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r 1 « 



1 72931 

0» T^p olr oM tyi/gar 4*^^»oil 6 »eii iwox<tplw A»o tcfrw 8« Toll XP*rf"»n 
o.'toii cal 8(i"iwuM*'»out ■Jjui- koI »afn'xoirai A/vcoa Ka] Jiopirij 8tevi ln\^l(rafup, ovx 
hSpovt »«p' hipan ovW BopSiptvt ital "EAAijrat oiW rorJom «ai $Of>i!ovr AAA* 
tVe«p fiXiot ml <t«\^kij kjI oupviii «a) >t) «a) [)4\mrira koimI »a« i I, ivapi(*rai Si 
£aA«j &»' dAAwr, ePrin Jrii Aiiyoi. to5 tuitb Kixrpovrroi real ioui rporofat Vti- 
TpoTiuoinnji, xai J wiiti t/v tmnui^fuv M wivrai mvynivtv, Input itaf ir4pon 
Tori riiuivt yi-i&vaoi Ttjia! «o) rpeoTjyoplw «a! <n/jifl<i\c«ii xpaiyrui, aaOuacvpir i 
flip l^vSpaJi, 4i Bi rpartnipoit, /irl t4 tf«ia r^)v vintir iSityiiyrrt ouk i«.fSij>An 
'Emu "yip JiroiTf)aSi'»-r«t mrr/taifir BI JuviA'ai.iiapiar CAurtfoi'- of 6« ^eiryoKT.t 
Eitntip ikoi t^itr Sriaii.tfUHfiar, iS.nBor a.Sn Sump «i't Kptytrb* l/intairr-t ri/r 
itiiiirt: — I'luUrili, th I -i'U' cl Osiride, taction 67. 

[In oppntiiiim tn those who represented Dionysos, the nino.god, u m 
Hffiltni.!.. 'in, etc,, Plutarch urge*]: — 

" For the gad it not a lifeleaa tiling, subject u> human handling and control. Rut 
from the fact that th«j dispose of, and bostow upon ua, those object*, and preserve 
than to us perpetual and constant, wc have considered them to he godt. And these 
god* are not lift i anl among different peoples, they are not Barbarian, or Hellenic, not 
aoutht tii or nurthrrn ; but just it* the auu, uud the moon, and the heaven, anil fin 
earth, and the am art common to all— though they receive different name* from 
different races — ao too, while there is but one reason that orders and one providence 
that iupcrintrnrU this uiHTrrsr, and iidministTative jmarers am set over all, different 
honour* and appellations huvn bean assigned to these divine beings by the luan of 
different nations. And symbols too aro employed, some of an obscure charm n i . b] 
Initiated persona, and othera of a plainor description by others, wilh th» vioar uf 
guiding ram's conceptions of divine things. But Uu* practice is not frco from danger! 
for aomo porsons, deviating from tin) truth, have dipped into superstition, while 
eeking to avoid th« marah of Mrpcntition, have fallen into nthcistu as over i 

raixrr-j at »i«rur.N ivirra sxd sual. 


In tlie present volume I have reprinted, with tin- 
odd ition of some new materials, subsequently collected, 

1 of the texts on which they are founded, a series of 
papers on the thcogony, mythology, and religious ideas 
of the Vedio poets, and other subjects, which originally 
appeared in the Journal of tho Royal Asiatic Society 
of Great Britain and Ireland for 1864, and tho two 
following years: and I have appended a new section, 
on life and manners during the Vedic age. 

I have not thought it necessary to translate all the 
texts to which I have referred in proof of tho repre- 
sentations I have made. To have done so would have 
extended the work to an unnecessary length, as nu- 
merous verses are cited for the sake of a single epithet. 
Some of tho texts aro rendered in full ; but in many, 
perliaps most, cases I have contented myself with giving 
tho substance of several passages of similar or identical 

r have I considered it necessary to supply here any 
summary of the contents of the volume, such as was 
given in tho prefaces to the third and fourth volumes, and 

that to the second edition of tho first volume. Tho 
summary given in the Table of Contents seems suffi- 
ciently ample to afford the reader tho means of readily 


ascertaining what he may expect to find in the body 
of the work. 

I have tried to exhibit, in a metrical form, the sub- 
stance of the ideas regarding Indru and somo other 
deities, which are more fully illustrated in the prose 

I should also further remark that in this volume I 
have attempted nothing more thau to exhibit the most 
prominent features of the gods, — such as display them- 
selves on the surface. It must remain for some more 
profound and critical scholar, after maturer investigation, 
to penctrato moro deeply into the nature and essence of 
the Yedio mythology, to estimate and represent it in a 
more philosophical spirit, to investigate the age of the 
different hymns, and to determine how far it may bo 
possiblo to trace iu them a development of the mytho- 
logy, from a simpler to a more complex state, or any 
other modification of its character or elements, even 
before it began to show any tendency towards mono- 

Meanwhile, and until the subject shall have been 
treated in a manner more befitting its importance, the 
materials which I have brought together, arranged, and 
interpreted, will enable those students of mythology 
who aro themselves unable to consult the originals, to 
form, I trust, a not inaccurate, and a tolerably complete, 
conception of the character and attributes of the Indian 
deities in the earliest form in which they arc represented 
to us by written records. 


v . ft PREFACE. 


2. (1) Affinities of tho Indian and Grecian mythologies. 

5. (2) Antiquity and peculiarity of the Vcdic mythology. 
■4. (3) Origin of coonogonic and mythologies] speculation. 

6. (4) Variety in tho conceptions of the Vedio pools. 

8 — 20. SECTION I. Tub Lvdus Oom oxmuluit, as nrruamrrsj* 
is this Eig-tzsa. 

8. (1) Yaeka's classification of the gods. 

9. (2) Their number. 

(.3) Their origin and immortality. 
10. (4) Different generations of gods and their mutual relations. 
18. (5) Their powers and prerogatives. 

21 — 34. 8BCTION II. Dtafb aito Pbjthtt! (Heave* axd Eabtii). 
22. (1) Heaven and Earth described as the universal part u to. 
24. (2) Passages to the same effect from tho classical authors. 
30. (3) Heaven and Earth elsewhere spoken of as created. 
32. (4) Speculations about their origin. 

35—53. SECTION III. Ann. 
35. (1) The epithets by which she is characterized. 
37. (2) Origin of the conception of Aditi according to Pr.feators 
Roth and Muiicr. 




(3) Aditi m the mother of the Adityas. 


(4) Is Aditi ever identified with tho sky ? 


(6) Aditi seems to be distinguished from the Earth. 


(6) Aditi and Diti. 


(7) Aditi mny be a personification of universal nature. 


(8) Aditi as a forgiver of sin. 


(9) Aditi'* position ii sometimes a subordinate one. 


(10) Creation as described in Rig-reda, x. 72 ; birth of Aditi, 

Daksha, the gods, and the Adityas. 


- 57. "SECTION IV. Thk Ann via. 


- 76<J. 8ECTION V. Mrnu ahd Vjuii-na. 


( 1 ) General idea of these two gods. 


(2) Their chief characteristics. 


(3) Functions and uttributcs of Yuraga. 


(4) Conjoint functions and attributes of Mitra and Vuruija. 


(5) Hymn addressed to Mitra alone. 


(6) Professor Roth's remarks on Mitra and Varuna. 


(7) The Indian Mitra and the Zoroastrian Mithro. 


(8) Is there any historical connection between Varans, and 

Ahara MaadaP 


(9) Varuna connected with tho clement of water, even in the 



(10) Explanations by Professors Roth and Westergaard of tho 

process by which Varuna came to be regarded as the 

regent of the bob. 


(11) Correspondence of Varuya with the Greek Uranoa. 


(1) Varuna, as represented ia the hymns, — a metrical sketch. 


•139. SECTION VI. Ihnu. 


(1) His origin and parents; his wife. 


(2) His attributes, pbynioal and mental. 


(3) His chariot and horses. 


(4) His thunderbolt and other weapons and instruments. 


(5) His lore of toma-juicu ; hiB combats with the cloud-demons : 

explanation of tho myth. 




(5a) India's greatness. 


(6) Hi* relations with his worshippers. 


(7) Apparent mutual incongruity of some of the preceding 

representations of Indra. 


(8) Professor Roth'* theory of the supersession of the worship 

of Yoruna by that of Indra. 


(9) Supersession of Dyaus by Indra according to Professors 

Benfey and Bre'al. 


(10) Opinions of Professors Roth, Whitney, Spiegel, and Dr. F. 

Windiscumnnn on the question whether Vuruua and 

Ahura Muxda are historioolly connected. 


(11) Whether there aro any passages ia tho hymns which de~ 

emrely show that Indra wea superseding Varuna, 


(12) Indra at represented in the hymns, — a metrical ski-Mi. 

(1) Invitation of Indra to tho sacrifice. (2) Hi* birth. 

(3) His arrival. (4) Indra invited to drink tho soma- 

rlraught. (6) Praise of Soma. (8) India's drinking 

song. (7) He drinks the libation. (8) Indra, attended 

by the Maruts, sets out to encounter Vritru. (9) His 

conflict with Vritra. (10) His greatness. (11) His 

relation to his worshippers. 

MO— 142. SECTION YII. Tabjakta. 

146—146. SECTION TUT. Vim. 


-15*. SECTION IX. Tua Mabcts. 


( 1 ) Their parentage, epithets, characteristics, and action. 


(2) Their relations to Indra, and the rival claims of the two 


155—161. SECTION X. Scuta. 


(1) The two sun-gods separately celebrated in the hymns. 


(2) Sorya's parentage, relations to the other gods, epithets, and 



(3) Subordinate position sometimes assigned to him. 


(4) Translations in prose and Terse of a hymn to Siirya. 




SECTION XL Satitbi. 


(1) His epithets, characteristics, and functions. 


(2) Passages in which the dentation of bis name eccins to bo 

alluded to. 


(3) Suvitri sometimes distinguished from, sometimes identified 

with, Surya. 






Functions and epithets of Pushan. 


(2) Hymns addressed to him (i. 42; vi. 53-vi. 58, and portions 

of others) quoted and translated. 





(1) Three hymns to Ushua (i. 48 ; i. 92 ; i. 1 13), and portions of 

others quoted and translated. 



Relatione of Ushas to other deities. 



Her epithet*, functions, and characteristics. 



Ushas, as represented in the hymns, — a metrical sketch. 





Hia funotions. 



His births, and triple existence 



His epithets and charade riatics. 


(4) High divine functions ascribed to him. 



His relations to hia worshippers. 



Agni, — a metrical sketch. 


SECTION XIV. Tvahhtbi. 



His epithets, functions, and rvlutioui. 


H ia daughter and hex wedding. 


(3) Hostility of Indra and TVaahtri- 



SECTION XV. Tnz Asywb. 


Their character and parentage, their relations to Surra, 

their attributes and accompaniment*. 


(2) Legends regarding different persons delivered or t.ivouied 

by them. 



(3) Their connection with other deitiea. 


(4) Their relutiona to their worshippers. 


(5) Legend of Chyavanu and the Aivina, according to the 

Sutapatha Bnlhmana and the Mahabharata. 


(6) Remarks on the AJrins by Professor Goldstucker. 

248—271. SECTION XVI. Soma. 


(I) Quotation from Euripides relating to the Greek god Dio- 



(2) Prevalence and enthusiastic character of the ancient Soma- 



(3) How the soma-plont was brought to the earth. 


(4) Soma's wire*. 


(5) Properties ascribed to the soma-plant or its presiding d« ; i!y. 


(6) Dirine powers attributed to Soma. 


(7) Soma associated with other gods. 


(8) Soma in the post-vedic age a name of the moon. 

272—283. 8ECTIOX XVII. EtaKUMXI asd Buuhxxxu-kti. 


Professor Roth's account of this deity. 

■27 1. 

(t) Passages in which he is celebnited (R.V. ii. 23; ii. 24, 

1 ff. ; ir. 50, 1, 4 ft ; x. 68, 6ft; i. 40, 5f. ; L 190, 

1 f. | v. 43, 12 ; x. 98, 7) quoted and translated. 

(2) Parentage and attributes of the god. 


(3) Whether Bribaspati and Brahmagaapati are identifiable 

with Agni ; — opinions of M. Langlois, and Professors 

1 1 II. WHaon and Max Miilicr. 

284 — 335. SECTION XVIII. Yima jl^d the doctbutk or a rcrrax 



(1) References to immortality in the earlier books of the Big- 



(2) References to the Fathers (the souls of departed ancestors) 

in the earlier books of the Rig-veda. 

(3) Hymns and portions of hymns relating to Tama and the 

Fathers, via., x. 17, 1 f. ; x. 10; x. 11 ; x. 15; x. 16,etc., 

quoted and translated. 



Summary of the conceptions convened in tin-, prccedic 

Further quotations from the hymns on the subject or para- 
dise, it* pleasures, the continuance then of the family 
relations, and on future punishment. 

Quotation* from later Indian works, the BrAhmarjaa, etc., 
with some remarks of Pro feasor Weber on their doctrines 
regarding the destiny of the soul. 

Yam a and • future life, — a metrical sketch. 

Nachikctoa, as ancient thoosophic story, metrically rendered 
from the Taittiriya Brdhraarjii and the Ka(ha Upanishad. 

SECTION XIX. Mnron Drmnrra: Tan* Arm, Attia- 
ak» Aji ExatId. 

SECTION XX. The Goddesses sectioned rx tbe Ykdic 


Saras* atl, IJa, BbaratI, JIahl, Hotra, Varutri, and Dhuhanl. 
Apas, the Waters ; hymn to the Sindho, Gangs, YamunA, 

and other rirera. 
The Apsarasea. 

AgniyT, YarnnanI, Atrial, Kodaal. 

Aranjinl ; (6) Rika, SinirslI, and Oungu; (7) Sraddhi. 
Lakshml and Sri. 

SECTION XXI. Piooana ofthb Vedjc Bjajarox towaxm 

abstract coxcxrnoxs or the Dettt. 
Introductory remarks, embracing references to some texts 

indicating a tendency in this direction. 
Texts of a more decidedly monotheistic or pantheistio 


Hiranyagarbha ; (4) Brahmarjaspati, Daksha, and AHiti. 
Nonentity, entity, and the One, ILY. x. 129, with illustrations 

from the c om men t ary on the Taittiriya Brahmaoa, etc. 
The Puruaha-sukta, R.V. x. 90; the hymn on rurusha, 

A.V. x. 2, etc. 



378. (7) 

Skmnbha and Brnhnn, A.V. x. 7 : x. 8, etc : with remark* 
by Professor Qoldstucker on Bkambha, 


Print, at celebrated in A.V. si. 4. 

Kohita, as celebrated in A.V. xiii. I, and xiii. 2. 

The UiJihiahta, u celebrated in A.V. xi. 7. 

Sacrificial implements, etc. ; (13) Anumali. 

The Ox or Kettle; (15) the Brahmachnrin. 

Kama, as celebrated in A.V. is. 2. 

Kila, or Tim?, as celebrated in A.V. xix. 63 and 54. 

General remark* on the preceding passage*. 

Whether polytheism or monotheism was the earliest form 
of the Aryan religion : opinions of Messrs. Pietet, I'flei- 
derer, Scherer, Reville, and Roth on this snbjt ■■■ 

SECTION XXII. Mi^kliakrou* otmx« r*<m thk l'....- 


Introductory remarks. 

Hymn to Araoyanl, R.V. x. H6. 

E.V. ix. 1 12, on the variety of human aims. 

R.V. x. 34, the gambler's lament, with quotations from the 

A.V. regarding the prevalence of gaming. 
R.Y. x. 117, in praise of liberality. 
R.V. x. 107, in praise of liberality to priests. 
R.V. vii. 103, Progs reviving in the autumn, compared 

to Brahman* celebrating their rites. 
A.V. vii. 12, relating to t 
A V iii. 30, incantation for concord in a family. 
A.V v. 30, incantation to preserve the life of a sick man, 

or r<.'ull l l*i - spirit of a dead rami. 
A V. vii. 53, on the same subject. 
A.V. viii. 1, „ 
A-V. viii. ■> 

450 — 173. SECTION XXIII. Bun KotM 0» SociRrr am. L> 


450. (1) The country occupied by the Vedio people, their villages 
and cities. 
















































451. (2) Their religions worship. 

453. (3) Did the Vedic Indians make images of their gods ? 

454. (4) Kings and principalities. 

457. (5) Different ranks in society, — rich and poor; (6) Domestic 
relations, polygamy, remarriage of widows, freedom of 
women, levirical marriages, sexual immorality. 

461. (7) Dress, ornaments, etc. 

463. (8) Food and drink ; use of wine. 

464. (9) Professions and trades, — carpentry, agriculture, etc. 

466. (10) Amusements, gambling, dancers or actors; (11) Crime. 

467. (12) Animals, wild and tame. 

469. (13) Wars, armies, armour, and weapons. 

472. (14) Poetry and speculation. 

473. (15) Conclusion. 

474. ApresDix. 
479. Ikdex. 


Page 22 In the page-headings from here to p. 96, for " The Indian 
gods generally" tubttitute the headings of the several 
36, line 4, for " tt&nah " read " tthdndh." 
46, „ 19, for " Varunauta" read " Faruna uta." 
68, „ 10, after "foolish" mart "vii. 61, 5." 
86, „ 8 from bottom, after "Indra" ituert " vi. 21, 4." 
98, „ 9 from bottom, for "jaghrtuho " read "j'aghntuho." 
„ 184, „ 6 from bottom, for " dare " read " brave." 
„ 350, „ 21, after " quoted" imert "above, p. 50, and." 


Iy the J'.-.nrth Volume of this work I have collected the principal 
passage* of tho V.-.ii, Hymn* which refer to the origin of the nr.i- 
Terw, and to the characters of the gods Hirunyagarbhn, Yttvtjfcu 
Viihnii, Kudra, and the goddess Ambiku; and hare compared the 
representations there given of these deities with the later stories 
■nd speculations on the same subjects which are to be found in the 
Brihraaiios, and in the mythological poems of a more modern date. 
In the coarse of these researches, I have also introduced occasional 
notices of some of the other Vedio deities, such as A.liti, Indra, 
Yorurja, etc. 

In the present rolnme I propose to give a further account of the 
cosmogony, mythology, and religious ideas exhibited in the hymns of 
the Eig-Tixla, 1 and to compare these occasionally with tho correspond- 
ing conceptions of the early Greeks. 

' This sobj«ct has bean already trestsd by Prufewor Roth In hit ditMftatirat on 
"Tha Legend of Jcamhid'' and oa "Tho ll\g hwtt God* of tho Ariao Rseos," ia the 
Journal of the Genua Oriental Soeuty, it. 41" ff. and vi. 67 B. ; by the same writer, 
sad by ProfcwoT W tune y, in tht Journal of the American Oriental Society, iii. 291 ff., 
and 331 IT. ; by Prcfnaor Both in the Journal of the German Oriental Society, rii. 
i'raAsnr Max Miiller id the Oxford Eany* for 18.5(1 (repriolad in Ohipa 
tima B Otmaa Wartihop. *o4. ii pp 1 IT.}, and in hi i. it Anc. Sanaa. Lit. 

Sf. 631 If. ; by Profneor Wilson in the Prefaces to the three toU. of hi* translation 
of toe Rig-vcda; by U. Lecj,-lou ia Uiu note* to hi* French Irani Utioa of the Rig- 



cut for 
10 ruco 
d when 
oted to 

• "• ' (0 JJhtititt tf the Indian and Grecian txytholoyiet. 


." In the 8ccond Volume of this work I have slated the reasons, 
drawn from history and from comparative philology, which exist for 
cone lutling that the Brahmunicul Indians belong to the same 
as the Greek, the Latin, the Teutonic, and other cations of Ei 
If this conclusion bo well-founded, it is evident that at the timo 
the several branches of the great Indo-European family separated 
commence their migrations in the direction of their future homes, they 
must have powsscd in common a lnrgo stock of religious and mytho- 
logical conceptions. This common mythology would, in the natural 
course of events, and from the action of various cauftaa, undergo a 
gradual modification analogous to that undergone by tho common 
language which bad originally been spoken by idl these tribes during 
the period of their union; ond, in the one case as in the other, this 

:ii'i;;i;ir;ili.ill |DjU n-.uiiir in lln- liillrrwil liicn ,1 ;.,v . I Qg I ii ir.ieUT, 

corresponding to tho diversity of the influences to which they 
severally subjected. Wo shall not, therefore, be surprised to find 
even the oldest existing mythology of the Indians differs widely from 
tho oldest known mythology of the Greeks, ouy more thou we arc to 
find that the Sanskrit in its earliest surviving forms is a very ditlereat 
language from tho earliest extant Greek, 6inco tho Vedic hymns, tho 
most primitive remains of Sanskrit poetry, data from a period nlun 
tho two kindred races had been separated for perhaps above a thousand 
years, and the most ancient monuments of Greek literature are still 
more recent. Yet, notwithstanding this long sepurutiou, wo might 
reasonably anticipate that some fragments of the primitive Indo- 
European mythology should have remained common to both the eastern 
and the western branches of the family ; while, at the same time, wo 
should, of course, expect that such traces of common religious 
ccptions would be more distinctly perceptible in the older than in 
more recent literary productions of the several peoples. And such, it 
point of fact, turns out to be tho case. Tho mythology of tho Vcds 

veda; by Professor Wcbrr, and by Drs. Kubn sad Biihlcr, etc. etc. Tho substance- 
of toino of tbu following sections is repeated or eondcnicd in a paper which 1 read 
before ths Royal Society of Edinburgh in 18C*. See the Traotacuonsoi that Society, 
\ol. »»iii. port iii. pp. 617 tf. 


1 U -: 



does exhibit in some points a certain similarity to that of Homer and 
Heaod, and the mutual resemblance between tbo religious ideas of those 
ancient works is, upon the whole, greater thau that existing between 
tbo later Indian and the Greek pantheon*. X say that, upon the whole, 
the older Indian mythology coincides more nearly with the Greek than 
tho later Indian mythology does. But, on the other hand, the later 
Indian system presents some points of resemblance with the Greek which 
the Vedic system does not exhibit. I allude to the fact that we find 
in the Indian epic poems and Puraijos a god of the sea, a god of war, 
and a goddess of lore, who (the last two, at least,) are unknown to tho 
oldest parts of the Veda, and yet correspond in a general way to the 
Poseidon, the Arcs, and the Aphrodite of the Greeks. Personifications 
of this sort may, however, be either the product of an early instinct 
which leads men to create divine representatives and superintendent-* 
of every department of nature, as well as of human life and action ; or 
they may arise in part from a later process cf imagination or reflection 
which conducts to tho same result, and from a love of systematic com- 
pleteness which impels a people to fill up any blanks in their earlier 
mythology, and to be always adding to and modifying it. Ro- 
acmhlances of this last description, though they aro by no means 
accidental, ore not necessarily anything more than tho results of 
niraiUr proccssos going on in nations possessing the same general 
tendencies and characteristics. But tlio older points of coincidence 
between the religious ideas of the Greeks and the Indians, to which 
wfcraii osj was first made, are of a different character, and are tho un- 
doubted remains of on original mythology which was common to the 
ancestors of both races. This is shown by the fact that, in the 
cases to which I allude, it is not only tho functions, but tho names, 
of tbo gods which correspond in both literatures. 

(2) Antiquity and peculiarity of the Vedie mythology. 

Bat the Talae of the Vedio mythology to the general scholar docB 
not consist merely in tho circumstance that n few religious conceptions, 
and the names of two or three deities, are common to it with the 
Greek. It is even more important to observe that the earliest monu- 
ments of Indian poetry, consisting, as they do, almost exclusively of 




hymns in praise of the national deities, and being the productions of 
an age far anterior to that of Homer and Ilcniod, represent a more 
ancient period of ii HgUKU dovdoptnotlt than we discover in tho Greek 
poet*, and disclose to us, in th" curliest stapes of formation, a varioty of 
myths which a few centuries later had assumed a fixed and recognised 
form.' It is also to be noticed that, from the copiousness of tho ma- 
terials they supply, the hymns of the Rig-veda furnish a sj all far more 
minute illustnitious of the natural workings of tho human mind, in 

d of its infancy, upon matters of religion than we con find in at 
otlui literature whatever. From their higher antiquity, Utett Indian 
hymns arc also fitted to threw light on the meaning of a few points of 
the Greek system which were before obscure. Thus, as wo shall see, 
tho Indian Dyaus (sky, or heaven) explain* tho original meaning of 
the Greek Zeus, and the Sanskrit Varan a gives a clue to tho proper 
signification of Ouranos. 

As in tho firxt votaBO of this work, 2nd edition, pp. 2-4,* I hare 

stated tho grounds on which tho Vedic hymns arc assumed to hare 

been composed nt a period considerably mora than a thousand years 

M our era, I shall here take their greiit antiquity for granted, and 

^ome nccount of their cosmogony and mythology. 

(3) Origin of eotmogonie and mythological *p#ntlation. 

To a simple mind reflecting, in the early ages of the world, on 
origin of all things, various solutions of tho mystery mijrht naturally 
prvM-nt themselves. Botteluasa the production of the existing universe 
would be ascribed to physical, and nt other times to spiritual, powers. 
On tho one hand, tho various processes of growth and change which are 
constantly visible in all the departments of nature might have suggested 
1I1 1 notion of the world having gradually arisen out of nothing, or out 
of a pre-existing nn developed substance. Such an idea of the spontan- 
eous evolution of all things out of a primeval principle, OT out of indis- 
crete m«tf pt, called Prnkriti, became at a Inter period tho foundation of tho 
Sankhya philosophy. Or, again, perceiving light and form and colonr 

• Set Profcu-T Mm Vi ' J n " C-'-pmrtrsMytMoEy." In tho Oxfwd 

Rm 1 Si>e, p. 47, and the reprint in Chips from a Gsmus wVjsbop, p. Vol 
» Bee also Vol. II. pp 206 ff. nad Vol. III. 2nd ed. 217 f. sad 224. 


and beauty emerge slowly every morning out of & gloom ia all 
object* had before appeared to be cenf"uml. .1, tit.- o.i-l v speculator 
might conceive that in like manner the brigbtMM and order of the 
world around him had sprang necesvirily out an antecedent night in 
which the clement* of all things had existed together in indistiiifruish- 
able chaos, Aud, ia fact, this idua of the universe- having arisen out 
of darkness and chaos is the doctrine of one of the later hymns of the 
R.V. (x. 129). Or, on the other hand, contemplating tho resulta 
effected by human design and energy, and arguing from the leas to tho 
greater, or rutltcr impelled by an irresistible instinct to create other 
beings alter his own likeness/ but endowed with higher powers, the 
ancient thinker might feel that the well-ordered frame of nature could 
not possibly hare sprung into being from any blind necessity, but must 
ha** been the work of a conscious and intelligent will. In this stage of 
thought, however, before the mind hod risen to tho conception of one 
supreme creator nod governor of all things, tho various departments of 
nature were apportioned between different gods, each of whom v, 
pined to preside ovor his own especial domain. But those domains were 
imperfectly denned. One blended with another, and might thus be sub- 

m part, to the rule >,( more than one deity. Or, according to tho 
various relations under which they were regarded, these several pro- 
vinces of the creation might be subdivided among a plurality of 

ties, or varying forms of the same divinity. These Paamln 
might be illustrated by numerous instances drawn from the 
mythology. In considering tho literary productions of this simo 
period, wo further find that as yet the difference between mind and 
matter was but imperfectly conceived, and that, uithmi^h, in eomo 
cases, tho distinction between soma particular prorinco of nature and 
the deity who was supposed to preside over it was clearly discerned, 
yet in other instances the two things were confounded, and the same 
visible object was at different times rngarded diversely, as being either 
a portion of the inanimate universe, or an animated being, anil a cm- 

♦ Ari.l Pel. i. '}, 7. Knl rols ttolt ti Jii ravr» rlrnf ftr\ $mri\tt* ir«mi. 8>« 
ml Avrri *■ fAr fri tai rvr, M li ▼» &.p\<uor J&aaiXiinrrc Z-rxtp H «•} to Wtj 
itwrmi if m iw awa it AVltfwnroi. uvtu nal ra'ut flitiui iw Stir. " And all men 

rrpraxat lb* god* a» Wine rolnl by a king, because they th«mu>l*-M. bM» i sOV . Of 
fornwriy, we» » guterned. And just a* m*« regard Hie forma, so also llioy w-vlcr 
ta* liws, sf Uw gods, to b« «mil« to their own." 

6 iNTRODrrnoN-. 

mical power. Thus, in the Yedic hymns, the sun, the sky, nnd 
earth, are severally considered, sometimes u natural objects governed 
by particular god*, and sometimes as themselves gods who generate and 
oontrol other beings. 

(4) Variety in the conceptions of the Vedie poet*. 

The varieties and discrepancies which are in this way incident to all 
nature- worship, are, in the case of the Vedio mythology, augmented 
by the number of the poets by whom it was moulded, nnd tho 
of time during which it continued in process of formation. 

The Itig-veda consists of more than a thousand hymns, composed 
successive generation* of poets during a period of many centuries. In 
these songs the authors gave expression not only to the notions of the 
supernatural world which they had inherited from their ancestors, but 
also to their own new conceptions. la that early ago the imaginations 
of men were ]•• "Unly opon to impressions from without; and in a 
country like India, where the phenomena of nature ore often of the 
most striking description, .such spectators could not fail to bo over- 
powered by their influence. The creative faculties of tho poeta were 
thus stimulated to the highest pitch. In the starry nky, in the dawn, 
in the morning sun sculiug the heavens, in tho bright clouds floating 
across the air and assuming all manner of mugniucent or fantastic 
shapes, in the waters, in the rain, in the storm, in the thunder and 
lightning, they beheld the presence and agency of different divine powers, 
propitious or angry, whoso characters corresponded with those of tho 
physical operations or appearances in which thoy were inuaifested. In 
tho hymns composed under the influence of any grand phenomena, tho 
authors would naturally ascribe a poeulinr or exclusive importance to 
the doilies by whose action these appeared to have boon produced, und 
would celchratu their greatness with proportionuto fervour. Other 
poets might attribute the same natural appearances to tho agency of 
other deities, whoso greatness they would iu like manner extol • while 
others again would devote themselves in preference to the service of 
some other god whose working thoy seemed to witness in some other 
department of creation. In this wsy, while the same traditional 
divinities were acknowledged by ull, the power, dignity, and functions 


of each particular gofi might bo differently estimated by different poets, 
or perhaps by the same poet, according to the external influences by 
which ho wu awed or inspired on each occasion. And it might even 
happen that some ilcity who hud formerly remained obscure, would, by 
the genius of a new poet devoted to his worship, be brought out into 
greater prominence. In such circumstances it need not surprise us if 
we find one particular power or deity in one place put above, and in 
another place subordinated to, somu other god ; sometimes regarded as 
the creator, and sometimes as the croatcd. This is very prominently 
illustrated in the case of the Vedic divinities, Dyaus and PrithivJ, 
Heaven and Earth, to which tho second Section shall be devoted, and 
by other instances which will bo brought to light in the following 




Before proceeding to offer somo description of the powors, functions, 
characters, and mutual relations of tho several deities celebrated in 
tin' Hig-veda, I shall give some account of the general conceptions 
entertained by the Vedic poets and some later Imli.ui writers, regard- 
ing their classes, numbers, origin, nnd duration- 

(1) Yd ska' t elattijication of the god*. 

The following classification of the Vedic gods is adduced by Yiska* 
in his Xirukta (vii. 5), as being that giTcn by the ancient expositors 
who preceded him: Titrah eva ietatdh iti ' Xairuktdh .it;nih jirithivl- 
* thO no Vdyur rd Indro rd antarik*ha-*thun«h Suryo dyu-ilhdnah \ 
t'Uum miihAbh&jy&d ekailuuytih api bahuni wmadheyAni bhavanti 
apt rd karma-prithakte&d yathd hotil adhrttryur brakma udg&tu Uy 
apij (katya tatah \ api rd prithag eta ryuh | pritkatj hi ttutaya bhttanti 
tatha ahhidhan&ni | "There are three deities according to the ex- 
pounders of tho Veda {Nairvkt&K), viz. Agni, whose plnco is on the 
earth; Vflyn, or India, whose place is in tho air; and Sflrya (the 
sun), whose place is in the sky. 8 These deities receive severally 
many appellations, in consequence of their greatness, or of the diversity 
of their functions, as the names of holri, adhvaryu, brahman, and ««£• 

• For some account of Yinla'i work mm tie second vol. of tliii work, pp. 162 
ITS, and ddt article " On the Interpretation of the Veda " in the Journ. It. A. 8. 
1806, pp. 318 (T. 

4 Compare R.V. X. 168, I. Siirye no ii*a$ p/itu TTito atttarikthal \ Agnir imA 
fi~trtki*Mipih | "Mny At Sun prewrre ui from the iky, Vujru from the air, and 
Agni from thing* on earth." 



gdtru ore applied to one and the same person, [according to the parti- 
cular sacrificial office which he happens to be fulfilling:]. Or these gods 
may all be distinct, for the praises uddrcsscd to them, and also their 
appellation*, ore distinct. " : Pursuing the triple classification ben 
indicated, Yaaka proceeds in the latter part of his work to divide the 
different deities or forms of the sumo deities, specified in the fifth 
chapter of the ulea or Vocabulary, which is prefixed to his 

work, into tho three orders of terrestrial (N'irukta vii. 14-ix. 43), 
intermediate or aerial (x. 1-xi. 50), and celestial (xii. 1-46). I 
•hall not reproduce these list*, which could not in n>mo places bo 
thoroughly understood without explanation, as tln'y include several 
deities whoso precise chnraotor nnd iiletttitictition with other divinities 
are disputed, and embrace a number of objects which are not goda at 
ut arc constructively regarded as such from their being addressed 
in the hymn*.' 

(2) Thtir number. 

The gods are spoken of in various text* of the Rig-vcdo as being 
thirty-three in number. Thus it U said in R.V. i. :'.!, 11 : •' Cento 

T This postage is qsotcd more at length in tho 4th foL of thi> work, pp. I XS ff. 

* Th* following Is the manner in wlueii Viska classifies the hjmm. I qu 
elassrtlearion at iatrosetitig, though unoonnsctcd with me present subject :— Ho divides 
i. 1) the hymns, or portion* of hymns, devote! to tlio pr>Lx of the gods into 
three elasaca, vix. (I) those in which th« gods are addzsasad hi Hm third person as 
iWtit. aa " Indra rales over heaven and earth " (x. 89, ID), ctr. ; (2) those Thioh ad* 
drra thesB in the second person as present, such as '• O Indra, ilay thou our enemies " 
t). rte.; tad (3) thnsr in whinh tho author speak* in tho fint person, and 
aaoat hirneeU. Of these the first two elanet art tho moat numerous. Again some of 
th« hymns ar» tn-rrplj laudatory, *», " I declare th« valorou* dood* of Indra," It V. 
i. 81, I i others contain proven, not praixs, as, " may I see clearly with my eyes, be 
radiant In my face, and hear distinctly with my cars " Again, there are imprecations, 
as, **taay I die to-day, if I am a Yatudli&na " (vii. 104, 16), etc. Again, a aartirulnr 
state et* things is described, as, ''there was then neither dnith oor iitunm 
((.'199, 2). Again, a lamentation i» uttered, as, " the bright god will fly n«»y and 
«fl»«r retan" (l. W, 15). Or, praxis and blnrno bjv> t-xpmM-d, as, " he who oat* 
alnae, is alone in his guilt" (x. 117, 0), and " the house of tho liberal man It Ida a 
pooal wharc Inlaw* grow" (v. 107, 10) ; and in the tamo way, in tlic hymn to Dice, 
(rambling is reprehended, and agriculture praised (x. 3-1. 13). - That the viewi with 
srhieh thai riakit bsasU the hyairu were very various." The nrigiatl text of nu«t 
at tka* paaaigc will be found in the 3rd vol. of thi* work, p. 21 1. 



hither, Kisatyaa, Asrins, together with the thrice elerwi gods,* 
drink oar nectar" (d nGiatyu tribhir ekGdaiair iha- dtxebhir yOtam 
mad hit pt yam Aicitui). 

Again, in i. 4o, 2 : " Agni, tho wiso god* lend an ear to their 
shipper. God with the ruddy steeds, who Invest praise, hring hit 
those three- and thirty " (inuhfitdno hi iahuhe daedk Agnt ciehtUumk | 
Ian rohidaica aireamu trayatlrimioUm i vaha). 

i. 130, 11 (=Teitt. S. i. -1, 10, 1). "Ye gods, who arc eleven in 
sky, who are eleven on esrtb, and who in your glory '" arc cloven 
dwellers in the (atmospheric) waters, do ye welcome this our offering " 
{ye dttuto did ekudaia atha prithiryGm adki tkadaia ttha \ aptukthito 
mahinO. ek&daia itha U depdso yttjnam imatTi jwJiadhram). 

iii. 6. 9. "Agni bring hither according to thy wont and gladden the 
BON and thirty gods with their wives" (patnHatat triihiaUm tritiii 
cha devtin auuahcadham Cxahi mtldayatva). 

viii. 28, I. " May tho three over thirty gods who have visited 
sacrificial grass, recognize us, and give us double" " (y* trimiati (ray a 
paro dcvuiio bar fur u&adan \ cidann aha diiti 'sanan). 

viii. 30, 2. " Ye who are the three and thirty gods worshipped 
Manu (or man), when thua praised, may yo become the destroyers of 
our foes" (iti ntulilio atatha riifidato yt atha trayai cha trifnlceh cha 
manor davuh yajniyusah). 

viii. 35, 3. " Asvins, associated with all the thrice eleven gods, wit 
the Waters, tho Marata, the Bbrigun, and united with tho Dawn 
tho San, drink the soma" (vihair dovais tribhir ekadasair ilia adbhi 
tnarudbhir Bhrigubhih aaehiibhuvH \ lajoshaia Uahatu S&ryena 
ivmam pibuta Aicitui). 

* Tlmt is, ts Sftyuna explains, those included in thu three cluxua, coauiting esei 
of eleven gods, specified in the wrte (i. 1 39, 11)," Ye eleven gods who exist in i 
«ky," etc. 

io On this Siyana remarlu, "Although, according to the text. 'There sic 
three K»ds,' ( Nirukta, rii. 5), the deities who represent the earth, etc., arc but I 
• ::il i' .rough their greatness, is. their respective varied manifestations, they amount 
to thirty-three, necordinj to the saying, 'other manifestations of Him exut is 
different pLacee.*" Compere 8p. Br. xi. 6, 3, 4 ff. The Atharva-veda (x, 9, 12) 
divide* the gods into dwellers in the «lty, air, sod earth (y* drvith divukaJo onUriAth*- 
niia» tXa ytyt thn unt ihunynm iMi). And the same Ytda I- 30, 3, speaks of the 
pxb who dwell in the iky, on earth, in the air, in plants, animals, and waters | 
ittrriA diti itha yt pfitMryhSt yt antankthe othadhhku peVu/ku aptu anlah). 

11 Roth says thst rfritu doe* uot ineau doubk, but atiureuly, ttjteciniii/. 


ix. 92, 4. "0 pure Soma, nil theee gods, thrice eleven in number, 
arc in thy secret," etc. 1 ' {lava te, Soma pacam&na ninye vtictdeuut irayah 

This number of thirty- three gods is in the Kitapathn Bruhmnnn 
(jr. 6, 7, 2) explained as made up of 8 Vasus, 1 1 Rudroe, and 12 
Adityas, together with Oyaus and Pritbirl (llearcn and Earth), while 
Frajipati make* a thirty-fourth (athfau Vatatah tkudaia Rudrak dt£- 
data Adity&h imt tva dydcd-pfithicl trayattriihiyau \ lrtiy**frini$tid r«i 
dsrak | Prajcpatii ekalustriihiah). Or, according to another passage 
(xi. 6, 3, 5), the thirty-throe are made up in the same manner with 
-•option of Inclra and Prnjiipnti, who ore substituted for Heaven 
and Earth (to rkalriAiad Jndrai chaixa Prajiipatii eba trayattrifniau). 1 * 

This enumeration could scarcely have been the one contemplated in 
the hymns, as we hare seen that one of the texta above quoted (R.V. i. 
139, 1 1) assigns eleven deities, who must probably have been all of the 
same class, to each of the three spheres, sky, air, and earth. 1 * It is 

" Tbii number of thirty-three gods b referred to in a hymn to the sun in the 
M«h»bhanU iii. 171. m joining in the worship of that doity : Trnya* MiMI eha 
r+i d**iK St* also v. 14019 nnd 15463 of tlio umo third book ; book Ir. 1769, 
•ad boek xiii. 710'.'. According to the RfimfiyanA, Arenyak&noh 11, 14 f. (Bom- 
bay ed) Adib' was the mother of Lhir'.y-ihrae god*, Adityaa, Yutua, and Iiudrua, and 
»f the two AiriM (jUitjriiiit j*jnirr derail troytutrimitd anndnma | Aitity'iS Vstan 
I Ahinau tka paramtapd). la Gorrtaie't adit, the itate oeeuf* In 20. 16. 
i the S'p. Br. liL 8, *, 29. Th«T«ittJrfya 8anhi«, ii. J, «, 1, «ayi that Prajft. 
i had thirty-three daughter*, whom he gare in mmrri<u;e to Soma. The A.V. xi. 
, a*y* that Prajapati niude thirty-three worlds out of th« cduoa olUtiun, So* 
i R.V. rui. 38,9, ViUkhilya, *. 1 The Aitarcya Brihmann, ii. 18, a»yn : frayat- 
trwiiod tat dnaj tomapai trayaitr\S»'ad aiomapah | uAfnu VaweoS ikmltia I 
dridaia Adit yak PrafipatU e&a Vaihafkarat tM it$ dnah tmapnh | iiadala praya- 
f-H tk id aia amiyiji} ikttdai* nptybjah ,tt aicnuipnh paJu-b».ytwak | toauna aooupiiH 
i iWw«*>«ii»wn|'' Thirty. threoa^ibara drinkers of Soma, »nd thirty-Uirconr* 
oat. Tbt eight Vmun the cScvtu Budraa, the twelve Adityaa, I'rnjipiti and Vuhat,- 
i an tka •uma-dmikm. The ileren Prajijus, the eleven Aauyajai, and tka 
i Tjpaysju an tbow who do not drink it, but recaiva animal aacriflow. B« 
i aaeriaear) tatiatts the wma-drinken with ma, aad ihcac who do nut drink it 
•risk aauul.Mcriicat. u For aa explanation of th« fr rmi prayaya, atutyaja, and vpa- 
f»Ja h« Frofcoor U»ur'« tramUtwo of the Ait. itr ii. 110, note*. 

ii Compare Taiil. Br. IL 7, t, 4. la the tcquol of the abova paatage (S*»Up. Br. 
»i. 6, 1, 0) Dyaoa. PptkiTT, and Adityu arc anid to be included amonx the Vans. 
So that it hi (i»r there ii no eomiatency in tbeat acouunta. 

»• On thia dirurion of the uni«ert« intn thraa domain*, »n> the raaurka of Piufumir 
Beth in kia dissertation an "The Uigbett Uodt of the ArUa K*r4*." Jour. norm. 
Or. 8«CMty, Mi, p. M. 



also dear that this number of thirty-three gods could not have em- 
braced the whole of the Yedic deities, as in some of the preoedio/ 
Ajrni, the Asrina, and the Maruts are separately specified, as if distinct 
from the thirty-three. Pothar, ladra could not have hccn, in the 
opinion of the author of the Brahmans, at least as expressed in this 
passage, xi. 6, 3, 5, one of the twelve Adityas (as he was regarded at 
a lata period), since he is separately specified as making op the 
numher of thirty-three gods. 

Jo the 11. V. iii. !», 9 [ss B V. x. 52, 6 and Vnj. S. 33, 7) the god 
an mentioned as heing much more numerous: "Three hundred, three 
thousand, thirty ond nine god* huve worshipped Agni," ,l etc. (W;i 
lain tr\ aahntruni Ayniiii trifniach e-ha tlev&h naea e/ut tuaparyait). 

In another passage (i. 27, 13) the gods are spoken of as divided into 
groat and small, young and old : " Reverence to the great, reverene 
tii tlir> small: reverence to the young, reverence to the old. I. el 

[n the gods if wo are able; may I not, o gods, negh • I the pruise 
greatest " (namo mahailbhyo noma arbhatebhya namo yuvabhyn 
namah Aitttrhhyth. \ ynj'lm* devun yadi iakttavQma na jytiycuaht itmmm 
a Tiithi dtr ii$ I )• 

l not aware, however, that this latter classification of the gods 
i« nil ii.l. .1 |0 in i'iiy 'ill. i ol the hymn*. In fuct this 
among tho deities is denied in another passage, viii. 30, 1 : $m hi <o 
sjfi itrbhako rfmfw na L-vmCirniah | viist latomahantih %t | (".None of 
•j gods, is small or young : you are idl great "). 

(3) Thtir triyin and immortality. 

In the Rig-reda the gods are spoken of as immortal "(as in i. 24, 1 
i.72.2. 10; i. 189, 3; iii. 4. 11 ; iii. 21. 1; iv. 42, 1; iii. 11,1; vii.17.4; 
X. 13, 1 ; x. M, 15 ; x. C9, 9; x. 72, 5 ; but they arc not regarded in 

•• Tbt cMSBMlsssr nsssrks ears that the sssukt of the gods it declared in th* 
Brfcaad Anojaka l'paai»had. time pp. MS C ef Us Kit sf Uua Cpaaiahad, prints* 
tnlke BtU. lad., sad pf. »0»sT. af tW Eajtbh tranalatioa ia ths *a»# sales. The 
aasse saaags eeeatt is aaariy nst cssss vensi is ta* S*itsDstaa Brihraani, xi. 8, 3, 
4 *. t*a las asuaktra of tka god*, ft s aose ef lYofcaaa* Hang in ki* AiUrtTk Ikik- 
auaa, i. 311 aula, sod tfca raassrka kj Dr. Kuks w Wis o-bc* ef tku payer is hi* 

» la is* iituitt-iiOt L SI. I. tsar lausamsi art spsksn tt as the rssvaaaa* «f 
las ssst aaartsts alms sky ( * »««■■ WaaaMaas* i I slia Ik ji n i f Sll l ai, ) . 


general as unbeginning or ■elf-oxisti.'nt being*." There are, as wo shsll 
aee in the next section, many passages in which they arc described as 
feting tlie offspring of ileaven and Earth. In i. 113, 10, TJshas, the 
Dawn, in chonieU-riiKd a* the mother of the gods (aVnrinrim miit&) ; in 
ii. 26, 3, Brahmanatpati is called their father (ifr-rrlndoi pitanm) ; in 
fab 87, 2, Soma is said to bo the lather and skilful generator of tho 
gods (jn/o dcvUntim ■ lakthuh; sec also ix. 42, 4; ix. 86, 10; 

and ix. 109, 4] ; in ix. 06, 6, the same deity is described an the genera- 
tor ci Earth, Agni, Surya, Indra, and Vishnu (janitS dito 
janifn pfUhiryfih | J mt U i Agner janitil SHryaty/i jatiitA fndrarya j'/ini- 
toll Vithnok) ; in x. 72, 5, tho gods tiro declared to bare been bora 
after Aditi (fwfl derail mr ajGyanta); in x. 97, 1, certain plants appear 
to be described as produced three ages (yoga*) before the god* {yah 
csAimMjA pUnHh jaiak derrbhyat triyugam purA); whilst, in x. 129, 6, 
the gods are said to hare been born subsequently to the creution of the 
universe, so that in consequence no one can declare ita origin {arrflj 
fuya titerjtouM alka ko vtdn yatnh a LnlAi'irn)." Var*nia, Mitra, 
Aryoraan, Bbaga, Dakshn, and Awsa aro designated, in K.Y- ii. 27, 1, 
end aone of them, elsewhere, as Adityas, or sons of Aditi. The birth of 
Indra is mentioned in various texts, and his father and mother alluded 
to, though not generally nnmed"(ir. 17, 4, 12; iv. 18, 5, 12; viii. 45, 
4; T-iii. 66, 1 ; x. 184* 1 ft".). In vi. 59, 1, Indrn and Agni aro ad- 

" This b not, howc*. i.y rrofcwr Mat Mftller, whn wyi (Cnlp» from 

m Ocrnuin Woricinnp, i. 3S) " pongta in which tho birth of cortain god* i- 
Ho*rd h*»e • pl)j*i<al m*aning: they rcfiar to the birth of tho day, tbo iwbj; 
sua, the rttvn of (he rear." 

■* In the AUiarro-mln ii. 7, 23, nil the roA* am said to baTo beca bora from 

r>»<-MM*M or the renuiiis of the oblation (tVAcatuAf ~y jejnw* jorw diri ditdh 

n Ti-rw 27 th» same assertion u repealed regarding them in roa- 

a vith th> fntbers, mca, Gandhanu, aad Apsantses . • momoAy&h 

Qmndkarriip—ron'i cb* ft | «■ . -iirt larvt tl.ri i/r-uA i/irviri'.v/l). Coaaparo 

Tsitt. Br. iii. Ii, .1, 2, 3. In the 5-'»tapathn BrAhmani liv. ■.'. 2. 3. it is said : Aye*> 

i«**r» pi 'yam ptwatt | itarmnH rat latmufriit torn drriih mrvini Mw(>W 

M muA f fMnmit | " ThU which is pnrilird ii the ocean i*m*»). From this <*tt <n 

•U the gods, ill et Mttirw itsue forth " {tammft^dtitnhf. The gndi ut. laid to h*ro 

Vmb torn in p«ir* according to • f***f of tho Taittirir* SaaohitA (vi. fi, 9}, referred 

to fcy PfiTaiia vo B.V. nii. 72, 8. 

'• In It V. x. 101, 12, a goddess called Niih^iyr" is mentioned, apprnvctlr U ffcfl 

"m I '.''»frsdj pntrta a cJuhaye itayt Imfrun | ■> drnn Lith#r Indta 

- «on ! i aid as," etc. SaysQaon tkb psaugs idtari'n hi? • : i V Iti, 

. : M She who «»»llow» op h<r ri»il wift A'wAf i, i./. Ditv," lodrs it in £»ct 




dressed in these words : HatAto v&m pitaro deoaiatrarah Inirugn't jlntlkt 
yuaiat | " Yoar fathers, who had the gods for foes, have heen (lain, o 
Indra and Agni; but you survive." Rut in tho next verso both gods 
are said to have bad one genemtor and to he twin-brothers [lamirw ro* 
janitd IhrQtarA ytw'tm yam&v itiehamalard). The A.T. i. 30, 2, speaks 
of some of the gods ns being fathers and others as being sons (y# t* 
«fcpfiA jiittiro ye eha putrCth taehttato me irinata idam uktitm). 8ce 
11. V. x. 63, 2, which will be quoted ia the Section on 

Iu ir. 54, 2 (=Viij. S. 33, 54) it is suid that Savitri bestows im- 
mortality, an excellent lot, on the gods (dtPahhyo hi prathamupt ya,. 
ytbhijo nmriMtaA niton bh&gam uttamam). K Agni is also said, Ti 7, 
4, by his power or skill, to confer immortality on the gods, who wor- 
ship him wbtB he h horn like on infant and Rhinos forth from out of 
hiB parents (<rdw vi.<r> <tmrita jilyamunam ii&uih na d*p&k abhi *»* 
natanU | (aca krntubhir amptatram Cyan vaiiidnara yat pitrrtr adldeh). 
In ix. 106, 8 the gods are said to drink Soma to obtain immortality 
(frdA dtvito amrifOya kam papuh | compare ix. 109, 2, 3).** In x. 
63, 10 some means ore alluded to (it is not clear what) by which th« 
gods attained immortality (yena d/rdto amriiatvam riftotwA). In x. 
167, 1 Indra is said to have conquered heaven by austere fervour 
(Ivarh tapah pariiapya qjayah, ncah) ; and in x. 159, 4 be is said to have 
become glorious and exalted by the offering of some oblation (ymendro 
hanihd kritii abhatad dyumm ultamah). 

In tho A.V. iv. 23, 6 Agui it said to have been the author of the 
immortality of tho gods (y*na dtvufr amfitam encaeindan) ; in the eamo 

addr*«fld n« an Ailitya aloiifj with Vnrnna in rii. 85. 4. Ho b not, nowernr, a* irt 
have aeon thorn, ooiuidcrod a* nt«h in the 9'p. Dr. xi. 6, 3, 5, wher* be » muotioaod 
aa distinct from the twclvo Adityos. 

*> S.iytnn inliTim |t| this liy natinc that Ur rims thnn nnmn nnd other means of 
attaining itiimortMnj (amrilatrum fal-mdAanav nttamam v(/.rh/it4<am*m Hiitrm 
$om'irli-lahJnrnam tuvaai a»uj7)n,~ti\). Tlir urna dirity ia said i. 110, 3, to hava eon- 
fcrred immortality on the Kibhus {tat Saritt vo emritatram aiurai). 

M Sw S'at»|i:itli» llnihmana Ix. 6, I, 1-8, wbara it i. »>iil thai immortality de- 
parted from the Rod* (dtuihy Aa iw amjitateam mpaciakruma), whon they art 
thcmsdte* to recorer it by religious obwrraocea. They poured oot acma into Ajrni 
and thai infu>*<i immortality into him, and by to doing acquired it UicmsalTca, aa he 
ii the tool of all the god*. Soma u tho principle of lnimurtulity (athisAutya apmirr 
ajuktmA | tad agiwr nmjitam ari*JHuh \ tmrxukam m An ttha Jntiniin alma yd 
•ymA | lad .',">' aa *<r amritam aJutihut tad ulatann amritam adtlfiata \ talc i 
emrttak ubhattM | lad yat tad amnOim 6'onwA foA). 



Veda, xi. 5, 10, the gods ore said to have overcome death by continence 
and austere fervour (i r* Mm ach aryow tcpaul dtvuk mrityum apugknata) ; 
and, ibid. xiii. 1, 7, to hare acquired immortality through Bobita 
(jnui dtx<~th amritam anran'nJan). Compare the game Veda iii. 22, 3; 
ir. 11, 6; ir. 14, 1 ; Katap. Br. i. 7, 3, 1 ; Ait. Ilr. vi. 20; Taitt. 
Bonb. L 7, 1, 3, and vi. 6, 3, 1 ; and tho Mohulhuruta siv. 1444 ; 
TaUkaita taptm% drvult mah&m&yHh dicaiit gai&k |. 

I have elsewhere quoted a number of passages from the Satapatha 
Brahmana, in which it is related how the gods became immortal; and 
bow, though of tho same parentage, and originally on a footing of 
equality, with tho Atur&a, they becamo mipc-rior to them." (So© the 
4th vol. of this work, pp. 47-53 ; and tho Journal of the Eoyal Asiatic 
Society, vol. xx. pp.4 1-45 ) 

According to the Taittiriya Brahmana the gods obtained their divine 
rank by austerity (Utpatu devtih dtratiim agr* fiyan | iii. 12, 3, 1). 

In other places somu of tho gods, as Indra (iii 46, 1 ; v. 42, C), arc 
spoken of as undecaying; and in vi. 2 i, 7 it is said of that god that 
neither autumns nor months wear him out, nor do days cause him to 
decay [tut j/arh jaranli iarado tut mdnd/J na dy&cah Indram anaiaria- 
ysmti). Whether or not tho Vcdic poets had any conception of on 

" Ia 8*atapatha Drihmaoa ii. 4, 2. 1, it is Mid that all creatures same to Praj i- 
psti, sod asked that they might liT*. To the ifod» he miii, " 8aerifioa ia y oar food, roar 
immortality ia roar support, the tun U roar light," etc. fj/ajna ee 'rnnom tmrilatmm 
<*A iira t*h turyo roJyoiOt | To tho pamgee of the S". P. Br. regarding the meaner 
in »h-.fh the god» acquired immortality, above referred to, I nujr add ono aa rtt 
OBpuUiahed from tho hula Offlct MS. of the Taittirlrn SanhiU ru. 4, 2, 1 ; TaUta 
mat mumkyHh eravi ttrriih agri atom | U 'tamaynditarU'in piipwyiatm mritpum 
apahttfa aaie'im mmmM yoekhma Hi | It ttam < hat uTximiatwo tram apaiymt tarn 
ikaraiu Ima aym jant m lata rot U 'maritim pApmanem mrityum a paM aty m aW<M 
iiiii<w ayatktkan | " The gods were formerly jtut like men. They desired to 
u ts a ooano went, misery, death, and t« go to the divine assembly. They nsw, took, 
and aacrifloed with, thit CoatarriaVstixutra, and ia coweqiKncc orcicajoo want, 
misery, sad death, aad reached tho dirine aaeemlily." In the Taitt. Sinh. f. p. «Ju 
(of India Office US.) we are told that " the guds and Asuroe contended together : and 
that una former wen leaa aotaerona then the latter, when they took none hrieks which 
Ihey ww, and plaong thorn in th« proper position to receive the tacriScial fire, with 
tax formula 'Then srt ■ multiplier," they became numerous " (Z>mi«wruA *amyu»<lA 
cm I tamSfiSuo der IA aero MuyaAio 'lurch | It dtfoh ttnh ithfalnh apaiyan | t5Jk 
mpidmthamU "bhtyifiJ aii " ily rta AAwjrf.mso 'iaenm). In the Mahibbfrsta. 
tTAntip. 118s, it u said that in the battle which they had with each other "tho 
Jsswraa were the elder brothers and the god* the yownger" (Ham tu iriyaU partA* 
yvJJit Jat'uwt pari | aenrnA ti*aUrejytJi{hah titvij chip* pn'tpttah). 



absolute future eternity df the gods, does not appear. But, as we hare 
in ;nirl n tb of the Brahmarjas did not regard them as natural]; 
and cescntiuUy immortal ; ami it in at all events evident that in later 
times their immortality wuo regarded as only relative, as according 
to the Puranic representation the gods arc only a portion of the 
ing system of the universe, and aro therefore subject, as regards j 
corporeal part, to the same law of dissolution as other beings. 8oe I 
1st vol. of this work, 2nd cd. p. 49, and Professor Wilson's Sfinkbya 
:., p. 14. Thus, in a verso quoted in the- commentary of that 
work (p. II of the Sanskrit), it in said: " Many thousands of Indr&s 
and of other gods have, through time, passed away in every mundane 
ago; for time is hard to overcome" (bahanindra-takairagi dttun&m 
cha yug* yug« \ ki'ilma mmat'tuni hilo hi &*ratihvma$). And in the 
Sankhya Aphon-Mi>, liL 68, it b Mid that " the suffering arising Iron 
decay and death is common to all" (lamdnaffi jarQ-maranadi-jafit dub- 

: in liidi the commentator interprets to mean that nuch aoJB 
is "the cummou lot of all beings, both those who go upwards and 
those who go downwards, from Brahma to things without motion" 
{urd(lliini<h»-(j,ii.riiwin ]',itihiuudi-,-.thth'arunt&n&m earveth&m tva jarS' 
»writ« .nam). The soul* which have animated 

the gods, however, liko those which animate all other corporeal beings, 
Icing eternal and imperishable, must of course survive nil such disso- 
lution*, to he either horn again in other forms, or become absorbed in 
the supreme Brahma. See Wilson'9 Vishnu Pur. p. 6:12, note 7; and 
the 3rd vol. of this work, 2nd cd. p. 99, where it is shewn, on the 
nmluirity of the Brahma Sutras or of Sankura their commentator, that 
the gods both desire and are capable of final emancipation. 

(4) Difftrmt generation* of god* and tin ir mutual relation*. 

Two of the passages above quoted (in p. 14), R. V. vi. 50, 1 , and A.^ 
30, 2, imply that the existing gods woro successors of others who hsd 
previously existed. Tho former verse is perhaps illustrated (as Prof. 
Anfrecht has suggested to me) by ILV. iv. 18, 12: Kat te miitaraih 
riJhtwiim aekidrat iaguih ka$ ttfim ojighiiihial chnrantam | kst l« deeo 
adhi nUijrd\le Gild gat prtlhhinCih pitoram pudagrihga | " Who (o 

*» Compsr» Kittat's History of Philosophy, Engl. tnoiL vol. 3, p. 638. 


Indra) made thy mother a widow ? Who Bought to kill theo lying or 
moving? What god was present in the fray, when thou didst nloy thy 
father, wiling him by the foot? "" In rii. 21, 7, mention is made of 
earlier gods: "Even the former gods" admitted their jiouvnt to be 
inferior to thy divine prowess " (dstui ciit U wuryaya pdrve unit lihat- 
trftya mamire »uhdih*f). Earlier gods arc also mentioned in i. 109, 4, 
though in conj unction with (unless we are to understand them us 
identified with) the scTcn rishis : " In regard to her the former gods 
raid, the scren risliis who rat down to practise austerity," etc. {tUrah 
tiatyim aeadandt punt taplariihaytu tapatt ye nUhtduh). An earlier 
•go of the gods is mentioned in x. 72, 2 f. : " Iu the former ago of the 
gods, the existent sprang from the non-existent. In the first age of the 
gods the exiatont sprang from the non-existent" {detundm punye yutft 
aaatah tad ajayata | 3. Lte&niiiii yugr prat ha m« atatak tail ijayata). 
And in R. V. i. 164, 50 we hare the following Torso, which in repeated 
in X- 90, 16 (the Purusha Suktn) : yajnens yajnam ayajant* dndi tani 
dhmraani prathamUni 0*an | U ha ndlam tnahimuiwh tachanta yatra 
p&rre ladhyah unti derah I "With sacrifice the gods worshipped the 
sacrifice: these were the earliest rites. These great powers sought 
after the sky, where are the • :i yas, gods."** 

M In eiphrution of tliii legend 8Syana raftri to the Toittiriya Sanhitn »i. 1, 3, 0. 
Tli* following is the passsge referred to, which I quote to ilmw hnw litil* light it 
throws oa the text of the B.V.: la/ao dakihinim akhy»4Siy*t | fam lamalhavat | 
taJ Itm/rt VAf,y«j | m 'muutyal* "yo eu» • !» jannkyatt m idam bkucUhyali" >h | h-i 
prittitl | l—fa Indra ttSfoyatt j to 'mnnyatm ' yo rwi mad He 'paio januhyaU M 
id*m lA * * %$. \ yati" Hi | Umyi antmruya yonim ifMimtl | n liMniu 'MmK | Ut 
titamiiifttJmmM | lift JUHi ajhHwA/oya/e | toSt mry**** nyodmlknt | «u JruW 
puljasii 'M*HJl I * I*4r*sy.i yonir ati mil mm feMtS>" iti | " Yajna (iacrilice) 
df«irvd Dak*hini {large**). Ho eonaortcd with her. Indra wis appre.hentive of 
thai He reflected : ' whoerec ie born of her will be thi» ' lie catered into b«r. 
Indra hlawnlf vaa born of hsr. He reflected : ' whoever is born of ber bojidus me 
will b» this.' ITaring considered, he rut oprn hiT womb. 6bc produord a 00W," 
ate. No meatlon ii here made of bit killing his father. 

•» &iir»g.i in laeo aty* lliii means >iuroi . 

*• I quote he** part of a noW from my article Oa the Interpretation of the Veda, 
aW.B.A.S fur I860, p 3&S: Yeaka tails i» (Nirulta xii. 41)tb»t the >\iraktae umjer- 
•toed tbt Sidhyaa to be " the god* whoee locality is the sky," Jymthi** dmyanah, 
whilst, aceordiag to a legead (SkhpStfa) the term denoted a former age of the gods." 
Prn*ea»orWiUoatraD»late*thewonlS4dhyiajinIt V.i. lf>«, M by " who are to be pro- 
Satiated," a aenae not earigacd by Siyapa, who propose*, fint, that of *.W1um yv<*>Jt . 
t-<UA»»0-r*»l*h k*r*vfUr«)t, " perfnrmer*, performer* of (aerified*, etc., work-goda." 
Tkaae wurda are re-dercd by Prof. Wilton in his nolo on i. 104, (0, " dirinitits frcaidiog 




The gods do not seem to have lived always on a friendly fooling with 
ouch other. It appears to me that the two following veract, R.V. ir. 30, 

3, 6, though otherwise rendered by Professor Wilson (after Sayana) are to 
be understood of Indra fighting agoin»t tho gods, and not with the gods 
against tho Asuras : 3. Viiv$ shana id ana tva devHiah Indra yuyvdhvk | 
yad aha nakUm Gtirah \ 5. Tatrn derun righut/ato vtiviln ayudhyah rkah 
it | team Inir* twitun aJmn | 3. " ETea all the gods assailed thee 
Indra, when thoa didst prolong (?) day and night S. When thoa 
didst fight alone against all tho furious gods, thou didst slay (he 
destructive." This interpretation is favoured by the tenor of 

4, 6, 8-11 of the same hymn." 

(5) TMr pvwrt tmi pmwjatic**. 

The gods con do whatever they will ; no mortal, however hostile 
disposition, ciiu thwart their designs (R.V. viii. 28, 4. Yath& 
iev&t tad id atat tad tthaiu nakir d initial | ardvS (hana marttyaK). The 
same is said of the Maruts viii. 20, 17 ; and of Indra viii. 60, 4 ; viii. 
53, 4. It is similarly declared in iii. 56, 1, that no one, however skilful 


over or Kiting effect to religions sets." This does not, however, appear to bs 
real sense, ss Mahldbara on Vuj . 8. 3 1 , 17, talis us that " thoro are two kinds of gods,' 
tarms&vah, "work-gods," and ajanadevaJf, " gods by birth," the lint being 
who had attained to tho condition of deitie* by their eminent works, soil the second 
those who were produced at tho beginuing of the creation, Tho second class is 
superior to the first, and. according to tho Bphadaranyaka, a hundred enjoyments of 
the Utter (the work-gods), " are only eqoal to one tingle enjoyment of the former."* 
See all this and more declared in tho Brihndirnnynka Upmuhad, pp. 817 b*. (p. 230 f. 
of translation), and S'.iUpatha Btuhmn&a, p. 1087. A second erase proposed for 
taihfalt by Sayana on li.V. i. 164, £0, u that of the " deities presiding oror enteres,"" 
eAUasto 'AAiis-MiirtoA, who were Adityaa and Angiraaca, and, according to a Brlb- 
marja, by wonhipping Agni were waited to hesren. Prof. Wilson remarks in hk 
note: " It would teem that in 8srana's day tho purport of the designation SnOye 
had become uncertain." Mahlduara on Vaj. 8. 31, 16, renders the term rWs". 
*padki-*aihab'ih, "producers of the condition of Viraj.** 

*" I should observe that the Bruhmanas constantly speak of the gods and Ararat 
as being both the offspring of Prajipati : at contending together {S'atap. Br. v. t, 
1. 1 ; ri. 6, 2. 1 1 1 ri. fl, 3, 2); sad even u being originally equal ox alike (4lh vol. 
of this work, p. 62). And to prore that even malignant spirits may be called 
"gods," Prof. Roth, s.e. at**, quotes from the Tuitt. Sunli. iii. t, i, 1. a rene 
to the effect : " May Agni preserve me from the gods (Am*.), destroyers of taeriSetrs, 
stealers of taerificca, who Inhabit the oorth;" and a second text from the A V „', 
IS, 6 : - Agni, do thoa through the oblation repel the gods who are 
bappisrtas" (? i3(ay*sj«A). 



tad wise, nan irapada the first and firm decrees of the gods (m UL 
minanti mayino na dhinlh trad decilmlm prailusmH Mruprlat). They 
have dominion over all creatures (x. 65, 15. Devdn Va*iihfho amfita* 
vatunde ye viirQ bhucana abhi pratauthuh). They are supplicated in 
Till. 30, 3, not to lead the worshippers far away from the paths of 
their anoestor Munu (bkJ nah paihab pilry&d n&navdi adhi dira& 
naultfa parfoatah). la oaa passage (R. V. x. 33, 8 f.) a grateful priest 
exclaims that if ho wcro lord of the immortals and of mortals, his 
royal patron's life should bo prolonged; but, he adds, no one, even 
though ho attain the ago of a hundred years, cen livo beyond the time 
the gods Appoint; such has boon tho perpetual course of things (8. Yad 
My* amriUnam uta c& martySnam | fined id mayhard mama | 9. Na 
dttdnnm ati trot am i«tatm& china jlvati \ iathu yujd ei ratfite). In 
another place, x. 117, 1, an encomiast of liberality expresses his as- 
surance that the gods hail not ordained him (or others) to die of 
hunger, as eren the full-fed are overtaken by various forms of death 
(JVa fW u im>ih luhudham id vadham dadur uta aiitam upa gachhanti 
mrityatat). Another poet cries (x. 64, 2) that there is no other 
helper than the gods, on whom the fulfilment of all his Irishes depends 
(ma mardiid vidyatt ant/ah ebhyo devcth* xut adhi hlnulk ayamtata). 
They live in enjoyment ia the region where Vishnu took his three 
strides (riii. '."J, 7. Tr'ini ekak uruyuyo'vi cha&rami yatr* daeiio mada/tti | 
comp. i. 164, 4). In iii 64, 6, the rishi asks " who knows, who now 
am declare, what road loads to the gods ? Their lower abodes are 
indeed perceived, hut there arc higher and mysterious manifestations, 
or regions, beyond {to addkA ttda hah, iha pra eeehad dtvan achha palJiyA 
id wuli | dadfiiri ukdm acamd tad&iui partthuya rraitthu "). 
On the other hand the drinker of Soma attains to the privilege of 
immortality and of knowing the gods (viii. 48, 3. A puna somam osiri- 
ttih obhilma ayanma j'yotir aviddma (Uz&n J Comp. x. 31, 3. nandato 
amritdndn abhdma |). 

•* Tie roortnicttoD sod sense of tho last four words is obscure. Thoj occur sfsia 
fa a different eooaection in x. 114. 2 (where hovera pah it feminine : liri* mi 
tVk fuh taawyo at^iuii jwtmAm y.iA guhyuhu tratnAu | "The wise perorivs Um 
bjiut* of these, who [eiist] in hif-h and nmtcriou* form*, (orrmlrm]." The mm 
of enclosure or re»!ra u *iaign«d t.i th<i word trata by Miill«r, Trait*, of R.Y. L 'iHli, 
wh« reader* Via lut line thai : Iho poeU discovered their (the h'trtiti*'} origin, wh* 
are in tbc far biddca casnbsrs." 




Tho pods reward their pious worshippers and punish thoee who 
neglect their service: viii. 2, 18. Ichhanti detuh tuncantam na nap- 
ndya ipfihayanti | " The gods desiro a man who pours out libations : 
they do not lore sloop." 

viii. 31, 16. Mafohu dtcatato rathah (tiro t& pritsu kSiu chit \ dcta- 
n6Ht yah id mam yajam&nah iyakthati abhld ayajmno bhucat | 16. Jfif 
yajauu'ma vishyati na sunvilna na dmayo | "15. Impotuoua is the 
chariot of the godly man, and ho is a hero in every battle. Th# 
sacrificer who seels to please the gods overcomes the man who does 
not sacrifice. 16. Thou dost not perish, o sacrificer, nor thou who 
oflerest libations, nor thou, o godly man." 

vii. 39, 2. Na devaiah kmatnavt \ " The gods are not for (i.». they 
are not the portion of) the illiborr.l m " Havo the words na 

rite irantasya takhydya dvv&h, in iv. 83, 1 1, a similar meaning : «' The 
gods are not friendly to him who is tired of tho sacred rite " ? See a 
collection of texts to the same effect as regards the individual deitiea 
iu my article " Oa tho relations of the priest* to the other classes of 
society in tho Vedic age," Journ. R. A. S. for 18C6, pp. 286 ff. ; and 
a selection from them in the 1st vol. of this work, 2nd ed. pp. 259 ff. 

According to the Ratapntha BrAhraano, i. I, !,7, "the gods know tho 
intentions of a man. They arc nwnro that ho contemplates the per- 
formance of this rite, and will make his offering in the morning; and 
consequently they nil come to hit house and abide there" (Mono ha tti 
derah mantuhyasya (ijAnanti | tt ennm etad vratam upayantam tiduk 
prdtar no yalnhyate iti \ tt aiya viict devdh yrihun Sgachhanti ts atya 
yfihfihu upacasmti). 

I have here endeavoured to f-nUeet such characteristics and attribute* 
as are in the Veda ascribed to the gods collectively. In the sections 
treating of the several deities, the qualities and functions attributed to 
each will be brought forward in detail. 




I begin with Dyaus and PrithM (Heaven aud Eurth), who eoom to 
hare been very ancient Aryan divinities, and aro in many passage* of 
the Rig-veda described as the parents of the other goda. 

In addition to numerous detached veraea in which these deities are 
introduced among other ohjecta of adoration, aro inrited to attend 
religious rites, and supplicated for different blessings, there are several 
hymns" (i. 159; i. 160; i. 185; iv. 4G; vi. 70; and ni. 53), which 
are specially devoted to their honour. As a specimen of the v. 
whkh they are addressed, I subjoin n translation (very imperfect, I 
fear,) of some parta of the 159th and 160th hymns of the first book : 

i. l£y, 1. Pra dydva yajnaih pjUhivl riMrri'rfAd mahl tituhe n'da- 
lluthu prathetatH \ dtvtkhir ye dtvaputro ludamtasd itthi dKiyd lurgoni 
prmkhtuk*tah \ 2. Ula mamye pilur adruko mono miitur nwhi scatavci 
tod hatlmtbtith | ittretsuA fntari bh&ma chakratvr urn praj&y&h amritom 
zar'imabhik | "1. At tho festivals [I worship] with offerings, and cele- 
brate the praises of, Heaven aud Earth, the promoter* of righteousness, 
the great, the wise, the energetic, who, having gods for their offspring, 
thus lavish, with tho gods, the choicest bh wings, in consequence of 
our hymn. 2. With my invocations I adore the thought of the bene- 
ficent Pother, and that mighty inherent power of tho Mother. The 
prolific Parent* have made all creatures, and through their favours 
(have conferred) wide immortality on their offspring." 

** The crude form of this word U Dru. I employ tho nonrioattrt J>y«tu, Croat iu 
eloair n— wblinra to the Greek zris. The jrcnitivo u Itkot. 

*» See also A.V. iv. 28. Ppthivt sle-ne is celebrated in K.V. 6, 84. I ff. Hyssn i. 
1 R4, is tnatUud sad eMUDented on by M. Ad. Begnier in bis E"tude rar lidioou dss 



i. 160, 2. Uruvyacluud mahinl atahhatd pitd mdtd cha bhurani\*i 
rakehatah | . . . . 3. Ayavi dev&ndm apatdm apadamo yo jtijtina rodatJ 
riita-iambhuvu | ei yo tnamt rajatl tukralHyayi ajarcbhih liambhtneihik 
mmdiirUhe | i. Tt no gfindnc mahinl mahi iravah ithatiraft dyapi- 
pfithivi dhdiatho mahat | ytnabhi krithfU tatan&ma iijvahd pandyyam 
cfo turn* tarn ineaUwt | '* 2. Widely expandod, vast, unwearied, the 

Father and the Mother proservo all creatures 4. Uo was the 

moat skilful of the skilful gods who produced these two world*, which 
arc beneficent to all, who, desiring to create an excellent work, stretched 
out these regions and sustained them by undecaying supports. 5. 
■When lauded, may the mighty Heaven and earth bestow oa ua great 
renown and power. May they impart to us laudable energy whereby 
we may always control other creatures." 

Li the hymns HeaTen and Earth are characterized by a profusion of 
epithets, not only such as are suggested by their various physical 
characteristics, as rastaesc, breadth, profundity, productiveness, on* 
ehangeabloneei {vrupyachasd, mahinl, urvl, bahuU, dareanU, yalhlr*, 
yhriUxail, madhudught, bhfiriretasa, payanail, aj/trt) (i. 160, 2; i. 185, 
7 j iv. 36, 3; vi. 70, 1, 2); but also by Buch as are of a moral er 
spiritual nature, as innocuous or beneficent, wise, promoters of righteous* 
nee*, (rifdrri'cMd, p'ldearl, prachetatd, adruhd) (i. 169, If.; i. 160, 1 ; 
iv. 66, 2 ; vi. 70, 6 ; x. 86, 2). 

(1) HtoKtn end Earth dttm'btd at th« unktrni parmtU. 

The two (HeoTcn and Earth) together are styled porcnta, pitara 
(in i. 150, 2; iii. 3, 1 1 ; vii. 53, 2; x. Co, 8), or tndtard (in L 165, 
3; ix. 85, 12; x. 1, 7; x. 35, 3;» x. 64, 14), or Janitri 
{dydtA-pfithitl janitri R.V. x. 1 10, 9). In other passages the 
Heaven is separately styled father, and tho Earth mother (in R.V. 
L 89, 4; L 90, 7; L 159, 2; i. 160, 2 ; i. 185, 11 ; iv. 1, 10 ; v. 42, 
16; v. 43, 2, 15; vi. 51,6;" vi. 70, 6; vi. 72, 2 ; viii. 92, 2; x. 
64, 3; x. 88, 16 (= Vij. 8anh. 19, 47). See also A.V. ii. 28, 4 ; iii. 

" Hot ihev ire supplicated to preserr* the wwahippe- Wilms. In B.Y. vi. IT, 
7, they an called mSlarS ya3m rituya, " the great parents of sseriflos." 

M The words of tho originil here are Th/atuK pitah Pritkm motor oAny Agm 
Uritm- rawee mrilata nah | - Father Heaven, iiiaoiiout mother Earth, brother 
Agni, Vams, be graeioni te- us " A.V. ri. 4, 3 hat Dyawhptiur y*ny* iu eA Atmo yo. 



S3, 6; vi. 4, 3; <ri- 120, 2 ; viii. 7, 2 ; tad xii. 1, 10. Is the some 
Veda, xii 1, 12, the poet sap : "The Earth is the mother, and I am 
th« ion of the earth : Parjenya is the father; may he nourish u* (Mata 
iJtimth ptttro akam pfithitydlf I Parjatiyak, pita m u mth pipar(u). 
Again in verse 42 of the same hymn ho aaya, " Reverence be paid to 
the Earth, the wife of Parjanya, to her who draws her richness from 
showers (Mamyai Parjanya-patnyai tumo 'Wi» vanha-mtdate). Here, 
as it will bo noticed, Paijanya takes the place of Dyaus, as the husband 
of PpthiTl." 

In the Aitareya Bruhmana, iv. 27, we hare the following reference 
to the marriagoof Heaven and Earth: Jmav vai Mau taha 0$t4lm | 
tau vyaitem | na ararihat na aamatapat j U panthajanSh na $ama- 
/duala | tau dfruh lamanayim | tau namyanlUc etam dttct-ricahofo tyaia- 

fwton | atau cat lokah trnam loiam abhi par y Heart tato | tata rat 

dyHrilpritkio alkavatunt \ na dyutd antarihhud na antarihh&d Ihumih | 
which is translated as follows by Professor Eaug (vol. ii. 308) : " These 
two worlds (heaven and earth) were onoe joined. (Subsequently) they 
separated. (After their separation) there fell neither rain, nor was 
there sunshine. The fire classes of beings (gods, men, etc.) then did 
not keep peace with ono another. (Thereupon) the gods brought 
about a reconciliation of both these worlds. Both contracted with one 
another a marriage according to the rites observed by the gods.'' Tho 
end of the section I render: "Tuot world approached this world: 
thence were produced heaven and earth : neither tho heaven nor the 
earth was produced from the air." 

Heaven and Earth are regarded as the parents not only of men, but 
of the gods also, as appear* from the various texta where they are 
designated by the epithet dttaputra, " having goda for their children " 
(via. in i. 106, 3 ; i. 159, 1 ; L 185, 4 ;» iv. 66, 2 ; vi. 1 7, 7 ; vii. 53, 1 ; 
x. 11, 9). la like manner it is said (in vii. 97, 8) that " tho divine 
worlds (i>- Heaven and Earth), the parents of the god, have augmented 
Brihaspoti by their power " M (in I devatya rodatt j'anitri BrihatpatiA 

» Tilt Tsittirlra Annraka Mrs, p 7 J | Jajfi hhumir pttir ryim | mitkwfm ti 
ityid*\ "lbs Earth u tbt wife, the Sky is the husband; they are a pair." Haas 
says, ii- 22-5 : Mala prithityib murUilf | " A ram bur ii an iraagu of tho Earth."* 
* lan»#^u»hys»Bt^»r«oalkd>H>r. "ttMpartuls." 
•» la Si. M, 7, and ir. i, 16, tho Aagiram are said to be iWafutrik, mm <d 
Itraai. 8m also l. K, 0, sod 1. 



irirridhatur mahiltd) ; and (in x. 2, 7) they arc described as having, in 
eonjutM.lhiri with tho waters, and with Tvnshtri* begotten Agni (yam 
r,i/}-priifiivl yam It upon Ttashfil yam ltd tujanimn jijdna). And 
in various passages they arc Eoid to have made (pitard bh&ma chair*- 
itih), and to sustain (pitd mdtd eha bhuvanuni ralcshofoh | fiitam tmand 
bibhritho yod ho ndma) all creatures (in i. 159, 2; i. 160, 2; i. 18 

In tho next Section wo shall find that according to II. V. x. 63, 2, a 
■Id origin is ascribed to tho gods, some of tbem having bwu pro- 
duced from Aditi, others from the aerial waters, and others again, from 
the earth . 

(2) Pauagti lo ih$ tamp effort from the elaineal aulhori. 

But it is not in ancient Indian mythology alone that Heaven and 
Earth are regarded as being the universal parents. It is observed by 
t Noest French outhor that "the marriage of Heaven and Earth forms 
the foundation of a hundred mythologies. "" According to the Theogony 
of Heaiod (116 ff.) the first thing that arose out of Chaos was "Utt Earth, the firm itlxido cf all things" 

'IItoi fiiy wpiiriffTn Xui 7/ptT*, atTB^i tmm 
Tai" tbpfortfivot, wirraef iJot ierQaAlt <u«l. 

She in her turn " prod ik id the starry Hcivcn, co-exteniivc with ! 
. to envelope her on nay part." " From the union of these 
powers sprang Oceano*, Kronos, tho Cyclopes, lthcia, etc. (132 ff.); 
emit from Kronos und lthcia again were produced Zeus, Here, and other 
deities (453 ff.). In his "Works and Days" (5(51) Heciod speaks of 
the Earth as r^ waVr*? /nfap, the earth the mother of all things."" 

Among the Homeric hymns there is one of 19 lines addressed 
" the mother of all things" which begins thus : 

Tl(4{tfliim\v, *, fipjiii M xSavi wdrfT i*6<? iar\v, h.t.\. 

" In one place (ri CO, 7), tho waters are spoken of ut mother* fjamitrih) of all 
things tflorvahln nd IuUsVINUs, Cumpare the pnaiagea from the 8'»tapatoa Hrih- 
nuna, ia the tth vol. of this work, pp. 15 f. ; 21 f. ; and tho texts given in tho 1st 
toI." Jaded, p. »1 T. 6if.; and R.V. x. 121, 7 ; x. SO, 8. In the A.V. xix. 64, I, 
the waters themselves ore said to bars sprung from time (hdlni npah tamabhatmn). 

" M. Albert RcTille, Eeeaia de Critique Religieuae, p. S83. "C«nt STflhi 
■oat foodies snr U mnringr tin ciel et de la tcrrv." S«e also pp. 202 and 298. 

*• The original tctus will b« found ut the eluni of the section on Varnoa. 

*> The line in which these word* occur ii however supposed to be *]>nrioua. 



" I will »ing of the Earth, the universal mother, the firmly based, the 
most venerable, who feed* all creature* that ore on the ground," etc. 
la r. 6, it is said that it depends on her to give life to mortals, and 
to take it oway i 

tnrro's arQfuvounr. 

In verse 16 eho is addressed as a venerable goddess, at^rh ttl, and in 
v. 1 7 ub " the mother of the gods, and the spouse of the starry Ouxonos : 

Xaipt 9t&» ii^ri|/>, &*»X Ovfmvoi hrrtp&irrof. 

^Zschylus, in his Prometheus Vinctna, 88 ff., makes Prometheus 
exclaim "O divine toJhcr, and yo many-winged blasts, yc fountains of 
the- rivors, thou multitudinouB laugh of Ocean, and thou Earth, the 
Udivit.-::'! "• I . i 1 1 i ■ ■ i- ; — m& the bM bghaUiBfJ rfielfl "1 QlG Sun 1 invuUf?:" 

1 Sifi titbp koI TaxtTTTcpoi rroal 
*«rait£i> t« tnryal rorrfwr Tt m»/i<iT»j> 
irfoityu* y^-ojT^n, «h/i/iStoj> n 7%, 
col t*f mu-jrrqir xwtAo* flAfou xXw, 

In the Seven against Thebes, 16, Etcocles speaks of " Mother Earth, 
the most beloved nurse " : 

At the beginning of the Eumenides of the same poet tho Earth is 
worshipped as the- first prophot«u : 

tlpmrrer filr «£xj? Tijltt npiaQiim «■<«■> 
T\r Tptrriparrv iWor, 

And in the 41st fragment of J&obylua (from tho Donaidcs) Aphrodite 
is introduced as saying : 

iff n\r kyrhi oiporbi rpiaai .x Wra, 
fptri tl yaiar Aaj</J<i»«i 7«f/uw Ti»x«'r- 
iuBpot 4" A** tdrdirra! oupuvii rcirar 
f*v#« >alav ^ J* rbcrtrat Sptnett 

fLtlXthr It iiiXTtil «•) /!fo» AnnV«"»«" 

♦•►Spirit £(>* 1" V* wrlfsrrof -ya^i** 
t»A«i4i /ffTi. t£* 8" i'yi rapafr*t. 

" Tho pure lTcavcn love* to inflict on the Earth an amorous blow ; 
and desire seises the earth to obtain tho nuptial union. Rain falling 
from the moist Heaven impregnates the Earth, v. ho brings forth for 
mortals tho food of sheep, and the sustenance of Demeter. The verdure 
of tho woods also is perfected by the showers proceeding from this 
marriage. Of all these things I (Aphrodite) am in part the cause." 



Sophocles also, in his (Edipus Coloneus, 1480, makes tha chorus 
epoakof " Mother Earth : ■ 

"tAooi, £ Sal/imv, IXaar, fi ti 74} 
fiajjpi Tvyxirtu d^i-y^Jj <pifwr. 

And in his Antigone, 338, «h« is characterised as "the highest 
the deities, imperishable and unwearied : " 

fleiip rt Td> vrtpiirar, ya* 
tQBtrov, kitafidrav i.worp6trai, «ctA. 

In his Fhiloetetea, 391, she is addressed as "tho all-nurturing earth, 
the mother of Zeus himself: " 

'Optvrfpa waitSiri to, juSrtp airroi &ibf, 
& ran tii-foy nmcTcuA.6* it>xpu<rov W/im. 

Euripides also, in his Hippolytus, 601, makes his hero invo 

" Mother Earth : " 

ii ya'a pY"p >)\toi> T* ayaa-ru\al, K.r.X. 

So too in tho Helena, 89 : 

• I B\Aoi> Qpojar 
»At|fiui's t< KovQtoii* iiirripa %6im, K.r.X. 

And again in the name drama, 613, tho heroine spooks of Huarcn 

as the Father ; 

nt-rip h oliptwhr 


In his Baechsc, 274, the same poet makes Teireaias thus identify 
Earth with tho goddess Dcmctcr : 

tie yap, & Ptaria, 
ri upwr* wv iwtipviriuai, ^tff^TTjp 0tcL 
tfi S" iorlr tropta V iwirtpor 0oC\t, mUo, 
aBrn «V (jjpoirrv ittrpfai fiporoit. 

" Two tilings, o youth, are the first among men, the goddess Dcmetcr, 
and she is the Earth. Cull her by either namo as you please. Sho 
nourishes mortals with dry sustenance." 40 Tho second deity 
nysus who gives them the juice of the grape. 

40 Id describing tho Egyptian cosmogony Diodorua Siculus L 12 also thus i 
the Eartli with Dcmctcr : TV fl» yip ffimrip iyyuir ti ran> Quo>l> rap irtgknuMrarras 
Hiripa wpoeoyoptvaw- xa'l tov« "£AAqi>ax it rainr/n waparXqirfoi Atiiiirpav noXilr, 
tip^X" l^rarittlerit rij» Algitir tA -/dp vaAaibi- Jro/ja^tfSai yi» fifripa, nafHwip 
*al riiy Oppi'a upapafrvptiv \iyavra " yri p^yf v&rrmr, Ai^^rtf nKovraiarnfu." 

"And they any that, eoncciTu»n the Earth as a sort of receptacle uf the things which 
were produced, they called her mother ; and that the Greek* in like manner call her 
Demeter, with a alight alteration of the letter* (i.a. Dimeter for Gfmetsr): for of 
•Id aha was called ' Earth Mother' (Gen mPtJra), as Orpheus too taatifle* vhsa be 
•pcakj of ' the Earth tho mother of ail thing*, Dtmcter, the girer of wa 


And in the 6th fragment from the Chryrippus of the same dramatist 
wo find the following passage : 

4 pir aVifrvrwr «d fair ytrirup, 
h 8* OypoSflXev) (TTOY(ira» »crr(«ur 
wapa&i (nM^tni »f«T«i Svaruut, 
rfirrf i Si Bofiv, f SAa t» O^pur, 
W«» o!ik ittmtt 
liffrrip wirrmr v<v&pi<nat, 

" The mighty Earth, and Jovo'b .fitber, — of these the one is the gene- 
rator of men and gods, and the other, receiving the drops of moisture, 
produces mortals, produces food, and the tribes of animals; — whence 
she is not unjustly regarded as the mother of nil." " 

The earth also appears to bo regarded by Pindar (Nem. 0, 1 If.) at 
tho common parent, or sustainer, of both gods and men : 

*F.r itifiin, \r ttim yiyef in piat H 
/tax phi iLivpirtpof 

" There is one race of men, and one of gods ; but we both draw our 
breath from tho aamo mother." 

In tho follow in r passage of Dionysiua of Halicamassus, vol. v. p. 365 
(Diod. Sio. i. 7 ;° Euscb. P. E. i. p. 20 d ) , \ and in tho fragmont of Euri- 

** Sec ai*o Plato, Ecpub. iii. 20 : *E»«i})) it nrrtMi Hiioyepim flvar (tel 
4 y% strati nhrup aha eVqicc, k.t.K. ■ Dot when they ware perfectly fashioned, 
and the earth, their mother, sent them forth," etc See alio the Meaexeaos, Sect. 7 : 
front which 1 extract the following : S 8» eel f| ifitripa y$ IS ««1 n*mip to*»*» 
vewjgSjMM 1 wfj^trtii iii antpimovt ynnrijira^iirrr . . . hv yip yij yvrmxa /ii^I/nrrtu 
Kv^ati ml yirrheti AAAo yvrh yj\v. " Whereby out own land nnd niuthur (Attica) 
sHtb aaxBciaat proof that ahe haa produced man," etc And : " For the earth does 
•04 imitate woman in becoming pregnant, and bearing offering, but woman the earth." 

*> Diodnnji begiw tho paattge i. 7, in which he introduces these lines from Eori* 
pidee, aa follow* : lie telle 11a that in the opinion of tome apeenlator* " beaten end 
earth had, according to tho original oonrtitutiun of thing*, hot one form, the natural 
ffope rti ea of the two being blended ; bat that afterwards , when the body of the ono 
I become etparated from tliat of ibo other, die world aaramed that regular arrange* 
which we now witneaa," etc (kst* Trip *V «•{ Apxijf »"»" *>•* •wrrao-u' niar 
!H or attpapir »• reJ yv*. M*>">M<'>^I> ■or<i» Tqr e>inrt«t" nrrk 8< touts !i«. 
trrlrrwr fin attpArmr iw' eAX^Aw* t*» pir itiopa* wtpiXaB*it> <r»«-«r ri^r ipwuii-qy 

4* »ini rimoiv. h.tA.). After ginng tho details of this development, he concludes : 
•• And is regard to the entire of the unmrae, Earipidee, who waa a disciple of 
Aaaxaguraa, the ph ytical philosopher, doea not appear to have differed from the views 
which hare hem rtated " (fata* SI *•*) rflt r§# ZA»» ^lttm\ oif Ei'i>'»f&»» S*a- 
f > i ij ro't wpMipij^inii, *iefl>tH>» Av 'Ai^ayeeov t«S f»»ur*£). Ha than qootas 
the tinea girta is the Uit. 
" Bee W. Disdotfa Xaripida. toL u. p. 915, od. Oxford, 1833. 


8<A rfc 

pides, which is there preserved, we find that a doctrine, partly similar 
to that of the Aitareyn Brdhmana adduced above, regarding heaven 
and earth, ia ascribed to the philosopher Anaxagoras, and was ex- 
pressed by bis disciple the poet : 

'Knxtayip^ wpo-rt+tlrvrtv E£p.* J *T<- 'Knta^Ap*, Si My,, frr] r *Vt wxirr* 
in irwri», tfco tmtpoii 8i»«|><»8. jitra ravra i*(Au<r« cot Imptni, raJ M *4 Ava- 


Kot« />»ii A >i»*n, AAA" ^ifji >ifT»»t rd>a, 
i>\ oi'farii r* yoi'd t' $* pv^i) pirn- 

vtcrouffi »i*r» tfaWSwafar tit +ios 

S«VVn. a-cr««A, «V»». »'» '* *Vu T^rf^w, 

•jVr»i t« ♦nrrif. 

" Euripides frequented tho lectures of Anaxagoras. Now it was the 

theory of that philosopher that all things were confounded (lit. all 

things were in all things), but afterwards became separated. Eoriplda 

afterwards associated with Socrates, and became doubtful regarding 

the theory. He accordingly admits the ancient doctrine by the 

mouth of Melon ippe : ' The saying is not mine but came from mr 

mother, that formerly the Heaven and Earth formed one substance: 

but when they were separated from each other, they gave birth to all 

things, and brought them forth into the light, trees, birds, beasts, 

fishes, and the race of mortals.' " 

riif appellation of mother is naturally applied to tho earth, as the 

source from which all vegetable products spring, as well as the home 

of all living creatures. This is remarked by Lucretius, " De Reran 

Nature," ia these lines, r. 793 ft*. : 

"Nam tieqoo d« arlo cecidim* animali* peasant, 
Ncc tomatria de ulns oxine lnconii : 
I jnquilar ut msrito matcrnum uuinuu adept* 
Terr* sit, e tern qooniam nmt cuncta errata," clo. 

And again, v. 821 : 

" (lure ctiam atqnc ttiam mnlernnm nomen adepts 
Terra tract mcrtto, quoniam jt«iiu< ipw crtimt 
ITumonum at^uc animal propc corto tempore fndit," tte. 

And in illustration of the idea that Heaven is the father of all things, 

I may quote his wonte, ii. 991 : 

"Denique ealcati ramus omnw amain o oriundi : 
Ornnilns ill* idem pater cat, undo alma liqncntU 



Utunrii guttna malor cum terra reoepit,** 
F«U porit nitiilM fhigw orbusUquo laett 
Et ganos huraanum," clo. 

And ii. 998 : 

" Qua propter raorito malenium noaum adepts cat. 
Culit idem r«tro de terra quod fait ante, 
la Uttsb, rt quod miaumit ox *th*ri* uri* 
Id lunum cell r*U»lum Umpla r<**pt*rit" 

v. 799: 

H Quo minus at niirura, ri turn mnt plura coorta 
Et majors, nori UIIuto atqua »lhors adults," etc. 

My attention was drawn to those passages by finding them referred to 

in Professor 8ellmr'B "Roman Poeto of tho Republic," pp. 236, 1 ft, 

and 276. 8c* also Lucretius i. 250 : 

Pcatremo pereunt irahrw, ubi co« pat«r aethw 
la grcntimn ubLiu terroi praecipilavit ; 

And t. 318 : 

Dtniqut jam trier* hoc, circum rupraquc qnod omnrrn, 
Cootioct amplciu Uinram i 

Pee also Pocuviua 86, quoted I; Mr. ilunro in his Notes on Lucretius 

T. 316, and Virgil, Georgia ii. 325, cited in his note on Lucr. i. 250 : 

Turn paver omaipoteiia fecundi* imbribu* aether 
Cojiju/b in jrTciiiium larUe dcjcomlit et omnis 
Magnus alit rangtio commutot corpora fetus. 

Mr. Huttro there remarks: "From the Vedas to the Pervigilium 

"Veneris poet* and philosophers lore to celebrate this union of 

and earth, ether as father descending: in showers into the lap of mother 

earth." See the name author's notes on Lucr. ii. 991. ,s Tacitus, too, 

informs as in lii.i Germauia, 40: No<: quidqunra notubilo in singulis nisi 

qnod in commune Erthum, it cd Terrain umtrcrn, colunt> camquc inter- 

Tenire rebus hominum, inrchi populis arbitrantur.** "Nor is there 

anything in regard to particular points which deserves remark except 

that they all together worship Krtho, i.e. Mother Earth, and think 

that she intervenes in the affairs of men, and mores round among tho 


a* Compare AT. tii I, 12, «2, quoted aboYe, p. 23. 

•» &** also Professor Mm Muller'a Lsttnraa oo Lasgosge, 0. 469, and Mr. C. 
Brute'* paper "On tbc Vedic Conception of th« Earth," Joura. B. A. S. six. 3 JO ff. 

** Ed. F. Riuar (Cambridge and London, 1848) who substitutes ErUiun for the 
coraiop reading Ncrtbaau Sec bia Notes in loco, sad on Section 9. 



(3) Heaven and earth tlittehtrt tpoken o/tu ertaUd. 

On tie other hand, Heaven and Earth arc spoken of in other place* 
as themselves created. Thua it is said (i. 160, 4 ; ir. 56, 3), that be 
who produced heaven and earth must hovo been the moat skilful 
nrtizan of all tbo gods n {«</« A devindm apat&m apaUamo yo jtySma 
rodatl vUtaiatnhhmi : ta it teapd lhut<m*4hu uta yah inu dyavd-pri- 
thirl jejuna). Again, Indra is described os their creator (Jtnita din 
/amid prithicydh) (vi. 30, 5; viii. 36, A);* 3 as having beautifuHy 
fashioned them by his power and (.kill (z. 29, 6, mdtrt Mat U mmiU 
Indra purvl dyattr majmanS priihiel tdrytna) ; at having generated 
from his own body the father and tbo mother (by which heaven 
and earth are clearly intended (x. 64, 3. Kah u nu U makimtmak 
lamaiya atmat purtt rinhayo antam upuh | yitn ntdtaram elm 
pitaram cha lilkam ajanayalhtU tamah tcdydh) ; as having bestowed 
them on his worshippers (iii. 34, 8. SatSmi yah prithii\ik dyim 
Vietnam) ; as sustaining and upholding them (dadkura yah prilhirtm 
dyCm uUmim) (iii. 32,8; iii. 44, 3; vi. 17, 7; a. 66, l); tt as 
grasping them in his hand (iii. 30, 6. Jim chid Indra rodaA apart yti 
whgrtlhnah mttyhatan kdiir it It); as stretching them out like a hide 
(viii. 6. 5. Ojat tad aiya litciiht ubht yat tamatarttayat | Jndrai ehar- 
mtta rodati). The same deitj is elsewhere (vi. 30, 1) said to transcend 
heaven and earth, which are equal to only a half of the god" 


M Thb phrase is, perhnp», primarily meant as un eulojrj of the heaven ass] 
by nprtflring that be must Lave bean a most glorious being who -wis the 
so grand a production as heaven and earth (too Sarins on E.V. L 160, 4, who says, 
"that haiiug in thn previous vtnt magnified the heaven and earth by landing 
th«r acm the »un, the poot no* magnifies thorn by exalting their mxVit "). Dot it 
also appears to intimate that, in the ides of the writer, the bcarca and earth were, 
after all, produced lij some sweater bang. In Iv. 17, 4, it is similarly said that " the 
maker of Jndra Has a most skilful artist." 

*■ The A V. xii. 1. 10, says: "May our mother tho earth whom Iodrs, thalerd 
of power, made, friendly to himself, give milk to me her sen (/aoVo yam thmktt it- 
mam *M»n(rum iach~>p<tt<h \ to no thumir niryal»m m 7 'l''i putttifo tut 

° Who are tho Bona or children of Indra's brother (Mruim* pulrait) nustioaed ia 
this Terse, and who ia the brother P 

- In riii. 69, 5, it is said : " If, Indra, s hundred heavens and a hundred earths 
ware thine, a thousand raw could sot equal thoo, thnnderer, nor anything bora, 
nor both worlds" (*W dyat*Jf Imir* U itlam ittrn tkimir uU tyu* | aw tta ne/rta 
Mkatrtm turyTk ema mtjil^m »Afa rcJ*n). 



riritJ* ditah Indrah pfUhivyAh arddham id atya prali rodatl ulht); 
sad they are further represented as following him as a chariot wheel a 
bono (riii. 6, 88. Ana hi ratal ubha chatraih im parlti eiaiam) ; ai 
bowing down before him (i. 131, 1. Indriya hi Dyaur aturo anamnal* 
Iniruya mahi prithiti varlmabhih);* as trembling from fear of him (it. 
17, 9. Taea Uritho janiman rejata Dyauh rv'od bhumir bhiyati tvatya 
wsnyoh" | 8eo also iv. 22, 3 f. ; vi. 17, 9; viii. 86, 14) ; as being dis- 
torted by bis greatness (vii. 23, 3. Vi bidhMfa rodoti nuhitta Indrah); 
a* subject to his dominion (i. 89, 10. Indro ditah Indrah lit prilhi- 
rynK) ; and as doing homage to his power (viii. 82, 12. Adha U apra- 
tiiAhtUm dttl tiuhoum taparyatah | ubht tuiipra rodatl). The creation 
of heaven and earth is oho ascribed to other deities, as to Soma and 
Puihan (ii- 40, 1. Somt&piuhanu janana rayln&n janana divo jenini 
myithityih) ; to Soma (iz. 98, 9. Sa tuiih yajnuhm Jfanavl Indvr 
janulfa ratal | daco dart ityddi | ° Sec also ix. 90, 1 ; ii. 96, 5) ; to 
Dhatri (x. 190, 3. SurySHnaadranotaa Dhutd yathup*rrim u aiai- 
payat \ diva A cha prUhivIm cka tnlariktham atho avak) ; to Hiraova- 
garbha (x. 121, 9. Mi no hithtij janiUX yah prithivyih yo rd duark 
aatyadharmi j'ajina | Comp. v. 5) ; they are declared to hare received 
their shape and variety of forms, from Trashtri, though themselves 
parents (x. 110, 9. Yah ima dy&capritkitl janitri repair apiAiad bhu- 
r and hi rurr<j) ; to have sprang respective! 7 from tho head and the feet 
of Purasha (x. 90, 14. JS'dbkyah atya antarikahatn ilrihno dyauh tataa- 
tarttata I padbky&fh bkamih); and to be sustained or supported by 
Mitra (iiL 29, 1), by Savitri (iv. 53, 2; x. 149, 1. Savitd yanlraih pri- 

" Heaven (Dvtoi) is hero styled ontrnK. " (be divine." as alto In LiL 63, T. 

" It Wright »t list light appear as if, according to thn fourth tene of tliin hymn 
(it. 1 7. 4), the Heaven, Dyaui, wai the father of Indra (wo Professor Wilson's 
tTMulatiftu, Tol. iii. p. 151). But tho meaning «eem» to bo : •' The Heaven e*termed 
that lit father was a stalwart hero : he was a most tlilful artist who mado 
India, who produced the celestial thunderer. unshaken, as the world (cannot ho 
ahakaa) front Hi place." This u confirmed by rern 1, which says that the Heaven 
acknowledged India's power ; and by verto 2, which represents it as trembling at bis 
birth. Sec also vi. 72, S. 

• Th« two worlds. r«dan, ar« hers slylod «f#r», " divine," and awwi, "human," 
or "consorted with men," or " friendly to men." 

** It ii remarkable that here Dkttri is said to hare formed the ion. noon. sky, 
•arte, air, xad hearsn, sa be fore ; as if, agrceahly In the Pnranic conception, thry 
bad previously existed, and been destroyed. See the 1st vol. of this work. Sod ed. 
pp. M, *&, 7ft. 



thivlm erammiil tukambhane SavitA dyAm adrimkat), by Yaruqa (vi. 70, 
1 ; vii. 86, 1 ; viii. 42, 1), by Inilra and Soma (vi. 72, 2), by Soma 
(ix. 87, 2), und by niraoyngarbha (x. 121, 5). 

(4) Speculations about their origin. 

Ia other passages wo encounter various speculations about their 
origin. In i. 185, 1, the perplexed poet raqaira, "Which of 
those two was tho fint, 8 * and which tho lost? How hare they 
been produced? Sages, who knows?" (KatarA pHrrA katard epara 
ayoh hatha jute kacayoh ko vi veda)." In vii. 34, 2, the water* aw 
wiid to know tho birth-place of heaven and earth (ciduh pritkiryah 
divo j'aniiraih irinvanti Cipo adha htharanllh). In x. 31, 7, the Itiahi 
asks: "Whnt was the forest, wLat was the tree, from which they 
fashioned the heaven and the earth, which abide undecaying and per- 
petual, (whilst) the days) and many dawus have disappeared?" (lift 
nii ronaih hah v sa rrifakah dea ijato dyHvH-prithicX nuhfatakthuh | 
tathtatlhane ajare ita&tl ahuni purtlr ushato jaranta). This question is 
repeated ia x. 81, 4 ; M and iu the stuue hymn (verses 2 and 3) the 
creation of heaven and earth is ascribed to tho sole agency of the god 
Yiivakarman:*' 2. "What was tho support, what and how waa th« 
basis from which by his might the all-seeing Yisvakarman produced 
tho earth, and spread out the sky? 3. The one god who has on erery 
aido eyes, facos, armB, and fee*, blows with his arms and hi* wings, 
when producing the heaven and earth " (2. ATm tvid uxid adhinhfhdnam 
Arambhaiwih katamat iril katM AM | yato bhumiih janayan ViirakarmA 
ei dyAm attrnod mahinA viicaehakthuh | 3. VikataSekakthur uta eifeata- 
rtukho ti&vatolnkur uta rikatntptit | imj bCthubhyam dkamati mm paU- 

*• S'ltap. Br. sir. 1. 2, 10, Jyam prilAivi bhutiuya prtrthanu-jii, " This earth is 
the firstborn of created things." 

w Compare J'rofc**or Midler's Lecture* oa Language, ii. 488, ond N initio iii. 22. 

" Bet olio the Taitt Br. ii. 8, 9, 0, where tho awwer is (circa, " Brahma »•» tat 
forott, Brahma was thi»t tree from which they faihioacd hcaT«n aad osrtli " (£raAn» 
ronam Brthma ia trUahah in'ni yato dyatijprithirl nitklataki/mh). In A.V. xii. I, 
60, VUmkarman is mid to have sought the earth with an oblation whea she had 
entered into the flnid atmotphrrc (yam am-airhhad Vuvafarma antar trn^tv r»j*ai 
prariih-latn). Compatv the account* ill the Br'ihnian ■ ■■•■ uiiil T'ituqu of the earth 
being sank beneath the waters at tho creation, 1st toL of this work, 2nd «L pp. 

•» Se« the 4lh vol. of this work, pp. 4 ff. t aad Haag's Aittreja Bruhmsuo, ii. V09. 



trair dytird-bhtml jnnayam decah ekah). In x. 72, which will be 
quoted in the next section, a different account is given of tho origin of 
heaven and earth. la R.V. x. 129, 1, it is said that originally there 
was " nothing cither non-existent or existent, do atmosphere or 
beyond" (na <nod arid no *ad Silt tadanlm na <U\d rojv M vyoma paro 
y«/); *»d in Taitt Br. ii. 2, 9, 1 ff., it is declared, that "formerly 
nothing existed, neither heaven, nor earth, nor atmosphere," ami tV-ir 
formation is described: "That, being non-existrur, rwoh I mo 

become,'" «to. [idaih mi agrt naita kiaehana (l»)t | M dyaur ant | na 
jtfitXit) | na antarikxhan \ tad asad eva tan tnano 'kuruta " tynm " Hi J 
The passage is quoted at length in tho 3rd vol. of this work, pp. 27 ff.) 
It is, as wo have already seen (p. 2-1), a conception of the Greek, as 
well as of the oldest Indian, mythology, that the gods sprang from 
II" area mid earth (in the former case Ourunos and tiaia). The Indian 
god who is represented in the Veda as the consort of the Earth and tho 
progenitor of the gods, docs not, howovcr, as wo have seen, hear the same 
name as tho corresponding divinity among tho Grcoks, bat is called Dga\u, 
or Dyau*J\ pilar. But this latter name is in its origin ideutieul with Zeus, 
or Zeus pater, and Jupiter, or Diespittr, the appellations given to the 
supreme god of the Greeks and Romans," whom ILsiod represents ui 
the grandson of Ouranos. On the other hand, the name of Ouranos 
cofTvspoodx to that of the Indian deity Varutja, who, though ho is not 
regarded as the progenitor of the gods, yet, as wc shall see more fully 
in a future section, is considered to coincide with Ouranos in repre- 
senting the sky. 

Tbn word Frithivl, on the other hand, which in most pnrts of the 
Rig-red* is used for Earth, has no connection with any Greek word of 
the same meaning. It seems, however, originally to hare been BUT 
an epithet, meaning "broad;"*' and may have supplanted the older 

• For tat proof of th« identity of Djbui and Ziua, see Prof. Mutter's Lectures on 
Language, i. 11 , a. ISA i**j fat M. Ureal. "HrreuU: tt OSOBS," 11.12; Hartong. 
"Rsiifion and MTihnlrijrie dcr GrtKheo," ILvf. : iii. 1 ff. Sec »l*o iii. pp. tf£, au<l 
sad 76 L at the last-rumcil work. wbtN Hera, the consort of Z«u», it described »a a 
msissnUliw ef the earth, and where TJrano* and Gaea, Kronos and i:h, 
wl Hum, though itssmhan 1 in th* Greek mytholc-iry as saccoauvo pair* of deiticw, 
arr yet aa*rtr4 to l* r&xstialiT tho sans oouples, aid ml names. 

** Compare in ta« unt Toliimo of this work, pp. 62. 03, two psssogn from the 
Tsittirlja SaaluU sad Brahmins, in which the fonuatioa of the earth i« drarribed, 



word 60, which (with Om& and Jm&) stands at the head of the earliest 
Indian vocabulary, the Nighantu, as one of the synonyms of PrithivT 
(earth), and which closely resembles the Greek Tma or rij. In this way 
Oaur tnatar may possibly have once corresponded to the r* part? or 
Awfrnp of the Greeks. 

Professor Benfey (Orient nnd Occident, i. 48, note 275, which the 
German reader may consult), and M. Michel Bre"al (Hercnle et Cacns, 
p. 101) are of opinion that the functions which in the older Indian 
mythology were assigned to Dyans, were at a later period transferred 
to Indra, whose characteristics will form the subject of a later section. 

and in which it is said to have derived the name of PrithiW from it» being extended 
(mpratlutta). See alio B.V. ii. 16, 2, ta dttirayot priikmm paprmlhmt cU [ "Hi 
upheld the earth (prithivi), and spread it out" {paprathat). 




I proceed to Aditi, who i«, in idea at leant, if not chronologically, 
one of the older Indian doilies, and who in tho only goddess, except 
NishtigrI" and U alius, whom 1 haro noticed as specified by numo in 
the B.Y. on (he mother of any of the gods. 

( 1 ) TKt tpitluU by which the it eharacUrnti. 

Though not tho subject of any separate hymn, Aditi is an object of fre- 
quent celebration in the Kig-veda, where she is supplicated for blessings 
on children and cattle (as in i. 43, 2. yathd no Aditih karat putve nfihhyo 
yalka par* | yathd tnlHya rudrit/am), for protection and for forgiveness. 
She is represented, as we have already seen (p. IS), as the boSm 
of Vornnn and some of tho other deilice. In the NighaotUi or 
ancient Tocabalary prefixed to the Niruktu, tho word Aditi is gi-rcn 
• synonym (1) of prilkiel, the earth; (2) of twIrA, roico; (3) of go, 
cow;" and (A) in tho doal, of ttyacd-prithicyan, hearen and earth 
(Si«h. i. 1, 11 ; 2, 11 ; 3, 30). In the Nirnkta (iv. 22) she is defined 
as the mighty mother of tho gods {ad\n& d*va-n\&t><). H In another part 

M Before ninnsis—riing the rerWon of this sectinn. I hod rewired the flrrt »ol. of 
Prof. Hullor** toamUtion of th« Rig-T#da, which contain*, pp. 230-251, an abl* 
tWerUtwo on Aditi. Sc« tho nunc author' • Lcctnra on Luigiinfri', ii. 600. 

** Sn not* La p. 13. 

• Compart R.V. yiii. 90, 1ft, yiita omsHm mlilim; and VfiJ. Sanh. xiii. t.t, wht-rr 
Ainu n Mippliealad not to injure her (flaw ma Aimtir Aditia vir<yom), and 49 
(fhntsm 4Jit<mj,tnnya). 

* In R.V. L 113, 19, C»W (the dawn) ia •rjrled •' the mcthe* of the Rod*, and the 
aaanifuttatiun of Aditi " (ma/3 Jtriitam Aditrr nnikam) ; or, us Suyiioa taplaiai, th« 
rhml 0/ Aditi. frnan her appearing, to coll all the god* into misknO S when thiy »ro 
vonhippari in the morning. M Aditi really gare them hirth. Compare i. IIS, 1. 
MHllsr, TranaL of B.V. L 231, render* AdiUr anikam, •■ the faoa of AdiuA 



(xi. 22) of the same work (where the different gods are taken 
order in which they are found in the list in the Nigharj^u, chip. 5) she 
is placed at the hoitd of the female divinities of the intermediate region 
{a(ha ato mmdhya-stdnah striyah \ tutOut Aditifr prathamO^aminJ bka- 
vati). In numerous texts of the E.V. Aditi is styled the " goddess," 
or the "divine" (deci) (as in iv. 55, 3, 7j v. 51, II ; vi. 50, 1 ; • 
38, 4; vii. 40, 2 ; viii. 25, 10 ; viii. 27, 5 ; viii. 5&, 10), the " irre- 
sUtible goddess" (Z*fl AiiUt aitarrS, ii. 10, 6; vii. 40, 4 ; x. 92, 14), 
" the luminous," the supporter of creatures, the celestial '' {jyotuk- 
t/utUm Ailitim dhnrayiit-kiihilim" narrnUm, i. 136, 3), the "widely 
expanded" {uru-cyachah," v. 4S, 6), the friend of all men" {n.- 
janyGm, vii. 10, 4). In v. C9, 3, the rishi exclaims: " In the morning 
I continu ally invoke the divine Aditi, at mid-day, «t the setting** of 
the sun" (prdtor devim Aditi™ j"hnmni mtidtii/andiiui udilA mryasya.) 
In i. 185, 3, her gifts — pure, unassailable, celestial, imperishable, and 
inspiring veneration, — are supplicated (antho dtitram Aditer anarvam iwrs 
ttarvad acadJuim namtuvat); and in another place (i. 166, 12) the large 
blessings conferred by the Maruta are compared to the beneficent deeds 
of Aditi (dlrpham N d&lram Aditer tea craiom). m In iv. 55, 3, she is 
styled Pastyu, which Frofessor Roth understands to mean a housed 
goddess (oomp. M tiller, p. 248). In the Vnj. S. she is thus celebrated, 
21, 5 (=A.V. vii. 6, 2): " Let us invoke to aid us the great mother 
of the devout, the mistress of the ceremonial, the strong in might, the 
undecaying, the uiduly-extendcd, tho protecting, the skilfully guiding 
Aditi" (mnhlm ti thu mfUaram nuvmlanam fl'faajrfl patnlm avast Minima \ 
tuvikihatrut* ojarantlm urdchiih luiarmQnam Aditifit tupranUim. 

** See Roth ia Journ. Germ. Or. 8ociety, n. C9 ; sad compsrs R.V. vii, : 
" Wc cclcbrstn thi ti b | . ■ t light of Ailiti," tie. {atodkrau.jyotih). 

•* The same epiUiet. dkanyat-kiAUi, is, in B.V. I. 132, 2, applied to Ultra 
Vanraa, the sod* of Aditi. 

« Compare Tsitt. Br. ii. 4, 2, 7 : S*ma Aa noma pplkm rfAait.tiyayo riir^theh 
jJJitih turyalrak- 

• Tdp word uditi hire it understand both by Both (».».). by Kuhn (in hit review 
of tbii essay), and M idler (Tninsl. R.V. i. 231, 232), to signify the sotting of U>« ran. 

** Miillcr, p. 199, translate* thin: "your bounty extendi as tar as the sway of 
Aditi." See his note on the different senses of vnia, pp. 22* ff. 



(2) On fin of the conception of Aditi according h Profutort Roth and 


In the Lexicon of Bohtlingk and Roth the word aditi is taken (In 
tddition to other senses which are aUo assigned) to signify *' infinity, 
especially the boundlessness of heaven in opposition to the finiteness of 
the earth, and its spaces ; " and this signification is considered to be 
personified in the goddess Aditi. In his Illustrations of the Nirukta, 
pp. 150 f. Professor Both had understood the word to mean " inviola- 
bility," "irapcriBhablenew ;" and when personified os a goddess, to denote 
eternity, her sons the Adityas being tho sons of eternity, and the solar 
and luminous gods Varuna, Mitrn, Aryaman, Bhago, etc., being prc- 
emiaently tho eternal deities, as light was regarded at tho immaterial 
and eternal principle. In his esaay on tho highest gods of the Arian 
nations (Journ. of tho German Or. Society, vi. 68 f.) the Bame writer 
■ays : " Aditi, eternity, or the eternal, is the element which sustains, 
and is sustained by, the Adityas. This conception, owing to tho 
i octet of what it embraces, had not in the Vedas been carried out 
into a definite personification, though the beginings of such are not 

wanting This eternal and inviolable principle, in which Am 

Adityas live, and which constitutes their essence, is the celestial 

In a note on R.V. i. ICG, 13 (Trans, of the Big-vtsda, i. 230), 
Professor M iiller says that "Aditi, ao ancient god or goddess, is in 
reality the earliest name invented to express tho Infinite ; not tho 
Infinite as tho result of a long process of abstract reasoning, but tho 
visiblo Infinite, visible by the naked eye, the endless expanse, beyond 
the earth, beyond the clouds, beyond the sky." And in tho next page 
be goes on to remark that " if we keep this original conception (tho 
conception which he has explained in those two pages) of Aditi clearly 
before as, the various forms which Aditi assumes, even in the hymns 
of tho Veda, will not seem incoherent. 

(3) Aditi at ike molhtr of the Adityas. 

I proceed to adduce somo of tho other texts in which Aditi is de- 
scribed and characterized, and begin with those in which she is repre- 
sented u tho mother of Varuna and the other kindred gods : 



viii. 25, 3. T& mats omawthua amry&ya pramahttu \ m«h\ joj&n* 
Aditir riturari \ "The mother, tho groat, the holy Aditi, brought 
forth these twain (Mitra and Varuna), the mighty lords of all wcolt 
that they might exercise divine power." 

viii. 47, 9. Aditir nah um*hya(\t Aditir iarma yaekhatu | m&tA 
tratya mato Aryamno Faruntut/a cha anthaialf | "May Aditi d 
hh. may Aditi grant us protection, she who is the mother of the opulent 
Mitm, of Aryumnn, and of tho sinless Varuna. See oho x. 30, 3, and 
x. 132, 6; and A.V. t. 1, 9. 

In It. V. ii. 27, 7, eho is styled raja-putrd, n " the mother of kings ;» 
in iii 4, 11, tu-putrH, " the mother of excellent aons ; " in viii. 66, II, 
as uyra-putril, " the mother of powerful sons ; " and in Atharro-vcda, 
iii. 8, 2; xi. 1, 11, "tho divine Aditi, mother of heroes" (i&ra-j 
All these epithets have obviously reference to Varuna and the other 
A'lityns a» her offspring. In A.V. viji. 9, 21, ahe is called Aditi, who 
had an eight-fold parturition, who had eight sons" (juhfa-ynnir Aditir 
athfajnUrU). In viii. 90, 16, (referred to by Professor M Ciller in his 
I.nttiroa ii. 601, and in his Trans, of the H.V. i. p. 237), Aditi appears 
to be described as the daughter of the Vasus, the sister of the Adityas, 
and the mother of Iiudrus (jniita rttdrOnilth duhila vai&naih iraad "sW- 
yiln&m amrUatya nubhih \ pra nu vttchaih cliiiitutke janHya md t/tlm a*i~- 
yrtm Aditiiii vadhuhfa). 

In the 8iima-vod» (=A. V. vi. 4, 1) tho brothers as well as tho sons 
of Aditi appear to be montioncd, i. 299 : " May Tvashfri, Parjanya, 
and Hralimaijaspati [preserve] our divine utterance, May Aditi with 
ilu i) sons and brothers preserve our invincible and protecting utt 
Bnoo"" {Ttiathfd no duivyam eaflhak Parjanya Itrahmapupatih \ pulrair 
bhrntribhir Aditir nu p&tu m dmhfaram tnlnuinaih cachak). Who her 
brothers moy be, does not appear. 

(4) /• Aditi ever identified with the iky f 

In another passage of tho R.V. x. 63, 2, Aditi is thus mentioned, 
along with the waters, and the earth, as one of tho source* from which 

" Id ii. 27, 1, tin rajalhya), •• kinirV' is applied to all tho sit Adit; 
there aimed. 

■ Bpafry.horcvpr, understand* tho nan«and brother* tobothowof tho womMpptr. 
■SJSffltl rathah the .\.V. rcodi lrtynmiM» taltah, "dolirwing force." 



the gods had been generated : •' All your names, yo god«, are to bo 
revered, adored, and worshipped ; yo who were born from Aditi,** from 
the watt-re, yo who are born from the earth, listen here to my invo- 
cation" (I wriJ hi re natwuyHiii tandyil nSm&ni dtvUh uta yajniyani vak | 
y* Mthajatah Adittr adbhya* pari y* prilhivijilB U me iha irtUa htuam \). 
In thit passage we appear to find the same triple classification of gods 
aa celestial, intermediate, and terrestrial (r.omp. A.V. x. 9, 12), which 
wo haTO already met with in R.V. i. 139, 11,™ and in the Nirukta. 
The gods mentioned in tho verso before us as sprung from Aditi, might 
thus correspond to tho celestial gods, among whom the Adityaa are 
specified by Ya&ka aa the first class, or to the Adityaa alone.' 4 

Tho hymn before ua prooeods in tho next vera© (x. 63, 3) : "Gladden, 
in order to promote our well-being, those Adityaa, who are invigorated 
by hymns, the bringere of vigour, the energetic, to whom their mother 
the aky, Aditi, (or the infinite aky)," towering to the empyrean, 

** Both, In his Leiioon, understands the word Aditi in thu passage to mean " b> 
the boundlaamraa of heaven at opposed to the limitation of earth. 

n Tho tamo threefold origin of the god*, together with thr. u» of tho word 
" waters," to denote th* intermediate region, is found also in z. 49, 2, when it it 
■aid : awn dkw fndram mama davotiik diaaa tka gmai tka apam tka jaittarab | 
"The goda, both those who arc tho olfrpring of the »ky, of the earth, and of the 
[aerial] water*, hat* attipieil to me the imiin- of Imlr.i ; " uinl in x r*5, 9, the pu<t 
ear*: I'ar^iHft-l^la e*-i*A*»An purhhiQa Mrs. yoyu V*r\m* Milro Aryama \ 
rfmin AJUyam A'l'tiit kenamakt yt pTirlkifut dirynm apiu yt ] " Piiijuila, Vita, 

rigoroejs and ihcddcrs of moitture, Iudra, VSjro, Varuna, Mitra, Aryaman: We 
broke the dirinc Adityaa, Aditi, those (gods) who are terrestrial, celestial, who 
(exist) ia the aerial waters." Tho word "waters" strait to be need in the stats 
of air. ia li. 38, 11, and s. 45, 1. Compare alto vii. 35, 11, where the god* are 
daatrd as aVej*, partkic*, and apya (oclMtial, earthly, and aerial, apau atfariJuaa 
M*+~>h : Siyeaul, r. 1« of tho ■amw hymn where they are dirided into *tya, 
piiUuam, (celestial, earthly), and fofila | and 'i. 50. 11, where they are ditunguiabed 
aa earye, ptirikwa, gar"*- and apya (cWeatial. earthly, g«j"la, and aerial, tfiyaoa 
on R.V. fit. 35. It. explains eq/oto aa Pfiiatrjatah "born el 'O. 11, 

he easn«tavia«s Prirfni at madhyamika wok, " th» VM r.t the middle region." 
In the former of these two passages, if the threefold dlrition of gods ia maintained 
f?f'ta ougbt to be = apya : but in the latter pMaaga we hare a fourfold di< 
toad at the apya goda are one of the (bur olaaacs, pojTua oupht to designate a dif- 
seren! tiaaa. Beth so explain* tho laet word a* meaning the god* of the atarry hrntrn. 
" Nsrokta XlL 3b: Atkalo dyntthanah dnafanAh | Uskiim Adityii} pnUhaam- 

T » The word foe "aky" here ia Dyav, whirh, if me rendering in eecreet, ■ 
•hi* aa— age be regarded a* feminine, though, at we h«*c teen, it i# gtcufally maa- 
awlina, and sVrigaated a* faihrr . In v. SO, b, dw word* Jyam and asM . 



supplies tho sweet ambrosial fluid " ( Yebhyo maid madfnmat pimaU 
pnyah plyilthafii dyaur aditir adri-barhnh | uldha-huhmin critfmbharin 
irapMtua-n tan Adityiin anu mada nvattayt). This verse, in which it may 
seem that Adit* is cither identified with, or regarded as on epithet of, 
the sky, appears rather to confirm the view I have taken of too one 
which precedes. The tenor of K.V. x. 65, 9, quoted in a preceding 
foot-note ("), seems, however, opposed to this identification of Aditi 
will i the sky, as she and her sons the Adityas are there mentioned 
separately from the other gods who arc the inhabitants of the three 
different spheres ; though possibly the last named classification may bo 
meant to sum up idl the gods beforu enumerated, and so to compre- 
hend the Adityas also. 

(8) Adili mm to bt dittingtii*h*d from tht Earth. 

But even if we suppose that in the preceding passages it is int 
to identify Adili with the sky, this identification is very far from being 
consistently maintained in the hyuins. Audit is equally difflt-u It td 
take the word as a constant synonym of the Earth. For although, as 
we have scon, Adili is given in the Nighuntu as one of the names of 
the Earth, nnd in the dual as equivalent to Heaven and Earth, and 
though in the obscure verse 11. V. i. 72, 9, and in Atharvavcdi, liii. 
1, 38, she may appear to be identified with the Earth.'* we find her in 
many passages of tho Rig-vcda mentioned separately, and as if sho 
were distinct from both the one and tho other. Thua, iu iii. b\, 
20, it is said: •' Srinotu nah prithirt dyaur utilpah t&ryo naka i tt i 
uru anfarHuham | 20 . . . Adilyair no Aihhl, irmolu | "May 
Earth and the Heaven hear us, the Water, the Sun with tho stars, 
the wide Atmosphere .... 20 May Aditi with the Adityas hoar us; 

uuili-d : mimalu dyaur nr/i.'iA, c>tc, Prnfrwnr Mulhtr Ukm aditi in z. 63. 3, i 
aa in t. 6», 8, for an adjectit*, and renders the II wi half of the former ram lliu»: 
"The rod»to whom ftsfa BOthlf yield* th» nreftt milk, and thp mil luudi I «ky, M 
firm u ■ rock, their food" (pp. '243 and 249). Itui we thould thus hai« to lake 
Aditi in different aeasce in two MJofarlnaj teraea. In t. 2 of this hymn Prnf. Mi 

like* Aditi aa signifying the goddeas (p. 240). For adritarha* IN 
uml Under barhai. 

n R.V. i. 72, 9. Mahnn mahadhhih IfitMvi pi t,utht mnta putrair Aditir dJ»aytt$ 
!■•'• | "The earth, tho mother, Aditi itood in power with her mighty aunt for tie 
i rf the bird" The viorA pfithiti may, however, at Profeaor Mullet wippaaM, 
p. 243, be here an epithet. AT. xiii. 1. 38 1 JWn* jtritliirya Adity'i upattU, etc. 


in ▼. 48, 3: Indrilanl ifitruvaruna Aditi A tvah prithirhn dySm ifamlah 
panat&n apah \ Aw* | " I invoke Iadru, Agni, Mitra, Yaruna, Aditi, 
Heaven, Earth, Sky, cite. ; iu vi. 61, 5: ZtymciA pitak Pfilhirt m&tar 
adhrua Ag%* hhr&tar Vaeavo mrilata nah | dice Adityak AdiU wjaeha 
atmabhyaA forma hahuUm tiyanta | " Father Heaven, beiiificont 
mother Earth, brother Agni, Varus, be grucious to us ; all yc Adityas, 
•i. united, grant us mighty protection ;" in ix. 37, 58 : Tan m Mitro 
Vertigo mAmahanUlm Aditih Sindhuh Pf&htA uta Dyauh | "Muy 
Mitra, Vonina, AdiU, Ocean, Earth, and Heaven gladden ua ;" in x. 36, 
Ifyatti cha nah Prithirl eha prachelaii fiUtvarl raktkatSm a&tmn 
ruhah | . . . . 3. Vitt*tm&* HO Aditik pal* amkaeu mStd mitraiya 
Varunatya reraiah | 2. " Heaven and Earth, the Trite »nd holy, 
protect us," etc ; .... 3: " May Aditi, tho mother of Mitra and tho 
opulent Varuuo, preserve ns from every calamity." See also x. 9'2, 11. 
I'erhaps tho most distinct text of all, however, is x. 63, 10: Sutra- 
mamam Prithirlm Dydm anehatam tuiarmAnam AditiA lupranlfint | 
daiil* n&rdm nitn'tnim andgatam atrmaxtlm d ruhema ttattay* | 
10: "(We invoke) tho excellent protectress tlie Eartli, the fuultless 
Heaven, the sheltering and guiding Aditi: lot us ascend for our -nv 11- 
bcing the divine hark, well rowed, free from imperfection, which never 
leaks."" Vtij. 8. xviii. 22 : ■ Muy Earth, and Aditi, and Diti, aad 
Heaven, etc., etc., satisfy mc through my sacrifice," etc. {. . . . prithirl 
tha m* Adilii cha me Ditii cha me Dyaui eka me . . . yajntna kaJpanldm). 

In A.V. vi. 120, 2 : the Earth seems to be distinguished from Aditi: 
Bhttmir miltd Aditir no janitram hhrdttl 'ntarikuham ityiidi [ "Tho 
Earth our Mother, Aditi the place of our production, tho air our 
brother, etc 

In the Sktapatha Rrahmana, indeed, it is said (ii. 2, 1, 19) : " Aditi 
is this earth ; she is this supporter," (iyan em Prithirl Aditih »<] iyam 
pratitkfhd,, etc.; and in another passage (v. 3, I, 4): "Aditi is this 
earth ; sho is the wife of the gods," [iyam tai Prithiti Aditih jd iyam 
ebvdndm palnl). (See also viii. 2, 1, 10; xi. !, 3, 3). But these 
identifications of tho Hruhmanaa arc very arbitrary and frequently 

1 bar* already mentioned that Aditi is placed by YiLska at the heed 
" Toi» vens occur* slao in the Vij. 8. xxi. S ; sad Alh. V. vii. 6, X. Sm Mullsr, 

b, m, 



of the goddesses of the intermediate region. If, howerer, the mom 
ancient writer has done rightly in piecing the Adityaa among the 
deities of the celestial sphere (Nir. xii. 35), Aditi their mother ought 
surely to have found her place in the seme class, as it is scarcely con- 
ceivable that tho composers of tho hymns should have thought of th 
separating tho parent from her offspring. But Yaaka is here merely 
following the order of the list of words (for it can hardly be colled 
claseificfttion) which he found is the fifth chapter of the Nigbaotn ; 
and in following this H*t (to which he no doubt attached a certain 
authority) ho has bad to specify Varans, who is twieo named in it, not 
only among the celestial gods (xii. 21), among whom as an Aditya he 
was pnijwrly ranked, but also among the gods of tho intermediate 
region™ (x. 3). 

(6) Aditi and Dili. 

In the following verse Aditi is named along with another goddees 
i -onifkalion, Dili, who, from tho formation of her name, appears 
to be intended as nn antithesis, or as a complement, to Aditi (v. 62, ft. 
J/n linear i) pom luhmn rytatifdc ayai-tlhumim udild tiryntya | drohatho 
raruqa Jhtra garlic at«s cUkddfo Aditi* DM* cha | "Ye, Mitra 
ui nl Viu-una, nsoend your car, of golden form at the break of dawn, 
(your car) with iron supports at the setting™ of the sun, and thence ye 
behold Aditi and Diti." "° Sdyana here understands Aditi of the earth 
as an a hole, and Diti as representing the separate creatures 

on its surface (Aditia% ttifutrnd-mitfam Muni* Diti* khanditHm ff- 



n Rota, ia his remarks on Nir. x. 4, offers the following explanation of ttiis cir- 
cumstance : " Vanina who, of all the gods, oogfct to haw been assigns*: to las 
highest sphere, appears hew in the atUlillo rusk, bseaajss among an ersativt and 
regulative fmixbuM, the direction of tho waturs ia the be* was is OB*. 

w I hcra follow Roth, wbo, ia the Joara. 0«rns. Or. Socioty, >i 71, sad in Vis 
Lexicon, readers the word mdiii tiryuyt here by "setting of the sua." Strata goat 
Us Ucgth of «plsinio|r this phrase by oparoiaa "afternoon." in hit note oa r. ;&, 
3, though not ia the passage before as. 

M Ihusa two words, sditt and oWi, eeenr also la a passage of the Vajasaneyi Saa- 
hit- (x. 16), wtieh is partly the sane as the present. Tbs ooo^wdug ek«M (Uui 
riahlatim mtitim ditim eit) is tans explained by the commcaUtor there as sigoify- 
lag in the aUssaira sense : " Theaee behold [o Varans and Mitra] the man who is 
not poor («*■/■' =«<*«•), it. who nbarrres the pmcribsd ordiosnees (iihtti*ui*i*a- 
IAr*tH),n& him wbo is poor (jMsJaaAsfy «ho foilaws the praetkea of the aUieuts 


j&dihdm). In his c*»y on "The Highest Gods of the Arian Room" 
(Jooro. Germ. Or. Society, vi. 71), Professor Roth translates these 
two words by "the eternal," and "the perishable." In his Lexi- 
con, however, the Mine author (».r.) describes Diti "u • goddess 
associated with Aditi, without any distinct conception, and merely, as 
il appears, at a contrast to her." Aditi may, however, here represent 
the sky, and Diti the earth ; or, if we are right in understanding the 
verse before us to describe two distinct appearances of Mitrn and 
Varuiju, one at the rising and the other at tho sotting of the sun, 
Aditi might possibly stand for the whole of nature as seen by day, and 
Diti for tho creation as seen by night. At all events the two together 
appear to bo put by the poet for tho entire uggrcgufcoof visiblo nature." 
Diti occurs again us a goddess, but without Aditi, in another place (vii. 
15, 12, Team Agnt vlrtKui yi*#d d*roi chtt ijacitu lihaywh \ J)dii ch« 
iryam | " You, Agni, and the divim S.ivitri and Bhaga, (bestow) 
renown with descendants; and Diti confers what is desirable." Snynnu 
her* explains Diti as meaning a particular goddess (Ditir spi tit?}}. 
Both (f.r.) considers her to be a personification of liberality or gpaleaOaV 
Professor iliiller, Trans, i. 244, eonaiders that the original reading in this 
passage was Aditi, and that Diti has been substituted by later reciters. 
Diti is also named along with Aditi as a goddess, A. V. xv. 6, 7, and 
xv. 18, 4 ; Vaj. 8. xviii. 22; and in A.V. vii. 7. 1, her sons are men- 
tioned. These sons, the Daityas, as is well known, were regarded in 
later Indian mythology as the enemies of the gods. 

(7) Aditi may be a ptrtonification of Uniterm} Nature. 

Perhaps Aditi may best bo regarded as a personification of uni- 
versal, all-cmbraeing Nature, or Being, with which she is in fact 
identified in tho following remarkable verse. She is tho source and 
substance of all things celestial and intermediate, divino and human, 
present and future (L89, 10) : " Aditi is the sky ; Aditi is the air 
(or intermediate firmament) ; Aditi is the mother, and father, and son ; 
Aditi is all the gods, and the fire tribes ; " Aditi is whatever has been 

•* Tbt wank mJUi «r*l Jit* occur toytlber in another pMMgv, ir. 2, 1 1 [Jtlim <4a 
rnmm udiiim •rwAyc), where JUrarja ukis Jiti for " die liberal mao," and —lilt for 
1 Usmlatea " grant tu a liberal ginr, aatl preserve u* from U10 
OUbwml." whiJ» Roth render* th»m by •' wealth" anil "penury" refptcUrelj. 

* la aastaer pl*«, iL 61, 11, Aditi ■ tnvsksd, along with ladta, to* earth, ths 




born; Aditi is whatever shall be born"*' (Aditir dyaur Aiitir antartk- 
tham Aditir mutd ta pita ta putrah \ rise* aVraA Aditik panchajandk 
Aditir j'dtam Aditir janitvam \). 

fciiyuijii states Unit here Aditi is either Uio curth, or tho mother of 
tho gods, and that sho is hiudcd under tho character of universal 
nature** (Aditir udinu akhandaniyu id prilkicl devamalu ru | . . . tram 
takalajayad-dlmand Aditik ttiyaU). Yuakn suya (Nir. iv. 22 f.), that 
Aditi meant "not poor, tho mother of tho gods " (Aditir adinu dtta- 
m&Ui), and that tho variety of hor manifestations is sot forth in this 
vend, or that tho objects which are there characterized as aditi an 
adiua, the reverse of dfna, "poor" (ity Adit&r tibhatim aekathft J 
ttiutty ad'muni ru). This text occurs at the end of a hymn addressed 
to all the gods, ami does not appear to have an} Ion with the 

verses which precede, from which it derives no elucidation.'"* 

Compare with it Taitt. Br. iii. 12, 3, 1, where it is similarly 
" that the: sclf-csiatent Brahma, who is the highest austere-fervour, 
is son, father, and mother (Svayamhlm Brahma paramark Uipo yat \ 
ta na putrah ta pita ta mQtS). 

With tbio may bo compared ^Eschylus, Fragment 443 : 

Z«ii« «Vru> u'9hp, ZiiiJi yn, Ziiii 8' oupav6f 
Ztis rot tA wdVre x* Tl rir J" trtiptipov. 

ground (AsAoine), Puihsn, Bungs, and the fin tribe* (jmichajanah), to batow klea»- 
JDg», Are the "five tribes" to bo understood here, with some old commentators 
(sac Nir. iii. B) of the Oiindharvus, Pitris, Devns, Asures, and Kuluhaia*; or with 
the Aitarey* Bruhi»« e » quoted by Siwea oa i. 89, 10, of gods, n>*o, C>ndhara», 
Apsamcs, serpenU, and Pitrin (the Uandborvas and ApsaraK* being taken as sot 
clus) ? Prrhupa we should rather understand the term, u in X> 63, 4, 6 (iwneA*- 
>•»>* msout Aotmm/utAaMtvm, "ye Ave tribes, welcome ray offering "), a* denoting 
tho whole pantheon, or a particular portion of it. In K.V. i. oj. 3, f*nc\m iml | 
tho fire god*, or elastss of gods, sro mentioned, and in x. GO, 4, " the fivo tribe* in 
Uiu «ky " (Jieira pnailui ipiAfnyuA). Seo tko lit vol. of thU work, p. 177. 

•* In a note on tbii verse (Orient und Occident, ii. p. 253) Professor Beafej remarks 
••The conception of this goddess is still dnrk." 

■ M. Ad. Hegnicr. Klude »ur l'idiome da Vedu. p. 28. remarks : Aditi is the 
asm* of a divinity, a pnnioni Oration of tit AH, the mother of the g"d«." 

• There U a hymn (x. 100)— addreated to different gods, and where they are 
invoiced in sucemrinn — in which the word* a aarvateftM aditiik rrinlma/u form 
conclusion of all the rente except tho lust. The precise meming of these words vu 
not very clear te me, especially as they have no necessary connection with the a re- 
ceding portions of the different stanza* in which they occur. But I'rufeaor Aufraoot 
suggests thst tho verb trtgimab governs a double accusative, and that the werdt 



" Zeus is the -Ether, Zeus is the Earth, Zeus is the Heaven. Zeus ia 
all thing*, and whatever ia above them.*' Sec Midler, Lectures ou 
Language, ii. 411. 

The signification, "earth " or "nature," may be that in which the 
word Aditi is employed ia It.V. i. 24, 1 : Eatya niknaih katamtitya 
ampiYciaJm manamahe chfiru dnwja n&ma | ho no mahyai Adilaye jmnar 
dut pttaraih (ha dfiittfam m&taram eha \ 2. Agntr vayam prathammy 
cmritunilirt mandmah* charw in«4ya noma \ t« no maht/ai Ad\laye pwtar 
d'tl pitaraih eha rfri&y«m m<4aroi>i (ha \ " of which god, now, of which 
all the immortals, shall wo invoke the amiable name? who shall give 
as beck to the great Aditi, that I may behold my father and my 
mother? 2. Let ua invoke the amiable name of the divine Agni, the 
first of the immortals ; he shall give ua back to the great Aditi, that I 
may behold my father and my mother." These words are declared in 
the Aitareya Brahmana to have been uttered by Suntissepa when he 
was about to be immolated (see Professor Wilson's Essjy in the Journal 
of the Boyal Asiatic Society, xiii. 100; Professor Ruth'* paper in 
Weber's Indischo Studien, i. 46 ; Miiller* s Ancient Sanskrit Literature, 
pp. 408 ff. ; Hnug'a Aitareya Brahmana, ii. 4G0ff., and the Efast V.,1. 
of this work, pp. 3o& ff. In regard to the passage immediately before 
us, M tiller's Lectures on Language, ii. 500, and his Translation of flu 
reda, i. 243, may also be consulted). Whether this account bo correct or 
not, the words may be understood as spoken by some one in dinger of 
death from sickness or otherwise, who prayed to be permitted again to 
behold tho fsco of nature. This interpretation is confirmed by the 
epithet mah}, " great," applied in this verse to Aditi, which would not 
be to suitable if, with Roth («.*.), we should take the word here in the 
sense of "freedom" or u mt urity." If we should n ndmtund the father 
and mother whom the suppliant is anxious to behold, as meaning heaven 

** W« aak .Aditi for umtali," (whoUier that ra»T m<*t>). In *n in- 
i ob R.V. L M, 15 (Orient and Occidant, ii. 51& ff.), Profeaaor iivnf. y regards 
the word m coming originally from the sumo root u the Latin Mil, of which he 
■uppoeaa the pnmitirc form to hare been tttmtat, and to hare tho unr sijrnificatjon. 
Tnl» aero* certainly rait* thi- context of ttio four panagM on which principally he 
fnnaib it, via., i. 106, 2 j iii. 64, 11 ; li. 96, 4 ; x. 36, II. In a note to hit traiw- 
latioa of thi* paper {Ori.nt and Occident, iii. 470} hi • xpKiro th« word* under 
coaMadcratiaa, " wc rcpphcatc Aditi far welfare." In his traatl. of K.V. L 247, 
M Oiler aijntlaity tenders tbem : We implore Aditi for health and wealth." 



and earth (see above), it would become still more probable that Aditi ii 
to be understood as meaning " nature," Sayarja (in loco) understand* 
the word of the Earth (prithiiyai). 

(B) Aditi at a forgiter of ha. 


Benfey in his translation of the hymn just referred to i. 24 (Orient 
und Occident, i. 33), treats Aditi as a proper name, and expluins it as 
denoting "sinlceaness." Whatever may bo thought of this interpreta- 
tion, the goddess Aditi is undoubtedly in many other texts connected 
with the ideu of deliverance from ain. Thus ut the end of this same 
hymn (i. 2-1, 15), it is said : Uti ultamam Varuma p&iam wtnuxd *e* 
adhamam vi madhyamam irathaya | at)w eayam Aditya rrai*" tat* 
*nuga»ah Aditayc tyAna | " Varuna, loose from us the uppermost 
the utiddii •, tad the lowest bond. Then may wc, o Aditya, by thy 
ordination, ho without sin against Aditi." " 

The same reference is also found in the following texts : 

L 162, 22. "May Aditi make us sinless" ianAgcuttam no Adi> 

ii. 27, 14. "Aditi, Mitra, and Varuna, bo gracious if we have com- 
mitted any sin against you " ( Aditt Mitra Varv&mta tnjila yad ro tayam 
ckairima locJi chid Cgah). 

iv. 12, 4. " Whatever offence we have, through our folly, committed 
against thee, after the manner of men, o most youthful god, make us 
free from sin against Aditi ; loosen our sins altogether away, o Agni " 

•• On the different mm of the word trata eco Holier, Trans, of B.V. L 224 W. 
Urn he rradira u under thy auspicea," p. 228. 

* The abstract noun adilitia occur* slung with anitghttw. " rinlcwrests,'" io tbe 
following line (vii. 61, 1) : anagaitrt adilitiv lurrria imam yajnam dailAalu /rojaU- 
w ..i .A, " May tho mighty godt, lintcning to w, prwrvo tbu ceremony in rinletrasss, 
and prwiperity." Though aditiim is joined with itmryiitfaa, it dun not follow thai 
it mutt have tho same acnic. — Id the S'atnpatba Brahmaga x. 9, 6, 6 (« Brihad 
Arnnynka ITpaniahad, p. 63 IT.,) the name of Aditi u explained from the mot **\ to 
eat : " Whatever he created, he began to eat : far Aditi derives her (or hi*) uxaw 
from thu, that die (or ho) eat* every tli ing " (yad pad rta atfyala lad itltum mdhri. 
yiila | irtrt'it'u rot ulli iti tad AdiUr atVtitftm). Aditi it an epithet of Agni ia K.V. 
iv. I, 20 ; vii. 9, 3 ; and of Aryamao in ia. 81, 6. YuAa t. 1U us that Agni also t» 
called Aditi (/few apy aditir luthyatt, Kir, ». 23), and quotes in proof of I 
16th verae of a hymn to Agni, B.V. i. 9t. In rlL fa, 1. the worshippen ask that 
they m«y be oditoyah, which Sftyau* render* by aiJtantfamyilt, " invincible." 


(Yatk ehid ki U puruthatra yatri*k{ha achitlibhik chakrima kaeh ekid 
Rgak | kridki «t( atmiin Aiiter anHgan vi tnamsi iiiratho rMvag Agnt). 

v. 82, 6. " May we bo free from sin against Aditi through the help 
of the divine Savitri" (jmAjutah. Adilay* d*va*y<i Saeituk taet). 

tu- 87, 7. " May wc, fulfilling the ordinances of Aditi, he without 
■in towards Varuna, who is gracious even to him who has committal 
■in " (yi> mrilttytlti chalrtuhe chid Ago vaya/h tySma Vanmi an&g&k | 
ohm cratdni Aditir ridkantah). 

vii. 93, 7. " Whatever sin wc have committed, be thou (Agoi) com- 
passionate : may Aryaman and Aditi sever it from us " (gat tin dgai 
ciairima tat n* mrih fad Arya»w Aditih Mratkantu). 

x. 12, 8. " May Mitra her*, may Aditi, mny the divine Savitri de- 
clare us sinless to Varnrja" (Mitro no atra Aditir anHgiin Saritd dn* 
Vantn&ya voehat). 

A consideration of these passages, win- re Aditi is supplicated for for- 
giveness of sin, might lead us to suppose that she was regarded a* the 
great power which wields the forces of the universe, and controls the 
deatiniw of men by moral laws; and the idea derives some support 
from her connection with Varurja, whoso bonds are so often referred to 
as afflicting sinners.** But this supposition is weakened by the fact that 
many others of the gods are in the same way petitioned for pardon, as 
Savitri (iv. 54, 3) and other deities, as the Suo, Dawn, Ucarra and 
Earth (x. 35, 2, Si, Agni 05. 54, 19). 

(9) Aditi 1 1 petitim tometimt tubordinaU. 

Though, as wc have seen, Aditi is regarded as the mother of some of 
the principal Vcdic deities, she is yet, in other texts, represented as 
playing a subordinate part. 

Thus, in vii. 38, 4, she is mentioned as celebrating the praises of 
Savitri, along with h( r sons Varnrja, Mitra, and Aryaman, und wel- 
coming his aid (aiki yam d*rl Aditir jr*i &t * *«ww dtnuya 8 
jutkAnA | abhi utArdjo Vmruno grinmli tiki Jftfrdso ArytmA tajothik) ; 
and in viii. 12, 14, she is declared to have produced a hymn to Indra 
tUm trard/* Adttih ttwwm Imirdya jljanat | pwupratattam ulays rita- 

■ Bo. on U>» subject JUIWi trmtd. of Ibc R.V. i. 244 f. 


(10) Creation as dettribai •*» Mg-vtda x. 72; birth of Aditi, 
the gods, and the Adilyae. 




\* let- 

in a hymn of the tenth book (the 72nd), supposed from its contents 
to be of a comparatively late date, the process of creation is described 
at greater length than in any earlier passage, and the share which 
Aditi took in it is not very intelligibly set forth : " 

x. 72, 1. Devundth nit tayaSt j'uml pra lorhAma vipanyayd | ukt 
iatyamliuthu yah pa.iyud ultara yitge | 2. Brahimnaspatir ttd earn 
tnartth ivuihamat | devAiiani purvyt yvgn asatah tad ojuyata | 3. Deri' 
nam yugt prathame aaalah tad ajAyata \ t-ad -fAy/mta tad Ultd- 

tuipada* pari \ 4. Jtkilrjajnt UtlAnapado bhmah AiSh ajAyaala \ Aditer 
JDaktha ajAyala DahhAd w Adilih pari | 5. Adilir hi ajanith{a Dahh* 
i/A duhif.ii lata \ turn dtrnh ane ajAyanta bluidrAh amrHebatuihetah \ 6. 
Yad dnAh adah tali If mttamrabdhAh alishfhula \ altra re nrityatAm itt 
tivre rtnur apAyata | 7. Yad dev&h yatayo yatha bhucanuni api*rata \ 
attra tamudre 3 galham a tilryam ajabharttanp | 8. A*h[*u put r Am 
Aditrr ye jAUlt tanva* pari | dcedn upa pra ait taptabkih para mart- 
t&gdam Atyai \ 9. Saptabhih putrair Adilih upa prait pQrvjfatk yuym | 
profdyai mrityave tvat punar marttundam dbharal \ 

" 1. Let us, in chauutcd hymns, praise, declare the birtha of 
tlio gods, — any of us who in (tlii*) latter ago may behold them. 2. 
Brahmnnaspati blew forth these births like a blacksmith." In the 
earliest ago of the gods, the existent sprang from the non-existent. 

3. In the first ago of the gods, the existent sprang from the non- 
existent: thereafter the regions sprang, thereafter, from UUiinapad. 

4. The earth sprang from UtUiiuipnd, from the earth sprang the 
regions : Dakshu sprang from Aditi, and Aditi from Daksha. 5. For 
Aditi was produced, she who is thy daughter, o Daksha. After her 

N I bare already gi«en this translation in vol. W. of this work, pp. 10, 11, bat 
repeat it here, with some variation*, for the sake of corupleteaess. Prof. Mullet- fa 
hi* tiaoil. of the B.V. pp. 234 f. giv« o version of tho first four rents. In the tine 
vera*, Moond lino, ht proposes to read yat for yalf and to translate "tost a nun may 
see ihcm," etc. In tho third verse be takes Uttonaptdas, where it first occurs, for a 
ni'tninativc, and in the fourth vnrw for a genitrK. Whichever way we take the 
words, there is a doable production of the regions; Bret, sltbet (») from UMnnspad, 
or (b) aJU-r the non -existent, but before Uttunepod. to which thoy gave bit 
Mcond, from the earth, which itntf <pranc; from UliuiiapoiL 

» Compare B.V. if. 2, 17 ; sad x. 81, X 



the Rods were born, happy, partakers of immortality. 8. 'When, gods, 
jo moT«l, agitated, upon those water*, then a violent dust" issued 
from yon, bi from dancers. 7. When, gods, yn, like strenuous men," 
replenished the world*, then ye drew forth tho sua which was hidden 
in the (aerial?) ocean. 8. Of the eight sons" of Aditi who were 
born from her body, she approached the gods with seven, and cast out 
Vartuluda (tho eighth). 9. With seven sons Aditi approached tho 
former generation (of gods) : she agnin produced Mirttiindii for birth as 
well as for death.* 4 

*■ Compare R.V. IT. 42. S. . . . Indrah iyarmi rrniim alMhtelyojnf. 
M YaUjtA — This went ii taken hy Bohtlingk and Rath i.r. a* the name of at 
aocirot faaily connected with the Bhrigus, R.V. >tii. 3. 9 -, riii. (, 18, to whom toino 
eonBsctioa with tho formation of tho world it ascribed in x. 72, 7 (tho verso before ui). 
The word alio occurs in It-V. rii 13, 1, where it ti applied to Aged ( Fm'/raim • 
yfy* smUsuim). Th* iccond of the verse* quoted bj 13. snd R. (vm. 6, 1H) it u 
follow*: ft InJra ylayat trS Bhn9»ro ye elm liuh(itriiS | mama id u/ra irndAi 
iUm* J " Indr*, the Ystis, and th* Bh;igut, who praised th*« : — hoar, o fiery god, mjr 
invocation." Hers a family of men may be meant, aa alio Efl vm ', P (y*na yalibhgo 
Bkrifor* dXtm hUt). In on* of the few rones of the Sima-veila which are not found 
in the R.V .liz.ii 304. (hut which is not referred to in B. nnd li.'s l^xioon, although 
the parallel passage in the A.V. ii. 5, 3, which ha* some ditte re n t. rc.idings, ii cited) 
the word* Yati and Bhrigu both occmr: Indrat farisvhlsj 1/ifra tin jnyhnmit \'fillrnm 
FWnt im I biUuJa BtUm Bhfi^ur nn tataA* i'ltrun m«ya | " The impetuous 
Iadra Jew VriUra a* (did) Mitra, us (did) the Yari; ho pierced Quia <u (did) llli. 
he ovrrcaniB hia cnemiea in the ci hits ration of the a •ma-juioe." The parallel nnsiag*) 
of lac A.V. (in Roth sud Whitney's cd.) read* y*Or m, thonccutattic feminine, instead 
of yaftr mi, the num. muse. The Leiicon aim refers to th* Ait. Br. vii. 28 (quoted 
in the 1st *ol. of this work (2nd ed.) pp. 437 f.), where Imlra is said to hare 
ahandoeed tho Yatis to wolves ; and to other postage* in which the tame legend in 

•* Compare A.V. viii. 9, 21 : asAfrf Jiont Ad$tir a4&(«-pntro | In the Taitt. Arsn- 
yaka i. 13. 1, the Earth is said to have had eight births, eight sous, nnd eight bias* 
fends (lAfmyomlm ai*f*j>K»nT»i *i/i{<rpa<uim muse ssoATm). 

M Th* 8th and fith verse* are quoted in th* TaittirTy* Aranyalts i. 13. 2, 3 ; 
wlur* th* reading of th* la«t lino of verse 0, it as follows : prtJUyai mfilymr* tat 
SWrv utirHiimfam oHtsrai | The corn mentator explains the last vers* thus: "Aditi 
approach «1 her hatband preparatory to the promaiion of her ton*, and with a view 
to their birth . and tho abandoned MartUndu that he might die" (tad-ulfAdtnartAmm 
m pmr ryam yweess" tad nlpatti-purra-kotinam jMfi-axMj^aifi "prajiiyai" prop*- 
fUtly-arlJuim •• ufxprait " prili.purtakam pnTpfarati | . . . Morllanifikhyam ojA- 
famam putrmm "ftvibkatet" pantyaktavafi ili yal lat "mrtiyar*" mfityu-mimil- 
t*m | Itiritinfr *• mfilfor sra Ae/wr M svwjaMitritAM.-Aj), and lis adds that 

•'tliittunda mesas ono ia contequsneo of whose birth the egg has become dead" 
imrittm B f sjws yd ' y j ammma u MaritirtjaUA) ; according to tho Smrili I nria'ad* 
pi fit ftjmtid M&rttiyfak m arfriAfifai | •• II* is called M(«rttan*t becaase he wss 



Yuftka has the fallowing remarks on 4 of this hymn in the 
Niruktu, xi. ^3: 

Adifyo Dalukak ity akur Aiitya-madhyt eka ituiak \ Adilir Daluki* 
yanJ " Adtttr fiaksho ajuyata Dak»had * Aditik pari" iti eha \ tat 
katJtaM upapadyeta | tamuna-janmiiiHW lyiltam iti | apt t'u deta-dkar- 
rntna itarttara-jaNmdnau tydtdm UaretarU'prakrttl \ 

" Dakaha is, they say, an Aditya (or son of Aditi), and is praiaed 
among the Adilyus. And Aditi is, on the other hand, the daughter of 
Daksha (according to this U-xl), ' Dukshu sprang from Aditi, and Aditi 
from Daksha.' How can this he possible? They may have Lad the 
sumo origin ; or, according to the nature of the god*, they may hare 
been born from each other, und liuvo derived their substance from each 
other.-." 4 

Another instance of the same reciprocal generation is found in ILV. 
x. 90, fi : Ttumud Firdd ajayata FirOjo adhi Purtukak | "Prom 
(Purusha) sprang Vtraj ; and from Virnj (sprang) Furuaha." 

born when the egg wns dead." See alio the MOth lino of lh« HariTama* quoted ia 
«th vol. ut thin work. p. 11, note. The S'utapalba Br.ihiuao*. iii. 1, 3, 3 (al: 
quoted in itao 4th vol. of thi* work, p. 12), baa the following explanation of the 8th 
nm - Athfau An Mi ptttrah AdiUA \ yimt tt Had dtvak Adttyik ity aclult\*it 
Kipla ha tra U | avikritam Aa athtammn janayunehakara Murl/nnjdm | tmmUfkt ka 
tea ata yZvon *r» iirdhva* tiv'mu tiryan purmha-wmmitah ily u k.i tkt uAuA | 4. TV 
N Ad ttt Mar drriih Adit'j'.h " ynti tuuuin anu ajaniim tad amuya urn tW A*mU 
imam rikaramma" iti tain riehaktur yatka ayam purtulio wikritak) | tstya y'mi 
miimumi siiukfttya wtinyiiMU fa/a hmO wmnMaiat \ . . . Tarn u ka tad ii'fAaAVu M 
Tivatvon Aditya* tanya i'maA prajhh I "Aditi had eight sons. But there weraeoly 
tcrcn (of them) whom men call IPC Uli\.i dettJta. Fur IB* bore the eighth. Hitt- 
Mod*, undertloptd iuto unj distinction* of *hapc [without hands, fed, etc.— Con*.), 
and quite smooth and uniform, an broad as he iu long, or of tho size of a man, 
according to wine. The Aditya god* said ' If in hi* nature he docs not readable at, 
it will be fatal ; (OM let ui shape lnnL* They did so at this roan it shapad. Thi 
flesh which they cut on* him, anil threw my, Ixcamu or. elephant. . . . H« whom 
they to shaped wot the Aditya Vivj.tnt. of whom come those creature*." Tfaa patataa 
of the Taitt. Sanh. vi. 5, 8, 1, quoted in the 1st rol. of this work p. S*, also aUasiat 
to Aditi - s second parturition baring ruaulled iu ail thorliva egg (tyr'ddkam Sfjsm), 

•* Iu Lis Illostrations of the Nituktn (p. 161) Piof aa m Roth thus trans1itcstb«4tk 
and 5th Tenet of tliu hvmu : " HliO (tho world) was born, and from her opened wurob 
tprang thn Regions; from Ailiti (hternity) was bom LaksUa (spiritual power), sod 
ma DsJ h i uajn Adui. 5. tt*. Ailiti u.» bom, o Daksna, iha aha i« |k| 
daughter; al> OMJ forth the gods, the bleated posaetaurt of immortality." Ue 

then proceeds : " Dskthn, (»|iiriiual powu) ia the malo energy, which general** the 
gods in eternity. As Dbil (tho woild, or Wine) and <puce are thi principle* of the 
finite, to both at ibr-tc am the ftfiginalan of ditine life." 



Dnkshn ond Aditi arc connected in two other texts: 

x."S, 7. A»ach ch» nth eh* pttranu vyoman Dakthotya jannanm AdiUt 
upcuth* | Agnir nah pratkamajiih riUti/t pint Oyuni vrnk/ib/iai tha 
dJunuh | " (A principle) not existing (actually), but existing (poten- 
tially) in the highest heaven, ia the creative potency of Daknha and in 
the womb of Aditi, — Agni (became) in a former ago the first born of 
oar ritual, and is both a vigorous bull and a cow." M 

x. 64, 5. Do/utAmya r& Adite jmitumi rm/i r&jdni JfirVd-rervad d 
wi J imi | " Thou, o Aditi, dost tend tho two kings Mitra and Yaruga 
titer tho produotion and by tho will of Daksha." " 

Though the above passage, x. 72, 4, 5, represent* Dokaha as at once 
the father and tho sou of Aditi, tho older Vcdio. mythology, as we shall 
ace from K.V. ii. '27, 1, in the next section, describes him as one of the 
Adityaa, and consequently aa her son. There are, however, two other 
passages, vi. £0, 2, and vii. (16. 2, in which the epithet Dukiha-pitri in 
applied to the gods, and a third, viii. 25, 5, in which two of the 
Adityaa are styled rind daitha»ya $\tkrat<L. What is the eignifioatioD 
of these epithets? The first of the passages, vi. 60, 2, is aa follows: 

S*tyoluh«h itirya Dahiha-pitrin enaj«*tv* tvmaho plhi d*ta» | dtijm- 
•mm y* fitatu^aM mlyt'th twrvont* yajatah Agni-jthvfih \ " mighty 
Surya, visit in sinlesenesa the resplendent gods, the soub of Daksha, [or 
possessors of powers], who have two births, are holy, true, celestial, 
adorable, and have Agni on their tongues." 

66, 2. Ftf JkaraynHtA drvah ludalika Dck$ha-pitari | oturydya 
prmmmhatd | " Which two wise gods(t.«. Mitra and Varuija), the mighty 
boos of Daksha, — [or possessors of powers], — the deities have esta- 
blished to exercise divine rule." 

In tho Toittirlyn Suuhitt, i. 2, 3, 1 (p. 309 in Bibl. lad.), the sauna 
epithet is applied to tho gods : Y* thtah ma»ojiU6k matwyujah tudahhdh 
JtrnJoispitaras U n.ik p&utv | " May thoso deities who ore mind-born, 
mind-exerting, intelligent, who have Ouksha for their father," protect 
and deliver us,'* etc. 

•» See I-uglo** vvwion. MUllw (Trans, of tho R.V. i. 234) renders tho tint line 
sady, sad do«* sot advert to th« Moond. 

n Sat Midler's version in his Trans, of tho Jt.V. i. p. 23*. In I.U IlluMriiiou 
of tit Niruku, p. 15V, Roth translates tho lino " And thou, o Aditi, who after their pro- 
dnctiaa by DckUu. awl by his cumins nd. sanest Ihe twu kings Mitra sad Vsruna." cte. 

** Tho eosBBMntator explains tha word DakiAa-ptUnk <i = OatiL** pt^fipuiir 
w>poJ*lo f*i>,am if. " those of whom the Prajfijmti Daksha is the generator." 



i oi 

Doubt may be thrown on the propriety of taking Dakaha in the pre- 
ceding passages to represent a person, from tho fact that in R.V." 
25, 5, ULtra and Vurana arc not only called tho "strong eons 
Dakaha " («u«u Dakshatya tukratu), but also the "grandsons of mighty 
strength " {»ap6t& iaveut mahah). In his interpretation of vi. 50, 2, 
Suyana explains Daktha-pilrln as Dakthah pitamahe y<mh&m U | " they 
of whom Daliska is tho progenitor." In tho second psssago v-ii. 66, 2, 
however, ho takes the sumo compound to signify tho preservers, or 
lords of strength" (baltuya pfilakau tidminau rrf). The epithet "sod 
of strength" (whaiatpulra, *ahaiah iC/iii) is applied to Agni viii. 49, 2; 
■viii. 60, 11 ; viii. G4, 3 ; and iatasah putra "son of might" to Indra 
in viii. 79, 3, and riii. 81, 14. In viii. 58, 4, Indra is called the 
"eon of truth" (tOnwn tatyatya); and the gods are called "sons of 
immortality" in ri. 52, 9 U&m>eah nmriUuya), and in z. 13, 1 (amritny* 
piitrdh). Professor Roth in his Lexicon assigns to dak»hapHar«k the 
sense of "preserving, possessing, bestowing powers;" und supports hii 
viow by quoting various other texts of the R.V. This signification is 
approved by Dr. Kuhn in his review of this article. Professor Midler 
translates the word by "fathers of strength," Trans, of ILV. i. 235 f. 

In the fiitapatha Brahmaija, ii. 4, 4, 2, Dakaha ia identified will 
Prajiipati, or the creator."*' 

The part which he plays in the later mythology, founded, no doubt, 
on the Vedic texts which I have quoted, may be soon by consulting 
Professor Wilson's Vishnu Turaija, Dr. Hull's edition, vol. i. pp. 100, 
108 ff. : vol. ii. pp. 9-26, and vol. iii. p. 230. According to the first 
account he is one of Brahma's mind-born boub (p. 100), and marries 
Prasuti (p. 108), who bears him twenty-four daughters, nmong whom 
Aditi is not specified. In the second account, however (vol. ii. p. 26), 
Aditi is mentioned as one of hi* sixty daughters who, along with Diti, 
Dunn, and ten others, is said to have been given in marriage to 
Kaiyapa, to whom she (Aditi) bore the twelve Adityas (p. 27. See 
also tho M. Bh. Adi-parvs, 3135.) According to the third account 
(vol. iii. p. 230), Aditi is said to bo tho daughter of Duksba, and the 
mother of Vivoarat, the Sun. In a passage in one of the recensions of 
the R&mAysna (Schlegcl, i. 31, Cole cd. i. 29), in the MohabhArata, 

•» Sec tbo <th vol. of tbii work, p. 24. In tho Kqucl of tho pwajro in tho S" P. 
Br., ii. 4, \, 8, s person ntaiod Djlubt. the son of PurvaU. is mentioned. 



and in the Bhagovata Parana, viii. 16, 1 ff., Aditi is described aa tbo 
wife of Kaiyapa, and the mother of Vishnu in his dwarf incarnation. 
(See the 4th vol. of this work, p. 1 16 ff.) 

An older authority, however, the Vaj. Sanhita, gives quite ad iffi-rcnt 
account of the relation of Aditi to Vishnu, ob it (xxix. 60 = Taitt. 8. 
vii. 5, 14, 1) represents her to bo hia wife {AdiUjai Vithnu-pnlnymi 
rAarwA." In the following passage of the Taittiriya Sauhita iv. (p. 34s 
of the Indiu Office MS.) also she is similarly described: VUh(<imhho 
din dJmruiiah pritJ>iir<fa atyeiani jtt$at<> Viihnit-pvM | vika-vyachdh 
uhaytmtl tuihatik tied ho tutu Aditir upa*th* | " Supporter of the eky, 
•oataincr of the earth, sovereign of this world, wife of Vishnu, may 
the all-embracing and powerful Aditi, filling ua with vigour, be 
auspicious to as (abiding) in her lap." 

m In A.V. riL »*, 3, Sinl-rill »«m« to bt etlled Uio wife of Vubuu ( FuhgoA p»<n7). 
Another (Todd** is aid in Taitt. Br. iii. 1, 3, 6, to be tbo wife of the jarac «tk) 
IMtMmdnim Kn*!W»«.'"'<"). 





The sons of Adit! specified in R.V. ii. 27, 1, arc thee* tax: Mitra, 
Aryuman, Bhaga. Varurja, Daksha, and Amia (Tm&k girth Aditythkyo 
ghrilamfih sanad riijabhyo juhvA juhorni \ irinolu Mitrv Aryamd Bhago 
nat tuvij&lo Varvno Daktho Amiah |). In iz. Ill, 3, the Adilyaa ore 
spoken of os wven in number, but their names ore not mentioned (aVrd| 
udity&kyt tapta tebhik totnAbhirahiha n<th). m In x. 72, 8, 9, as we hare 
already seen, it is doclared that Adits had eight sons, of whom she only 
presented Beven to the gods, casting out M:\rtlsiodft, the eighth, though 
■he is taid to have afterwards brought him forward. Here, again, the 
Dames of the rest are omitted. In A.V. viii. 9, 21, also, as quoted above, 
p. 88, Aditi is Baid to have had eight sons. Surra is, in a few places, 
spoken of as on Aditya, vis, in B.Y. i. 50, 12 (ud agadayam Adit yak) ; i 
191, 9 (ud apapdtd asau iHryuk . . . Adityak); viii. 90, 11 ;"* and 
a* an Aditeya (this word equally means ' son of Aditi '}, identified with 
Agni, he is said (x. 88, U), 1M to have been placed by the gods in the 
sky. In viii. 18, 3, Savitri is named along with Bhaga, Varurja, Miira, 
and Aryaman, four of the Adityau, after that class of deities had been 
celebrated generally in the preceding verse. Sfirya or Saritri there- 
tore appears to hare a certain claim to be considered the seventh 
Aditya (compare A.V. xiii. 2, 9, and 37, whero the sun is called the 
•on of Aditi, Aditeh putrak and Adityak putram). We hare seen aboi 
(pp. 13 f, note 19) that Indra also is in one passage (R.V. vii. 85, 4), 

101 See tbe 4th vol. of this work, pp. 101 ft*., when: tbeae and many other passages 
relating to tbe Adityu am quoted. 

,M The but-mentioned text is at follow* : Ban nahan an Surya lal Aditya maXin 
m*i | . . . , £af Suiya .'rdwxi mahnn tut | " () gr*at art thou, Sury»! *oa of 
.Aditi, thou art great ! .... Sarya, in renown thou art irreat," oto. 

,M Tcdtd nam adatUwr yajniyoio dki dtv'th Suryam AdiCtyam. Set NlrtlkU ii. 

13 ; vii. 29. Id x. 37, 1, however, the San is called the 8oa of the Heaven (4 
im/r.iy« nryayo) ; aad there as well u elsewhere bo U called th« rye of Mitra and 



addressed as in Aditya along with Yanujo-" H In A.V. viii. 2, 15, the 
Ban and Moon an called Adityas (tallra (vd "dilyau rakthaldth tHrya- 
chamdramaidr ubhau |). In A.V. ix. 1, 4, the golden-hued Madhukuiiu 
U aaid to be the mother of the Adityas, and the daughter of the Yasus 
(J/dW" </ityJnrl« dttkitd Fatundm .... Ai'rvMyo-rnrgd Uadhukaid). 

In the Taittirtya Veda (quoted by Sfiyaoa on K.V. it. 27, 1) the 
Adityas are aaid to be eight in number I Mitra, Varuua, Dhatri, Arya- 
man, Amio, (lie) Bbaga, Indra, and Vivasvat. Here fire name* corrc- 
apond with thoae given in R.Y. ii. 27, 1, while Dakiiha it omitted, 
and three name* are added, Dhutri, Viviuvut (who nay be identified 
with Surya), and Indra. 

The aame namea are given in the Taittirtya Brahmaoa, L 1, 9, 1 (a 
paaaage already cited in the 1st vol. of this work, p. 27, but repeated 
here for facility of reference) : 

Aditik pvtrakdmd S&dhycbhyo detthhyo brahmaudanam apachai | tatyai 
uthkttkanam adaduh | tat prdimU | td rtto 'dhatta | taiyai Dhdtd cha 
Aryan** eha ajuyttdw* \ t& dvitiyam apachat | 2. Tatyai uchhfiihanaiH 
ad.iiiuH | tat pruinAt | «d rtto 'dhatta tatyai Mitrai eha Varunai eha 
ajdyetdm | t& tritlyam apachat \ tatyai \uhhe*hanam adaduh \ tat prui- 
mil | id rtto 'dhatta | tatyai A mini cha Bhayai eha ajdyttdm | id eha- 
imrtham apaekat | tatyai uchJuthama* adaduh | tat prdjn&t | id rtto 
'dhatta | tatyai Indrai eha riratrdmi eha ajdyttdm | 

" Aditi, being desirous of tons, cooked a brahmaudana oblation for 
the gods the Sadhyas. They gave her the remains of it, which she ate. 
She conceived, and Dhatri and Aryaman were born to her." The same 
thing is done a second time, when she brings forth Mitra and Varans, 
— a third time, whon she bears Afiisa and Bhagn, — and a fourth time, 
when she gives birth to Indra and Vivasvut. (Comp. the paaaage from 
the Taitt. Sanh. vL 5, 6, 1, quoted in tho 1st vol. of this work, pp. 26 f.) 
In one place (iii. 1, 3, 5), already quoted in p. 50, the Kitapntha Brah- 
mana speaks of the Adityas as becoming eight by the addition of Mart- 
tArjda; but in two other passages (vi. I, 2, B ; xi. G, 3, 6), quoted in 
the 4th voL of this work, p. 102, as being twelve in number. In tho 
first of these two latter texts they are said to have sprung from twelve 
drops generated by Fraj&pati (in which ease they could not have been 

*** Although in their SanhiU test both Ufa sad Aofrcckt read AdityS, thrj both 
fi»t Aiurjrt the dasl at the reading of the Pads Int. 



eons of Adili>, and in the second they are identified with the twelve 
months. "* In the Inter India a literature they are always said to be 
twelve (see the passages quoted in the 4th vol. of this work, pp. 101-106). 

Professor Roth (in the Journ. Germ. Or. 8ociety, vi. 68 f.) has loo 
following observations on the Adityas : " There (in the highest heaven) 
dwell and reign those gods who bear in common the nuoio of Adityas. 
We must, however, if we would discover their aarllaat character, aban- 
don the conceptions which in a later age, and even in that of the heroio 
poems, were entertained regarding theso deities. According to this 
conception they were twelve sun-gods, bearing evident reference to tho 
twelve months. Hut for the most ancient period we must hold fact 
the primary signification of their name. They are the inviolable, im- 
perishable, eternal beings. Aditi, eternity, or the eternal, is the ele- 
ment which sustains them and is sustained by them." See above, (p. 
37). Further on he adds: "The eternal and inviolable element in 
which the Adityas dwell, and which forms their essence, is the celestial 
light. The Adityas, the gods of this light, do not therefore by any 
means coincide with any of the forms in which light is manifested in 
the universe. They uro neither suu, nor moon, nor stars, nor dawn, 
but tho eternal sustoiners of this luminous life, which exists, as it 
were, behind all these phenomena." 

In some of tho hymns were tho Adityas (under which nome Varuna, 
Mitru, and Aryamau seem chiefly, if not exclusively, to be intended), 
are celebrated (see especially ii. 27), they are characterised by the 
epithet* "bright" (inehayah), "golden" {hiranyayah), "pure" (Mans- 
piltah), "sinless" (atryVnd*), "blameless" (aiMradyilh), "holy."(r»Mrd> 
nah) "strong" (Uhatlriydk, viii. M, 1), "kings," "resistless" fanaifdA), 
"vast" (uravah), "deep" (gabkiroh), sleepless " {attaptuijah), "un- 
winking" (animuhsW* "many-eyed " (MUrytluhi A, ii. 27, 3), "far- 
observing" (dlryhadhiyoh), "fixed in their purpose" (MrUavrmtdQ). 
Distant things are ueur to them, iL 27, 3 (tarvaih rOjolhyah parami 

'•* In Ot* 8'. P. Br. iii. 6, 1,13, a dispute between tho Adityas and Augi 
regarding a ■•crific* is mentioned. (Comp. Tnitt. Br. iii. 9. 21, 1). In the tame work, 
(the S'p. Br.) iii. 2. 2, 0. it in •iiiil that these two dux* of hringi (th« Adityu sod 
Angiraers) woe both dnoendnnt* of I'ruj.ipati, und that they itrovs together for tkt 
priority in stcending to heaven. In A.V. xiL 3, 13 f , and xii. 39, 6 alio they 
connected with one nnoth r. 

"• This it a cbamctemUc of the gods in jrcuural. 

> and 



ehid anli), they uphold and preservo thing* both moving and stationary 
{dkarantnyak udHyilio jtigat itivih derdk vtivatya bhmaiuuya gopak \ 
ibid.), they too the good and evil in men's hearts, and distinguish tho 
honest roan from the deceitful, ii. 27, 3 (rtntah pahjanti crijantl ula 
KiJhn | viii. 18, 16, pakalrd ttkana det&h hrittu janUha tnurtyain \ «pa 
d<ayu/h eha a/kayvm cha), tin v m holy and awful, and hutcrs of fulsc- 
hood and punish sin, ii. 27, 4 [rit&i&wU <hay»m<in&h ri$&ni), vii. 60, 5 
(mm ehttaro anritatya bh&rek}, vii. 52, 2; Til. G6, 13, -which they are 
entreated to forgive, ii. 27, 14 ; ii. 29, 5 ; averting from the worshipper 
the consequences of the transgressions of others as well as of his own, 
TiL 62, 2 ; viii. 47, 8 ; or transferring those penalties of sin, whether 
open or secret, to the head of Trita Aptya, viii. 47, 13 (yad uvir yad dtrato tuti dtufilritam [ Trita tad tiicam Aptyt are tumad 
dadkiitana) ;"" and they spread nooses for their enemies, ii. 27, 16 {yah 
re mJytlk abhidrvhe yajatrtih piiidh Adilyah ripave rithrittAh). They 
are supplicated for various boons, for protection, offspring, guidance, 
light, long Life etc. (ae© E.V. ii. 27, 6-7, 10, 11, 14; riii. 18, 22. 
In viii. 47, 2, they are said to know how to remove transgressions, and 
are besought to extend their protection to their worshipper, as birds 
spread their wings over their young (nV/a dev&h aghanam Jdityato apd- 
kpttim | paktha tayo yalhu upari ti attiu ia-rma yaehhala | 3. Fi atnu 
tdki iarma tat pahku tayo na yantatw).** Their servants arc protected 
by them as a warrior is when encased in his armour, Tiii. 47, 8 (yuthmt 
dtrtk api ima*i yudhyanlak ins varauuu), and then no shaft, however 
sharp or heavy, can strike them (ibid. 7 : nu tarn ligmark ckana lya/o na 
draUdd ' aiki tan guru \ yatmai u iarma aradhvatn | Bee Muller, Trans. 
p, 255). 

The Adityas regarded as a class of gods are not, however, character- 
ized so specifically in the hymns, as two of the individual deities who 
bear that general designation, I mean Yaruija and Mitra; and I shall, 
therefore, proceed to give a fuller account of the two latter, (with whose 
names that of Axyanum ia sometimes associated), omitting any further 
reference to Bhoga and Am so, who nro rarely mentioned, and to Daksha, 
of whom something has boon already said. Surya and Savitri will be 
treated separately. 

•" Rath, «.f. TriU Aptra, sari this gad in eoncdrtd u dwelling in Ui« remots 
dinsiw, rtssortd bom »rw, and thst it is in conMqnencs of Dm that evil i» sought 
to hm truufetred to fcia. 

tm Cofjpsn Psalsjs, ini. 8 ; izzvi. J • Ui. 4 ; lain. 7 j aei. 4. 




(1) G aural idea of thett (too goii. 

These two deities are very frequently found in conjunction. Varuna 
is also often separately celebrated ; Mitre but seldom. Their frequent 
association is easily explained if the commentators arc right in undi 
standing Mitra to represent the day, and Varuna the night Thai 
8fiynrjn says on R. V. i. 89, 3 : " Mitra is tho god who preside* otct 
the day, according to the Vcdic text, 'the day is MitraV " {aktr- 
ttbhimllninaiii Jevam | " 3faitraS\ vai ahar" Hi frvteh)', and again, 

M Vururja is derived from the root ffi, to cover ; he envelops the wicked 
in his snares ; and ia tho god who rules over the night, according to 
the tuxt, 'the night is Varutja's"' ' " (rrinoti | ptlpakritah avakfyaik 
paiair nirinufi ill riitry-abhimani-dtvo VantfJth \ iruyott eha "Vilnm] 
rafrir" [Taitt. Br. i. 7, 10, l] it! |). In the same way the commen- 
tator on the Taittirlyn SunhitA, i. 8, 16, I (Bibl. lad. vol. ii. p. 164), 
affirms that the "word Mitra denotes tho suu '' (Mitra-iabdatya tityt- 
vdchikdt), and that the " word Varuna signifies ono who^nvclop* like 

■** 8ee alio bli note on i. 141, 9, wbero b* p'« the •nmt explanation rcjrardinf. 
JUitra and Yarnnn, and add* that Aryamea is ibe god who goes between the other 
two (Aryamii utfmyor txadhyo-rcrtl'i tttvah). According to hia note on L 90, I, 
Aryam&n ia the *un who make* the division of day and night (Aryam<i akt-ratrt- 
rUh'tyuya kartin tury«\). Comptro aUo hi* note on ii. 38, 8, where he stye that 
Varoaa i* icproaentcd a» giving roting-placca to creature* after lunatt, because he 
Carrie* on the affair* of the night ( Yonim ithanam nimiihi nimmht SavitMT ***- 
aamiryr tali riiramiirtham pnrjfMf/ah \ Varugatya ratrir nirra hat*- 
ttiit). In i. 3S, I, Mitra end Varuna are iuvokrd along with Agni, Nigbt aol 
8nvitri : " I invoke lint Agni for our welfare . I invoke hither Mitra and Varana to 
cur aid ; I invoke Night who giro* rest to the world ; 1 invoke the divine Sarltri to 

Our aSBftanee " [Xroyami Affim fr<Uk*mam tr*itayt kc+yCimt Milra vmn tf ti t iA*- 

<nm \ AewySnt r&rmjft* niniamm bmyami drum &titSr*m iimy). 



darkness " ( Faruna-iabdatya andJuii&ra-rad ir«raka-*«tMtii), accord- 
ing to the text (above given, in p. 58, of the Taittirtya Brahmaoa, 
i. 7, 10, 1), " tho day ia Mitra's and the night ii VaruuaV In 
another part of tha Taittirtya Sanhita, ri. 4, 8, we read : iVa rei ida* 
shed na naiitmm dild avyakritam \ it eVrdi Mitrn-vammic abrutan 
'•iJan no tif&tmyaUm " iti | . . . . Mitro 'far ajanayad FarttBO ralrim | 
"This world had neither day nor night, but Xros (in that respect) un- 
distinguished. The gods said to Mitra and Varuna, ' Mako a separa- 
tion.' .... Mitra produced the day, and Varuna tho night,". (See 
the same Banhitt ii. 1, 7, 4.) In H.V viii. 41, 3, it ia said of Varuna, 
" Tho conspicuous god has embraced the nights, by his wisdom ho has 
established tho days, and everything perfectly " (so hhapah paruhattoja 
•I utro nayayd dadht $a niram pari d&Hatuh |). In his note on 
another passage (IUY. Tii. 87, 1) 8ayaoa tap that it ia the setting 
ana "which is called Varuna, who by his departure creates the nights 
(Jttam jfaeiim turyah sen Varunah ity tuhytt* | m a* ava-yamamna 
rStrir janayaii |). The Satapatha Bruhmarja, xii. 9, 2, 12, saya: 
"This (tematrial) world is Mitra; the other (tho celestial) world ia 
Varona " (ayoA »« Uh Mttrah \ atm r*rv*ab |) 

(2) TXnr ehitj eharacUrittie*. 

^Tbe following are some of the principal characteristics of these gods, as 
represented in the Rig-veda. Varuna is, sometimes at least, risible to the 
aaentiil eye of his worshipper*. Thus, in i. 25, 18, the rishi says : Darjem 
mm ritxa-dmiatam dorsum ratham adhi kihami | "I behold him who is 
risible to all; I beheld his chariot upon the ground." In rii. 88, 2, 
also, the poet exclaim* : Adha nu oaya tandriiatii j'ayanvSn Aynrr ami- 
ImM Fmrumttya mamii | *' When I hare obtained a vision of Varuna, I 
bare regarded his lustre as resembling that of Agni." "° Mighty and 
fixed in purpose, ho sits in his abodo exorcising Borercignty (i. 25, 10 : 
A'» thtudda dhntaeraU Varttnah patty Atm a \ tamrojyaya tvkratuh |). Ho 
is arrayed in golden mail, 1 " and surrounded by his messengers or 
angels (L 25, 13: liibhrad drnpixt htranyayam Farvn* ra*t& nirnija* | 

"• Set Both ■ article om H Ths bixbotf gods of lbs Ariau not*," Joan. Gem. Or. 
SoortT. tL 71. 

otm;, n 11. 

m GoUso bmuI is also afiigotd to Ssritri (It. A3, 3). 



pari tpaio ni tkedirt). His house, at which the worshippers are aaid to 
hart- arrived, has o thousand doors (vii. 88, 5 : Brihaniam mdnaA 
FaruQa tvadMcah lahatradv&raik jnyama arikaix U). Again he is 
described a* occupying, along with Slitra, « stable palace supported by a 
thousand columns ,u (ii. 41, 5 : RdjAni anabhidruha dkrttrt tadati «*• 
tarn* | tafuurotihtin* 6wl« | v. 62, 6: Rajana ktkattram akriniyamdnd 
tafuurait/iutain bibhrithah tafia dvau\). The two deities aaoond U»«r 
chariot, which is drawn by horses, and is golden-coloured at the break 
of day, and takes the hue of iron at the setting of tho sun (t. 62, 8, 
already quoted in p. 42). 1U Mounted on their car, and soaring in the 
highest empyrean, they behold all things in heaven and earth (v. 62, 
4, 8 ; v. 63, 1 : Rilatya gcp&v adhi titkfkato ratham talyoonarmAmd 
partm* vytmani). Vftruoa •» ea *d to bo farsightcd {uruehaJt«ha», j. 25, 
"5, 16 ; viii. 90, 2) ; and thousand-eyed (iahatrae-kaitktu, vii. 34, 10). 
In one place mention jb made of his golden- winged messenger (htranya- 
paiuliam Farunatya dntam, x. 123, 6), and elsewhere the sun is called 
tlic sya of Mitra and Varuna {chakshur Mitrcutja f'arunatya, viL 61, 
1 j vii. 98, 1 ; x. 37, 1). Along with Aryaman, another of tho 
Adityas, these two gods are called Bun-eyed (ramrAeiiAasitA^ vii. 66, 
10). They are also denominated tvp&nl, the beautiful or skilful-handed. 
Varuna is frequently spoken of as a king (rd/'d Farugak, i- 24, 7, R ; 
iv. 1, 2 ; v. 40, 7 ; vii. 64, 1 ; x. 103, ; x. 173, 5) ; aa king of all 
(x. 132, 4); as king of all, both gods and men (ii. 27, 10: few* fit- 
ettfuith Varuna ati rrija yt eka dtvAh atura y« eka marllak |); as king 
of tho universe (ciitaiya bhuvatuuya, v. 85, 3), and of all that exists 
(tato atya, vii. 87, 6) ; as an universal monarch (»amraf, L 25, 10 ; 
28, 6; v. 85, 1 ; vi. 68, 9; viii. 42, 1); as a self-dependent ruler 
nardf, ii. 28, 1). The same epithets of king and universal monarch 
are also applied in other places to Mitra and Varuna conjointly (aa in 
i. 71,9; i. 186,1,4; i. 137,1; r.62,6; v. 63, 2, 3, 5 ; v. 65, 2 ; t. 68, 
2; vii. 64, 2; viii. 23, 30; viii. 25, 4, 7, 8 ; riiL 90, 2 ; x. 65, 6). M 

'" Compare Ovid. Met. ii. 1 IT. Regis Solii erst sublimibn* alia colnmaU, ■to. 
lib golden house is, according to A.V. vii. 83, 1, built in tho vatera (ajmt U rdjm 
YmrvQ* fT*k» hiranf/ayo miltX). 

01 I fulluw Ilolh here in understanding udtta lutytuya not of tho r**imf{t* tho 
phrase Rvncrallj mceaw), but of the tiling of the ran. It ii thu» only that the iroa 
colour of tho chariot become* intelligible. 

IH The same deities with Arramaa are called king* ia i. 41, 8 ; and kings of aesa 






Power, martial strength, or sovereign authority, kthatira, U also 
constantly predicated of one or both of these deities ; and they as well 
u the Adicyas generally are denominated the strong, or martial, gods, 
IthattriyAh (aa in i. 24, 6 ; i. 25, 6 ; i. 136, I ; t. 66, 2 ; v. 67, I ; 
t. 68, 1, 3; vi. 49, 1; vi. 51, 10; m -ri. 67, 5, 6; vii. 34, 11; vii. 
64, 2 ; Tiii. 25, 8 j viii. 56, 1 ; viii. 90, 2). They are also designated 
as rvdrd, tho terrible (v. 70, 2, 3) j as tuurS, the divine (vii. 86, 2 ; 
viii. 26, 4; viii. 27, 20); as tho divine and lordly deities {atura Mr 
aryd) among the gods (vii. 65, 2). The epithet antra, divine, is fre- 
quently applied to Varuna in particular (aa in i. 84, 14; ii. 27, 10; 
t. 65, 5, 6; viii. 42, 1), though it is also given to other deities of tho 
Vtdic pantheon. 

Another word employed to express their diTine power, or wisdom, is 
adjrd ;"■ and Varuna is sometimes called tho mfiyin, the possessor of 
this attribute (vi. 48, 14; vii. 28, 4j x. 99, 10; x. 117, 5). While 
in some places (iii. 61, 7 ; v. 63, 4) this quality (w««yu) is ascribed to 
the two deities themselves, in other verses of the lost quoted Ii 
(v. 63, 3, 7) they are said to cause the heaven to rain, and to uphold 
their ordinances, throngh the power (moynyii) of tho divine being 
(aturasya). It might appear as if the word antra denoted here some great 
deity distinct from, and superior to, M itra and Varuna, through whoso 
strength they acted ; but in other places, as we have already seen, the 
term «ura is distinctly mod ns an epithet of Varuna and the other 

(3) Functiant and attribuU* of Varuna, 

The grandest ccsroical functions are ascribed to Varuoa. Possessed 
of illimitable resources (or knowledge), this divine being has meted 
out, (or fashioned), and upholds, heaven and earth ; he dwells in all 
worlds aa sovereign ruler (viii. 42, I : A'tabhntid dyuat antro tiiva- 
ctdilk amimUii rarixuinam prilhirytllt \ ailtfad rigvii bfiuranfini tamrfid 
rika it tun$ Vantnasya eraUni), indeed, tho three worlds arc cm- 

{rijinmi tkarikanhtam) in X. 26. 6. In vii. 66. 11. it is mid: " The kinff* Milt.i. 
Varvaa. tad Aryaman, who MtaMishtd tae yrar, the month, and the d»y, etc., »nj»y 

■anvalWd d->roini«i 'y* ri J-iJkith iurndum maiam ii J tJuir yitjnam litttm tk* u4 
fuiom | mSpyom farm* Jtfi'.'nj Ary*m*\ k*K*tr*n. tin). 

"' Id these tws but passagta Agni »Ww with Mien tad Varuna the cpitLtt of 

111 it is sbo awribtd to other deities : we Bahtlingk and Roth. if. 


Dittoed within him (rii. 87, 5 : ti*n rfydro nihitah antar 
tiara hJiumih) ; ho made the golden and revolving no to 
in tho firmament (ibid, yr«f*« rSji Varunai ckakra *ta& diri prtn. 
khan* hiranyayaih iuiha kasn \ oomp, v. 85, 2). Sec also vi. 70, 1 ; 
vii. 86, I ; vii. 87, 6; viii. 41, 4, 5, 10. Tho wind which rtsouids 
through tho atmosphere in hit breath (vii. 87, 2 : atoui t« rato rajah I 
narlnot). He has opened boundless paths for tho sun," 7 and ha* hol- 
lowed out channels for tho rivers, which flow by his command (i. 24, 
8 : Urutt hi raja Varuaai ehakdra nvryiiya pant ham anu stars « | ii. 
28, 4: Pra aim Adilyo (uri/aii vidharlta ptoas tindkaro Varumatya 
yanti | vii. 87, 1 : Radat palho Farunah ailryilya pra arnamui aamudriyi 
nailndm). By his wonderful contrivance the rivers pour their waters 
into tho one ocean, bat never fill it"* (v. 85, 6: imiit u mm ktwiUmv 
atya muyiiiH ntaklm drvaat/a naiir acMhirtha \ tkam yad udnu ma prim- 
aati en'ir Utinehantlr avamyah lamudram). Ilia opbnanwa are fixed 
unil una»sailablo "* (iii. 54, 18: Adnbdhilni Farunatya rratuni). They 
rest on him, unshaken, as upon a mountain (ii. 28, 8 : Tea hi kam jmt- 
intend iriiAni apnuhyutuai dulnbha rratani | See also i. 25, 6, 10; i. 44, 
14 ; i. 141, 9; ii. 1, 4 ; viii. 25, 2, where the word dhrita-vrato, "be 
whoto laws arc fixed," is found); through their operation, the moon 
walls in brightness, and the stars which appear in the nightly sky 
mysteriously vanish in daylight (i. 21, 10 : Ami y$ ribhuh mAitil$ak 
ufhehu naktam dadrrtr* kuka chid did 1ynh | adaldhdni Fantmmayty 
vratani FtchuhaSaeh chandmmil mtkUm ati). Neither the birds flying 
in the air, nor the rivers in their sleepless flow, can attain n knowledge 
of his pow<T or his wroth (i. 24, 6: Na hi U kikatratit na taho na matt- 
yum vayai ehana ami patayantah &pnh \ na imiih Spo aaittiikam tha- 
rantih). His mewngors behold both worlds (vii. 87, 8: l*iri apafc 
Farunatya amadiififdh uhhf paiyanti rodatl tumrLr | See also i. 24, 13; 
vi. 67, 6). He knows the flight of birds in the sky. tho path of ships 
on the ocean, the course of the far-travelling wind, and beholds all the 

m In tu. 60, 4, Uitnt, Vanioa, and Arjmnan an nid to open out paths fur U>« 
mn (yamtmi ua'ttyiQ adkvano radunti iVyurfi j . 

"• See. Roth on "The bighi the Arisa races." p. 71. Compare Eccl«- 

aiastss, L 7 : "All tho ritf r» run into tin- >.u ; j-ot th« tea is not full : unto the fllsc* 
from whoncr tli« rivers tome, thither they return Mat 

11 • Sec Knih in the Joum. Antr. Or. Society, ui. 341; and MutUr's Ane. Sunk, 
lit. p. 534, note 2. 



■ccret things that have been, or shall bo dooo (i. 25, 7 : Vtda yo tlndn 
padam antarikikeffa palalCm \ teda ndvak tamudriyaft | 9. V*da rataiyt 
rarttamim uror ritkcatya brikatah \ 11. Yo vifoani adkhttld chiiittan 
abkt paiymli | kritdni yd eka kartvd). No creature can even wink 
without bim (ii. 28, 6: Na ki lead art nimitkaS ckaiut lie). He wit- 
i men's truth and falsehood (rii. 49, 3 : Ydtum ruji VarvQo ydtt 
yt tatydnnte aiapaiyan jum'iiiCm). He instruct* tho riahi Va- 
suhtha in mysteries (vii. 87, 4 : Uticka n I'aruno mtdkiruya trik 
tapta namd ayhnya bibhartti). But his secrets and those of Mitra arc 
not to he revealed to tho foolish (ho cam ntnyAni aehite abhapan). 

la the sixteenth hymn of the fourth book of tho Athurvn-voda, his 
power and omniscience are thus celebrated : 

1. Brikanm tthdm adkishfhut'l antikdd iva paiyati | yah itAyan man- 
yate ckarait itircai* tbt-ak idath ciduk | 2. Ytu tuhfbati ckurttli yui ch* 
eaufkaii yo niiay/tm ckarati yah pratankam ] dmu xantiuihadya yad mail' 
iraytt* rdjA tad r«d* FarvmtH trittyak | 3. Uteyam bkimir Var u tyaay * 
rajnak «Mm« dyaur brikatl durc-antd | uio lamudiau Famstuya 
kulihl Hl'i„Hini% alp* udttkt mTirtah | 4. Ula yo dyAm aiUarpdt par**- 
tad ** t* muthydtoi Vmntuya rujnah | dkah tpaiai pracharmlldam 
tuya takstrdithdk alt paiyanti bhiimim | 6. liar ram tad rajA Fammo ri 
ehothte yad untard rodatX yat paraitdt \ innkhydldk tuya nimitho j'and- 
n/im aktkdH tea itagknl ni tninoti tdni | 6. Yi te p&idh Varnna tapta 
tapta trtdhd h'tklhant* vitkitdh ruthantah \ tinantu tarvt anritam cadan- 
tarn yak tatyttc&dl ati tain tpi/antu | 

'* 1 . Tho great One who rules otct these worlds beholds as if ho 
were close at hand. When any man thinks he ia doing aught by 
stealth, tho gods know it nil; 2. (and they perceive) every one who 
stands, or walks, or glides along secretly, or withdraws into hi9 house, 
or into any lurking-plaoe."* Whatever two persons, sitting together, 
devise, Yaruna the king knows it, (being present there as) a third. ,u 
3. This earth, two, belongs to the king Yaruga, and that vttst sky 
whose ends are so remote. The two oceans [tho aerial and terrestrial]" 1 
are Varuga's stomachs; he resides in this small pool of water. 4. He 

1M Tbs gsastsl moss is clear; but Ibe messing of some of the word* U oncortoia. 

**> Ia R.V. x. 11, 1, Agni ii eompsxtd to V»niiv» in omni*ci«nm ; which mrm» to 
■how that this ia an attribatc ia which Varuna was regarded m prc-^caincat. With 
sarsss 1 and 9, compare Psalm cinii. I «, and St. Matthew zvhL M. 

us Compare Grama, i. T. and Psalm eiltrid. 4. 



who should Hoe far beyond the »ky, would not there escape from Vnnina 
the king. 1 " His messengers descending from heaven, traverse this 
world; thousand-eyed, they look across tho whole earth. 5. 
Ytronfc perceives all that exists within hearen and earth and all that 
is beyond. Tho winkings of men's eyes arc all numbered by him. ,u 
He handles lM (all) these (things) as a gamester throws his dice. 6. May 
thy destructive nooses, o Varuna, which are cost seven-fold, and three- 
fold, ensnare the man who speaks lies, and pass by him who speaks 

Varnrja is represented us having unlimited control crer the destinies 
of mankind. He is said to hare a hundred, a thousand remedies, and is 
supplicated to shew hie wide and deep bencrolcncc, and drivo 

m 'Willi tUiji verse compare verse* 7-10 of the Psalm exxxix. 
'»» Compare St. Mntthrw x. 80. 

'** Roth, ».r. think* mi mimli hero ntay menu " olMnrres.** See also bis i 
in Jour. G*rm. Or. Society, tii. 607, wberu the sense of superintending if aatsigrsed. 

'*• The hrmn i» oonoludsd by two vers**, containing birpn i stioSS. Aftar giriog • 

German translation of the whole ia hi* Dissertation on. the Atharrn-ved*, p. 19 f 

(Tubingen. 1*56) Professor Both remarks ss follows: "There u no hymn in to* 

■faola Vcdic literature whiih express the divine omniscience in such forcible term* 

■ I his; niul yi't this iMiiulifiil description has been degraded into au introduction lo 

on unpreestton. But in thin, an in many other passage* of this Veda, it U natural 

to conjecture Oi*t eristing fragment* of older hymns have been used to dttk out 

Ugh*] foramina. Tim Oral five or even »ix vcrsm of tha hymn might he regarded 

*< a frsgBS&t of thU sort." Thin hymn hits al»o born translated by Professor W ul' 

see "Chipii." i. 41 f. I have attempted the following parttphrsoe ia En.; 

" The mighty Lord on high. 00 deeds, u if at hniul, espies : 

The god* know *U men do, though men would fain their deeds disgaiesv 

Whoever stands, whosver mores, or steal* from plftca to plsee, 

Or bidet him in hi* Kcret cell, — the god* his movements tree*. 

Wherever two together plot, and deem they arc alone. 

King Varuao is there. ■ third, mil all their schema are known. 

ThU earth is hi*, to him belong those rut and boundless skies; 

Both mi within him rest, and yet in that small pool he lie*. 

-Whoever far beyond ths »ky should think hi* way tn wing, 

lis ccnlil ads tlm pra.«p n{ Vnmnn the king. 

His spies descending frum the ilire glide all this world around. 

Their thousand eyes oil-scanning swrcp to rarth's remotest bound. 

wimrc'er exists in heaven snd earth, whats'er beyond the skies. 

Before the eye* of Yorunn, tii'- Ian;:, uiilolilid lies. 

The eeaselen winking* sll he counts of every mortal's #ycs: 

U* wield* this universal frame, as gamester throws hi* dies. 

Those knotted noose* winch tOOO lliiitf'st. » gud, the bad to suare,- 

All liar* let them overtake, bat all too truthful spore." 


evil ami «in (i. 2-1, : SaUih U r&jan bhiahajah aalnuritm urvl gMirft 
mmatu U tttu | b&dhatw iOra nirjititn paruchaih kritam chid tnah pra 
mmwmadhtamat); to untie, like a rope, and remove ;<ia (i>. 28, 5: vi much 
iratfuy* ralmtnpt t'ra ugah ; r. 85, 7, 8 : yat tint dyai thalrima iiira- 
thai tat) ; bo is entreated not to steal away, but to prolong, lire (i. 24, 
11 : Mil itah tiyuh pra moihlh | i. 25, 12: pra nah ayiiihihi turinhal)\ 
and to spare the suppliant who daily transgresses bis laws (i. I 
yaeh rhiri hi U riio yathil pra dtra Varuna rraiam vunimtm dy.ivi 
dyan | nu no badfulya hatnare jihlumtya flradhah). In many places 
mention is mode of the bonds, or nooses, with which ho seizes and 
punishes transgressors (i. 24, 16; i. 25, 21 ; vi. 74, 4 ; x. 85, 24. and 
A.V. iv. 16, 6, as quoted above). m Mitra and Varuna conjointly ore 
spoken of in one passage (rii. 65, 3) as being barriers against falsehood, 
furnished with many noosea, which the hostile mortal cannot surmount 
(bh&np&ia anriUuya seta duratyelu ripait marty&ya) ; and in another 
place (rii. 84, 2) lodra and Varuna arc described aa binding with 
bonds not formed of rope (sWri'Mi'r arajjubhih tinWwh). On the other 
hand Varuna is said to be gracious even to him who has committed 
sin (*ii. 87, 7 : yo mril.n/ali <halru*he chid Syah). He ie the wise 
guardian of immortality (viii. 42, 2 : dhlram amrilatya yepdm)', and a 
hope is held out that ho and Tama reigning in hli-sscdnees shall be 
beheld in the next world by the righteous (x. 14, 7 : m ubhd rttyoM 
toadhaya madaaUl Yamam paiyilti Jarunaih eha dtvam). 

•*> Ami, however, is alto prartd to loose bit m bendl R.V, t. •», 7 

(rrrf'kwW Ague at muw*yJk% phi'm) . and in rii. ICH, 13. I mlru'« frttbn (/.. 
pr<*«tik) are ountkmed. In A.Y. xix. 86. 1. the Aauraa, ma»t«r» of magical art*, who 
go about with iron art*, iron bonria. and hooka, are referred to (*jro-/3/«» JmrnA ma- 
yvu jy^.»wyji* /Hair ankino yi tJuranti). 

°* la the Journal of the German Oriental Society for 1855, pp 2:i* n*., Profcawr 
Weber conunaakatc* from the S*alapaiba Drihmaoa (xi. (>, 1, 1 IT.] a Kind regard* 
lag Varnga and hi* nan BbrigU. The UlU-t had nfa-rmnl himself 
father tn witdom, sad wae desired br him to vi»it the four point* of the ec 

•: witBCMO CKltU: I » .r!i| I't'.l, 'i\ ■ 

ao-ompaaic* itiit kffratl nith nmo wry intcrvtiux remarks, among stka I 

w* that the legend i* ibemi to lie ancient from the lii-b position which it 
saatgni to Varuna, who sppssra to bo eonorirod aa th* lord of the universe, Mated ia 
the midst of noma, from which he luntw the place* of paniahmrnt situated all 
roved kiai. Yarnrta, lie uiil', i» n'pr<x-nU»l in tin- S'aUpitlia ISr-ihmuno xiii. 3, *,6, 
m» U»tag the form of • fair, bald, tootMw*, (with projtctuig toithfj, sad ycllow- 
ijad old man. 




The attributes and functions ascribed to Varuna impart to hi* 
meter a moral elevation and sanctity far surpassing that It I 
!*ny other Vedic deity. This appears not only from the passage* to 
which I have already referred, but also from the two hymns (rii. 
and vii. 89) translated by Professor Midler in his Anc. San*k. I.ii. 
540 f., and Chips, i. 39 ff. ; in which tho risdii, who u said to be Va« 
Kistitha, while palliating his sins, implores the god's forgiveness, and 
entreats that his lifo may be spared. 1 *' I shall quote a part of the first 
and tho whole of tho second : 

U.V, vii. 80, 3. Pruhhe tad mo Varuna dtdrikhv upa cmi chiiitusko 
viprichham \ tavtunam it me karayai chid &har ayem ha tulhytm Varunn 
krinit* | -I. Kim ii/jah CM Varum jyttfhaih yat ttoUiraik jiahamtati 
taklnii/itm | pra tad nu rncho ditlahha nadhGto aca ted anen&h nanuuii 
turah it/rim | 5. Ana drugdhOni pilryU nr-ya no aca ya vayaSi tha, 

hih | arit rujan paiutripam tin tuyuvt urija miasm na dAmno Va- 
tithfham | 6. Na »a tvo daitho Varuna dhrnlth til turd manyttr vihhldakn 
arkittih | tuti jyayun kanlyatah upGre napnai ehana id anrilaiya 
prauntd I 

" Seeking to perceive that sin, o Varuna, I inquire; I resort to th< 
wise it nki The sages all tell me the same; it is Varuna who is 
angry with thee. 4. What great sin is it, Varuna, for which thou 
seekest to slay thy worshipper and friend ? Tell me, o unassailable 
and self-dependent god; aud, freed from sin, I shall speedily come to 
thec with adoration. 5. Release us from the sins of our fathers, '" 
and from those which wc have committed in our own persons. O king, 
rvleuao Voaishtha like a robber who has fed upon cattle; release him 
like a calf from its tether. r>. It was not our will, Varuna, but somo 
seduction, which led us astray, —wine, 1 " nnger, dice, or thought! 



... r. 


The stronger perverts the weaker. Even sleep occasions Bin." 

"• On thf ohaMQtSf of VaniQa as a moral govfrner, »ni Rnth, J num. Oorm. Or. 
8wiicty, ri. 7 1 If. ; a paper by the aaiav author in the Juurn. Anier. Or. 8ocicty, 
in. 340 a*. -, and hia reply to Weber in tho Journ. Germ. Or. Society, vii. 007. 

'*> Compare A..Y. r. 30, 4, anil Taittiriya Brflhmsim iii. 7. 12, 8, 1 : yd mofi 
ynrbht niti tnnt etutktira ynl pita | Afnir mii tntmhd rnatuM ( yatfa ptpuht malarwm 
pilMraut fiulraK pmmudito dhtiyan \ akimilau pitarau nuya tat | " May Agni (fret) 
me from the u which my mother or father committed, when I w»» in tho womb. If 
T braised my mother or father while tucking, delighted, when an infant, may my 
parent* not bare been injured thereby." 

Ul We see from this that wine tu drunk by the Vcdic rishis. Compare via. ■:, 



rii. 89, 1. 3fo thu Varvna mrinmayaih griheit riijann ahatlt gamam \ 
aipTa **k*l*tra mrtiaya | 2. Tad m* pra*phwan» ,va driiir na dhm&to 
mdrnah | mp'la ityUdi | 3. Jirnlvah tamaha dinaU praiipam jagama 
iueh* | 4. A prim madhyt tost kit utiitam triihna 'vidaj jaritSram | 5. Vat 
kineha idaih Foruga daicyt j'ana abhidroham manmhydi charnmnai \ 
tichittl tat tata dkarmd yuyopima mA not lasimld erutso deva r\ruhah | 

'* Let me not, o king Varans, go to the house of earth."* Be gra< I 
o might; god, be gracious. 2. I go along, o tfaQlfknr, quivering like 
an inflated shin ; be gracious, etc. 3. bright and mighty god, I 
have transgressed through want of power, bo gracious, etc. 4. Thirst 
has overwhelmed thy worshipper when standing even in thu midst of 
tlic wntcrn; bo gracious, etc. 5. Whatever offence tliis be, o Yarurja, 
that we mortals commit against the pcoplo of the sky (the gods) ; in 
whatever way wo have broken thy law* by thoughtlessness, be gracious, 
o mighty god, be gracious." i 

In another place (vii. 88, 4 ff.) the same rishi alludes to hia previous 
friendship with Vanmn, and to the favours the god hod formerly con- 
ferred upon him, and enquires why they hnd now ceased : 

4. Vtuuk{kam ka Varumo n&ti Od/uld fishim chakara napdh makobkih \ 
ttoturam tiprah ludinatn ahnfim y&i mi dyOccu tatanan ynd tukuah | 
5. Kc* ty&ni nau takhya babh'iiiiA tachuvahe yad avrikam purd thit | 
bj-ikanttm mtinaUt Var**a nadhnruk- tahatradedram jagama gfihnm U | 
0. Yah Qpir nityo Faruna prujrih tan tr&m agdihii krinavat takkil U \ 
■ul tt enatranto yakthin hkujema yandhi ma tiprah stwat« rarti thorn | 

" Varans plnoed Yasisbtba on his boat : by hia power the wise and 
mighty doity made him a rishi to offer praise in an suspicious period of 
his life, that his days and dawns might bo prolonged. 6. Where'* 
are those friendships of us two ? We seek the harmony which (we 
enjoyed) of old. I have gone, o self-suBtaining Varuno, to thy Tast 
and spacious house with a thousand gates. 6. He who was thy friend, 
intimate, thine own, and beloved, has committed offences against thee. 
Let not us who are guilty reap the fruits of our sin. Do thou, a wiao 
god, grant protection to him who praises thee." 

12, and x. 107, 9, There it i* oid that tha liberal man rain* for himself, among ether 
durable things, a draught of wins (jmlaftiryam nrttyiA). 

lB Compare A.V. v. 30, H : •> ** tkimi-^riko H>ut*t. 

*** Compare Paalnu linia. 41), and xxv. 0. 







i rd£ 

(4) Conjoint function* and attribute* of Mitrn ana" Faruna. 

Tho same or nearly the «irae functions and attributes oe arc ascribed 
to Varuna arc also attributed to him and Mitrn conjointly. They up- 
hold and rule over the earth and sky, the shining and the terrestrial 
region*, and place the gun in the heaven* (v. 62, 3 ; v. 69, 1,4: tr\ 
rockand Varvn_a trin ttta dyiln trigs dhiirayatho rajAmsi \ v. 63, 7 ; 
67, 5; vii. 61, 4; x. 132, 2). They are the guardians of the woe] 
(cikatya bhutanatya gopa \ tUvatya gopu i yityanx tiivam pari piitAa 
ii. 27. 4; r. 62, 9; vii. 61, 2; viii. 25, 1 ; x. 126, 4). By their 
ordinance, the great sky shines [yayor dhtima dharmanii rochate brihat \ 
x. 6S, 6). They discharge the rain (v. 62, 3 ; aca vrishfim irijatatk 
firaddnO, | v. 63, 1-3: dydm vtrthayatho tuuratga mfiyayti). 
godhead is beyond the ken of the skies, or of rivers (i. 151, 9 : 
dyueo ahabhir not* 4tndfiavo na dtcattam pttnayo numtivr mtiyhtm). 
They (together with Aryaman) are awful deities, haters and dUpcllcn 
of falsehood <i. 152, 1 ; vii. 66, 13: ritattinah ritojutah ritdrridAo 
ghoruto anrita-dmhah). They carry out their fixed purposes, which 
are unobstructed oven by the immortal gods (v. 63, 7 ; v. 69, 4 : m 
ruth ilecuA amrituh a minanti vrat&ni Mitnl-earunu dhrucani). They 
muko tho foolish wis© (vii. 60, 6, 7 : nthrtaxaiii chieh rhitttyanti dak- 
; they know heaven and eurth (vii. CO, 7 : ims rfire animuAii 
prilAiryiii chikitt<\mxah). They took down from heaven observing BMO 
as if herds of cattle (tadhi ytl briAato dicah abhi yHtAeta paiyatah | See 
also verses 9 and 16, and R.V. vii. 60, 3). They ore described as 
righteous, anil as promoters of religious rites (or truth or righteous- 
ness) p7urp<Mc3, riidcdnA, p'fojuta, ritatprisd, ritatya gopau (i. 2, 8; 
i. 23, 5 ; i. 136, 4 ; ii. 27, 4 ; v. 63, 1 ; v. 65, 2 ; v. 67, 4 ; vii. 64, 
2; vii. 66, 13; viii. 23, 30; viii. 25, 8), as tho lords of troth and 
light [ritmya jyolufuu pall | i. 23, 5). They, with tho other Aditya% 
avengo sin and falsehood (ehayamdndh rinihn | «h*Uro anrit+tya M 
ii. 27, 4 j vii. 60, 5) : tho man who neglects their worship is seised 
with consumption (i. 122, 9: jano yo Alitru-earunAv abkidhruy apo n* 
rath tunv/i ■Mgjjptflnd j staynn ta yokthmath Aridity* ni dhiitta). 
They are besought along with Aditi to remove tho trespasses of their 
woi-shimon (ii. 27, 11: Adilt Ifitra Farunota mriln yad re rmyii 




c&aJtrima lath chid Ciijiih) ; and along with Arynman to give deliverance 
from evil (x. 126, passim)." 4 

(6) Hymn addnued to Mitra only. 
llitra alone is celebrated in i5i. 59. The following arc some of tho 


1. Mitro janSn yatayali brucSno Mitro iadh&ra prithic\m uia dy&in | 
Mitruh iriihftr animiiha 'hhi ehathfe Mitrdya havyam ghritaeaj juhola \ 
2. Pra h Milra marto a*(u prayatvdn yat te Aditya iiktkati rrattna | 
rut Knnyate na jiyaU trd-Qto nainam aAho ainoty antito na dur- 
Ayam Mitre nanuuyah ntievo rtij'a tuhhatro ajanishfa tsdhdh | tatya 
tayam Mitratya tumatau tydma | 6. Maham adityo n/tmatd upotaiyo 
yiittiyajijano grinats tuittik | 7. Abhi yo mahind ditam Mitro babhuva 
lajirathnh \ abhi iravobhih prithielm | 8. Mitrdya pancha yemirt jamb 
abhiihli-iatsue $a d<rdn ciivin bibkartli | 

" 1. Mitra, nttering his voice, call* men to activity.'" Mitra Mistains 
the earth and the sky. Mitra with unwinking eye beholds (all) crca- 
tores. Offer to Mitra the oblation with butter. 2. Mitra, oon ot 
Adili, may tho mortal who worships thee with eocred rites, have food. 
lie who ta protected by thee is neither slain nor conquered. Gal 
does not reach him from near or from far. 4. This Mitra has been 
born adorable, bt cased, a king, strong, and wise. May we abide in his 
favour. 5. This great Aditya, who rouses men to exertion (see v. 1), 
who i* favourable to his worshipper, is te be approached with rever- 
ence. 7. The vast Mitra who by his greatness transcends the sky, and 
the earth by his glory. 8. The five classes of men havo done homage te 
Mitra tho powerful helper, who sustains all the gods." 

(6) Pnftuor Rot&'i rtnarkt on Mitra and Voruna. 

In his paper on "The highest gods of tho Arian races" (Jonrn. of 
tho German Oriental Society, vL p. 70 f.), Professor Roth has tho fol- 

lu Like otker godc, sod in pirticulir Ind/i, they sro rcprMmUxl m. drinking i)h< 
•o«».j»o», i. 1*6,4; i. 137, Iff ; ir. 41, 8[ »t. 42, € ; r.»t,7; v. 71,3; v. 72, 

Hiil «e, 10. 

"• Wiia thu verse Both (MiMtntions of NirokU, x. 22, p. 140) compsro* B.V. 
v. 80, 9, wkero it ii ■aid* "Ssvitfi. woo causes all creature* to hear hii «ound. and 
infest IHobl." Cnsap. v. 9 of the prwent bran ; tnd vii. J6, 2, referred to by llotb 
in Uk put*** >t>out to be quoted. 


lowing ingenious and interesting observations on Mitra and Varuna: 
" "Within the circle of the Adityas there subsist* the closest connc 
botween Mitra and Varuna, who are invoked more frequently together 
than Varuna is invoked singly. Wo find only one hymn in which 
Mitra is invoked by himself (iii. 69). The fact that this dual invo- 
cation is preserved in the tfend A vesta, in regard to Ahura and Milium, 
though the position of both has become entirely altered, and Mithra is 
not even reckoned among tho Amsbaspands, — this fact proves how 
clow the ancient connection of the two was, when it has been main- 
tained even after the reason for it bad ceased. The essential 

character of the two gods, as distinguished from one another, is nowhere 
distinctly expressed in the hymns, and was in fact originally one which 
could not bo defined with intellectual precision. But tbo stago of 
religious culture which lies before us in the Kig-veda, enables as 
distinguish this difference as one already existing, viz., that Mitra 
the celestial light in its manifestation by day, while Vanins, thoug 
tho lord of light and of all time, yet rules especially over the ni| 
hcavrn. A hymn of Vasishtha ( vii. 36, 2) says : ' Ono of you (Varuna) 
is the lord, and unassailable guide, and he who is called Mitra, (mi th< 
friend) calls men to activity ' (ino cdm anyah padavlr adabdhe jamtm rhn 
Mitro yotali fouciinah). Hero so much at least is declared (and tbo 
same thing ia expressed in nearly the rame words in other places), that 
the light of day, which awakenB life, and brings joy and activity into 
the world, is the narrower sphere of Mitro's power; though, bra 
Varuna ia not thereby relegated to the night alone, for he continues to 
bo the lord and the first. 

" Though therefore such representations as are expressed in Indian 
exegesis, {as for instance, when Bi)F*Qa says on It.V. vii. 87, 1, that 
Varuna is the setting sun), are far too narrow and nni-.-kided, they still 
contain some truth ; and we may guess by what process they are to be 
developed. If Varuna is, as his name shews, that one among tin 
Adityas whose scat and sphere of authority is the bright heaven, in 
whose bosom is embraced u 11 that lives, and therefore also the remotest 
boundary, beyond which human thought seeks nothing further, then is 
ho also one who can scarcely bo attained either by tho eye or by the 
imagination. By day the power of vision cannot discover this remotest 
limit, the bright heaven presents to it no resting place. But at night 



this Tcil of the world, in which Varuna is enthroned, appears to 
approach nearer, and becomes perceptiblo, for the eye finds n limit. 
Varuna is closer to men. Besides, the other divine forms which, in 
the clouds, the atmosphere, the rays of light, filled the spneo between 
the earth and yonder immeasurable outermost sphere, have disap- 
peared : no other god now stands between Yururja and the mortal who 
gases at him." 

(7) Tht Indian Bfilra and the Zoroattrian Mithra. 

Whatever may be tho the success of the attempts made to identify 
any other of the Indian and Iranian gods with one another, there can 
at least be no doubt, from tho correspondence of the two names, that 
tbo Vodic Mitra and the Mithra of tho Zend Areata wore originally the 
same deity. Accordingly, tho lute Dr. F. Windischmnnn, in his Dis- 
sertation on the Persian Mithra, 1 " regards it as established that this 
god was known, and common, to the old Ariau race before the separa- 
tion of its Iranian from its Indian branch, though the conception of 
his character was subsequently modified by Zoroostriao ideas. That 
Mithra was worshipped in Persia in nnd previous to the age of 
dotas, U proved, as Windischmnnn remarks, by the common use of 
such names as Mitxadates and Mitrobtttcs. Herodotus himself (L 131) 
•peaks of Mitra, not as a god, but as a goddess ('E»^u>urf^ica« 81 col -rp 

Ct p m ig 9kir, »«pi T* *Affcrup!o>r naBirrir xai 'Apo/tfwv Ka\Vou<7» W 'A<r<ri?<*t 

rV 'Afftttr^ «<Xtrra, Afifi^ *i 'AA.TTB, rty»rw li MUfa,. flee Rawlinson's 
Bote, in loco, in his translation of Herodotus). But Xenopbon (Cyrop. 
viii. 5, 53 ; (Bo. ir. 21), and Plutarch (Artaar.. 4, and Alexand. SO) 
describes tho Persians aa swearing by the god Mitra. And Plutarch, 
in his treatise on Isis and Osiris, chap. slvi. tells us that Zoroaster 
conceived of Mithra as standing intermediate between tho deities 
Oromazcs, the representative of light, and Areimanius, the representa- 
tive of darkness and ignorance."' It is unnecessary to say anything 
farther hero of the Persian Mithra, the eventual introduction of whose 
worship into the West ia matter of history. 

■m Milirs, cu Bdtrag mr Mvtbwiftwcbirtilc d» Orient*, ia the AbhawDsagta 
fur die Knruk do Morrmlanilo, Iaiju'ir, 1S57. Sue pp. 64 ft*. 

"' lUd, p. 60. This psmagc is alio quotsj ia sU -nd rsl of tkii work. D. 471. 



(8) I* On amy kuUrimlt 

Tarmma ami Ah*ra JfosoV 

Varuna also, in the aj iair p of certain writers, is f nmw o twl , at least 
indirectly, with the Ahura Muds of the old Fenian mythology ; and 
in support of this it any W aDeged,— (I) that the name of Aian, the 
being, k frequently applied to Tmw, as an epithet ; (2) that 
tba class of Indian gede called Adirraa, of whom Varuna ia the moat 
distinguished, bean a certain analogy to the Aaahaapasds of the Zend 
mythology, of whom Ahnxm Mania ia the highest ; and (S) that a dooa 
connection exists between Varuna and Ultra, jnat as, according to Pro- 
feasor Both (see above), Ahura and alithra are frequently associated in 
the Zeodaveata, thongh the poaitian of the two has otherwise becocao 
altered, and Mithra ia not even reckoned among the Amshaspand*. 
Other scholars, however, think that there b not sufficient proof of 
Varans and Ahora Mazda being connect ed with one another. 

I shall state the opinion of riufcann Both in regard to the connec- 
tion of Varans with Ahora Maxda more fully in the next Section, 
where reference will be made to the aame writer's views regarding the 
relation of India to Varuna. 



ertn ia the Riy-tti*. 

Though Varuna ia not generally regarded in the Rig-veda aa the 
god of the ocean, he is yet in the following pitwigea connected with 
the dement of water, both in the atmosphere and on the earth, in such 
a way aa may have led to the conception of his character and functions 
which is fully established in the later mythology. 

i. 101, H. DitC ytmti ilmrmlo Mumya Aynir ayaSt Vsta antart'Jt- 
$ktma y«l/i | Mkir tit* r*r**ak aammiraw pukmGm iekkantak iaruak 
ntpMak | " Desiring yon, ye eons of strength, the Maruts proceed 
lgfa tlio sky, Agni along tho earth, this Vita (wind) through the 
atmosphere, and Varuna along tho waters, the ocean" {adbhih ana* 
rfr-.A). 1 " 

mi It), a. Yak dae eVryd* *ta rd tratamti liamitrimak uta ed yak 
$rayat{,ak | asamrfrdrlAd* yd* imtkayah jNlMhti Uk ,lpo oVrJr ika 
uulm aramlu | 3. 1 .l*d* rt\j* lamas yii madl y * tatytoriU autpaiyan 

"• »*• BsUsatcn ia Or. art Ootid. 3, 467. 



jan&nSm \ wtadhuiehutah itUknynk — | 4. YtUu rtija Varuno j/Stu Scmo 
*ik* tUvah yrJiM Hrjtim madanti \ VaUvUnaro yiim Agnih pravitkfn* tdh 
cpmk — I 1 * "May tho waters which arc celestial, and those which flow, 
those for which channels arc dug, and those which arc self-produced, 
those which arc proceeding to the ocean and arc bright and purifying, 
preserve me ! 3. Muy those (waters) in tho midst of which Ling Varuna 
goes, beholding the truth and falsehood of men, which drop sweetness. 
and are bright and purifying, preserve mc ! 4. Huy those waters in 
which Varuna, Soma, and all the gods are exhilarated by food, into 
which Agni VaUvdunra has ontered," etc. etc. 

viL 84, 2. A rtljdnd mahah ritumju tjopd tinilhuptili tahalriyd ydtam 
arrak | ifuA no Jfitnlrarunii ula vfiihfim atadirah uuatafii jlradtlnQ |"° 
" Mitra and Varuna, ye two kings, protectors of the great ceremonial, 
strong lords of the sea (or of rivers) come hither; send us food and rain 
from the sky," eto. 

In tho second of these text.*, vii. 46, 3, the waters, in tho midst of 
which Varuna is said to more, "beholding tho truth and falsehood of 
men," seem to be rather aerial than oceanic, as tho former, from their 
position above tho earth, would appear to afford to tho god (when an- 
thropomorphically regarded) a more convenient post of observatiuu 
than the latter. And in vii. 64, 2, the epithet rimttttpati, "lords of 
the sea," (or "of rivers," nad<j<lk ptlayiUirau, Sayan*), is applied net 
only to Varuna but to Mitra also, who is not, that I am awaro of, ever 
connected with the sea, oven in later mythology. If we add to this, 
that these two gods are here solicited to scud food and rain from the 
sky, it may result that they are called lindkupatt, as supplying the 
aerial waters by which terrestrial streams are filled. On the other 
hand the 2nd verse of tho hymn just quoted, vii. 49, 2, with which 
however Varuna is not directly connected, must bo understood (as 
Professor Mullcr remarks, Tronsl. of R.V. i. p. 46) of terrestrial waters. 
Though, as we have seen above, Suyarja does not generally stylo 
Varuna the god of the sea, but, in conformity with older conceptions, 
the deity who presides over the night, he docs, in his explanation of 

'* 8m Pwf. Mullsr*i rrasrki on the ward mmiu/i-s, Trans, of R.V. i. 44 S. 
wticrt tliM »«*»« U quoted ami tr»n»Ut«l. 

US Tsill. S. fL 4, 3, 3, mjs: JtUrarmru^u rat vjmm itttSmu | •'Uitrs and 
Vwua* ore tho k*icr» of the vstcrs." 



K.V. L 161, 14, and viii. 58, 12, call him the jaidbAimdnl dtcah, " the 
deity prodding over tho waters." 

In viii. 41,8, Vuruno appcura to be called a hidden ocean {samudrt 

viii. .'>«, 12. Sudeto asi Varum yatya tt tayta tindhavah \ anuhhm- 
ranii tdkudam tirmyam twhiram i'r«i | " Tlmn art a glorious god, 
Vara ij a, into whose jaws the seven rivers flow, as into a surging 
abyss." ■ 

Varuna is also connected with tho soa or with the rivers, which 
he is auid to inhabit, as soma (tho plant) does tho woods, in ix. 90, 2 
(Mud ratdno Vuruno na tmdhiin); and in Vflj. Sanh. x. 7, it is said 
that " Varutja, the child of the waters, mude his abode within tho 
most motherly waters as in his home " {Pattyutu ehakrt Varunak tmd- 
hatlham apiim Mur m/itritam<Uu antah). Seo also tho third vera© of 
tho sixteenth hymn of tho A.V. quoted above. 

In tho following text* of tho Athatra-vcda, Varuna It connected 
with tho waters: 

A.V. iii. 3, 3. Adbhyat tva rtij'd Varum hvayatu somas tva hvayatu 
panatthhyah \ " May king Vnrutjn call thee from the waters, and Soma 
from the mountains." 

iv. 16, 12. Apo nuhinchann aturak pita nah feasant u garyardh ajmm 
Farina I "Our divine father shedding the waters — may the streams 
of water breathe, o Varuna." 

v. 24, 4. Varum 'p&m adhipalih | 5. AfitrSearunam critktydh adkt- 
patl | " Varuna the lord of the waters." 6. " Mitra and Varuna the 
lords of rain." 

vii. 83. I. Ap*u tt rujan Varuna griko hiranyayo mitah | "Thy 
golden bouse, o Varuna, is in tho waters." ,H 

>" 8w Rnth'ii UliwtralioiM of Ninikta, pp. 70 f. 

,M The TaitU 8. t. 6, 4, 1, says: «/» Varuwntya palnayah atan | ffi Af*ir 
mihyaifl\n\f.'t | l,'ih mmuthavat | tatya rtUk perapalat | taJ %y/t» <*AA*Mf | fad 
iltil'fam parapaitt lad a*av «lfav*4 | iyam rv* riritf mom tvar^f | '* The waters lire 
tliu wi»es of VaittQU. Agni regarded them with desire. He oonmrtcd with then, Ilw 
wed ML It liiiame thia (mrtli). That winch fell the second tine became tail 
(sky). This (osrth) is wVitf, that (sky) is svaraj." Tho TsrOba Turiij*, toot. 131 
(Aufrocbt, CaUl. p. &9A) ■peaks of Yarurja being universally kuown si tlio gunnlisn 

of the ocean [tarrt hkaA hi jiirninli Vnrmah f m). Tho Sktuula I'm is*, 

ecct. 12 (Aufrccbt, Cst. p. 60m), relates that Varuna wui formerly the *on of Rsrdssss, 
mid Ixire the numo of H' , ami that lit is uid to hare obtained tho 
sovereignty uf the sea by worshipping S lva. 



(10) Explanation* by Profettor* Roth and WnUrgaord of th* process by 
vhitA Varuna cams to bt regarded as ths nymt of ths sta. 

Professor ltoth gives (in n paper rend in October, 1851, and published 
in the Journal of the German Oriental Society, ri. 73) the following 
statement of the process by which lie conceives that Varuna came in 
later times to be regarded as the god of the sea. 

"The hymns of the Voda giro already indications of this develop- 
ment, since Varuna is in one place brought into the same conm | -tii>ii 
with the wares of the sea, as Storm aud Wind are with the atmosphere 
and the heaven, and as Agni is with the earth (i. 161, H, translated 
above), and it is elsewhere said of him that he sinks into tho sea (vii. 
HI, 6), while in another passage the rivers are described ns streaming 
toward* him (viii. 58, 12). When, on the one hand, tho conception of 
Varuna as the all-embracing heaven had been established, and, on tho 
ether hand, the observation of the rivers flowing towards the ends of 
the earth and to the «ca bad led to the conjecture that there existed 
an ocean enclosing the earth in its bosom, then the way was thoroughly 
prepared for connecting Varuna with the ocean. Another side of the 
affinity between the celestial and oceanic Varuna may be expressed in 
the words of Alexander Ton Humboldt, which perfectly coincide with 
the ancient Indian view : ' The two envelopments of tho solid surface 
of our planet, viz., tho aqueous and tho atmospheric, offer many 
analogies to each other, in their mobility, in the phenomena of their 
temperature, and in tho fact that their parte admit of being displaced : 
the depth both of the ocean and of the atmosphere U unknown to us.' " 

On the samo subject Professor Westcrgaard remarks (in a paper 
originally published in 1 852, and translated by Professor Spiegel from 
the Danish, and published in Weber's Indischc Studien, vol. iii.) : 
"The Zend word V arena corresponds also etymologically, on the one 
bond, to the Greek ovpavos, and, on tho other, to tho Indian Varuna, 
a name which in the Valas is assigned to the god who reigns in the 
furthest regions of tho heaven, where air and sea are, as it ward 
blended; on which account he has, in the later Indian mythology, 
become god of tho boo, whilst in tho Vodas ho appears Erst as the 
mystic lord of tho evening and tho night." And ho adds: "Fosaibly 
the Iranian Varcna, in opposition to Yimaa home on tho remotest 



moantarn* of the east, denotes, originally, the distant weaten 
of the heaven and the air, where, ercrj evening, the m and right 
eaneeal themselves, and k> much the ntber as the epithet Vamtya, 
derived from Tirana, a in the Zenda-vesta applied only to the 
spirits of darkness " (p. 415 L). 

(11) CWrsspendsises o/ FarwM irir* th Greek Oupavos. 

Wc have already seen that Vororya corresponds in name to the 
Oopavw: of the Greeks. "Uranos," aa Professor Miillcr observes, 1- 
" in the language of Hesiod, is used a* a name for the sky ; he » made 
or born that he should *bo a firm place for the blessed gods.' "* It is 
said twice that Uranos covers everything (r. 127), and that when be 
brings the night, he is stretched oat everywhere, embracing the earth. 1 * 
This sounds almost as if the Greek tnythe had still preserved a reeol- 
i of the etymological power of Uranos. For Uranos is in the 
Sanskrit Vanuja, and is derived from a root, Var, to cover; Varans 
being in the Veda also a name of the firmament, but especially con- 
nected with the night, and opposed to Mitra, the day." 

The parallel between the Greek Uranos and the Indian Varans does 
not, as we have already seen, bold in all points. There is not in the 
Vcdic mythology sny spec Jul rclution between Varnna and Frithivi, ths 
Earth, as husband and wife, as there is between Uranos and Gaia in the 
tbeogooy of Hesiod ; nor is Varurja represented in the Veda, m Uranos 
is by the Greek poet, as the progenitor of Dyaus (Zens), except in the 
J way in which he is said to have formed and to preserve heaven 
nod earth. 

"* Oxford Emits tor 18.M, p. 41 ; Chip*, ii. Be. 

"' 11 »iad Tr.r.»g. 12$:— 

Tom 8/ toi wpirw pi* iylvaro lav* iawrp 
Ovparbr lumpoirf, Ira iur rtfi rdrra koAc'ittvi, 
'0<f>|/ «I»i noJtdfHaai tiui$ ftot airif'aAci dti. 

Conipsre Ait. llr. iv. If, qunicd abnte. 

■»» Ibid, v. 178:— 

'HAS. it Kim' Jt^w pafSB Ovpaifit, i^ Si r»fp 
'\pt\pmr •piAirriroi /«<Vx«TS Kai p boriofat 




(12) Faruna, at npre$mttd in Iht hymns, — a metrical thick. 

Lo, reared of old by hand* divine, 

High towers ia heaven a palace fait ; 

Its roof a tliousand columns bear ; 
A tliousand portals round it shine. 

Within, enthroned in godlike state, 
Sits Vuruna in golden el" 
To work his •will, with reverent mien, 

liis angel hosts around him wait. 

When I beheld this vision bright, 

I deemed the god was clad in flame, — 
8uoh radiance from his presence came, 

And overpowered my aching eight. 

Each mora, when Uahaa starts from sleep, 

He mounts his oar, which gleams with gold : 
All worlds before him lio unrollod, 

Aa o'er the sky bis coursers sweep. 

lie, righteous lord, the sooptre wields, 

Supreme, of universal sway, 

Ilia law both men and gods obey; 
To bis decree the haughtiest yields. 

lie spread the earth and watery waste ; 

lie reared the sky ; he bade the sun 

His shining circuit daily run ; 
In him the worlds are all embraced. 

By his decree the radiant moon 

Moves through the nightly aky serenr, 
And planets sparkle round their ijueeri ; — * 

Itut whither have they Hid tit noon t 

' to IndiiD mythology the moon i* o (futL not a goddess; but 1 har< in tlu* lii 
•llirml to i phraseology. 


The rivers flow at his behest, 

And yet — admire his wondrous skill— 
Tho ocean-bed they cannot fill, 

Although their current* never rest. 

The path of ships across the sea, 

The soaring eagle's flight, he knows, f 
Tho course of every wind that blows, 

And ail that was or is to be. 

Descending, ceaseless, from the skies, 
His angels glide this world arournl ; 
As far as earth's remotest bound, 

All-scanning, range their thousand eyes. 

This mighty lord who rules on high. 

Though closely veiled from mortal gaze, 
All men's most secret acts surveys ; 

Ho, ever far, is ever nigh. 

Two think they are not overheard 
Who ait and plot, as if alone ; 
Their fancied secrets all arc known, 

Unseen, tho god is there, a third. 

Whoe'er should think hi* way to wing, 
And lurk, unknown, beyond the sky, 
Yet conld not there elude tho eye 

And grasp of Vurnrjn, tho King. 

For all within the vast expanse 

Of air that human and earth divides, 
Wuute'or above tho heaven ubides, 

Lies open to his piercing glance. 

t Ompar* Frorcrf*, x«. IS: " Th«r» h« thrss thing* which are loo ' 
for roo; yea, four which I know not: 10. Tho w»y of an tajcle in the sir; the w»y 
jf ■ Mtpcut upon » rvtk; tko way of a ship in the audit of l*t »ta; and tba way of 
i nun with u maid." 


The ceaseless winkings all he scot, 
And counts, of every mortal's eyes : 
Id vain to wick a creature tries, 

Unless the god the power decrees. 

To thoughtful men who truth discern, 
And deeply things divine explore, 
The god reveals his hidden lore ; 

But fools his secrets may not learn. 

He markB the good and ill within 

The hearts of men — the false and true 
Discerns with never-erring view : 

He hates deceit, chastises sin. 

His viewless bonds, than cords and gyros 
More hard to burst, the wicked bind j 
In vain, within their foldn confined, 

To cast them off the sinner strives. 

And yet the god will not refuse 

His grace to one who inly moans, 
When fetter-bound, Ids errors owns, 

And lor forgiveness meekly sues. 

But where is, lord, thy friendship now ? 

Thine ancient kindness, o, restore ; 

Hay we, so dear to thee of yore, 
No longer dread thy frowning brow. 


Thiae ire we did not madly brave, 

Nor break thy laws in wanton mood ; 
We fell, by wrath, dice, wine, subdued : 

Forgive us, gracious lord, and save. 


Absolve us from the guilt, we pray, 
Of all the sins our fathers •wrought, % 
And sins which we commit by thought, § 

And speech, and act, from day to day. 

From dire disease preserve us free, 
Nat doom us to the house of clay 
Before our shrivelling frames decay : 

A good old age yet let us see. 

In vain shall hostile shafts assail 

The man thy shielding arm defends ; 
Secure, no wrong he apprehends, 

Safe, as if cased in iron mail. 

As mother birds their pinions spread 

To guard from harm their cowering brood, 
Do thou, o lord, most great and good, 

Preserve from all the ills we dread. 

I See Exodus, xx. 5, Deuteronomy, v. 9, and Esekiel, xriii. 1 ff. 
, Big-veda, x. 37, 12. 




I.VDRA. 1 " 

According to the Grcok geographer Strabo, tho Indian*, as known to 
Kim by the report of other writers, " worshipped Jupiter Pluvius, the 
river Ganges, and the gods of country.* 4 * This Jupiter Pluvius wn*, 
no doubt, Indra. Although at the period to which Strain's infornatioa 
refers, this god, in all probabilty, no longer occupied the tame promi- 
nent position as of old; ho was, as Professor Itoth remarks,"* tho 
favourite national deity of the Aryan Indians in tho Yedie age. Moru 
hymns arc dedicated to his honour than to the praise of any other 

(1) fflt origin and parent*: kit %tif*. 

Although, however, his greatness is celebrated in tho most mn;- 
n ilkent language, ho is not regarded as an uncreated being. As I have 
already notioed, he is distinctly spoken of in various passages as being 
bora, and as having a father and a mother. 

Thus it is said of him : 

in. 4H, 2. Taj jSyalhu* (ail ahtr atys kdmt smhh plyQthitiH apibo 
firukfMim \ tarn U mala pari yutkil janitrl mahuh pilttr dame Otmehad 
mgn | 3. Upottkdya miltaram annum aiffa tig mam apaigad abhi toman* 


" On the day that tliou wast born, thou didst, from love of it, drink 
the mountain-grown juice of the soma-plout. Of old, the youthful 

•*• Strabo, it. 1. CO. p 719, quoted by Lateen. IndWhc AltcrthumiinnJr, ii.Mfl: 
Xtyrtm S> •*) rtwt*\ wmpk rir ev y ipatyitv, Jri eiPmnm pir thr ipfyxor Am W 
'Irlol, ««j T*» rriyyw rvraato. cal T»*i tyx-pi*" ialiiorat. 

>•* la aiy aotocnt of Vanirj* thmi U little of impartsooo thit had not bum pro- 
ruxuly •aid by IWtasor B<rth ; but in Ihb d«arriptian of ladra thsro i» • Urf?r 
jollcctwn Of particular* thin I hm« aoticsd to bJ»Tt bttf) brought logrctrwrobwnhir*. 

"• In bb Lcxicos, «.r. lodrs. 




mother who horn thee, satiated thee with it in the house of thy mighty 
father. 3. Approaching his mother, he desired sustcaanct ; he beheld 
the sharp-flavoured soma on her breast." 

Again in iv. 17, 4. Nurlnit djanitu monyala Dyaur Indraxya 
trapattamo 'bhal \ yah Irhjajana naryafii lumjram anapachyutaSt 
M bhama | .... 17. Kiyat mid Indro ad hi tti mutuh liyat pilar 
janitur yoj'ajclM | "Thy father wan, as tho Sky thought, a moat stal- 
wart being ; the maker of Indra, ho who produced tho <v»T«n«; fr| 
thundcrcr, immovable as the earth, — he was a most skilful workman. 
17. How much docs Indra regard hia mothor, how much tho fa: 
who begat him? "'- 

iv. 18, 1. Ayam pmth&h atutvittsk punine yete dtvih udajriymU 
tt'he | atai thid <3 jani*huhf<$ prarriddho mA mat/tram amvyS patUn 
faf I 5. Aradyam ita manyamSnu guh& Mar Judram matd rirytmt 
nyrithfam | at ha ud asUuit tvayam atJsath rasQnah a rodattl <t/»r*M«y 
lOMJ | 10. Qp'thfiA taiilva tthaviram taviigum aniirf/iri'thyim 
rfithabhaih tumram Jndram \ arllhaih tatiaih charathilya wiOt-u tutyrik 
ijritum tame iefiAamSnam | 11. Via mSta mahitham anranenad ami t>d 
jtihati putra dev&h | athabratld cfittram Indro hanithyan talfit FuAao 
titarain pi Iramasva \ 12. Kat If miltaram ridhaviim arhakrat iayutit l*i 
tvlm tijighurfuat eharantam \ kai te dero adhi mdrdlfa <lsld yat pidiram 
priiksKinuh pudagrihya \ 

" This has been traversed as tho ancient path, through which all the 
gods wcro born ; through this let the grown (embryo) be produced; 
let him nut vuiuly cause hia mother to perish.'* 1 5- Regarding it (his 
birth) as a fault, tho mother concealed Indra, who was full of rigour. 
Then he himself arose, clothed with a robe, aud filled both worlds u 
toon as he was born. 10. His mother, (like) n cow, bore Indra, an un- 
linked calf, strong, robust, unassailable, vigorous, and lusty, in order 

"» Profannr MulIfT, T.octurni ii. 430, translates the first of these vents thos: 
Dru, thy parent, was reputed strong ; the maker of Indra was mighty in his works; 
ho (who) begat tho heavenly Indra, armed with tho thunderbolt, who is immovohlf ss 
tbo earth, from his scat : " and tho 112th vent a» follows ; " Indra 'aornewhat e*c«ss 
Lis mother and the father who begat him." " Of tbo Maruts also it is said t. SO, 6, 
that Ituitra, their father, was young uud an excellent workman IjmvS pita ttfak 
JiuJrah ulu'im. The next hymn of tho same M.njdilit, iv. 18, mokes repeated refenacs 
to Indra' a birth ami parents. 

00 For the Comtnentator'i explanation of this obscure hytnn sec Frofeasor Wilson's 
Translation, noU 1. 



that be might rang* abroad, and desiring full scope for himself. 11. 
And his mother affectionately regarded her mighty eon, saving, ' those 
gods forwike thee, my aon.' Then aaid Indm, preparing to slay Vrittra, 
' Friend tIAqq, stride boldly forward.' 12. Who made thy mother a 
widow ? Who sought to slay thoo lying or moving ? What god stood 
by thee in the fray when thou didst crush thy fathur, seizing him by 
the foot?" 

vii. 20, 5. FfiihS jajUna xjUhnnam rantiya Ian u chin narl t\ary»m 
sarins | "A rigorous (god) begot him, a rigorous (son) for the battle: 
• heroic female (nurt) brought him forth, a heroic (son)," etc. 
Again, vii. 98, 3. JajnAtut A tomaih aahntt ptipnlha pra te nuifu 
lahim&ium urllch/% | "Whon born, thou didst drink the som.v 
juiee to (gain) atrcngth : thy mother declared thy greatness.'' 
X. 73, 1. Junii/if/iiik ugrah taluis* turiiyn tnnndrah yithfho bahuld- 
bhimAnah | acardhaim Iniram Marulai chid attra mAlA yad vlraik 
dadhanad dhanuhfhd | "Thou wast born fierce to exercise impetnoua 
atrcngth ; exulting, fiery, full of confidence. The Marti ts here aug- 
mented Indra when his opulent mother brought forth tho hero." 
x. 120, 1. Tad id d*a bhucunahu jytihfhaih yato jajnt vyra* tcctha- 
nrtmmtk \ " That was the highest (being) in the world from which this 
fierce and impctuoue (god) was born," eto. x. 13-1, 1. Ubkt yad India 
roda>\ Apuprath* lutuih ins | mahantam ha mahlnaiii tamrijam chartha- 
nImum dexl jdMitrl ajij,inad hhudrH janitri afljamtt | "When tl, 
Indra, didst fill the two worlds like the Dawn, a dirine mother 
bore thee, a gracious mother bore thee, tho great monarch of tho 
greet people" (the gods?). In x. 101, 12, as we here already seen, 
ho is called tho son of Nisht,igrT. This word, as I have already 
noticed, p. 1 3, note 9, ia treated by the commentator as a synonym of 
Aditi ; but though Indra ia always regarded as an Aditya in the later 
mythology, and is even addressed in that character, along with Yarun i. 
in vii. 85, 4 (pah HdilyA iaratu rum namauun), he ia not commonly 
described na su>:h in other porta of the Rig-veda."' 

In the A.Y. iii. 10, 12, we mid: L'buhlalu iapa»u topyamunfi jajutia 
jfmrbkmm mahim&tum Indrim | Una dnuh athahantu inirtin haniu datyi- 
ndm abhatat S"arhipalth | " Kkishtaka, practising MMt«B ftaTOTTi bore 

1,1 h li.* appctn to he identified with Mfinu anil Sftrvi, and in riii. 82, 

1, i, and ». 8!>, 2, wilL Surja. la ii. 50, I, be receive* the epithet of flrrftrt 



as a child tic glorious India. Ry him the goda conquered 
enemies; the lord of Sachi (or of might) became the slayer of the 

In the next verso Ekaahtaka is called the mother of Soma, as well as 
of Indra, and the daughter of PrajapotL In A.V. vi. 38, the mother of 
Indra is invoked, but her name is not Riven. According to the II. Lh. 
Adip. 313G, InJra is one of the sona of Knayupa and Dokshayanl, i.e. 
tin ii;i ii -liter of Dakuha, or Aditi. See also viii. 15, 4, 5; viii. 66, 1, 
2, which will be quoted further on. In viii. 58, 4, ho ia called 
»on of truth ($(l»um mlytuya). 

In another placo {iii. 49, 1) he is said to hate been produced by | 
K'»la, as a destroyer of enemies (ghanam vritrauam jamyanta <Urih | 
Soo also ii. IS, 5, ond iii. St, 8). 

In the Purusliu Sukta (It. V. x. 90, 13) Indra is said to have sprung, 
along with Agni, from the mouth of Purushs [mukfuid Imirai rka 
Agnxi cha) ; and he is one of several goda said, in ix. 96, 5 (Soma} . . . 
tmiU Indrsuya), to have been generated by Soma. In one of the 
Litest hymns (x. 107, 1) he is declared to haTe conquered heaven by 
austerity (tvam tapnh paritapya ajayah »vah).' M 

'" In one »f the »bort stories about tbo Rods, of which it sad (ha other BnUnsBBts 
are full, the S'atap. Br. xi. 1, 6, 14, tars of IiiJiu: 5PiA tut «f«A JVa/ajMtsr , 
4t*tt&h atfijyanta Aijnxr Indroh iS"»omA I"araimtii(ki prajiipafyall | 1$. Tii», uXt- 
trt'njuikc, jajnirt \ tuh twite narlytti pattnn pariipaiyai from tvmya ojnuAoA partm 
fitr&rtuikKyutf | 14. "Those p>d« wore cmaUd from Prajripsti, vi*. Aj»ni. Indra, 
Koms, tind iVumenhthiu IV kjlf ■ ' y > . 15. These were born with a life of a thousand 
(yean), Jiut si a man caa look n cross to the other bank of a rirer, they looked 
across to tbc end of their life " Again the Taitt. Dr. ii. 2, 3, J, says of Imtn: 
J'ta/tpulir drntiNrti/i aijiintt | m Jiutram api no atfi/ata \ ram dec&h airaswma 
" JnrfMoi ttn jtiHaya" Hi I te. 'bnwid " i/nthi 'kaili lyuihni/liu IspmM 'ifiitii 
fi-om /i/i/i in. j ■ ■:<yaiHr,tm " Ui | te t«jo 'lapynta | te almuxnn Ittdr+m *f*. 
•'y.i« | (am ubrutan "jiyarr* " Hi | tn '/irtv'il " Aim MUfiiJAtyam ailti >#«wA- 
ft" Hi | •' filun iami*tHXi/t-i prajih pa/in imtn loldn " ify airttftt | itftdt | 

" l'nij«p:i!i crnatrcl jtikIii nud Aiuras. bat he did not also create Indira. The 
gods said to him: 'Create lodra for us.' Hi' replied: 'As I have created 
yon rhmnjrb susterc- fervour (topai), so do you generate Indra.' They practised 
austare-fi'rvoar They ssw Indra within thom«elvo«. Thr y wiid to him. • Be 
born.' lis said, 'To what lot shall I be born : ' They uiid to him. 'To ths 
seasons, the yean, the creatures, the beiuU, Ihcsu worlds, ' tie. The ssiui' Ilr . 
ii. 2, 10, 1, tells ns that Prajfipati created Indra lost of thr (rods, and sent him to be 
tbo lord of thr other deities. The (rods said to him. • Who art tboa ? ' ' We are 
•ufwnor to thee.' He reported their reply to Prajfipali, and asked for the splendour 
which tviidnl iii I'rajipati, ia order that he might become the chief of the gods, etc" 



In vi. 59, 2, Indra and Agni, as wo huvi already seen, p. 14, are said 
to be twin bntiicn, luvin:: the tame fuller, nod whoso mothers nre, die 

i h » of tbii i* noi rwji avj b at, union 

Imply mean that tlic mothers arvtlitlVi .•'■'», I , his brut] 

■ Ulna are mentioned (w/ atUibhmlh Prilhiclm Dtj&m abhlke bhrutuh 

'•A* htagluiran titnuk&nch). Heaven and Karth seem to bo intern] 
1( eo.iv!: r father? la vi. 55, 5, Pushaa is colled Iiidn's 

"dor {hhr&i& Indra'ya). 

D as on infant India i' said to have manif.-*?c<l hb warlike ten- 
dencies. " As soon a* lie was born, the slayer of Vrittra (Indrn) rtu- 
hia arrow, and asko<l his mother, ' Who are they that are iviiawni-d as 
fierce warriors?'" ;viii. 1/i, 1. >~i Imdnfn tftttrthi dad' jntak firttUnul 
ri ■ Is ngrfih ke ha ijinvirt | viii. 66, 1. Jajndno hi mlnkralur 

si' i 'i mularan j Ac qprdj £* Aa irinrire |). His worshipper 

•ays of him: I, 103, 8. Alatrur Indra jamuhil nanud ati | "Thou. 
Imlra, ait of old by nature without an cm my." Compare i. 176, 1. 
S'atrum anti na eindari | x. 138, 2. Aiairvr In/Ira jajnuht). 

In i. 82, 5, 6, India's wife is alluded to. 5. Teiia jtiyuui uj>a jiriyiim 
mwUano D'lki | 6. Sum h fulni/il amathtli | "Uo cxhilui.i'i -I L« thy 
dcar wit exhilarated with thy wife." 

awUm place iii. 53, 4 fT., the poet describes the perplexity lie 
icie* Indrn most foci in choo;-ing between the attractions of homo. 
those his worshippers have to offer in tlio way of Boaia-libniions. 

TiiyA id tttt/im tmtgLuan id id u yon it lad it ttQ yuktah harayo 
rafmntu | yndu L%di) th<t tunaeama toiwm Agni* ica dulo d/ianrnli athha | 

/•.tfti yuhi tnayhatann fl eha yaki Indrn bhratttr ubhayatra U arlh,i»i , 
s/atra retkotyt brihalo r.idhriniuU vimothanam cAjino nisabkittya | 6. 

• h tomatn a-itum Indra pra yuhi ltil>/unJr jfiya turanam yrihe It | 
yatra iiltfsjJIM hribnto nidhtmaA rimoekamm riljino dak*!iin<~nMl \ 

{J*r*jhjLttf .j drrrinam | tm* praKinot u purtAi | ttrihaZt 

</M "ill \ lnhidtrvi uhuctn "inttfmm oin*yimiiii tritl iiryim- 

fttf • ■> 'brut it "'hat It am ati rayum tat trill »'rryiiS*»A «w«V Hi .d 

4n*l oAnrMMii" i.'i | atha iwi iJnm tarSi rrajapotaii WnA : ../ aimium 

mdilft | titJinj'i it*rar;rf "rr»7 m. , iv.i)vwA*B | ofAa o*«» itiihnm drrnrvim n4ki. 

i • i.ipnre th* Tiitlirlya SanhilJi vi. 0. 11. '.>, wliera 

in virtnadl rVa- 

luatiiittod lo him. S«v aUo Uo same nrk mi. .'. 10, 2. la aflothtr 

|4aru vii. J, ft, 0, lie U uiil to lute abtahwd from FrajSpati tbe panrkmUUiaira 

wtji. he *u enabled to ovcreonc the Ajurns. of whom be bad previously 

i a/rsid, suil to ituiu prewperiij. 



4. "A wife, Indrn, is one's home; the » * man's dwelling; there- 
fore let thy horses be yoked, and cany thee thither. But whenever 
wo pour forth u libation of soma, then may Agni hasten to "»H thee 
fi. Depart, Indra; come hither, lirothcr Indrn; in both quarters thou 
bast inducements. Whenever thy great A irfot halts, thy stood is 
unharnessed. 6. Depart, Iadra, to thy homo ; thoa hast drank the 
soma ; thoa hast a lovely wife, and pleasure in thy house. Wbcre- 
erer thy great chariot holts, it is proper that thy stood should be 

ml:.rn. | ■■.-.].'' 

In a few passages (i. 22, 12; ii. 32, 8; v. 16, 8 ; x. 86, 11, 13) 
mention is mode of a goddess IndrfnjI, who, from hor name, must bo 
this spouse of Indra. In the first three places site is invoked together 
with other goddesses, among whom we find Agnuyl and Varurjanl, the 
wives of Agni and Vurun.'i. In x. 8C, 11, 12, a little more is told r.f 
Indriu'. Thu* in verso 11, the speaker says: IiuirGnim am n&ruku 
tvhhagilm aham alravam \ aaii atyah aparaik chana jartm marttii 
pittih | " I have hcurd that among all these females IndrnnT is tho most 
fortunnte; for her husband shall never at nny future time die of old 
age. ,,lM The Aitareya Brahtnar.a, iii. 22, alludes to a wife of Indra, 
called Prasaha {U dtxAh abrwann iyam nai Indraiya priySjSyH vAtdti 
l*r&*ahu nSma). See Professor Haug's Translation, p. 194. 

The S'*tnp. llr. xiv. 2, 1, 8, says: " Indnini is Indra's beloved wife, 
and she has a head-dress of all forms " (/haVusI La tat Ltdratya prty/i 
palni | iary/lh uthn'uho viieariipatamah). 

■n I mi unable to say to whom tho ©bacon* nm* (6 sad 7) of this hymn reftr. 
In Tuilt. Bt. ii. -t, 2, ", the ii thu* portcnt-iiuly deKriVod : Intrant Jrri iuJA«yii 
tupalni ud amino pati-viiyt jifaya | trinU&i tunjiik jayhirum yyauini | ttjxtxlki 
Uilrim liibkarttt | Froftwmr Wili.r. linl. Sluil. iii. 479, qiintra from tb« 

Ids, 13, 6, ■ abort pasaag*. stating that Indra. was enamoured of a Dinar?, 
'• 'iliuengfi, and that ho lived anion;,' tho Aiunu, taking tho form of a festal* 
whin smong females, of a mala among males; sad It liimaclf, u it wort, 

Mb .1 bj Nirriti. he rraorud to ft certain oblation a* ■remedy," etc. (JWror- 

flihutt'imtikSamyata | M 'euraheackaratttriera tlrhku ijuinm jmman jntmtm \ 
mo .VirriYi.jrp/jifjA AM SMMpStt | an Ham aiudrii-mirfitam apaiyat |) Ik the 
AtbarYii-veda. vii. 3M, 2, a female taya to the man the wishes to lute her: Knoa i 
ntekain antri .Krfr.i« tUvthkijat p*ri \ Un» a ni kurvt ttam akaw yatka i 
nipritjn | '- In order thut I may bo beloved by Ihce, I overcome th« with this pltat, 
wherewith the Avars femjilo drew lodra down from among the g 



(2) Iii* attribute* pAyiieal and mental. 

A variety of vague and general epithet* are lavished upon ludra. 
He M diatioguialiod aa youthful, i.nci-.-nt, strong, agile (NfMi i. 130, 7; 
i . 22, i; *i 89, S; via 24, 9, 12; viii. 67, 1\ Hil 81, 3). Bl 

, bright, unoxcaying, oll-eonqaering, lord of unbounded wisdom, 
and irresistible power and prowess, wielder of tho thunderbolt. 
i. 4, 8; i. 16,9; i. 30, 6, 15; i. (>l, 1; i. 81, 2, 7 : i. I 
L 100, 19 ; i. 102, 6 J i. 1C5, 6; ii. 21, 1-3; iii. 30, 3; iii. 3'-', 7; 
2 ; iii. I'., 1 ; vi. 13, 4 ; vii. 20, 4 ; vii. 22, 5 ; viii. 81, 8; 
viii. 84, 7 ff ; x. 103, 1 IT). "He hiu vigour in his body, strength in 
hia arms, a thunderbolt in his hand, und wisdom in his bead" (ii. 16, 
2. Jafhart tomato bum *aho mako ktute tajrtun bftarali i\rsho*i kratttm \ 
riii. 85, 3. Indriuya vajrnh ilytuo niatiihh Indrtuyo biiAvor ln£yiah(har» 
ojtih | Indrasya ilrahan krataco nireh) : He assumes the most beautiful 
forma, and ia invested with the ruddy lustre of tho sun 1 ' (x. 112, 3. 
harUtatu tareh**& tiryiuya h-t-ihfhaih rijxti* tauritm tparfayawa). Tho 
Vedic poeta hare also described to us a few of tho features, as tlioy 
ivod them, of hi* psntnl nppi-nranftc. One of tho • 
i most frequently appliad to him ir susipra, or iiprm, in the interpre- 
tation of which Sayann wavers between " tho god with hundiorae 
eheeka or nose " {he utii-pra iobhana-hatto iiAtliana-nriniht n't), (i. 9, 3; 
i. 29, 2; i. Hi. 1; i. 101, Kl;' ; ' iii. 32, 9 ; iii. 36, 10 ; viii. 32, 4. 
24; viii. 33, 7; viii. 85, I; x. 105, 5),'" and tho " god with the 
beautiful helmet " (iobKana-iirattrupoptto yadrt iabkana-hanttavin | iii. 
30, 8; viii. 17, 4 ; viii. 81, 4; viii. 82, 12). «• 
In liii. G.", 10, he ia said to have agitated 

after drinking the soma poured out from u ladle (tUtithfhan* 
pj*$& trha pittl iipre anpayah | hmum Intra cJtamu tutam). .He it 

»* Cawftroi 3D. IL 

••* A bow on thu word mil , MirnU. 

» M In R.V. ii. *&, 3, Imlra ii rtyle.1 fk**r*.mmM«. which Sujmja interprets milk 
memtr* jtniuii* Um ; »nd adds the followuifc era* QXpfanatiOB KMbfe 

Ukl BnUUMoa : pirn text tha ttriffait mmbkatatm l»4n> bhefOjotuiHlaya tr*iarm 
•ii*#i^mi in kmmtXiuJtMir ommSltm | On vi-.i. 19, :>'J, linw- 
tter, whew th* nnc opilhrt oceor*, «pplii*l, ftj Btyiae coondtw, •■• 
it m n gnat bnlli»ncT" (mmtk^mUi tomumtg apalanmtt iii mm»J>- 



•bo eailcd im^n, the roddy-jawed (z. 96, 4, 9, IS) ; 
tbe roddy- or ^;ien- barred (x. 96, 4, 8); hmri-m4$irn, m the raddy- 
or goldeo-beudcd, or msasfsihui (z. 96, 8; z. 23, 4). Hit beard u 
violently agitated whea he a> esdnbntad, or pat* himself in motion 
11, 17, pr*aWhmnt issss Vw i ea prr+i**k: x. 23, I, pra imairu 
•WiUmtf}."" His whale ■pawnw it roddy or golden {hari-varpat, x. 
96. Iff., where the chsns^t are rang upon the word Uri). Uruwiu- 
tinxa also described m ewr agj asi a, golden -iii. 55, 3), and m 

baring goMam aims (asrag j e fai a , riL 34, 4) ; and aometirac* as of an 
iron hue, or frame (djoae) (146,3; x. 96, 4, 8). His arms arc long 
and tar extended (tL 19, 8, prUii Isrsssl imimU eaMotft ; viii. 32, 
10, iripra-kwama ; riiL 70, I, ssssaUsMfiis.).** Bat his forms are r 
lees; be can assume say shape at will [aL 38, I. vUmr*p» amrttilni 
Uulhau ; iii. 48, 4, y*tUt«i*C tore* tKdrt «*U .- iii. 53, 8, rHp*& 
ripam maghati MAarlti maydh hrt'mramaa Umeam par , .1. 17, 

18, ripam rupam pratirupc tallica UJ *rya rupmm pratithakthaaAytt | 
Ioiro Wiyuhhih purvrQptk lyere). 

(3) i/u chariot ami harm. 

< '. rryinpc in his hand a golden whip (kaid kiramyayt, viii. 33, 11), 

hu is homo on a shining golden car, with a thousand - ft 29, 

,-nlht hircnyoya raihttthah; viii. 1, 21 f., rathe hiranyayt ; viii. 

. ithaik I f ha hirmtjayam utjuurtiptid'am). which move* mora 

•wiltly than thought (z. 112, 2, yaa it rathe maitato jntlytln a Indra 

Ifna tomapeyilya yuhi), and U drawn by two** tawny \hafl, ruddy, or 

••' I nippiwn this b the suae as kirijmajn applied to Agni is B.V. x. 46,5 
id of which the g8ou-**da in the pirallel passage reads hariimmlr*. Is E.V. 
. wbitb S«vs*s interpret* to mem rtthse W-mWH*. 
*..«». •• ho wboso jaws carry away," « iT^o.*?w*«, "with rhnria* head-dress.'* 
MS A is sIm) aniincd » m»baa, who similatly «hnke» it (x. .'0, 7). 
•» In a verso which dom not occur in tbr Big-rods, »'»' BSssa-rsda, u. 1219, tans 
Imlra's nrro: l«dnuf tahi ithariniu ywrawir ant^'rithyau msrs- 
I Be pmtkoiuau piy* aaata yiMytm jilam aawr**i<m mh* 
w.i*-/ I '• When the wwarion ■rrirw may I ndre employ firU thiuo arms Strang, ynuth. 
Ml. inssjiihl . anconrrucrdhU', arith ahies the great power of tbe 

h*mtru mat on non " 

a il. IS, 4-7 Indr '" conts wilb two, four, six, rifiht, len, r 

r,or * biiiKlrei horses (oMnp 
I, U) U. drink tbs S0ma-j«te III '»• «. », * Uwnwad borses are mid to conwy 




goldco) steeds, snorting, neighing, and irresistible (L 30, 16, iairad 
Indrtth popruthadlhir ji</»ya naiuidadbhih iaicaiadbhir dhannm ; i. 8L, 
3, rnadnthyutd tart)," 1 with Bftwfag golden manes, ktiina (i. 10, 3 ; 
i. 82, 6 ; viii. 17, 2 ; hiranyalniijii, viii. 32, 29 ; viii. 82, 24), with lnir 
like peacock's feathers (iii- 46, 1 (=A.V. vii, 117, I), a haribhir yahi 
tMyira*romabhih), and peacock's tail* {may Uraitpyd , viii. 1, 25), which 
rapidly traTerao vnat distances (ii. 16, 3, yad dhtbhih pabui |f 
purv), and transport him as a hawk is borne by its wings (viii. 34, 9, 
led nadachyutH harl fyrttam paksheva vakehatah). Ilia car and horses 
appear to have been formed by the Ribhua (i. Ill, 1, Takthan / 
tvrriiaih cidmand 'patat lakthan hart Mratilful rrinhanrtuu. | Cakthan 
pitribhydm fibhtm ytcad rayah ; v. 31, 4, anavat U ratham ali&ya 
toUa). 3 ring are §omo of the ether text* which refer to 

Imlra's chariot and hones: i. 6, 2 ; f . 16, 1, 2 (where the horses 
are celled sun-eyed, Hwhakikatah); L 65, 7; i. 84, 6; i. 101, 10; ii. 
11, 6; viii. 13, 11, 27 ; x. 1 1, *J. I i<l to be borne !•■ 

horse* of the Sun(x. 49, 7 ', ahan iurya»ya pari ydrni aiubhih pra rtaiebhir 
rahaotanak ejaiii), or by those of Vnta, the wind (at. 22, 4-0, yujuuo air A 
I'alatya dhun\ dteo d/catyu vajrivah). m The same deity, Vayu, tho 
wind, is said to have Indra for hi* charioteer, or companion in his car 
(jt. 46, 2; iv. 48, 2, iMiH jfiwfif . vii. 91, 6, India-viiyW tarathaSi 
yntam artdl). The horses of Indra are declared to be yoked by the 
power of prayer (i. 82, 6, ynnn/i/ii t« brahmana leiinti hart: ii. 
1 8, 3, harl nv lam rath* Indrwiya yoj'am tiyai tiUout tacAa*a naetna ; 
iii. 35, 4, brahmana to brnhmayuja yunajmi hart saihaya tadhamddd 
uiu; viii. 1, 24, hrahmayujo harayah; viii. 17, 2, brahmayifjd hart; 
viii. % 27; viii. 45, 39, A U etil vachoyujil harl yrtbhQt ; viii. 87, 9, 
yufijanli harl iihinuya ydlhayd limit rathe urmyuge | Zndravtihd carta- 
yj*), which is no doubt only another mode of saying that it 16 in con- 

Indra tad Viju (compare vi. 47, 19). In viii. 1, 24, Indra* horses us said to be a 
thaoaasd sad s himdrtd. From such a text a* tii. 35, 7, whm Indra i* infortaod 
that food has boon proridcJ far hi» bono*, as veil m tonn-juico to til bis own belly 
(tent IT), it would appear that tlo worshipper had s perfect auunace of tho jrod*« 
presence. In another place, howcrcr (i. 1 14, fl), the enquiry U inadr (among aercnil 
other* denoting difficulty and mystery), " Who baa pcrcL-neO the two bone* of 
Iadrar" {kmrl Uir—y ih tAiiiy* k*h »nl | ). 

«•' Oa th« atsae of the word mUt.f.^1 sec Muller-a Trana. of tho K.V. L US L 

"■ Compare Plains, 18, 10; 104, i. 



sequence of tho importunity of his worshippers that ho makes ready 
his chariot to coruo and receive their oblation* and fulfil their desires. 

(4) Hit thunderbolt and other unapt** and instnmsntt. 

The thunderbolt of Indra is generally described as baring been 
fashioned for him by the Indian Ilcphaistos, Tvasht ri, tho artificer of the 
gods (i. 32, 2 : Txathta attnai ta/raSt tvaryafh tataltha ; i. SI, 6, atmai 
id u Teathfu takthtid rajram icapatiamam tvarya&i ranSya; i. 85, 9, 
TuaxhfCL yad rajram tuXriluw hirunyayam ttahasrabhrisUm ttapiik atari- 
taynl | v. 31, 4, TViuA'd rajram rfyittnanlam takahat; vi. 17, 10, adha 
Tiaihfa U maht uyra tajrairi laAturabhrishfim tarn tat (aUUrim \ x. 48, 3, 
nti? AyiiBi Tcath'il rajram alakthad uyatam) ; but neoording to other toxt» 
it appears to have been made, and given to Indra by Kavya Usanas 
(i. 121, 12, yam te Kuajah UianO. mandinaSi dud rriltrahaaam pur yam 
tatahna vajram ; v. 34, 2, tahatrabhrithlim U&ana tadkatii yamat).' a 
Its natural mode of prodoetUD is alluded to in viii. 89, 9, where it ia 
eaiil : " The thunderbolt lien in the (aerial) ocean, enveloped in water" 
(lamudr* antak iayatt udn& vajroabhirrHuh). Thia thunderbolt ia some- 
times Btylod golden, hira*y*ya(L 57, 2 ; i. 85, 'J j viii. 57, 3 ; x. 23, 3), 
Bometimcfl ruddy, harita [x. 90, 3); but it ia abo dujcribed as being 
of iron, ayasa (i. 52, 8; i. 80, 12; i. 81, 4; i. 121, 9; viii. 85, 3; 
x. 48, S; x. 96, 3; x. 113, 6); sometimes it ia represented aa four- 
nnplud, thatura&ri (iv. 22, 2), sometimes as hundred-angled, iatairi (vi. 
17, 10), sometimes a» ImtHlud-jointcd, iataj/arran (i. 80, 6; riii. 6, 
6 ; viii. C5, 2 ; viii. 78, 3),'" and sometimes as having a thousand 
tnhan-abhrUhli (i. 80, 12; i. 85, 9; v. 34, 2; ri. 17. 10). 
Indro is in one place (i. 55, 1 ) represented as sharpening his thunder- 
bolt, as a bull his horns [Siiila vajram tcjase na va&sayah). In viii. 69, 
2, the thunderbolt put into I mini's hand is compared to tho sun placed 
in tliu sky {diva na tiryah). In other passage* this gud is spoken of 

"» Tho AiL Br. ir. 1, mvs: Aru# mi' pralbamma ahna Map* t*jr*A mm*. 

bttann | talk dvttfyma a/ma arinebem \ Iptifata aXiut prapithk+m \ Urn rAHurtU 

nfwit praAarat | "The gods provided the Ihuaderbolt fee I intra hy th« 8rrt cay's 

(oeremwiy). By th« Moaad dny'x they moistanod it. liy tho third day's they gars 

iim. On tho fourth day h« hurltd it." Btt Prof, liiuir'i 'IWs. p. SW. 

1,1 Compare A.V. i». 37, 8 i Hiimitk Mr—pa At^tyaJf iataU,rM(!r apiumttyHf; 
mid the next «t*c, irliicb is the Miao, with tbc (uUlitutwa of Au-anyuyty fur 
mapilf; ami A.\. -rni. 0, 10. 



as armed with a bow and arrows (viii. 45, 4 ; viii, CO, G, 11 ; x. 103, 
2, 3). His arrows are de*«ribod as golden (viii. 66, 11), as luring a 
hundred points, and as being winged with a thousand feathers (viii. 66, 
7). Indra is also declared to carry a hook (ankuSa). Thus ia riti, 17, 
10, it is said: diryhai U attu ankttio yena ratu prayachhati | y a jama- 
n/iya runtaU | " May the hook be long wherewith thou rcachcut 
wealth to tho worshipper who offers oblations." And similarly in 
Atharra-vcda, vi. 82, 3, yat te ankttio tasmUno bfihann Indra fiiren- 
yay tii | Una JnnlyaU juyiltn mahyam dhehi iaehipaU | " With that 
great golden hook of thine which confers wealth, o lord of powor 
(Indra), reach u wife to mo who am longing fur one.'"" Another 
text in which this word occurs is lt.Y. x. 134, 6 (= Sataa-veda it, 
111): diryl-m hi ankuiain yathu iaktim bibharthi tnantmnah \ pircena 
mtyhacen padu ajo vayum yatkd | " Then, o wiso (Indra), earnest a 
long hook like a spar, and (holdcst fast therewith), as a gout (catches) 
a branch with Eta (bto foot," The word is also found in x. 44, 9: '• I 
carry to theo this well-made goail, win. re with, o mngniflcont god, thou 
mayest rend the Sapharuj demons""* {imam bibharmi rnkfitam te 
ankniaxi yrna urvjtiri maghacan iaphtirnj<ih). 

Another instrument of warfare, a net, is assigned to Indra in tho 
A.V. viii. 8, 5 ff. : anlariktham jdfam &tlj jdladandd diio mahih | Una- 
Ikidhaya datynnim iakrah imam aputayat | 6. Brihad hi jr 
brihatah iakraiya vdjinlratak | Una ixtrftn abhi tart/ln nyubja yatha no 
mucky Jiai katamalcbina etJuim | 7. Br that te jilam bfihatah Indra 
iira uthatraryhatya laUttlryatya \ Una sinogram aytUam ni arbttdaft 
jayhdna iakro dasyQn'lm abhidhiya unayH | 8. ayam toko j&lam Odt 
takratya mahato mahun \ Undhaa IndrajHUna am urn* tamati 'bin 
dadAtiati earv&n | 

m la these passages I follow Roth's explanation of ani u»«, as given in hit Lc-\i- 
eoa, Uf. Id hit tranalatiun of thu pooagc from Uin A.V. in Imluchn Stiidion t. Ml, 
Pt ofceaor Wskcr andRiUndt thu word [ankui*) ef a goad with which cattle arc 
dri«ca. Ia A.V. ui. 1 10. 1, 111 fvttiuic, I'ajil Laluhml, ia said to lm dnwa ct 
■war with as iron hook (oygnr uy — « ankuta). 

■** I am indee-Ud to Professor Anfrwht for pointing oat the tens* of this Tatte, 

u wcU aa of tac preoadiag. S'm/tMr^ tccwu to mean a domou, «r aa animal that 

daatroye with iu hocda. The wunl ocean abo in z. 87, 12, where it it an epithet 

..f Yitiwlhina, a demon, and appear* to refet to tome goblin which wat oontMred lo 

tb ia Loofa 


Till: INDIA* 001)8 QEKEIIAI.LY. 

" The utr was a net, awl the great quarters of the sky the poles of the 
net. With it Sokra (or tho powerful god) enveloped tho army of the 
Ductus, and oast thorn down. C. Great is tho net of the great Sftkn, 
bestower of food. With it so overwhelm all tho foes that uot one of 
thorn may escape. 7. Urent is thy net, o heroic Indra, who art great, 
and a match for a thousand, and equalling tho strength of a hundred 
foes. Sakra, with Iub host, slow a thousand, ten thousand, a hundred 
millions, of the Du.-vuB, enveloping them in it. 8. This world was the 
pnvit hi t of Um gnat s ikra. With this net of India I invdopo thorn 
all in darkness. " m 

(3) Hit love of toma-juice. 

, and 

Invoked by his mortal worshippers, Indra obeys the summons, 
speedily arrive* in hi* chariot to receive their offerings. He find* food 
provided for his horse* (lit. 35, 7, stlrgaM to barhih tutah Indra mbm| 
/.ri/.i ii!,M>:u tttmt te haribhyom), :uid large libations of soma -juice are 
1 out for himself to quaff. He becomes oxhOuated by 
us, which are also frequently described as stimulating his war- 
like dispositions and energies, and fitting him for his other taxu 

for supporting the earth and sky (ii. 16, 2: ammU fiyum aite- 
hhayad brihau(<im ... so dhtlrayat Prithivlm papralhat cha somuuy* 
ft! made Indrai chakura). The following are a few of the numerous 
passages which refer to this worship of Indra: i. 4, 8; i. 
i. 80, If.; i. 84, 1 (where the poet hopes the draught may Gil him 
with strength, ob tho sun tills the nir with his rayj : <J let pri- 
nallu indriyam n>jt\h t&ryo na raimibhiti), i (where it is said to be 
an "immortal stimulant" — im wty &m madam); ii. 15, I, 2; ii. 19, 1 
f. ; ii. 21, 1 ; iii. 36, 3 ; iii. 40, 1 ff. ; iii. 42, 1 ff. ; vi. S3, 1, 5, 6; 
vi. 27, If; vi. 29, 4 ; vii. 22, 1 f. ; vii. 29, 1 f. ; viii. S, 1 ; riii. 81, 
5, 6 ; x. 104, I IT. ; etc., etc. The gods are described ax nil hastening 
eagerly to piutuke of this buverage, viii. 2, 18 (yanli pramddam ntan- 
drdhy, viii. 68, 1 1 : apSd Indro apdd Agnir cihti dertlh amattalu | "Indra 
has drank, Agtii has drunk ; all the gods have become exhilarated ; " : " 

1,11 Cotnpsur A.V in. C6. 1 : a^tgOtah aturStf nutyino ' pJH m \ aukiaa 
yt rhartnti \ tarn* U randhtyim harua Jatar*iah takturabhrul.UA m/m/*o« 
jtmminAn yiki r*ji.iA. 

'** Ait. Dr. ti Hi mu<lya«ti it* r*i mwikyauJii* ./««MA mm rr« trifiya—r*— 

AS KEl'P.K.SKXTBD IN Till 1 . ttlO-VEDA, 


bat Indra u particularly addicted to the indulgence, i. 104, 9, umwbl- 
mojm tea ahuh; i. 175, 5, huhminiamo hi le madah ; ii. 14,1, hlml hi 
tirah $4dam a*ya jritY* juhola erithga tad hi nha vathfi ; vii. 33, 2, 
dftrdd Indram anayann d tttlrna ; viii. 2, 1, Indrah it tomapSh tktth 
Indrah tutapilh tiitayuh \ ant/ir «/«•«« murfyiihi eha \ u Indra is the 
only drinker of somn, a drinker of libation*, of full vitality, among 
gods and men;" viii. 4, 12, idaih U anna- Hamukthifam tatya 

i'Ai" pradraca pibo \ "This thy favourite nutriment has been ponml DQl ; 
run and drink of it;" viii. 6, 40, rrittraha lomaputamoh ; viii. 60, '2, 
Momakumaft hi /<• nanah \ Indeed, it would appear to be t" 
absolute necessary of life, a* his mother give it to him to drink on 
srery day of his birth (iii. 32, n, mctyo yaj jfito apibo ha tomam | 10. 
tcatii tadyo apibo jdtah Indra madilya tomam parann vyomnn ; iii. 48, 2, 
3, already quoti <1, p 77 ; vi. H», 2, atyapiba yaiya jajmlnafi Intlro madayn 
kratce apibah ; vii. 98, 8, jiijaOnah toinaih nthau papathtt pra It mat a 
muhufiniin ttrdeka). He is ?nid to have drunk at ono draught thirty 
bowls of eon II 10, 4, ekaya pra/idhu 'pihat takaih earilmti frr'ft- 

iaUm | Indrah tovtaiya kanaka. See Xirukta, v. 1 1 ; compare II. V. 
vi. 17, Hi and viii. 7, 10). His worshippers invito him in t! n 
naif manner to drink boldly (vi. 47, 6, dhriihat piba hiiiasc tomam 
Indra); to drink like a thirsty stag (riii. 4, 10, r>h° M 'r'"' 1 . 1 
arapAnam Ag/thi piha utn&n caiOu omn), or a bull roaming in 
leas waste (r. 36, 1, dhanraeharo na raHiioga* irUhana* chakamAnah 
fibalu dugdham amium | eomparo viii. 33, 2, kadi tutaHi trUh&ntk 
okah 6gam*k Indra tvabdiva tamtagah, and nil his belly, or his two 
bellies, which are compared to two lakes, by copious potations ; and ho 
•peaks in similar language of having accepted the invitation •* (i. 8, 7 ; 
i 104, 9; ii. II, 11 (nitiUah prinunttu U ktthhl rardhayantu) ; ii. 14, 
10; ii. 16. 2; iii. 86, 6 (dadhiahca imartt jafhare indum Indra) ; iii. 36, 
7, 8 (Jtradah in ktJuhayah tomadhdnah); iii. 4(1, 5; iii. 47, 1 (d 
rinekasra jafhare madhrah iirmtm) ; iii. 51, 12 (pra tt afitoru kuktliyoh); 
TiiL 12, 23 (tan na prati udaram); viii. 2, 1 > 
tUL 17, 5-8 (d U linchdmi hukthyh); viii. G7, 7; viii. 81, 22-24; 

miJaymnl*, *b>co Profwor ll*«g trsaiUta i " Ttio g»d» g«4 drunk, w H ware, at 
libtuioa, umI sro (Leu ocuKquintlj it II -ttiofl in • ttaU of 

wnpl c ts dnmknnMa§." 

*•* The Biaia-jtiice wai al»j drunk tij th« NunhiprKn tlirin«^1»p«. »nH ju rrTr.un on 



X. 28, 2 ; x. 43, 7 ; x. 104, 2 ; A.V. ii. b, 1 ff. j vi. 2, 1 ff. The 
soma-draughts aw aaid to resort to him as birds to a leafy tree ; sod 
to flow to him as waters to the ocean, or rivuleta to a lake ; tad bis 
worship purs are than said to magnify him as grain in doreloped by 
showers of rain, x. 43, 4 ( Fayo na vphham tupal<ii*m Sudan tomtit*} 
Irufmrn mandinai cham&thad/ih | 7. Apo na tindkum abhi yal tamo- 
kiharan tomdsah Tndram i hradam \ tardhanti tiprah make 

atya tadant yavaih na vfithfir dicyena danund). He is also spoken of 
as eating the flesh of bulls, or buffaloes, at the same time that he 
drinks tlio draught* of soma (x. 28, 3, adrinrl t» mandimih Indra taydn 
tu/nanti somiin jiibtsii tram ethum \ pachanti te trithabhun atti Uthtlm). 
Three hundred are mcutioned in v. 20, 7 f., one hundred in viii. 66, 
10, and one in x. 27, 2. Indra is besought to taste the offering pre- 
sented, and to take delight in the hymns addressed to him, as an ardent 
1'ivcr << his mistress (iii. 62, 3 = ir. 32, 16: purofaiatit 
no ghato joxhayutt yirai tha \ vadhiyur iva yothanUm). 

The sensations of the god alter drinking the soma-juico are thus 
described in Itig-reda x. 1 1 9 : 1 . Hi vai Hi mi mono g&n siraA tammyum 
Hi | httit tomiuya aptm iti | 2. pra cdtsh i'ca dodhata} un mi pitch 
OffSmtthk ', hand ily aii \ 'A. nn ma pililh ayamutta rathan aivlh •wiifl- 
rafl | kuiit — | 4. upa mil matir aslhila vuira putram iva priyain | hint — | 


some of them an occasionally described. Thus la tS. 17, 3, it i» said : " This (soma), 
when drunk, impels my voice; it awakes the ardent thought" ayam m$ p'l** 
udiyartti taeham aynm manliKam utntim ajifah). In Tiii. 4S, 3, it* clmritiag affect 
is (till more dutinotly told in these wordi. /ijkim toman amfitnA a&liima f mm* 

jt/tAir atidama drrati | Aim nunam MMil /.n.. /.,..' nrnldf Aim u dkurttxr arxnta 

mantyotyo, which mar be rendered as follows :— 

W«"»o quaffed tho soma bright, 

And nn* immortal grow* ; 
Wi '•.. mi i. .1 intC li:;!'i. 

And all tlic godi ha»c known. 
What mortal now can 1 

Or fttBU vex us mom r 

Through thee, beyond alarm. 

Immoral god, wo soar. 

Compixro the carious parallel to this (already noticed in tho 3rd Vol. of ibis work, 

p. 265) in tho satirical drama of Euripides, the Cjelopa, 678, II., where I\>l)phtmu» 

exclaims in bi> drunken exaltation : 

'O 6* ofipavoi moi evpntfiiy^irot Sen$l 
Tn yy *V/**Sai, top Ai£r t« t.\» 9f6*6¥ 
Atiorm it win t« Uupim* irfrlw «ifisa. 



5. ckaSt tethffta tanJkuram pary tekAmi hridd matim \ tmit — | 6. na hi 
aw nkthipMh thana tuhhiintsuh pancha Ljithlayah | kuvit — | 7. mi hi m* 
nd**\ ubks anyam pakikam thaaa prali | kuiit — | 8. ahhi dyAm makind 
'bAaram abhlmdn prithirlm maklm | kuvit — | 0. kaidukain prithirlm 
(hum im dwlk'Jtilho ttha pd | kurit — | 10. otham it prilhiihn ahatit 
jerykandniha uha vd | kutit — | 11. divi uu> anyah paiaio adho anyaen 
mckikfukam | kurit — | 12. ahum tioii ntnhdmakc abkinabkyam mil- 

ih | kvcit — | 13. gfiho ydmi transitu dwtbhyo kavyaiukisnak, \ 
lite it tvmatya apum iti 

" 1 have verily resolved to bostow cows and borsoe: I havo gv 
tho soma. 3. The draughts which I have drank impel me like violent 
blast* : I have quaffed the soma. S. The draughts which I hare 
drank impel mo 08 float hone* » chariot: I have quaffed the Mima. 4. 
The hymn (of my worshipper) ha* hastened to me, n* a cow to I 
beloved calf: I hare quaffed the soma. 5. I turn the hymn round 
■bout in ray heart, at a carpenter a beam : I have quaffed tho soma. 

6. The five tribe* of men appear to me not oven aa a mote : 1 have 

fed the soma. 7. The two worlds do not c<iu:il even one half of 
mo : 1 have quuffed tho soma. 8. I surpass in greatness the heaven 
and tiiio va.nt earth : I have quaflod the soma. 9. Conic, let me plant 
this earth either hero or there : I have quaffed the soma. 10. Let mo 
•mite the earth rapidly hither er thither : I have quaffed tho soma. 
11. One half of me is in the sky, and I have drawn the other down ; 
I have quaffed the soma. 13. I am majestic, elevated to the heavens: 
I have quaffed the soma. 13. 1 go prepared a* a minuter, a Iwarcr of 
oblation* to the gods : I have quaffed tho soma." 

The hymns, prayers, and worship addressed to Indra are described 
as stimulating his energies and increasing bin vigour (i. 52, 7 : brah- 
■><<§> Indra faro ydni tardkand); i. 54, B; L 66, 1 ; It. 11, • (uklhnir 
wavridkntuih) ; ii. 12, 14 (yatya krahma rsrdkanaih yasya tomak) ; iii. 
33, 12 f. (yajno hi U Indra cardhatw bhat ; yah tlomebhir tavridha 
pArxybhir ye madhytbhir via nutantbhik) ; iii. 34, 1 (brakmajuUu 
Unid catridktinak) ; v. 31, 10 (Indra brahindgi t'lrithlm acardhan); 
vi. 31, 2; vL 44, 13; riii. 6, 1, 31, 31, 36; via. 13, 16 (LidraSt w- 

■ loam rrosn a not* to Profraaor Roth's liimintiow of the Nirolttn, p. 101. 
UmI, soconliag U> Siy-ma, ticro ra • legend thai Isdia, iu Qm faf* uf * quail, 
draak soma, was um ' . and tang liia uwn praias in U.i.» ivmti. 



Jkunlu no gifah Indram ruidwik inihrak) ; viii. II, 5, 11 (y*/««* 
Indrom otardhayat) ; viii. 82, 27 ; viii. 87, 8 (rdr *» <rd ytrydMw 
tariihonii fara brahmanf) ; x. 50, 4 (Mwm <t<im Indra bntkm*»& 
mahun); x. 120, 5 (ckedayami U uyudkd taehabkik tail U itiami brtk- 
rayHmti), and tho worshippers (as well at the gods) are Mtid 
to [tbco tho thunderbolt In hi* hands and to assist its efficacy (i. 
03, 2, a U tajraih jariia bahror dlrit) ; ii. 20, 8 {Uunmi I m n / m 
onn dCtyi itilrii Indrdya dewhhir arnanltan \ prati yad axya rajram 
bshror dhur haCvi datyun purak ayiulr ni ttirit); iii. 32, 12 (yejmu 
U Kt/rum Ahihatye iltat). The other deities, too, arc described as in* 
fusing diviao strength into Indra"' (i. 80, 18, tatmin nrimmmn uta kr*- 
ttini dtvA h tjuikti tarn dadkuh) ; vi. 20, 2 (divo tut lubkyam amu Indr* 
tairil amryafii devtbhir dhuyi ciham) ; m x. -18, 3 [mayi dttdio avf if ' mm 
.,:tum); x. 113, 8; x. 120, 3, compare x. 66, 4; viii. 15, 8 (tow 
Lyaur Indra panuuyavt I'rithivi vardhati krarak), and as placing him in 
tho Tan (i. 55, 3, tiiv«*a%ai ugrak knrmane punkitnk) ; L 131, 1 {Indr/m 
viirv tajutfono dtv&to dadkirt purak) ; vi. 17, 8 (adht 
purak Indra dtvAk skatti tavatatfi d/idkirs kkarCya) ; riii. U ..' 
([infnnli VriHu'iya Iiantnf <t i. u.«> dudhirr ptirah | sec also i. 25). Com- 
pare Teitt. Br. ii. 8, 3, 8 ; Taitt. S. ii. 2, II, 6, and A.V. vii. 81, 2 
api'inudo janaut amilrnyanlam urum der/bhyn altrinor u falam. He 
impelled and fortified Uy (111 1 Maruts; iii. 32, 4 {yrhhir I'riltraty 
ithito viveda amarmano munyamBntuya marma) ; iii. 35, 9 {pGn Hbkejo 
manttok Indra tonu ye triitm atardkium $lhwM y**n* tf); iii. 47, 8 
{pin tibhujo tnuruto ye led 'nv akan Vj-ittram tuladhiu tnlkyam ojak | 
ace also v. 4) ; vi. 17, 11 ; viii. 7, 24 ; x. 73, 1, 2 ; x. 113, 3 (cite* U 
alra marutak sa/ia tmami etnrdhtmn ugra mahinulntm indriyam)™ 


>" IbJra on l.i» tile again is told t» give dirioo power to tbc other gods (ri. 36,11 

m Siyoon uudenUudi devti-hi/i of the worsliippers: stotrai'k i!S/hwm Jtutti 
Utttvart Hn\ui, u a deity when lauded by hymns bccomoi »trnnj:." 

■ lodra, hurarrr, in a di»putr with tlie M.iruU (ti> « bioh 1 «Uall »;tmii ailrrrt U 
tho section on those deities) clsiins to have kluin Vrittra by hit own mi^ht, i. 165, S: 

ox/Arm vfittrtm mxrvluk imdl'tftUi titua hhnmnui tatiiko ktikutan f compare tn. 
21, 6, where tho aamo thinjc is did of liira by his W0 riftr** 

lavtua japkanika tut ia!rur nuliin, fitiitxd %/ndka t< ; and X. 183, 6: rta tya .'« 
amtyiim /U*ii/'i ftd | iiiA tkum akriuor nytijimm. Ccmipare riii. 79, fi; viii. JM5.9; 
viii. 87, 2. In v. SO. 5. oil tho god* are said to be afraid of him («'«• tiid luJrSd 
abUfi*U Ar.iA). In another pi ice, t«o [rat 7, 31), the Maruts are asked "what 



With Brihaspati as his sllj? he overthrew nil the enemies of tlio gods 
who assailed him, viii. 85, 15 [rih atbvir abhi Aeharantlr Brihaxp<ititul 
/ndrtlh Mtah$). 
Thus und encouraged, ii. 16, 1 (trikodrultth* apibat 

IT. ''■'■■:■< 

they were seeking when they deserted lain, and who could then trust in their 
fmauhhip " kaJ ha mZmmm hvihdpriyc y*i Indram ajahiitnn | tm t/ih mkkitve ahmlt | 
Prof. Miller, Trans. R.V. i. p. S8, taken bm ik t f r iy wh h* tw.> word-, and reuders the 
nm thu ■ 'irr where ia there a friend, now that you have forsaken 

Indra? Who carta for your iiii-wVuip?") Comport it. IB, 11, quoted above (p. *M f.), 
where Indrs'i mother complain* that the god* wens oluoilouing her ton, and when 
he celt* upon Vishnu to display hut vuloor. Bat we are else* hen-. rUL If, 7, t.-.'rf, 
on the t«witrary, that »ll tin- ether ewd. who had been IndrV* nllift., terrjted by the 
blast of Vrittra's breath, deserted Indra and Bed, while the U . i In- lup- 

procd, stood firm, aa Indra ia adviicd to mako friend* with tluin, and thun >e should 
euoqarr ail hostile nraiet (rrifrrvoyn frii hmhtKSd M*e»8g5| h'.'iy uVin/i ajahur yt 
mtlkJiyaM | Marud&kir fiuSra mkkyiim tt uiIh alka feel) ■ iVmA fftUmHk ji/yiiii). 
enanasenlater, however (perhaps borauw he found it luecseary, for dognutieal 
raaaon*, to reconcile the*: connecting atatementa) interpret* viii. 7, 31 differently, mid 
■tehee it room, " NVbcu did you desert Iudru? <■■ I qaelei the AiUreya 

BrAhmin* iii. 20. which any* that the Mnniti did nut abandon him. 1 shall DJtS this 
I at greater length than Sdyina give* it, as it form* a comment on the other 
I just adduced, TiiL 85, 7: Indm re« Vfilram hanitMym $artih dnmtuh aim rid 

M« m upa! mkt kajkram «/vi m .'thtayttJitint " Hi | "lathi" :' ■ ik. 

y**t*h ~u{rarmn | t» 'rrd " ino ui «aii hmmitmpami •'■ | hanta i ■rai" 

ill | lam aiki prc.irotit J tosye iramUkad iikawn'h tiiit dtruh adrnran | mania 
km rumSt mm', mjahuk •• prakara ikagarojaki t'lrvi/anii" it yum smsm it'im racism 
rmUHlah xiaitukfkanta | lad ttad ritkik maiyann akhyaaarAekm \ . . . .iti\m 'rtd 
*im%0 pet kit* m* MrSir.iA | %m» ma kxtmaymtci | Juiuta imam aimiiiti tttrkt akk.. 

■' In.lra, when about to Jay Vrittni, mU tP&* : ' i" lfter 

nc and Mpport me." Ibuy mid, * Wc wilL' They ran /urward today V|ittr». Vrittra 
eotuiderpd ; 'Tbcyar* running forward ti> Vi:l nn- son 1st ■• fijgWMD llwsii 1 He 
•ccecdiefly blew a Mac upon limn, when ill the gudi ran uway pi irnai 

the bUsc of his breath. But the Marou did not forsake Indr i. ilmy tlasd hi- hire, 
■■•,' Saiit*, o (fs^d, il»y. play the hero.' Seeing thu, the ri«hl uttered the word* 
of II 7. lodx» uuderot'.»>d I km 'ne. 

Cone, 1 shall give them a share in this uktha.'" In B '•' i ■■-■ H, Indra himself ia 
aaid to have becomo frightened u if at the approach of m avengerf?), after he had xlnin 

Alu, and to hare croased mnety-niue rivers, and the neri il .| -., whan thing like a 

terrified talraa {aktr y*l7>ram «*«•■ mmmAymM Imdrm kfidi "he ikir tameM- 

hml | nmvm i-Am •/■•■< HAmlim fkn tcmntik iy/w M kk.1l* olum r.y'.imii). Compare 
Mattrr'i Aac. Snrak. Lit. p. 647. The Aiiioi and Sarasvatt are alee said to hnve 
Tadra (l:V. j. l.ll. ^, & -Vuj. Sanh. «. 33, 3i). " You Iww, .Wrim, lord* 
r, drinking ItftUWl lh< ■!» li^tuful drMghrl [of soma), prokctc.l Indra in 
l.ii >arnli a^;uu>t tlie Atura Naamclu. 5. .\* pusflUI a eon, to jr tati, Aivina. 
,ir wisdom and yoer mergy, delivorod the©, Indra. When the«. O auejtntl- 
ccnt (Indra), di i ie delightful drought (of somu), SanavaU waited upon 

laee with her pewea." (3. Ymram turanmm Airimi A'amMtMr Sturt tatka J ripipiiaZ 



tKAuya atya modi Ahim Indro jajkdna) ; ii. 10, 2 (<wya mandajw \ 
tfjraAaitah uAim Fttdn d/Twrrrtert ri triitkdt); »i 47, 1, 2 ; x. 1 1 
(/wuVapioa/^fl/iidMiJM itihuyn . . . . | AwiAajm A/jafare Kroi*/r»lii} r — 
I mini harries off, escorted bj troops of Msmts, tad BOBCtimcB attended 
by bis faithful comrade Yiahnti (L 22, 19, Indrotya yw/yo solid); 

iwUvuprtT /wxVjm AdMMMl awftfaa* | S . putram tea ptUm Aiximh ttiia Itufr* oMllU 
-"*> rfiWfwSf itt^ | )nti mraoaiH ct «/n*«A; #'i»<Af*AiA «'««! <r-i w> W » i | 

•iAulnJA.) A story u told by the coenmcntaUir on the Vuj. Sank, x. 33, lo explain 
tkrsei lines. Ntmacsi. it seems, tu ft friend of lain; and laiing advantage of kit 
frieeid's miMwm, he drank up Indra a stnarth sJ«ng with • draught of wine and 
mu. Indra then told the .Is'nns sad SemtTtlf that N'enmrhi had drank op his 
strength. Tat Aaeiai and Saraareli, in eeeieaqnenee, gar* ladraa thundarc- 
tkc focia of fokio. with which he enntc off tlw bead of Namncbi. The Aarine laaa 
drank tb» soma, naiicd with Wood and wins, from tbe belly of Ttamucai, and traae- 
fRnd it para to lo'lra ; and by transferring it they d'.it'Trd Indra. The Starr If 
taken from tht S*atapatka Ilrihmaua aft 7. 3. 1 U. (p. Ml "Weber's ad.) and ii tat 
original Ttrrlon of Owe adducad by sat risrwbers I Vol. IV. Til and 430}. Aa gitvn 
in tb« ltrib«>»a>, it Ha* thai : "The Ann Ximachi oartied off ladia's atreagth 
(iWn'jii)i tb» taMiiot of food, aad the drsagnt of toma, together with wine. 
(Indra) hastened to the Ajtuii aad Sarafratt. and said, ' I have sworn to Naxnuchi. j 
will neither slay that by day or by night ; n-.ith rr with cluh, nor with bow , 
with the palm of ray bin J {prithna), nor with fiat ; noitbar with dry, cor with moist; 
and ha haa earned off that (atreipth, etc.) of aine ; will ye roc Me r" 

answered: Let tu lure n shire in it, and w« will nxeeer it.' Indra realini ' I 
th all V* common to aa all^ rccoTcr it therefor*.' Tbtn the Aa'rins and 
anointed the thaodcrbolt with the foam of* the waters, enying. ' It la neither dry I 
moist-" with that Indra atrock off (he brad of Nanorhi. whan night waa passing 
into dean, and the no bad aot yet risen, when (as ha said) ' it waa neither day nor 
night.' .... Whan his head had been rat off. the eonu remained mixed with blood; 
anJ tlwy loathed it- fiat baring poremed tbia draught of tbe two aotnaa, according 
to the text • King Soma, whan poared out, u nectar,' they with lib raado the other 
mixed fluid palntahlc, and swallowed it" (/aifrasya istaWyaas a a aaaaa w raasat 
ffWMjya aaaiaaoM aumyn nmra Numuckir aaansf, so 'irimtm elm aanwrwriS «Aa 
vpidiaral ''/rauiao I'm! .Vdmn.-A.jye «j Iri dtr* ad h»H*m X*nimi aa don/jnut aa 
fUaieMavi me priiktn* urn nutHitti tm iiuJtJuns aa Zrdrvn* *lk* ate idsm sliriilt | 
U-m at* ZjiKfAtlA* " Hi | U , Arf««« "«i« ho 'rn'rjry a/io oWiima" tli | " MA4 
sm tud a«Aa Sktfia" iVy -i/nvij Hi | <av a/ffMSM el* Svrtttnfi cK* afiUm fbwi 
ewrnrin aaiaeAaM "aa /«i*nAo aa ardrah" iti | tma Indro Namitcktr oiaraayt 
rj-wAftyi* ratrmw anudil* aJtlyt ■ n* diti ra u*Jtlam " tli Vim A urfariijeya( ; 
rujya iUAamt eAAuMte ffifH mUnk aasM 'ftaifaal | («moif dJ>r*Au.'j«i.N | d 
miUAator ripintm npujyon "tamo rSJi 'mjitirm iu(ah" iti Una ftmm le a rf an 
oVaiiMK miadUf I Sot also 8'atap. Br. xii. 7, I, 10. and xii. 8. 3. 1, quoted by I 
Commeatator on Yaj. S. 19. 12. nlirre it is said that " the god* instilated a reaga 
taehfice ; the Af'riu were the physicians, and so alto waa Saracrnti with cpeo-b i 

uijitrtod strength to Indra " Atiuth yijnum ttsnr*ia bJutiej-im iiwCup" 
roeAn Mratml'i 4AmAj» W."j.i b dt ifi fi J-iJ\nl«k\. Soe also Tceaaa 1/ 
80 S3, oft 90, 63, 95 ; a»l ace lion 20, 50 6>, 73-74, 90, 



i. 85, 7'" {Vuknvr yad ha &tad trUkaaam madachtfutam; iv. 18, 11 
(quoted above p. 78 f.); vi. 20, 2 [ahim yadtfiitraia apo rarriclAsam 
Jutnm fijlthin FisAiyuJuJ $achi~invh) ; viii. 89, IS {Sakhf Vithaa tttard ft 
ftinmuws Dyaur debt {oka m fqj a M* | fmnil r« vfiKram it;, ■ 

!, 4, & (Inrfru-ciafinii driwhUQh. Sambaratya mva puro navtitiiii 
<ka inaMthfam), to encounter the hostile powers in the ntnn> 
who malerult-ntly shut up the watery treasures in the clouds. These 
demons of drought, called by a variety of name*, as Vrittrn, 11 * A hi, 

IN Benfey, howtTer, refers this piuwge, i. 83. 7, not to Indra. bat to tho soma. 

"» Compare i. lo6,»: vi. 17, U; Tiii. 12. 27; til. 66* 10; x. 113. 2, in whi/h 
| assign i— wt'U m in tfparnle hymns, i. 155; vi. tJ'J), Imlin ar.<! ' 
connected. The S'attpstlia Rrihnuigii bos the foil about India and 

;>':— "Formerly Vrlttra had aithb bin nil tin- Hi 
8Aman rerses. Indn was anxious to discharge a ttjsmderboll at him (?), anil ta 
a-ill shoal a thunderbolt ut Vrittre ; follow sfUr me;.' • So l>c it." said 
Viahrju, • 1 will follow theo; smite birr..' tabu loan i Vfttbra, 

who was alarmed at it, and «jid (3), ' I hnvo thi» (»our«s of) Strength . k t i 
it aa to thecj hut do nut smite mo.' 8o he k><« bini Uu Xiejojb IftfsM Iudn 
theo aimed a second thunderbolt it him ft), when be said. ' I have this (tosree of) 
strength; let me gite it up Id DM ■." So li« (rare the R<k 

rerses. Iodra theo aimed a third t t him (.5). whoa be add, I hove this 

(eeajree of) atrength; let tna giro it up to I •• n> t rmite me.' So he gars 

him the Sfisuo Torses. .... (7) Indra lifted a| >nu followed 

lii-.ii." (t'rittrt ha mi ><!•>••> agrt tarram u«a pad p'cAe fad yujiihili pat vimiini | 
t mma i Intra tajram prnjiMrahti | 2. m An ruamum *r.«vU ■* I'riltrApa twi' 
•e/rwM praharuhpAmU | cm eio riutfAasra" ■(■ | M fUM M M A« Rtftffa 
"mil fee .iMojja/mAar*'" Hi | linui /x.fru rw/rwM ntp*pama | <a u 

. MAay.ii«f A«A>ir* | 3. M Aii v | I 

on> | ma lu mt prtfiarth HHSn yei ■*» **( p ti ff * t K h ut | fo.-vn' tlnl-num ft- 

ysyaaM | ft. ee Aa Mt-vrAs "oaf-i twi i'd<iiS rrryuwi red aw fr ftrnptthAam | »• 
jwalunAir" i.'i | fi i ass n t' p*AeA prapaehhat | laanui rrir'ym w/y«yii«« | 5. (aa An 
wnirAn] "ajfi r«i i<Inai riryom | fas' no r« praynchhmi \ wi? fw wr j>niAiTr«i'i 
ttummi timini prayoe/ihal | 7. . . /it^ro A« iny»wiii *<<;y*ri\jJ t'itknwr antalith- 
li*ts.) Than is s nmil.ii *torr in the Tint. Sanh. it 5, 1. 1. Afai is ia sersral 
places (i. 109, A, 7, 8 i iii ' . x.0e,2)a- Ufa Imira as a tAm 

dastiojtr of Vfiltia, and on erortarawvi ia, too, Is in one plaou 

(ir. 41. i joined with Indn aa a thundeftr. 

iittra'a motlier l).inu aim «n along with hor son, slain by India, and alu-n 
skugBteeed Is; orer him, lilte a cow out her oslf (i. 32, 9, nirAorayuA nbhatad I 
pulra Intra at yah ara ratXar jabhara | uilara liir .t.l\, 

nJUwaUa na dhtmiih). Scrcn II Jnu» urr I a B 7, \. liO. 6 { = Nirukta, ii. 

21) a tarthatt »<*•** -i • I " lie clcnrcs by his force tho irTcn Dinns." 

Roth, in bis illustrntiona of the Nirukta, p. IfiO, rcmuks on this passage : "Seven is 
an irtdellnite onmber applied to tho fiasooa of the sir and clouds, who ipp i 
the msnifbVi nsmes of Ksmurlii, Kuyars, S'uUidb, S'omhan, Vsr. 
Donus or DSnsTaa, to whom in i. 32, 9, a mother called D>Ina ia aaaiga^U.*' Tho 



S'nshna, Namuehi, Pipru, S'ambara, Urana, etc, etc. (i. 121, 9, 10; 
ii. 14, 4 ff. ; riii. 32, 2, 3), armed, on their rido also, with every 
variety of oolntial artillery (i. 32, 13, na aamai tidyvd tut tanyatuh 
sithedha na yilm miham akirad hradmtlSt eJia),'" attempt, but in rain, 
to resist the onset of the gods. IT * Heaven and earth quake with 

Eght at the crash of Indra'a thunder, i. fin, 11 [imt chit (ova i 
yace vtpcte bhiyni'J mah\ | yad Indira rajrinn ojatd Vrittram tnarutc&m 
niiM'iU | 14. abhithfam U adrico yat sthahjagut cha rt/tte); ii. 11, 9 
(artjtt&ih rodati bhiy&ne kanikradato irUhno tuya vajrat | 10. mrorattd 
vrithno a*ya uyrah) ; vi. 17, 9 (adha dyaui chit le apa id nu rajrud dtitd 
'nomad bhiyaiu trasya mavyoh), and even Tvashtri himself, who forged 
the bolts, trembles at tho manifestation of their wiclder's anger, i. 80, 
1 I 7'i nthfi'i ehit lava m/tny.n-t Judra tecijyate bhiyd). The encmie* of 
Indre are speedily pierced and shattered by the discharge of hia iron 
shafts, i. 32, 5 {/than Yr ill rum rrittrntaram tyamiam Indro cajrena mahat* 
vadhtna | tkandhtiiiislta kulisena cicrikn'l ahih inyaU upaprik pfithieyuh), 
i. 67, 6; i. 61, 10; ii. 19, 3; x. 89, 7 (Jaghuna Yrittram nadtotir 
vamta), and oven by flub IWJ mind, ii. 27, 4 {Hat lyal U indrtyam 
acktti ytnCinuJhir rarasikhatya lithah \ tajratya yat te nihatasya itukm&t 
svantil chid huha JMTWM dadilra) ; viii. ii, 1 3 (yad atya nanyur adhxa- 
rifd ti vrittram parcaso rujan | apah eamudram airayal). The water*, 
released from their imprisonment, descend in torrents to tho earth, fill 
all the river*, and roll along to the ocean, i. 32, 2 (erttruA t'rn dhenarak 
lynndamnnnh anjah mmudnm aca jagmur ayah | 12. avutrijah *artUm 
tapta tindhUn); i. 57, G; i. 61, 10 ; i. 103, 2 (cajrena hated nir apah 
iaiarja); ii. 11, 2; ii. 12, 12; ii. 14, 2; ii. 15, 3 (cajrrna khani 
n) ; ii. 19, 3 [Indro arno apUm prairayad Ahihu 'tkk* 
tamudram); iii. 32, K ; iv. 17, 1; v. 32, 1 (adardar uttam «p/o n 
kkiui tram arnavtin badbtulhrtwin nrnmnilh \ uiahantam Indra partatam 
vi yad caft irijo n" dharuh aca Dunmaih hau); vi. 30, 4; viii. 65, 3; 

Br, i. 0, •», Ift, my* that Indra is llie PD I tbc raoou (t*4 oai ttha 

tra Indro pah r*lU ta/iati | ttkt t.\ka na rrlltro yat chondroma}). 

tjaga ■■■■*■■ ■■■■■i* tan lino of Out HgbtnlDga, (to., fashioned bjr VriUnft 

.' rittroyZin ti/ffuiUiilm mtif/tyt 

m> uiii'.ii-'i. bum ' lltmii ainJ. ' 

'■• VrlttnilHid, in a. \0, 3 (according te BSj <<j\- ••; 
h.iTo ru»hwl upoo Indra, elotliol in o Ami, blrt M lm« becu »i«w«i {miA*m 



x. 133, 2. The gloom which had overspread the sky is dispersed, and 
the nun is restored to I OB in the heavens (i. 32, 4; i. 51, 4, 

'/rain yad Indra iateuA avadhlr Ahim Ad it iftrjwR tiiri druhayo 
dfiit) ; '"' i. 52, 8 [iiyacfihath-'ih buhvor xajram dyaiam adfvlrayo diet d 
iHrtmia dr\i*) ; ii. 19, 3. Conntant allusions to these elemental con- 
flict* occur ia nearly every part of the Itig-veda (i. 4,8; i. 32, 1 ff. ; 
i 62, 2 ff. ; i. 54, 4 ff. | i. 80, 1 ff. ; i. 103. 2 ff. | ii. 1 1, 5 ff. ; v. 32, 
Iff.; x. 89, 7; x. 113, G), and the descriptions are sometimes cm- 
lirllisbed with a certain variety of imagery. The clouds are repre- 
sented os mountains, or as cities or fortresses of the Asuras, ii. 14, 6 
(jr«A kttam S-amiaratya pun bibheda aimand i'm piirrlh); viii. 17, 11 
(6A#7fci purunt iairati.iuM) \ viii. 87, 6 {team h Sairatltttim Intra darttS. 
pur Am <mi), which are variously characterized as the autumnal (purah 
iAradih, i. 131, 4 ; vi. 20, 10), the moving (puram ehariahnram, viii. 1, 
38), and the iron {Ayailh, ii. 20, 8) or stone-built (iv. 30, 20, iaUm 
minuimayyn&m pnr&m Jndro ryuiyat | Divoddstiya diiituha) ,, ° cities of 
the Aturai (or atmospheric demons), which Indra overthrows (i. 51, 5; 
i. 63, 7; i. 103, 3; i. 130, 7; i. 174, H; ii. 19, 6; ii. 20, 7; iii. 12, 
G; iv. 26, 3; iv. 30. 13; viii. 82, 2; x. 89, 7). He casts down hia 
enemies when he discovers them on the aerisl mountains (i. 32, 2, 
ahann Ahim parrala ii&riydHam) ; i. 130, 7 (Atilhiyrflijn S'urnbarain 
airtr ugro arulirat) ; ii. 12, 11 {Yah S'ambaram partaUahu kahiyantaik 
chatriiriAiyaA iaradi nwarindat); iv. 30, 14 {uta dtiiaat kavlitaran 
hrthata* ptinaldd aihi | ar<Vmtin Indrah S'ambaram); vi. 26, 5; or 
hurls them beck when they attempt to scale tho heavens (ii. 12, 12 
yo Haukinam wphurad i ajro-btihur dylm urohanlam); viii. II, 14 (mdyd- 
bkir uUifip*aUih Indira dynm eirurukthatah \ ata tUnyun adh^'-'HlMh). 
One of them he crushes under his foot, 1, 61, 6 {Arhudai* hi kramlh 
padA), or piarcea with ice, viii. 32, 26 (Aimsm acidhyad Arbudam). 
Ha strikes off tho head of Xamuchi with the foam of tho waters," 1 

,T » 8*yana aadCTttsriJ* the list words to mesa thst Indra frsod th* son which had 

be*<l hidden by VriUlS ( J'rVrrivg* StwtatJI litiyam U*mnd rriltrid sasSeaawt*}). In 

i. 12, 4. sad ii. 10, 3, lairs u uid to bats gtticrsU-d the tun ; which amy refer to 
aa actasl creation, snd not to a nacre hnnpinf into ricw. Ins. At), 2, Indra seem* 
to be idenuned with the tun (m turyoh), sod to hue destroyed las black darkness bj 
his light [kfulma Uwuuk it ttiikya jaghama). 

■** Possibly then* may b« ordinary terreitrisl eiti«s; ind the udh cosy be the esse 
is regard to the cities alluded to in corse of the texu nvsl to bo cited. 

m See shore, is a preceding nuts. 



viiL 14, 13 (apam phtiuna namuchth sYraA Indra- udatartayah). One 
his opponents, Urana, is described as a monster, with ninety-nine arms, 
ii. 14, 4 (yah l/ranain jaahana tiara chaklw&mtam nocatiih cha ftdAtln); 
and another as having three heads ami six eyes, z. 99, 6 («a td d&iam 
tuviracam patir dan thalakthata tri4\r*hanam donanyat). 

The growth of much of tho imagery thus described U perfectly 
natural, and easily intelligible, particularly to persona who hare lived 
in India, and witnessed the phenomena of the seasons in that country. 
At tho close of tho long hot weather, when every one i* longing for 
rain to moisten the earth and cool the atmosphere, it is often extremely 
tantalizing to see the clouds collecting and floating across the sky di 
after day without discharging their contents. "* And in tho early ages 
when the Vedic hymns were composed, it waa an idea quite in 
nance with tho other general conceptions which their authors ent 
tained, to imagino that some malignant influence was at work in the 
atmosphere to prevent tho fall of tho showers, of which their parched 
BdfM stood so much in need. It was but a step further to personify 
both this hostile power and the beneficent agency by which it was at 
length overcome. Indra i* thus at once a torriblo warrior and a 
gracious friend, a god whose Bhafta deal destruction to his enemies, 
while they bring deliverance and prosperity to his worshippers. Tea 
phenomena of thunder and lightning almost inevitahly suggest the 
idea of a conflict between opposing forces ; even we ourselves, in our 
more prosuic age, often speak of the war or strife of the elements. The 
other appearances of tho sky, too, would afford abundant materials for 
poetical imagery. The worshipper would at one time transform the 
fantastic shapes of the clouds into the chariots '" 3 and horses of hie god, 
and at another time would seem to perceive in their pilcd-up mosses 
the citice and castle* which ho was advancing to overthrow. 

(5a) Indra t greatmm. 

In numerous places of tho Rig-veda, the highest C\ 
and attributes axe ascribed to Indra. A collection of the most striking 

1,1 In tiii. 8, 1, Indra is «omp»red to, and therefore distinguished from, Paijsnrs, 
the nun-god [nuiKnn Indra y«iA ujutii Purjauyo vritMfiman iVa | ulvmair I'ttwj* 
tMvridht). Ill riii. 62. 1, 4, he is identified with Surra, the Sun. 

■*• Compare Psalm 104, 3 . Isaiah 19, 1 ; Daniel 7, 13; Matlh. 24, 30; 26, 64; 
Hsbakkuk 3, 8 ; Ureal, Herculo ot Cscut, 1*1 L 



im passage* will be found in the 4th vol. of this work, pp. 85-94. 
I subjoin some additional texts: 

i. 61, H. Atya id u bhiyu girayai chu dfilhiih dyticd cha bhiimi 
jantuha* iajtte | "Through fear of him when he is born, the stablo 
Mountains, and heaven and earth, are ngitulcd." 

L 100, 1 mah« dituh prithivyii e\a itmruf | . . . . 15. iVa 

ya*ya decuh dtratu n# marttuk apa4 ekana Urato anlam upuh | "Tho 
monarch of the great heaven and of the earth .... 16. of whoso might 
neither gods by thoir divine insight, nor men, nor waters havo attained 
th. limit." "• 

i. 101, 5. To viitatya jagaiah pranalat patih \ " He (Indra) who is 
the lord of the whole moving and breathing (world)," etc. 

L 165, 9. Anuttam A U mtigfiavan twkir nu nit tnltun atti deratd 

tiduMtib | najdyamGno nutate na jdto y&ni karUhya krinuhi prarfiddJux | 

i- bj in.idiing unconquered by thee: no one like thee in known 

among the gods. No one to be born, or yet bom, can rival thee. Do, 

great god, whatever thou wiliest do." (Compare iv. 18, 4.) 

i. 173, 8. Pra yad iltka makinU nribhyo tuii araili rodasl kakthye na 
u | "Since Indra is so superior to men, heaven and earth do not 
for his girdle," etc. 

ii. 17, 5. Sa prAcklwiH partatan irimhad *ja»a adhariichlnam alarod 
ap&m apah | adfu'iriifnt priir //uam attabhtiid tniyayi 

Jyim aratratak \ " He has settled the ancient mountains by bis might; 
he has directed downwards the action of tho waters. Ho has supported 
the earth, the universal nurse. By his skill he has propped up tho 
sky from falling." 

iii. 30, 5 (quoted above, p. 30). "When thou, Maghavan, didst 
grasp even these two boundless worlds, they were but a handful to 
thea." 1 ** 

iii 34, 2. Indra ktkitln&m a»i muniuhlnarh riiiim dairlnam mi p«r- 
njrurti | "Indra, thou art the leader of the human races, and of tho 
divine people. 7. Tudheniro mahnd varirai chalura deiehhyah \ " In 
battle and by his power he has acquired wealth for the gods." 

iii. 46, 2. Eke vihaiya bhuraaatya rSji | 3. Pra mdtrabhth riruh* 
rochaminah pra dtvtbhir viitelo apratUah \ pra majmana duah Indrak 

<** Ssn rVsfav's TrtniUtioo is Orient and Occidtal ii- 61a. 
»» Osmpar* I with il, 13. 



; hUm 

prtthicy/lh pra vror maho cmUrikthad pjitM | "Thou, who alone 

the king of the whole world, etc 3. India luminous, has 

surpassed all measures; in every respect unequalled, he has surpassed 
the gods; the impetuous deity lias surpass*! in greatness the heaven 
and the earth, and the broad ami v:w. HtfDttphflre.*' 

iv. 17, 2. Tara tvuho janiman rejata Dyauh rtjad Rh&mir bhiyatd 
acatya manyoh | "At the birth of tine, the glorious 009, the heaven 
trembled, and Uie earth, through fear of thy wrath," cte. (Compare 
iv. 22, 3, 4). 

iv. 18, 4. Nahi Ml atya pratimanam asli anlar jtitethu ula ytjanifca 
" He has no parallel among those born or who are to be bom." 

t. 30, 5. Paro yat team paramah ajanithfhnh paraeali trutyam 
libhrat | aiai chid Indrdd abhayanta dtifih | " When thou wert born, 
the highest and supreme, bearing a nnmo renowned afar, the gods 
then ufmid of Indra," etc. 

v. 42, G. Vsnitsto apratUatya jiihmnr ajQryatah pra bruvA 
trim j ho te parte magharati na aparAso rut vlryaHi nUtanah kai 
Spit | " Lot us declare the deeds of the unrivalled, victorious, undecay- 
ing god, who is attended by the Maruts. Neither bare former nor 
later (beings), nor has any recent (being) attained to thy ■valour." m 

vi. 24, 8. Xii vilare namats Hit tthiriiya tut iardhate thtynjiitay* 
ttarOn \ ajrah Indruya girayai chid ri*h\*~th gambhirt chid bhavaU 
gildham MM! I " When lnudod, he doct) not bow before the strong, 
nor the firm, nor the presumptuous, impelled by the Dasyu. Moun- 
tains, though lofty, ore plains to Indra, and in that which is deep be 
finds a bottom." Compare viii. 82, 10. 

vi. 30, 1, quoted above, p. 30 f. " Indra has surpassed the heaven and 
the earth. The two worlds are but equal to the half of him." (Com p. 
x. 119, 7.) 

vi. 30, 5. R«jA 'bhavo jugalai ehanhjtnlniirli »skain tilryaih j'anaya* 

dytim unhAtam \ " Thou hast Iwcome the king of things moving, and of 

men, generuting nt once the Sun, the Iltavcn, the Dawn." (Compare 

IB. 49, 4.) 

viii. 6, 15. Ai dyiiiah Iniratn ojasd no anlarihhAni tajrigam | M 

'» In riii. 73 3, II i- • M lasl ItSn, Hia a terriflo kail, cannot be stopped either 
by icmlx or meu *«cn be winhcf to be RcnervuB (mi f«« iur* d*rikns mmrUam J,i 
tarn I Minima na gam rampantr). 



T i eytthanUt bhamayah | "Neither heavens, nor atraospharea, no*"".", 
earths, have ©quailed Indra the thundorer in might." 

viii. 12, 30. Yad& suryam amioh diri iukraih jyolir adhdrayak \ dd 
it U riitu bhuranSni yemire | " When thou (Indra) didst place yonder 
sun a brilliant light in the *ky, then ull worlds submitted to thee." 
(Comparo vi. .10, 2.) 

Tiii. 14, 9. Indrena roehana divo drilhdni driSihitdmi cha | tthirdni 
na parilnude | "Dy Indru the Hghta of the sky huvo boon fixed and 
established. Those which are established he bus not removed." 

Tiii. 15, 2. Yatya dvibarhato brihat iaho dadhdra rodatX | gir\n ajrdn 
*pah urtr rrY«/m<rfl«a | "Of which mighty god the great vigour sup- 
ported the two world*, the mountain*, plains, waters, and heavens." 

Tiii. 51. 7. Viir-t U Indra viryaih dirdh anu kraluih daduh [ "All 
the gods, ludra, yield to thee in vigour and strength." 

riii. 78, 2. D*rui U Indra inkhyuya yemire \ " The gods, o Iodra, 
■ought after th] l'rienclnhip." (Compare Tiii. 87, 3.) 

riii. 82, 5. Yad rrt pratriddha talpatt "mi MTV*" ••'< iminyau | 
uto tat mt yam it taca \ " Tlint which thou, o powerful lord of the 
good, expected, ' I shall not dio,' proves true." (Compare x. 86, 11, 
quoted above, p. 82.) 

viii. 85, 4. ilanya tvii yayiiiyaiii yajniydndm manye Ira dkjMMsMl 
*<J\yu(di\>iut | man ye ltd *atvantim Indra kttum manye tea vriikitbhath 
charthanitium | .... 6. Tarn u thtac&ina yah imu jdjUna viicu jutdm 
arsruni atmut | . . . . 0. Aimyudhuto aturdh aJerdf chakrena tun apa 
rapa rijUhin | "I reg.-ird thee, ludra, as the moat adorable of the 
•lie, the caster down of the unshaken," 7 the most distinguished 

of living things l\w ehlof of brings 6. Let us praise this Indra 

who produced these (worlds) : all beings are inferior (or subsequent) to 
him. .... 9. The Asuras are without weapons and are no gods : 
sweep them away with tl I '* (Comparo vi. 18, 10), where he in 

to consume the Uakshases with his bolt as firo a dry forest : 
p*ir na itukkm'n canam Indra hull rakiho ni dhakahi aisinir na bklmtl). 
viii. 86, 14. 7\ad viinlni bhmandni tajrin dyiiiu rtjiU pfithkl eka 
bknhtl I "All worlds, thundercr, both heaven and earth, tremble 
through fear of thee." 

x. 44, 8. Girin ajrdn rtjamdndn adhdrayai Dyauk krandad anU- 
w The IfaniU arc «uiil to lime the snnic power (i. M, 9). 


. •_. 

'•jikthuni lopayat \ " Ho sustained the quaking mountains and plaint: 
tin- sky resounded ; ho shook the atmosphere," etc. (Compare ii. 12 

x. 51, 1. Tdm eu to ktrttim maphacan maiitcd yal frit bhlU rodtuX 
ahayetdm | prdvo dcvdn .... 2. Yad acharas tanril mrriiham batiiu 
Jndra prabruvdno jantthu \ mdyd it sd U yarn' yuddh&ui dhur m adya 
latrufit t\a purd vivitat | 3. Kah n nu tt mahimanak sammya atmat 
pHrce rUhayo antam dpuh | yad mdttiram tha pitarat* cha tdiam b;«m- 
yatha* tancdh iv&yah I 6. Yo adadhuj jyotiihi jyotir antar y* atrijad 
madhiH'i tarn madh&ni \ " (I celebrate), Magbsvan, thy glory in that 
through thy greatneu the terrified worlds invoked thee. Thoa didat 

deliver the godt, ete 2. When thou didst march on increasing 

in thy magnitude?, proclaiming thy strength amongst men, thy combaU 
which they describe wore (the proofs of) thy power ; neither now nor 
before dost thou know of any enemy. .1. Which of all the seen before 
us have found out the end of all thy grratnew ? Hieing that thou didst 
produce nt once tho father nnd tlio mother (heaven nnd earth)"* from 
tliino own body. 6. He placed light in light, and imparted to sweet 
iliin;:i tin It nreetsMh" 

i. 89, 4. Yo afohencra chalcriijd Stithlbhir riihrak taatambha prithitim 
tif.ii Jifdm | 10. Judrit divcth Indrah lie pfitkiryiik Judro ajtum 1ml rah it 
parcat&ndm | " (Indra) who by his powers holds asunder Heavun and 
Earth, as tho two wheels of a churiot arc kept apart by the axle. 
Iudru rules over the sky, Jndra rules over the earth, Indra rules 
over tho water*, and Indra rules over tho mountains," etc. 

x. 102, 12. Tr<tm fisvatya ja fatal thakthur Luiydsi chak»Ku*hah 
" Thou, Indra, art the eye of all moving things that see." 

X. 138, 6. Mdtam tidfiutiam adadhuh adhi dyari ttayd tihhintutm 
lharati pradhim pita | "Thou (Indra) host ordained tho (course of the) 
months, in the heaven : the father (the sky) has u circumference divided 
by thee." 

In some places (iv. 19, 2 ; ir. 21, 10) Indra is called umrdf, or uni- 
versal monarch, in other places (iii. 46, 1 ; iii. 49, 2; vii. 82, 2 ; viii. 
12, 14) tvardf, a self-dependent sovereign. In viii. 6, 41, he 
called "an ancient riehi, ruling alone by his might" IjUhir hi 
tajdh ati elah tidnah ojaid). In i. 174, 1 ; viii. 79, 6, he is 
as iwura, " the divine." 

m Sec sboTe p. 30. 




The preceding passages afford a fair specimen of tho language in 
which India is most commonly celebrated in the hymns. It will be 
observed that the attributes which are ascribed to him are chiefly those 
of physical superiority, and of dominion over the external world. In 
fact ho is not generally represented as possessing the spiritual elevation 
and moral grandeur with vttan Voruna is so often invested. 

(6) Indra't relations with hit worthipptri. 

There are, however, many passage* in which Indra's close relations 
with his worshippers are described, and a few in which an ethical 
character is attributed to him. Faith in him is confessed, or enjoined 
in the following texts : 

i. 55, 5. Adha chnna trad dadhati tciihlmat* TndrHya vajrailt nigha- 
niyknata radham | " lieu huvu faith in the fiery Imlra when he hurls 
■gain and again his destroying thunderbolt." 

i. 102, 2. Am* iuryd-chandramcuu abhichakih* traddht lam Mr* 
€ Kara to ciiariuram | " Sun and moon move alternately, o Indru, that 
we may behold, and have faith." 

i. 103, 5. Tad tuy<* idant patyata hhuri ptuhfam trad Indratya dhal- 
Una rlrydya | " Ilchold this his great abundance, and hare faith in tha 
prowes* of Indru." 

i. 104, 6. M'l antar&m hhujum fl rirUha nttk traddhitam U makaU 
indriyaya | 7. Adka many* irat U atmai adh&yi vritkd thodatca makaU 
dkauuya \ " (>. Do not injure our future production : we have put 
faith in thy great power. 7. I surely bulievo that faith has been 
reposed in thee : vigorous god, advance us to great wealth.'' 

i. 108, 6. Tad abraeam prathamaik pdA rfigdno ayam tomo aturair 
no vihatyah | tdm tatyGm iraddham abhi a hi ydtam atha tvmatya piba- 
tan tuteuya | '' Since I said at first, when supplicating you twain 
(Indra and Agni) ' this soma is to be offered by as for '" tho divine 
beings ; ' come now, in consideration of this true faith, and drink tho 
poured-out soma." 

In vi. 26, 6, the poet says: Im&h yak ydcak »a jan<l\eh Indrak 
u-hh&mi id hridi mamun ehid Tndraw% | "These cows, o men, ore 
India : J desire India with my heart and soul." 

In ix. 113, 2, truth, faith, and austere-fervour are enjoined on tho 
M See Brtifty't TrsniUtion and note, Orient and Ooeident, iii. 149. 



worshipper : ritarHlena tatyena traddhayi tapaiO tut ah Indrnya Indo 
paritrara | " Poured out with holj words, with truth, with faith, with 
nualcrn-forvour, o Soma, flow for Indra." 

X. 160, 3. Yak viata WlMrf tomam aimai tarrahridd drralamah 
tunoti | na yah Indra* tatya paradadati ityddi | "Indra docs not 
abandon the cattle of the man who loves tho gods, and with a longing 
soul and with all hit) heart pours out libations of soma-jui. c" 

And the reality of his existence aud power is asserted in opposition 
to faithless or sceptical doubts iu tho following : 

ii. 12, 6. Yam ei/w pj-it/umti htha ttti ghorain uta \m Hhttr na ethv 
etti iti mam | w aryah puthftr tijah iea m aminati trad tumai dhatta 
ta janatah fndrah. | "That drewllttl Ix-ing, of wham they n*k 'whore 
is he,' und of whom they suy * ho is not ' [or, ' this is not he '], he 
carries away the wealth of the foe, as a gamester the stakes ; put faith 
in him, he, o men, ia Indra." 

vi. 18, 3. Aiti *rid nu clryam tat t$ Indra na tvid atti tad ritutha ci 
tochah | 4. Had id hi te turijatasya many* sahah sahithtka | " 3. Does 
thut prowess belong to thco, Indra, or does it not? tell as truly. 4. 
Thy strength, o thou strongest of beings, who art great by nature, is 
really existing." 

viii. 89, 3. Pra nu tfamam bharata vujayantah Indr&ya tatyam yadi 
tatyam aeti \ "na Indro adi" Hi ntmah u tvuh ilia kah \m dadarim kam 
abhi ttavuma | 4. ayam asm* jaritah pasya meha riSrd jiiluni abhi ami 
mahml | "3. Present to Indra a hymn soliciting food, a true hymn, if 
ho truly exists. ' Indra does not exist,' says some one ; ' who ha» *-m 
him ? whom shall we praise ?' 4. *I am here, o worsliipper ' (exclaim* 
Indni) ; 'behold me here. I surpass all creatures in greatness.' " 

Indra is tho friend, and even tho brother, of hi* present worshippers, 
as he was the friend of their forefathers, ii. 18, 3 ; ii. 20, 3 ; iii. 53, 5 
(a" tha ytihi Indra hhrutah, "come, brother Indra") ; iv. 17, 18; iv. 23, 
<; ; vi. 18, (pratnafa takhyam, "ancient friendahip") ; vi. 21, 6 {id& 
hi U Ktt-ithatah pmrajah pratnutah a*uh purutp't takhayah, "for now 
men resort to thec continually, and the ancients born of old wan thy 
friends") 1 "; 8 (tram hi dpih pradivi pU^s&iii iaitad babhith* | 

'•° Tht word* ry«A (H ut explained \>j Sav»9» ss = ndxijula), tit ►»«, " beiag a 


'►' Sw the 3rd vol. of thii w*rk. p. 221. The pssuge is differently 
Bsafsy, Glc«. to S. T. p. 74. ocl. I. 



"For thou wast always a friend of our fathers"); ri. 45, 1, 7; 
•Hi. 21, 9; viii. 4, 7; riii. 45, 1 ff., 16, 18; riii. 50, U; riii. 57, 
11 ( Yatya r> ttddu takhyam Mfddrl pranitik | "Thou whoso friend- 
ship ia aw«t and b wool thy guidance"); riii. 81, 33; viii. 82, 3; 
riii. 86, 7 ; -viii. 89, 2 ; x. 22, 1 £. ; x. 23, 7 (mri kir nah end 
aaihyd «' yautktu iava cha Indra Timndu*ya chit rinhrh \ " Let not 
these frirndl}* relations of our*, of thee, o Indra, and tho riahi 
Yimada, he diaaol ved ") ; x. 42, 1 1 (Indrah purattad via madhyato nah 
tnkkii ulhibhyo carivch krinotu \ " May Indra, a friend, grant riches 
to us his friends before and in the middle "). He chooses for his in- 
timate the man who presents offerings, hut desires no friendship with 
him who offers no libations (x. 42, 4 : Atra yujaiit kfinute t/o haitahm&n 
mm anmeatd takhyam vathfi iflrah). Ho is reminded that he has fricuda 
while his adorers are friendless (viii. 21,4: Vayam hi tea bandhuman- 
tam abandkav* riprdiah Indra ytmima). He ia not only o friend, but 
a father, and tho moat fatherly of father* (iv. 17, 17: Sakha pita 
pitptamah pitrlndm). As such he is invoked by men (x. 48, 1 : JIdm 
hat ant* pilar am na jantatak | Compare 1, 104, 9, and vii. 32, 3, 26). 
He is both father and mother (viii. 87, 11: Tram hi nah pita rata 
team milta iatalrato babhtivitha | compare riii. 1, 6). In one place 
(riii. 81, 82) the adoring poet exclaims : " Thou art ours and wo 
are thine" {tram aamdkaih tat* muni). He is the helper of the poor 
(viii. 09, 3 : radhra-thodanam) ; the only helper to whom hia wor- 
shipper baa recourse (ibid. 1 : na hi anyam bald 'krtram marditdram). 
He alone among the gods hoe a lore for mortals (vii. 23, 5 : cko deratrd 
dtsyata hi mtrtydn), and is their hclpor (i. 84, 19 : na lead any a mayhm 
tann aili marditd Indra brarlmi (t tarhak j viii. 55, 13: na hi trad 
anyak pamkuta laiehan* maykavann atti marditd) ; all men share in. 
hia benefits (riii. 64, 7 : yat chid hi iairatdm am Indra tddhdr<tni%* 
tram). He ia the deliverer and the advocate (or comforter) of his 
servants (riii. 85, 20: $a prueitd maykatd na 'dhicaktd), and tluir 
atrength (vii. 31, 6: tct apt kratur mama). He is a wall of fb 
(viii. 69, 7 : Indra dfihyatra ptir ati). His friend is never slain or con- 
quered (x. 152, 1 : na yatya hanyate takhd no jlyata kadd chana).** 

m The mc is aid of Milra, iii. 69, 3, aod of the Morals, r. &i, 7. Comp«ra vii. 
SO, 1; rii. 32, It ; viii. 10,6 ; vui. j>, 11. In viii. 0'J, 4, h» it preyed to guard 
kit wonaijipct"t and to bring it forward from lli« rear into the via {Imdra 



Hi* powerful arms aro resorted to for protection (vi. 47, 8 : ruhrS u 
Indra tthaviratya btiha upa $l«yAina £aran(l bfihantu). He i» invoked 
as a mighty protector and deliverer easy to be entrested (ibul. 1 1 : 
tmliiram Indram avit&ram Indrath haet havt tukaram iiram Indra mi. 
The worshippers assume that Indru, though far off, is not afflicted with 
dcufnciw, but hears distinctly their invocations (viii. 4.'i. 17 : uta IcC 
alud&iram tayafk irulkarnaA tanUtm Utaye \ dtlrtld ita hacamakt). His 
tight hand is grasped by suppliants for riches (x. 17. 1 : Jaijnhkm* 
It dakthinam Indra haitaiii cai&yaco vatupata rosflndm). The loving 
praises of his worshippers, uttered from the soul, proceed to him as 
messengers, and touch his heart (x. 47, 7 : nwlrdito mama d&t&aah 
Indram Homni eharanti tumatlr iyandk \ hridUpriio n*»a*A etvkytmd- 
ndk). The imploring poet with his hymn seizes the skirts of the 
god's robe, as a son his father's (iii. 03, 2 : pitur na pulrak ticham 
Qrabhg U Indra ttadiikfnaya giro iaehlvah). He is clasped by toe 
ardent hymns of his votaries as a husband is embraced by his loving 
wivf'tt (i. 62, 1 1 : patim na painlr uiatlr uiantam tpriianti fed sacs- 
bJMM manuhdh | i. 186, 7: tarn Im girojanayo na pat»\h swabhithia- 
mam nardrh natanta j x. 48, 1 : achha me Indram matayak itarcidak 
sadhrlctor vihtlA uiatlr an&shala \ pari sfwajanU janayo yatkd pa tin 
maryam imdkyum mayhar/lnam iitaye | Comp. ii. 16, 9)."* The hymns 
run to him and lick him, as cows their calves (x. 119, 4 : upa sid 
niatir atthita rdsrd putram iva prtyam | i. 186, 7 : uta nah Im maUyo 
aieayoyiih iiium na giicat tarunam rihanti). He is entreated not to be 
lazy liko a priwt (viii. HI, 30: mo nhu brahmava tandrayttr bkaca raji- 
rfjm pate) ; and not to allow other worshipper* to arrest his horses 
when conveying him to the abode of the suppliants who would satisfy 
him with soma-libations, but to overleap the bonds by which all other 
candidates for his favour seek to confine him as fowlers to snare a bird, 
and to pass quickly by them as he would over a barren desert (ii. H, 
H : Mo t\i tvdm attra baharo hi ripr&h ni riraman yajamAtt&to amye | iii. 
25, 5 : m& te hart vpuhan& vltapriah(hd ni flranunt yajamantoo 

pro no fathom oaa paieKat ehil lantam adricaJi | purattad nam mi *pVAi | 
lent* 5 and 6). 8o« u. 27, 19 

"* In viL 101, 5, th« worshipper prav> that his hymn may cling arrmnd India 
and Soma ss s girth clupa a hocae (pari aim Hit* tittrtoA iym mati) km 
'Itat* ttyno). 


„< I.,.!.. 



ati dydhi iairato vayam te arafh tulebhih krinatflma imnaih | iii. 45, 1 : 
d mandrair Indra haribhir ydhi maydraromabhih | md ted ktchin ni 
yaman ri* na p&iinah ati dhanva iva l&n ihi | x, 160, 1 : tlvratym 
ahhieayasah atya ydhi iormrathii vi hart iha mtmeha | Ihdra md ted 
yajamdntiwh anyt ni rlraman tubhyam inu tutdtah). He is the king 
of things moving, of men, and of nil terrcntrisJ things; and out of this 
abundance he bestow* wealth on the man who brings oblations to him 
(rii. 27, 8 : Indra raja jagatai rhanhanlfium ttdhi kihami riihur&pam 
yad atti \ talo dadati ddiiuhe vanlni ehodai rddhah npattutai ehid 
wvdt). Both his hands are full of riches (ni. 37, 3 : ubhd te pQrnd 
■atvmi galhatti). He is a magazine replenished with wealth, whom 
the worshipper urges to liberality (z. 42, 2 : lofaffi na yarnam vanmd 

•urn d chydraya maghadtydya i&ram). Manifold aids shoot out 
from him as branches from a tree (vi. 24, 3 : trihhatya na te punt- 
hfita eaydh ti Utayo ruruhur Indra pdrclh). He is asked to sliower 
satisfying wcjJUi oo his adorers, as a man with a hook shakes down 
ripe fruit from ■ tree (iii. 46, 4 : erihham pakcam ykalam anil ira 

'■■i Indra ta mpura path vani). Compare ix. 97, 53. Neither gods 
nor men can arrest him in his course when he is bent on liberality, as 
a terrific bull cannot be stopped, viii. 70, 3 {na hi trd i&ra <frruA M 
i**rtd*o diUantam \ bhlmafii na gdth cdrayanU). Compare viii. 83, 8, 
and iv. IS, 14. His friendship is indestructible: he is prayed to 
be a cow to the man who desires one, and a horse to the man seek- 
ing a hone (vi. 45, 26 : dQndiafn takhyafit tata gaur ati tira gatyatt \ 
airo aitdyatt bhara). Ho give* wives to those who had none (t. 
:,\, I : amendtki ehij janiratai chakartha | iv. 17, 10: janiyanto jani- 
dim althitotim d chydeaydmah). Tie richly rewards his faithful 
servants and adorers (ii. 12, 6 : yo raihnuya chiidild yah kriiatya yo 
hrahmamo nddhandntuya k\r<h | 14 : yah nneanUm aeati yah pachantatn 
yah iaihtaniafa yak Mmiius it\ | ii. 19, 4: so aprailni manave ptt- 
rini Indra daiai ddituha | ii. 22, 3 : dutd rddhah situate kdmyam vow). 
The days dawn prosperously on the man who says " come, let us pour 
out libstioos to Indra " (v. 37, 1 : t-amai amridhrdh wsAose pi uthhdn 
yak " Indrdya tunardma " ity dha). Tjo king in whose house the god 
drinks soma mixed with milk suffers no calamity, marches at the head 
of his hosts, slays his enemy, and lives tranquilly at home, in the enjoy* 
Beat of happiness (ibid. 4 : na ta rdjd ryathatt yatminn Indra* Derail 



tomam pibali goiakhayam \ 8. tatvanair ajali hanti rriUraw ktheii kthilik 
tubhago nama ptuhyan | Compare the next verse-). His friend is hand- 
some, possesses horses and cows, rides in a chariot, and enjoys always 
a life of opulence, and goes radiant into tho assembly (riii. 4, 9: ssvi 
rufAi ittrupuh id gomAn id lndra t« taJthd \ isdtrahhAja XH rayatti tackalt 
tada clutndro y&fi eabhdm upa). Indra is gladdened by the praises 
of the pious man, whether learned or unlearned (viii. £0, 9 : aripro 
v& yad attidhad vipro ta Indra te vacfiah | sa pra mandat ttdyA. 
Compare viii. 81, IS). He is prayed to deliver to-day, to-morrow, next 
day, and every dny, und both by day and night (viii. 50, 1 7 : adya 
adya itah itah Indra tr&tva pare c/m nah | tUvH cha no jaritrln eatpaU 
aha divu naklaiii cha rak*hi«huh | Compare viii. 53, 6). Tho god is, how- 
ever, sometimes naively importuned to be moro prompt in his liberality. 
41 Gracious otc thy bands, o Indra (the post erina in iv. 21, 9), beneficent 
thy fingers, bestowers of wealth on tliy worshipper; why, then, dost 
thou sit still? Why dost thou not gladden us? Why dost thou not 
delight in giving?" bhadru te fuitta tukritota pan} prayantirS, tturaU 
rudhah Indra \ ko te nithaltih kirn u no mamatti ktm na ud ud u harehau 
I u). Again in x. 42, 3, he is asked : " Why do they call ill. i 
,us, o opulent (^m] » Sharpen me, for I hear thee to bo a sharpener; 
3 byinii be pro-duel ivr. <i mighty god; bring to us good fortune 
and riches" (/fcua anga ted maghavan bhojam dhuh iUihi md eiiayafi led 
irinomi \ apnaevatl mama dhtr astu iakra vatucidam bhagam Indra 
AMflffl nah). Th u god is even told that the poet, if in his place, and 
possessed of the ample resources which ho alone commands, would 
•hew himself more bountiful, and would not abandon bis worshipper 
to poverty, but would daily lavish on him cows and other properly 
(vii. 32, 18: yad Indra yatata* ham ttAcad aham It'tya \ ttoUram 
didhithtya raddvano na pdpatrdya rAriya | 19. S"iithtyam in tnahaya 
divr dive rdyak d kuhachidvide {"* viii. 14, 1. Yad Indra aham yalhJ 

>h On the scum aieijrned by th© Indian writers to iratra tee ray art. on th* iakr. 
prcUtioa of the Veda, m Jouxn. R.A.S. for 1800, p. 378. 

'*» These Twtes, with the entire hynin in which they occur, are tranalated by 
Prof. Max Mullrr in hu Am. SanA. Lit. p. U2 S. Tho word kukatXidridt ia there 
tendered " to whosoever it be," and it ii there mentioned in a note that " according 
tu the commentator kuhaxkidrid meant ' wherervr hu be.'" Prof. Mailer adds: it 
oisy perhaps mean the ignorant. Prof. Roth follow* Sijmja in hu explaaatiaa. A 
■imilar appeal i* mudo to Agui in viiL 19, lb : yad Agm uurtyat trait lyim aham 



i&ym etuva} ehtk it | ttota me gothoUti tyiit \ iiktheyam aimai 
ditttyam iathlpaU maul thine \ yiid ahum gopatih eyCm). 

India supplies the plue* of armour, and is a champion who fights ia 
the Tan, vii. 31, 6 (Uafk tarma tapralhah puroyadhai rha rrtttrahan | 
teayu pratibruve ynjA). He is supplicated for all sorts of temporal 
blessings, as wealth in cows, horses, chariot*, health, understanding, 
sweetness of voice (ertidm&naih t&thah), prosperous days, long life ex- 
tending to a hundred years (ii. 21, 6; iii. 86, 10; vii. 27, 5; x. 47, 
1 ff.). In ir. 32, 17 ff. the worshipper states his wiohos more in detail. 
asks Iiidra to give him a thousand yoked horses, a thousand jars of 
somn, hundreds of thousands of cows ; acknowledges that he bad 
received t*n golden jars, and urges tho god not to be sparing, but to 
bestow abundantly in conformity with his character for liberality 
(aaAasmft tyatlnum yuktilnGm Indram \mnh* \ iataih eomiutya khiryah \ 
18. Schturd U hid mi/aili gan'xm <\ eky&XlyHman' | tumatrQ rddhah etu 
is | 19. Daia U kafoianftth hiranyAnum adfamahi | bharidafr an Frit- 
trahan | 20. Muriddh bhilri dthi na Ml dMram hhiiri fl Mutra 
gha id latlra dittati | 21, HKiiridnh hi ati irulah pttrutra itra Yfittra- 
ka* J a no bhajatia radfitui). Among other boons, Indra is asked to 
bestow victory in war, which depends upon his will, and for which 
he is invoked by both the hostile armies (ii. 12, 8 : yaA Inmd.ul 
saiftyrft vihrayett part atare vbhay&h amttruh | 9, yaemdd no rite vijti- 
yanlr j*f~'fth yam yudhyamnnuh avat* havanU). In X. 103, 8 ff . { =» 
8. V. ii. 1206 ff., and Vuj. S. xvii. 40 ff.) he, ia company with other god*, 

mitranmhe amarty* | esAewA ivm* a hula | na fra raiiya aihi/tttayt rcto so popul- 
•by* tomty* • mm mr ttota amaiifa na iurMtah tyad Af*t na papaya \ '• Wert than, 
Agni. s aortal, and wore I an immortal, a invoked ton of might, I would not abandon 
thee to naWiction ot luutfry ; — my worshipper tbould not be poor nor di»ttv«*cd nor 
»rtfchcd." And again is riii. 44, 23, tho nunc god u that uddrteetd : Y*d A$m 
aySm eAam Iran (ran r'i aha jyrlA sham | #uwi U tatyiik ikaiUKah | ■ Wrn: I thou, 
Agai, and ir.rt thou I. thy upbatiua ihoidd b« fulfilled. " (In the former postage 
vtu 19. 23, a word, milramaAat, occur* which thews tho uncertainty of 8«yij»'» 
»vrnr»tatione. He there explain* it anukuU-alplimam, " hi whose light U tavotir- 
able" In i. 44, 12, a« reader* it mitramOm aiyaka; in i. 68, 8, anukVa-tFptimam 
ia ii. 1, 6, Mia kari-tQah; in vi. 2, U, anukuU-tfpU ; in ri. 5, 4, anuXula-a'rt* 
■MrfRta maaayitar r.i , in rii. o, 0, mtlrvnam pujayit.ih . In Tiii. 44, 14, Mi'rra> 
mam pajamrya ; in riii. 49. 7. mitranim atmiikam pujaka ttf* tit. Prof. Roth 
i ptrbapi mesne "riefa in frienili.") Seeabo i. 38. 4, 5, ia IVof. Max 
Milller* Ttsju. of the R.V. pp. t;, r < ond 70 f., end m* aft, afl Okl latetprelationof tba 
Vede, Joura. R.A.8. for 1S66, pp. 971, ami 581 f. Compvo alio x. 33, 8. 



■who seem to be conceived as present with their host*, as invisible allies 
of their worshippers, is thus addressed : 8. Indrah uirtm %H& Jir\kat- 
patir DahhimX Tajnah purah elu Somah | d*v4$enun&ta ahhibkanjat'inaiii 
faytintimim Maruto yontu egram | 9. Indratya rrithmo Vanin/i*y* 
r&jnah Adityam'un marutam iardliah vgram \ malnUnatina<lm khutanact>ya~ 
fund A fhosho devtlnrhh jayatilm vd asthai | 10. Ui dkarthaya maghmMmm 
&yudkuni ut utvariCim tndmakuHum maniithti \ ud vrittraJuin tajinum 
rtljinani ud rulhunam jityatafn yatdu ghiuhnh | II. AivtHkam Indra 
tamritetku i '.am yah ithavat t&h jayanttt | atmiikam tlrdk 

uttare bharanlu atmdn u dev&h avata kavahu | 12. ( — Fir. ix. S3) 
AntitfiaiU chittum pratihlhayanfi. grikana angttni Apte m porthi \ alhi 
preki n\rd<iha hrtttu Sokair atidhtttumitrdt lama*u ia<knn(um | 8. " May 
Indra be the leader of these (oar arnue»), mar Brihaspati, Largess, 
Sacrifice, and Soma march in front ; may tho host of Marut* precede the 
crushing, victorious armies of the gods. 9. May the fierce host of the 
rigorous Indra, of king Varunn, of the Adityo*, and the Mnruts (go 
before ub); the shout of the great-souled, conquering, world-shaking 
god* has ascended. 10. Rouse, o opulent god, tho weapons, rouse the 
souls of our warriors, stimulate the power of the mighty men; may 
shouts arise from the conquering chariots. 11. May Indra be oun 
when the standards clash ; may our arrows be victorious ; may our 
strong men gain tho up]>crhand ; preserve us, o gods, in the fray. 12. 
Bewildering the hearts of our enemies, o Apvi, m take possession of 
thur huila and potts onward ; come near, burn them with fires in their 
hearts; may our enemies fall into blind darkness." m 

Indra controls the destinies of men, and is described as acting in an 
arbitrary manner, in tL 47, 15, where it is said of him : p&dac ita pro- 
haraim ,niyitm anyam krineti piirvam aparam iatkllhih | 16. ifiuct rtVai 
ugram ugraih damuyan anyam anyam aii twnlyamtinah | edkam&tuhdtil 
ubkayatya raja thoihkQyatc ri&ah lndro manuthyiln | 17. Para pirvethAA 
iali/iyu crinaUi cirtarlurCno apnrebkir eli | " Like one moving (changing 

"• The 8.V. read* Agkt. 

,M Apvi is wid in the Hinikt* ri. 12, to mean "disease or fear," lyudAir tm 
Ukayam to. Roth, n. sari the word racuns a dittaM. In the impTuvniuent* and 
add) lion to his lexicon, ml. y„ ho refers to the word as denoting a goddess, and 
quote* Ind. Studwn iii. 203. and ix. 183. 

"• Thi» piiange » tT»n«lnU«l by Prof. Bculvv in hi» S&roa-voda. Com par* A.V. 
iii. 10, Off. and viii. 8 Iff. 



the positions of) hit feet in walking, so Indra put* one and now 
another man Erst and last 1 6. This hero is reao wned as subduing every 
fioroe man, and as advancing now one and now another. The enemy 
of the prosperous, 1 " the king of both (worlds), Indra protect* the men 
who are subject to him. 17. Ho abandons his friendships with (his) 
former (favourites), and consorts with others in turn." 

In the following verses JviiL 45, 32) the poet teems to express disap- 
pointment at the inadequate manifestation of Indra' « power, while be at 
the same time entreats his grace and forgiveness : (Utbhraik (hid hi ted- 
tatah Lritam irinre adhi kthami | jigutu Indra to mamh | 33. Taxed ■ 
tah tuklrttaytih tuann ut/% proituUyak \ yad Indra mriloy&ti nah | 34. 
J/*d nah eiatminn igati ma dcayor ut-a truhu. | r*dh\r mil inra bharithu I 
35. Bibfmya hi ttAralah ugrild ahhiprabhanginah \ dm mud ahum rill- 
ikakah | 32. "Little has been heard of us done upon earth by one such 
as thou art: let thy soul turn (to us), o Indra. 33. Let thoso renowns 
and those praise* of thine be prored true by thy shewing mercy on us, 

i- ■ Who do net offer libotioai," say Yutfcs and Saysoa (««»»***«*). Thin line 
b explainni by Prof. Rath in hi< IlluMrntion of tho N'irukta, p. 90. Or have wo 
ti'ir the U«a thai the god* wore jealous of hamiin prosperity ? which, » ia well 
known. prevailed among the Greeks, and is expressed in the message of Anxuis to 
Polycratra, n« rnlntod by Hcrodntua, iii. 40 : W ti h oxu ^ejeUoi tirrvxhu 06* 
kfin»*T< ri Stlor twierofiiHf tit fori <p6ovip/,v. " But thy great pro* peri ty dees 
not plaaae ea«, a* I knew that the Deity u enviou*" See Mr. Blakeatey'e Bate ia 
leeo, and Herodotus, i. 32, and ni. 40, where the same sentiment recurs. Prof. 
Wilson in the Introduction to the 3rd »oL of his Trams, of the B.V. remarka on tlii* 
pasaaee : " He ( Indra) U also r s p tas tn tod in the same hymn as of a oapricioui tern- 
psrameai, aegteeting those who tens him, and favouring thoao who pay him no 
adoration (p. 47 J, ww 17) ; a notion somewhat at varianos with a doctrine previously 
issmleated, that the ceremonial we-rvhip uf Indra i» able to atone fur the moat atroeiooa 
crime* (p. 260. note}." Bee the note Ual referred to, which relates to R.V. v. 84, 4. 
Dot is thia a correct deduction from the passsgs when properly interpreted t 
The verse M as follows : 1'iMjru aroJMt pi from jrsay* mitmrmm (ways iakro thraU. 
nab M) ara/b laiafr | rWi id u a*ya pra<f*ti\ yUanXarn m Hliuted IthaU raeaa* 
**»*>*. | "The powerful god does not See from the man whose father, or mother, or 
brother he haa tiain. The wMsnr (or, according to Roth, *,*. perhaps, avenger) 
dceirea euch a man'* offered (gift*} ; thi> god, the lourcc of ricbe*. doe* not floe from 
t»n." Seyage says the person, whose relstions the god ilsys, b one who neglect* his 
worship, sad whom be chaatiMa and then reinstate* in hi* favour (iryNnai iilnha. 
fit** »f»)» f tUi). If. however, Indra is merely punishing the ungodly, can it be 
iatsaded ia the word hliuJtat in th* hurt claw of th# verse to impot* to him say 
gailt } It nay pevhepa he nrant that be doe* not fear to poniab the offender against 
him, Ia verve* 3, 6, sad o of the hymn th* godly man a bo odors libation* is said to 
profprr, while the irreligious incur* the god's displeasure. 



o Iudro. 34. Sky us not for one sin, nor for two, nor for three, nor 
for many, o hero. 3d. I am afraid of one ho terrible, bo crushing, no 
destroying, such a queller of resistance u thou art." *• Indrn is th» 
enemy of the irreligious, whom he punishes and destroys, i. 131, 4: 
S'Hias tarn Indra martyam ayajyum \ " Thou, Imlra, hast punished him 
who docs not worship thee; ii. 12, 10 : yah iakaio mahi mo dadh/in&n 
amanyamutvin iarcA jaghina | " who slew with his holt those who ore 
great sinners, and do not regard him; viii. 14, 15: atuniSm Indra 
tanaadam ruhQchtft ri anaiayah | tomapuA ultaro bhacni* | "Then, 
Indra, a soma-drinker, who art above all, hast destroyed and scattered 
the assembly which offers no libations." (Compare tbo passages quoted 
in Vol. i. pp. 259 ft". ; and in my article on the Indian priests in the 
Vcdic age, Jour. R.A.8., for 1866, pp. 286 ff.)*" He hears and sees all 
thiugs, and looks upon the wrath of men, himself uncontrolled 
67, 5 : viteafn irinoti paiynti | 6. Sa manyum martyHmim adabdko 
iJiate). lie protects his faithful servants and lends them into an 
ample space, into celestial light und security (ri. 47, 8: nrn** no 
fchtun MM nttki tidcun noarvaj Jyotir abhayath tvtuti) ; and in ono 
place, riii. 58, 7, the hope is held that they shall ascend with him to 
a home in the solar sphere, and there drink nectar thrice seven times in 
ili< ulimli: nf tin ir frit-mi [ml i/ad bradhmtyt tithfopaM fT&UM faeVd 
rAu gancohi \ madkrak plivd tachevahi Ink tapia mkhyuk p*<U). 

»°° Tin- Mass of verse 134 f. is tbui given br Prof. Rota in his Illustration* sf the 
NiniUa (i». 'i) p. 8S : " Tho poet pneys lnJiu Dot to destroy him fur ono or sura 
tin* (verse 31), «oys that hs is afraid of ono so powerful as tbo god (vvrse It), and 
entreats him to uurt from him the low of t friend or a ion {rent So), lie then 
make* tho god nnnwer in the reree before as (37) : ' Who, o mortals' sum! luiira, 
• without tiring provoked a* a friend, ban rvor destroyed hi* friend f Who mart flee 
from mef*" 

•M Compare R.V. viii. 21, 14 ( = S.V. ii. 740) : «•*•* rmmUm aaUy6»* tuJ« 
prfftnti (ru $\>rvip*l | ysoU kfinoiki nadawm sflasiAeji ad it pit tit aiiyur), which 
Is thus mndcrcd hy Prat Mullet (Anc. Sanik. Lit., p. Mt.) : "Thou acvor nodes* 
I nrli man lo be thy friend', wino-»willers dtspiMi Ui«r. Hut when thou thundanst, 
when thon gaihercat (the cloud* ). then thou art called like a father." Henfcy renders 
the verse somewhat differently, thus : "Thou never tnkrat for a friend the man who 
is merely rich ; ho who is miluted with wine is a burth«n to thee : with a mere senstd 
thon smitctt them, and then thou art supplicated like a rather." 

** Comparo viii. 67, 13. In A.V. vii. St, 2, Imlra is said to havo repollod the 
horfilr man, and opened an ample space for the gods {ipinutU J*tum a-asirra / sw i asa 
urum stn-fMyeA tkp^vr « Mum). 


moro than any other god,™ is invokod as o patron of tho 
Arya*, and M their protector against their enemies earthly, or annul • 
i. 51, 8: Vij&iflhi uryun y« cto dotyavo barhukmaU randhaya t/i$ad 
e era tan | ialcl bkara yajamunanija ehodita died it t« ladham/idaku 
tAuidHa | " Distinguish between the Aryan and those who are Dasyns; 
subject tho lawless to the man who offers oblations ; be a power I'm 1 
helper of him who sacrifices ; all these things I desire «t thy 
festivals."* 4 (See also the following verge.) 

i. 103, 3 : in jdtubharmA ** iraddadMnah ey'ah piiro vibhiwhnn 
atkarad vi dufih | vidcan ca/'rin Aatyave hetim atya uryai'n saho cardftaya 
dyumnam Indra I " Wielding tho thunderbolt, and confident in his 
prowess, ho strode onward, shattering the cities of the Dasyus. 
Thunderer, knowing (each), hurl thy bolt against the Dokvu, arid 
augment the force and glory of tho Arya." i. 130, 8 : Indraft lamattu 
ygpmdruim uryam prutad vOsttku iidamiilir ajii/ui . . . , | tiutnat* 
iitmd ttrtUun Uachaih krithnSm arandhayat | "Indra, commanding a 
hundred modes of succour, protected in all the battles tho sacrificing 
Arya: ohastiiing the lawless, he subjected the black skin to Manu (or 
tho Aryan man)." ii. 11, 18: oputrinor jyotir ary&ya ni wryatak 
laii datyvr Indra | "Thou bust disclosed the light to tho Arya; the 
Dasya was placed on the left side." iii. 34, 9: aatuma atyQn uU 
liryai'x istina taiuna purulhojatam yilm \ hiranyayam uta bhoytto 
actdM kattl datyllnpra Aryam car mm azat \ " Indra has given horses, 

"• Other gods, bowewr, are aim referred to u protectors of the Arya*. Tn i. 117, 
tt (Ntr. »i- 15) it is said Of the A* vint: abii daiyuih bakurrna a dkayutrnta wrtl 
jyttir tkakrmtnr aryaya | " Sweeping sivay the Dasyu with the ihunderbold, ye have 
created a gnat light for the Arya." Prof. Roth think* bnkura mean* a wind irutrm- 
wst, Illut of Kir. p. 92, and Lexicon «.r. Prof. Bsajhy (• >1Idw« Siyurja in reodenag 
i I thwadcrbult. In ri. 21, 11, it u said of all thr gods : y« ayaijiktak ritat'tptk 
Smr fit MMM tAairur u/mrmit Audy* | " Those (gods) who. Ere-longued. an. I 
qi mating religions rite*, hive nude Manu's mx (or the Aryan nun) superior to the 
Dfao." In viL 1 00. 4, it it raid of Vuhno : r« tAnJbrtm* prttHti* t'ka Mm k,X*. 

trifM t'itXnur m*nmtkt Jujityan | " This Vuhnu strode over llii» cirth, bestowing 

it m a domain oa Msnu'i race." And ia ffL 02, I, it i» Skid of A(rni . up- »A« 
/Slam Sryttya rtrdKanjm ,1y„im naitKantn no giralf | "Oar hymns have reached 
Agni who was horn the promoter »( i Ik .\ i ." 

a* Bee ProfcMor Ilcn/ey'* Triui»l«tion iu Oiimt ajal L 408. 

*»• SaySKa aaya thit means ellicr " he whose weapon in the thunderbolt." or "the 
nnrturw of creatarot." Btafrj, Or. und Otc. iii. lit, renders the compound M born- 




hits Riven the sun, has given the prolific cow, and ho has given golden 
weulth: destroying tho Dasyus, he bu protected tho Aryan colour." 
iv. 26, 2 : ajuim bhumim adod&a* aryay aham frithfim ddfuth* w%ar- 
tyiya | "I havo giroa the enrth to the Arya, and rain to the wor- 
shipping mortal." vi. 18, 3: /mm k& nu tyad adamSya datyvtt tiah 
r trt>« n«r arySya | "Thou didst then subduo tho Dasyus, and 
gnreat the people to the Arya." vi. 25, 3: ubhir viivoh abhiyvjo 
rUhurfiir 6ry&ya riiah ttv/it'irir dfttih | " With these gnecoura thou bant 
I injected all tho distracted hostile Dasyu people* to tho Arya." viii. 
24, 27 : yah fihhad aihhato muehad yo vu Cry St upta rindhuhm | 
trndhar dfaasya luvinrimna n\namah | "Who delivered from great 
•traits; who, o god of mighty force, didst in (tho laud of) the seven 
rivers turn away from the Arya the weapon of the Dasyu." -riii. 87, 8 : 
team hi iamttiw'im &fW d/trtd purum ati \ hanta doayor manor vrtdkah 
puiir divah | "Thou, Iudra, art the destroyer of unnumbered cities; tho 
slayer of tho Dasyu; tho prospercr of the (Aryan) man; tho lord of 
tho sky." z. 49, 2 : aham S'tuli/uuya inathtiii radhar yarnam na yo 
ran uryam niima datyav* | " J, tho smiter, havo stayed tho weapon of 
Buahnn; I do not abandon the Aryan race to the Ddsyu." x. 86, 19 : 
ayam emi tiehakaiad vichinran 4\i*am uryam \ " I come beholding and 
distinguishing the Dasa and tho Aryo." (I am unable, however, to 
any who is tho speaker here.)*" 

** Iadrs with Agni i\ however, besought in ri. 80 to day all enemies, Arya* as 
well as Datyns ; hnto rri'.trani arya halo damni lalpati | hato viicM apt drukak). 
In x. 38, 3, Indra alone is similarly addressed: Yc no datah Sryc ta punuktut* 

inkvah liulra ytulkayt mmOk tmH \ atmabhir U Huhahak tanlu Iroyi myoi, 

tin wamaflma *>*gom« | ■ WhuUv«r ngodly man, » muck-lauded ladra, whether a 
Ban or an Arya, design* to debt with in,— may all nieh enemies be easy to orermnu ; 
may wo »lay thorn in tin StmfinV And In x. 102, 3, it if laid: aalar yatAka 
jighaSuata tajrant Jndra nbkidmatiilt | d&wiya tn oiaghurrum aryttya ra mmuUr 
y<nniyn c\tilh*m | " A treat, o liulra. the bull or tlm ilmtrnynr who SOtkf to *lay u» ; 
ir ir mi n- i "T of na«a or of Arya." Indra and Varuna ut 

invoked Ur the Mime object in vii. 83, 1 : JHita eha trittru hatam Sryani tkm 

Iiutrn-rtruiyi 'two 'valam | " Slay both DiiM anil Arya cnemira ; protect Sodis with 
your Micoonr, o Imlra and Varuna." 8o too in x. 83, 1, Manyu (putionifitd Wrath) 
is prayed: m/ipt'ima datam ary*m tvoyt yvju takikriltna tahan'i taianati | "May 
•a, with tint for our nlly, evamsM thp Dttaa and the Arya, with foKc-impelM, 
rifiorona, energy." I'erhnps ii. 11, 10 {tanema yt U uti&kii /amnio pu'ro* ipfidkah 
irytna lUiyim) may bare tho aamu actwe. la x. 65, II, certain bountiful deitka are 
spoken of as pncraiin: [irayn, tho cow, the boras, plants, trees, Die earth, the 
mountains, the wut'is, u elevating the fun in I lit sly, uuil u aprtading Aryan imti- 


(7) ApptrnU mutual incongruity of wine of the prtteding rtprtum- 
tutimt of Indra. 

The reader who i» not familiarly acquainted with the hymn* of tho 
Veda, either in the original or by translations, may think that ho 
perceives an incompatibility between the conceptions of the god, which 
no will find in the different parts of the preceding sketch. And, 
according to onr idea, no doubt, there is an incompatibility. The natf 
familiarity with which Indra is treated in some places seems irreconcil- 
able with the lofty idem of his greatness which other portions exprcn*. 
And more particularly the sensual character, which is generally attributed 
to the god, appears to be in opposition to the moral perfection whiih fa 
elsewhere described as an essential feature of his nature. But however 
incompatible, according to cur ideas, thoy may seem to be, both of 
these set* of representations occur sido by side, in the snmo hymns ; 
and we must account for their co-existence and juxtaposition by sup- 
posing that the ancient Indian poets regarded the deity who was the 
object of their adoration as anthropopatfaically partaking, in a higher 
degree, of tho elements, sensuous us well as intellectual and moral, 
which, on the evidence of their own consciousness, they know to bo 
equally constituent parts of their own nature. It must be furtln r 
boruo in mind that theso ancient authors did not connect the same 
low associations ns wc now connect with the sensuous, or even 
sensual, principle in the character of tho god which is exemplified in 
hia love for the exhilarating draughts of his favourite beverage. This fa 
clearly shewn by tho high rank which, as wo shall hereafter see, they 
assigned to Soma himself, as tho deity in whom this intoxicating in- 
fluence was personified, and by tho power which they ascribed to him 
of conferring immortality npon his votaries. 

And that these apparently incongruous conceptions are not the product 1 ; 
of different minds in various stages of development, but of tho same 
poets, may be seen from the following instances. In ii. 15, 2, Indra ia 
said to IrnTc fulfilled some of his grandest functions under the influence 
at the soma-juico : mvuSti* dyam atUtihdyad brihmUm a rodail aprinai 

tatima open the outk (fawfau yam aitamjoMoynfh «***«* «ui)Mfli /riH^rm 
m n twli n *p*$ \ tirytA dim' nJksytnttt) mU.iimr*h Srya n+li furymtU^ miXi 



antarihham \ ta dharayad prithicim paprathach cha totnatya ta maJt 
Indrai ohak&ra | M Ho fixed the heaven in empty space; he filled tho 
two worlds and the air; ho supported the earth and spread it out; 
these things Indrn did in the exhilaration of tho soma." Similarly in 
viii. 36, 4, Janitii divojanitu ppithiryilh piba tomam maddya kmik imta- 
krmto | " Generator of Heaven, generator of the Karth, drink soma to 
exhilarate thee, o god of mighty force." In viii. 07, 6, as ice hare 
seen aboTc, p. 112, Indra is said to hoar and see CTcrything. In 
tho seventh verse of the same hymn wo ore told that tho belly of 
liim, the impetuous actor, tho slayer of Vrittrn, and drinl; 
soma, is full of vigour (Aro/raA it p&rnant uiarmm tunuya atti 
tidhatak | vrtttroghmh somapuvnah). And in viii. 81, 6, it is said of 
him : aiya plted madandfn devo deuuya ojatii \ eifed 'Shi bhurtind 
'hharat | " Drinking, a god, of the exhilarating draughts of thia 
(Soma), he, by his energy, overcame all being* (or worlds)." 

(8) Professor Roth's tluory of the suptrsmim of the worship of i'aruna 
by that of Imira. 

Professsor Both is of opinion that Varuna belongs to an older 
dynasty of gods than Indra, and that during tho Vedio ago tin 
consideration originally attaching to the former was in course of being 
transferred to the bitter. In support of his position that Vuruno's 
worship was then declining, ho urges tbo circumstance that, in tho 
tenth book of the Kig-vcda, which contains the latest productions of 
that period, there is not a single entire hymn addressed to this deity.™ 

** Sec the Journal or tho German Oriental Society, ri, 73 ; and lliatlingk sad 
TLitir.i Sanskrit and German Lexicon, ».r. Indra. Professor Whitney adopt: tlie 
same view (Juuru. Ainer. Orient. Society, iii. 327). Windiwhtninn, in hi* ftfithra, 
p. 64, extendi the lame remark to that gmd aliio. The pemage it translated in the 
Slid »ol. of this work, p. 2U5. Although, however, thero in no hymn in the tenth 
Mandate eddrc*xd exclusively to Vara n a, there are two, th» 126th, of eight rerse*, 
end the 1 86th, of three verse*, in which he i* invoked along with two of the other 
Adityiu, nfitr* nnd Aryaman. In only two vernc* of the former of these hymn* is 
reference made to any other god, viz., to Rudra, the Msrnts, and Agni in the Terse 6, 
in in viiru 8. Viininu i* idm or referred Ui, along with uthtt dcitir*, 
in numeron* (ingle vorscs of the 10th Mandala, vis., in 8, fi : IV. 6; 11, 1 ; 13, 8: 
H.7; 30,1; 31,0; 86,10; Ufi, I, 3, 12, 13, 37. 1 ; ol, 2, 4 ; CI, 17; 63,9) 
64.6, 12; 05, 1,6,8, « ; 60,2; 70, 11; 75,2; 83,2; 84,7; 86, 17, 24 ; 811,8, 
fi; 93,4; 97, 10; 98, 1 ; TO. 10 ; 103,0; IP9.2; 113.6; 123,6; 124.4.6,7; 
126.1; 130.6; 132.2: 147.6; 167,3; 173,6. 8oc the index to Langl. 
1'fcnch trsatlation of the li.V. 



I give the substance of his intonating observations : — 
The supersession of the one god by the other lloth considers to bo a 
mult, or feature, of tho gradual modification which the old Arinn 
religion noon began to undergo after it had been transplanted into 
India. Tho more aupersensuous or spiritual elements of this religion 
ho thinks were preserved, though in a peculiar and somewhat ultorcd 
form, in tho Persian creed, which, at tho same time, rejected almost 
entirely the gods representing the powers of nature, whom it bad nlso 
inherited from an earlier age. The Indian faith, as found in tho Kig- 
Toda, has, on tho contrary, according to Roth, begun already to give tho 
i to these latter deities, to transfer to thorn an over-increasing 
dignity and honour, to draw down the divine life into nature, and to 
bring it ever closer to man. Proof of this is especially to be found in 
tho development of the myth regarding Indra, a. god who, in the 
earlier period of Arinn religious history, either hud no existence, or 
was confined to an obscure province. The Zend legend assigns to 
another god the function which forms tho essence of tho later myth 
concerning Indra. This god Trite, however, disappears in the Indian 
mythology of tho Vedio age, and is succeeded by Indra. And not 
only to, but towards tho end of this period Indra begins to dislodge 
Varuna himself, the highest god of tho ancient creed, from tho 
position which is shewn, partly by historical testimonies, nnd partly 
the very conception of his character, to belong to him, and becomes, 
if not the supreme god, at least the national god, whom hiB encomiasts 
strive to elevate above the ancient Vara tin. This process was com- 
pleted in the post-vedic period, as is shewn already in the Brahniunos 
nnd other works of the same era. Indra becomes the chief of the 
Indian heaven, and maintains this place even in the composite system 
which adopted into itself tho three great gods. The course of the 
movement was therefore this, that an old god, common to the Arians 
(i.s. the Persians and Indians), and perhaps also to the entire Indo- 
Oetmanio race, Vaniga-Ormuzd-TJmnos, is thrown back into the dark- 
ness, and in his room Indra, a peculiarly Indian, and a national god, 
is intruded. With Varuya disappears at the samo time tho ancient 
character of the people, while with Indra there was introduced in the 
samo degree a new character, foreign to the primitive Indo-Germanie 
nature. Viewed in its internal aspect, this modification of the religious 



conceptions of the Aryas consists in an ever-increasing tendency to 
attenuate the supersonsuous, mysterious side of tho creed, until the 
gods, who wore originally the highest and moit spiritual, hare become 
unmeaning representative* of nature, Varuna being nothing more than 
the ruler of the sea, and the Adityas merely regents of the sun's course. 
This process of degradation naturally led to a reaction. (See tho 
Journal of the German Oriental Society, vi. 76 f.) 

Tho superior antiquity of Varuna to Indra may no doubt {as inti- 
mated in tho passage just quoted), be argued from the foci already 
noticed of the coincidence of tho namo of tho former with that of the 
Greek Ovpavov, which goes seme way to prove that a deity of this 
name was worshipped by the entire Indo-Ocrmanic race before its 
western branches were separated from the eastern, whilst wo shall 
look in vain for any traces of the name lndra in the Greek mythology. 

(9) Bnptrtmimt of Dyam by Indra, actording to Pnfeuon 
Bmfcy and Brial. 

It is, however, as I have already intimated, p. 34, the opinion of 
other writers that lndra was rather the successor of Dyaus than of 
Varuyo. Thus in a note (occasioned by tho word ttkatar) to his trans- 
lation of R.V. L 33, 5 (Oriont und Occident, i. 48, 1862), Professor 
Bcnfey writes : " It may be distinctly shewn that lndra took the place 
of tho god of the heaven, who in tho Vodas i* invoked in tho vocative 
an Dyaush pitar (R.V. vi. 51, &). This ii proved by the Out that this 
phruso is exactly reflected in the Latin (Diespitcr t and Jupiter (for 
Dyonspitcr) and in tho Greek Zev irarep (which is consequently to be 
taken for Ztv$ trarip), as a religious formula fixed, like many others, 
before tho separation of tho languages. When the Sanskrit people left 
the common country where for thorn, as well as for the other kindred 
tribes, tho brilliant radiance of heaven [dhanl, part, from rfi'r, to 
shine . . . ) appeared to them, in consequence of the climate there 
prevailing, as the holiest thing, and settled in the sultry India, where 
the glow of the heaven is destructive, and only its rain operates bene- 
ficently, this aspect of the celestial deity must have appeared the moat 
adorable, so that the epithet 1'luvius in a certain measure absorbed all 
the other characteristics of Dyaush pitar. This found its expression in 


the namo Ind-ra, in which wo unhesitatingly rocognijjo a word (which 
arose in tome local dialect, and was then diffused with the spread of 
the worship) standing for siud-ra, which again was derived from syund, 
* to drop.' . . .*• The conceptions which had been attached to Dyaus. 
Joub, Z(\n, were then transferred to Iudra, und uccordingly wo find 
the epithet atator, which in Latin is attached to Juppiter, applied to 
him." In this view Professor Bonfey is followed by M. Michel Breol, 
in his " Hercule ct Caous," p. 101. After giving in Section V. an 
account of the myth of Indrn and Vrittru, this able writer proceed* in 
the following section to explain it* formation. I tr instate a few 
sentences from p. 101 : "The first thing which ought to strike us is 
that the hero of the myth is not the sumo in the Indian, as in the 
classical mythology. The name Indra has notluug in common with 
Zco* ; further Iadra is an exclusively Indiau god, created at an epoch 
when the ancestors of tho Kurepeon race* had been already separated 
from their brothers in Asia ; in reading tho Vedas we are in some sort 
spectators of hia first appearance, which nearly coincides with tho 
composition of the earliest hymns. But we have already said that tho 
Vedic mythology is extremely Hunting, that tho attribute; of one god 
are easily transferred to another, and that in place of Indra, other gods 
are often invoked as the conquerors of Vrittra. We are authorized 
then to think that in this myth Indra occupies tho place of some more 
ancient divinity. The name of this god, which we may give uit'n 
perfect certainty, is Dyaus, or Dyaushpitar, tho Heaven, father of 
bangs. Dyaus is the first god of tho Indo-European nations : main- 
tained in his supreme rank by tho Greeks uu 1 L ttiu>, he has fallen 
from it in tho Vcdue, although bo is there sometime* invoked, chiefly 
in company with the goddess rrithivi (tho Earth).'' 

•■ Profit*** M.dWv smtgtu tho aaue «n»« to India, in lii» Lrrtuwi en Lang 

. tote, wbere he unit* ; Indrm, a name peculiar b> Ir.tlii, admits but of one 
•fvsoalofj, «'.«. it unit be derived from tho tatno root, whatever that mar Ik. 
in 8ao*kril yii'Mtd imim, drop, up. It meant originally the jrivmr of rain, ilia 
Jupiuw plu«nn, a daily in India mure often present to the nund of tho wonziippec 
than ssy o*a*r. Cf. Bcnf.j, Orii-nt und Ocekbnt, vol. i. p. 4'.i." rVoftsaw 8 
kit Laxkoa, ».r. think* tbt word cornea from the- root in or Mr, with the «nra* r, 
pnacdad by cpeatbttk d, and Straus "the overccmer." "tbe powtrfal." The *M 
Indian ilrrivatkins may In f-mnil, ua he remarks, in Nir i. S. See also &iy»it» oa 
I i if). 



But whatever may bo tho case as regard* Dyaus, tho increasing 
popularity of Indra may, no doubt, an Professor Roth supposes, have 
tended ulso to eclipse the lustre of Yaruou. 

(10) Opiniauaf Pnftwort licth, Whitney, Spiqel, and Dr. F. Windittk- 

mann, on ffo question whether Varuna and Ahura .Vaida are htttt- 
riealiy cenncdat. 

If Professor Roth's opinion,*" that there is not merely an analogy, but 
on actual historical connection between tho Adityas uoJ the Auishospands 
of tho Zend A vesta, be well founded, it will be made out that Yoruga, 
who is ono of the Adityas, must have been worshipped by tho Aryans 
hftn tiU -'I>.jr:.f i.,ti ... tin: lVr.,iiti tr..:n tin: 1 1 j! i.-»Ti Vineli <>t tint 
family. And this conclusion will be confirmed if we adopt the sug- 
gestion of Professor Whitney, 1 "* that Ahura- Mazda is a development 
of Yaxuna. 

I learn, however, from a communication with which I have lately 
been favoured by Professor Spiegel, of Erlanflen, that that eminent 
Zend scholar is unable to recognize any similarity between Ahura- 
Mazda and Yarn q a, and considers the connection of the Amshaspanda 
with the Adityas to be very doubtful. 911 The Into Dr. Windiac-hmann 

a, tho 

*» Joum. Germ. Orient Sccietr, ri. 60, 70. 

•id Juurnol of tin- Araerienn Oriental Society, iii. 327. " Ahum Mania, Ormud, 
':' in," hi! writes, "rui in hardly to be doubted, a dtTidupuicni of Varuna, 
Ailityus are corrolotiTta of the Aiiisliiwpnnds, there even esistt in the Persian religion 
the same clone connnction between Ahum lltsrifl and Miihra ru in the Indian bttwaen 
Mitra anil Vururja." There is no doubt (bat the term Antra, "spirit," which u 
frequently applied t<> Vanin:i tad (0 Mitra. and alio to Indra and others of tho Vadic 
gods, is the tamo word which, in it* Zend form. Ahura, mntw up, with Ibe addition, 
of MuxiLi, thr appellation ut the supreme and bflMVelgnl deity of the Iranian my 
tholcfry. I'rolwsor Muller regards tho namea Ahuro sludau as corresponding to 
the Sanskrit Amra-mtdhat, the "wisu spirit" (Lecture* na the Science of Langmag*. 
lint aerie*, let edition, p. 1!J»). See also Professor Iknfey"s Glossary to the 84»»- 
vwU (1848) i.t. ,»»■/*.!«. from which it appears that that scholar had adapted the 
MM)U m.1 considers tli. • jdiug of U.S. riii. 20, 17, trmrurym 

udhatali, to bo a corruption of amrttty* hmMumA. I!ut. ttdhtt occurs cbewkcre aa 
an i piihit of the god*, tg. of Vi*hnu in i. luG. 2. 4. In the hut of these verse* be ss 
styled miirytarya rulkamh. 

311 In regard tn Mi id the Armhospandi, Professor Spiegel has, as ha 

me. collected all the pa*itiY ios a* C6QM sbtsiB >" tin- Areata, ia 

Iho I: i KM al In unnelation, pp. iii. If. 



also, m Professor Spiegel informs me, held Ahum Ma*«la to bo n purely 
Iranian god (Zoroastriacbe fitudien, p. 122). And such of the ground? 
for regarding Varuna as an older deity than ^udra as might othorwise 
have been derived from, the Zend A vesta, would be a good deal 
weakened if wo could look upon the Indra or Andrn of the- Zend 
books aa standing for the same god who was known in India under 
the former name (aee Spiegel's Areata, ri. 10), and aa represent- 
ing a deity who had at one time been an object of worship common 
both to the Indian and Persian Aryans, but who after the separa- 
tion of the two tribce was degraded by tho luttcr iato an eril 
spirit For whilo Indra would thus bo proved to have been ku >wn 
before tho period of that separation, he might also have been at on© 
time a god hold by both divisions of the Arras in high consideration as 
well as Varuna. I learn, however, from Professor Spiegel, that the 
materials afforded by the Zend books in reference to this name arc not 
sufficient to afford a basis for any positive conclusions.* 19 

(11) ITUthtr there are any patwget in the hymns uto'ek fceuiwty theya 
that Indra wai superseding Varuna. 

Beyond the fact noticed by Roth, that Ynmnn is much less fre- 
quently mentioned lo the last than in tho curlier books of thi 
vtda, I have not observed in tho hymns themselves anything that can 

>'•> The identification of Andrn with Indra was, a* Professor Spiegel tells mo, flnt 
^iroprwed by Hurnuuf {Yas'na £26 IL), where ■ translation is pi en of the passage ia 
whsnb Andxa it mcntiinn i I li red lb« '•>• Sjiirycl binuclf. in bUAvi I >,i 170: 

•• I fight with Indra, I fight with S'uuru, I tight wiltt US Dtsfl RaoghsluJ, to drive 
them sway from th* derailing-, the village, Uic castle, tho country." Ihn nnmo Indra 
«ir Aadn, u Prof. Spiegel further informs me, owurs only in ono other passage (YYctrter- 
gasurj, Zonoarcsla, p. 476), wtiib lie (IVof. S.| believe* to be interpolated. It con- 
tains mettly tho name, and consequently throw* no further lifit on the portion of 
the god ia th« Areata. The information found in the liter Parses books rruardiiijr 
Indri or Aadra it alto meagre (rumpiro Spiegel's Areata, ii. 3ft). On (hit 
Professor Spiegel makes the following remark*. In tho Introduction to the M vol. el 
his A vests, p. tend. : "It is said by some that the Andra of the Areata is the Indra 
of the Vodka, thai Nuoghnitbyo answers to iVfisatyas, and SasxTs to Sarra. Hero 
from a real tact a quite incorrect conclusion is drawn. The names arc the sama ia 
both religion* system*; hut bow far the things racaibls each other can now be 
shown in the tame manner as the similarity of Soma and Jlaomit, etc ; foe the Areata 
tells im nothing more than the name of any of (be beings in qnestiin." 



bo construed as a decisive proof that the worship of Indra was super- 
acding that of Varuyu during the period of their composition. It is 
true that oven in the earlier parte of the Veda the number of hymns 
addressed to the former god ia much greater than that in which the 
latt«r is celebrated. But I have not discovered any expreasionj which 
would distinctly indicate that the popularity of the one was waning 
and that of the other increasing. Thar* are, however, some passages 
which, though tliey do not afford any clear indications in support of 
ouch a supposition, arc, at all events, not inconsistent with ita correct- 
new. Thup then are several hymns in which Indra is associated with 
Varuija 111 us an object of celebration, and where the two are described as 
acting in concert, viz., i. 17 ; ir. -11 ; iv. 42 ; vi. 68 ; rii. 62; vii. 83; 
viL Ml ; vii. Bo ; etc. ; and this association of the two might have 
arwn from the worshippers of Indra desiring to enhance the di 
of that god by attaching him to the older and more venerable deity. 
In vii. M, 24, Varuna is said to have Indra for his friend {Ferunak 
Jndraialhil), hut thin cannot well bear the interpretation that soma of 
their worshippers bat] I the habit of regarding them as rivals 

and enemies, as in i. 22, 19, Yishnn is called the intimate friend of 
Indra (Indraaya yttjyah taktui). Indra and Vuruya are called the two 
monarebs, »amrt\jYi, and the supporters of all creatures 1 " (i. 17, 1, 2); 
Cud in their dafligaaj dhrita-vratH (vi. G8, 10). Vnrurja is supplicated 
along with Iudru to discharge a gleaming and violent thunderbolt 
against tho worshippers' enemy {didyvm asmitm ejiihfhatn vgrd ni 
rndhthfsth '■■■■ -11, 4), though in most other places (see above) 

Indra alone is regarded as the thundcror. In rii. go_ 2, it is said that 
one of the two, Varuna, is culled samruf, monarch (as ho is in various 
places, seu above, p. 60), and the other, Indra, is colled nwrdf, inde- 
pendent ruler (iii. 46, I, and elsewhere; see i. 61, 9, above); and 
their separate relations and functions are described in other parts of 
this and the following hymns, vii. 82, 5: lndrfi-carw\<l yad imdmt 
<kakraihm ■■■in ui.i, 'maaa \ Ishnnena Mitro VaruwtA 

ihuasyati MaruMhir ugrafy iiMam anyub \yate | 6 Ajiimim aryah 
iuatlmyaiUam ulirad dabhrebhir amjah pro vrs'fofl Ihtyswh I " Indro 

•I In A.V. iv. L'.j. 1. '2, V inma and VUIinu »re wnnliippcd together. 
*" Dhartliir**haniiwm. Tho «atao epithet is applied to Mitrs and Yarug* in », 
, and Y«roMtt it eaBsd tkn,,html«Ihri:, "mpporta of cro»lurw, M in it. I, J. 



and Yaruna, when ye formed all these creature* of the world by your 
power, Mitra waits upon Varurja with tranquility, whilst the other 
fierce (god i.e. Indra) is resplendent along with tho' Xf acute. 6. The 
one ovcrcomca the destructive enemy ; the other with few repels many." 
rii. 83, 9 ; I'ritlniAi ant/ah tamitlwku jiyfamU tratuni anyah ahhi 
rtk*h*U Huld | " The one {Indra) Loves to slay enemies in battle ; tho 
other (Varuna) always maintains his ordinance*." vii. 84, 2 : Pari no 
Kelo Flarwpuya vrijyah uruti nah Indrah ijiaaiad h hkam | "Do thou 
remove from us the wrath of Yaruna ; may Indra open to us on ample 
space." vii. 83, 3 : Kriih\\r anyo dhurayati pratiktAh rfiUrlini any*$ 
apratini hanti \ " Tho ono sustains tho separate creatures ; the other 
slays unequalled onomies." So, too, their joint action is described in 
other verses. Thus they are said to have dug the channels of the 
rivers, to have impelled the sun in tho slty (vii. 82, 3: anu *pd& 
lki*i airinlam tjai& tHryam airayatam diii pmbhttm), nnd to have 
Bade all creatures (ibid. 5). All the other gods are said to havo 
Hrfawd strength and vigour into these two in the highest heaven 
(ibid. 2 : rises dec&nah paramc vyomani •«& tarn ojo rritkand tarn bul<tik 
imikmk). Tbcee passages nro consistent with tho supposition that tho 
two gods were felt to havo been rivals, and that the author of the hymn 
sought to reconcile their conflicting claims, but they arc not conclusive, 
for Vishnu and Indra are aluo joined together in tho samo way in some 
hymns, i. 155 ; ft 69 ; vii. 99, 4 ff. (toe tho 4th VoL of this work, pp. 
64, 71, 74 ff.) ; as are also Agni and Indra in others, L 21 ; i. 108; j. 
109; iii. 12; v. 86; vi. 59 ; Indra and Yayu in i v. 46-48; Indru and 
l'ushnn in vi. 57 ; Indra and Soma in vi. 72 ; vii. 104. 

A number of verses occur in different parts of tho P.ig-veda (r«. i. 
I | iv. 23, 7; v. 2, 3, vii. 18, 16; x. 27, 6; x. 48, 7) in which 
tho epithet anindra, "ono who is no worshipper of Indra," is em- 
ployed; hut it docs not appear Unit it ia applied to persons who wero 
not worshippers of Indra in particular, as distinguished from other 
Aryan gods, but either to tho aboriginal tribes, who did not worship 
either him or any other Aryan god, or to irreligious Anas, or rather, 
|.» generally, to evil spirits as the enemies of Indra. In other 
places (as I havo ubovc noticed, p. 104,) wo find sceptical doubts ex- 
pressed regarding Indra. 

The twelfth hymn of the second book is devoted to the glorification 



of lndra. The first and second verses are as follow* : 1 . To j<Uak 
mi prathamo maruuvun deto devun kratunil paryabhuthal | yatya huh- 
mid rodtui abhyauUlm nrimnatya mithnd m jamUah hvdrah | 2. Yah 
j>jith\t\Si ryatham&ndm edrimhad yah perratdn prakupitun aramn&t | 
yo attar iktkam vimame tar\ya yo dyum aitobknat *o jan*\wh Indrth | 
" 1. lit; vt ho, as soon as born, the first, the wist-, surpassed tbo gods in 
force : at whose might the two worlds trembled, through the greatness 
of his strength, ho, o men, is lndra. 2. Ho who fixed the quivering 
earth, who settled the agitated mountains, who meted out the vast 
atmosphere, who established the sky, — he, o men, is lndra." The 
following versos all end in the same way, by declaring that lndra is he 
who hail performed the several nets, or possessed the various powers, 
which they specify. This might appear as a polemical assertion, 
against gainsaycrs, of Indra's claims to recognition as a fit object of 

In z. 48, 11, lndra is introduced as saying: AdilydnUSi r«*6*6A 
rudriyanftm dtrv devanaff, na miiwmi dhilma | le mil bhmdrCtya iarmm 
tutakthar aparujitam at/p'tam a*h&lham | "I, a god, do not assail the 
rank (or glory) of the Adityas, the Vagus, or the son* of Rudru. who 
have fashioned me for glorious power, and mado mo unconquerable, 
irreversible, and unassailable." 

In viii. 61, 2, it is said : Ayujo atamo nribhir ekah kriJtfir ayH$yak \ 
purclr «li pra varridh* ziiv& J&luni ojasii itytidi | 7. PtsVfl ft lndra 
tlryaM dctiih auu kratufn dadiih | 12. St t yam id rai u tarn rayon* 
Jndraik tturdmti ne'inritam | mahiin OtWtwU radho iJniri fyttlMlki *»*- 
catth | "2. Without n follow, urn quulk-d by men, lndra, alono, un- 
conquered, has surpassed in power many tribes and all creature*. 7. 
All tin- gods yield to the lndra in valour and strength. 12. May wc 
praise ludru truly and not fuUely : great destruction falls upon him 
who pours out no libutions to ludru, JU while he who does offer them is 
blessed with abundant light." 

In iv. 30, 1 ff. lndra is described as having no superior or equal 
(.Y//.v/r Imlra had ultaro na jyaydn atti Vriltrahan \ nakir era ynthu 

•" There b another hymn (x. SO), each Ter»c of which ends with the words "lndra 
ia tnponor t> uli ; " bul the drift of the liynill in too ulxciiru lo admit of tnjr deter* 
.- whether it hai any polemical tendency or not. 
'" ThuMntnuent sppcin to be repeated firoin i. 101, I. 



tram), and u having alone conquered nil tho goda in battle. Anil in 
vii. 21, 7, it is said that even the former gods subordinated their powers 
to hi* divine glory and kingly dignity (aVruf e&it te aturyyiiya pvrve 
ana hhattrftya mamirt tahilmit). In the following passages (formerly 
quoted in the 4th toI. of this work, pp. 85 IT.), it is said that all 
of the gods are unablo to frustrate the mighty ducda and 000 
of liidra (ii. 32, 4); tliat no one, whether god or man, either sur- 
passes or equals him (vi. 30, 4); that no one, celestial or terrestrial, 
has been born, or shall be born, like to him (vii. 32, 23); and that by 
battle ho has acqnired ample space (or wealth) for the god* (vii. 98, 8), 
It is oven eaid (i. 101, 3) that Vamna and Siirya nro subject to tho 
command of Indra (yatya rrat« Faruno ynnyn SaryaA) ; and in x. 89, 
X, '..', the latter is besought to destroy the enemies of Mitra, Aryaman, 
and Varuya (thereby evincing, of course, his superiority to those throe 
gods) (pra yt Jfitratya Farunanya dhilma ynjam na janAh minanti 
Uitram | 9. Pra ye Mitram pra Aryamannm /lurenih pra »angirah pra 
Fantnam minanti \ m amitretltu vaiham India tumraift rri*han rrithnnam 
artuham Hilhi). 

All these texts, however, which arc so laudatory of Indra, may bo 
paralleled in the Rig-vcdu, not only by similar one* referring to Mitra 
and Vararja (as wo have seen above), but also by o farther set of text*, 
in which other gods nro magnified in tho samo stylo of panegyric. 
This U in accordance with the practice of the Indian potts to exag- 
gerate*" (in a manner which renders them often mutually inconsistent) 
the attributes of tho particular deity who happen* at the moment to be 
the object of celebration. Thus in ii. 98, 9, it is said that neither 
Indra, Varuna, Mitra, Aryaman, nor lludra can resist the ordinance of 
Baritri (ho yatya Indro Far una na Afilro vratam Aryamii na minnnti 
Jtudrah); and in vii. 38, 4, that the divine Aditi, and the kings Varurja, 
Mitra, and Aryaman unito to magnify tho same deity [Mi yati* devl 
Aditih grin&ti suraiw dtratya Sadlur juthunu j abhi aamriijo Farago 
yrinanti abhi Jfttraio Aryamii tajotSilh). Again, in i. 166, 4, it is 
declared that king Varuna and the Asrins submit to the power of 
Vishnu (tan* a*ya r»j'& Faruna* tarn Aiviml kratum tatianU M<intta*ya 
ttdhatah). In i. 141, 9, Vnrunn, Mitra, and Aryaman nro said to 
triumph through Agni when ho blazes forth (Irayu hi Ayns Faruno 
■ S«0 Mullor't Anc. In). Lit pp. 634 ff. 



dhritavraU ilitrah iitiadro Aryan)). In fab 5, 4, the same god i» 
besought to consume those enemies who menace the stable abode* "* of 
Varuna and the wise Mitra ( pra tan Ajnir lttina$at . . . pra y« mi- 
nanti Varunatya dktima priyn Milraiya ehtUslo d\rur&*i). If, therefore, 
wo were to infer from p a ssag es like L 101, 8 (which dedans Varuna 
end Surya to be subject to Indra), that the worship of Indra wm 
beginning to gain ground on that of Varuna, we should hare, in liku 
manner, to conclude from the other text* just cited, that the worship 
of Savitri, or Vishuu, or Agni, was beginning to supersede that of all 
the other deities who arc there subordinated to them, not excepting 
IuJi a himself. 

(12) Indra at rtprmnttd in U* hymn* ;—« mttrical ttttck 

.lie following veraea I have endeavoured to combine in one 
BictDM the most snlicnt and characteristic points in the represen- 
tations of Indra, which ore contained in the hymn*. It will bo seen 
that Borno part* of the sketch arc translation*, nearly literal, of rerscs 
ixTiiuing there; that other portions are condensed surnraaiiea of epi- 
thet*, or descriptions, which arc by far too numerous und too similar 
to each other to be all reproduced in detail ; and tliut a third class ef 
passages contains au amplification, and not an approximate rendering, 
of the texts of the original on which they ore I'lim! 1. 

(1) Lu Hat ion oj Indra to the taerifict. 

Hear, Indru, mighty Thunderer, hear, 
Bright regent of the miildlo sphere ; 
List whDc we sweetly ring t i 
In now, and well-construrted, lays, 

irymn.1 d<-!>iy framed bj pott ricfllod, 

As nrtijmns a chariot build. 

Come, Indrn, come, thou mueh-invokpd, 

Our potent hymn thy steeds has yoked ; 

Thy golden car already wait* 

Thy plasma ai thy pidace-gatce : 

«• Onhnsoccs.— Roth, j.c. dkn 



Friend Indra, from the sky descend, 
Thy course propidoiw hither b 
Conic .straight, anil may no rival p: i 
Prevail to draw thee from our fiust. 
I,, t uo one catch thco unaware*, 
Like bird the artful fowler snare*. 
All is prepared ; the Soma draught 
Is sweet as thou hast ever qoafl 
And w« will feed with corn, and t 
Thy coursers at their journey's rn.l. 
But, Iiidni, though of OS llum thin 
And our libationa gladly drinkest, 
We, mortal men, can only share 
A humble portion of thy care. 
We know how many potent ties 
Enchain thee in thy paradise. 
Thou hast at home a lovely wife, 
The charm and solace of thy lift ; 
Thou host a ceaseless round of joy*, 
Which nil thy circling hours employs — 
Joys such as gods immortal know, 
Ungnosaed by mortals hero below. 
But, brother Indra, come-, benign, 
Accept our gifts, thou friend divine. 
Come, Indra, come in eager haste. 
Oar hymns to hear, our food to taste, 

1 >vct lured by female charms. 
Who rushes to his mistress' arms. 
Accept our sweet and grateful song ; 
Come, wo will not detain thee lung. 

(2) Jndra't birth. 

Rear, Indra, while thy birth we sing, 
The dceib, thy greatness, glorious king. 
Old father Sky 31 * and mother Earth 
Both quaked, confounded at thy birth. 
M DyaassZ- 



Tli Sky exclaimed, at that great, right, 

" Thy father was & stalwart wight ; 

Of most consummate skill was he, 

Tho god whose genius) fashioned thoe." 

Tin' ihl'ril of ■ t'orco 

Sprang forth from a transcendant source. 

A blessed mother bore thi child, 

And fondly on her offspring smiled, 

I.. !, lliug then, with pride and joy, 

Tin- might and glory of the boy. 

11 needed not a tedious length 

Of autumns to mature Ids strength ; 

Hi* force he felt as won as born, 

And laughed all hostile powers te scorn. 

Om pfag bis deadly shaft*, in pr> 

Of prowess, thus the infant fried : — 

*' Where, mother, dwell those warriors fierce 

Whose haughty hearts those bolts raiwt piereo ?'* 

And when thy father proved thy too, 

Thy fury, Indra, lnid him low. 

Wlto vainly sought thy lilr to r.ike, 

Winn thou didst sleep, when thou didst wake? 

Who, Indra, in his vengeful mood, 

Thy mother doomed to widowhood ? 

V hiit god stood by, thy wrath to fire, 

When, seizing by the foot thy sire. 

Thou amot'st him dead, in youthful ire ? 

(3) Indra i arrival. 

Fulfilling now our ardent pru 
Tin god approaches through the air. 
On, on, he cornea, majestic, bright. 
Our longed-for friend appears in sight. 
His brilliant form, beheld alar. 
Towers stately on his golden car. 
Fair Aunlikc lustre, godlike grace, 
And martial fire illume his face. 


Yet not one form alone ho bears, 
But various shapes of glory wcars 4 
His aspects changing ut his will, 
Transmuted, yot resplendent still. 
In warlike semblance sec hint stand, 
Bod lightnings wielding in Ids hand. 
The heavenly, hi* diining team, 
With all tho peacock's colours gleam. 
Hi listless, snorting, on they fly, 
As swift as thought, across tho sky ; 
Ami ma bring nigh their mighty lord, 
To us, his friends, a friend adored. 
Now Indra from the sky Amanda j 
Yes, yes, to us his way he wends. 
Although we see him not, wo know 
He now is present hero below. 
Within our hallowed pririncfn placed, 
He longs our grateful feast to taste. 

(4) Indra inriird to drink ih« Som/t draught. 

Thou, Indra, oft of old hast quaffed 
With keen delight our Soma drought. 
All pid* the luscious Soma love, 
But thou nil other gods abo\ -ft, 
Thy mother kn well this juico 

Was fitted for her infant's use. 
Into a eup she crushed tho snp, 
■\Vhi< h thou didst sip upon her lap. 
Yes, Indra, on thy nntal morn, 
The very hour that thou wast born, 
Thou didst those jovial tastes display 
Whieh still survive in strength to- 1 1 
And once, thou prince of genial souls, 
Hon say thou drainedst thirty bOwifc 
To thco the soma-draught* proceed, 
As streamlets to tho lako they Coed, 
Or rivers to tho ocean speed. 




Our cup is foaming to the brim 
With Soma pressed to sound of hymn. 
Come, drink, thy utmost craving slab •, 
Like thirsty stag in forest lake, 
Or bull that rooma iu arid waste, 
A Ti.l burns the cooling brook to taste. 
Indulge thy taste, and quaff at will , 
Drink, drink again, profusely swill, 
Drink, thy capacious stomach fil 1. 

(5) Praia* of Soma. 

This Soma is a god ; he cures 
The sharpest ills that man endures. 
He heals tho sick, the sad he cheers, 
He nerves the weak, dispels their t'c:u-, 
The faint with martial ardour fires, 
With lofty thoughts the bard inspires. 
The soul from earth to I lift*; 

So great and wondrous arc hi* gifts. 
Men feel the god within their vein*, 
And cry in loud exulting strains: 
11 We've quaffed the Souin bri 
And are immortal grown; 
We've entered into light, 
And all the gods hare known. 
What mortal now can harm, 
Or foeman vex us more ? 
Through thee beyond alarm 
Iramortid god, we soar." 
Tho gods themselves with pleasure feel 
King Soma's influence o'er them steal; 
And India once, as bards huve told, 
Thus song in merry mood of old : — 

(6) Indra't drinking-song. 

" Yes, yes, I will be generous now, 
And grant the buid a horse and cow : 



I've quaffed the soma-drougbt. 

These draught* impel me with the force 

Of blosta that sweep in furious course : 

I've quaffed the soma-draught. 

Thcj drive mo like a car that speeds, 

When whirled along by flying stt < • 

These hymns approach mo fondly now, 

As hastes to calf the mother-cow. 

I torn them over as 1 muse, 

As carpi -71 trr the leg lm hr\\-. 

The tribes of men, the nations all, 

I count as something very small. 

Both worlds, how vast soe'er they he, 

Don't equal even the half of da. 

The heaven in greatness I surpass, 

And this broad earth, though vast her moss, 

Come, let me as a plaything seize, 

And toss her where soe'er I please. 

Come, let mo smite with vigorous blow, 

And send her flying to and fro. 

My half is in the heavenly sphere, 

1 '•. | drawn the other half down hero. 

How great my glory and my power 1 

Aloft into the skies I tower. 

I'm ready now to mount in air, 

Oblations to the gods to bear : 

I've quaffed the Boma-draught.** 

(7) Indra drinks tfte libalion. 

And not in vain the mortal prays, 
aothiag loth the god obeys, 
The proffered bowl ho takes; 
Well trained tho genorouB juice to drain, 
iioSs it once, he quaffs again, 
Till all his thirst be ddBM. 

•' drinkiag •sag" is 4 ttmtuUtioa, u wo hnro already seen, p. 91, nearly 
, of lh« l!«t* byoaof tOa 10th Book wf lh« Rig-roJa. 


And soon it* power the Soma shows, 
Through Indra's veins tho influence flowa, 

"With fervour flushed he stand* ; 
Ilia forehead glows, his eyes are fired, 
His mighty frame with force inspired, 

Ilia towering form expands. 
Ho straightway ralla his brave allies. 
To valorous deeds oxhorta, and cries — 

" Stride, Vishnu, forward sttida j 
Come, Marut*, forth with mo to > 
8ee yondor Vjittra stands afar, 
And waits tho coming of my car ; 

Wo soon ihall crush hi* pride." 

(8) Intra, att«ndtt by th$ Mar uU, tttt out U> ntntnltr VriUra. 
Amid the plaudits, long and loud, 
Wliiili hurst from all tin' ht M i crowd, 
Channel by the sweet and magic sound 
Of hymns pronounced by bards HD01 in d, 
Viewed by iidmiring tnwps of friends, 
The valiant god his car ascends. 
Swept by hia fervid bounding Htceds, 
Athwart the sky the hero *\» 
The Marut-hojt3 hu escort form, 
Impetuous spirit* of tho storm. 
On Hushing lightning-cars they ride, 
And gleam in warlike pomp and prido : 
Each head a gulden helmet crests, 
And glittering muil adorns their breasta; 
Spears on their shoulders rest, their hand* 
Bear arrows, bows, and lightning-brands. 
Bright tinkling anklet* deck their feet, 
And thought than they is not more fleet ; 
Like lions' roar their voice of doom ; 
With iron force their teeth consume. 
The hills, tho earth itaelf, they shake, 
All creatures at their coming quake ; 


Their headlong fury none can stay, 
All obstacle* are swept away. 
The forest'* leafy monarchs tall 
Before their onset crashing fall, 
As when in fierce destructive mood 
Wild elephants invade a wood. 

(9) Jndra'$ conflict aith Frittr*, 

Who is it that, without alarm, 
Drill i tin: ntgbf of Endm'a tan ; 
That Blonds and sees without dismay 
The approaching Maruts* dread array; 
That does not thim, in wild affright. 
The terrors of the deadly fight ? 
'Tis Vrittra, 1 " he whose magic powers 
From earth withhold the gcniul showers, 
Of mortal men. the foe malign, 
And rival of the race divine, 
Whose demon host* from age to ago 
With Indra war unceasing wage, 
Who, times unnumbered, crushed and slain, 
Is ever newly born again, 
And evermore renews the strifo 
In which again he forfeits life. 
Perched on u steep aerial height, 
Shone Yrittra'a stately fortress bright. 
Upon the wall, in martial mood, 
The bold gigantic demon stood, 
Confiding in his magic arts. 
And armed with store of fiery darts. 
And then was seen a dreadful Bghl , 
When god and demon met in fight. 
His sharpest missiles Vrittra shot, 
His thunderbolt* and lightnings hot 
He hurled as thick as rain. 

131 Th« ifcncn who pcrtoniCc* iLrought, aid it »Uo called 8'ttthn* mid AM. 



The god his fierce* rage defied, 

His Hunted weapons glanced aside, 

At Inilra launched in vain. 
When thus he long had vainly toiled. 
When all his weapons had recoiled, 
His final efforts had been foiled, 

And all his foreo consumed, — 
In gloomy and despairing mood 
The baffled demon helpless stood, 

And knew his end was doomed. 
The lightnings then began to flash, 
The direful thunderbolts to crash, 

By India proudly hurled. 
The gods themselves with awe wore stilled 
And stood aghast, and terror filled 

The universal world. 
Even Tvnshtii eegc, whoso master-hand 
Hud forged tho bolts his art had planned, 

Who well their temper knew, — 
Quailed when he heard the dreadful clang 
That through the quivering welkin rang, 

Aa o'er the sky they flew. 
And who the arrowy showw could stand, 
Discharged by lndra's red right hand, — 
Tho thunderbolts with hundred joints, 
Tho iron shaft* with thousand points, 
Which blaze and hiss athwart tho sky, 
Swift to their mark unerring lly, 
And lay the proudest foemon low, 
With sudden and resistless blow, 
Whose very sound can put to flight 
The fools who dare the Thunderer's might ? 
And soon the knell of Vrittra's doom 
Was sounded by tho clang and boom 

Of lndra's iron shower ; 
Pierced, cloven, crushed, with horrid yell, 
Tho dying demos headlong fell 



Down from his cloud-built tower. 
2Tow bound by Sushna'H spell no more. 
The cloud* discharge Bub liquid store ; 
And, long by torrid sunbeams bukod, 
The plains by copious showers are slaked ; 
The rivers swell, and sea-ward sweep 
Their turbid torrents broud and deep. 
The peasant views, with deep delight 
And thankful heart, the auspicious sight. 
His leafless fields, so sere and sad, 
Will soon with waring crops be clad, 
And mother Earth, now brown and bare, 
A robe of brilliant green will wear. 
And now the clouds disperse, the blue 
Of heaven once more comes forth to view. 
The sun shines out, all nature smiles, 
Ilcdccmed from Vrittra's power and wiles ; 
The gods, with gratulations meet, 
And loud acclaim, the victor greet ; 
While India's mortul votaries sing 
The praises of their friend and king. 
The frogs, too, dormant long, awake, 
And floating on the brimming lake, 
In loud responsive croak unite, 
And swell the chorus of delight. 

(10) Tndra'tgre<tine*$. 

What poet now, what sage of old, 

The greatness of that god hath tohl , 

Who from his body vast gave birth 

To father Sky and mother Earth ; 

Who bung the heavens in empty space, 

And gave the earth a stable base ; 

Who framed and lighted np the son, 

And made a path for him to ran ; 

Whose power transcendent, since their birth 

Asunder holds the heaven and earth, 



At chariot-wheels arc kept apart 
By axle* framed by workmen's art? 
In greatness who with Ilim can vie, 
Who fills the earth, the air, the sky, 
Whose presence tmpcrccivcd extends 
lUyond the world's remotest ends ? 
A hundred earths, if such there be, 
A hundred skies full short of thee ; 
A thousand Buns would not outshine 
The effulgence of thy light divine. 
The worlds, which mortals boundless deem, 
Tci tin! lmt u a handful seem. 
Thou, Indru, art without a peer 
On earth, or yonder heavenly sphere. 
Thee, god, such matchless power* ad 
That thou without a foe wast born. 
Thou urt tho universal lord, • 
By gods revered, by men odorvtL 
Should all the other gods conspire, 
Th'. •>• could not frustrate thy desire. 
The circling years, which wear away 
All else, to thco bring no decay j 
Thou bloomeBt on in youthful force, 
Whilo countless ages run their course. 
Unvexcd by cares, or fears, or strife, 
In bliss serene flows on thy life. 

(11) Indra't relatiom h hit «w*Ai/>/wr«. 

Thou, Indro, art a friend, a brother, 
A kinsman dear, a father, mother. 
Though thou hast troops of friend*, yet we 
Can boast no other friend but thee. 
With this our hymn thy skirt we grasp, 
As boys their father's garment* clasp ; 
Our ardent prayers thy form embrace, 
As women's arms their lords cnlaci j 



They round thoo cling with gentle force, 
Liko saddle-girth iiround a horse. 
With faith wo claim thine aid divine, 
For thou art ours, and we are thine. 
Thou art not deaf; though far away, 
Thou hcurest oil, whnte'er we pruy. 
And in not liko a lazy priest, 
Who batten* ut the dainty feast, 
Site still in self-indulgent vase, 
And only cares himself to please. 
Come, dole not out with niggard hand 
The brilliant boon* at thy command. 
Thy gracious hands are wont to grunt 
Profusely oil thy servants want 
Why is it, then, thou sittest still, 
And dost not now our hopes fulfil ? 
If I were thou, and thou wert I, 
My suppliant should not rainly cry. 

thou a mortal, I dhin. , 
In want I ne'er would let thec pine. 
Had I, like thec, unbounded power, 
I gifts on all my friends would shower. 
Shed wealth, us trees, when shaken, ruin 
Their ripo fruit down upon the plain. 
Thy strong right hand, great god, wo hvld 
With eager grasp, imploring gold. 
Thou const our longings all fulfil, 
If such shall only be thy will. 
Liko headlong bull's, thy matchless fore© 
Strikes all things down that bar thy course. 
Art thou to gracious acts inclined ? 
Then who shall make thec change thy mind ? 
Abundant aids shoot forth from thee, 
As leafy boughs from vigorous tree. 
To wifeless men thou pi vest wives, 
\n<\ joyful muk'st their joyless lives. 



Thou givest sons, courageous, strong, 
To guard their aged sires from wrong. 
Lands, jowcls, horses, herds of kinc, — 
All kinds of wealth are gifts of thine. 
Thy friend is never ulain ; hie might 

fa rifvi i mated in the fight 

Yes, those who in tho battlo's shock, 

Thine aid, victorious god, invoke, 

With force inspired, with deafening shout 

Of triumph, put their foc-s to rout. 

Thou blcMcat those thy praise who sing, 

And plcntooua gifts devoutly bring ; 

But thou chastuKst ull tho proud, 

Tho niggard, and tho faithless crowd, 

Who thine existence doubt, and cry 

In scorn, "No Indra rules on high." 

Tl»: rich can ne'er thy favourites he, 

The rich who never think of thee. 

When storms arc lulled, uud skies are bright, 

Winc-swillors tront theo with despite. 

When clouds collect and thunders roar, 

The scoffers tremble und adore. 

No deed ia done but thou dost see ; 

No word i(t said unheard by thee. 

The futcs of mortals thou dost wield ; 

To thy decree the strongest yield. 

Thou dost the high and fierce abate, 

The lowly raisoat in their place. 

But thy troc friends secure repose, 

By theo redeemed from all their woes, 

From straits brought forth to ample room, 

To glorious light from thickest gloom. 

And thou dost view with special grace, 

The fair-complexioned Aryan race, 

Who own the gods, their laws obey, 

And pious homage duly pay. 

section vrr. 


Tlio following hymn, R.V. t. 88, affords a picturesque description of 
ParJAD) a, the thundering rain-god : 

r. 83, 1. Athha tada tavatam g'trbhir dbhiA tluhi Parjanyam nainasu 
M | ianikradad t rithabho j'i radii nuh reio dadAati othadhitA* gar- 
bham | 2. Pi triteh&n Aanti ttta hanti raksAaao ti&cam bibh/tya bhuranam 
mahiivadhat | uta antiguA ItAatt rfithnydvato yat ParfanyaA itanayan 
ha»t\ dtuhlcrifafy | 3. Rathlea taiayA 'han abAihhipann dri'r datum 
krinule varthySn aha \ dQrtit timhatya ilanathuh ud \rate yat ParjanyaA 
kririiite vanhyaih nabltah \ A. Pra vdttih vunti pataytmti tidyutah ud 
ashtidhlr jihaU pintata nah | iVd riivasmai bhucantiyn jfiyalt yat Par* 
janyaA pritAivlih rettftd 'rati \ 5. Yatya trait prithici tumnamlti yatya 
vratt laphacaj jarbhurUi | yatya vrafo othadhlr riirar&puh ta nah Par- 
fanya mahi iarma yachha | 8. Din no vruhfim Month rarldhtam pra 
pinrata trithno ascatya dAdrdA \ arvan etena slanayiintmu' d ihi opo 
nithxnehann aturah pita nah | 7- Abhi kranda itanaya garbham u Atf 
udanvatd pari diya rathtna \ driiim tu kar*h« nisAitam ftyantAam tamdh 
bhacanlu vdrato nipSdah | 8. MaAantafn kofam ud asha niiAiittha *ya*- 
dantuth foilyah tithitdh puraxtut | ghrittna dyucd-prithivl pi uttdhi 
tvprap/inam. bhavatu oghtiyubhyah \ 9. Tat Parptnya kanikradal itana- 
yan hafnti duthkritah \ prati idam riiram modate yat kineha ppthicyutn 
adhi | 10. Atartklr tartAam ud u tu gribhiiya alar dhanu'ini ati 
ttacai ii | ajijanah othadhlr bhajandya lam ttta prajdbhyo avide ma- 
nU/idm | 

1. "Address the powerful (god) with those words; laud Fnjanys ; 
worship him with rcrcrcucc : tho procrcataTo and stimulating fructifier, 
resounding, sheds his seed and impregnates tho plants. 2. He splits 
the trees, ho destroys tho Rakshasee | the whole creation is afraid of 



the mighty stroke; eren the innocent man flees before the vigorous 
god, whoa Parjanyn thundering smites the evil docm.*" 3. Liko a 
charioteer urging forward hi* hones with a whip, the god brings into 
view his showery scouts. From afar the lion's roaringB arise, when 
Parjanyn charges the clouds with rain. 4. The winds blow, the 
lightnings full, the plants shoot up; the heaven fructifies ; food is pro- 
duced for all created things, when Parjanyn, thundering, replenish?* 
the earth with moisture. 5. Parjanyn, before whose agency the earth 
bows down, at whose operation all hoofed cattle quiver; by whose 
action plants (spring up) of every form ; do thou grant us thy mighty 
protection. 6. Grant to us, lb ruts, tho rain of the sky; replenish 
the streams of tho procrcativc horso ; como hither with this thy 
thunder, our divino father, shedding waters. 7. Resound, thunder, 
impregnate, rush hither and thither with thy watery chariot. Draw 
on forward with theo thy opened and inverted water-skin ; lot tho hills 
and dales be levelled. 8. Raise nloft thy vast water-vessel, and pour 
down showers ; let the discharged rivulets roll on forward ; moiston tho 
heaven and earth with fatness; let there he well-filled drink ing-places 
for tho cows. 9. When thou, Parjnnya, resounding and thundering, 
dost slay tho evil-doers, the whole universe rejoices, whatever lives upon 
tho curth. 10. Thou hast shed down rain; now desist; thou hast 
made the waterless wastes fit to bo traversed; thou hast generated 
plants for food, and thou hast fulfilled tho desires of living creatures." *" 
Psrjanya ia also celebrated in two other hymns of tho Rig-vcda, viz., 
vii. 101, 102. The latter consists of only three verses, and tho former 
is Ism spirited and poetical than that which I hare translated. It 
assigns to Parjanya, however, several grander epithets sad functions 
than are found in the other, as it represents this deity as tho lord of 
all moving creatures (vii. 101, 2: ye tikatya jagato dtvak lit); declares 

«** There do** not «*m to be any sufficient reason to understand evildoers here, 
sod in verse 9, of the cloud demons, who withold rain, or simply of tho malignant 
clouds, u S4yona ia hb ox plantation of Terse 9 (papalfHo m*f\ai>) does. The pott 
may naturally hum tuppoerd that it ni exclusively or principally the wu'lced who 
wwe itraclt down by thunderbolts. Dr. lluhlur thinls the cloud-di-raoru are meant 
(Orient and Occident, i. 217, note 2). 

*° This last clause ia translated according to Professor Roth's explanation, «.r. 
"•»«»>, Wilson, following Barana, readers " verily thoa boat obtained laudation 
from the people," sad Dr. BUhlcr given the name avaie ■ " thoa hast received praise 
•turn the creatures." iVspaoAya* may of coune be either a dative or ablative. 



that ell worlds (or creature*), and the three sphere* abide in him (ibid. 
4 : yatmin riivdn! hhtttanAni tatthiu titro dyticak) ; thot in him in tho 
soul of all things moving and stationary*' (ibid. 6: tcttainn atmd 
ityatai Uututkai cha) ; and designate* him as the independent monarch 
(ibid. 5 : narijt). In vii. 102, 1, he is colled the eon of Bvaua or the 
Sky (2fcr<M pwtriya). Farjnnya is also mentioned in various detached 
verses in the K. V., via. iv. 67, 8 ; v. 63, 4, 6 ; vi. 52, 8 ; vii. 85, 10 ; 
viii. 8, 1; viii. 21, 18; ix. 2, 9 ; ix. 22, 2; x. 66, 6; x. 88, I, 8; 
x. 169, 2. In vi 49, 6; vi. 50, 12; x. 65, 9 ; x. 66, 10, he is con- 
joined with Vita the wind (Parjanya-tAU, Vdta-parjanya), and in vi. 
52, 16, with Agm" (Agmparjnnyau). In ix. 82, 3, ho is called the 
father of the great leafy plant soma (Parjmyak pita mahitkttya pm- 
ninak | compare ix. 113, 9). 

Parjanya forms the subject of two papers by I)r. 0. Buliler, the one 
in Engliah in the Transections of the London Philological Society for 
1859, pp. 164 if., and the other in German in Bcnfcy's Orient und 
Occident, vol. i. (1862) pp. 214 ff. The latter of these paper* is not 
however, a translation of the former. The former contains on English 
version of the hymns R.V. t. 83 ; vii. 101, and vii. 102 ; to which the 
German article adds a translation of A.V. iv. 15, a hymn consisting of 
sixteen verses. The English paper contains a comparison of Parjanya 
with tho Lithuanian god Pcrkunas, the god of thunder, which is not 
reproduced in the German essay. Dr. Diihlor holds Parjanya to have 
been decidedly distinct from Indra (Transact Phil. 8oo. p. 167, nod 
Or. und Occ. 229). In the English paper he says (p. 161) • "Taking 
a review of the whole, we find that Parjanya is a god who presides) 
over the lightning, tho thunder, the rain, and the procreation of plants 
and living creatures. But it is by no means clear whether he is ori- 
ginally a god of tho rain, or a god of the thunder." He inclines how- 
ever to think that from the etymology of his name, and the analogy 
between him and Pexkunas, he was originally tho thunder-god (pp. 
161-167). In bis German essay, his conclusion is (p. 226) that 
Parjanya is " the god of thunderstorms and rein, tho generator and 
nourishcr of plants and living crcfituros." 

»W Compart i. 1 16, 1, vrhere the simc tiling u said of SHrra, 




Vayn, the wind, as wo have already hood, ia often associated with 
lain. Htealni.2,4; i. 14, 3 ; i. 23, 2 ; i. 135, 4 ff. (d itf« ratio 
niyntrdn wtsAart «it<M* a&Ai' praydSui tudhitCni tltaye i«Zyo hacyani 
w\t*y$ | pibatmm moAkeo andkatah pureaptyain hi «JiS hitam | "Let 
your car with team of bones bring you to our aid ; and to the offering* 
which are well-arranged for eating ; Viyu, the oblations [arc wcll-ar- 
raaged) lor eating. Drink of the soma, for to yon twain belongs the 
right to take the first draught;" and see the next verse); L 189, 1 ; ii. 
41, 3 ; it. 48, 9ft; it. 47, 2ff. ; t. 61, 4, 6f. ; Tii.90, 5ff. ; vii. 91, 4 ff. ; 
x. 66, 9 ; x. 141, 4. The two gods appear to bare boon regarded by tho 
ancient expositors of the Veda as closely connected with each other ; 
for the Nairuktas, as quoted by Task* (Xirukta, vii. 5), while they fix 
upon Agni and Surya as the representatives of the terrestrial and 
celestial gods respectively, speak of Vftyu and Indra in eonjnnetion, as 
deities, cither of whom may represent those of the intermediate sphere ! 
Tim ok ma tUtatCh iti NairuktAfr Agnih pfithirl-itfolno FOyur v<l Iniro 
c«I antarHtha-tthanah ifiryo dyu-»(hdnah | "There are three gods ac- 
cording to the Nairuktas, vix., Agni, whose place in on earth, VAyu, or 
Indra, whose place is in the air, and Surya, whoso place is in tho 
heaven," etc. 

Voyu docs not occupy a very prominent place in the Rig-veda. If 
we except the allegorical description in the Purusha Siikta, x. 80, 13, 
where he is •aid to have sprung from the breath of Purusha {prtiQaJ 
V&t/ur aj&yata), or unless we understand vii. 90, 3 (rtiyt nu yaihjajnetuh 
roidUl iow I •* Ho whom the two worlds generated for wealth ") to 

Bert that he was produced by heaven and earth, 1 am aware of no 
paawgn whore the parentage of Vftyu is declared. lie is, however, 



raid to bo the son-in-law of TVaahfti &&• 26, 21 f. 6iw Vayo fitatpaiU 
Tctuh\ur jiimafar adbkuta \ avafnti a erinlmaha | 22. T^uhfur juma- 
taram tayitm iiiinam rayah 'imahi \ tutavanto V&yum dynmtw jandtah \ 
21. "Wo aak thy succours, o Vuyu, lord of rites, wondroos soo-in- 
law of Tranhtfi. 22. "Wo men offering libations resort to Viijrn, 
Tvastyri'B son-in-law, the lord of wealth, and seek for splendour") ; 
but his wife's name is not given.* 15 But few epithets are applied to 
him. He is called darlata, "sightly," "beautiful," or " conspitious' 
(i. 2, 1), and tupmrattanu, "most handsome in form" (riiL 26, 
24). He is naturally described aa krandad-Uhfi, "rushing noisily 
onwards" (x. 100, 2). Together with Indra, ho is designated as touch- 
ing the sky, swift as thought, wise, thousand-eyed {dnitpriid, monger*, 
viprH, eahanitithS, i. 23, 2, 3). He moves in a shining car, drawn by 
a pair of red or purple horsos (L 134, 3 : VSyw y unlit* rthitA Fuyur 
aruna), or by several teams of horses, ckandr«*« rathena, niyuteata 
ratfona (iv. 48, 1 ; i. 134, 1 ; i. 135, 4 ; iv. 47, 1), Ilia team fa 
said to consist of ninety-nine, of a hundred, or even of a thousand horses, 
yoked by his will, i. 135, 1, 3 {tahatrenn niyuti | niyuibhih iatimlbhih | 
Mahatrinlbhh |) ; ii. 41, 1 (tahatriwa rntAflsa*); iv. 48, 4, 3 {rahantu 
tea mtnwyujo yuktuto natatir nava) ; vii. 91, 6 ; vii. 92, 1, 5. As before 
mentioned (p. 86), Indra and Viyo frequently occupy the same chariot, 
iv. 46, 2; iv. 48, 2 {Indra-t(trathih \ Vayo); vii. 91, 6 (/mfacdjra 
aaratham ydtam arriik), which has its framework of gold, which 
touches the sky, and is drawn by a thousand hones, iv. 46, 3, 4 (a 
k!m nhairam harayah IndravAyH Mi prayah \ tdhont* mnmiplUya \ 
rathaih hiranyaiandhuram ** IndrarSyd avadharam \ S hi ithuiho dm- 
apriiam). Vuyu, hke the other Rods, is a drinker of soma. In fact, he 
alone, or in conjunction with Indra, was, by the admission of the other 
gods, entitled to the first draught of this libation, i. 131, I ; i. 1 35, 1.-1 
(tubhyam hi pdirpplUiyt det&h dtr&ya yemir* | 4. PHrvaptyaik hi r4* 
hit-am); iv. 46, 1 (<m* hi pGrrapOh tui); v. 43, 8; vii. 92, 2 (pr* 
pad rdA tnadhrah agriyam bkaranti adhtaryatah) ; viii. 26, 25.*" It is 

n * Sijaoa riTM no lirlp. II* mrrrljr nji : ttka kit ha iliiasadtHir «fy— forjrt | 
"This ttorj is to be learned from the Iuhisu, etc." In the Section oa Twain we 
ilall t*» that aecordiag to R.T. x. 17, 1 f. he bad • daughter called Siragra, who 
wa» the wife of Virarrat ; but Tirsrrat i* not identical with Vara. 

i* Begirding the word v*nJ\*n> see s note is the Secttoa oa lbs AsVins. 

m Oa this subject wo nod the foUowiay story in the Aitarejs Brthmwpt, ii 23 : 



remnrknble that Yiyu is but rarely connected with the SfaruU or 
1 of the storm; but in one place (i. 134, 4) he is said to fan* 
begotten them from the rivers of heaven fafrwa y * JJnnito taiihanubhyo 
iivah a valthanahhyah); and in another place (i. 142, 12) to be at- 
tended by Puahan, the Morula and the Yi9ve devaa (PiUhaniate 3far*l- 
vate tiicadnAya Tflyair). 

The following hymns arc addressed to Vi'itn (another name of tho 
god of tho wind). Tho imagery in the first is highly poetical : 

X. 168, 1. I 'Slaty a nu nunhmUnam ratfuteya rujnnn tti ttanayonn anja 
fh;tkttK | dieiippif ffdti ttrunam' kriHiwnn uto Hi pfitbiry&h 
**y<tn | 2. Sam prer&l« anu vAUuya cuhfhdh A MAR gaehhanti mmadh 
no y.-uhah. | t&bhih saipift mratMaift dtvah It/all UJ*. riirtuija bhuvamuya 
rajtl | 9. Anlarikihe palhibhir lyamAtvo no. hi viiate katamath thana 
ahah | tip&Hi mkhH prathamajoh paUtti I M I 7 jilluh kutah AbabhQea | 
6tmd detunum bhuvaiuuya garb/to yalhuvaium eharati derah uhah \ 
phoa/iiii id atyt tjimvir* ua rupnm ttuwu haviiAd ridhema \ 

" I- (I celebrate) the glory of Vatu'a clmriot; its noise come* rending 
and resounding. Touching the sky, he moves onwurd, making nil 
things ruddy : and he cornea propelling the du.-t of tfaa earth. 2. Tlio 

IWS fr Mi Stmatya nijna'ar'ijieyt na samapuJayann "aham ptalhamah pibtyam'' 
"aAam pralhatatlf fniryam' ity era akumai/anta \ It wampaiaganto 'Annan " ki*m 
ijim •yrima MyoMdA i(j/MAya<i « pr*tr\*m*l) wmatya paryali" Hi | " ItlSH" Hi | 
14 ujim tytu) | try bam Hjim y.iiYlm aaJniritifiiaiam Yaytr muklurm prmtMama* prafy*. 
pajytla a! ha Mr* 'Ik* MHrnrar^at a/la Mritttm | to 'tti /**>« I'oyhm ud t*i 
jmyali Hi lam inn pmrapalat | M b* "na* alb* nfrayir*" •>• \ " " M " ifjr abrathl 
"aAam arm itytaayami" iti j " tftUyam. ma'tba mjayUta" Hi \ "a»" Hi ha era 
aaratrJ-'atUm m* w/jribyimi" Hi \ " Imriyam m* '!'■ 

ttartyt 'tfhrjala | 1*1 luriya-hkiia /mini 'bktival tribrVig Vhyttk \ tarn aaka tarn 
SmJrarnyu wUjayttom uha MUr*Mr\tncm * .l.'r ftUM | "TBe Jfod« (hd not OgTC* 
I RfarA to tho lint draught >.•( kin^ Suim ; but <*.•!« • i I «t m« drink 

t drink Unit." Cat coming to an tmuijftrocnt, Out Mid : ' Come, let 
run • race, and the rkte »lull fimt drink the Somu .' . mid Hi»t 

TIut ran a rare accordingly ; and vben ilicy KUrtml and ran. Vfiyu ftrst raached 
i goal, then Iodra, tlictt Mitra and VaruM, ind lut the .U'linv India thought 
i atigat beat Vsya, and h« followed him fln«*!y ; and uid ' Ltt ua two now be tho 
.' rejoined Vara, ' 1 alone shall be tho winner." 'Let us to win 
that I shall haTt a third (of tho draught),' uid Indra. ' No,' said Vara. 
•I alone shall be tbt winner.' • I.<t aj «i win tojretliir tliat I shall hare tbe fourtli," 
continued Indra. • Agreed,' said Viijru. He gave him a right to the fourth, so Indra 
haa «a« share out of four and Viva threo. So Iedra and Vt/n TCI t-c^tlur, ns did 
Mitra and Varoga, and the two At'riiu rotptctivcly." Sc« the story <jf nottMr 
similar eettleaeat hj a race in the Ait. Br. iv. 7 f. 



vayc, hymns addrksskd to nm. 

gusts (?) of the air rush after him, and congregate in him as wom<m in an 
assembly. Sitting along with them on the same oar, the god, who is 
king of this universe, is borne along. 3. Hosting forward, by paths in 
the atmosphere, he never rests on any day. Friend of the waters, 
first-born, holy, in what place was he born ? whence has he sprung ? 
4. Soul of tliu gods, source of tho universe, this deity mores as ha 
lists."* His sounds have been hoard, but bis form is not (seen) : this 
Vnta let us worship with on oblation." 

x. 186, 1. Fatah a ritu bktthajam iamblm maytbhu no kriir | 2. Prm 
nah ayifiahi Utrithtt \ «U Y&U fiUk '* mk *U Mr JM uta rah takhd \ 
M HOJiv6t«V4 kfidki | 3, Yad aio Vat* U gfilu umritwya nidhir hitah | 
Uto ru> dtfo j'nan | 

" I. Let Vata, the wind, waft to us healing,*" salutary, and auspi- 
cious, to our heart : may he prolong our lives. 8. And, Vata, thou art 
our father, our brother, and our friend : cause us to live. 3. From the 
treasure of immortality, which is deposited yonder in thy house, o 
Vata, give us to live." 

Here the same property is ascribed to Yata which is elsewhere 
ascribed to Rudru, that of bringing healing. 

*** Compare St. John's Ooqwl, iii. 8 I Tie wind blew eta where it lirtetfj, - ' rtc 
**♦ Compare i. 89, «. 




(1) Thair parentaya, tpithtta, tharocttrittici, and action. 

The Maruts, or Rudraa, the gods of the tempest," who form a large 
troop of thrioe sixty (viii. 85, 8 : trih afuuhfis tvA Mnrtdo wytfld 
*<!*), or of only Iwenty-Mjvcu (i. 133, 6 : tritaptaih iura taical>hik), m 
are the sons of Rudra and Friini* w {Rudnuy* marydk | Rudratym 
amimtah | Rudnuya ruisun | Rudnuya pulrdh \ Han pilre maruU'm 
•nby«U nxhah | pilar tnarutdm . . . Rudra | Priinim wthanla mdtaram | 
ad As pitaram iiAmiwin Rudram twhanta | ywed pilA arapdh Rudrah 
tihi'in* md«ghu Priitiih audind marudbhyah \ Pfitiiimdiarah | aHta 
Priknir makate ramAya ttv*4«wt aydf'm JfaruiAA anikam j QomdtaraM | 
Gaur dhayati Marutd* irataayvr mild mayhon&m [),** or the speckled 
cow(L 64, 2; L 85, I £.; i. 114, 6; i. 168, 9; ii. 33, 1 ; iL 34, 2; 

■*» Prof. Benfar, in s not* to R.V. i. ft. 4, says that the Maruu (their iinmc bring 
■crieed fron mar, • to dis,*) are peTsonlBearions of the eouk of the deputed. 

™ Sea- also A.V. xiii. I, 3, where ths tame smaller number U giren : IritAuplaM 
m0rm t * Jk mraJutammtUik. Sayaaa interpret* th« words of K.V. -riii. 28, 5, mptt»aSt 
mpta riVAfye*. | ■ The seven lure seren spears," by owing tint it refers to an 
■nriant ilorv of Indra envering thr rmliryn gf liiiti inlo scren parti, from which 
■prang Um Marut* according to the Vedic kit : •• The Maruu are dirided into seven 
troops." The sams story u told st greater length by Sfiysna on R.V. i. 1 U, 6, 
• here, however, it is said to be Dili, mother of the Amiris, whose embryo Kdre 
several Unl Into seven portions, each of which he thai »ubdi« idid into saren. See 
the 1th vol. of this work. p. 256. 

**• This word is regarded as a personification of the speckled elouds in Roth's 
Illustrations of Nirakta, x. 39, p. 145. In hi> T.niron the same seholsr ssys that 
like other deaigaations of the cow, the word u eruplored in ratios* ijermtn* ind 
■1 refrmaook, to dsnute the earth, Um clouds milk, the vjricguled or starry 
bea'en. On 'y»s>s rcfrra (»• an alternative ciplansitiow) to a st«ry of 

Rudra. as a bull, begetting the M«iul» 01 1'ii'ui. las Earth iu the fuiin of a ojw. 

«s» The Tsitlirtva SsnhiU, ii. 2, 11, 4, says: i>w».»ni cot pay*— wmnHtjdtiJ, \ 
"The JUaruts were born from Pruni's milk." 



V. 42, 15 ; v. 52, 16 ; v. 60, 5 ; t. 59, 6 ; Ti. 50, 4 ; tj. 66, 3 ; 
56, 1; viii. 7, 3, 17; viii. 20, 17; viii. 83, 1). They are, howew, 
laid to be like sons to Indru («<i lUnubhir na Rudrebkih, i. 100, 5} ; and 
they are also called nindhu-mutarah, children of the ocean, whether wo 
suppose this to be the aerial or terrestrial sea (x. 78, 6), and son* 
EEemn, diiat-putr&sak (x. 77, 2), and Lico maryuh, iii. 53, 13 ; v. 39, 6. 
See Midler's Trans, of R.V. p. 93. In v. 66, 8, mention is made of 
the chariot of the Mamits " in which RodasI stood bringing enjoyments, 
in company with the Miiruta" (d yasmin taethau swrajuJiM bihhratt 
tachd maruttu Itodtul). On this Sayurja remarks that Rodaal is the wife 
of Rudra and mother of the Marats; or thut Kmir.i in the Wind (Viyu), 
and his wife the intermediate or aerial goddess, (liodatl Rudratya patnl 
marutum viutu j yadvi Ritdrv Vflyuh \ (nt-yatni mudhyamtkd Jed). They 
are frequently associated w ith I ud re, at we have alreudy seen; — (compare 
the expressions which describe thorn as his allies mid friends, and as 
increasing his strength and prowess, at the same time that they 
celchrnt*- his greatness : Marutratitam lndtam \ Indra-jytihfhah marud- 
gamih | nakhibhih nvibhir eveih | yt U ituhnam y« tati$Kim atardhann 
arthantah Indra maruttu tt ojah \ piha Rudrebhih tayaaah | yt tr& unu 
ahun Vritlran adadhut tubhyam ojah | arehunti tvu Xfxrulah p&tadakki* 
tram mhilm rhhir fndrtUi dhirah \ TiudnUab Indnuantah | ayam fndrt 
Marut-ukhA \ llphad IndrAya gQyata menilah | i. 23, 7. 8 ; i. 100, 
1 ff. ; i. 101, 1, ft ; iii. 32, 2, 4; iii. 85, 9; iii. 47, 1, ff. ; iii. 61, 7 
ff.; v. 29, 1, 2, 6; v. 57, 1 j rii. 32, 10; rii. 42, 5; viii. 30, 1 ff; 
viii. 52, 10 ; viii. 65, I ff ; viii. 78, 1 ff. ; viii. 85, 7 ff. ; x. 73, 1 ; 
x. 99, 5; x. 113, 3) ; — but they are also celebrated separately in 
numerous by mns (as i. 37; i. 38; L 39; i. 64; i. 85; i. 86; i.87; i. 88; 
i. 166, which, with others, arc rendered into Knglr-h and illustrated 
in the 1st vol. of Professor Muller's Translation of the R.V.; see also 
i. 167; i. 168; v. 52; v. 53; t. 54; r. 65; T. 56; vii. 56; vii. 57 
vii. 58, etc.) They are favourite deities of some of the rishis, and are 
often praised in highly poetical strains. They are like blazing fires, 
free from soil, of golden or tawny hue, and of sunlike brilliancy (y* 
agnayo nn ioiuchann idhunfih \ nrmnrah \ hiramyAtah \ tHryatvaehah | 
arunapiavah \ vi. 66, 2; vii. 59, 11 ; viii. 7, 7). They are also com- 
pared to swans with black plumage (haihsuio nlla-prUh(hilh, vii. 59, 7); 
and are sometimes said to be playful as children or calves (Jcrllmti 



krllvk | itinl&k na kf}(ayak $umat«rak [ vaMio nit prakrtfinah \ i 
'J ; vii. 56, 16 ; x. 78, 6). They are thus apostrophized in r. 51, 1 1 : 
aOiwhu rah riihfayak pattu kkSdayo rtikthasiu rttkmah llaruto rath* 
iuhkih | agnibhnijiUo tidyuto gabkattyoh iiprilh iir$ka*hu vilatah hirm- 
nyai/Jk \ " Spears rest upon your shoulders, ye MuruU ; ye haTe ankk'U 
on yoar foot, golden ornaments on your breasts, lustre in your caw, 
fiery lightning* in your hands, and golden helmets 04 placed upon your 

°* In ii. 84, 3, tli* «pith»t of /itrtnyn-iipi'ih it npplinl to the»e deities. Thia 
SJj«o» explain* by mwui" •f''b> '* with golden belmete." That one 

aen*e ol iiprA (feminine) is "a head-dress, or a helmet," U aotilcd by the Terse in (lie 
utt. t. 64, 11, where the word* arc /iprah {ink*** ritntuh AiAiwynyi/i, ■ 
helmets an stretched or (placed) upon your heads ; " and also by viii. 7. 36, where it 
it said, iipra) Jirduto AirdgyAytA . . . rymyitta iriyr, " they displayed for ornament 
golden helmet* on their head*-" In the Ant of those passages, S "•)» n » interpret* iiprak 
as meaning a ' turban,' in the Meond • ' helmet' It thu* appear* that iiprah, in these 
si Irut, mu>( mean something external to the head, and not a feature of the 
face ai iiprtt is often interpreted, when applied to Indra. Thus tiuipra ia explained 
by Siynrja on i. 9, 3, ax meaning iahk**a-hm*a MJuina-miiika ro, " biting haiidsonio 
ft**, or ■ handsome note ; " since Ynaka, he says, makes iiprm to mean one or other 
of these two parte of the faec (Nirukta, vi. 17). Tbo same explanation it gi»cn by 
Sayaoa on i. 20, 3 ; i. &1, \ ; and i. 101, 10. On iii. 30, 3, however, the same com- 
■rtvUtor says: t'tpra-hbdma tinutrdyim atlndkiyati \ JoMtin«*ir«*(niQ(jittak\ 
fade* /ttKano-hummun | " By th* word Upra, a liolrnot is signified. Siuipra 
therefore means ' baring' s handsome helmet,' or it means 'having handsome jawa.* 

ii, S , iii- :ifi, 10 ; riii. 93, ,, 34 , »iii, 3:t, 7 ; viii. 65, 4 ; he return. 
latter interpretation. On riii. 17.4; viii, 81.4; viii. 82, 13 j bo again gives the 
alternative ciplsnstion sa on iii. SO, 3. Professor A afrecht hat favoured me with a 
note on the subject of the word iiprm and ita derivative*, of which tbn following are 
tbe most important part* i S"ipr* in the dual meant jawi (i. 101, 10 ; iii. 13, 1 ; v. 
36,3; viii. M, 10; x. 09, 'J ■. x. 105, o). giprammt msaat "having large j»w«" 
3). 8"ipr*H meant the tome, and ia u»cd only of India (i. 39, 8; i. 81, 1; 
iii. 36, 10, *4c. etc.). S'iprig', as Professor Aufrtebt considers, moaos " a draught 
(imbibed by the jawa) ; " and he trauelatea L 30, 11, tliua : " ^Partake, our friend, 
wieMer of the thunderbolt, of th* draughU of as thy friends the turns-drinkers, 
thou who art fund of Soma." tfipr^ivat (a. 105, 6) will thus be "he who 
poantais the draught." Sipivh in v. 14, 11, and viii. 7, 36, are "Titers,* the 
two parte of which are compared to two jaws. Ay«k-4ipta, used of the KiMm* 
(ir. 37, 4) will consequently mesa "having iron visors." The word e-ccur* in 
other com po u nd*, to which I need not here refer. I am not rolBcicntly acquainted 
with the armour of India to know whether anything like a riser was or ia used 
by warriors in that country. It is, however, customary for the Hindus in parti- 
ealar dreasastanes* (as for protection from the heat, and oUo from th* cold, and fee 
p«rpo*es of disguise) to wear their turbans not only wrapped horijonUlly round their 
beads, but also to tie another cloth perpendicularly under their chins and over too 
top* of their hand*, thu enclosing the tides of their face*. This is called in the ver- 
nacular Hindi tfaofAu tonJkmi. Tbe word sttsfAo it explained in Shakespeare 
liinduataai Dictionary, *.r. as •• a haudkerchiaf tied Of rr the turband and over tbo 



head*." Compare i. 64, 4; i. 166, 10; if. 84, 2, 8 {dy&f nm rtribhii 
chitayanta khudinak | " adorned with rings, they were conspicuous like 
tin- sky with its stars ") ; v. 23, 4 (whore, in addition to their ornament* 
and their weapons, they ore said to have been decorated with garland* : 
yt aujuhu ye ulilshtt nobhdnavah, irakthu ru&mcthx kkuditku | ir&y&k 
rathetku dfuiitcettu) ; t. 55, 1 ; v. 57, 5, 6 (every glory ia manifested in 
their bodies : viitA rah irlr adki tanitik* pipift) ; t. 58, 2 {khadfluutam); 
Tii. 56, 11, 13 (anuahu to Ifarvtah khudayah "• | " on yonr shoulders, 
Maruta, ore rings"); viii. 7, 25 ; viii. 20, 4 {iubhrakhadayoh), 11, 22; 
x. 78, 2. They are armed with golden weapons, and with lightnings, 
dart thunderbolts, gleam like flame* of fire, and arc borne along with 
the fury of boisterous winds {vtdyunmahato naro aimadidynto vdlalcieho 
Martttah, v. 54, .1) ; viii. 7, 4, 17, 32 [eajraAtutaih . . . marudbhib . , . 
MranyatH$\lhih) ; x. 78, 2, 3 (e&lau na y* dhunayo ftyalHttro agninSim 
na jihe&h cirokinah) ; they h p 1 1 f Vi-iitrn into fragments (viii. 7, 23: 
ri rrittram parraio yayuk) ; they are clothed with rain {rarth/imr- 
nijah, t. 57, 4) ; they create darkuoss oven during the day, with tho 
rain-clouds distribute showers ail over the world, water tho earth, 
and avert heat i. 38', 9 (rfi'rd (hit tamnk kjinvanti parjtmyena vdscA- 
hma | yat prithit\fn ryundanti) ; v. 64, 1 {jmdhCya marutuya . . . 
ghiirv\a-*tubht) ; T. 65, 6 (ud Irayatha Mnrutah tamttdrato yftyaih rruh- 
fiih tarshayttlha purUhipah) ; viii. 7, 4 (rapanti monito mi ham | 16. 
ye draptah ka rodaiX dhamanli anu rri*k{Mib). tm They open up a 
path for the sun, viii. 7, 8 {trijanti ritimim ojaail pantkam eQry&y* 
yutave). They cause tho mountains, the earth, and both the worlds to 
, i. 39, 5 {pro copayanti parcatfln) ; i. 87, 3 (rejatt bhiimiA); 
t. 54, 1, 3 {parvatachyutah) ; v. 60, 2f. {re bhiyH pritkul chid rcjaU 
panatai chit j parvatiti chin vtahi rriddho bibhUya ditni chit $anu rcjute 
tpane eah) ; vii. 57, 1 {ye rejayanti rodatl chid urrl) ; viii. 7, 4 ; riii. 
20, 5. They rend trees, and, like wild elephants, they devour the 
foreata, i. 39, 5; i. 84, 7 (vi vinelumti tanatpatin | mrig&$ ka hatlinah 

*" On th* vmm nf the word kkaJi %ec Miillor'i Tram, of the R.V. p. 103 ud 210. 

a* Ia t hvran nf tho A.V. it. 27, vtrae 3, tb« ManiU are (aid to gira aa impulae 
to tic milk of cow*. th» Mp of pltaU, ia* ipaod of honm (pofm JkmimaA rmmm 
otkadKinawt javom tmlom kstaija f* inrethn) ; and in tho 4th rem tb«T an 
deieribsd at raiung the vatora tram the m* to tho tkj, and as distharginir them from 
th« tky on (ha otrth {apak l um mdrid *»•<■ nJfMamti din$ pfUhwim abk* jm 



i rand). They have iron teeth (aywAiiwiiA/rdii, i. 88, 5) ; they 
roar like lione (*imhdk mm n*n*kti, i. 64, 8) ; ell creatures aro afraid 
of them, i. 85, 8 (kkayant* viie-a bhueand mamdbhyah. Their weapons 
aro of various deacriptions — spears, bowa, quirera, and arroira (trUlm- 
cntsk fithfimaulak ( t»kumanlo ni*ha>uji*ah), i. 87, 2 ; v. 57, 2. Their 
coarsen an swift as thought (vtttnnjurak, i. 85, 4). They ride, with 
whips in their hands {ktiilh hatteshv, i. 37, 3; i. 168, 4), in golden 
can (kiranuarathdh, t. 57, 1), with golden wheels (Jkiranytbkik 
pavibhih | kirant/o-cfairdn, i. 64, II; i. 88, 5), drawn by ruddy and 
tawny horses (with which tho chariots are said to bo winged), and 
flashing forth lightnings, or formed of lightning, i. 88, 1, 2 (d rwf- 
ytmmadbhih raihebhir ruhfimaJbhir airmpnrnaik \ arunebhih piiangair 
ahaiK) | iii. 54, 18 {ndyudralfak Manilah rithfimantah) ; t. 57, 4 
(piinnjdkJih arnnSivSk). Tbo animals by which these chariot* are 
described as being drawn are designated in some places by the epithet 
pri'MM (i. 3", I| i. 39, 6; i. 85, 5; viii. 7, 28), which Professor 
"Wilson — following Sayana on Rig-veda, i. 87, 2"* — renden by 
••spotted deer." But in i. 38, 12, the hone* {ahAsak) of tho Mnruta 
are spoken of, as is also tho case in viii. 7, 27, where they (the horsea) 
axe called kiramya-ptiatbfiik, " golden-fiiotvd ; " though in tho next 
Terse (28) Uie pj-iikat\h aro agnin Bpoken of, as well as a prttkfik 
rokitak, which we find also in i. 89, 6, and which Siiynna understands 
to denote either a swift buck, or a buck yoked aa a leader to the does. 
In I. 87, 4, the troop of Maruto itself roccircs the epithet prith&d-aka, 
"haring spotted horses." This is, indeed, explained by Sayana in the 
sense of " having does marked with white spots instead of horeos;"*" 
but in hia notes on v. 54, 2, 10, and t. 55, 1, where the Maruts' 
horses fere again spoken of (na re ak4k irathat/anta { lymtU ait-aik 
$uyam*bkir Mulkik), he does not repeat this explanation. In v. 55, 6, 
where the Maruts are described as baring yoked prUhadh (feminine) us 
hones {aitCn, masculine,) to their chariot*, Sayana says we may either 
understand •'spotted mares," or Huppose the word "horse** to stand for 

** PrUUtya rtW«-y*WA mfifV karmd.rHkam4.AM.tah | ••pr^kalpaMarutiim" 
Hi Iftfkoadoa ukimttit. 

"• Baaftr, ia au tranalata'oa <4 (hit rem (Ori«nl and Occkfoot, ii. WO) rrUiM 
thesenat of aaulapca. In rii. M. 1, tie MaruU arc (tried rrw'cwA, "baring good 
bow*." which Sirana explains rfeeAan*^**.!*, " baring good cam- M " 



doc {prithalth. . . priahad-varadk radatAk \ iSranyl cS afra aivn-iabd*- 
caeJiy&). In his note on prishatlhiih in ii. 34, 3, he any*, they may be 
doe* marked with white spots, or marct; and he interpret* 
pjuhaOh in v. 57, 3, by oivdk, mares. Professor Aufrecht, who ha* 
favoured me with a note on the subject of the word prinhat'ih, is of 
opinion that, looking to all the passages where it occurs in connection 
with the Maruts, it must mean mares. 1 " Perhaps it is best to hold 
I'n.fcMor M tiller (Trans, of R.V. i. p. 69) UuJ tim Vcdic poeto 
admitted both ideas, as we find "that they speak in the same hymns, 
Ukd even in the ainue verse, of the fallow deer, and also of the horses 
of thfl Murubs." 

In tho following verses, viii 83, 9 ff., high cosmical functions aro 
aaeribed to tho Maruts : <1 yt wiwi /.<■■ /xiprathan rovAosd dieah \ 

Jlamtah iQnwpilvye | 10. Tyan nu piladakakatv din to Mantis A aw* 
atya tomatya pMnyt j 11. Tyan nu ye ri ndctl ta*tabkur Mantle Amw | 
aiya tomaiya pltay* | 12. T>iwi ntt Miirulan ganaih yiriihfhfiit Cfuha- 
mm fiuvi \ atyn tematya pltaye | 9 and 10. "1 invite to drink this 
■mi the Maruta who stretched out all the terrestrial regions, and tho 
luminaries of the sky ; I call from the heaven those Manila of pare 

•" I'rufnetur Aafrecht hue pointed out » number of passages regarding the Senas of 
the worth /truW-iuYa anil pfithut, as Ruyamukut* on Amurs. tbe Vfij. Saeh. xnr. 
bsunt, V. 6, 1, 10, and r. 6, S, 0. ltd bo* also indicated 
another terse of the Rig-rcdii (r. 68, 6), where ppihalihMi in tbe fenuninc u joisstd 
with atVui) in tho masculine (where Professor Mullrr, Trsnt. of R.V. L 6*, would 
translate, "when you comr with the deer, tbe hows, and thcthurinla ") ; and remarks 
that viii. 6s. 10, 11. could not mean that the rishi received a thoannd an las opes. 
(The words are thesi> : dhlTi m* ppii/itinim rrijii Jkiranyariuiim | M tOrak mapktti 
rii/uil | 11. Sahatrt pfUhatinam aJhi ithan<iran\ hfihat pj-ithu | in I ram Airattymm 

od'Jr | " gods, ma; tho bountiful king, tb* gi»«r to ate of tho guld-dc^ked 
pri*h*tU, ncTrr paint I It. I rewired gold, brilliant, hcary. broad, and sbiaiog, 
orer and ahore a thousand pr< '•hath (probably speckled cow») " Suyag* nissi souls 
Indra a» the lKiuntiful piilnm hot, itnd makes tho worahiprH-r pray ti> th« gods that 
lndra may not perish, an erroneotu ll don, surely. Professor Roth appears, 

from a ramark under the word owl (vol. i. p. 1001 of hii Diet.) to h*»e »t m. 
regarded priihatytM at a kind of deer. In hi* explanation of tbi< Utter word itself, 
however (in s later port of his Lexicon, width perhaps had not roachad int when this 
nut* win lint written), hr «ajK that it is a designation of the team of the Manila; 
and according to the ordinary assumption of the commentators, which, bowerer, 
Is not established either by the Xirukla, or by any of the Bruhir.amu known to 
us, dcnoU* spotted sntelopea. There ia nolhinjr, howvMri he goes on to say, to 
prtTeut our underiUadiag the word (with Mnhidhara on Vnj. Sanb. iu 16) to msa 
•potted mores, as mention is froquetilly cnuugh mudc of the hursrsnf the Maruts, 



power. 11. I call to drink this soma. theme Maruts who held apart the 
two worlds. 12. I call to drink this soma that rigorous host of Msruti 
wUat) dwells in the mountains." 

Tho Maruts or Rudnis (like their father Rudra ; see the 4th vol. of 
this work, pp. 253, 2.">9, 2f>l, 2fi3 f., 333 ff.), ore in one hymn, viii. 
20, 23, 25, Bupplicuted to bring; healing remedies, which arc described 
■a abiding in tho Sindhu, tho Asiknl, the seas, anil the hills {marut* 
n/lrvttuya nah el bhethajtuya cakatn \ yad Sindhau yad Atiknyuut yat 
Hunuimk* . . . yat parratuhu bhuhajam). 

(2) Relation* of the MaruU to Indra ; — the rival claim* 
of Ut* too pat 

Professor Wilwa is of opinion (ttig-voda ii., Indroducliou p. vii. and 
notes pp. H6 and 160), that in a few hymns some traces arc per- 
ceptible of « dispute between tho votaries ef the Maruts and those of 
Indra in regard to their respective claims to worship. Thus in hymns 
1S5 and 170 of the first book of the Rig-veda we find dialogues, in the 
first onto between Indra and the Maruts, and in the second between 
Indra and Agastya, in which tho rival pretensions of these deities 
appear. Indra asks, L 1 65, 6 : kxa njil to Marutah ivodktl <Mi 
yon mAm ekam mmadhatta Ahihatyt \ aham hi ucrtu taritha* tueuh- 
mam jrHratyn iatror anamaili tadha-uimh | 7. flhuri rhaiartka ya- 
jyebhir turn* mmilwbkir crukaiha pani!niyebhik | Ihiirini hi irinacOmtS 
iatukfka Indra IroUA Marido yad raid ma | 8. J'ulhim V r Utram 
mania k indriyena trena b/uimena | " Where was your inherent power, 
i ub*, when yc involved me alone 1 * in the conflict with Ahi? It 
was I who, Scree, strong, and energetic, overturned my enemies with my 
■hafts." The MaruU rejoin : "7. Vigorous god, thou host done great 
things with us for thy helpers, tt u ong fl our equal valour ; for, strong 
ludrs, we MaruU by our power can perform many great exploits when 
V* deaire." Indra rep! a* : " 8. By ray own prowess, Maruts, I slew 
Vnttra, mighty in my wrath," etc 

Of hymn i. 170, the Nirukta says, L 5, that "Agastya, having 

pnjoired an oblation for Indra, desired to give tho Maruts also a share 

in it. On which Indra came and complained." {Agattyak Indrdya 

hour nirupya Marudhkyah aampradilmm ekak&ra | ia Mr a A ttya 

m* S<* «W«, p. W, mu. 



pmriinayunrhnJin). The Maruts roply, i. 170, 2 : liik nah 
jighamsari bhrHaro warutat tava \ Ubhih kalpatea UdhtyA ss4 mA 
tamaran* radii ib | 3. Kim no b/irStur Ayiutya talk) mm alt wumyem | 
tidma A» U yatha mono amabhyam in m dthati I " Why doet thou seek 
to kill us, Indra ? The Maruts are thy brother*. Act amicably to- 
wards them. Do not kill us in tho fray." *" Indra then aaya to 
Agastya, v. 3. " Wby dost thou, brother Agastya, being our friend, 
disregard us ? For we know bow thy mind is. Thou wilt not giro 
us anything." — So© Roth'a Elucidations of Nirukta, p. 6.) In i. 171, 
4, also, the rishi, after imploring the favour of the Maruts, says to 
them apologetically: aimud ahum tavithud libamunaA TnirHd bhiya 
3firuto rtjam&mh \ ywthmabhyam httryil nih'tdni Atari t&ni Art chttjitna 
irifiUita nah | "I fled, trembling through fear of the mighty Indra. 
Oblations were prepared for you; wo put them away; be merciful to 
us." (Compare E.V. iv. 18, 11 ; viii. 7, 81, and viii. 85, 7, quoted abore. 
pp. 92 ff., note.) See Professor Mullcr's translation of i. 165, and tho 
full illustrations ho gives of its signification in bis notes, pp. 170 ff., 
179, 184, 186, 187, 189. This hymn ia referred to in the following 
abort story from the Taitt. Brahmana, ii. 7, 11, 1 : Aoattyc manibhyah 
vluhnoh prattkihat \ tun Tndrah ddatla | t« mail cajram udyatym abhyi- 
yanta | ttin Agtutyai ehaiea Indrai eha iayShibblyena afamnyaVlm \ tSn 
fiint/in upiihrai/atn yat tayStubhiyam Lhacati iAntyai \ taimQd tU aim- 
dr&mGruli'ih uithAgah savanlyAh bhiwanti | trayak prathamt 'hann &U- 
bhyantt \ eeaA dvltlye | tcafn tritlye | pancha ultame 'hann AfabhynnU \ 
"Agastya was immolating bulls to the Maruts. These bulls Indra 
carried off. Tho Maruts ran at him brandishing a thunderbolt. Agastya 
and Indra pacified them with the kaydiubhlya " (referring to R.Y. i. 
165, 1, of which the first verso begins with the words kayA tw&Ad). 
" Indra invited them to the ceremony when pacified, for the kay&in- 
bhiya is used for pneification. Hence these bulls are to be offered both 
to Indra and the Maruts. Three arc sacrificed on tho first day, m 
many on tho second and third ; on the last day five are immolated." 

In the following passages (some of which have been already quoted) 
tho Maruts are said to worship Indra, viz., iii. 32, 3 ; v. 211, 1, 2, 6 j 
riii. 3, 7 j viii. 78, 1, 3. 

**' S<« Until on tho Miise of I lib text, i.c l;!p. 




(1) Th4 tuo mn-gcd* »+]>araU!y ttUbmted in (J* fiymu*. 

The great powers presiding over day and night are, as we have seen 
above, suppose*! by the Indian commentators to bo personified in If itra 
and Vanino. But these deities, and especially Varuqa, as doscribod in 
the Veda, are far more than the mere representatives of day and ni-ht. 
They are also recognised as moral governors, as well as superintendents 
of physical phenomena. There are two other gods (also, as has been 
already noticed, p. 64, rockonod in a few passages as belonging to the 
A.lityns), who are exact personifications of the sun, 10 viz., Sfirya and 
8avitri. ,u It is under these two different appellations that the sun is 
chiefly '.clebrated in the Rig-veda; and although it may be difficult t-i 
perceive why the one word should be used in any particular case 

541 In the numeric hymn to Hollo*, rerus 8 IT.. th« ran is thus described : 
ii ptuyf tmrroiax «al Affuraroiiii tio'iau 
7mr<in /ji/J«£adif ■ arjiaoSrev 8* 871 JVpicrrai Jtrjoit 
Xfvafnt in x6pv9of Kanwpal *' ±xtj"»«* 4r ainui 
AiyAifir irr'.Xjlavat, *apk Kfori^uv t« waptia} 
Kafiwpml a»0 Kpuvcs ^aplty *flT#^owri wp6<n^vor 
Tti\mtryis • ti *«pl xjwt A^nrii (Vrffpt 
ktrtov/rjlt, wroifi av/itir- inrh J* ipixtwn trwai 

t*4f if hy* a-r^ita\\ xf»o4(vyar Sp/ia «ai T» mmi 
i<n< pior xiuxriai Si ovparoi 'dmoyirti. 
Retarding the OrueV Ideas of toe divinity of 1I10 sua, moon, anil Mam, the 
reader mar compare the peasage* of Plato cited or r* fared to br Mr. Grot*, Plato, 
in pp. 3S4, 414. 41S, 448. 462. 497. One of these psaaaRCt. from the Ijiwi sfL p. 

821, >a M follow* :— 'ft lymBol. trra+ivii—Ba rvr ii fret (.*•',» 'EUi|ni ««Vt«« 

wrri\M¥ 6Wr, 'Hxiav t« lfx<* ml jyiSjipj Again in the Epinomia p. 984, mention »• 
1 of las visible dciiiea, by which the tUra art meant 1 *<•»■ lr ft*; *•«« 4o«tom, 
ur/dermn aal viauarrarawi *•! 'olvrrrw 'ofaVras varrn, towi weafrea* r»» rfir trrpmr 
«>6>ir At re fop, n.T.A. 



rather than the other, the application of the names may perhaps 
depend upon some different- in tho aspect under which (ho sun is 
conceived, or on some diversity in the function* which ho u regarded 
illing. DiffVrent seta of hymns are, at oil events, devoted to his 
worship under each of these names, and tho opithoU which ore applied 
to him in each of these characters arc for the most part separate In 
some few places, both those two names, and occasionally some others, 
appear to he applied to the solar deity indiscriminately, but in moat 
cases the distinction between them is nominally, at least, preserved. 

The principal hymns, or portions of hymns, in praise of, or referring 
to, Snryaaro tho following :— i. 50, 1-13; i. 115, 1-6; iv. 13, 1-3 ; 
v. 40, 5, 6, 8, 9 ; v. 45, 9, 10 | v. 59, 5 ; rii. 60, 1-4 ; x. 37, 1 IT. ; 
x- 170. Ho is treated of iu Xirukto, xii. H-16. 

(2) S^rya'tpartntaye, relation* to the othtr godt, epithet*, and fan 

In x. 37, 1, Surra is styled the son of Dyans (Dicet puftraya 
Sarydya iaihwta). In x. 88, 1 1, he is called tho son of Aditi (Suryam 
Adileyam), and by tlio sauio title in viii, 90, 11 {Dan makdn sui Sirya 
bat Aditya tiwtuht a*i) ; but in other places he appears to bo dis- 
tinguished from, the Aditya*, as in viii. 35, 13 IT. {sajotkaiii Vthaai 
Sirytna eha Adityair ydlam Mein&). Ushas (tho Duwu) is in one place 
said to bo bis wife (Saryatya yvthtl, vii. 75, 5), while in another 
passage, vii. 78, 3, tho Dawns arc, by a natural figure, said to produce 
him {njljanan iHryaih yajnam aynim) along with Sacrifice and Agni, 
and in a third text, to reveal all the three (praehikilat tdryaih yajnam 
aynim). Surya is described as moving on a car, which is sometimes said 
to be drawn by one and sometimes by several, or by seven, fleet and 
ruddy horses or mores*" (i. 115, 3, 1 ; vii. 60, 3 : ayukta tapta haritah 
tadhattad yah Im rahanti tOryirm ghfit/ichlh) ; vii. 63, 2 (yad ttaio 
vahanli dhurth* yttktah ; compare ix. 63, 7 : ayukta turah ttaiatn paea- 
minah); x. 37, 3; x. -19, 7. His path is prepared by the Adityas, 
Mitra, Arynmun, and Varuua, i. 21, 8 (urwrt hi rajd Varunai ckahlra 
/a pantham ami etavai u) j vii. 60, 4 (yatmai Adity&k adhesma 
radanti JtHro AryamS l'aiunah MJ9th<ik); vii. 87, 1. Pushan goes 

111 Inilri i» «nl to tnrcise the »ky with the lua't hones {*ham Sirytty pari 
fmni niwtkt^pr* i/i.'* raJksminaM quo, x. 4W, 7). ComjisM Ovid's detenptien 
of PhaotWt awes, MeUm. ii. 153. 


ns his messenger with hU gulden hhips, which sail in the aerial ocean, 
vi. 58, 3 (yd* U Puikan whaA antah tamudre hiranyayir anUiriktht 
char ant i \ tabhrir ydii datyam turytuya). He id the preserver and soul 
of oil things stationary and moving, i. 115, 1 (ttiryaA alma jagatat 
Uutuxhaieka) ; vii. 60, 2 {viivaiya Uhiitur yi/jntahha gep'iJf), tho vivifier 
(pratacita)'* of moo, and common to them all, vii. 63, 2, 3 {tadhAranah 
tdryu mantuhGnun | ud u tt\ 'praiaviia jananam). Enlivened by him men 
pursue their end* and perform their work, vii. 63, 4 {nilnafh jamlk 
iQrytna pratfitflh ayann arlhAni krinamnn apQ&si). Ho is far-seeing, 
all-seeing, beholds all creatures, and the good and bad deeds of mortals,*** 
i. 60, 2, 7; vi 91, -J ; viL ;,.'., 8; vii. 60, 2; vii. 61, 1 ; vii. 63, 1, 4; 
x. 37, 1 (afkrOya viiiaehakiho4« \ patyan janmdni tdrya \ Mryah urn- 
tkakthah | riju marU*hu rrijin& cha pafyan | a Mi" yo riser! bkuranani 
ehai\f( | iSrtdrito). He is represented as the eye of Mitra and Vannja, 
and sometimes of Agni ahw, i. 1 15, 1 ; ti. 51,1; vii. 61, 1 ; vii. 63, 1 ; 
X. 37, 1 [chakthwr Mitraiya Varunatya Agiuh | thahhiir Mllratya 
f'arunatya I iiairw Mitratya Farunasya ehakukaw). In one passage, 
vii. 77, 3, TJshas (the Dawn J is said to bring the eye of the gods, and 

*" This word and others dented from the MSN root #* or >«, »rc, at wo tball 
abortir see, rrrv fr«|UMiiK npiilietl to Snviiri. In x. 66, 2, the gala ire said to bo 

•** Tbasatne thing i» iintarallv am! frri|ii«ntly mid of tic bud in classical litcra- 
tnre. Thus Homer sari, Iliad, iii. 277: 

V*'4i or rdfr" /<i«piit koJ voW* ttoMoiiti- n.T.A. 
and *f' n lD ,uc "'"di *** 3<l '■ ' 

ouJ' hr nil tialpaitai j|i'Au/i r<p, 
*&r* ml Hinenav *<A«rai $>dor tfoopda-rttai • 

And in tho Odrwcr, vSL 270 f. : 

iipap 81 oj &7f<Aci< ^Afliy 
"HAtei, J fff>" Ir&riat tuyfaitlvnvt QtA&nru. 
lus in tin Pronirthi'tM Viuctu* ; 
jra] Tip »tty^TTi)» KiiitAor tiAi'tit' caAu. 

IPlularcb. hi* and 0»irt», 12: 
TSt 'P«ai farl «(rf^« vf Kpirtf ovyyjroufnn mirtipitw iwa^lntUt vlr HAi«»- 
So too Ovid, Mrtamnrph, iv. i7I f. : • 

Priam* sdultcrimn Vmeri* cum Mart* putttor 
Hie riiltMc deua . riJot hie dcua omaia primus. 

and vnseslMff.: 

qui quo omnia eeroere debes, 

LruoottiiMCi rpoctu: ot rirginc flgia in ana 
a,aos saundo debes ocnlos. 



lead en tbc bright and beautiful hone, by which Uie sun seems to be 
intended {dtmnnm eliakihuh tubhayu vahantx itrttSt nayanll tudrtilluu* 
a&ram; compare vii. 76, 1 : kratta dttunAn ajaniahfa ehahkvh).™' In 
x. 85, 1, it is said that while tin earth is upheld by truth, the iky i» 
upheld by the tun {tatyenotlabhita bhiimih niryrnotlabhttd dyauh). He 
roll* up darkness liko a hide, vii. 63, 1 {fhanura ynh samrrryaX 
t-awulmti). By his greatness he is the divine leader (or priest) of the 
gods, viiL 90, 12 {mahna detCmum aturyeh pvrohitah). In viiL 82, 1 
he is identified with Indra, or tict certd, Indra with him. In x. 170, 
4, the epithcta ciivaiarmaii, the architect of the universe, and cifaad*- 
vyaett, possessed of all divine attributes, are applied to him (as in viii. 
87, 2, Indra also is styled mieakarman and cibauUra). In vii. 60, 1 , 
and vii. 62, 2, ho is prayed at his rising to declare men sinless to 
llitrn, Vorurju, etc. (yad adya S&rya bravo an&gdh udyan Iliiruya 
Varunaya taiyam). 

(3) Subordinate pi>silion somttimat tusigmd to him. 

In many passages, however, the dependent position of Surya is 
asserted. Thus ho is said to have been produced, or caused to shine, or 
to rise, or to hare his path prepared, etc., by Indra, ii. IS, 7 {yah 
Surytut yah Uthatam jttjuna) ; iii. 31, 15 {Indro nnbhir ajanad 
d:i/ifiinah tiliam Saryam uthaMiii gdttim Agnim) ; iii. 32, 8 (Jejuna 
Suryam tuhatam) ; iii. 44, 2 (tOryam haryann arochsyah) ; iii. 49, 4 
(Janitu $ilryo$ya); vi. 17, 5; vi. 30, 5; viii. 78, 7 [a iSryatk rekayo 
divi);** viii. 87, 2; x. 171, 4 (tvaSt lyam Indra turyam paieha $a»Um 
pura* hfiihf) ; by Indra and Soma, vi. 72, 2 (uf *HryaA nayatho 
jyatithd laha) ; by Agni, x. 3, 2 ; x. 156, 4 (A pit* nakihatram ajar am 
A uiryaii) rohayo rfi'ri | dadhaj jyolir jnntbhyah); by the Ushases (Dawns), 

w In r. 49. 3, fi, sad x. 10, 9, the eye #f the tun is spoken of; and in x. 16, 3, 
the irtimty of the eye to the *un u indicated. In A.V. v. 24, V, the saa is said to I* 
the lord of eye* (luryat c habA mV'm mJMpattA), oiid in A.V, iiii. 1, 45, lie i« wkt to 
see beyond! too sky, the earth, and the waters, and to be tbt too cy« of created things 
[iuryu dj/<lm turyah prithivim turyah apo 'lipaiyati \ tutya tkutatf* iktim ehskilmr 
iiruroh.1 dirnm mil km). 

*** In hit nolo on thii passage (riii. 78, 7) Saynn* relaUs a lcgnnd, that formerly 
the P»ui» had carried off the cow* of the Angirue*, and placed them on a mountain 
enveloped in darkness, -when Indra, after being lauded by the Angina**, aad suppli- 
cated to restore the com, caused the sun to rise that he might see them. 



yiL 78, 3 {ajljaman tHryam yqptam aynirn) ; by Soma. ri. 44, 23 (nyaift 
a*rye adadhaj jyelir antak) ; ix. 63, 7 ; ix. 75, 1 ; ix. 86, 29 (Aim 
jyotiiuJn' pnvamdna turf/aft) ; ix. 96, 5 (jimu'M tuiyatya) ; ix. 97, 4 1 ; 
ix. 107, 7; ix. 110, 3); by Dktitri, x. 190, 3 {i&ryd-tAandramaaan 
Mdta fatAdpirvam akalpayat) ; by Varans, i. 24, 8 ; vii. 87, I 
(quoted above); by Mitre and Varuna, iv. 13, 2 (anu praUm Varum? 
yanti Jfitro yat iQryaA diet arahayatttt) ; v. 63, 4, 7 (iuryeat d dkattha 
AM}; Indra and Varuna, vii. 82, 3 {mryam airayatam dit.i prabkum); 
by Iadra and Vishnu, vii. 99, 4 fwmii yajn&ya cka&rathur u UkaA 
jamm/antn turyam mfuuam aynim), and by the Angirasca through their 
rites, x. 62, 3 (y« riV<«a tilryam urohaya* oVri aprathayoH prithic\m 
m<itaraa\ ri). In passages of this dcweriptiuii thu divinu personality of 
the tun is thrown into the background : the grand luminary becomes 
little more than a part of nature, created and controlled by those 
■piritoal powers which exist above and beyond all material phenomena. 
The divine power of Mitra and Yurunn is said to bo shown in the sky, 
where Surya moves a luminary and a bright agent [or instrument] of 
theirs ; whom again tbey conceal by clouds and ruin, v. 63, 4 (ndyd 
rum lliiruiaiunti diti iritd liiryo jyetii eharati ehttram uyudkam \ tarn 
aMrena rr»A/yd guhathe d\tt). lio is declared to be god- bora, x.37, I ; 
to be the son of the aky, ibid. (Aw/'oMy* Mare Dint putrdya SHryiya); 
to Itavc been drawn by the god* from the ocean where he wae hidden 
(x. 72, 7, see above, p. 48) ; to have boon placed by the gods in heaven, 
X. 88, 1 1 [yarfti id mam adadhur yajniyito did dttuk iHryam CdiUyam), 
where ho is identified with Agni ; and to havo sprung from the eye of 
Purushs. x. 90, 13 (cAsAsAoA ttryo ajdyata).'"" He is also said to havo 
been overcome and despoiled by Indra, x. 43, 6 (tamrargam yam maykarii 
airy am jayat),** who, in some obscure verses is alluded to as having 
carried off one of the wheels of his chariot, i. 175, 4 ; iv. 28, 2; 
iv. 30, 4 ; r. 29, 10. 

(4) 1'rantlution of a hymn It S&rya. 

T subjoin, with a translation, the greater part of the picturesque, if 
somewhat monotonous, hymn, L 50 : Ud u tyaih jdtatadatam datum 

*** In to* A.V. hr. to, ft, the urn u uld to hate «pruig from Yritlm (f'p(/ripji*j 
m See ibe iia vol. of this work, pp. M L 



tahanti ktlmoti \ driie vikuya t&ryam | 2. Apa tye t&yaro yathd 
nakikaltrii yunti aklubhih | stiniya vtscaehatnha*e | 3. Adriiram a*ya 
htoco f» raimayo jonan emu | bhrHjanta ngnnyo yaiha | 4 Taranir 
tiftvdariato jyotithkrid a»i ' lurya \ tiknm dbkdti rethanam | 6. Pralyun 
drvilnam cihxh pratyauii ud uhi mamuh&n | pralyafi tiknih tear if\i* | 
6 Km pat oka chakiktua bhHranyantaXi jauan ami | tvatk Varum* 
. | 7. Fi dyuM tthi rajat prithu ahil mimtino aktulki^ | paiyam 
janmi'iui nirtja | 8. Sapta IrA harifo rath* vahanli dera nilrya | tockith- 
cichaktfiiina | 9. ayukla sapta iundhyumh tiro ralhatya naptyah [ 
t&bkir yati arayuktibhih \ 10. Fd viiynm lainnm* pari jyvtitk paiyanttik 
utttiram | deram devatrii idryam agtinma jyotir uttamam \ 

1. " The heralds **' lead aloft this god Surya. who knows all beings, 
(manifesting him) to the universal gaze. 2. (Eolipeed) by tin 
tli« .--t.-irs xlink iiwiiy. like thieves, before thco tho all-brholding 
luminary. 3. His rays rcvculing (his presence) are visible to all man- 
kind, Hosing like fires. 4. Traversing (the heavens), all-con«|>. 
thou crvatcst light, o Surya, and illutninatest tbfl v. h..le firmament. 5. 
Thon rjsc*t in tho presence of the race of god*, of men, and i 

heaven, that thou ninyest he beheld. 6. With that glance of 
thine wherewith, o illuminator, o Varuno, thou surveyest the busy rac© 
of men,** 7. thon, o Surya, pawtSfetMS the sky, the broad firma- 
ment, measuring out the days with thy rays, spying out all creatures. 
V Seven ruddy marcs bear thee onward in thy chariot, o clear-sighted 
Surya, the god with flaming lock*. 9. The son ha* yoked the seven 
brilliant mares, the daughters of the car ; with these, the self-yoked, he 
advances. 10. Gazing towards the upper light beyond the darkness, 
we have ascended to the highest luminary, Sfiryn, u god among tho 
gods." »*» 

■*■ In his trsjwhtfion of R.V. i. 166. 1, Professor Mailer renders kt* by borskl 
(see pp. 197. and 201), * kik which tuits the vene before us tcry wt-U. 

1M See Professor Benfey's trsntlttion, and note (Orient und Occident, i, p MS), 
snd the paaugo or Roth'* Abtmndlungcg (Disscrtationi on the literature sod history 
of the Veda) p. 81 f., to which he rufen; ond in which writer regards the reading 
Mta a* >taadin|t for ;'mwm, tho sec. sing., the but syllable being l«ngthoo*d on 
acennnt of the rnrtre. 
,>J I subjoin & metrical truncation of theso versea : 
1. By luttroui hernbh led on ; 

Tho omnisciont Sun ascends the »lj, 
Ili* glory drawing every eye. 



Tho Ath&rTa-Ycda contains a long hymn toSurya, xiii. 2, partly made 
np of extract* from tho Rig-veda. 

Tho Mahabharata (iii. 166 rT.) also has a hymn to tho same gi<l, in 
which he is styled " tho eye of tho world, and tho aoul of all embodied 
creature**," v. 166 (Ivan bhiirw jayalai ehnkthu* tram utrnd tarta-dehi. 
wlm); the source of till boing*, tho body of observances perforraed by 
thoao who practise ceremonies, the refuge of the Sankhyns, the 
highest object of Yogins, the unbolted door, the resort of those seeking 
unoipation, etc., etc. ; v. 166 f. (Ivam yonih mrva-hhuti'uifim (cam iic/ul- 
raikriySvatrlm | tvato galih iarva-s6nkhyt\ifnh yoyinSH team parr) y a nam \ 
an&tjil&rgaladvCiraih ham yati* learn mumuhihatdm) ; and hia celestial 
chariot (diryam ratham) is referred to (v. 170). He is alao, we are told, 
■aid by those who understand tho computation of time, to be the be- 
ginning and end of that period of a thousand yugna known as the day 
of Brahma (yad oAo Drahmanah proktnm lafuura-yuyrt-iammitarn \ Uuya 
tram adir antai cha kalajnailf iampratirUito$) ; the lord of the if anus, 
of their sons, of tho world 6pmng from Mann, and of all the lords of 
tho Munvantaras. When the time of the mundane dissolution has 
arrived, tho Samvarttnka fire, which reduces all things to asho*, issues 
from his wrath (vv. 185 f.; compare the 1st voL of this work, pp. 
43 f. and 207). 

2. All-seMnjr Sun, the rtars to bright, 
Which g]mra«l throughout th« tombr* night, 
Now icared, liko tbirtoi, slink fiut aw»y, 
Quenched bjr the splendour of thy ray. 

3. Thy beams to men tby pretence shew; 
Like blazing fires tbsy seem to glow. 

4. Coii*pieuou», rapid, source of light, 
Thnu mskest all lh« welkin bright, 

6. In tight of gck, and morUl eyes, 
la sight of heaven thou scal'st tlie skies. 

8. Bright god. thou •cann'st with seaicbirig km 
The doings all of busy men. 

7. Thou ttrideat o'er tho tky ; thy ray* 
Create, and measure out, oat day* ; 
Thine eyo all living things surveys. 

8. o. Seven looSd nans thy i h nisi bear, 
6<lf>yokti]. athwart tho *olds of uir, 
Bright Sfirys, god with lluming hair. 
10. Thst glow above the darkness w* 
Beholding, upward soar to I 
For there among the goib tit y light 
Supreme is seen, divinely bright. M 




(I) His epithets, characUmUtt, and fimcliem. 

The hymna which aro entirely or principally derated to the cele- 
bration of Savitri are the following: i. 35; ii. 38 ; iv. S3; it. 54 ; 
t. 81 ; v. 82 ; vii. 37 ; vii. -15 ; x. 149 ; with muny detached pamiimw 
and verses, such as i. 22, 5-8 ; iii. 60, G, 7 ; iii. 62, 10-12, etc., etc. 

The epithets, characteristic*, and faactions of this god, as described 
in the Itig-rcda, arc as follows: 

Ho is pre-eminently the golden deity, being hirmydhha, golden- 
eyed (i. 35, 8) ; hiranya-p6ni** kiranya-tuuta, golden-handed (i. 22, 5 ; 
i. 35,9, 10; iii. 54, 11; vi. 50, 8 ; vi. 71,4; vii. 38, 2; S.V.i. 464; 
Vsj. 8. i. 16; ir. 25; A.V. iii. 21, 8; vii. 14, 2; rii. 115, 2; ■» 
fiiranya-ji/tva, golden -tongued (vi. 71, 3); tujihva, beantifol-tongued 
(iii. 54, 11; vii. 45, 4); viandra-jtfna, ploatont-toagued (vi. 71, 4). 
Ho invests himself with golden or tawny mail {pliant/am driipim, 
iv. 53, 2); and assumes all forms (t>ijfptl rQpdni prati mUnchatt kavih, 
v. 81, 2). He is also harikeiii, the yellow-haired (x. 139, 1). Luminous 
in his aspect, he ascends a golden cur, drawn by radiant, brown, 
white-footed, horses ; and beholding all creatures, he pursues an 
ascending and descending path, i. 35, 2—5 ; vii. 45, 1 {hiranyayen* 
SatitH rathena aVrii yiti bhuumUni paiyan \ ydti devah pracata yUi 
vthaiu yiti Mriibhyam yajalo haribhyum \ kriianair tiiettrHpam 

*** Sco the twtclcv explanations of this epithet given by tbc commentator ax>d the 
Kaushliakt Brfihrnaaa, as mvntiunwl ia Baku' a and Wilson's boms oa i. 22, S ; aad 
mm alao 'Wcbtr'a Ind. Studicn, ii. 300. Tho nut epithet is given to Saritri ia to* 
Vij. SanhltS. L 19, where tee the commentary. Saritri is alio called prixkv/xini, 
broad-handed (ii. 38, 2), and tup<iy, be-iutifnl-handed (iii. 33, fi ; vii. 45, 4). 
Tvtmatri, too, u sailed MpSflj (iii, 54, 12), •> uc alao Mitia and \ >8, 1). 

»• According to tbc A.V. i. 33, I, be, a* well as Agni, -kjm burn in tbc go l d — - 
cnlnurrd waters (AiVnnyncarfaA Ituhayah pucakoh yon jata/f SarilA yatu Aynih'). 



kiramya-iamyain yaj'alo brihantam A atlh&d rathalh tatiti ckitrabhA- 
**k | tijtm&n iyfoHh iitipSdah akhyan rathnih U n a jf apr aUfSA cahan- 
(nk | wtild turotno onUriitkaprdk tahamHw aivaih). Surrounded Ij 
a golden lustre, hiranyaylm amatim (iii. 38, 8 ; vii. 38, 1 ; vii. 45, 
8), ho illuminates the atmosphere, and all tho regions of the earth, 
i. 8*, 7, 8; iv. 14, 2; iv. 53, 4; v. 81, 2 (r» tuparno aidarikthUni 
akkyat \ atkfau ri akkyat kahthhitk prithivyah \ irdhcam kctam tmiU 
dtro ttfrtj jyotir tifr&imsi bhuvaniiya krintan \ adabbyo bhuranAni pra- 
thlkiial I «' nOkam akhyal Sarita). His robust and golden arms,** 
which he stretches out to bless, and infuse energy into, all creatures, 
reach to the utmost ends of heaven, ii. 38, 2; ir. 53, 3, 4; vi. 71, 1, 
5 ; vii. 45, 2 (viivasya hi ir\uh\ayi derah (irdhvah pra bahaiH prithu- 
pCiHxb titartti | pra b/ihu atrtli Savita tavlmani \ ud u tya dttak Sacitd 
kiranyayA bybti ayafnUa naramlya tukratuk \ ud atya biihii iithiri bri- 
hanUi kiranyayA diet anUln anash(am). In one place, however (vi. 71, 
4), he is colled ayohanu, the iron-jawed, though even there the com- 
mentator says that ayaa, which ordinarily means iron, is to be rendered 
by gold. His ancient paths in the rky are said to be free from dusty 
L 85, 11 {y« U pantfulh SaeiUik pHrtyuso artnarah tukritsh antariktkt). 
He is called (like Varuijo and others of the gods) atura, a divine spirit 
(L 35, 7, 10; iv. 53, 1). His will and independent authority cannot 
be resitted by Indro, TaruQ*, Mitra, Aryamnn, Rudra, or by any othor 
being, ii. 38, 7, 9 ; v. 82, 2 (jwAtr atya tAni rratA dttatya Sariiur 
mmanti | n/i yatya Indro Faruno na Vitro eratam Aryama no minanti 
Itudrak | atya hi tzayaiatUtran Saviluk kttc.h ekana priyam \ na minnnti 
narajyam). He observe* fixed laws, iv. 53, 4 ; x. 34, 8 ; x. 139, 3 
{craiAni devah Sarita 'hhiraktkaU \ Savitti tatyadharmS). The other 
gods follow his lend, v. 81, 8 (yatya prnyiinam ann tinyt id yayur 
AetAh). The waters and the wind obey his ordinance, ii. 38, 2 {Apai 
tkid atya vrata A nimrigrtih ayaiit chid vAlo ranatt parij'maH). His 
praire a are celebrated by tho Vaaus, by Aditi, by the royal Viirurjo, by 
Mitra, and by Aryaman, vii. 88, 3, 4 {api ttulah SatritA dexo att* yarn 
a chid riit« Fatan yr'gtih' I abhi yam dtciAdilir ypnuti laraAdemtya 

■» Indn, loo, u cillnd Kr**y.i-Hlu, goMni-anned, vii. 34, 4. Ag*i it *tid la 
mom aleA bit »m.« like 8aviiri, i. W, 7. la *ii. 79, 3, Ibo IXiwni an Mad to M«d 
fort* light m Sontri ftretcnw out hu arms. In L 1W, J. also the mum of Savitri 

u% alluded to. la vii. (2, 6, Mitia anil Vanina arc nipiili«',«l in mrvlct out 

A* am. 



Sarilur jtuhtind | abhi tamrqjo Varuno gr\*anli abhi Miirdto Aryamfl 
ujothah). lie U lord of all desirable things, and tends blessings from 
the tky, from the atmosphere, and from tho earth, i. 21, 3 ; ii. 38, 11 
(fidndA vary&rtSm \ asmabhyafft tad dito adlhyah prilhivya* hayd datUtt 
kamyam radhah a git \ iafh yat ttotribhyah upaye bhtn&ti mntiaOuAym 
San'tar jaritri). He impele the cor of the Aivins before tho dawn, L 
Si, 10 {t/vtor hi p&rvaSt Sttvitd mhato ratham r»'Wy* ckiiram ghrita- 
tantam ithyali). He is prajupali,'*' tho lord of all creatures, the rap- 
porter of the sky and of the world, and is supplicated to hasten to hia 
worshippers with the some eagerness as cattle to a village, as warriors 
to their horses, as n cow to give milk to her calf, as a husband to his 
wife, iv. 53, 2; iv. 54, 4; x. 149, 1, 4*» (Divo dhartid bhuranatya 

,nlitt I Savitii yantraih prithivlm armmmld atkombhant SmiUi 

idrimluit \ -1. OCmih iru grAmam ywywlhir irdiwl* ttUrnw rafaanfc 

tumannh duhdnd \ paiir \m Jdydm abhi no hi etu dharta divak Saritd 

iirah). In v. 82, 7, he is called vihadeta, "in all attributes a 
god." He measured (or fashioned) the terreetrlal regions, v. 81, 3 
(yah parlhivrtni n" mamo). He bestows immortality' on the gods, iv. 
!>\, 2 ■ Ydj. Sanh. xxxiiL 64 (devebhyo hi prathamam yajniythhf* 
amritatvam nuvaii bhugam uttamam), 03 he did on the Kibhus, who 
by the greatness of their merits attained to his abode, i. 110, 2, 3 

!,i»ya hhuiimiu agachhata Savitur dtiiusho griham \ tat OarUd r» 
amritatcam dtuvat). In x. 17, 4, he is prayed to convey tho departed 
spirit to the abode of the righteous (yatrdmie twkrito yatra U yayut 
intra tvd devah Suvilii dadhatti). He is supplicated to deliver his wor- 
shippers from Bin, iv. 54, 8 (achitti yacJi efinijima daicye jane . . . . \ 
tUrcnhu thii Satitar mutiushtthu eha tvafo no attra nitatdd uniigatah). 

Saritri is sometimes called apdm napdt, son of the waters (x. 149, 
2), an epithet which is more commonly applied to Agni. 

•" In Ike Taittirijra Brihm»n«, i. 6, 4, 1 (p. 117), it is Mid, JVynpaft'A 
thutto prajSh *trijmta, " Ft ■jilpati, beeominj; Savitri, created lirinjj bciBg*," Ob 
the tdfltioa of Santo and Prajipnti «c Weber, " Online uad Portent*," pp. MO, 
902 ; and the poseajrr of the S'uUjmtha Bnltimnnn, lii. 3, 6, I, where it is said that 
paopla are nccuMomwl to identify Savitfi with Frajfipati, l'o My «ra Santa m I-r«ji. 
palir Hi rMb'ftfflA, St*, nte. 

** It it not clear whether it it Saritp or the aerial ocean (m*im«Y«) from whJrt 
earth, atmnphrri-. aud »ky ore caad in x. U9, 2, to hare »pruu)r. See the 4th Tot. 
of thia work, p. 96. 



[2) Ptutagea in which the origin of his turn* tmrnt to hi aUuiod to. 

Tho word Savitri is defined by Y&ska (Nirukta, x. 31 as meaning 
$arva*>/* pr&Mtita, but ho does not explain in what sense pratavitn is 
to be taken. Tho root *u or *a, from which it i* derived, ha* 
principal ai^uiiicu lions, (1) to generate or bring forth; (2) to pom 
forth a libation ; and (3) to send or impel. When treating of deriva- 
tives of this root an applied to Savitri, Sayarja aomotimes gives them the 
sense of sending or impel) ing, and sometimes of permitting or authi n 
(mmtjnd). In a fow places he explains the root as meaning to beget. 
(Tbas on i. 113, 1, he renders pratfkl/L by utpanntl, and tar ah by ul- 
pattih). Tho word prasavitri, as well as various other derivatives of 
the root *u, arc introduced in numerous passages of the Ilig-vcda relat- 
ing to the god Saritri, with evident reference to the derivation of that 
name from the same root, and with a constant play upon tho worda,** 
such as is unexampled in the case of any other deity. 

Tho following ore some of the paaaage* of tho Rig-vcda in which 
these derivatives occur : 

i. 184, 1. Dtto no alra Savitd ntt artham pr&tnvid deipat pro (ho- 
tuihpoi ilyai | "Tho god Savitri hott imp'lled (or aroused) both two- 
footed and four-footed creatures to pursue their several objects." 

i. 157, 1. Prantld drtah Satitd jogat prithok | "The god Saritri 
has aroused each moving thing " (comp. L 159, 3). 

v. 81, 2 (=VSj. 8bh. xiii. 3). Fis'rd r&pani prati mum-hate lerih 
prtUtWd bhodram deipade chotu*hpade \ ci wllam alhyat Soritd cartgyo 
anm pray u nan Uthato virtljati | 5. Uta tilths pratatotya team tlah id 
via Pith* hharati deca ydmahhih \ "The wise (Savitri) puts on (or, 
manifests) all forms. He bath sent prosperity to biped and quadruped. 
Savitri, tho object of our desire, has illuminated the sky. Ho shines 
after the poth of tho Dawn." 5. " Thou olono art tho lord of vivifying 
power, and by thy movement*, o god, thou becomest Fushan, (or the 

i 110, 2. SoudhanvanAiai tharitatya bhamand ayathhata Savitur 

■** Sta Itoth'i TUualralioat of lh« Xirukta, p. "6. I cannot tana an >■■ 
• b*thor this reiturt la the brmna in «innrtion afford* any lufflcitol ground tor regard- 
log thai u irtjaoil ta char*el«, wul eon»*qucnUy a* eomr«r«u'»»lr Utt in tanr 




dahulto grihnm \ 3. Tat Satita to amritatzam tUucat | " Sons of 
Si:<lh:mvan ( liibhus), by the greatness of your deeds ye arrived at the 
houno of the bountiful Savitri. 3. Savitri bestowed on you (attuntt) 
Uiut immortality." 

i. 159, 6, Tad r&dho adya Saeitvr tarenyath voyafii dnatya prawn 
manumahc | "That deairablo wealth wo te-day seek through the 
favouring impulse of tho divino Sontri." 

ii. 38, \, U&u tyah devah SaviiS tatBya taivalamaA tsd-apAk tahnir 
culkat | " Tho god Savitri hath arisen to impel (or vivify) us, bo who 
continually so work*, tho supporter." 

iii. 33, 6 (Nir. ii. 26). Devo anayal SaeilA ntpCgit lasya vayam pra- 
iave yumuh urviA I " The god Savityi hath led (us, i.e. the water*) ; by 
hi* propulsion we flow on broadly." 

iii. 56, 6. Trir 6 diva ft Sacilafr vdrySni dive dice dtuca trir no ahnah \ 
7. Trir & divah Savita sothaclti r&jana Hitrutarvnu tupunl \ " Thrice 
every day, o Savitri, send ue desirable things from the sky. 7. ! 
Savitri oontinuc* to send down (these things to us) from the sky ; and 
so also do tho fair-handed Mitra and Varuna." 

iv. 63, 3. Pra b&hu asriik Suviti sarimam nire&yan pratuviuat tk- 
(utMrjayat | 6. Jtj-ihateumnah praiavilu nivtiano jagatah elfotur ubha- 
y"\>/'' ijo vail | m no detah Sacitd iarma yathhatu | "Savitri hath 
stretched out his arms in his vivifying energy {$avimani* c ), stabliah- 
ing and animating all that move* by his rays. 6. May that god 
Savitri, who bestows great happiness, tho vivificr, tho stablisher, who 
hi lord both of that which moves and of that which is stationary, 
bestow on us protection." 

iv. 54, 3. Aehittl yach cftakrima dairye jane dlnair dal*huih prabhall 
purushvata | dttethu cha SaviUtr munu*he*hu cha trarh no atra ntcatdd 
magaiah | " Whatever (offence) wo have committed by wont of 
thought, against the divine race, by feebleness of understanding, by 
\ inl. 'iicc, iftet tho manner of men, and cither against gods or men, do 
thou, o Savitri, constitute (tuvattit) us sinless." 

v. 82, 3. Sa hi ratniini diihuhe tuviiti Saviti Ilhayah | 4. Adya no 

devah Savilah prajdvat sivlh eaubhayam \ para dtuAcapnyam tar* | 

6. Viiwni dera Savitar duriioni pari turn yad hhadrom U* nak utm*\ 

6. Anogatoh Aditayt devatya Satituh tat* | vihtl tundni dMmahi \ 

*° Thi» word alto occurs in Sima-vciLi, i. 401. 


7 A riiradrrttm tatpatim tUktair adya rrinimnfu | tatyataeom 
(dram | " May he, Savitri, who is Ilhaga, (or the protector, bhaya), 
wraith to his worshipper. 4. Send (idplj) to-day, o divine 
Savitri, prosperity with progeny: tend away (pard-ntea) sleeplessness 
(compare x. 37, 4, where a similar expression (apa tura) is employed 
in the case of Surya). 6. Send away, o divine Savitri, all calamities; 
send (Asttra) us what U good. 6. Hay we, bcooming sinless towards 
Aditi, through the influence (tava) of the divine Savitri, possess all 
thiaga desirable. 7. "We seek to-day, with hymns, for Savitri, who 
posw aw a true energy (Mfyfl-Mra* 1 ), and all divine attributes, tho lord 
of the good." 

vi. 71, I. U'l u tyak dttah Sarild h\ranyay/l bah* myaiM* taran&ya 
i*kr«luh | 2. Devatya vayaSi Sariluk sarfmani fruhfhe lyuma raamas 
eke i&mm | yo viiraiya diipado yai chattuhpada nirciaiu prataic 
ek&ri hhinuanah | 6. VAmam adya Sam'tar rdmam u he dice dire 
90 mam anukkyam iflrlA | "The potent god Savitri hath stretched 
oat his golden anna to vivify (or impart energy). 2. May we sliare 
in the excellent vivifying power (compare x. 36, 12) of the god 
Savitri, and in the bestowal of wealth by thee, who continue** to 
sUblish and vivify the entire two-footed and four-footed world. 0. 
Send to us to-day, Savitri, what is deairable ; send it to us to-morrow, 
and every day." 

vii. 38, 3. Ud ii tMfha Satiiak . . . & nribhya marltabhejanaih iuyiU 
*ah | 4. Abhi yam tUt't Aditir grinuti ttiram dttatya Satitur jutluinu | 
akki Ktmrijo Varviw jrigemtt abki MUrSto Aryamd lajotkSk \ " Rise, 
Savitri, . . . sending (dmrdmh) to men the food which is lit for mor- 
tals. 4. Whom (•>. Savitri) the goddess Aditi praises, welcoming tho 
vivifying power of the divine Savitri, whom Vamno, Mitro, and Ar- 
yaman laud in oonocrt" 

vii. 40, 1 . Yad adya devah SacilA tuv&U ty&ma atya ratninc vihhagt | 
" Muy we partake in the distribution (of wealth) which the opulent god 
Savitri ahall wnd to-day." 

vii. 45, I. A deto ydl* SaciUl tnra/no antariktha-prdh tahamunn 
ahaik | ha»U dadkam naryd purunt mttiayan cka pnuuean eka tkima | 
3. Sm yha no oVraA Sarxtd tahilm sue iVAurf ta$npalir raiflmt | " May the 

mi fiifl anaa cj«t*rt is spplicd to biiu m x. 3G, 13. It occurs abo is the Sinu- 
veda, i. 4M. 


god Savitri approach, rich in treasures, filling the atmosphere, borne 
by horses, holding in his band man; gifts suitable for men, itabliahing 
and vivifying the world. 3. May the powerful god Saritri, lord of 
-wealth, send us riches." 

viiL 91, 6. AtaceBt Stritur yathi Bhagatyrra bhujiA hurt | A$nir* 
snmudravilfatam | "I invoke the sea-clothed Agni, as (I invoke) the 
■vivifying power (taram 1 * 1 ) of Savitri and the bounty of Bhaga." 

X. 35, 7. Srethfham no adya Savilar rartnyam bhogan ntura m hi 
ratnadhuh ati \ " Seed as to-day, o god Saritri, a miwt excellent and 
desirable portion, for thou art the possessor of riches." 

x. 36, 14. SatHtl nah $uvatu Mixatatim | "May Saritri send {twatu) 
all prosperity," etc. 

X. 100, 8. Apa amhom Savitii tuvitkad nyal | "May Savitri remove 
(apasGvuhal) sickness." 

x. 139, I, Stkryaraimir harihiah pvrattut Sacita jyntir ttd ay Ah 
a/atram | l<uya Pushd prtuate y&ti tidran tampaiyan vihu Ihuron&ai 
g</p6h | "Invested with the solar rays, with yellow hair, Saritri raises 
aloft his light continually from the east In his energy (/>r»Mr«) the 
wise Puskaa marches, beholding all world*, a guardian." 

Compare A.V. t. 21, 1 ; rii. 14, I, 3; vii. 15, 1. 

The preceding passages will suffice- to show the extent to which this 
play on words is carried in the hymns addressed to Saritri. 

Derivatives from the same root are, as we have already seen, also 
applied to Surya, as prat/tritd and pra*utah, in B..V. rii. 63, 2 and 4 ; 
and apaiuca in x. 37, 4; to Indra {haryaira-pra*\i(<ih, iii. 30, 12); to 
Yaruna (pardtuca, ii. 28, 9); and to Mitra, Aryuman, Saritri, and 
Bhaga {/rnuUi, vii. 66, 4). In rii. 77, 1, Ushas (the Dawn) is said to 
rouse [pramvantx) all living creatuits into motion. In viii. 18, 1, the 
impulse, vivifying power, or favouring uid [taclmani) of the Adityas is 
referred to. 

(3) Saritri, sometinft dislitujtiuhed from, tonutima idtttlifitd tcUk, 


Saritri is somotimoa expressly distinguished from Surya.^ Thus ho is 
said iu i. 35, 0, to approach, or (according to Prof. Bcnfcy's rendering) to 

*** In i. 164, 26, and ix. 6", 25, particularly In the Utter psuogc, tat* may mttta 
a lihuiuu of »ma. Coujpuro Irahmawtiih in ix. 67, 24, 



bring Surya [rtti iHrynm) ; *° in i. 1 23, 3, to declare men sinless towards 
Surya" 4 (rf«x» no atlra Siwitd daminak amtgato cochati SuryAyit) ; and in 
v. 81, 4, to combine with the rays of Sfirya (irfit Surytuya raimi6kiik 
tamuchyati). In explanation of the last passage, Siyana remark*, that 
before his rising the sun b callc! , and from his ruing till his 

sotting Surya (udaydl p'1rcalh<li;l Sacitd | udaydilamayarartlt Saryak 
Hi). And similarly Tasks says, Nirukta xii. 12 : ta*ya halo yads jj ftm 
apalttatamaifka iltirnaraimir bktcati | "the time of Savitri's appparanco 
m is when darkness has been removed, and the rays of light torn bicomo 
diffused oTcr tho sky." If so, his action must also extend to a later period 
of the day, as in vii. C6, 4, ho is prayed along with Mitra (the god of 
the day) and Aryaman and Bhaga, to vivify the worshipper after the 
rising of tho sun (yad aiya tars udiU anuguh Jlilro AryamA | mH fl 
StnitA Iihogah). Again, in x. 139, 1, Savitri is termed tQrya-raim, 
" invested with the rays of Surya ; " and in the 8th and 10th verses 
of vii. 35 (verse 8: iam mh Siryah urwhahhuh | 10 : Id ft no (Utah 
SmitA trayamAnah), as well as in x. 181,3 (Lh&tvr dyutflnGt SatHui cha 
Tuhnor a Sury&d abharan gharmam 0(e), the two gods are separately 

Mliontd, unless we are to suppose (but apparently without reason) 
that in the last passage tho writer means to identify sll the four gods 
who are there named, viz. DliiHri, Savitri, Vishnu, and Suryn. In 
i. Iu7, 1 also, whore several gods are mentioned besides Surya and 
Sovitri, tho last two appear to bo distinguidivd : abodhi Aguir jittah 
udtti Siiryo v% Uihui chaudrd maht utio archishA \ ayuktkutan Ahimi 

m* rat him prAiutid eVru k Sacita jagat prilkak | " Agni has awoko 
from the earth : Surys rise* ; the great and bright Ushas has dawned 
with her radiance ; tho Asrins havo yoked their car to go ; Savitri bos 
vivified each moving creature." In other texts, howover, the two 
names appear to be employed indiscriminately to denote tho aamo 
deity, vis. in iv. 14, 1 (Qrdluan k*tum Smita dno airrjjyotir tihamai 
bhuztnnyn Irinran | A apn'ih dyAvA-prilhirl anlarUufiaM vi Siiryo rat- 

**» Silyini remarks here tost, thouph tho eodhead of Ssritri and 80rja is idon- 
ticsl, they may jut, from lb«ir rcprtxuting •tilfcrcnt furma, bo tpukco of •» iwpcc- 
tJTtljr approaching and approached iydyafi —rilriiuryofor ikadnitatuim UiK;ii 
mirllt-t Vrfm# £aNfri*9«nfai-)»-Miir<i/i}. 

*•♦ As in snotlm plsos (x. 12, ft), li« in supplicated, along with Mitr* ami Aditi, to 
declare lac worshippers rialot towards Varuns. 



mi'Mtf ckeliliinah) i x. 15ft, 1 (Siryo no Hi rat patu . . . | 2. JmL* 
SavitaA . . . | 3. CkoJts/mr no dtnak Savitt ... J a. SHtandrii** ton 
tayrm prati paiytma Sirya). la i. 35, 7, also tha namo Siirya may 
be employed as synonymous with 8avitri, which is found in tho other 
verses of the hymn, although, aa we have already seen, Uio two deities 
appear to be distinguished in verse 9. See also i. 124, 1 ; and rii. 63, 
1-4 (when tho word Surya ia used in Torses 1, 2, nod 3, and Saritri in 
Terse 4, and where the functions expressed by tho derivative* of tho 
root tu, which, as wo bavo scon, aro most generally assigned to Saritri, 
are in verses 2 and 4 predicated of Surya). 

In t. 81, 4 and 5 (uta Mitn bhavati dert dharmMih | 6. Ula Piiha 
bhar«ti itta ydmahhih,), Saritri is idontilied with ilitrt aud Puahan, 
or ia, at least, described as fulfilling the proper function of tho*© gods. 
And similarly in v. 82, 1, 3, and viL 38, 1, 6 (unless with Prof. Roth, 
#.c. we take Bhaga us a simple epithet), Saritri seems to be identified 
with tho god of that name. On the other hand, ho ia clearly distin- 
guished from those- and other deities, in such text* as iii. 54, 11, 12; 
vi. 49, 14 ; vi. 50, 1, 13; riii. 18, 3; viii. 91, 6; x. 139, 1. 

Tho word 8aritri is not always a proper name ; but is sometimes 
used as an epithet. Thus in ii. 30, 1, it seems to express an attribute 
of InJra; aud in iii. 55, 19, and x. 10, 5 (decat 7\ath(a tatitu r«- 
cartipah), to be, as well as viioarQpa, on epithet of Trash tri. As 
applied to this god, it probably means rather the generator, than the 




I commence my description of this deity by translating the account 
given of him in the Sanskrit and German Lexicon of Messrs. ttothlingk 
and Koth, vol. iv. p. 8541 

(1) Fvnctient and tpithtU of Pfahan. 

" Fushan is a protector and multiplier of cattle {patupS) and of 
human possessions in general (puthfimblmrit, R.V. vi. 3, 7). As a 
cowherd he earriea an ox-goad (vi. 63, 9 ; vi 58, 2) and he is drawn 
by goats (aj&tta). In character he is a solar deity, •** beholds tin* 
entire universe, and la a guide on roods and journies (i. 42, 1 ; x. 17, 
6 ; x. 59, 7 ; x. 85, 2G ; A.V. vi. 73, 3), and to the other world (pa- 
thatpati, prapathya (x. 17, 3, 5; A.V. xvi. 9, 2; xviii. 2, 53). He is 
called the lover of his sister Suryn (vL 55, 4, 5 ; vi. 58, 4). He aids 
in the revolutions of day and night (i. 23, 13-15); and shares with 
Boa* the gunnliaimljip of living creatures (Soma-pdtlttiitau, ii. 41), 1 IF.). 
ire is invoked along with the most various deities, but most frequently 
with Indra {Indra-pCh^au, i. 162, 2; vii. 35, 1), and Bhaga (iv. 30, 
24 ; v. 41, 4 ; v. 46, 2 ; x. 125, 2. Compare SUtapatha Brihtuaoa si. 
4, 3, 3 ; Xity. 8r. v. 13, 1). His most remarkable epithets, in ud- 
dition to those nbovo specified, are ayhrini, kepariin, htrambhtul, daira, 
iitna, datnuuarehas, naraiama (R.V. i. 106, 4; x. 64, 3) cimucho 
uaptit, eimoekans. Compare especially the hymns K.V. tj. 53-58; 
x. 26." The reader can also consult the remarks on this god given in 
the Introductions to Professor Wilson's translation of the ltig-veds, 
vol. i. p. xxxv. and voL ill. p. xii. 
The hymns which are exclusively devoted to the celebration of 

*** la Nil. vtL 9, where II. V. x. 17, J, is quoted, Tasks explains tho vonla Mttnm* 
mjm fepik there applied to Pflahan, by mrvuAan ihmlaimm gafagila adilfak \ " toe 
•uii, the prcMrrer o/ all bring*." 



Fuahan arc i. 42 ; L 138 ; vi. 53-66 ; vi. 58 ; and x. 2< 
ii. 40, he is invoked along with Soma, and in vi. 57, in company 
with Indra. The sdnglo or detached verses of other hymni in which 
ho is mentioned arc numerous. In addition to the epithets uborc 
specified by Professor Both, I noto the following, and others will 
be found, in the hymns which are translated below : ayohya, not 
to bo hidden (x. 64, 3); anartan, resistless (vi. 4ft, 16); abhyar- 
dhayajvan, bringing blessings (vi. 50, 5);"* atura, divine (v. 51, 11); 
Juhayadvlra, ruler of heroes (i. 106, 4); tar y as, strong, and lura, 
vigorous (v. 43, 9); tucijuta, of powerful nature (i. 138, 1); purandki, 
■4flQ (ii. 31, 4); />Mrfir«i*w, abounding in wealth (viii. 4, 15); vutn- 
tumtxt, wise in counsel (i. 42, 5); mamhithfha, most bountiful (riii. 4, 
18) ; mayobha, beneficent (i. 138, 2) ; v&jin, bestower of food (i. 106, 
4); ickra, powerful, (viii, 4, 15); vifradtvya, distinguished by all 
divine attributes (x. 92, 18); viiuuaubhtiga, bestowing all blessings 
(i. 42, 6) ; tikartdat, knowing all things (L 89, 6) ; hirenyavaJl- 
uialtama, skilful wioldcr of a golden spear (i. 12, 6) ; and Soma is said 
to be like Pushuu an impeller of the soul {dhijavana). He is the lord 
of oil things moving and stationary, the inspirer of the soul, an on- 
conquerablo protector and defendor, and is besought to give increase of 
wealth, i. 89, 6 (iam iiuiiam jagata* tatttuhat patiA dhiyaidjintaxn 
urate kHmahe tayam \ Putha ho yalha ttdaidm cuad rridh* rakUiiti 
puyur adabdhah *taslayt\ compare ii. 1, 6). He is besought to main- 
tuiu Ids friendship steadfast like a skin without holes and well filled 
with curds; he is declared to transcend mortals, and to be equal to 
the gods, in glory ; and is prayed to protect his servants in battle and 
to defend them as of old, vi. 48, 18 (dritcr iva U arr'kam asl* lakhyam | 
aekhidratya dadhanvatah tupurnaiya dadkanratah | 19. Para hi mortyair 
oil tamo devoir ula iriytl | abhi khyah Piuhan priiandtu no* ttam ara 
nunam yalKtl purd). Ho is said to regard, and to see clearly and at 
once, all creatures, iii. G2, 9 (yo ciird abhi iipa&yati bhutaitA mA cha 
faiyati | ta mh Puehd 'vitd bttuiat), and in x. 139, 1, is associated 

«• "Spenden cntg*g«obriog«n(l " (Both). TiUka (Nir. vi. 6) explains th* compound 
a* *b\yardhayan yajtili, " uao who iacrvtuinir. worships," and S;>)«9» expand* titia 
into "pruopwiag hi* worahippcr* " (*Mrln aUyanHiaj/an t\unri<UJ%*» kwtm pa 
yqjmtHHaiuna pijayati (ndrHah) ; Ruth, in hi* lllurtrationa u/ the XirukU, p. T6, 
incline* to the tame interpretation. 



St i'ri and is described as moving onward under bis impulse, and 
as knowing and perceiving all creatures, a guardian (taiya Pudd pra- 
tava yati tidtun $ampaiyan riitd lAucandni gopfih). He in connected 
with the marriage ceremonial in x. 86, 26 and 37, being besought to 
take the brido'a bund and lead Lcr awaj (verso 26. P&tha tcti ito no- 
yatu hattagr&ya), and to bless her in her conjugal relation (37. turn 
J'uthan iiiatamdm & irayatca) ; ■ n and in another place he is prayed to 
give his worshippers their share of damsels, ix. 67, 10 {avitd no aj&i- 
mA Pitha ySmani ynmnai a bhahhad kanytiw nah). According to Pro- 
f Biter Both (as quoted above) PuBhan is not only the tutelary god of 
travellers, but also, like Savitri and Agni, and the Greek Hermes, a 
^o^owo/mto?, who conducts departed spiriU on their way to the olhor 
world, and in proof of this, as wo have seen, ho refers to K.Y. x. 17, 3, 
5, and two passages from the A.V. These textB are as follows : R.V. 
x. 17, 3 ff. (rones which, as I learn from Professor M. Miill«-r'n 
article on the funeral ceremonies of the Brahmins,"* p. xi. If., are 
directed to be recited during the cremation of the body) : Ptiihd ttd 
itai ekydvayatu pro tridvOn antuhfapasur bkumnatya gopdh | m frd 
tUbkyth pari daiat pifribhyo Agnir dmtbhyah. luridatriytbkyak | 

4. Ayur tiivayub pari pdtali fad Patkd tut juitu prapatht purattilt \ 
yatrntaU tukfito yalra U yaytu iatra ttd dctah Saritd dadhUu \ 

5. Pothd im&h Sidh ana re-da tarvdh to atmln alhayaiavuna ntthat | 
tnutiddlf tlyhri»ib turratlro aprayuchhan pvrah etu prajdnan | 6. 
Prapalht patk&m ajaiu'thfa PinSa prapallu ditah prapathe prithi- 
tyllh | ubh* nbhi priyatam* to&atth* S cka para cha ckarati prdjamm | 
■ 8. May Piuhan convey thee away hence, the wise, tho preserver 
of the world, who loses nono of his cattle j may ho deliver thee to 
these fathers ; and may Agni (entrust thee) to the gracious gods. 4. 
May life, full of vitality, protect thee: May Puflhan convey thee onward 
on thy distant road ; May Savitri place thee where the righteous abide, 
in the place whither they have gone. 5. Puxhun knows all these 
regions: may he conduct us in perfect security; blessing, glowing, all- 
heroic, may he go before us, watchful and understanding. 6. Pushan 
was born to move on distant paths, on tho far road of heaven and the 
tar road of earth. Ho goes to and returns from both tho beloved abodes." 

•" S*« WoW« I ml S'.ihL t. 188, and 190. 

*■* Jommal of the German Oriental Society, vol. U., at tho cad. 



A.V. xti. 9, 2. Tad Agnir aha tad u Somah aha Putku md dhiit 
ndritatya loke | " Agni says, and Soma says, ' may Pushan place ma 
in the world of righteousness.' " 

A.V. xviii. 2, 53- A'jmiKvma patJ,UrHii tyonam dtrtlhgo ralnnA ia- 
dkntftttr ti hksm | ujxt prtthgatam Putnam y* nhuti ajagunaih patht- 
bhit tattra gachkaUm | " Agni and Soma, makers of paths, ye have 
prepared for the gods, as a treasure, a beautiful world ; go thither and 
■end hither to ua Pushan, who shall conduct us by direct rooda." m 
: V. i. 23, 13 f. the glowing P'ishan is prayed to bring hither, 
a lout beast, the supporter of the sky, who is surrounded by brilliant 
grass ; "" and ia said to have found the king so designated, who had 
been concealed (d Puthan chitrabarhiiham iighrine d/umina& dirai 
uja utuhfam yatful poinm | 14. PixhA rcijurnm aghrinir apogalham 
guhA hitam | aiindach chitrabarhitham). 

In one passage, i. 23, S, the other gods are designated by the appel- 
lation of piltJuiriiti, "bestowers of Puahan'a gifta," or " haviug Pfuhan 
oa their chief giver." 

(2) Hymn* addreued to Puthan. 

I shall now translate some of tho hymns addressed to Pushan, from 
which it will appear that the character of this god is not very distinctly 
defined ; and that it is difficult to declare positively what province 
of nature or of physical action ho is designed to represent, as is at 
once manifest in the case of Dyaus, Prithivl, Agni, lndra, Parjanya, 
and Sfirya: 

i. 42, 1. Sam Psihann adhtanat lira pi amho vimucho napdt | HlktJwt 
d*ra pro not purah | 2. To nah Pithanit agho trilo dviimah adiddati | 
ttfju *ma I mm patho Juki | 3. Apa tt/an paripanthinam niuhlcuMm 
huraichitam | durum adhi vruitr aj'a | 4. Team taiga dcayArino aghai*™- 
tcuya la»ya chit | padd 'bhi tithfha taputkim \ 5. A tat U datra man- 
tumah Pialuinn aeo criniinaJie \ gma pitr'tn achodayah | 6. Adia no 

*" Trof. Roth, ».«>. t*kcs ^ji>yan«ih » ■ atytytniiih. 

n » Professor Both understands this epithet chitrabtrkia to mesa "bstiag gtiUeriag 

straw," or " hmiug around him straw ia the form of {•**!*," anil ujiplim it to tke Baany, following Saj-una. considers that Sunia is tho deity iatended, 

and nvndm the word tMintlurAu by " reposing on s rich covering." Tbs 

•vcius vbjcurv. 



titc4Mv!>h4<fa hiNmyovdiimaHam* \ ihatu'mi tmkanu kridhi [ 7. Ati 
nak taichaU nay* tugH nah mptttui krinu j I'iuAonn iha krdtutk tidah \ 
8. AbKi svyrtewM* nay* na namjt&n adhvan* l Pmhan* . - - | 9, S'aa- 
dhi pardAiprs ysiwsi tha iiiiht prOti udaram | Pmjiann ... | 10. 2Va 
Pti$knam mtth&mtui tUktair abhi grinimati J auQni daman ItnaAe | 
" 1 . Conduct ua, Fushan, over our road ; remove diatrces, son of the de- 
liverer ; w go on before na. 2. Smite away from our path the destruc- 
tive and injurious wolf which seeks after us. 3. Drive sway from our 
path the way layer, the thief, the robber. 4. Tread with thy foot upon 
tho burning weapon of that deceitful wretch, whosoever he be. 5. 
wonder-working and wiso Fushan, we desire that help of thino where- 
with thou did. favour our fathers. 6. god, who bringest all bleat- 
ing*, and art distinguished by thy golden spear, make wealth cosy of 
acquisition. 7. Convey us post our opponents; make our paths easy 
to traverse ; gain strength for us hero. 8. Lead us over a country of 
rich pastures ; let no new trouble (beset our) path. 9. Bestow, aatiate, 
grant, stimulate ub, fill our belly. 10 Wo do not reproach Piishaa, 
we praiso him with hymns; wo seek riches from tho wonder-working 

The next hymn alludes at the beginning to PuRhan in hi» character 
of tutelary god of travellers (comp. vL 49, 8 ; x. 17, 3, 6; x. 59, 7 ; 
x. 92, 13); but it is chiefly occupied with the poet's aspirations after 
a liberal patron, and with attempts to inflame the god's indignation 
against the niggards with whom he considered himself to be surrounded. 

*™ Vimtttfo ntpSI. Professor Benfcy follows Sarins in f<w» in taking this to 
mran " offupring of thn cloud " (jal*-riinoc)ui/ka-/utor mty htuya pnltru). The 
Indian eommentator, however, assigns another muss to the pbrsic io v. fllJ, 1, wlieru 
it nan, and where ho nplaini it as " tho mm of Prajupnti, who at the r i 
senij forth from himself all creature* " (ri itixwAaf » tfUlfi-k^tr itattkHat tcrvHh 

itfijott ,.', timuk Prujtipatth \ latya frultra). In 11. V. »ni. t, 15 f. 1 

in called limatkana, the " deliverer," which Say to* interprets "deliverer from sin" 
jmbuW nnweAujriY**). Perhaps timucho nepit means the same thing. Compare 
fb» words ri U mumtkantain rimm-Ao Ki •>•/•', A.V. vii. 112. 3; and mmn utpml, 
and tbe other similar phrases quoted above in p. 62. la preparing my version of tats 
hymn I have hid tho aid of Bwifoy, ss well as of S*ysna. 

rs Pfofeeeor Bcnfcy refer* here to a preceding nolo of hit own on R. V. L 41, 8, tho 
scsac of which b ss follow* i " I believe that this refers to a practice which wastj 
arsons; h a * b a r m i «, and even among partially civilised, races, of believing that they 
can compel their gods, by intuits, and by blowi inllictnl on their image*, to grant 
lurir daaira, or if this be act accomplished, of thinking that they thereby take their 



tL S3, 1. Fayam u leu pathos pale rathaih na v&jat&taye | dhiye 
KM urnymahi I 2. Abhi no naryafo cant c\ram prayata-dakthiwtm | 
vAmam grihapatim naya | 3. AdiUantom chid Sghrint Ptixhan dandya 
ehodaya \ panel chid vi mrada manah I 4. Vi paiho tajat&tay* chinuhi 
t* mridho jahi $adhanlam ugra no dhiyuh | 6. Pari Irindhi panintlm 
i'Tidayi l;are | athtm atmabhyam randhaya | 6. Vi Pithann drayd 
tuda patter iehha hridi priyam | alhtm atMnbhyav, randhaya | 7. Arikha 
Aitird kj-inu panlnaih hridayil hart \ alhtm . . . | 8. Tnm Ptuhan brah- 
maehodmim drum hibharihi Oghfine \ layd sama*ya hridoyam d rikha 
kikiru if inn | 9. Yu Is ashfrii gaapaid tlgXrint paiutudhani | tatyi* U 
sumnam imaht | 10. Ula m gothanim dhiyam aivatdm vdjtudm ula | 
np'val kfinuhi v\lay« \ 

" 1. Puahan, wc have attached thee, lord of raids, to oar hymn, as 
: iot (is yoked) for the acquisition of food. 2. Bring to us wealth 
suitable for uieu, und a manly estimable householder, who ahull bestow 
on ub gifts. 3. Impel to liberality, o glowing Pufhan, even the man, 
who would fain bestow nothing : soften the soul eren of the niggard. 
4. Open up paths by which we may obtain food j slay our enemies ; 
let our designs succeed, o glorious god. 6. wiie god, pierce the 
hearts of the niggards with an awl ; and then make them subject to us. 
6. Pierce thom with nn awl, a Puohan; seek (for ns) that which La 
dear to the niggard's heart ; and then make them subject to us. 7. 
Penetrate and tear the hearts of the niggards, o wise god, and then 
subject them to u*. 8. With that prayer-stimulating goad which thou 
earnest, glowing Pushan, penetrate and tear tho heart of every such 
man. 9. From that goad of thine, which is furnished with leathern 
thongs,*" and guides cattle, wo Beck for prosperity. 10. Grant that 
our hymn may produce foT us cattle, horses, food, for our enjoyment 

tL 54, I. Sam P&than viduthli naya yo anjasH 'nuidtati | yafr era 
idam Hi brant | 2. Sam u Pithnd gamemahi yo grihun abfiifdtaii \ ime 
era Hi cha brutal | 3. P&thnai ehakram na rithyati no kuio ava padyate | 
no atya vyathate pacik | 4. To atmai hacithd \idhat na lam PiihS 'pi 
tr.ri'hyaU | prathamv vindaU rami | 5. Path* y''h amt <tu nah PiUhtl 
rakthatu arvaUh | P&thd rdjafit tanolit >uth | 6. Puihann anu pra 

"» 8e» Bobtlingk nutl Ruth, :r. ptpula. 



tJ5» yajamUnatya awratah | aamtilaih ttiivatam ula | ". ,1/Ii'i'r ntiat 
mUk'iih rithal mdfom tarn iiiri leeafe \ aUia ariahfibhir a yahi | 8. 

Titfani P&ihanaiit rayam iryam anaahfa-ttdaaam \ HunaUt 
Ima/u | 9. P&ahan lava rrate rayaih nx rithytma hidOchaua \ afvturag te 
iha tmari | 10. Pari I*Qaf>d pwtuUid total dmlhiUu dxhhintim \ pwuir 
no nathfem ujatu | 

" l- May we, o Pusluw, meet with a wise mnn who 'hill straightway 
as, ami say *so it is.' ,;4 2. liny wo meet with ITmhao,* 1 * who 
shall point oat a house, and shall say * it is this.' 3. I'lishaa'a Wo* ! U 
not shattered, nor docs its box fall, nor is its rim broken. 4. Puslmn b 
not hostile to the mnn who oft'ors him an oblation ; that ninn is tho first to 
obtain wealth. S. May Pfls&MHl (blfaffl our kim-; mny ho protect our 
horses; may he give us food. C. Puxhan, follow the kine of the wor- 
shipper who offers soroa-libations, and of us when wc do the same 7. 
Let nothing be lost, or injured, or fall into a pit ; but como to us with 
(the cows) all safe. 8. We seek after Pii-dum who hrurs us, the alert, 
VDO never loses property, who is lord of wealth. 'J. ITitlim, may we, 
through thy appointment, never (all into calamity ; we arc here, thy 
worshipper*. 1 0. Hay Pushan stretch out his right hand far and wide, 
and drive hither our lost property. 1 ' 

ri. 55, I. hhi riih rimutho nttp&d Qghfina taih uuh/lcahai \ rathir 
rit/uya no bkava | 2. RathUamaUt hpardditmrn li&naih radhato maLih \ 
riyak aakhAyam \mahs | 3. Jltiyo ihurU 'ti uyhriat iwnh rtiiir ojAica \ 
dh\ta(a dbivato utlhn | 4. Pushnnam nu njilsvam upa ttoihflma vGjinam | 
mmanr yo j&rah uthyate | 5. Jfatur did/n'tbum abraraA aratur jtirth 
iriifotm nah | Ikr&td /ndrasya lalAd mama [ 0. A ajutah Paahaiam ratha 
niifiaabk&a Ujanairiynm \ devam vahantu bilhraiak | 

" 1. Cuinu hither, glowing god, the deliverer, may wo meet; he the 
charioteer of our rite. 2. Wo seek riches from thee, the most skilful 
of charioteers, thu god with braided hair, the lord of great wealth, and 
our friend. 3. Thou art a stream of opulence, a heap of riches, o glow- 
ing deity, drawn by goats, and tho friend of overy devout contemjdator. 

™ SSyarja say* that thu vsrse it to be mtiifcrrcd by a rain socking far lest pr 

{tvu\(a-d>i*—fn amrietiktla rl*j jtiftym], and icfrr» to Gpliy* Stitfia, iii, 9. Il# 

•mkikUad* Uic wi»« man of oik »bo »b:'. th« mode of recovering Mrh 

*" So* P. note in Ueo. Suyioa explains: " Miy ne by [the favour 

li-in suet will, ■ man who shall shew as tfw bush*- iu vbkb <wr lost esllk an." 




4. Let us praise Pushau, the god drawn by goats, the giver of 
who i» called the lover of hi» sister.* 1 * 5. I address tho husband of his 
mother ; ni may ho hear us, the lover of his sister, the brother of Indra, 
and my friend. 6. May the surefooted** goats, supporting Pushan, 
god who visits mankind, bring him hither upon his chariot." 

vi. V, I. ) ,/j tnam adideiati " karamlhad" Hi Piuhanam \ tut 
derail Hdiic | 2. Via gha la rathltarmh aakhyu talpuiir yuja I 
vritrSni jighnate \ $ (Kit. ii. C). Uta ad<ih paruthe gavi tQrai thakraA 
hiranyayam \ *i airayad rotK\t«mah | 4. Yad adya tri pxnuhfuta bra- 
puma intra manlumah \ tot tu no manuta fidUya | 5. Imam oh* na 
gttMhanarh liitaye tUfmdho ganam | Unit I'd than* a*i irtUah | 6. .1 (t 
txattim \tnaht Hreaghilm upucamm \ adya eha tartatutaye ttai cha tarra- 
tntayt | 

** 1. By him who designates Fushan by laying 'this is tho eater of 
meal and butter,' the god cannot be described. 2. Indra too, the lord 
of the good, tho most skilful of charioteers, seeks to slay his enemies in 
company with his friend. 3. And this most skilful charioteer drove 
that golden wheel of the sun through the speckled cloud." 4. Accom- 
plish for us, o wonder- working and wine deity, that desire which we 
shall address to tlioc to-day. S. And direct this exploring band of ours 
to the attuiuineut of their object : for, Pushan, thou are renowned afar. 
6. "Wo seek thy blessing, which drives away calamity, and beings 
opulence near, for full prosperity to-day, and for full prosperity to- 

vi. 57, 1. Iitdrd nu Pu/lanu •"" tayath Aakhyaya svattaye hurema r&ja- 
tataye | 2. Somam any ah upiUadat ptUact chamvoh imtaxn \ karambham *' 

■*• (Mint, according tu Sfiyarja; and SaryS. accordiug to Prof. Roth. St* the \*A 
vers* of vi. «8, below. 

ri Sfiyana render* m«'i*l by mimtatryah rolrttf, " the eonstructroM, KigBt" 

* n lioth, t,t>. says inVr»"M<i perhaps meuiis " »ich«t mflnUml , " WlMOB r»nder» 
44 harnessed ; " Suyaya ni/ra/Aya lambadhya hartarah. All seems gurm work. 

■"* Frof. Kftih translates this versa as follows in bis Illustrations of to* Nirukie, 
p. 19 : " Er bat durt durvli den kransen Wolkrnxug d«r Sonne guldcnes Rod bin- 
dotchgclrrnkt, dcr treflichc Kulirmunn (Pnsehan). •' tin has (raided the golden wheel 
of the sun through lh« citrM train uf elouds, th« eaccllont drirer (t'oshsa)." la his 
Lexicon he readers the word parutha by " variegated," sfA 

**<> Compare iii. 67, 2, and vL 17. II, where POshan and VUhnq are said to have 
purified three bowls of 8otas for ludra (fusAa TuAgm (rrsiid riimri dhatam rpfra- 
Aesaas mmlir*m sw'w aaawi). 

■* iii. 42 7. 



anyak ithhati \ 3. Aj6k onyaiya vaknayo harl anyatya sambkritu | 
tabky'nh rritlrtiti jighnatt | 4. Yad Indro anayad rito ntah'ir apo tft« 
thantamak | Ulra PQthO 'bhaeot uukil | 5. TAbi Puthuah tumatim 
tag Aft rrikih&tya pra toyAm iva | Indratya cka A rabhAmahe | 6. Ut 
POtkonalk yvtamahe aihlidn iva tfirathik | mahyai Indrafh mattayt | 

" 1. Let us invoke Indra and Piishan to be our friend*, to blew us 
■ad to grant n* food. 2. Of these two gods, the one (Inclra) comes to 
drink the soma poured out from the ladles, and the other (Pii.dian) 
desires meal and butter. 3. Gonto convey the one, and two harnessed 
brown horses the other : home by tbim he seeks to slay his enemies. 
4. When the most vigorous Indrn brought tho groat flowing waters, 
PGshan was there with him. 5. Wo lay hold of that goodwill of 
Piishan and of Indre, as we seize the branch of a tree. 6. Wo stir up 
>n and Indrn to bring ns great prosperity, as a charioteer shakos 
his r. i 

W, 1 ( = S.V. i. 74). S-ukraSt U tmyad yajataA U anyad eMUrQpa 
ahan'i dynvr irAti | eitrAk hi tnnyAh ovnti tvadkAco bhadrA is Pithan* 
iha rAtir oitu \ 2. Ajntrah paiupQh riljapottyo dhiyaStjmro bhumnt 
nht arpitah | tukfrAm PSthd MhirAm udrarirrijal $anck*k$k6*o hhu- 
tanA dtrah \yatt | S. Tit it Pithan w/Jro antah umudrt hiritmyaylr 
antarihhe ckaranti \ labfiir yAti dutyatt mryatya Ititxena kritu°* trtxah 
iekhamAnah | 4. PS*kS tubandkur dieah S prithityAk ifatpaiir mnghatu 
tUamararthAh | y«* devdto aJaduh SSryAyai kAmetta kritam (acatait 
n m r kam | 

" I. One of thine (appearancee) is bright, the other is renoralilc ; thy 
two periods are diverse; thou art like Dyaus: for, o sclf-dep. m 
god, thou cxerciscst all wondrous powers. Pushau, ouy thy gifta 
be bcncnccEt. 2. Borne by goats, guardian, of cattle, lord of a houae 
overflowing with plenty, an inspirer of the soul, abiding within tho 
whole creation, Piishan has grasped his relaxed goad ; the god movea 
onward beholding all creatures. 3. With those golden ships of thine, 
which soil across the aerial ocean, thou acteat as the messenger of tho 
San, desiring food, o god, subdued by lore. 4. Puslian is tho closo 
associate of [or the bond uniting?] heaven and earth, the lord of 
nourish mint, the BM if wondrous lustre. Him, vigorous and 

rapid, subdued by love, the gods gave to Surya." 

•■ 8m aril tme, ami ri. 49, 8, where the nnc phrase occurs. 



In ii. 10, Soma and Pfuhnn aro celebrated conjointly as the 
rators of wealth, of heaven and earth, and the born preservers of the 
!, and at mado by the gods the centre-point of immortality (.Sewta- 
pvthagA janana raytmfig) jananti duo jananii prithiryiik \ jtitau ritnuy* 
b&uvanatya gopau drnlh alrinvmn amfiUuya utibhim, verse 1) ; they hide 
the hated darkness (imau tamdihii gtthatdm ajwihfhu, ibid. 2); they impel 
the chariot with coven wheels which traverses the air, but is not all- 
pervadinp, which revolves in all direction is jFokad by the mind, and 
with Horcn rays (SomflpQthaQi rajaw rim&na/K tapt-ocfialmih 
rat ham acisramincam \ viihuvritam rnatuuH yujyamunam tarn jinratho 
vruhand paiuharaimim, verse 3) ; tho one of them (P&diaa) is said to 
make hi:- abode iu (hf bflftTBD, the other (Soma) on the earth and in tho 
air ('iiti ,mye tadanaM thakre uehthu priihieyam <t*yo *dhi anlariktht, 
verse 4) ; the one (Soma) to have generated |] I «, and the other 

(Pushan) to move onward beholding the universe (riieSni anyo Mi, 
• a vitvnm anyo ahhichakthnnah eti, verse 5). 

In the concluding verse of R.V. i. 188, the poot tttBl I'f^han that 
seeks with gentle hymns to attract his lUmtfffll, and that he does ne 
treat the god with haughtiness or contempt, or reject his friendship (• , 
ttC tat ri I nil ah i utiniirb/iir duiwn xiidUubhih | na hi tvd Pathann alimony* 
rrjhrine na te tahhyam apahnucc). 

In x. 20, he is said to bo the folfillcr of prayers, and the stimulator 
of sages (maftnam cha itfdiflMfl r i/n-'niiiui rha <id'uar»m t vene 4); to bo 
the promoter *' of sacrifices, to impel the horses of chariots, to be a 
rishi friendly to men, and a protecting friend of tho wise man {pratyw- 
dhir yajn&n&m chahayo ralhunum | rithih ta yv mannrhito vij 
yavayal-takhah, vcTBC 5), the unshaken friend, born of old, of CTexy 
suppliant {viiratya tirthinah iakh& tanojAh anapathynttih). 

«• Prof. Roth, *.«. thinks Iho word pratytrdK, which oocars alio la x. 1, 6, bmt 
mean " entitled u> tnc half of," "h»Ting sa equal thai* in." Compart «A',y-*rJA«- 
yiy'run abort, p. 17U, and note. 


section xni. 


ThiB goddess, who corresponds to the 'Hoi* (JEolio Awwc) of the 
(in.vka, and to the Aurora of tho Latins, is a favourite object of oele- 
hrutioa with tho poets of tho Itig-vedn, and tin 1 hymns addressed to 
her are among the most beautiful — if not the most beautiful — in tbe 
entire collection. The following are tho»e which arc ?ju • -ially dedi- 
cated to her honour, lix., i. 18; i. 49; i. 92: i. 118; i. 12.'i; i. 121; 
iii. 61 ; ir. 51 ; iv. 52; t. 79; r. 80; vi. 64 ; vi. 65 ; vii. 75-fll ; 
& 172. She is also urroked or referred to in numerous ■■ trees. 

To give an idea of the manner in which Uahas is described and cclo- 
brak-d, 1 shull quote the larger portion of three hymns, of which the 
second and third arc mora remarkable than the first (introduce. 
sad there some parallel passages from other quarters), and I shall 
afterwards give a summary of tho principal attributes and functions 
which ore attributed to her. 

(1) Three hi/mnt to Uthat. 

;, 1. Saha rdmena nak Utkc ri uchha dnhitar Litnk | taha dyvtu- 
ntna hrihalA vibhavari rdya deri dasratl | 2. Aitatalir oomatlr tiiva- 
em i Jo hh&ri chyatanUt uutvvi | adiraya prati na ivmrUak tuhai tkoda 
raiko auiykenum | 3. UvUta uekuk tichhilt cka nu </«■! j\r& ratkdnnm ', 
yt o*yHk a<haranc*h* dmlkrire aamudre us irarasyacah | 4. Uika yt U 
yumtthu yunjate Ptatto idmi'ia tfirayak | attrdkti tat kantak etk/im kaa- 
tat*mo mima grimiti urinom | 5. A gh* yveher* einarl uek'ik ySti pra- 
bhunjati \/ar*ytmtt trijanam p<tdra4 iyaU *t piilayati pthhtnah | 6. Vi 
jrd tfijati mimmu ft erikinah padam no rtti odoti | vayo naiU tt pop- 
tuituah litaU tyiukfau cSjmirali | [i. 121, 12 — ri. 61, 4. Ut U r.iyai 
ekid xtuattr njnptan narai tha ye pttubhfijo ryiukfau | boo also i. 48, 9]. 

7. £tha ayukta par&vttfak. tiryaeyodayanud cdki \ iatam ratkebkih 
uabkngd uskah iymk ri yfiti abki muHUtkan | 8. Viham **yrik mud ma 



chahhate j'ayaj jyotuh krinoli t Stuart | a pa dceeho magfanl duhitd ditah 
tuhdh uchhad apa tridhak | 9. Uthah J bhuhi bhinund chandrena duhiiar 
divah | Hxahanft bhikri tomabhyaih taubhayaih cyutkkantl ditiihfiihu | 
10. Vikatya hi juanam prananam tv* r» y«4 itthhtui Huuiri | #« no 
ralfona bfihata cibhAvari irudhi chil/amayhe haram | [i. 49, I. L'tho 
bhttdrtbhir <! gahi dicai chid rochanCid adki \ rahantu arvnaptat&k up* 
tvi torn mo tjriham | 2. Suprintaa tukhaik ratham yam ndhyattkiih t 

; tena tuiracaia>/i janam prSia adya duhilar ditah | vi. 65, 2. FY 

tad yai/ur arunayuybhir aivaii ehilrafo bMnti tuhatal tlmndrarmihak [ 

'', 6. Prali dyntiindm anuh/tio aiviii chitr&h adriiramt tuAaj** 

(ah | ydti iubhrA viirapiia ralhena |]. i. 48, 12. VidvOn stadn d 

vaka tomapUaye antarikthud tuhat Ivam | 

" 1. Dawn on us with prosperity, o Ushas, daughter of the Ay, 
with great glory, o luminous and bountiful goddess, with riches. 2. 
(These dawns) bringing horses and cows, and all-bestowing, havo 
oftentimes hastened to shine.*** Awnko fur mo joyful voices (or hymns) 1 *' 
Ushas, and scad us the w. ilth of (he magnificent. 3. Ushas baa 
dawned (before) ; let her now dawn (again), the goddces who impels 
our chariots, which at her arrivals aro borne forward, like wealth- 
111 in the ocean. 9 " 4. Knrjrn, tho chief of his race, here celebrates 
the name of those wise men who at thy approaches, o Ushas, direct 
tiioir thoughts to liberality. &. Like an active woman, Ushns advances 
cherishing* 7 (ull things) ; she hastens on arousing footed creatures,*" and 

*•• Tho word t<o*tjir* it «o wmlnrad hy Una fay. Sea liii translation, la loco, sail 
'■•ary lo the Sannfiola, »,rt». u»/>, and r<w, »tiu i Ri-th • r. tmk. % 

*** Ikofcy renders aunritZb hero by "Hcrrliahktiten," 'glorious thing*;' but in 
i. 02, 7, and i. 113, If, ho translates the same word by " beautiful hymn.-." A note 
on it by Professor Aufreeht will be found further on. 

*•» Tho sense of tWMn in this olausn it not very dear. Prof. Wilson renders 
sfttr Siyana: " obariota, which are harnessed st her earning; at tbots who sn 
desirous of wo«lth tend ablpa to sea." Prof. Bcnfcy esplaint: "carts, which roll at 
her apprimoh, like wcalth-seckcre in the sen i " i.e., iu he adds in a note ■ Tbo 
waggons full of wealth are driven hither by the dawn ; thoy arc so full a* to rod sad 
• a inn about." It i» ditBeult to tee how thia shush (tan be extracted from the word*. 

"' Suyana nukoi prabhunjau = prakarsKen-i aitrvtim putaymtii. Bcnfcy renders 
it "ruling," and Roth aw, "Ttttdwisg SSfl 

**■ Professors Bcnfcy and llullcnsen (Orient and Occident, ii. 4W) both expUia 
jtrrajfariti h«re in the nenie of "sotting in motion," or '* arouiuig," the fonuer dcriv. 
ing it from tlio root jar, "to hasten," and the latter from jar = gar, " to wake," — 
See Bollrau-u'i reraurkt in pp. Ut-4U. la other plaeta, at we •hall see, awl u bo 
allows, it uiu>t bt rendered "ranking • M." 



makes the birds fly aloft. 6. Sho sends forth both tho active and Ihe 
beggars (to their occupation) ; lively, she loves not to stand still ; tho 
flying' birds no longer rest after thy dawning, o bringer of food.** 
[i. 124, 12. The birds fly up from their nests, and men sucking food, 
kavc their homes.] 7. Sho has yoked (her horses) from tho remote 
rifling-place of tho sun ; this auspicious Ushas advances towards men 
with a hundred chariots. 8. Everything Unit moves bows down before 
hi-r plane© ; Ihe active goddess creates light ; by hor appearance tho 
magnificent daughter of the sky drives away our haters ; Ushas has 
repelled our enemies, 9. Shine forth, "Ushas, daughter of the sky with 
brilliant radiance, bringing to us abundant prosperity, dawning upon 
our devotions. 10. In thec, when thou dnwnost, o lively goddess, is the 
life and tho breath of all creatures ; resplendent on thy massive car hear 
our invocation, [i. 49, 1. Come, Ushas, even from the light of the sky, 
by auspicious (paths) ; let the ruddy (horses) bring thee to tho house 
of the offerer of soma. 2. Protect to-day, o Ushas, daughter of the 
sky, the prosperous man with that beautifully formed and pleasant 
chariot on which thou standest vi. 66, 2. They went apart wilh 
their ruddy-yoked horses; the Dawns on the luminous ears ebioo 
brilliantly, vii. 75, G. Tho bright and ruddy steeds were beheld 
bearing onward the shining Ushas. The lustrous goddess mores in a 
chariot beautified with all sorts of omameuts J. i. 48, 12. Ushas, 
bring all the gods to drink our soma." 

i. 92, 1 (-S.Y. ii. 1105). Etah « (yah UtktuaA Mum akrata frfftf 
V«ft< rajtuo m htuinum an/at* \ nithkrinrtnuk ayttdhanira rf«4rwA?ar<»A 
prali fSco aruthlr yanti muiarah j 2(— S.V. iL 1106). Ud apaptann 
ar-MfdA hk&nan rritlul nr&yuj'o arwklr oak ayuhhata \ akram tutidi* 
rtfun&ni pHrralM ru&antam bkunum onuhlr aiiirayuh | 3 (— S.V. ii. 
1107). Archamti ndrlr apoto ma rt»A/iMi'* tamdnttt* yojantna A parH- 
tatak | itharh tahanlih tuirila tuddmate viitd id aha yajamanaya mm- 
raU | 4. Ailhi paUmn eapaU nritar iva apornuU uJukah utrtta bar- 
jakam | jyotir vitcatmai bhuzanaya £rr*ra/i giro na rrajam vi uthuh 

*■* ti\f1*1t«Jl it explsintd by Tiita, Nir. ii. 2a. ami tii. 8, by amumifi ; and by 
8»t»o* on R.V. i. 3. 10. by -mvwt-kriyiHHl, •« mitttroi* of rites pn— Bring fosd." 
These states of (he word seem koccrtoin. 

««• Coeapure i. I2i, 51 : piim WA> m/ho • P ty4,y jf.'tm Jsjftl otfili pru 

latum | •• The moUivr of tbc cows bm displayed her signal ia (ho eastern part of lU 
watery firaasacui." 

1 B-t 


ar«w iasiah | [i, 123, 10. Kanyev* tancS iaiadand t*hi devi Aran 
iyattha/noanm I mSnH yuvatih puratldd trir raJuhdinsi Lriautke 

tiihatl | 11. Sutauidid mdtrimrithfera yothd Ccit titnram hn'nuikd 
drib kam | i. 124, 4 (=Nirukta, ir. 1G). Upo adarii iundhyuc* na 
tahiha nodhdh irdvir ahrita f/rtytgi \ t i J MMJ na o Ivdh**, 
Mmttamd iigiit pututr eywhiuum | 7 ( = Nir. iii. 5). Ahhr«-' 
$ah tli protUhl garttdrug iva IMIMjrf lilWlfBffim'" | jdyeva paly* 
awtliiih usluift hearer a ni rinile apstth \ v. 80, 5. Juki inbhrd na Unto 
vMud urdhtwa mutt driiaye no tut hut J vi. 64, -. .trir raluhnh kriautk* 
tumbhamumi deei raehamilnd mahobhih \ compare r. 80. 40]. i. 92, 5. 
Pratt arrhih ruind twydh adar&i ri tuhfhate htidhate krithnvn aihcam m | 
twtruih ns peio ttdathethu anjan ckitraih divo duhitu bhdnvn ah ft | 
fi. At&rishma tamanat ptiram anya whuh i^oli | iriy* 

chhando na emayate cibhdtl sitpratikd taiuaaiiMfi ya ajlgah | 7. BhdtcatX 
nefri miuritdndm divah tlavo duhitu (Ma-melliih \ prajdvalo nritato aita- 
budhy&n utho goagrdn ujm md$i vajdn | 8. Uahaa tarn aiydii yai*»*m\ 
meJraih ddsaprarargaih rayim akahidhyam \ tudalhtaM trarani yJ 
bh&ti rdjapraiHtd tubhagr briknittiim I 9, PSfrflB* itvt Hw —J ' Uitit 
&Ayn prailchl chahhur ur ■'•!i | tiicaifijircM charau bodhayanti 

viiuuya r&eham acidttt manSyoh | 10. Puuah punttr jdyamdnd m pitrdnl 
tamdnttnt rarnnm abhi inmbhamand | itagknlta kpitnur eijah umtsukma 
martmya det\ jarni/uuli nyuh | 11. Fy&rnatl dito anlin tibadhi upa ita- 
t&rato aanutnr yuyoli | praminall mauuhjfi yugnni yoskd jdratya cha- 
lahviH ribfiiUi | [i. 115, 2. Sftryo dtrlm U»ha*hcifi> rochamfin&m maryo 
na yoth'im abhi nti pair hut \ rii. 7.J, -I. JJiio du/uta hhuraaasg* patni J 
MKliofl tOn/iiiya yonhfi]. i. 92, 12. Painn na chitrfi tnlhrufl 
prnth&uQ lindhur na ktkodah uni'jti vi air nit | aminatl dairytini rratdni 
turytttya thtti raiuiibhir driinna \ 13. U*ha* tat ehitran* ubkira «M< 
bhyaw e'ljintrati | yena foktiiu rim t'liutyitm aha dhi'imahe \ 14. Uiko adyiha 
gwmttt oirdrati ribhdrari | rvtad atma ri uchha sunrit<i\at% \ la. YuUhra 
hi to/in) rati aitun adya arunitn uihah \ atha no rtfrd taulhagfini avaha | 

mj»«r« R.V. Ix. 98, 20. 

,M Comptrc ir. (1, 9 : G \lrdnhro* ta*\ 

t/nk | "Tbe Lrijlit Im ill Dairta OODMaUng tfn lilarli ntyawitli th«ir rndiant badita." 

•J* Ooi i, .;: OMdM pi «*4j/** yucali* pu**rbhuh | •« Th« yoothftil 

(goddam) bora anew, hu *liono forili ou liijjli " iii 01, 1 : I\irani atrvi ftr^nif 
jnn*mihir jr« tratoSt charui \ "Tbou, u ji>ildc«, old, (tad yet) young, viaa, 
isvvMt at thy "ill." 


: -.-■ 

" 1 . These Dawns have becomo conspicuous ; they display their 
Intra in too eastern hemisphere; like bold warriors drawing forth 
thoir weapons, the ruddy mother-cows advance. 2. Tho rosy beams 
have flashul up spontanea u»ly ; tlwy have yoked the self- yoked ruddy 
cows. Tho Dawns, as of old, have brought us consciousness ; the red 
cow* have assumed a brilliant lustre. 3. Like women active in theis 
occupations, they shine from afar along a common track, bringing sus- 
tenance to the pious and liberal worshipper, and all things to the man 
who offers libations of soma. 4. Usba*, like a dancer, puts on her gay 
attire; she displays her bosom as a cow it* udder: creating light for 
all tho world, she has dissipated the darkness, as cuttle (abandon) their 
stall." 4 [i. 123, 10. Like a maid triumphing*** in her (beautiful) form, 
thou, goddess, sd van cost to meet the god who seeks after thee (the sun) ; 
amiling, youthful, and respU-ndunt, thou unveilest thy bosom in front. 
II. Liko a fair girl adorned by her in »ther, thou duplaycst thy body to 
the beholder, i. 124, 4. Bba has been beheld liko the bosom of a bright 
maiden.*" Like Nodhas, 1 *' she has revealed things that we lore. 
Awaking the sleepers liko an inmate of tho house, she has come, the 
most perpetual of all the females who havo returned. 7. As a woman 
who has no brother appears in presence of (another) man, as a man 
mounted on a chariot goes forth in pursuit of wealth, as a loving wife 
shows herself to hor husband, so does Uebas, as it were, smiling, 
reveal her form.*" v. 80, 6. She displays her person like a fair 

*•* "As cattle of their own accord go quickly to their own cowpea" — Sung*. 
*• As oawi opea their stall ' ' — Deals*. See hU note in loco. 

«■» TVs word so readorod it /as'mtf i»S. — Syyaga explains it " becoming tuenifurt." 
Tb* word, bowcrer, «* appear* from tho context, aa well ai other postages in 
It octwt, L 33. 13, i. 116, 2; i. M4,v; L Hl,»; ril n, l ; ui. lot, U . x. 
120, 6, has nideady Ihe aeasc assigned to it by Rota, io Illuu. of Kir. p. 83, where 
ha reader* it by " triusnphinj:," io i 33, 13, aod x. HO, 6. In tho passage befure us 
hi! makes it mean "ithfinglllahsfl by beauty." Boufcy explain* it by " triuanphins; " 
la L 33, 13, *nd i. 116, •.'. Hi* translation of tb* R.V. data not extend beyond tbe 
. bran of tb 

*• Sirana, fuDowinff Villa, explains Jwidkyure «■ r«£sA«4, as tho "rays on lb* 
breast of tbc sun," or u "the breast ef a particular white water bird." Roib, Mart. 
ol Nir p- t«, trsnilatr* " as the. breast if a pure urjjio." 

«•" This ia tb* nam* of a Rishi. Roth tbinlu it may be an apptlUuiva bora. 
MisDar, Trana. of li-V. i. p. 10?, thinks it may have tho gcuctsl moaning of poet. 

*" Moth, Must, of Nir. p. 1Z, say* " Tb* seaae of Ibo verse appears to be : "sis 
brotucricsa aiaiden, who after bar talker's death has bo longer any bona*, turns Don 



woman, like one rising out of the water in which she has boon bathing. 
?L <H, 2. Thau, full of brightness, displayest thy bosom, o goddess, shin- 
ing in thy glory], i. 92, 5. Her bright my has betn perceived; it ex- 
tends and pierces the block abyss. The daughter of the Sky has assumed 
a brilliant glow, like the decorations of the sacrificial post on festivals. 
6. We have crossed over thin darkness; Fshas dawning restores con- 
sciousness; radiant, she smiles like o flatterer seeking his own advan- 
tage ; fair in Iter aspect, she has awakened all creatures to cheerful- 
ness. 7. The shining daughter of the bkies, leader of cheerful voices 
(or hymns), 38 * baa Lieu luudcd by the Uutumus. Ushas, thou distri- 
buted resources in offspring, men, horses, and kine. 8. Blessed TJflbas, 
thou who, animated by strength, shincst forth with w i iehes, 

may I obtain that renowned and solid wealth, which consist* in stout 
eons, numerous slaves, and horses, fl. Directing her eyes towards oil 
creatures, thu goddess shines before them far aad wide. Housing into 
motion every living thing, sin; notices the voice of every adorer. 10. 
Burn again and again, though ancient, shining with an ever uniform 
hue, (she goes on) wasting away tho life of mortals, carrying it away 
as a clever gambler the stake*.'" 11. She is perceived revealing the 
ends of the sky ; she chases far away her sister (Night). Wearing out 
the Uvea of men, the lady shines with tho light of her lover (the sun), 
[i. 115, 2. The Mm follows thu shining goddess Ushas, ue a man, com- 
ing after, approaches a woman, vii. 73, 4. Daughter of the Sky, 
misiltte of the world, food-providing wifo of the sun.] i. 92, ! 2. 
Tho bright, and blessed goddess has widely diffused her rays, as 
if eho were driving forth cattle in various directions, or aa a river 

boUJj to men, as a warrior on s chariot goes forth proudly to conquer booty (cossp. 
ix. 96, 20), us a disunited wifo in presence Ot her husband, «o r«ha» aavttls before 
the eyes of oicu all her beauty, amiling as it wore in thu sure oonseioui oca of its orw- 
powering effect." This explanation seems to express well the import of the word 
MJibSuufi a* interpreted in n previous note. 

"• Seo above, seti 986. 

*° 8»yin» takes trafkni for a "fowler's wifo" (ry5<tta-«rr7), sad *«/•* fcr 
**l»ird»." Seo Wilaon in looo. Bonfcy laV(« vij-'h for " dice," and cxpUiM lbs 
clause as denoting a oaaning gambler who tampers with the dice, by ihaviug them 
down. See hi* note. Bolleosea, Orient nnd Occiileut, ii. *CH, rranilstes: "ss a 
fortoaatc gauieater carries off the gains." The phrase t\jvl> iru a mindri occurs again 
ii. ISA, where Sienna talcs njak for luirtjakah, "a vcxer." So uncertain 
arc hit explanationi 1 



rolling down its floods ; maintaining the ordinance* of the gods, she 
is perceived, made risible by the rays of the torn. 13. Ushas, provider 
of food, bring us that brilliant fortune whereby we may posse** off- 
spring. 14. Ushfl*, resplendent, awaking cheerful voices (or hymns), 
dawn richly upon us to-day, bringing cowa and horses. 15. Yoke to- 
day, Ushas, thy ruddy steed*, and then bring us all blessings." 

i. 113, 1 ( = 8.V. ii. 1099; Nir. ii. 19). Ida* imkfkiA jyoliah&A 
jyotir dydl chitrnh prttketo ojanithfa tibked \ yatkd prasutu Sarituk 
tatiya tra rdtrl Uthtue yenim araiA | [i. 124, 8 Siwd ntura jy&- 
yatyai ytnm araiy apaiti «y.*4 pratiekahhy* iV«] i. 113, 2 ( — 
8.V. ii. 1100; Nir. ii. 20). RuiadtaM raiatt futyA dfdd araic u 
krithma tadanAni tuy&h \ iantanaba%dhil avtriU an&ehl dyAtd tornam 
ckaratak AminAn* | 8(» ST. ii. 1101). SamAno adhtd irasror amam- 
tat tarn anyA 'nyA tkarata dtraiukft | na mttketa na ta*h{katuk ntmeta 
naht»th6tka samanaiS rir&p* | 4. BhAttati tutrl UlnritAnAtti achti 
thitrd ti duro nah Atak \ prArpya jagad vi u no rdyo oJckyad whak 
ajlyar bhurarulni risrA | [i. 48, Id. U*Ko yad adya bhAnunA vi 
dcdr&o finara ditch | iiyAdi] L 113, 6. Jihmaiyt tharifart maghonl 
dbhagayt ithfatjt ray* u tram dabhram paiyadbhyah urriyd vi 
tkaktha uthAk ajlgar bbtirandni riVrd | 6. KthaUrAya ttafa irarane tram 
mahtyai ithtaye turn artkam tea tram ityai | ci»adri&& jitizd 'hhiprm- 
tiahKe tuh&h ajlyar bhutan&ni tiitd | 7. EthA diva duhitA pralyodarii 
ryaekhantl ynroiih iukracatAh *' | riiraiyefdnd pArlhiituya rasvah usho 
adytka tubkagt ti uchka | 8. ParAyattnum anu Hi pdlhah ayallmim 
pratkamA (aitatinam | eyuthhantl /MM udtrayanti mf*ih mritam kaia 
tkana kodkayanlf | [i. 123, 8. Sadriilr adya tadritXr id u fro dlrokam 
MtthnnU Farumuya dhAma | anavadyAt triSkiatam yojanAni tkaikA Ira- 
lam pari ynali tadyah | 9. jAnatt aknah pratkanuuyo nAma iulrA kri*h. 
aud ajanithfa kfitteh\ \ ritatya yoih.A na ainAti dhAma ahar abar nuA- 
ifitam 6thnraHt\~\ i. 113, 0. Utho yad agnim utmidhi ehakartha ei yad 
Atai ckakthud tiryaty* | yad ntAnmkAH yahhyamAgAn ajlgai taddetaJtn 
tkakfiiht bhodram apiuth | 10. Kiyoti & tot aomayA bkatuti yah ryiukur 
yui cha ninafft tyuchhaa | mil pirtAk kripata tAtatAnA pradldhyAnA 
jatkam anyAbfiir yAti | 11. lyua to yt pSrvotordm apoiyan ryuekhaatim 
uihoaam martydtah | atndbhir u nm prtUichakthyA abkid A u U yanti 


Comaut »iL 77, 2: fu, 

\ pratickJ tapratkal md attkid ruiad tot* Mkratl 



yt aparUhu paiyun | 12. Yuwyaddutha ritapih n/gdA tumniirarl 
ffarAd Irayantt | tumangtillr bibhroK dttoiUim ikodya U*hdh ir<*fha- 
Uma w urAAa | 1:5. Saitat purA uihdh ei wdM atol rtMo <w/y« tVum M 
dro mm^Aom! I atko ti uehhad tdtardn anu dyin ajari 'mrita ehoroti 
ttadkabhih | 14. f'i anjibhir dirah statu adyaud apo kruhniira nirnijaih 
detl elrah \ prabodhayantl aruntbhir ahair a uthuh y/iti tuyujtl ratkena \ 
15. Atahantt pothya r/tryam cht'lrain hetum Irinutt chelitQnQ | lytuhlnim 
upainu ttiicattndih cibhatlnam prathamd mliuh n titmt | [i. 1 
Annua'.) ih-.irijniii trat'ini prtwinati mantahyfi yugdni | lyusbintim 
Wptmi htcaloiniii dyaUmim pTtAmA MtAd| 'V adyatd Q i. 1!';, Id. 
Ud lrdAram Jlro atur nah fig&d apa prugSt (amah d jyotir eti | araii 
pmtfUitli yutave AbysTjfl aganma yatra pratiranle Hijuh | 17. £ytiffksnd 
idchuh ud iyartli vahtiih ttacuno rtbhah mhato ribhut\h I mfya tad mehha 
grinatt maghoni dime &y\tr ni didlhi prajurut | 18. Yah gvamllr i«A*- 
tak tanatiruA tyufflun t i dviuehf murtydya | viyer h-a tutiritdndn 
udarl* laA aivaddh ainatat lomatutcfi | 19. Matd tktandin Aditer atil- 
him yajnatya ketur brihat) n bhtihi \ praiattilrid brahman* «o m vehLa 
ft m> jnne j&naya eiieaeSre | 20. Yal rhitrnm aptuxh tuhaso rnhanti ijdn/iya 

UMft bhadram \ tan no Hiiro t'aruno mUmahantum Aditih ttxdhuh 
J'fifbivl uts DynuX \ 

'1. '• This light Las arrived, the greatest of nil lights ; the glorious 
and brilliant illumination has been born. Inasmuch as she (Usluu) 
has been produced for the prodm-tinn of Savitri, tie Night has 
nnulc way for Ugh a*, [i. 1'24, 8. The sister (Night) has made 
way for her elder sister (Ushos) ; and departs, after she has, as it 
looked upon her], i. 113, 2. Tho fair and bright Uahas, 
with her bright child (the Sun) has arrived ; to her the dark 
(Night) has relinquished her abodes; kindred to one another, im- 
BMriaL, dtN&stiag Day and Night go on dunging colour. 3. The 
same is the never-ouding path of the two sisters, which they traT« 
OOmmtndsd hy tho gods. They strive not, they rest not, the prolific 
Night and Lhiwn, concordant, though unlike. 4. The shining Ushas, 

i of joyful voices (or hyranB), has been perceived ; she has opened 
for us the doors (of tho sky) : setting in motion all moving tilings, 
she has revealed to u« riches; Uthas has awakened all creatures, 
[i. 48, Id. Uahas, ns thou hast by thy light opened to us the two 
doors of heaven, etc.] i. 113, 5. (Arousing) the prostrate sleeper to 



move, (impelling) mother to enjoyment, to the pursuit of wealth, 
(enabling) those who see but a little way, to aga fur; Ushas lias 
tied all creatures. C. (Arousing) one to seek royal power, 
another to follow after fume, another for grand efforts, another to 
pursue as it were his particular object, — TJshoa awakes all creatures to 
consider their different modes of lifo. 7. She, the daughter of the sky, 
baa been beheld breaking forth, youthful, dad in shining attire: 
mistrcM of oil earthly treasures, auspicious Ushas, shine here to-day. 
8. Ushas follows tho trac-k of the Dawns that are past, and is the 
first of tho unnumbered 13a wm that are to come, breaking forth, 
arousing life, and awaking every one Unit was dead. [i. 133, tt. 
Alike to-day, alike to-morrow, tlioy obsorvo tho perpetual ordinance 
of VoniQa. Spotless, tin \ • ofe | nstantonoounly shoot forward thirty 
yojanas, their destined task."* 9. Knowing the indication of tho 
earliest clay, tho bright, the lucid (goddess) has been born from the 
black (gloom). The female do mxgrcss the settled ordinance, 

coming day by day to the appointed pluco.] i. 113. 9. Inasmuch at 
thou hast mado Agni to be kindled, hast shone forth by the light of 
the eun, and hast awakened the men who are to offer sacrifice, thou 
bast done good service to the gods. 10. How great is the intcrrol 
that lies between *" tho Dawns which have arisen, and those which 
are yet to ariee ? Ushas yearns longingly after tho former Dawns, 
•ad gladly goes on shining with tho others (that axe to come). 
11. Those mortals are gone who saw the earliest UbIuw dawning ; wo 
shall gaze upon her now; and tho men are coming who are to I 
her on future morns. 12. Repelling foes, protecting right (or rites), 
born in right (or rites), imparting joy, stimulating joyful voices (or 
hymns), bringing good fortune, promoting the feast of the gods, rise on 
os. Ushas, the best (of all Dawn«). 13. Perpetually in former days did 
the divine Ushas dawn ; und now to-day the magnificent goddess 
beams upon this world: undecaying, immortal, she marches on by her 
own will. 14. She has shone forth with hex splendours on the borders 
of the sky; the bright goddess boa chased away tho dark veil of 

Se» BohUingk and Roth, *.«•. l*aiw. 

MMJyo mcoaa "o«ar," aeoordiag to SaT»««- Prof. MUlIer, Tr»n». | 
ooonikn it I* sifftifj "tether," "sUikv ' Tbo rankling I hare riven ia ibit 
of hnfaavi antoest 



Bight; arousing the -world, Ushaa advanoea io her well -yoked car, 
drawn by ruddy stood*. 16. Bringing with her abundant boous, 
revealing herself, she display* a brilliant lustre. Uahas has abona 
forth, the last of the numerous Dawns which ore past, and the first of 
those which are coming, [i. 124, 2. Maintaining the ordinance* of 
the gods, bat wasting away the lives of men, Ushaa has shone forth, 
the last of the numerous former dawns, and the first of ihose that are 
coming.] L 113, 16. Arise! our life, our breath, has come; darkness 
has departed ; light arrives ; Ushaa has opened up a path for the sun 
to travel: we hare reached the point where men prolong their days. 
17. The priest, the poet, celebrating the brightening Dawns, arise* with 
the web-" 1 of his hymn; shine therefore, magnificent Ushaa, on him 
who praises thee; gleam on us with life and offspring. 18. May ha 
who offers libutions of foinu obtain such Dawns as rise upon the liberal 
mortal, (Dawns) rich in kino, in (sons) all stalwart, and in horses, at 
the end of his hymns which resound like the wind. 300 19. Mother of 
the gods, manifestation of Aditi, forerunner of the sacrifice, mighty 
Ushae, shine forth ! Arise, bestowing approbation on our prayer; giver 
of all boons, increase our progeny.*" 20. May Mitra, Vorurja, Aditi, 
tlir Ocean, tlio Earth, and the Sky, bestow upon us those brilliant and 
excellent resources which the Dawns bring to the man who offer* 
sacrifice and praise." 

(2) Rtlatim* of Uthat to thi other deities. 

Ushaa, as we hare seen, is constantly described as the daughter i 
the Sky (ofuMd DUah, as in i. 30, 22; i. 48, 1, 8, 9 ; i. 92, 6, 7 ; i. 
183. 2; iv. 80, 8; vii. 67, 2; viii. 47, 14 f.; ditiJAh in tu. 75, 1)."» 
Sho is also colled the sister of Bhagn and the kinswoman of Varuus, 
i. 123, 3 (llhagatya tvasd Fanincuya j&mih). Sho is ahio the sister of 

*°* Sfwmmui is taken by Siyana at an sectsMtiv* plural and oonstrotit n-.rh 
rack*) iii the seoM of "hymn* aowed together," or " oojinccUd." Professor Beater 
takes it u the instrumental singular of tyuauin, and renders, " with the web ot the 
word." Professor Aon < m iliii llsi. Hlhlllin, III 111 iii 81,4 

** 8m BeruVy in loot, and Ik.hQiiiglt and Both, ».e. udvriv. wher« liur'ta \m ex- 
plained of hymns. 

* w Professor A ufrtcht proposes to trsmlste jam* a /smjm by «' give us prominsaw* 
among ncn," 8*y*nji explains tut words by " fettle us in the country " (jisM#W< 
abktmvkkfma pra<t*tbluita)i* | msrAapays. 

*» la i. *A 1, she is colled " the bcloscd of the Sky " (priyi l)ir*t). 



Night, i. 1 13, 2, 3 ; x. 1 27, 3, and in i. 1 24, 8, the elder sister. Night 
is also in one place, x. 127, 6, called the daughter of the Sky. The 
two sisters are frequently conjoined in the duals naktoshari and uthtua- 
naJkta or otherwise, i. 13, 7 ; i. 90, 7; L 96, 6; i. 122, 2; i. 186, 4; 
ii. 2, 2 ; ii. 3, 6; ii. 81, 6 ; iv. 55, 3 ; v. 41, 7 ; vii. 2, 6 ; rii. 42, 5 ; 
ix. 5, 6 ; x. 36, 1 ; x. 70, 6 ; x. 110, 6. In vii. 2, C, they ore com- 
pared to two grcot celestial female* (yetfiani iicyt maM na mha$dttutld), 
and in ii. 31, 8, they aro characterized as the two blessed goddesses 
who arc seen alternately *■ and impel all moving things (uta tyt det\ 
tubhag* mtlhudrviti utJuunnaktn jagatum aptjnrii \ ttiuki |). TJshas is 
also, as was to bo expected, frequently brought into connection with 
the Sun- As we hare seen above, he is called her lover, i. 92, 1 1, or if 
with Roth, w.v.jaroj we should understand this of Agni, the Sun is 
indubitably described as going alter Ushas iu a nuin after a woman, in 
L 116, 2, quoted above. Ho is said to follow her track, v. HI, 2 
(uriM ohm prayunam uthatc ri r&juii); and she is represented as 
bringing the cyo of the gods and leading on the beautiful white horse 
(the sun), vii. 77, 3. She is declared to be the mistress of the world 
and the wife of the sun, vii. 75, 5 {bhuianaiya palm \ rtijinlvatl t&ryam/m 
yothi), as the Dawns, in the plural, are said to be in iv. 6, 13 (JuuUl no 
dtv\r amritatya patnlh sure rarnrns UtaHanu uthwmh). Iniii. 61, 4, 
Ushas is said to be »v***r**ya paM, which Sayans renders wife of tho 
Son or the Day.** In vii. 78, 3, tho Dawns are even said to generate 
the sun, sacrifice and Agni {ajijanan titryatii yajnam ajmm). Ushas and 
Agni aro also frequently brought into eimjum ii»n, firo being always 
kindled for sacrificial purposes at dawn. He is called her lover, and 
is said to appear with, or before the dawn, i. C9, 1 ; i. 124, I, 1 1 
5, 1 ; iv. 13, 1 ; ir. 14, I ; vii. 8, 1 ; vii. 9, 1, 3; vii. 10, I ; vii. 67. 
2; vii. 77, 1; vii 78, 2; riii. 43, fi; x. 1, 1; x. 8,4; x. 35, 6; x. 
122, 7. M Dj one place he is represented as goiug to meet ber as she 
comes, and to beg for riches (iii. 61,6. dyalim Agw UtJuuam viihdllm 
ruM<i«4 r*At drariHiist hhhhamuitah). In vii. 6, 6, Agni is said to have 

*■* 8© Profs*** Both UDilcrwUnds mUhidfUS. Bavina makes It ■ looking- st 
•m* oUuv.- 

** Jtoth. bowetcr, IUuatr. of NirakU, p. 00, ssrt mrcmrm (neater) moans oal* 
MStoSBsrT road. pUcauf abode, court for cattle, bat bo doss sot sdTStt to this patug*. 

»• In x. 1, S(»S.V.iL8M), Agni sppe&rtto so the lover of Us isiter, the Nigkt. 
Boo Boofoj'i trsaa. of tbo B. V. H, 898. 



made the Dawns, the spouses of the noble god (yo tryapalnir mhcual eht- 
lara), which Saynnn understands of the sun. I'ihas i» alto often con- 
i with Bu AsVins, tho timo of whov* manifestation, as we shall 
hercnftcT eeo, is regarded by Yaska os being between midnight and 
sunrise, i. 41, 2 ; i. 180, 1 ; iii. 20, 1 ; vii. 69, 5; vii. 72, S, 4 ; viii. 
9, 18; x. 11, 1. They are said to associate with hor, i. 183, 2 (ZJi'ro 
dtihitra Uthasa lachelht) ; and, she is said to bo their friimd, iv. 52, 2 
(takha 'bhfii Aktnor Ushafr | 3. Uta talha \ii Ahinoh). In viii. 9, 17, 
she is called upon to awaken them (pra Imlhaya Uiho Ait\<.r. . II : 
hymn is said to have awoke tin m, iii 58, 1 (Uthatah *toma Aicmtie 
ajlgah). Again, however, we arc told that when tho Aivins' car is yoked, 
the daughter of the sky is bom, x. 30, 12 {ttaxya yoga duhila jayaU 
Dw«h). In one place, x. 85, 19, the moon ia said to be born again tad 
npuio, ever now, and to go before Ushus as the herald of the day {naro 
nato bharati juyamiino aJmdm tttur tuhmum rfi agram). India i* 
ta have created, or lighted up, Ushas, ii. 12, 7 (yah turytm yah 
Uhhasam fitjunn); ii. 21, 4; iii. 31, 15; iii. 32, 8; iii. 44, 2 (h/iryaH* 
ut/uisam arehayah) ; vi. 17, 6. Ho is, however, sometimes repre- 
sented as assuming n hostile attitude towards her. In ii. 15, 6, he is 
vii'l to hnvo crushed her chariot with his thunderbolt (vajrena anak 
Uthaaah sampipetha). The snnio thing is repeated in ivr. 30, 8 IT. 
(where tho poet, with the want of gallantry which was so cha- 
; istic of the ancients, does not hesitate to admire the manli- 
nesj and heroism of Indru in overcoming a female) : I'lad yka id 
■ryyam Ittdra chabtrlha paumiyan \ »(riyaSi\ yad durka»&y*caih 
rtidlur dtihitaram Diiah \ 0. Dind chid gka iithilaram mah&» ntahfya- 
mntum | Lhhamm Intlra nam pinak | 10 (■= Jurukta, xi. 47). Ap» 
Uthnh NMMJ Karat MumpUhfUd aha bibhyuth} \ ni yat «iiw iiiiMlhtd 
vrithd | 11 (- Nir. xi. 48). Et«d avyth imah iayt tu4ampi*h(am ripCii 
a | antra iJki peirOiatah \ " 8. This, Indra, was a deed of might and 
manliness which thou didst achieve, thnt thou didst smite the daughter 
of the sky, a woman who wns bent on evil. 9. Thou Indru, ■ great 
(god), didst crush Ushas, though the daughter of the sky, who was ex- 
alting herself. 10. Ushas fled away in terror from her shattered ear, 
when the vigorous (Indra)had email" d it. 11. This clinriot of hen lies 
broken and dissolved, while she herself has fled afar oif." Those 
verses are translated in his Illustrations of the Niruktu by lloth, who 




adduces R.V. x. 138, 5, a» referring to the same myth: Tndriuyn 
rajrud obtlhed abhiinathoh prdkrdmat iuiulh\jur ajthdd Utht'th anah | 
" The hright Ushaa was afraid of th" destructive, thunderbolt of Indra ; 
■he departed and abandoned her chariot." And in x. 73, 6, it is said 
that Indra destroyed certain foes like the chariot of Ushas (ai-uAaiw 
Jndrah Uthew yathi <meh). 

Soma is said to have made tho Dawns bright ot their birth, vi. 39, 3, 
(fuekijanmanth U*hcuai ehakSra), and to haco formod them tho wire* 
of a glorious husband, vi. 44, 23 (ayrnn akp'nod tukataft tupatnlh). 
Bribuspati is said to have discovered Ushas, the Sun, etc., x. 67, 5, 
[BriAaipatir Uthataih Suryati jdm arkam rirwfci), and to have repelled 
the darkness by light, x GH, 9 (so arktna wi babadhe tamGilui). 

Tho early father*, who were wise and righteous, and companions of 
the gods in their festivities, are said to have possessed efficacious hymns 
wherewith they discovered the hidden light, and generated Ushas, vii. 
78, 4 (te id (/fctiwJm tadhamthluh uaaun rittitunoh katayah pdrry&tah | 
yilham jyotir pitaro ancacindan tatyamaiilrak ajartayann Uihutam). 

(3) EpitheU, ckaracterirtiu, and function* of Uthat. 

The yighantu, i. 8, gives sixteen names of Ushas, which seem to he 
almost entirely epithets, viz. ribhcuarl (the resplendent), sfliwl (tho 
beautiful), bhdnatl (tho shining), odatl (the flowing, gushing, from tho 
root ud, according to Professor Roth, a.r.), chitr&tughd (possessed of 
brilliant riches), crjunX (the white), cujinX, rajmltatt (tho bringcr of 
food), nunnavarX (the girer of joy), ahanu, dyetanu (the bright}, tottfi 
(the fair-coloured), aruthi (the ruddy), $unritfi, tinrituvnti , tunfitd- 
tyarl (the utters* of pleasant or sacred voice*)." 1 Somo of these epithets 

*» Pntcttot Aufrccht think, that IhU mwd l i afto U to \x> tspluned »» follow* ! tl» 
COaa U sr* it to to a dent miic from itfit, " to bo in motion," com|>uuiidrd with m. 
Ill arst meaning is 'moTable' (sftsjfM attghani. R.V. ril. 67, 6), then 'brisk,' 
•al«rt' >w§r>'ra, prnlic*ted" of Indra, riii Hi, M | «£»r ,£ * OI Usluu. i». 64, »; 
i. 113, A; 114. 10; <riii. a, 17). As s feminine rotoUntire in the plural it mtuni 

either •*<tjritj,' OX, with B Mippliflri fir, "lively Toitt* " (stmritnmiim firam, iii, 31, 
18}; nrtri timrttimam i» L'sbst as • sUmuUtor, or tathcr. leader (x"fTr*0 °' jorfcl 
vokes (of birds, ate - just tho tame. Professor Aufracbt U at 

OpKioa that the word* rtyor ira $utiritimaai wiarkt. in R.V. i. 113. 18. »houid not 
be rrndend as I asr* done in p. ISO, above, but translated thus: " nbuu feneat 
voices arus like the rising of tho wind (ortu tecum ftlul «rfM rtnlij." UMirl* k* 






are of frequent occurrence in the hymns, and there are also many others 
to bo found there, such as snsyAwtl (the magnificent), tuMayi (the fortu- 
nate), arvnapm (the ruddy), fittiwl (the righteous), rili*/><2 (the prc- 
aervei of right or of order), tittja (born in right, or order), fvM 
(bright), hirtttyatarnd (goldhued), dcvl (the goddo?s, or the divine), 
amfitS (the immortal), ram-aiandrik (of pleasant aspect), mdriiika- 
landrii (the same), tuprallkd (the brilliant), mli/airaairt (poe n a we d of 
real wealth, or renown), danuchilrti (bringing brilliant gift*), ghrittipra- 
tilo (shining like butter), indratama (moat similar to Indrn , L90, 20; 
i. 48, 1, % 7, M ; >. 92, 6-9, 14, 15 ; i. 113, 2, 12, 13 ; i. 123, 
4, 6 ; i. 134, 4 ; iii. 61, 2, 5 ; it. 53, 9; r. 39, 8; v. 30, 1 ; rii. 75, 
3; vii. 77, 2; vii. 78, 4; vii. 79, 3; vii. 81, 1 ; viii. 62, 16. 

Vidua is borne onward on a shining chariot, of massive construction, 
richly decorated nud spontaneously yoked [rathena Ifihadi, — npcia#l, — 
titrapi&i, — ioiiicAatti,—j</olixh»Mta, — avaihaij'i yuji/iinurtcna), i. 48, 10; 
i. 40, 2; i. 123, 7; iii. 61, 2; t. 80, 2; vii. 75, 6; vii. 78, 1,4; 
from the distant east, i. 92, 1 ; i. 124, 5. She is also said to arrirc 
n hundred chariots,- i. 48, 7. She is drawn by ruddy horses (an.- 
tfotfy), i. 30, 22; i. 49, I; i. 92, 15; i. 113,4; iii 01,2; iv. 51,6; 
t. 79, 1 ff. ; vii. 75, 6, or by cows or bulls of the snmc colour, Xighaniu 
i. 15; R.V. i. •).', 12; i. l-'l, II; v. 80, 3; and traverse* rapidly a 
distance of thirty yojnnns, i. 123, 8. Like a beautiful young woman 
dressed by her mother, a richly decked dancing girl, a gaily attired 

;-I>c:iring before her husband, or a female ri- 
of the bath, — smiling, and confiding in the irresistible power of her 
liona, she unveils her bosom to the giuc of the beholder, i. 92, 
I i 123, 10; i. 124, 4ff.; v. 80, 4, 3; vi. 64, 2. She dispels the 
darkness, disclosing the treasures it had concealed ; she illuminates the 
world, revealing its most distant extremities. She is the life and 
tattA of all things, causing the birds to fly forth from their nests, 
visiting every house, and like an active housewife arousing her house- 
hold, awakening the five races of men, ycu all creatures, as if from 
death, and sending men forth to the pursuit of their several occupations, 

regards iu diriir.1 from <:■! un.i fha roof ."■ ind as meaning "riaag," "motion 
upward." and compares R.V. iii. 8. 5. Dmtyalf vipralf nliyartti wafitm, **TV pion* 
prii«t ItfsOl l>« rotOS;" »ml ii. 47. 8. Jyam mi y~>t*K luKyarili rneJktm, "Thk 

soma, irhon drunk, ruixs m j ' 1 Bote A r inTiVori si ■ g.niMi— 

(AvOin R.V. i. 10, J, and x. HI 



i.48,6, 8, 10; i. 49, 4 ; L 92, 11 ; i. 113,8, 16; i. 123,4, 6;i. 121, 
12; ii. 34, 12 ; vii. 76, I ; vii. 79, 1 f.; vii. 80, 1, and rendering good 
service to the gods, by causing all worshippers to awake, and the sacrificial 
fire* to be kindled, i. 1 13, 9. She is, however, entreated to arouse only 
the devout and liberal worshipper, and to leavo tho ungodly niggard 
to sleep on in unconsciousness, i. 124, 10; It. 61, 3. She is young, 
being born anew every day, and yet she is old, nay immortal, and 
wears out the lives of successive generations, which disappear one after 
another, while she continues undecaying, i. 92, 9ff. ; i. 1 13, 13, 15; 
i. 123,2; i. 124,2; vii. 18, 20. 

The worshippers, however, sometimes venture to take tho credit of 
being more alert than Ushas, and of awaking her instead of being 
awakened by her (prali Homair abhuUmaht, iv. 52, 4 ; vii. 68, 9 ; 
vii. 81, 3; z. 88, 19; and this tho Vuaisbthas claim to have been tho 
first to do by their hymns, vii. 80, 1 (prali ttonubhir vthatam 
Vauthfbih glrbhir ciyruuih prathium'ih abudhran) ; and in one place 
she is solicited to make no delay, that the sun may not scorch her 
like a thief or an enemy, v. 79, 9 (t« uchha duhitar Dko roil chiram 
tanuthi\h ajmh | na it tvii $ttnam i/nthd ripuih tapGli iflro artkitkti). 
8bo is prayed to bring the gods to drink the libations of Soma, i. 
48, 12. Agni and tho goda generally are described as wakiug with 
Ushas (uiharMkah), i. 14, 0; i. It. 11 ; i. 92, 18; iii. 2, 14; it. 8, 
8; vi. 4, 2; vi. 15, 1 ; ix. 84, 4. 

As we have already seen from the hymns which hare been trans- 
lated, she is frequently asked to bring, or dawn (us in former times) on 
the worshipper with, various sorts of wealth, children, slaves, etc., to 
afford protection, and to prolong life, i. 30, 22 ; i. 48, 1 ff., 9, 
11, 15; i. 92. 8, 13 ff.; iv. 51, 7; vii. 41, 7; vii. 75, 2; vii. 77,5; 
to revolve like a wheel over new, iii. 61, 3; to confer renown and 
glory on the liberal benefactors of the poet, v. 79, 8 f. (eomp. i. 48, 4) ; 
to drive away sleeplessness to Trita Aptya, viii. 47, 14-16. 

The worshippers in one place ask that they may obtain from her 
riches, and stand to her in the relation of sons to n mother (vii. 81, 
4 : tatyut la rainoWiJah Xmaht r<nj,vh tyGma mtilur na itinarai). 

In x. 53, 8, the souls of the departed arc said to go to the sun and 
to Ushas. 



Uikat, as rtpruenttd in the hymn*, — a wtrical sltUh. 

In the following verses I hare attempted to reproduce the most 
striking ideas in tho hymns to TTahas, which have been quoted above. 
It will be Been on comparison that there is little in these line* of 
v, hi< li the pcrtn will not bo found in the originals, though some of the 

[£MI li:i\e bi.'t-n •'\])OIlM Btd tiniilili.ii. 

Hail, Ushas, daughter of the sky, 

W2lf| burnt- upon thy shining car 

By ruddy steeds from realms afar, 
And ever lightening, drawest ntffa : — 

Thou sweetly soulost, goddess fair, 

Disclosing all thy youthful grace. 

Thy bosom bright, thy radiant foce, 
And lustra of thy golden hair ; — 

(So shines a fond and winning bride, 
"Who robes her form in brilliant guise, 
And to her lord's admiring eyes 

1 1 i jilays her charms with conscious prido ;— 

Or virgin by her mother decked, 
Who, glorying in her beauty, shews 
In every glance, her power she knows 

All eyes to fix, all hearts subject ; — 

Or actress, who by skill in song 

Ami dunrc, and graceful gestures light, 
And many-coloured vestures bright, 

Enchant* the eager, guziug throng ; — 

Or maid who, wont her limbs to lave, 
In »omc cool stream among the woods, 
Where never vulgar eye intrudes, 

Emerges fairer from the wave) ; — 

But closely by the amorous sun 
Pursued, and vanquished in the race, 
ThOU soon art looked in bis embrace, 

And with him blendcst into one. 


Fair Ushas, though through years untold 
Thou host lived on, yet thou art bora 
Anew on each succeeding morn, 

And v> thou art hoth young and old. 

As in thy fated ceaseless course 
Thou riscet on us day by day, 
Thou wearcst all our lire* away 

"With silent, ever- wasting, farce. 

Their round our generations run : 
The old depart, and in their place 
Springs over up a younger race, 

"Whilst thou, immortal, lookest on. 

All those who watched for thee of old 
Arc gone, and now 't ia wo wlio gnzo 
On thy appnutrh ; iu future day* 
Shall other men thy beams behold- 
But *t is not thoughts so grave and sad 
Alouo that thou dost with thee bring, 
A shadow o'er our heart* to fling ; — 
Thy beams returning nuke u glad. 

Thy sister, sad and sombre Night 

With stare that in 

Liku slcvplett cyo* mysterious glam> , 
At thy approach ia quenched in light ; — 

And earthly forms, till now concealed 
Behind her veil of dusky hue, 
Onco more come sharply out to view, 

By thine illuming glow revealed. 

Thou art tho life of all that liven, 

The breath of all that breathes ; the light 
Of thee make* every countenance bn, 

Half strength to every spirit gives. 



When thou dost pierce the murky gloom, 
Bird* flutter forth from every brake, 
All sleepers m from death awake, 

And men their myriad tasks resume. 

Some, prosperous, wnko in listless mood, 
And others every nerve to strain 
The goal of power or wealth to gain, 

Or what they deem the highest good. 

But some to holier thoughts aspire, 
In hymns the race celestial praise. 
And light, on human hearths to bluzc, 

The hettveu-born uucrificial Fire. 

Ami not alone do bard and priest 

Awake ; — the gods thy power confess 
By starting into com* iousnese 

"When thy first rays suffuse the east; 

And hasting downward from the sky, 
They visit men devout and good, 
Consume their consecrated food, 

And all their longings satisfy. 

Bright goddess, lot thy genial rays 
To us bring stores of envied wealth 
In kine and steeds, and sons, with health, 

And joy of heart, and length of days. 




Agni is the god of fire, the Ignis of tho Latin*,'" the Ogni of the 
Slavonians. He is one of tho most prominent deities of tho Rig-rods, 
as the hymns add rosed to him far exceed in number those which are 
devoted to the celebration of any other divinity, with the sole ex- 
ion of Ludra. 

(1) JZi* funetimt. 

Ajrni is not, like the Greek Hephaistos, or the Latin Vulcan, 
the artificer of the gods (an effleo which, as wo shall presently 
■ec, is in the Veda assigned to Tvush,ri), but derives Ma principal 
importance from his oonnection with the ceremonial of sacrifice. 
He is an immortal {amrita, amartya) i. 44, 6 ; i. 58, 1 j ii. 10, 
1, 8 ; iii. 2, 11 ; iii. 3, 1 ; iii. 11, 2; iii. 27, 5, 7 ; vi. 9, 4 ; 
Tji. 4, 4; viii. 60, 11 ; x. 79, I, who has taken np his abode 
among mortals as their guest (atilM), i. 44, 4 ; i. 58, 6; ii. -1. I : 
iii. 2, 2 ; iv. 1, 20 ; t. 1, 8 ; v. 8. 2 ; v. 18, 1 ; vi. 2, 7 ; ri. 15, 
1, 4 ; rii. 8, 4 ; viii 7.5, 1 ; x. 1, 5 ; I. 91, 2 ; x. 92, 1. Ho U 
the domestic priest, purohita, rrtry, hotri, brahman, who wakes with 
the dawn (tuharbtulh), or eren before the dawn {vhatah pitrohi(am) 
I. 1.1; i, 13, 1; i. IS) 1,4; i. 20, 7; L 36, 3. 5; i. 11.7, 12; L 45, 
7 ; i. 58, I, 6; i. 60, 4; i. 68, 4, (7); L 76, 2, 4 ; i. 127, 1 ; i. 141, 
149,4,5; 5.6,1| ii-6, 6; ii. 9, 1; iii. 7, 9; iii. 10,2,7; 
in. II, 1; iii. 14, 1; iii. 19, 1; it. 1, 8 ; v. II, 2 J v. 26, 7; ri. 15, 
1,4, 16; vi. 16, 1 ; Tii. 7, 5 ; vii. in, 5 ; vii. 11, 1 ; Tii. 16, 5, 12 ; 
Tiii. 44, 6 ; viii. 49, I ; ix. 66, 20; su x. I, 6; x. 92, 2, appointed 

■* Ob lb" wonliip »f flr* among tho Creek* and Honuns ice the volume ot M. 
PMfal da CoalanftM, entitled " La Cite Antique." pp. 91 ff. 

■ ii tins rene be b ailed a risbi, at well on a priest, commnn to liie five nons 



both by men anil goda, who concentrate* in bis own person, ami 
exercises in o higher sense, all the furious sacrificial offices which the 
Indian ritual assigned to a number of different human functionaries, 
the adbtaryu, hutri, potri, titshfri, praiuttri, etc. (i. 94, 6 ; ii. I, 2; ii. 
5, 2 ff. ; iv. 9, 3, 4 ; x. 2, 1 (piprlhi dcr&n uiiio yaeiihfha ni vdm 
pitUn ritupaia yajeka \ ye dakyuh pitnjat tebhir Agne ttaA kotrlaan 
(Mi dyajuhikak \ " satiate and worship here the longing gods, o moat 
youthful deity, knowing the proper seasons, and along with the 
divine priests, for thou, Agui, art tho most adorable of hotris"); 
x. 91, 8-11 (Agniih hotnram paribh&lamam rnahm, "Agni, tho wise; 
tho most eminent of hotris." Ho ia a sage, tbo divincst among 
sages (aturo nipaiekitam, iii, 3, 4), intimately acquainted with all 
tho forma of worship, the wise direotor, tho successful accomplishes 
and tho protector, of ull ceremonies, who enablea men to serve the 
gods in a correct and acceptable manner, in cases where this would 
bo beyond their own unaided skill, i. 1, 4 (Aon* yam ymjnam adk- 
tarath viiralah paribhar an J n id devethu gachhaii | "Agni, that 
[oo which thou encom posses t on every aido goes to tho gods"); 
i. 31, 1 ((vain Agne prathamo Angirdh, rithir dero detunam abhatalf 
iieak takha | "Agni, thou art tho first rishi Angirns, a god, the 
auspicious friend of gods"); iii. 8, 8 (tidatkatya t&dkanam | "The 
occomplisher of the ceremony"); iii. 21, 3 (rithih tretkfkak tomi- 
dhyau yajnatya pr&vitd bhava | "Thou art lighted, a most eminent 
riBhi; protect the sacrifico''); iii. 27, 2 (tcipaithitam yajnatya tiid- 
hanam \ 7. Puratldd tti mdyayd vidathiini praekodayan | S. " The 
sago, tho aceouiplixher of the «aerifice. 7. He goes before, by bis 
wondrouB power promoting tho ceremonies"); ri. 14, 2 {ttdhottamak 
fithih) ; vii. 4, 4 (kavir akacithu praohetGh \ " Wise among the foolish ; 
and intelligent"); x. 2, 4 (yai to tayam praminuma rratuni cidtukdm 
drrAh acidtuJifarflsah \ Agnit tad xiieam pfiniiti ridvun yrbhir d*T<lm 
filubhih kalpaydti \ 5. Tat p&katra mantua d'inadaktfiAk na yajnanjm 
manvale martyutah | Agnit tad hotd kratuvid vijunan yeji*k(ko decdn 
rituio yaj&li | 4. "Agni, knowing what seasons to assign to the 
rectifies all those mistakes which we ignorant men commit 
your prescriptions, o yo roost wise gods, 5. Those matters relating to 
tho sacrifice which we mortals of feeble intellects, with our imperfect 
comprehension, do not understand, may Agni, the venerated pr 



■who knows all these point*, adjust, and worship the Rods at the proper 
time"); x. 91, 3 {Ague kacik kdvytn* ati viineii). To him the 
attention of tho worshippers is turned, us men's eyes are to the sun, 
t. 1, 4 (Agnim achha dermy m/Mlt chakthQmtki in itiryr 

mA ckaranti). lie is the father, king, ruler, banner, or outward 
manifestation,"* and superintendent of sacrifices and religious dutift 
[ktlum yajnaniim \ pita t/ajntlnain | kttur adhvarGnam \ r&janam adk- 
taratya | adhyak*ham dharmnnnm imam \ lit yo ciivxtyak d*mc\1fk, 
iii. 3, 3, 4 ; iii. 10, 4 ; iii. 11, 2 ; iv. 3, 1 ; vi. 2, 3 ; riii. 43, 24 ; 
x. I, 6 j x. 6, 3). He i* alao the religious leader or priest of 
the gods (tadyo jdto pi amimlta yajnam Agnir dttundnt abhacat 
ftmgtik | Agnir devo decGnum abhavat purokitah, x. 110, 11 ; x. 
150, 4. He is a swift (ragkupalta™ x. 6, 4) messenger, moving be- 
tween hearen and earth, commissioned both by gods "• and by men to 
maintain their mutual communications, to announce to the itntuurtuls 
the hymns, and to convey to them tho oblations, of their worshippers, 
or to bring them down from tho sky to the place of sacrifice (** dttGn 
d ika takikati | Agnim dulam crinlmakt | imam a *u team atmdkam 
tarn'm g.lyatram nacyHmtam Agnt dttt»hu prarothak \ dtt&tat frd Varum* 
ilitro Aryamd tarn datam pratnam indkate | dilo tiidm ati | patir hi 
odhrarCiniim Agne data tiidm ati | yad dtttin&tn mitramahab purekUa 
'ntare ydti datyam | Jfdm dutam aratim hacyatilham detak alj-invann 
mmritatya n&hhim \ imam no yajnam amritrthu dhtki | anlar lyaa ersuAd 
yujuno yuthmAmi cha davdm riiah u cha tnartdn | tcAmAgne lamidkdnam 
yaritkfkya dtvak dalam chakrire hatyatdkanam | tcdtTt tiht tajothatak 
devato ditan akrata | tcdm da tarn Agns apifitam y»g« yugt dadkin 

"* Hi» father bfgot him (Janita fro j'ajaaa) to he tho r: relation and brilliaul 
b an aar of all mcriflce*. With the i<hn*e,jamti t™ jw'tta, compart tat expetanoos 
in i. 20, 9, alio relating to Ajrni, nnd in it. 17, 4, relating to ladra. 

»'• Compare til* ngknrarlamm nlkam of the Xitiat, B.V. riii. 0, 8. 

111 Taitt. Sanh. ii. 5, 9, 6. Afnir itrinam «U Liana Savyv 'wrinani | 
" Agai was the neaemger of die gods Xirja Ui'anas td the aeuras." Ibid. ii. 6, 
1 1 . h. Agnir faaniim ttitttik •life" Datvyo 'mramim | " Agni wb* the maaaenrer of 
the gads, Dairya of the Aiunu." Taitt. Br. ii. 4, 1, <J. o Unlwm Afmr aVrywM 
Ulim* | lisem ui Uhiur Ufa utmr Af** \ trsm psMkik sAaaati rf oa y aa a | | trayi 
jlfut pri.\(luA n f f» aruAtm* | «/Ao rf«*i* mdAtmadam matUm* J "Agni rtrrtchad 
oat Um otlettkl bond ; the* art oar bond and our bridge, o Agni , than art the pata 
he dim to tho fnds. Bj thee nuj we aecead to the aummit of hcarcu, and lire la 
hilarity among the gods." 

fifM Mfnnn dn&tai eha tnortatas ihajrigricin priimm rupaiuk mamaM 
m aMirs | dexan d mldayud Hut | dot* cfalmZa &u mmrtyHn&m omtor 
i eJurmti rocJutnttw yam ted dttdk dadkirt karyatdkam pmtuffika 
yajttrun | i. 12,1,2,4, 8; i. 27.4; i. 56,3,4,5; i. 44. 2. 
1, 5, 9, 12;i.46,l;L74 t 4,7;i. 188.1; ii. C. G. 7 ; ii. 9, 2; ii. 10, 6; 
iiL 6, S ; iii. 6, 8 ; iii. 9, 8 ; iii. 11, 2; iii. 17,4 :. 5; it. 1. 

8; ir. 2, 3; ir. 7, 8; iv. 8, 2, 4 ; v. 8, 6; r. 21, 3; ri. 15, 8-10; 
TiL 11, 4; riL 16, 4 ; Tii. 17, 6; TiiL 19, 21 ; riii. 23, 18, 19 ; tin 
39.1,9; viii. 44,3; X. 4,2; x. 46,10; x. 91,11; x. 123,7). 
Bwng acquainted with the inncrmoet recesses of the sky (iv. 8, 3. S* 
ii nda tMMu-dhitim mahdn dndhanatk dirak | ta d*rdn a iAa fwhAitf | 
4. Sa kot& j* id u datyaA ctoiittan antar iyat* |), he is veil fitted to 
tetutlK' herald of men to nummon the gods to the sacrifices instituted 
in their honour. He come* with them seated on the same car (iii 4, 
1 1 ; rii. 11, 1, d tUtMih lartttimA yfihi dtcaih), or in advance of them 
(4 dft6imm agray&tA ii* ydlu \ x. 70, 2} ; and shares in the reremwa 
and adoration which they receive (i. 86, 4 ; ii. 2, 1). He brings Varuos 
to the ceremony, indra from the «ky, the XTuruU from the air [x. 70, 
11, d Agne nha Farvnsm ukfaye nah hdraSi din Morula tnlertkthdt). 
He mokes the oblations fragrant, x. 15, 12 - Vaj. 8. xix. 66 (71mm 
JLpu il'ta jattndo mead imydni ntraii'mi kritvi). Without him 
the gods experience do satisfaction (rii. 11, 1, na riU lead amritai 
mddsymU). He himself offers them worship (rii. 11, 8 ; riii. 91, 
16 ; x. 7, fi). lie is sometimes deseribed as the mouth and the 
tongue through which both gods and men participate in the sacri- 
fiees (ii. 1, 13. tvGm Agns QdityOta^ OtyaH tvGf* jdmilik ivtkaytd eia- 
triri tan | 14. Tve Agne tike amritdiah adrakah 6*6 devfih harir adn, 
Ahutmm | tcmyd martdMh uadante dnilim). He is elsewhere asked 
eat the offerings himself (iii. 21, 1 ff. ; iii. 28, l>6. Agne tlhi pttrola, 
ahultun), and invited to drink the Boma-juico (i. 14, 10; L 19, 9; 
1, 3. Viktbhih eomyam madku Agne Indiena Fdyuna ptba). 
The filet hymn of the tenth book contains a dialogue between A 
aud the other goda, in which they giro utterance to their desire that 
he would come forth from his dork place of concealment in the waters 
and the plants, and seek to persuade- him to appear and convey to them 
I ho customary oblation* (vorso 5 : ehi manur devayur yajn*knm» aran- 
kfilya iai/HW h*ht*hi Ague \ eugun palhah krinsihi devaytindn pais 


'J.. a 

y&ni tunanaayamdjuk). After he has expressed the grounds of his 
reluctance and apprehension, (versos 4, 6),"' ho is induced by tha prc- 
miso of long life and a share in the sacrifice to nceedo to their request 
(varao 6. Kumia* U &yur ajaram gad Agna yaikd yukta j&tauio na 
ritkydk | aiha tahati tumanutyamiino bhugaih dettbhyo kariikak aujGla). 
la tiio noxt fallowing hymn (the 52nd) Agni proclaims hinuclf the 
matter of the ceremonies, declares himself ready to obey tha commands 
of the gods, solicits a share in the sacrifice for himself, and asks how 
and by what path he can bring them the oblations (rente I- I 'the dttdk 
ittiana ad yatktl iha kota tfila manavai ya» nUkady* | pra me brut-a 
kkdgaJkeyam yatkd w> yarn palfui hat yam to zahilni | 2. Attain kota n» 
atldam gajlyun r**c« narulo m<S j'unauti). Agni is the lord, protector, 
and leader of the people, viipali, viiiik gapa, tiiUm puraeU (i. 12, 2; 
i. 20, 7; i. SI, It; L 96, 4; ii. 1, 8 ; iii. 11, 5); the king or monarch 
of men (rdi'S Ariihllntiirt o$i montuktmim | rty'dnam \ *«mr>'ijaik thar- 
tkaitlndM | tiidm rijanam \ L 5*, 8 ; ii. 1,8; iii. 10, 1 ; v. 4, 1 ; vi. 
7, 1 i rii. S, I ; viii. 411, 24). Ho is also the lord of the house, grika- 
pati, dwelling in every abode {yak paneka ekartkanir abki ni that/Ida Jama 
dams katir gfikapatir gwlt \ i. 12, 6 ; i. 36, 5 ; i. 60, 4 ; t. 8, 2 ; rii. 
15, 2). He is a brilliant guest in every house ; dwells in every wood 

"' Verse Sunt follows : Agiuh pirx* bhrotant *r thorn item rtlStt.itktnnum anm 
ararrtuk | fu»i< Mi'yu Karma durum Tiyam jauro na ktktjmor »ri/r/yrt»/r)A | "Agni'i 
former brothers hst* sought this goal, ss s charioteer paste* alonj* • road. Bat 
fearing this journey, o Vanina, I went to a distant plso«, and trvmblcd like • wild ball 
which qaskes nt the sound of tho huntsman's bowstring." It in clear from n 
thst Ago! mesa* that his brother* had never returned, sad that ho (ears a similar 
fete. The following pasaagn e>r the. Tait. Sanh., ii. 0,4,1, stwm« to Its fonmhil 
ran* : Ayr** trayojyayalkn ihratanA aunt | U tUvtihy* Aavyam rtlamltk prami. 
ynnta \ to 'ynir ahiljkni i//Ui mm »y« irtim untiytli iii *d ntCiyit* | » 'pah 
prm ri i at | tarn aeraiiM pr*i*A*m oie/iAom | Mm maUyk pmkravh | tarn •unp-d 
" dJti f/Htof* Ira vJhy'uur y* ma friiwk&h " iii | totmaj m*tr?*m dkiyndhifi 
$ Ammf i | Uptak »i | tarn awvaciWuN | Mm sir ihvsjwi - *pa imA iJparfMjtvs karymn 
m rtJu" iti | to 'bratld "varum rrimai y*J m>* ffiktituy* oAu T sjy MvkmtrtJIki 
t k tn tl t Urn sw tJtritrlQam kKig*dk^4m tad" iti j " Agni had three eMar brothet*. 
*h« di*d while csjttuik obUlmat to the gait. Agni fosrtnt lest b* should incur tini 
fciint ute, and aooordingly lie disuppesred, snd entered iniu the waters. Tha goda 
■ooght to diacorer him. A fish pointed him out, Agui carted the uih,— ' Siuee 
thaw boat pointed ma out, mar men slay thee whenever tlitr "ill." Men in cranio- 
cjaeaee alar a fish at their plaaarjr*. becaow it was carard. (The pxli) found Agni, 
and taiil to him, ' Come to nt and tmnp tin our oblations.' Ho rrplii-J, < L*t ma ask 
a btToasr; let whaterer part of the prtwuiital oblstious talle outaido of the atcrrd 
aadoaare be the alaare of mr brothers.' " 


like a bird ; friendly to mankind, lie despises no nun ; kindly disposed 
to the people, he lire* in the midst of every family, x. 91 , 2 (m dmrim- 
tairtr atithir grih* gr>k* «>«* i*JM iitriye takravlr ita | jatutl* janaA 
jitnya nfitimanyatc viiak a k*heti tiiyo riiait riiam). lie is s father, 
mother, brother, son, kinsman, and friend (d ki tma tunar* pita ipir 
yajali (kpayt takkd nakkye tarenyak \ team pita '$i no* Ivaih vmymtkfit 
lava j&maya vayam \ team j&mir janandm Ague mitre ati priyaA | talki 
wkhibhyah Idyak | tvdm Agnt piUram itkfibhir narak trim bkr&tr&y* 
iamyd tauurtuham \ tvatn putro bkaeaii yat U 'eidkat \ pita mitd tadam 
in mxinushanilm \ Agm bhrAtah \ Agnim manyt piUirtim Agnim fipim 
Agnim bhrataram tadam it nakhayam | i. 26, 3 ; i. 3 1, 1 0, 14, 1 6 ; L 75, 4 ; 
i. IQ1, I; ii. 1,9; vi. 1,5; v. 4, 2; viii. 43, 16; viii. 64, 16; x. 7,3); sod 
some of his worshippers claim with him a hereditary frienil- 
10. M& no Agne wkhyil pitryfigi pro marshi-ikfhdk). He drives sway 
and destroys Rakshasos or Asuras (budkatra dciifto rattkato amtc&h | 
pra Agnayo viicaiwha dkiyamdhe aturaghne | Agnxk rakthamti ta i k at i | 
iii. 15, 1 ; vii. 13, 1 ; vii. 15, 10; viii. 23, 13; viii. 43,26; x. 87, L| 
x. 187, 3). In hymn x. 87, he is invoked to protect tho sacrifice 
(verse 9. tfkthnena Agne ekakthushi rakiha yajnam), and to ftonwtnft 
the ttakshasee and Yatudhanss with hia iron teeth and by the most 
terrible mnnifestations of his fury (verse 2. Ayodowbfro artJ>uki ydtu- 
dk&mli* upa tpriia jtilacedak tamidJhah | verse 5. Agnt trotka*' 
dhmtuya bhindhi Mftlffl 'ianir karatS bantu tiwm | verse 14. Pari iri- 
nlhi tapm& yfttudh&n&n part 'gn* raksho hsruA irinlki |). 

(2) Agtii'i birth, and triple exittmea. 

Various, though not necessarily inconsistent, accounts are given in 
the hymns of the birth of Agni. Sometimes a divine origin is ascribed 
to him, while At other times his production, or nt least his mani- 
festation, is ascribed to the use of the ordinary human appliances. 
, Thus he is said to have at first existed potentially bnt not actually in 
the sky, x. 6, 7 (quoted above in p. 51); to have been brought from 
the sky, or from afar, by Miitarisvan "" (d amyam [Agniii] dito Matm- 

"• In Bohtlinfck and Roth's lexicon, *.t. Mataris'ran is said (1) to doaoU a divine 
bciajf, who, u the measenfjer of Vivasvat, brings down from heate* to the Bhrign* 
Agni, who bad Wore bran concealed ; tad (3) to be a wcrct nimo of A cm , *n<i it 
is remarked that tho word rannut be certainly shewn by any teat to be in the Vcdis 



riiiujabhiira \ to jSyam&na^ parame ryomani drir Agnir alharam lluta- 
rikana | i. 60, I ; i. 93, 6; i. H3, 2 ; iii. 5, 10 ; iiL 9, 5 ; vi. 8, 4); 
to hare beea generated bj India between two clouds or atone* (ye 
aimanor anlsr agnim jaj'dna, ii. 12, 3); to hove bcou generated by 
Dyaue, z. 45, 8 [Agmr inwrifo abhatad vayobhir yad enarn Dyaur janayat 
mntai) ; to be tbe son of Dyaus and Prithivl, iii. 2, 2 ; iii. 26, 1 ( Agna 
DwaA tUnur cti praehetu tana J'fithiryah uta tiitactdah) ; x. 1, 2 ; z. 
2, 7 {yam M Dy&taprithicl yaih ltd ipa» Traihfd yam Ird iuja nimd 
fojama); z. 140, 2; whom bo magnified, or delighted, at [or by] hut birth, 
iii. 3, 1 1 {vbkd pitarA mahayann oj&yata Agnir Dytivapfithkl bharirtUuti). 
Hi* production is alto Raid to be due to tbe waters (z. 2, 7 ; z. 91, 6),'" 
and to Trasbtri (i. 95, 2 ; x. 2, 7). He is elsewhere said to have been 
generated by the Dawns, vii. 78, 3 ([ U*ha*o] ajljanan KiryaM Yajnai* 
Agnim) ; by Indra and Vishnu, vii. 99, 1 {[Indr&cuhna] ttrufit YajnUya 
(Aathatkur u lokam jamyanta Saryam Uahatam Agnim) ; generated or 

hymn*. • syn<mynio of Viyu. I add lomc obstrrationi on thn same subject, which 
had been nods at an earlier period by Professor Roth, in his illustrations of the 
I, p. 113, where he » elucidating R.V. ri. 8, 4 (« Matorisroa, the meesMiger 
«f Vivasvai, brought Agni Vai/vfinara from afar") : " The explanation of MiUru-'- 
T*n as Varu" (which is given Irj- YOskn) "cannot be justified by the Vcdie text*, 
and rest* only upon the etymology of the root »Vw. Tbe numerous passage* where 
th» word is mm boned in tha Rig-reds exhibit it in two Sanaa*. Somutiiui-* it daoota* 
Agni histMlf, as in th* texts i. 06, 3, 4 J iii. 29. 4 (11 (?; x. 114. 1, etc. ; at other 
time*, tbo Wing who, oa another PYonsetheas, fetch** down from heaven, from tha 
rod*, the fire which bad vanished from the rarth, and brine* it to the Boric**, 
i.80, l; L 93, 0; iii. 2, 13; iii j. 10 . iii. », 4. To think of this bringer of Are 
a* a nun. s* a asge nf antiquity, who bad laid hold of the lightning, and placed it 
cat the altar and the hcirth. u forbidden by those teits which speak of him a* bring- 
ing it froes heaven, not to mention other grounds. X» Prometheus belong* tu th* 
aaptrhvaton clasa of Titans, and is only by this means enabled to fetch down tha 
•park from heaven, eo mast Matarutran be reckoned a* belonging to thoaa racea of 
infllljsli. who, in the Vcdic legends, are sometime* represented as living 
society of the god*, and somolittn* a* dwelling upon earth. As he bring* the fire to 
the Bhrigna, it is mid of these lost, that thoy bar* communicated fire to men (*.* , in 
i. 6U. C), and Agni is called the son or llhrigu (Wr7»«M;. Matarii'raa alsa 
ma*t be reckoned a* belonging to this haJf-divino raos." . ..." It may also be ra*s- 
taoned that the aaas* function of bringing down nrc ia aacribed in on* text (vi. 14, 
13) to Atharran, whose name Is connected with fire, lilo that of Mitaristaa ; and alto 
thai tha sifter* of Atharran are called Mdlorisvarli in s. 120, 9." 8ee my article 
en Mann in vol. xx. of the J ours. R.A.8., p. IK, note. In one place (vtL 15. 4) 
■ called tbo falcon of the sky (aVwoA •>*■»•*). 
■ A.V. L 33. 1. Mttanftrarmih «*«A«)r*A pirtkolf yoew jittk SwitS yirm 
Aj*\h | V'A Afn'im aorM*** 4adhiri itniirtfii ti)f n*)f 3*<s| i« syenu^ eiatan/sj. 



fashioned by the gods, vi. 7, 1 1 (jantymta dttdh); viii. 91, 17 (Um 
tvd 'jimanta m&larah iariffi dtrAto angiruk); x. i&, 9 (<&*<!» talmktkm- 
mana<:a yajalram) • a* a light to the Aryo, i. 69, 3 (lam U<i dtoAtejmno- 
yantit deram raitvAnara jyctir id AryAya) ; or placed by tho goda among 
the descendants of Munu, i. 36, 10; ii. 4, 3 (Agni A d*vAv> mAniaki$)w 
vtkxhti prii/nm dhuh fcuheshyattto no mil ram); vi. 16, 1; riii. 72. 
Yet although flu son, he i* also tho father of the goda, i. 6'J, I 
(Mure derAnSm pild putrah tan). In riii. 19, 33, tho superiority of 
tin Fire-god to oil other fires is shewn by their being declared to bo 
dependent on him like branches of a tree (yiuya U Agm any* ognayth 
upakthito raydh iva) ; vii. 1, H (tia id Agnir agnin ali atti anyan). 

Agm is in somo passages represented aa having a triple existence, by 

which may be intended his threefold manifestations, as tho son in 

heaven, as lightning in the atmosphere, and a* ordinary firo in the 

: h , although tho ton ■•■ lOM are elsewhere othorwise explained. 

In X. 88, vra havo tho following Terses : 

6 ^— Nir. rii. '21). Mitrdha bfiuro bhaeati nakttim Agnit iatah S*ryo 
juyaU priitar vdyan \ 8. SAttaeHiam pralJiannm Ad id Agnin* ad id 
karir ajanayania dtrah | aa ethAfii yajna abhaeat lanipAi ia& .' 
reia lam Prilhiei Inn Apah | 10 (=» Nir. vii. 28). Slomena hi dm 
decAso Agnin qjijanan iakfibhih rodauprOm \ lam a akrinran Irtdh/l 
bhuctkamta <n had to A pitchati eiitarap&h | 11 (—Nir. vii. 29). Ykdfd 
mam aiaihur yajniyuso divi dtvAh Siiryam Adittyutn | yadu eharit 
milnunAv abhatAm Ad it prApaiyan bhuvanuni rued \ 

" 6. Agni is by night the head of tho earth : then he is bom 
the Sun rising in the morning. 1 ** 8. Tho gods produced first the hymn, 
then Agni, then the oblation. H« was their protecting sacrifice : him 
Dyana knows, him Fritbirl, him the Waters. 10. With a hymn bj 
powers the gods generated Agni who fills the world* : they formed him 
for a tlireefold existence : he ripenB plants of ovory kind. 1 1 When 

* w It sjipows from Profr«mr Aiifrrr lit'* ubrtrnct of the contents of the M *ur». 
that, In HOtioo 1 l 6, die mil i» «nid tn *nt«*r int.. ignj 'lurisg rt.« night, and 
Ajrai into the nun br day. Catalognc of Bodl. 8*u»krit MBS., p. -tl*. Tu« Ait. 
Br. viii. 28, myt i aditya rai niitrm yann Ajnim annprari{tfi \ to'lttarMryU ( . . . . 
Agnir r»i uifi'iii t'oyum anvpmviiati \ m 'mlerJMynlr | . . . . I'li^ix Afmtrj&tfU 
y.nn.ul In 4n/iiif mtith\/atnii*a VAi/iii/nf/ | . . . . AfKtr rai oifityv joyttt | - Tbe »ira, 
wlun siting, cnton into Agni *n<l diiopp. in .... Airni, wtion htowing upvarik, 
cnt«r» Viyu, md dsnppMrl .... A^'ri i» pl» dl >»Sd ben Virn, for wIimi »Uritio« 
U Uiing place, lie ii born from brcatU u force. The tun is produced tzvm Agai." 



the adorable gods placed him, Sflry* the son of Aditi, in Uie sk y. when 
the moving twins came into being, then they (the gods) beheld all 

According to Yaska (Nir. vii. 27) it is intended in verse 6 to repre- 
sent the sun as identical with Agni (" ta/a$ tiryo jdyatt pr&tar udyan '* 
m era). The same writer tella as (Nir. vii. 28) that according to his 
predecessor Sakapuui the threefold existence of Agni, referred to in 
Ttrsc 8, is his abode on earth, in the atmosphere, and in heaven 
;•« tredku " hkdraya. "pfilhicynm antarikthd diri " >ti S&lvpamh), and 
adds that a Bruhmarja declares his third manifestation to be the Sun 
(•' yad aiya divi tfitiyam tad arur udityah " Hi Ai brahman/im). The 
constantly moving twins, mentioned in verse 11, are Ushas and tlio 
Sun according to Yaska (Nir. vii. 2'J. fitnwfa tahochariaav Uihai cha 
AdUyai cha). Agni would thus be identified not only with Silrya the 
celestial, but with Indrn or Yayu, the aerial or atmospheric deity, 
according to passages of the Nirukta vii. S, already quoted in p. 8; 
and with Vishrju, if we adopt the interpretation of that deity's three 
steps givca by Bokupurji iu Nir. xii. Itf, oa rspoanded by the commen- 
tator Durgacharya, viz. that Vishnu abides on earth as tarrestrial fire, 
in the atmosphere in the form of lightning, and in the sky as the Sun 
('• jyUhivj/'im t mtmih k* dui" Hi S'akapOmt, | p&rthiv* y $nir MlM 
pf%thir\/ii!% yat kixehid atli tad rikramaU tad adMti»hfhati \ anUriktfo 
taidyutHmana din SarytUmawl}.* 1 In R.V. x. 45, 1, - Vaj. S. sii- 18, 
(see also verse 2) a threefold origin is ascribed to Agni, the first from the 
heaven, the second from us {i.e. apparently from the earth), and the third 
from the waters, which may mean the atmosphere * a (Ih'ta* pari prathn* 
wutAjaJite Agnir atmad dcitlyam pari jatacrdah | tritlyam aptu). m The 
same three abodes of Agni an pachsjM MsVmd to ■* in z. 66, 1 m S.V. 
i. 65 (idan U ekttm parah u t« ckam tritiytna jyotitha mm riM«ra). In iii. 
26, 7 (- Vaj.8. aviiL 66), he is called aria* Iridhatuh, a threefold light, -1 

* Qnotrd io tbe 4th ml. of this wort, p. o«. 

r 3 8w »Ih:" . j' 3'). note 73. 8sj OOBSL I Ifl I .18. 

*** A I J* <i tOpsU Aftur Jn.uyj «/« .)KrtniiU« | Ajnim 

m*rti— A iWAtff* l*rf*iaham fhfitifriy.iA. | "Agni glowi from tn<- »kjr; I.. 
b*loog» th« brow! sir ; men kindle Agni, Ins btarcr of oblation*, the Jorcr of bult«r." 
Comport A.V. liii, 3, 21, and nSL i, II. 

"* So the Scaoliut on the SAms-reda nmlcrttandt the rem, ss I lrsrn from 
rrofexor l*rn»ev'» not* to hi» transition, p. JIC. 

•» Cosnpare A.V. viii. »9, 9. 


in v. 4, 8 truhadhtutha (according to Suyann=fri«Atf cHtyHditku tlKi'nuthu 
tikila), occupying thrco abodes, and in riiL 39, 8 triptuthya, having 
three homes. In i. 95, 3, he is said to hare three births, one I 
ocean, another in the sky, and a third in the waters (trlni jand p*ri- 
Ihiukanti tuya Miaudrt tiam diet tkam aptu), which Sayoxja understands 
1st of the submarine fire {tadap/ituila}, 2nd of the tun, and 3rd of the 
lightning. He is elsewhere called dvijimnun, having two births, i. 60, 
1 1 i. HO, 2; i. 149, 2, 3, which Snyana explains either as born of 
the Heaven and Earth, or from two stioks, or because he has one birth 
from the sticks and a second when he is formally consecrated ; bat is 
•aid in one of these passages to dwell in the three lights {aihi . . . tri 
roehanOni . . . atthif). 

In ii. 9, 3, two places of birth only are mentioned — an upper 
(ptrame jannan), and a lower {tuara todoUhe) — which Sayana inter- 
prets of tho sky and the atmosphere; and in viii. 43, 28, in like 
manner, only two ore alluded to, tho celestial, and that in the wakr* 
{god Ajn* divijuk «»' aptujuA ikJ). 

In x. 91, fi, as wo have already seen, his generation is ascribed only 
to the waters, the mothers. (Compare iii. 1, 3 ; iii. 9, 4.) 

In A. V. iv. 39, 2, tho earth is said to be a cow, and Agni her calf 
{Prithivl dhtuu* tuiyHh Agnir ctUtah). In vereea 4 and 6, Viyn is 
said to be the calf of the air, and Surya of the sky. 

In different passages the process of friction,"* by which tho god is 

>" See Aitarera Br.'.hmana, i. 10, and Profeeaor Haojr'e translation, pp. 35 f. I 
add here a kiuLcucc or two from this work (Ait. Dr. i. IS) to illuttratc what the text* 
•bore quoted ay of the power of Ajrni to hollow all aacriflcw, nlthnngh in the promt 
COM • special rite b referred to : ta tiki trarypa uhmtir pad Ayapahutik \ pad* *a 
mi any abrakmanakto yurft dttrvktakta pajate mtks km mMa akatir pmtkhmtp «es* «Cn.m 
no pUpmana tamifijpau | "The Agni oblation Li that which conduete la heavsa. 
Sica if • man who U called a do- Brahman, or a pereon of bod reputation, perform it, 
oblation iroea to the (rode, sad ie unaffected by the »in (of the pcrforxMr)."" 
Str Prtifmeor llrtuz « trunslntion, p. 38, note 1 7. The Satapatha Brimaoa. ii. 3, 3. 1, 
relates that Agm, when created by Prajupaii, began to horn everything, and threw 
the world into confiwion. Thereupon tho creature* who then existed fought to crash 
him. Not beinjr able to bear this, he earao to a man and said, " I cannot endure 
thin; let me enter into th«. Having gonerati.'d me, nnrae me; and if Uiou wilt do 
thia for me in this world, I will do the um< Tor thec in the next. Tho man agreed 
(m yulra Afniiii tarryt m idam jutih tarrum no AigJJuun dadkrt | ify era anUrn 
n a | tah pai tarki prajTih ante fa* Ao mail mmfuikjam tUtlkiirt | *e 'liiiktkama. 
n .» punaktM i\a •eAjwyuya \ J. S* ka mHaka "immi aham idam tiiUtki ksuia 
tra praritam | Urn mi jmwpitva si'MpAt | m yjlAaiw mam tram imm Ukwjaa*- 



oauy generated by his worshippers, is described or alluded to. la 
iii. 29, 1 ft, it is said : astidam adhimanthanam soli prajancuwih kfi- 
tarn | *t&n viijM&nlm Sbhara Agm'm maHlb'ma p&rtathn \ 2. (=8.V. 
i. 79) Aranytr nihito j&taved&h garbhah ioa tudhiio garbhinithu \ Jut 
rfi'w fdyojdgrivadbMr ftacithmadhhir maniuhyibhir Agnih \ Z. ( = Vaj. 8. 
xxxiv. H) UtlUndydm aea bhara ehikilc&n tadyah pravitd vriihanaiU 
jsjUna | "This process of friction, of generation, has begun; bring this 
mistress of the people (the lower arani, or wood for friction) ; lot ns rub 
out Agni as heretofore.*" 2. This god is deposited in the two pieces of 

yilri kkarukyati tvtm MS aham IvUrn amtukmim lokt jctuiyitvn tikiiriikyrimi" iii \ 
M flafl9 " ill Um/JMdyi.'ra aikiik.rk). Herodotus, iii. 16, tolls us what the Egyptian* 
tbotlght Of Ajrni : Aiyvwr(aur» !i vtvipivra* r& wvp faiflar *\rw Iptkuxov, «d>r« M 
ssir* Kxr«riiiir vd wtf if Ao£p, tKiiatir si ulrra rnt 0oprj$ avraKaO>ifo*tf *f 

m liunte. per (up*, it is tost Le is colled dvi-mata, bora of two parents (i. 31, 2). 

As regards bW/bmi9 having a donblo birth (i. (SO, 1 ; i. HO, 2 ; L 149, 4, ft,) see 

lie U *Uo culled kkurtjatma, having many birth* (x. 6, 1). In ILV. i. 9.», 2, 

he u mil t-> be produced by the ttu yuuug women, «'.;. tlii ten finger* (oWa inii 

(natAfar janaya*ta </ar/ikam ■tHaWaj yiimfnynA). See Both, fllartraUoni of 

Niroktn, p. 120; Bun fay'* Orient Bad Doaidtat, &. 016] and Roth's Lexicon. «.i*. 
(MtAfr* sad yi»r*/i. b in. M, 3. he i» called the ioa of l|u. whatever »cn»e wo 
ascribe to this word. In regard lo the paxsMM or fjmilir* by whom the sacrificial 
lr» is rappo**d lo have been first kindled, and the rites of Aryan worship introduced, 
TO., Mann, Aagiraa, BhriK"- Atlurmn, Dadliioncti, etc., see my paper nn ■ M :nu. 
the progenitor of the Aryan Indians," in vol. xx. Jonra. R.A.3., pp. 410-410. I 
subjoin some of tho passage* thai i|i)'it«: : i. 3ft, 19. -Yi (ram Ay»* mnnur daAki 
Jytttr Jtmiya ioirou \ " Mssa hat plaoed thes (here) a light to all (generation* of) 

men." vsi. 2, 1. V'nikfaJ Ajmim Jfamtni mmiJJkum mm adkrrtn'iym *rdam in 
Minu | " Let us, Lite Munu, ever attract to the asciil'tce Ajrni. who iru kindled by 
Msstt." X. 63, 7. Ytikyo Antrim prathamam Syyt Manur ntutiddk <ytiir mmm 
mj>(a hotfibkilf | It Adityiik obhayom iarma yachhata \ " O rr Aility i«, to whom 
M*iu, rh«s he had lighttd Agni, prwcutcd. in company with seven hutri pried*, 
*• xili bU hMrt, tho 4r*t oblation, bwtow on n* lecur* protoetion." x. 69, 3. F*j U 

M^-ir yarf an'kam $*milr*\ mm'icikf Agnt lad idaSt mm yak | "That luttrc of 

tliinr, o Apii. which M*au. which Sumitri kindled, is the same which is now 
reawwed." viii. 43,13. ' ? •$*<*( >ntkt Manmkvad A}t* ahuta | Anfirai. 

r*d AmuimA* I •' I-tke Bbrtgti, like Manush. like Angira*. we invoke thee who bast 
been summoned to blaze." vi. 16, 13. TVont Agn* putkiarid adki Aikarra nir 
mrnmmSkata | 14. Tarn » Ira DaJkyauH rukik pulrak idki Atkarvaruik , 13. "Agni, 

Atwarvaa drew tbeo forth from tho lotu* loaf. 14. Tbct, Dadhyanch, the i»a of 
Ashman, kindled." x. 31, 0. Aanit /tin Alkartt^i riAut viinini katyi | Hmead 
atass VifitalMk | "Agni. prodn.-. il by Atharsan, knowi all aripnofa. He ha* ba- 
eoasa the sniateng-r of Vivasvat." i. 08, 6. iMdkiuk fed Jlkfiptr* ma-takuku i | 
•TVe Bkn^u* luva placfd thae among snen." x. 4(1, 2. /Mam fulhanU apZZ> 
»*l*tfk* p*J»m n* i*a»*fam pmdmir "u gmtm \ f*ka ek*t**tam m-'i/o ntmtMir 
ieAkuMlo dhirak Bkrijan ii< imAta 1 •• Worahippiaj, and deairing him with obciauiocs, 




wood, as tho embryo in pregnant women. Agni i* daily to be landed by 
men bringing oblutions und awaking (early). 3. Skilled [in tho process], 
bring [tho upper piece of wood] into contact with tho lower, lying 
recumbent : being impregnated, she speedily brings forth tho vigorous 
(Agni)." *** Compare E. V. i. 68, 2, where it is noticed as remarkable 
that a living being should spring out of dry wood (juthkad yad dew 
rfw janMtMh); iii. 23, 2, 8 ; vii. 1, 1 ; X. 49, 15 ; x. 7, 5. He is 
produced from tho two Bttclre as a new-born infant, ▼. 9, 3 (*f« 
fii* iiiuih yath& navafii jtnuhfha ara*i); viiL 23, 25 (samtrh 
patb*am). Strange to say, cries the poet, addressing himself to both 
worlds, the child, as soon as born, begins with unnatural Tonicity to 
jonsnme his parents, and is altogether beyond his mortal worshipper's 
comprehension, x. 79, 4 (tad trim filaih rodatl prabrartmi Jilyamdno 
mtitaru garbho alii | ntikaih dtvatya martyai ehiketa). But when born 
ha is like tho wriggling brood of serpents, difficult to catch, t. 9, 4 
[via tma durgr»b]uya»« putro na kvury<S*dm). Wonderful is his growth, 
und hu immediate activity as a messenger, seeing he is born of a 
mother who cannot suckle him, x. 115, 1 [ekitrah it Mat l*rm*+ty* 
takikatho na yo m&tarilv apytti dhAUtvo | antidhak yadi fljanad adit 
tha mi vacaktha sadya mahi dalyath eharan) ; but he is nourished and 
developed by the oblations of clarified butter which are poured into 
his mouth, and which ho consumes, iii. 21, 1 {tUlatulm agna n t i m o 
ohritasya hoUh prul/lna | "Agni, invoker of the gods, eat these 
portions of fat and butter ; " sec also verses 2 and 3) ; t. 11,3 
{jjhritesa tvd atsardhayan) ; r. 14, C ; viii. 39, 3 (Agm mamn &m 
tubhyam Lam ghritath tut juhet usam); viii. 43, 10, 22; x. C9, 1 f. 
x. 118, 4, 6, and A.Y. i. 7, 2 (Jgnt tailatya prQtina). 

In iii. 26, 7, he himself exclaims " butter is uay cyo n (gkritem 


the wian Md longing BhjigtiB hare followed him with their etcpe, Iii* a lest ■">— t, 
sad kite found him concealed in tha receptacle of the water*." In tiii. 23, 17. 
Kfivja Ue'&naa b said to liSTe established Agni to ho n print for men [Vitmi A"uryw 
fro Ml kolaram atadayat | Sjntfii fro tn*M*1 jolwtHaMm). 

*** The ancient Indians regarded the upper piece of wood na the male, aad tha 
lower ae the female, factor* in the generation of Agni. See tho 3rd roL of this work, 
p. «8, note 62. 



(3) Hi* tpilkti* anil tharacterittit*. 

His epithets ore various, sad for the most port descri[>'.iro of bis 
physical characteristic*. Ho is tarpirawti, ghrit/'mna, buttor-fed (ii. 
7,6; vii. 8, 1 ; x. 69, 2) ; ghrila-mrnik, butter-formed (iii. 17, 1; 
iii. 27, 5; x. 122, 2); ghrila-ktia, butter-haired (viii. 49, 2); ghpila- 
priAlf.rt, butter-bnakod (v. 4, 3 ; ▼. 37, I; vii. 2, 4 ; x. 122, 4); 
ghfitaprnOka, gloaming with butter (iii. 1, 18; v. 11,1; x. 21, 7); 
ghjita-ytmi, issuing from butter (v. 8, 0, compare ii. 3, 11); drtanna, 
fed by wood (ii. 7, 6) ; ihama-ketu, having smoke for his mark, signal, 
or ensign (i. 27, 1 1 ; L 44, 8 ; i. 94, 10 ; v. 11,3; viii. 43, 4 ; viii. 
44, 10; x. t, 5 ; x. 12, 2) ; he minl.i up his smoke like n pillar to tin- 
sky, iv. 6, 2 (metd iva ihQmaS\ alabh&yad upa dydtn); vii. 2. 1 {upa 
tpriia diryam minu ttilpaih) ; vii. 3, 3 ; vii. 16, 3 (ml dhthndro 
anuMto dfcinpriiah \<ttthuh~\ ; his smoke is waving, his Hume cannot 
be «ized, viii. 23, 1 {tlmrithnudhumam agribhUa&oehiaham) ; he is 
driven by the wind, and rushes through the woods like a bull lording 
it over a hord of cows, i. 58, 4, 5 {cant d r-AUuhodiU yflfAs na tuhvu* 
am rati ratiuagah) ; i. 65, 8. He is a destroyer of darkness, i. 1 40, 1 
{tamchan), and sees through the gloom of tbo night, L 94, 7 (r&tryni 
ahid andho ati den patyaii). The world, which hod been swallowed up 
and enveloped in darkness, and the heavens, are manifested at his 
appearance, and the gods, the sky, the earth, the waters, the plants 
rejoice in his friendship, x. 88, 2 (girnnm lihuramim (am/wi 'pagtlfiam 
«ct$ nar abhavajj&te Agnau \ tasya derah prithitl dyaur vtapo armw- 
yonn osAWAiA takhye a«ya). He is chHra-bhdnu, chilra ioehih, of bril- 
liant lustre or blaze (i. 27, 6 ; ii. 10, 2 ; v. 26, 2 ; vi. 10, 3 ; vii. 9, 
3 ; vii. 12, 1 ; viii. 19, 2), <krdhra-kchit, upward-flaming (vi. 15, 2), 
imkra-toelik, bright - flaming (vii. 15, 10; viii. 23, 20), putaU- 
ioe\i4, m with clear flames (viii. 43, 31), tnkra-tarna, *WAi-r«rw#j, 
bright coloured (i. 140, 1 ; v. 2, 3), ioehithkeio, with blaring hnir 

■» Agni U *L» titled Hnioehii in »iii: 80, 10 («S.V. ii. 004), U (=8.V. i. 49). 
ssul i'fi in viii. 43, 31. On thf last place Siyana rrpliini iira as sleeping or lying; 
in lb* Morifte-* (y^w«A« /«y,iMdyn> i7«m). On viii. 60, 10, he makes lb* wmfmoixl 
n .nl = •JanM-Jit*-jT&Um%, ** ho vhoso flosM pcrTaJ™." On the 14th rem b< takes 

■ m im/<um-*raiiAfrtxiuMuuH, "he brilliance has lbs character of lying 
or sleeping." la both plants Profsaor Ben fey rendm it '* fjlramine like lightning." 
rrofsaor Rotb, Ulustr. Of Kir., p. 42, thinlt lira hit mean "piercing." 



(i. 45, 6; iii. 14, I; iii. 17, 1; iii. 27,4; v. 8,2; v. 41, 10), 
Aari-ktia, with tawny hair (iii. 2, IS), golden-formed (iv. 3, 1 ; x. 
20, 9, Airanya-rupni* janiltl jajtina), and Airi-imafru, with galdrn 
hoard (v. 7, 7). He carries ehnrp weapons, tiymaUti, liymabArukfi 
(ir. 4, 4; it. 5, S), ho has scarp teeth, tigmajtmbA* (i 79, 6 ; L 1-1 
5; iv. 5, 4 ; iv. 15, 5; viii. 19, 22), burning teeth, lapr-j 
(i. 58, 5; viii. 23, 4), brilliant teoth, iuehiitnt {v. 7, 7), golden teeth, 
Air*»y*dmt (v. 2, 3), iron grinders, ayofaauAfra (x. 87, 2), and sharp 
and consuming jsws (viii. 49, 13; x. 79, 1 (lignulh otyo AsaasttA | 
nfiad At Mii vibhrite tarn bharete atinvati hapnatl bh&ri atuh). Accord- 
ing to one passage, he is footless and headless {apai aiinhd, iv. 1,11 
and yet ho is elsewhere said to have a burning head, taprtrmi 
(rii. 3, 1), three heads and seven rays, trimQrdhtinatit tapta 
(i. 1 46, 1 ; ii. 5, 2), to bo four-eyed, chaturafoh* (i. 31, 13), thousand- 
eyed, tah**rCd*ha (i. 79, 12), and thousand-horned, saAasnsip'i^d 
(v. 1, 8)."* He is kruhnadhfcm, k^hnavarttani, krithsa-paci, ■*.#. his 
]i;Uh and his wheels arc marked by blackness (ii. 4, 6; vi. 10, 4 ; to. 
8, 2 ; viii. 23, 19) ; ho envelopes the woods, consumes and blackens 
them with bis tongue (i. 143, 5; v. 41, 10; vi. 60, 10, arckuAa tan& 
r»'sV<3 ptruhvajal | kfiihna kandi jiAcaya) ; x. 79, 2, «iar<iR» ulU 
fiAemya vantini) ; he is all devouring, eUcdd (viii 44, 26); driven by 
the wind, ho invades the forest*, and shears the hsirs of the earth, 
i. 65, 4 (ibky&n na rHju tanftnt alii \ yad rUfajHU r<tn& vi attk&d Ayntr 
Ad duti romfi pj-itAkjAh), like a barber shaving a beard, x. 142, 4 
[yadd U vdtc anutati ioehir vapUta &mairu reptui pra bAdma). He 
causes terror, like an army let loose, i. 66, 8 (wnsea tfisAia ama dk 
dadhuli); i. 143, 5; x. 142, 4 (yad vdvato nitato ydn' bapsat pfitAty 
ttAi pragardAin\ra tin*). His flames roar like the waves of the sea, 
i. 44, 12 (yad dtvastam mitramahai purohitao antaro yS$i dityam | 
lindkor ira pratvanit&iaA urmtyo Ayner bArajanU orcAayah). He sounds 
like thunder, vii. 3, 6 (dico na te lanyatur eii iiuAmak) ; X. 45, 4 
(akrandad AyniA stamyann iva Dyauh w )\ viii. 91, 5; ho roars like 

**> In one- place (viii. 19, 32) ^gni it railed nAanm-tnuAia. which the coanncatatot 
»,pl»in» St bdku-i<j<uka, having many flames. The tame epithet it, at we have 
seen, applied in It.V. vi. 10, 3, u> liulm, where Sipjj* mak«* it equivalent to mAojt*- 
itphji, millc lucuibra genitalis habeas. 

*" It U to be observed th it in thu pounire Dvans, and not India, it described as to* 
Uramlwcr. See above p. 118 f., the reference to the question whether Dyaa 
been rapcrttded by India. 



tbe wind, ibid, {hurt vGhtvanait* hitim Parjanya-krattdyarh tahah | 
Agnim tam\tdravSiaiam ,n ); like a lion, iii. 2, 11 (itdnado* na rimhah). 
and when he has yoked his red, wind-driven horses to his cur, ho 
bellows liko a bull, and invades the forest-.' -ccs with his flames; the 
birds are terrified at the noi«o when his grass-devouring sparks arise, 
i. 94, 10 {yad ayukthah tmuha rohitd rathe tdtajaid crith/ibhatyera U 
rtuah | 3d intuit tanino dhumakdund | 11. Adha teanud uta bibhyvh 
palatrino drapidh yat tt yatatsdo ei atlhirm). He is resistless as the 
resounding Maruts, and as the lightnings of heaven, i. 143, 5 {na yo 
tardya Jfarutum tea tvanah tcntva trithfd divyd yathd 'ianih). He has 
a hundred manifestations, and shines like the sun, i. 149, 3 («-iro na 
rvrvkrdn iatdinui) ; vii. 3, 6. His lustre is like the rays of tho dawn 
and the sun, x. 91, 4 (<5 to chikitre uthatlm iva etayah arepaiah turytu- 
yera raimayah), and like the lightnings of tho rain-cloud, ibid. 5 (-S.V. 
ii. 332, torn iriyo varthyatyeta ridyuteh) ; and he is borne on a chariot 
cf lightning, iii. 14, I [ridyudratha), on a luminous car, i. 140, I 
{Jycf.rathd),"* i. 141, 12 [ehandraratha); iii. 5, 3; v. 1. 11 (.: cdya 
ratham bkdnumo bhtlmmantam Agnt tuhfha); on a brilliant, x. 1, 5 
(chitroratka), golden, iv. 1, 8 (Jtiranyaralha), on an excellent or 
Lean til ul car, iii. 3, 9 (tumadratha) ; iv. 2, 4 {suratha). This chariot 
is drawn by horses or mares characterized as butter-backed {gkrita- 
pfunfha), wind-impelled {rdtajuta), beautiful {tvaira), ruddy (rohit), 
tawny (anuria), active (Jlrdha), assuming all forms {riivaripa), and 
mind-yoked (manoyuj), ond by other epithets (i. 14, G, 12 ; L 45, 2 ; 
L 94, 10 ; i. 141, 12 ; ii. 4, 2 ; ii. 10, 2 ; ir. 1, 8 ; it. 2, 2, 4 ; 
ir. 6, 9 (p>mi«#W« .') ; vi. 16, 13; xii. 16, 2; viii. 43, 16; x. 7, 4; 
x. 70, 2f.), which he yokes in order to summon tho gods, i. 14, 12 
[tdbhir dec&n ihdvaha) ; iii. 6, 6 {ritatya r J heiind yoyydbhir gkritiu- 
«*'-! rohitd dhuri dhithva | athdrahv dtvdn dtva tidr&n | 9. A ebhir 
[detain] Agnt taraikaSt ydhi arrdn) ; viii. 64, 1 {ytduhd hi devahula- 
man afrdn Ague rathir iva). 

*° H«n> it will be noted, ho in alto laid " to bs clothed with, or enveloped by, tho 
in." Tbe aamo upilbel had alto oetmmd in Ui« firtotding rerac ( =S.V. i. 18), 
• litre th« riahi is alao -aid to invoke th« bright god, a* did Aura, Bhriga, and 
Apnaruiut [Aumbkfgiwtt iuckim Ap*<itnna-r«d ii k*n Aptim i«»«M»). 

*°- Ths mmm epithet -* applied to the god* in j cnrral in x. M, i. 



(4) High divins function* tutigntd to him. 

Tho highest divine functions are ascribed to Agni. Ho n called ! 
divine monarch [tamrajo awratya), and declared to be strong as Indrs, 
vii. 0, 1 {ludratyna pra tacaaat kr-itdni twain). Although (aa we hare 
seen above) he is described in some passages as the offspring of heaven 
mid inilli, he is said in other places to have stretched them out, 
iii. G, 5 {lava kratvd roiail a tatantha) ; vii. 5, 4 ; to have spread out 
the two worlds like two skins, vi. 8, 3 (et charmamira dhithane atmrtt- 
j/at); to have produced them, i. 06 -1 (JaniUl rodtuyoh) ; vii. 5, fj 
(hhuninu jimnyan); to have, like the unborn, supported the earth and 
sky with truo hymns, i. 67, 8 (ajo na ktA&tn dadh&ra pritJiirlSi lot- 
tami/ut dadnt mantrebhiA salyaik); to have, by his llame, held aloft the 
heaves, iii. 6, 10 {ud attambhU tamidha n&lutn rithvah); to have kept 
asunder the two worlds, vi. 8, 3 {vi attabhniii rada*\ mitro adbhuUk); 
to have formal the mundane regions and the luminaries of heaven, 
vi. 7, 7 (ri yo raj'imn amimUa ntkralur vaiivunaro vi Are rotkmi 
iiiviA) ; Ti. 8, 2 ; to have begotten Mitra, x. 8, 4 ( janayan Mi tram), 
and caused the sun, the imperishable orb, to ascend the sky, x. i 
(Ague nakthatram ajaram a sHryatii rohayo diti) ; to have made all thai 
flies, or walks, or stands, or moves, x. 88, 4 m (ta ptttatri t tear am 
tthuh jttgad yat iwltrttm agnir aljinml jatartdAh) ; to adorn the beeves 
with stars, i. 68, 5 {pipeia ndkam ttribhir damUnAh). lie is the head 
(mirddAu) and summit {kakud) of tlio sky, tho centre (ntHM) of the 
earth (i. 59, 2) ; compare verso 1 ; vi. 7, 1 ; viii. 41, 16 ; x. 88, 5; 
he props up men like a pillar, i. 59, 1 (tthuwv* jontn upautid yayantka)-, 
iv. 5, I (oAtaffla briAatd vafohatAma upa alabkuyad upamin ns radhai). 
His greatness exceeds that of heaven and all the worlds, i. 59, 5 
{Divai ehit t* bfihato jatartdo vai&t&nars pra ririeha wtihitvam) ; iii. 
3, 10 {Jiilah apfino Mtirandm redatl Agne Ul rwd paribk&r ati Imana) ; 
iii. 6, 2.** He, the destroyer of cities, has achieved famous exploits 

»• Tlii half vu«r (x. 83, i) u quoted in Nirakto, v. 3. Durga, tho cosmintatar 

Ninilta, explain* Ui« word* bjr ••.ring that Agni nihjfcU nlJ thing* lo him*Jf 

at tho time of tho raundano dwktinn. Tho K°d» art> mid is tho same hma (x, 

fts, 7,) to hart thrown into Agni an oblation accompanied' by a uyma, and in vert* ft, 

thu ublstioa is said to Iiuto coui*ted of all cmtturca or nil world* (*A*mmmi lit'n), 

"> Epithet* of this dmcriiiiiun taay bar* been oripuallr applied to aonw oUiar god 

to whom rtoy were more suitable than t> .\-u\. IM notoqMBli* trawtwrwl to I 

wonhipper* in emulation of th« praise* laviahci on other deities. 



of old, vii. 6, 2 (purandariitya girbhir a eivute Agtter rrat&ni punya 
mohAni). Men tremble at hia mighty deeds, and his ordinances and 
designs eannot bo minted, ii. 8, S {yatya vratam na mlyat*) ; ii. 9, 1 = 
Vij. S. id. S6 (adabdkarrala-pramaltr . . . AgniK) ; vi. 7, 5 ; viii. 44, 
25 ; viii. 92, S (yattuad rejaati kfitkfayaf charkfiiyuni krinvatah). 
Earth and heaven and all beings present and future obey his com- 
mands; vii. 5, 4 (tava tridh&tu prilkiri ula dyaur TitikGnara vralam 
Agnt taehanta) ; A.V. It. 23, 7 {yatya idam pradiii yad rockal* yaj 
jataBt janitacyam cha kevalam | ttawni Agniih tuUhito johavimi). He 
eooquered wealth, ot space, for the gods in battle, L 59, 5 (yudka 
dtrtbhyo varitai chakar(ha) ; and delivered them from calamity, rii. 
13, 2 {tram dev&n abtiifitsttr umunrhah). Ho is the conqueror of 
thousand* (tahatrajit), i. 188, 1. All the gods fear and do homage 
to him when ho abides in darkness, vi. 9, 7 (nip* ievlh anamatyan 
khiy&nCit kAin Agnt famati tatthiwmtam). He is celebrated and 
worshipped by Varuna, Mitra, the Maruts, and all the 3,339 gods, 
iii. 9, 9 (trlni iota tri tahatrdni Agnim trimlack cha detHh nara 
thuAttparyin) ; iii. 14, 4 (ilitrai cha tubkyaih Varnnak tahotva 
Aynt tit** Marmtah rumnan arckan) ; x. 69, 9 {derM ckii U am- 
pitah jQUtvtdo makimUnaik Vddkryaita pra ttchan). It is through 
him that Varuija, Mitra, and Aryuman triumph, i. 141, 9 (ttaya A» 
Agnt Varwga dkpiaprato Mitrah itiiadre Aryatna tuddnavak). Ha 
known and sees all worlds, or creatures, iii. 55, 10 {Agnii tii tiki 
bhuran&ni vtda) ; z. 187, 4 {yo riha 'bhipaSyati bhuvand soA cha 
pafyati). m He knows the recesses of hcarcn, iv. 8, 2, 4 {cidca* 
aradhamaii ditah), the divino ordinances and the races or births of 
of gods and men, i. 70, 1, 3 {6 daityani crati thikitriin S mSnuthaty* 
jtuHuyajanma | «l& ehikitro bkumii »»' pilhi dtt&nufo jaima marUihM eka 
9iJ*a») ; iii. 4, 11 ; vi. 15, 13 ; the secrets of mortals, viii. 39, 6 
AynirjiitA dttunam Agnir etda mart^Hdm aplchyam); and hears the 
invocations which are addressed to him, viii. 43, 28 {tarn ted eaya* 
kofimaks ipuramtam jatactdmtatm). He is otura, "the divine," iv. 2, 5; 
v. 12, 1 ; v. 15, I ; vii. 2, 3; vii. 6, 1. 

»* Thws t»aa word* sie in iii. 62, 9, applied to 1'Oibaa: Ssa abors, p I7i, 




(5) AanCt rtlationx to his teorshippers. 

votaries of Agni prosper, they aro wealthy and lir< 
ri. 2, 4, 5 (tamidha yat U uhiittih ni'utim martyo naiat \ rayutantam 
ta puthyati kshayam Agtu iatiiyuskam) ; vi. 6, 5 (yas U ynjntna t«mi- 
dJid yak ukthair aricbhih nuno tahato dad&iat \ ta Martytshu amrila 
prachetuh ri'iyd dyumnena irarasa vi bfititi); vi. 10, 3; vi. 13, 4 ; 
>i. 15, 11 ; vii. 11, 2 j viii. 19, 5, 6 ; viii. -14, IS ; viii. 73, 9. H« 
is the deliverer (eompiiro viii. 49, 5) and friend of the man who 
comes to him with fine horses and gold, and a chariot full of riches, 
and delight* to entertain him as a guest, iv. 4, 10 (yat ted trairak 
tuhtranijo Agn4 upaytlti vatumald rathena \ tatya trdtd bkavati takha 
yat t4 atithyam Qnuthag jtijoihat) ; and grants protection to the 
devoted worshipper who sweats to hring him fuel,"' or wearies 
his head to serve him, iv. 2, 6 (f/<w to id/imam jabharat titkrid&M 
inurdliunam Mi tatapate trQyd | bhuvat tatya tvatavdn pOyur Agnt). 
Ho watches with a thousand eyes over the man who brings him food 
nud nourishes him with oblations, x. 70, 5 (yo atmai annaii triifit 
udadJidti ujyair nhritair j'uhoti puthyati \ tatmai sahasram akthihh\r 
ehakthe). Ho bestows on his servant a renowned, devout, excellent, 
incomparable son, who confers fame upon his father, ** v. 25, 6 (Agnit 
tuviirava$(am/im turibrahwinam utfamam | ati'.rtam irucayatpatim jnt- 
tram dadCiti d/iiuihi). He gives riches, which he abundantly com- 
mands, i. 1, 3 (Agninfl rayim ainavaf); i. 31, 10 {team Agno pnmatu 
tvam pili'i 'it tias team vayatkfit tava jdmayo ray am \ tarn tvS rdyak 
iatinak tarn tahairinak tuvlratit yanti vratap&m ad&bhya) • i. 36, 4 
(vistam to Agnt jmjali ivayii dfiaruun yat tt dadi\ia mariyah). The man 
whom he protects and inspires in buttle conquers abundant food, and 
can never be overcome, i 27, 1 i.<= S. V. ii. 765 f. (yam Agm prits* 
martyam acuh ciijethu yam junuh \ sa yantA iairat\r ithak | 8. Nakir 
atya sahantya paryetii lcayatya chit). No mortal enemy can by any 
wondrous power gain the mastery over him who sacrifices to this god, 

01 In viii. 91, 19 f. the rubi informs Agni thu bo has no cow which would riald 
butter for oblations, and no nxc to nit wood wiilrnl, wi<l that therefore bis offering is 
such m the gnd tec* : and he beg* him to accept any ton* or wooo. u» dmt i 
bio him (.-in Ai hmuh nghni/a na tcadhtiir tatMinrali | alka tt&Jftf bkera 
itO. 1'mi Agn* t-'mi h'mi thid a u Jarimi iaiiKmati tijuth^ma y*r<«Aftyii). 

** Such L» tho sense anisiied by S««ma U> lb* ipithes irui«ya{-p*tim. 



viii 93, 15 (na tati/it mfiyayii chant* ripur filto martyah | yo Agnaye 
lUdOU haryad&tibhih) He also confer.*, and is tbc guardian and lord of, 
immortality, i. 81, 7(tVaifi tarn Agne amritalt* uttame mart Info dadhuii) ; 
vii. 7, 7 {amritvMja rahthitA) ; vii. 4, fi {lie hi Agne amritutya bh&reh). 
He »a» mado by the goda the centre of immortality, iii. 17, 4 (amrit- 
atya mlbhii). His worshippers ecok him with glad heart*, viii. 43, 31 
h\r mandrelhir hnahe). Id a funeral hymn Agtti is supplicated 
to ▼arm with Ma heat Uio unborn purt'" of the deceased, and in his 
oaspicioua form to carry it to tho world of tho righteous, x. 16, 4 
{ajo bhilga* tapata ta& tapatta tain U ioekii tapatu htm ti arehih | fgj t« 
iitdt Unto jdtavedat tabhir tahainaH* aul-rit&m u Iokam). m Ho carries 

*» Frofaaaer Aurrecht thinks thst this is not the sous of the words, and that they 
mean: "Tbc goat (with whose skin tb« dead it covered) U thy shero; (but —1 
with thy brat ; that be consumed iritli thy fla»b and flame," etc. ; i] 
Ai'valiyanaa' Grihja SOtras St. 2, t; 3, 20 ; and K&tyayonal 8'rautu Sutru. m. 
7. 31. I galhir from tho fact that tbia piiaaagr u cited in the Lexicon of Messrs, 
ogk and Rotb under nja 1, « (where the sense of goat is assigned le tbs wor>l). 
that they are of tho unc opinion at I'rofnoor .lufrceht. I think, however, that tho 
rendering I bare followed is more agreeable to the contest. In tbo preceding venos 
1 and 8, Agni had been besought not so to barn the body of tho deceased as to 
destroy it (compare R..Y. i. 162, 20), but after baring sufficiently " cooked " the man 
(ysda ifiiam kfinarak), to send him to the Fathers. In verse 3, the different ele- 
ments of which tbs body, when tiring, wan composed, are commanded to return to 
lbs seorces from which they were at tint derived ; and then in tho verse before us 
(as I understand it), the god is besought to warm the man's unborn part, nnd winter 
it to the world of tbc righteous. In the text there is no word snswering to " thy. ' 
which he*, therefore, to be supplied by those who undoraUnd nja of • gnat. It is 
more natural to suppose that it is the soul of the departed man than that of a goat 
which is to be conveyed to tbc world of tbo righteous; (although I em aware 
that alanu, v. 42, dcclurce that cattle which are sacrificed go to heaven, and tho 
sum* is said of the sacrificial horse in R.V. i. 162, 21, snd i. ICit, 12 f,); and in tho 
fbllowinx verse (x. 16, o) it is evidently the man whu is said to hsve been offered to 
Agni, and whom Agni is besought to dismiss to tbe Fathers. My rendering has the 
inpy or t ef Professor Muller (Journ. of Germ. Or. Soc., vol. it. p. it.), who trans- 
late* */• U»f*h by " <ia» ew'ge TbeiL" the eternal part, and of M. Lorjglou, who 
raodora it M unc portion immortelle." These verses, z. 16, 1-6, will be found aaotod 
at length in the section on Tama. 

a* Some further verses of this hymn will be quoted in the section on Yarns. In 
fust 9, tbo Iraryad Afni, tliu consumer of carrion, or of tho deed, is epoken of as 
an object to he repelled. In tho Vij. 8. i. 17, Agnl is prayed to drive away two of 
hi* own form*, tin- iimiid and tho krnry^J, and to bring tho Mtcriftciel Are («jm Aps* 
Agnim imyMam jaii m'a* knntyadam udha \ a drraytjam rata), where the com- 
mewbitor says that three Agnis are mentioned, the one which devours raw flesh 
(imad) which is the common culinary tire (laukitc "gniM), the aecond the fa Ml sat 
\krmryat | UrUmht Jrrmr y sm *riw« ttti Hi krityit carto/ai*.), and the third the 


moo across calamities, u in i ship over the k*, or preserras from 
them, iii. 20, 4 (pariAad eik* % dmriU 9T imam»*n) ; v. 4, 9 (rwrdjs. m 
imrjtXa j&Utttdak tindhtm M ndr& duriU 'ft panhi) ; vii 12, 2 (s* 
moJmS rtfad duril6ni **fo3n | m no rahkitkad dtrtUd aradyit), All 
Wetting* ine from him aa branches from » tree, vi 13, 1 (frse* rtfei 
$ * M * gn t m l htji ini Agn* ti yan/i rauw m r«y«-'A). He is like a 
water-trough in a desert, z. 4, 1 (cBessssm mm prapo an Agn*). All 
treasures ire congregated in him, x. 6, G (so* yatmim rwd cwrftsa 
j a g m m h) ; be commands all the riches in the earth, tho upper and lower 
oceans, the atmosphere, and the skj, vii 6, 7 (d sVro dad* kuihmyt 
•atini rsurciiMrs^ "di'M liryatya | J mmudrud atarud A paratm&d i 
Agnir ditah A prithityHtf) ; x. 91, 3 (raw nufl/xia ktkayan tram 
thai id dydrA cka yim* prithu* tha p**hyat*h). lie is, in consequence, 
continually supplicsted for all kiads of boons, riches, food, deliverance 
from enemies and demon*, poverty, nakedness, reproach, childlessness, 
hunger, L 12, 8, 9 ; L 36, 12 ff. ; i. 58, 8, 9 ; ti. 4, 8 ; ii. 7, 2, 3 ; 
ii 9, 5; iii. 1, 21; iii. 13, 7; iii. 16,5; iv. 2,20; ir. 3, 14; ir. 11, 
6 ; v. 3, 11; vi. 1, If f. ; vi. 4, 8 ; vi 3, 7 ; vi. 6, 7 ; vii. 1, fi, 13, 19. 
He is besought to protect his worshippers with a hundred iron walls, 
vi. 18, 8 ; viL 3, 7 {iattm pHrbhir AyaifbAir mi pShi); vii. 16, 10; to 
be himself such a fortification with a hundred surrounding walls, vii 
15, 14 {adha mail nah aytul an&dkfiikfo nfipMayi | pHr biam lata- 
bhujih) ; i 189, 2 ; to consume their enemies like dry bushes, ir. 4, 4 
(m emitr&n thai&t tignaksU | yo no mriti* nmtidhUm chakrt slaki 
tarn dhahhi sAsmA m hukJum) ; to strike down the malevolent aa a 
tree is destroyed by lighting, ri 8, 5 {parytra rujaitm aghaiaAucm 
ajar* nltha ni fyi'sVAs mniimm na t*ja*A). Compare A.V. iii. 1, I; 
iii. 2, I ; vi 120, 1. Ho is invoked in battle, riii. 43, 21 (tamal,* 
tt& \dr&mahi), in which ho leads tho van, viii. 73, 8 {ptuvyHeAnam 
Ajuku). Ho is prayed to forgive whatever sin the worshipper may 
have commited through folly, and to mako him guiltless towards Aditi, 
i v. 12, 4 {yat ehid hi U puruthulru yachh[ha ackittibhii ehakjlma huh 
chid iigah | Ijidhi tu turn/in Aditar onAgAn vi mAmti iiiratko titkt+g 
Aant); vii. MS, 7 (ya* *!n» dgai thakfima tat *u mfila tad AryamA 

icri&ciil (ydyayafy*}). Compnr* Vsj. S»n, tviii. A! f. Tho Tsitt Saab. ii. 5. 8, 8, 
ni another threefold divuioa of fir* : Tiayo t/ii agrtuyo AwjmmiUm dnnnom 



Adit i A iiirathmtu; boo above pp. 46 sod 47) ; and to arert Vonign'i 
wrath, iv. 1, 4 (team ho Agra Varuntuya vichin cVrmya htk am y&titl- 


In two passage*, M w« have already wen (p, 108, note), the wor- 
shipper naively says to Agni (as Indrn's rotary says to him), Tiii. 14, 
23, " If I were thou, and thou, Agni, wert I, thy aspiration* should 
be fulfilled ;" and viii. 19, 25 f., " If, Agni, thou wort a mortal, and I, 
thou who art rich iu friends, were uu immortal, (2G) I would not 
abaudon thee to wrong or to penury. My worshipper Bhould not bo 
poor, nor distressed, nor miserable." 

In viii. 92, 2, Agni called Duivodfiaa ( Daivoddto 'gnt'l), from which 
it would nppenr that king Divodusa claimed him especially as hli 
tutvlury gvd. Iu tho tamo way he is called in viii. 10, 32 {mmrtjam 
Tr&ttdatyaran), and in x. 69, 1 if., he is called Agni Budhrynava, 
apparently beosuse a sage of that name had kindled liim. Compare 
the epithet Knnsika applied to ladra in 11. V. i. 10, 11, and the Erst 
Tol. of this work, pp. 347 ff. 

Agni u occasionally identified with other gods and different god- 
desses, Indra, Vishnu, Varuna, Mitrs, Aryaman, AnfU, Tvashtp, 
Kndra, Puritan, Suvitri, Bhaga, Aditi, Hotra, Bharatl, IJft, Saraavatl, 
ii. 1, 3-7, and 11 (tram Agnt Judro tjishubhah tatum u»i *w* Vi$hnmr 
wnt$4yonaMio*tfa$, etc.); iii. 5, 4; v. 3, 1 ; vii. 12, 3; x. 8, 5. >u All gods 
are comprehended in him, v. 3, 1 (frtriirs whaMi putra dtcuh); ha 
surrounds them as the circumference of a wheel does tlio spokes, 
t. 13, 6 (Agne ncmir arati ita tvat'n devCm fiaribhar tui) ; compare 
i. 141, 9. Varuua is in one place epokeu of as his brother, ir. 1, 2 
(m bhr&taram Varunam Agnc il rerpYsva). 

Agni is associated with Indra" 5 in different hymns, an i. 108und 109 ; 
iii. 12 ; it 59 and 60 ; vii. 03 aud M ; viii. 38 and -10. The two 

*" Another rene where Ajrni w identified with other gods is I. 164, 48. JnJrmm 
Mil rum Vmrunam Aonim .iAur at ho ttiryaM M tupenyt*tman | tksm tni 
iaWto huShM AfMim I Imm oU* | «• Thej o*ll hint Indrs, Mitrs, 

Vsnuja, Agni ; then there i» (b«t cclctial, wcU-wisgtd tiid. Sage* name Tsriondy 
that ■hitli u but OH ; they oril il Agni. Yiuna, Muiaruima." Compare A.V. nil. 
3, 15: M l'*rvyt/l vi.iMM* Ajmtt MsWBBS' >•■ Milro M«m/i pruUr wiya» \ la Sttila 
Mufrn anttrilifi.nn yati am Mrm tiulni to/M/i nuuthyttta rfiMm | "Agni beewmw 
V trans in the evening ; ruing in the mornintf ho u Mitrn ; bMomin^ Snt ttri he moves 

|hn>"L in.lmhr nlo«. in in- miil.i:. ■ .■: 

u ' Bet Mulkr'u lA<5urw on Lan^nape. Seconal maw, pp. 403 r. 


Ar,\Ts relations To his wonsmrrrn.s. 

gods are said to be twin brothers, having the same father, and baring 
tliiir mothers here and there.' vi. 59, 2 (see above, pp. 14 and 81), to 
bo both thundnren (eafrisA), alayeni of Vrittra or of foes (critlraAanG), 
and shakers of cities, iii. 12, 4, 6 (Jndrtlgnl nocatim puro duwpotnlr 
adhunuUxm [ $alam ekena karmanO) ; vi. 59, 3 ; vi. 00, 3 ; vii. 93, 1,4; 
▼iii. 38, 2.*** They are also invited together to come and drink 
(vii. 93, 6 ; viii. 38, 4, 7-9), and are together invoked for help, vii. 94, 
7 (Imdrugni acuta & gatam atmahhyaHi charthanitahu). In one place, 
i. 109, 4, they are called aivina, " horsemen." (See Midler, as quoted 
at the foot of the pugo). Agoi is ebc where said to exercise alone the 
function usually assigned to Indra, and to slay Vrittra and destroy 
cities, i. 59, 6 ( Vaiiv&narv datyum Agnir jaghanran adh&not ktithtkth 
ata S"amlaram lh*t) ; i. 78, 4 {tarn u tea" rfittrahantamam ye Jmy&n 
aradfiinwke | dyumnoir abhi pra ttonttmnS) ; vi. 16, 14, 89, 48 {rrittr*- 
htimam purandaram \ Agnt puro ntrojitha) ; vii. 5, 3 ; vii. 6, 2 ; viii. 
63, 4. He is also described as driving away tlio Dasyus from the house, 
thus erecting a large light for the Aryn, vii. 5, 6 (for* d/uyam akamh 
ajah urn jyoiir Janayann SryQya, compare i. 39, 2, and r_ 69, 6), at the 
promoter of tho Arya, viii. 92. 1 (ilryatya vardhanam Agmxt), and as 
the vanquisher of the irreligious Pants, vii. 6, 3 (m* akratin gralAmo 
mridkrarfichah panVt airuddhiin avridhdn ayaj'nSn | pra pra tan dasyHn 
Agnir vic&ya purvai chal&ra aparan ayajynn), — although it is Indra 
-who is moat frequently represented in the hymns as the patron and 
helper of tho sacred race, and tho destroyer of their enemies. On the 
other hand, in viii. 38, I, where the two gods are called two priests 
{yajnatya ritai/fl), Indra is mudu to share in tho character peculiar to 
Agni.*" In hymn i. 93, Agoi and Soma arc celebrated in company. 

"* Th« void so rrnrtiirnl U ihehamatarn. Sayanu »J* it mraiu that their BJatksr 
Ailiii i» hiTc unit tliere, i.i. everywhere Both, #.c. unilorrtJimi* it to mean thit to* 
taetost '>f tlio ono it hoto, of the other there, id. in Alffmnl fltev. Curapv* iUU 
pie Il.V, t, 47, 1. Sec Miillur"* L/eturc* on Language ii. 496. 

»♦ Comport' A.V. iv. 23. | j \ii. 110, I f. 

**• C»a>l>«re the wordi attributed to Indra in x. 113, 13 above, p. PL 


(6) Agni, — a metrical tktkh. 

Great Agni, though thine essence be but one, 
Thy forms aro three ; as lire thou Lltuost here, 
As lightning flashest in the ntmo.*ph 

In heaven thon flamest as the gulden son. 

It vu in heaven thou hadrt thy primal birth ; 
By art of sago* skilled in sor-rcd lore 
Thou wart drawn down to human hearths jf yore, 

And thou ubid'st a denizen of earth. 

Sprung from the mystic pair,* - by priestly hands 
In wedlock joined, forth flashes Agni bright ; 
But, — o ye Heavens and Earth, I te 11 you right, — 

The unnatural child devours the parent brands. 

Nut. Agni is a god : we must not deem 

That ho can err, or dor* to t 

Hi* acts, which far our reason's grasp transcend : 
He best can judge what deeds a god beseem. 

And yet this orphaned god himself survive* : 
Although hi* hapless mother soon expires, 
And cannot nurse the bal>e, an babe requires, — 

Great Agni, wondrous infant, grows and thrive*. 

Smoke-bannered Agni, god with crackling voice 
And flaming hair, when thou ilmt {lime the plwru 
At early mom, and all the world illume, 

Both Heaven and Earth and gods and men rcjuit c 

In every home thou art a welcome guest ; 

The household'* tutelary lord ; a son, 

A father, mother, brother, all in one ; 
A friend by whom thy faithful friends aro blest. 

«• Tke two pieces of fuel by tbe attrition of which Ire is productd, which, as »t 
i above, ore rrprtacatnl m husband and wife. 


A swift- winged messenger, thou collect down 
From heaven, to crowd our hearths, the race divine, 
To tniite our food, our hvmn3 to hour, benign, 
And all our fondest aspiration* crown. 

Thou, Agni, art our priest, divinely wise, 
In ImU Bnd| thy skill detects 

Tho fault* that mm our rites, mistakes corrects, 

And all our act* complete* and sanctifies. 

Thou art the cord that stretches to tho ikies, 

The bridge that flpana the chasm, profound and vast. 
Dividing Earth from Heaven, o'er which at hut 

Tho good shall safely pom to Paradise. 

But when, great god, thine awful anger glows, 
And thou revcalcst thy destroying force, 
All creature* flee before thy furioua eoum, 

A* host* are chased by overpowering foe*. 

Thou lcvellcst all thou touchest ; forest* vast 

Thou ahear'st like boards which barber** raxor s\ 
Thy wind-driven flames roar load a* ocean-wavt*, 

And all thy track is black when thou hast post. 

Cut thou, great Agni, dost not always wear 
That direful form ; thou rather lov*st to shine 
Upon our hearth* with milder flame benign, 

And cheer the homes where thou art nursed with care. 

Yes, thou dclightost all thoso men to bless, 
Who toil, unwearied, to supply tho food 
"Which thou bo lovest, logs of well-dried wood, 

And heaps of butter bring, — thy favourite mess. 

Though T no cow posse**, and have no store 
Of butter, — nor an axe fresh wood to cleave, 
Thou, gracious god, wilt my poor gift receive, — 

These few dry sticks I bring ; I have no more. 


Preserve us, lord, thy faithful servants save 
From all the ills by which our bliss is marred ; 
Tower like an iron wall our homes to guard, 

And all the boons bestow our hearts can crave. 

And when away our brief existence wanes, 

When we at length our earthly homes must quit, 
And our freed souls to worlds unknown shall flit, 

Do thou deal gently with our cold remains ; 

And then thy gracious form assuming, guide 

Our unborn part across the dark abyss 

Aloft to realms serene of light und bliss, 
Where righteous men among the gods abide. 




This god, who in the Inter mythology ia rcgardod as one of the 
Adityas,"' bub as wo havo even (in the section on those deities) doc* 
not bear that character in the hymns of the Rig-veda, is the Hophaistos, 
or Vulcan, of the Indian pantheon, the ideal artist, the divine artisan, 
tho most skilful of workmen, who i« versed in all wonderful and admir- 
able contrivances, x. 53, 9 (Tvtuhfd milt/Oh red apcuUm aptu(cmak). 
Ho sharpens the iron axe of Brahman aapali, ibid, {tiiitt rnimin paraimm 
iniyasam yma vritohad ttaio Iirahmantupatih) • and forges tho thunder- 
bolts of Indra,* 4 * i 32, i (TVasA/d asmai rujram graryam latakaha); L 
52, 7; i. 61, 6; i. 85, 9; v. 31, 4; vi. 17, 10; x. 48, 3; which are 
ilied as golden (hiranyat/a) i. 85, 9, or of iron (<2y<M«) x. 48, 3, 
with a thousand points (*ah<urabhruA{i) and a hundred edge* {iaUirt\ 
i. 85, 9; vi. 17, 10 (sec above, p. 86). He is styled ittpAni, tvgabkuti, 
the beautiful-, or skilful-handed, iii. 51, 12 ; vi. 49, 9 ; ttapa*, nlril, 
the -.kilful worker, L 85, 9; iii. 54, 12 ; tihar&pa, 3 " the omnifona, or 
archetype, of all forme, i. 13, 10 ; iii. 55, 19 ;**» x. 10, 5; and $acilp, 
the vivirier, iii. 55, 19; x. 10, 5. Ho imparts goneratiTO power and 
bestows offspring," 1 i. 142, 10 [Urn not turipam adlhutam ouru ta 

** See the 4th vol. of tliis work. pp. 103 ff. 

!M Aeeordisg to B.V. L 121, 3, Indra himself (?) u (aid to have fashioned the 

thur.ilcfbolt (taliAad njram). 

u * Id iii. 38, 4, I hi: epithet tu'curijia in applied to another Rod, — Indra acooidlBg 

**• Quoted in Nirukta x. 34. 8«e Both'a il'mirationi of that wurk, p. 144, where 
the word inuir> is said to be an epithet of Traslnri 

*" In A.V. vi. 81, 3, Tva»htfi i* *aid to have hound the amnlct which Aditi wort 
wh*n »h« wn* dc*iroi» of otI»pnnjr, on the arm of a female, in order that »he might 
hear a ton {yam parihtUam abiiKar Aditilf pulraASmyu | Tra*A(* tarn tyii i 
ktdk*lid yallui pmlrmm jan3d itt). InAV.ii. 1. I, Aditi ix uiil to have cooked a 
brabraandnna oblation when desirous of sons {Aiiitir tmthitZ iy#»i SrwAau 
potUti ptiraAoaui). See the 1 rt roL of this work, p. 26. 



aram purv tman* | TvathfA pofkHya «" «y*/« rily4 mabha no aama- 
yui) ; iii. 4, 9 = TiL 2, 9 (ftw naa turlpam adha po*hayilnu d*tm 
Ttathfar ci raranah tyaita | yato tirah karmanyak tttdaktho yukta- 
aravi jdyaU devakfimah) ; vii. 34, 20 [fi yan nah patmlr gtmitnti 
achha Ttathfa supanir dadhiitu vlrAn); compare Vaj. S«nh. xxi. 20; 
xxii. 20; xxvii. 20; and A.V. ii. 29, 2. lie forms husband and 
wife for each other, even from the womb, 11. V. x. 10, .1 (garbh* 
mm mu janita damp*! I tar dtvat Tva*h,ti tavitH visraritpah) ; 
A.V. vi. 78, 3 (TcMltfH jsydm ajanayal TrathlA atyai ham patim). 
He developed tho seminal germ in the womb, and is tho simper 
of all forma, human and animal, R.V. i. 188, 9 (TctuAfn rZpiini 
hi prabhuh paiCtn viivGn tam&najt); viii. 91, 8 (Tvathfd rUptta Ink- 
tkyo); x 184, 1 (Vitfinur yom'm HtlftjfitM Trathfil rnp<i*i pimialu); 
A.V. ii. 26, 1 j r. 26, 8 ; ix. 4, 6 (ZW. ,,;,;, janiUi paiAnam) \ 

Vaj. 8. xxxi. 17; Taitt Saihh. i. 5, 9, 1, 2 ; i. 6, 4, 4 ; vi. p. 65a (of 
India Office MS. 7Va*Afd tai reiatah liktaiya rftpani tikaroti | tarn tra 
vriJmnum patntihr api*r!jnt» $o 'jxrtai rtipftni rikarati) ; Siitapotliu Br. 
i. 9, 2. 10 (TV/wArd vai itklaih reto vikaroti); xiii. 1, 8, 7. Compare 
ii. 2, 8, 4; iii. 7, 3. 11. He has produced nnd nourish** a groat 
s of creaturee; all worlds (or beings) are his, and are known to 
him ; he has given to the heaven and earth and to all thing* | 
forms, iii. 65, 19 (deeat Tia*fi(J taiilCt risrarupah pupotha prap'ib ptm- 
dhajajana \ itad cha ciit :i a*ya) ; iv. 42, 3 {Tvathfrva r!ir& 

Murandni rnfofo) ; x. 110, 9 [yah iuu 4y>\ ripair 

gpMad hfaaan&ni %ifr&). Tho Vaj. S. xxix. 9, says: TVasA/d cvrrr.'i 
d+rak&mem (oomp. R.V. iii. 4, 9, quoted above) jajSm 7\a*bf*r art* 
jayat* Siur ahah \ TtatSftdaiu tikatn bhuraruun Jyuna | " Tvashtp 
has generated a strong man, a lover of the gods. From TVashtri »« pro- 
duced a swift horso. Tvashtri has created the whole world." lie 
boetowa long life, H.V. x. 18, 6 {iha 7ba*A/a tujam'm'i ujaxhiih if' 
dyuA karati jtttot rah) ; A.V. vi. 78, 3 (TtafAfd Mhatram ayuOafu «*)/- 
gham uyur karotu rdm). He puts speed into the legs of a horse, Vaj. 8. 
ix. 8 = A.V. vi. 92, 1 (d t* Ttathfcl paltu jar am dodhUlu). In 
17, ho is said to be skilled in all Suma-tcxt* and to have created 
Brahmanaspnti above all crenturos (vihebhyo hi Ua bhucantbkytu pari 
7\a»k(ti junai iimnah rtmnah ta-vih), and i^ 

and earth, tho waters, and the Bhrigas, to have genet i x. 2, 




7 ; x. 46, 9 (DyiUd $$m At/mm privitkl janithfiim Gpai TVcthfa Bhp- 
garo yam tnhobhih); compare i. 95, 2.* 1 * Ho u master of the nnirtm 
(b/uuantuya iaLthagi), ii. 31, 4; a first-bora protector and leader, ix. 
6, 9 ( Tccuhtaram agny'dih gopiim puroyacSnam a hmt); compare i. 13, 
10. lie is a companion of tho Angirases, x. 70, 9 {gad Angiraiam 
abhavah tachabh&h), and knows the region of the gods {deriinUm putlmk 
upa pro. vuluCin uian yafuhi). Ho is supplicated to nourish Uie war- 
ifcjppct end protect his sacrifice. Ho is dravincd<u, the bestowcr of blow- 
ing*, and turalna, possessed of abundant wealth, x. 70, 9, uad x. OS, 
1 1 ; mill i* asked, like other gods, to take pleasure in tho hymn* of hi* 
worshippers, and to grant them riches, vii. 31, 21 f. (prati nak ttemam 
Tcatkfd jutketa \ Tca»hl& $udAlro *»' dadkotu riyak). 

Ttnshtri is in several passages connected with the llibhos, who, lil» 
In ii i. are celebrated as skilful workmen (see Bohtlingk and Roth's 
I,i a i i*oii, i v.), who faslii" i's chariot and horses, made their* 

parents young, etc., i. Ill, 1 (Uitthan ralhaSt tuerilam ulmana '« 
ttktkan hart iHdrarilha rrixhantat* \ Uthhm pitrilkgAm Ribhan 
yuv*d rayab), i. 1 C 1 , 7 ; iv. 33, 3 ; It. 35, 5 ; iv. 36, 3 ; and are spoken 
of by Siiyana (on i. 20, 6) as Trashy'* pupils [tekhago-ryapOn- 
l*<mi<u'j<t Teathtvh iUhy&h Ribhavuh). Theee Uilhus arc said to hare 
made- into four a single now sacrificial cup which Tvaahtri bad funned 
(i. 20, 6. uU tyam chamtuaA tuitam Ttiukftw dertuya nukiy-iUm | 
akorllst thaturah punah | i. 110, 3). This exhibition of skill is said to 
huvo lip.n performed by command of tho god*, and in consequence of a 
promise that its accomplishment should be rewarded by their exalt- 
ation to divine honours, i. 161, 1-5, (verso 2, yadi m IsrMyati* 
tikau drxair yajniyfiio ikariikyatks). Tvaotyri is in this passage re- 
presented as becoming ashamed and hiding himself among the goddeasea 
when hu saw this oltemli in of his work, verse 4 (yodd 'ratkyat rAa- 
MdsuN ekaturak kfitun ad ii Tnstkfii gnJsu antm ni G*aj$), and as restat- 
ing this change in his own manufacture as n slight to himself, and as 
baring in consequence sought to slay his rivals, rerso 5 (A*»d»« sad* 
Hi 7VimA/u gad abraeil cJmmtuaii gederapumam am'udiikuh). In another 
place (it. 33, 5, 6), on the contrary, he is said to bare applauded 

*" Who it Urn being vim cUimt, ia i. 1Z5, I f. to witain Trashtri aad other gsds 
(*U« tmmsm akitum—m Mtuirmi «A«m TmklHm) ? 



their design, and admired the brilliant result* of their skill (vibhriija- 
min&fi* ehamatun aha i'ra avmat Tcathfd ehaturo dadrHvan)."* 

In z. 66, 10, the llibhus are spoken of u the supporters of the sky 
{dharliro dirah Ribharah mhattfiK). 

In ii. 1, 5, Agni is identified with Tvnsbtri, as he is also, howcrcr, 
with many other gods in other verses of the sumo hymn. In i. 95, 6, 
Agni appear* to bo designated by tho word Tvashtri. In vi. 47, 19, 
where Tvasktri is spoken of as yoking his horses and shining resplen- 
dently {yunjuno hart'la rathe bhdri Tvath\eha rGjali), tho commontator 
•oppose* that Indrn is referred to.** 

(2) Traehfri'a dauyhUr and her wtdding. 

In x. 17, 1 f. Trasb(ri is said to have given his daughter Saranyii i» 
marriage to Vivasvat: "Tcath^a duhitre tahaiuA Irinoii" Hi idaA f»"<- 
tam thucanam umtfti | Yamatya mala paryufiyamuml mahojayu Vim- 
rata nandia | apagiihann amriUm martybhyah Ifilrl savar$a~m adadur 
YxtanaU | ul&hinat abharad yal tad uild ajahtid u did mithund Sure*- 
ytih | "Tvashtri make* a wedding for his daughter. (Hearing) this 
tho wholo world assemble*. Tho mother of Yamn, tho wedded wife of 
tho great Vivasvat, disappeared. S. They concealed tho immortal 
(bride) from mortals. Making (another) of like appearance, they gave 
her to Vivasvat. Saranyu bore tho two A -Wins, and when she had 
done so, she deserted tho two twins.*' These two verses aro quoted in 
the Nirukta, xii. 10 f., where tho following illustrative story is told : 
Tatra itihuiam dchakthate \ TviUhfri Saraayur VuntraU^ Aditydd 
yomuu mithtatau janaydnehakdra | ni tatarmim amji'xm prittinidhuya 

m Sec the Aitarrra Brflhmnna, iii. 30, pp 210 f. of Frofeaaor llaag'a translation, 
ihiu had by their aoatere fervour, it U Uirrr uid, conquered for thuruerna a 
rif lit to partake ia the *om» HbatioM among tho gods (£4A*m m* <Ur*tk* tqmi 
apauipTtAam tiiy^tyan), which, hciwerer, they w«r« only allowed to do alan-; wi'.h 
8mi:ri ( = T»a»htri i), to wliota ProjSp»ti had wid, Tktte ar« thj pupila; do thou 
alon* drink with them ; lam Mi im* anUrit4* ftwai rrw rWiA Hm^*ffii); and with 
Prajapati. The gods, however, it i» aid, luathi-d that deified mortal* nn on 
their hinrton nn*ll (frMjiu r«i drriA ape n* ebiUcttanf auimuhjia^tiuUitl ; and 
accordingly placed two Dliiyyi* (particular «»<) Iwrwron thnruwlrfti tod the Kialiaa. 

•" On the oh»cnrr. panage, i. 84, lfi, where the name of Traatitri i» nwntioaid, th* 
reader may eeosalt Wil«on'» trar.dation and notr, IV'fetw lloth't explanation in hia 
IDuatratioaa of the NiruVu, p. 49, and Profcteor IWnfry'i version in his Orient and 
Occident, ii 



tJiraiS tvpatit kritiil pradadrdm | so- Vivtuvti* Adityah OJcaA tea 
iritti tdm mmpitya sambabh&va I tato 'ivinau jajnOU larorn/ly&m 
JfinuiA | " Saranyu, the daughter of Tvashtri, boro twins to Yivasrot, 
the son of Aditi. She then substituted for herself another femaln of 
eimilar uppcurancc, and fled in the form of a mare. Yivasvat in like 
manner assumed tho shape of a horse, and followed Iier. From th 

.;rsc sprang two Airine, while Msuu was the offspring of Snvanji 
(or tit© female of like uppcarunco)." 8oc Roth's interpretation of R.Y, 
x. 17, 1 11. and remarks thereon, in the Journal of tho German Orieol 
Society, ir. 124 ft j and the same writer's trauslatioa, in bis Illustra- 
tions of the Nirukta, p. 161, of a passage of the Brihaddevata, quoted 
try Suyaija on 11. V. vii. 72, 2, relating the camo story about Yiramt 
•ad Siirmjyii which is given iu llic Kirukta. That passage is as fol- 
lows : Abhavad milhunafn Teashfup Sari\*yHs TriiirHh taha | ta r*i 

ijHm priiynchhat stayam eva VinumU | talah Saranyrnin jHU U 
Yamayamyau Vuascatah | Mr apy yamilv era Ay Qtt-um YamyO. 
cha vai Yamah \ SfUhfca lharttuh parokihaut lu SaranyQfi tadfiiim 
ttfiyam | nikihipya tnithunau ttuy&ut ai<u bhuttd prachalramt | arijnn- 
,• ajannytul Manvm \ rujnrthir a»\t ta Manwr 
Yitatvan r'ra tejtua | *» vijndya ajnikr&ntiltit Sara*yiim atmimpinim | 
Ti'utlfrim prati iiiguinrivit viiji IhutcS aaiakthanaii \ Sartinyus tu P$t*f 
WWri i rf tffft&fi /ni'/iirilpinam | maithwtHyopathakriima tiifft M Mtrdrv 
foha tah | tatas tayos l\t vegem iukraiii tad apatad hiuri | ttpujtykrat 

t Iv aicu tat MfM o-irbha-k&myayt j dghriina-mutrat ivkrait 
tat kumdrau MMfoMOMto$ \ WSmtyai eJmtra Datrai cha yau itutuc 
> | " Tvashtp had twin children, (a daughter) Saranyu, and 
(a son) TriSirns. II -um- Surany in marriage to Yivasvat, to whom 
she bore Yuma aud Yuml, who alto were twins. Creating a female 
like herself without her husband's knowledge, and making the twina 
over in charge to her, Saranyu took the form of a mare, and departed. 
Vi\ .mat, in ignorance, begot, on the female who was left, Mann, a royal 
rishi. who resembled his lather iu glory. But discovering that the 
real Saranyfi, Trashtri'a daughter, hod gono away, Yivasvnt followed 
ly, taking tho shape of a horse of tho some species as she. 
Recognizing htm in that form alio approached him with the desire of 
sexual connection, which he gratified. In their haste his seed fell 
on tho ground, and she, being dcurous of offspring, unci led it From 

1 U" 








this act sprang the two Kunmras (youths) Naaatya and Dasra, wlio ore 
lauded a* Ainu (sprang from a hone)." 

In R.V. riii. 26, 21 f., m we have already econ, p. Ill, Vayu also is 
spoken of as Tvash?ri's son-in-law. Whether Vuyu's wife was different 
from Saranyu, or wbuther there is a discrepancy between this story 
and the one just referred to about Vivasvnt, does not appear. 

Tva«htri is represented as having for his most frequent attendunU tho 
wives of the gods, i. 22, 9 (Jjmpalnlr iha fi raha ikvdnum uial\r upa \ 
Tcatki&ratU somapltaye); ii. 31, -1; ii. 30, 3; vi. 50, 13; vii. 35, 6; 
x. 64, 10; x. 60, 3. This, according to Professor Both, *.i\, results 
from the fact that it is i n the wombs of females that his creative action 
is principally manifested. 

In x. 49, 10, ho is spoken of as if ho wore a deity of some import- 
one*, though inferior to Indr.t, since tho latter is said to place in the 
rirorB d lucid element, which even Tvoshtri, though a god, could not do 
(aham tad aiu dhurayam yad Hot na devai ohaiia Tiathta ad ha ray ad 

(3) JloitilUy of Intra and Tiatlfri. 

India is occasionally represented as in a state of hostility with 
Troshtri and his son.™ Thns in iii. 48, 4, it is said that India over- 
came him, and carried off his soma-juioe, which he drank from the 
cops (Ttatftfurtun Indra Januihil 'bhibkaya dmuthya t«mam apibaf eha~ 
mmhu), and in iv. 18, 3, that tho same god drank off the soma in his 
boose (TWuA/w- trih$ apibat tomam Indrak). In explanation of thoso 
allauons, the commentator, who in his note on iii. 48, 4, calls Trash tri 
an Asora(7V«^/fWM7maia;/i aturam), refers to the Taittirlya Sanbita, ii. 
4, 12, 1, where it is related that Trashtri, whose son hid been slain 
by Indra, began to perform a soma-sacrifiee in the absence of the 
lutu-r, and refused, on the ground of his homicide, to allow him to 
assist at the ceremony ; when Indrn interrupted the celebration, and 
drank off the soma by force (Thathiil hataputro tlndram tomam dkarat \ 
tatmina Indrak upakatam aichhaU | Unit na updktayaia "pulram me 

M In L 80. H (ses abovo, p. W), It is taid that erea Trasluri trembles at latin's 
wnith when he t&undtn. But this U merely introduced to inlicate th* terrific 
grandeur of India's manifoutiani. la My Ssali. u. tt. l'vs<li{ri is said to kava 
Uapartsd «igom to India (TYrtj&fi ItdUt imhm*m lndray* erisAy). 



'xodhir " ili | ja yajna-ieiiuaffi kritrd prOtaAd tovtaui optbat | Then 
words are repeated in ii. 5, 2, 1 ). Compare Satapatha Brahmaga, L 6, 
3, C ff. ; T. 6, 4, 7ff. ; xii. 7, 1, 1 ; xii. 8, 3, 1 ff. 

The son of Tvash(ri is mentioned in two passages of the Uig-veda. 
In x. 8, 8, it ia said : 5a pitryani uytulk&ni tidvtin iwirtthitah 
abhy ayutlhyat | (rUlnhanam taptaraimim jaghtmtt* Tv2th(rtuym dim 
tuk aatrO'e Trite gSh | 9. Bh&ri id Indrtk udiimManiam opt n&bki—t 
'/r mtnyamuttam \ Tuishtratya chid Viirariipaiya gon&m lidlt 
krSga* trlgi iirihd pari wrtt | "This Tritu Aptyo, knowing hit 
paternal weapon*, and impelled by India, fought against the thrte- 
hcoded and seven-rayed (monster), and slaying him, ho carried off the 
cows even of the Bon of Tvaahtri. 9. Indra, the lord of tho good, 
pierced this arrogant being, who boosted of his great force ; seizing the 
cows, he struck off tho three heads even of Viivar&pa the son of 
T.:i lijri (or of tho omaiform son of Trasht,ri)." (Compare ii. 11, 19). 
A loud-shouting monster with three heads and six eye*, perhaps idea* 
ticol with the son of Tvaahtri, is also mentioned in x. 99, 6, as baring 
betrn overcome by Indra or Trita (so id dutum tuviravaui patir d*» 
thitlaktham trislrthnmm damanyat \ asyti Trifo nu ojtuti rfidhaM vipa 
taruham ayoagrayA Ann). 

Ipa is iiviiutntly mentioned in later works. 

According to the Tuittiriya SanhilA, ii. 5, 1, 1 IT., he was the 
of tho gods, while he was sister's son (no further guucalogy ia given) 
of tho A8URU. M Ha had thrco hoods, colled respectively the euma- 

»* I rubjoin a passage from the same Sttnhlti. vi. 4, 10, 1 (p. 49 of Iadia OSes 
MS., N<>. 17"-) t roiatng to tho god* mid Asura*. Ihajt original »^uaUty in good* 
bum sad power, and their respective priest*. Brikaijxitir dtxHmim //**»*>'*) 
KB itindllinarktv tuurniy/lm \ braSmanvanli) ifttUfi ban braHmamnnto 'rurak | U 
'tifonyam *AJakn*c**» oAMMaritum | t* tlnah imuJamarkat HpoButrntrnytU* | 
lac tbritthm "titram ep'n«*<iAti» yrahic rut n5v alrapi frihfttMm" iti \ ttiiylm 
•'jrihniiH [ laio dtt<ih ittah abliAtatt pari 'utr,'ih | yj »yi» ir*i% 
wiiiukah ivkromantMiKm grihyttt ihavaly etmani pan! a»ya Hrafp'ryci W«r- 
turn rftwA apmt<ta\a o/mm Tmtr5ySjuAm-*k | ilySJi | " BriWpati was lb* priest of 
tbe gods, S'Hiida and Marka the priost* of the Aturas. Tho gods wire ikisnl 
■ml so wore tho Ararat. Neither could overcome the other. Tho gods united 
Ii and Msrka, who said, • Lot us uk a fsTpur; let draughts also be offered 
to us.' Tho gods, ia consequence, allowed to them tho »'uVr» »uj maDthia drsB|bts, 
•lid by doing so became gods, end tho Asunu were wonted. Tbe nun who knows' 
this anil sots seermtiiigly pru«rxrs himself sad his enemy succumbs. The gods 
sent swsy S'aods and Marks and offered up thcinselres to Iadrs," Compere the 
Sat. Br. iv. -.', 1 , 4 if. According to the Kifhoka 25, 7, quoted ia Indssche Stodka 




drinker, the wine-drinker, and the food-eater. Ho declared in publio 
that ibo Mctifioea should be shored by the gods only, while he privut< -ly 
recommended that they should bo offered to the Aeuxus. For, a» tho 
author of tbo Brahmana remarks, it ia customary for people- in publio 
to promise every one a share, whereas it ii only those to whom the 
promise is privately made who obtain iU fulfilment Indra was 
alarmed lest his dominion should by this procedure of Viswupa he 
overturned, and ho accordingly smote off his heada with a thunderbolt. 
The three heads were turned into birds, the one called Nome-drinker 
became a Kupinjahi (or Fraucolino pnrtridge), the Win..-- drinker a 
Kalarinka (or sparrow), and the Food-eater a Tittiri (or partridge), etc. 
(PtfrerSjw co i Tc-Athfrah purokito deruwim 'Uit tratrlgo 'turumim | 
Uuga trlni ilrthting utan tomapAnam turApAnam aumldanam \ ta prat- 
gaitham dtvtbhgo bkSgam aradat parokiham aturtbhgah I nrriumai 
pratgaltham bh&g&fk vaianti \ yiutmni eta parokiham tadanii taiga 
lhagih ttditah | tarmAd Indro 'bibhed Idriii rai rAthfram pargArarttagati 
iti taiga rajram AdSya ilrthAng arhhinat \ gat tomapAnain A ill ta kapin- 
jafo 'bhartt \ gat turApAnam ta kalavinkah \ gad ann&danaih ta li>' 
Tho Sataputha Bruhmana tclla the story in somo respects at greater 
length, i. 6, 3, 1 ff. : Trathfur ha rai putt rat triiu-thoh *hod«hhah i*a\ 
taiga trtng sea muihAng Attn tad gad ttaArdpah uta tat mud Viivarip* 
n&ma \ 2. Tatga tomapSnam era el-am mulham Ata \ turApAnam eiam \ 
mngatmai aiuniiga tkam | tarn Indra didtttha tatga tAiti hrthAni pro- 
ekirhhtJa | 3. Sa gat tomapAnam uta tatah kapimjalah tamabkarat \ 
taamat ta babhrnkak tea babhntr ita hi tomo rAjA | 4. AtXa gat turd- 
pAmm uta tatah kalarinkah tamab/iarat | n ' bhimAdgatkak tea cadati | 
abhinndtjann iva hi turAtn pitcd radati | 5. Atha gad angatmai aianAga 
At* tata* titiirih tamahhatat | tatmut ta viirarilpatatnah ita | tantg era 
ghritatiohdh ita trad madhtutobik ira lent parvethe aichutitah \ trait- 
ripam hi ta Una aianan dragat | 6. Sa TeaahfA ehukrudha " kmin m# 
putram aradhld" iti to 'pendram ecu tomam Ajahre \ ta gathA 'yan\ 
umah pratulah eram apendrah rva Ata | 7. fndrv ha mi" \ktkAnchalrt 

iii. 467 (cwnpsra A»t. S'nwU Solras, L 4. 9), the gal* bad fatr kotri priasta, 
BhOpati, Mhnnnnpsli. Hhntiinimpciti. nml HhtiU. of whom the fint U>k« di*-l fat). 
discharging umr doty, «h«o th« fourth becsnw afraid and fled. otc. Vnttmot Wcbcr 
•owporw tbo rtory about Agni. quoted ab»r«, p. 2*8, from tho TaiO. 8. Ob thr 
ongi»»l tqudily u/ tbo godi oul Aeurs* sec the 4th vol. of Uib work. pp. 51 IT, aad 
aoto ti, p. 10, aboTt. 


[] [TS OP EMORA t iiTui. 

"idam raimii midci antaryanii" Hi | m yfl/Ad lahyiin ahat\</<u*h i 
anupahutaA era ijo dronakaltit inkrah Asa dm biakthaydnchaidra | i 
enamjihulita \ tv 'iya rihaXn tra prtknebhyo dudr&ra muLh&d ha era an* 
eitha turcebhyo'nyebhyah pr<i**hhy«h | 8, &i 2Va#Af<S ehukrodhd "iurtdwu 
'uupahAtah aomam abhakthad" iti | ta scayam era yaj>%arti,unm chair* | 
m yo dfonakalaie iukrak pariiithfah Ata taSt pracarltayimekakara 
4i Jndra-ialrur rardhamra" iti .... | 10. Atha yad abrav\d Indra-iatmr 
tardlasva" Hi tatmild n ha MM Jndrah eta jayh&na \ atha yoi is 
ittifai atakthml " Jndraiya iatrur rardhatra " iti iairad iikiiM 
Iiutram ahanubyat | "Tvashtri had a son with three head* and six 
eyes, who hud three mouths ; and hence was called Visvarupa (Omni- 
form). 2. One of bis mouths watt the Sonm-drinkcr, the second tho 
Wine-drinker, and tho tliird was destined for consuming other things. 
Indra hated tttfa Vijivmiipa, and cut off his three heads. 3. Prom the 
SiMiiii-ilrinker sprang a K&pinjala (Francoline partridge); and hence 
this bird in brown, because king Soma is of thnt colour. 4. From ths 
\ViiH-. hiul.i r sprang a Kalarinka (sparrow); and in consequence this 
Lit. I Bttttl sounds liko u drunkard, just as a person docs who has drunk 

5. From the third mouth sprang a Tittiri (common partrid.' 
which in consequence lias the greatest variety of colours, for drops of 
ghee nnd of honey seem to bo sprinkled in different places on its wings: by this mouth he (YiAvarupii) received such sorts of food. 6. 
T\n.«htri was incensed; and saying " He has killed my son," he offered 
a libution of soma to the gods, excluding I mini. 7. Iudrs perceived 
that he was excluded from partaking the soma, nnd as a stronger acts 
towards a weaker being, he without invitation drank off the purified 
foina in the vessel. But it uffected him injuriously ; it issued from his 
mouth and then from all the other outlets of his body. 8. Tvashtri was 
KSgry that ludra had drunk the soma without invitation; and himself 
broke off the sacrifice, employing the. soma which was left in the vessel 
(in another rite) using thu formula 'Thou of whom Indra is tho enemy, 
thmrish!' 10. As ho used the words accented so as to produce this 
MBM) i 1 1 > 1 1 : • irv. 'niiu. [fad iii laid ' Flourish, enemy of En Ira,' ht 
would have slain Indra, instead of ludra slaying him." 

The version of the same legend from the Kanaka, 12, 10, in Indische 
Btudiea, iii- 464, gives some other particulars; Indra was afraid 
Viavurupa was going to become everything (" all this": n Indro '* 




(1) The character and parentage of the Akine, thrir rebtiow to 
their attribute* end accompaniment*. 

The Asvins seem to have been a puzrte evun to the oldest Indian 
commentators. Yiska thus refers to them in the Nirukta. xa, I : 

Atha ato itf\uthanah dnatuh \ idedm Aicinau pratkmm&gaminau 
/•/iiivcitiih | Aivinau yad vyaintu&te tart am ratena amyo jyotUhi tnyak I 
"Aivair usVuWIp" ity Anrnahhdrah ] tat kikv Akinau | " DyGtupritki- 
cyflc " ity eke \ " akoratrdv " ity eke | " Sarytiehatuiratwudv " ity eke \ 
" n'if'initu punyakrit&p " ity oiti/iaukuh | tuyok k&lah urddkam Urih- 
■•I prakiltlbh&caey* anuvithkfambham ann \ Utmehhftgo hi ma- 
dhyamo jyotirbh&gah ddityak | 5. Tayok kSlah rbryedayaparyantai | 

" Next in order arc the deities whose sphere is the heaven; of these 
the Asvins are the first to arrive. They are called A£vios because 
jwvado {eyainut&te) everything, tlic one with moisture, tho other 
vital light. Anrnobhiva says they aro called Asvins, from the hone* 
(ttirai/i, on which thoy ride). Who, then, are these Asvins? 'Heaven 
and Earth,'*' say some; ' Day and Night,' say others; 'The Sun and 
Moon,' any others ; ' Two kings, performers of holy acta,' say the 
legendary writers. Their time is subsequent to midnight, whilst tho 
manifestation of light is dcluyed ; [unil ends with the rising of the 
sun, ibid. xii. 5]. Tho dark portion [of this time] denotes the ini 
mediate (god — Indie?), tho light portion Aditw (the Sun)." 


■ mi 

W Compare 8. P, Ur. ir. 1, 0, 18, AlKa ymd "Airinoi" Hi rnttiw' 
yritkiri pralymktkam oitirfa | iW hi iciom tertam iiimtita- | " Tba Hoirta I 

Earth axe manifestly tho .Wrina, for luey (Qeaica sad Earth) Laro pcrradsd evertv 

**■ SestheilifriT.'iit UsspratstloaflrSB by Professor Golds tiicVer, at the doss of 
this Htrtion. Tho words sre obtcuro. 


Professor Roth, on Uio strength of this passage, considers that 
Yaska identifies tho two Asvins with ludru and too Sun (Illustrations 
of Nirukta, p. Io9)."» 

In the Journal of the German Oriental Society, iv. 425, the samo 
author thus speaks of these gods : " The two Asvius, though, like the 
indent interpreters of the Veda, we are by no means agreed as to the 
conception of their character, hold, nevertheless, a perfectly distinct 
position in the entire body of the Vedic deities of light They are the 
earliest bringcrs of light in the morning sky, who in their chariot 
hasten onward before the dawn, and prepare the way for her."*" 

In a passage of the R.V., x. 17, 2 (quoted above in tho section on 
Trasht,ri, p. 227), the Aivin* aro represented as the twin Bons of Vi- 
vmtiI and SaranyG. They aro also called the sons of the sky («Ym 
napita) in R.V. i. 182, I ; i. 184, 1 ;"» x. 61, 4 ; and in i. 46, 2, 
tinihumHtarS, tho offspring of tho Ocean ** (whothcr aerial or terres- 

The Taitt. 8. rii. 2, 7, 2, says that the Asrins are the youngest of 
tha gods (ottsMM tai dtrdn&m unujticarau). 

In i. 180, 2, tho sister of tho AsrinB is mentioned, by whom tho 

commentator naturally understands TTshai (tv/urutkcUilyd irayamifirini 

ni mthaA). In Til 71, 1, and elsewhere (see above, p. 188, 191), 

Ushas is called the sinter of Night, whilst ia i. 12.1, 5, she is said 

lister of Bhaga and Varuijii. 

The Airina wo in many port* of tho Rig-vcda connected with 
Surya, the youthful daughter of the sun (called also Urjanl in ono 

»» R.V. L l&l, 4. ia, according to Ruib, quitted by Yfaka in illustration of kit 
Tiew : " Born here and there thuar two havr atdvan forward (r) with siioUou l>«lii I 
■ccawwiig to their reapectm cbiracton. One of juu, ■ conqueror ud • ug«, [it the 
mom) of tho atrorg ono (f) ; tho other u bom onwird, tho son of tho sky" (ikrktjati 
pmmnr-~n*i'<iam MV f eti t*f*A namtbAiA Hath | ji$hnur tint fy*h tte*o*Kety* 
iiw •**■*£ nAhajalf pv!r*$ uht). Compau Roth'* tranal. in Uluatialiuus of 
Niruhta. p. 149. 

— For some speculations of Professor YulUr und Welx-r, on the Aium. see fh« 
les ti ss of the former, "ind Knot, p. 48U f., and tho Indiiohe Siudwm of the Utter, 
««L v. p. 234. 

m lit 181, 4, only one of tbem isssid tobe ihcsoncf thoikj. Sec note 34>D, abort. 

*** Oa this the commentator remarks that, although it is the Sua md Moon thai 
are sprang from lb* ma, yet tho mm epithet applies equally to the Airina who, in 
Ihe opinion of wmc, are identical uita the former (yiufyaot iuiya-elkmuk*mataf mm 
mmudrajtu /«M»/>y AdrtHC) ictkiutAil matt Ulltitr-tm). 



place, i. 119, 2, as Sayana understands it, turyatya duhita),"* who u 
represented u* having, for the sako of acquiring friends, chosen then 
for her two husbands, L 119, 5 (a rtf« patitcam takKyfty* jaammhl 
yeshu \rinita jc/iyu yuvtim pati) ; ir. 43, 6 {tad A $hu vim ajiraA ehet* 
i/iltuuTi ytnapatl bharathah Suryiiyah) ; vii. 69, 3 {ei riM ralho tadhti 
fftitmtU^ o«M» din bSdhat4 cayttanibhyam) ; x. 39, 11, na la* 
rGj&n6v JLdite kutai than* na omhah atnoti duritam nakir bhayam | yam 
Afrinu tuhai'6 ntdravarUaHl ptiroralJiaih krinuthah patnyu $aka \ 
" Neither distress, nor calami ty, nor fear from any quarter assails the 
man whom ye Asvins, along with [your] wife, cause to lead the van 
in his cur ;" *** and as loving to ascend their chariot, i. 34, 5 ; i. II 
17; L 117, 13 (guvo ratham dahitd e&ryasya saha iriya Wasat 
Vp'sifa); i. 118, 6 («I v&m ratham yuvatit tithfhad atra jmhfti mora 
duhitS SOryatya) ; It. 43, 2 ; T. 73, 6 (A yai rdm SaryA raikam 
tidfhai, etc.); vi. C3, 6 f. ; vii. 68, 3; vii. 69, I; viii. 8, 10 j 
22, I ; viii. 29, 8*» 

R.V. i. 116, 17, is OS follows: $ ram ratham duhitd riiryatya klr- 
thmtnutithfhad areata jayantl | ptfw dttak ant amanyanta hn'dbhih 
"$am iriya Nutatya sachtihe" | "The daughter of the sun stood 
upon your chariot, attaining first the goal, as if with a race-hens. 
All the gods regarded this with approbation in their hearts (exclaiming) 
•Yo, o Nusatyas, associate yourselves with good fortune.' " On this 
gMHgi Blyagi ramaxka u fidlon - . 8c*itt sMuJaAsVarasA cTwfjfffJatrji 
SomAya rGjne pradulum aichhat | tarn Suryum tarve dexuk tarayAm&iuh | 
U anyenyam ichur "Adityam acadhim kritvA ajim dMxoma yo atm&kam 
ujjcihyati tatya iyam bhavuhyaii" Hi | tatra Akindo vdajuyatdm | «d 
eha Sury/l ji/acatat (ayah ratham Arvroha | M atra Praj&patir rai 
tomuya rfijnt duhitaram prayachhad" ityudikam brdhmanam anmtaniht- 
yam \ " Kivitri hod destined his daughter Suryu to be the wife of king 
Soma. Bat all the gods were anxious to obtain her bond, and resolved 
that tho victor in a race which they agreed to run, with the son for 
their goal, should get her. She was accordingly won by the A&vias, 
and ascended their chariot." Saynna goes on to quote the commeace- 

s«» rrofwBor Ruth.#.»., Uk« tho word for s persiniflcnticm of ir/5, " ooarmkmmd," 
*•* The oonitnictioii of the words painyi mA.j, " with wifo," is not however my 
el«nr, n» they m«y jwrhaj* r*for U> thn wife uf Ui« wonbipper. 
>" Seo sbo A.V. ri. Si, ^ 



metit of tho rtory, a* told in tho Brfihraarja. Tho words agree with 
those which introduce a refownco to Suryi's marriage to Soma in Ait 
Br. iv. 7, but the story there told (of whioh an abstract will be found 
in a note further on) does not coincide with that of which the com- 
mentator gives a summary. 

Allusion is also mode to Suryii in connection with the Aavins in 
x. 8£, 9, where, however, they no longer appear as her husbands, — a 
fact which seems to involve a contradiction between the passages cited 
above, and this: 9. iSwiw cadhuyur alhatat Aivinu 'i/<Jm ubhd vard | 
Sirytlm yat paty« iamiontim manata Stttita 'dad<it | M. Yad Asrinu 
fsriMtmiimlv aijutam triehakrtna tahitufn Suryui/uh \ p«t* dtvuh a*n 
tad ram aj&twn put rah pitarav arrinfla P&tha | " Soma was tho 
wooer, the Asvins wore tho two friendB of the bridegroom ,*♦ when 
Saritri gave to her husband Sfiryft, consenting in her mind. 11, When 
yo came, Asvins, to the marriage procession of SuryA, to make en- 
quiries, all the gods approved, and Puslian,'" aa a son, chose you 
fur his parents." 

daughter of the Sun is connected with tho Soma plant in ix. 1, 

[punuli te parUrutaSt somtim sftryasya duliiUi | "Tho Daugli! 
San purifies thy distilled soma," etc; and in iz. 113, 3, she is 
said to hare brought it after it had been expanded by the rain ( par- 
janyarridJham tnahiifium tarn turya*y<* duhilH "bharat). 

II wo look on Soma as tho plant of that nnme, tho connection 
between him and Suryfi in not very clear; but if Soma bo taken for 
the moon, as he evidently appears to be in x. 85, 3 (" When t i .. y 
crush the plant, he who drinks fancies that he has drunk Soma, but 
no ono tastes of him whom tho priests know to bo Soma; ")*** it is not 
unnatural, from the relation of the two luminaries, that he should 
have been regarded as son-in-law of the sun. 

The Asvins arc described as coming from nfar, from the sky or from 
the lower air, and are besought to allow no other worshippers to stop 

**■ Comport A.V. si. 9, 1, "When Muiyu brought bit bride from tho hoiac •; 
Hsnkalps. who were the fnillSgl USUI'S friends ? " etc. (y*.i Mmynr jiifim •mini 
San k a tp mt y jrpA,m <•!>» I kt «»*mj*my&t U <*rti<k t** w ■ V t,\(Ui*re • **•*•/). 

"" Wtbrr uks ! Intl. S. t. 1*3, 1H7.) nlicther POikaa hero it Dot SMtllt 10 4S*ig- 
nit« Soma, tho bridegroom. In \i. »i, I, ilw gods are uiJ to h-ivo given l'odua to 
KOryi. Sen tbore p. 179- 

m S*o »l Hit clc*# •>! the noxt wcli'ju «a 8uwin, wid W«bcr'» lad. Stail. t. 179. 



there, i. 22, 2 (imtpriifi); i. 44, 5 (fi no y/ltaOt din achha prilhityih 
md cam atiys ni yaman deuiyanlai) ; Tin. 5, 30 (tma no nljinlitii 
parxiratai chid fijal-am) ; riii. 8, 3, 4, 7 (A. A no ytliam rfi'ra* jmh 
antarihhut} ; viii. 9, 2 ; viii. 1 0, 1 j viii. 26, 1 7 ; or oa being in, or arrir- 
iog from, different unknown quarters, whether above or below, far or 
near, and among different races of men, i. 184, 1 ; r. 73, 1 [yod odya ilJuk 
porAioti yttd artfirati) ; t. 74, 10 (*tVi'nd yad ha karhi thit inirty«Um 
im«m heram) j vii. 70, 3; vii. 72, 5 (d poirhAMd niiuttyA & pur**tiii 
airina y&tam adharGd tidtiMlcit | d rjjpa/itA) ; viii. 10, 6 (y.*rf aiyt 
titinSf) apug yat pruk ttho rajinlPtulk \ yad Dmhyari Anati Tkrt*h 
Yadau Mum rdm alha m& Agatam); viii. (Y2, 8. Sometimes the wor- 
shipper enquires after their locality, t. 74, 2, 3 ; xi. 63, 1 ; riii. 62, 4 
(luAa tthah kuha jagmathuk kuha iyenaa petatkuk). In one plan 
(riii. 8, St,) they are said to hare three stations (trlni pidHni Ahum 
6rih tanti guhil parah). The time of their appearance is properly the 
early down, when they yoke their horses to their car and descend to 
enrth to receive the adorations and offerings of their votaries, L 22, 1 
(prdtarytyd ri bvdhayuhinau) ; i. 184, 1 ; ir. 45, 2; Tii. 67, 2; vii. 
69, 6; vii. 71, 1-8; viL 72, 4; vii. 73, 1; viii. 5, 1, 2; \iii ', 17; 
x. 39, 12 ; X. 40, 1, 3 ; x. 41, 1, 2 ; X. 61, 4). I cite a few of these 
texts : vii. 67, 2. Aiochi Agm'h imidhSno atm* upo adriiran t*m**oi 
chid antth \ achtii htur tuhtuhah purottat iriye diet dukitur jayttmd- 
nah | 3. Abhi row no nam a&rtw't tvkoM stomal h tiahakti nuulyS tint- 
ttin | "Agni, being kindled, has shone upon us; even the remotest 
ends of the <lnrknc*s have been seen; the light in front of Ushas, lbs 
daughter of the sky, has been pereeiTed, springing up for the iHutai- 
nation (of all things). 3. Now, Airins, the priest invokes you with 
, his hymns," ftta 

Tiii. 8, 1. Dilrtid ihna yat sat\ arunapiur aiisrUot | ft" IkdnwM 
tUtaika 'Innat | 2. Xricad datrd vnmoyujd ralktna prilkvpt)ja*6 | 
tachtlhe Airmtl Uthasam | ""When the rosy-hm-d D&wa, though far 
away, gleunu us if she were near at hand, shu spreads the light in all 
directions. 2. Ye, wonder-working Airing, like men, follow afUr 
U&has in your car which is yoked by your will, and shine* afar." 

viii. '.', 17. J'ra budhaya Uthok Akina | " Woke, great and divine 
TJftha*, the Asvins," oto. 

X- 39, 12.-4 itna yaUik manato faviyuu rat f him yam vdm Rtbkttai 



thahrur Aieind \ yatya yoge duhila j'Syate Divtik ubhe ahatil itudint 
ftMtM/<j | " Come, Aeviua, with that oar swifter than thought which 
the Ribhus fashioned for you, ut tho yoking of which the daughter of 
the eky (Ushas) is born, and day and night become propitious to tho 

X. 61, 4. KritKnii yad g<uh'u (trunUhu rtdtid Dito napSiSe AM*d hut* 
tarn | " When the dark [night] stands among tho tawny cows (rays 
of dawn), I invoke you, Airing, sons of the Sky." 

In L 34, 10, Savitri is said to set their shining car in motion before 
the dawn (juror hi pilrvath 8avit& uthato ratham ritCya chiirai* 
ghfitatantam Uhyati). 

In otber passages their time is not so well defined. Thus, in i. 157, 
1, it Is said : abodhi Agnirj'mah udati suryo ei Uihdi chaudril muhl 4vo 
arehUhd | ayukihUtdm aivini y&tttte ratham prSsScld dtrah SatiUljagat 
prithak | " Agni has awoke ; the sun rises from tho earth j the great 
and bright Ushas has dawned with her light; the Asrins have yoked 
their car to go ; the divine Savitri has enlivened every part of tho 
world," where both the break of dawn and tho appearance of the 
Atfvins appear to be made simultaneous with tho rising of tho sun. 
The same is the ease in vii. 72, 4 : e» eha id uchhemti ahinn mhotth 
prm rd« brakmUni kftravo bharante | itrdhtam bhilnuin Sariift dm airtd 
krikad agnayah i/tmidha jaranU | " The Dawns break, Alvins ; poets 
offer to you prayers ; the divine Savitri has assumed his lofty bril- 
liance; fine crackle mightily, (fed by) fuel." 

la v. 7G, 3, the Aivins are invited to come at different times, at 
morning, mid-day, and sunset {uta u yatam tangae* pro tar *W madhy. 
aWi'iw udita tHrytiya); and in viii. 22. 14, it is similarly said that 
they arc invoked in tho evening as well us at dnwn. It need not, 
however, surprise us that they should bo invited to attend the different 
lunieo of the worshippers, and therefore conceived to appear at 
hours distinct from tho supposed natural periods of their manifestation. 

It may seem unaccountable that two deities of a character so litllo 
defined, and so difficult to Identify, as the Aarins, should bavo been 
tho object of so enthusiastic a worship as appear* from the numerous 
hymns dedicated to them in the R.V. to have been paid to them iu 
ancient times. Tho reason may havo been that they were hailed as 
tin' precursors of returning day, after the darkness and dangers of 




the night In some passage* (viii. 35, 16 ff.) they aro represented 
being, like Agni. the ehaeen away of evil spirits (katam raUkUm); 
\ii. 73, 4 (rak*kohan&). 

The AJviDfi ore said to bo young, yurana (vii. 67, 10), anriat, 
pratnil (vi. 62, 5), beautiful, valga (vi. 62, fl; vi. 63, 1), hones 
madhurttrm\ (viii. 26, 6), lords of lustre', sw&fcu pntl (viii. 9 
x. 93, 6), bright, iubhrd (vii. 68, 1), of a golden brillianoy, him 
]Hi<u<i (viii. 8, 2), agile, nriU, (vi. 63, 6), fleet as thought, tnamjmuA 
(viii. 22, 16) swift as young falcons, iyeruuya ohij jacaiu nitttnuma 
H yachlmtam (v. 78, 4), possessing many forms, pari rarpdaui Jfrina 
isdhanu (i. 117, 9), wearing lotus garlands, pu*hkara*raj& (x. 184, 
2, and A.V. iii. 22, 4, Kitop. Br. if. 1, 5, 16), strong, a*fcrd (x. 
24, 4), mighty, p- ;<• (vi. 62, 5), terrible, rWrd (v. 75, 3; 

x. 93, 7), pos80*.«cd of wondrous power*, wiym/l or mAyntind (vi. 63, 
6; x. 24, 4), and profound in wisdom, gcmbh\raeketat& (viii. 8, 2). 
They ruah onward excitedly, madachytUa 1 " (viii. 22, 16 ; viii. 35, 18), 
and traverse a golden, hirnnyarartMl, or terrible, rudrarnriaiH, path 
(v. 75, 3; viii. 5, 11 ; viii. 8, 1 ; viii. 22, I, 14; X. 39, 11)» 

The car, golden, or sunlike, in all its various parts and a; 
Utiunccs, wheels, fillies, arte, pole, reins, etc., i. 180, I [hinmyayak 
tCtm parayak) ; iv. 44, 4, 5 (Jtiragyaytma rathttui) ; v. 77, 3 {hiranyat 
ralhah); viii. 5, 26, 29, 35 (ratha/li hiraityavandhHrait hiranyul 
Aicind | a hi Mat ho ditinpriiam | 29. hirattyayl viim rabhir Uhd 
kiranyayak \ ubha ckukrtt hiranynyu); viii. 8, 2 {ralktna i\lryatc*cki) ; 
viii. 22, 9, on which they ride, flying as on bird's wingt, L 183, 1 
(yrnopayrUhah evkrito ilvrvnm'n trulkiit*n& pittUho fir ««i parnaik), wa» 
formed by the llibhus, x. 39, 12 (see above, p. 238), and is singular ia 
its formation, being three-wheeled {trichakra), and triple in noma 

*•* Profc»nr Roth, *.r., rtadsn thiiepitbet by "moving in exeluaut," si< 
Profe»or Mnl of K.V i. p. 118, tr»iwl»t« it, whoa sppliod to Iadra,fai* 

hone*, or the A«'u:.v -iv nr wildly mnrinj: nltonl." 

*"> Two epithets very or.mmonly applied to them we &tr& and namlj/a. 
fi.rmcr term i» explained by Siy»i>* to tignify drctrnyen of emmim. or of 
(not* ■■■> i ", 3), or Iwautiful (on riti. 75, 1). Proft-tsor R-Mh, :r . understands i 
signify wonJor-wnrkcr*. The second word, »Hmtyi, i* rt<iranl«d hy s 
M of the BtymolttriflB given by Yft»k» (vL 13), » c|ui»»Wnt to m 
iltbaMOM, i might m well Ii»tc been aicd. In the later Ulmtsr* 

Dnsra and K antra «ero reganUd as the separate name* of the two Aavbis. St* 
Mullet's Lecture*, 2od »ri«s p. 4fll. 




otLer part* of it* construction, it- fiM'u-s, support*, etc (iricr't f (riran- 
dkura I tray ah parnyah | trayah thambhlsah tkdbhil&iah ilmJ/itf),*" i. 34, 
2, 9 ; i. 47, 2 j i. 1 18, 1, 2 ; i. 157, 3 ; -vii. 71. 4 ; viii. 74, 8 ; x. 41, 1. 
This car moves lightly (raghuearttani), viii. 9, 8, and is swifter ihun 
thought {manano jorlydn ralltah), i. II", 2; i. 118, 1 ; v. 77, 3 ; vi. 63, 
7 ; x. 39, 12, or than the twinkling of an eye {nimiihai chij javlytud 
rathata), viii. 02, 2. It it decked with a thousand ornaments and banners 
{tahatra-M*, tahotra-ntmij), i. 119, 1 ; viii. 8, 11, H, and has golden 
reins, viii. 22, 6. It is sometimes said to be drawn by a single ass, as the 
word r<i.\.tbha m i*, in one piece at least, i. 34, 9, expressly explained 
by the commentator (aii<uthdnlyati/a gardalha*ya), v ' i. 34, 9 ; i. 1 16, 2 ; 
▼iti. 74, 7 ; but more frequently by birds, or bird-like, fleet-winged, 
golden-winged, falcon-like, swon-liko horses, i. 46, 3 (yud turn ralke 
nbhith; i. 117, 2 (raihah »vahah) ; L 118, 4 (d rdw iytnuto 
akina rahantu rathe yukMto aiavah patangiib) ; L 180, 1 (iuyamdmh 
miwih); i. 181, 2 (d riSm tsrfaah hehayah .... naantw); ir. 46, 4 
{AamtiM yo vam madhumanto atridho htranyaparndh); v. 74, 9; v. 75, 
S [rilhii Cbyfiranam Aivini »» yuthah); vi. 63, 6, 7 (d v&St tayak 

rl The word rWAaro is variously explained by &iy»o» ss n^iUiUkmnridkar*. 
Mutam (on i. 34. 9), wnfatanalarupa.6audJkan:iaMk(kam (mi i. 4T. •), twiAfatfaa* 
Anikth nAamtm (o» i. 118, 1), tartlAya/myt^tMitmm (on i. 167, 3), airaMy- 
mJkukfkaiti-rtk '.■ n iim (on vii. 71, 4), and IriraiflkurA u ItipkaUkTmaHgia^ltna («■ 
tHL 7*, ")• Th« epithet would thus mean tithor (1) having three porpcndlcejUr 
piecca of wood, oc (2) hsring a triple standing plane or scat fur tlio charioteer. In 
L 34, 2, lb* cbsriat u laid to hare lliree props filed in it to lay bold ut ' 
itamBAamt iMhitatab vwbhi), which tbe eommpnutor says wars mount to iccuro 
the ridev agi iin»t the fear of falling when the chariot was moving rapidly. This ex. 
pbrunoa would coincide with on* of tho senses assigned to wtuikHm. la i. i si, 3, 
their chariot is called fipra-wnJhMrah, which, according to the commentator, is • 
tuirnft-puroiAagalt, "baring a wide fore-part." 

*•* See tbe legend in the Aiureys Brahmins, p. 370-273 of Dr. Hang's trans- 
lation. It it titers related, it. 7-0, that at the nurrisge of Soma and Sflryi. the 
god* raa a race to doterraino to which of them tho as'vina I'astrn should belong. Tho 
Xiriai gained it. though some other deities gained a (hire. Agui run tho rac* in a 
car, draws by mulca (aJr*t*rl-ral Wa jlyniriijin WAon'), Vthat in one drawn by 
ruddy ball* (jnAW amait'r I'lkHk Sjim atlkat+t), Indra in one drawn by bora** 
(iitatolktma !mdmk Sjim oikatnt), while the As'v ina carried orT tb« prise in a oar 
drawn by sases {frtUbkn -Talk/no Attina mSaja^attm). Compare K.V. t. 116, J, 
where tha ass is aaid to hate won. 

*" Prof. Baafey in a not* on L 110, 2, while agresing is this aaaae, refers also to 
iiL S3, 5. where as well a» in viii. 74, 3, Sayaiia uplaina tbe word a* awaniag a 
nrijrhing or aaortiag bone 



charactkk and r ;k of tiik astixs. 

aiflte vah'skfhilh abki prayo natatyfl vafmtiu) ; vii. 69, 7 ; viii. 5, 7, 
22, 33, 35 (tQyarh iynubhir fiiubhik \ yCtam atnbkir AivinA | jtd 
ran ml/to vibhith patdt \ & ika rim prutfiilaptaro cayo rshantu pcr*i~ 
nai | dratatpiinihhir a&vaih); x. 143, 5. They cany * honied whip 
{laid madhuma(l), i. 122, 3; i. 157, 4,*" and their car traverses the 
region* ( pra rath ratho mamjanih iyartti tint rajiirui), viL 63, 3. 

Asvina aro Fancifully represented in i. 34, 1 IF. aa doing, or u 
being requested to do, a variety of acta thrice over, vis. to move thrice 
by night and thrice by day, (vena 2) to bestow nourishment thrice at 
even and at dawn, (vcr*c 3) to bestow wealth Utfj •• , ;_ verso 5) to atd 
the devotions of tho wor&l ippers thrice, (ibid.) to bestow celestial 
medicaments thrioe, and earthly thrice (verao 6), etc. 

Tiny nro elsewhere (ii. 39, 1 ff.) compared to different twin objects; 
to two vultures on a tree, to two priests reciting hymn* (verse 1), to 
two goats, to two beautiful women (mtnt ira tamA tumbhawuiiu), to 
hiixliiuid and wife (verse 2), to two ducks, chahratOJtA (verse 3), 
to two ships whirh transport men, to two protecting do^* (vers* 4), 
to two eyes, two hands, two feet (reree 6), to two sweetly-speaking 
lips, two breasts yielding nourishment, two nostrils, two cuts (verae 6\ 
to two swan*, two falcons, two deer, two buffaloes, two wings of one 
bird (idkamyvja sakunatijera pafuha), etc., etc., T. 78, 1-3; viii. 35, 
7-9 ; x. 106, 2 ff. 

They aro tho guardians of tho alow and the hindmost, and of the 
female who is growing old unmarried ; they aro physician a'* and rcatort 
the blind, the lame, the emaciated, and the sick, to sight, power of 
locomotion, health, and strength, i. 34, 6; i, 116, 16; i. 157, 6; viii. 
9, 6, 15; viii. 18, 8; wiii. 22, 10; viii. 7«, I ; x 39, 3, 5 (amajmnt 
eh id bhacatho yutan bhayo anaioi chid aeitara apamesya chit | i\itdhatyt 
chit niliatyil Iriiiuya chid yuv&m id ufiur bhUkaju ruttuya Ml) ; 
x. 40, 8. Sec also A.V. vii. 53, 1, where it is said that the A.<vin» 
aro tho physicians of the gods, and worded off death from the 

**» See below the «rrtion on tht "progros* of the Yodic religion, ete." India has 
B golden whip. viii. 33, 11. 

>" In Tiuit. Br. iii. 1, 2, 1), tho Airinsnr* cnllsd the phyiicun* of th* gnit. u* 
iii-irrn of obUttAni, the mecuDger* of the universe, tho gumrdiwta of isimotulitr 
(pm deiSimm bbu/fj'in ktrftriktm rur««y« Mtdv anril—jra jnpau); imd in tlwt 
and the preceding paragraph (10) tbpy sro connected with their oiru astcrian | 
**a<ro), the Jufrayoji 



shipper (praiyauhatHm aitinS mrilyum atmad devdndm Agn* bhithaj* 

Tiny ploco the product! vo germ in all creatures, and generate fire, 
■water and tree*, i. 157, 5 (yutom ha garbham jiigatUhu dhaliho yuroi* 
tik**kt bhtic*ne*h* anlah | yuctm Agniih cha trithanav apaS cha ranas- 
pat'm aiein&e airayelAdm). They are connected with marriage, prc- 
cmition, and love, z. 184, 2 (- A.T. v. 25, 3: garbkat* U chimm 
aWdP & dkalMm puahkarcuroju) ; x. 85, 26 (<aJpr'«J ted prarahatdm 
rmthma | gfihan gachha grihapatn} yatka 'tab); A.V. ii. SO, 2 (un 
then nmydtho aitina knmind tatri cha vaLihat/uiA | " When, ye, Aivins, 
bring together two lovers," ete.); vi. 102, 1 ; xiv. 1, 35 f. ; xiv. 2, 5. 
8ee Weber's Indischc Studicn t. 218, 227, 231. 

(2) Legend* regarding various person* delitertd crfaxoured by the 


The following arc a few of the modes in which the ditine power of 
the As'vina is declared in dilfrrent hymns to have been manifested for 
the deliverance of their votaries. 

When the sago Chyavfma hud grown old, and had been forsaken, 
they divested him of his decrepit body, prolonged his life, and restored 
him to youth, making him acceptable to his wife, and the husband of 
maidens, i. 1 1 G, 10 [jujurutho niiMlyn via ctvrim prdmunekataii* <•'. 
ira Chyatiitiat | prdtiratam jakitat-yfiyur da*rd 6d it patim akrigutam 
kaH\ndm) ; i. 117, 13 {yurant Chyatanam Aitina jarantam putter ymi- 
natu thakrathuh tnchibkih); I 118, 6; v. 74, & (pra Ckyaidmdj juju- 
rvtko varrim aria A no, munchnlhnh | yuvd yodi krilhoh punar a ktimam 
p'mtitadhMk); vii. 68, 6; vii. 71, 5 ; x. 39, 4. 

This legend is related at length in the Sstapatha Brahman* in a 
passage which will he cited further on. 

In the someway they renewed the youth of Kali*" after he had 
grown old, x. 39, 8 (ysram viprasya jarandm upeymhah pvnah Kahr 
tljinuiam yucad layah); compare i. 112, 15, where they arc said to 
have befriended him after he had married a wife ( Kalxti* y&bhir vitia- 
jumth dmatyathah). 

' ' T1i« Umiljr of the Kali* i» mcutionod, riiL JC>, li. 


Thoy brought on a car to too youthful Yitnada*" a briile Baaed 
XamadyO, who teems to bare been the beautiful wife of Purnmitra, L 
112, 19 (j/Abhih ptitnlr Vimaiaya nythatkuh | here wires axe man- 
tioncd in the plural) ; i. 116, 1 {yti arbhaguya Vimaduya Jdydm tinH- 
juvS nybhalvh) ; z. 65, 12 (Kamadyuram Yimtidilya aha.'huh) ; i. 117, 
20 (yucaih incKlbhir Vim&dQya jdy&fit ni ahathuh Puntmitratya yotkam); 
x. 89, 7 (yueam rathma Vimad&ya iundhyuivA hi Ahalhuk Pnrw* 
miVfYiM yothaatim). SayuTja, on i. 117, 20, makes yot/tAm = ktmirtm, 
by which he appears to intend tho daughter of Purumitra, who ho 
says was a king. But yotla seems more frequently to denote a wife. 

They restored Viahnapu, like a lost animal, to the right of Viiraka, 
aon of Krishna, their worshipper, who, according to the commentator, 
was his father, i. 116, 23 (acatyat* ttuvaie krithniydya pjuyaU ndtatj* 
6aeh\bhih \ paiuiii na | fed darianiiya VtthnSpctA imdatktr 

VihakCtya); i. 117, 7; x. 65, 12. 

The names both of Yi*vaka and Viahyapu occur in B..V. riii. 7 
1-3, a hymn addressed to the Asvins; and the commentator (as on* 
explanation of the passage) connects the reference there made to the 
former with the legend before ua (on which, however, the hymn itself 
throws no light). 

Another act recorded of the Asvins is their intervention in favour of 
Bhnjyu, the aon of Tugra, which is obscurely described in the follow- 
ing verses in II. V. i. 116, 3 ft. (Tuyro ha Bhujynm Jitiita udam tfh 
na kaichit maniriran arakah | Urn iihathur navbkir Stmantatllhir 
antarik\hoprui!bhir epofakalhih \ 4. Titrah bhapti trir aha etirr*- 
jadbhi/ ttuKitya lihujyvm Ghathuh patavgaih \ tarwdratya dhantanm 
Ardttwjn pur* Iribhik rnlhaih iatapadbhih thalairaih | 5. Au/lrambhafi 
tad arlrayelkam an/ldhan» cgrabhant lamvdrt | yai otrind ihttthur 
fihujyum attam int'iriir&iii naram atatthit&wmm | "Tugni abandoned 
Bhujya in the water-cloud, as any dead man leaves his property. Ye, 
Asvins, bore him in animated water-tight ships, which traversed the 
aii . \. Three nights and three days did ye convey him in three flying 
cars, with n hundred feet and six horses, which crossed over to the dry 
land beyond tho liquid occoo. 5. Yc put forth your vigour in the 
ocean, which offers do stay, or standing-place, or support, when yc 

*" A r'M nf th'u mmr i» mmtioncd, R.V. viiL 9, 15 ; x. 20, 10 ; x. 43, 7 ; and a 
timily of VunaJju in I. 23, 8. 




bore Bhujyu to his home, standing on a ship propelled by b hundred 
Mrs." E.V. L 117, 11 f. (yueam Bhujytun arna*o nib wmudrad ribhir 
Aktikmr fijrebkir aitaik | 15. Ajohacli aSvind Tauyryo cam proihak 
tanutiram aryathir jaganvSn | ninh (an\ uhalhuh suyujd rathena mamjs- 
r«wd cruband tuuti | " Ye conveyed Dhujyu out of the liquid ocean 
•with your heudloog flying horses. 16. The son of Tugra invoked you, 
Aavins. Borne forward, ho moved without distress over the sea. Ye 
brought him out with your well-yoked chariot strife as thought.*' 
Again in L 182, 5 ff. it is said : yueam elafh ehakrathuh liudbuihu 
platam titnumvantam pakthinath Taugryuya kam | 6. Aeariddbaih Taug- 
ryeat apt* antar anurambhaut tanati praviddham | chutasro naTo/s/fo- 
huya juihfAh nd ahibJigilm ithiluh p&rayanti | 7. Kah nid trtitho 
nubfhito madhyo arrttoo yaih Tauyryo nodhitah paryaakvajat \ parnft 
mrigatya pataror icdrabhe ud akitui ukaf.buk iromatAya kam | " Ye 
(AsVius) made this animated, winged, boat for the son of Tugra among 
tho waters .... 6. Four ships, "* eagerly desired, impelled by the 
AirioB, convey to the shore Tugra, who had been plunged in the 
waters, and sunk iu bottomless darkness. 7. What was that log, 
placed in tho midst of the watcs, which, in his straits, the eon of 
Tugra embraced, as tho winps of a flying creature, for support ? " lu 
vii. 68, 7, Bhujyu is said to have been abandoned by his his malevo- 
lent companions in tho middle of the sea (vts tyam Bhujyum Afoinu 
takbdyo modkyt jakur dvrtriisab samudra). The story is also alluded to 
in i. 112, 6, 20; i. 118, 6; L 119, 4; L 158, S; vi 62, 6; vii. 69, 
7 ; \iii. 5, 82 ; x. 39, 4; x. 40, 7 ; x. 6.',, 12 ; x. 1 18, ■>. 

Again, when Viipala's leg hud boon cut off in buttle, like the wing 
of a bird, the Asvins arc said to have given her an iron one instead, 
KV i. US, 10; i. 116, 16 (ehariirttm U r«r ieOchhtdi pcrnam a/a 
Khrftxtya paritakmydytlin | ladyo junyhdm iiyaiim Viipaliyai dhant kite 
tarUun praty adkattam); i. 117, 11 ; i. 118, 8; x. 39, 8."» 

They restored sight to Rijr&sva, who had been made blind by his 
cruel lather, for slaughtering one hundred and one sheep, and giving 
them to u she-wolf to eat, the she-wolf having supplicated tho Asvins 
on behalf of her blind benefactor, u 116, 16; i. 117, 17 L [salam 
mtkA* vrikyt mim*kanam tamab pranSUnt aiittna pitrd | u «t#Al 

m * Tho kbk of>f Wa is set eloar. 

■** Compare the word tiifmlanuu in R.V, i. 182, I, 



ryr&it* aivindr edhtttaih jyt>U'r andhdya thtkrathvr riehoktht | 18. 
S'uttam andhdya hharam ahtayat it triklr ahind " trithand tutra " iH\ 
Mf tea ehakthadanah Ifijruitok iataw tiath «■*<• m*iids>). A 
person called KijraSva ia mentioned with others in i. IOO, 17, m 
praising Indra. 

They restored Paruvrij (or an outcast), who was blind and lame, U> 
night and tho power of walling, i. 112, 8 (ytibhih iarMihir rrulami 
ParAvrijam pra andhaiii ironaih chahhasi ttavt Irithah). Parf> 
connected with Indra in ii. 13, 12, and ii. 1$, 7. 

The rishi llcbha has been hidden by tho malignant, bound, over- 
wliilnied in tho waters (a well, according to tho commentator,) for 
Blgbtl and nino days, and abandoned till he was nearly, if net 
entirely, dead. Tho Asnns drew him up as soma-juioo is raised 
with n ladlo, i. 112, 6 {ySbhlh Ribham nirritam titam adbhyah «J 
Vandanam airayatnm tear dfii*) ; i. 116, 24 {data riirtr atitena inks' 
-/,.>i tu-anaddfititit inathitam aptu aniah \ tiprutaft Rebham vdam ' pr*- 
ffftUm un ninyalhuh antrum ita irut*na | Comparo L 1 17, 12) ; i. 117, 
4 (aitMh na gillham Att im A dumair rixhim fiord rrithamS Rtbham apm 
taffi aafit ri'nUha viprtitafa daihsobhih) ; i. 118, 6; i. 119, G; x. 39, 9 
NR ha Rebhaih vjithanA ynhd hiliim ud airayatam mamptdtum 

Vandana also was delivered by them from some calamity, tho natura 
of which does not Tory clearly appear from most of the text*, and 
restored to the light of the bod, i. 112, 5 ; i. 116, 11 ; L 117, 5; 
i. 118, 6. In x. 3D, 8, they are said to hare raised him out of a pit*" 
(yuvaiT) I'andanam riiyadtii "^ Opa/huA). According to i. 119, 6, 7, 
however, he would uppeur to huvc been restored from decrepitude, as a 
chariot is repaired by an nrtizan {pra dlrghena Vandana* turi tiytuki | 
7. Yucafii Vamfanam nirritain jumnyayd rathaih na darrd intrant ttvmtt- 

So, too, the AjvinB bestowed wisdom on their worshipper Eakshlrat, 
of tho family of 1'ajra ; and performed tho notable miracle of causing 
a hundred jars of wine and honied liquor to dow forth from the hoof of 
their horse as from a sieve, i. 110, 7 (Yuvam Hard tiucatt Pajriydya 
hikihltatt aradatam purandhim | kurolarul lapkad airaiya rruAjj* 

**° Th* word fuyada is cxplsintu by Messrs Bohllingk and Roth, t.t., as a pit 

or Miario; ft 



•J 1 7 

iota* kumiham MinekataA iwHyGk) ; i- 117,6 (Imd turn nara id. 
Pajriytna kahhlcaiii tuUalyd parijman | tiiphutl asvaaya vljino janOya 
iatafh tumihUn atittchatam madkdn&m). 

When invoked by the populnr sage Atri Suptuvailhri, who, with hie 
companions, hud been plunged by tho malieo aud arts of evil spirite 
into a gloomy and burning abyss,* 1 they speedily came to his assist- 
ance, mitigated tho heat with cold, and supplied him with out; 
•o that his situation became tolerable, if not agreeable, till they 
eventually extricated him from his perilous- position, i. 112, 7 ; i. 116, 
8 {kwnm*~ym'm yhramnom avfirayelMm pitumatlm Qrjam atmai adattam | 
rib'u* Atrim ahinll , van\tam unniayalkuh Morrayana)'* naiti) ; i. 1 1 7, 3 
(ritki* nar&v atkhatah pdnckajanyam riblsad atrim munchalho yanrna | 
miimaM datyor aHvatya miiyilh); i. I in, 7 ; i. 1 19, 6; v. 78, 4-C 
(Atrtr yad rdr* avarohann rihUam qjohavld nddham&ntc* yoi/iJ J 
iytnatya chij jatatS nHUmena Hyachhalam ait-inn iantametui) ; vii. 71, 
5 ; riii. 62, 3, 7-9 ; x. 30, 9 (yutam ribUam Mia taptam Alrayt oman- 
vantaih chakrathuk Saptavadkray*). In z. 80, 3, tho deliverance of 
Atri ie ascribed to Agni (Aynir Airiih ykarme unukyad an/ak). 

They listened to the invocation of the wise Vadhriimitl, and gave 
her a son called Iliranynhueta, i. 116, 13; i. 117, 24 {iriranyaJuu- 
taot Akind rardnd putram itari Vadhrimatyai adattam); vi. 62, 7; 
x. 39, 7. 

They gave a hatband to Qhosha when she was growing old in her 
father's house, i. 117, 7 {Gkoih/iyai ekil pitriikade durcne patim jury- 
amtyai efrinde adallam) ; x. 39, 3, 6 ; x. 40, 5 ; and, according to tho 
commentator on i. 117, 7, cured her of tho leprosy with which she had 
been afflicted. 

They caused the cow of 8"aju, which had left off bearing, to yield 
milk, i. 1 10, 23 ; i. 117, 20 (adkenHth daira ttaryam nthaUUm apt*- 
ra tan iayaxt Akinfi yam) ; i. 118, 8 ; i. 119, 6 ; x. 39, 13. 

11:> y gave to Pedu o strong, swift, white horse, animated by Indra, 
ami of incomparable Indra-liko prowess, which overcome all Ins 
enemies, and conquered for him unbounded spoils, i. 1 16, 6 ; i. 1 17, 9 
(pvra rarp&jmi Afrina dadk&nH ni Pedtx* uhath.Hr uhtm adtam | 
Mtkturatdm *6ji**m fratttsm ahthana* srwewyoA tarvtnm); i. 118, 

"' Bt» Profotsor RoUY« explanation of lh« words riKm uaa yXarwtf, :—>., sad 
Vt* illaUrUions of Nirakta, lit 3«. 


9 (yuvaiii ietlam Ptdavfi Indrajitam ahihanam Airinil 'lUttam *h*m) ; 
i. 119, 10 {lndram Am ehanhaniaaham) ; vii. 71, 5; x. 39, 10. 

Finully, to say nothing of the succours rendered to numerous other 
persons (i. 112, 110, 117, 118, 119,) the Air ins did not contino their 
benevolence to human beings, but are also celebrated as having 
rescued from the jaws of a wolf a quail by which they were inroked 
(i. 116, 14; i. 117, 16; i. 118, 8; x. 39, 13 (i-i-iAmpa chid tartikim 
antar aeydd yuvath iachibhir yrtuilclm amunchatom). 

The deliverances of Itcbha, Yandana, Paravrij, Bhujyu, fhyarans, 
and cithers are explained by Profesaor Benfey (following Dr. Kuhn 
Professor Midler), in tin: notes to his translations of the hymns ia 
which they arc mentioned, as referring to certain physical phenomena 
with which the AsVias aro supposed by these scholars to be connected. 
But this allegorical method of interpretation seeais unlikely to bo 
correct, as it is difficult to suppose that tbc phenomena in question 
should liavo been alluded to under such a variety of names and circum- 
stances. It appears, therefore, to bo more probable that the riahis 
iiurrly refer to certain legends which were popularly current of inter- 
ventions of the Asrius in behalf of the persons whose name* are men- 
tioned. The word Paravrij (in i. 112, 8), which ia taken by the 
commentator for a proper name, and ia explained by P: 
M tiller"* and Benfey us the n-tuming, or the setting, sun, is 
preted by Professor Roth in his Lexicon, i.e., as an outcast. 

(3) Connection of the Aiviiu tcith olktr deititM. 

In viii. 26, 8, the Aivins ore invoked along with Indra (J 
fiasa(yii), with whom they are also connected in x. 73, 4, and on 
whose car they arc in ono place said to ride, while at other times thoy 
accompany Vayu, or the Adityas, or the Bibhus, or participate in the 
strides of Vishnu, viii. 9, 12 {yad Indrena tarathaih yutho Akinu fid 
ru Vdyund bhaoathah lamoLisH | yad Aditytbhxr Ribhubhir yes? t& 
Viehnor vikramanethu tvth(haihah). In i. 162, 2, they arc said to 
possess strongly the qualities of Iudrn (IndratamQ) and of the Morale 

*** Lectures on Language, tecoad series, p. 612. 


(.Varurfciwrt). In x. 131, 4, 5, they are described as assisting Indra 
in hia cooflict with the Asura Numuchi (sec bIotc, p. A3 f., note), and 
as vigorous slayers of Vrittra, or of enemies, vrilrahantamA. (viii ;•>, 
22). They are eagerly loageil for (?) by the other gods when they 
urrive, x. 2-1, 5 [tiin dcvUk akfipandt tamlchyor nithpatantyok). 

(4) Relation* of tkt Aivin* to thiir tconhipptrt. 

Tho Airing are worshipped with uplifted hands, vi. 03, 3 (uttdna- 
ksuto yucayur vavanda), nnd supplicated for a variety of blessings, for 
long life and deliverance from calamities, i. 157, -l (prayut turiskfan 
nik rap<\m*i mrik»katatn) ; for offspring, wealth, victory, destruction of 
enemies, preservation of tho worshippers themselves, of their house* 
and cattle, rii. 67, 6; viii. 8, 13, 15, 17; viii. 9, 11, 13; riii. 2G, 7; 
85) 10 ff. They are exhorted to overwhelm and destroy the 
niggard who ofl'ere no oblatiouB, and to create light for the wise man 
who praised them, i. 182, 3 (Aim alia daird krinuthah kirn Oxuth* jnno 
yah kaitkid akavir tnah\yato \ ati kramiiklaAjuralam paner amihjyolir 
■ja krinutaijt cachasyavt). 

No calamity or alarm from any quarter can touch tho man whose 
chariot they place in the van, x. 39, 1 1 " a (mi tarn riijAnGc adit* knlai- 
ckana na arnko ainoti durittun nakir bkayam | yam akinCL ntkaul rudra- 
rwrfdnl puroratham irinulliak patny<l taha). The rinlii addresses tbem 
as a eon his parents, vii. 67, 1 (s&nur na pitaru virakmi). In x. 39, 6, 
a female suppliant, who represents herself as friendless and destitute, 
calls on them to treat her as parents do their children, and rescue ha 
from her mUfortunee (iyam r«« akia innuta* bm Ahinu putrnyra 
pititri'i makt/am iikJuxtam \ anapir ajna atajutyu amatik para ttuyuh 
abkiuulrr ava ipriUm). In another pluee, viii. B8, II, they seem to 
be reproached with being as tardy as two old men to respond to tho 
summons of their worshipper [kirn idoSt ram purdnntaj /orator in 
iotyot* | " Why is this praise addressed to you ok if you were old men 
and worn out ■ "). In vii. 72, 2, the rishi represents himself as having 

M Compare the reqastt preferred to Indra to shag forward toe <hanot of his 
wonbippt* from tic rear to tbc front (viii. 60, 4 f.). 



hereditary claims on their consideration, and a common bond of anion" 
r hi nah mkhyu pitryiini tamtino handhur uta tatya rittam). 
The Asviim ore described as being, like the other god*, fond of 
somu-juiec (iii. 58, 7, 9; iv. 46, 1, »; viii. h, 6; viii. .5.1, 7-9) 
arc invited to drink it with Ushas and Surya, riii. 35, 1 ff. 

(a) Lrgend of Chyarana and the Air in*, actor dixy to thi S'atapatha 
Jirahmana and the Mahulrhurata. 

The following version of tlio legend relating to the cure of Chj»" 
vana by the A«vins (to which idlusion is made in tho passage of the 
Jt.V. quoted above) is fouud in the Sutapatha Brahmana, iv. 1, 5, 1 ff.: 

t. Yaffil rat Ilhrtgato rd Angiratc r<« tvargam kkam wmSimmaU Ut vu Bhurgatai Chyataua ca Angiratai Ui4*wjirnih krilydrUpt 
fahe | 2. Sai iii'ita ha vat idam Miinavo grumina ehaehura | m tad *** 
prntirtio niwtiit | tatya htmiirfih kridantah imaik /Irji'ifc irityari- 
pam anarlhyam manyamSnuh loshfair cipipithuh | 3. Sa Sdrydte- 
hht/a* rhukriidha \ tthhyo 'muijniim chahlra pita *va putrrna yayudht 
Ihrnlt'i bhrutra | 4. Saryato ha lishdnrhakr* yat "kin akarata ta»mii 
idam tipadi" iti | ta gop&ldfhi cha avipaltimi eha tamhrayitarai ncAeha | 
fi. Sa ha ueAcha "ho to adya iha kinchid adrtilsliid" iti | U ha ithmk 
" purmhah era ayum j'irnih krtlyArupah iete \ lam anarihyam many* 
rnSmlh kumHrdhi ivi/ifair cyapikehann" iti | ta tidAnchakura "#• tai 
Chyacanah," Hi | 6. Sa ralham yvktvS SukanyUm S&ry&tlm mpudhCya 
prmiehyanda | ea CjagSma yatra rithir <Ua Ut \ 7. Sa ha wthh* 
" fi»he nomas U | yan na accduham ttna a-hinuuham | iyam SukanyH J 
tm/" t« apahnute \ lanjSnitut* mi grimah " id | taiya ha talah laa 
grama k- tenjajtu \ sa ka talah eaa Sarydto MAnatah vdynyuj* " na id 
aparaiii hinat&ni" iti | 8. Aixinau ha nui idum hhivhajyantau c hera t uk | 
tau Sukany&m upeyatuh \ ttuyAm milhunam ishutt | tan na jajmau | 9. 
Tau ha iuhnUik " 'Sukanye ham imafh jlrnitk krityardpam upaiatht | 
OvUm anuprthi" Hi | *u ha utacha " yatmai mam pitu addi na tau 

144 The common :.\fc.r «pliin« thli ot * common anrKtrj by «yin;. in M«orAWa 
with liter Umlitivii, tliitt VirMvat and V imnn wax botb »pn» of EWf*p» ic i 
(mil ihit Yirnrrat ni thu hfha uf tlic AaNint. whilu Yaruua wm fattm n" Yu- 
Ubtha, tho ruhi ut' the hymn. Sec the lit volumo of tbit wwk, pp. 328 f.. noto Ui. 


jlrantam kdtydmi" Hi | tad ha ayam rithir djajnau | 10. Sa ha utQrha 
" Sukany* kim ttA *(ad aroehatdn " iti i tamai ttai tySthathakthe | m 
Ad rydkhydtah urdeha " yadi Ud ttai pumtr brwatah Mi ttam brutdi 
' ma rai nuarrdv ira ttho ma tutamriddhde ira at ha mt patim nindathak* 
iti | tan yadi trd brucatah ' kftut dram atartau trah Lena aiam- 
riddhdv' iti | «I (ram bratdt 'patiih mm ma pmar ywdnam imruUim 
atha cSm tahhydmi' iti" | tarn punar uptyatut tdm ha ttai en* 
vthatuh \ 11. Sd ha mileha "na rai mtiaru'tv iia ttho m ttuamriidhdp 
tern atha me patiih mndathnh" iti \ tau ha tichatuh " k«na dvam atarvau 
tcaA kema asamrtddhdv" iti | tfi ha utdcJut "patiih mt ma punar 
ftttAnam kurutam atha vdih vakthydmi" iti | 12. Tau ha uchatur "ttam 
kradam abhyavahara \ sa yena vayiud kamithyaU Una udaithyati'' iti | 
tarn hradam abhyarajahdra | ta yena rayata rhakama Una udtydya | 13. 
Tan ha ichatuh " Hukanyt ktna dram atartau tvah k<ma atamriddhuv " 
iti | tau ha rithir tva pratytttdtha *' kurukthatre ami derdk yajnam 
tanvatt | U rdm yajnad ontaryanti \ Una atarvau tthat Una atam- 
rutdhde" Hi | tau ha taldh tea Airinau prtyatuk | tor djtigmatvr 
dtvun yajnaik tanvundn Hutu bahithparamunt | 14. Tau ha uehatur 
" upa mm kvayadhcam" iti | ta ha devil k iichur "na rdm upahea- 
fi*hydmahe \ bahu manuthynhu taiiitrithtam achdrishfam bhithajijnntdc" 
iti | 15. Tau ha Urkatur risfrehgd rai yajnma yajadhtt" iti | " kofhan 
tii\r*1ind " Hi \ ' ' upa tutu htayadhvam atha vo raktkydtah " iti | 
" tatkd" iti | to updhtayanta tdbhydm ttam divinam graham ayrihmamt 
tSv adhcaryu yajmtya ahharatiim | tor ttad yajtuuya iirah pratya- 
dhattdm | 

"When the lihrigus or the AngiroMis had reached Uio heavenly 
world, Chynvsna of the race of Uhrigu, or Chyarana of the race of 
Aa^irne, haring magically a»ume<l u shrivelled form, was abandoned, 
ra, the descendant of Manu, wandered over tliia [world] with his 
tribe. Ho settled down in the neighbourhood [of Chyavana], Ilia youths, 
while playing, fancied this shrivelled magical body to be worthiest, 
and pounded it with clod*. Chyavnna was incensed at the sons of 
Skryata. He created discord among them, so that father fought with 
son, and brother with brother. SaryAta bethought him, ' what have I 
done, in consequence of which this calamity has befallen us?' Ha 
ordered the cowherds und shepherds to be called, and said, ' Whiih of 
you has seen anything hero to-day ? ' They replied, ' This shrivelled 


magical body which lies there is > man. Fancying it ms something 
worthless, the youths pounded it with clods.' Suryata knew then that 
it wa* Chyavana. He yoked his chariot, and taking his daughter 
Sukunyu, drove, off, and arrived at the place where the rishi was. He 
said, ' Reverence to thee, rislii ; I injured thee because I did not know. 
Thii in Sukanya, with her I appease thee. Let my tribe be reconciled.' 
His tribe was in consequence reconciled ; and Suryata of the race of Manu 
departed thence "lest," said he, " I might do him some other injury." 
Now the A s'vins used to wander over this world, porfonning cares. They 
approached Sukanya, and wished to seduce her ; but she would not 
consent. They said to her, ' Sukanya, what shrivelled magical body 
is this by which thou liest? follow ua.' Sho replied, 'I will set 
abandon, while he lives, tho man to whom my father gave me.' Tkt 
data became aware of this. lie said, ' Sukanya, what was thia that 
they said to thee?' She told it to him. When informed, he said, 
' If they address thee thus again, say to them, ' Yc are neither com- 
plete nor perfect, and yet yo speak contemptuously of my husband ! ' 
and if they ask, ' In what respect are we incomplete and imperfect? ' 
theu reply, 'Make my husband young again, and I will tell you.' 
Acoirdingly they euiuo again to her, and said the same thing 
answered, " Ye are neither complete nor perfect, and yet ye talk 
contemptuously of my husband ! ' They enquired, * In what respect 
are wo incomplete and imperfect?* She rejoined, 'Make my husband 
young again, and I will tell you.' Thoy replied, ' Take him to thii 
pond, and he shall come forth with any age which he shall desire.' 
She took him to the pond, and he enmo forth with the age that he 
desired. The Asvins then asked, ■ Sukanya, in what respect are we 
incomplete and |||||JIH Hint ? ' To thia the rishi replied, ' The other gods 
ate a sacrifice in Kurukshetra, and exclude you two from it 
That is the respect in which ye arc incomplru »r.d imperfect. 1 The 
Asvins then departed and came to the gods who were celebrating a 
sacrifice, when tho Buhishpavamano "" text had been recited. They 
said, ' Invite ua to join you.' The gods replied, ' Wo will not invite 
you, for yo havo wandered about very familiarly among men,*" per- 

>* 8m lime's Ait. Br. ii. p. 120, not* 13. 

*• la :ui S'antip. t. TSH'j f. it ii uid that the Asviss are lb* 
8 <Ulm i\ tti god-, the Antrum being the Brahmsm, the Adityn» the KiUetrina, 


fanning com*.' The Asvins rejoined, "Ye worship with a headless 
sacrifice.' They asked, • How [do *e worship] with a headless 
[sacrifice]?' The Agvins answered, 'Invite us to join you, und we 
will tell you ' The gods consented, nnil invited lliera. They received 
this Aivina draught (graha) for the Asvins, who became the two ndh- 
varyu priests ^ of the sacrifices, and restored the head of the m£> 
flee." Ab regards the cutting off of (be. Ih-.-hI of the sacrifice sec the 
passages quoted in the 4th volume of this work, pp. 109 ff. 

Tin TaittirSya Sanhita ri. 4, 9, 1, gives tho following brief D 
of the story of the Asvins replacing the head of the sacrifice, with un 
addition not found in tho Sutap. Br. : 

Yajnatya Uro'thhidyata | U devuh aivinap abruean "bhithajau rat 
ithah | idnA yaj***ya iirah pratidbaltam " Hi \ fdt obrutCfn " rarafft 
vrtautahai grahuh na nAo atrupi yfihyatdtn" iti | tabby am ttam 
Asrinam ayrihnan | Uto vai (an yajntuya iirah pralyadbaltam \ yaddfeino 
gfihyot* yajiui»ya aithkrityai tau dttHh abruvann " aputau ras imau 
manuthyacharau bhishajtir" itt \ tatrafti brdhmantna bhtthojaim na kfir- 
yam | aputo by uho 'mtdbyo yo bhithai | tau baiiUhpacama*<nu pact- 
yttrd labhytim ttam tXitinam ayfihnan J 

"The head of tho sacrifice was out off. The gods said to tho 
Asvins, • You ore physicians ; replace thin head of the sacrifice.' The 
Asvins npliciL ' Let us ask a favour a allow u libation for us also to be 
received in this ceremony.' They, in consequence, received for them 
this Asvina oblation, whoa they replaced the head of the sacrifice. 
"When this Asvina libation had been received for the sake of rectifying 
tho sacrifice, the gods said of the Asrins, ' These two are unclean, 
going among men as they do, as physicians.' Hence, no Brahman 
must act as a physician, since a person bo acting is unclean and unfit to 
sacrifice. They purified the Asvina by the Bohishpavamana ; and then 
received fur them the Asvina libation." Compare tie Ait. Br. i. 1 8, 
pp. 41 ff. of Professor flaug's translation. 

A story, varying in some particulars, is narrated in the Mahabhorata, 

and tfe<i M units ttir Vaitras. With tho objection suds against th* Airins of too 
great familiarity with mortals, compare the oomuroua inatances of b«Ip rcadstsd so 
tlicif worshippers, which hsT* bacn qaeted short from tho B.V., sod wnica ssaj hata 
given rise to this idea. 

™ Comisw 8.P. Br. riiL 2, I, J. 



Vanajtarva, 1 0,3 1 C if. The original text is too lengthy to be cited 
shall giro iU substance. We are there told that the bod j- of Cbyaraaa, 
when performing austerity in a certain place, became encrusted wftk 
an ant-hill ; that king Suryuti came then to the spot with hi* 4000 
wives and his Bin pi© daughter Sukanya; that the riahi, seeing her, 
became enamoured of her and endeavoured to gain hor affections, bat 
without eliciting from ber any reply. Seeing, however, the sage's 
eyes gleaming out from the iint-hill, and not knowing what they wet*, 
the princess pierced them with a sharp instrument, whereupon Cbj*- 
vana became incensed, and afllictcd the king's army with a stoppage of 
urine and of the other necessary function. When the king found out 
the cause of the infliction, and supplicated the riahi for its removal, 
thu hitter iuBistcd on receiving the king's daughter to wife, as the sols 
condition of his forgiveness. Suknnyn accordingly lived with the rithi 
as his spouse. One day, however, she was seen by the Asvins, who 
endeavoured, but without effect, to persuade her to desert her decrepit 
husband, and choose oao of them in his place. They then told her 
they were the physicians of tho god*, and would restore her husband 
to youth and beauty, when she could make her choice between him 
and one of them. Chyovnna and his wife consented to this proposal; 
and, at tho suggestion of tho Asvins, ho entered with them into 
neighbouring pond, when the tbrco came forth of like celestial beauty, 
and each asked hor to be his bride. She, however, recognized 
chose her own husband. Cbyarana, in gratitude for his restoration to 
youth, then offered to compel Indra to admit the Asvins to a partici- 
pation in the Soma ceremonial, and fulfilled his promise in tho course 
of a sacrifice which he performed for king Kurynti. On thai ocoasioa 
Indra objected to such an honour being extended to tho Asvins, on the 
ground that they wandered about among men as physicians, changing 
their forms at will ; but Chyavana refused to listen to the objection, 
and carried out his intention, staying tho arm of Indra when he was 
ubout to launch a thunderbolt, and creating a terrific demon, who was 
on tho point of devouring the king of tho gods, and was only pre- 
vented by tho timely submission of the latter."" 


*■» 8*e tbe similar Recount of Cbyvnuu'i power in th« ptangt from th* 
parrs qootoi is tho 1st vol. of this work, second edition, p. 470 f. 



(6) Rimarka an the Ait in* by Preftutr Gold*tAektr. 

I have been favoured by Professor Goldstiickcr with tbo following 
note on tbo AsVirm : — 

The myth of tho As'tira is, in my opinion, ono of that olnaa of 
myths in which two distinct elements, the oosmicol and tho human or 
historical, have gradually become blended into one. It seems necessary, 
therefore, to separate these two elements iu order to arrive at an 
understanding of tho myth. The historical or human clement in it, I 
believe, is represented by those legends which refer to the wonderful 
cares effected by the A {vine, and to their performances of a kindred 
sort; the cosmicol element is that relating to their luminous nature. 
The link which connects both seems to bo the my»tcrionsnese of the 
uu'.urc and effects of the phenomena of light, and of the healing art at 
a remote antiquity. That there might have been some horsemen or 
warrior* of grout renown who inspired their contemporaries with uwe 
ir wonderful deeds, and more especially by their medical skill, 
appears to have been also tho opinion of some old commentators men- 
tioned by Yiiska, for some "legendary writers," he says, took them for 
"two kings, performers of holy acts;" and this view seams likewise 
borne out by the legend in which it is narrated that the gods refused 
the Aitrins admittance to a sacrifice on the ground that they had been 
on too familiar terms with men. It would appear then that these 
Airing, like the llibhus, were originally renowned mortals, who, in tho 
course of time, were translated into the companionship of tho gods; 
and it may be a matter of importance to investigate whether, besides 
this a priori view, there are further grounds ef a linguistic or gram- 
ma tic al character for assuming that the hymns containing the legends 
relating to these human Asvins are posterior or otherwise to those 
descriptive of the eosmical gods of the same name. 

The luminous character of the latter can scarcely be matter of doubt, 
for the view of some commentators — recorded by Taska, — according to 
which they were identified with "heaven and earth," appears not to 
be countenanced by any of the passages known to us. Their very 
name, it would seem, settles this point, since usVa, tho horse, literally, 
" tho pcrvader," is always the symbol of the luminous deities, espe- 
cially of the sua. The difficulty, however, is to determine their position 



amongst these deities and to harmonize with it the other myths oo». 
nectcil with litem. I may here, however, first observe that, though 
Y&ska records opinions which identify the Asrin* with "day and 
night," and "sun and BOOB,* 1 tin; passage relied upon by Professor 
K»tli to prove that Yusku hints-elf identified them with Imlra and 
Aditya (the sun), dues not bear out any such conclusion. For the 
passage in question, as I understand it, means; "their time is after 
the (latter) half of the night when the (space's) becoming light is 
resisted (by darkness); for tho middlemost Atria (between ^ft r in*n 
and light) shares in darkness, whilst (tho other), who is of a solar 
nature (uditp), shares in light." There is this verse relating to them: 
" In nights,"' "♦ etc. Nor does Durga, tho commentator oa Yi'uia, 
attribute to the latter the view which Professor Roth •scribes to bin. 
His words, as I interpret them, are : •*' their time is after tho (latter) 
half of tho night when the (space's) becoming light is resisted,' 
(means) when, after the (latter) half of the night, darkness intersected 
by light mokes an effort against light, that is the time of the Alvias. 
.... Then the nature of the middlemost (between them) is a share in 
that darknesss which penetrates into light ; and the solar one (aditya) 
assumes that nature which is a share in the light penetrating into 
durknen&B. These two are the middlemost and tho uppermost : tlui fa 
the teacher's {i.e. Y&ska' ») uwn opinion, for, in order to substantiate 
it, ho gives aa an instance the verse ' Y«*&tithu tma,' " *° etc 

*•» Kir. xii. I, layoh kola} urdkwitm itnibanilrat prnir>j1bko**tydmiriikt*mkbm 
anil (the liut word U omitt.d in Dings MS. I.O. L-, No. -'(Ni) fnuAhagt ki wmdk- 
yame jyoHrd/iiii/a tiilitifih\ layarttka bkutali Vuiatuhu m. tic. 

*" Durga I.O. L., No. 208: Tayvtf kilti irjktttm oriharntral fn-*t>uHkS*m*y,nm 
r\$h(«mb/uim | jyuluha ryalMtJyamanan urdhtam ardharatrat lama y+da jytir 
a»u ruhfobhnati to 'ivinuh kalah | [latak prabkfili »c*fMi«/«frit« > i» eJ ayoa T 
bfrtnam, udilr touryiini] | (BfM yl tamo 'nmiiAfam (the MS. of Prufceeor BfiiUer, 
Loot. 2nd series, p. 100, reads '«uprarith\<tm) jyttuki tadtoifo wudkymmaiyt 
rupem (tho MS. of Pn>f. M. ibid. : Udbh'iyo madkyanak \ Inn madkya m t r y a 
riftim) : yoj jyolii tmmaty SMMtUfasI (tli<? mine, ibu: •*/««) tadbkiftm 

tmdrupam wiityxh | fiir ttin madkyamollamSf ill iromaltun lukarynrya | yat*t 
mmirthanayodiihaiali tayor aha bhavnti Vamlithu imrti. Professor Both, in hit 
fflustratious of Niniliw, lii. 1, very correctly obterm that the reus quoted kt 
Yasks (roM(i«Au tma, etc.) don not boar out tho view that the Airiat are Indra iaj 
AditTa ; but tli» proper inforonc* to be drown from thii circanutsaeo woold seem »e 
be, not tb»t Y J«lta quoted a verse irrelevant to hie ricvr, but that Professor Both 
attiiljuted to him e riow which hu hail not cntertaiuul, and that it mar be pre treble 
to reader Aditra, ae proposed above, "the wtsr (Asrin},' ' or the Asrin of s solar naUre. 



To judge, therefore, from these words, it is the opinion of Yiaka 
that the Asvins represent the transition from darkness to light, when 
the intermingling of both produces that inseparable duality expressed 
by the twin nature of these deities. And this interpretation, I hold, 
is tho best that can ba given of the character of the totmieal AsVins. 
It agrees with the epithets by which they are invoked, and with the 
relationship in which they are placed. They are young, yet also 
ancient, beautiful, bright, swift, etc ; and their negative character — 
the result of tho alliance of lifht with darkness — is, I better*, ex- 
pressed by dasra, the destroyer, uud also by tho two negatives in tho 
compound nutatya (na + a-iatya), though their positive, character is 
again redeemed by the ellipsis of " ouemies, or diseases," to dura, and 
by tho sense of natalya, not un-true, r.«. truthful. They are the 
parents of Pushan, tho sun ; for they precede the riso of tho sun ; 
they are the sons of tho sky, and again tho sons of Vivaavat and 
Sarnnyii. Vivasrat, I believe, here bttpUasl the firmament "expand- 
ing" to the sight through the approaching light; uud though Saranyu 
is to Professor Muller ono of tho deities which are forced by him to 
support his dawn-theory, it seems to me that iho etymology of tho 
word, and the character of the myths relating to it, rather point to 
the moving air, or the dark and cool air, heated, and therefore set in 
motion, by the approach of the rising sun. The A-svina arc also the 
husbands or the friends of Siiryii, whom I take fur (he reprasH 
of the weakest manifestation of the sun ; and I bettors that Suyarja is 
right when, by the sister of the Asvins, he understands TJsliaa, the 
dawn. The mysterious phenomenon of the intermingling ol darkness 
— which is no longer complcto night — and of light — which is not yet 
dawn — seems to agroc with all the*e conceptions, and with tho further 
details of a cosmicol nature, which ura so fully given in tho preceding 



l far hit 



Reference has been already nude to the important share which 
exhilarating juice of the soma-plant assumes in bracing Indxa 
conflict with the hostile powers in the atmosphere, and to the > 
of all the god* to partake in this beverage. 

Soma i* the god who represents and animates this juice, an intoxi- 
cating drought which plays a conspicuous part in the merifieea of the 
Vedic age. lie is, or rather was in former time*, the Indian Dionysus or 
Bacchus. Not only are the whole of the hymns in the ninth book of i)m 
Big-rede, one hundred and fourteen in number, besides a few in other 
places, dedicated to his honour, but constant references to the juice of tint 
soma occur in a large proportion of the other hymns. It is clear there* 
fore, as remarked by Professor Whitney (Journal of the A mcrican Oriental 
v. iii. 290), that bis worship must at one tirao hare attained s 
remarkable popularity. This circumstance is thus explained by the 
writer to whom I have referred : " The simple-minded Arian people, 
whose whole religion was a worship of the wonderful powers and pfa 
nomena of nature, hud no sooner perceived that this liquid had 
to elevate the spirits, and produce a temporary frenzy, under the in- 
fluence of which the individual was prompted to, and capable of, 
beyond his natural powers, than they found in it something div 
it was to their apprehension n god, endowing those into whom it 
entered with godlike powers ; the plant which afforded it became to 
them the king of plants ; the process of preparing it was a holy sacri- 
fice ; the instruments used therefor were sacred. The high antiqu 
of this coitus is attested by the references to it found occurring in 
Persian Avceta ; m it seems, however, to have received a new imp. 
on Indian territory." 

m Srt Dr. Wifidwckmsnn'* Eawy or. the Soeuuwonhip of th« iruv, or tit 

'he in- 




(1) Quotation from Euripidea relating to the Oruk god Dioitijtu*. 

As illustrating tbu sentiments which garo rise to the adoration of 

Dionysus, the Orcciin Soma, I ehall introduce here aomo verses from 

tho Bucchao of Euripides, 272 ff., in which the philosophical poet puta 

into tho mouth of the prophet Toircsios a vindication of tho worship 

of tho new god, against the ridicule which had been thrown upon 

him by Fenthcus, together with a statement of tho reasons which 

justified his deification, and • rationalistic explanation of a current 

myth regarding him : 

O&rot f i Sa/pair * »•/«» **• <rt> JmytAft 
quk or Svnupipr fiJytfoi /(<i»»Ti» Strot 
wo** '£AAie* l<rr«u • 3k -fa, i wWo, 
•tk wp*V It btyvroiffi, fl^W *«*. 
iMj 8" ttrriw troyia f tvArrpor BovKtt rcUci- 
oZwif fiir tr {ripmoir iierpiQii Rpmoin • 
t V i\»o/ ir\ rAvWwnAor, A It/tiKnt y6nt, 
/EUrpi'Ot tiyphv *£/*' %vf* miayji^yxaro 
drriTfit, t ravn roil raXtniiAfcvi (3f<rrolt 
/.irtit, trar x\i\<iOiair d*iW\ov hovt, 
twrat t», A^flijc tSk ires' iurfpe* HRfl»i 
Ji'eW*, clX for* tXKo f^fautov virar. 
o£toi Otottri «nr«r&rrax 0«6t y*yoi$ l 

*Vre 8i4 toJtok re-prfc? M?vrovy f%"r. 
ral *aTny«AaT rir, At irtfpi^t Aiij 
^t|p*' 8lii> ff* iii koAli <x« T*»>. 

*rti »ir fljwoff* /* tifii MfMbfiav 

Z«it, »I» >*"OAiijarnr Bpifoi Arfrywyir a***, 

Ztvi {* arrt^iiixo^iTar', «M( 0«4j, 
Mat fu'pet n rot jK»d»" tfTWicAav^nv 
alCipoi Ifaitf r6rt' Sjnipov /»5iAo!»i 
£icii-i«rov "H/m» tfiixiur- Xpirif ti fW 
fipoiol TfWfqtw +ti» if WW A,i, > 
Scrota fMTOffT^ffarrtT, *ri 8«a Stit 
"Hjxj toS iiu^txvei, rvrQtrrti \nyor. 
fubrit I" 4 oaftiur Wt - rb yif Barnx't^'M"" 
ral to tunijil tiaprurfcr reAAjir fjci- 
*>•*> yep i eV»i «fi r6 vip Ix0p weAtfr, 
Kiyto- t« tUXX»¥ reitt infitirirai toil, 

tmulattd extracts from it in the 2nd rol. of this work, p. 469 ff. ; and tho txtract 
there given, p. 474, bum Plutarch de I rid. et Osir, 40, in which the soma, or as it u 
in Zccd, heoma, appeani to lx> r< Urn<i to under the appellation fyurfu. See alao ow 
the fact of the earns rit- bssM being onirinalljr idcabcal with the kaonia 

Mrcnoay of the Zorosrtriwiw, Hsog'i Atuury* Brfl hm s s si , IoUod, p. ii. 



"Kftiit t« fiaipav utrafjiPStf fx«' *«**• 
ct^otok yip ir SwAoij- jjra xiwl To^f^i 
piDoi StrrririiTi, mp\v K6yxi)t tiyiir ■ 
Harta Si no] toPt" *<rrl Aiorvoou ropo, ir.r.fc. 

" I cannot express how great this young god, whom thou ridic 
is destined to become iu Greece 1 . For, young man, there nre two 
v, hicli uro the foremost among men, the goddess Demotcr, who is the 
F.arth; — cull her by whichever name thou p leases t ; — who nourishes 
mortals with dry food. But he, the son of Semelu, took the contrary 
course. He discovered and introduced among men the liquid draught 
■f Uif grape, which puts an end to the Borrows of wretched mortals, — 
whin they ore filled with the stream from the tine, — and indue* 
sleep, and oblivion of the evils endured by day. Nor is there any other 
remedy for our distresses. He, hem a god, ia poured oat in libations 
to gods, so that through him men receive good. And thou ridicnlcst 
him by 9aying that ho was sewn up in the thigh (jtrjpfi) of Zeus. But 
I shall shew thee how this is rendered reasonable. When Zeus rescued 
the infant from the lightning-Hume, and brought him to Olympus, II. n 
wisliod to expel him from heaven. But Zens, like a god, count- . 
thiB design. Detaching u portion of tho aether which encircle* 
earth, ha gave this as a hostage (ofj-ypov) to llera, so delivering Dio- 
nysus from her hostility ; and in course of time, because ha became a 
hortage to Hera, men began to say, — changing the word, and inventing 
n fable, — thut ho had been retired in the thigh of Zeus. And this god 
is a prophet. For Bacchic excitement and raving have in them great 
prophetic power. When this god enters in force into the body, he 
causes men to rare and foretell the future. And ho also partakes of 
the character of Ares (Mars). For panic (sometimes) terrifies a force 
of armed men drawn up ia battle array, before the actual dashing of 
tho hosts. This madness too is derived from Dionysus." ** 

*•* In an curlier pnrt of the un» piny, tcit« 200 ff, ITie following protest *f int 
free enquiry in religious matter* U put l>j thu pod lata (be mouth of Tcirtauj, who 
sty* to Cadmus : 

oMv oo<lniduftr6a roim Baf/iooi. 

•atpioot tafaXnxil, it f AfAiKixax xft't 

««*T^.«f, u W«)t «A*A KurajfoAiT \Ayoi, 

«W <i <»* txpur to awpby ijjprrrai Qpirir. 

" In tliiujp llmt tiiiiih the gnfa it in not good 
To nuTcr captious rtason tu intrude. 





(2) Prtvalenc4 and enthuaiatiie character ofth* ancient Soma-ieorthip. 

Professor Ilaug, in his work on tho AiUreya Brahmana (Iotrod. 
p. 60), thus writes of the soma sacrifice : " Being thus," (r*.c. through 
the oblation of an animal) " received among the gods, the sacrificer is 
deemed worthy to enjoy tho divine beverage, the soma, and participate 
in tho heavenly king, who is Soma. The drinking of the sorou-juice 
makes him a new man ; though a new celestial body bad been prepared 
for him at the Pruvnrgya ceremony, the enjoyment of the soma beverage 
transform* him again; for tho nectar of tho gods flows for the first 
time in his reins, purifying and sanctifying him." 

Willi tho decline of the Vedio worship, however, and the intro- 
duction of new deities and now ceremonies, tho popularity of Soma 
gradually decreased, and has long sinco passed away; and his name is 
now familiar to those few Bruhmans only who still maintain in a few 
places the early Vedic observances. 

The hymns addressed to Soma WCM intended to bu sung while the 
juice of the plant, said to be produced on Mount Mujavat, It. Y. x. 31, 
1 (tonatjieva Maujatatatya bhakthah), m from which he takes his namo 
(the atclepia* acida or aareo»t-emma riminalu) was being pressed out and 
purified.* 4 They describe enthusiastically tho flowing forth and filtra- 
tion of the divine juice, and the effects produced on tho worshippers, 
and supposed to bo produced on tho godn,*" by partaking of the bere*- 
sge. Thus tho first verse of the first hymn of tho ninth book runs 

Traditions Itandol down from sire to sou 
Sine* time itself began its couru to ran 
By reasonings never can be undflinuaed. 
Though forg-rd by inUllvct* tho most wlinwL" 
To this the advocates or a critical u»1(|iHui into the troth of ancient holiest might 
rrplj in thf of tho Messenger in the Helena of tliv same post, vorsss 1017 f. 
>:;h llioir original application wa« different) : 

tr&Qpom 8' hue-riot 
aim term tvC'iv xprpttuirtpor fi/titroU. 

- Nought can to men mora useful he, 
Than prudent incredulity." 
JHviwm swriftaA, "MQja'nt is a hill," Kir. ix. 8 See also Viij. S. iiL 61, 
I commentary. 
•»* Sea tho process as dsscribed hj w, after Dr. Stevtaaon, in the Sod 

■ ',j* work, p. 470. 
>*» Bee Ait. Dr. n. 1 1, quoted shove, p. JS, note ICS. 


thus : Svudith\hayA maditkthayA paeaiva Soma dharayA IndrAya pilaw 
tutah | " O Soma, poured out for Itidre to drink, flow on purely in • 
moat sweet and most exhilarating current." In vi. 47, 1, 2, the jnioi 
is described as sweet, honied, pungent, well-flavoured, and exhilarating. 
No one can withstand Indra in battle when he has drunk it (avdafaaft 
kilAyam madhumAn it tat/ am tirrah kildyam r/uacdn utAyam | uto an 
atya papivQmtam Imiram na kaichnna takaU Akartthtt | ayam icAdmr ika 
madithfhah Ota). When quaffed, it stimulates the voice, and calls 
forth ardent conceptions (ibid, verse 3). In a verse (viii, 48, 3,) 
already quoted above (p. 90, note), in the account of Indra, the 
worshippers exclaim: "Wo have drank the soma, wo hove become 
immortal, wc have entered into light, wc have known tha gods. What 
can an enemy now do to us, or what can the malice of any mortal 
effect, o thou immortal god ? " 

(3) How the soma-plant tea* brought to Ike earlk. 

The plant is said to have been brought by a falcon, i. 80, 
(tomah tymAbkritah) ; iii. 43, 7 (a yam te [/nrfrdya] iynttk 
jabh&ra) ; viii. 71, 9 ; frum thu sky, ir. 26, 6 {rijlpl tymo 
mono n&ium paruratah iakuno taandram madam \ ttrmam lharad 
QdM devarAn dico WMKAgdd utlunid AdAya) ; viii. 84, 3; by 
• welUwingcd bin!, or Suparna, to Indra, viii. 89, 8 (dies* ntparm* 
yatvAya tomaih lojrin* Abharai) ; er from a mountain, L 93, 6 tamo- 
thitud anyam (soma in) P arl tyeno adrek), where it had been placed by 
Varuna, v. 85, 2 (c/in ifryflM od a ikdt tomam adrau). In iii. 48, 3; 
v. -13, 4; ix. 18, I; ix. 62, 4 ; ix. 85, 10 ; is. 98, 9, it ia called 
airithfhil (found on a mountain). In another place, ix. 113, 3, it is 
declared te have been brought by the daughter of the sun from the 
place where it hnd boon nourished by Purjanya, the rain-god, when 
the Gandharvas took it, and infused into it sap {I'arjanya-crtddkam 
mnhisfawt turn turyuya duhittl 'bhatat | tarn gandkarvuk praty ayri- 
bfnitm lam tome ra*am Adadkuh). In ix. H2, 3, as we have teen above, 
p. 142, Parjanya is said to be the father of Soma ; und in A.V. 
xix. 6, 16, the god ia suid to huvo sprung from Purusha {rajaak 
8m § tf fa . . . .jAlatya PuruthAd adhi). 

In other passages a Qnndharva ia connected with the soma- plant, Am 
sphere {pada) of which ho ia said to protect, and all the forma of which 


ho is «id to manifest, ix. 83, 4; ix. 85, 12'" (ytmdhartiih itthA 
padam ttga rakthatt \ tirdhco gandharro adhi nuke cuth&A tiifd rUpuni 
pralkhakthune atya). The Aitaxeya Bmhmana has the following story 
regarding the mode in which the gods obtained soma from the Gand- 
harras, L 27. Stmo Ma rilja gandhartttko atlt \ tavt detiii cha rithagai 
eka abhyadliijuyan "Latham again aumhi noma r&jii dgaehhed" iti | *1 
Vug akravlt " ttrlJulwth rui gandkarrOh \ mat/il era ttrigd bkafayA 
panagadhtam" iti "Jfa" iti detuh abrucau "httham vayttfo lead file 
•ydflia" iVi | *d 'brarU "Ar/nlte era j yarki run* to may a artho bharillk 
tar kg era ro 'ham puitar dgaiiliUmi'' iti | "tathn" iii | tagd mah'iga- 
gnyii bh&tayS. Soman rtljunam akrUan \ m "King Soma was among 
the Oaudharvas. The gods and riahis desired him, and suid ' II ow 
ahull we get him to MOM to us?' ViWli uaid, 'The Oandharvaa are 
fond of female*; buy him in exchauge for me turned into n fvmulc' 
They answered, ' No : how can we live without thee ? ' Shi- ti joined, 
' Buy him, and whenever you have occasion for me I shall return to 
yon.' They agreed, and bought king Soma with VAch turned into n 
female, quite nnked [i*.«. unchastt*]." See Profeator Hang's transluiinn 
of tbia hruhmano, p. 69, uud compare pp. 201 ft. ; 294; and 400. 

In the Siitapntha BrAhmana iii. 2, 4, 1 If., it i* related that the 
soma existed formerly in the sky, whilst the gods wore here (on eat 
They desired to get it, that they might employ it in sacrifice. The 
Gayatrt flew to bring it for them. While aho was carrying it off the 
Gandharva Vibhavasu robbed her of it. The gods became aware of 
thin, and knowing the partiality of the Oandhorras for females (com- 
pare iii. 9, 3, 20, and A.V. ir. 37, 11 f.), thoy sent Vach, tho goddcoa 
of speech, to got it from them, which she succeeded in doing (Diri wi» 
temak Stlt \ atha iha devdk | te dtrnk aknmaganta u a nek *«mogo*hS*t 

*** 8ee Bohurngk mil Roth's Lexicon under thr word 0**JA*rr*. 

m Th« Taitt. Br. ti. 1. 8, 6 (pp. 90 IT. of ludmu Office Mb.), tclU tha same itory. 
)nii my* chat thoy turned Vficb into a wimmn ono year old; and that after »h* bad 
goae they induced her to come back by ringing {the Gandharvaa, whom she had left. 
Meanwhile reciting ■ prayer, or incantation}, uud hence womem lore a nun who ting* 
(Mm «Mn ahrtynatSnam gandkam ViiratetaX peryemtun^it | . . U inik 
atrwrem " nlriiiimi't mi fandKanah ttriyS Hukknndma" Hi | It ITiciam 
Hritem ikahayaam JtritvA teyh uirakr'mim | m rokid-ripam kfitvi gendJkerte- 
ikyo 'patramy.i etuAfhal \ lad rohilt jomme | It aVroA nbniean N ape yutkmed 
akrtmin Mainuii upantrttatt r.Aoty.11 " id | t-raima ?anJktr*<'A antdoMit | afi y ait 
tlrt'ih | ta der»n jHyalak »p.\v*rlta<a \ tatmaJ yiywntan elriyak *a»^j»*.'» J 
Ui inula mini etrif* bkeremti ym rtwn ecrfn). 



Una Rgalma yajemaJii'' iti I .... 2. Telhyo gnyatrl umam eckk* 
epatiit \ taiyai Ukarantyai yandharcc Viieumtuh paryamuhn&t \ It 
dtvAh aviduh " pratfiyuto vai para*tAt tomah \ a'.ha *e w.t AyaeAhsii | 
gandharcAk vai parytimotluihur " Hi \ U ha &ehur " yothit-kdmak mi 
gandhartAh \ Vncham eta tiliyak prahinuriima \ til nah taha 

Agamiihyati" iti \ lebhyo Yucham prAhinvan *A twin taha wiimm 
agathhat. And in li. 7, 2, 8, it is said : " The soma existed in the 
sky. Tho G&yatrf became a bird, and brought it" (rfin cat Sammk 
a«U lam gfiyalri i-ayo bhulra "ftarat). Bee also the BUUipalha Brab- 
munu, iii. i, 3, 13, and iii. 6, 2, 2-18, towards the close of which 
passage, as veil as in iii. 9, 3, 18, the Gandharvaa oro spoken of at 
the guardians of tho soma {tomarokthah) ; and Taitt. Sanh. vi. 1, 6, 1, &. 

(4) Soma't wim. 

Tho Taitt. Sanh., ii. 3, 5, 1, relates that Prnjnpati had thirty-three 
daughters whom he gnve to king Soma. Soma, however, frequented 
tho society of RohinT only. This aroused tho jealousy of tho rest, who 
returned to their futhcr. Soma followed, and asked that they should 
go back to him, to which, however, Prajapati would not agree till 
Son* bad promi»i<"d to Mandate with them all equally. Ho agreed; 
but spin bebaved us before, when be was seized with consumption, 
etc. {PrajApatet Irayattrifftsad dichitarah Stan | ttih Som&ya. rAjnt 
'dadnl | til&Am Jiolnn'tni Upoit \ tiih irtthyant'th puntir agachhan \ Ink 
await | lAk punar iiyAchida | tAh arnnai rnt punar adadAt | so 'brarld 
" fitam amUhva yathA tam&raclihah vpauhy&ni atha U punar d/lsyimi n 
iti | ta ntom Am\t | tAh MM) tHOMT iidadAt | tutim Jtohinln tern 
upait | yakthma Archhat). In the Taitt. Br. ii. 3, 10, 1 SL, another 
story is told of Soma. Pr.ijnp.iti created him ; and after hira the three 
Vedae, which ho tnok into bis hanoL Row, Bits Sftvitrl lored Bona, 
while he loved Sraddhii. SIM ciime to her father Prajupati, and, 
(diluting him, asked to be allowed to appronch him with her romplaiat. 
Sin' 1"'. i>1 S.iinn, Kb<' miid, while he loved Sraddhii. Prajapati made 
for her a paste formed of a sweet smelling substance, to which he 
imparted potency by the recitation of certain formulas, and then 
painted it upon her forehead. She then returned to Soma, who in- 
vited her to approach hira. She desired hiin to promise her his 



society, and to tell her what bo had in his hand ; whereupon ho gave 
her tho three Vedaa ; and in consequence women always ask for some 
gift as a prioo for their embraces, etc. Tho Lriihmnna goes on to 
recommend the ubo of the same paste, prepared with tho same formulas, 
as a specific for producing love or good will {Prajipatik Somam rajQnam 
atrtja'.a | tarn trayo vtddh anv aif-ijyanla | t<~m hattt 'huruta \ aiha ha 
Slid 84uitri Sjiiiwii r-'j'tnam chakamt \ Sraddhnm w ta ehakamt \ td ha 
pitaram PrajSpatim upatat&ra \ tai'n ha uvdcha "nomas tt aitu bha- 
garah | upa tvd aydni (2) pra ted dpadys | Soma fit eat rajanam i&mayt 
Sraddhdm u ta kdmayats" iti \ tatyai u ha tlhdgaram alankdram 
kalpayitva daiahotnram purattdd rydkhydya chalurhotdrafii dahhinatah 
pmchahoturam paiehlt thaddhotdram ullaratah saplahoturam uparishfdl 
sambfuirai* patnihhii cha mukhe ahmkritya | 3. Aiya arddham ravrdja \ 
to fit ha udlhthya utiicha " upa md tarttatva" iti | taiit ha uvdcha " bho 
f autism (the commentator explains the phrase as if he read bhoyam tu) 
■M dehalthra | etan mo Achakthva yat te p&nac " iti | tatyai u Irln 
vtddn pradada* \ Uumud u ha tlnyo bhoyam oca hdrayanU). 

(5) Proptrtitt atcribrd to the soma-juie* or itt presiding drity. 

Tho juice of this plant is said to be on immortal *** draught, i. 84, 4 
(jyfthfham amartyam madam) which the gods love, ix. 85, 2 {daltfto 
dtcdndm asi hi priyo madah); IX 109, 15 (pibunti a*ya viiet dtt&so 
gobhih frlt&tya nfihhih sutatya),** to be medicine for a sick man, viii. 
01, 1 7 [tad dt unity* bhahajam). All tho gods drink of it, ix. 109, 15 
{ptbanti atya riite det&aah). The god who is ita personification is said 
to clothe whatcTcr is naked, and to heal whatever is sick ; through 
him the blind sees, and tho lame wulks abroad, viii. 68, 2 (abhy Grnvti 
yan nagruim bhishakii riicam yat turam \ \ dhah khyal nth bono 

bhut); x. 25, 11. He is the guardian of men's bodies, and occupies 
thoir every member, viii. 48, 9 {team hi nat taut ah soma gopdh giUr* 
gdtri nishasattha nfithakshdh). 

*•* This tnraas, acourdiar; to Sajnna, that it hua uo deadly dftcU, like other in- 
laiicatiag drink* (mmapOua/anyo »n.fc mnA'iiUrtt-eat martto n* thatatl >ty arlAah), 

*" TbaTaiit. Mr. i. >. 3, 2, say that aoraa it tho Wat auurUtimriit of llic gods, 
and wine of nen, and ibid. 4, that mm is a male and the wine t (male, and tlw two 
make a pair [tUJ r«i Atumiim psremsm iiawn pit tvmah <<<ui m t nuskfiQaM yat 
sura | 4. JStmin wi soma* ttri tttrS | '«» iiii7Amh<mm). 



(6) Divine potcrrt aUrihul/d h Soma, 

A great Tarioty of divine attribute* and operations are ascribed to 
Soma. As Professor Whitney observes, be is " addressed as a god La 
the highest strain* of adulation and veneration ; all powers belong to 
him; all blessings are besought of him, as bis to bestow" (Joura. 
Amer. Or. Soc. iii. 299). Ho is said to bo <u«ra, divine 
ix. 74, 7), and the soul of sacrifice, atmA ytjnatya (ix. 2, 10; ix. 
He is immortal, amfiia (i. 43, 9), and confers immortality on gods and 
men, i. 91, I, 6, 18 ; viii. 48, 3, quoted above, p. 90, not* ; ix. 106, 
8 (/rdsi in&to amritaya kam p»p*h) i •*- 108, 3 (/raw hi ansa sassy! 
pcTsm6M ja*im&*i dyumodama amritaitdya yhothayak) ; ix. 109, 3 (as* 
amritaya makt hhayuya iu swtrv ariia die pi J ptyithah).** In a passage 
(ix. 1 13, * ff.) where the joys of paradise are more distinctly antici- 
pated and more fervently implored than in most other parts of the Rig- 
veda, Soma is addressed as the god from whom the gift of future t 
is expected. Thus it is there said: yatra jyetir ojatrant yatmm Ui* 
tear iitam | Uumin mow dhehi pavamun* amfiU lvke akahiU | yalra 
nJ/<l Faicanato j/alrdwrodhaMih ditch I yatrdotur yakcaftr upa* taira 
m&m amriftm hridhi | 7. " Place mo, o purified god, in that everlasting 
^perishable world whore there is eternal light and glory. O Indo 
(soma), flow for Indra. 8. Make me immortal in the world when 
king Yaivaevata (Yama, the son of Vivaavat,) lives, whore is the 
innermost sphere of the sky, whore those great waters flow." The 
three following WON nrny be reserved for the section on Yuma. 

Ben exhilarates Varuna, Mitra, Indra, Vishnu, the Maruta, the 
other gods, Yi\yu, Heaven and Earth, ix. 90, 5 {mntii Sovm Varwum 
main' Mitran maUi hdram Tndo pavamiina Fiikmum | maUi iardJm 
titanium maUi derin maUi nttkAm Intra* Indo maidya); ix. I 
(ma/«i 1'uyum ithfayt rddhate cha maUi Ifilrd-raruaA pSyamunai | 
■m/«i' iardha murulam tnaUi devHn maUi Dy&rS-prithitX data Soma). 
Both gods and men resort to him, saying that his juice is ewe. 
48, 1 {visit yam d<tuh uta marlyuio madhu brwanto abhi tan<fturanli). 
By him (but sec p. 470} the Aditya* are strong, and the earth vast, x. 
85, 2 {tometM Adit yah balinah tomeno pjithiri tnaki). He is the friend, 

*** la regard to th* manner in which the gods acquired immortality, see the 8"« 
He. Ix. 5, 1, 1 S. quoted aboTc p. II, not* 21. 



helper, and soul of Indra, iv. 28, 1 (ttd yuj* Uta tat tema takhyo 
Indro apo wununt icsrvtat kah | 2. Trd yuja hi kkidat Suryatya Indrai 
ekakraik takasd tadyak Judo); ix. 85, S [At ma Jndratya bhacati); x. 
25, 9 (Indratymh iicak takkd), whose vigour bo stimulates, ix. 76, 2 
(Indra*ya ituhmam irayan), and whom he buccoutb in hia conliicta 
■with Vritrm, ix. 61, 22 [yah Indram nvitfta J'ritruya hantai:*). ITo 
rides in the same chariot with Indra, Iiulrrna taraiham (ix. 87, 9; 
ix. 108, 5). He has, however, winged mares of his own, and a team 
like Vurn, ix. 8ft, 37 (tidnak imu bhutandni riyate yuj&nah Indo 
karitak ntpamyah); ix. 88, 3 (v&yur na yo niyutvdn i»li(ay<'nriii\ II a 
ascends his filter in place of a car, and is armed with & thousand- 
pointed shaft, ix. 83, 5 ; ix. 86, 40 (patitra-rathah sahatrabk riih(ik). 
Hia weapons which, like a hero, he grasp* in his hand, ix. 76, 2 
(fiiro na dhaUt ayudkA gabkatlyok), arc sharp nncl terrible, ix. 81, 30 
(bklmani Ayudha iiymdni), and his bow swift-darting, ix. 00,3 (tiym&- 
yudkak kthipradkuMii). Me is the slayer of Vritra, critrakan, or rri- 
trakantama (i. 93, 6 ; ix. 24, 6 ; ix. 25, 3 ; ix. 28, 3; x. 25, 9), and, 
liki- Indra, the destroyer of foes, and overthrower of cities, ix. 61, 2; 
ix. 88, 4 (Indro na yo mahd karmSni chah'ir hantd tfHrdndm ati 
Soma purhhit). In ix. 6, 9, ho appears to receive the epithet of 
projiijHiii, lord of creatures. He ia the creator and father of the gods, 
ix. 42, 4 (krandan dcc&n ajljanat) ; ix. 86, 10 (piti im&nftm , 
vUkmatuk) ; ix. 87, 2 (pita decdndm janittl ntdakthah); ix. 109, 4; 
the generator of hymns, of Dyaus, of Prithiri, of Agni, of Sfirya, of 
Indra, and of Vishnu, ix. 96, 5 (Somak ptttaU jmitd mitludui 
Ditojanita PrithUyuh \janitd Agntr janitd Sarycuya janita Indratyn 
janilata Vithnok). He dispels tho darkness, i. 91, 22 (ttamjyotukA ti 
tamo tmartka) ; ix. 66, 24 (iukram jyotir njijnnat \ kp'tknd tamutkri 
jangkanat), light* up the gloomy nights, vi. 39, 3 (ayam dyotayad 
odyuto ti aklfkn) ; and has creuted and lighted up the sun, the great 
luminary common to all mankind, ri. 44, 23 (ayam tiirya adudkdj 
Jyotir axtak) ; ix. 61, 16 (paramdm ojljanad dirai chitram na tanya- 
tum | jyotir taiivdnaram brikat) ; ix. 97, 41 (ajanayat aOryo jyotir 
Induh) ; ix. 107, 7 (A tiryom rokayo dirt) ; ix. 110, 3 (ajljano hi 
patamdn* Sdryam). IIu stretched out tho atmosphere, i. 91, 83 
a tatantka urn antariktkam) ; ri. 47, 3f. ; and in concert with tho 
fttbflH (AVrw), tho Sky and the Earth, riii. 48, 13 (team Soma pitri- 


sap MJmViTriir tutu dydvapritkiti d taitntka). He it the upholder i 
ttw sky sod the suatainer of the earth, keepinu the two apart, vi 44, 
t« («9«A dyiicilprilkicl vi «*-<M«y»<) | vi 47, 5 l>y«i« *.<jA«« m*UU 
UnafArriHTf «<< tfydm atlabhnud tritkabko mantlran); ix. 87, 2 (nit 
fnaJW aVco AbruRdA pplkirytik) ; ix. 89, 6; ir. 109, 6. He po- 
tkaeid in the sacrifices the two divine worlds, which arc kindly disposes 
to mm, ix. 98, 9 («a tilth ytijntthu rwinael Indur jamtkfa rodatl | dm 
abet). Ho is king of gods and men, ix. 97, 21 {raja Jecumdm mU 
martyAmlm), derated over all worlds [or being*] like the divine sun, 
ix. 34, 3 (ayaw cintini tiskfkali pttnuno bkuvanop*ri j mm tfrre m 
t*iy*k). All creatures arc in his hand, ix. 89, 6 (rtinSA uta hhtUft 
kmte tuya). m His laws are like those of king Varuna, i. 91, S; ix. 
88, 8 (riijtto nu U Varunatya vratuni) ; and he is prayed to forgive 
their violation, and to be gracious as a father to a son, and to deliver 
from dculh, viii. 48, 9 {yat te cayam pramimuma vratuni ta no vtfiU 
nuhakhil ima vmynk) ; x. 25, 3 {uta vratAni Soma U pro) akam 
mintimi pul-yu \ ad ha pittra tunavt vi r* mW< mrila jw abS 
vadhGd rirakthatt). lie is thousand-eyed, ix. 60, 1, 2 {tafuur*- 
ekaktkat), and sees and knows all creatures, and hurl* iho irre- 
ligious into the abyss, ix. 73, 8 {ridcan ta tifru bkuratiA 'bki pai- 
yafi ara ajuthttin ridkyati karte avraliia) ; and guards the live* of sU 
rooting beings as a cowherd tend* bin cattle, x. 25, 6 (smitt* mm Sawu 
raktkati purutrd tuhfhitato jagat | tam&krinoshi jlcatt ri co mad* rtird 
taitpaiyan bhucand vitti&thate). He is the chief and most fiery of tho 
formidable, the most heroic of heroes, the most bountiful of the benefi- 
cent, and as a warrior he is always victorious,*" ix. 66, 16 (make* am 

n »omc additional piumyo* quoted in the 4th vol. of this work, p. ti I 

•" In ix 'JO, 16, ia, hi. weapons arc referred lo; hi ri. 44. 22, he is said to hate 

Bjs millgtlMl i in i "I hW weapons anil hi» m»(rioil flrricta (ayaw *ruy 

tadmr tuuuiknod aiitatya mayhS). It U n-luted in the Alt. Br. 

I 14, that tWv va» forni«lT war brtweon th« god* ami the. Antra*. Thaj f««gtt 

kvrthrr in the taut, (uuth, wort, and north, nod in all time quarter* the Aran* 

mnv ricUirioo*. In ihi north-nut, howeier, tht god* were not orcrcome, far that i* 

• Urn unconquerahle region." The god* ajcribed their former defeats to the nut at 

1 1 ing no king, and agreed to mike Soma their monarch, after which thary mm 

hi un all Iho point* of tho compass (2V«o*i»roA mi mAh Ubtku mm»y»LmS* | 

i.y.7w pri<tiyam 4tii tfrtmtU \ lama l*U 'i*rak*j*y*n \ .... I, u f .ri j im 

Cfim diii nyd/iiM/a | It ItUi na ptrnjiyamta | »rl **Aa 4if «jn . . ar 

■IrrnvHn "mrvjatayo mm noj*y*Mi\ rnjhnam UrtnimaUt" 1/1 | "UlW 
I u wm« rnjiiHM aiurrmn | U tmmu tijai »»rcd* dU* 'Jofmn). 



soma jyrxhfhah ur/runam Mo ojishfnah | yiulhvd son iaivad jigttha | 17. 
Yah uyrtbhyai chid ofiytin iftrtbhyai chit idralarah J bhUridAbhyai chid 
mafihlyan). Ho conquers for his worshippers cows, chariots, horse*, 
gold, heaven, water, — a thousand desirable things, ix. 78, 4 (gojin nah 
somo raihajid Mragyajit tvarjid ahjit pavaU tahatraj'it), and every thing, 
viii. 68, 1 (pihajit). He is a wise rishi, viii. 68, 1 (fiskir tiprah 
k&vyrna); strong, skilful, omniscient, prolific, glorious, i. 91, 2 (team 
Soma hratubhih tukratur bhAs tram dakshaih sudaksho cisvartdAh | team 
VfishA rrishat-rtbhir mahitcd dyumncbhir dytsmnl alhaco nruhuhhuh). 
He is tln> priest of tho gods, the leader of poets, a rishi among sages, 
a bull among wild animals, a falcon among kites, nn axo in the 
woods, ix. 9(1, 6 {brahmu drvanilm padavlh kavlnam fuhir tiprAnAm 
mahisJ.o mriyAnAm \ iyeno gfidhrAmlih tririfhifir vanAnAm). Ho is 
an unconquerable protector from enemies; i. 91, 21 {ashAlham yutsu 
pritanAiu paprim) ; x. 25, 7 (tvaift nah Soma rHvato gop&h adubhyo 
bhaea | i(dha rdjann apa sridhah). If he desires that his votaries 
shall lire, they do not die, i. 91, 6 (tvam eha- soma no caio jlcAtum Ha 
marAmahe). In viii. 48, 7, ho is prayed to prolong their lire*, as the 
•an tho days {Soma rAjan pra nah Ayamshi Mrlr ahdnlva suryo rAsa- 
rAni). In x. 59, 4, ho is prayed not to abandon tho worshipper to 
death (mo thu nah soma rnrityavs para duh). The friend of a god 
like him cannot suffer, i. 91, 8 (no rishyet tcAtarah salhA). Tbo 
friendship and intimacy of such a god is eagerly desired, ix. 66, 18 
(rfinlmahf sakhyAya tfi*\maht< ftfjflgti). In x. 30, 6, he is said to 
rejoice in the society of the waters, as a man in that of beautiful 
young women [yubhih somo modal* harth&U eha ia/yanlbhir yuralibhir 
ma maryah). 

(7) Soma associated with ->ther yois. 

Soma is associated with Agni as an object of adoration in i. 93, 1 ff. 
In verso 5 of that hymn those two gods are mid to have placed tho 
luminaries in tho sky [yuvnm tlAni dirt rochanAni Aynii eha Soma 
luiratQ adhattam). In the same way Soma and Puahan are conjoined 
in ii. 40, 1 ff., where various attributes and functions of s magnificent 
character arc ascribed to them. Thus, in verse 1, they arc arid to bo 
the generators of wealth, and of hearen and earth, to have been bora 


the guardians of the whole universe, and to have been made by 
gods the centre of immortality {JaiumH raylnOm janand din jnmk 
prilhiey&h \ j&tau xiivatya bhucaiuuya gtptu detuh akjinrnnm mmp'Utf* 
ndbJiim). Tho one lio» mode hia abode in the sky, mud the other oo 
the earth, and in the atmosphere (verse 4). The one has produced all 
the worlds, and the other move* onward beholding all things (rem 5] 
(4. Did ant/ah sadanam ehakrt uthehA prithwy&m anyo adhi anUtrihi* | 
6. ViarHni anyo bhuvana jajuna tiitam anyo abhiehafohamak tH), li 
vi. 72, and vii. 104, Soma and Indra are celebrated in company. la 
the first of Sum hymus the*}* are mid to dispel darkness, to destroy 
rerilere, to bring tho sun and the light, to prop up the sky with sup- 
irorts, and to have spread out mother earth (verse 1 . Yurawt Sitrytm 
dvidalhur yuraih star vihri fam&md ohatam nidai eha | 2. Yfttayatktk 
Uthlsam ut tiiryam nayalho jyotithu laha | upa dyam n.'.ambkatMuk tiam- 
bhantna aprathatam prithithn mutaram vi). In vii. 104, their ven- 
geance is invoked againBt Rakahases, Yatudhanas, and other enemies. 

Hymn vi. 7-1, is dedicated to tho honour of Soma and Kudra con- 
jointly. The two gods, who oro aoid to be armed with shurp weapons 
(tirjmCtyutlhau ligmaMi) are there supplicated for blowings to nun 
and boost, for healing remedies, and for deliveranoe from sin (id-* m 
bhtitam dripadt Sam rhatmhpadt \ ttdni am* fiita tana*hu bha*haj&m 
dhallam \ ata tyalam muncJuilam yan ho atti tanuthu baddham krtlan 
mo aamat). 

(8 ) Soma in the posUredic aye a nam* of (he moon. 

In the post-vedic oge Die name Soma came to be commonly applied 
to the moon und its regent. Even in the Rig-vcda, some trace* of this 
application scorn to bo discoverable. Thus in x. 85, 2 ff. (which, bow- 
ever, Professor Roth regards as of comparatively modern date : HI. of 
Hir. p. 147), thero appears to bo an allusion to the double sense of the 
word: 2. Sonurnadilyah balinah Someno prithiti mahl \ athe nahJul- 
irt'innui ahum upanth* Somah ihilnh | 3. Somam manyai* papiran yet urn- 
fimshanti othadhim \ Somam yam brahmUno ddur na ta*y&6nali kaM uuu [ 
air gupito barhataify Soma rakthitali \ gr&tn/lm it ijr*~ 
tan tuhfhasi »d te aindti pHrthirali | 5. Yat tt& dexah prapibanti Utah 
upyayatt punah \ Vayuh Somatya rahhitu tamunum muiah. clritih j 



" 2. By Soma the Adityas cue strong ; by Soma the earth is great ; and 
8oma is placed in the centre of these stars. 3. When they crush the 
plant, ho who drinks regards it a* Soma. Of him whom the pricata 
regard as Soma (the moon) no ono drinks. '1. Protected by those who 
shelter thee, and preserved by thy guardian*," thou, Soma, hcorcst 
the sound of the crushing-stones ; but no earthly being tastes thee. 
5. When the gods drink thee, ogod, thou increasest again. Viiyu is tho 
guardian of Homa: the month ia a part of the years." 4 " Jn tha 
Atharro-veda tho following half-verso occurs, xi, 6, 7 : Soma md d*c« 
muncAotu yam dhui thandrnmuh Hi | " May tho god Soma free me, ho 
whom they call the moon." And in the Sutapatba Bruhmana, i. G, 4, 
ft ; xi. 1, 3, 2 ; xi. 1, 3, 4, and xi. 1, 4, 4, we have the words : Eth» 
MM* Some rdj'd dnilmim annafo yal chandram&l} | "This king Soma, 
who is tho moon, is tho food of tho gods." Similarly in xL 1, 3, ft : 
chatuiraav'ik tat Some dttiini'im antrnm |. " Soma is the moon, tho food 
of the gods." See also i. 6, 3, 24 : Hiiryah cva ligneyah | <handram&k 
taxmyah | " The sun 1ms tho nature of Agni, tho moon of Soma ; " and 
xii. 1, 1, 2 : Sonto rm thandramfih \ " Soma is the moon." In v. 3, 3, 
12, and in ix. 4, 3, 16, Soma is said to be the king of the Br&hmana 
{Some 'tm&tar* bruhmr.n&n&m tiffi). In the Vishiju Puriina (book i. 
chap. 22, p. 85 of Wilson's translation, rol. 2, Dr. llsll's ed.) tho 
double character of Soma is indicated in these words: " Brahma ap- 
pointed Soma to be monarch of the stars and planets, of Brahmans and 
of plants, of sacrifices and of austere devotions'' {nthhattra-gralui- 
tipr&*Am cirudkato thUpy aitihatah \ Semum rujyt dadatt Braimd y<tj- 
rtinaik tapasdm opt). 

«*■ Tho word so rendcro! is iarhataih. Ia the Lexicon of Bulitliugk aiA Balk, 
#.»., Us smus it mid to be duublful. Pmfwanr Web»r (lad. St. t. 178 ff. where 
ifc— ywnm, with the rort of th* hrma in which th«y occur, U tranilated sod um- 
lotcd) rasdtn it " laity ones" (Exhabcne). LangloU make* it " orcnoen." Ths 
ntooo U enratinned spun in verses 18 and 10. In B.V »iii. 71, », Soma tpackliog 
ia ih* cnpi is compared to th> i faf on tht waters (y *p*n «A*wiww»ia| km 

mm/ eJutmuti* ioini, | ptU id atya learn Maty 8* Profcawc Beafirj'a note oa 
B.V. x. M, If, >n hi* Orii nt uid Occident, ii. 248. 

*** Wcbcr and Laogloix take noMt for s Domuutir«. Buhllingk and Roth cits 
tho passage undar mu, thu* nuking it a gtniUTS, 




I wQl oommcDoe my description of this god with a translation of the 

account given of him in Bbhtlingk and Roth's Lexicon : " Brihaspati, 

•tlcniAting with Brahmanaspati, is the name of a deity in whom the 

tcrtkxi of the worshipper upon the gods is personified. He is the 

Mbfdiant, the sacrificcr, the priest, who intercedes with the gods on 

Viliilf of men, and protect) thorn against the wicked. Hence be 

q^irtn as the prototype of tho priests, and the priestly order ; and i» 

at*> designated as tho purobita of the divine community." The ancient 

l«4ua conception of this deity is more fully explained in Protestor 

- dissertation on "Brahma and tho Brahmans," •■• in tha first 

whittle of llie Journal of tho German Oriental 8ociety, pp. 66 ft, 

*«*r» the author well points out the essential difference between tho 

original idea rrpreaented in this god and those expressed in most of the 

ulker and older divinities of the Veda, consisting in tho fact that the 

WUor are personifications of various departments of nature, <ir -f 

^h<ttiv*l forces, while the former is the product of moral ideas, and 

aa impersonation of the power of devotion. From this paper I ex- 

tho following remarks: "Brahma, on the other hand fin cob* 

turn to deva], has an entirely different point of departure, 

-Aid «i|[uLficuncc. Its original sense, as easily discovered in the Tedk 

., is that of prtiyer ; not praise or thanksgiving, hut that specie* 

..4 invention which, with tho force of the will direetcd to the ged, 

d--sirea In diaw him to the worshipper, and to obtain satisfaction from 

, ■•., II denotes the impetuous supplication which was natural to that 

vtvivMt faith, and which sought, oa it were, to wrest from the god the 

«• furtMw »f ttiw p-pct w«re teag ago trsmktcd by me to tas ft i— r ei Maganaa, 



boon which it demanded" (p. 67). " Immediately derived from thl* 
muter noun brahma is the name of the god Brahmarjaspati, win is. in 
many respects, u remarkable deity. His entire character is 6uch as 
does not belong to the curliest stage of the Yedii: < nations, 
but points to a second shape which the rcli:: MM cn- 

ivourcd to Like, wirlmut, however, being able nctually to carry it 
fully into effect The entire series of the principal di-- | the 

Veda belongs to the domain of natural symbolism, w iicro 

more decided, unmix-.' 1, and transparent than perhaps among any Ql 
people of the Indo-germanio race, but which, on this account, is ulso 
loss rich in references to other departments of life, and has n | 
able to get beyond s certain uniformity. Hut Brahmaitn«|inii in ami of 
the divine beings who do not stand immediately within the circle of 
physical life, but form the transition from it to the moral life of tho 
human spirit In him, the lord or protector of prayer, is seen tho 
power nnd dignity of devotion, the energetic action of the will upon 
the gods who are the personifications of notural objects, and im- 
mediately upon nature. And it may still bo plainly perceived in 
what manner this god, as a new-comer, was introduced into the circle 
of mythological beings already est mul could only find a place 

by the side of the other gods, or by supplanting them. 40 ' 

" Indra is the highest god of the Vedic fuith, or, at least, the one 
whose action lias the most immediate bearing on the welfare of BMfa 
Hs it the god of the friendly noon -day firmament, which, after all 
obscuration*, ngnin shine* anow, on which the fertility of tho earth 
and the tranquility and enjoyment of human existence depend. And 
the prayer which mo«t frequently recurs in tho Veda, and is addressed 
hi Indrs, is that he will eoi; tempts of tho clot: 

who threatens to carry away the fertilizing wuters of tho sky, or hold* 
them ihut np in the caverns of the mountain), will pour forth those 
waters, fertilize the earth, and bestow nourishment on men and cattle. 
Now. if the essence of the god Brahmarjaspati really expresses, o> I 
nasi' -victorious power of prayer, then wo should find him 

in this circle of myths, more than in any other. And in point of fact 

•** "All tke rod* »SMC names sro cnmimurwled »ilh pxti ('lord of'—) nasi bo 
reckoned arenas ih* more recent, 1 4. Yicbsfpati, Vistoshpaw, Kafcctraijrc psti. Tb*T 
wars the pnxJstt* of reir > 



he does appear along with Indra in that conflict of his against thi 
fiend, and that too in such a way that a department of labour u 
assigned to him, which, in moat of the other hymns, is appropriated 
exclusively to lnilra. And, finally, in some few passages, it is bt 
who, nil alone, breaks through the caverns of Bala, in order to brio} 
to light the concealed treasures of the fertilizing water, or, acoordinz 
to the figurative, language employed, the cows with abundant milk " 
(pp. 71 ff.). 

After quoting H.V. ii. 24, 3 f. (which will be cited below) Profcamr 
Both proceeds: "It is therefore brahms, prayer, with which the god 
breaks open the hiding place of the enemy. Prayer pierces through to 
the object of iu desire, and attains it. Ard if now we should •ttk 
to discover, in the mlural phenomenon to which reference u mads, 
viz., in the atom, that force which so mightily breaks through Um 
hostilo bulwarks, it is the lightning alone which can be the outward 
symbol of the* :;<d. Brahmanaspati is, therefore, called the 

• shining,' the ' gold-coloured ' (y. 43, 1 2). The thunder is his voice'' 
(p. 74). Again : " Brahraaouspati's domain extends still further; it 
reaches m far as the efficacy of invocation. Ho succours also in 
battle (II. V. vi. 73, 2) " (p. 74). "And, finaUy, a widely extended 
mutive power is ascribed to him in the remarkable verses of a hymn of 
tho tenth mondola (68, 8 ff.) attributed to Ayasya of the ram of 
Angiraa"(p. 75). 

(1) Patiaget in tchieh Brihaspati and lirahmanatpati art celebrated. 

I subjoin one entire hymn and portions of some others, which will 
illustrate the characteristics ascribed to Brahmagaspati in the Big- 
veda, and will shew how that name alternates with Brihaspati in 
different verses of the same composition. 

R V. Li. 23,1. GaniinAm Ivu htttilntah* kavim kaclmlm upama- 
iraiattomam \ jynhfharAjam brahmanum brithmananpalt a nah ifinran* 
Maya tltla tadanatn | 2. Dnai chit It aturya prachttato BfiJuupatt yajni- 
yam hhtigam dnaiuh \ utrdh rrri nCiryo ji/otiths aiaho vihethunt ij jiinitd 
brahmandm ati \ 3. A rihddhya parirapaa tamCiuui chn jyotuhmaniam ra- 
(ham ritatya ttih\hati \ tirihatpnU bhlmam amitradambhanaA raluhohancm 


qotrabhidam nartidam | 4. Smitibhir nayati trdyau janam y/u tubh- 
yam diiioi na tarn aetho abiaeat | brahntadtiihtu tapano manyvmir att 
BfihatpaU mahi (at ti mahitranam | 5. Na tarn amAo na duritam 
kutaiehana n&rAltya* titirur na drayAcinah \ liifCh id amnAd dhiartuo 
pi bddhatt yam tngopdh r.iLAati BrahmmatpaU | G. Dram no yopAh 
pathikrid cickaltfiana* lata rratdya malibhir jariimake \ Brihaipatt yo 
no abhi Aiaro dadht ltd (am marmarlu duchAunA Aaranaii | 7. Ula va 
yo no marchayuJ andgaso ar At Jed martah sAiiuko tjHak \ BrihatpaU 
apa tarn tartaya pathah sugaiii no atyai devarUaye kndAi | 8. TrAbiram 
ltd lanimim Attiamaht atotpartar adAicaklAram aumayum | Brihatpatr 
dftantdo m larhtiya mil durrrdh vftaram $umnam un naian | 9 
(— .Nir. iii. 11). Tragi eayam wrridhd BrahmanatpaU tpdrAd iatu 
manuthyA A dad 1 mahi | yAh no dart tafito ydh arAlayo abhi tanti jam- 
bhaya Idh anapnotah | 10. TtayA tayam ultammm dAtmaht eayo Bfihai- 
pad paprind »atninA yuja | ma no duitaimo abhidipiur liata pra tuiam- 
uJk matibhii tdriihimahi | 11. Ananudo rriihabho jagnir Aharam ni$h- 
fapla iatrum prilanuiu HlwAih | ati tatyah riaayAk Brahna^atpatt 
vgratya chid damitd ri lukarihinah | 12. Adevena tnanand yo rithyanyati 
iaiAm ugro manyamdnc jiyhdmiati | Briha*pat« ma pranal taiya no 
xadho mi karma man yum dummy a lardhatah | 13. Bkarahu haeyo 
nawuuopatadyo gun la tajeihm tanitd dhanam dhanam | tiiiAh id arya 
abhidiptto mridko Brihaspatir vi ratorha rathdn ir* | H. TtjitJifhayd 
tapanl raX*ha*a* tap* yt US nide dadAirt dritkfatlryam | Sri* tat kjUhra 
yad atai U uktAyam BrihatpaU ti parirapo ardttya | 15. BrihatpaU alt 
yad aryo arhAd dyumad tibhAti kratumaf jarutku | yad dldayat iataaS 
fxlaprajAla tad otmAtu drarinam dhrhi chit ram | 16. J/rl nab »ttn*bhyo 
y* abhi druhat pad* nirumimo riparo 'nnnhujagridAuh \ d davAnAm oAata 
titrayo hridi llrihaipaU na par ah idmno tiduhi \ 17. Viittbhyo hi tei 
bhuranebhyat pari 'J\aih(A 'Janat tumnuk tamnnh katih \ ta ri*iicAtd 
rinayAh Brahawnatpatir drvho hanta mahoh rilaxya dAarlari | 18. 
Tar a iriya r» ajiAlta parvato garam yotram udatrijo yad Angirah | 
lndreaa yujd tamtud paritritam Bp'batpaia nir apdm aubjo arnavam | 
19. Brahmanatpata team atya yanU tiktatyt bodhi tanayam (ha jmta | 
riiraA tad bhadram yad atanti derdh brihad radema vidathe nirtrdh | 

Although the translation which 1 subjoin is very imperfect, and I 
am uncertain ft* to the tense of manr words and phrases occurring, in 
it, the gouend sense is clear and undoubted j 


" Wc invoke thee, Bruhmnnaspati, the commander of licet*,*** tie 
tho most highly renowned of sages, the monarch of pnrjrn; 
do thou hear us, and tukc thy place on oar hearth, bringing saoevnr. 
2. Etch the gods havo, o divine BrLU tspati, obtained the worshipful 
portion of thee, who art wine : at the great sua by his light gcuerake 
ray*, so nrt thou the generator of all prayer*. 3. Overcoming demon* 
and darkness, thou stnndest upon the luminous, awful, foe-suhduht;, 
ndcshas-alaying, cow-pen-cleaving, heaven reaching, chariot of Ibe 
ceremonial. 4. Hy thy wise guidance thou Icadcet and preacrest 
men ; no calamity can befal him who offers gifts to the* ; than eeuet, 
and oreroomest the wrath of, the enomy of devotion ; this, o I 
pati, constitutes thy greatness. 6. No calamity or misfortune from 
any quarter, neither foes nor deceivers, can overwhelm the roan— 
(jlnni repcllcat from him all evil spirit?) — whom thou, a sure pro' 
dost guard, o Brukuiuijaopati. 6. Thou art tho wise guardian who opens 
for us a way; with hymns wc pay homage to thy sovereign power. 
Hrihnspotf, may his own hot ill luck destroy the roan who devise* evil 
against us. 7. WhutcwT hostilo mortal, powerful *•* and rapacious 
assails us who are innocent, do thou, Brihaspati, turn him away (root 
our path, and enable us easily tn reach tho feast of the gods. 8. We 
invoke thee, o deliverer, who art the protector of our bodies, and OUT 
partial patron; destroy, o Brihaspati, the revilera of the gods ; 1 
the wicked attain high prosperity. 9. May we through thee, ev 
prosperer, o Bnihiiinrjaspati, ucnuiro enviable riches profitable for meo. 
Crush tho foes, whether for or near, who assail us [and make them] 
destitute. 10. Through thec, o Brihaspati, a liberal and generous 
!, may we obtain tin.' highest rigour. Let not our malicious 
enemy gain the mastery over us; may wo who arc friendly in our 
intentions overcome them by our hymns. 11. Stubborn, strong, be 
enters into the battle, be vexes the foe, he overpowers him in conflict. 
Thou, Brahmagnsputi, art a real avenger of guilt, a sobdaer even of 

nently passionate man. 12. Let us not be i 
by the shaft of tho man who, with ungodly mind, seek* to inj<; 
who, eskeming himself ficroe, Becks to slay (any of thy) worshippers; 

*"* Compare ttrragana in v. 61, 12. 

•** tSatmka a MviucAAnrit, according to Sayasja. 


we repel tho rage of the presumptuous and malicious man. 13. 
Brihaspati, who is to be invoked in buttled, to be worshipped with 
reverence, who frequents conflicts, who bestows all our wealth, has 
overturned like chariots ull the malicious enemies who seek to wrong 
us. 14. Consume with thy sharpest burning bolt the rakshascs who have 
mocked at thee, whose prowess is well proved ; manifest that power of 
thine which shall be deserving of praise ; destroy the demons. 15. 
Urihospati, whoso essence is sacred truth, bestow upon us that brilliant 
wealth which shall excel that of our foe, which nppoars brilliant, and 
poss e ss e s strength, which shines with power. 16. Do not (abandon) 
na to the robbers who hold the position of our assailants, persistent 
enemies, who greedily desire our food;— such a man in his henrt 
coolemphitt* the iiljiiinloniM&t of tho gods; — they do not, o Lri- 
haspati, know tho excellence of the saman. 17. For Tvashtfi, who 
knows all soman- verses, has generated thee to be above all bang*. 
B.'ii.ta njnspati is the avenger and punisher of guilt, the slayer of the 
injurious nun in the interest of the upholder of the groat ceremonial. 
18. When thou, Angirus, didst open up tho cow-pen, tho mountain 
■ 1 to thy glory; with Indra as thine ally, thou, Brihaapati, didst 
let loose the stream of tho waters, which had boon covered with dark- 
ness. 19. liruhmanospati, thou art its controller; tako notice of our 
hymn and prosper our offspring; all that the gods protect is successful. 
May we, bleat with strong men, speak with power at the festival." 

R.T. ii. 24, I. Semiim atiddhi prahhnlim yah liiihi mya ridhrmm 
tucaya tnakd gira \ yatlA no mtdhcan ttacaU takha taca Briha.-paU 
ilikadhah iota no natim | 2. ¥b nmtvtini anamad ni ojaiC tttudardar 
manyuna iambardni ri \ praehyiltayad achyutil Biahmanaipatir a thtU 
iiiad ranmantafn ri parvatam | 3. Tad dtttindm dnttam&ya karftam 
airalkram dfilkd atradanta rl/iVd J ud ydh ajad abhinad bmhmanu valan 
ayihat tamo ri achaltthayat nah | -4 (■ Nir. x. 13). Aimiiiyinn avatam 
L'rakmaitatpatir madhudharam abhi yam ojata 'trimit | Urn era vih* 
papirt aeardn'U bahu tukaih sisiekur item udrinam | .... 8. liiUjytna 
kthiprtna Bralmagatpatir yatra vathfi pra tad abtoii dhanvamd | tatya 
iddhelr uKato y&bhir aiyati nnchahhato dniaye karnayonayah \ 

1. "Do thou who rules t receive this our offering [of praise]; lot us 
worship thee with this new and grand song; as thy bountiful friend 
among us celebrates thee, do thou also, Brihaspati, fulfil our den 


Brahmaijaspati, who by bia power brought low the things which shoald 
be overthrown, and by his wrath split open the clouds, has also cast 
down the things which were unshaken, ho has penetrated the moontata 
u-likh wo* full of riches, 3. This was an exploit fit for the most 
godlike of the gods to achieve ; firm things were loosened, and strosg 
things yielded to him ; he drove forth the cows, by prayer he split 
Vala, he chased away the darkness, and revealed the sky.*" 4. Ail 
the celestials drank of the stone-covered fountain, yielding a sweat 
stream, which Brahmanaspati split open ; they poured out together an 
abundant supply of water. .... 8. Wherever Brahmanaspati desires, 
thither he reaches with his well-stringed, swift-darting bow. Excel- 
lent are his arrows wherewith he shoots j they are keen-eyed to hchold 
men, and draw a buck to the ear." 

fcr. 50, 1. Yat Uutambha tahaiA rijmo ant&n Bfihatpatu triikaiatUm 
ravena | Urn pratndtak fttkayo iidhy&nih puro tipr&k dadkire wtandra- 
fihvam | 4. Brikatpatih prathamaih j&yam&no make jyetiikak param* 
ryoman \ napttityaj iuvijaio rarena vi laplaraimir adkanat tam&im | 
fi. So siuhfubhii »a fihvatu ganina Valain rurojo pkaiigam ravrna | Bfi- 
hatpaltr utriyuh kavyasHdah kanikradad vdvaiatir uduj'at | 6. Eta pxtrr 
vtitadevSyn vjriifau yajnair tidhtma namaia katirbkik | Brikatpat* i%- 
prajtik tlravanto ray am synma patayo raytndm | 7. Sit id raja prolyl*- 
yOni riitit iushmena totthav ahhi virytna \ Brihaspatith yak 
bibharti valguyati tandate pHrvabkiljam \ 

" I. Contemplating Brihaapati with the pleasant tongne, who 
jiieo three abodes, and by his power and his voice holds apart the ends 
of the earth, the ancient rishis placed him in their front. . . . . 4.' 
Brihaapati, when first born from the great light in the highest heaven, 
teven-fuced, mighty in nature, seven-rayed, blew asunder the darkness 
with his voice. '•>■ With the lauding, hymning band he by his voice 
broke through Vala, the cloud. Brihaapati, shouting, drove forth the 
)i!itti<r-yii'lding, loudly-lowing cows. 6. Thus let us worship tho vigorous 
lather, who is possessed of all divine attributes, with sacrifices, and 
reverence, and oblations. May we, Brihaspati, have abundant off- 
spring, vigorous sons, and be lords of riches. 7. That king who main- 


■ Thi* and thn f,-,llowinir rorss art tremlntrd in p. 73 of th* artids of Profs 
Roth, quoted at the commencement of lhi» icctmn. 

«* Vom 4 IT. arc translated by Proftewr Rvtb ia pp. 70 f. of Um snick owtsd 
si the beginning of this section. 


tains Brihaspuli in abundance, who praises and magnifies him u (a 
deity) entitled to the first distinction, overcomes all hostile powers bj 
his force and valour." 

x. C8, 6. i'ada Valatya plyato jasum bhii Brihatpatir agnitepobhir 
arkaih | dadbKir ns jihvu. paricitJifam ddad 6tir nidhln alrinod utri- 

y<J«u/»i | 7 uadtra bhiltvu iakuncuya yarbham ud usriyah parrtt- 

tatya tmanil "fat | 8 (— Jfir. x. 1'2). Ainipinaddham madlu part/ apai- 
yad maUf/ttk na dine udani kthiyantam \ nith faj jabhGra chamaiatii na 
vrikthnd Brihatpatir ciratena vikritya | 9. Sothutn atindat tak ttah to 
Aymm to arktna vi babadhe (amAfnti \ Brihatpatir yovaputho Valatya 
nir nwjy'anaih na parvano jabhnra | 

" When Brihaspati clove with fiery gleams the defences of the ma- 
lignant Vala, as the tongue devours that which has Seen enveloped by 
the teeth, he revealed the treasures of the cows. 7. ... As if splitting 
open eggs, the productions of a bird, ho by his own power drove out 
the cows from the mountain. 8. Ho beheld the sweet liquid en- 
veloped by rock, liko a fish swimming in shallow water j Brihaspati 
brought it out, like a spoon from a tree, having cloven (Vahi) with his 
about. 9. He discovered the Dawn, the Sky, Agni ; with his gleam 
he chased away the darkness; Brihaspati smote forth, as it wen, t i i ■ ■ 
marrow from the joints of Vala, who had assumed the form of a bull." 

i. 40, 5. Pra nunam Brahtnanaxpatir mantram radati uklhyntn | ya$- 
tninn Indro r'aruno 3fi!r» AryamA tUoAh okdmti (hakrirt \ 6. Tarn id 
WBlt wtg tidalhcthu iantbhui-am numtraih devah aruhausn | " 6. Brah- 
mugnspati now utters a laudatory hymn, in which Indro, Yoruna, 
Ultra, the gods, have taken up their abode. 6. This spotless hymn, 
bringing good fortune, may we, o gods, utter on the festival*." "" 

i. 191), 1. AnarrAnaw cnt/kibham mandrajihvam Brihatpali&i tardhaya 
m arkaih | gtitJianyah turutho yaiya jltil uiriwcanli itatautdmuya 
ntatluh | 2. Tarn ritnynh upa vAchah taehantt taryo yo na dttayatAm 
atarji | •' 1. Mugnify Brihuspati, the irresistible, the vigorous, the 
pleasant- ton g iicd, who ought to be praised with hymns, a shining 
leader of songs to whom both gods aud men listen when hu utters 

•*• la th« disMrUtJon quoted above, p. 74, Professor Roth remarks oo Uieaa 
iwnm: "The thuudrr i> his (Branniagaipati'j) Toioe. TUm* of tbandtr, again, 
as lbs votes of the superintendent of prayer, is by s beautiful transference brought 
iniA eonaNlioa with the prayer which, epoken on cirth, fad*, u it w«c, Ms ecu* 
to thu litiglit* of ben- 1 


praise. 2. To him proceed wvll-ordercd worde, like a. etrcam of 
devout rneu which has been set in motion," 

v. 13, 12. A udhatam nlhprithlham brihtntam Driha>jta(im §sitm 
tadayodktam \ sddadyonm dam« a didit&mtaih K>rany<icarn*m * r u *l *m 
uptma | " Seat on tho sacrificial ground the wi*e, the dark-backed, 
the mighty Kr ihaapati. Let us reverence tho golden-hued ruddy god 
who sit* on our hearth, who shines in our house." 

z. 98, 7. Ihrasrutam rrn/i(tvam>k raruno Brihctpatir riieham asmi 
tytehhat | " lirihaspati, fulfilling (his desire), gave him (Dcvipi) a 
hymn seeking for rain, which the gods heard." 

(2) r<iren(aye and attributrt of the god. 

Brahmana'piili, or Brilioapati, appears to be described in rii. 97, 8, 
as the offspring of the two Worlds, who magnified him by their power 
(eVtl detuiya rodail janitrl Jlrihmpalim rat ridhetur mahi(fu) ; whilst 
in ii. 23, 17, he is said to have been generated by TVushtri (see abore}. 
He is called a print, x. HI, 3 {hrahmiinam cfm Brifmi/.-utim) , it 
associated with the Itikrons, or singers (rii. 10, 4 ; X. H, 8; cempare 
X. 36, 6; x. 64, 4) ; is denominated an inglraM (iv. 40, 1 ; vi. 73, 1; 
x. -17, 6); is tho generator, the utterer, the lord, the inspirer, of pray«r 
(ii. S3, 1, "J ; i. 40, 5 ; x. 08, 7), who by prayer aceompliahea his de- 
signs (ii. 24, 3), and mounting the shining und awful chariot of the 
louial, proceeds to conquer the enemies of prayer and of the gods 
(ii. 23, 8 f., 8). Ho is the guide, patron, and protector of the pices, 
who are saved by him from all dangers and calamities (ibid, verses 
4 ft); and are blessed by him with wealth bdi! prosperity (ibid. 9 f.). 
He is styled llie father of the pods, ii. 26, 3 (dnOnSm j>itara< 
said to have Mown forth the births of the gods like a blacksmith (are 
above, p. 48); to be possessed of all divine attributes, riiraaVcya, or 
rtfraaVa (iii. 62, 4 ; iv. 50, 6); bright, iuchi (iii. 62, 5; vii. B 
pure, iundhyu (vii. !)7, 7) ; ommxorui, vii\-<ir<ipa (iii. 62, 6) ; poaseesed 
of all desirable things, tikwira (vii 10, 4 ; vii. 07, 4) ; to hnv* a 
hundred wings, httpatn (vii. 97, 7) ; to carry a golden spear, hin t 
yacHil (ibid. ; compare ii. 24, 8, where a bow and arrows are assigned 
to him) ; to be a devourcr of enemies, tfitralhuda (x. 65, 10 : corn p. 
vi. 73, 3); a leader of armies along with Indm, etc., Indrah 


tuta lirihiiipiilir Dnhlind (x. 103, 8), and armed with an iron axe, 
which Tvushtri sharpens, ii&Ue nanam paraiuifi n&yatait yma vr&eh&i 
eUdo Brahmanupttih (x. 53, 9) ; clear- voiced, iuehikranda (vii. 97, 5); 
a prolongcr of life, prataritd 'ai Syuthah (s. 100, fi) ; a remover of 
disease, amlrahd (i. 18, 2) ; opulent, mat, raeurit ; an increase* of 
the means of subsistence, puthficardhana (i. 18, 2). Flnnts are said 
to apring from him, y«'A eshadhlh .... Mrihatpaliprtuatah (x. 97, 15, 
19). He is eaid in one place to be conveyed by easy-going ruddy horses, 
la* iagm&u amahSeo aitah Brihatpatim taharaho tahenti (rii. 07, 6). 

In one place he is taid to have heard th« cries of Triti, who had 
been thrown into a well and was calling on the gods, and to havo 
rescued him from his perilous position, i. 10.5, 17 {Tritak kiipt or ah it o 
detSn havatt ataye \ tat suirdra Brihespadh krigvann aihhQrandd urv). 

Hla exploits in the way of destroying Vala, and carrying oh* the 
heavenly kinc, or releasing the imprisoned waters of the sky. 
been sufficiently explained, in the «iuotntion I have made nbovc from 
rrvfcaaor Roth's Essay, as well as in the texts which have been trans- 
lated. Ho is further, as wo have seen, described as holding usutidcr 
the ends of the earth (it. 50, I). 

(3) Whether Brihatpali and Brahmanaepati are identifiable tcith Agni. 

Brahman sspati and Brihnspati arc regarded as names of Agni by 
M. Langlois, in his translation of the Rig-reda, vol. L p. 249 (note 36), 
p. 254 (note 83), p. 578 (note 1), and index, vol. iv., under the 
word*."* Professor Wilson also, in the introduction to the 1st vol. 
of bis translation, p. xxxvii , writes as follows: " Brahmarjaspati, 
also, as far as we can make out his character from the occasional 
stanzas addressed to him, seems to bo identifiable with Agni, with the 
nal attribute of presiding over prayer. The characteristic pro- 
perties of this divinity, however, aro not very distinctly developed in 
this portion of the Veda" (aee also the notes in pp. 41, 111, 112). 
In the introduction to his second volume, p. ix. however, Pre: 
Wilson aays that, a* described in the 2nd ashfaka of the B. V., Brihas- 
pati, "when treated of separately, is identical with Indra, by his 
attribute* of sending rain (p. 19y) and wielding the thunderbolt (p. 

•* M. Langlois «pclU Brihu|Mii, Vrihuputi. 


284) ; but ho is hymned indiscriminately with Brahmagaspoii, who is 
styled the lord of the Gagas, or companies of divinities, and also, whick 
|l in harmony with hia former character, chief or most excellent loti 
of mantras or prayers of tbo Vcdas (p. 262) ; he also, in some of kit 
attributes, as those of dividing the clouds, and sending rain, and re- 
covering the stolon kine (p. 268) is identical with Iodra, although with 
some inconsistency he is spoken of as distinct from, although associate! 
with, him (p. 270) ; bat this may be a misconception of the scholiast, 
etc." Finally, Professor Miillcr (Transl. of H.V. i. 77) states his opiniu 
Uiut " Hrohmarjaapati and Brihaepati axe both varieties of Apni, the 
priest and purokitn of gods and men, and as such ho is invoked 
together with the Maruts, etc.," as he had previously remarked that 
Ajrni also is. The verso to which this note refers, H.V. i. 38, 13, is 
as follows : achha vada tana yird jarayai brahman* <patm agniiit mtirtm 
na dariiilam, which Professor ilullor renders thus: "Speak out for 
over with thy voice to praise the lord of prayer, Agni, who is like a 
friend, the bright one." 

This identification, in the strict sense, of Brahmonaspati with 
is supported by some texts, but opposed to others. Of the 
class nre the following : 

ii. 1, 3. 7ham Agni Indro vrukabkak uttam at* Ham Vuhnitr i 
nanuuyah | team brnhmu rayivid brahmancupate | "Thou, Agni, art 
Indru, the most vigorous of the good ; tbou art the wide-striding and 
adorable Vishnu ; thou, o Bnihmanuaputi (or lord of prayer), art a 
priest (eVoArnd), tbo possessor of wealth, etc." Here, although Agni is 
also identified with India and Vishuu, as he is with other deitica in 
the following verses, the connection between him uud Brahnianaspati 
is shown to be more intimate and real by the fact that both the latter 
word and Agni are in the vocative. In the next passage also firihaa- 
pati, as well as Mutarisvan may be regarded as an epithet of Agni, 
iii. -'6, 2. TaA hibhram Aynhn avau haramnhe vaihanaram mdtarit- 
rrlnasi ukthyam | Bfihatpatm mantuho decai&Uiyt t>ipram hot a mm 
atithim rayhuthyadam | "We call to our succour the bright Agni, tha 
friend of nil mankind ; Mutariivan, who is worthy to be hymned ; 
Brihospati, the wise invoker, the guest, swiftly-moving, that he may 
como to a man's worship of the gods." 

The verse above quoted, r. 43, 12, is also alternatively explained 


Agni by Sayana in his remarks : athavH iyam Ayntyi \ brihatak pari- 
cridkatya birmanah *re!ml iti Brihatpatir Aptir uchyals \ tatkd nth- 
carna-dh&ma- priiAfkatca-Madana-tudana - hiranyavarnatt&di- Impair apy 
Afnir ita Brihatpaiih \ " Or, Agni in the subject of tho verso. By 
Brihnspati, the lord of the gram! ceremonial, Agni is denoted. And, 
farther, it is also shown by the marks of having a bock of dark- 
coloured smoke, of being placed on the sacrificial ground, of having a 
golden hue, etc., that Brihuspati is Agni." And in ii. 2, 7, Agni is 
besought to make Heaven and Earth favourable to tho worshipper by 
prayer, brahtaanil {prt'ichl dyUvtlprithitl brahmaad kridhi). Farther, 
Agni (see above pp. 199 f.), as well as Urahmanoepati and Erihaspati, 
is ceiled a priest, and both are designated as Angiras, or Angiraaa. 

On the other hand, however, Brahmanaspati or Brihaspati ia else- 
where distinguished from Agni. Thus in x. 68, 9, Brihaspati iB said 
to have found out Ushas, the heaven, and Agni, and by a hymn to 
have chased away the darkness {iah ttthfim avindat tah nak to agmm 
n mkna ri babadhe (aminui). In vii. 10, 4, Agni is asked to bring 
Brihaspati along with Indra, Rudro, Aditi, etc. In tin: following 
texts, where a number of different gods are invoked or nomed togellur, 
Agni is mentioned separately from Brahmanaspati or Brihaspati, iii. 
20, 5 ; iv. 40, 1 ; v. 61, 12 f. ; vii. 41, 1 ; vii. 44, I j ix. 6, 11 ; 
x. 36, 11 ; x. C5, 1 ; i. 130, 4 ; x. 141, 3. 



(1) References to immortality in the earlier booh of the Riy-tti*. 

It is in tin- ninth and tenth books of the Rig-vcda that we 
the most distinct and prominent reference* to a future life. It 
true thut the Ilibhus, on account of their artistic "kill, are said, in 
some texts in the earlier books, to hurt been promised, and to 
have attained, immortality and diviue honours (sec above p. 226, 
nd U.V. iv. 35, 3, where it is said: atha aiia Fujah amritatyi 
panth&m yn»'iw dtvtuutui Rihhmah eukiuUih | "Then, skilful Vijas, 
Ilibhus, ye proceeded on the road of immortality, to the asect&blngt 
of the gods;" and verse 8: ye detuto aoJiavata tukdtyA fye* 
id adhi divi niiheda | U ralnam dh&ta fit raw napAtitk Sandkattttnai 
abhacata amfitQsah | "Ye who through your skill hare become gods, 
ntiil 13m falcons are seated in the sky, do ye, children of strength, girt 
us riches; ye, o sons of Sudhanvan, have become immortal."). This, 
however, is a special enso of deification, and would not prove tlut 
ordinary mortals were considered to survive after the termination of 
their earthly existence. There are, however, a few other passages 
which must be understood as intimating a belief in a future state of 
happiness. Thus Agni is said in i. 31, 7, to exalt a mortal to immor- 
tality \tvirii tarn Ague amritaU* ttttamo martafi dadhUti) ; and to be thi 
guardian of immortality (adabdho gop&h amritatya rakthitu). And the 
same power is ascribed to Soma in i. 01,1: taca pranitl pitare n*k 
J nd ■> deieshit ralnam abhajanla dhirah | " By thy guidance, o Soma, 
our sage ancestors have obtained riches among the gods; '' and again, 
inverse 18: apyiiyamOnoamrUAya Soma did irara&si utUmvni dhi»ht*\\ 
" Soma, liccoming abundant to (produce) immortality, place (for us) 
excellent treasures in the sky." 411 Some other passages to the 

"• Pmf«*or Itonbiy, however, translate* ilifleroiilly : " take cootsaiaa of Ike lujhcrt 
MiKiwa in urnvta." 


effect arc the following : i. 180, 5. Nukatya prithfhe adfii iish{hati irito 
ye priifUi #* ha itvtthtt gtuhhati \ 8. DahJiintiratunt id imuni ehUrd 
dmtahinavatSm diti turyutah \ daWtindvanto amritam hhojmU daiahinH- 
tantah pratirantt ayuh ,a ( " 5. The liberal man abide* placed upon tho 
summit of the sky ; h« go«* to the goda. 8. Thc*» brilliant things are 
the portion of those who bestow largesses; there are snns for them in 
heaven ; they attain immortality ; they prolong their liveB. i. 154, 5. 
Tad a»ya priyam nlhi ptitho us ahjCtm nam yatra dtrayaro ma/tanti | 
urukramaiya ta hi bandhur iithd ri'tAjw/t pade parents madhrah ut*ah | 
"May I attain to that bJi ;VMirtu's) beloved abode where men dovoted 
to the gods rejoice ; for that is the bond of tho wide-striding god — a 
epring of honey in tho highest sphere of Vishnu." i. 171), 6. Ubhatt 
csrjdr ruhir vgrah pupotha talijuh dttethu Hiuho jagSma | " Tho 
glorious riahi practised both kinds' 1 ': ho realised bis aspirations among 
the gods." In v. 4, 10, tho worshipper prays : prttjiibhir Agne t 
ram aiydn | " May I, Agni, with my offspring, attain immortality.""* 
In t. 55, 4, the Moruta are besought to place thoir worshipper* in the 
condition of immortality {ulo atmiln amnlatr* dadhdtana). ». 63, 2; 
€fiti[iA v&A rSdho amrilattam Intake | " We aak of you twain ( Mitr.i 
said Varurja) rain, wealth, immortality." vix. 57, G. Dadula no atnrt- 
laiyo prajfiyai | whicli Professor Roth, t.t.pnyr,, trfTlfllf 1 "add us 

•" The tame idea is repeated in x. 107, 2 (votAd rfi'ri dttuMtfiiranio tuHur f 
*Jr*dik mha t* turyrnti \ hiranrjadTth tmritalvam Mojantt tvJKdHk una prm tiraml* 
3y*4 1 M The giten of largesses abide high in tbe sky; the (fivers of hor** live * iih 
tkeMin; tho giver* of gold enjoy immortality ; the given of raiment prolong their liw*." 

*° TVc »«ino word *b I employed, palhsM, ucoure alio in iii. 55, 10: 

1'iiinnr f-jyitf p^rtmam p'iti p~'th*ll prism dhamiini mmriln dmdMimi/i \ •• Vishnu, a 
protntor, (tiirdt the hightut abode, occupying the beloved, imperishable region*." 
See alto i. 162, 2; x. 70, •), 10. la i. 1C3, If, the hone which had been itnia©- 
t»t«l it laid to harm gone to the highest abode, to tin 1 gudt (mpm prirpiii fnr*m*m 
M^a«rA<tm arr-in itrVi pitartim mSturam eh/i \ aiiya Avxiu jiuSfittmo Ki jit»y ; t|. 

In ii. 23, 8, meatioa it made of attaram BMH .-h«t happiness," and in 

ii. 25, 6, of tho " bappiurai of the Rods" (lirtamim nmnt) ; but it duet no: appear 
whether heaven is meant. In i. 159, 2, Heaven and Earth teem to be declared to 
provide large immortality for their offspring firm prqjnjpj^ amritam). 

*»• Sayaaa explains tlham r*r%an by •* pleasure and austerity" komaSi iK» 
ep»: tlm), 

111 8ee, ho were r, S2ynrjn's ploea and Wilton't note, in fere, where the imir. 
i s fta re d to is explained at ininwrtality tirongh cflVpiiug, and u eostbtiag is au un- 
tfuliiil smmsiiiii of deteendants. Die immurultty of a mortal {amrituftvm >*m*i>- 
'nukkHUt-Ukthtytn | "prt/am turn prtjvyati tad m It marlya umritam" iti At 


to (the number of) the people of eternity, i.t. to the Messed." rii. 76, 
4. T$ id dtrdndm ladhamddah dtann ritdeAmah karayah p*rryAmk\ 
"They were the companion* of the gods,— those ancient righteous 
sages." viii. 5ft, 7. Uil yad bradhruuya tixhlapait griham Indrai da 
gauvahi J madhcah piled tachevahi trih tapta takhyuh pad* | * 4 When w» 
two, Indra and I, £0 to tho region of tho sun, to our home, may w«. 
drinking nectar, sock thrice seven in the realm of the friend." Can- 
para viii. -18, 3, quoted above in p. 90, note : Wo have drunk the 
Soma; wo have become immortal; we have entered into light; 
have known tho gods." 

Vfita is also declared to hare a store of immortality in his house (h 
grihe amritasya nt'Jhir hitah). But tliis verse occurs in a late hymn 
(the 186th) of the tenth Mandala. In the same Book, x. 95, 18, the 
promise is marie by the gods to Pururavas, the son of Iju, that though 
he was a mortal, when his offspring should worship them, with obla- 
tions, he should enjoy happiness in Svarga, heaven (»<»' let iaedk mm 
iihur Aila yalhtm etad bhavaai mrityubandimh | prqj'd te dtvun hacuku 
yajftti icarge u Iran api mildaydst). 


(2) Reftrmett to the Fathers, the soul* of departed ancestor*, in the 
earlier books of the liitj-teda. 

The following passages appear to refer to the sonla of deceased 
cestors conceived of as still existing in another world : 

i. .'Hi, 18. Agninu Turcaiam Yadum pardvatah UgradevaA haxdnake | 
" Tlirough Agui we call Turra.4a, Yadu, and Ugradcvn from afar." 
iii. 55, 2. Mo ihi no atra juhvranta derSh md puree Agnt pilarah pad- 
ninth | " Lot not tho gods injure us here, nor our early Fathers who 
know tho realms." ri. 52, 4. Aeanlu mam Uihato jAyamdndh acaiU* 
md lindhaetth pincamdnah | avantu md parvatdio dhrncdso aeanlu m& 
pitaro devahataa | " May the rising Dawn, tho swelling rivers, the linn 
mountains, proteot me; may the Fathers protect mo in my invocation 
to the gods." vi. 76, 10. Brdhmandtah pitarah lomydsah Una mo 
Dydvdprithit\ anehasd \ Ptishu nah pdtu duritdd ritdtridhah | "Hay 
the Itruhmans, Fathers, drinkers of Soma, may Heaven and Earth be 
propitious to us. May IMilian, the promoter of sacred rites, preserve 
us from calamity." rii. 35, 12. S'aA Hah saiymya patayo bhotamtu 



iam m arranUih tarn u mntu gi'iruh \ iaih nah ftibhttrah ndrita/i rutin it a A 
iam m> bhatantu pilaro hottthu \ '' May the lords of truth be propitious 
to us, and so may the horses and kinc ; may the skilful ltibhus, 
dexterous of hand, may the Fathers, be propitious to us in our invo- 
cations." viii. 48, 13. Team Stma pitribhih luriiiiidilno anu dyuia- 
prill.iel a talaniha | "Thou, Soma, in concert with tho Pothers, 
extended the Heaven and Eurili." 

I may also introduce hero a few dotaohod texts on the souse subject 
from the ninth and tenth books: ix. 83, 3. Mayatino mamire tirya 
tnfiynyd nrichaJuhmah pilaro tjarbham udadhuh | "By his wondrous 
power, the skilful, have formed, tho Fathers, beholders of men, have 
deposited the germ." x. 68, 11. Abki sydrj* na kriiattibhir afrit* 
nakihatrtbkih pitaro dyum apifitian | "The Fathers have adorned the 
*ky wilh stars, as a bay horse is decorated with pearls (?)." x. 88, 15. 
Dvt trull airinavam pilrln&m tifutm derandm uta ntartydnAm | " 1 have 
beard of two paths for mortals, that of tho Fathers, and that of the 
gods." 41 * x. 107, I. Mahijyotih pitribhir datUm ugat | "The great 
light given by the Fathers has armed." 

In the Taittirlya Bruhmana, and in tho Farinas, thu Fa) 
(Pritria) are represented aa being a distinct order of beings from men, 
as may be gathered from their being separately created. Sec tho I »% 
vol. of this work, pp. 23 f., 37, 58, 79 f. 

(3) Hymns rtlating to Tama and the Falheri. 

I now come to the passages in tho ninth and tenth books to which 
I first alluded : and, owing to the great interest and importance of tho 
subject* to which they refer, I shall first quota the most essential parts 
of thorn at length, and then supply a summary of the conclusions 
which they assert or involve. 

I shall begin with the brief account of Yama'a parentage in the 
serenteenth hymn, already quoted above, p. 227, and the dialogue 
betwixt him and his twin sister Yarn!, is the tenth hymn of the tenth 

B.V. x. 17, 1. "Tvaahtn makes a marriage for his daughter. (Hill- 
ing) this, this whole world assembles. Tho mother of Yama, becoming 

>'• See the lit vol. of this Woik, p. 434. 



wedded, tho wife of tho great Tie-mat, disappeared. 2. They eon- 
coaled the immortal (bride) from mortals, linking (another) of similar 
form, gavo hur to Vivusvat. And she bora the Asvin* when thai hap- 
pened. Sararjyu nbandonod the two pairs of twins.' 

The following hymn contain* a dialogue between Tama and hi* ! 
■istor YnmT, in which, according to Professor Roth, she is to bo 
•idcrod as urging a matrimonial union between then for the cent 
tion of the human species, of which, in the opinion of that writer, 
appear to have becu r i est pair. 4 " In rem -1, they 

are declared to have, been the offspring of the Gandhurru, and his v. i 

II. V. x. 10, l. 41 * cAil takhuyum takfiyu t air it yum tirah pun ekid 
srnavam jagamdn \ pitur napatam a dadhiU redkak adhi kshami praU- 
rath dtdhyanah \ 2. Sa U takhd takhyam ratkfi ttat »a!aktk*t& yW 
eixhui-upn bhaviiti \ mahat putrtto aturiuya eJr«A dine dkartt&rah urnyi 
pan khytm | 3. Uianli gha it nmn'tumk ettd eltavja chit tyajttam m<*rt- 
yatya | ni te MM NRWi iJHtyi axmn janyuh paiii tantam & ciniyuk | 
4. iVa fat punl (hnhrimit knd ha nUnam fitA wdento anritaik rapena \ 

'" After this section was first written I m Proi not Mix Mailer's aeerad 

series of Lecture* on tho Science of Language. Tho learned and ingenious sal 
there dlaenases at length the meaning of tho mjrthi regnrdinjr Virastat, Saronji. 
ring (pp. l&t IT., and -Jos II'.). lie wider '■' represent 

sky, Soranya the duwn, Yuma originally tho (lay, and Vntnl. hit twin sister, 
night (p. 60S). I «h:ill briefly refer, a* I proceed, to some of his farther 
tion*. basing tin r..i.!u to SOOtoN the wort itself for fuller informitioa. 

*" See Professor Roth's remarks on Yamn in the Journal of the German Oriental 

Society, ie. 428, and in the Journal of Ihn Amnricin (hioalal Satiety, fiL 3ii t. 

| jre," he says, " as their name* denote, twin brother and sister, and are the 

first human pair, the originators of the race. At the Hebrew conception dearly 

connected the parents of mankind by talking the woman farmed from a portion 

'.ixly 1. 1 i.Ik miii. so by the Indian tradition they are placed in the rciation- 

ship of twins. This thought is laid by tho hymn in oui rb'on in (he month of YsmI 

, when »ho U made to s»y: 'Era in the womh the Crestor made na for 

"■■' ni with ' " I liter, ■-.!> theothei hand, says (Lcct . 

"There is a curious dialogue between hex [Tint) and bcr brother, where she (the 

Bight) iraploros her brother (tho day) to mako her his wife, and where be declines 

r. - became,' as he says, ' they hnre called it a sin a brother should Bssrry 

. r." " Again, p. Alii. "Thero is not a single word in the Veda pouting to 

Uld Fassl u' the tlm couple of mortals, as tl.e Indian Adam and E*i . 

Yama had boon the first created of men, torsi] the V -n speaking of bin. 

■' luve passed this over in silence." Sec, however, the paaeagc frora the 

A.V. nfj r., l.'i, to be quoted further on. 

'" 'I'uia hyran b repeated in the A.V. xviii. I, I n". I era indebted to Professor 
Aufrecht for some improvements in my translation. 




Gandharto aptu apy/3 cha youhu til no niibhih paramntit y.»i\ im nau | 5. 
Garble nu nau janitd dampati tar devtn Tiathfa tarita viitarupak | 
nakir atya praminanti vratdni reda ndv atya pftthivl uta dynuh \ 6. 
Ko atya tula prathamatya ahnah kah itli dadttria kof ilia pra rochat | 
bfiknn Ititrtitya Varunatya dhdma tad u bnuah dfamo v\chyd npin | 7. 
Yamatya md Yamydih Uuuah Ay an tenant- ycnau lahaityydya | fdyd 
iVrt paiye taniat'u ririchy&Si vi (hid tfihma "° rath >nlrd | 8. Xa 

tuhfbanfi na hi mi4kanti cU- <A \ha ye eharanti | ( — Nir. 

V. 2) any ma toad tihana ynh: . xrihara!!- : 9. 

l:\lr\bhir atmai akabhir daituytt Siryasya chatshur malar n muGjfft \ 
dita pfithiryil miihuna talandfai Yantir Yamaiya bihbriyud ajdmi | 10 
( — Nir. to. 20) A ■f/mnii tittaril yngilni yn'/n jdmayah krin- 

OMJtN aj barbhfihi irishabluiya bnhum anyaut iehhatra mbhayi 

patim mat | 11. Kim bhrdtH axad yad andlham bhavtlH Lim u tratd ynn 
JS'irritir mifacM&t | kdma-miiUl bahu dad rupumi tanrd mt lanrain 
sam pipfigdhi | 12. Na Ml u te lanvd. iMMi sum paprickytim pupam 
Gnur yah taaaflram nigaehhsi \ anycna mat pramudah kalpayatta na U 
bhrdtd lubhage tariifi clat | 13. (=Nir. vi. 28) Rata bala an Yarn* 
Mated te inano hridaynm cha aviddma | anyu At la tram kahshyil it a 
yuUam pari ihtajute libuj<ca Vfikiham* 11 | H. (—Nir. xi. 81) An yam « 
thu .»' anyah it ttum pari thxijrita libuj'an triL-ihaM | Uuya 

t6 trim manah ichha »a r« tata adha krinuthia lamtidtm talfuidrdm , 

[ Yuml saya] •* O that I might attract a friend to friendly act*. May 
tho aago (Yiuna?), after traviising a vast ocean, nostra a gruinUon to 
his t.Ilir, uml look fai I over the earth. 10 2. (Yaroa.) Thy 

friend docs not i ill intimacy that (his) kinswoman (hould 

become (a») an nliL-n. Tho heroes, tho sons of tho great Spirit, tho 
impportcra of the sky, look far and wide around (sec rcrso 8). 3. 
(Yuml.) The immortula dtdire thLs of th«T, (they ileaire) a descendant 
left behind by tho one aolo mortal. Let thy soul be united to 
niiuo. As a husband, penctrutu the body of (thy) wife. I. (Yams.) 
Sliall wc (do) now what wo have never doue IwflBtf Shall We 
(have bevn) speakers ol righteousneaa, utter uurigbtvousnv^s ? 

«• Cmnpwo A.V. rt 00. I ; ti. 127. J. 
«•' Onapare A.V. 1. 

1,1 Tliii veno occur* with r»ri»tioai in Ui« S«tb*-t«J», i. 310. Tho tonw of k,at 

i as umbo uthm, is obscure. If tho sage (i.v/A«.) mctn Y.imo, Us fits**- nujr tc 

»r*l, or the GmulLnrru. and I lie pi. .- nisj b« tht son whom Yam! 

wss dssirvui io U«r «o h«» twin bmthrr (Ysmu). Oompura the ant bslf of vgrse S. 



ia the (semi) 


ifciimiii aaV 

5. (T«L) TW 
the creator, the Ti^ficr, the ihaacraf eB fan all 
wise, f while we were yet) ta the wa rt . * * 5o oac 
ordinances. Earth tad km btv tterfa t. (Tawas.) Whi 
knows this first day? Who bsw ssea it ? Who taw ii rlesi it ? T«a 
a the realm of Mitra wad Tarawa. What wilt taoa. o wwatoa w n n, 
say ta thy tbocgfctlrawrss (.:) ta aww ? 7. (Taat ) TW dam ef 
Tama hat come apaa me, Taad, ta lie with hiai oa the 
Let me, as a wife bare bit body to my hasbaad. Let we wkni i 
like the two wheel* of a chariot, ft. (Tame.) These spies of the gods 
who mage tbroaghoa* this world ataad aat stfll, aeither da they wis*. 
Depart, qwkkly, waatoa woman, with agcae other man thaa anc Whirl 
rowad with turn like the two wheel* ef a chariot. 9. (TuIO Theagb 
aha ehowld wait apes him by aifkt sad by day, «t31 At eye of the an 
weald open again. Both ia hearea sad earth twiae tre rJoaery waited. 
Let Taml treat Teaw as if the were aat hie sasser. 10. (Tawav) 
ages thall come whea kin e nra wad liueeeutu abaD do what at 
; their relation. Spread thy am beweath a wale. Desire, 
o fair one, aaetber husband than aw. 11. (Tint.) How eaa a 
aua be a brother, whea (a woman) ie left withowt a helper? 
And what b a sister, whea misery (t* allowed to) cocao upon her? 
Orercome by desire, I em thai iiajiBltBsjwU Unite thy body with 
taiac. 12. (Tama.) I will not unite my body with thine. They mil 
him a sinner who eexeafly approaches hie sister. Beak thy gratifi- 
cation with some other thaa me. l*sir one, thy brother desires not 
this.** IS. (Tami.) 4- Tboa art weak, alas, o Yams ; we peteoire aot 

«■ Oaneare attikr'i Lrcssna, Sai. series, a. t». Be whea fisaeWis fcr 
TiimrU.mi^m^mmwik{ J l K mrmlm)mram> V %.immB,m l it»ttm\\hgij^^ 
rTnektli ■ tea*. i_V. su T*; J, as Bare termed a ttt 
6cr tV>«c p. 2SS ; alsft tm. 7% 8. 
,. 1, It, U) rq-i *. t*is< 
as U tmirn Im ri mm pap r i t k& m | 
aa B> Uriti astlast raaifi mrt | It. Aa mi a U tamwm tmti mm 
f mr itii imfipmmilmrtmtt tm S nm nj i r ll ff { amwmmt mmi mmmm kfidt m 
Uriti ***** i«|av ft tmfty | - 1 an aot ta ikes ttj helper, o Yaasl ; I wQt m* 
BM at* seer vita Oia*. Smk ta? g nHic ati n a aiu'ssae MWr laaa bm. Pair 
eae, tar W**W imtm a* tii.. I srjfl aot sank b*t bodr *nh taise. TVrr call 
kit a tm»*r »ao mxmiij lyamsa U war. Tka» a* abfcomat to a»j mml ml 
Wan. taat I, a bsatacr. aaaaU lit oa bit mmwt Wd." 
- Thai sent a ejeatad ia« tmlsisi I ia Niraku, ri. «. 

iirrwiettlvo: m baiOat 



any soul or heart in thee. Another woman shall enlace and embrace 
thee like a girdle, or as a creeping plant a tree. 14. (Yama.) Thou 
•holt embrace another mas, o YamI, and Another man theo, as a creep- 
ing plant a tree. Do thou desire his huurt, and lie thine. Make then 
a fortunate alliance." •" 

The next hymn I quote in addreaaed to Yama. 

E.V. x. 14, 1 (-A.V. xviii. 1, 49. Nir. x. 20). FarryiramMm pri- 
vate mah\r anu bahubhyah pantkum anupasptiidnam | Faitanafam utitga- 
manam janun&ih Yamaih rujuitaiix haiiihi duvatya | [A.V. XTiii. 3, 13. 
Yo mamdra prathamo marlyurium yah preyaya prathamv lokam ttam | 
faixateatam tangamanam jananSm Yamam rajanam havithi wpaf 
f«ts) m | 2. Tamo no gulvm prathamo tiveda naithd garyQtir apabkar- 
taeai u | yittra nah /»iirr« pilarah parryur rm\ jajnfintlk pslhyah mm 
nik | 3. Miitall Karyair Yamo Angirobhir Bfikatpatir ffikvabhir 
tavpidhCnak | i'dffii da deriih cax^idhur yt eha det&k n&hH anyt na- 
dkayd anye madanti | 4. Imam Yama prattaram d hi $lda Angirobhik 
pitribhih tamvidtlnah | d trd manlrSh lavi-instah vahimtu end ra/an 
km u&a mdiayaita | 6. Angirobhir dgahi yajniytbhir Yama Tairvpair 
ika madayaixa | Virauavtam hurt yah pit* if asmin yajtu barkithi d 
niatmdya | 6. Angira*o nah pitaro Natagr&h Atharaino llhrigatah torn- 
ydtah | tuhuiit vayam tumatau yajniyunam apibhadre tattmaiuut tyfima \ 

7. Prthi prehi pathibhih purtyebhir yatra nah parr* pilarah parry kit | 
ubhd rdjdnd tradhayu madanti Yamam paiy&ti Varunam cha dtvam | 

8. Sangackhawa pitfibhtk *am Yamena itf-tupOrtlma param* ryoman | 
kiivdya aradyam punar anion thi tangachkatta tanrd tuearchuh | 0. 
Aptta rl/j n" eka urpatato aimai ttam pitaro lokam akran | aholhir 
adbhir altuhhir tyaitam Yamo daduti avaulnam asmai | 10. Ali drarn 
Saramtyau hunau ehaturahhau iabalau tddkund palhd | atka pitflm 
nridmtrdn upthi Yamtna y« tadhamddam madanti | 11. Yau tt tvSnoM 
Yama rakahitdrau chaturakthau pathiraltkl nriehalihavtu \ tClhyuM 

«*» It app*ars from Trofwior Anfrettit'a Catalogue of the Bodleian San»*rit MRS. 
f. S2, thai (he Karaiinha Purina, i. 13, con tain i • dialogs* bttw««ti Tama and 
YamT ; but I am informed br Dr. Hall, who baa looked at tbo paiMgv, that th* 
co»Tcnatiun don not appcaw to be on the tome (abject m that in Uw hjrnn bHbrc w*. 

«•• Compare A.V. rL 28. 8 : T*k ji r nlU a i > prarmfm a—iaa ta kmikm*9 pan- 

tkam anwpaipa iSma k | yo *tya lit dfipado pat tAat aihpa a a i ftimai Yamaya nam* 

ottu mrttyarf | " RaTriraea to that Tama, to Death, who find nwhod tho rira., 

.? out a path for many, who u lord o* tbea* two-footod and fooMoolod crea« 



mam pari dehi rtijaii natti eha a.mai ananutaih tha dkehi | 12. Cr&nat&i 
tuulrip/i uduinbalau Yamaiya dilau tharalo janiin ana \ trtv aaaulkptk 
dfi&ayt ttfirytlya punar datum asum adyitha lhairam I 13. Yamajt 
tvinam tutiutti Yanntya juhutu harih | Yamaik ha gajno parkhati epu- 
d&to arankritah | 14. Yamrtya ghriiavai hatirjuhata pra cha ti*hf\*t* \ 
ta tio dertthu u yatruii iirgham fiyuh pra jlcau | 15. Yatarty* m*dim- 
matlamatii rujne hat-guilt juhutam \ idai/t namah rUhilhgah purrajelkftk 
purttbkyah pathikridbhyah \ 

" Worship with an oblation King Yama, too of Yjvasrat, the 
sembler of men, who departed to tho mighty streams, *" and spied 
the road for many. [Compare AthaTrn-Tcdn, xtiii. 3, 1 3 : * lUjrtr- 
«nco yo with an oblation Yams, the eon of Yivasvat, tho assembler of 
men, who was tha first of men that died, and the first that deported to 
this (celestial) world.'] 2. Yama was tha first who found for us the 
way. Thu home is not to be taken from oa. Those who are now 
born (follow) by their own paths to tho place whither our ancient 
fathom have departed. 3. Mntall magnified by the Kavyns, Yama by 
tho Angiroaes, and llrihaspati by the Rikvana — both those whom the 
gods magnified, imd those who (magnified) the gods— of these socio 
arc gladdened by Svaha, and others by Svadhu. •!. Place thyself, 
Yama, on this sacrificial seat, in concert with tho Angixasee and 
Fathers. Let the texts recited by the sages bring thee hither. Delight 
thyself, o king, with this oblation. 4. Coma with the adomb: 
girascsj delight thyself here, Yama, with tho children of Virfipa .*■ 
Seated on the grass at this sacrifice, I invoke Vivasvat, who is thy 
father. 6. (Nir. xi. 19.) M"ny we enjoy the good will and gracious 


**» Thi» : I tlie wards pratrttt ma Air iritu, sdopted bjr ttoth in 

Illmtniiiuno ol' thu Kiruktu, p. 138. In enpport of this mum of mighty (eel 
water*, ho refer* to R.V. it. 113, 8 (which 1 ahull quote further oa), and to tscb» 9 
of this hjrmn. In bin srtlOM "" Om »!nry r>f JsntshM, in the Journal of the Genua 
Oriental Society, It, 420, he b»d tnuulnted the words, "from the deep t* the heights.*' 
and Dr. Bang, in his " Ksssm on the Bserod Language, etc., of the Paneea," p T3%, 
ainiilarly renders, " from the deptbs to the hdichu." In the Atbnm.wds, x\i>L i, 
bowertr, where the saint 1 wonts occur, tirthaii tnrtxti prattle ma/trr itt 
udfito yrn* ya.vtt (" They cruta by funis the jjreat rirets, [by the road] which 
•irtUMU offerers of sacrifice pa*'."* ) tn «* m, " n mor » likely to mean the mighty 
Compare Professor MtUkt/l Lwfesns, »i. 615. 

**» Virflpa is racntioned in B.V. L 45, 3 . t iii. C 1, 4 ; and the Yirflpsa in iiL H, 
C, aod i. 62, 6 f. Set the 3rd toL of this work, p. ua and note. 



benevolence of those adorable being*, tlio Angirawtt, our Futhcro, tho 
Navngriu, the Atharvnns, tho Bhrigu*. offerers of soma. 7. Depart 
thou,"' depart by tho ancient paths (to tho place) whither onr early 
fathom hare departed. (There) shalt thou sco the two kings, Yamii anil 
the god Yaruna, exhilarated by tho oblation (svadhfi), (or, exulting in 
independent power). 8. Meet with Ru Fathers, meet with Yuma,*" 
suet with the [recompense of J the sacrifices thou host offered '" in 
tho highest heaven. Throwing off all imporfeetion again go to thy 
bom©."* Become united to a body, and clothed in a shining 

*" The following Terse* (as appear* from Professor Miiller'i Essay on flM 
rites of tha Brshusiis, Jourasl of the Gorman Orient sj s 108, p, xi.) ire 

addressed at funerals to too souls of tha departed, while their bodies ore being coa- 
•uwrd f>o the funeral pile. 

** Tis A.V. xriii. 2, 21 is it follows: 21. BiMy&sW It manata mannh ikernim 
friku* *pa jnj<ukan*k thi | mm gacJ\/ias\a jtitfiiMh mm gamma lytmit Ira ritok 
raa rout* iiijrnniA | 24 Ut Ira ruAtioru Mam/a tumvaMah udapntlah | ajttia krin- 
mmtH litan rankrmokthanlu bat Hi | 23. I'd it A rum iiyvr eii/uthi kratw rf 
jit*M | itan fothhatu It mono udhd pitrhi ttpa drava | "With my Hal I i 
soul ; eoute with delight to these abodes; meet with the Fathers, inert with 
Buy delightful, pleasant braesc* blow upon thee. 24. May tho water-bringing, 
wstcr-shedding Manila bear thee upward, sad creating ooolucas by khflfa 

sprinkle the* with rain, HI May thy soul go to its own (timkvd), and hasten 

to tho Fathers." 

ss* Tho phrssa itAfajurta is explained by Dr. Hmg (Ait. Br. ii. p. 474, aots). 
M(*, he says, torsos "what is sacrificed," an<l • • •llltd up to ." " For oil 

aaariloos go up to hcavco, and arc *tor«d »p there to bo taken possession of by tho 
aacriflorr on his srriTol in heaven." Tho minis before as will therefore ntran "rcjoia 
thy sscrincet which were stored. up." The Athsrvm-Trds, xriu. 2. 20, expresses tha 
sentiment hero tvferral to by Dr. Ilaug in tliiwe w.irdu: trWAuA yii/ ehaifuht 
jimmt Wit It mnitt m*4kturhui<U) | " May tho oblations which thou offered** while 
alive (now) drop thee honey." And in A.V. xi. 1, 36, it u aaid : ttaih niriuir 
•mm futknm* y/MUm nakt liiM(h*»l*m mthi mpturaiman \ " With the** good dead* 
nay we fellow the sacritce which abides in the hen Ten with seven rays." Compare 
L 122, 4 : ya/M« «•*•»/«•» mamua knUiUmm tmrmtkami Utpma mymik | 
upakuthK Afnt j*r*mk paratal Iritiyt tnkt mihtmUkmm ussom | " With my 

sowl I ascend after the gnat sacriiioa as it goes, dwelling tegethar with my aaaUrsv 
lervoeir; may we, Agni, invited, enjoy a festival in the third heaven beyond (the 
of) decay." And A.V. vi 123, 2: «™j«iii y*j«minck matti uifapurtam 
Lrimuiirir «tmai \ i. Ss ptchami *• thdami m gajt n tmll'tJ ma yutltm | 5. 
i piitama no ntrVwi mi dtra »nw*»<> Mem | 3. "The aacriiorr will follow hi 
show him what he has otTered. 4. 1 conk, 1 gut, I offer oblations ; may I 
not be separated from what I ba<ro given. 0. king, recogn is e what we have be- 
stowed ; be gvaeuMis." Couipuiw A.V. iii. 20, 1. 

*** MGIUt iia (be Eawy just referred to, p. ait.) trsiwlntos thia veno tls»: " Lcare 
eril there, Usea rotarn bosae, and take s form," pi . aderiag appears to make 

taw wapartsd return to thi* wojU lo resume his body, tboajh in a gloriaod sute, 

BHg, maa- 

icalth. 12. 


tL<. umSf 


form.** 9. Go ye, depart ye, hasten yo from hence. 01 The Father* 
have made for him this place. Yama give* him an ahodd w dis- 
tinguished by daya, and waters, and lights. 10. By an suspicions 
path do thou hasten past tho two four-eyed brindled dogs, ths 
offspring of Saramd. Then approach tho benevolent Fathers who 
dwell in festivity with Yama (compare A.Y. iviii. 4, 10). 11. Ia- 
tnut him, 4 " o Yama, to thy two four-eyed, road-guarding, 
observing watch-dogs ; and bentow on him prosperity and health. 
Tho two brown messengers of Yama, broad of nostril and 
wundor about among men.*" May they give us again to-day the auspi- 
cious breath of life, that we may behold the sun. 13. Pour out the 
soma to Yuma, offer him an oblation. To Yama the aucrirloo pro- 
ceed* when heralded by Agni and prepared. 14. Ofler to Yama sn 
oblation with butter, and be active. May he grant us to lire a long 

which doc* not teem to bring oat a good kiuq. Roth,, on tho other band (is Jevra, 
Genu. Or. Society, It. 428), connect* (be word ptmak with whnt precedes, ami naiksi 
the verae thui : " Enter thy home, laying down again all impcr fettiun," etc. 

°» Tba A.Y. iviii. 2, 24, any* : ma tt mono mti "aw ma 'mfatiim ma nummmt Sr | 
fNU It hAtla tanrtih kinehnntha \ 2(5. Ma tra rriktlmh mm badkUkft ma aVci pjt/kmi 
maki | hkam pitrithtt titva tdktuva I'amanijam | 28, Y*t It mttyam mtikit*m pmri- 
ekiir apSnaf) ptvjyi y«A « vdlt partU'tf ( lot It ttiw/itty yiUrtk taw Tajuj akatid 
i/A.mui/i jiimar 11 rtJayanttt | •' Let not tliy aoul nor anything of thy apirit («■). of 
of thy members, or of thy substance, or of thy body, disappear. 26. Let bo trw m 
luuc, nor the groat divine earth. Having found un abode among the Father*, floorita 
among tho suhjentK of Yiimn. 26. Whatovnr mrmbir of thine has been removed afar, 
or breath of thine ha» departed in the wind, may the combined Father* reunite Uwaa 
all with thoo." 

•** These words, aocordlng to Prohawr affflkr, are sddreaaed to «tU ipirics. 

o* jitmanam. Compare A.V. xviii. 2, 37, where Yams u said to recoganse these 
who are bii Own: dmliimi vwnmi avnmmtm itnti yuk ttka aaiid mama tktd eMaaf 
ika | Yama/ rhikitran prali etad aha mamnuha raye upa lukfkatam ik* | " I grte 
this abodo to this man who hat coma hither, if he is mine. Tama, peToeJnag 
•gain, ' Do i* mina, let him come hither to pronpority,' " 

*" See Reth, Journal German Oriental Society, tr, 42S, at the foot, and bis 
planntion of jars' dtki, it. da (ace abrn t. 1$, 2 ; and A.V. viii. 2. 20, 22). M tiller, 
on the other hand (p. xit.),*: "Surround bim, Yuma, protecting him from 
tho dogt." vti. 

* a * The two dogs of Yams ere alio mentioned in A.V. tiii. 1, 9, where one of flats 
t* toid to be Mack (»y<"imu) and the other apntted (ialala). In A.V. nii. 2, 11, tU 
noteengert of Yama, who wander among men, are spoken of in tho plaroJ, withoet 
being d«*cribed aa dogt ( Fatcutnttna prakitan T tma 4W S9 U cktnu* 'aw aeifsii—i 
imrvlin). In A.V. v. 30, 6, they are spoken of aa two: dutau Ytmoty* mi '■■?&♦ 
adkijiKjnra iki | " Do not fallow Yama 'a two msaaengsrs ; come to the citiea of the 
living." la A.Y. viii. 8, to f. tho the messengers of Death and Yama art mmtjeaed 





life among tho gods. 15. Offer it most honied oblation to king Yam*. 
Let this salutation (bo presented) to the earliest-barn, the ancient 
rishis, who made for us a path." 

Hymn 15 of tho namo Muudala is addressed to tho Fathers, ot 
departed ancestors, who, as wu have already seen, are conceived to be 
tiring in a state of blessedness in the other world, though in somo 
places, 39 wo shall see, somo of them are conceived to have other abodes. 
I will quote some verses from it, which will show still further their 
enjoyment*, powers, and prerogatives : — 

x. 15, 1. Ud iralam atart ut pnrotah tut madkyamSk pilarak savt- 
yutah | iuuiJi ye lyur avrikak ritajxit te no aamtu pUaro kaeetku | 2. 
Ida m pitribkyo tiamo ailu adya ye pirtuto ye uparHtah \yuk \ ye 
fiirtkive rajati d nuhaltdk y* »d nurwm turri/amUu viks/iu \ . . . . .'>. 
Upakitdk pitarah lomyaso barhiihytihu nidhttku priyetku | te a yamanta 
te iha intvantu adki bruvantu te avantu atmun f C. Achya j4nu dak- 
tktnato nithadya imaik yajnam abhi grinita rim j mti kiiJuiihfa pitarah 
kena chin no yad vah dgah purtuhalA karOma | 7. Ailndto arualndm 
vpaithe ray nli dhatta ddituhe martyttya | putrebhyah pitara* taeya 
taetah pra yathhata te ihorjam dadhala | 8. Ye nah parte pitarah 
aomyaeo amuhire eomapUham ratitk{kdh | ttbhir Yamah aaitraruno 
Lt'lmthi uiann viadbhih pratikumata atlu \ . . . . 10. Y» eatyAto kaci- 
rado haviihpi'ih Tndrtna decaik tarnthaiii dadhfinuh | d Ayne yAhi tahat 
rati detacandaih paraih pdrraih pitribkir gharmetadbkih | 11. Ayni- 
tkrAtttfh pitarak d ika garhkata tadah tadtih ftdata tupranUayak | atta 
katftiuki prayutHni larkithi atha ray Hit urtei\ram dadhatana | .... IS. 
Ye ehtha pitaro ye eha neks y&iki iha vidma ydmi eha na prntidma | 
fr«A tetiha yati tejAtartdak nadhalhir yajnaiii tukrifum jiukatea | 14. 
Ye agnidagdhuk ye anaynidagdhdh miulhye divah ivadkayil rnddayante | 
tehhik irartU atmaitim etdni yathilraiatk tanvaai kalpayaeva | 

'•1 (-Y.S. 19, 49; Sir. 11, 18). Let the lower, the upper, and 
the middlo Fathers, the offerers of soma, arise. May these Fathers, 
innocuous, and versed in righteousness, who havo attained to (higher) 
life (aw) •» protect us in the invocations. 2 ( - Y. S. 1 9, G8). Let this 
reverence be to-day paid to the Fathers who departed first, and who 
(departed) lust, who are situated in tho terrestrial sphere,* 4 ' or who are 

*•" Compare tho word etura, "Spirit," is>d MMsMj ut nm 14, Ulow. 

'" i •..:.. 1 ,.-t,- A.V. iviii. 2,49: Te *al pti*) pttanr </* pitammkHf ytvririim *m 

s so 


now among the powerful races (Ihc gods) 5 ( — V. S. 19, 57}. 

Invited to tbeso furourito oblations placed on tho grass, may lie 
Father*, tho offerers of soma, como ; may they hear us, may they 

odfl for us, and preserve us. (=V. 8. 19, 62). Bending tic 
knee, and sitting to the south, do yo all accept this sacrifice. Do us so 
injury, o Fathers, on account of any offence which we, nfter 
HttODtf af DUB, may commit against you. 7 ( — V. S. 19, 63) 
upou tho ruddy [woollen , bestow wealth on the mortal who 

worships you. Fathers, bestow this wealth upon your sons, and now 
grant them sustentince. 8 (=»V. S. 19, 61). Mny Tama feast accord* 
ing to his desire on the oblations, eager, and sharing his gratification 
with the eager Fajbhthafl, our ancient ancestors, who presented the 
coma libation. 10. Come, Agni, with a thousand of those naltnd 

Bt Fathers, adorers of tho gods, sitters at the fire, who aro troe, 
mIij are eaters aud drinkers of oblations, and who aro received ial* 
the Rome chariot with Indrn and the gods. II ( = Y ;- 
Come hither, yo Agnishvutta Fathers; occupy each a seat, ye wisa 
dlnotsn; aaj Uta oWaUoju*" which bav« baen arranged on the grass, 
and theu bestow wealth on us, with all our offspring * u . ... 13. 
Thou ImOWOlt, J.itavedaa, how many those Fathers are who are here 
and who arc not here, these whom we know and do not know ; accept 

Ohtarilthurt \ ye aluXij/nnli pptkitrm via ifyiim tebhyak jsitrihhyo namtvi wiAXfmm} 
■ Let im worship • a thow Fathers who aro th« fathers, and Ihote wfco 

itc tho grandfather*, of our father ; thow who ho»c entered into tho atmoff hcrc,«t 
who inhabit dn earth oi tbo sky." Sec uUo A.V. xtiii, 3, M. 
"' Aeooafiag tn tbr A.V. iriii. 2, 28, evil spirita aotuetinic* como along with the 
■ -: #c ittyatv pitritAu aMftkflfaf j*atim*kkah nnntrditJ ckmrnnli \ ptripmn 
>,t bhiranti oimat pra iKamhli ytymit \ " May Agra blow away 

from this larnrleo thou l>uyus who hare no thar* in tho oblation*, whether they 
wear gn*» or nbtfll boCKSe, who coiiif, entering among tliv Father*, • " 
la." Compare V. S. ii. 30, and commentary. 
4,3 Compare A.V. ri 41,9: m« no A&nthur fukayo i&iryj*, jw Itmuy'S yi ma 
Inntitt tishujajf | amartyah mortyan abhi nah Mcbaihram aj/mr tUmtla pnttrim 

jlmu Htih | " Lot not tho tlivino ru>hia, who aro tbe protector* of oar bodies, foraaks 
as. Do yo who ore immortal viirit us who are morula ; put intVi u» vitality that ■■ 
may lire longer.'' A.V. viii. ft, 15: Qamlktrx;, >brn, ptmyn/*-im 

pitr'm \ anil'Si !■■■, gSmi yoMa antam •imum haxau | •' I incite the Oattd- 

birnu, Aptanuca, serpents, gods, thoso holy men the Fathers, the »«ro anil Uir oa. 
seen, that they may deatruj tin* ami MnWihiirata. SaMupr- 

Tan, 401, then ar« wren troop* ul i'ltrit or Fathers, four embodied {mi 
aad three twtlilis* {aiarint 


•J:: 7 

tlio Mcriflco well offered with the oblations. 14 (-» V. 8. 19, 60). Do 
thou, o aelf-reeplendeat god 44 * — along with those (Fathers) who, 
"whether they hare undergono cremation or not, arc gladdened by our 
oblation — grant us this (higher) vitality (aiH»lti), M and a body ac- 
cording to our desire." 

A funeral hymn addressed to Agm* 4 * (x. 16) also contains somo 
rersoa which illus'.rntu the views of the writer regarding a fuluro life: 

x. 16, 1. J/u enam Agiu ri daho ma 'iki ioefu sua 'tya IvacAaik 
ch&tfiipc m& iarlram | gudd iritam krinnio Julacedo alhem ennm pra 
kmutflt piirilhgah \ 2 8"fl*M yauti htnui Jularnio athtm nam pari 
daitut pitribhgah \ gada aachhuti atunUim etam atha denlinJm raianlr 
bhatCiti | 3. SHryath chakthar gnchhat* cutam &(mu dgfim cha gaehhapri* 
tfiitlm cha dAtrrmand \ apo r« gachha gadi lalra U hiiam othndhithu prati 
tnhfha iariraih | 4. Ajo bhagtu tapatti (urn tapaira law U iocfiit f<>/*rfu 
tarn U arehih | yds te iixut tanto Jtllarrdat tibhir tahainafa lulrilum u 
lokam | 6. Ata trija punur ague pitribfigo gut te dfiulai charati ttudha- 
M«A | dyw rrwdnaA n/ii retu £<thah tangachhaldm toned Jnlartdak | 6. 
Yat U kfUhnah iakvnah atuteda pip'ilah tarpah uta va trapaJah ) Agni* 
tod piitam ogadaui trinvtu Somai tha go br<ihiminan iniieia | 

" 1. Do not, Agni, bum up or consume him (the deceased); do not 

**< As Agni is addressed in ihr two preceding raw, it might haTe been sutiposcd 
Ibst be ii referred to in this epithet nf telf-resplendent (nwrof), or soTereign ruler, 
especially aa ttiu tame function u smrned to him in s. 18, 5, at is assigned to tht> 

.HrrtMd in thiitenw. But the commentator on tho Vajsaueyl Bakl 
60 (wbrre th« verso occur*, with most of the other* in this lijtnu, though not in the 
tame order), understands it of Yuma ; as does alas Profaeor Roth (aeo a.v. oswairi) 
in the pe**aj>o of the A.V., whore it inxurs along with tmmSH, B*S nnt note. 

Ml This word alio occurs in the second *ene of the nut, the ltlth hymn. In R.V. 
x. it, 5, is, it appears to be employed as tho pereoniflestion of a pud or goddess. 
ProfoMor Slulkr. .'-.urn. It. A 1 SC6). p. 160, Bole S, however, eonnden 

that " there ia avtuiag to show that Aninlti u a fcnmlo tlcttr." " It may be a name 

r Yams, a* Pmft- -; i>ut it tu»TuL*> \k > umplr inrocotioa, owe of the 

oaea ef the deity." He binurlf render* it " guide of I 

, W, it ia joinod with «r«ruf : y* mk pituA pilar* yr pilamahak y» orirnMr m;n *n- 
larikilam | UiAgaA • ttmilir mo adga ytAaraUi* tawik kalpay :. \ " Ukf 
the monoreti (or eelf-rr^j ng) who heetow* vitality f».i fatacrs 

and grandnther* of our Cither, who here entered the wide atmetpberc, and for na to- 
day, hediea according to our <k*irc." 

*** Areording ta Profaaor Milllcr (Funeral Uitea of tho Brahman*, p. xi. f.) loeno 
rersse froa thi» bymn are repealed after those from hymn 11, whilo the remains ot 
the dt parted are being barat. 



di88olvo hi* skin, or hit body.'" "When thou boa matured *** hiss, i 
J ittavedns, then scud bim to the Fathers. 2. When thou matured 
him, then consign bim to the Fathers. When he •ball 
reach that state of vitality, he shall then fulfil the pleasure of the 
gods. 3. Let his eye go to the sun,"' his breath to the wind. Go to 
the sky, and to the earth, according to (the) nature (of thy serersl 
parts) ; or go to the waters, if thut is suitable for thee ; enter into the 
plant* with tliy members. 4. As for his unborn part, do thou (Agni) 
kindle it with thy heat ; let thy flame and thy lustre kindle it; with 
those forms of thine which are auspicious convey it to the world of 
the righteous. 410 6. Give up ugain, Agni, to the Fathers, him who 

441 Compare A.V. lrlii. 4, 10-13. In the sixty-fourth vsrst of the tarns hymn rt 
>■ uid : <?*& eo Afntr qjahad liam engam pilrilckaiii pitmtyan jatarfdtik | lad roS 
punar a pyayayami ttinjafy ttarjt pitara mSdayodAram | " Whatever limb at y*a 
Agni JitUkKduj left behind, when conveying you to the world of tbu Patbera, that I 
hero restore to yua. Kevcl in heurcn, yo FiuIu-to, with (ail) your members." 

*» Compare A.V. xriii. 4, 12. 

**» In A.V. viii. 2, 3. a man dead, or in danger of djinj, ii uddroed in tb«M 
words: M/of It prtifinin ntiilum turyirk thukuhiir nhnm for* | yml It manMi tnyi 
lad Mamytlmi jirw vitirn anjnir vtida flktmfi HUpan | " I bars obtuinsd thy IfSSlk 
from the wind, thine cyo from the ran , 1 plxct in thee thy wul (mnmi) ; hare Ma- 
ui thy limbs; speuk, uttering (words) with thy tongue." Compare A.V. t. 
24, 0: Surt/ad oKakthutham adhipatih | •• Silryn it tho superintending lord of tht 
ejes ;" and A.V. ii. 8, 31 : Jsuryad ehakihur VdUih pragma punutmtfa ri iAoin | 
••SQrya occupied the eye, and Vnta (the wind) tho breath of Punish* (or man)." 8m 
also A.V. six. 43, 2, 3. Compare further Plato, Bcpub. vi. IB, whew 8oerate* says of 

tho cyo . 'AAA' ijXuottH<rrar6f y olpai rvr »tpi raj <W0^?«is fy*7t£*w*», "1 regard it 

[the eye] as of all the organs of sensation, poncwing the moat affinity to the ■tin." Ear. 
Suppl. 032 f. 'Odtr i'tacaoror tiT rb au/i itptKiro, 'rnraufT arq^Sf, mviu >Ur wpii 
iiOipa, fl) triifia 47 1 yijf "But each slsjBMBt i»f the body hai departed to the 
quurUT whence it came, the breath to tho aether, the body itself to the earth." A 
■bubal idea U evpmsod in a ret** of Goethe, whieh I had formerly read, and fee • 
copy of which, with the context, I am indebted to Professor Aufrt-ckt. The paaeag* 
oecuis in the intruductiun to the Farbealohtf (Ed. 1668, raL UiriL p. 6), and is at 
follows: " IlicThci crinnrrn wir una dcr alten ioniichen Schulr, wclcbe mil so grosser 
liedeulsamknit lrnni.i wiuderholte : nur von gleichem wards Oleiohea eikansjl; wia 
nueh dnr Worto oinw alton Myitiknra, din wir in dm tec una Ikimon Wgsndenpauea 
ausdrucken Bklohti 

WsV nichtdat Aug* sonncnhtift, 

Wit konnteu wir das I.iclit erblii:kcn t 

L >>:' nicbt in una dot Oottat eigne Kraft, 

Wir kuimt' 11 in (iotllichea euUuekua t 
Jen* anmittelbnw Verwandttchaft dea LichUa and det Auget wird niomand IsQgaasi, 
tbtt" tu.w. 

'*• In AV. xviii. 2, 36, Agui is tuli tuU.d to burn mildly, and to spend hit fury as ths 

sou ..a 




i offered to thec with oblation*, rutting on life, let him approach 
(hii) remains ; let him meet with hia body, o Jatavodo*. 6. Whatever 
part of thee any black bird, or ant, or serpent, or beast of prey, has 
torn, may Agni restore to thro oil that, and Soma who has onti md 
into the Brahman*. " Compare Vajiisaneyi Sanhita, xviii. 61. Again 
ytmmjni saitwd yhritma dirt/em tuparMm HaJM tf hrihanfam | Unateyalk 
/sswsta braiktusiya tuhfapam to ruhdn&k adhi noian utlnmam | 52. 
Tmau te paktkat ajarau ptitatrinau yabhyum rakth<\Ati aptthmti A fit* | 
i&hkyam paitma trukritHm u lokam yatra r*4kayo jtfjfmuA piatkoatajdlji 
jard***. I *1- " With power and with butter I attach Agni, the 
Qsjag ti al bird, mighty in energy : through him may wo go to the sphere 
of the auD, ascending tho sky to the highest heaven. 52. Borne by 
those thine undecaying, flying pinions, wherewith thou, Agni, slnyeat 
the Kakshascs, may we soar to the world of the righteous, whither 
tho ancient, earliest-born rishis have gone." 

In various part* of the A.V. Agiii || -imilarly addrc&u-d. Thus in 
vi. 120, 1. Yad antarikiiiam pp'thirTm uta dyiim ana mularam. pitiram 
tdjikiHuima | ayath laimdd garhapciyo no Aynir ud in nayati tulritaty* 

woods and on the earth (<«m tap* mi '.'i tape A>jm ma Mnroaa tip* \ r*m*km 
imakma aitu Ir prilAirjtam attu pad kmrttk). The Tnittrlya Brihmann has the fol- 
lowing pajsmge : iii 10, 11, 1 : Au» chid Art rui atmhl lokat prtlpa itmiinaj* rrdtt 
m iym okam urmi" iti | kaitkit ira& hkaih na pratijanati og*imu$Jko Ad raw 
lkum*-t&ntaii nam lokam >» pratyjawli I alko ya ka rra rlam a/ymm *n-i(rj« rfia 
M *** nrmal Mat prtti/a atminain res* "ayam akam ttmi" iti | ta num lokam 
pratijanati oka u cka na mam tat Atitrah naryum lokam tbhi rnkati | " Oae man 
derwrtinr from thin world knows himself that ' this in I myself.' another doss not 
recognize his own world. Bewildered by Agni, and overcome by smoke, ha does not 
recognize his own world. Xow ho who knows this Agni 8iritr*, when he ilrparts 
frowi this world knows binuelf, 'that this is I myself.' He recognises his own world. 
This 84 Tit™ carries him t* the heavenly world." A few lines further on it is said that 
the days and Bights «uok up in the aut world the treaiurc of the man who doss not 
p sas w s a particolar sort of know Isdgo, « tul»t b<> who knows Agni Siritra finds bis trea- 
son not sacked up (fast Ad mn n amrUmtkc aoiuthmi* hki itrajkim dkayanlt | . . . . 
«r*« ye karva ttam ap»im tHritram cub tatyn ha era nksrHrtui emuthmin leka 
itvatikim m dkayanti). The Tsitt. Br. ii. 4, 2, 6, un of Agni i Prahum ndalkam 
wupaiymmnitak a lnntnm Ajtitr Jirym UtSita | tram not t«ni*r *t* SSflW Afw 
tram pantkih Ihncaii Jeraytintk | itaya 'ftu prUkf Viw tayam 'irukima mtka drraik 
mtdmtmciilam tmtdevta | " Agni, eiploriag the ancient abodo.hss ei traded theoelastfal 
cord. Tbou, Agni, art oar cord, sad onr bridge : thou art the path which nnndnsta 
to tho gods. By thee nay we ascend to the summit (of heaven;, and there live ia 
jarful fellowship with the gods." The asm* Br&hsuLga ssys in anotW plaec, i. C, 
1, 8, that the stars are the houaes of the cods, snd that wboevor kaowa this ] 
looses {intyrikSk rsi nsiikwrani | y,k mm seats sriAJ ens Marwr i). 



hlnm | "Whatever injury wo hare don© to air, earth, or aky, to 
father or mother, may Agni Chirhapatyn (delivering) us from that, 
convey us up to the world of righteousness." xii. 2, 45. Jiean&m oyui, 
prti tira team Ayne pilrlnHA lottm apt gachhantu y* tnriUik | •■ Do 
thou, Agni, prolong the lives of living • y those who 

are dead go to tho world of the Fathers." xriii. 8, 71. Arabk*** 
jatacti** ttjtutad haro a*(u It \ iartram aiya tandaha athaimaA tttcla 
tuArittim v hie | "Seize him, Agni, let thy heat be powerful; bum 
his body ; then place him in the world of the righteous." xriiL 4, 9. 
Purvo 'gnii tzd lapatu lam purtutXi iam paitkil Lapatu g&rhapatyik | 
dakthinugnii ic lapatu itrma tar me uttarato tnadhyato anlariluhiid diio 
diio Agnt fOlipQM ghorut I 10. Ytiyam Agne iantamabhU UmiUir 
ij&nam abhi lokafa iMrgam | aicuh bh&M priihfict\!>o tahatha yttr* 
dttnih Mdham&dam madanli | " Hay the eastern fire warm thee pro- 
pitiously in front (or to tho cost), and the gnrhapetyn fire behind (or 
to tho west) ; may the southern fire warm thee, as thy defender and 
protector: Agni, presorve from everything dreadful on the north, in 
the middle, from the air, and from every aide. 10. Do ye (the 
various forms of) Agni, become horses, and carry Ibo aac ri flccr on 
your bacl(s in your most gracious forms to heaven, where men hold 
festival with iln- gods." 

(4) Summitry of tht cmttptwm eourtyti in tke preceding quctalicm. 

I shall now extract from these- texts tuid others a nummary of tho 
cunerptiuns which tiny convey. 

Y: urn is the uou of Vivaavat (ix. 113, 8; x. 14, 1 [=.\ V 
I, 49] ; x. 14, 5; x. 68, 1 ; x. 60, 10), and of Sorayyfi, tho immortal 
ler of Tvashtri (x. 17, 1, 2). He « elsewhere said, as Professor 
Jtoth considers *" (see ubovo), to have been one of the original pair 

•" Journal of the Otnann Oriental Society, it. 426 ; JournU of American Ori 
:ioo ; DlutottiOMef Niruku. p. lort. A* Profaaoi 
above, p. 2S8) Unit Yamn w.u ngankd bj the Yedk posts as the firrt man. 
explain* m follow* (Lciturw, 2nd 8tfice, p. (14 if) Qu | abash lia 

to bo transformed into • -. at tho dead : "Let us imagine, th«a.'" he says, 

" M woll or it yama, twin, WW nnocl an tht name of the ertning, ee the 

wit mi; sun, anil wo dull be able perhaps to understand how in the end Yam* cam 
to bo the kinjt of tli. A park it uul the god of death. As the Eon wa» to the aerrr 
thinkers the source of life, the West wa» to them iVYrriri, Uie esaltu, the Uod uf 

r of 


a. ha 



human being* (x. 10, 2), and to have sprung from the Gnndharra, a 
At ny of the utmoephcre, and his wife (x. 10, 4). In the urnm- lnnm 
(patriot) ho i» declared to havo resisted tho solicitntiona of Ui 
sister Yam! to form a sexual union with lier for tho continuation ot 
the specieB.* 19 lie was the first of mortals who died, and discovered 
the -way to the other world; ho guides other mi a thJUter, and as- 
sembles them in a home, which is secured to them for ever (x. 14, 1, 2; 
JLV. tL 28, 3; xviiL 1, 49, 60; xriii. 3, 13)."* In one place he is 

n-i'. nt'd ii iwmiiirg with the yy'< j udn i i> :..'';, boa, K.v. .\. 

death. The »ou, conccircd n* Kiting or dying every day, was the first wlio had 
trodden the path of lift front East to Wi»t— the first mortal — the drat to show 
us the way win g m • u«r« i» run, and our mil seta in the fut W«t". . . . "That 
V .mill's character is tolar might bo guessed from bu being called the ion of Vires* 
tut. Vivaavat, like Yuma, i» sometime* considered a* •••mling- death. R.Y ue. 
67, 20 ; ' May the sbuil of Vivaxvat, o Ailitvm, the poisxied orrow, not strike us 
wo arc old ! " ' [And in A. V. xix. fl, 7. it ■ "id . •• Mar Mitra, may Yaruuu, 
nniy Vivasrat, may tho Beds' (death] be favourable to us (/ism m 
VarmthtJi fait I'itatm* tarn Au(aknh). On the either hum] Vi\ 

rfssi preserving from Yum:i. Thus in A '■ . 62, it U uiil : i'i..m.ig 

no amfitMtt* lUJk'itu ptirailu mrilyur atAfiUm saA nit* | inan rtiiAatu purn. 
aAdn a jnri»ma ma iku etiim a*n\> Yamam gulf | " May Vivaavat jiUco w in a 
i of immortality. Miy death pais away, sad dmthlewncas come tans. May bo 
iip- nun ton esuBfi He] Ifash nUfeiaotdspai to Vim:i." — j.m .] 

....■• His (Yuma's) own scat i* called the house of tho jrods (x. 13ft, 7) ; sad thoso 
words follow immediately on a Terse in which it u said : ' the abyss i< (trrtched out 
in tho Eait, the outgoing is in the West.'' (In a note tho following are referred to 
as additional passage* to bo consulted, lift, K. V. i. 1 16, 2 ; rii. 33, ; i <,. 
o; i. 12, G ; ft 13, 2, -I i i. 63, 3 ; x. CI. 3 ; x. 123, 6.) "These indications, 
though fragmentary, are sufficient to show that the character of Yams, such as wo 
find it in the last book of tin: Rijr-vedo. aright wrll have been suggested by the 
sotting sun, personified as the leader of the human race, as himself a mortal, yet as a. 
husg. a* the ruler of tha departed, ai worshipped with tho fathers, as the Erst witness 
of aa immortality to be enjoyed by tho father*," vto. I may remark that in tho 
S'atap. Br. xiv. 1. 3. 4. Vuiim it identified with the tun ; but he is, a little further on, 

xiv. S, 8, Hi •iimUii-. Idnnhld with V.mi. 

•** See Professor Koth's observation* on this dialogue in the Journal of tho Ameri- 
can Oriental Society, iii. 383 t. 

*•» 8eo Professor Roth's remarks on these passages la the Journals, etc , shove 
rssVtTwl to. In the Journal of the Oennnii urn BStJ .""^iety, iv. 427, he remarks on 
these hymns : " Wc here find, not without astonishment, beautiful coaceptiona on im- 
mortality, expressed in unadorned language with child-like cnaTiotioe. If it were 
accessary, we mi^ht here find tlx' most powerful weapons agsiiift the view which has 
lately been rented, and proclaimed as new, that Persia was the only hirthplaee of 
the idea of immortality, and that even tho nation* of Europe hod <L.-irrd it frimi that 
<fnarter ; n if the religion* spirit of every gifted raco wm nut able |o arrive at II by 
Its own 



135, 1 ** {yatmin tfikths npaJaie devaih $ctapihat$ YomaK). He is t 
king, and dwells in celestial light, in the innermost sanctuary of 
heaven, ix. 113, 7, 8 (see above, p. 226, and below, wbere the passage 
will bo quoted at greater length), where the departed behold Ida 
associated in blessedness with Varuua (x. 14, 7). He grants luminous 
abodes in hearca to tho pious (x. 14, 0), who dwell with him is 
festive enjoyment (x. 14, 8, 10). In the A.Y. xriii. 2, 32, he is said 
to be superior to Vivasvat, and to bo himself surpassed by none ( Yamdi 
paro 'van Virattan tatsk para fit na ati paiyami linehana). 

In llio Rig-veda Ytuna is nowhere represented (as he is in the lata 
1 mliun mythology) w as having anything to do with the future punish- 
ment of the wicked. In fact, the hymns of that Yeda contain, as far 
us I am aware, no prominent mention of any such penal retribution ; 
but the passages which appear to recognize the existence of a Tartarus 
will bo quoted further on. Nevertheless, Yuma is still to some extent 
on object of terror. In x. 14, 10-12, he ia represented as having two 
insatiable dogs, with four eyes and wide nostrils, which guard tho road 
to hii abode, and whioh the departed are advised to hurry past with all 
possible speed. These dogs axe said to wander about among men as 
bis messengers (x. 14, 12), no doubt for the purpose of summoning 
them to the presence of their muBter, who is in another place, x. 1G5, 4, 
identified with death, and in described ax sending a bird as the herald 
of doom (ya*ya duiah prahitah uha flat Uumai i'amdya namo atiu 

'" In A.\. xriii. 4, 3, tho Aditjiw aro laid to feast on honey ia faction (aaasMa 

**» According to tlio PuiiajBJ, " Ynms fulfils tlir officii of judgn of the daad, at 
u.ll as sovereign of thedumned; nil thnt die appearing before him, sad being eoa- 
frontiMl with Cliitr;i-ii[>U, the recorder, by whom their action* hare been r tgi st ansl . 
The rirtuous arc thence conveyed toSwiirjra, or Elysium, whilst the wicked art drisn 
total fflftrarl n ffam of rfsraka, or Tartarus." (Wilton, Viihnn PS i'iof 

l)i. Hall't cd. vol. 2). ChitniHiijrta i» dm-ribtu in tbu r««lli.wiii*r taurine and extra- 
vagant »tylo in tho Vrihnnii.irudiya Purirja, quoted in Professor Aafkeht'e Catalegas 
of tho Bo.ll. SanJt. MSS., p. 10, note: Pr*teyamiud*-nirfk*Ao miput&lri state 
prvlihaif | riJ>fitt-pr*ihi<iwHtair Mimo d«itrimi<ul-b>nf*-fmf<ttak | fs j m* f m >« - 

owffla> raktaiiho iliry/iaiiiiiikah | damtitra-karala-ttlano "J- T '-'| ''-r'-nrfl | 

•Hrifyn-/fiirijrfiAAir yuitai chitragttpto ribhUhntyib I " Tho dreadful ChitragUpta. 
v iili it t«iic« like that issuing from the clouds at the mundane dueolutiua, gltrminf 
like a mountain of collrrium. terrible with lightning-Uke weapona, having thirty- 
two arnu. ii big ss three rcjanat, red-eyed, long-nosed, his face furnished vita 
Unrolen and projecting teeth, hi* eyes reaorabling oblong pond*, bearing <W* 
an 1 diseases.'' 



mrxlyan, compare A.V. vi. 29, 1 ff.). And in a verse of tho A.V. 
(xviii. 2, 27), death is said to be the mossenger of Yams, who convert 
tho spirit* of men to the abode of their forefathers. In another place 
(B..V. x. 97, 16) deliverance is sought from the bonds of Yama, as well 
as those of Vnruna {mttnthtmtu m& inputhyud atho Vtntny&d ula \ atha 
Yavuuya padbliat, eee also A.V. viii. 7, 28). In K.V. L 38, 5, too, 
where it is said (mil vo mrigo no yattiu* jaritd Ih&d ajoihycth \ palkd 
■■ya gad upa) " Lot not thy worshipper bo disregarded like a wild 
animal in a pasture, or go along the road of Yamo," Yama is equiva- 
lent to death. In the following verse (already quoted) of the A.V. |£ 
28, ^i, also, Yama is identified with Mrityu (death): " Reference be 
to Yama, death, who first readied the river, spying out the road for 
many, who is lord of these two-footed and four- looted creaturea." 
(This verse coincides in part with R.V. x. 14, I, quoted above.) 
Compare also A.V. v. 30, 12; vL 63, 2.) 

Whan the remains of the deceased have been placed upon the 
funeral pile, mid tho process of cremation has begun, Agni, the god of 
fire, is prayed not to scorch or consume tho departed, not to tear 
a-'imlii hjfl hU in N Hi hm!^, bflt tfifll t In- ||OM 1i.i-.l- done tin. ir 
work, to convey to the Fathers the mortal who has been presented to 
him as an offering. Tho eye of tho departed is bidden to go to the 
sun ; his breath to tho wind ; and his different members to tho sky, 
the earth, the waters, or tho plants, according to their several afri 
As for his unborn part (ajo bhagah), Agni is supplicated to kindle it 
with his heat and flame, and, assuming his most auspicious form, to 
convey it to tho world of the righteous (x. 1 6, 1 -5 ; Vaj. Sanh. xviii. 
51 f.)."* Before, however, this unborn part can complete its course 
from earth to the third heaven, it has to traverse a vast gulf of dark- 
ness.*" Leaving behind on earth all that is evil and imperfect, and 

*** In the 8'xtiip. Br. li. I, 1, 1, • man is said to be thrice born: first from his 
' sad mother, the second time through uerillcc, and tho third time when, *ft*r 
i sad cremation, he onor mnw emerge* into ti/s (trie ha tai pttnuXo jiystt | 
mm na antra** <hn <i<Mi pitmi cKa a«rt Jayult \ atha yam yajttah apanamaliaa 
' yojat* tad driliyam jSyatt \ ataa yotrt mriyati yatra mam af mar aiiyCUdAasi 
M yal tatah tamiAartti lat tr\t7yinj<iy<ttt). 

*-" A . V .a. 0. 1 . X nay nam a raiknrr* niritSm lokan apt gaihkatu prafmmm | 
/Triad tamniui tahwdaa maknmi ajo nakam ikramalAm tritlyam | S. I'ra pad* 'M 
nnto</hi dmttManlam yal ekatknra ittddkaiS iaphair 5 kramaliim prajii*a* \ llriti 
tumuiui aaimdXH vipa 'yaaa a/a rtalam akramuUim IfilTpam j From the content* of 

-". I- 1 


proceeding by the paths which the fathers trod (U.V. x. It. 7 
•pirit, inTested with a lustre like that of the god*. A.V. xi. 1, 37 (yeas 
itvnk jijotUhd Ji/tlM udAi/an braknattdanam paktvd tulyitaiya lotam | 
Una gcikma tuhfitaty* iokaih tvar arokanto abhi ntikam uttamam), soar* 
to tho realm* of eternal light (ix. 113, 7,) in a car, or on wing 
h. ?,l, •)), oa the undcea\ in- pinions wherewith Agni alay* the 
abases ( Viij. Saoh. xviii. 62), wafted upwurds by tho Moruta, fanned I 
aoft and gentle breezes, and refrigerated by showers (A.V. xtiii. 
21 fF.) j recovers there it* ancient body in a complete (A.V. XTiii. ! 

terse 2 (where tlir aj'n u said to V enrrinl t-> lndra n fin iharo), and frosa lit* 
iiii'iitiiin '>r '• In « >f« " in TOM 3, I urn imtv In] in think thai these ti-nesi ntitHl 
jroat, and not to tho nntHini spirit (both bciug demoted by khi word r/jj, althoasja 
xprcsaiim* term mnro properly applicable to th« Inttor than to the fernstr. 
In any com, bffwmt, ihc tohi prove that any being proctodiag from earth to 
hravrn has to traverse a region of darkooe* before he can teach hi* destiaatioa. I 
translate a* follows: ••Convey him ; earn- him . In -aniiiag, go to the 

m.ria <>i the righteous. Crowing the gloom, in many direction* Immcase, M the 
gout oseend to Bu third brawn 2. W**!i hi* fcot if he ha* committal wiehed- 

un<Untanding,l«t him aiecnd with filMBMdlioeA. OroadngtitogIoo*B,( 
in many diiv the pel MMnd ii»- third beevan/ 1 Compare li.V, i. , 

(«=A.V. vii. i3, 7) quoted ■ban Lfl lb*. Bootfofl on Surya, p. UML In the 1 
S.inli. xxxi. 18, also, the peat Puruaha, of nn-Uke hri'.-htnusj (oVirs— .ew i pa), u 
aaiil tod tin' tl.irknrsc (/ijhjijjiiA partutai). See nUo Mann, IT. 342. The 

commentator, on this latter postage, bowcrer, n* well a* Both, a.r. imuhu, nader* 
atandi tho phruo diutamm tamat, " darkntsa hard to cross," aa referring to fcrlL 

It tin' phrases aiDimmam lamat and unJk*m U i<Uufcd further 00, 

The wonl a/a HMOl to have tho sense of " tho unhom " ia different paaaaagea of the 
R.V., and in A.V. j, 7, 31 (sec Biilitlingk and Both, ».r., 2. «/■] ; but it out law 
the sense of "(rant" throughout the whole of A.V. ix. 4, thnngh B. and R. addaee 
rerse 7 o» one of tho place* where it mean* •' unborn." Thai terse, bowwttr, may 
be rendered thns : " Tin? pint i* Agni : thujr call the goat light ; they a»y that a goat 
is to be giTcn by n living man to the priest A goat, when given ia this world by a 
In In vit.:: "i;m. disperse* tho gloom afar {,4ft dkfltb xj'am u j'yotir UKar ajamjit*ti 
Ar,i/,u»rr U<<i«m oAu/i I tijat tamumri mpu Kanti liuram tumin hie irmddadAamnm 
iettak)." In the mime way it i* said, in verse 10 : Jjat irUiikt tridim trip. 
rUhfl,4 nuktuya prithtKt tndiruSuniii dodhuti | panrkniuhua eewaseay •''/*- 
| "The .;;n panekMuAina, gives to a print, place* him who bestows it 
in tho third lu-ivcn, in tho third sky, on the third summit, on the top of the 
hes'tn," ami in vn»t '11: " TIu» ■/* y u aeasss f awa is aa illimitable obToriag." 
In the A.V. XTiii. 2, sS, tlierc are said to be three hoarsnt: "The watery 
(«<&i»r>jf i) hiavcn in the lowest, the pilttmnti is the intermediate beaten, and she 
third u the p rm dj f ma, In which the Father* dwell" (uib/ncwx? afyaav <it«ma piu- 

■MaTafld | triliyit ha prariyaar Hi yaiynm pilanlf omU). This IgTC** 

with the mention of the third heaven in A.V. ix. S, 1. Three (1 V<i*t| 

are lite mentioned in P.-V. rii. 101, 4 ; and in R.V. vii. 101, 11, three earths {ii»rt4 


24 S. m and glorified form,"* meet* with the forefather* who are living 
in festivity with Yatna, obtain* from him, when recognised by him M 
one of his own (A.V. xviii. i>, :i7}, a diltel ,].|i- abode (R.V. x. 14, 
8-10), and enters upon a morn pcrftot lift ijc.V. x II. 8; x. 15, 
14; x. 16, 2, 5), which is crowned with the fulfilment of all desires 
(ix. 113, 9, 11), is paused in the presence of the god* (x. 14, 14), and 
employed in the fulfilment of their pleasure (x. 16, 2). 

(5) Further quotations from the hymns on the subject of paradise and 
fulurt pHHuhmtnt. 

In the following passages of the A.V, on expectation is expressed 
that tlic family rulalions will bo maintained in the next world : — 
xii. 3, 17: Stargam Mam abhi no nayUsi tarn jilyaya tiahu pntiaifi 

yrichirfr orfio nun ■ iVvfifO . Professor lloth. mt. die. refers to other ptnagM, among 

which it IIV. t. lil), S, Tad ull-um IbntC ma<IAy*nt i-a y*J rS amwu ».<A.i£A»« 

• /An | •' W'li. thrr. fi.r:uii ii-- Marat*, jo ntv in the highnrt, middle, or lowset, 

•ky." Bm A.V. iv. 'JO, J, - -■,. fan un . thrc* heavens and three earth* ((imrfiwi 

litr.S y ,i" .i 1*71) • mill A.V. vi. 21, *aj» Ultra am three earths, of which oar earth 

(*Au«0 i< ihprithit'u iinim An bhumr uttomd). 

"•It : said Ihnt the man who btstowi mi aja puneAaitrUx*, 

UrgtHSW (dntj\to~i-tyi,tti/nim : compare kirmf-t-jyoluAlUH, A.V. r. 

9, 6), shall not hare hit bone* broken, or his marrow sucked out, hut shall be intro- 
duced wkcle and cntiru (into he«von) : rene 23 {h* ttny~uih»--i MinJpSt m m-J/n* 
m'ntAayrt \ mrtam mam ttiiwiuyt Him iJim pra reiayet | 26. 8tarf*m lokom 
«/■*/« ye ">iot ptnthawUiHam dakiAiuyjmiitAain itsZti '. These passage*, in which 
ihu departed are said to recover thttr toddy onranizatiun in all its completeness, Sinn 
■ striking contrast to th* representation! in tho numeric poems regarding the on- 
■rthstanrial nator* of the ghost* of tho depart <d. 1 ho pusago of th* Odyssey, ii. 
S&S. 'ii, iu ■fciofl A.lull.- •. i!» OljwM ih it it would rather be the dart 

of • poor man on earth than ruin over all the fllftrted. 1 llnd, however, the fol- 
lowing remarks of Professor Weber (lud. Stud. ii. MM,) on the word* ytubi trapm 
ttUA " as in a droant *o in the- world of the Fathers," Katuu Upomshad, 

«i. 5. " This it evidently a popular conception, according to whieh the souls of the 

U -., Hk| t l.o— - bj in. Grecian Had**, experience no waking, but only a ki' 
dreamy hfc. I hart oa yet found this idea (which at a later period entirely du- 
appeart) only in the S'aUpatha Brihmaoa, lii. 9, 2, 2, win 'wing ex- 

ptanation of V«j. X»nh. SO, It: yadijigtod ymii input ssjaftsi (Aflnw inyta (if 
we have committed situ, sleeping or waking] is given ; mtumAyoA mi jajsntsm 
ptUrnh mplan | m*jiiuAj/j-Ai7ii»».i*A tkm mk filrikitwitAacA mtiuA^i | [•Men 
are what is awake ; the Fathers what it asleep. He fives hint from the ains of 
mca, aad tho»c of the Fathers.'] " 

*** In regard to the celestial body, sot Roth, in the Joei-sl of the American Oricw- 
tol Society, vol. iii., p. ; 



•.i.'r.c ■ 


ttfiina | " Do thou conduct us to heaven ; let us bo with oar wires'" 
and children." 

ri. 120, 3 : Yatra luhdrdai tukritv madanti tikilya royaffi tanp S l 
w&y&h | ailonHh anyair ahrutih trarya Intra prntyma ptlarau tia 
H | " In heaven, whore oar virtuous friends enjoy bit — idflftK, 
having left behind the infirmities of their bodio*, fro* from lameness or 
diatortioa of their limbs, may wo behold oar parents and our children.'' 
(Compare A.V. iii. 28, 3 f.) 

is. 5, 27 : Yd ptinum patim titttu athUnyam vindale palim ' 
audanam cha Utt njaih dadito iw ri yoshatah | 28. Samtlnaioko 
pwiorb/iui-ti 'parah patih \ yo 'jam panchaudanarh dalth\najyc,tiik*i* 
daddti | "When a woman has had one husband before, and gets 
another, if they present the nja parichaudana offering, they shall not 
bo separated. 28. A second husband dwells in the Mine world with 
his re- wedded wife, if he offers the uja panchaudano, etc." 

xviii. 2, 23 : Setln gachhata to manah adha pitr'in upa drmva | '• 
thy soul (mana*) go to its own ; and hasten to the fathers." 

The onjoyment* of this future state ar* said, in R.V. ix. 113, 7 jf., 
to be conferred by the god Soma, and arc described as follows : 

7. Yalta Jyotir ajatram yatmin lokt tear hitam | l.umiit m<7m dktli 
pavanulna amrila lake ukthaye Indraymd* paritrara | 8. Yatra rUja 
Faivaavato yatrdrarodhanam divah | yatr&mtr yahratlr 6p*t tatra mum 
amritaih kridhi | 9. Yatrtinukdmaih charaaam trindla Iridite diraA 
lokih yatra jyothhrnantat tatra mam amrila* krt'JXi | 10. 
hlm\h mk&mda cha yatra bradhnatya viohfapam | nadhd cha yatra 
pti» cha tatra rndrn amritafn ftrtdhi | 11. Yatrdnandai cha moddi 
pramudah iliate | kdmasya yatriiph'ih h&m&t tatra mam amritaih iridki\ 

7. "I'luee me, o purified (Soma), in that imperishable and un- 
changing world, where perpetual light and glory ore found- 8. Maku 
mo immortal (in the realm) where king VuivasvaU (Tama) dwells, 
where the sanctuary of the sky exists, and those groat waters (flow). 
9. Make me immortal in the third heaven, in tho third Bky, when 
action is un restrained, '" and the regions are luminous. 10. Hake me 

**> In the Liter Indian writings tho widow who bums honolf oa ber bnsbsBflTl 
fua«ral pile i> MHHK US i to rejoin him in Svarga, See the texts cited by CoUlruvkf, 

E»«ji,i. ner. 

u - "In baron be ocu aocoroing to his pleasure" (kamatharo *«y«i ituryt j**» 
JAoeotf).— Tuilt. Br. iii. 1'.', 2, 9. 

r«rtt« | 


immortal in tho world where thore are pleasure! and enjoy men t*, — in 
the sphere of tho sun, — where ambrosia und sntiafaction are found. 11. 
Make mo immortal in tho world where tburo arc joys, and delights, 
and pleasures, and gratifications ; where the objects of desire are 

Tho pleasures hero referred to arc most probably to be understood as 
of a sensual kind." 3 Such at least is the prospect held out in the 
following passage of the Atbarva-veda, iv. 34, 2 :*** 

A.V. iv. 34, 2. Antuthtth pillah pavanena fuddhiih fuehayah iuthitt 
apt yanti Mara | naiahum iifnam pradahati jitattdfth svaryt lokt bahu 
itrainan «$h&m | 3. Yiahf&rinam odanaA y$ paehanti nainUn aenrtih 
taekaU kadachana | Otte Yame upa ydti deuhi tarn gandhartair madaU 
tomt/ibhik | 4. YUhfdrinam oditnam yt paehanti naiwin Yamah pari 
m\uiw'iti rttah | ratkl ha bhntvA rathaydns \yatt paitht ha bhrttrd 'ti 
divah tmmtti | "Boneless,** 4 pure, clcanBed by the wind, shining, they 

**' Roth j», howeTor, of a different opinion, lie mji (J euro. Aincr. Orient. 8oc. 
. : " Tbe place whuru thesn glorified ones are to lira is heaven. In order to 
•how tbat not merely an outer court of the divine dwellings ii Ml apart for them, tho 
highest heaven, the mtdat or iuncrraoit put of heaven, ii expressly spoken of at ttarir 
seat. Thi» ia their plaoe of rest i and it* divine eptendonr Li not disfigured by any 
specification of pnrticolar beautif* or enjnymsnu, mich m those with which other re- 
ligions have been wont to adorn tbe luminous of the bltet .... There they arc 
kappr: the language used to describe their condition ii the name with which a 
denoted the most exalted felicity." Ho then i|uuUa the Tones of ii. 113. 7(1. 
already adduced, and sddi: "what .... shall oc the employment of the bleat, ia 
what rphere th«ir activity (hall expend itself; to this question ancient Hindu wiidom 
— og h t no answer. The words and in vcts* II of hymn ix. 113 to drnoto the graft- 
Icetioos of paradise, via : anandZh, mtdah, pramndah, are t mplvycd in the Teilftrlye 
Brakmaaa, ii. *, ft, 6 {., to signify sexual enjoyment on earth (pr^apatih sfriyoss 
wae'e m tuA Att for ad* mpam | txrmuy Iriplim ti mm Jam t*tyiiam> akajaytm* ma | 
■sceta*. pramtodak antutao mtukkaynr niMlaJf *ipak | irilmi kamuya tripydm 
dailkiwimam pralifr&k*). 

*** Coeaparo Soup. Br. x. 4, 4, 4. i'ti u ha esi" immi'I Upa* tapyott S miVl«. 
mat Mrron ha att/a tat tvaryam lokam aih i ta m ihawati | "When a man, luiowinr 
this, practises austere fervour, he retains ia heaven all hin functions, even to that of 
sexual intercourse." 

«*' Though tho connection is merely verbal. I quota here a passage from the Taitt. 
Saah. vi. p. 10, of India Office MS., No, 1702 1 BrahasaaoJimo aaAtnti tatyad 

atat t ittkma prtjtih prtwiyamt* ' nlAamntir jnysntt ili | y*J Kiramyam fkriti'midkSy* 

jukati taemaaT amat tM km * prajoA pratiyamii 'Hkamrat'ir jSyattta | "Those versed (a 
sacred acfcaee ask oa what principle it ia that creature* are generated by a boneless 
sabstanoe, and yet are horn with fames ? It is bscanse th« aacrirlccr plaoea geld la 
the ftre when ha easts into it bis obUtion, that creatures propagated by a boneless 
substance ore born with bones."' 


go to a shining region; Agni*" does not consume their generative 
organ ; in tho eekatinl sphere they havo abundance of sexual gratifi- 
cation."* 3. Want never come* upon those who cook the ruh^irin 
oblation. (Such a rnnn) iihides with Yniuit, gov* to the god*, and lins 
in blessedness with tho Omiillmrvas, tho qunflV-rs of soma. 4. Yams 
does not steal away the generative power of those who cook the wish' 
tarin oblation. (Such a man) becomes lord of a chariot on which he 
is borne along; becoming winged, he soars beyond the aky." 1 
region the hm.lil'ul are also promihod ponds lllled with clarified hotter, 
bony, wine, milk, aud curds (verse 6).*" 

It ib clear, in fact, that in tho Vcdic ago the goda themselves were 
not regarded as possessing a purely spiritual nature, but a* subject to 
tho influence of various sensual appetites. Wo havo formerly seen 
constantly they are represented as delighting in the soma-juico, and 
tin i xhilaration which it produced. Yaran is described as carotuiag 
with the gods (K.V. x. 135, 1), the Adityns as eating honey (A.Y. 

4/ '* Thi*. no doubt, alludes to the lit. '.i th« Antral pile. 

"* Compiuo Jliihibbirsta. xii. 3657 : Var~ipnrah-nk*ari*.i imrmm M; 
kilam | learamana '»AiiM.ini»ri " SMBM bharta ikaral" Hi | " Tbciusaada of 
some Apurues run up in \\at-U: to the hero who has b«cn slain in Untie (eulsinunaj) 
v husband.' " Aud agnin, r. 3007: Abkirawim imt hkah Mntsaaro Aaawa 
paiyata j purn-ilf j/a»dki>rraktiAy.~i>>fiih taraakjina-tlukn 'kihafa) | " Behold, thai 
shininjf world* baling to tl»' lisrlass, tilled with nini-lin* of the Gsndbarvai, *ad 
yielding all kind* of enjoyment*." In like mi Kutua Upaaistiad 

-o the Anwrutn : Yt yt kiimHk rlarlahh<~\h marttta-Jokf tartan kSmSmi 
chhondafiih prCirtntiyittva | inuih rilaaty am<Aa| ».i/i>ryiA na M idruir.lf Immtiatl- 
yuA autNMiAyiiA | &Ma> mnt-prxiliibhik paritharayami | "Ask at thy will. «»yi 
Toms to Nachikotaa, all those ploaiuiea wi irieult to be bad hi the world of 

mortal*, tboao fuir one* with their cars and initrumcnU of marie,- for web at th»y 
ore not to be obtained by ns&| noailt then from me, and allow thyself to fas) 
wuiud on by thcao." (Tho belt f gem of this fine Upanishsd. I nay reaaark,— 
though the fact hml ban bcl'oro noUd by Professor Weber, — u to be found in th* 
Taut. Br. iii. II. 8, l-o). Sor also the Kaushitakl Upanithad, as translated by 
Wabar, Ind. Stud. i. 308, and Cowell, Bibliottiiea lnd. p. 117. 

*" 8e* the 8aUp. Br. xiv. 7, l. :ti if. t, - B|fh. \r»t.v. Up pp. 817 ff.), where i 
Clid that the enjoyments of the Fathers are a hundred times greater than 
man who live* in perfect prosperity, is thr lord of others, and enjoys all h 
pleasures (sayo mamukuannim radJKah —mfiiUko ikarati anyesham adktpmtik mr. 
\m\r mamutkyakaxlf kamaih icmfUmKottmak tn mtamiukynniim peramak os»»sh| | 
Ui. At ha yt islam matuuliyiinam aaaWoA m pttrlnam tkak anxiuUA). In tb( 
same way. tha oajoymsnts of the Esrmsdesas, those beings who bate attain**! lbs 
sank of gods by their merits, are a hundred time* greater than those of the Fslbcrt, 
aid again the esjoymcnU of the god* by nature (ijV>>raaVr5A) an a hundred 
greater than those of the Karrnadcvas. etc. 



u- _ irg 

r (A.Y. 


of hand- 

no ra ta* 
adatad by 

'here it ■ 

>ll humra 

SBSSWfsfm aaaa. 


zriii. 4, 3), and the Fathers as indulging in festivity or revelry 
(ladkamGdam madanti) with Yaina (It.Y. i. 14, 10 : compare A.V. 
xviii. 4, 10). India is aaid in R.Y. iii. 63, G (see above, p. 81 f.) to 
have a handsome wife, and pleasure, in his home. In two verses of 
the A.Y. xiv. 2, 31 f, the young bride ie encouraged to ascend the 
nuptial couch, and become the mother of children, by the consider- 
ation that tbo gods had been the first to enter into the married 
state and indulge in carnal intercourse with their spouses (d roha 
taip*m $UHuina*yaia/i»ii iha praji'iia janaya patyt amci \ 32. Dvtdh 
ayr» anmapadyanla patnlh tanuupj-iianla tanvtu tanHbhtK). In A.Y. iT. 
37, 1 1 f., the Gandharvos, a class of goda, who are described as hairy, 
like dogs and monkeys, but as assuming u handsome appearance to 
•educe the affections of earthly females, are called upon to desist from 
this unbecoming practice, and not to interfere with mortals, aa they 
hod wives of their own, the Apsarascs (priyo dp'ie it a bkitvil yandhar- 
vah whale etriyant | lam ilo n&iay&tiuui brahmana tiryuvaiC | 12. 
Jtiytih \d co apsaratah yandharvuh patayo y&yam | apa dhiltata amcr- 
tyah morlyan r/iu tachadhvam). Compare verses 2—1 and 7 of the same 
hymn and A.Y. xiv. 2, 8ft). 11° even the gods were imagined by the 
authors of thc?« hymns to havo such a decided element of carnality in 
their nature, it is scarcely to be supposed that these same poet*, or 
their contemporaries, or immediate predecessors, should hove risen to 
the conception of a purely spiritual heaven as the reward of a virtuous 
life upon earth."* 

In one passage of the A. V. iii. 29, 3, immunity from taxation seems to 

*» It may be objected that the texts which I hare cited from the A.V. furnish no 
proof of the meaning of those in the Rig-eeck, as the former collection ie of later 
data than the latter. Rat (I) the hymns of the A.Y. are probably not much posterior 
to those of the ninth and tenth luniks of the R.V., with which I hare been deeding ; 
and (2) die state of opinion relucted in the texts of tho A.V. need aot be supposed 
la kavo originated coiitemporaneowly with ita expreanoc in thaw particular brans, 
bat was probably luuidod down from s previous period. We ought not to be too 
incmduL.iM aa to the early existence, in an elementary form, of ideas which appear at 
Ant light to bear the character of a later age. That wo find in the A.Y. x. 6, 43, a 
reference to three qualities ($»<yt) as enveloping the lulus with nine gates (fund*, 
riimm •uiraiiiafam tribhir gtnubliir atrilam), and there u pcrtupe no reason to 
doubt that here tho three funa*. so well known in later cewnogoaiea, are referred to. 
Mtjtt and umi. two of these qualities, are mentioned together, A.V. riii. 5, 1 (n*>ee 
(sms m »)»$**). The "aamo" and ••form" (■io-.o and ripm) celebrated by th" 
V s ltWsht S, are also allttdcd to in A.V. x. 2, 13, aud xi. 7. 1 (wAlesAf* wms 


be held out as a boon to be anticipated in tbc noxt world. It is there 
said that tbo offeror of a black-footed sheep " ascends to the sky when 
no tribute is paid by the- weak to tbo stronger " (yo dadatt Mip&imm 
acim lekena tammitam | »a ntikam ahhyurohati yalra hikla [hrtlnh .'] sm 
kriyalt abdUna lallyate), and in verse A it is promised that a person 
of the same description shall " live for ever in the sun and moan " 
(pradoCa upa jwati rtirya-mflsayor akthilam). 
The virtues for which men are admitted to the realms of the bleasfd 

rta Bnu ^fri^HE b bgna 144 of the tntt boot oftb B V, l .s.«w* 

ekdhyah pavaU ghj-itam eke uputate | ytbhyo uutdhu pradhdrtli tuihi 
chid nipt gachhatat j 2. Taptwl y$ ahidhrithy&t tapatd y* txar yayuk | 
Upo ye chnkrire maho* UitM chid — | 3. Ye yudhyanU pradhanttku Hr&M 
y$ ianutyajah ! ye ta tahatradakthin&t tan — | 4. Yt ehit part* ritatSpaA 
riU'muiMh rttilvridhtth \ pitfln tapawato Yama tan — | 5. Sthatranithnk 
karayo yt gopfiyanti tilryam | rithln Utpanato Yama tapojfm apt yaehh- 
atiH | "Soma is purified for some ; others geek after clarified butter. 
Let him (the deceased) depart to those for whom the honied beverage 
flows. 2. Let him depart to those who, through rigorous abstraction 
\tapai), are invincible, who, through tepat, have gone to heaven; to 
those who hnvu performed great tapat. 3. Let him depart to the 
combatants in battles, to the heroes who hovo there sacrificed their 
lives, or to thoso who have bestowed thousands of largesses. 4. Let 
him depart, Yama, to those austere ancient Fathers who have practised 
and promoted sacred rites. 5. Let him depart, Yama, to those austere 
nobis, born of rigorous abstraction, to those sages, skilled in a thousand 
■ojeaxea, who guard tho sun.'' •"" (Compare A..V. six. 43, 1 ff.) 

R..V. i. 125, 5, and x. 107, 2, which have been already quoted 
above, p. 285, also proclaim the rewards of liberality, a virtue » 
Bn I'-i-ihrnona, who are its object, have alwuys been forward to extoL 
(Compare alao verso 8 of the hymn last referred to.) 

Tho Fathers who have attained to the heavenly state are described 
as being objects of udorutiou to their descendants. They are said to be 
of different classes, upper, intermediate, and lower, or those who inhabit 
the heaven (or sky), tho air, and the earth (1LY. x. 15, 1 ; .'• 
2, 49), while in the verse preceding the one last quoted (A. V. xviii. 2, 

"• Th*«e veram form pnrt of the funeral liturjfj of th« ] 
the fuiicml rite* of the Uruomans, p. xi. 



48), we arc told that there are three heavens, of which the Fathers 
occupy the third or highest. Their different races are mentioned by 
name, viz., Angirascs, Yairupas, Navagvna, Atharvans, Bhrigus, Yaa- 
ishthaa, etc (R.V. x. 14, 4-fi ; x. 15, 8). SDuntf not all known to 
their worshippers, they are known to Agni (z. 15, 13). Their de- 
scendants offer them worship and oblations (x. 15, 2, 9), supplicate 
their good will (x. 14, 6), deprecate their wrath on account of any 
offences which may have been committed against them (x. 15, 6), 
cetroat them to hear, intercede for, and protect their votarif* (x. 15, 5), 
and to bestow upon them opulence, long life, un<> -, (x. 

15, 7, 11 ; A.V. xviii. 3, 14 : Paruyata pitarah a cha yGta ayara re 
yajno madkund satnaltah \ datto rumulityafii draiincha bhadram rayith 
tha nah tarratlram dadhiitn ; xviii. 4, 62 : Ayar atmabhyafu dad.'iatah 
frtjOik cha rOyai cha pothair abhi nah utchadhvam). They are re- 
presented as thirsting for the libations prepared for them on eurth 
(x. 15, 9) ; and they are invited to come with Tama, his father 
Vivasrst, and Agni, and feast with avidity, and to their hearts' 
content, ou the sacrificial food (x. 14, 4, 5 ; x. 15, 9). They ac- 
cordingly arrive in thousands, borne on the same car with ludra 
and the other gods, and range themselves in order on the saorifieisl 
ground (x. 15, 10, 11). ,: " Wonderful powers are ascribed to thvtn, 
as in Agni is prayed (A.V. xviii. 'J, 38), to Wow sway the <vil 
who intrude into their hollowed society in tho guise of friends. In 
K.V. x. 68, II, it is said that "tho Fathers have adorned the sky 
with stars, as a dark horse with golden ornaments, and have placed 
darkness in tho night, and light in the day" (abhi iydvaih na kriiant- 
bhir aham nakihairebhih pitaro dyiim apimian). 

With these ideas compare those entertained by tho Romans about 
the Manes (see Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography 
and Mythology, $.v .), and the opinions of tho unreformed Christian 
Churches about the powers and prerogatives of tho saints. 

The following texts refer indistinctly to some punishment (whether 
annihilation or some penal infliction) of the wicked : 

R.V. iv. 5, 5 : Abhrataro na yothano eyautak petliripo na janayt 
dureii'iA \ ptipumh unto sup'toA amtytih idam padata njanata gabhlram \ 

*" Compare, on the pfftrings to the Pitrw, Colcbiuulw'a Emit on lbs Bsligkna 
Coromtwiis vf the Hunk*. Mi*. EsMrt, i. 180 B". 


" This deep slyse hoa been produced (for tboM who), being sinners, 
false, untrue, go about like women without brother*, like wicked 
females hostilo to their hujboi 

11. V. vii. 101, 3 : Jndratcmu duthkrilo earre antar anarambht^t 
Umasi praridhyalam \ yafful ur'it.ih jiunar ikaiektmodayad ityfidi | 1 7. 
I'rti yd jigali khargaleva naktam upa Jrufttl fanee ft f4hgm4n& rami™ 
anantitn or.t id padlthfa ityudi | " indra and Soma, dash those mali- 
cious (llakshases) into the abyss, into bottomless darkness, so that act 
cren one of them may get out," etc. 17. "May that injurious lUk- 
ahasT, who goes about at night like an ov.., concealing herself, fall 
into the bottomless abysses." 

Hut these last texts form part of a hymn which refers to evil spirits. 

Ii.V. is. 73, 8 : Fidv&n *a viieU bivrani 'Mi' paiyati avajtukfa* 
vidhyati karte avratun | " Knowing, ho (Soma) beholds all worlds ; 
he hurls the hated and irreligious into the abyss " (tart*). 

Iu x. 152, 4, Indra is prayed to consign to the lower darkness the 
man who injures his worshipper (yo amum «ihi d&sati adkartm 
gamaya lamah : compare A.V. i. 21, 2) ; and in A.V. riii. 2, 24, the 
nethermost darkness is mentioned (no rai tatrs mriyjnU no yanti 
luihiimum lamah), " They do not die there, nor go to the nethermost 
dark lies*." See idao A. v. ix. 2, 4, 9, 10, and 17; x. 3, 9 ; xii. 3, 49; 
xiii. 1. 32, where similar phrase* occur (associated in one place, x. 3, 9, 
with atttrttam rajas, the distant (f) atmosphere); and It. V. x. 103, 12, 
ami A.V. xviii. 3, 3, where the expression andham tamos, "blind dark* 
ncse»" h band.* 1 Hut it is not clear that in these passages the words 
denote a place of punishment. la A.V. v. 30, 11, it is said to a sick 
man: udthi mrityor gtimbhirat krithmieh eKit tamatas pari | "Rise up 
from deep death, even from the black darkness." In A.V. riii. 1, 10, 
tamat is uted by itself, apparently for the state of the dead ; and in 
A.V. viii. 2, 2, "the light of the living" (jlcoldmjyolih) is mentioned. 
In the preceding verse, 1, rajas and lamas ore joined : " do not depart 
to the- atmosphere and darkness " (rajas tamo mopaguA md pra mtsk- 
thah). In A.V, xii. 4, 36, however, the adjective form of the ordinary 
word for hell {uurala Ma) occurs; and that region is threatened as 
the future nbodc of the man whose offence is there specified (athdhw 
ndrakam lokam nirundfu'masyu ydeJiilam). 

«"> Mann, viii. {I t. ennnnrta muUutm (Mum vith bell, laying that s lying 
goes b> bell iu " bliud dailntsi.'* 


In the following passages of the Mahftbliiirata (xii. 6969 f.) bell and 
dorkncs-s ((anuu) arc identified : AnfifaUt lamaso rtiparh tumata nlyatt 
htf adhah | tanvo-grtutuh «« paiyanti prakuiam ionium trittih | 0970. 
ikargab prak&iah Uy ikur narahtm (amah era cha | "Falsehood is the 
embodiment of darkness (lamai) : by darkucss a mun is carried down- 
wards. Those who arc seized by darkness, being enveloped in dark- 
new, do not see tbo light. Heaven they euy is light (praitfUa), and 
hell is darkness (tamat)." m 

In ono of tho passages which hare boon quoted aboro (z. 1G, 4) the 
" anbom part" of man is spoken of as being conveyed by Agni to 
" the world of the righteous." It will be observed that the word hero 
employed is different from utntan, the term which at a lat*r period was 
inrarinbly used to denote the immaterial soul ; mid that this same 
word atmait occurs in the preceding verse in the sense of breath, as we 
must infer from the fact of its being bidden to mingle with the wind, 
the element to which it is akin. In some other passages of the Kig« 
veda wu find the word mana* employed for the soul, or tho living 
principle which exists after death. Thus in x. 58, I, it is said : Yat 
U Yamam VaitatraUtm mono jdgAma d&rakam | tat U Srarttayunari 
ifia itftaydyajlrtuc | "Thy soul, which has gODo afar to Yamo Vuiv-as- 
vata, wo bring back hither to dwell and to lite." In tho rersee . 
follow, the soul is said to be brought back from a great many other 
places, the heaven, the earth, the four quarters of tho sky, the ocean, 
the wuters, the planets, tho sun, the dawn, the post, the future, eto. 
And again in x. 60, 10, we find the same word employed: Yamad 
aham Vairturat&l Subandhor manoh iibharam \ /itutare nit mptyate atho 
(trithfatAtay* | " I havo brought the soul of Subandhu that it may lire 
and not die, but be secure." Compare A.V. v. 3, 6, 13 ; vi. 53, 2 ; 
viii. 1, 8; viii. 2. 3; and Vdj. Sanh. iii. 53-50. Atman is, however, 
used in some parts of the Hig-veda for the animating principle, as 
where tho sun is called tho soul of all things moving and stationary 
(i. 115, 1), or where Soma is colled tho soul of sacrifice (ix. 2, 10; 
ix. 6, 8), and of Indra (ix. 85, 3). 

«* Compare Vi.hnu Pnrini, ii. 6. 40 : - Jlttfm k that wniefc delights lb* mii»d | 
bril is Uuii uliirh giv« it pun j hi.-, » i.o in tilled h«II ; virtu* i» called h#«T*n " 



(6) Quotations from later tcoris regarding a future frUlemo*. 

I shall now adduce somo passage* from other Indian work* of a 
later date, such as the Satapstha Brahmnno, the epic poems, and th* 
Parana*, to show how for the opinions which their authors cntartaiasd 
coincide with those representations of a future life which I hare ex- 
tracted from the Rig-, Yajur-, and Athnrva-vedaB. 

In tlio 9th vol. of the Journal of the German Oriental Society 
(pp. 237 ff.) Professor 'Weber has communicated a legend from ihe 
Satnpntha Brahmann, on penal retribntion after death, to which be has 
prefixed some interesting remarks on the history of Indian opinion 
regarding tho vanity of personal existence, and the dcuro to escape 
from the perpetual cycle of births to which that opinion conducts. 
He remarks that, owing to tho fragmentary nature of the surviving 
documents of Indian literature, we are not yet in a position to trace 
with nny distinctness tho rise and growth of tho doctrine of transmi- 
gration; though ho considers it to admit of no doubt that the tenet in 
question was gradually developed in India itself, and not introduced from 
any foreign country. (See Professor Denfey's remarks on this subject 
in his Orient und Occident, vol. iii. pp. 169 f.) In the hymna of the 
Rig-vcda, Prof. Weber goes on to observe, there is no trace discoverable 
of the metempsychosis, or of any disgust with personal existence. On 
the contrary, they mauifost a cheerful enjoyment of life, and the most 
earnest desire for ita prolongation in thin world, as well u its con- 
tinuation in the next. " So too," Professor Weber proceeds, " in the 
Brahmauas, immortality, or at least longevity, is promised to those 
who rightly understand and practise tho rites of sacrifice, while those 
who ore deficient in this respect depart before their natural term of 
life (purti ha Aytuhah) *'•* to tho next world, where they ore weighed 
in a balance (xi. 2, 7, 33) m and receive good or evil according to 

•* Compare R.V. s. 37, 3: bkadruSi fivanto jamnam airmahi; S'atnp. B:_ 
3, : laniam ayur tti a An tva jarayai jirati ; S'nUp. Br. x. 4, 9, I, where Ihe ex- 
piration pura jartuak u round ; a* it is alio in 1: I, 20, und A.V. v. 30, 17 ; 
X. 2, 30; xi. 3, 68. Pura ha ayiuho mriyalt oetura in 8'atap. V.r. ii. 1, 4, 9: *• 
pura aymhch ivakami preybt in x. 2, 6, 7 ". and terrain ayytr #f i in X. 2, 8, 19. 8*S 
also Tsitt. Sanh. iii. 2. 1. 3. Compare lWra I v. 2« : " Bloody and dtosUM Oca 
(.hall not tiro out half their daya ; " Poalm cii. 25, und Jurcnuah xrii. II. 

M Tho pottage (ii. 2, 7, 33) to which Weber ha* referral rum at follow* : jttim 
ha aha na tuia yd rfofaaipe rtdyantth \ $a yet to Jin tarvti tad anUrwrdi at A* 



their deeds. The mora sacrifices any one has offered, the more ethereal 
is the body ho obtains, or, as the Brahman* expresses it (x. 1, 5, 4), ,r> 
the more rarely does he need to eat. In other passages, again (ir. 
6, 1, 1 : xi. 1, 8, 6; xii. 8, 3, 31),'" it is promised as the higfaost 
reward, that the pious nan shall ho born in tho next world with his 
entire body (larcalanUr eta t&ngah). Here the high estimation of 

yaJ t&lhv lad lakirtrdi tormSd dakthinam tadyantam adhirpna'ya iia oa'la | f*C 
fim ha rai amiuJimm hh* aaadhali | yatarod yairuyati lad aitvukyati yadi surf •« «<S 
asu.SAu in ifi | atha yahtram veda tumin As rva lokt fu/nm aVuAufi | a!i amuihnin Ink* 
tuladhmam muchyatt Madhakrilya ha rva an/a yackhati aa papakritya | '• For in 
the sest world they place (his good and ml dead*) in a balance. Whichever of 
the two fthail outweigh (tho other), tint he ihall follow, whether it bo good - 
Now, whosoever knows this places himself in tho balance in this world, and u freed 
fron being weighed in the next world ; it i* by good deed* and not by bud tint (bis 
saale) outweighs." 

•'» X. 1, 6, 4 : Atha <Uo yoJHaxtryunam era | mt/itm prxittr Aa toi ammkmim Idm 
aontketra-kud ainoti tar at t ha latmin yajm iirg atdhaman ardhamau tUi*p»f*a- 
maia-yiji that unhid thaturthu ■iMVftSJ tl -liijl thaliu thotm pofulandha- 

yifi atmcattmrt *amval*art semayS/i t'att iatr taiitraltartthu a-jmckit kamam timSli 
kamam ma | tad ha atad yaiaC t'atam vtmtatuirat lat-ad amritam aoamtmm aparyat*- 
lam | «• yo ha itaU tvatn rtda team ha tva atya Had amritam aminfam itparyamtam 
khorati | (an/a yad api Lhtkatja irw upahanyal tad ma atya amritam a*anl mm 
aparyam t am bkarati | ■ Then ss rogards the powers of the sacrifices. Jn tho next 
world the offerer of an Agnitiotra eaU morning and evening. So much nourishment 
resides in that sacrifice. The performer of the DaraopO: t>amuM sacrifice cat* every 
fortnight, the performer of the Chuturrniigya every four mouths. Um p rlbtmi 1 1 1 tin: 
Patubsadba every aix months, the offerer of the Soma every year, whilst the Vindlir 
of firs aat* every hundred years, or abstains at hia pleasure. This means, that during 
tlu* period of a hundred years fas enjoys an immortal, unending, and unliouul Ufa, 
He who m knows this enjoys in the tunc way this immortal, unending, and un- 
Ibsitsd cxislroco. Whatever purt of liim is separated, even aa if by a straw, be* 
coomb immortal, uninding. and unlimiud." 

«• iv. i. 1,1: Sa ha jarra/amur raw yajamana 'mutkmim hkt tmmhkatati | " This 
sssrifesr ii born with hit wholo body (ssntsWMwA) in the next world." xi. I, B, «s 
E'ka ka vat yajomartarya amnthmtn lak* alma hkarati yed yajnah \ — ha tarratanur 
arm ya/aman* aimuhnin lokt tamhharati yah mm tidrSm mukrTtya yajala | •"This 
sssTrlflrs bseotnea in the next world the soul of the sacriacer. The sacrifice! who, know 
ing this, sserinces with sn txpiatiou, i« born with his wholn body in the next world." 
xii. S, J, 31 : Pra ira rai taka telnnu tka d mml od eh* viiati yak ututramrnfa 'Mi* 
ihiihywtt | t««* rtad atiitariM atminam. upakrayatt lathi kptamah <*#> aanatanuk 
aaayak tamikatati \ ■ He who i* consecrated by the SsotrHmanf entcn the world*, 
and among the puis. He then .... sad is born entire, with his whole hsdy and 
limbs." la the A.V. xi. 3. 32. and 49. it is said : taka rai oianah mrrSmaah ssrsw 
fanh aaresfavsuA | tarvamfth era tarvopttnJf larralrmik umbkaaati yak from rrta | 
« This nisMo (boiled nee) if complete in its limbs, joints, and body. He who knows 
(his is born complete in limbs, joints, and body." 



individual existence culminates, nod a purely personal immortality is 
involved. It ia evidently in connection with this that the loss of a 
dead man's bones is regarded by bis friends as disgraceful, as the 
severest punishment of arrogjinco (xi. S, :t, 1 1 ; xir. 6, 9, 28) ; " m 
since, according to the custom prescribed by the Sutras, the bones 
Rhould be collected after cremation. 

[Tim following passage from the same work (x. 4, 3, 9,) is not incon- 
sistent with the aboTo riew. According to the story, the gods become 
immortal without parting with their bodies; and although men Ma 
not to enjoy immortality without " shuffling off their mortal coiL" a 
subsequent resumption of their bodies in a glorified state is not thereby 
excluded : 9. Ha mntyttr devun abravid " Atha eva iwrtt manvtAylk 
amrittth bhaiithyanti atha ko mahyarn Ih&go bhavUhyatt " iti \ U ha 
ichur " na aloh 'parah kakhana taha MVfrVfi amrito 'tad yadA era 
team etam bhUgam hordsai \ atha rydrritya larirena ttmrito 'tad eidyayd 
td karmaaa ea" iti | yad mi tad abruean "vidyaya eu karman/i rd " 
iti | **ha ha eva »a vidya yad Aynir el ad u ha eva tat karma yad Ayaih | 
10. T' 1 yi tvafh etad vidur ye ttl eiat karma kurxatt mritcu pun ah mm- 
lliavanti \ te tambhavanlah eva awrttatvam abhitambhmanti | atha y 
team na vidur ye vd etat karma na tun-ate mritta punah tambhrnraati U 
itaiya eva annum punah punar bhaxanti | 

" Death said to the Rods (who had become immortal by performing 
certain rites), 'in the very same way all men (also) (hall become 
immortal ; then what portion will remain for mc? ' Tho gods replied, 

*" xi. <3, 3, 11 : Ha ha tivucha "(iriaiiprainyam mi dtralam atymprahhTk 
ililhi/ai nmrithyuri na 14 atlhmi thana grihan pruptyinti" iti j M A* latitat** 
namara | taiya ha apy aryad manyamanah parimothiifo tulh'my ap*j*kntl> | I lim it 
na uparaiti jyuf | ■ Do not serotiniic too far the drity which ought not to be toe tax 
■■■■iini.«ii xhiin <hult die More rack :> i run thy boaea thall reach my 

horn*. . and robber* carried off hU bono*, talcing thorn Tar Mawting 

«Uc 'Where fore kt no man bo contentfcw." xiv. fl, 0, 28 (=Brih*d Aranjmka 
r/pasUmd, iii. D, M ; p. 210 f. of Boex'« English Uanalation) : Tarn re* *m p m n *t J m 
dam purutMim pfichhiimi lam (htd mt na ticaitkytui mfinttd te tipaliihysli " ifi | 
tarn ha Sokalyo na incut | taiya ha murJhu mtpapi'ila | (uj,a ha apt ant/ad man y* - 
man.\h pannttuhine luthiny aptfahruli | "I lul thro mgtnliiiij tbJl I'unisha Ut the 

Upani*hadj. If thou ehalt not explain hint to roe, thy head shall foil off. 8 aJcalya 
Jiil i»>t undorttand LhU INirn»h«. So his htid fell off; end robber* earned oil Lit 
boaca, taking Ikrni for totnctliiac; else." (CODmsm 1 King* ziii. '22, and Jercaaiah 

• iii. 1, i). See alio the storr of Atjoiahas Aruni ind Pluluha DaTyAmpati in TsiSW 

llr. iii. 10. 9, 3-0. 



'Henceforward no other being ahall become immortal with big body, 
when thou shult bnvo seized that part (the body). 4 *' Now, every ouo 
who is to become immortal through knowledge, or by work, shall 
become immortal after parting with his body.' This which they said, 
' by knowledge or by work,' means that knowledge which ia Agni, 
work which is Agni. 10. Those who to know this, or who perform 
this rite, are born agnin after dr-uLh ; and by being so bom, they 
attain immortality. Whilst those who do not so know, or who do not 
perform this rite, are indeed born again after death, but become again 
and again hia (death's) food." Seo the -ith vol. of this Work, pp. 
48 ff., where this passage is given with its context.] 

Professor Weber proceeds : "Bat whereas, in the eldest times, im- 
mortality in the abodes of the blessed, where milk and huney How 
(xi. 5, 6, 4)' 1 * is regarded as the reward of virtue or wisdom, nrhilfit 
the sinner or the fool is, after a short life, doomed to the annihilation 
of bis personal existence, the doctrine of the lirahniarjaa is that after 
death all ere born again in the next world, where they urv recompensed 
according to their deeds, the good being rewarded, end the- wicked 
ptadthed (ri. 2, 2, 27 ; x. 6, 3, I ; xi. 7, 2, 23)." •» 

"» It appears, however, from the Taitt. 8. ri. (p. t,'a of the Indian Office MS.), 
that mnti were also SMM :'• lei Bj .. '■■:< .■ to heaven without dying. ib-aAsHsroVii* 
wUkU " Ms foW f/tynt yyamaHah Airutt yttHJhran twvuryom Ulmm lit" ili | jit*- 
SVaAs ni <*ha yad aJ&iliyv 'nabkUkntuwy* grihnnti \jhwt:*m tv* nam tumrfm 
loimm y»nf •/•><• I " Men vrrwd in aocrcd science say • What du« the sacrifice* 
perform in the aicritice by which lie aacciul* tu b««vm »lirof This aiUbbya 
libation u an offering of the living [Roma, ijt. of th« plant am-nubed, according to 
Bdbtliagk aod Both, a^/ssayrsAw j i (tin- prie»t) offers thu without powing it out; 
and couvtn the wonhippex slivt to heaven." 

•^ li. 6, 0, 3 f. (See the 3rd vol. of thi» work, where thU passage i$ cited in ths 

origins' with its contort) . " Study of the Vcdas is the Brahasn-ascrificc The 

rasa who, knowing tint, daily praciiica the study of Uu> Yedaa, conquer* thrice as 
vast a rrgiun— smi that, too, undecaying— aj Ihu Ngion whiefa he conquer* who 
bestows this whole earth tilled with wealth. Wherefore of th» Ve«U* i. to b* 
practucd. 4. Vent* of the Hit. are oblations of milk to the gods, lie who, knowing 
this, daily studio tin; IUr-tcUs, does in fact satisfy the gods with oblations of milk ; 
and they, when satisfied, satiify him with prosperity, with breath, with gaosran'va 
power, with completeness in hi> Mag; with all excellent pcasesrisms. (Compare 
ITatap. Ur. ri. 5. 7. 6, and A.V. iv. 3t. 6, 7.) 

*•» ri. % 3, 27 : Tiumad iiui, if*'*" *»*»■• **»r«**c 'Hi jZyt, | '•* they 
say that s man i* l».,rn into the world which he has made." x. 6, 3, I : Mk* 
kh»t* kmtumwf t 'f*m finritiha^ | m rinlkrmtwr *jam aeawi/ loJbit jirtili rt*m- 
krMftr Ad am n/i fokam prelum abhimmbkttati | ■ Now truly this man la antapcaxd of 



[The Satapatha Brahmana, however, also expresses the conception of 
a higher state than that of desire and gratification, in a passage (z. 5, A, 
15) where it is said : IS. So 'tya atha unxuym anlam ma Qltna | m ess* 
jarruMlm apQmmadhye | ta e*ha tarvaik lumaik tompannak ) Spa r*V ton* 
IdiwrlA | in t*ha ak&mak tariakumo na hy rtai* Latyaekana Jtfmak ] IS. 
Tad aha state blutxati " cidyayil tad urohanti yalra tvjrwfi parGaatdh | 
bo Arfra ifo/biiiwlA »•«•*» ttdfidcdrhiai tapawinak" Hi \ ma ka mm tarn 
lakaim daJuhutubhir na iapasd 'netamvid einuta \ evaiatidum ka ma m 

" This soul is the cud of all this. It abides in thu midst of all 
the waters. It is supplied with all objects of desire. For the w a i aia 
arc all the objects of desire. 4 " This (soul) is free from desire, and 
(yet) possesses all tho objects of desire, for it desires nothing. 15. Oa 
this subject there is this Terse : ' By knowledge men ascend to that 
condition in which desires have passed sway. Thither gift* do not 
roach, nor austere devotees who are destitute of knowledge. ' m For a 
person who does not possess this knowledge docs not attain that world 
by gifts or by rigorous abstraction. It pertains only to those who 
hare such knowledge."]** 

sacrifice. So many «ocrilkm in hn hiu performed when hr ilermrw. from this world, 
with, to many i» ho bom in tbc other world alter hit death." 

**• Compare Taitt. Ur. iii. 12, 2. 6: Apia rat mm iu«i* Iriioh | "1b tl* 
waters all object* of danre are contained." 

*** Thu rer«« L* i|Uutul m S laltSSa'S Commentary on the Brahraa Sutnu, jrp. OH 
and W2, of the edit, in Bill. luJ. 

*** la another pajeajto a curious contrast i* drnwn between two different kiade of 
Ssoriflosn, tho ifwayiyiit raid the lin-aynjin, S'stap. Br. xi. 2. 8, 13 : iMmayi/i 
■rvyufi | AvaySjT it]/ atmayitfT ili ka briifat | m Ail mi Slmaya/i *■» ■"*" "***— mm 
mm an fit utuukriyati idam mt omtmm ongam upaJKiyat*" Hi | tm ymikii 'ku Ir+rU 
nirmmhytU mam umii martyat dariral papmm** mirmifi ystt m nrnmay a f mrnr- 

mtyH timama y *k akmlima»tah n—ym Mum aiki mnUaili | *f A* ha m mmmyifi 
mo ants dmam ma akam Utm ftit ataan aamarpmyami Ui m ftika irt r mm mSptf im 
Uiiih lata nnJyo mi mjih Ultm land maim to as Am ma l i tom t tm, lotam f*mM 
•atmmlmm ittraJt | "Ha who aacrutoa* to himself a oaparior. X nan ahaaJd osy, 
' There it a worshipper who aaerineas to to* gods,' sad 'another whe sstrrliM u 
himself.' Be who underatand* that by racb and each [a rite] rub and mack a 
ono of his members is ratified, and that by tucb and euch another rite rach oad sack 
another of his mem ben is restored.— he ii the rtemon who eoeriSore to bjmaeh* ; ha ■ 
freed from this mortal body, from nn (or mieery), u a eerprnt it fried fraca its wora- 
BM sUsi and ao}uiring the nature of the Rii. Yajaafa. and Siaua, oad of 'tTritlWt 
be ettaiiM to hearea. 2. Ob the otber aasd, bo woo aaoera tan de that with «a*h ead 
luch ss oblatieu be weeshJpe the gtxU, and otfen it wf to tbeeo, at like aa iaisner 




Profeaaor Weber adds in a note : "According to a very ancient con- 
ception, the soul, after being breothed forth from tho body, ascends to 
the abodes of the blessed on the wings of the air, of the wind (Eppeia* 
ifaxorrofrrros),*" having itself been changed into an aerial form. With 
this is connected the later idea of the resolution of the senses of the 
dying into fire, sun, moon, wind, and tho regions of the eky •*• (x. 3, 3, 
8 ; xiv. 6, 2, 13), and tho still more modern and systematic notion of 
their being resolved into tho five elements. In ono place (i. 9, 3, 
10)"* I find tho idea that tho rays of the sun arc themselves the pious 

who presents tribute, to a superior, or u n Vais'rn lirinu-i tribute to » king ; and be 
doc* not conquer fur himself to great n world an the other dot*." lYsfetsor Aufrreht 

b iLlf. ■r.vnee bsMmil the ifnw of ntmuyajim here 
•nil in Munu, xii. 91, us u indicated in tho Lexicon si Mit% Boktlixurk and liolh, 
and thit in the passage be fort a* u/nmn mait bo taken in the Vedantic seats, and 
; to menu " be who sacrifices I la, in bin own 

indiiiduality. a* an integral purt nf tho universal soul," quoting KullQka on Mann, 
xii. 91, in proof of this tense, lit- uIbo refers to 8'alap. Br. x. 3, 2, 13 (*i»i 

tAk*H.1ii\ in dim'- |*M .f< | rtjrib*UsA*fl <hh*nJ*k apt artala M 

ktani | ta ttka Htm^n-lya tto | rtmttmityo ha Hnh, •iry-tloA /ram atmStam al'hinm- 

tVAaewri), which I translate: " What the metre, what deity an the thing* which *th 
defective or nipcrnnow t The nyu«ak*kara (metre with deficient syllables) it tho 
metro: ttor water* aiu the deity representing the thing* which Bra dVftx'tivo or super. 
iIuuum. Thi* is to* knowledge of tool. Be who is compared of thii attain* to Uicm) 
to tin* soul." Here th* knowledge of soul in the VedunUc scuae may 
be referred to. Cut in the prc/riotus pnaou^r the atnuiya/in is represented, not aa 
attaining to soul, but to heaven, a destination which he wbo> has a knowledge of soui 
in the Vcsbmlic sense no longer desire*. 

•** Compare A.V. xviii. 2, 21 (., quoted above. 

*»• x. 3, 3, 8: Sa ytuta fromt-uf a. mil Uial praili ritka n* Ajiim opyiU f\oU>\**>.» 
jtditytii miiwi Chamdrmm ircl'rmi lhi'tK pr a wns r'aasrai | (<s ttitmt y ik ere 
»A«(ru rtatim dtWtinSSn yiSt t/i'im iumtytU «3 Oiidi iUpui | " Whoever defaula 
from ih: -■ « orlil knowing this goes with his voice to fire (Agai), with hit eya to the ain 
(Aditys | compare ft V. x. 10, 3, quoted above), with bis raiud (ipmuisw) to the moos, 
with bis ear to the tvgionc. with his breath {prima) to the wind (V*yu; eonparo 
R V. v. t6, 3}. Having attained the nature of these, and boeune any one of the** 
deitie* that he dsaire*, be xvtta." xiv 6, 2, 13 ; .... p. «« f.) i I*tr* 

swy* pMruikatya mrira/ya tynim ray apyiii tnltm pravu tkaiukmr adityxum mmnaJ 
eA mt dr am dUak jrotram priChinm itMliWM aaostun o/smj mketlhir [omami tanatptlln 
Asaii apn iohitam eka rttai ehs nMiyaft tea aymm tida pmiuko bkawU | "When 
the voiea of the departed ton] goea to fir*, his breath to the wind, his eye to the sun, 
his saind to the moon, his hearing to the regions, his body to th* earth, hi- 
th* wther, the bail* of hie body to the plant*, the hair* of his head to the trvea, his 
blood and hi* eenunel fluid to the water*, — where then ia this ipint i " 

**• i. 9. J. 10 : l'ah rtkm taptti Imaym y» rasMatwa U niXyitmk \ mJk* yml pmnm 
this rntfipasir ra seeree ti loUA | "That raya of him who thine* (tho sun) are tho 
pious. The light which at above It PrajipaU. or the heavenly world." 



(tvifila*) ; and in another (vi. o, 4, 8) 1 * the conception that the (tan 
aro the lights of the righteous who go to heaven. With thia the 
similar statement in Uu Iinlmlokfignmana may be compared." 

The following are soirjo other passages of the Brnhmagna (not cited 
by Professor TYi-bcr) regarding future rewards. In the Sutnp. Br. 
6, 2, 2, 3, it is said : " He who sacrifices thus obtains perpetual pros- 
perity and renown, and conquers for himself on union'" with these 
two gods (Aditya and Ayni), and an abode in the same sphere." (See 
the original passages with the context in the 1st vol. of this Work, 
pp. 426 frr.) In the same work (ii. 6, 4, 8) it is said that those whe 
offer particular sacrifices become Agni, Varan*, or Indra, and attain to 
union, and to the same spheres, with those gods respectively (** ysd 
raiiradeiena yajate Aynir era tarhi bhavaty Ayner tea itiyu/'yam lalol- 
ctuth jayati \ atfm yai Tarunaprayhiltair yajatt Jlmnah «vm tarki 
Ihiun/i (tfddf). And in the same way tho Tiiittirfyu Brahmana, iiL 
10, 11, 6 (., states that the possessors of particular kinds of knowledge 
attain to union with Aditya (the Sun), and to union, and to tho anna 
spheres, with Agni, with Vayu, with Indra, with Br 1 ;iipati, with 
Fruji'innti, and with Brahma. In tho same work, iiL 10, 9, 11, men- 
tion is made of a certain sage who, through his knowledge, became a 
hi, went to heaven, and attained to union with the sun 
(Ahtno ha A&vatthyah $Svilram tidAnthakara \ l\. Sa ho harhw Mran- 
mayo bhiitvil tvargaih lokam iyuyn udityatya idyujyam). Tlie Kitap. 

«*' vi. 6. 4. 8: Ti M jimoA ptmyakritah irarpam InkaSt ytmti IttKam Hani jy- 
limtlii | •' Ths«o (the itont) are the light* of the practisMS of holy act* who g» to 
heaven." Tli* pm«aRO of the IndraloVuganmna (Mob. iii. 1745 ft".), rvf*rrcd to by Plw 
ibwor Weber, i» •» follows: .Vu tatra turyajf tvma rS d'jvtalt nark* pantkak | 
Btapfitt pt*bk*ga tatra dyataiita j/unyaJaf-J/iayi | lardritpSni yuWAa Ariipme* 
dputimavti rai | 1747. Diparad eiprakriiltfattal Curium nuttaaanty apt | [ant tatra 
prabhatranli ruyavtmti tha ttmdatiah | 1748. I)*-t*rJa ttvj/iu diuMnyniu d'tpammmU 
iiMya 'rehitha \ tatra rajarihayah tulilhah erraicA* mkatah yuJki | 1741. Xu 
■<*)) fnrlkn rtr-t/iN rMijAnyriAe ttea*t\ilah | 1768. Van Jrukfarom mii et&to 

lartiriipini ihutalt | "The nil »hin« not there (in Indra 's baavea), nor the ronou. 
Tin n ilic righteous ehinc by thoir own light, acquired by ihtir own virtue. 
Arjuns beheld there, ihining in tli'ir own iphrrr., luminou» and heaouful, thoae 
bright furmi of the stain which, when *t«n from the earth, appear from dutaii.f to 
he si •mull an Inmpa, although tliry are very tact." •* Thwe," m Aijuna'i eondatlar 
rxpluinui to him, " MM thu nfthteotu octrjpying their ova »phcre», whom, whea %» 
earth, hn bid wn in Oto iky in the form of »tat»." 

'** 1 b« word nagujfft, "dote union," here used, seeuj to prepare the way C 
and mmlit, •'dul»o]utlo^,'• or " absorption," into taostrprcmc *pirtt. 




Br. xi. A, 4, 1, also speaks of union with Brahma : Shad tai Brah- 
ma no dtiirah Agnir J'&yur Apai Chandramah r'idyui Adilyah | 21. Sa 
yah upadaydhma havithd yajaU Aynin<1 1a ha Brahmano dtarena pre- 
UpadyaU | to 'gm'nA Ura-hmam dvdrtna pratipadya Jirahmanah *6yu- 
t'yam ialokatdrk jayati \ " There are six doom to Brahma, rix., Agni, 
Yayu, the Waters, the Moon, Lightning, the Sun. 2. Ho who sncri- 
fioes wilb a burst offering, arrives by Agni, as the door to Br»hmf< ; 
and having so arrived, ho attains to a union with Brahma, and 

ibita in Qusvu 1 ' '[.in'ir v.jiii ban." iii a. v. ox. 7, i, i. ■ ft— i*— 

loka is mentioned. [For tlic Puranio idea of the world of Brahmu, 
MO Wilson's Vishnu Purana, 4to. ed., p. 48, note 3, and p. 213, note 
3 (or, for tho first of theso passages, Professor Hall's 8vo. ed., vol. t. 
p. 98), and for the second, vol. ii. p. 228, of the same edition.] 

In the S'atap. Br. xi. 5, 6, 0, it is declared that a man who reads 
the Vedas in a particular manner is " freed from dying again, and 
attains to a sameness of nature with Brahma {_Jlrahman»h tulmairlm). 
Even if he cannot read with much power, let him read one sentence 
relating to tho gods." (Seo the original passage with tho context in 
the 3rd vol. of this Work, pp. 18 ff.) 

Tho following curious passage is from the Aitarfya Brahmana, 
iii. 44 : S* tai nha na kadaehana an tarn t.ti na ttdtti \ ta§t yad attam 
tti Hi manyanU ahnah era tad anient itrd atha lUntHnaSt riparyatyat* 
n'ltrim $va atatlut kurute ahah parattnl \ atha yad tnam prater utitli Hi 
manyanU rAtrtr tta tad tin/am it«l atha dtmSnam riparyatyatt ahar tta 
atattal kurute r<ktr\m parmUU | *a tai etha na kadacfuma nimrwhati | 
t»a ha tai kadachana mmrochali etatya ha luyujyam tarupatdih talolatam 
ainute yah etam xtda yah ttaUt ttda | 

" The 8un neither ever sets or rises. When people think he seta be 
(only) turns himself round, uftcr reaching tho end of the day, and 
makes night below and day above. Then when people think he rises 
in the morning he (only) turns himself round after reaching the end of 
the night, and makes day below and night above. In truth, he never 
■eta. Tho man who knows this, that the sun never sets, enjoys union 
and sameness of nature with him, and abides in the came sphere." ** 

*•* Sea Prof. Hang'* Aitareja Itrohmaos, ii. p. 343. I after from that scholar in 
tnraluing parattat, "abovs," and not "on tii* othsr au)i>." Compare Int. StnL 
fab p. 378. 8«c slss Vishnu Purioa, ii. 8 ; p. 341 of Dr. 11 all's edition of Wilson's 

Translation, vol. u 



In another passage (ii. 17) tbo same work declares how far hi 
is from earth: Sahatram an*chya*t itoroakumatya | —ft— riUs-fiu r*. 
itah faryo lokk | " He who desires heaven should repeat a thnw^M 
(verses). For the heavenly world is distant from hence a »h"»»wnd 
days' journey on horseback." 

In the Kxtap. Br. vi. 6, 2, 4, it is said that the door of heaven 
{narga-loka) is situated in the north-eastern regions (gad u era uiau 
prdSt tuhfhmn \ tlatydm ha diii swrrymya fahuya Jcaram), whilo that by 
which the heaven of the Fathers is entered, lies to the south-caat 
{pr&chim eha dakthinam cha | ttaiytm ha Mi piSnUhuya diuram, ibid, 
nil. 8, 1,5)."" 

In the legend on future retribution, quoted by Weber, aa above 
Btated, from the inmo Bnlhmana (xi. fi, 1, 1 ff.) it is related that 
Bhrigu, the sou of Varunn, visited, by his fatlror's command, the four 
points of the compass, where he saw men being cut into pieces and 
eaten by other men, who, when questioned by Bhrigu, declared that 
they were revenging on their victim* tho trtntraent which they had 
recciTcil at their hands in the other world (on earth). These victims 
arc nllcgoricolly explained in the llruhmanu as representing the trees, 
animals, plants, and waters employed in sacrifice. But Professor 
Weber is of opinion that the story is an old popular legend regarding 
the penal retribution executed by the former sufferers themselves oa 
those who had oppressed them whilo on earth, and that the narrative 
had been appropriated by the priests and introduced into the Brah- 
mana to relieve the monotony of its tedious disquisitions, and Tplain+d 
in tho manner I havo stated. 

I return to Professor Weber's discussion of tho doctrine 
Brahman ns regarding a future state. 

"The Brahmnnas, however," he continues, "are not explicit ia 
regard ia the duration of these rewords and punishments ; and it 
here that wo have to seek the origin of tin: doctrine of transmigration. 
To men of tho mild disposition and reflective spirit of tho Indiana, i 
would not appear that reward and punishment could be eternal. 
would conceive that it must be possible by atonement and purification 
to becomu absolved from the punishment of tho sinB committed in thi* 


.it ia 
it is 
n-, ii 
■tfc . 

**• See Weber, in the Journal <•! tie German Oriental Society, it 243, 506. 



•hort life. And in the same way they could not imagine that the 
reward of virtues practised during the same brief period 
continue for ever. The dogma of transmigration an»wervd plainly to 
both of these suppositions, though in another respect it could scarcely 
do so ; for where waa cither a beginning or an end to be sought ? Tho 
spirit of inquiry aought to escape from this dilemma by systematic 
refinements (itmderung), but only became more hopelessly entangled ; 
and at length it was only extricated by cutting the knot, by succumb- 
ing to tho influence of the aspiration after complete redemption from 
the bondage of the world, and of individual existence ; to that that 
destiny, which won in earlier time* regarded as the greatest punish* 
ment, was now recognized as tho highest reward. This mode of 
cutting the knot is the work of Buddha and Buddhism ; and tho best 
proof that tho fundamental substance of the u is pre- Budd- 

histic is (apart from all other evidence) to be found in this, that they 
do not recognize tho existence of the dilemma in question, that they 
know nothing of the contempt of life to which wo have alluded, but 
rather express with directness and naivete' u fresh and genuine loro at 
existence, and a yearning after immortality. It is only some passages 
of tho Brihndiir.iij vakii and ef the Chhandogya Upanivhnd, which form 
on exception to this assertion ; and on that account tlu-r must bo held 
evidently to belong to tho period immediately preceding Buddha's 
appearance, or even to that which M lowed it" 

It docs not quite agree with tho conclusion here announced 
that the passage I have quoted above from the S'atapntha Br&hmuna, 
xi. 5, 6, 9, appears to speak of union with Brahma; — unless Brahma, 
and not Brahma, is meant, and unless the word siltmatd is to be 
understood in some other sense than the later one of absorption into 

Though India, Varurjn, and other gods are represented in tho Mali- 
bharnta and Furtnas as leading a sensual and immoral life,"' and 
though the Apsarases, or celestial nymphs, are expressly declared to be 
courtesans,"" form the subject of most voluptuous descriptions, *" and are 

"• Bm the *lh vol. of thii Wmk, p. 4 1. 

•«• Ibid p. JIM ; sad Rimfivsus, I. 46. W (*d. .Sthfej-rf}. tod i. 46. 3 (Odnctto). 
•" 8m MthahhSrttt, iii. Is.'l S. ; Rim-yjgt, I'ttart K.g4*» "»«• >* ■"• 
(Bombty «d ). 



represented aa being sent by the god* from time to time to seduce austere 
•ago* into unehantity, and are promised, as wo hare already sees, as the 
companions of warriors in a future life, — yet the pictures drawn of 
paradise in those works are not always of such a gross character. la 
tha account of the highest stage of heavenly blessedness contained in the 
Mahiibhftrnta, iii. 1 .'> 4 II fl*., there is no promise of any sensual gratification 
held ont. It appears (rv. 15407-15487) that a sage named 31 udgala had 
lived a life of poverty, piety, and self-restraint, offering hospitality to 
thousands of Kruhinans, according to his humble means, with the grain 
which he gleaned like a pigeon (kupot\5t vrittin utthilah), and which 
(like the widow of Zarephath's oil) never underwent diminution, or 
rather increased again when it was required (verse 15413: brlJu'drt- 
na*ya tad fly atya dadatti 'tnutm mah'itmanah | iitifam muttaryaMnatya 
vardhaty atitfiidarianeit). At length another holy roan, called Ihirvuts, 
famous in Indian traditiou for his irascible temper, csmc to prove Mud- 
gala's powers of endurance ; and six times devoured all the food which 
the hospitable saint possessed. Finding that the temper of his host was 
altogether unaffected by these trials, Durv&sas expressed the highest 
admiration of his virtue, and declared that he would go bodih 
heaven. As he spoko these words a messenger of the gods arrived in a 
celestial car, and called upon Mudg.da to ascend to a state of complete 
I" -rfccttoB. The sag*) baw\ ■••■(t, desired first to learn the advantages 
and drawbacks of the heavenly etato, and the messenger proceeded to 
tell him (vv. 154 1 1 If.) first what kind of people go there, vis., those 
who have performed austerities or celebrated great sacrifiocs, the truth- 
ful, the orthodox, the righteous, the Belf-restroincd, the meek, the 
lilirral, the brave, etc. These celestial abodes wen, be said, shining, 
glorious, aud filled with all delights. There is seen the vast golden 
mountain Mem, and the holy garden Nandana, etc, where the righ- 
teous disport. There hunger, thirst, weariness, cold, heat, fear, are 
unknown ; there is nothing disgusting or disagreeable ; the scents are 
delightful ; the sounds ore pleasant to the ear and mind ; there is no 
sorrow, nor lamentation, nor decay, nor labour, nor envy, nor jealousy, 
nor delusion. There the blessed are clothed with glorious bodies, 
which are produced by their works, and not generated by any father 
• r mother. Their garlands are fragrant and unfading ; they ride in 
aerial care, lieyund these regions there are, however, others of 



higher character — those to which the riahis, who hnvo been purified 
by their works, proceed. Still further on are those whero the 
Jlibhii*, who are gods even to tho gods, dwell, and where there 
is no annoyance occasioned by women (itrl-krifau (tJpat>), m or by 
envy arising from tho sight of worldly grandeur. The blessed there 
do sot subsist on oblations, nor do they feed upon ambrosia ; liny 
have celestial and not course material bodies. Theso eternal gods of 
gods do not desire pleasure; they do not ohange with the revolutions 
of Kalpoe (great mundane ages). How can they then be si 
cither to decay or death? They experience neither joy, nor pleasure, 
nor delight, neither happiness nor suffering, neither love nor hatred. 
That highest state, go difficult to attain, and which is beyond tho reach 
of tli <>««• who seek after pleasure (ayamyd kCmti-pocharaih), is desired 
even by the gods. This celestial felicity, tho messenger says, is now 
within ifudgala's reach, — the fruit of his good deeds. The speaker 
next, according to his promise, explains the drawbacks of the heavenly 
state. As the fruit of works dono on earth is enjoyed in heaven, 
whilst no other new works arc performed thcro from which new 
rewards could spring, this enjoyment is cut off from its root, and 
must therefore come to on end (verse 15468 S kritiuya karma *as 
intra bhujyato yal fAtffaA diii | im th&nyat kriyaU karma mQfo-thhttlena 
VkvjyaU). For this world in the place for works, while the other U 
the place for reward (verse 14 175 : karmsbhamir iyam brahman pka- 
lahhumir atau maid). This loss of gratifications to which the heart 
has become devoted, and tho dissatisfaction and pain which arise in the 
minds of thoso who have sunk to a lower estate, from beholding tho 
more brilliant prosperity of others, is intolerable. To this must be added 
the consciousness and the bewilderment of those who so descend, and 
the fear of falling which they experience when their garlands begin to 
fade. Such are tho defects which attach to all existence till it U 
absorbed in Brahma. But the state of those who have fallen from 
heaven is not altogether without compensation. As a result of their 
previous good deeds they are born in a condition of happiness ; though, 
if they ore not vigilant, they sink still lower. Having given this 
explanation, the messenger of tho gods invites Mudg&la to accompany 
him to paradise. The saint, however, after consideration, replies that 
•»' Compare TUtc, Republic, i. i. 


he can have nothing to do with a state of happiness which is 
by so great defects, and the termination of which is followed by bo great 
misery. lie has therefore no desire for heaven ; and will seek only 
that eternal abode where there is no sorrow, nor distress, nor change. 
He tli en asks the celestial messenger what other sphere there ia which 
is free from all defects. Tho messenger replies, that above the abode 
tf Jirahmu is the pure eternal light, the highest sphere of Viahrju, who 
is regarded us the supremo Brahma. Thither nono can proceed who 
are devoted to objects of sense, or who are the slaves of dishonesty, 
avarice, anger, delusion, or malice; but only the unselfish, the humble, 
those who are indifferent to pain and pleasure, those whose senses are 
under rest mi tit, and those who practise contemplation and fix their 
minds on the deity. The sage then dismissed the messenger of the 
pods, began to practise ascetic virtues, becoming indifferent to praise 
and blame, regarding clods, stones, and gold as (dike. Pare knowledge 
led to fixed contemplation ; and that again imparted strength and 
complete comprehension, whereby he attained supremo eternal per* 
fiction, in tho nature of quietude [nirruna'] [jnHaayogna iuddhtn* 
.•.niti/o SaUSM ha \ dhythwyogild balaft labdhtil prupya buddhtm 
aiiullamilm | jitg&ma i&ivalhri siddJu'm par dm nirr-a'na-iakihanajm). m 

The difference between tho results of meritorious works end of 
knowledge, so familiar to the religious philosophy of the Hindus, i» 
clearly set forth in the following verses of the MfthiibhirotA, xti. S810 ff.: 

Karmanii badhyata j'antur vidyayft ttt pritmvthyaU \ tatm&l karma m 
kurvmli yatayah p&radariinah \ 8811. KarmanQ /'uyaU prtlya mirti- 
MM tlmdaiutmakah \ ridyayd jGyatt tiityam atyaktam hy aiyaynlma- 
lam | 8812. Karma tv ek* praiaifaanti tvalpabuddhi-rattih nnrtih \ Una 
ti deha-jCiluni ramiti/untiih apiafti | 8813. Ye tma buddhtm pat Am 
prilptah dAarma-naipuna-darsi»ah | no U karma praiamtanti kapam 
nadyiltn pilmnn tea | 8814. Kanmuiuh pKitlam iipnoti inkkadukkJu bkay 
tab/u\i>au | vidijny<\ tad av-iipnoti yat-ra gati<3 na sachali | 8815. Yalra 
gair& na mriyalt yalra gnfrA na j&yatt \ na punar JiyaU yatra yaira 
gated na varttat* | 8816. Yatra tad Brahma paramam aryaktam acha- 
lam dhrmam \ aryulrtfum anayStam amritam ch&viyogi cha | 

> s > S«e tho other pnuege* <|ii-.t<il, I ■'., I>> Bohtlingk uti R/.lh, bum Brihamtami 
writing* wlJCTfl fti bj UikM !>;:',» to cipctss the 

I destiny of mundane creatures U well Vnown. 


" By worka a creature us bound ; by knowledge he u liberated ; 
wherefore devotee* gifted with perfect insight perform no works. 
Through works a creature is born again after death, with a body (of 
one or other) of sixteen descriptions ; by knowledge he becomes the 
Eternal, Imperceptible, mill Undccaying. Some men of little under- 
standing eulogise works, and bo embrace with delight the entangle- 
ments of corporeal existence. Cut those who have reached the highest 
intelligence, and a perfect comprehension of righteousness, do not 
pomraend works, as a person drinking from a river thinks little of a 
well. Tho results which a man obtains from works are pleasure and 
pain, prosperity and adversity ; by knowledge ho gains that condition 
in which his griefs are at an end, in which he dies not, in which his 
birth U not repeated, from which he does not return ; in which that 
supreme Bruhma exists imperceptible, unchanging, etc., etc." 

(7) Yuma, and a future life, — a mtirieal iktUh. 

To great king Tama homage pay. 

Who was the first of men that died, 
That crossed the mighty gulf, and apii •! 

For mortals out the heavenward way. 

No power can ever close the road 
"Which he to us laid open then, 
By which in long procession nun 

Ascend to his sublime abode. 

By it our fathers all have passed ; 

And that same path we too shall trace, 
And every new succeeding race 

Of mortal men, while time shall hut. 

The god assemble* round his throne 

A growing throng, the good and wise — 

All those whom, scanned with searching eyes, 

He recognises as his own. 


Departed mortoJ, - * speed from earth 

By those old wap thy sires have trod ; 
Ascend, behold tho expectant god 

"Who culls theo to a higher birth. 

First must each several dement 

Thut joined U» form thy living frame 
Flit to the region whence it came, 

And with it* parent source bo blent 

Thine eye shall neck the solar orb, 
Tliy life-breath to the wind shall fly, 
Thy port ethereal to the sky ; 

Thine earthy part shall earth absorb. 

Thine unborn part shall Agni bright 
With his benignect ray* ill nine, 
And guide it through the trackless gloom 

To yonder sphere of life and light. 

On his resplendent pinions rise, 
Or soar upon a car aloft, 
By Wind-gods fanned with breezes soft, 

Until thou enterest paradise. 

And calmly pass, withont alarm, 

Tho four-eyed hounds that guard tho road 
Whieh leads to Yuma'* bright abode : 

Their master's friends they dure not harm. 

All imperfections leave behind : 

Assume thine ancient frame once more, — 
Each limb, and sea**, thou hadst befoi ■ 

From every earthly taint refined, 

** The iJriui arc thus ad d ressed at Amoral eertmonisk. 


And now with heavenly glory bright, 

With lifi- intinsor, nobler, li 

With largu c:ipiu'iiy to taste 
A fuller measure of delight 

Thou there once more each well-known face 
Shalt see of those thou lovedst hen . 
Thy parents, wife, and children dear, 

With rapture slialt thou soon embrace. 

The Fathers, too, ahalt thou behold, 

The heroes who in battle died, 

The aointa and sages, glorified, 
The pious, bounteous, kings of old. 

The gods whom here in humblo wise 

Thou worshipped^ with doubt and awe, 
Shall there the impervious veil withdraw 

Which hid their glory from thine eye*. 

The good which thou on earth hast wrought. 
Each menace, each pious deed. 
Shall there receive its ample meed ; 

No worthy act sliall bo forget 

In those fair realms of cloudless day, 
Where Yama every joy supplies, 
And every longing satwnes, 

Thy bliss sliall never know decay. 


(8) NatkikiUu, an ancient Umttphie *(ary, mttruaUy rendertd fnm th* 
Taitiiriya Brahmana, and th» Kafka Upanukad. 

As an illustration of the preceding remarks of Professor Weber (in 
pp. 314 ff.), on the subject of transmigration, and generally of the later 
doctrine of the Upaniahads on the nature and destiny of the soul, 
I introduce hero a free metrical translation of the story of Nachiketas, 
as told briefly in the Taittirlya Brahmana, iii. 11, 8, Iff., and in • 


greatly developed form in the Katha Upanifthod. An English trens- 
lntion of iliw Upunishad, by Dr. lloer, will be found in the llibliothoea 
Indica, vol. xv. published in 1853, pp. 99 ff., and a German version 
in Windischmonn's work, entitled "die Fhilowpuia im Fortgaag dor 
Weltgeechichtc," pp. 1700 ff. : 

Desiring heaven, a sago of old 

With sucj-ilkc the gods adored j 

Dovoting to the priests his hoard 
Of slowly- gathered goods and gold. 

His son, young Nachike'tas, stood, 

And saw the gifts hin father brought 
To give the priests : " My sire," he thought, 
" His vow has not made fully good." 

"Thou hast not all, my father, piven 

Thou hadst to give," he calmly said ; 
" One offering more must yet be modi-, 
If thou wouldst hope to merit heaven." 

"To whom shall I be given, my sire ?" 

His father deemed the question vain ; 
Once more he asked, and yet again. 

"To Death," his father cried in ire. 

He rose to go to Death's abode ; 

A Voice addressed him from the air, 
" Go, seek Death's house, and enter there 
What time its lord shall be abroad : 

'• Three nights within his mansion stay, 

But tastu not, though a guest, his food ; 
And when, in hospitable mood 
He comes and asks thee, thou slialt say :— 


" ' I in tliy house three nights liuvo post.' 

When next ho asks, • What didst thou cat ?' 
Say, ' First thy children were my meat, 
Thy cattle next, thy merits last' " m 

Thn youth that heavenly Voioo oheyed, 

And dwelt thmo nights ia Death's abode ; 
When questioned by hie host, the god, 

lie answered as the Voice had said. 

Disturbed that thus his youthful guest 
Had not been filly entertained, 
The god, to make amends constrained, 

The stranger humbly thus addressed : — 

" I bow before thec, reverend child ; 

I pray thec, crnvo a boon of me." 
"My father let me, living, Boe," 
The boy replied, " and recuucilcd." 

To whom the god — " I grant thy prayer ; 
But ask a second boon," replied. 
" May my good works," the stripling cried, 
Of bliss an endless harvest bear." 

This, too, according, Death desired 

He yet one boon would choose, the last. 
" When men away from earth hove past, 
Then live they still 'i " the youth inquired. 

" To solve this question, dark and grave, 
Was even for gods too hard a task : 
This boon, 1 pray thee, cease to ask, 
My son," said Death, "another crave." 

4,1 By lh«c words, swarding to the Indian commentator, it in intimated that the 

host who learn sis gutat ■itfiuut fu<*l for one eight, lusts bis children; that by a 

►imilar ai^Ioct nn thn ascend night, he loses his eattls ; and that, finally, be fcrfriu 

< ud of hi* raoriti is a tutors life, if th« gsett is allowed to Cut daring the 

third night. 


Youth Nackike'taa, undeterred, 

Bfjuined, " The boon I choose, bestow ; 
Who cun like thec Uio answer know ? 

No boon with this may bo compared." 

Death said, "Ask all thine heart's desire ; 

Sons long-lived, cattle, gold, demand, 

Elect a wide domain of kind, 
And length of days from mo rcquiro ; 

" Or seek what earth cannot supply — 

Tho love of witching heavenly brit. 
And all celestial joys beside* ; 
But into death forbear to pry." 

The youth rejoined, "The force of man 
Ib frail, and all excess of joys 
His feeble organs soon destroys : 

Our longest life is but a span. 

" Wealth cannot satisfy; all zest 

Of pleasure flies before thy face ; 

Our life depends upon thy grace : 

Once more, of boons I crave the best ; 

11 For who, with deathless youth though crowned, 
And godlike force, if wise, would deign 
To spend on endlera life in vain 
In carnal joy's disturbing round?" 

When thus tho stripling had withstood, 
Though proffered by a god, the lure 
Of sensual bliss, and craved the pure 

Delight of transcendental good ; 

Then Death, who knew the unborn soul 
And being's essence, taught tho youth 
The science of the highest truth, 

Through which is reached the final goal : 


" Two things for men's regard contend — 

The good, the pleasant ; he who wool 
The good is blest ; while they who chooao 
The pleasant miss the highest end. 

" The wise between the two discern. 

The pleasant spurn, the good embrace, 
But fools the pleasant vainly chase ; 
To lore the good they cannot learn. 

" The first take knowledge for their guide ; 
The lust by ignorance arc led : 
Tar, far, diverge the paths they tread, 
The chasm that parts their goals is wide. * 

*' The fools who ignorance obey, 

Conceive they much hare learnt and Snow, 
But roam, unwitting where they go, 
As blind men, led by blind men, stray. 

" Absorbed in sordid cares or strife, 

The men whom carlhly passions lire 
To no sublimer aims aspire, 
Nor dream of any future life. 

" Of all the objects men can know, 

The highest is tho soul, too high 
For common mortals to descry, 
Whoso eyes are dazed by outward show. 

" Some men have never learnt this lore, 

And some, whom sages seek to teach, 
Possess no faculty to reach 
That sacred doctrine's inner core. 

"O skilled and wonderful, my son, 

Is ho the soul who gaias and knows ! 
This subtile science only those 
Coo teach who think the soul as one. 



" Tho sage whose spirit's gaze intense 

This God, the Soul (from fleshly eyea 
Impenetrably Tcilcd) descries, 
No longer dotes on things of sense. 

" Derived from no anterior source, 

The soul, tinhorn. • vtinpt Im mi ill 
Tho accidents which life befall, 
Holds od its everlasting course. 

" The smiter thinks that he can slay, 

The smitten fears that he is slain : 
« The thoughts of both alike are Tain ; 
The (soul survives the murderous fray. 

•' Steel cannot out, nor cleave, nor tear, 
Nor firo consume, nor water wet, 
Nor winds e'er dry it up, nor yet 
Aught else its deathless essence wear. 

" A man casta from him on the shelf 

Hi* garment* old, nnd newer take* ; 
So bodies worn the soul forsakes, 
And new assumes, unchanged itself. 1 " 

" The man who learns the soul to be 
Minute, yet infinitely vast. 
He, by his Maker's grace, ut last 
Its majesty at'ains to see. 

*' It travels far and wide, at rest; 

Moves everywhere, although asleep ; 
Say, who but I the secret deep 
Of this mysterious god lias guessed f 

Th« idea* in thU «ml tho pweding renc art UUn from Uic Bhngsradgftl. 


' " By reasoning, thought, or many books, 
This hidden tool is sought in Tain ; 
That man alone the soul may gain 
On whom the soul with favour looks. 

"Elected thus, the sage believes 

His oneness with the Ono supreme, 
Awakes for ever from the dream 
Which uninstructed men deceives ; 

" And soon from imperfection purged, 

And freed from circling life and death, 
He calmly yields his vital breath, 
And in the sovereign Soul is merged. 4 " 

«* In the last two tow* I hare stated the Vedantic doctrine more explicitly than 
it ia expressed in the Kaiha Upanuhad, 



mixoe Dirnrrras. 


The following nrvsount of tho deity, Trita, is given in the Lexicon 
Messrs. Bohtlingk and Roth, ».v. :- ■ 

" Trita is the name of a Vedic god, who appears principally in con- 
nection with the Maruta, Yata or Vayn, and Indra, and to whom, as 
to these other deities, comhata with demons, Tvashtra, Yritra. the 
Serpent, and others arc ascribed. He is called Aptya, and bis abode 
is conceived of as remote and hidden : hence ariacs tho custom of 
wishing that evil may depart to him. He bestows long life. Several 
passages show the lower and certainly later view of Trita, that ha 
fights with the demons uuJvr the guidance and protection of Indra, 
and thus lead to the conception of a rishi Trita (Nirukta, iv. 6)." 

Reference has been already made to Trita (a) in p. 1 1 7, where Pro- 
fessor Roth's opinion, that he was an ancient god superseded by Indra, 
is quoted, (J) in p. 2S0, where two texts (R.V. x. 8, 8, and x. 99, 6), 
relating to his conflu" - with the thrcc-headed demon, are cited, and 
(c) in p. 195, where u prayer to Ushus, to drive away sleeplessness to 
Trita Aptya (B V. viiL 47, 14 ff.) is adduced. 

Some of the other detached verses relating to this divinity (to whom 
no separate hymn is dedicated) are the following: i. 62, 6; i. 105, 9; 
i. 163, 2 f.; i. 187, 1; ii. 11, 19 t, 

Ahirbudhnya is, according to the Lexicon of Messrs. Bohtlingk and 
Roth, a.v., buJhnya, " the Dragon of the deep, who is reckoned among 
the deities of tho middle sphere." The deep in which he resides is the 
atmospheric ocean. 

Aja Ekapad is, according to the same authorities, ».«., "the One- 
footed Impeller, probably a storm-god; n< ronlin^ to tho commentators 
he represents the sun." See Roth's Illustrations of tho Nirukta, p. 
163. These two gods, like Trita, are merely mentioned in detached 




Of the goddc=*aca mentioned in tho Rig-rcda some have boon noticed 
already in former part* of this volume, viz., Prithivl (pp. 21 ff.); 
Aditi, the mother of lln- A-lily i , aai representative of the universe 
(pp. 35 ff.); Dili, her counterpart (p. 42 f.); Nislnigrl, the mother 
(pp. 13 and 79), and Indrftrjl (p. 82), the wife of Latin; *" Prisni, 
tho mother of tho Maruts (p. 147) ; Ushaa (pp. 181 ff.) ; »ud Suryi, the 
daughter of tho Sun, and spouse of the Aaviqs, or of Soma (pp. 335 ff). 
rurious other goddesses arc alao celebrated in t!ic hymns of tho Big* 
v.ilu, mob as Agnavi, YurununT, Hodoel, RiiWu, Siuivull, Braddhi 
(i'luth), Aramati, and the Apsaruaes, whoso names, bovrorer, occur but 
rarely; and Sarasrat', with her cognates, who rectire considerably 
greater prominence. 

In R.V. i. 22, 11, tho goddesses, wires of tho heroes (the gods), 
with uncut wings, arc besought to protect and bless tho worshipper 
{ahhi no dielr ato$d mahuh inrman.'i urijwtnlh \ oehhimapalrtltf $ach- 
onldm). Compare Vij. S. xi. 61, and Sj'.up. Br. ri. 5, 4, 8). 

(1) Sarasvati. 

Sarasvatl is a goddoss of some, though not of Tory great, importance 
in tho Uig-vcda. As observed by Yuska (NirukU, ii. 23) the is 
celebrated both as a river and aa a deity Wl (taira Sarturtti ity ctatytt 
nadicad dttatdcach nftj nigamtih bhatanti). As an instance of the former 

•*• Indriint »sjrs, in R.V. I. 80. 9: "This muchirrous creature ln»t* aftoc mo, 
us if I tiud no liu»band Of »oiu. and rut I in the wife of Iodra. ami the mather 
of a hero,*' «tf . (avirim «rj mm <y<« im-imr tiki m*my*t, | utilttm *tmi t>in$! 
J»dr*jMi»i). vchartMou above, p.f»2,i»niMilion<dintu*Toitt. Dr.ii.4, 2, 
7, from wkicb it appears that different foddeoKs had own oaropclitors rot the bond 
of Iodra, and time lndrinl baa boea chosen bvcsuao abe Marpawcil them til in vnlup. 
luoua attraction*. In the aamu w.irk. ii. 8, 8, ♦, Vich U said to I* th« wife of India. 

"" Sw also SijraoJ on R.V L 3, 12 : Dtitxdia If Sarasrti rifnUwad^tvmtu 
tuuTi-rupa tha. 




character, he refers to R.V. vi. €1, 2, which I shall qnote 
on. She was no doubt primarily a river deity, as her name, 
wutvry," "■ d'.-arly denotes, and in this capacity she is celebrated in a 
few separate passages. Allusion is made in the hymns, as well as ia 
tho Briihraanas (Risftayo eat Sarawatydm talram fualn | ity/idi | Art, 
I!f. ii. 19; Hnug, vol. ii. p. 112) to sacrifices being performed on tho 
banks of this river and of the adjoining Drishadvatl ;"* and the Saras- 
vali in particular seems to have been associated with tho reputation 
for sanctity, which, according to the well-known passage in the In- 
stitutes of Manu (ii. 17 f., quoted in the 2nd vol. of this work, p. 
41C f.), was ascribed to the whole region, called Brahmarartta. 
V« uveeu these two email streams, and situated imiw-diately to the 
westward of the Jumna. Tho SurasvatI thus appears to have bocn 
to tho early Indians what the Ganges (which is only twice named 
in the Rig-vcdn) became to their descends a U. 801 Already in RA 
10 (where, however, she is perhnps regarded us the poddese of sacrifice) 
•he is described as "the purifier" {jutraktl nah Sdrattati) ; and in 
K.V. x. 17, 10 = Vaj. 8an. 4, 2 ; A.V. vi. 51, 2 (after Sarasvat! ha* 
been mentioned, verses 7-9), the water* are thus celebrated : Jp« 
cumrhi mntarah iundhayantv ghriitna no ghritnpiah punantu \ riita* 
hi riprttm pravahanti dttlr ttd id ilbhyah iuchir A pulah tmi | " Mi 
tho "Waters, the mothers, cleanse us, may they (the waters) who puri 
with butter, purify us with butter; for these goddesses bear away 
defilement; I come up out of them pure and cleansed." When once 
tho river had acquired u divino character, it was quite natural that she 
should be regarded as the patroness of the ceremonies which 


; a ■; 

*"* Sarawatl tarah ity noVAu-wStna *trlt* t«J-*»ft (Nirokt*. ix. 2d). ITw 
niavsiTurtla-purans, ii. 6, n» rt-fcrml to in Frofuuar Aufrccht'* Cut. p. 23, col. 
u Isnad Bud tin- Ba m raB ■ U chsngwl into a riitr by mi unprtoitiun of tlis-Gnagfi. 
In the A.V. vi. 100, 1, thru; SunuraL'a ue tpokeu of, but no explanation ii girra. of 
their difference. 

K» Jt.Y. iii- '-!."■, 4 : ; ' I place tW, -Apt", M tl»« abode of IU (eotnpjur* Ei. », 4), 
on tho most excellent spot of the tuxth, ou the moot uuspicimia of day*. Sbtac, to at 
to enrich M, in • plu.e of liuiiiiin resort, on the bsalu uf iho Dri»badratJ. the Apiii, 
Ibe SarcwvuU'" (mi MS dadlu van a prUhivyah itaytu jxutt i<*ii»alri thmtm | J>p«A- 
m4e+tynm manuiht Apayuytim Sanupalfim reesrf Afnt rfi '•• 

W4 It in dear from the pwgoa quoted in the 2nd toI. ■ ■( Out Work, p. i li S. 
(hut llio SaiMTotl continued iu later time* ulao to be regarded ai a wcred rii«r, tot 
tliis diameter wus soared bj other Indian streams, if not by tiirto all. 



celebrated on the margin of her holy waters, and that her direction 
and blessing should bo invoked as essential to their proper perform- 
ance and success. Tho connection into which «ho was thus brought 
with sacred rites may have led to tho furthor step of imagining her to 
havo an influence- on the composition of the hymns which formed bo 
important a part of tho proceedings, and of identifying her with Yiioh, 
tho goddess of spoech. At least, I have no other explanation to offer 
of this double character and identification. 

Sarasvatt is frequently invited to the sacrifices along with several 
other goddesses, lift, Bbaratl, Mahl, Hotrf, Varutrl, Dhishan* (i. 13, 9; 
i. 142, 9; i. 188, 8; iii. 4, 8; v. 5, 8 ; ix. 5, 8 ; x. 110, 8), who, 
however, were never, like her, river nymphs, but personifications of 
some department of religion* worship, or sacred science. She is alio 
frequently invoked alonfi with other deities (ii. 80, 8 ; iii. 54, 13 ; 
t. 42, 12; rii. 35, 11; viii. 38, 10; ix. 81, 4; x. 65, 1, 13; 
x. 111,5). 

In many of tho passages"* where Sarasvstl is celebrated, her original 
character is, a» I have intimated, distinctly preserved. Thus in two 
places she is mentioned along with rivurs, or fertilizing waters : vi. 
52, 6 (&tr<ur>al2 tinihulhih pincamutui) ; x. 30, 12 ( Gpo rtratih luka- 
yatka hi tatrai hratum cha bkadram bibhritfuimritam eha \ ruyai cha 
itha $vapatya*ya patnlh Sarattatl fad yrinale rayo dkul \ " Ye, opulent 
waters, command riches ; yc possess excellent power aud immortality; 
ye are the mistresses of wealth and progeny ; may Sarasvatl bestow 
this vitality on her worshipper '') ; nnd in x. 64, 9; x. 75, 5 f., she ia 
specified along with the other well-known streams which are there 
named, tho Sarayu, the Sindhu, the Gangs, the Yamuna, the Sutudri, 
ate. In vii. 96, 2, and viii. 21, 18, reference is made to the kings and 
people living along her banks ( Chitrah id raja rajakah id amycJu yoke 

*• Siyag.l oadenUad* i. 3, 12 [maXe arnaS taratmd pra tiit!*y«li krtuta \ ikiye 
vuVaA t>raj*ii), of tho riror, nnd explain* it thus : " The Swmirnd, by hit act {••( 
flowing), display* a copious flood." Roih, in bis Uluitrationa of the N'iruku (xi. 20), 
p. 153, tranalatea, " A mighty «tr*nm u Sanuratl ; with her lijclit ihn lightens, illn- 
■aJaales all plan* mind*." He, however, regard* tho commencing words as Cgwrn- 
tivc, and not m referring to tho rirer. Ban fry reader* : " Sanuratl, by h«r light, 
oaaMS tho great tea to bo known ; she thine* through all thought*." U» under- 
stand* tho - great ata " aa tho oai*cr*c, or m lift, which ho aaya ia often deeignaUd 
ia eomauin Saiukrit also by tho word mjmt: Th« cooorptiona of Suwritl aa a 
river, and as the directrca* of ctrcmoniee, amy bo blended ia the passage. 



of aa 

icr rf 

Soruwatim anu). In vi. 61, 10, and vii. 36, 6, she i» spoken of aa 
having seven Bisters, as one of scrcn rivers, and us the m 
streams (tapiasxttu \ tarasvati tapMM tiWA undid). In another 
aho is said to pour on her fertilising waters, to surpass all 
rivere, and to flow pure from the mountains to the sea, rii. 95, 1 {pro 
luhofatil (fhfli/aid tture eth& Saratratt iharunam «ty*H pith | praiAb*- 
dh&n& ralhytca y/lli viirCih apt) mahintl tinihur anyuh | 2. EkA aehtttt 
Saramatl naitin&ih iuehir fM giribhyah u iamwfrtit | rdyai chetemtl 
hhitruniuijti bhnrtr y/irilam payo dudu/ie nuhuthuya) ; to be the swiftest 
of floods (opcufim apastamu), \\. 61, 13; and in vi. 61, 2 and K, to 
tear away, like a digger of the roots of plant*, the hoses of the 
mountains on her banki with ln.-r impetuous and resounding current 
{iyaih ituhincbhir bioa-khti iv&rujal sunu girlnuiii tacithtbhir Armtbhih | 
8. } 'aaytih ananlt ahrwtai tveahai charithnur araavah | amai cturati 
rorveat). In ii. 41, IG, aho is culled the best of mothers, of rivers, 
and of goddesses (ambitamt, nadUantf, tletUam*). 

In vii. 96, 4-6, a river god, called Sanuvut, is assigned as a consort 
to Soruavatl, who rolls along his fertilizing waters, and i* inro- 
the worshippers who are seeking for wives and offspring, as well aa for 
plenty and protection [janlyanlo nu agrarah putrtyantah tud&nacah 
Sortuvantaih havdmahe | fi. Ye tt Sarawak Urmayah madJmmanto y, 
taichutah \ iebhir no avitd bhara | 6. Plpm'imaaih Sarmalah ttatiam 

yti r;--:,tiiurai!,i/t \ bhaishiniuhi jirajum ithnni',. 

In v. 43, 11, Surasvatl i* culled upon to descend from the aky, from 
the great mountain,*" to the sacrifice (a no dm brihaiah part at ud il 
$araittitl yajulil gantu yajnam) ; aud in vL 49, 7, where aho is called 
the daughter of the lightning (pue'traci kanyu)"" and the wife of a 
hero [elra-patnl),"* sho is supplicated to combine with the spouse* of 
the gods to afford secure protection to the worshipper {gndbJtir tekki- 
dram iara^am aajoihah durtidharihaUt grinaU iarma yatiuat). In the*o 
two passages the pact may perhaps be considered as assigning a calf 
tial origin to the river as the offspring of thunder and rain. 

* I 

•** Suynna snyx that Mfiilhysmikl VOch, or the goddoai Vaeh, who resides is Die 
■agfaa mil nncdiuio batwson hsaven sad earth, u her* intended. 

•*» 8ce Roth, «.«'., anil compare J. W, 13. Professor Malli. in KuUn and 
8chl«ich«r's Beitfige, etc, iii. 1*8, uaaixni lo pBttravI the scdm of "Uhmol-i . 

*°* Siirans lap her limbiunl is PrsjCpatL Would it not rather be Sarastst r 



la vi. Gl, 11 f., she is said to fill tho terrestrial regions and the air 
(ipoprutto purthiruni uru rajo antariKtham), and to occupy three abode* 
(trUadtththu), and to have seven parts or be sevenfold {tapla-dhdtu). 

When regarded as a river nymph, Sarasrntl is further described as 
on iron barrier or fortress, and a support, vii. 95, 1 (quoted above), as 
bestowing wealth, fatnew, and fertility, vii. 95, 2, and is besought to 
listen to the prayer of her worshippers at their sacrifices, ibid. 4 {at* 
jjrd mA Sarawak jushdnd upairavat tubhagd yajtu attnitt), to receive 
praises, to shelter and protect them like a tree, ibid. 5 {prati 
itamaih Sarasuati Jutluura | (ana iarvian priyatome dudhAnilh upa iiht- 
yama hrttnam na rrilxham), and to grant reputation to the unrenowned, 
ii. 41, 16 (apraiiwtah net mnati praiantim iwiba nat kfidhi). In vi. 61, 
1 I. the riehi prays that ho may m>t be removed from her to regions 
which ore strango (rod hat hhetr&ni oranani ganme). 

In vi. 61, 1, ahe ia represented as having given to Yadhryasva a son, 
DivodiM, a canceller of hiB debts {if am adadtld r/ibhautm rimathyuUm 
Dicod&um VtidfuyaivHya daiuthe). 

It is difficult to «ay whether in any of the pa**age» in which Saras- 
:■■. invoked, even in those where she appears as the patroness of 
holy rites, her character ns a river goddess is entirely left out of sight. 
In K. V. x. 17, 8, she is described as coming to the place of sacrifice in 
the same chariot with the oblations and the forefathers {Saranati jr»l 
tarathaGi yay&tha nadhulhir deri pitj^bhir madantl), and as an object 
of adoration ; but, as in a following verso (the 10th), already quoted, 
the Waters also are inToM, it would seem that the goddess was there 
regarded aa connected with the. river. She is elsewhere represented as 
unctuous with butter, and as stimulating, directing, and prospering the 
devotions of tho worshippers, L 3, 10, 11; ii. 3, 8 ; vi. 61, 4 {cfwda- 
yanti t&itritftHuM cktUnti tumattnam yajnnfit d<\Hft* Sarwratl | Sarwittl 

vidfuiyann dhiyaik nah \ j»r» no dtt\ Saratrall dhiniim acitrl 

train). She affords secure prutec-tiMi conquers enemies (ii. SO, 8; 
vi. 19, 7), and destroys tho revilers of the gods (vi. 61, 8). Sho 
is dreadful, movea aluug a golden path,"* and is a destroyer of Vritra, 

*■* ffi'r#wywr««'«>'. 8«r»ns explain* fsHMM u chariot, and the oo m pomd aa 

■i-uiiuj; "luring ■ gulden chariot," The same word occur* again, appliad to a 

u «tii. 'it. 18, when 8ajraoa mikes it tnwm •• having a golden path," i>. 

Irtnk*. The word* r*itrn.v*rtim,i, •' who** path it dreadful," and fkfUa. 



tL 61, 7 (ghord hiranyatartanih \ tritraghni). The worshipper seeks to 
euck prosperity and riches of all description from her prolific breast*,*'* 
i. 89, 3 j i. 1 64, 49 (y<« Ce itmah iaiayo yo nayobhar ytna vihil putAftri 
i)i \ yo raliiadhiih intra id yah tudatrah Saranali tarn iha dhdlax* 
kak) ; viii. 21, 17 ; x. 17, 8, 9 ; ix. 67, 32 ; she is the roocptaclo of all 
the powers of life, and bestows offspring, ii. 41, 17 (to triita Saranati 
iritd dyilihuhi devyum \ . . . . prajuth devi dididdhi nai). In x. 184, 3, 
■he is associated with the deities who assist procreation (oarbham dfahi 
Sartuvaii). In ii. 1, 11, Agui is identified with her, and several other 

In R.V. x. 131, 5 (=Vfij. S. x. 34) where the Ajriiw are said to 
havo defended Indra, Sarasvatl also is declared to have waited upon 
him. Ami in Vnj. S. xix. 12, it is said, "The gods celebrated a heal- 
ing sacrifice; tho Airing physicians, and Sarasvatl too a physician, 
through speech, communicated vigour to Indra " (see above, p. 94, 
note). The AAvins and Sarasvatl uro nlso connected with each other 
inVoj. 8. xix. 12, 15, 18, 34, 80-33, 88-90, 93-94; xx. 66-69, 
73-76, 90. In xix. 94, it ia said that " Sarasvatl. wife of tho Aivina, 
holds a well-formed embryo in her womb. Yarurja, king in the waters, 
produced Indra for glory, by tho aqueous fluid, as if by a soma verse,'* 
xix. 94 (Sarotvatl yonyuiii garbkam antar J point 

bibharti | optim rtuma Faruna na t&mnii Indram iriyai janayann 
cjnu raja). 

It does not appear that in tho R.V. Sarasvatl is identified with 
Vfich. For some passages of that collection, in which tho latter 
goddess is celebrated, I refer to the 3rd vol. of this Work, pp. 253 ff., 
and to a later section of this volume. 

In the later mythology, as ia well known, Sarasvatl was identified 
with Viich, and became under different names tho spouse of Brahma, 
and the goddess of wisdom and eloquence, and is invoked as a Mt 
In the Mahabhurata she is called the mother of the Vedas (Snntiparva, 
vorso 12920), and tho same is said of Vnch in tho TaitL Br. ii. 8, 

rartlani, "whoso path is unctuous," are also applied to different dritkain tlwltig* 
rods. Kruhna-varttani, " be whose path i» marked by blackness." is an cpith 
Agoi. in riiL 23, 19, und the kon of that tenn is lizcd bj the use of tbe «jnoarm 
kr<ikn*ilhr*n. Tbn aubstantif o ramam occurs in vii IS, 16; rf v>*a-4nrttm; i. 81, ft, 
»" Compare All Br. it. I, at the end, where her two breasts are said to be truth 
nnd falsehood. 



8, 5, m where (and in the preceding par. 4.) she is also said to bo the 
wife of Indra, to contain within herself all worlds, and to have been 
sought after by the rishis who composed tlio V 
wumtra-krilah), as well as bj the gods, through auAterity. 

In the Sftntiparva, verso 8811, it is related that when the Brah- 
mnrn>iin were perforating austerities, prior to the creation of tho uni- 
vuse, "a voice derived from Cmhmu entered into tho ears of them all ; 
the celestial Sonuvatl was then produced from tho heavens." • a 

(2) Apcw, tht Water; anil the Rivtn. 

A verse (z. 17, 10) has been already cited, in p. 338, in which the puri- 
fying vtrtuo of the Waters is extolled ; and there is another passage, 
i. 23, 22 (= x. 9, 8), in which the power of cleansing the worsli:] |.i r 
from the sins of violence, cursing, and falsehood in ascribed to tin ■ 
{idani ilpah pra zahata yal kincha duritam magi | yad vd aham abhidn- 
druha t/ad nl iept utdnritam). Thoy are said, in two passages, already 
cited in p. 205, to have given birth to Agni ; a few separate 
hymns, vii. 47; vii. 49; x. 9, are devoted to their honour; u\\A in 
numerous detached vers** they arc invoked along with other 
I eite n hymn in which tho Sindhu (Indus) and other rivers aro 
celebrated : — 

It. V. x. 75, 1 : Pra w rah dpo mahimunam uttamam kurur tochtiti 
mim$ vitatvatah I pra tapta tapta trtdhil hi clutkrumuh pra tritcartgam 
ati Sindhur oj'atri | 2. Pra It 'radad Paruno yAtac* pat hah. Siudhe yad 
tu/dit aihi adraeas team | bhumyah, adhi pravata yati ulnttnH yad eihdm 
ayraSi jagat&m irajyati | 3. bid stano yatatr ohurnyd upart aunntam 
huhmarn *d iyarti bhdnund | abhrdd iVa prattanayanti vfithtayah 
Sindhur yad eli vfithabho na rorutat | 4. Abhi toi Sindho iisum in na 

111 In the Satin. Br. vii. 6, 2, 62, it U Mid, •'Mind u tho own. From mind, 
lh« oeean, th« goda, with Vfich for a ehnrrl. Haft oat the triple trion<« («.«. tho thrw 
Veda*). Wherefore ttiU vciae (UoVt) hat paj" (»« the 3rd fsj, of t l.i* 

Worjk, p. 9, He la the BUUuma-p. of tli< M. lib. Ten* 3019, Acbrate (Kriahaa) 
U (aid to have created SaruvaU and ilic Teds* from his mind. In the Vana-p. rene 
13432, the Oiritrl U railed the njutiiiT of the Vcdas. 

> n Compare the t«tw quoted by S'aakaro on the Brahma lOtraa (tee the 3rd ml. 
of thU We*k, pp. 16 and 10t), from i Smpli •• In the beginning a c*lwli»l *oie«, 
formed of the Yedaa, eternal, without liegianing or end, waa uttered by SrayamhUi), 
from which all ictintic* bare proccidcd." 



miitarah viiruh arthanti payattta dhtnarah | r&jtta yudhiu nayati tttm 
it tiehau yad atum (tyrant prava'um itwhhati | 5 (=Nir. ix. 26). 
Imam mt Oangt Tammt Sarntrati fruluJri $tema>7t tacknta Paruihni a | 
Asiknyil Mariidvridhs VitattayO Arjtklye irinuhi A SutAom<ty4 | 6. 
tfneyd prathamaih yatavt *ajnh Susartru Ratayil 8 \ trait 

•SindAo Kubhayu Gomat'im Ii'ncmiim Mthatntil urathati* yubhir lyau | 
7. jfijfti swl ruiati mahitrfi pari jrayOikti bharaU njiimti | adabdii 
Sindhur apasum apattama aha na tJtitrd taputhl tea darlata | 8. 
Kvairit Sinilhih tuiiitha tutduih hiranyayi wifita rojinlrati | urniltnl\ 
yuiatih tllamcUati ulddhi taste tuhhagd madhuijidham | 9 (=Nir. rii. 
7). Sv&kam ralhaiii yuyuje Sindhur eStinam tena rtij'aih Mituhai asminn 
tljau | mahun fit atya nuthima panatyate adabdhatym tvayaiato virapiinak | 

" 1. Waters, let the poet declare your trunsccndant greatness in the 
nbodc of tlio worshipper. Each set of seven [streams] has followed * 
threefold course. Tho Sindhu jurpussca the other river* in impetuosity. 
•2. Vornna hollowed out tho channels of thy course, o Sindhu, when 
thou didst rush to thy contests. Tliou tlowost from [the heights of] 
i th over a downward slope, when thou U-ndcct the ran of these 
Glaums. 3. A sound struggle* onwnrd in tho »ky above the earth. 
[The current] exerts on infinite fame with a fla*h. Showers thunder 
as if [falling] from a cloud ; when the Sindhu roll* on, it roars lit re * 
bull. 4. To thee, o Sindhu, the [other streams] rush, as lowing 
mother-cows with their mill; to their calves. Like a warrior king 
[in tho centre of hia army] thou Icadest the two wings of thy host 
when thou strugglest forward to the van or these torrents. 5. Receive 
favourably this my hymn, o Oaugu, Yamuna, Sarasvatl, Sutudri, Para* 
hear, o MaruJvridho, with tho Asiknl, and Vitasta, and thou, 
Arjikiya with tho Sushoma. 6. Unite first in thy course with the 
Trishtama, the Susartu, the Ra&i, and the StoUj thou [meetost] the 
UomatT, and the Krumu with the Kubhn, nnd the Mehstnu, and with 
them arc borne onword as on the same car. 7. Flashing, sparkling, 
gleaming, in her majesty, tho unconquerable, the most abundant of 
streams, beautiful as a handsome spotted mare, the Sindbu rolls her 
waters over the lewis. 8. Mistress of a chariot, with noble bones, 
riilily dressed, golden, adorned, yieldiug nutriment, abounding in 
wool, youthful, rich in plants,*" gracious, she traverses [a land] 

»" On the word iUnmirmtl and ihe following; word* of the lin« is wWcn it octrois, 



yielding sweetness [?]. 9. Tho Sindhu has yoked her pleasant chariot 
awn by home. By it may she grant us vigour in this struggle: 
for greatly celebrated i» the glory of that unconqucred, illustrious 
and much-lauded [chariot]. 

In one place, vi. 50, 7, the Waters are said to bo remedial and the 
tiers of all things fixed and moving (i/uyairi hi tlha bhuhajo matfi- 
visvaiyti UhtUur jiiyalnjni) iV/iA). 

(.1) Th» Aptarau*. 

These goddesses have been already mentioned in the section on 
Tamil, p. 309, nnd will be further adverted to below. 

la the passage of tho lt.V. vii. 33, 10 ft*., %<Wtod in the 1st rol. of 
this work, p. 320, tho Itishi Vasishtha is said to have sprung from an 
Apaaras, UrvaftT. In the dictionary of Messrs. Biihtlingk and Roth 
the Apsnraaca are described as female beings of a ghost-like description, 
whose abode is in tho atmosphere. They are the wives of the dnd- 
harvas, have tho power of changing their forms, love playing at dice, 
and impart good luck. Acoording to the A.V. the Apearasea are feared 
like other ghostly beings, and enchantments are employed against 
them ; especially because they causo madness. 

Professor Goldstiickcr, iv. says: "Originally these divinities seem 
to hnve been personifications of the vapours which are attracted by tho 
sun, and form into mist or clouds." (Sec full details in his article.) 

^4) .-tytt/ryl, VarnnSni, tie. 

Excepting rrilhivl, Aditi, und Ushus, most of the other goddesses 
meiitiniud io * 1 1. - Kijj-vcda arc, as I havo already intimated, p. 337, of 

Ittle importance. AgnivT : VarnnanT, Aavinl, and R 
wires of Agni, Varuua, the Aivius, and Kudra respectively (Nirukta, 
ix. 33 f. ; xi. 50 ; xii. 46), are only ollude<l to in a few passages, lt.V. 
i. 22, 12; ii. 32, 8; v. 46, 8; vi. 50, 5; vi. 66, C; vii. 31, 22. Ho 
distinct functions are assigned to them, and they do not occupy pc*i- 

I subjoin S*y»oa"» note, for a copy of which I am indebted to Professor Max Muller: 
X. 7A, 8 : liltmacmti niriigi ynywAWApi nu/uiiutmpa UuutAfmt* {UttAymntt I) m 
tilmmHi niyaJftt* kriMtmtaik | tadriftthrtkyuprtit utiyi r\a nt&lfi «»a4W 
aMJAurpVAam mutlAuwwrJAakum nirympfyHi mdkinuU iukkajtytti M>yi« v., 

pirjmi/jymfmi A*Ai«i Mull, 

,u Acoordinir to 8Sr»n« (on i. 107, *) Rodsd is m*rut-p*tifi nVytJ to, "The 

•wifi-Mi'ilir Karats, "i Ugh* ■■■ 



tions at oil corresponding to the rank of their husbands, with wham 
in fact they are never associated. The insignificance of these goddam 
forms ft striking contrast to the prominent place assumed by the spouse* 
of Siva and Vishnu, especially tho former, in tho later mj 
Nirriti is the goddoss of destruction. 

(5) Are*y5ni. 

Aranyunl (Nir. ix. 29, 30) is the goddess of forest solitude. 
celebrated in 11. V. x. 146, which I shall translate in a 

(6) Sakd, Sinlcali, and Gun?i, 

Rakfi, Rinlvi'ill, and (Jungu (whom Sityana, on ii. 32, 8, identifies 
with Kuhu), arc three other goddesses mentioned in the R.V. (the first 
in ii. 32, 4, 6, 8; v. 42, 12; tho second in ii. 32, fi ff. ; x. 184, 2; 
and tho third in ii. 32, 8). Saynna (on ii. 89, 4) MJl that Buka u 
tho full moon." 9 She is, however, closely connected with parturition, 
as she is linked to " tow the work " (appiucntly the formation of tho 
embryo) "with an unfailing needle, and to bestow • son with abundant 
Wealth," ii. :\2, 1 (i!ry«/r tip.r uchhidyamdnayA dad'Mu v'<mm 

yi»w ukthijam). Siiiivall and Kuhu art (as wo ore told by Yoaka, 
Kir. xi. 3 1 ) wives of the gods according to the mythologists (*airuit<ih ;, 
and tho two nights of the new moon (amrletUi/fi) according to the ritu- 
alist* (j/AjnikHh), Sin; - tho earlier, and Kuhu the later. SialvAlI 
is, however, also connected with parturition, being called p^ithuihfhuka, 
"tho broad-loined (or " bushy-haired "), kahtuilvari, "the prolific;" 
subdhu, " the handsome- armed ;" tvamjuri, "the handsome- lingered, 
being supplicated for progeny, ii. 32, 6, 7 (praj'dm devi dididdhi ««1), 
and aaked to bestow pregnancy, x. 184, 2 (garb/unit dhehi Sinit&h); 
A.V. v. 25, 3; vi. 11, 3. Yaskn qnolca from tho Taitt Br. iii. 3, 11, a 
verse regarding Kuhu, whose name does not occur in tho Kig-rcda. 
8oe also the account of Auuuiati in Bohtliugk and Botli's Lexicon, «.r, 

(7) S'raddhd. 

Personifications of abstract ideas are not uncommon in the Big-veda, 
one hymn of which (x. 151) is addressed to .Sruddhii, or religious faith. 
By her, it is said, verso 1 (=Nir. ix. 31), "tho (sacrificial) fixe ia 

»" On th«*e gtMldonesaoo Weber' i lad. Stud. t. 228 ff. and 257. 



kindled, and by her tic oblation is offered up" {frudJJuiyil 'gnih tami- 
dhyslt iraddhaya ASyaU AatiA). She U lukod to prosper tho liberal 
worshippers of tho gods (verses 2, 3), and to impart faith ; and is said 
to be an object of adoration in the morning, at noon, and nt sunset 
(Terse 5). In the Vaj. Sanhita, xix. SO, it is said that faith {traddAd) 
is obtained by gifts, and truth by faith (dakthinii iraddham fiptuti 
braddhoya tat yam apyate). In xix. 77 of tho samo work it is declared 
that " Prnjiipati, beholding, made a distinction between the forms of 
truth and falsehood, connecting disbelief with the latter, and faith or 
belief with the former" (dfuAfvd rSpa vyikarot tatyilnfite PrajiipatiA \ 
draddAdm nnrite 'JadA&t baddA&m tatyt Praf'dpaliA). This declara- 
tion, that truth is the only proper object of faith, has a far deeper 
signification than this ancient writer could possibly have assigned to 
it, tu., that it is tho ultimate truth, and not the so-called orthodoxy 
of any proposition, which can alone entitle it to reception. 

Sraddhfi is also celebrated in the Tuitt. Br., ii. 8, 8, 6 f, where the 
above hymn of tho Rig-veda is repeated ; and she is there further said 
to dwell among the gods, to be the universe (iraddAd deriin aihira*t* 
iraddhn viham idmnjivint), and tho mother of Kama. (See the next 
Section). In tho same Tuitt. Br. iii. 12, 3, 1, we are told that through 
Sraddhl a god obtains his divine character, that the divine Sraddtiii is 
the support of the world, that she has Kama (or the fulfilment of 
desire) for her calf, and yields immortality as her milk ; that she is 
the firstborq of the religious ceremonial, and tho sustainer of the 
whole world ; and she, who is tho supremo mistress of the world, 
U besought to bestow immortality on her worshippers {fradJAayi dtt* 
dit*tt<m ainnit | Vraddha prcUthfhr, Ukdtya rfert | . . . . Kamaralti 
tmn'UiM duAUnd \ S"raddAi dtPi prathamajii fittuya | WsVflqM bhartrl 
jayatak pratuAfAd | W* Sr*ddM* isritiA yajAmah$ | ad m lokam 
tmritafc dadfoltu MdnA Aet\ b A ur ancuy OdAi ipal ill). In the Sa tap. Br., 
iii. 7, 3, 11, she is called the daughter of Surya;*" an appellation 
which is repeated in the 1L Bh. 8aatiparva, verse 9449,"' where she 

sm See what b said of the daughter of Sorra shore, in connection wiui fli* Aftins. 

•" Ta this passage • great deal is said in praiM of S"reddb,i. The god*, it appear*. 
h*d deeided thett the offerings of a aiggardly ttudcat of the Teds end • literal ■«unr 
woe of* equal rale*. Bat Prejapeu" dvtcroiiactl that thty war* wroas; (•«• the mju* 
sentiment, in acarlr tho same voids, is Maun. i». 224 a".), sad that the liberal tan'i 
utildiiuu, Icing purified by his faith, was to he accepted, whilrt the othor nian'i, briar 



is styled the daughter of Vivasrat (STraddha Vsivasvatl), u well as of 
Surra and Savitri (Sfiryasya duhitii and SfivitrT). (See above, p. 264 f., 
tin- -lory of Soma loving S'raddhii. Sec also the definition given 
Aramati in Bohtliugk and Roth's Lexicon, t.v.) 

(8) Lahhml and Sri. 

Lakshxni it not fonnd in the Big-veda, in the sens* which tho 
boars in the later mythology, of a goddess personifying good fortune, 
though tho word itself occurs in x. 71, 2,*'* in a kindred signification. 
In tin." A. V., however, we hare the following hymn, which speaks of 
a plurality of Lakshmls, some good and some bad: vii. 116, 1 : Prm 
pit: tluh pApi Zaktkni vniyrtnh priimutah pata | ayatmayma ankma 
dtithate fed tnjumati | 2. Ya mn Lahhm)h paiaynlur ajuihfa abhidu- 
tlanda vandane-va vrinhiham \ anyalnismat Sacitai turn ito dhuh Air amy*. 
hanto nam nv rariinah | 3. Ekaiatafn Isikahmyo mttrtyoty* tdiaft t u ned 
jetHiuho 'dhi j&lAh | t&iiim pupinfifhuh hit itah pra hi*irui& iiv&h euma- 
j&tartdo iii yathha | 4. Elah eta rydJtaram khiU gah niihlhituh 
tea | ramantim pti>»jAh Lalthmlr yah pApii MA tmina iam | " Fly away 
honce, o unlucky (or miserable) Lakshml, perish hence, fly away from 
thence : with an iron hook we fasten thee to our enemy. 2. Savitri, 
do thou who art goldm-handed, bestowing on us wealth, send away 
from us to some other quarter the flying and hateful Lakshml, who 
mounts upon mo us a creeper"" upon n tree. 3. A hundred Lak&hntis 
are born together with the body of a mortal at hi* birth. 'Of these WB 

I in bis unbolicf, was to !••- n \ it ii mldi-d, u the groatest af 

sins, bat faith takes sway sin (4M0 nitam *mt»yant4 —4rUam y*/Ha.t*mmni | 
yuf* hninri/atya l W.i»y.i#y« eh* rirdktuluh \ tnimnmiilrvikMytm tfrraA 
mmant mnmom aktlpaytin | Prajnpatii tun nv&cha "sitAamam kriltm" itg ml* | 
inuMhS'puUih tndnnytiyti Kalam atmddhayttarat \ .... uiraddliA parmmmm pip*m 
draJ/tka papa pra mac hani). A similar sentiment is expressed in tb* Vana-parta. 
l:u«l II.- -'In. ■ .l 1 .u!.i.r.'!ijnyt ncitlu i thi u. rM n<ir rlic Tii'XMior soy gratueBtion. 
i • jii£P(-» who poaseas true knowledge bare wiiil that faith is a oyn of Baal 

' i m Abandoning fnulU*« (lit. dry) argumiiiilutiuu* .uilirrr t>i Cu* »'rutj 

■ad tin .Mini;: " [:&ijam loko Vi «a para nn lukkaiu tumiayHimanak | ueAur Jmamm 
iriddltuh pr\t!ytiy moktha'l*Mtrn*vx \ ituhkti-larkam fmriiyvjpa air 
n mnfitim). 
ms In the words 6W/6 ti/wm Miknl nikitS mlki iStki, "an aaspietoaa fottt 
it att ■ ir wotd»." 

•» I'umimn*. ThU word does net occur in Wilson'* Dictionary, bat I Bad 
t Wa in tho sense of s creeping plant. 



chase away hence the most unlucky. Do thou, Jiitavcdas, retain for 
as those which are fortunate. 4. Thus I divide them like cows 
standing upon barren ground. May those Lakshmls which are auspi- 
cious rest here. Thoao which are unlucky I destroy." (The ox- 
preseion punyd LakthmX occurs also in A.V. xii. S, 6.) 

In the VVij. 8. xxxL 22 (Srli cha U Lakthmli cha ipalnyau), Sri and 
Lakshml are said to bo the two wives of Aditya, according to the com- 
nentator's explanation. In the Sutap. Ilr. xi. 4, 3, 1, Sri is described 
u issuing forth from Prajftpati when ho was performing (| 
austerity, with u view to the creation of living beings. Beholding her 
then standing resplendent and trembling, m tho gods wcro covetous of 
her, and proposed to Prnjupati that they should bo allowed to kill her, 
and appropriate her gift*. Ho replied that she was a female, and that 
males did not generally kill females. They should therefore take from 
her bar gifts without depriving her of life. In consequence, Agni 
took from her food; Soma, kingly authority; Vnruuu, imparial 
authority; Ultra, martial energy ; Indra, force; Brihaspati, priestly 
glory; Savitri, dominion; PQshun, splendour ; SarasvatI, nourishment; 
and Tvashtri, forms. Sri then complained to Prnjftnati th:r 
taken all these things from her. He told her to demand them back 
from them by sacrifico (Prajdpalir cai prajdh trijumdm 'iapyala \ 
(dirndl ir&ut'U ttpdnit Sr'tr udakr&mat \ id atyjMM&fld Ihrrijamt/td 
Uiiyantl alithfhat | turn dlpgamdndm bhrdjumdnOlt UVlytwtlm dcrd\ 
rfihyadhyayan | 2. Tt Pmjtipatim abruean " hattdma imdm a idan 
atyiih daddmakai" Hi \ w ha urdcha " ilrl vai tihd yat S"r1h ( jm vat 
itriyam ghmtnti uta ltd asydh j'lranlydh era ddadata " iti | 3. Ttuydh 
Ag*ir anHddyam ddatta Soma rdjyam Varnnak idmr&jyam JUitrah ktfia- 
tram Indrtt balam Brihtupatir brahmaMreheuam Sovild rdihfram Pu$ki 
bkajaik Haravratt piuhfim Traikfa rUp&ni I 4. Sd Prajdpatin abrarlt 
"d cut me idam adiihata" Hi | su ha utdeha " yajiuna eiuln punar 
ydekut* " i(i). 

m Lt&ymth A* fixing tho scum of ilii« word Professor Aufrocht refer* ■» to 
ffsUp. Br. p. 116 ; BrJUl Anqjaka Up. p. 737 ; Mngdak* Up. pp. 27*, 276 ; and 
8'rctsiTatens Up. p. W2. 




In a passage which I have already quoted above (p. 8), Yiiska, the 

author of the JTiruktn, informs us (vii. 6) that previous writers of the 
school to which he himself belonged (tlio Kairufctas) reduced the 
deities mentioned in tho Vcdua to three, viz., "Agni, whose place is 
on the earth ; Vayu or Indra, whoso placo in the air ; and Surya, 
whose place is in tho sky ; " and asserted that " these deities severally 
many appellations in consequence of their greatness, or of the 
diversity of their functions, as the names of help, adhtaryu, brahmmm, 
and udgatri, arc applied to one and tho same person [according to the 
particular sacrificial office which he happens to he fulfilling]." In the 
preceding section (vii. 4) Yiiska had, however, declnri -<1 that, in reality, 
" owing to the greatness of the deity, the one Soul is celebrated as if it 
were niuny. The different gods are separate members of tho one Soul. 
And some say that the riahis address their praises according to tho 
multiplicity of natures in the [celestial] existences. And from tho uni- 
versality of their nature the gods are mutually produced from each 
other, and possess tho natures of ono another (see 11. V. x. 7, 4 £ above, 
p. 48, and Nir. xi. 23, quoted in the 4th vol. of this Work, p. II); 
they are produced from works ; they are produced from soul. It i« 
soul that is their chariot, soul their horses, boo! their weapon, soul 
their arrows; houI is a god's all"" 3 {miihutmyud divatuyfih *kak AtmA 
bahudhd itHyate \ thuya almano 'nye drrSh pralyang&ni bhatanti | opt 
ch<t Hti!fr<imim prahrM-bhtimabhir fithaynh tturanti iiy &huh \ prahriti- 
adrvan&mny&ch cha itaretara-janrndnc bhatanti iiaretsra-j/rairitayah 

Bt In various parts of the translation* occurring in Uui section I received valoal 
atsktancc from Profawor Aufrccht. 
*** Ibis passage is quoted st length in the 41L vol. et tlu» Work, pp. 131-lM. 



karmajanmAnah atmajttnmunah \ ulma eta «Adift rathe bkacaty Htmd 
at\Oh Atmii tiyudham iltmd uhavah iltmi taream itnuya). Those, 
owevcr, arc the views of nien who lived after the compilation of the 
:imanns, at a period when reflection had long been exercised upon 
the contents of the hymns, and whon speculation had already nude 
considerable- advance*. In tho oldest portions of the hymns themselves 
we discover few traces of ony such abstract conceptions of the Deity. 
They disclose a much more primitive stage of religious belief. They 
as I hare already remurked, the productions of simple men who, 
under the influence of the most impressive phenomena of nature, saw 
ovorywhcic tho prcsoncc and agency of divine powers, who imagined 
that each of tho great provinces of tho universo was directed and 
animated by its own separate deity, and who had not yet risen to a 
clear idea of one supreme creator and governor of all things (pp. & f ). 
This ix fthown, not only by the special functions assigned to particular 
gods, but in many case* by the very names which they bear, co rn s* 
ponding to those of some of the elements or of the celestial luminaries. 
Thus, according to the belief of tho ancient rishis, Agni was the divine 
being who resides and operates in lire, Surya the god who dwells and 
shines in tho sun, and Indra the ngMOl of the atmosphere, who cleaves 
tho clouds with his thunderbolts and dispenses rain. While, however, 
in most parts of the Rig-veda, we not only find that such gods as Agni, 
Indra, and Surya are considered aa distinct from one another, bat that 
various other divinities, more or leu akin to these, but thought of as 
fulfilling functions in eorao respects distinguishable from theirs (such 
Parjanyo, Vishnu, Savitri, Puahan, etc.) are represented as existing 
along aido of them, there are other hymnB in which a tendency to iden- 
tification is perceptible, and traces are found of one uniform power 
being conceived to underlie the various manifestations of divine energy. 
Thus in the texts quoted in a former section (pp. 206 ff.), Agni is repre- 
sented as having a threefold existence, by which may be intended, 
first, in his familiar form on earth ; secondly, as lightuing in the 
atmosphere; and thirdly, as the sun in the heavens. In other pas- 
sages, whore the samo god is identified with Visbga, Varutja, Mitra, 
etc. (see p. 210), it is not clear whether this identification may not 
arise from a desire to magnify Agni rather than from any idea of his 
essential oneness with other deities with whom he is coonccted (see 

:>,:-, i 


also B.T. i. U1, 9; v. 3, 1 f. ; v. 13, 6). In anoUier hymn, iv. 42, 
3, too, when' Indra appears to bo represented as the same with Varani 
Man Indro Varunah, etc. ; compare the context), the design of iho 
writer may hare been to place the former god on a footing of equality 
with Chi latter There am, however, other passages in the earlier hooka 
of the Rig-vcda which suffice to show that the writers had begun to re- 
gard the principal divinities as something more than mere represents- 
tiros or regents of the different provinces of nature. As I have already 
shown (pp. 61 ft., 98 ff., 168, 163 f., 214 f.), Varurja, ladro, SQiyn, 
Savitri, and Agni aro severally described (in (trains mora suitable to 
the supremo deity than to subaltern divinities exorcising a limited do- 
minion) as having formed and as sustaining heaven and earth, and aa 
the rulers of tho universe- ; m and Vuruiji, in particular, according tu 
the striking representation of the hymn preserved in the A.V. (iv. 16) 
(though this composition may be of a somewhat later date), is invested 
with the divine prerogatives of omnipresence and ummiciencc. Al 
though the recognized co-existence of all these deitioa b ineon 
with tho supposition that their worshippers had attained to an) 
comprehension of tho unity of the godhead, and although the epj 
denoting universal dominion, which are lavished upon them all in turn, 
may bo sometimes hyperbolical or complimentary — tho expressions vt 
momentary fVrvour, or designed to magnify n particular deity at the 
expense of all other rival object; of adoration, — yet these descriptions no 
doubt indicate enlarged and sublime conceptions of divine power, and 
an advance towards the idea of one sovereign deity. When once the 
notion of particular gods had become expanded in the manner just 
specified, and had risen to on ascription of all divine attributes to the 
particular object of worship who was present for the time to the mind of 
the poet, the further stop would speedily be taken of speaking of tho 
deity under such new uames as Visvskurmun and Frnjiipati, appella- 
tions which do not designate any limited function connected with any 
single department of nature, but the more general and abstract notion 
of divine power operating in tho production and government of tho 
It is, perhaps, in names such as these that wo may discover the point 


»a The same function* are ascribed to Viihnu and to Rudra. 
ihu Work, pp. 64 sail 318. 

s . fei in 


Of btiwition From polytln istio to in.uiorli. Mid UtU BoA UliH fcfl • 
terms, which ultimately came to designate the deity regarded as the 
creator, had becu originally used as epithets of Imlra and Suvi: 
the following passage*: — ILV. iv. 53, 2, u 8tfit|j| the BUjijiurtor of 
the sky and tho lord of creatures " (dieo dharttu bhumuuya praja- 
puiik}.** riii. 8", 2, "Thou, Indra, art mort powerful; thou hast 
caused the sun to shine ; Una nrt, tho uairorsul architect, and 
possesseBt all godlike attributes" {I ram India abhtbhtr ati UaUt tiryam 
yah I tticalwmu viieadtco mahan ati)."* 

[ 1 ) Tests of a mor$ decidedly monvtheitlit or pantiuistie character. 

I shall now adduce those passages of tho Itig-vcda in which a mono- 
theistic or a pantheistic tendency is most clearly manifested. Of modo 
of these texts I shall only state the substance, as I bare formerly 
treated of them iu detail d -i.vvWrc. 

Tlie following verse from a long hymn of an abstruse and mystical 
character '\. 161, 46, 111 nlrwidy quoted in p, 219, mite), though con- 
sidered by Tasini [Mr. vii. 18) to have reference to Agni, and by 
Xulyayuna ami BaytQS (who, however, also quotes Yaska's opinion) to 
have Suryu in view, may nevertheless be held to convey the moro 
general idea that all the gods, though differently named and repre- 
sented, arc- in reality ono — 7ro\\ojv ovofulray popQi) ft(a '• " They 
call him Indrn, Mitra, Yiiruna, Ayni; and (he iH) Uie celestial, well- 
winged Onrutmat. Sages nan it. which is but one: they 

call it Agni, Yama, Mutarisvan." **• (See Colebrooko's Essay, i. 26 f. ; 
Weber's Ind. Stud. v. p. ir.) 

■" So, too. Sums i» called pnydpati. « lurd of creators* " (R.V. U. 4, 9). 

sn 80, too, in R.V. x. 170, 4, SQrra is called n.'wfcimM sad ruNArytrtf, sad 
Saritri i» styled « n't **Vr* in *. SL>, 7, sM lb SrsyaniMia, " the ttll- 

eii»tmi," occcura u an epithet of Mahtu (penoaiiled Wrath) in R.V. x. S3, I. See 
I the wtxretion on Kila. Time. 

*** To the Mine rnVt i» anothiT t«xt, R.V. x. Hi, 6: Su/KtrmiM tiynih l-.imy* 
rttktAktr ti*m tanl/im s*WAa kalfyohti | "The wise in their hymn* rrpttxnl 
asder assay forms tho weil-winRnd (deity:, win. it hoi oao>" Botnevhst in the 
Vty it i- oil']. A '•". mii 3, I] (»lic*dy quoted ia p. 210, note) : •' Agm 
asooaws ia las evenine. Vtraaa (tic god of sight), and Mitra, when rinajr ia 
the moraine;. Becoming Bsritri. he motet thmuxh tho atmosphere, and becoming 
lndra. he bwras slong the middle of the sky." I a xiii. 4. 1 il.. Saritn is Identified 
null a gwmt many other deities. The words s*ys d.t*jy mj.** ''••AmA, in 





ion* of 

R.V. i. 89, 10 (quoted, nbovo in pp. 43 t), suggests, oi 
hand, a pantheistic sense, as it asserts all things to he the mani> 
testations of one all-pervading principle : "Aditi ia the sky, Aditi k 
tho air, Aditi is the mother and father and bod. Aditi is all the god* 
and tho five classes of men. Aditi is whatever has been born. Aditi 
u whatever shall be born." ** Reference will be again made farther 
on to the hymn in which Aditi is described as one of tho great 
to which tho creation is due. 

In some of the representations of tho character and functions 
Tvashtfi, the divine artizan, who shaped the heaven and earth, 
have an Approach to the idea of a supreme creator of the uni 
(see above p. 225). 

There is considerable variety in the methods by which the later 
poets of the R.Y. attempt to conceive and express the character of 
the Supremo Being und his relations to the universe, as will be 
from tho following details : — 

(2) Vikakarma*. 

The 81st and 82nd hymns of the tenth book of the Rig-veda are 
devoted to tho celebration of Yijrakannan, the great architect of the 
universe (see above, p. 32, and the 4th vol. of this work, pp. 4 ff.) ; 
eo that the word which, as we have seen, had formerly been used as 
mi t [lithi-t of Iudru, hod now become the name of a deity, if not of the 
Deity. In these hymns YUvokarman is represented as the one all* 
seeing god, who has on every aide eyes, faces, arms, and feet, who, 
when producing heaven and earth, blows'" them forth with his 

B.V. vii. 40, 6. are interpreted by Sanaa to sacaa " [To* other gods] an 
of thU . . . . jrol ViUiDu -," tail lh* »imi» baraxaa brack*** art not in the original. 
In R.V. ii «. 9, all other briar* aw aid to b* brancha* of Apteuaptl (*» r U ii 
mmyi Um.m.1 «*W. I otawa U^ a hk ltrtarta on the " Stint* of T.aagaiage." 
2nd acrias. a. 508, P rafcaaor Mollc^aaderatoJads the taord. with wbirh all tna varaaa 
of B.V. ML Si, oaclnda {mM d*imm saavarraaa atnaa) to ngiofj, -Tha gnat 
divinity of the gods it *m<," which aright ba andantond as if they aasartiid all the 
god* to be manifartaririni of one nqirrne drily. The eUnaa, howoi.t. arr»i net 
saesn an tibiae mare than that tat dttinc fowar 4t lha roan i* Bfiqaa. 

*» Compare AekyVaa, fragment Ut. translated by Protriaor Miilkr. - Sriatwa of 
Lanraart.'- n. 441 : IaU acnr e<#*#. b^JinWiJ" aCpanV Zwr.ri nm 
X* vi r»»e* ift^t,pM. Tin Tiitt.- Br. ui. 12. t, I, any* that tha nlf niatoat 
Brahsaa ■* " too, fctber, and mother." 

m T»ii i*u** ia repeated in R.V. x. 72. and may have been loc ie aea from 



and wings, — as the father, generator, disposer, who knows all worlds, 
gives the gods their names, and is beyond the comprehension of 
mortals. In one of the Terse* (the 4th) of the first of these hymns, 
the poet asks : " What was the forest, what was the tree, out of which 
they fashioned heaven and earth ? Inquire with your minds, yo sages, 
what was that ou which ho took his stand whoa supporting the 
world?" This verse is repeated in the Taitt Br. ii. 8, 9, 6 (and 
comes in immediately after the end of R.V. x. 129, which is quoted in 
the same place). Tho compiler of the Bruhraan* replies to the question 
which the original poot had lift unanswered, by saying : " Brahma 
was the forest, Brahma waa that tree, out of which they fashioned 
heaven and earth. Sages, with my mind I declare to you, ho took his 
stand upon Brahma when upholding the world" (sea above, p. 32, 
note 57). 

(3) Eiranyagarbha. 

Another name nnder which the Deity is celebrated in the Rig-voda, 
with all the attributes of supremacy, is Hinnyagarbba. In tho 121st 
hymn of the tenth book this god is said to hare arisen (uimmartlata) 
in tho beginning, tho one lord of all beings, who upholds heaven and 
earth, who gives lifo and breath, whose command even the gods obey, 
who is the god over all gods, and the one animating principle (mu) of 
their being. (See the 4th voL of this Work, pp. 13 ff.) 

(4) Brakma$a*pati, DaJuha, and Aditi. 

In another hymn (R. V. x. 72 ; already quoted in pp. 48 £), the 
creation of the gods is ascribed to Brahmanospati (see also p. 280, 
abovo), who blow them forth like a blacksmith ; •" while the earth 'u 
said to have sprung from a being called TJttlnipad ; and Dakaba and 
Aditi were produced from ooo another by mutual generation. The 
gods, though formed by Brahmanasputi, did not, it is said, come into 
existence till after Aditi, but appear to have had some share in the 
formation or development of tho world. 

The hymn is almost entirely of a mythological character, the only 
attempt at speculation it contains being the declaration that entity 
sprang from nonentity. The manner in which the author endeavours, 

■» fee pp. 82 sad M4 



by the introduction of different names, and the ascription to them of 
rariouB agencioe, to explain the process of creation, form* • atriking 
contnut to the sublime ragaeness and sense of mystery which char- 
acterize the following composition (R.V. x. ^n).*" 

(5) Nonentity, Entity, and t\t One, h.t. x. 129. 

1. Na atad Mi no tad iiAt ta&AnWk n&*\d raj'o no ryoma paro 
kirn avarivnh knha katya iarmann ambhah kin fold gakanam gahki 

2. Na mp'tyur atld ampi'lam na tarhi na rSlryuh .iAimA Atlt prakttah \ 
6n\d ardtatn ovadhayH tad eka/h tanned ka anyad na parah kinchandoa \ 

3. Tamah Gilt tumatu gallium agr* aprakttam talilam mnnm a idam \ 
tuchhyma dbhu apihilam yad d»)t taptutu lad mahind jdyataikam \ 

4. Kaunas tad aart tamararttattidhi manato rttah pratkamam yad C»'it | 
lata bandhnm asati nimvindan hridi pratlohya kavayo manuka [ 5 
( = Yfij. S;inh. xxsiii. 74). TiraicK'tno vitato ra&mir ahum adhah trid 
dtid wpari *ti<! Ml \ retodhilh dsm* mahim&nah A*an nadhd arattdi 
prayatih parattat | 6. Ko addha etda kak iha pro tochat kutah ajdtd 
kulak lyi-v ntpiahffy I array drrtih a»ya titarjantna atha ko ttda yaiah 
ahabhura | 7. /yam r»#n*A/ir ytilah vlalkvva yadi ra dadht yadi rd na | 
y« atyddhyakthah parnmt ryaman to anga vtda yadi rd na rtda \ 

"\. Tlirrt! was then neither nonentity nor entity: there- ru no 

•"> This hymn hn» been alTrady translated by Mr. Colebrooke anil Professor IfttDcr, 
as well as in the 4ih vol. of lhi« Work, p. 4. I have now ondnivnaml to is 
my own version, and otherwise to illustrate the sense, of the hymn. Toe 
is a metrical rendering of its contcuta : — 

" Then there was neither Aught nor Nought, no sir nor «ky beyond. 

Wrist covered all J Where tested sll .» In wstery pulf profound ? 

Rot death was then, nor dtathkssoess. nor change of night snd day. 

iliiit One breathed calmly, s»»tuin«l ; nought else beyond li lay. 

Qlora hid in gloom existed first— one sea, eluding view. 

That <h»e, s void in chaos wrapt, by inward fervour grew. 

'rTithis It first arose dc»irc, the primal germ of mind, 

Which nniliinv with existence links, as cages searching find. 

Tin kindling rny that shot ucroas the ilirV anil drear abyss, — 

VsH it I" ncath t or high aloft f What hard ran answer thu t 

Then I huh! iting powers were found, and mighty forces shots.— 

A self-supporting aaass beneath, and energy ahora. 

Who knows, who ever told, from whence this vast creation taott 
J» had then beun born. — who then can e'er the truth disolceor' 
Hot sprang this world, and whether framed by hand dmo* or no,— 

It's lord in heaven alone can telL if area he can shun . ' 




atmosphere, nor sky above. "Wliut enveloped [all]? Where, in lh8 
receptacle of what [was it contained] ? Was it water, tho profound 
Bbysa ? 2. Dcutli was not then, nor immortality : there was no dis- 
tinction of da)- or night. That One*" breathed calmly, self-supported; 
there was nothing different from, or above, it. 3. In the beginning 
darkness existed, enveloped in darkness. All this was undistinguish- 
oblo water.** 1 That One which lay void, and wrapped in nothingness, 
was developed by tho power of fervour. 4. Desire first arose in It, 
which waa the primal germ of mind ; [and which] sages, searching 
with their intellect, have discovered in their heart to be the bond 
which connccU entity with nonentity. 5. The ray [or cord]"* which 
stretched across these [worlds], was it below or was it above ? There 
were there impregnating powers and mighty forces, a self-supporting 
principle; beneath, and energy iiloft."* 6. Who knows, who hero can 
declare, whence has sprung, whence, this creation ? Tho gods are 
subsequent" 5 to the development of this [universe]; who then knows 
whence it arose ? 7. From what this creation arose, and whether [any 
one] mado it or not, — he who in the highest heaven is its ruler, he 
verily knows, or [wen] he docs not know." 

I am not in possession of Sayena's commentary on this hymn ; bat 
tho scholiast on tho Taittirtyn Brdhmarjs (=>.>e also tho explanation of 
Terse 4, in commentary on Taitt. Arany. p. 142) in which the hymn is 

an Compare R.V. i. 164, 6, " Wast m that Oue in the form of the unborn which 

mppurUd tbess six worlds t" («" )«u taiUmtku ikaf ima ryauui a,*iy* rupr Aim */>• 

mti •!*•»)■ 1" V.IAI.iljM, X. "4 it )» t*u\ ; .la rripnir AaA.«M« lim/rYSf 

tii, ye it J torn «»i pr*ilituA | ..U.>.MiWA *»rraw itUm «•' HSti ttam tut uUm ri 

taMSta nrram | " There is mo Ajrni, kindled b oai mighty Sarya 

■" tin . itrniUoT«r all tiling; on* C»hos who iUuuiinaU*. tai» nitut «uiM.— tais asw 
list been developed iiito tlie sit." 

•» Jn Hm M. 1th. SMntip. i.SI 2 IT., it is «id tbst (torn the rcther " w*i proiaoed 
water, like another dsrkows in <lirkn.«; ami tttm tb>- ntfl ■' H»- ml 
prvduecd tho wind " (tufa) tmliUm mtpomfSt lanwuir'tptram Umnh | teamaV*. tk* 
mrlilcCpiifSd uditukthattt mnmUM). 

» u Professor Auim hi bos suggested to ma that the word raimi msj hsvs hers tho 
■tasa of thrrod, or cord, and not of ray. 

*** Doss tins recti v« any illustration from R.Y. L 169, S (quoted above, p. SI), 
which .pel. of the "thought (•—*.) of the utlun-" (Dysus), sad of tb* "mighty 
ind«t» udcut power (omAi m<«<«) of the mother " (Ea«tb) t 

**• Comport x. 73, 2, 3, quoted above, p. 48, and x. 97, 1, when certain plants 
are said to bo ulterior to the gods, by liuce yugas (yak aik+JMik purriA Jatih 
dsMOftyoi triyttfttm pnri). 



repeated (ii. 8, 9, 8 ff.), explains it in conformity with the philo- 
sophical idea* of a later period. From such aoarees we have no right 
in general to expect much light on tlio real meaning of the ancient 
Yedie poets. The commentator in question, who is obliged to find in 
the words of the infallible Veda a meaning consistent with the upo est- 
lations believed to be orthodox in bis own age, interprets the drat vera* 
as follows, in term* which, indeed, after all, may not be far from 
correctly expressing its general purport : Yada parzwfuhfih prahnA 
uttaraifuhlii cha na utpannH tadartiA aadatatl ice apt nubh-ltdm | 
mimtrHpamiiahiattma «path(apr<tilyamunaSi jaaai " *U" iabdanm eriss/efe 
naravit/u'inilditamSnam i&nyaict "a»ad" ify uehyaia | tiulubhayaik nutlt | 
Itniu kilchid avyaktdvattku &tU | «tl cka ritpatkafedbhaidd na taftjaaad- 
vtpudakatvtna mdbhuvud nSptj atall | "la tho interval between the 
absorption of the previous, and the production of the subs* | 
creation, there was neither entity nor nonentity. Tho world at the 
timo when, by possessing both 'name' and 'form,' 1 " it is dearly 
manifested, is designated by the word 'entity,' while a void which 
may be compared to such non-existing things aa a 'man's horns,' etc., 
is called • nonentity.' Neither of these states existed ; but there tu a 
certain unapparent condition, which, from tho absence of distinctness, 
was not an ' entity,' while from its being the iustrumcut of tho world'a 
production, it was not a ' nonentity.' " 

A much older commentary on thiB verso, probably one of the oldest 
extant, is tho following passage from the Rrtap. Br. x. 6, 3, 1 : na 
i'i a cat idum agre atad Arid na ha tad <>tU \ a$\d in* rat idam ayrt na 
ira CHt | lad ha lad manah tea dm \ 2. Tatmad ttad rithi*» ' bh<//tnHkt*m 
" na atad &t\d no tad am tadanlm " Hi | na iea hi tad mono na in 
a»at | 3. Tad idam manah trithfam ncirabubhuthad niruktataram m*r- 
taleram | lad altn&nam anvawbhat \ tat tape 'tapyaUt | tat primHrehhat | 
tat thaltrithiataJh tahairGny apafyad Almano 'anln ark fin manamafin 
manaschitah iti/Udi | " In the beginning this [universe] was not 
either, aa it were, nonexistent, nor, as it were, existent. In the 

**• Thtso V odontic terms itamt and form occnr (at ohtrrmi in the 8eet>on oa 
Yarns, p. 300) in the AthsrT».v«da, x. % lti " Who pUo«d ia him (Poratha) its*, 

magnitude, and form t H and iu xi. 7, 1 : "In thn remain* of the tacriBce (•*•■'• 
tumo mad form, in tho remains of tho sacrifice- the world, is cumprrbendrd.** Tho 
original text* trill be found further on in tho subsections oa Puru»h» ami ITrtihiAtj, 
See 6'stap. Br. xi. 2, 3, 1 ff., u> bo rjiiuUxl below, iu thn subsection oa Brabant. 



beginning this universe was, as it were, and was not, ns it were. 
Then it was only that mind. Wherefore it baa been declared by the 
rishi (in tho Ten* before a»), ' There was thin noither Mtuntftf 
nor entity j ' for mind was, as it wore, noitl nor non- 

entity. 2. Then this mind, being developed, wished to beoome mani- 
fested, more revealed, more embodied. It sought after itself; it 
practised austere fervour. It swooned. It beheld 36,000 of its own 
fires, suns, formed <if mind, placed by mind, etc." Mind then creates 
Toiee, voice creates breath, breath creates eye, eye creates ear, ear 
creates work (or ceremony), and work creates fire. 

Them ideas of entity and nonentity *" seem to have been familiar to 
the Inter Vcdic poets, as in R.V. x. 72 (noticed above, nnd translated in 
the section on Aditi, p. 48), we find it thus declared (verses 2, 3), that 
in the beginning nonentity was the source of entity : " In the curliest 
age of the gods entity sprang from nonentity ; in the first ago of tho 
gods entity sprang from nonentity." In the A.V. g, 7, 10 (which 
will bo quoted in the subsection on Skambha), it is said that both 
nonentity and entity*" exist within the god Skambha; and in verso 
25 of tho aomo hymn : " Powerful indeed are those gods who spnir- 
from nonentity. Men say that that nonentity is one, the highest, 
member of Skambha." ■ The Taittirtya Upanwhad also (I 
Indies, p. 99) quotes a verse to the effect : " This was at first nort- 
iniiiy. From that sprang entity" {uad rsi idam ogre OtU | talo m 
tad aj&yatd). 

The author of the Chh&ndogya Upanishad probsbly allude* to woio 
of these texts when he says (vi. 2, 1 f. Bibl. Ind. p. 387 f.): Sad tea 
h/ihi/ii idam <x$rt dild tkam ova adnttyan* I tad ha tin Shut "tuud <r* 

•»' Tho Taitt. Arany. i- 11, I (DiM. Ind. p. 84). aseribss ths devnlopownt of m. 
iitwice from n<"im>xi«*nw to the seven rfahla, etc. (ti.uak sail ye ltlakt\»r piAjyj* 
nfta AtHi ika ynl | WfJ trjyo JfoAtyai eka), 

•» Another *«w of the A, V. ctS. 1. 19, say* : ■ Entity is founded (pratitkfkiltm) 
on nonentity ; what has beoomo (bkita) is founded on entity. What has become U 
bated {akti *m) on what U to be, and what is to be is founded on what has becoaM " 
(sssfi ssf pratiik^kilam tali tkutam prmtukfkitam I tkutam As Uaryt akilam 
kktryam »**/< frttukfkilam). 

*» This phiSM (»ce sbovs, i» aUo sppliod to Agni in E V . x. i, 7, when it is 
•iid thai that god, being "a tliiui; Loth ami, nom<f Utrot (i>. unaisnifrsted), sad mt, 
BdstSBl (m>. in s latent Mate, or iu teeooce), in the highest besren, in thr creation of 
DaiaUu, and in the womb of Adili (comp. R.V. z. 72, 4 f.), became in a feraer ago 





loVim ogre utld eham ecu adtit'iyaffi tatmdd atalah tttj j&yeU" \ 2. Kill** 
tu khalv totni/a Mtffl *i/uJ • '' ta much* fnitfism *vitah *aj yxjtia 1/1 \ 
*a> If <ca tomya idam agrt Qtid tkan era adcillyam | fW aikthata baim 
ti(»M pra/''>/'!/t Hi | "Thi', o f.iir youth, mi in the beginning ex- 
istent (or entity) (wf), one without a second. Now smno say, 'This 
was in the beginning non-existent (or non-entity) (atat), one 
n second ; wherefore tho existent must spring from the non-existent. 
2. But how, o fair youth, ho proceeded, c:ia it be no? How can the 
existent spring from the non-existent ? But, o fair youth, this was i 
tin' beginning existent, one without a ■eeond. Thut [entity} though! 
'Lei mo multiply and be produced.' " MS 

There docs not appear to be any discrepancy between the 
in R.V. x. 129, 1, ''Tin rr waa then neither notimtity nor entity," nnd 
the doctrine of the Clihiindogya (Tpuilhad, for in the second rem of 
the hymn, also, a being designated U the One is recognized as existing, 
■hi h amy be regarded us BBaWerf&g to tin* primal entity of the VJp- 
;niitili;id ; while KM of anything, whether non- 

cut iiy or i Titity, assorted in the first verse, may merely signify, as th* 
commentator on the Tuittniya BtAhmnrja explains, thut there was 
yet no distinct IHUlliiMUIfoil of the One. In like numui-r the 
7. 10, 25 (quoted abore), dues not assert the absolute priority of n 
entity, but aJBrins it to be embraced in, or a member of, the di 

il as Skamblm. The Chhandogya Upanishad has, how* 
■ Hi, a greater appearance of being at variance with itself, ill. 19, I 
(autd tvfhrm agre utU tat sad u»tl), oud with the Taittirlyu Fpanisbad, 
II m with verses 2 and 3 of the 72od hymn of the tenth booh of 
the R.V., nbovc cited, which assert that entity sprang fr<nn non- 
If thiHo vcraee are to bo taken literally oud absolutely, wc m 
sapposo the poet to have conceived the different crcativo agents whoi 
he name*, Brahroannspati, TJtlannpad, Daksha, and Aditi, to ha 
•prung out of nothing, or from each other, or to be secondary man 
testations of the entity which was the first product of nonentity. If, 
however, with thu commentators, wo take "nonentity'' to denote 
merely an undeveloped Btate, there will be no contradiction. 


tbr tlnt-Kmi of on CaremnnM. «nil i» both a hull »nd a caw." Iii H, 

is Mill that the wrAAi.M" (icraaiDf of the Merinos) w buih «*« aiuluMn (n 

»*» Sss English trsnx. p. 101, whioa 1 hav« not followed. 



Tic first movement in the process of creation as conceived in tho 
(R.V. x. 129) ia thir. : <lii- One, which in the hymning breathed 

1ml y, Bclf-sustaincd, is developed by the power of taptu, by its own 
inherent heat (as Profcaeor MiilKr eccptabia, Anc. Sansk. Lit. p. 361), 
or by rigorous and intent abstraction (as Professor Both understands 
tho word ; »co his Lexicon, «.r.)- MI This development gave occasion 

**' Both'* interpretation ii supported by a teat in tho A.V. x. 7, S8 (»cc further oa 
ia the subsection on Slumbba), as well at by numerous passage in the rlr.ihinnoaa. 
Thos in Satap. Br. xi. 6, 8, I (quoted in the 5rd vol. of this work, p. 4), Prajfiruli, 
i k described as being the universe, is aid to bav» desired (ai'ta»y-i(«) to props* 
gate himself, and to have striven and practised rigorous abstraction (tape 'tapyata). 
And in tbo some Brihrnoria, mi 7. 1, 1 ■'• ited a bV II n vol. of thin work, p. 25), 
lbs self-existent Brahma himself is similarly related to liaro practised tap**, and 
when bo found thnt thut iliit inn l nil. r infinity, to have olfured himself in eacrifloa, 
i gods are also said to bare attained heaven and their dirine character by tap** 
l above, p. 15, end thn 4th vol. of this work, pp. SO, 21, 24. and 2K8). Compare 
also the Tsitt. Up. ii. 6, where it is said I Sa lapo 'tapyat* |m I "Urn 

*rrtjuta yad idam kinrkm | " He (tho auprvtnc Soul) d«airml, 
multiplied and prodaoad," B< podbmad tap**, nnil harinx done so, he created all 
Ibis." In his commentary on this passage, S'ankura explains that. In conformity with 
- Vedic text, knowledge is callril taptu, and that, aa thn mprrme Bonl has no 
isjjstiififrl desires, no other sense would be suitable ; and Hut the phrase means 
"He rnfloet... COS !'-!■<■!!■ iii, etc., of th* world which «u b*»og ereefcd" 

(topo*. Hi jnSxam uckyat* | "y«#jre jnSi*amaym fpah" iti iVlsfjl aasaaTaW o>c«- 
th tka i«tr*iye otamblwc*h ere | "as tapt 'tappsU" tapiu laptciBH 
ifijyamiMUt-Jagad'nukamadi-ruhaynm alatlm*nm ainrad iitnti ity mtkak). It is 
inn.- that all these passages from the Bruhmaqas are of a later date than the 
hymn, but the R.V. itself, t. 167, I, says thst Indra pained heaven by Up** 
(ete above, p. 14}, where the word oen only mcun rigorons elatmrtion. The word 
ia also found in R.V. ix. IIS, 2. where some-juice is said to be poured out trass 
[lowed winds truth, fuith, and .'.'/■•" (p'ranlAe** mty**m traddkaya lapatH i*i*k) ; 
in x. 83. 2. 3. where Mmiyii iirr.itli prrsomlied) is bcKinght to prated or to 
slay enemies, along with tapu. [tap»A ar/oAnii, ot mjmw yvS). This new of the 
word is also lupported by T.iitt. Ur. iii. 12. S, It •■ IM ns worship with an abla- 
tion that Qnt-boru god, by whom this entire universe which «>i*ta U samxindnl 
(ewriWiruw)— tlic self-existent Brahm*. which i» tho highest f*/**. lie is sow, 
rather, mother. Taptu was produced as the first object" (pnudain rn'om pariMi. 
tarn yd a*tt pratkauajam d*r*m kattika tidktma \ t r a y mikn Brakma ptrnmam 
tip* yet | M ens putrak *e pilH M mmtm | tape As yktkam praikamam asvwoavAirre). 
In the Mshabhimta, R'intiparva, 10836, Prajwpsti is aaid to have created living 
beings by '*/*'«, alter having eatered on religion* eberrvanece, or austerities (miam). 
Tap— is also mentioned a* tbo source from which creatures were produced, A.V. mi. 
1, 10. Compare Bhsgnvsui r rim. ii. :), fi. 7, 111. 23, awl iii. H>. < t. Tap** is 
eaiMiSOtsd with an oblaxton of boi!«<l milk iu a pejeace of the A.V. tv. 11, II : yswei 
dtrik Mvar arumAur Aiini itr'tram *mftUty9 aviftAias | Umi yttima Mbtp/eaaw 
Uk*m «A<seMeeys tratttu tcpati y+ityraK \ "May we, renowned, attain to the 
world of n'ghtcvomncee by that ceremony of otTeriag boiled anils, by t^p**, whereby the 

si t 


to desire (Kama) which immediately took possession of the One, sad it 
described as tho drat germ of mind, and the earliest link *** between 
nonentity and entity. The po«t HMD goes on to speak of impregnating 
powers, iiud mighty forces, of receptive capacities, and active energies; 
but confesses himself unable to declare how tho universe was produced. 
The gods themselves having come into existence at a later stage of 
creation, were not in a position to reveal to their worshippers the 
earlier p;irt of the process of which they hud out been witnesses. The 

(Twin ascended to heaven, tbe centre of immortality, liarinf left bihind their bods." 

But xi. fi. 6, connect* ta/ma with heat : " The Uialu ■•. m bdre* BraasM, 

dwelling (or tlntlu-d) in heat, nro»B through tapaa" (pitrea jiua BrmMmmgo tnlai. 

ehari ghm-mam raw mm tapaiedotithfkat. Jn A.V. tii. 61, lapai it ecn n scctd wita 

Afrni. In A.V. svii. I, M, Uftt mron* the heat of thn ran. Taps* u aawntioasd 

»k>njr nntli fcfrSMH in A.V. xi. 8, 2, and is laid to uhtc beta produced from it 


•*» Tin rnmmentator on the Tnirt. Br. ii. 8, 9, 4 (p »25 of CslcutU eslitioa, in 

Bill. Ind.) says: tiimeiya larvn.rt/iwnhfiro-klKtr-am VajatumyinaJk 

atho ihnlt ,'ihuh " kninamayalf iviyam purnthah" iti | I' yam 'pi tmarati u i 

iamMamam tttt t am ntinyaJ <j»f/\tu handhaitam " iti \ aamiad-amuhhata 'pi Uathi 

U | •"•nit hi p*rnthnh prathamam ktnehit Anmayitrn tadarlhtm ftayall 

wlm* anhhaih duhkhaih vS loahtia | "The V&joMnejins record that desin- i* the 
cause of all action, and my . ' this Punish u u liimwlf actuated hi desire' (Brifcadtr. 
Up. p. 8 j*). And Vyo«i too declare* in his srariti. ' That which hind* this woeli is 
desire ; it hm no other hond.' Tlie same thing, too, ix toem within our own n been a 
tion ; for i t in only after • man ha* first desired something; that he will strive after *W 
and to experience pleasure or pain." Id numcruus passage* of tlie Br*amaij*> and 
TJpaniahada (aa iu lliut* i|uot*d in the lust note), no nrc Mid that the first step in the 
creation was that Prujipati or Jlrshma ''desired" {akHmayata). In his remark* tax taa 
passage of tin- EaWbtja Dpmlshad, Quoted in tin- hut notr, S'aatara considers it 
necessary to explain that the supreme Soul is not •nbjeet to the dominion of dcaure, as 
if, like men, he hod any wish uu fulfill od, or were •uhjvct to tho influence of asv 
desirable objects external to himself, or were dependent oa other thing* as instru- 
ment* of attaining any such external objects ; but on the contrary, is iadependrnt of 
all other tiling, and himself, with u ricw to the interest* of living beings, originsktd 
bis desire* which posusi tho characteristic* of truth and knowledge (or true know. 
lclf-i). and from being a port of himself, are perfectly pare IJkamaytrxtni J arm*J- 
s WsSS annptakamam chil | na | natantryiit | yatka 'nyan pararti'krity* kOamidi- 
Joahbh provaritayanti na tatho Brahmanah prat*rttakuh k'tmuh | fsfli— l tarha 
xityd-jniimi-lalt/iiirfuh ti- a I nuib h u lot cod fiiuiiiihaM \ hm tour lirahma prammttyata I 
(CsAust (u (at-pratvrltakam Brahma prtigi-karmoprltAaya | Ima m iX -rifsafryass 
iimiihu Brahmc^ah | alo na a+npfakamam Brahma *idha*i»lari«afwA.IUe,. u * 
4k* | InatU yatha 'nyuham aaitmaihutah dhtrat5Ji^timiltiptA*iah AamnA aritima. 
iy<lirHla-ko'i/a-karnnn—i'itfhanantaroptktki<h/n [-« <ha .') MS tatKa PrjUiraj 

htmi:toJyptk*hat*am). I shall bclaw treat further of KAma, as a deity, and at 
hu conospoadsDce with the Creek 'Epwi, as one of the lint principle* of « 


Tory god* being at fault, no one on earth is nblo to eny what was the 
origin of tbo world, and whether it bad any creator or not. Even ita 
rulwr in the highest beaten may not be in possesion of tbo great secret. 

Such a confession of ignorance on tbo part of a Vedie rishi could not, 
however, bo taken in ita obvious and literal sense by those wlio held 
tbo Vudu to have been derived from an omniscient and iufulliblu source. 
And in consequence the commentator on the Taittirlya JJinlimaya is 
obliged to explaua it away in the following fashion : — 

Atra kt-chid Agcmam upekthya tra-iva-buddhi-balad auyathd 'nyathd 
utprekthante | tathii hi parara&nato midakdranam iti Kdn&da-Ga 
uuidayo manyanU \ tvntantram achrtanam pradkdnam jaftja m&lakdra' 
gam Hi Kapila-prabhritat,ak | sUnyddito jagad-utpattir iti 3Iadhyami-.< 
j'agato kiranam eta ndili si abh&eatah eva atatiththate iti Lokdyatik&h \ 
U tana 'pi bhruntuk eta \ " h> addha veda" jagat-kdrenam to tidma 
pwuehak tdkthdd utagachhati | anatagalya cka " kak iha pratechat" 
ttayam adfithftd ko nama jagal-kdranam idrig iti raktuM iaknoti \ ko 
'yam ntra toktavyduUak iti ch*t \ uthyate \ iyam tividku ifukfik "kutnk 
djdtd " ta[ka f)»mdd updddna-idrandt tartatah utpannd punarapi kuto 
nimitldd utpannd iti tad idam upddunam ttimittaA eka taktaryan* lath 
cha rait urn aiakyan | htU> 'iaktir iti ehet \ uchyats | kirn dera^ ttad 
briyuh kuU 'myak kaichid mamuhyak | na turad derdk raktum iaktuh U 
hy atya j'agato vividhairiihfer " art-ay " eta tidyanU na tu tritiftk 
pdrxait U lanli | yadil detdnum a pi \drii\ gatis taddnlm "yatah" 
jagad " dbabhira" tat IdramaA raktum art yak ,, ko" id "ceda" \ detdi 
ah* mantufiydi cha trUhfth prdy anaratthdndd m tdcat pratyakthena 
paiyarUi taddnlik nayam era abhatad n&py anurndtuA ioUdt tad-yog- 
yayor hetudritk(dntayor abhdtUt | tumid aiigambhiram idam para- 
murtha-tattiam caidika-aamadkigamyam ity abkxpruyak | . . . . iyam 
driryanind bh&ta-bkaatika-rupd citidkd #/-wA/ir yaiak vpdddnok&r^ 
" dbobh&ea" tartatah utpannd tad updd4nakdranam yadi <>« kinckit 
tvari'ipam dkntcd ' tat ithf halt yadi rd tatya ttaripam era n&tti tam 
i'wm mrnayam yak Paramaharo'tya j'agato "'dkyaktkak" tedinl "so 
anga eida" ta na teda yadi rd to 'pi na ttda \ \iilr\iUatyddi-laukika- 
ayaeakdra-dritkfyd "to anga teda" ity uktam | yatra to aiya tartan 
(Xlmd eta aihul kena Lam paiytd ityddi-tarta-tyacakdrdtlta-paramdrlka- 
driikfyd '• yadi id tu teda" ity uktam \ ato mtaniukyddithu tad-vtdana- 
ianka 'pi durdpeta \ 


* 4 There are certain persons who contemn revelation, and propound 
different theories of creation by their own reason. Thus the followed 
of Kanada ami Gautama, etc., consider atom* to be the ultimate cans* 
of the world. Kipllu uud inhere say that an independent and on- 
conscious Pradhana is tho cause. Tho Miidhyamikas declare that tha 
world rose out of a void, etc. The Lokayatikas say that the universe has 
n rjiiMr at nil, li hi i d&M s.i.r hi. -I !_-. \li these Bpeoulatoa in Eb brm 
Our hymn usks what mortal know* by actual observation the cause of 
tho world ? and not having himself had ocular proof, how can aay 
ono say it was so and so ? The points to bo declared aro tho material 
and instrumental causes of the universe, and these cannot be told. 
The reason of thin impossibility in next set forth. Can tho gods give 
tho required information ? Or, if not, how can any man ? The goda 
cannot tell, for they did not precede, but are subsequent to, tha 
creation. Since the gods are in this predicament, who else can know ? 
Tlie purport is, that as neither gods nor men existed before the creation, 
and cannot therefore have witnessed it, and as they an at the same tima 
unable to conclude anything regarding it, from the absence of any ade- 
quate reason or illustrative instance, this great mystery can only be 
understood by thoso versed in the Vedas. . . .The lust verse of tho hymn 
declares that tho ruler of the universe knows, or that even he does not 
know, from what. nsjuia] cause tbj rodd uroac, and whether 

that materiul cause exists in any definite form or not. That is to say, 
tho declaration that 'ho knows' is made from tho stand-point of that 
popular conception which distinguishes betwecen the ruler of the uni- 
verse and the creature* over whom he rules ; while- tho proposition 
that 'ho docs not know* is aatertcd on the ground of that highest 
principle which, transcending all popular conceptions, affirms the 
identity »f all things with the Bupreme Soul, which cannot sea 
any other existence as distinct from itself. [The sons* of this 
last clause is, that the supreme Soul can know nothing of any object 
being created external to itself, since no such object exists]. "A 
fvrtiori, the supposition that such beings as men could possess this 
knowledge is excluded." 

It would, however, be absurd to imagine that the simple author of 
the hymn entertained any such transcendental notions aa then. He 
makes uo pretensions to infallibility, but honestly acknowledges tha 



perplexity which he felt in speculating on the great problem of the 
origin of the universe.*" 

An a further ill u titration, both of tliu mora ancient and the Inter 
Mens of the Indians regarding the creation of the world, and the 
manner in which the supreme Spirit, previously quiescent, was moved 
to activity, 1 add another passage from the TuiUirTya Brihmarja, ii. 2, 
9, 1, with Kome of the commentator's ri murks. The text of the Brili- 
manu runs thus:*" "This [univcrso] was not originally anything. 
There was neither heaven, nor earth, nor atmosphere. That being 
nonexistent (mat), resolved, 'Let me bo.' That became fervent (or 
practised rigorous abstraction, atapyata). From that fervour (or 
abstraction) smoke wiu produced. That became again fervent From 
that fervour tiro was produced. That became again fervent. From 
that fervour light was produced." And so on, — flame, rays, blares, 
etc., being generated by a repetition of the same process. (It may 
perhaps bo considered that tbo manner in which the word Up*$ is 
used in this passu go is fuvourublc to the idea that in 11. V. x. 129, 3, it 
signifies heat rather than rigorous abstraction.) 

Ibid. ii. 2, 9, 10: Auto , dhi mono 'sryyata | mauah Prajilpatim 
wrijat* | l+aj&patih praj&k curijata | " From tho nonexistent mind 
(m'miJ was created. Mind created Prajiiputi. I'rajnpuli crested 

The commentator's explanation of the first part of this passage is in 
substance as follows : " Before tho creation no portion existed of the 
world which we now see. Let such a state of nonexistence be sup- 
posed. It conceived the thought, ' Let mo attain tho condition of 
existence.' Accordingly, this state of things is distinctly asserted in 
the TJpanishad (the Taittirlya, see above, p. 359) : * This was origi- 
nally nonexistent. From it existence was produced.' Here, by tho 
word ' nonexistent,' a stute of void (or absolute nullity), like that ex- 
pressed in tho phrase 'a hare's horn*,' is not intended; but simply a 
state in which mime and form were not manifested. Hence the Vaja- 
sancyins repeat the text : ' This wua then undeveloped ; let it Us 
developed through name and form.' Earth, tho waters, etc., aro 

uilsT perpkiity it cbwwoeM exprwsed on othrr nibjcets by the outkon of 
■M Sot lb* 3rd rol . of this Work, pp. J79 £ 
»" The ward* of to* erigiasi will be luoi I .a the la vol. of tliu work, pp. 27 f- 



4 nunc.' Hardnew and fluidity, etc, are ' fonn.' " The word* "un- 
developed" and "developed " arc then defined, and ilanu, i- 6, is quoted 
in proof. Tho supposition that tho passage before us can be intended 
to denote a void is next contravened by adducing; the text of the 
Chhandogya Upaniahad above quoted, whore that theory is referred to 
and contradicted. "In the Aitareya Upaniahad (at the beginning} it 
is declared : ' Soul alone was in the beginning this [universe]. No- 
thing else was active.' Hence the negation in our text, 'This [uni- 
verse] was not originally anything,' refers to the world, consisting of 
name and form, framed by the Supreme Spirit, and is not to be under- 
stood absolutely. Designated by the word * nonexistent * (iiMf), be- 
cause devoid of name and form, but still (really) existing (oat), the 
principle [called] tho Supreme Spirit, impelled by the works of the 
« n , it up ,i!i orbed in It, conceived a thought in tho way of a reflec- 
tion, ' Let me bo manifested as existent in the shape of name and 
form.' As a man in a deep sleep awakes that he may enjoy tho fruit 
of liis works, so the thought of causing all living creatures to enjoy 
the fruit of thoir works arose in the Supremo Spirit Possessed by 
such • thought, that principle [called] the Supreme Spirit, practised 
rigorous abstraction (tapat) as a means of creating name and form. 
Hero tapai docs not mean any such thing as tho krichbra or chondra- 
yanu penances, or the like ; but denotes consideration regarding the 
particular objects which were to be created. Wherefore writers of the 
Atharvu- veila school record the text : ' He who is omniscient, all* 
understanding, whose tapat consists of knowledge.' Prom the fact that 
this tapat has nothing of the character of any penance, it may be 
properly regarded as denoting the reflection of a being who, though 
uncmbodicd, is yet omnipotent," etc.. etc. " From the supreme God, 
being such as has been described, in conformity with his volition, a 
certain smoke wan produced," etc., etc. 

( Yad idam tih&vara-jangama-rupam bft&lok&dirQpam chajagad iddnim 
dfiiyaU tat fiimapi *fith{cA pirvam naita d*U | tat tddfitam otad- 
rupam era varttamattum tyul | *ad-rupatam prupnuyum ity ttndriiam 
msho 'kuruta \ tath& eha upanithadi pun-am atad-ripam paittot tad- 
rftpatotpatti* eha ti*path{am amndyofo " atad vai idam ear* atU talo r*» 
tad ajdyata" Hi | atra " a»at-' iabdena ns iaia-viiKutudi-tamunait 
iitnyntvaOi twtkthitttm kirn tarhy anabhityakta-na'ma-rQpaUam | atah Ha 



Viijataneyinah tamurnananii " tad ha idafh larky avyiikritam dtit | tad 
n&ma-rup6bhy<im *ta rydkriyeta" iti \ bhumir Qpah ityadikam nana 
kCfhtnya-drarudikairi r&pam | . . . . Aitartyinat (t adhlyate M ulmil rai 
attorn ekah «•« agre uild na any at kinchana unshod" iti | tatm&d "itaica 
kinchana airld" ily ayaih niihtxlhah Puramdtnia-nirmila-nama-rupt'it- 
maka-jayad-vithayt na tu kriitna-rithayah | numaripa-rah\t<ttitna 

" a*at''-6abda-v<lehyarh tad tea aeatthitam Paramdtma-tattram ttutrnany 
oHturhita-prdai-karmaprtrit&m tad RdMfl 'M utirbhttvtyam iti 

paryaloehana-rupam tnano 'kurvta | yathu gddha-nidr&m prdptatya 
pvnuhaxya karma-phaJa-bhogilya prabodhah utpadyalt txth'l tarean 
pruninah tta-tva-karna-phalam bhojayilum Idriio tich&rak Paramut- 
tnMah prfidurabhut | tathCiidha-cithtlra-yiiktai'h tat Parantattna-tattra- 
rupaA ndtna-riipa-tnthti~tud}uma'ri)patn tapo 'kuruta \ na atra tapah 
kfiehhra-chdndrdyamldi-riipam \ kintu trathfarya-paddrlha-vihiha» 
ttithayan paryUoclutnam | aiah eta Atharvanik&h Amananii "yah 
urvajnah. tan-avid yatya jnSnamayaA tapah " iti | krichhrddi-rupatra- 
bhat&d aiariratya apt taria-lakli-yuktasya paryafochanam upapannam | 
. tadrwU tasmdt Parameitardt tva • tankalpdnutirrna kaichid 
dhumah uiapadyata |) 

(6) Purutha. 

Another important, but in many plaor* obscure, hymn of the Rig- 
veda, in which tho unity of tbc Godhead u recognized, though in a 
pantheistic tense, is the 90th of tho tenth book, the celebrated 
Furusha Sukta,*" which is aa follows : 

1. SahatraiXrthdh Puruthah uthmrdkihah tahatrapdt | ta bhiimim 
vtiralo vn'tru aty alishfhad daJdnynlam | '2. Puruthah tvtdsA tan am 
yad bh&taih yach cha bhatyam | utdmritatratytiam yad annendtirehati | 
3. Etdv&n aiya mahimd ato jydydM eha Puruthah \ pad* 'tya pittd 

*** Tranalationa uf tliii hymn (which ia alio given with slight Tariationa in Vij. S. 
13. 1 16. mill A.Y. 19, «, and 7, 5, 4) will bo found in Mr. CoUbrookVa Miacel Eta. 
i. 167 (at* alto th« note in p. S09 of the aama volume), aa alto in th* lat vol. of thia 
Work, 9 ff ; (into French) in tho Prtfac* to Bnrnouf'a Bhigavata Ihjrin., ml i 
pp. cmL ff. (where ace tho note*) ; and (into German) is Frofaaor Weber* Lad. 
Stwd. ii. fi ff. I hare now ondtaroored to supply aomo farther illuatrationt a. itu 
idea* in th* lit ma. I haw paaaed aver aararal obactiriti** oa which 1 b*v» barn 
unable to throw any light. Tho tint two renaa are given ta the S vataa'raUia 
UponUhod, ui. U, 15, where the conuncaUry m»r ha CooaulUd. 


Malum' tripud UfOmfitaM dici I 1. •irddkcah ud ati /VvaUl 

pudo 'tynhubtatvat pwtak | tale lithtan cyabrSmtt 46j»natuianr «Wt | 
6. Tmm&d J .' • f$ cdhi J'uruthak | M j&to aty *r,<Ay*U 

paieA&d Mfimiw alio pur ah | 6. la/ Purtuktna harithil detak ya/*M 
atatuatn | ttuanto an/ut'id ajyam grtihmah idkmah iarad katik | ?. 71r** 
yajiwm bnrkiihi praukthim Punuham julam ayratak | r>n« aterdA «•*- 
;'<i«/rt tiid/iytih ruhayai cha yt | ti. Tfcmdrf yajnat urtthutak tamkkpi- 
fam pfiikadAjyam | pniiiiht /'iwi rA«ir« cSyacydn dranyam yrdmyai tkt 
ye | 9. Tumid yoj'iuU tartakutak richah mJmUni jojnire | ckhamd&Au 
jajnirt tatuuid yoju* tatmad ajAyata | 10. Tiumtii aiulk aj'dytnta yi k* 
eha ubkaytidatak | £<iw Aa jajm'rt tatmat tmmaj ja'.ak aj'UvmyaA | 11. 
Yat Punuham ci adadhuh katidhd ti ahalpayun | muikaih kirn aty* ks* 
hah* hi nm pudau uckyeU | 12. Brdkeuino'tya nuk/uim arid buku rij*- 
ntjah kjitah | uri tad atya yad raiSyah padibylm i&dro ajtiyaUt | 14. 
Chandraiunk WUHMOJ9M Siry9 ojuyata \ muktidd /nJraJ tk* 

Ayn*i cha prdnud Vuyur ajiiyaU | 11. Ndbhytih dtld antariliknm firtkm 
dymh ranttiortaUi | padbhyiim bhumir dunh irotrul fit ha Man eltlp*- 
yan | 15. SaptStytitan paridkayai trih *t\pla tavUdhah IritaA | d+ruk 
yad yiy'nam lanvaivik abadhnan Punixh/tm paiuut | 18. Yijatmm yt y' m s m 
ayajanta d*tat t&ni dharmJlni pratkamuni titan \ U ks ndkum 
tuih lachtiHta t/n/rti fWM >'irifn/uh tanti dttrlk | 

"1. l'uni'liu bM ii thoiiMim 1 bmdl (u thousand mini, A.V. 
nid eyea, and a lhou« m<l foot. On orury side enveloping lb© 
eartli, he transcended [it] by a space of ten fingers. 2. Punudm hirn- 
gclf ib this whule*** [aniTerBe], wbatevec haa be«n, and whatever ahall 
be. lie is also the lord of itntnoitulity. since through food ho ex* 
jiand*.*" 3. Such is his greatness; and Purasha is superior to thi». 
All existing things arc a quarter * l " of him, and that which is immorUl 


•'* Compnrt S'atap. Br. ir. S, 2, 1 s S*ri«m A^ «yow atma; "(ue this »0«1 m 


M ' Tbi- HtM of tb< lut rlimw i« oWurc. tt m»y alfo roraa, ««ordinf let ll» 
enmiiL. Hu V :.j. S. ud the S"tc1u»V. Upan. " (be b tlso ihe lord of) t 

i grown by food."* Aeoordifi;.' in tho Rhagirata I'ur-yu 

big br h*i tnnu-i mortal nittrimt-Tit." Tl» 
ponage of lii' A.V. (i:<, o, -I) rwi.U. "be is tlao lh« l»id of itnnuct«Hly, dtam 
became unii«l wilti anuibcr (y»rf airyr»5iA«ic* i»kt). 

»" Comptrc A.V. x. 1,7, uA ■ prodeead tb« 

■» arid ; ka> »b '-' '«<nnie of llut wnieh was the [other] half of hJra t jnrlkmm 
Ut,r«-v.»« >*y5*« y* «y* «^ i ** *»• »*< *^»i«"). IS. Prajipwi mot*, wnlita 





in the sky is three quart*™ of him. 4. With throe quarters Punish* 
mounted upwards. A quarter of him again was produced here below 
Ho th«;n became diffused CTcrjwhere among things animate and inani- 
mate. 5. From him Viriij was bora, and from Viriij, Puruslia."* As 

the wnmn ; though unseen, ho i« liorn in nuiny form*. Willi tho half hn produced 
the whole world ; hut the [other] half of him, what sign it there of it F " Compare 

V. x. 7, B| '•'•, an well u portion* of A.V. x. 8, will be found 'i' 1 "' 
translated further on, in the snliecclion on Skambha. 

»«» The oommontalor on the Vaj. San. (whirr, at I bare said, (Lis hymn it abo 
found; explains thin reciprocal generation of Viraj from I'urinhii, and again of 
l'uiu'lii Una Viriij, by saying, in conformity with Vedantic principle*, that Viraj in 
tho form of tbo mnndnnn epg sprang from Adi-l'urusha (primrtal Puiu-lu), who 
then catered into thin egg, which ha animate! at it* *ilnl a»ul ordi-. 
(tal*h | Itiwad adipuntth&J \'ira( *>«A«>.uni<-i/<Ao 'jayofa | . . . . ram era Jtkam 
tik<iatamtn a/rifni FutxiKm habhimaui tkalf tra putnan tjaguta | bind* 
tttfinla-rtdy'ih 1'arnmalma »c«-mM»/"J«> I'i'Aif-tUhiiKi eVwAardnd m uptm *rii*fro 
Ultra j itfriiptnu praritya brahmanAiMiimiiiti dfrntfttvia jhn 'Mnvad ily mrlktl)). 

According to Manu, L 8-11 (see the ltt toI. of thit Work, pp, 85 f.) the supreme 

Brtt created the water*, in which he placed on egg, from wbicb | 
aclf wis bom u llrahma. also culled NJrivuna. Thu mala (Puruaha), crmlcd by 
the cU-riml. imperceptible, first Cause, ia at Terse 1 1 repeats, rolled Brahma. Brahma 
hy hia own thought split the eyjj (Terse 12). After various othar detail* regirdinc; 
the creation, the writer go** on to aay (verse J'i) that Brnbmi divided hit own body 

v.. hnl «•!-<, of which <>no became a male (l'urushx), >i> i |h< .h 
whom ho produced Viriij. Thit male (Punuhii} Vfrij ngaiii crtutct Mann L 
(rerao 33). We here see that the word malo, or I'urualia, ia applied by Mann to 
three beings — vis., first, to Brahma (verse 11); aecond, to the male formed by 
Brahma bum the half of hi* own body (verse 32) ; and thirdly, lo Vir.j. uli...m 
Brahma, or hit male half, produced from tbo fanul* who was mad* oat of At 
half of hit body (ace alio Wilson's Vishnu 1'urana, p. 105, note, in Dr. Hall'* 
edition). Another explanation of the rcrau U, however, to bo obtained by eonipmiug 
the timilar passage in R.V. i. 72, 4: "Daksha sprang from Ailiti. nd Aili: 
Dakiiia " (quoted above, p. 48), toifether with tbo observation of Yaaka (Niruku. xl. 
23, alto quoted ahovt in page 60), that this startling declaration may bo explicable 
en the ground that thate two deities bad the tame origin, or. in conformity with a 
characteristic of their dirine nature, may ha»« boon produced from each oth.r, and 
bare derived their substance from each other. (See also Nirukta, rii. 4, quoted above, 
p. 360, where the author repeata the tame idea regarding the nature of the god*). 
Compare alto A.V. xiii. 4, 29 If., where ladra U said to be produced from a great 
nosy different phenomena or element*, and they reciprocally from him (m tai ahno 
tjtyat* l**mid «A*r o/syate). The S'atap. Br. (xiii. 6, 1, 8) underatsuids Virij in 
the passage before u> to signify not any male power, but the metre ef that name: 
"The Viraj baa forty tyllsblea. Hence he (I'uru»ha) obtains the Viraj, aecordinr to 
the text, 'Krom him iprang Vlrij, and from Virij Purotha." Thi* b that Viraj. 
Fran this Viraj, therefore, it ia that he begets Punuha the tacrine*." Viraj occurs 

. 130, 6, as feminine and at the name of a metre. 



It ia alio fvuud in x. 169, 3, and x. 1M, I, aa wall a* in i. 18$, 6, where it 




soon as bora he extended beyond the earth, both behind and before. 1 " 
6. When the gods offered up Funuha as a sacrifice, the spring -was its 
clarified butter, summer its fuel, and autumn the [accompanying] 

adjective. In t.hc A.V it i.« of frequent occurrence, and sometimes is an epithet, end 
sometimes denote* the metre of tlrnl name. Tim* in ii. 2. 5 (conjure Vij. Smb. 
17. 3. ami S'ut-'ip. Br. ix. 2, t. 10), it is snid, "That daughter of thin*. a Kama, is 
called the Cow, she whom nutes denominate V. leg Vb*j " baa below, the imbaectMi 
on Kimo, and I ml. Sfir.l ix. 478; compure R.V. riiL 90, lo: vurWhio.5 V'tUm 
.... dtvlm devtihgah pary eyuthtA yam | ■ The fadeless Vech . . . . the cow. who 
ha> come from the gods"). Again in riiL 9, 1 : ralum Virvjah talifad wimttim | 

2. Vattah tSMJ UfU Vuhjtih | 7. I'irnjain oAirr brihmoifik pi I tram lim m si 

dhiht yatiillia itkhibhyak | 8. Ynm praekyutam «nu yajniih prarhftranti mftitifh 
ant* bpatttkfjiamnnnm | yniyah <'■»'? praian yniikain tjn • .l.Ty-* /••'♦«< 

ry«m4M | 9, •• ppTjoiu /•r/rniir'ii"i» J'l'ru/ S««r-y'ri m *Hytti ptiMSl | "The 

two cakes of Virtj roue MM of the water, 2 . . . . The diiirr-ncatowinir calf oi 
It is sbnrilv afterwards (Terse 7) strongly said that VirSj, though spoken of in I 
feminine (render, in the '-either .il hnihrniin," whether thnt moan thr deity « 
"They "ay thst Viruj is the father of devotion. Urin^ her to ns thy friends is 
many forms (at thou c&nrt). 8. She whom, when lh< advances, aaeriSeee folio 
sud stand still whim I . tkv, by whose will and encrjry the liriuf 

mores, a VI leaven, 9. 'Without breath, she moves by the breath 

of breathing (haules. Varftj follows after Sraraj," ere. The ealf oTViraj is mao- 
in liii. 1. 33. In viii. 10, 1, it is said of her: Virdtf rai idmm myrt 

ttt'rl laiyTih jalliyai ni/rr, " lyim rt* tdam Mtiriikyttti" Hi | 2. Si MSls- 

ktuntat jii ga>h*p»<yr tftkribmit | grihamtikl yriA»p«tir *4<M«fi ipsa) rrWl f I'aki I 

I ill ilii- f universe]. Everything wns afraid of her when she was 
hum, bat the hentlf sbnuld baoomi tfdt 1. She nscendrd. 8h» entered the Oar* 
hspatya fire. He who knows this becomes master of s honse," eta. And in it. 1 n. 
24, in read : Vinid vay viriif priihiri virad tirat prefiipattA | rinit 
m f ityMk tS d k y ik S m §Mir3je (i/Mure, etc. "Vltij b V3eh, is the earth, and tea 
air, is PrnjSpnti, in Death, the ruler of the SWliyn*." etc. Samp. Br. xiu. 2, 6, S: 
Pdifipatir Virajam tvfijal ea 'mat *ru/t(a parachy oi! \ ta 'i'mph meJAymm jrri- 
wiiiii | '* Prajupnti cre-ntci Vbfj. Bba being produced from him went away and 
entered into Oil BMlfflfllil horse." In rasdinf these passagea we ahould baar in mind 
the great power nttributed hy the Vedia writers to hymns and metre*. 8ee W«hsr*s Stud. viii. R-12 ; and vol. iii. of this Work, pp. 275 ft". On tha rirtee* e/ the 
Viruj in particular, sec Weber, «» above, pp. 6H tt. In the followiu; texts the word 
I masculine name or an epithet : A.V. si. 5. IS. " The tebfirya is a brakma- 
charin ; the bralimachHrin ia 1'r.ijupiii. I'r.ij.ipnti shines (ri roMfi). He beo aae 
tho rcajilrndent, powerful Indra." So also in iv. 11. 7 ; nii. 3, 6 ; xi. 5, 7 ; and 
viii A, 10, whrr.i VirAj precedes or foHowx the worda IVsjipati and Pxrarneshfhia. 
In (I i, IS, Vir.ij u identiHod with Pruna. In the Bphnd Ar. I • called 

the wifo of Funuha. (Sec p. 217 of Dr. RUcr'i tranalstion. In R-V, x. Ii9. i 
(itthn us tiuhita eirof), nnd x. 160, 1 [virajam gopalim ytviim), the word Kcms to be 
an epithet. 

**> In the BbO^avatn l'nruua, ii. 8, 15 ff., tho |ireecdine; rente of oar byien so* 
paraphnucd ss follows : torttam ISmuStJk esrdisw A sitae. sAeetwa aaaswcA eXt y+t | 
lf«rf.n/i aeri'(«m rtVlWM vittuiim aihituhfhMti \ 14, SrmlMiX(ky*m praUpen Primt 



dilation. 7. This victim, Purusba born iu the beginning, they immo- 
lated on the sacrificial grass ; with him as their offering, the god*, 
Sidhyas, and Rishis sacrificed. 8. From that universal oblation were 
produced curds and clarified butter. He (Purusbn) formed those aerial 
creature*, and the animals, both wild and tame. 9. From tbat uni- 
Terra] sacrifice sprang the hymns culled Rich and SAmnn, tho metres, 
and the Yajush. 10. From it were produced horses, and ull animals 
with two rows of teeth, cows, goats, and sheep. 11. When they 
divided Purusba, into how many parts did they distribute him ? What 
was bis mouth ? What were his arms ? What were called his thighs 
and feet? 12. Tho Brahman wea his mouth;*' tho Rejany* became 
hit arms; the Vaiiya was his thighs; the Sudrn sprang from his feet. 
IS. Tho moon was produced from his soul; the sun from his eye; 
India and Agni from hia mouth; and Vayu from his breath. 14. 
From hia navel came the atmosphere ; from his head arose the aky { 
from hia feet came the earth ; from his oar thu four quarters : so they 
formed the worlda. 16. When the gods, in performing their aacrifice, 

f*W tka pralapaty own | hum Viraj'att pratspuu ttjmXy anlar tahitj puwvin | 17. 
So 'nftttii/akk/tgiinyri,, msrljam «miim y«4 atyayal | moAinanKo lata trahmam 
Purm/ituy* dumlyntjiil) | 18. Ifijrt/it4 aarm~k>ivltiKt /'«m«* riht<tp*£t tiJiJk | 
amfxlam Ju/umain nMuyaA IrinurMn-} VAnyi murJAat* | )9. PUJat trayo rafiti 
tJkammn apr> ,'maiah | auliu trr'/oAyrcJ Ir epara ypA*nW*o 'rriiaJ-rratik | 

20. 8rM riehnkram* uiAnun *uan<imian* ut.Ht | y*d awidya tAa et«Vi cka Itmmkm 
tUAayairaya^ | 21. Yatmnil ««rfrvi I'irud ja/nt bauUndriya^upHmakak | lad- 
draryam mygnii riium gohhih liiryah iratapa* I If, - Panwha himself is all this 
which baa been, •lioll be, and U. By him this univcrt* U enveloped, ud yet ha 
oocapiot bat a span. 16 . That Priaa [explained by the cummeautur u Uic »un], while 
kfatdlilix hu own iphc-rf. kindlra aim that which ia without it. 8o. too, Punikha. 
while kindling Vlrij.kiiidlea whatever it within and witli.u' Usfc IT. II. l. ihrloed of 
immortality and tacority, aince he hu trnacaadad mortal nutriment. Bene*, o 
Brahman, this grtatncu of IMnuhs is onaurpaaaable. 18. The wit* know all thing* to 
cii»t in the fewt [or ijuarten] of Punuhs, who ha* the world* fpr fret [or quurten] : 
immorUlity, alcaBcdaow, and wrurity, abide in tho head* nf the three-headed. 19. Time 
quarters, iii„ the abodea of ascetics, are beyond the three worlda ; while the rmnaia- 
ing quarter, tho aboda of h mea h o l de n who have not adopted a life of eehbacy. is 
within then. 20. Pnrosha hat traversed both the two separate paths, that of eajevaamt 
and ahatiiweot, that is, of ignoraneo and knowledge ; for h« w the receptacle of both. 
31. From htm waa produced an egg, conaUtina; of the elements and isnaii aad threat 
qualities. Pnrasha panetrated through ita entire aubatanec, a* the *aa wanaa with 
hit rays.*' There it a (rood deal shout I'nmaha in the Brihad Aranyaka Opaalaaed. 
See pp. 217, 220-238. 233, 250. 232, 287. of Dr. Kotr'i English trawl i' 

**• Kauihiukl BrahaMca Upaniihad, iL 9, quoted in the «th vol. of tint work, 
p. 10, not*. 



bound Purusha as a victim, there wore seven pieces of wood laid 
him round the fire, and thrice seven pieces of fuel employed. 1 
"With sacrifice the gods worshipped the Sacrifice. These were tho 
institutions. These great beings attained to the heaven w 
gods, thy ancient S&dhyas, reside." **• 

There are two other hymns of the Rig-veda besides the 
Siikta in which the Deity is represented as either the agent, the 
or tho subject of sacrifice. In x. 81, 5, Visvakurmsn U said to sacri- 
fice himself, or to himself; and in verse 6, to offer up heaven and 
earth. And in x. 130 (where, in vorsc 2, Pumnn mny bo equivalent 
to PuriiBhu), it is said (verso 3) cither that the gods sacrificed to the 
[supreme] god, or that they offered him np. 4 " 

In the Nirukta, x. 26, SM a legend, having reforenco to R.V. x. 81, 
quoted to tho effect that Vigvaknrman, the son of Phuvarm, first of 
all offered up all worlds in a $arv<imedka, and ended by sacrificing him- 
Bi'lf. And in the Satap. Br. xiii. 7, 1, 1, the same thing is related of 
the self-ex istont Hruhinu himself, who, finding that ho could not 
by auBtere fervour attain to tho infinitude which he desired, re- 


•*■ Tliii vcrae !• = i. 161. i»0, where *ecSfiya»a'e interpretation and MaLl Jhara'a on 
Y;ij B. 31. 10: ulwXir. 13, M. 

**» Tin- rendering in Ibsas paunge* depends on the exact mhic asngtml to Uw 
W9t6 /"/ Si khl 4th vol. of this "Wort, pp, 7-9. The Tsitu 8a»h. A«ht. «i f. il 
of India Uffi.ce MS., *av«: Ya/iitHa c*i IVajapalik frijak atrijaU | " Pr»jf«pati 

tsriosj beings bj sacrifice." la Um Tuitt. Br. 3,9,2:2, l, it U «id: ••Tbp 
gods ilanghtT .1 pafi as a Tictim. Tin rj tins faitcd, saying: 'In Uw 

Boning we shall niter wuriiia.' " frijapatim mi dtrah pitaram paittm MSSSSS 
mulkupa atabknota | (out nlotkya uphnuatt | prater y*$h fAt hmmkf Hi. 

»>' Vol. It. of thin work, p. 7; wo al*o p. 300; und MahJbburUa S"flntrj»., rmt 

• tarupn ijnhhiltrnh twrtnmrJk* mthtimukht \ juknta fmm-kku/nn • Imtkti- 

tSmunam itrnand \ " The omuiform MaLudi-va aacriflcvd all creaturta ia a grtai 
all-oblution, and thra offered himself by himatdf." In tho S'atap. Br. |j 
2. it ia »aid that " I*rajupBli gate bimaclf to the gods, and became thctr aacrt- 
BtSji For vn'riHiMi is tho food of the Rods. He then created aacriflea as bis 
own imago (or counterpart). ■ nay that 'PrnjApaii is muffles;' fcr he 

areatad it a* hi* »n UBSSM " [t'lihi/ak Prajapatir almanmm pftdad/ut | Yojma km 
uham ata | Yajao hi deranam annam | 3. Sa dnrbkyah almaiuum prwJSya mtKm trim 
atmtnah prali/m'im nsri/ala yd wnmm | lasmnd <~ikuh " Prmjiipatir ya/MA ' 
lirMANO Ay rtam pratuniM atftjuta). In the M. Bh. S'untip 9816, alao, it is raid 
that l'nijupiiii BjBSJSd (lie sacrificial victim*, and wcrilice itself, and with it warship. 
p«d the god«. The S'itap. Br. sayt, cltawbart, xiv. 3, 2, 1, " Thi* which U aarrino* 
is the soul of all being* and of all gods" {n\rt*Mm tmi nkm khvia*nm —ran Hal 
oWamiM utmu yad yq/nak). 



solved to offer up himself in creuted things, and crested tilings in 
himself, and having done this, attained to pre-eminence, self-efful- 
gence, and supreme dominion (see the 4th vol. of this work, p. 25). 

U fa i". hi -Mi., tin.' author ol thii pw bid not rllifnrl to Ihtf 

clear conception of tho self-sufficiency ond omnipotence of n self- 
existent Being which later Indian writers acquired."* 

In tho hymu before us the gods are distinctly said (in verses 6, 7, 
and 16) to have offered up Purusha himself as a victim. And in 
the Bhagavata Purona, ii. <3, 2l-'20, aM which is a paraphrase of this 
passage, Brahma is made to say that he derived tho materials of sacri- 
fice from l'urusha'a members, and immolated that l>eing, the lord 

It is not very easy to seize tho precise idea which is expressed in 
the latter part of this singular hymn, the Purusha Sukta. It was 
evidently produced at a period when the ceremonial of sacrifice had 
become largly developed, vrheu great virtue was supposed to resiiln in 
its proper eclcbrution, and when a mystical meaning had como to bo 
attached to the various materials and instrument* of the ritual as well 
as to the different members of the victim. Penotrnted with a sense of 
the sanctity and efficacy of the rite, and familiar with all its details, 
the priestly poet, to whom we owe the hymn, has thought it no pro- 
fanity to represent the supreme Purusha himself as forming the victim, 
whoso immolation by tho agency of the gods gave birth, by it* trans- 
cendent power, to the visible universe and all its inhabitants. ,r 

The two following verses in the Vfijaaaneyi Sanhita refer to Purusha: 

xxxi. 18 (» Svetusputara TJpanishad, lit. 8) : rtdaiam etam Punuham 
mahtiniam Adiiyn-earnaih (dmasah par m hit | tarn na riditri 'ft mrxtyum 
ili nUnyah panth&k cidyaU ay an<iy a | "I know this great Purusha, 
resplendent as tho sun, above the darkness. It is by knowing him 

*** The word smjmmMS docs not, however, always signify atlf-cxiatcnce in tho 
absolute sense. Thus Ksa'yapa is in A.V. in. 03. 10, called myamHiu, sad is yet 
said to have sprung from KnUi (time). (St* the mbstction on Kula, further oa.) 

"* Beo the 4th vol. of this Work, p. 9. 

**' Dr. Hang, when tripling of tho importance attached to sacrifice by ths BnUi- 

i remarks (Prcf. to Ait Ai. p. 731 1 "The creation uf the world itself ws-- 

regarded u the fruit of a sacrifice performed by the Supreme Being."' If ths learned 

author here refers U ths Puresha 80kta it would ham been mora exact to say that 

•lion was regarded as ths frait of an immolation of the Supreme Being. Bat 

hia remark mar be justified by the other passages I have riled. 



that a man overpasses death. There is no other road to go/"** (The 
Purujha Sukt* occupies verses 1-16 of the «ame section in which this 
Terse is found.) 

xxxii. 2 : tarvi nmnhoh jojnin tidyutah Punuiai t4hi | naimam 
flrdtiram na tiryaneham na maiihyn parijngralhat | '* All winkings of 
tho eye have sprung from Purusha, the resplendent No one has 
embraced him cither above, or below, or in the middle." •*• 

The A.V. contains a long hymn (x. 2) on tho subject of Purusha, 
which does not throw much light on the conception of his character, 
but contains a number of curious ideas. The Deity being conceived 
and described iu this hymn as the Man, or Male (Purusha) — the great 
archetype and impersonation of tbnt active energy of which men arn 
the feeble representatives upon earth — tho poet has been led to im- 
agine the object of his adoration as invested with a visible form, lad 
with members analogous to those of the human frame; and ho than 
goes on to speculate on the agency by which tho different portions of 
Purutha's body could hove boon constructed, and the source from 
which he could have derived the various attributes through which 
fonnod tho universe, and ordained the conditions under which i! 
several departments exist. Tho minute questions regarding the mem- 
bers of Purusha with which the hymn opens may have been suggested 
to the author by an observation of the curious ■tmctow of the human 
body, und by the wonder which that obsurvntiun had occasioned. 
Throughout the hymn Purusha is not represented as a self-existent, 
self-sufficient Being, but as dependent on other gods for his various 
powers and attributes. The details are too tedious, and in some places 
too obscure, to admit of my giving them in full, but I ahull state the 
substance, and adduce tho most important ports more or lest in 
tenso. The hymn begins thus : — 




n ex- 

*•» Compare A.V. rii. S3, 7 1 "Ascending from the darkness to tie highest hearts 
we have reached the son. a god among the gods, the uppermost light" (««f 
fiiMOMj pari rohanto tinium vllamam | oVm* dtutri lurymm agatm* jfoti 
nam | compare 11. V. i. 60, 10, quoted above In p. ICO). 

**• The following verse, given in tho Xinilcta, ii. 3, is from th* S'vrtl/r.tarn Up- 
aniehad," This entire unirtme is filled by that Purusha to irhom there is 
nothing rmprrinr, from whom tlurc is nothing different, thin whoa no ana in note 
mitiulo or mora vast, and who alone, fixed like a tree, abides is the iky" («*smjr 
pnrtm napartm uti ktnekid yamad nan'iyo na jynyti'rti JcaJcMil | triktkdl} 
ilaldho din ruAMii.'y tkat ttn+iam pitrnam Puru>S*na Marram). 



1. Kena pSrthn} dhhritt Punuhatya ktna mnmtam tambhritam kena 

gulphau | kenfinguh peianlk kena khAni .... f 2. Katm&n nu gulphiie 

adharav alrimann tuh(klwmUiv vtiarau Punuhatya | .... 4. A'ati 

deeHh katamt it lUan yt uro grlcdi chikyuh Puruihasya | kali ttanau 

vyadadhuh k<ih kaphaudau kali tkandkdn kali priehfir aehinran | 6. 

Kah itpta kh&ni vi tatarda firthani karniiv imau nutike chakthanl tnu- 

kham | .... 9. PriyupriySni battula tcapnam tambadha-tandryah. | 

&nandi>n ugro nanduiki eha JuumAd eahati Puruthah | 6rtir an 

nirritik kuto nu Purutht 'malih \ rAdhih tamridhih \ . . . . 12. Ko 

atmin rtipatn adaihdt ko makmSnam eha ndma eha | jutum ko atmin ko 

kttum kai eharilrAni Pinuht | 13. Ko pianam atayat ko apunam 

ty&nmn « | tamAuam atmin fa deeo adhi iiirdya Purutht | 14. Ko atmin 

yaj'nam adadhad tko devo adhi Puruthe | ko aimin tatyam ko 'nritaA kuto 

mrityuh kuto 'mn'tam | 15. Kb atmai tOtah paryadkilt ko atySyur 

akalpayat \ balam ko atmai prilyachhat ko atyOkalpayaj Jaraai | 16. 

Ktn&po antatanuta kendhar akarod rueht | lukatam ktna anraindha krma 

tiyambhavum dad)* | 17. Ko atmin r*lo nyadadh&t lantur uloyalom 

Hi | medhdm ko atminn adhyauAat . . . . | 18. Kena imum bhumim 

aurnot ktna paryabharad ditam \ ken&bhi mahnd pnnal&n kena karmQni 

Puruthah | 24. Keneyan bkimir tthila ktna dyaur utlari hitd | k«n<dam 

urdheam tiryak eha antarikthaSt tyacho hitam | 25. BrakmanA bknmir 

rihitd Brahma dyaur uttard hita \ Brahmtdam irdhraA tiryak ek,t 

antarihhtit ryaeho hitam | . . . . 28. Urdhto nu trithfdt tiryafi nu 

tfithftih diiah Purutkah a babhuea | puram yo Brakmano ceia 

yatylk Puruthah uchyalt | 29. Yo tai tain Brakmano vtda ampttndvfi- 

tAm puram | latmai Brahma eha brdhmAi eha ehakthuk pr&nam pro/dm 

daduh | 30. Ka tai tarn ehahhur jahdli na pr/lno jaratah purd \ ptuaik 

yo Brakmano vtda yaty/lh Puruthak uchyatt | 31. Atkt&ckakrS naca- 

ioAri dtvQndm pur ayodhyn \ iatyam kiranyayah koish ttargah Jyotukd- 

rritah | 32. Tatmin hiranyayt koit tryart tripratitkfkitt | tatmin yad 

yaktham utmamat lad tai brahma-rido tiduh | 38. PrubhrSjamuwim 

kturinlm yaiatu tamparUjitSm \ puram hiranyoylm Brahma <Snr#*'<Z- 

par&jilam \ 

" 1. By whom were the heels of Punish* produced ? By whom wo» 
bit fle«h brought together ? By whora were hit ancles, by whom were 
hu fingvre and hit muidc*, mndo? By whom tho aporturoa of hia 
body ? . . . 2. From what did they construct his anclea below and 



lis knees above?" After similar question about hie legs, thighs, 
trunk, etc., the author proceeds: "4. How many and who were the 

pods who joined tnpvili r tin chert and the neck of Purusha? Jiow 
many fanned his breasts, who his elbows ? (?) How many connected 
hi» shoulders and ribs? ....(>. Who opined l.l uperturvs in 

his bond, these cars, nostrils, eyes, and mouth? . . . ." " Whence," 
oaks the poet (verse 9), "does the glorious Purusha bring many thing* 
pleasant and unpleasant, sleep, fear, fatigue, and various kinds of 
enjojmcuts? 10. How do suffering, distress, evil, as well as success 
nnd opulence, exist in Purusha ? . . . . 12. Who assigned to him form,*" 
magnitude, name,*" motion, and consciousness, (13) and what god pot 
into liim the different vital airs? 14. What one god placed in him 
sacrifice, truth, and falsehood? Whence come death and immortality? 
1 '>. Who elulhcd him with a garment ? Who created his life ? Who g*vo 
him strength and speed? 16. Through whom did he spread out the 
water*, cause the day to shine, kindle the dawn, bring on the twilight? 
17. Who pi iced in him seed, that tho thread (of being) might be con- 
tinued ? Who imparted to him understanding ? .... 18. Through 
whom did he envelope the earth, surround (or transcend) the sky, 
aurpaea by his greatness tho mountains and oil created thing*? 24. 
By whom was this earth made, and the aky placed above ? By whom 
was this expanse of atmosphere raised aloft and stretched across ? 26. 
The earth was raude by Brahma, and Brahma is placed above as the 
sky. Brahma is the expanse of atmosphere, raised uloft and stretched 
across. 28. Purusha, who is on high, has pervaded all the regions 
which arc extended uloft and across (quoted with variations in Taitt. 
Ar. i. 27, 3, p. 168). Ho who knows tho city {pur) of Brahma from 
which I'urmha is named, (29) who knows that city of Brahma, invested 
with immortality; to him Bruhma aud Bruhmu'a sons have gives sight, 

•*> Here, as above noticed (p. 10R. note), we have the mm* sad ripm of ths 
Vedsa tists. Compare Tsitt. BcfiB. ii. -'. 7, 1 : Prajipatih prtyah MTV*" I '** 
fitAfah uunatKkjuhy*H (in p. 444 the word is printed MnuuVi'iayaa) | fa* r f ijSMya 
anupritiiat \ ItutnaJ vJinh "rZpath toi I'fjuynlir" >li | fu* M-n-i 'mtprvtiiti | 
ttuinad a/iur "nama mi PrajUjuttir" Hi \ "I'mjapata created hung being*. Tb«T> 
however, were in a shapeless state. lie entered into them with form, lit nee. man 
ssy ' Praj'ipsti i« form.' Hi ontrred into tbsm with nuine. Henos, men «»jr ' I*r»j«. 
pati in name' " Compare the same Urfiiimans, Hi. 10, 6, 1, sod iiL 14, 7, 6. Se« 
M. L»nglm»' note on tlio word noun in H.V. x. 73, 6, vol- ir. p. 4ft3 of bis 
lution of the Ri^-vcds. 



and breath, and progeny. 30. Neither sight nor breath abandons 
before [the term of natural] decoy the man who knows the city of 
Brahma, from which Puruaha is named. 31. Within that impregnable 
city of tho gods (compare puram d^tdudni amrilam hiramyam, A.V. v. 
28, II ; and Mahubharuta, xiv. 987 rT.), which has eight circles (com- 
pare A.V. ri. 4, 22) und nine gates, there exists a golden receptacle, 
celestial, invested with light. 32. Those acquainted with Brahma 
(divine science, or the Deity) know that living being which reside* in 
this golden receptacle with three spoke*, and triple supports.*" 33. 
Brahma has entered into tho impregnable gulden city, resplendent, 
bright, invested with renown." 

In the Satap. Br. xiii. 6, 1, 1 (see vol. iv. of this Work, p. 25), tho 
word Ifuriruou is coupled with Purushn, und it is said that this being 
desired to surpass all beings, and become himself tho entire universe, 
and that ha accotuji lulled his object by celebrating the Purutdiuaicdha 
sacrifice. Punish u Nuxiiytma is tignin mentioned in tho same firnh- 
msna (xii. 3, 4, 1) as receiving instruction from Projnpati : Puruthaik 
ha Narayanam Prajupatir uracka " yajtuca yaj'tna" iti | m Ad vratha 
"'ynjawa yajatra' Hi tj&va tvarn m<im 6ttha \ trir ayahhi | Vnarak 
prQtah-taraneno ayuh lluir&h mUd/iyandituna utanewt Adity'n tritiya- 
tarantxa atha mama yajna-ttlttc rva ynjna-tiiftiiv tut aJmm dsa " ifi | 
m ha urr'icha " yajatta rra | ahaih tai U lad rahhyfimi yatkfi U ukikuni 
manir iva iQlrt otdni bharufiyanti idtram iva rd manue " iti \ " Praja< 
pati said to Puruaha Karuyaija, ' Sacrifice, ncrifloo.' Ho replied, 
'Thou sayest to me, Sju -rificc, sacrifice. I have sacrificed thrice. By 
the morning oblation the Yasus came, by the mid-day oblation the 
Kudnu came, and by the third oblation the Adityas come to my place 
of sacrifice, where I was.' Prnjjputi rejoined, 'Sacrifice; I will till 
thee how thy hymns shall be strung like a gem on a thread, or as a 
thread in a gem.' '* 

•" Oae line of A.V. i. 8, 43 (quoted la th* next wnaeetum), If identical wita cat 
tine of thw itim, though lh« «tber tin* U dtUVroot. The wttol* rum tbu* : " Th* 
kaower* of brakma know toot living being which roidu in the lutu* with nine 
inimtnl with tho three qualitio* " (tribhir yuntbhir nrrifm). Roth, a.v- 
FOP, translate* the last three words by "triply enreloped," and refer* in aupport 
of thi* atoM to verm 21 sad 3x of th* hymn before tu. and to Chh IndV 

i vtfi. 1, 1. It i> poaaible, however, that ther* miy b* here * flrrt rateaace 
W th* three jtmu aitawartli *o ccktwatod is Indian philo»v**iicaJ aptcnlatioo. 



(7) Skambka and Brahma. 

In tho following hymn of the A.V. (x. 7) the Supreme 
appears to bo celebrated under the appellation of Skambha (or Bop- 
port)." 1 Though it is rather tedious, I shall translate it nearly in 
full, as these undent guesses after truth no doubt contain the germ of 
•omo of the later speculations on the samo topics. In the fast part 
(verses 1-6, 10-12) Skambha is considered (like Purusba, with whoa 
he teems to be identified, verse 15) as a vast embodied being, co- 
extensive with tho universe, and comprehending, in his several mem- 
bers, not only the different part* of the material world, but a raricty 
of abstract conceptions, such as uusterc fervour (iapot), faith, truth, 
and the divisions of time. Ho is distinct from, and superior to, Praja- 
pati, who founds the worlds upon him (Terses 7, 8, 17). The thirty- 
three gods are comprehended in him (verses 13, 22, and 27), and arose 
out of nonentity, which forms his highest member, and, as well as 
entity, is embraced within him (verses 10, 25). The gods who form 
port of him, as branches of a tree (verse 38), do him homage, aad 
bring him tribute (verse 39). He is identified with Indra (in 
29 and 30) ; and perhaps also with tho highest Brahma, who is 
tioncd in verses 32-3-1, 36, uud iu the first verso of tho next hymn, 
x. 8, I. In verse 36, however, this Brahma is represented aa being 
born (or, perhaps, developed) from toil end tapeti, whilst in x. 8, 1, tho 
attributes of tho Supremo Deity are assigned to him. In compositions 
of this age, however, we are not to expect very accurate or rigorous 
thinking, or perfect consistency : — 

1. Kcuminn ange tapo osy&dhi luhfkaii ktuninn angt fitam sty a sdky 
Cihitain | kva vralam ha iraddhu 'tya tithffuiti katminn nngt tatyam «*yu 
pratuJifhitam | 2. Katmid ungild dipgaU agnir asya ktutndd angdt 
pavatt malar idea | katmtld angdd vi mimlte 'dhi ehandram&h makak 
Slambhanja mimCuia angam | 3. Katminn angt luhlhali bhdmir wya 
kcuminn angt tithfhati antariMiam \ katminn angt tishfkati tiiifci dyauk 
huminn ange lukfhali uliarath ditah \ 4. Kca prepta* dipyaU fir/tea 
agnih ha preptan pavatt ntutanhd \ galra prepumlir abhi ganli dtritak 

*" This word occurs la R.V. viii. 41, 10 : n dkSm« fimytm mm yak iktn- 
bkma r» rodati aja na dyain adkarayat \ " lit formed the first abode, be who with s 
prop (jimmtia) held apart the two worlds, like the unburn." 



Skamlham tarn bruhi katamah niil era tab | 6. Eva ordhamdtdh kta 
yanti mdttih tatiieaUarena taha tamviddndh \ yatra yanti ritaeo yatra 
drtavdh Skambham tarn ArtfAi — | 6. Kta prtptantl yutall viritpr 
ahortltrt dratatah taihviddnt \ yatra preptantir abhiyanti upah Skam- 
bham — | 7. Tannin ttabdhrd Prajdpatir hkitn tarvdn adh&rayat | 
Skambham — | 8. Tat paramain aramam yach cha madhyamam Prajd- 
patih tasrijt viharnpam | kiyatd Skambhah pracivria tatra yam *a 
prdtriial kiyal tad bahhilva | 9. Kiyatd Skambhah pratrite&a bhdtam 
kiyad bhacithyad anu, diaye 'sga | tkam yad angam tahatradhd 
kiyatd Skambhah prariceia laira | 10. Yatra hkCmi cha koidmi cha apt 
brahma jandh vidvh | aiach cha yatra tachchdntah Skambham tarn brSki 
katamah it id tea tab J 11. Yatra tapah pardkramya tratam dhdrayaty 
uttartm | fitam tha yatra iraddhd cha dpo brahma tamJhitd Skambham 
— | 12. Tatmi'n bhdmir antariktham dyaur yatmium adhydhitd \ yat- 
rtignii thandramdh tdryo rata* tiththanti QrpitA Skambham — | 13. 
Yatya trayattrimiad dttdh amy* tartt tamdhitdh \ Skambham — | 14. 
Tatra fithayah pralhamajdk riehah ium yajur nuihl | ekarthir yatmium 
drpitah Skambham—] 15. Yalnlmrilam cha mrityui cha Purutht 'dhi 
tamihiU | iamudro yatya nddyah Purutha 'dhi tan&hita Skambham — | 
16. Tatya chatatrah pradiio nCdyat tiihfhamti prathamdh \ yajno yatra 
pardlrdntah Skambham — | 17. Tt Purutha Brahma vidut It viduh 
Paramt*h(kinam | yo ttda ParamethfhinaM yai cha ttda Prajupatim | 
fytttham y» bruhmanam vidut U Skambham anu tamciduh | 18. I 
tiro Vaiitunarai chakthur Angiraso 'bhacan | angSmi yatya Yitatak 
Skambham — | 19. Yatya brahma mukham Shur jtlmdm madhukaidm 
uta | virdjam udho yatyOhuh Skambham — | 20. Yatmdd ri<h« apdta- 
kthan yajur yatmdd apdkatkam | lumdni yatya hmdni atharvdngirato 
mukham | Skambham — I 21. Atachehhdkhum pratithfhamtlm paramam 
ivajamdh viduh | uU tan mamyatitt'tan yt U idkh&m up&taU | 22. 
TalrSditydi cha Jiudrdi cha Vatatai tha tamdhitdh | bhatam cha yatra 
bhacyam cha tawu Ukdh pratiththitdk | Skambham— \ 23. Tatya tra- 
yattrimtad dtrdh nidkiim ratthatUi tartadd \ nidhtm tarn adya ko ttda 
yam. dttdk abhirakthatha \ 24. Yatra deiSh brahmarido Brahma jy**k- 
fham updtatt | y» mi tdn eidySl pratyaktham ta brahma ceditd tyOl | 
25. Brihanio ndm* U dtrdh y* 'totah parijajnirt \ tkam tad anyam 
Skambkatya atad dhuh para januh | 2G. Yatra Skambhah pra/anayan 
purdmam tyatartayat \ tkam tad angam Skambkatya pur doom mm* 



tantrid*k | 27. Yaiya trayattrimiad d«tAk artge gStrd vi bhtjirt \ 
tan vat trayattrimiad dttAn eh brahmavido tidvh | 28. Iliramya- 
garbham paramam anatyudyap* j'anAk riduh \ Skambhat (ad agrt pru- 
tinrhtid hiramyam Uki antara | 29. Skambh* lokuh Skambh* fapah 
Skambhe 'dhy ritam ahilam \ Skambha U& t*da pratyaktham Indre 
tarcafh namAkitam | 30. Indre lokAh Indre tapah Indre 'dky ft Urn 
,i | Indram (Indra ?) U>S ttda pratyaktham Skambh* iimif 
praliihihitam | 31. NamnA mima johavUi pitrA sQryAt purotkatah | 
yad ajah prathamaHi tambabhata ta ha tat ttarAjyam iyaya yarmAn 
nani/at param atti bhutam | 32. Yatya bhumih prama anfanitham 
vtotlarcm \ divafn yai ehalrc mUrdhanaih tatmai jytthfhAya Brakmaa* 
tiamah | 33. Yatya Sdryai ehakthui chandramAi cha punmr navak { 
A'jnim yai chukre Atyam tatmai — | 31. Yatya tAiah pramapOnam 
chakehur A nyirato 'bhacan \ diio yai chakrc prajnAnU tatmai jyetfhAya 
Bn HjMgt namuh | 35. Skambho dadh&ra dyAiA-prithiti ubke ime Skam- 
Uw dadhura urv anlariktham \ Skambho dadhSra pradiiah thaf urrlk 
Skambhah idaih ciivam bhucanam A vivtia | 36. Yah iramtit tetpato jAlo 
lokutt aarv&n tamutiaie | Soman* yai chair* hralam taemai jyeehthAya 
Brahma nt namah | 37. Katham rifo ntlayali katham na ramatt manak | 
lin) njhili fitftm prtptantlr nrfayanti kadAekana | 38. ilahad yaktham 
lfiiitiiiui.ii/a madhye tapaii krGnlafh talilatya pri'hfhe \ taemin tr«y«*!t 
ye u Are cha dsiuh rrikuhatya ikttndhak paritah tea iakk&h | 39. Yatmai 
ha»lAbhynm pAdnbhyAm vOehil irolrena thakthiahO | yatmai dttAh tada 
balim prayachhanli timite 'mitam \ Skambhani tern brdhi katamah trid 
era ta \ 40. Apa tanya hatam tamo nyarrittnh ta pApmanA \ tert4mi 
tatmin jyotliiuhi ydni trlgi JPrqjApatau | 41. Yo retatam kiranii 
tithfhantafn talila ceda \ ta vui guhyah Prajupalih | 

"1. In what member of hi* does austere fervour stanil ? In 
which is the ceremonial contained? In what parts do religions ot 
scrvnnre and faith abide ? In what member is truth established ? 
From whst member does Apni blaze? From which docs M atari -si 
(the wind) blow ? From which does the moon pursue her course, 
traversing the mighty body of Ukamuha? 3. lu what member do« 
the earth reside? In which tho atmosphere? la which is the iky 
placed, and iu which the space above the sky ? 4. Whither tending, 
does the upward fire blnte ? Whither tending, does the wind blow? 
Tell who is that Skanibha to whom tho paths tend, and into whom 


' In 



they enter. 5. Whither tending, do the half-months and the months, 
In concert with the year, proceed ? Tdl who is that Skambha to 
whom the seasons and other divisions of the year advance. 6. Whither 
tending, do the two young females of diverse aspects, the dny ond tho 
night, hasten in unison? Tell who is that Skambhn to whom the 
waters tend and go ? 7. Who is that Skambha on whom Prajapati has 
supported and established all the world* ? 8. How far did Skambha 
penetrate into that highest, lowest, and middle universe, comprehend- 
ing all forms, which Prnj&pati created? And how much of it was 
there which ho did not penetrate? 9. How far did Skambha pene- 
trate into the past? and how much of the future is contained in hia 
receptacle? How for did Skambha penetrate into that one member 
which ho separated into a thousand parts ? 10. Tell who is that 
Skambhn iu whom men recognize tho worlds and receptacles, tho 
waters and divine thought [us existing], and withiu whom are non- 
entity and entity; (11) in whom austere fervour {tape*), energizing, 
maintains its highest action (rmh), in whom the ceremonial, faith, 
the waters, and divino science aro comprehended; (12) in whom 
earth, atmosphere, sky, fire, moon, sun, and wind are placed; (13) in 
whose body all the thirty-three gods are contained ;** (14) in whom 
the earliest Rishis, the Rik, the Saman, the Vajush, the earth, and the 
one Rishi reside; (15) that Purusha, in whom immortality and d< 
aro comprehended ; who has tho ocean within him as his veins; (16) 
that Skambha, of whom the four regions are the primeval arteries, and 
in whom sacrifice displays its energy. 17. They who know the divine 
essence (brahma) in Punisho, know Pararaeshthin. ,M Ho who knows 
Faramc-xlithin, and he who knows Prajapati — they who know the 
highest divine mystery {brahmana) m know in consequence Skambha. 
18. Tell who is that Skambha of whom Vaisvfinara (Agni) is the head, 
the Angirnsea tho eye, and the Yatus (demons) are the limbs ; (10) of 
whom they any divine knowledge {brahma) is tho mouth, the Madhu- 
kasa m the tongue, and tho Virej the ndder ; (20) from whom they 

* a &«c Or. H«ug'» Emciv on the iscttd Uuifruigo of tbe Pnnccs, p. 233. 

••* Soo af Pr»j«r*ii according to S'stap. Dr. si. 1. 6, 14, 1«; giro saerlflce to 
Prajapati, Taitt. S. i. 6. 9, 2. See Oomn. there, p. 914. 

»«* Sec verse* 20, 33, and 37 of A.V. x. 8, to be quoted below. 

*■* I am indebted to ProfoMcr Anfrrcht far so eipUrwtinn of thi* ward, sad «• 
indication of tvme fang** in wbicb it U mentioned. In It V. i. i"J, 9, una i. 167, 4, 



hewed off the Kik verses, and cut off the Yejos ; of whom the 
verses are the hairs, and the Athnrvangirasea (i.t. the Atharva-veda) 
the mouth.** 1 21. Men regard tho brooch of nonentity, 1 ** which w 
prominent, as if it were paramount; and inferior men, aa many aa 
worship thy branch, regard it aa an entity. 22. Tell who u» that 
Skiimbha in whom the Adityaa, Rudras, and Vn*u* are contained, on 
whom the pnst, tin- future, and all world* are supported; (23) whose 
treasure the thirty-three gods continually guard. Who now know* 
the treasure which ye guard, o gods ? 24. Where the gods, the 
knowcrs of sacred science (brakmd), worship the highest divine eaatnes 
(brahma) ; — the priest (brahtna) who knows these [goda] (ace to <**• 
Mill be a sage. 25. Mighty indeed are those gods who have sprung 
from nonentity- Mi-u m»y that that* nonentity is one, the highest, 
«f of Skambha (compare v. 10, above). 2G. Where Skambha 
generating, brought the Ancient {jutriina) into existence, they con- 
hi'l.i that that Ancient is ono member of Skambha, (27) in whose 
members the thirty- three goda found their several bodies. Borne 

the ifrfan am mid to have n hnnied whip, kmia nWAisaiarT, with which ihrj are ba» 
•ought to sprinkle tin- worshippers, or their sacrifioe. The Mantis are also saM, hi 
:. iiml i. las, 4, to tinro whip*, though they are not said to be koauad. 
In the Nif-lmritu, however, the; sonic of speech i« ascribed to Kuia ; and a mystical 
i ■! \* aito Hmijpml to the word rum/An, boner, which Dadbyanch is ax*!, 
Ii.V. 1.11ft, 12, and i. 1 17, 22, to bare made known to tho Ai'Tin*. This is expttuaoi 
shew, two passages ss meaning that he garo them a Br&hmsna inaal 
ing the M.Miliiniilyi ; imd lUhTdhara, on Taj B. 7. Il.njidcrstands the *•*■ aaarfi*- 
uiati us referring tu this mystic lore. This Mmlliukiu'l ii etlebrstad at — ■"" Mf 
length in A.V. iz. I, whera it is taid that she "sprang from th* sky. the btstb, ska 
sir, i In' wo, Gn.', and wind," and that "all orcaturta, worshipping b«r who dwells is 
immortality, rejoice in their bracts" (tfiru* ipVAirySA antariiiial mmttir U ayarr 
ral'ld trtnj/inkui'fj ri juj'u \ lam ehSyitrti amrittn rlWinSm hrtMhih pntjik a»«ri 
nai./iiiKli Amviih). In rent* 3, 10, she is said tt bt MM "hrilliuit iruut-daiujaStr 
of the Mitruts" [Marutam ufrn naptih), and in \ene 4, to be the "mother at th* 
Adityiu, tbt daughter of the Yaw, the life of crtatnraa, and tho wtra at isosaor- 
tality ' tigonom d*h>ta Vtuunam pratyh prtjanam amntuty* notl 

•*' Compare A.V. ix. 6, 1 ; '"He who clearly knows Brahma, of whom the mate- 
rials of sacrifice nro tho joints, the Rik-rersa are the backbone, the Siara-Teraea Ik* 
hair*, the Yajus is said to be the heart, and the oblation the eowring ** (■* •ia>aV 
Brahma pariiSuhi j/atyt minlhnralf riehe yasya tuiiiyam | aissoW pssya Uiu 
MS/sV IfsstSSM ;>art«t«waR*ai *d A.iuA\. 

*•* Tlie sense of this rone i» obscure, and it does not serai to be vary closely sas> 
nested either with what prucedta or with what follows. I bar* adopted 
I SWISS, lug rtigjjraltd by fro feasor Aufrtcht, 



possessors of sacred knowledge know those thirty-three gods. 28. 
Men know Hiranyagarbha "• to be aupremo and ineffable. Skambha 
in the beginning shed forth that gold (hiranya, ont of which Hiranja- 
garbha arose) in the midst of tho world. '29. In Skambha are con- 
tained the worlds, austere fervour, and the ceremonial Skambha, I 
clearly know thee to be contained entire in Inilra. 30. In Indra are 
contained the worlds, austere fervour, and the ceremonial. Indra, 
I clearly know thee to be coutaiued entire in 8kamhha. 31. (The 
worshipper) repeatedly invokes the [god who beam the one] name by 
the name [of the other god j before the sun, before the dawn." 10 When 
the Unborn first sprang into being, he attained to that independent 
dominion, than that which nothing higher has ever been. 32. Bcvo- 
rence be to that greatest Brahma, of whom the earth is tho basis, the 
atmosphere the belly, who made tho sky his head, (33) of whom tho 
sun and fta fPH r.newed moon are the oyc; who made Agni hia 
month, (34) of whom the wind formed two of the vital aire, and the 
Angirases the eye, who made the regions hia organs of sense.'" 35. 
Skambha established both those [worlds], earth and sky, tho wide 
atmosphere, and the six vast regions ; Skambha pervaded this entire 
universe. 86. Reverence to that greatest Brahma who, bom from 
toil and austere fervour (tcjnu), penetrated all the worlds, who made 
soma for himself alone.* 7 * 37. How ia it that the wind does not 
rest ? How is not the soul quiescent P Why do not the waters, 
seeking after truth, ever repose? 38. The great being [is] absorbed 
in austere fervour in tho midst of tho world, on the surface of the 
waters. To him all the gods are joined, as tho branches around the 
trunk of a tree. 39. Say who is that Skambha to whom the gods, 
vith hands, feet, voice, ear, eye, present continually an unlimited 
tribute."* 40. Bv him darkness is dispelled ; be is free from evil ; in 
him are all the three luminaries which reside in Prsjapati. 41. He 

•«» See above, p. 3&6. 

•'• Tho moaning of this, at suggested by Professor Aufrrcht, U, that by invoking 
Imlre, the worshipper really worships Sksmbha. 

»" Compare Bobtlingk and Roth's Lexicon, vol. v. p, 1616, «.r. prrfnamm, 

'" Such Is the sense according to Roth, Bit, An «/«. 

»* Compare A.V. x. 8. 16 "the groat being in Ike midst of the world : to 

him the rulers of realms brisg tribal* " (mW yaAsim 6*w*aM*ys mmdAff ttumti 
balim ritAftaiAfito AAtr&nti). 



who knows tho golden reed standing in the waters is the mystcriom 
TrajapatL"" 1 

I have been favoured with tho following noto on the subject of A V 
x. 7, by Professor Uold&tiicker, whom I consulted as to tho sense of 
verse 21 and the idea conveyed by the wurd Skumbhe, which forms the 
subject of the hymn :— 

" The sense of alambha is, in my opinion, the same as that given in 
your Original Sanskrit Texts, vol. iv. pp. 17, 18 — akambh and ttatabk 
- iuipIv jmi dstii varieties of the same dhntu — and alamhha, 
tli'.rufore, tho sumo as ttambha. It is the 'tuLamm,' and in the 
Atharva-vedn hymns, x. 7 and 8, seems to mean the fulcrum of the 
whole world, in all its physical, religious, and other aspects. The 
object of the hvmn being to inquire what this fulcrum U, from the 
answer given to the various questions it seems to follow that it is there 
imagined to bo the primitive deity, or tho primitive Veda, tho w 
brahman in tho neuter implying both. From this^nVmlrcv Veda, nut 
vi -illy but really (sal) existing, not only all the gods, worlds, relip-: 
rites, etc. (verses 1, 2 IT., 19 ff.) were derived, but also tho 
threo Vi-das (v. II) and the Athurvan were 'fashioned' (verse 20). 
This ukambha is, therefore, also jy&ahfkam brahma (verses 21, 32, 33, 
34, 36, — 8, 1), and it has a corresponding prwcvuljy^f ban brdhmsytm 
(verse 17). lienor, while he who knows the (existing) Veda, has also 
a knowledge of Brahma, — he who known Ilmhmfi and also Prajapati, 
U'-nce) powtsett u knowledge of the premval Brahman.* portion 
(of the preoeval Veda), may infer (anu) from such knowledge a know* 
ledge of tho Skambha or that of the pre»val Veda itself (verse 17). 
This preseval Veda is the 'treasure' which is kept by tho gods only 
(verse 23) ; hence, the Athorva-voda priest (brahmii), who hoa a know- 
ledge of those god-guardians of the prerevol Veda, has the knowledge 
(or, ho who htis such a knowledge, is a (true) Athurra-vcdn priest, 
verse 24). From this, then, it would likewise follow that tho existing 

•M In the R.V. x. 95, 4, 5 (compare Niruktt, iii. 21), and Satap. Br. xi. ft, 1. 1, 
tlin won! anftm his tho leiuo of mtmbrvm t