him, my great-souled son, in this 
Dvapara age. When, commanded by Brahma, Vyasa under- 
took to divide the Vedas, he took four disciples who had read 
through those books. The great muni took Paila as teacher of 
the Kik, Vaisampayana of the Yajush, and Jaimini of the Saman, 
while Sumantu, skilled in the Atharvaveda, was also his disciple. 
He took, too, as his pupil for the Itihasas and Puranas the great 
and intelligent muni, Suta, called Romaharshana." 

Vayu Purana. — In the same way, and partly in the same 
words, the Vayu Purana (Section lx.) represents the Vedas to 
have been divided in the Dvapara age. It first describes how 
this was done by Manu in the Svayambhuva, or first Manvan- 
tara, and then recounts how Vyasa performed the same task in 
the existing seventh, or Vaivasvata Manvantara ; and, no doubt, 
also in the Dvapara age, though this is not expressly stated in 
regard to Vyasa. 

The following is an extract from this passage (as given in 
Dr. Aufrecht's Catalogue, p. 54) : — Dvdpare tu purdvritte Manoli 
svdyambAuve 'ntare \ Brahma Manum uvachedam vedam vyasya 
mahdmate \ Parivrittam yugam tdta svalpaviryd dvijdtayafa \ 
samvrittd yugadoshena sarvanchaiva yathakramam \ bhrashta- 
mdnafn ydgavasdd alpasishtam Id drisyate \ Dasa-sdhasra-bha- 
gena hy avasishtam kritdd idam \ mryam tejo balanchdlpam sar- 
vafichaiva pranasyati \ vede vedd hi kdryydli syur md bhud vedar 
vindsanam \ rede ndsa??i anuprdpte yajno ndsam ga??iishyati \ 


yajne naskte deva-nasas tatali sarvam pranasyati \ Adyo vedas 
chatushpado sata-sahasra-sammitali \ Punar dasa-gunah kritsno 
yajfio vai sarva-kama-dhuk \ Evam uktas tathety uktva Manur 
loka-kite ratah \ vedam ekam chatush-padam chaturdha vyabhajat 
prabhuli \ Brahmano vachandt tata hkanam hita-kamyaya \ tad 
aham varttamdnena yushmakam veda-kalpanam \ manvantarena 
vaxyami vyatltanam prakalpanam \ pratyaxena paroxam vai tad 
nibodhata sattamah \ Asmin yuge krito Vydsah parasaryah pa- 
rantapali \ Dvaipayana iti khyato Vis/inor amsah prakirttitah \ 
Brahmano, choditafy so 'smin vedam vyastum prachakrame \ Atha 
siskyan sa jagraka chaturo vedakaranat \ Jaiminincha Suman- 
tufkha Vaisampayanam eva cha \ Pailam teskam chaturthantu 
panckamam Lomaharshanam. " In the former Dvapara of the 
Svayambhuva Manvantara, Brahma said to Mann, ' Divide the 
Veda, sage. The age is changed ; through its baneful influ- 
ence the Brahmans have become feeble, and from the same cause 
everything has been gradually corrupted, so that little [good] is 
seen remaining. Only a ten-thousandth part is now left of the 
vigour, fire, and energy of the Krita age, and everything 
declines. Vedas must be made out of the one Veda, lest the 
Veda be destroyed. The destruction of the Veda would involve 
the destruction of sacrifice ; that again would occasion the anni- 
hilation of the gods, and then everything would go to ruin. 
The primeval Veda was four-footed [or consisted of four quar- 
ters], and extended to one hundred thousand verses, while sacri- 
fice was of ten sorts [or tenfold efficacy], and yielded every object 
of desire/ Being thus addressed, Manu, the lord, devoted to 
the good of the world, replied, ' Be it so/ and in conformity 
with the command of Brahma, divided the one four-quartered 
Veda into four parts. 16 I shall, therefore, narrate to you the 
division of the Veda in the existing Manvantara ; from which 
present division you, virtuous sages, can understand those remote 

16 The Maha Bhar. Santip. v. 13,678, says the Vedas were divided in the Svayam- 
bhuva Manvantara by Apantaratamas, son of Saras vat i. Tena bhinnas tada veda 
manoh svayambhuvo 'ntare. 


arrangements of the same kind which were made in past Man- 
van taras. In this Yuga, the victorious son of Parasara, who is 
called Dvaipayana, and is celebrated as a portion of Vishnu, has 
been made the Vyasa. In this [Yuga ?], he, being commanded 
by Brahma, began to divide the Vedas. For this purpose, he 
took four pupils, Jaimini, Sumantu, VaisainpSyana, and Paila, 
and, as a fifth, Lornaharshana" [for the Puranas and Itihasas, etc.] 

Bhagavata Purana. —It is in its Third Book, where the dif- 
ferent Manvantaras are described, that the Vishnu Purana gives 
an account of the division of the Vedas. In the book of the 
Bhagavata Purana, where the Manvantaras are enumerated, 
there is no corresponding allusion to the division of the Vedas. 
Towards the close of the Purana, however, in the sixth section 
of the twelfth book (verses 37 ff.) there is to be found what Prof. 
Wilson (Vish. Pur. Pref. p. xxvii.) calls " a rather awkwardly 
introduced description of the arrangement of the Vedas and 
Puranas by Vyasa," which is no doubt brought in here, to sup- 
ply the omission which the original author, or some subse- 
quent editor, had discovered to exist in the earlier part of the 

The passage (as given in the Bombay lithographed edition) is 
as follows : — Suta uvdcha \ samdhitdtmano brahman BrahmanaJi 
parameshthinali \ hrid-dkdsddabhudnddovrittirodhddvibhdvyate\ 
yad-updsanayd brahman yogino malam dtmanah \ dravya-kriyd- 
kdrakdkhyam dhutva ydnty apanurbhavam \ Tato 'bhut trivrid 
omkaro yo 'ryakta-prabhavah svardt \ yat tallingam Bhagavato 
brakmanah paramdtmanah \ srinoti ya imam sphotam supta- 
srotre cha sunyadrik \ yena vdg vyajate yasya vyaktir dkdse dtma- 
nah | svadhdmno brahmanali sdxdd vdchakah paramdtmanali \ 
sa-sarva-mantropanishad-vcda-vijam sandtanam \ tasya hydsams 
trayo vamd a-kdrddyd Bhrigudvaha \ dhdryante yais trayo 
bhdtd gund ndmdrtha-vrittayaji \ tato 'xara-samdmndyam asrijad 
bhagatdn ajah \ Antasthoshma-svara-sparsa-fwasva'dlrghddi-lax- 
anam \ tendsau chaturo veddms chdturbhir vadanair mbhvb \ 
sa-tydhritikdn sofhkdrdms chdturhotra-vivaxayd \ puirdn adhyd- 


payat tdfustu brahmarshln brahma-hovidd?i \ te tu dharmopa- 
deshtarah svaputrebhyah samddisan \ te paramparayd praptas 
tattachchhishyair dhrita-vrataih \ chaturyugeshv atha vyastd dvd- 
parddau maharshibhih \ xlndyushdh xlnasattzdn durmedhdn 
vlxya kalatah \ veddn brakmarskayo vyasyan (sic) hridisthdch- 
yuta-noditdh \ Asminn apy antare brahman bhagavdn loka-bha- 
vanah \ brahmesddyair lokapdlair yachito dharma-gnptaye \ 
Pardsardt Satyavatydm amsdmsa-kalaya vibhuh \ avatirno mahd- 
bhaga vedaih ckakre chaturvidham \ rig-athawayajuh-sdmndm 
rdsin uddhritya vargasah \ chatasrah samhitds chakre mantrair 
manigand iva \ tdsdfh sa chaturali sishydn updhuya mahdmatih \ 
Ekaikdm samhitdm brahman ekaikasmai dadau vibhuJi \ Paildya 
samhitdm ddydm bahvrichdkhydm uvdcha ha \ Vaisampdyanar 
sanjftdya nigad dkhyam yajur-ganam \ sdmndm Jaiminaye prdha 
tatha chhandoga-sarnhitdm \ Atharvdngirasim nama sva-sishdya 
Sumantave. " Stita speaks : ' From the sky of the supreme 
Brahma's heart, when he was plunged in meditation, there issued 
a sound, which is perceived by the devout when they close their 
organs of sense. By adoring this sound, devotees destroy the 
soul's threefold taint, extrinsic, inherent, and superhuman, 17 and 
become exempt from future birth. From this sound sprang the 
triple omkara, self-resplendent, unperceived in its production, 
the emblem of the divine Brahma, the supreme spirit. He (the 
supreme spirit) hears this sound (sphota), though his ears be 
closed and his senses inactive, — (this sphota or omkara ?) through 
which speech is revealed, and of which a manifestation is made 
in the firmament of the soul- 18 This [omhdra] is the sensible 

17 JDravya*kriya-karaka, which the scholiast interprets as answering to adhibhuta, 
adhyatma, and adhidaiva. See the explanation of these terms in Wilson's Sankhya- 
k&rika, pp. 2 and 9. 

18 I quote the scholiast's explanation of this obscure verse : — Ko 'sau paramatma 
tarn aha * srinoti ' iti \ imam sphotam avyaktam omkaram \ nanu jlva evo tarn 
srinotu \ na ity aha | supta-srotre karna-ptdhanadina avrittike 'pi srotre sati | 
jJvastu karanadhlnatvad na tada srota \ tadupalabdhistu tasya paramatma-dvarika 
eva iti bhavah \ Isvarastu naivam \ yatah sunya-drik sunye 'pi indriya-varge drik 
jnanam yatya \ tatha hi supto yada sabdam srutva prabuddhyate na tadajlvah srota 
Itnsndriyatvat \ ato yas tada sabdam srutva Jivam prabodhayati sa yatha paramatma 


exponent of Brahma, the self-sustained, the supreme spirit; 
and it is the eternal seed of the Vedas, including all the 
Mantras and Upanishads. In this [omkdra] there were, o 
descendant of Bhrigu, three letters, A and the rest, by which 
the three conditions, viz. the [three] qualities, the [three] 
names, the [three] objects, the [three] states 19 are maintained. 
From these three letters the divine and unborn being created the 
various letters of the alphabet, distinguished as inner (y, r, I, v) f 
ushmas (s, sk, s, A), vowels, long and short, and consonants. 
With this [alphabet] the omnipresent Being, desiring to reveal 
the functions of the four classes of priests, [created] from his 
four mouths the. four Vedas with the three sacred syllables 
(vyahritis) and the omkdra. These he taught to his sons, 
the brahmarshis, skilled in sacred lore ; and these teachers 
of duty, in turn declared them to their sons. The Vedas were 
thus received by each succeeding generation of devout pupils 
throughout the four yugas, from their predecessors, and were 
divided by great sages at the beginning of the Dvapara. 20 The 
Brahmarshis, impelled by Achyuta, who resided in their hearts, 
divided the Vedas, because they perceived that men had declined 
in age, in virtue, and in understanding. In this Manvantara 
also, 21 the divine and omnipresent Being, the author of the 

eva tadvat ho 'sav omkaras tarn viainashfi sardhena yena vag brihati vyajyate yasya 
cha hridayakaie atmanah sakasad vyaktir abhivyaktih. The word sphota will be 
explained below, in Section VII. 

19 These the scholiast explains thus : — Gunah sattvadayah \ namani rig-yajuh- 
scimani \ artha bhur-bhuvah-svar-lokah \ vrittayo jagrad-adyah. 

20 Dvaparadau can only mean the " beginning of the Dvapara ;" but the scholiast 
undertakes by the following process of reasoning to show that it means the end of 
that yuga. Dvaparadau dvaparam adir yasya tad~antyamsa-laxanasya kalasya \ tas- 
min dvaparante veda-vibhaga-prasiddheh Santanu-samakala- Vyasavatara-prasiddhes- 
cha I vyasta vibhaktah. " Dvaparadau means the period of which the dvapara was 
the beginning, i.e. the time distinguished as the concluding portion of that yuga ; 
since it is notorious that the Vedas were divided at the end of the Dvapara, and that 
the incarnation of Vyasa was contemporaneous with S'antanu. Vyastah=vibhaktah, 

21 From this it appears that hitherto the account had not referred to the present 
Manvantara. The scholiast remarks : — Evam samanyato veda-vibJwga-kramam 
tiktva raivasvata-manvantare viseshato nirupayitum aha. " Having thus [in the pre- 


universe, being supplicated by Brahmesa and the other guar- 
dians of the world, to maintain righteousness, became partially 
incarnate as the son of Parasara and Satyavatl, and divided the 
Veda into four parts. Selecting aggregates of Eik, Atharva, 
Yajush, and Saina verses, and arranging them in sections 
(varpas), he formed four sankitds (collections) of the hymns, as 
gems [of the same description are gathered together in separate 
heaps]. Having summoned four disciples, the sage gave to 
each of them one of these sanhitas. To Paila he declared the 
first sanhita, called that of the Bahvrichas ; to Vaisampayana the 
assemblage of Yajush verses, called Nigada; to Jaimini the 
Chhandoga collection of Sama verses ; and to his pupil, Sumantu, 
the Atharvangirasl." 

The Bhagavata Purana, however, is not consistent in the 
account which it gives of the division of the Vedas. In a pas- 
sage already quoted in the First Part of this work, p. 48, it 
speaks of that division as having been the work of the monarch 
Pururavas, and as having taken place in the beginning of the 
Treta age. From the importance of this text I will extract it 
here again at greater length. 

The celestial nymph TJrvasi, the Purana tells us, had been 
doomed, in consequence of a curse, to take up her abode upon 
earth. She there fell in love with King Pururavas, the report 
of whose manly beauty had touched her heart, even before she 
had been banished from paradise. After spending many happy 
days in the society of her lover, she forsook him in consequence 
of his having infringed one of the conditions of their cohabita- 
tion, and Pururavas was in consequence rendered very miser- 
able. He at length, however, obtained a renewal of their in- 
tercourse, and she finally recommended him to worship the 
Gandharva8, who would then re-unite her to him indissolubly* 

The Purana then proceeds (ix. 14, 43 ff.) :— Tasya safkstu- 

ceding verses] generally described the manner in which the Vedas were divided, [the 
author] now states [as follows], with the view of determining particularly [what was 
done] in the Vaivasvata Manvantara." 


vatas tushtd agnisthdlim dadur nripa \ Urvasim manyamanas 
tdfh so 'budfiyata charan vane || Sthdllm nyasya vane gafvd grilian 
adhyayato nisi || Tretdydrn sampravrittdydm manasi trayy avart- 
tata || Stkdli-sthdnam gato 'svattha?n saml-garbham vilaxya sah \ 
Tena dve arani kritva Urvasl-loka-kdmyayd \\ Urvasim mantrato 
dhydyann adhardranim uttardm \ Atmdnam ubkayor madkye yat 
tat prajananam prabkuh \ Tasya nirmathandj jdto jdtavedd 
vibhdvasuli \ Trayy d cha wdyayd rdjnd putratve kalpitas trivrit | 
Tendyajata yajnesam bAagavantam adhoxajam \ Urvasl-lokam 
anvichhan sarva-devamayam Harim \ Eka eva purd vedah prana- 
vali sarva-vdngmayah \ Devo ndrdyano ndnya eko f gnir varna 
eva cha \ Pururavasa evdsit trayl tretd-mukhe nripa \ AgnincL 
prajayd rdjd lokam gdndharvam eyivdn. " The Gandharvas, 
gratified by his praises, gave hiin a platter containing fire. This 
he [at first] surposed to be Urvasl, but became aware [of his 
mistake], as he wandered in the wood. Having placed the 
platter in the forest, Pururavas went home; and as he was 
meditating in the night, after the Treta age had commenced, 
the triple Veda appeared before his mind. 22 Returning to the 
spot where he had placed the platter, he beheld an asmttha tree 
springing out of a saml tree, and formed from it two pieces of 
wood. Longing to attain the world where Urvasl dwelt, he 
imagined to himself, according to the sacred text, Urvasl as the 
lower and himself as the upper piece of wood, and their offspring 
as lying between the two. Fire was generated from the friction, 
and, according to the threefold science [Veda], was under its 
triple form, recognised by the king as his son. With this seek- 
ing to attain the heaven of Urvasl, he worshipped the divine 
Hari, the lord of sacrifice, Adhoxaja, formed of the substance of 
all the gods. There was formerly only one Veda, the sacred 
monosyllable om, the essence of all speech; only one god, 
Narayana ; only one Agni, and [one] caste. From Pururavas 
came the triple Veda in the beginning of the Treta age. 

22 Karma-bodkakam vedatrayam pradurabhut. " The three Vedas, ordainers of 
rites, were manifested to him/' as the scholiast explains. 


Through Agni, his son, the king attained the heaven of the 
Gandharvas." 23 

On the close of this passage the commentator remarks : —Nanv 
anddir veda-traya-bodhito brdhmanddlndm Indrddyaneka-devor 
yqjanena svarga-prdpti-hetuh karma-mar g ah katham sddir iva var- 
nyate \ Tatrdha i eka eva' iti dvdbhydm \ Purd krita-yuge sarca- 
vd^-mayah sarvdsdmvdchd^mja-bkutahpranava eka eva vedah \ 
Devascha Ndrdyana eka eva \ Agnischa eka eva lauldkah \ Var- 
nascha eka eva haihso ndma \ Vedatrayl tu Puritravasah sakdsdd 
dsit , . . Ayam bhdvah \ krita-yuge sattva-pradhdndh prdyasah 
sarve 'pi dkydnanishthdh \ rajah-pradkdne tu Tretd-yuge vedddi- 
mbhdgena karmamargdh prakato babhuva ityarthah. " How is 
it that the eternal method of works, which is pointed out by the 
three Vedas, and through which Brahmans and others, by wor- 
shipping Indra and many other gods, attain to paradise, is spoken 
of [in the preceding verses] as if it had a beginning in time ? 
He [the author of the Purana] answers this in these two verses. 
Formerly, i.e. in the Krita age, there was only one Veda, the 
sacred monosyllable om, the essence of all words, i.e. that which 
is the seed of all words; and there was only one god, Nara- 
yana; only one fire, that for common uses ; and only one caste, 
the Hansa. But the triple Veda came from Pururavas. . . . The 
meaning is this : in the Krita age the quality of goodness pre- 
dominated in men, who were almost all absorbed in meditation. 
But in the Treta age, when passion (rajas) prevailed, the method 
of works was manifested by the division of the Vedas." 24 

This last quoted passage of the Bhagavata gives, as I have inti- 

28 This story is also told in a prose passage in the Vish. Pur. iv. 6 (Wilson, 
p. 394). It is there stated that Pururavas divided fire, which was originally one, in 
a threefold manner. Eko 'gnir adav abhavad Ailena tu atra manvantare traita pra- 
varttita. No mention, however, is there made of his having divided the. Vedas, or 
partitioned society into castes. 

84 This legend is borrowed from the S'atapatha Brahmana, xi. 5, 1, 1 ff. (p. 865- 
868 Weber's ed.), where the motive for its introduction is to describe the process by 
which fire was generated by Pururavas in obedience to the command of the Gan- 
dharvas, as the means of his admission into their paradise. See Professor Muller's 
translation of this story in the Oxford Essays for 1856, pp. 62, 63. The legend is 
founded on the 95th hymn of the tenth book of the Rig-veda. 


mated, a different account of the division of the Vedas from that 
contained in the text previously adduced from the same work, 
and in the citations from the Vishnu and Vayu Puranas. The 
one set of passages speak of the Veda as having been divided by 
Vyasa into four parts in the Dvapara age ; while the text last 
cited speaks of the triple Veda as having originated with Puru- 
ravas in the Treta age; and evidently belonged to a different 
tradition from the former three. The legend which speaks of three 
Vedas is likely to be more ancient than that which speaks of 
four, as it was not till a comparatively late date that the Atharva 
asserted its right to be ranked with the three others as a fourth 
Veda. This earlier tradition, however, appears to have had its 
origin partly in etymological considerations. The word Treta, 
though designating the second Yuga, means a triad, and seems 
to have been suggested to the writer's mind by the triple fire 
mentioned in the legend. 

Mahabharata. — The following passage from the Mahabharata, 
Santiparva (verses 13,088 ff.), agrees partially in tenor with the 
second passage from the Bhagavata, but is silent regarding 
Pururavas \—Idam kritayugam ndma kdlaJi sreshthak pravartti- 
tah | Ahimsyd yajfiapasavo yuge 'smin na tad anyathd || Chatush- 
pat sakalo dharmo bhavishyaty atra vai surdfi | Tatas Treta 
yugafh ndma trayl yatra bhavishyati || Proxitd yajnapasavo 
badhaikprapsyanti vai mahhe 25 \ Yatra pddas chaturtho vai dhar- 
masya na bhavishyati || Tato vai dvaparam ndma misralt kdlo 
bhavishyati. "This present Krita age is the best of all the 
yugas ; in it it is unlawful to slay any animals for sacrifice ; in 
this age righteousness shall consist of all its four portions and be 
entire. Then shall follow the Treta age, in which the triple 

35 Manu (i. 86, 86) differs from this passage of the Mahabharata in making the 
Dvapara the age of sacrifice ; — Anye hfltayuge dharmas Tretayam Dvapare pare \ 
Anye haliyuge nftnam yuga-hrasanurupatah \ Tapah paraih Kritayuge Tretayam 
jnanam uchyate \ Dvapare yajnam evahur danam ekam kalau yuge, " Different duties 
are practised by men in the Krita age, and different duties in the Treta, Dvapara, 
and Kali ages, in proportion to the decline in those yugas. Devotion is said to be 
supreme in the Krita, knowledge in the Treta, sacrifice in the Dvapara, and liberality 
alone in the Kali.' 1 


Veda shall arise, and animals fit for sacrifice shall be slaughtered 
as oblations. In that age the fourth part of righteousness shall 
be wanting. Next shall succeed the Dvapara, a mixed period." 

The M. Bh. (Santip. 13,475) relates that two Asuras, who 
beheld Brahma creating the Vedas, suddenly snatched them up 
and ran off. Brahma laments their loss, exclaiming, Vedo me 
paramam chcucur vedo me paramam balam | . . . Veddn rite hi 
kiih kurydm hkdndih srisktim uttamam. "The Veda is my 
principal eye ; the Veda is my principal strength. . . . What 
shall I do without the Vedas, the most excellent creation in the 
universe ?" They were, however, recovered and restored to 
Brahma (v. 13,506 ff.) 

Vishnurpurana. — The following verse, Vish. Pur. iii. 2, 12 
(Wilson, p. 269), refers to the periodical disappearance of the 
Vedas:— Ckaturyugdnte veddndfh jdyate kaliviplavah \pravart- 
tayanti tan etya bhuvi saptarshayo divah. " At the end of the 
four ages (yugas) the disappearance of the Vedas, incident to the 
kali, takes place. The seven rishis come from heaven to earth, 
and again give them currency." (Compare M. Bh. Santip. 
7,660, which will be quoted further on.) 

Sect. V. — Accounts in the Vishnu and Vdyu Puranas of the schisms 
between the adherents of the Yajur-veda, Vaisamp&yana and Yajna- 
valkya; hostility of the Atharvanas towards the other Vedas ; and of 
the Chhandogas towards the Rig-veda. 

The Vishnu Purana, iii. 5, 2 ff. (Wilson, p. 279 ff.), gives the 
following legend regarding the way in which the Yajur-veda 
came to be divided into two schools, the black and the white : — 
Ydjfuwalkyas tu tasyabhiid Brahmaratasuto dtija \ Sishyaji 
pararm-dharmajno guru-vritti-parah sadd | Rishir yo 'dya 
mahamerum samdje ndgamishyati \ Tasya vai sapta-rdtrantu 
brahma-katyd bhavishyati \ Purvam eva muni-ganaili samayo 
'bkut krito dvija \ Vaisampdyana ekas tu tain vyatikrdntavdms 
tadd | Svasriyam bdlakam so 'tka padd spris&tam aghdtayat \ 


Sishydn aha sa bhoh sishyd brahma-hatydpaham vratam \ Cha- 
radkvam matkrite sarve na vickdryyam idam tathd \ Athaha 
Ydjfiavalkyas tar? kim ebhir bhagavan dvijaify \ Klesitair alpa- 
tejobhir charishye 'ham idam vratam \ Tatah kruddho guruh 
prdha Ydjnavalkyam mahdmatiji \ Muchyatdm yat toayd 'dhitam 
matto viprdvamanyaka \ Nistejaso vadasy etdn yas tvam brdh- 
mana-pungavdn \ Tena sishyena ndrtho 'sti mamdjfid-bkangar 
karind | Yajfiavalhyas tatah prdha bhaktau tat te mayoditam \ 
Mamdpy alam toayd 'dhitam yad mayd tad idam dvija \ Ity 
uktvd rudhirdktdni sarUpdni yajumshi sah \ Chhardayitvd dadau 
tasmai yayau cha svechhayd munih \ yajumshy atha visrishtdm 
ydjnavalkyena vai dvija \ Jagrihus tittirlbhutvd Taittinyds tic te 
tataJi | Brahma-hatyd-vratam chirnam gurutid choditais tu yaih \ 
Charakddhvaryavas te tu charandd munisattamdli \ YdjnavaU 
kyo 9 tha Maitreya prdndydma-pardyana]^ \ tushtdva prayataJk 
suryam- yajumshy abhilasha?ns tatali | . . • Ity evamddibhistena 
stuyamanali stavaib ravih \ vdji-rupa-dharah prdha vriyatdm iti 
vdnchhitam | Ydjfiavalkyas tadd prdha pranipatya divdkaram \ 
yajumshi tdni me dehi ydni santi na me gurau \ Evam ukto 
dadau tasmai yajumshi bhagavdn ravili \ aydtaydma-sanjnani 
ydni vetti na tadguruli \ Yajmrtshi yair adhltdni tdni viprair 
ddjpttama \ vdjinas te samdhhydtdh suryo 'svali so 'bhavadyatalt. 
" Yajnavalkya, son of Brahmarati, was his [Vaisampayana's] 
disciple, eminently versed in duty, and obedient to his teacher. 
An agreement had formerly been made by the Munis that any 
one of their number who should fail to attend at an assembly 
on Mount Meru on a certain day should incur the guilt of Brah- 
manicide during [within ?] a period of seven nights. Vaisam- 
payana was the only person who infringed this agreement, and 
he in consequence occasioned the death of his sister's child by 
touching it with his foot. He then desired all his disciples to 
perform in his behalf an expiation which should take away his 
guilt, and forbade any hesitation. Yajnavalkya then said to him, 
' Reverend sir, what is the necessity for these faint and feeble 
Brahmins ? / will perform the expiation.' The wise teacher, 


incensed, replied to Yajnavalkya, ' Contemner of Brahmans, give 
up all that thou hast learnt from me ; I have no need of a dis- 
obedient disciple, who, like thee, stigmatizes these eminent Brah- 
mans as feeble.' Yajnavalkya rejoined, ' It was from devotion 
[to thee] that I said what I did ; but I, too, have done with 
thee : here is all that I have learnt from thee.' Having spoken, 
he vomited forth the identical Yajush texts tainted with blood, 
and giving them to his master, he departed at his will. [The 
other pupils] having then become transformed into partridges 
(tittiri), picked up the Yajush texts, and were thence called 
Taittirlyas. And those who had by their teacher's command 
performed the expiation, were from this performance (cAarana) 
called Charakadhvaryus. Yajnavalkya then, who was habituated 
to the exercise of suppressing his breath, devoutly hymned the 
sun, desiring to obtain Yajush texts ... [I pass over the hymn.] 
Thus celebrated with these and other praises, the sun assumed 
the form of a horse, and said, ' Ask whatever boon thou desirest.' 
Yajnavalkya then, prostrating himself before the lord of day, 
replied, 'Give me such Yajush texts as my teacher does not 
possess/ Thus supplicated, the sun gave him the Yajush texts 
called Aydtaydma, which were not known to his master. Those 
by whom these texts were studied were called Vajins, because 
the sun (when he gave them) assumed the shape of a horse 

I quote also the parallel text from the Vayu Purana, as it 
exhibits some slight variations from the preceding, (Vayu Pur. 
Aufr. Cat. p. 55) : — Kdryam asid risAlndfkAa kificAid brdA- 
manarsattamab \ Meru-prisAtAafii samdsddya tais tada 'stviti 
mantritam \ Yo no 'tra sapta-rdtrena ndgacAAed dvija-sattamali \ 
sa kurydd braAmctrbadAyctfh vai samayo nali praklrttitali \ Tatas 
te saganah sarve Vaisampdyanorvarjitdji \ Prayayuh saptard- 
trena yatra sandAik krito 'bAavat \ BrdAmandndntu vacAandd 
brahmarbadAydfh, cAaAdra sah \ SisAydn atAa samdnlya sa Vais- 
ampayano 'bramt \ BraAma-badAydM cAaradAvaia vai matArite 
drijah-sattamdh \ sarve ytiyafh samdgamya bruta me taddAitaM 


vachah \ Yajnavalkya uvacha \ Aham eva charishydmi tiskthantu 
munayas tv ime \ balafichotthdpayishydmi tapasd svena bhdvitafi \ 
Evam uktas tatah kruddho Ydjfiavalkyam atkdbravit \ uvacha 
yat tvayd 'dhltaM sarvam pratyarpayasva me \ Evam uktah 
sarupdni yajufhshi pradadau gwroli \ rudhirena tatkd 'ktdni 
chharditvd brahma-vittamali \ Tatali sa dhydnam dsthdya sUryam 
drddhayad dvijali \ surya brahma yad uchchhinnaih khafii gated 
pratitishtkati \ Tato ydni gatdny urddham yajumshy dditya-man- 
dalam \ Tdni tasmai dadau tushtah suryo vai Brdhmardtaye \ 
Asvarilpascha mdrttando Ydjnavalkydya dhlmate \ Yajiifhshy adh- 
lyate ydni brahmand yena kenacldt \ asvarupdni dattdni tatas 
te Vdjino 'bhavan \ brahma-hatyd tu yais chlrnd charandt cha- 
rakdh smritdh \ Vaisampdyana-sishyds te charakah samuddh- 
ritafi. " The rishis having a certain occasion, met on the summit 
of Mount Meru, when, after consultation, they resolved and 
agreed together that any one of their number who should fail to 
attend there for seven nights should be involved in the guilt of 
brahmanicide. They all in consequence resorted to the appointed 
place for seven nights along with their attendants. Vaisampft- 
yana alone was absent, and he, according to the word of the 
Brahmans, committed brahmanicide. He then assembled his 
disciples, and desired them to perform, on his behalf, an expia- 
tion for his offence, and to meet and tell him what was salutary 
for the purpose. Yajnavalkya then said, ' I myself will perform 
the penance ; let all these munis refrain : inspired by my own 
devotion, I shall raise up strength.' Incensed at this speech of 
Yajnavalkya [Vaisampayana] said to him, ' Restore all that thou 
hast learned/ Thus addressed, the sage, deeply versed in sacred 
lore, vomited forth the identical Yajush texts stained with blood, 
and delivered them to his teacher. Plunged in meditation, the 
Brahman then adored the sun, saying, ' Sun, every sacred text 
which disappears [from the earth] goes to the sky, and there 
abides.' The sun, gratified, and [appearing] in the form of a 
horse, bestowed on Yajnavalkya, son of Brahmarata, all the 
Yajush texts which had ascended to the solar region. All the 


Yajush texts which are [ ? ] studied by any priest, were given in 
the form of horses, [?] and in consequence these priests became 
Vajins. And the disciples of Vaisampayana, by whom the expi- 
atory rite was accomplished, were called Ckarakas, from its 
accomplishment (charana)" 26 

It is sufficiently evident from the preceding legend that the 
adherents of the two different divisions of the Yajurveda (the 
Taittiriya or black, and the Vajasaneyi or white), mu6t in ancient 
times have regarded each other with feelings of the greatest 
hostility — feelings akin to those with which the followers of the 
rival deities, Vishnu and Siva, look upon each other in modern 
days. On this subject I quote an extract from Professor Weber's 
" History of Indian Literature." 

P. 84. — " Whilst the theologians of the Eik are called Bah- 
vrichas, and those of the Saman Chhandogas, the old name for 
the divines of the Yajush is Adhvaryu ; and these old appella- 
tions are to be found in the Sanhita of the Black Yajush (the 
Taittiriya), and in the Brahmana of the White Yajush (the Sata- 
patha Brahmana). The latter work applies the term Adhvaryus^ 
to its own adherents, whilst their opponents are denominated 
Charakadhvaryus, and are the objects of censure. This hostility 
is also exhibited in a passage of the Sanhita of the White Yajush, 
where the Charakacharya, as one of the human sacrifices to be 
offered at the Purushamedha, is devoted to Dushkrita or Sin." 27 

28 In a note to p. 461 of his Translation of the Vishnu Purana, Professor Wilson 
mentions the following legend illustrative of the effects of this schism. " The Vayu 
and Matsya relate, rather obscurely, a dispute between Janamejaya and Vaisampa- 
yana, in consequence of the former's patronage of the Brahmans of the Vajasaneyi 
branch of the Yajur-veda, in opposition to the latter, who was the author of the 
Black or original Yajush. Janamejaya twice performed the As'vamedha according 
to the Yajasaveyi ritual, and established the TrisarvT, or use of certain texts by 
Aimaka and others, by the Brahmans of Anga, and by those of the middle country. 
He perished, however, in consequence, being cursed by Vaisampayana. Before their 
disagreement, Vaisampayana related the Mahabharata to Janamejaya." 

37 Vajasaneyi Sanhita xxx. 18 (p. 846 of Weber's ed.) : — Dushkritaya charaka- 
chdryyam | (charakanaih gurum — Scholiast). Prof. Miiller also says (Anc. Sans. Lit. 
p. 360), " This name Charaka is used in one of the Khilas" (the passage just quoted) 
•' of the Vajasaneyi Sanhita as a term of reproach. In the 30th Adhyaya a list of 
people is given who are to be sacrificed at the Purushamedha, and among them we 


In his Indische Studien (iii. 454) Prof. Weber specifies the fol- 
lowing passages in the Satapatha Brahmana as those in which 
the Charakas, or Charakfidhvaryus are censured, viz., iii. 8, 2, 24 ; 
iv.1,2, 19; iv.2,3,15; iv.2,4,1; vi.2,2,1,10; viii. 1,3,7; 
viii. 7, 1, 14, 24. Of these I quote one specimen (iv. 1, 2, 19) : 
— Ta u ha Charakd nanaiva mantrdbhydM juhvati prdnoddnau 
kurma iti vadantah \ Tad u tatha na kurydt \ mohayanti ha te 
yajamdnasya prdnoddndv apidva enam tushnimjuhuydt. " These 
the Charakas offer respectively with two mantras, saying thus : 
'These are his two breathings/ and 'we thus make these 
two breathings endowed with their respective powers.' But let 
no one adopt this procedure, for they confound the breathings 
of the worshipper. Wherefore let this libation be offered in 
silence." 28 

But these sectarian jealousies were not confined to the dif- 
ferent schools of the Yajur-veda ; the adherents of the Atharva- 
veda seem to have evinced a similar spirit of hostility towards 
the followers of the other Vedas. On this subject Prof. Weber 
remarks as follows in his Indische Studien, i. 296. " A good 
deal of animosity is generally displayed in most of the writings 
connected with the Atharvan towards the other three Vedas ; but 
the strongest expression is given to this feeling in the first of 
the Atharva Parisishtas, chapter cxii." 

He then proceeds to quote the following passage from that 
work and chapter: — Bahvricho hanti vai rdshtram adhvaryur 
nasayet sutdn \ Chhandogo dhanafh nasayet tasmdd Atharvano 
guruli | Ajndndd vd pramdddd vd yasya sydd bahvricho gurufi \ 
desa-rdshtra-purdmdtya-nasas tasya na saihsayali \ yadi vd 

find the Charakacharya as the proper victim to he offered to Dushkrita or Sin. This 
passage, together with similar hostile expressions in the Satapatha Brahmana, were 
evidently dictated by a feeling of animosity against the ancient schools of the Adhvar- 
yna, whose sacred texts we possess in the Taittiriya-veda, and from whom Yajna- 
valkya seceded in order to become himself the founder of the new Charanas of the 

28 Though aided by a learned Mend in rendering this passage, I am not certain of 
the perfect exactness of the translation. But there is no doubt whatever that the 
tendency of the text is hostile to the rival school of the Charakas. 


'dhvaryavafh raja niyunakti purohitam \ sastrena badhyatc 
xipram parixindrtha-vahanafy \yathaiva pangur adhvdnam apaxl 
ckandorbhoyanam \ eoafh chhandoga-gurund raja vriddhiffi, na 
gachhati \ purodhd jalado yasya maudo va syat kathanchana \ 
abdad dasabhyo masebhyo rashtra-bkrafhsam sa gathhatL " A 
Bahvricha (Rig-veda priest) will destroy a kingdom ; an Adhvaryu 
(Yajur-veda priest) will destroy offspring; and a Chhandoga 
(Sfima-veda priest) will destroy wealth ;— hence an Atharvana 
priest is the [proper] spiritual adviser. Destruction of country, 
kingdom, cities, and ministers is certainly incurred by the [king] 
who, through ignorance or folly, takes a Bahvricha priest for 
his guide. Or if a king appoints an Adhvaryu priest to be his 
domestic chaplain, he loses his wealth and his chariots, and is 
speedily slain by the sword. As a lame man [makes no pro- 
gress] on a road, and a creature which is not a bird [cannot] eat 
eggs [?], so no king prospers who has a Chhandoga for his teacher* 
He who has a Jalada or a Mauda for his priest, loses his kingdom 
after a year or ten months." 

"Thus," continues Prof. Weber, "the author of the Pari- 
flishta attacks certain sakhas of the Atharva-veda itself, for such 
are the Jaladas and the Maudas, and admits only a Bhargava, a 
Paippalada, or a Saunaka to be a properly qualified teacher. 
He further declares that the Atharva-veda is intended only for 
the highest order of priest, the brahman, not for the three other 
inferior sorts." 

The following passage is then quoted :— Atharva srijate ghoram 
adbhutam samayet tat ha \ atharva raxate yajnam yajnasya patir 
Angirafi \ Dwyantarixorbhaumandm utpatanam anekadha \ 
samayita brahma^oeda-jnas tasmad daxinato Bhriguh \ Brahma 
samayed nadhvaryur na chhandoga na bahvrichah \ raxaMsi 
raxati brahmd brahmd tasmad atharvcwit. "The Atharva 
priest creates horrors, and he also allays alarming occurrences ; 
he protects the sacrifice, of which Angiras is the lord. He who 
is skilled in the Brahma-veda (the Atharva) can allay manifold 
portents, celestial, atmospheric, and terrestrial, wherefore the 


Bhrigu [is to be placed] on the right hand. It is the brahman, 
and not the adhvaryu, the chhandoga, or the bahvricha, who can 
allay [portents] ; the brahman wards off [ ? ] raxases, wherefore 
the brahman is he who knows the Atharva." 

I subjoin another extract from Prof. Weber's Indische Stndien, 
i. 63 ff., partly to complete what was said on the relation of the 
Sama-veda to the Rig-veda in Part Second of this work, pp. 
202, 203, and partly to illustrate the mutual hostility of the 
different schools. "To understand the relation of the Samar 
veda to the Rig-veda, we have only to form to ourselves a clear 
and distinct idea of the manner in which these hymns in general 
arose, how they were then carried to a distance by those tribes 
which emigrated onward, and how they were by them regarded 
as sacred, whilst in their original home, they were either — as 
living in the immediate consciousness of the people — subjected 
to modifications corresponding to the lapse of time, or made way 
for new hymns by which they were pushed aside, and so became 
forgotten. It is a foreign country which first surrounds familiar 
things with a sacred charm ; emigrants continue to occupy their 
ancient mental position, preserving what is old with painful 
exactness, while at home life opens out for itself new paths. 
New emigrants follow those who had first left their home, and 
unite with those who are already settlers in a new country. 
And now the old and the new hymns and usages are fused into 
one mass, and are faithfully, but uncritically, learned and imbibed 
by travelling pupils from different masters (several stories in the 
Vrihad Aranyaka are especially instructive on this point, see 
Ind. Stud. p. 83), so that a varied intermixture arises. Others, 
again, more learned, then strive to introduce arrangement, to 
bring together what is homogeneous, to separate what is dis- 
tinct ; and in this way theological intolerance springs up ; with- 
out which the rigid formation of a text or a canon is impossible. 
The influence of courts on this process is not to be overlooked ; 
as, for example, in the case of Janaka, King of Videha, who in 
Yajnavalkya had found his Homer. Anything approaching to a 


clear insight into the reciprocal relations of the different schools 
will in vain be sought either from the Puranas or the Charana- 
vyuha, and can only be attained by comparing the teachers 
named in the different Brahmanas and Sutras, partly with each 
other and partly with the text of Panini and the ganapatha and 
commentary connected therewith (for the correction of which a 
thorough examination of Patanjali would offer the only sufficient 
guarantee). For the rest, the relation between the 8. V. and 
the R. V. is in a certain degree analogous to that between the 
White and the Black Yajush ; and, as in the Brahmana of the 
former (the Satapatha Br.) we often find those teachers who are 
the representatives of the latter, mentioned with contempt, it 
cannot surprise us, if in the Brahmana of the Sama-veda, the 
Paingins and Kaushltakins are similarly treated." 

It will have become sufficiently manifest to the reader of the 
preceding passages which I have extracted from the Puranas 
concerning the division and different Sakhas of the Vedas, that 
the traditions which they embody contain very little real infor- 
mation in regard to the composition of the hymns, or the man- 
ner in which they were preserved, collected, or arranged. In 
fact, I have not adduced these passages for the purpose of eluci- 
dating those points, but to show the legendary character of the 
narratives, and their discrepancies in matters of detail. For an 
account of the Sakhas of the Vedas, the ancient schools of the 
Brahmans, and other matters of a similar nature, I must refer 
to the excellent work of Prof, Muller, the " History of Ancient 
Sanskrit Literature," pp. 119-132 and 364-388 and elsewhere. 

Sect. VI. — Reasonings of the Commentators on the Vedas, in support 
of the authority of the Vedas. 

I proceed now to adduce some extracts from the works of the 
more systematic authors who have treated of the origin and 
authority of the Vedas, I mean the commentators on these books 
themselves, and the authors and expositors of the aphorisms of 


several of the schools of Hindu philosophy. Whatever we may 
think of the premises from which these writers set out, or of the 
conclusions at which they arrive, we cannot fail to be struck with 
the contrast which their speculations exhibit to the loose and 
mystical ideas of the Puranas and Upanishads, or to admire the 
acuteness of their reasoning, and the logical precision with which 
their arguments are presented. 

I. — The first passage which I shall adduce is from Say ana's 

introduction to his commentary on the Big-veda, the Vedartha- 

prakasa, pp. 3 ff. (Sayana, as we have seen in Part Second, 

p. 172, lived in the 14th century, a.d.) Nanu Veda eva tavad 

nasti | kutas tadavdntara-wisesha rigvedali \ Tathd hi \ ko 'yafli 

vedo ndma \ na hi tatra laxanafk pr amandin m 'sti \ nacha tad- 

ubhaya-vyatirekena hiftchid vastu prasidhyati \ Laxana-pramdnd- 

bliydih hi vastu-siddhir iti nydyaviddm matam \ Pratyaxanuman- 

dgameshu pramdna-visesheshu antimo Veda iti tallaxanam iti 

chet | na \ Manvddi-smritishu ativydpteli \ Samaya-balena sam- 

yah paroxdnubhava-sddhanam ity etasya dgama-laxanasya tds- 

vapi sadbhdvdt \ apaurusheyatve sati iti viseshandd adosha iti 

chet | na \ Vedasydpi paramesvara-nirmitatvena paurtisheyatmt \ 

Sanra'dhdri-jwa-nirmitatvdbhdvdd apaurusheyatvam iti chet \ 

[na?'] | ' Sahasra-sirshd purusha' ityddi-srutibhir tsvarasydpi 

sariritvdt \ Karmayhala-rupa-sanra-dhari-jwa-nirmitatvdbhdva- 

mdtrena apaurushcyatvafii vkaoatam iti chet | na \ Jwa-viseshair 

Agni- Vdyv-Adityair veddndm utpdditatvdt \ i Rigveda evdgner 

ajdyata Yajurvedo vdydli Sdmaveda dditydd' iti sruter isoara- 

sya agnyddi-prerahatvena nirmdtritmm drashtavyam \ mantra- 

brdhmandtmahah sabda-rdsir veda iti chet \ na \ Idriso mantrafy \ 

idrisam brdhmanam ity anayor adydpi anirnitatvdt | Tasmdd 

ndsti kinchid vedasya laxanam \ Ndpi tat-sadbhdve pramdnafk 

pasyamak \ i Rigvedafii bhagavo 'dhyemi YajurvedaM Sdmave- 

damAtharvanam chaturtham' ityddi vdhyaih pramdnam iti chet \ 

na | tasydpi vdhyasya veddntahpdtitvena atmdsrayatva-prasan- 

gdt | Na khalu nipuno 'pi svashandham drodhufh prabhaved iti \ 

' Veda eva drijdtlndm mlxsreyam-haral) parali y iti ddi smriti- 


vdkyain, pramanam iti chet \ na \ tasydpy ukta-sruti-mUlatvena 
nirdkritatvdt | pratyaxddikaM sankitum apy ayogyam \ Veda- 
vishayd loka-prasiddhih sdrvajariind 'pi nllafh nabha ityddivad 
bhrdntd \ Tasmal laxana-pramdiia-rahitasya vedasya sadbhdvo na 
anglkarttuM sakyate iti purvapaxali \ 

Atra uchyate \ mantra-brdhmandtmakaM tdvad adushtafk 
laxanam \ ata eva Apastambo yajna-paribhashdydm evdha 
'mantra-brdhmanayor veda-ndmadheyam' iti \ tayostu rupam 
uparishthdd nirneskyate \ apawrusheya-vdkyatvam iti idam api 
yddrisam asmdbhir vivaxitaM tddrisam uttaratra spashtl-bhavi- 
shyati \ pramdndny api yathoktdni sruti-smriti-lokaprasiddhi- 
rUpdni veda-sadbhdve drashtavydni \ Yathd ghata-patddi-dravy- 
dndm sva-prakdsatvdbhdve 'pi suryachandrddMidfii sva-prakd- 
satvam avirudham tathd manushyddxndik svaskandhdrohdsam- 
bhave 'py akunthita-sakter vedasya itara-vastu-pratipddakatva- 
vat sva-pratipddakatvam apy astu \ Ata eva sampraddya-vido 
'kunthitdih, saktim vedasya darsayanti ' ckodand ni bhutam bha- 
vishyantafh suxmafh vyavahitafh viprakrishtam ity evargdtiyam 
artham saknoty avagamayitum' iti \ Tathd sati veda-mitldydli 
smrites tadubhaya-muldyd loka-prasiddheseha prdmdnyam dur- 
vdram \ Tasmal laxana-pramdna-siddho vedo na kendpi chdrvd- 
kddind 'podhum sakyate iti sthitam || 

Nanv astu ndma Veddkhyali kdschit paddrtkah \ tathdpi 
ndsau vydkhydnam arhati apramdnatvena anupayuktatvdt \ Na 
hi Vedah pramdnaifi tallaxanasya tatra duksampddatvdt \ tathd 
hi l samyag anubhava-sddhanam pramanam ' iti kechil laxanam 
dhuh | dpare tu ( anadhigatdrtha-gantri pramanam' ity dchax- 
ate | na chaitad ubhayam vede sambhavati \ mantra-brdkmandt- 
mako hi vedah \ tatra mantrdh kechid abodhakdh \ ' amyak sd ta 
Indra rishtir' ityeko mantrali \ 'Yddrismin dhdyi tarn ayasya- 
yd vidad' ity any all \ i Srinyevajarbharl turpharitu ' ityaparatt | 
' Apdnta-manyus triphala-prabkarmd ' ityddaya uddhdrydh | na 
hy etair mantraih kaschid apy artho 'vabudhyate \ eteshv anu- 
bhavo eva yadd ndsti tadd tatsamyaktvam tadlya-sddhanatvancha 
dUrdpetam \ 'Adhafy svid dsld upari svid dstd 1 iti mantrasya 


bodhakatve 'pi ' sthdnur vd purusho va ityadi-mkyavat sandig- 
dhdrtha-bodhakatvdd ndsti prdmdnyam \ ' Oshadhe trdyasvainam 9 
iti mantro darbhavishayah \ ' Svadhite mainaik hvfimr' iti xura- 
vishayah \ ' Srinota grdvdna ' iti pdshdna^ishayaJi \ Eteskv 
achetandndfh darbha-xura-pdshdndndfh chetana-wat sambodha- 
nafh sruyate \ tato ' dvau chandramasdv' iti vdkya-vad vipantar- 
tka-bodhakatvdd aprdmdnyam \ i Eka eva Rudro na dvitlyo 
'vatasthe ' \ ' sahasrdni sahasraso ye Budrd adhi bhUmydm ' 
ity anayos tu mantrayor ' ydvajjwam aham maunV iti vdkyaoad 
tydghdta-bodhakatvdd aprdmdnyam \ 'Apa undantu' iti mantro 
yajamdnasyaxaura-kdlejalenasirasah kledanam brute \ ' Subhike 
sira aroha sobhayantl mukham mama 1 iti mantro vivdha-kdle man- 
galdcharandrtham pushpa-nirmitdyd subhikdya varabadhvoh 
sirasy avasthdnam brute \ tayoscha mantrayor loka-prasiddhdr- 
thdnuvdditvdd anadhigatdrtha-gantritvam ndsti \ tasmdd man- 
tra-bhdgo napramdnam \ 

Atra uchyate \ Amyagddi-mantrdndm artho Ydskena nirukta- 
granthe 'vabodhitah \ tat-parichaya-rahitdndm anavabodho na 
mantrdndfh doskdm avahati \ Ata evdtra loka-nydyam uddha- 
ranti ' naisha sthdnor aparddho yad enam and/to na pasyati \ 
purushdparddko sambhavati' iti \ ' Adhah svid dsid' iti man- 
trascha na sandeha-prabodhandya pravrittah kimtarhi jagat- 
kdranasya paravastuno 'tigambhlratvam nischetum eva pravrit- 
tafi | tadartham eva hi gurusdstra-sampraddya-rahitair dur- 
bodhyatvam ' adhah svid ' ity anaya vacho-bhangyd upanyasyati \ 
Sa evdbhiprdya uparitanesha ' ko addhd veda ' ity ddi-mantreshu 
spashti-kritah \ ' Oshadhy ' ddi mantreshv api chetand eva tattad- 
abhimdni-devatds tena tena ndmnd sambodkyante \ tdscha devatd 
bhagavatd Bddardyartena ' abhimdni-vyapadesastu' iti sutre s#- 
tritdh | Ekasydpi Rudrasya sva-mahimnd sahasra-mUrtti-svi- 
kdrdd ndsti parasparam vydghdtah | Jalddi-dravyena sirafr-kle- 
dandder loka-siddhatve 'pi tad-abhimdni-devatdnugrahasya apra- 
siddhatvdt tadvishayatvena ajfidtdrtha-jndpakatvam \ tato lax- 
ana-sadbhdvdd asti mantra-bhdgasya pramdnyam. 

" But, some will say, there is no such thing as a Veda ; 


how, then, can there be a Rig-veda, forming a particular part of 
it? For what is this Veda? It has no characteristic sign or 
evidence ; and without these two conditions, nothing can be 
proved to exist. For logicians hold that ' a thing is established 
by characteristic signs and by proof/ If you answer that ' of 
the three kinds of proof, perception, inference, and scripture, 
the Veda is the last, and that this is its sign ; ' then the objectors 
rejoin that this is not true, for this sign extends too far, and 
includes also Manu and the other Smritis; since there exists 
in them also this characteristic of Scripture, viz., that ' in virtue 
of common consent it is a perfect instrument for the discovery 
of what is invisible.' If you proceed, ' the Veda is faultless, in 
consequence of its characteristic that it has no person (purusha) 
for its author ; ' they again reply, ' Not so ; for as the Veda was 
formed by Paramesvara (God), it had a person (purusha) for its 
author.' If you rejoin, ' It had no person (purusha) for its author, 
for it was not made by any embodied living being ; '[they refuse* 9 
to admit this] on the ground that, according to such Vedic texts 
as ' Purusha has a thousand heads,' it is clear that Isvara (God) 
also has a body. If you urge that apaurusheyatva (' the having 
had no personal author') means that it was not composed by a 
living being endowed with a body which was the result of works ; 
— the opponent denies this also, and asserts that the Vedas were 
created by particular living beings, — Fire, Air, and the Sun ; for 
from the text ' the Rig-veda sprang from fire, the Yajur-veda from 
air, and the Sama-veda from the sun,' etc., it will be seen that 
Isvara, by inciting fire and the others, was the maker. If you 
next say that the Veda is a collection of words in the form of 
Mantras and Brahmanas, the objectors rejoin, ' Not so, for it has 
never yet been defined that a Mantra is so and so, and a Brah- 
mana so and so.' There exists, therefore, no characteristic mark 

* I have translated this, as if there had been (which there is not) a negative 
particle na in the text, after the iti chet, as this seems to me to make the best sense. 
I understand from Prof. Muller that the negative particle h found in some of 
the MSS. 


of a Veda. Nor do we see any proof that a Veda exists. If you 
say that the text, ' I peruse, reverend sir, the Kig-veda, the Yajur- 
veda, the Sftma-veda, and the Atharva as the fourth/ is a proof, 
the antagonist answers, ' No, for as that text is part of the Veda, 
it is exposed to the objection of depending upon itself; for no 
one, be he ever so clever, can mount upon his own shoulders.' 
If you again urge that such texts of the Smriti as this, ' It is the 
Veda alone which is supreme, and the source of blessedness to 
twice-born men/ are proofs, the objector rejoins, ' Not so ; since 
these too must be rejected, as being founded on the same Veda/ 
The evidence of the senses and other ordinary sources of know- 
ledge ought not even to be doubted. And common report in 
reference to the Veda, though universal, is erroneous, like such 
phrases as ' the blue sky/ etc. Wherefore, as the Veda is desti- 
tute of characteristic sign and proof, its existence cannot be 
admitted. Such is the first side of the question. 

" To this we reply :—The definition of the Veda, as a work 
composed of Mantra and Brahmana, is unobjectionable. Hence 
Apastamba says in the Yajnaparibhasha, the name of Mantra 
and Brahmana is Veda. The nature of these two things will be 
settled hereafter. 30 The sense we attach to the expression ' with- 
out any personal author ' will also be declared further on. Let 
the proofs which have been specified of the existence of the Veda, 
viz., the Veda (itself), the Smriti, and common notoriety, be 
duly weighed. Although jars, cloth, and other such [dark] objects 
have no inherent property of making themselves visible, it is no 
absurdity to speak of the sun, moon, and other luminous bodies, 
as shining by their own light. Just in the same way (though it is 
impossible for beings like men to mount on their own shoulders) 
let the all-penetrating Veda be held to have the power of proving 

80 See Part Second, p. 172. Madhava Acharya, the author of the Vedartha-pra- 
kas'a on the Taittiriya Sanhita, admits the priority of the Mantras or hymns to the 
Brahmanas in these words (p. 9) : — Yadyapi mantra-brahmanatmako Vedaa tathapi 
brahmanasya mantra-vyakhyana-rupatvat mantra evadau samatnnatah. "Though 
the Veda consists of Mantras and Brahmanas, yet as the Brahmanas are expository 
of the Mantras, the latter were first recorded." 


itself as it has of proving other things. 81 Hence traditionists set 
forth this penetrating force of the Veda ; thus, ' the Scripture 
is able to make known the past, the future, the minute, the near, 
the remote/ Such being the case, the authority of the Smriti, 
which is based on the Veda, and of common notoriety, which is 
based on both, is irresistible. Wherefore it stands fast that the 
Veda, which is established by characteristic sign, and by proof, 
cannot be refuted by Charvakas or any other opponents. 

" But let it be admitted that there is a thing called a Veda. Still 
it does not deserve, and is unfitted for, explanation, since it does 
not constitute proof. The Veda is no proof, as it is difficult to 
show that it has any sign of that character. Some define proof 
as the instrument of perfect apprehension ; others say, it is that 
which conducts us to what was not before comprehended. But 
neither of these definitions can be reasonably applied to the Veda. 
For the Veda consists of Mantra and Brahmana. Of these 
mantras some convey no meaning. Thus one is amyak sa ta, etc. ; 
another is yadrismin, etc. ; a third is srinyeva, etc. The texts 
apantu,* 2 etc., and others are further examples. Now no mean- 
ing whatever is to be perceived through these mantras ; and 
when they do not even convey an idea at all, much less can 
they convey a perfect idea, or be instruments of comprehension. 
Even if the mantra adhali smd asid upari svid dszd, l was it below 
or above?' (E. V. x. 129, 5) convey a meaning, still, like such 
sayings as ' either a post or a man/ it conveys a dubious mean- 

81 The same thing had been said before by S'ankara Acharyya (who lived at the 
end of the 8th or beginning of the 9th century, a.d. See Colebrooke's Misc. Essays, i. 
332), in his commentary on the Brahma Sutras ii. 1, 1. Vedasya hi nirapexam svarthe 
pramanyam raver iva rupa-vishaye \ purusha-vachasam tu mulantarapexam svarthe 
pramanyam vaktri-smrituvyavahitancha iti viprakarshah. " For the Veda has an 
independent power of demonstration in respect of itself, as the sun has of manifesting 
forms. The words of men, on the other hand, have a power of proving themselves, 
which is derived from another source [the Yeda], and which is separated [from its 
source] by the recollection of the author. Herein consists the distinction [between 
the two kinds of evidence]." 

32 See Nirukta, v. 12, and vi. 15, and Roth's illustrations. It is not necessary for 
my purpose to inquire whether the charge of intelligibility brought against the texts 
is just or not. 


ing, and so possesses no authority. The mantra, deliver him, o 
plant, has for its subject, grass. Another, ' do not hurt him, 
axe, 9 has for its subject an axe (xura). A third, ' hear stones,* 
has for its subject, stones. In these cases, grass, an axe, and 
stones, though insensible objects, are addressed in the Veda as if 
they were intelligent. Hence these passages have no authority, 
because, like the saying, ' two moons/ their import is absurd. 
So also the two texts, ' there is one Eudra, no second has 
existed/ and ' the thousand Eudras who are over the earth/ 
involving, as they do, a mutual contradiction (just as if one 
were to say, ' I have been silent all my life '), cannot be autho- 
ritative. The mantra dpa undantu expresses the wetting of the 
sacrificers head with water at the time of tonsure; while the 
text ' subhike, 9 etc. (' garland, mount on my head and decorate 
my face ') expresses the placing of a garland formed of flowers 
on the heads of the bridegroom and bride, by way of blessing, 
at the time of marriage. Now, as these two last texts merely 
repeat a matter of common notoriety, they cannot be said to 
conduct us to what was not before comprehended. Wherefore 
the Mantra portion of the Veda is destitute of authority. 

" To this we reply, the meaning of these texts ' amyak 9 etc., 
and the others has been explained by Yaska in the Nirukta. 
The fact that they are not understood by persons ignorant of 
that explanation, does not prove any defect in the mantras. It 
is customary to quote here the popular maxim, ' it is not the 
fault of the post that the blind man does not see it ; the reason- 
able thing to say is that it is the man's fault/ The mantra ' adhah 
svid, 9 etc. was it above or below?'), is not intended to convey 
doubt, but rather to signify the extreme profundity of the supreme 
Essence, the cause of the world. With this view the author inti- 
mates by this turn of expression the difficulty which persons who 
are not versed in the deep Scriptures have, in comprehending 
such subjects. The same intention is manifested in the preced- 
ing mantras ko addhd veda, etc. ('who knows?' etc.) In the 
texts oshade, etc. Co herb/ etc.), also the deities who preside 


over these several objects are addressed by these several names. 
These deities are referred to by the venerable Badarayana in the 
aphorism abAimdni-vyapadesah. As Kudra, though only one, 
assumes by his power a thousand forms, there is no contradic- 
tion between the different texts which relate to him. And though 
the moistening, etc., of the head by water, etc., is a matter of 
common notoriety, yet as the goodwill of the god who resides 
in these objects is not generally known, the text in question, 
by* having that for its subject, is declaratory of what is unknown. 
Hence the Mantra portion of the Veda, being shown to have the 
characteristic mark [of constituting proof], is authoritative." 

Sayana then, in p. 11 of his Preface, proceeds to extend his 
argument to the Brahmanas, and concludes (p. 19) that the 
authority of the whole Veda is proved. 

II. — The second passage which I shall quote is from the 
Vedartha-prakasa of Madhava Acharyya on the Taittirlya Yajur- 
veda (pp. 1 ff. in the Bibliotheca Indica). Madhava was the 
brother of Sayana, and flourished in the middle of the 14th 
century. (Colebrooke's Misc. Ess. i. 301.) Nanu ko 'yam vedo 
ndma ke vd asya visAaya-prayojana-sambandAddAikdrinah ka- 
thafhva tasya prdmdnyam \ na khah etasmin sarvasminn asati 
vedo vydAAydna-yogyo bhavati \ Atrochyate \ Ishtaprapty-anish- 
ta-pariAdrayor alaukikam updyaihyo grantho vedayati sa vedah \ 
AlauAiAa-padena pratyaxdnumdne vydvartyete \ Anubkuyamd- 
nasya srak-chandana-vanitdder iskta-prdpti-hetutvam auskadka- 
sevdder aniskta-pavikdra-Aetutvaficha pratyaxa-siddham \ Svend- 
nubAavisAyamdnasya purusAdntara-gatasya cAa tatAdtvam 
anumdna-gamyam \ EoaM tarAi bAdvi-janma-gata-sukAddikam 
apt anumdna-gamyam iti cAet \ na \ tadvisesAasya anavagamdt \ 
Na kfialu jyotisAtomddir isAtaprdptiAetuh kalafija-bkaxana-var- 
janddir anisAtapariAdra-Aetur ity amum artAam veda-vyatire- 
kena amimdna-saAasrendpi tdrkika-siromanir apy asydvagan- 
tuik saknoti \ Tasmdd ahukikopdya-bodAako veda iti laxanasya 
ndtivydptatfi | ata evoktam \ ' Pratyaxendnumityd vdyas tupdyo 
na bitdhyate \ Etafh vindanti vedena tasmdd vedasya vedatd' \ 


iti | sa evopdyo vedasya vishayali \ tadbodha eta praycganam \ 
tadbodhdrthi cka adhikdri \ tena saha upakaryyopakarakarbha- 
vali sambandhali \ nanu evaM sati stri-sudra-sahitdfy sarve vedd- 
dhikdrinali syur isktam me sydd anishtam ma bhud iti asishah 
sdrvajanlnatvdt \ maivam \ stri-sudrayoli saty updye bodhdr- 
thitve hetvantarena vedddhikdrasya pratibaddhatvdt \ upanlta- 
syaiva adhyayanddhikdram bruvat sdstram anupanitayoli strv- 
sudrayor vedddhyayanam anishta-prdpti-hetur iti bodhayati, p 
kathafii tarhi tayos tadupdydvagamah \ purdnddibhir iti omr 
mah | ata evoktam \ stri-sudra-dvijabandhUndM trayl na sruti- 
gochard \ iti Bhdratam dkhydnam munind kripaya kritam \ iti | 
tasmdd upamtair eva traivarnikair vedasya sambandhdli \ tat- 
prdmdnyantu bodhakatvdt svata eva siddham \ paurusheyarvdk- 
yantu bodhakam api sat purusha-gata-bhrdnti-ffiiclatva-sambhar 
vanayd tatparihdrdya mula-pramdnam apexate na tu vedah, 
tasya nityatvena vaktri-dosha-sankdnudaydt | . . . Nanu vedo 
9 pi Kdliddsddi-vdkyavat paurusheya eva Brahma-kdryyatva- 
sravandt | ' richah samdni jajnire \ chkanddmsi jajnire tas- 
mdd yajus tasmdd ajdyata 9 iti sruteh \ ata eva Bddardya- 
nah ' sdstrayonitvdd 9 iti sutrena Brahmano veda-kdranatvam 
avochat \ maivam \ srutismritibhydfh nityatvdvagamdt \ ' vdchd 
Virilpa nityayd 9 iti sruteh \ ' anddi-nidkand nityd vdg utsrishtd 
svayambhuvd 9 iti smritescha \ Bddardyano 9 pi devatddhikor 
rane sutraydmdsa 'ata eva cha nityatvam 9 iti \ tarhi pa- 
raspara-virodha iti chet \ na \ nityatvasya vydvahdrikatvdt 
srishter urdhvaM safiihdrdt pUrvam vyavahdrorkdlas tasmin 
utpatti-vindsddarsandt \ kdldkdsddayo yathd nityd evaM vedo 
9 pi vyavahdra-kdle Kdliddsddi-vdkyavat purusha-virachitatvd- 
bhdvdd nityali \ ddisrishtau tu kdldkdsddivad eva Brahmanali 
sakdsdd vedotpattir dmndyate \ ato vishaya-bkeddd naparaspara- 
mrodhali \ Brahmano nirdoshatvena vedasya vaktri-doshdbhdvdt 
svatassiddham prdmdnyafh tadavastham \ tasmdl laxana-pra- 
prdmdnyasya susthatvdchcha vedo vydkhatavya eva. 

" Now, some may ask, what is this Veda, or what are its sub- 


ject-matter, its use, its connection, or the persons who are com- 
petent to study it? and how is it authoritative? For, in the 
absence of all these conditions, the Veda does not deserve to be 
expounded. I reply : the book which makes known (vedayati) 
the supernatural (lit. non-secular) means of obtaining desir- 
able objects, and getting rid of undesirable objects, is the Veda. 
By the employment of the word supernatural, [the two ordinary 
means of information, viz.] perception miiriference, are excluded. 
Byperception it is established that such things as garlands, sandal 
wood, and women are causes of gratification, and that the use 
of medicines and so forth is the means of getting rid of suffering. 
And we ascertain by inference that we shall in future experi- 
ence, and that other men now experience, the same things. 
If it be asked whether, then, the happiness, etc., of a future 
birth be not in the same way ascertainable by inference, I reply 
that it is not, because we cannot get beyond generalities. Not 
even the most brilliant ornament of the logical school could, 
by a thousand inferences, without the help of the Vedas, discover 
the truths that the jyotishthoma and other sacrifices are the 
means of attaining happiness, and that abstinence from the flesh 
of an animal 33 struck with a poisoned arrow is the means of 
removing uneasiness. Thus it is not too wide a definition of 
the Veda to say that it is that which indicates supernatural 
expedients. Hence, it has been said, ' men discover by the 
Veda those expedients which cannot be ascertained by percep- 
tion or inference ; and this is the characteristic feature of the 
Veda/ These expedients, then, form the subject of the Veda ; 
[to teach] the knowledge of them is its use; the person who 
seeks that knowledge is the competent student ; and the connec- 
tion of the Veda with such a student is that of a benefactor with 
the individual who is to be benefitted. 

" But, if such be the case, it may be said that all persons 

83 The only other sense of the word kalanja in Boehtlingk and Roth's Lexicon is 
tobacco. It may be doubtful, however, if that weed was known in India when this 
commentary was written ; and perhaps the illustration may be a traditional one, 
derived from an earlier age. See Miiller in the Z. D. M. G. vii. pp. 376, 377. 



whatever, including women and sadras, must be competent 
students of the Veda, since the aspiration after good and the 
deprecation of evil are common to the whole of mankind. But 
it is not so. For though the expedient exists, and women and 
sadras are desirous to know it, they are debarred by another 
cause from being competent students of the Veda. The scrip- 
ture (sdstra) which declares that those persons only who have 
been invested with the sacrificial cord are competent to read the 
Veda, intimates thereby that the same study would be a cause 
of unhappiness to women and sildras [who are not so invested]. 
How, then, are these two classes of persons to discover the means 
of future happiness ? We answer, from the Puranas and other 
such works. Hence it has been said, ' since the triple Veda may 
not be heard by women, sudras, and degraded twice-born men, 
the MahabhSrata was, in his benevolence, composed by the 
Muni.' The Veda, therefore, has only a relation to men of the 
three superior classes who have obtained investiture. 

" Then the authority of the Veda is self-evident, from the fact 
of its communicating knowledge. For though the words of men 
also communicate knowledge, still, as they must be conceived to 
participate in the fallibility of their authors, they require some 
primary authority to remedy that fallibility. But such is not 
the case with the Veda ; for as that had no beginning, it is im- 
possible to suspect any defect in the utterer. . . . 

" A doubt may, however, be raised whether the Veda is not, like 
the works of Kalidasa and others, derived from a personal being , 84 
as it is said in the Veda to have been formed by Brahma, accord- 
ing to the text, ' the Bik and Sama verses, the metres sprang 
from him ; from him the Yajush was produced ;' 35 in consequence of 
which BadarSyana, in the aphorism 36 ' since he is the source of the 
sastra/ has pronounced that Brahma is the cause of the Veda. 

34 This seems to be the only way to translate paurusheya, as purusha cannot here 
mean a human being. 
M R. V. x. 90, 9, quoted in the first Part of this work, pp. 7, 8. 
38 Brahma Sutras, i. 1, 3, p. 7 of Dr. Ballantyne's Aphorisms of the Vedanta. 


But this doubt is groundless ; for the eternity of the Veda has 
been declared both by itself, in the text, ' with an eternal voice, 
o Virapa/ 37 and by the Smriti in the verse ' an eternal voice, 
without beginning or end, was uttered by the Self-existent.' 88 
Badarayana, too, in his section on the deities (Brahma Sdtras, 
i. 3, 29) has this aphorism, ' hence also [its] eternity [is to be 
maintained]/ If it be objected that these authorities are mutu- 
ally conflicting, I answer, No. For [in the passages where] 
the word eternity is applied to the Vedas, it is to be understood 
as referring to the period of action [or mundane existence]. 
This period is that which commences with the creation, and lasts 
till the destruction of the universe, since, during this interval, 
no worlds are seen to originate, or to be destroyed. Just as 
time and ether (space) are eternal, so also is the Veda eternal, 
because, during the period of mundane existence, it has not been 
composed by any person, as the works of Kalidasa and others 
have been. 39 Nevertheless, the Veda, like time and space, is 

87 These words are part of Rig-veda, viii. 64, 6 : — Tasmai nunam abhidyave vacka 
Virupa nityaya | vrishne chodasva sushtutim. " Send forth praises to this heaven- 
aspiring and prolific Agni, o Virupa, with an unceasing yoice [or hymn]." The word 
nityaya seems to mean nothing more than continual, though in the text I have 
rendered it eternal, as the author's reasoning seems to require. Colehrooke (Misc. 
Ess. i. 306), however, translates it by "perpetual" I shall again quote and illus- 
trate this verse further on. 

88 This line, from the M. Bh. S'antip, 8,533, has heen already cited above in p. 4. 
The Calcutta text, from which I have there quoted, gives vidya instead of nitya, the 
reading of the Vedartha-prakasa in this passage. It is possible that the line may be 
found also in some of the Furanas. 

89 The same subject is touched on by Sayana, at p. 20 of his commentary, in these 
words: — Nanu bhagavata Badarayanena Vedasya Brahma-karyyatvam eutritam | 
* sastra-yonitvad' iti \ figvedddi-sastra-karanatvad Brahma sarvajnam iti sutrar- 
thah | badham \ na etavata paurmheyatvam bhavati \ manushya-nirmitatvdbhavdt | 
idriiam apaurusheyatvam abhipretya vyavahara-dasayam akasadi-vad nityatvam 
Badarayanenaiva devatddhikarane sutritam | ' ata evacha nityatvam* iti, u But it is 
objected that the venerable Badarayana has declared in the aphorism ' since he is the 
source of the s'astra' (Brahma Sutras i. 1, 3), that the Veda is derived from Brahma ; 
the meaning of the aphorism being, that since Brahma is the cause of the Rig-veda 
and other S'astras, he is omniscient. This is true ; but it is not sufficient to prove 
the human origin of the Veda, since it was not formed by a man. Badarayana had in 
view such a superhuman origin of the Veda, when in the [other] aphorism ' hence also 
[its] eternity is to be maintained/ (which is contained in the section on the deities), he 
declared its eternity, like that of space, etc., during the period of mundane existence." 


recorded in Scripture to have originated from Brahma at the 
first creation. There is, therefore, no discrepancy between the 
two different sets of passages, as they refer to different objects. 
And since Brahma is free from defect, the utterer of the Veda is 
consequently free from defect; and therefore a self-evinced 
authority resides in it. Seeing, therefore, that the Veda pos- 
sesses a characteristic mark, and is supported by proof, and 
that it has a subject, a use, a relation, and persons competent 
for its study, and, moreover, that its authority is established, 
it follows that it ought to be interpreted." 

Sect. VII. — Arguments of the Mlmansakas and Vedantins in support of 
the eternity and authority of the Vedas. 

I shall now proceed to adduce some of the reasonings by 
which the authors of the Purva Mimansa, and Vedanta aphor- 
isms, and their commentators, defend the doctrine which, as we 
have already seen, is held by some of the Indian writers, that 
the Vedas are eternal, as well as infallible. 

I. Purva Mimansa. — I quote the following texts of the Pdrva 
Mimansa which relate to this subject from Dr. Ballantyne's 
aphorisms of the Mimansa, pp. 8 ff . I do not always follow the 
words of Dr. Ballantyne's translations, though I have made free 
use of their substance. (See also Colebrooke's Misc. Ess. i. 306, 
or p. 195 of W. and N's. edit.) The commentator introduces 
the subject in the following way : — Sabdarthayor utpattyanan- 
taram purushena kalpita-sanketdtmaka-sambandhasya kqlpitaivat 
purusha-kalpitasambandha-jMnapexitvat sabdasya yatka prat- 

The remarks of S'ankara on the Brahma Sutra (i. 1, 3) above referred to, begin as 
follows : — Mahata rig-vedadeh iastrasya aneka-vidya-sthanopabrimhitasya pradtpa- 
vat sarvartha-dyotinas sarvajna-kalpasya yonih karanam Brahma \ na hi Idriiasya 
iastrasya rigvedadi-laxanasya sarvajna-gunanvitasya sarvajnad anyatah sambhavo *8ti. 
" Brahma is the source of a great S'astra, consisting of the Rig-veda, etc., augmented 
by numerous branches of science, which, like a lamp, illuminates all subjects, and 
approaches to omniscience. Now such a S'astra, distinguished as the Rig-veda, etc., 
possessed of the qualities of an omniscient being, could not have originated from any 
other than an omniscient being." See Dr. Ballantyne's Vedanta Aphorisms, pp. 7, 8. 


yaxa-jndnaih suktikddau satyatvam vyabkickarati tat Ad purushd- 
dkinatvena sabde 'pi satyatvarvyabhichdra-sambhavdt na dharme 
chodand pramdnam iti purva-paxe siddhantam aha. " Since, 
subsequently to the production of words and things, a conven- 
tional connection has been established between the two by the will 
of man, and since language is dependent upon a knowledge of 
this conventional connection determined by man, [it follows 
that] as perception is liable to error in respect of mother-of- 
pearl and similar objects [by mistaking them for silver], so 
words also may be open to convey unreal notions from [their 
sense] being dependant on human will ; and consequently that 
the Vedic precepts [which are expressed in such words, possess- 
ing a merely conventional and arbitrary meaning] cannot be 
authoritative in matters of duty. Such is an objection which 
may be urged, and in reply to which the author of the aphor- 
isms declares the established doctrine." 

Then follows the fifth aphorism of the first chapter of the first 
book of the MlmansS : — AutpattikastuW sabdasya^ arthena 
sambandhas^ tasya^ jndnam^ upadeso® 'vyatirekascha^ arthe 
'nupalabdhe^ tat® pramdnam Bddarayanasya anapexatvat \ 
which^may be paraphrased as follows :— " The connection of a 
word with its sense is coeval with the origin of both. In conse- 
quence of this connection the words of the Veda convey a know- 
ledge of duty, and impart unerring instruction in regard to 
matters imperceptible. Such Vedic injunctions constitute the 
proof of duty admitted by Badarayana, author of the Vedanta 
Sutras, for this proof is independent of perception and all other 

I subjoin most of the remarks of the scholiast as given by 
Dr. Ballantyne, indicating by letters the words of the aphorism 
to which they refer. 

W Autpattikali \ svdbhavikaji \ nitya iti yavat \ " Autpattika 
(original) means natural, eternal in short. 

(1>) Sabdasya \ nitya-veda-ghataka-padasya i agnihotrafh juku- 
ydt Sfoarga-kama' ityddeJi. " Sabda (word) refers to terms 


which form part of the eternal veda, such as, ' the man who 
desires heaven should perform the Agnihotra sacrifice.' " 

( c) Sambandha (connection) " in the nature of power," i.e. 
according to Dr. Ballantyne, depending on the divine will that 
such and such words should convey such and such meanings. 

(d) Atas tasya \ dharmasya | " ' Hence 9 is to be supplied before 
' this,' which refers to ' duty.'" 

(e) Jndnam \ atra karane lyut \ jnapter yathartha-jndnasya 
karanam. " In the word jftana (knowledge) the affix lyut has 
the force of ' instrument/ ' an instrument of correct know- 
ledge.' " 

W Upadesali \ artha-pratipddanam. " Instruction, i.e. the 
establishment of a fact." 

(g) Avyatirekafi \ avyabhichdrl drisyate at ah. " ' Unerring/ 
i.e. that which is seen not to deviate therefrom." 

(h) Nanu 'vahnimdn' iti sabda-sravandnantaram pratyaxena 
vahnifh drishtvd sabde pramdtvafh grihndti iti loke prasiddheh 
pratyaxd&tara-pramdna-sdpexatvatsabdasya sa kathafii dharme 
pramanam ata aha anupalabdke iti \ anupalabdhe pratyaxddi- 
pramdnair ajnate Wthe. " Since it is a matter of notoriety that 
any one who has heard the words '[the mountain is]^fiery* 
uttered, and afterwards sees the fire with his own eyes, is then 
[more than ever] convinced of the authority of the words, it may 
be asked how words which are thus dependent [for confirmation] 
on perception and other proofs, can themselves constitute the 
proof of duty ? In reference to this, the word anupalabdhe in 
regard to matters imperceptible') is introduced. It signifies 
' matters which cannot be known by perception and other such 

W Tat | vidhi-ghatita-vdkyam, dharme pramanam Bddarayan- 
dchdryasya sammatam \ ay am dsayah \ ' parvato vahnimdn 9 
iti doshavat-purusha-prayuktam vdkyam arthaik vyabhicharati \ 
atah prdmanya-nischaye pratyaxddiham apexate \ tathd 'gniho- 
traMjuhoti iti vdkyam hdla-traye 'py arthaih na vyabhicharati \ 
ata itara-nirapexaih, dharme pramanam. " This, i.e. a [Vedic] 


sentence consisting of an injunction, is regarded by Badarayana 
also as proof of duty. The purport is this. The sentence, ' the 
mountain is fiery/ when uttered by a person defective [in his 
organ of vision], may deviate from the reality ; it therefore 
requires the evidence of our senses, etc., to aid us in determin- 
ing its sufficiency as proof. Whereas the Vedic sentence regard- 
ing the performance of the Agnihotra sacrifice can never deviate 
from the truth in any time, past, present, or future ; and is 
therefore a proof of duty, independently of any other evi- 

The commentator then proceeds to observe as follows :—PUrva- 
sUtre sabddrthayos sambandho nitya ity uktam \ tachcha sabda- 
nityatvadklnam iti tat sisddkayishur adau sabddnityatva-vddi- 
matam purva-paxam upddayati. " In the preceding aphorism it 
was declared that the connection of words and their meanings [Qr 
the things signified by them] is eternal. Desiring now to prove 
that this [eternity of connection] is dependent on the eternity of 
words [or sound], he begins by setting forth the first side of the 
question, viz., the doctrine of those who maintain that sound is 
not eternal." 

This doctrine is accordingly declared in the six following 
aphorisms (sutras), which I shall quote and paraphrase, without 
citing, in the original, the accompanying comments. These the 
reader will find in Dr. Ballantyne's work. 

Sutra 6. — Karma eke tatra darsandt. " Some, i.e. the fol- 
lowers of the Nyaya philosophy, say that sound is a product, 
because we see that it is the result of effort, which it would not 
be if it were eternal." 

Sutra 7. — Asthdndt. " That it is not eternal, on account of 
its transitoriness, i.e. because, after a moment it ceases to be 

Sutra 8. — Karoti-sabddt. " Because we employ in refer- 
ence to it the expression making, i.e. we speak of making a 

Sutra 9. — Sattvdntare yaugapadydt. " Because it is per- 


ceived by different persons at once, and is consequently in 
immediate contact with the organs of sense of those both far and 
near, which it could not be if it were one and eternal." 

Sutra 10. — Prakriti-vikrityoscha. "Because sounds have 
both an original and a modified form; as, e.g. in the case of 
dadhi atra, which is changed into dadhy atra, the original 
letter i being altered into y by the rules of permutation. Now, 
no substance which undergoes a change is eternal. " 

Sutra 11. — Vriddhischa kartri-bhumna 'sya. " Because sound 
is augmented by the number of those who make it. Conse- 
quently the opinion of the MlmSnsakas, who say that sound is 
merely manifested, and not created, by human effort, is wrong, 
since even a thousand manifesters do not increase the object 
which they manifest, as a jar is not made larger by a thousand 

These objections against the Mimansaka theory that sound is 
manifested, and not created, by those who utter it, are contro- 
verted in the following Sutras : — 

Sutra 12. — SamaM tu tatra darsanam. " But, according to 
both schools, viz., that which holds sound to be created, and 
that which regards it as merely manifested, the perception of it 
is alike momentary. But of these two views, the theory of 
manifestation is shown in the next aphorism to be the correct 

Sutra 13. — Satah param adarsanaM vishaydndgamat. " The 
non-perception, at any particular time, of sound, which, in 
reality, perpetually exists, arises from the fact that the utterer 
of sound has not come into contact with his object, i.e. sound. 
Sound is eternal, because we recognise the letter k, for instance, 
to be the same sound which we have always heard, and because 
it is the simplest method of accounting for the phenomenon to 
suppose that it is the same. The still atmosphere which inter- 
feres with the perception of sound, is removed by the conjunc- 
tions and disjunctions of air issuing from a speaker's mouth, and 
thus sound (which always exists, though unperceived) becomes 


perceptible. 40 This is the reply to the objection of its ' transi- 
toriness , (Stltra 7)." 

An answer to Satra 8 is given in 

Sutra 14. — Prayogasya param. " The word ' making ' sounds, 
merely means employing or uttering them." 

The objection made in Satra 9 is answered in 

Stltra 15. — Aditya-vad yaugayadyam. " One sound is simul- 
taneously heard by different persons, just as one sun is seen by 
them at one and the same time. Sound, like the sun, is a vast, 
and not a minute object, and thus may be perceptible by dif- 
ferent persons, though remote from one another." 

An answer to Sutra 10 is contained in 

Sutra 16. — Varndntaram avikarali. "The letter y, which 
is substituted for i in the instance referred to under Sutra 10, 
is not a modification of i, but a distinct letter. Consequently 
sound is not modified." 

The 11th Sutra is answered in 

Sutra 17 \—Nada-vriddhili para, " It is an increase of noise, 
not of sound, that is occasioned by a multitude of speakers. 
The word noise refers to the ' conjunctions and disjunctions of 
the air* (mentioned under Sutra 13), which enter simultaneously 
into the hearer's ear from different quarters ; and it is of these 
that an increase takes place." 

The next following Sutras state the reasons which support the 
Mlmansaka view : — 

Stltra 18. — Mtyastu syad darsanasya pararthatvat. " Sound 
must be eternal, because its utterance is intended to convey a 
meaning to other persons. If it were not eternal [or abiding], 
it would not continue till the hearer had learned its sense, and 
thus he would not learn the sense, because the cause had ceased 
to exist." 

40 " Sound is unobserved, though existent, if it reach not the object (vibrations of 
air emitted from the mouth of the speaker proceed and manifest sound by their 
appulse to air at rest in the space bounded by the hollow of the ear ; for want of such 
appulse, sound, though existent, is unapprehended)." — Colebrooke i. 306. 


Sutra 19. — Sarvatra yaugapadydt. " Sound is eternal, be- 
cause it is in every case correctly understood by many persons 
simultaneously ; and it is inconceivable that they should all at 
once fall into a mistake." 

When the word go (cow) has been repeated ten times, the 
hearers will say that the word^a has been ten times pronounced, 
not that ten words having the sound of go have been uttered ; 
and this fact also is adduced as a proof of the eternity of sound in 

Sutra 20. — Sankhyabhavat. " Because each sound is not 
numerically different from itself repeated. ,, 

Sutra 21. — Anapexatvat. " Sound is eternal, because we 
have no ground for anticipating its destruction." 

" But it may be urged that sound is a modification of air, 
since it arises from its conjunctions (see Sutra 17), and because 
the Sikska (or Vedanga treating of pronunciation) says that ' air 
arrives at the condition of sound ; ' and as it is thus produced 
from air, it cannot be eternal." A reply to this difficulty is 
given in 

Sutra 22. — Prakhyabhavachcha yogyasya. " Sound is not a 
modification of air, because, if it were, the organ of hearing 
would have no appropriate object which it could perceive. No 
modification of air (held by the Naiyayikas to be tangible) could 
be perceived by the organ of hearing, which deals only with 
intangible sound." 

Sutra 23. — Linga-darsanachcha. " And the eternity of sound 
is established by the argument discoverable in the Vedic text, 
' with an eternal voice, o Virapa/ (See above, p. 51). Now, 
though this sentence had another object in view, it, nevertheless, 
repeats the eternity of language, and hence sound is eternal." 

" But though words, as well as the connection of word and 
sense, be eternal, it may be objected— as in the following 
aphorism — that a command conveyed in the form of a sentence 
is no proof of duty." 

Sutra 24. — Utpattau va rachanah syur arthasya atannimit- 
tatvat. " Though there be a natural connection between words 


and their meanings, the connection between sentences and their 
meanings is a factitious one, established by human will, from 
these meanings (of the sentences) not arising out of the mean- 
ings of the words. The connection of sentences with their 
meanings is not (like the connection of words with their mean- 
ings) one derived from inherent power (see Sutra 5, remark ( c >, 
above, p. 54), but one devised by men ; how, then, can this 
connection afford a sufficient authority for duty ?" 

An answer to this is given in 

Siltra 25. ~Tad-bAutdndm kriydrthena samdmndyo Wthasya 
tannimttatvdt. " The various terms which occur in every Vedic 
precept are accompanied by a verb, because a perception (such 
as we had not before) of the sense of a sentence is derived 
from a collection of words involving a verb. For a precept is 
not comprehended unless the individual words which make it 
up are understood ; and the comprehension of the meaning of 
a sentence is nothing else than the comprehension of the exact 
mutual relation of the meanings arising out of each word." 

'Sutra 26. — Lake sanniyamdt prayoga-sannikarshali sydt. 
" As in secular language the application of words is fixed, so 
also in the Veda they must be employed in an established sense 
which has been handed down by tradition." 

The author now proceeds in the next following Sutras to 
state and to obviate certain objections raised to his dogmas of 
the eternity and authority of the Vedas. 

Sutra 27. — Veddfhschaike sannikarsham purushdkhydli. 
" Some (the followers of the NySya) declare the Vedas to be 
of recent origin, i.e. not eternal, because the names of men are 
applied to certain parts of them, as the Eathaka and Kauthuma." 

This Sutra, with some of those which follow, is quoted in 
S&yana's commentary on the R. V. vol. i. pp. 19 and 20. His 
explanation of the present Sutra is as follows : — 

Yathd Raghuvamsadaya iddnintands tathd vedd api \ na tu 
vedd anadayah \ ata eva veda-kartritvena purushd dkhydyante \ 
Vaiydsikam Bhdratafk VdlmiklyaM Rdmdyanam ity atra yathd 


Bhdratddi-kartritvena Vydsddaya dkhydyante tathd KathakaM 
Kauthumafh Taittinyakam ity evam tattad-veda-sdkhd-karttri- 
tvena Kathddlndm dkhydtatvdt paurusheydh \ Nanu nityanam eva 
veddndm upddhydya-vat sampraddya-pravarttakatvena Kdtha- 
kddi-sdmdkhyd sydd ity dsankya yuktyantarafh, sutrayati | . . . . 
ha tarhi Kdthakddydkhydyikdya gatir ity dsankya sampraddya- 
pravarttandt sd iyam upapadyate. "Some say, that as the 
Raghuvansa, etc., are modern, so also are the Vedas, and that 
the Vedas are not eternal. Accordingly, certain men are named 
as the authors of the Vedas. Just as in the case of the Mahfi- 
bharata, which is called Vaiydsika (composed by VySsa), and 
the Ramayana, which is called Vdlmiklya (composed by Val- 
mlki), Vyasa and Valmlki are indicated as the authors of these 
poems ; so, too, Katha, Kuthumi, and Tittiri are shown to be 
the authors of those particular Sakhas of the Vedas which bear 
their names, viz., the Kdthaka, KautAuma, and Taittirlya; and 
consequently those parts of the Vedas are of human origin. In 
answer to this it is suggested that the Vedas, though eternal, 
have received the name of Kdthaka, etc., because Katha and 
others, as teachers, handed them down." 

This interpretation is accepted a little further on, in the re- 
marks on one of the following Sutras : — " What, then, is the 
fact in reference to the appellations Kdthaka, etc. ? It is proved 
to have arisen from the circumstance that Katha, etc., handed 
down the Vedas." 

Sutra 28. — Anitya-darsandchcha. " It is also objected that 
the Vedas cannot be eternal, because we observe that persons, 
who are not eternal, but subject to birth and death, are men- 
tioned in them. Thus it is said in the Veda ' Babara Pravahani 
desired/ ' Kusurubinda Auddalaki desired/ Now, as the words 
of the Veda in which they are mentioned could not have existed 
before these persons were born, it is clear that these words had 
a beginning, and being thus non-eternal, they are proved to be 
of human origin." Babarah Prdvahanir akdmayata' ' Kusu- 
ruvinda Audddlakir akdmayata' ityddi vedeshu darsandt teshdfk 


janandt prag imdni vdkydni ndsann iti sdditvdd anityatvampau- 
rusheyatvaHcha siddham.) 

These objections are answered in the following aphorisms : — 

Sutra 29. — Uktantu sabda-purvatvam. " But the priority- 
eternity — of sound has been declared, and, by consequence, the 
eternity of the Veda." 

Sutra 30. — Akhyd pravachandt. "The names derived from 
those of particular men, attached to certain parts of the Vedas, 
were given on account of their studying those particular parts. 
Thus the portion read by Katha was called Kdthaha, etc." 

Sutra 31. — Parantu srutili samdnyam. " And names occurring 
in theTeda, which appear to be those of men, are appellations 
common to other beings besides men." 

" Thus the words Babara Pravahani are not the names of a 
man, but have another meaning. For the particle pra denotes 
' pre-eminence/ vahana means ' motion/ and the letter i repre- 
sents the agent ; consequently the word pravahani signifies that 
which moves swiftly, and is applied to the wind, which is eternal. 
Babara again is a word imitating the sound of the wind. Thus 
there is not even a semblance of error in the assertion that the 
Veda is eternal." (Yadyapi Babarali Prdvahanir ity asti pa- 
rantu srutih prdvalianyddi-sabdali samdnyam \ anydrthasydpi 
vachakam \ tathd hi \ 'pra' ityasya utkarshdsrayah \ ' vahana 9 
sabdasya gatili \ ikarah kartta \ tathd cha utkrishta-gatydsrayo 
vdyu-parali \ sa cha anddih \ Babara iti vdyu-sabddnukaranam 
iti na anupapatti-gandho 'pi.) 

Before proceeding to the 32nd Satra, I shall quote some 
further illustrations of the 31st, which are to be found in certain 
passages of the Introduction to Sayana's Commentary on the 
Rig-veda, where he is explaining another section of the MlmfinsS 
Siitras. The passages are as follows (p. 7) : — 

Anitya-saMyogad mantrdnarthakyam \ ' ktfh te krinvanti ktka- 
teshv' iti mantre kikato ndmajanapada amndtah \ Tathd naicha- 
sdkhafh ndma nagaram pramagando ndma raja ity ete 'rthd 
anityu amndtah \ Tathd cha sati prak pramaganddd na ayam 


mantro bhuta-pUrva iti gamy ate. And in p. 10 :— Yad apy uktam 
pramagandddy-anitydrtka-satfiyogdd mantrasya anaditvaffi, na 
sydd iti tatrottaram sutrayati \ Uktas chdnitya-saihyoga iti \ 
prathamorpadasya antimddhikarane so 'yam anitya saihyoga- 
dosha uktah parihritah \ Tat Ad hi \ tatra pUrva-paxe Vedandm 
pauruskeyatvafft, vaktufh kdthakafh kdldpakam ity ddi purusha- 
sambandhdbhidhdnam hetukritya ' anityadarsandchcAa' iti het- 
vantararh sUtritam \ i Babarali prdvahanir akdmayata 9 ity anit- 
ydndm Babarddlndm arthdndik darsandt tatali pUroam asatt- 
vdt paurtcskeyo veda iti tasya uttarafh, sUtritam i parafh tu sruti- 
sdmdnya-mdtram' iti \ tasya ay am artkaJb \ yat kdthakadi- 
samdkhydnafh tat pravachana-nimittam \ yat tu pa/ram Baba- 
rddyanitya-darsanarri tat sabda-sdmdnyarmdtraM na tu tatra 
Babardkhyah kaschit purusho vivaxitafy \ kintu ' babara' iti sab- 
dam kurvan vdyur abhidhlyate \ sacka prdvahamli \ prakarshena 
vakanarsilafy \ Evam anyatrdpy uhaniyam. " It is objected that 
the mantras are useless, because they are connected with tem- 
poral objects. Thus in the text, 'what are thy cows doing 
among the Klkatas V (see Part Second, p. 362), a country called 
Elkata is mentioned, as well as a city named NaichasSkha, and 
a king called Pramaganda, all of them non-eternal objects. 
Such being the case, it is clear that this text did not exist before 
Pramaganda." The answer to this is given in p. 10. " To the 
further objection that the mantras cannot be eternal, because 
such temporal objects as Pramaganda, etc., are referred to in 
them, an answer is given in the following Sfltra : — ' The connec- 
tion with non-eternal objects has been already explained.' In 
the last section of the first book, this very objection of the 
hymns being connected with non-eternal things has been stated 
and obviated (see above, Sutras 28-31). For in the statement 
of objections, after it has first been suggested as a proof of the 
human origin of the Vedas, that they bear names, Kftthaka, 
Kalapaka, etc., denoting their relation to men, a further diffi- 
culty is stated in a Sutra, viz., that 'it is noticed that non- 
eternal objects are mentioned in the Vedas ; ' as, for example, 


where it is said that ' Babara Prfivahani desired.' Now, as it 
specifies non -eternal objects of this kind, the Veda, which could 
not have existed before those objects, must be of human origin. 
The answer to this is given in the aphorism, ' any further names 
are to be understood as common to other things.' The mean- 
ing is this : the names Kathaka, etc., are given to the Yedas 
because they were expounded by Katha, etc. ; and the further 
difficulty arising from the names of Babara and other objects 
supposed to be non-eternal, is removed by such names being 
common to other objects [which are eternal in their nature]. 
No persons called Babara, etc., are intended by those names, for 
babara is an imitation of a sound. Hence it designates the 
wind, which makes the sound babara. And prdvakani refers 
to the same object, as it means that which moves swiftly. The 
same method of explanation is to be applied in other similar 

I proceed to the 32nd Stltra. It is asked how the Veda can 
constitute proof of duty when it contains such incoherent non- ^ 
sense as the following : " Jaradgava, in blanket slippers, is stand- 
ing at the door and singing benedictions. A Brahman female, 
desirous of offspring, asks, ' Pray, sir, what is the meaning of 
intercourse on the day of the new moon?' or the following: 
' the cows attended this sacrifice."' A reply is contained in 

Sutra 32. — Krite va viniyogalk sydt karmanali sambandhat. 
" The expressions to which objection is taken may be applicable 
to the duty to be performed, from the relation in which they 
stand to the ceremony." 

As a different reading and interpretation of this Sfltra are 
given by Say ana in his Commentary, p. 20, I shall quote it, and 
the remarks with which he introduces and follows it. 

Nanu vede kvachid evatfi srUyate ' vanaspatayah satram dsata 
sarpdh satram dsata' iti \ tatra vanaspattndm achetanatvat sar- 
panafn chetanatve 'pi vidydrahitatvdd na tad~anushthdnafk sam- 
bhcmati \ Ato ' Jaradgavo gdyati madrakdnV ityddy-unmatta- 
bdla-vdkya-sadrisatvat kenachit krito veda ity dsankya uttaraM 


sUtrayati \ ' Krite cka aviniyogali syat karmanalh samatvdt* | 
Yadi jyotisktomddi-vakyafn, kenachit puruskena kriyeta taddnifk 
krite tasmin vdkye svarga-sddkanatve jyotisktomasya viniyogaji 
na syat \ sddkya-sddkana-bkdvdsya puruskena jfidtum asakyat- 
vdt | srUyate tuviniyogali \ * jyotishtomena svarga-kamo yajeta* 
iti | na cha etat unmatta-vakya-sadrisaih, laukika-vidfri-vdkya- 
vad bkavya-karaneti-kartavyata-rUpais tribhir afhsair upetdyd 
bhdvandyd avagamdt \ loke hi ( brdhmandn bhojayed' iti vidhau 
kirn kena katham ity dkdnxdydfii triptim uddisya odanena drat- 
yena sdka-supddi-pariveshana-prakdrena iti yathochyate \ jyo- 
tishtoma-vidhdv api svargam uddisya somena dravyena dixaniyd- 
dy-angopakdra-prakdrena ityukte katham unmatta-vdkya-sadri- 
sam bkaved iti \ vanaspatyddi-satra-vakyam api na tat-sadnsafii 
tasya satra-karmano jyotisktomddind samatvdt \ yat-paro hi 
sabdali sa sabddrtka iti nyaya-vida dkuh \jyotisktomddi-vdkyasya 
vidhayakatvdd anuskthdne tdtparyyam \ vanaspatyddi-satra- 
vdkyasya artkavadatvdd prasamsdydM tatparyam \ sa cha avidya- 
mdnendpi karttuih sakyate \ acketand avidvdmso 'pi satram 
anusktkitavantah kim punas cketand vidvdfnso brdkmand iti 
satra-stutik. " But it will be objected that the Veda contains 
such sentences as this — ' trees and serpents attended at the sacri- 
fice.' Now, since trees are insensible, and serpents, though 
possessing sensibility, are destitute of knowledge, it is incon- 
ceivable that either the one or the other should assist at the 
ceremony. Hence, from its resembling the silly talk of mad- 
men and children, as where it says, 'Jaradgava sings songs 
fit only for the Madras' (see Part Second, pp. 481 ff.), the Veda 
must have been composed by some man. The answer to this 
doubt is contained in the following Sutra (which I can only 
render by a paraphrase) : — 'If prescribed by mere human 
authority, no rite can have any efficacy ; but such ceremonies 
as the jyotishtoma rest on the authority of the Veda ; and texts 
such as that regarding the trees and serpents have the same 
intention, i.e. to commend sacrifice.' If the sentence enjoining 
the jyotisktoma sacrifice had been composed by any man, that 


sacrifice, enjoined by such an authority, would not have been 
applicable as a means of attaining paradise ; for no man can 
know what is the means of accomplishing such an end. But 
the application in question is prescribed in the Veda by the 
words 'let him who seeks paradise, sacrifice with / the jyotish- 
toma.' Now this injunction does not resemble the talk of 
a madman, since we recognize in it, as in injunctions of a 
secular kind, the contemplation of the three necessary modes 
of the action to be performed. For, as when a question is put 
in regard to the object for which, the instrument through which, 
and the manner in which the secular precept, 'to feed Brah- 
mans/ is to bo fulfilled,— we are told that the object is to be 
their satisfaction, the instrumental substance boiled rice, and the 
manner that it is to be served up with vegetables and condiments; 
in the same way, in the Vedic injunction regarding the jyotish- 
toma, we are told that paradise is the object, that soma is the 
instrumental substance, and that the application of the intro- 
ductory and other portions of the ritual is the manner. And 
when thi3 is so, how can this precept be compared to the talk of 
a madman ? Nor does the sentence regarding trees, etc., attend- 
ing at a sacrifice admit of such a comparison, since the sacrifice 
in question is similarly circumstanced with the jyotishtoma. 
For the logicians say that the meaning of a word is the sense 
which it is intended to intimate. The purport of the sentence 
regarding the jyotishtoma, which is of a preceptive character, is to 
command performance. The object of the sentence regarding 
trees, etc., attending at a sacrifice, which is of a narrative cha- 
racter, is eulogy; and this can be offered even by an insensible [?] 
object. The sacrifice is eulogized by saying that it was cele- 
brated even by insensible trees and ignorant serpents : how much 
more, tfien, by Brahmans possessed both of sensation and know- 
ledge r 

II. — The Veddnta.—I proceed to adduce the reasonings by 
which Badarayana, the author of the Brahma, Vedanta, or 
Sarlraka Stltras, as expounded by &ankara Acharyya in his 


Sdriraka-mVmdfiisd-bhds/iya, or commentary on those Stltras, 
corroborates the arguments of Jaimini in regard to the eternity 
and consequent authority of the Veda. After discussing the 
question whether any persons but Hindus of the three highest 
tribes are qualified for divine knowledge, the author of the 
Sfltras comes to the conclusion that Stldras, or persons of the 
fourth tribe, are incompetent, while beings superior to man, the 
gods, are competent (Colebrooke's Misc. Ess. i. 348, or p. 223 
of W. and N.'s ed.) In Siltra i. 3, 26, the author determines 
that the gods have a desire for final emancipation, owing to 
the instability of their power, and a capacity for acquiring a 
knowledge of Brahma, because they are corporeal beings ; and 
that there is no obstacle which prevents their attaining such 
divine knowledge. A difficulty, however, having been raised 
that the gods cannot be corporeal, because, if they were so, it is 
necessary to conceive that they would be corporeally present at, 
and form (as priests actually do) a part of the ceremonial of, 
sacrifice, which would not consist with the usual course of such 
ceremonies, at which the gods are not seen to be corporeally 
present, and would, in fact, involve an impossibility, since Indra, 
for example, being but one, could not be corporeally present at 
numerous sacrifices at once; — this difficulty is solved (under 
Sutra i. 3, 27) in two ways, either by supposing (1) that the 
gods assume different forms, and are present at many sacrifices 
at once, though invisible to mortals ; or by considering (2) that, 
as a sacrifice is offered to a deity, many persons may present 
their oblations to that deity at once, just as one Brahman may 
be saluted by many different persons at the same time. It is, 
therefore, concluded that the corporeal nature of the gods is not 
inconsistent with the practice of sacrifice. Having settled these 
points, Sankara comes to Sutra i. 3, 28. 

' Sabda iti chet \ na \ atati prabkavdt \ pratyaxdnumdnd- 

Ma nama vigrahavattve devadindm abhyupagamyamdne kar- 
mani kaschid mrodkah prasanji \ sabde tu virodhah prasajyeta \ 


katham \ ' Autpattikafh kisabdasya artkena sambandham'dsritya 
' anapexatvdd* iti vedasya pramanyaM stkdpitam \ Iddnlntu 
vigrakavatl devatd 'bkyupagamyamdnd yadyapy aisvaryya-yogdd 
yugapad aneka-karmasambandkzni hamfhshi bkufylita tatkapi 
vigraha-yogad asmadddi-mj janana-maranavati sa iti nityasya 
sabdasya anityena artkena riitya-sambandhe praUyamdne yad 
vaidike sabde prdmdnyafk stkitam tasya virodkali sydd iti ehet \ 
na ay am apy asti virodhali \ kasmdd ' atah prabhavdt 9 | Ata eva 
hi vaidikdt sabdad devddikaM jagat prabhavati \ Nanu 'jan- 
madi asyayatab' (Brahma Sutras i. 1, 2) iti brakma-prabkavat- 
vaMjagato 'vadharitalk katham iha sabda-prabhavatvam uckyate \ 
Apicka yadi ndma vaidikdt sabdad asya prabkavo 'bhyupagatah 
katham etdvatd wrodkdfy sabde parihritali \ ydvatd Vasavo 
Rudrd Adityd Visvedevd Maruta ity ete Wtkd anityd eva utpatti- 
mattvat \ Tad-anityatve cka tad-vdchakdnaih vaidikdndm Vas- 
vddi-sabdanam anityatvaM kena vdryyate \ Prasiddkafh hi loke 
Devadattasya putre utpanne Yajnadatta iti tasya ndma kriyate 
iti | Tasmdd virodka eva sabde iti chet \ na \ Gavddi-sabddrtha- 
sambandka-mtyatva-darsandt \ Na ki gavddi-vyaktindm utpatti- 
mattve tad-dkritinam apy utpattimattvaih sydd dravya-guna-kar- 
mandm ki vyaktaya eva utpadyante na dkritayah \ Akritibkiscka 
sabddndm sambandko na vyaktibhiti \ vyaktindm dnantydt sam- 
bandka-grahandnupapatteh \ Vyaktisku utpadyamdndsvapy dkri- 
tindih nityatvdd na gavddi-sabdeshu kasckid virodko drisyate \ 
Tathd devddi^vyakti-prabkavdblkyupagame 'pi dkriti-nityatvdd na 
kasckid Vasv-ddi-sabdesku virodha iti drasktavyam \ Akriti- 
viseskas tu devddlndm mantrdrthavddddibhyo vigrakavattvddy- 
avagamdd avagantavyah \ Sthdna-visesha-sambandha-nimittdscha 
Indrddi-sabdah sendpatyddi-sabda-vat \ Tatascka yo yas tat tat 
sihdnam adkitisktkati sa sa Indrddi-sabdair abkidklyate iti na 
dosho bkavati \ Na cha idan sabda-prabkavatvam Brahma-pra- 
bkavatva-vad updddna-kdranatvdbkiprdyena uchyate \ kathaffi, 
tarki stkiti-vdckakdtmand nitye sabde nitydrthasambandhini 
sabdarvyavdkdra-yogydrtka-vyakti-niskpattir ( atali prabkava' 
ity uckyate \ katkampunar avagamyate sabddt prabhavati jagad 


iti | ' pratyaxdnumdndbhydm ' \ Pratyaxafh srutilk \ pramanyam 
prati anapexatvdt \ anumdnafti smritih \ pramanyam prati sapex- 
atvdt | Te hi sabda-purvdih, srishtifh, darsayatali \ ' Ma 9 iti vaipra- 
jdpatir devdn asrijata ' asrigram 9 iti manushydn * indava' itipitrliks 
' tirah pavitram 9 itigrahdn i dsava* iti stotraM 'visvdni' itisastram 
i abhi saubhagd 9 ity anydfi prajd iti srutih \ Tathd 'nyatrdpi ' sa 
manasd vdcham mithunarn samabhavad 9 ityddind tatra tatra 
sabdctrpUrvika srishtili srdvyate \ Smritir api ' anddi-nidhand 
nityd vdg utsrishta svayambhuvd \ ddau vedamayl divyd yatah 
sarvdli pravrittayali 9 ity utsargo f py ayafh vdchali sampraddya- 
pravarttandtmako drashtavyali anadi-nidhandyali anyddrisasya 
utsargasya asambhavdt \ Tathd ' ndma-rupancha bhutdnaik kar- 
mandHcha pravarttanam \ Veda-sabdebhya evddau nirmame sa 
mahesvarah 9 iti \ ' sarveshdncha sa ndmdni karmdni cha prithak 
prithak \ Veda-sabdebhya evddau prithak samsthascha nirmame' 
iti cha | Apicha chiklrshitam artham anutishthan tasya vdch- 
akaik sabdam purvaih smritvd paschdt tarn artham anutishthati 
iti sarveshdfk nalh pratyaxam etat \ Tathd prajdpater api srash- 
tuli srishteli purvarTi vaidikdh sabdd manasi prddurbabkoxruli 
paschdt tad-anugaidn arthdn sasarjja iti gamyate \ Tathd cha 
srutiti ( sa bhur iti vydharan bhumim asrijata' ityevamddikd 
bhurddi-sabdebhya eva manasi prddurbhutebhyo bhur-ddi-lokdn 
prddurbhtttdn srishtdn darsayati \ kimdtmakam punali sabdam 
abhipretya idafii sabda-prabhavatvam uchyate \ sphotam itydha \ 
. . . Tasmdd nitydt sabddt sphota-rupdd abhidhdyakdt kriyd- 
kdraka-phahrlaxanalh jagad abhidheya-bhutam prabhavattH \ 
. . . Tatascha nityebhyah sabdebhyo devddi-vyaktindm prabhava 
ity aviruddham. 

Sutra i. 3, 29. ' Ata eva cha nityatvam' \ svatantrasya kart- 
tufy smarandd eva hi sthite vedasya nityatve devddivyakti-pra- 
bhavdbhyupagamena tasya virodham dsankya ' atali prabhavdd 9 
iti parihritya iddnvfh tad eva veda-nityatvam sthitaih dradha- 
yati ' ata eva cha nityatvam 9 iti \ ata eva cha niyatdkriter 
devdder jagato veda-sabda-prabhavatvdd eva veda-sabda-nityat- 
vam api pratyetavyam \ Tathd cha mantra- varnah ' yajfiena 


. vachah padavlyam ay an tarn anvavindann rishishu pravishtam 9 
iti sthitam eva vacham anuvinnam darsayati \ Vedavydsascha 
eoam evasmarati \ 'yuydnte 'ntarhitan vedan setihdsdn mahar- 
shayah \ lebkire tapasdpUrvam anujnatah svayambhuvd' iti. 

" Sutra i. 3, 28 :— ' But it is said that there will be a contra- 
diction in respect of sound (or the word) ; but this is not so, 
because the gods are produced from it, as is proved by intuition 
and inference/ 

" Be it so, that though the corporeality of the gods, etc., be 
admitted, no contradiction will arise in respect of the ceremonial. 
Still [it will be said that] a contradiction will arise in regard to 
the word. How ? [In this way.] By founding upon the ' in- 
herent connection of a word with the thing signified/ the autho- 
rity of the Veda had been established by the aphorism ' anapex- 
atvdt 9 etc. (Mlmansa Sutras i. 2, 21 ; see above, p. 58.) But 
now, since it has been asserted that the deities are corporeal, it 
will follow that (though from their possession of divine power 
they can at one and the same time partake of the oblations 
offered at numerous sacrifices), they will still, owing to their 
corporeality, be subject, like ourselves, to birth and death ; and 
hence, the eternal connection of the eternal word with an object 
which is non-eternal being lost, a contradiction will arise in regard 
to the authority proved to belong to the word of the Veda ; [for 
thus the word, not having any eternal connection with the non- 
eternal thing, could not be eternal, and not being eternal, could 
not be authoritative]. But this supposed contradiction has no 
existence. How ? ' Because they are produced from it.' Hence 
the world of gods, etc., is produced from the Vedic word. But 
according to the aphorism (Brahma Sutras i. 1, 2) 'from him 
the production, etc., of all this is derived/ it is established that 
the world has been produced from Brahma. How, then, is it said 
here that it is produced from the word? And, moreover, if it be 
allowed that the world is produced from the Vedic word, how is 
the contradiction in regard to the word thereby removed, inasmuch 
as all the following classes of beings, viz., the Vasus, Eudras, 


Adityas, Visvedevas, Maruts, are non-eternal, because produced ; 
and when they are non-eternal, what is there to bar the non-eternity 
of the Vedic words Vasu, etc., by which they are designated? 
For it is a common saying, ' When a son is born to Devadatta, 
that son receives the name of Yajnadatta,' [i.e. no child receives 
a name before it exists]. Hence a contradiction does arise in 
regard to [the eternity of J the word. To this objection we reply 
with a negative ; for in the case of such words as cow we discover 
an eternal connection between the word and the thing. For 
although individual cows, etc., come into existence, the species 
to which they belong does not begin to exist, as it is individual 
substances, qualities, and acts, which begin to exist, and not 
their species. Now it is with species that words are connected, 
and not with individuals, for as the latter are infinite, such a 
connection would in their case be impossible. But as species 
are eternal (though individuals begin to exist) no contradiction 
is discoverable in the case of such words as cow, etc. In the 
same way it is to be remarked that though we allow that the 
individual gods, etc., have commenced to exist, there is no con- 
tradiction [to the eternity of the Vedic word] in the [existence of 
the] words Vasu, etc. [which denote those individual gods], 
since species are eternal. And the fact that the gods, etc., 
belong to particular species may be learned from this, that 
we discover their corporeality and other attributes in the hymns 
and arthamdas (explanatory remarks in the Vedas), etc. The 
words Indra, etc., are derived from connection with some par- 
ticular post, like the words ' commander ' (senapdti), etc. Hence, 
whosoever occupies any particular post, is designated by the 
words Indra, and so forth ; and therefore Indra and the other 
gods belong to the species of occupants of particular posts. 
Thus there is no difficulty. And this derivation from the 
word is not, like production from Brahma, meant in the sense 
of evolution from a material cause. How, then (since lan- 
guage is eternal and connected with eternal objects), is it de- 
clared in the phrase ' produced from it* that the production of 


individual beings, in the ordinary sense of the expression, is 
effected by a thing (sound or language), the very nature of 
which it is to denote continuance [and not such change as is 
involved in the idea of production ? ] How, again, is it known 
that the world is produced from the word ? The answer is, [it 
is known] 'from intuition and inference/ 'Intuition' means 
the Veda, because it is independent of any (other) authority. 
' Inference* means the smriti, because it is dependent on another 
authority (the Veda). These two demonstrate that the creation 
was preceded by the word. Thus the Veda says, ' at (or with) 
the word ete {these) Prajapati created the gods ; at asrigram {they 
were poured out) he created men ; at indavali {drops of soma) he 
created the pitris; at tirali pavitram {through the filter) he 
created the planets; at dsavak {swift) he created hymns; at 
visvdni {alt) he created praise ; and at the words abhi saubhaga 
{for the sake of blessings) he created the other creatures.' 41 And 
in another place it is said ' with his mind he produced speech, 
[as] a mate.' (Vrih. Ar. Up. p. 50.) By these and other such 
texts the Veda declares that creation was preceded by the word. 
And when the Smriti says, 'At first a divine voice, eternal, 
without beginning or end, formed of the Vedas, was uttered by 
Svayambhn, from which all activities [proceeded] ' (see above, 
p. 4, note 2), the expression utterance of the voice is to be 
regarded as employed out of deference to the customary 
phraseology, since it is inconceivable that a voice which was 
' without' beginning or end/ could be uttered in the same sense 
as other sounds. Again, we have this other text, ' In the 
beginning Mahesvara created from the words of the Veda the 
names and forms of creatures, and their several modes of action ; ' 

41 I am unable to say whence this passage is derived ; but it seems to be a mystical 
exposition, from a Brahmana or Upanishad, of the words from Rig-veda ix. 62, 1 
(= Sama-veda ii. 180), which are imbedded in it, viz., ete asrigram indavas tirah 
pavitram aiavah \ vtivani abhi saubhaga. " These hurrying drops of soma have been 
poured through the filter, to procure all blessings." (See Benfey's translation.) 
It was by the help of Dr. Pertsch's alphabetical list of the initial words of the 
verses of the Rig-veda (in Weber's Ind. Stud.) that I discovered the verse in question 
in the R. V. 


and again, 'He created in the beginning the several names, 
functions, and conditions of all creatures from the words of the 
Veda/ (See above, p. 4, note 2.) And it is a matter of com- 
mon observation to us all, that when any one is occupied with 
any end which he wishes to accomplish, he first calls to mind 
the word which expresses it, and then proceeds to effect his 
purpose. So, too, in the case of Prajapati the creator, we con- 
clude that before the creation the words of the Veda were mani- 
fested in his mind, and that afterwards he created the objects 
which resulted from them. Thus the Vedic text which says, 
' uttering bhur, he created the earth (bhumi), etc./ intimates 
that the different worlds, earth and the rest, were manifested, i.e. 
created from the words bhur, etc., manifested in his mind. Of 
what sort, now, was this word which is intended, when it is said 
that the world was produced from the word? It was spkota 
{disclosure or expression), we are told." 

I shall not quote the long discussion (extending over two 
quarto pages) on which Sankara here enters, regarding this 
term. (See Colebrooke's Misc. Ess. i. 305, ff. ; Ballantyne's 
Christianity Contrasted with Hindu Philosophy, pp. 192 ff. ; the 
same author's translation of the commencement of the Maha- 
bhashya, p. 10 ; and Muller's article on the last-named work in 
the journal of the German Or. Soc. vii. 170). Sankara states his 
conclusion to be that " from the eternal word, in the form of 
spkota, which designates [all things], the object to be desig- 
nated, viz., the world, under the three characters of action, 
causer, and the results of action, is produced," and finishes his 
remarks on this Sutra (i. 3, 28) by observing : " Consequently 
there is no contradiction in saying that the individual gods, etc., 
are derived from eternal words." He then proceeds to Sfitra i. 
3, 29 :— "' Hence results the eternity of the Vedas.'" On this 
he observes, " The eternity of the Veda had been established by 
the fact that it was remembered by its Self-dependent Maker. 
But a doubt had been suggested that this eternity is inconsistent 
with the admission that individual gods, etc., have commenced to 


exist. This doubt, however, having been set aside by the preced- 
. ing aphorism, ' Since they are produced from it/ he now confirms 
the eternity of the Veda (which had been already proved) by the 
words of the Satra before us, which mean that as a result of 
this very fact that the world, consisting of gods and other beings 
belonging to fixed species, was produced from the words of the 
Vedas, the eternity of these Vedic words themselves also must be 
believed. Accordingly, the words of the hymn, ' by sacrifice they 
followed the path of Vach, and found her entered into the rishis ' 
(R. V. x. 71, 3 ; see Part Second, p. 220) prove that Vach 
already existed when she was discovered. And in the very 
same way Vedavyasa records that, 'formerly the great rishis, 
empowered by Svayambhu, obtained through devotion the 
Vedas and Itihasas, which had disappeared at the end of the 
preceding yugra.'" 

Sect. VIII. — Arguments of the followers of the Nyaya and Sankhya 
Systems in support of the authority of the Vedas, but against the 
eternity of sound. 

I. — The Nyaya.— The eternity of sound is, as we have already 
discovered from the allusions of the Mlmansaka commentator, 
(above p. 55), denied by the followers of the Nyaya school. 
The consideration of this subject is begun in the following way 
in the Nyaya aphorisms of Gotama, as explained by Visvanatha 
Bhattacharya in the Nyaya-satra-vntti, ii. 81. 

Vedasya prdmdnyam dpta-prdmdnydt siddham \ na cha idafh 
yujyate vedasya nityatvdd ity dsankdydfh, varndndm anityatvdt 
kathaifi tatsamuddya-rupasya vedasya nityatvam ity dsayena 
sabddnityatva-prakaranam drabhate \ tatra siddhdnta-sUtram | 
4 Adimattvad aindriyakatvat kritakatvdd upacharackcha' \ 81 | 
sabdo 'nitya ityadih \ adimattvat sakaranakatvat \ nanu na 
sakdranakatvaM kantha-talvady-abhighatader vyanjakatvendpy 
upapatter ata aha aindriyakatvdd iti sdmdnyavattve sati vahir- 
indriya-janya-laukika-pratyaoca-vishayatvdd ity arthali | . . . . . 


Apraycyakatvam asankya aha kritaketi \ kritake ghatadau yatha 
upackdro jHdnaM tathaiva kdryyatva-prakaraka-pratyaxa-viska- 
yatvad ityarthak | tatha cha karyatvena anaAaryya-sarvalau- 
kika-pratyaxa-balad anityatvam eva siddhati. " It has been 
proved (in the 68th Sutra, see below) that ' the authority of the 
Veda follows from the authority of the wise person who made 
it.' But it may be objected that this is not a proper ground on 
which to base the authority of the Veda, since it is eternal. 
With the view of proving, in opposition to this, that since letters 
are not eternal, the Veda, which is a collection of letters, cannot 
be so either, the author of the Sutras commences the section on 
the non-eternity of sound. The Sutra laying down the esta- 
blished doctrine is as follows : — ' Sound cannot be eternal, as 
(1) it had an origin, as (2) it is cognizable by sense, and (3) it 
is spoken of as factitious/ Sound is non-eternal, etc., because 
(1) it had a beginning, i.e., because it had a cause. But it may 
be said that it had no came, as, agreeably to the doctrine of the 
MimSnsakas (see above, p. 56), the action of the throat and 
palate in pronunciation may merely occasion a manifestation 
of sound without creating it. In reply to this, it is said (2) 
that sound is cognizable by sense, i.e., that though it belongs to 
a genus, it is an object of ordinary perception through an ex- 
ternal sense." [A different explanation given by other inter- 
preters is next quoted, which I omit.] " Then surmising that 
the preceding definition may be regarded as not to the point, 
the author adds the words ' as it is spoken of as factitious/ i.e., 
as jars and other such objects are spoken of as,— are known to 
be,— products, so, too, sound is distinguishable by sense as 
being in the nature of a product. And in consequence of this 
necessary [or incontrovertible?] and universal perception of its 
being produced, it is proved that it cannot be eternal. " [Two 
other explanations of this last clause of the Sutra are then 

Leaving the reader to study the details of the discussion in 
Dr. Ballantyne's aphorisms of the Nyftya (Part Second, pp. 


77 ff.), I will pass over most of the Sutras, and merely quote 
the principal conclusions of the Nyaya aphorist. In Satra 86 
he says/ in opposition to the 13th Satra of the Mlmansa (above, 
p. 56); 

86.—' Prog uchcharanad anupalambhad cwaranady-anupa- 
labdheli' \ Sabdo yadi nityali sydd uckcharandt prog apy upala- 
bhyeta srotra-sannikarsha-sattvat \ na cha atra pratibandhakam 
usti ityaha avarcmeti avaranadeh pratibandhakasya anupalab- 
dhya abAava-nirnayat \ desantara-gamanantu sabdasya amur- 
ttatvadnasambhavyate \ atlndriyananta-pratibandkakatvarkalpa- 
nam apexya sabd&nityatvarkalpana eva laghlyasl iti bkavah. 
" ' Sound is not eternal, because it is not perceived before it 
is uttered, and because we do not perceive anything which 
should intercept it.' If sound were eternal, it would be per- 
ceived even before it was uttered, from its being in contact with 
the ear. [Sound, as Dr. Ballantyne explains, is admitted to be 
a quality of the all-pervading ether.] And in the next words the 
aphorist says that there is no obstacle to its being so heard, 
since the non-existence of any hindrance, such as an intercept- 
ing medium, is ascertained by our not perceiving anything of 
that sort. And it is not conceivable that sound should have 
gone to another place [and for that reason be inaudible], since 
it has no defined form. The supposition that sound is non- 
eternal, is simpler than the supposition that there are an infinity 
of imperceptible obstacles to its perception." 

The 89th and 90th Sutras, with part of the comments on 
them, are as follows : — 89. ' Asparsatmt 9 \ sabdo nityah \ ahpar- 
satvad gagana-vad iti bhavali \ 90. * Na karmanityatvaV \ as- 
parsoatvafii na sabdarnityaiva-sadhakain karmam vyabhicharat* 
89. " It may be said that sound is eternal, from its being, like 
the sky, intangible. 90. But this is no proof, for the intangi- 
bility of sound does not establish its eternity, since these two 
qualities do not always go together; for intangibility, though 
predicable, e.g., of action, fails to prove its eternity." 

The 100th and following Satras are as follows :— 100. ' Vina- 


sa-kdrandnupalabdheli' \ 101. ' Asravana-hdrandnupalabdheh 
satata-sravana-prasangajy \ Yady apratyaxdd abhdva-siddhis 
tada 'sravana-kdranasya apratyaxatvdd asravanaM na sydd 
iti satatarsravana-prasanga iti bhdvah || 102. ' Upalabhyamdne 
cha anupalabdher asattvdd anapadesafi' || Anumdnddind upala- 
bhyamdne vindsa-kdrane anupalabdher abhdvdt tvadiyo hetur 
anapadesah asddhakali asiddhatvdt \ janyabhdvatvena vindsa- 
kalpanam iti bhdvali. " It is said (100) that ' sound must 
be eternal, because we perceive no cause why it should cease.' 
The answer is (101), first, ' that if the non-eccistence of any- 
such cause of cessation were established by the mere fact of 
its not being perceived, such non-perception would occasion our 
hearing continually, which is an absurdity/ And (102), secondly, 
' since such non-perception is not a fact, inasmuch as [a cause 
of the cessation of sound] is perceived, this argument falls 
to the ground/ Since a cause for the cessation of sound is 
discovered by inference, etc., and thus the non-perception of any 
cause is seen to be untrue, this argument of yours proves 
nothing, because its correctness is not established. The purport 
is that we suppose, from sound being produced, that it must 
also be liable to perish." 

Sfltras 106—122 are occupied with a consideration of the 
question (above treated, pp. 56, 57, in Sutras 10 and 16 of the 
Mlmansa) whether letters can change or not. The conclusion 
at which Gotama arrives is, that the substance of letters cannot 
undergo any alteration, though they may be said to change 
when they are modified in quality by being lengthened, short- 
ened, etc. 

In a preceding part of the Second Book (Sutras 57—68) 
Gotama treats of the Veda, and repels certain charges which are 
alleged against its authority. I shall quote most of these 
aphorisms, and cite the commentary more fully than Dr. Bal- 
lantyne has done. (See Ballantyne's Nyfiya Aphorisms, Part ii. 
pp. 56 ff.) 

Sabdasya drishtddrishtdrthakatvena dvaividhyam uhtafh tatra 


cka adrisktdrtkaka-sabdasya vedasya prdmdnyam parixitum 
pUrva-paxayati || 57. ' Tad-aprdmdnyam anrita~vydgkdta-pu- 
narukta-doskebkyalh 9 || Tasya drishtdrthaka-vyatirikta-sabdasya 
vedasya apramanyam \ kutali \ anritatvddi-doskdt \ tatra cha 
putreskti-kdryddau kvackit pkaldnutpatti-darsandd anritatvam \ 
vydgkdtali purvdpara-virodkah \ yatkd i udite juhoti anudite 
juhoti samayadkyuskite juhoti \ sydvo 'sya ahutim abhyavakarati 
ya udite juhoti savalo 'sya ahutim abhyavakarati yo 'nudite juhoti 
sydva-savaldv asya ahutim abhyavakarato yah samayadhyushite 
juhoti 9 atra cha uditddi-vdkyandfh ninddnumitdniskta-sddka- 
natd-bodkaka-vdkya-virodkali \ paunaruktydd apramanyam \ 
Yatha trili prathamdm anvdha \ trir uttamdm anvdha \ ity atra 
uttamatvasya prathamatva-paryavasdndt trili kathanena cha 
paunaruktyam \ eteshdm aprdmdnye taddrisktdntena tad-eka- 
karttrikatvena tad-eka-jdtiyatvena vd sarva-veddprdmdnyanl 
sddhamyam iti bkdva)i \ siddkdnta-sutram || 58. ' Na karma- 
karttri-sddkana-vaigunydt 9 \\ Na veddpramdnyaffi karma-karttri- 
sddkana-vaigunydt phalubkdvopapatteli \ karmanati kriyayd vai- 
gunyam ayatkdvidkitvddi \ karttur vaigunyam avidvattvddi \ 
sddkanasya kavir-ader vaigunyam dproxitatvddi \ Yatkokta-kar- 
manali pkaldbhave ky anritatvam \ na cka evam asti iti bhavali \ 
vydgkdtam parikarati || 59. ' Abhyupetya kdla-bkede doska-vacha- 
ndt 9 || na vydgkdta iti seskah \ Agnyddkdna-kdle udita-komddi- 
kam abhyupetya svtkritya anudita-komddi-karane purvokta-doska- 
katkandd na vydgkdta ity artkali \ paunaruktyam parikarati || 
60. Anuvddopapattescka \\ ckah punar-artke \ anuvddopapatteh 
punar na paunaruktyam \ niskprayojanatve hi paunaruktyam 
doskah | uktarsthale tv anuvddasya upapatteh prayojanasya 
sambhavdt \ ekadasa-sdmidkenlndm pratkamottamayos trir abki- 
dhdne hi paUckadasatvafh sambkavati \ tatkdcka panckadasatvafh 
srUyate \ ' Imam aham bkrdtrivyam panckadasdvarena vdg-vaj- 
rena cka bddhe yo 9 smdn dveshti yaficka vayafh dviskma 9 iti | 
Anuvddasya sdrtkakatvaM loka-prasiddkam ity dka || 61. Vdkya- 
vibkagasya cka artka-grakandt \\ Vdkya-vibkdgasya \ anuvdda- 
tvena vibkakta-vdkyasya artka-grakandt prayojana-svlkardt \ 


sishtair iti seshdfi \ sishtd hi mdhdyakdnuvddakddi-bkedena vdk- 
ydfft, vibkajya anuvddakasyapi saprayojanatvam manyante \ Vede 
'py evam iti bhdvali | . . . Evam aprdmdnya-sddhakaih nirasya 
pramdnyaih sddhayatf\\ 68. Mantrayurveda-vachcha tat-prdmdn- 
yam dpta-prdmdnydt \\ Aptasya veda-karttuli prdmdnydt yathdr- 
thopadesakatvdd vedasya taduktatvam arthdl labdham \ tena 
hetund vedasya prdmdnyam anumeyam \ tatra drishtdntam aha 
mantrdyitrveda-vad iti \ mantro vishddi-ndsakah \ dyurveda- 
bhdgascka veda-stha eoa \ tatra samvddena prdmdnyorgrahdt 
tad-drisktdntena vedatvavachkedena prdmdnyam anumeyam \ 
aptafii grihltam prdmdnyafh yatra sa vedas tddrisend vedatvena 
prdmdnyam anumeyam iti kechit. " It had been declared (Nyaya 
Sfltras i. 8) that verbal evidence is of two kinds, (1) that of 
which the subject-matter is seen, and (2) that of which the sub- 
ject-matter is unseen. With the view, now, of testing the 
authority of that verbal evidence which refers to unseen things, 
viz., the Veda, Gotama states the first side of the question. 
Sutra 57. ' The Veda has no authority, since it has the defects 
of falsehood, self-contradiction, and tautology/ That verbal 
evidence which is distinct from such as relates to visible objects, 
i.e., the Veda, has no authority. Why? Because it has the 
defects of falsehood, etc. Of these defects, that of 'falsehood' 
is exemplified in the fact that we sometimes observe that no 
fruit results from performing the sacrifice for a son, or the like. 
4 Self-contradiction ' is a discrepancy between a former and a 
later declaration. Thus the Veda says, ' he sacrifices when the 
sun is risen; he sacrifices when the sun is not yet risen; he 
sacrifices in the morning twilight. A tawny [demon ?] carries 
away the oblation of him who sacrifices after the sun has risen ; 
a brindled [demon ?] carries off the oblation of him who sacrifices 
before the sun has risen ; and both of these two carry off the 
oblation of him who sacrifices in the morning twilight.' Now here 
there is a contradiction between the words which enjoin sacrifices 
and the words which intimate by censure that those sacrifices will 
occasion disastrous results. Again, the Veda has no authority, 


owing to its ' tautology/ as where it is said, ' he repeats the first 
thrice, he repeats the last thrice/ For as the fastness ultimately 
coincides with [?] the Jirstness, and as there is a triple repetition 
of the words, this sentence is tautological. Now since these 
particular sentences have no authority, the entire Veda will be 
proved by these specimens to stand in the same predicament, 
since all its other parts have the same author, or are of the 
same character, as these portions." 

Here follows the Satra which conveys the established doc- 
trine. " 58. ' The Veda is not false ; it is owing to some fault in 
the ceremonial, or the performer, or the instrument he employs, 
that any sacrifice is ineffectual.' Faults in the ceremonial are 
such as its not being according to rule. Faults in the performer 
are such as ignorance. Faults in the instrument, i.e., in the 
clarified butter, etc., are such as its not being duly sprinkled, 
etc. For falsehood might be charged on the Veda, if no fruit 
resulted from a sacrifice when duly performed ; but such is not 
the case." 

Gotama next repels the charge of self-contradiction in the 
Vedas. "59. 'There is no self-contradiction, for the fault is 
only imputed in case the sacrifice should be performed at a 
different time from that at first intended.' The fault imputed to 
these sacrifices in the text in question would [only] be imputed 
if, after agreeing, at the time of placing the sacrificial fire, to 
perform the sacrifice after sunrise, one were to change it to a 
sacrifice before sunrise ; there is, therefore, no self-contradiction 
in the passage referred to." 

He next rebuts the charge of tautology. " 60. ' The Veda is 
not tautological, because repetition may be proper/ The par- 
ticle ' cha* means again. 'Again, since repetition may be 
proper, there is no tautology/ For repetition is only a fault 
when it is useless. But in the passage referred to, since repeti- 
tion is proper, its utility is apparent. For when the first and 
the last of the eleven samidhenis (forms of prayer used on throw- 
ing fuel into the fire) are each repeated thrice, the whole number 


of verses will be made up to Ji/teen. 42 Accordingly, this num- 
ber of fifteen is mentioned in these words of the Veda, ' I smite 
this enemy who hates us, and whom we hate, with the last of 
the fifteen verses, and with the thunderbolt of my words.' " 

He next observes that the advantage of repetition is commonly 
recognised. "61. 'And the Veda is not tautological, because 
the utility of this division of discourse is admitted, i.e., because 
the necessity for a division of language, that is, of a description 
of language characterized as reiterative, is acknowledged by the 
learned. For by dividing language into the different classes of 
injunctive, reiterative, etc., learned men recognise the uses of the 
reiterative also. And this applies to the Veda." 

The author of the aphorisms then proceeds to state and to 
define (in Sutras 62 — 67) the different sorts of discourse em- 
ployed in the Veda, and to defend the propriety of reiteration. 
"Having thus refuted the arguments which aim at showing 
that the Veda is of no authority, he goes on to prove its autho- 
rity. 68. ' The authority of the Veda, like that of the spells and 
the medical treatise, follows from the authority of the wise 
[person who made it].' Since a wise [person], the maker of a 
Veda, possesses authority, i.e., is one who inculcates truth, it 
results from the force of the terms that the Veda was uttered by 
a person of this character ; and by this reasoning the authority 
of the Veda is to be inferred. He illustrates this by the case of 
the spells and medical treatise. By spells (mantra) are meant 
the formulae which neutralize poison, etc., and the section of the 
medical treatise (ayurveda) forms part of the Veda.' Now as 
the authority of these two writings is admitted by general con- 
sent, the authority of everything which possesses the character- 
istics of the Veda must be inferred from this example. Some, 
however, explain the aphorism thus : a Veda is that in which 
authority is found or recognized. From such vedicity (or pos- 

42 If there are in aU eleven formulae, and two of these are each repeated thrice, we 
have (2x3 = ) sw to add to the nine (which remain of the original eleven), making 
(6 + 9 = ) fifteen. See Mailer's Anc. Sans. Lit. pp. 89 and 393. 


session of the character of a Veda), the authority of any work is 
to be inferred." 

It is not necessary to regard this 68th Sutra as expressing 
the ultimate grounds on which Gotama would have vindicated 
the authority of the Vedas against its gainsayers. It is suffi- 
cient to consider the aphorism as merely indicating the proper 
basis on which the great logician thought that the infallibility 
of the Vedas should be defended, in opposition to those who 
maintained that their authority was derived from their eternity. 
Gotama denied this eternity, and deduced the infallibility of the 
Vedas from the infallibility of their author. In arguing with a 
disbeliever in the Vedas, he would have had to prove that they 
had really proceeded from an infallible author. 

II. The Sankhya. — The opinions of the author of the Sankhya 
aphorisms in regard to the authority of the Veda and the prin- 
ciples on which that authority depends, are contained in the 45th 
to the 51st aphorisms of the Fifth Book, which I extract with 
the comments of Vijnana Bhikshu. 43 45. ' Na nityatvain, Veda- 
nam karyatva-sruteh' \\ ' Sa tapo 'tapyata tasmdt tapas tepdndt 
trayo vedd qjayanta' ity ddi-sruter veddndM na nityatvam ity 
artkah \ veda-nityatd-vdkydni cha sajatiyanupurvi-pravakdnuch- 
chkeda-parani \ Tar hi kirn pauruskeyd veddh \ na ity aha || 46. 
' Na paurusheyatvafh tatkartuh purushasya abhavat 9 || isvara- 
pratisheddd iti seskali \ sugamam \ aparah karttd bhavatv ity 
dkanxdydm aha || 47. ' Muktdmuktayor ayogyatvdt' \\ Jlvan-. 
mxikta-dhurlno Vishnur msuddha-sattvatayd niratisaya-sarvajno 
'pi mtardgatvdt sahasra-sakhorveda-nirmdndyogyali \ amuktas 
tv asarvqjfiatvad eva ayogya ity arthali*\ nanv evam apaurtishe- 
yatvdd nityatvam eva dgatam \ tatrdka || 48. ' Na apaurtishe- 
yatvdd nityatvam ankuradi-vat 9 \\ Spashtam \ nanv ankurddishv 
api kdryatvena ghatadi-vat paurusheyatvam anumeyam \ tatra- 
ha || 49. ' Tesham api tadyoge drishta-badhadi-prasaktili' || Yat 
paurusfteyaM tack ckkanra-janyam iti vydptir hke drisktd tasyd 

43 Dr. Ballantyne's edition of the Sankhya Satras does not, I believe, as yet 
extend beyond the fourth book. 


bddhddir evam sati sydd iti arthali \ nanv Adi-purushochchari- 
tatvdd Veda api paurusheya eva ity aha || 50. ' Yasmin adrishte 
'pi krita-buddhir upajdyate tat paurusheyam' \\ Driskte wa 
adrishte 'pi yasmin vastuni krita-buddhir buddhi-purvakatva- 
buddhir jay ate tad ma paurusheyam iti vyavahriyate ity arthah \ 
etad uktam bhavati \ na purushochcharitatdrmdtrena paurushe- 
yatvatfi svdsa-prasvdsayoh sushupti-kallnayoli paurusheyatva- 
vyavahardbhdvat kintu buddhi-pUrvakatvena \ Veddstu nifysvdsar 
vad eoa adrishta-vasad abuddki-purvakd eva Svayambhuvo sakd- 
sdt svayam bhavanti \ ato na te paurusheydk \ tathd cha srutih 
' tasyaitasya mahato bkutasya nisvasitam etad yad riyvedo ity 
ddir 9 iti \ nanv evam yarthdrtha-vakydrtha-jMndpttrvakatvat 
suka-vdkyasyeva veddnam api prdmdnyafh na sydt tatrdha || 51. 
4 Nija-sakty-abhvyakteli svatah pramdnyam' \\ VeddndM nijd svd- 
bkcmkl yd yatharthajnana-janana-saktis tasya mantrdyurvedd- 
ddv abhivyakter upalambhdd akhila-veddndm eva svata eva prd- 
mdnyaffi siddhyati na vaktri-yathdrtha-jfldnarmUlahatmdind ity 
arthali \ tathd cha Nyayctrsutram \ ( mantrdyurveda-prdmanyar 
vachcha tat-prdmanyam 9 iti. 

" Sutra 45. ' Eternity cannot be predicated of the Vedas, 
since various texts in these books themselves declare them to 
have been produced/ The sense is this, that the Vedas are 
proved not to be eternal by such texts as the following : ' He 
performed austerity; from him, when he had thus performed 
austerity, the three Vedas were produced.' [See above, p. 3.] 
Those other texts which assert the eternity [or perpetuity] of the 
Vedas refer merely to the unbroken continuity of the stream of 
homogeneous succession [or tradition]. Are the Vedas, then, de- 
rived from any personal author? ' No/ he replies in Sutra 46. 
' The Vedas are not derived from any personal author (pauru- 
sheya), since there is no person (purusha) to make them.' We 
must supply the words, ' since an Isvara (God) is denied/ The 
sense is easy. In answer to the supposition that there may be 
some other maker, he remarks, Sutra 47, ' No ; for there could be 
no fit maker, either liberated or unliberated/ Vishnu, the chief of 


all those beings who are liberated even while they live, 44 though, 
from the pure goodness of his nature, he is possessed of perfect 
omniscience, would, owing to his impassiveness, be unfit to com- 
pose the Veda consisting of a thousand sakhas (branches), while 
any unliberated person would be unfit for the task from want of 
omniscience. (See Sankara's comment on Brahma Stttras i. 
1, 3 ; above, p. 52, note.) But does not, then, the eternity of the 
Vedas follow from their having no personal author? He replies 
(48), ' Their eternity does not result from their having no per- 
sonal author, since they resemble a bud, which sprouts from 
some root/ This is clear. But is it not to be inferred that 
buds, etc., since they are products, have, like jars> etc., some 
personal maker? He replies (49), ' If such a supposition were 
applied to the Vedas, it would there also be exposed to the 
objection that it is contrary to what we see, etc.' Whatever is 
derived from a personal author is produced from a body ; this is 
a rule which is seen to hold invariably. But if we assert that 
the Vedas are derived from a personal author, we contradict the 
rule in question, [since the Vedas evidently did not spring from 
any one's body].' But are not the Vedas, too, derived from a 
person, seeing that they were uttered by the primeval Purusba ? 
He answers (50), 'That object only (even though it be an 
invisible one), which its mak^r is conscious of having made, can 
be said to be derived from [or made by] a person/ It is only 
those objects, bg. they seen or unseen, in regard to which a 
consciousness of design arises, that are ordinarily spoken of 
as made by a person. The sense is, that it is not mere utter- 
ance by a person which constitutes formation by that person 
(since we do not ordinarily speak of the inspirations and expira- 
tions of any person during the time of sleep, as being formed by 
that person),, but only utterance with conscious design. But 
the Vedas proceed of their own accord from Svayambhu (the self- 
existent), like an expiration, by the force of adrishta (destiny), 
without any consciousness on his part. Hence they are not 

44 See Colebrooke's Essays, i. 369, or p. 241 of Williams and Norgate's ed. 


formed by any person. Thus the Veda says, * This Rig-veda, 
etc., is the breath of this great Being, etc.* [See above, p. 7.] 
But will not the Vedas, also, be in this way destitute of autho- 
rity, like the chatter of a parrot, since they did not result from 
any knowledge of the correct meaning of the words of which 
they are made up ? In reference to this, he says (51), ' The 
Vedas have a self-proving authority, since their inherent power 
is manifested.' The self-evidencing authority of the entire Vedas 
is established by the manifestation, or perception, in certain 
portions of them, viz., the ' spells ' and the ' medical treatise/ 
etc., of that inherent power which they (the Vedas) possess of 
generating correct knowledge, and does not depend on its being 
shown that they (the Vedas) are founded on correct knowledge 
in their utterer, or on any other ground of that sort. And to 
this effect is the Ny§ya Sutra, that ' its authority is like the 
authority of the spells and the medical treatise.'" (See above, 
p. 80.) 

In the 57th and following Sutras of the same book, Kapila 
denies that sound has the character of spkota, or that it is 
eternal. 57. ' Pratityapratltibkyafh na spkotdtmakali sabdah ' || 
Pratyeka-varnebkyo Hiriktafh kalasa ityddi-rupam akhandam 
eka-padam spkota iti yogair abhyupagamyate \ kambu-grivddy- 
avayavebkyo 'tirikto gkatddy-avayaviva \ sa cha sabda-visesho 
paddkkyo Wtka-spkutlkarandt spkota ity uckyate \ sa sabdo 
'prdmdnikah \ kutah \ pratityapratitibkydm \ sa sabdah kirn 
pratiyate na vd \ ddye yena varna-samudayena dnupurvi-viseska- 
visisktena so 'bkivyajyate tasya eva artka-pratydyakatvam astu \ 
kirn antargadund tena \ antye tv ajMta-spkotasga nasty artka- 
pratydyana-saktir iti vyartha sphota-kalpand ity artkali \ Pur- 
vaM veddndfh nityatvam pratiskiddkam \ idanlfh varna-nityat- 
vam api pratishedati || 58. ' Na sabda-nityatvaffi, karyatd-pra~ 
ttteh' || Sa eva ayafh, ga-kdra ityddi-pratyabkijM-baldd varna- 
nityatvaM na yuktam \ utpanno ga-kdra ityddi-pratyayena anit- 
yatva-siddker ity artkah \ pratyabkijM tajjdtiyata-viskayini \ 
anyatkd ghatdder api pratyabkijfiaya nityatdpatter iti \ sankate || 


59. ' Pfirva-siddha-sattvasya abhwyaktir dlpeneva ghatasya' \\ 
Nanu purva-siddha-sattdkasyaiva sabdasya dhvanyddibhir yd 
'bhivyaktis tanmdtram utpattih pratiter vishayak \ abhivyaktau 
drishtdnto dlpeneva ghatasya iti \ Pariharati || 60. ' Satkdryya- 
siddhdntas chet siddha-sddhanam* || Abhwyaktir yady andgatd- 
vasthd-tydgena varttamdndvasthd-ldbha ity uchyate tadd sat- 
kdryya-siddhdntah \ tddnsa-nityatvaHcha sarva-kdrydndm eva 
iti siddha-sddhanam ity arthah \ yadi cha varttamdnatayd sata 
eva jfidna-mdtror-rupiny abhivyaktir uchyate tadd ghatadindm 
api nityatvdpattir ityadL " * Sound has not the character of 
sphota, from the dilemma that it must be either apparent or not 
apparent/ A modification of sound called sphota, single, indi- 
visible, distinct from individual letters, existing in the form of 
words like kalasa (jar), distinguished also from parts of words 
like kambu-grlva (striped-neck), and forming a whole like the 
word ghata (jar), is assumed by the Yogas. And this species 
of sound called a word ipada) is designated sphota from its 
manifesting a meaning. But the existence of this form of sound 
is destitute of proof. Why ? ' From the dilemma that it must 
be either apparent or not apparent/ Does this form of sound 
appear or not? If it appears, then let the power of disclosing 
a meaning [which is ascribed by our opponents to sphota] be 
regarded as belonging to that collection of letters, arranged in a 
particular order, by which the supposed sphota is manifested. 
What necessity is there for that superfluous sphota ? If, on the 
contrary, it does not appear, then that unknown sphota can have 
no power of disclosing a meaning, and consequently it is useless 
to suppose that any such thing as sphota exists. 

" The eternity of the Vedas had been already denied. He 
now denies the eternity of letters also. 58. ' Sound is not 
eternal, since it is clear that it is a production/ The meaning 
is, that it is not reasonable to infer on the strength of the recog- 
nition of the letter G as the same that we knew before (see 
Mimansa Aphorisms i. 13; above, p. 56), that letters are 
eternal ; since it is clear that G and other letters are produced, 


and therefore cannot be eternal. The recognition of these letters 
has reference to their being of the same kind as we have per- 
ceived before ; since otherwise we are landed in the absurdity 
that, because we recognize a jar or any other such object to be 
the same, it must therefore be eternal. 

" He expresses a doubt : 59. ' What we hear may be merely 
the manifestation of a previously existing thing, as a jar is mani- 
fested (not created) by the light of a lamp.' (Bee Mlmansa 
Aphorisms, i. 12, 13 ; above, p. 56.) Is it not the fact that it 
is merely the manifestation of language by sounds, etc., which 
begins to exist as an object of perception? An illustration 
of such manifestation is that of a jar by means of a lamp. 

" He repels this doubt : 60. ' If the axiom that an effect 
exists in its cause be here intended, this is merely proving what 
is already admitted/ If by manifestation is meant the relin- 
quishment by any substance of its previous undeveloped state, 46 
and the attainment of its present developed state, then we have 
merely the recognized principle of an effect virtually existing 
in its cause (see Sftnkhya Karika Aph. ix.); and as such 
eternity is truly predicable of all effects whatever, it is proving 
a thing already proved to assert it here. If, on the other hand, 
by manifestation be merely meant the perception of a thing 
actually existing, then we shall be involved in the absurdity of 
admitting that jars, etc., also are eternal, etc." 

Sect. IX. — Some further reasonings in support of the supernatural origin 
of the Veda, and distinction in point of authority between it and 
the Smritis or non- Vedic Sastras as stated by the Commentators on 
the Taittiriya Yqjurveda, the Purva Mlmansa, Manu, and the 
Vedanta, etc. ; difference of opinion between Sankara and Madhusu- 
dana regarding the orthodoxy of Kapila and Kanada. 

I.— The Nyaya-mdld-vistara.—l shall begin this section with 
an extract on the supernatural origin of the Veda from the Nyaya- 
mdld-vistara, a summary of the doctrines of the Purva Mimansfi of 

is Literally, " the state of being not yet arrived at something" [?] 


Jaimini, by Madhava Acharyya, the brother of Sayana Acharyya 
(see above, p. 40). Nyaya-mala-vistara i. 1, 25, 26 : Pauruske- 
yatfi na vd veda-vakyaM syat paurusheyatd \ Kdthakadi-samd- 
khydndd vakyatvachchdnya-vakya-vat \ Samakhya 'dhyapakat- 
vena vdkyatvantu pardhatam \ Tatkartranupalambhena syat tato 
'paurusheyatd || Kdthakaih Kauthumafh Taittiriyakam ityddi 
samakhya tattad-vedarvishayd loke drisktd \ taddhita-pratyayas- 
cha tena proktam ity asminn arthe varttate \ tatha sati Vydsena 
proktaM Vaiyasikam Bhdratam ity ddav iva pauricsheyatvam pra- 
tiyate | kiftcha \ vimatafh veda-vdkyam paurusheyam \ vakyatvat \ 
Kdtiddsddi-vdkya^aditiprdptebrumah \ adhyayana-sampraddya- 
pravarttakatvena samakhya upapadyate \ Kaliddsadi-grantheshu 
tat'Saryavasdne karttdra upalabkyante \ tatha vedasydpi pau- 
rusheyatve tat-karttd upalabhyetd na cha upalabkyate \ ato vdk~ 
yatvarhetult pratiknla-tarka-pardhatah \ tasmdd apaurusheyo 
vedah \ tatha sati purusha-buddhi-kritasya apramdnyasya ana- 
sankaniyatvdd vidhivdkyasya dkarme pramanyaia susthitam. 4 * 
" [Verses] 'Is the word of the Veda of human origin or 
not? It must be human, since (1) it bears the names of 
Kathaka, etc., and (2) has the characters of a sentence, like 
other sentences. No; for (1) the names arose from parti- 
cular persons being teadhers of the Vedas, and (2) the objec- 
tion that the Vedic precepts have the characters of common 
sentences is refuted by other considerations. For the Veda 
must be supernatural, since it has never been known to 
have had a maker/ [Comment] It is objected (1) that the 
names Kathaka, Kauthuma, Taittinyaka, etc., are applied in 
common usage to the different Vedas ; and the taddhita affix 
by which these appellations are formed, denotes 'uttered by* 
[Katha, Kuthumi, and Tittiri] (comp. Panini iv. 3, 101). Such 
being the case, it is clear that these parts of the Vedas are of 
human origin [or derived from a person, puruskd], like the 

46 I have extracted this passage from Prof. Goldstiicker's unpublished text of the 
Nyaya-mala-vistara ; and I am indebted to the same profound scholar for some 
assistance in my translation of it. 


Mahabharata, which is styled Vaiydsika, because it was uttered 
by Vyasa, etc. And further (2), the sentences of the Veda, 
being subject to different interpretations, are of human origin, 
because they have the properties of a sentence, like the sentences 
of Kalidasa, etc. To this we reply (1), the name applied to any 
Veda originates in the fact that the sage whose name it bears, 
was an agent in transmitting the study of that Veda. But (2) 
in the books of Kalidasa and others, the authors are discoverable 
[from the notices] at the end of each section. Now if the Veda 
also were of human composition, the author of it would, in like 
manner, be discoverable ; but such is not the case. Hence, the 
objection that the Veda partakes of the nature of common sen- 
tences is refuted by opposing considerations. Consequently the 
Veda is superhuman. And such being the case, as we cannot 
suspect in it any fallibility occasioned by the defects of human 
reason, the preceptive texts of the Veda are demonstrated to be 
authoritative in questions of duty." 

II. — Vcddrtha prakdsa. — The verses just quoted are repeated 
in the Vedartha-prakasa of Madhava on the Taittirlya Sanhita 
(p. 26), with a various reading at the beginning of the third 
line, viz., ' samdkhydnam pravachandt' instead of ' samdkhyd 
f dhydpahatvena. f The comment by which the verses are ex- 
plained in the same work, is as follows : — Vdlmlklyafh Vaiydsi- 
kiyam ityddi-samdkfiydndd Rdmdyana-Bhdratddikaih yathd 
paurusheyaM tathd Kdthakafh Kauthumafh Taittirlyam ityddi- 
samdkhydndd vedah paurusheyali \ kittcha veda-vdkyam pauru- 
sheyafri vdkyatvdt Kdliddsddi-vdkya-vad iti chet \ maivam \ sam- 
praddya-pravrittyd samdkhyopapatteh \ Vdkyatva-hetus tv anu- 
palabdhi-viruddha-kdldtyaydpadisktali \ Yathd Vydsa- Vdl- 
miki-prabhritayas tad-grantha-nirmdndvasare kaischid upalab- 
dhdh | anyair apy avichhinna-sampraddyena upalabhyante \ na 
tathd veda-karttd purushah kaschid upalabdhali \ pratyuta ved- 
asya nityatvaih, sruti-smritibhydm purvam uddkritam \ Para- 
mdtmd tu veda-karttd 'pi na laukika-puruskah \ tasmdt karttri- 
doshdbkdvdd nasty aprdmdnya-sankd. " It may be said (1) that 


as the Ramayana, the Mahabharata, and other such books, are 
regarded as the works of men from the epithets Vdlmikiya (com- 
posed by Valmlki), Vaiydsikiya (composed by Vyasa), etc., which 
they bear, so too the Veda must be of human origin, since it is 
called by the appellations oiKdthaka, Kauthuma, and Taittirlya, 
etc. ; and further (2), that the word of the Veda must be human, 
because it possesses the properties of a common sentence. But 
these objections are unfounded, for (1) the appellation of any 
part of the Veda is derived from some sage who was an agent in 
transmitting the study of it; and (2) the objection about the 
Veda having the properties of a common sentence is opposed to 
the fact that no author was ever perceived, and is refuted by the 
length of time [during which the Veda has been received as 
superhuman]. For though Vyasa and Valmlki, etc., when em- 
ployed in the composition of their respective works, were per- 
ceived by some persons to be so engaged, and are known by 
others also [in after ages] to be the authors, from the existence 
of an unbroken tradition to that effect; — no human author of 
the Veda has ever been perceived. On the contrary, we have 
formerly shown that the eternity of the Veda is declared both 
by itself and by the Smriti. And even if the supreme Spirit 
be the maker of it ; still he is not a mundane person, and con- 
sequently, as no defect exists in the maker, there is no reason 
to suspect fallibility in his work." 

I do not know how it has happened that these commentators 
have taken no notice of an obvious objection which may be 
raised to the validity of this reasoning, viz., that the hymns of 
the Rik and other Vedas are all set down in the Anukramanls, 
or indices to those works, as being uttered by particular rishis ; 
the rishis being, in fact, there defined as those whose words the 
hymns were— yasya mkyaih sa riskih. (See Colebrooke's Misc. 
Ess. i. 26, or p. 12 of W. and N.'s ed.) Though, however, this 
objection has not been noticed in any of the preceding pas- 
sages, an answer has been provided to it in the well-known 
assertion of the orthodox Indian writers that the rishis did not 


compose, but only saw the hymns and other parts of the Vedas, 
which had in reality pre-existed from eternity. 

Thus, in the Vedartha-prakasa on the Taittirlya Sanhita, p. 11, 
it is said : Atindriyartha-drasht&ra riskayali \ TeshMi veda- 
drashtritvafh smaryate \ Yugdnte 'ntarhitan* Veddn setihdsdn 
maharshayah \ Lebkire tapasd purvam anujfidtdh svayambhuvd. 
(Mahabharata, Santiparva, verse 7,660. See above, p. 73.) 
" The rishis were seers of things beyond the reach of the bodily 
senses. The fact of their seeing the Vedas is recorded in the 
Smriti : ' The great rishis, empowered by Svayambhu, formerly 
obtained, through devotion, the Vedas and the Itihasas which had 
disappeared at the end of the [preceding] Yuga.'" 

So, too, Manu (as already quoted, Part First, p. 142) says, 
Prajdpatir idaih sdstrafh tapasaivdsrijat prabhuli \ Tathaiva 
veddn rishayas tapasd pratipedire. " Prajapati created this 
Sastra (the Institutes of Manu) by devotion ; and by devotion 
the rishis obtained the Vedas." 

See also the passages from the Nirukta in pp. 174 fF. and 205 
of the Second Part of this work. 

A distinct line of demarcation is generally drawn by the more 
critical Indian writers between the Vedas and all other classes of 
Indian Sastras, however designated. The former are considered 
to be infallible, and to possess an independent authority ; while 
the latter derive their authority from the Veda alone, and (in 
theory) are infallible guides only in so far as they coincide with 
the Veda. This will be clear from the following passages. 

I. — Nydya-mdld-vistara. — The first text which I will adduce 
has been already quoted in the Second Part of this work, but I 
shall repeat it here for facility of reference. It is from the 
Nyaya-mala-vistara i. 3, 24. Baudhdyandpastambdsvaldyana- 
kdtydyandbdi-ndmdnkitdh kalpasUtrddi-granthd nigama-nirukta- 
shadanga-granthd Manv-ddi-smritayas cha apaurusheydh \ dhar- 
ma-buddki-janakatvdt \ veda-vat \ na cha mula-pramdna-sdpeX' 

* 7 The text of the Biblioth. Ind. reads tarhi tan. I have followed the M. Bh., 
which evidently gives the true reading. 


atvena veda-vaishamyam iti sankantyam \ utpanndyd buddkeli 
svataJk-prdTndnydnglkdrena nirapexatvdt || Maivam \ uhtdnu- 
mdnasya kdldtyaydpadishtatvdt \ BaudhdyanasUtram Apas- 
tamba-sutram ity evam purusha-namnd te grantha uchyante \ na 
cha Kdthakddisamdkhyd^vat pravachana-nimittatvam yuktam \ 
tad-grantha-nirmdna-kdle taddnlntanaili kaischid upalabdhat- 
vdt | tackcha avichhinna-pdramparyena anuvarttate \ tatah Kali- 
ddsddi-grantha-vat paurusheydJi \ tathdpi veda-uvulatvdt pramd- 
nam || . . . kalpasya vedatoafh, nddydpi siddham \ kintu prayat- 
nena sddhaniyam \ na cha tat sddAayitufh sakyam \ paurushe- 
yatvasya samdkkyayd tat-karttur upalambkena cha sddhitatvat. 
" It may be said that the Kalpa Sutras and other works desig- 
nated by the names of Baudhayana, Apastamba, Asvalayana, 
Katyayana, etc., and the Nigama, Nirukta, and six Vedangas, 
together with the Smritis of Manu and others, are superhuman, 
because they impart a knowledge of duty, as the Vedas do ; and 
that they should not be suspected of inferiority to the Vedas on 
the ground that they depend upon a primary authority, since 
the knowledge which they impart is independent, because it is 
admitted to be self-evidencing. But this view is incorrect, for 
the inference in question is refuted by the length of time [during 
which these works have been recognized as human composi- 
tions]. The books in question are called by the names of men, 
as ' the Sutras of Baudhayana/ ' the Sutras of Apastamba ; ' and 
these designations cannot correctly be said to originate in the 
oral transmission of the works by those teachers whose names 
they bear (as is really the case in regard to the Kathaka and 
other parts of the Veda), for it was known to some of the contem- 
poraries of these men, at the time when they were composing- 
these Sutras, Smritis, etc., that they were so engaged ; and this 
knowledge has descended by unbroken tradition. Hence the 
books in question are, like the works of Kalidasa and others, of 
human origin. Nevertheless, they possess authority, as being 
founded on the Veda." . . . The following additional remarks 
represent the opinion of the Guru (Prabhakara) on the same 


question : " It is not yet proved that the Kalpa Sutras possess 
the character of the Veda; it would require great labour to 
prove it; and, in fact, it is impossible to prove it. For the 
human origin of these books is established by the names which 
they bear, and by their being observed to have had authors." 

II. — Kulluha. — The same thing is admitted by Kulluka, the 
commentator on Manu, who (in his remarks on i. 1) thus defines 
the relation of his author to the Vedas : Paurusheyatve 'pi Manu- 
vdhydndm avigita-mahdjana-parigrahdt srutyupagrahdchclia 
veda-mulakatayd prdmdnyam \ Tatha cha chhdndogya-brdhmane 
sruyate ' Manur vai yat fdfichid avadat tad bheshajam bheshaja- 
tayah ' iti \ Vrihaspatir apy aha * Veddrthopanibandhritvdt prd- 
dhanyam hi Manoh smritam \ Manvartha-wparitd tu yd smritifi 
sd na sasyate \ Tdvach chhdstrdni sobhante tarka^ydkarandni 
cha | Dharmdrtha-moxopadeshtd Manur ydvanna drisyate' \ 
Mahdbhdrate 'py uktam ' Purdnam Mdnavo dharmaJi sdngo 
vedas chihitsitam \ Ajfid-siddhdni chatvdri na hantavydni ketu- 
bhity | virodhi Bauddhddi-tarkair na hantavydni \ anuhulastu 
mimdmsddi-tarkali pravarttaniya eva \ ata eva vaxyati * drshaffi, 
dharmopadesaflcha veda-sdstrdvirodhind \ yas tarkendnusan- 
dhatte sa dharmafh veda netarah' iti. " Though the Institutes 
of Manu had a human author, still, as their reception by illus- 
trious men of unimpeached [orthodoxy], and their conformity to 
the Veda, prove that they are based upon the latter, they are 
authoritative. Accordingly it is recorded in the Chhandogya 
Brahmana that, ' Whatever Manu said is a medicine of remedial 
efficacy.' And Vrihaspati says : ' As Manu expounds the sense of 
the Veda, he is traditionally celebrated as pre-eminent. But 
that smriti which is contrary to the sense of Manu, is not ap- 
proved. Books [on law ?], logic, and grammar are all eclipsed 
as soon as Manu, our instructor in duty, and in the means of 
attaining both earthly prosperity, and final liberation, is beheld.' 
And it is said in the Mahabharata : ' The Puranas, the institutes 
of Manu, the Veda with its appendages, and treatises on medi- 
cine, these four, which are established by [divine] command, 


are not to be assailed by rationalistic arguments ; ' that is, they 
are not to be attacked by hostile reasonings, such as those of 
the Bauddhas. But friendly arguments, such as those of the 
Mimansakas, are to be employed. And accordingly, we shall 
find below (Manu xii. 106) that he says, ' the man who inves- 
tigates the injunctions of the rishis, and the rules of duty by 
reasoning which is agreeable to the Veda, he, and he only, is 
acquainted with duty.'" (See above, p. 13, note 10.) 

llL—Nyaya-mala-vistara. — But the precepts of the smriti are 
not considered useless or superfluous. On the contrary, an 
authority is attributed to them corresponding to the antiquity, 
elevated position, and sacred character of their authors. Thus 
the author of the Nyaya-mala-vistara says (i. 3, 3) : Vimata 
smritir veda-mula \ vaidika-manvddi-pranltchsmrititvat \ upana- 
yanadhyayanadi-smriti'Vat \ na cha vaiyarthyafh sankamyam \ 
asmad-aMnaffi pratyaxeshu paroxeshu nana vedesku vipraktr- 
nasya anushtheyarthasya ehatra sanxipyamanatvat. "The 
variously understood smriti is founded on the Veda, because the 
traditions, such as those regarding investiture, study, etc., have 
been compiled by Vedic men, such as Manu and others. Nor is 
it to be surmised that the smriti is useless, since it throws 
together in a condensed form a variety of injunctions regarding 
matters to be observed, which are scattered through different 
Vedas, both such as are visible and such as are invisible to us." 
(This last expression appears to refer to the supposition that 
some parts of the Veda which Manu and others had before them 
when compiling their own works, have now been lost. See 
Miiller's Anc. Sans. Lit. pp. 103-107.) 

Accordingly the smritis have an authority superior to that 
founded merely on the practice of learned men of modern date 
derived from their own private study of the Vedas. Thus the 
Nyaya-mala-vistara says (i. 3, 19) : Na hi idanlntanali sishtah 
Marm-adi-vad desa-kala-wprakrishtaih vedaih divya-jfianena sax- 
atkarttwfii saknuvanti yena sishtacharo mula-vedam anumapayet. 
" For learned men of the present day do not possess the power, 


which Manu and others had, of placing before their minds, 
through divine knowledge, the Veda which was far removed 
from them both in place and time, so as to justify us in regard- 
ing the practice of these moderns as a sufficient ground for 
inferring the existence of a Veda as its foundation." 

But as learned men, in any particular country or at any par- 
ticular time, may be able to consult some smriti which authorizes 
their particular observances, " these observances may serve as 
ground for inferring the existence of some smriti on which they 
are founded, but not for inferring a Veda: (fasmdch chhishtd- 
chdrena smritir anumdtufh sakyate na tu srutify). But a smriti 
which is thus merely inferred to exist is set aside by any visibly 
existing smriti of contrary import : (anumita cka smritir virud- 
dhayd pratyaxayd smrityd bddkyate)" 

IV. — Sankara. — The above passages, by assuming that Manu 
and other eminent sages had the power of consulting Vedic texts 
now no longer accessible, make them practically almost infal- 
lible. The same view is taken by Sankara Acharyya. (See, 
however, the passage quoted from him above, in jiote 31, p. 45.) 
In answer to the remark of a Mtmansaka objector stated in the 
comment on the Brahma Sutras i. 3, 32, that the Itihasas and 
Puranas, being of human origin, have only a derived and 
secondary authority itihdsa-purdnam api paurusheyatvdt 
pramdndntara-mulatdm dkdnxate'), Sankara argues in his 
explanation of the following Stltra (i. 3, 33) that they have an 
independent foundation : Itihdsa-purdnam api vydkhydtena mdr- 
gena sambhavad mantrdrthavdda-rnUlatvdt prabhavati devatd- 
vigrahddi prapaflchayitum \ pratyaxa-mftlam api sambhamii | 
bhvoati hi asmdkam apratyaxam api chirantandndm pratyaxam \ 
tat Ad cka Vydsddayo deoatdbhihpratyaxalh, vyavakarantiti smar- 
yate \ yastu brUydd iddnlntandndm iva purveshdm api ndsti 
devddibhir xycmaharttufh, sdmarthyam iti sa jagad^aichitryam 
pratiskedet \ iddnim iva cka na anyadd 'pi sdrvabhaumali xatriyo 
'stiti brttydt \ tatascha rdjasuyddi-chodand uparundkydt \ idd- 
nim iva cka kdldntare 9 py avyavasthita-prdydn varndsrama-dhar- 


man pratijdnlta tatascha vyavastha-vidkdyi sdstram anarthakafk 
kurydt \ Tasmad dkarmotkarsAa-vasdt chirantand devddibhilb 
pratyaxaM vyajahrur iti slishyate \ api cha smaranti ' svddkyd- 
yddishta-devatd-samprayoga' ityddi \yogo 'py animddy-aisvarya- 
prdpti-phalakali smaryamdno na sakyate sdhasa-mdtrena prat- 
ydkhydtum | srutischa yoga-mdhdtmyam pratydkhydpayati \ 
' prithvy-ap-tejo-nila-kke samutthite paHchdtmake yoga-gune 
prcwritte \ na tasyo rogo.najard na mrityuh prdptasya yogdd 
nmishatik sanram 9 iti \ rishtndm api mantra-brdhmana-darsi- 
ndM sdmartkyaM na asmadlyena sdmarthyena upamdtuih yuk~ 
tarn | tasmat samulam itikdsa-purdnam. "The Itihasas and 
Puranas also, having originated in the way which has been 
explained, have power, as being based on the hymns and artha- 
vadas, to evince the corporeality, etc., of the gods. It is also 
reasonable to suppose that they are founded upon intuition. For 
there were things palpable through intuition to the ancients, 
though they are not thus palpable to us. 48 Accordingly it is 
recorded in the smriti that Vyasa and others associated face to 
face with the gode. 49 Any man who should maintain that the 
ancients, like his own contemporaries, were destitute of power 
thus to associate with superhuman beings like the gods, would 
be denying all variety in the history of the world. Such a person 
would in like manner affirm that as now there is no kshattriya 
possessed of universal sovereignty, so neither was there ever 
such a prince; and would thus impugn the scriptural injunc- 

48 See Part Second, p. 174; see also Prof. Mailer's article on the Vaiseshika 
Philosophy in the Journal of the German Oriental Society, yoI. vii. p. 311, where 
it is remarked that the Vais'eshikas, like Kapila, include the intuition of rishis 
under the category oipratyaxa (arsham Jnamm sutra-krita prithak na laxitam yogi- 
pratyaxe 'ntarbhavat). 

49 Compare Hesiod, fragment 119: |ui/ai yhp roWt Bcurts iff our, |uval He Qowkoi 
&$avdrouri Oeotffi KaraOvfirots r'&vSpdtnrois. 

" Immortal gods, not unfamiliar, then 
Their feasts and converse shared with mortal men.*' 
And Herodotus writes of the Egyptians, ii. 144 : Tb 8£ trpSrepov r£>v toUpwv 
Toinmv deobs livou robs iv 'Aiyfartp &pxovras, buciomas &fia rotffi toOp&woiffi, " And 
[the Egyptian priests said] that before these men the gods were the rulers in Egypt, 
dwelling together with men." 


tions regarding the rdjasuya sacrifice [which was only to be 
performed by a universal monarch]. He would also allege that 
in former times, as now, the duties of castes and of orders were 
scarcely at all in force, and would thus render fruitless the scrip- 
tures by which the rules relating to them are ordained. By 
these considerations it is intimated that the ancients, in conse- 
quence of their eminent holiness, were admitted to associate 
immediately with the gods, etc. And the smriti speaks of ' con- 
tact with the gods made known by sacred study/ etc. Again, 
when the smriti talks of devotion resulting in the acquisition of 
superhuman faculties such as minuteness, this assertion cannot 
have been made through mere audacity [i.e., it must have had 
some good foundation]. The Veda, too, declares the immense 
power of devotion in these words : ' When the fivefold influence 
of devotion, arising in the elements of earth, water, fire, air, and 
ether, has begun to act, and a man has attained an ethereal [?] 
body, he is no longer affected by disease, decay, or death/ And 
it is unreasonable to estimate by the analogy of our own power, 
the power of the rishis, the seers of the Vedic hymns and 
brahmanas. Wherefore the Itihasas and Puranas have a foun- 
dation.' " 

Sankara does not, however, treat all the ancients in this way. 
Like many other systematizers, he finds no difficulty in rejecting 
or explaining away any authorities which come into conflict with 
his views. It is thus that he deals with Kapila, the author of 
the Sankhya. That eminent sage is thus spoken of in the 
Svetfisvatara Upanishad v. 2 : Yo yonifh yonim adhitishthaty eko 
visvdni rupdni yonlscha sarcdli \ rishim prasutaM KapUafii yas 
tarn agrejMnair bibkartti jdyamaflcha pasyet. " The god who 
alone superintends every source of production and all forms, 
who formerly nourished with various knowledge his son the 
rishi Kapila, and beheld him at his birth." 60 

60 See S'ankara's commentary on this passage in Bibl. Ind. vii. 351, and Dr. Boer's 
translation, p. 62, with the note ; also Dr. Hall's note in pp. 18 and 19 of the preface 
to his edition of the Sankhya Pravachana Bhashya, in the Bibl. Ind. 


la his comment on the Brahma Sutras ii. 1, 1, Sankara 
remarks on this passage of the Upanishad as follows:— la tu 
srutih Kapilasya jMndtisayaM darsayantl pradarsitd na tayd 
sruti-viruddham apt Kapilam matafii sraddhdtufii sakyafii Kapi- 
lam iti sruti-samanyarnatratvad anyasya cha Kapilasya sagara- 
putrdndm prataptur Ydsudeva-ndmnali smarandt \ anydrtha- 
darsanasya cha prdpti-rahitasya asddhakatvdt \ Bhavati cha 
any a Manor mdhdtyam prakhydpayantl srutir ' yad vai kificha 
Manur avadat tad bkeshajam ' iti \ Manund cha ' sarva-bhuteshu 
chdtmdnafn sarva-bhutdni chdtmani \ samam pasyann dtma-ydji 
svarajyam adhigachchhatV iti sarvdtmatva-darsanam prasaflisatd 
Kapilam matatn nindyate iti gamyate \ Kapilo hi na sarvdtmatva- 
darsanam anumanyate dtma-bheddbhyupagamdt | . . . . atascha 
dtma-bheda-kalpanayd 'pi Kapilasya tantrasya veda-viruddkat- 
vafh, veddnusdri-Manu-vachana-virudhatvaficha na kevalam sva- 
tantra-prakriti-parikalpanayd eveti siddham \ "And the Vedic 
text which has been pointed out, showing the pre-eminence of 
Kapila's knowledge, cannot be a warrant for believing the doc- 
trine of Kapila, though contrary to the Veda, since the word 
Kapila has, in this text, a general sense [applicable to others 
besides the author of the Sankhya], and another Kapila called 
Vasudeva, the consumer of Sagara's sons, also, is mentioned in 
the smriti ; and since a darsana of a different import, devoid of 
benefit [?], has no power of proving anything. There is, besides, 
another text of the Veda which sets forth the eminent dignity of 
Manu in these terms, ' Whatever Manu said is medicine/ And 
Manu, — when he employs the words, ' He who, with impartial 
eye, beholds himself in all beings, and all beings in himself, 
thus sacrificing his own personality, becomes identified with the 
self-refulgent Being ; ' and, by saying this, commends the tenet 
that everything is one with the supreme Spirit—must be under- 
stood as censuring Kapila's doctrine. For Kapila does not 
assent to the identity of Brahma and the universe, for we know 

that he holds a diversity of souls." (After quoting one 

passage from the Mahabharata, and another from the Veda, to 



prove that Kapila is wrong, Sankara proceeds) : " Hence it is 
proved that Kapila's system is at variance with the Veda and 
with the words of Mann, who follows the Veda, not only in sup- 
posing an independent Prakriti (nature), but also in supposing a 
diversity of souls." 

IV.— See also Sankara's commentary on the Taittinya Upani- 
shad, Bib. Ind. vii. pp. 136, 137, where he says : Kapila-kanad- 
ddi-tarka-sastra-virod/ia iti chet \ na \ tesham mulabhdve veda- 
mrodhe cha bkrdntyopapatteJt \ " If it be objected that this is 
contrary to the rationalistic doctrines of Kapila and Kanada 
[and therefore wrong], I answer no, since these doctrines are 
proved to be erroneous, as having no foundation, and as being 
in opposition to the Veda." 

V. — His remarks on a passage of the Prasna Upanishad are as 
follows, and afford a curious specimen of the contemptuous man- 
ner in which this orthodox Vedantist treats the heretical Sankhy as, 
etc. (Prasna Up. vi. 4 ; Bib. Ind. viii. 244) :— Sankhydstu avidyd- 
'dhydropitam eva purushe karttriteafh, kriyd-kdrakam phalaficka 
iti kalpayitvd dgama-vdhyatvat punas tatas trasyantah param- 
drt/iata eva bhoktritvam purtiskctsya ichchhanti \ tattoantarafleka 
pradkanam purushdt paramartha-vastitrbhutam eva kalpayanto 
'nya-tarkika-krita-btiddAi-viskayafi santo vihanyante \ Tatkd itare 
tarkikdli sankkyair ity evam paraspara^iruddhdrthorkalpandta 
amishdrthina ivaprdnino 'nyonyaffi, viruddhamand artha-darsit- 
vdt paramdrtha-tattvat tadduram eva apakrishyante \ atas tan- 
matam anddritya veddntdrtka-tattvam ekatva-darsanam prati 
ddaravanto mumuxavah syur iti tdrkika-rnate dosha-darsanaffi, 
kiflchid uchyate 'smdbhir na tu tdrkika-tdtparyyena \ " The fol- 
lowers of the Sankhy a maintain that the functions of action, 
causation, and the enjoyment of reward become erroneously 
attributed to the soul (purusha) in consequence of supervening 
ignorance ; but as this doctrine differs from that of Scripture, they 
become afraid of it, and seek to ascribe to the soul enjoyment in 
the proper sense. And imagining another principle distinct 
from soul, viz., Pradh&na (or nature), which they regard as 



substance in the proper sense, they become the objects of criti- 
cism by other rationalists, and are crushed. In consequence 
of these contradictory conceptions of the Sankhyasts, other free- 
thinkers again begin to quarrel with them like animals {dogs he 
would no doubt have liked to say] fighting for flesh ; and thus, 
from their having some selfish object [?] in view, they are all 
drawn away to a distance from the essential truth. Wherefore 
let men, disregarding their tenets, seek for final liberation by 
paying honour to the principles of the Vedantic doctrine, which 
maintains the unity of all being. We have thus pointed out 
something of the errors of the rationalists, but without any 
reference to the rationalists personally." 

VI. — In thus depreciating Kapila, Sankara is in direct opposi- 
tion to the Bhagavata Purana (which, however, is considered to 
be a work of later date 51 ), in which the author of the Sankhya is 
spoken of with the greatest reverence. Thus in Bhag. Pur. i. 
3, 10, he is described as the fifth incarnation of Vishnu. Pafl- 
chamah Kapilo nama siddkesah kala-viplutam \ provdehdsuraye 
sdnkhyam tattva-grdma-vinirnayam | " In his fifth manifesta- 
tion, he [in the form of] Kapila, lord of saints, declared to Asuri 
the Sankhya which defines the collection of principles, and which 
had been lost through the lapse of time." 

VII. — And again, in Bhag. Pur. ix. 8, 12, 13, Kapila is made 
the subject of eulogy. A legend narrates that the sixty thousand 
sons of King Sagara, conceiving Kapila to be the robber of a 
horse which had been carried away from their sacrifice, advanced 
to slay him, when they were burnt up by fire issuing from his 
body. The author of the Purana, however, denies that this was 
in any degree owing to passion on the part of the sage : Na 
sddAu-vddo mum-kopa-bharjitd nripendra-putrd iti sattva-dka- 
memi | kathaih tamo roshamayaM vibhdvyate jagat-pavitrdtmani 
khe rajo bhuvah \ yasyeritd sdnkhyamayl dridheha naur yayd 
mumuxus tarate duratyayam \ bhavdrnavam mrityupathaih vipas- 
chitah pardtma-bhutasya katham pritAangmatik \ " It is not an 

61 See Wilson's Vish. Pur. pref. pp. xxviii. ff. 


assertion befitting a good man to say that the king's sons were 
burnt up by the wrath of the sage : for how is it conceivable. that 
the darkness (tamas) of anger should reside in the abode of good- 
ness (sattva) and sanctifier of the world ; or that the dust (rajas) 
of the earth should ascend into the sky ? How could that sage by 
whom the strong ship of the Sankhya was launched, on which 
the man seeking emancipation crosses the ocean of existence, 
hard to be traversed, and leading to death — how could he enter- 
tain the distinction of friend and foe [and so treat any one as 
an enemy]?" 

It is not necessary for me to quote any further passages in 
praise of the author of the Sankhya. There is a great deal 
about this system in the Mahabharata, Santiparva, verses 11,037 ff. 
See Colebrooke's Essays i. 236 (p. 149 of W. and N.'s ed.) ; 
Wilson's Vishnu Purana, pref. pp. lix, lx, and text, pp. 9 fF. with 
notes; Bhagavata Purana iii. chapters 24-30; Weber's Ind. 
Stud, passim ; Dr. Koer's Introduction to Svetasvatara Upani- 
shad, Bibl. Ind. xv. 35 ff. ; and Dr. Hall's Sankhya Pravachana 
Bhashya, Bibl. Ind. pref. pp. 5, note, 18, note. 

We have thus seen that a distinct line of demarcation is drawn 
by the most accurate and critical of the Indian writers, between 
the sruti, which they define to be superhuman and independent, 
and the smriti, which they regard as of human origin, and 
dependent for its authority on its conformity with the sruti. 
Sankara, indeed, as we have also observed, goes very nearly so 
far as to assign an independent foundation to the smritis ; but 
he confines this distinction to such of these works as coincide 
in doctrine with the sruti or Veda, according to his own Vedantic 
interpretation of its principles, while all other speculators are 
denounced by him as heterodox. It is, however, clear from the 
Svetasvatara Upanishad, the Mahabharata, the Bhagavad Gltft, 
the Vishnu, and the Bhagavata Puranas, etc., that the doctrines 
of the Sankhya must have been very prevalent in ancient times, 
and that Sankara, when he condemned them as erroneous, must 
have done so in the face of many powerful opponents. 

sect, ix.] OF THE VEDAS, HELD BY INDIAN AUTHOES. '/ # . 101 

It is not necessary for me here to inquire with any accuracy 
wha£ the relation was in which the different philosophical tSJBr 
terns stood to each other in former ages. It may suffice to saJL" 
that the more philosophical adherents of each— of the Vedantar;] 
the Sankhya, the Nyaya, etc.— must, according to all appear- 
ance, have maintained their respective principles with the utmost 
earnestness and tenacity, and could not have admitted that any 
of the rival systems was superior to their own in any particular. 
It is impossible to study the Sutras of the several schools, and 
come to any other conclusion. The more popular systems of 
the Puranas, on the other hand, blended various tenets of the 
different systems syncretically together. In modern times the 
superior orthodoxy of the Vedanta seems to be generally ad- 
mitted. But even those who hold this opinion refuse to follow 
the example of Sankara in denouncing the founders of the rival 
schools as heretical. On the contrary, they regard them all as 
inspired Munis, who, by adapting their doctrines to the capa- 
cities or tendencies of different students, have paved the way for 
the ultimate reception of the Vedantic system. Such is the 
view taken in the Prasthana-bheda of Madhusudana Saras vatl, 
who thus writes (Weber's Indische Studien, i. 23) : Sarveshdficha 
sanxepena trividha eva prasthdna-bhedah \ tatra drambha-vdda 
ekcJi | parinama-vado dvittyak | vivartta-wddas tritiyali \ pdrthi- 
vdpya-taijasa-wdyavtyds chaturmdhati paramdnavo dvyanukddi- 
kramena brahmdnda-paryantath jagad drambhante \ asad eva 
kdryyafh, kdraka-vydpdrdd utpadyate iti prathamas tdrkikdndm 
mimdfhsakdndficha \ sattva-rajas-tamo-ytmdtinakam pradhdnam 
eva mahad-ahankdrddi-krarnena jagad-dkdrena parinamate \ 
pUrvam api suxma-rupena sad eva karyafh kdrana-vydpdrena 
abhivyajyate iti dvittyah paxah Sankhya- Yoya-Pdtafijala-Pdsu- 
patandm \ Brahmanah parindmo jagad iti Yaishnavdndm \ 
sva-prakdsa-paramdnandddvitlyam Brahma sva-mdyd-vasdd 
mithyawa jagad-dkdrena kalpate iti tritiyah paxo Brahma* 
vddindm \ sarveshdm prasthdna-karttrmdm munlndm vivartta- 
vada-paryavasdnena advitiye Paramesvare eva pratipddye 



taipfaryam f na hi te munayo bhrdntdli sarvaiflatvdt teshdfii 
kikhc vahir-vishaya-pravandndm dpdtatali purushdrthe praveso 
• j$» sambhavati iti ndstikya-vdrandya taih prakdra-bheddli pra- 
,\$ar$itali \ tatra teshdih tatparyam abuddhva veda-viruddke 'py 
arthe tatparyam utprexamdnds tan-matam eva upddeyatvena 
grihnanto jand ndnd-patha-jusho bhavanti \ iti sarvam anavad- 
yam \ " The difference in principle between these various schools 
is, when briefly stated, three-fold. The first doctrine is that of 
a commencement of the world; the second is that of an evolu- 
tion ; the third is that of an illusion. The first theory, that of 
the logicians and Mlmansakas, i3 this : atoms of four descrip- 
tions — earthy, aqueous, igneous, and atmospheric— beginning 
with compounds of two atoms, and ending in the egg of Brahma 
(the world), originate the universe : and effects previously non- 
existing, come into being from the action of a causer. The second 
theory, that of the Sankhyas, Yogas, Patanjalas, and Pasupatas, 
is that Pradhdna (or Prakriti = nature), consisting of the three 
gunas (qualities), sattva, rajas, and tamos, is evolved, through the 
successive stages of mahat (intellect), and ahankdra (conscious- 
ness), etc., in the form of the world ; and that effects, which had 
previously existed in a subtile form, are [merely] manifested by 
the action of their cause. Another form of the theory of evolu- 
tion is that of the Vaishnavas [the Ramanujas], who hold the 
universe to be an evolution of Brahma. The third view, that of 
the Vedantists (Brahma-vadis) is, that Brahma, the self-resplen- 
dent, the supremely happy, and the one sole essence, assumes, un- 
really, the form of the world through the influence of his own 
illusion (Maya). 

The ultimate scope of all the Munis, authors of these different 
systems, is to support the theory of illusion, and their only de- 
sign is to establish the existence of one Supreme God, the sole 
essence; for these Munis could not be mistaken [as some of them 
must have been, if they were not all of one opinion, or, as those 
of them must have been who did not hold Vedantic principles], 
since they were omniscient. But as they saw that men, addicted 


to the pursuit of external objects, could not all at once penetrate 
into the highest truth, they held out to them a variety of theories, 
in order that they might not fall into atheism. Misunderstand- 
ing the object which the Munis thus had in view, and represent- 
ing that they even designed to propound doctrines contrary to 
the Vedas, men have come to regard the specific doctrines of these 
several schools with preference, and thus become adherents of a 
variety of systems. Thus all has been satisfactorily stated." 

The view here taken by Madhusudana of the ultimate coinci- 
dence in principle of all the different schools of Hindu philo- 
sophy, however mutually hostile in appearance, seems, as I have 
remarked, to be that which is commonly entertained by modern 
Pandits. (See Dr. Ballantyne's Synopsis of Science, advertise- 
ment, p. iv.) This system of compromise, however, is clearly a 
deviation from the older doctrine ; and it practically abolishes 
the distinction in point of authority between the Vedas and the 
sjnritis, Darsanas, etc. For if the Munis, authors of the six 
Darsanas, were omniscient and infallible, they must stand on 
the same level with the Vedas, which can be nothing more. 

To return, however, from this discussion regarding the hos- 
tility of Sankara to the adherents of the Sfinkhya and other 
rationalistic schools, and the opinions of later authors concern- 
ing the founders of those several systems. The distinction drawn 
by the Indian commentators quoted in this section between the 
superhuman Veda and its human appendages, the KalpasHtras, 
et#., as well as the smritis, is not borne out by the texts which 
I have cited above (pp. 7, 18) from the Vrihad Aranyaka, and 
Mundaka Upanishads. By classing together the Vedic Sanhitas, 
and the other works enumerated in the same passages, the authors 
of the Upanishads seem to place them all upon an equal footing. 
If the one set of works are superhuman, it may fairly be argued 
that the others are so likewise. According to the Mundaka 
Upanishad, neither of them (if we except only the Vedantas or 
Upanishads) can be placed in the highest rank, as they equally 
inculcate a science which is only of secondary importance. 


As, however, Sankara, in his comment on the text from the 
Vrihad Aranyaka Upanishad, maintains that the whole of the 
works enumerated, excepting the Sanhitas of the four Vedas, are 
in reality portions of the Brahmanas, it will be necessary to 
quote his remarks, which are as follows (Bibl. Ind. ii. 855 ff.) : 
. . . Nisvasitam iva nisvasitam \ yathd aprayatnenaiva puru- 
sha-nisvdso bhavaty evam vd \ are kifh, tad nisvasitafii tato jatam 
ity uchyate \ Yad rigvedo yajuiDedah sdmavedo 'tharvdngirasas 
chaturvidham mantra-jdtam \ iti/idsa ity Urvasl-Pururavasor 
safmddddir ' Urvasi ha apsara* ityddi brdkmanam eva \ purd- 
nam ' asad. vd idam agre dsid' ityddi \ vidyd devajana-vidyd 
6 vedah so 'yam' ityddili \ upanishadah ' priyam ity etad updsita' 
ityddydh \ slokd ' brdkmana-prabhavd mantras tad ete slokd ' ity 
ddayah \ sutrdni vastu-sangraha-vdkydni vede yathd ' dtmd ity 
eva updsita' ityddmi \ anuvydkhydndni mantra-vkarandni | 
vydkhydndni arthavdddh \ . . . evam ashtavidkam brdkmanam \ 
evam mantra-brdhmanayor eva grahanam \ niyata-rachandvato 
vidyamdnasyaiva vedasya abhivyaktih purusha-nUvdsa-vat \ 
nacha purusha-buddhi prayatna-purrakah \ atah pramanam 
nirapexa eva svdrthe | . . . tena vedasya aprdmdnyam dsankate \ 
tad-dsankd-nivritty~artham idam uktam \ purusha-nisvdsa-vad 
aprayatnotthitatvdt pramdnaih vedo na yathd 'nyo grantha iti \ 
4t ' His breathing' means, as it were his breathing, or it denotes 
the absence of effort, as in the case of a man's breathing. We 
are now told what that breathing was which was produced from 
him. It was tho four classes of mantras (hymns), those of the 
Bik, Yajush, Saman, and AtharvSngirases (Atharvana) ; Itihasa 
(or narrative), such as the dialogue between Urvasi and Pururavae, 
viz., the passage in the Brahmana beginning ' Urvasi the Apearas/ 
etc. [S. P. Br. p. 855]; Purana, such as 'this was originally 
non-existent/ etc.; Vidya (knowledge), the knowledge of the 
gods, as ' this is the Veda/ etc. ; Upanishads, such as ' this is 
beloved, let him reverence it/ etc. ; Slokas, such as those here 
mentioned, ' the mantras are the sources of the Brahmanas, on 
which subject there are these slokas/ etc. ; Sutras (aphorisms) 


occurring in the Veda which condense the substance of doctrines, 
as ' it is the soul, let him adore/ etc. ; Anuvyakhyanas, or 
interpretations of the mantras ; Vyakhyanas, or explanatory 
remarks. ,, The commentator adds alternative explanations of 
the two last terms, and then proceeds : " Here, therefore, eight 
sorts of texts occurring in the Brahmanas are referred to ; and 
consequently the passage before us embraces merely mantras and 
Brahmanas. The manifestation of the Veda, which already ex- 
isted in a fixed form of composition, is compared to the breathing 
of a person : the Veda was not the result of effort proceeding from 
the conscious intelligence of any individual. Consequently, as 
proof in respect of itself, it is independent of everything else." 

Sankara terminates his comment on this passage by intimat- 
ing that the author of the Upanishad means to remove a doubt 
regarding the authority of the Veda, arising apparently from its 
unreality, if it were regarded as created by a conscious effort of 
Brahma, and therefore as distinct from him, the only really 
existing being, and concludes that " the Veda, unlike all other 
books, is authoritative, because it was produced without any 
effort of will, like a man's breathing." (See Sankhya Sutras, 
v. 50 ; above p. 83.) 

This attempt to explain the whole of the eight classes of 
works enumerated in the Upanishad as nothing else than parts 
of the Brahmanas, cannot be regarded as altogether satisfactory, 
since some of them, such as the Sutras, have always been 
referred to a distinct class of writings, which are regarded as 
uninspired (see Midler's Anc. Ind. Lit. pp. 75, 86) ; and the 
Itihasas and Puranas had in all probability become a dis- 
tinct class of writings at the period when the Upanishad was 
composed. And Sankara's explanation is rendered more 
improbable if we compare with this passage the other from 
the Mundaka Upanishad, i. 1, 5, already quoted above 
(p. 18), where it is said, " the inferior science consists of the 
Rik, Yajush, Sama, and Atharva Vedas, accentuation (sixa), 
ritual prescriptions (kalpa), grammar, commentary (nirukta), 


prosody (Mandas), and astronomy." 52 Here various appendages 
of the Vedas, which later writers expressly distinguish from the 
Vedas themselves, and distinctly declare to have no superhuman 
authority, are yet mentioned in the same category with the four 
Sanhitas, or collections of the hymns, as constituting the inferior 
science (in opposition to the knowledge of the supreme Spirit). 
From this we may reasonably infer that the author of the Vrihad 
Aranyaka Upanishad also, when he specifies the Stitras and 
some of the other works which he enumerates, intended to speak 
of the Vedangas or appendages of the Vedas, and perhaps the 
smritis also, as being the breathing of Brahma. The works 
which in the passage from the Mundaka are called Kalpa, are 
also commonly designated as the Kalpa Sutras. 

This conclusion is in some degree confirmed by referring to 
the passage from the Mahabharata S. P. 7,660, which has been 
cited in p. 73, where it is said that the " great rishis obtained 
by devotion the Vedas, and the Itihasas, which had disappeared 
at the end of the preceding Yuga." Whatever may be the sense 
of the word Itihdsa in a Vedic work, there can be no doubt 
that in the Mahabharata, which is itself an Itihdsa, the word 
refers to that class of metrical histories. And in this text we 
see these Itikasas placed on a footing of equality with the Vedas, 
and regarded as having been, like them, pre-existent and super- 
natural. See also the passage from the Chhandogya Upanishad, 

12 I take the opportunity of introducing here Sayana's remarks on this passage in 
his Commentary on the Rig-veda, vol. i., p. 33. Atigambhirasya vedasya artham 
avabodhayitum kixadlni shad-angani pravrittani \ ata eva tesham apara-vidya-rupat- 
vam Mundakopanishady Atharvanika amananti | ' dve vidye ' ityadi | . . . sadhana- 
bhuta-dharma-jnana-hetutvat shad-angasahitanam karma-kandanam apara-vidyat- 
vam | parama-purushartha-bhuto-brahma-jnana-hetutvad upanishadath para-vidyat- 
vam. " The sixa and other six appendages are intended to promote the comprehen- 
sion of the sense of the very deep Veda. Hence, in the Mundaka Upanishad, the 
followers of the Atharra-yeda declare that these works belong to the class of inferior 
sciences, thus: * There are two sciences/ etc. [see the entire passage in p. 18.] 
Since the sections of the Veda which relate to ceremonies [including, of course, the 
hymns], as well as the six appendages, lead to a knowledge of duty, which is an 
instrument [of something further], they are ranked as an inferior science. On 
the other hand the Upanishads, which conduct to a knowledge of Brahma, the 
supreme object of man, constitute the highest science." 


vii. 1, 1 ff. (Bibl. Ind., vol. iii., pp. 473 ff.) which will be given 
in the Appendix, where the Itihasas and Puranas are spoken of 
as *. fifth Veda. The same title is applied to them in the BhSg. 
Pur. iii. 12, 39 : Itihdsa-purdndni pafichamam vedam Isvarali \ 
sarvcbhya eoa mukkebkyah sasrije sarva-darsanah \ " The om- 
niscient Isvara (God) created from all his mouths the Itihasas 
and Puranas, as a fifth Veda" 

Sect. X. — Recapitulation of the Arguments urged in the Bars anas, and 
by Commentators in support of the Authority of the Vedas, with 
some remarks on these reasonings. 

As in the preceding sections (vi.-ix.) I have entered at some 
length into the arguments urged by the authors of the philoso- 
phical systems and their commentators, in proof of the eternity 
and infallibility of the Vedas, it may be convenient to recapitulate 
these reasonings, and to add such observations as the considera- 
tion of them may suggest. 

The grounds on which the apologists of the Vedas rest their 
authority are briefly these :— First, it is urged that, like the 
sun, they shine by their own light, and evince an inherent 
power both of revealing their own perfection, and of elucidating 
all other things, 'past and future, great and small, near and 
remote (Sfiyana, as quoted above, p. 44 ; Sankara on Brahma 
Satras i. 1, 3, above, p. 45, note 31 ; Sankhya Sutras, above, 
p. 84). Second, that they are not known to have had, and there- 
fore could not have had, any human author, as the rishis 
merely saw, and did not compose them ; while, if they had any 
author, it was the deity, and as he is faultless, they could not 
have contracted any imperfection from being his work (Nyaya- 
mala-vistara and Vedartha-prakasa, above, pp. 88 and 52). Third, 
that the language of which they are composed is eternal, and 
therefore they are eternal, and consequently (I presume) perfect 


and infallible. 53 (Mlmansa Sutras and commentary; Brahma 
Sutras with Sankara's commentary ; above, pp. 52-73.) 

These arguments suggest a few remarks. In regard to the 
first ground for maintaining the infallibility of the Veda, viz., 
the evidence which radiates from itself, or its internal evidence, 
I need only observe that this is a species of proof which must 
be judged by the reason and conscience of each individual 
student. This evidence may appear conclusive to men in a 
certain stage of their national and personal culture, and especi- 
ally to those who have been accustomed from their infancy to 
regard the Vedas with a hereditary veneration ; whilst to persons 
in a different state of mental progress, and living under different 
influences, it will appear perfectly futile. It is quite clear that, 
even in India itself, there existed in former ages multitudes of 
learned and virtuous men who were unable to see the force of 
this argument, and who consequently rejected the authority of 
the Vedas. I allude of course to Buddha and his followers. 
(See also Part Second, p. 180 ff., where the objections of the 
rationalist Kautsa are detailed.) 

In regard to the second argument, viz. that the Vedas must 
be of divine origin, as they are not known to have had any 
human author, I observe as follows. The Greek historian, 
Herodotus, remarks (ii. 23) of a geographer of his own day who 
explained the annual inundations of the river Nile by sup- 
posing its stream to be derived from an imaginary ocean 
flowing round the earth, which no one had ever seen, that his 
opinion did not admit of confutation, because he carried the 
discussion bach into the region of the unapparent (eV afyavh rbv 
jjlvOov aveveUas ov/c Styei €\eyxpv). The same might be said of 
the Indian speculators, who argue that the Veda must have 
had a supernatural origin, because it was never observed to have 
had a human author like other books ; — that by thus removing the 

43 In the Vrihad Aranyaka Upanishad (p. 688 of Dr. Roer's ed.) it is said : 
Vaehaiva samrad Brahma jnayate vag vai samrat par am am Brahma. " By speech, 
o monarch, Brahma is known. Speech is the supreme Brahma." 


negative grounds on which they rest their case into the unknown 
depths of antiquity, they do their utmost to place themselves be- 
yond the reach of direct refutation. But it is to be observed (1) 
that, even if it were to be admitted that no human authors of the 
Vedas were remembered in later ages, this would prove nothing 
more than their antiquity, and that it would still be incumbent 
on their apologists to show that this circumstance necessarily 
involved their supernatural character ; and (2) that, in point of 
fact, Indian tradition does point to certain rishis or bards as the 
authors of the Vedic hymns. It is true, indeed, as has been 
already noticed (p. 90), that these rishis are said to have only seen 
the hymns, which (it is alleged) were eternally pre-existent, and 
that they were not their authors. But as it appears to be shown 
by tradition that the hymns were uttered by such and such rishis, 
how is it proved that these rishis were not uttering the mere pro- 
ductions of their own minds ? The whole character of these com- 
positions, and the circumstances under which they appear to 
have arisen, are in harmony with the supposition that they were 
nothing more than the natural expression of the personal hopes 
and feelings of those ancient bards from whom they proceeded. 
In these songs the Arian sages celebrated the praises of their 
ancestral gods (while at the same time they sought to conciliate 
their goodwill by a variety of acceptable oblations), and besought 
of them all the blessings which men in general desire — health, 
wealth, long life, cattle, offspring, victory over their enemies, 
and in some cases also, forgiveness of sin and celestial felicity. 

The scope of these hymns is well summed up in the passage 
which I have already quoted in Part Second, p. 206. "The 
rishis desiring [various] objects, hastened to the gods with metrical 
prayers." The Nirukta, quoted in the same place, says : " Each 
particular hymn has for its deity the god to whom the rishi, 
seeking to obtain any object of desire which he longs for, addresses 
his prayer." 

And in the continuation of the same passage from the Nirukta 
(vii. 3), the fact that the hymns express the different feelings or 


objects of the rishis is distinctly recognized:— Paroxa-kritdk 
pratyaxarkritdscha mantra bhuyishthd alpasa ddhydtmikdh \ 
athapi stutir eva bhavati na dsirvdda ' Indrasya nu virydni 
pravocham* iti yathd etasmin sukte \ athapi dslr eva na stutili 
' suchaxd aham aooxbhyam bhtiyasam suvarchd mukhena susrut 
karndbhydm bkuydsam' iti | tad etad bahulam ddhvaryave yaj- 
fleshu cha mantreshu \ athapi sapathdbhisdpau \ ' adya muriya ' 
ityddi . . . athapi kasyachid bhavasya dchikhydsd \ ' na mrityur dsid ' 
ityddi . . . | athapi paridevand kasmdchchid bhdvdt \ ' sudevo adya 
prapated andvrid' ityddi \ athapi nindd-prasafh&e \ ' kevaldgho 
bhavati hevalddi' ityddi \ evam a&a-sakte dyata-nindd cha krishi- 
prasafhsd cha || evam uchchavachair abhiprdyair rishindm man- 
tra-drishtayo bhavanti | " [Of the three kinds of verses specified 
in the preceding section] those which address a god as absent, 
and those which address him as present, are the most numerous, 
while those which are addressed to the speaker himself [or the 
soul] are rare. It happens also that a god is praised without 
any blessing being invoked, as in the hymn (R. V. i. 32). ' I 
declare the heroic deeds of Indra/ etc. Again, blessings are 
invoked without any praise being offered, as in the words, i May 
I see well with my eyes, have a handsome face, and hear well 
with my ears.' This frequently occurs in the Adhvaryava 
(Yajur) Veda, and in the sacrificial formulae. Then again we 
find oaths and curses, as in the words, (R. V. vii. 104, 15), 
' May I die to-day, if I am a ydtudhdna, 9 etc. (See Part First, 
p. 132). Further, we observe the desire to describe some par- 
ticular state of things, as in the verse (R. V. x. 129, 2) ' Death 
was not then, nor immortality/ etc. Then there is lamentation, as 
in the verse (R. V. x. 95, 14), ' The beautiful god will disappear 
and never return/ etc. Again, we have blame and praise, as in 
the words (R. V. x. 117, 6), ' The man who eats alone, bears the 
blame alone/ etc. So too in the hymn to dice (R. V. x. 34, 13), 
there is a censure upon dice, and a commendation of agricul- 
ture. Thus the objects for which the hymns were seen by the 
rishis were very variom" 


It is to be observed, however, that though in this passage 
the author, Yaska, speaks of the various desires which the rishis 
expressed in different hymns, he nevertheless adheres to the idea 
which was recognized in his age, and in which he doubtless par- 
ticipated, that the rishis saw the hymns. 

I may also refer to the passage quoted from the Nirukta x. 42, 
in Part Second, pp. 391, 392, note, where the form of the metre 
in particular hymns appears to be ascribed to the peculiar genius 
of the rishi Paruchhepa. 

In Nirukta iii. 11 a similar manner of regarding the rishi 
Kutsa is ascribed to the interpreter Aupamanyava: Rishili Kutso 
bhcwati kartta stomanam ity Aupamanyava^ | " ' Kutsa is the 
name of a rishi, a maker of hymns/ as Aupamanyava thinks." 

I do not, as I have already intimated, quote these passages of 
the Nirukta to show that the author regarded the hymns as the 
ordinary productions of the rishis* own minds, for this would be 
at variance with the expression "seeing," which he applies to the 
mental act by which they were created. It appears also from 
the terms in which he speaks of the rishis in the passage (Nirukta 
i. 20) quoted in p. 174 of the Second Part, where they are described 
as having an intuitive insight into duty, that he placed them on 
a far higher level than the inferior men of later ages. But it 
is clear that Yaska recognizes the hymns as being applicable to 
the particular circumstances in which the rishis were placed, and 
as being the bond fde expression of their individual emotions 
and desires. (See also Nirukta ii. 10 and 24, quoted in Part First, 
pp. 143, 144, and 124.) But if this be true, the supposition that 
these hymns, i.e., hymns suited to declare the different feelings 
and wishes of all the different rishis, were eternally pre-existent, 
and were perceived by them at the precise conjunctures when 
they were required to express their several aims, is perfectly 
gratuitous and unnecessary, (and involves what Indian logicians 
call bgaurava). 

In regard to the third argument for the authority of the 
Vedas, viz., that they are eternal, because the words of which 


they are composed are eternal, and because these words have an 
inherent and eternal (and not a merely conventional) connection 
with the significations or objects, or the species of objects, which 
they represent, it is to be observed that it is rejected both by the 
Nyaya and Sankhya schools. 54 And I am unable (if I rightly 
comprehend this orthodox reasoning) to see how it proves the 
authority of the Veda more than that of any other book. If the 
.words of the Veda are eternal, so must those of the Bauddha 
books be eternal, and consequently the perfection and infalli- 
bility of these heretical works must be as much proved by this 
argument as the divine origin of the Vedas, whose pretensions 
they reject and oppose. 

Against the eternity of the Vedas an objection has been 
raised, which Jaimini considers it necessary to notice, viz., 
that various historical personages are named in their pages, 
and that as these works could not have existed before the per- 
sons whose doings they record, they must have commenced to 
exist in time. This difficulty Jaimini attempts, as we have seen 
above (pp. 61, 63), to meet by explaining away the names of the 
historical personages in question. Thus Babara Prfivahini is 
said to be nothing else than an appellation of the wind, which 
is eternal. And this method, it is said, is to be applied in all 
similar cases. Another of the passages mentioned by an objector 
(see above, p. 62) as referring to non-eternal objects is R. V. iii. 
53, 14, "What are the cows doing among the Klkatas?" etc. 
The author of the Mlmansa Sutras would perhaps attempt to 
show that by these Klkatas we are to understand some eternally 
pre-existing beings. But Yaska, the author of the Nirukta, 
who had not been instructed in any such subtleties, speaks of 
the Klkatas as a non-Aryan nation. (Part Second, p. 362.) 
It is difficult to suppose that Jaimini — unless he was an enthu- 
siast, and not the cool and acute reasoner he has commonly 
proved himself to be — could have seriously supposed that this 

54 See Dr. Ballantyne's remarks on this controversy, in pp. 186, 189, 191 and 192 
of his " Christianity contrasted with Hindu Philosophy." 


rule of interpretation could ever be generally received or 
carried out. The Brahmanas evidently intend to represent 
numerous occurrences which they narrate, as having actually 
taken place in time, and the actors in them as having been real 
historical personages. See, for instance, the two legends from 
the Satapatha Brahmana, quoted in the Second Part of this 
work, pp. 324 and 419. And it is impossible to peruse the 
Vedic hymns without coming to the conclusion that they also 
record a multitude of events, which the writers believed to have 
been transacted by men on earth in former ages. (See the 
passages quoted from the Kig-veda in the First and Second 
Parts of this work, passim ; those, for example, in Part Second, 
p. 208.) 

We shall, no doubt, be assisted in arriving at a correct con- 
clusion in regard to the real origin and character of the hymns 
of the Veda, if we enquire what opinion the rishis, by whom 
they were confessedly spoken, entertained of their own utter- 
ances ; and this I propose to investigate in the following chapter. 




I have already shewn, in the preceding pages, as well as in 
Part Second of this work, that the hymns of the Rig-veda them- 
selves supply us with numerous data by which we can judge of 
the circumstances to which they owed their origin, and of the 
manner in which they were created. We have seen that they 
were the natural product and expression of the particular state 
of society, of the peculiar religious conceptions, and of all those 
other influences, physical and moral, which prevailed at the 
period when they were composed, and acted upon the minds of 
their authors. (Part Second, pp. 205 ff; and above, pp. 109 ff.) 
We find in them ideas, a language, a spirit, and a colouring 
totally different from those which characterize the religious 
writings of the Hindus of a later era. They frequently dis- 
cover to us the simple germs from which mythological legends 
current in subsequent ages were derived, — germs which in many 
cases were developed in so fanciful and extravagant a manner as 
to prove that the correct tradition had long before disappeared, 
and that the lost details have been replaced by pure fictions of 
the imagination. They afford us very distinct indications of the 
locality in which they were composed (Part Second, pp. 354-372) ; 
they shew us the Arian tribes living in a state of warfare with 
surrounding enemies (many of them, no doubt, alien in race and 
language), and gradually, as we may infer, forcing their way 
onward to the east and south (Part Second, pp. 374 ff., 384 ff., 
414 ff.) ; they supply us with numerous specimens of the par- 


ticular sorts of prayers, viz., for protection and victory, which 
men so circumstanced would naturally address to the gods whom 
they worshipped, as well as of those more common supplica- 
tions which men in general offer up for the various blessings 
which constitute the sum of human welfare ; and they bring 
before us as the objects of existing veneration a class of deities 
(principally, if not exclusively, personifications of the elements, 
and of the powers either of nature, or of reason) who gradually 
lost their importance in the estimation of the later Indians, and 
made way for gods of a different description, invested with new 
attributes, and in many cases bearing new appellations. 

These peculiarities of the hymns, combined with the archate 
forms of the dialect in which they are composed, and the refer- 
ences which are made to them, as pre-existent, in the liturgical 
works by which they are expounded and applied, abundantly 
justify us in regarding them as the most ancient of all thd 
Indian Scriptures, — as well as the natural product and the spon- 
taneous representation of the ideas, feelings, and aspirations of 
the bards from whom they emanated. 

We can also, as I have shewn, discover from the Vedic hymns 
themselves, that some of them were newer and others older, that 
they were the works of many successive generations of poets, 
that their composition probably extended over several centuries, 
and that in some places their authors represent them as being 
the productions of their own minds, while in other passages 
they appear to ascribe to their own words a certain divine 
character, or attribute their composition to some supernatural 
assistance. (Part Second, pp. 206 ff., 219 ff.) 

I shall now proceed to adduce further proofs from the hymns 
of the Rig-veda in support of these last mentioned positions ; 
repeating, at the same time, for the sake of completeness, the 
texts which I have already cited in the Second Part. 


Sect. I. — Passages from the Hymns of the Veda which distinguish 
between the Rishis as Ancient and Modern. 

The appellations or epithets applied by the authors of the 
hymns to themselves, and to the sages who in former times had 
instituted, as well as to their contemporaries who continued to 
conduct, the different rites of divine worship, are the following : 
riski, kavi, medkdvin, vipra, vipasckit, vedkas, dlrgkasrut, muni, 
etc. The rishis are defined in Boehtlingk and Roth's lexicon, 
to be persons "who, whether singly or in chorus, either on 
their own behalf or on behalf of others, invoked the gods in 
artificial language, and in song ; " and the word is said to denote 
especially " the priestly bards who made this art their profes- 
sion." The word kavi means " wise," or "a poet," and has ordi- 
narily the latter sense in modern Sanskrit. Vipra means " wise," 
and in later Sanskrit a " Brahman." Medkdvin means " intel- 
ligent;" vipasckit and vedkas, "wise" or "learned;" and 
dlrgka-srut, a " man who has heard much." Muni signifies in 
modern Sanskrit a "sage" or devotee." It is not much used 
in the Rig-veda, but occurs in viii. 17, 13 (Part Second, p. 397). 

The following passages from the Rig-veda either expressly 
distinguish between contemporary rishis and those of a more 
ancient date, or, at any rate, make reference to the one or the 
other class. This recognition of a succession of rishis consti- 
tutes one of the historical elements in the Veda. It is an 
acknowledgment on the part of the rishis themselves that 
numerous persons had existed, and events occurred, anterior 
to their own age, and, consequently, in time; and it therefore 
refutes, by the testimony of the Veda itself, the assertion of 
Jaimini (above, pp. 60-63, and 112) that none but eternally pre- 
existing objects are mentioned in that book. 

If, under this and other heads of my inquiry, I have cited 
a larger number of passages than might have appeared to be 
necessary, it has "been done with the intention of showing that 


abundant evidence of my various positions can be adduced from 
all parts of the Hymn-collection. 

R. V. i. 1, 2. — Agnih purvebhir rishibhir Idyo nUtanair uta \ 
sa devdn eha vaxati \ " Agni, who is worthy to be celebrated by 
former, as well as modern rishis, will bring the gods hither." 

The word pUrvebhili is explained by Sayana thus : Purata- 
nair Bhrigv-angirah-prabhritibhir rishibhiJi \ " By the ancient 
rishis, Bhrigu, Angiras," etc. ; and nUtanaih is interpreted by 
iddnlntanair asmdbhir api, " by us of the present day also." 

R. V. i. 48, 14. — Ye chid hi tvdm rishayali purve UtayejuhUre 
ityddi \ " The former rishis who invoked thee for succbur," etc. 

R. V. i. 80, 16. — YamAtharva Manush pita Dadhyan dkiyam 
atnata \ tasmln brahrnani pUrvatha Indre uktha samagmata 
ityddi \ "In the ceremony [or hymn] which Atharvan, or our 
father Manu, or Dadhyanch performed, the prayers and praises 
were, as of old, congregated in that Indra," etc. 

R. V. i. 118, 3 (repeated in R. V. iii. 58, 3).— . . . Ahur 
viprasali Amnd purajali \ " Asvins, the ancient sages say," etc. 

R. V. i. 131, 6. — . . . A me asya vedhaso naviyaso manma 
srudhi navlyasali \ " Hear the hymn of me this modern sage, 
of this modern [sage]." 

R. V. i. 139, 9. — Dadhyan ha me janusham pUrvo Angirdli 
Priyamedhali Kanvo Atrir Manur vidur ityddi \ "The ancient 
Dadhyanch, Angiras, Priyamedhas, Kanva, Atri, and Manu 
know my birth." 

R. V. i. 175, 6. — Yatha pUrvebhyo jaritribkya Indra maya 
iva dpo na trishyate babhutha \ Tarn anu tvd nividam johdvlmi 
ityddi \ " Indra, as thou hast been like a joy to former wor- 
shippers, like waters to the thirsty, I invoke thee again and 
again with this hymn," etc. 

R. V. iv. 20, 5. — Vi yo rarapse rishibhir navebhir vrixo na 
pakvah srinyo na jeta | . . . achha vivakmi puruhutam Indram \ 
"I call upon that Indra, invoked by many, who, like a ripe' 
tree, like a conqueror expert in arms, has been celebrated by 
recent rishis." 


R. V. iv. 50, 1. — Tampratndsa rishayo didhydndh puro viprd 
dadhire mandra-jihvam \ "The ancient rishis, resplendent and 
sage, have placed in front of them Brihaspati with gladdening 

R. V. v. 42, 6. — . . . Na te pUrve Maghavan na apardso 
na mryaih nUtanah kaschana dpa | " Neither the ancients nor 
later men, nor any modern man, has attained to [conceived] 
thy heroism, o Maghavan." 

R. V. x. 54, 3.— Ke u nu te mahimanah samasya asmatpUrve 
rishayo antam dpuli \ " Who among the rishis who were before 
u& have attained to the end of all thy greatness?" 

R. V. vi. 19, 4. — Yathd chit pUrve jaritdra asur anedyd ana- 
mdyd arishtdh \ "As [Indra's] former worshippers were, [may 
tre be] blameless, irreproachable, and unharmed." 

R. V. vi. 21, 5. — Ida hi te vevishatah purdjdli pratndsa dsuh 
purukrit sakkdyali \ Ye madkyamdsa uta nUtandsa utavamasya 
puruhiita bodhi \ " For here, o energetic god, the ancients born 
of old, have been the friends of thee, who didst often approach 
them ; and so too were the men of the middle and later ages. 
much-invoked, think of the most recent of all." ' 

R. V. vi. 21, 8. — Sa tu srudhi Indra niltanasya brahmanyato 
vlra kdrudhdyali \ "Heroic Indra, supporting the poet, listen 
to the modern [bard] who wishes to celebrate thee." 

R. V. vi. 22, 2. — Tarn u nah purve pitaro navagvdh sapta 
viprdsah abhi vdjayantah ityddi \ " Him (Indra) our ancient 
fathers, the seven sages, desiring food, celebrated, performing 
the nine-months' rite," etc. 

R. V. vi. 50, 15.— Eva napato mama tasya dhlbhir Bkarad- 
vajd abhyarckanti arkaih \ "Thus do the Bharadvajfts my 
grandsons adore thee with hymns and praises." 

R. V. vii. 18, 1. — Tee ha yat pitaras chid nah Indra vised 
tdmd jaritaro asanvann ityddi \ " Since, in thee, o Indra, our 
fathers, thy worshippers, attained all riches," etc. 

R. V. vii. 29, 4. — Uto gha te purushyd id dsan eskdm ptir- 

1 This verse is translated in Benfey's Glossary to the Sfima-reda, p. 76, col. i. 


veshdm asrinor rishlndm \ adhd aham tvd Maghavan johammi 
tvaM nah Indra asi pramatiJi piteva | "They were men who 
understood thy prowess : thou didst hear those former rishis. 
I invoke thee again and again, o Maghavan ; thou art to us wise 
as a father." (The word purushya does not occur in any dic- 
tionary to which I have access. I have followed M. Langlois 
in giving the sense as above.) 

R. V. vii. 53, 1. — ... Te chid hi pUrve kavayo grinantah 
puro makl dadhire devaputre \ " The ancient poets, celebrating 
their praises, have placed before them these two great [beings, 
heaven and earth] of whom the gods are the children." 

R. V. vii. 76, 4. — Te id devdndfn, sadhamadah dsann ritdvdnalb 
kavayah pUrvydsah \ gulhaih jyotih pitaro anvavindan satya- 
mantrd ajanayann uskasam | " They were the delight [?] of the 
gods, those ancient pious sages. Our fathers discovered the 
hidden light ; with true hymns they caused the dawn to arise." 

R. V. vii. 91, l.~-Kuvid anga namasd ye vridhdsafy pwrd 
devdsah anavadydsa dsan \ te Vdyace Manave bddhitdya avdsa- 
yann 2 iishasafii suryena \ " Those gods who formerly grew 
through reverence were altogether blameless. They caused the 
dawn to rise and the sun to shine for Vftyu and the afflicted 
Manu." (Are we to understand rishis by the word deodb (gods) 
which is employed here ?) 

R. V. viii. 36, 7. — Sycuodsvasya sunvatas tatkd srinu yathd 
asrinor Atreb karmdni krinvatah \ " Listen to Sy8v&sva 
pouring forth libations, in the same way as thou didst listen to 
Atri when he celebrated sacred rites." 

R. V. ix. 96, 11. — Tvayd hi nah pitarali SomapUrve karmdni 
chakruh pavamana dhlrdJi \ " For through thee, o pure Soma, 
our wise forefathers of old performed their sacred rites." 

R. V. ix. 110, 7. — Toe Soma pratkamd vrikta-varhisho make 
vdjdya sravase dhiyaik dadkuli \ " The former [priests] having 
strewed the sacred grass, offered up a hymn to thee, o Soma,for 
great strength and food." 

7 See Benfey's Glossary to Sama-yeda, under the word vas 2. 


R. V. x. 14, 15 (= A. V. xviii. 2, 2).—Idatfi nama rishibhyati 
pUrvajebhyali pUrvebhyah patkikridbhyah \ " This reverence to 
the rishis, born of old, the ancients, who shewed us the road/' 
(This verse may also be employed to prove that at the end of 
the Vedic period the rishis had become objects of veneration.) 

R. V. x. 56, 14. — Vasishthasah pitrivad vacham akrata devdn 
liana rishivad \ ityadi | " The Vasishthas, like the forefathers, 
like the rishis, have uttered their voice, worshipping the gods." 

R. V> x. 96, 5. — Team aharyatha upastutah pUrvebhir Indra 
karikesa yajvabliili \ " Indra, with golden hair, thou didst re- 
joice, when lauded by the ancient priests." 

R. V. x. 98, 9.— Tvam pUrve rishayo glrbhir ayan tvam 
adkvaresku puruhuta visve | "To thee the former rishis resorted 
with their hymns ; to thee, thou much invoked, all men [re- 
sorted] at the sacrifices." 

Vfijasaneyi Samhita, xviii. 5, 2. — Imau te paxav ajarau pata- 
trinau yabhyaffi raxd/nsi apahafhsi Ague \ tabhyam patema 
sukritdm u lokafh yatra rishayo jagmuji prathamajdli puranah \ 
" But these undecaying, soaring pinions, with which, o Agni, 
thou slayest the Raxases, — with them let us ascend to the world 
of the righteous, whither the earliest-born ancient rishis have 
gone." (This verse is quoted in the Satapatha Brahmana, ix. 
4, 4, 4, p. 739.) 

The ancient rishis, as Sayana says in his note on R. V, i. 2, 
were Bhrigu, Angiras, and others whom he does not name. In 
another place we find Atharvan, Manu, Dadhyanch, and others 
mentioned. I will not attempt to give any critical account of 
these ancient sages. For some texts relating to Bhrigu, I may 
refer to the First Part of this work, p. 152 ff. ; and some pas- 
sages relating to Manu will be found in the Second Part, pp. 
324-332. In regard to Atharvan, as well as Angiras, Prof. 
Goldstiicker's Sanskrit and English Dictionary, and in regard 
to the same personages and Dadhyanch, the Sanskrit and Ger- 
man Lexicon of Boehtlingk and Roth, may be consulted. 


Sect. II. — Passages from the Veda in which a distinction is drawn 
between the older and the more recent hymns. 

From the passages which I propose to bring forward in the 
present section, it will be found that the hymns which the rishis 
addressed to the gods are frequently spoken of as new, while 
others of ancient date are also sometimes mentioned. The rishis 
no doubt entertained the idea that the gods^would be more highly 
gratified if their praises were celebrated in new, and perhaps 
more elaborate and beautiful compositions, than if older and 
possibly ruder, prayers had been repeated. 

The fact that a hymn is called new by its author, does not, 
however, by any means enable us to determine its age relatively 
to that of other hymns in the collection, for this epithet of new 
is, as we shall see, applied to numerous compositions throughout 
the Veda ; and even when a hymn is not designated as new, it 
may, nevertheless, be in reality of recent date, compared witk 
the others by which it is surrounded. When, however, any rishi 
characterizes his own effusion as new, we are of course neces- 
sarily led to conclude that he was acquainted with many older 
songs of the same kind. The relative ages of the different hymns 
can only be settled by means of the internal evidence furnished 
by their dialect, style, metre, ideas, and general contents ; and 
we may, no doubt, hope that much will by degrees be done by 
the researches of critical scholars towards such a chronological 
classification of the constituent portions of the Kig-veda. 

The hymns, praises, or prayers uttered by the rishis are 
called by a great variety of names, such as rich, sdman, yajusk, 
brahman, arka, uktha, silkta, mantra, manman, matt, manishd, 
sumati, dkl, dklti, dhishana, stoma, stuti, sushtuti, prasasti, 
safiksa, gir, vach, vackas, nltha, nivid, etc. 

R. V. i. 12, 11. — Sa nah stavana abhara gdyatrena navvy asd \ 
rayitik viravatim isham \ " Glorified by our newest hymn, do 
thou bring to us wealth and food with progeny." (Sftyana 


explains naviyasd by purvakair apy asampdditena gdyatrena \ 
" A hymn not formed even by former rishis.") 

R. V. i. 27, 4. — Imam U sku tvam asmdkafh, sanim gdyatrafii 
naxydfhsam \ Ague deveshu pravochah | " Agni, thou hast an- 
nounced [or do thou announce] among the gods this our offer- 
ing, our newest hymn." 

R. V. i. 60, 3. — Tafn, navyasl hrida a jdyamdnam asmat- 
sukirttir madhu-jihvam asydh \ yam ritvijo vrijane mdnmha&ah 
prayasvanta ayavo jljananta \ " May our newest laudation reach 
thee, the sweet tongued, who art produced from the heart, whom 
mortal priests the descendants of Manu, offering oblations, have 
generated in battle/' 

R. V. i. 89, 3. — Tan pUrvaya nividd humahe vayam Bhagam 
Mxtram Aditifh Daxam Asridham ityddi \ " We invoke with an 
ancient hymn Bhaga, Mitra, Aditi, Daxa, Asridh [or the friendly]/' 
etc. (PUrvakdllnayd \ nityayd \ nividd \ veddtmikayd vdcha | 
" With an ancient — eternal, hymn — a Vedic text." Sayana.) 

R. V. i. 96, 2. — SapUrvayd nividd kavyatd Ay or imdh prajd 
qjanayad manUndm \ " Through the ancient laudatory hymn of 
Ayu he generated these children of the Manus." 

R. V. i. 130, 10. — Sa no navyebkir vrishakarmann ukthcas 
pur din darttaii pdyubhih pdhi sagmaih \ " Through our new 
hymns, do thou, showerer of favours, destroyer of cities, sustain 
us with invigorating blessings." 

R. V. i. 143, 1. — Pra taxyasvfh, navya&Hk dhxtim Agnaye vdcho 
mattik sahasah sUnave bhare \ " I bring to Agni, the son of 
strength, a new and energetic hymn, a vocal celebration." 

R. V. ii. 17, 1. — Tad asmai navy am Angiras-vad archata 
ityddi \ " Utter to him [Indra] that new [hymn] like the Angi- 
rases." (" New, i.e., never before seen among other people." 
anyeshv adriskta-pUrvam | Sflyana.) 

R. V. ii. 24, 1. — Sa imam aviddhi prabkritiM ya isishe \ ayd 
vidkema navayd mahd gird \ " Do thou who rulest receive this, 
our offering [of praise] : let us worship thee with this new and 
grand song." 


E. V. iii. 1, 20. — Eta te Agne janimd sandni pra purvyaya 
nUtandni vocham \ " These ancient [and yet] new productions I 
have uttered to thee, Agni, who art ancient." (Comp. R. V. viii. 
84, 5, in the next section.) 

R. V. iii. 32, 13. — Yali stomebhir vdvridhe pUrvyebhir yo 
madhyamebhir uta nutanebhih | "[Indra] who has grown 
through ancient, middle, and modern hymns/' 

R. V. iii. 39, 1. — Indram matir hrida a vachyamdnd achkd 
patiM stoma-tashtd jigdti \ d jdgrivir vidathe sasyamdnd Indra 
yat te jay ate viddhi tasya | 2. divaschid a purvyd jdyamdnd vi 
jdgrivir vidathe sasyamdnd \ bkadrd vastrdni arjund vasdnd sd 
iyam asme sanajdpitryd dhih \ "1. The song, fabricated by the 
bard, and uttered from the heart, proceeds to Indra the lord ; it 
arouses him when chaunted at the sacrifice : be cognizant, Indra, 
of this [praise] which is produced for thee. 2. Produced before 
the dawn, arousing thee when chaunted at the sacrifice, clothed 
in beautiful and radiant garments, — this is our ancient ancestral 
hymn." (Pitryd is rendered by Sayana as pitri-kramdgatd, 
" received by succession from our fathers.") 

R. V. iii. 62, 7. — Iyaik te Pushann dghrine susktutir deva 
navyasi \ asmdbkis tubhyaik sasyate \ " Divine and glowing 
Ptlshan, this new laudation is uttered by us to thee." 

R. V. v. 42, 13.— Pra su make susarandya medhdih giram 
bhare navyasitfi jdyamandm \ "I present to the mighty pro- 
tector a mental production, a new utterance [now] springing up." 

R. V. v. 55, 8. — Yat purvyam Maruto yachcha nUtanafh yad 
udyate Vasavo yachcha sa&yate \ visvasya tasya bhavathd naveda- 
sah | "Be cognizant of all that is ancient, Maruts, and of all that 
is modern, of all that is spoken, Vasus, and of all that is sung." 

R. V. vi. 17, 13. — . . . Suvtram tvd svayudhain, suvajram a 
brahma navy am avase vavritydt \ " May the new prayer impel 
thee, the heroic, well-atfcoutred thunderer, to succour us. ,r 
(" New, i.e., never made before by others : prayer, i.e., the 
hymn made by us." Nutanam anyair akrita-pUrvam \ brahmm 
asmdbhih kritaM stotram \ Sftyana.) 


R. V. vi 22, 7.— Tafii vo dhiyd navyasyd savisktham pratnam 
pratnavat paritafksayadhyai \ " I seek, like, the ancients, to 
stimulate thee, the ancient, with a new hymn." 

R. V. vi. 34. 1. — Saficka tve jagmur gira Indra purvir vi cha 
toad yanti vibhvo manlshdh \ purd nunancha stutaya rishlndm 
paspridhre Indre adhi ukthdrkdli | "Many prayers, Indra, are 
collected in thee ; numerous hymns issue forth from thee ; both 
before and now the praises, texts and hymns of rishis have 
hastened emulously to Indra." 

R. V. vi. 44, 13. — Yah purvydbhir uta nUtandbhir gvrbhir 
vdvridhe grinatdm rishlndm | "He (Indra) who grew through 
the ancient and modern hymns of adoring rishis." (See R. V. 
iii. 32, 13, above p. 123.) 

R. V. vi. 48, 11. — A sakhayah subardughdfii dkenum ajadhvam 
upa navyasd vachah \ "Friends, bring hither the milch cow 
with a new hymn." 

R. V. vi. 49, 1. — Stushe janaih mvrataHi navyaslbkir glr- 
bhir Mitrdvarund sumnayantd | "With new praises I cele- 
brate the holy race, with Mitra and Varuna, the beneficent." 
("The holy race, i.e., the divine race, the company of the 
gods," sukarmdnaM janafii daivyafh janatTt deva-satigham \ 

R. V. vi. 50, 6. — Abhi tyaih, vlrafh girvanasam arcka Indram 
brahmana jaritar navena \ " Invoke, o worshipper, with a new 
hymn, the heroic Indra, who delights in praise." 

R. V. vi. 62, 4. — Td navyaso jaramdnasya manma upa bha- 
skato yuyujdnasaptl ityddi \ 5. Td valgu dasrd purusdkatamd 
pratnd navyasd vachasd vivdse \ 4. "These (Asvins), with 
yoked horses, approach the hymn of their new worshipper.". . . 
5. I adore with a new hymn these brilliant, ancient, and most 
mighty deliverers." 

R. V. vii. 53, 2. — Pra purvaje pitard navyaslbkir glrbhik 
krinudkvam sadane ritasya ityddi \ "In the place of sacrifice 
propitiate with new hymns the ancient, the parents," etc. 

R. V. vii. 56, 23. — BhUri ehakra Marutah pitryani uktkdni 


yd vak sasyante pur a chit | "Ye have done great things, o 
Maruts, when our fathers' hymns were sung of old in your 

R. V. vii. 59, 4. — . . . abhi va dvartt sumatir naviyasl ityddi \ 
" The new hymn has been directed to you." 

R. V. vii. 61, 6. — . . . Pro, vdmmanmdni richase navdni kritdni 
brahmajujushann imdni \ " May the new hymns made in your 
honour, may these prayers gratify you." 

R. V. vii. 93, 1.— Suckifh nu stomaih nava-jdtam adya In- 
drdgnl Vrittra-kana jushetham \ ubka hi vafh suhava jokavimi 
ityddi \ " Indra and Agni, slayers of Vrittra, receive with favour 
the pure hymn newly produced to-day. For again and again 
do I invoke you who lend a willing ear/' etc. 

R. V. viii. 5, 24. — Tdbhir dydtam utibhir navyasibkiJi susasti- 
bhir yad vdM vrishanvasU have \ " Come with those same suc- 
cours, since I invoke you, bountiful [deities], with new praises." 
(The epithet navyaslbkih in this text may possibly apply to the 
word utibhik, " aids.") 

R. V. viii. 6, 11. — Aham pratnena manmand girdh sumbhdmi 
Kanva-vat yena Indrah sushmam id dadhe \ "I decorate my 
praises with an ancient hymn, after the manner of Kanva, 
whereby Indra put on strength." 

R. V. viii. 6, 43. — ImdM su pUrvydm dhiyam madhor ghri- 
tasya pipyushirn Kanvd ukthena vavridhuli \ " The Kanvas with 
their praises have augmented this ancient hymn, replenished 
with sweet butter." 

R. V. viii. 12, 10. — lyaM te ritviydvafi dhltir eti naviyasl 
saparyantl ityddi \ " This new and solemn hymn advances to 
honour thee," etc. 

R. V. viii. 20, 19. — Yunah U su navishthaydvrishnah pdvakdn 
abhi Sobhare gird \ gay a ityddi \ "Celebrate, Sobhari, with a 
new hymn these youthful [gods] who shower down benefits and 
purify us." 

R. V. viii. 23, 14. — Srushtl Ague navasya me stomasya mra 
vispate m mdyinas tapushd raxaso daha \ " Heroic Agjii, lord 


of the people, listening [?] to my new hymn, burn up with thy 
heat the deluding Raxases." 

R. V. viii. 25, 24. — Kasdvantd viprd namshthayd matt maho 
vdjind/o arvantd sachet asanam \ " I have celebrated at once with 
a new hymn, these sage and mighty [princes], strong, swift, and 
carrying whips." 

R. V, viii. 39, 6. — . . . Agnir veda marttdndm aplchyam . . . 
Agnir dvdrd vyurnute svdhuto navlyasd | "Agni knows the 
secrets of mortals . . . Agni, invoked by a new [hymn], opens 
the doors." 

R. V. viii. 40, 12. — Eoa Indragnibhyam pitrivad navlyo Man- 
dhatrivad Angirasvad avdchi ityadi \ " Thus has a new [hymn] 
been uttered to Indra and Agni after the manner of our fathers, 
and of Mfindhatri, and of Angiras." 

R. V. viii. 41, 2. — Tarn U shu samand gird pitrlndficha man- 
thabhir Ndbhdkasya prasastibhili \ yah sindhunam upa udaye 
sapta-sva8d sa madhyamaJi \ " [Worship] him (Varuna) at once 
with a song, with the hymns of the fathers, and with the praises 
of Nabhaka. He who dwells at the birth-place of the streams, 
the lord of the seven sisters, abides in the centre." (This verse 
is quoted in the Nirukta x. 5. Nabhaka is said by Yfiska to 
have been a rishi (rishir Ndbhdko babhuva). A translation of 
the passage is given in Roth's Illustrations of the Nir. p. 185, 
where reference is also made to two verses of the preceding 
hymn Cyiii. 40, 4, 5), in which Nabhaka (the ancestor of 
Nabhaka) is mentioned thus : (verse 4) Abhyarcha N&bhdkorvad 
Indragnl yajasd gird . . * (verse 5) Pra brahmdni N&bk&ka-vad 
Indragnibhyam irajyata \ " Worship Indra and Agni with sacri- 
fice and hymn, like Nabhaka . . . Like Nabhaka, direct your 
prayers to Indra and Agni." In explanation of the seven 
aisters, Roth refers to Nir. v. 27 (R. V. viii. 58, 12) where the 
•even rivers are mentioned. See his Illustrations of Ni*. pp. 
70, 71. 

R. V. viii. 44, 12.— Agmfc pratnena manmana sumbhdnas tan- 
tain swim kavih viprena vavridhe \ " The wise Agni, illuminating 


his own body at [the sound of] the sage and ancient hymn, has 
become augmented." 

R. V. viii. 55, 11. — Vayatftgfia teapUrvyd Indra brahmani 
vrittrakan purutamdsali puruhuta vajrivo bhritiM napra bhard- 
masi | " Indra, slayer of Vrittra, thunderer, invoked of many, 
we [thy] numerous [worshippers] bring to thee, as thy hire, 
hymns which never before existed." 

R. V. viii. 63, 7, 8. — lyaffi te navyasi matir Agne adhdyi 
asmad a mandra sujdta sukrato amura dasma atithe \ sa te Agne 
santamd chanishthd bhavatu priyd tayd vardhasva stishtutah \ 
" Agni, joyful, well-born, wise and wondrous guest, this new 
hymn has been offered to thee by us ; may it be dear to thee, 
agreeable and pleasant : lauded by it, do thou increase." 

R. V. viii. 65, 5, 6. — . . . Indrafn glrbhir havdmahe \ Indram 
pratnena manmand marutvantam havdmahe ityadi \ 12. (= S. V. 
ii. 340.) Vdcham asktapadtm aham navasraktim ritasprisam \ 
Indratpari tanvam mame \ 5. " We invoke Indra with songs ; 
we invoke Indra, attended by the Maruts, with an ancient hymn. 
... 12. I twine round the body of Indra a verse of eight 
syllables and nine lines, abounding in sacred truth." (This 
verse is translated and explained by Professor Benfey, Sama- 
veda, p. 255.) 

R. V. ix. 9, 8. — Nu navyase navlyase suktaya sddkaya 
pathah \ pratnavad rochaya ruchaJi \ " Prepare (o Soma) the 
paths for our newest, most recent, hymn ; and, as of old, cause 
the lights to shine." 

R. V. ix. 42, 2. — Esha pratnena manmand devo devebhyah 
pari | dhdraya [qu. dhdraydX\ palate mtali \ "This god, 
poured forth to the gods, with an ancient hymn, purifies with 
his stream." 

R. V. ix. 91, 5.^-Sa pratnavad navyase viivavdra sUktdya 
pathah hriquhi prdchaih ityadi \ " god, who possessest all 
good, make, as of old, forward paths for this new hymn." 

R. V. ix. 99, 4 (= S. V. ii. 983).— TM gdthayd purdnya 
pundnam abhi anUshata \ uto kripanta dhltayo devdndtfi nama 


bibhratih | " They praised the pure god with an ancient song ; 
and hymns embracing the names of the gods have supplicated 
him." (Benfey translates the last clause differently.) 

E. V. x. 4, 6. — ... Iyaih te Ague navyasl manuka ityddi | 
" This is for thee, Agni, a new hymn," etc. 

R. V. x. 89, 3. — Samdnam asmay anapdvrid archa xmaya 
divo asamam brahma navy am ityddi \ " Sing (to Indra) a new 
and unceasing hymn, worthy of him [?], and unequalled in earth 
or heaven [?]."' 

R. V. x. 91, 18. — Imam pratndya sushtutifn, namyaslik voche- 
yam asmay usate srinotu nali | " I will address to this ancient 
[deity] my new praises, which he desires ; may he listen to us." 

"R. V. x. 96, 11. — ... NavyaM navyatfi haryasi manma nu 
priyam ityddi \ " Thou delightest in ever new hymns, which 
are dear to thee," etc. 

Sect. III. — Passages of the Rig-veda, in which the rishis describe 
themselves as the composers of the hymns. 

In this section, I propose to quote, first of all, those passages 
in which the rishis distinctly speak of themselves as the authors 
of the hymns, and express no consciousness whatever of deriving 
assistance or inspiration from any supernatural source. I 
shall then adduce some further texts in which, though nothing 
iB directly stated regarding the composition of the hymns, there 
is at the same time nothing which would lead the reader to 
imagine that the rishis looked upon them as anything else than 
the offspring of their own minds. 

I shall arrange the quotations in which the rishis distinctly 
claim the authorship, according to the particular verb which 
is employed to express this idea. These verbs are (1) kri, " to 
make," (2) tax (= the Greek refcralpoficu), " to fabricate," and 
(3)jan, " to beget, generate, or produce," with others which are 
less explicit. 

I.— I proceed to adduce the passages in which (1) the verb 


kri, "to make," is applied to the composition of the hymns. 
(Compare R. V. vii. 66, 6, already quoted in the last section.) 

R. V. i. 20, 1. — Ayaih, devaya janmane stomo viprebhir dsayd \ 
akari ratna-dkatamah. \ " This hymn, conferring wealth, has 
been made to the divine race, by the sages, with their mouth 
[or in presence of the gods]." 

R. V. i. 31, 18. — Etena Agne brahmaiid vdvridhasva saktl va 
yat te chakrima vidd vd\ " Grow, o Agni, by this prayer which 
we have made to thee through [or according to] our power, or 
our knowledge." 

R. V. i. 61, 16.— Eva te hariyojand suvrikti Indra brahmani 
Gotamasah akran \ " Thus, o Indra, yoker of steeds, have the 
Gotamas made for thee pure [or beautiful] hymns." 

R. V. i. 117, 25. — Etdni vdm Asvind virydni pra purvyani 
dyavafi avochan \ brakma krinvanto vrishand yuvabhydm suvl- 
rdso vidatham d vadema | "These, your ancient exploits, o 
Asvins, our fathers have declared. Let us, who are strong in 
bold men, making a hymn for you, o bountiful gods, utter our 
offering of praise." 

R. V. ii. 39, 8. — Etdni vdm Asvind vardhandni brahma stomafn, 
Gritsamaddsali akran \ "These magnifying prayers, [this] 
hymn, o Asvins, the Gritsamadas have made for you." 

R. V. iii. 30, 20. — Svaryavd matibhis tubhyaM viprd Indrdya 
vdhah, Kusikdsah akran \ " Seeking heaven, the sage Kusikas 
have made a hymn with praises to thee, o Indra." (The word 
vdhali is stated by Sayana to be = stotra, " a hymn.") 

R. V. iv. 6, 11. — Akari brahma samidkdna tubhyam ityddi \ 
" kindled [Agni], a prayer has been made to thee." 

R. V. iv. 16, 20.—^^ Indrdya vriskabhdya vriskne brahma 
akarma Bhriyavo na ratham \ ... 21. Akari te harivo brahma 
navyatfi dhiyd sydma rathyah saddsdh \ " Thus have we made 
a prayer for Indra, the productive, the vigorous, as the Bhrigus 
[fashioned] a car. ... 21. A new prayer has been made for thee, 
o lord of steeds. May we, through our hymn (or rite) become 
possessed of chariots and perpetual wealth." 



R. V. vii. 35, 14. — Aditya Budra Vasavo jushanta (the 
Atharva-veda has juskantdm) idam brahma kriyamdnaih nam- 
yali | srinvantu no dwyah parthivdso gojata ityadi | " May the 
Adityas, Rudras, and Vasus receive with pleasure this new 
prayer which is being made. May the gods of the air, the 
earth, and the sky hear us." 

R. V. vii. 37, 4. — VayaM nu te dasvamsah syama brahma 
krinvantali ityadi | "Let us offer oblations to thee, making 
prayers," etc. 

R. V. vii. 97, 9. — Iyafh vam Brahmanaspate suvriktir brahma 
Indraya vajrine akari \ " Brahmanaspati, this pure hymn, 
[this] prayer has been made for thee, and for Indra, the thun- 

R. V. viii. 51, 4. — Ayahi krinavama te Indra brahmdrd vard- 
dhand ityadi \ " Come, Indra : let us make prayers, which mag- 
nify thee," etc. 

R. V. x. 54, 6. — ... Adha priyam bhusham Indraya manma 
brahmakrito Vrihadukthad avachi \ "... An acceptable and 
honorific hymn has been uttered to Indra by Vrihaduktha, maker 
of prayers." 

R. V. x. 101, 2. — Mandra krinudkoafn dhiya a tanudhvaih 
navam aritra-paramM krinudhvam \ " Make hymns, prepare 
prayers, make a ship propelled by oars." 

It is possible that in some of these passages the verb kri may 
have merely the signification which the word make has in Eng- 
lish when we speak of " making supplications," etc., in which 
case it of course means to offer up, rather than to compose. But 
this cannot be the case in such passages as R. V. iv. 16, 20 
(p. 129), where the rishi speaks of making the hymn as the 
Bhrigus made a chariot. And such an interpretation would be 
altogether inadmissible in the case of the texts which I next 
proceed to cite. 

II.-— Passages in which the word tax, " to fashion, or fabri- 
cate," is applied to the composition of the hymns. 

R. V. i. 62, 13.— Sandy ate GotamaJi-Indra navy am ataocad 



brahma hariyqjandya ityddi \ " Nodhas, descendant of Gotama, 
fashioned this new hymn for [thee], Indra, who art of old, and 
who yokest thy steeds/' etc. 

R. V. i. 130, 6. — ImdM te vachafn, vastly antah Ayavo ratkafn 
na dhlrali svapa ataxishuli sumndya tvam ataxishuh | " Desir- 
ing wealth, men have fashioned for thee this hymn, as a 
skilful workman [fabricates] a car, and thus they have disposed 
(lit. fashioned) thee to (confer) happiness." 

R. V. i. 171, 2. — Esha vah stomo Maruto namasvdn hridd 
tashto manasd dhdyi devah \ " This reverential hymn, o divine 
Maruts, fashioned by the heart, has been presented by the 
mind [or, according to Sayana, ' let it be received by you with 
a favourable mind']." 

R. V. ii. 19, 8. — Eva te Gritsamaddh sUra manma avasyavo 
na vayundni taxuh \ "Thus, o hero, have the Gritsamadas, 
desiring succour, fashioned for thee a hymn, as men make 
roads." (Sayana explains vayuna by " road ; " but it generally 
means knowledge.) 

R. V. ii. 35, 2. — ImaM su asmai hridali a sutashtam mantra fh 
vochema kuvid asya vedat \ " Let us address to him from the 
heart this wellfashioned hymn ; may he be aware of it." 

R. V. v. 2, W.—Etalh te stomafh tuvi-jata vipro rathaM na 
dhlrah svapa ataxam \ " I, a sage, have fabricated this hymn 
for thee, o powerful [deity], as a skilful workman fashions a 

R. V. v. 29, 15. — Indra brahma kriyamdnd jushasva yd te 
savishtka navyd akarma \ vastreva bhadrd sukrita vasuyuh 
rathaM na dhlrah svapa ataxam \ " mighty Indra, regard 
with favour the prayers which are made, the new [prayers] 
which we have made for thee. Desirous of wealth, I have fabri- 
cated them like beautiful well-fashioned garments, as a skilful 
workman [constructs] a car." (Compare R. V. iii. 39, 2; 
above, p. 123). 

R. V. v. 73, 10. — Imd brahmani vardhana Asvibhydfii santu 
santamd \ yd taxama rathdn iva avochdma brihad namdh \ 


" May these magnifying prayers which we have fashioned, like 
cars, be pleasing to the Asvins : we have uttered great adora- 

R. V. vi. 32, 1 (= S. V. i. 322). — ApUrvyd purutamdni asmai 
make vlrdya tavase turdya \ virapsine vajrine santamdni vachdfrm 
asa sthavirdya taxam \ " To this great hero, vigorous, ener- 
getic, the adorable, unshaken thunderer, I have with my mouth 
fabricated copious and pleasing prayers, which had never before 

R. V. vi. 16, 47. — A te Ague richd havir hridd tashtam 
bhardmasi | "In this verse, Agni, we bring to thee an oblation 
fabricated by the heart." (Comp. R. V. iii. 39, 1, in p. 123.) 

R. V. vii. 7, 6. — Ete dyumnebhir visvam dtiranta mantraik ye 
va araM nary a ataxan | "These men who have skilfully fabri- 
cated the hymn, have by tbeir praises [?] augmented all [their 
possessions ?]." 

R. V. vii. 64, 4. — Yo vafii garttam manasd taxad etam 
UrddhvMi dJvdiih krinavad dhdrayachcha \ " May he who with 
his mini fashioned for you (Mitra and Varuna) this car, make 
and sustain the lofty hymn." (The same expression Urddhm 
dhltili occurs in R. V. i. 119, 2.) 

R. V. viii. 6, 33. — Uta brahmanya myafii tubhyam pravriddha 
vajrivo vipra ataxmajlvase \ " mighty thunderer, we, who are 
sage, have fabricated prayers [or ceremonies] for thee, that we 
may live." (I take brahmanya for the neuter plural, as it has 
no visarga in my copy of the R. V.) 

R. V. x. 39, 14. — Etaih vdM stomam Asvindv akarma ataxdma 
Bhrigaw na ratham \ ni amrixdma yoshandfh na maryye nityaih 
na silnuM tanayaih dadhdnah \ " This hymn, Asvins, we have 
made for you; we have fabricated it as the Bhrigus [constructed] 
a car [or we have, like the Bhrigus, fabricated a car] ; we have 
decorated it, as a bride for her husband, continuing the series [of 
our praises] like an unbroken line of descendants." 

(The following is Sayana's comment on this passage, for a 
copy of which I am indebted to Professor Muller : He A&vinau 


vaM yuvayor etaih yathoktafh stomaM stotram akarma akurma \ 
Tad etad aha \ Bkrigavo na Bhrigava ina ratham ataxama 
vayaM stotram sarMkritavantah \ karma-yogdd Ribhavo Bhrigctr 
va}i uchyante \ athavd rathakdrd Bhrigavak \ kiftcka vayaifi 
nityaih sdsvatafii tanayaih yagadlnarTi karmandik tanitdraik 
sunuM na aurasam putram iva stotraih dadhdnd dhdrayanto 
martye mannshye nyamrixdma yuvayoh stutiih mtarafa safhskri- 
avantalt \ " Asvins, we have made this preceding hymn or 
praise of you. He explains^ this. Like the Bhrigus, we have 
made a car, we have carefully constructed a hymn. The Kibhus 
are, from this work being ascribed to them [?], styled Bhrigus ; 
or bhrigus are chariot-makers. Moreover, maintaining this 
praise as a constant perpetuator (like a legitimate son) of sacri- 
fice and other rites, we have polished, i.e., carefully composed a 
celebration of you among men [?]". (In this comment the word 
yoshana is left unexplained. In verse 12 of this hymn the 
Asvins are supplicated to come in a car fleeter than thought, 
constructed for them by the Ribhus: — a tena yatam manaso 
jamyasd rathain yaffi mm Ribhavas chakrur Asvind \) 

R. V. x. 80, 7. — Agnaye brahma Ribhavas tataxuli \ " The 
Ribhus [or the wise] fabricated a hymn for Agni." 

III. — I next quote some texts in which the hymns are spoken of 
as being generated by the rishis. (Comp. R. V. vii. 93, 1, in p. 125.) 

R. V. iii. 2. 1. — Vaisvdnaraya dhishandm ritdvridhe ghritafh, 
napfitam Agnaye jandmasi \ " We generate a hymn, like pure 
butter, for Agni Vaisvanara, who promotes our sacred rites." 

R. V. vii. 15, i.—Navatiz nu stomam Agnaye divah syendya 
jijanam \ vasvah kuvid vandti nah \ "I have generated a new 
hymn to Agni, the falcon of the sky ; who bestows on us wealth 
in abundance." 

R. V. vii. 22, 9. — Ye chapuwe rishayo ye cha nUtndh Indra 
brahmdni janayanta viprah \ " Indra, the wise rishis, both 
ancient and modern, have generated prayers." 

R. V. vii. 26, 1.— Na somafi Indram asuto> mamdda na 
abrahmdno maghavdnafk sutdsah \ tasmdy ukthaih janaye yaj 


jujoshad nrivad namyali srinavad yathd nali | "The soma 
cheers not Indra unless it be poured out; nor do libations 
[gratify] Maghavan when offered without a priest. To him I 
generate a hymn such as may please him, that, after the manner 
of men, he may hear our new [song]." 

R. V. vii. 31, 11. — . . . Suvriktim Indrdya brahmajanayanta 
viprdfr | " The sages generated a pure hymn and a prayer for 

R. V. vii. 94, 1, 2 (= S. V. ii. 266). — lyafft vam asya man- 
manah Indrdgnl purvya-stutir abkrdd vrishtir iva ajani \ 
mnutafh jaritur havam ityadi \ " The excellent praise of this 
hymn [or the excellent hymn of this sage] has been generated 
[or, has sprung] for you, Indra and Agni, like rain from a cloud. 
Hear the invocation of your worshipper," etc. (Benfey thinks 
manman, " spirit," is to be understood of Soma, whose hymn, i.e., 
the sound of his dropping, resembles the falling of rain. The 
scholiast of the S. V. makes manman = stotri, " worshipper"). 

R. V. viii. 43, 2. — Asmai te pratikaryate Jdtavedo vicharshane 
Agne janami smhtutim \ " Wise Agni Jatavedas, I generate a 
hymn for thee, who receivest it with favour." 

R. V. viii. 77, 4. — A tod ayam arka utaye vavarttati yafh 
Gotamd ajljanan \ " This hymn which the Gotamas have 
generated, incites thee to succour us." 

R. V. viii. 84, 4, 5. — Srudhi havafh Tiraschydli Indra yas tvd 
saparyati suviryasya gomato rayah purdhi makdn asi \ Indra 
yas te namyaslfh giram mandrdm ajljanat chikitwn-rnariamfn, 
dhiyam pratndm ritasya pipyushim \ "Hear, Indra, the invoca- 
tion of Tiras'chl, thy worshipper ; replenish him with wealth in 
strong men and in cattle, for thou art great. Indra [do this for 
him] who has generated for thee a new and exhilarating hymn, 
springing from an intelligent mind, an ancient mental product, 
full of sacred truth." 

(These verses occur also in the Sama-veda ii. 233, 234, and 
are translated by Professor Benfey, at pp. 230, and 250, of his 
edition. The hymn referred to in this passage is apparently 


designated as both new and old. How can it be both ? It may 
have been an old hymn re-written and embellished ; ancient in 
substance, though new in expression. Compare St. John's 
Gospel, xiii. 34, and the First Epistle of St. John, ii. 7, 8, and 
iii. 11.) 

R. V. ix. 73, 2. — . . . madhor dharabhir janayanto arkam 
it priyam Indrasya tanvam avwridhan \ "Together with the 
honied streams, generating the hymn, they have augmented the 
beloved body of Indra." 

R. V. ix. 95, 1 (= S. V. i. 530).— . . . ato matlr janayata 
svadhabhili \ " Wherefore generate hymns with the oblations." 
(Professor Benfey makes janayata the 3rd person singular of 
the imperfect middle, and applies it to Soma). 

R. V. x. 7, 2. — Ima Agne matayas tubhyaik jataJi gobhir 
asvair abhi grinanti radkaji | " These hymns, Agni, generated 
for thee, supplicate [?] wealth with [or celebrate thy wealth in] 
cows and horses." 

R. V. x. 23, 5, 6, 7. — Yo vacha vivacho mridhravachali purU 
sahasrd asiva jaghana \ Tat tad id asya pauffisyafii grinimasi 
pita iva yas tawshvfii vavridhe savah \ stomafii te Indra Yimada 
ajijanann apUrvyam purutamafh sudanave \ Yidma hi asya 
bkojanam inasya yad apasufli na gopalt karamahe \ ma kir nak 
end sakhya viyatisktis tava cha Indra Vimadasya cha rishelt \ 
Yidma hi te pramatifh, devajami-vad asme te santu sakhya sivani \ 
" Who (Indra) with his voice slew many thousand of the wicked 
uttering confused and hostile cries. We laud his several acts of 
valour, who, like a father, augmented [?] our vigour and our 
strength. For thee, o Indra, who art bountiful, the Vimadas 
have generated a copious hymn, which never before existed 
(apUrvya) ; for we know what is gratifying to this our master ; 
and we collect it together, as a cowherd assembles his cattle. 
Indra, may that friendship of ours never be dissolved, which 
exists between thee and the rishi Vimada: for we know thy 
wisdom, o god; may thy friendship be favourable to us, like 
that of a kinsman." 


R. V. x. 67, 1. — Imdfh dhiyaih, saptakrshnlm pita nali rita- 
prajdtdm brihatim arindat \ turiyafh svij janayad visvajanyo 
Ayasya uktham Indrdya saman \ " Our father hath discovered 
[or invented] this great, seven-headed hymn, born of sacred 
truth ; Ayasya, friend of all men, celebrating Indra, has 
generated the fourth song of praise." (In his Lexicon, Roth 
gives Ayasya as a proper name; but says it may also be an 
adjective with the sense of " unwearied.") 

R. V. x. 91, 14.— Kilala-pe soma-prishtdya vedhase hrida 
matifn janaye chdrum Agnaye | "With my heart I generate a 
beautiful hymn for Agni, the drinker of nectar, the soma- 
sprinkled, the wise." (See also R. V. i. 109, 1, 2, which will be 
quoted below.) 

IV. — In the following texts the verbal root ri, "to move, 
send forth," etc., used with or without a preposition, is applied to 
the utterance or (it may even mean) the production of hymns. 

R. V. i. 116, 1. — Ndsatydbhydm bar Mr iva pravrifije stoman 
iyarmi abhriyd iva vdtah \ ydv arbhagdya Vimaddyajdydm send- 
juvd ni uhatuh rathena \ " In like manner as I spread the sacri- 
ficial grass to the Nasatyas (Asvins), so do I send forth to them 
hymns, as the wind [drives] the clouds ; to them (I say), who 
bore off to the youthful Vimada his bride in a chariot which 
outstripped the enemy's host." 

R. V. vii. 61, 2. — Pra vdih sa Mitrd- Varunau ritdvd mpro 
manmdni dirgha-srud iyartti \ Yasya brahmdni sukratU avdthali 
a yat kratvd na saradali prinaithe [?] | " The devout sage, 
deeply versed in sacred lore, sends forth his hymns to you, 
o Mitra and Varuna. You, mighty gods, receive his prayers 
with favour, since ye fill [prolong?], as it seems, his autumns 
by your power." 

R. V. viii. 12, 31. — Imam te Indra sushtutiM mpraJi iyartti 
dhltibhih \jdmim padd iva pipratim pra adhvare \ "The sage, 
with praises, sends forth to thee this hymn, which like a sister 
follows [?] thy steps in the sacrifice." 

R. V. viii. 13, 26. — . . . Ritdd iyarmi te dhiyam manoyujam \ 


"... From the sacred ceremony I send forth a prayer, issuing 
from my mind [or, which will reach thy heart ?] " 

E. V. x. 116, 9. — Pra Indrdgnibhydfh suvackasydm iyarmi 
sindhdv iva prwayaih navam arkaih \ "I send forth a [hymn] 
with beautiful words to Indra and Agni ; with my praises I have, 
as it were, launched a ship on the sea." 

(Compare R. V. ii. 42, 1, spoken of Indra in the form of the 
bird called kapinjala, a sort of partridge : Iyartti vdcham ariteva 
navam \ "It sends forth a voice, as a rower propels a boat." 
See also R. V. x. 101, 2, quoted above, p. 130.) 

V. — In the following passages, other verbs are employed to 
denote the composition or presentation of hymns. 

R. V. i. 61, 2. — Indrdya hridd manasd manishd pratndya 
patye dhiyo marjayanta \ " To Indra, the ancient lord, they 
prepared [or polished] hymns [or ceremonies] with the heart, 
mind, and understanding." 

R. V. i. 61, 4. — Asmai id u stomafn, safhhinomi rathaffl, na 
tashtd iva tat-sindya ityddi \ "To him (Indra) I send forth a 
hymn, as a carpenter a car, for his food," etc. 

R. V. i. 94, 1 (= S. V. i. 66). — Imafii stomam arhate Jdtave- 
dase ratham iva sam mahemd manxshayd \ bhadrd hi nah prama- 
tir asya safksadi Agne sakhye md rishdmd vayatfi tava \ " Let 
us with our intellects decorate this hymn for the adorable Jata- 
vedas like a car, for his wisdom is favourable to us in the 
assembly. Agni, in thy friendship may we never suffer." (The 
root mah means to honour or worship. I have partly followed 
Benfey's translation.) 

There is to be found in the hymns a great multitude of pas- 
sages in which the rishi speaks of presenting his hymns and 
prayers to the various deities who are the objects of his worship, 
without directly claiming for himself the authorship of those 
compositions. The natural inference to be drawn from the 
expressions which we shall find to be employed in most of the 
cases to which I refer, would, I think, be that the personality of 
the rishi himself was uppermost in his mind, and that he was 


not conscious that the praises which he was uttering to the 
gods proceeded from any other source than his own unaided 
faculties. Of this description are the following texts, which 
represent a manner of thinking and speaking very prevalent in 
the hymns. 

E. V. i. 60, 5.— Tarn tva vayam patim Agne raylndm pra- 
samsamo matibhir Gotamdsah \ " We, the Gotamas, praise with 
hymns thee, Agni, the lord of riches." 

E. V. i. 77, 5. — Eva Agnir Gotamebhir ritdvd viprebhir as- 
toshta jatavedah \ " Thus has the holy Agni Jatavedas been 
celebrated by the sage Gotamas." 

E. V. i. 78, 5. — Avochama Rakugana Agnaye madhumad 
vachah \ dyumnair abhi pra nonumali \ " We, the Eahtlganas, 
have uttered to Agni a honied speech; we laud him with 

E. V. i. 91, 11. — Soma glrbhis tva vayaM vardhayamo vacho- 
vidaJi | sumrillko na dvisa \ " Soma, we who are skilled in speech 
magnify thee with praises ; do thou enter into us, bringing joy." 

E. V i. 102, 1. — Imafk te dkiyam prabhare maho mahlm asya 
stotre dhishana yat te anaje \ " I present to thee, the great 
(god) this great hymn, because thy understanding has taken 
pleasure in my praises." 

(Sayana renders prabhare by prakarshena sampddayami \ " I 
carefully make or accomplish." Eoth renders anaje " has been 
honoured." See his Lexicon, under the word aflj.) 

E. V. i. 183, 6. — Atariskma tamasas param asya prati vdM 
stomo Asvindv adhdyi \ " We have crossed over this darkness ; 
a hymn, o Asvins, has been addressed to you." 

E. V. iv. 3, 16. — Eta visva vidushe tubhyaik vedho nithani 
Agne ninya vackaMsi \ nivachand kavaye kdvyani asamsisham 
matibhir viprah ukthaili \ " Prudent Agni, to thee, who art 
wise, [have I uttered] all these songs and mysterious words ; to 
thee, who art a bard, have I, a sage, uttered these hymns, these 
poems, with meditations and praises." 

E. V. iv. 32, 12. — Avlvridhanta Gotama Indra tve stomavd- 


hasah \ " The Gotamas, Indra, bringing hymns to thee, have 
magnified thee." 

R. V. v. 11, 5. — Tubhya idam Agne madhumattamaih vachas 
tubham manisha iyam astu kaik hride \ Tvdik girah sindhum iva 
avanlr mahir a prinanti savasd vardhayanti cka \ " Agni, may 
this sweetest of prayers, may this hymn (mental production) be 
pleasant to thy heart. As great rivers fill the ocean, so do the 
words of praise fill thee, and augment thee with strength." 

R. V. v. 22, 4. — Agne chikiddhi asya nah idafii vachali sahasya \ 
Tafh tvd susipra dampate stomair vardkanti Atrayo girbhih sum- 
bkanti Atrayali \ " Vigorous Agni, know these our words ; thee, 
with the beautiful nose, the lord of the house, the Atris magnify 
with praises, the Atris decorate with hymns." 

R. V. v. 45, 4. — Suktebhir vo vackobhir devajushtair Indra 
nu Agni avase huvadhyai \ ukthebhir hi sma kavayali suyajfia 
dvivdsanto Maruto yajanti \ " Let me invoke you for help, o 
Indra and Agni, with well-spoken words, such as are acceptable 
to the gods ; for sages skilled in sacrifice, when performing 
sacred rites, quick as the Maruts [?], worship with hymns." 

R. V. vi. 38, 3. — Tafii vo dhiya paramaya purajam ajar am 
Indram abhi anuski arkaih ityddi \ " I adore thee, the ancient, 
imperishable Indra with an excellent hymn and with praises." 

R. V. vii. 67, 5. — Prachim U deed Asvind dhiyam me amri- 
dhrdih sdtaye kritafn vasUyum \ " divine Asvins, make my 
early and unwearied prayer which supplicates wealth, to be 
productive of blessings." 

R. V. vii. 85, 1. — Punishe vdm araxasam manzshdm somam 
Indrdya Varundya juhvat \ ghrita-pratikdm Ushasafn, na devlm 
ityddi \ " Offering soma to Indra and Varuna, I purify for you 
twain the sincere hymn, like the goddess Ushas, with glittering 

R. V. viii. 5, 18. — Asmdkam adya vdm ayafn, stomo vdhishtho 
antamah \ yuvdbhyaik bhuiu Asvind \ " May this hymn of ours 
approach near to you, to-day, o Asvins, and be effectual in bear- 
ing you hither." 


R. V. viii. 8,8. — Kim anye parydsate asmat stomebhir Asvind \ 
putrah Kanvasya vdm rishir glrbhir Vatso avlvridhat \ " Asvins, 
do others than we [?] sit round you with songs? Vatsa, the son 
of Kanva, has magnified you by his hymns." 

R. V. viii. 27, 11. — Ida hi va upastutim ida vdmasya bhak- 
taye upa vo vi&vavedaso namasyur dsrixi \ " For now, possessors 
of all riches, now, in order to obtain wealth, have I, full of devo- 
tion, sent forth to you a hymn." 

R. V. x. 42. 1. — Astd iva suprataratii lay am asyan bhUshann 
iva prabhara stomam asmai \ vdchd viprds tarata vdcham aryo 
niramaya jaritah some Indram | "Like an archer discharging 
his far-shooting arrow, or as it were making decorations, present 
the hymn to Indra. Sages, by your song, overcome the song of 
the enemy ; worshipper, arrest Indra at the soma." 

R. V. x. 63, 17.— Eva Platefi sunur avlvridhad vo visveAditya 
Adite manlshl \ isdndso naro amartyena astdvi jano divyo 
Gayena \ " Thus, all ye Adityas, Aditi, and ye ruling powers, 
has the wise son of Plati magnified you. The celestial race has 
been lauded by the immortal Gaya." (I am unable to say in 
what sense the rishi here speaks of himself as immortal.) 

R. V. x. Ill, 1. — Manishinah prabharadhvam mariisham yathd 
yathd matayafi santi nrtnam \ Indrafh satyair a Iraydma krite- 
bhili sa hi viro girvanasyar viddnak \ " Sages, present the 
prayer, according as are the thoughts of men. Let us by our 
sincere rites stimulate [?] Indra, for he is a hero, he is wise, 
and loves our songs." 

In the following verse, from a hymn in praise of liberality, it 
is said, though no doubt only figuratively, that the true rishi is 
the prince who is bountiful to the priesthood. 

R. V. x. 107, 6.— Tarn eva rishitii tarn u brakmdnam dhur 
yajftanyafh sdmagam ukthasasam \ sa sukrasya tanvo veda tisro 
yah pratkamo daxinayd rarddha \ " He it is whom they call a 
rishi, a priest, a pious sacrificer, a chaunter of prayers, a singer 
of hymns ; he it is who knows the three bodies of brilliant 
(Agni),— the man who is most prominent in bestowing gifts." 


Sect. IV.— Passages of the Rig-veda in which a supernatural character 
is ascribed to the rishis or the hymns. 

In the present section I propose to collect the most distinct 
indications which I have noticed in the vedic hymns of any- 
supernatural attributes attaching, in the opinion of the authors, 
either to the rishis themselves, or to their compositions. We 
shall see in the course of this enquiry (I.), that a certain super- 
human character was ascribed by the later rishis, who composed 
the hymns, to some of their predecessors ; (II.) that expressions 
are occasionally employed by the rishis which appear to ascribe 
their compositions to a divine influence generally; while there 
is a still more numerous set of texts in which the hymns are 
attributed in various forms of phraseology to the agency of one 
or more particular and specified deities ; and (III.) that there 
is a considerable number of passages in which a mysterious or 
magical power is ascribed to the hymns or metres. 

I proceed to furnish specimens of these several classes of 

I. — I adduce some passages which ascribe a superhuman 
character or supernatural faculties to the earlier rishis. These 
are the following : — 

R. V. i. 179, 2. — Ye chid hi pUrve ritasdpali dsan sakafli 
de&ebhir avadann ritdni \ te chid avdsur ityddi | " The pious 
sages who lived of old, and who conversed about sacred truths 
with the gods, led a conjugal life," etc. 

The sixty-second hymn of the tenth Mandala contains the 
following passage regarding the Angirases (see above, p. 120) : — 

1. The Angirases. — E. V. x. 62, 1, 3. — Ye yajfiena daodnayd 
samaktdk Indrasya sakhyam amritatvam dnasa \ tebhyo bhadram 
Angiraso vah astu prati gribhnlta mdnavafn, sumedhasah | 3. 
Ye ritena suryam arohayan divi aprathayan prithivtm mdtaram 
vi ityddi \ " Blessings be on the Angirases who, sanctified by 
sacrifice and liberality, attained the friendship of Indra and 
immortality. Do ye, o sage Angirases, graciously receive the 


race of Manu. 3. They who by sacrifice caused the sun to 
ascend the sky ; and spread out our mother earth," etc. (My 
copy of the R. V. reads in the first line dnasa. Perhaps it 
should be dnasuh, as in R. V. i. 164, 23.) 

This is succeeded by the following verses : — 

R. V. x. 62, 4, 5. — Ayafh ndbhd vadati valguvo grihe deva- 
putrdli rishayas tat srinotana . . . | virupdsah id rishayas te id 
gambhira-vepasalk \ Angirasah sunavas te Agnefy parijajaire \ 
" This sage addresses you, brilliant beings, within [?] the house. 
Hear this, ye rishis, sons of the gods. The rishis are various in 
character, profound in emotion ; they are the sons of Angiras ; 
they have been born from Agni." 

(The last verse is quoted in the Nirukta, xi. 17. See Roth's 
illustrations of the passage.) 

2. Vasishtha. — A supernatural character is attributed to 
Vasishtha also in the following passage (portions of which have 
been already quoted and illustrated in Part First, pp. 75 ff. 
and 122.) 

R. V. vii. 33, 7 ff. — Trayah krinvanti bhuvanasya retas tisrah 
prajdh drydh jyotir-agrdh \ trayo gharmdsali ushasaM sachante 
sarvdn it tan anuvidur Vasishtkdh \ 8. Suryasyeva vaxatho 
jyotir eskdfh samudrasyeva mahimd gabhirali \ vdtasyeva prajavo 
na anyena stomo Vasishtha arm etave vah \ 9. Te id ninyam 
hridayasya praketaih sahasra-valsam abhi saficharanti \ yamena 
tatam paridhiik vayantah apsarasah upa sedur VamhthdJi \ 10. 
Vidyuto jyotih parisafijihdnam Mitrd - Varund $ad apasyatafh 
tva | tat te janma uta ekatfi Vasishtha Agastyo yat tvd visah 
djabhdra \ 11. Utdsi Maitravaruno Vasishtha Urvasydh brahman 
manaso f dhi jdtali \ drapsafii skannam brahmand daivyena visve 
devdh pushkare tvd adadanta \ 12. Sah praketah ubhayasya 
pravidvdn sahasra-ddnah uta vd saddnah \ yamena tatam pari- 
dhiM vayishyan apsarasah parijajfie Vasishthah \ 13. Satre ha 
jdtdv ishitd namobkih kumbhe retah sisichituli samdnam \ tato ha 
MdnaTi udiydya madkydt tato jdtam rishim dhur Vasishtham | 
14. Uktha-bhritafh sdma-bhritam bibhartti grdvdnam bibhrad 


pra vadati agre \ upa enam adhvaik sumanasyamanah a vo 
gachkati pratrido Vasishthali | "Three [gods] create the 
fecundating principle of the world; [there exist] three ex- 
cellent productions of which light is the first : three fires attend 
upon the dawn : all these the Vasishthas know. The splendour 
of these [sages] is like the glory of the sun ; their grandeur is 
profound as that of the ocean ; their impetuosity is like that of 
the wind ; your hymns, o Vasishthas, cannot be rivalled by any 
other bard. Through the longings of their hearts they seek 
after the mysterious [tree ?] with a thousand branches ; weaving 
the veil extended by Yama [Agni ? see E. V. i. 66, 4.] the 
Vasishthas sat near the Apsaras. When Mitra and Varuna saw 
thee embracing the gleam of the lightning, that was thy birth, 
Vasishtha, and [thou hadst] one [other], when Agastya brought 
thee from the house. And, Vasishtha, thou art the son of Mitra 
and Varuna, born, o priest, from the mind of Urvasl ; all the 
gods received thee— the drop fallen through divine energy, — 
in the vessel. He the wise, knowing both [worlds ?], lavishing 
a thousand gifts or all gifts, Vasishtha, seeking to weave the 
veil extended by Yama, was produced from the Apsaras. Born 
at the sacrifice, and impelled by adorations, they [Mitra and 
Varuna] let the same procreative energy fall into the jar ; from 
the midst of this Mana (Agastya) issued forth; from this 
men say the rishi Vasishtha was produced. He directs [?] 
the singer of the uktha and the chaunter of the sdman ; handling 
the soma stones, he leads the hymn ; wait on him with reverence 
and good-will ; Vasishtha comes to you." 

(Two of these verses are quoted in the Nirukta, verse 8, in xi. 
20, and verse 11, in v. 13, 14. See also Prof. Eoth's illustra- 
tions, p. 64, where he states his opinion that the foregoing 
verses which describe the miraculous birth of Vasishtha in the 
style of the epic mythology, are a later addition to an older 
hymn. I am unable to state the meaning of the word 

The two following passages also have reference to knowledge 


supernaturally communicated, or favours divinely conferred on 
Vasishtha. See Part First, p. 77. 

K. V. vii. 87, 4. — Uvdcha me Varuno medhirdya trill sapta 
ndma aghnyd bibhartti \ vidvdn padasya gukyd na vochad 
yugdya viprah upardya sixan \ " Varuna said to me, the sage, 
'the cow has thrice seven names/ The wise and intelligent 
[god] instructing us, has declared the secrets of the celestial 
region [?] to this' later generation." 

E. V. vii. 88, 4. — VasisktkaM ha Varuno ndvi adkad rishiffi, 
chakdra svapd mahobhih \ stotdram viprali sudinatve ahndifi ydd 
nu dydvas tatanan ydd ushasah \ " Varuna has placed Vasish- 
tha in the ship ; the beneficent [deity] has, by his mighty deeds, 
made him a rishi, [and caused] his worshipper to. enjoy a for- 
tunate existence, so that his days and dawns have been pro- 
longed." (See Part First, p. 77, note 32 ; and R. V. x. 101, 2, 
and x. 116, 9, in pp. 130 and 137, above.) 

3. Vmdmitra. — In one or more of the texts which I shall 
next produce, a superhuman character is ascribed to Visvamitra 
and the Kusikas. 

R. V. iii. 29, 15. — Amitrdyudko marutdm iva praydh pratha- 
majdli brahmano visvam id viduh \ dyumnavad brahma Kusikdsa 
erire ekah eko dame Agnifh samldhire \ " Combating their foes, 
like hosts of Maruts, the first-born of Brahma [or prayer ?] are 
masters of all knowledge; the Kusikas have uttered a prayer 
accompanied with oblations ; every one of them has kindled 
Agni in his house." (See Part First, p. 125, note.) 

R. V. iii. 43, 5. — Kuvid md gopdffi karase janasya kuvid rdjd- 
nam Maghavann rijishan \ kuvid md rishim papivdihsain, sutasya 
kuvid me vasvak amritasya sixdli \ " Thou assuredly makest me 
a shepherd of men ; thou assuredly makest me a king, o im- 
petuous Maghavan ; thou assuredly makest me a rishi, a drinker 
of the soma ; thou wilt assuredly bestow upon me imperishable 
wealth." (See First Part, p. 85.) 

R. V. iii. 53, 9. — Mdhan riskir devajdh devajutah astabhndt 
sindhum armoaih nrichaxdh \ Visvdmitro yad avakat Suddsam 


apriydyata Kusikebhir Indrah \ "The great rishi (Visvamitra), 
director of men, sprung from the gods, and god-impelled, 
stemmed the watery current. When Visvamitra guided Sudas, 
Indra was propitiated through the Kusikas." (See Part First, 
pp. 124, 125. Indra himself is called a Kausika in K. V. i. 10, 
11. See Part First, p. 82.) 

According to E. V. ix. 87, 3, certain mysterious knowledge is 
said to have been possessed by Usanas : Eishir viprah pura-etd 
jandndm ribhur dhlra Usand kdvyena \ sa chid viveda mhitaih yad 
dsdm aplchyaM guhyafii ndma gondm \ " A wise rishi, a leader of 
men, skilful, and prudent, is Usanas, through his insight as a seer ; 
he has known the hidden mysterious name applied to these cows." 

In some hymns of the tenth Mandala, the rishis are spoken 
of as "seeing" different objects of contemplation; thus in 
R. V. x. 72, 1, 2, it is said : Decdndfh nu vayani jdnd praxo- 
ckdma vipanyayd \ uktheshu sasyamdneshu yah pasydd uttare 
yuge \ Brakmaiiaspatir eta safh karmdra iva adhamat devdndm 
purvye yuge asatali sad ajdyata \ " Let us, from the love of 
praise, celebrate in chaunted songs the births of the gods— -any 
of us who in this later generation may behold them. Brah- 
manaspati has kindled these births, as a blacksmith [blows a 
flame] : in the earliest age of the gods, the existent sprang from 
the non-existent." 

(The first of these verses is translated by Prof. Benfey in his 
Glossary to the Sama-veda, p. 154.) 

And in It. V. x. 79, 1, the rishi says : Apasyam asya mahato 
mahitvam amartyasya martydsu vixu \ " I beheld the greatness 
of this great immortal among the race of mortals." (Here, 
however, as Agni is the subject, the poet might easily enough 
see him, while his imagination would supply the figurative attri- 
butes which he goes on to describe.) 

A still more decided instance, however, of this use of the verb 
to see, in the sense of supernatural insight, may be found in 
the verse of the Valakhilya already quoted in Part Second, 
pp. 220, which will be repeated below. 



The next two passages speak of the radiance of the rishis. 
R. V. viii. 3, 3 (= S. V. i. 250 and Vaj. S. 33, 81).— Imd u 
tea purUvaso giro vardhantu yd mama \ pdvakorvarnah suchayo 
vipaschitali abhi stomair anushata \ " Lord of abundant wealth, 
may these prayers of mine magnify thee ! Pure sages of fiery 
radiance have celebrated thee with hymns." 

R. V, viii. 6, 10. — Akam id hi pituh pari medhdm ritasya 
jagrabha \ akam sUrya iva ajani \ "I have acquired the wisdom 
of [my] righteous father ; I have become like the sun." 

The following texts, which occur in the last book of the Rig- 
veda, speak of tapas ("devotion" or "austerity") being prac- 
tised by the rishis much in the same way as the later epic litera- 
ture does. This use of the word is not known in the earlier 
books of the R. V. (See Boehtlingk and Roth's Lexicon, under 
the word tapas.) 

R. V. x. 109, 4. — Deod etasydm avadanta purve sapta rishayas 
tapase ye niskeduli \ " The ancient gods spoke of her, the seven 
rishis who sat down for devotion." 

R. V. x. 154, 2. — Tapasd ye anddkrisyds tapasd ye svar 
yayuh \ tapo ye chakrire mahas tains chid eva api gachchatdt \ 
5. Sakasra-nUAdh kavayo ye gopdyanti suryam riskitfis tapas-' 
vato Yama tapojdn api gachhatdt \ " Come to those who 
through devotion are invincible, who by devotion have gone to 
heaven, who have performed great austerity. 5. Come, Yama, 
to the sages of a thousand songs who guard the sun (see 
Wilson, Vish. Pur. pp. 234, 235), to the devout rishis, whose 
nature is devotion." 

R. V. x. 190, 1. — Ritaficha satyaficka abhiddhdt tapaso adh- 
yajdyata \ tato rdtrl ajdyata tatali samudrah arnavaJi \ " Right 
and truth sprang from kindled devotion ; thence sprang night, 
thence the watery ocean." 

In R. V. x. 167, 1, it is even said that Indra attained heaven 
by austerity : TvaM tapali paritapya ajayah svah \ " By per- 
forming austerity thou didst conquer heaven." 

In some places the gods are said to possess in the most emi- 


nent degree the qualities of rishis, or kavis. This may imply, 
e converso, that the rishis were conscious of a certain affinity 
with the divine nature, and conceived themselves to participate 
in some degree in the superior wisdom and knowledge of the 

R. V. i. 31, 1. — Tvam Agne pratkamo Angird risfdr devo 
devdnam abhavah sivah sakkd ityadi | 2. Tvam Agne pratkamo 
AngirastamaJi kavir devdnam paribhushasi vratam | "Thou, 
Agni, the earliest rishi Angiras, a god, wast the auspicious friend 
of the gods. . . . Thou, Agni, the earliest and most Angiras-like 
sage, decoratest the ceremonial of the gods." 

R. V, i. 66, 2. — . . . Rishir na stubkvd vixu prasastali ityadi \ 
"Like a rishi, who praises [the gods], he (Agni) is famous 
among the people," etc. 

R. V. iii. 21, 3. — ... Rishili sreshthali samidkyase yajftasya 
pra avitd bhava | "Thou, Agni, the most eminent rishi, art 
kindled; be the protector of the sacrifice/ ' 

R. V. v. 29, 1.— . . . Archanti tvd marutali puta-daxds team 
eshdm rishir Indra asi dhirali | "The Maruts, endowed with 
pure force, worship thee ; thou, Indra, art their rishi" (Sayana, 
however, here renders rishi by drasktd, " beholder.") 

R. V. vi. 14, 2. — Agnir id hi praeketali Agnir vedhastamah 
rishili | " Agni is wise ; Agni is a most sage rishi" 

R. V, viii. 6, 41. — Rishir hi purvajd asi ekah isanali qjasd 
Indra choshkuyase vasu | " Thou art an anciently-born rishi, 
who alone rulest by thy might ; Indra, thou lavishest riches." 

R. V. viii. 16, 7. — Indro brahmd IndraJi rishir Indrali purU- 
puru-hutah \ mahdn mahlbhili sachlbhili \ "Indra is a priest, 
Indra is a rishi, Indra is much invoked ; he is great through his 
great exploits." 

R. V. ix. 96, 18 (= S. V. ii. S26).—Rishimqnd yah rishikrit 
svarskdh sahasranlthali padamJi kamndm \ " Soma, rishi-minded, 
rishi-make)% bestower of good, lord of a thousand songs, the 
path [leader ?] of sages," etc. 

R. V. ix. 107, 7. — . . . Rishir rnpro vichaxanas tvafn kavir 


abhavo devavitamah ityadi \ " A rishi, a sage, intelligent, thou 
(Soma) wast a poet, most devoted to the gods," etc. 

R. V. x. 27, 22. — . . . Indraya sunvad rishaye cha sixat \ 
" . . . Let [men] present libations to Indra, and offerings to the 

R. V. x. 112, 9.— Ni shu slda ganapate ganeshu tvam ahur 
vipratamaM kamnam \ na rite tvat kriyate kifichana are maham 
arkam Maghavans chitram archa \ " Sit, lord of multitudes, 
among our multitudes ; they call thee the greatest of sages [or 
poets] ; nothing is done without, or apart from, thee ; receive, 
Maghavan, our great and beautiful hymn." 

R. V. x. 115, 5. — Agnih kanvatamafi karwa-sakha ityadi \ 
" Agni is the greatest of the Kanvas, the friend of Kanva," etc. 

II.— The Vedic rishis, as we have seen, expected to receive from 
their gods every variety of temporal blessings, strength, long life, 
offspring, riches, cattle, rain, food, and victory, and they also 
looked for forgiveness of their offences, and exaltation to paradise, 
to the same benefactors. Hence it would be nothing more than 
we might have anticipated, if we should farther find them asking 
their different deities to enlighten their minds, to direct their 
ceremonies, to stimulate their devotion, to augment their powers 
of poetical expression, and to inspire them with religious fervour 
for the composition of their hymns. I think the following pas- 
sages will justify this expectation by showing that tbe rishis 
(though, as we have seen, they frequently speak of the hymns 
as their own work) did also sometimes entertain the idea that 
their prayers, praises, and ceremonies generally, were super- 
naturally suggested and directed. One of the modes (if not the 
principal one) in which this idea is expressed is, as we shall dis- 
cover, the personification of speech under different appellations. 
The following ar$ the passages to which I refer : they are — 

First, such as refer to the gods generally : 

R. V. i. 37, 4. — Pravah sardhaya ghrishvaye tvesha-dyumnaya 
sushmine \ brakma devattaM gay at a \ "To [that which is] 
your strength, the vigorous, overpowering, energetic, [host of 


Maruts] sing the god-given prayer." (See, however, Part 
Second, p. 219, note 174.) 

S. V. i. 299. — Tvashtd no daivyain vachah Parjanyo Brah- 
manaspatili \ putmir bkratribhir Aditir nu pdtu no dushtaram 
trdmanam vachah \ " May Tvastri, Parjanya, and Brahmanas- 
pati [prosper] our divine utterance : may Aditi with her [?] sons 
and brothers prosper our invincible and protective utterance." 

In the next passage, the hymn or prayer is spoken of as 

R. V. i. 152, 5. — Ackittam brahma jujushur yuvanali pra 
Mitre dkama Varune grinantah | "The youths received with 
joy the incomprehensible prayer, celebrating the glorious abode 
in Mitra and Varuna [?]." 

(Though Sayana, in his comment on this passage, does not 
give to the word yuvanali the sense of youths, he interprets it 
so, and explains it of the Maruts, in his note on R. V. i. 165, 2.) 

In R. V. x. 20, 10, Vimada, a rishi, is connected with the 
immortals : — Ague Vimado manlsham urjonapad amritebhih 
sajoshd girah fivaxat sumatir iyanah ityadi | " Agni, son of 
strength, Vimada, united with the immortals, hastening, has 
brought to thee a product of thought, and beautiful hymns." 

In the two following texts the gods are said to have generated 
the hymn or prayer : 

R. V. viii. 88, 4. — Sukta-vakam prathamam ad id Agnim ad 
id havir ajanayanta devah \ sa eshafii yajfio abhcmat tanUpdli \ 
"The gods first generated the hymn, then Agni, then the obla- 
tion. This sacrifice was the protector of their life." 

R. V. x. 61, 7.— . . . Svadhyo ajanayan brahma devd Vds- 
toshpatifh, vratapafh nirataxan \ "The thoughtful gods have 
generated prayer : they have fashioned Vastoshpati the protector 
of sacred rites." 

(Who, however, are the " gods " here intended ? The word deva is 
sometimes understood by Sayana to denote the worshippers ; and 
it may mean no more in these two passages. See Sayana on R. V. 
iii. 34, 7, where he makes devebhyah-devana4ilebhyab$tobrihhy&h.) 


In the latter of the two following verses, Vach (speech) is 
said to be divine, and to have been generated by the gods. 
Though Speech is here spoken of generally, and nothing is said 
of the hymns, still these seem to have come to be connected 
with her in the minds of the Vedic bards, and to be regarded 
as her most solemn and important expression. 

R. V. viii. 89, 10. — Yad vag vadanti avichetandni rashtn 
demndfh nishasdda mandra \ chatasra Hrjam duduhe paydihsx 
kva svid asydh paramafn, jagdma \ 11. Devim vdcham ajana- 
yanta devds (dm visvarupdh pasavo vadanti \ sd no mandra 
isham urjam duhdnd dhenur vag asmdn upa sushtutd a etu \ 
" When Vach, speaking unintelligible things, queen of the gods, 
sat down, conferring delight, the four regions milked forth 
sustenance and waters : whither has her highest station de- 
parted ? The gods generated the divine Vach ; animals of all 
kinds utter her : may this cow Vach which brings us joy, and 
yields us nourishment and sustenance, — approach us, when we 
celebrate her praises." 

The last verse (as well as R. V. viii. 90, 16, which will be 
quoted below), derives some illustration from the following pas- 
sage of the Brihad Aranyaka Upanishad, p. 982 (p. 251 English 
trans.), in which also Vach is designated as a cow : — Vdckatfi 
dhenum updsita \ tasyds chatvdrah standh svdhd-kdro vashat- 
kdro hanta-kdrali svadhd-kdrah \ tasyd dvau stanau deed upajx- 
vanti svdhd-kdraftcha vashat-kdraflcka hanta-kdram manushydh 
svad/id-kdram pitarali \ tasydk prdna rishabho mano vatsafi \ 
il Let a man worship the cow Vach. She has four udders, the 
formulae svdkd, vashat, ftanta, and svad/id. The gods live upon 
her two udders, svdhd and vashat ; men upon kanta ; and the 
patriarchs upon svadhd. Breath is her bull ; the mind, her 

(The two verses, R. V. viii. 89, 10 and 11, occur in the 
-Nirukta, xi. 28, 29. Roth (in his Illustrations), p. 152, says 
the unintelligible utterance of Vach in verse 10, means thunder. 
Though this be the case, the word appears to have a more 


general signification in the next verse, and to refer to speech in 
general, personified as a divine being. The speech which all 
the animals utter cannot of course be thunder. 

In some of the preceding verses of this hymn there is 
a curious reference made to some sceptical doubts regarding 
the existence of Indra; which I quote here, though uncon- 
nected with the present subject. R. V. viii. 89, 3, 4. — Pra 
su .stomam bharata vajayantam Indraya satyam yadi satyam 
asti | na Indro asti iti nema u tva aha ka Im dadarsa kam abhi 
stavama \ Ay am asmi jaritafi pasya ma iha visvd jatani abhi 
asmi mahna \ ritasya mapradiso varddhayanti adardiro bhuvana 
dardarlmi \ " Present to Indra a hymn soliciting food, a true 
[hymn] if he truly exists. ' Indra does not exist/ says some one : 
' who has seen him ? whom shall we praise V 'I am here, 
worshipper* [answers Indra] ; ' behold me, I surpass all creatures 
in greatness ; the different points of the sacrifice augment me ; 
crushing, I destroy the worlds.'") 

Second : the next set of passages which I shall bring forward 
either refer to Sarasvatl, Vach, Dhishana, etc. (various names of 
the goddess of speech, or different personifications of speech, or 
of prayer), or at least speak of prayer as divine. 

R. V. i. 3, 11, 12.— Chodayitrl sUnritanaM chetantl sumatl- 
ndm | yajftaih dadke Sarasvatl \ . . . dhiyo visva virajati \ 
" Sarasvatl, who furthers the truthful [or our hymns], and who 
stimulates the wise [or our prayers], has sustained our sacrifice. 
. . . She enlightens all intellects." 

R. V. i. 22, 10. — A gnali Agne iha avase Hotrafh, yavishtha 
Bharatim \ Yarutrlfk DhishanaM vaha \ " Bring here, youthful 
Agni, to our help, the wives [of the gods], HotrS, Bharatl, 
Varatrl, and Dhishana." 

(VarUtri, "the eligible," may be merely an epithet of 
Dhishana which, according to Sayana = vag-devi, " the goddess 
of speech." 

R. V. i. 31, 11. — Ham akrinvan manushasya sdsanlm ityadi \ 
" The gods made Ila to be the instructress of men." (See Pro- 


feasor Wilson's note on this passage, p. 82 of his translation of 
the E. V. vol i.) 

E. V. i. 109, 1. — . . . Na anyd yuvat pramatir asti mahyam 
sa vd/h dhiyafk vdjayantim ataxam | 2. ... At/id somasya pra- 
yatl yuvabhydm Indrdgnl stomaih janaydmi navyam \ 4. Yu- 
vdbhyaih devl dkishafid maddya Indrdgnl somam usatl sunoti \ 
1, " I have no other wisdom than [that which proceeds] from 
you (Indra and Agni), I who have fabricated for you a hymn 
supplicating food. 2. ... I then, together with a libation of 
soma, generate for you, Indra and Agni, a new hymn. 4. The 
divine hymn [or rite'], longing, pours forth the soma for your 

(The wisdom to which the rishi refers at the beginning of this 
passage does not, however, necessarily, mean the power of com- 
posing hymns. In other clauses, this text contains the same 
words expressive of the fabrication and generation of the hymns 
by the rishi, which we have already met with in section 3, 
pp. 130-136). 

E. V. ii. 3, 8. — Sarasvatl sddhayantl dhiyafh noli lid devl 
Bhdratl visvaturttih \ Tisro devlh svadhayd bar/dr edam achhi- 
dram pdntu saranaM nishadya \ " May Sarasvatl, perfecting 
our hymn [or rite], may the divine Ha, and the all-pervading 
Bharatl; may these three goddesses, seated on the place of 
Sacrifice, prosper this faultless sacrifice with the oblation." 

E. V. iii. 18, 3. — . . . Ydvad Ise brakmand vandamdnah 
imam dhlyam sata-seydya devim \ " Worshipping thee with a 
prayer according to the best of my power, [I offer ?] this divine 
prayer to obtain unbounded wealth/' 

E. V. iii. 32, 14. — Vivesha yad md dhishand jajdna ityddi \ 
" When the thought [or voice] entered into me, I gave it birth/' 
etc. (If dhishand here mean " thought," it need not refer to 
anything supernatural.) 

E. V. iv. 34, 1. — Ida hi vo dhishand devl ahndm adhdt pitim 
ityddi \ "For on these days the divine voice has ordained that 
you should drink soma," etc. 


E. V. iv. 43, 1, 2.— Ka u sravat katamo yajfiiydndfn, vanddru 
devah katamo jus/iate \ kasya imdih devim amriteshu preskthdih 
hridi sreshydma sushtutiiJt suhavydm \ " Who will hear us ? 
which of all the objects of adoration ? which of all the gods will 
receive our praises? In the heart of whom among the im- 
mortals can we infix this our divine and dearest hymn, accom- 
panied by excellent oblations ? " 

E. V. vii. 34, 1. — Pra sukrd etu devl manisha asmat sutashto 
rat ho na vdjl | " May prayer, brilliant and divine, proceed from 
us, like a well-fabricated chariot drawn by steeds." 

E. V. vii. 34, 9. — Ab/d vo devim dhiyafh dadidhvam pra vo 
devatrd vachafii krinudhvam | " Eeceive towards you the divine 
hymn ; proclaim the song for yourselves among the gods." 

E. V. vii. 90, 3. — . . . Rdye devl dhishana dhati devam \ 
" The divine voice disposes [?] the god to bestow [?] wealth." 
(This verse is translated by Professor Benfey in his Glossary to 
the Sama-veda under the root vid, p. 170.) 

E. V. vii. 96, 3. — Bhadram id bhadra krinuvat Sarasvati 
akavarl cketati vajinlvati \ grinand Jamadagnivat stuvdnd cha 
Vasishthavat \ " May the gracious Sarasvati bless us. The 
generous [goddess] rich in oblations, stimulates us, when praised 
after the manner of Jamadagni or lauded after the fashion of 

E. V. viii. 90, 16."" VackovidaM vdcham udlrayantlfii visvd- 
b/dr dhlbhir upatishtkamdndm \ devifh devebhyah pari eyushvih 
gam a md avrikta marttyo dabhrachetdh \ " Let not any mortal 
of little intelligence do violence to the cow, the divine Vach, 
who is skilled in praise, who utters her voice aloud, who asso- 
ciates with all the gods, and arrives with all the hymns." 

E. V. ix. 33, 5. — Abkl brakmlr anushata yahvlr ritasya 
mdtaro marmrijyante divali mum \ "The great devotional [?] 
mothers of the sacrifice have uttered praise : they decorate the 
child of the sky." 

E. V. x. 35, 6. — ... Rdyo janitrltfi dhishandin upa bruve \ 
" I address myself to Dhishana, the generatrix of wealth." 


E. V. x. 71, 1 S.—Brihaspate prathamaM vdcho agraih yat 
prairata ndmadheyaih dadhanah \ yad eshdifi kreshthaik yad 
aripram aslt prend tad esham nihitafh, guha avili | 2. Saktum 
iva titdund punanto yatra dhlrd manasd vdcham akrata \ atra 
sakkdyah sakhydni jdnate bkadrd eshdin, laxmlr nihitd adhi 
vdchi | 3. Yajfiena vdckah padavlyam ay an tarn anvavindann 
rishishu pravishtdm \ tarn abhritya vyadadhuh purutrd taM 
sapta rebha abhi sannavante \ 4. Uta tvafypasyan na dadarsa 
vacham uta tvafy srinvan na srinoti endm | uto tvasmai tanvaih 
visasre jdyeva patye usatl mvdsdli \ 5. Uta toaih sakhye sthira- 
pxtam dhur nainafk kinvanty api vdjinesku \ adhewod charati 
may ay d esha vdchafn susrumn aphaldm apushpdm \ 6. Yas 
tityaja sachividam sakkdyam na tasya vachi api bhdgo asti \ yad 
\ih srinoti alakalh, srifioti na hi praveda sukritasya panthdm | 
1. " Brihaspati, that first and principal name of speech (Vfich), 
that which possessing, they uttered aloud [?], that which was to 
them the most excellent and spotless, that which they had kept 
secret has, through love, [been made] manifest. 2. Wherever 
the wise, — cleansing, as it were, meal with a sieve, — have uttered 
speech with intelligence, their friends recognize [their] friend- 
liness ; an auspicious fortune [or sign] is impressed upon their 
speech. 3. Through sacrifice they followed the track of Vfich, 
and found her entered into the rishis : bearing her, they divided 
her into many portions : her the seven poets celebrate. 4. One 
man, seeing, sees not Vfich; hearing, he hears her not; to 
another she reveals her form, as an elegantly attired and loving 
wife displays her person to her husband. 5. They say that one 
man has a sure defence in [her] friendship ; men cannot injure 
him even in battle ; but that man consorts with an unprofitable 
delusion who has [only] heard speech [Vfich] which is [to him] 
without fruit or flower. 6. He who has abandoned his discern- 
ing friend, has no portion in Vfich ; whatever he hears he hears 
in vain ; he knows not the path of virtue." 

(The second, fourth, and fifth verses of this obscure hymn are 
quoted in the Nirukta, iv. 10; i. 19, and 20 ; and are explained 


in Professor Roth's Illustrations. Verses 2 and 4 are also quoted 
and interpreted in the Mahabhashya ; see pp. 30 and 31 of Dr. 
Ballantyne's edition. The verse which is of most importance 
for my present purpose, is, however, the third, which speaks of 
Vach having entered into the rishis. The idea of Vach being 
divided into many portions will be found again below in R. V. 
x. 125, 3.) 

R. V. x. 96, 10. — . . . Mahl chid hi dhishana aJiaryad ityddi \ 
" The great voice [or hymn] has desired thee." 

R. V. x. 110, 8 (= Vaj. S. 29, 33).— 2 no yajftam Bharatl 
tUyam etu lid manushvad iha chetayantl \ tisro devir barhir a 
idam syonaih Sarasvatl svapasali sadantu \ " Let Bharatl 
come quickly here to our sacrifice, with Ha, who instructs us 
like Manu [or like a man], and with Sarasvatl : let these three 
goddesses, skilful in rites, sit down upon this beautiful sacrificial 

R. V. x. 125, 3. — Ahaih rdshtri sangamani vasUnaln, chifutushl 
prathamd yajfaydnam \ tarn ma deed vyadadhuh purutrd 
bhuristhdtrdm bhuri dvesayantim \ 4. Maya so annum atti yo 
vipasyati yah praniti ya %M srinoti uktam \ amantavo mdik 
te upaxiyanti srudhi sruta sraddhivam te vaddmi \ 5. Aham eva 
svayam idaih vaddmi jushtafh devebhir uta mdnuskebhih \ yafii 
kdmaye tain tarn ugraih krinomi tarn brahmdnaih tarn rishilh talk 
sumedhdm \ 3. "I am the queen, the centre of riches, intelli- 
gent, the first of the objects of adoration : the gods have 
separated me into many portions, have assigned me many 
abodes, and made me widely pervading. 4. He who has 
insight, who lives, who hears [my] sayings, eats through me 
[the sacred] food. Those men who are foolish destroy me, 
[or, those who disregard me, perish]. Listen, thou who art 
learned, I declare to thee what is worthy of belief. 5. I myself 
make known this which is agreeable both to gods and men. 
Him whom I love I make terrible, [I make] him a priest, [I 
make] him a rishi, [I make] him intelligent." (This passage 
occurs also in the Atharva-veda, iv. 30, 2 ff., but with some 


various readings, as dvekayantdh for avesayanti?n, and sraddhe- 
yam for sraddhivam, etc. The hymn is translated by Mr. Cole- 
brooke, Ess. i. 32, or p. 16 of W. and N.'s ed.) 

E. V. x. 176, 2. — Pra devarn devyd dhiya bharata Jdtavedasam 
havya no vaxad dnuskak \ " By divine prayer produce Jatavedas : 
may he present our oblations in order." 

K. V. x. 177, 1. — Patangam aktam asurasya may ay a hrida 
pasyanti manasa vipaschitah \ samudfe antah kavayo vichaxate 
marichinam padam ichhanti vedhasah \ 2. Patango vacham 
manasa bibhartti tdfh Gandharvo avadad garbhe antah \ tain 
dyotamdndfii svaryam manishdm ritasya pade kavayo nipanti \ 
" Sages behold with the heart and mind the Bird enveloped by 
the wisdom of the Asura : the wise perceive him in the sky : 
the prudent seek after the abode of his rays. 2. The Bird 
cherishes speech with his mind: the Gandharva hath uttered 
her in the womb : the bards preserve in the place of sacred rites 
this shining and celestial intellect. ,, (See also E. V. x. 189, 3, 
vdk patangaya dhtyate.) 

Third : I shall now adduce the passages in which other Vedic 
deities, whether singly or in concert, are spoken of as concerned 
in the production of the hymns. 

Aditi. — In E. V. viii. 12, 14, Aditi is mentioned as fulfilling 
this function : Yad uta svaraje Aditih stomam lndrdya jijanat 
puru-prasastam utaye ityddi \ " When Aditi generated for the 
self-resplendent Indra a hymn abounding in praises, to suppli- 
cate succour," etc. 

Agni. — E. V. i. 18, 6, 7. — Sadasaspatim abhutam priyam 
Indrasya kamyam \ sanim medham ayasisham \ yasmdd rite na 
siddhyati yajfio vipaschitas chana \ sa dhindm yogam invati \ 
6. "I have resorted, for wisdom, to Sadasaspati (Agni), the 
wonderful, the dear, the beloved of Indra, the beneficent; (7) 
without whom the sacrifice of the wise does not succeed : he 
promotes the course of our ceremonies." 

E. V. iv. 5, 3. — Sdma dmbarhd mahi tigma-bhrishtih sahasra- 
retd vrishabhas tiwiskmdn \ padafh na gor apagulhafh vividvdn 


Agnir mahyafn pra id u vockad manlshdm \ 6. Idam me Agne 
kiyate pdvaka aminate gurum bhdraM na manma \ Vrihad 
dadkdtha dhrishatd gabhlraM yahvam prishtham prayasd sapta- 
dhdtu | " Agni occupying two positions, the fierce-flaming, the 
prolific, the showerer of benefits, the opulent, who knows the 
6acred hymn, mysterious as the track of a [missing cow], has 
declared to me the knowledge [of it]. 6. To me who am feeble, 
though innoxious, thou, o.Agni, purifier, hast given, as a heavy 
load, this great, profound, and extensive hymn, of seven elements, 
with efficacious oblations." (I find a difficulty, even with the 
help of Sayana's Commentary, in translating the remaining 
word of this verse, prisktham. See Part Second, p. 489.) 

R. V. iv. 6, 1. — Toaih hi visvam abhi asi manma pra vedhasas 
chit tirasi manlshdm \ " Thou presidest over all thoughts [or 
prayers] ; thou promotest the praises of the sage." 

R. V. iv. 11, 3.— Tvad Agne kdvyd tvad manishds tvad ukthd 
jay ante rddhydni \ " From thee, Agni, proceed poetic thoughts ; 
from thee the products of the mind ; from thee effective hymns." 

R. V. x. 21, 5.— Agnir jdto Atkarvand vidad visvdni kdvyd \ 
" Agni, generated by Atharvan, is acquainted with all wisdom." 

R. V. x. 91, 8. — . . . Medkdkdrafii vidathasya prasddhanam 
Agnim ityddi \ " Agni, the giver of understanding, the accom- 
plisher of sacrifice." 

R. V. x. 4, 5. — Yad vo vayam pramindmo vratani vidushdih, 
deed amdustardsali \ Agnis tad visvam dprindti vidvdn yebhir 
devdn ritubhiti kalpaydti \ Yat pdkatrd manasd ddnadaxd na 
yajfiasya manvate martydsaJi \ Agnis tad kotd kratuvid vijdnan 
yajishtho devdn rituso yajdti \ " When, o [ye] gods, we, the most 
unwise among the wise, undertake sacred rites in your honour, the 
wise Agni completes them all, at the stated seasons which he 
assigns to the gods. When men, devoted to sacrifice, do not, 
from their ignorance, rightly comprehend the mode of worship, 
Agni, the skilful sacrificer, and most eminent of priests, know- 
ing the ceremonial, worships the gods at the proper seasons." 

(As rites and hymns were closely united in the practice of the 


early Indians, and are often expressed by the same words; if 
Agni was supposed to be the director of the one, viz., the obla- 
tions, he might easily come to be also regarded as aiding in the 
production of the other— the hymns. Verse 4, occurs also in the 
A. V. xix. 59, 1, 2, where, however, dprindtu is read instead of 
aprindti, and in place of the words yebhir demn, etc., at the 
close of the verse, we have, somascka yo brdhmandn a vivesa \ 
" and Soma, who entered into the priests.") 

Brahmanaspati. — R. V. i. 40, 5, 6. — Pra nUnam Brahman- 
aspatir mantrafh vadati ukthyam \ yasminn Indro Varuno 
Mitral Aryama devd okdih&i chakrire \ Tarn id vochema mda- 
theshu sambhuvam mantraffi, devd anehasam ityddi \ " Brahman- 
aspati (abiding in the worshipper's mouth, according to the 
scholiast) utters the hymn accompanied with praise, in which 
the gods, Indra, Varuna, Mitra, and Aryaman, have made their 
abode. Let us utter, gods, at sacrifices, that spotless hymn, 
conferring felicity." (Roth in his Lexicon considers okas to 
mean " good pleasure," " satisfaction." See also his Essay on 
Brahma and the Brahmans, Jour, of the Germ. Or. Soc. i. 74.) 

Brihaspati. — R. V. ii. 23, 2. — Usrdfi iva sUryo jyotiskd maho 
visveskdm ij janitd brahmandm asi | "As the glorious sun by 
his lustre generates rays, so art thou (Brihaspati) the generator 
of all prayers." 

Gandharva. — According to Professor Roth (see under the 
word in his Lexicon), the Gandharva is represented in the Veda 
as a deity who knows and reveals the secrets of heaven, and 
divine truths in general; in proof of which he quotes the 
following texts : — 

R. V. x. 139, 5. — Visvdvasur abhi tad no grindtu divyo Gan- 
dharvo rajaso vimdnali \ Yad vd ghd satyam uta yad na vidma 
dhiyo hinvdno dhiyali id noli avydh \ " May the celestial Gan- 
dharva Visvavasu, who is the measurer of the atmosphere, de- 
clare to us that which is true, or which we know not. May he 
receive and delight in our hymns, [or, stimulating our interests, 
may he prosper our hymns]." 


A. V. ii. 1, 2. — Pra tad voched amritasya vidvdn Gandharvo 
dhdma par amain, guhd yat \ " May the Gandharva, who knows 
the world of the immortals, declare to us that supreme and 
mysterious abode." 

Indra. — R. V. iii. 54, 17,—Mahat tad vaji kavayas chdru 
noma yad ha devd bhavatha visve Indre \ sakhd Ribhubhfli puru- 
huta priyebhir imdih dhiyaM sataye taxatd ndti \ "Great, o 
sage [Asvins], is that cherished name of yours, through which 
[or, that] ye all become gods with (in) Indra. Do thou, much 
invoked (Indra), our friend, with the beloved Ribhus, fabricate 
(or dispose) this hymn for our welfare." (This may merely 
mean that Indra was asked to give a favourable issue to the 
prayer of the worshipper, not to compose his hymn for him. 
See Roth's Lexicon, under the word tax, 3.) 

R. V. vi. 26, 3.— ToaM kaviM chodayah arkasdtdv ityddi | 
" Thou (Indra) didst stimulate the poet in the composition of his 
hymns," etc. (Sayana renders arkasdtau, "for the sake of 
finding food.") 

R. V. vi. 18, 15. — Krishvd kritno akritafn yat te asti ukthafh, 
navtyo janayasva yajfiaih \ " Energetic (Indra), do what thou 
hast never yet done ; generate a new song with the sacrifices." 

R. V. vi. 34, 1. — Safh cha tve jagmur girali Indra ptirvir vi 
cha tvad yanti vibhvo manishah \ " Many hymns are congre- 
gated in thee, o Indra, and numerous products of the mind issue 
from thee." (This verse has been already quoted in p. 124.) 

R. V. vi. 47, 10. — Indra mrila mahyafnjlvatum ichcha cko- 
daya dhiyam ayaso na dharam \ Yat kificha ahaik tvayur idaih 
vaddmi taj juskasva kridhi ma devavantam \ " Indra, gladden 
me, decree life for me, sharpen my intellect like the edge of an 
iron instrument. Whatever I, longing for thee, now utter, do 
thou accept; give me divine protection." (Compare with the 
word chodaya the use of the word prachodaydt in the Gayatrl, 
R. V. iii. 62, 10, which will be given below.) 

R. V. vii. 97. 3.— Tarn u namasd hamrbhiJi susevam Brah- 
manaspatifh grimshe \ Indrafh sloko mahi dawyaji sishaktu yo 


brahmano devahritasya raja \ 5. Tarn a no arkam amritdyajush- 
tam bne dhdsur amritdsah purajdli ityddi \ " 3. I invoke with 
reverence and with offerings the beneficent Brahmanaspati. Let 
a great and divine song celebrate Indra, who is king of the 
prayer made by the devas. 5. May these ancient immortals 
make this our hymn acceptable to the immortal, ,, etc. (Are we 
to understand the word deva here of gods or priests ?) 

R. V. viii. 13, 7. — Pratnavaj janaya girah srinudhi jaritur 
havam \ " As of old, generate hymns ; hear the invocation of 
thy worshipper." 

E. V. x. 112, 9. — Ni shu slda ganapate ganeshu tvdm dhur 
vipratamam kavlndm \ na rite tvat kriyate kifickana are mahdm 
arkam Maghavan chitram archa \ " Lord of assemblies, sit amid 
our multitudes ; they call thee the wisest of poets. Nothing is 
done without, or apart from thee; Maghavan, receive with favour 
our great and beautiful hymn." (Already quoted in p. 148.) 

Indra and Vishnu. — R. V. vi. 69, 2. — Yd visvdsaM janitdrd 
matlnam Indra -Vishnu kalasd soma-dhand \ Pra vain girah 
sasyamdnah avantu pra stomdso giyamanasaTi arkaih \ " Indra 
and Vishnu, ye who are the generators of all hymns, who are 
the vessels into which soma is poured, may the praises which 
are now recited gratify you, and the songs which are chaunted 
with encomiums." 

Indra and Varuna. — The following passage is not, properly 
speaking, a portion of the Rig-veda, as it is part of one of the 
Valakhilyas or apocryphal additions (described in Part Second, 
p. 210), which are found inserted between the 48th and 49th 
hymns of the 8th Mandala. From its style, however, it appears 
to be nearly as old as some parts of the R. V. 

Indrdvarund yad rishibhyo manishdih vacho matifh srutam 
adattam agre \ ydni sthanany asrijanta dhird yajfiarn, tanvands 
tapasa f bhyapasyam \ " Indra and Varuna, I have seen through 
devotion that which ye formerly gave to the rishis, wisdom, under- 
standing of speech, sacred lore, and all the places which the sages 
created, when performing sacrifice." (See Part Second, p. 220.) 


Puskan. — R. V. x. 26, 4. — MaMslmaki tva vayam asmdkalk 
deva Puskan matlnMcha sddkanam viprdndflcha ddkavam \ 
" We adore thee, divine Pushan, the accomplisher of our hymns, 
and the stimulator of sages." 

Savitri.—R. V. iii. 62 (= S. V. ii. 812, and Vaj. S. iii. 35).— 

Tat Savitur varenyam bhargo devasya dklmaki \ dkiyo yo nab 

prachodayat \ " We meditate that excellent glory of the divine 

Savitri ; may he stimulate our understandings [or hymns, or 


(This is the celebrated Gayatrl, the most sacred of all the 
texts in the Veda. See Colebrooke's Misc. Ess. i. pp. 29, 30, 
127, and 175 ; or pp. 14, 15, 78, and 109 of W. and N.'s ed. 
Benfey (S. V. p. 277) translates the Gayatrl thus : " May we 
receive the glorious brightness of this, the generator, of the god 
who shall prosper our works." 

The Iinga Purana (Part II. sec. 48, 5 flf., Bombay litho- 
graphed ed.) gives the following "varieties" of the Gayatrl, 
adapted to modern Saiva worship : Gdyatrl-bkedah || Tatpuru- 
shaya mdmahe vag-wsuddhaya dhlmahi \ Tan nali Sivali pracho- 
dayat || Ganambikayai vidmahe karmasiddhyai cha dhlmahi \ 
Tan no Gaurl prachodayat || Tatpurushaya mdmahe Mahade- 
vaya dhlmahi \ Tan no Rudrah prachodayat || Tatpurushaya 
vidmahe Vaktratundaya dhlmahi \ Tan no Dantili prachodayat || 
Mahasenaya vidmahe vagvimddhaya dhlmahi \ Tan nak Skan- 
daJi prachodayat || Tlamasringdya vidmahe Vedapaddya dhl- 
mahi | Tan no Vrishafy prachodaydd ityddi \ " (1) We contem- 
plate That Purusha, we meditate him who is pure in word [or 
purified by the word] ; may That Siva stimulate us. (2) We 
contemplate GanSmbika, and we meditate Karmasiddhi (the 
accomplishment of works) ; may That Gaurl stimulate us. (3) 
We contemplate That Purusha, and we meditate Mahadeva; may 
That Rudra stimulate us. (4). We contemplate That Purasha, 
and we meditate Vaktratunda (Ganesa) ; may That Danti (the 
elephant) stimulate us. (5) We contemplate Mahasena (Karti- 
keya), and we meditate him who is pure in word ; may That 



Skanda stimulate us. (6) We contemplate Tlxnasringa (the 
sharp-horned), and we meditate the Veda-footed; may Vrisha 
(the bull) stimulate us." 

Soma. — B. V. vi. 47, 3. — Ay am mepltdti udiyartti vacham ay am 
manlskdm usatim ajigah \ " This [soma], when drunk, stimulates 
my speech [or hymn] ; this called forth the ardent thought." 

It may be said that this and the other following texts relating 
to soma, should not be quoted as proofs that any idea of 
divine inspiration was entertained by the ancient Indian bards, as 
they can mean nothing more than that the rishis were sensible 
of a stimulating effect on their thoughts and powers of expres- 
sion, produced by the exhilarating draughts of the juice of that 
plant in which they indulged. But the rishis had come to 
regard Soma as a god, and apparently to be passionately devoted 
to his worship. See Part Second, pp. 470 ff., and especially 
pp. 474, 475. 

A. V. viii. 48, 3. — Apama somam amrita abhUma aganma 
jyotir avidama devan \ hUlk nunam asmdn krinavad amtili Mm u 
dhurttir amrita martyasya \ " We have drunk the soma, we 
have become immortal, we have entered into light, we have 
known the gods ; what can an enemy now do to us ? what can 
the malice of any mortal effect, o immortal god?" 

(This passage is quoted in the commentary of Gaudapada on 
the Sankhya Karika, verse 2, and is translated (incorrectly as 
regards the last clause), by Prof. Wilson, in p. 13 of his Eng- 
lish version.) 

A curious parallel to this last Vedic text is to be found in the 
satyrical drama of Euripides, the Cyclops, 578 ff. ; though here, 
of course, the object is merely to depict the drunken elevation 
of the monster Polyphemus : 

'O 5* bvpav6s fioi <rvfifjL9fiiyp4vos Boicct 

A^crcro) rb trap re Zaifjiovav ayvbv tr^jSas. 

" The sky, commingled with the earth, appears 
To whirl around ; I see the throne of Jove, 
And all the awful glory of the gods." 


E. V. ix. 25, 5. — Arusho janayan girah somah pcwate ayu- 
shag Indram gachchan kamkratuJi \ " The ruddy Soma, sage, 
united with men, purifies us, generating hymns, resorting to 

E. V. ix. 76, 4. — . . . Pita matinam asamashta-kdvyah \ 
" [Soma] father of our hymns, of incomparable wisdom." 

E. V. ix. 95, 2,—Harib srijdnah pathydm ritasya iyartti 
vdcham ariteva ndvam \ devo deodndfh, guhydni ndma amshkri- 
noti barhishi pravdche \ " The golden [Soma] when poured out, 
sends forth the hymn, [or, his voice], the companion of the 
ceremony, as a rower propels a boat. A god, he reveals the 
mysterious names of the gods to the bard upon the sacred grass." 
(See E. V. ii. 42, 1, and x. 116, 9, quoted in p. 137). 

E. V. ix. 96, 5 (= S. V. ii. 293-5).— Svmali pavate janita 
matinam janita dwo janita prithivyd janita Agner janita sur- 
yasya janita Indrasy a janita uta Vishnoli \ 6. Brahma devdnam 
padavlh kavlnam rishir viprdndm mahisho mrigdndfh syeno 
gridhranafk svadhitir vandndM somafr pcmtram ati eti rebhan \ 
7. Pramvipad vdchali urmifn na sindhur girdft somah pavamdno 
manishdh ityddi \ " Soma purifies us, he who is the generator 
of hymns, of the sky, of the earth, of fire, of the sun, of Indra, 
and of Vishnu. 6. Soma, who is Brahma among the gods, a 
leader among the poets, a rishi among sages, a buffalo among 
wild beasts, a falcon among vultures, an axe amid the forests, 
advances to the filter with a sound. The purifying soma, like the 
sea rolling its waves, has poured forth songs, hymns, and 
thoughts," etc. (See Benfey's translation of this passage in his 
Sfima-veda, pp. 238 and 253.) 

Varuna.— E. V. viii. 41, 5, 6. — Yo dhartta bhuvandnaM ya 
usrdndm aplchyd veda ndmdni guhyd \ sa kcrnli kdvyd puru 
rUpam dyaur iva pushyati . . . | Yasmin visvani kdxyd chakre 
ndbhir iva sritd ityddi \ "He who is the upholder of the worlds 
(Varuna), who knows the secret and mysterious names of the 
cows, he, a sage [or poet], cherishes sage [or poetical] works, 
as the sky does many forms In him all sage [or poetical] 


works abide, as the nave within a wheel," etc. (See R. V. vii. 
87, 4, in p. 144, and ix. 95, 2, above, p. 163.) 

Varum, Mitra, and Aryaman. — R. V. vii. 66, 11.— Vi ye 
dadhuli saradam masam ad ahar yajfiam aktufk cha ad richam 
anapyam Varuno Mitrafy Aryama xatrafh rajanali asata | "The 
kings, Varuna, Mitra, and Aryaman, who made the autumn, the 
month, the day, the sacrifice, night, and the Rik, possess an 
invincible power." 

The following passage of the Rig-veda has (as we have seen 
above, p. 51, note 37; and p. 58), been quoted by Indian 
commentators and aphorists to prove the eternity of the Veda, 
on its own authority : 

R. V. viii. 64, 6. — Tasmai nunam abhidyave vacha Virupa 
nityaya vrishne c/iodasva sushtutim | "Send forth praises, 
Virupa, to this heaven-aspiring and prolific Agni, with perpetual 

There is, however, no reason whatever to suppose that the 
words nityaya vacha mean anything more than perpetual voice. 
There is no ground for imagining that the rishi entertained 
any such conception as became current among the systematic 
theologians of later times, that his words were eternal. The 
word nitya is used in the same sense "perpetual" in R. V. ix. 
12, 7 (= S. V. ii. 55, 2), where it is said of Soma, nityastotro 
vanaspatir dhlnam antar ityadi \ " The monarch of the woods, 
continually-praised, among the hymns," etc., as well as in the 
two following texts : 

R. V. ix. 92, 3. — Somali punanali sadah eti nityam ityadi \ 
" The pure Soma comes to his perpetual abode [or to his abode 
continually]," etc. 

R. V. x. 39, 14 (quoted above, p. 132). — Nityain na sunufii 
tanayafft dadhandli \ " Continuing the series like an unbroken 
line of descendants." 

The tenor of the numerous texts adduced in this Section seems 


clearly to establish the fact that some at least of the ancient Indian 
rishis conceived themselves to be prompted and directed, in the 
composition of their hymns and prayers, by supernatural aid, de- 
rived from various deities of their pantheon. It may add force to 
the proof derived from these texts, and show that I am the less 
likely to have misunderstood their purport and spirit, if I adduce 
some evidence that a similar conception was not unknown in 
another region of the ancient Indo-Germanic world, and that the 
expressions in which the early Grecian bards laid claim to an 
inspiration descending from the Muses, or from Apollo, were not 
mere figures of speech, but significant, originally, of a living 
belief. Most of the following passages, from Hesiod and Homer, 
in which this idea is enunciated, are referred to in Mr. Grote's 
History of Greece, i. 478. 
Hesiod, Theogonia, 22 :— 

"Ax vv voff 'HaloHov koAV 4dlZa^ay boityv 
"Apvas iroifialvov0 > 'EKikwvos thro (adeoto. 
T6v$€ 5e fie vp^riara deed irphs fivOov U tic ay, 
Movacu 'OAu/iiridfcr, Kovpai Aios aiyi6xoio. 
Uoifi4v€s &ypav\oi, k&k' eA.eyx 6a » ywripts Ziov y 
y l5/*ev tytvhta iroWa \eycut Mfxoiaiy 6fio?a, 
"l8/i€j> y, ?ut' 404\wficv, aXrjOca /iv0^<ra<r0cu« 
*ris tyaarew Kovpat (xtydkov Alos dprteVetou* 
Kai fioi aKrJTrrpov ttiov, $6.<pm)s ipi(h)\4os 6(ov, 
Ap&paaai OtjiitSv' Iviirvtvaav 5^ fioi avtyv 
®eir\v, &s K\eioifu rd r* iaaropeva, vp6 r' i6trra, 
Kai fie KiKovff itfivuv luut&poov yivos hxcv i6vra>v f 
2<pas t' avTas vpur6v re koX ttartpov a,i€v feifciv. 

" Hesiod erst was instructed in beautiful song by the Muses, 
Once as he tended his lambs under glorious Helicon's summit. 
Me then the goddesses first, the Olympian Muses, accosted : 
This was the word which those daughters of Jupiter spake in my hearing : 
' Ye who abide in the fields, ye contemptible, gluttonous shepherds, 
Full many tales we can tell which are feigned, though they seem to be real ; 
But we are skilled, when we please, to relate the reality also.' 
Thus, very fluent in speech, mighty Jupiter's daughters addressed me. 
Straightway then plucking a branch of luxuriant laurel, the Muses 
Gave it to me for a staff, and inspired me with speech superhuman, 
Fitting me thus to make known both the future and also the bygone. 
Next they enjoined me to hymn the immortals, unchangeably blessed, 
Chiefly, however, to sing their own praises, beginning and ending." 


Hesiod, Theogonia, 94 : — 

'Ek yap Movadav iced ticriQAkov 'AittlAAwos 
"Avtipcs aottiol taaiv M p^pa Kal KtOapurrai, 
'Ek til Aths ($acri\ri€s. 

" Minstrels who come to this earth, as well as all tuneful musicians, 
Spring from the heavenly Muses, and from the far-darting Apollo : 
Kings are from Jupiter sprung." 

The following are the words in which the author of the Iliad 
invokes the aid of the Muses, to qualify him for enumerating 
the generals of the Grecian host (Iliad, ii. 484) : — 

"E<nr6T6 vvv fioi Movcrcu OAvfjLicia Hcop&.r* %x ovaai y 
'Tficis yap Otal 4<rr* *dp*<rr4 re litrrc re ircbra, 
*H/i€is 5i k\4os %u>v faovojitv 6v94 ti ttpev. 

" Tell to me now, o ye Muses, who dwell in Olympian mansions, 
Ye who are goddesses, present, and knowing all things which befall men, 
Things of which we may hear rumours, but never get accurate knowledge — 
Tell to me who were commanders and chiefs of the Grecian army." 

But the Muses could also take away, as well as impart, the 
gift of song, as appears from Iliad, ii. 594 ff. 

"Ev$a r€ Movaai 
*Arr6fi(vai Bdfivpiv rbv Qp^tKa iravffav boitirjs' 
Stcuto yap ivxtpcvos viicria4pcv J tnctp ay avral 
Movcrai acltotcv, Kovpai Aihs aiyi6xoio. 
'At S± x o ^ fltf<r ^/ i€VCU Trnpbv 04aav, avrap aotfyv 
Qanrealriv o$4\ovto, tta\ 4it\4\a0ov KiOapiarbv. 

" That was the spot where the Muses 
Thracian Thamyris met, when they stopped his career as a minstrel. 
Boastingly he had affirmed that, if even the heavenly Muses, 
Daughters of Jove, should compete, he would bear off the laurels for singing. 
Hotly indignant, they smote him with blindness, and took away from him 
Minstrelsy, science divine, and his skill in melodious music." 

The following passages from the Odyssey refer to Demodocus, 
the bard who sang at the court of Alcinous, King of the Phse- 
acians (Odyssey, viii. 43 ff.) :— 

Ka\4<raadc $6 Qtiov aoiB6v, 
Ar)n6$oKov' rep ydp 'pa Bibs 7c4pi 5a>/cev aoiM\v, 
T4p*eiv t flxwp dvfxbs 4trorpinr^tnv &c(5«v. 

" And summon Demodocus hither, 
Minstrel divine, whom the god hath endowed with most exquisite science, 
Charming, whenever his spirit impels him to sing for our pleasure." 


Odyssey, viii. 62 ff. — 

Krjpv£ JP iyytOw %\d€v &ywv ipi-fipov &oi$hv* 

Tbv v4pi Mover* 4(pi\7}(T€, 9i$ov 8* b.yaQ6v T€ kouc6v t€, 

*0<j)&a\fJL&p fi\v &fiep(T€ Mltov b*riltciav toTMiv. 

" Afterward nigh came the herald, conducting the loveable minstrel. 
Him the Muse tenderly loved, but she dealt him good mingled with evil ; 
Eyesight she took from him, while she assigned him sweet song in requital." 

Odyssey, viii. 73— 

Movo* &p" aoiS&p h.vr}Ktv fai$4u€vcu K\4a ivtipwv k.t.A. 
" Next the Muse stirred up the bard to resound the achievements of heroes." 

A little further on, Ulysses says of Demodocus (Odyssey, 
viii. 479 ff.) :— 

Haai ykp toOpdncoiffiv iirixOoviotcriv oo<5o2 
Tifirjs tfiyuopol elffi kol\ bitiovs. IIvvck* &pa ff<f>4as 
"Oi/ios Movo* imitate, <pl\i)(r( & <pv\ov b\oi$&v. 

" All men who dwell upon earth stand in awe of, and honour, their minstrels, 
Since the Muse teaches them lays, and looks on the tribe with affection." 

And again he addresses him thus (Odyssey, viii. 487) : — 

AtlfiMoK?, Qox* &4 <T€ fipor&v &iyl(ofi aicdvrcov, 
'H o-4 yc Movo* iBlBa^e Aibs irais, ^ <r4 *f Aic6\\a>v. 
Airjv yhp koto ic6apov 'Axaicov Zvrov bel$€is, k.t.X. 

" Happy I deem thee, Demodocus, far above all other mortals. 
Either the Muse, Jove's daughter, hath taught thee, or Phoebus Apollo ; 
Such the exactness with which thou relatest the fate of the Argives." 3 

Phemius, the Ithacan minstrel, thus supplicates Ulysses to 
spare his life (Odyssey, xxii. 345 ff.) : — 

'Awry rot iur4wur(t &x°* foacrat, tiKcv ho&6v 
TityvTjs, Us re Qtoicri kolL hvOpf&icourtv oeftw. 
'AvrotiHtcucros 5* iifd, Btbs 84 poi iv <ppccr\v 6i/xas 
Uavrolas iv4<j>va€V. 

" Afterward, thou thyself shalt lament if thou slayest the minstrel, — 
Me, who sing praise to the gods, and delight mankind with my legends. 
Self-instructed am I, but a god hath implanted within me 
All kinds of narrative lore." 

3 "That is," says Mr. Grote, " Demodocus has either been inspired as a poet by 
the muse, or as a prophet by Apollo, for the Homeric Apollo is not the god of song. 
Kalchas, the prophet, receives his inspiration from Apollo, who confers upon him the 
same knowledge, both of past and future, as the Muses give to Hesiod." But does 
not this passage itself (Odyssey viii. 488) show that the Homeric Apollo was the god 
of song, as well as the bestower of prophetic intuition ? and do we not learn the 
same from Iliad, i. 603 ? In any case, it is quite clear from Theog. 94, quoted above, 
that Hesiod regarded Apollo in this character. 


The early Greeks believed that the gift of prophecy also, 
as well as that of song, was imparted by the gods to mortals. 
This appears from the following passage of Homer (Iliad, 

i. 69) :— 

Kd\x as QemoplHris, buovoic6\Mi/ #x* tpurros t 
*Os #5if rd r' 46rra rd r* itraSpcva, irp6 r* 46vra, 
Kal v^eercr* rryfiffar* *\x ai ^ v "IAiok &<ra, 
*Hv dih fjuwToatvriVj rfo 61 iropc 4>o?&os 'AicSWcoy. 

" Calchas, the great son of Thestor, all other diviners excelling, 
Skilled in the present, foreseeing the future, and knowing the bygone ; 
Guide of the Grecian gallies from Hellas to Ilion's roadstead, 
Thanks to that power of divining which Phoebus Apollo imparted." 

It is well argued by Mr. Grote that the early Greeks really 
believed in the inspiration of their bards by the Muses (History 
of Greece, i. 477 ff.) :— 

" His [the early Greek's] faith is ready, literal and unin- 
quiring, apart from all thought of discriminating fact from 
fiction, or of detecting hidden and symbolized meaning : it is 
enough that what he hears be intrinsically plausible and seduc- 
tive, and that there be no special cause to provoke doubt. And 
if indeed there were, the poet overrules such doubts by the holy 
and all-sufficient authority of the Muse, whose omniscience is 
the warrant for his recital, as her inspiration is the cause of his 
success. The state of mind, and the relation of speaker to 
hearers, thus depicted, stand clearly marked in the terms and 
tenor of the ancient epic, if we only put a plain meaning upon 
what we read. The poet — like the prophet, whom he so much 
resembles — sing3 under heavenly guidance, inspired by the 
goddess to whom he has prayed for her assisting impulse. She 
puts the word into his mouth and the incidents into his mind ; 
he is a privileged man, chosen as her organ, and speaking from 
her revelations. As the Muse grants the gift of song to whom 
she will, so she sometimes in her anger snatches it away, and 
the most consummate human genius is then left silent and help- 
less. It is true that these expressions, of the Muse inspiring, 


and the poet singing, a tale of past times, have passed from the 
ancient epic to compositions produced under very different cir- 
cumstances, and have now degenerated into unmeaning forms 
of speech ; but they gained currency originally in their genuine 
and literal acceptation. If poets had from the beginning written 
or recited, the predicate of singing would never have been 
ascribed to them ; nor would it ever have become customary to 
employ the name of the Muse as a die to be stamped on licensed 
fiction, unless the practice had begun when her agency was 
invoked and hailed in perfect good faith. Belief, the fruit of 
deliberate inquiry, and a rational scrutiny of evidence, is in such 
an age unknown ; the simple faith of the time slides in uncon- 
sciously, when the imagination and feeling are exalted ; and in- 
spired authority is at once understood, easily admitted, and 
implicitly confided in." 

If we extend our researches over the pages of Homer, we 
shall speedily discover numerous other instances of divine 
interference in human affairs, not merely (1) in the general 
government of the world, in the distribution of good and 
evil, and the allotment of the diversified gifts, intellectual, 
moral, and physical, which constitute the innumerable varieties 
of human condition, but also (2) in the way of special sug- 
gestion, guidance, encouragement, and protection, afforded to 

Illustrations of the general control exercised by the gods over 
the fortunes of mankind may be found in the following passages 
of the Iliad, xiii. 730 ff., and of the Odyssey, i. 347 f. ; iv. 236 f. ; 
vi. 188 f. ; viii. 167-175 ; xvii. 218, 485 ff. 

The following are illustrations of the special interference of 
the gods in behalf of their favourites :— Iliad, i. 194 ff., 218 ; iii. 
380 ff. ; v. 1 ff. ; vii. 272 ; xiii. 60 f., 435 ; xvi. 788 ff. :-Odyssey, 
i. 319 ff. ; iii. 26 ff. ; xiv. 216 f., 227 ; xvi. 159 ff. 4 Of the latter 
class of passages, I quote two specimens. 

4 Compare Prof. Blackie's dissertation on the theology of Homer in the " Classical 
Museum," vol. vii. pp. 414 ff. 


Odyssey, i. 319 ff.— 

'H fx\v &p 6>s efirovcr* &W/3i} yXavKwiris 'Ad^yrj, 
"Opvis 5* &s hvoncaia HUirraro' t<$ Viw\ $vji$ 
07jKe pcvos not ddpffosy \rR*[urt\<ih ri 4 varp6s 
MaWov %t t) rh ndpotOey' 6 5^ <pp€o\v fat vofaas 
edfxfirio-fv /caret 6v/j.6y, otffaro yb.p 6ebv etvat. 

" Thus having spoken, the goddess, the keen-eyed Athene departed, 
Flying aloft like a bird, unobserved : hut to him she implanted 
Courage and strength in hie soul, and reminded him then of his father 
Far more strongly than ever : he then, perceiving the marvel, 
Wondered exceedingly, thinking a god must have been his adviser. 

When Telemachus urges his youth and inexperience as a 
reason for diffidence in approaching Nestor, Minerva says to 
him (Odyssey iii. 26) :— 

Ti}X^uax'> &AAa V^ v avrhs ivl <f>pea\ ajjo-i volants y 
y AA\o tic K<d iaifiwv faco&fio-crar 6v yap ota 
y Ou <re 6c&v h4ici\Ti yeveaOai re rpatpefiev re. 

" Some things thou thyself shalt perceive in thine own understanding ; 
Others, again, some god will suggest to thy spirit, for never 
Hast thou been horn, or bred up, except by celestial permission." 

These passages, however, afford only one exemplification of 
the idea which runs through, and in fact, created, the entire 
mythology of the Greeks, viz., that all the departments of life 
and of nature were animated, controlled, and governed by par- 
ticular deities, by whom they were represented, and in whom 
they were personified. 

The Indian mythology, — as is evident to every reader of the 
Vedas, as well a3 (to some extent) to the student of the 
Puranas, — is distinguished by the same tendency as the Grecian. 
Indra, Agni, Vayu, Varuna, Surya, and many other gods are 
nothing else than personifications of the elements, while Vftch 
or Sarasvatl and some other deities, represent either the divine 
reason by which the more gifted men were supposed to be 
inspired, or some mental function, or ceremonial abstraction. 

In the later religious history, however, of the two races, the 
Hellenic and the Indian, there is in one respect a remarkable 
divergence. Though the priestesses of the different oracles, 


and perhaps some other pretenders to prophetical intuition, 
were popularly regarded as speaking by a divine impulse, 5 the 
idea of inspiration as attaching to poems or other compositions 
of a religious, didactic, or philosophical character, very soon 
became extinct. The Greeks had no sacred Scriptures. Their 
philosophers spoke and wrote in dependance on their own reason 
alone. They never professed to be guided by any supernatural 
assistance, nor claimed any divine authority for their dogmas. 
Nor was any such character of infallibility ever claimed for 
any of them by their successors. 

In India, on the other hand, the indistinct, and perhaps 
hesitating, belief which some of the ancient rishis seem to have 
entertained in their own inspiration was not suffered to die out 
in the minds of later generations. On the contrary this belief 
grew up by degrees into a fixed persuasion that all the literary pro- 
ductions of those early sages had not only resulted from a super- 
nal impulse, but were infallible, divine, and even eternal. These 
works have become the sacred Scriptures of India. And in the 
popular opinion, if not in the estimation of the learned, most 
Indian works of any importance, of a religious, scientific, or 
philosophical kind, which were produced at a later period, have 
come to be regarded as inspired, as soon as the lapse of ages had 
removed the writers beyond familiar or traditional knowledge, 
and invested their names with a halo of reverence. 

To return from this digression to the inquiry which was being 
pursued regarding the opinions of the ancient Vedic rishis on 
the subject of their own inspiration : 

How, it will be asked, are we to reconcile this impression 
which the rishis manifest of being prompted by supernatural 
aid, with the circumstance, which seems to be no less distinctly 
proved by the citations made in the preceding section (pp. 128, 
136), that they frequently speak of themselves as having made, 
fabricated, or generated the hymns, without apparently betray- 

5 See Nagelsbach's Nachhomerische Theologie, pp. 173 ff. 


ing any consciousness that in this process they were inspired or 
guided by any extraneous assistance ? 

I am not in a position to attempt any very precise expla- 
nation of this discrepancy. I will only suggest (1) that 
possibly the idea of inspiration may not have been held by the 
earliest rishis, but may have grown up among their successors ; 
or (2) that it may have been entertained by some rishis, and not 
by others ; or again (3), if both ideas can be traced to the same 
author (as is possibly the case in R. V. i. 109, 1, 4), we may 
suppose that the one notion was uppermost in his mind at one 
moment, and the other at another ; or (4) that he had no very 
clearly defined ideas of inspiration, and might conceive that the 
divine assistance of which he was conscious, or which at least he 
implored, did not render his hymn the less truly the production 
of his own mind ; that, in short, the superhuman and human 
elements were not incompatible with one another. 

The first of these suppositions is, however, attended with this 
difficulty, that both conceptions, viz., that of independent unas- 
sisted composition, and that of inspiration, appear to be dis- 
coverable in all parts of the Rig-veda. As regards the second 
supposition, it might not be easy (in the uncertainty attaching to 
the Vedic tradition contained in the Anukramani or Vedic index) 
to show that such and such hymns were written by such and 
such rishis, rather than by any others. It may, however, be- 
come possible by continued and careful comparison of the Vedic 
hymns, to arrive at some probable conclusions in regard to their 
authorship, so far at least as to determine that particular hymns 
should probably be assigned to particular eras, or families, 
rather than to others. I must, however, leave such investiga- 
tions to be worked out, and the results applied to the present 
subject, by more competent scholars than myself. 

III. — While in many passages of the Veda, an efficacy is 
ascribed to the hymns, which is perhaps nothing greater than 
natural religion teaches all men to attribute to their devotions, 
in other texts a mystical, magical, or supernatural power is 


represented as residing in the prayers and metres. (See Weber's 
Vajasaneyi-Sanhitse specimen, p. 61.) 

Thus in R. V. i. 67, 3, it is said : Ajo na xdtfi dddhdra 
prithivlfii tastambha dydm mantrebhih satyaili \ " (Agni) who 
like the unborn, supported the broad earth, and upheld the sky 
by true prayers." The following is part of Sayana's annotation 
on this verse : Mantrair dim dhdranath Taittinye samdmnd- 
tafii | " devd vd ddityasya svarga-lokasya pardcho 'tipdtdd abi- 
bhayuJi \ tain chhandobhir adrihan dhrityd " iti \ yadvd satyair 
mantraih stuyamdno 'gnir dydffi tastambha iti | " The support- 
ing of the sky by mantras is thus recorded in the Taittiriya : 
1 The gods feared lest the sun and the heaven should fall down; 
they propped them up by metres/ Or the verse may mean 
that Agni, being lauded by true mantras, upheld the sky." 

R. V. i. 164, 25. — Jagatd sindhufii divi astabhdyad rathantare 
sUryam pari apasyat \ gdyatrasya samidhas tisra dhus tato 
ma And pra ririche mahatvd \ "By the Jagatl metre he fixed 
the waters in the sky; he beheld the sun in the Rathantara 
(a portion of the Sama-veda) : there are said to be three 
divisions of the Gayatrl; hence it surpasses [all others] in 
power and grandeur." 

R. V. iii. 53, 12. — Visvdmitrasya raxati brahma idam Bhdra- 
taMjanam \ " The prayer of Visvamitra protects this tribe of 
the Bharatas." 

R. V. v. 31, 4. — Brahmdna Indram mahayanto arkair avar- 
dhayan Ahaye hantavai u \ " The priests magnifying Indra by 
their praises, have fortified him for slaying Agni." 

R. V. v. 40, 6. — . . . Gulham suryafii tamasd apavratena 
turiyena brahmand avindad Atrih | v. 8. . . . Atriti silryasya 
divi chaxur ddhdt svarbhdnor apa mdyd aghuxat | v. 9. Yaifi vai 
sUryafk svarbkdnus tamasd avidhyad dsurah \ Atrayas tarn 
anvavindan na hi anye asaknuvan \ " Atri, by his fourth prayer, 
discovered the sun which had been concealed by an unholy 
darkness. 8. . . . Atri placed the eye of the sun in the sky, 
and hid the delusions of Svarbhanu. 9. The Atris discovered 


the sun, which Svarbhanu, of the Asura race, had pierced ; no 
other could [effect this]." 

R. V. vi. 75, 19. — . . . Devds tain, sarve dhUrvantu brahma 
varma mamdntaram \ " May all the gods destroy him ; the 
prayer is my protecting armour." 

R. V. vii. 19, 11. — Nu Indra sura stwoamdnali uti brahma- 
jutas tanvd vavridhasva ityddi \ "Heroic Indra, lauded with 
devotion, and impelled by our prayers, grow in body," etc. 

R. V. vii. 33, 3. — . . . Even nu kaih ddsardjfte Suddsam 
prdvad Indro brahmand vo VasishthdJi \ 5, . . . Vasishthasya 
stuvatah Indrah asrod uruih Tritsubhyali akrinod u lokam \ 
"Indra has delivered Sudas in the combat of the ten kings 
through your prayer, Vasishtha. 5. Indra heard Vasishtha 
when he praised, and opened a wide place for the Tritsus." 

R. V. viii. 15, 7 (=S. V. ii. 995).— -Tava tyad indriyam 
brihat tava sushmam uta kratufii vajra?% sisati dhishana varen- 
yam | "The hymn sharpens thy great strength, thy vigour, 
thy force, [and thy] glorious thunderbolt." 

(This verse is translated by Benfey, S. V. p. 286, who, in a 
note, thus describes the doctrine of the hymns : " Prayer 
sharpens the thunderbolt, and consequently Indra's might; for 
the power, etc., of all the gods is derived from the sacrifices and 
prayers of men.") 

R. V. viii. 49, 9. — Pahi nafi Ague ekaya pahi uta dvitlyayd 
paid glrbhis tisribhir urjdmpate pahi chatasribhir vaso \ "Pro- 
tect us, Agni, through the first, protect us through the second, 
protect us, lord of power, through three hymns, protect us 
through four, thou gracious one." 

The following passage celebrates the numbers of the metres : 

R. V. x. 114, 8, 9. — Sahasradhd pafichadasani ukthd ydvad 
dydvd-prithivi tdvad it tat \ Sahasradha mahimdnah sahasraM 
ydvad brahma tdvatl vdk \ has chhandasdfh yogam dveda dhirah 
ko dhishnydm prati vdcham papdda \ kam ritvijdm ashtamaik 
suram dhur harl Indrasya ni chikdya hah svit \ " There are a 
thousand times fifteen ukthas; that extends [they extend ?] as 


far as heaven and earth. A thousand times a thousand are the 
glorifications; speech is commensurate with devotion. What 
sage knows the [whole] series [or application] of the metres ? 
Who has obtained all the forms of devotional speech ? Whom do 
they call the eighth hero among priests ? Who has perceived 
the two steeds of Indra ? " 

(The word dhishnya is said by Yaska, Nirukta, viii. 3, to %e 
= to dhishanya, and that again to be = to dkiskandbkava, 
" springing" from dkiskand, " speech," or " sacred speech." 

I conclude the series of texts relating to the power of the 
mantras by quoting the whole of the 130th hymn of the 10th 
Mandala of the R. V. : Yo yajfio visvatas tantubhis tatah eka- 
satam devakarmebkir ayatali \ ime vayanti pitaro ye ayayuh pra 
vaya apa vaya dsate tate \ 2. Pumdn enam tanute utkrinatti 
pumdn vi tatne adhi ndke asmin \ ime mayukkd upa shedur ft 
sadah samani chakrus tasarani otave \ 3. Ka asit pramd pratima 
kirn niddnam ajyam kirn asit paridkih ka asit \ chhandali kirn 
asit praugaM kim uktham yad deva devam ayajanta visve \ 
4. Agner gayatrl abhavat sayugva ushnihaya Savitd sambabhuva \ 
anusktubhd Somah ukthair mahasvan Brikaspater brihatl vacham 
afiat | 5. Viran Mitravarunayor abhisrir Indrasya trishtub iha 
bhdgah ahnah \ Yisvan devdn jagati dvivesa tena chaklripre 
rishayo manushyah \ 6. Chaklripre tena rishayo manuskyd yajfle 
jdte pitarali nah purane \ posy an manye manasd chaxasa tan ye 
imam yajflam ayajante puree | 7. Sahastomdli sahachkandasali 
avritali sahapramdh rishayali sapta daivyali \ pUrvesham pan- 
thdm anudrisya dhlrd anvalebkire ratkyo na r asmin \ " The 
[web of] sacrifice which is stretched on every side with threads, 
which is extended with one hundred [threads], the work of the 
gods, — these fathers who have arrived weave it ; they sit where 
it is extended, [saying?] 'weave forwards, weave backwards/ 
The Man stretches it out and spills it, the Man has extended it 
over this sky. These rays [rishis?] approached the place 
of sacrifice; they made the Sama verses the shuttles for the 
woof. What was the order [of the ceremonial], what the dispo- 

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IV. — But whatever may have been the nature or the source 
of the supernal illumination to which the rishis laid claim, it 
is quite clear that some among them at least made no pre- 
tensions to anything like a perfect knowledge of all subjects, 
human and divine, as they occasionally confess their ignorance 
of matters in which they felt a deep interest and curiosity. This 
is shown in the following texts : 

R. V. i. 164, 5. — Pakak prichchhami manasd avijanan devd- 
ndm end nihitd paddni \ vatse bashkaye adhi sapta tantUn vi 
tatnire kavayah otavai U | 6. Achikitvdn chikitasas chid atra 
kamn prichchhami vidmane na vidvdn \ vi yas tastambha shal 
imd rajd)7isi ajasya rupe kirn api svid ekam | 37. Na vi jdnami 
yad iva idam asmi ninyali sannaddho manasd charami \ yadd 
ma dgan prathamajali ritasya ad id vdchah asnuve bhagam 
asydh | "Immature, not knowing in my mind, I enquire; 
these [are] the hidden or treasured truths [or abodes] of the 
gods; the sages have stretched out seven threads for a woof 
over the yearling calf [or over the sun, the abode of all things]. 
Not comprehending, I ask those sages who comprehend this 
matter ; unknowing, [I ask] that I may know ; what is the one 
thing, in the form of the uncreated, who has upheld these six 
worlds ? 37. I do not recognize if I am like this ; I go on 
perplexed and bound in mind. When the first-born sons of 
sacrifice [or truth] come to me, then I enjoy a share of that 

(I do not attempt to explain the proper sense of these obscure 
and mystical verses. It is sufficient for my purpose that they 
clearly express ignorance on the part of the speaker. Prof. 
Wilson's translation of the passages may be compared. Prof. 
Muller, Anc. Ind. Lit., p. 567, renders verse 37 as follows : — 
" I know not what this is that I am like ; turned inward I walk, 
chained in my mind. When the first-born of time comes near 
me, then I obtain the portion of this speech.") 

R. V. x. 88, 18. — Kati agnayali kati surydsali kati ushasali 
kati u svid dpali \ na upaspijam va}i pitaro vadami prichchhami 



vafr kavayo vidmane kam | " How many fires are there ? how 
many suns J how many dawns ? how many waters ? I do not, 
fathers, say this to you in jest ; I really ask you, sages, in 
order that I may know." 

K. V. x. 129, 5. — Tiraschlno vitato rasmir esham cuttiak svid 
asid upari svid aslt \ retodha asan mahimana asan svadha ava- 
stat prayatili parastdt \ 6. Kali add/id veda kali iha prawchat 
kutah ajata kutak iyaM msrishiili \ arvdg devd asya visarjanena 
atha ko veda yatali ababhuva \ 7. lyafh, visrisktir. yatali abar 
bhttva yadi va dadhe yadi va na \ yali asya adhyaxah parame 
vyoman sa anga veda yadi va na veda \ "Their ray, obliquely 
extended, was it below, or was it above ? There were generative 
sources, and there were great powers, svadha (nature) below, 
and effort above. Who knows, who hath here declared whence 
this creation was produced, whence [it came] ? The gods were 
subsequent to the creation of this universe; who then knows 
whence it sprang? Whence this creation sprang, whether it 
was formed or not, — He who, in the highest heavens, is the 
overseer of this universe,— he indeed knows, or he does not 

(The last verse may also be rendered, " He from whom this 
creation sprang, — whether he made it or not, — he who is the 
overseer of this universe, he knows, or he does not know." 
See the translation of the whole hymn by Mr. Colebrooke in 
his Essays, i. 33, 34, or p. 17 of W. and N.'s ed. See also 
Prof. Miiller's translation and comment in pp. 559-564 of his 
History of Anc. Sanskrit Lit.) 

We have seen (above, p. 45) that a claim is set up (by some 
unknown writer quoted by Sayana) on behalf of the Veda that 
it can impart an understanding of all things, past and future, 
subtile, proximate, and remote ; and that according to Sankara 
AchSryya (on the Brahma sutras, i. 1, 3) as cited above, p. 52, 
note, the knowledge which it manifests, approaches to omnisci- 
ence. All such proud pretensions are, however, plainly enough 
disavowed by the rishis who uttered the complaints of ignorance 


which I have just adduced. It is indeed urged by Sayana (see 
above, pp. 45, 46) in answer to the objection, that passages like 
R. V. x. 129, 5, 6, can possess no authority as sources of 
knowledge, since they express doubt, — that this is not their 
object, but that it rather is to intimate by a figure of speech the 
extreme profundity of the Divine essence, and the great difficulty 
which any persons not well versed in the sacred writings must 
experience in comprehending it. There can, however, be little 
doubt that the authors of the passages I have cited did feel their 
own ignorance and intended to give utterance to this feeling. 
As, however, such confessions of ignorance on the part of the 
rishis, if admitted, would have been incompatible with the doctrine 
that the Veda was an infallible source of divine knowledge, it be- 
came necessary for the later theologians who held that doctrine to 
deny, or explain away, the plain sense of those expressions. 

It should be noticed that these confessions of ignorance and 
fallibility are by no means inconsistent with the supposition 
that the rishis may have conceived themselves to be animated 
and directed in the composition of their hymns by a divine 
impulse. Though the two rivals, Vasishtha and Visvamitra, to 
enhance their own importance, and recommend themselves to 
their royal patrons, talk proudly about the wide range of their 
knowledge (see above, pp. 142-144), it is not necessary to 
imagine that, either in their idea or in that of the other ancient 
Indian sages (any more than in that of the Grecian bards), 
inspiration and infallibility were convertible or co-extensive 
terms. Both the Greek minstrel and the Indian rishi may have 
believed that they received, indeed, such supernatural aid as 
enabled them to perform what they must otherwise have left 
unattempted, but which after all resulted in only a partial 
illumination, and left them still liable to mistake and doubt. 

I must also remark that this belief in their own inspiration 
which I imagine the rishis to have held, falls very far short of 
the conceptions which later writers, whether NaiySyika, Mlman- 
saka, or Vedantist, entertain in regard to the supernatural origin 


and authority of the Veda. The gods from whom the rishis 
supposed that they derived their illumination, at least Agni, 
Indra, Mitra, Varuna, Soma, Pashan, etc., would all fall under 
the category of productions, or divinities created in time. This 
is clearly shown by the comments of Sankara on the Brahma 
Sutras, i. 3, 28 (above, pp. 69, 70). But if these gods were 
themselves created, and even (as we are told in the Rig-veda 
itself, x. 129, 6, cited in p. 178) produced subsequently to some 
other parts of the creation, the hymns with which they inspired 
the rishis, could not have been eternal. The only one of the deities 
referred to in the Rig-veda as sources of illumination, to whom 
this remark would perhaps not apply, is Vach or SarasvatI, who 
is identified with the supreme Brahma in the passage of the 
Vrihad Aranyaka Upanishad quoted above (p. 108, note 53) ; 
though this idea probably originated subsequently to the era of 
the hymns. But it is not to created gods, like Agni, Indra, and 
others of the same class, that the origin of the Veda is referred 
by the Naiyayikas, Mlm&nsakas, or Vedantists. The Naiya- 
yikas represent the eternal Isvara as the author of the Veda ; at 
least, this is the opinion of Udayana Acharyya, the writer of the 
Kusum&njali (in the passages which I shall quote in the Appen- 
dix in a note on p. 81). And the Mlmansakas and Vedantists, 
as we have seen (pp. 52-73, and note 39, pp. 51, 52), either 
affirm that the Veda is uncreated, or derive it from the eternal 
Brahma. Their view, consequently (unless we admit an excep- 
tion in reference to Vach), differs from that of the Vedic rishis 
themselves, who do not seem to have had any idea, either of 
their hymns being uncreated, or of their being derived from the 
eternal Brahma. 

As regards the relation of the rishis to deities like Indra, it is 
also deserving of notice that later mycologists represent the 
former, not only as quite independent of the latter, and as gifted 
with an inherent capacity of raising themselves by their own 
austerities to the enjoyment of various superhuman faculties, 
but even as possessing the power of rivalling the gods them- 


selves, and taking possession of their thrones. See the stories 
of Nahusha and Vis'vSmitra in the First Part of this work, par- 
ticularly pp. 68, 103, and 108. Compare also the passages from 
the Kig-veda, x. 154, 2, and x. 167, 1, quoted above, p. 146, where 
the rishis are said to have attained to heaven, and Indra to have 
conquered it, by devotion (tapas). 

Sect. V. — Texts from the Upanishads, showing the opinions of the authors 
regarding their own inspiration, or that of their predecessors. 

I shall now adduce some passages from the different Upani- 
shads, to show what opinions their authors entertained either in 
regard to their own inspiration, or that of the earlier sages, from 
whom they assert that their doctrine was derived by tradition. 

I. Svetasvatara Up. v. 2 (already quoted above, p. 96). — 
Yo yonvfh yonim adhitishthaty eko visvdni rUpdni yontscha sarvah 
rishim prasutaM Kapilafh yas tarn agre jfidnair bibhartti jdya- 
mdnaficha pasyet | "He who alone presides over every place 
of production, over all forms, and all sources of birth, who 
formerly nourished with various knowledge that rishi Kapila, 
who had been born, and beheld him at his birth." 

II. Svetasvatara Up. vi. 21. — Tapah-prabhdvdd veda-prasd- 
ddchcha Brahma ha Svetdsvataro Hha vidvdn \ atydsramibkyah 
paramam pavitram provdcha samyag rishi-sanghorjwhtam \ 
" By the power of austerity, and by the grace of the Veda, the 
wise Svetasvatara declared perfectly to the men in the highest of 
the four orders, the supreme and holy Brahma, who is sought 
after by the company of rishis." (Dr. Koer's translation, p. 68, 
follows the commentator in rendering the first words of the 
verse thus : " By the power of his austerity, and the grace of 
Qodr This, however, is not the literal meaning of the worde 
veda-prasdddchcha, a reading the correctness of which is not 

III. Mundaka Up. i. 1 ff. (quoted above, p. 18, more at 


length). — Brahma devanam prathamali sambabhiiva visvasya 
karttd bhuvanasya goptd \ Sa brahma-vidydlk sarva-vidyd-pra- 
tishthdm Atharvaya jyeshtha-putraya praha \ " Brahma was 
born the first of the gods, he who is the maker of the universe 
and the supporter of the world. He declared the science of 
Brahma, the foundation of all the sciences, to Atharva, his 
eldest son." 

IV. Chhandogya Up. p. 625 fi*. — Tad ha etad Brahma Praja- 
pataye uvdcha Prajdpatir Manave Manuliprajdbhyali \ acharyya- 
kulad vedam adkitya yathd vidhdnatfi guroli karmatiseshena 
abhisamdvritya kutumbe suchau dese svddhyayam adhiydno 
dharmikdn vidadhad dtmani sarvendriyani sampratishthapya 
ahvfh&an sarva-bhutani anyatra tlrthebhyali sa khalv ecaih vartta- 
yan ydvaddyasham Brahma-lokam abhisampadyate na cha punar 
dvarttate na cha punar dvarttate I "This [doctrine] Brahma 
declared to Prajapati, Prajapati declared it to Manu, and Manu 
to his descendants. Having received instruction in the Veda from 
the family of his religious teacher in the prescribed manner, and 
in the time which remains after performing his duty to his pre- 
ceptor ; and when he has ceased from this, continuing his religious 
studies at home, in his family, in a pure spot, communicating a 
knowledge of duty [to young men], withdrawing all his senses 
into himself, doing injury to no living creature, away from holy 
places [?], thus passing all his days, a man attains to the world 
of Brahma, and does not return again, and does not return 
again, [i.e., is not subjected to any future births]." 

I quote the commencement of Sankara's comment on this 
passage : Tad ha etad dtma-jfianatfi sopakaranam om ity etad 
axaram ityddyaih saha updsanais tadvdckakena granthena ash- 
tadhydya-laxanena saha Brahma Hiranyagarbhali Parames- 
varo vd taddvdrena Prajapataye Kasyapaya uvacha \ asdv apt 
Manave svaputraya \ Manuh prajdbhyah \ ityevam sruty-arthar 
sampraddya-paramparayd agatam upanishad-vijftanam adyapi 
vidvatsv avagamyate \ " This knowledge of soul, with its instru- 
ments, with the sacred monosyllable om and other formulas of 


devotion, and with the book distinguished as containing eight 
chapters, which sets forth all these topics, [viz., the Chhandogya 
Upanishad itself] was declared by Brahma Hiranyagarbha, or 
by Paramesvara (the supreme God), through his agency, to 
the Prajapati Kasyapa. The latter in his turn declared it to 
his son Manu, and Manu to his descendants. In this man- 
ner the sacred knowledge contained in the Upanishads, having 
been received through successive transmission of the sense of 
the Veda from generation to generation, is to this day under- 
stood among learned men." 


Note I. on Page 19, Line 2. 

I adduce here some farther passages from Indian authors in 
addition to those already cited in pp. 17-19, which depreciate the 
ceremonial, or exoteric parts of the Vedas, in comparison with 
the esoteric knowledge of Brahma. 

I. My attention has been drawn to the following passage of the 
JBhagavad Gltfi, ii. 42 ff., by its quotation in an (as yet) unpub- 
lished work on Hindu Philosophy by the Kev. Professor K. M. 
Banerjea, of Calcutta : Yam imam pushpitaM vacham prava- 
danty avipaschitali \ veda-vada-ratali partha ndnyad astiti vadi- 
nah | kamdtmanafi svarga-pardli janma-karma-phala-pradam | 
kriycwisesha-bahulam bhogaiwarya-gatim prati \ bkogaisvarya- 
prasaktanam taya 'pahritarchetasam \ vyavasayatmikd buddhili 
samadhau na vidhtyate \ traigunya-vishaya veda nistraigunyo 
bhavdrjuna | . . . yavdn artka udapane sarvatali samplutodake \ 
tavan sarvesku vedeshu brakmanasya mjdnatali \ "A flowery 
doctrine (promising future births and the reward of works, pre- 
scribing numerous ceremonies, with a view to future gratifica- 
tion and glory) is preached by unlearned men, devoted to the 
injunctions of the Veda, assertors of its exclusive importance, 
sensual in disposition, and seekers after paradise. The restless 
minds of the men who, through this [flowery doctrine], have 
become bereft of wisdom, and are ardent in the pursuit of 
future enjoyment and glory, are not applied to contemplation. 
The Vedas have for their objects the three qualities (sattva, 


rajas, tamas, or ' goodness/ ' passion/ and 'darkness'); but be 
thou, Arjuna, free from these three qualities. ... As great as is the 
use of a well which is surrounded on every side by overflowing 
waters, so great [and no greater?] is the use of the Vedas to 
a Brahman endowed with true knowledge." 

II. Chhandogya Up. p. 473 (Colebrooke's Essays, i. 12).— 
Adhihi bhagava iti ha upasasdda SanatkumdraM Ndradali \ taM 
ha uvdcha yad vettha tena ma upasida tatas te urddhvafn, 
vaxyami iti \ sa ha uvdcha rigvedam bhagavo 'dhyemi yajurvedaih, 
sdma-vedam dtharvanaih chaturtham itihdsa-purdnam paficha- 
mam veddndm vedam pitryaih rd'siih, daivafh nidhiia vdkovdk- 
yam ekdyanafh deva-vidydm brahmorvidyam bhuta-vidydih xatra- 
mdydfh naxatra-vidydih sarpa-deva-janarvidydm etad bhagavo 
'dhyemi | so 'ham bhagavo mantra-vid evdsmi na atma-wt \ 
srutaih hy eva me bkagavaddrisebhyas i tarati sokam dtma-vid 9 
iti so 9 ham bhagavah sochdmi tarn ma bhagavdn sokasya pdraiti 
tarayatv iti \ tain, ha uvdcha yad vai kificha etad adhyagxshthd 
ndma evaitat | nama va rigvedo yajur-vedafi sdmaveda dthar- 
vanas chaturtha itihasa-purdnali paflchamo vedandih vedah 
pitryo rdsir daivo nidhir vdkovdkyam ekdyanaih deva-vidyd 
brahmarvidya bhuta-vidyd xatra-vidya naxatra-mdya sarpa-deva- 
jana-mdya nama evaitad ndma updsva iti \ sa yo ndma brahma 
ity updste yavad ndmno gataifi tatra asya yatha kdmachdro 
bhavati yo ndma brahma ity updste \ asti bhagavo namno bhuya 
iti | ndmno vdva bhUyo 'sti iti \ tan me bhagavdn bramtv iti \ 
" Narada approached SanatkurtUJra, saying, ' Instruct me, vener- 
able sage/ He received for answer, ' Approach me with [i.e., 
tell me] that which thou knowest; and I will declare to thee 
whatever more is to be learnt.' Narada replied, 'I am in- 
structed, venerable * sage, in the Rig-veda, the Yajur-veda, the 
Sama-veda, the Atharvana, [which is] the fourth, the Itihfisas 
and Puranas, [which are] the fifth Veda of the Vedas, the rites 
of the pitris, arithmetic, the knowledge of portents, and of 
great periods, the art of reasoning, ethics, interpretation, the 
knowledge of Scripture, demonology, the science of w$r, the 


knowledge of the stars, the sciences of serpents and deities ; 
this is what I have studied. I, venerable man, know only 
the hymns {mantras)) while I am ignorant of soul. But 
I have heard from reverend sages like yourself that "the 
man who is acquainted, with soul overpasses grief." Now I, 
venerable man, am afflicted ; but do thou conduct me across 
my grief/ Sanatkumara answered, 'That which thou hast 
studied is nothing but name. The Rig-veda is name; and 
so are the Yajur-veda, the Sama-veda, the Atharvana, the fourth, 
and the Itihasas and Puranas, the fifth Veda of the Vedas, 
etc. [all the other branches of knowledge are here enumerated 
just as above], — all these are but name: worship the name. 
He who worships a name with the persuasion that it is Brahma, 
holds as it were a dominion at his will over all which that name 
comprehends; — such is the prerogative of him who worships 
name with the persuasion that it is Brahma/ ' Is there any- 
thing, venerable man/ asked Narada, 'which is more than 
name?' 'There is/ he replied, ' something more than name?' 
' Tell it to me/ rejoined Narada." 

(Sankara interprets the words pafichamatfi vedanarh vedam 
differently from what I have done. He separates the words 
veddndM vedam from pafichamam and makes them to mean the 
means of knowing the Vedas, i.e., grammar. See above, p. 107.) 

III. Brihadaranyaka Up. iv. 3, 22 (p. 792 ff., p. 228-9 of Dr. 
Roer's English). — Atra pita apitd bhavati mdtd amdtd lokd 
alokd devd adevd veid aveddh \ atra steno 'steno bhavati bhrUna- 
hd abhrUna-hd chdnddlo 'chdnddlah paulkaso 'paulkasafc sra- 
mano f sramanas tdpaso 'tdpaso nanvdgatam punyena ananvdgar 
tarn pdpena tlrno hi tadd sarvdn sokdn hridayasya bhavati | 
" In that [condition of transcendental knowledge] a father is no 
father, a mother is no mother, the worlds are no worlds, the 
gods are no gods, and the Vedas are no Vedas. In that con- 
dition a thief is no thief, a murderer of embryos is no murderer 
of embryos, a Chandala no Ghandala, a Paulkasa no Paulkasa, 
a Sramana no Sramana, a devotee no devotee ; the saint has 


then no relation either to merit or sin ; for he then crosses over 
all griefs of the heart." 

(I quote Sankara's explanation of the unusual words nanvd- 
gata and ananvdgata : Nanvdgatafh na anvdgatam ananvdgatam 
asambaddham ity etat pxmyena kdstra-vihitena karmand tathd 
pdpena vihitdkarana-pratiskiddka-kriyd-lcuvanena \ " Nanvdgata, 
i.e., na (not) anvdgata, or ananvagata, i.e., asambaddha. This 
condition is unconnected either with merit, i.e., action enjoined 
by the sfistra, or with sin, i.e., action distinguished as the neglect 
of what is enjoined, or the doing of what is forbidden.") 

IV. To the same effect the great sage Natada is made to 
speak in the Bhagavata Pur. iv. 29, 42 S. : Prajdpati-patili 
sdxdd bhagavdn Giriso ManuJi \ Daxddayali prajddhyaxd 
naishthikdh Sanakddayali \ Manchir Atryangirasau Pulastyak 
Pulahali Kratuli \ Bhrigur Vasishtha ity ete mad-antd brakma- 
vddinah \ adyapi vdchaspatayas tapo-vidyd-samddAibhilb \ pas- 
yanto 'py na pasyanti pasyantam Paramesvaram \ sabda-brah- 
mani dushpdre charanta uruvistare \ mantra-lingair vyavack- 
chhinnam bhajanto na viduJi param \ yadd yasydnugrihndti 
bhagavdn dtma-bhdvitali \ sa jahdti matifh loke vede cha pari- 
nishthitdm \ tasmdt karmasu var/dskmann qjfidndd artha-kdst- 
shu | md 'rtha-drishtifii krithdli srotra-sparsishv asprishta-vas- 
tushu | sva-lokaffo na vidus te vai yatra devo Jandrdanalk \ dhur 
dhumra-dhiyo vedaM sakarmakam atad-vidali \ dstlrya darbhaih 
prdg-agraih kdrtsnyena xiti-mandalam \ stabdho vrihad-vadkdd 
mdnl karma ndvaishi yat param \ tat karma Ifari-toska/h yat sd 
mdyd tan-matvr yayd \ " Brahma himself, the divine Girisa 
(Siva), Manu, Daxa and the other Prajapatis, Sanaka and 
other devotees, Marlchi, Atri, Angiras, Pulastya, Pulaha, Kratu, 
Bhrigu, Vasishtha— all these assertors of Brahma (as the sole 
essence), and masters of speech, including myself (Narada) as 
the last, though seeing, are yet, to this day, unable, by austerity, 
by science, by contemplation, to see ParamesvQra (the supreme 
God), who sees all things. Wandering in the vast field of the 
verbal Divinity (the Veda), which is difficult to traverse, men do 


not recognise the supreme, while they worship him as he is 
circumscribed by the attributes specified in the hymns (mantras). 
When the Divine Being regards any man with favour, that man, 
sunk in the contemplation of aoul, abandons all thoughts which are 
set upon the world and the Veda. Cease, therefore, Varhishmat, 
through ignorance, to look upon works which merely seem to pro- 
mote the chief good, as if they truly effected that object, (works) 
which only touch. the ear, but do not touch the reality. The 
misty-minded men, who, ignorant of the Veda, declare that 
works are its object, do not know [his ?] own world, where the 
divine Jan&rdana abides. Thou who, obstinate man that thou 
art, strewest the whole earth with sacrificial grass, with its ends 
turned to the east, and art proud of thy numerous immolations, 
thou knowest not what is the highest work of all. That by 
which Hari (Vishnu) is pleased, is work; that by which the 
thoughts are fixed on him, is science." 

I copy the comment on a part of this passage, viz., on verses 
45 and 46 : Sabda-brahmani vede urur vistdro yasya arthato 'py 
pdra-sunye tasmin varttamdnd mantrdndfh lingair vajra-Aasta- 
tt>Mi-gu7M-yukta-vividka'devatd-bfddkdna-sdmarthya$ parich- 
Minnam eva Indrddi-rupam tat-tat-karmdgrahena bkajantah 
param Paramesvaraih na viduh \\ Tarhy anyah ko ndma \ kar- 
mddy-dgrahMi hitvd paramesvaram eva bhajed ity ata aha 
' y add yarn anugrikndti' \ anugrahe hetuti \ dtmani bhdvitah san 
sa tadd loke loka-oyavahdre vede cha karma-marge pariniskthi- 
tarn matim tyajati | " Men, conversant with the verbal Divinity, 
the Veda, of which the extent is vast, and which, as regards its 
meaning also, is shoreless, worshipping Paramesvara [the 
supreme God] under the form of Indra, etc., and circumscribed 
by the marks specified in the hymns, i.e., circumscribed by 
various particular energies denominated deities, who are charac- 
terised by such attributes as ' wielder of the thunderbolt/ etc. ; 
worshipping Him, I say, thus, with an addiction to particular 
rites, men do not know the supreme God. What other [god], 
then, [is there] ? He therefore says, in the words, ' When he 


regards any one with favour/ etc., let a man, abandoning all 
addiction to works, etc., worship the supreme God alone. The 
reason for this favour [is supplied in the following words] : 
i Sunk in the contemplation of soul, he then relinquishes his 
regard directed to the business of the world and to the Veda, 
i.e., to the method of works/ " 

Note II. on Page 22, Line 14. 

Mahldhara on the Vajasaneyi Sanhita (Weber's ed. p. 1) says, 
in regard to the division of the Vedas : Tatradau Brahma-param- 
parayd prdptafh Yedaih Vedavydso manda-matin manushydn 
vichintya tat-kripayd chaturdhd vyasya Rig-yajuh-samatharva- 
khydfnk chaturo veddn Paila- Vaisampdyana-Jaimini-Sumantu- 
bhyah kramdd upadidesa te cha sva-sishyebhyali \ Evam param- 
par ay a sahasra-sakho Vedo jdtak | " Vedavyasa, having regard 
to men of dull understanding, in kindness to them, divided into 
four parts the Veda which had been originally handed down by 
tradition from Brahma, and taught the four Vedas, called Eik, 
Saman, Yajush, and Atharvan, in ordsr, to Paila, VaisampSyana, 
Jaimini, and Sumantu; and they again to their disciples. 
In this way, by tradition, the Veda of a thousand sSkhas was 

Note III. on Page 65, ith Line from the bottom. 

The following extract from the account of the Purva-mlmSnsft 
philosophy, given in the Sarva-darsana-sangraha of ])ladhava 
Acharyya (Bibliotheca Indica, pp. 127 ff.), contains a fuller 
summary of the controversy between the Mlmansakas and the 
Naiyayikas respecting the grounds on which the authority of 
the Veda should be regarded as resting, than is supplied in any 
of the passages which I have quoted in the body of the work. 
As I have not studied the works of Sahara, Kumfirila, Prabhft- 
kara, or the other commentators on the Mimansa aphorisms, 
I am unable to say how far this ingenious and interesting 


summary is borrowed from those authors. It is probably taken 
from them in great part, but the special references made, in the 
course of the discussion, to Udayana Acharyya, V&glsvara, and 
the author of the NySya-bhUshaea, and the answers made to 
their objections, rather favour the supposition that the arguments 
urged by the author of the summary are in part original. 

St/ad etat \ vedasya katham apaurusheyatvam abhidhlyate \ 
tat-pratipddaka-pra9ndndbhdvdt katham manyethdji apaurusheyd 
vedatt | sampraddydvichchhede saty asmaryyamdna-karttrikatvdd 
atma-vad iti \ tad etad mandaM viseshandsiddheb \ paurusheya- 
veda-vddibhili pralaye sampraddyorvichchhedasya kaocxharandt \ 
kiflcha kirn idam asmaryyamdrM-karttrikatvatfi ndma \ apratzya- 
mdna-karttrikatvam asmarana-gochara-karttrikatvafn, vd \ na 
prathamali kalpali Paramesvarasya karttuh pramiter abkyupa- 
gamdt \ na dvitlyo vikalpdsahatvat \ tathd hi \ kim ekena asma- 
ranam abhipreyate sarvair vd \ na ddyali \ i yo dharma-sllo jita* 
mdna-roshali' ityddishu muktakoktishu vyabhichdrdt \ na dviti- 
yak | sarvdsmaranasya asarvajfla-durjfldnatvdt \ 

Paurusheyatve pramdna-sambhavdchcha veda-vdkydni pauru- 
sheydni | vdkyatvdt \ KdUddsadi-vakya-vat \ veda-vdkydni dpta- 
pranitdni \ pramdnatve sati vdkyatvdd Manv-ddi-vdkya-vad 
iti | 

Nanu | ' Vedasyddhyayanafh sarvafh gurv-adhyayana-purva- 
kam | vedddhyayanorsdmdnydd adhund 'dhyayanafh, yathd' \ 
ity anumdnam prati sddhanam pragalbhate iti chet \ tad api na 
pramdna-kotim praveshtum Ishte \ ' Bhdratddhyayanain sarvafk 
gurv-adhyayana-purvakam \ Bhdratddhyayanatvena sdmpratd- 
'dhyayanafh, yathd 9 iti dbhdsa-samana-yoga-xematvdt \ nanu tatra 
Yydsali karttd iti smaryyate ' ko hy any alt Pundartkdxdd Mahd- 
bhdrata-krid bhavet 9 ity dddv iti chet \ tad asdram \ i richali 
sdmdni jajfiire \ chhanddfhsi jqjfiire tasmdd yajus tasmdd ajd- 
yata' iti purusha-sukte vedasya sakartrikatd-pratipddandt | 

Kiflcha anityah sabdah sdmdnyavattce sati asmad-adi-vdhyen- 
driya-grdhyatvdd ghata-vat \ nanv idam anumdnafh, sa evdyaift, 
ga-kdra ity pratyabhijM-pramdna-pratihatam iti chet \ tad ati 


phalgu ' luna-punarjdta-kesa-dalita-kund'-dddv iva pratyabhi- 
jMyd sdmdnya-vishayatvena bddhakatvdbhavdt \ 

Nanv asarlrasya Paramesvarasya talv-ddi-stkdndbkavena var- 
nochchdrandsambhavdt katham tat-pranltatvalh vedasya sydd 
iti chet | na tad bhadrafii svabhdvato 'sarirasydpi tasya bhaktd- 
nugrahdrthaffc lild-vigraha-grahana-sambhavdt \ tasmdd vedasya 
apaurusheyatva-wdcho yuktir na yuktd iti chet \ 

Tatra samddhdnam abhidhlyate \ Kim idam paurusheyatvaM 
sisddhayishitam \ purushdd utpannatva-mdtram \ yathd asmad- 
ddibhir akar ahar uchchdryyamdnasya vedasya \ pramdridnta- 
rena artham upalabhya tat-prahdsandya rachitatvafk vd \ yathd 
asmad-ddibhir eva nibadhyamdnasya prabandhasya \ prathame 
na vipratipattifi \ charame kim anumdna-baldt tat-sddhanam 
dgama-baldd vd \ na adyah \ Mdlati-mddhavddwdhyeshu savyar 
bhichdratvdt \ atha pramdnatve sati iti visishyate iti chet \ tad 
api na vipaschito manasi vaisadyam dpadyate | pramdndntard- 
gochardrtha-pratipddakam hi vdkyam Veda-vdkyam \ tat pra- 
mdndntara-gochardrtha-pratipddakam iti sddhyamdne 'mama 
mdtd band/iyd' iti vad vydghdtdpdtdt \ Jtificha Paramesvarasya 
Uld-vigraha-parigrahdbhyupagame 'py atlndriydrtha-darsanafii 
na safljdghatiti desa-kdla-svabhava-viprahrishtdrtha-grahanopd- 
ydbhdvdt \ na cha tackchaxur-ddikam eva tddrik-pratiti-janana- 
xamam iti mantavyam \ drishtdnusdrenaiva kalpandyd dsrayanl- 
yatvdt | tad uktaih Gurubhili sarvajfla-nirdkarana-veldydm 'ya- 
trdpy atisayo drishtaji sa svdrthdnatilanghandt \ dUra-s&xmddi- 
drishtau sydd na rUpe srotra-vrittitd* iti \ ata eva na dgamar 
baldt tat-sddhanam \ 

' Tena prohtam' iti Pdniny-anusdsane jdgraty api hdthaka- 
kdldpa-taittirlyam ityddi-samdkhyd adhyayana-sampraddya-pra- 
varttaka-vishayatvena upapadyate \ tad-wad atrdpi sampraddya- 
pravarttaka-vishayatvendpy upapadyate | na cha anumdna- 
baldt sabdasya anityatva-siddhib | pratyabkijM-virodhdt | na 
cha asaty apy ekatve sdmdnya-nibandhanam tad iti sdmpratam \ 
sdmdnya-nibandhanatvam asya balavad-bddhakopanipdtdd dsthi- 
yate kvachid vyabhichdra-darsandd vd \ tatra kvachid vyabhi- 


chdra-darsane tad-utprexdydm uhtamsvatak-pramdnya-vadibhilk \ 
' utprexeta hi yo mohdd ajMtam api bddhanam \ sa sarva-vyava- 
hdreshu samsaydtmd vinasyati ' iti | 

Nanv idam pratyabhijftdnaM gatvddi-jdti-vishayaik na gddi- 
vyahti-vishayam tdsdffi prati-puncsham bhedopalambhdd \ anya- 
thd i Somasarmd 'dhite' iti vibhdgo na sydd iti chet \ tad api 
sobhdfh na bibhartti gddi-vyakti-bhede pramdiidbhdvena gatvddi- 
jdtivishaya-kalpandydm pramdndbhavdt \ Yatha gatvam ajdnata 
ekam eva bhinnardesa-paHmd^-saMsthdna-wyakty-upadhdna- 
vasad bhinna-desam iva alpam iva mahad iva dirgkam iva 
vdmanam iva prathate tathd gavyaktim ajdnata ekd 'pi 
vyaftjaka-bheddt tat-tad-dharmdnubandhiril pratibhdsate \ etena 
viruddha-dharmddhydsdd bheda-pratibhdsa iti pratyuktam \ 
tatra kiM svdbhdviko viruddha-dharmddhydso bheda-sddhakat- 
vena abhimatah prdtitiko vd \ prathame asiddhik \ aparathd 
svdbhdviha-bheddbhyupagame dasa gakdran udachdrayat Ckai- 
tra iti prattipattili sydd na tu dasakritvo ga-kdra iti \ dvitlye 
tu na svdbhdvika-bheda-siddhik na hi paropddhi-bkedena svd- 
bhdvikam aikyafii vihanyate \ ma bhud nabhaso 'pi kumbhddy- 
upddhi-bheddt svdbhdviko bhedas tatra vydvritcuw/avahdro ndda- 
niddnah \ tad uktam dchdryyaih \ i prayojanantu yaj jdtes tad 
varndd eva labhyate \ vyakti-labhyantu nddebhya iti gatvddi-dhtr 
vritlid' iti \ tathd cha * pratyabhijM yadd sabde jdgartti nirava- 
grahd \ anityatvdnumdndni saiva sarvdni bddhate' \ Etena idam 
apdstam yad avddi Vdgismrena Mdnamanohare i anityali sabdah 
indriya-visesha-gurtatvat chaxii-rupa-vad' iti \ sabda-dravydtva- 
vddindm pratyaxa-siddheli dhvanyafhse siddha-sddhanatvdchcha \ 
a&rdvanatvopddhi-bddhitatvdchcha \ Udayanas tu dsraydprat- 
yaxatoe y py abhdvasya pratyaxatdm mahatd prabandhena prati- 
pddayan nivrittalt koldhalah utpannali sabdah iti vyavahdrdcha- 
rane kdranam pratyaxafii sabddnityatve pramdnayati sma \ so' pi 
viruddha-dharma-safiisargasya aupddhihatvopapddana-nydyena 
datta-rakta-balind iva tdlah samdpohi \ nityatve sarvadopalabdhy- 
anupalabdhi-prasango yo Nydyabhushana-kdroktah so 'pi dhvani- 
salkskritasya upalambhdbhyupagamdt pratixiptali \ yat tu 



yugapad indriya-sambandhitvena pratiniyata-saihskdraka-safii- 
skdryya-bhdvdnumdnaih tad dtmany anaikdntikam asati kalakale \ 
tatascha vedasya apauruskeyatayd nirasta-samasta-sankd-kalank- 
dnkuratvena svatah siddham dharme pramanyam iti sustkitam \ 
Sydd etat \ i pramdnatvdpramdnatve svatali Sdnkkyalk samdsri- 
tdh | Naiydyikds te paratah Saugatds charamatfi svatali \ pra- 
thamam paratah prdhuh prdmdnyaiii vedctrvadinaji \ pramdnat- 
vafh svatali prdhuli paratasckdpramdnatdm 9 \ iti vddi-vivdda- 
darsandt kathafkkdram svatak siddkaM dkarma-prdmdnyam iti 
siddkavatkritya sviltriyate \ kificha kim idafh svatali pramanyam 
ndma | kim svata eva prdmdnyasya janma \ dkosvit svdsraya- 
jfidna-janyatvaM kim uta svasraya-jMna-sdmagrl-janyatvam 
utdko jMm-sdmagnjanya-jMna-viseskdsritatvatfi kifhva jfidna- 
sdmagri-mdtra-janya-jfidna-viseskdsritatvam \ tatra ddyah sdva- 
dyali | kdryya-kdrana-bhdvasya bheda-samdnddhikaranatvena 
ekasminn asambhavdt \ ndpi ddtlyali \ gunasya sato jOdnasya 
pramanyam prati samavdyi-kdranatayd dravyatvdpdtdt \ ndpi 
tritlyah prdmdnyasya upddhitve jdtitve vdjanmdyogdt | smrititvd- 
nadhikaraiiasya jMnasya bddhdtyantdbhdvah pramdnyopadkift | 
na cka tasya utpatti-sambkavali atyantdbhdvasya nityatvdbhyu- 
pagamdt \ ata eva najdter api janir yujyate \ ndpi chaturthah \ 
jMna-visesko ky apramd \ viseska-sdmagiydflcka sdmanya-sdma- 
gri anupravisati \ simsapdrSdmagrydm iva vrixa-sdmagrl \ apa- 
ratkd tasya dkasmikatvam prasajet \ tasmdt paratastvena svlkri- 
tdprdmdnyaim vijfidna-sdmagrl-janydsritam ity ativydptir dpad- 
yeta \ pafickama-mkalpaffi vikalpaydmali \ kim doshdbkdva-sa/ia- 
kritayfidna-sdinagri-janyatvam evafadna-sdmagri-mdtra-janyat- 
vam kifii doskabkavasahaknta-jfidna-sdmagt^-janyatvam \ na 
ddyah \ dos/idbkava-sakakrita-jftdna-sdmagn-janyatvam eva para- 
tah pramanyam iti paratah prdmdnya-vddibkir urarxkarandt \ 
ndpi dvitiyah \ doskdbhava-sahakritatvena sdmagrydtfi sakakri- 
tatve siddhe ananyathd-siddkdnvaya-vyatireka-siddhatayd dosha- 
bhdvasya kdranatdyd vajra-lepdyamdnatvdt \ abkdvah kdranam 
eva na bhavati iti chet tadd vaktavyam abhdvasya kdryyatvam 
asti na vd [ yadi ndsti tadd pata-prad/ivamsdmipapattyV 



nityatd-prasangah \ atha asti /dm apardddhafn kdranatvena 
iti sd ubhayatah-pdsd rajju/i \ tad uditam Udayanena i bhdvo 
yathd tatha 'bhavah kdrandffi karyya-vad matak' iti \ tatha 
cha prayogah \ vimatd prama jMna-hetv-atiriktarhetv-adhtnd 
kdryatve sati tad-viscshatvat aprama-vat \ pramanyam parato 
jfidyate anabhydsa-dasdydm sdmsayihatvat aprdmdnya-vat \ 
tasmdd utpattatc jUaptau cha paratastve pramdna-sambhavdt 
svatah siddham pramanyam ity etat pUti-hushmdnddyate iti 
chet | tad etad dkdsa-mushti-hanandyate \ vijfiana-sdmagri-jan- 
yatve sati tad-atirihta-hetv-ajanyatcam pramdyati svatastvam iti 
nirukti-sambhavdt \ asti cha atra anumdnam \ vimatd prama 
vijMna-sdmagrl-janyatve sati tad-atirihta-janya na bhavati \ 
apramdtvdnadhikaranatvdt ghatddivat \ na cha audayanam 
anumdnam paratastm-sddhakam iti sanhanlyam \ prama dosha- 
vyatirikta-jndna-hetv-atirihta-janya na bhavati \jftdnatvdd apra- 
mdvad \ itiprat\sddhana-graha-gra&tatvat\jTidna-sdma<jri-matrdd 
eva pramotpatti-sambhave tad-atiriktasya gunasya doshdbha- 
vasya vd kdraixatva-kalpandydm Aalpand-gaiirava-prasangdch- 
cha j nanu doshasya apramd-hetutvena tad-abhdvasya pramdm 
prati hetutvath durnivdram iti chet \ na doshdbhdvasya apramd- 
pratibandhakatvena anyathd[a?~\siddhatvdt \ ' tasmdd gunebhyo 
doshdndm abhdvas tad-abhdvatah \ aprdmdnya-dvaydsattvafn 
tenotsargo nayoditaW iti \ tathd pramd-jftaptir api jMna-jfia- 
paka-sdmagrlta eva jayate \ na cha safhsaydnudaya-prasango 
bddhaha iti yuktarTt vaktum \ saty api pratibhdsa-pushkala- 
kdrane pratibandhaka-doshadi-samavadhdnaU tad-upapatteh \ 
fdficha tdvakam anumdnam svatah-pramdnaM na vd \ ddye 
anaikdntikatd \ dvitlye tasydpi paratah pramanyam evafn tasya 
tasydpi ity anavasthd duravasthd sydt | yad atra Kttsumdfijaldv 
Udayanena jhatiti prachura-pravritteh prdmdnya-nischayddhln- 
atvdbhdvam dpadayatd pranyagddi pravrittir hi ichchhdm apex- 
ate tat-prdchuryye cha ichchhd-prdchuryyam ickchhd cheshta- 
sadkanatd-jfldnafn tachcha ishta-jdtlyatva-lingdnubhavarn so 'pi 
indriydrtha-sannikarsham pramdnya-grahanantu na hvachid 
upayujyaie iti tad api taskarasya purastdt kaxe suvanjam 


upetya sarvdtigodghdtanam iva pratibhdti \ atah samiAita-sddh- 
anajMnam eva pramdnatayd avagamyamdnam ichchhdfii jana- 
yati ity atraiva sphuta eva prdmdnya-grahanasya upayogah \ 
kificha kvachid apt ched nirvichikitsd pravrittih safh&aydd upa- 
padyeta tar hi sarvatra tathd-bhdva-sambkavdtprdmdnya-nischayo 
nirarthakali sydt anischitasya sattvam eva durlabham iti prd- 
mdnyafk datta-jaldfljalikam bhavet ity alam ati-prapaficAena \ 
yasmdd uktam i tasmdd sad-bodhakatvena prdptd buddheh pra- 
mdnata \ arthdnyathatva-hetuttka-dosha-jMndd apodyate 9 iti | 
tasmdd dharme svatak-siddha-pramd?ia-bhdve i jyotishtomena 
svarga-kdmo yajeta ' ityddi-vidhy-arthavdda-mantra-Tidmadkeydt- 
make vede yajeta ity atra ta-pratyayali prakrityarthoparaktdm 
bhdvandm abkidhatte iti siddke vyutpattim abkyupagackchkatam 
abhikitdnvaya^ddindm BkattdchdryydndM siddhdnto ydga- 
viskayo niyoga iti kdrye vyutpattim anusaratdm anvitdbhidhdna- 
vddindm Prabhdkara-gurUndM siddhdnta iti sarvam avaddtam \ 
" Be it so. But hpw [the Naiyayikas may ask] is the Veda 
alleged to be underived from any personal author ? How can 
you regard the Vedas as being thus underived, when there is 
no evidence by which this character can be substantiated ? The 
argument urged by you Mlmansakas is, that while there is an 
unbroken tradition, still no author of the Veda is remembered, 
in the same way as [none is remembered] in the case of the 
soul (or self). But this argument is very weak, because the 
asserted characteristic [unbrokenness of tradition] is not proved ; 
since those who maintain the personal origin [i.e., origin from 
a person] of the Veda, object that the tradition [regarding the 
Veda] was interrupted at the dissolution of the universe (pra- 
laya). 1 And further: what is meant by the assertion that no 
author of the Veda is remembered ? Is it (1) that no author 
is believed ? or (2) that no author is the object of recollection ? 
The first alternative cannot be accepted, since it is acknowledged 
[by us] that God (Paramesvara) is proved to be the author. Nor 

1 This objection occurs in a passage of the Kttsumanjali, which I shall quote 
further on. 


can the second alternative be admitted, as it cannot stand the test 
of the following dilemma, viz., Is it meant (a) that no author 
of the Veda is recollected by some one person, or (Jb) by any 
person whatever? The former supposition breaks down, since 
it fails when tried by such stanzas as this, ' he who is religious, 
and has overcome pride and anger/ etc. 2 And the latter sup- 
position is inadmissible, since it would be impossible for any 
person who was not omniscient to know that no author of the 
Veda was recollected by any person whatever. 

" And moreover, [the NaiySyikas proceed], the sentences of 
the Veda must have originated with a personal author, as proof 
exists that they had such an origin, since they have the cha- 
racter of sentences, like those of Kalidasa and other writers. 
The sentences of the Veda have been composed by an authorita- 
tive person, since, while they possess authority, they have, at 
the same time, the character of sentences, like those of Manu 
and other sages. 

" But [ask the Mlmtosakas] may it not be assumed that, 'All 
study of the Veda was preceded by an earlier study of it by 
the pupil's preceptor, since the study of the Veda must always 
have had one common character, which was the same in former 
times as now;' 3 and that this inference has force to prove 
[? that the Veda had no author or was eternal] ? Such reason- 
ing [the Naiyayikas answer] is of no avail as proof, [for it might 
be said in the same way that] ' All study of the Mahabharata 
was preceded by an earlier study of it by the pupil's preceptor, 
since the study of the Mahabharata, from the mere fact of its 
being such, [must have had the same character in former times] 

2 I do not know from what work this verse is quoted, or what is its sequel. To 
prove anything in point, it must apparently go on to assert that such a saint as is 
here described, remembers the author of the Veda, or at least has such superhuman 
faculties as would enable him to discover the author. 

3 The purport of this verse is, that as every generation of students of the Veda 
must have been preceded by an earlier generation of teachers, and as there is no 
reason to assume any variation in this process by supposing that there ever had been 
any student who taught himself; we have thus a recessm ad infinitum> and must of 
necessity conclude that the Vcdas had no author, but were eternal. 


as it has now ; ' and this mere semblance of an argument would 
be of the same value in either case. But [the Mimansakas 
will ask whether there is not a difference between these two 
cases of the Veda and the Mahabharata, since] the smriti de- 
clares that [Vishnu incarnate as] Vyasa was the author of the 
latter,— according to such texts as this, ' Who else than Pun- 
darlkaxa {the lotus-eyed Vishnu) could be the maker of the 
Mahabharata?' (see above, p. 21), — [whilst nothing of this sort 
is recorded in any Sastra in regard to the Veda]. This argu- 
ment, however, is powerless, since it is proved by these words 
of the Purusha-sukta, ' From him sprang the rik and sama 
verses and the metres, and from liim the yajush verses/ (above, 
p. 50) that the Veda had a maker. 

" Further, [proceed the Naiyayikas], we must suppose that 
sound [on the eternity of which the eternity and uncreatedness 
of the Veda depend] is not eternal, since, while it belongs to 
a genus, it can, like a jar, be perceived by the external organs 
of beings such as ourselves. But [rejoin the Mimansakas], 
is not this inference of yours refuted by the proof arising from 
the fact that we recognize the letter Q, for example, as the 
same we have heard before ? This argument, [replies the 
NaiySyika], is extremely weak, for the recognition in question 
having reference to a community of species (as in the case of 
such words as 'a jasmine tree with sprouted tendrils [?] cut 
and grown again/ etc.) has no force to refute my assertion [that 
letters are not eternal]. 

"But, [asks the Mimansaka], how can the Vedas have been 
composed by the incorporeal Paramesvara (God), who has no 
palate or other organs of speech, and therefore cannot enunciate 
letters ? This objection, [answers the Naiyayika], is worthless, 
because, though Paramesvara is naturally incorporeal, he can 
yet, by way of sport, assume a body, in order to shew kindness 
to his devoted worshippers. Consequently, the arguments in 
favour of the doctrine that the Veda had no personal author 
are inconclusive. 


" I shall now, [says the Mlmansaka], clear up all these diffi- 
culties. What is meant by this paurusheyatva (' derivation 
from a personal author') which it is sought to prove? Is it 
(1) mere procession (utpannatva) from a person (purusha), like 
the procession of the Veda from persons such as ourselves, when 
we daily utter it ? or (2) is it the arrangement, with a view to its 
manifestation, — of knowledge acquired through other channels 
of information, in the sense in which persons like ourselves 
compose a treatise ? If the first meaning be intended, there 
will be no dispute. If the second sense be meant, I ask whether 
the Veda is proved [to be authoritative] in virtue (a) of its 
being founded on inference, or (b) of its being founded on 
supernatural information ? The former alternative (a) [i.e., that 
the Veda derives its authority from being founded on inference] 
cannot be correct, since this theory breaks down, if it be applied 
to the sentences of the Malatl Madhava or any other secular poem, 
[which may contain inferences destitute of authority]. If, on 
the other hand, you say (b), that the contents of the Veda are 
distinguished from those of other books by having authority, 
this explanation also will fail to satisfy a philosopher. For the 
word of the Veda is [defined to be] a word which proves things 
that are not proveable by any other evidence. Now if it could 
be established that this vedic word did nothing more than prove 
things that are proveable by other evidence, we should be in- 
volved in the same sort of contradiction as if a man were to 
say that his mother was a barren woman. And even if we con- 
ceded that Paramesvara might in sport assume a body, it would 
not be conceivable that [in that case] he should perceive things 
beyond the reach of the senses, from the want of any means of 
apprehending objects removed from him in place, in time, and in 
nature. Nor is it to be thought that his eyes and other senses 
alone would have the power of producing such knowledge, since 
men can only attain to conceptions corresponding with what 
they have perceived. This is what has been said by the Guru 
(Prabhakara) when he refutes [the supposition of] an omniscient 


person : ' Whenever any object is perceived [by the organ of 
sight] in its most perfect exercise, such perception can only 
have reference to the vision of something very distant or very 
minute, since no organ can go beyond its own proper objects, 
as e.g., the ear can never become cognizant of form.' Hence 
the authority of the Veda does not arise in virtue of any super- 
natural information [acquired by the Deity in a corporeal shape, 
and embodied in the sacred text]. 

" In spite of the weight attaching [?] 4 to the rale of Panini 
(see above, p. 87) that the grammatical affix with which the 
words Kathaka, Kalapa, and Taittirlya are formed, imparts to 
those derivatives the sense of ' uttered by ' Katha, Kalapa, etc., 
it is established that the names first mentioned have reference 
[not to those parts of the Veda being 'uttered* by the sages 
in question, but] ta the fact that these sages instituted the 
practice of studying those parts of the Veda. Here also these 
appellations ought to be understood in the same manner, as 
referring to the fact of those sages being the institutors of the 
study of the Veda ; and we are not to think that the eternity 
of sound [or of the words of the Veda] is disproved by the 
force of any inference [to be drawn from those names], since 
this would be at variance with the recognition [of letters as the 
same we knew before] (see above, Mimansa Sutra, i. 13, 
p. 56). Nor, even though [numerical] unity were not [pre- 
dicable of each particular letter] (see Mimansa Satra, i. 20, 
above p. 58), is it proper to insist that each letter is a term 
expressive of a species. The supposition that it is a generic 
term is opposed [?] by the intervention of powerful contrary 
arguments ; or by our perceiving that sometimes "this character 
would fail to be applicable. In respect to those who, while 
they observe that [a definition] is inapplicable in some cases, 
yet disregard this circumstance, the following remark has been 
made by those [the Mimansakas, etc.] who maintain the self- 

4 Literally, although the rule of Panini be awake. The sense given in the text 
is the only one I can think of. 


proving power [of the Veda] : ' The man who through bewilder- 
ment disregards even an unknown refutation, being in all 
matters full of doubt, perishes/ 

" But [the Naiyayikas will ask], does not the recognition [of 
G and other letters as the same we knew before] refer to them 
as belonging to the [same] species, and not as being the [same] 
individual letters, since, in fact, they are perceived to be dif- 
ferent [as uttered by] each person, and since otherwise it would 
be impossible for us to make any distinction [between different 
readers, as when we say], ' Somasarman is reading ? ' This 
objection, however, has as little brilliancy as its predecessors, 
and has been answered in this way, viz., that as there is no 
proof of any distinction of individuality between G's, etc., there 
is no evidence that we ought to suppose any such thing as a 
species of G's, etc. [i.e., of G's and other letters each consti- 
tuting a species]. Just as to the man who is ignorant that G's 
constitute a species, [that letter], though one only, •becomes 
(through distinction of place, magnitude, form [?], individuals, 
and position [?]) variously modified as distinct in place, as 
small, as great, as long, or as short, in the same way, to the 
man who is ignorant of an individuality of G's, [i.e., of G's 
being numerically different from each other], this letter, though 
. only one, appears, from the distinction existing between the dif- 
ferent persons who utter it, to be connected with their respective 
peculiarities ; and as contrary characters are in this way erro- 
neously ascribed [to the letter G], there is a fallacious appear- 
and of distinctness [between different G's]. But does this 
ascription of contrary characters which we thus regard as creat- 
ing a difference [between G's], result from (1) the nature of the 
thing, or (2) from mere appearance? There is no proof of 
the first alternative, as otherwise an inherent difference being 
admitted between different G's, it would be established that 
Chaitra had uttered ten [different] G's, and not [the same] G 
ten times. But on the second supposition, there is no proof of 
any inherent distinction [between G's] ; for inherent oneness (or 


identity) is not destroyed by a difference of extrinsic disguises 
[or characteristics]. We must not conceive, from the merely 
apparent distinctness [occasioned by the separation of its parts] 
by jars, etc., that there is any inherent distinctness in the atmo- 
sphere itself. The fact is that when the action of sound is 
intercepted [by the atmosphere], it ceases to be audible. 6 It 
has been said by the Acharyya, ' The object which the Naiya- 
yikas seek, by supposing a species, is in fact gained from the 
letter itself; and the object at which they aim by supposing an 
individuality in letters, is attained from audible sounds (i.e., the 
separate utterances of the different letters), 60 that the hypo- 
thesis of species, etc., is useless.' And we thus reach the con- 
clusion that, ' since, in respect of sounds (letters), recognition 
has so irresistible a power, [literally, rcakes, unrestrained^, it 
alone repels all inferences against the eternity [of sound, or the 

This refutes what has been said by Vagis'vara in the Mana- 
manohara, that ' sound is not eternal, because it is the quality 
of a particular organ, as form is of the eye ; ' for it is to 
those who declare sound to be a substance, [and to them only ?] 
that the perception [of sound in this manner] is established, 
while as regards audible sound, the assertion of this percepti- 
bility is merely a proving of what is admitted ; and because this 
theory of sound being the quality of a particular sense is dis- 
proved by the characteristic of not making itself [always?] audible. 

6 I am by no means sure that this sentence is correctly rendered, but have no 
preferable translation to suggest. I owe the reader some apology for the imperfect 
and tentative character of my version in many parts of the remainder of this extract. 
But having begun the translation, I was naturally anxious to carry it on as far as I 
could. As this part of the Sarva-dWana-sangraha has not before been rendered into 
any European language, and we possess as yet no work which explains completely all 
the technical terms of Indian logic and philosophy, I am unfortunately in an opposite 
predicament to that on which Kalidasa congratulated himself at the commencement 
of his task of celebrating the race of the Raghus, when he was able to say that he 
could enter upon his subject, which had been previously handled by earlier poets, 
with the same ease, as a thread penetrates into a gem which has been perforated by a 
diamond" (manau vajra-samutklrne sutrasyevasti me gatih). The reader must just 
take this part of my translation for so much as he finds it to be worth. But I think 
that, though I may have erred in details, I havo not mistaken the general scope. 


And Udayana— -maintaining by a long dissertation that, though 
the substratum be not perceptible by sense, still the non-exist- 
ence [of sound] is perceptible, and [observing it to be] a cus- 
tomary occurrence that when noise ceases, sound is produced — 
alleges that perception, which is the cause of that phenomenon, 
is a proof of the non-eternity of sound. He also is refuted by 
showing the merely adventitious character. of the [effect pro- 
duced on letters by the] influence of opposite qualities [in the 
speakers], just as a sacrificial knife is only stained superficially 
by a bloody oblation. And, again, the difficulty which has been 
raised to the eternity of sound by the author of the Nyaya- 
bhushana, on the ground that it is not observed to be constantly 
perceived, — this difficulty also is removed by the admitted fact 
that sound which has been articulated in utterance is perceived. 
Once more, the inference which is drawn in reference to there 
being a fixed relation between the articulator and the [sound] to 
be articulated, from sound having reference to the organs [of 
many persons ?] at one and the same time, this is inconclusive 
in itself [?], there being no confused noise. And hence, as every 
stain of doubt which has come to light has been set aside by 
the underived character of the Veda, its authority as proof in 
matters of duty is clearly established. 

" Be it so. But [verse] ' the Sankhyas say that both authorita- 
tiveness and non-authoritativeness are self-derived ; the Naiya- 
yikas maintain that both are dependent on something external ; 
the Bauddhas assert that non-authoritativeness is self-derived, 
while authoritativeness depends on something extraneous to itself; 
and the upholders of the Veda declare that authoritativeness is 
self-derived, and the absence of it dependent on something exter- 
nal/ Now, when we observe the differences between the assertory 
of these several views, how can it be admitted as a settled point 
that there is such a thing as self-proved authority for duty? 
And what is this self-proved authority ? What is its source (lit. 
birth) ? Does it spring (1) from self-dependent knowledge ? or 
(2) from the constituents (or totality) of self-dependent know- 



ledge ? or (3) does it depend on some special knowledge spring- 
ing from the constituents (or totality) of knowledge? or (4) 
does it depend on some special knowledge springing from the 
mere constituents (or totality) of knowledge ? The first sup- 
position is faulty, from the fact that cause and effect, which are 
categorically distinct, cannot properly be placed in the same 
class, or predicated of the same subject. The second supposi- 
tion is no better, owing to the objection that, whereas knowledge 
is a quality, the character of a substance is here ascribed to its 
self-evidencing authority, since the function of a material cause 
is assigned to it. Nor can the third supposition be allowed, 
for as self-evidencing power is either an attribute (upddhi) or a 
species, production {i.e., the being produced) does not apply to 
it. The condition of authoritativeness is the absolute absence of 
any defect in knowledge which has not recollection [?] for its 
basis. Now such authoritativeness cannot possibly he produced, 
as it is admitted that absolute non-existence is eternal; and con- 
sequently the production of species also is inadmissible. The 
fourth supposition is equally faulty, for special knowledge is 
something unauthoritative, and the constituents of the general [or 
genus] enter into the constituents of the special, as the substance 
of a tree in general enters into the substance of the [particular] 
tree, the sinsapa (sisu). Otherwise we should be involved in 
the absurdity that it had no cause. Hence that which depends 
on what is produced from the constituents of knowledge is con- 
fessedly unauthoritative, from its dependence on something ex- 
ternal, and thus your definition will fail by embracing too much 

" We shall now (interposes the Mimansaka) propose a fifth 
supposition. What do you mean by ' springing from the mere 
constituents, [or simple totality] of knowledge?' Does it 
mean (1) ' the springing from the constituents of a knowledge 
which is accompanied by the absence of defects (i.e., which is 
faultless?)/ or (2) 'the springing from the constituents of a 
knowledge which is ^accompanied by the absence of defects 


(i.e., which is faulty)?' It cannot be the first, for 'a spring- 
ing from the constituents of knowledge which is accompanied 
by the absence of defects [i.e., which is faultless] is simply 
authoritativeness derived from something external, as is allowed 
by those who maintain that authoritativeness is derived from 
something external. Nor can it be the second, for the character 
of accompaniedness being substantiated in regard to any object, 
by the circumstance of its being accompanied by the absence of 
defects, 6 ...... 

If you object that non-existence [as in this case of the non- 
existence of defects] cannot be a cause, then you must tell us 
whether it (non-existence) is an effect or not. If it be not, 
then from the [consequent] impossibility [of any substance], a 
piece of cloth [for instance], being destroyed, we are entangled 
in the absurdity of supposing that it must be eternal. But 
if non-existence be an effect, what error is there in asserting 
its causality also? thus this rope binds [you] at both ends. 
And Udayana says (Kusumtajali, i. 10), ' Just as existence, so 
also non-existence is regarded as a cause, as well as an effect.' 

And now we shall apply this: variously-understood truth 
(prama) is (our opponents say) dependent on a cause distinct 
from the cause of knowledge, from the fact of its being a pro- 
duction, and as such, possessing the particular character of a 
production, just as is the case with error [or the absence of 
truth, aprama]. And authoritativeness is regarded as being 
derived from something external, owing to the doubtfulness [of 
the student?] before he has made the matter a subject of repeated 
study, just as is the case witluunauthoritativeness. But to 
describe as self-proved authoritativeness that which, in its 
origin and in its [earliest] comprehension, thus derives its 
proof from an external source, is (they say) to make an asser- 

6 I am unable to make out the meaning of the remainder of this sentence, and 
must therefore leave it untranslated. 



tion which is utterly worthless. 7 But this objection of theirs is as 
vain as beating the air with their fists. [Such a thing as] a pro- 
duction from the constituents of knowledge [being admitted], it 
is in not being produced from any cause distinct from that, that 
the self-derivation of truth [or knowledge] consists. This results 
from the explanation of the term itself. And here we have also 
an inference [to rely upon]. There being [such a thing as] a pro- 
duction from the constituents of knowledge, variously-understood 
truth [or knowledge] does not spring from anything distinct 
from this, since it has not erroneousness as its basis, as jars, etc., 
[have no unhomogeneous material as their basis (?)]. Nor is it 
to be surmised that Udayana's inference proves [authoritative- 
ness to have] an external source. Correct knowledge does not, 
like error, spring from anything distinct from the cause of a 
knowledge which is devoid of defects, because it is knowledge, 
so that [Udayana's objection] is carried away by the demon of 
adverse proof [?]. And since it appears that authoritativeness 
springs from the simple constituents of knowledge, if you suppose 
that any quality distinct from that, or that the absence of defect, 
is the cause [of authoritativeness], you will incur the charge of 
making more suppositions than are necessary to explain the 
facts. If it be objected to this, that since defect is the cause of 
unauthoritativeness, it cannot be denied that the absence of defect 
must be the cause of authoritativeness, we deny this, since the 
absence of defect (or faultlessness) is, on other grounds, not 
proved 8 to be that which prevents unauthoritativeness." 

I shall not attempt to carry farther my translation of this 
abstruse discussion, as the remainder contains several parts 
which I should find it difficulty to render. The real proof or 
disproof of the authority of the Veda must rest on grounds very 

7 I do not know the proper meaning of the word puti-ktwhmandayate. Tuti 
means either " purification " or " stench ; " and kushmandayate is a nominal verb 
formed from kushmanda, a " gourd." The compound may therefore mean " it is like 
a gourd full of filth." 

8 I take the anyathasiddhatvat, which I find in the Calcutta text, to be for (anyatha 


much less abstract and metaphysical than such as are here 
argued with so much subtlety. 

The following passage from Sankara's commentary on the 
Brahma Sutras, iii. 2, 40, is partly quoted in Prof. Banerjea's 
forthcoming work on Hindu Philosophy. In the two preceding 
Sutras, as explained by Sankara, it had been asserted, both on 
grounds of reason and on the authority of the Veda, that God is 
the author of rewards. In the 40th Siitra a different doctrine is 
ascribed to Jaimini : DharmaM Jaiminir ata eva || Jaiminis to 
dchdryyo dharmam phalasya dataram manyate \ ata eva hetolt 
sruter upapattescha \ sruyate tdvad ayam arthah ' svarga-kdmo 
yajeta' ity evam ddishu vdkyeshu \ tatra cha vidhi-sruter vishaya- 
bhdvopagamdd ydgah svargasya utpadakali iti gamyate \ anya- 
tkd hy ananushthatriko ydga dpadyeta tatra asya upadesasya 
vaiyarthyafii sydt \ nanv anuxana-vindsinah karmanali phalafk 
na upapadyate iti parity akto 'yampaxali \ na esha doshali sruti- 
prdmdnydt \ srutis chet pramdnam yathd 'yaM karma-phala- 
sambandhah srutah upapadyate tathd kalpayitavyali \ na cha 
anutpddya kimapy apurvam karma vinasyat kdldntaritam pha- 
lam ddtuia saknoti ity atali karmano vd suxmd kdchid uttard- 
vastkd phalasya vd ptlrvdvasthd apumafh ndma asti iti tarkyate \ 
upapadyate cha ayam arthah uktena prakdrena \ Isvarastu pha- 
lafh daddti ity anupapannam avichitrasya kdranasya vichitra- 
kdryydnupapatteh \ vaishamya-nairghrhiya-prasangdd anush- 
thdna-vaiyarthydpattes cha \ tasmdd dharmdd eva phalam iti \ 
"' Jaimini says that for this reason virtue [is the giver of re- 
ward]/ The Acharyya Jaimini regards virtue [i.e., the per- 
formance of the prescribed rites and duties] as the bestower 
of reward. ' For this reason/ and because it is proved by the 
Veda. This is the purport of the Vedic text, ' Let the man who 
seeks paradise, sacrifice/ and others of the same kind. As here, 
we learn the existence of the object [referred to] in the Vedic 
injunction in question, it is concluded that sacrifice has the 
effect of producing heaven ; for otherwise we should be involved 
in the absurdity of a sacrifice without a performer [since no one 


would care to sacrifice without an object ?], and thus the injunc- 
tion would become fruitless. But may it not be said that it is not 
conceivable that any fruit should result from a ceremony which 
perishes every moment, so that this view must be abandoned ? 
No, this defect does not attach to our Mlmansaka statement, since 
the Veda is authoritative. If the Veda be proof, this connection 
of the reward with the ceremony must be supposed to exist just 
as it is proved in the Veda. And from the fact that a ceremony 
which perishes without generating any unseen virtue, can yet 
produce a reward at a distant time, it must not be concluded 
that there is either a certain subtile ulterior form of the cere- 
mony, or a certain subtile anterior form of the reward, which is 
called 'unseen virtue.' And this result is established in the 
manner before mentioned. But it is not proved that God 
bestows rewards, because it is inconceivable that a uniform 
cause should produce various effects, and because the perform- 
ance of ceremonies would be useless, owing to the inequality 
and unmercifulness which would attach [to the supposed arbiter 
of men's deserts]. Hence it is from virtue that reward results." 

How far this passage may be sufficient to prove the atheism 
of the Mlmansa, I will not attempt to say. Before we could 
decide on such a question, the Sutras of that school which 
refer to this question (if there be any such) would have to be 

Professor Banerjea also quotes the following text from the 
popular work, the Vidvan-modataranginl, in which the MlmSn- 
sakas are distinctly charged with atheism : Devo na kasckid 
bkuvanasya kartta bhartta na kartta 'pi cha kasckid aste \ 
karmanurUpani subkasubhdni prapnoti sarvo hi janah pka- 
lani || vedasya kartta na cha kasckid aste nitya hi sabdah 
rackana hi nitya \ pramanyam asmin svata eva siddham anadi- 
siddkeh paratah katkafii tat \ " There is no God, maker 
of the world; nor has it any sustainer or destroyer; for 
every man obtains a recompense in conformity with his works. 
Neither is there any maker of the Veda, for its words are 


eternal, and their arrangement is eternal. Its authoritative- 
ness is self-demonstrated, for since this authoritativeness has 
been established from eternity, how can it be dependent upon 
anything beyond itself?" 

I am informed by Prof. Banerjea that the Mlmansaka com- 
mentator Prabhakara and his school make out the Purva 
Mimansa to be an atheistic system, while Kumarila treats it as 
theistic. The last named author makes the following complaint 
at the commencement of his Varttika, verse 10 : Prayenaiva hi 
mimdfiisa loke lokayatlkritd \ tarn dstika-pathe karttum ayafti 
yatnaji krito mayd \ " For in practice the Mimansa has been for 
the most part converted into a Lokayata (atheistic) system 
(see Colebrooke's Essays, i. 402 ff., or pp. 259 ff. of W. and 
N.'s ed.) ; but I have made this effort to bring it into a theistic 
path." See also the lines which are quoted from the Padma 
Purana by VijnSna Bhixu, commentator on the Sankhya 
aphorisms, in a passage which I shall adduce further on, in a 
note on p. 103. 

Note IV. on Page 80, Line 18. 

The Tarka-sangraha* says : Yakyafn dvimdhaM vaidikafii lauki- 
kaficha | vaidikam Isvaroktatvat sarvam eva pramdnam \ lauki- 
kantu aptoktam pramdnam anyad apramdnam \ " Sentences are 
of two kinds, Vedic and secular. Vedic sentences, from being 
uttered by Tsvara, are all proof [or authoritative]. Of secular 
sentences, those only which are uttered by a competent [or wise] 
person (dpta) are proof; the rest are not proof." 

In this text, the authority of the Veda is founded on its being 
uttered by Isvara ; and this characteristic is regarded as limited 
to the Veda. On the other hand, such secular works as proceed 
from a competent person (dpta) are also declared to possess 
authority. Here, therefore, a distinction appears to be drawn 
between the authority of the Veda and that of all other writings, 

9 See p. 40 of Dr. Ballantyne's ed. with Hindi and English Versions, p. 40 of the 



however authoritative, inasmuch as the former was uttered by 
Isvara, while the latter have only been uttered by some compe- 
tent person (dpta). But in the NySya aphorism, ii. 68, quoted 
in p. 80, the authority of the Veda itself is made to rest on the 
authority of the wise, or competent person {dpta), from whom 
it proceeded. In the aphorism, therefore, either the word dpta 
must mean Isvara, or we must suppose a difference of view 
between the author of the aphorism and the writer of the Tarka- 
sangraha. We shall see in the next note that the author of the 
Kusumanjali coincides with the Tarka-sangraha, 

If the author of the Nyaya Satras did not believe in an 
Isvara (see the conclusion of the next note), he could not of 
course derive the Veda from such a source. Prof. Banerjea, in 
his forthcoming work on Hindu Philosophy, quotes the follow- 
ing definition of the % word dpta from Vatsayana : Aptah khalu 
sdxat'krita-dharmd \ yathd-dnshtasya artkasya chikhydpayi- 
shayd prayuktali upadeshtd \ sdxdt-karanam artkasya dptis \ 
tayd varttate ity aptah | "A competent person (dpta) means 
one who has an intuitive perception of duty (the word sdxdt- 
krita-dharman is used in the Nirukta, i. 20 ; see Part Second, 
pp. 174 and 176; and p. 95, note 48, above),— an instructor 
possessed by the desire of communicating some subject-matter, 
just as it was seen by him. This intuitive perception constitutes 
competence (dpti). A person who has this competence is com- 
petent." Apta would thus be equivalent to rishi, and could not 
refer to Isvara. 

The following words are put by the author of the Vishnu 
Purana (iii. ch. 18 ; Wilson, p. 340) into the mouth of the 
deluder who promulgated the Bauddha and other heresies : Na 
hy dpta-vddd nabhaso nipatanti mahdsurdli \ yuktimad vachanalh, 
grdhyam maya 'nyaischa bhavadvidhaih \ " Words of the com- 
petent do not, great Asuras, fall from the sky. It is only words 
supported by reasons that should be admitted by me and others 
like yourselves. " 

ArPENDIX. 211 

Note V. on Page 81, Line 13. 

I extract from the Kusumanjali of Udayana Acharya, and its 
commentary (published at the Sanskrit Press, Calcutta, in the 
Saka year, 1769), some fuller statements of the Naiyayika doc- 
trine regarding the origin and authority of the Veda. Mr. 
Colebrooke (Ess. i. 263, or p. 166 of W. and N.'s ed.) speaks of 
this treatise as being accompanied by a commentary of Nar&- 
yana Tlrtha; but the one which is printed in the Calcutta 
edition, is said to be by Haridasa Bhattacharya. The object of 
the work appears to be to prove the existence of a personal god 
(Is'vara), in opposition to various other antagonistic theories. 

I. Kusumanjali, 2nd Stavaka, at the commencement : Anya- 
tha 'pi paraloka-sddkandnushthdna-sambkavdd iti dvittya-vipra- 
tipattili | Anyatha Tsvaratii vind 'pi paraloka-sddhanafh ydgddy- 
anuskthdnaM sambkavati ydgddeli svarga-sddhanatvasya veda- 
gamyatvdt \ nitya-nirdoshataya cha vedasya prdmdnyam \ mahd- 
janarparigrahdckcha prdmdnyasya graha iti veda-kdranatayd 
na Isvara-siddhili \ yogardhi-sampddita-sdrvajfiya-kapilddi-pur- 
vaka eva vd vedo 'stu ity atra aha \ " prarmyali paratantratvdt 
sarga-pralaya-sambkavdt \ tad-anyasminn avisvdsdd na vidkdn- 
tara-sambhavali" \ Sdbdl pramd vaktri-yatkdrtka-vakydrtka-dM- 
rupa-guna-janyd iti gunddhdratayd Isvara-siddhili \ nanu sakar- 
trike 'stu yathdrtha-vdkydrtha-dhir gundti \ akartrike cha vede 
nirdoshatvam evaprdmdnya-pmyojakam astu \ mahdjana-parigra- 
hena cha prdmdnya-graha ity ata aha \ " sarga-pralaya-sambha- 
vdd" iti pi % alayottaram purva-veda-ndsad uttara-vedasya katham 
prdmdnyam mahdjana-parigrahasyapi tadd abhdvdt \ sabdasya 
anityatvam utpanno ga-kdra iti pratiti-siddham \ pravahdvich- 
chheda-rupa-nityatvam api pralaya-sambhavdd ndsti iti bhdvali \ 
Kapilddaya eva purva\T\-sargddau puiDa-sargdbhyasta-yoga- 
janya-dharmanubhavdt sdxdt-krita-sakaldrthali karttdrah santu \ 
ity ata aha \ " tad-anyasminn " iti \ visva-nirmdna-samarthd 
animddi-sakti-sampannd yadi sarvajfids tadd laghavdd eka eva 
tddrisah smkriyatam \ sa eva bhagavdn Isvarah \ anityasarva- 


viskayaka-jflanaoati cha visvasa eva ndsti \ iti vaidika-vyavakara- 
vilopah iti na vidhantarctrsambhavafi ilvaramnfflkartri-naye iti 
seshah \ 

" The second objection is that [there is no proof of an Isvara], 
since the means of attaining paradise can be practised independently 
of any such Being. That is to say, the celebration of sacrifices, 
etc., which are the instruments of obtaining paradise, can take 
place otherwise, i.e., even without an Isvara (God). For the fact 
that sacrifices, etc., are the instruments of obtaining paradise is 
to be learned from the Veda, while the authority of the Veda 
rests upon its eternal faultlessness ; and the [immemorial] 
admission of that authority results from its reception by illus- 
trious men. Now, as in this way the Veda is the cause [of final 
liberation], there is no proof of a God. Or let it be supposed 
that the Veda was preceded [composed] by Kapila and other 
sages, who by their wealth in devotion had acquired omni- 

" In answer to this, the author says : [verse] ' Since truth, 
[or authoritativeness] depends on an external source (see the 
passage from the Sarva-darsana-sangraha, above, p. 203), since 
creation and dissolution are probable, and since there is no 
confidence in any other than God, therefore no other manner 
can be conceived [in which the Veda originated, except from 
God (?) ].' [Comment] Scriptural truth [or authoritativeness] 
is derived from the attribute, possessed by its promulgator, of 
comprehending the true sense of words [i.e., in order to 
constitute the Veda an authoritative rule of duty, it must have 
proceeded from an intelligent being who understood the sense 
of what he uttered, and not, as some maintain (see above, 
pp. 83, 104, 105), from a being who unconsciously breathed it 
out] ; and since God is the substratum of this attribute [of 
intelligence], there is proof of his existence. 

" But it may be said, that this comprehension of the true sense 
of what is uttered may be a quality belonging to a created 
being ; and, again, it may be the faultlessness of the uncreated 


Veda, which imparts to it its authority, while the [immemorial] 
admission of that authority results from its reception by illus- 
trious men. 

" In answer to this, the author says : ' Since creation and 
dissolution are probable/ Since the previous Veda (the one 
which existed during the former mundane period) perished after 
the dissolution of the universe, how can the subsequent Veda 
[i.e., the one supposed by our opponents to have existed during 
the dissolution] be authoritative, since there was not then even 
any reception of it by illustrious men [who also had all become 
extinct at the dissolution]. That is to say, the non-eternity of 
sound is proved by the conviction we have that letters such as G 
are produced, [and not eternal] ; and even that eternity (or per- 
petuity) of the Veda which consists in unbroken continuity of 
tradition, does not exist, as there is probable proof of a dissolu- 
tion. 10 But, again, some one will say that Kapila and other 
saints— who, from their perception of duty, springing from the 
practice of devotion during the former mundane period, had 
acquired an intuitive knowledge of every subject — may at the 
creation have been the authors of the Veda. This is answered 
in the words, ' since there is no confidence in any other but 
God/ If persons capable of creating the universe and possess- 
ing the faculty of minuteness be omniscient, then, for the sake 
of simplicity, let one such person only be admitted, namely, the 
divine Isvara. And no confidence can be reposed in any person 
who is not eternal, or who is not possessed of a knowledge which 
extends to all objects. Thus the Vedic tradition [?] disappears. 
And so he concludes that no other manner [of the origination 
of the Veda?] can be conceived [except from Isvara?]; that 
is, in the system of those who deny an Isvara [no hypothesis 

10 The Mimansakas, or at least the Vedantists, seem to reply to this Naiyayika 
objection about the interruption of the tradition of the Veda through the dissolution 
of the universe, by saying that the Veda was retained in the memory of Brahma 
during the interval whilst the dissolution lasted. See Kulluka on Manu, i. 23, above, 
p. 5 ; and S'ankara on the Brahma Sutras, i. 3, 29, above, pp. 68 and 72 ; and compare 
the passages from the Mahabhashya, etc., in the concluding note of this Appendix. 


can be framed which will account for the production of the 

II. Kusumanjali, iii. 16. — Napramanam andptoktir nddrishte 
kvachid dptatd \ adrisyardrishtau sarvajfio na cha nitydgamah 
xamali \ ayafii hi sarva-kartritvdbhdvdvedakali sabdali andptoktas 
eked napramanam \ dptoktas ched etad-artha-gochara-jftdnavato 
nitya-sarva-vishayaka-jMnavattvam indriyddy-abhdvdt \ dgamas- 
ya cha nityatvaM dushitam evaprdg iti veda-kdro nityah sarvajfiah 
siddhyati | [Verse] " The word of an incompetent person is not 
authoritative ; nor can there be any competency in regard to a 
thing unseen. To perceive invisible things, a person must be 
omniscient ; and an eternal scripture is impossible. [Comment] 
This [supposed] scriptural testimony, denying the fact of any 
creation whatever, if uttered by an incompetent person, would 
be no proof. If it was uttered by a competent person, then the 
person who possessed an acquaintance with this circumstance 
[universal non-creation] would be master of a knowledge which 
was eternal, and universal in its range, from his not being 
limited by any bodily organs. And we have previously dis- 
proved the eternity of any scripture (see the first extract from 
the Kusumanjali, above). Consequently an omniscient and 
eternal author of the Veda is established." 

III. Kusumanjali, v. 1. — Kdryydyojana-dhrityddeh paddt 
pratyayatah sruteh \ vdkydt sankhyd-viseshdehcha sddhyo visva- 
vid aryayah | . . . Pratyayatah prdmdnydt \ veda-janya-jfidndtii 
karana-guna-janyam pramdtvdt \ pratyaxddi-pramd-vat \ krutet* 
veddt | vedah paurusheyo vedatvdd dyurxeda-tat \ kiflcha vedah 
paurusheyo vdkyatvdd bhdratddi-vat \ veda-vdkydni paurusheydm 
vakyatedd asmad-ddi-vdkya-vat \ [Verse] "An omniscient and 
indestructible Being is to be proved from [the existence of] effects, 
from the junction of [atoms], from the support [of the earth in 
the sky], from action, from belief [in revelation], from the 
Veda, from sentences, and from particular numbers." 

The following is so much of the comment as refers to the words 
pratyaya, sruti, and vdkya : " From belief, i.e., from authorita- 


tiveness. The knowledge derived from the Veda is derived from 
the attributes of its Cause ; since it is true knowledge, like the 
true knowledge derived from perception. From the sruti, i.e., 
the Veda. The Veda is [shewn to be] derived from a person, 
by its having the characters of a Veda, like the Ayur-veda. It 
is also [shewn to be] derived from a person, by having the 
character of sentences, like the Mahabharata. The words of the 
Veda are [shewn to be] derived from a person, by their having 
the character of sentences, like the sentences of persons such as 

IV. Kusumanjali, v. 16. — ' Sydm 9 ' abhuvam* ' bhavishydmi' 
Hyddau satikhyd pravaktri-ga \ samdkhyd 9 pi cha sdkhdndfh, 
nddya-pravacha?idd rite \ Yaidikottama-purushena svatantroch- 
chdrayituh sankhya vdckyd \ ' sa aixata eko 9 ham bahu sydm' 
ityddi bahulam uttama-purusha sruteli \ sankkya-paddrtkam 
any am aha 'samakhyd* ityddi \ sarvdsdfh sdkhdnaih hi Kdthaka- 
Kaldpakddydh sankhydh sdnkkyd-viseshdh srUyante \ te cha na 
adkyayana-matra-nibandhandh \ adhyetrlndm dnantydt \ anddav 
anyair api tad-adhyayandt \ tasmdd atindriydrtha-darsi bhaga- 
vdn eva Isvarah kdrunikah sargdddv asmad-ddy-adrishtdkrishta 
[k .?] ll kdthakddi-sarira-visesham adhishthdya ydffi ydfii sdkhdm 
uktavdms tasydli sdkkdyds tanndmnd vyapadesa iti siddham Isvara- 
mananam moxa-hetuh \ [Verse] " The phrases ' let me be/ ' I was/ 
' I shall be/ [which occur in the Veda] have reference to a speaker; 
and the designations of the sdkhas could only have been derived 
from a primeval utterance. [Comment] The first person (I), when 
it occurs in the Veda, must be employed to denote the words of 
a self-dependent utterer. Now there are many instances there 
of such a use of the first person, as in the words, 'He 
reflected, I am one, let me become many/ The author then 
specifies another signification of the term 'word/ or 'name/ 
{sankhya) in the clause, 'and the designations/ etc. For all 

11 I have translated as if there bad been a visarga at the end of this word, though 
there is none in the Calcutta text. If the visarga be not allowed, we must translate, 
" the bodies of Katba, etc., which were drawn by the destiny," etc. 


the sakkas ^ear in the Veda the names, the special names, of 
Kathaka, Kalapaka, etc. And these names cannot be connected 
with the mere study [of these sakkas by Katha, Kalapa, etc.] from 
the infinite multitude of students, since if the Veda had no 
beginning, it must have been studied by others besides the 
persons just mentioned. Wherefore the particular sakhas which 
Isvara, the seer of objects beyond the reach of the senses, the 
compassionate Lord himself uttered, — when at the beginning of 
the creation, drawn on by the destiny (adriskta) of beings like 
ourselves, he assumed the bodies of Katha, etc., — these sakhas, 
I say, were designated by the names of the particular sages 
[in whose persons they were promulgated]. And so it is 
proved that the contemplation of Isvara is the cause of final 

I am unable to say if the ancient doctrine of the Nyaya was 
theistic, like that of the Kusumanjali, the Tarka-sangraha, 12 and 
the Siddhanta Muktavali (p. 6 of Dr. Ballantyne's ed., or p. 12 
of his " Christianity contrasted with Hindu Philosophy," and 
p. 3 of Dr. Roer's Bhasha-parichchheda, in Bibl. Ind.) The 
remarks of Dr. Roer on the subject, in pp. xv., xvi., of the 
introduction to the last named work, may be consulted. The 
subject is also discussed by Prof. Banerjea in his forthcoming 
work on Hindu philosophy. The solution of the question will 
depend much on the interpretation to be given to the aphorisms 
of Gotama, 19-21 of the fourth book. 

Note VI. on Page 89, Line 12. 

I find that the phrase kalatyayapadishta, which here (and in 
p. 91, line 21) I have rendered " refuted by the length of time," 
is a technical term in the Nyaya philosophy, denoting one of 
the Aetv-dbkasas, or " mere semblances of reasons," and is thus 

12 JnariadhiJcaranam atma \ sa dvividho jtvatma paramatma cha \ tatra Iivarah 
sarvajnah paramatma eka eva | Jwatma praliSarlram bhinno vibhur nityakcha | " The 
substratum of knowledge is soul. It is of two kinds, the embodied soul, and the 
supreme soul. Of these the supreme soul is the omniscient Isvara, one only. The 
embodied soul is distinct in each body, all-pervading, and eternal." 


defined in the Nyaya Sutras, i. 49 : Kdldtyaydpadishtah kald- 
titah | which Dr. Ballantyne (Aph. of the Nyaya, p. 42) thus 
explains: "That [semblance of a reason] is Mistimed, which 
is adduced when the time is not [that when it might have 

" [For example, suppose one argues that] fire does not con- 
tain heat, because it is factitious, [his argument is mistimed, if 
we have already ascertained, by the superior evidence of the 
senses, that fire does contain heat]." 

Part of the comment of Visvanatha on this sutra is as follows : 
Atita-kdlasya samdndrthakatvdt kdldtlta-sabdena uktafh kdlasya 
sddhana-kdlasya atyaye abhdve apadishtali prayukto hetuh \ etena 
sadhydbhava-pramd-laxandrtha iti suchitam \ sddhydbhdva-nir- 
naye sddhandsambhavdd ay am eva bddhita-sddhyaka iti giyate \ 

Note VII. on Page 90, Line 19. 

See also the passage from the Vrihad Aranyaka Upanishad 
(Bibl. Ind. pp. 215, 216), quoted in Part Second, pp. 376, 377, 
note 4. 

Note VIII. on Page 103, Line 9. 

I find that Vijnana Bhixu, the commentator on the Sankhya 
aphorisms, takes very nearly the same view as is here quoted 
from Madhusudana Sarasvati, in regard to the superiority of 
the Brahma Mimansa or Vedanta over the other Darsanas. 

In his Sankhya-pravachana-bhashya (Bibliotheca Indica, pp. 
3 ff.), he thus writes : Sydd etat \ Nydya-vaisekikdbhydm atra 
avirodho bhavatu \ brahmarmlmdmsd-yogdbhydM tu virodko 'sty 
eva | tdbhydfh nityesvara-sddhandt \ atra cha Isvarasya prati- 
shidhyamdnatvdt \ na cha atrdpi vydvahdrika-pdramdrthika- 
bhedenasesvararnirtsvara-vddayor avirodho 'stu sesvara-vddasya 
updsand-paratva-sambhavdd iti vdchyam \ vinigamakdbhdvdt \ 
tsvaro hi durjfleya iti nirisvaratvam api lokorvyavahdrarsiddham 
aisvaryya-vairdgydya anuvaditaik sakyate dtmanali sagunatvam 
iva | na tu kvdpi srutydddv xsoarali sphutam pratishidhyate yena 


sesvara-vadasyaiva vydvahdnkatvam avadkdryeta iti \ atra uch- 
yate \ atrdpi vydvahdrika-pdramdrthika-bhdvo bhavati \ ' asat- 
yam apratishtham te jagad dhur anisvaram' \ ityddi-sdstrair 
ninsvara-vddasya ninditatvdt \ asminn eva sdstre vydvahdrik- 
asyaiva pratishedhasya aisvaryyavairdgyddy-artham anuvddatv- 
auchitydt \ yadi hi laakdyatiha-matdnusarena nityaisvaryyaM 
na pratishidkyeta tadd paripurna-nitya-nirdoshaisvaryya-clarsa- 
nena tatra chittdvesato vivekdbhydsa-pratibandkah sydd iti sdn- 
khydchdryydndm dsayali \ sesvara-vddasya na kvdpi nindddikam 
asti yena updsanddi-paratayd tat sdstram sankochyeta \ yat tu 
' ndsti sdnkhya-samafri jfidnam ndsti yoga-samam balam \ atra 
vak safhsayo ma bkuj jfidnafii sdnkhyam parafh smritam ' ityddi 
vdkyam tad-vivekdmse eva sdnkhya-jfidnasya darsandntarebhya 
utkarsham pratipddayati na tti Isvara-pratisheddfiise 'pi \ tat/id 
Pardsarddy-akhila-sishta-sarJtvdddd api sesvara-vddasyaiva pdra- 
mdrtkikatvam avadkdryate \ api cha ' Axapdda-pranite cha 
kdndde sdnkkya-yogayoh \ tydjyah sruti-virudho 'fiisali srutyeka- 
saranair nribhih \ Jaiminiye cha Vaiydse virudhdMso na has- 
chana \ srutyd veddrtha-vijfidne sruti-pdrafn gatau hi tau \ iti 
Pardsaropapurdnddibkyo 'pi brahma-mlmdfasdyd isvardfhse 
balavattvam \ yathd \ ' nydya-tantrdny anekdni tais tair uktdni 
vddibhih \ hetv-dgama-saddchdrair yad yuktaM tad updsyatdm ' \ 
iti moxa-dharma-vdkydd api Pardsarddy-akkila-sishta-vyavahd- 
rena brahma-mimd/ftsd-nydya-vaiseshikddy-ukta wvara-sddhaka- 
nydya eva grdhyo balavattvdt \ tathd \ ' Yafk na pasyanti yogln- 
drdh sdnkhyd api mahesvaram \ anddi-nidhanam brahma tarn 
eva saranafh, vraja' \ ityddi-kaurmddi-vdkyaih sdnkhyandm 
tsvardjMnasyaiva ndrdyanddind proktatvdchcha \ kiftcha brah- 
ma-mimdmsdyd zsvarah eva mukhyo vishayah upakramddibhir 
avadhritafy \ tatrdfhse tasya bddhe sdstrasyaiva aprdmanyafa 
syat | ' yat-parali sabdah sa sabddrtliali' iti nydydt \ sdnkhya- 
sdstrasya tu puritskdrtha-tat-sddhana-prakriti-purusha-vivekdv 
eva mukhyo vishayah \ iti tsvara-pratishedhatfisa-bddhe 'pi na 
aprdmdnyam \ ' Yat-parali sabdah sa sabddrthah' iti nydydt \ 
atah sdvakdsatayd sdnkhyam eva isvara-pratiskedhdfhse durbalam 


iti | na cAa braAma-mlmdfiisdydm api isvdra eva mukhyo visAayo 
na tu nityaisvaryam iti vaktufii sakyate \ ' smrity^anavaAdsa- 
dosAa-prasa?iga'-rupa~purva-paxasya anupapattyd nityaiscary- 
ya-visisAtatvena eva braAma-mimdmsd-visAayatvdvadAdraiidt \ 
brahma-sabdasya para-braAmany eva mukhyatayd tu i athdtah 
para-braAma-jijfidsd' iti na sutritam iti \ etena sdnkkya-virodhdd 
brakma-yoga-darsanayoli Adryyesvara-paratvam api na sankaril- 
yam \ praAriti-svdtantrydpattyd i rachandnupapattescha na 
anumdnam ' ityddi braAma-sutra-parampard-'nupapattescAa \ 
tat Ad ' sa purvesAdm api guruh kdlena anavacAcAAeddd' iti 
yoya-sutra-tadiya-vydsa-bAdskydb/iydM spAutam isa-nityatdvaga- 
mdcAcAa iti \ tasmdd abAyupagama-vdda-praudAi-vddadind eva 
sdnAhyasya vydvakdrikesmra-pratiskedha-paratayd braAma- 
mimdnisd-yogdbAydm saha na virodAah \ abAyupagama-vddascAa 
sdstre drisAtali \ yathd VisAnu-purdne (i. 17, 54) | ' Ete bAinna- 
drisafh daityd viAalpdh katAitd mayd \ Aritvd 'bAyupagamaM 
tatra sanxepah sruyatdm mama 9 \ iti \ astu vd papindih jfidna- 
pratibandhdrtAam dstika-darsanesAv apy amsatah sruti-virud- 
dAdrtha-vyavastAdpanam tesAu tesAv atTisesAv apramdnyaftcAa \ 
sruti-smrity-aviruddAesAu tu muAAya-visAayeshu prdmdnyam asty 
eva | ata eva Padma-purdne braAma-yoga-darsandtiriktandM 
darsandiiam nindd 'py upapadyate \ YatAd tatra Pdrvatlm 
prati Isvara-vdkyam \ ' srinu devi pravaxydmi tdmasdni yatAa- 
kramam \ yesAdm sravana-mdtrena pdtityamjM?iindm api \ pra~ 
thamaih Ai mayaivoktam saivam Pdsupatddikam \ macAcAAafcty- 
dvesitair vipraih samproAtdni tatali param \ Kanddena tu sam- 
proktaih sdstraM vaisesAikam maAat \ Gautamena tatAd nydyaffi 
sdnAAyafh tu Kapilena vai \ dvijanmand Jaiminind purvafh veda- 
maydrtAatah \ nirisvarena vddena kritam sdstram maAattaram \ 
DAisAanena tatAd proAtam cAdrvdAam ati-garAitam \ daitydnaM 
ndsandrtAdya VisAnuna BuddAa-rupind \ bauddAa-sdstram asat 
proAtafa nagna-riila-patddiAam \ mdyd-vddam asacA-cAAdstram 
pracAcAAannam bauddAam eva cAa \ mayaiva AatAitam devi Aalau 
brdAmana-rUpind \ apdrtAafk sruti-vdAydndffi, darsayat ZoAa- 
garAitam \ karma-svarUpa-tydjyattam atra cAa pratipddyate \ 


sarva-karma-paribhrafhsdd naishkarmyaia tatra chochyate \ pa- 
rdtma-jwayor aikyam maya 9 tra pratipddyate \ brahmano 'sya 
parafh rUpafn, nirgunarn darsitam maya \ sarvasya jagato 'py 
asya ndmndrthaik kalau yuge \ veddrtAavad mahdsdstram mayor- 
vadam avaidikam \ mayaiva kathitafii devi jagatdM nasa-kara- 
ndd' | iti \ adhikam tu brahma-mlmafhsa-bhashye prapafichitam 
asmdbhir iti \ tasmad dstika-sdstrasya na kasyapy aprdmdnyaih 
virodho vd svarsva-vishayeshu sarveshdm abddhdd avirodhdchcha 
iti | nanv evam purusha-bahutvdfhse 9 py asya sdstrasya abkyu- 
pagama-vddatvafn, sydt \ na sydt \ avirodhdt \ brahma-mlmdfftr 
sdydm apy i amso ndnd-vyapadesdd' ityddi sutra-jdtair jwdtmar 
bahutvasyaiva nirnaydt \ sdnkhya-siddka-purtishdndm atmatvaffi 
tu brakma-mlmdfhsayd bddhyate eva \ ' dtmd iti tupayantV iti tat- 
sutrena paramdtmana eva paramdrtha-bhumdv dtmatvdvadhd- 
randt \ tathdpi cha sdnkhyasya na aprdmdnyam \ vydvahdri- 
hdtmano jlvasya itara-viveka-jfidnasya moxa-sddhanatve vivaxir 
tdrthe bddhdbhdvdt \ etena sruti-smriti-prasiddAayor ndndtmai- 
kdtmatvayor vydvahdrika-pdramdrthika-bhedena amrodhali \ 

" Be it so : let there be here no discrepancy with the Nyaya 
and Vaiseshika. But it will be said that the Sankhya is really 
opposed to the Brahma-mimansa (the Vedanta) and the Yoga 
[of Patanjali] ; since both of these systems assert an eternal 
Isvara (God), while the Sankhya denies such an Isvara. And 
it must not be said (the same persons urge) that here also 
[as in the former case of the Nyaya and Vaiseshika], owing 
to the distinction between practical [or conventional, or regu- 
lative] and essential truths, there may be no [real] con- 
trariety between the theistic and the atheistic theories, in- 
asmuch as it appears that the theistic theory has a view 
to devotion [and may therefore have nothing more than a 
practical end in view] ; — you are not, it will be said, to assert 
this, as there is nothing to lead to this conclusion [or, dis- 
tinction]. For as Isvara is difficult to be known, the atheistic 
theory also, which is founded on popular opinion, may, indeed, 
be maintained for the purpose of inspiring indifference to 


the divine majesty, (just as it is [erroneously] asserted that 
soul has [the three] qualities) ; but neither the Veda, nor any 
other sastra contains a distinct denial of an Isvara, by which 
the merely practical [or conventional] character of the theistic 
theory could be shewn. [Consequently the theistic theory is not 
a mere conventional one, but true, and the contradiction be- 
tween the atheistic Sankhya and the theistic systems . is real 
and irreconcileable]. 

To this we reply : in this case also the distinction of prac- 
tical and essential truths holds. For the atheistic theory is 
censured by such texts as the following: 'They declare a 
world without an Is'vara to be false and baseless/ Now it was 
proper that in this system (the Sankhya), the merely prac- 
tical [or conventional] denial [of Isvara] should be inculcated 
for the purpose of inspiring indifference to the divine majesty, 
and so forth. Because the idea of the author of the Sankhya 
was this, that if the existence of an eternal Isvara were not 
denied, in conformity with the doctrine of the Laukayatikas, 
men would be prevented by the contemplation of a perfect, 
eternal, and faultless godhead, and by fixing their hearts upon 
it, from studying to discriminate {between spirit and matter]. 
But no censure on the theistic theory is to be found in any 
religious work, whereby [the scope of] that system might be 
restricted, as having devotion, etc., in view, as its only end. And 
as regards such texts as the following : — 'There is no knowledge 
like the Sankhya, no power like the Yoga ; doubt not of this, 
the knowledge of the Sankhya is considered to be the highest/ 
they [are to be understood as] proving the superiority of the 
Sankhya doctrine over other systems, not in respect of its 
atheism, but only of its discrimination [between different prin- 
ciples]. In the same way it is established by the colloquy 
of Parasara, and all other well-instructed persons, that the 
theistic theory is that which represents the essential truth. 
Further, such texts as the following of the Parasara Upa- 
purana, and other works, shew the strength of the Brahma- 


mlmfinsa on the side of its theism, viz., ' In the systems of 
Axapada (Gotama) and Kanada, and in the Sankhya and Yoga, 
that part which is opposed to the Veda should be rejected by 
all persons who regard the Veda as the sole authority. In the 
systems of Jaimini and Vyasa (the Vedanta) there is no portion 
contrary to the Veda, since both these sages, by [adhering to] 
the Veda [itself], have obtained a perfect comprehension of 
its true meaning/ In the same way it results from this text 
of the Moxa-dharma (a pfcrt of the Santi-parva of the Maha- 
bharata), viz. : ' Many systems of reasoning have been pro- 
mulgated by different authors ; [in these] whatever is established 
on grounds of reason, of scripture, and of approved custom, 
is to be respected ; ' [from this text also, I say, it results] that 
the theory, — declared in the Brahma-mlmansa, the Nyaya, the 
Vais'eshika, etc., in consonance with the tradition of Parasara 
and all other well-instructed men,— which asserts an Isvara, is 
alone to be received, in consequence of its strength ; and [it is] 
also [to be received] because in such passages as this of the 
Kaurma-purana, viz., — ' Take refuge with that Mahesvara, that 
Brahma without beginning or end, whom the most eminent 
Yogis, and the Sankhyas do not behold, — Narayana (Vishnu) 
asserts that the Sankhyas are ignorant of Isvara. 

Moreover, Isvara is determined to be the principal subject of 
the Brahma-mlmansa by the introductory statement, etc., of that 
system. If it were open to objection on that side [i.e., on the side 
of its principal subject], the entire system would be without 
authority. For it is a rule of logic that ' the sense of a word 
is that which it is intended to denote/ But the principal sub- 
jects of the Sankhya are — (1) the grand object of human pur- 
suit, and— (2) the distinction between nature (prakriti) and 
spirit (puncska), which is the instrument of attaining that 
grand object. Thus the Sankhya does not lose its authority, 
even though it be erroneous in so far as it denies an Isvara. 
For it is a rule of logic that 'the sense of a word is that 
which it is intended to denote/ Hence, from its being an 



essential point, the Sfinkhya is weak in so far as it denies an 

Nor can it be alleged that it is Isvara only, and not the eternity 
of his existence, that is the principal subject of the Brahma- 
mlmansa ; since, through the disproof of the objection (purva- 
pcwca) that the theistic theory 'is chargeable with the defect 
of rendering the smriti inapplicable/ 13 it is ascertained that the 
assertion of an eternal Isvara is the main object of the Brahma- 
mlmansa. But as the word Brahma is principally employed 
to denote the supreme Brahma, the first aphorism of the 
Brahma-mlmansa does not run thus, ' Now follows the enquiry 
regarding the supreme Brahma ; ' but thus, ' Now follows the 
enquiry regarding Brahma' Hence we are not to surmise 
that, from their [otherwise] contradicting the Sankhya, the 
Brahma-mlmansa and Yoga systems must aim at establishing 
[not an eternal Deity] but a [secondary] Isvara, who is merely 
an effect. For this is disproved (1) by the Brahma Sutra (ii. 
2, 1) which (founding on the objection that exists to the inde- 
pendent action of Pradhana or nature) concludes that 'an 
unintelligent cause of the world cannot be inferred, as it is 
not conceivable that it should have been framed by such a 

13 I extract here the entire aphorism referred to (Brahma Sutras, ii. 1, 1), with a 
few lines of S'ankara's commentary : Smrity-anavakasa-dosha-prasanga iti chet \ na \ 
anya-smrity-anavaknsa-dosha-prasangat' || . . . . tatra prathamam tavat smriti-viro- 
dham upanyasya pariharati \ yad uktam Brahma eva sarvajnam jagatah karanam iti 

tad ayuktam \ kutah \ smrity-anavakasa-dosha-prasangat | tasya samddhih | 

' na | anya-smrity-anavakasa-dosha-prasangad* iti \ yadi smrity-anavakasa-dosha- 
prasangena Isvara-karana-vadah axipyeta evam apy anyn Iivara-karana-vadinyah 
smritayo 'navaka&a prasajyeran \ (Sutra) " * If it be said that [this theory] is [wrong, 
as it is] chargeable with the defect of rendering the smriti inapplicable [or contradic- 
ting the MfirtYt], [I answer] No, for [the other theory] would be chargeable with the 
defect of rendering other texts of the smriti inapplicable.' (Comment) Here, he first 
of all proposes and removes the objection of contrariety to the smriti. • It is wrong,* 
says the objector, 'to assert that Brahma is the omniscient cause of the world/ 
Why ? ' Because the fault of making the smriti inapplicable attaches [to this theory]. 
. . . The difficulty is removed in this way : 4 No, for [the other theory] would be 
chargeable with the defect of rendering other texts of the smriti inapplicable.' 
Even if the theory of divine causality were rejected on the ground of rendering the 
smriti inapplicable, still [the antagonistic theory] would be open to the objection of 
rendering inapplicable those other texts of the smriti which assert a divine causality." 


cause/ and by the series of the following satras ; and (2) by the 
fact that the eternity of God is clearly understood from the 
Yoga aphorism [i. 26], viz., * He is also the instructor of the 
ancients, as he is not circumscribed by time/ as well as from 
the commentary of Vyasa thereon. 1 * Thus [if we take into 
account the difference between] the exoteric and esoteric methods 
of discussion, 15 [we shall find that] as the Sankhya has in view 
a [merely] practical denial of an Isvara, it does not con- 
tradict the Brahma-mlmansa or the Yoga. The exoteric method 
[or method of approach, to which allusion has been made] is 
referred to in the Sastra. Thus it is said in the Vishnu Purana 
[i. 17, 54, Wilson, p. 132], ' These notions, Daityas, which I have 
described, are the mistakes of persons who look on the Deity 
as distinct from themselves. Hear now briefly from me [the 
views of those who] have made an approach [ ? to the truth]/ 

"Or let it be [supposed] that even theistic systems, with the 
view of preventing sinners from attaining knowledge, lay down 
doctrines which are partially opposed to the Veda ; and that in 
those particular portions they are not authoritative. Still, in 
their principal contents, which are consonant to the sruti and 
the smriti, they possess authority. Accordingly, in the Padma 
Purana we find a censure passed even upon the several philoso- 
phical systems (darsanas), with the exception of the Brahma 
(the Vedanta) and the Yoga. For in that work Isvara (Maha- 
deva) says to Parvatl, ' Listen, goddess, while I declare to you 
the tamasa works (the works characterised by tamas, or the 
quality of darkness) in order; works by the mere hearing of 

14 I quote the commentary of Bhoja-raja on this Sutra, as given by Dr. Ballantyne 
(Aphorisms of the Yoga, part first, p. 32) : Puryesham \ adyanam Brahmadinam apt 
sa gurur upadeshta yatah sa kalena anavachchhidyate anaditvat | tesham punar 
adimattvad asti kalena avachchhedah | " Of the ancients, that is, of the earliest 
[beings], Brahma and the rest, he is the guru, i.e., the instructor, because He, as 
having no beginning, is not circumscribed by time ; while they, on the other hand, 
having had a beginning, are circumscribed by time." 

16 I suppose from the context that the expressions abhyupagama-vaday '< the mode 
of discussion which approaches the truth," and praudhi-vada, " the mode of dis- 
cussion suited to advanced knowledge," answer in some measure to our idea of exoteric 
and esoteric systems respectively. 


which even wise men become fallen. First of all, the Saiva 
systems, called Pas'upata, etc., were delivered by myself. Then 
the following were uttered by Brahmans penetrated by my 
power, viz. (2), the great Vaiseshika system of which Kanada 
was the author, and (3) the Nyaya and (4) Sankhya, which were 
promulgated by Gotama and Kapila respectively. Then (5) 
the great system, the Parva-[mlmansa] was composed by the 
Brahman Jaimini from Vedic materials, but on atheistic prin- 
ciples. So too (6) the abominable Charvaka doctrine was 
declared by Dhishana, 16 while Vishnu, in the form of Buddha, 
with a view to the destruction of the Daityas, 16 promulgated (7) 
the false system of the Bauddhas, who go about naked, or wear 
blue garments. I myself, goddess, assuming the form of a 
Brahman, uttered in the Kali age, the untrue theory of maya 
[illusion, the more modern form of the Vedanta], which is 
covert Buddhism, which imputes a perverted and generally cen- 
sured signification to the words of the Veda, and inculcates the 
abandonment of ceremonial works, and an inactivity consequent 
on such cessation. In that system I propound the identity of 
the supreme and the embodied soul, and show that the highest 
form of Brahma is that in which he is devoid of the [three] 
qualities. It was I myself, goddess, by whom this great sastra, 
which, composed of Vedic materials and inculcating the theory 
of illusion, is yet un- Vedic, was declared in the Eali age for the 
destruction of this entire universe.' We have entered into fuller 
explanations on this subject in the Brahma-mlmansa-bhashya. 
There is, therefore, no want of authority, nor any contradiction, 
in any theistic system, for they are all incapable of refutation in 
their own especial subjects, and are not mutually discrepant. 
Does, then, this system (the Sankhya) lay down a merely 
exoteric theory in respect of the multitude of souls also ? It 
does not. For in the Brahma-mlmansa also it is determined 
by such kinds of texts as the following (Brahma Sutras, ii. 

16 A name of Vrihaspati, according to Wilson's dictionary. - 
16 See Wilson's Vishnu Purana, pp. 334 ff. 



3, 43), viz., 'the embodied spirit is a part of the supreme 
soul, from the variety of appellations/ that there is a multi- 
tude of embodied spirits. But it is denied by the Brahma- 
mimansa that the spirits (puncsha) asserted by the Sankhya 
have the character of Soul; for it is determined by the 
Brahma Sutra (iv. 1, 3), 'they approach Him as one with 
themselves/ 17 that on the ground of transcendental truth, the 
supreme Soul alone has the character of Soul. But, neverthe- 
less, the Sankhya is not unauthoritative; for as the other 
discriminative knowledge possessed by the embodied spirit in 
its worldly condition is instrumental to final liberation, this 
system is not erroneous in the particular subject matter which it 
aims at propounding. In this way it results from the distinction 
of practical and real which exists between the two theories (made 
known by the sruti (Veda) and smriti), of a multitude of souls, 
and the unity of all soul, that [the Sankhya] is not contrary 
[to the Vedanta]." 

Note IX. on Page. 112, Line 22. 

Sayana's Introduction to R. V. vol i. p. 23.— Manushya- 
vrittanta-pratipadaka richo narasaihsyali \ " The nardsansis are 
verses which set forth the histories of men/' 

If these nardsansis were richali, verses of the hymns, and 
if, according to Sayana's definition, their object was to record 
events in human history, it follows that these verses must have 
referred to non-eternal objects. Either therefore Sayana's 
definition must be wrong, or the author of the Mlmansa 
Saras must have made a mistake in asserting that the hymns 
contain no reference to events which have taken place in 

17 Tht original Sutra runs thus : Atma Hi tu upagachchhanti gtahayanti eha \ 
" They approach Him as one with themselves, and [certain texts] cause them to 
receive Him as one with themselves." This refers to certain texts which S'ankara 
adduces from one of the Upanishads, apparently. 



Note X. on Page 126, Line 15. 

The expression here employed, pitrlnaflcha manmabhih, is 
repeated in R. V. x. 57, 3 (= Vaj. Sanh. 3, 53) : Mano nu a 
huvdmahe ndrdsaihsena somena pittindficha manmabhili \ " We 
invoke his spirit with soma accompanied by human praises, and 
by the hymns [or prayers] of the fathers." 

The Vaj. San. Sanhita reads stomena, "hymn," instead of 
somena. The commentator there explains ndrasafhsena stotrena 
as a " hymn in which men are praised," and pitflndflcha man- 
mabhih as hymns " in which the fathers are reverenced " (pitaro 
yaijt stotrair many ante te ?nanmdnas tair ityddi). 

Note XL on Page 148, Uh Line from the bottom. 

I should have recalled attention here to the verse of the 
Purusha Sukta, R. V. x. 90, 9, quoted in p. 10, and also in 
Part First, pp. 7 and 8, in which the Rik and Sama verses, the 
metres, and the Yajush are said to have sprung from the great 
mystical victim Purusha. 

We have also seen that in the passage of the Atharva-veda 
cited at the top of p. 11, two of the Vedaa are said to have 
sprung from Time. The same Veda, as quoted by Prof. Gold- 
stiicker in the Preface to his Manava-kalpa-stitra, p. 70, assigns 
yet another origin to the Vedas. Ath. V. xi. 7, 24 : Richali 
sdmdni chhanddffm purdftafh yajushd sahd \ uckchkishtdj jajfiire 
ityddi \ "The Rik and Sama verses, the metres, the Purana, 
with the Yajus, sprang from the remainder of the sacrifice" 

Note XII. on Page 149, 3rd Line from the foot. 

It appears from Prof. Benfey's note on S. V. ii. 294 (=» R. V. 
ix. 96, 6, quoted in p. 163), that the scholiast on that passage 
also makes devdndm = ritvijdm, " priests." 


Note XIII. on Page 176, Line 12. 

In R. V. x. 57, 2, we find the same word tantu occurring : 
Yo yajftasya prasddhanas tantur devesku dtatas tarn ahutaM 
naslmahi \ " May we obtain [?] him [Agni ?] whom we have 
invoked, who is the fulfiUer of sacrifice, who is the thread 
stretched to the gods." 

Prof. Roth quotes under the word tantu the following text 
from the Taittiflya Brahmana, ii. 4, 2, 6 : A tantum Agrtir 
divyaM tatdna \ tvafn nas tantur uta setur Agne tvam panthd 
bhavasi deva-ydnah | "Agni has stretched the divine thread. 
Thou, Agni, art our thread and bridge ; thou art the path lead- 
ing to the gods." 

Additional Note, on Page 5, Line 14, and Page 213, Line 1, 
of the Appendix. 

The following passages from Patanjali's Mahabhashya, and 
from the commentaries of Kaiyyata and Nfigojibhatta, are ex- 
tracted from fuller quotations given by Prof. Goldstiicker in 
pp. 147, 148, of the very learned Preface to his Manava-kalpa- 

Patanjali. — Nanu cha uktaih ' na hi chhanddffm kriyante nit- 
ydni chhanddtim' iti \ yadyapy artho tiityah \ yd tv asau var- 
ndnupUrvi sd anityd tad-bheddch-cha etad bhavati Kdthakarh 
Kdldpakam Maudakam Paippalddakam ityddi . . . | Kaiyyata. — 
* NitydnV iti \ karttur asmarandt teshdm iti bhdvalk \ ' yd to 
asdv' iti | mahdpralayddisAu varmdnupUrvl-vindse punar utpadya 
riskayali safhskdrdtisaydd veddrthafn smritvd sabda-rachand 
vidadhati ity art hah \ ' tad-bheddd' iti \ dnupurvi-bkeddd ity 
arthah \ tatascha Katkddayo veddnupUrvyah karttdrali eva 
ityddi | N&gojibhatta. — Afhsena vedasya nityatvatfi svikritya 
afhsena anityatvam aha l yadyapy arthah 9 iti \ anena vedatvafil 


sabddrthobhaya-vrittidhvanitvam \ nanu i dhata yathd purvam 
akalpayad' ityddi-sruti-balena dnupUrvl api sd eva iti navyctr 
pUrva-tmmdJftstirsiddhdntdt sd nityd iti ayuktam ata dka ' mahd- 
pralayddishv 9 iti \ dnupUrvyds tat-tat-xana-ghatitatvena> omt- 
yatvam iti bhdvali iti kechit \ tanna \ ' yadyapy artho nityali 9 
ityddi-vdhya-sesha-wrodhdt \ arthasydpi jyotishtomdder anityat- 
vdt | pravdhdvichchhedena nityatvafh, tu ubhayor api tasmdd 
manvantara-bhedena dnupUrvl bhinnd eva ' prati-ntanvanta- 
rafichaishd srutir anyd vidklyate' ity ukter ity anye \pare tu \ 
'artho nityah' ity atra kritakatva-vvrodhy-amtyatvasya eva 
abhyupagamali pUrva-paxind tddrisa-nityatvasya eva chhandassu 
ukteJh | evaficha artha-sabdena atra Isvarali \ mukhyatayd tasya 
eva sarva-veda-tdtpdryya-vishayatvdt \ ' vedaischa sarvair aham 
eva vedyah 9 iti Gltokter ity dhufi \ varndnupUrvydh anityatve 
manam aha ' tad-bheddchcha 9 iti \ anityatva-vydpya-bhedena 
tat-siddhih \ bhedo 9 tra ndndtvam \ Isvare tu na nandtvam \ 
bhede mdnarn vyavahdram aha \ i Kdthaka 9 ityddi \ arthaikye 
9 py dnupurvl-bkeddd eva Kdthaka-kdldpakddi-vyavahdrah iti 
bhdvali | atra dnupUrvl anityd ity ukteh paddni tdny eva iti 
dhvanitvaia tad aha tatascha Kathddayali ityddi \ 

As Prof. Goldstucker has only given (in p. 146 of his Preface) 
a translation of the above extract from Patanjali, and has left 
the passages from Kaiyyata and Nagojibhatta untranslated, I 
shall give his version of the first, and my own rendering of the 
two last. 

Patanjali. — " Is it not said, however, that ' the Vedas are not 
made, but that they are permanent (i.e., eternal) V (Quite so); 
yet, though their sense is permanent, the order of their letters 
has not always remained the same ; and it is through the dif- 
ference in this latter respect that we may speak of the versions 
of the Eathas, Kal&pas, Mudakas, Pippaladakas, and so on." 
Kaiyyata on Patanjali. — " € Eternal ; ' by this word he means 
that they are so, because no maker of them is remembered. By 
the words, ' the order of their letters/ etc., it is meant that, the 
order of the letters being destroyed in the great dissolutions of 

230 . APPENDIX. 

the universe, etc., the rishis, when they are again produced, 
recollecting, through their eminent science, the sense of the 
Veda, arrange the order of the words. By the phrase, ' through 
the difference of this/ is meant the difference of order. Conse- 
quently, Katha and the other sages [to whom allusion was made] 
are the authors of the order of the Veda." Nagojibhatta on 
Patanjali and Kakyyata. — " Admitting in part the eternity of the 
Veda, he declares in the words, ' though the sense is eternal/ etc., 
that it is also in part not eternal. By this clause, vedicity, or the 
essence of the Veda, is [declared to consist in] being sound com- 
posed of both its constituents, viz., words and their meanings. 
But is not the order eternal, since it is a settled doctrine, 
both of the new and the elder Mimansakas, 18 on the strength 
of such Vedic texts as this, ' the creator made them as before/ 
etc., that the order also is the very same? No ; this is incor- 
rect, and in consequence, he says, 'in the great dissolutions/ 
etc. Some say the meaning of this is, that the order is not 
eternal, inasmuch as it exists in particular [or successive] 
moments. But this is wrong, because it is opposed to the rest 
of the sentence, viz., the words, * though their sense i3 eternal/ 
etc., and because the objects signified also, such as the jyotish- 
toma sacrifice, are not eternal. Others say that both the sense 
and the order of the words are eternal [or permanent], owing 
to the continuity of the tradition ; and that consequently it is 
in different manvantaras that the order of the words is diffe- 
rent, according to the text, 'in every manvantara this sruti 
(Veda) is made different/ Others again think that in the 
words, 'the sense is eternal/ etc., an assertion is made by 
an objector of a non-eternity opposed to [mere] production, 
since it is only such a [qualified] eternity [or permanence] 
that is mentioned in the Veda ; and that thus the word ' sense/ 
or 'object' (arthalb), here refers to Isvara, because he is the 
principal object which is had in view in the whole of the 
Veda, according to the words of the Bhagavad-glta (xv. 15), 

18 This means, I suppose, Vedantins and Purva Mlmfinsakas. 


' It is I whom all the Vedas seek to know.' He next states 
the proof of the assertion that the order of the letters i3 not 
eternal, in the words, ' through the difference of this/ etc. 
The difference in the order is proved by the difference in the 
things included under the category of non-eternity. Difference 
here means variety. But in Is'vara (God), there is no variety. 
He declares ordinary practice to be the proof of difference, in 
the words ' Kathaka/ etc., which mean that, though the sense 
is the same, we use the distinctions of Kathaka, Kalapaka, etc., 
in consequence of the difference of order. Here by saying that 
the order is not eternal, it is meant that the words are the same, 
and thus the [full] character [of the Veda], as sound [consisting 
both of words and their meanings, is preserved?]. And this is 
what is asserted in the words, 'consequently Katha and the 
other sages/ etc." 

After quoting these passages at greater length than I have 
given £hem, Prof. Goldstiicker goes on to remark in his note : 
" I have quoted the full gloss of the three principal commen- 
tators, on this important Stitra [of Panini] and its Varttikas, 
because it is of considerable interest in many respects. . . . We 
see Kaiyyata and Nagojibhatta writhing under the difficulty of 
reconciling the eternity of the Veda with the differences of its 
various versions, which, nevertheless, maintain an equal claim 
to infallibility. Patanjali makes rather short work of this much 
vexed question ; and unless it be allowed here to render his 
expression varna (which means 'letter'), ' word/ it is barely 
possible even to understand how he can save consistently the 
eternity or permanence of the ' sense ' of the Veda. That the 
modern Mlmansists maintain not only the ' eternity of the 
sense/ but also the 'permanence of the text/ which is tanta- 
mount to the exclusive right of one single version, we learn, 
amongst others, from Nagojibatta. But as such a doctrine has 
its obvious dangers, it is not shared in by the old Mlmansists, 
nor by Nagoji, as he tells us himself. He and Kaiyyata inform 
us therefore that amongst other theories, there is one, according 


to which the order of the letters (or rather words) in the Vaidik 
texts got lost in the several Pralayas or destructions of the 
worlds; and since each Manwantara had its own revelation, 
which differed only in the expression, not in the sense of the 
Vaidik texts, the various versions known to these commentators 
represent these successive revelations, which were ' remem- 
bered/ through their ' excessive accomplishments/ by the Eishis, 
who in this manner produced, or rather reproduced, the texts cur- 
rent in their time, under the name of the versions of the Kathas, 
Kalapas, and so on. In this way each version had an equal 
claim to sanctity. There is a very interesting discussion on the 
same subject by Kumarila, in his Mlmansa-vfirttika (i. 3, 10)." 


Abhyupagama-vada, 224 

Accentuation, 18 

Acharyya, 202 

Achvuta, 26 

Aditi, 122, 140, 156 

Adityas, 70, 130, 140 

Adhoxaja, 28 

Adhvaryu, 3, 35, 37 f. 

Adhvaryava (Yajur) Veda, 

Adrishta, 83, 216 

Agastya, 143 

Agni, 18, 28, 51, 117, 120, 
122, 123, 125, 126-129 
passim, 132-140 passim, 
144, 145, 147, 149, 152, 
164, 170, 173, 174, 176, 
180, 227 

Agni a source of inspira- 
tion, 156ff. 

Agnihotra, 55 

Ahankara, 102 

Aila (Pururavas), 29 

Air, Sff., 43 

Aitareya Br., 4 

Alcinous, 166 

Ancients, 95 

Anga, 35 

Angis, 18 

Angiras, 18,117,120,126, 
142, 147, 188 

Angirases, 141 

Anukramanis, 89, 172 

Anushtubh, 7, 176 

Anuvy&khyanas, 105 

Apantaratamas, 23 

Apastamba, 44, 91 

Apaurusheyatva, 43 

Apollo, 165 ff. 

Apsaras, 104, 143 

Apta, 209 f. 

Aranyakas, 1, 15 

Arrives, 167 

Armna, 186 

Arka, 120 

Arthavadas, 70, 95 

Aryaman, 164 

Asuri, 99 

As'maka, 35 

Asridh, 122 

Astronomy, 19 

Asura, 156 

Asuras, 31, 174 

Asvalayana, 91 

AsVattha, 28 

As'vins, 117, 124, 129, 

132 f., 138, 139, 140 
Atiratra, 7 
Ativyapti, 204 
Atharvan, priest, 37 
Atharvan, sage, 18, 117, 

120, 157, 182 
Atharvangirases, 8, 27, 104 
Atharva raris'ishtas, 36 f. 
Atharvanas, 37 
Atharva- veda quoted, 10, 

120, 155, 158, 159, 176, 

Atri, 117, 119, 173, 188 
Atris, 139, 173 
Auddalaki, 60 
Aufrecht, Cat. of Bodl. 

Sans. MSS., 17, 22, 33 
Aupamanyava, 111 
Axapada (Gotama), 222 
Ayasya, 136 
Ayatayama, 33 
Ayur-veda, 80, 215 


Babara, 60, 61, 63, 112 
Badarayana, 47, 50, 51, 65 
Bahvrichas, 27, 35, 37 
Ballantyne's Aphorisms of 
the MTmansa, 52 ff. 

Ballantyne's Aphorisms of 
theNyaya,74ff., 216 f. 
Aphorisms of 

the Sankhya, 81 

Aphorisms of 

the Vedanta, 50, 52 

Aphorisms of 

the Toga, 223 


contrasted with Hindu 
y, 72,112,216 


72, 155 

muktavali, 216 

Synopsis of 

Science, 103 

• Tarka-sangra- 

ha, 209 
Banerjea, Rev. Prof. K. 

M., 185, 207, 208, 209, 

210, 216 
Bauddhas, 93, 203, 210, 

Baudhayana, 91 
Benfey, Sama-veda, 71, 118, 

119, 127, 128, 134, 135, 

137, 145, 153, 161, 163, 

174, 227 
Bhaga, 122 
Bhagavad-gita, 100, 185, 

Bhaga vata-purana, 7, 24, 

27,99,100, 107, 188 f. 
Bharadvaia, 18 
Bharadvajas, 118 
Bharatas, 173 
BharatI, 151, 152, 155 
Bhargava, 37 
Bhasha-parichcheda, 216 
Bhoja-raja, 224 
Bhur, 3, 4, 6, 10, 72 
Bhuvafc, 3, 4, 6, 10 
Bhrigu, 26, 117, 120, 188 
Bird, 156 



Blackie, on the Theology 
of Homer, 169 

Boehtlingk and Roth, Sans- 
krit Dictionary, 49, 120, 
136, 138, 146, 158, 169, 

Brahm&, 13, 18, 25, 26, 
66, 97, 106, 180, 181, 
182, 187, 188, 223 

Brahma, 6, 8, 9, 16, 17, 
18, 22, 23, 31, 144, 162, 
182 f., 188, 213. 

Brahma - mimansa, 217, 
220 ff. 


Brahman (prayer), 121, 

(priest), 37 f. 

Brahmans, 23, 29, 65 
Brahmanas, 1, 2, 39, 43 ff., 

104 f., 113 
Brahmanaspati, 130, 145, 

149, 158, 160 
Brahmarata, 32, 34 
Brahmarshis, 26 
Brahma Sutras, 45, 50, 51, 

52, 65, 94 ff., 97, 180, 

207, 213, 223, 225 
Brahma-vudis, 102 
Brahma-veda, 37 
Brahma- vidy a, 18 
Brahma - vai vartta - purana, 

Brahmesa, 27 
Brihaspati, see Vrihaspati 
Brihati metre, 176 
Buddha, 108, 225 


Calchas, 168 
Caste, 28, 29 
Chaitra, 200 
Chaitya, 12 
Chandala, 187 
Charanavyuha, 39 
Gharana, 33, 35 
Charakas, 35 f. 
Charakacharyya, 35 f. 
Charakadhvaryus, 33, 35 f. 
Charvakas, 12, 45, 225 
Ghhandas, 106 
Ghhandoga, 17 
Ghhandogas, 35, 37 f. 
Ghhandogya Brahmana, 92 
Chhandogya Upanishad, 

3 ff., 106 f., 182 f., 

186 f. 

Colehrooke, Miscellaneous 
Essays, 45, 47, 51, 52, 
57, 66, 72, 83, 89, 100, 
156, 161, 176, 178, 186, 
209, 211 

Commentary, 19 

Commentaries on the 
Vedas, 2 

— — — on the Dar- 

sanas, 2 

Commentators, 39 

Dadhyanch, 117, 120 
Daityas, 225 
Danti, 161 
Dars'anas, 2, 103 
Daxa, 122, 188 
Demodocus, 166f. 
Devas, 119, 149, 160, 227 
Devadatta, 70 
Dhi, 121 
Dhishana, 225 
Dhishana, 121, 151, 152, 

153, 175 
Dhiti, 121 
Dirghasrut, 116 
Dissolution of the Universe, 

Dushkrita, 35 
Dvaipayana, 24 
Dvapara age, 20, 21, 22, 26 

Egyptians, 95 

Ekavims'a, 7 

Elemental origin of the 

Vedas, 3 ff. 
Euripides, 162 


GanSmbika, 161 

Gandharva, 156, 158 f. 

Gandharvas, 27 ff. 

Ganes'a, 161 

Gauri, 161 

Gaya, 140 

Gayatra, 7 

Gayatri, 6, 7, 8, 159, 161, 

173, 176 

, varieties of, 161 

, mother of the 

Vedas, 9 
Girisa, 188 
Gods, 66, 69 f. 
Gaurava, 111 

Gir, 121 

Goldstucker's Dictionary, 


kalpa-sutra, 227, 228 ff. 
Gotama, author of Nyaya 

Sutras, 73 ff., 216, 222 
Gotama, rishi, 131 
Gotamas, 129, 134, 138, 

Grammar, 19, 105 
Grecian hards, 165 ff. 
Gritsaraadas, 129, 131 
Grote's History of Greece, 

165, 167, 168 f. 
Gunas, 102 
Guru, 91, 199 


Hall, Sankhya Prav. Bh., 

96, 100 
Hansa, 29 
Hanta, 150 
Hari, 28, 189 
Haridasa BhattachSrrya. 

Harivansa quoted, 8, 9, 10 
Helicon, 165 
Hellas, 168 
Herodotus, 95, 108 
Hesiod, 95, 165 ff. 
Hiranyagarhha, 9, 183 
Homer, 165 ff. 
Hotra, 151 
Hotri, 3 
Hymns, see Mantras 

Inferior science, 18 

Ha, 151, 152, 155 

Iiiad, 166, 168, 169 

Ilion, 168 

Indra, 29, 70, 117, 118, 
120, 123-131 passim, 
133, 134, 135, 136, 187, 
139, 140, 141, 147, 148, 
152, 156, 163, 170, 173, 
174, 180, 181, 189 
, sceptical doubts re- 

garding, 151 

, source of inspira- 
tion, 159 f. 

Is vara, 43, 82, 107, 180, 
209 f., 211 u% 220 ff., 

_ 230 

Isvara (Mahadeva), 224 



Itihasas, 2, 8, 17, 22, 24, 
73, 90, 94 ff., 104 f., 
106 f., 186 f. 


Jagati metre, 7, 173, 176 
Jaimini, 22, 24, 27, 66, 87, 

112, 116, 190, 207, 221, 

Jalada, 37 
Jamadagni, 153 
Jan (to generate), 128, 

Janaka, 38 . 
Janamejaya, 35 
Janardana, 189 
Jaradgava, 63, 64 
Jatavedas, 134, 137, 138, 

John (St.), Ms First 

Epistle, 135 

his Gospel, 135 

Jupiter, 165 ff. 
Jyotishtoma, 49, 64, 65 


Eaiyyata, 228 ff. 

Ealanja, 49 

Ealapa, 200, 216 

Ealapas, 229 

Kalapa, 200 

Ealapaka, 62, 216, 230 

Ealatyayapadishta, 216 f. 

Ealchas, 167 

Eali-yuga, 225 

Ealidasa, 50, 51, 88, 91, 
197, 202 

Kanada, 98, 222, 225 

Eanva, 117, 125, 140, 148 

Kanvas, 148 

Kalpa or ceremonial Insti- 
tutes, 19, 91 f., 103, 
105 f. 

Kapila, 20, 84, 95, 96 ff., 
181, 213, 225 

Eapinjala, 137 

Earmasiddhi, 161 

Earttikeya, 161 

Eas'yapa, 183 

Eatha (sage), 60, 61, 87, 
200, 215f. 

Eathas, 229 

Eatha Upanishad, 19 

Eaihaka, 59 ff., 87 ff., 200, 
216, 230 

K&tyayana, 91 
Eaurma-purana, 222 
Eausika, 145 
Eaushitaki Br., 4 
Eaushitakins, 39 
Eauthuma, 59 f., 87 ff. 
Eautsa, 108 
Eavi, 116, 147 
Ehila, 35 
Eikatas, 62, 112 
Eratu, 188 
Kri (to make), 128 
Krishna Dvaipayana, 21, 

Erita yuga, 20, 23, 29, 30 
Eshattriya, 95 
Eulluka'on Mann, 5, 11, 

12, 15, 92, 213 
Rumania, 190, 209, 230 
Eua'ikas, 129, 144 f. 
Eusumanjali, 180, 196, 205, 

Eusurubinda, 60 
Kuthumi, 60, 87 
Eutsa, 111 


Langlois, translation of the 

Rig-veda, 119, 176 
Lassen, Ind. Ant., 21 
Laukayatikas, 221 
Linga-purana, 161 
Lokayata, 209 
Lomaharshana, 24 


Madhava, author of Nyaya- 
mala-Vistara, 87 

author of the 


-, author of the 

Vedartha-prakasa, on T. 

S., 5, 44, 47 ff., 88 
Madhu, 21 
Madhusudana SarasvatT, 

101 ff, 217 
Madras, 64 
Maghavan, 118, 119, 134, 

144, 148, 160 
Mahahharata, 22, 50, 60, 

88, 197 f., 215 
quoted, 5, 10, 

21, 23, 30, 31, 51, 90, 

92, 97, 100, 106 

Mahahhashya, 155 
Mahadeva, 5, 161 
Mahat, 102 
MahesVara, 5, 71, 222 
Mahldhara on the Vaj. 

San., 189 
Maitreya, 20 
Malatl MadhaTa, 199 
Man, 175 f. 
Mandhatri, 126 
Mana (Agastya), 143 
Manamanohara, 202 
Manava-kalpa-sutra, 228 ff. 
Manlsha, 121 
Manman, 121 
Mantras, 1, 26, 43 ff., 80, 

121, 187 
, magical power 

ascribed to, 172 ff. 
Manu, 22, 23, 92 ff, 97 

117, 119, 122, 142, 182f., 

Manu's Institutes, 4, 6, 11, 

12, 13, 14, 15, 30, 43, 

Manvantaras, 11, 21, 24 
Maiichi, 188 
Maruts, 70, 123, 125, 127, 

131, 139, 144, 147, 149 
Mati, 121 
Matsya Purana, 35 
Mauda, 37 
Maya, 102 
Medhatithi, 5 
Medhavi, 116 
Meru, 32, 34 
Mitra, 122, 124, 132, 136, 

143, 149, 164, 176, 180 
Mimansa, see Purra-ml- 

MTmansakas, 56, 73ff.,93f., 

102, 179 f., 190 ff. 
, their alleged 

atheism, 207 ff. 
Mimansa-varttika, 209, 230 
Moxa-dharma, 222 
Mudakas, 229 
Miiller, M., 43, 132 

Ancient San- 

krit lit., 19, 35, 39, 80, 
93, 105, 177, 178 

Oxford Essay, 

Jour, of Ger. 


Or. Soc., 49, 72, 95 
Mundaka Up., 17, 103, 

105 f., 181 f. 
Munis, 101 f., 116 
Muses, 165 ff. 




Nabhaka, 126 
Nabhaka, 126 
Nagelbach's Nachhomer- 

ische Theologie, 171 
Nahusha, 181 
Naicharfakha, 62. 
Naiyayikas, 179 f., 190 ff., 

Nasatyas (As'vins), 136 
Narada, 186 f., 188f. 
Nfirayana, 22, 28, 29, 222 
Narayana-tirtha, 211 
Nigada, 27 
Nigama, 91 
Nirukta,45f.,90, 91, 105, 

109 ff., 126, 142, 143, 

150, 154, 175, 210 
Nltha, 121 
Nivid, 121 
Nodhas, 131 
Nyaya, 101, 112, 220 
Sutras, 73 ff., 84, 

210, 216 
, are they 

theistic? 210,216 
Nyaya-bhushana, 191, 203 
Nyaya-mala-yistara, 86 ff., 

90 ff, 93 f. 
Nyaya-sutra-vritti, 73 


Odyssey, 166 f., 169 f. 
Olympian Muses, 165 
Omkara, 25, 26, 29 
Oracles, 170 

Padma-purana, 209, 224 
PaUa, 22, 24, 27, 190 
Paingins, 39 
Paippalada, 37 
Pancnadas'a-stoma, 7 
Pandits, 103 
Panini, 39, 87, 200 
Paramesvara, 43, 183, 

188 f., 196, 198 f. 
Parasara, 22, 24, 27, 221 f. 
Parasara Upapurana, 221 
Parjanya, 149 
Parvati, 224 
Pasupata system, 225 
Pasupatas, 102 
Patanjalas, 102 

Patanjali, Mahfibhfishya, 
39, 228 ff. 

Yoga, 220 ff. 

Paulkasa, 187 
Paurusheya, 8, 50, 82 
Paurusheyatva, 199 
Pavana, 3 
Pcrtsch, alphabetical list of 

initial words of richas, 7 1 
Phemius, 167 
Phaeacians, 166 
Philosophical systems, lOOff 
Pippaladakas, 229 
Plati, 140 
Polyphemus, 61 
Prabhakara, 91, 190, 199, 

Pradhana, 98, 102, 223 
Prajapati, 3, 4, 6,8, 9, 11, 

71, 73, 90, 182, 183 
Prakriti, 98, 102, 222 
Pramaganda, 62 
Prasna TJpanishad, 98 
Prasthana-bheda, 101 ff. 
Pratridah, 143 
Praudhi-vada, 224 
Pravahani, 60, 61, 63, 

Priyamedhas, 117 
Prosody, 19 
Pulastya, 188 
■Pulaha, 188 
Pundaiikaxa, 198 
Puranas 2, 8, 17, 22, 24, 

39, 40, 50, 94 ff., 101, 

104 f., 186 f. 
Pururavas, 27ff., 104 
Purusha, 10, 43, 82, 83, 

87, 161, 199, 222, 226, 

Purusha-medha, 35 
Purusha-sukta (R. V. x. 

90, 1, 9), 10, 43, 50, 

198, 227 
Purva - mimansa Sutras 

quoted, 52 ff., 69, 85 f., 

Pushan, 123, 161, 180 


Raghus, 202 
Raghuvansa, 60 
Rahuganas, 138 
Rajas, 29, 102 
Rajasuya sacrifice, 96 
Ramanujas, 102 
Ramayana, 60 
Rathantara, 173 

Rationalistic treatises, 13 r 

Raxases, 38, 120 

Ri (to move, send forth), 

' 136 

Ribhus, 133, 159 

Rich, 121, 165 

Rik- verses, 7 

Rig-veda, quotations from, 
First Mandala — 
1, 2,-117 
3, 11, 12,-151 
12, 11,-121 

18, 6, 7,-156 
20, 1,-129 
22, 10,-151 
27, 4,-122 
31, 1, 2,-147 
31, 11,-151 
31, 18,-129 
37, 4,-148 
40, 5, 6,-158 
48, 14,-117 
60, 3,-122 

60, 5,-138 

61, 2,-137 
61, 4,-137 
61, 16,-129 

66, 2,-147 

67, 3—173 

77, 5,-138 

78, 5,-138 
80, 16,-117 
89, 3,-122 
91, 11,-138 
94, 1,-137 
96, 2,-122 
102, 1,-138 
109, 1, 2, 4,-152 

116, 1,-136 

117, 25,-129 

118, 3,-117 
130, 6,-131 

130, 10,-122 

131, 6,-117 
139, 9,-117 
143, 1,-122 
152, 5,-149 
164, 5, 6,-177 
164, 25,-173 
164, 37,-177 
171, 2,-131 
175, 6,-117 
179, 2,-141 
183, 6,-138 

Second Mandala — 
1, 2,-159 
3, 8,-152 
17, 1,-122 

19, 8,-131 



lig-veda continued. 

Second Mandaia — 
23, 2,-158 
24, 1,-122 
35, 2,-131 
39, 8,-129 

Third Mandaia— 

1, 20,-123 

2, 1,-133 
18, 3,-152 

21, 3,-147 

29, 15,-144 

30, 20,-129 
32, 14,-152 

39, 1,-123 
43, 5,-144 
53, 9,-144 

63, 12,-173 

64, 17,-159 
58, 3,-117 
62, 7,-123 
62, 10,-6, 161 

Fourth Mandaia — 

3, 16,-138 
6, 3,-156 
6, 6,-157 
6, 1,-157 
6, 11,-129 
11, 3,-157 
16, 20,-129 

20, 5,-117 
32, 12,-138 

34, 1,-152 
43, 1, 2,-153 
60, 1,-118 

Fifth Mandaia— 
2, 11,-131 
11, 5,-139 

22, 4,-139 
29, 1,-147 

35, 4,-173 

40, 6,-173 
42, 6,-118 
42, 13,-123 
45, 4,-139 
55, 8—123 

Sixth Mandaia — 
14, 2,-147 

16, 47,-132 

17, 13,-123 

18, 15,-159 

19, 4,-118 

21, 5,-118 

21, 8,-118 

22, 2,-118 
22, 7,-124 
26, 3,-159 
32, 1,-132 
34, 1,-124 
38, 3,-139 

Rig-veda continued. 
Sixth Mandaia — 
44, 13,-124 
47, 3,-162 

47, 10,-159 

48, 11,-124 

49, 1,-124 

50, 15,-118 

62, 4,-124 

75, 19,-174 
Seventh Mandaia — 

7, 6,-132 
15, 4,-133 

18, 1,-118 

19, 11,-174 
22, 9,-133 
26, 1,-133 
29, 4,-118 
31, 11,-134 
33, 3,-174 

33, 7-14,-142, 143 

34, 1,-153 
34, 9,-153 
53, 1,-119 

63, 2,-124 
56, 23,-124 
69, 4,-125 
61, 2,-136 
61, 6,-125 

64, 4,-132 

66, 11,-164 

67, 5,-139 

76, 4,-119 
85, 1,-139 

87, 4,-144 

88, 4,-144 

90, 3,-153 

91, 1,-119 

93, 1,-125 

94, 1, 2,-134 

96, 3,-163 

97, 3, 5,-159, 160 
97, 9,-130 

Eighth Mandaia — 
3, 3,-146 
5, 18,-139 

5, 24,-125 

6, 10,-146 
6, 11,-125 
6, 33,-132 
6, 41,-147 
6, 43,-125 

8, 8,-140 
12, 10,-125 
12, 14,-156 

12, 31,-136 

13, 7,-160 
13, 26,-136 
15, 7,-174 

Rig-veda continued. 
Eighth Mandaia— 
16, 7,-147 
20, 19,-125 
23, 14,-125 
25, 24,-126 
27, 11,-140 
36, 7,-119 

39, 6,-126 

40, 12,-126 

41, 2,-126 

41, 5, 6,-163 
44, 12,-126 

48, 3,-162 

49, 9,-174 
51, 4,-130 

55, 11,-127 

63, 7, 8,-127 

64, 6,-51, 58, 164 

65, 5, 6, 12,-127 
77, 4,-134 

84, 4, 5,-134 

88, 4,-149 

89, 3, 4,-151 

89, 10, 11,-150 

90, 16,-150, 153 
Ninth Mandaia — 

9, 8,-127 

25, 5,-163 
33, 5,-153 

42, 2,-127 
62, 1,-71 
73, 2,-135 
76, 4,-163 
87, 3,-145 

91, 6,-127 

92, 3,-164 
95, 1,-135 

95, 2,-163 

96, 11,-119 
96, 5-7,-163 
96, 18,-147 
99, 4,-127 
107, 7,-147 
110, 7,-119 

Tenth Mandaia — 
4, 6,-157 
4, 6,-128 
7, 2,-135 
14, 15,-120 

20, 10,-149 

21, 6,-157 
23, 5-7,-135 

26, 4,-161 

27, 22,-148 
35, 6,-153 

39, 14,-132, 164 
42, 1,-140 
54, 6,-130 

56, 14,-120 



Rig-veda continusd. 
Tenth Mandate— 
67, 2,-227 
57, 3,-227 

61, 7,-149 

62, 1, 3,-141 

62, 4, 5,-142 

63, 17,-140 
67, 1,-136 
71, 1-6,-154 

71, 3,-73 

72, 1, 2,-145 

79, 1,-145 

80, 7,-133 

88, 18,-177 

89, 3,-128 

90, 1,-43 
90,9,-10, 50, 198, 


91, 8,-157 
91, 13,-128 
91, 14,-136 
96, 5,-120 
96, 10,-155 
96, 11,-128 
98, 9,-120 
101, 2,-130 
107, 6,-140 

109, 4,-146 

110, 8,-155 

111, 1,-140 

112, 5,-148 
112, 9,-160 

114, 8, 9,-174 

115, 5,-148 

116, 9,-137 
125, 3-5,-155 
129, 5,-45, 178 
129, 6,-46, 180 

129, 5-7,-178 

130, 1-7,-175 
139, 5,-158 
154, 2, 5,-146 
167, 1,-146 

176, 2,-156 

177, 1,-156 
190, 1,-146 

Rishis, 5, 89 f., 95, 107, 
109 ff. 

distinguished as 

new and old, 116 

. speak of themselves 

as authors of hymns, 
128 ff. 

. , supernatural cha- 
racter ascribed to, 141 ff. 

conscious of divine 

inspiration, 148 ff., 164f. 
- their opposite views 

Rishis, their confessions of 
ignorance, 177 1 

, their idea of inspi- 

ration different from that 
of later writers, 179 f. 
-rival the gods, 18 Of. 

how reeonciteable, 171 f. 

Ritual, 18 

Roer, Bibliotheca Indica, 

7, 8, 19, 96, 100, 150, 

181, 187, 216 
Romaharshana, 22 
Roth, Illustrations to Ni- 

rukta, see Nirukta. 
Roth's Lexicon, see Boeht- 

lingk and Roth. 
Rudra, 16, 46 f., 161 
Rudras, 69, 130 


S'abara, 190 

Sadasaspati, 156 

Sagara, sons of, 97, 99 

S'akhas of the Veda, 11, 
20, 39, 60, 83, 215 

Sama-rathantara, 7 

Sama-veda, impurity of its 
sound, 15, 16 

Sama-veda quoted, 71, 132, 
134, 135, 137, 146, 147, 
149, 161, 163, 174 

Soman, 121, 143 

Sama verses, 7, 176 

S'ami wood, 28 

Samidhenis, 79 

S'amsa, 121 

Sanaka, 188 

Sanatkumara, 186 f. 

Sanhitas of the Veda, 19, 
27, 104, 106 

S'ankara Acharyya, 45, 52, 
65 ff., 83, 94 ff., 101, 
104 f., 178, 180, 182, 
187, 188, 207, 213, 223 

Sankhyas, 98 f., 102, 203 

Sankhya, 101, 112, 220 ff. 
Aphorisms, 81 ff., 


Sankhya-karika, 86, 162 
Sankhya- pravachana - bha- 

shya, 217 ff. 
S'antanu, 26 
Saptadasa-stoma, 7 
Sarasvati, goddess, 10, 23, 

151, 152, 153, 155, 170, 


mother of the 

Vedas, 10 
S arlraka Sfltras, 65 

S'arlraka - mlmansa - bhi- 
shya, 66 

Sarva - darsana - sangraha, 
190 ff. 

S'atapatha Brahmana 
quoted, 3, 7, 29, 36, 113, 

Sattva guna, 11, 102, 185 

Satyavaha, 18 

Satyavati, 27 

S'aunaka, 18 

S'aunakas, 37 

Savitri, 161, 176 

Savitri, 6 

Sayana, Vedarthaprakasa, 
or commentary on R. V., 
40 ff., 51, 59, 61, 63, 
106, 117, 120, 121, 122, 
123, 124, 129, 131, 132f., 
138, 147, 149, 151, 157, 
159, 173, 178, 179, 226 

Saxat-krita-dharman, 210 

Siddhanta-muktarali, 216 

Siva, 35, 161, 188 

S'iksha, 58, 105 

S'insapa (sisu), tree, 204 

S'lokas, 8, 104 

Smriti, 13, 43, 44 ff., 91, 
93, 95 f, 100, 198, 223 

Sobhari, 125 

Soma, god, 119, 127, 135, 
138, 147, 148, 164, 176, 

, source of inspiration. 

162 f. 

Soma, juice, 152 

Somas'arman, 201 

Souls, diversity of, 98 

Sound, eternity of, 52 ff. 

Speech, 5, 108, 150 

Sphota, 25, 72, 84 f. 

Sramana, 187 

S'ruti, 1, 11, 13,100 

Stoma, 121 

Stuti, 121 

S udras, 60, 66 

Sukta, 121 

Suraati, 121 

Sumantu, 22, 24, 27, 190 

Sun, 3 ff., 43 

Superior science, 18 

Sushtuti, 121 

Surya, 170 

Suta, 22, 24 

Sutras or Aphorisms, 8, 
39, 104 

Svadha, 150, 178 

Svaha, 150 

Svar, 3, 4, 6, 10 

Svarbhanu, 173 f. 



Svayambhu, 5, 71, 73, 83, 

Syayambhura manyantara, 

22, 23 
S'vetasvatara, sage, 181 

96, 100, 181 
S'yavas'va, 119 


Taittiriyas, 33 

Taittiriya Brahmana [?], 

173, 227 

Sanbita, 88 

Sakha 60, 87, 


Upanishad, 98 

Yajur-veda, 35 

Tamas, 102, 224 
Tamasa works, 224 
Tapas, 146, 18L 
Tarka-sangraha, 209 f., 216 
Tax (to fabricate), 128, 130 
Thamyris, 166 
Tbeogonia, 165 ff. 
Thestor, 168 
Threefold science, 28 
Tiras'chl, 134 
Tittiri, 33, 60, 87 
Treta yuga, 20, 27 ff. 
TrisarvT, 35 
Trishtubh, 7 
Tritsus, 174 
Trivrit, 7 
Tvashtri, 149 


TTdayana, 180, 191, 203, 

204,206, 211 ff. 
TJdgatri, 3 
Uktba, 7, 121, 143, 174, 

Ulysses, 166 
Upanishads, 1, 2, 8, 17, 26, 

40, 103 ff., 106, 181,226 
Upapuranas, 17 
Urvasi, 27 ff, 104, 143 
Us*anas, 145 
Usbas, 139 
Ushmas, 26 
Usbnib metre, 7, 176 
Utpannatva, 199 


Vach, 73, 108, 121, 150, 
151, 153, 154, 155, 170, 

Vachas, 121 
Va^isvara, 191, 202 
Vajasaneyins, 36 
Vajasaneyi ritual, 35 

Sanbita, or 

white Yajur-veda,quoted, 

35, 120, 146, 155, 161, 

Vajins, 33, 35 
Vairiipa, 7 
Vaisampayana, 22, 24, 27, 

32 ff., 35, 190 
Vaiseshika, 95, 220, 225 
Vaishnavas, 102 
Vaisvanara (Aeni), 133 
Vaivasvata Manyantara, 

21, 22, 27 
Vaktratunda (Ganes'a), 161 
Valakhilyas, 145, 160 
Valmiki, 60, 89 
Varuna, 124, 132, 136, 

139, 143, 144, 149, 170, 

176, 180 

-, source of inspira- 

tion, 160, 163 f. 
Varutri, 151 
Vasbat, 150 
Yashatkara, 10 
Yasisbtba, 142 ff, 153, 

174, 179 
Vasishthas, 120, 143 
Vastoshpati, 149 
Vasus, 69 f., 130 
Yatsa, 140 
Vatsayana, 210 
Vayu, 119, 170 
Vayu Purana, 17, 22, 33, 

Vasudeya, 97 
Vedangas, 58, 91 
Vedanta, 101 ff. 

Sutras, 65 ff. 

Yedantists, 102, 179 f. 
Vedartha-prakasa on R. V., 

on T. S., 

5, 44, 47 ff., 88 f., 90 
Vedas, tbeir elemental 

origin, 3ff. 

, world formed from, 

4, 5, 71 

- issued from Brahma's 

moutb, 6 f. 

, breatb of great 

Being, 7f., 83 f., 104 f., 

identified with 

speech, mind, and life, 8 
identified with, Vish- 
nu, 11, 16 

Yedas sprung from the 
Gayatri, 9 

sprung from Saras- 

vatS, 10 

sprung from Puru- 

sha, 10 

- sprung from time, 1 1 

sprung from remain- 
der of sacrifice, 227 

classed with other 

S'astras by the Upani- 
shads, 8, 105 ff. 

-, power, dignity, etc., 

of, 12 ff. 

, division of, 11, 20 ff. 

-, original extent of, 

-, mutual hostility of 

the different schools of, 
36 ff. 

, arguments in sup- 
port of their authority, 
39 ff., 52 ff, 73ff.,86ff., 
196 ff, 212 ff. 

, eternity of, asserted, 

11, 52 ff., 69 ff., 107, 
164, 196 ff. 

, eternity of, denied, 

73 ff., 81 ff., 211 ff. 

superior to other 

S'astras, 90 ff. 

self-proving power, 

107 f. 

seen by the rishis, 
107, 109 
-, remarks on the ar- 

guments in support of, 
108 ff. 

really composed by 

the rishis, 109 ff., 114 
■ contrasted with later 

S'astras, 114 
-, character and con- 

tents, 2, 109 ff., 114 f. 

, distinction of new 

and old hymns in, 116 ff. 
i Kishis 

Yedic Sanbitas, 103 
Yedhas, 116 
Yedayyasa, see Vyasa. 
Verbal Divinity, 188 f. 
Videha, 38 
Vidvan - moda - taranginl. 

VijfTana Bhikshu, 81, 209, 

217 ff. 
Vidya, 104 

Vimada, 135, 136, 149 
Yimadas, 135 
Vipaschit, 116 





Vipra, 116 
Virfij metre, 7, 176 
Virupa, 51, 58, 164 
Vishnu, 11 ff., 20, 24, 35, 

99, 160, 163, 189, 198, 

Vishnu Purana quoted, or 

referred to, 4, 6, 11, 16, 

20 ff., 31, 100, 210, 

ViflvSmitra, 144 f., 173, 

179, 181 
Visvanfitha BhattScharyya, 

73, 217 
VisVavasu, 158 
Visvedevas, 70, 176 
Vrihad Araiiyaka Upani- 


108, 150, 180, 187, 217 
Vrihaduktha, 130 
Vrihat-sama, 7 
Vrihaspati, god, 118, 154, 

158, 176 
.heretical teacher, 


Vrihaspati, author of a 

smriti, 92 
Vrittra, 125, 127 
Vyahritis, 26 
Vyakhyanas, 105 
Vyasa, 20, 21, 22, 24, 26, 

60, 73, 88, 190, 221, 



Weber Ind. Lit., 35 

Ind. Stud. 4, 36 ff., 

100, 101 

Vaj. SanhitS, 190 

Vaj. San. Spec, 


Wilson, H. H., 2 


of Vishnu Purana, 4, 7, 
11, 16, 20, 24, 29, 31, 
35, 99, 100, 146, 210, 
224, 225 

Wilson, H. H., translation 
of Rig-veda, 152, 177 

— — — — Sankhya 
karika, 25, 162 


Yajnadatta, 70 
Yaifla-paribhasha, 44 
Yajnayalkya, 32 ff, 38 
Yajur-yeda, see Veda, and 

Taittiriya andVajasaneyi 

Yajush, 121 
Yajush-verses, 7 
Yama (Agni?), 143 
Yama, 146 
Yaska^ see Nirukta. 
Yatudhana, 110 
Yoga aphnrisms, 224 

philosophy, 220 

Yogas, 85, 102 
Yogis, 222 
Yugas, 22, 106 





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