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A$ HmJU,, I rn 













J. MIJIB, D.C.L., IiL.D. 







^Att righia r$9irved,J 

Na Viieiho ^stt varndnam sarvam hrdhnunn idaih jagat \ 
JBrahmand purv(h8jr%ahta0i hi iarmabhir varnatdih gatam \ 


*^ There is no distinction of castes. This world, which, 
as created by Br&hma, was at first entirely Brahmanicy 
has become divided into classes in consequence of men's 
works/'"See pages 138 and 140. 



Thb main object wluch I have proposed to myself in 
this Yolume is to collect, translate, and illustrate the 
principal passages in the different Indian books of the 
greatest antiquity, as well as in others of comparatively 
modem composition, which describe the creation of man- 
kind and the origin of classes, or which tend to throw 
Ught upon the manner in which the oaste system may 
have arisen. 

I have not, however, hesitated to admit, when they 
fell in my way, such passages explanatory of the cosmo- 
gonic or mythological conceptions of the Indians as 
possess a general interest, although not immediately con- 
nected with the chief subject of the book. 

Since the first edition appeared my materials have so 
much increased that the volume has now swelled to 
more than twice its original bulk. The second and 
third chapters are almost entirely new.' The fourteenth 
and fifteenth sections of the fourth chapter are entirely 
80. Even those parts of the book of which the sub- 

1 The contents of these chapters are not, however, absolutely new, but 
drawn from articles which I have contributed to the Journal of the Royal 
Asiatic Society since the first edition of the volume appeared. 


stance remains the same have been so generally expanded 
that comparatively little continues without some altera- 
tion of greater or less importance. 

In order that the reader may leam at once what ho 
may expect to find in the following pages, I shall supply 
here a fuller and more connected summary of their con- 
tents than is furnished by the table which follows this 

The Introduction (pp. 1-6) contains a very rapid sur- 
vey of the sources from which our information on the 
subject of caste is to be derived, viz. the Vedic hymns, 
the Brahmanas, the Epic poems, and the Furanas, in 
which the chronological order and the general charac- 
teristics of these works are stated. 

The first chapter (pp. 1-1 60) comprehends the myth- 
ical accounts of the creation of man and of the origin 
of castes which are to be found in the Vedic hymns, in 
the Brahmanas and their appendages, in the Bamayana, 
the Mahabharata, and the Furanas. The first section 
(pp. 7-15) contains a translation of the celebrated hymn 
called Furusha Siikta, which appears to be the oldest 
extant authority for attributing a separate origin to the 
four castes, and a discussion of the question whether the 
creation there described was intended by its author to 
convey a literal or an allegorical sense. The second, 
third, and fourth sections (pp. 15-34) adduce a series of 
passages from the works standing next in chronological 
order to the hymns of the Eig-veda, which differ more 
or less widely from the account of the creation given in 
the Furusha Sukta, and therefore justify the conclusion 


that in the Yedic age im> tinifonn orthodox and authori- 
tatiye doctrine existed in regard to the origin of castes. 
In the fifth section (pp. 35-42) the different passages in 
Manu's Institutes which bear npon the subject are 
quoted, and shewn to be not altogether in harmony with 
each other. The sixth section (pp. 43-49) describes the 
system of great mundane periods called Tugas^ Man- 
vantaras, and Kalpas, as explained in the Puranas, and 
shews that no traces of these periods are to be found in 
the hymns of the Big-yeda, and but few in the Brah- 
manas (compare p. 215 f.). Sections seyenth and eighth 
(pp. 49-107) contain the accounts of the different crea- 
tionSj including that of the castes, and of the primeyal 
state of mankind, which are giyen in the Vishnu, Vayu, 
and Markandeya Puranas, together with references (see 
pp. 52 ff., 68 ff.) to passages in the Brahm^ias, which ap- 
pear to haye furnished some of the germs of the yarious 
Furanic representations, and a comparison of the details 
of the latter with each other which proyes that in somo 
respects they are mutually irreconcileable (see pp. 65 ff., 
102 ff.). The ninth section (pp. 107-114) adduces the 
accounts of Brahma's passion for his daughter, which 
are giyen in the Aitareya Brahmana and the Matsya 
Purana. In the tenth section (pp. 114-122) are embraced 
such notices connected with the subject of this yolume as 
I haye obseryed in the Eamayana. In one of the passages 
men of all the four castes are said to be the offspring of 
Manu, a female, the daughter of Daksha, and wife of 
Kasyapa. The eleyenth section contains a collection of 
texts from the Mahabharata and its appendage the Hari- 


YamSa, in whicli Tarious and discrepant explanations are 
given of the existing diversity of castes, one of them 
representing all the fonr classes as descendants of Mann 
Yaiyasvata (p. 126), others attributing the distinction of 
classes to an original and separate creation of each, which, 
however, is not flwa js described as occurring in the same 
manner (pp. 128 fL and 153); whilst others, again, more 
reasonably, declare the distinction to have arisen out of 
differences of character and action. This section, as 
well as the one which precedes it, also embraces accounts 
of the perfection which prevailed in the first yugas, and 
of the gradually increasing degeneracy which ensued in 
those that followed. The twelfth section (pp. 155-158) 
contains extracts from the Bhagavata Furana, which 
coincide for the most part with those drawn from the 
other authorities. One text, however, describes mankind 
as the offspring of Aryaman and Matrika ; and another 
distinctly declares that there was originally but one caste. 
The thirteenth section (pp. 159 1) sums up the results of 
the entire chapter, and asserts the conclusion that the 
sacred books of the Hindus contain no uniform or con^ 
sistent theory of the origin of caste ; but, on the con- 
trary, offer a great variety of explanations, mythical, 
mystical, and rationalistic, to account for this social phe- 

The second chapter (pp. 160-238) treats of the tra- 
dition of the descent of the Indian nation from Manu. 
The first section (pp. 162-181) contains a series of texts 
from the Big-veda, which speak of Manu as the pro- 
genitor of the race to which the authors of the hymns 


belonged, and as the first institutor of religious rites ; 
and adverts to certain terms employed in the hymns, 
either to denote mankind in general or to signify certain 
tribal divisions. The second section (pp. 181-196) ad* 
duces a number of legends and notices regarding Manu 
from the Brahmanas and other works next in order of 
antiquity to the hymns of the Eig-veda. The most in- 
teresting and important of these legends is that of the 
deluge, as given in the Satapatha Brahmana, which is 
afterwards (pp, 216 ff.) compared with the later versions 
of the same story found in the Mahabharata and the 
Matsya, Bhagavata and Agni Furanas, which are ex- 
tracted in the third section (pp. 196-220). Some re- 
marks of M. Bumouf and Professor Weber, on the 
question whether the legend of a deluge was indigenous 
in India, or derived- from a Semitic source, are noticed 
in pp. 215 f. The fourth section adduces the legendary 
accounts of the rise of castes among the descendants of 
Manu and Atri, which are found in the Puranas ; and 
quotes a story given in the Mahabharata about king 
Yii^lhavya, a Eshattriya, being transformed into a Brah- 
man by the mere word of the sage Bhrigu. 

In the third chapter (pp. 239-295) I have endeavoured 
to shew what light is thrown by a study of the hymns of 
the Big- and Atharva-vedas upon the mutual relations of 
the different classes of Indian society at the time when 
those hymns were composed. In the first section (pp. 
240-265) the various texts of the Big-veda i|i which the 
words brahman and brahmana occur are cited, and an 
attempt is made to determine the senses in which those 


words are there employed. The result of tins examina- 
tion is that in none of the hymns of the Eig-yeda, except 
the Furusha Sukta, is there any distinct reference to a 
recognized system of four castes, although the occasional 
use of the word Brahmana, which is apparently equi- 
valent to Br£hma-putra, or ^^ the son of a priest^" and 
other indications seem to justify the conclusion that the 
priesthood had already become a profession, although it 
did not yet form an exdusiye caste (see pp. 258 f., 263 ff.). 
The second section (pp. 265-280) is made up of quota- 
tions from the hymns of the Big-yeda and yarious other 
later works, adduced to shew that persons who according 
to ancient Indian tradition were not of priestly families 
were in many instances reputed to be authors of Vedic 
hymns, and in two oases, at least, are eyen said to haye 
exercised priestly functions. These two cases are those 
(1) of Deyapi (pp. 269ff.), and (2) of Visyamitra, which is 
afterwards treated at great length in the fourth chapter. 
This section concludes with a passage from the Matsya 
Purana, which not only speaks of the Kshattriyas Manu, 
Ida, and Pururayas, as "utterers of Yedic hymns" 
(mantra-vadinah) ; but also names three Yaisyas, Bha- 
landa, Yandya, and Bankirtti, as " composers of hymns " 
(mantra'Icrttah). The third section (pp. 280-289) shews 
by quotations from the Atharya-yeda that at the period 
when those portions of that collection which are later 
than the greater part of the Big-yeda were composed, 
the pretensions of the Brahmans had been considerably 
deyeloped. The fourth section (pp. 289-295) giyes 
an account of the opinions expressed by Professor 


R Both and Dr. M. Hang regarding the origin of 

The fourth chapter (pp. 296-479) contains a series of 
legendary illustrations deriyed from the Bamayana, the 
Mahabharata, and the Furanas, of the struggle which 
appears to have occurred in the early ages of Indian 
history between the Brahmans and the Kshattriyas, after 
the former had begun to constitute an exclusive sacerdotal 
clasSy but before their rights had become accurately defined 
by long prescription, and when the members of the ruling 
caste were still indisposed to admit their pretensions. 
I need not here state in detail the contents of the first 
five sections (pp, 296-317) which record various legends 
descriptive of the ruin which is said to have overtaken 
different princes by whom the Brahmans were slighted 
and their claims resisted. The sixth and following 
sections down to the thirteenth (pp. 317-426) contain, 
first, such references to the two renowned rivals, Va- 
sishtha and YiiSvamitra as are found in the hymns of 
the Big-veda, and which represent them both as Yedic 
rishis ; secondly, such notices of them as occur in the 
Brahmanas, and shew that Yi^vamitra, as well as Ya- 
sishtha, had officiated as a priest; and, thirdly, a series 
of legends from the Bamayana and Mahabharata which 
describe the repeated struggles for superiority in which 
they were engaged, and attempt, by a variety of 
fictions, involving miraculous elements, to explain the 
manner in which YiiSvamitra became a Brahman, and 
to account for the fSEU)t which was so distinctly cer- 
tified by tradition (see pp. 361 ff.), but appeared so un- 


accountable in later ages (see pp. 265 f., 364ff.), that that 
famous personage, although notoriously a Kshattriya by 
birth, had nevertheless exercised sacerdotal functions.* 
The fourteenth section (pp. 426-430) contains a story 
from the Satapatha Brahmana about king Janaka, a Ra- 
janya, renowned for his stoical temperament and religious 
knowledge, who communicated theological instruction to 

s As I have omitted in the body of the work to say anything of the views 
of Signor Angelo de Oubematis about the purport of the Vedic texts 
relating to Vasishtha and Visv&mitra, I may state here that this young 
Italian Sanskritist, in his Essay, entitled ** Fonti Vediche dell' Epopea " 
(see the Eivista Orientale, vol. L pp. 409 ff., 478 C), combats the opinion 
of Professor Roth that these passages refer to two historical personages, 
and to real events in which they played a part ; and objects that Roth 
'* took no account of the possibility that a legend of the heavens may have 
been based upon a human foundation " (p. 409). Signor de Gubematis 
further observes that the 33rd and 53rd hymns of the third Mandala of the 
Rig-veda *^ may perhaps have been recited at a later period in connection 
with some battle which really occured, but that the fact which they cele- 
brate seems to be much more ancient, and to be lost in a very remote 
myth " (p. 410). Visv&mitra, he considers, is one of the api)ellations of 
the sun, and as both the person who bears this name, and Indra are the 
sons of Eusika, they must be brothers (p. 412. See, however, the remarks 
in p. 347 f. of this volume on the epithet Kausika as applied to Indra). 
Sudfis, according to Signor de Oubematis (p. 413), denotes the horse of the 
sun, or the sun himself^ while Vasiahtha is the greatest of the Vasus, and 
denotes Agni, the solar fire, and means, like Visv&mitra, the sim (p. 483). 
Signor de Gubematis is further of opinion (pp. 414, 478, 479, and 483) that 
both the 33rd and 53rd hymns of the third, and the 18th hymn of the 
seventh Mandala are comparatively modem ; that the names of Eus'ikas 
and Vis vftmitras claimed by the authors of the two former, are fraudu- 
lently assumed ; while the last (the 18th hymn of the seventh Mandala) was 
composed by a sacerdotal &mily who claimed Vasishtha as its founder. 
I will only remark that the theory of Signor de Gubematis appears to me 
to be an improbable one. But the only point of much importance for my 
own special purpose is that ancient Indian tradition represents both 
Yasish^ha and Vis'v&mitra as real personages, the one of either directly 
divine, or of sacerdotal descent, and the other of royal lineage. They 
may, however, have been nothing more than legendary creations, the 
fictitious eponymi of the families which bore the same name. 


some eminent Brahmans, and became a member of their 
class. In the fifteenth section (pp. 431-436) two other 
instances are adduced from the same Brahmana and from 
two of the Upanishads, of Kshattriyas who were in pos- 
session of truths imknown to the Brahmans, and who, 
contrary to the usual rule, became the teachers of the 
latter. The sixteenth section (pp. 436-440) contains an 
extract from the Aitareya Brahmana regarding king 
YiSvantara who, after at first attempting to prevent 
the Syaparna Brahman s from officiating at his sacrificCi 
became at length convinced by one of their number of 
their superior knowledge^ and accepted their services. 
In the seventeenth section (pp. 440-442) a story is told 
of Matanga, the spurious offspring of a Brahman woman 
by a man of inferior caste, who failed, in spite of his 
severe and protracted austerities, to elevate himself (ad 
YiSvamitra had done) to the rank of a Brahmau. The 
eighteentji section (pp. 442-479) contains a series of 
legends, chiefly from the Mahabharata, regarding the 
repeated exterminations of the Xshattriyas by the war- 
like Brahman Farasurama of the race of Bhrigu, and 
the ultimate restoration of the warrior tribe, and a 
variety of extravagant illustrations of the supernatural 
power of the Brahmans, related by the god Vayu to 
king Aijuna, who began by denying the superiority of 
the priests, but was at length compelled to succumb 
to the overwhelming evidence adduced by his aerial 

In the fifth chapter (pp. 480-488) I have given some 
account of the opinions entertained by Manu, and the 


authors of the MahabhSrata and the Furanas, legarding 
the origin of the tribes dwelling within, or adjacent to, 
the boundaries of Hindustan, but not comprehended in 
the Indian caste-system. 

The sixth aud concluding chapter (pp. 489-504) con- 
tains the Furanic accounts of the parts of the earth ex- 
terior to Bharatavarsha, or India, embracing first, the 
other eight Varshas or divisions of Jambudvipa, the cen- 
tral continent ; secondly, the circular seas and continents 
(dvipas) by which Jambudvipa is surrounded; and, 
thirdly, the remoter portions of the mundane system. 

The Appendix (pp. 505-515) contains some supple- 
mentary notes. 

As in the previous edition, I have been careful to 
acknowledge in the text and notes of this volume the 
assistance which I have derived from the writings of the 
different Sanskrit Scholars who have treated ot the same 
subjects. It will, however, be well to specify here the 
various publications to which I have been indebted for 
materials. In 1858, 1 wrote thus : ^^ It will be seen at 
once that my greatest obligations are due to Professor 
H. H. Wilson, whose translation of the Vishnu Purana, 
with abundant and valuable notes, derived chiefly from 
the other Puranas, was almost indispensable to the suc- 
cessful completion of such an attempt as the present." 
In this second edition also I have had constant occasion 
to recur to Wilson's important work, now improved and 
enriched by the additional notes of the editor Dr. Fitz- 
edward Hall. It is to his edition, so far as it has yet ap- 


peared, that my references have been made. I acknow* 
ledged at the same time the aid which I had received 
fix)m M. Langlois' French translation of the Hariyam&^ 
and from M. BnmouTs French translation of the first 
nine books of the Bhagavata Furana, which opened up 
an easy access to the contents of the original works. A 
large amount of materials has also been supplied to me^ 
either formerly or for the preparation of the present 
edition, by Mr. Colebrooke's Miscellaneous Essays ; by 
Professor C. Lassen's Indian Antiquities; Professor 
Budolph Both's Dissertations on the Literature and 
History of the Vedas, and contributions to the Journal of 
the German Oriental Society, and to Weber's Indische 
Studien, etc. ; Professor Weber's numerous articles in 
the same Journals, and his BQstory of Indian Literature ; 
Professor Max Miiller's History of Ancient Sanskrit 
Literature, Chips from a German Workshop, article on 
the Funeral rites of the Brahmans, etc. ; Professor 
Benfey's Glossary of the Sama Yeda, and translations 
of Vedic hymns; Dr. Haug's text and translation of 
the Aitareya Brahmana: while much valuable aid has 
been derived from the written communications with 
which I have been favoured by Professor Aufrecht, 
as well as from his Catalogue of the Bodleian Sanskrit 
MSS. I am also indebted to Professor Miiller for point- 
ing out two texts which will be found in the Appendix, 
and to Professor Goldstiicker for copying for me two 
passages of Kumarila Bhatta's Mimansa-varttika, which 
are printed in the same place, and for making some 
corrections in my translations of them. 


I formerly ol)senred that at the same time my own 
lesearches had ^^ enabled me to collect a good many 
texts which I had not found elsewhere adduced ; " and 
the same remark applies to a considerable portion of 
the new matter which has been adduced in the present 



v.— xtL PRKFACK 

1 — 6. INTEODTTCTION, oovtaistsq a PBsiiiairABT subtet ov 


7 — 160. CHAPTEB I.— Mtthigal aoooithts of thv creatiov of 


7 — 15. SxcT. I. l^inetieth hymn of the tenth Book of the Eig- 

Teda Sanhitiy called Pnrnsha-Sukta, or the hymn to 

15— 16. Sect. IL Quotation from the TaittiiTya Sanhita, viL 1, 

1, 4ff: 
17 — 22. Sect. IU. GitationB from flie Sktapatha Brahmana, the 

TaitUilya Biahmagay the Yiyaaaneyi Sanhiti, and the 


22 — 34. Sect. IY. Farther qnotationa frrom the Taittiiiya Brah- 
mana, Sanhitd, and Ara^yaka, and from the Sbtapatha 

35^ 42. Sect. Y. Mann's acoomit of the origin of castes. 

43 — 49. Sect. YI. Account of the system of yngas, manvantaras, 
and kalpasy according to the Yishnn Fnrana and other 

49 — 73. Sect. VJl. Account of the different creations, including 
that of the castes, according to the Yish^u PuraQa, with 
some passages from the Brahma^aSy containing the germs 
of the Furanic statements. 

74 — 107. Sect. Ym. Account of the different creations, including 
that of the castesi according to the Yayu and Markan^eya 



107 — 114. Sect. IX. Legend of Brahma and his daughter, according 

to the Aitareya Brahmaea, and of Sbtarupa, according to 

the Matsya Purana. 
114 — 122. Sect. X. Quotations from the Edmayana on the creation, 

and on the origin of castes. 
122 — 155. Sect. XI. Quotations from the Mahabharata and Hari- 

Tam^a on the same subjects, and on the four 3niga8. 

155 — 158. Sect. XII. Citations frxmi the Bbagavata Purana on the 

creation and on the origin of castes. 
159-*160. Sect. XIII. Eesults of this chapter. 

161—238. CHAPTER 11. — TKAnrnoir of the descent op the 
Indian baoe fbom Manu. 

162 — 181. Sect. I. On Manu as the progenitor of the Aryan Indians 
and the institutor of religious rites, according to the 
hymns of the Big-veda 

181-^196. Sect. II. Legend of Manu and the deluge from the S'ata- 
patha Brahmana, and other notices regarding Manu frx)m 
the Sisitapatha, Aitareya, and Taittiilya BriUimanas, the 
TaittirTya Sanhita, and the Chandogya Upanishad. 

196 — 220. Sect. III. Extracts fr^m the Mahabh&rata and the Matsya, 
Bhagavata, and Agni Puranas regarding Manu, and the 
deluge; and comparison of the Torsions of this legend 
adduced in this and the preceding section. 

220 — 238. Sect. IY. Legendary accounts of the origin of castes 
among the descendants of Manu and Atri, according to 
the Puranas. 

239 — 295. CHAPTEE III Ok tke xuttjal belatiqns of the 

diffebent classes of Indian societt, accobdino to the 


240 — 265. Sect. I. On the signification of the words brilhm&n and 
brihmana, etc., in the Big-veda. 

265—280. Sect. II. Quotations from the Big-veda, the Nirukta, the 
Mahabharata and other works, to show that according to 
ancient Indian tradition persons not of priestly families 
were authors of Yedio hymns, and exercised priestly 

280 — 289. Sect. III. Texts frx>m the Atharva-veda, illustrating the 
progress of Brahmanical pretensions. 

289—295. Sect. IV. Opinions of Professor B. Both and Dr. M. Haug 
regarding the origin of caste among the BGinduB. 

296 — 400. CHAPTER lY.— Eablt ocnmsn Birwnar thb Bbah- 


296 — 298. 8bct. I. Mana's sammaiy of refractory and sabmianya 

298 — 306. SiCT. n. Legend of Yena. 

306—807. SiCT. m. Legend of PururaTaa. 

307—315. Sect. IY. Story of Kahoaha. 

316—317. Sbct. Y. Story of NimL 

317 — 337. Ssci. YI. Yaaiflhtha, according to the Big-veda and later 

337 — 371. Sbct. VJl. Yi^Tamitra, according to the Big-veda, Aita- 
reya Brahmana and later anthoritiea ; earlier and later 
rdations of priestly familiea and the other classes. 

371 — 375. Sect. YILi. Do the details in the last two sections enable 
us to decide in what relation Yasiahtha and YiiTamitra 
stood to each other as priests of Sodas ? 

375^378. Sbct. YIU. Story of Tiitoiko. 

379 — 388. Sbct. DL Legend of Hariichandra. 

388 — 397. Sbct. X. Contest of Ya^ish^ha and YiiYamitra, and en- 
trance of the latter into the Brahman caste, according to 
the Mahabharata. 

397—411. Sbct. XI. The same legend, and thoae of Triiankn, apd 
Ambaiisha, according to the Bamayana, with a farther 
story abont Yi^yamitra from the Mah&bh&rata. 

411-^14. Sbct. XII. Other accounts from the Mahabharata of the 
way in which Yiivamitra became a Brahman. 

414 — 426. Sect. XUL Legend of Sandasa, and further story of the 
rivalry of YaAiahtha and Yiivamitray according to the 
Mahabharata, with an extract from the Baja Taranginl. 

426—430. Sect. XIY. Story from the Sktapatha Brahmana about 

king Janaka becoming a Brahman, with extracts from the 

Mahabharata about the same prince. 
431 — 436. Sect. XY. Other instances in which Brahmana are said 

to haye been instructed in divine knowledge by Eahat- 

436—440. Sect. XYI. Story of king Yiivantara and the Sy&pama 

440 — 442. Sect. XYIL Story of Matanga, who tried in vain to raise 
himself to the position of a Brahman. 


442—479. Sect. XViU. Legend of flie Brahman Para^arama, the 
eztenninator of the Kshafctriyas, according to the Maha- 
bharata and the BhSgavata Parana, with a series of nar- 
ratives firom the former work illostrating the superhuman 
power of the Brahmans. 

480^488. CHAPTER Y. Euatiov of the Brahkaitical Indians 


MahIbhIratAi ajstd the Pubakas. 
489 — 504. CTTAPTEB YI. Pubanic ACcoiTirrs of the fabts of the 


505—516. AFFEzmiXy covtainihg sufflementabt kotes. 
617—532. IiTDEX. 


„ 42, 


» 46, 


n «. 


» «1. 





,. 127, 


„ 136, 


„ 169, 




.. 171. 


„ 180, 








i» — 




„ 261, 




„ 274, 


„ 280, 


„ 307, 


„ 308, 


„ 318, 


„ 371, 


„ 399, 


„ 487, 





Page 23, line 19, for "beiogy ellow " rtad << being yeUow.** 
„ 38, „ 17 ff., /or" 69-64 "warf" 68-63." 

4 fixim foot, /or "p. 86 " read ''p. 37." 
26, /w "p. 42 " read " p. 43." 
8, Jmr " 12,826 " rmd ** iii 826." 

17, fir « Pnnuhottaana " read ** Fnnuhottama.'* 

19, fir** tc" read** tu:' 
18 f., /or "the two by which these three are followed," read ** two of 

those which follow, m. in pp. 134 and 139.' 

18, fir ** 116" read ** 11 and 12." 
26, fir ** T^yaawat " read ** T^Taayat.* 
28 and 33, fir ** M&taritfwan " read Mfitaris'fan.' 
26, fir ** As'wins " read ** Aiyini." 
28, before ** Jh^apatir " uuert **u. 33.' 

6, fir ** ma hhe^ " read ** ma abhqfa," 

20, before ** Priehadhrae** irnert "It. 1, 12." 

7, fir ** ix. 2"read**iz.2, 16." 

13, before ** Nabhago " ineert ** ir. 1, 14." 
19, /or «*iT."rw<?"ix." 
27, /or "8" r«irf" 2." 

3 from the foot, fir ** viiL" read ** rii.'* 

8, fifr ** miipat " read ** DOtpatr 

14, fir ** was" read ** were." 
10, fifr •*9wal" read **virqfr 
24, before ** Nahwho " ineert ** 12460." 

4, fir ** 139 f." read ** 161 f." 
12, firr ** TiL" read " Tii«." 
18, for ** 68, 18" read " 56, 18." 

2, for ** tfaei rdesertion " read ** their desertion." 





I PBOFOSB in the present Tolnme to giye some acconnt of the tra- 
ditionSy legends, and mythical nanatiTes which the different classes 
of ancient Indian writings contain regarding the origin of mankind, 
and the classes or castes into which the Hindus have long been dis- 
tributed. In order to ascertain whether the opinions which have 
prevailed in India on these subjects have continued fixed and uniform 
from the earliest period, or whether they have varied from age to age, 
and if so, what modifications they have undergone, it is necessary 
that we should first of all determine the chronological order of the 
various works from which our information is to be drawn. This task 
of classification can, as fEur as regards its great outlines, be easily ac- 
complished. Although we cannot discover sufficient grounds for fixing 
with any precision the dates of these different books, we are perfectly 
able to settle the order in which the most important of those which 
are to form the basis of this investigation were composed. From a 
comparison of these several literary records, it will be found that the 
Hindus, like all other civilized nations, have passed through various 
stages of devebpmenty-HBocial, moral, religious, and intellectual. The 
ideas and beliefa which are exhibited in their oldest documents, are 
not the same as those which we encounter in their later writings. 



The principal books to which we must look for informatioii on the 
mibjects of our enquiry are the Yedas, including the Brahmanas and 
Upanishadsi the Sutras, the Institutes of Manu, and the Itihasas and 
Furanas. Of these different classes of works, the Yedas are allowed 
by all competent enquirers to be by far the most ancient. 

There are, as every student of Indian literature is aware, four 
Yedas, — ^the Rig-yeda, the Sama-yeda, the Yajur-veda, and the Atharva- 
Teda. Each of the collections of works known as a Yeda consists of 
two parts, which are called its mantra and its hr&hmana} The Man- 
tras are cither metrical hymns, or prose forms of prayer. The £ig- 
Teda and the Samaveda consist only of mantras of the former descrip- 
tion. The Brahmanas contain regulations regarding the employment 
of the mantras, and the celebration of the various rites of sacrifice, 
and also embrace certain treatises called Aranyakas, and others called 
XJpanishads or Ycdantas (so called from their being the concluding 
portions of each Yeda), which expound the mystical sense of some of 
the ceremonies, and discuss the nature of the godhead, and the means 
of acquiring religious knowledge with a view to final liberation. 

The part of each Yeda which contains the mantras, or hymns, is 
called its Sanhita.' Thus the Big-veda SanhitS means the collection of 
liymns belonging to the Big-veda. Of the four collections of hymns, 
that belonging to the last-mentioned Yeda, which contains no less than 
1,017 of these compositions, is by far the most important for historical 
purposes. Next in value must be reckoned those hymns of the Atharva- 
veda, which are peculiar to that collection, another portion of which, 
however, is borrowed, in most cases, verbatim, firom the Big-veda.' 

^ Sayai^ says in his commentary on the Eigveda (yoL p. L p. 4) : Mantra-hrah 
manJatmakam tavad adushfam lak»hanam \ ata eva Apcutambo yqfna-paribhaahayam 
fipaha * mantra^hrahmanayor vecUt-namadheyanC \ *< The definition (of the Yeda) as a 
book composed of mantra and brahmana, is onobjectionable. Hence Apastamba says 
in the Yajnaparibhusha, ' Mantra and Bruhma^a have the name of Yeda.' " 

' This definition applies to all the Sanhitus, except that of the Taittinya, or Black 
Tajnr, Yeda, in which Mantra and Bruhmana are combined. Bnt even this Sanhita 
had a separate Bruhmana connected with it See Miiller's Anc. Sapsk. Lit. p. 350, 
and Weber's Indische Literaturgeschichtc, p. 83. The general character of the Yajas- 
aneyi and Atharra Sanhitfis is not affected by the fact that the last section of the 
former is an Upanishad, and that the fifteenth book of the latter has something of the 
nature of a Brahma^a. 

s For further information on the Vedos, reference may be made to Professor 
Max M tiller's Ancient Sanskrit Literature, pattim, and alio to toIs. ii. iii. and iy. of 
the present work. 


Prom this succinct account of the contents of the Vedas, it is clear 
that the Mantras mnst constitute their most ancient portions, since the 
Brahmanas, which regulate the employment of the hymns, of necessity 
pre-Buppose the earlier existence of the latter. On this subject the 
commentator on the Taittirlya, or Black Yajur-veda, Sanhita thus 
expresses himself (p. 9 of the Calcutta edition) : — 

Yadyapi manirahrahmanatmako vedaa tathdpi hrdhmawuya mantra^ 
vydJehdfUHrupatvad mantrd ev&dau samamndtdh \ ** Although the Yeda 
is formed both of Mantra and Brahmana, yet as the Brahma^a consists 
of an explanation of the Mantras, it is the latter which were at first 

The priority of the hymns to the Brahmaeas is accordingly attested by 
the constant quotations from the former which are found in the latter.* 
Another proof that the hymns are far older than any other portion 
of Indian literature is to be found in the character of their language. 
They are composed in an ancient dialect of the Sanskrit, containing 
many words of which the sense was no longer known with certainty in 
the age of Yadia, the author of the Kirukta,^ and many grammatical 
forms which had become obsolete in the time of the great grammarian 
Panini, who refers to them as peculiar to the hymns (chhandas),'' A 
third argument in favour of the greator antiquity of the mantras is 
supplied by the fact that the gods whom they represent as the most 
prominent objects of adoration, such as Indra and Varuno, occupy 
but a subordinate position in the Itihasas and Puranas, whilst others, 
vi2.y Yishnu and Budra, though by no means the most important 
ddties of the hymns, are exalted to the Erst rank, and assume a 
different character, in the Puranic pantheon.^ 

* See also the passage quoted from the Nirukta in p. 174 of the 2nd toI. of 
this work, and that cited from Saya^a in p. 195 of the same vol. Compare the 
the following passage of the Mnndaka Upanishad, i. 2, 1 : Tad etat aatyam mantreshu 
kmrmSni iavayo yany apaayama tani tretayam hahudha saniaiani \ ** This is true : 
the rites which the rishis saw (i.e* discovered by revelation) in the hymns — tiieso 
rites were in great variety celebrated in the Trcta (age)." 

* See ToL ii. of this work, p. 195, and the article on the '' Interpretation of the 
Veda" in the Jonmal of- the fioyal Asiatic Society, vol. ii. new series, pp. 316 £f. 

* See vol. ii« of this work, pp. 178 tt, and my article on the ** Interpretation of the 
Teda** in the Joomal of the Eoyal Asiatic Society, vol. iL new scries, pp. 323 if. 

^ See vol. ii. of this work, pp. 21G £f. 

* See Tol. iL of this work, 212 ff, and vol. iv. 1, 2, and passim. 


On all these grounds it maj be confidently concluded that the 
mantras, or hymns, of the Big-veda are by &r the most ancient 
lemains of Indian literature. The hymns themselyes are of different 
periods, some being older, and some more recent. This is shown not 
only by the nature of the case, — as it is not to be supposed that the 
whole of the contents of such a large national collection as the Big- 
Teda Sanhita should have been composed by the men of one, or 
even two, generations, — ^but also by the frequent references which 
occur in the mantras themselves to older rishis, or poets, and to older 
hymns. * It is, therefore, quite possible that a period of several centuries 
may have intervened between the composition of the oldest and that of 
the most recent of these poems. But if so, it is also quite conceivable 
that in this interval considerable changes may have taken place in 
the religious ideas and ceremonies, and in the social and ecclesiastical 
institutions of the people among whom these hymns were produced, 
and that some traces of these changes may be visible on comparing the 
different hvmns with each other. 

"No sufficient data exist for determining with exactness the period 
at which tiie hymns were composed. Professor Miiller divides them 
into two classes, the Mantras or more recent hymns, which he supposes 
may have been produced between 1000 and 800 years, — and the 
older hymns, to which he applies the name of Chhandas, and which 
he conceives may have been composed between 1200 and 1000 years, — 
before the Christian era. Other scholars are of opinion that they may 
be even older (see Mailer's Anc. Sansk. lit., p. 572, and the Fre£Eu;e to 
the 4th Yol. of the same auti&or's edition of the Big-veda, pp. iv.-xiii). 
This view is shared by Dr. Haug, who thus writes in his introduction 
to the Aitareya Brahma^a, p. 47 : ** We do not hesitate, therefore, to 
assign the composition of the bulk of the Brahmai^as to the years 
1400-1200 B.C. ; for the Samhita we require a period of at least 500- 
600 years, with an interval of about two hundred years between the 
end of the proper Brahmana period. Thus we obtain fbr the bulk of 
Samhit& the space from 1400-2000; the oldest hymns and sacrificial 
formulas may be a few hundred years more ancient still, so that we 
would fix the very commencement of Yedio literature between 2000* 
2400 B.c." 

• See vol ii. of thii work, pp. 206 ff., and vol. iii. pp. 116 ff., 121 ff. 


S'ext in order of tiine to the most recent of the hymns come, of 
eonrBe, the Brahmai^as. Of these (1) the Aitareya and B&nkhayana 
are connected with the Big-veda ; (2) the Taiidya, the Panchayiin^ and 
the Ghhandogya with the Sama-veda ; (3) the Taittiilya with the Tait- 
tiilya or Black Yajur-veda ; (4) the Siatapatha with the Yajasaneyi San- 
liita or White Yajnr-yeda ; and (5) the Gbpatha with the Atharva-veda.^^ 
These works, written in prose, prescribe, as I have already intimated, the 
manner in which the Mantras are to be used and the various rites of sacri- 
fice to be celebrated. They also expound the mystical signification of 
some of the ceremonies, and adduce a variety of legends to illustrate the 
origin and efficacy of some of the ritual prescriptions. That in order ol 
age the BrahmaQas stand next to the Mantras is proved by their simple, 
antiquated, and tautological style, as well as by the character of their 
language, which, though approaching more nearly than that of the 
hymns, to classical or Paninean Sanskrit, is yet distinguished by certain 
archaisms both of vocabulary and of grammatical form which are un- 
known to the Itihasas and Puranas." The most recent portions of the 
Brahmanas are the Aragyakas and Upanishads, of which the character 
and contents have been already summarily indicated. The remaining 
works which form the basis of our investigations come under the de- 
signation of Smfiti, as distioguished £rom that of Sruti, which is ap- 
plied to the Mantras, Brahmagas, Aranyakas, and Upanishads. 

The term Smfiti includes (1) the Yedangas, such as the Nirukta of 
Yiska, (2) the Siitras or aphorisms, SraiUa and grihya^ or sacrificial and 
domestic, etc., (3) the Institutes of Manu, (4) the Itih&sas and Puranas. 
To the class of Itihasas belong (1) the Eamayaga (said to be the work 
of Yalmlki), which contains an account in great part, at least, fabulous, 
of the adventures of Bama, and the Mahabharata, which describes the 
wan and adventures of the Eurus and Pandus, and embraces also a 
great variety of episodes and numerous mythological narratives, as well 
as religious, philosophical, and political discussions, which are inter- 
woven withy or interpolated in, the firamework of the poem. This 

^ For farther detaili on these Brahmanas, the reader may consult Professor Max 
Mullor's Anc. Sansk. Lit. pp. 346 ff.; Professor Weber's Indische literator- 
geachichte, and Indische Studien ; and Dr. Hang's Aitareya Brahmana. 

u See, for example, the S'. P. Br. xL 5, 1, 16 ; and the Taitt. Sanhita, ii. 2, 10, 2» 
tad ii 6, 7^ 1. 


-work is said to be the productioii of Yyosa, but its great bulk, its 
almost encyclopaedic character, and the discrepancies in doctrine which 
are obseirable between its different parts, lead ineyitably to the con- 
clusion that it is not the composition of a single author, but has received 
large additions from a succession of writers, who wished to obtain cur- 
rency and authority for their several opinions by introducing them into 
this great and venerated repository of national tradition." 

The Puranas are commonly said to be eighteen in number, in addition 
to certain inferior works of the same description called Upapuranas. 
Tor an account of these books and a summary of their contents, I must 
refer to the late Professor H. H. Wilson's introduction to his translation 
of the Vishnu Purana." 

In treating the several topics which are to be handled in this volume, 
I propose in each case to adduce, first, any texts bearing upon it which 
may be foimd in the hymns of the liig-veda ; next, those in the Brah- 
manas and their appendages ; and, lastly, those occurring in any of the 
different classes of works coming under the designation of Smriti. By 
this means wo shall learn what conceptions or opinions were entertained 
on each subject by the oldest Indian authors, and what wore the various 
modifications to which these ideas were subjected by their successors. 

" On the Bamujaga and Mahabharata, see Professor Monlcr Williams's ** Indian 
Epic Poetry," which contains a careful analysis of the leading narratiye of each of the 

^ See also the same author's analyses of the contents of the Vishnu, Tayu, Agni, 
ftnd Brnhma-Taivartta Puranas in the *< Gleanings of Science,'* published in Calcutta, 
and those of the Brahma and Padma Puru^^as in the Journal of the Boyal Asiatio 
Society, No. ix (1838) and No. x. (1839). 




It wiU be seen from the different texts to be adduced in this chapter, 
that from a very early period the Indian writers have propounded a 
great variety of speculations regarding the origin of mankind^ and of 
the classes or castes into which they found their own community 
divided. The most commonly received of those explanations is the 
&ble which represents the Brahmans, Kshattriyas, Yai^yas, and 
Sudras, to have been separately created from the head, the breast 
or arms, the thighs, and the feet of the Creator. Of this mythical 
account no trace is to be found in any of the hymns of the Kig-veda, 
except one, the Purusha Sukta. 

Although for reasons which will be presently stated, I esteem it 
probable that this hymn belongs to the most recent portion of the Eig- 
veda, it will be convenient to adduce and to discuss it first, along with 
certain other texts from the Brahmanas, Itihasas, and Puranas, which 
professedly treat of the origin of mankind and of caste, before we 
proceed to examine the older parts of the hynm-collection, with the 
view of ascertaining what opinion the authors of them appear to have 
entertained in regard to the earliest history of their race, and to the 
grounds of those relations which they found subsisting between the 
difTerent classes of society contemporary with themselves. 

Sect. I. — 90th Hymn of the \Oth Booh of the Rig-veda Sanhitd, called 

Pumsha Sukta, or the hymn to Purmha. 

This celebrated hymn contains, as far as we know, the oldest extant 
passage which makes mention of the fourfold origin of the Hindu race. 


In order to appreciate the character of thiB passage, we must con- 
mder it in connection with its context. I therefore qnote the whole of 
the hymn :^ 

B. Y. X. 90. 1. SaJuura-ilrshd Purushah sahasrdkihah whasrO' 
pdt I sa hhumim vihato vfitvd atyatishthad daidnyulam \ 2. Punuhaf^ 
ev^da^ iarvaih yad hhutam yachcha hhdvyam \ utdmritatvasyeidno yad 
annmdtirohati \ 3. JStdvdn asya mahimd ato jydydmicha Purushah 
I pddo ^iya viivd hhutdni tripdd a9ydmritafh divi \ 4. Tripdd urdhva 
ud ait PGrushah pddo ^syehdhhavat punah \ tato vUhvan vyakrdmat 
idiandnaSane dbhi | 5. tasmdd Virdl ajdyata Virdjo adhi Purushah 
I sa jdto aty arichyata paichdd hhfLtnim atho purah \ 6. Tat Purushena 
havishd devdh yajnam atanvata \ vasanto asydad djyam yrithmah idh- 
mah iarad havih \ 7. Ta0i yajnam harhishi praukshan Purushaih 
jdtam ayratah \ tena devdh ayajanta sddhydh fishayai eha ye \ 8. 
Taimddyajndt sarvahutah samhhritam pfishaddjyam \ paSUn tdmichahre 
vdyavydn dranydn grdmydi eha ye \ 9. Tasmdd yajndt sarvahutah 
fiehd(i sdmdni jajnire \ chhanddHisi jajnire tasmdd yajus tasmdd ajd- 
yata I 10. Tasmdd aivd ajdyanta ye he eha uhhayddatah | ydvo ha 
jajnire tasmdt tasmdj jdtdh ajdvayah \ 11. Tat Purusham vi ada- 
dhuh katidhd vi dkalpayan \ mukham kirn asya kau hdhn kd urU 
pddd uehyete ] 12. Brdhmano ^sya mukham dsld hdhu rdjanyah 
hfitah I {irfi tad asya yad vaiSyah padbhydfh iudro ajdyata \ 13. 
ehandramd^ manaso Jdtai ehakshoJ^ sHryo ajdyata \ mukhdd IndraS 
eha Aynii eha prdndd Vdyur ajdyata \ 14. Ndhhydh dsld antari- 
ksham ilrshno dyauh samavarttata \ padhhydm hhUmir diiah irotrdt 
tathd lokdn akalpayan \ 15. Saptdsydsan paridhayas trih sapta 
eamidha^ kfitdh \ devdh yad yajnam tanvdnd^ abadhnan Purusham 
pahim I 16. Tajnena yajna^ ayajanta devds tdni dharmdni pratha- 

M xhe Pnrnslia SclVta is alio found in the YajaBanejri Sanliitfi of the White 
Yajar-Teda (31. 1-16) and in the Athanra-yeda (19. 6. 1 ff.) See Colehrooke*B Miscel- 
laneoos Emays, i. 167 f.> and note in p. 809 (or pp. 104, and 197, of Mesav. WiUiams 
and Noigate'f edition) ; BnmoafB Bhagayata Purana, toI. L Preface, pp. cixiii. ff. ; 
WilBon'f Preface to lus translation of the Rig^eda, toL i. p. xUy. ; Professor Roth's 
remarks in the Journal of the Oerman Oriental Society, i. pp. 78 f. ; Miiller in 
Bunsen's Philosophy of Univ. History, toL L p. 844 ; Midler's Anc. Sank. Lit, pp. 
570 f. ; Professor Weher's translation in Iiidische Studien ix. p. 6; and my own 
translation, notes and remarks in the Journal of the Boyal Asiatic Society for 1865, 
pp. 363 ff., and for 1866, pp. 282 1 


mdnt oMn | U ha ndkam tnahtrndna^ sachanta yatra pHrve sddh' 
^dk uuUi depdh \ 

*' 1. Pomsha has a thonBand heads,^' a thonsand eyes, a tlionsand 
feet. On every side enveloping** the earth, he overpassed*' (it) by a 
i^^ace of ten fingers. 2. Pomsha himself is this whole (universe), what- 
ever has been and whatever shall be. He is also the lord of immort- 
ality, since (or, when) by food he expands.*" 3. Such is his greatness, 
and Pnnxsha is superior to this. All existences are a quarter of him ; 
and three-fourths of him are that which is immortal in the sky.** 4. 
With three quarters Purusha mounted upwards. A quarter of him 
was again produced here. He was then diffused everywhere over 
things which eat and things which do not eat. 5. Prom him was 
was bom Yiraj, and from Yiraj, Purusha.^ When bora, he extended 
beyond the earth, both behind and before. 6. When the gods per- 
formed a sacrifice with Purusha as the oblation, the spring was its 
butter, the summer its fuel, and the autumn its (accompanying) offering* 
7. This victinii Pumshai bom in the beginning, they immolated on 

u The Atharra-TedA (lix. 6, 1) reads aahMra-iahuh, " haying a thoiuand arms," 
the tranacriber, perhaps, taking the Terse literally, and considering that a being in 
homan form, if he had a thonsand eyes and a thousand feet, ought only to haye five 
hundred heads, and not a thonsand as in the text of the Rig-yeda. 

M For 9ritva in the R. Y. the Yajasaneyi Sanhita, 31. 1, reads 9pfitffa^ which 
jeema to mean nearly the same. 

^^ The word is mtyaiiththat. Compare the S'atapatha Brumana, xiii. 6, 1, 1, and 
MtiMAthSwatmk in S'.P.B. iy. 5, 4, 1, 2. Professor Weber renders atyatUhtkat 
^oeenpies" (Indiache Stndien, iz. 6). 

>* The sense of this is obscure. Instead of yad annehatirohath the A. Y. reads yad 
mtytmhhwat sahOf (*' that which," or, ** since he) was with another." 

^ Compare A. Y. z. 8, 7 : ardhena viivnm hhu/oanam jl^ana yad atya ardkam kva 
Ud MJ^vM : ** with the half he produced the whole world ; what became of the 
(otbff) half of him ?" See also ibid. y. 13. 

St This sentence is illustrated by R. Y. z. 72, 5, where it is said, Aditer Daitho 
i^aymU IhJcihad u Jdiiih pari \ *' Aditi was bom from Daluha and Daksha from 
Aditi" — ^a text on which Yiska remarks (Nirukta, xi. 23) : tat katham upapadyeta | 
s mnSna J dnmSnau tydiam Hi \ api va deva-dharmena ttaretararjanmdnau tyaiam it* 
mreUtara-prakriti \ '* how can this be possible ? They may haye had a common birth ; 
or, eonformahly with their nature as deities, they may haye been produced from 
one anotiier, and possess the properties of one another." Compare A. Y. 13. 4. 
29 H^ where Indra is said to haye been produced fix)m a great many other gods, or 
oititias, and they reciprocally from him. In regard to Yfraj, compare the notes on 
the Terse'before us in my article on the " Progress of the Yedic religion^" etc, in the 
Jommal of the Royal Adatio Society for 1865, p. 364« 


the cacrificial gnuu. With him the gods, the Sadhyas^'^ and the rishis 
•aerificed. 8. From that universal sacrifice were provided cnrdB and 
butter. It formed those aerial ^ (creatmea) and animala both wild and 
tame. 9. From that muTersal sacrifice sprang the fich and saman 
rersety the metres, and the yajnsh. 10. From it sprang horses, and all 
animals with two rows of teeth ; kine sprang from it ; from it goats 
and sheep. 11. When (the gods) divided Pnmsha, into how many 
parts did they cut him np ? what was his month ? what arms (had 
he) ? what (two objects) are said (to have been) his thighs and feet? 
12. The Brahman was his month f* the Bajanya was made his arms ; 
the beiDg (called) the Yaisya, he was his thighs f^ the Budra sprang 
from his feet. 13. The moon sprang from his soul {mamu), the son 
from his eye, Indra and Agni from his mouth, and Yayu from his 
breath.* 14. From his navel arose the air, from his head the sky, from 
Lis feet the earth, from his car the (four) quarters : in this manner (the 
gods) formed the worlds. 15. When the gods, performing sacrifice, 
bound Purusha as a victim, there were seven sticks (stuck up) ior it 

* 8e« on the Sadhyas, Profeisor Weber's note, Ind. St. ix. 6 f., and the Journal of 
th» Bojal Afeifltlc Societj for 1S66| p. 395, note. 

*• 8ce, howefcr, Vfij. Sanh. xi?. 30, to be quoted below. 

^ Compare tbe Eanshltakl BrShmana Upanishad, ii. 9 : atha paurnamasyam 
purattaeh ehandramasam dfiiyamanam upaiishfheta etaya eva avfita "#omo rajasi 
ffkhakshano paneha muk/u^si prqfapatiJ^ \ brahmawu te ekam mukham \ tena mukhena 
rajm *Ui I UMi mukhena mam annddam kuru \ raja te ekam mukham | iena mukhena 
viio'tH I iena mukhena mam annadam kuru \ iyentu te ekam mukham ^*ityadi \ which 
k thus translated bj Mr. Cowell : ** Next on the day of the fiill moon let him in this 
tamo way adore the moon when it is seen in front of him (saying), ' thon art Soma, 
the brilliant, the wise, the fife-mouthed, the lord of creatm^. The Brahman is one 
tnouth of thine, with that month thon eatest kings, with that month make me to eat 
food« Tbe king is one mouth of thine, with that mouth thou eatest common men, 
with that mouth make me to eat food. The hawk is one mouth of thine," etc. The 
fourth mouth is fire, and the fifth is in the moon itself. I should prefer to render the 
*irftrdi 8omo roja'si, "thou art kinff 5ointf,"— "king" being a frequent designation 
of this god in the Brahmaoas. See also M. Bh. iiL 12,962, where Vishnu is intro- 
duced as saying in the same mystical way : Brahma vaktram bhujau kthattram uru 
me eamthital^ vitaf^ \ padau Budrah bhavantJme vikramena kramena eha \ " The 
Brahman is my mouth ; the Eshattra is my arms ; the Visas are my thighs ; these 
6'Odras with their vigour and rapidity are my feet." 

'* Instead of uru^ " thighs," the Atharra-voda, xix. 6, 6, reads madhyam, "middle.** 

M The Vaj. S. xxxi. 13, has a different and singular reading of the last half verse : 
droirSd wyue'eha pranaf eha mukhad agnir yayata \ ** From his ear came Vayu and 
rfSQs (breath) and from his mouth Agni." 


(around the fire), and thrice seven pieces of fdel were made. 16. With 

BBcrifice the gods performed the sacrifice. These were the earliest 

rites. These great powers have sought the sky, where are the former 

Sadhyas, gods."* 

I have ahove (p. 7) intimated an opinion that this hymn does not 

belong to the most ancient portion of the Eig-veda. This view is, 

howeTcr, controverted by Dr. Hang, who, in his tract on '' the origin 

of Brahmanism " (published at Poena in 1863), p. 5, writes as follows : 

'< The few scholars who have been engaged in the study of the Yedas 

unanimously regard this hymn as a very late production of Yedio 

poetry; but there is no sufficient evidence to prove that. On the con* 

trary, reasons might be adduced to shew that it is even old. The 

mystical character of the hymn is no proof at all of its late erigin. 

Such all^orical hymns are to be met with in every book of the cqI'» 

lection of the mantras, which goes by the name of Big-veda samhita. 

The Bishis, who were the authors of these hymns, delighted la such 

speculations. They chiefly were suggested to them by the sacrificial 

rites, which they daily were performing. According to the position 

which is assigned to it in the Yajur-veda (where it is found among 

the formulas referring to the human sacrifice), the hymn appears to 

have been used at the human sacrifices. That, at the earliest period 

of the Yedic time, human sacrifices were quite common with the 

Brahmans, can bo proved beyond any doubt. But the more eminent 

and distinguished among their leaders soon abandoned the practice 

AS rcYoltiug to human feelings. The form of the sacrifice, howeveri 

Bocms to have been kept for a long time ; for the ritual required at 

that occasion is actually in the Yajur-veda ; but they only tied men of 

dificrcnt castes and classes to the sacrificial posts, and released them 

afterwards, sacrificing animals instead of them." 

If it could be satisfactorily shewn that this hymn, in the same form 

as we now possess it, existed contemporaneously with the barbarous 

practice of human sacrifices which Dr. Haug believes to have at one 

time prevailed in India, we should, no doubt, have in this circumstanco 

a strong proof of its antiquity. But if it was merely adopted as a 

part of the ceremonial at a later period, when the immolation oi human 

^ Tbb Tono ocean also in R. Y. i. 164. 50, and is quoted in Ninikta, xii. 14. Seo 
tlM Joornal of tbc Royal Asiatic Society for 1866, p. 395, note, already referred to. 


beings bad ceased to be otherwise than formal and nominal, and animals 
were snbstitnted as the actual victims, the evidence of its remote an- 
tiquity is greatly weakened. 

If we now compare the Purusba Sukta with the two hymns (162 and 
163) of the first Mandala of the Rig-veda, it will, I think, be apparent 
that the first is not adapted to be used at a literal human sacrifice in 
the same manner as the last two are to be employed at the immolation 
of a horse. There are, no doubt, some mystical passages in the second of 
these two hymns, as in verse 3, where the horse is identified with Yama, 
Aditya, and Trita; and ''in the last section of the Taittiriya Yajur- 
veda the various parts of the horse's body are described as divisions of 
time and portions of the universe : * morning is his head ; the sun his 
eye; the air his breath; the moon his ear,' " etc. (Colebrooke's Essays, 
L 62).^ But the persons who officiate at the sacrifice, as referred to in 
Hiese hymns, are ordinary priests of the ancient Indian ritual, — the 
hotrii adhvaryu, avayaj, etc. (i. 162, 5) ; and details are given of the 
actual slaughter of the animal (i. 162, 11). The Purusha Sukta, how- 
ever does not contain the same indications of the literal immolation of a 
human victim. In it the sacrifice is not offered to the gods, but by the 
gods (verses 6, 7, 15, 16); no human priests are mentioned; the di- 
vision of the victim (v. 11) must be regarded, like its slaughter (v. 7), 
as the work of the deities only. And the Purusha mentioned in the 
hymn could not well have been regarded as an ordinary man, as he 
is identified with the universe (v. 2), and he himself, or his immo- 
lation, is represented as the source of the creation (w. 8, 10, 13, 14), 
and of the Vedas (v. 9). 

As compared with by far the largest part of the hymns of the Rig- 
veda, the Purusha Sukta has every character of modemness both in its 
diction and ideas. I have already observed that the hymns which we 
find in this collection are of very different periods. This, I believe, is not 
disputed.* The authors themselves, as we have seen, speak of newer and 
older hymns. So many as a thousand compositions of this description could 
scarcely have been produced within a very short space of time, and there 
is no reason to suppose that the literary activity of the ancient Hindus 

^ Compare the commencement of the Biihaduranpka Upanisbad. 
* See Dr. Haug*f own remarks (quoted aboTC, p. 4) on the period when the hymns 
were composed. 


confined to the period immediately preceding the collection of the 
hymns. Bat if we are to recognize any difference of agOi what hymns 
can we more reasonably suppose to be the oldest than those which are 
at once archaic in language and style, and naive and simple in the 
character of their conceptions ? and, on the other hand, what composi* 
Hods can more properly be set down as the most recent than those 
which manifest an advance in speculative ideas, while their langnage 
approaches to the modem Sanskrit? These latter conditions seem to 
be fulfilled in the Purusha Sukta, as well as in hynms x. 71 and 72, z. 
61 and 82, x. 121, and z. 129. 

On tiiis subject Mr. Colebrooke states his opinion as follows 
(liiscellaneons Essays L 309, note) : *' That remarkable hymn (the 
Purusha Sukta) is in language, metre, and style, very different from 
the rest of the prayers with which it is associated. It has a de- 
cidedly more modem tone ; and must have been composed after the 
Sanscrit language had been refined, and its grammar and rhythm per- 
fected. The internal evidence which it furnishes serves to demonstrate 
the important fiict that the compilation of the Yedas, in their present 
arrangement, took place after the Sanscrit tongue had advanced from 
the rustic and irregular dialect in which the multitude of hymns and 
prayers of the Yeda was composed, to the polished and sonorous 
language in which the mythological poems, sacred and prophane 
{purdnaa and eavyas), have been written." 

Professor Max Miiller expresses himself in a similar sense (Anc. 
Sansk. Lit, p. 570 f.) : '' There can be little doubt, for instance, that 
the 90th hymn of the 10th book . . . • is modem both in its 
character and in its diction* It is full of allusions to the sacrificial 
ceremonials, it uses technical philosophical terms, it mentions the three 
seasons in the order of Yasanta, spring ; Grlshma, summer; and S'arad, 
autumn ; it contains the only passage in the Eig-veda where the four 
castes are enumerated. The evidence of language for the modem date 
of this composition is equally strong. Grlshma, for instance, the name 
for the hot season, does not occur in any other hymn of the Eig-veda; 
and Yasanta also, the name of spring, does not belong to the earliest 
vocabulary of the Yedic poets. It occurs but once more in the Kig* 
veda (z. 161. 4), in a passage where the three seasons are mentioned in 
the order of S'arad, autumn ; Hemanta, winter; and Yasanta, spring." 


Professor Weber (Indische Stadien, iz. 3) concnrs in this view. He 
observes : '' That the FaroBha Sukta, considered as a hjmn of the 
Big-veda, is among the latest portions of that collection, is clearly 
perceptible from its contents. The fact that the Sama-sanhita has 
not adopted any Terse from it, is not without importance (compare 
what I have remarked in my Academical Prelections, p. 63). The 
Kaigeya school, indeed, appears (although it is not quite certain),*" to 
haye extracted the first five verses in the seventh prapathaka of the 
first Archika, which is x)eculiar to it." 

We shall see in the following chapter that the word brdhmana occurs 
bnt rarely in the Big-veda Sanhita, while hrahman^ ** a priest," from 
which the former is derived, is of constant occurrence. From this 
circumstance also, it may be reasonably concluded that the hymns in 
which the derivative occurs are among the latest The same remark 
may be made of the word vaiSya, as compared with viS.^ 

Mr. Colebrooke's opinion of the character of the Purusha Sukta is 
g^ven in the following passage of his '' Miscellaneous Essays" (vol. i. 
p. 161, note ; or p. 105 of Williams & Norgate's ed. of 1858) ; " I think 
it unnecessary to quote from the commentary the explanation of this 
curious passage of the Yedas as it is there given, because it does not 
jreally elucidate the sense ; the allegory is for the most part sufficiently 

In his tract on '' on the origin of Brahmanism," p. 4, Dr. Haug 
.thus remarks on verses 11 and 12 : " Now, according to this passage, 
which is the most ancient and authoritative we have on the origin of 
Brahmanism, and caste in general, the Brahman has not come from tho 
mouth of this primary beiog, the Purusha, but the mouth of the latter be- 
came the Brahmanical caste, that is to say, was transformed into it. The 
passage has, no doubt, an allegorical sense. Mouth is the seat of speech. 
The allegory thus points out that the Brahmans are teachers and in- 
structors of mankind. Tho arms are tho seat of strength. If tho two 

*» See on thia subject Weber's foot-note, p. 3. 

^ Professor Anfrecht informs me that the word vaiiya does not occor in any other 
hymn of tho Rig-?cda but tho Purusha SQkta ; only once in the Atharro-Teda, y. 17, 9 ; 
fttd not at all in the VSj. Sanh., except in the Purusha Sukta. The same scholar 
remarks, as another proof of the comparatively late date of the Purusha SQkta, that 
it is the only hymn which refers to the four different kinds of Yedic compontions 
fichj wman, chhandmtt and ytjush. 


anns of the Farofiha are said to have been made a Kshattriya (warrior), 
that means, then, that the Eshattriyas have to carry arms to defend 
Uie empire. That the thighs of the Porusha were transformed into 
the Yai^ya means that, as the lower parts of the body are the principal 
repository of food taken, the Yai^ya caste is destined to provide food 
for the others. The creation of the Shudra from the feet of the 
Forusha, indicates that he is destined to be a servant to the others, 
just as the foot serves the other parts of the body as a firm support." 

But whether the writer of the hymn intended it to be understood 
allegorically or not, it conveys no distinct idea of the manner in which 
he supposed the four castes to have originated. It is, indeed, said 
that the S'udra sprang from Purusha's feet ; but as regards the three 
superior castes and the members with which they are respectively con- 
nected, it is not quite clear which (i.d., the castes or the members) are 
to be taken as the subjects and which as the predicates, and con- 
sequently, whether we are to suppose verse 12 to declare that the three 
castes were the three members, or, conversely, that the three members 
were, or became, the three castes. 

But whatever may be the sense of the passage, it is impossible to 
receive it as enunciatiDg any fixed doctrine of the writers of what is 
called the Yedic age in regard to the origin of the four castes ; since 
we find, if not in the mantras or hymns, at least in the Brahmanas 
(which, as we have seen in page 2, are esteemed by orthodox Indian 
writers as being equally with the hymns a part of the Ycda), not only 
(1) texts which agree with the Purusha Sukta, but also (2) various 
other and discrepant accounts of the manner in which these classes 
were separately formed, as well as (3) third a class of narratives of 
the creation, in which the production of the human race is described 
without allusion to any primordial distinction of castes. 

To the first of these classes (viz., that of texts which coincide more 
or less exactly with the Purusha Sukta) belongs the following passage 
from the Taittiriya Sanhita. 

Sect. II. — QtMtation from the Taittiriya Sanhita, vii. 1. 1. 4 ff, 

Prajdpatir akdmayata " prajdt/ei/a*^ iti \ sa mukhatas irivritam nir- 
gmimlta \ iam Agnir devaid 'nvasuyata gayatrl ohiiandro rathantaram 


sdma bruhmano mantuhydndm aJMh paiUndm \ tanndt U mukhyah mukhaio 
hy oijrijyanta \ uroio hdhubhydm panckadaiam niramimlia \ iam Indro 
devoid ^noatfijyata trtshfup ehhando hfihat sdma rdjanyo manuthydndm 
avih paSundm \ tasmdt U virydvanto vlrydd hy asrijyawta \ madhy* 
atah Bopiadaiafh niramimlia \ tarn Vihedevdh devatdh anvasfifyania 
jagatl ehhando vatrHpam 9dma vaiiyo mantuhydndm gdvah paiUndm 
I tatmdt U ddyd annadhdndd hy asrijyanta \ tatrndd hhUydmio ^ny§^ 
hhya^ I hhUyishthdh hi devatdh anvasrijyanta \ patta^ $kavifhian% 
niramimlia \ tam anwhftip ehhando ^nvasfijyata vairdjam sdma iUdro 
manushydndm aivah paiUndm \ tasmdt tau hhnia-sankrdmindv ahai 
cha indrai eha \ tasmdt indro yt^ne ^navakljipto na hi devatd^ an- 
vasfijyania | tasmdt pdddv upajlvatah \ patio hy asrijyetdm \ 
''Frajapati desired, 'may I propagate.' He formed the Trirfit 
(stoma) from his month. After it were prodaoed the deity Agni, 
the metre GayatiT, the Saman (called) Rathantara, of men the Brah- 
man, of boasts the goats. Hence they are the chief (mukhydh), 
because they were created from the month (mukhaiah). From (his) 
breast, from (his) arms, he formed the Panchadaia (stoma). After 
it were created the god Indra, the Trish^nbh metre, the Saman 
(called) Bfihat, of men the Bajanya, of beasts the sheep. Hence 
they are vigorous, bocanse they were created from vigonr. From 
(his) middle he formed the Saptada^a (stoma). After it were created 
the gods (called) the Yi^vedevas, the Jagatl metre, the Saman called 
the Yairupa, of men the Yai^ya, of beasts kine. Hence they are to 
be eaten, because they were created from the receptacle of food. 
Wherefore they are more numerous than others, for the most numerous 
deities were created after (the Saptada^). From his foot he formed 
the £kavimto (stoma). After it were created the Anushtubh metre, the 
Saman called Yairaja, of men the Sudra, of beasts the horse. Hence 
these two, both the horse and the Sudra, are transporters of (other) 
creatures. Hence (too) the Sudra is incapacitated for sacrifice, because 
no deities were created after (the Ekavim^a). Hence (too) these two 
subsist by their feet, for they were created from the iooU* 



Sbct. m. — Citations from the Shtapaiha Brdhmana, (h$ Taittirlya 
Brdhmana, the Vujasaneyi Sanhitd^ and the Atharva-veda, 

The following texts belong to the second class — 1.0., that of those 
^hich recognize a distinct origination of the castes, but describe their 
creation differently from the Furusha Sukta : 

SI P. Br. ii. 1, 4, 11 ff. — ^^ Bhur " iti vai Praj&patir imdm tyanayata 
" hhwah " ity antariheham " war " iti divam \ etdvad vai idam sarvam 
ydvad ime lokdh \ sarvena &va ddhiyate \ "Mfir" iti vai Prajdpatir 
hrahma a^anayata '' hhuva^ ** iti kshattram '* svar " iti viiam | etdvad 
tat idam earvam yavad hrahma kshattram vif | sarvena eva ddhiyate | 

hkHr " iti vai Prajdpatir dtmdnam ajanayata " hhuvah *' iti prajdm 

sivar " iti painn \ etdvad vai idam sarvam ydvad dtmd prajdh pasavalf, \ 
sarvena eva ddhiyate | 

''(Uttering) 'bhu^/ Prajapati generated this earth. (TTttering) 
'bhuva^/ he generated the air, and (uttering) 'svah,' he generated 
the sky. This nniyerse is co-extensive with these worlds. (The fire) 
is placed with the whole. Saying ' bhuh/ Prajapati generated the 
Brahman ; (saying) ^bhuva^," he generated the Kshattra ; (and saying) 
* BTa^/ he generated the Yi^. All this world is so much as the Brah- 
man, Kshattra, and Yi^. The fire is placed with the whole. (Saying) 
'bhii|i/ Prajapati generated himself; (saying) 'bhuyah' he generated 
offspring ; (saying) ' sva^,' he generated animals. This world is so 
much as self, ofispring, and animals. (The fire) \a placed with the 

Taitt. Br. iiL 12, 9, 2. — Sarvaih hedam hrahmand haiva sfishfam | 
fighhyo jdtam vaiiyam varnam dhuh \ yajurvedam kshattriyasydhur 
yonim | s&mavedo brdhmandndm prasuti^ \ pHrve pUrvehhyo vacha 
eiad aehu^ | 

** This entire (universe) has been created by Brahma. Men say that 
the Yaiiya dass was produced from j'ich-yerses. They say that the 
Yajur-yeda Ib the womb from which the Eshattriya was bom. The 
8ama-yeda is the source from which the Brahmans sprang. This word 
the ancients declared to the ancients." 
To complete his account of tho derivation of the castes from the 



Yedas, the author had only to add that the STidras had sprang from 
the Atharvangirases (the Athanra-veda) ; bnt he perhaps considered 
that to assign such an origin to the serrile order would have been to do 
it too great an honour.' 

Vajasaneya Sanhita, xiv. 28 ff. (= Taittirlya Sanhita, iv. 3, 10, 1). — 
elayd attwcata prajdh adhlyanta Prajupatir adhipatir dslt \ tUrMir 
oituvata hrahma atrijyata Brahmanaspatir adhipatir dsU \ panekahkir 
Oituvata hhutuny asrijyanta Bhutandmpatir adhipatir dtU \ saptahkir 
attuvata sapta rishayo ^srijyanta JDhdtd adhipatir dHt \ nacahhir attu- 
vata pitaro ^srijyanta Aditir adhipatny dslt \ ekddaiahhir astuvatu ritavo 
'trijyanta drtavdh adhipatayah dsan \ trayadaiabhir astwata mdsd atrif- 
yanta samvatsaro ^dhipatir dslt \ panchadaSabhir astuvata hhaUram oi" 
fijyata Indro ^adhipatir dslt \ saptadaiahhir astuvata paiavo ^sjrijyanta 
JBfihaspatir adhipatir dslt \ navadaiabhir astuvata Siidrdrydv asfijystdm 
ahordtre adhipatnl dstdm \ ekavimsatyd astuvata ekaSaphdh paiavo ^sfij- 
yanta Varum *dhipatir dslt \ trayaviihiatyd astuvata kshudrdh paiavo 
*ifijyanta Pushd adhipatir dslt \ panchaviin^atyd astuvata aranydh 
paiavo ^Sfijyanta Vdyur adhipatir dslt \ saptavimiaiyd astuvata dydvd' 
pfithivl vyaitdm \ Vasavo Rudrd Aditydh anuvydyan \ is eva adhipa- 
tayah dsan \ navavimiatyd astuvata vanaspatayo ^srijyanta Somo 'dhipatir 
dslt I ekatrimiatd astuvata prajd asrijyanta yavdi rha ayavdi eha adhi- 
patayah dsan I trayastrimiatd astuvata hhutdny aidmyan Prajdpatih 
Farameshfhl adhipatir dslt \ 

'' He lauded with one. Living beings were formed : Prajapati was 
the ruler. He lauded with three: the Brahman (Brahman) was created : 
Brahmanaspati was the ruler. He lauded with five : existing things 
were created : Bhutanampati was the ruler. He lauded with seven : 
the seven rishis were created : Dhatri was the ruler. He lauded with 
nine : the Fathers were created : Aditi was the ruler. He lauded with 
eleven : the seasons were created : the Artavas were the rulers. He 
lauded with thirteen : the mouths were created : the year was the ruler. 
He lauded with fifteen : the Kshattra (the Eshattriya) was created : 
Indra was the ruler. He lauded with seventeen : animals were 
created : Bfihaspati was the ruler. He lauded with nineteen : the 
Budra and the Arya (Yai^ya) were created : day and night were the 
rulers. He lauded with twenty-one : animals with undivided hoo& 
were created : Yaruna was the ruler. He lauded with twenty-three : 


smaU aniTnalfl were created : Pushan was the ruler. He landed with 
twenty-five : wild animals were created : Yayn was the ruler (compare 
R.V. X. 90, 8). He lauded with twenty-seven : heaven and earth sepa- 
rated : Yasus, Eudras, and Adityas separated after them : they were the 
rulers. He lauded with twenty-nine : trees were created : Soma was 
the ruler. He lauded with thirty-one : living heings were created : 
The first and second halves of the month '^ were the rulers. He lauded 
with thirty-one : existing things were tranquillized : Frajapati Pa- 
rameshthin was the ruler." This passage is explained in the Sleitapatha 
Brihmana viii. 4, 3, 1 ff. 

The following text is of a somewhat mystical description; hut 
appears to intimate a distinction in nature hetween the different castes 
corresponding to that of the gods with whom they are associated : 

81 P. Br. xiv. 4, 2, 23 (=ByihadaranyakaUpanishad, i. 4, llff. (p. 
235). — Brahma vat idam ogre asld ekam eva]\ tad ekam san na vyabhavat \ 
I tat ireyo rupam aty asrijata kshattram ydny etuni devatrd kshattrdni 
Indro Varunah Samo Rudrah Parjanyo Yamo Mrityur lidnah iti \ tastndt 
Jaihattrdt param n&Bti \ tatmdd hrdhmanalf, kshattriydd adhaddd update 
rdfatiye hhattre eva tad yaso dadhdti \ sd eshd hhattrasya yonir yad 
hrahma \ tasmdd yadyapi rdjd paramatdm gachhati hrahma eva antatah 
upaniirayati wdm yonim \ yah u ha enam hinasti wdm sa yonim fichhati 
I $apdplydn hhavati yathd ireydnsam himsitvd \ 24. Sa na eva vyalha/vat 
I M viiam asfijata ydny etuni deva-jdtdni yanaSah dkhydyante vasavo 
rudrah dditydl^ vihedevdh marutah iti \ 25. Sa na eva vyabhavat \ 
M iaudram varnam asrijata pushanam \ iyam vai pushd iyam hi idam 
mrvam pushyati yad idam hincha \ 26. Sa na eva vyabhavat \ tat Sreyo 
rUpam aty asfijata dharmam \ tad etat kshattraeya kshattram yad dhar* 
ma^ I tasmdd dharmdt pararn ndsti \ atho abaltydn bally dmsam dsam- 
Sate dharmena yathd rdjnd evam | yo vai sa dharmah satyam vai tat 
I tasmdi satyawH vadantam dhur ** dharmam vadati*^ iti \ dharmam vd 

SI- The Taittiiija Sanhita reads yavah and ayavah (instead of yavah and aySvah ns 
in the Vsjannep Sanhita) and in another passage, t. 3, 4, 6 (as I learn from Prof. 
Aofirecht), exphuns these terms to mean respectively months and half months (niata 
tm yavaJ^ ardhamatah ayavah), T?hilst the commentator on the Y. S. understands 
them to mean the first and second halves of the month, in accordance with the S'.P. B. 
Tiii. 4, 3, 18, and iriii. 4, 2, 11 (purvapakahu vai yavah aparapakaha ayavah \ te hi 
idam aarvaik yuvate ehayuvaU eha) \ Prof. Aufrecht also points out that yava is ex- 
plained in Katrayana's S'zanta SQtras, iv. 11, 8, as equivalent to yavamayam apupafn, 
"a cake of barley." * 


tddaniam **Mfyam vadati" Ui \ etad hy era etad ubhayam hkm:M | 
27. Tad etad hrahma hhattram rif sudrah \ tad Agnina eta dereiku 
hrahmdhharad hruhmano manushyeshu kshattriyena hhaitnyo taiiyenm 
vaiiyah iadrena iudrah \ tasmud Agndv eva d^reshu loham iehManU 
brdkmane manushyeshu | etdbhydm hi rupahhydm hrahma ahharat \ 

23. " Brahma (here, according to the commentator, existing in the 
form of Agni, and representing the Brahman caste ") was formerly this 
(aniyerse), one only. Being one, it did not develope. It energetically 
created an excellent form, the Kshattra, viz., those among the gods 
■who are powers {kshattrant)^ India, Varuna, Soma, Eudra, Paijanya, 
Taina, Mfityu, Isana. Hence nothing is superior to the Kshattia. 
Therefore the Brahman sits below the Kshattriya at the rajasuya-sacri- 
fice ; he confers that glory on the Kshattra (the royal power)." This, 
the Brahma, is the source of the Kshattra. Hence, although the king 
attains supremacy, he at the end resorts to the Brahma as his source. 
Whoever destroys him (the Brahman) destroys his own source. He 
becomes most miserable, as one who has injured a superior. 24. He 
did not develope. Ho created the Vis — viz., those classes of gods who 
are designated by troops, Yasus, Eudras, Adityas, Yi^yedevas, Manits. 
25. He did not develope. He created the Sudra class, Pushan. This 
earth is Pushan: for she nourishes all that exists. 26. He did not 
develope. He energetically created an excellent form. Justice {Dharma). 
This is the ruler {kshattra) of the ruler {kshattra), namely. Justice. 
Hence nothing is superior to justice. Therefore the weaker seeks (to 
overcome) the stronger by justice, as by a king. This justice is 
truth. In consequence they say of a man who speaks truth| ' he speaks 

** Atra yad atma-sahdmoktofh trathifi Brahma tad Agnm trishtva agrs Aynv-^- 
papatmam Srdhmana-jaty»abhimafuwad a#mtfi vdkye Brakma'BobdmtdbMdhJyats | 

s* Thifl rendering of the last few words is suggested by Professor Anfrecht. The 
commentators understand them to mean that the Biahmans give the king their own 
glory (that of heing a Brahman) : and they refer to a formula by which at the rfijasnya- 
sacriiice the king, after addressing the priest as Br&hman, is addressed in return wiih 
the word ** Thou, king, art a Br&hm&n" {ivaih rajan brahman) ^ etc. See the Taittiriya 
Sanhitd i. 8, 16, 1, where the commentator remarks . ** As in common life domestic 
priests and others, sitting below a king seated on his throne after his return from con- 
quering a foreign territory, address him with many benedictions and eulogies, so 
here too service is presented. By this benedictory service the power of cnrsing and 
showing kindness existing in the Brahmans is transferred to the king." Reference is 
then made to the passage before us, as noticing this custom. 


justice ;' or of a man who is uttering justice, ' he speaks truth.' For 
this ia both of these. 27. This is the Brahma, Kshattra, Vi^, and 
Sudnu Throngji Agni it became Brahma among the gods, the Brah- 
man among men, through the (divine) Kshattriya a (human) Eshat- 
triya, throng the (divine) Vaiiya a (human) Yaisja, through the 
(divine) Sudra a (human) 9udra. Wherefore it is in Agni among 
the gods and in a Brahman among men, that they seek after an abode." 

Taittiriya Brahmana, i. 2, 6, 7. — Bakyo vat varno brdhmanah \ 
a9uryyo iudrah, ^ The Brahman caste is sprung from the gods ; the 
Sudra from the Asnras." 

Taittirfya Brahmana, iii. 2, 3, 9. — Kdmam eta ddru-putrena duhydt | 
iadrak eva na duhyai \ asato vat esha samhhuto yat iudrah \ ahavir eva 
tad ity dkur yat iadro dogdhi iti j agnihotram eva na duhydt Sudrah \ 
tad hi na utpunanti \ yadd khalu vai pavitram atyeti atha tad havir iti \ 
** Let him at his will milk out with a wooden dish. But let not a 
STidra milk it out. For this S^udra has sprung from non-existence. 
They say that that which a Sudra milks out is no oblation. Let not a 
SUdra milk out the Agnihotra. For they do not purify that. When 
that passes beyond the filter, then it is an oblation." 

Atharva-veda, iv. 6, 1. — Brdhmano jajne pratkamo daSailrsho dasds- 
yak I aa somam prathamah papau sa chakdrdrasam visham | ''The 
Brahman was bom the first, with ten heads and ten faces. He first 
drank the soma ; he made poison powerless." 

As the description (which is, perhaps, a fragment of a longer 
account), stops short here, we are left in the dark as to the author's 
ideas about the creation of the other castes. It would have interested 
us to know how many heads and faces he would have assigned to the 
other three castes. The student of Indian poetry is aware that the 
giant Havana is represented in the Ramayana both as a Brahman and 
as having ten heads. 

As implying a separate origination of the Rajanya caste, the fol- 
lowing text also may find a place here : 

Taittirlya Sanhita, ii. 4, 13, 1.— J9«rd vai rujanyuj j'dyamdndd ahi' 
hkayuh I tam antar eva santafh ddmnd ^paumhhan \ sa vai esho ^pohdho 
jay ate yad rdjanyo \ yad vai esho ' napobdho jdyeta vriitrdn ghaiiii charet \ 
yaili kdmayeta rdjanyam '* anapohdho jdyeta vrittrun ghams chared** iti 
tasmai eiam aindrd-bdrhaspatyam charum ninapet I aindro vai rdjanyo 


hrahma Bfihaspatih \ hrahmand eva enaih ddmno ^pomhhandd mwkehaU \ 
hiranmayam ddma dakshind sdkshdd eva enam daihno *pomhhandd mun^ 
chati I '^ The .gods were afraid of the Rajanya when he was in the 
womb. They bound him with bonds when he was in the womb. Con- 
sequently this Bajanya is bom bound. If he were bom nnbonnd he 
would go on slaying his enemies. In regard to whatever Rajanya any 
one desires that he should be bom imbound, and should go on slaying 
his enemies, let him offer for him this Aindra-Barhaspatya oblation. 
A Rajanya has the character of Indra, and a Brahman is BrihaspatL 
It is through the Brahman that anyone releases the Rajanya from his 
bond. The golden bond, a gift, manifestly releases from the bond that 
fetters him." 

In the following text of the Atharva-veda, zv. 8, 1, a new account 
is given of the origin of the Rajanyas : 
So ^rqfyata tato rdjanyo ^jdyata \ 

" He (the Vratya) became filled with passion : thence sprang the 

And in the following paragraph (A. Y. xv. 9, 1 fif) we have the same 
origin ascribed to the Brahman also : 

Tadyasya evam vidvdn vrdtyo rdjno Hithir grihdn dgaehhet Sreydmsam 
enam dtmano mdnayet \ tathd kshattrdya nnvrUchaU tathd rdahfrdya 
ndvrUchate \ ato vai hrahma cha kshattram cha udatiahthatdm \ U abrH' 
tdm '* kam pravisdva*^ iti \ 

"Let the king to whose house the Vratya who knows this, comes 
as a guest, cause him to be respected as superior to himself. So doing 
he does no injury to his royal rank, or to his realm. From him arose 
the Brahman (Brahman) and the Kshattra (Kshattriya). They said, 
* Into whom shall we enter,' etc." 

Sect. IY. — Further Quotations from the Taiitirlya Brdhmana^ Sanhitd, 
and Aranyaka^ and from the Shtapatha Brdhmana, 

The following passages belong to the third of the classes above ad- 
verted to, as in the descriptions they give of the creation, while they 
refer to the formation of men, they are silent on the subject of any 
separate origination of castes : 


.' He pnetaed CBUnitT. He 

.*" Haeem 
BfTT.g lae^BiBl with m fxtos^ 
cxkuased. he 

a^ire. 2. Wi& 


Hmaff ooiSiBd the A2sn% he recinkd hxmxlf as m 
he ooiSiBd tbe FsShen CPitns\ Thit <«cistiuites 
Fn^kfzi. He vho thss knows the £i2heriKMd of 
1 m ii&sr c£ kis ovu : ^3 the F^ithefs resort t» 
Haijiig zzcsred Uie Fa«hczs. he RAe«:$ed. After thix he 
1j2s: racs:^iz2a :he iiiA^Locd o£ mesi. He wh> kaows 
d fif BCBy heoeBDS iKtcIlissit. Mini* dc^s not forsike hia. 
T» k=By wiiea he w cmtics men. dty aj^fiMRil im the h enTeas ^ 

After tibiS he csoted is^ P^f^ ^^^ o»i<$itst» the gs^&Mi of the 
^vdi. T« kcB ^n» &(xb kaws the godbeial of the $!c^ diy ippettn is 

--«£ a Kixeii K:8f uii v^st comcci*'^ sin tW 

- the fiwa «f ikiakis^." C 


the heavens. These are the four streams," yiz., gods, men, Fathers, 
and Asuras. In all of these water is like the air." 

8^tapatha Brahman a, yii. 5, 2, 6. — Prajdpatir vai idam ogre dsid 
ekah eva \ so ^kamayata ^^annam sfijeya prajdyeya** iti \ sa prunehhyah 
eva adhi paSun niramimlta manasah purusham chahhusho *Svam prdndd 
gdm h'otrddavtm vdcho ^jam \ tad yad endn prdnebhyo *dhi niramimlta 
tasmdd dhuh *'prdndh paSavah*^ iti \ mano vai prdndndm prathamam \ 
tad yad manasah purusham niramimlta tasmdd dhuh ^^purushal^ pratha- 
mah paiundm tiryyavattamah " t^t | mano vai sarve prdnah | manasi 
hi sarve prdndh pratishfhitdh \ tad yad manasah purusham niramimlta 
tasmdd dhuJ^ **purushaJ^ sarve paiavah** iti \ purushasya hy ets sarve 
bhavanti \ 

"Prajapati was formerly this (universe), one only. He desired, *let 
me create food, and he propagated.' He formed animals from his 
hreaths, a man from his soul, a horse from his eye, a hull from his 
hreath, a sheep from his ear, a goat from his voice. Since ho formed 
animals from his hreaths, therefore men say, ' the hreaths are animals.' 
The soul is the first of the hreaths. Since he formed a man from his 
soul, therefore they say, ' man is the first of the animals, and the 
strongest.' The soul is all the hreaths ; for all the hreaths depend 
upon the soul. Since he formed man from his soul, therefore they 
say, ' man is all the animals ;' for all these are man's." 

81 P. Br. xiv. 4, 2, 1 (= Bpihadaranyaka TJpanishad, p. 125). — Atmd 
eva idam ogre dslt purusha-vidhah \ so ^nuvlkshya na any ad dtmano ^paSyat\ 
** so ^ham asmi " ity agre vydharat \ tato ^hafh-ndmd ahhavat \ tasmdd 
apy etarhy dmantrito ^* *ham ayam " ity eva agre uktvd atha anyad ndma 
prahrute yad asya Ihavati \ 2. Sa yat purvo *smdt sarvasmdt sarvdn 
pdpmanahk aushat tasmdt purushah \ oshati ha vai sa tarn yo ^stndt pur- 
vam hubhushati yai^ eva& veda \ 3. Co ^hihhet \ tasmdd ekdJA hihJteti \ 

** The Commentary not very satisfactorily explains this as meaning, ^ All these 
four abodes of the gods, etc., are like watere~t.«., saitcd to yield enjoyment, as 
ponds, mers, etc., are fit for bathing, drinking," etc. The phrase is repeated in the 
Vishnu Parana, i. 6 (vol. i., p. 79, of Br. Hall's edition) ; and in his note Professor 
Wilson says ambhamti '* is also a peculiar and probably a mystic term." It is ex* 
plained in the Yayu Purui^a, as will be seen further on. The last words of the quo* 
tation from the Brahmana are obscure. In another passage of the same work (iii. 8, 
18, 1, 2) the terms ambhas, nabhaa^ and mahatf are declared to denote respectiTcly 
*' earth," "air," and ''sky" ( , . . ayam vai loko *mbhdnm , . . antmikthaik vai 
nabltamsi ^ . . atau vai iok9 mahantti)* 


« k ayam ihhdnehakre fad ** mad anyad ndsti kasmdd nu hhhemi '' 

Ui / iatah eva asya hhaya^ vfydya \ kasmdd hy ahheshyat \ dcitlydd vai 

ikm/am bhavati \ 4. Sa vai naiva reme \ tatmdd ekdlA na ramate | sa 

dtitiyam aichhat | Ba ha etdvdn dsa yathd strl-pumdmsau samparishvak- 

ku I 5. Sa imam eva dtmdnam dvedhd 'pdtayat \ tatahk patih patni cha 

Maicatdm \ tasmdd ** idam ardhavrigalam iva wah " Hi ha sma aha Ydj' 

navalkyah \ tasmdd dkdsaJ^ striyd pfLryaU eva \ tdm samahhavat \ tato 

manushydh ajdyarUa | ^. 8d u ha iyam tkshdnehakre *^katham nu md 

dimanah eva janayitvd eambhaeati hanta tiro *sdni " iti \ 7. 8d gaur 

abhavai triehahhah itaras tdih sam eva ahhavat \ tato guvah ajdyanta \ 

8. Tadavd itard abhavad aivavrishah itarah gardabhi itard gardabhaf^ 

itarae tdm sam eva abhavat \ tatah ekaiapham ajdyata \ 9. Ajd itard 

abhavad vastah itarah avir itard meshah itarah | tdm sam eva abhavat 

tato 'jdvayo Ajdyanta \ evam eva yad idatn kincha mithunam d pippUikd^ 

hkyas tat sarvam asrijata \^ 

** This universe was formerly soul only, in the form of Furusha. 
Xiooking closely, he saw nothing but himself (or soul). He first said, 
* This is I.' Then he became one having the name of I. Hence even now 
a man, when called, first says, ' this is I,' and then declares the other 
name which he has. 2. Inasmuch as he, before {^purvalf) all this, burnt 
up {aushat) all sins, he (is called) purusha. The man who knows this 
bums up the person who wishes to be before him. 3. He was afraid. 
Hence a man when alone is afraid. This (being) considered that ' there 
ifl no other thing but myself: of what am I afraid V Then his fear de- 
parted. For why should he have feared ? It is of a second person that 
people are afraid. 4. He did not enjoy happiness. Hence a person 
when alone does not enjoy happiness. He desired a second. He was 
so much as a man and a woman when locked in embrace. 5. He 
caused this same self to fall asunder into two parts. Thence arose a 
husband and a wife.*^ Hence Yajvanalkya has said that 'this one's 
self is like the half of a split pea.' Hence the void is filled up by 

^ This passage has been already translated by Mr. Colebrooke, Essays i. 64, as 
well as by Dr. Roer, in the Bibliotheca Indica. 

** Mann and S'atarQpa, according to the Commentator. 

» Compare Taitt. Br. iii. 3, 3, 5. Atho arddho vai esha atmano yat patnl | " Now 
a wife is Uie half of one's self;" and ibid. iii. 3, 3, 1 : Ayajno vai esha yo 'paimkah | 
ma pr^jah prajayeran \ ** The man who has no wife is unfit to sacrifice. No children 
will be bom to him." We roust not, however, suppose from these passages tbat the 


'woman.^ He cohabited with her. From them ujss were bom. 6. She 
reflected, ' how does he, after having produced me from himself, cohabit 
with me? Ah ! let me disappear.' 7. She became a cow, and the other 
a bull ; and he cohabited with her. Prom them kine were produced* 
8. The one became a mare, the other a stallion, the one a she-ass, the 
other a male-ass. He cohabited with her. From them the class of 
animals with undivided hoofis was produced. The one became a she-goat, 
the other a he-goat, the one a ewe, the other a ram. He cohabited 
with her. From them goats and sheep were produced. In this manner 
pairs of all creatures whatsoever, down to ants, were created." 

The next passage describes men as descendants of Yivasvat, or the 
Sun, without specifying any distinction of classes : 

Taittiilya Sanhita vi. 5, 6, 1 i.^-^Aditih putrakdmd sadhyehhyo deve- 
hhyo hrahmaudanam apachat \ tasyai uchchheshanam adaduh \ tat pr&hM 
Bd reto ^dhatta \ tasyai chatvdrah Aditydh ajayanta \ sd dvitlyam apa- 
chat I 8d ^manyata '^ uchchheahandd me ime ^jnata \ yad ayre prdSuhydmt 
ito me vaslydmao janishyante " iti \ sd *yre prdSndt sd reto ^dhatta tasyai 
vyjriddham dndamajdyata \ sd Adityehhyah eva tritlyam apachat *^hhoydya 
me idam irdntam astv^^ iti \ te ^bruvan ^'vararn vrindmahai yo 'tojdyd' 
tai asmdkam sa eho ^sat \ yo *8ya prajdydm fidhydtai asmdkam hhoydya 
hhavdd*^ iti \ tato Vivasvdn Adityo ^jdyata \ tasya vai iyam prajd yad 
manushydh \ tdsv ehah eva riddho yo yajate sa devdndm hhogdya hhavati \ 

** Aditi, desirous of sons, cooked a Brahmaudana oblation for the gods 
the Sadhyas. They gave her the remnant of it. This she ate. She 
conceived seed. Four Adityas were bom to her. She cooked a second 
(oblation). She reflected, ' from the remains of the oblation these sons 
have been bom to me. If I shall eat (the oblation) flrst, more brilliant 

estimation in which women were held by the authors of the Bruhmanas was very high, 
as there are other texts in which they are spoken of disparagingly; such as the 
following : Taitt. Sanh. Ti. 5, 8, 2. — Sa aomo natiihfhata strlbhyo gfihyamandh | 
tarn ghritam vqfram kfitva *ghnan tarn nirindriyatn bhutam agrihnan \ iasniat atriyo 
nirindriya adayadtr api papat pumaa upasiitaram vadanti \ '* Soma did not abide, 
when being poured out to women. Making that butter a thunderbolt they smote it. 
They poured it out when it had become powerless. Hence women, powerless, and 
portionless, speak more humbly than even a poor man." (Compare the quotation in 
the Ck)mmentary on the Taitt. Sanhita, Vol. i. p. 996.) Taitt. Sanh. yL 5, 10, 3. 
Toitnat BtriyaM ja0m pardsyanti ut pumamsam haranti \ " Hence they reject a 
female (child) when bom, and take up a male." (Compare Nirukta, iii. 4.) 

^ Compare Taitt Br. iii. 3, 10, 4. Prajaya hi manuthyah purnahj '* For by off- 
spring a man is completed." 


(soda) will be bom to me. She ate it first ; she conceived seed ; an im- 
perfect egg was produced from her. She cooked a third (oblation) for 
tbe AdityaSy (repeating the formula) ' may this religious toil have been 
imd^rgone for my enjoyment/ The Adityas said, ' Let us choose a boon : 
let any one who is produced from this be ours only ; let anyone of his 
progeny who is prosperous be for us a source of enjoyment.' In con- 
eequence the Aditya Yivasvat was bom. This is his progeny, namely 
Msar.^ Among them he alone who sacrifices is prosperous, and be- 
comes a cause of enjoyment to the gods."^ 

The passages next following do not specify separately the creation of 
men (who must, however, be understood as included along with other 
beings under the designation prqfdhy *' offspring," or <' creatures,") and 
therefore afford less distinct evidence that their authors did not hold 
ike fourfold origin of mankind. 

The first of these extracts is especially interesting, both on account 
of its own tenor, and because (along with Taitt. Br. ii. 3, 8, 1 ff. quoted 
in p. 23) it contains the germ of one of the Puranic accounts of the 
creation which will be adduced in a subsequent section. 

Taitt. Br. ii. 2, 9, 1 ff. — Idam vat ogre naiva kinchana dAt \ na dyaur 
uBldnaprithivi na antariksham \ tad asad eva sad mano ^kuruta '^ sydm " 
iti I tad (xtapyata \ tasmdt tapandd dhutno ^jdyata \ tad hhuyo Hapyata 
tastndt tapandd Agnir ajdyata \ tad hhUyo Hapyata \ 2. Tasmdt tapandj 
jyotir ajdyata \ tad hhuyo Hapyata \ tasmdt tapandd archir ajdyata \ tad 
hhuyo *t4tpyata \ tasmdt tapandd marlchayo jdyanta \ tadhhuyo Hapyata I 
tasmdt tapandd uddrdh ajdyanta \ tad hhuyo Hapyata \ tad abhram iva 

*i Compare Taitt. Br. i. 8, 8, 1. Adityah vai prqfahf ** Creatures are descended 
firom Aditi." 

^ This story is told also, but with more detail of names and somewhat differently, in 
Taitt Br. L 1, 9, 10 ff. . Aditih puirakama aadhyebhyo devebhyo brahmaudanam 
0paehat \ ta$yai uehchhethanam adaduh \ tat prasnat \ sa reto *dhaUa \ tasyai Dkata 
cha Aryama eha ajayetam \ ad dvitlyam apaehat tasyai uchchhethanam adadul^ \ tat 
prainat | ta rtto *dhatta | tasyai Mitras eha Varunas cha qfayetam \ sa triiiyam 
apaehat \ Sasyai uehehheshanam adaduh \ tat prasnat \ sa reto *dhatta [ tasyai Am-- 
iaicha Bhagas eha ajayetam \ sd ehatuttham apaehat \ taysai ucJichheshanam ado* 
duh I tat prasnat | tid reto *dhatta tasyai Indraa eha Vivasvdmi eha qfayetdm | 
** Aditi, desirous of sons, cooked a Brahmaudana oblation to the gods the Sadhyas. 
They gaTe her the remnant of it. She ate it. She conceived seed. Dhllt|i and 
Aryaman were bom to her." She does the same thing a second time, when she 
bears Mitra and Yaruna, — a third time, when she bears Ams'a and Bhaga, — and a 
fourth time, when she bears Indra and YivasYat. 


Mamahanyaia \ tad vastim dbhinat \ 3. 8a tamudro ^hhavat \ Uumdi samu' 
drasyana pihanti \ prajananamiva hi many ante | tasmdt pahr jdyamdndd 
apah purasidd yanti \ tad daiahotd anvasrijyata \ Prqfdpaiir vai daio' 
hold I yah evaih tapaso tJryyam tidcdfki tapyaU hhavaty era | tad vm 
idam dpah salilam dsU \ so Wodit Prajdpatih (4) ^^$a kasmai afni yady 
asydpratishflidyah " iti \ yad apw avdpadyata sd pfithivy ahhavai f 
yad vyamjrishta tad antariksham ahhavat \ yad Urdhvam udamfMfa td 
dyaur ahhavat \ yad arodit tad anayoh rodaslvam \ 5. Yah evam veda na oiya 
grihs rudanti \ etad vai eshdm lohdndm janma \ ya evam eshdm lokdndm 
janma veda na eshu lokesho drttim drchhati \ $a imdm pratiehthdm avm^ 
data I sa imam pratishfhdm viitvd akdmayata *^ prajdyeya *' iti \ satap§ 
^tapyata \ so ^ntarmn ahhavat \ sa jaghandd asurdn asrijaia | 6. Tehhyo 
mrinmaye pdtre *nnam aduhat I yd asya sd tanUr dsit tdm apdhata \ id 
tamisrd ^hJtavat \ so 'kdmayata *'prajdyeya " iti | sa tapo ^tapyata \ so 
^ntarvdn ahhavat \ sa prajanandd eva prqjdh asjrijata \ tasmdd imdk 
hhuyishfhd]^ \ prajanandd hy enuh asfijata \ 7. Tdhhyo ddrumaye pdtre 
payo *duhat \ yd asya sd tanur dsit tdm apdhata \ sa jyotsnd ^hhavat \ 
so ^kdmayata *^ prajdyeya^* iti \ sa tapo Hapyata so ^ntarvdn ahhavat \ sa 
vpapaksMhhydm eva ritun asrijata \ tehhyo rajate pdtre ghritam aduhat \ 
yd asya sd tanUr dsit (8) tdm apdhata \ so ^ho-rdtrayoh sandhir ahhavat \ 
so *kdmayata **prajuyeya " iti \ sa tapo*tapyata \ so ^ntarvdn ahhavat | 
sa mukfidd devun asrijata \ tehhyo harite pdire somam aduhat \ yd asya sd 
tanur dsit tdm apdhata \ tad ahar ahhavat \ 9. Ete vai Prajdpater dohdk \ 
ya evam veda duhe eva prajdh \ ^^divd vai no ^hhud^^ iti tad devdndm 
devatvam \ ya evam devdndm devatvaiJi veda devavdn eva hhavati \ etad vai 
aho-rdtrdndm janma \ ya evam aho-rdtrdndm janma veda na aho-rdtreshu 
drttim drchhati \ 10. Asato ^dhi mano ^srijyata \ fnanah Prajdpatim asfi- 
jata I Prajdpatih prajdh asrijata \ tad vai idam manasy eva paramam 
pratishfhitam yadidaih kincha \ tad etat Svovasyasam ndma Brahma \ 
ryuchhantl vyuchhantl asmai vasyasi vasyasl vyuchhati prajdyate prajayd 
paiuhhih pra parameshfhino mdtrdm dpnoti ya evaih veda \ 

" At first this (universe) was not anything. There was neither sky, 
nor earth, nor air. Being non-existent, it resolved * let me be.' It 
became fervent. " From that fervour smoke was produced. It again 

^ The word thus rendered is atapyata^ which has the sense of " being heated " as 
well as " practising austere abstraction." I ha?e purposely given an equivocal 
rendering, which may bear cither sense. 


1)€came feirent. Prom that fervour fire was produced. It again became 
ftrrent. From tliat fervour light was produced. It again became fer- 
Tent. From that fervour flame was produced. It again became fervent. 
Prom that fervour rays were produced. It again became fervent. 
Prom that fervour blazes** were produced. It again became fervent. It 
became condensed like a cloud. It clove its bladder. That became 
Uie sea. Hence men do not drink of the sea. For they regard it as 
Hke the place of generation. Hence water issues forth before an 
animal when it is being bom. After that the Dasahot]:i (a particular 
fonnnla) was created. Prajapati is the Dasahot^ri. That man suc- 
ceeds, who thus knowing the power of austere abstraction (or fervour), 
practiBes it. This was then water, fluid. Prajapati wept, (exclaiming), 
(4) * For what purpose have I been boru, if (I have been bom) from 
this which forms no support ?'** That which fell ** into the waters 
became the earth. That which he wiped away, became the air. 
That which he wiped away, upwards, became the sky. From the 
drcnmstance that he wept {arodlt), these two regions have the name 
of rodasly (worlds). 5. They do not weep in the house of the man 
who knows this. This was the birth of these worlds. He who thus 
knows the birth of these worlds, incurs no suflering in these worlds. 
He obtained this (earth as a) basis. Having obtained (this earth as a) 
basis, he desired, ' May I be propagated.' He practised austere fervour. 
He became pregnant. He created Asuras from his abdomen. 6 . To them 
he milked out food in an earthen dish. He cast off that body of his. 
It became darkness.*^ He desired, ' May I be propagated.' He practised 

M Such ii the sense the commentator gives to the word udarahy which he makes 
«■ t dva na-Jvalah, Professor Roth (s. ▼.) explains the word as meaning *' fogs.*' 

^ This is the mode of rendering suggested to me by Professor Aufrecht. After "if 
iSb» Commentator supplies the words—** from this non-existing earth I can create no 
Uvnig creature." 

^ **Pnijapati's tears/' etc., according to the commentator. 

^ Compare S'. P. Br. xi, I, QfS: Atho yo *yam avan pranai Una asuran asfijata \ f$ 
imam era prithivlm abhipadya asfijyanta j tcumai satrijanaya tamah ira aaa \ 9. So 
*pei **papmanamvaiasfikiihiyasmai meaMfijanaya tama^ iva abhud** Hi \ tarns taiah 
99a papm4ma 'pidhyat ( tatah eva te parabhavann ityadi \ ** Then he created the 
Asnras from this lower breath of his. It was only after reaching this earth that they 
were created. On him, as he continued to create, darkness fell. 9. He understood, 
•I bare created misery, since darkness has fallen upon me as I was creating.' Then 
be pierced them with misery, and they in consequence succumbed," etc. The word 
rendered in the text by **ca8t off" is applied in Taitt. Sanh. i. 5, 4, I, to serpents 


austere fervour. He became pregnant He created living beings 
iprajdh) from his organ of generation. Hence they are the most nu- 
merous because he created them firom his generative organ. 8. To them 
he milked out milk in a wooden dish. He cast off that body of his. 
It became moon-light. He desired, ' May I be propagated. He practised 
austere fervour. He became pregnant. He created the seasons from 
his armpits. To them he milked out butter in a silver dish. He 
cast off that body of his. It became the period which connects day 
and night He desired, ' May I be propagated.' He practised austere 
fervour. He became pregnant. He created the gods from his mouth.^ 
To them he milked out Soma in a golden dish. He cast off that 
body of his. It became day. 9. These are Prajapati's milkings. 
He who thus knows milks out offspring. 'Day {diva) has come 
to us:' this (exclamation expresses) the godhead of the gods. He 
who th'us knows the godhead of the gods, obtains the gods. This 
is the birth of days and nights. He who thus knows the birth of days 
and nights, incurs no suffering in the days and nights. 10. Mind 
(or soul, tnanas,) was created from the non-existent. Mind created 
Prajapati. Prajapati created offspring. All this, whatever exists, rests 
absolutely on mind. This is that Brahma called S^vovasyasa.*' For the 
man who thus knows, (TJshas), dawning, dawning, dawns more and 
more bright ; he becomes prolific in offspring, and (rich) in cattle ; he 
obtains the rank of Parameshthin." 

SI P. Br. vi. 1, 2, 11. — Atho dhuh \ *^ Prajdpatir eva imdn lokun 
tfishfvd prithivydm pratyatuhthat \ tastnai imdh oshadhayo ^nnam apO" 
chyanta \ tad dkndt \ sa garhht ahhavat \ sa urdhvehhyah eva prdnebhyo 
devdn aajrijata \ ye *vdnchah prdnds tehhyo martydhk prajdh " iti \ yata- 
mathd ^srijata tathd ^srijata \ Prajdpatia tv eva idam sarvam asryata 
yad idam kincha | 

" Wherefore they say, ' Prajapati, having created these worlds, was 

■heddiiig their old skins {sarpdh vaijlryanio *manyanta . . . tato vai tejirnag ianur 

*8 Compare S'. P. Br. xi. 1, 6, 7, quoted in the 4th Vol. of this work, p. 22 f. 

^ The Commentator explains this word to mean " that which each succeeding day 
becomes transccndently excellent (uttarottara-dine vasTyo Uiiayena ireshfham). Here, 
he says, the highest and absolute Brahma is not meant, but mind, which has the form 
of Brahma, and, by means of the series of its volitions, is every successive moment 
more and more world-creating" {tankalpa'paramparaya pratikshanam utiaroitaro' 
dhika-jagai'^ath^Tiivad tdtig-Bmhma'rvpatvad numaJ^ praiattam | 


fl^^oried upon the earth. For him these herbs were cooked as food. 
Tliat (food) he ate. fie became pregnant, fie created the gods from 
his upper vital airs, and mortal offspring from his lower vital airs. In 
whatever way he created, so he created. But Prajapati created all this, 
whatever exists.' '* 

Su P. Br. z. 1, 3, 1. — Prajapatih prajah asrijaia \ $a Urdkcehhyah 
IM prdnsbhyo devdn asrijata \ ye \dnchahk prdndi tebhyo mariydk 
ffajd^ I atha urdkvam eva mjrityum prajdhkyo Htdram oirijata \ 

''Pftgapati created living beings. From his upper vital airs he 
ereated the gods ; from his lower vital airs mortal creatures. After- 
wards he created death a devourer of creatures." 

Taitt. Ar. L 23, 1. — Apo vai idam dsan salilam eta \ ea Praj'dpatir 
ebi^ pushkara-parne eamabhavat \ taeya antar manaei kdmah eamavarU 
Uia " idam efyeyam " Hi \ tasmdd yad purueho manaed 'hhiyachhaii tad 
fdckd wtdaH tat karmand karoti \ tad eshd *hhyanuktd '' kdmae tad agre 
mm nrarttaiddhi \ manato retahprathamam yad dsit \ 2. Sato handhum aeati 
niravwdan hjridi pratlehyd kavayo manishd " t^i | upa evam tad upanam- 
aU yat-hdmo hhavati yah evam veda \ sa tapo 'tapyata \ $a tapas taptvd 
imrfram adKuntUa | tasya yad tndmsam dsit tato ^rundl^ Ketaw^ Vdtara- 
itmdk rithayak udiUishthan \ 3. Ye nakhds te Vaikhdnasdh \ ye hdlde te 
Bdlakhilydh \ yo ra%ah bo 'pdm antaratah kurmam hhutam sarpantam 
tarn airavit ''mama vai tvan-rndtned samabkut " | 4. **na " tty ahravlt 
**p^rvam eva aham iha deam " Hi \ tat puruehasya purushatvam iti \ ta 
** eahasra-SlrBhd purushal^ sahoBrdkshah eahasra^dd" bhutvd udatiehfhat \ 
tarn abravit '' tvam ve (sic. me or vai ?) parvam earndbhut tvam idam 
p^rva^ kuruehca " iti \ ea Hah dddya apo (5) *njalind purastdd upddadhdt 
** 09d hy eva " iti \ tatah Adityah ttdatishthat | sd prdchi dik \ atha 
Anma^Ketur dakehinatah ttpddadhdd *^evd hy Agne** iti \ tato vai 
Agnir udatiehfhat \ sd dakshind dik \ atha Arunah Ketuh paichdd upd- 
dadhdd " evd hi Vdyo " iti \ 6. Tato Vdyur udatishthat \ ad praticht dik \ 
Ma Arunah Ketur uttaratah ttpddadhdd ** evd hi Indra " iti \ tato vai 
Indrah udatiehfhat \ sd udichl dik \ atha Arunah Ketur madhye updd- 
eMdd ** evd hi Pushann " iti \ tato vai Fushd udatishfhat \ sd iyam 
dik I 7. Atha Arunah Ketur uparishfdd upddadhdd *' evd hi devdh " iti j 
tato deva-4nanushydh pitaro yandharvdpsarasai cha udatishfhan \ sd ur- 
dkvd dik I ydfk viprusho vipardpatan tdbhyo *surdh rakshdihsi pi^achdi- 
cha udatishthan | tasmdt tepardbhavan vipruibhyo ^hi samabhavan | taa 


eshd hhyanUktd (8) ** Ctpo ha yad hrihatlr garhham dyan daksham dadhdndk 
janayantlh svayambhUm \ tatah une *dhyasrijyanta sargah \ adhhyo vai 
idam samahhut \ tasnidd idam sarvam Brahma svayamhhv " iti \ tasmdd 
idam sarvam Sithtlam iva adhruvam iva ahhavat \ Prajdpatir cava tat | 
dtmand utmdnam vidhdya tad eva anuprdviSat \ tad eshd *bhyanHktd 
(9) *' vidhdya lokdn vidhdya hhutdni vidhdya sarvdh pradiio diiaicha | 
Prajdpatih prathamajdh ritasya dtmand "tmdnam ahhisamviveia *' iti \ 

*' This was water, fluid. Prajapati alone was produced on a lotus* 
leaf. Within, in his mind, desire arose, ' Let me create this.* Hence 
whatever a man aims at in his mind, he declares by speech, and performs 
by act.*® Hence this verse has been uttered, * Desire formerly arose in 
it, which was the primal germ of mind, (2) (and which) sages, searching 
with their intellect, have discovered in the heart as the bond between, 
the existent and the non-existent' (K. Y. x. 129, 4). That of which, 
he is desirous comes to the man who thus knows. He practised austere 
fervour. Having practised austere fervour, he shook his body. Prom 
its flesh the rishis (called) Arunas, Ketus, and Yatara^nas'^ arose. 3. 
His nails became the Yaikhanasas, his hairs the Balakhilyas. The fluid 
(of his body became) a tortoise moving amid the waters.^ He said to 
him, * Thou hast sprung from my skin and flesh.'" 4. * No,* replied the 
tortoise, ' I was here before.' In that (in his having been ' before * 
pUrvam) consists the manhood of a man {purusha). Becoming * a man 
{purtuha) with a thousand heads, a thousand eyes, a thousand feet * 

^ Compare Taitt. S. vi. 3, 10, 4, (quoted by Roth. a. v. abhigam) yad vai hridajfenm 
ahhigachhati tufjjihvaya vadati \ 

A^ They are mentioned again in Taitt. Ar. L 24, 4. See Buhtlingk and Roth's 
Lexicon 8.y. Ectn (where the Arana Ketus are stated to be a sort of superior beings 
or demons) ; Artharva-veda, xi. 10, 2 ; Weber's Indische Studien, ii. 177 ; and the 
irerse of the M. Bh. xii. 774 : ArunaJi Ketavai chaiva tvadhayenadivaihgata^ \ ** By 
sacred study the Arunas and Ketus have ascended to heaven." 

M The Sanskrit scholar will ohserve that the text here is rather obscure. It is either 
corrupt, elliptical, or grammatically irregular. 

^ Here the Sanskrit, if it be not corrupt, must be irregular and incorrect. On the 
style of the Amnyakas, see Mr. £. B, Cowell's Preface to the KaushltakI Upanishad, 
p. viiL, where it is remarked : '* The Aranyakas appear to belong to a class of San- 
skrit writings, whose history has not yet been thorougly investigated. Their style, if 
we may judge from that of the Taittiriya and KaushltakI, is full of strange solecisms 
which sometimes half remind us of the gfithas of the Laliia Yisiara. The present 
Upanishad has many peculiar forms, some of which are common to both rcceusions, 
while others appear only in one. Such are : nishincha^ in p. 10 ; praiti for prayanti, 
in p. 61 ; samvtsyan, in p. 56 ; vtii for vyetif in p. 78; adu4hamy in p. 89, etc 


(R.Y. X. 90, 1), he arose. Prajapati said to him, * Thou wert produced 
before me : do thou first make this.' He took water firom this (5) in the 
eayity of his two hands, and placed it on the east, repeating the text, ' so 
be it, o Sun.'** From thence the sun arose. That was the eastern quarter. 
Tbea Aruna Eetn placed (the water) to the south, saying, ' so be it,' 
o AgnL' Thence Agni arose. That was the southern quarter. Then 
Arana Ketu placed (the water) to the west, saying ' so be it, o Yayu.' 
6. Thence arose Yayu. That was the western quarter. Then Aruna 
£eta placed (the water) to the north, saying 'so be it, o Indra.' 
Thence arose Indra. That is the northern quarter. Then Aruna 
Keta placed (the water) in the centre, saying 'so be it, o Fushan.' 
Thence arose Pushan. That is this quarter. 7. Then Aruna Ketu 
placed (the water) aboye, saying ' so be it, o gods.' Thence arose gods, 
XBV, Mhers, Oandharvas and Apsarases. That is the upper quarter. 
From the drops which fell apart arose the Asuras, Bakshases, and 
Fiiachaa. Therefore they perished, because they were produced from 
drope. Hence this text has been uttered ; (8) ' when the great waters 
became pregnant, containing wisdom, and generating Svayambhii, 
from them were created these creations. All this was produced from, 
the waters. Therefore all this is Brahma Svayambhu.' Hence all 
this was as it were loose, as it were unsteady. Prajapati was that. 
Haying made himself through himself, he entered into that. Where- 
fore this verse has been uttered ; (9) ' Having formed the world, having 
formed existing things and all intermediate quarters and quarters, 
Prajapati, the firstborn of the ceremonial, entered into himself with 
bimselfl' " 

From an examination of the legends contained in the Brahmanas, of 
which some specimens have just been given, it appears (1) that they 
are generally, if not always, adduced, or invented, with the view of 
showing the origin, or illustrating the efficacy, of some particular 
ceremony which the writer wished to explain or recommend ; (2) that 
the accounts which they supply of Prajapati's creative operations are 

M The formula is in tbe original evB hy eva. The Commentator says that the first 
▼ord meana '* objects of desire to be obtained," and that the second eva signifies " the 
moving (Son) ;" the sense of the entire formula being, ** Thon, o San, art thyself all 
objects of desire." The six formulas here introduced had previously occurred at the 
doK of a preceding section, i. 20, 1. 



various and even inconsistent; and (3) that they are the sonroes of 
many of the details which are found in a modified fonn in the cos- 
mogonies of the Puranas. 

When we discover in the most ancient Indian writings such dif- 
ferent and even discrepant accounts of the origin of man, aU put 
forth with equal positiveness, it is impossihle to imagine that any 
unifonn explanation of the diversity of castes could have heen 
received at the period when they were composed, or to regard any of 
the texts which have been cited as more orthodox and authoritative 
than the rest. Even, therefore, if we should suppose that the author 
of the Purusha Sukta meant to represent the four castes as having 
literally sprung from separate parts of Purusha's body, it is evident 
that the same idea was not always or even generally adopted by those 
who followed him, as a revealed truth in which they were bound to 
acquiesce. In fact, nothing is clearer than that in all these cos- 
mogonies, the writers, while generally assuming certain prevalent 
ideas as the basis of their descriptions, gave the freest scope to their 
individual fancy in the invention of details. In such circumstances, 
perfect coincidence cannot be expected in the narratives. 

We shall hereafter see that the Puranic writers reproduce some of 
these discrepancies in the traditions which descended to them from 
earlier generations, and add many new inconsistencies of their own, 
which they themselves, or their commentators, endeavour to explain 
away by the assumption that the accounts so differing relate to the 
occurrences of different Kalpas or Manvantaras (great mundane periods). 
But of a belief in any such Kalpas or Manvant^as no trace is to be found 
in the hymns or Brahma^^as : and, as we shall hereafter see, they must 
be held to be the inventions of a later age. The real explanation 
of these differences in the Brahma^as is that the writers did not con- 
sider themselves (as their successors held them) to be infallibly in- 
spired, and consequently were not at all studious to avoid in their 
narratives the appearance of inconsistency with the aooounts of their 


Sect. Y. — ManuU Account of the Origin of Castes, 

I shall first quote a few verses from the hegixming of Manu's account 
of the creation : 

L S. So ^hhidky&ya iarirat svdt sisrikshur vividhd^^ prqfdf^ \ apa m>a 
sasarjadau tdsu vljam avdsrijat \ 9. Tad andam abhavad haimaih sahaS" 
rdmiu-sama-prahlunn \ tasmin jajne svayam Brahmd sarva-loka-^ta" 
wsahah \ 10. Apo ndrd iti prohtdJ^ dpo vai narasHnavah \ tdhk yad 
asydyanam pUrvam tena Ndrdyanah smritah \ 11. Yat tat kdranam 
tmyaktam nityatk sad-asaddtmakam | tad-visrishfaf^ sa pumsho lok- 
Brahmeti Mrttyaie \ 12. Tasminn ande sa hhagavdn ushitvd parivate 
mram \ svayam evdtmano dhydndt tad andam akarod dvidhd \ ^ 

** 8. He (the self-existent) haying felt desire,^ and willing to create 
TariouB living heings from his own hody, first created the waters, and 
threw into them a seed. 9. That seed hecame a golden egg, of lustre 
equal to the sun ; in it he himself was bom as Brahma, the parent of 
all the worlds. 10. The waters are called ndrdh, for they are sprung 
from Ifara ; and as they were his first sphere of motion (ayana=path), 
he is therefore called NdrdyanaJ" 11. Produced from the impercep- 
tlbley etexnaly existent and non-existent, cause, that male {purusha) is 
celebrated in the world as Brahma. 12. After dwelling for a year in 
the egg, the glorious being, himself by his own contemplation, split it 
in twain." 

After a description of various other preparatory creative acts (w. 
1S~30) the author proceeds in w. 31 ff. to inform us how the four 
castes were produced : 

L 31. Lokdndih tu vvcfiddhyarthtm mukhabdhuru-pddatai^ | hrdhmO' 
mA iskattriyam vaOyaih kidraih cha niravarttayat \ 32. Dvidhd krit" 
9dimano deham ardhena purusho ^hhavat \ ardhena ndrf tasydm sa Vird' 
jam asrijat prahhuh \ 33. Tapas taptvd ^sfifad yam tu sa svayam purusho 

** The ideas in this passage are deriyed (with modifications expressive of the theories 
enrrent in the author's own age) from the S'atapatha Brahmana, xi* 1, 6, 1 ff. (see 
Tol. iv. of this work, p. 21 1) ; or from some other simikr a(;count in another Brah- 

'^ See S'. P. Br. i 7, 4, 1 : JP^qfapatir ha vai warn duhitaram abhidadhyau, 
f7 In the M. Bh. iiL 12952, Krishna says : apdm narafy iti pura sat^fna-karma 
ifiiam maya \ Una Narayano py ukto mama tat tp ayanam tada \ " The name of 
mraJ^ WBs formerly assigned by me to the waters : hence I am also called Nfir&yaoa, 
for then has always been my sphere of motion.*' 


Vtraf I tarn mam vittdsya sarvoiya irashtdram dptja-sattamdh \ 34. 
Aham prajdh nsfikshtts tu tapas taptva mdtdcharam | patln prqfdndm 
asrijam maharshtn ddito daia \ 35. Manchim Atryangirasau PiUastyam 
FtUaham Kratum \ Frachetasam VtuUhthaih cha Bhfigum Ndradam 
era cha \ 36. JEte Manums tu saptdnydn (urijan hhHritefasah \ devdn 
devanikdydmi cha maharahifhi chdmttaujasah \ 37. Yaksha-rakshah-piid" 
chdmS cha yandharvdpsaraso ^surdn \ ndgdn sarpdn tuparndmS cha pi- 
trlndm cha prithaggandn \ 38. Vidyuto Hani-meghdfhi cha rohitendra- 
dhanufhsi cha \ tUkd nirgMta-ketUmi cha jyotlthshy uchchdvachdni cha \ 
39. Kinnardn vdnardn matsydn vividhdmi cha vthangamdn \ paSUn mjrigdn 
manushydnii cha vydldnd chohhayatodatah \ 40. Krimihlta-patangd'ffii cha 
yukd-makshika-matkunam | aarva^i dm damia-maiakam sthdvara^i cha 
pfithagvidham \ 41. Uvam etair idam iarvam man-niyogdd mahdtma- 
hhth I yathdkarma tapo-yogdt srishfam sthdvara^angamam \ 

31. " That the worlds might he peopled, he caused the Brahman, 
the Eshattriya, the Yai^ya, and the S^dra to issue from his mouth, hia 
arms, his thighs, and his feet." 32. Having divided his own hodj 
into two parts, the lord (Brahma) hecame, with the half a male 
(purusha), and with the half, a female ; and in her he created Yiraj.** 

33. Know, most excellent twice-born men, that I, whom that male, 
(purusha)^ Yiraj, himself created, am the creator of all this world. 

34. Desiring to produce living creatures, I performed very arduous 
devotion, and first created ten Maharshis (great rishis), lords of living 
beings, (35) viz., Marichi, Atri, Angiras, Pulastja, Fulaha, £[ratu, 
Frachetas, Ya^ishtha, Bhfigu, and Narada.*^ 36. They, endowed with 

^ On ibis KnllGka the Commentator remarks : DotSpyS eha iaktya mukkadibhyo 
hrahmanadi-^irmanam Brahmano na vUankantyam iruti-^tiddkatvat \ " It ii not to be 
doubted that, by his diyine power, Brahmfi formed the BrShman and tbe other castes 
firom his mouth and other members, since it ii proved by the Yeda. He then quotes 
the 12th Terse of the Purusha Sakta. 

^ See the Purusha SOkta, verse 5. 

w It will be observed that Manu applies this term punrwha to three beings, /r.f< 
to BrahmS (v. 11), teeond to the male formed by Brabmi from the half of his own 
body (v. 32), and third tp Viraj, the offspring of the male and female halves of Brah- 
mu's body (v. 33). It will be noticed that this story of Brahma dividing his body is 
borrowed from the passage of the S'. P. Br. xiv. 4, 2, 1, quoted above. 

*^ In the Bamayaua, ii. 110, 2 ff., a different account is given of the origin of the 
world, in which no reference is made to Manu Sv&]rambhuva. The order of the 
creation there described is as follows : First everything was water. Then Brahma 
Sv&y&mbhQ, with the deities, came into existence^Brahma being said to have sprung 


great energy, created* other seven Manns, gods, and abodes of gods, 

tod ¥aharHhi8 of boundless might ; (37) Yakshas, Baksbases, Pi^bas, 

Oandbaryas, Apsarases, Asuras, Nagas, Serpents, great Birds, and the 

different classes of Fitps ; (38) lightnings, thonderbolts, clonds, Indra's 

bows nnbent and bent, meteors, portentous atmospheric sounds, comets, 

ind yarious luminaries; (39) Kinnaras, apes, fishes, different sorts of 

birds, cattle, deer, XEir, beasts with two rows of teeth ; (40) small 

and large reptQes, moths, lice, flies, fleas, all gadflies and gnats, and 

motioinlefls things of different sorts. 41. Thus by my appointment, 

and by the force of devotion, was all this world both xotiokless 

m> Movnre, created by those great beings, according to the (previous) 

aetioiia of each creature." 

The diffisrent portions of the preceding narrative of the creation of 
the human species are not easily reconcileable with each other. For 
it is first stated in verse 31, that men of the four castes proceeded 
Beparately firom different parts of Brahma's body, — ^prior (as it would 
appear) (1) to the division of that body into two parts and to the suc- 
cessive production (2) of Yiraj, (3) Mann, and (4) the Maharshis, who 
formed all existing creatures. And yet we are told in verse 39, 
tiiat laor were among the beings called into existence by those Maharshis, 
and in verse 41, that the entire xotino as well as motionless world 
was jtheir work. It is not said that the men created by the Maharshis 
were distinct firom those composing the four castes, and we must, there- 
tare^ assume that the latter also are included under the general appel- 
lation of men. But if men of the four castes had been already produced 
before the formation of all living creatures by the Maharshis, what 
neoesnty existed for the men of these castes being a second time called 
into being as a part of that later creation ? It is possible that this 

fiom the ether {aka$a). Brahma, with his sons, created the world. From Brahm& 
wpnMig Maifchi;,from Ifarichi, Kas'japa ; from Kasjapa, YiTasrat; and fromYiras- 
TBt, Mann VaiTasrata. The original of this passage is quoted in the 4th toL of this 
work, p. 29 ff. 

<* These great rishis seem to he the heings denoted hj the word vUvasrijah, ** crea- 
ton of the mdrerse," in the Terse of Mann (zii. 60), which wiU be quoted below. 
Eeferenee to rishis, or to seren rishis, as ** formers of existing things" {bhtUa-kritah), 
b also found in the Atharrayeda, tL 108, 4 ; Ti 133, 4, 6 ; xi. 1, 1, 3, 24; xiL 1, 39 ; 
and the word bkuUMriSuJ^ without the addition of rishis, is found in the same work 
fit 28, 1 ; IT. 35, 2, and xix. 16, 2. 


allegation of the separate creation of castes may hare been engrafted 
as an after-thought on the other account.^ 

After other details, regarding the propagation, nature, etc, of created 
things (w. 42-50), the re-absorption of Brahma into the Supreme 
Spirit, and his alternations of sleep and repose, etc. (yy. 50-57), Manu 

58. Idam idstra^i tu kritvd 'sau mdm era svayam dditah \ vidhwad 
gr&hay&masa Marlchyddlihi tv aham munin \ 59. Mad vo *yam Bhfiguh 
idstram srdvayUhyaty aieshatah \ etad hi matto ^dhijage saarvam esha 
^khilam munih \ 60. Tata» tathd sa tenoUo maharshir Manund Bhfigul^ \ 
tdn ahravid fishtn sarvdn prltdtmd " irUyatdm^' iti \ 61. SvdyamhJm- 
vasydsya Manoh shad-vafhiyd Manavo ^pare \ srishfavantah prqfdk wd^ 
ivdh mahdtmdno mahaujasah \ 62. SvdrochUhai chauttamU cha Tdmaso 
Eaivataa tathd \ ChdkshtuhaS cha mahdtejd Vivawat-suta eva cha \ 63. 
Svdyambhuvddydh saptaite Manavo hhuritefasah \ sve we 'ntare »arvam 
idam utpddydpuS cJtardcharam \ 

59. '' Having formed this Scripture, he (Brahma) himself in thd 
beginning caused me to comprehend it according to rule ; as I did to 
Harichi and the other munis. 60. This Bhpgu will give you to hear 
this scripture in its entirety ; for this muni learned the whole from me. 
61. Then that Haharshi (great rishi), Bhpigu being so addressed by 
Manu, with pleasure addressed all those rishis, saying, 'Let ^t be 
heard.' 62. ' From this Manu Svayambhuva sprang other Manus in 
six successive generations, great and glorious, who respectively created 
living beings of their own, — (63) viz., Svarochisha, Auttami, Tamasa, 
Baivata, Chakshusha, and the mighty son of Yivasvat. 64. These 
seven ^ Manus of great power, of whom Svayambhuva was the first, 
have each in his own period [antara) produced and possessed the 
world.' " 

^ In the same way it may be observed that in t. 22 Brahma is said to hare formed 
the subtile class of liring gods whose essence is to act, and of the S'&dhyas {karmaim 
ntanam cha devanatn to 'tfifat praninam prahhuh \ aadhyanam cha g^tnark tukthmam)^ 
and in ▼. 25, to have '< called into existence this creation, desiring to form these living 
beings'* (tfithim tasarya chaivcma*'* arashfum ichchaHH imah prajah). But if the 
gods and all other creatures already existed, any such further account of their pro* 
dttction by the Maharshis, as is given in verse 36, seems to be not only superfluoua 
but contradictory. 

^ It will be observed that here SvSyambhuva is included in the seven Manus, al« 
though in verse 86 (see above) it is said that the ten Maharshis, who had themselves 
been created by Svayambhuva (vv. 34 £), produced seven other Manus, 


After Bome preliminary explanations regarding the divisions of time 
as reckoned by men and gods, etc. (ty. 64-78), the author proceeds to 
tell US how long each of these Manns reigns : 

79. Tat prdk dvddaia-^dheuram uditath daivikaih yugam \ tad eka- 
iaptati-guMm manvantaram ihoehyate \ 80. Mmvantardny asanhhydni 
$argah samhdra eva cha \ hridann ivaitat kurute Parameshfhl punah 
punah I 

''The age (j/uya) of the gods mentioned before, consisting of twelve 
thousand (years), when multiplied by seventy-one, is here called a 
manvantara. 80. There are innumerable manvantaras, creations and 
destructions. The Supreme Being performs this again and again, as if 
in sport" 

A more detailed account of these great mundane periods will be 
given in the next section, when I come to take up the Vishnu Furana. 
Meanwhile it may be remarked that the present manvantara is that of 
the last of the Manus above enumerated, or Manu Yaivasvata, who, 
according to verse 63, must have created the existing world. But if 
such be the case, it does not appear why the creation of Manu Svayam- 
bhuva, with which the present race of mortals can have little to do, 
should have been by preference related to the rishis in w. 33 ff. It 
must, however, be observed that in v. 33 Manu Svayambhuva described 
himself as the former of "this " (t.^., the existing) universe, and there 
is no doubt that the whole code of laws prescribed in the sequel of the 
work is intended by the author to be observed by the existing race 
of Indians (see verses 102 ff. of the first book). We must, therefore, 
suppose that the creations of the later Manus are substantially identical 
with that of the first ; or that there is some confusion or inconsistency 
in the accounts which I have cited. Perhaps both suppositions may 
be correct. 

In w. 81-86, the four Yugas (or great ages of the world) the Kpita, 
Treta, Dvapara, aud Kali, their gradual deterioration, and the special 
duties peculiar to each, are described." 

*^ In T. 86 these predominant duties are said to be austere ferronr in the Kfita age^ 
knowledge in the TretS, sacrifice in the Dvapara, and liberality alone in the Kali 
(tapah partm Kfita-^fug^ treta^am jnanam uehyaU \ dvapare yajnam evahmr danam 
ektm kdUm y%ige), TUs, as remarked in Weber's Indische Studien, 282 f., note, is not 
quite in conformity with the view of the Mun^aka Upanishad, i. 2, 1, which states t 


At vene 87, Bhrign lecnn to the four castes: 

87. 8arva9yd»ya tu 9arga»ya gupty-ariham sa wiohddyutik \ MtUA«- 
h&h&ru^paj-jandm pjithak larmdny akalpayat \ 

** For the preservation of this whole creation, that glorious being 
(Brahma) ordained separate functions for those who sprang from his 
mouth, his arms, his thighs, and his feet." 

These fhnctions are then detailed (ty. 88-92). In verse 93| the 
grounds of the Brahmans* pre-eminence are stated : 

93. Uttamdngohhavdj jyaishthy&d hrahmanaS ehaiva dhdram&t \ tOT" 
Viuyakd^ya Mrgatya dharmato hrdhmanah prabhuh \ 94. Tarn ki «rff- 
yamhhuh ndd dsydt tapas taptvd '^dito ^srtjat \ 

Since the Brahman sprang from the most excellent organ, since he is 
the first-born and possesses the Yeda, he is by nature the lord of this 
whole creation. Him, the self-existent (Brahma) after exercising 
fervid abstraction, formed at the first from his own mouth." 

But as there are grades of excellcDce among created things, and 
among men themselves (96), so are there also among Brahmans : 

97. Brdhmaneshu eha vidvdmso vidvatsu hrita-huddhayah \ krtta- 
huddhishu karttdrah karttrUhu hrahma-vedinah I 

• • • I 

<< Among Brahmans the learned are the most excellent, anong the 
learned the resolute, among the resolute those who act, and among 
them who act they who possess divine knowledge." 

In a subsequent part of the work (xii. 40 ff.) we find men in 
geueral, the castes, and indeed all existing things, from Brahma down- 
wards, classified according to their participation in different degrees in 
the three gunas^ or qualities (sattva, " goodness," rajas, '' passion," end 
tamas, "darkness"). 

39. Yena yams tu gunenaishdm samsdrdn pratipadyaU \ tan samdsma 
vahshydmi sarvasydsya yathdhramam \ 40. Devatvarh sdttvikd ydnti 
mantuhyatvafh cha rdjasd^ | tiryaktvam tdmasd nityam ity eshd tri' 

tat etat tatjfam mantreshu karmani kavayo yany apasyamt tani tretayam bakudha 
santatani \ ** This is true : the rites which sages beheld in the hymns, are in great 
variety celebrated in the Treta." In the same way the M. Bh. iii. t. 11,248, says that 
sacrifices and rites prevail in the TretS (tato yajndh pravartiante dharmai cha 
vividhal^ kriyah \ tretayam ityadi). See also M. Bh. xiL 13,090. The word kfUa^ as 
the name of the first ynga is thus explained in a previous verse of the former of these 
two passages (11,235) : ^ritam eva na karttavyaih tatmin kale yugottame \ ** In the 
time of that most excellent Tuga (everything) has been done, (and does} not (remain) 
to be done." 


wMd gatih | . • • 43. Sdstinai eha Uiirangcik eha Sudrd mUchh&i 
cka garhUdh \ timhd vy&ghrd vardhdi eha madhyamA tdnuuH gatih \ 
. . . 46. Rdjdnah hhaitriydi ehaiva rdjnaS chaiva purohitdh \ vdda- 
ffuddhthpradhandi eha madhyamd rdjasl gatih | ... 48. Tdpasd yo- 
tayo eiprd ye eha vaimdnikd gandh \ nahshatrdni eha daitydi eha 
praihamd sdttvtll gatih \ 49. Tajvdna rishayo devd vedd j'yotlmshi 
vatsardh \ pitarai ehaiva sddhydi eha dvitlyd sdttviki gatih \ 50. Brah-^ 
md vihanijo dharmo mahdn avyaktam eva eha \ uttamdm sdttviklm etdm 
gatim dhur wutnUhinah \ 

*' 39. I ahall now declare saccinctly in order the states which the 
8onl reaches by means of each of these qualities. 40. Souls endowed 
with the taitva quality attain to godhead; those having the rqfas 
quality become men ; whilst those characterized by tamas always be- 
come beasts— such is the threefold destination ... 43. Elephants, 
horses, Sudras and contemptible Mlechhas, lions, tigers, and boars 
form the middle dark condition . . . 46. Kings, Kshattriyas, a 
king's priests {purohitdh), and men whose chief occupation is the war 
of words, compose the middle condition of passion ... 48. Deyotees, 
ascetics,* Brahmans, the deities borne on aerial cars, constellations, and 
Baityas, constitute the lowest condition of goodness. 49. Sacrificing 
priests, tishis, gods, the vedas, the celestial luminaries, years, the 
fathers, the Sadhyas, form the second condition of goodness. 50. Brah- 
ma, the creators,*' righteousness, the Great One (mahat), the Unap- 
paxent One {a/vyakta\ compose the highest condition of goodness." 

** These <' creators" (vUvatfifaJk) are thus mentioned in Taitt Br. iii. 12, 9, 2. 
Adariam Agnim ehinvana^ purve viivatfyo *mriiah \ iatam vartha'tahaarani tUkthu 
&h miram aaata | 3. iapah asld gjihapatir Brahma hrahma 'bhavat tvayam \ tatyaik 
ka kataitXdm atJd yad viavaaf^ asata \ amritam Mya udagayat tahatram parivat' 
mran \ bhutam ha prastotauham atld bhavuhyat prati ehaharat \ prano adhvaryur 
abhavad idain mrvam siahatatam | . . . 7. Viivatfijah prathamah aatram a$ata \ 
• ... I tato ha jqftte bhuvatuuya gopah hiranmayah takunir Brahma nama | yena 
turyaa tapati i^'ateddhah | .... 8. Btena vat viivatfyah idam visvam atfyanta \ 
pad wiivam asjryoHta taamdd viivasfijah \ viivam enian anu prajayaU \ ** 2. The 
ancient and immortal creators of the uniTerse, keeping fire kindled till they saw the 
new moon, and consecrated, were engaged in a sacrifice for 100,000 years. 3. Austere 
fenronr was the householder ; Prayer itself (brahma) was the hrahma priest ; Truth 
was their hotri, when the creators were so occupied. Immortality was their udgatri 
for a thousand years. The Past was their prastotp, the Future their pratihartri i 
Breath was the adhyaryu, whilst they were seeking to obtain all this." After 
a good deal more of this allegory, the author proceeds in para.: 7. ** These first 


It will be observed that the different parts of this acconnt of the 
mode in which the three qualities are distributed, are not quite in har- 
mony. From ▼. 40 it would appear that all souls having the quality 
of passion become men ; and yet we find from vy. 43, 48, and 49, fliat 
STidras belong to the tdtnasa class, and Brahmans, of different descr^ 
tions, to two of the S&ttvika grades. Acoording to the rule enunciated 
in Y. 40, the latter ought to have been bom as gods. 

It is, farther, remarkable that in this enumeration STidras are found 
in the same category with Mlechhas (v. 43), that the Yai^yas are not ac- 
commodated with a position in any of the classes, that E^shattriyas and 
kings' domestic priests, who are of course Brahmans, and others (who 
must be Brahmans) fond of disputation on learned questions" (though 
not stated to be heretical) are ranked together as '' passionate " (v. 46), 
while other Brahmans of different characters are placed in two of the 
higher grades, Brahmans simply so called {vipr&h) being regarded as 
<< good " in the lowest degree (v. 48), and sacrificing priests {yc^dnah) 
sharing with rishis, gods, the vedas, etc., the honour of the middle con- 
dition of goodness. It is not clear whether the devotees, and asceticsy 
mentioned in v. 48, belong to the same caste as the Brahmans with whom 
they are associated, or may also be men of the inferior classes. Nor is it 
evident for what reason the sacrificing priests {yajvdnah\ specified in 
v. 49, are so much more highly estimated than the king's priests {rdjnak 
purohitdh) in v. 46, since the latter also officiate at sacrifices. The 
honourable position assigned to Daityas in the lowest class of '' good" 
beings (v. 48) is also deserving of notice. We shall see in the follow- 
ing chapter that the Puranas variously describe mankind as belonging 
entirely to the '' passionate " class (see v. 40, above) and as charac- 
terized by the three other *' qualities," according to their caste. 

creatoTB were engaged in sacriflce . . . Thence was born the presenrer of the world, 
the golden bird called Brahma, by whom the sun glows, kindled with light, . . . 
8. . . . Through this the creators created this universe. As they created the imi- 
Terse, they are called Tis'Taspjab. . Ererything is created after them.'* See ahoYt 
the reference made to fiahayo bhuta-kfitah in p. 36. The allegory in this extract 
from the Taitt. Br. resembles in its character that in the sixth vene of the Puruaha 
^ Sartiarthakalahth priyai eha \ Comm* 


iici. YI.-^AeeouKi of the System of Tugas^ Manvantarae^ and Rdpoif 
aeenrdmg to the Vishnu Purdna, and other authorities. 

I ahall in the next section adduce the description given in the Yish^n 
FtoiQa of the creation of living creatores, and the origin of the four 

easteBy after first supplying in the present some explanation of the great 

mundane periods, the Twfos, Ifanvantaras, Ealpas, etc. 

The oompntations of these great periods are stated in the third 

chfl|»ter of the first book, and in the first chapter of the sixth book, 

and are deariy explained by Professor Wilson in his notes to page 50 

of his translation. 

One year of mortals is eqnal to one day of the gods.** 

12,000 divine years are equal to a period of four Yugas, which is 

thuB made up, viz. : 

K|ita Yuga with its mornings and evenings 4,800 divine years 

TretaYuga „ „ „ „ 3,600 „ 

Dvapara Yuga „ „ „ „ 2,400 „ „ 

Kali Yuga „ „ „ „ 1,200 „ 

, making... 12,000 divine years,* 
Ab a day of the gods is = to one year of mortals, the 12,000 
divine years must be multiplied by 360, the assumed number of days 
in a year, to give the number of the years of mortals in this great 
period of four yugas, thus: 12,000 divine years x 360 = 4,320,000 
years of mortals. 1000 of these periods of 12,000 divine, or 4,320,000 
human, years — i.e,, 4,320,000,000 human years are = 1 day of Brah- 
ma,^ and his night is of the same duration. Within that period of a 
day of Brahmft, 14 Manus reign,^^ and a Manvantara, or period of Menu, 

^ YuAmu P. vL 1, 4 ahoratram pitrhMfk iu maw *hda$ tridivaukasam | See also 
Mann L 66 and 67. The Taitt. Br. iii. 9, 22, 1, too, states : tka0t vai itad devanam 
mher yat aampoisMrt^ \ <' This period of a year is one day of the gods." 

** i. 8, 10. Dwyair vartha - iahatraUtu kfita - tretadi - tafifnitam | ehatuiyuffam 
imiaiabhii iad^Othagmk nibodha me\ll, chatvari tnni dve chatkam kfitadishu 
pmikaJ trm n am \ divyahdanam tahatrani yugeihv ahur puravidah \ 12. TtU-pramanaih 
dmtmh BtmdApa purva iatrabhidhlyat$ \ aandhyamiakai eha tai^iulyo yugtuyanantaro 
hi jaI) 13. Strndhya-Bondhyamiayor antar yah halo mtmi-^attama \ yugahhyah aa iu 
rpnsyah kfitm'trtiadi-tanjnitah j 

^^ V. P. i. 3, 14. Kjitam treta dvaparas eha Italia chaiva ehaiuryugam \ proeh' 
ytUe iat'tahatrmk eha Brahmano dwaaam mune \ See also Mann i. 72. 

''^ Y. P. i. 3, 15. Brahmano divaae brahman Manavaa eha ehalurdaia | bhavanii \ 


is con^qnently = the 14th part of a day of Brahma. In the present 
Kalpa (= a day of Brahma) six Manns, of whom Svayambhnya was the 
first, have already passed away, the present Mann being Yaiyasvata.^ 
In each Manvantara seven rishis, certain deities, an Indra, a Mann, 
and the kings, his sons, are created and perish.^ A thousand of the 
systems of 4 Yugas, as has been before explained, occur coincidently 
with these 14 Manvantaras ; and consequently about 71 systems of 4 
Yugas elapse during each Manvantara, and measure the lives of the 
Mann and the deities of the period.''* At the dose of this day of 
Brahma a collapse {pratisancharah) of the universe takes place, which 
lasts through a night of Brahma, equal in duration to his day, during 
which period the three worlds are converted into one great ocean, when 
the lotus-bom god,^' expanded by his deglutition of the universe, and 
contemplated by the yogis and gods in Janaloka, sleeps on the serpent 
Sbsha. At the end of that night he awakes and creates anew.^^ 

A year of Brahma is composed of the proper number of such days 
and nights; and 100 such years constitute his whole life. The period 
of his life is called Para^ and the half of it Pardrddha^ or the half of a 
Para, One Fararddha, or half of Brahma's existence, has now expired, 
terminating with the great Kalpa, called the Fadma Kalpa. The now 
existing Kalpa, or day of Brahma, called Yaraha (or that of the boar), 
is the first of the second Fararddha of Brahma's existence.''^ The 

^ This is stated by Mann i. 62 fif. (see al>0Te)| as well as in the third book of tho 
y. P. L 3, which gives the names in the same order : Svatfambhuvo Mtmuh pur90 
Manuh Svaroehishas iatha \Auttami8 Tamasai ehaiva Eawatas Chaiihushat UUha \ 
9ha4 ete Manavo Hltah tampratam tu Raveh suiaJi | Vawatpato 'yam yatyaUat tapUh' 
mam varttate 'niaram \ 

79 y. P. i. 3, 16. SaptarthayaJk »urah S'akro Manut tat-tunavo nfipah \ tkakaU hi 
SfijyanU tamhriyante eha purvavat \ 

"'^ Ibid Ter. 17. Chaturyuganam tankhyata tadhika hy eka taptatij^ \ mofwantanm 
Manoh kalah auradtnam eha tattama \ See also Manu i. 79. 

7S The birth of Prajapati on a lotns-leaf is mentioned in the Taitt Arany. i. 23, 1, 
qnoted abore, p. 32. 

7< Ibid 20. Chaturdaaa-yuno hy esha kalo brahmam ahdh tmjitam \ brahmo mUmit- 
fiko noma taayante praiisaneharaJk | . . . 22. Ekarnave iu trailokye Brahma Nard" 
yanatmakah \ hhoguiayyagatah iete traiiokyO'yrasa^vfimhitaJli | 23. Janasthair yogi- 
hhir devaii ehiniyamano 'fy'a-aambhavaJk | tat-pramanam hi tatH ratrim tadanie tfyaU 
punah I See also y. P. i. 2, 69-62, as translated by Wilson, vol. i. p. 41. 

'" Ibid ver. 24. Evam tu Brahmano varsham eva**^ vartha-ilaiam eha tat \ iatam hi 
tasya varshanam param ayur mahatmanah | 26. Ekam asya vyatltcfi"^ tupararddham 
Brahmano 'nagha \ tatyant^ 'bhud mahakalpaJ^ Padma^ iiy abhwidrutaJk | dvittyatya 



dinolataaii, whieh oocnn at the end of each Kalpa, or day of Brahma^ 
11 called nadmiitiia, incidental, occasional, or contingent. (See Wilson's 
TtthQU Parana, toL i. of Dr. Hall's edition, p. 52, with the editor's 
note; and vol. ii. p. 269. For an account of the other dissolutions of 
the nniverse I refer to the same work, vol. i. p. 113, and to pp. 630-633 
dtbe original 4to. edition.) 

Of thia elaborate system of Yugas, Manvantaras, and Kalpas, of 
eaonnouB duration, no traces are found in the hymns of the Eig-veda. 
Their authors were, indeed, familiar with the word Tuga^^^ which fre- 
q[a6ntl7 ocours in the sense of age, generation, or tribe. Thus in i. 139, 
8; iiL 26, 3; yL 8, 5; yi. 15, 8 ; vi. 36, 5; x. 94, 12, the phrase 
jrv^ yug^^ means "in every age." In iii. 33, 8 ; x. 10, 10, we have 
n/^ora yug&ni^ "future ages," and in x. 72, 1, vitare yuge^ "in a later 
age;" in vii. 70, 4, pHrvdni yug&ni^ " former ages,"^ and in L 184, 3, 
yuyajUrnd, "past ages." In i. 92, 11 ; i. 103, 4; i. 115, 2; i. 124, 2 ; 
L 144, 4;»» ii. 2, 2; v. 52, 4; vi. 16, 23; vii. 9, 4; viii. 46, 12; 
viii. 51, 9 ; ix. 12, 7 ;» x. 27, 19 ; x. 140, 6 »» (in all of which places, 
except L 1 15, 2, the word is combined with manushyd, tndnushdf manu' 
9kahy or jandndm)y yvga seems to denote "generations" of men, or 

ftrardikMya varttamanatya vai dvjfa \ VarahaJ^ iii kalpo *yam praihatnaJ^ pari- 
^ In Professor Wfllson's Dictionary three sensee are assigned to ytiga (neuter) 

(1) a pair; (2) an age as the Erita, TretS, etc. ; (3) a lustre, or period of five years. 
When naed as masculine the word means, according to the same authority, (1) a yoke ; 

(2) a measure of four cubits, etc. ; (3) a particular drug. 

^ Sayasa, on iii. 36, 8, explains it by pratidinamy <* every day;" on tL 8, 5; 
tL 16, 8 ; Ti 36, 5, by kale kale, ** at every time.'' 

^ Sfiyana takes tiie phrase for former ** couples of husbands and wives,'* mithunam 

^ In L 92, 11 and i. 124, 2, Ushas (the Dawn) is spoken of as, praminaii manuahya 
ywgam^ ** wearing away human terms of existence, or generations." In commenting 
on the former textS&yana explains yugani as equivalent to kfita-tretadiniy ^'theKfita, 
Treta, and other ages," whilst in explaining ^e second, he takes the same word as 
sngnifying yyffopaiakehitan nimeehadi'kalavayavann **the seconds and other component 
parts of time indicated by the word," or as equivalent to ytngniani^ *^ the conjunctions 
of men," — since the dawn scatters abroad to their several occupations men who had 
been previously congregated together !" In his note on i. 144, 4, he gives an option 
of two different senses : manoh eambhandhlni yugani jayapati-rupani hotradhvaryu' 
rOpaniwa | <* couples consisting of husband and wife, or of the hotfi and adhvaryu 

« This verse, ix. 12, 7, is also found in Sama Y. ii. 652, where, however, yi^fa is 
sobstituted for yuya, 

• This Terse ooeurs also in SSmaV.iL 1171, and Yaj. S. xii. 111. 


rather, in Bome places, ''tribes^' of men. In y. 73, 3, the phnse 
ndhuihd yu^d most have a similar meaning. In i. 158, 6, it is said 
that the liahi Blrghatamas became worn oat in the tenth yu^a ; on 
which Professor Wilson remarks (E. Y. voL ii. 104, note) : ** The scho- 
liast understands yuga in its ordinary interpretation ; but the jfti^a of 
£ve years is perhaps intended, a lustrum, which would be nothing mar- 
Tellous." Professor Au&echt proposes to render, '' in the tenth stage 
of life." The first passage of the Eig-veda, in which there is any indi- 
cation of a considerable mundane period being denoted, is x. 72, 2 £, 
where '* a first,'' or, ''an earlier age {jfuya) of the gods" is mentioned 
(tUvdndm purvye yuge; devdndm prathame yttys) when ''the existent 
sprang firom the non-existent " {asatah sad ajdyata) ; but no allusion is 
made to its length. In the same indefinite way reference is made in 
X. 97, 1, to certain "plants which were produced before the gods,^ 
three ages {tfugM) earlier " {ydl^ oshadhih pHrvdh jdtdh devehhyas tri- 
yugam purd). In one Terse of the Atharva-veda, however, the word yuga 
is so employed as to lead to the supposition that a period of very long 
duration is intended. It is there said, Tiii. 2, 21 : iatam U ayutaik 
hdyandn dve yuge tfini chatvdri hrinmah | " we allot to thee a hundred, 
ten thousand, years, two, three, four ages {yugasy^^ As we may with 
probability assume that the periods here mentioned proceed in the 
ascending scale of duration, two ytigasy and perhaps even one yugOf 
must be supposed to exceed 10,000 years. 

The earliest comparison between divine and human periods of dura- 
tion of which I am aware is found in the text of the Taitt Br. quoted 
above in a note to p. 42 : " A year is one day of the gods.^ But so 
far as that passage itself shows, there is no reason to imagine that the 
statement it contains was anything more than an isolated idea, or that 
the conception had, at the time when the Brahmanas were compiled, 
been developed, and a system of immense mundane periods, whether 

^ For the context of this line see Journal of the Royal Asiatio Society for 1866, 
page 42. 

w An analogoQB idea ia found in the S'atapatha Brahmana xiT. 7, 1, 33 ff. («Bp- 
hadSranyaka UpaniBhad pp. 817 ff. of Cal. ed.) atha ye iatam numuthyanam atumda^ 
«a $kaJ^ pitrlffamjitahkanam anandah \ ** now a hundred pleasures of men are one 
pleasure of the Pitfis who hare conquered the worlds." And so on in the same way ; 
a hundred pleasures of the Pitris equalling one pleasure of the Earmaderas (or gods 
who have become so by works); a hundred pleasures of the latter equalling one 
pleasure of the gods who were bom such, etc. 


human or divine, had been elaborated. That, however, the authors of 

the Br&hmanas were becoming faTniliar with the idea of extravagantly 

large numbers is dear from the passage in the Taitt. Br. iii. 12, 9, 2, 

quoted above, p. 41, in the note on Manu ziL 50, where it is said that 

the creators were engaged in a saorifioe for 100,000 years. 

Professor Roth is of opinion (see his remarks under the word Kfita 
in his Lexicon) that according to the earlier conception stated in Manu 
L 69, and the Mahabharata (12,826 ff.), the four Yugafr— Kfita, Treta, 
Brapara, and Kali, with their mornings and evenings, consisted respec- 
tively of no more than 4,800 ; 3,600; 2,400 ; and 1,200 ordinary years 
of mortals ; and that it was the commentators on Manu, and the com- 
pilers of the Puranas, who £rst converted the years of which they 
were made up into divine years. The verse of Manu to which Pro- 
fessor Both refers (i. 69), and the one which follows, are certainly 
quite silent about the years composing the Kfita age being divine 

Chatvdry Qhul^ sahasrdni varshdnam tu kritam yugam \ tasya tavaeh 
ckhaH sandhyd sandhydmichaScha tathdvidhah \ 70. Itareshu sasandhyeshu 
aaatmdhdmisshu eha trishu \ ekdpdyena varttanU sahawdni iatdni eha \ 
** ThBj say that four thousand years compose the kfita yuga, wilii 
as many hundred years for its morning and the same for its evening. 
70. In the other three yugas, with their mornings and evenings, the 
thousands and hundreds are diminished successively by one." 

Verse 71 is as follows : Tad etat parisankhydtam dddv eva chatW" 
yugam | eiad dvddaia-sdhasram devdndm yugam uchyate \ which, as ex- 
plained by Medhatithi, may be thus rendered : '' Twelve thousand of 
these periods of four yugas, as above reckoned, are called a Yuga of 
the gods." Medhatithi's words, as quoted by Kulluka, are these : 
Chakuryugair wa dvddaSa-sahagra'Sankhyair divyam yugam \ ** A divine 
Yuga is formed by four yugas to the number of twelve thousand." 
Kulluka, however, says that his predecessor's explanation is mis- 
taken, and must not be adopted {Medhdtither Ihramo nddarttavyah). 
BSs own opinion is that the system of yugas mentioned in w. 69 and 
71 are identical, both being made up of divine years. According to 
this view, we must translate v. 71 as follows : '' The period of four 
yugas, consisting of twelve thousand years, which has been reckoned 
above, is called a Yuga of the gods." This certainly appears to be the 


preferable translation, and it is confirmed by the tenor of Terse 79, 
Verse 71, however, may represent a later stage of opinion, as it is 
aot fonnd in the following passage of the Mahabharata, where the 
previous verse (69) is repeated, and verse 70 is expanded into three 
verses, though without any alteration of the sense : 

M. £h. iii. 12826 ff. — Adito manuja^yaghra JqriUnasya jagatah 
hshaye \ chatvary dhuh sahasrdni varshdndm tat kritam yugam \ taaya 
tdvachchhatl sandhyd sandhydmicha tathdvidhah \ 

'' In the beginning, after the destruction of the entire universe, they 
say that there are four thousand years : that is the Kf ita Yuga, which 
has a morning of as many hundred years, and an evening of the same 
duration/' And then, after enumerating in like manner the other three 
Yugas with their respective thousands and hundreds successively 
diminished by one, the speaker (the sage Markan^eya) proceeds in 
verse 12831 : Eshd dvddaiahmrl yugdkhyd pariJurttitd \ etat sahasrO' 
paryantam aho hrdhmam uddhfitam \ '^ This period of twelve thousand 
years is known by the appellation of the Yugas. A period extending 
to a thousand of these is called a day of Brahma." 

Nowhere, certainly, in this passage is any mention made of the yeaiti 
being divine years. 

The earliest known text in which the names of the four Yugas are 
found is a verse occurring in the story of S^unah^epha in the Aitareya 
Brahmana vii. 15 : Kalih Saydno hhavati sanjihdnas tu dvdparah \ uttM- 
fhams tretd hhavati kjritam sampadyate charan \ ''A man while lying is 
the Kali; moving himself, he is the Dvapara; rising, he is the Treta; 
walking, he becomes the Kfita."^ But this brief allusion leaves ua 

M This vene has been already translated no less than six times ; twice into German 
by Weber and Both (Ind. Stud. i. 286 and 460), once into Latin by Streiter (see Ind. 
Stud. ix. 316), and thrice into English, by WUson (Joum. R. A. S. for 1861, p. 09), 
MuIIot (Anc. Sansk. Lit. p. 412), and Haug (Ait. Br. iL 464). All these anthon, 
except ^e last, concur in considering the verse as referring to the four Tngas. 
Dr. Haug, however, has the following note : '* Sayana does not give any explanation 
of this important passage, where the names of the Yugas are mentioned for the first 
time. These four names are, as is well known from other sources, . . . names of dice, 
used at gambling. The meaning of this Gatha is, There is eyery success to be hoped; 
for the unluckicst die, the Kali is lying, two others are slowly moving and half fallen, 
but the luckiest, the Krita, is in full motion. The position of dice here given is indi- 
catory of a fair chance of winning the game." Both Dr. Hang's translation and note 
are criticised by Professor Weber (Ind. Stud. ix. 319). Of the following verses, which 
occur in If ana ix. 301 f., the second is a pari^hrase of that in the Aitareya Brah- 


qnito in the dark as to the dmation which was assigiied to these jr»^«t 
ID the age when the Biahmana was oompileda 

Sect. YIL^--Aeeoumi of the iifferetd creatunu^ tnduiing ihst of iko 

easiet, according to the Vttkmm 

I commence with the followuig general account of the cosmogony of 
the Yishnn Parana, extracted firom Professor Wilson's Preface to his 
translation of that work, yoL L p. xciii. : 

''The first hook of the six, into which the work is diyided, is 
occupied chiefly with the details of creation, primary {imyd), and 
secondary {prattsargd); the first explains how the uniTerse proceeds 
from Prakriti, or eternal crude matter;" the second, in what manner 
the forms of things are developed from the elementary suhstances 
pierioualy erolyed, or how they re-appear after their temporary de- 
struction.'' Both these creations are periodical; hut the termination 
of the first occurs only at the end of the life of Brahma, when not 
only all the gods and all other forms are annihilated, hut the elements 
are again merged into primary substance, besides which only one 
spiritual being exists. The latter takes place at the end of every 
Kalpa or day of Brahma, and affects only the forms of inferior 
creatures and lower worlds, leaving the substances of the universe 
entire, and sages and gods unharmed."* 

Bans : Kfiiom trtta-fugaik ehaha tkapwom kalvr eva eha \ ra/no vfiUami amnrani 
rq/o ki fttgttm uehyttU \ 302. KaUh pratupto bkavaH m jagrtA dtapmram yugam \ 
ia iamw mbhjfmdgata$ treta vicAmrama iu kritmk yugam \ ** SOI. The Krita, Tretn, 
I>T)tpttrm, tnd Kali yngaa are all modes of a king's action ; for a king is called a ynga. 
S02. WMIe asleep be is the KaU ; waking he is the Drupara age ; intent upon action 
be is tile TretS, moring about he is the Kfita." The former of these two Terses of 
If ana is reproduced nearly verbatim in the M. Bh. 3di. 3408 ; and the same idea is ex- 
panded in the same book of the same poem, tt. 2674 ff., 2682, 2684, 2686, 2698 ff. 
The words kfiUk, inta, dvapara, and kali, are found in the YSj.-SanhitS, xix. 18, and 
in the Taitt Brahmana, iii. 4, 1, 16 ; but in both places thej denote dice, as does also 
the word ifiia in the Chhandogya IJpan. ir. 1, 4 (where see the commentary). On 
the Yngas the reader of German may also consult Weber's Indische Stndien, i. pp. 39, 
87 If 282 ff. 

" [See Book L chapter ii] 

** [See the firarth and following chapters of Book i.] 

•* See Book L at the dose of chapter Tii. p. 113 of toI. t of Professor Wilson's 
tfimlfttum, 2nd edition, and also p. 621 and 630 of the original 4to. edition. As regards^ 



I proceed with the details of the creation which took place in the 
Varaha Kalpa, as described in book i. chapter 4, w. 2, ff: : 

Atita-kalpdvasane nisd-mptotthitah prahhuh \ iattvodriktas tato 
BrahmcL iunyam lokam avaihhata \ 3. Ndrdyanah paro ^chiniya^ 
pareihdm apt sa prahhuh | Brahma-svarUpl hhavagdn anddih mtvo- 
samhhavah | . . . 6. Toydntah sa mahlm jndtvd jagaty ekdrnave pra- 
hhuh I anwndndd tad-uddhdrafh karttu-kdmah prajdpatih \ 7. Akarot 9a 
tanum anydfh kaJpddUhu yathd purd \ matsya-kurtnddikdm tadvad 
vdrdham vapur dsthitah \ 8. Veda-yajnamayam rUpam aSesha-jagatak 
sthi'tau I sthttah sthirdtmd sarvdtmd paramdtmd prajdpatih \ 9. Jana^ 
loka-gataih siddhair Sanakddyair dhhishthutah \ praxivda tadd toyam 
dtmddhdro dhard-dharah \ .... 45. Evatn iamstuyamdnastu para- 
mdtmd mahidhurah \ ujjahura mahhn kshipram nyastavdmi cha mahdm' 
hhasi I 46. Tasyopari jalaughasya mahatl naur tva sthitd \ vitatatatvdt 
tu dehasya na mahi ydti samplavam \ tatah kshitim samdm kritvd prithi' 
vydm 80 *chinod girin \ yaihd-vihhdgam hhagavdn anddilf, purwhottamah 
I 47. Frdk-sarga-diigdhun akhildn parvatdn prithivltaU \ amoghena 
prahhdvena sasarjamogha-vdmchhtfah \ 48. Bhuvi hhdgam tatah kritvd 
sapta-dvipdn yathdtathd \ hhUr-ddydmS chaturo lokdn purvavat sama- 
kalpayat \ 49. Brahma-rHpadharo devas tato ^sau rajasd *^vfitah \ 
chakdra srishfim hhagavdthS chatur-vaktra-dharo Hdrih \ 50. nitnitta- 
mdtram evdsau srijydndm sarga-karmandm \ pradhdna-kdranJhhUtd 
yato vai srijya-iaktayah \ 51. Nimitta-mdtram muktvaikam ndnyai 
kinchid apekshyate \ nlyate tapatdih Sreshfha sva-Saktyd vastu vastutdm \ 

^'2. At the end of the past (or Padma) Kalpa, arising from his 
night slumber, Brahma, the lord, endowed predominantly wit^ the 
quality of goodness, beheld the universe void. 3. Ho (was) the 
supreme lord Narayana, who cannot even be conceived by other 
beings, the deity without beginning, the source of all things, existing 
in the form of Brahma." [The verse given in Manu i. 10, regarding 
the derivation of the word Narayana (see above p. 35) is here quoted]. 
" 6. This lord of creatures, discovering by inference, — when the world 
had become one ocean,— that the earth lay within the waters, and 
being desirous to raise it up, (7) assumed another body. As formedy, 
at the beginnings of the Kalpas, he had taken the form of a fish, 

howerer, tbe statement with which the paragraph concludes, compare toL i. p. 50, at 
well as vol. ii. p. 269, of the same work. 


M i fortoise, and to fortli,** (to now) entering the body of a boar (S),^ 
W i fbim composed of the yedas and of aacrifice, — ^the lord of creatnresi 
' whOf thronghont the entire continaaQce of the world, remains fixed, 
the nnirerBal souli the supreme soul, Belf-sostamed, the supporter of 
the earth (9\ — being hymned by Sanaka and the other saints, who 
had (at the dissolntion of the lower worlds) proceeded to Janaloka,— ^ 
eoitered the water.'' [He is then addressed by the goddess Earth in a 
hymn of praisCi as Vishnu, and as the supreme BrahmiL, ty. 10-24. 
The boar then rises from the lower regions, tossing up the earth with 
his tusk, and is again lauded by Banandana and other saints in a 
teoond hymn, in the course of which he himself is identified with 
sacrifice, and his various members with its different instruments and 
accompaniments, tt. 25-44]. " 45. Being thus lauded, the supreme 
soul, the upholder of the earth, lifted her up quickly and placed her 
upon the great waters. 46. Besting upon this mass of water, like 
a rast ship, she does not sink, owing to her expansion. Then, having 
levelled the earth, the divine eternal Fumshottasna heaped together 
mountains according to their divisions. 47. He whose will cannot be 
fimatrated, by his unfailing power, created on the surface of the earth 
all those mountains which had been burnt up in the former creation. 
48. -Having then divided the earth, just as it had been, into seven 
dvTpaSi he fixrmed the four worlds Bhurloka and others as before. 49. 
Becoming next pervaded with the quality of passion, that divine being 
Hari, assuming the form oS Brahma, with four faces, effected the 
creation. 50. But he is merely the instrumental cause of the things 
to be created and of the creative operations, since the properties of the 
things to be created arise from Fradhana as their (material) cause. 51. 
Excepting an instrumental cause alone, nothing else is required. 
Every substance {pastu) is brought into the state of substance {vastutd) 
by its own inherent power." '^ 

** Ko mentioii ia made in the Brahmaoafl (as I have akeady obaerred) of any mch 
pariodf aa the Kalpaa. But here an attempt is made to systematize the different 
atoriaa scattered through those older works which yarionsly describe the manner in 
wiiidi the creation was effected — ^with the riew, perhaps, of reconciling the discre- 
pancies in those firee and artless speculations which offended the critical sense of a 
later age. 

*> See RpofesMr Wilson's translation of these yerses, and the new Torsion proposed 
hjUissditocf the aeocmd edition, Dr. Hall, p. 66, note. I do not think the phrase 


[Before proceeding further with the narrative of the Ylshnu Parana, 
I wish to quote or refer to some passages from the Taittirija Sanhita 
and Brahmana and from the Sktapatha Brahmana, which appear to 
famish the original germs of the legends of the boar, fish, tortoise, 
and dwarf incarnations. 

The first of these texts is from the Taittiilya Sanhita, vii. 1,5, Iff: 

Apo vat idam ogre $alilam dsU | tasmin Prajdpatir vdyur bhutvd oeK- 
arat \ sa imam apaiyat \ tain vardho hhutcd dharat \ tdm Tiivakarmd 
hhntvd vyamdrf | 9d aprathata | id prithity aihavai \ iai priihivyai 
prithivitvam ] tasydm airdmyat Prajdpatih \ *a devdn oifijaia VasUn 
Rudrdn Aditydn \ U detdh Prajdpatim abruvan ** prqfdydmahai^* iti\ 
80 ^hravld **yathd aham ytuhmdms tapasd asHkihi evaih tapan pr^ 
jananam tchchhadhvam " iti | tshhyo *ynim dyatanam prdyaehhad '^ Henti 
dyatanena irdmyata " t^t | U ^gnind dyatanena airdmyan \ U sa9kvaUmr$ 
tkdm gdm asrijanta \ 

** This aniverse was formerly waters, flaid. On it Frajapati, be- 
coming wind, moTed." He saw this (earth). Becoming a boar, he 
took her np. Becoming ViSvakarman, he wiped (the moistare &om) 
her. She extended. She became the extended one {piithiviy From 
this the earth derives her designation as the extended one. In her 
Frajapati performed ardaoas devotion. He created gods, Yasas, Badras, 
and Adityas. The gods said to Frajapati, ^ let as be propagated.' He 
answered, * As I have created yon through austere fervour, so do ye 
seek after propagation in austere fervour.' He gave them Agni as a 
resting-place (saying), 'With this as a resting-place perform your 
devotion.' They (accordingly) performed devotion with Agni as a 
resting-place. In a year they created one cow, etc."" 

tva^aaktya can be properly rendered, as Br. HaU does, '* by its potency.*' The 
reading of the MSS. in t. 50, pradhanO'karanTbhutak seems to me doabtfhl, as it 
wonld most naturally mean *' have become the Pradhina-cause." I conjecture jwv- 
dhana-karanodbhutahj which gives the sense which seems to be required. 

^ It is possible that the idea assigned to the word Nfirfiyana (see Manu L 10, 
above), " he whose place of movement is the waters," may be connected with this 
passage. See also Qenesis L 2, " And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the 

» After having noticed this passage in the Taittirfya Sanhita, I became aware that 
it had been previously translated by Mr. Golebrooke (Essays i. 75, or p. 44 of WiUianii 
& Norgate's edition). Hr. Golebrooke prefaces his version by remarking, ^ The pn« 


The second passage is from the Taittiriya Brahmana, i. I, 3, 5 ffl 

Af» vat idam ogre mlHam dsit \ tena Prajdpatir airdmyat **katham idam 

fjfdi^' fit I so 'pafyat pushkara^nuim tUhthat \ so ^manyata "asii tai 

iid yasminn idam adhitishfhati" iti \ sa tardho rupam krittd upa- 

nuttmajjat \ sa pjrithicim adhah drehhat \ tasyd upahatya vdamajfai | tat 

puikkara-parne^prathayat \ yad ** aprathata** tat prithivyai prithicit' 

MM I ^^abhud vai idam " t^t tad hhumyai bhumitcam \ tdm dih ^nu vdtak 

famatahat \ tdm iarkardhhir adj-imhat | 

" This (universe) was formerly water, fluid.** With that (water) 
Ptajapati practised arduous devotion (saying), 'how shall this (uni- 
verse he (developed) ?' He heheld a lotus-leaf standing.*' He thought, 
'there is somewhat on which this (lotus-leaf) rests.' He as a hoar — 
having assumed that form — plunged heneath towards it. He found 
fhe earth down helow. Breaking off (a portion of) her, he rose to the 
smface. He then extended it on the lotus-leaf. Inasmuch as he ex- 
tended it, that is the extension of the extended one (the earth). This 
became {ahhut). From this the earth derives its name of hhumU The 
wind carried her, to the four quarters. He strengthened her with 
gravel, etc, etc. 

The Satapatha Brahmana, xiv. 1, 2, 11, has the following reference 
to the same idea, although here Frajapati himself is not the boar : 

lyaii ha tai iyam agre prithivy dsa prddsiaHndtri \ tdm EmusJiah iti 
9ardhah t^'ayhdna | so ^sydh patih Prajdpatis tena eva enam etathmitku' 
nana priyema dhdmnd samardhayati Ljitsnam karoti \ 

" Formerly this earth was only so large, of the size of a span. A 
boar called Emusha raised her up. Her lord Frajapati, therefore, 
prospers him with (the gift of) this pair, the object of his desire, and 
makes him complete." 

Another of the incarnations referred to in the preceding passage of 

sent extract ma recommended for selection by its allusion to a mythological notion, 
which apparently gave origin to the story of the Varaha-atatara^ and firom which an 
agtrooomical period, entitled Calpa^ has perhaps been taken/' 

** The Commentator giyes an altematiTe explanation^ yiz., that the word $alila is 
the same as MorirOj according to the text of the Veda, **• these worlds are sarira " (** ime 
vmi iokah sariram " Ui irtUeh). 

»• •< Supported upon the end of a long stalk " {dirghanalagre*9ast\Uam)^ according 
to the Commentator. In a passage irom the Taitt. Aranyaka, already quoted (p. 32, 
abof e), it is said that Frajapati himself was bom on a lotus-leaf. 


the YisliQa Parana is foreshadowed in the following text from the Siei- 
tapatha Brahmana, vii. 5, 1, 5 : 

Sa If at kurtno ndfna \ etad tai ritpaik kritvd Prqfdpuitk prajdh Mfv 
jata I ifod asfijata akarot tat \ yad aiarot toimdt kurmafi \ kafyapo vai 
kurmah \ tasmdd dhuh *^ sarvdh prajdh kdiyapyak^^ Ui \ 9a yak m hkrm» 
sau M Adityah \ 

*' As to its being called karma (a tortoise) ; Prajapati having taken 
this form, created ofi&priDg. That which he created, he made {akarot) ; 
since he made, he is (called) kurmah. The word kaiyapa meant tortoise ; 
hence men say all creatures are descendants of Kaiyapa. This tortoise 
is the same as Aditja.""* 

The oldest version of the story of the fish incarnation, which is to be 
found in the S^tapatha Brahmana, i. 8, 1, 1 ff., will be quoted in the 
next chapter. 

For the passages which appear to supply the germ of the dwarf in* 
carnation, the reader may consult the fourth volume of this work, 
pp. 54*58 and 107 f. 

It will have been noticed that in the passage above adduced from the 
Vishnu Puruna, the word Narayana Is applied to Vishnu, and that it 
is the last named deity who (though in the form of Brahma) is said to 
have taken the form of a boar. In the verses formerly cited from 
Mann (i. 9, 10), however, Narayana is an epithet, not of Vishnu, but 
of Brahma ; and in the following text, from the Bamaya^a, xL 110, 8, 
it is Brahma who is said to have become a boar : 

Sarvaih salilam evdsU prithivi tatra nirmitd \ tatah tamahhavad Brah" 
md ivayamhhUr daivataih saha^ \ ta vardhas tato hhutvd prqjff'ahdra va^ 
iundhardm ityddi \ 

<* AU was water only, and in it the earth was fashioned. Then arooa 

M With this compare the mention made of a tortoiBe in the paange cited above, 
p. 32, from the Taitt. Aranyaka. 

^ Such IB the reading of Schlegeri edition, and of that which was reoently printed 
at Bombay, both of which, no doubt, present the most ancient text of the Rima jiQa. 
The Gau^ recension, howerer, which deriates widely from the other, and appeazB to 
have mod^ed it in conformity with more modem taste and ideas, has here also intro* 
dnced a yarious reading in the second of the lines qnoted in the teit, and identifies 
Brahma with Yishnn in the following manner : iatah mmabkavad Brahma tvaymm* 
bhur Vuhnur avytiyah | ** Then arose Brahmft the self-existent and imperiababls 


finhma, the self existent, with the deities. He then, hecoming a hoar, 

lused up the earth," etc. 

I now retom to the narrative of the Ybhnu Parana.] 

The farther process of cosmogony is thus described in chapter t. : 

Maiireya updeka \ I. Yatkd sasarjja devo^tau ievarM-pUfi-^naicdn \ 

mmmthythiiryag-vriJuhdiln hhn^onuhiolilaukasa^ | 2. Yad-^uuam 

pd-nabMvaih cha yad-rupam cha jagad dpija \ saiyddau iruJkfavdn 

Brahmd tad mamdchakihva viHardi \ Fardiara uvdeha | 3. Maitreya 

kaihaydmy $iha ifinu$hoa sutamdhitak \ yathd soiarjfa deto *$au detddln 

akkUdn vihhuk \ sriihfim eMniayaUu tasya kalpddUhu yathd pwrd \ 

nhuddhi-pUrvakak taryak prddurhhutai tamomayah \ 4. TatM wu>ho nuh 

kdmohas tdmisro hy andha-taffkjnitak \ avidyd paneha^rvauhd prd* 

durbhvttd mahdtmanah \ 5. Panehadhd 'vasthitak taryo dhydyato ^praiu 

hodhavdn \ vahir-anUh^prahdiai eha tamvrittdtmd naydtwtakak | 6. 

Mukkyd nayd yatai ehoktd mukhya-iaryoi taloi U ayam | 7. Tarn djiik' 

$td *$ddkakaih saryam amanyad aparam punak \ toiydlhidhydyatah ioryoi 

tiryak-protd^ ^hhyacarttata \ 8. Yatmdi tiryak pravfittah m iiryak* 

MTotaa UfU^ imfiiak \ 9. Fa£vddaya$ U vikhydtds tamah^aydh ky avp- 

dina^ | utpaiha-frdhimai ehaiva U ^Jndnejndiuhmdninah | 10. Ahafftkfitd 

akamw^nd ashidvirkiad-widhdnvitdk \ antah-praididi te $arve dvfitdg eha 

paraiparam | 11. Tarn apy atddhakam foaUd dhydyato *nyai tato ^hhapot \ 

urdhvoirotat triilyai tu tdttvikorddhvam acarttata^ | \2.T9 nMa-priti' 

hahuld hahir aiUai cha ndvfitdh ^ \ prakdsd hahir antaS eha Urdhva* 

sroto-hhopdh pmriidh \ 13. Tiuhfy-dtmaiai tfitiyai tu dpta-iargai tu 

ya^ pmfitah \ tasmin tarye 'hhavat prltir nuhpann$ Brahmanoi tadd \ 

14. Tato ^nyarn $a tadd dadhyau tddhakam saryam uttamam | oiddhakdiki 

tu tdm jndttd mukhya-iargddi-mmhhavdn \ 15. Tathd ^hhtdhydyatoi 

iaoya oatydhhidydyinai tatai^ \ prddurhhktao tadd ^vyaktdd arvdh-orotaa 

tu tddhakah \ 16. Yasmdd arvdg vyavarttanta tato ^redk-trotasai tu te \ 

to cha praidda-hahuld tamodriktd^^ rajo^dhikdh \ tatmdt te dulfkha- 

hakidd hhdyo hhuyai cha Idrinah \ prakdid hahir antai eha manuihyd 

tddkaid9 tute \ . . . . 2Z. Ity eto tu samdkhydtd nava sargdl^ Prqfd* 

** Hi mmdhir arskah — Coram. 

** Tha reidmg of the Ykju P^ in the ptnUd penoge, is tatyabhidhyayato nUymk 
mttmbik m m u Hforitaiu | wrdkpotroiat tritiyat in sa ehaivordhvam vyavatthUah | 
The combiaation Battvikorikvtm in the text of the Vishnu P. most be araha. 

iM Fer aifrd£| the Yayn P. reads 9a9k9riiak. 

^ m mmdhwmrtht^ \ Comm. But there is a form tuma. The Yajn P. has Imm^ 


pateh I prdkritd taihritdi chaiva jagato mHJa-hitavah \ 9pj<Uo jagadlkh 
9ya him anyach ehhrotum ichhan \ Maitreya ucdcha \ 24. SamkthepiU 
kathitah sargo devddinum tvaya mune \ vistardch ehhrotum iehhdmi 
tvatto munivarottama \ Fardiara uvdeha \ karmahhir hhdvitdk purvai^ 
hdaldkuialaU tu tdk \ Ithydtyd iayd hy anirmukidh »amhdre hy upa- 
samhfitdh \ 25. Sthdvardntuk mrdiydicha prajd hrahmami ehaturvi' 
dhuh I Brahmanah kurvatah srishftm jajnire mdfuuU tu tdk | 26. Tato 
devdsuraptinn mdnushdmS cha chatushtayam \ tisfikshur amhhdnuy 
eidni svam dtmdnam ayUyujat \ 27. Yuktdtmanas tamomutrd udriktd 
^bhUt Prajdpateh \ sisrikshar jaghandt purvam aiurdh jajnire tatah \ 
28. Utsasarja tatas tdm tu tamo-mdtrdtmikdm tanum \ *d tu tyakid 
tanus tena Mditreydhhud vihhdvari \ 29. Sisrikshur anya-deha-sthak 
prltim dpa tatah iurdk \ sattvodriktdk tamudbhiitdk mukhato Brak- 
mano dvija \ 30. Tyaktd %d *pi tanus tena sattva-prdyam ahhud dinam | 
tato hi lalino rdtrdv asurd devatd divd \ 31. Sattvamdtrdtmikdm #ra 
tato ^nydm jagfihe tanum \ pitjrivad manyamdnatya pitarat tatya 
jajnire \ 32. Utsatarja pitfin ifishtvd tatas tdm api ea prahhuh | dd 
chotsfishfd *hhavat iandhyd dina-nakidntara-ethitih \ 33. Rajo-rndtrdt^ 
mikdm anydih jagfihe na tanum tatah \ rajo-mdtrotkafdjdtd manuihyd 
dvija-iattama | tdm apy diu ia tatyOja tanum ddyah Prajdpatih \ 
jyotsnd samahhavat sd ^pi prdk-sandhyd yd *hhidhlyate \ 34. Jyotmo- 
dgame tu halino manushydh pilar as tathd \ Maitreya sandhyd-samaye 
tasmdd ete hhavanti vai \ 35. Jyotsnd-rdtry-ahanl sandhyd ehatvdry 
etdni vai vihhoh \ Brahmanas tu iarlrdni trigundpdiraydni eha \ 
36. Eajo-mdtrdtmikdm eva tato ^nydm jagfihe tanum | tatah kshud 
Brahmano jdtd jajne kopas tayd tatah \ 37. Kshut-khdmdn dndhakdre 
Uha so ^Sfijad hhagavdihs tatah \ Virupuh hnairuld jdtds te ^hhyadhd* 
tarns tatah prahhum \ 38. ^^ Maivam hho rakshyatdm esha " yair uktaik 
rdkshasds tu te \ Hchuh **khdddma** ity anye ye te yakshds tu yakshandi \ 
''Maitreya said: 1. Tell me in detail how at the beginning of the 
creation that deity Brahma formed the gods, rishis, fathers, danaTsSi 
men, beasts, trees, etc., dwelling respectiirely on the earth, in the skyi 
and in the water ; 2. and with what qualities, with what nature, and 
of what form he made the world. Para^ara replied : 3. I declare to 
thee, Maitreya, how that deity created the gods and all other beings; 
listen with attention. While he was meditating on creation, as at the 
beginnings of the (previous) Kalpas, there appeared an insentient crca* 


tioiiy composed of gloom (iamaa). 4. Gloom, Olosioii, great illnsioD, 
dsrimess, and what is called niter darkness — snch was the five-fold 
igmmmcey which was manifested from that great Being, 5. as he was 
meditating — an insensible creation,^ nnder five conditions, devoid of 
Ibeling either wiUiont or -^thin,^ closed up, motionless. 6. And since 
motionless objects are called the primary objects, this is called the pri- 
mary (muihya) creation.'^ 7. Beholding this creation to be ineffective, 
be again contemplated another. As he was desiring it the bmte 
{UrfaktrvUu) creation came forth. 8. Since (in its natnral functions) 
it acts horizontally it is called Tiryaksrotas. 9. The (creatures com- 
pofling it) are known as cattle, etc., distinguished mainly by darkness 
{Uutuui) ignorant, following irregular courses,** while in a state of ignor- 
anoe having a conceit of knowledge, (10) self-regarding, self-esteeming, 
affected by the twenty-eight kinds of defects, endowed with inward 
iieeling, and mutually closed. 11. As Brahma, regarding this creation 
also as ineffective, was again meditating, another creation, the third, or 
UrdkvairaiMf which was good, rose upward. 12. They (the creatures 
belonging to this creation) abounding in happiness and satisfaction, 
bemg nndoaed both without and within, and possessed both of external 
and internal feeling, are called the o£&pring of the Urdhvasrotas crea- 
tion. 13. This third creation, known as that of the gods, was one full 
of enjoyment. When it was completed, Brahma was pleased. 14. He 
then contemplated another creation, effective and most excellent, since 
lie zegaided as ineffective the beings sprung fix)m the primary and 
other creations. 15. While he, whose will is efficacious, was so desir- 
ingf the Arvaksrotas, an effective creation, was manifested.^ 16. They 

'** ThtYSjuV. here inserts an additional line, $arvaUu tamtuia ehaiva dfpa^ 
htmhkti pad avfiitih \ ^ and coTered on all sides with darkness, as a lamp by a jar.*' 

>** FcA«r-flfit0 *jn'ttkaitueha appears to be the true reading, as the Commentator 
renden the last word by jfrakruh^e^'mina'iunyah, " devoid of knowledge." But if 
this be the correct reading, it is nngrammatical, as antah and aprakaia would properly 
Biake mttar^prakaia, not anio 'jtraka^a. But the Puranas hare many forms which 
are uregolar (artJka, " peculiar to the rishis," ** yedic," or ** antiquated " as the Com- 
nentators style them). The Taylor MS. of the Vayu Purana reads in the parallel 
passage hahir^ntah'prakaiaieha, 

*<^ See Dr. Hall's note p. 70 on Professor Wilson's translation ; and also the pas- 
iage quoted aboTO p. 16 from the Taitt. Sanh. vii 1, 1, 4, where the word mukhya is 
otherwise applied and explained. 

^^ BhsisMpatU-^nvekai'MnaJ^ | ^ Making no distinction in food, etc., etc*' Comm. 

^ Compare M. Bh. liv. 1038. 


(the creatmBB beloDgiiig to it) are called Airaksrotasy beeanae (m their 
natural fonctioiu) they acted downwardly. And they abound in 8e&« 
sation {prakdsa) and are full of darkness {tawtas) with a prepondonDoe 
of passion {rajas). Hence they endore much sofEering, and are con- 
stantly acUre, with both outward and inward feeling. These beingB 
were men, and effective.""' 

In the next following verses, 17-22, the names of the different cnm- 
lions, described in the first part of this section, and in the second chapter 
of the first book of the Yiahnn Parana, are recapitolated, and two otheiBy 
the Anngraha and the Kanmara, are noticed, bat not explained.^ 

The speaker Paraiara then adds : " 23. Thas have the nine creaticms 
of Prajapati, both Prakfita and Yaikrita, the radical causes of the would, 
been recounted. What else dost thou desire to hear regarding the crea? 
tive lord of the world ? Maitreya replies : 24. By thee, moat excellent 
Muni, the creation of the gods and other beings has been summarily 
narrated : I desire to hear it from thee in detaiL Parasara rejoins : 
Called into (renewed) existence in consequence of former actions, good 
or bad, and unliberated from that destination when they were absorbed 
at the (former) dissolution of the world, (25) the four descriptions of 
creatures, beginning with things immovable and ending with gods, were 
produced, o Brahman, from Brahma when he was creating, and they 
sprang from his mind. 26. Being then desirous to create these streams 
{amhh&tMiy^ — the four classes of Gods, Asuras, Fathers, and Men, he 
concentrated himself. 27. Prajapati, thus concentrated, received a body, 
which was formed of the quality of gloom {tamas) ; and as he desired 
to create, A suras were first produced from his groin. 28. He then 
abandoned that body formed entirely of gloom ; which when abandoned 
by him became night. 29. Desiring to create, when he had occupied 
another body, Brahma experienced pleasure; and then gods, ftdl of 
the quality of goodness, sprang from his mouth. 30. That body 

^ The Yfi^ra P. adds here : Lakshanait iarakadyaiieha ashfadha eha vyavattkUak \ 
iiddhatmano numuihyaa U gandharva^ioha-'dhanninah \ ity esha iaijoMah taryo hy 
arvafurotSh praklrttitah \ '* Constituted with preseryatiTe(?) characteristics, and in an 
eightfold manner. These were men perfect in tlicir essence, and in nature equal to 
Oandhanras. This was the lustrous creation known as Arvaksrotas." 

»« See Dr. Hairs edition of Wilson's V. P. pp. 32 ff. ; and pp. 74 ff. 

1^ This word is borrowed firom the passage of the TaittirTya Brahmana, iL 3, 8, S; 
quoted aboYe, p. 23. Most of the particulars in the rest of the narrative are imitated 
from another passage of the same Br&hmana, ii. 2, 9, 6 ff., also quoted aboTe, p. 28. 


libO} l>emg abmdoned by liim, became day, which is ahnoat entirely 

good. Henoe the Asnraa are powerM by night"® and the gods by day. 

SI. He then assnmed another body fbrmed of pore goodness ; and the 

Fathers were bom from him, when he was regarding himself as a 

ftther.'" 82. The Lord, after creating the Fathers, abandoned that 

body also; which, when so abandoned, became twilight, existing 

between day and night. 33. He next took another body entirely 

formed of passion ; and men, in whom passion is violent, were pro- 

dooed. The primeval Prajapati speedily discarded this body also, 

which became fidnt light (Jyottnd\ which is called early twilight. 

94. Hence, at the appearance of this faint light, men are strong, while 

the fiithers are strong at evening-twilight. 35. Morning-twilight, 

ni^t, day, and evening-twilight, these are the fonr bodies of Brahmi^ 

ind the receptacles of the three qualities. 36. Brahma next took 

aaother body entirely formed of passion, from which sprang hanger, 

and through it anger was produced. 37. The Divine Being then in 

darknefls created beings emaciated with hunger, which, hideous of 

aspect, and with long beards, rushed against the lord. 38. Those who 

said, 'Let him not be preserved' {rahhyatum) were called Edkshasas, 

whilst those others who cried, ' Let us eat (him)' were called Yakshas 

from ' eating ' {yahhan^t)}^ 

It ia not necessary for my purpose that I should quote at length the 
oonclosion of the section. It may suffice to say that verses 39 to 51 
describe the creation of serpents from Brahma's hair ; of Bhutas ; of 
Gandharvas ; of birds {payd^kii) from the creator's life [vaya9\ of sheep 
from his breast, of goats from his mouth, of kine from his belly and 
ndee, and of horses,"* elephants, and other animals from his feet ; of 
plants from his hairs; of the different metres and vedas from his 
eastern, southern, western, and northern mouths. Verses 52 ff. contain 
a recapitulation of the creative operations, with some statement of the 

^^ la the Bfimayana, Snndara Kan^ 82, 13 f. (Qorrerio'i edit.) we road: Rak" 
BhoiSSk rt^anukalafy aamyugnhu pruiasyate \ 14. Tastnad rajan n%ia-y%tddhe jayo 
'amakam na taShiayah \ ** Night is the approYed time for the Rakshases to fight. We 
dioiild therefore ondonhtedly conquer in a nocturnal conflict" 

"1 Thii idea alio is borrowed from Taitt. Br. ii. 3, 8, 2. 

"> See Wilaon'8 V. P. vol. i. p. 83, and Dr. Hall's note. 

lu See the passage firom the Taitt. Sanh. viL 1, 1, 4 ff. quoted aboye, p. 16, where 
the same origin is ascribed to horses. 


principles according to which they were conducted. Of these verses 
I quote only the following : 55. Tesham ye y&ni karmdni prdk-sfisthydik 
pratipedire \ ttlny eva pratipadyante sfijyamandh punah punah | . • • 
60. Tath&rtdv rituMngdni ndnurupdni paryaye \ driiyante tdnitdnyeva 
tathd hhdvd yugudishu \ 61. Karoty evamvid?idm trishtim kalpddau m 
punah punah \ sisrikshdhkti-yukto ^sau spjya-iakti-prachoditah \ ** These 
creatures, as they are reproduced time after time, discharge the same 
functions as they had fulfilled in the previous creation ... 60. Just 
as, in each season of the year, all the various characteristics of that 
season are perceived, on its recurrence, to he the very same as they had 
heen before ; so too are the beings produced at the beginnings of the 
9ges.^*^ 61. Possessing both the will and the ability to create, and im- 
pelled by the powers inherent in the things to be created, the deity 
produces again and again a creation of the very same description at the 
beginning of every Kalpa." 

The sixth section of the same book of the Y. P., of which I shall cite 
the larger portion, professes to give a more detailed account of the 
creation of mankind. 

Y. P. i. 6, 1. Maitreya uvdcha | Arvaksrotas tu kathito hhavaid yas iu 
mdnushah \ hrahman vistarato hrdhi Brahma tarn a^rijad yathd | 2. 
Yathu cha varndn asri/ad yad-yundmS cha mahdmune \ yachcha teshd0i 
smrttam karma vtprddlnam tad tichyatdm \ Pardiara uvdcha \ 3. Sat- 
ydbhidhydyinas tasya Bisrikshor Brahmano jagat \ ajdyanta dvijairethfha 
taUvodriktd mukhdt prajdh \ 4. Vakshaso rajaaodriktds tathd 'nyd Brah- 
tnano ^hhavan \ rajasd tamasd chaiva samudriktdt tathorutah \ 5. Pad' 
hhydm any ah prajd Brahmd tasarjfa dvija-iattama \ tamah^pradhdndi 
tdh BarvdS chdturvarnyam idam tatah \ brdhmandh kshattriyd vaiiyd^ 
iudrdScha dvija-sattama \ pddoru-vakshah-ithalato mukhataS cha samud' 
gaidh | 6. Yajna-nishpattaye sarvam eiad Brahmd chakdra vai \ chd- 
turvarnyam mahdhlidga yaj'na-sddhanam uttamam \ 7. Tajnair dpydr 
yitd devd vrishfy-utsargena vat prajdh \ dpydyayante dharma-jna 
ydjndh kalydna-hetavah \ 8. Nishpadyante naraU tats tu tva-karmd' 
hhirataih sadd \ viruddhdcharanupetaih sadhhih sanmdrga-gdmihhih \ 
9. Svargdpavargau mdnushydt prupnuvanti nard mune \ yach chdhhiru- 
chitaih sthdnam tad ydnti manujd dvija \ 10. Prajds tdh Brahmand 
irishfds chdturvarnya-vyavasthitau | samyak Sraddhd-samdchdra-pra' 

^^* Yerses similar to thia occur in Manu i. 30 ; and in the Mahabhttrata zii. 8550 1 


feaimunt'tattama | II, Yaihechhd'-vdta'niratdhtarvdhddha'vivarjiidh] 
hMdntah-karanah iuddhdh sarvdnushthdna-nirmaldh \ 14."' iSW- 
ik eha idsdm wumoii Suddhe ^ntak-tamsthite Harau \ Suddha-jndnam 
fntpaiyanti Vuhnv-dkhyam yma tatpadam \ 15. Tatah kdldtmako yo 
W M ehdfkiah kathito Hareh \ sa pdtayaty ayho yhoram alpam alpdlpa* 
9Srarat \ 16. Adharma-vlja'bhiUafk tu iamO'lohha'Samudhhavam | pra^ 
jStu tdiu Maitreya rdgddikam asddhakam \ 17. Tatah sd iahqjd iiddhU 
idtdik ndHvajdyate | rasoUdiddayaS chdnydh siddhayo ^shfau hhavantt 
yd^ I 18. Td9u kshlndw aieihdsu varddhamdns eha pdtake \ dvandcddi^ 
tkava-duhkhdrttds id hhavantt tatah prc^fdh | 19. Tato durgdni tdi eha* 
krw vdrkshyam pdrvatam audakam | kfitimath eha taihd durgam pura" 
kareatakddi yat \ 20. Orihdni eha yathdnydya^ teshu ehakruh purd- 
iuhm I iftdtapddi-hddhdndm praiamdya mahdmate \ 21. Pratikdram 
UPicufi kfitvd iltdd&t tdh prqjdh punah \ vdrttopdyath tatai ehakrur 
haiia-nddham eha karma-jam | ... 26. Ordmydranydh smfitd hy eid 
ukadkyai eha ehaturdaSa \ yajna-nishpattaye yajnas tathd **9dth hetur 
mttamak | 27. JStdS eha taha yqjnena prajdndm kardnam param \ 
pardpara-vidah prdjndi tato yajndn vitanvate \ 28. Ahany ahany 
amu8h$hdnam yajndndm munisattama \ upakdra^karam pu§i9dm krtya^ 
wUtmdeh eha idnti-dam \ 29. Teshdm tu kdla-sfuhio 'sau pdpa-vindur 
wtakdmate \ ehetaau vatfidhe ehakrui te na yajneshu mdntuam \ 30. 
Vdia-vddd^ tathd devdn yojnakarmddika^ eha yat \ tat sarva^ iim- 
iawtdndi te yqfna-tydiedha'kdrinah \ 31. Pravrittp-mdrga-vyuchchUti' 
k&rinp veda^nindakdh \ durdtmdno durdehdrd hahhilvuh kufildiaydh \ 
32. 8a§uiddhdydfh tu vdrttdydm prajdh trishfvd Prajdpatih \ maryd^ 
idm ithdpaydmdsa yathd-tthdnam yathd-gunam \ 34. Vamdndm dira* 
mdiid^ eha dharmdn dharma-hhfitdm vara \ lohdmi tarva-varndndfk 
wamyag dharmdnupdh'ndm \ 35. Prdjdpatyam hrdhmandndm smfitaih 
HhdnaM kriydvatdm \ tthdnam aindram kshattriydnd^t tangrdmeshp 
anwarttindm \ 36. FaiSydndm mdrutam tthdnam sva-dharmam anu^ 
varttindm \ gdndharvaih iudra-jatlndm paricharydiu varttindm \ 

"Maitzeya says: 1. You have described to me the Arvaksrotas, or 
hnnmn, creation : declare to me, o Brahman, in detail the manner in 
which Brahma formed it. 2. Tell me how, and with what qualities, 
he created the castes, and what are traditionally reputed to be the 

^^ These are no yenei.nninbered 12 and 13, the MSS. paaiing £rom the 11th to 
the 14th. 


fdnctionB of the Brahmans and others. Para^ara replies : 3. When, 
true to his design, Brahma hecame desirous to create the world, crea- 
tures in whom goodness {tattva) prevailed sprang from his mouth ; (4) 
others in whom passion {rajai) predominated came from his breast; 
others in whom both passion and darkness {JUmai) were strong, pro- 
ceded from his thighs ; (5) others he ioreated from his feet, whose ehi^ 
characteristic was darkness. Of these was composed the system of four 
castes, Brahmans, Kshattriyas, Taisyas, and S'udras, who had respec- 
tively issued from his mouth, breast, thighs, and feet. 6. Brahmi 
formed this^^' entire fourfold institution of classes for the performance 
of sacrifice, of which it is an excellent instrument. 7. Nourished by 
sacrifices, the gods nourish mankind by discharging rain. Sacrifices, 
the causes of prosperity, (8) are constantly celebrated by virtuous men, 
devoted to their duties, who avoid wrong observances, and walk in the 
right path. 9. Men, in consequence of their humanity, obtain heaven 
and final liberation ; and they proceed to the world which they desire. 
10. These creatures formed by Brahma in the condition of the four 
castes, (were) perfectly inclined to conduct springing from religious 
faith, (11) loving to dwell wherever they pleased, free from all sofGer- 
ings, pure in heart, pure, spotless in all observances. 14. And in their 
pure nunds, — the pure Hari dwelling within them, — (there existed) 
pure knowledge whereby they beheld his highest station, called (th«t 
x)f) YishQU."' 15. Afterwards that which is described as the portioQ 
of Hari consisting of Time *^ in^sed into those beings direful sin, in 
^e form of desire and the like, ineffective (of man^s end), small in 
amount, but gradually increasing in force, (16) the seed of unng^teou»- 
ness, and sprung from darkness and cupidity. 17. Thenceforward their 
innate perfectness was but slightly evolved : and as all the other eight 
perfections called rasoUdsa and the rest (18) declined, and sin in- 
creased, these creatures (mankind) were afflicted with suffering ariaiag 

>i< How docs this agree with the statements made in the Taitt. Sanh. riL 1, 1, ^ ff. 
as quoted above, p. 16, and in the Taitt. Br. iii. 2, 3, 9, p. 21, that the S'Qdrti is 
incapacitated for sacrifice, and that anything he milks out is no oblation } 

^^7 This alludes to an expression in the Big-Tcda, i. 22, 20. See the 4th vol. of this 
work, p. 64. 

»w In regard to Kala, " Time," see Wilson's V. P. vol. i. p. 18 f., and the passages 
from the Atharrn-Teda, extracted ia the Journal of the Eoyal Anatio Society for 1865, 
pp. 380 flL 


out of the pairs (of susceptibilities to pleasure and pain, etc., etc.) 
19. They then constructed fastnesses among trees, on hills, or amid 
waters, as well as artificial fortresses, towns, villages, etc. 20. And in 
tliese towns, etc., they built houses on the proper plan, in order to 
oonnteract cold, heat, and other discomforts. 21. Having thus provided 
against cold, etc., they devised methods of livelihood depending upon 
labour, and executed by their hands." The kinds of grain which 
they cultivated are next described in the following verses 22 to 25. 
The text then proceeds, verse 26: "These are declared to be the 
fourteen kinds of grain, cultivated and wild, fitted for sacrifice ; and 
aacrifioe is an eminent cause of their existence. 27. G^liese, too, 
along with sacrifice, are the most efficacious sources of progeny. 
Hence those who understand cause and effect celebrate sacrifices. 
28. Their daily performance is beneficial to men, and delivers from 
sins committed. 29. But that drop of sin which had been created by 
time increased in men's hearts, and they disregarded sacrifice. 80. 
Beviling the Yedas, and the prescriptions of the Yedas, the gods, and 
all sacrificial rites, etc., obstructing oblations, (31) and cutting off the 
patli of activity,^^^ they became^alignant, vicious, and perverse in their 
designs. 32. The means of subsistence being provided, Prajapati, having 
csreated living beings, established a distinction according to their position 
and qualities (see verses 3 to 5 above), (and fixed) the duties of the castes 
and orders, and the worlds (to be attained after death) by all the castes 
which perfectly fulfilled their duties. 33. The world of Prajapati is 
declared to be the (future) abode of those Brahmans who are assiduous 
in religious rites ; the realm of Indra the abode of those Kshattriyas 
who tmn not back in battle ; (34) that of the Maruts the abode of those 
Yai^yas who fulfil their duties ; and that of the Grandharvas the abode 
of the men of Bndra race who abide in their vocation of service." In 
the remaining verses of the chapter (35 to 39) the realms of blessedness 
destined for the reception of more eminent saints are briefly noticed, as 
wdl as the infernal regions* to which the wicked are doomed. 

^1* Pra^tiHi-^marga^vyttchehkUH-harinah, The Commentator ascribes this to the 
human race being no longer sufficiently propagated, for he adds the explanation : 
fqfnananmh^hane devair avarahanad annabkavena prqja-vfiddher asiddheh \ ** because 
population did not increase from the want of food caused by the gods ceasing to send 
rain in consequence of the non-celebration of sacrifice." 


At the beginning of the seventh section, without any farther enquiry 
on the part of Maitreya, Parai^ara proceeds as follows : 

Y* P. i. 7, 1. Tato *hhidhydyata$ ta»yajajnire mdnaslh prajdh \ taeh-^ 
chharlra'Samutpannaih kdryais taih kdranaih saha \ 2. Eihettrajnd^ 
samavaritanta gatrebhycu tast/a dhlmatah \ te $arve samavarttanta ye 
may a prag ui&hritdh \ 3. DevddydJ^ sthdvardntdS cha traigunyth 
vishaye sthttdh \ evam Ihutdni 8fish(dni ehardni ithdcardni cha \ 4* 
Tadd *sya tdh prajdh sarvd va vyavarddhanta dhlmatah \ ath&nydn 
mdnasdn putrdn sadriSdn dtmano *8rijat | 5. Bhrigum Pulastyam P^ 
laham Kratum Angirasam iathd | Marlchiih Daksham Atrim cha Fasiih-' 
fhath chaiva mdnasdn \ nava hrahmdna ity etc purdne niichayam gaid^ | 
6. Sanandanddayo ye cha purvam erishtd* tu Vedhaed \ na U lokeehn 
asajjanta nirapekehdh prajdsu te \ earve te chdgata-jndnd vita-rdgd 
vimatsardh \ 7. Teshv evam nirapeksheshu loka-srishfau mahdimana^ \ 
Brahmano ^hhud mahdhrodhae traHokya-dahana-kshamah \ 8. Taeya 
hrodhdt eamuibhUtO'jvdld'mdld'Vidlpitam \ Brahmano 'bhut tadd tarvatk 
trailokyam akhilam mune \ 9. BhrHkutl-kuttldt tasya laldfdt krodJuh 
dlpitdt I samutpannae tadd Rudro madhydhndrka-ianuhprabhah \ ardha* 
ndri-nara-vaptih praehando ^tiSarfravdn \ vihhajdtmdnam ity uktvd torn 
Brahmd ^ntardadhe punah \ 10. Tathokto ^tau dvidJid sirltvam purushat* 
rath tathd ^karot \ hihheda purushivam cha daiadhd chaikadhd cha eah | 
11. Saumydsaumyais tathd idntdsdntaih stritvam cha sa prabhuh \ H* 
hheda hahudhd devah evarupair asitaih sitaih \ 12. Tato Brahmd *Hnu^ 
sambhutam pUrvam avdyamhhuvam prahhum \ dtmdnam eva kjritavdn pro- 
jdpdlam Manum dvija \ 13. Sittarupdm cha tdm ndrim tapo-nirdhntO' 
kalmashdm | svdyamhhuvo Manur devah patnyarthaih jagfihe vibhuk | 
14. Tasmdch cha puruslidd devi Satarupd vyajdyata | PriyavratoUdna-^ 
pddau Praeutydkuti-sanjnitam \ kanyd-dvayam cha dharma-jna rUpau- 
ddrya-gundnvitam \ 15. Dadau PraeUtm Dakshdydthdkutim Ruehay^ 
pwrd ityddi \ 

'M. Then firom him, as he was desiring, there were bom mental 
sons with effects and causes^ derived from his body. 2. Embodied 
spirits sprang from the limbs of that wise Being. All those creatures 
sprang forth which have been already described by me, (3) beginning 

iM The Commentator explainB these words karyuU iaify karanaii saha to mean 
'< bodies and senses." 


with gods and ending with motionless objects, and existing in the con- 
dition of the three qualities. Thus were created beings moving and 
stationary. 4. When none of these creatures of the Wise Being multi- 
plied^ he next formed other, mental, sons like to himself, (5) Bhpgu, 
Falastya, Pulaha, Eratu, Angiras, Marichi, Daksha, Atri, and Yasish- 
tha, aU bom from his mind. These are the nine Brahmas who have 
been determined in the Puranas, 6. But Sanandana and the others who 
had been previously created by Vedhas (Brahma) had no regard for the 
worlds, and were indifferent to offspring. They had all attained to 
knowledge, were freed from desire, and devoid of envy. 7. As they 
were thus indifferent about the creation of the world, great wrath, 
sufficient to bum up the three worlds, arose in the mighty Brahma. 
8. The three worlds became entirely illuminated by the wreath of flame 
which sprang from his anger. 9. Then from his forehead, wrinkled by 
frowns and inflamed by fury, arose Rudra, luminous as the midday sun, 
with a body half male and half female, fiery, and huge in bulk. After 
saying to him, 'Divide thyself,' Brahma vanished. 10. Being so ad- 
dressed, Eudra severed himself into two, into a male and a female form. 
The god next divided his male body into eleven parts, (II) beautiful 
and hideous, gentle and ungentle ; and his female figure into numerous 
portions with appearances black and white. 12. Brahma then made 
the lord Svayambhuva, who had formerly sprung from himself, and 
was none other than himself, to bo Manu the protector of creatures. 
13. The god Manu Svayambhuva took for his wife the female Satarupa, 
who by austere fervour had become freed from all defilement. 14. To 
that Male the goddess Satarupa bore Priyavrata and Uttanapada, and 
two daughters called Prasuti and Akuti, distinguished by the qualities 
of beauty and magnanimity. 15. He of old gave Prasuti in marriage 
to Dakaha, and Akuti to Kuchi.'' 

From a comparison of the preceding narratives of the creation of 
mankind, extracted from the fifth and sixth chapters of the First Book 
of the Yishnu Purana, it will be seen that the details given in the 
different accounts are not consistent with each other. It is first of all 
stated in the fifth chapter (verse 16) that the arvuksrotas, or human 
creation was characterized by the qualities of darkness and passion. In 
the second account (verse-BS) we are told that Brahma assumed a body 
composed of passion, from which men, in whom that quality is poiii^eT- 



full were produced.^" In neither of these narratiyes is the slightest al- 
lusion made to there having been any primeTal and congenital distinc- 
tion of classes. In the third statement given in the sixth chapter 
(verses 3 to 5) the human race is said to have been the result of a four- 
fold creation ; and the four castes, produced from different parts of the 
creator's body, are declared to have been each especially characterized 
by different qualities (faunas), viz., those who issued from his mouth by 
goodness {sattva), those who proceeded from his breast by passion (rajas)^ 
those who were produced from his thighs by both passion and darkness 
ifamas), and those who sprang from his feet by darkness. In the sequel 
of this account, however, no mention is made of any differences of con- 
duct arising from innate diversities of disposition having been mani- 
fested in the earliest age by the members of the different classes. On 
the contrary, they are described (verses 10 ff.) in language applicable to 
a state of perfection which was universal and uniform, as full of £Euth^ 
pure-hearted and devout. In like manner the declension in purity and 
goodness which ensued is not represented as peculiar to any of the 
classes, but as common to all. So far, therefore, the different castes 
seem, according to this account, to have been undistinguished by any 
variety of mental or moral constitution. And it is not until after the 
deterioration of the entire race has been related, that we are told (in 
verses 32 f.) that the separate duties of the several castes were fixed in 
accordance with their position and qualities. This sketch of the moral 
and religious history of mankind, in the earliest period, is thus deficient 
in failing to explain how beings, who were originally formed with very 
different ethical characters, should have been all equally excellent dur- 
ing their period of perfection, and have also experienced an nnifonn 
process of decline. 

In regard to the variation between the two narratives of the creation 
found in the fifth chapterof the Yishnu Purana, Professor Wilson remarks 
as follows in a note to vol. i. p. 80 : ** These reiterated, and not always 
very congruous, accounts of the creation are explained by the Puragas 
as referring to different Kalpas or renovations of the world, and there- 
fore involving no incompatibility. A better reason for their appearance 

^1 Compare the passage giTen aboye at the close of Sect. V. pp. 41 ff., from Mana 
xii. 39 ff. and the remarks thereon. 


18 the probability that they have been borrowed from different original 

As regards the first of these explanations of the discrepancies in 
question, it most be observed that it is inapplicable to the case before 
na, as the text of the Yishnu Purana itself says nothing of the dif- 
ferent accounts of the creation having reference to different Kalpas : 
and in absence of any intimation to the contrary we must naturally 
assume that the various portions of the consecutive narration in the 
fourth^ fifth, sixth, and seventh chapters, which are connected wit^ 
each other by a series of questions and answers, must all have reference 
to the creation which took place at the commencement of the existing 
or Yaraha Kalpa, as stated in the opening verse of the fourth chapter. 
Professor Wilson's supposition that the various and discrepant accounts 
'' have been borrowed from different original authorities " appears to 
have probability in its favour. I am unable to point out the source 
from which the first description of the creation, in the early part of the 
fifth chapter, verses 1 to 23, has been derived. But the second account, 
given in verses 26 to 35, has evidently drawn many of its details from 
the passages of the Taittirlya Brahma^a ii. 2, 9, 5-9, and ii. 3, 8, 2 f., 
and Sktapatha Brahmana xi. 1 , 6, 6 ff. which I have quoted above. And 
it is possible that the references which are found in the former of these 
descriptions in the Yishnu Purana to different portions of the creation 

i** The diicrepancies between current legends on different subjects are occasionally 
notioed in the text of the Visbon Porai^a. Tbus in tbe eigbth cbapter of tbe first book, 
T. 12, Haitreya, wbo bad been told by ParSs'ara that S'ri was tbe daugbter of Bbfigu 
and Khyfiti, enquires : Kthirabdhau S'rih puroipannd 4ruyate*mfita'manthane \ Bkjri' 
gd^ Khyaiyam aamutpatmety etad aha iatham bhavan \ **It is reported tbat S'ri was 
produced in tbe ocean of milk wben ambrosia was cbumed. How do you say tbat 
■he was bom to Bbfigu by Ebyati }" He receives for answer : 13. 2(ityawa tajagan" 
maia Vuhnoh S'rlr anopayml (anotber MS. reads anu^ay /mi) yaiha aamagato Vuhnui 
iathakejfam dvi/ottama \ ** Sn, tbe motber of tbe world, and wife of YisbQU, is eternal 
and undecayiog" (or, according to tbe otber reading, **is tbe eternal follower of 
Vishnu"). ** As be is omnipresent, so is she," and so on. Tbe case of Daksba will 
be notioed further on in tbe text On tbe method resorted to'by tbe Commentators in 
cases of this description Professor Wilson observes in a note to p. 203 (4to. edition), 
*' other calculations occur, tbe incompatibility of which is said, by the Commentators 
on our text and on that of the Bhugavata, to arise from reference being made to dif« 
ferent Kalpas ; and they quote the same stanza to this effect : Kvachit kvachii pu* 
ranethu vtrodho yadi lakshyate \ kalpa-bhedadibhit tatra virodhah tadbhir iahyate \ 
^Whenerer any contradictions in different PunLnas are observed, tiiey are ascribed by 
the picrai to differences of Ealpaa and the like.' '* 


being ineffectiye may have been suggested by some of the other details 
in the Brahmanas, which I shall now proceed to cite. At all events 
some of the latter appear to have given rise to the statement in the 
fourth verse of the seventh chapter of the Yishnu P. that the creatores 
formed by Brahma did not midtiplyi as well as to various particulars in 
the narratives which will be quoted below from the Yayn and Markan- 
4eya Puranas. The Brahmanas describe the creative operations of Pra- 
japati as having been attended with intense e£Ebrty and often followed 
by great exhaustion ; and not only so, but they represent many of these 
attempts to bring living creatures of various kinds into existence, to 
sustain them after they were produced, and to ensure their propagation, 
as having been either altogether abortive, or only partially successfuL 
The following quotations will afford illustrations of these different 
points : 

Taitt. Br. i. 1, 10, 1. Prajdpatih prajah a^jijata \ sa rt'richdno^num-' 
yata \ sa tapo Hapyata \ sa dtman vlryam apaSyat tad avarddhata \ 

"Prajapati created living beings. He felt himself emptied. He 
performed austere abstraction. He perceived vigour in himself. It 
increased, etc." 

Taitt. Br. i. 2, 6, 1. Prajdpatih prajdh sfishfvd vfitto^ *iayai | UUh 
devdh hhutdfidtn rasam tejah samhhritya tena enam abhishafyan '' maAdM 
avavarttV^ iti | 

'' Prajapati after creating Jiving beings lay exhausted. The gods, 
collecting the essence and vigour of existing things, cured him there- 
with, saying he has become great, etc." 

Taitt. Br. ii. 3, 6, 1. Prajdpatih prajdh tfishtvd vyasramsata \ 8a hri- 
dayam hhuto ^Sayat \ 

*' Prajapati, after creating living beings, was paralysed. Becoming a 
heart, he slept.*' 

S'. P. Br. iii. 9, 1, 1. Prafdpatir vai prajdh sasfijdno ririchdnah iva 
amanyata \ tasmdt pardchyah prajdh dsuh \ na asya prajdh iriye ^nndd" 
ydyajajjiire \ 2. Sa aiksJmta *^ arikshy aham asmai (? yasniai) u kdmdya 
asfikshi na me sa kdmah samdrdhi pardchyo mat-prajdh ahhuvan na me 
prcjdh h'iye ^nnddydya asthishata'^ iti \ 3. Sa aikshata Prajdpatih 
'* katham nu punar dtmdnam dpydydyeya upa md prajdh samdvartteraihi 
tishtheran me prajdh iriye a?mddydya '* iti I so Wchluin hdmyami chth^ 

^ Srantah — Comm. 


iidra praja-kdmah \ 8a etdm ekddaSinim apaSt/at \ sa ekadaiinya ishfvd 
Prmjdpatih punar dtmdnam dpydyayata upa enam prajah samdvarttanta 
aUtikthania atyaprajdk Mye ^nnddydya sa vaslydn-eva ishfvd ^hhavat \ 

** Prajapati when oreating liying beings felt himself as it were emp- 
tied. The living creatures went away from him. They were not pro- 
duced BO as to prosper and to eat food. 2. He considered : ' I have 
beoome emptied: the object for which I created them has not been 
fiilfilled : they have gone away, and have not gained prosperity and 


food.* 3. He considered: 'how can I again replenish myself; and 
how shall my creatures return to me, and acquire prosperity and food?' 
Desizous of progeny, he went on worshipping and performing religious 
rites. He beheld this Ekada^inl (Eleven) ; and sacrificing with it, he 
again replenished himself; his creatures returned to him, and gained 
prosperity and food. Having sacrificed, he became more brilliant." 

3. P. Br. z. 4, 2, 2. So ^yam samvatsarah Prajdpatih sarvdni hhutdni 
ioirife yaeh cha prdm yach eha aprdnam ubhaydn deva-manushydn \ sa 
sarvdni hhSLtdni srishtvd rvriehdna %va mene \ sa mrityor hihhiydnchakdra \ 
2. Sa ha ikshdnckakre " katham nv aham imdni sarvdni hhutdni punar 
dimann dvapeya punar dtman dadhlya kathafk nv aham eva eshdm sa/r- 
tnh&m hhutdndm punar dtmd sfdm '' iti | 

"This Year, (who is) Prajapati, created all beings, both those which 
breathe and those that are without breath, both gods and men. Having 
created all beings he felt himself as it were emptied. He was afraid of 
death. 2. He reflected, * How can I again unite all these beings with 
myself again place them in myself? How can I alone be again the 
soul of all these beings ?* " 

SI P. Br. X. 4, 4, 1. Prajapatim vai prajdh sfijamdnam pdpmd mrit- 
ymr abhiparijaghdna \ sa tapo ^tapyata sahasratn satnvatsardn pdpmdnam 
vijihdsan \ 

''lOsery, death, smote Prajapati, as he was creating living beings. 
He performed austere abstraction for a thousand years, with the view 
of shaking off misery." 

Su P. Br. ii. 5, 1, 1. Prajdpatir ha vai idam agre ekah eva dsa | sa 
aikshata " katham nu prajdyeya " iti \ so Hrdmyat sa tapo Hapyata \ sa 
prqfdh asrifata \ tdh asya prajdh srishtdh pardhahhuvuh \ tdni imdni 
tayd^si \ purusho vai Prajdpater nedishfham \ dvipdd vai ayam puru- 
shah I tasmdd dvipddo vaydmsi | 2. Sa aikshata Prqfdpatih \ " yathd 


nv eva purd eko ^hh0.vam evam unv eva apy etarhy eka era atmi " t ^* | «a 
dcitlyah sasrije \ idh a9ya para era hahhuvuh \ tad tdam kshudraik mtS- 
sripaih yad anyat Borpebhyah \ tritlydh sasrije ity ahus tdh atym pard 0cm 
hahhuvuh I U ftne sarpdh . . . . | S. So ^rchhan Sr&myan Ptt^dpatir 
ikshdnehakre " katham nu me prajdh srishfah pardbhatatUV* Hi \ m ha 
etad eva dadarSa '^ atuiSanatayd vai tne prafdh pardhhavanti^^ Ui \ m 
dtmanah wa ogre stanayoh paya dpydyaydnchakre \ sa prajdh atfijata \ 
idh asya prajdh irishfdh standv eva ahhipadya ids tatah iambaibhSLvuh \ 
tdh imdh apardhhutdh \ 

** 1. Prajapati alone was formerly this nniverse. He reflected, * How 
can I be propagated ?' He toiled in religious rites, and practised austere 
fervour. He created living beings. After being created by him they 
perished. They were these birds. Man is the thing nearest to Praja- 
pati. This being, man, is two-footed. Hence birds are two-footed 
creatures. Prajapati reflected, ' As I was formerly but one, so am I 
now also only one.' He created a second set of living beings. Oiey 
also perished. This was the class of small reptiles other than seipents. 
They say he created a third set of beings, which also perished. They 
were these serpents ... 3, Worshipping and toiling in religious rites, 
Prajapati reflected, ' How is it that my creatures perish after they have 
been formed?' He perceived this, 'they perish from want of food.' 
In his own presence he caused milk to be supplied to breasts. He 
created living beings, which resorting to the breasts were then pre- 
served. These are the creatures which did not perish." 

Taitt. Br. i. 6, 2, 1. Vaihadevena vai Prajdpatih prajdh oifijata \ idh 
erishtdh na prujdyanta \ so ^gnir akdmayata *' aham imdh prajanayeyam*^ 
Hi I ia Frajdpaiaye iucham adadhdt \ so Hochat prajdm ichhamdna^ \ 
tasmdd yam cha prajd hhunakti yam cha na tdv ubhau Sochatah prajdm 
iclxhamdnau \ idsv Agnim apy asftjat \ td Agnir adhyait (2) Somo 
reio ^dadhdt Savitd prdjanayat \ Sarasvati vdcham adadhdt \ Pushd 
'poshayat \ te vai ete trih safJivatsarasya prayujyante ye devd^ pushfi* 
patayah \ saynvatsaro vai Prajdpatih \ samvatsarena eva asmai prt^'dit 
prdjanayat \ tdh prdjdh jdtdh Maruto ^ghnan " (umdn api na prdyuk* 
ihata" iti \ 3. 8a eiam Prajdpatir mdrutam saptakapdlam apa&yat I 
ta0h niravapat \ tato vaiprajdhhyo *kalpata \ , , . sa Prajdpatir aia^ai 
** ydJ^ purvd^ prajdh asrikshi Marutas tdh avad^huh katham n^Miruf^ 


tfijeya " ti^t | tatya Sushma dndam hhntarh nirwarttata \ tad vyudaharat 
tad aposhayat \ tat prdjuyata \ 

'< Prajapati formed liying creatures by the yai^vadeva (offering to the 
Yii^yedeyas). Being created they did not propagate. Agni desired' 
' let me beget these creatures.' He imparted grief to Prajapati. He 
grieved, desiring offspring. Hence he whom offspring blesses, and he 
whom it does not bless, both of them grieve, desiring progeny. Among 
them he created Agni also. Agni desired (?) them. Soma infused seed. 
Savitfi begot them. Sarasvat! inftised into them speech. Pushan nour- 
ished them. These (gods) who are lords of nourishment are employed 
thrice in the year. Prajapati is the Year. It was through the year 
that he generated offspring for him. The Maruts killed those creatures 
when they had been bom, saying ' they have not employed us also. 
8. Prajapati saw this Maruta oblation in seven platters. He offered it. 
In consequence of it he became capable of producing offspring ... 
Prajapati lamented, (saying) ' the Maruts have slain the former living 
beings whom I created. How can I create others ?' His vigour sprang 
forth in the shape of an e%%. He took it up. He cherished it. It 
became productive." 

Taitt. £r. iii. 10, 9, 1. Prajdpatir devdn oirijata \ tepdpmand sandi'. 
id^ ajdyanta \ tdn vyadyat \ 

"Prajapati created gods. They were bom bound by misery. He 
released them." 

Taitt. £r. ii. 7, 9, 1. Prajdpatih prajdh asrijata \ tdh asmdt sjrishtdh 
pardehlr dyan \ sa etam Prajdpatir odanam apaSyat \ so ^nnam hhuto 
^tMfhat I tdh anyatra annddyam avitvd Prajdpatim prajdh updvart- 
ianta \ 

" Prajapati created living beings. They went away from him. He 
beheld this odana. He was turned into food. Having found food no- 
where else, they returned to him." 

Taitt Br. i. 6, 4, 1. Prajdpatih Savitd hhutvd prajdh asrijata | td 
enam atyamanyanta \ ta asmdd apdhrdman \ td Varuno hhutvd 'prajdh 
Vartmma ayrdhayat \ tdh prajdh Varuna-grihUdh Prajdpatim punar 
upddhdvan ndtham ichhamdndh \ 

" Prajapati, becoming Savitfi, created living beiugs. They disre- 
garded him, and went away from him. Becoming Yaruna he caused 
Yaruna to seize them. Being seized by Yaruna, they again ran to 
Prajapati, desiring help." 


Taitt. Br. ii. 2, 1, 1. Tato rat sa {PrajapaUfi) prajah asrijata \ tdh 
asmat sruhfa apdkrdman \ 

** Prajapati then created living beings. They went away from him." 

I have perhaps quoted too many of these stories, which are all similar 
in character. But I was desirous to a£ford some idea of their number 
as well as of their tenor. 

As regards the legend of SUtarupa, referred to in the seventh chapter 
of the first book of the Yishnu Purana, I shall make some further 
remarks in a future section, quoting a more detailed account given 
in the Matsya Purana. 

Of the two sons of Manu Svayambhuva and Sktarupa, the name of 
the second, XJttanapada, seems to have been suggested by the appear- 
ance of the word XJttanapad in Rig-veda x. 72, 3, 4, as the designation 
(nowhere else traceable, I believe) of one of the intermediate agents in 
the creation.^** A Priyavrata is mentioned in the Aitareya Brahmana 
vii. 34, and also in the SUtapatha Brahmana x. 3, 5, 14, (where he has 
the patronymic of Bauhinayana) but in both these texts he appears 
rather in the light of a religious teacher, who had lived not very long 
before the age of the author, than as a personage belonging to a very 
remote antiquity. Daksha also, who appears in this seventh chapter 
as one of the mindbom sons of Brahma, is named in B. Y. ii. 27, 1, as 
one of the Adityas, and in the other hymn of the B. Y. just alluded to, 
X. 72, vv. 4 and 5, he is noticed as being both the son and the father 
of the goddess Aditi. In the S'. P. ii. 4, 4, he is identified with Praja- 
pati.^^ In regard to his origin various legends are discoverable in the 
Puranas. Besides the passage before us, there are others in the V. P. 
in which he is mentioned. In iv. 1, 5, it is said that he sprang from 
the right thumb of Brahma, and that Aditi was his daughter (Brah- 
manaScJut dakshindn^ushtha-janrnd Dalcshah \ Prajdpater Daksluuydpy 
Aditih). In another place, Y. P. i. 15, 52, it is said that Daksha, al- 
though formerly the son of Brahma, was bom to the ten Prachetases 
by M&risha {Baidbhyas tu Frachetohhyo Mdriahdydm Prajdpatih \ jajne 
Daksho mahdhhdgo yah purvam Brahmano ^hJiavat \ ). This double pa- 

»»* See the 4th vol. of this work, pp. 10 f. 

^^ See the 4th toL of this work, pp. 10 ff. 24, 101 ; Journal of the Royal Aaiatie 
Society, for 1865, pp. 72 £f. ; Both in the Journal of the German Oriental Society, 
Ti. 76. 


rentage of Paksha appears to Maitreya, one of the interlocutors in the 
Parana, to require explanation, and he accordingly enquires of his in- 
formanti ty. 60 ff. : Anguahth&d dakshinad Dahhah purvam jatah 
inUam mayd \ katham Prdchetaso hhuyah sa samhhuto mahdmune \ esha 
me Mfhiayo brahman sumahdn hfidi varttate \ yad dauhitraS cha somasya 
jpunah hakuratdm gatah \ Pardiara uvdcha \ utpattii cha nirodhaS cha 
nityau hhnteshu vai tnune \ fishayo Hra na muhyanti ye chdnye divya^ 
ekahhushah \ 61. Tuye yuye hhavanty etc Dakshddyd tnuni'Sattama \ 
jpunaS chaiva nirudhyante vidvdms tatra na muhyati \ 62. Kdnishthyafh 
jyaishthyam apy eshdm purvam ndbhud dvijottama \ tapa eva yariyo 
^hhUt prabhdvaS chaiva Jcdranam \ 

'* 60. I have heard that Daksha was formerly bom from the right 
thumb of Brahma. How was he again produced as the son of the 
Prachetases? This great doubt arises in my mind; and also (the 
question) how he, who was the daughter's son of Soma,^*^ afterwards 
became his father-in-law. Parasara answered: Both birth and de- 
atmction are perpetual among all creatures. Eishis, and others who 
have celestial insight, are not bewildered by this. In every age Daksha 
and the rest are bom and are again destroyed : a wise man is not be- 
wildered by this. Formerly, too, there was neither juniority nor 
seniority : austere fervour was the chief thing, and power was the 
cause (of distinction)." 

The reader who desires further information regarding the part played 
by Daksha, whether as a progenitor of allegorical beings, or as a creator, 
may compare the accounts given in the sequel of the seventh and in the 
eleventh chapters of Book I. of the V. P. (pp. 108 ff. and 152 AT.) with 
that to be found in the fifteenth chapter (vol. ii. pp. 10 ff.), 

I will merely add, in reference to Akuti, the second daughter of Manu 
Svayambhuva and Slatarupa, that the word is found in the Big-veda 
with the signification of "will** or "design;" but appears to be 'per- 
sonified in a passage of the Taittiriya Brahmana, iii. 12, 9, 5 (the con- 
text of which has been cited above, p. 41), where it is said: Ird 
paini viSvasfifdm dkutir apinad havih \ " Ira (I^a) was the wife of the 
creators. Akuti kneaded the oblation." 

*3« See Wilson's T. P. vol. ii. p. 2, at the top. 


Sect. Ylll. — Account of the different ereationsj including thai of the 
eastee, according to the Vdyu and Murkandeya Purdnae. 

I now proceed to extract from the Yayn and Markandeya Pura^as 
the accounts which they supply of the creation, and which are to the 
same e£Eect as those which have heen quoted from the Yishnu Purana, 
although with many varieties of detail. 

I shall first adduce a passage from the fifth chapter of the Yayn 
(which to some extent runs parallel with the second chapter of the 
Yishnu Purana ^^)9 on account of its containing a different account 
from that generally given of the triad of gods who correspond to the 
triad of qualities {gunai), 

Yayu Purana, chapter v. verse 11. Ahar-mukhe pravritte eha parah 
praJcriti-samhhavah \ kshohhaydmdsa yogena parena parameharah \ 12. 
Pradhdnam purusham chaiva praviSydndam Mahesvarah | 13. Pradhdndt 
kshohhyamdndt iu rajo vai samavarttata \ rajah pravarttakam tatra 
vljeshv apt yathd jalam \ 14. Guna-vaishamyam dsddya prasHyante hy 
adhishthitdh \ gunehhyah kshohhyamdnehhyae trayo devd vijajnire \ 15. 
ASritdh^^ paramd guhydh sarvdtmdnah hrirtnah \ rajo Brahma tamo hy 
Agnih sattvam Vishnur ajdyata \ 16. Rajah-prakdhko Brahmd sraah- 
tritvena vyavasthitah \ taniah-prakdSako ^gnis tu kdlatvena vyavasthitah \ 
17. Sattva-prakaSako Vishnur auddslnye vyavasthitah \ etc eva trayo lokd 
ete eva trayo gundh | 18. £te eva trayo vedd ete eva trayo ^gnayah] 
paraspardsritdh hy ete parasparam anuvratdh \ 19. Parasparena vart' 
tante dhdrayanti parasparam \ anyonya-mithund hy ete hy anyonyam 
upajlvinah \ 20. Kshanam viyogo na hy eshdrh na tyajanti parasparam \ 
liva/ro hi paro devo Vishntts tu mahatah parah \ 21. Brahmd tu rajosch 
driktah sargdyeha pravarttate \ paraicha purusho jneyah prakfitiScha 
pard smritd \ 

"11, 12. At the beginning of the day, the supreme Lord Mahel- 
vara, sprung from Prakriti, entering the egg, agitated with ex- 
treme intcntness both Pradhana (= Prakyiti) and Purusha. 13. From 

w See pp. 27 and 41 f. of Wilson's V. P. vol i. 

is» The Gaikowar MS. of the India office, No. 2102, reads atthiiah^ instead of 
airitah, the reading of the Taylor MS. 


Pradhfinay when agitated, the qnality of passion (fajas) arose, which 
was there a stinralating canse, as water is in seeds. 14. When an in- 
equality in the Gbnas arises, then (the deities) who preside orer them 
are generated. From the Ganas thus agitated there sprang three gods 
(15), indwelling, snpreme, mysterious, animating all things, embodied. 
The rajas quality was bom as Brahma, the tamas as Agni,^ the sattra 
as YishQU. 16. Brahma, the manifester of rajas, acts in the character 
of creator ; Agni, the manifester of tamas, acts in the capacity of time ; 
17. Yiflihnu, the manifester of sattva, abides in a condition of in- 
difference. These deities are the three worlds, the three qualities, 
(18) the three Yedas, the three fires ; they are mutually dependent, mu- 
tually devoted. 19. They exist through each other, and uphold each 
other ; they are twin-parts of one another, they subsist through one 
another. 20. They are not for a moment separated ; they never aban- 
don one another. I^rara (Mahadeva) is the supreme god ; and Yishnu 
IB superior to Mahat (the principle of intelligence) ; while Brahma, 
filled with rajas, engages in creation. Purusha is to be regarded as 
supreme, as Prakfiti is also declared to be." 

The sixth section of the Yayu P., from which the next quotation will 
be made, corresponds to the fourth of the Yishnu P. quoted above. 

1. Apo hy agre samahhavan nashfe ^gnau pfithivl-tale \ s&ntardhiJuh 
tine *9min nashfe sthdvara-jangame \ 2. Ekarnave (add tasmtn na prajna- 
yata hinehana \ tadd 8a hhagavdn Brahma sahasrdhshah sahasra-pdt \ 
8. Sahasra-Slrehd Furusho rukma^arno hy atlndriyah \ Brahmd Ndrd- 
yandkhyah sa sushvdpa salile tadd \ 4. Sattvodrekdt prahuddhaa tu inn- 
yam lokam udlkshya tah \ imam ehoddharanty atra Slokam Ndrdyanam 
praii \ 5. Apo f^drd vai tanavah^ ity apdm ndma iusruma \ apsu iete 
eha yat tasmdt Una Ndrdyanah smritah \ 6. Tulyam yuya-sahoirasya 
naUam kdlam updsya sah \ iarvary-ante prakurute hrahmatvam sarga' 
kdrandt \ 7. Brahmd tu salile tasmin vdyur bhutvd tadd *charat \ niSdydm 
iva khadyotih prdvfit'kale tatas tatah \ 8. Tatas tu salile tasmin vijnd' 
ydniargatdm mahim \ anumdndd asammUdho hhnmer uddharanam prati \ 

^ Tbe Mfirk. P. chap. 46, Tene 18, has the same line, bat snbstitates Rudra for 
Agni, thus : Bqjo Brahma tamo Rudro Fishnuh aattvam jagat-patih | The two are 
often identified. See Vol. IV. of this work, 282 ff. 

>*> See Wilson's Vishnu Puriina, p. 67, with the translator's and editor's notes. 
Verses 1 to 6 are repeated towards the close of the 7th section of the Viyu P. with 


9. Akarot sa tanum hy anyam Jcalpddishu yathd purd \ tato mahdtmd 
manasd divyam rUpam achintayat \ 10. Salilendplutdm hhumim drishtvd 
sa tu samantatah \ ** kirn nu rUpam tnahat kfitvd uddha/reyam aham ma- 
Aim" I 11. Jala- krtdd'Suruchi ram vdruham rupam asmarat \ adhrishyam 
^arva-hhutdndm vdnmayam dharma-sat^nitam \ 

** 1. When fire had perished from the earth, and this entire world 
motionless and moving, together with all intermediate things, had been 
dissolved into one mass, and had been destroyed — waters first were 
produced. As the world formed at that time but one ocean, nothing 
could be distinguished. Then the divine Brahma, Purusha, with a 
thousand eyes, a thousand feet, (3) a thousand heads, of golden hue, 
beyond the reach of the senses — Brahma, called Narayana, slept on the 
water. 4. But awaking in consequence of the predominance (in him) of 
the sattva quality, and beholding the world a void — : Here they quote 
a verse regarding Narayana : 5. * The waters are the bodies of I^ara : 
such is the name we have heard given to them ; and because he sleeps 
upon them, he is called Narayana.' 6. Having so continued for a noc- 
turnal period equal to a thousand Yugas, at the end of the night he 
takes the character of Brahma in order to create. 7. Brahma then 
becoming Vayu (wind) moved upon that water,"' hither and thither, 
like a firefly at night in the rainy season. 8. Discovering then by in- 
ference that the earth lay within the waters, but unbewildered, (9) he 
took, for the purpose of raising it up, another body, as he had done at 
the beginnings of the (previous) Kalpas. Then that Great Being de- 
vised a celestial form. 10. Perceiving the earth to be entirely covered 
with water, (and asking himself) ' what great shape shall I assume in 
order that I may raise it up ?' — ^he thought upon the form of a boar, 
brilliant from aquatic play, invincible by all creatures, formed of speech, 
and bearing the name of righteousness." 

The body of the boar is then described in detail, and afterwards the 
elevation of the earth from beneath the waters, and the restoration of 
its former shape, divisions, etc.^ — the substance of the account being 

^ This statement, wUicli is not in the corresponding passage of the Yishnn P., is 
evidently borrowed, along with other particulars, from the text of the Taittixiya San- 
hita, vii. 1, 5, 1, quoted ahove p. 52. 

1^ Following the passage of the Taittirfya Sanhita, quoted ahove, the writer in one 
verse ascribes to Brahmi as Vis vakarman the arrangement of the earth, tatas teshu 
viitrneshu lokodadhi-girUhv atha \ Visvakarma vibhq/'ate kalpadithu punak punaJ^ \ 


mnch the same, but the particiilais different from those of the parallel 

passage in the Yishnu Parana. 

Then follows a description of the creation coinciding in all essential 

points ^ with that quoted above, p. 55, from the beginning of the £fth 
chapter of the Yishnu Purana. 

The further account of the creation, however, corresponding to that 
which I have quoted from the next part of the same chapter of that 
Purana, is not found in the same position in the Yayu Purana,^"* but is 
placed at the beginning of the ninth chapter, two others, entitled iVo^i- 
tandhi ' kirttana and Chaturdirama'vihhdgaj being interposed as the 
seventh and eighth. With the view, however, of facilitating com- 
parison between the various cosmogonies described in the two works, 
I shall preserve the order of the accounts as found in the Yishnu 
Purana, and place the details given in the ninth chapter of the Yayu 
Purana before those supplied in the eighth. 

The ninth chapter of the Yayu Purana, which is fuller in its details 
than the parallel passage in the Yishnu Purana, begins thus, without 
any specific reference to the contents of the preceding chapter : 

Saia uvdcha \ 1. Tato ^hhidhydyatas tasya jajnire mdnaslh prajdh \ 
taeh ' chharlra ' Bamutpannaih kdryais taih kdranaih saha \ 2. Ksks' 
trajndh saniavarttanta gdirehhyas tasya dhimatah \ tato devdiura-pitfln 
mdnavam cha chatushfayam \ 3. Sisrikshur amhhdmsy etdni svatniand 
MmayUyufat | yuktdtmanoi tatas tasya tamomdtrd svayambhuvah \ 
4. Tarn abhidhydyatah sargam prayatno 'bhut Prajdpateh \ tato ^sya 
jaghandt pHrvam awrd jajnire sutdh \ 5. Asuh prdnah amfito vipraU 
taj-jantndnas tato ^8urdh \ yayd Bfishtdsurds tanvd tdm tanum sa 
vyapohata'^ \ 6. 8d 'paviddhd tonus tena sadyo rdtrtr ajdyata \ sd 
tamo-hahuld yasmdt tato rdtris triydmikd \ 7. Avritds tamasd rdtrau 
prajds tasmdt avapanty uta \ dfishtvd ^wrdms tu deveSas tanum anydm 
apadyata \ 8. Avyaktdm sattva-hahuldm tatas tdm so ^hhyayuyujat \ 
iatas tdm yunjatas tasya priyam dslt prahhoh kila \ 9. Tato mukhe 
samutpannd dlvyatas tasya devatdh \ yato *sya divyato jdtds tena devdh 

*3S Thifl is also the case with the details giyen in the Murk. P. xlvii. 15-27 and ff. 

*•* The Murk. P. however ohserves the same order as the Vishnu P. 

"^ The reading in the passage of the Taitt. Br. ii. 2, 9, 6, from which this narra- 
tiye is borrowed (see above, p. 28), is apalMta^ — which, however, does not prove that 
that verb with vi prefixed should necessarily be the true reading hero ; as the Taylor 
and Gaikowar MSS. have vyapohata throughout, and in one place vyapohat. 


praklrttitah \ 10. Dhattir dvciti yah proktah kr^dayurk aa vihh&vyaU \ 

tasmdtQ yasmdt) tanvdm tu divyuydih jajnire tena devatah \ 11. Devdn 

sfishfvd Hha deveSas tanum anydm apadyata \ sattva - matr&tmikaih 

devaa tato *nydm so ^hhyapadyata^^ \ 12. Pitjrwad manyamdna$ tdn 

putrdn prddhydyata prahhuh \ pitaro hy upapakshdhhydm ^ rdtry-ahnor 

antara 'sfijat \ 13. Tasmdt U pitaro d&vd^ putratvam tena teshu tat \ 

yayd sfishtda tu pitaras tdm tanum sa vyapohata \ 14. Sd ^paviddhd 

tanus tena sadyah sandhyd prajdyata \ tasmdd aha9 tu devdndm rdtrir 

yd sd "«tirl smritd I 15. Tayor madhye tu vai paitrl yd tanuh sd yart- 

yasl I tasmdd d&vdsurdh sarve rishayo manavas tathd \ 16. Te yuktds 

tdm updsante rdtry-ahnor ^ madhyamdm tanum \ tato ^nydm sa punar 

Brahmd tanum vat pratyapadyata \ 17. Rajo'mdtrdtmikdm ydm tu ma- 

nasd so *srijat prahhuh \ rajah-prdydn tatah so Hha mdnasdn asrijat 

iutdn I 18. Manasas tu tatas tasya mdnasd jajnire prajdh \ drishfvd 

punah prajdS ehdpi svdm tanuih tdm apohata \ 19. Sd ^paviddhd tanus 

tmajyotsnd sadyas tv ajdyata \ tasmdd hhavanti saihhrishfd jyotsndydm 

udhhave prajdh \ 20. Ity etds tanavas tena vyapaviddhd mahatmand \ 

tadyo rdtry-dhanl chaiva sandhyd jyotsnd cha jajnire \ 21. Jyottnd 

sandhyd tathd *haicha sattva-mdtrdtmakam svayam \ tamo-mdtrdtmiku 

rdtrih sd vai tasmdt triydmikd \ 22. Tasmdd devd divya-tanvd ^ dftsh- 

tdh sfishfd mukhdt tu vai \ yasmdt teshdm divd janma halinas tena te 

divd I 23. Tanvd yadasurdn rdtrau jaghandd asfijat punah \ prdnehhyo 

rdtri-janmdno hy asahyd niSi tena te \ 24. JStdny evam hhavishydndm 

dsvdndm asurai^ saha \ pitfindm mdnavdndrh cha atltdndgateshu vai \ 

25. JUanvantareshu sarveshu nimittdni hhavanti hi \ jyotsnd rdtry-ahanl 

sandhyd chatvdry amhhdfhsi tdni vai \ 26. BMnti yasmdt tato ^mbhdmsi 

hhd'Sahdo ^yam manishihhih \ vydpti-diptydm nigadito pumdmS chdha 

Prajdpati^ \ 27. So ^mhhdmsy etdni drishfvd tu deva-ddnava-fndnavdn \ 

pitrimi ehaivdSfijat so ^nydn dbnano vividhdn punah \ 28. Tdm utsrijya 

tanum kjritsndm tato *nydm asfijat prahhuh \ mnrttim rajas-tama-prdydm 

punar evdhhyayuyujat \ 29. Andhakdre kshudhdvishfas tato ^nydm sfijata 

puna^ I tena srishfdh kshudhdtmdnas te *mhhdmsy dddtum udyatdh \ 

30. '' Amhhdmsy etdni rakshdma " uktavantaicha teshu ye | rdkshasds te 

smjritdh loke krodhdtmdno nisdchardh \ 

■ ^ ThiB line is omitted in the Gaikowar MS. 
^ The Gaikowar MS. seems to read upaparivahhyam, 
^'^ The Gaikowar MS. reads Brahmano madhyamam tammu 
^ The Gnikoirar MS. readi dwa tmsa. 


** Suta sajs : 1. Then, as he was desiring, there sprang from him 
mind-bom sons, with those effects and causes derived from his body. 

2. Embodied spirits were produced from the bodies of that wise Being. 

3. Then willing to create these four streams {amhhdmsi) gods, Asuras 
Fathers, and men, he fixed his spirit in abstraction. AlS Svayambhu 
was thus fixed in abstraction, a body consisting of nothing but dark- 
ness (invested him). 4. While desiring this creation, Prajapati put 
forth an effort. Then Asuras were first produced as sons from his 
gproin. 5. Asu is declared by Brahmans to mean breath. From it these 
beings were produced ; hence they are Asuras}^ He cast aside the body 
with which the Aisuras were created. 6. Being cast away by him, that 
body immediately became night. Inasmuch as darkness predominated 
in it, night consists of three watches. 7. Hence, being enveloped 
in darkness, all creatures sleep at night. Beholding the Asuras, how- 
ever, the Lord of gods took another body, (8) imperceptible, and having 
a predominance of goodness, which he then fixed in abstraction. While 
he continued thus to fix it, he experienced pleasure. 9. Then as he 
was sporting, gods were produced in his mouth. AlS they were bom 
from him, while he was sporting {divyatah), they are known as Devas 
(gods). 10. The root div is understood in the sense of sporting. As 
they were bom in a sportive (jdkyaf^ body, they are called Devatas. 
11. Having created the deities, the Lord of gods then took another 
body, consisting entirely of goodness {sattva). 12. Begarding himself 
as a father, he thought upon these sons : he created Fathers {Pitfu) 
from his armpits in the interval between night and day. 13. Hence 
these Fathers are gods : therefore that sonship belongs to them. He 
cast aside the body with which the Fathers were created. 14. Being 
cast away by him, it straightv^ay became twilight. Hence day belongs 
to the gods, and night is said to belong to the Asuras. 15. The body 
intermediate between them, which is that of the Fathers, is the most 
important. Hence gods, Asuras, Fathers, and men (16) worship in- 
tently this intermediate body of Brahma. He then took again another 
body. But from that body, composed altogether of passion (r(ioai\ 

uo XhiB statement, which is not found in the parallel passage of the Yishnu PorSQa, 
if borrowed from Taitt. Br. ii 3, 8, 2, quoted aboTe. 

^^ Divya properly means '' celestial." Bat from the play of words in the passage, 
the writer may intend it to hare here the sense of " spartive." 


which he created by his mind, he fonned mind-bom^^ sons who had 
almost entirely a passionate character. 18. Then from his mind sprang 
mind-bom sons. Beholding again his creatures, he ca^t away that body 
of his. 1 9. Being thrown off by him it straightway became morning twi- 
light. Hence living beings are gladdened by the rise of early twilight. 20. 
Such were the bodies which, when cast aside by the Great Being, became 
immediately night and day, twilight and early twilight. 21. Early twi- 
light, twilight, and day have all the character of pure goodness. Night 
has entirely the character of darkness (Jamas) ; and hence it consists of 
three watches. 22. Hence the gods are beheld with a celestial body, 
and they were created from the mouth. As they were created during 
the day, they are strong during that period. 23. Inasmuch as he 
created the Asuras from his groin at night, they, having been bora 
from his breath, during the night, are unconquerable during that 
season. 24, 25. Thus these four streams, early twilight, night, day, and 
twilight, are the causes of gods, Asuras, Fathers, and men, in all the 
Manvantaras that are past, as well as in those that are to come. 26. As 
these (streams) shine, they are called amhhdmsi. This root hha is used 
by the intelligent in the senses of pervading and shining, and the Male, 
Prajapati, declares (the fact). 27. Having beheld these streams {am- 
hhamsi), gods, Danavas, men, and fathers, he again created various 
others from himself. 28. Abandoning that entire body, the lord created 
another, a form consisting almost entirely of passion and darkness, and 
again fixed it in abstraction. 29. Being possessed with hunger in the 
darkness, he then created another. The hungry beings formed by him 
were bent on seizing the streams {ambhamsi), 30. Those of them, who 
said ' let us preserve (rakshdma) these streams,' are known in the world 
as Bakshasas, wrathful, and prowling about at night." 

This description is followed by an account of the further creation 
corresponding with that given in the same sequence in the Vishnu 
Purana; and the rest of the chapter is occupied with other details 
which it is not necessary that I should notice. I therefore proceed to 
make some quotations from the eighth chapter, entitled Chaturdirama^ 
viblidga, or " the distribution into four orders," which corresponds, in 

1** Manamn. We might expect hero however, manavan or maniuhany " human,** 
in confonnity with the parallel passages both in the Vishnu Furuna (see above, p. 66)^ 
and the Markas^eyft Pur&Qa, zlyiiL 11. 


its general contents, with the sixth chapter of the Yishnu Parana, 
hook Lf hut is of far greater length, and, in fact, extremely prolix, as 
weQ as confused, fall of repetitions, and not always very intelligible. 

The chapter immediately preceding {i.e, the seventh), entitled Pra* 
imndki-kirtfanam^ ends with the words : ''I shall now declare to you 
the present Kalpa; understand." Suta accordingly proceeds at the 
opening of the eighth chapter to repeat some verses, which have been 
tlready quoted from the beginning of the sixth chapter, descriptive of 
Brahma's sleep during the night after the imiverse had been dissolved, 
tnd to recapitulate briefly the elevation of the earth from beneath the 
waters, its reconstruction, and the institution of Yugas. At verse 22 
the narrative proceeds : 

Kalpa9yudau kritat/uge praihame so ^srijat prajdJ^ \ 23. Prdg uktd yd 
nsyd tvhhyam pUrva-kdle prajds tu tdh \ tasmin samvarttamdne tu kalpe 
iagdhdi iadd ^gnind \ 24. Aprdptd yds tapo-lokaih jana-hham samdiri^ 
td^ I pravarttati punah sarge vljarthafk td hhavanti hi \ 25. Vijdrthena 
ttkUus tatra punah sargasya kdrandt \ tatas tdh srifyamdnds tu san- 
tdndrtham hhavanti hi | 26. Dharmdrtha-kdma-mokshdndm iha tdh sd- 
dhikdi^ smritdJ^ \ devdS cha pitaraichaiva fishayo manavas tathd \ 27. 
TatoB te tapasd yuktdJ^ sthdndny dpurayanti hi | Brahmano mdnasds te 
vai 9iddhdtmdno hhavanti hi \ 28. Te sangddvesha-yuktena karmand te 
Hvarn gatdh \ dvarttamdnd iha te samhhavanti yuge yuge \ 29. Sva* 
iarma-phala-ieshena khydtyd chaiva tathdtmikd {? tathdtmakdh) | satn- 
IhoMnUi jandl lokdt karma'Samsaya-handhandt \ 80. ASayah kdranath 
tatrti hoddhavyam karmand tu sah \ tai^ karniahhis tujdyante jandl lokdt 
Mhdhibhaih \ 81. Gjrihnanti te iarlrdni ndnd-rupdni yonishu \ devdd" 
y&h sthdvardntdi cha utpadyante parasparam (? paramparam) \ 32. 
Teshdik ye ydni karmdni prdk-sfishfau pratipedire \ tdny era pratipad^ 
yante sfffyamdndh punah punah \ 33. Himsrdhimsre mridu-krure dhar* 
widdharme fitdnrite \ tadhhdvitdh prapadyante tasmdt tat tasya rochate | 
34. Kalpeshv dsan vyatiteshu rupa-ndmdni ydni cha \ tdny evdndgate kdU 
prdyaiah pratipedire \ 35. Tasmdt tu ndma-rupdni tdny eva pratipe- 
dire I puna^ punas te kalpeshu jdyante ndma-rupatah \ 36. Tatah sarge 
ky avashfahdhe sisrikshar Brahmanas tu vai \ 37.^^ Prajds td dhydyatas 

la The narrative in the 49th chapter of the Murkandeya Puruna (verses 3-13) 
beKfim at this verse, the 37th of the Yayu Pur§Qa, and coincides, though with verbal 
difiierenoes, with what follows down to verse 47. After that there is more variatioo. 


tasya iatydhhtdhydyinoB iadd \ nUihvn&ndfk sahasram tu to 'ififad vai 
mukhdi tadd \ 38. Jands U hy upapadyanU sattvodrikt&J^ suehetasah ^^ | 
nahatram any ad vakshaato miihundndm saaarfa ha | S9. Te sarve rajaso- 
driktdh huhmtnaS eh&py ahuhminah}^ \ sfuhfvd sahasram anyat tu 
dvandv&ndm Urutah puna^ | 40. Rajas-tamchhydm udriktd IhdiiUU tu 
U smritdh | padbhydm sahasram anyat tu mithundndm sasarja ha \ 41. 
Udriktds tamasd sarv$ ni^irikd hy alpa-tejasdh \ tato vai harshamdnds 
U dvandvotpannds tu prdnina^ \ 42. Anyonya-hftehhaydvishfd maithu' 
ndyopachakramu^ | tatahprdbhriti kalpe *smin maithunotpatUr uehyate \ 
48. MdH mdsy drttavafh yat tu na tadd "«f^ tu yoshitdm^^ \ tasmdt tadd 
na tushuvu^ S0v%tair apt maithunaih \ 44. Ayusho ^nt$ prasUyante mt- 
thundny eva tdh sahfit \ hunthakdJi hunfhikaS chaiva utpadyante mtimfir- 
shaidm ^^ \ 45. Tata^ prabhfiti kalpe *smin mithundnd^ hi sambhavah \ 
dhydne tu manasd tdsdm prajdndm jdyate sakfit \ 46. Slahiddi-vishaya^ 
htddha^ pratyekam paneha-lakshanah \ ity evam mdnasl ^^ pHrvam prdh- 
sfishfir yd Prajdpateh \ 47. Tasydnvavdye samhh^itd yair idam pHritaih 
jagat \ sarit-sarah-samudrdM eha sevants parvatdn api \ 48. Tadd 
ndtyanta^ltoshnd yuge tasmin eharanti vai \ pfithvi-rasadhhavam ndma 
dhdraih hy dharanti vai^^ \ 49. Tdh prqfdh kdma-ehdrinyo mdnoiUm 
tiddhim dsthitdh \ dharmddharmau na tdsv dstdm nirviieshdh prqfds tu 
tdh I 50. Tulyam dyuiji sukha^i rUpafk tdsdm tasmin kfite yug$ \ dhar* 
mddharmau na tdsv dstdm kalpddau tu kfite yuge \ 51. Svena svenddhi* 
kdrena jqfnirs te kfite yuge \ ehatvdri tu sahasrdni varshdnd0i divya^ 
sankhyayd \ 52. Adyam kfita-yugam prdhuh sandhydndm tu chatu^^ 
iatam \ tata^ sahasraias tdsa prajdsu prathitdsv api | 53."^ iVa tdsdm 
pratighdto ^sti na dvandva^ ndpi eha klamah | parvatodadhi^&vinyo hy 
aniketdSrayds tu td^ \ 54. VUokdh sattva-hahvJd^ hy ekdnta-^ukhitd^ 
prqfd^ I tdh vai nishkdmO'Chdrinyo nityam mudita-mdnasdh | 55. Paia^ 

iM por auehitasoJ^ the Mfirk. P. reada aut^'asaJ^. 

^^ For aduihmmal^ the Mfirk. P. reada amanhinahj ** iraacible." 

^^ I hare corrected this line from the MSrkan4e7a Purftna, 49, 9 b. The readLng 
of the MSS. of the YSyn Puraga cannot be correct. It appears to be : mam mam 
'rtiavaSk yad yat tat tadatld hi ymhitam | The negatire panicle ieemi to be india- 
pensable here. 

M7 This half Terse is not found in the Mfirk. P. 

^ The Mfirk. P. has manushlf « hnman/' instead of manoil, << mental" 

^^ This Terse is not in the Mfirk. P. ; and after this point the Terses which ara 
eommon to both Parfi^as do not occur in the same places. 

^ Verses 6a-66 ooinoide generally with Tdrses 14-18 of the Mfirk. P. 


M$ pakahinai ehUva na taddsan sarisripdh \ nodbhi£d ndrakai^ ehma 
U hy adharma-pratHtayah | 56. iVa milla-p?iala-pu9hpa0i eha ndrtUwam 
liiavo na cha \ iarva-kdma^sukhah halo ndtyartham hy ushnchittatd ^ | 
67.Manohhilashitd^ kdmda tdidm iarvatra iarvadd \ uttishthanti pjrithiv' 
yd0^ vai tdhhir dhydid rasolvandhk \ 58. Balavarna-karl tdsdm Mdhil^ 
«d roya^ndiini | aaamskdryyath SariraiS cha prajds tdh sihirayauvandh \ 
59. Tdadm viiuddhdt aankalpdj jdyante mithund^ prajdh | samamjanma 
€ha rUpam eha mriyante ehaiva id^ samam \ 60. Todd tatyam alobhai 
eha ishamd iushfih 9ukham damah \ nirviieshds tu tdh sarvd rdpdyuh' 
Ua-itheihtitaih \ 61. Ahuddhipilrvahamvrittamprajdndmjdya(eivayam\ 
apravfiUi^ kfita-yuye karmanol^ iubhapdpayoh \ 62. VarndWama-vya- 
'Vadhdi cha na tadd *^san na iankarah \ anichhddvesha-yuktds U vartta- 
yanti parasparam \ 63. 2\ilya-^updyushah iarvdh adhamottama^arj* 
fita^ ^ I iukha-prdyd hy aSokdi cha udpadyante krite yttge \ 64. Nitya-' 
prah^Mta-manaso mahdsattvd mahdhaldh \ Idhhdldhhau na tdw dstdm 
mtrdmitre priydpriye \ 65. Manasd vuhayas tdsdtn mrlhdndm pravart' 
taU I na lipsanti hi td^nyayam ndnuyrihnanti ehaiva hi \ 66. Dhydnam 
parafk krita-yuye tretdydm jndnam techy ate \ pravfittam dcdpare yajnatk 
ddnam kali^uge varam \ 67. Sattvafa k fit am rajas tretd dvdparam tu 
rqfas'tamau \ kalau tamos tu vijneyam yuga^fitta-vaiena tu\ 68. Kdla^ 
hfite yuge tv esha tasya sankhydm nihodhata \ ehatvdri tu sahasrdni voT' 
shdndm tat kfitam yugam \ 69. Sandhydihiau tasya divydni Satdny 
ashfau eha sankhyayd \ tadd tdsdm hahhuvdyur na eha kleia-vipat- 
ta/yah ^ | 70. Tatah kfitayuge tasmin sandhydmSe hi gate tu vai | pddd- 
vahshto hhavati yuga-dharmas tu sarvaSah \ 71. Sandhydydm apy atitd' 
ydm anta-kdU yugasya vai \ pddaSas ehdvaiishfe tu sandhyd-dharme 
yugasya tu \ 72. JEvam kfite tu nihSeshe siddhis tv antardadhe tadd | 
iasydm cha siddhau hhrashtdydm tndnasydm dbhavat tatah | 73. Siddhir 

in Xhe MSrk. P. has nairahf " crocodfles/' in its enameration. 

^ The Murk. P. here inserts some other lines, 18^-21a, instead of 57 and 58a of 
the y&ya P. 

^** The Mfirk. P. inserts here the following yerses : 24. Chatvari tu sahasra^i 
varikanam manuthani tu j ayuh-pramanam jlvanti na eha kleiad vipattoifoik | 25. 
KvaehU kpaehit punaJ^ ta bhui ktkitir bhagyena Marvaiah \ kaUna gaehhata naiam 
upayanii yatha prtjah \ 26. TatKa tah kranuUah nasamjagmuh sarvatra tiddhayah \ 
tasu aarvatu nash^asu nabhasah prachyuta nara]^ (lataj^in one MS.) \praya*ah kalpa^ 
vfikihas te tambhuta gfiha-samsthitah | 

^ Instead of babhuvayuJ^ etc., the Gaikowar MS. has prayuktani na cha kUio 
babhuvaha \ 


mtif^ fmj€ UumimM trddydm mrntmrt Iriid \ mrfaddM yd iMjrd -*A(su iu 
m^MSMfftk rai praMrttUdk \ 74. Aik^sm tdk imts-feyems nddityo ydnd 
MmhJkM^Mm I Islpddau wtdman Ay eld $iidkir Ikmcmii m tn'U \ 75. 
MMfiCMmlareihu uurrtiku cAaiMr-yu^-rilAdfrniMi ' rmrndjrmauUkdrM'iritah 
hmnma-tiddkf/dhkMtaJ^ {karw^-tiddkfwikkKmkl^ 9mriUk \ 76. Smiulhyd 
hfilMya pddema nuMyd pddens ekdmdatak t kriia-smndijfdMSdid Ay eU 
Uiik4 ttim pdddm panuptnram \ 77. HrmMoUi ymfm-^lManmMu U Upuk- 
hi d 4t 4 > dUi ifMMkaH j UtUtk britdmie kikime tm hahkurm Ud^natU^ram \ 
78. Treid'ifvgam awumyaiti4i kritdmiam fuki-smti^mdk | tatmim JtiAlne 
hfU&M$ iu tack^kkuhtdiu prajdn ika \ 79. Kmlpdism umprwrrittdyds 
treidy&l^ pramukhe tadd \ pranaiyati Uid iiidkik kdU-yoyenm ndnyatkd \ 
HO, Tatydfh nidkau pranasktdydm anyd tiddktr ararUmU \ apdm Muk' 
$kmy$ pratigaU tadd meykdimand iu tai \ 81. Meykehkyak MianayitnU" 
kkyai^ pravfitU^ tfUkfi-iarjljanam \ takrid era iayd rriskfyd Mmyukle 
ffitkivl'taU I 82. Prddurdsams tadd tdtdm rrtkskds tm yrika-Mmstki- 
tdk^ I Mrca^atyupahkoyai tu tdsdm tehkyak prajdyats \ 83. Vart^ 
tayanti ki tebkya$ tds tretd-yuga-mukks prajdk \ tatak kdlena makatd 
tdtdm eta viparyaydt \ 84. Edgalohkdtmako hkdras tadd ky dka$miko 
^hkavat I yal tad hkavati ndflndrn jivitdnte tad drtaram \ 85. Tadd tad 
If at na hkavaii punar yuga-haUna tu \ tdtdm punak pranritte tu mdee mdse 
tad drttavam {-ife}) \ 86. Tatas tenaica yogena rarttatdm wuiitkune tadd \ 
tdsdih t&t'kdla-hkdvilrdd mdsi mdsy upayackkatdm \ 87. Akdle ky drttavot- 
pattir yarhkotpattir ajdyata \ viparyyayena tdtdm tu tena kdlena hkdvind\ 
88. PranaSyanti tatak sarve vfikskds te yrikaeametkitdk | tatas tesku 
prafuukteiku vihkrdntd vydkulendriydk \ 89. Ahhidkydyanti tdm eiddkim 
tatydhhidkydyinoi tadd \ prddurhabkUvue tdsdih tu tfiktkdt te grika- 
iaihttkitdl^ I 90.'" Vaetrdni eka praeuyanie pkaleskv dhkarandni eka \ 
tetho eva j&yate tdtdm gandka-varna-ratdnvitam | 91. Amdktkikam ma- 
kdvlryam pufake pufake madhu \ tena td varttayanti tma mukke iretd- 
yugatya vat \ 92. JTrtskta-tutk^dt tayd tiddhyd prajd vai vigata-jvardk \ 
puna^ kdldntarenaiva punar lobhdvfitdt tu tdk \ 93. Vjriktkdmt tdn 
paryagfiknanta madhu ckdmdhthikam haldt \ tdtdm tendpackdrena punar 
Mha-kfitena vai \ 94. Franathfd madhund tdrdham kdlpa-vfiktkdh kva^ 

^ Vonef 27-35 of the Mfirk. P. correspond more or less to this and the following 
Tenet down to 98. 

^ Thb and the following Tonei oorrespond more or less closely to the Mark. P. 
80 ff. 


thit kpoehii I toiyam wdlpa-kishtdyafk aandhyd-kdla^aidt tadd \ 95. 
wtrttatd^ tu tadd tdsdm dvandvdny ahhyutthitdni tu \ Sitavdtdtapais 
tlvrais tatas tdh duhkhitd hhriiam \ 96. Dvandvais tdh pldyamdnds tu 
ehakrur dvarandni cha \ Jcritvd dvandva-pratikdram niketdni hi hhejire \ 
97. Purvam nikdnM-chdrds te aniketdirayd hhriSam | yathd-yogyafh 
yath&'prlti niketeshv avasan punah \ 98. Maru-dhanvoiu nimneshu par^ 
foteshu dariahu eha ^^^ | samsrayanti cha durgdni dhanvdnam idhatoda^ 
kam I 99. Yathd-yoyam yathdrkdmam sameshu vishameshu cha \ drahdhds 
te niketd vai harttufn iitoshna-pdranam \ 100. Tatas td mdpaydmdmh 
khefdni eha purdni cha \ yrdmdmS chaiva yathd-hhdyam taihaivdntah' 
purdm eha | . . . 123.*^ Kfiteshu teshu sthdneahu punai ehakrur yri' 
hdni eha \ yathd eha pHrvam dsan vai vrikshds tu yriha-satlisthitdh \ 
124. Tathd karttum samdrahdhdS chintayitvd punah punah \ vriddhdi 
ekaiva gatdh idkhd natdS chaivdpard gatdh \ \2b. Ata urdhvam yatds 
ehdnyd enam tiryaggatdh pardh \ huddhyd \vishya tathd *nyd yd irik- 
iha-idkhd yathd gatdh \ 126. Tathd kfitds tu taih idkhds tdsmdch 
chhdlds tu tdh smritdh \ evam prmiddhdh Sdkhdhhyah idlds chaiva 
grihdni eha \ 127. Tasmdt td vai smritdh Sdldh Sdldtvam ehaiva 
idsu tat I prasidati manas tdau manah prdsddayami eha tdh \ 128. 
Tiumdd grihdni idldi eha prdsdddS chaiva sanjniidh \ kfitvd dvan- 
dcopaghdtdms tdn vdrttopdyam achintayan \ 129.^' Nashfeshu ma- 
dhund sdrddharh kalpa-vriksheahu vai tadd \ vishdda-vydkuld9 td vai 
prajds triihnd'kthudhdnvitdh \ 130. Tatah prddurhdbhau tdsdm iid^ 
dhis tretd-yuge punah \ vdrttdrtha-sddhikd hy anyd vfishfis tdsdm hi 
kdtnatah \ 131. Tdsdm vrishfy-udakdniha ydni nimnair gatdni tu \ 
vrishfyd nimnd{}) nirahhavan srotah-khdtdni nimnagdh \ 132. Evam 
nadyah pravrittds tu dvitlye vfishfi-sarjane \ ye purastdd apdm stokd 
dpannd^ prithivitale \ 133. Apdm hh&meS cha samyogdd osJtadhyas tdsu 
ehdhhavan \ pushpa-mulaphalinyas tv oshadhyas tdh prajajnire \ 134. 
Aphdla-krishfds ehdnuptd grdmydranyai ehaturdaSa | fitu-pushpa-pha* 
Idichaiva vrikshdh gulmdS chajajnire \ 135. Prddurhhavai cha tretdydm 
ddyo *yam aushadhasya tu \ tetiaushadhena varttante prajds tretdyuge 
tadd I 136. Tatah punar abhat tdsdm rdgo lohhaS ehasarvaiah \ avaSyam- 

"T I have corrected this line from MSrk. P. xlix. 85. 

^ Verses 52-54 of the Mark. P. correspond in substance to yerses 123-128 of the 

^ Venes 55-62 of the Mfirk. P. correspond to verses 129-137 of the Yayu P. 


IhdvinS, WtTiena tretd-yuga-^ahna tu \ 137. Tatoi tdh paryagfthnanta 
nadl^ kshetrdni parvatdn \ vfikshdn gulmauihadhli chaiva praaahya tu 
yathd-balam \ 138. Siddhdtmdruu tu ye pUrvam vydkhydtah prdk krite 
mayd \ Brahmano mdnasds te vat utpannd ye jandd iha \ 139. &dntdi 
cha huhminaS chaiva karmino duhkhinas tadd \ tatah pravarttamdndg te 
tretdydm jajnire puna^ \ 140. Brdhmandh kshattriyd vaisydh Sudrd 
drohijands tathd | hhdvitdJji pHrva-jdtUhu karmahhii eha kubhdsuhhaih \ 
141. Itae tehhyo^hald ye tu Satyaiild hy ,ahifh8akdi \ vlta-lohhd jitdt- 
mdno nivaaanti ama teshu vai \ 142. Pratigrihmnti kurvawti tehhyak 
chdnye ^Ipa-tejaeah \ evarh vipratipanneshu prapanneshu parasparam \ 
148. Tenadoshena teshdfk tdoahadhyomiehatdfiitadd^^ \ pranashfd hrtyo' 
mdnd vat mushttbhydtn aikatd yathd \ \A^}^ Agrasad hhur yuga-haldd 
grdmydranydi ehaturdaia \ phdam gfihrnnti piuhpaiieha phalaih patraih 
punah puna^ \ 145.^ Tataa tdsu pranash(deu vihhrdntde tdh prqfda 
tadd\ Svayamhhuvam prahhum jagmu^ kshudhdvishfdh prajdpatim \ 146. 
vfitty-artham abhilipaantah ddau tretd-yugaeya tu | Brahmd Svayamhhur 
hhagavdn jndtvd tdedm manUhitam | 147. Yuktatn pratyakaha-dfishtena 
darSanena vichdryya eha \ graatdh prithivyd oahadhyo jndivd pratyaduhat 
punah I 148. Kfitvd vataaih aumerum tu dudoha prithivlm imdm \ dugdhe- 
ya^gaua tadd tena vljant prithivi-tale \ 149. Jajnire tdni vljdni grdmyd- 
ranyda tu tdh punah \ oahadhyah phda-pdkdntdh iana-aaptadaida tu tdh \ 
• ... 155. Uipanndh prAthamatn hy etd ddau tretd-yugasya tu \ 156. 
Aphdkhkfnahfd oahadhyo grdtnydranyda tu aarvaiah \ vrikshd gulma' 
latd-vaUyo vlrudhw trina-jdtayal^ \ 157. Mulaih phalaii cha rohinyo 
^grihnan puahpais cha ydh phalam \ prithvl dugdhd tu vljdni ydni pur* 
vam Svayamhhuvd \ 158. Ritu-puahpa-phalda td vai oahadhyo jajnire tv 
iha I "^^ yadd praafiahfd oahadyo naprarohanti tdh punah | 159. Tatafi 
$a tdadm vritty-artham vdrttopdyaih ehakdra ha \ Brahmd Svayamhhiir 
hhagavdn haata-aiddham tu karma-jam \ 160. Tatah-prahhfity athau^ 
ahadhyah kfiahfa-pachyda tH jajnire \ aamaiddhdydm tu vdrttdydm taiaa 
tdadfh Svayamhhuvah \ 161. Marydddh athdpaydmdaa yathdrahdhdh 
paraaparam \^ye vai parigfihltdraa tdadm daan hadhdtmakdh \ 162. 
Itareahdm kjita-trdndn athdpaydmdaa kahaUriydn \ upatiahthanti ye tdn 

w Mark. P. Terse 63tf. »8i Mfirk. P. yewe 68ft. 

'« Verses 64-67 of the MSrk. P. correspond to rerses 145-149 of the Vayn P. 
^ Verses 78-75 of the Murk. P. correspond to rerses 158ft- 160a of the Vaya P. 
M This with all what follows down to rerse 171 is omitted in the MSrk. P. 


» ydvanto nirhhaydt tathd \ 163. Satyam hrahma yaihd hhniam hru- 
vmUo hrdhmam&a tu U\ y^ chdnye ^py ahalds teshdm vaiiasafk karma 
9am9thUdh I 164. Kindid ndiayanti sma prithivyam prdg atandritdh \ 
9miydn iva tu idn dhuh klndidn vfitti'Sadkakdn | 165. Sbchantai eha 
imcimtai cha paneharyydsu ye ratd^ \ ntstefaso ^Ipa-vlryydi eha iudrdn 
tan abravlt tu »ah | 166. Teshuih karmdni dharmdihi cha Brahmd 'nic- 
fyadadhSi prahhuh \ samsihitau prakfitdydm tu ehdturvarnyasya soT' 
ff«M^ I 167. Punah prqfds tu td mohdt tdn dharmdn ndnvapdlayan \ 
farua-dharmair qfivantyo vyarudhyanta paraaparam \ 16S, Brahmd tarn 
artkam huddhvd tu yathdtathyma vai prahhuh \ kshattriydndm halam 
iaa^am yuddhafk dfivam ddiiat \ 169. Tdjanddhyayanam chaiva tfitl- 
foik cha parigraham \ hrdhmandndfh vihhus teshdm karmdny etdny athd' 
diiat I 170. Pdiupdlyaih vdnijyam cha kruhi^ chaiva vUdm dadau | 
iUpdjlvam hhfitiih chaiva ittdrdndm vyadadhdt prahhuh \ 171. Sdrndn- 
fdni tu karmdni brahma-kshattra^iidm punah \ ydjanddhyayanam ddnam 
$dmdnydni tw teihu vai \ 172. Karmdjlvam tato datvd tehhyai chaiva 
parasparam \ lokdntareshu sthdndni teshdm siddhydy ^* addt prahhuh \ 
178.'* Prdjdpatyaih hrdhmandndm emfitam athdnath kriydvatdm \ sthd^ 
amdrafk kshattriydndm sangrdmeshv apaldyindm \ 174. FaUydndm 
ithdnam sva-dharmam upajlvindm \ gdndharvam iudra-jdtlndm 
pnUichdrena (parichdrenar) tishfhatdm | 175. Sthdndny etdni varndndm 
vyasydehdravatdm svayam | t(Uah sthiteshu varneshu sthdpaydmdsa chdira- 
mdn I 176. Gfihastham hrahmachdritvam vanaprastham sahhikshukam \ 
diram&0ii ehaturo hy etdnpHrvam asthdpayat prahhuh | 177. Varna-koT' 
flndm ye keehit teshdm iha na kurvate \ kfita-karmakshitih(}) prdhur dSra^ 
WM^ihdiuhvdsinah \ 178. Brahmd tdn sthdpdydmdsa diramdn ndmand- 
mmtah \ nirdeidrtham tatas teshdm Brahmd dharmdn prdhhdshata \ 179. 
Ptaathdndwi cha teshdm vaiyamdmScha niyamdmS cha ha | ehdturvarnydt" 
wutka^ pUrvaih grihasthas tv diramah smfitah \ 180. Trdydndm diram- 
dn&Si cha pratishfhd yonir eva cha \ yathdkramam pravakshydmi yamaii 
tka niyamaiicha taih | • • . . 190. Veddh sdngdi cha yajndi cha vra- 
idnd niyamdi eha ye \ 191. Na siddhyanti prddushfasya hhdvadoshe upd' 
gate \ hahi^karmdni sarvdni prasiddhyanti {na siddhyanti?) kaddchana \ 

^ I ooBJeetnre sUdkyay adat to be the proper reading. The MSS. hare siddhyH-' 
dadaty or stddkyadaddt^ etc. 

^ YerseB 178 £. are found in the Mark. P. Terscs 77 f. ; but all that follows down 
to fOM 198 if omitted there 


192. Antar-hhavehpradttshtasya kurvato^ hi par dkramdt \ sarvasvam apt 
yo dadyut kalushendntaratmana \ 193. Na Una dharma-hhuk sa sydd 
hhdva eva hi kdranam | . . . . 199. Evam varndsramdndth vai prati- 
hhdge krite iadd \ 200. Yadd *8ya na vyavardhanta prajd varndsramat' 
mikuh I tato ^nyd mdnasihso Hha tretd-madhye * sfijat prajdh \ 201. At- 
maruis tdh SarlrdcJtcha tulydS chaivdtmand tu vai \ tasmtn tretd-yuye 
prdpte madhyam prdpte kramena tu \ 202. Tato *nyd manasU tatra pro- 
jdh srashfum prachakrame \ tatah satva-rajodriktdh prajdh so Hhdsrijat 
prdbhuh I 203. Dharmdrtha-kdma-mokshdndTh vdrttdyds chaiva tddhi- 
kdh I devdi cha pitaras chaiva fishayo manavas tatlid \ 204. Tugdnu- 
rupd dharmena yair imd vichitdh prajdh \ upasthite tadd, tasmin prajd- 
dharme {-sarye ?) Svayamhhuvah \ 205. Ahhidadhyau prajdh sarvd ndnd- 
rupds tu mdnaslh \ purvoktd yd tnayd iuhhyam jana-lokam samdsritdh \ 
206. KalpeHite tu td hy dsan devddyds tu prajd iha \ dhydyatas tasya tdh 
sarvdh samhhuty -artham upasthitdh \ 207. Manvantara-krameneha ka- 
niahfhe prathame matdh \ khydtyd ^nuhandhais tais tais- tu sarvdrthair 
iha hhdvitdh \ 208. Kuialdkusala-prdyaih karmahhia taih aadd prajdh \ 
tat'karma-phdla-ieshena upashtdbdhdh prajajnire \ 209. Devdsura-pitri" 
tvaxB tu pasU'pakshi'SarUfipaih \ vfiksha-ndraka-kitatvaii tais tair hhd" 
vair upasthitdh \ ddhlndrtham prajdndm cha dtmand vai vinirmame \ 

''22. At the beginning of the Kalpa, in the first Krita age, he 
created those living beings (23) which I have formerly described to 
thee; but in the olden time, at the close of the Kalpa, those crea- 
tures were burnt up by fire. 24. Those of them who did not reach 
the Tapoloka took refuge in the Janaloka; and when the creation 
again commences, they form its seed. 25. Existing there as a seed 
for the sake of another creation, they then, as they are created, are 
produced with a view to progeny. 26. These are declared to accom- 
plish, in the present state (the four ends of human life, vi?.), duty, 
the acquisition of wealth, the gratification of love, and the attain- 
ment of final liberation, —> both gods, Fathers, Eishis, and Manus. 
27. They, then, filled with austere fervour, replenish (all) places. 
These are the mental sons of Brahma, perfect in their nature. 28. 
Those who ascended to the sky by works characterized by devotion to 
external objects, but not by hatred, return to this world and are bom 
in every age. 29. As the result of their works, and of their destination, 
(returning) from the Janaloka, they are bom of the same character (as 


before), in consequence of the (previoos) deeds by which they are 
bonnd.^ 80. It is to be nnderstood that the cause of this is their 
tendency (or fiEtte), which itself is the result of works. In consequence 
of these works, good or bad, they return from Janaloka and are bom, 
(31) and receive various bodies in (different; wombs. They are pro- 
duced again and again in all states, from that of gods to that of 
motionless substances. 32. These creatures, as they are born time 
after time, receive the same functions as they had obtained in each 
previous creation. 33. Destructivcness and undcstructiveness, mild- 
ness and cruelty, righteousness and unrighteousness, truth and false- 
hood — actuated by such dispositions as these, they obtain (their several 
conditions); and hence particular actions are agreeable to particu- 
lar creatures. 34. And in succeeding periods they for the most part 
obtain the forms and the names which they had in the past Kalpas. 
35. Hence they obtain the same names and forms. In the different 
Kalpas they are bom with the same name and form. 36. Afterwards, 
when the creation had been suspended, as Brahma was desirous to 
create, (37) and, fixed in his design, was meditating upon offspring,—- 
he created from his mouth a thousand couples of living beings, (38) who 
were bom with an abundance of goodness (sattva) and full of intel- 
ligence.^* He then created another thousand couples from his breast : 
(39) they all abounded in passion (rajas) and were both vigorous and 
destitute of vigour.^* After creating from his thighs another thousand 
pairs, (40) in whom both passion and darkness (tamos) prevailed, and 
who are described as active, — he formed from his feet yet another 
thousand couples (41) who were all full of darkness, inglorious, and 
of little vigour. Then the creatures sprung from the couples (or thus 
produced in couples) rejoicing, (42) and filled with mutual love, began 
to cohabit. From that period sexual intercourse is said to have 
arisen in this Kalpa. 43. But at that time women had no monthly 
discharge : and they consequently bore no children, although cohabit- 

^^ Karma-Bamiaya'bandhandt, I am unable to state the sense of samiaya in this 

*•* Suehetatah, The reading of the Murk. P. iuie/asah, " full of vigour," is recom- 
mended, as an epithet of the Bruhmans, by its being in opposition to alpa-t^'ataJ^ 
** of little vigour/' which is applied to the S udras a few lines below. 

^ The reading of the Murk. P. amartkinah, " irascible," gives a better seoM than 
«5t(f Amtgo^ " devoid of vigour," which the Vuyu P. has. 


ation was practised. 44. At the end of their lives they once bore 
twins. Weak-minded boys and girls were produced when (their parents) 
were on the point of death. 45. From that period commenced, in 
this Kalpa, the birth of twins; and such offspring was once only 
bom to these creatures by a mental effort, in meditation (46),— (offspring 
which was) receptive (?) of sound and the other objects of sense, pure, 
and in every case distinguished by five marks. Such was formerly the 
early mental creation of Prajapati. 47. Those creatures by whom the 
world was replenished, bom as the desc^dants of this stock, frequented 
rivers, lakes, seas, and mountains. 48. In that age {yuga) they lived 
unaffected by excessive cold or heat, and appropriated the food which 
was produced from the essences of the earth. 49. They acted according 
to their pleasure, existing in a state of mental perfection. They were 
characterized neither by righteousness nor unrighteousness; were marked 
by no distinctions. 50. In that Kfita yuga, in the beginning of the 
Kalpa, their age, happiness, and form were alike : they were neither 
righteous nor unrighteous. 51. In the Kfita age they were produced 
each with authority over himself. Four thousand years, according to 
the calculation of the gods, (52) and four hundred years for each of the 
morning and evening twilights, are said to form the first, or Epta, 
age.''^ Then, although these creatures were multiplied by thousands, 
(53) they suffered no impediment, no susceptibility to the pairs of oppo- 
sites (pleasure and pain, cold and heat, etc.) and no fatigue. They fre- 
quented mountains and seas, and did not dwell in houses. 54. They 
never sorrowed, were full of goodness {8(UU)a\ and supremely happy ; 
acted from no impulse of desire,^ and lived in continual delight. 55. 
There were at that time no beasts, birds, reptiles, or plants,^ (for 
these things are produced by unrighteousness),^ (56) no roots, fruits, 

^'0 The first of the renei, which will be quoted below, in a note on Tcne 63, froik 
the Mfirk. P.» seems to be more in place than the description of the Kfita age given 
here, of which the snhetance is repeated in yerses 68 and 69. 

^"^^ Perhaps we should read here nikama-eharinyo instead of niahkdmo' : if so, the 
sense will he, ** they moTed about at will." 

^^' The text adds here narakaJ^ or naraka^ which may mean '< hellish creatures.' 

^^ This, although agreeing with what is said further on in Terses 82, 133, and 
155, does not seem in consonance with what is stated in the Yishnu Puruna, Terse 45, 
where it is declared : oshadhyah phaia-mulinyo romabhyat tatyajajnire \ treta-'yuya' 
mukht Brahma kalpasyadau dv^'ottama | sfiahiva paiv-oshadhtJ^ samyay yuy<fia §a 
to<S'iJAiwr« I << Plants hearing roots and fruits spnuig from his hai^ Attiieoom- 


flofren, prodactions of the seasons, nor seasons. The time brought 
with it eTcry object of desire and every enjoyment. There was no 
excess of heat or coLL 57. The things which these people desired 
sprang up from the earth everywhere and always, when thought of, 
and had a powerftd relish. 58. That perfection of theirs both produced 
strength and beauty, and annihilated disease. With bodies, which 
needed no decoration, they enjoyed perpetual youth. 59. From their 
pore will alone twin children were produced. Their form was the 
same. They were bom and died together. 60. Then truth, contentment, 
patience^ BatLsfaction, happiness, and self-command prevailed. They 
were all without distinction in respect of form, term of life, disposition 
nnd actions. 6 1 . The means of subsistence were produced spontaneously 
without forethought on their parts. In the Krita age they engaged in 
no works which were either virtuous or sinful. 62. And there were 
then no distinctions of castes or orders, and no mixture of castes. Men 
acted towards each other without any feeling of love or hatred. 63. In 
the Kfita age they were bom alike in form and duration of life, with- 
out any distinction of lower and higher, ^^* with abundant happiness, 
free from grief, (64) with hearts continually exulting, great in dignity 

mencement of the Trctil ag^ Brahrau — having at the be^nnin^ of the Ealpa created 
^nwtiMl« and plants— employed them in sacrifice." Although the order of the words 
nnden the sense in some degree uncertain, it appears to be that which Prof. Wilson 
aasigns in his translation (i. 84), *' Brahma, having created, in the commencement of 
the Kalpa, yarioos [animals and] plants, employed them in sacrifices in the beginning 
of tfaeTieta age." This interpretation is supported by the Commentator, who remarks: 
Tad evtuk kalpmyaduv eva paiun oihadhli eha tjruhivd 'nantaram trtta'yugeMnukhe 
frapU aati samyoff gramyaranya-vyattJMya tada 'dhvare sanataya {tamyaklayd ?) 
yuyqfa krita^yuye yajnatyapravfitUh \ ** Having then thus at the very beginning of 
ike Kmlpa created animals and plants, he afterwards, when the commencement of the 
Tretft age arrived, employed them properly, according to the distinction of domestic 
and wild, in sacrifice, — since sacrifice did not prevail in the Efita age." This agrees 
with the course of the preceding narrative which makes no allusion to plants and 
animals having been produced in a different Yuga from the other beings whose 
creation had been previously described. (See Wilson i. 82-84.) The parallel passage 
in the Yayu P. x. 44-46, is confused. 

iT4 Xhe Mark. P. xlix. 24 inserts here the following lines : " They lived for four 
thousand years of mortals, as the measure of their existence, and suffepd no calamities 
from distress. 25. In some places the earth again enjoyed prosperity in every respect. 
Ai through lapse of time the creatures were destroyed, so too those perfections every- 
where gradually perished. 26. When they hod all been destroyed, creeping-plants 
fell from the sky, which had nearly the character of Ealpa-troes (i.#. trees which yield 
■U that is desired), and resembled houses." 


and in force. There existed among them no such things as gain or loss, 
friendship or enmity, liking or dislike. 65. It was through the mind 
(alone, i.e, without passion?) that these disinterested beings acted to* 
wards each other. They neither desired anything from one another ; 
nor shewed any kindness to each other.^^ Contemplation is declared to 
be supreme in the Krita age, knowledge in the Treta ; sacrifice began 
in the Dvapara ; liberality is the highest merit in the Kali. 67. The 
Krita age is goodness {sattvd), the Treta is passion {rajas), the Dvapara 
is passion and darkness (iamas), in the Kali it is to be understood that 
darkness (prevails), according to the necessary course of these ages. 
68. The following is the time in the Krita age : understand its amount. 
Four thousand years constitute the Kfita ; (69) and its twilights endure 
for eight hundred divine years. Then their life was (so long ?)*'• and no 
distresses or calamities befel them. 70. Afterwards, when the twilight 
in the Krita was gone, the righteousness peculiar to that age was in all 
respects reduced to a quarter (of its original sum). 71. When further 
the twilight had passed, at the close of the Yuga, and the righteousness 
peculiar to the twilight had been reduced to a quarter, (72) and when 
the Kfita had thus come altogether to an end, — then perfection 
vanished. Wben this mental perfection had been destroyed, there 
arose (73) another perfection formed in the period of the Treta age. 
The eight mental perfections, which I declared (to have existed) 
at the creation, (74) were gradually extinguished. At the beginning 
of the Kalpa mental perfection alone (existed), viz., that which existed 
in the K^rita age. 75. In all the Manvantaras there is declared to 
arise a perfection proceeding from works, produced by the discharge of 
the duties belonging to castes and orders, according to the fourfold 
division of Tugas. 76. The (morning) twilight (deteriorates) by a 
quarter of the (entire) Kfita, — and the evening twilight by (another) 
quarter; — (thus) the Kfita, the morning twilight, and the evening 

^^ This representation of the condition of mankind daring the Krita age, the period 
of ideal goodness, was no doubt sketched in confonnity with the opinions which pre- 
vailed at the period when the Parana was compiled ; when dispassion was regarded 
as the highest state of perfection. 

^^* It would seem as if the writer here meant to state that the period of lift waa 
that which in the verse of the Mark. P. (zlix. 24), quoted in the note on Terse 63, it 
ii declared to have been. But the expression here ii, from some cause or other, im» 


twilight (together) deteriorate successively to the extent of three 
quarters, in the duties peculiar to the Yuga, and in austere fervour, 
sacred knowledge, strength, and length of life.'^ Then after the 
evening of the Xrita had died out, (78) the Treta age succeeded,— 
(which) the most excellent rishis regarded as the evening of the Kfita. 
But when the evening of the Xrita had died out, (79) from the in- 
fluence of time, and for no other reason, perfection disappeared from 
among the creatures who survived at the commencement of the Treta 
age which ensued at the heginning of the Kalpa. 80. When that per- 
fection had perished, another perfection arose. The suhtile form of 
water having returned in the form of cloud (to the sky),^ (81) rain 
began to be discharged from the thundering clouds. The earth having 
once received that rain, (82) trees resembling houses^'' were provided 
for these creatures. From them all means of enjoyment were pro- 
duced. 83. Men derived their subsistence from them at the beginning 
of the Treta. Subsequently, after a great length of time, owing to 
their ill fortune, (84) the passions of desire and covetousness arose in 
their hearts uncaused. The monthly discharge, which occurred at the 
end of women's lives, (85) did not then take place : but as it com- 
menced again, owing to the force of the age {yu^a), (86) and as the 
couples, in consequence of it, began to cohabit, and approached each 
other monthly, from necessity occasioned by the time, — (87) an un- 
seasonable^'*^ production of the monthly discharge, and of pregnancy 
ensued. Then through their misfortune, and owing to that fated time, 
(88) all those house-like trees perished. When these had been de- 
stroyed, men disturbed and agitated, (89) but genuine in their desire, 
longed after that perfection (which they had lost). Then those house- 
like trees appeared to them ; (90) and among their fruits yielded 
clothes and jewels. On these trees too, in the hollow of every leaf, 
there was produced, (91) without the aid of bees, honey of great po- 
tency, having scent, colour, and flavour. By this means they sub- 
sisted at the beginning of the Treta, (92) delighted with this per- 

1T7 Such w the only sense I can extract from these rather ohscnre lines. 

17S guch is the only sense of the words here rendered which occurs to me. 

1^* Ofiha'tafMthitah, ProfessorWilson, in his Dictionary, gives <* like, resembling,*' 
among the meanings of sanitthita, 

179a Instead of UkaUy **out of season," Professor Aufrecht soggests akaU, "i& 
season," as the proper reading. 


lection and firee firom trouble. Again, throng^ the lapse of tim^ 
becoming greedy, (93) they seized by force those trees, and that hooey 
produced without bees. And then, owing to that misconduct of thein^ 
occasioned by cupidity, (94) the Ealpa trees, together with their honey, 
were in some places destroyed. As but litde of it^ remained, owi^g 
to the effects of the period of twilight, (95) the pairs (of opposites, at 
pleasure and pain, etc) arose in men when existing (in this state) ; 
and they became greatly distressed by sharp cold winds, and heats. 
96. Being thus afflicted by these opposites, they adopted means d 
shelter : and to counteract the opposites they resorted to houses. 97. 
Formerly they had moyed about at their will, and had not dwelt at aU 
in houses : but subsequently they abode in dwellings, as they found 
suitable and pleasant, (98) in barren deserts, in yalleys, on monntaiDi^ 
in caves ; and took refuge in fortresses, — (in a) desert with perpetual 
water.^^ 99. As a protection against cold and heat they began to con- 
struct houses on even and uneven places, according to opportunity and 
at their pleasure. 100. They then measured out towns, cities, villageiy 
and private apartments, according to the distribution of each." [The 
following verses 101-107 give an account of the different measures d 
length and breadth, which is followed, in verses 108-122, by a deserip* 
tion of the various kinds of fortresses, towns, and viUagos, their shapes 
and sizes, and of roads. The author then proceeds in verse 123:] 
''These places having been made, they next constructed houses; and 
as formerly trees existed, formed like houses,^ (124) so did they (now) 
begin to erect them, after repeated consideration. (Some) boughs are 
spread out, others are bent down, (125) others rise upwards, while 
others again stretch horizontally. AJter examining thus by refleotion 
how the different boughs of trees branch out, (126) they conatmoted 
in like manner the apartments {Sdkhd^) (of their houses) : henoe they 

110 •< Perfection " seenu to be here intended. If so, it would seem as if this fine 
had been icparated from its proper context 

^*^ J)hanvaHam ioivatodakam. Perhaps we should read here with the Mirk. P. 
xlix. 85, varkthpam parvatam audakam ** (fortresses) protected by trees, built on 
mountains, or surrounded by water." 

>** Whateyer may be thought of this rendering of the phrase, ^riksha]^ ^kaatrik 
sMilS^ the Mftrk. P. (xliz. 62), at least, is quite clear : gfihalcaru putla p ur wtrik 
Utham OMH mahlruhah \ tatha aammritya tat aarvam chakrur vitmam tah prqfo^ | 
**As they had formerly had trees with the shape of houses, so recalling tU tiiat to 
mind, these people buUt their dwellings." 


called vooms {Uldk).^ In this way loomB and honses derive their 
appellation from bninchea. 127. Hence looniB are called idld, and in 
Hut their character as rooms {idldtvam) consists. And inasmach as 
tta mind takes pleasure in them, and as they have gladdened {prdsd- 
db|ffii)y the mind, (128) houses, rooms, and palaces are termed respeo- 
tifdy ^rtXo, idld^ and prdsdda. Having adopted these means of 
Moce against the ' opposites,' they devised methods of subsistence. 
119. The kalpa-trees having been destroyed along with their honey, 
fbse creatures, afflicted with thirst and hunger, became disquieted by 
dejection. 130. Then again another perfection arose for them in the 
Tn/tk age, — ^whioh fulfilled the purpose of subsistence, — viz., rain at 
their pleasure. 131. The rain-water, which flowed into the hollows, 
burst out in the form of springs, water-courses, and rivers,^ through 
the rain. 132. Thus at the second fall of rain rivers began to flow. 
When the drops of water flrst reached the ground, then (133) from the 
eoDJunction of the waters and the earth plants sprang up among them, 
wMdi bore both flowers, roots, and fruits. 134. Fourteen kinds of 
plants, cultivated and wild, were produced without ploughing or sow- 
ings as well as trees and shrubs which bore flowers and fruit at the 
proper season. 135. This was the first appearance of plants in the 
Treta age, and by them men subsisted at that period. 136. Then there 
aggin arose among them, universally, desire and cupidity, through a ne- 
oeasary process, and as a result of the Treta age. 137. They then 
appropriated to themselves, by force and violence, rivers, fields, hills, 
tieesy shrubs, and plants. 138. Those perfect beings, who were de- 
scribed by me as existing formerly in the Kfita, — the mind-bom 
ehildren of Brahma, who had been produced in this world when they 
came from the Janaloka, — (139) who were (some) tranquil, (some) fiery, 
(some) active, and (others) distressed, — ^were again bom in the Tret&, 
(140) as Brahmans, Eshattriyas, Yaiiyas, Stidras, and injurious men, 
governed by the good and bad actions (performed) in former births. 141. 
Then those who were weaker than they, being trathM and innocent, 
dwelt imong them, free from cupidity, and self-restrained ; (142) whilst 

*** The reaaoning here does not seem very cogent, as the two words dakha and iaB 
do not appear to hare any close connection. Bat snoh unsuccessful attempts at ety<* 
mology are frequent in Sanskrit works. 

'^ The text here does not seem to be in a satisfactory state. The Calc. edition of 
the Mirk. P. reads vrithf^avaruddhair abhavat, etc. 


others, less glorioosthan they, took and did.^ When they had thns be* 
come opposed to each other, — (143) through their misconduct, while they 
struggled together, the plants were destroyed, being seized with their 
fists like gravel. 144. Then the earth swallowed up the fourteen kinds 
of cultivated and wild plants, in consequence of the influence exerted 
by the Yuga : for men had seized again and again the firuit^ together 
with the flowers and leaves. 145. After the plants had perished, 
the famished people, becoming bewildered, repaired to Svayambha 
the lord of creatures, (146) in the beginning of the Treta age, seeking 
the means of subsistence.^^ Learning what they desired, (147) and 
determining by intuition what was proper to be done, the Lord Brah- 
ma Svayambhu, knowing that the plants had been swallowed up by 
the earth, milked them back. 148. Taking Sumeru as a calf, he milked 
this earth. When this earth (or cow)^ was milked by him, roots were 

1M It is difficult to extract any satisfactory sense out of this line. 

^^ The S'. P. Br. ii. 4, 2, 1, also speaks of different classes of creatures applying to 
the creator for food : Prajapatim vai bhutanp updtldan | preffdh pai bhutani | ** «t «• 
dhehi yatha jtvama" iti \ tato deva yajnopavltino hhutva dakthinam Jdnv ackym upo- 
$7dan | tan abrapJd " yaj'no 9o *nnam amfitatvam va urg val^ tiuryo vo Jyotir ** Hi \ 
2. Atha mam pitarah praehlnavltinah aavyam janv aehya upasldan \ tan ahnmd 
**ma9i mdti vo 'sanam tvadha vo manojavo vaa chondroma vo jyotir** iti \ 3. jUhm 
$nam matttuhyah pravfitdh upasiha^ kfitva upasldan | tan abravit **aayam pratar 
90 'ianam prq/ah vo mfityur vo'ynir vojyotir" iti \ 4. Atha enampadavo^ upashUml 
tebhyah waitham eva ehakara *' yadd eva yuyam kadaeha labhadhvai yadi kai$ yoSy 
aniahaU atha eva ainatha" iti \ tatmadete yada kadaeha labhante yadi kale yady 
anakale atha eva ainanti \ 6. Atha ha enam iae'vad apy aeurah upasedur ity akmk \ 
tebhyae tamai eha mayaik eha pradadau | aety aha eva atwa^maya iti iva | parabhuta 
ha tv eva tah prajdh | tah imah prajas tathaiva upajlvanti yathaiea ahhyo^ Rnya^ 
patir adadat | " All beings resorted to Prajapati,— (creatures are beings),— (laying) 
* provide for us that we may li?e.' Then the gods, wearing the sacrificial oordi, aiul 
bending the right knee, approached him. To them he said, < let sacrifice be 3ronr food, 
your immortality your strength, the sun your light' 2. Then the Fathers, wearing 
the sacrificial cord on their right shoulders, and bending the left knee, approached bim. 
To them he said, ' you shall eat monthly, your oblation {svadhd) sh^ be your ra- 
pidity of thought, the moon your light/ 3. Then men, clothed, and inclining their 
bodies, approached him. To them he said, * ye shall eat morning and erening, your 
offspring shall bo your death, Agni your light/ 4. Then cattle repaired to him. To 
them he accorded their desire, (saying), * Whensoe?er ye find anything, whether tt 
the proper season or not, eat it/ Hence wheneyer they find anything, whether at the 
proper season or not, they eat it. 6. Then they say that the Asoras again and again 
resorted to him. To them he gave darkness {tamae) and illusion. There is, indeed^ 
such a thing as the illusion, as it were, of the Asuras. But those creatures suocnmbed* 
These creatures subsist in the yery manner which Prajupati allotted to them." 

^ 6'aM^ means both* • 


prodaced again in the ground, — (149) those plants, whereof hemp is 
the seventeenth, which end with the ripening of fruits." [The plants 
fit for domestic use, and for sacrifice are then enumerated in verses 
150-155.] *' 155. All these plants, domestic and wild, were for the 
first time^ produced at the beginning of the Treta age, (156) without 
cultivation, trees, shrubs, and the various sorts of creepers and grasses, 
both those which produce roots as their fruits, and those which bear 
fruit after flowering. The seeds for which the earth was formerly 
milked by Svayambhu (158) now became plants bearing flowers and 
fruits in their season. When these plants, though created, did not 
afterwards grow, (159) the divine Brahma Svayambhu devised for the 
people means of subsistence depending on labour effected by their 
hands. 160. From that time forward the plants were produced and 
ripened through cultivation. The means of subsistence having been 
provided, Svayambhu (161) established divisions among them according 
to their tendencies.^ Those of them who were rapacious, and destruc- 
tive, (162) he ordained to be Kshattriyas, protectors of the others.^^ 
As many men as attended on these, fearless, (163) speaking truth and 
propounding sacred knowledge {hrahma) with exactness, (were made) 
Brahmans. Those others of them who had previously been feeble, en- 
gaged in the work of slaughter,^"^ who, as cultivators {klndSdh), had 
been destructive, and were active in connection with the ground, were 
called Yai^yas, husbandmen {klndidn), providers of subsistence. 165. 
And he designated as S^udras those who grieved (Sochantah), and ran 
(dravantah),^ who were addicted to menial tasks, inglorious and feeble. 

'*^ See the note on yeree 65, above. 

"^ Tathararabhah, The Mark. P. has yatha-nyayam yaiha-ffunamf " according 
to fitness and their qualities." 

^^ Itaretham krita-tranan. The M. Bh. xii. 2247, thus explains the word Eshat- 
trija : brahmananam kahata-tranat tatah kahattriya uchyaU \ " (a king) is called 
Kshattriya because he protects BrAhmans from injuries." 

^>^ Vaiiasam karma. The former word has the senses of (1) " hindrance, impedi- 
ment," and (2) *< slaughter," assigned to it in Wilson's Dictionary. 

^^ The reader who is familiar with the etymologies given in Yaska's Nirukta, or in 
Professor Wilson*s Dictionary on Indian authority, will not be surprised &t the ab- 
surdity of the attempts made here by the Pura^a-writer to explain the origin of the 
words Kshattriya, Vaitfya and S'udra. To account for the last of these names he 
combines the roots »««?A, " to grieve," and rfri#, " to run," dropping, however, of ne- 
cessity the last letter (eh) of the former. The word kshattriya is really derived from 
kshattraf '< royal power ;" and vaUya comes from vis, " people," and means " a man 
of the people." 



166. Brahma determined the respective ftmctions and duties of all these 
persons. But after the system of the four castes had heen in all respects 
established, (167) those men from infjatuation did not fulfil their several 
duties. Not living conformably to those class-duties^ they came into 
mutual conflict. 168. Having become aware of this fact, precisely as 
it stood, the Lord Brahma prescribed force, criminal justice, and war, 
as the profession of the Kshattriyas. 169. He then appointed these, 
viz., the duty of officiating at sacrifices, sacred study, and the receipt 
of presents, to be the functions of Brahmans. 170. The care of cattle, 
traffic, and agriculture, he allotted as the work of the Yaiiiyas ; and 
the practice of the mechanical arts, and service, he assigned as that of 
the S^dras. 171. The duties common to Brahmans, Kshattriyas, and 
Yaii^as were the offering of sacrifice, study, and liberality. 172. Hav- 
ing distributed to the classes their respective functions and occupations, 
the Lord then allotted to them abodes in other worlds for their per- 
fection. 173. The world of Prajapati is declared to be the (destined) 
abode of Brahmans practising rites ; Indra's world that of Kshattriyas 
who do not flee in battle; (174) the world of the Maruts that of 
Yai^yas who fulfll their proper duty ; the world of the Ghmdharvas 
that of men of S^dra birth who abide in the work of service. 175. 
Having allotted these as the future abodes of (the men of the different) 
classes, who should be correct in their conduct, he ordained orders {dira- 
mat) in the classes which had been established. 176. The Lord for- 
merly instituted the four orders of householder, religious student, dweller 
in the woods, and mendicant. 177. To those of them who do not in 
this world perform the duties of their castes, the men who dwell in 
hermitages apply the appellation of ' destroyer of works.' 178. Brahma 
established these orders by name, and in explanation of them he de- 
clared their duties, (179) their methods of procedure, and their various 
rites. First of all there is the order of householder, which belongs to 
all the four classes, (180) and is the foundation and source of the other 
three orders. I shall declare them in order with their several obser* 
servauces." [The following verses 181-189, which detail these duties, 
need not be cited here. I shall, however, quote verses 190 ffl for their 
excellent moral tone.] '' 190. The Yedas, with their appendages, sa- 
crifices, fEists, and ceremonies, (191) avail not to a depraved man, 
when his disposition has become corrupted. AU external rites are 


tndtless (192) to one who is inwardly debased, however energetically 
lie may perform them. A man who bestows even the whole of his 
lobstance with a defiled heart will thereby acquire no merit— of which 
t good disposition is the only cause/' [After giving some further par- 
ttculars about the celestial abodes of the righteous, verses 194-198, the 
writer proceeds:] "199. When — after the division into castes and 
orders had thus been made — (200) the people living under that system 
did not multiply, Brahma formed other mind-bom creatures in the 
oiddle of the Treta (201) from his own body and resembling himself. 
Wlien the Treta age had arrived, and had gradually reached its middle, 
{202) the Lord then began to form other mind-bom creatures. He 
next formed creatures in whom goodness {sattva) and passion (rajas) 
predominated, (203) and who were capable of attaining (the four ob- 
jects of human pursuit) righteousness, wealth, love, and final liberation, 
together with the means of subsistence. Gods, too, and Fathers, and 
Riahifl, and Manus (were formed), (204) by whom these creatures were 
elassified (?) according to their natures in conformity with the Yuga. 
When this character(?) of his offspring had been attained, Brahma (205) 
longed after mental ofiispring of all kinds and of various forms. Those 
creatnres, whom I described to you as having taken refuge in Janaloka, 
(206) at the end of the Kalpa, all these arrived here, when he thought 
upon them, in order to be reproduced in the form of gods and other 
beings. 207. According to the course of the Manvantaras the least 
were esteemed the first (?), being swayed by destiny, and by connec- 
tions and circumstances of every description. 208. These creatures 
were always bom, under the controuling influence of, and as a recom- 
pence for their good or bad deeds. 209. He by himself formed those 
creatures which arrived in their several characters of gods, asuras, 
fathers, cattle, birds, reptiles, trees, and insects, in order tbat they 
might be subjected (anew) to the condition of creatures."^^ 

The substance of the curious speculations on the origin and primeval 
condition of mankind contained in the preceding passage may be stated 
as follows : In verses 22-34 we are told that the creatures, who at the 
dose of the preceding Kalpa had been driven by the mundane confla- 
gration to Janaloka, now formed the seed of the new creation, which 
took place in the Kfita Yuga, at the commencement of the present 
^ I oonfeai that I haye had great difficulty in attaching any sense to the last wordi. 


Kalpa. These were mind-bom sons of Brahma, perfect in natnre, and 
they peopled the world. As a role, we are informed, those beings who 
have formerly been elevated firom the earth to higher regions, return 
again and again to this world, and, as a resnlt of their previous works, 
are bom in every age, in every possible variety of condition, exhibiting 
the same dispositions and falfilling the same functions as in their former 
states of existence. It is next stated, verses 35-40, that when creation 
had, in some way not explained, come to a stand-still, four classes of 
human beings, consisting each of a thousand pairs of males and females, 
characterized respectively by different qualities, physical and moral, 
were produced from different members of the Creator's body.^^ These 
creatures sought to propagate the race, but abortively, for the reason 
specified (43). Children however were produced by mental effort 
(45 and 59), and in considerable numbers (52). The state of physical 
happiness, absolute and universal equality, moral perfection, and com- 
plete dispassion, in which mankind then existed, is depicted (48-65). 
The means of subsistence and enjoyment, which they are said to have 
drawn from the earth (48 and 57), were not of the ordinary kind, as 
we are informed (55 f.) that neither animals nor plants, which are the 
products of unrighteousness, existed at that period. "No division into 
castes or orders prevailed during that age of perfection (62). A gradual 
declension, however, had been going on, and at the end of the Krita 
Yuga, the perfection peculiar to it had altogether disappeared (70-79). 
Another kind of perfection, peculiar to the Treta, however, ;mbse- 
quently arose (73 and 80), and in the different Yugas there has existed 
a perfection springing from the performance of the duties belonging to 
each caste and order (75). The perfection described as prevailing in 
the Treta was of a physical kind, consisting in the production of rain 
and the growth of trees, shaped like houses, which at the same time 
yielded the materials of all sorts of enjoyments (80-82). Passion, 
however, in its various forms began to take the place of the previous 
dispassion (84). The constitution of women, which had formerly in- 
<^pacitated them for effective impregnation, became ultimately so modi- 
fied as to ensure the successful propagation of the species, which 

^ ThiB statement agrees with that in the Mark. P. xlix. 3 ff. but differs from that 
already given from the Vishtiu P. in so far as the Utter does not specify the numbers 
created, or say anything about pairs being formed. 


accordingly proceeded (84-87).** We have then the destruction, and 
subsequent reproduction of the trees, formed like houses, described 
(88-91). These trees now produced clothes and jewels, as well as honey 
without bees, and enabled mankind to live in happiness and enjoyment. 
Again, however, the trees disappeared in consequence of the cupidity 
which led to their misuse (92-94). The absence of perfection occa- 
sioned suffering of various kinds, from moral as well as physical causes, 
and men were now driven to construct houses, which they had hitherto 
found unnecessary (96-99 and 123), and to congregate in towns and 
cities (100). Their houses were built after the model furnished by 
trees (123-128). The hunger and thirst which men endured from the 
loss of the trees which had formerly yielded all the means of subsist- 
ence and enjoyment, were relieved by means of a new perfection 
which appeared in the shape of rain, and the streams thereby gene- 
rated, and by the growth of plants, which now sprang up for the first 
time as a result of the conjunction of water and earth (130-135 and 
155). Desire and cupidity, however, now again arose and led to acts 
of violent appropriation (136f.). At this juncture the perfect mind- 
bom sons of Brahma, of different dispositions, who had formerly existed 
in the Krita age, were reproduced in the Treta as Brahmans, Elshat- 
triyas, Yai^yas, S^udras, and destructive men, as a result of their actions 
in their former existence (138-140). But in consequence of their dis- 
sensions and rapacity, the earth swallowed up all the existing plants 
(142-144). Under the pressure of the distress thus occasioned the 
inhabitants of the earth resorted to Brahma, who milked the earth, 
through the medium of mount Sumeru acting as a calf, and recovered 
the plants which had disappeared (145-149). As, however, these plants 
did not propagate themselves spontaneously, Brahma introduced agri- 
culture (158-160). Having thus provided the means of subsistence, 
he divided the people into classes according to their characteristics 
(160-165). But as these classes did not perform their several duties, 
and came into mutual conflict, Brahma prescribed their respective func- 
tions with greater precision (166-171) ; and assigned the future celestial 
abodes which the members of each class might attain by their fulfilment 
(172-174). He then ordained the four orders of householder, religious 

^^ It is not quite clear, however, what is intended bj the word akahf ** out of 
season/' in Terse 87. See the emendation proposed above in the note on that verse. 


student, etc. (175-190). After a few verses in praise of moral pnrity 
(190-193), the abodes and destinies of the eminently righteous are set 
forth (194-199). Just when we had arrived at a point in the narra- 
tive, ftrom which we might have imagined that it had only to be carried 
on further to afford us a sufficient explanation of the state of things 
existing up to the present age, we are suddenly arrested (199-202) by 
being informed that the people distributed according to the system of 
castes and orders did not multiply, and are introduced to a new mind- 
bom creation, which took place in the Treta age, to remedy this 
failure. We are next told (203) of what appears to be another crea- 
tion of beings endowed with goodness and passion. And, finally, a yet 
further re-incorporation of previously existing souls is described as hav- 
ing taken place (205-209). It would thus seem that after all we are 
left without any account of the origin of the system of castes which 
prevailed when the Purana was compiled. The only suppositions on 
which this conclusion can be avoided are either (1) that the cessation 
in the increase of the generation alluded to in verse 200, which led to 
the new creation, was not universal, that the race than existing did not 
entirely die out, but that the old blood was re-invigorated by that of the 
newly created beings ; or (2) that the other set of creatures, mentioned 
in verse 203, as characterized by goodness and passion, were the pro- 
genitors of the present race of men. On these points, however, the 
text throws no light. 

The preceding account of the creation of mankind and of the vicissi- 
tudes and deterioration of society, is in some places obscure and con- 
fused, and its several parts do not appear to be consistent with each other. 
At the outset the writer describes the creation of four thousand pairs 
of human beings, of whom each separate set of one thousand is distin- 
guished by widely different innate characters, the first class having the 
quality of goodness, the second that of passion, the third those of passion 
and darkness, and the fourth that of darkness. Nevertheless (as in the 
parallel passage of the Yishou Purana) we cannot find in the narrative 
the least trace of those inherent differences of character having for a long 
time manifested themselves by producing dissimilarity either of moral 
conduct or of physical condition ; for the perfection, which is described 
as existing in the Kfita age, is spoken of as if it was universal ; and 
not only is no distinction alluded to as prevailing at this period between 


the component parts of society, but we are expressly told that no castes 
or orders then existed. The deterioration also, which ensued towards 
the end of the £|ita age, is described as general, and not peculiar to 
tny class. How is this complete uniformity, first of perfection, and 
afterwards of declension, which, for anything that appears to the con- 
trary, is predicated of the descendants of the whole of the four thousand 
pairs, to be reconciled with the assertion that each thousand of those 
pain was characterized by different innate qualities ? The difficulty is 
act removed by saying that the writer supposed that these inherent 
rarieties of character existed in a latent or dormant state in the 
different classes, and were afterwards developed in their descendants; 
for he distinctly declares (verse 54) in general terms that mankind 
Tere at that period sattva-bahuldh, i.0. "possessed the quality of 
goodness in abundance;" and in the earlier part of the subsequent 
namtive no allusion is made to the different qualities at first as- 
eribea to the four sets of a thousand pairs being separately deve- 
loped In the members of the four classes respectively. In verse 74, 
indeed, it appears to be assumed that the division into castes had 
existed kom the creation ; for we there find an assertion that in " all 
the Man^antaras, according to the division of the four yugas," (includ- 
ing apparently the Krita) ** there is declared to have existed a perfec- 
tion effects by the observances of the castes and orders, and arising 
from the filfilment of works ; " but how is this to be reconciled with 
the exprese statement of verses 60 and 61, that ** in the K^ita age no 
works were performed which were either virtuous or sinful," and that 
** there thei existed neither distinctions of caste or order, nor any mix- 
ture of castis ? " In the Treta age the state of deterioration continued, 
but no refennce is made of any separation of classes till we come to 
verse 138, wiere it is said that the beings who in the Kfita age had 
existed as th« perfect mind-bom sons of Brahma, were now, as a con- 
sequence of tieir former actions, recalled into human existence, and in 
conformity wih their previous characters as calm, fiery, laborious, or 
depressed, beame Brahmons, Kshattriyas, Yai^yas, Sudras, and men 
of violence, ^hese creatures, after they had been furnished with the 
means of subsitence, were eventually divided into classes, according to 
their varieties cf disposition, character, and occupation ; and as at first 
they did not foBl their proper duties, but encroached upon each others' 


provinces, their functions were afterwards more stringently defined and 
the means of enforcing obedience were provided. Here it is intimated 
that different sets of beings were bom as Brahmans, Kshattriyas, Yedi- 
yas, and Sudras, on account of the different qualities which they had 
manifested in a previous existence, and that in conformity with those 
same characteristics they were afterwards formally distributed into castes. 
This description is therefore so &r consistent with itself. The difference 
of caste is made to depend upon the dispositions of the soul. But how are 
we to reconcile this postulation of different characters formerly exhibited 
with the description given in the previous part of the narrative, where 
we are informed that, in the earlier parts, at least, of the Kfita age, 
all men were alike perfect, and that no actions were performed which 
were either virtuous or vicious ? If such was the case at that period, how 
could the beings who then existed have manifested those differences of 
disposition and character which are asserted to have been the cau^s of 
their being subsequentiy reborn as Brahmans, Eshattriyas, Sudrai, and 
Vai^yas? It may be admitted that the differences of character, which 
are attributed in the Purana to the four primeval sets of a thousand 
pairs of human beings, correspond to those qualities which are described 
as having subsequently given rise to the division into castes : but the 
assertion of such a state of uniform and universal perfection, as is said 
to have intervened between the creation of mankind and the jealization 
of caste, seems incompatible with the existence of any su(ii original 
distinctions of a moral character. 

As regards this entire account when compared with the other two 
descriptions of the creation given in the previous part of tiis section, 
the same remarks are applicable as have been made in thoiast section, 
p. 65 f., on the correspondiug passages from the Vishnu PiraQa. 

The chapter which I have just translated and examinee, is followed 
immediately by the one of which I have already in a pidceding page 
quoted the commencement, descriptive of the creation of !lsuras, Gknls, 
Fathers, etc., from the different bodies assumed and cast <S successively 
by Brahm&. 

I shall now give an extract from the following, or teith chapter, in 
which the the legend of 6isitarupa is related. 

Suta uvdeha \ 1. JSvambh&teshu lokeshu Brahmana hh-harttfina^ | 

M Xhig fonn kartUrvEia (one which, as is well known, may bo optpnally employed in 


yadd idh na pravorttanU prajdh kendpi hetund \ 2. Tamo-mdtravrito 
Brahma tadd-prahhiiti duhkhitah \ tatah $a vidadhe huddhim artha' 
mUehaya-gdminlm \ 3. Athdttnani iamairdkshU tamo-mdtrdm nijdt- 
wttkdm I rafah-iaitvam pardjitya varttamdnam sa dharmatah \ 4. 
TapyaU iena duhkhena ioham ehakre jagai-patih \ tamas tu vyanudat 
ta»mdd rajas taeh eha samdvfinot \ 5. Tat tamah pratinuttam vai mi- 
iktmam $amvyajdyata \ adharmaS charandj jajne himsd ioJcdd ajdyata \ 
6. TaUu tannin samudbhute mithune charandtmani \ tatai cha Ihagavdn 
dtit pritiiehainam aSiiriyat \ 7. Svdm ianum sa iato Brahmd tdm 
apohad abhdsvardm \ dvidhd 'karot sa tarn dehatn ardhena purusho 
*hkavat I 8. Ardhena ndri sd tasya Shtarupd vyajdyata \ prdJqritdm 
hhlUa-dhdtrim tdm kdtndd vai sfishfavdn vibhuh \ 9. Sd divam prithi- 
rfift ehawa mahimnd vydpya dhishfhitd I Brahmanah sd tanuh purvd 
divam dvritya tishfhati \ 10. Td tv ardhdt sfijate ndri S'atarUpd vyajd^ 
yata \ sd devi niyatam taptvd tapah parama-duicharam \ bharttdram 
tkptayaSasam Purusham pratyapadyata \ 11. iSa vai Svdyambhuvah 
p&rvam Purusho Manur uchyate \ tasyaikasaptati-yugam Manvanta- 
ram ihoehyate \ 12. Zabdhvd tu purtuhah patnlm SatarUpdm ayonijdm \ 
tayd sa ramate sdrddham tasmdt sd Ratir uchyate \ 13. Prathamah 
samprayogah sa kalpddau samavarttata \ Virdjam asrijad Brahmd so 
*hkavat Purusho Vtrdf \ 14. ^Sa samrdf mdsarupdt tu vairdjas tuManuh 
mnrita^ \ sa vairdjah prajd-sargah sa sarge purusho Manuh \ 15. Vai- 
rdf'dt purushdd virdeh ehhatarupd vyajdyata \ Priyavratottdnapddau 
putrau putravatdm varau \ 

*' 1. When the worlds had thus been formed by Brahma their creator, 
bnt the creatares, for Bome reason did not engage in action, ^^(2) Brahma, 
enveloped in gloom, and thenceforward dejected, formed a resolution 
tending to ascertain the fact. 3. He then created in himself (a body) 
of his own, formed of pnre gloom {tamos), having overpowered the 
passion (rqfas) and goodness {sattva) which existed (in him) naturally. 
4. The Lord of the world was afflicted with that suffering, and la- 

the neater, bat not in the mascoline) is here osed for metrical reasons. Sach irrega- 
larities are, as we ha?e seen, designated by the Commentators as arsha. It is unlikely 
that Brahman should be here used in a neuter sense. 

^"^ The true reading here may be pravarddhante, in which case the sense will be 
^did not multiply." Compare the parallel passage in the YishQu Pura^a, L 7, 4, 
p. 64. 


mented.^'* He then dispelled tlie gloom, and covered over the passion. 

5. The gloom, when Bcattered, was formed into a pair.^" Unright- 
eousness arose from activity (?), and mischief sprang from sorrow. 

6. That active (?) pair having been produced, he became glorious (?) 
and pleasure took possession of him. 7. Brahma after that cast off 
that body of his, which was devoid of lustre, and divided his person 
into two parts ; with the half he became a male (puruska) (8) and 
with the half a female : it was Sjcitarupa who was so produced to him. 
Under the impulse of lust he created her a material supporter of 
beings. 9. By her magnitude she pervaded both heaven and earth. 
That former body of Brahma invests the sky. 10. This divine female 
Siitarupa, who was bom to him from his half, as he was creating, by 
incessantly practising austere fervour of a highly arduous description, 
acquired for herself as a husband a Male {puruska) of glorious renown. 
He is called of old the Male, Manu Svayambhuva ; and his period 
{manvantara) is declared to extend to seventy-one Yugas. 12. This 
Male, having obtained for his wife, S'atarupa, not sprung from any 
womb, lived in dalliance with her {ramate) ; and from this she is called 
Bati (the female personification of sexual love). 13. This was the 
first cohabitation practised in the beginning of the Kalpa. Brahma 
created Yiraj ; he was the Male, Yiraj. 14. He is the sovereign 
{Bamrcipjy from his having the form of a month ; and Manu is known as 
the son of Yiraj .'°*^ This creation of living beings is called that of 
Yiraj. In this creation Manu is the male. 15. S^atarupa bore to the 
heroic Furusha, son of Yiraj, two sons, Priyavrata and Uttanapada, the 
most eminent of those who have sons." This is followed by a further 
genealogy, into which I will not enter. 

By comparing this account with the one extracted above, p. 64 f. 
from the Yishnu Furana, i. 7, 1 ff., it will be seen that while it makes 
no allusion to the production of Rudra, as related in the Yishnu Furana 
(which, as well as the birth of the mental sons of Brahma, the Yayu 
Furana had described in the preceding chapter, verses 67-83), it is 
somewhat fuller in regard to the legend of Batarupa ; and although it 

^^ With this account of Brahma's dejection and grief the acconnts quoted aboTe 
Pp. 68 ff. from the Brahmanas may be compared. 
^^ Compare the narrative of the Yishnu PnrSoa L 7, 9 £f. quoted in p. 64 f. 
100 Compare the aeoonnt giren in Mann's Institutes, above, p. 86. 


does not allow that Brahma cohabited with his daughter, and assigns 
to her another husband, Manu S^vayambhuva, it describes the creator 
as having been actuated by carnal desire in generating her. I shall 
give further illustrations of this story in the next section. 

Sect. IX. — Legend of Brahmd and hie daughter, according to the Aita- 
reya Brdhmana, and of Satarupd, according to the Matsya Purdna. 

The story which forms the subject of the present section is noticed 
at some length in the fourth volume of this work, pp. 38-46, where 
one of the oldest passages in which it is related, is quoted from the 
Slatapatha Brahmana, i. 7, 4, 1 ff., together with one of a comparatively 
late age from the Bhagavata Purana, iii. 12, 28 ff. As however the 
legend, though repulsive in its character, is not without interest as 
illustrating the opinions which Indian mythologists have entertained 
regarding their deities, I shall quote two other texts in which it is 

The first, from the Aitareya Brahmana, iii. 33, has, no doubt 
(along with the passage of the Sktapatha Brahmana just referred to, 
and another from the same work, xiv. 4, 2, 1 ff., quoted above, in 
p. 24 ff.), fumished the ideas which are expanded in the later versions 
of the story. It is as follows : 

Prajdpatir vai evdm duhitaram abhyadhydyat \ Divam ity anye dhur 
Ushasam ity anye \ tdm fisyo hhatvd rohitdm hhutdm abhyait \ tarn 
devd apaiyan \ " akritatn vai Frajdpatih karoti" iti \ te tarn aichhan 
yah enam drishyati \ etam anyonyasmin na avindan \ teehdm yd eva 
ghoratamde tanvah daattis tdh ekadM samahharan \ tdh eamhhritdh esha 
devo ^hhavat \ tad asya etad hhntavan-ndma \ hhavati vai ea yo ^eya etad 
eram ndma veda \ tain devd ahruvann ** ayam vai Prajdpatir akritam 
akar imam vidhya*^ iti \ ea **tathd** ity ahravit \ **sa vai vo varafk 
vrinai" iti \ *^vrinUhva^* iti \ ea etam eva varam avftniia paSundm 
ddhipatyam \ tad asya etat pahtman-ndma \ paSumdn hhavati yo *eya 
etad evam ndma veda \ tarn dbhydyatya avidhyat \ ea viddha^ Urddkve 
vdaprdpatad ityddi^ \ 

201 See the traiulAtioii of this passage given by Dr. Hang in his Aitaieya Br&bmaQa 


<' Prajapati lusted after his own daughter. Some call her the Sky, 
others Ushas. Becoming a hnck, he approached her after she had be- 
come a doe. The gods saw him; (and said) Prajapati does a deed 
which was never done (before).*^ They sought some one who should 
take vengeance on him. Such a person they did not find among them- 
selves. They then gathered together their most dreadful bodies. These 
when combined formed this god (Rudra). Hence (arises) his name con- 
nected with Bhuta (JBhatapati). That man flourishes'^ who thus knows 
this name of his. The gods said to him, ' This Prajapati has done a 
deed which was never done before : pierce him.' He replied, * so be 
it,' (adding), * let me ask a boon of you.' They rejoined, ' ask.' He 
asked for this boon, viz., lordship over cattle. Hence arises his name 
connected with PaiSu {Pa&upatt), He who thus knows his name, be- 
comes the owner of cattle. He then attacked (Prajapati) and pierced 
him. He, when pierced, soared upwards," etc. etc. 

The second passage I proposed to cite is from the Matsya Pnrana, 
chapter iii. verses 32 ff. : Etad tattvatmahaih kjritvd jagad dvMd 
ajijanat \ 33. Sdvitrim loha-Biddhyartham hfidi kfitvd tanUUihitak \ 
tatah ianjapatas iasya hhitvd deham akahnasham \ 84. itrl'Tilpam 
arddham akarod arddham purtuha-rUpavat \ Satarikpd eha id khydtd 
Sdvitrt eha nigadyate \ 35. Sarawaty atha Odyatri Brahmdml eha 
parantapa \ tatah sa Brahmadevds tdm dtmajdm ity akalpayat \ 36. 
Drishfvd tdm vyathitaa tdvat kdma-^dndrdito vibhu^ \ ** oho r^pam ako 
rUpam" ity uvdcha tadd *vyaya^ \ 37. Tato Faitshtha-pramuWt 
^' Ihaginlm " iti ehukruht^ \ Brahmd na kinehid dadfise tan-mukhdl(h 
kandd fite \ 38. '* Aho rUpam aho rfipSm" i^i aha punah punah \ tatah 
prandma-namrdth tdm punas tdm ahhyalokayat \ 39. Atha pradakihmdm 
ehakre sd pitur varavarntnl \ putrehhyo lajfitasydiya tad-rUpdloka- 
nechhayd \ 40. Avirhhutam tato vaktram dakihinam pdn4u^an4avai \ 

ToL ii. pp. 218 ff. ; and the remarks on this translation hj Professor Weber, Indiiche 
Studien, iz. 217 ff. ; and also Professor Both's explanation of the word bhuUwU in 
his Lexicon. 

*» This seems to be imitated in the line of the Bhfigavata PnrSQH iiL 12, 80, 
qnoted in toL It. of this work, p. 40 : naUat purpoS^ kfitiuk ivad y$ na ktarukymH 
ckapare \ '* This was nerer done by those before thee, nor will those after thee do it" 

^^ Bhopoti, In the Brahmai^ this verb has frequently the sense of prospering, 
•i opposed to purabhavatiy ** he perishes." See Bdthlingk and Both's Lezioon, s. v., 
and the passages there referred to. 


vitmaffU'iphyrad-^t^^ eha pdieh&tyam udagat tatah \ 41. Chatur* 

tkam ohhafMU paSehdd vdmaih kdma-iardturam \ tato ^nyad ahhavat 

((uya kdmdturataffd tathd \ 42. Ulpatantyds iadd "kdie dlokena kutu- 

haMi I sftshfy-ariham yat kjritam tena tapa^ paramaddrunam \ 43. Tat 

ianam ndiam agamat wa-mtopagameehhayd \ tendSu^ vaktram ahhavat 

fmckcuMfh ia^ya dk^tnatah \ 44. Avirhhavqf jatdhhiScha tad vaktranchd* 

ffimt prahhuh | tatas tdn dkravHd Brdhmd putrdn dtma-samudhhavdn ] 

45. "lVa;aA irijadhvam abhitah ia-devdsura-mdnushdh** \ evam ukids 

takk tarve iosrijur vividhd^ prqfdh \ 46. Gateshu teshu BfUhtyartham 

prtB0mdv(matdm imdm \ upayeme sa vihdtmd S'atarUpdm aninditdm \ 

47. Sambahhuva tayd idrddham atikdmdturo vihhufk \ Bolajjdfk ekakame 

iivak kamalodara-numdire | 48. Tdvad abda-iatam divya^ yatkd ^nyah 

fraif^janak \ iatak kdlena tnahatd tasydkputro 'hkavad Manuh \ 49. 

Sviyambkuipa iti hkydtak ia Virdd iti nal^ irutam \ tad^npa-yuna-sdrnd" 

nydd adkqfUruska why ate \ 50. Vairdjd yatra tejdtd^ lakavak Bamiitor 

tratdk \ SvdyaMkuvd mahdbkdgdk sapta Mpta tathd ^pare \ 51. Svd- 

roekiskddydh iorve t$ Brakma-ttdya-warilpinak \ Auttami-pramttkhds 

ttukad ynhdfk tvafk ioptamo 'dkund \ {Adkydya. 4.) Manur uvdeka \ 

1. AAo kasktataraM ekaitad angajdgamanafk vihkok | Katkaih na doskam 

agtmat karmand tena Fadmafak \ 2. Parasparaneka sambandkak sago* 

trdndm ahkut katkam \ vakdkikat tat-mtdndm ckhindi me eaihsayaik 

vibko I Mateya uvdeka \ 3. Divyeyam ddi-efiekfie tu rqfo-gufuhsamud' 

ikavd I aUndrtyendriyd tadvad atlndriya-iaflrikd \ 4. Divya-tejomayl 

Ik&pa dvcya-jndna-eamudbka/vd \ na ekdnyair ahkitak iakyd jndiuih vai 

mdfktthekakekuBkd \ 5. Tatkd hkujangdk sarpdndm dkdie sarva-pakski* 

ndm I vidanti mdrgdm divydndih divyd eva na mdnavdk \ 6. Kdryd^ 

hSryena devdkka Subkdiubka-pkala-praddk \ yastndt tasmdd na rUfendra 

tad-wekdro nfindih iubkak | 7. Anyaekeka earva-devdndm adhisktkdtd 

^Mtrmukkak \ gdyatri Brakmanae tadvad anga-hkntd nigadyate \ 8. 

AmUrttO'mikrttimad vdpi mitkunaneka prackakskate I Viranckir yatra 

hkagavdne tatra devi Sarasvatl \ 9. Bkdratl yatra yatraiva tatra tatra 

Prajdpatih | yatkdtapena rakitd ekkdyd vai (? na) drUyate kvackit \ 

10. Gdyatri Brakmanak pdrham tatkaiva na vimunckati \ veda-rdiik^ 

imrito Brakmd Sdvitri tad-adkiskfkitd \ 11. Taemdd na kaickid doskak 

eydi Sdvitri-gatnane vihkok \ tatkdpi lajjdvanatak Prajdpatir ahkut purd | 

12. Sva-eutopagamdd Brdkmd Saidpa Kusumdyudkam \ yaemdd mamdpi 

*M Instead of tenaiu the Gaikowar MS. reads temrdhva. 


hhavatd manah sathkaholhitam Saraih \ 13. Toitnat tvad-deham achirdd 
Rudro hhwmkarishyati \ tatah prasadaydmdsa Kdmadevat Chaturmu- 
hham I 14. '' Na mdm aharanaih ^aptum tvam ihdrhasi mam ova \ aham 
evafh'vidhah srtshfas tvayaiva ehaturdnana \ 15. Indriya-hhohha-janakak 
sarveshdm eva dehindm \ strl-pumsor avichdrena mayd sarvatra sarvadd | 
16. Kshohhyam manah prayatnena tvayaivoHam purd vibho \ tasmdd 
anaparddhena tvayd Saptas tathd vibho \ 17. Kuru prasddam hhagacan 
sva-Sarirdptaye punah \ Brahmd uvdcha \ 18. Vatvasvate *ntare prdpte 
Tddavdnvaya-sambhavah \ Rdmo ndma yadd martyo mat-sattva-balam 
dSritah \ 19. Avatiryydsura-dhvatfisl Dvdrahdm adhivatsyati | tad- 
dhdtus tat'SamaScha ^ tvam tadd putratvam eshyoii ityddi \ 

'' 32. Having thus formed the universe, consisting of the principles, 
he generated a twofold creation, (33) having, with a view to the 
completion of the world, placed and kept Savitr! in his heart. Then 
as he was muttering prayers, he divided his spotless hody (34) and 
gave to the half the form of a woman, and to the half that of a male. 
(This female) is called Sktarupa, Savitil, (35) SarasvatI, Gayatif, and 
Brahman!. Brahma then took her for his daughter. 36. Beholding 
her, the imperishable deity, distressed, tortured with the arrows of 
love, exclaimed, ' o what beauty ! o what beauty ! ' 37. Then (his 
sons) headed by Yasishtha, cried aloud, '(our) sister.' Brahma saw 
nothing else, looking only at her face ; (38) and exclaimed again and 
again, ' o what beauty ! o what beauty ! ' He then again gazed upon 
her, as she bend forward in obeisance. 39. The fair woman then made 
a circuit round her father. As on account of his sons he felt ashamed ; 
from his desire of gazing on her beauty (40) there appeared (on his 
head) a southern face with pale cheeks ; and there was afterwards ma- 
nifested a western fiEice with lips quivering with astonishment. 41. A 
fourth was subsequently formed, beautiful, disquieted by the arrows of 
love. Then another was produced irom the disturbing influence of the 
same passion, (42) and from eagerness in gazing after her as she rose 
upwards in the sky. That austere fervour, extremely dreadful, which 
Brahma had practised with a view to creation, (43) was entirely lost 
through his desire to approach his daughter (carnally). Through this 
was produced speedily the flfth face (or, according to one MS., the upper, 

sv Such appears to be the reading of the Gaikowar MS. The original reading of 
the Taylor MS. has been erased, and another suhstitated, tatoi tat'9ttmay$ tvam ckm. 


the fifth face) of the wise deity, (44) which appeared with matted hair, 
and which he covered up. Brahma then said to the sons who had 
sprang fix)m him, (45) * create living heings everywhere, gods, asuras, 
and men.' They, being thus addressed, created beings of various kinds. 
46. When they had gone away for the purpose of creating, he, who is 
the universe, took for his wife the unblamed Satarupa. 47. Sickened 
with love, he cohabited with her : like any ordinary being, he loved 
her, — though she was full of shame — ;embowered in the hollow of a 
lotus, (48) for a hundred years of the gods. A long time after, a son 
was born to her, Mann (49) called Svayambhuva, who, as we have 
heard, is Yiraj. From their community of form and qualities he is 
called Adhipurusha.^ 50. From him were sprung those numerous 
Yairajas, steadfast in religious observances, those seven glorious sons of 
Svayambhu, and those other seven Manus, (51) beginning with Svaro- 
chisha and Auttami, in form equal to Brahma, of whom thou ^ art now 
the seventh. (4th chapter) 1. Manu says : ' Aii ! this is most afflicting, 
this entrance of love into the god. How was it that the lotus-bora did 
not incur guilt by that act ? 2. And how did a matrimonial connection 
take place between persons of the same family who were sprang from 
him? Solve this doubt of mine, o Lord. The Fish reph'ed: 3. This 
primeval creation was celestial, produced from the quality of passion 
{rajfu) ; it had senses removed beyond the cognizance of sense, and 
bodies of the same description, (4) was possessed of celestial energy, 
derived from celestial knowledge, and cannot be perfectly perceived 
by others with the eye of flesh. 5. Just as serpents know the path 
of serpents, and (beings living) in the sky know the path of all sorts 
of birds, so too the celestials alone, and not men, know the v/ay of 
celestials. 6. And since it is the gods who award the recompence, 
favourable or unfavourable, according as good or bad deeds have been 
done, — it is not good for men to examine this (question). 7. Further- 
more, the four-faced (Brahma) is the ruler of all the gods, and in like 
manner the Gayatrl is delared to be a member of Brahma. 8. Ajid, as 

SM Compare the Purosha Sukta, above p. 8, in the fifth verse of which the words 
Virajo adhi purwhah occur. If the last two words are combined they give the name 
in the text. 

^ This account is given by the deity represented as incarnate in a Fish, to Mann 


they say, there is a pair consisting of the formless, and of that which 
has form. Wherever the divine Yiranohi (Brahma) is, there is also 
the goddess Sarasvatl. 9. Wherever BharatI (a name of Sarasvatl) is, 
there is also Prajapati. Just as shadow is nowhere seen without sun- 
shine, (10) so Gayatrl never forsakes the side of Brahma. He is called 
the collected Yeda, and Savitrl rests upon him ; (11) there can therefore 
be no fiault in his approaching her. Nevertheless, Brahma, the lord of 
creatures, was bowed down with shame, (12) because he had ap- 
proached his own daugther, and cursed Kusumayudha ^ (Kama), (in 
these words) * As even my mind has been agitated by thy arrows, 
Budra shall speedily reduce thy body to ashes.' Kamadeva then pro- 
pitiated the four-faced deity, saying, (14) ' Thou oughtest not to curse 
me without cause : preserve me. It is by thee thyself that I have 
been created with such a character, (15) an agitator of the organs of 
sense of all embodied creatures. The minds both of men and women 
must always and everywhere (16) be energetically stirred up by me with 
out hesitation : this thou thyself hast formerly declared. It is therefore 
without any fault of mine that I have been thus cursed by thee. 17. 
Bo gracious, lord, that I may recover my body.' Brahma answered : 
18. 'When the Yaivasvata Manvantara shall have arrived, a mortal, 
named Eama, sprung from the Yadava race, deriving force from my 
essence, (19) and, becoming incarnate as a destroyer of Asuras, shall 
inhabit Dvaraka. Thou shalt then become a son of his substance and 
like to him," etc. 

The narrator of this legend does not hesitate to depict in the strongest 
colours (though without the least approach to grossness) the helpless 
subjection of Brahma to the influence of sexual desire. This illicit in- 
dulgence was regarded by the authors of the Sktapatha and Aitaieya 
Brahmanas as in the highest degree scandalous, and they do not at- 
tempt to palliate its enormity by any mystical explanation, such as 
that which we And in the Matsya Purana. Whether this apology pro- 
ceeded from the original narrator, or from a later writer of a more sen- 
sitive disposition, who perceived its inconsistency with any elevated 
idea of the superior powers, is difficult to say. It is quite possible that 
the same writer who gave his fancy scope in describing the unbecoming 
scene, of which the substance had been handed down in works regarded 
>K The word means " He whose weapons are floweis." 


authoritative, may also have thought it necessary to discover some 
device for counteracting the scandal. On the other hand, the original 
•writer seems t6 cut himself off from the privilege of resorting to any 
mystical refinements to explain away the offence, hy having in the first 
instance represented Brahma's indulgence as on a level with that of 
ordinary beings. And even after the apology has been concluded, we 
are still told that Brahma could not help feeling ashamed of what he 
had done. The writer of the explanation ought to have perceived that 
if his defence was of any value, the deity for whom he was apologizing 
had no ground for humiliation. But he did not venture to expunge the 
popular features of the story. The grounds on which the apology pro- 
ceeds are partly of the same character as those which the writer of 
the Bhagavata Purana assumes in the passage (x. 33, 27 ff.) which is 
given in the fourth volume of this work, pp. 42 f., viz., that the gods 
are not to be judged on the same principles as men, — that '* the celestials 
have laws of their own" {sunt superis sua jura). The Bhagavata 
Purana has, however, different measures for Brahma and for Krishna ; 
for whilst the adultery of the latter is defended in the verses just re- 
ferred to, no desire is shown to vindicate the former in the other pas- 
sage, iii. 12, 28 ff., adduced in the same volume, page 40. 

As regards the details of the story according to the different Puranas, 
I may observe that while the Vishnu, the Yayu (see above, pp. 65, 
and 106), and the Markandeya Puranas, xl. 13 f., represent Sktarupa as 
the wife of Manu Svayambhuva, the Matsya Purana, as we have just 
seen, declares her to have been the spouse of Brahma himself, and the 
mother of Manu Svayambhuva.** This is repeated in the twenty- 
sixth verse of the fourth chapter : 

Yd 8d deharddlM-sambhUtd Gdyatri hrahma-vddinl \ janani yd Manor 
devl S^atarupd S'atendriyd \ 27. liaiir Manas Tapo Buddhir mahad-ddi- 
samudhhavd "^ | tatah sa S'atarupdydm saptdpatyany afljanat \ 28. Te 
Marlchyddayah putrdh mdnasds tasya dhlmatah \ teshdm ayam dbhul 
lokah sarva-jndndtmakah purd \ 29. Tato ^srij'ad Vdmadevam trUdJa- 
vara-dhdrinatn \ Sanatkumdrancha vihhum pUrveshdm apt purvajam \ 30. 

SO0 Compare the account given in Mana*8 Institutes (above, p. 36), which does not 
coincide in all particulars with any of the Puranas here quoted. 

*^o In this line the original readings are in several places erased in the Taylor MS. 
I have endeavoured to restore it with the help of the Gaikowar MS. 



VamadevaS tu hhagm&n asfifad mukhato dmfdn | r&janydn asjryad hdhvor 
Vtt'iudrdv urthpddayoh | . . . . 85. Svdyanibhuoo Mantar dhlmdmM 
tapas taptvd sttduscharam \ patnim avdpa rUpd^hydm Anantdm ndma 
ndmatah \ Priyavratottdnapddau Hanug tasydm ajijanat \ 

** She who was produced from the half of his hody^ Gayatil the de- 
clarer of sacred science, she who was the mother of Manu, the goddess 
S'atarupa (t.e. having a hundred forms), Sktendriya (i.e. having a 
hundred senses), (27) (was also) Bati, Mind, Austere Fervour, Intel- 
lect, sprung from Mahat and the other principles. He then begot upon 
S'atarupa seven sons. 28. This world, composed of all knowledge, 
sprang from Marlchi, and the others who were the mind-bom eons of 
that wise Being. He next created Yamadeva (Mahadeva), the wielder 
of the excellent trident, and the lord Sanatkumara, bom before the 
earliest. 30. Then the divine Yamadeva created Brahmana from his 
mouth, Bajanyas from his breast, the Yii and the S^dra from his 
thighs and feet." [After describing in the following verses some other 
creations of Yamadeva, the writer proceeds in verse 85 :] *^ The wise 
Manu Svayambhuva, having practised austere fervour of the most 
arduous kind, obtained a beautiful wife named Ananta. On her be 
begot Friyavrata and TJttanapada." 

Having made Manu the son of Sleitarupa, the writer was obliged to 
give him another female for a wife, as we see he has here done. 

It will be observed that in this passage Y&nadeva — and not Brahma, 
as in the other Furanas — is described as the creator of the four castes. 

Sect. X. — Quotations from the Rdmdyana on the Creation^ and on ike 

Origin of Castes. 

The substance of the first of the following passages has already been 
stated above in a note on page 36. Fart of it is also quoted in p. 54, 
and it is more fully cited in the fourth volume of this work, p. 29, but 
for facility of reference I repeat it here. 

Bamayana (Bombay edition) ii. 110, 1. Eruddham djndya Bdmaih tu 
Vasishfhah pratyuvdcha ha \ Jahdlir api jdnite lohasydsya gatdgaiim | 
2. NivarttayitU'kdmas tu tvdm etad vdhyam abravU \ imdm lokthsamui* 


patti^ lokorndtha nihodha me \ 3. Sarvaih salilam evdsit prtthivl tatra 
nirmitd \ tatah samabhavat Brahmd SvayambhUr daivataih saha \ 4. Sa 
vardhas tato hhutvd projijahdra vasundhardm \ asrijach eha jagat sarvam 
Mha putraihk kritdtmahhi^ \ 5. Ahdiaprahhavo Brahmd Sdhato nitya 
(soyayah \ iasmdd Marlchih sanjqfne Mar^cheJ^ Kaiyapah sutah \ 6. Vivas-- 
vdn Kaiyapdj jqjne Manur Vaivasvatah wayam \ ia tu prajdpatih put'^ 
vam Ikshvdhu tu ManoJ^ sutah | 7. Tasyeyam prathamam dattd samfid- 
dhd Manund mahi \ tarn Ikshvdkum Ayodhydydm rdjdnam viddhi pur* 
vakam \ 

"1. Ferceiying BSma to be incensed"^ Vasishtlia replied: 'Jabali 
also knows the destruction and renovation of this world. 2. !Bat he 
spoke as he did from a desire to induce you to return. Learn from 
me, lord of the earth, this (account of) the origin of the world. 3. The 
universe was nothing but water. In it the earth was fashioned. Then 
Brahma Svayambhu came into existence, with the deities. He next, 
becoming a boar, raised up the earth, and created the entire world, with 
the saints his sons. 5. Brahma, the eternal, unchanging, and undo* 
caying, was produced from the aether {dkdSa). From him sprang 
Maiichi, of whom Ka^japa was the son. 6. From Ka^yapa sprang 
Vivasvat : and from him was descended Manu, who was formerly the 
lord of creatures {prajdpati). Ikshvaku"' was the son of Manu (7) 
and to him this prosperous earth was formerly given by his fiEither. 
Know that this Ikshvaku was the former king in Ayodhya." 

The account which I next quote does not agree with the last in its 
details, as, besides representing the Prajapatis or sons of Brahma to be 
seventeen in number, it places Marlchl, Ka^yapa, and Yivasvat in the 
same rank as contemporaries, while the former narrative declares them 
to have been respectively father, son, and grandson. 

Bamayai^a iii. 14, 5. Rdmasya vachanam Srutvd kulam dtmdnam eva 
cha I dchachakshe dvijaa tasmai sarva-hhuta-samudhhavam \ 6. Furva* 
kale tnahdhdho ye prajdpatayo ^hkavan \ tan me nigadataJ^ sarvdn dditah 
irinu Rdghava \ 7. Kardamah prathamas teahdm Fikritas tad-anan- 
taram \ S'eshai eha SaniSrayaS chawa Bahuputrai cha vlryavdn \ 8. 

'^^ On acoonnt of a EuteriahBtic and immoral argument which had been addressed 
to him by Jabali to induce him to disregard his deceased father's arrangementt 
regarding the succession to the throne. See Joum. Roy. As. Soc. vol. xix. pp. 303 ff« 

^2 The name Ikshvaku occurs in R. Y. z. 60, 4. See Professor Max Muller'i 
article in Jouhl Roy. Ab. Soo. for 1866, pp. 461 and 463. 


Sthanur Marlchir AtriS cha Kratui chaiva mdh&halah \ Ftdastyai ehdn^ 
gird^ chaiva Prachetuh Pulahas tathd \ 9. Dahsho Fivasvdn aparo VmA- 
tanemtS cha Rdghava \ Kahjapai cha tnahatefds teshum aslch cha paichi- 
mah I 10. Prajdpates tu Ddkshasya lahhuvur iti vUruidh \ ihathtir 
duhitaro Rdma yaiawinyo mahdyasdh \ 11. Kaiyapah praiijayrdha 
idsdm ashfau sumadhyamdh | Aditim cha Ditim chaiva Banum api cha 
Kdlakdm \ 12. Tdmrdm Krodhavaidfh chaiva Manum^^ chdpy Analdm 
api I td8 tu kanyds tatah pritah Kaiyapah punar ahravit \ 13. Putrdms 
traitoJcya-hhartfin vai janayishyatha mat-aamdn \ Aditis tan-mdnd^ 
Rdma Ditiicha Daniir eva cha \ 14. Kdlahd cha mahdhdho Seshdt tv 
amanaiio ^^ ^hhavan \ Aditydth jajnire devds trayastrimiad artndama | 
15. Adityd Vasavo Rudrd Aivinau cIm parantapa | . . . . 29. Mamir 
manushydn janayat KdSyapasya mahdtmanah \ Irdhmandn hhaitriydn 
vaiSydn ^udrdnS cha manujarshahha \ 30. Mulchato hrdhmand j'dtd^ ttra- 
sah kahattriyds tathd \ Uruhhydm jajnire vaiSydh padhhydm Sudrd iH 
srutih I 31. Sarvdn punya-phaldn vrikshdn Anald ^pivyajdyata \ 

'' 5. Having heard the words of Eama, the bird (Jd(dyus) made known 
to him his own race, and himself, and the origin of all beings. 6. 
' Listen while I declare to you from the commencement all the Praja- 
patis (lords of creatures) who came into existence in the earliest time. 
7. Kardama was the first, then Yikfita, Bbsha, Samiraya, the energetic 
Bahuputra, (8) Sthanu, Marichi, Atri, the strong Kratu, Pulastya, 
Angiras, Prachetas, Pulaha, (9) Daksha, then Yivasvat, Arishtanemi, 
and the glorious Xa^japa, who was the last. 10. The Prajapati Dak- 
aha is famed to have had sixty daughters. 11. Of these Ea^yapa took 
in marriage eight elegant maidens, Aditi, Diti, Danu, TCalakfi, (12) 
Tamra, SIrodhavaia, Manu,*" and Anala. S^ai^yapa, pleased, then 

>u Balam AtibaHam apt. — Gorr. *^^ Manoratha^htnah, — Comal. 

"u I should have doubted whether Manu could have been the right reading here, 
but that it occurs again in verse 29, where it is in like manner followed in vene 81 
by Anala, so that it would certainly seem that the name Manu is intended to stand 
for a female, the daughter of Daksha. The Gau^ recension, followed by Signer Gor- 
resio (iii. 20, 12), adopts an entirely different reading at the end of the line, vii. 
£aldm Aiibalam apt, ^* Bal2 and Atibala," instead of Manu and Anala. I see that 
Professor Both s.v. adduces the authority of the Amara Kosha and of the Commen- 
tator on Panini for stating that the word sometimes means ** the wife of Manu.** 
In the following text of the Mahabhiirata i. 2553, also, Manu nppears to be the 
name of a female : Anavadyam Manum VanUamAsuram Marganapriyam \ AnypUm 
Subhagam BhasJm iti FradKa vyqiayata | *' Prudhu (daughter of Daksha] bore Am^ 
tadyS, Manu, Yan^a, Asuru, Murganapriya, Anilpa, Subhaga, and JiliasT. 


to these maids, (13) 'ye shall bring forth sons like to me, preservers 
of the three worlds.' Aditi, Diti, Danu, (14) and Kalaka assented; 
bat the others did not agree. Thirty-three gods were borne by Aditi, 
the Adityas, Yasus, Eudras, and the two A^vins." [The following 
▼erses 15-28 detail the offspring of Diti, Danu, Kalaka, Tamra, Kro- 
dhavasa, as well as of Kraunch!, BhasI, Syeni, Dhptarashtri, and 
S^ukl the daughters of Kalaka, and of the daughters of Krodhavaia. 
(Compare the Mahabbarata, i. 2620-2635 ; and Wilson's Vishnu Pu- 
rana, vol. ii. pp. 72 f.) After this we come upon Manu and the 
creation of mankind.] "29. Manu, (wife) of Ka^yapa,*^* produced 
men, Brahmans, Kshattriyas, Yaiiyas, and Sudras. 30. 'Brahmans 
were bom from the mouth, Kshattriyas from the breast, Yaiiiyas from 
the thighs, and S^udras from the feet,' so says the Yeda. 31. Anala 
gave birth to all trees with pure fruits." 

It is singular to observe that in this passage, after having repre- 
sented men of all castes as sprung from Manu, the writer next adds 
a verse to state, on the authority of the Yeda, that the different 
castes were produced from the different parts of the body out of which 
they issued. Unless Manu's body be here meant, there is a contra- 
diction between the two statements. If Manu's body is meant, tlie 
assertion conflicts with the common account. And if the Manu here 
mentioned is, as appears from the context, a woman, we should na- 
turally conclude that her offspring was bom in the ordinary way; 
especially as she is said to have been one of the wives of Ka^yapa. 

The next passage from the Uttara Kanda of the Ramayana, 74, 8 f., 
describes the condition of men in the Krita age, and the subsequent 
introduction of the caste system in the Treta. The description pur- 
ports to have been occasioned by an incident which had occurred just 
before. A Brahman had come to the door of Kama's palace in Ayodhya, 
carrying the body of his dead son,*^ and bewailing his loss, the blame 

"• The text reada Kasyapa, " a descendant of KSayapa," who, according to Ram. 
ii. 110, 6, ought to be Vivasvat But as it is stated in the preceding part of this 
passage iii. 14, 11 f. that Manu was one of E&^yapa's eight wives, we must here 
read K&s'yapa. The Cauda recension reads (iii. 20, 30) Mauur manushyatlia cha 
iatha janayamdsa JRfiighava, instead of the corresponding line in the Bombay edition. 

^^ The boy is said, in 73, 5, to hare been aprapla-yauvanam halam paneha^arska* 
Bohaarakam | ** a boy of five thousand years who had not attained to puberty ! " The 
Commentator says that wartha here means not a year, but a day [vanha'iabdo *ira 


of which (as he was himself unconscioas of any fault) he attributed to 
Some misconduct on the part of the king. B&ma in consequence con- 
voked his councillors, when the divine sage Narada spoke as follows : 

8. Sfinu rdjan yathd ^kdleprdpto hdkuya iankshayah \ Srutvd karU 
tavyatdfk r&jan kuruskoa Raghunandana \ 9. purd krita-yuye rdjan 
Irdhmand vai taptuvtnah \ 10. Ahrdhmanaa tadd rdjan na tapasvl ka- 
thanehana \ toitnin yuge prajvaliU hrahmdbhuU tv andvrite \ 11. Amri* 
tyavas tadd aa/rve jajnire diryha-dariinah \ tatas tretd-yugam ndma md- 
navdnd^^ vapwhmatdm \ 12. Ktihattriyd yatra jdyanU purvena tapasd 
*nvitdh I vlryyem tapasd chaiva U ^dhikdh pUrva-janmani \ mdnavd ye 
mahdtmdnaa tatra tretd-yuge yuge \ 13. Brahma kahattratn cha tat sar- 
vam yat pUrvam avarairi cha yat | yugayar uhhayor aslt satna^lryya- 
Bomanvitam \ 14. Apaiyanias tu te sarve vtiesham adhikam tatah \ sthd' 
panaHi chakrire tatra cMtwrvarnyasya sammatam \ 15. Tasmin yuge 
prajvalite dharmahhute hy andvrite \ adharmah pddam ekaih tu pdtayat 
pfithitatale \ . • • • 19. Pdtite tv anrite tasminn adharmena mahltale \ 
hibhdny evdcharal lokah satya-dharma-pardyana^ | 20. IVetd-yuge cha 
varttante hrdhmandh kshattriydi cha ye \ tapo 'tapyanta te earve hdru- 
shdm apare jand^ \ 21. Sva-dharma^ paramas teshdfh vaiSya-iUdram 
tadd ^^gamat \ pujdih cha sarva^arndndm iudrdi chakrur viieshatah \ 
t . . . . 23. Tatah pddam adharmasya dvitlyam avdtdrayat | tato 
dvdpara-sankhyd sd yugcuya samajdyata \ 24. Tasmin dvdpard-sankhye 
tu varttamdne ytcga^kshaye \ adharmai chdnritaih chaiva vavfidhe purU" 
eharehahha \ 25. Aemin dvdpara-sankhydte tapo vatsydn eamdviiat \ 
trihhyo yugehhyas trin varndn kramdd vai tapa dviiat \ 26. Tribhyo 
yugebhyas trin varndn dhamuiScha parinishfhitah \ na iadro lahhate 
dharmam yugatae tu nararshahha \ 27. Mina-carno nripa-ireshfha 
tapyate sumahat tapah \ hhaviehyachehhudrayonydm hi tapai-^haryd 
kalau yuge \ 28. adharmah paramo rdjan dvdpare iudra-janmanah \ 
sa vai vishaya-paryante tava rdjan mahdtapdh | 29. Adya tapyati 
durhuddhis tena hdla-hadho hy ayam \ 

I^arada speaks: 8. <'Hear, o king, how the boy's untimely death 
occurred; and having heard the truth regarding what ought to be 

^naparaA),— just as it does in the ritual prescription that a man should perform a 
sacrifice lasting a thousand years (*' Bahatra-ttrnvatsaram aairam updtlta" iti vaty — 
and that thus some interpreters made out the boy's age to be sixteen, and others under 
fenrteeD* But ihis would he a most unusual mode of reckoning age. 


done, do ii 9. Formerly, in the Kfita age, Brahmans alone practised 
aostere ferrour {tapas). 10. None who was not a Brahman did so in 
that enlightened age, instinct with divine knowledge (or, with Brahma), 
unclouded (by darkness). 11. At that period all were bom immortal, 
and far-sighted. Then (came) the Treta age, the era of embodied men, 
(12) ia which the Eshattriyas were bom, distinguished stiU by their 
former austere fervour ; although those men who were great in the Treta 
age had been greater, both in energy and austere fervour, in the former 
birth. 13. All the Brahmans and Eshattriyas, both the former and the 
later, were of equal energy in both Yugas.*^^ 14. But not perceiving 
any more distinction (between the then existing men) they all^^ next 
established the approved system of the four castes. 15. Yet in that 
enlightened age, instinct with righteousness, unclouded (by darkness), 
unrighteousness plantedpne foot upon the earth." [After some other 
remarks (verses 16-18), which are in parts obscure, the writer pro* 
ceeds :] 19. ** Bat, although this falsehood had been planted upon the 
earth by imrighteousness, the people, devoted to true righteousness, 
practised salutary observances. 20. Those Brahmans and Eshattriyas 
who lived in the Treta practised austere fervour, and the rest of man- 
kind obedience. 21. (The principle that) their own duty was the chief 
thing pervaded the Yai^yas and S^udras amoDg them : and the S'udras 

especially paid honour to all the (other) classes 23. Next the 

second foot of unrighteousness was planted on the earth, and the number 
of the Dvapara (the third yuga) was produced. 24. When this deterior- 
ation of the age numbered as the Dvapara, had come into existence, 

SIS The Commentator says, this means that in the Kpta age the Brahmans were 
superior, and the Kshattriyas inferior (as the latter had not then the prerogative of 
practising tapas), but that in the Tretd both classes were equal {ubhayor yugayor 
fnadhye kfUo'yttge brahma purvam tapo-vlryabhyam utkfiahfam kalMttratn chavaraik 
cha tabhyam tapo-vlryabhyaih nyunam astt \ tat sarvam brahna-kahattra-rttpam 
ubhayam tretayam aama^Jrya'Samanvitam astt \ kriie kahattriyanam tapasy anadhu 
karat tadyuglyebhyo brahmanehhyaa tesfiam nyunatii | tretayam tu ubhayo rapt tapo- 
*dhikarad ubhav api tapo-viryabhyam tamau | But in the previous verse (12) it is said 
that the Kshattriyas were bom in the Treta distinguished by their former tajxia. But 
perhaps they were formerly Brahmans, according to verses 9, 10, and 12. 

sio Mann and other legislators of that age, according to the Commentator (Manv' 
adayah sarve tatkalikah dharma-pravarttanadhikfitah). He adds that in the Kfita 
age all the castes were spontaneously devoted to their several duties, although no fixed 
system had been prescribed {kjite tu vinaiva tthapanam wayam wa tarve varnah «ra* 
9va-dharpM»ratah) . 


unrigbteousness and falsehood increased. 25. In this ago, numbered as 
the Dvapara, austere fervour entered into the Yaisyas. Thus in the 
course of three ages it entered into three castes ; (26) and in the three 
ages righteousness {dharma) was established in three castes. But the 
Siidra does not attain to righteousness through the (lapse of these 
three) ages. 27. A roan of low caste performs a great act of austere 
fervour. Such observance will belong to the future race of S^dras in 
the Kali age, (28) but is unrighteous in the extreme if practised by 
that caste in the Dvapara. On the outskirts of thy territory such a 
foolish person, of intense fervour, is practising austerity. Hence this 
slaughter of the boy." 

Here then was a clue to the mystery of the young Brahman's death 
A presumptuous Budra, payiug no regard to the fact that in the age**** 
in which he lived the prerogative of practising self-mortification had 
not yet descended to the humble class to which he belonged, had been 
guilty of seeking to secure a store of religious merit by its exercise. 
Bam a mounts his car Pushpaka, makes search in different regions, and 
at length comes upon a person who was engaged in the manner alleged. 
The Sudra, on beiug questioned, avows his caste, and his desire to 
conquer for himself the rank of a god by the self-mortification he was 
undergoing. Bama instantly cuts off the offender's head. The gods 
applaud the deed, and a shower of flowers descends from the sky 
upon the vindicator of righteousness. Having been invited to solicit 
a boon from the gods, he asks that the Brahman boy may be resusci- 
tated, and is informed that he was restored to life at thft same moment 
when the S*Qdra was slain. (Sections 75 and 76.)*" 

The following curious account of the creation of mankind, among 
whom it states that no distinction of class (or colour) originally existed, 
is given in the XJttara Kanda, xxx. 19 ff., where Brahma says to Indra : 

Amarendra mayd huddhycL prajdh srishfas tathd prdbho \ eka-varnah 
sama-lMshd eha-rupai eha sarvaiah \ 20. Tdadfh ndsti vUesho hi dariane 
Idhhane *pi vd \ tato *ham ehdgramands tdh prajdh aamachintayam \ 
21. So ^ham tdsdm tihihdrtham striyam ekdm vinirmame \ yad yat 
prajdndm pratyangam vistshfam tat tad uddhfitam | 22. Tato mayd 

«*^ The Treta, according to the Commentator. 

^^ See the Rev. Professor Banerjea*s Dialognes on the Hindu philosophy, pp. 44 ff., 
where attention had previoasly been drawn to the story. 


rOpa-gunair ahdlyd siri vinirmitd | halam ndmeha vairupyam hafyaih 
iat-prahhavam Ihavet | 23. Yaayd na vidyate halyam tendhaJyeti vi^rutd \ 
Ahalyety eva cha mayd tasyd ndma prahlrttifam \ 24. Nirmitdydm cha 
devendra tasydm ndrydfh surarshahha \ hhavishyatUi kasyaishd mama 
eJnntd tato ^hhavat | 25. Tvam tu S'akra tadd ndriih jdnlshe manasd 
prabho \ sthdnddhikatayd patni mamaisheti purandara \ 26. /Sa mayd 
nydsa-hhutd tu Gaidama^ya mahdtmanah \ nyastd hahuni varshdni tena 
nirydtitd cha ha \ 21. Tatas tasya parijndya mahusthairyam mahdmu- 
neh I jndtvd tapasi siddhtih cha patny-artham sparSitd tadd \ 28. Sa 
iayd saha dharmdtmd ramate sma mahumunih \ dsan nirdSd devds tu 
Oautame dattayd tayd \ 29. Tvafh kruddhas tv iha kdmdtmd gatvd 
ta^ydiramam muneh \ dftshfavdmS cha tadd tarn atrim diptdm agni- 
Hkhdm iva \ 30. Sd tvayd dharahitd S'akra kdmdrttena samanyund J 
dfishfas tvam cha tadd tena dSrame paramarshind \ 31. Tatah kruddhena 
tmdsi Saptah paramatejasd \ gato ^ai yena devendra daid-hhaga-vipar- 
yayam \ 

*' 19. chief of the immortals (Indra) all creatures were formed hy 
my will of one class (or colour), with the same speech, and uniform in 
every respect. 20. There was no distinction between them in ap- 
pearance, or in characteristic marks. I then intently reflected on these 
creatures. 21. To distinguish between them I fashioned one woman. 
Whatever was most excellent in the several members of diflerent crea- 
tures was taken from them, (22) and with this (aggregate) I formed a 
female, faultless in beauty and in all her qualities. Hala means ' ugli- 
ness,' and halyof ' what is produced from ugliness.' 23. The woman in 
whom there is no halya^ is called Ahulyd, And this was her name to 
which I gave currency. 24. When this female had been fashioned, I 
anxiously considered to whom she should belong. 25. Thou, Indra, 
didst, from the eminence of thy rank, determine in thy mind, ' She 
must be my spouse.' 26. I, however, gave her in trust to the great 
Oautama ; and after haviug retained her in charge for many years, he 
restored her. 27. Knowing then the great steadfastness of that distin- 
guished Muni, and the perfection of his austere fervour, I, in due form, 
gave her to him for his wife. 28. The holy sage lived with her in the 
enjoyment of connubial love. But the gods were filled with despair 
when she had been given away to Gautama. 29. And thou, Indra, 
angry, as weU as inflamed with lust, wentest to the Muni's hermitage, 


and didst behold that female brilliant as the flame of Are. 30. She 
was then corrupted by thee who wert tormented by lust, as well as 
heated by anger.*" But thou wert then seen by the eminent riahi in 
the hermitage, (31) and cursed by that glorious being in his indignation* 
Thou didst in consequence fall into a reyerse of condition and fortune/' 
etc., etc. 

Sect. 'Xl.'^.Ectraets from the Mahdlhdrata on the satne suhjeets. 

The first passage which I shall adduce is from the Adi Parvan, or 
first book, yerses 2517 ff. : 

Vaiiampdyana uvdcha \ hanta t$ kathayUhy&mi namoikfUifB AayMi- 
hhuve I surddlndm ahaih aamyak hkdndm prahhavdj^yayam | Brahmano 
mdnaadh putrdh viditdh shan-maharshoya^ \ Marichir Atry-angiruaoM 
Fulastyah FuIahaJ^ Kratuf^ \ Maricheh KaSyapah putraJ^ Kahfapdt tu 
prajd imdh \ prajajnire mahdhhdgd Daksha-kanyda trayodaSa \ 2520. 
Aditir Ditir Danuh Kdld Danuyuh Simhikd tathd \ Krodhd Pradhd eha 
Vi§vd cha Vtnatd Kapild Munih \ KadruS cha manujavydghra Dahha- 
kanyaiva Bhdrata \ etdsdm vlrya-sampannam putra-pautram anantakam \ 

'' Yai^ampayana said : I shall, after making obeisance to Syayam- 
bhu, relate to thee exactly the production and destruction of the gods 
and other beings. Six*^ great rishis are known as the mind-bom sons 

<*> In regard to this story of Indra and AhaljS, as well as to that of Brahmi and 
his daughter, aboye referred to, see the explanation given by Komirila Bhatta, as 
quoted by Professor Max Miiller in his Hist, of Anc. Sansk. lit. p. 529 fl The name 
of Ahalya is there allegorically interpreted of the night, to which this name is said 
to haTo been given because it is ahsorhed in the day {ahani ItyamdtuitayS), India is 
the sun. 

>^ Another passage (S'anti-p. 7569 jBf.) raises the number of BrahmSTs sons to aeren 
by adding Vasishtha : Ekah Svayambhur bhagaoan adyo JBrahma aMtaUnah \ Brmh' 
manah aapta vai putra mahatmanah Svayambhuvdh \ Mariehir Atry^AngtradOM iV- 
laalyah Fulahah Kratuh \ Vaiish^haaeha mahdbhdgal^ sadftso vai Svayambkuva | 
sapta Brahmana ity etepurane nuchayam gatah \ ** There is one primeral eternal lord, 
Brahma Syayambhil; who had seven great sons, Marlchi, Atri, Angiras, Pnlastya, 
Pulaha, Kratu, and Vasish^ha, who was like Svayambha. These are tiie seven Brah* 
mas who have been ascertained in the Puranic records." In another part of the same 
Santiparvan, verses 12685 ff., however, the Prajapatis are increased to twenty-ones 
Brahma Sthanur Manur JDaktho Bhfigur Bharmas tatha Tama^ \ Mdrieh^ Angira 
'triieJia BtUattyah Pulahah Kratuh | Vaaiahfhah Baramesh^ht eha Vivatvan Somm 
eva eha \ Kardamai ehdpi yah proktah Krodho Vikrita eva eha | ekavimaatir tUpmmai 
t$ prqjapataydh amfOdh \ '* There are reputed to have been twenty-one PnySpttif 
produced, yii. Brahmil, Sthagu, Manu, Daksha, Bhngu, Oharma, Yama, Maifohii 


of Brahma, viz., Mailcbi, Atri, Angiras, Pnlastya, Fulaha, and Krata. 
Ka^yapa was the son of Mailchi ; and from Ka^yapa sprang these 
creatures. There were bom to Daksha thirteen daughters of eminent 
rank, (2520) Aditi, Diti, Dana, Kala, Dan&yu, Simhika, Krodha, 
Pradha, Yi^va, YinatS, Kapila, and Muni."^ Kadru also was of the 
number. These daughters had valorous sons and grandsons innu- 

Daksha, however, had other daughters, as we learn further on in 
verses 2574 ff., where the manner of his own birth also is related : 

Dakshaa tv aj&yatdngmhth&d dakshmdd hhagavan rishih \ Brahmanah 

prithivipdla Sdntdtmd sumahdtapdh \ vdmdd ajdyatdnguBhthdd hhdryd 

tasya mahdtmanah \ tasydm panchdiatam hanydh sa evdjanayad munih \ 

.... 2577. Dadau cha daia Dhartndya Boptaviihsatim Indole \ divyma 

vidhina rdjan Kaiyapdya trayodaia \ 25SI. Faitdmahah Manur 

devas tdsya putrah prajdpatih | tasydshfau Vasavah putrds teshdm vak'- 

shydmi vistaram \ 2595. Stanam tu daJahinam hhitvd Brah' 

mano nara-vigrahah \ nissrito hhagavdn Dharmah sarva-loka-^ukhdvahah \ 

trayas tasya vardh putrah Barva-hhuta-manohardh \ 8'amah Kdmai cha 

HarshaS cha tefoBd hha-dhdrinah \ 2610. Arushl to Manoh 

kanyd tasya patni tnanUhinah \ 2614. Dvauputrau Brahmanoi 

tv anyau yayos ttshfhati lakshanam \ lake Dhdtd Vidhdtd cha yau sthitau 

Manund saha \ tayor eva svasd devl Lakshml padma-grthd &uhhd \ tasyda 

tu mdnasdh putrda turagdh vyoma-chdrinah \ 2617. Prajdn&m 

annakdmdndm anyonya-parthhaksluindt \ Adharmas tatra sanjdtah sarva- 

hhuta-vindidkah \ tasydpi Nirritir hhdryd nairfitd yena Rdkshasdh \ 

ghords tasyds tray ah putrdh pupa-kamuhratd^ sadd \ Bhayo Mahd- 

bhayas chaiva Mrityur hhutdntakas tathd \ na tasya hhdryd putro vu 

kaichid asty antako hi sah \ 

Angiras, Atri, Pulastja, Pulaha, Erato, Vacfisbtha, Farameshthin, ViTasrat, Soma, 
the person called Kardama, Erodha, and Vikrita." (Here, however, only twenty 
names are specified including Brahmt himself.) Compare this list with those quoted 
above, p. 116, from the Ramayana, iii. 14, 7 ff., from Manu in p. 36, and from the 
Vishnu P. in p. 65. 

^^ That Muni is a name, and not an epithet, is shown (1) by the fact that we have 
otherwise only twelve names ; and (2) by her descendants, both gods and gandharvas, 
being afterwards enumerated in verses 2550 ff. {ity ete deva-gandharvd Mauneyal^ 
pariklritiiah), Kapila, another of the thirteen daughters of Daksha is said to have 
been the mother of Ambrosia, Bruhmans, kine, Gandharvas and Apsarasas {amfitam 
brakmana gavo gandharvapsarasos tathd \ apatyam kapUdyas tu purane pariktrt-* 
tiiam I ). 


** 2574. Daksha, the glorious rishi, tranquil in spirit, and great in 
austere fervour, sprang from the right thumb of Brahma.^ From the 
left thumb sprang that great Muni's wife, on whom he begot fifty*" 
daughters. Of these he gave ten to Dharma, twenty-seven to Indu 
(Soma),'*^ and according to the celestial system, thirteen to Ka^yapa." 
I proceed with some other details given in the verses I have extracted : 
2581. " Pitamaha's descendant, Manu, the god and the lord of creatures, 
was his (it does not clearly appear whose) son. The eight Vasus, whom 

I shall detail, were his sons 2595. Dividing the right breast of 

Brahma, the glorious Dharma (Eightcousness), issued in a human form, 
bringing happiness to all people. He had three eminent sons, S'ama, 
£ama, and Harsha (Tranquillity, Love, and Joy), who are the delight 

of all creatures, and by their might support the world 2610. 

Arushi, the daughter of Manu, was the wife of that sage (Chyavana, 

son of Blirigu) 2614. There are two other sons of Brahma, 

whose mark remains in the world, Dhatyi,"* and Vidhatri, who re- 
mained with Manu. Their sister was the beautiful goddess. Lakshm!,^ 
whose homo is in the lotus. Her mind-born sons aie the steeds who 
move in the sky 2617. When the creatures who were de- 
sirous of food, had devoured one another, Adharma (Unrighteousness) 
was produced, the destroyer of all beings. His wife was Kiq*iti, and 
hence the Hakshasas are called Nairritas, or the offspring of Niqr iti. 
She had three dreadful sons, continually addicted to evil deeds, Bhaya 
Mahabhaya (Fear and Terror) and Mf Ityu (Death) the ender of beings. 
He has neither wife, nor any son, for he is the ender."** 

The next passage gives a different account of the origin of Daksha ; 
and describes the descent of mankind from Manu : 

Adip. 3128. Tejohhir uditdh sarve maharshi'SamO'tejasa^ \ daSa Pro- 

Bee above, p. 72 f. The Matsya P. also states that Daksha sprang firam Brah- 
mfi's right thumb, Dharma from his nipple, Kuma from his heart, etc. 

oi^ The passage of the Ramuyana, quoted above, p. 116, affirms that they were 
sixty in number. Compare Wilson's Yishnu P. vol. i. pp. 109 ff., and vol. ii. pp. 19 ff. 

*V The Taitt Sanhitu, ii. 3, 5, 1, says Prajupati had thirty-three daughters, whom 
he gave to King Soma {Frqfapatet trayattrimiad duhitara asan | tah Somiaya rajn$ 

**8 Dhatfi had been previously mentioned, in verso 2523, as one of the sons of 
Aditi. See also Wilson's Vishnu F. ii. 152. 

«9 See Wilson's Vishnu P. i. pp. 109, 118 ff., 144 ff. and 152. 

»> Th§ Vishnu P. (Wilson, L 112} says he had five children. 


thetasah putrdh aantah punya-janah smrttdh \ mukhajendgnind yaU te 
pHrvam d^dhd maJiaujasah \ Uhhyah Frdcketaso jajne Daksko Dakahdd 
imdh prajdh \ sambhutuh punisha-vydyhra ^a hi loka-pitdmahah \ 
Virinyd saha sanyamya Dakffhah Prdehetaso munih \ dtma-tulydn qja^ 
nayat sahasraih iaihsita-vratdn \ sahasra-sankhydn samhhutdn DaksJia- 
putrdmS cha Ndradah \ moksham adhydpaydmdsa sdnkhya-jnanam anuU 
iamam \ taiah panchdsatam kanydh putrikuh alhisandadlie \ Prajdpatih 
prajdh Dakshah sisrtkshur Janamejaya \ dadau cha dasa Lharmdya 
Kaiyapdya trayodasa I kdlasya nayane yuktdh saptavimsaUm Indave \ 
3136. Trayodasdndm patnindm yd tu Bdkshdyani vara \ Mdrlchah 
Kakyapas tasydm Aditydn samajijanat \ Indrddin vlryya-sampanndn 
Vivasvantam athdpi cha .\ Vivasvatah suto j'ajne Tamo Vaivasvatah pro* 
hhuh I Mdrtandasya Manur dhimdn ajdyata mtah prdbhuh \ Tamai 
chdpi suto jajne khydtas tasydnujah prahhuh \ dharmdtmd %a Manur 
dhimdn yatra vaihiah pratishthitah \ Manar vamh mdnavdndm taio *yam 
prathito^hhavat \ hrahma-ksJiatrddayas tasmdd Manor jdtds tu mdnavd^ \ 
tato ^hhavad mahdraja hrahma kshattrena sangatam \ 3140. Brdhmand 
mdnavds teshdm sdngam vedam adhdrayan | Venam Dhrishnuih Nartsh- 
yantam Ndbhdgekshvdkum era cha \ Kurusham atha S'dryatim tathd 
chaivdshfamJm Ildm \ Ffishadhratli navamam prdhuh kshattra-dharma- 
pardyanam \ Ndhhdgdrishta-da^amdn Manoh putrdn prachakshate \ pan- 
chdiat tu Manoh putrds tathaivdnye ^hhavan kshitau \ anyonya-hheddt te 
sarve vineiur iti nah srutam | FurUravas tato vidvdn lldyam samapad* 
yata \ sd vai tasydhhavad mdtd pitd chaiveti nah Srutam \ 

*' 3128. Bom all with splendour, like that of great rishis, the ten sons 
of Prachetas are reputed to have heen virtuous and holy ; and hy them 
the glorious beings"^ were formerly burnt up by fire springing fjom their 
mouths. From them was bom Daksha Prachetasa ;"* and from Daksha, 
the Parent of the world (were produced), these creatures. Cohabiting 
with Yirini, the Muni Baksha begot a thousand sons like himself, famous 

« ** Trees and plants," according to the Commentator (mahaprabhava vrikshau" 
ahadhayah). Compare Wilson's Vishnu P. ii. p. 1. 

>*> The same account of Daksha's hirth is gi^en in the S'antip. 7573 : JDas'anaih 
tanayaa tv eko Daksho tiama prqfapatih \ taaya dve namanl loke Dakshah Ka iti cko' 
ehyate \ " These ten Prachetascs had one son called Daksha,'the lord of creatures. He 
is commonly called by two names, Daksha and Ka." (Compare toI. iv. of this work, 
p. 13, note 30, and p. 24 ; and the S'atopatha Bruhmana, ni. 4, 1, 19, and ii. 4, 4, 1, 
there quoted.) The following verse 7o74 tells us that Kas'yapa also had two names, 
the other being Arishtanemi. Sec Ham. iu. 14, 9, quoted aboye. 


for their religious observaiices, to whom Narada taught the doctrine of 
final liberation, the uneqiialled knowledge of the Sankhya. Desirous of 
creating offspring, the Prajapati Daksha next formed fifty daughters, of 
whom he gave ten to Dharma, thirteen to Ka^yapa, and twenty-seven, 

devoted to the regulation of time,™ to Indu (Soma) 8135. On 

Dakshayani,™ the most excellent of his thirteen wives, Ka^yapa, tho . 
eon of Marichi, begot the Adityas, headed by Indra and distinguished 
by their energy, and also Yivasvat."" To Yivasvat was bom a son, the 
mighty Yama Yaivasvata. To MartaQ4<^ («.«• Yivasvat, the Sun) was 
bom the wise and mighty Manu, and also the renowned Yama, his 
(Manu's) younger brother. Eighteous was this wise Manu, on whom 
a race was founded. Hence this (family) of men became known as the 
race of Kanu« Brahmans, Kshattriyas, and other men sprang from this 
Manu. From him, o king, came the Brahman conjoined with the Kshat- 
triya. 3140. Among them the Brahmans, children of Manu, held the 
Yeda with the Yedangas. The children of Manu are said to have been 
Yena, Dh|rishQU, Narishyanta, Nabhaga, Ikshvaku, Karusha, Skryati, 
Ha the eighty Pfishadra the ninth, who was addicted to the duties of a 
Eshattriya, and Nabhagarishfa tho tenth. Manu had also fifty other 
eons ; but they all, as we have heard, perished in consequence of mutual 
dissensions. Subsequently the wise Pururavas was bom of Ua, who, 
we heard, was both his mother and his feither/' 

The tradition, followed in this passage, which assigns to all tho 
castes one common ancestor, removed by several stages from tho 
creator, is, of course, in conflict with the account which assigns to 
them a fourfold descent from the body of Brahma himself. 

The Siintiparvan, verses 27 .^9 ff., contains an account of the origin 
of castes which has evidently proceeded from an extreme assertor of 
the dignity of the Brahmanical order. The description given of tho 
prerogatives of the priestly dass is precisely in the style, and partly in 
almost the identical words, of the most extravagant declarations of 

M This phrase kalatya nayane yvkiali had previously occurred in Ycrse 2580, 
where it is followed by the words mirva nak9hatra-yi>g%nyo loka^yatrn-vidhanatah \ 
'< all identified with the lunar asterisms, and appointed to regulate the life of men." 
See also Vishnu P. i. 15, 56, and Professor Wilson's translation ii. p. 10, note 1, 
and p. 28, note 1. 

^ %.$, Aditi. See yerses 2520, 2522, and 2600 of this same book. 

**^ The account in the fiamayana, it 110, 5ff., agrees with this in making Ea- 
s'yapa son of Maiichi, and father of YiyasTat 


Mann (L 99 f.) on the same subject. In other places, however, the 
Mahabharata contains explanations of a very different character re- 
garding the origin of the distinctions, social and professional, which 
prevailed at the period of its composition. A comparison of these 
various passages will afford an illustration of the fact already intimated 
in p. 6,^ that this gigantic poem is made up of heterogeneous elements, 
the products of different ages, and representing widely different dog- 
matical tendencies, the later portions having been introduced by suc- 
cessive editors of the work to support their own particular views, with- 
out any regard to their inconsistency with its earlier contents. In fact, a 
work so vast, the unaided compilation of which would have taxed all the 
powers of a Didymus Chalkenterus, could scarcely have been created in 
any other way than that of gradual accretion. And some supposition 
of this kind is certainly necessary in order to explain such discrepancies 
as will be found between the passages I have to quote, of which the 
three first are the productions of believers (real or pretended) in the 
existence of a natural distinction between their own Brahmanical order 
and the other classes of the community, while the two by which these 
three are followed have emanated from fair and moderate writers who 
had rational views of the essential unity of mankind, and of the supe- 
riority of moral and religious character to any factitious divisions of a 
social description. 

In the first passage, Bhlshma, the great uncle of the Pandus, when 
describing to Yudhishthira the duties of kings, introduces one of those 
ancient stories which are so frequently appealed to in the Mahabharata. 
Without a minute study of the poem it would be difficult to say 
whether these are ever based on old traditions, or are anything more 
than mere vehicles invented to convey the individual views of the 
writers who narrate them. Bhlshma says, S^antiparvan, 2749 : 

Ta eva tu sato rakahed asataS cha nivarttayet \ sa eva rdjnd karttavyo 
rajan rdja-purohtta^ \ 2750. Atrdpy uddharantimam itikdsam purd- 
tanam \ Pwuravasa Ailasya sathvddam Mdtarisvanah \ Pururavd uvdcha \ 
Kutah avid hrdhmano j'dta varndi chdpt hutaa tray ah \ kasmdchcha hhavati 
ireshfhas tan me vydkhydtum arhasi \ MdiariSvovdcha \ Brahmano mu- 
khatah sfishto hrdhmano rdja-sattama | hdhuhhydm hhattriya^ srtshfa 
Urtibhydfh vaiSya eva cha | varndndm paricMryydrtham traydndm Bha^ 
M S«« also the fourth Yolume of this work, pp. 141 ff. and 152. 


raianhabha \ varnaS chaturthah samhhutah padhhyam Sudro vinirmitah 
hrdhmano juyamdno hi prithivydm anujdyate^ \ isvarah aarva-bhutdndm 
dharma-koshasya guptaye \ 2755. Atah prithivyd yantdram kshattriyaih 
danda-dhdrane \ dvitlyam Dandam akarot prajdndm anutriptaye \ vaiiyas 
tu dhana-dhdnyerui trin varndn libhriydd imdn \ iudro hy etdn pari- 
chared iti Brcthmdnu^diSi^afi^ Aila uvdcha \ dvijasya kshattralandhor 
v& kasyeyam prithivi hhav€t \wftfimatah saha vittena samyag Vdyo pra- 
ehakshva me \ Vdyur uvdeh($l v^BM^K^^Hag^evaitad yat kinchij jagatl^ 
gaiam \ j'yeshfhefidhhifanenehd ^^fS^^^^^^/Kt^f^l ^^^ ^^'^ hrdh- 
mano hhunkte svam vaste avayn ^SBII^^^^^^^^^Kt sarvthvarndndtn 
jyeshthah SreshtJiaS cha vai dvijah \ zMI^^^^PRsf?^ yathaiva strl 
devaram kurute patim \ esha U prathainah kalphh dpady anyo hhaved 
atah I 

" 2749. The king should appoint to he his royal priest^'' a man 
who will protect the good, and restrain the wicked. 2750. On this 
suhject they relate this following ancient story of a conversation 
hetween Pururavas the son of Ila, and Matari^van (Vayu, the Wind- 
god). Pururavas said : You must explain to me whence the Brahman, 
and whence the (other) three castes were produced, and whence the 
superiority (of the first) arises. Matarisvan answered : The Brahman 
was created from Brahma's mouth, the Kshattriya from his arms, the 
Yai^ya from his thighs, while for the purpose of serving these three 

W Manu, i. 99, has adhijai/ate, 

*» Raja-purohitah. The king's priest {raja-purokitah) is here represented as one who 
should he a confidential and virtuous minister of state. Such is not, however, the cha- 
racter always assigned to this class of persons. In Manu xii. 46, quoted above (p. 4 If.), 
the purohita is placed in a lower class than other Brahmans. And in the following 
verse (4627) of the Anus'asanaparvan, taken from a story in which the Bishis utter 
maledictions against anyone who should have stolen certain lotus roots, part of the 
curse spoken by Vis vfimitra is as follows : varshaeharo *stu bhfitako rc^jnai ehastu puro- 
hiia^ I ayajyaaya bhavatv ritvig visa-tiainyam karoti yah \ ** Let the man who steals 
lotus roots be a hireling trafficker in rain incantations (?) and the domestic priest of a 
king, and the priest of one for whom no Brahman should officiate." Again, in verse 
4679, the same person says : karotu bhfitako 'parsham rajnai chastu purohitah \ fitvig 
oitu hy ayqjyasya yas te haraii pushkaram | "Let him who steals thy lotus perform 
88 a hireling incantations to cause drought, and be a king's domestic priest, and the 
priest of one for whom no Brahman should officiate." I have had partly to guess at 
the sense of the words varshdeharah and avarsham. The Commentator does not ex- 
plain the former ; and interprets the latter (for which the Edinburgh MS. reads avar* 
shah) by vrishti-mbandham, *^ causing drought." He adds, papish(hah eva avarshdh^ 
« those who cause drought are most wicked." 


cutes WBB produced the fonrth class, the Sudrs, fasMoned from his 
fieet. The Srohman, as soon as bom, becomes the lord of idl beings 
apoQ the earth, for the purpose of protecting the treasure of ngbteons- 
nesB. 2755, Thea (the creator) constituted the Eshattriya the con- 
tnniler of the earth, a second Yama to bear the rod, for the satisfaction 
of the people. And it vas Brahma's ordinance that the Taigya should 
sustain these three passes with money and grain, and that the ?udra 
should serre them. The eon of Ila then enquired : Tell me, Vaju, to 
whom the earth, with iU wealth, rightfully belongs, to the Bruhman 
or llie Kshattnjrs?_^^H^b^icd : All this, whiituver csists in the 
vorld, is the B^fl^^^^^HB|cright of primogeciture : this is 
known to th<^^^^^^^^^^^^^^B|^a of duty. his own 

which the Bruhm^^M^^l^m^P^^^^^^^c is the chief of all 
the castes, the first-bom and the mcs^SHI^^Hbyt as a woman' 
when she baa lost her (fifst) busbaad, takes her brolffl^^^law for a 
second; so the Briihman is thy first resource in calamity; afterwards 
another may arise." 

A great deal is shortly afterwards added about the advantages of 
concord between Brahmans and Eshattriyas. Such verses as the fal- 
lowing (2602) : "From the dissensions of Brahmans and Eshattriyas 
the people incur intolerable suffering " {mitho hheddd brdhmana-kthat- 
triif&ndm praja duhkhaih duttaham ehdviianti) afford tolerably clear 
evidence that the interests of these two classes must &ei^ueatly have 

la the same strain as the preceding passage is the following : 

Tanaparvan, 13436. if&dhySpan&d ysjandd vd anyaamad cd prati- 
grah&t \ dosho bhavali viprdniim jvalitiigm-tamd dvijdk \ dwvedd vd tu- 
wdA vd prdkfit&fy iaihtlcTitd» tathd \ Irdhmand nHvamantavyd hkatma- 
ehatmd wdgnayah \ yatha imaidne dlptauja^ pdvah naiva dmhyati \ 
naSi vidvdn avidvdn vd brdhmano daivatant mahat \ prdhdraii eha pura- 
dvaraih prdiddaU eha prxthay-vidhaih \ nagarani na sobhanU kindni 
brdhmanottamaik \ vtdddhyd vj-itia-sampamid jnunaiantas iapa»eiuah \ 
yatra (ishthantt vat viprdi tan-ndiaa nagaram nj-ipa \ vraje vd py athavd 

"* EnllOka, the Commentator on Mono (i. 100), u obliged to admit that thii U 
only spoken in a ponegyricBl or hyperboHcal ir&y, and that propertj is here tued 
in B figurative seme, linoe theft ia aftciwards predicated by Mann of Srahmang ru 
wall aa othen (" nam " iti tlutya uchyal» \ ivain »a Koii no lu nan tva ] trah~ 
■ugoiyopi Jfoniwa itiyatga rahiyamaiMttiil). 


*rani/e yatra santi hahu-SnUd^ \ tat tad nagaram ity ahuh pdrtha tir- 
tham cha tad hhavet \ 

" Ni blame accrues to Brahmans from teaching or sacrificing, or from 
receiving money in any other way : Brahmans are like flaming fire. 
Whether ill or well versed in the Veda, whether untrained or accom- 
plished, Brahmans must never be despised, like fires covered by ashes. 
Just as fibre does not lose its purity by blazing e#en in a cemetery, so 
too, whether learned or imlearned, a Brahman is a great deity. Cities 
arc not rendered magnificent by ramparts, gates, or palaces of various 
kinds, if they are destitute of excellent Brahmans. 13440. The place 
where Brahmans, rich in the Veda, perfect in their conduct, and aus- 
terely fervid, reside, is (really) a city {nayara). Wherever there are 
men abounding in Yedic lore, whether it be a cattle-pen, or a forest, 
that is called a city, and that will be a sacred locality." 

The following verses from the AnuiSasanap. 2160 ff. are even more 
extreme in their character, and are, in fact, perfectly sublime in their 
insolence : 

Brdhmandndm parthhavdd asurdh salile Saydh \ hrdhmandndm prasd- 
ddch cha devdh warga-nivdainah | aiakyam irashtum dkdiam aehdlyo 
himavdn giri^ \ adhdryyd setund Gangd dwjayd hrdhmand hhuvi \ na 
hrdhmana-virodhena sahyd idduih vasundhard | hrdhmand hi mahdtmdno 
devdndm apt devatdh j tdn pUjayasva satatam ddnena paricharyyayd \ 
yadlchhasi mahlm hhoktum imdm sdyara-mskhaldm \ 

" Through the prowess of the Brahmans the Asuras were prostrated 
on the waters ; by the favour of the Brahmans the gods inhabit heaven. 
The ether cannot be created ; the mountain Himavat cannot be shaken ; 
the Ganga cannot be stemmed by a dam; the Brahmans cannot be 
conquered by any one upon earth. The world cannot be ruled in op- 
position to the Brahmans ; for the mighty Brahmans are the deities 
even of the gods. - If thou desire to possess the sea-girt earth, honour 
them continually with gifts and with service.*' 

The next passage seems to be self-contradictory, as it appears to set 
out with the supposition that the distinction of castes arose after the 
creation ; while it goes on to assert the separate origin of the four classes : 

S^antiparvan, 10861. Janaha uvdcha | varno viSesha-varndndm ma' 
Imrshe henajdyate \ etad ichhdmy ahamjndtum tad hruhi vadatdili vara | 
yad etaj jdyate *patyam sa evdyam iti iruti^ \ hatham hrdhmanato jdto 


fnieihe grdhanaih gatalf, \ Paraiara uvdeka \ Evam etad mahdrdja yena 
fdiah 9a eva sah \ tapmas tv apakarshena jdtigrahamtdm gatah \ sukshst- 
trdeheha suvfjdeh cha punyo hhavati sambhavah \ ato 'nyatarato hindd 
avaro ndma jdyaU \ 10865. Vahtrdd hhujdhhydm Uruhhydm padhhydm 
ehavBdtha jajnir$ \ srijatah Prajdpater lokdn iti dharmavido viduh \ mth 
Jskajd hrdhmanda tdta hdhujdh kshattriydh smritdh \ Urujdh dhanifio 
rdjan pddqfdh parichdrakdh \ chaturndm eva varndndm dgamah puru- 

Mkasnhabha \ ato *nye vyaiiriktd ye U vai eanlarqfdh etnritd^ \ 

10870. Jandka utdeKa \ Brahmanatkena jdtdndm ndndtvam gotratah 
katkaifi \ hahnnlha hi loke vai gotrdni muni sattama \ yatra tatra katham 
jdtd^ wayonim (? auyonim) munayo gatdh \ hiddha-yonau eamutpannd 
viyonau eha taihd 'pare \ FardSara uvdcha \ rdjan naitad hhaved grdhyam 
apakriahiena janmand \ matdtmandm eamutpattis tapasd hhdvitatmandm \ 
utpddya puirdn munayo nripate yatra tatra ha \ evenaiva tapasd teshdm 
jrisMtvam pradadhuh puna^ \ .... 10S7 6. £te avdm prakritim prdptd 
VaOeha iapaaoiraydt \ pratishfhitd veda-vido damena tapasaiva hi | 

'' Janaka asks: 10861. How, o great rishi/ does the caste of the 
separate classes arise ? Tell me, as I desire to know. According to 
the Yeda, the offspring which b bom (to any one) is the yery man 
himself. How does offspring bom of a Brahman fall into distinct 
classes? Paraiara replied: It is just as you say, o great king. A son 
IB the yery same as he by whom he was begotten ; but from decline of 
austere feryonr, (men) have become included under different classes. 
And from good soil and good seed a pure production arises, whilst 
from those which are different and f&ulty springs an inferior pro- 
duction. Those acquainted with duly know that men were bom from 
the mouth| arms, thighs, and feet of Frajapati when he was creating 
the worlds. The Brahmans sprang from his mouth, the Kshattriyas 
from his arms, the merchants from his thighs, and the servants from 
his feet. The scriptural tradition speaks only of four classes. The 
men not included in these are declared to have sprung from a mixture 

(of the four) 10870. Janaka asked : How is there a difference 

in race between men sprung from one and the same Brahma ? for there 
are now many races in the world. How have Munis bom anywhere 
(indiscriminately) entered into a good family ; some of them having 
sprung from a pure source and others from an inferior stock ? Paraiara 
replied : It would not be credible that noble-minded men, whoso souls 


had been perfected by austere ferrour, sbonld have been the offspring of a 
degraded biith. Munis who had begotten sons in an indiscriminate way 
conferred on them the position of rishis by their own austere fervour." 
The speaker then names a number of sages (10876) ''famed for their 
acquaintance with the Yeda, and for their self-command and austere 
ferrour," as ''having all attained to their respective conditions by 
practising the latter observance." 

In the latter verses the speaker appears to admit, at the very mo- 
ment that he denies, the degraded origin of some of the renowned 
saints of Indian antiquity* What else is the meaning of the. verse, 
" Munis who had begotten sons in an indiscriminate way conferred 
on them the position of rishis by their own austere fervour ? " No 
doubt it is intended to represent those as exceptional times : but while 
we refuse to admit this assumption, we may find some reason to sup- 
pose that the irregularities, as they were afterwards considered to be, 
which this assumption was intended to explain away, were really 
samples of the state of things which commonly prevailed in earlier 

The next extract declares that there is a natural distinction between 
the Brahmans and the other castes ; and appears to intimate that the 
barrier so constituted can only be overpassed when the soul re-appcars 
in another body in another birth : 

Ajiuiasana-parva, 6570, Deva uvdcha \ Brdhmanyafh devi dushprap- 
yaih nisargdd hrdhmanah iubhe \ kshattriyo vaiiyaindrau vd nuargad 
iti fM matH \ karmand dttshkritemha sthdndd hhraiyati vat dvijah \ 
jyeshfham varnam anuprdpya tasmdd raksheta vai dvijah \ sthito hrdh- 
mana-dharmena hrdhmanyam upajlvati \ kihattriyo vd Hha vaiiyo vd 
hrahmahhuyam aa gachhati \ yas tu hrahmatvam uUrijya kshdUram 
dharmam nuhevaU \ hrdhmanydt sa paribhrashfah kahattra-yonau prajd- 
yate \ vaUya-karma cha yo vipro lohha-moha-vyapdirayah | hrdhmanyam 
durlabham prdpya karoty alpa-matih sadd \ sa dvtfo vaiiyatdm eti vaiiyo 
vd indratdm iyat \ ava-dharmdt praehyuto vipras tatah Sudratvam dp- 
nute I . . . . 6590. Hbhis tu karmahhir devi iubhair dcharitais tathd \ 
fadro hrdhmanatdm ydti vaiiyah hihattriyatd^ vrajet \ iudra-karmdni 

sarvdni yathdnydyam yathdvidhi \ MriUhdm parieharyydfh ehajyeshths 
varne prayatnatah \ kurydd ityddi \ 
Mahadeva says : 6570. " Brahmanhoody o &ir goddein, is difficult to 


be attained. A man, whether he be a Brahman, Kshattriyay Yaiiya, 
or S^udra, is such by nature ; this is my opinion. By evil deeds a twice- 
born man falls from his position. Then let a twice-born man who has 
attained to the highest caste, keep it. The Kshattriya, or Yaiiya, who 
liTes in the condition of a Brahman, by practising the duties of one, at- 
tains to Brahmanhood. But he who abandons the state of a Brahman 
and practises the duty of a Kshattriya, fedls from Brahmanhood and is 
bom in a Kshattriya womb. And the foolish Brahman, who, having 
attained that Brahmanhood which is so hard to get, follows the pro- 
fession of a Yai^ya, under the induence of cupidity and delusion, fiEdls 
into the condition of a Yaiiya. (In like manner) a Yaiiya may sink 
into the state of a S^udra, A Brahman who falls away from his own 
duty becomes afterwards a S^udra. .... 6590. But by practising the 
following good works, o goddess, a S^udra becom3s a Brahman, and a 
Yaiiya becomes a Kshattriya : Let him actiyely perform all the func- 
tions of a S^udra according to propriety and role. i,a, obedience and 
service to the highest caste," etc. 

The next passage is the first of those which I hare already noted| as 
in spirit and tenor very different from the preceding. The couTersation 
which it records arose as follows : Yudhishthira found his brother BhI- 
masena caught in the coils of a serpent, which, it tuned out, was no 
other than the famous king Nahusha, who by his sacrifices, austerities, 
etc., had formerly raised himself to the sovereignty of the three worlds ; 
but had been reduced to the condition in which he was now seen, as a 
punishment for his pride and contempt of the Brahmans. He promises 
to let Bhimaseva go, if Yudhishthira will answer certain questions. 
Yudhishthira agrees, and remarks that the serpent was acquainted with 
whatever a Brahman ought to know. Whereupon the Serpent proceeds : 

Yana-parva, verses 12459 ff. : Sarpa ttcieha \ brihmanah ko hhaved 
rnjan vedyam kith cha Tudhishthira | 12470. Bravlhy vtimatim tv&ih hi 
vdkyair anumimlmahe \ Yudhishthira ttvdcha | iatf<i0k ddnam kthamd 
Hkm dnfiiaihsyam tapoghfinfl | dfih/anU yatra ndgendra »a hrdhmanah 
iti wifiiih I vedyam sarpa param Brahma Jtiriu^kham suukham cha yat \ 
yatra gatvd na iochanti Ihavatah him vivakshitam f Sarpa uvdcha \ ehd- 
turvarnyam pramiinath eha natyam cha hrahma ohaiva hi \ Sudreshv api 
cha iotyaih cha ddnam akrodha jva cha \ *lnfiiam»yam ahimsd cha ghfind 
chaiva YadhishiMrs | vedy^ih ^%oh chdtra nirduhkham atukhaih eha na- 


rddhipa \ tdhhyam hlnam padam chdnyad na tad astlti lakshaye \ Yu- 

dhUhthira uvdcha \ 12475. SUdre tu yad Ihavel lakshma dvije tack cha 

na mdyaU \ na vai iadro hhavech chhudro hrahmano na cha hrdhmanah \ 

yatraital lakshyate sarpa vrittam sa hrdhmanah smritah \ yatraitad na 

hhavet sarpa tarn in dram iti nirddiiet \ yat punar Ihavatd proktam 

na vedyaih vidyatiti cha \ tdhhyam htnam ato ^nyatra padmi ndstiti 

ehed apt \ evam etad matam sarpa tdhhydm hinafh na vidyate | yathd 

iltoshnayar madhye hhaved noshnafh na sltatd \ evam vai sukha-duh- 

khdhhydm hlnam ndsti padam hvachit \ eshd mama matih sarpa yathd 

vd many ate hhavdn \ Sarpa uvdcha \ 12480. Yadi te vrittato rdjan 

hrdhmanah prasamlkshitah \ vrithd jutis tadd ^^ytuhman kritir ydvad 

na vidyate | Tudhishfhira uvdcha \ jdtir atra maMsarpa manushyatve 

mahdmate \ sankardt earva-varndndm dushparikshyet^ me matih | sarve 

aarvdsv apatydni janayanti sadd nardh | vdfi maithunam atho janma 

maranam cha samam nfindm \ idam drsham pramdnam cha *^ye ya- 

jdmahe^^ ity api \ tasmdch chhllam pradhdneshfam vidur ye tattva- 

darSinah \ *'prdn ndhhi-varddhandt pumeo jdta-karma vidhlyate" \ 

**tadd *8ya mdtd advitrl pitd tv dchdryya uchyate^* \ 12485. '' Tdvach 

ehhudra-samo hy esha ydvad vede najdyate^^ \ tasminn evam mati-dvaidhe 

Manuh Svdyamhhuvo 'hravtt \ krita-kritydh punar varnd yadi vrittam na 

vidyate \ sankaras tatra ndyendra halavdn prasamlkshitah \ yatreddnim 

mahdsarpa eamekjritam vrittam ishyate \ tarn hrdhmanam aham purvam 

uktavdn hhujagottama \ 

"12469. Tho Serpent said: Who may be a Brahman, and what is 

the thing to be known, o Yudhishthira ; — tell me, since by thy words 

I infer thee to be a petson of extreme intelligence. Yudhishthira 

replied : 12470. The Smj'iti declares, o chief of Serpents, that he is a 

Brahman, in whom truth, liberality, patience, virtue, innocence, austere 

fervour, and compassion are seen. And the thing to be known is the 

supreme Brahma, free from pain, as well as from pleasure, — to whom, 

when men have attained, they no longer sorrow. What is your 

opinion ? The Serpent replied : The Veda (hrahma) is beneficial to 

all the four castes and is authoritative and true.**^ And so we find in 

**^ Such \b the seiuie assigned by the Commoitator to this line, the drift of which 
is not very clear. The comment runs thus : Sarpas tu brahmana'padinajati'matram 
vivakahitm iudre tal lakshanaih vj/abhicharapati " ehaturvarnyam *' iti wrddhena \ 
ehaturndm varnafuim hitam \ tatyam pramanam eha dharma-vyapasthapakam brahma 
uda^ I iudrachara^nnritcr api veda'tntUakatvut tarvo *py aeharadih gmii'tnuMM 


S^udras also truth, liberality, calmness, innocence, harmlessness, and 
compassion. And as for the thing to be known, which is free from 
pain and pleasure, I perceive that there is no other thing free from 
these two influences. Yudhishthira rejoined : 12475. The qualities 
characteristic of a Sudra do not exist in a Brahman (nor vice versd). 
(Were it otherwise) the Soidra would not be a Sudra, nor the Brah* 
man a Brahman.*" The person in whom this regulated practice is per- 
ceived is declared to be a Brahman ; and the man, in whom it is absenti 
should be designated as a S^dra. And as to what you say further, that 
there is nothing other than this (Brahma) to be known, which is free 
from the susceptibilities in question ; this is also (my own) opinion, 
that there is nothing free from them. Just as between cold and heat 
there can be neither heat nor cold, so there is nothing free from the 
feeling of pleasure and pain. Such is my view ; or how do you con- 
sider? The Serpent remarked: 12480. If a man is regarded by you 
as being a Brahman only in consequence of his conduct, then birth is 
vain until action is shown. Yudhishthira replied: most sapient 
Serpent, birth is difficult to be discriminated in the present condition 

Uf arthah \ evam eha aatyadikam yadi iudre *py aati tarhi to 'pi hrahmana eva ayad 
iti aha ^^audreahv apt" iti \ **The serpent, however, understanding by the term 
Brahman mere birth, shows in a sloka and a half that Tndhishthira's definition fails 
by being applicable also to a S'Qdra. Chaturvarnya means * beneficial to the four 
castes.' (Such is the Veda), which is also * true' and ' aathoritatire,' as establishing 
what is duty. Inasmuch as the Smfiti which prescribes a S'Qdra's conduct is itself 
founded on the Veda ; all conduct, etc., is based on the Veda. And so if (the cha- 
racters of) truth, etc., arc found also in a S'Qdra, he too must be a Brahman — such is 
his argument in the words * In S'Qdras also.' " According to this explanation the 
connection between the first line and the second and third may be as follows : The 
Veda is beneficial to all the castes, and therefore S'Qdras also, having the advantage 
of its guidance, although at second hand, may practise all the virtues you enumerate ; 
but would you therefore call them Brahmans ? 

*^ This verse is not very lucid; but the sense may be that which I have as- 
signed. The Commentator says : Itaraa iu brahmana-padena brahma-vidam vwakthu 
ivd n'udrader apt brakmanatvam abhyupagamya pariharati ** Sudre tv ** Hi \ S^udra* 
lakshya-kamadtkaih na brahman$ *»ti na brahmana-'laktkya^iamadikam iudre *8ii ity 
arthah \ iudro 'pi samady-upeto brahtnanah \ brahmano 'pi kamady-upetah sudra eva 
ity artltah \ ** The other (Yudhishthira), however, understanding by the word Brih* 
mana one who Icnows the Veda (or, Brahma), and conceding the fact of a S'Qdra's Brfih- 
manhood, obviates by the words *but in a S'Qdra,' etc. (the objection thence drawn). 
The qualities, lust, etc., distinctive of a S'Qdra, do not exist in a Brahman, nor do 
the qualities tranquillity, etc., characteristic of a Brahman exist in a S'Qdra. A 
S'Qdra distinguished by the latter is a BrShman ; while a Br&hman characterized by 
lust, etc., is a S'Qdra." 


of humanity, on account of the confudon of all castes.**' All (sorts of) 

<tf In the tenth toI. of his Indische Studien, p. 83, Professor Weher adduces some 
canons evidence of the little confidence entertained in ancient times hy the Indians in 
the chastity of their women. He refers to the following passages : (1) Nidana Sutra, 
iii. 8. Uehehavacha'Charanah tiriyo bhavanii \ aaha deva-takshye cha manushya'sak- 
»hy9 eha yesham putro vakthye teskam putro bhavishyami | yamaehaputran vakahye 
U fneputrah bhavUhyanti \ *' Women are irregular in their conduct. Of whatsoever 
men, I, taking gods and men to witness, shall declare myself to he the son, I shall be 
their son ; and they whom I shall name as my sons shall be so." (2) S'atapatha 
Brfihmana, iii. 2, 1, 40. Atha yad " brahmandh " ityaha \ anaddha wa vat asya atah 
purajanam bhavati | idam hy ahuh ^^rakshanm yoshitam antaachante tad %Ua rak- 
sAomjy eva reta adadhati iti \ atha atra addkajayate yo br^hmano yo yt^ncj jayate \ 
iatmad api rajanyam va vaitfyam va '* brahmanah " Hy eva bruyat | bfShmano hi 
jayate yo yt^fnq; jayate \ tatmad ahuh '' na tavana^kfUtm hanyad enaavl ha eva 
§avana-krita " iii | ** Now as regards what he says * (this) Brahman (has been conse- 
crated) :' before this his birth is uncertain. For they say this that ' Rakshases follow 
after women, and therefore that it is Rakshases who inject seed into them.' " (Compare 
what it said of the Gandharras in Atharya V. iv. 37, 116, and Joum. Roy. As. Soc. 
for 1865, p. 301.) So then he is certainly bom who is bom from sacred science 
(brahma) and from sacrifice. Wherefore also let him address a Rajanya or a Yaisya 
as * Brfihman,' for he is bom from sacred science {brahman and consequently a Bruh- 
man) who is bom from sacrifice. Hence they say <let no one slay an offerer of a 
libation, for he incurs (the) sin (of Brahmanicido ?) by so doing." (3) On the next 
passage of the S'. P. Br. ii. ff, 2, 20, Professor Weber remarks that it is assumed that 
the wife of the person oficring tho Yomna pragh&sa must have one or more para- 
mours: Atha pratipraslhata pratiparaiti \ sa patnlm udnnethyan pfiehhati * kena 
(firena Comm.) eharati* iti \ Varunyam vai Hat ttrl karoti yad anyatya »aiy anyena 
€harati \ atho **na id me *ntah-ialpa juhuvad" iti tasmat priehhati | niruktafh vai 
gnaJ^ kanlyo bhavati \ satyam hi bhavati \ tasmad va iva pjiehhati \ $a yad na praii" 
janJta jnatibhyo ha asyai tad ahiiavk tyat \ *' The pratiprasthutri (one of the priests) 
returns. Being about to bring forward the wife, he asks her, ' with what (paramour) 
dost thou keep company }* For it is an offence incurring punishment from Yamna 
that being the wife of one man she keeps company with another. He enquires * in 
order that she may not sacrifice with me while she feels an inward pang.' For a sin 
when declared becomes less : for it is not attended with falsehood. Therefore he 
enquires. If she does not confess, it will be ill for her relations." (This passage is 
explained in Eutyayana's S'rauta SQtras, y. 6, 6>11.) (4) S'. P. Br. L 3, 2, 21. Tad 
u ha uvaeha Tajnavalkyo *' yathadithfam patnyah attu \ kat tad adriytta yat para- 
pumtia va patnl tyat" | ** YujnaTalkya said this (in opposition to the doctrine of some 
other teachers) : * let the prescribed rule be followed regarding a wife. Who would 
mind his wife consorting with other men ?'" The last clause has reference to the 
consequence which the other teachers said would follow from adopting the course they 
disapproved, viz., that the wife of the man who did so would become an adulteress. 
(6) Taitt. S. Y. 6, 8, 8. Na agnOn ehitvi rdrndm upeyHd *'ayonau rtto dhatydmi" iti \ 
na dvitlyam ehitvd 'nyasya itriyam upey&t \ na tritJyam ehitvH kUnehana upeydt \ reto 
vai §tad nidhatte yad agnim ehinute | yad upey&d retatA vyfidhyHa \ *' Let not a man, 
after preparing tiie altar for the sacred fire, approach a woman (a S'Qdra-woman, 
accor^g to the Commentator), (considering) that in doing so, he would be discharging 
seed into an improper place. Let no man, after a second time preparing the fire- 


men are contimially begetting children on all (sorts of) women. The 
speech, the mode of propagationi the birth, the death of all mankind 
are alike. The text which follows is Vedic and authoritative : ' We 
who (are called npon) we recite the text."^ Hence those men who 
have an insight into truth know that virtuous character is the thing 
chiefly to be desired. * The natal rites of a male are enjoined to be 
performed before the section of the umbilical cord (Mann, ii. 29). 
Then Savitrl (the Gajatrl, Manu ii. 77) becomes hb mother and his 

altar, approach another man's wife. Let no man, after a third time preparing the 
fire-altar, approach any woman : for in preparing the fire-altar he is discharg^g seed. 
Should he approach (a woman in these forhidden cases) he will miscarry with his 
seed." This prohihition of adultery in a certain case, seems to prove that it was no 
uncommon occurrence, and is calculated, as Professor Weher remarks, to throw great 
douht on the purity of hlood in the old Indian families. 

'** To explain the last elliptical expression I will quote part of the Commentator^s 
remarks on the beginning of Yudhishthira's reply : Vagadinam iva mailhunasyapi 
sadharanyaj jatir durJMya \ tatha elta sruiih '*fia ehaitad vidtno brahmanah itno 
vayam abrahmona va ** iti brahmanya-iamittyam upanyasyati \ nanu jaty-anuchayg 
katham ^* brahmano *ham** ityady abhimanO'purMsaram yagadau pravartteta ity 
aiankyaha *^idam arsham" iti | atra *^ye yajamahe** ity anena eha ye vayam itno 
brihmanah anye va U vayam yajamahe iti brahmanye *navadharanam darsitam \ 
mantra-Ungam api **ya evatmi ta tan yqfe " iti | . . . . Taatnad aehara eva brak* 
manya-nUehayahetur veda-pramanyad ity upatamharati | '* As the mode of propa- 
gation is common to all the castes, just as speech, etc. are, birth is difficult to be 
determined. And accordingly, by the words : * "We know not this, whether we are 
Bruhmans or no Brahmans,' the Veda signifies a doubt as to Bruhmanhood. Then, 
haying raised the difficulty * how, if birth is undetermined, can a man engage in 
sacrifice, etc., with the previous consciousness that he is a Bruhman, etc. ? ' the author 
answers in the words ' this text is Yedio, etc.' It is both shewn by the words * we 
who .... recite,' (which mean) ' we, whoever we are, — Brahmans or others, — ^we 
recite,' that the fact of Bruhmanhood is unascertained; and this is also a cha- 
racteristic of the formula, * whosoever I am, being he who I am, 1 recite.' " The 
comment concludes : ** Hence he briefly infers from the authoritative character of 
the Veda, that conduct b the cause of certainty in regard to Brahmanhood." Ph)f. 
Aufrecht has pointed out to me that the words y$ yajd$nah$ occur in S'. P. Br. i. 5, 2, 
16, and m Taitt. S. i. 16, 11, 1. The Commentator on the last-named passage refers 
in explanation of them to As valSyana's S'rauta SOtras, i. 5, 4 f., where it is said that 
these two words constitute the formula called dguh^ which comes in at the beginning 
of all the ydjy&s which are unaccompanied by any anuydja. The Commentator in- 
terprets the two words thus : aarve ** ye " vayaih hotdro *dhvaryuna " yaj'a " iti pre" 
ihilis te vayam ** yajUmahe** ydjydm pafh&mah \ " All we hotri priests who are called 
upon by the adhvaryu by the word * recite,' we recite, i,e, repeat the ydj'yd'* (See 
Haug's Ait Br. ii. p. 133, and note 11.) Prof. Aufrecht thinks the words in the 
Commentator's note ya evdsmi ea ean yaje may be a free adaptation of Atharva Y. fi. 
123, 3, 4. It docs not appear firom what source the words im ekaitad vidmali etc an 


religious teacher his father (Manu, ii. 170, 225). 12485. Until he 
is bom in the Veda, he is on a level with a STidra' (Manu, ii. 
172); — so, in this diversity of opinions did Maba Svayambhuva de- 
clare. The castes (though they have done nothing) will have done all 
they need do,*** if no fixed rules of conduct are observed. In such a 
case there is considered to be a gross confusion of castes. I have 
already declared that he is a Brahman in whom purity of conduct is 

The next passage from the S^tiparvan, verses 6930 ff., b even more 
explicit than the last in denying any natural distinction between the 
people of the different castes : 

Bhrigur uvdeha \ Aarijad hrahfnandn warn pUrvam Brahma prajd- 

fotln I dtma-tejo ^hhinirvrittdn hhaikardgni-Mma-prahMn \ tatah satyam 

eha dharmafn cha tapo hrahma cha idhatam | dchuram chaiva iaucham 

eha wargdya vidadha prabhuh \ deva^nava-gandharvd daitydsura-md- 

horagdh \ yaksJuhrdkshasa-ndgdS cha pUdchd tnanujds tathd \ hrdhmandh 

kshattriyd vaiSyd^ Sudrdi cha dvija-sattama \ ye chdnye hhnta-sanghdndm 

varnds tarns chdpt ntrmatne \ hrdhmandndm sito varnah kshattriydnam 

cha lohitah \ vaiiydndm pUako varnah iudrdndm asttas tatha \ 6935. 

Bharadvdja uvdeha \ Chdturvarnyasya vart^ena yadi varno vibhidyate \ 

sarteshdm hhdlu varndndrh dfiiyate varna-sankarah | kdtnah krodho hha- 

yam lohhah sokai chintd kshudhd Sramah \ sarveshdm nah^ prdbhavati 

katmdd varno vibhidyate \ sveda-mHtra'purUhdni ileshmd pittam sa-ioni- 

tarn I tanuh ksharati sarveshdm kasmdd varno vibhajyate \ jangamdndm 

asamkhyeydh stiidvardndm cha jdtayah \ teshdm vividha-varndndih kuto 

varna-vinischayah \ Bhrigur uvdeha \ Na viSesho *sti varndndm sarvam 

brdhmam idafhjagat \ Brahmand pUrva srishtafh hi karmabhir varnatdm 

gatam \ 6940. Kdma-bhoga-priyds tikshnah krodhandh priya-sdluisdh \ 


3** The Commentator thus explains the word krita-kritya : Kftta^krityah iudra- 
ttdyah I iathd eha tmfitih ** na dudre piatakwk kinehid na eha earhtkaram arhati** iti 
teeham Mmakaranarhatva^iehpapaivabhidanat kptO'krityatvam dareayati \ tadpat 
irawamikd apt tyur ity arthah \ ** Kfita kfityalf, {fit, haying done what was to be 
done) means, like S'Qdras ; so the Smfiti (when it says), ' No sin exists in a S'Qdra, 
nor is he fit for purificatory rites,' shews, by declaring the unfitness of this class for 
such rites, and its freedom from sin, that it has the character of kfita-krityaivaivOf 
i,e, of having done all it had to do. And such (in the event supposed) would be the 
case with men of the three (upper) classes also." 

*tt The Calcutta edition reads na, *'not," which cannot be right. The MS. in the 
Library of the Edinburgh Uniyersity has nah^ ** of us." 


iyahta-svadharma rakULngas te dvijah kshattraid^ gatdh \ gohhyo vritti^i 
iomdsthdya pltdh kfishg-upajlvinah | sva-dharmdn ndnutUhfhanti te 
dvijd vaikyatdm gatd^ \ himsdnfita^prigd Itthdhdh Borva-karmopajwinah \ 
kfishndh iaucha-parihhrashtds te dvijdh iudratdm gatdh \ ity etaih kar- 
mahhir vyastd dvijd varndntaram gatdh \ dharmo yqfna-kriyd teshdih 
nttyam na pratUhidhyate \ ity ete chaturo varnd yeshdm hrdhml sarae* 
vatl I vihitd Brahmand pUruam lohhdt tv ajndnatdm gatdh \ 6945. 
Brdhmana hrakma-tantrchsthdtt^ tapas teshdfh na naiyati \ hrahma dhd^ 
raydtdm nttyam vratdni uiyamdms tathd \ hrahma chaiva paraih srishfatTi 
ye na jdnanti te ^dvij'dh \ teshdm hahuvidhdS tv anyds tatra tatra hi 
jdtayah \ piSdchd rdkshasdh pretd vividhd mUchha-jdtayah \ pranashfa- 
jndna-vijndndh tvaehhanddchdra-cheahfitdh \ prajd hrdhmana-samskdrdh 
tva-karma-krita-nikhaydh' \ rishibhih evena tapasd srtjyante chdpare 
paraih \ ddi-deva-BamudbhUtd hrahma-mUld ^kshayd ^vyayd \ ed srishfir 
mdnasl ndma dharma-tantra-pardyand \ 6950. Bharadvdja uvdcha \ 
Brdhmanah kena bhavati kshattriyo vd dvtjottama | vaiiyah iudrai eha 
viprarshe tad hrUhi vadatdih vara \ Bhrigur uvdcha \ Jata-karmddihhir 
yas tu samkdraih samskfitah iuchih \ vedddhyayana-eampannah ehafeu 
karmasv avaefhitah \ iauchdehdra-ethitah eamyag vighaed&i gwru-priya^ \ 
nitya-vratl eatyaparah ea vai brdhmana uchyate \ satyafh ddnam athd" 
droha dnriSameyam trapd ghfind \ tapai cha dfiiyate yatra sa brdhmana 
iti smritah | kshattra-jarn sevate karma vedddhyayana-sangatah \ ddnd* 
ddna-ratir yas tu sa vai kshattriya uchyate \ 6955. Fiiaty dSu paiubhyai 
cha krishy-dddna-ratih iuchih I vedddhyayana-sampannah sa vaiSyah iti 
sanjnitdh \ sarva-hhakshya-ratir nityam sarva • karma -karo 'iuchih \ 
tyakta-vedas tv andchdrah sa vai iudrah iti smritah \ iudre ehaitad 
bhavel lakshyam dv\je tach cha na vidyate \ sa vai iudro bhaveoh chhudro 
brdhmano brdhmano na cha \ 

**Bhrigu replied: 6930. 'Brahma thus formerly created the Praja- 
patis, Brahmanic,'^ penetrated by his own enei^gy, and in splendour 
equalling the sun and fire. The lord then formed truth, righteousness, 
austere fervour, and the eternal veda (or sacred science), virtuous 
practice, and purity for (the attainment of) heaven. He also formed 
the gods, Danavas, Gandharvas, Daityas, Asuras. Mahoragas, Yakshas, 

>^ Brahma -tantram = vedoktanushfhanam \ Comm. 

*^ Brahmanan^ <* Brahmans," is the word employed. It maj mean here " sons of 


BakshaaaB, Kagaa, FUacbaSy and men, Brahmana, Eahattriyas, Yaifyaa, 
and S^udiasy aa well aa all other claaaea {vamdh) of beinga. The coloor 
[varna) of the Brahmana waa white ; that of the Kshattriyaa red ; that 
of the Yaiiyas yellow, and that of the S^dras black/ *^ 6935. Bhara- 
dvaja here rejoina : * If the caste {varna) of the four claaaea is dis- 
tingtiished by their colour (jcarna\ then a confusion of all the 
castes is observable. Desire, anger, fear, cupidity, grief, appre- 
hension, hunger, fatigue, prevail over us all : by what, then, is caste 
discriminated ? Sweat, urine, excrement, phlegm, bile, and blood (are 
common to all) ; the bodiea of aU decay : by what then is caste dis- 
criminated ? There are innumerable kinda of things moving and sta- 
tionary : how is the class (varna) of these varioua objects to be deter- 
mined?' Bhfigu replies: 'There is no difference of castes:*" this 
world, having been at first created by Brahma entirely Brahmanic,*^ 

^'B It is somewhat strange, as Professor Weber remarks in a note to p. 215 of his 
German translation of the Vajra SQchI, that in the passage of the Ka^haka Brahmana 
xi. 6, which he there quotes, a white colour is ascribed to the Yais'ya and a dark hue 
to the Rfijanya. The words are these : Taeh chhuklanam {brihmam) adityebhffo nir- 
vapati tatmaeh ehhukla iva vaiiyo jayaU \ yat kfiMhnanam warunam taatnad dhumra 
iva fojanyah | ** Since the Vais ja offers an oblation of white (rice) to the Adityas, he 
is bom as it were white ; and as the Yaruna oblation is of black (rice) the Rajanya 
is as it were dosky." 

MB Compare with this the words attributed in S'antipanran, yerses 2819 ff., to King 
Huchukunda, who had been reproached by the god Knvera with trusting for rictory 
to the aid of his domestic priest instead of to his own prowess : Mucht^ndat tatah 
kruddhah pratyuvaeha Dhaneivaram | nyaya-purvam ataikrabdham tuambhrantam 
idofh vaehah | hrahma kihattram idam §fi»hfam eka-yoni twayambhuva j pfithag-bala- 
vidhatuhh tanna lokam paripalayet | tapO'^nantra^Um nityam brahmaneahu pratish- 
fhitam I attra-bahu-balam nityam kthattriyeahu praiUh^kitam \ tabhyam $ambhuya 
karttavyam prqjanam paripalanam | "Muchakunda then, incensed, addressed to the 
Lord of riches these reasonable words, which did not partake of his anger or excite- 
ment : ' Br&hmans and Kshattriyas were created by Brahma from the same womb (or 
source) with different forces appointed to tbem : this cannot (neither of these separate 
forces can ?) protect the world. The force of austere fenrour and of sacred texts 
abides constantly in the Brahmans ; and that of weapons and their own arms in tho 
Kshattriyas. By these two forces combined the people must be protected." 

^^ Brahfnam is the word employed. That it is to be understood in the sense of 
** Brahmanical " appears from the following lines in which the word dinjah must be 
taken in the special signification of Brahmans and not of *' twice- bom men" (who 
may be either Brahmans, Kshattriyas, or Vais'yas) in general. The Brahman is con- 
sidered to have been formed of the essence of Brahmfi, and to represent the original 
type of perfect humanity as it existed at the creation. The Commentator takes the 
word brahfnam as = brahmoQa-jaiimatf ** having the caste of Brahmans ; " and he 
explains the different colours mentioned in the next yerses as follows : red (rakla) 


l)ecame (afterwards) separated into castes in oonsequence of works. 
6940. Those Brahmans {lit, twice-born men), who were fond of sensual 
pleasure, fiery, irascible, prone to yiolence, who had forsaken their 
duty, and were red-limbed, fell into the condition of Eehattriyas* 
Those Brahmans, who derived their livelihood from kine, who were 
yellow, who subsisted by agriculture, and who neglected to practise 
their duties, entered into the state of Yaiiyas. Those Brahmans, who 
were addicted to mischief and fedsehood, who were covetous, who lived 
by all kinds of work, who were black and had fallen from purity, sank 
into the condition of S^udras. Being separated from each other by these 
works, the Brahmans became divided into different castes. Duty and 
the rites of sacrifice have not been always forbidden to (any of) them. 
Such are the four classes for whom the Brahmanic*^ SarasvatI was at first 
designed by Brahma, but who through their cupidity fell into ignor* 
ance. 6945. Brahmans live agreeably to the presoriptiouB of the 
Yeda ; while they contiaually hold fSeist the Veda, and observances, and 
ceremonies, their austere fervour {tapas) does not perish. And sacred 
science was created the highest thing : they who are ignorant of it 
are no twice-born men. Of these there are various other classes in dif* 
ferent places, Pi^achas, Eakshasas, Pretas, various tribes of MlechhaS| 
who have lost all knowledge sacred and profane, and practise whatever 
observances they please. And di£ferent sorts of creatures with the 
purificatory rites of Brahmans, and discerning their own duties, are 
created by di£ferent rishis through their own austere fervour. This 
creation, sprung frx)m the primal god, having its root in Brahma, un- 
decaying, imperishable, is called the mind-bom creation, and is devoted 
to the prescriptions of duty.' 6950. Bharadvaya again enquires: 
* What is that in virtue of which a man is a Brahman, a Kshattriya, 

means '* formed of the quality of passion " {raJb'ffutuMnaya) ; yellow {pita) '' fonned 
of the qualities of passion and darkness" {rajaa-tamo-mayajf and black {kriahna 
or asita) " formed of darkness only " {kevala-iamomaya), 

*^ Brahmt, This word is thas interpreted by the Commentator: vedamayi | ehaturm 
nam api varnanam Brahtnana purvam frihita | lobha'doshena tu ajnanatam iamO' 
bhavam gatdh iudrah anadhikarino ved$ Jatah \ " SarasvatT, consisting of the Yeda, 
was formerly designed by BrahmS for all the four castes : but the S'Qdras having 
through cupidity fallen into ' ignorance/ i .#. a condition of darkness, lost their right 
to the Yeda." See Indische Studien, iL 194, note, where Professor Weber under- 
stands this passage to import that in ancient times the S'Qdras spoke the language of 
the Aryaa. 


a Yaiiya, or a S^dra; tell me, o most eloquent Brahman rishi.' 
Bhrigu replies : ' He who is pure, consecrated by the natal and other 
ceremonies, who has completely studied the Yeda, lives in the practice 
of the six ceremonies, performs perfectly the rites of purification, who 
eats the remains of oblations, is attached to his religious teacher, is 
constant in rcli^ous observances, and devoted to truth, — is called a 
Brahman. 6953. fie in whom are seen truth, liberality, inoffensive- 
ness, harmlessness, modesty, compassion, and austere fervour, — ia de- 
clared to be a Brilhman. fie who practises the duty arising out of 
the kingly office, who is addicted to the study of the Veda, and who 
delights in giving and receiving,*'^ — is called a Kshattriya. 6955. fie 
who readily occupies himself with cattle,^ who is devoted to agri* 
culture and acquisition, who b pure, and is perfect in the study of the 
Yeda, — is denominated a Yai^ya. 6956. fie who is habitually addicted 
to all kinds of food, performs all kinds of work, who is unclean, who 
has abandoned the Yeda, and does not practise pure observances, — is 
traditionally called a StLdra. And this (which I have stated) is the 
mark of a S^udra, and it is not found in a Brfihman : (such) a Budra 
•will remain a Sudra, while the Brahman (who so acts) will be no 

The passage next to be quoted recognizes, indeed, the existence of 
castes in the Kpita age, but represents the members of them all as 
having been perfect in their character and condition, and as not differ- 
ng from one another in any essential respects. 

It is related in the Yanaparvan that Bhimasena, one of the Pandus, 

*B* Danam viprehhydh \ adanam prqjahhyahy " Giying to Bruhmans, rccciying from 
hiB snbjectB."— Comm. 

** Paiun van^yaya ttpayoyinah upaUhdhta friiaii pratuhfham labhate \ ''Who 
perceiving cattle to be useful for trade^ 'enters,* obtains a basis (for his operations)." 
— Comm. As we haye seen above p. 97, these etymologies are frequently far-fetched 
and ahsurd. 

*M On this verse the Commentator annotates as follows: ftat taiyaduaaptaham 
dvije iraivarnike \ dharma ma varnO'Vibhage karanam na jatir ity arthah | *' These 
seven virtues, beginning with truth (mentioned in verse 6953), exist in the twice-born 
man of the first three classes. The sense is that righteousness, and not birth, is the 
cause of the division into clashes." This explanation is not very lucid. But the 
senae seems to be that the seven good qualities referred to are the proper characteris- 
tics of the three upper castes, while the defects specified in verse 6956 are the proper 
distinctive marks of the S'Qdras. Thus the S'Qdra who has the four defects will 
remain a S'Udra, but a Brahman who has them wiU be no Brilhnuuu 


in the course of a conyersation with his brother " Hanumat the men* 
key chief, had requested informatioQ ou the subject of the Yugas and 
their characteristics, fianumat's reply is giyen in verses 11234 ff. : 

Kritam ndma yitgam tdta yatra dharmah sandtanah | hfitam evana 
harttavyam tasmin kale yugottame \ na tatra dharmdh ndanti kshiyarUa 
na eha vai prajdk \ tatah krita-yugam ndma kdlena gunatdm gatam \ 
deva-ddnava-gandharva'yakshcM'dkshasa-pannagdh \ ndsan kfita-yuge tdta 
tadd na kraya-vikrayak ** j na sdma-f-tg-yajur-varndh^^ kriyd ndslch cha 
mdnavl \ ahhidhydya phalam tatra dharmah sannydia eva cha \ na tasmin 
yuga-Bathsarge vyddhayo nendriya-kshayah \ ndsuyd ndpi ruditam na 
darpo ndpi vaikritam^ \ na vigrahah^ kutas tandri na dvesho na cha pai- 
Sunam \ 11240. Nd hhayam ndpi santdpo na cl^&rshyd na cha matsarak \ 
tatah paramakam Brahma sd gatir yogindm para \ dtmd cha sarva-hhu" 
tdndm iuklo Ndrdyanas tadd \ hrdhmandh kshattriydh vaiSydh Sudrdicha 
krita-lakshandh \ kfite yttge eamahhavan wa-karma-niratdh prajdh \ sa- 
mdirayam samdcJuiram eama-jndnam cha k&valam \ tadd hi sdmakarmdno 
varnd dharmdn avdpnuvan \ eka-dwa-sadd-yuktdh eka-mantra-vidhi-kri* 
ydh I prithagdharmds tv eka-vedd dharmam ekam anuvratdh \ chdturaS- 
ramya-yuktena karmand kdla-yogind \ 11245. Akdma-phdUhsamyogdt 
prdpnuvanti pardm gatim \ dtma-yoga-samdyukto dharmo ^yam kfita- 
lakshanah \ krite yuge chaiushpdddi ehdturvarnyasya idhatah \ etat kfita- 
yugam ndma traigunya^arivarjjitam \ tretdm api nibodha tvafh tasmin 
satiram pravarttate \ pddena hrasate dharmo raktatdm ydti chdchyutah \ 
satya-pravrittdi cha nardh kriyd-dharma-pardyandh | tato yajndh pra- 
varttante dharmdicha vividJidh kriydh \ tretdydm hhdva - sankalpdh 
kriyd-ddna-phalopagdh | prachalanti na vai dharmdt tapO'ddna-paru^ 
yandh \ 11250. Sva'dlmrma-sthdh kriydvanto nards tretd-yuge ^hha- 
van I dvdpare tu yuge dharmo dvihhdgana^ pravarttate \ Vishnur vai 
pltatdm ydti chaturdhd veda eva cha \ tato ^nye cha chatur-vedds tri- 
veddS cha tatM pare \ dvi-veddi chaika-veddS chdpy anrichai cha tathd 
pare \ evam idstreshu hhinneshu hahudhd nlyate kriyd \ tapo-ddna-pra' 
vrittd cha rdjasi hhavati prajd \ eka-vedasya chdjndndd vedds te hahava^ 

Both wero sons of Yuyu. See yeraes 11134, 11169 f. and 11176 1 of this lame 

book. The Kamayana is mentioned in Terse 11177. 
^^ The MS. in the Edinburgh Uniyersity Library reads as the last pada : danS' 

^7 The Edinburgh MS. reads veda^ instead varnah, 
^58 Kapa^am — Comm. "• Fairam — Comm. 


ijritdh | saUvasffa cheha mhhra^iSdt satye^ iaiehid avasthitah \ sattvdt 
jpraehf/avamundndm vyadhayo hahavo *hhavan \ 11255. £amdS ehopadra- 
vdichaiva tadd vat daiva-karitah \ yair ardyamdndh mibhfiiam tapas 
tapyanti mdnavdh \ kdnkhkdmdh svarga-Jcdmd yajnuihs tanvanti chdpare \ 
0vafk dvdparam dsddya prajdk kshlyaniy adharmaiah \ pddenaikena Kaun- 
ieya dharmah kali-yuge Bthitak \ idmasath yugam dsddya krishno hhavati 
Keiavah \ veddchdrdh praidmyanti dharnuhyajna-kriyds tathd \ Itayo vyd^ 
dhayas trandrl doshdh krodhddaydi tathd \ upadravdi cha varttante 
d^Oiayah hihud bhayam tathd \ yuyeshv dvarttamdneshu dharmo vydvart- 
tats punah \ dharme vydvarttamdne tu loko vydvarttate punah \ loke 
hhlne kshaya^ ydnti hhdvd loka-pravarttakdh \ yuga-kshaya-kfitd dhar- 
mdh prdrthandni vikurvate \ etat kdliyugam ndma aehirdd yat pravart- 
tate I yugdnuvarttanam tv etat kurvanti ehirajlvinah \ 

''11234. The Kfita is that age ia which righteoasness is eternal. 
In the time of that most excellent of Yugas (everything) had heen 
done {kfita\ and nothing (remained) to be done. Duties did not 
then languish, nor did the people decline. Afterwards, through (the 
influence of) time, this yuga fell into a state of inferiority .'^ In 
that age there were neither C^ods,*^ Danavas, Gandharvas, Yakshas, 
Bakshasas, nor Pannagas; no buying or selling went on; tho 
Yedas were not classed^ as Saman, Rich, and Yajush; no efforts 
were made by men i*^ the fruit (of the earth was obtained) by their 
mere wish : righteousness and abandonment of the world (prevailed). 

*o The Edinburgh MS. reads tattve instead of aatye, 

"^ In thus rendering, I follow the Commentator, whose gloss is this : Mukh- 
yam apy amukhyatam gatam \ " although the chief, it fell into inferiority.*' In 
Bohtlingk and Roth's Lexicon this line is quoted under the word^ut^a^, to which the 
sense of *' superiority, excellence," is assigned. 

*tt Compare with this the ycrses of the Yuyu Parilna quoted in p. 90, which state 
that in the E|ita age there were neither plants nor animiUs ; which are the products 
of unrighteousness. 

*si I do not venture to translate " there was then no [division of the Teda into] 
SSman, Rich, and Yajush, nor any castes," (1) because the Edinburgh MS. reads 
9eda^ instead of varnah, and the Commentator does not allude to the word varnah ; and 
(2) castes {varnah) are referred to below (verses 11242 f.) as existing, though without 
much distinction of character. The Commentator eiplains : irayl-dharmatya ehitta- 
iuddhy'arthatvat tatyai eha tadawfh tvabhawUvat na tdmadiny atan | " As the ob- 
ject of the triple veda is purity of heart, and as that existed naturally at that period, 
there were no (divisions of) Saman, etc." 

'M I follow the Commentator whose gloss is : '* Marum kriya " krithy-adg'aram* 
bha-bhuta I kintu *^ obhidhyaya phdhmC* tankalpdd eva tarvam tampadyaU \ 


No disease or decline of the organs of sense aroee through the in* 
flaence of the age; there was no malice, weeping, pride, or deceit; 
no contention, and how could there he any lassitude? no hatred, 
cruelty, (11240) fear, affliction, jealousy, or enyy. Hence the supreme 
Brahma was the transcendent resort of those Yogins. Then Narayana, 
the soul of all heings, was white.*" Brahmans, Kshattriyas, Yaisyas, 
and S^udras possessed the characteristics of the Kf ita.^ In that age 
were horn creatures deyoted to their duties. They were alike in the 
object of their trust, in observances and in their knowledge. At that 
period the castes, alike in their functions, fulfilled their duties, were 
imceasingly devoted to one deity, and used one formula {mantra), one 
rule, and one rite. Though they had separate duties, they had but 
one Yeda, and practised one duty.^ By works connected with the four 
orders, and dependent on conjunctures of time,^ (11245) but un- 
affected by desire, or (hope of) reward, they attained to supreme 
felicity. This complete and eternal righteousness of the four castes 
during the K^ita was marked by the character of that age and sought 
after imion with the supreme soul. The Kf ita age was free from the 
three qualities.*" Understand now the Treta, in which sacrifice com- 
menced,*^ righteousness decreased by a fourth, Yishnu became red; 

*^ In verse 12981 of this same Yanaparraii the god says of himself : Svetah kfita' 
ytige varnahpliat treiayttge mama \ rakio dvaparam aaadya kfUhnah kati-yuge tatka \ 
<* My colour in the Kfita age is white, in the Treta yellow, when I reach tiie DvSpara 
it is red, and in the Kali black." 

>M The Commentator's gloss is : kfUani tvatah iiddhani lakshanani iamo damat 
iapa ity-admi yeahdm U \ ** They were men whose characteristics, tranquillity, etc , 
were effected, spontaneously accomplished." On yerse 11245 he explains the same 
term hritO'lakahai^ by kfUa-yuga-tuehakahf "indicative of the Kfita age." 

^ The different clauses of this line can only be reconciled on the supposition that 
the general principle of duty, and the details of the duties are distinguished. Dharma 
is the word used in both parts of the verse for ** duty." 

'BB Kala-yogina, The Commentator explains : kalo daraadih \ tad-yuktena \ *< con- 
nected with time, i.e, the appearance of the new moon, etc." 

s^ And yet we are told in the Y&yn P. that the creation itself proceeded from the 
influence of the quality of passion (see above, p. 75), and that the four castes when 
originally produced were characterized in different ways by the three qualities, pp. 62 
and 89 

vo Compare S'anti-parva, 13088. Idam kftta-yuyaik nama kalah ireshthah pra^ 
ffarttitah \ akimya yajna-paSavo yuge'tmm na tad anyatha \ ehatushpat aakalo dhat~ 
mo bhavishyaty atra vat aurah \ taiat treta-yugam nama trayt yatra bhaviahyati | 
prokshita yatra paiavo badham praptyanti vai makhe \ ** This Kpta age is the most 
excellent of periods : then victims are not allowed to be slaughtered; complete and 



«ad men adhered to trath, and were deroted to a righteousness de- 
pendent on ceremonies. Then saorifioes prevailed, with holy acts and a 
variety of rites. In the Treta men acted with an object in view, seeking 
after reward for their rites and their gifts, and no longer disposed to 
austerities and to liberality £rom (a simple feeling of) duty. 11250. 
In this age, however, they were devoted to their own duties, and to 
religious ceremonies. In the Dvapara age righteousness was diminished 
by two quarters, Yishnu became yellow, and the Yeda fourfold. Somo 
studied four Yedas, others three, others two, others one, and somo nono 
at all.*^ The scriptures being thus divided, ceremonies were celebrated 
in 4 great variety of ways ; and the people being occupied with aus- 
terity and the bestowal of gifts, became full of passion {rdjasi). Owing 
to ignorance of the one Yeda, Yedas were midtipUed, And now from 
the decline of goodness {sattva) few only adhered to truth. 'When men 
had fallen away from goodness, many diseases, (11255) desires and 
calamities, caused by destiny, assailed them, by which they wero 
severely afflicted, and driven to practice austerities. Others desiring 
enjoyments and heavenly bliss, offered sacrifices. Thus, when they 
had reached the Dvapara, men declined through unrighteousness. In 
the Zali righteousness remained to the extent of one-fourth only. Ar- 
rived in that age of darkness, Yishnu became black : practices enjoined, 
by the Yedas, works of righteousness, and rites of sacrifice, ceased. 
Calamities, diseases, fatigue, faults, such as a^ger, etc., distresses, 
anxiety, hunger, fear, prevailed. As the ages revolve, righteousness 
again declines. When this takes place, the people also decline. When 
they decay, the impulses which actuate them also decay. The practices 
generated by this declension of the Tugas frustrate men's aims. Such 
is the ZaU Yuga which has existed for a short time. Those who are 
long-lived act in conformity with the character of the age." 

The next passage from the same book (the Yana-parvan) does not 
make any allusion to the Yugas, but depicts the primeval perfection of 
mankind with some traits peculiar to itself, and then goes on to describe 
iheir decline. Markandeya is the speaker. 

perfect rigliteoiisness wiU prevail. Next is the Treta in which the triple yeda will 
come into existence; and animalfl will be elain in sacrifice." See note 65, page 39, 

^ The Commentator explains anriehat (*< without the Big«>Teda") by iriu 
hrUyah. On the sense of the latter word set above. 


12619. mrmaldni iorlrajH viiuddkSm itsrfrincLm | BOMrja dharmth 
tantrdni p^rvotpminah Frajdpatih \ amoghhphala-fankalpAk mcratd^ 
Mtpavadina^ \ hrahma^hiUd narah fmnydhpurdn&h kuru-^attama \ sarve 
devaih 9amdh ydnti naehhandena ndbhas-tdlam \ tataS cha punar dydwti 
sarve tvachhanda-ehdrtna^ \ nachhandihmarandi ehdsan nardh tvaehhan- 
da-chdrinah \ alpa-hddhd mrdtankdj^ nddhdrthd nirupadravdh \ drask- 
tdro deva-aanghdndm fMlmd£n eha mahdimandm \ pratydhhdh sarva* 
dharmdndm ddntd vigata-tnatsardh \ dtem varsha-sahoiriyds tatkd putra» 
sahamnah \ 12625. Tatah haldrUare 'nyoimin prithtvUtala-ehdrinah \ 
hdnkhkrodhddhihhiUd* U mdyd^vydjopt^'ivinah \ lohka-mQhdbAtbhntdi U 
aakid d&hats tato tMrdh \ aiuhhaih Jtarmahhi^ pdpd$ iiryan-niraya' 
$dm%na^ \ 

'^Tbfi fint-bora Frajapsti formed the bodies of corporeal Greatores 
pare, spotleaa, and obedient to duty. The holy men of old were not 
frostrated in the results at which they aimed ; they were religious, 
truth-speaking, and partook of Brahma's nature. Being all like gods 
they ascended to the sky and returned at will. They died too when 
they desired, suffered few annoyances, were free from disease, accom- 
plished all their objects, and endured no oppression. Self-subdued and 
free from envy, they beheld the gods*'* and the mighty rishis, and had 
an intuitiye perception of all duties.^* They liyed for a thousand years, 
and had each a thousand sons. Then at a later period of time, the in- 

s" See the passage from S'ankara's Commentary on the Brahma SQtras L 3, 32, in 
6ie 3rd ToL of this work, pp. 49 f., and note 49 in p. 95 ; and S'atapatha Br§hmana, 
ii. 3, 4, 4, ubhape ha vai id^m ogre 8»ha amtr dwai eha mamuhyar eha | te^ yad ha 
tma tnanuthyanam na bhavati tad ha devan yaehanU *' idaih vai no nasti idam no 
*stv " iti I te Uupai eva yaehnyayai dveehtna devas tirobhuta **na id hinatani na 
id dvethyo 'tani** iti | *' Goda and men, together, were both originally (component 
parts of) this world. Whatever men had not they asked from the gods, saying, 
* We have not this ; let ns have it.' From dislike of this solicitation the gods dis- 
appeared, (saying each of them) * let me not hurt (them), let me not he hateful.' " 
Compare also the passage of the S'. P. Br. iii. 6, 2, 26, referred to by Professor Weber 
in Indische Studien, z. 158 : Ts ha tma eU ubhaye deva-manmhyah pitarah tampi^ 
hante \ sa esha sampa | ts ha ama dfisyamana eva pura eampibante uta etarhy adfii" 
yamanah \ ^* Both gods, men, and fathers drink together. This is their symposium. 
Formerly they drank together visibly : now they do so unseen." Compare also Plato, 
Philebus, 18 : Kol 6i fi^y voXotot, xfttlrrwMS ^iiJSmp «^i iyyvriptc B^y 6iicovrreSf 
ravrnv ^/iriv trapiloaav^ '*And the ancients who were be^r than ourselves, and, 
dwelt nearer to the gods, have handed down this tradition.'* 

S7S Compare the passage of the Nirukta, i. 20, beginning, iikekat^kfUo'ihaTmSif^ 
fiihayo babhuvuhj quoted in the 2nd Tol. of this work, p. 174. 


habitants of the earth became subject to desire and anger, and subsisted 
by deceit and fraud, {rovemed by cupidity and delusion, devoted to 
carnal pursuits, sinful men by their evil deeds walked in crooked paths 
leading to hell," etc., etc. 

At the end of the chapter of the Bhishmaparvan, entitled Jamhu- 
hhanda-nirmana^ there is a paragraph in which Sanjaya gives an account 
of the four yugas in Bharatavarsha (Hindustan), and of the condition 
of mankind during each of those periods. After stating the names and 
order of the yugas, the speaker proceeds : 

889. Chatvari tu sahoirdni vdrshdndm Kuru-mttama \ dyuh-sankhyd 
hfiia-yuge nankhydtd rdja-sattama \ taihd trini sahaardni tretdydih ma- 
nujddhipa \ dve sahasre dvdpare cha hhuvi tUhthanti sdmpratam \ na 
pramdna-Bthitir hy asti tishye *9mtn Bharatarshabha \ yarhha-stMS cha 
mriyante cha tathd jdtd mriyanti cha \ mahdhald mahdsaitvdh prajnd- 
guna-samanvitdh \ prajdyante chajdtdi cha iataio Hha saha^aiah \ jutdh 
hfita-yuge rdjan dhaninah priya-dariinah \ prajdyante chajdtdi cha mu- 
nayo vat tapodhandh \ mahotsdhdh mahdtmdno dhdrmikdh satya-vddinah \ 
priyadariand vapushmanto mahdviryd dhanurdhardh \ vardrhd yudhijd- 
yanU kshattriydh iura-sattamdh \ tretdydih kshattriyd rdjan sarve vai 
ehahravarttinah \ dyushmanto mahdvlrd dhanurdhara^ard yudhi \ jdyante 
kshattriyd virdi tretdydm vaka-varttinah \ earve varnd mahdrdja jdyante 
dvdpare eati \ mahotsdhd vlryavantah paraspara-jayaishinah \ tejasd 
^Jpena eamyuktdh krodhandh punuhd nripa | lubdhd anritakds chaiva 
tishye jdyanti Bhdrata \ Irshd mdnas tathd krodho mdyd ^suyd tathaiva 
eha I tiehye hhavati hhutdndm rdyo hhJud cha Bhdrata \ sankshepo vart- 
rdjan dvdpare 'etnin narddhipa \ 

<< 389. Pour thousand years are specified as the duration of life in 
the Krita age,*^* three thousand in the Treta, and two thousand form 
the period at present established on earth in the Dvapara. There is no 
fixed measure in the Tishya (Kali) : embryos die in the womb, as well 
as children after their birth. Men of great strengtb, goodness, wisdom, 
and virtue were bom, and bom too in hundreds and thousands. In the 
Zf ita age men were produced opulent and beautiful, as well as munis 
rich in austere fervour. Energetic, mighty, righteous, veracious, beau- 
tiful, well-formed, valorous, bow-canying, (395) heroic Kshattriyas, 

^* See above, p, 91, note 174. 


distinguished in battle, were born.*'^ In the Treta all soyereigns were 
Kshattriyas. Heroic Kshattriyas were bom in the Treta, long-lived, 
great warriors, carrying bows in the fight, and living subject to au- 
thority. During the Dvapara all castes are produced, energetic, valor* 
ous, striving for victory over one another. In the Tishya age axe bom 
men of little vigour, irascible, covetous, and mendacious. During that 
period, envy, pride, anger, delusion, ill-will, desire, and cupidity pre- 
vail among all beings. During this Dvapara age there is some re- 

As it is here stated that men of all castes were bom in the Dvapara, 
while Brahmans and Kshattriyas only are spoken of as previously 
existing, it is to be presumed that the writer intends to intimate that 
no Yaiiyas or Sudras existed during the Kfita and Treta ages. This 
accords with the account ^ven in the passage quoted above firom the 
Uttara Kanda of the Eamayana, chapter 74, as well as with other texts 
which will be quoted below. 

The following verses might be taken for a rationalistic explanation 
of the traditions regarding the yugas ; but may be intended as nothing 
more than a hyperbolical expression of the good or bad effects of a 
king's more or less active discharge of his duties : 

S'anti-parva, 2674. JSmIo vd kdranam rdjno rdjd vd kdkhkdranam \ 
iti U samiayo md hhud rdjd kdlasya kdranam \ danda-nltydm yadd rdjd 
samyak kdrtmyena varttate \ tadd hriia-yttgam ndma kdla-sfishfampra- 
varttate | . . . . 2682. Danda-nltydrh yadd rdjd trin amSdn anuvarttate \ 
ehaturtham aihiam uUfijya tadd tretd pravarttaU | . . . • 2684. Ard- 
dharh tyaktvd yadd rdjd nlty-artham anuvarttate \ tataa tu dvdparam 
ndma 9a kdlah sampravarttate | . . . . 2686. Danda-nltim parityqfya 
yadd kdrttsnyena hhikmipah \ prqfdh kliSndty ayogma pravartteta tadd 
kalih I . . . • 2693. lUijd kfita-yuya-srashfd tretdyd dvdparasya eha | 
yugasya cha ehaturthasya rdjd hhavati kdranam \ 

'' 2674. The time is either the cause of the king, or the king is the 
cause of the time. Do not doubt (which of these alternatives is tme) : 
the king is the cause of the time. When a king occupies himself fully 
in criminal justice, then the KptSL age, brought into existence by time, 

^ It does not appear clearly whether we are to suppose them to haye been pro- 
duced in the Kfita, or in the Tretu, aa in the paasoge of the Bamayai^a, quoted in 
page 119. 


fnwmiMJ* [Then follows a desci^tum of the leeoltB of each good 
gorenuiMiit: lighteonflieflB alone is practised; prospenty leigns; the 
seasoas aie pkannt and salubrious ; loogevily is uniyersal ; no widows 
ne seen; and the earth yields her increase without caltiTation.1 
'' 2682« When the king practises criminal justice only to the extent of 
three parts, abandoning the fourth, then the Treta preyails." [Then 
evil IS introduced to the extent of a fourth, and the earth has to be 
tilled.] ** 2684. When the king administers justice with the omission 
of a hal( then the period called the Dvapara prsTails.'' [Then evil ia 
increased to a half^ and the earth eren when tilled yields only half her 
produee.] ** 2686. When, relinquishing criminal law altogether, the 
king actirely oppresses his subjects, then the Kali age prevails." 
[Then the state of things, which existed in the K)-ita age, is nearly 
xerersed.] ** 2693. The king is the creator of the Xfita, Treta, and 
Srapara ages, and the cause also of the fourth yuga.'' 

The next extract is on the same subject of the duties of a king, and 
on the yugas as fonns of his action (see llanu, ix. 801, quoted above, 
p. 49) : 

Banti-parvan, 8406. Karwim Mbre kfitJdt vaihfe danda-nlUi eha rajani \ 
hrahmacharyyav^ tapo mawtrd^ satyaH ehdpi ioijdtisku \ U%h&ih ytth 
JMaUnyo veda vastrdndm iva iodhanam^ \ Hkhdask&n vinirharitum sa 
pita M prqfdpatih \ kfitam tntd dvdparam eha haUi Bharatarshahha \ 
r(lii€HffiU&9% tarvdni r^'aiva yvgam uehyaU \ eh&turvarnyatk tathd vedai 
eh&turdiramyam eva eha \ sitrvam pramuhyaU hy dad yadd raja pra- 
m&dyaU \ 

** 3406. Labour (should be found) in a Sudra, agriculture in a Yai^ya, 
criminal justice in a King, continence, austere fervour, and the use of 
saored texts in a Brahman. The Eshattiiya, who knows how to sepa- 
rate their good and bad qualities, (as (a washerman) understands the 
cleansing of clothes), is a father and lord of his subjects. The Xfita, 
Treta, Dv&para, and Kali, are all modes of a King's action. It is a 
King who is called by the name of Tuga. The four castes, the Yedas, 
and the four orders, are all thrown into disorder when the king is re- 

^ Thii oompariBon U more fiiUy expressed in a preceding Terse (3404) : Te na 
idfUtti nirharttuik f oftrAgSm rt^fako malam \ raki&nlUn vi iodh^yUwh yathd ndsti 
tathawa taJ^ | 


In two of the preceding passages different colours are represented as 
diaraoteristio either of particular castes (8&nti-p. verses 6934 ff.), or of 
particular yugas (Yana-p. yerses 11241 fL). Colours (though not ranked 
in the same order of goodness) are similarly connected with moral and 
physical conditions in verses 10058 ff. of the SimtiparTan, of which I 
shall offer a few specimens : 

Sha4 Jlvehvarndh paramam pramdnarh kfuhno dhumro nllam athdtffa 
madhyam \ raktam punalf, tahyataram wkham tu hdridra^arnam mmu- 
hham eha iuklam \ parantu htklam vimalafh vUokam gatchhlamaih M- 
dhyati ddnavendra | gaivd tu yoni^abhavdni daitya sahasraSah itddhim 

upaitijimik \ 10060 Oati^ punar vanuhkfitd prqfd$^d0i varnas 

iatha kala-hrito ^surendra | . . • . 10062. Kfishnoiya varwMya yatir 
nikfishfa sa sqfate narak$ paehyamdnah \ 


'' 10058. Six colours of living creatures are of principal importance, 
black, dusky, and blue which lies between them; then red is more 
tolerable, yellow is happiness, and white is extreme happiness. White 
is perfect, being exempted from stain, sorrow, and exhaustion; (pos- 
sessed of it) a being going through (various) births, arrives at perfection 

in a thousand forms. 10060 Thus destination is caused by 

colour, and colour is caused by time 10062. The destination 

of the black colour is bad. When it has produced its results, it clings 

The next passage, from the Harivania, assigns to each of the four 
castes a separate origin, but at the same time gives an explanation of 
their diversity which differs from any that we have yet encountered : 
unless, indeed, any one is prepared to maintain that the four principles, 
out of which the castes are here represented to have arisen, are respec* 
tively identical with the mouth, arms, thighs, and feet of Brahm&! 
This passage, however, corresponds with one of those already quoted 
in associating different colours with the several castes. The question 
with which the passage opens refers to an account which had been 
given in the preceding section (verses 11799 ff.) of the creation of 
Bhrigu and Angiras, to both of whom the epithet '' progenitor of Brah- 
mans " {hrahmO'Vaihia'kara) is applied. No mention is made there of 
Kfihattriyas or any other castes. M. Langlois, the French translator of 
the Harivan^a^ remarks that the distinction between the age of the 
Brahmans and that of the Eshattriyas is an unusual one, and receives 


no explanation in the context. Bat in two of the passages which have 
been quoted above (I) from the Uttara Kanda of the Ramayana, 
chapter 74 (p. 119), and (2) from the bhlshma-parva of the Maha- 
bharata, verses 393 fL (p. 149), I think we find indications that the 
Krita Yuga was regarded as an age in which Brahmans alone existed, 
and that Kshattriyas only began to be bom in the Treta. 

Harivam^a, IISOS, Janamei/a uvdcha \ Shitam hrahma-yugam brah- 
man yugdndm prathamam yugam \ kshattrasydpi yugam brahman sroium 
iehhdmi tattvatah \ sasamskskepam savistaram niyamaih bahubhiS chitam \ 
updya-jnaiS eha kathitam kratubhii chapa^obhitam \ Vaiiampdyana 
uvdcha I 11810. Etat te kathayuhydmi yajna-karmabhir or chitam \ 
duna-dharmaii cha vividhaih prajdbhir upaiobhitam \ U ^ngushfha-mdtrd 
munayah ddattdh surya^aimibhih \ moksha-prdptena vidhind nirdbd- 
dkena karmand \ pra/cfitte ehdpracritte cha nityam Brahma-pardyandh \ 
pardyanasya iangamya Brahmanaa tu mahipate \ irl-vritidh pdvands 
ehaiva brdhmandi cha mahipate \ chdrita-brahmacharyydS cha brahma- 
jndnena bodhitdh \ purne yuga-sahaardnte prabhdve pralaydm gatoh \ 
hrdhmand vfittO'Sampannd jndna-iiddhdh samdhitdh \ 11815. Vyatirik- 
tendriyo Vishnur yogdtmd brahma-sambliavah I Dakahah prajdpatxr bhu- 
tvd sjrtjate vipuldh prajdh \ akshardd brdhmandh saumydh kshardt kshat- 
triya-bdndhavdh \ vaih/d vtkdrataS ehaiva Sudrdh dhuma-vikdratah \ 
heta-lohitakair varnaih pitair nilaU eha brdhmandh \ dbhinirvartlitdh 
varndms ehintaydnena Vishnund \ tato varnatvam dpanndh prajd lake cha- 
turvidhdh \ brdhmandh kshattriyd vaiiydh iudrdi ehaiva mahipate \ eka- 
lingdh pfithag-dharmd dvipdddh paramddbhutdh \ ydtanayd ^bhisam- 
pannd gati-jndh sarva-karmasu \ traydndfh varna-jdtdndm veda-proktdh 
kriydi^ smfitdh \ tena brdhmana^ogena vaishnavena mahipate \ prajnayd 
tejasd yogdt tasmdt Prdchetaeah prabhuh 1 Vishnur eva mahdyogi kar- 
mandm antaram gatah \ tato nirvdna-sambhutdh Sudrdh karma-vivarji- 
tdh I tasmdd ndrhanti samskdram na hy atra brahma vidyate \ yathd 
^gnau dhuma-sanghdto hy aranyd mathyamdnayd \ prddurbhuto visarpan 
vai nopayujyati karmani \ evam S&drd visarpanto bhuvi kdrtsnyena Jan- 
mand \ na samskfitena ^ dharmena veda-proktena karmand \ 

<' Janamejaya says : 11808. I have heard, o Brahman, the (descrip- 
tion of the) Brahma Yuga, the first of the ages. I desire also to be 
accurately informed, both summarily and in detail, about the age of the 

vr The printed text reads naaamtkritena ; but na tmtkjitma Beems necessary. 


Xshattarijas, with its numerous observances, illustrated as it was bj 
sacrifices, and described as it has been by men skilled in the art of 
narration. Yai^ampayana replied : 11810. I shall describe to you that 
age revered for its sacrifices and distinguished for its yarious works of 
liberality, as well as for its people. Those Munis of the size of a 
thumb had been absorbed by the sun's rays. Following a rule of life 
leading to final emancipation, practising unobstructed ceremonies, both 
in action and in abstinence from action constantly intent upon Brahma, 
united to Brahma as the highest object, -^Brdhmans glorious and sanc- 
tified in their conduct, leading a life of continence, disciplined by the 
knowledge of Brahma, — Brahmans complete in their observances, per- 
fect in knowledge, and contemplative, — when at the end of a thousand 
yugas, their majesty was full, these Munis became involved in the dis- 
solution of the world. 11815. Then Yishnu sprung from Brahma, re- 
moved beyond the sphere of sense, absorbed in contemplation, became 
the Prajapati Daksha, and formed numerous creatures. The Brahmans, 
beautiful (or, dear to Soma),^ were formed from an imperishable 
{akshara), the Kshattriyas from a perishable {kshara)^ element, the 
Yai^yas frt)m alteration, the Sudras from a modification of smoke. 
While Yishnu was thinking upon the castes {varndn\ Brahmans were 
formed with white, red, yellow, and blue colours {varnath),*'^ Hence in 
the world men have become divided into castes, being of four descrip- 
tions, Brahmans, Kshattriyas, Yai^yas, and Sudras, one in form, distinct 
in their duties, two-footed, very wonderful, full of energy(?), skilled in 
expedients in all their occupations. 11820. Bites are declared to be 
prescribed by the Yedas for the three (highest) castes. By that con- 
templation practised by the being sprung from Brahma (see v. 11815) 
— by that practised in his character as Yishnu, — the Lord Frachetasa 
(Daksha), i.e. Yishnu the great contemplator {yogin\ passed through 
his wisdom and energy from that state of meditation into the sphere 
of works.^ IText the Sudras, produced from extinction, are destitute 

*78 In yerse 11802, we read abhUhiehya tu Samaih eha yauvaraj'yi Pitamahah \ 
brahmananam eha rajanam daivatam rajant-eharam \ *' Brahma abo inaogorated Soma 
as the heir to the kingdom, aa the king of the Brahmans who walks eternally through 
the night." 

*79 This play upon the two senses of the word varna will be noticed. 

*^ I do not profess to be certain that I have succeeded in discoTering the proper 
meaning of this last sentence. 



of ntef. Hexioe fhey aie not entitled to be admitted to the pnrifi- 
oatory eeremonieii nor does saored scienoe belong to them. Just as the 
doud of smoka \rhich xises fiom the fire on the Motion of the fuel, 
and is dissipated, is of no servioe in the sacrificial rite, so too the 
Madras wandeiing over the earthi are altogether (nseless for purposes 
of sacrifice) owing to their birth, their mode of life devoid of parity 
and their want of the obseryances prescribed in the Veda." 

The next extract gives an account at variance with all that precedes, 
as it does not assign to all the Brahmans themselves the same origin, 
but describes the various kinds of officiating priests as having been 
formed from difiEerent members of Yishnu's body : 

Harivam^a, 11855. JSvam eharrme hhute iete lake mahddyutih | pro- 
ehh&dya ^dtUaih Bonaih Harir N&rayana^ prabhuh \ mahaio rajaso madhye 
mahdrnavO'Samasya vai \ virafa$ko mahdbdhur dksharam hrahmand viduh \ 
dima-TQpa^akdiena iapasd sa^vritafi prabhuh \ trikam cLcKh&dya h&laih 
iu tatah swhvapa sat tadd | purusho yajna ity evam yatparam pariklrt" 
Utam I yach ehanyat punuhdkhyam tu tat sarvam purmhottamah | y$ 
cha yajnapard viprd fitvijd iti aanjnitd^ \ dtwuhdehdt purd hhntd yqfne- 
bhya^ irUyatdm tadd \ 11360. Brahmdnam paramam vaktrdd udgdtdram 
cha sdma-ydm \ hotdram atha chddhcaryyufh bdhubhydm atfijat prdbhuh \ 
brdhmdno brdhmanatvdeh eha proBtotdraih cha sarvaSah | tarn maitrd- 
varunam srishfvd prattshthdtdram eva cha \ udardt pratiharttdram po^ 
tdram chaiva Bhdrata \ achhdvdkam athortibhydm neshtdrafh chaiva 
Bhdrata \ pdnibhydm athachdgnidhram brahmanyafh chaiva yajniyam \ 
yrdvdnam atha bdhubhydm unnctdram cha yqjnikam \ evam evaisha bha- 
gavdn tho^aiaitdn jagatpati^ \ pravaktfln aarva-yqfndndm fitvijo ^srijad 
uttamdn \ tad esha vat yqfnamaya^ purmho veda-samjnitah \ veddi cha 
tanmaydh aarve sdngopanishada-kriydh | 

Yaisampayana said : 1135. " Thus the glorious Lord Hari I^arayana, 
covering the entire waters, slept on (the world) which had become one 
sea, in the midst of the vast expanse of fluid*" (^^<^)i resembling a 
mighty ocean, himself free from passion {virajaskah)^ with mighty 
arms: — ^Brahmans know him as the undecaying. Invested through 
austere fervour with the light of his own form, and clothed with triple 
time (past, present, and future), the Lord then slept. Furushottama 

» Sqfat 18 said in two places of the Nirokta, It. 19, and x. 44, to hare the sense 
of "water." 


(Yishnn) ib whatever is declared to be the highest, Pomsha the sacri- 
fioOi and everything else which is known by the name of Pumsha. 
Hear how the Brfihmans devoted to sacrifice, and called fttvtjes, were 
formerly produced by him firom his own body for o£Eering sacrifices. 
11360. The Lord created from his mouth the br&hman, who is the chief, 
and the udgatfi, who chaunts the Sdman ; from his arms the hot^i and 
the adhvaryu. He then ...."* created the prastot^ii the maitravaranay 
and the pratishthatri ; firom his belly the pratiharttri and the pot^iy 
from his thighs the aohh&v&ka and the neshtri, from his hands the 
agnldhra and the sacrificial brahmanya, from his arms the gravan and 
the sacrificial unnetfi. Thus did the divine Lord of the world create 
these sixteen excellent ptyijes, the utterers of all sacrifices. There- 
fore this Purusha is formed of sacrifice and is called the Veda ; and all 
the Yedas with the Yedangas, Upanishads, and ceremonies, are formed 
of his essence." 

Sect. XII. — Extracts from the BMga^ata Purana on the same subject. 

I will conclude my quotations from the Puranas on the subject of 
the origin of mankind and of castes with a few passages from the Bha< 
gavata Purana. The first extract reproduces some of the ideas of the 
Purusha Sukta^ more closely than any of the Puranio accounts yet 

ii. 5, 84. Varshn-pHga'Sahasfdnte tad andam udahe iayam \ kdla^ 
karma'Svahhava-sthojlvo *jlvam ajlvayat \ Z5. Sa era Purushas t<umdd 
andam nirhhedya nirgatah \ sahasrorv-anghri-hahv-akshah sahasTdnana* 
ilrshavdn \ 36. Yasyehdvayavair loJcdn kalpayanti manlshinah \ kafff" 

*^ I am unable to make a proper seuw out of the words brahmano hrahnumaivach 
ehoj which, however, as I learn from Dr. FitzEdward Hall, are found (with only a 
difference of long and short vowels) in the best MSS. to which he has access, as well 
as in the Bombay edition. One of the sixteen priests, the BruhmanuchhaAsin, is not 
found in the enumeration, and his name may therefore have stood at the beginning of 
the line. Instead of the inept reading tarvaialtj at the end, the author may perhaps 
have written vahtha$aJh '* from his chest," as, indeed, one MS. reads in the next line. 
The Bombay edition reads priahfhat, **from the back," instead of 8riah(va. 

sn M. Bumouf remarks in the Preface to the first vol. of his edition of the BhBga- 
vata, pp. cxxii. ff., on the manner in which its author has gone back to Vedio 
sources for his materials. The same thing is noticed by Professor Weber, Indisdio 
Studien, i. 286, note. 


ddibhir adhah sapta saptordhvamjaghanadtbhih \ Sl.Purwhasya mukiam 
hrahma kshatram etasya hdhavah \ Urvor vaiiyo hhagavatah padbhydih 
iudro vyajdyata \ 38. BhUrhhah halpitah padbhydm bhuvarloko 'sya 
ndbhitah \ hfidd svarloka urcud maharloko mcLhdtmanah \ 

** 34. At the end of many thousand years the living soul which 
resides in time, action, and natural quality gave life to that lifeless egg 
floating on the water. 35. Purusha then having burst the egg^ issued 
from it with a thousand thighs, feet, arms, eyes, faces, and heads. 36. 
With his members the sages fashion the worlds, the seven lower worlds 
with his loins, etc., and the seven upper worlds with his groin, etc. 
37. The Brahman (was) the mouth of Purusha, the Kshattriya his 
arms, the Yaisya was bom from the thighs, the S^dra from the feet of 
the divine being. The earth was formed from his feet, the air from his 
navel ; the heaven by the heart, and the maharloka by the breast of the 
mighty one." 

In the following verse the figurative character of the representation 
is manifest : 

ii. 1, 37. £rahmdnana0i hhattra-hhufo mahdtmd vid-Urur anghri- 
irita-kfuhm-varnah \ 

" The Brahman is his mouth ; he is Eshattriya-armed, that great 
One, Yai^ya-thighed, and has the black caste abiding in his feet." 

The next passage is more in accord with the ordinary representation, 
though here, too, the mystical view is introduced at the close : 

iii. 22, 2. Brahmd ^srijai sva-mukhaio yushtndn dtma-panpsayd \ 
ehhandomayas tapthvidyd-yoga-yukidn alampafdn \ 3. Tat-trdndyd' 
ifijaeh chdtmdn doh-sahasrdt tahasra-pdi \ hfidayafk iasya hi hrahma 
Juhattram angam prachakshate \ 

** Brahma, who is formed of the Veda (ehhandas), with a view to the 
recognition of himself, created you (the Brahmans) who are charac- 
terized by austere fervour, science, devotion and chastity, from his 
mouth. For their protection he, the thousand-footed, created us (the 
Kshattriyas) from his thousand arms : for they declare the Brahman to 
be his heart, and the Kshattriya his body.'' 

iii. 6, 29 ff. contains another reference to the production of the castes : 

29. Mukhato 'varttata hrahma Furwhasya KwriLdvaha \ yastUn' 
mukhatvdd varndndm mukhyo ^hhud hrdhmano guruh \ 30. Bdhuhhyo 
^vaHtata hhatiraih hhaUriyas tad-anuvrata^ \ yojdiat trdyate varnun 


paurushah kantaka-hhatdt \ 31. ViSo ^varUanta tasyorvor loka-^fitti- 
karlr vihhoh \ vaiiyas tad-udbhavo vdrttdm nfinurh yah samavarttayat \ 
32. Fadbhydm hhagavato jajne iuirilshd dharma-nddhaye \ tasydmjdiah 
purd Sudro yad-vrittyd ttishyate Harih \ 33. Ete varndh wa-dharmena 
yajanti sva-yurum Marim \ iraddhayd ^Hma-^Uuddhyarthafh yaj jdtdh 
saha vrittibhih I 

'' 29. From the mouth of Purusha, o descendant of Ktmi, issued 
diyine knowledge {hrahma), and the Brahman, who through his pro- 
duction from the mouth hecame the chief of the castes and the pre- 
ceptor. 30. From his arms issued kingly power {kshattra), and the 
Xshattriya devoted to that function, who, springing from Purusha, as 
soon as bom defends the castes from the injury of enemies. 31. From 
the thighs of the Lord issued the arts,*"* affording subsistence to the 
world; and from them was produced the Yai^ya who provided the 
maintenance of mankind. 32. From the feet of the divine Being 
sprang service for the frilfilment of duty. In it the Sudra was formerly 
bom, with whose function Hari is well satisfied. By fulfilling their 
own duties, with faith, for the purification of their souls, these castes 
worship Hari their parent, from whom they have sprung together with 
their frmctions." 

In viii. 5, 41, we find the following: 

Vipro mukhdd brahma cha yasya guhyafk rdjanya dsld bhujayor 
balam cha \ Urvor vid ojo ^nghrir aveda-iadrau prasidatdm nah sa mahd' 
vibhutih I 

''May that Being of great glory be gracious to us, from whose 
mouth sprang the Brahman and the mysterious Ycda, from whose arms 
came the Eajanya and force, from whose thighs issued the Yii and 
energy, and whose foot is no-veda {aveda) and the S^Qdra." 

The same work gives the following very brief account of the Arvdk- 
wotas creation, which is described with somewhat more detail in the 
passages extracted above from the Vishnu and Vayu Furanas : 

iii. 20, 25. Arvdk-srotas tu navamah kshattar eka-vidho nfindm \ rajo 
^dhikdh karma-pardh duhkhe cha sukha-mdninah \ 

<M The word so rendered is visah, which in the hymns of the Big-yeda has alwayi 
the sense of ** people." Here, however, it seems to have the sense assigned in the 
text, if one may judge firom the analogy of the following verse, in which the S'adra 
is said to be produced from his special function, stUrusha^ " service." The Commen- 
tator explains viiah » kftahy'ddi'vyaviuayai^ ** the professions of agriculture," etc. 


*' The Arvaksrotas creation was of one desoription,*" viz., of men, ia 
wliom fhe quality of passion abounded, who were addicted to works, 
and imagined that in pain they experienced pleasure." 

In tL 6, 40y a new account is given of the origin of mankind. We 
are there told : 

Aryamno Mdtrika patnl tayoi Chanhanaya^ iutdh \ yatra vat md- 
mUkljdtir Brahmand ehopakalpiid \ 

'' The wife of Aryaman (the son of Aditi) was Matfika. The Char- 
ahanis were the sons of this pair, and among them the race, of men 
was formed by Brahma." The word charahani signifies ^'men," or 
"people " in the Veda. 

In the following verse (which forms part of the legend of Pururavas, 
qnoted in the 3rd vol. of this work, pp. 27 ff.) it is declared that in the 
Kfita age there was only one caste : 

iz. 14, 48. JEka $va purd vedal^ pranavah sarva-vdnmayah \ devo 
Ifdrdyaso ndnya eko^gnir varna eva cha \ Fvruravaaa evdsU trayi 
trM'tniikhe nftpa \ 

** There was formerly but one Yedoi the pranava (the monosyllable 
Om), the essence of all speech; only one god, Naraya^a, one Agni, and 
(one) caste. From Pururavas came the triple Veda, in the beginning 
of the Treta." 

Some of the Commentator's remarks on this te^t will be found in 
ToL iii. p. 29. He says the one caste was called ''Hansa" {varnaS 
cha eka eva hafh%o ndrna), and concludes his note by remarking : '< The 
meaning is this : In the Xfita age when the quality of goodness pre- 
dominated in men, they were almost all absorbed in meditation ; but in 
the Tieta, when passion prevailed, the method of works was manifested 
by the division of the Yedas, etc." 

** The SSnkhya ESrikfi, 53, says : ashfa^kalpo daivtu tairyagyonyiw eha pan- 
ekMS, hhtnooH mamuhyM» chaika-^ndhaJ^ samasato bhautikah sargah ; which is thus 
traoBlated by Mr. Colebrooke (in Wilson's S&nkhya ESrikS, p. 164} : «*The divine 
kind is of eight sorts; the grovelling is five-fold; mankind is single in its class. 
This, briefly, is the world of living beings." The Commentator Gaudapada shortly 
explains the words manmhyar chaiiumdha]^ by manuihayomr $kawOf *^ the sonrce of 
prodnotion of mankind is one only." "^jnana Bhikshn, the Commentator on the 
Sankhya Pravachana, iii. 46, paraphrases the same words thus, manuahya-iarya^ 
chaikthprakara^ " the human creation is of one sort/' 


Sect. XlII.—jRsiuUi iff Mi ChapUr. 

Tho details which I have sapplied in the oourae of this chapter mnst 
have rendered it abundantly evident that the sacred books of the Hindna 
contain no uniform or consistent account of the origin of castes ; but, on 
tho contrary, present the greatest varieties of speculation on this sub* 
joct. Explanations mystical, mythicoli and rationalistic, are all offered 
in turn ; and the freest scope is given by the individual writers to fan- 
ciful and arbitrary conjecture. 

First : wo have tho sot of accounts in which the four castes are said 
to havo sprung from progenitors who were separately created ; but in 
regard to tho manner of their creation we find the greatest diversity of 
statement. Tho most common story is that the castes issued from the 
mouth, arms, thighs, and feet of Purusho, or Brahma. The oldest ez« 
tant passage in which this idea occurs, and from which all the later 
myths of a similar tenor havo no doubt been borrowed, is, as we have 
seen, to bo found in the Purusha Sukta ; but it is doubtful whether, in 
the form in which it is there presented, this representation is any- 
thing more than on allegory. In some of the texts which I have 
quoted from the Bhagavata Puraga, traces of the same allegorical cha- 
racter may be perceived ; but in Mann and the Puranas the mystical 
import of the Yedic text disappears, and the figurative narration is 
hardened into a literal statement of fact. In other passages, where a 
separate origin is assigned to the castes, they are variously said to have 
sprung from the words Bhuh, Bhuvah, Svah; from different Yedas; 
from different sets of prayers; from the gods, and the asuras; from 
nonentity (pp. 17-21), and from the imperishable, the perishable, and 
other principles (Harivam^a, 11816). In the chapters of the Vishnu, 
Yayu, and Markan^eya Puranas, where castes are described as coeval 
with the creation, and as having been naturally distinguished by 
different gunos, or qualities, involving varieties of moral character, we 
are nevertheless allowed to infer that those qualities exerted no in- 
fluence on the classes in whom they were inherent, as the condition 
of the whole race during the Kf ita age is described as one of uniform 
perfection and happiness ; while the actual separation into castes did 


not take place, according to the Yayu PuraQa, until men had become 
deteriorated in the Treta age. 

Second : in yarious passages from the Brahmanas, Epic poems, and 
Poranasy the creation of mankind is, as we have seen, described with- 
out the least allusion to any separate production of the progenitors of 
the four castes (pp. 23-27, and elsewhere). And whilst in the chapters 
where they relate the distinct formation of the castes, the Furanas, as 
has been obserred, assign different natural dispositions to each class, 
they elsewhere represent all mankind as being at the creation uniformly 
distinguished by the quality of passion. In one of the texts I have 
quoted (p. 26 f.) men are said to be the offspring of Yivasyat; in 
another his son Manu is said to be their progenitor ; whilst in a third 
they are said to be descended from a female of the same name. The pas- 
sage which declares Manu to have been the father of the human race 
explicitly affirms that men of all the four castes were descended from 
him. In another remarkable text the Mahabharata categorically asserts 
that originally there was no distinction of classes, the existing distri- 
bution haying arisen out of differences of character and occupation. 
Similarly, the Bhagayata Purana in one place informs us that in the 
Kfita age there was but one caste ; and this yiew appears also to be 
taken in some passages which I haye adduced from the Epic poems. 

In these circumstances we may J&drly conclude that the separate 
origination of the four castes was £eu: frx>m being an article of belief 
tmiyersally receiyed by Indian antiquity. 

I shall now proceed to enquire what opinion the writers of the older 
Yedic hymns appear to haye entertained in regard to the origin of the 
race to which they themselyes belonged. 




It appears from the consirlerationa urged in the preceding chapter 
that in all probability the Purusha Siikta belongs to tlie most recent 
portion of the Rig-veda Sanhita, and that it is at least doubtful whether 
the verse in which it connects the four castes with the different mem- 
bers of the creator's body is not allegorical. And we have seen that 
even if that representation is to be taken as a literal account of the 
creation of the different classes, it cannot, in the face of many other 
statements of a different tenor, and of great antiquity, be regarded as 
expressing the fixed belief of the writers of the period immediately 
succeeding the coUection of the hymns in regard to the origin of the 
social divisions which prevailed in their own time. But the notions 
entertained of the origin of caste at the date of the Furusha Sukta, 
whatever they may have been, will afford no criterion of the state of 
opinion on the same subject in an earlier age ; and it therefore remains 
to enquire whether those hyiuns of the Rig-veda, which appear to be 
the most ancient, contain either (1) any tradition regarding the origin 
of mankind, or of the Indian tribes ; or (2) an}' allusion to the exist- 
ence, in the community contemporary with their composition, of sepa* 
rate classes corresponding to those aftei-wards known as Brahmans, 
Xshattriyas, Yaiiyas, and S'udras ; and if they embrace any reference 
of the latter kind, whether they afford any explanation of the manner 
in which these orders of men came to occupy their respective positions 

1 On the subjects treated in this chapter compare my article in the Journal of the 
Royal Asiatic Society, vol. xx. for 1863, pp. 406 ff., where a reference is made to 
the other writers who had previously treated of them, such as M. N^?e, Mythe des 
Ribhavas, etc. 



in society. We shall find on examination that the hymns supply some 
information on both these branches of enquiry. 

Numerous references are nndoubtedly to be found in all parts of the 
hymn-coUection to a variety of ranks, classes, and professions ; of which 
an account will be given in the next chapt( r ; but no hint is anywhere 
discoverable, except in the single text of the Purusha Sukta, of those 
classes being distinguished from each other by any original difference 
of race. If, however, the early Yedic Indians had all along believed in 
the quadruple production of their nation from the different members of 
Forushay one might naturally have expected to find allusions to such a 
variety of birth running through the hymns. But nothing, I repeat, 
of this kind is to be traced. On the contrary it appears from a con- 
dderable number of passages that at least the superior ranks of the 
community were regarded as being of one stock, the Aryan, and as 
having one common ancestor. This chapter will therefore embrace. 
First, the texts which are found in the hymns regarding the origin of 
the Indian tribes, and the history of their progenitor, and Secondly 
those passages which occur in the Brahmanas, and other later works in 
which the statements of the early Yedic poets on these subjects are re- 
eohoed or developed. 

Sect. I. — Manu a$ the progmitor of the Aryan Indians and the in" 
ititutor ofretyious ritee aecording to the Symne of the Rig-^eda. 

In this section I shall first quote the texts which allude to Manu as 
fleither (which must of course be understood to designate him as the 
actual human progenitor of the authors of the hymns, and of the bulk 
of the people to whom they addressed themselves) ; and then adduce 
those which speak of him as the institutor of religious rites, or as the 
object of divine protection. 

(1) The following texts are of the first class : 

i 80, 16. Tarn AtharvQ Jfanush pitd Dadhyan dhtyam atnata | tas- 
min hrahmdni pUrvathd Indre ukthd eamagmata \ 

" Prayers and hymns were formerly congregated in that Indra, in the 
ceremony which Atharvan, father Manu, and Dadhyanch celebrated."' 

s This Terse is quoted in the Nimkta, xiu 34, where the words ManuBh pUa^ 


i. 114, 2. Tat iafh eha yoi eha Ifanur &ye}e pitd tad afydma iavd 
litidra pranltishu \ 

'* Whatever prosperity or snccour father Mann obtained by sacrificey 
may we gain all that under thy gnidancei Budra/' 

ii. 33, 13. Td vo bheshajd Marutah Suehini yd iantamd vfuhano yd 
mayohha | ydni Manur avfinita pitd na^ td ia0i eha yoi eha Budratya 
vahni | 

'' Those pure remedies of yours, Maruts, those which are most 

auspicious, ye vigorous gods, those which are beneficent, those which 

our' father Manu chose, those, and the blessing and succour of Eudra, 

I desire." 
viiL 52, 1 (Sama-veda, i. 355). 8a pHrvyo mahdndm veno kratuhhir 

dnaje \ yasya d/vdrd Manush pitd deveshu dhiyah dnaje \ 

** That ancient friend hath been equipped with the powers of the 

mighty (gods). Father Manu has prepared hymns to him, as portals 

of access to the gods.''^ 

'* father Mann," are explained as meaning Manuieha pita manavanam, ''Mann the 
father of men." Sajana, the Commentator on the Big-yeda, interpreto them as 
meaning tarvaaam prqjanam pitftbhuto Manuiehay '< Mann the father of all crea* 
tnres." In R.y., x. 82, 3, Uie words " our father and generator " (yo fuU^ pita 
jamia)f are applied to ViB'Takarman, the creator of the nniTerse. The word *< father" 
in the ILV. is often applied to Dyans, the Sky, and "mother" to the Earth, as in 
n. 51 5. (Compare Jonm. Boy. As. Soc. for 1864, pp. 66 ff.) Bat in these passages 
it 13 not necessary to suppose that the words are employed in any other than a fign* 
rative sense ; although in a hymn to the Earth in the Athanra-yeda, xii. 1, we find 
the following Terse (the 15th} : T^aj'JdtM tvayi eharanti mart jf at ivam bibhanM 
dvipadoB tvam ehatushpadah | tavtme pjitkivi paneha-manava^ ydthyojyoiir akfitam 
martyebhya^ udyan iuryo r§imibhir atanoti \ " Mortals bom of thee liye on thee : 
then snpportest both bipeds and qnadrnpeds. Thine, o Earth, are these five races of 
men, these mortals on whom the sun rising, sheds undying light with his rays;"— 
where it might almost appear as if the poet meant to represent mankind as actually 
generated by the earth. Brihaspati (iy. 50, 6 ; yi. 73, 1) and the other gods, as Indra, 
are called ** father," or compared to fathers (yii. 52, 3) ; as are Rudra, yi. 49, 10 ; 
and the Rishi, ILV., x. 81, 1 ; x. 82, 1, 8, 4. S'. P. Br., i. 5, 3, 2, has Frt^apatau 
pitari; and Taitt. Br. iii. 9, 22, 1, Prqfapatim pitaram. In both the last places 
IVajSpati is referred to as the father of the gods. 

> It is to be observed that while in the two preceeding passages Manu is styled 
merely ** father Manu," he is here called **oiir faUier Manu" (Manuhpita im^). 

* I am indebted to Professor Aufreoht for the aboye translation of this, to me, 
obscure yerse. Suyana explains it thus : Sa purvyo mukhyo mahanam pifyanam 
yq/amananam kraiubhiJ^ karmabhir nimittabhuiair venah kania$ Utham hav^ hdma^ 
yanuimh anqfc agachhati \ yatyndratya dvara dvarani praptyttpayani dhiyah katm 
maui deuthiv iUthu madhy§ pita §arv$Mm paM» Iftmur am^prapa | am^prapU* 


The sense of the next text is less clear, but it appears at least to 

allude to the oomTnon dcsiimation of 'Slnnw as a fithor : 
X. 100, 5. Yajno 3la7mh 2Jra};wtir TJcih pif'i In lam \ 

*' Sacrifice is Manu, our protecting fatlicr." 

The following verse, according to the Commentator at least, speaks 
of the paternal or ancestral path of Manu. Professor Aufrccht thinks 
it need not mean more than the ancestral human patli : 

viii. 30. 3. Te nas trudhvam te avata te u no adhi vochata \ md nah 
faihah pitrydd munavdd adhi duram naiahfa pardvatah \ 

" Do ye (gods) deliver, protect, and intercede for us ; do not lead us 
far away from the paternal path of Manu.* 

As in the preceding passages !Manu is spoken of as the progenitor of 
the worshippers, so in the following the same persons may perhaps be 
Spoken of as his descendants, although it is also true that the phrases 
employed may be merely equivalent to " children of men," 

i. 68, 4. Hold nishatto Manor apatye sa cliit nu dsdm p>(ttih rayindm \ 

** He (Agni) who abides among the offspring of Manu as the invoker 
(of the gods), is even the lord of these riches." • 

harma \ " This chief one, in consequence of the rites of the venerable sacrificers, 
desiring their ohlation, comes, — he (Indra) as means of attaining whom Manu the 
prcserrer of all has obtained rites among these gods." Professor Bcnfey renders the 
verse, where it occurs in the Sama-veda, thus : " He is the chief of the rich, through 
works the dear one enlightens him, whose doors father Manu has, and illuminates 
observances towards the gods." From Prof. Bcnfey's note to the passage (p. 230) it 
appears that the Commentator on the Suma-?eda explains anaje hy vyakitkaroti at- 
manam, "makes himself distinct" (herein differing from Sayana), Manu by JnaCd 
9arvasya=Indrah, "the knower of all, Indra," and anaje^ where it occurs the second 
time, by agamayati, " causes to come." Such are the differences of opinion regarding 
the interpretation of some parts of the hymns. 

' On this Terse Sayana conunents thus : Sarpetham Manuh pita tatah agatdi \ 
paravata^ \ pita Manur duram nidrgam chakre \ tatmdi patho nidrgdt no asmdn md 
naiahfa md nayata \ apanayanam md kuruta ity arthah \ tarvadd brahmacharyydgni" 
hoirddi-karmdni yena nwrgena bhavanti tarn eva asmdn nayata \ kintu duram ya 
etad^atirikto viprakfishfo mdrgo 'sti tasmdd adhi adhikam ity arthah asmdn apa^ 
nayata \ " ' Of Manu ' means, come from Manu who is the father of all. 'Distant : ' 
Father Manu journeyed along a distant path. Do not lead us away from that path. 
Lead us along that path in which continence, the agnihotra sacrifice, and other 
duties have always been practised. But lead us away from the distant path which 
is different from that." 

* The Commentator here explains " the offspring of Manu " as offspring or crea- 
tures in the form of worshippers {yajamdna-svariipdydm prq/aydm) ; and adds that 
according to a Bruhmana " creatures are sprung from Manu" {^^Mdnavyo hipnydJ^*' 


iii. 3, 6. Agnir devehhir manushaicha jantubhis tanvdno yajnam puru" 
peiasam dhiyd \ 

"Agni, together with the gods, and the children {jantubhih) of 
Manush, celehrating a multiform sacrifice with hymns,'' etc. 

In the following texts reference is made to the people of Manu, the 
word for "people" being viiy from which vaisya^ "a man of the 
people," is deriyed : 

iv. 37, 1. Upa no Vdjuh adhvaram Rilhuhshdh devdh ydta pathihhir 
devaydnaih \ yatlid yajnam manusho vikshu dsu dadhidve ranvdh mdine^ 
ahu ahmm \ 

*^Ye gods, Yajas, and Eibhukshans, come to our sacrifice by the 
path trayelled by the gods, that ye, pleasing deities, may institute a 
sacrifice among these people of Manush {Manusho vikshu) on auspicious 

vi. 14, 2. Agnim hotdram tlate yajneshu manusho viiak | 

" The people of Manush praise in the sacrifices Agni the invoker." 

yiii. 23, 13. Yadvai tZ vUpatih Utah suprlto manusho visi \ vikd id 
Agnih prati rahshdihsi sedhati \ 

"Whenever Agni, lord of the people,' kindled, abides gratified 
among the people of Manush, he repels all Eakshases." 

(2.) From the preceding texts it appears that the authors of the 
hymns regarded Manu as the progenitor of their race. But (as is dear 
from many other passages) they also looked upon him as the first 
person by whom the sacrificial fire had been kindled, and as the in- 
stitutor of the ceremonial of wofship; though the tradition is not 
always consistent on this subject. In one of the verses already quoted 
(i. 80, 16) Manu is mentioned in this way, along with Atharvan and 

iti hi hahtnanam), Yaska (Nir. iii. 7) pivca the following deriyatioiiB of the word 
manush*/ay '^man:" Manushyuh kastnat | matva karmani ailvyanti \ manasyauianena 
afish(&h .... I Manor apati/am JUanusho vd \ ''From what are men (named) } Be- 
cause after reflcctiun they bcw together works ; (or) because they were created by one 
who reflected (or, according to Durga, " rejoiced *')...» (or) because they are the 
oflspriiig of Manu, or Mauuih." 

^ Vinpati. Compare \i. 4S, 8, where it is said : visvnsam gphapatir viiam ati 
tvam Agne manuthluam | ** Agni, thou art the master of the house of all human 
people (or, people sprung from Manush) ;*' and x. SO, ^^ Agnim visah thte tnanuthir 
yah Agnim Manusho hahuaho vi jdtah | " Human people (or, people descended from 
Manush) praise Agni : (people) sprung from Manush, Irom Nahush, (praise) Agni.' 
Or if manuahal^ be the nom. plor. the last dauae will run thu# ; ** men sprung ftom. 
l^ahuah (praise) AgnL" 


Dadhyanohi as having celebrated religiouB rites in ancient times. The 
following flurther passages refer to him as a kindler of fire, and offerer 
of oblations : 

L 36, 19. Ni U&m Agne Mannar dadhe jyotir janaya iakaU \ 

« Hann has placed (or ordained) thee, Agni, a light to all the people." 

L 76, 5. TaUUi vipratya Mantuho havtrhhir devdn ayajah kavibhi^ 
kaoih ion \ eva hota^ satyatara tvam adya Agne mandrayd juhva yqfawa | 

** As thou, thyself a sage, didst, with the sages, worship the gods 
with the oblations of the wise Manosh, so to-day, Agni, most tme in- 
Yoker, worship them with a cheerful flame." 

y. 45, 6. Atta ihiyam ipnavdma takhdyah . • • . yayd Manur VUi- 
Upramjig&ya . • . • 

''Come, friends, let us perform the prayer .... whereby Manu 
conquered Yiiitipra .... 

Tiii. 10. 2. Tad vd yqfnam Manave iommmikshathur 00a it Kdnvasya 
hodhatam | 

''Or if ye (Aiyins) sprinkled the sacriflce for Hanu, think in like 
manner of the descendant of Kanva." 

ix. 96, 11. Ik>ayd hi nah pitarah Soma pHrve harmdni ehahruh pava- 
m&na dhlrdh | . • . . 12. TiUhd apavathdh Manave vayodhdh amitrahd 
porivovid havishmdn \ wapavasva .... 

'' For through thee, pure Soma, our early fathers, who were wise, 
performed their rites ... 12. As thou didst flow clear for Manu, thou 
upholder of life, destroyer of foes, possessor of wealth, rich in oblations, 
80 (now) flow dear." .... 

z. 63, 7. Tebkyo hotrdm prathamdm dyeje Manu^ amiddhdgnir nuh 
nasd sapta hotfibhih | id Adityd dbhayam iarma yachhata .... 

<< ye Adityas, to whom Manu, when he had kindled Are, presented 

along with seven hotfi priests the first oblation with a prayer, bestow 

on us secure protection." 
X. 69, 3. '< Yat U Manur yad antkam Sumitrah iamldhe Agne tad 

idam naviyi^^* ^ \ 

* The S'aiapatha Brfihmasa (i. 4, 2, 5} thus explaing the wordi theeddhe Mtrnvid" 
ihtik :—M(mviddhaJi iii | Manur hy itam ogre amddha \ tamad aha " MamiddkaJ^** 
iH I " The gods formerly kindled it (fire) : hence it is called ' god-kindled.' Manu 
formerly kindled it : and hence it is called ' kindled by Mann.' " The Aitareya 
BrSbmasa (iL M), howerer, explains the word Mtmv^itUhah from the fiiot that *< smu 
kindle it" {mam hi numuthya ^dhate). 


'' That lustre of thine which Hano, whioh Somitra, kindled is this 
same which is now renewed." 

In conformity with the preceding texts, the following may be under- 
stood as declaring that the sacrificial fire had been first kindled by 

i. 13, 4 (= S.Y. ii. 700). Agne sukhatame rathe devdn llita^ d vaha | 
Mt hotd Manurhita^ | 

" Agni, lauded, bring the gods hither in a most pleasant chariot. 
Thou art the invoker (of the gods) placed by ]\£anush." ' 

i. 14, 11. l^iam hotd Manurhito *gne yajimhu sldoit \ tah imam no 
adhvaram yaja \ 

''Thou, Agni, the invoker placed by Manush, art present at the 
sacrifices : do thou present this our oblation." (See also ILY. iii. 2, 15.) 

yi. 16, 9. Tvam hotd Manurhiiah .... 

" Thou art the invoker placed by Manush ....*' 

viii. 19, 21. lU gird Manurhitam yam devd dutam aratim ni erire | 
yafishfltam havya^dhanam \ 

" With a hymn I laud that adorable bearer (^ oblations placed by 
Manush,^^ whom the gods have sent as a ministering messenger." 

' The compound word which I have here rendered *' placed by Manush " is m 
the original Manur-hita. Professor Anfrecht would render it " given to man," 
and quotes i. 36, 10, in support of this Tiew. The sense I have given is supported 
by i> 36, 19, where the same root, dha, from which hita (originally dhUa) comes, is 
used, joined with the particle nu The same participle hita is used in Ti. 16, 1, where 
it is said : Tvam Agne yqjndndm hota aarvesKdm hitah \ devebhir manushe jan$ \ 
*' Thou, Agni, hast heen placed, or ordained, among the race of Manush hy the gods as 
the iuToker at all sacrifices." The fact that Agni is here said to have heen placed by 
the gods among the race of Manush does not forbid us to suppose that there are other 
passages in which, either inconsistently, or fr^m a different point of yiew, Agni may 
have been said to be placed by Manu. The compound numur-hita occurs also in the 
following texts, where, however, it has probably the sense of *' good for man,*' viz. : 
i. 106, 6, jBfihatpate tadatn id naJ^ sugath kfidhi s'am yor yat te manur-hitam tad 
tmahe \ *'Brihaspati, do us always good: we desire that blessing and protection of 
thine which is goad for man" (Sayana says that here manur-hitam means either 
(* placed in thee by Manu, t.«., Brahma," or, '* favourable to man." Benfey, in loco, 
renders ** destined for man.") vi. 70, 2. Eajantl atya bhuvanasya rodasl amne retaJJL 
sinchatam yad manur-hitam \ *' Heaven and earth, ruling over this world, drop on us 
that seed which is good for man** z. 26, 6. RithH^ $a yo manur-hita^ | " He (Pushan) 
who is a rishi kind to man" etc. Professor Both a.v, gives only the latter sense. 

10 Though the word manur-hita is here interpreted by Sayana as meaning '*placed 
by Manu Prajapati who sacrificed," it might also signify ** friendly to men," as Agni 
is also said to have been sent by the gods. 


viii. 34, 8. A ivd hold Manurhito devatrd vahshad Idyah \ 

**May the adorable invoker placed by Manu bring thee (Indra) 
hither among the gods," etc. 

There is also a class of passages in which the example of Manush 
may be referred to by the phrase manush-vat, "like Manush," or, **as 
in the case of Manush." " Thus in i. 44, 11, it is said : 

JW tvd yajnasya sudhanam Agm hotdram fitvijam manushvad deva 
dhitnahi . . . . | 

"Divine Agni, we, like Manush, place thee, the accomplisher of the 
sacrifice, the invoker, the priest," etc. 

Y. 21, 1. Mantishvat tvd nt dhlmahi Manmhvat earn idhimahi \ Ague 
Jfanushvad Angiro devdn devayate yaja \ 

" Agni, wo place thee like Manush, we kindle thee like Manush. 
Agni, Angiras, worship the gods like Manush, for him who adores 

vii. 2, 3. Manushvad Agnim Manund samiddham earn adhvardya sadam 
in maliema \ 

" Let us, like Manush, continually invoke to the sacrifice Agni who 
was kindled by Manu.'* 

viii. 27, 7. Suta-somdso Varuna havdmdhe Manushvad iddhdgnayah \ 

"We invoke thee, Varuna, having poured out soma, and having 
kindled fire, like Manush." 

viii. 43, 13. Uta tvd Bhriguvat iuche Mantuhvad Agne dhuta | Angi- 
rasvad havdmahe \ .... 27. Yam tvd jandsa indhate Manmhvad Angi- 
rastama \ Agm sa hodhi me vachah \ 

"Like Bhj-igu, like Manush, like Angiras, we invoke thee, bright 

Agni, who hast been invoked 27. Agni, most like to Angiras, 

whom men kindle like Manush, attend to my words." 

The S'atapatha Drahmana, i. 5, 1, 7, explains thus the vrox^ Manmh- 
vat ;" — Manur ha vai agre yajnena Ije \ tad anukritya imdh prajdh ya- 

^' I should obscrrc that Prof. Aufrccbt thinks the phrase^ except perhaps with 
the single exception of viii. 43, 13 — means *' amongst men.*' Prof. Both gives only 
the sense " like men," " as among, or for, men." 

^ The same work in the same passage thus e2q)lains the phrase Bharata-vat. **IIe 
hears (bharatt) the oblation to the gods ; wherefore men say, Bharata (or * the bearer ') 
is Agni. Or, he is called Bharata (the * sustainer *} because, being breath, he sustains 
these creatures." This phrase may, howeyer, refer to the example of £ing Bharata. 
See S'atapatha Br&hmana, xiii. 6, 4, 14. 


janU I tasmad aha *' Manmh-vad^^ iti \ ^^ Manor yajnah^'^ iti u vat 
dhih I tasmad m tva dhur ^^ Manushvad'* iti \ " Manu formerly sacri- 
ficed with a sacrifice. Imitating this, these creatures sacrifice. He 
therefore says, Ifanushvat, * like Manu.' Or, they say * like Manu,' 
because men speak of the sacrifice as being Manu's." 

It must, however, be admitted that Manu is not always spoken of 
in the hymns of the first, or only, kindler of fire or celcbrator of 
religious rites. In i. 80, 16, already quoted, Atharvan and Dadhyanch, 
are specified along with him as having offered sacrifice in early times. 

In the following verses Atharvan is mentioned as having generated 

vi. 16, 13. Imam tu tyam Atharva-vad Agnim mathanti vedhasah \ 

" The wise draw forth this Agni, as Atharvan did." 

vi. 16, 13 (= S.V. i. 9; Yaj. Sanh. xi. 32). Tvam Ague pushkarad 
adhy Atharvd ntr amantJiata .... | 14. Tam u tvd Dadhyanh fishih 
putrah Idhe Aiharvanah \ 

"Agni, Atharvan drew thee forth from the lotus leaf,*' etc. 14. 
"Thee the rishi Dadhyanch, son of Atharvan, kindled,'* etc. 

[In the Vajasancyi Sanhita, the first of these verses is immediately 
preceded by the following words (xi. 32) : Atharvd tvd prathamo nir 
amanthad Agne \ '^Atharvan was the first who drew thee forth, 

Again it is said in the Eig-veda, x. 21, 5. Agnir jdto Atharvand 
vidad viSvdni kdvyd \ hhuvad duto Vivasvatah \ " Agni, produced by 
Atharvan, knows all wisdom, and has become the messenger of Vi* 

In i. 83, 5, Atharvan is mentioned as the earliest institutor of sacri* 
fice : Yajnair Atharvd pratluimah pathas tate tatah suryo vratapdh 
renah ujani \ "Atharvan was the first who by sacrifices opened up 
paths ; then the friendly Sun, the upholder of ordinances, was pro- 
duced," etc.: so too in x. 92, 10. Yajnair Atharvd prathamo vi dhdrayad 
divd dakihair Blrigavah sam chikitrire \ "Atharvan, the first, estab- 
lished (all things) with sacrifices. The divine Bhpgus co-operated with 
their powers." " 

^ These two texts might, though not very probably, be understood to mean not 
that Athairan was the first to employ sacrifice, but to use it for the purpose referred 
to in the coutext. 


The next texts speak of the Bhrigns as the institators of sacrifice 
by file: 

i. 58y 6. Ikidhm ML Bhfigavo mdnusheikf d rayim na ebdrum 9uhavam 
jimthhya^ | hotdram Agn$ \ 

** The Bh]-igii8 have placed thee, o Agai, among men, as an inToker, 
like a beantifiil treasure, and easily invoked for men," etc. 

iL 4, 2. Imam vidhanto apdm iodaathe dvitd adaikur Bhjrigaoo vikshu 

** Worshipping him (Agni) in the receptacle of waters, the Bhjigas 
placed him among the people of Ayu." 

X. 46, 2. Imam vidhanto apdm sadasthn paium na nash^am padair anu 
ffman \ gvikd ehatantam ttSijo namohhir tchhanio dhird Bhfigavo avindan \ 

''Worshipping him in the receptacle of waters, and desiring him 
with prostrations, the wise and longing Bhpgua followed him with 
their steps, like a beast who had been lost, and found him lurking in 
concealment" ^ (L 65, 1). 

In other pLices, the gods, as well as different sages, are mentioned 
as introducing or practising worship by fire, or as bringing down the 
sacred flame from heayen : 

i. 36, 10. Yam tvd d&vd90 manave dadhur iha yajishfham havyavdhana \ 
yam Kawo Medhydtithir dlumaspfitam yam VfUhd yam Upastutah \ 

" Thou, bearer of oblations, whom the gods placed here as an 
object of adoration to man (or Hanu) ; whom Kenya, whom Medhya- 
tithi, whom Y^ishan, whom TJpastuta (haye placed) a bringer of 
wealth," etc. Compare vi. 16, 1, quoted above, p. 167, note 9. 

iiL 5, 10. Tadl Bhfiyuhhyah pari Mdtarihd yuhd santam havyavdham 
samldhe | 

'' When Matari jwan kindled for the Bhfigus Agni, the bearer of ob- 
lations, who was in concealment." 

X. 46, 9. Dydvd yam Agnim pfithivl janishtdm dpat naahfd Bhri- 
gavo yam sahobhi^ \ ihnyam prathamam Mdtariivd devda iataishur ma- 
nave yqfatram | 

^' Matariiwan and the gods have made, as the first adorable object of 
worship to man (or Menu), that Agni whom heaven and earth, whom 

M Xn the fbUowing paasageB also the Bhrigoa are mentioned aa oonnected with the 
wonhip of Agni: L 71, 4 ; i. 127, 7 1 i 143, 4 ; iii, 2, 4 ; it. 7, 1 • ^. 15f 2 ; viiL 
43,13; Tiii. 91,4; x. 122, 5. 


ibe waters, whom Tyaahtriy whom the BhpgoBy have generated by 
their powers." 

In the 8th verse the Ayusy and in the 10th the godsy as well as men, 
are said to have placed Agni. 

In i. 60, 1 ; i. 93, 6; i. 148, 1 ; iii. 2, 13; iiL 5, 10; iii. 9, 5; tL 
8, 4, Matari^van is again spoken of as the bringer or generator of fure. 
(Compare note 1, in p. 416, of my article " On Mann the progenitor of 
the Aryan Indians," in the Journal of the Boyal Asiatic Society, yoI. xx. 
for 1863.) 

But to return to Manu. Although the distinction of having been the 
first to kindle fire is thus, in various passages, ascribed to Atharvan 
or the Bhfigus, this does not disprove the fiEU^t that in other places, it 
is, somewhat inconsistently, assigned to Manu ; and none of these other 
personages is ever brought forward as disputing with Manu the honour 
of having been the progenitor of the Aryan race. In this respect the 
Yedic tradition exhibits no variation, except that Yama also seems in 
some places to be represented as the first man. (See my article in the 
Journal of the Eoyal Asiatic Society, for 1865, pp. 287 ff., and espe- 
cially the words of the Atharva-veda, xviii. 3, 14. Yo mamdra prathama 
marUyanam \ '< Who (Yama) died first of men.") 

(III.) The following passages describe Manu as being the object of 
special favour or intervention on the part of some of the gods : 

L 112, 16. Ydbhir nard Sdyave ydhhir Atraye ydhhi^ purd Ifanav^ 
gdtum Uhathu^ \ ydhhii^ Sdrlr djatam SyumaraSmaye tdhhir u ihu Uti^ 
hhir Ahind gatam \ 18 Yahhir Manum iUram ishd samdvatam | 

« Come, AiSwins, with those succours, whereby, o heroes, ye efiected 
deliverance for Skyu, for Atri, and formerly for Manu, whereby ye shot 
arrows for Syumara^mL 18. ... « whereby ye preserved the hero 
Manu with food."" 

viii. 15, 5. Yena jyotlihsM Ayave Mmave eha vkeditha | manddno 
asya harhiaho vi rdjasi | 

« Exulting in this (exhilaration), wherewith thou didst make known 
the luminaries to Ayu, and to Manu, thou art lord of the sacrificial 

" This paasage, as f^ as it oonceniB Mann, is thus explained by Sfiyana; "And 
with those sncconni whereby ye made a path, a road which was the cause of escape 
from poTerty, by sowing barley and other kinds of grain, etc., for Manu, the royal 
rishi of that name; according to another text" (i. 117, 21). 


When compared with the preceding verse it seems not improbable 
that the following text may refer to the same tradition, and that instead 
of Vdyave we should read Ayave : 

vii. 91y 1. Kuvid any a namasd ye vridhdsah purd devd anavadyasah 
dsan I U Vdyave {Ayave ?) Manave hddhituya avdsayan Ushaaam 
8uryena \ 

" Certainly those gods who were magnified by worship were of old 
faultless. They displayed the dawn with the sun to Vayu (Ayu ?), to 
Manu when distressed. 

There is also a reference to the sky being displayed to Manu in the 
following verse, unless the word {manu) is to be there taken as an 
epithet of Pururavas, which does not seem a probable supposition : 

i. 31, 4. Tvam Agne Manave. dydm avdSayah Pururavase sukrite su- 
kjittarah | 

*' Thou, Agni, didst display the sky to Manu, to the beneficent Pu- 
ruravas, (thyself) more beneficent." 

If Manu be taken for a proper name in vii. 91, 1, it may reason- 
ably bo understood in the same way in vi. 49, 13, where the person 
referred is similarly spoken of as distressed : 

vi. 49, 13, Yo rajdnii* vimatne pdrthtvdni trii chid Vishnur Manave 
hddhitdya \ 

" Vishnu who thrice measured the terrestrial regions for Manu when 

And in that case the word Manu may perhaps also be taken to denote 
a person in vii. 100, 4, Fichahrame pfithivlm esha etdm kshetrdya Vtsh- 
nur Manave daiasyan \ " This Vishnu strode over this earth, bestowing 
it on Manu for an abode.*' Although here the general sense of " man " 
would make an equally good sense. 

I may introduce here another text in which, from its conjunction 
with other proper names, it must be held that the word Manu denotes 
a person • 

i. 139^ 9. Dadhyan ha me janusham purvo Angirdl^ Friyamedliah 
Kanvo Atrir Manur vidua te me purve Manur viduh \ 

'< Dadhyanch, the ancient Angiras, Priyamedha, Kanva, Atri, Manu, 
know my (Paruchhepa*s?) birth j they, my predecessors, Manu, know it.* 

There are, as we have seen, some passages in the hymns in 
which it is doubtful whether the words manu and manush denote an 


individual, or stand for man in general ; and there are also texts in 
'which the latter sense is clearly the only one that can be assigned. 
Such are the following : 

(1.) Manu in the singular: 

i. 130, 5 Dhenur iva manave vihadohaso janaya visvadohasah \ 

" All-productive as a cow to man, all-productive to a person." 

T. 2, 12. Barhishmate manave iarma yamsad havishmate manave iarma 
yanisat \ 

" That he may bestow protection on the man who sacrifices, on the 
man who offers oblations.*' 

viii. 47, 4. Manor visvasya gha id ime Aditydh rOya isate . . • . | 

** These Adityas are lords of every man^s riches " . . . . 

(2.) Manu in the plural : 

viii. 18, 22. Ye chid hi mrityulandhavah Adityuh manavah smasi \ 
pra su nah dyurjivase tiretana \ 

" ye Adityas, prolong the days of us who are men who are of kin 
to death, that we may live.*' 

X. 91, 9. Yad devayanto dadhati praydmei te havishmanto manavQ 
vrikta-harhishah \ 

''When these pious men sacrificing, and spreading the sacrificial 
grass, offer thee oblations.** 

(3.) Manush in the singular : 

i. 167, 7. Guhd charantJ manushi) na yoshd | 

** Like the wife of a mafi moving secretly.** 

vii. 70, 2. . . . atdpi gharmo manusho durone \ 

"Fire has been kindled in the mun^s abode.'* 

The same phrase manusho durone occurs also in viii. 76, 2 ; x. 40, 
13; X. 104, 4; x. 110, 1. In x. 99, 7, we find the words druhvane 
manushe, ** against the injurious man.** 

(4.) Manush in the plural : 

iv. 6, 11. Hotdram Agnim manusho nishedur namasyanta uSijah iam- 
9am dyoh \ 

^*Men offering worship, and eager, attend upon Agni the inyoker, 
the object of man's (or Ayu's) praises.** 

In the following passages, if the word Manu is not to be understood 
as denoting a person, the progenitor of men, it seems, at all events, to 
designate his descendants, the favoured race to which the authors of 


the hynms beliered fhemselTes to belong, and appears to be in some 
oases at least nearly synonymons with Aiya, the name by which thev 
called men of their own stock and religion, in contradistinction to the 
DasynSy a term by which we are either to understand hostile demons, 
or the mde aboriginal tribes : 

L 130, 8. Indraft tamattu yajamdnam dry am pr&vad vike9hu iatamHtir 
CjMu • . • • I manave idtad avratdn ivaeham kf^shndm arandhayat \ ^' 

^'Indra who bestows a hundred succours in all conflicts .... has 
preserved the Arya in the fights. Chastising the lawless, he has sub- 
jected the black skin to the man {mana/ve).*^ 

Compare L 117, 21, where instead of manuy or moniMA, the word 
manutha is employed : 

Tavam tfikena AMnd vapantd isham duhantd numushdya da»rd \ 
abhi dasyum hakur$na dhamantd urujyotiS ehakrathur drydya \ 

'* Sowing barley with the wolf, ye, o potent AiSvins, milking out 
food for man {manmha\ blowing away the Dasyu with the thunder- 
bolt (?), haye made a broad light for the Arya." " 

L 175, 3. Tvam hi iurah ionitd ehodayo manwiho ratham \ iahdvdn 
dasyum avratam osAah pdtram na ioehishd \ 

^* Thou, a hero, a benefactor, hast impelled the chariot of man : vic- 
torious, thou hast burnt up the rite-less Dasyu, as a vessel is consumed 
by a blaze.'* 

ii. 20, 6. 8a ha irtUa Indro ndma deva Urddhvo hhuioad mantuh$ das- 
matama^ | ava prtyam arSasdnasya tahcdn itro hharad ddzasya wadhd' 
vdn I 7. 8a vfittrahd Indrah kfiihnayonlh purandaro ddalr airayad vi \ 
afanayad manave hhdm apaSoha $atrd Sa^Skiam yajam&wuya iHM \ 

*^ The god renowned as Indra hath arisen most mighty for the sake 
of man. Yiolent, self-reliant, he has smitten down the dear head of 
the destructive Dasa. 7, Indra, the slayer of Yfittra, the destroyer of 
cities, has scattered the Dasyu (hosts) sprung from a Uack womb. He 

^ A fimilar q^positioii between the word ayuy '< man," and datifu is to be noted in 
the foUowing paiiage, tL 14, 3 : nana hi A^ awu$ ipardhanU rayo arya^ \ tur* 
mnio dmifum ap0vo vratail^ iikikmto avratam | '* In Tarions ways, o Agni, the riches 
of the enemy emnlondy hasten to the help (of tiiy wonhippeis). The men destroy the 
Dasyn, and seek hy rites to OTeroome the riteless." 

" Bee Frof. Both's explanation of this passage as given in a note to the artide on 
Hanu the progenitor of the Aryan Indisoi^ Jonnml of the Boyal Asiatic Society, 
voL zz. p* 418* 


has produced for man the earth^ and the waters; he has perfectly M- 
filled the aspiration of his worshipper." 

vi. 21y 11. i\^ ms d vdeham upa y&ki vtdvdn vtSvebhih sUno aahaso 
yajatraih \ y€ agnijilwd^ fiUudpa^ dwr ye manum chahntr uparam 
dasdya \ 

<< Do thouy wise god, son of strength, approach my hymn with all 
the adorable (deities), who were fire-tongued, rite-frequenting, and 
made man superior to the Dasa.'' 

Tiii. 87, 5. Abhi hi satya somapdh ubhe hahhatha rodaa \ Indrdsi 
sunvato vfidhah patir divah \ 6. Tvam hi Sahatlndm Indra dartd pu" 
ram asi \ hantd dasyor manor vfidhah patir diva^ \ 

''5. Por thou, true soma-drinker, hast overcome both worlds. 
Indra, thou art the prosperer of him who makes libations, the lord of 
the sky. 6. Thou, Indra, art the destroyer of all the cities, the slayer 
of the Dasyu, the prosperer of man^ the lord of the sky." 

ix. 92, 5. Tan nu satyam pavamdnasya astu yatra vihe hdraivah %aih' 
nasanta | j'yotir yad ahne akfinod u lokam prdvad manum dasyave Jutr 
ahhlkam \ 

" Let this be the true (abode) of the pure god (Soma) where all the 
sages haye assembled; since he has made light and space for the day, 
has protected man, and repelled the Dasyu." 

z. 49, 7. Yad md sdvo manutha^ dha nirnife fidhak kfishe ddiaih Iftt^ 
vyam hathaih \ 

*^ When the libation of man calls me to splendour, I tear in pieces (?) 
with blows the vigorous Dasa." 

X. 73, 7. Tvam jaghantha Namuehim makhasyum ddiom krinvdna^ 
fishaye vimdyam | tvam chakartha manave syondn patho devatrd anfdad 
iva ydndn \ 

*' Thou hast slain the lusty Namuchi, making the Dasa bereft of 
magic against the rishi : thou made for man beautiful paths leading as 
it were straightway to the gods." 

It is to be observed that in none of these passages is the Brahmanical, 
or any other, caste singled out as having been the special object of di- 
vine protection. Men, or Aryas, are the fEivourites of the gods. And 

^ In iy. 26, 7, Indra says : " Aham bhumm adadam aryaya aham vfUh^tm da* 
iuih$ martyaya \ " I gaye the earth to the Arya ; I gaye rain to the *<MT"'%*"g 


even in sucli hymns as R.V. i. 112 ; i. 116 ; i. 117 ; i. 119, etc., where 
the A^vins are celebrated as having interposed for the deliverance of 
many of their worshippers, whose names are there specified, we are 
nowhere informed that any of these were Brahmans, although reference 
is often made to their being rishis.^ 

There is one other text of considerable interest and importance, R.V. 
iii. 34, 9, which, although it is unconnected with Manu, may be here 
cited, as it connects the word drya with the term varnay " colour," 
which in later times came to signify " caste,'* as applied to the Brah- 
mans and other classes. It is this : 

Sasdnuti/dn uta suryafh sasdna Indrah sasdna purubhojasafti gdm \ 
hiranyayam uta hhoyam sasdna hatvl dasyun pra dryam varnam drat \ 

"Indra bestowed horses, he bestowed the sun, he bestowed the 
many-nourishing cow, ho bestowed golden wealth : having slain the 
Dasyu, he protected the Aryan colour." 

It is to be observed that here the word varna is used in the singular. 
Thus all the persons coming under the designation of Arya, are in- 
cluded under one class or colour, not several.^ 

"We shall see in the next chapter that, irrespective of the verse of the 
Pnrusha Sukta, there are in the Rig-veda Sanhita a few texts in which 
the Brahmans are mentioned alone of all the four castes, without any 
distinct reference being found anywhere to the second class as Rujanyas, 
or Kshattriyas, or to the third and fourth as Vaisyas and Siidras. 

In the mean time I shall advert to some other phrases which are 
employed in the hymns, either to denote mankind in general, or to 
signify certain national or tribal divisions. The most important 
of these is tliat of the '^Rvo tribes," who are frequentfy referred to 
imder the appellations of pancha-krishtayah, pancha-hhitayah, pancha- 
kihitayo mdnushyyah (vii. 97, 1), pancha-charBhanayahy pancha-jandh, 
pdnehajanyd vis (viii. 52, 7), pancha hhuma (vii. 69, 2), pancha jdtd, 

(vi. 61, 12)." 

^ See Joamal of the Royal Asiatic Society for 1866, pp. 7 ff. 

M Sayano, indeed, interprets the word aryam varnam by uttamam varnam traivaf' 
nikam \ **the most excellent class conMsting of the three upper castes;" but he of 
coune explains according to the ideas of his own age. In the S'atapatha Bruhmana, 
Kfinva S'ukhu (Adhvara Efinda, L 6) it is stated that the upper three castes only wore 
irjBB and fit to offer sacrifice (arya eva brahmano va kahattriyo va vaiayo va te hi 
ytffn^y^^) see Joum. Roy. As. Soc. for 1866, p. 281. 

n In iii. 49y i, mention is mode not of the five tribes, but of all the tribes : S^amta 


Some of these terms are occasionally used of the gods, as in x. 53, 4 : 
Urjuda uta yajniydsah panchajand mama hotrarn jushadhvam \ "Ye five 
tribes who eat (sacrificial) food, and are worthy of adoration, receive 
my oblation with favour."" 

On this verse Yaska remarks, Nirukta, iii. 8 : " Gandharvdh pitaro 
devd asurd rakshdihsV^ ity eke \ " chatvdro varnd nuhddah panchamaJ^*^ 
ity Aupamanyavah \ " Some say the word denotes the Gandharvas, 
fathers, gods, asuras, and rakshases. Aupamanyava says it denotes the 
four castes and the Nishadas."" 

If Aupamayava was right, the Nishadas also were admissible to the 
worship of the gods in the Yedic age, as the " five classes " are repre- 
sented in various texts as votaries of Agni. Such are the following : 

vi. 11, 4. Ayum na yam namasd rdtahavydh anjanti sttprayasam pan- 
chajandh \ 

"Agni, whom, abounding in oblations, the five tribes, bringing ofier- 
ings, honour with prostrations, as if he were a man." 

Sayana here defines the five tiibes as " priests and offerers of sacri- 
fices " {ritvig-yajamdna-lakshanuh), 

ix. 65, 22. Ye somdsah . . sunvtrs . . I 23. Ye vd janeshu panehasu \ 

maham Indram yattnin viiva a kfishiayah samapah kamam atyan \ <^ Praise the great 
Indra, in whom all the tribes drinkiiig soma have obtained tbeir desire." 

23 Compare x. 60, 4. *' In whose worship Ikshyaku prospers, wealthy and foe- 
destroying, like the five tribes in the sky {divlva pancha krish^ayah), Sayana, how- 
ever, renders '* His five tribes (the four castes and the Nishudas) are as (happy as) if 
in heaven." Prof. Miiller, Joum. Boy. As. Soc. for 1866, p. 462, renders, "as the 
five tribes in heaven." 

w In his note on this passage in his " Illustrations of the Nirakta," p. 28, Prof. 

Roth remarks : ** The conception of the five races which originally comprehended all 

mankind ... is here transferred to the totality of the divine beings. Hence also 

arises the diversity of understanding, when the number has to be indicated." Prof, 

Both then quotes part of Aitareya Brahmana, iii. 31, which I give a little more fully 

from Br. Haug's edition : JPanchoJanyam vaietadukthamyadvaUvadevam | aarveahaih 

vai etat panehajananatn ukiham deva'tnanuthyanam gandharvapiarasam aarpanam 

cha pitfinum cha \ eteaham vat etat panchq/ananatn uktham \ tarve enam pancJiajana 

viduh I a enam panchinyai Janatayai havitw yaehhanti ya warn veda \ " This YaisVa- 

dcva uktha belongs to the fi?e classes of beings. It belongs to all the five classes of 

gods, men, gandharvas and apsarases, serpents, and fathers. To these five classes 

belongs this uktha« All these five classes know him (who uses it). Those of this 

five-fold set of beings who are skilled in invocation come to the man who knows this.** 

See Br. Hang's Ait. 6r. ii. 214, where it is said that Gandharvas and Apsarases are 

counted as one class. 



** Or those soma-libations which have been poured oat . . (23) among 
the five tribes." 

z. 45, 6. Vilum chid adrim ahhinat parayan jand^ yad agnttn aya* 
janta pancha \ 

*' He (Agni)y travelling afar, clove even the strong mountain, when 
the five tribes worshipped Agni." 

vii. 15, 2. Yah pancha eharshanlr ahhi nishasdda dame dame \ kavtr 
fffihojpatir yucd \ 

** The wise and youthful master of the house (Agni) who has taken 
uf his abode among the five tribes in every house." 

In vi. 61, 12, SarasvatI is spoken of as '^augmenting or prospering 
the five tribes " {pancha jdtd vardhayantl). 

In viii. 52, 7, it is said : Yat pdnchajanyayd viSd Indre ghoshdh 
oifiluhata \ " When shouts were uttered to Indra by the people of the 
five tribes," etc. 

In E.y. i. 117, 3, Atri is styled f^shim pdnchajanyam, " a rishi be- 
longing to the five tribes." In v. 32, 11, the epithet satpatih pdncha- 
janyahy " the good lord of the five tribes," is applied to Indra. And in 
ix. 66, 20, Agni is called the purified rishi, the priest of the five tribes 
{pdnchajayah pttrohitah).^ 

In other passages, however, it is far from dear that the '^ five races " 
are intended to be identified with the Aryas, or people of honourable 
race, to whom the authors of the hymns belonged. Such, perhaps, is 
the case in the following verse : ii. 2, 10. Asmdkam dyumnam adhi 
pancha kfishfishu uehchd war na iuiuchlta dtuhfaram \ ** May our glory 
shine aloft among the five tribes, like the heaven imsurpassable." See 
also vi. 46, 7, to be quoted below. 

On the same subject. Professor Both remarks as follows in his Lexicon 
under the word kruhfi : " The phrase five races is a designation of all 
nations, not merely of the Aryyan tribes. It is an ancient enume- 
ration, of the origin of which we find no express explanation in the 
Yedic texts. We may compare the &ct that the cosmical spaces or 
points of the compass are frequently enumerated as Jhe, especially in 

** See Mahubhtirata, iii. 14160, as referred to by Roth under /oimi, where the birth 
of a being of fiye coloon, apparently a form of Agni, ia described, who was generated 
by five rishiB, and who was known as the god of the fiye tribes {paneht^anya) and the 
ffodnoer of fiye racea^ 


the following text of the A. Y. iii. 24, 2 : tmd y&h paneha pradUo md' 
naviJ^ paneha krishfayah \ ' these five regions ; the five tribes sprang 
from Mann ' ; among whioh (regions) we should have here to reckon 
as the fifth the one lying in the middle {dhruvd dik^ A.Y. iv. 14, 8 ; 
xviii. 3, 34), that is, to regard the Aryyas as the central point, and 

round about them the nations of the four regions of the world 

According to the Yedic usage, five cannot be considered as designating 
an indefinite number." 

We cannot therefore regard the use of the term '' five races " as 
affording any evidence of the existence of a rigidly defined caste-system 
at the period when it was in frequent use. The frequent refsrence to 
such a division, which fell into disuse in later times, rather proves the 
contrary. The caste-system was always a quadruple, not a quintuple, 
one ; and although the Nishadas are added by Aupamanyava as a fifth 
division of the population, this class was esteemed too degraded to 
allow us to suppose that they could ever have formed part of a uni- 
versally recognized five-fold division, of which all the parts appear to 
be regarded as standing on an equal, or nearly equal, footing. 

It is supposed by Dr. Kuhn*^ that the ** five tribes " are to be iden- 
tified with the clans whose names are mentioned in the following verse : 

i. 108, 8. Yad Indr&gnl Yadushu Turvaieshu yad Druhytuhv Antuhu 
Furushu sthal^ \ atah pari vfishandv d hi ydtam athd somasya pthatam 
Butaaya \ 

'*If, Indra and Agni, ye are abiding among the Yadus, Turvaias, 
Druhyus, Anus, Furus, — come hither, vigorous heroes, from all quar- 
ters, and drink the Soma which has been poured out" 

Although, however, these tribes are often mentioned separately in 
the Eig-yeda, this is either the only, or almost the only, text in which 
they are all connected with one another. Their identity with the 
'* five classes " is therefore doubtful. 

There is another word employed in the Hig-veda to designate a race 

well known to the authors of the hymns, viz., nahwh. We have 

already met with this term in a verse (x. 80, 6) I have quoted above, 

where it appears clearly to denote a tribe distinct from the descendants 
of Manush ; and the adjective derived from it occurs in vi. 46, 7 (= 

^ See Weber's Indische Stadieu, i. 202, where Dr. Kuhn'i paper in the HtlL 
Allg. Lit Z. for 1846, p. 1086, is referred to. 


S.y. L 262)y "where also the'tribes of Nahosb appear to be discriminated 
from the five tribes, whoever these may be supposed to be. The words 
are these : Tad Indra nuhmkuhv a ojo nfimnam eha itrishfishu | yad vd 
paneha fahitindm dyumnam d bhara satrd vihdni paumsyd \ ** Indra, 
whatever force or vigour exists in the tribes of Nahnsh, or whatever 
glory belongs to the five races, bring it (for us) ; yea all manly energies 

Professor Both (see his Lexicon, s. v.) regards the people designated 
by the word ndhush as denoting men generally, but with the special 
sense of stranger, or neighbour, in opposition to members of the 
speaker^s own community ; and he explains the words of x. 80, 6, 
twice referred to above, as signifying " the sons of our own people, 
and of those who surround us." 

These descendants of I^ahush, whoever they may have been, are, 
however, distinctly spoken of in x. 80, 6 (the passage just adverted to), 
as worshippers of Agni, and can scarcely, therefore, have been regarded 
by the Aryas as altogether aliens from their race and worship. 

Betting aside, as before, the Purusha Sukta, there are few distinct 
references in the hymns of the Eig-veda to the creation of men, and 
none at all to the separate creation of castes. The following text 
ascribes the generation of mankind to Agni, RY. i. 96, 2 : SapHrvayd 
nividd havyatd dyor imdh prajd^ ajanayad manUndm \ vivasvatd cho' 
kshaad dydm apai cha d&vd Agniih dhdrayan dravtnoddm \ ** By the first 
nivid, by the wisdom of Ayu, he (Agni) created these children of men ; 
by his gleaming light the earth and the waters : the gods sustained 
Agni the giver of riches."* 

The Aitareya Brahmana introduces this verse by the following pas- 
sage: Frajdpatir vai idam eha eva agr^ dsa \ so ^kdmayata *^prajayeya 
hhHydn sydm " iti j sa tapo Hapyata \ 8a vdcham ayaohhat \ sa safhvaU 
ioraeya parastdd vydharad doddaia kfitvah \ dvddaiapadd vai 48hd 
nivit I $tdm vdva tdm nwidam vydharat \ tdrn sarvdni bhutdny anvas' 
fijyanta | tad etad fishily paiyann abhyanUvaeha **sapilrvayd " ityddind | 
''Prajapati alone was formerly this universe. He desired 'may I bo 
propagated, and multiplied.' He practised austere fervour. He sup- 
pressed his voico. After a year ho spoke twolvo times. This nivid 

M Sco Br. Hang's translation in his Ait, Br. ii. 143 ; and Benfoy's Gformaa version 
10 hU Orient and Occident, ii. 612, 


consists of twelve words. This nivid he nttered. After it all beings 
were created. Beholding this the rishi uttered this verse, * by the first 
nivid,' " etc. 

The generation of ** creatures" {prajdh) is ascribed in various texts 
to different gods, in iii. 55, IQ*' to Tvashtri Savitri; in ix. 86, 28 to 
Soma ; in viii. 85, 6 {ya imdjajana viSvdj'dtdnt) to Indra. In x. 54, S 

Indra is said to have '^ generated the father and mother (heaven and 
earth) from his own body " (yan mdtaram cha pitaram cha sdkam ajO' 
nayathoB tanva^ wdyah^) ; while Yiivakarman, who in x. 81, 2, 3 is 
said to have generated heaven and earth, is also in x. 82, 3 called 
^' our father and generator" {yo nahpitd janitd). All these passages 
are, however, too vague to afford us any insight into the ideas of their 
authors regarding the creation of the human race» 

Sect. II. — Legends and ITotice9 regarding Mdnu from the Sktapatha, 
AitareyOf and Taittiriya BrdhmaQOS, the Taittirtya Sanhitd^ and 
tJte Chhdndogya Upanishad. 

The first passage which I adduce contains the very important legend 
of the deluge, which has already been quoted in the 2nd vol. of this 
work, pp. 324 ff., and which has also been rendered into English by 
Professor Max Miillor (Anc. Sansk. Lit. pp. 425 ff.) and by Professor 
H. Williams (Ind. Epio Poetry, p. 34), as well as into German by its 
earliest translator. Professor Woberi in the year 1849 (Ind. Studien, i. 
163 f.). 

Sktapatha Brahmana, i. 8, 1, 1. Manave ha vat prdtar avanegyam 

udaham ajahrur yathd idam pdnihhydm avanejandya dharanti \ evam 

tasya avanentjdnaaya matsyah pdnl dpede \ 2. 8a ha asmai vdcham uvdda 

" hihhrihi md pdrayishydmi tvd^* Hi \ " kasmdd md pdrayiihyasi^^ iti\ 

*^ aughah imdh sarvdh prajdh ntrvodhd tatas tvd pdrayitdsmi*' iti \ 

^^Katham te hhritir " iti \ 3. Saha uvdcha ^*ydvad vai kshullakdh hha* 

vdmo hahvl vai nas tdvad ndshfrd hhavaiy uta matsya eva maisyam gilati\ 

kumbhydrh md agre hihhardsi \ sa yadd tdm ativardhd atha karshum 

khdtvd tasydm nid hilhardsi \ sa yad4. tdm ativardhd atha md iamudram 

ahhyavahardsi \ tarhi vai atindshfro hhavitdsmi'* iti \ 4. S'aivad^ ha 

*'' Perhaps, however, wc are to understand TTOshtri's function of aiding in pro- 
creation to be here referred to. 
*® S^aavat-iabdo Hra samarthyai kshipra^tfacIianaA, — Comm. 


jhatha^ dsa »a hi fynhtham'^ vardhaU \ *' atha iiithlm »amdm tad aughah 
Agania tad fn& ndvam upahdpya updsdsai \ aa aughe utthtte ndvam 
dpadgdsai tatoi tvd pdragttdsmi'* iti \ 5. Tarn warn hhfitvd aamudram 
Mgavajahdra \ aa gattthlm tat aamdm paridideia tatithlm aamdm ndvam 
ppakalpga updadnehakra \ aa aughs utthtte ndvam dpade \ tarn aa matayah 
upanydpt^fduve \ taaya Sfinga ndvah pdiarh pratimumocha \ tena etam ut- 
taramgirim^ atidudrdva^ \ 6, 8a ha uvdeha "apJparam vai tvd vrikahe 
ndvam pratthadhnUhva \ tafh tu tvd md girau aantam udakam antaichhait- 
M ydvad ydvad uddkafh aamavdydt tdvat tdvad anvavaaarpdaV^ iti \ 8a 
ha tdvat tdvad eva anvavaaaaatpa \ tad api atad uttaraaya girer " Manor 
awaaarpamm*^ iti \ augho ha td^ aarvdh prajdh niruvdha atha ihaManur 
eva ahah pariiiSiahe \ 7. 8a(^ archan irdmya^ ehachdra prajdkdmah \ 
taira api pdka-yajnena Ije \ aa ghfitam dadhi maatv dmikahdm ity apau 
Juhuvdnchakdra \ tatah aamvataara yoahit aamhahhUva \ ad ha pihdamdnd^ 
iva udeydya \ taayai ha ama ghfitam pade aantiahfhate \ tayd Mitrd- Fa- 
ruftau aanjagmdta \ 8. Tdm ha uehatuh **kd aai** iti \ "Manor duhitd " 
iti I '^dvayor IrHahva" iti \ "fw" iti ha uvdeha "yah eva mam apja- 
nata taaya eva aham aami** iti \ taaydm apitvam^ lahdte | tad vd jajnau 
tad vd najqfndv ^ ati tu eva iydya \ ad Manum djagdma \ 9. Tdm ha 
Manur uvdeha " kd aai" iti \ " tava duhitd " iti \ " hatham hhagavati 
mama duhitd** iti \ '^ydh arnUr apau dhutlr ahauahlr ghritam dadhi 
maatv dmikahdrh tato mdm qfyanathdh \ ad dilr aami tdm md yajne ava- 
hedpaya \ yqfne chad vai md avakalpayiahyaai bahuh prajayd paSuhhir hha- 
viahyaai ydm u mayd kdnclut diiaham didaiahyaaa ad te aarvd aamardhi- 
akyatte** iti \ tdm etad madhya yajnaaya avdkalpayat \ madhyam hi etad 
yajnaaya yad antard praydjdnuydjdn \ 10. Tayd archan irdmyama 
ehachdra prajdkdmah \ tayd imdm prajdlim prajajna yd iyam Manoh 
prafdtih \ ydm u enayd kdncha dSiaham dSdata ad aamai aarvd aamdr- 
dhyata \ ad aahd niddnena yad Idd \ aa yo ha evam vidvdn Idayd cha- 
rati etdm ha eva prafdtim prajdyate ydm Manuh prdjdyata \ ydm u 
enayd kdncha diiaham didate ad aamai aarvd aamfidhyate j 

^'1. In the morning they broaght to Mann water for washing, as 

* Jhatho mahS'fnatsyaJ^. — Comm. " Jy€$hfham vfiddhatamam. — Comm. 
^ JTttaram ffirim Himavantam, — Comm. * Some MSS. read adhidudrava, 

* JPibdamana • . . ghfita-prahhavatvat ghfitam travanit ntfnighdAa udakad ui" 
ihitd, — Comm. 

^ Apitvam bhagafy \ tarn prarthitavantau. — Comm. 

* J^atynatavatl aha na eha pratifnatavtUh — Comm. 


men are in the habit of bringing it to wash with the handa. Aa he 
was thns washing, a fish** came into his hands, (2) (which spake to him) 
'preserve me ; I shall save thee/ (Mann enquired) * From what wilt 
thou save me ? ' (The fish replied) ' A flood shall sweep away all these 
creatures ;^ from it I will rescue thee.' (Mann asked) ' How (shall) 
thy preservation (be effected) ? ' 3. The fish said : ' So long as we are 
small, we are in great peril, for fish devours fish ; thou shalt preserve 
me first in a jar. When I grow too large for the jar, then thou shalt 
dig a trench, and preserve me in that When I grow too large for the 
trench, then thou shalt carry me away to the ocean. I shall then be 
beyond the reach of danger.' 4. Straightway he became a large fish ; 
for he waxes to the utmost. (He said) ' Now in such and such a year, 
then the flood will come ; thou shalt, therefore, construct a ship, and 
resort to me ; thou shalt embark in the ship when the flood rises, and I 
shall deliver thee from it.' 5. Having thus preserved the fish, Manu 
carried him away to the sea. Then in the same year which the fish 
»had enjoined, he constructed a ship and resorted to him. When the 
flood rose, Manu embarked in the ship. The fish swam towards him. 
He fastened the cable of the ship to the fish's horn. By this means he 
passed over ^ this northern mountain.* 6. The fish said, * I have de- 
livered thee ; fasten the ship to a tree. But lest the water should 
cut thee off whilst thou art on the mountain, as much as the water 
subsides, so much shalt thou descend after it.' He accordingly de- 
scended after it as much (as it subsided). Wherefore also this, viz., 
* Mann's descent ' is (the name) of the northern mountain. Now the 
flood had swept away all these creatures ; so Manu alone was left here. 
7. Desirous of offispring, he lived worshipping and toiling in arduous 
religious rites. Among these he also sacrificed with the pdka offering. 
He cast clarified butter, thickened milk, whey and curds, as an oblation 
into the waters. Thence in a year a woman was produced. She rose 

88 BKavinoWthasya aiddhyartham defata $va mattya^rupenaajagama \ ''To accom- 
pUsh what was to follow, it was a deity which came in the form of a fish." — Gomm. 

V Aughah udaka-tanghatah \ »a mdh BharatavarshU'nivasmih prqfah nihiatham 
vodha I deianiaram prapayitd | ** The flood will entirely carry these creatures abiding 
in Bharatayarsha ; — will conyey them to another country.*' — Gomm. — I do not see 
why the yerb nirvo4hd should have the sense here assigned to it : at all erenti we are 
afterwards told that Manu alone was left after the flood. 

*^ Or, if adhidudrava be the true reading, ** he hastened to." 

^ The Himavat or Himftlaya, aeooiding to the Gonunentator, 


tip as it were unctuous.* Clarified butter adheres to her steps. Mitra 
and Varuna met her. They said to her, * Who art thou ? ' * Manu's 
daughter/ (she replied). * Say (thou art) ours,' (they rejoined). *llo,' 
she said, * I am his who begot me.' They desired a share in her. She 
promised that, or she did not promise that ; but passed onward. She 
came to Manu. 9. Manu said to her, 'Who art thou?' *Thy 
daughter,' she replied. * How, glorious one,* asked Manu, ' (art thou) 
my daughter ? ' * Thou hast generated me,' she said, * from those ob- 
lations, butter, thick milk, whey and curds, which thou didst cast into 
the waters. I am a benediction. Apply me in the sacrifice. If thou 
wilt employ me in the sacrifice, thou shalt abound in ofispring and 
cattle. Whatever benediction thou wilt ask through me, shall accrue 
to thee.' He (accordingly) introduced her (as) that (which comes 
in) the middle of the sacrifice ; for that is the middle of the sacrifice 
which (comes) between the introductory and concluding forms. 10. 
With her he lived worshipping and toiling in arduous religious rites, 
di'sirons of offspring. With her he begot** this offspring which is this, 
offspring of Manu.** Whatever benediction he asked with her, was all 
vouchsafed to him. This is essentially that which is Ida. Whosoever, 
knowing this, lives with I^a, begets this offspring which Manu begot. 
Whatever benediction he asks with her, is all vouchsafed to him." 

*» Such is the rendering of pibdanwna given by the Commentator, who is followed 
by Professors Weber and Miiller. Professor Roth in his Lexicon, s, v., explains it by 
" firm/' i.e, '* the woman arose solid out of the fluid mass." 

tt I should observe that the same verb {prajajne) b/ which the generative act of 
Manu is here described, is in other passages of the same Bruhmana (ii. 2, 4, 1 ; ii. 5, 
1, 1 ; vi. 1, 1, 8 ; vi. 1, 3, 1 ; vii. 5, 2, 6 ; xL 5, 8, 1) applied in another tense to 
the god Prajupati, of whom it is said that he considered how he should beget progeny 
(m aikshata * katham nu prajayeya). (Compare xi. 1, 6, 1.) In other parts of the same 
work, however, it is said that Prajupati created (asrijata) the waters (vi. 1, 1, 9), or 
creatures {prnjah asrijata^ vii. 4, 3, 5 ; x. 2, 2, 1) ; and the fact of the word " beget" 
being applied to Prajupati, either in a figurative, or anthropomorphic sense, does not 
authorize us to suppose that the author of the S'atapatha Bruhmana, in the passage 
before us (the legend of the deluge), intended to represent Manu as the creator of the 
haman race, and not as their progenitor in the natural sense. (In E-Y. ii. 33, 1 ; 
▼i. 70, 8, we find the phrase prajayemahi prajabhih \ pra prajabhir jayate | '* let us 
beget children," " he begets children.") 

* Compare Taitt. Sanhita, v. 1, 6, 6. "fi^wo bhava prajabhyam" Uy ahaprajabhya 
#M 0nam iamayati \ " manmhlbhyoi tvam angirah " ity aha manavyo hi prajah \ 
•* He says, *bo auspicious to the twain offspring; ' for he pacifies him from (injuring) 
the offspring. He says, ' (We pacify) thee from (injuring) the human offspring. 
For creatures are descended from Manu." 


From this interesting legend we learn that, accordiDg to its author's 
belief, Manu was not the creator of mankind, as some later acconnts 
considered him to have been, but himself belonged to an earlier race of 
living beings, which was entirely destroyed by the delnge which is 
described. The legend regards him as a representative of his generation, 
who, for some reason, perhaps his superior wisdom, or sanctity, or po- 
sition, was selected out of the crowd of ordinary mortals to be rescued 
from the impending destruction. That he was regarded as a mere man, 
and not as a being of a superior order, is shown by the fact of his 
requiring the aid of a higher power to preserve him. A supernatural 
fish, apparently some divine person, conceived as taking the form of a 
creature which would be perfectly secure and at home in the midst of 
the raging waters, undertook to deliver him, and guided the ship on 
which he was directed to embark, through all dangers to its destined 
haven. No one but Manu took refuge in the ship, for he alone, the 
story expressly records, was preserved, while all the other living 
beings were overwhelmed. Finding himself the sole survivor when 
the waters subsided, he became desirous of progeny; and with in- 
tense devotion performed certain religious rites in the hope of realiz- 
ing his wish through their efficacy. As a result of his oblations, a 
woman arose from the waters into which they had been cast. A 
male and a female now existed, the destined parents of a new race 
of men who sprang from their union, — a union the fruitfulness of 
which was assured by their assiduous practice of sacred ceremonies. 
From Manu and Idia, we are expressly told, the race known as that 
of Manu, i.e, the race of men, was produced. The legend says nothing 
whatever of this race being originally characterized by any distinction 
of castes, or about four sons, the ancestors of Brahmans, Kshattriyas, 
Vaisyas, and Sudras being bom to Manu and Ida. "We must there- 
fore suppose that the author of the legend intends to represent the 
early race of mankind, or at least the first inhabitants of Bharata- 
varsha, as descended from one common progenitor without any original 
varieties of caste, however different the professions and social position 
of their descendants afterwards became. We are consequently entitled 
to regard this legend of the Satapatha Brahmana as at variance with 
the common fable re^ardin^ the separate origin of the Brahmansi 
Kshattriyas, Yai^yas, and S^udras. 


The foUowiDg are Bome otlier passages in which Mann and I4& are 
hoih referred to : 

Taitt. S. ii. 6, 7| 1. Manuh pfiikivy&h yafhiyam aichhat \ aa ghritarn 
nUhiktam avindat \ so 'hravU *^ ho *»ya livaro yajne *p% karttor " iti \ tav 
abmtdm Mitrd-Varunau ^^gar eva dvdm iharau karttoh avah " it% \ tau 
iaio gdm iamairayatdm \ Bd yatra yatra nyaJtrdmat tato ghritarn apJ^- 
yata \ tasmdd ghfitapadl uchyaU \ tad asyai janma | .... 3. Tddm 
upaihvayate \ pa&avo vai I4d \ pa^un eva upahvayaie \ chatur updhoayate \ 
chatushpddo hi paiavah \ *']ifdruH^** ity dha \ Manur hy etdm ogre 
^paSyat \ ^' ghfitapadl^* ity dha \ yad eva asyai paddd ghfitam apldyata 
toimdd warn dha | *^ Maitrdvarunl '* ity dha | Mitrdvarunau hy endm 
samairayatdm \ 

" Manu sought whatever npon earth was fit for sacrifice. He found 
butter poured out. He said, * Who has power to employ this in sacri- 
fioe also ? ' Mitra and Varuna replied, * We two have power to employ 
the cow.* They then sent forth the cow. Wherever she went forth, 
butter was pressed out. Hence she is called the ' butter-footed.' This 
is her birth .... 3. He caUs upon I^a. Animals are I^a. He calls 
upon animals. He calls upon them four times. For animals are four- 
footed. He says ' Manavl.' For Manif first saw her. He says 'Butter- 
footed.' He says so, because butter was pressed from her foot. He 
says ' Maitravarunl.' For Mitra and Yaruna sent her forth." (Comp. 
Taitt. Br. iii. 7, 6, 6.) 

Taitt. Br. i 1, 4, 4. Idd vaiMdnavl yqfndnuhdSiny^ dsU \ id ^irinod 
^* Asurd agnim adadhate" iti . . . . | 6. Sd 'hravld Idd Manum '^ taihd 
vai aham tava agnim ddhdsydmi yathd pra prajayd pakihhir mithunair 
faniahyase praty asmin loke sthdsyati abhi auvargam lokam jeahyasi^* 
iti I gdrhapatyam agre ddadhdt | . . . . gdrhapatyena iva aamai prajdm 
paiHn prujanayat \ 

*' Ida, the daughter of Manu, was a revealer of sacrifice. She heard, 
* the Asuras are placing fire.' .... 6. Ida said to Manu, ' I shall so 
place thy fire that thou shalt increase in offspring, cattle, and twins ; 
thou shalt be firmly established in this world, and shalt conquer the 
heavenly world.' ^ She first placed the garhapatya fire. It was 

tf TqfHa'UUtva-prakaiana-^amariha. — Comm. 

M Compare the Eathaka Br. viii. 4, quoted in Weber's Indische Studien, iii. 463, 
where liu, is said to have promised to Manu : tathd U Agnim adhatfifami yatha ma" 


through Qie garhapatya that she produced for him offispring and 

Taitt. S. i. 7. 1, 8. Sarvena vai yajnena devdJ^ swargavk lokam dyan \ 
pdkayajnena Manur airdmyat \ sd Idd Manum updvarttata \ tdm dwd' 
turdh vyahvayanta pratlehlm devdl^ pardchim Asurdh | sd devdn upd- 
varttata I 

" The gods arrived at the heavenly world by the whole sacrifice. 
If anu worshipped with the pdkayajna. That I^a came to Manu. The 
gods and asuras called her away in different directions, the gods in 
fix>nt, the asuras behind. She came to the gods." 

The following texts refer to Manu alone, as a celebrator of religious 
ceremonies : 

Taitt. S. ii. 5, 9, 1. ** Agne mahdn asi^* ity dha \ mahdn hy esha 
yad Agnih \ '^hrdhmana** tty dha \ hrdhmano hy esha \ ** hhdrata^^ 
ity dha \ esha hi devehhyo havyam Iharati \ '' deveddha " ity dha \ devdk 
hy etam aindhata \ ^^ Manviddha^^ ity dha | Manur hy etam uttaro deve- 
hhyah aindha \ 

''He says, 'Agni, thou art great.' For this Agni is great. He 
says, ' Brahman.' For he is a Brahmam. He says, ' o Bharata.' For 
he bears the oblation to the gods. He says, ' kindled by the gods.' For 
the gods kindled him. He says, 'kindled by Manu.' For Manu 
kindled him after the gods.' 

Taitt. S. vi. 2, 5, 2 f. Trivra^p vai Manur asld dvivratd asurd elavratd 
dwdl^ I prdtar madhyandine sdyam tad Manor vratam dslt pdkayajnasya 
rUpam pushtyai \ prdtaScha sdydncha asurdndm nirmadhyam kshUdho 
rupam \ tatas te pardbhavan \ madhyandine madhyardttre devdndm tataa 
te ^hJiavan suvargam lokam dyan \ 

''Manu performed three rites; the asuras two; the gods one. 
Manu's rite was in the morning, at noon, and in the evening, the 
form of a pakayajna for nourishment. That of the asuras was in the 
morning and evening, without any midday rite, a form of hunger. 
Hence they perished. That of the gods was at midday and midnight. 
Hence they prospered, and arrived at the heavenly world." 

Taitt. S. vli. 5, 15, 3. Etayd (i.e. ahhijityd) vailndram devdh aydjayan \ 
tasmdd^^Indrasavah^^l etayd Manum manushydh | tasmdd^^Manti-savah'* 

nushya devan upaprqjanishyanU \ ** I will 80 place Agni for thee, than men shall bo 
born among the gods." 


yathd Indro devunam yathd Manur manwhyanum eva hhavati yah evam 
vidvdn etayd ishtyd yajate \ 

"With this {ahhijiti) the gods sacrificed for Indra. Hence it is 
called ' Indra-sava.' Men sacrificed with it for Mann. Hence it is 
called ' Manu-sava.' As Indra is among gods, and Manu among men, 
00 he becomes who thus knowing sacrifices with this oblation." 

In Taitt. S. ii. 2, 10, 2, we find nearly the words which Kulluka 
qnotes on Mann's Institutes, i. 1 : Joi vai kincha Manur avadat tad 
Iheshajam \ '' Whatever Manu said was a remedy." 

In Sktapatha Br. vi. 6, 1, 19, Manu is called a Prajapati : *' Praja- 
pataye Manave sidhd " iti \ Prajdpatir vai Manuh \ sa hi idam sarvam 
amanuta \ Prajdpatir vai etad ay re karma akarot \ '* Svaha to Manu 
the lord of creatures. Manu is a lord of creatures {prqfd-pati) for he 
thought {amanuta) all this. The lord of creatures (jtrajd-pati) formerly 
did all this work." 

The following story in its different versions also connects Manu with 
religious observances and represents him as very devout : 

S, P. £r. i. 1, 4, 14 ff. Manor ha vai fishahhah dsa \ tasminn asura- 
gkrd sapatna-yhnl vdk pravishfd dsa j tasya Iia sma ivasathdd ravathdd 
atura-rdhhasdni mridyamdndni yanti \ te ha asurdh samudire ^'pdpam 
vata no *yam fishahhah aaehats katham nv imam dabhnuydma^^ iti \ 
** Kildtdkull*' iti ha aaura-hrahmdv dsatuht \ tau ha uchatuh '' iraddhd' 
devo vai Manuh \ dvdm nu veddva" iti |. tau ha dgatya uchatur *^ Mano 
ydjaydva tvd^' iti \ **kena*' iti \ **anena rishabhena" iti \ **tathd " iti\ 
tasya dlabdhasya su vdg apachakrdma \ sd Manor eva jdyum Mdndvim 
jpraviveia \ tasyai ha sma yatra vadantyai ifinvanti tato ha sma eva 
asura-rdkshasdni mridyamdndni yanti \ te ha asurdhk samudire *^ iio vai 
naJ^pdpiya^ sachate hhuyo hi mdnushl vdg vadati" iti \ Kildtdhdl ha 
wa achatuJ^ " iraddhd-devo vai Manur dvdm nv eva voddva " iti \ tau 
ha dgatya Uchatur ** Mano ydjaydva tvd^^ iti \ "kena** iti \ **enaya 
mmjdyayd " iti \ " tathd " iti \ tasyai dlabdhdyai sd vdg apachakrdma 
€H yajnam eva yqfna-pdtrdni pravive^a | tato Ita endm na iekatur nirhan* 
turn I sd eshu asura-ghnl vdg udvadati \ sa yasya ha evaiti vidusha^ ttdm 
atravdcham pratyudvddayanti pdpiydmo ha eva asya sapatndh hhavanti \ 

** Manu had a bull. Into it an Asura-slaying, enemy-slaying voice 
had entered. In consequence of thia (bull's) snorting and bellowing, 
ABuras and Bakshasas were continually destroyed. Then the ABuraa 


said : ' This bull, alas, does us miscliief ; how shall we overcome him ? ' 
Kow there were two priests of the Asuras called Kilata and Akuli. 
They said : ' Manu is a devout believer : let us make trial of him.' 
They went and said to him, * let us sacrifice for thee.' ' "With what 
(victim)?' he asked. '"With this bull/ they replied. *Be it so/ he 
answered. "When it had been slaughtered, the voice departed out of it^ 
and entered into Manu's wife Manavi. Wherever they hear her speak- 
ing, the Asuras and Eakshasas continue to be destroyed in consequence 
of her voice. The Asuras said : ' She does us yet more mischief; for the 
human voice speaks more.' Kilata and Akuli said, * Manu is a devout 
believer: let us make trial of him.' They came and said to him, 
'Manu, let us sacrifice for thee.* '"With whatt( victim) ? " he asked. 
• "With this (thy) wife,' they replied. ' Be it so,' he answered. "When 
she had been slaughtered the voice departed out of her and entered into 
the sacrifice and the sacrificial vessels. Thence they were uoable to 
expel it. This is the Asura-slaying voice which speaks out (when 
the two stones are struck with the iamyd, as a part of the ceremonial). 
Wretched become the enemies of that man for whom, when he knows 
this, they cause this voice here to reverberate." 

Taitt. £r. iii. 2, 5, 9. Manoh iraddhu-devasya yajamdnasya amra-ghnl 
vdg yafndyudheshu pravishtd dsit | U 'turdh ydvanto yqfndyttdhdndm 
udvadatdm updSrinvans tepardbhavan \ 

"An asura-slaying voice had entered into the sacrificial implements 
of the devout believer and sacrificer Manu. The Asuras, as many as 
heard the sacrificial implements sounding, were overcome." 

Kafhaka Br. ii. 30, 1.^ Manor vat hapdldny dsan \ tair ydvato ydvato 
'surdn abhyupddadhdt te pardhhavan \ atka tarhi Trishfhd-varHtrl^ 
datum asura-brahmau \ td asurdh abruvann " imdni shat kapdldni ydch^ 
thdm^^ iti I tau prataritvdnd abhiprdpadyetdm " Vdyave Agne Vdyave 
Indra " iti \ " kimkdmau sthaJ^ " ity abravU \ " imdni nau kapdldni 
dehi " iti \ tdny dbhydm adaddt \ tdny aranydm pardhritya sama^ 
pimhtam \ tad Manor gdvo ^bhivyatiahthanta \ tdni fHshabhah bo- 
malef \ tasya ruvato ydvanto 'surdh tipdSfinvams te pardbhavan I 

4s Extracted from 'WcbGr*s Indische Studien, iii. 461 f. A translation of this, as 
well as of the next passage, is given by Prof. Weber in the Journal of the German 
Oriental Society, toI. xviii. 284 ff. 

^ B»lh in bis Lexicon s. v. roads JViiAgararu/r?. 


tau prdiaritvdnd ahhiprapadyetam *' Vdyave Agne Vdyave Indra^^ 
iti I **kimkdmau sthay ity ahravlt \ ^^anma tvd fishahhena ydjaydva^^ 
iti I tat patnlm ye^vr vadantlm pratyapadyata \ tasydh dydm vdg dtish- 
that I ta9yd^ vadantyd^ ydvanto ^surdh updirinvams te pardhhavan \ 
toBmdd naktam atri chandrataram vadati \ tau prdtaritvdnd abhiprd- 
padyetdm *^Vdyave Ayne Vdyave Indra** iti \ "kimkdmau athay^ ity 
ahravlt \ *'anayd tvd patnyd ydjayava*^ iti \ sd paryagnikritd dM \ 
atha Indro ^chdyad *' Mdnvam iraddhdd&vam DrishfhdvarHtri aaura-hrah- 
fnau jdyayd vyardhayatam " iti \ aa dgachhat \ ao 'bravld '' dbhydm tvd 
ydjaydni" iti \ "na*^ ity ahravid'^na vai aham anayor ?itf" iti \ 
aiithipatir vdva atither lie " ity ahravlt \ td aamai prdyaichhat \ aa pra- 
tiveh vadith kurvann Ma \ td apfUclihatdm " ko *ai *' iti \ '' hrdhmanah " 
iti I ^^katarno hrdhmanay^ iti \ *'kim brdhmanaaya pitaram kirn u pri- 
ehhaai tndtaram | hutam chad aatnin vedyam aa pitd aa pitdmahay^ 
iti I td avittdm '^Indrovai** iti \ tau prdpatatdm \ tayor yah prokahanlr 
dpah daafha tdbhir anuviafijya ilrahe a&chhinat \ tau vriahai cha yavdahai 
eha ahhavatdm \ taamdt tau varaheahu iuahyatah \ adhhir hi hatau \ tdm 
paryaynikritdm uddarijat \ tayd ^Wdhnot \ tdh imdh Mdnavyah prajdh \ 
yat paryayni-kfitam pdtnlvatam utafijati ydm eva Manur fiddhim 
drdhnot tdm fidhnoti \ 

'* Manu had platters. All the Asoras, against whom he laid out the 
sacrifice with these were destroyed. NTow Tfishtha and Yarutri were 
at that time the priests of the Asoras. The Asuras said to them, ' ask 
for these six platters.' These two arrived as morning guests, repeating 
the formula, * To Vayu, o Agni, to Vayu, o Indnu' * What do you 
desire ? ' asked Manu. * Give us these platters/ they replied. He gave 
them to them. Taking them they smashed them in the forest. Then 
If anu's cattle were standing round. The bull licked the platters. As 
many Asuras as heard him bellowing were destroyed. The two Asura 
priests came as morning guests, repeating the formula, 'To Yayu, o Agni, 
to Yayu, o Indra.' ' What do you desire ? ' enquired Manu. ' Let us 
sacrifice for thee with this bull,' they answered. He then came to his 
wife who was uttering a yajush. Her voice reached to the sky. jis 
many Asuras as heard her speaking were destroyed. Hence a woman 
speaks more pleasantly by night. The two Asura priests arrived as morn- 
ing guests, repeating the formula, < To Yayu, o Agni, to Yayu, o Indra.' 
* What do you desire ? ' asked Manu. ' Let us sacrifice for thee with 


this thy wife (as the yictim)/ they replied. The fire was earned roimd 
her. Then Indra perceived, ' Tfishtha and Yarutri, the two Asura 
priests are depriving the devout believer Mann of his wife.' He came 
and said (to Manu), ' Let me sacrifice for thee with these two Asura 
priests (for victims).' * No,' answered Manu, ' I am not their master.' 
^ The host is master of the guest,' rejoined Indra. Manu then gave 
them to him. (Standing) near them he was making an altar. They 
asked * Who art thou ? ' * A Brahman,' he replied. * What (class of) 
Brahman/ they enquired. He rejoined (with a verse), ' Why askest 
thou the father or the mother of a Brahman ? If Yedic tradition is to 
be discovered in him, that is his father, that his grandfather.' They 
knew, ' this is Indra.' They fled. He threw after them the water 
which was there for consecration, and therewith cut off their heads. 
They became, (the one) a vrisha, (the other) a yavaaha plant. Hence 
these (two plants) wither in the rains, because they were killed with 
water. He released her (Manu's wife) after the fire had been carried 
round her. By her he prospered. These are the creatures sprung from 
Manu. Whenever a man releases the victim offered to Agni Patnlvata, 
after fire has been carried round it, he prospers with the same prosperity 
with which Manu prospered." 

Compare with this a passage of the Taitt. Sanh. vi. 6, 6, 1. Indra^ 
patniyd Manum aydjayat \ tdm paryagnikriidm udasrijai \ taya Mdnur 
drdhnot I yat paryagnikritam pdtnlvatam utsrijati yam eva Manur fid" 
dJUm drdhnot tdm eva yajamdna fidhnoti \ 

'' Indra was sacrificing for Manu with his wife (as the victim). He 
released her after the fiire had been carried round her. By her Manu 
prospered. Whenever the worshipper releases the victim offered to 
Agni Patnivata after fire has been carried round it, he prospers with 
the same prosperity with which Manu prospered." 

I quote the following passages also from the interest which they 
possess as relating to a personage so ancient and venerable as Manu is 
reputed to be : 

Aitareya Brahmana, v. 14. Ndbhdnedishtham mi Mdnavam hrahm{h 
charyyam vasantam hhrdtaro nirabhajan \ so ^hravld etya '' kirn mahyam 
ahhdkta^* iti | "etam eva nishfhdvam avavaditdram" ity ahruvan \ tat' 
mad ha apy eta/rhi pitaram putrdh '' nishfhdvo ^vavaditd " tty eva dcha- 
kshate | sa pitaram etya ahravlt '^tvdm ha vdva mahyam tata abhdkakur" 


%ti \ tarn pita ^hravJd '' md putraka tad ddrithdl^ \ Angiraso vat inie 
war gay a lok&ya satram dsate \ te shashtham skashtham eva ahar dgatya 
muhyanti \ tdn ete sUkte shashthe *hani iamaya \ teshdm yat aahasrarh 
iatra-pariveshanam tat te star yanto ddsyanti " iti \ ** tathd " iti \ tdn 
upait ^* pratigfibhnita Mdnavam mmedhasah " iti \ tarn ahruvan ^* kirn- 
kdmo vadasi'* iti \ ^^ idam eva vah shashtham ahah prajndpaydni^* ity 
ahravid *'atha yad vai etat sahasram satra-pariveshanam tad me war 
yanto datta^^ iti \ '' tathd " iti \ tdn ete sukte sJiashfAe ^hany asafhsayat I 
tato vai te pra yajnam ajdnan pra wargaih lokam \ tad yad ete sukte 
ahashfhe ^hani Samsati yajnasya prajndtyai evargasya lokasya anukhydt- 
yai I tarn war yanto ^hruvann " etat te hrdhmana sahasram " iti \ tad 
enam samdkurvdnam purushah krishnaSa-vdgy uttaratah upotthdya ahravid 
" mama vai idam mama vai vdstuham ** iti \ so ^bravid ** mahyam vai 
idam adur^^ iti \ tarn ahravit ''tadvai nau iava wa pitari praSnah^* iti \ 
sapitaram ait \ tarn pitd *hravid " nanu te putraka adur " iti \ ** adur 
wa me" ity ahravit *' tat tu me purushah krishnaSa-vdey uttaratah upo- 
datishfhat ^ mama vai idam mama vai vdstuham ' iti ddita " iti \ tarn pitd 
'bravlt " taaya eva putraka \ tat tuhhyam sa ddsyati^* iti \ sapunar etya 
ahravit *' tava ha vdva kila hhagavah idam iti me pitd dha '' iti \ so 
^hravU " tad aham tuhhyam eva daddmi yah eva satyam avddir " iti | 
iasmdd evam vidushd satyam wa vaditavyam \ sa esha sahasra-sanir man- 
tro yad ndhhdnedishfham | upa enam sahasrarh namati pra shashthena 
ahnd wargam hkamjdndti yah warn veda \ ^ 

^' The brothers of Kabhanedishtha disiiiherited him whilst he was 
liyiiig in the state of a BrahmachariD. Coming (to them) he said : 
* What share have yon given to me ? ' They replied, ' (we have given 
thee) this jndge and divider (as thy share)/ In consequence sons even 
now speak of their father as the ' judge and divider.' He came to his 
father and said, * Father, they have given thee to me as my share/ 
His father answered, ' Do not, my son, care about that. These Angirases 
are performing a sacrifice in order to (secure) the heavenly world ; but 
as often as they come to the sixth day (of the ceremony) they become 
perplexed. Make them recite these two hymns (R.Y. x. 61 and 62) 
on the sixth day ; and when they are going to heaven, they will give 

^ This passage has been already translated into German by Prof. R. Koth, 
Journal of the German Oriental Society, vi. 244, and into English by Prof. Max 
Mailer in his Anc. Sanik. lit. p. 423 f., and by Dr. M. Hang in his Ait. Br. toL ii. 


thee that provision of a thousand ^ which has been made for the sacri- 
fice.' He said, ' So be it.' He approached them, saying, ' Receive me, 
the son of Mann, ye sages.' They replied, ' With what object dost 
thou speak?* He said, ' Let me make known to yon this sixth day; 
and then yon shall give me this sacrificial provision of a thousand, 
when ye are going to heaven.' * Let it be so,' they answered. He 
made them repeat these two hymns on the sixth day. They then 
knew the sacrifice, and the heavenly world. Hence when any one 
repeats these two hymns on the sixth day, it is with a view to a 
knowledge of the sacrifice, and to the revelation of the heavenly world. 
When they were going to the heavenly world, they said to him, * This 
thousand, o Brahman,^ is thine.' As he was collecting (the thousand) 
a man in dark clothing rose up before him from the north, and said, 
' This is mine ; what remains on the spot is mine.' Nabhanedishtha 
replied : ' But they have given it to me.' (The man) rejoined : * It 
belongs to (one of) us ; let thy father be asked.' He went to his 
father, who enquired : ' Have they not given thee (the thousand), my 
son?' 'They did give it to me,' he replied, 'but a man in dark 
clothes rose up before me from the north, and took it from me, saying, 
' This is mine ; what remains on the spot is mine." His father scud : 
' It is his ; but he will give it to thee.' He returned, and said (to the 
man) : ' This is thine, reverend sir, so my father says.' (The man) 
replied : ' I will give it to thee, who hast spoken the truth.' Where- 
fore one who has this knowledge should speak only truth. That is a 
hymn which bestows a thoussnd, that Nabhanedishtha hymn. A 
thousand falls to his lot, he knows the heavenly world on the sixth 
day — the man who knows this." 

Taittirlya Sanhita, iii. 1, 9, 4. Manuh putrebhyo dayafh vyahhajat \ 
sa Ndhhdnedishtham Irahmacharryam vasantaih nirahhajat \ sa agaehhat \ 
90 ^hratit '' hatha ma nirahhUg " iti \ '' na tvd nirahhdksham " ity 
ahravid ** Anyirasah ime satram dsate U wvaryam lokam na prajd' 
nanti \ iebhya^ idam hrdhmanam hrHhi \ U suvaryam lokam yanto ye 
eihdm paiavas tdrhs U ddsyanti" iti \ tad ehhyo ^bravU | te suvaryam 

« See R.V. x. 62, 7. 

* The application of this title to Nftbhtnedish^ha is to be remarked, as hts fSettber 
Hanu is recorded in the Pnranic legends as ancestor of the solar race of kings. See 
the papsage from the M. Bh. i. 3135 ff., quoted above, p. 126. 



lokam yanto y$ eshdm paiavah dsa^is tdn atmai adaduh \ tarn paSuhhU 
eharawtam yajna-vditau Rudrah &gachhat \ so ^bravU '' mama vat ime 
paiavah " iti \ '' adwr vat mahyam imdn " ity abravU \ '' na vat tasya U 
Uate " ity abravit \ *' yad yafnavdstau h\yaU mama vat tad ** iti \ tas- 
mdd yajnavdaUi na abhyavetyam \ bo ^bravit \ " yqfne ma hhaja atha te 
paiUn na abkimamsye " iti \ tasmai etam manthinah aamrdvam ajuhot | 
tato vai tasya Rudro paiHn na ahhyamanyata \ yatra etam eva vidvan 
fnanthinah safhsrdvam juhoti na tatra Rudrah pa&un abhimanyate \ 

« liana divided his property among his sons. He disinherited his 
son Nabhanediahtha who was living as a Brahmacharin. He came and 
said, ' How hast thou disinherited me?' 'I have not disinherited 
thee/ replied (his fSather) ; ' these Angirases are celebrating a sacrifice ; 
they do not know the heavenly world; declare to them this Brah- 
mana; and when they are going to heaven, they will give thee the 
cattle they have.* He declared the Brahmana to them, and when they 
were going to heaven they gave him the cattle they had. Budra came 
to him as he was on the place of sacrifice employed with the cattle and 
said : ' These are my cattle.' ' But,' replied Nabhanedishtha, < they 
have given them to me.' ' They have not power to do so ; that which 
is left on the place of sacrifice is mine,' answered Budra. Hence the 
place of sacrifice must not be approached. (Rudra fiirthcr) said : ' Give 
me a share in the sacrifice, and I shall not injure thy cattle.' He 
offered him this libation of soma and flour. Then Budra did not injure 
hie cattle. Whenever any one knows this libation of soma and flour 
and offers it up, Budra does not injure his cattle."''^ 

A passage, quoted above, p. 26 £, from the Taittixlya 8anhita, vi. 5, 

^ The reader who knows German, and wishee to see an able discussion of the 
question, whether the legend of Nabhfinedishfha, as given in the Aitareya Brahmana, 
has any real oonnection with the two hymns of the Rig-veda (x. 61 and 62) which 
are referred to in it, and whether it contains any reminiscence, or symbolical repre- 
sentation, of ancient historical erents, may oonsolt Prof. Roth's paper on the subject, 
in the 6th yoL of the Journal of the German Oriental Society, pp. 248 ff. The learned 
writer settles both questions in the negatiye, maintaining that the legend is manu- 
factured out of certain misinterpreted allusions in the hymns, with the view of assert- 
ing the superiority of priestly knowledge to earthly power and worldly wealth, and 
that there neyer existed either a Nabhanedish^ or a Munu. The object which I 
haye in view in the collection of these texts does not require that I should express 
any opinion on these points. I only seek to ascertain what were the traditions re- 
oeiyed by the most ancient Indian writers themselyes regarding the origin of their 
race^ and not what was the historioal yaloe of those traditions. 


6, 1 £P., may perhape also be oonaidered as affirming the descent of men 
from Manu when it declares them to be the ofispring of Yiyasyat; 
nnce the latter is regarded as the f&ther of Manu. 

In the Chhandogya Upanishad, ill. 11, 4 (p. 178 of Bibliotheca In- 
dica, voL iii.) the following reference to Mann occurs : 

Tad ha etad Brahmd ^aj&patay$ Prajdpatir Manave Manuh prafd-' 
hhya^ I tad ha etad Udddlakdya Arumaye putraya jyeshth&ya piia brak- 
maprovdeha | 

'' This (doctrine) Brahma declared to Prajapati, Frajapati to Mano, 
Mann to (his) offispring. This sacred truth was declared to his eldest 
son Uddalaka Aru^i by his fiather." 

The first half of this passage is repeated in viii. 15, 1, of the same 
work (p. 625). 

In his commentary on the former of the two passages, SLinkara 
Acharyya gives this explanation : 

Brahmd Hira^yagarhho Virdje Prt^'dpataye wdcha \ m 'pi Manavi \ 
Jfanur Ihhvdkv-ddihhyah prqfdhhyah pravdcha \ 

« Brahm& Hiragyagarbha declared it to the Frajapati Yiraj ; he to 
Manu ; and Manu declared it to his descendants Ikshvaku and the rest." 
In his note on the second passage, viii. 15, 1, he varies somewhat in 
his explanation of the personages by whom the doctrine was trans- 

Brahmd BRranyagarhha^ Parameivaro vd tad^kdrena Prqfdpataye 

Kaiyapdya uvdeha | aidv apt Manave wa-putrdya \ Manuh prajdhhya^ \ 

** Brahma Hiragyagarbha, or the supreme Lord (Farame^ara) through 

his instrumentality, declared it to the Frajapati Xa^yapa ; he to his son 

Manu ; Manu to his descendants.'' 

In these two passages of the Chhandogya Upanishad Brahma is dis- 
tinguished from Frajapati, and Frajapati from Manu, who again is said 
to have handed down the doctrine, not to any one person in particular, 
but ''to the of^ring," or ''descendants" {prajdhhya^\ apparently 
his own descendants. This Upanishad therefore seems to coincide in 
the doctrine of the hymns, and of the SlEttapatha Brahmana, that Mann 
was the progenitor of mankind. The Commentator, it will have been 
noticed, in one place delares that Frajfipati is identifiable with Yir&j, 
and again that Xa^yapa is to be understood under that appellation. 
Yirty and Kalyapa are not, however, generally regarded as the same. 


Kor is Ka^yapa commonly considered to be Manu's father. In the 
passages from the Eamayana, ii. 110, and Mahabharata, quoted above, 
pp. 115 and 126, Kaiyapa is said to be the father of Yivasyat, and he 
again of Manu. 

However this may be, as Mann is said to have handed down the 
sacred tradition to his descendants, we must suppose that those descend- 
ants included the whole of the progenitors of the Aryan Indians who 
were worthy of being made the depositaries of such a tradition ; and 
must therefore conclude that the Chhandogya XJpanishad agrees with 
the passage quoted above, p. 126, from the Mahabharata, in recognizing 
Ifanu as the progenitor of the Brahmans, as well as the other castes. 

Sect. III. — ExtracUfrom the Mahabharata regarding Manu. 

I have already adduced in the preceding chapter, page 126, an im- 
portant passage of the Mahabharata, Adiparvan verses 3128 fT., in which 
Ifanu Yaivasvata is expressly declared to have been the progenitor of 
mankind including the four castes. A legend of the deluge, correspond- 
ing to the one which has been adduced from the S^tapatha Brahmana, 
in the last section, is also to be found in the Yana-parvan of the Maha- 
bharata, and although it does not represent Manu as the parent &om 
whom the human race was reproduced, but as the creator by whom the 
world was renewed, after the flood, I shall extract the entire text. 
Its style of narration is tedious, when compared with the quaint bre- 
vity of the Brahmana ; but I shall condense it as much as possible in 
the translation. It begins thus, verse 12747 : 

M&rhandeya uvdcha \ Vivawatah suto rdjan maharehi^ suprdtdpavdn \ 
hahhUva nara-idrdula Frajd^ati'Sama-dgutih \ ojasd tgasd lakshmyd 
tapasd eha viieshatah \ atichakrdma pitaram Manuh warn cha pitdrnaham \ 
Urddhva-bdhur midldydm Badarydm aa narddhipah \ eka^da-sthitae 
Uvram chachdra eumahat tapa^ \ 12750. Avdk-iirde tathd chdpi netrair 
animishair dftdham \ so *tapyata tapo ghoraM varehdndm ayutaih tadd \ 
taih haddchit tapasyantam drdrachlram jafd'-dharam \ Chlrini'tiram 
dgamya matsyo vaehanam abravit | *' hhagavan kshudra-matsyo 'emi halo- 
vadbhyo bkayam mama \ matsyebhyo hi tato mum tvam trdtum arhasi sth 
vrata | durhalam balavanto hi mateyam matsyd viieehatah \ devadanti sadd 
vfittir vihitd nah sandtanl \ tasmdd bhayaughdd mahato majjantam mdm 
tiieehatai \ trdtum arhaei karttdemi kfite pratikrita^ tava^* \ 12756. 


Sa matsya-^aehanani irutvd hripayd *hhipariplutal^ \ Manur Vaivawaio 
^gfihnat tarn maUya^ pdnind wayam \ udakdntam updnfya maUyaS^ 
Vaivawato Manuh \ dlinjire prdkshipat tarn chandrdmSu'Sadriia' 
prahhe \ sa tatra vavfidhe rdjan matsyah parama - satkritah \ pu- 
travat wlkarot tastnai Manur hhdvam viseshatah \ atha kdUna mahatd 
sa matsyah sumahdn ahkut \ alinjirs yathd chawa ndsau samahhavat 
kila I atha matsyo Manufh dftshfvd punar evdhhyahhdshata \ *^hha» 
yavan sddhu me*dydnyat sthdnam sampratipddaya^* \ 12760, Uddhrt" 
tydlinjirdt tasmdt tatah sa hhagavdn Manuh \ tarn tnatsyam anayad 
vdplm mahatlm sa Manus tadd \ tatra tarn prdkshipaeh chdpi Manu^ 
para-puranjaya \ athdvarddhata matsyah sa punar varsha-gandn ha^ 
hUn I dvi-yofandyatd vdpl vistfitd chdpi yafanam \ tasydm ndsau soma* 
hhavat matsyo rdjiva-loehanah \ vicheshfitum eha ITaunteya matsyo vd' 
pydfn viidmpate \ Manum matsyas tato drishfvd punar evdhhyahhdshata | 
** naya mam hhagavan sddho samudra-mahishlm priydm \ Oangdm tatra 
nivatsydmi yathd vd tdta mdnyase \ 12765. Nideie hi mayd tuhhyaih 
sthdtavyam anasUyatd \ vriddhir hi paramd prdptd tvat-hrite hi mayd 
^nagha " | evam ukto Manur matsyam anayad hhagavdn vail | nadiih 
Gangdm tatra chainam svayam prdkshipad achyutah \ sa tatra vavj^idhe 
matsyah kanehit kdlam arindama \ tatah punar Manufh drishfvd mat' 
syo vachanam ahravlt \ **Gangdydm na hi Saknomi hrihatvdch cheshfitum 
prahho I samudram naya mdm diu praslda hhagavann " iti \ uddhjritya 
Gangd'Salildt tato matsyam Manuh svayam \ samudram anayat pdrtha 
tatra chainam avdsfijat | 12770. Sumahdn api matsyas tu sa Manor 
nayatas tadd | dsld yatheshfa-hdryyaScha sparia-gandha-sukhaicha va% \ 
yadd samudre prakshiptah sa matsyo Manund tadd \ tata enam idam 
vdkyam smayamdna ivdhravU \ '* hliagavan hi kritd rakshd tvayd sarvd 
viseshatah \ prdpta-kdlam tu yat kdryyafh tvayd tach ehhruyatdm 
mama \ achirdd hhagavan hhaumam idaih sthdvara-jangamam \ sarvam 
eva mahdhhdga pralayam vai gamishyati \ samprakshdlana-kdlo 'yatk 
lokdndm samvpasthitah \ tasmdt tvdm hodhaydmy adya yat te hitam 
anuttamam \ trasdndfh sthdvardndfh cha yach chengam yach cha nen^ 
gati I tasya sarvasya samprdptah kdlah parama-ddrunah \ naui eha 
kdrayitavyd te dfidhd yukta-vafdrakd \ tatra saptarshihhih sdrddham 
druhethd mahdmune | vy'dni chaiva sarvdtfi yathoktdni dvijaih purd [ 
tasydm drohayer ndvi susanguptdni hhdgaiah \ nau-sthai eha mdm 
pratlkshethds tato muni-juna-priya \ dgamishydmy ahaih ifinfi vyn$* 


yot iena idpasa \ warn etat ivayd hdryam dprithfo *m vraj&my aham | 
UL na iakyd mahatyo vat dpas iarttum mayd vin& \ 12780. Ndbhi- 
iankyam iiaih eh&pi vaehanam me tvayd vihho^* \ ^* waih karishye^* 
4ii talk 9a tnatsyam pratyahhdshata \ jagmatui eha yathdkdmam anu- 
jn&pya parasparam \ tato Manur mah&rdja yathoktam maUyakena ha \ 
vljdny dddya sarvdnt adyaram pupluve tadd \ naukayd Suhhayd vira 
mahorminam arindama \ ehintaydmdaa eha Manus iam matsyam pf^^ 
ihivlpate I ta eha tach^ehintitalh Jndivd maUyah parapuranjaya \ Srtnyl 
Mrdjagdmdiu tadd JBharata-saUama \ tarh dtUhfvd manuja-vydghra 
Manur fnattyaih jaldrna/ee | 12785. S^ringinath tani yathoktena rUpend- 
drim ivoehhritam \ vatdrahamayam pdiam atha matsyasya tnHrdhani \ 
Manur manufa^drdala farnntn ijringe nyaveiayat \ aaihyatas tena pdiena 
matayah para-puranjaya \ vegena mahatd ndvam prdkarshal lavandm- 
hhasi I ta eha tdfhs idrayan ndvd samudram manujehara \ njrityamdnam 
hormlhhir garfamdnam tvdmhhasd \ kihohhyamdnd tnahdvdtaih sd nana 
tasmin mahodadhdu \ ghHrnaU chapdUva stri mattd para-puranjaya \ 
navea Ihumir na eha diia^ pradiio vd ehakdHre \ 12790. Sarvam dm- 
hhasam evdAt kham dyauS eha narapungava \ evamhhute tadd loke tankuh 
Bharatarshahha \ adftSyanta aaptarshayah Manur matayas tathaiva eha \ 
evam hahun varsha-gandn tdfk ndvam mo Hha matsyakah \ ehakarshdtandrito 
rdjantoiminsalila'Sanchaye \ tatoSimavatahSfinga^yatparamJBharatar' 
ihahha I tatrdkarshat tato ndvafh »a matsyaJlt Kurunandana \ athdhravU 
taddmat%ya» tdn rishln prahasan Sanaih \ ^^aiminHimavaiah hinge navani 
hadhnlta mCehiram^* | sd haddhd tatra tak tHirnam rishihhir Bharatarsha- 
hha I 12795. Naur mateyasya vachah irutvd fyinge Hima/cata% tadd \ tach 
eha Naubandhanaih ndma ifingam Himavatah param \ khydtam adydpi 
Kaunteya tad viddhi Bharatarshahha \ athdhravid antsmiahas tdn fiahtn 
$a hitae tadd \ ** aham Prajdpatir JBrahmd yat-parath nddhtgamyate \ 
mataya-riipena yUyaih eha mayd *9mdd mohihitd hhaydt \ Manund eha 
prajdJ^ sarvd^ aa-devdiura-mdnushdh \ Brashfavyd^ earva-lokdS eha yaeh 
ehengaih yaeh eha nengati \ tapa»d chdpi tivrena prattbhd ^eya hhavish- 
yati I matpra%dddt prt^d'Borge na eha mohatk gamishyati*' \ 12800. By 
itkivd vaehanam matsyah kshanenddarSanam gata^ \ arashfu-kdmah prafdi 
ehdpi Manur Voivawata^ wayam \ pramUdho^hhat prqfd^sarge tapas tepe 
mahat tata^ \ tapasd mahatd yukta^ so Hha arashfum praohakrame \ sar- 
vd^prajd Mam^ edkshdd yathdvad Bharatanhabha | %ty etad mdteyakam 
noma purdnam pariklrttitam \ 


** 12747. Markag^eya Bud : There was a great rishi Manu, Bon of 
YivasYaty majestic, in lustre equal to Frajapati. la energy, fiery 
yigour, prosperity, and aastere fervour he surpassed both his fJEither 
and his grandfiither. Standing with uplifted arm, on one foot, on the 
spacious Badari, he practised intense austere fervour. 12750. This 
direful exercise he performed, with his head downwards,"^ and with 
unwinking eyes, for 10,000 years. Once, when, clad in dripping rags^ 
with matted hair, he was so engaged, a fish came to him on the banks 
of the ChlrinI, and spake : * Lord, I am a small fish ; I dread the 
stronger ones, and from them you must save me. For the stronger 
fish devour the weaker ; this has been immemorially ordained as our 
means of subsistence. Deliver me from this flood of apprehension in 
which I am sinking, and I will requite the deed.' 12755. Hearing 
this, Manu, filled with compassion, took the fish in his hand, and 
bringing him to the water threw him into a jar bright as a moon- 
beam. In it the fish, being excellently tended, grew; for Manu 
treated him like a son. After a long time he became very large, and 
could not be contained in the jar. Then, seeing Manu, he said again : 
' In order that I may thrive, remove me elsewhere.' 12760. Manu 
then took him out of the jar, brought him to a laq;e pond, and threw 
him in. There he continued to grow for very many years. Although 
the pond was two yqfanat long, and one yojana broad, the lotus-eyed 
fish foimd in it no room to move ; and again said to Manu : * Take me 
to Ganga, the dear queen of the ocean-monarch ; in her I shall dwell ; 
or do as thou thinkest best, (12765) for I must contentedly submit to 
thy authority, as through thee I have exceedingly increased.' Manu 
accordingly took the fish and threw him into the river Ganga. There 
he waxed for some time, when he again said to Mann : ' From my 
great bulk I cannot move in the Ganga ; be gracious and remove me 
quickly to the ocean.' Manu took him out of the GFanga ; and cast him 
into the sea. 12770. Although so huge, the fish was easily borne, and 
pleasant to touch and smell, as Manu carried him. When he had been 
thrown into the ocean he said to Manu : ' Great lord, thou hast in every 
way preserved me : now hear from me what thou must do when the 

^ He could not haVe stood on one foot and with hii head downwards (if this means 
itanding on hii head) at one and the eame time. The text may mean that these atd* 
tudes were racceesiYely adopted. 


time arriTes. Soon shall all these terrestrial objects, both fixed and 
moying, be dissolved. The time for the purification of the worlds has 
now arrived. I therefore inform thee what is for thy g^atest good. 
12775. The period dreadful for the universe, moving and fixed, has 
come. Make for thyself a strong ship, with a cable attached ; embark 
in it with the seven rishis, and stow in it, carefully preserved and as- 
sorted, all the seeds which have been described of old by Brahmans." 
When embarked in the ship, look out for me : I shall come recognizable 
by my horn. So shalt thou do ; I greet thee and depart. These great 
waters cannot be crossed over without me. 12780. Distrust not my 
word.' Manu replied, ' I shall do as thou hast said.' After taking 
mutual leave they departed each on his own way. Manu then, as en- 
joined, taking with him the seeds, floated on the billowy ocean in the 
beautiful ship. He then thought on the fish, which, knowing his de- 
sire, arrived with all speed, distinguished by a horn. When Mann saw 
the homed leviathan, lofty as a mountain, he fastened the ship's cable 
to the horn. Being thus attached, the fish dragged the ship with great 
rapidity, transporting it across the briny ocean which seemed to dance 
with its waves and thunder with its waters. Tossed by the tempests, 
the ship whirled like a reeling and intoxicated woman. Neither the earth, 
fior the quarters of the world appeared ; (12790) there was nothing but 
water, air, and sky. In the world thus confounded, the seven rishis, 
Manu, and the fish were beheld. So, for very many years, the fish, 
unwearied, drew the ship over the waters ; and brought it at length to 
the highest peak of Himavat. He then, smiliug gently, said to the 
rishis, ' Bind the ship without delay to this peak.' They did so accord- 
ingly. 12795. And that highest peak of Himavat is still known by 
the name of Naubandhana (' the Binding of the Ship '). The friendly 
fish (or god, animisha) then said to the rishis, ' I am the Frajapati 
Brahma, than whom nothing higher can be reached. In the form of a 
fish I have delivered you from this great danger. Manu shall create 
all living beings, gods, asuras, MEN, with all worlds, and all things 
moving and fixed. By my favour and through severe austere fervour, 
he shall attain perfect insight into his creative work, and shall not be- 

o The 8'atapatlia BrShmana is nlent as to these seeds, as well as to the seven 
rishii ; but it is possible that the reference hero made to them may have been bor- 
rowed from some other ancient source. 


oome bewildered.' 12800. Having thus spokeiii the fish in an instant 
disappeared* Manu, defdrons to call creatures into existence and be- 
wildered in his work, performed a great act of austere fervour ; and 
then began visibly to create all living beings. This which I have 
narrated is known as the &f atsyaka Fura^a (or ' Legend of the Fish ')." 

It will be observed that towards the close of this narrative it is stated 
that Manu (not Brahma himself) was the creator of Men, as well of 
gods and asuras ; and that no reference is made to the formation of 
separate castes. 

The commentators seem disinclined to take this legend in its literal 
sense. We shall see below what reason the scholiast on the Bhagavata 
Furana assigns for this procedure. The following are some of the 
remarks of the Commentator Nllakaufha on the above passage of the 
Mahabharata : 

** Manoh^* manute ity abhtmandtmako ^hankdro Manu^ \ viSeshena 
vasts dchhddayati chii-prakdiam iti vivska-jndnam tad-vdn vkasvdn md' 
ydvl iSvarah ^^mdyinam tu mahsivarain^* iti iruteh \ tasya Vaivasvatasya 
eharitam sancharanam \ *' avidyd-ndis saty dvidyako ^hankdrah kathafh 
sancharati \ tuthi tantu-ddhe pafas tishfhati^* ity dkshepaji | » . • . atra 
para-hrahmana eva rupdntaram matsydkhyo jivah \ so ^hankdrena Manund 
uttarottara-Sreshfheshu alinjirddi-rUpeshu sikula-deheshu tapo-haidd ni" 
pdtyaie \ sa cha samudrdkhye cairdje deke nipdtitai cha kalpdnte avidyd- 
ndia-rups saty api dddha- (dagdha ?) -pafa-nydysna anuvarttamdnam 
ahankdram saptarshi-sanjnakaih prdnddihhih vJja-sanjnaih prdrahdho' 
karmahhii cha sahitaih eharama-deha-ndvy drUdham vdsand-varatraydjiva" 
matsyma pralaya-kdU *py uhyamdnam meru-ifinga sams ^chals hhavato 
{ffimavad'?) rUps sadvdsanayd labdhdspadam viUnam anulakshya jiva^ 
tnatsyo 'darianam prdpta^ \ ati-vUlne hy ahankdrs jlvatvam naiyati \ 
sa punar ntrasta-jiva'hhdvo *hankdro hrahma-rHpatdm dpanno yathd 
purvam vdsanayd jagat srijati \ nashfe ^py avidydkhys kdrane safhsdra' 
Ikdna-lakshanam kdryafk chakra-hhramam iva kanchit kdlam anvvart- 
tats ity adhydya-tdtparyam \ akshardrthcLS tv ityddi \ 

'''Manu/ that which imagines, denotes the consciousness of self 
{ahankdra), consisting in the idea that objects refer to one's self {ahhi- 
tndna),^ 'Yivasvat' is he who possesses the discriminating know- 
ledge that (such and such a thing) obscures the light of the mind, i.e. 

H See Colebrooke'i MUc. Essays, yoI. i. 242, 


he 18 the Hinder, I^vara, for the Yecla^ speaks of 'MaheiSrara the 
niader.' It is the ' history/ the action, of this son of Yivasvat, that 
is related. It is objected, ' how can Ahankara, which ' arises from 
ignorance, operate when ignorance is destroyed ? ' for when the threads 
are bnmt the doth no longer remains' .... Here the embodied sonl, 
oaUed in this passage a ' Fish,' is only another form of the supreme 
Brahma. This 'Fish' is thrown by 'Manu,' who is Ahankara, through 
the power of austere fervour, into gross bodies, here represented by ^ a 
jar,' ' a pond,' etc., which gradually rise in excellence. Being at last 
cast into the body of Yiraj, called * the ocean,' although * the close of 
the Kalpa ' means the destruction of ignorance, still the embodied soul 
denoted by the ' Fish,' contemplating Ahankara still remaining like the 
ashes of burnt doth, then entering, along with the breath and other 
vital airs named ' the seven rishis,' and the works of a former birth 
designated as ' seeds,' into the ship which signifies its last body, and 
then borne along even in the period of dissolution by the embodied 
soul itself symbolized as a ' Fish,' by means of the * rope ' of the re- 
maining consciousness of past perceptions {vdsand), obtaining at length 
through a consciousness of former perceptions, which were pure {tad- 
vdsand), a resting-place on a mountain like the peak of Meru, repre- 
sented by theHimavat(?), and finally dissolved ; — the embodied soul 
under the figure of a 'Fish' having contemplated all this, — vanishes. 
For when Ahankara has become entirely dissolved, the state of the 
embodied soul ceases. Then Ahankara, after the state of the embodied 
soul has been dispelled, obtains the condition of Brahma ; but by its 
consdousness of past perceptions creates the world as before. Even 
when the cause called ignorance has been destroyed, the e£Eect in the 
shape of the semblance of the world continues for some time, like the 
revolution of a wheeL Such is signification of the section." 

According to this allegorial interpretation "Yivasvat," f&ther of 
Mann, represents f ivara, the Illuder. " Manu " is Ahankara, or self- 
consdousness. The " Fish " is the embodied soul, which fandes itself 
to be, but is not, distinct from the Supreme spirit. Ahank&ra, denoted 
by ' Manu,' places the embodied soul, symbolized by the " Fish," in a 
variety of bodies gradually increasing in excellence, which are signified 

M The woidi are taken from one of the Upaniahads, to which, at the time of cor- 
reetiog this aheet, I am imahle to give the necenarj reference. 


by the "jar," "pond," "Qanga," and "ooean." Althongh the end 
of the E[alpa means the removal of ignorance, still Ahankara continues 
for a time ; and along with the " seven rishis," who stand for the vital 
airsy and the " seeds," which are former works, embarks on the " ship,'' 
which is its last body, and is drawn over the ocean by the embodied 
soul by means of a '* rope," which signifies the consciousness of former 
perceptions. Ahankara at length finds a resting-place, denoted by 
Mount Himavat ; and when it has been destroyed, the embodied soul 
vanishes. Ahankara, however, passes into the form of Brahma, and, 
through the operation of the cause explained by the Commentator, 
creates the world anew. 

It is scarcely necessary to remark that the narrator of the legend 
himself appears to have had no idea of making it the vehicle of any 
Yedantic allegory such as is here propounded. 

The following is another version of the same legend from the Matsya 

i. 12." Purd rdjdManur ndma chlrnavdn vipulam tapah \ putre rdj- 

yafh samdropya kshamdvdn Ravi^nandanah \ 13. Malayasyaika-deie tu 

BarvdimAguna-iarhyutah \ sama-duhkha-sukKo virah prdptavdn yogam 

uttamam \ 14. Vachanarh ^ varadai chdtya varshdyuta^iaU gaU \ " ra- 

rafh vrinUhva ** provdcha prltdtmd Kamaldsanai^ | 15. ^am ukio 'bra- 

vld rdjd pranamya sa Fitdmaham \ **ekam evdham ichhdmi tvatto varam 

anutiamam \ 16. JBhuta-grdmasya sarvasya sthdvarcLsya ckarasya eha \ 

hhaveyarh rakahandydlam pralaye aamupasthite** \ 17. **£vam tutv " iti 

viivdtmd tatraivdniaradhiyata \ pushpa-vfishtiS cha mahatl khdt papdta 

wrdrpttd \ 18. Kaddchid dirame tasya kurvatah pttfi'tarpanam \ pa- 

pdtapdnyor upart saphari jala-samyutd \ 19. Dfishfvd taeh-ehhaphari" 

rOpam sa daydlur mahlpatih \ rahhandydkarod yatnarh sa iasmin ka- 

rakodare \ 20. Ahordtrena chaikena shodaidngula-^iatfitah \ so *bhavad 

matsya-rHpena **pdhipd?nti " chdhravU \ 21. Sa tarn dddya manikeprd" 

kshipaj jala-cMrinam | tatrdpi chaikardtrena haita-trayam avarddhata \ 

22. Punah prdhdrttanddena Sahasraktrandtmajam | sa matsyah ^*pdhi 

pdhltV^ **tvdm aham Saranath gatay* \ 23. Tatah sa kUpe tarn maU 

syam prdhinod Ravi-nandanah \ yadd na mdti tatrapi kUpe matsyah 

^ This panage is extracted in Professor Anfreoht'i CatalogiM of the Bodleian 
Sanskrit MSS. p. 347. 
^ The Taylor MS. reads babhuffo, instead of vatkan mm. 


§amvar$ \ 24. Kihiptal^ «a pfithutdm 0,g&t punar yojana-sammitdm \ 
tairdpy dha punar dlnah **pahi pdhi nripottama** \ 25. Taiah sa 
Manund kshipto Gangdydm apy avarddhata \ yadd tadd samudre tarn 
prdhshipad medinJpati^ \ 26. Yadd aamudram akhilam vydpydsau 
samavasthitah \ tadd prdha Manur bMtah '^ ko ^pi tvam a^uretarah | 
27. Athavd Vdsfidevas tvam anya Idjrik katham hhavet \ yojandyuta- 
viihiatyd kasya tulyam hhaved vapu^ \ 28. Jndtat tvam matsya-rH' 
fsna mdih khedayasi Keiava \ JErishikeia jaganndtha jagad-dhdma 
fumo *8tu ^" I 29. Hvam uktah aa bhagavdn matsya-rHpl Jandrdanah \ 
**Bddhu sddhv" Hi chovdcha ** samyag jndtam tvayd *nagha \ 30. Achire- 
Qaiva kdlma medini medinipate \ hhamshyati jale magna sd-Satlu-vana- 
kdnand \ 31. Naur iyam sarva-devdndm nikdyena vinirmitd \ mahd-fiva- 
nikdyaaya rakshandrtham mahlpate \ 32. Sveddndajodhhijd jlvd ye cha 
flvd jardyujdh \ asyam nidhdya sarvd^u tdn anarthdt ^ pdhi suvrata \ 
SS. Tugdnta-vdtdhhihatd yadd ehalati naur nfipa \ iringe 'smin mama 
rdjendra tademdm aamyamishyast \ 34. Tato laydnte sarvasya sthdvarasya 
eharasya cha \ prajdpatia tvam hhavitd jagatah pfithivi-pate \ 35. Evafh 
kfite mahdrdja^ aarvajno dhfitimdn fishih \ manvantarddhipai chdpi 
deva-piijyo hhavuhyasi \ 36. Adhyaya ii. Snia uvdcha \ 1. IJvam ukto 
Manus tefM papraehhdsura-aUdanam \ varshair kiyadbhir hhagavan hhavish" 
yaty antara-kahayah \ 2. Sattvdni oka kathafk ndtha rakahishye Madhu' 
sUdana \ tvayd aaha punar yogah kathafk vd hhavitd mama \ 3. S^l-mataya 
uvdcha I adya-prabhfity andvriahfir hhaviahyati mahitaU \ ydvad varaha- 
iataih adgram durhhikaham narakdvaham \ 4. Tato ^Ipa-aattva-kahayadd 
raimayah aapta ddrundh \ aapta-aapter hhaviahyanti prataptdngdra-var- 
ahinah \ 5. Aurvdnalo ^pi vikfitim gamiahyati yuga-kahaye \ viahdgnik 
ehdpi pdtdldt sankarahana-mukha-chyutah \ 6. Bhavaaydpi hldtotthaa 
tfitlya-nayandnala^ \ jagad dagdham tathd kahohham gamiahyati mahd' 
mate | 7. Evam dagdhd mahi aarvd yadd aydd hhaama-aannihhd^ \ dkdSam 
uahmand tapiam hhaviahyati parantapa \ 8. Tatah aa-deva^akahatram 
jagad ydayati aankahayam \ aamvartto hhlmanddaS cha dronai chando^ ha^ 
Idhakah I 9. Vidyutpatdka^ hndmbu^ aaptaite laya^driddh \ agni-pro" 
iveda-aamhhutdh pldvayiahyanti medinlm \ 10. Samudrdh kahohham dgatya 

9/ Ingtead of anarthat the Taylor MS. reads amthan, 
SB The Taylor MS. reads here mmiA kfHa-yvgaayadau. 
« Kurma-amnibha | Taylor MS. 
^ The Taylor and Gaikowar M3S. haye chmdro. 


ckailatvena vyavMihiidh \ etadekdrnavaih sarvam larisht/anti jagat-trth 
yam \ \\, Bwyaih ndvam^^ imdrh grihya Barva-vljani sarvaiah \ drapya 
rajjvd yogena mat-prayuktena suvrata \ 12. Saihyamya ndvam maeh- 
chhftnge mat-prabhdvdhhirakshitah \ ehah sthdsyasi d&veshu dagdheshv api 
parantapa \ 13. Soma-sHrydv aham Brahmd chatur-hka-Bamanvitah \ 
Narmadd cha nadi punyd Mdrkandeyo tnahdn fkhih \ 14. Bhavo vedd^ 
purdnam cha vidydhhih sarvato vritam \ tvayd sdrddham idam sarvaik 
sthdsyaty antara-sankshaye \ 15. M^am ekdrnave jdte Chdkshtuhdntara- 
Mnkshaye | veddn pravarttayUhydmi tvat-sargddau mahlpate \ 16. Suta 
uvdcha I Evam uktvd sa hhagavdms tatraivdntaradhiyata \ Manur apy 
dtthito yogam Vdsudeva-prasddajam \ 17. AthdhhUch cha tathd-hhutah 
samplavah pHrva-sHchitah \ kale yathokte sanjdte Vdaudeva-mukhodyate \ 
18. SUngl prddurhdbhuvdtha matsya-rHpi Jandrdanah \ Ananto rajfu' 
rUpena Manoh pdrham updgamat \ 19. Bhuta-sangdn samdkrishya yoge* 
ndropya dharmavit \ hhujanga-rajjvd matsyasya Sftnge ndvam ayojayat \ 
20. TJparyy upastliitas tasydl^ pranipatya Jandrdanam \ dbhuta-samplave 
tasminn atitc yoga-idyind \ 21. Ffishfena Manund proktam purdnam 
maUyarupind \ tad iddnlm pravakshydmi Mnudhvam rishi-sattamdh \ 

''12. Formerly a heroic king called Manu, the patient son of thd 
8an, endowed with all good qualities, indifferent to pain and pleasure, 
after investing his son with the royal authority, practised intense aus- 
tere fervour, (13) in a certain region of Malaya (Malabar), and attained 
to transcendent union with the Deity {yoga). 14. When a million 
years had elapsed, Brahma became pleased and disposed to bestow a 
boon, which he desired Manu to choose. 15. Bowing before the father 
of the world the monarch said, ' I desire of thee this one incomparable 
boon, that when the dissolution of the universe arrives I may have power 
to preserve all existing things, whether moving or stationary.' 17. 
' So be it,' said the Soul of all things, and vanished on the spot ; when a 
great shower of flowers, thrown down by the gods, fell from the sky. 
18. Once as, in his hermitage, Manu offered the oblation to the Manes, 
there fell, upon his hands, along with some water, a Sleipharl flsh (a 
carp), (19) which the kind-hearted king perceiving, strove to preserve 
in his water-jar. 20. In one day and night the flsh grew to the size 
of sixteen Angers, and cried, 'preserve me, preserve me.' 21. Manq 
then took and threw him into a large pitcher, where in one night he 

•^ The Taybr MS. xeadt Mdiii-fiaMMi, << thA ship of the Yedas.** 



increased three cnbitsi (22) and again eried, with the yoice of one dis- 
tressed, to the son of Yrraavst, 'preeenre me, preaenre me, I have 
sought reftige wxttt thee.' 23. Hanu next put him into a well, and 
when he oould not be contained even in that, (24) he was thrown into 
a lake, where he attained to the size of a yojana; but still cried in 
bumble tones, * preserve me, preserve me.' 25. When, after being flang 
into the Qanga he increased there also, the king threw him into the 
ocean. 26. When he filled the entire ocean, Mann said, in terror, 
* Thou art some god, (27) or thou art Yasudeva ; how can any one else 
be like this? Whose body could equal 200,000 yojanas? 28. Thou 
art recognised under this form of a fish, and thou tormentest me, Ke- 
^va ; reverence be to thee, Hrishlke^a, lord of the world, abode of the 
universe !' 29. Thus addressed, the divine Janardana, in the form of a 
fish, replied: 'Thou hast well spoken, and hast rightly known me. 
30. In a short time the earth with its mountains, groves, and forests, 
shall be submerged in the waters. 31. This ship has been constructed 
by the company of all the gods " for the preservation of the vast host 
of living creatures. 32. Embarking in it all living creatures, both 
those engendered from moisture and from eggs, as well as the vivi- 
parous, and plants, preserve them from calamity. 33. When driven by 
the blasts at the end of the yuga, the ship is swept along, thou shalt 
bind it to this horn of mine. 34. Then at the close of the dissolution thou 
shalt be the Frajapati (lord of creatures) of this world, fixed and moving. 
35. When this shall have been done," thou, the omniscient, patient rishi, 
and lord of the Manvantara, shalt be an object of worship to the gods.'' 
2nd Adhyaya: '' 1. Suta said: Being thus addressed, Manu asked the 
slayer of the Asura, ' In how many years shall the (existing) Manvan- 
tara come to an end ? 2. And how shall I preserve the living crea- 
tures? or how shall I meet again with thee?' The fish answered: 
* From this day forward a drought shall visit the earth for a hundred 
years and more, with a tormenting famine. 4. Then the seven direful 
rays of the son, of little power, destructive, shall rain burning char- 
coal. 5. At the close of the yuga the submarine fire shall burst forth, 

^ The reading of the Taylor MS. here i« partially eraied ; but it may have been 
tarva-veddnamy '*of all the Yedas." Compare the yarious reading in verse 11 of 
the next adhyaya, 

o According to the reading of the Taylor MS. we should have to fubstitute the 
words, << Thus at the beginning of the Sjita age, thou" ete. 


while the poisonous flame issuing from the mouth of SankarshaQa (shall 
hlaze) &om Patala, and the fire from Mahadeva's third eye shall issue 
from his forehead. Thus kindled the world shall become confounded. 
7. When, consumed in this manneri the earth shall become like ashes, 
the aether too shall be scorched with heat. 8. Then the world, together 
with the gods and planets, shall be destroyed. The seven clouds of 
the period of dissolution, called Samvartta, Bhimanada, Drona, Chan^By 
Balahaka, (9) Yidyutpataka, and Sbnambu, produced from the steam 
of the fire, shall inundate the earth. 10. The seas agitated, and joined 
together, shall reduce these entire three worlds to one ocean. 11. Taking 
this celestial ship, embarking on it all the seeds, and through contem- 
plation fixed on me fastening it by a rope (12) to my horn, thou alone 
shalt remain, protected by my power, when even the gods are burnt up. 
13. The sun and moon, I Brahma with the four worlds, the holy river 
Narmada,^ the great rishi Markanijieya, (14) Mahadeva, the Yedas, the 
Parana with the sciences, — these shall remain with thee at the close of 
the Manyantara. 15. The world having thus become one ocean at the 
end of the Chakshusha manvantara, I shall give currency to the Yedas 
at the commencement of thy creation.' 16. Suta continued: Having 
thus spoken, the divine Being vanished on the spot ; while Manu fell 
into a state of contemplation (j/oga) induced by the favour of Yasudeva. 
17. When the time announced by Yasudeva had arrived, the predicted 
deluge took place in that very manner. Then Janardana appeared in 
the form of a homed fish ; (the serpent) Ananta came to Manu in the 
shape of a rope. 19. Then he who was skilled in duty {i,e, Manu) 
drew towards himself all creatures by contemplation (yoffo) and stowed 
them in the ship, which he then attached to the fish*s horn by the 
serpent-rope, (20) as he stood upon the ship, and after he had made 
obeisance to Janardana. 21. 1 shall now declare the Furana which, 
in answer to an enquiry from Manu, was uttered by the deity in the 
form of the fish, as he lay in a sleep of contemplation till the end of the 
imiversal inundation : Listen." The Matsya Purana gives us no frirther 
information here about the progress and results of the deluge ; and this 
narrative does not appear to be ever afterwards resumed. 

** In the opinion of this writer, therefore, the Narmadfi (Nerbndda) must have 
been a holier stream than the Gangft : otherwise we should have ezpeioted him to 
select the latter as the river to be preserred at the dissolution. 


The Bhagavata F. viii. 24, 7, gives the same story with variations 
as follows : 

Atld atlta-kalpdnte hr^hmo naimittiko layah \ %amudropapluta% tatra 
lokd hhHr-ddayo nfipa \ 8. Kdlendgata-nidrdsya Dh&tuh HiayUhor hati \ 
mukhato nissritdn veddn Hayagrivo ^ntike ^harat \ 9. Jndtvd tad ddna- 
vendrasya Hayayrivasya cheshfitam \ dadhdra Saphari-rHpam Ihagavun 
Marir iivarah \ 10. Tatra rdja-rishih kaichid ndtnnd Satyavrato mahdn \ 
Kdrdyana-paro Hapyat tapah M 9(Uildianah \ 11. To ^ sdv a^min mahd' 
kaJpe tanayah sa Fivasvatah \ S^rdddkadeva iti khydto manutve Earind 
^rpitah j 12. Ekadhd Kfitamdldydm kurvato jala-tarpanam \ tasydnjaly' 
udake kdchich chhaphary ekd *hhyapadyata \ 13. Satyavrato ^njali-yatdm 
saha toyena Bhdrata \ utsasarja nadl-toye Sapharlm DravideSvarah \ tarn 
dha sdiikarunam mdhdkdrunikath nripam \ yddohhyo jnati-ghatthhyo 
dindtn mdm dinavatsala \ katham visri/ase rdjan bhUdm asmtn iartj-jale | 

32. Saptame 'dyatandd urddhvam ahany etad arindama \ nt- 

mankshyaty apyaydmbJtodhau trailokyam hhHr-hhrnddikam \ 33. Trilok- 
ydfh Uyamdndydrh sa^varttdmbhasi vat tadd \ upasthdsyati nauh kdchid 
viidld tvdm mayeritd \ 34. Tvath tdvad oshadhlh iarvd vljdny uehchd- 
vaehdni cha \ saptarahtbhih parivjritah tarva-sattvopavrimhitah \ 45. 
Aruhya vfihatim ndvafh vicharishyasy aviklavah \ ekdrnave ntrdloke 
fishlndm eva varchasd \ 36. Dodhuyamdndm tdm udvam samlrena ball- 
yasd I upasthitasya me iringe nibadhnlhi mahdhind \ 37. Aham tvdm 
fUhibhi^ adkam sahandvam udanvatt \ vikarahan vicharishydmi ydvad 
JBrdhml niid prabho | . . . . 41. Tatah samudrah udvelah sarvatah 
pldvayan mdhlm \ vardhamdno mahdmeghatr varahadbhih samadrisyata \ 
42. Dhydyan hhagavad-ddeiam dadfUe ndvam dgatdm j tdm druroha 
viprendrair dddyattshadhi-vlrudhah \ 43. Tarn uchur munayah prifd 
rdjan dhydyawa Keiavam \ sa vai nah sankatdd asmdd avitd iam vidhd- 
iyati \ 44. So ^nttdhydtas tato rdjnd prddurdsid mahdrnave \ eka-sringa- 
dharo matsyo Juiimo niyuta-yojanah \ 45. Nthadhya ndvam tach-chhringe 
yathokto Siarind purd | varatrendhind tushfas tushfdva MadhusHdanam \ 

54. Ity uktacantam nftpatim bhagavdn AdipUrtuhah \ matsya* 

rOpl tnakdmbhodhau viharanis tattvam abravU \ 55. Purdna-aamhtidm 
divydm Sdnkhya-Yoga-kriydvatlm \ Satyavrataiya rdjaraher dtma-guh- 
yam aieshatah \ 56. A§rawhid fiskibhi^ adkam dtma^tattvam asam* 
iayam \ ndvy dalno hhagavatd proktam brahma aandtanam \ 57. Atlta- 
pralaydpdye utthitdya $a Vedhoie \ hatvdiura^ Hayagrivafk veddn prat- 


yaharad Harih \ 58. Sa tu Satyavrato rSjd jndna-vijndnO'Sainyuta^ \ 
Vishnoh praadddt kalpe ^smin dtld Vdivasvato Manuh \ 

**7, At the close of the past Ealpa there occurred an occasional^ 
dissolution of the universe arising from Brahma's nocturnal repose ; in. 
which the Bhurloka and other worlds were submerged in the ocean. 
8. When the creator, desirous of rest, had under the influence of time 
been overcome by sleep, the strong Hayagriva coming near, carried off 
the Yedos which had issued from his mouth. 9. Discovering this deed 
of the prince of the Danavas, the divine Hari, the Lord, took the form 
of a Skphari fish. 10. At that time a certain great royal rishi, called 
Satyavrata, who was devoted to Narayana, practised austere fervour, 
subsisting on water. 11. He was the same who in the present great 
Kalpa 13 the son of Visvasvat, called S^raddhadeva,^ and was appointed 
by Hari to the office of Manu. 12. Once, as in the river Kritamala he 
was offering the oblation of water to the Pitris, a Sapharl fish came 
into the water in the hollow of his hands. 13. The lord of Dravidla, 
Satyavrata, cast the fish in his hands with the water into the river. 
14. The fish very piteously cried to the merciful king, * Why dost thou 
abandon me poor and terrified to the monsters who destroy their kindred 
in this river ?' " [Satyavrata then took the fish from the river, placed it 
in his waterpot, and as it grew -larger and larger, threw it successively 
into a larger vessel, a pond, various lakes, and at length into the sea. Tho 
fish objects to be left there on the plea that it would be devoured ; but 
Manu replies that it can be no real fish, but Yishnu himself; and with 
various expressions oif devotion enquires why he had assumed this dis* 
guise, verses 15-31.] The god replies: 32. "On the seventh day 
after this the three worlds Bhurloka, etc., shall sink beneath the 
ocean of the dissolution. 33. When the universe is dissolved in that 
ocean, a large ship, sent by mo, shall come to thee. 34. Taking with 
thee the plants and various seeds, surrounded by the seven rishis, 
and attended by all existences, (35) thou shalt embark on the great 
ship, and shalt without alarm move over the one dark ocean, by the 
sole light of the rishis. When the ship shall be vehemently shaken by 

^ Naimittika, See aboye p. 45. 

*^ Manu is called S'raddhadeva in the MahfibhSrata also, S antip. 4507. In the 
Br^manas, however, he receives the appellation, or epithet, not of S'raddhiid&va, but 
of Sraddhadwa, See above, p. 188 ff. 



the tempestnotiB wind, fasten it by the great serpent to my nom — ^for 
I shall come near. 37. So long as the night of Brahma lasts, I shall 
draw thee with the rishis and the ship over the ocean." [The god 
then disappears after promising that Satyavrata shall practically know 
his greatness and experience his kindness, and Satyavrata awaits the 
predicted events, verses 38-40.] 41. '* Then the sea, augmenting as 
the great clouds poured down their waters, was seen overflowing its 
shores and everywhere inundating the earth. 42. Meditating on the 
injunctions of the deity, Satyavrata beheld the arrival of the ship, on 
which he embarked with the Brahmans, taking along with him the 
various kinds of plants. 43. Delighted, the Munis said to him, ' me- 
ditate on KeSava ; he will deliver us from this danger, and grant us 
prosperity.' 44. Accordingly when the king had meditated on him, 
there appeared on the ocean a golden fish, with one horn, a million 
yojanas long. 45. Binding the ship to his horn with the serpent for a 
rope, as he had been before commanded by Hari, Satyavrata lauded 
Madhusudana." [Verses 46-53 contain the hymn.] 54. When the 
king had thus spoken, the divine primeval Male, in the form of a fish, 
moving on the vast ocean declared to him the truth ; (55) the celestial 
collection of Puranas, with the Sankhya, Yoga, the ceremonial, and the 
mystery of the soul. 56. Seated on the ship with the rishis, Satya- 
vrata heard the true doctrine of the soul, of the eternal BrahmS., de- 
clared by the god. 67. When Brahma arose at the end of the past 
dissolution, Hari restored to him the Yedas, after slaying Hayagriva. 
58. And King Satyavrata, master of all knowledge, sacred and profane, 
became, by the favour of Yishnu, the son o£ Yivasvat, the Manu in this 

Before adducing the remarks of the commentator S'ridhara Svamin 
on the passage last cited from the Bhagavata Purana, I shall quote one 
more version of the same legend from the Agni Purana.^ It is not of 
any great consequence, as, though more condensed, it coincides in pur- 
port with that in the Bhagavata Purana: which of the two has boK 

^ This has been copied by Professor Aufrecht from a MS. of the Agni Parana, 
belonf^ng to the Royal Asiatic Society of London. I am informed by Prof. Aufrecht 
that the East India Office Library has two M8S. of the Vahni Purana, which (although 
Yahni is, in later Sanskrit, synonymous with Agni) differ entirely in their contents 
from the Agni Purtifta. 


rowed from the other, or whether both are derived from a common 
Bouroe, I am nnable to say. 

Fasishfha uodcha \ 1. MaUyddi-riipina'fh VUhnum hrHhi Bargdii-hd" 
ranam I purdnam hrahma eMgneyam yathd VUhnoh purd Srutam \ Agnir 
uvdcha I 2. MaUydvatdram vakihye *haih VasMfha fyinu vat Mareh \ 
avatdra-kriydm duahta-nashtyai sat-pdlandya hi \ 3. Asld aiita-kalpdnte 
hrdhmo naimittiko layah \ santtdrcpaplutds tatra lokd bhUrddikd mune \ 
4. Manur Vaivasvatas tepe tapo vat hhukti-muktaye \ ekadd Kfitahndld' 
ydm kurvato jala-tarpanam | 5. Tasydnjaly-udake tnatsya^ wdlpa eko 
'hhyapadyaia \ ksheptu^kdmarh jaiU prdha ^* na mdfk kahipa narottama \ 
6. Grahddihhyo hhayam me *tra " taeh ehhrutvd kalaSe ^kshipat \ Manuih 
vfiddhah punar matsyah prdha tafk '' dehi me vfihat " | 7. Taeya tad 
vachanam irutvd rdjd Hha vandane *kshipat \ tatra vriddho ^hravid hhi" 
pam *'pfithu dehi padam mama " \ 8. Sarovare punah kehipto vavjridhe 
tat^amdnavdn \ Hehe " dehi vjihat ethdnam " prdkshipach ehdmhudhau 
tatah I 9. Lakeha-ycjaruHmtlrna^ kahana-rndtrena so *hhavat \ mateyaM 
tarn adhhutafh dfishivd viemitah prdhravid Mdnuh \ 10. ^'Kohhavdn 
nanu vai Vishnur Ndrdyana namo ^etu te \ mdyayd mohayaei md0i kimar* 
tJiam eha Jandrdana*' \ 11. ManuT'Ukto^ 'hravld matsyo Manuih vai 
pdlane ratam | avatlrno hhavdydeya jagato duahta-naehfaye \ 12. " Sap^ 
tame divase tv ahdhi^ pldvayiehyati vai jagat \ upaethitdyufh ndvi tvaih 
vijadlni vidhdya cha \ 13. Saptarehxbhih parivfito niSdm Irdhmlih cha* 
riehyaei \ upasthitaaya me ifinge nibadhnlhi mahdhina'* \ 14. Ity uktvd 
^ntardadhe matayo Manuh kdla-pratlkahakah \ atitah aamudra udvele 
ndvam druruhe tadd \ 15. Ekarifinga-dharo matayo haimo niyuta^ 
yofanaJ^ \ ndvam hahandha tach-ehhfinge mataydkhyam cha purdnakam \ 
16. Skdrdva mataydt pdpa-ghnaih aa-irutam irutihhih irutam (?) | hrah" 
ma^eda-praharttdrarh Sayagrlvaih eha ddnavam | 17. Avadhld vedO' 
mantrddydn pdlaydmdaa KeSava^ \ 

** YasiBhtha said : 1. Declare to me YishQU, the cause of the creation, 
in the form of a Fish and his other incarnations; and the Puranic 
revelation of Agni, as it was originally heard frt)m Yishnu. Agni 
replied : 2. Hear, o Yasish^ha, I shall relate to thee the Fish-incar- 
nation of Yishnn, and his acts when so incarnate for the destruction of 

^ Profenor Aufrecht's transcript has this reading Manur^kio; which I have re- 
tained, although I waa not aware that Manua waa commonly uaed for MtmUf except 
in the Yedio period. 


the wicked, and protectioa of the good. 3. At the close of the past 
Xalpa there occurred an occasional dissolution of the universe caused 
by Brahma's sleep, when the Bhurloka and other worlds were inun- 
dated by the ocean. 4. Manu, the son of Vivasvat, practised austere 
fervour for the sake of worldly enjoyment as well as final liberation. 
Ouce, when he was offering the libation of water to the Pityis in the 
river Kfitamala, (5) a small fish came into the water in the hollow of 
his hands, and said to him when he sought to cast it into the stream, 
'Do not throw me in, (6) for I am a&aid of alligators and other 
monsters which are here.' On hearing this Manu threw it into a jar. 
Again, when grown, the Fish said to him, ' Provide me a large place.* 
7. Manu then cast it into a larger vessel (?). When it increased there, 
it said to the king, ' Give me a wide space.' 8. When, after being 
thrown into a pond, it became as large as its receptacle, and cried out 
for greater room, he fiung it into the sea. 9. In a moment it became 
a hundred thousand yojanas in bulk. Beholding the wonderful Fish, 
Manu said in astonishment: (10) 'Who art thou? Art thou Yishnu? 
Adoration be paid to thee, o Karayana. Why, o Janardana, dost thou 
bewilder me by thy illusion?' 11. The Fish, which had become in- 
carnate for the welfare of this world and the destruction of the wicked, 
when so addressed, replied to Manu, who had been intent upon its pre- 
servation : (12) ' Seven days after this the ocean shall inundate the 
world. A ship shall come to thee, in which thou shalt place the seeds, 
(13) and accompanied by the rishis shalt sail during the night of Brah- 
ma. Bind it with the great serpent to my horn, when I arrive. 14. 
Having thus spoken the Fii^h vanished. Manu awaited the promised 
period, and embarked on the ship when the sea overflowed its shores. 
15. (There appeared) a golden Fish, a million yojanas long, with one 
horn, to which Manu attached the ship, (16) and heard from the Fish 
the Matsya Purana, which takes away sin, together with the Yeda. 
Ke^ava then slew the Danava Hayagrlva who had snatched away the 
Yedas, and preserved its mantras and other portions." 

The following is S^ridhara's comment, before referred to, on the 
legend of the deluge, as told in the Bhagavata Purana. These remarks 
have been well translated and explained in the preface to the 3rd volume 
of his edition of this Purana (pp. zzxviii ff.) by M. Burnouf, whose 
elaborate discussion of the legend extends from p. xxiii to p. liv. 


Atra idaih ehintyafn *' kirn ay am mahdpralayo dainandino v& '^ iti \ 
tatra tdvad **hrdkmo layah'' (y, 7) iti **yo*8dv asmin mahd-kaipe*' 
(v. 11) iti eha ukier *^ mahdpralayah** iti prdptam **na^* iti hrumah \ 
maMpralaye prithivy-ddlndm a/caieshdsamhhavdd '' ydvad hrdhml niSd " 
(v. 87) ity-ddy-ukti' virodhdch eha \ ato ** dainandana " iti yuhtam \ na 
eha etad api sangachhate \ samvarttakair anavrishfy-ddibhir vind akatmdd 
eva ^* saptame 'hani traihkyafk nimankshyati*^ (y. 82) iti matsyokter 
anupapatteh \ yathoktam prathama-tkandhe ^*rupam*' (i. 3, 15) ity ddi 
tad api tadd durghatam \ na hi pralaya-dvaye *pi ** mahlmayydm ndvy*' 
drohah samhhavati na eha Chakshusha-manvantare pralayo *sti \ tatM 
eha sati aaptamo Manur Vaivasvatah ity api diirghafam sydt \ '' tvaik 
tdvad oshadhih sarvdh " (viii. 24, 84) ity-ddi-nirdeh *pi na sangachhate \ 
na hi tadd oshadhy-ddindih sattvdndm elia avaieshah samhhavati \ tasmdd 
anyathd varnyate \ naivdyam vdstavah ko ^pi pralayah \ kintu Satyavra* 
tasya jndnopadeSaya dvirbhuto hhagavdn vairdgydrtham akasmdt prala* 
yam iva dariaydmdsa yathd ^sminn eva^Vdiva^ata-manvantare Mdrkan- 
deydya dariitavdn \ tad-apekahayd eva eha '^mahd-kalpe^sminn^^ Hi 
viieshanaih sangachhate \ tathd eha ** tata^ samudrah udvelaJ^ sarvatnf^ 
aamadriiyata*^ (y. 41) iti tasyaiva yathd darianam uktam ity eshd dik | 

'' Here we haye to consider whether this was a great dissolution of 
the uniyerse, or one of those which occur at the close of each day of 
Brahma. If it he supposed from the expressions ' a dissolution pro* 
ceediDg from BrahmS, ' (y. 7), and ' he is the same who in this Maha-^ 
kalpa' (y. 11), that it was a great dissolution, we reply, — no; hecause 
in a great dissolution the earth and other worlds cannot possihly remain 
in existence, and hecause this would he opposed to the words ' so long 
as the night of Brahma lasts ' (y. 87). Hence it might appear that it 
must he one of the dissolutions which occur at the end of a day of 
Brahma. But this also is impossihle, hecause it would be at yariance 
with the Fish's words that ' the three worlds should be submerged on 
the seventh day,' (y. 32) suddenly, without the drought and other cala- 
mities which precede a dissolution. What is stated in the first book 
(iii. 15), 'at the deluge, in the Chakshusha Manvantara, he took the 
form of a Fish, and preseryed Manu Yaiyasvata, whom he placed in a 
ship formed of the earth,' ^ would also in that case be inconceivable ; for 

^ Bhagavata Parana^ i. 3. 16. Eupatk sa jogrihe maityam Chak»hu9hodadhi'$am* 
plav0 I navy arop^a mahlmayyam apad Vaivatvatam Manttm | On this passage tlsa 


(1.) in neither of the two dissolntionB oonld any one be placed ' in a 
ship in the form of the earth ' (as the earth is submerged in the one 
case and altogether destroyed in the other) ; (2.) there is no diBsolution 
of the world in the Chakshnsha Manvantara ; (3.) in the case supposed 
the existence of a seventh Mann, the son of Yivasvat would be im- 
possible (for the fourteen Manns succeed each other in one Kalpa 
without the intervention of any dissolution). And in that case> 
the command to take 'all the plants into the ship' (viii. 24, 34), 
would be inconceivablci since no plants or other such substances are 
left at such a period. Such being the fact, the narrative must be 
otherwise explained. It was in fact no real dissolution which is 
here related. But the deity, who appeared to teach Satyavrata 
knowledge, shewed him suddenly the semblance of a dissolution to 
instil into him dispassion, just as in the Yaivasvata Manvantara 
he shewed to Markandeya. And if referred to this, the words ' in 
this Mahakalpa' will be conc^vable. And consequently the words 
' Then the sea was beheld overflowing its shores on every side ' are 
spoken with reference to what Satyavrata saw (in the vision). Such is 
an indication of the purport of the Section." 

Sridhara Sv&min here reasons only upon the data supplied by the 
particular version of the story which he found before him in the Bha- 
gavata, and does not seem to have extended his researches so far as to 
ascertain whether the legend might not exhibit some variations as nar- 
rated in other Puranas. If he had turned to the Matsya Purana he 
would have found that one of his objections, viz., that drawn from the 
absence of any reference to the calamities supposed to precede a disso- 
lution, did not apply to the account there given ; since that narrative 
expressly asserts that these premonitory signs were manifested. Others 
of his objections apply no doubt to the other narratives as well as to 
that in the Bhagavata. According to the ordinary Puranic theory (see 
above, pp. 43 ff.) fourteen Manus exist in each Ealpa, and one succeeds 
another without the intervention of any pralaya or dissolution. It is 
obviously inconsistent with this theory to represent such a dissolution 

8'rTdhara remarks : Tadyapi tHaiwantaravMan$ pralayo -ndtti tathapi kenachit katf 
Utktna Satyavralaya maya pradariita \ yatha *< akan4e Mark(m4eyaya *' Hi drash' 
favyam \ ** Although there is no dissolutioii at the end of a Manvantara, yet, through 
8 oertain sport an illusion was shown to SatjaTrata, as in the other passage where it 
ii said ' Suddenly to Miirkan^eya,' etc." 


as taking place either during the life of any of the llanuSi or after his 
disappearance. It is even doubtful, or more than doubtful (Wilson's 
Yish. P. i. p. 50 f. and p. 44, above) whether one Manu can exist con- 
temporaneously with another, and yet, according to the Matsya and Agni 
Puranas (see above, pp. 205 ff., 211 f.) Bianu Yaivasvata is said to have 
lived during his predecessor's period, although the Bhagavata avoids 
this difficulty by making Satyavrata the hero of the story and by re- 
presenting him as being bom again as Manu Yaivasvata at the begin- 
ning of the next Manvantara. (M. Bumouf 's Preface above referred to 
may be consulted for further remarks on this subject.) The authors of 
the Mahabharata and the Puranas do not, however, appear to have been 
so sensitively alive to inconsistencies of this description as S^ridhara. 
Perhaps the system of Ealpas and Manvantaras may not have been so 
clearly defined, or so generally current, when the older parts, at least of 
the Mahabharata, were composed, as at a later period.''^ And even the 
Puranic writers may not have cared very much to preserve a strict 
congruity in all that they wrote. In fact they may have had no great 
faith in the authority of speculations so arbitrary and artificial as those 
relating to the great mundane periods to which I refer, — speculations 
which were derived from no higher source than previous writers of 
their own class. The case, however, was different with the Commen- 
tators, who lived at a later period, and who seem to have regarded the 
established doctrine regarding Ealpas and Manvantaras as an article 
of faith. 

There is, however, no doubt that, for the reasons above assigned, this 
legend of a Flood, such as is described in the Mahabharata and the 
Puranas, does not fit into the system of Ealpas and Manvantaras. But 
what is the inference which we ought to draw from this circumstance ? 
M. Bumouf believes (1.) that the theory of great mundane periods and 
periodical dissolutions of the universe was received in India from very 
early times (Bhag. P. iii. Pref. p. xliii.) and (2) that it was older than 
the legend of a deluge, as, although the latter may have been derived 
from ancient tradition, the style in which it is related in the Mahabha- 
rata and the Puranas has nothing of the archaio colouring of the Iti- 
hasas contained in the Brahmanas, and it had not^ so far as he knew, 

''^ The Svfiyamblmva Manyantara is mentioned in the 8'fintip. vene 12658, bat no 
detailf are giyen [kfite yug9 maharv\ja pura Svayambhu9$ 'ii(«r#). 


been fonnd in any work of the class last named(p. zxyii.), and was not, 
he anticipated, likely to be discovered there (lii.). The conclusion which 
he deduces from these premises, and from the absence of any tradition 
of any great local inundation (pp. xlviii. and li.), is that, although, as 
related in the Mahabharata and the Puranas, the legend of the deluge 
has received in some respects an Indian character (xxxi. ff. ; xlv. ff.), 
it is not in its origin Indian, (li.), but was most probably imported 
into Hindustan from a Semitic source, whether Hebrew or Assyrian 
(lii.-liv.). The first of M. Bumouf's premises, regarding the great 
antiquity of the system of Kalpas, Manvantaras, and mundane disso- 
lutions, is not borne out by the Vedic hymns, or anything that has yet 
been found in the Brahmanas (see above, pp. 45 ff.). And his antici- 
pation that no reference to a deluge would be discovered in any of the 
older Indian records has proved incorrect, as is shewn by the legend of 
Manu quoted above (p. 181 ff.) from the Siitapatha Brahmana. 

Professor Weber, by whom attention was first drawn (in his Indischo 
Studien, i. 160 ff.) to this passage, shows how materially it interferes 
with Buroouf 's results. If there is no proof of the great antiquity of 
the coamical theory which that great scholar supposes to be inconsistent 
with the early existence in India of any tradition of a deluge, whilst on 
the other hand there is distinct evidence that that tradition was actually 
current there at a much earlier period than he imagined, it is clear that 
his supposition of its having been introduced into that country from an 
exclusively Semitic source loses much of its probability. 

The explanation by which S^ridhara endeavours to maintain the con- 
sistency of the Puranio narratives and theories seems to be altogether 
unfounded. There is no appearance of the authors either of the Bha- 
gavata, or Matsya, or Agni Puranas having intended to represent the 
deluge as a mere vision. They evidently meant this narrative to bo 
taken literally, just as much as anything else that they describe. 

I shall now compare the versions of the legend given in the Maha- 
bharata and Puranas with each other, and with that quoted above from 
the Satupatha Bruhmaga. 

I. The following are tlie peculiarities of the narrative in the Sata- 
patha Brahmana : 

(1.) It makes no reference to any great mundane periods, such as 
Kalpas or Manvantaras. 


(2.) It does not speak of a dissolution of the world {pralaya\ bat of 
a flood {augha) which swept away all living creatures except Manu. 

(3.) It does not fix the number of days or years after which the flood 
should come. 

(4.) It speaks of Manu simply, without assigning to him any patro- 
nymic, such as Vaivasvata.''* 

(5.) It contains no allusion to the locality in which he was when the 
flsh came to him. 

(6.) It makes no mention of the flsh being thrown into any river. 

(7.) It is silent as to Manu being accompanied by any rishis when he 
embarked on the ship, and as to his taking any seeds along with him. 

(8.) It speaks of the ship as having rested on the " Northern moun- 
tain," and of a place called '* Manu's Descent." 

(9.) It does not say anything of any deity being incarnate in the 

(10.) It represents Iijia as produced from Manu's oblation, and as the 
mother of his oflspring, begotten apparently in the natural way. 

It is manifest from this abstract, when compared with what follows, 
that the flood described in the Brahmana is distinguishable in various 
respects from the dissolution, or pralaya, of the later works. 

II. The legend as told in the Mahabharata agrees with that of the 
SI P. Br. in some, and differs from it in other particulars : 

(1.) It does not specify any Kalpa or Manvantara. 

(2.) It speaks of a dissolution of the universe {^pralaya\ and of the 
time of its punflcation by water {samprakshulana-kalah) having arrived. 

(3.) It makes the flsh declare that this event should take place 
speedily {achirat), and alludes to no antecedent calamities. 

''I Manu Vaivasrata is however mentioned in 8'. P. Br. xiii. 4, 3, 3. *' Mamtr Fot- 
vatvato raja " ity aha \ iatya manuthya vUah \ ** He says * Manu Yaivasvata king.' 
Men are his subjects/' Further on, xiii. 4, 3, 6, Yama YaiTasTata is spoken of as 
King of the Pitris. Compare R.Y. x. 14, 1 ; 17, 1. In the Vulakhilya hymns 
attached to the R.V. iv. 1, Indra is mentioned as drinking Soma in the house of 
Manu Vivasvat (not Yaivasvata). In the Atharva-veda, riii. 10, 24, Manu Vaivas- 
Tata is spoken of as the calf of the cow Yiruj (tasya Manur Vaivawato vaUaJk), 
Tama is similarly spoken of in the preceding verse. In Yalakhilya, iiL 1, India is 
said to have drunk Soma in Manu Samvarani's house. The connection of the 
words Savarnya and Savarni with the word manu^ *< man," in R. Y. x.. 68, 8 f. and 
11, no doubt gave rise to the idea of a Manu SuvarQi. See Wilson's Yish^u P. 
4to. ed. pp. 266 ff., and Both's remark in Journal Germ. Or. Soo. Ti. 246 1, and 
R.Y. X. I'/, 2. 



(4.) It assigiiB to Mana the patronymic of Yaivasyata, bat mentioiia 
no other Manu. 

(5.) It represents the fish as coining to him when on the banks of 
the Chirinl river. 

(6.) It describes the fish as thrown into the Ganges before it was 
taken to the sea. 

(7.) It speaks of Manu as embarking on the ship with the seven 
rishis, and as taking with him all the seeds described by the Brahmans. 

(8.) It declares that the ship rested on the highest peak of the Hi- 
malaya, which was thence called Naubandhana. 

(9.) It makes the fish reveal himself as Brahma Prajapati. 

(10.) It describes Mann not as begetting offspring but as creating all 
sorts of living beings including msk. 

III. The Matsya Purana agrees in some points, and differs in others 
from the above details. 

(1.) It states that Manu, whom it styles the son of the Sun (Sahas- 
rakirandtmajaf and Ravi-nandana), i.e. Manu Yaivasvata, practised 
austerity after making over his kingdom to his son (v. 12). One might 
have supposed that he could only have done this in his own Manvan- 
tara ; but it is said further on (v. 34 f.) that he was informed by the fish 
that when the dissolution should come to an end, he should become a 
Prajapati and lord of the Manvantara ; and he receives a promise that he 
should be preserved during the dissolution (ii. 12), which, as appears 
from V. 15, was to take place at the end of the Chakshusha Manvantara. 
After this he was to create the world anew. We must therefore sup- 
pose the writer to have regarded Manu Yaivasvata as existing during 
the period of his predecessor, but as then occupying the inferior po- 
sition of a king. This difficulty is, as I have already remarked, avoided 
in the Bhagavata, which makes King Satyavrata the hero of the story. 

(2.) This Purana speaks of a dissolution {pralaya) and yet (i. 15ff.) 
represents Manu as asking and receiving from Brahma as a boon that 
when that dissolution should arrive, he should be the preserver of all 
things stationary and moving. 

(3.) It states that a hundred years and more would elapse before the 
dissolution, which was to be preceded by famine and various terrifio 

(4.) It represents Manu as the son of the Sun. See under head (1.). 


(5.) It mentions Malaya (Malabar) as the soene of Mann's ansterity, 
and of the apparition of the fish. 

(6.) It agrees with the Mahabharata in describing the fish as thrown 
into the (Ganges, though at so great a distance from Malabar. 

(7.) It is silent as to the seven rishis embarking on the ship, but 
speaks of Manu taking with him all sorts of creatures (Hying ap- 
parently) as well as seeds (chap. ii. v. 11). 

(8.) It does not bring the narrative to a conclusion (see above, p. 207), 
and thus has no opportunity of saying anything of the place where the 
ship rested. 

(9.) It speaks of Janardana (Yishnu) as the god who was manifested 
in the Fish. 

(10.) It refers to Manu as about to effect a creation (ii. 15), but also as 
preserving the existing animals and plants (ch. i. 15 ff., 31 f. ; ii. 2, 19). 

lY. According to the Bhagavata Purana : 

(1.) The event described was an '* occasional dissolution " (jnaimittiko 
layai^f see above, p. 45) at the end of a Ealpa (viiL 24, 7) ; and yet in 
contradiction with this it had previously been alluded to (i. 3, 15) as 
occurring at the close of the Chakshusha Manvantara. 

(2.) See head (1.). 

(3.) The dissolution was to take place after seven days (viii. 24, 32) ; 
and no premonitory calamities are referred to. 

(4.) The hero of the story is Satyavrata, king of Dravi^a, who was bom 
again in the present mah&halpa as the son of Yivasvat (w. 10, 11, 58). 

(5.) The soene of the incidents, with which the narrative begins, was 
the riveiWKritamala, in the country of Dravi^a. 

(6.) The fish is not thrown into any river after it had been onoe 
taken out of the Kfitamal&, and had grown large. 

(7.) Satyavrata is commanded to take with him into the ship the 
seven rishis, as well as plants, seeds, and all beings {Barva-taitvopH' 

(8.) Nothing is said of the place where the ship rested. 

(9.) Yishnu is the deity who took the form of a fish with the view 
of recovering the Yedas carried away by the Danava Hayagilva 
(w. 9, 57). 

(10.) No mention is made in this chapter of any creation effected by 
Manu ; but in is. i. an account is given of his descendants. 


y. The narrative in fhe Agni Furana agrees with that in the Bhaga- 
Tata, except in its much greater conciseness, and in making Manu 
Yaivasyata, and not Satjavrata, the hero of the story. 

Sect. IY. — Legendorry Accounts of the Origin of Castes among the D&- 
eeendants of Manu and Atri, according to the Puranas, 

TVe have already seen that it is distinctly affirmed in a passage 
quoted above (p. 126) from the Adiparvan of the Mahabharata, verses 
3138 ff.y that men of all classes, Brahmons, Kshattriyas, Yai^yas, and 
S^udras were descended from Manu, a statement which is clearly at 
Tariance with the notion of their having been separately created from 
different members of Brahma. This tallies with the account of the 
origin of castes which is found in those parts of the Puranas which 
profess to record the history of the two royal races, the solar and the 
lunar, which are said to have sprung from Manu Yaivasvata and Atri. 

The Yishnu Furana (which is here written in prose) makes the fol- 
lowing statement regarding Manu's descendants : 

iv. 1. 4. Sakala-jagatdm anddir ddihhutah fig-yajuh'Sdmadimaya-hha' 

gavad' FishnumagasgaBrahmano murttirHpam Hiranyagarhho hrahmdnda- 

to hhagavdn Brahma prdg hahhuva \ Brahmanai cha dakshindngmhtha- 

janmd Dakshah prajdpatih \ Dakshasgdpg Adiiih \ Aditer Viva^vdn \ 

Vivasvato Manuh \ Manor Ikshvdku-Nfiga'Lhrishta'S'arydti'Narish- 

yanta-Prdmiu'NdhhdganedishfO'Kdrusha'Frishadhrdkhydh ptitrdh ha^ 

bhihcuh I 6. Ishfim cha Mitrd- Varunayor Manuh putra-kdmai chakdra \ 

7. Tatrdpahute hotur apachdrdd lid ndma kanyd hahhuva |«8. Saiva 

Mitra-Varuna-prasdddt Sudyumno ndma Manoh putro MaifreydaU \ 

punaS cha Isvara-kopdt strl sat% Sonuhsunor Budhasya dirama-samipe 

hahhrdma \ 9. Sdnurdgai cha tasydm Budhah Pur&ravasam dtmajam ut- 

pddaydmdsa \ 10. Jdte cha tasminn amita-tejohhih paramarshihhir ishfi'- 

may ah rinmayo yajurmayah sdmamayo Hharvamayah sarvamayo mano^ 

mayo jndnamayo *kinchinmayo hhagavdn yajna-purusha-svarupt Sudyum- 

nasya pumstvam ahhilashadhhir yathdvad ishfah \ tatprasdddd lid punar 

api Sudyumno ^hhavat I 

<< Before the mundane egg existed the divine Brahma Hiranyagarbha^ 
the eternal originator of all worlds, who was the form and essence of 
Brahmii, who oonsiBtB of the divine Yishnu, who again is identical with 


the Biky Yajush, Saman and Atliarva-Vedas. From Brahma's right 
thumb^' was bom the Prajapati Daksha; Daksha had a daughter 
Aditi; from her was born Yivasvat; and from him sprang Manu. 
Manu had sons called Ikshvaku, Nfiga, Dhrishta, Baryati, Narishyanta, 
Pram^u, JN'abhaganedishta, Karusha, and Pfishadhra.'^ Desiroas of a 
son, Manu sacrificed to Mitra and Yaruna ; but in consequence of a 
wrong invocation through an irregularity of the hotri-priest, a daughter 
called Ila was bom. Then through the favour of Mitra and Yamna 
she became to Manu a son called Sudyumna. But being again changed 
into a female through the wrath of Iiivara (Mahadeva) she wandered 
near the hermitage of Budha the son of Soma (the Moon) ; who be- 
coming enamoured of her had by her a son called Pururavas. After 
his birth, the god who is formed of sacrifice, of the Eik, Yajush, Saman, 
and Atharva Ycdas, of all things, of mind, of nothing/* he who is in 
the form of the sacrificial Male, was worshipped by the rishis of infinite 
splendour who desired that Sudyumna should recover his manhood. 
Through the favour of this god Ila became again Sudyumna." 

Beg<irding the different sons of Manu the Puranas supply the follow- 
ing particulars : 

(1.) Prishadhra. — The Yishnu Purana says : 
PrisJiadhraa tu guru-gthhadhdch chhudratvam dgamat \ 
'' Pf ishadhra became a Sudra in consequence of his having killed 
his religious preceptor's cow." 

On the same subject the Harivam^a tells us, verse 659 : 
PrUliadhro himsayitvd tuguror gdmJanamejaya \ Mpdch chhudratvam 
dpannah \ 

" Pfishadhra having killed his Guru's cow, became a S^udra in con* 
sequence of his curse.'' 

This story is variously amplified in the Markandeya Purana, section 
cxii., and in the Bhagavata Purana ix. 2, 3-14. See Professor Wilson's 
note, Yishnu Purana, 4to. edit. p. 351, where the anthor remarks that 

'> See above, p. 72 f. 

^ Compare 'with thia the list of Manu's boiib given in the passage from the M. Bh. 
Adip. quoted above, p.^126. Nabhanedishta (not Nabhiganedish^) is mentioned in 
the Aitareya Bruhmana, and Taittiriya Sanhita (see above, p. 191), and S'aryStain the 
S'.P.Br.iv. 1,6, 1. SeeJonrn. Roy.As.Soc.forl866,p. llff. The Murk. P. czi. 8 ff., 
and the BhSg. P. ix. 1, 11 ff. treat also of Mana*8 sons and of the hirth of US. See 
Wilson's Yishnu P. 4to. ed. pp. 348-68, and Bnmouf '• Bhig. P. toL iii* pre^ Izx. fL 

7* Akinfihmmagafh *<not conaiatuig of aojthing." 


"the obviouB purport of this legend, and of some that follow, ia to 
account for the origin of the different castes from one common ancestor." 
(2.) Earusha. — The Vishnu Purana says, iv. 1, 13 : 
KariUhdt KdrUthd mahdhaldh Kihattriyd habhuvuh \ 
«Prom K&rusha the Elarushas, Eshattriyas of great power, wero 

The Bhagavata Purana, ix. 2, says : 

KdriUh&d M&nav&d dsan KdrUihdh Kihatira^atayah \ uttardpatha' 
goptdro hrahmanyd dharma-vaUaldh \ 

" From Karusha, son of Manu, came the Karushas of the Kshattriya 
caste, protectors of the northern region, devout, and lovers of duty." 
(3.) Kabhaga. — The Vishgu Pur&Qa says : 
Ndhhdgo Nedishfa-puiras tu vaiSyatdm agamat \ 
'* Kdbhaga, the son of Nedishta, became a Yai^ya." 
The Markan^eya Purana says he was the son of Dishta, and relates 
how he became a Yaiiya, by marrying the daughter of a man of that 
class (section cxiii. and Wilson, p. 852, note). The Bhagavata Purana, 
iz. 2, 23, says he became a Yai^ya in consequence of his works {Nd- 
hhdgo Dishfa-putro ^nyah karmabhir vaiiyatdm gatah). And yet a long 
list of his descendants is given, and among them occurs Marutta who 
was a Chakravarttin, or tmiversal monarch (Vishnu P. iv. 1. 15-17; 
Bhag. P. iz. 2, 23-28 ; Mark. P. czxviii.-czxxii.). He had a grandson 
called Dama, of whom the MarkancLeya Purana relates that at a Sva- 
yamvara he was chosen by the daughter of the King of Da^arna for her 
husband (cxxziv. 8), and that when the bride had been seized by throe of 
his rejected rivals (verse 16) she was rescued by him after he had slain 
one of them and vanquished another (verse 53) ; that subsequently that 
same vanquished rival in revenge killed Dama's father, who had retired 
into the wilderness as an ascetic (cxxxv. 18). The Purana in one of its 
recensions ends with the following curious particulars : 

Tatcd ehakdra tdtaaya raktenaivodaka-kriydm \ dtifinyam prdpya 8a 
pituh punah prdydt sva-mandiram \ VapushmataS cha mdmsena pinda- 
ddnafh ehakdra ha \ brdhmandn hhojdydmdia rakshah-kula-samudbhavdn \ 
evamvidhd hi rdj'dno hahhUvuh BvLrya-^athSa-jdh \ any$ 'pi sudhiyah surd 
yajvdnah idgtra-kovidd^ \ veddntam pafhamdndms tdn na tankhydtum 
ihotsahe | 

*' Dama then (after tearing out the heart of Yapushmat) performed 


with blood the rites to the manes of his father ; and having thus dis- 
charged his debt to his parent, he returned home. With the flesh of 
Yapashmat he formed the oblation which he offered, and fed the Brah- 
mans who were of Eakshasa descent. Of such character were the 
kings of the Solar race. There were also others who were wise, brave, 
priests, and skilled in the scriptures. I am unable here to enumerate 
those of them who studied the Yedanta." ^' 

The Harivam^a (section zL verse 658) tells us that " two sons of 
Kabhagarish^a, who were Yai^yas, became Brahmans " {Ndhha^drishfa- 
putrau dvau vaiiyau brdhmanatdM gatau). 

(4.) Dhfishta. — Of him the Yishnu Purana relates, iv. 2, 2 : 

Dhfishtasydpi Dhdrshfakam Kshattram safnabhavat \ 

« From Dhfishta sprang the Dharshfaka Eshattriyas.*' 

The Bhagavata Fur&Qa says, iz. 2, 17 : 

Bhfishtdd Dhdrshfam abhut Kahattram hrahma-hhUyam gatam kshitau \ 

"EromDfishta were descended the Dharshta Kshattriyas, who ob- 
tained Brahmanhood^ on earth." 

(5.) The last-named Purana enumerates in verses 19 ff. of the same 
section the descendants of Karishyanta, among whom was Agnive^ya, 
verse 21 : 

Tato 'gniveiyo hhagavdn Agnih wayam abhut tutah | Kdnlna iti 
vikhydto JdioJcarnyo mdhdn fishi^ \ tato hrahma-kulam jdtam Agnwi- 
iydyanam nripa \ Nariahyantdnvayah proktah \ 

« From him (Devadatta) sprang a son Agnive^ya, who was the lord 
Agni himself, and who was also called Kanlna and Jatukarnya the 
great rishi. From him was descended the Agniveiyayana race of 

^0 This quotation, which will be partly found in Prof. Wilson's note 22, p. 853, is 
taken from the section giiven separately by ProfL Banerjca at the end of his edition of 
this Puruna from a Maithila MS. which differs from that followed in his text (see his 
Preface, p. 30). In verses 6 f. of section cxxxri. however, of Prof. Banerjea's text, 
Dama threatens to do something of the same sort as in the other recension he is de- 
scribed to have actually done : 6. Tad aham tatya rakt$na dehotthena Vapushmatah \ 
na karotni gura tfiptim tat pravekshyt hutaa'anam \ 7. Taekehhimitmodaka'karma 
tatya tateuya tahkhye vinipatitatya \ mamgena tamyay d^ija-bhqjanam eha na eh$t 
pravekthyami htUaianaih tat | ^* 6. If I do not satiate my father with the blood from 
Vapushmaf s body, then I shall enter the fire. 7. If I do not celebrate with hit 
blood the obsequial rites of my father prostrated in the fray, and feed the BriOunans 
with (his) flesh, I shall enter the fire." 

7< The Commentator explains brahma-bhuyam by brahma^tvam, ** the state of 


Brabmans. The offspring of Narishyanta has been declared." That of 
Disbfa is next taken up. 

Some of the names of Mann's sons are repeated in the subsequent 
narrative. Thus we find a second Pran^u named among the descendants 
of Nabhaga (Wilson, 352). And in the Vishnu Purana, iv. 2, 2, a 
second Kabhaga is mentioned as follows : 

N&lkdgasydtmajo Ndhh&gas tasya AmharUhah | AmharisJiasyupi 
Virupo^hhavat Virikpat PrUhadaivo jajne tat<U cha Rathitarah | tatruyam 
ilokah I *^ ete hhattra-prasuta vat punaS changirasah imrituh \ Rathita- 
rdndm pravardh hshattropetd dvijdtayali " | 

** The son of K&bhaga was Nabhaga ; his son was Ambarisha. From 
him sprang Virupa ; from him Pyishadasva ; and from him Rathitara ; 
regarding whom this verse is current: * These persons sprung from 
a Kshattriya, and afterwards called Angirases, were the chief of the 
Eathltaras, twice-born men (Brabmans) of Kshattriya race.*' " 

The Bhagavata thus explains the circumstance, ix. 6, 2 : 

ItathUarasydprajasya hhdrydydm tantave Wthiiah \ Angird janaya- 
tndsa hrahmavarchasinah sutdn \ ete kshetre prasutd vai punas tv Angi- 
rasdh smritdh \ Rathitardndm pravardh hshattropetd dvijdtayah \ 

"Angiras being solicited for progeny, begot sons possessing Brah- 
manical glory on the wife of Bathitara who was childless. These per- 
sons being bom of a (Kshattriya's) wife, but afterwards called descend- 
ants of AngiraSy were the chief of the Eathitaras, twice-born men (Brab- 
mans) of Kshattriya lineage." 

It will be observed that in thb last verse the Bhagavata reads hhettre 
prasutdh " bom of the wife (of a Kshattriya)," instead of kshattra-pro' 
sutdhy *' sprung from a Kshattriya," and thus brings this verse into a 
closer conformity with the one preceding it. Professor Wilson (p. 359, 
note) considers that the form given to the legend in the Bhagavata 
** is an afterthought, not warranted by the memorial verse cited in our 
text." It is difficult to determine whether or not this may be the 
case without knowing which of the two readings in that verse is the 
original one. 

(6.) The Vishnu Purana next proceeds to enumerate the descendants of 
Ikshvaku son of Manu« The representative of his line in the twenty- 
first generation was Harita, of whom it is said, iv. 3, 5 : 

^ See Prof. Wilson's note in p. 359 on this passage. 


Anibarishctsya Mdndhdtus tanaytuya Yuvandhah pufro ^bhut \ tasmad 
ITarito yaio ^ngiraso JTdritdh \ 

"The son of Ambarlsha '* son of Mandhatiri was Tuvana^va. From 
him sprang Karita, from whom the Harita Angirases were descended." 

These words are thas paraphrased by the Commentator : " from him 
sprang the Harita Angirases, Brahmans, chief of the family of Harita " 
{tasmad Hdritd Angiraso dvijdh Harita-gotra-pravardh). 

The Linga Purana, quoted by Prof. Wilson, states the same thing : 

Harito Tuvandhasya Mdritd yata dtmajdh \ eU hy Anyirasah pahhe 
hhattropetd dvijdtayah \ 

<< The son of Yuyana^va was Harita, of whom the Haritas were sons. 
They were on the side of Angiras, twice-born men (Brahmans) of 
Kshattrija lineage." 

And the Yayn Purana tells us with some variation : 

ITarito Tuvandhasya HdrUd hhUrayah smfitdh j et$ hy Anytrasa^ 
putrdh hshattropetd dvijdtayah \ 

" Harita was the son of Yuvanasva : (after whom) many persons were 
called Haritas. These were the sons of Angiras, twice-born men (Brah- 
mans) of Kshattriya race." 

This may mean that they were begotten by Angiras, as is said by 
the Bhagavata (see above) to have been the case with Bathltara's sons. 
In that case, however, as Nabhaga and Ikshvaku were brothers and Ba- 
thltara was only the fifth in descent from Nabhaga, whilst Harita was 
the twenty-first after Ikshvaku, — Angiras (if we suppose one and the 
same person be meant in both cases) must have lived for sixteen gene- 
rations ! 

Such are the remarkable notices given in the Puranas of the rise of 
different castes among the descendants of some of the sons of Manu 
Yaivasvata the legendary head of the solar line of kings. I shall now 
add some similar particulars connected with the lunar dynasty. 

According to the Vishnu Purana (iv. 6, 2 ff.) Atri was the son of 
Brahma, and the father of Soma (the moon), whom Brahma installed 
as the sovereign of plants, Brahmans and stars ^' {aJeshaushadbi'dvifa- 
nakshtrdndm ddhipatye ^Ihyasechayat), After celebrating the rajasuya 
sacrifice. Soma became intoxicated with pride, and carried off Tara 

^ Wc hare aheody had a penon of tbii name the son of Nabhaga. See above. 
^> See Joum. Boy. As. Soc. for 1865, p. 136 ff. 



(Star), the wife of Bfihaspati the preceptor of the gods, whom, although 
admonished and entreated hy Brahma, the gods, and riahis, he refosed 
to restore. Soma's part was taken bj XJ^anas ; and Budra, who had 
studied under Angiras, aided Bphaspati (Angiraaaicha Mkahpaiabdha* 
vidyo hhagavdn Ittidro BfihaipaUh idhdyyam akarot),^ A fierce con- 
flict ensued between the two sides, supported respectively by the gods 
and the Daityas, etc. Brahma interposed, and compelled Soma to 
restore Tara to her husband. She had, however, in the mean time 
become pregnant, and bore a son Budha (the planet Mercury), of whom, 
when strongly urged, she acknowledged Soma to be the father. Puru- 
ravas, as has been already mentioned, was the son of this Budha by 
Ila, the daughter of Manu. The loves of Pururavas and the Apsaras 
XJrva^i are related in the Satapatha Brahmana, xi. 5, 1, 1 ;®Mn the 
Vishnu Purana, iv. 6, 19 ff.; in the Bhagavata Purana, ix, 14 ;^ and 
in the Harivam^a, section 26. The Mahabharata, Adip. sect. 75, alludes 
to Pururavas as having been engaged in a contest with the Brahmans. 
This passage will be quoted hereafter. According to the Yishnu 
Purana, iv. 7, 1, Pururavas had six sons, of whom the eldest was 
Ayus. Ayus had five sons : Nahusha, Eshattravfiddha, Bambha, Baji, 
and Anenas. The narrative proceeds (iv. 8, 1) : 

Kihattravrtddhdt Sunahotrak ^ putro ^hha/vat \ Kdia-Leia- OriUamO' 
das trayo ^syabhavan \ GfitsamadMya SitunakaS ehdiurvarnya-pravartta' 
yitd ^hhut I Kdiasya KaiirajoB Mo JHrghatamdh putro ^hhavat \ Bhan- 
vantarU Dlryhatanuuo *hhut \ 

" Kshattravfiddha had a son Sunahotra, who had three sons, K&ia, 
Le^a, and Gpitsamada. Prom the last sprang S'aunaka, who originated 
the system of four castes.^ Ka^a had a son Ela^ir&ja, of whom again 
Dlrghatamas was the son, as Dhanvantari was of Dirghatamas.'' 

^ This is the only mention I have eyer happened to encounter of the great Ma- 
h&deya haying been at school ! 

B^ This passage is translated by Profenor Mtiller in the Oxford Essays for 1866, 
pp. 62 f. ; and the legend has been formed on the basis of the obscure hymn in the 
£.V. X. 95, in which the two names of Pururavas and Urrasl occur as those of the 
interlocutors in a dialogue. 

n A short quotation has been already made firom this narratiye. See aboye, p. 158. 

^ Both my MSS. read Sunahotra. Professor Wilson has Suhotra, 

^ The Commentator explains the words ehaturvarnya-pravarttayita by saying 
that the four castes were produced among his descendants {iad^vamde ehaivaro varna 
abhavan). This explanation agrees with the statement of the Yayu Purana given in 
the text. 


The Yaym Foraija, as quoted by Piofbeaor Wibon (Y. P. 4tou ed. p. 
406), ezpresfles the matter differentlj^ thus : 

Fu^ QfiUamaioiya oh^ Simako f^a^ya Saunakal^ \ hrdhmandh hshaU 
triydi thaiva vaiiydf^ iildrdi Mhaiva oha \ tioiya vaAie atmudbkiM 
vichitraih karmabhir dvifdh \ 

" The son o£ Ghritsamada was Siasaka, from whom sprang Skunaka. 
In his family were bom Brahmans^ Kahattriyas, TaiiyaSi and S^dras, 
twice-born men with various functions." ^ 

In like manner the Harivamia statea in section 29, verse 1520 : 

Putro Gfthamadoitfdpi Sunako yasya Satmakdh \ hrdhmand^ hiluU* 
trtydi chawa vaUydh Sudrda Mhaiva eha | 

** The son of Gyitsamada was Stmaka, from whom sprang the 8axx^ 
nakas, Brahmans, EshattriyaB, Yai^yas^ and S&dras." 

Something similar is said of Gfitsamati (who was the son of a Su« 
hotra, although not the grandson of Kahattravriddha) in a following 
section, the d2nd of the same work, verse 1732 : 

8a chdpi Vitathah ptdrdn janaydmdia paneha vai | Suhoiraih eha 8ih 
hMram Oayafk Qar^am tatkaiva oka \ KapiUUk eha mahdtmdnam Suhih 
iratf^a mta^aifam \ JTdiakai eha mahdsattvai tathd QfiUamatir nripah \ 
tathA Ofitsamateh putrd hrdhmandh luhaUriydl^ Mah \ 

'' Yitatha was the father of five sons, Suhotra, Suhotp, Gaya, Garga, 
and the great Kapila. Suhotra had two sons, the exalted Xaiteka, and 
King Oritsamati. The sons of the latter were Brahmana, Ki^hattriyas, 
and Yaiiyaa." 

The Bhagavata Puraoa, ix. 17, 2 f., has the following notioe of 
Eshattravfiddha's descendants : 

KshattravTiddha-autoiydMan Suhotrasydtnqfdi trayahi \ Kdiyah Kuh 
QfiUamadai iU OfiUtmaidd abhfiU \ Sunako SoMnaho yaaya iahfr*- 
eha^profforo mum^ \ 

" Suhotra, son of Eshattraviriddhai had three sons, Kaiya, Euia, and 
Giritsamada. From the last sprang 8hnak% and from him Skunaka, the 
eminent Uuni, versed in the Big^veda." 

* On ti^is Professor Wilsom remaikf, note, p. 496 : << Tl^e exiftence of bat on« 
easte in the age of purity, howerer ineompatible with the legend which ascribes the 
origin of the four tribes to Brahmfi, is ererjwhere admitted. Their separation is 
assigned to different indiriduals, whether aocnrately to any one aiay be donbted ; b«t 
the notion indicatss that the distaactioa was ol a aofial or political Qha^aeter." 


It iB to be observed that this Giitsamada, who is here described as 
beloDging to the regal lineage of PururaTas, is the reputed rishi of 
many hymns in the second Man^ala of the Eig-veda. Begarding him 
the Commentator Sayana has the following remarks in his introduction 
to that Mandala : 

Mandala-drashtd GriUamadah fUhil^ \ $a eha purvam AngirMo-luU 
Sunahotrasya putrah san yajna-kdle ^surair grxhita^ Indrena mochitah \ 
paschdt tad-vachanenaiva Bhrigti-hule Sututka-putro Gritsamada-ndmd 
^hhat I tathd chdnukramanikd **Yah Angirasah Siiunahotro hhutvd Bhdr- 
gavah Siiunako *hhavat sa Gritsamado dvitlyam mandalam apaSyad " iti \ 
tathd tasyaiva Saunakasya vachanam fishy-anukramane ^^ tvam Agne " 
%t% I ^^Gritsamadah S'aunako JBhrigutdm gatah | S'aunohotro prakrityd tu 
yah Afigirasa itchy ate " iti \ toimad mandala-drashtd Saunako Gritsa^ 
madah fishih \ 

** The seer {i.e, he who received the revelation) of this Mandala was 
the rishi Gfitsamada. He, being formerly the son of S^imahotra in the 
family of the Angirasas, was seized by the Asuras at the time of sacri* 
fice and rescued by Indra. Afterwards, by the command of that god, 
he became the person named Gfitsamada, son of S^unaka, in the family 
of Bbfigu. Thus the Anukramanika (Index to the £ig-veda) says of 
him : ' That Gfitsamada, who, having been an Angirasa, and son of 
S^unahotra, becamo a Bhargava and son of S'unaka, saw the second Man- 
dala.' So, too, the same S'aunaka says in his Eishi-anukramana regarding 
the Mandala beginning with* Thou, o Agni' : — * Gritsamada son of S^u- 
naka who is declared to have been naturally an Angirasa, and the son of 
S^unahotra, became a Bhfigu.' Hence the seer of the Mandala is the 
rishi Gritsamada son of S'unaka." 

It will be noticed that (unless we are to suppose a different Gritsa- 
mada to be intended in each case) there is a discrepancy between the 
Puranas on the one hand, and Sayana and the Anukramanika on the 
other ; as the Purai^as make Gritsamada the son of S^unahotra or Su- 
hotra, and the father of Shnaka ; whilst the Anukramanika, followed 
by SayaQa, represents the same personage as having been, indeed, ori- 
ginally the son of S^unahotra of the race of Angiras, but as having 
afterwards become, by what process does not appear, the son of Sunaka 
of the raoe of Bhfigu. 

In his translation of the Big-veda (ii. 207 f.) Professor Wilson refers 


to a legend aboat King Yitaliayya in the Ann^asana-parvan of the Ma- 
habharata (verses 1944-2006) which gives a different account of Qpt- 
samada's parentage. It begins: S^^nu rdjdn yathd rdjd Vltahavyo 
mahdyaidh \ rdjarshir durldbham prdpto hrdhmanyam loka-satkritam \ 
^* Hear, o king, how the renowned Yltahavya, the royal rishi, attained 
the condition of Brahmanhood venerated bj mankind, and so difficult 
to be acquired." It happened that Divodasa, King of KaiSi (Benares) 
was attacked by the sons of Yitahavya, and all his family slain by them 
in battle. The afflicted monarch thereupon resorted to the sage BhS,riL- 
dvaja, who performed for him a sacrifice in consequence of which a son 
named Pratardana was bom to him. Pratardana, becoming an accom- 
plished warrior, was sent by his father to take vengeance on the Yita- 
havyas. They rained upon him showers of arrows and other missiles, 
"as clouds pour down upon the Himalaya" * {abhyavarshanta rdjdnam 
himavantam ivdmhuddh); but he destroyed them all, and "they lay with 
their bodies besmeared with blood, like kinsuka-trees ^ cut down " 
{apatan rudhirdrdrdngd nikrittd iva kimiukdh), Yltahavya himself 
had now to fly to another sage, Bhfigu, who promised him protection. 
The avenger Pratardana, however, followed and demanded that the 
refugee should be delivered up : 

Asyeddnlm hadhdd adya hhavishydmy anrinah pituh \ tarn uvdcha kjrt* 
pdvUhto Bhrigur dharma-hhrttdm varah \ " nehdsti kshattriyah kaichit 
sarve hime dvijdtayah " | Hat tu vaehanam irutvd Bhrigos tathyam Pra^ 
tardanah | pdddv upoipriiya ianaih prahrishfo vdkyam abravU \ evatn 

apy asmi hhayavan kritakfityo na Bafhiayah \ tydjito hi tnayd 

jdtim esha rdjd JBhrtgHdvaha \ tatas tendbhyanujndto yayau rdjd Pro- 
tardanah \ yathd-gatam mahdrdja tnuktvd visham ivoragah | Bhrigor 
vachana-mdtrena sa eha hrahmarshitdih gatah \ Vltahavyo mahdrdja hrah" 
mavdditvam eva eha \ tatya Ofitsamadah putro r&penendra ivdparah j 
^'Sakras tvam " iti yo daityair nigrihUah kildhhavat \ rigvede varttate 
ehdgryd irutir yasya mahdtmanah \ yatra Grttsamado ^^ brahman^' brdh* 
manaih sa mahlyate | m hrahmaehdrl viprarshi^ irlmdn Ofitsamado 
'hhavat I 

"Pratardana says: <By the slaughter of this (Yltahavya) I shall 

^ This Bimile seems to indicate a fBinitiarity with the manner in which the doadi 
collect, and discharge their contents on the outer range of the Himalaya. 
vt The Kinsaka is a tree bearing a red blossom (But4aJrondo$a). 

290 fKABITtOK 01^ Tfifi raSCSKT OF 

now, to-day> be acquitted of my debt to iny father.' Bhrigo, tbe most 
eminent of religions men, filled with compassion, answered : * There is 
no Kshattriya here : all these are Bifibmans.' Hearing this troe aa- 
eertion of Bhfign, Pratardana was glad, and gently touching the sage's 
feet, rejoined : * Even thus, o ^orioos saint, I have gained my object 
.... for I hare compelled this King {$.$, Bajanya) to relinquish his 
caste.' King Pratardana then, after receiTing the sage's salutationB, 
departed, as he came, like a serpent which has discharged its poison t 
while Yltahavya by the mere word of Bhpgu became a Brahman-rishi, 
and an utterer of the Yeda. G^tsamada, in form like a second Indra, 
was his son ; he was seized by the Daityas, who said to him, * Thoa 
art Sieikra' (Indra). In the Rig-veda the texts (iruti) of this great 
rishi stand first" There Gfitsamada is honoured by the Brahmans 
(with the title of) * Br&hm&n.' This illustrious personage was a Brah- 
mach§rin, and a Brahmia-rishi." 

According to the enumeration of Gptsamada's family, which follows 
here, Biinaka was his descendant in the twelfth generation, and Siaunaka 
in the thirteenth. The story concludes with these words : 

JSva0i vipratvatn agamai VUahavyo narddhdpak \ Bhrigoh prasdddd 
rdjendra kahattriyah hhattriyarihdbha \ 

'* Thus did King Yitahavya, a Kshattriya, enter into the condition 
of Brahmanhood by the favour of Bhfigu." 

In the next chapter we shall again notice Yltahavya among the Kshat- 
triyas who are dedszed by tradition to have been the authors of Yedic 

King Divodasa was the sixth in deeceni from Kk&SL brother of Gfit- 
eamada. Of him the Harivafiia states, seotion 32, verse 789 f. : 

Divoddsasya d&yado brahmarMr Mitrdyur nripah | Maitrdyawu 
tata^ Somo Mditrey&a tu taiah imrtUt^ \ 0te 9a% sanUntdh paktham 
hhattropetda tu Bkdryw&h \ 

''The son of Divodasa was the King lUtriLyu a Brahman-rishL 
From him sprang Soma MaitrayaQa, from whom the Maitreyas received 
their name. They, being of Kahattriya lineage, adhered as Bhargavas 
to the side <of the latter).*' 

** If I hafe oorreetly inteipreted thii vene, mad if Vf ** fint" we are to onder- 
stand first in order, it <ioei not accurately represent the state of the ease : as the 
hymns of Gptsamada only appear la the isooad MsQ^bUa. 


The twentietli in descent from the same Ka^a, brother of Giitsamada, 
was Bhargabhumiy of whom the Yishnn Parana says, ir. 8, 9 : 

Bh&rgiuya JBhdrgahhUmih \ tatai oMturvarnyorpra/vfittih \ %iy ete 
KdSayo hhnpatayah hathitah \ 

« The son of Bharga was Bhargabhumiy from whom the foor castes 
originated. Thus have the kings called Eaiis been declared." 

In two passages of the Harivam^ names identical, or nearly so, are 
found, but with a different progenitor in each case, in reference to 
which a similar statement is made. The first is in section 29, verse 1 596 : 

Vefiuhotra'Sutai chapi Bhargo ndma praj$ivarah \ Vatsaaga V^Ua^ 
hhUmU tu Bhrtgubhatnis tu Bhdrgavdt \ eU kg Angirasah putrd j&Cd 
vamii Hha Bhdrgave | Irdhmu^i kshattrigd vaiky&B trayaJ^ ptUrdk ^ 
sahasraSah \ 

" The son of Yenuhotra was Xing Bharga. From Yatsa sprang 
Yatsabhumi, and Bhfigubhumi from Bhargava. These descendaots of 
Angiras were then bom in the family of Bhpgu, BrShmans, Eshattriyas, 
and Yaifyas three (classes of) descendants in thousands." 

The second passage is in the d2nd section, Terse 1752 : 

Stfkwndraega putras tu 8atyak$twr mahdrathahi \ mto ^hhavad rndttd- 
tejd rdjd paramthdh&rmihah | VatHuya VdtsabhumU tu BhdrgabhUmit 
tu Bhdrgavdt \ ete hy Angirasah putrd fiUd vaihie *tha Bh&rga/v$ \ hrdh- 
mandh hhattriyd vaiSydh iudrdi cha Bharatarshahha \ 

*^ The warrior Satyaketu was the son of Sukumara, and a prince of 
great lustre and rirtue. From Yatsa sprang Yatsabhumi, and Bharga- 
bhumi from Bhargava. These descendants of Angiras were then bom 
in the frtmily of Bhrigu, Brahmans, Kshattriyas, Yaiiyas and S^udras.^ 

The parallel passage in the Yayu Fura^a, as quoted by Professor 
Wilson, p. 409, has names which are mostly different : 

Ve^uhotrO'Sutai ehdpi Odrgyo vai ndma vUrutah \ Odrgyasya Odr- 
gdbhumis tu Vdtso Vaisasya dhimata^ \ hrdhmandh kshattriydi chawa 
tayohputrdk mdhdrmikdh \ 

" The son of Yenuhotra was the renowned G^gya. Oargabhumi 
was the son of Gargya ; and Yatsa of the wise Yatsa. Brahmans and 
Eshattriyas were the virtuous ions of these two." ^ 

^ Professor Wilson, p. 410, note, gives t^joyuktah, "glorioos," instead of 
putral^ as the reading either of the Brahma Pnraaa, or of tbe HariTa&s'a, or both. 
^ In regard to these passages the reader may eoBsvlt the remarks of Professor 


Anottier son of AyuB (son of Parurayas) was Bamblia, of whom the 
Bhagavata Par&na says, ix. 17, 10 : 

Eamhhasya Hahhasah putro OahhlraS eh&kriyiu tatah \ tatya ksMire 
hrahmajajne fyinu vamiam Aneruuah \ 

** The son of Bambha was Babhasa, from whom sprang Oabhira and 
Akriya. From his wife Brahmans were bom : here now the race of 
Anenas " (another son of Ajns). 

Of the same Bambha the Vishnu Parana says (iv. 9, 8), Eamhhas to 
miapatyo ^Ihavat \ ^' Rambha was childless." 

Another son of Ayus, as we have seen, Vishnn Parana, iv. 8, 1, was 
Kahosha. He had six sons (Y. P. iv. 10, 1), of whom one was Yayati. 
The sons of the latter were Yada, Tarvasu, Druhyu, Ann, and Puni 
(Ibid. iv. 10, 2).*^ One of these five, Ann, had, as we are told, in the 
twelfth generation a son called Bali, of whom the Yishnu Parana, iv. 
18, 1, relates : 

Hem&t Sutapds tasmdd Balir yasya kthetirs IHryhatamasd Anga^ 
Banga-Kalinga-SuhmO'Pundr&khyam BdUyafh kahattram ajanyata \ 

<^ From Hema sprang Sntapas ; and from him Bali, on whose wife ^ 
Baleya Kshattriyas {i,e, Kshattriyas of the race of Bali), called Anga, 
Banga, Kalinga, Sahma, and Pan4ra were begotten by Dirghatamas." 

Professor Wilson (p. 445, note 12) quotes from the Vayu Parana a 
statement regarding the same x>erson that he had '^ sons who founded 
the four castes " {putrdn ehdturvarnya-kardn) ; and refers to a passage 
in the Matsya Puraga, in which Bali is said to have obtained from 

Wilson, p. 409, note 16, where a oommentator (on the Brfihma Parana, or the Hari- 
vamtfa] is quoted, who says that in the passage from these works ** another son of 
Vatsa the father of Alarka is spedfied, tiz., Vatsahhtimi ; while Bhargava is the 
brother of Vatsa ; and that (the persons referred to were) Angirases hecause Galaya 
belongred to that family, and (were bom in the family) of Bhrigu, hecause VisVamitra 
belonged to it" {VaUatya Alarka-pituh putrantaram aha ** VaUabhutntr*' iti \ 
** BKargavad** Vatta-bhrniuh \ ** Angiraso" Galava$ya Angiraaaivat \ ** Bhargava*' 
Vihamitratya Bhargavaivat). The Yishi^u Purana, iy. 8, 6, says that Yatsa was 
one of the names of Pratardana, son of DivodSsa, a descendant of Kasa, and a remote 
ancestor of Bhurgabhumi. See however Professor Wilson's note 13, p. 408. It is 
possible that the resemblance of the word Bharga to Bhargava may have occasioned 
the descendants of the former to be connected with the family of Bhrigu. 

>^ These five names occur together in the plural in a verse of the Kig-veda, i. 109, 
quoted abo7e, p. 179. 

M Kthettrfi bharyayOm jatatvad Baltya^ \ '* They were called descendants of Bali 
because they were bom of his wife." 


Brahmfi the boon that he should ** establish the four fixed castes " (cho' 
turo niyatdn varndma tvam sth&payeti). 

The Harivam^a gives the following account of Bali, in the course of 
which the same thing is stated ; section 31, verses 1682 ff. : 

Phendt tu Sutapdjajne autah Sutapaso Balih \ jdto mdnusha-yonau tu 
$a rdjd kdnehaneshudhih \ mahdyogl m tu Balir hahhuva nripatih purd \ 
putrdn utpddaydmdaa paneha vamichkardn hhuvi \ Angah prathamato 
jajne Vangah Suhmaa tathaiva cha \ Pundrah KalinyaS cha tathd Bdle- 
yam kshattram uchyate \ Bdleyd hrdhmandS chaiva tasya vamiahard 
hhuvi I Bales tu Brahmand datto varah prltena Bltdrata | mahdyogiivam 
dyuS cha kalpasya parimdnatah | sanyrdme chdpy ajeyatvam dhartne 
chaiva pradhdnatd \ trailokya-darianafh chdpi prddhdnyam prasave 
tathd I hale chdpratimatvam vai dharma-tattvdrthO'darSanam \ chaturo 
niyatdn varndms tvam cha sthdpayiteti cha \ ity ukto vihhund rdjd Bali^ 
Sdntim pardrh yayau \ tasyaite tanaydh sarve kthettrajd muni'-pungavdt \ 
eamhhutd Birghatapasah Sudeahndydm mahaujausa^ \ 

«Erom Phena sprang Sutapas; and the son of Sutapas was Bali. 
He was bom of a human mother, this prince with the golden quiver ; 
but King Bali was of old a great yogin. He begot five sons, who were 
the heads of races upon the earth. Anga was first bom, then Yanga, 
Suhma, Pundra and Kalinga ; such are the names of the Kshattriyas 
descended from Bali {Bdleydh), There were also Baleya Brahmans, 
founders of his race upon the earth. By Brahma, who was pleased, the 
boon was granted to Bali that he should be a great yogin, should live 
the entire length of a Kalpa, should be invincible in battle, should have 
pre-eminence in virtue, should have the power of beholding the whole 
three worlds, should have a superiority in begetting progeny, should be 
unequalled in strength, and should comprehend the essential principles 
of duty. And being thus addressed by the Lord in these words, ^ Thou 
shalt establish the four regulated castes,' King Bali attained supreme 
tranquillity. All these sons, the o£Espring of his wife, were begotten 
on Sudeshna by the glorious muni Dirghatapas." ^ 

» M. Laoglois must have fonnd in his MS. a different reading of the last line, as 
he renders it otherwise. Professor Wilson remarks (V.P. pp. 444, note 12) : "The 
Matsya calls Bali the son of Virochana, and ayu-kaipa'pramanikahj * existing for a 
whole Kalpa ; ' identifying him, therefore, only in a different period and form, with 
the Bali of the Vamana Avatiira " (Dwarf-incarnation). (See Wilson's Vishnu P. 
p. 265, note, and the Bhagavata P. iz. sects. 16-23, and other works quoted in th« 
4th Tol. of this work, pp. 116 ff. 


Apratiratlia is Teoorded as being a deaoendant of PiirTi (another of 
Yajati's sons), in the thirteenth generation (Wilaon, p. 448). Of him 
it is related, Yishnn Parana, ir. 19, 2 : 

Riteyoh Bantindrah putro ^hhikt \ Tamtum Apratirathaih Dhruvaik eha 
Bantindrah putr&n a/o&pa \ ApraHrath&t Kanvah \ iasyapi Medhdtithik \ 
ffotah Kanvdjfand dmja habhuhhuh \ Taikmtr Anilas tato Dwhyantddyai 
ehaivdra^ ptUrd hahhavuh \ DushyarUdeh ehakravartti Bharato 'hhavtU \ 

"Biteyu had a son Bantinfira, who had Tanso, Apratiratha and 
DhniTa for his sons.. From Apratiratha sprang Kanya. His son was 
Medh&tithi; from whom the X&nv&yana Brahmans were descended. 
From Tansn sprang Anila, who had four sons, Boshyanta, and others. 
From Dushyanta sprang the emperor Bharata." 

With some yariations the Bhagavata Parana says, ix. 20, 1 : 

P&ror vaihiam pravakshffdmi ytUrajdto '#f Bhdrata \ yatra rdjarBhayo 
vafhtyd hrahwuhvaihiyai chajqfnire | .... 6. Biieyoh Bantibhdro 'bhut 
trayaa tasydtmajd nifipa \ Sumatir Bhruvo ^pratirathah Kanvo 'pratira- 
thdmajah \ tiuya MeihdUtithU ta»mdt Ptaakanvddyd dvijatayah \ putro 
^hhut Sumater Bathhyo BuBhyantoB tat-siUo matah \ 

** I shall declare the raoe of Pum from which thon hast sprung, o 
Bharata ; and in which there have been bom royal rishis, and men of 
Brahmanical family .... 6. From Biteyu sprang Bantibhara ; who 
had three sons, Sumati, Dhmva, and Apratiratha. Kanva was the son 
of the last ; and the son of Eagva was Medhatithi, from whom the 
PraskaQvas and other Brfihmans wero descended." 

A little farther on, in the chapter of the Yishna Parana just qaoted 
(iy. 19, 10), Kanya and Medhatithi aro mentioned as haying had a 
differont parentage from that before assigned, yiz., as being the son and 
grandson of Ajaml4ha, who was a descendant in the ninth generation 
of Tansu, the brother of Apratiratha : 

Ajamldhdt Kanvah \ Kanvdd Medhditthir yatah Kdnvdyand dvijdh I 
Ajaml^hasydnyah putro Bjrihadiihu^ \ 

''From AjamTcjiha sprang Kanya: from Kanya Medhatithi, from 
whom wero descended the Kanyayana Brahmans. Ajaml^ha had 
another son Bphadisha."^ 

fi On thii the CommeBtator remarks : Jjeml^hatya Kmvadir $ko vttmio Bfiha" 
M ^adir apmro fMMo Ntladir aparal^ Rikihadii ehaparah \ <* Ajamidha had one 
set of deecendaBti, eoansthig of Kanra, etc., a second oonsistiDg of Brihadishu, etc., 


On tliis last passage Professor Wilson obserres, p. 452, note : " The 
copies agree in this reading, yet it ean scarcely be correct. Kanya has 
already been noticed as the son of Apratiratha." But the compiler of 
the Parana may here be merely repeating the discordant accounts 
which he found in the older authorities which he had before him. 

Begarding Ajaml^ha the Bhagavata says, ix. 21, 21 : 

Ajamldhmya vamit/dh «y«$ FriyarMdhadayo dvifdh | Ajaml4hdd Bfi- 
hadUhuh I 

'' Priyamedha and other Brahmans were descendants of Ajaml4ha. 
From Ajamidha sprang Bphadishu." 

The Vishnu Parana (iv. 19, 16) gives the following account of Mud- 
gala, a descendant of Ajamidha in the seventh generation : 

Mudgaldch eha Maudyalyd^ hthaUropetd dvtjdtayo hahhUvu^ | Mud- 
galdd Bahvaivo Bahvaivdd Bivoddw *ludy& cha mithuna/m ahhui \ Skrad^ 
vato ^halydydm S>atdnando 'hhavat \ 

*^ From Mudgala were descended the Maudgalya Brahmans of Eshat- 
triya stock. From Mudgala sprang Bahvaiva ; from him again twins, 
Divod&sa and Ahalya. ^tananda was bom to Saradvat* by Ahaly&." 

Similarly the Bhagavata Pnrana says, i v. 21, 33 £ : 

MudgakLd hrahma nirvfittaih gotram Maudgalya^anjnitam \ mithunam 
Mndyaldd Bk&rmydd DivoddMk pumdn Mat | Ahalyd kanyakd ytuydih 
S'atdnandas tu Oautamdt | 

''From Mudgala sprang Brahmans, the fiunily called Maudgalyas. 
To the same father, who was son of Bharmya^va, were bom twins, 
Divod&sa, a male, and Ahalya, a female child, who bore 81»tananda to 

The words of the Matsya Purana on the same subject, as quoted by 
Professor Wilson, p. 454, note 50, are : 

Mudgalasydpi Maudydydfi kihattropetd dvifatdya^ \ tU hy AnginMk^ 
pakshe sanuthitdh Kanva-Mudgaldh \ 

** From Mudgala sprang the Maudgalyas, Brfihmans of Kshattriya 
stock. These Eanva and Mudgalas stood on the side of Angiias." 

a third consisting of Nlla, etc, and a £Mirth consisting of JBLiksba, etc." The last two 
eons of AjamT^ha are mentioned farther on, Nils in t. 15, and ipksha in t. 18, of the 
same chapter of the V. P. 

^ The Ck)mmentator says this is a name of Gaatama. B^gafding Ahalja sad 
Gautama see the storj extracted abofe, p. 121, from the Bfiaiyana. 



The Harivamiay secticm 82, Tene 1781, thiu notices the same fiimilj : 

Hudgalasya tu ddyddo Mamdgalyah tumahdyaidh \ eU sarre wtahdt- 
nUino kshattrcpetd dvijutayah \ eU hy Angiroiah paksham samiritdk 
Kunta-Mudgaluh \ Maudgalyiuya iuio jyeththo hrahmarshih sumo- 
huyoiuh I 

"The renowned Mandgalja was the son of Madgala. All these 
great personages were Brahmans of Eshattriya descent. These Kanvas 
and Mudgalas adhered to the side of Angiras. Maudgalja's eldest son 
was a celebrated Brahman-rishL" 

Begarding Kshemaka, a fntore descendant of Ajamidha in the 31st 
generation, the Vishnu Fnrana says, ir. 21, 4 : 

Tato NiramitroB tasmdch eha Kahemakah | tatrdyam slokah \ " hrah- 
ma-kshaitrasya yo yonir * vamSo rdjarM-saikfitah j KshemaJ^am prdpya 
rdjdnam sa aanuthdm pr&piyaU lalau \ 

« Prom him (Ehan4apani) shall spring Niramitra ; and from him 
Kshemaka ; regarding whom this Terse (is current) : ' The race, con- 
secrated by royal rishis, which gave birth to Brahmans and Kshattriyas, 
shall terminate in the Eali age, after reaching King Kshemaka.' '' 

The corresponding verse quoted by Professor Wilson (p. 462, note 24) 
from the Matsya and Vayu Puranas substitutes devarshiy " divine rishis,*' 
or " gods and rishis," for the ry'arshi, '* royal rishis," of the Vishnij Pu- 
rana. The verse in question is there described as anutamsa-sloJco 'yafhglto 
vipraih purdtanaih, "a genealogical verse sung by ancient Brahmans." 

According to the details given from the Puranas in this section 
several persons, Giritsamada, Kanva, Medhatithi, and Priyamedha, to 
whom hymns of the Eig-veda are ascribed by Indian tradition as their 
rishis, were of Kshattriya descent. 

In the line of the same Tansu, brother of Apratiratha, we find in 
the sixth generation a person named Garga, of whom the Yishna Pu- 
rana relates, iv. 19, 9 : 

Oarg&t 8ini^ \ tatoOdrgyah Sainydh kthattropetd dvijdtayo bahhuvuh \ 

" From Qarga sprang S^ini ; from them were descended the Gargyas 
and S'ainyas, Brahmans of Kshattriya race." ^ 

^ On this words the Ck)mmentator has this note : Brahmtmah brahnutruuya Kahal- 
tra$ya kihatlriyauya eha ponth karanam purvam yathoktatvdt \ ** *• Brahma ' and 
* Eshattra ' stand for Brahman and Kshattriya. This race is the ' source,' cause (of 
these), as has been declared aboye." 

91 On this the Commentator only remarks : Ibtoi tabhyam Ourgyah Sainyai clia 


Similarlj the Bbagarata Pur&na, ix. 21, 19, says: 

Gargdt S'inis tato G&rgyah hhaUr&d hrahma hy avarftata | 

<<Prom Garga sprang S^ini; from them Gargya, who from a Kshat- 
triya became a Brahman." ^ 

The Yishnn Parana records a similar circnmstance regarding the 
family of Mahaylryya, the brother of Gbrga (iv. 19, 10) : 

Ifahdvlryy&d TTruhihayo ndma ptdro *hhilt \ tasya DrayyaruMhPush- 
karinau KapU cha ptUra-trayam abhut \ tach cha tritayam apt paiehsd 
vipratdm upajag&ma \ 

** Mahavlryya had a son named Umkahaya ; who again had three sons, 
Trayyamna, Pnskarin, and Kapi ; and these three ^ afterwards elltered 
into the state of Brahmans {i.e. became snch)." 

The Bhagavata states, ix. 21, 19 f. : 

Duritakshayo Mahdvlryydt tasya li^ayydruni^ Eitvi^ | Puahkardrunir 
Uy atra ye hruhmana-gatim gatdh \ 

** From MahaTlryya sprang Dnritakshaya. From him were descended 
Trayyamni, Eavi, and PoskararoQi, who attained to the destination of 
Brahmans." '•* 

According to the Matsya Parana also, as qnoted by Professor Wilson 
(451, note 22), " all these sons of XJraksha (sie) attained the state of 
Brahmans " ( Urukahataft sutd hy ete sarve hrdhmanatdm yatdh) ; and in 
another verse of the same Parana, cited in the same note, it is added : 
Kuvyundfh tu vard hy ete trayah proHd maharshayah \ Gargdh Sankfi- 
tayal^ Kdvyd hhattropetd dmjdtayah \ " These three classes of great 
rishis, viz. the Gargas, Sankfitis, and K&yyas, Brahmans of Kshattriya 
race, are declared to be the most eminent of the Kavyas, or descend- 
ants of Eavi." The original Garga was, as we have seen, the brother 
of Mahavlryya, the father of Kavi, or Eapi; while, according to the 

Oarga-wMyatvat S^ini-^amyatvaeh eha Bomakhyatai^ | kahattriya eva kenaekU 
karansna brahtnaniai eha babhuvulk \ *' They were called G&rgyaa and S'ainyaa becanie 
they were of the race of GSrga and S'ini Being indeed Kshattriyas they became 
BrOhmans from some cause or other." 

M The Commentator does not say how thii happened. 

** Unless Professor Wilson's MSS. had a different reading firom mine, it most 
have been by an oversight that he has translated here, " The last of whom beoame a 

iM On this the Commentator annotates : Te atra kihaUrtHDafhi* hrahmtmoifaim 
hrahmawHTupaiaSh gataa u \ *^ Who In thii Xshattriya race attained the dettinatioa 
of Bcahmans,— 4he fona of Mftiaaai.'* 


Viahna Fur&na (it. 19, 9)» and Ki&gtETata Pnr&na (iz. 21, 1), Sankfiti 
was the son of Kan, another brothw of Habavliyya. 

The aeries of passages just quoted is amply sofficient to piove that 
according to the traditions received hy the oompilers of the ancient 
legendary history of India (traditions so general and undisputed as to 
prevail over even their strong hierarohical prepossessions), Brfihmans, 
Sshattriyas, and even Yai^yas and SQdras, were, at least in many cases, 
originally descended from one and the same stock. The £im^>ean critic 
can have no difficulty in receiving these ohscnre accounts as true in their 
literal sense; though the absence of precise historical data may leave 
him without any other guide than speculation to assist him in determin- 
ing the process by which a community originally composed for the most 
pJEurt of one uniform element, waa broken up into different classes and 
professions, separated from each other by impassable barriers. On the 
other hand, the possibility of this common origin of the different castes, 
though firmly based <m tradition, appeared in later times so incredible, 
or so unpalatable, to aome of the eompilen of the Pur^uas, that we find 
them occasionally attempting to explain away the facts which they 
leoord, by statementa sudh as we have enoountered in the case of the 
Kings Bathltara and B&li, that their progeny was begotten upon their 
wives by the pages Angiraa and Dirghatamas, or Birghatapas ; or by the 
Introduction of a miraculous element into the story, as we have already 
Been in one of the legends regarding Gyitsamada, and as we shall have 
occasion to notice in a future chapter in the account of YiiSvamitra* 




In the last chapter I hare attempted to shew that in general the 
authors of the hymns of the Rig-yeda regarded the whole of the Aryan 
people, embracing not only the priests and chiefs, but the middle 
classes also of the population, as descended from one common father, or 
ancestor, whom they designate by the name of Mann. This reference 
to a common progenitor excludes, of course, the supposition that the 
writers by whom it is made could hare had any belief in the myth 
which became afterwards current among their countrymen, that their 
nation consisted of four castes, differing naturally in dignity, and sepa- 
rately created by Brahma. 

In that chapter I proposed to leaye for farther consideration any spe- 
cific notices which the Rig-yeda might contain regarding the different 
classes oT which the society contemporary with its composition was 
made up. On this consideration I now enter. As that great collection 
of hymns embodies numerous references, both to the authors themselves 
and to the other agents in the celebration of divine worship, it may 
be expected to supply, incidentally or indirectly, at leasts some inform- 
ation respecting the opinion which these ministers of religion enter- 
tained of themselves, and of the ecclesiastical and civil relations in 
which they stood to the other sections of the commxmity. I shall now 
endeavour to shew how far this expectation is justified by an examin- 
ation of the Rig-veda. 

It wiU be understood, firom what I have already (pp. 7 and 11 ff.) 
written on the subject of that one hymn of the Big-veda in which the 


four castes are distinctly specified, i.e. the Purusha Sukta, that in the 
enquiry, which I am now about to undertake, I confine myself in the 
first instance to those hymns which for any reason (see p. 4, above) 
appear to be the most ancient, leaving out of account until afterwards, 
all those compositions which, like the one just mentioned, are presum- 
ably of a later age. 

It will, I think, be found on investigation that not only the older 
hymns, but the great bulk of the hymns, supply no distinct evidence 
of the existence of a well defined and developed caste-system at the 
time when they were composed. 

Sect. I. — On the signification of the warde hrAhmdn, hrdhmanay etc.^ 

in the Rig-veda. 

As the Rig-veda Sanhita is made up almost entirely of hymns in 
praise of the gods, it was not to be anticipated that it should furnish 
any systematic or detailed explanations on the points which form the 
object of our enquiry. But as was natural in compositions of the early 
and simple age to which these hymns belong, they do not always con- 
fine themselves to matters strictly connected with their principal sub* 
ject, but indulge in occasional references to the names, families, personal 
merits, qualifications, relations, circumstances, and fortunes of the poets 
by whom they were produced, or of their patrons or other contempo- 
raries, or of their predecessors. 

I have, in another volume of this work,* enquired into the views 
which the authors of the hymns appear to have held on the subject of 
their own authorship. The conclusion at which I arrived was, that 
they did not in general look upon their compositions as divinely in- 
spired, since they frequently speak of them as the productions of their 
own minds (vol. iii. pp. 128*140). But although this is most com- 
monly the case (and especially, as we may conjecture, in regard to the 
older hymns), there is no doubt that they also attached a high value to 
these productions, which they describe as being acceptable to the gods 
(R.Y. V. 45, 4 ; V. 85, 1 ; vii. 26, 1, 2; x. 23, 6 ; x. 54, 6; x. 105, 

^ Original Sanskrit Texts, vol. iii. pp. 116-161. 


8)« whose activity they stimalated (iii. 84, 1 ; Tii. 19, 11), and whose 
blessing they drew down. In some of the hymns a supernatural cha- 
racter or insight is claimed for the rishls (i. 179, 2 ; vii. 76, 4 ; iii. 53, 
9; vii. 33, 11 ff. ; vii. 87, 4; vii. 88, 3ff.; x. 14, 15; x. 62, 4, 5), 
and a mysterious efficacy is ascribed to their compositions (vol. iii. 
pp. 173 f.) The rishis called their hymns by various names, as arka, 
uktha, fiehy gir^ dhl, nltha, nivid^ mantra, mati, silkta, stoma, vdch, vacha»^ 
etc. etc. ; and the also applied to them the appellation of hrahma in 
numerous passages.^ That in the passages in question hrahma has 
generally the sense of hymn or prayer is clear from the context of some 
of them (as in i. 37, 4 ; viii. 32, 27, where the word is joined with the 
verb gdyata^ '^ sing," and in vi. 69, 7, where the gods are supplicated 
to hear the hrahma), as well as from the fact that the poets are said 
(in i. 62, 13 ; v. 73, 10 ; vii. 22, 9; vii. 31, 11 ; x. 80, 7) to have 
fashioned or generated the prayer, in the same way as they are said to 
have fashioned or generated hynms in other texts (as i. 109, 1 ; v. 2, 
11 ; vii. 15, 4; viii. 77, 4 ; x. 23, 6; x. 39, 14), where the sense is 
indisputable ; while in other places (iv. 16, 21; v. 29, 15 ; vi. 17, 13; 
vi. 50, 6 ; vii. 61, 6 ; x. 89, 3) new productions of the poets are spoken 
of under the appellation of hrahma. 

That hrahma has the sense of hymn or prayer is also shown by the 
two following passages. In vii. 26, 1, it is said : Na somah Indram 
asuto mamdda na ahrahmdno maghacdnam sutdsah \ tasmai ukthafk janaye 
yaj jujoshad nfivad navtyah iftnavad yathd nah \ 2. Ukthe ukthe somah 
Indram mamdda nithe nlthe maghavdnam sutdsah \ yad im sahddhah 
pitaram naputrdh samdna-dakshuh avase havante \ ** Soma unless poured 
out does not exhilarate Indra ; nor do libations without hymns {ahrah* 
mdnah). 1 generate for him a hymn {uktha) which he will love, so 
that like a man he may hear our new (production). 2. At each hymn 
{uktha) the soma exhilarates Indra, at each psalm {nltha) the libations 
(exhilarate) Maghavat, when the worshippers united, with one effort, 
invoke him for help, as sons do a father." ' Again in x. 105, 8, it is 

' For a list of these texts and other details which are here omitted, I refer to mj 
article " On the relations of the priests to the other classes of Indian Society in the 
Vedic age/' in the Journal of the Boy. As. Soc. for 1866 (from which this section is 
mostly borrowed). 

3 It is clear from the context of this passage that abrahmSnah means " unattended 
by hymns," and not ** without a priest." After saying that soma-lihations without 



•aid : Ava no vfijind Uiiihi fichd van&ms anriehah \ na abrahmd yajnah 
fidhag joahati tve \ ''Drive away our calamities. With a hymii {fichd) 
may we day the men who are hymnlesB {anrtchaf). A sacrifice without 
prayer (ahrahmd) does not please thee well.'^ 

I have said that great virtue is occasionally attrihuted by the poets to 
their hymns and prayers ; and this is true of those sacred texts when 
called by the name of hrdhma^ as well as when they receive other ax>- 
pellations, such as mantra. Thus it is said, iii. 53, 12, 'FUvamitra9ya 
rakshati hrahma idam Bhdrataih janam \ '' This prayer {Jbrahma) of Yi^va- 
mitra protects the tribe of Bharata; " v. 40, 6, Qulham iuryarh tamasd 
apavratena turlyena hrahmand twindad Atrih \ ** Atri with the fourth 
prayer {hrdhmand.) discovered the sun concealed by unholy darkness ; " 
vi. 75, 19, Brahma varma mama antaram \ ''Prayer {hrahma) is my 
protecting armour ; " vii. 33, 3, Eva id nu ham ddiardfne Suddsam prd- 
vad Indro hrahmand vo Vasishthdh | "Indra preserved Sudas in the 
battle of the ten kings through your prayer, o Yasishthas." In ii. 23, 
1, Brahmanaspati is said to be the " great king of prayers " (JyeshtlM- 
rdjam hrahmandm) (compare vii. 97, 3), and in verse 2, to be the " gene- 
rator of prayers" (Janitd hrahmandm) ; whilst in x. 61, 7, prayer is 
declared to have been generated by the gods {wddhyo qfanayan hrahma 
devdh). Compare vii. 35, 7. 

Brdhmdn in the masculine is no doubt derived from the same root as 
hrdhmdn neuter, and though differing from it in accent^ as well as 
gender, must be presumed to be closely connected with it in signifi- 
cation, just as the English "prayer" in the sense of a petition would 
be with " prayer," a petitioner, if the word were used in the latter 
sense. As, then, hrdhmdn in the neuter means a hymn or prayer, 
hrdhmdn in the masculine must naturally be taken to denote the person 
who composes or repeats a hymn or prayer. We do not, however, find 
that the composers of the hymns are in general designated by the word 

hymns are unacceptable to Indra, the poet does not add that he is himself a priest, or 
that he is attended hy one, but that he generates a hynm ; and the same sense is 
required by what follows in the second Terse. Accordingly we find that Sayaua 
explains abrahmana]^ by ttotra-hlnah^ " destitute of hymns." The same sense is 
equally appropriate in the next passage cited, x. 105, 8. On iy. 16, 9, where a^ah- 
ma is an epithet of datfu, ** demon," Siya^A understands it to mean '* without a 
priest," but it may mean equally well or better, •* without devotion, or prayer." 

* In br&hm&H neuter the accent ii on the first syllable ; in br&hm&n masculine on 
the last 


hrMmdf^ the name mort oommonly applied to them being fisM^ though 
they are also called vipra, vsdhasy tavif etc. (see yol. iiL of this work| 
pp. 116 ff.). There are, however, a few texts, sach as L 80, 1 ; i. 164, 
35; ii. 12, 6; ii. 39, 1 ; v. 31, 4; y. 40, 8; ix. 113, 6, etc., in which 
the hr&hmdn may or must be understood as refeired to in the capacity 
of author of the hymn he utters. So, too, in ii. 20, 4, and yi. 21, 8, a 
new composer of hymns seems to be spoken of under the appellation of 
nutdfuuya hrdhmdnyatai ; and in ii. 19, 8, the Ofitsamadas are referred 
to both as the fabricators of a new hymn {mmima navlydh) and as (5rdA- 
m&nydntai) performing deyotion.' In three passages, yii. 28, 2 ; yii. 70, 
5y and x. 89, 16, the hrdhmd and hrdhmdnt^ 'Sprayer" and ''prayers,'' 
or ''hymn" and "hymns," of the rishis are spoken of; and in yii. 22, 
9, it is said, "that both the ancient and the recent rishis haye generated 
prayers " (ye cha pHrve jrUhayo ye eha nUtndh Indra hrahmdni janayanta 
vipr&i). In i. 177, 5, we find Irahm&ni Mroh^ "the prayers of the 
poet." The fact that in yarious hymns the authors speak of themselyee 
as having received valaable gifts from the princes their patrons, and 
that they do not there allude to any class of officiating priests as separate 
from themselves, would also seem to indicate an identity of the poet and 
priest at that early period. 

The term hrahman must therefore, as we may conclude, have been 
originally applied (1) to the same persons who are spoken of elsewhere 
in the hymns as mAt, kaoif etc., and have denoted devout worshippers 
and contemplative sages who composed prayers and hymns which they 
themselves recited in praise of the gods. Afterwards when the cere- 
monial gradually became more complicated, and a division of sacred 
functions took place, the word was more ordinarily employed (2) for a 
minister of public worship, and at length came to signify (3) one par- 
ticular kind of priest with special duties. I subjoin a translation of 
the difiEerent passages in which the word occurs in the Rig-veda, and I 
have attempted to classify them according as it seems to bear, in each 
case, the first, second, or third of the senses just indicated. This, how- 
ever, is not always an easy task, as in many of these texts there is 
nothing to fix the meaning of the term with precision, and one signi- 

" In another place (x. 96, 5) Indra ia said to ha?e been landed bj fbnner imt^ 
tbipyeiBf purvebhir yi\^<ibhihy a term nsnally confined (as Mhm&n was frequently 
applied) in after times to the offerers of sacrifice. 


fioation easily runs into another, and the same person may be at once the 
author and the reciter of the hymn. 

I. Passages in which Irdhtndn may signify '' contemplator, sage, or 

(In all these texts I shall leave the word untranslated.) 

i. 80, 1. lUhd hi same id made hrahmd ehakdra varddhanam \ 

y Thus in his exhilaration from soma juice the hrdhmdn has made 
(or uttered) a magnifying* (hymn)." 

i. 164, 34. Pjichhami tva param antam pfithivydh pfichhdmi yatra 
hhuvanaeya ndhhih \ pfichhdmi tvd vfishno ahaeya retah pfichMmi 
v&chah pdramath vywna \ 35. lyam vedihk paro antah prithivyah ayam 
yajno bhuvanasya ndhhih ayaih soma vfishno ahaeya reio hrahmd ayam 
vdcha^ paramam vyoma \ 

** I ask thee (what is) the remotest end of the earth ; I ask where is 
the central point of the world ; I ask thee (what is) the seed of the 
Tigorous horse ; I ask (what is) the highest heaven ^ of speech. 35. 
This altar is the remotest end of the earth ; this sacrifice is the central 
point of the world ; this soma is the seed of the vigorous horse ; this 
hrdhmdn is the highest heaven of speech." 

ii. 12, 6. To radhraeya choditd yah hjriiasya yo hrahmano nddhamd- 
naeya klreh \ 

''He (Indra) who is the quickener of the sluggish, of the emaciated, 
of the suppliant hrdhmdn who praises him," etc. 

vL 45, 7. Brahmdnam hrahma^dhaearh glrhhih eahhdyam jrigmiyam \ 
gdm na dohase huve \ 

" With hymns I call Indra, the hrdhmdn,— ^e carrier of prayers 
{hrdhmd-vdhasam), the friend who is worthy of praise, — as men do a 
cow which is to be milked." 

vii. 33, 11. Uta aei Maiirdvaruno VasMfha UrvaSydh brahman manaso 
^dhi jdtah I drapsaih akannam hrahmand daivyena vihe devdh puehkare 
tvd *dadanta \ 

«< And thou, o Yasishtha, art a son of Mitra and Yaruna (or a Mai- 
travaruna-priest), bom, o hrdhmdn^ from the soul of Urva^I. All the 

* Varddhanam =» vftddhi-harain ttotram (Sfiya\^). 

T Compare B.V. liL 32, 10 ; x. 109, 4, below, and the words, the highest hea?en of 

• Compare B.Y. x. 71 and z. 125. 


godB placed in the vessel thee, the drop which had fiallQQ throagh 
divine contemplation." 

viii. 16, 7. Indre hrahmd Indrah jrUhir Inirah puru puruhufaft \ ma- 
Kdn mdhlbhih iachihhih | 

** Indra is a hrdhmdn^ Indra is a lishi,* Indra is much and often in- 
voked, great throagh his mighty powers." 

z. 71, 11. (See the translation of the entire hymn below. The sense 
of hrdhmdn in verse 11 will depend on the meaning assigned iojdiar 

z. 77| 1. (In this passage, the sense of which is not very clear, the 
word hrdhmdn appears to be an epithet of the host of Mamts.) 

z. 85, 3. Somam manyaU papivdn yat Mmpimshanti oshadhim \ somaik 
yam hrahmano vidur na tasya aSndti kaiehana \ 16. Dve te ehakre Surye 
hrahmdno rituthd viduh \ atha ekam chakram yad yuhd tad addhdtayah 

id viduh \ 34 SiUryaih yo hrahmd vidydt »a id vddhuyam 

arhati \ 

'' A man thinks he has drank soma when they erosh the plant (so 
called). But no one tastes of that which the hrdhmdns know to be 
soma (the moon). 16. The brdhmdna rightly know, Surya, that then 
hast two wheels ; bat it is sages {addhdtayah) alone who know the one 
wheel which is hidden. 34. The Irdhmdn who knows Surya deserves 
the bride's garment." ^ 

z. 107, 6. Tam eva fiihiih tarn u hrahmdnam dhur yajnanya0i sdma-ydn 
ukthoridsam \ ia Mcrasya tanvo veda tisra^ yah prathamo dakshinayd 
rarddha \ 

''They call him a rishi, him a hrdhmdn^ reverend, a chanter of 
Sama verses {sdma-ydm)^ and reciter of ukthas^ — he knows the three 
forms of the bnlliant (Agni) — the man who first worshipped with a 

Even in later times a man belonging to the Eishattriya and Yai^ya 
castes may perform all the Yedic rites. Any such person, therefore, 
and consequently a person not a Brahman mighty according to this 
verse, have been called, though, no doubt, figuratively, a priest 

9 Different deities are called r»M i^ eto., in the foUowmg texts : ▼. 29, 1 ; rL 
14,2; viiLS, 41; ix.96, 18; iz. 107, 7; x.27, 22; x.U2,9. 
^^ See Dr. Hang's Ait Br. vol. i. Introdnction, p. 20» 


X. 117| 7* • • • Vadan hrahmd avadato vanlyHn pfinann &pir aprimm- 
tarn abhi sydt \ 

<< A IrdJmdn'*^ who speaks is more acceptable than one who does not 
speak : a friend who is liberal excels one who is illiberal." " 

X* 125, 5. Taih kdmaye taih tarn ugrafh hjrinomi tarn hrahmdnam tarn 
fiihiih tarn sumedhdm \ 

** I (says Yach) make him whom I love formidable, him a Irdhman, 
him a riahi, him a sage." 

This wonld seem to prove that sometimes, at least, the hrdhmdn was 
each not by birth or natore, but by special favour and inspiration of 
the goddess. In this passage, therefore, the word cannot denote the 
member of a caste, who wonld not be dependent on the good will of 
Yach for his position. 

n. In the passages which follow the word hr&hmdn does not seem to 
ngnify so much a '* sage or poet," as a '' worshipper or priest." 

i. 10, 1. Oayanti tvd gdyatrino archanti arkam arJcinah | brahmdnaa 
Ufd 8'atakrato ud vaifUam iva yemire \ 

** The singers sing thee, the hymncrs recite a hymn, the hrdhmdns, 
o Sktakrato, have raised thee np like a pole." ^' 

i. 38, 9. Amanyamdndn abhi manyamdnair nir brahmabhir adhamo 

** Thou, Indra, with the believers, didst blow against the unbelievers, 
with the hrdhmdna thou didst blow away the Basyu.'"^ 

L 101, 6. To vihasya jagata^ prdnatas patir yo brahmane prathamo 
gdi <mndat \ Indro yo doiyun adhardn avdtirat . • . 

^' India, who is lord of all that moves and breathes, who first foimd 
the cows for the brdhmdn, who hurled down the Dasyu." 

i 108, 7. Yad Indrdgnl madathah ive durone yad brahmani rdjani vd 
yqfaird \ atahpari vruhandv d hi ydtam athd aomasya pibaiam tutasya \ 

*' When, o adorable Indra and Agni, ye are exhilarated in your own 

^> The word here seems clearly to iadicate an order or profession, as the iUent 
priest is still a priest 

° See Dr. Hang's remark on this verse, Ait Br. Introd. p. 20. The contexts of 
the two last passages are given in my article ** Miscellaneous Hymns from the E. and 
A. Yedas," pp. 82 f. 

u Oompare i. 5, 8 ; L 7) 1 ; viiL 16, 9. See Dr. Hang's remark on this verse. 
Ait Br. Introd. p 20. 

^* See on this verse the remarki of M. Br^ Hercnle et Cacns, etc. p. 152. 


abode, or with a hrdhmdn or a rdjany^* come thence, ye Tigoroos 
(deities), and then drink of the poured out soma." ^ 

i. 158, 6. Dfrgkatamdi^ Mdmateyo jujurv&n daiame yug$ \ apdm arthaik 
yatlndm hrahmd hhavati »&rathih \ 

^'Dlrghatamas, son of Mamata, being decrepit in his tenth lustre, 
(though) a hrdhmdn, becomes the charioteer of (or is borne upon) the 
waters which are hastening to their goal.'' 

(Professor Aufrecht understands this to mean that Dirghatamas is 
yerging towards his end, and thinks there is a plaj on the word 
*^ charioteer " as an employment not befitting a priest.) 

ii. 39, 1. • . . Ofidhrd iva Vfihham nidhimaniam aeha | Irdhmdnd tva 
vidathe uiihaidsd . . • | 

'' Ye (Aivins) (cry) like two vultures on a tree which contains their 
nest; like two hrdhmdns singing a hymn at a sacrifice.'* 

iv, 50, 7. Sa id rdjd pratijanydni vihd Sushmeua tMsthdv Mi vlryena | 
Bfihoipatifk yah mhhfitam hihhartti valgUyati vandaU p^rva-hhdjam \ 
8. Sa it ksheti sudhitah okasi 9ve tasmai t fa pitwate vihaddnfm | iastnai 
viiah way am wa namante yasmin hrahmd rdjani purvah eti \ 9. Apratlto 
iayati safh dhandni pratijanydni uta yd tajanyd | avasyave yo varivah 
Iqrinoti hrahmane rdjd tarn avarUi dwd^ \ 

** That king oyeroomes all hostile powers in force and yalour who 
maintains Bfihaspati in abundance, who praises and magnifies him as 
(a deity) enjoying the first distinction. 8. He dwells prosperous in his 
own palace, to him the earth always yields her increase,^' to him the 

u j^ distinctioa of orders or professions appears to be here recognised. But in t. 54, 7, 
a riihi and a rajan are distingoished much jn the same way as a hr&hm&n and raj'an 
are in L 108, 7 : 5a najlyaUMaruto na hanyaU na tndhati na vyathate na rUhyaii \ 
na atya rayah upa ckuyanti na utayah fiahim va yam rqfanam va tuthudaiha \ ** That 
man, whether rishi or prince, whom ye^ o Marots, support, is neither conquered nor 
killed, he neither decays nor is distressed, nor is injured ; his riches do not decline, 
nor his supports." Compare y. 14, where it is said : Yugaik rayim maruia]^ tparhth' 
vlram yuyam fithim avatka samO'Vipram | yuyam arvantam Bharaiaya vaja^ yuyaik 
dhattha rajanam sruahfimantam \ '* Ye^ o Maruts, give riches with desirable men, ye 
protect a rishi who is skilled in hymns ; ye give a horse and food to Bharata, ye make 
a king prosperous." In iii. 43, 6, reference is fbund to Yiiyamitra, or the author, 
being made by Indra both a prince and a rishi {kwnd ma gopafk karai$jma»ya kmid 
rajanam mayhairann rylthin | knvid ma r^^him pqpkam»am tutatya). 

^ See on this verse Prof. Beniey's note, Orient und Occident, 8, 142. 

^7 Compare B.y. r. 37, 4 f. : i^a #a r^/a vyathaU yatmmn Jndra$ ihram tamam 
pivati gosakhayam | " That king suffers no distresi is whoie house Indra drinks the 
pungent soma mixed with milk," etc. 


people bow down of themselves, — that king in whose house a hrdhmdn 
walks £rst.^ 9. Unrivalled^ he conquers the riches both of his enemies 
and his kinsmen — the gods preserve the king who bestows wealth on 
the hr&hmfin who asks his assistance." ^* 

iv. 58, 2. Vat/am nama pra hravdma ghritasya astnin yajne dhdraydma 
namohhih \ upa hrahmd ijinavat iasyamunam chatuh-^ringo avamld gau- 
rah etat \ 

'^ Let US proclaim the name of butter ; let us at this sacrifice hold it 
(in mind) with prostrations. May the hrdhmdn (Agni ?) hear the praise 
which is chanted. The four-homed bright-coloured (god) has sent this 

V. 29, 3. Uta hrahmano Maruto me asga Indrah somasya smhutasya 
peyah \ 

'' And, ye Maruts, hrdhmdM, may Indra drink of this my soma which 
has been poured out," etc. 

V. 31, 4. Anavas te raiham aivdya takshan Tvashtd vajram puruhuta 
dyumantam \ hrahmdnah Indram mahayanto arkair avarddhayann Ahaye 
hantavai u \ 

" The men* have fashioned a car for thy (Indra' s) horse, and Tvashtri 
a gleaming thunderbolt, o god greatly invoked. The hrdhmdnSf magni- 
fying Indra, have strengthened him for the slaughter of Ahi." 

V. 32, 12. £vd hi tvdm fituthd ydtayaniam maghd vtprehhyo dadatam 

ifinomi \ kim U hrahmano gfihate sakhdyo ye tvdydh mdadhuh kdmam 

Jndra \ 

" I hear of thee thus rightly prospering, and bestowing wealth on, 

the sages {vtprehhyah). What, o Indra, do the hrdhmdns, thy friends, 

who have reposed their wishes on tnee, obtain ? " 

V. 40, 8. Grdvno hrahmd yuyujdnah sapor y an klrind devdn nama^d 
upaStkshan \ Atrift suryasya divi ehakshur d adhdt Svarhhdnor apa md' 
ydh aghukahat \ 

''Applying the stones (for pressing soma), performing worship, 
honouring the gods with praise and obeisance, the hrdhmdn Atri placed 

^> Compare riii. 69, 4; x. 39, 11 ; x. 107, 5; and the word purohita, used of a 
ministering priest as one plaetd in fnmi. Prof. Aufrecht, however, would translate 
the last words, " under whose rule the priui receives the first or principal portion." 

" See on this passage Both's article, '* On Brahma and the BrahmanB," Joum. 
Germ. Or. Soc. i. 77 ff. See alM> Aitareya Brahmaf^a, riii 26. 

"^ Are the ^ibhus intended } 


the eye of the son in the bIsj, and swept away the magical arts of 

yiL 7, 5. Asddi Vfiio vahnir djaganvdn Agnir hrahmd nfi-ahadane 
vidharttd \ 

*' The chosen hearer (of ohlations), Agni, the hrdhmdn^ having arriyedi 
has sat down in a mortal's abode, the upholder." 

vil. 42, 1. Pra brahmdno Angiraso nakshanta \ 

** The hrdhmdnSf the Angirases, have arrived/' etc. 

viii. 7, 20. Sva nunam mddnavo madatha vrikta-harhUihah \ hrahmd 
ho va^ saparyati \ 

'' Where now, bonntiful (Maruts), are ye exhilarated, with the sacri- 
ficial grass spread beneath you ? What hrdhmdn is serving you ? " 

viiL 17, 2, A tvd hrahma-yujd harl vahatdm Indra keiind \ upa hrah' 
mdni na^ irinu \ 3. Brahmdnas tvd vat/am yujd iomapdm Indra somtnah \ 
euidvanto havdmahe \ 

<' Thy tawny steeds with flowing manes, yoked by prayer {Jbrahma-' 
yujd\^ bring thee hither, Indra ; listen to our prayers {hrdhmdni), 3. 
We hrdhmdni, ofiEerers of soma, bringing oblations, continually invoke 
the drinker of soma." 

viii. 31, 1. To yajdti yajdie it sunavaeh cha pachdti cha \ hrahmd id 
Indrasya ehdkanat \ 

** That hrdhmdn is beloved of Indra who worships, sacrifices, pours 
out libations, and cooks offerings." 

viii. 32, 16. iVa nUnam hrahmandm finam prdSundm asti sunvatdm \ 
na somo apratd pope \ 

** There is not now any debt due by the active hrdhmdns who pour 
out libations. Soma has not been drunk without an equivalent." 

viii. 33, 19. Adhah paSyawa md upari santaram pddakau hara | md 
te kaia^lakau dfiian atri hi hrahmd hahhuvitha \ 

''Look downward, not upward; keep thy feet close together; let 
them not see those parts which should be covered ; thou, a hrdhmdn^ 
hast become a woman." 

viii. 45, 39.^ te etd vaeho-yujd harl grihhne sumadrathd | yad Im^ 

hrahmahhyah id dadah \ 

21 Compare viiL 45, 39, below: hrahma^yt^ occm also in i. 177, 2; iii 8^, 4; 
riii. 1, 24 ; Tin. 2, 27. 


<«I Beixe tJiese thy tawny steediy yoked by our hymn (vaeh(hyufdy* 
to a splendid oharioty since thou didst give (wealth) to the hrdhm&ns. 

Tiii. 68| 7. £va 9ya vjrMabko yuod tim-ffivo mUlnata^ \ . hrakmd Juu 
iaih aaparyati \ 

** Where is that Tigonms, yonthfal, large-nebked, nnoonqnered (In- 
dia) ? What hrdhmdn serves him i 

Tiii. 66, 5. Ahhi OmMarvmn utrinad abudhnethu rafa$8U d \ Indro 
imhmabhyal^ id vfidhe \ 

** India dove the Oandharva in the bottomless mis^s, for the pros- 
perity of the hrdhmdns" 

viii. 81, SO.Motu hrahmd iva tandrayur hhuvo vdjdndm paie \ matwa 
Butasya gomatah \ 

*^ Be not, loid of riches (India), duggish like a hrdhmdn,^ Be ex- 
hilarated by the libation mixed with milk." 

yiii. 85, 5. A yad vqjram hdhoor Indra dhatse madthehyutam Ahave 
hmitavai u \ pra parvatdh anavanta pra hrakmdno ahhinakshanta Indram \ 

** When, India, thon seizest in thine aims the thundeibolt which 
brings down pride, in oidei to slay Ahi, the (aerial) hills and the cows 
ntter their voice, and the hrdhmdns draw neai to thee/' 

ix. 96, 6. Brahmd devdndm padavih katfn&m fiMr viprdndm mahisho 
mfigdndm \ fyeno gfidhrdndm wadhitir vandndrh iomahpavitram aii eti 
rtibhan \ 

** Soma, resounding, overflows the filter, he who is a hrdhmdn among 
the gods, a leader among poets, a rishi among the wise, a buffalo among 
wild beasts, a fSdcon among kites, an axe among the woods." 

ix. 112, 1. I^dndndih vat u no dkifo vi vraidni jandndm \ tahhd rish- 
ta^ nUam Ihiihag hrdhmd mfwantam xMuUi. 

'' Various are the thoughts and endeavouis of us diffeient men. The 
caipenter seeks something broken, the doctor a patient, the hrdhmdn 
some one to offer libations." ^ 

** Compare riii. 87, 9, yw^'anti hart ithiratya gaihaya wau rath$ urvyuge | 
Imdra^ha vaehayt^a; L 7, 2, vaehoyi^; i, U, 6, manoyiffa; tL 49. 5, ratho 
• • • • manaaa y^fana^ 

* Dr. Hang (Introd. to Ait Br. p. 20) refers to Ait Br. v. 84, as illiistrating this 
reproach. See p. 376 of liis traxulation. This Terse clearly shows that the priests 
formed a professional body. 

** This verse also distinotly proyes that the priesthood already formed a profession. 
Verse 3 of the same hymn is as follows : *' I am a poet, my father a physician, my 


ix. 113| 6. Ta^3 hrahmd pm^amdna Msnda&^dih vdeha^ vadan \ 
grdvnd mme mahHyaU aom&na dnandaih janaytmn Indrdya Indo pari 
wrana \ 

'< pure Soma, in the place where the IrdKmdn^ nttering a metrical 
hymn, is exalted at the soma sacrifice through (the sound of) the crush- 
ing-stonei producing pleasure with soma, o Indu (Soma) flow for Indra.'' 
X. 28, 11. Tebhyo godkd ayatham karshad etad ye hrahmanah pratipl* 
yant% annai^ I tMM ukihna^ avaartshtdn adanti itayam haldni tanvah 
ifindnd^ \ (The word hrahmanah occurs in this verse, but I am unable 
to offer any translation, as the sense is not dear.) 

X. 71, 11. (See translation of this yerse below, where the entire 
hymn is given.) 

X. 85, 29. Pard dehi idmulyam hrahmdbhyo vi hhaja vasu | • • • 35. 
SHrydydh paiya rupdni tdni hrahmd tu iundhati | 

** Put away that which requires expiation (?). Distribute money to 
the hrdhmdni. • • • 35. Behold the forms of Surya. But the hrdhmdn 
purifies them." 

X. 141, 3. Somaih rdjdnam avase Agniih firhhir havdmahe | Aditydn 
VUhnuih SHrycm hrahmdnam cha Bfihaspatim \ 

** With hymns we invoke to our aid king Soma, Agni, the Adityas, 
YishQU, Surya, and Bfihaspati, the hrdhmdn. 

III. In the following passages the word hrdhmdn appears to designate 
the special class of priest so called, in contradistinction to hotfif udydtfty 
and adhvaryu, 

ii. 1, 2 (=> X. 91, 10). Tava Agn$ hatra^ tava potram fitmyaih ta/va 
neihfrafh tvam id agnid f^tdyataJ^ \ tava praidstraih tvam adhvariyasi 
hrahmd cha asi gfihapatii cha no dame \ 2. Tvam Agne Indro vrishahhah 
satdm ati U>a^ Viehnur urugdyo namaayah \ tvam hrahmd rayivid Brah- 
mamupate tvam vidharttahk saehase purandhyd \ 

*< Thine, Agni, is the office of hotfi, thine the regulated function of 
potTif thine the office of neehtfiy thou art the agnidh of the pious man, 
thine is the function oipraidstri, thou actest as adhvaryu, thou art the 
hrdhmdn^ and the lord of the house in our abode. 2. Thou, Agni, art 
Indra, the chief of the holy, thou art YishQU, the wide-stepping, the 

mother a grinder of corn " (karur akaSk tato bhiihag upala^akthif^l n&na). Unfor- 
tunately there is nothing further said which could throw light on the relations in 
which the different professions and olaases of society stood to each other. 


adorable, thou, o Brahmanaspati, art the hrdhmdn, the possessor of 
wealthy thou, o sustainer, art associated with the ceremonial." 

iy. 9, 3. 8a tadma part nlyate hoid mandro divishfishu \ uta ootd nt 
ihldaii \ 4. Uia gnd Agnir adhvare uta grthapatir dame \ uta hrahmd ni 
shldatt I 

*^ He (Agni) is led round the house, a joyous hotfi at the ceremonies, 
and sits a potfi. 4. And Agni is a wife (».«. a mistress of the house) 
at the sacrifice, and the master of the house in our abode, and he sits a 
hrdhmdn J^ 

X. 52, 2. Aha0i hotd nia^dam yajiydn viSve devdh maruto majunanti | 
ahar ahar Ahind adhvaryavam vdm hrahmd samid hhavati sd ahutir vdm \ 

(Agni says) ''I have sat down an adorable hotr%\ all the gods, the 
Uaruts, stimulate me. Day by day, ye A^vins, I have acted as your 
adhvaryu ; the hrdhmdn is he who kindles the fire : this is your invo- 

I shall now bring forward the whole of the texts in which the word 
hrdhmdna, which, no doubt, originally meant a son, or descendant, of 
a hrdhmdn, occurs in the Big-veda.'" They are the following : 

L 164, 45. Chatvdri vdk parimitd paddni tdni vtdur hrdhmandh ye 
ptanUhtna^ \ guhd Mni nihitd na ingayanti turiyam vdcho manushydh 
vadanti \ 

'* Speech consists of four defined grades. These are known by those 
hrdhmans who are wise. They do not reveal the three which are eso- 
teric. Men speak the fourth grade of speech." 

This text is quoted and commented upon in Nirukta xiii. 9. 

vi. 75, 10. Brdhn^andtah pitarah somydsah iive no dydvd-pfithivl one* 
ha^d I PiUhd nah pdtu duritdd fitdvridhah . . . . | 

'' May the hrdhman fathers, drinkers of soma, may the auspicious, 
the sinless, heaven and earth, may Pushan, preserve us, who prosper by 
righteousness, from evil, etc." 

^ There are two more texts in which the word brahmana is found, viz. i. 15, 5, and 
IL 86, 5, on which see the following note. The word brahmaputra (compare A^t. 
S'. S. il. 18, 13) " son of a brahman," is found in IL 43, 2 : Udgata iva iakune tama 
gaptui br&hm&-puirah iva tavansihu iamtati \ '^Thou, o bird, singest a sima yerse 
like an udgatfi\ thou singest praises like the son of a brUhm&n at the libations." 
(Ind. Stud. ix. 342 ff.) Ftjpro, used in later Sanskrit as synonymous with Brihman, has 
in the R.y. the sense of " wise," *' sage " assigned by Nigh. 3, 15 {^^medkavi-nama), 
and in Nir. 10, i9,«BM«tfAa«tiia^ It is often applied as an epithet to the gods. 


Tii. 103, 1 (= Nlrakta 9, 6). SamvaUaravk iaSaydndk hrdhmand^ 
vrata-chdrina^ \ vacKam Parjanya-jinvitdm pra mandnkd^ avddishuh 
• . . . I 7. BrdhmaMso (Uirdtre na some saro napilrnam abhito vadan'' 
taJ^ I samvatsarast/a tad ahah pari shtha yad mandukdh prdvfishtnam 
hahhUva I 8. Brdhmandsah somtno vdcham ahrata hrahma krinvantah 
parivatsarlnam \ adhvaryavo yharmina^ mhviddndh dvir hkavanti yuhyd 
na he chit \ 

'' After lying quiet for a year, those rite-fulfilling hrdhmans * the 
frogs have (now) uttered their Toice, which has been inspired by Far- 
janya • • . . 7. Like hrdhmans at the Atiratra soma rite, like (those 
hrdhmans) speaking round about the full pond (or soma-bowl'^), you, 
frogs, surround (the pond) on this day of the year, which is that of the 
autumnal rains. 8. These soma-offering hrdhmans (the frogs) have 
uttered their voice, performing their annual devotion {hrahma) ; these 
adhvaryu priests sweating with their boiled oblations (or in the hot 
season) come forth from their retreats like persons who have been 

X. 16, 6. Yat te Jcfishnah Sakunah dtutoda pipilah sarpah uta vd ivd* 
vadah I jiynis tad vihdd agadam karotu Somai cha yo hrdhmandn dviveia \ 

" Whatever part of thee any black bird, or ant, or serpent, or wild 
beast has mutilated, may Agni cure thee of all that, and Soma who has 
entered into the hrdhmans" " 

** In the NighantTiB, iii. 13, these words brahmanah vrata^eharinah are referred to 
as conyeying the sense of a simile, though they are nnaccompanied hy a particle of 
similitude. In his Illustrations of the Nirukta, p. 126, Roth thus remarks on this 
passage : ^* This is the only place in the first nine mandalas of the ILV. in which the 
word BrShmana is found with its later sense, whilst the tenth mandala offers a numher 
of instances. This is one of the proofs that many of the hymns in this book were com- 
posed considerably later (than the rest of the R.y.). The word brahmana has another 
signification in L 15, 5 ; ii. 36, 5 ; and yi. 75, 10." (In the first of these texts, Roth 
assigns to the word the sense of the Brfihman's soma-vessoL See his Lexicon, «.9. 
It does not appear what meaning he would give to the word in tI. 75, 10. He has in 
this passage overlooked R.y. i. 164, 45, which, however, ia duly adduced in his 
Lexicon). See WiUon's translation of the hymn ; as also Miiller's, in his Ano. Sansk. 
lit. p. 494 f. 

37 Saroi. %w^ R.V. viii. 66, 4, quoted in Nirukta, v. 11, where Tfiska says, *'The 
ritualists inform us that at the mid-day oblation there are thirty uktha platten 
destined for one deity, which are then drunk at one draught. These are here called 
Mr(u** (Compare Roth's Illustrations on the passage. See also R.y. Ti. 17, 11, and 
?iii. 7, 10, with S^ya^a's explanations of all three passages). 

** Compare A.y. vii. 115, If.; xii. 5, 6. 


X. 71, 1.* Bfihoipats praihamam vdeho agralk yal prairata ndmadhs- 

yaih dadhdnd^ I yad ethd^ ireshtham yad mrtpram asitprend tad eshdih 

nihita0i guKd, dvih \ 2. (s= Nirakta iv. 10) Sahtum iva titaUnd punanto 

yatra dhlrdh tnanasd vdcham ahrata \ aira iahhdyah aakhydni jdnaU 

hhadrd ethd^ lakshmJr nihitd adhi vdcht \ 3. Tajnena vdchah padaviyam 

dyan tdm anv avindann fuhishu pravishtdm | tdm dhhfitya vi adadhuh 

puruird tdrh 84$pta rebhdh dbhi sam navante \ 4. (=Nir. i. 19) Uta 

tva^ pasyan na dadaria vdcham uta tvah Srinvan na, Mnoti endm | 

uto tvoimai tanvaih vi sasre jdyd iva patye uSatl suvdsdh \ 5. (= Nir. 

i. 20) Uta tvaffi sakhye sthirapltam dhur na enaih hinvanty apt vdji» 

mshu I adhenvd eharati mdyayd esha vdcham SuSruvdn aphaldm apush- 

pdm I 6. Taa tityuja sachi-vtdam sakhdyam na tasya vdchi apt hhdgo 

aati I yad I0i Mnoti alakam Sfinoti na hi praveda mkritasya panthdrh \ 

7. Akahanvantah karnavanta^ sakhdyo manojaveshu asamdh halhuvuh \ 
ddaghndsah upakakshdsah u tve hraddh iva sndtvdh u tve dadrisre \ 

8. (= Nir. xiii. 13) Hfidd tashteshu manaso javeshu yad hrdhmandh 
sa^iyajante sakhdyah \ atra aha tvafh vi jahur vedydlhir ohdbrahmdno 
vi eharanti u tve \ 9. Tme ye na arvdn na parai charanti na brdh- 
mandso na etUe-kardsa^ | te ete vdcham ahhipadya pdpayd sirfs tantram 
tanvate aprajajnaya^ \ 10. Sarve nandanti yaiasd dgatena eahhd-sahena 
sakhyd eakhdyah \ kilhisha-aprit pitu-shanir hi eahdm ararh hito hhavati 
vdjindya \ 11. (= Nir. i. 8) JRichdm tvah posham dste pupttshvdn ydya- 
trafh tvo gdyati Sakvairishu | hrahmd tvo vadati jdta^idydm yajnasya md- 
trdrh vi mimtte u tvah \ 

** When, Bphaspati, men first sent forth the earliest utterance of 
speech, giving a name (to things), then all that was treasured within 
them, most excellent and pure, was disclosed through love. 2. Where- 
ever the wise, — as if cleansing meal with a sieve, — have uttered speech 
with intelligence, there friends recognize acts of friendliness ; good 
fortune dwells in their speech."^ 3. Through sacrifice they came upon 

^ I cannot pretend that I am satiBfied with some parts of the translation I have 
attempted of this yery difficult hjmn ; but I giye it such as it is, as the interpretation 
of the Yedio poems is still to a certain extent tentatiye. Verses 4 and 6 are explained 
in S&jaua's Introduction to the Rig-yeda, pp. 30 f. of Miiller's edition. I am in- 
debted here, as elsewhere, to Prof. Aofrecht for his suggestions. 

^ I quote here, as somewhat akin to this hymn, another from the A.y. yi. 108, 
being a prayer for wisdom or intelligence : 1. Twuh no medhs prathama gobkir at'vebhir 
a gahi | tvank turyasya raimibhU tvam m «rt yq^niya \ 2. Medham aham praihamam 


the track of speech, and found her entered into the rishis. Taking, 
they diyided her into many parts : *^ the seven poets celebrate her in 
concert. 4. And one man, seeing, sees not speech, and another, hear- 
ing, hears her not ; " while to a third she discloses her form, as a loving 
well-dressed wife does to her hnsband. 5. They say that one man has 
a sure defence in (her ") friendship ; he is not overcome even in the con- 
flicts (of discussion). But that person consorts with a barren delusion 
who has listened *to speech without frnit or flower. 6. He who aban- 
dons a friend who appreciates friendship, has no portion whatever in 
speech. AH that he hears, he hears in vain, for he knows not the 
path of righteousness. 7. Friends gifted both with eyes and ears have 
proved unequal in mental efforts. Some have been (as waters) reaching 
to the face or armpit, while others have been seen like ponds in which 
one might bathe. 8. When hrdhmans who are friends strive (?) together 
in efforts of the mind produced by the heart,** they leave one man 
behind through their acquirements, whilst others walk about boasting 
to be hrdhmdns. (This is the sense Professor Aufrecht suggests for the 
word ohahrdhmdnah. Professor Roth 8,v, thinks it may mean ''real 
priests." The author of Nirukta xiii. 13, explains it as meaning 
''reasoning priests," or "those of whom reasoning is the sacred 
science.") 9. The men who range neither near nor fax, who are neither 
(reflecting) hrdhmatu nor yet pious worshippers at libations, — these, 
having acquired speech, frame their web imperfectly, (like) female 

Irahmanvailm brahma-jutam fishishfutam | prapiiam brahmaeharibhir devanam ava9$ 
huv0 I 3. Tarn medham Ribhavo vidur yam medham asurah viduh | fUhayo bhadram 
medhdfh yam vidus tarn mayy a vesayamoii | 4. Tarn fUhayo bkuta-kfito medham m#- 
dhavino viduh \ taya mam adya medhaya Agne medhavinam kfinu | 6, Medham iayam 
medham pratarm$dhammadhy(mdinampari\medhamiurya^ 

ydmahe 1 . " Come to us, wisdom, the first, with cows and horses ; (come) thou with the 
rays of the son ; thou art to ns an object of worship. 2. To (obtain) the suoconr of the 
gods, I invoke wisdom the first, full of prayer, inspired by prayer, praised by rishis, 
imbibed by Brahmacharins. 8i We introduce within me that wisdom which Ribhns 
know, that wisdom which divine beings {aturah) know, that excellent wisdom which 
rishis know. 4. Make me, o Agni, wise to-day with that wisdom which the wise 
rishis — the makers of things existing — know. 5. We introduce wisdom in the 
evening, wisdom in the morning, wisdom at noon, wisdom with the rays of the sun, 
and with speech " {vachasa). Regarding the rishayo bhutakfUah see above, p. 87, note, 

n Compare x. 125, 3 ; L 164, 45 ; (x. 90, 11) ; and A.V. xU. 1, 45. 

» Compare Isaiah vi. 9, 10; and St. Matthew xiii. 14, 15. 

^ Vak'iakhye^ Yuska. 

M Compare L 171, 2 ; ii. 35, 2; vi. 16, 47. 


weavers," being destitate of skill. 10. All friends rejoice at the ar- 
rival of a renowned friend who rules the assembly ; for such a one, 
repelling evil, and bestowing nourishment upon them, is thoroughly 
prepared for the conflict (of discussion). 11. One man possesses a 
store of verses (ricJuim) ; a second sings a hymn {gdyatra) during (the 
chanting of) the iahvaris ; one who is a hrdhmdn declares the science 
of being {jdt(hvidf/dm), whilst another prescribes the order of the cere- 
monial." " 

E.Y. z. 88, 19 (= Wit. vii. 31). Ydvan-mdiram ttshaso na pratlharh 
mtparnyo vasate Mdtariha^ \ tdvad dadkdti upa yajnam dyan hrdhmano 
koiur avaro nishldan \ 

'^ As long as the fair-winged Dawns do not array themselves in light, 
o MatariiSvan, so long the hrdhman coming to the sacrifice, keeps (the 
fire), sitting below the hotfi-priest." 

(See Professor Eoth's translation of this verse in his Illustrations of 
the Nirukta, p. 113). 
*x. 90, 11 (= A.V. xix. 5, 6; Vaj. S. xxxi.). See above, pp. 8-15. 

X. 97, 22. Oshadhayah samvadante Somena saha rdjnd \ yasmai krinoti 
hrdhmawu tarn rdjan paraydmasi \ 

*' The plants converse with king Soma,*' (and say), for whomsoever 
a hrdhman acts (kfinoii^ officiates), him, o king, we deliver." 

X. 109, 1. Te ^vadan praihamdh hrdhma-hillishe dkupdrah aalilo Md- 
iarihd \ vlluhards tapa ugro mayohhur dpo devtr prathamajdh fitena \ 
Soma rdjd prathamo hrahma-jdydm punah prdyaehhad ahriniyamdnah \ 
a$wartitd Varuno Miirah dsld Agnir hotd hastagfthya nindya \ 3. naa- 
Una eva grdhyah udhir asydh '^ hrahma-jdyd iyam " iti cha id avochan \ 
na dutdya prahye tasihe eshd tathd rdahfram gupitam kshattriyasya \ 
4. Devdh etasydm avadanta pHrve tapta fishayas tapase ye nislieduh \ 
hhlmd jdyd hrdhmanasya upanitd durdhdm dadhdti parame vyoman \ 

* Snch IB tho tense which Prof. Aiifrecht thinks maj, with probability, be assigned 
to tirlsy a word which occurs only here. 

M According to TSska (Nir. i. 8), these four persons are respectively the hotfi^ 
udgatfif brahman^ and adhvaryu priests. The brahman, he says, being possessed of 
all science, ought to know everything; and gives utterance to his knowledge as 
occasion arises for it {Jate jaie). See Dr. Hang's remarks on this verse, Ait Br. 
Introd. p. 20. 

17 Compare oihadhli^ Sama-r^fmh, <* the plants whose king is Soma," inverses 18 
and 19 of this hymn. 


5. jBrahmachdri charati vevishad vishah sa devdndm hhavati ekam angam \ 
iena jdydm anv avindad Brihaspatih Somena nltdrh juhvam na devdh \ 

6. Punar vai devdh adaduh punar manmhydh uta \ rdjdnah satyam 
krinvdndh hrahma-jdydm punar daduh \ 7. Funarddya hrahma-jdydfh 
Jcritvl devair niktlbisham \ utjam prithivydh hhaktvdya urugdyam updsate \ 

<< These (deities), the boundless, liquid Matari^van (Air), the fiercely- 
flaming, ardently-burning, beneficent (Fire), and the divine primeval 
Waters, first through righteousness exclaimed against the outrage on 
a hrdhmdn. 2. King Soma,** unenvious, first gave back the hrdhmdn^s 
wife ; Yaruna and Mitra were the inviters ; Agni, the invoker, brought 
her, taking her hand. 3. When restored, she had to be received back 
by the hand, and they then proclaimed aloud, * This is the hrdhmdn*^ 
wife ; ' she was not committed to a messenger to be sent : — in this way 
it is that the kingdom of a ruler (or Kshattriya) remains secured to 
him.*" 4. Those ancient deities, the Eishis, who sat down to perform 
austerities, spoke thus of her, ' Terrible is the wife of the hrdhmdn ; 
when approached, she plants confusion in the highest heaven.^ 5. The 
Brahmacharin^^ (religious student) continues to perform observances. 
He becomes one member^ of the gods. Through him Bf ihaspati obtained 
his wife, as the gods obtained the ladle which was brought by Soma. 
6. The gods gave her back, and men gave her back ; kings, performing 
righteousness, gave back the brdhmdn*s wife. 7. Giving back the hrdh' 
mdn^B wife, delivering themselves from sin against the gods, (these 
kings) enjoy the abundance of the earth, and possess a free range of 

86 Compare R-Y. z. 85, 39 ff. (sA.Y. xiy. 2, 2 ff.) Funah patnlm Agnir adad 
ayutha taha varehasa | dirghayvr atgafy yah patirjtvati iaradah iatam \ 40. 8omal^ 
prathamo vicide Oandharvo vivide utiarah (the A.Y. reads : Somatyajaya prathanum 
Oandharvat U * par ah paiih) \ tfidyo Agnith i$ patis turlyas te manushyqjah \ Soma 
dadad Gandharvaya Oandharvo dadad Agnaye \ rayim eha putranu ehmdad Agnir 
mahyam atho itnSm \ ** Agni gaye back the wife with life and splendour : may he who 
is her husband li?e to an old age of 100 years! Soma was thy first, the Gandharva 
was thy second, Agni thy third, husband ; thy fourth is one of human birth. Soma 
gave her to the Gandharya, the Gandharya to Agni, Agni gaye me wealth and sons, 
and then this woman." The idea contained in this passage may possibly be referred 
to in the yerse before us (x. 109, 2). 

*^ I am indebted to Prol Aufrecht for this explanation of the yerse. 

« See R.V. L 164, 34, 35, aboye. 

^ See my paper on the Prog^ress of the Yedio Religion, in the Journal of the Royal 
Asiatic Society for 1865, pp. 374 ff. 

" See A.V. x. 7, 1 ff. ; 9, 26. 



This hymn is repeated in the Atharva-veda with the addition of ten 
more yerses which I shall quote in the next section. 

I shall here state summarily the remarks suggested hy a perusal of 
the texts which I have quoted, and the conclusions which they appear 
to authorize regarding the relation of the Vedio poets and priests to the 
other classes of the Indian community at the time when the earlier 
hymns of the Eig-veda were composed. 

First: Except in the Purusha Sukta (translated above in pp. 9 ff.) 
there is no distinot reference in the hymns to any recognised system 
of four castes. 

Second: In one text (iii. 34, 9, see p. 176) where mention is made 
of the Aryan '^ colour," or '' race/' all the upper classes of the Indian 
community are comprehended under one designation, as the Kshattriyas 
and Yaii^yas as well as the Brahmans were always in after-times re- 
garded as Aryas (see above, p. 176.) 

Third : The term hrdhmdna occurs only in eight hymns of the Eig- 
veda, besides the Purusha Sukta, whilst brdhmdn occurs in forty-six. 
The former of these words could not therefore have been in common 
use at the time when the greater part of the hymns were composed. 
The term rdjanya is found only in the Purusha Sukta ; and kshattriya 
in the sense of a person belonging to a royal family, a noble, occurs 
only in a few places, such as x. 109, 3.^ The terms Yai^ya and S^dra 
are only found in the Purusha Sukta, although viS, from which the 
former is derived, is of frequent occurrence in the sense of ** people '* 
(see p. 14, above). 

Fourth : The word hrdhmdn, as we have seen, appears to have hod 
at first the sense of '^ sage," " poet ; " next, that of *^ officiating priest;" 
and ultimately that of a " special description of priest." 

Fifth I' In some of the texts which have been quoted (particularly 
i. 108, 7 ; iv. 60, 8f.; viii. 7, 20; viiL 45, 39; viii. 53, 7 ; viii. 81, 
80; ix. 112, 1; x. 85, 29) hrdhmdn seems to designate a "priest bj 

"Sixth : In other places the word seems rather to imply something 
peculiar to the individual, and to denote a person distinguished for 

« This text is quoted aboTe. In viiL 104, 13, Eflhattrija is perhaps a neater sab« 
stantiye: Na vat u Somo vfijinam hinoti na kshattriyam mithuyd dharayatUam \ 
** Soma doee not prosper the sinner, nor the man who wields royal power deceitfolly." 


geniuB or virtue (x. 107, 6), or elected by special divine favour to 
receive the gift of inspiration (x. 125, 5). 

Seventh : Brdhmdna appears to be equivalent to hrdhm&'putra^ '' the 
son of a hrdhmdn " (which, as we have seen, occurs in iL 43, 2), and 
the employment of such a term seems necessarily to presuppose that, at 
the time when it began to become current, the function of a hrdhmdn^ 
the priesthood, had already become a profession. 

The Big-veda Sanhita contains a considerable number of texts in 
which the large gifts of different kinds bestowed by different princes 
on the authors of the hymns are specified, and these instances of bounty 
are eulogized. 

Of these passages E.V. i. 125 ; i. 126; v. 27 ; v. 30, 12 ff. ; v. 61, 
10; vi. 27, 8; vi. 45, 31 ff. ; vi. 47, 22 ff. may be consulted in Prof- 
Wilson's translation; and a version of B.Y. x. 107, which contains a 
general encomium on liberality will be found in the article entitled 
« Miscellaneous Hymns from the Big- and Atharva-vedas," in the 
Journal of the Boyal Asiatic Society for 1866, p. 32 f. The following 
further texts, which describe the presents given by different princes 
to the rishis, viz. vii. 18, 22 ff. ; viii. 3, 21 ff. ; viii. 4, 19 ff. ; viii. 5, 
37 ff.; viii. 6, 46ff.; viii. 19, 36f.; viii. 21, 17f.; viii. 24, 29f.; 
viiL 46, 21 ff.; viii. 54, 10 ff.; viii. 57, 14 ff.; x. 33, 4ff.; x. 62, 
6 ff. ; X. 93, 14 f. are translated in the article '^ On the relations of the 
priests to the other classes of Indian Society in the Yedio age " in the 
same Journal for 1866, pp. 272 ff., to which I refer. 

On the other hand the hymns of the Big-veda contain numerous 
references to persons who, if not hostile, were at least indifferent and 
inattentive to the system of worship which the rishis professed and in- 
culcated ; and niggardly in their offerings to the gods and their gifts to 
the priests. The article to which I have just referred contains (pp. 
286 ff.) a long list of such passages, from which I extract the 
following : 

i. 84, 7. Tah ekah id vidayate vmu marttdya ddiushe \ Udno apratUh- 
hutah Indro anga \ 8. Kadd martyam arddhasam padd kshumpam iva 
9phurat I kadd naA hisruvad girah Indro anga \ 

** Indra, who alone distributes riches to the sacrificing mortal, is lord 
and irresistible. 8. When wiU Indra crush the illiberal man like a 
bush with his foot ? when will he hear our hymns ? " 


i. 101, 4. • . . vlloS ehii Indro yo asunvato vadhah . . . | 

** Indra, who is the slayer of him, however strong, who offers no 

i. 122, 9. Jano yo Mitrd-varundv dbhidhruy apo na vath sunoti akshna- 
yddhruk \ ivayam m yakshmam hridaye n% dhatU apa yad Jm hotrdhhir 
fitdvd I 

''The hostile man, the malicious enemy, who ponrs out no libations 
to you, Mitra and Yaruna, plants fever in his own heart, when the 
pious man has by his offerings obtained (your blessing)." 

i. 125, 7. Md primnto duritam ena^ d aran md jdrishuh sHrayah 
tmcratdsah \ anyas teshdm paridhir astu kai chid aprinantam ahhi sam 
yantuSokdh \ 

'' Let not the liberal suffer evil or calamity ; let not devout sages 
decay ; let them have some further term ; let griefis befiall the illiberal 

L 182, 3. Kim atra dasrd kfinuthah him dsdthejano yah kaSehid ahavtr 
mdhlyaU \ ati kramishtam juratampaner iuum/yoiir viprdya IcTrinidam 
vacha9y<we \ 

"What do ye here, o powerful (A^vins)? why do ye sit (in the 
house of) a mnn who offers no oblation, and (yet) is honoured ? Assail, 
wear away the breath of the niggard, and create light for the sage who 
desires to extol you." 

ii. 23, 4. Sunltibhir nayasi trdyase janam yas tuhhyafh ddSad na tarn 
afhho ainavai \ hrahma-dvishas tapano manyumir asi Bfihaspate mahi tat 
U mahitvanam \ 

"By thy wise leadings thou guidest and protectest the man who 
worships thee ; no calamity can assail him. Thou art the vexer of him 
who hates devotion {hrahnuhdvishah), and the queller of his wrath : 
this, Bphaspati, is thy great glory." 

iv. 25, 6. ... na asuahver dpir na sakhd na jdmir dushprdpyo ova* 
hantd id avdchah \ 7. JVa r&vatd panind sakhyam Indro asunvatd nUa- 
pdh iaih yrinlte | d asya veda^ khidati Jianti naynaiffi vi atuhvaye paktaye 
kevalo 'hhut \ 

"Indra is not the relation or Mend or kinsman of the man who 
offers no libations ; he is the destroyer of the prostrate irreligious man. 
7. Indra, the soma-drinker, accepts not friendship with the wealthy 
niggard who makes no soma-libations ; but robs him of his riches, and 


slays him when stripped bare, whilst he is the exdusive patron of the 
man who ponrs ont soma and cooks oblations." 
vi. 44, 11. . . . jahi anuhvJnpra vriha aprinatah \ 
*^ Slay (o Indra) those who offer no libations ; root ont the illiberal.^ 
yiii. 53, 1. Ut tvd mandantu stomdh hj^nmhva rddho adrivah \ ova 
hrahmordvisho jahi | pddd panln ar&dhaso ni hadhawa mahdn an | na hi 
tvd kaSchana prati \ 

'* Let our hymns gladden thee ; give ns wealth, o thnnderer. Slay 
the haters of devotion. 2. Crush with thy foot the niggards who 
bestow nothing. Thou art great ; no one is comparable to thee." 

It seems evident, then, from these texts (and there are many more 
of the same tenor), that the iireligious man, the parous dearum cultor 
et infrequens, was by no means a rare character among the Aryas of 
the Yedic age, and that the priests often found no little difficulty in 
drawing forth the liberality of their contemporaries towards themselves 
and in enforcing a due regard to the ceremonials of devotion. And if 
we consider, on the other hand, that the encomiums on the liberality of 
different princes to the poets and priests which are contained in the 
passages to which I before adverted, are the production of the class 
whose pretensions they represent, and whose dignity they exalt, we 
shall, no doubt, see reason to conclude that the value of the presents 
bestowed has been enormously exaggerated, and make some deduction 
from the impression which these texts are calculated to convey of the 
estimation in which the priests were held at the time when they were 
composed. But after every allowance has been made for such consider* 
ations, and for the state of feeling indicated by the complaints of irre- 
ligion and illiberality of which I have cited specimens, it will remain 
certain that the hrdhmdHf whether we look upon him as a sage and poet, 
or as an officiating priest, or in both capacities, was regarded with 
respect and reverence, and even that his presence had begun to be con- 
sidered as an important condition of the efficacy of the ceremoniaL 
Thus, as we have already seen, in i. 164, 35, the hrdhmdn is described 
as the highest heaven of ''speech;" in x. 107, 6, a liberal patron is 
called a rishi and a hrdhmdn, as epithets expressive of the most dis- 
tinguished eulogy; in x. 125, 5, the goddess Yach is said to make the man 
who is the object of her special affection a hrdhmdn and a rishi ; in vi. 45 
7 ; vii. 7, 5 ; viii. 16, 7 ; and ix. 96, 6, the term hrdhmdn is applied 


honorifically to the gods Indra, Agni, and Soma ; in iy. 50, 8, 9, great 
prosperity is declared to attend the prince by whom a hrdhmdn is em- 
ployed, honoured, and succoured; and in iii. 58, 9, 12; v. 2, 6; Tii. 
33, 2, 3, 5 ; and vii. 83, 4, the highest efficacy is ascribed to the inter- 
vention and intercession of this class of functionaries. 

Again, whatever exaggeration we may suppose in the texts which 
eulogize the liberality of princely patrons, in regard to the value of the 
presents bestowed, there is no reason to doubt that the ministers of 
public worship, who possessed the gift of expression and of poetry, who 
were the depositaries of all sacred science, and who were regarded as 
the channels of access to the gods, would be largely rewarded and 

4« It is to be obscrycd that, in these eulogies of liberality, mention is nowhere made 
of Brahmam as the reciprcnts of the gifts. In two places, yiii. 4, 20, and x. 33, 4, 
a rishi is mentioned as the receiver. In later works, such as the S'atapatha Brah- 
mana, on the contrary, the presents are distinctly connected with Brahmans. Thus 
it is said in that work, ii. 2, 2, 6 : Dvayuh vat devah devah aha eva devah atha yt 
brahmanah iusrttmihso *nuehana» t$ mamtshya-devoh \ tesham dvedha vibhaktah eva 
ytynah ahutayah eva devamm dakahinah mantMhya-devamm brahmananam Suifuvu- 
iham anuehamnam \ ahutibhir eva devati prJniiti dakshinabhir manushya'devan brah- 
manan iusruvusho *nucJiBnan \ te enam ubhaye devah prJtah sttdhayam dadhati \ 
"Two kinds of gods are gods, viz. the gods (proper), whilst those Brahmans who 
have the Yedic tradition, and are learned, are the human gods. The worship {yajna) 
of these is divided into two kinds. Oblations constitute the worship offered to the 
gods, and presents {dakuhirM) that offered to the human gods, the Brahmans, who 
possess the Yedic tradition and are learned. It is with oblations that a man gratifies 
the gods, and with presents that he gratifies the human gods, the Brahmans, who 
possess the Vedis tradition, and are learned. Both these two kinds of gods, when 
gratified, place him in a state of happincjss " {sudhayam) ; (or " convey him to the 
heavenly world," as the expression is varied in the parallel passage of the same 
work, iv. 3, 4, 4). It is similarly said in the Taitt. Sanb. i. 7, 3, I : Parokshaih vat 
anye devah ijyante pratyakaham anye \ yad yaJaU ye eva devah paroknham yyanle ian 
eva tad yajati \ yad anvaharyam aharaty ete vai devah pratyakaham yad brahmanat 
tan eva tena prJnati \ atho dakahina eva a»ya eahS, \ atfio yajnaaya eva chhidram apt- 
dadhati yad vai yajnaaya kruram yad viliah^am tad anvaharyena anvdharati \ tad 
ttnvaharyaaya anvaharyatvam \ devadutah vai ete yad jriivijo yad anvaharyam aharati 
devadutnn eva prlnati \ '' Some gods are worshipped in their absence, and others in 
their presence. It is to those gods who are worshipped in their absence that the 
sacrificer offers the oblation which he presents. And it is these gods who are visible, 
i.e, the Brahmans, whom he gratifies with the anvaharya (present of cooked rice) 
which he afterwards brings. Now this anvaharya is the present (dakahina) con- 
nected with it (the sacrifice). Then he covers over the faults of the sacrifice. What- 
ever in it is excessive or defective, that he removes by means of the anvaharya. In 
this consists the nature of that offering. These officiating priests are the messengers 
of the gods ; and it is the messengers of the gods whom the sacrificer gratifies with 
this anvaharya gift which he preseuts." 


It is further clear, from some of the texts quoted above (ii. 1, 2 ; ir. 
9, 3; X. 52, 2), as well as i. 162, 5, and from the contents of hymns ii. 36 ; 
ii. 37 ; ii. 43 ; and x. 124, 1,** that in the later part of the Vedic era, to 
which these productions are probably to be assigned, the ceremonial of 
worship had become highly developed and complicated, and that dif- 
ferent classes of priests were required for its proper celebration.^ It is 
manifest that considerable skill must have been required for the due 
performance of these several functions ; and as such skill could only be 
acquired by early instruction and by practice, there can be little doubt 
that the priesthood must at that period have become a regxdar pro- 
fession.* The distinction of king or noble and priest appears to be 
recognized in i. 108, 7, as well as in iv. 50, 8, 9 ; whilst in v. 47, 
7, 14, a similar distinction is made between king and rishi ; and it is 
noticeable that the verse, in other respects nearly identical, with which 
the 36th and 37th hymns of the eight mandala respectively conclude, 
ends in the one hymn with the words, ''Thou alone, Indra, didst 
deliver Trasadasyu in the conflict of men, magnifying prayers " {hrah' 
mdni vardhayan) ; whilst in the other the last words are, '' magnifying 
(royal) powers " {kshatirani vardhayan\ as if the former contained a 
reference to the functions of the priest, and the latter to those of the 
prince. (Compare viii. 35, 16, 17.) 

While, however, there thus appears to be every reason for supposing 
that towards the close of the Yedic period the priesthood had become a 
profession, the texts which have been quoted, with the exception of the 
verse in the Furusha Sukta (x. 90, 12), do not contain anything which 
necessarily implies that the priests formed an exclusive caste, or, at 
least, a caste separated from all others by insurmountable barriers, as in 
later times. There is a wide difference betweeii a profession, or even a 
hereditary order, and a caste in the fully developed Brahmanical sense. 

tt See alfio i. 94, 6, where it Ib said : " Thou (Agni) art an adkvaryu, and the 
earliest hotfty a praa'aatri^ a potfi^ and by nature a purohita. Knowing all the 
priestly functions {artv\;ya) wise, thou nourishest us/' etc. (tvam adhvaryur uta 
hold *$i purvyah pramtta pota j'anusha purohita^ \ vU'vd vidvan artyyH dhlra 
pushy a»y Agne ity adi). 

^ See Prof. Miillcr's remarks on this subject, Ane. Sansk. Lit pp. 485 ff.; and 
Dr. Hang's somewhat dififerent view of the same matter in his Introd. to Ait Br* 
pp. 11 ff. 

^ In regard to the great importance and influence of the priests, see Miiller's Anc. 
Sansk. Lit. pp. 485 ff. 


Even in conntries where the dignity and exclusive prerogatives of the 
priesthood are most fully recognized (as in Roman Catholic Europe), 
the clergy form only a profession, and their ranks may he recruited 
from. all sections of the community. So, too, is it in most countries, 
even with a hereditary nohility. Fleheians may he ennohled at the 
will of the sovereign. There is, therefore, no dii&culty in supposing 
that in the Yedic era the Indian priesthood — even if we suppose its 
memhers to have heen for the most part sprung from priestly families 
•—may have often admitted aspirants to the sacerdotal character from 
other classes of their countrymen. Even the employment of the word 
hrdhmana in the Kig-veda does not disprove this. This term, derived 
from brahman, ** priest,'' need not, as already intimated, signify anything 
fbrther than the son or descendant of a priest (the word hrahmaputra^ 
" son of a priest," is, as wo have seen, actually used in one text), — ^just 
as the rdjanya means nothing more than the descendant of a king or 
chief (rujan), a member of the royal family, or of the nobility. 

The paucity of the texts (and those, too, probably of a date compara- 
tively recent) in which the word hrdhmma occurs, when contrasted 
with the large number of those in ^^hich hrdhmdn is found, seems, as I 
have already observed, to prove conclusively that the former word was 
but little employed in the earlier part of the Vedic era, and only came 
into common use towards its dose. In some of these passages (as in viL 
103, 1, 7, 8; X. 88, 19) there is nothing to shew that the Brahman is 
alluded to as anything more than a professional priest, and in vii. 103, 
the comparison of frogs to Brahmans may seem even to imply a want of 
respect for the latter and their office.^ In other places (i. 164, 45, 
and X. 71, 8, 9) a distinction appears to be drawn between intelligent 
and unintelligent Brahmans, between such as were thoughtful and 
others who were mere mechanical instruments in carrying on the cere- 
monial of worship,^ which, certainly points to the existence of a sacer- 
dotal class. In another passage (x. 97, 22) the importance of a Brah- 
man to the proper performance of religious rites appears to be clearly 
expressed. In x. 109, where the words hrdhmdn { passim) and hrdh" 

^ See Maller*8 remarlu on this hymn in his Anc. Sansk. Lit. p. 494. 

40 ]n B.y. viii. 50, 9, it is said : ** Whether an unwise or a wise man, o Indra, has 
offered to thee a hymn, he has gladdened (thee) through his derotion to thee (artjpns 
pa yad avidhad vipro vd Indra t$ vachaJk \ ta pra mamandat Ivaffa Up adi)** 


mana (in verse 4) seem to be used interchangeably — the inviolability 
of Brahman's wives, the peril of interfering with them, and the blessing 
attendant on reparation for any outrage committed against them, are 
referred to in such a way as to shew at once the loftiness of the claim 
set up by the Brahmans on their own behalf, and to prove that these 
pretensions were frequently disregarded by the nobles. In x. 16, 6, 
the Brahmans are spoken of as inspired by Soma, and in vi. 75, 10, the 
manes of earlier Brahmans are reckoned among those divine beings who 
have power to protect the suppliant. But in none of these texts is any 
dear reference made to the Brahmans as constituting an exclusive caste 
or race, and nothing whatever is said about their being descended from 
an ancestor distinct from those of the other classes of their countrymen. 

Sect. II. — Quotations from the Rig-veda, the Nirukta, the Mahdhhdrata, 
and other toorkSf to shew that according to ancient Indian tradition, 
persons not of priestly families were auihors of Vedic hymns, and 
exercised priestly functions. 

But in addition to the negative evidence adduced in the preceding 
section, that during the age to which the greater part of the hynms of 
the Eig-veda are referable, the system of castes had, to say the least, 
not yet attained its full development, we find also a considerable amount 
of proof in the hymns themselves, or in later works, or from a com- 
parison of both, that many of the hymns either were, or from, a remote 
antiquity were believed to be, the productions of authors not of sacer- 
dotal descent ; and that some of these persons also acted as priests. 
The most signal instance of this kind is that of Yilvamitra ; but from 
the abundance of the materials which exist for its illustration I shall 
reserve it for the next chapter, where I shall treat of the contests be- 
tween the Brahmans and the Kshattriyas. 

In later times, when none but Brahman priests were known, it 
seemed to be an unaccountable, and — as contradicting the exclusive 
sacerdotal pretensions of the Brahmans — an inconvenient circumstance, 
that priestly functions should have been recorded as exercised by per- 
sons whom tradition represented as Bajanyas ; and it therefore became 
necessary to explain away the historical facts, by inventing miraculous 
legends to make it appear that these men of the royal order had been 


in reality tranRformed into Brahmans, as the reward of their snper- 
human merits and austerities — an idea of which we shall meet with 
various illustrations in the sequel. The very ezistencei however, of such 
a word as rdjarshi, or '* royal rishi," proves that Indian tradition re- 
cognized as rishis or authors of Yedic hymns persons who were con- 
sidered to belong to Eajanya families. A number of such are named 
(though without the epithet of rdjarshi) in the Anukramanika or index 
to the Eig-vcda ; but Sayaga, who quotes that old document| gives them 
this title. Thus, ill the introduction to hymn i. 100, he says: Atru 
anukramyate ^^sa yo vrishd ^eJconu VursMgirdh Rijrdivdmharlsha'Saha- 
deva-BhayamdnchSurddhasah'^ Hi \ Vrishdgiro mahdrdjasya putrabhutd^ 
Rijrdhddayah pancka rdjarshaya^ sadeham suktam dadrisuh \ atas U <uya 
Buktasya rishayah \ uktath hy drshdnukramanydm*' suktam sa yovrishety 
etat pancha Vdrshdgirdh viduh \ ntyuktdh ndniadheyaih svair api ' ehaitai 
tyad ' iti richi *' iti \ " It is said in the Anukramanika, * Of this hymn 
(the rishis) are Rijraiva, Ambarisha, Sahadeva, Bhayamana, and Sura- 
dhas, sons of Vrishagir.* Rijraiva and others, sons of King Vrishagir, 
in all five rajarshis, saw this hymn in a bodily form. Hence they are 
its rishis (or seers). For it is declared in the ^rsha AnukramanI : 
' The five sons of Yf ishagir, who are mentioned by name in the verse 
beginning " this praise " (the 17th), know this hymn.' *' The 17th verse 
is as follows : Etat tyat te Indra vrUhne ukthaih Vdrshagirdh ahhi gri- 
nanti rddhah | Rijrdkah prashfihhir Amharlshah Sahadevo Bhayamd' 
nah Surddhdh \ ** This hymn the Varshagiras, Rijra^va, with his at- 
tendants, and Ambarisha, Sahadeva, Bhayamana, and Suradhas, utter 
to thee, the vigorous, o Indra, as their homage ; " on which Sayana 
repeats the remark that these persons were rajarshis {etad uktham »t^ 
tram rddhah samrddhakam tvat - prtti - hetum Vdrshagirdh Vrishagir^ 
rdjnah putrdh Rijrdhddayo *hhi grinanti dhhitnukhyena tadanti | . . . . 
J^tjrdSvah etat-sanjno rdjarshih prashfihhih pdrha-sthair any air riskibhi^ 
saha Indram astaut \ he te pdriva-sthdh \ AmharUhddayai chatvdro ra- 
jarshayah), Ambarisha is also said to be the rishi of ix. 98. Again^ 
" Trasadasyu, son of Purukutsa, a Rajarshi," is said by Sayana on R. V. 
iv. 42, to be the rishi of that hymn {Furukutsasya putras Trasadasyu^ 
rdjarshih | . . . ,atrdnukramanikd*tnamadvitd^ daiaJVasadasyu^Pawru- 
kwtsyah). In the 8th and 9th verses Trasadasyu is thus mentioned : 
Asmdkam atra pitaras te dsan sapta jrishayo Daurgahe hadhyamdne | te d 


ayqfanta Tra9ada9yum asy&h Indram na vrittraturam ardihadevam | 9. 
PurukuUQnl hi vdm ad&iad havj/ehhir Indrd-varund namohhih | atha rd- 
jdnafk TrModa^um asydh vriiirahanam d^tdathur arddhadevam \ 8. 
*^ These seven rishis were our fathers. When the son of Dorgaha was 
bound they gained by sacrifice for her (FurukutsanI) a son Trasadasya, a 
slayer of foes, like Indra, a demigod. 9. FurukutsanI worshipped you, o 
Indra and Yaruna, with salutations and obeisances; then ye gave her king 
Trasadasyn, a slayer of enemies, a demigod." I giye Sayana's note on 
these yerses : ^^ PuruknUa^ya tnahishl Daurgahe handhana-sthite \ patydv 
ardjakam drishfvd rdshfram putrasya lipsayd \ yadrichhayd samdydtdn 
ioptarshin paryapujayat \ U cha prltdh piuiah prochur ' yajendrd-varunau 
hhfi^am' I 8d chendra-varundv ishfvd Trasadasyum ajijanat \ itihdsam 
imaikjdnann rishir hrUte richdv iha** \ atha aandkam atra asminn ardjake 
deie asydm prithivydih vd pitarah pdlayitdrah utpddahds U daann abha- 
van I eU saptarshayah prasiddhdh Daurgahe Durgahasya putre Purukutse 
hadhyamdne dridham pdiair yasmdd asydh asyai Purukutsdnyai Trasa- 
dasyum dyajanta prddur Indrd- Varunayor anugrahdt | *" The queen of 
Purukutsa, when her husband, the son of Durgaha, was imprisoned, 
seeing the kingdom to be destitute of a ruler, and desirous of a son, of 
her own accord paid honour to the seven rishis who had arrived. And 
they, again, being pleased told her to sacrifice to Indra and Varuna. 
Having done so she bore Trasadasyu. Knowing this story, the rishi utters 
these two verses; * '* which Say ana then explains. Similarly Sayana says 
on V. 27 : " Tryaruna son of Trivpishna, Trasadasjru son of Furukutsa, 
and A^vamc dha son of Bharata, these three kings conjoined, are the 
rishis of this hymn ; or Atri is the rishi " {Atrdnukramanikd \ ^^Anas- 
vantd shat Trakriahna-pauruhutsyau dvau IVy arum- Trasadasyu rdjdnau 
Bhdratai cha ASvamedhah | . . . . *fM dtnuL dtmane dadydd * Hi sarvdsv 
Atrith kechit^^ , . . Trivrishnasya puiras Tryarunah Purukutsasya putraa 
Trasadasyur Bharatasya putro ^hamedhah ete trayo *pi rnjdnah samlhuya 
asya suktasya rishayah \ yadvd Atrir eva rishih). The Anukramanika, 
however, adds that according to some, as ** no one would give gifts to 
himself, none of the princes mentioned as donors could be the author; but 
Atri must be the rishi." As the hymn is spoken by a fourth person, in 
praise of the liberality of these kings, it is clear they cannot well be its 
authors. And a similar remark applies to iv. 42, 8 f. However, the 
Hindu tradition, being such as it is, is good proof that kings could, in 


conformity with ancient opinion, be riahis. Trasadasyn and Trayanma 
are also mentioned as the rishis of ix. 110."* The lishlB of iy. 43 and 
It. 44 are declared bj Sayana, and by the Anukramanika, to be Pnm- 
ml}hay and Ajamllha, sons or descendants of Sohotra (iv. 43, Atrdnukrm- 
manikd ' hah u iaivat ' sapta Furumilhdjamllhau Sauhotrau tv Aitinam 
hi I iv. 44, Purumllhdjamllhdv eva jruhA). Thongh these persona are 
not said by either of these authorities to be kings, yet in the Yiahnu 
and Bhagavata Poranas the latter is mentioned as being of royal raoe^ 
and a tribe of Brahmans is said to have been descended from him (see 
above p. 227). In the sixth verse of iv. 44, the descendants of Aja- 
ml]ha are said to have come to the worship of the A^vins {naro j^ad 
vdm Ahind stomam dvan sadhastutim AjamtlJuUo agman). The follow- 
ing hymns, also, are said by tradition to have had the undermentioned 
kings for their rishis, viz. : vL 15, Yitahavya (or Bharadvaja); x. 9, 
Sindhndvipa, son of Ambaiisha (or Tri^iras, son of Tvashtfi) ; x. 75, 
Sindhuksbit, son of Priyamedha; x. 133, Sudas, son of PijaTana; 
x. 134, Mandhatri, son of Yuvanasva (see above, p. 225); x. 179, 
S^ibi, son of U^nara, Pratardana, son of Divodasa and king of YMl 
(see above, p. 229), and Yasumanas, son of Bohidaiva; and x. 148 la 
declared to have had PfithI Yainya"^ as its rishi. In the fifth verse of 
that hymn it is said : Srudhi havam Indra iura Prithydh uta itaroM 
Venyasya arkaih \ '' Hear, o heroic Indra, the invocation of PrithI ; 
and thou art praised by the hymn of Yenya." In viiL 9, 10, also, 
PfithI Yainya is mentioned at the same time with three rishis : Tad 
vdm Kakshlvdn uta yad Vya&vah rishir yad vdm Dtrghatamdh juhdva \ 
Ffithl yad vdm Vainyah tadaneshu eva id ato Ahind chetayethdm | 
*^ Whatever oblation (or invocation) Xakshlvat has made to you, or the 
rishi Yya^va, or Dlrghatamas, or Prithi, son of Yena, in the places of 

^ In the Yiflhnu Poruna, as we hare seen above, p. 237« Trayyurnna, Puahkarin, 
and Eapi are said to have been sona of Urokshaya, and all of them to have become 
Brahmans ; and in the Bhugavata Pnrana, Trajyamni, Pushkaramni, and Kapi ara 
said to have all become Bmhmans. 

n The 8'. P. Br. v. 3, 5, 4, refers to Prithi as << first of men who was installed as 
a king ** {PtiihJ ha vai Vainyo mamuhyandm prat homo 'bhithithiche). I extract 
from Dr. Hall's edition of Prof. Wilson's Yishnn Pnruna, toL iii. the following verse, 
adduced by the editoi frx>m the Vayn Parana about royal rishis : Manav* Vamave (?) 
vamieAi^twMecka y$nfipaJ^ \ Ai4*i Aikihvaka Nabhdgajneya rajarshayas tu U | 
'* Kings in the race of Mann, Vena (?), and I^a, the descendants of l^a, Ikshvaka, 
and Nahhiga are to bs knows as having been riijanhis." 


flaciificey take notice of that, o A^vins." Here Sayaga refers to Pfithl 
as ** the royal rishi of that name.'' 

From the details I have supplied it is clear that in many cases the 
evidence is against the supposition that the princes to whom the hymns 
axe ascribed were in reality their authors. The only instances in which 
tba authorship seems to be established by the tenor of the hymns them- 
selyes are those of the Yarshagiras, or, at all events, that of Pfithl. 
But, as has been already remarked, the fact that ancient Hindu tra* 
dition recognizes royal rishis as the authors of hymns is sufficient to 
prove that such cases were not unknown. Even if we were to suppose 
that flattery had any share in the creation of these traditions, it no 
doubt proceeded upon the belief of those who put them into cir- 
oilation, that in earlier times the distinction between the priests and 
other classes was not so sharply deflned as in their own day. 

I proceed, however, to the case of Devapi, in which the ma- 
terials for forming a judgment are more adequate and satisfac- 
tory, and prove that he was not merely a rishi but an officiating 

In the Anukramanika, £. Y. x. 98 is ascribed to him as its author ; 
and Yaska states as follows in the Nirukta, ii. 10 : 

Tatra itihdsam dchakshate | Devdpii cka Arshftshena^ S'antanui cha 
Kawravyau hhrdtarau hahhuvatuh j sa S'antanuh kanlydn abhisheehaydn^ 
ehakre \ Devdpis tapah pratipede \ taiah S'antanoh rdjye dvddaSa var- 
thdni devo na vavarsha \ tarn Uchur hrdhmandh ** adharftias tvayd charito 
jyeshfham bhrdtaram antaritya ahhishechitam \ tasmdt U devo na var* 
thati " itt I sa S'antanur Devdpim iiUksha rdjyena | tarn uodcha Levd* 
pih '^purohitaa te ^sdni ydjaydni cha tvd '' iti \ tasya etad varsha-kdma- 
eUktam I tasya eshd hhavati \ 

'* Here they relate a story. Devapi son of Rishtishena, and Slsmtanu, 
belonged to the race of Kuru and were brothers. Simtanu, who was 
the younger, caused himself to be installed as king, whilst Devapi 
betook himself to austere fervour. Then the god did not rain for 
twelve years of S'antanu's reign. The Brahmans said to him : ' Thou 
hast practised unrighteousness in that, passing by thy elder brother, 
thou hast caused thyself to be installed as king. It is for this reason 
that the god does not rain.' Simtanu then sought to invest Devapi 
with the sovereignty; but the latter said to him: 'Let me be thy 


porohita and perfonn aacrifioe tor tbee.' Tliis hymn, e^ressing a 
dcsre of nin, is his. The foUowing Tcne is put c£ iL" 

Ta^a then quotes a Tcne «f R. Y. x. 9S, the vhole «f whidi is as 

BfiJuuptU prmti wte i^midm dt Miin rd jfW FkncM «£ «m i^isAd | 
AdUffmir td jfW Foni^^ MenOrdM m PsrfMMfmm S'mmUmmm wriikafm | 
2. uJ ie€0 dmto ajirsi ckikUUm trmd Ikrdpt miki smm d^Meiiai \ jpm^- 
«ftuMA /^rs/i flidJi d rarritarm iailnmi U dyummtlm tdthmm dJMi | 3. 
.^iflM Atfib' iffumatim tdcksm osmm BrUMspmU aaculrdsi iMrum \ 
fttfd rritkfiu S'amtanace ramdra dito drapm mmdhwrndm d n'wtim \ 4. A 
no drap$dk wuidhunuuUo tiiatUu I^drm dski Mdkir&tiMm Mok^ram | jtt 
ikida kairam ^ rittUhd yajana derdm Derdpe karukd mjMuya | 5. Arak' 
fiikeno kotram riskir ni$hAdam Iktdpir deta-trnMuUim ckikitvdm \ as mtUh- 
rasMdd adkaram $awwdram apo ditffak turij^ tmrskjfdk Mki \ 6. Atmin 
samudre adki uUara$mn dpo derehkir nirriidk aii*k(iam I tdk adrarmnn 
Arskfukcmena Sfuhtdk Detdpind pretkitdk mrikskimltku \ 7. Tad Beta- 
pi^ 8'antanace purokito hotrdya rriiak kripayamm adidket \ dera-inUam 
vfishfi^anim rardno Brikaspatir tdcham asmai ayachkat \ 8. Jam ttd 
Bcvdpi^ hiiuchdno Agne Ar%htukeno manuthyak aam^dhe \ tUtehkir 
devair anumadyamdnak pra Parjanyam traya rriikfimantam \ 9. Tvdm 
parve fishayo glirhkir dyan team adktaruhu purukuta tisce \ sakaardni 
adkiratkdni a$me a no yajnam rokidaha upa ydki \ 10. Etdni Ayni no- 
vatir nova tve dkutdni adkirathd aakatrd \ tehhir tardhana tantak sura 
purtir divo no vfishfim iskito rinki \ 11. Etdni Agne natatim aakatrd 
»am pra yaekha Vfuhne Indrdya hhdgam \ vidvdn patkak rituio devayd- 
ndn apy auldnam divi deceshu dheki \ 12. Agne hddhoiva vi mridko vi 
durgahd apa amlvdm apa rakshdmai sedka \ aamdt aamudrdd hrikato divo 
no apdm hkumdnam upa nak srija ika \ 

'* Approach, Bfihaspati," to my worship of the gods, whether thou 
art Mitra, Varona, Pushan, or art attended by the Adityas, Yasus, <n* 
Hanits : cause Parjanya to rain for Sjcmtanu. 2. The god, a rapid 
messenger, has become aware, and has come from thee, o Devapi, to 
me, (saying) ' approach towards me ; I will place a brilliant hymn 

u Compare B.y. iL 1, 2. 

** It looks as if Agni were here to be understood by Bfihaspati, see yerses 9~12» 
In R.V. ii. 1, 4 ff. Agni is identified with Yarona, Mitia, Aryaman, Amia, Tyashtri, 
Budra, POshan, Sayitp, Bhaga. 


in thy mouth.' 3. Place in our mouth, o Bfihaspati, a brilliant hymn, 
powerful, and spirited, whereby we two may solicit rain for Skntanu. 
The drop full of sweetness has descended on us from the sky. 4. May 
the drops full of sweetness come down upon us : give us, o Indra, a 
thousand waggon-loads (of them ?). Perform the fanction of a hotfi, 
sacrifice in due form, worship the gods with an oblation, o Devapi. 5. 
The rishi Devapi, son of ^ishfishena, performing the function of a 
hotfi, knowing (how to gain) the goodwill of the gods, has discharged 
from the upper to the lower ocean those waters of the sky which fall 
in rain. 6. The waters remained shut up by the gods in this upper 
ocean : they rushed forth whan released by the son of Eishtishena, 
when discharged by Devapi into the torrents." 7, When Devapi, 
placed in front of S^ntanu (as his purohita), chosen for the office of 
hotfi, fulfilling his fanction, kindled (the fire), — then, granting the 
prayer for rain which was heard by the gods, Bfihaspati gave him a 
hymn. 8. Do thou, o Agni, whom the man" Devapi the son of Itish- 
(ishena has inflamed and kindled, — do thou, delighted, with all the 
the gods, send hither the rain-bearing Paijanya. 9. Former rishis have 
approached thee with their hymns ; and all (approach) thee, o god, 
much-invoked, in their sacrifices : give us thousands of waggon-loads : 
come, thou who art borne by red horses,"* to our sacrifice. 10. These 
ninety-nine thousands of waggon-loads (of wood and butter ?) have been 
thrown into thee, o Agni, as oblations. Through them grow, hero, to 
(the bulk of) thy former bodies ; ^ and stimulated, grant us rain from 
the sky. 11. (Of) these ninety thousands give, o Agni, a share to the 
vigorous Indra. Knowing the paths which rightly lead to the gods, 
convey the oblation (?) to the deities in the sky. 12. Overcome, o 
Agni, our enemies, our calamities ; drive away sickness, and raksbases. 
From this great ocean of the sky discharge upon us an abundance of 

The fact of Devapi being reputed as the author of this hynm, and as 
the purohita and hotfi of his brother, seems to have led the legendary 
writers to invent the story of his becoming a Brahman, which (as men- 

M So the word mfikthinl is explained in Bohtlingk and Roth's LexicQO> 

^ Or, ** descendant of Manosh *' {mamuht/a). 

M This is a common epithet of Agni. 

|7 This means, I suppose, '* burst forth into vast flames." 


...-^ • "S'li^fwr TTeber, Indiscbe Studicn, i. p. 203) is recorded in 
^ ^.«. -^^iiirrria of the Mahabharata, verses 2281 ff. where he is there 
^^ SL'^ ictuined this distinction at a certain place of pilgrimage 
_.^ > .'.odukii; where Sindhudvipa and Yi^vamitra also wcrexc- 
. -^ 1%;: "iw higher caste : \ 

-«.»« t»/ii ffciA Kauravya hrdhmanyam samsita-traiah \ iapata m- 
.. . M.-m it rif/tucdn rishi'Satfamah \ Sindhudvlpas cha rajarshir Derapii 
, ^.^:.i;'u.i hrdhmanyaynlahdhavun yatra Viscdmitras taihd mnn{k\ 
^,^.s»^^m»tt 'tikiyardn ugra-tejuh mahdtapdh | . • • . 2287. Purd Ijitt- 
«. •^«A/* ArshfishcHo dvijottamah \ vasan guru-kuls nityam ni'ijian 
«.««.K 'iCdk I tasya rdjan guru-kule rasato nityam eta cha \ samdpim 
^^^«..« fi///ci Hdpi veddh visdmpate \ sa nirrinnas iato rdjaihs tapa^ 
.V .^*u:tipdh I iato vai tapasd tena prdpya reddn anuttamandn \ m 
^ .» .^ti-'tukitischaaiddhaschnpyfishi'Sattamah] . . . . | eramsiddhl 
Ujii.ii.;* Arshfishenah pratdpavdn \ tasminn era tadd tirlhe Sindhu- 
... tuiupavdn | Devdpii cha mahdrdja hrdhmanyam prdpatur 


,->i. "Ihore the most excellent rishi Arshtishena, constant in his 

.^^..^.aivvs, o)»tuiiied Brahmanhood hj great austere fervour; as did 

.i, 4iv !K»>til rishi Sindhudvipa," and Devapi great in austere fervour, 

.« ac :;U»iious muni Visvamitra, of great austere fervour and fiery 

^^» .*»." Sc'iuo other particulars of Arshtishena are given further on : 

,c^. " b\»iuuTly in the Kfita age the most excellent Brahman Arsh- 

..wu.. U\^clt i-onstantly in his preceptor's family, devoted to incessant 

.«;\ . t»ul c\»uUl Ui>t complete his mastery of science or of the vedas." 

v«.i<; ^u w-\»u!HHiuonce discouraged, he betook himself to intense austere 

.. .xui. Uy this means he acquired the incomparable Vedas, and be- 

. ..« \aiiicd aiul perfect At the same place of pilgrimage the 

^..>ae Siiulhudvlpa uud Devapi obtained the great distinction of 

' b \i ill bo observed that here Arshtishena is, in opposition to the 
. ..iwxiiy of the Nirukta, made a distinct person from Devapi. 

"^ I tusi priuoo ttlao, as wo hare seen abore, is mentioned among those Bajanyu who 
. . ^wi.\s\ VvUic hymns. 

"^ 'Vhk' \ i'ihu un> hore spoken of in the plural, although Arshtishena is said to have 
• . ^ Ml the Kritu u)^^ Itut the M. Bh. itself sajs elsewhere (sec above, p. 145} that 
^;v ^ -» iUl4i but uoe YvUa. 


In a note to his (French) translation of the Hig-Teda, M. Langloia 
(vol. It. 502) supposes that the hymn abore translated (z. 98), like the 
Pomsha Sukta, is yery much posterior in date to the other hymns in 
the collection. The names of Devapi and Sluitann indicate, he thinks, 
as the date of its composition, a period not far preceding that of the 
great war of the Mahabhftrata. Professor Weber, on the other hand, 
considers (Indische Studien, i. 203) that the S^antanu and Devapi men- 
tioned in that work (Adi-parvan, 3750 f.) cannot be the same as the 
persons alluded to in the Bigveda, because their father was Fratlpa, 
not ILishtishena ; and because he thinks it doubtful whether a prince 
who preceded the Pan4ava8 by only two generations could haye been 
named in the Big-yeda, and appear there as an author of hymns. 

The yerses of the Adi-paryan just referred to are as follows : 

Pratlpoiya tray ah putrdh jajnire Bharatarshabha \ Dev&pih 8'dntanui 
ehaiva VdMikai tnahdrathah \ Dev&pU eha pravavrdja Ushdih dharma' 
hitepsayd \ 8'dntanui cha mahlm Ubh$ VdMikai eha tnahdrathah \ 

*^ Three sons were bom to Pratlpa, yiz. Devapi, S^antanu, and Yfih- 
llka the charioteer. Of these Deyapi, desiring the benefits of religious 
excellence, became an ascetic ; whilst S^antanu and Yahlika obtained 
(the rule of) the earth.'' 

The Hariyam^ giyes a diffttrent story about the same Deyapi, ycrse 

Ftatlpo Bhlmaundt tu Prat\pa%ya tu 8'dfUanuh \ Devdpir VdhUkai 
ehaiva tray ah eva mahdrathdh | • . . . 1822. Upddhydyas tu devdndA 
Devdptr ahhavad munih \ Chyavanasya kjrita^ putraft tshfaS eh/Uid jna- 
hdtmanah \ 

'* Pratlpa sprang from Bhlmasena ; and S^antanu, Deyapi, and Yah- 
lika were the three chariot-driying sons of Pratlpa 1822. De- 
yapi became a muni, and preceptor of the gods, being the adopted Bom 
of Chyayana, by whom he was beloyed." 

The YishQU Purana (iy. 20, 7 ff.) concurs with the preceding au- 
thorities in making Devapi and S&ntanu to be sons of Pratlpa, and 
descendants of Kuru, and his son Jahnu. It repeats the legend given 
in the Nirukta of the country of SEntanu being visited by a drought of 
twelve years duration, in consequence of his having assumed the royal 
authority while his elder brother lived. And although, as will be seen, 
the sequel of the stoiy is widely difierent from that recorded by the 



Nirakta, the earlier incidents in the two narratives are so aimilar, that it 
would appear to haye been the intention of the Pnranic writer to identify 
the Deyapi and Santanu whose history he relates with the persons of the 
same names, although of different parentage, mentioned in Yaska^a 
work. He may, however, possibly have transferred an older legend to 
more recent personages. The passage of the Yish^a Pura^a is m 
follows : 

Rikshdd Bhlmaaenas tatas cha Dttipah \ Dllip&t Pratlpoi taty&pi D^ 
vdpi SdntanU' VdMlka^anjnds tray ah putrdh habhUvuh | Devdpir hdla^ 
m>a ara^yam viveia | S'dntanUr ananipatir ahhavat | ayam eha ta^ya 
ilokah pfithivydm glyate '' yam yam kardbhydih Mpfiiati jirnam yau^ 
vanam eti Bah \ idrUim ehdpnoti yendgrydm karmand Una S'dn^ 
tanuh " I tasya Sdntanoh rdahfre dvddaSa vanhdni devo na vavarsha \ 
tataSeha aiesha^dshfra^ndiam avekshya asau rdjd hrdhmandn apfichhad 
*' hhoh kasmdd asmin rdshfre devo na varshatt \ ko mama aparddhah '' 
iti I te tam uchur '' agrajasya te Whd iyam avanis tvayd hhujyate pari^ 
vettd tvam '' | ity uktah sa punas tdn apjrichhat '' him mayd vidheyam " 
itt I tena tam uchur *' ydvad Bevdptr na patanddibhir doshair ahhihhu' 
yate tdvat tasya arham rdjyam \ tad alam etena tasmai diyatdm " | ity 
ukt$ tasya mantri-pravarena ASmasdrind tatra aranye tapasvino vedo" 
9dda-virodha-vaktdraJ^ prayqjitdJ^ \ tair ati-rifu-mater mdhlpati-putrasya 
huddhir veda-virodha-mdrgdnusdriny akriyata \ rdjd cha S'dntanur dvija- 
vaehanotpanna'parivedana-Sokas tdn hrdhmandn agranlkritya ayrqfa^djyo' 
praddndya aranyaih jaydma \ tad-diramam upagatdi cha tam aioanlpati* 
putram Dwdpim upatasthuh \ te hrdhmandh veda-vdddnwjriddhdni vo- 
ehdmsi '' rdjyam agrajena karttavyam " ity arthavanti tarn uchujk | asdv 
api veda^dda-virodha-yukti'dHshitam aneka-prakdram tdn dha \ tatas te 
hrdhmand^ 8'dntanum uchur '' dgachha hho rdjann alam atra ati-nir^ 
handhena \ praidntah eva asdv andvrishti-doshahk \ patito 'yam anddi- 
kdla-mahita-veda-^achana-dushanochchdrandt \ patite cha agrajs naiva 
pdrivettryam bhavati^' \ ity uktah 8'dntanuh sva-puram dgatya rdjyam 
akarot \ veda^dda-virodhi'VachanaeJichdrana'dilshite cha jyeshfhe 'smin 
hhrdtari tishthaty api Devdpdv akhikhsasya^ishpattaye vavarsha hhagO' 
vdn Parjanyah \ 

''From Biksha sprang Bhimasena; from him DilTpa; from him 
Fratlpa, who again had three sons called Deyapi, Bantanu, and Y&hllka. 
Bevapi while yet a boy retired to the forest ; and Si antanu became 


king. Eegarding him this Tene is cmrent in the world: 'Eyerj 
decrepit man whom he touches with his hands becomes young. He is 
called Bantanu from that work whereby he obtains supreme tranquility 
{Sdnti).^ The god did not rain on the country of this S^antanu for 
twelye years. Beholding then the ruin of his entire realm, the king 
enquired of the Brahmans: 'Why does not the god rain on this 
country ; what is my offence ? ' The Brahmans replied : ' This earthy 
which is the right of thy elder brother, is now enjoyed by thee ; thou 
art a parvoettfi (one married before his elder brother).' ^ Eeceiying 
this reply, he again asked them : ' What must I do ? ' They then 
answered : ' So long as Devapi does not succumb to declension from or- 
thodoxy and other offences, the royal authority is his by right ; to him 
therefore let it be giyen without frirther question.' When they had so 
said, the king's principal minister Ai&masarin employed certain ascetics 
propounding doctrines contrary to the declarations of the Yedas to 
proceed into the forest, by whom the understanding of the yery simple- 
minded prince (Deydpi) was led to adopt a system at yariance with 
those sacred books. King S&ntanu being distressed for his offence in 
consequence of what the Brahmans had said to him, went, preceded by 
those Brahmans, to the forest in order to deHyer oyer the kingdom to 
his elder brother. Arriying at the hermitage, they came to prince 
Deyapi. The Brahmans addressed to him statements founded on the 
declarations of the Yeda, to the effect that the royal authority should 
be exercised by the elder brother. He, on his part, expressed to them 
many things that were yitiated by reasonings contrary to the tenor of 
the Yeda. The Brahmans then said to Sintanu, ' Come hither, o king : 
there is no occasion for any excessiye hesitation in this affiGor: the 
offence which led to the drought is now remoyed. Your brother has 
fallen by uttering a contradiction of the words of the Yeda which 

M ThiB ii illiutrated by Manu ill, 171 f. : Darngnihotra^iomyogafk kumU yo *gr^f$ 
tthiU I parwetta «a vijneyah pariviUu tu purvajah \ 172. Farmttih parwetld yaya 
eha parividyate \ aarve te narakam yanti datfi^yajaha^panehamaf^ | ** 171. He who, 
while his elder brother is unwedded, marries a wife with the nuptial flres, ii to be 
known as a pariveitri, and his elder brother as a parivittu 172. The parmtii, the 
parweitri, the female by whom the offence is committed, he who gives her away, and 
fifthly the officiating priest, all go to hell." The Indian writers regard the relation 
of a king to his reedm as analogoiu to that of a husband to his wifo. The earth is 
the king's bride. 


have been rerered from time without beginning; and when the 
elder brother has fallen, the younger is no longer chargeable with 
the offence of p&rivettrya {i.e. of marrying before his elder brother).' 
When he had been so addressed, S'antanu returned to his capital, and 
exercised the royal authority. And although his eldest brother Devapi 
continued to be degraded by having uttered words opposed to the 
doctrines of the Yeda, the god Parjanya rained in order to produce a 
harvest of all sorts of grain.'' 

Can the compiler of the Purana have deviated from the conclusion 
of this history as found in the Ninikta, and given it a new turn, in 
order to escape from the conclusion that a Eajanya could officiate as a 

The same story is briefly told in the Bhagavata Purana, ix. 22, 14-17. 

In the TJdyogaparvan of the Mahabharata, on the other hand, 
Devapi's virtues and orthodoxy are extolled in the highest terms, and 
his exclusion from the throne is ascribed solely to his being a leper, 
V. 6054 : 

Devdpis tu mahdtefds tvag-doihl rdja-sattamah \ dhdrmikah Batyorvddl 
eha pituh SuirHshane ratah \ paura-jdnapaddndm eha sammatah sddhu- 
tatkf^tah \ sarveshdm hdla-vriddhdndm Devdpir hfidayangamahk \ vaddn^ 
yah satyatandhai eha sarva-hhuta-hite ratah | varttamdnah pituh idttre 

hrdhmandndm tathaiva eha \ | tarn hrdhmandS eha vriddhdi eha 

paura-jdnapadaih aaha \ sarve nivdraydmdsur Devdper ahhisechanam \ $a 
taeh ehhrutvd tu nripatir ahhtsJieka-nivdranam \ airu-kantho *hhavad rdj'd 
paryaiochata ehdtmajam \ evam vaddnyo dharmajnah satyasandhai eha so 
^bhavat I priyah prajdndm apt sa tvag-doshena praduahitah | ** hindnyam 
pjrithivlpdlam ndhhinandanti devatdh^* \ iti kfitvd nfipa-ireshtham pra^ 
tya$hedhan dvijarshahhdh | • • • • | nivdritaih nfipam dfishfvd Devdpih 
Ba^i&rito vanam | 

« But the glorious Devapi, a most excellent prince, righteous, vera- 
cious, and obedient to his father, was a leper. He was esteemed by 
the inhabitants both of town and country, honoured by the good, be- 
loved by all, both young and old, eloquent, true to his engagements, 
devoted to the welfare of all creatures, and conformed to the commands 
of his father, and of the Brahmans." [The king his father grew old 
and was making preparations for the investiture of his successor ; but 
public opinion was opposed to the devolution of the royal authority on 


a leper, however Tirtaoas]. *' The Brahmans and aged meii| together 
with the dwellers both in town and country, all restrained him from 
the investiture of Devapi. The king, learning their opposition, was 
choked with tears, and bewailed his son's fate. Thus Devapi was 
eloquent, acquainted with duty, true to his promise, and beloved by 
the people, but vitiated by leprosy. The Brahmans forbade the king 
(to make Devapi his successor), saying, 'the gods do not approve a 
king who labours under any corporeal defect' • • « • Perceiving that 
the king (his father) was hindered {from carrying out his wishes) 
Devapi retired to the forest" 

On the same subject, the Matsya Pur&sa, 49, v. 39 f., states as 
follows : 

JDitlpMya Pratlpastu tasyaputrOs trayah smritah \ Devdpih S'antanuk 
ehawa JBdhhkaS ehaiva te trayah \ BdMlJuuya tu ddyaddh sapta JBdhtii' 
vardh tifipdh \ Devdpis tu apadhvastah prqfdhhir abhavad munil^ \ 
fishaya^ Uehhuh | prajdhhis tu kimartham vai apadhvasto janehara^ \ 
ke doshdh rdjaputrasya prajdhhih samuddhfitdh \ Suta uvdeha \ kildtUd 
rdjaputroi tu huhfl taih ndhhyapHjayan \ ko'rthdn vai atra (? vettp 
atra) devdndfk kshattram pratt dvijottamd^ \ 

" The son of Dillpa was Fratipa, of whom three sons are recorded^ 
Devapi, S^&ntanu, and Bahllka. The sons of the last were the seven 
Bahll^vara kings. But the Muni Devapi was rejected by the people. 
The rishis enquired : ' why was that prince rejected by the people ? 
what faults were alleged against him?' Suta replied: 'the prince 
was leprous, and they paid him no respect. Who knows the designs 
of the gods towards the Kshattriya race ? ' '* 

No more is said of Devapi in this passage.*^ The Yishnu Pura^a 
has the following further curious particulars regarding him, iv. 24, 44 ff. : 

Devdpih Fauravo rdjd MaruS ehekihvahHfa^Hiafah | mahdyoya-halo' 
petau Kaldpa-grdma'Safhirayau \ kfite yug$ ihdgatya Juhaitra-prdvart' 
takau hi tau | hhavishyato Manor vamis vlja-hhutau vyavatthitau \ etena 
hrama-yogena Manu-putrair va9undhard \ kjrita-tretddi-aanfndni yugdni 
trlni hhtifyate \ Kalau tu vlja-hhutds te leehit tieh(hauti hhntale \ yaihawa 
Devdpi-MarH edmpratam samavaathitau | 

** 'K'ing Devapi of the race of Puru,^ and Maru of the family of 

« See Prof. Wilson's note, 4to. ed. p. 468. 

*^ In the twentieth chapter, as wo hare seen, he is said to be of the race of KunL 


IkshvakUy filled with the power of intense contemplation {mdh&yoga) 
are abiding in the Tillage of Ealapa, continning to eziat as seeds in the 
family of Mann ; they shall come hither in the (next) Kfita age, and 
re-establish the Elshattriya race. According to this order the earth is 
enjoyed by the sons of Mann throughout the three ages called Kpta, 
Treta, and Dvapara. But during the Kali certain persons remain upon 
earth as seeds (of a future race), as Devapi and Maru now exist." 

According to the Bhagavata Parana, ix. 22, 17, it is the lunar race, 
which had perished in the Kali age, that Bevapi is to restore in the 
future Krita (soma-vamSe kalau nashfe hjrit&dau sthdpayiBhyatt)^ 

I shall quote here from the ld2nd section of the Matsya Purana, 
entitled Manvantara^arnarMm (a description of the Manyantaras) some 
of the particulars about the rishis with which it concludes : 

98. Bhfiguh Kdiya^ Praehet&i eha Dadhlcho hy Atmavdn api \ 
09. Aurvo Hha Jamadagnii cha Ejipah Sdradoatoi tathd \ Arshttskeno 
Tudhdjich eha VitahavyO'Suvarehasau \ 100. Vainah PfUhur DivaddM 
Brahm&ho Gf^tsa-Saunakau \ ekonavimiaiir hy ete Bhfigavo mantra- 
krittamdl^ \ 101. Anyird^ Vedhasai chaiva Bha/radodjo Bhalandanah \ 
Jtitahddhas tato Gargah Sitih Sankfitir eva cha \ 102. Gurudhlrad eha 
Mdndhdtd Amharuha* taihaiva eha \ Yuvandivah Puruh KtUsa^ Pra- 
dyumnah Syavanasya eha | 103. Ajamldho Hha HdryahM Tahihapak 
Kavir eva cha \ Ffishadaho Firupai eha Eanvai ehaivdtha Mudgalah \ 
104. JJlathyai cha S'aradvdmi cha tathd Vdjaha/vd iti \ Apa^yo *tha 
Suvittai eha Vdmadevaa tathaiva eha \ 105. Ajito Brihadukthai eha 
fUhirDlrghatamd api \ KakshlvdnU eha trayattrimiat smritd hy Angira$e 
vardh I 106. Me mantra-kjritah earve Kdiyapdihe tu nihodhata \ . ^ ^\ 
111. Vikdmitrai eha Gddheyo Bevardjae tathd Balah \ tathd vtdvdn 
Madhuohhanddh J^tiehabhai ehdghamarsha^al^ \ 112. Ashfako Lohitai 
ehawa Bhfitakilai eha tdv ubhau \ Veddiravd^ Devardtah Furdndho 
Dhananjayah | 113. MithHaS cha fnahdtejdh Sdlankdyana eoa eha \ tra* 
yodaiaite vijneydh hrahmiththdh KaaSikdh vardh j . . • • | 115. Manur 
Vaivawatai ohaiva Ido rdjd FurHravdh | JSTshattriydndm vardh hy eU 
ttfneydk^ nutntra^ddinah \ 116. Bhalandai chaiva Tandy aS cha 8an^ 
klrttii^ chaiva te tray ah \ ete mantra-krito jneydh VaiSydndm pravard^ 
iodd I 117. By eka-nanatih proktdh mantrdh yaii cha hahih kjitah \ 

V Various readingi'J^Ao&MMftiibM tha VaMcha Sankeiaiekc. 


hrdhmand^ hihattriydh vaiiy&h fishiputr&n mbodlmta 1 118. ]^Uhlkama§i 
sutdh hy eie rtahp-putrdi^ irutarshayah | ^ 

** 98. BhfigUy XsL&j&y Prachetas, Dadhlcha, Atmayat, (99) Aurva, 
Jamadagni, Kfipa, S'aradvata, Arshtishena, Yadhajit, Yltahavya, 
Savarchas, (100) Yaina, PpthUy DiTodaA% Brahmaiva, Gritsa, S'aunaka, 
these are the nineteen*^ BhfigiiB, composers of hymns. 101. Angiras, 
Yedhasa, Bharadvaja, Bhalandana,* Eitabadha, Garga, Siti, Sankfiti, 
Gurudhira,*' Mandhatri, Ambarisha, Yayaaa^ya, Porokatsa,^ Prad- 
ynmnay Sraya^asya,^ Ajami4ha, Harya^ra, Takshapa, Xavi, Pfisha- 
daiva, Yirupa, Slanva, Madgala, TJtathja^ S'aradvat, Yaja^ravas, 
Apa^ya, Suyitta, Y&madeva, Ajita, Bfihaduktha, Dirghatamas, Kakshl- 
vat, are recorded as the thirty-three eminent Angirases. These were 

all composers of hymns. Now learn the Kasyapas 111. Yiiva- 

mitra, son of Gadhi, Devaraja, Bcda, the wise Madhachhandas, Eishabha^ 
Aghamarshana, (112) Ajshfaka, Lohita, Bhfitakila, Yeda^ravas, Deva- 
rata, Purana^va, Dhananjaya, the glorious (113) Mithila, Salankayana, 
these are to be known as the thirteen devoat and eminent Ku^ikas.^ 

115. Mann Yaivasvata, Itjla, king Poruravas, these are to be 

known as the eminent utterers of hymns among the Kshattriyas. 
116. Bhalanda, Yandya, and Sanklrtti,^ these are always to be known 
as the three eminent persons among the YaiSyas who were composers 
of hymns. 117. Thas ninety-one^ persons have been declared, by 
whom hymns have been given forth, Brahmans, Kshattriyas, and 
Yaiiyas. Learn the sons of the rishis. 118. These are the o&pring 
of the pshlkas, sons of rishis, secondary rishis {iriUarahuy 

The section ends here. 

0« I am indebted for an additional copy of this section of the Matsya PnrSna (of which 
some aocotint is given by Prof. Aufrecht in his Catalogue, p. 41), to the kindness of Mr. 
Griffith, Principal of Queen's College, Benares, who, at my request, ha« caused it to 
be collated with yarious other MSS. existing in Benares. I hare not thought it 
necessary to exhibit all the various readings in the part I have quoted. 

^ The number of nineteen is only obtained by making Yaina antt Prithu two 

08 Instead of this word, one Benares MS. has Lakshmana. 

V Two MSS. have Turavlta. « This word is divided into two in the MS. 

^ Two MSS. have, instead, SvasTravas and Tamasyavat. 

^ Unless some of the words I have taken aa names are really epithets, fifteen per* 

sons are enumerated here. 

^ Some MSS. have Bhalandaka, Yandha or Yasas, and SankSla or Sanklnuw 

7s This is the total of several lists, some of which I have omitted. 


It win be observed from a comparison of tbis extract witb the details 
previously given, tbat some of the rajarshis, or rishis of royal blood, 
such as Arshtishena, Yltahavya, Pfitbu (the same as Frith!) are spoken 
of as belonging to the family of Bhpga, while others of the same class, 
such as Mandhatfi, Ajnbarlsha, Ynvana^va, Pnrukutsa, are reckoned 
among the Angirases. Yi^vamitra and his descendants are merely 
designated as Ku^ikas without any specific allusion to their Bajanya 
descent ; but Manu, I^a, and Pnruravasy are distinctly recognized as 
being as once authors of hymns and Kshattriyas; and, what is more 
remarkable, three Yai^yas are also declared to have been sacred poets. 
These traditions of an earlier age, though scanty in amount, are yet 
sufficient to show that in the Yedic times the capacity for poetical com- 
position, and the prerogative of officiating at the service of the gods^ 
was not regarded as entirely confined to men of priestly families. 

Sectc. III. — Texts from the Atharva^eda iUwtrating the progreee of 

Brdhmanieal pretensiom, 

I have already quoted (in pp. 21 and 22) three short passages from 
the Atharva-veda regarding the origin of the Brahman and Kshattriya 
castes. I shall now bring forward some other texts from the same 
collection which show a much greater development of the pretensions 
of the priests to a sacred and inviolable character than we meet in any 
part of the Rig-veda, if the 109th hymn of the tenth book (cited above) 
be excepted. 

I shall first adduce the 17 th hymn of the fifth book, to which I have 
already alluded, as an expansion of £.Y. x. 109. 

Atharva-veda v. 17. (Yerses 1-3 correspond with little variation to 
yerses 1-3 of R.Y. x. 109). 4. Tarn dhus ''tarakd eshd vikeiV iti 
duehchhundm grdmam avapadyamdndm \ sd hrahma-jdyd vi dunoti rdeh- 
frafh yatra prdpddi ia^aJ^ ulku8hlmdn \ (verses 5 and 6 = verses 5 and 
4 of KY. X. 109). 7. Ye garhltdl^ avapadyante jagad yach chdpahpyats \ 
virdh ye tfthyante mitho hrahma-jdyd hinaeti tdn \ 8. Uta yat patayo 
daSa etriydh pUrve ahrdhmandh \ hrahmd ched hastam agrahit m eva 
patir ekadhd \ 9. Brdhmanah eva patir na rdjanyo na vaiSyah \ tat 
eUryah prabruvann eti panehahhyo mdnavehhyah | (Yerses 10 and 11 =3' 
verses 6 and 7 of B. Y. x. 109), 12. Ifdsya jdyd iatavdhi kalydnl talpam 


d iaye \ yasmin rdshtre nirudhyate hrahma-jdyd achittyd \ 13. Nd 
vikarmh prithuiirds tasmin veimanijdyaU \ yasminn ityddi \ 14. Ndsya 
kshattd nuhka-grivah sUtuindm eti agratah \ yasminn ityddi | 15. Kasya 
ivetah krishna-karno dhuri yukto mahlyate \ yasminn ityddi \ 16. Ndsya 
keheUrepushkaranlndndlkafhjdyat$vi9am \ yasminn ityddi \ Xl.Ndsmai 
pfiinim vi duhanti ye *sydh doham updsate \ yasminn ityddi \ 18. Ndsya 
dhenuh kalydnl ndnadvdn sahate yttyam | vijdnir yatra hrdhmano rdtrim 
vasati pdpayd \ 

'' 4. Tliat calamity which falls upon the village, of 

which they say, * this is a star with dishevelled hair/ is in truth the 
hrdhmdn^s wife, who ruins the kingdom ; (and the same is the case) wher- 
ever (a country) is visited by a hare attended with meteors 

7. Whenever any miscarriages take place, or any moving things are 
destroyed, whenever men slay each other, it is the hrdhmdn's wife who 
kills them. 8. And when a woman has had ten former husbands not 
hrdhmdnsy if a hrdhmdn take her hand {i.e. marry her), it is he alone 
who is her husband. 9. It is a Brahman only that is a husband, and 
not a Eajanya or a Yaisya. That (truth) the Sun goes forward pro- 
claiming to the five classes of men {j^anchahhyo mdnavehhyah\ 

12. His (the king's) wife does not repose opulent (^atavdhl) and hand- 
some upon her bed in that kingdom where a hrdhmdn* s wife is foolishly 
shut up. 13. A son with large ears (vikarnah) and broad head is not 
bom in the house in that kingdom, etc. 14. A charioteer with golden 
neckchain does not march before the king's hosts ^ in that kingdom, 
etc. 15. A white horse with black ears does not make a show yoked 
to his (the king's) chariot in that kingdom, etc. 16. There is no pond 
with blossoming lotuses'^ in his (the king's) grounds in that kingdom 
where, etc. 17. His (the king's) brindled cow is not milked by his 
milkmen in that kingdom, etc. 18. His (the king's) milch cow does 
not thrive, nor does his ox endure the yoke, in that country where a 
Brahman passes the night wretchedly without his wife." 

This hymn appears to show that, however extravagant the preten- 
sions of the Brahmans were in other respects, they had, even at the 
comparatively late period when it was composed, but little regard to 

" The word here in the original is sunahamf with which it is difficult to make any 
sense. Should we not read senattam $ 
7* Compare R.V. x. 107, 10, 


the purity of the saoeidotal hlood, as they not only intermarried with 
women of their own order, or even with women who had pre- 
Tionflly lived single^ bnt were in the habit of forming nniona with the 
widows of Eajanyas or Yaisjas,'* if they did not even take posseanon 
of the wires of such men while they were aliye.'* Even if we suppose 
these women to have belonged to priestly families, this would only 
show that it was no tmcommon thing for females of that class to be 
married to Bajanyas or Yai^yas — a fact which would, of coarse, imply 
that the caste system was either laxly observed, or only beginning 
to be introduced among the Indians of the earlier Yedio age. 
That, agreeably to ancient tradition, Brahmans intermarried with 
Kajanya women at the period in question, is also distinctly shewn 

7> That the remarriage of women mi ciutomary among the Hindus of those days 
is also shewn by A.V. ix. 5, 27 f., quoted in my paper on Tama, Jonr. B. A. S. for 
1865, p. 299. 

7B This latter supposition derives a certain support from the emphasis with which 
the two Terses in question (A. V. y. 17, 8, 9} assert that the Brahman was the only 
true husband. Whence, it may be asked, the necessity for this strong and repeated 
asseveration, if the Rajanya and Vais'ya husbands were not still alive, and prepared 
to claim the restoration of their wives ? The verses are, however, ezplioabla without 

It is to be observed, however, that no mention is here made of S'Qdras as a class 
with which Brahmans intermarried. S'adras were not Aryas, like the three upper 
classes. This distinction is recognised in the following verse of the A.y. xtx. 62, I : 
•* Make me dear to gods, dear to princes, dear to every one who beholds me, both to 
S'adra and to Arya." (Unless we are to suppose that both here and in six. 32, 8* 
2rya=a Vais'ya, and not arffo, h the word). In S'atapatha BrShmana, Eanva 
B&kha (Adhvara KSnda, i. 6), the same thin^^ is clearly stated in these words (already 
partially quoted above, p. 176), for a copy of which I am indebted to Prof. MttUer : 
Tan na tarva eva prapadyeta na hi devdh aarvenmva tangaehkanU \ arya €va brahmano 
va kihatiriyo v& vaiiyovd U hi yqfniyAh | no eva tarvemawa aamvadeta na hi devdk 
9artmaiva sanwadanU Oryenaiva brUhmanena vd kihattnyma vd poisyma «a U hi 
pqfniydh \ yady enam iudrtna »amvado visuUt ** iitham mam niehakthvt^* ity anyam 
bruyad etha dikihitafyopaeharal^ ** Every one cannot obtain this (for the gods do 
not associate with every man], but only an Arya, a Br&hman, or a Eshattriya, or a 
Yaiifya, for these can sacrifice. Nor should one talk with everybody (for the goda do 
not talk with every body), but only with an Arya, a Brahman, or a Eshattriya, or a 
Vai^ya, for these can sacrifice. If any one have occasion to speak to a S'Qdra, let 
him say to another person, * Tell this man so and so.' This is the rule for an initiated 


In the corresponding passage of. the Madhyandina S'akha (p. 224 of Weber's 
edition) this passage is diflferently worded. 

From Manu (ix. 149-157 ; x. 7 ff.) it is clear that Brahmans intermarried with 
S'Adra women, though the offspring of those marriages was degraded. 


hj the ftoTj of the lishi Ghjanma and Snkanya, dau^ter of king 
SBOCjatsL, narrated in the 9atapatha Brahmana, and quoted in my paper 
entitled '' CkmtrihntionB to a Knowledge of Yedic Mythologj," No. ii., 
in the Journal of the Boyal Asiatic Society for 1866, pp. 11 ff. See 
also the stories of the rishi S|yaTa^Ta, who married the daughter of 
king Bathaviti, as told by the oommentator on Eig-yeda, y. 61, and 
given in Professor Wilson's translation^ toL iiL p. 344. 

The next hymn, from the same work, sets forth with great live- 
liness and vigour the advantages accruing to princes from the employ- 
ment of a domestic priest 

Atharra-veda, iiL 19, 1. Samiitam m$ idam hrahma samiitam vfryam 
hokum I $amiitam Juhattram ajaram astu juhnwr (? jUhnu) ynkdm 
oitni purokitak \ 2. Sam aham 4shdm rash from sydmi Mam ojo tlryam 
balam \ vriiehdmi kdrundm hdhun anena havishd aham \ 3. ITichai^ 
padyaniam adhare bhavantu ye nah surim mayhavdnam pritanydn \ 
kthindmi brahmand ^mitrdn unnaydmi svdn aham \ 4. Tikthniydmsa^ 
paraior agnet tikshmatardh uta \ Indrasya tajrdi tlkshniydmso yeshdm 
and purohita^ \ 5. Eshdm aham dyudhd tarn sydmi eshdnk rdshfraih 
tmHrarn vardhaydmi \ eshdih hhaiiram ajaram astujishttu eshdik ehittatk 
viwe avantu devdk \ 6. Uddharshantdm Maghavan vdjindni ud vlrdndU 
jayatdm etu ghoahah | pfUhagghoshdh tUulayah ketumaiUa^ Mdiraidm | 
devd^ Indrajyeihthdk Maruto yatUu $enayd \ 7. Preta jayata nara^ 
ugrd^ vah »aniu hdhavah \ tlkshneshavo abakhdhanv&no hata ugrdyudhd^ 
ahaldn ugra-bdhavah \ 8. AcaijrMtd pard pala iaravye brakma-Mmiite 
\ jaydmitrdn pra padyawa jahy eshdm varam-varam md *mUhdm moeki 
kaichana \ 

" 1. May this prayer of mine be successful ; may the vigour and 
strength be complete, may the power be perfect, undecaying, and 
victoriousof those of whom I am the priest (/^uroAtto). 2. I fortify their 
kingdom, and augment their energy, valour, and force. I break the 
arms of their enemies with this oblation. 3. May all those who fight 
against our wise and prosperous (prince) sink downward, and be pros- 
trated. With my prayer I destroy his enemies and raise up his friends* 
4. May those of whom I am the priest be sharper than an axe, sharper 
than fire, sharper than Indra's thunderbolt 6. I strengthen their 
weapons; I prosper their kingdom rich in heroes. May their power 
be undecaying and victorious. May all the gods foster their designs. 


6. Hay their Taloroos deeds, o Mag^yat, bunt forth ; may the noise 
of the conquering heroes arise ; may their distinct shouts, their dear 
yells, go up; may the gods, the Maruts, with Indra as their chie^ 
march forward with their host. 7. Go, conquer, ye warriors; may 
your arms be impetuous. Ye with the sharp arrows, smite those whose 
bows are powerless ; ye whose weapons and arms are terrible (smite) 
the feeble. 8. When discharged, fly forth, a arrow, sped by prayer. 
Yanquish the foes, assail, slay all the choicest of them ; let not one 

The two foUowing hymns from the same collection declare the gnilt, 
the peril, and disastrous consequences of oppressing Brahman s, and 
robbing them of their property. The threats and imprecationB of 
haughty sacerdotal insolence could scarcely be expressed more ener- 

Atharra-yeda, y. 18. 1. Kaitdm U devak adadus iuhht^am nripaie 
attave \ ma hrdhmanasya rdjanya gam jighaUo anddyam \ 2. Aksha^ 
drugdho rdjanyo pdpah dtma-pardjitah \ m hrdhmanasya gam adgdd 
^^adyajlvdnimd hah^^ \ 3. Avishfitd agJuhvuhd pfiddkUr iva charmand | 
md hrdhmana»ya rdjanya frishfd eskd gaur anddyd \ 4. Nir vai kshattraik 
nayati hanti varcho agnir drabdho vi dunoti sarvam \ yo hrdhmanam 
many ate annam eta ea vuhaeya pihati taimdtasya \ 5. Yah enam kanii 
mjridum manyamdno deva-pJyur dhana-kdmo na ckittui I earn tasya Indro 
hridaye agnim indhe uhhe enam dvishfo nahhasl charantam \ 6. Nd 
hrdhmano himsitavyo agnih priyatanor iva \ Soma hi asya ddyddah Indro 
asydhhiiaiiipdh \ 7. Shtdpdshthdm ni girati tdm na iaknoti nihkhidam \ 
annam yo hrdhmandm malvah svddu admiti manyate \ 8. Jihcd jyd 
bhavati ktUmalam vdn nddikdh dantds tapaid 'bhidagdhd^ \ tebhir brahmd 
vidhyati ueva^yun hjid-lalair dhanwrhhir deva-jiUaih \ 9. Tlkshneshavo 
brdhmandh hetimanto ydm asyanti iarapydm na sd mrishd \ anuhdya 
tapaid manyund cha uta durdd ova bhindanti enam | 10. F^ sahaeram 
ardjann dsan daia-iatd uta \ te brdhmanasya gdm jagdhvd Vaitahai^d^ 
pardhhavan \ 11. Oaur eva tdn hanyamdnd Vaitahavydn avdtirat \ 
ye Kesaraprdhandhdydi eharamdjdm apechiran \ 12. Eka-iatam td^ 
janatdh yah hhnmir vyadhunuta \ prajdrh hiineitpd brdhmanlm aeam^ 
bhavyam pardhhavan \ 13. Deva^JyuS eharatt marityeshu gara-glrno 
bhavati aethi-hhuydn \ yo brdhmanam deva-handhum hinasti na sa pitfi^ 
ydnam apyeti lokam \ 14. Agnir vai na^ padavdya^ Somo ddydda uehyaie | 


hantdhhiiastd Indras tathd tad vedhaso viduh \ 15. Ishur iva digdhd 
nfipaU pfiddhur iva gopaU \ scL hr&hmanasya ishur ghord tayd vidhyaii 
piyatah \ 

" 1. King, the godd have not giyen thee (this cow) to eat. Do not, 
Bajanya (man of royal descent), seek to dcTonr the Brahman's cow, 
which is not to be eaten. 2. The wretched Rajanya, unlucky in play, 
and self-destroyed, will eat the Brahman's cow, saying, ' Let me liye 
to-day, (if I can) not (live) to-morrow.* 3. This cow, clothed with a 
skin, contains deadly poison, like a snake. Beware, Bajanya, of this 
Brahman's (cow) ; she is ill-flavoured, and must not be eaten. 4. She 
takes away his regal power, destroys his splendour, consumes him entire 
like a fire which has been kindled. The man who looks upon the Brah- 
man as mere food to be eaten up, drinks serpent's poison. 5. Indra 
kindles a fire in the heart of that contemner of the gods who smites the 
Brahman, esteeming him to be inoffensive, and foolishly covets his pro- 
perty. Heaven and earth abhor the man who (so) acts. 6. A Brahman is 
not to be wronged, as fire (must not be touched) by a man who cherishes 
his own body. Soma is his (the Brahman's) kinsman, and Indra 
shields him from imprecations. 7. The wicked (?) man who thinks 
the priests' food is sweet while he is eating it, swallows (the cow) 
bristling with a hundred sharp points, but cannot digest her. 8. The 
priest's tongue is a bow-string, his voice is a barb, and his windpipe is 
arrow-points smeared with fire. With these god-directed, and heart- 
subduing bows, the priest pierces the scomers of the gods. 9. Brahmans 
bearing sharp arrows, armed with missiles, never miss their mark when 
they discharge a shaft. Shooting with fiery energy and with 
anger, they pierce (the enemy) from afar. 10. The descendants of 
Yltahavya, who ruled over a thousand men, and were ten hundred in 
number, were overwhelmed after they had eaten a Brahman's cow.''^ 1 1 . 
The cow herself, when she was slaughtered, destroyed them, — those 
men who cooked the last she-goat of Ecsaraprabandha. 12. Those 
hundred persons whom the earth shook off, after they had wronged the 
priestly race, were overwhelmed in an inconceivable manner. 13. Ho 
lives among mortals a hater of the gods; infected with poison he 
becomes reduced to a skeleton ; he who wrongs a Brahman the kins- 

7^ I am not aware whether any traces of this story are discorerable in the PoriQan 
or MahahhSrata. See the first Terse of the hymn ne]^t to be quoted. 


man of the deities^ CeuIs to attain to the heaven of the Forefathers* 
14. Agni is called oar leader; Soma our kinsman. Indra neutralizes 
imprecations (directed against us) ; this the wise understand. 15. Like 
a poisoned arrow, o king, like a serpent, o lord of cows, — such is the 
dreadful shaft of the Brahman, with which he pierces his enemies." 

Athanra-yeda, y. 19, 1. Atimdtram avardhanta nod iva dioam agpriian \ 
Bhfiguih hiffmtvd 8*t%njayah Vaitahavyah parabhdvan \ 2. BfihaUd^ 
mdnam Angiroiam drpayan hrdhnutnam jandk \ petvas teshdm uhkayadam 
avis tok&ny dvayat | 3. I^ hrdhmanam pratyashfhlvan ye vd 'smin Suklam 
Uhirs I asnas te tnadhye hdydydJ^ keidn khddanta dsate \ 4. BrahmagatH 
pachyamdnd ydvat sd *bh$ vijangahe \ Ujo rdshtrasya nirhtmti na vtro 
jdyate vfishd \ 5. Kruram asydh dia%anafh tfishfam pUitam asyaie \ 
hhlrant yad atydh ply ate tad vat pitfishu kUbisham \ 6. Uyro rdjd 
manyamdno hrdhmanaih yaj jiyhatsatt \ pard tat tichyaU rdshfram 
hrdhmano yatrajJyate | 7. Ashfdpadl ehaturakshl ehatuh'&rotrd ehatuT' 
hanuh I dvydayd dvijihvd hhutvd sd rdshfram avadhunute hrahmajyatya \ 
8. Tad vat rdshfram dsra/vati ndvam hhinndm ivodakam \ brdhmdma€t 
yatra hi^isanti tad rdshtram hanti duchchhund \ 9. Tafft vriishd^ apa 
Mtdhanti ^^chhdydih no mopa yd^^ iti \ yo hrdhmanasya saddhanam ahhi 
Ndrada many ate \ 10. Visham etad deva-kritaih rdjd Varuno ahravit | 
na hrdhmanasya gdm jagdhvd rdshfrejdydra kaichana \ II. Navawa tdk 
navaiayo yd^ bhUmir vyadhunuta \ prajdm htnuitvd hrdhmanlm OMm- 
hhavyant pardhhavan \ 12. Ydm mritdydnuhadhnanti kudyam pada^ 
yopanlm \ tad vat hrahmajya te devdh upastaranam ahnwan | 13. AirHni 
kfipamdnaeya ydni jltasya vdvf^tuh \ tain vat hrahmajya te devdh apdm 
hhdgam adhdrayan \ 14. Yena mjitam mapayanti hnairuni yena undate \ 
tarn vat hrahmajya te devdh apdm hhdgam adhdrayan \ 15. Na varihaiSi 
Maitrdvarunam hrdhmajyam ahhi varshati \ ndsmai samiti^ kalpate na 
mitraih nayate vaiam \ 

"1. The S^finjayas, descendants of Yitahayya, waxed exceedingly; 
they almost touched the sky ; but after they had injured Bhrigu, they 
were oyerwhelmed. 2. When men pierced Brihatsaman, a Brahman 
descended from Angiras, a ram with two rows of teeth swallowed their 
children. 3. Those who spit, or throw filth (?) upon a Brahman, sit 
eating hair in the midst of a stream of blood. 4. So long as this 
Brahman's cow is cut up (?) and cooked, she destroys the glory 
of the kingdom; no vigorous hero is bom there. 5. It is cruel to 


daughter her ; her ill-flaTonred flesh is thrown away. When her milk 
is dmnky that is esteemed a sin among the Forefathers. 6. Whenever 
a king, fancying himself mighty, seeks to doToor a Brahman, that 
kingdom is broken np, in which a Brahman is oppressed. Becoming 
eight-footed, four-eyed, four-eared, four-jawed, two-faced, two-tongued, 
she (the cow) shatters the kingdom of the oppressor of Brahmans. 8. 
(Ruin) overflows that kingdom, as water swamps a leaky boat : calamity 
smites that country in which a priest is wronged. 9. Even trees, 
o 19'arada, repel, and refuse their shade to, the man who daims a right 
to the property of a Brahman. This (property), as king Yaruna hath 
said, has been turned into a poison by the gods. 'No one who has eaten 
a Brahman's cow continues to watch {i,e. to rule) over a country. 
11. Those nine nineties (of persons) whom the earth shook ofiP, when 
they had wronged the priestly race, were overwhelmed in an incon- 
ceivable manner (see verse 12 of the preceding hymn). 12. The gods 
have declare4 that the cloth wherewith a dead man's feet are bound 
shall be thy pall, thou oppressor of priests. 13. The tears which flow 
from a persecuted man as he laments, — such is the portion of water 
which the gods have assigned to thee, thou oppressor of priests. 
14. The gods have allotted to thee that portion of water wherewith 
men wash the dead, and moisten beards. ,15. The rain of Mitra 
and Yaruna does not descend on the oppressor of priests. For him the 
battle has never a successful issue ; nor does he bring his Mend into 

The attention of the reader is directed to the intensity of contempt 
and abhorrence which is sought to be conveyed by the coarse imagery 
contained in verses 3, and 12-14, of this last hymn. 

There is another section of the same Yeda, xii. 5, in which curses 
similar to those in the last two hymns are fulminated against the 
oppressors of Brahmans. The following are specimens : 

Atharva-veda, xii. 5, 4. Brahma padavdyam hrdhmano ^dh^atih \ 

5, Tarn ddaddnasya hrahma-gavlm jinato hrdhmandn kshattriyanya \ 

6. Apa krdmati mnritd vlryam punyd lahshmtl^ \ 7. OJascha tejaS cha 
sahaS cha lalam cha vdh cha indriyam cha irli cha dharmai cha \ 
8. Brahma cha kshattratn cha rdshfram cha vUak cha tvishti cha yaSai cha 
varchai cha dravinam cha \ 9. Aytii cha rUpafk eha ndma cha klrttii cha 
prdnai cha apdnaS cha chakshtd cha irotrafh eha \ 10. Payai cha roioS 


eha annatk eha annddyaih cha fitath cha Botyafn cha ishtafh cha pHrttarh 
ehaprajd chapaSavai cha | 11. Tdni sarvdnt apa krdmanti hrahma-yavlm 
ddaddnasya jinato hrdhmanam kskattriyasya \ 12, Sd eshd hhJmd hrahtna- 

gavl agha^ishd | 13. Sarvdny aaydfh ghoruni sarve cha mritya- 

vah I 14. Sarvdny Mydih krurdni sarve purusha-vadhdh *| 15. Sd 
hrahma-jyam deva-plyum hrahmagavl ddlyamdnd mrityoh padbUe d 
dyati \ 

" 4. Prayer {hrdhmdn) is the chief (thing) ; the Brahmao is the 
lord {adhipati), 5. From the Kshattriya who seizes the priest's cow, 
and oppresses the Brahman, (6) there depart piety, valour, good fortune, 

(7) force, keenness, vigour, strength, speech, energy, prosperity, virtue, 

(8) prayer {hr&hmdn)y royalty, kingdom, suhjects, splendour, renown, 
lustre, wealth, (9) life, beauty, name, fame, inspiration and expiration, 
sight, hearing, (10) milk, sap, food, eating, righteousness, truth, 
oblation, sacrifice, offspring, and cattle; — (11) all these things depart 
from the Kshattriya who seizes the priest's cow. 12. Terrible is the 
Brahman's cow, filled with deadly poison. . . . 13. In her reside all 
dreadful things, and all forms of death, (14) all cruel things, and all 
forms of homicide. 15. 'When seized, she binds in the fetters of death 
the oppressor of priests and despiser of the gods." 

A great deal more follows to the same effect, whi^h it would be 
tiresome to quote. 

I subjoin some further texts, in which reference is made to hrdhmdns. 

In xix. 22, 21 (= xix. 23, 30) it is said : 

Brahma-jyeshfM samhhritd vlrydni hrahmdgrejyeshtham divam dtatdna \ 
hhatdndm hrahmd prathamo ha jajne tendrhati hrahmand Bparddhitufk 

" Powers are collected, of which prayer (or sacred science, hrdhmdn) 
is the chief. Prayer, the chief, in the beginning stretched out the sky. 
The priest (Jbrdhmdn) was bom the first of beings. Who, then, ought 
to vie with the hrdhmdn. 

A superhuman power appears to be ascribed to the hrdhmdn in 
the following passages, — unless by hrdhmdn we are to understand 
Bfihaspati : — 

xix. 9, 12. Brdhmd Prajdpatir Bhatd loldh veddh saptariahayo 
*gnayah \ tair me hfitam ivastyayanam Indro me iarma yachhatu hrahmd 
me iarma yachhatu \ 


•May a prosperous journey be gpranted to me by prayer, Prajapatii 
Dhatfi, the worlds, the Yedas, the seyen rishis, the fires ; may Indra 
grant me felicity, may the hrdhmdn grant me felicity." 

xiz. 43, 8. Yatra hrahma-vido ydnti dlkshayd t^tpoid saha \ hrahmd 
md tatra nayatu hrahmd hrahma dadhdtu me \ hrahmane wdhd. 

'' May the hrdhmdn conduct me to the place whither the knowers of 
prayer (or of sacred science) go by initiation with austerity. May the 
hrdhmdn impart to me sacred science. Svdhd to the hrdhmdn.^^ 

The wonderful powers of the Brahmachariui or student of sacred 
science, are described in a hymn (A.Y. zi. 5), parts of which are 
translated in my paper on the progress of the Yedic Eeligion, pp. 374 ff. 

And yet with all this sacredness of Ihs character the priest must be 
dcToted to destruction, if, in the interest of an enemy, he is seeking 
by his ceremonies to effect the ruin of the worshipper. 

▼. 8, 6. Tarn ami puro dadhire hrahmdnam apahhutaye \ Indra ta me 
adhaepadam tam pratyaeydmi mfityave \ 

" May the hrdhmdn whom these men hare placed in their front (as a 
purohita) for our injury, fall under my feet, o Indra ; I hurl him away, 
to death (compare A.Y. yii. 70, 1 ff.). 

Sbct* IY.— Q^ntbnj of Profeeaar E, Both and Dr. M. Haug regarding 

the origin ofeaete among the Hindus, 

I shall in this section give some account of the speculations of Frof. 
B. Both and Dr. M. Haug on the process by which they conceive the 
system of castes to haye grown up among the Indians. 

The remarks which I shall quote from Frof. Both are partly drawn 
from his third "Dissertation on the Literature and History of the 
Yeda," p. 117, and partly from his paper on <' Brahma and the Br§h- 
mans/' in the first Tolume of the Journal of the German Oriental 
Society.'* He says in the latter essay : '' The religious development of 
India is attached through the course of three thousand years to the word 
hrdhmd. This conception might be taken as the standard for estimat- 
ing the progress of thought directed to divine Wngs, as at every step 
taken by the latter, it has gsdned a new form, while at the same time 

^^ The reader who is imacqaainted with German will find a fuller acooimt of this 
article in the Benares Magazine for October 1861, pp. 823 ff. 



it has always embraced in itself the highest spiritual acquisition of the 
nation. ... * The original signification of the word hrdhmd, as we 
easily discoTer it in the Yedio hymns, is that of prayer; not praise 
or thanksgiving, bat that inTOcation which, with the force of the will 
directed to God, seeks to draw him to itself, and to receiye satisfaction 
from him. • « . . From this oldest sense and form of hrdhmd (neuter) 
was formed the masculine noun brahmd, which was the designation of 
those who pronounced the prayers, or performed the sacred cere- 
monies ; and in nearly all the passages of the Eig-yeda in which it 
was thought that this word must refer to the Brahmanical caste, this 
more extended sense must be substituted for the other more limited 

one From this sense of the word hrahmd, nothing was more 

natural than to conyert this offerer of prayer into a particular description 
of sacrificial priest : so soon as the ritual began to be fixed, the funo- 
tions which were before united in a single person, who both prayed to 
the gods and sacrificed to them, became separated, and a priesthood 
interposed itself between man and God." ^ 

Then further on, after quoting E.y. iy. 50, 4 ff. (see aboye, p. 247), 
Ph)f. Both continues : '' In this manner here* and in many places of the 
liturgical and legal books, the promise of every blessing is attached to 
the maintenance of a priest by the king. Inasmuch as he supports and 
honours the priest, the latter ensures to him the favour of the gods. 
So it was that the caste of the Brahmans arose and attained to power 
and consideration : first, they were only the siogle domestic priests of 
the kings; then the dignity became hereditary in certain fEonilies; 
finally a union, occasioned by similarity of interests, of these fiEunilies 
in one larger community was effected ; and all this in reciprocal action 
with the progress made in other respects by theological doctriue and 
religious worship. StiU the extension of the power which fell into the 
hands of this priestly caste would not be perfectly comprehensible 

T0 In his third Dinertation on the lateratore and History of the Veda, Prof. Roth 
remarks : " In the Vedic age, access to the gods by prayer and sacrifice was open to 
all classes of the community ; and it was only the power of expressing derotion in a 
manner presumed to be acceptable to the deities, or a readiness in poetical diction, 
that distingmshed any indiridual or family from the mass, and led to their being 
employed to conduct the worship of others. The name given to such persons was 
puroAtte, one * put forward ; ' one through whose mediation the gods would receiTO 
the offering presented. But these priests had as yet no especial sanctity or exdusiTe 
prerogatiye which would render their employment imperatiTe." 


from this explanation alone. The relation of spiritoal superiority in 
which the priests came to stand to the kings was aided hj other 
historical moTements." 

Professor Both then proceeds: ''When — at a period more recent 
than the majority of the hymns of the Big-veda — the Yedio people, 
driven by some political shock, advanced from their abodes in the 
Punjab farther and frirther to the south, drove the aborigines into the 
hills, and took possession of the broad tract of country lying between 
the Ganges, the Jumna, and the Yindhya range ; the time had arrived 
when the distribution of power, the relation of king and priest, could 
become transformed in the most rapid and comprehensive manner. 
Principalities separated ia such various ways, such a division into 
tribes as had existed in the Punjab, were no longer possible here, 
where nature had created a wide and continuous tract with scarcely 
any natural boundaries to dissever one part frt>m another. Most of 
those petty princes who had descended from the north with their 
tribes must here of necessity disappear, their tribes become dissolved, 
and contests arise for the supreme dominion. This era is perhaps 
portrayed to us in the principal subject of the Mah^bharata, the con- 
test between the descendants of Pan^n and Kuru. In this stage of 
disturbance and complication, power naturally fell into the hands of 
those who did not directly possess any authority, the priestly races 
and their leaders, who had hitherto stood rather in the position of 
followers of the kings, but now rose to a higher rank. It may easily 
be supposed that they and their families, already honoured as the con- 
fidential followers of the princes, would frequently be able to strike a 
decisive stroke to which the king would owe his success. If we take 
further into account the intellectual and moral influence which this 
class possessed in virtue of the prerogative conceded to, or usurped by, 
them, and the religious feeling of the people, it is not difficult to com- 
prehend how in such a period of transition powerful conmiunities 
should arise among the domestic priests of petty kings and their 
families, should attain to the highest importance in every department 
of life, and should grow into a caste which, like the ecclesiastical order 
in the middle ages of Christianity, began to look upon secular authority 
as an effluence from the fulness of their power, to be conferred at their 
will ; and how, on the other hand, the numerous royal families should 


sink down into a nobility which possessed, indeed, the sole right to the 
kingly dignity, but at the same time, when elected by the people, 
required inauguration in order to their recognition by the priesthood, 
and were enjoined above all things to employ only Brahmans as their 

In order to render the probability of this theory still more apparent, 
Professor Both goes on to indicate the relations of the other castes to 
the Brahmans. The position which the three superior classes occupied 
in the developed Brahmanical system was one of gradation, as they 
differed only in the extent of their religious and civil prerogatives, the 
Kshattriya being in some respects less favoured than the Brahman, and 
the Yaii^ya than the Eshattriya. With the S^udras, on the other hand, 
the case was quite different. They were not admitted to sacrifice, to 
the study of the Yedas, or to investiture with the sacred cord. From 
this Professor Both concludes that the three highest castes stood in a 
closer connection with each other, whether of descent, or of culture, 
than any of them did to the fourth. The Indian body politic, more- 
over, was complete without the S^udras. The Brahman and E[shattriya 
were the rulers, while the Yaiiyas formed the mass of the people. 
The fact of the latter not being originally a separate community is 
confirmed by the employment assigned to them, as weU as by their 
name Vaiiya, derived from the word VtS, a word which in the Yeda 
designates the general community, especially considered as the pos- 
sessor of the pure Aryan worship and culture, in contradistinction to 
all barbarian races. Out of this community the priesthood arose in 
the manner above described, while the Eshattriyas were the nobility, 
descended in the main from the kings of the earlier ages. The fourth 
caste, the S^udras, consisted, according to Prof. Roth, of a race subdued 
by the Brahmanical conquerors, whether that race may have been a 
branch of the Arian stock which immigrated at an earlier period into 
India, or an autochthonous Indian tribe. 

In his tract on the origin of Bi-ohmanism, from which I have already 
quoted (see above, pp. 11 and 14), Dr. Haug thus states bis views on 
this question : ''It has been of late asserted that the original parts of 
the Yedas do not know the system of caste. But this conclusion was 
prematurely arrived at without sufficiently weighing the evidence. It 
18 true the caste system is not to be found in such a developed state; 


the duties enjoined to the several castes are not so clearly defined as 
in the Law Books and Poranas. But nevertheless the system is already 
Inown in the earlier parts of the Yedas, or rather presupposed. The 
barriers only were not so insurmountable as in later times." (p. 6). 
This view he supports by a reference to the Zend Avesta, in which he 
finds evidence of a diTision of the followers of Ahura Mazda into the 
three classes of Atharvas, Bathaesthas, and Yst^trya jfehuyans, which 
ho regards as corresponding exactly to the Brahmans, Kshattriyas, and 
Yai^yas of India. The Atharvas, or priests, in particular formed a 
class or even a caste; they had secrets which they were prohibited 
from divulging ; they were the spiritual guides of their nation, and 
none but the son of a priest could become a priest — a rule which the 
Parsis still maintain. From these facts, Dr. Haug deduces the con- 
clusion that the nation of which both the Indo-Arians and the Ferso- 
Arians originally formed a part had been divided into three classes 
even before the separation of the Indians from the Iranians ; and he 
adds (p. 7) : '' From all we know, the real origin of caste appears 
to go back to a time anterior to the composition of the Yedic 
hymns, though its development into a regular system with insur- 
mountable barriers can be referred only to the latest period of the 
Yedic times." 

I shall furnish a short analysis of some other parts of Dr. Hang's 
interesting tract. He derives (p. 7) the word hr&hmana from brdhm&n 
(neuter), which originally meant " a sacred song, prayer," as an effu- 
sion of devotional feeling. Brdhmd was the "sacred element" in the 
sacrifice, and signified " the soul of nature, the productive power." 
The Brahmanic sacrifices had production as their object, and embraced 
some rites which were intended to famish the sacrificer with a new 
spiritual body wherewith he might ascend to heaven, and others cal- 
culated to provide him with cattle and offspring (p. 8). The symbol 
of this hrdhnUi, or productive power, which must always be present at 
the sacrifice, was a bunch of kuia grass, generally called Yeda (a word 
alternating with hrdhtnd)^ which, at the sacrifice, was passed from one 
priest to another, and given to the sacrificer and his wife. The cor- 
responding symbol of twigs used by the Parsis was called in Zend 
hdresma, which Dr. Haug considers to have been originally the same as 
hrdhmd (p. 9). As it was essentiiEd to the saocese of these sacrifices 


that every portion of the complicated ceremonial shonld be accnrately 
performed, and as mistakes could not be avoided, it became necessary 
to obviate by an atonement {prdyaiehitti) the mischief which would 
otherwise have ensued ; and the priest appointed to guard against or 
expiate such mistakes, when committed by the other priests — the hotri, 
adhvaryUy and udgdtfi — was called, '' from the most ancient times," the 
irdAm(!)fn(masculine),|who was a functionary pre-eminently supplied with 
brdhmd (neuter) or sacred knowledge, and thereby connected ''with the 
soul of nature, the cause of all growth, the last cause of all sacrificial 
rites" (p. 10). The office of hrdhmdn was not one to which mere birth 
gave a claim, but had to be attained by ability and study. The descend- 
ants of these hrdhmdn priests were the Brahmans, and the speculations 
of the most eminent hrdhmdn priests on divine things, and especially on 
sacrificial rites, are contained in the works called Brahmanas (p. 12). 
Dr. Haug considers that no such a class as that of the hrdhmdn priests 
existed at the early period when the ancestors of the Hindus separated 
from those of the Parsis in consequence of religious differences. The 
few rites preserved by the Farsls as relics of the remotest antiquity 
closely resemble those of the Brahmans. Dr. Haug finds that in the 
Homa ritual of the former (corresponding to the Soma ceremony of the 
latter) only two priests, called Zota and Easpt or Eathwi, are required, 
whom he recognises as corresponding to the Hotri and Adhvaryu of the 
latter. So long as the rites were simple, no hrdhmdn priest was wanted ; 
but when they became complicated and multiform, the necessity for 
such a functionary arose. And it was only then that the sons of the 
hrdhmdns, i,e, the Brahmans, could rise through the possession of sacred 
knowledge, derived from their fathers, to great power, and form them- 
selves into a regular caste. The development of these ceremonies out 
of their primitive simplicity into the complexity and multiformity which 
they ultimately assumed must. Dr. Haug thinks, have been the work 
of many centuries. This transformation must have taken place in the 
region bordering on the SarasvatI, where the expansion of the Brah- 
manical system, and the elevation of the Brahmans to full spiritual 
supremacy, is to be sought, before the Indo-Arians advanced south- 
eastwards into Hindostan proper (p. 14). The ascendancy of the 
Brahmans was not however attained without opposition on the part 
of the kings (p. 18). Dr. Haug concludes by relating the reception 


of Yiiv§initra into the order of Brdhmans, and by giving some ac- 
count of the rishis and the several daases into which they were 

As the question is generally stated by Dr. Haug in pages 6 and 12 ff., 
the difference between him and other European scholars is one of 
age and not of principle, for neither party admits any distinction of 
race or congenital diversity between the three superior castes or classes. 




I proceed to giye some legendary iUaetratioiis of the straggle which 
no doubt occurred in the early ages of Hindu history between the 
Brahmans and the Kshattriyas, after the former had begun to con- 
stitute a fraternity exercising the sacerdotal profession, but before the 
respective provinces of the two classes had been accurately defined by 
custom, and when the members of each were ready to encroach on the 
prerogatives claimed as their own exclusive birthright by the other. 

Sect. I. — Manti^B Summary of refraetory and whmisme m<mareh$. 

I shall begin with the following passage, which we find in the 
Institutes of Manu, vii. 38 ff., regarding the impious resistance, as the 
lawgiver considered it, of certain monarchs to the legitimate claims of 
the priests, and the dutiful behaviour of others. 

38. VfiddhdmS eha nityaffi sweta viprdn veda^mdah hichln \ vfiddha- 
aevl hi satataih rakshobhir api pUjyaU \ 39. Tehhyo 'dhigaehhed vino- 
yatk vinltdtmd *pi nityaiafi | vinitdtmd hi nfipatir na vitmiyati karehi' 
ehit I 40. Bahaoo *vinaydd tuuhtdh rdjdna^ 8<hpariehhadd^ \ vanasthd^ 
api rdjydni vinaydt pratipedire \ 41. Veno vinashfo ^vinaydd Nahtuhai 
ehaiva pdrthiva^ \ Suddf^ Paijavanai^ ehaica Sumukho Nimir eva eha \ 
42. Pfithus tu vinaydd rdjyam prdptavdn Manur eva eha \ Euverai eha 
dhanaiharyyam hrdhmanyafn ehaiva Qddhijah \ 

** Let the king constantly reverence ancient Brahmans skilled in the 
Yedas, and pure in conduct ; for he who always respects the aged is 
honoured even by the BUksh&ses. 39. Let him, even though humble- 

M In luppoit of this reading, see M. Loiseleur DeslongchampB's and Sir 6. C. 
Hanghton*8 notes on the passage. 


minded, be continually learning submisaiveneBB from them : for a 8nb« 
missive monarch never perishes. 40. Through want of this oharacter 
many kings have been destroyed with all their possessions ; whilst by 
humility even hermits have obtained kingdoms. 41. Yeoa perished 
through want of submissiveness, and king Nohusha, and Sudas the wm 
of Pijavana, and Sumukha, and Nimi. 42. But throagh submissive- 
ness Pfithu and Manu attained kingly power, Kuvcra the lordship of 
wealth, and the son of Gadhi (Yi^vamitra) Brahmanhood.""^ 

Vena is again referred to in Manu ix. 66 f. : Ayam dvijair hi vid* 
vadhhih paiudharmo nigarhita^ \ manushifdnam apt prokto Vine r&jyam 
praSdsati \ 67. Sa mahlm akhtldm hhunjan rdjarshi-pravarah purd \ 
varsdndfh tankaraih chakre kdmopahata-ehetanah \ 

« This custom (of raising up seed to a deceased brother or kinsman 
by his widow) fit only for cattle, was declared to be (law) for men also, 
when YcQa held sway. This eminent royal rishi, who in former times 
ruled over the whole earth, haviog his reason destroyed by lust, 
occasioned a confusion of castes." 

The legendary history of nearly all the kings thus stigmatized or 
celebrated can be traced in the Puranas and other parts of Indian 
literature. I shall supply such particulars of the refractory monarchs 
as I can find. 

It will be observed that Manu is spoken of as an ordinary prince ; 
and that even Kuvera, the god of wealth, is said to have attained his 
dignity by the same species of merit as the other persons whom the 
writer eulogizes. I am not aware whether any legends exist to the 
same effect. Something of a contrary tendency is found with regard 
to the deity in question in the passage of the Mahdbhdrata, of which 
an extract is given above, in p. 140, note 249. 

81 KullQka remarks on this passage : Cfadhi-putro Viivamiiratr chakthoHri^ah tafki 
tenawadehena brahmanyampraptavan \ rqfyo'labhavatart bmAmanya-praptir aprastuta 
'pi vmoffotkarahartham ukta \ tdfiio 'yam iastranuahfhanO'nithiddha'Vaiyana'rupa' 
vinayodayena kihattriyo *pi durlabham brahmanyam Ubh$ \ ** Yi^y&mitra, the son of 
Gadhi, being a Ejshattriya, obtained BrShmanhood in the same body {%.$, without 
being again bom in another body). The attainment of Brahmanhood by one who at the 
time held kingly authority, although an unusual occurrence, is mentioned to show the 
excellence of submissiTeness. Through that quality, as exhibited in the obserrance of 
scriptural injunctions, and in abstinence from things forbidden, he, being a Kshai- 
triya, obtained Brahmanhood, so difficult to acquire." 


I have not met with any story of Snmnklia's contest with the 
Brahmans. Some MSS. read Soratha instead of Sumnkha. 

The name of Sudas, the son of Fijavanay occurs in several parts of 
the Big-Tcda. I shall return to him in relating the contest between 
Yasishtha and Yi^vamitra. I begin with the story of Ye^a. 

Sect. II. — legend of Vena, 

A.ooording to the Yishi^u PuraQa, LIS, Yega was the son of Anga, 
and the descendant in the ninth generation of the first Manu, Svayam- 
bhuva; the line of ancestors from the latter downwards being as 
follows: Uttanapgda, DhruTa, Slishti, ]^puy Ch^kshusha, the sixth 
Manu called Chakshusha, UrUy Anga (see Wilson's Yishnu P. toI. i.). 
Yega thus belongs to a mythical age preceding by an enormous interral 
that of the descendants of Manu Yaivasvata mentioned in the preced- 
ing chapter of this volume; five Manvantaras, or periods of 808,571 
years each, having intervened in the present Kalpa between the dose 
of the Sv&yambhuva, and the beginning of the ftirigfa'Tig, or Yaivasvata, 

Yishiju Furaga, i. 13, 7 : Pafr&iara uvdeha \ SiMthd n&ma yd kanyd 
Mfityol^ pratkam&Jd ^hJuwat \ Angatya hhdryyd m dattd toiydfh Femu 
tv afdyata \ 8. 8a mdtdmaha-doihena Una Mfiiyoh tutdtmafa^ \ nisargdd 
ina Maitreya dushfa^ eva tfyajdyata \ 9. AhhUhikio yadd rdjye sa Venah 
paramanhibhi^ \ yhoshaydmdaa sa tadd pfithwydm pfiihivlpatih \ ^^na 
fotkttaoyaik na ddtavyam hotavyam na haddehana | hhohtd yajnoiya kaa 
ip anyo hy dkam yajna^atih %add \ 10. Tatas tarn frtshayah aarve iom- 
pQjya pfithivipatim \ achuh Bdmalalafh saffiyan Maiireya tamupasthitdh \ 
fiihayah Hehuh | 11. '' Bho hho rdjan Sfinushva tvaih yad vaddmoi tava 
prabho I rdjya-dehcpakdre yah prajdndm eha hitamparam \ 12. Dtrgha" 
mUirena dweiath tarva-yajneivaram Surim \ pUjaytBhydmo hhadraih U 
iatrdihiat U hha/oiihyati \ 13. Yi^inena yajna-purutho VUhnuh^ samprinito 
vibhu^ I asmdhhir hhavata^ kdmdn aarvdn eva praddsyati \ yajnair 
yqfneharo yeihdm rdsh(re sampHjyaU Harih \ teshdfh §arvep9%tdvdpt%ih 
daddtinripa hhnhhufdm^* | Vimah uedeha \ ^^mattah ho ^hhyadhiko *nyo 
*8ti la6 ohdrddhyo mamdparah \ ho *yark Sarvr Hi khydto yo vo yafnei- 
varo mata^ \ Brahmd Jandrdano Eudra^ Indro Vdyur Yamo Ravih \ 


Siddbhug Varuno Dhdid Poshd Bhumir Niidhira^ \ tte eh&nye eha y$ 
devdh iapanugraha-karinal^ \ nr^pasya U iofira-tthdi Borva-dwamayo 
tiffpafk I etqf jndtvd tnayd '^jnaptalh yad yathd kriyatdm tathd \ na 
datavyam na hotavyafh na yashfavyaih eha vo dvijd^ | 14. Bharttuh hti* 
rUihanam dharmo yathd sMndm paro tnatah \ mamdjnd'pdlanam dharmo 
hhavatdm eha tathd dvijdi^** | jrishayafi Hchu^ \ *' dehy anufndm mahd" 
rdja md dharmo yatu sankahayam \ havUhdm parindmo *yam yad etad 
akhilatk jagat \ 15. J)hartne eha iankahayani ydte hhiyate ehdkhUoA 
jagaV^ \ PardSarah uvdeha \ iti vifndpyamdno *p% sa Venah paramoT'^ 
ihibhi^ I yadd daddti ndnufndm prohtah proktah punah punah \ tatai te 
munayai sarve kepdmanha-samanvitd^ | '*hanyatam hanyatdm pdpay* 
ity Hehui te parasparam \ 16. "To yafna-purusham devam anddi-ni' 
dhanam prahhum \ vinindaty adhamdchdro na iayoyyo hhwah patih^* \ ity 
uktvd mantra^nioM te kuSair muni-yandh nripam \ nirjaghnur nihatam 
pUrvam hhayavan^indanddind | tatai eha munayo renu^ dadftiufk sat' 
vato dptja \ '^ktm etad*' iti ehdsannam papraehhui te janaffh tada \ 
17. Akhydtam eha janaie teshfm '^ ehauribhutair ardjake \ rdshfre tu 
lokair drabdham para-evdddnaih dturai^ \ 18. Teshdm udlnuhveydndik 
ehaurdndm muni-sattamdhk \ nmuJkdn dfiiyate renu^ para-^ttdpahd" 
rindm'* \ tata^ eammantrya te earve munayaa taaya bhahhfital^ \ mafnan* 
thur Urum putrdrtham anapatyaaya yatnatai^ \ mathyataS eha samuttae^ 
thau taeyoroh punuhah kila \ daydha-sthdndpratlkdiah kharvdfdeyo 
Uihraevakai^ \ 19. Kim karomlti tdn earvdn tnprdn aha »a chdtura^ \ 
nishideti tarn Hehua te nishddaa tena eo *bhavat \ 20. Tataa tat-sambhavd^ 
jdtdh Findhya-Saikhnivdeinah \ niahdddh muni-Sdrdula pdpa-karmth 
paldkshandh \ 21. Tena dvdrena niahkrdntam tatpdpam taaya bhUpate^ \ 
niahddda te tathd jdtdh Vena-'kalmaaha-aambhavdh j 22. Tato 'aya dak- 
ahinafh haatam mamanthua te tadd doijdl^ \ mathyamdne eha tatrdbhut 
Frithur Vainyaf^ pratdpavdn \ dlpyamdna^ ava^apuahd adkahdd ApUr 
ivojjvalan \ 23. Adyam djayavam ndma khdt papdta tato ihanu^ \ iardt 
eha divydh nabhaaa^ kavaeham eha papdta ha \ taamin jdte tu bhutdni 
aamprahriahfdni aarvaSah \ aatputrena eha jdtena Veno *pi tridiva^i 
yayau \ pun-ndmno narakdt trdtah aa tena aumahdtmand \ 

'' 7. The maiden named Sonltha, who was the first-bom of Mfityu 
(Death)^ was given as wife to Anga; and of her Ye^a was born. 
8. This son of Mfityn's daughter, infected with the taint of his ma- 

^ See above, p. 124, and note 230. 


temal grandfather, was bom cormpt, as if by nature. 9. When Yena 
was inaugurated as king by the eminent rishis, he caused this pro- 
clamation to be made on the earth : ' Men must not sacrifice, or give 
gifts, or present oblations. Who else but myself is the enjoyer of 
sacrifices? I am for ever the lord of offerings.' 10. Then all the 
rishis approaching the king with respectful salutations, said to him in 
a gentle and conciliatory tone : 11. 'Hear, o king, what we have to 
say: 12. We shall worship Hari,'the monarch of the gods, and the 
lord of all sacrifices, with a Dirghasattra (prolonged sacrifice), from 
which the highest benefits will accrue to your kingdom, your person, 
and your subjects. May blessings rest upon you ! You shall have a 
diore in the ceremony. 13. Vishnu the lord, the sacrificial Male, being 
propitiated by us with this rite, will grant all the objects of your 
desire. Hari, the lord of sacrifices, bestows on those kings in whose 
country he is honoured with oblations, everything that they wish.' Vena 
replied : ' What other being is superior to me ? who else but I should 
be adored ? who is this person called Hari, whom you regard as the 
lord of sacrifice? Brahma, Janardana, Eudro, Indra, Yayu, Yama, 
Eavi (the Sun), Agni, Varuna, Dhatri, Pushan, Earth, the Moon, — 
these and the other gods who curse and bless are all present in a king's 
person : for he is composed of all the gods." Knowing this, ye must 

** The orthodox doctrine, as stated by Manu, vii. 3 ff., coincides yery nearly with 
Vena's estimate of himself, although the legislator does not deduce frbm it the same 
conclosions : 3. Rakthartham aaya $arvasya rqjanam atfyat prabhuh \ 4. IndranUo' 
yamarkanam Agnei eha Varunaaya eha \ Chandra' Vitteiayoi ehaivamatrah nirhfitya 
iaivatlh \ 6, Tatmad eaham 8ur$ndran&m matrabhyo nirmito njipah \ iastnad ahhi' 
bhavaty etha sarvo'bhutdni t^'ata | 6. Tapaty aditya^vaeh ehaisha ehakshumMhi 
eha mammti eha \ na ehainam bhuoi eaknoti kaiehid apy abhivikshUum \ 7. So 
'f»tr bhawtti Vayui eha §o 'rk^ Somah §a Dharmaraf \ $a Euverah ea Varunah $a 
MahendraJ^ prabhavatalk | 8. JBalo *pi navamantavyo " manushyah" iti bhumipah \ 
mdhad devata hy eeha nara^upena tithfhati \ '* 3. The lord created the king for the 
preservation of this entire world, (4) extracting the eternal essential particles of Indra, 
Yftyu, Yama, SQrya, Agni, Varuna, Chandra, and Kuvera. 5. Inasmuch as the king 
II formed of the particles of aU these gods, he surpasses aU beings in brilliancy. 
6. Like the Sun, he distresses both men's eyes and minds ; and no one on earth can 
ever gaze upon him. 7. He is Agni, V&yu, SQrya, Soma, Tama, Kuyera, Varu(ia, 
and Indra, in majesty. 8. Even when a child a king is not to be despised under the 
idea that he is a mere man ; for he is a great deity in human form." 

In another passage, ix. 303, this is qualified by saying that the king should imitate 
the functions of the different gods : Indratyarkaeya Vayoieha Yamatya Vartmatya 
eha I Chandratyaym^ Ffithwyai eha t^fo vfittaih nnpatf eharet \ This expanded in 
the next Tenet. 


act in conformity with my commands. BrahmanSy ye must neither 
give gifts, nor present oblations nor sacrifices. 14. As obedience to 
their husbands is esteemed the highest duty of women, so is the obser- 
vance of my orders incumbent upon you.' The rishis answered : ' Give 
permission, great king : let not religion perish : this whole world is 
but a modified form of oblations. 15. When religion perishes the whole 
world is destroyed with it.' When YcQa, although thus admonished 
and repeatedly addressed by the eminent rishis, did not give his per- 
mission, then all the munis, filled with wrath and indignation, cried 
out to one another, ' Slay, slay the sinner. 16. This man of degraded 
life, who blasphemes the sacrificial Male, the god, the lord withoat 
beginning or end, is not fit to be lord of the earth.' So saying the 
munis smote with blades of ku^ grass consecrated by texts this king 
who had been already smitten by his blasphemy of the divine Being and 
his other offences. The munis afterwards beheld dust all round, and 


asked the people who were standing near what that was. 17. They 
were informed : ' In this country which has no king, the people, being 
distressed, have become robbers, and have -begun to seize the property 
of others. 18. It is from these robbers rushing impetuously, and 
plundering other men's goods, that this great dust is seen ? Then all 
the munis, consulting together, rubbed with force the thigh of the 
king, who was childless, in order to produce a son. From his thigh 
when rubbed there was produced a man like a charred log, with flat 
face, and extremely short. 19. * What shall I do?' cried the man, in 
distress, to the Brahmans. They said to him, 'Sit down' {nishlda); 
and from this he became a Nishada. 20. From him sprang the 
Nishadas dwelling in the Yindhya mountains, distinguished by their 
wicked deeds. 21. By this means the sin of the king departed out of 
him ; and so were the Nishadas produced, the offspring of the wicked- 
ness of Yena. 22. The Brahmans then rubbed his right hand ; and 
from it, when rubbed, sprang the majestic Ppithu, Yena's son, re- 
splendent in body, glowing like the manifested Agni. 23. Then the 
primeval bow called Ajagava fell from the sky, with celestial arrows, 
and a coat of mail. At Frithu's birth all creatures rejoiced. And 
through the birth of this virtuous son, Yena, delivered from the hell 
called Put^ by this eminent person, ascended to heaven." 

s* This alludes to the fancifol derlTation of puttra^ '< soV' froia/wl -f irtk 


The Hariyam^a (sect. 5) relates the same story thus, with little 
Tanation from the Yifihi^u Fur&na : 

Vaiiamp&yanai, uv&cha \ AtHd dhamuuya goptd vaipdrvam Atri^amaft 
prdbhu^ I Atri-vafhia-Mtnutpannaa tv Ango ndma prajdpati^ \ tasya 
putro ^hhavad Veno ndtyarthaih dharma-kovida^ \ jdto Mjrityu-sutayafk 
Wi Sunithdydm prajdpaiih \ sa rndtdmaha-daahsna tena kdldtmajdtmajah | 
wa^harmdn pfishthata^ kfitvd hdmdl lohheshv avarttata | marydddm 
•ihdpaydmdM dharmdpetdm »a pdrihiva^ \ veda-dharmdn atihratnya so 
*dhamuhniraio ^hhavat \ nil^'Wddhydya^ashathdrds tasmin rdjani idaati \ 
prdvarttan na papuh aomaih hutath yajneaku devoid^ \ " na yaahfavyam 
na hotavyafh^^ iti taaya prajdpaUh \ dalt pratijnd krUreyam vindie 
aamupaathite \ ahatn ij'yaS cha yaahfd eha yqfnai eheti kurudvaha \ 
*^mayi yajndh vidhdtavyd^ mayi hotavyam*^ ity apt \ tarn atihrdnta- 
maryddam ddaddnam aadmpratam | Hehur makarahayah aarve Martchi- 
pramukhda tadd \ ^^vayaih dikahdfh pravekahydma^ aamvataara-yandn 
hahUn I adharmarh hwru md Tana naiaha dharma^ aandtanah \ anvaye 
^trei praaHtaa tvam prajdpatir aaamiayam \ ^prajdi oka pdlayiahye 
^ham^ iti U aamayah hfitah*^ \ idma tathd hruvataJ^ aarvdn maharahln 
ahravit tadd \ Venai^ prahaaya durhuddhir imam artham anartha-^t | 
Venaii uvdcha \ *' araahfd dharmaaya JtaS ehdnyah irotavya^ kaaya vd 
mayd \ iruta-vlrya-tapah-aatyair mayd vd kah aamo hhuvi | prabhavam 
aarva-hhutdndrh dharmdndfh eha vUeahtUah \ aammndhd^ na vidur nUnam 
hhavanto mdm achetaaah \ iehhan daheyam pfithivlm pldvayeyaih jalaia 
tathd I dydm hhuvaffi ehaiva rundheya^i ndtra kdryd viehdrand " | yadd 
na iakyate mohdd acaUpdch cha pdrthivah | anunatum tadd Venaa tata^ 
kruddhdh maharahayah j nigjrihya tarn mahdtmdno viaphurantam mahd- 
halam \ tato ^aya aavyam Urum te mamanthur jdta-manyavah | taamima tu 
mathyamdne vai rdjnah Urau vijajnvodn \ hraavo Himdtrah puruahaft 
kfiahnaS ehdpi hahhikva ha \ aa hhltah prdnjalir hhntvd athitavdn Jana^ 
nujaya \ tarn Atrir vihvalavh dfiahfvd niahidety ahravit tadd | niahdda- 
nafhia-karttd ^aau hahhuva vadatdm vara | dhivardn aarijaeh chdpi Vena" 
iahnaaha-aarnhhavdn \ ye ohdnye Vindhya^tlayda Tukhdrda Tuniburda 
tathd I adhanvuHTwhayaa tdta viddhi tdn Fena-aamhhavdn | tatah punar 
MUihdtmdnah pdni^ Venaaya dakahinam | aranlm iva aaHirahdhdh maman- 
ikuir jdta-manyaoah \ Pfithua taamdt aamuttaathau kardj jvatana-aanni- 
liha^ I dipyamanah ava^aptuhd adkahdd Agnir ivajvalan \ 

''There was fDrmerly a Prajfipati (lord of creatures), a protector of 


righteonsness, called Anga, of the race of Atri, and resembling him in 
power. HIb son was the Frajapati Yena, who was but indifferently skilled 
in duty, and was bom of Sunltha, the daughter of Mfityn. This son 
of the daughter of Kala ^Death), owing to the taint derived from his 
maternal grandfatheri threw his duties behind his back, and liyed in 
covetousness under the influence of desire. This king established an 
irreligious system of conduct : transgressing the ordinances of the Veda, 
he was devoted to lawlessness. In his reign men lived without study 
of the sacred books and without the vashatkara, and the gods had no 
Soma-libations to drink at sacrifices. * No sacrifice or oblation shall be 
offered,' — such was the ruthless determination of that Prajapati, as the 
time of his destruction approached. ' 1/ he declared, ' am the objecti 
and the performer of sacrifice, and the sacrifice itself: it is to me that 
sacrifice should be presented, and oblations offered.' This transgressor 
of the rules of duty, who arrogated to himself what was not his due, 
was then addressed by all the great rishis, headed by Marlchi : ' We 
are about to consecrate ourselves for a ceremony which shall last for 
many years : practise not unrighteousness, o Yena : this is not the 
eternal rule of duty. Thou art in very deed a Prajapati of Atri's race, 
and thou hast engaged to protect thy subjects.' The foolish Yena, 
ignorant of what was right, laughingly answered those great rishis 
who had so addressed him : ' Who but myself is the ordainer of duty ? 
or whom ought I to obey ? Who on earth equals me in sacred know- 
ledge, in prowess, in austere fervour, in truth ? Ye who are deluded 
and senseless know not that I am the source of all beings and duties. 
Hesitate not to believe that I, if I willed, could bum up the earth, or 
deluge it with water, or close up heaven and earth.' When owing to his 
delusion and arrogance Yena could not be governed, then the mighty 
rishis becoming incensed, seized the vigorous and struggling king, and 
rubbed his left thigh. From this thigh, so mbbed, was produced a 
black man, very short in stature, who, being alarmed, stood with joined 
hands. Seeing that he was agitated, Atri said to him 'Sit down' 
(nishida). He became the founder of the race of the Nishadas, and also 
progenitor of the Dhlvaras (fishermen), who sprang from the corruption 
of Yena. So too were produced from him the other inhabitants of the 
Yindhya range, the Tukharas, and Tumburas, who are prone to law* 
lessness. Then the mighty sages, excited and incensed, again mbbed 


the right hand of Vena, as men do the arani wood, and from it arose 
Pfithu, resplendent in body, glowing like the manifested Agni." 

Although the Harivam^ declares Vena to be a descendant of Atri, 
yet as the Prajapati Atri is said in a previous section to have adopted 
TJtt^apada, Vena's ancestor, for his son (Hariv. sect. 2, verse 60, Uitd- 
napddafh jagrdka putram Atrih prajdputih) there is no contradiction 
between the genealogy given here and in the YishQU Parana. 

The story of Vena is told in the same way, bat more briefly, in the 
Mahabharata, S^antip. sect. 59. After narrating the birth of Pfithu, 
the writer proceeds, verse 2221 : 

Tatas tu prdnjalir Vainyo maharshlms tan uvdcha ha \ ** susukshmd 
me samutpannd huddhir dharmdriha-darSinl \ anayd Icim mayd kdryyam 
tad me tattvena iaihaata \ yad mdm hhavanto vakshyanti kdryam artho' 
iamanvitam \ tad aham vat kariahydmi ndtra kdryd vichdrand " | tarn 
ikehue tattra devds te te ehaiva paramarihayah \ ** niyato yattra dharmo 
vai tvam aiankah aamdchara \ priydpriye parity ajy a aaniah sarveahujan- 
tiuhu I kdma-krodhau cha lobham cha mdnam chotarijya duratah \ yas cha 
dharmdt parichalel loke kaSchana mdnavah \ nigrdhyda te ava-hdhuhhydm 
iaivad dharmam avekahatd \ pratijndm chddhirohasva manasd karmand 
gird \ * pdktyiahydmy aham bhaumam hrahma^ ity eva chdaakfit | . . . . 
adandydi^ me dvijdi cheti pratijdnihi he vihho \ lokam cha aankardt kfitanam 
trdtdamiti parantapa'* \ Vainyaatataa tdn uvdcha devdn fiahi-purogamdn \ 
*'brdhmandi^ me mahdhhdgdh namaaydh purtMharahahhdh** \ ^'evarn 
astv'* iti Vainyaa tu tair ukto hrahmavddihhih \ purodhdi chdhhavat 
taaya S'ukro hrahmamayo nidhih \ mantrino Bdlakhilydi cha Sdraavatyo 
ganaa tathd \ maharahir hhagavdn Oargaa taaya admvataaro ^hhavat | 

** The son of Yena (Ppthu) then, with joined hands, addressed the 
great rishis : ' A very slender understanding for perceiving the prin- 
ciples of duty has been given to me by nature : tell me truly how I 
must employ it. Doubt not that I shall perform whatever you shall 
declare to me as my duty, and its object.' Then those gods and great 
rishis said to him: 'Whatever duty is enjoined perform it without 
hesitation, disregarding what thou mayest like or dislike, looking on all 
creatures with an equal eye, putting far from thee lust, anger, cupidity, 
and pride. Eestrain by the strength of thine arm all those men who 
swerve from righteousness, having a constant regard to duty. And in 
thought, act, and word take upon thyself and continually renewi the 


engagement to protect the terrestrial Br&hm^ ( Yeda, or Brahmans ? ) 
.... And promise that thou wilt exempt the Brahmans from pxmish- 
ment, and preserve society from the confusion of castes.' The son of 
Yena then replied to the gods, headed by the rishis : ' The great Brah- 
mans, the chief of men, shall be reverenced by me.' ' So be it,' re- 
joined those declarers of the Yeda. S^ukra, the depository of divine 
knowledge, became his purohita ; the Bulakhilyas and Sarasvatyas hi0 
ministers ; and the venerable Garga, the great rishi, his astrologer." 

The character and conduct of Pf ithu, as pourtrayed in the last pas- 
sage presents a strong, and when regarded from a Brahmanical point of 
view, an edifying, contrast to the contempt of priestly authority and 
disregard of Yedio observances which his predecessor had shewn. 

In legends like that of Yena we see, I think, a reflection of the 
questions which were agitating the religious world of India at the 
period when the Pura^as in which they appear were compiled| viz., 
those which were then at issue between the adherents of the Yeda, and 
the various classes of their opponents, Bauddha, Jaina, Charv&ka, etc. 
These stories were no doubt written with a purpose. They were in- 
tended to deter the monarchs contemporary with the authors from tam- 
pering with those heresies which had gained, or were gaining, oirou- 
lation and popularity, by the example of the punishment which, it 
was pretended, had overtaken the princes who had dared to deviate 
from orthodoxy in earlier times. Compare the account given of the rise 
of heretical doctrines in the Yishnu Purana (pp. 209 ff. vol. iii. of 
Dr. Hall's edition of Professor Wilson's translation), which the writer 
no doubt intended to have something more than a merely historical 

The legend of Yena is told at greater length, but with no material 
variation in substance, in the Bhagavata Purana, iv. sections 13-15. 
Seo also Professor Wilson's noto in his Yishnu Purana, vol. L in looo. 

In ascribing to Yena an irreligious character and a contempt for the 
priests, tho Puranas contradict a verse in tho Big-veda x. 93, 14. in 
vhich (unless wo suppose a different individual to bo there meant) 
Yena is celebrated along with Duhslma, Pfithavana, and Bama for his 
conspicuous liberality to the author of the hymn {pra tad Dui4im 
Prithavdne Fene pra Rdme vocham oBurc maghavaUu \ y9 yuUvdya 
pamha iota (umayu jpatha viiravi e^hdm)^ The two other possagesi 



TiiL 9, lOy and x. 148, 5, in whioh lie is alluded to as the father of 
Pfithu have been quoted above, p. 268. 

I observe that a Yena, called Bhargava (or a descendant of Bhpgu), 
is mentioned in the list of traditional authors of hymns, given at the 
end of Professor Aufirechf s Eig-veda, voL ii., as the rishi of KY. 
ix. 85, and X. 123. 

Sect. III. — Legend of PurUravae, 

Fururavas has been already alluded to (in pp. 158, 221, 226, 268, 
and 279 f.) as the son of I^a (or Ida), and the grandson of Manu Yaivas- 
vata; as the author of the triple division of the sacred fire; and as a 
royal rishi. We have also seen (p. 172) that in Big-veda i. 31, 4, he 
is referred to as sukriU^ a ** beneficent," or ''pious," prince. Rig-veda 
z. 95 is considered to contain a dialogue between him and the Apsaras 
UrvaiSl (see above, p. 226). In verse 7 of that hymn the gods are 
alluded to as having strengthened Pururavas for a great conflict for the 
slaughter of the Das3rus {mahe yat tvd PurHravo ran&ya avarddhayan 
daeyu-hatyaya devah); and in the 18th verse he is thus addressed by 
bis patronymic : Iti tvd devd^ %me dhur Aila yathd im etad hhavaei 
mfUyubandhuh \ prc^d U devdn hamehd yqfdti svarge u tvam apt rndda- 
ydie I " Thus say these gods to thee, o son of I|a, that thou art indeed 
nothing more than a kinsman of death : (yet) let thy offspring worship 
the gods with an oblation, and thou also shalt rejoice in heaven.'' 

It thus appears that in the Yedic hymns and elsewhere Pururavas is 
regarded as a pious prince, and Manu does not include him in his list 
of those who resisted the Brahmans. But the M. Bh., Adiparvan 3143 
speaks of him as follows : 

I\triLravd9 tato vtdvdn Hdydfk aamapadyata \ id vat tasydhhavad mdtd 
pUd ehaketi nah imtam \ trayodaSa eamudrasya dvipdn ainan PurHra- 
vd^ I amdnushair vritah sarvatr mdnushah san tnahdyaidh \ vipraih sa 
vigrdham ehakre vlryyonmattah PurHravdh | jahdra cha sa viprdndm 
ratndny utkroSatdm apt \ Sanatkumdras taih rdjan Brahma-lokdd upetya 
ha I anudariaM tataS ehakre pratyagrihndd na chdpy asau \ tato tnahar- 
ihibhih kruddhaih eadyah Sapto vyattaSyata | hbhdnvtto hala-maddd 
fuuhta-aanjno narddhipah \ sa hi gandharva-lokO'Sthdn TTrvaiyd sahito 
pirdt I dnindya kriydrthe ^gnln yathdvad vihitd^is tridhd | 


^' Subsequenfly the wise PoruraTas was bom of Ha, who, as we 
have heard, was both his father and his mother. Baling over thirteen 
islands of the oceani and surrounded by beings who were all super- 
human, himself a man of great renown, Pururayas, intoxicated by his 
prowess, engaged in a conflict with the Brahmans, and robbed them of 
their jewels, although they loudly remonstrated. Sanatkumara came 
from Brahma's heaven, and addressed to him an admonition, which, 
however, he did not regard. Being then straightway cursed by the 
incensed rishis, he perished, this covetous monarch, who, through 
pride of power, had lost his understanding. This glorious being (r»rdlf), 
accompanied by Urva^I, brought down for the performance of sacred 
rites the fires which existed in the heaven of the Gandharvas, properly 
distributed into three." (See Wilson's Yishiju Fura^a, 4to. ed. pp. 350 
and 894 & with note p. 397.) 

I cite from the Harivamia another passage regarding Pururavas, 
although no distinct mention is made in it of his contest with the 
Brahmans : 

Harivam^ 8811. Piid Budhasf/ottama-vlrya-karmd JPurUravd^ yoiya 
suto nri'devah \ prdnQgnir Idyo ^gnim ajijanad yo tuuhfam Saml-yarhha- 
hhavam hhavdtmd \ tathaiva paichdch chakame mahdttnd purorvaiUm ap- 
sarasdih vartshthdm \ pUahk purd yo ^mfita-sarvo'deho muni-pravirair 
vara-gatfi-ghoraih \ nfipa^ kuSdgrath punar eva yai eha dhlmdn hjrito 
^gnir dmpHjyate eJia \ 

'' He (the Moon) was the father of Budha (Mercury), whose son was 
Pururavas, a god among men, of distinguished heroic deeds, the vital 
fire, worthy of adoration, the generator, who begot the lost fire which 
sprang £rom the heart of the ^ami-wood, the great personage, who, 
placed to the west, loved Urvai^, the paragon of Apsarases, who was 
placed to the east This king with his entire immortal body was formerly 
swallowed up with the points of £u^ grass by the munis terrible with 
their resplendent forms; but was again made wise, and is worshipped 
in heaven as fire." 

Sect. lY.Story of Ifahusha. 

The legend of Kahusha,^ grandson of Pururavas (see above, p. 226), 
M The name of Nshiuh occurs in the Kig-reda as that of the progenitor of a race* 


the second prince described by Mann as having come into hostile col- 
lision with the Brahmans is narrated with more or less detail in dif- 
ferent parts of the Mahabharata, as well as in the Furanas. The fol- 
lowing passage is from the former work, Adip. 3151 : 

Ayusho NahuBhah putro dhlmdn satya^arukramah \ rajyam SaSdsa 
sumahad dharmena prithivipate \ pitrin devdn rishin viprdn yandharvo- 
raya-rdkshoidn \ ITahushah pdlaydmdsa hrahma kshattram atho viSah \ 
sa hatvd dasyu-sanghdtdn lishin karam addpayai \ paiuvach ehaiva tdn 
prishfhe vdhaydmdsa viryyavdn \ kdraydmdsa chendratvam ahhihhuya 
divaukasah \ tejasd iapasd ehaiva vikramenaujasd tathd \ 

'^Nahusha the son of Ayus, wise, and of genuine prowess, ruled 
with justice a mighty empire. He protected the pit^is, gods, rishis, 
wise men, gandharvas, serpents {uraya), and rakshasas, as well as 
Brahmans, Elshattriyas, and Yaiifyas. This energetic prince, after 
slaying the hosts of the Dasyus, compelled the rishis to pay tribute, 
and made them carry him like beasts upon their backs. After subduing 
the celestials he conquered for himself the rank of Indra, through his 
vigour, austere fervour, valour and fire." 

The story is thus introduced in another part of the same work, the 
Yanaparvan, section 180. Yudhishthira found his brother Bhimasena 
seized by a serpent in a forest (see above, p. 133). This serpent, it 
appears, was no other than king Kahusha, who on being questioned 
thus relates his own history : 

I^ahusho ndma rdjd ^ham dsam pHrvas tavdnayha \ prathitah panehamah 
Somdd Ayoh putro narddhipa \ kratubhis tapasd ehaiva wddhydy&na 
damena eha \ trailokyaiharyam avyayram prdpio *ham vikramena eha \ 
tad aiSvaryyam samdBddya darpo mdm agamat tadd \ sahasrarh hi dvijd- 
tindm uvdha iivikdm mama \ aiharyya-mada-matto ^ham avamanya tato 
dvijdn t imdm Agastyena daidm dnltah prithivipate | . . . . aham hi 
divi divyena vimdnena charan purd \ ahhimdnena mattah san kanehid 
ndnyam achintayam \ hrahmarshi-deva'yandharva'yaksha-rdkshasa^an' 
nagdh \ kardn mama prayachhanti sarve trailokya-vdainah \ chakshusha 
yam prapaiydmi prdninam prithivipate \ tony a tejo hardmy dht tad hi 
drishfer halam mama \ maharshlndm sahasram hi uvdha iivikdm mama \ 

See above, p. 165, note 7, and pp. 179 f. Nahuslia Manava is the traditional rishi of 
Rig.yeda ix. 101, yersos 7-9, and Tayati Nahuslia of verses 4-6 of the same hjmn. 
See list of nshis in Professor Aufrecht's Big-veda ii. 464 S^ 


M nUim apanayo rdjan hhramiaydmdsa vai Sriyah \ taira hy Ayastya^ 
padma vahan spfishfo mayd munih | Agaaty^na tato *smy uhto dhvarhsa 
sarpiti vai rushd \ tatas taamdd vimdndgrydl prachyutai ehyuta-laksha' 
nah I prapatan hubudhe ^Hmdnafh vydllhhutam adhomukham \ aydcham 
tarn ahafk vipram '' idpasydnto bhaved** iii \ **pramdddt aampramudha' 
8ya hhayavan kshantum arhasi*' | tatah sa mam uvdchedam prapatantam 
kfipdncitah \ ** Yudhishfhtro dharma-rdjah idpdt tvdm mochayuhyatV^ \ 
• . . . ity uktvd ^*jayaram deham muhtvd na Nahmho nripah \ divya^ 
vapuh aamdsthdya yatas tridivam eva cha \ 

*' I was a king called NahuBha, more ancient than thou, known as the 
son of AyuSy and fifth in descent from Soma. By my sacrifices, austere 
fervour, sacred study, self-restraint, and valour, I acquired the undis- 
turbed sovereignty of the three worlds. When I had attained that 
dominion, pride took possession of my soul: a thousand Brahmans 
bore my vehicle. Becoming intoxicated by the conceit of my lordly 
power, and contemning the Brahmans, I was reduced to this condition 
by Agastya." The serpent then promises to let Bhlmasena go, if Yu- 
dhishthira will answer certain questions (above referred to in p. 133 ff.). 
Tudhishthira afterwards enquires how delusion had happened to take 
possession of so wise a person as their conversation shewed Nahusha to 
be. The latter replies that he had been perverted by the pride of 
power, and proceeds: ** Formerly, as I moved through the sky on a 
celestial car, intoxicated with self-conceit, I regarded no one but my- 
self. All the inhabitants of the three worlds, brahmanical rishis, gods, 
gandharvas, yakshas, rakshasas, pannagas, paid me tribute. Such was 
the power of my gaze that on what creature soever I fixed my eyes, I 
straightway robbed him of his energy. A thousand of the great sages 
bore my vehicle. That misconduct it was, o king, which hurled me 
from my high estate. For I then touched with my foot the muni 
Agastya who was carrying me. Agastya in his wrath med out to me 
' Fall, thou serpent.' Hurled therefore from that magnificent car, and 
fallen frx>m my prosperity, as I descended headloog, I felt that I had 
become a serpent. I entreated the Brahman (Agastya), 'Let there be 
a termination of the curse : thou, o reverend rishi, shouldest forgive 
one who has been deluded through his inoonsideration.' He then com- 
passionately replied to me as I fell, < Yudhishthira, the king of right- 
eousness, will free thee from the ouree.' " And at the close of tlio 


conversation between Yndliislitlura and the serpent, we are told that 
« King Nahuaha, throwing of his huge reptile form, became clothed in 
a celestial body, and ascended to heaven." 

The same story is related in greater detail in the Udyogaparvan, 
sections 10-16, as follows : 

After his slaughter of the demon Yfittra, Indra became alarmed at 
the idea of having taken the life of a Brahman (for Yf ittra was re- 
garded as such), and hid himself in the waters. In consequence of the 
disappearance of the king of the gods, all afOedrs, celestial as well as 
terrestrial, fell into confusion. The rishis and gods then applied to 
IT'ahusha to be their king. After at first excusing himself on the plea 
of want of power, Nahusha at length, in compliance with their solici- 
tations, accepted the high function. Up to the period of his elevation 
be had led a virtuous life, but he now became addicted to amusement 
and sensual pleasure ; and even aspired to the possession of IndranI, 
Indra's wife, whom he had happened to see. The queen resorted to 
the Angiras Yphaspati, the preceptor of the gods, who engaged to 
protect her. Nahusha was greatly incensed on hearing of this inter- 
ference ; but the gods endeavoured to pacify him, and pointed out the 
immorality of appropriating another person's wife. Kahusha, however, 
would listen to no remonstrance, and insisted that in his adulterous 
designs he was no worse than Indra himself : 373. Ahalyd dharshitd 
pUrvam fiahi-patnl yaiaavinl \ jlvato hharttur Indrena ia vah him imi 
nivdriiah \ 374. Bahani eha nriSaiisdni hjr%tdnlndr$na vai purd \ vap- 
dharmydny upaddi chaiiva sa vafk kifk na nivdritait | '' 373. The renowned 
Ahalya, a rishi's wife, was formerly corrupted by Indra in her husband's 
lifetime (see p. 121 f.) : Why was he not prevented by you ? 374. And 
many barbarous acts, and unrighteous deeds, and frauds, were perpetrated 
of old by Indra : Why was he not prevented by you ?" The gods, urged 
by Kahusha, then went to bring IndranI ; but Yfihaspati would not 
give her up. At his recommendation, however, she solicited Nahusha 
for some delay, till she should ascertain what had become of her hus- 
band. This request was granted. The gods next applied to Yishnu on 
behalf of Indra ; and Yishgu promised that if Indra would sacrifice to 
him, he should be purged from his guilt, and recover his dominion, 
while Nahusha would be destroyed. Indra sacrified accordingly; and 
the result is thus told : 419. Vihiugya irahnM-hatydm tu vfikaheshu 


«^ nadithu eka \ parvateshu pfithwydm eha striahu chaiva Yudhish- 
(hira \ sa vxbhajya eha hhuteshu visrtjya eha surehara^ \ vijvara 
dhuta-pdpmd eha Vdaavo *bhavad dtmavdn | '' Having divided the guilt 
of brahmanicide among trees, rivers, mountains, the earth, women, 
and the elements, Yasava (Indra), lord of the gods, became freed from 
suffering and sin, and self-governed." Kahusha was by this means 
shaken from his place. But (unless this is said by way of prolepsis, 
or there is some confusion in the narrative) he must have speedily 
regained his position, as we are told that Indra was again ruined, and 
became invisible. Indrani now went in search of her husband ; and by 
the help of TJpa^ruti (the goddess of night and revealer of secrets) dis- 
covered him existing in a very subtile form in the stem of a lotos 
growing in a lake situated in a continent within an ocean north of the 
Himalaya. She made known to him the wicked intentions of Kahusha, 
and entreated him to exert his power, rescue her from danger, and 
resume his dominion. Indra declined any immediate interposition on 
the plea of Nahusha's superior strength ; but suggested to his wife 
a device by which the usurper might be hurled from his position. She 
was recommended to say to Nahusha that '' if he would visit her on a 
celestial vehicle borne by rishis, she would with pleasure submit herself 
to him " (449. RUhi-ydnena divyena mdm upaihi jagaipaU \ warn tava 
vaieprltd hhavUhydmlti tafn vada). The queen of the gods accordingly 
went to Nahusha, by whom she was graciously received, and made this 
proposal : 457. lehhdmy aham athdpHrvafh vdhanafh te surddhipa \ yad 
na Vishnor na Rudraaya ndsttrdndm na rdkshdidm \ vahantu tvdm mahd' 
hhdgdh rishayah Bongatdh vihho \ aarve iivikayd rdjann etad hi mama 
rochate \ '' I desire for thee, king of the gods, a vehicle hitherto un« 
known, such as neither Yishnu, nor Budra, nor the asuras, nor the rak- 
shases employ. Let the eminent rishis, all united, bear thee, lord, in a 
car : this idea pleases me.'' Nahusha receives favourably this appeal 
to his vanity, and in the course of his reply thus gives utterance to his 
self-congratulation : 463. Na hy alpa-vlryo hhavati yo vdhdn huruU mth 
nin I aham tapawl halavdn hhuta-bhavya-bhavat-prabhuh \ mayi kruddh& 
jagad na eydd mayi sarvam pratish(hitam | . . . . tasmdt te vaehanark 
devi karishydmi na aafhiaya/^ \ saptarahayo mdfh vahhyanii aarve hrah" 
marahayaa tathd \ paSya mdhdtmyam aamdkam fiddhifh eha varavarnini | 
. 468. Fimdne yajayitvd aa riahin niyamam dathitdn \ abrahmanya 

• • • 


Mcpeto matto mada-halena cha \ kdtna^rittah m dushtdimd vdhaydmdsa 
tdn fishln | " He is a personage of no mean prowess who makes the 
munis his hearers. I am a fervid devotee of great might, lord of the 
past^ the future, and the present. If I were angry the world would 

no longer stand; on me everything depends Wherefore, o 

goddess, I shall, without douht, carry out what you propose. The 
seven rishis, and all the hrahman-rishis, shall carry me. Behold, 
beautifdl goddess, my majesty and my prosperity." The narrative 
goes on : " Accordingly this wicked being, irreligious, violent, intoxi- 
cated by the force of conceit, and arbitrary in his conduct, attached to 
his car the rishis, who submitted to his commands, and compelled them 
to bear him." IndranI then again resorts to Yiribaspati, who assures 
her that vengeance will soon overtake Nahusha for his presumption ; 
and promises that he will himself perform a sacrifice with a view to 
the destruction of the oppressor, and the discovery of Indra's lurking 
place. Agni is then sent to discover and bring Indra to Yirihaspati ; 
and the latter, on Indra's arrival, informs him of all that had occured 
during his absence. While Indra, with Kuvera, Yama, Soma, and 
Yaruna, was devising means for the destruction of Nahusha, the sage 
Agastya came up, congratulated Indra on the fall of his rival, and pro- 
ceeded to relate how it had occurred : 527. S^amdrttdkha vahantas 
iam Nahuaham pdpakdrinam \ devarahayo niahdhhdgaa tathd hrahmar- 
shayo ^tnaldh \ paprachhur Ndhmham devam safhiayafh jayatdih vara \ 
ye ime hrdhmandh prohtdJi mantrdhk vai prokshane gavdm \ ete pratndnam 
hhavatah utdho neti Vdsava \ Nahtisho neti tdn dha tamasd mUdha-che' 
ianahi j fukayah uchuh \ adharme aampravfittiu tvaih dhannam naprati- 
padyase \ pramdnam etad asnidJcam purvam proktam maharshihhihk \ 
Agastya^ wdcha | Tato vivadamdnah sa munibhih saha Vdsava \ atha 
fndm aspfiSad tnUrdkni pddenddharma-yqfitah \ tendhhud hata-Ufd^ cha 
ni^ikai cha mahlpatih \ tatas tarn sahasd vignam avocham hhaya-pidi- 
tarn I ** yasmdt purvaih kfitam hrahma hrahmarshibhtr anushfhitam \ 
adushfa^ dushayasi vai yach cha milrdhny asprisah padd \ yach ehdpi 
tvam fishln tnudha hrahma-kalpdn durdsaddn | vdhdn kfitvd vdhayasi 
iena ivargdd hata-prahhah \ dhvamsa pdpa parihhrashtah kshlna-punyo 
mdhitalam \ daia-varsha-sahasTdni sarpa-rupa-dharo mahdn \ vichari* 
ahyasi parneshu punah ^vargam avdpsyasi** \ evam bhrashfo durdtmd sa 
dewHTdjyud arindama \ dishfyd varddhdmahe iahra hato hrdhmana-kas- 


fsiah I tripishtapam prapadyawa pahi lohdn iachipate \ jetendriyo jitd- 
mitrah stUyamdno maharshihhih \ *^ Wearied witb carrying the Binnor 
Kahusha, the eminent diyine-rishisy and the spotless brahman-rishis, 
asked that diyine personage Nahusha [to solve] a difficulty : ' Dost 
thou, Yasava, most excellent of conquerors, regard as authoritative or 
not those Brahmana texts which are recited at the immolation of kine V 
* No,' replied Nahusha, whose understanding was enveloped in darkness. 
The rishis rejoined : ' Engaged in unrighteousness, thou attainest not 
unto righteousness : these texts, which were formerly uttered by great 
rishis, are regarded by us as authoritative.' Then (proceeds Agastya) 
disputing with the munis, Nahusha, impelled by unrighteousness, 
touched me on the head with his foot. In consequence of this the 
king's glory was smitten and his prosperity departed. When he had 
instantly become agitated and oppressed with fear, I said to him, 
' Since thou, o fool, contemnest that sacred text, always held in honour, 
which has been composed by former sages, and employed by brahman- 
rishis, and hast touched my head with thy foot, and employest the 
Brahma-like and irresistible rishis as bearers to carry thee, — therefore, 
shorn of thy lustre, and all thy merit exhausted, sink down, sinner, 
degraded from heaven to earth. For ten thousand years thou shalt 
crawl in the form of a huge serpent. When that period is completed, 
thou shalt again ascend to heaven.' 80 fell that wicked wretch from 
the sovereignty of the gods. Happily, Indra, wo shall now prosper, 
for the enemy of the Brahmans has been smitten. Take possession of 
the three worlds, and protect their inhabitants, husband of Sachi 
(Indrani), subduing thy senses, overcoming thine enemies, and cele- 
brated by the great rishis." " 

Indra, as we have seen above, was noted for his dissolute character. 
The epithet ** subduing thy senses," assigned to him in the last sen- 
tence by Agastya, is at variance with this indifferent reputation. Is 
it to be regarded as a piece of flattery, or as a delicate hint that the 
god would do well to practise a purer morality in future ? 

This legend appears, like some others, to have been a favourite with 
the compilers of the Mahabharata; for we find it once more relate<1, 
though with some variety of detail, (which may justify its repetition in 

M Further on, in verse 556, Nabosha is called *' the depraved, the hater of brah* 
man, tho sinful-minded {duraeharai cha Nahutho brahma^if papachetanaJj)^ 


a condensed form), in the AnuSasanaparTan, verses 4745-4810. We 
are there told that Kahusha, in reoompense for his good deeds, was 
exalted to heaven; where he continued to perform all divine and 
human ceremonies, and to worship the gods as before. At length he 
became puffed up with pride at the idea that he was Indra, and all his 
good works in consequence were neutralized. For a great length of 
time he compelled the rishis to carry him about. At last it came to 
Agastya's turn to perform the servile office. Bhrigu then came and 
said to Agastya, * Why do we submit to the insults of this wicked king 
of the gods ? ' Agastya answered that none of the rishis had ventured 
to curse Kahusha, because he had obtained the power of subduing to 
his service everyone upon whom he fixed his eyes ; and that he had 
amjrita (nectar) for his beverage. However, Agastya said he was pre- 
pared to do anything that Bhfigu might suggest. Bhfigu said he had 
been sent by Brahma to take vengeance on Kahusha, who was that day 
about to attach Agastya to his car, and would spurn him with his foot ; 
and that he himself (Bhpgu), '* incensed at this insult, would by a curse 
condemn the transgressor and hater of Brahmans to become a serpent " 
{vffutkrdnta'dharmam tarn aham dharshanamarshito hhfiSam \ dhir hJuh 
vaweti rushd iapsye pcipam dvija-druham). All this accordingly hap< 
pened as follows : 

Athagaatyam jishi-ireahtham vdhandydjuhdva ha | drutath Sarawak* 
kuldt smayann voa mahdhdla^ \ tato Bhrigur mahat^dh Jfaitrdvarunm 
abravit \ ^^ nimllayawa nayane jafdm ydvad viidmi te^^ \ athdnubhutaaya 
tasydtha jafdm prdviiad achyutah \ Bhfi'yu^ m sumahdtejdh pdtandya 
nfipasya cha \ tatah sa devchrdf prdptas tarn riahim vdhandya vai \ tato 
^gastyah surapatim vdkyam dha viidmpate \ *' yojayaweti mdfh hhipram 
kafh cha deiam vahdmi te \ yattra vahshyasi tattra tvdih nayishydmi surd" 
dhipa " I ity ukto Nahmhoi tena yqfaydmdsa tarn munim | Bhfigus tasya 
jafdntah'Stho hahhuva hjrUhitohhriiam \ na chdpi darSanam tasyaehakdra 
sa Bhfigm tadd \ vara-ddtuhprabhdva-jno Nahushasya mahdtmanah | na 
ehukopa tadd ^gastyo yukto *p$ Nahushena vai \ tafn tn rdja pratadena 
ehodaydmdsa Bhdrata \ na ehukopa sa dhartndtmd tatah pddena deva^df \ 
Aga^tyaaya tadd kruddho vdmendbhyahanach chhirah \ tasmin iiraay abhi' 
hate sa jafdntargato Bhfiguh \ SaSdpa halavat kruddho Nahusham pdpa^ 
ehetasam \ **yasmdtpadd^hanahkrodhdtiirasimammahdmunm \ tasmdd 
dht mahiih gaehha sarpo hhatvd sudurmatc^* \ ity ukta^ sa tadd tena 


io/rpo hhntvd papdta ha \ adrishfendtha Bhrigund hhutale Bkaratarsha* 
hha I Bhriguih hi yadi so 'draksht/ad Nahwhal^ prithivlpate \ sa na iaJcto 
^hha/oiihyad vaipdtane tasya tefasd \ 

** The mighty Kahnsha, as it were smiling, straightway summoned 
the eminent rishi Agastya from the hanks of the Sarasvat! to carry him. 
The glorious Bh]-igu then said to Maitravaruni (Agastya), * Close thy 
eyes whilst I enter into the knot of thy hair.' With the view of over- 
throwing the king, Bhrigu then entered into the hair of Agastya who 
stood motionless as a stock. Nahusha then came to he carried hy 
Agastya, who desired to he attached to the vehicle and agreed to carry 
the king of the gods whithersoever he pleased. Nahusha in consequence 
attached him. Bhfigu, who was lodged in the knot of Agastya's hair, 
was greatly delighted, hut did not venture to look at Nahusha, as he 
knew the potency of the hoon which had heen accorded to him (of suh- 
duing to his will everyone on whom he fixed his eyes). Agastya did not 
lose his temper when attached to the vehicle, and even when urged hy 
a goad the holy man remained unmoved. The king of the gods, incensed, 
next struck the rishi's head with his left foot, when Bhfigu, invisihle 
within the knot of hair, hecame enraged, and violently cursed the 
wicked Nahusha : ' Since, fool, thou hast in thine anger smitten this 
great muni on the head with thy foot, therefore hecome a serpent, and 
£el11 down swiftly to the earth.' Being thus addressed, Nahusha he- 
came a serpent, and fell to the earth, through the agency of Bhfigu, 
who remained invisihle. For if he had heen seen hy Nahusha, the 
saint would have heen nnahle, in consequence of the power possessed 
by the oppressor, to hurl him to the ground." 

Bhfigu, on Nahusha's solicitation, and the intercession of Agastya, 
placed a period to the effects of the curse, which, as in the other version 
of the legend, Yudhishthira was to be the instrument of terminating. 

From several phrases which I have quoted from the version of this 
legend given in the Udyogaparvan, as well as the tenor of the whole, 
it appears to be the intention of the writers to hold up the case of 
Nahusha as an example of the nemesis awaiting not merely any gross 
display of presumption, hut all resistance to the pretensions of the 
priesthood, and contempt of their persons or authority. 


Sect. V. — Story of Nimi, 

Kinri (one of Ikshvaku's sons) is another of the princes who are stig- 
matized by Manu, in the passage above quoted, for their want of de- 
ference to the Brahmans. The Vishnu P. (Wilson, 4to. ed. p. 388) relates 
the story as follows : N'imi had requested the Brahman-rishi Yaiishtha 
to officiate at a sacrifice, which was to last a thousand years. Ya^ishtha 
in reply pleaded a pre-engagement to Indra for five hundred years, but 
promised to return at the end of that period. The king made no 
remark, and Ya^ishfha went away, supposing that he had assented to 
this arrangement. On his return, however, the priest discovered that 
Nimi had retained Gautama (who was, equally with Yasish^ha, a 
Brahman-rishi) and others to perform the sacrifice ; and being incensed 
at the neglect to give him notice of what was intended, he cursed the 
king, who was then asleep, to lose his corporeal form. When Kimi 
awoke and learnt that he had been cursed without any previous warn- 
ing, he retorted, by uttering a similar curse on Ya^'sh^ha, and then 
died. '' In consequence of this curse " (proceeds the Yish^u Furana, 
iv. 5, 6) *' the vigour of Yasish^ha entered into the vigour of Mitra and 
Yaruna. Ya^ish^ha, however, received from them another body when 
their seed had fallen from them at the sight of Urvaii " {tach-chhdpach 
eha Mitra-varunayos tefasi VaHshtha-tejah pravishtam \ UrvaSl-darSandd 
udibhuta-vlryya-prapatayoh sakdSdd Va&ishtho deham aparam lehhe),^ 
Nimi's body was embalmed. At the close of the sacrifice which he had 
begun, the gods were willing, on the intercession of the priests, to 
restore him to life, but he declined the offer ; and was placed by the 
deities, according to his desire, in the eyes of all living creatures. It is 
in consequence of this that they are always opening and shutting 
(nimisha means *^ the twinkling of the eye "). 

The story is similarly related in the Bhagavata Purana, ix. 13, 1-13. 
A portion of the passage is as follows : 

3. Nimii chalam idam vtdvdn sattram drahhatdtmavan \ ritvighhir 
aparais tdvad ndgamad ydvatd guruh \ iishya-vyatikramarn vlhhya nir- 
varttya gwrur dgatah \ aiapat **patatdd deho Nimeh pandita-mdninah " | 
Jfimi^ pratidadau idpafh guruve ^dhamuhvarttine \ ^Havdpi patatdd deho 

^ Thii itory will be further iUastntod in the next section. 


lobhdd dharmam qfdnatah " \ ity utsasarjfa Bvam deham Nimir adhydt- 
ma-kovidah \ Mitrd-varunayor jajne Urvaiydm prapitdmaha^ \ 

''l^imi, who was self-controlled, knowing the world to be fleet- 
ing, commenced the sacriflce with other priests until his own spiritaal 
instructor should come back. The latter, on his return, discovering the 
transgression of his disciple, cursed him thus : ' Let the body of Nimi, 
who fSmcies himself learned, fall from him.' Kimi retorted the curse 
on his preceptor, who was acting unrighteously : ' Let thy body also 
fall from thee, since thou, through coveteousness, art ignorant of duty.' 
Having so spoken, Nimi, who knew the supreme spirit, abandoned his 
body : and the patriarch (Yai^htha) was bom of UrvasI to Mitra and 

The offence of Nimi, as declared in these passages, is not that of coil- 
temning the sacerdotal order in general, or of usurping their functions ; 
but merely of presuming to consult his own convenience by proceeding 
to celebrate a sacrifice with the assistance of another Brahman (for Gau- 
tama also was a man of priestly descent) when his own spiritual pre- 
ceptor was otherwise engaged, without giving the latter any notice of 
his intention. The Bhagavata, as we have seen, awards blame impar- 
tially to both parties, and relates (as does also the Vishnu Purana) that 
the king's curse took effect on the Brahman, as well as the Brahman's 
on the king. 

Sect. VI. — Vasishtha 

One of the most remarkable and renowned of the struggles between 
Brahmans and Kshattriyas which occur in the legendary history of 
India is that which is said to have taken place between Vasish^ha and 
Vi^vamitra. I propose to furnish full details of this conflict with its £gi- 
bulous accompaniments from the Biimayana, which dwells upon it at con- 
siderable length, as well as from the Mahabharata, where it is repeatedly 

M On the last yene the commentator S'ridhara has the following note : Urvatl* 
dar^anat akannam retas tabhyam kumbhe nithiktam | tatmat prapitamaho Va4ithfho 
jajne I tatha eha irutih *^kumbhe retah aiahiehituJ^ aamanam'* Hi \ *'Seed fell from 
them at the sight of Urvas^ and was shed into a jar : from it the patriarch, Yasishtha, 
was bom. And so says the s'rati'' (B.y. viL 88, 13, which will be quoted in tha 
next section}. 


introdaced ; but before doing so, I sball quote the passages of the Big- 
yeda which appear to throw a fiEdnt light on the real history of the two 
rivals. It is dear from what has been said in the Introdnction to this 
Tolume, pp. 1-6, as well as from the remarks I have made in pp. 139 f., 
that the Yedic hymns, being far more ancient than the Epic and Puranio 
compilations, must be more trustworthy guides to a knowledge of the 
remotest Indian antiquity. While the Epic poems and Furanas no 
doubt embody numerous ancient traditions, yet these have been freely 
altered according to the caprice or dogmatic views of later writers, and 
have received many purely fictitious additions. The Yedic hymns, on 
the contrary, have been preserved unchanged from a very remote 
period, and exhibit a faithful reflection of the social, religious, and 
ecclesiastical condition of the age in which they were composed, and of 
the feelings which were awakened by contemporary occurrences. As 
yet there was no conscious perversion or colouring of facts for dogmatic 
or sectarian purposes ; and much of the information which we derive 
firom these naive compositions is the more trustworthy that it is deduced 
from hints and allusions, and from the comparison of isolated parti- 
culars, and not from direct and connected statements or descriptions. It 
is here therefore, if anywhere, that we may look for some light on the 
real relations between Yasishtha and Yiivamitra. After quoting the 
hjTums regarding these two personages, I shall adduce from the Brah- 
manas, or other later works, any particulars regarding their birth and 
history which I have discovered. The conflict between Yasish^ha and 
Yiivamitra has been already discussed at length in the third of Dr. 
Budolf Eoth's ''Dissertations on the literature and history of the 
Yeda,'' " where the most important parts of the hymns bearing upon 
the subject are translated. The flrst hymn which I shall adduce is 
intended for the glorification of Yasish^ha and his family. The latter 
part relates the birth of the sage, while the earlier verses refer to his 
connection with king Sudas. Much of this hynm is very obscure. 

B.Y. vii. 33, 1. Sbityaneho ma ddk$h%natas'hapard&li dhiyaihjinviio 
ahhi hi pramanduh \ utttshthan voce pari harhisho nfin na me dUr&d 
amtave Fatishthd^ \ 2. Durdd Indram anayann d sutena tiro vaiiantam 
ati pdntam ugram I FdSadyumnaeya Vdpatasffa eomdt tutdd Tndro avri- 
ffita Famhthdn \ 3. Eva in nu Jcaih eindhum ehhis tatdra eva in nu ham 
•9 Zor litterator and Qwbichte des Weds. Stattgart. 1840. 


Bhedam ehhirjaghdna \ eva in nu haik ddiardjne Suddsam prdvad Indro 
Irahmand vo VasUhthdh \ 4. Jushft naro hrahmand vah pitfindm dksham 
avyayaih na hila rUhdtha \ yat Sahvarishu hfihatd ravena Indre Sush' 
fnam adadhdta Vasishthdh | 5. Ud dydm iva it trishnajo ndthitdso adl' 
dhayur ddSardjne vfitdsah \ Vasishthasya atuvatah Indro aSrod wrufn 
lyitiuhhyo akfinod u lokam \ 6. Dandd iva goqfandsa^ dsan parichhin- 
ndh Bharatdh arhhakdsah \ abhavach cha pura-etd Vasishthah dd it 
lyitsundth viio aprathanta \ 7. Trayah krtnvanti hhuvaneshu retoi 
tisrah prajdh drydh jyotir-agrdh \ trayo gharmdsah whtuafh saehanie 
sarvdn it tdn anu vidur Vamhthdh \ 8. Suryasya iva vakshatho jyotir 
eshdm samudrasya iva mahimd gahhlrah \ vdtasya iva prajavo na anyena 
stomo Vasishthdh anu etave vah | 9. Te in ninyafh hridayasya praketaih «a- 
hasra^aUam abhiiafh eharanti \ yamena tatam paridhim vayanto opsarMah 
upa sedur Fasishfhdh \ 10. Vidyuto jyotih pari samjihdnam Mitrd-varund 
yad apaiyatdm tvd \ tat tejanma uta ekam Vamhtha Ayastyo yat tvd viiah 
djahhdra \ 11. Uia asi Maitrdvaruno Vasishtha Urvaiydli brahman ma- 
naso ^dhijdtah \ drapaam skannam hrahmand daivyena vihe devdh pmh- 
kare tvd *dadanta \ 12, Sa praketah ubhayasya pravidvdn aahawa* 
ddnah uta vd saddnah \ yamena tatam paridhim vayighyann apsarasa^ 
pari jajn$ Vasishthah \ 13. Satire ha jdtdv ishitd namohhih kumhhe 
retah sishichatuh samdnam | tato ha Mdnah ud iydya madhydt taio 
fdtam fishim dhur Vasishtham \ 

'' 1. The white-robed (priests) with hair-knots on the right, stimn- 
lating to deyotiony have filled me with delight. Bising £rom the sacri- 
ficial grass, I call to the men, ' Let not the Yasishthas (stand too) far 
off to succour [or gladden] me.*^ 2. By their libation they brought 
Indra hither from afar across the Yai^anta away from the powerful 
draught.^ Indra preferred the Yasishthas to the soma offered by 
Pa^adyumna," the son of Yayata. 3. So too with them he crossed the 
river ; so too with them he slew Bheda ; so too in the battle of the 
ten kings'* Indra delivered Sudas through your prayer, o Yasishthas. 

^ Sayana thinks that YaBiBhtha ia the speaker, and refera here to hia own sons. 
Professor Both (under the word av) regarda Indra as the speaker. May it not be 

*^ This is the interpretation of this clause suggested by Professor Aufrecht, who 
thinks Yaiaanta is probably the name of a river. 

n According to Sayana, another king who was sacrificing at the same time as SudSfc 

** See verses 6-8 of BY. viL 83, to be next quoted. 


4. Throngh gratification caused by the prayer of your fathers, o men, 

ye do not obstruct the undecaying axlo (?), since at (the recitation of 

the) S'akvarl verses •* with a loud voice ye have infused energy into 

Indra, o Yasish^has. 5. Distressed, when surrounded in the fight of 

the ten kings, they looked up, like thirsty men, to the sky. Indra 

heard Yasishtha when he uttered praise, and opened up a wide space 

for the Tfitsus.** 6. Like staves for driving cattle, the contemptible 

Bharatas were lopped all round. Yasish^ha marched in front, and 

then the tribes of the Tfitsus were deployed, 7. Three deities 
create a fertilizing fluid in the worlds. Three are the noble creatures 

whom light precedes. Three fires attend the dawn.** All these the 
Yasishthas know. 8. Their lustre is like the full radiance of the 
8un ; their greatness is like the depth of the ocean ; like the swift- 
ness of the wind, your hymn, o Yasishthas, can be followed by no 
one else. 9. By the intuitions of thdir heart they seek out the mys- 
tery with a thousand branches. Weaving the envelopment stretched 
out by Yama, the Yasishthas sat down by the Apsaras. 10. When Mitra 
and Yaruna saw thee quitting the fiame of the lightning, that was thy 
birth ; and thou hadst one (other birth), o Yasishtha, when Agastya 
brought thee to the people. 11. And thou art also a son of Mitra and 
Yaruna, o Yasishtha, bom, o priest, from the soul of Urva^I. All the 
gods placed thee — a drop which fell through divine contemplation — in 
the vessel. 12. He, the intelligent, knowing both (worlds ?), with a 
thousand gifts, or with gifts — he who was to weave the envelopment 
stretched out by Yama— he, Yasishtha, was bom of the Apsaras. 13. 
They, two (Mitra and Yaruna ?), bom at the sacrificOi and impelled by 
adorations, dropped into the jar the same amount of seed* From tho 

w See R.V. x. 71, 11, aboTe, p. 266. 

^ This is eridently the name of the trihe which the Yasishthas faToured, and to 
which they themselves most have belonged. See Tii. 83, 4. The Bharatas io the 
next verse appear to be the hostile tribe. 

>* In explanation of this SSyana quotes a passage from tho S'utyayana Bruhmana, 
as follows : ** Trayah kfinvanti hhuvaneahu relay* ittfAgnih pjithivyamretah kfinoti 
Vayur tmtarilcshe Adityo divi \ " iiarah prajah aryyahjyotir'Ogr&h " iti Vasavo i^n- 
drlU^ AdityHs iasamjyotir yad atav Adityah \ ** trayo ghamiatah mfuwitn aa^hante*' 
ity Aynir Uahasam aachate Vayur Uahasam aaehate Adityah Ushasam aachata \ (1) 
*' Agni produces a fertilizing fluid on tho earth, Vayu in Uie air, the Son in the sky. 
(2) The ' three noble trcatures ' are the Yasus, Budras, and Adityu, The Sun if 
their light. (3) Agni, Yayu^ and the Sun each attend the Dawn." 


midst of that arose Mana ( Agastya ?) ; and from that thej say that the 
rishi Vasishtha sprang.*' ^ 

There is another hymn (R.V. vii. 18) \?hich relates to the connection 
between Vasish^ha and Sudas (verses 4, 5, 21-25) and the conflict 
between the latter and the Tfitsus with their enemies (verses 6-18); 
but as it is long and obscure I shall content myself with quoting a few 

R.Y. vii. 18, 4. Dhenum na tvd suyavaae dudhukshann upa hrahmdni 
sasfije VdaishfJiah \ tvdm id me gopatifh viivah aha d na^ Indrah aumO" 
tin gantu achha \ 5. Arndmsi chit papratMnd Suddse Indro gddhdni 

^ Whatevor may be the sense of verses 11 and 18, tbe Nimkta states plainly 
enough y. 1 3 ; Taayah daraahad Mitra-varunayoJ^ retaa chaskanda \ tad-abhivadmy 
es/ia fig bhavaii \ " On seeing her (Unro^ the seed of Iditra and Vamna fell from 
them. To this the following verse (R.V. vii. 33, 11) refers." And Sayana on the 
same verse quotes a passage from the Bfihaddevata : Tayor adityayofy satire dfiaJifva 
^ptarasam Urvtu'lm \ ntai chaskanda tat kumb/ie nyapatad vasattvare | t&naiva tu 
muhurttma vTryavantau tapasvmau\ Agastyas eha Vaaishfhas eha tatrarsht sanibabhu* 
tatuh I bahudha patitam retah kalase ehajale tihale | athale Vasiskfhaa tu munii^ aamba' 
bhuv'arshi'Sattamah \ kumbhe tv Agastyah tambhutojdU matsyo inahadyutih | udiyaya 
tato *gastyo iamya-matro tnahatapdh \ nianena aammito yaamat tasmad Manya^ 
ihochyate | yadva kumbhad fiahirjaiah kumbheriapi hi mtyate \ kumbhah ily abhidha" 
nam eha parimafyuya lakahyate \ tato *pau yrihyamaffiaau FaaiahfhaJ^ puahkare athi^ 
talf I aarvatah puahkara tarn hi viava davah adhdrayan \ " When these two Adityas 
(Mitra and Yaruna) beheld the Apsaras Urvas'i at a sacrifice their seed fell from them 
into the sacrificial jar called vaaathara. At that very moment the two energetic and 
austere rishis Agastya and Vasishf^ha were produced there. The seed fell on many 
places, into the jar, into water, and on the ground. The muni Yasish^ha, most 
excellent of rishis, was produced on the ground ; while Agastya was born in the jar, 
a fish of great lustre. The austere Agastya sprang theuce of the size of a aamya 
{i.e. the pin of a yoke ; see Wilson, a.v., and Professor Both, a,v. mSna), Since 
be was measured by a certain standard {mana) he is called the *measurahle' 
(mauya). Or, the rishi, having sprung from a jar (kumbha)^ is also measured by a 
jar, as the word kumbha is also designated as the name of a measure. Then when the 
waters were taken, Yasish^ha remained in the vessel {puahkara) *, for all the gods 
held him in it on all sides." In his Illustrations of the Nirukta, p. 64, Prof. Both 
speaks of the verses of the hymn which relate to Yasisbtha's origin as being a more 
modem addition to an older composition, and as describing the miraculous birth of 
the sage in the taste and style of the Epic mythology. Professor Max Miiller 
(Oxford Essap for 1856, pp. 61 f.) says that Yasish^ha is a name of the Sun; and 
that the ancient poet is also ** called the son of Mitra and Yaruna, night and day, an 
expression which has a meaning only in regard to Yasish^ha, the sun ; and as the 
son is frequently called the offspring of the dawn,' Yasishtha, the poet, is said to owe 
bis birth to Urvas'i " (whom MUller identifies with Ushas). For M. Langlois's view 
of the passage, see his French version of the B.Y. vol. iii. pp. 79 f. and his note, 
p. 234. 

M See Both*8 Litt. a. Gcsch. dos Weda, pp. 87 fL where it is translated into German. 



dkrinot iupdrd \ 21. Pra y$ gpMd amamadus tv&yd Pardich 

ra^ Sdtay&twr VatUhthai | na U hhojasya sakhyam mrishanta adha 
iUrihhyah sudind vi uchJi&n \ 22. Dve naptur Devavatah iate gar dvd 
rathd vadhnmantd Suddsaf^ \ a/rhann Ayne Paijavanoiya ddnam hcteva 
$adma pari emi rehhan \ 28. Chatvdro md Paifavanasya ddndh smad- 
dMfayah hfUanino nireke \ fijrdM md pfithwUhiKdh Suddsas toham 
tokdya iravase vahanti \ 24. Tasya h'avo rodtuH antar urvl Slrshne 
iirshne vibahhaja vihhaktd \ Bopta id Irulrafh na sravato grinanti nt 
Yudhydmadhim asiidd abhlke \ imafk naro Mdrutah saiehatdnu Divo^ 
ddsaih na pitaram Suddsah | avishfana Paijavanatya ketafk dUndiam 
hhattram ajarafk duvayu \ 

'' 4. Seeking to milk thee (liidra), like a cow in a rich meadow, 
Yasishtha sent forth his prayers to thee ; for every one tells me that 
thou art a lord of cows ; may Indra come to onr hymn. 5. However 
the waters swelled, Indra made them shallow and fordable to Sudas. 

21. Para^ara,'' Sktayatu, and Yasishtha, devoted to thee, who 

from indifference have left their home, have not forgotten the friendship 
of thee the bountiful ; — therefore let prosperous days dawn for theso 
sages. 22. Earning two hundred cows and two chariots with mares, 
the gift of Sudas the son of Pijavana, and grandson of Devavat,^^ 
I walk round the house, o Agni, uttering praises, like a hotfi priest 
23. The four brown steeds, bestowed by Sudas the son of Pijavanai 
vigorous, decked with pearls, standing on the ground, carry me on 
securely to renown from generation to generation. 24. That donor, 
whose fame pervades both worlds, has distributed gifts to every person. 
They praise him as the seven rivers'" praise Indra ; he has slain Yu- 
dhjamadhi in battle. 25. Befriend him (Sudas), ye heroic Maruts, as 

^ Paraiara is said in Nir. ri. 30, which refers to this passage, to have been a son of 
Yasishtha born in his old age {Paratarah parnitrnaaya Va»iMhfha$ya UhoviroBya 
jqfne) ; or he was a son of S'akti and grandson of Yasishtha (Roth $.v*) 

^^ Devavat is said by S&yana to be a proper name. He may be the same as Dito- 
diisa in Terse 25. Or DiTodasa may be the father, and Pijavana and Dovayat among 
the forefathers of SudSs. In the YishQU Parana Sarrakuma is said to have been the 
Ikther and IBLitnpama the grandfather of Sndfisa, Wilson's Y.P. 4to. ed. p. 380. At 
Pb 464 f. a Sadusa is mentioned who was son of Chyavana, grandson of Biitraya and 
great-graodBon of Divodusa. 

10^ Professor Roth (Litt a. Gesch. des Weda, p. 100) compares R.Y. L 102, 2, asya 
iraoo nadyah %apta hihhrati^ '* the seven rivers exalt his (Indra's) renown." Those 
rivers are, at Roth explains, the streams fireed by India from Yrittra's power. 


ye did Diyodasa the (fore)&ther of Sudas; fulfil the desire of the son 
of Fijavana (by granting him) imperishable, nndeoaying power, worthy 
of reverence (?)." 

Although the Yasishthas are not named in the next hymn, it must 
refer to the same persons and circumstances as are alluded to in the 
first portion of KY. vii. 33, quoted above. 

B.Y. viL 83, 1. Tuvdm nar& paiyam&ndBah apyam prdehd yavyanta^ 
prithu-parSavo yayuh \ ddsd cha vftttrd hatam drydni eha Suddsam 
Tndrd-varund ^vatd ^vatam \ 2. Tatra nara^ Bamayante hfnta-dhvqfo 
yasminn djd hhavati kinchana priyam \ yatra hhayante hhuvand ivar* 
dfiSas tatra nah Indrd-varund *dhi voehatam \ 8. Sam bhumyd^ atUd^ 
dhvanrdh adfikahata Indrd-varund divi ghoshah druhat \ asthur jandndm 
upa mdm ardtayo arvdg avasd havana-irutd dgatam \ 4. Indrd-varund 
vadhandhhir aprati Bhedam vanvantd pra Suddsam dvatam \ hrahmdni 
eshdm irinutath havlmani satyd lyitsHndm ahhavat purohiti^ \ 6. Indrd" 
varundv ahhi d tapanti md aghdni aryo vanwhdm ardtayah \ yuvdrh hi 
vawah ubhaya%ya rdjatho adha sma no avatam pdrye divi | 6. Tuvd0i hth 
vante ubhaydsah djishu Indram cha vasvo Varunam eha $dtaye \ yatra 
rdjabhir daiahhir nihddhitam pra Suddsam dvatafh Tfitsubhih aaha \ 
7. Daia rdjdnah samitdh ayajyavah Suddsam Indrd-varund na yuyu- 
dhuh I satyd nfindm adma-saddm upastutir devd^ eshdm abhavan devO' 
hutishu I 8. DdSardJne pariyatidya vihatah Suddse Indra-varundv 
aiikshatam \ ivityancho yatra namasd haparddino dhiyd dhivanto asth 
panta Tjritsavah \ 

'* Looking to you, o heroes, to your friendship, the men with broad 
axes advanced to fight. Slay our Dasa and our Arya enemies, and 
deliver Sudas by your succour, o Indra and Yaruna. 2. In the battle 
where men clash with elevated banners, where something which we 
desire ^^ is to be found, where all beings and creatures tremble, there, 
Indra and Yaruna, take our part. 8. The ends of the earth were 
seen to be darkened, o Indra and Yaruna, a shout ascended to the sky; 
the foes of my warriors came dose up to me ; come hither with your 
help, ye hearers of our invocations. 4. Indra and Yaruna, unequalled 
with your weapons, ye have slain Bheda, and delivered Sudas; ye 
heard the prayers of these men in their invocation ; the priestly agency 

^ Sayana divides the hinehana of the Pada-text into kincha no, which gifes the 
■ense ** where nothing is desired, bnt eyerjthing is difficult*" 


of the Tfitsus ^^ was efficacious. 5. Indra and Yamna, the injizrions 
acts of the enemy, the hostilities of the murderous, afflict me on eyerj 
side. Ye are lords of the resources of both worlds : protect us there- 
fore (where ye live) in the remotest heavens. 6. Both parties^®* invoke 
you, both Indra and Yaruna, in the battles, in order that ye may 
bestow riches. (They did so in the fight) in which ye delivered Sudas 
— when harassed by the ten kings— together with the Tj'itsus. 7. The 
ten kings, who were no sacrificers, united, did not vanquish Sudas, o 
Indra and Yaruna. The praises of the men who officiated at the sacri- 
fice were effectual ; the gods were present at their invocations. 8. Ye, 
o Indra and Yaruna, granted succour to Sudas, hemmed in on every 
side in the battle of the ten kings,*" where the white-robed Tjitsus,*^ 
with hair-knots, reverentially praying, adored you with a hymn." 

From these hymns it appears that Yasish^ha, or a Yasish^ha and his 
family were the priests of king Sudas (vii. 18, 4 f., 21 ff.; vii. 33, 3f.); 
that, in their own opinion, these priests were the objects of Indra's 
preference (vii. 33, 2), and had by the efficacy of their intercessions 
been the instruments of the victory gained by Sudas over his enemies 
in the battle of the ten kings. It seems also to result from some of the 
verses (vii. 33, 6 ; vii. 83, 4, 6 ; and vii. 33, 1, compared with vii. 83, 
8) that both the king and the priests belonged to the tribe of the 
Tf itsus.^^ Professor Both remarks that in none of the hymns which 

^0* Compare tctscs 7 and 8. Sayano, however, translates the clause differently : 
" The act of the Tritsns for whom I sacrificed, and who put me forward as their 
priest, was effectual : my priestly function on their behalf was successful " {Triisutwm 
0tat'tai\jnanam mama yujyanam purohitir mama purodhanam aatya taiya-phalam 
abhavat \ teshu yad mama paurohityam tat aaphalam j'atam | 

101 According to Sayana the two parties were Sudas and the Tritsus his allies 
{ubhaya-^idhah Sudah'tanjno r^/a tat'Sahaya-bhutasTfitsavaa eha evam dvi-prakarah 
janah). It might have been supposed that one of the parties meant wafi the hostile 
kings ; hut they are said in the next verse to be ayqjyavahy ** persons who did not 
•acrifice to the gods." 

10* Daaarajne, This word is explained by Sayana in his note on vii. 33, 3, dada^ 
W? rajabhih aaha yuddhe pravritte^ •* battle baring been joined with ten kings." In 
the verse before us he says *' the lengthening; of the first syllable is a Vedic peculiarity, 
and that the case-ending is altered, and that the word merely means * by the ten 
kings * " {daio'iahdaaya ehhandaso dtrghah | vibhakti^vyatyayah \ daiahhi rajabhih 
.... paHvtahfitaya), 

106 Here Sayana says the T^tsus are " the priests so called who were Yasish^ha'a 
disciples" {Tfitsavo Vasiahlha'aiahyah etai'iattjnah fitvyah), 

^ See Both, Litt. u. Gesch. des Weda, p. 120. ' 


he quotes is any allnsion made to the Yasishthas heing memhers of anj 
particular caste ; hut that their connection with Sudas is ascribed to 
their knowledge of the gods, and their unequalled power of invocation 
(vii. 33, 7 f.) 

In the Aitareya Brahmana, viii. 21, we have another testimonj to 
the connection of Yasishtha with Sudas, as he is there stated to have 
** consecrated Sudas son of Pijavana by a great inauguration similar to 
Indra's ; ^^ in consequence of which Sudas went round the earth in 
every direction conquering, and performed an advamedha sacrifice" 
{etena ha vai aindrena mahdhkishekena Fasishfhah Sudasam Paijavanam 
abhishUhecha \ timndd u Suddh PaijavanaJf. samantam sarvata^ prithivl0i 
jay an parlydya ahena cha medhyena Jje), 

The following passages refer to Yasish^ha having received a reve- 
lation from the god Yaruna, or to his being the object of that god's 
special favour : 

vii. 87, 4. Uvdcha me Varuno medhirdya irih eapta ndma aghnyd hi» 
hhartti \ vidvdn padasya guhyd na vochad yugdya viprah updraya 
iiktihan \ 

"Yaruna has declared to me^ who am intelligent,. *The Cow*" 
possesses thrice seven names. The wise god, though he knows them, 
has not revealed the mysteries of (her) place, which he desires to grant 
to a future generation." 

B.Y. vii. 88, 3. A yad ruhdva Varunai cha ndvam pra yat samudram 
Iraydva madhyam | adhi yad apdm snvhhU chardva pra pra inhhe inkha* 
ydvahai iuhhe ham \ 4. Vasishtham ha Varuno ndvi d adhdd fiahim cha- 
kdra wapdh mahobhih \ siotdram viprah ntdiruUve ahndm ydd nu dydva$ 
tatanan ydd mhasah \ 5. Eva iydni nau sakhyd hahhuvu^ sachdvahe yad 

^^ Golebrooke's Misc. Essays, i. 40. 

109 Yasish^ha is not named in this hymn, bnt he is its traditional author. 

uo Suyana says that either (1) Vuch is here meant under the fig^nre of a cow haviog 
the names of 21 metres, the GayatrT, etc., attached to her breast, throat, and head, or 
(2) that VSch in the form of the Veda holds the names of 21 sacrifices ; bnt that (3) 
another anthority says the earth is meant, which (in the Nighanto, L 1) has 21 
names, ^0, gma^jma, etc. {Vag atra gaur uchyaU | sa eha wasi kanfh4 airaai cka 
baddhani gayatry^adini tapta chhandMam nawiani bibhartti \ j^adva vedatmikd va§ 
ekaviihiati-sanuthanam yqjnanam namlani bibhartti \ dharayati \ aparaJ^ aha **gim^ 
pfithivi I ttuyai cha ^gaur gmajma ' itipafhi0ny ekavimsati'namani** iVt). I have^ 
in translating the second clause of the verae, followed for the most part a rendering 
suggested by Professor Aufrecht. 


pvfikam purd ehit \ hrthantam nULnam Varum wadhdvah sdhaira-d^&rafh 
fagama gphaih U \ 6. Tah dpir nityo Varuna priyah san tvdm dgdnist 
ifinavat $akkd U \ md U enawanto yahkin hhujema yandhi sma viprah 
gtwoaU varHtham \ 

*^ When YaroQa and I embark on the boat| when we propel it into 
the midst of the ocean, when we advance over the surface of the 
waters, may we rock npon the undulating element till we become 
brilliant. 4. YaruQa took YasiBhtha into the boat ; by his mighty acts 
working skilfiilly he (YaruQa) has made him a rishi ; the wise (god 
has made) him an utterer of praises in an auspicious time, that his 
days and dawns may be prolonged.^^^ 5. Where are (now) our friend-* 
ahips, the tranquility which we enjoyed of old ? We have come, o self- 
sostaining YaruQa, to thy vast abode, to thy house with a thousand 
gates. 6. Whatever friend of thine, being a kinsman constant and 
beloved, may commit offences against thee ; — may we not, though sin- 
ftd, suffer, (punishment), o adorable being; do thou, o wise god, grant 
HI protection." 

B.Y. vii. 86 is a sort of penitential hymn in which Yasishtha refers 
to the anger of Yaru^a against his old friend (verse 4) and entreats for- 
giveness of his offences. This hymn, which appears to be an earnest 
and genuine effusion of natural feeling, is translated in Professor 
Miiller's Anc. Sansk. Lit. p. 540. 

The passage which follows is part of a long hymn, consisting chiefly 
of imprecations directed against BILkshHses and Yatudhanas, and said in 
the Bfihaddevatft (as quoted by Sayana in his introductory remarks) to 
have ** been * seen ' by the rishi (Yasishtha) when he was overwhelmed 
with grief and anger for the loss of his hundred sons who hud been slain 
by the sons of Sudas " {fUhir dadaria raksho-yhnam puttra-ioka-paripln- 
id^ I hate puttra-iate hruddhah Sauddsair duhkhttas tadd). I shall cite 
only the verses in which YasLshtha repels the imputation (by whom- 
soever it may have been made) that he was a demon (Rakshas or Yatu- 

B.Y. vii. 104, 12. Suvijndnam ekikitwhe jandya saeh eha asach eha 
vaehasl patpfidhdte I tayor yat gatya^ yatarad fijiyas tad it Same avati 
hanU Mat \ 18. Na vai u Somo vjijinaih hinoti na hhatiriyam mtthuyd 

u^ FrofoMor Aofreoht renden the laft daiue, *' Ai long as days and dawns ahall 


dhurayantam \ hanti rahho hanti asad vadantam ubhdv IndrMya pranUm 
iayaU \ 14. Yadi vd aham anfitthdeva^ dsa nioghafh vd devdn apt Hh§ 
Agne \ kirn Mmabhya^ Jatav^ hfinUhe droghavdehas U nirrithUk 
sachantdm \ 15. Adga murlya yadi ydiudhdno aunt yadi vd dyua tatapa 
fUnuhasya \ adha sa tTfratr daiabhir vi yuyd^ yo md mogha0i '' Tdtu- 
dhdna** ity aha \ U. To md aydtufk ** ydtudkdna" ity dha yo ftf 
rakshdh ^^iuehir asmi^* ity dha \ Indra$ tarn hantu mahatd vadhma vH- 
vasyajantor *dhamaa paduhfa \ 

** The infeUigent man is well able to discriminate (wben) true and 
false words contend together. Soma favours that one of them whioh 
is true and right, and annihilates falsehood. 13. Soma does not prosper 
the wicked, nor the man who wields power unjustly. He slays the 
BakBhas;he8Uy8theliar: they both lie (bound) in the fetters of India. 
14. If I were nther a follower of false gods, or if I erroneously oonr 
ceived of the gxls, o Agni: — ^Why, o Jatavedas, art thou incensed 
against us? Letinjorious speakers fall into thy destruction.. 15. May 
I die this very diy, if I be a Tatudhana, or if I have destroyed any 
man's life. May he be severed from his ten sons who fieJsely says to 
me, 'o Yatudham.' 16. He who says to me, who am no Yato, 'o 
Y&tudh&na,' or wio (being himself) a Eakshas, says, ' I am pure,' — 
may Indra smite lim with his great weapon ; may he sink down the 
lowest of all creatures. 

In elucidation <f this passage Saya^a quotes the following lines: 

Matvd puttra-idam pHrvaih Vamhthasya mdhdtmana^ \ Voiiihthatk 
"rdkshaso '«>' ivafii* Vdmhtham rUpam dsthiia^ \ *'aham Voiiihfhaf^** 
iiy 0vaih fiyhdihsulrdkahoio 'hravit \ atroitardh ficho dfiahtd^, Vamh' 
fheneti tia^ inUam \ 

'* Having slain tie hundred sons of the great Yasishtha, a murderous 
Bakshasa, assuming the form of that rishi, formerly said to him, ' Thou 
art a Edkshasa, aid I am Yasishtha.' In allusion to this the latter 
verses were seen V Yasishtha, as we have heard." 

We may, howoer, safely dismiss this explanation resting on Dstbor 
lous grounds. 

The verses may as Professor Max Miiller supposes,^" have arisen out 

113 « Vasbhtha hinelf, the very type of the Arian Brahman, when in firad with 
Visvamitra, is ooUediot only an enemy, bat a ' Y&todbfina,' and other names which 
in common parlance xe only beitowed on barbarian aaTages and eril q>iriti. "We 


of Yosishtlia's contest with. Yiivamitra, and it may have been the 
latter personage who brought these charges of heresy, and of morderoas 
and demoniacal character against his rival."' 

Allusion is made both in the Toittirlya Sanhita and in the XaushT- 
takl Brahmana to the slaughter of a son of Yasishtha by the sons or 
descendants of Sudas. The former work states, Ash^aka vli. (p. 47 
of the India Office MS. No. 1702) : 

Viuishfho hataputro *kdmayata " vindeya prajum dbhi Siuddsan hha- 
teyam " iti \ sa etam ekasmdnnqpanchdiam apaSyat tarn dMrat Undya- 
jata I tato vai so ^vindata prajdm dbhi Sauddsdn abhavat \ 

"Yasishtha, when his son had been slain, desired, 'Hay I obtain 
offspring ; may I overcome the Saudosas.' Ho beheld t^is ekasmdnna- 
panchdSa (?), he took it, and sacrificed with it. In consequence he ob- 
tained offspring, and overcame the Saudasas." 

The passage of the Kaushltaki Brahmana, 4th adl]yaya, as quoted 
by Professor Weber (Ind. St. ii. 299) is very similar : 

Vasishfho ^kdmayata haia-putrah ^^ prajdyeya prajqfd paiuhhir ahhi 
Sauddsdn hhaveyam^' iti \ sa etaih yajna-kratum a^aSyad Vasiehfha' 
yajnam .... tena ishfvd .... ahhi Sauddsdn ahbvat \ 

** Yasish^ha, when his son had been slain, desired ' May I be fniit- 
fcd in offspring and cattle, and overcome the Saudsas.' He beheld 
this form of offering, the Yasishtha-sacriflce ; and having performed it, 
he overcame the Saudasas." 

In his introduction to Kig-veda, vii. 32, Sayanahas the following 
notice from the Annkramanika : 

*^8auddsatr agnau prakshipyam&mh S'aktir antyai pragdtham dUhhe 
90 ^rdharche ukte *dahyaia \ tarn putroktam Vasishthft samdpayaia " iti 
JSdtydyanakam \ " Vasishthasya eva hata-putrasya drshm '' iti Tdndaham \ 

** The S^atyayana Brahmana says that ' Slakti (|on of Yasishfha), 
when being thrown into the fire by the Saudasas, reeived (by inspira- 
tion) the concluding pragatha of the hymn. He las burnt after he 
had spoken half a jich ; and Yasish^ha completed rhat his son was 

have still the very hymn in which Yasish^ha deprecates snch aarges with powerful 
indignation." I^of. MCdler then quotes Ycrses 14-16 of the hmn before ns ('* Last 
Eesults of the Turanian Besoarches," in Bunsen's ** Outlines f the Philosophy of 
Univ. History," i. 844. 

^^ See my article " On the relations of the priests to the ot)er clas8e& of Indian 
society in the Yedic age,*' in the Journal Boy. As. Soc. for 186^ pp. 296 ff. 



uttering. The Tandaka says that ' it was Yasishtha himself who spoke 
the whole when his son was slain.' ** 

The words supposed to have been spoken by Skkti, viz. " Indra, 
grant to us strength as a father to his sons " {Indra kraium nah a hhara 
pitcL putrehhyo yatha) do not seem to be appropriate to the situation in 
which he is said to have been placed ; and nothing in the hymn 
appears to allude to any circumstances of the kind imagined in the 
two Brahmanas. 

Manu says of Yasish^ha (viii. 110): Maharshihhii cha devais cha 
kcLryydriham iapat^uih hritdh \ VasMfhai chdpi iapatham Sepe Paiya- 
vane nfipe \ '' Great rishis and gods too have taken oaths for particular 
objects. Yasishtha also swore an oath to king Paiyavana." The oc- 
casion on which this was done is stated by the Commentator Kulluka : 
Vasishfho ^py anena puUra-Satam hhakshitam iti Vtivdmitrena dkrushfo 
sva-parihiddhaye Piyavandpatye Suddmni rdjani sapatham chakdra \ 
" Yasishtha being angrily accused by Yi^vamitra of having eaten (his) 
hundred sons, took an oath before king Sudaman (Sudas, no doubt, is 
meant) the son of Fiyavana in order to clear himself." This seems to 
refer to the same story which is alluded to in the passage quoted by 
the Commentator on Eig-veda vii. 104, 12. 

In the Eamayana, i. 55, 5 f., a hundred sons of Yii^vamitra are said 
to have been burnt up by the blast of Yasishtha's mouth when they 
rushed upon him armed with various weapons ( VUvdmitra-Btddndm tu 
iaiam ndnd-vidhdyudham \ ahhyadhuvat stisankritddham Vasiahthamjapa- 
tdm varam \ hunkarenaiva tan sarvdn nirdaddha mahdn fUhih), 

Yasishfha is also mentioned in Eig-veda, i. 112, 9, as having received 
succour from the A^vins ( — Vasishfham ydhhir ajardv ajinvaiam), 

Yasishtha, or the Yasishthas, are also referred to by name in the 
following verses of the seventh Mandala of the Eig-veda : 7, 7 ; 9, 6 ; 
12, 3; 23, 1, 6; 26, 5; 37, 4; 39, 7; 42, 6; 59, 3; 70, 6; 73, 3 ; 
76, 6, 7 ; 77, 6 ; 80, 1 ; 90, 7 ; 95, 6 ; 96, 1, 3 ; but as no information 
is derivable from these texts, except that the persons alluded to were 
the authors or reciters of the hymns, it is needless to quote them."* 

^^^ Another verse of a hyinn in which the author is not referred to (tIi. 72, 2) 
is as follows : A no dcvebhir upa yatam arvak aaj'oshaaha fiasatya rathena \ yuvor 
hi nah takhya pitryani tamauo bandhur uta tatya vittam \ "Come near to its, 
As'vins, on the same car with the gods : for we have ancestral friendships with you, 
a common relation ; do ye recognize it" Although this han probably no mythological 


In the Athanra-yeda, iv. 29, 3 and 5, Yasishtlia and Yiiy&mitra are 
mentionod among other personages, Angiras, Agasti, Jamadagni, Atri, 
Ka^japa, Bharadyajay Oavisbtliiray and Kntsa, as being succoured by 
Mitra and Yaruna (. . . . ycl« AnproMm avatho y&v Agastim Mitrd- Fth 
ruMd Jamadagnim Atrim \ yau Kaiyapam avatho yau Vasishtham .... 
you Bharadv&jam avatho yau Oavuhthiram Viivdmitram Varuna Mitra 
JTutsam), And in the same Yeda, zriii. 3, 15 f., they are invoked as 
deliverers : VUv&mitro ^yaih Jamadagnir Atrir acantu nah Kakyapo Va- 
madevah \ Viivdmitra Jamadagne Vamhtha Bharadvdja Ootama Vdma-' 
depa ... I ''15. May this YiiSvamitra, may Jamadagni, Atri, Kaiyapa, 
Yamadeva preserve us. 16. O Yi^vamitra, o Jamadagni, o Yasisbtha, o 
Bharadvaja, o Ootama, o Yasmadeva." The second passage at least 
must be a good deal more recent than the most of the hymns of the 

Sudas is mentioned in other ports of the Big-veda without any refer- 
ence either to Yasishtha or to Yisvamitra. In some cases his name is 
coupled with that of other kings or sages, which appears to shew that 
in some of these passages at least a person, and not a mere epithet, 
''the liberal man," is denoted by the word Sudas. 

B.Y. i. 47, 6. (The traditional rishi is Praskanva.) Suddse datrd voiu 
hiihratd rathe priksho vahatam Asvind \ rayim samudrdd uta vd divas 
pari asme dhattam pun/hippham \ 

'' impetuous A^vins, possessing wealth in your oar, bring susten- 
ance to Sudas. Send to us from the (aerial) ocean, or the sky, the 
riches which are much coveted." 

Sayana says the person here meant is '' king Sudas, son of Fijavana " 
{Suddse .... rdjne Pijavana-puttrdya), 

i. 63, 7. (The rishi is Kodhas, of the family of Ootama.) Ibam ha 
tyad Jhdra aapta yudhyan pure vajrin Puruhutsdya dardaJi \ larhir na 
yat Suddse vrithd vary anho rdjan variva^ Purave kah | 

*' Thou didst then, o thundering Indra, war against, and shatter, the 
seven cities for Purukutsa, when thou, o king, didst without effort hurl 

relierenee, Baya^ explaiiu it as follows : Vivawan Varunai cha ubhav api Kaiyapad 
Aditerjaiau \ Vivatvan Mvincrjanako Vwrw^ Vanth^hatya ity evam MMana-^M- 
dhutpam | '* ViTasvat and Yamna were both sons of Kasyapa and Aditi. Yivasyat 
was the father of the As vina and Varona of Yasishtha ; snch is the affinity." Sayana 
then quotes the Bfibaddovata to proTe the descent of the AsYius from YiTosvat 
Compare B.Y. z. 17, 1, 2, and Nimkta, zii 10, 11. 


away distress from Sudas like a bunch of grass, and bestow wealth on 

i. 112, 19. (The rishi is Kutsa.) .... ydlhir Suddse Hhathuh sude- 
vyaih tdlhir u ehu iUibhir Aivind gatam \ 

** Come, A^vins, with those snccours whereby ye brought glorious 
power to Sudas *' [* son of Pijavana * — Sayana]."* 

The ftirther texts which follow are all from the seventh Mandala, of 
which the rishis, with scarcely any exception, are said to be Vasishtha 
and his descendants : 

yii. 19, 8. 2\a§i dhrishno dhrishatd vUahavyam prdvo viivdbhir utthkih 
Suddiom I pra Paurukutnm TrModiuyum dvah kshettrasdtd vjrittrahat' 
yethu PHrum \ 

'' Thou, fierce Indra, hast impetuously protected Sudas, who offered 
oblations, with every kind of succour. Thou hast preserved Trasadasyu 
the son of Purukutsa, and Puru in his conquest of land and in his 
sUughter of enemies." 

vii. 20, 2. JETanid Vfittram Indrah Suiuvdnah prdvld nu vlro jari' 
idram uti \ karttd Suddse aha vat u lokafh ddtd vasu muhur u ddhuhe bhut \ 

''Indra growing in force slays Yptra; the hero protects him who 
praises him ; he makes room for Sudas [or the liberal sacrificer — kal' 
ydruhddndya yajamdndya, Sayana] ; he gives riches repeatedly to his 

vii. 25, 3. S'atam te iiprinn utayah Suddse sahasraih samsdh uta 
rdtir astu | jahi vadhar vanusho marttyasya astne dyumnam adhi ratnain 
cha dhehi \ 

'' Let a hundred succours come to Sudas, a thousand desirable (gifts) 
and prosperity. Destroy the weapon of the murderous. Confer renown 
and wealth on us." 

(Sayana takes sudds here and in all the following citations to signify 
a ** liberal man.") 

^^ Professor Roth renders this passage diiferently in his Litt. n. Gesch. des Weda, 
p. 132 ; as does also Prof. Bcnfey, Orient und Occident, i. p. 590. 

^^* In R.y. 1. 185, 9, we find the word attdas in the comparative degree ntdaHarOy 
where it must have the sense of ** very liberal " : bhuri ehid aryah tudaataraya \ 
** (give the wealth) of my enemy, though it be abundant to (me who am) most liberal." 
In Y. 63, 2, the term tudaa appears to be an adjective : a etan rathethu tasthuthal^ 
hah s'uarava hatha yayuh \ kaamai aaartth audaae anu apayah ildbhir vj^h^ayah aaha | 
" Who has heard them (the Maruts) mounted on their cars, how they have gone ? To 
what liberal man have they resorted as friends, (in the form of) showen with 
blessings ? ** 


Til. 32. 10. NaJcih Suddw rathampari asa na riramat \ Indro yasya 
avita yasya Maruto gamat sa gomati vraje \ 

*^ No one can oppose or stop the chariot of Sudas. He whom Indra, 
whom the Manits, protect, walks in a pasture filled with cattle." 

vii. 53, 3 : Uto hi vam ratnadheydni eanti purUni dydvd -pfithivX 
Suddse I 

''And ye, o Heaven and Earth, have many gifts of wealth for Sudas 
[or the liberal man]." 

tH. 60, 8. Tad gop&vad Adiiih iarma hhadram Mttro yachhanti Va* 
runah Sicddse \ tasminn d tohafh tanayam dadhdndhk md karma deva- 

helanam turdsah | 9 pari dveshohhir Aryamd vrtnaktu urum 

Suddse vrUhanau u lokam \ 

'< Since Aditi, Mitra, and Yaruna afifbrd secure protection to Sudas 
(or the liberal man), bestowing on him offspring ; — may we not, o 

mighty deities, commit any offence against the gods. 9 May 

Aryaman rid us of our enemies. (Grant) ye yigorous gods, a wide 
space to Sudas." 

There is another passage, yii. 64, 3 {hravad yaihd nah dd arih Su- 
dd8e), to which I find it difficult to assign the proper sense. 

Yasishtha is referred to in the following passages of the Brahmanas : 

Xafhaka 37, 11}^'' Rishayo vai Indram pratyakskam na apaiyafka tarn 
Vasishfhah eva pratyasham apasyat \ so *bihlied '* itarehhyo md rishi- 
hhyah pravakshyati *' iti^^ | so 'bravid *^ hrdhmanam te vakshydmi yathd 
tvat^urohitdh prajdh prajanishyante \ atha md itarehhyah rishihhyo md 
pravockah " iti \ tasmai etdn sioma-hJidgdn ahravit tato Vasishtha-puro- 
hitdh prajdh prdjdyanta \ 

*^ The rishis did not behold Indra fieu:e to face ; it was only Yasishtha 
who so beheld him. He (Indra) was afraid lest Yasishtha should reveal 
him to the other rishis ; and said to him, 'I shall declare to thee a Brah- 
maga in order that men may be bom who shall take thee for their puro- 
hita. Do not reveal me to the other rishis.' Accordingly he declared to 

"Y Quoted by Professor Weber» Indiscbe Stadien, iii. 478. 

lu Xhe words from «o *h%bhet down to iti are omitted in the Taitt. Sanhita, iii. 5, 
2, 2, where this passage is also found. Weber refers in Ind. St. ii. to another part of 
the Eiithaka, ii. 9, where Yasishtha is alluded to as haying ** seen " a text beginning 
with the word purovdta during a time of drought (** JPUropata *' iii vfithfy'apeU 
lkutaifram$ Vatithiho dadars'a). 


him these parts of the hymn. In consequence men were horn who took 
Vasishtha for their purohita." 

Professor Weher refers in the same place to a passage of the Sata« 
patha Brahmana relating to the former superiority of Yasishtha's 
family in sacred knowledge and priestly functions : 

zii. 6, ly 38. Vasuhtho ha virdjam viddnchalcara tdm ha Indro *hhtda' 
dhyau I sa ha uvdcha *^ri8he virdjam ha vai veitha tdm me hruhV^ iti \ 
sa ha uvdcha ** kim mama tatah 9ydd " iti \ '' sarvasya cha te yajnasya 
prdyaSehittim hruydm rUpafh cha tvd darSayeya'' iti \ sa ha uvdcha 
'' yad nu me sarvasya yajnasya prdyaschittim hruydh kim u sa sydd yam 
tvam rupam dariayethdy* iti \ jlva-svarga eva asmdl lokdt preydd** 
iti I tato ha etdm ftshir Indrdya virdjam uvdcha ** iyam vai virdd " iti \ 
tasmdd yo *syai hhuyishtham lahhate sa eva iresh{ho hhavati | atha ha 
etdm Indrah rishaye prdyaSchittim uvdcha agnihotrdd agre d mahatah 
ukthdt I tdh ha sma etdh purd vydhritir Vasishfhdh eva viduh \ tasmdd 
ha sma purd Vdsishfluih eva hrahmd hhavati \ 

** Vasishtha was acquainted with the Viraj (a particular Vedic metre). 
Indra desired it ; and said, * rishi, thou knowest the Viraj : declare 
it to me.' Vasishtha asked: '"What (advantage) will result to me 
from doing so ? ' (Indra replied) * I shall both explain to thee the 
forms for rectifying anything amiss {prdyaichitti) ^^* in the entire sacri- 
fice, and show thee its form.* Vasishtha further enquired, * If thoa 
declarest to me the remedial rites for the entire sacrifice, what shall 
ho become to whom thou wilt show the form ? ' (Indra answered) 
* He shall ascend from this world to the heaven of life,* The rishi then 
declared this Viraj to Indra, saying, *this is the Viraj.* Wherefore it 
is he who obtains the most of tlus (Viraj) that becomes the most 
eminent. Then Indra explained to the rishi this remedial formula 
from the agnihotra to the great uktha. Formerly the Vasish^has alone 
knew these sacred syllables (vydhriti). Hence in former times a 
Vasishtha only was a (priest of the kind called) hrdhmdn,** 

Professor Weber quotes also the following from the Kathaka 32, 2. 

Tdm ahrdhmanah prdsndti sd skannd dhutis tasyd vai Vasishfhah eva 

prdyaiehittam viddncJiakdra \ ** The oblation of which a person not a 

brahman partakes is vitiated. Vasishtha alone knew the remedial rite 

for such a case.** 

**» Soe above, p. 294. 


In the Shatjvimto BrShma^a of the Sama-veda, qnoted by^ the same 
writer (Ibid. i. 39, and described p. 37, as possessing a distinctly fonned 
Brahmanical character indicating a not very early date), we have the 
following passage : 

i. 5. In&ro ha VihcLmitrdya uktham uvdeha Vdnshthdya hrahma tag 
vJUham ity eva Viivdmitraya mano hrahma Vattshthdya | tad vai etad 
V&mhtham hrahma \ api ha evamvidharh vd Vdmhthain vd hrahmdnaih 
hurvlta \ 

''Indra declared the uktha (hymn) to Yi^vamitra, and the hrdhmdn 
(devotion) to YasLshtha. The uktha is expression {vdk) ; that (he made 
known) to Yii^vamitra ; and the hrdhmdn is the soul ; that (he made 
known) to Yasishtha. Hence this hrdhmdn (devotional power) belongs 
to the Yasishfhas. Moreover, let either a person of this description, or 
a man of the family of Yasishtha, be appointed a ^r^Am^ilfn-priest." 

Here the superiority of Yasishtha over Yii^vamitra is clearly as- 

• Yasishtha is mentioned in the Mahabharata, Skntip. verses 11221 ff., 
as having communicated divine knowledge to king Janaka, and as 
referring (see verses 11232, 11347, 11409, 11418, 11461, etc ) to the 
Simkhya and Toga systems. The sage is thus characterized : 

11221. Vasishtham ireshfham dAnam jrishtndm hhdskara-dyutim \ pa* 
praehha Janako rdjd jndnam natisreyasam param \ param adhydtma- 
kuialam adhdima-gati-nikhayam \ Maitrdvarunim dslnam ahhivddya 
hfitdnjalih \ 

** King Janaka with joined hands saluted Yasish^ha the son of Mitra 
and Yaruna, the highest and most excellent of rishis, resplendent as 
the sun, who was acquainted with the Supreme Spirit, who had ascer- 
tained the means of attaining to the Supreme Spirit ; and asked him 
after that highest knowledge which leads to final beatitude." 

The doctrine which the saint imparts to the king he professes to 
have derived from the eternal Hiranyagarbha, i,e. Brahma {avdptam 
0tad hi mayd sandtandd JEiranyagarhhdd gadato narddhipa). 

I have already in former parts of this volume quoted passages from 
Mann, the Yishnu Furana, and the MahabhSrata, regarding the creation 

i*> Professor Weber mentioiui (Ind. St i. 53) that in the commentary of Ruma- 
krishoa on the PSraskara Orihya SQtras allusion is made to the ** Chhandogas who 
iioUow the S&tras of the Yasish^ha fiunily " VfUithiKo'Butv^nticKarinai cKhandogah), 


of Yasislitlia. The first-named work (see above, p. 36) makes him one 
of ten Maharshis created by Mann Svayambhava in the first (or Sva- 
yambhuva) Manvantara. The YishQU Purana (p. 65) declares him to 
have been one of nine mind-bom sons or Brahmas created by Brahma 
in the Manvantara just mentioned. The same Fnrana, however, iii. 
ly 14, makes him also one of the seven rishis of the existing or 
Yaivasvata Manvantara, of which the son of Yivasvat, S^raddhadeva,"^ 
is the Manu ( Vtvaavatah suto vipra S'rdddhadevo mdhddyutihk \ Mdnui^ 
aamvarttate dhlmdn sumpratam saptame 'ntare .... Vasishthah Kd" 
iyapo Hhdtrir Jamadagnih sa-Oautama^ \ Vi&vdmitra-Bharad/odjau sapia 
Mptarshayo ^hhavan). The Mahabharata (see p. 122) varies in its ao« 
counts, as in one place it does not include Yasishtha among Brahma's 
six mind-bom sons, whilst in a second passage it adds him to the 
number which is there raised to seven,^" and in a third text describes 
him as one of twenty-one Prajapatis. 

According to the Yishnu Purana, i. 10, 10, '' Yasishfha had by his 
wife tTijja " (one of the daughters of Daksha, and an allegorical per- 
sonage, see Y. P. i. 7, 18), seven sons called Eajas, Gatra, llrddhva- 
bahu, Savana, Anagha, Sutapas, and Sukra, who were all spotless 
rishis" {Urjjdydm eha Vnutshthasya sqpidjdyanta vai sutdh \ Rajo^ 
Odtrordhhvabdhuicha SavanaS ehdnaghas tathd \ Sutapdh S'ukra^ ily 
ete sarve saptarshayo ^maldh). This must be understood as referring to 
the Svayambhuva Manvantara. The Commentator says these sons 
were the seven rishis in the third Manvantara {saptarshayaa tfitlya* 
manvantare). In the description of that period the Y. P. merely says, 
without naming them (iii. 1, 9) that "the seven sons of Yasishtha 
were the seven rishis" {VasUhtha-Uinayds tatra sapta saptarahayo 
*hhavan).^ The Bhagavata Puraga (iv. 1, 40 fl) gives the names of 
Yasishtha's sons differently ; and also specifies Siiktri and others as the 
offspring of a different marriage. (Compare Professor Wilson's notes 
on these passages of the Yishnu Purana.) 

^^ See above p. 209, note 66, and pp. 188 ff. 

133 In another verse also (Adip. 6638, which will be quoted below in a fatnre 
section) he is said to be a mind-bom son of Brahmfi. 

^^ Orjjo, who in the Vishnu P. iii. 1, 6, is stated to be one of the rishis of the 
second or Svarochisha Manvantara, is said in the Yayu P. to he a son of Yasishtha. 
See Professor Wilson's note (vol. iii. p. 3) on YishQu P. iii. 1, 6. The Vaya P. also 
declares that one of the rishis in each of the fourth and fifth Manvantaras was a aoa 
of Yasishtha. (See Prof. Wilson's notes (vol uL pp. 8 and 11) on YishQU P. iii I.) 


In Mann, iz. 22 f., it is said that " a wife acquires the qualities of 
the husband with whom she is duly united, as a riyer does when 
blended with the ocean. 23. Akshamala, though of the lowest origin, 
became honourable through her union with Yasishtha, as did also 
SIrangI through her marriage with Mandapala '' ( Yddfig-gunena hhart- 
ird siri safnyujyate yathdvidki \ tddrig-gund sd hhavati samudreneva nm- 
nagd \ 23. Akshamdld Vamhfhena satnyukid ^ dhama-yoni-jd \ Sdrangl 
ManddpdUna jagdmdhhyarhanJyatdm). 

Yasishtha's wife receives the same name ( Vasiskthaa chdkshatndlayd) 
in a Terse of the Mahabharata (Udyogaparvan, y. 3970) ;"^ but in two 
other passages of the same work, which will be adduced further on, 
she is called Arundhat!.^* 

According to the Yishnu Purana (ii. 10, 8) Yasishtha is one of the 
BQperintendents who in the month of Asha^ha abide in the Sun's 
chariot, the others being Yaruna, Eambha, Sahajanya, Huhu, Budha, 
and Kathachitra ( Vasishtko Varum Rambhd Sahajanya Huhur Budhah \ 
BathachitroB tathd Sukre vasanty A8hadha-sanjnite)\ whilst in the 
month of Phalguna (ibid. y. 16) the rival sage Yiivamitra exercises the 
same function along with Yishnu, Aivatara, Kambha, Suryayarchas, 
Satyajit, and the Rakshasa Tajnapcta {irUyatdm ehdpare sHrye phdU 
gune nivasanti ye \ Viahnur Ahataro Rambhd Suryavarchdi cha Sat- 
yajit I ViSvdmitras tathd raksho Yajndpeto mahdtmanah). 

At the commencement of the Yayu Purana Ya^ish^ha is charac- 
terized as being the most excellent of the rishis {xUhindm cha varuh- 
thdya Vasishthdya mahdtmane). 

It is stated in the Yishnu Purana, iii. 3, 9, that the Yedas have 
been already divided twenty-eight times in the course of the present or 
Yaivasvata Manvantara ; and that this division has always taken place 
in the Dvapara age of each system of four yugas. In the first Dvapara 
Brahma Svayambhu himself divided them ; in the sixth Mfityu (Death, 
or Yama) ; whilst in the eighth Dvapara it was Yasish^ha who was tho 
Yyasa or divider {Ashtdvimiatikriivo vai veddh vyastd^ mahanhihhih \ 
Vaivawate ^ntare tasmin dvdpareshu puna^ punaJ^ | . . . . 10. Dvdpare 
prathame vyastdh wayarh veddh Svayamhhuvd | . . . . 11.... Mtityuhk 
shoihfhe emfitah prahhul^ | . . . . Vasiehthai chdihtame emritahi), 

^^ Two lines below HaimavatI is mentioned as the wife of YibYttmitra (Eaimavatya 
iha KauiikaJj). 
^ In tho St PetersbuTg Lexicon akshamaUi is token for an epithet of Anmdhatl. 


Vasishtba was, as we have seen above, the family-priest of Nimi, 
son of Ikshvaku, who was the son of Mann Yaivasvata, and the first 
prince of the solar race of kings ; and in a passage of the Mahabh&» 
rata, Adip. (6643 f.), which will be quoted in a future section, he is 
stated to have been the purohita of all the kings of that family. He 
is accordingly mentioned in Yishnu Purana, iv. 3, 18, as the religious 
teacher of Sagara, the thirty-seventh in descent from Ikshvaku {tat' 
kukhgurum Vamhtham iaramfk jagmuh) ; and as conducting a sacrifice 
for Saudasa or Mitrasaha, a descendant in the fiftieth generation of the 
same prince (Yishnu P. iv. 4, 25, Kalena gaehhata sa Sauddso yajnam 
ayajat \ parinishthita-yajne cha dchdrgge Vtuishthe nishkrdnte ityadi), 

Yasishtha is also spoken of in the Kamayana, iL 110, 1 (see above, 
p. 115), and elsewhere (ii. Ill, 1, etc.), as the priest of Kama, who 
appears from the Yishnu Purana, (iv. 4, 40, and the preceding narra^ 
tive), to have been a descendant of Ikshvaku in the sixty-first gene- 

Yasishtha, according to all these accounts, must have been possessed 
of a vitality altogether superhuman ; for it does not appear that any of 
the accounts to which I have referred intend under the name of Yasish- 
tha to denote merely a person belonging to the family so called, but 
to represent the founder of the family himself as taking part in the 
transactions of many successive ages. 

It is dear that Yasishfha, although, as we shall see, he is frequently 
designated in post-vedic writings as a Brahman, was, according to some 
other authorities I have quoted, not really such in any proper sense of 
the word, as in the accounts which are there given of his birth he is 
declared to have been either a mind-bom son of Brahma, or the son of 
Mitra, Yaruna, and the Apsaras Urva^I, or to have had some other 
supernatural origin. 

Sect. YII. — Viivdmitra. 

Yi^vamitra is stated in the Anukramanika, as quoted by Sayana at 
the commencement of the third Mancjiala of the Big-veda, to be the 
rishi, or '' seer," of that book of the collection : Asya mandda-drMhtd 

^^ Bama*8 genealogy is also given in the B&niyana, L 70, and ii. 110, 6 ff., wherSp 
howeyer, he is said to be only the thirty-third or thirty-fourth from IkahYfiko. 



VUvdmitra^ jrUhih \ ** The riahi of this (the first hymn) was Yi^va- 
mitra, the ' seer ' of the Man^ala." This, however, is to be nnderstood 
with some exceptions, as other persons, almost exclusiyely his descend- 
ants, are said to be the rishis of some of the hymns. 

I shall qnote snch passages as refer, or are traditionally declared to 
refer, to Yi^vamitra or his family. 

In reference to the thirty-third hymn the Kirokta states as follows : 

IL 24. Tatra itihdsam dchakshate \ VUv&mitraJ^ fishih Suddsah Faija- 
vanasya purohito habhUvd . . . . | ^a vittam gphltva Vipdt'chhutudryoh 
mimbhedam dyayau \ anuyayur itare \ sa Viivdmitro nadis tushtdva '* yd- 
dhdJ^ hhavata " iii \ 

*' They there relate a story. The rishi Yiivamitra was the pnrohita 
of Sudas, the son of Pijavana. (Here the etymologies of the names 
Tiivamitra, Sudas, and Pijavana are given.) Taking his property, he 
oame to the confluence of the Yipa^ and S»utudil (Sutlej); others 
followed. Yi^vamitra lauded the rivers (praying them to) become 

Sayana expands the legend a little as follows : 

Furd kila Vtivdmitrah Paijavantuya Suddso rdjna^ purohito hdbhuva \ 
aa eha paurohityena labdha-dhanah sarvam dhanam dddya Vipdt-ckhutu- 
dryoj^ samhhedam dyayau \ anuyayur ttare \ athottitinhur Vthdmitro 
*ffddha^'aU U nadyau djrishtvd uttarandrtham ddydbhis tiifibhia tushtdva \ 

<< Pormerly Yiivamitra was the purohita of king Sudas, the son of 
Pijavana. He, having obtained wealth by means of his offtce as puro- 
hita, took the whole of it, and oame to the confluence of the Yipa^ and 
the Butudrl. Others followed. Being then desirous to cross, but per- 
ceiving that the waters of the rivers were not fordable, Yi^vamitra, 
with the view of getting across lauded them with the first three verses 
of the hymn." 

The hynm makes no allusion whatever to Sudas, but mentions the 
son of Zu^ika (Yi^vamitra) and the Bharatas. It is not devoid of 
poetical beauty, and is as follows : 

E.Y. iii. 83, 1 (= Kirukta, ix. 89). Pra parvatdndm uiatl upasthdd 
4tiv0 iva vishite hdsamdne | ydvevd hihhre mdtard rihdne Vipdf Chhutudrl 
payasd javete \ 2. Indrethite prasavam hhihthamdne aehha samudrain 
rathyd 4va ydtha^ \ samdrdne Urmibhih pirwamdne anyd vdm anydm apt 
§ti Mhro I 8. Achha Btntlhum wMfiUmdm aydum Vipdiam firvlm 


iubhaffdtn aganma \ vaUam ica mdtard sa^rihdne samdnaSk yonim anu 
ioncharantl \ 4. End vayam payasd pinvamdnd anu yonifk deva-hfitam 
eharantlh \ na varttave prasavah Borga-taktal^ kimyur vipro nadyojohaolti \ 
5 (= Kirokta, ii. 25). Ramadhoam me vachase somydya fitdvarir upa 
muhurttam evaih [ pra sindhum achha hrihaii manUhd avasyur ahc$ 
EuSikasya sunuh \ 6 (=» Kir. ii. 26). Indro asmdn aradat vqfra-hdhur 
apdhan Frittfam paridhim nadlndm \ devo *nayat Savitd supdnis Uuya 
vayam prasave ydma^ Hrvlh \ 7. Pravdchyaih iaivadhd tHryafh tad 
Indrasya karma yad Ahith vivftichat \ vi vajrena parishado jaghdna 
dyann dpo ayanam ichhamdndh \ 8. Etad vaeho jaritar md *pi mjrUhtdh 
d yat te ghoshdn uttard yugdni \ uktheshu kdro prati no jushawa md no 
ni kah purushatra namaa te \ 9. su wasdral^ kdrave Sfinota yayau yo 
durdd anasd rathena \ ni su namadhvam hhavata supdrd adkoakeha^ 
etndhavah srotydhhih \ 10 (= Nir. ii. 27). A te hdro ijrinavdma vachdihei 
yaydtha durdd anasd rathena \ ni te namsai plpydnd iva yoshd marydya 
tea kanyd ia&vachai te \ 11. Tad anga tvd Bharatdh santareyur gavyan 
grdmah ishital^ Indra-juta^ | arshdd aha prasavah sarga-tdktaJ^ d vo 
vfine sumatim yajniydndm \ 12. Atdrishur Bharatdh gavyavah sam 
dbhakta viprah sumatim nadlndm \ pra pinvadhvam ishayantl^ surddhd^ 
d vakshandh prinadhvafh ydta Mham \ 

''1. (Yiivamitra speaks) : Hastening eagerly from the heart of the 
mountains, contending like two mares let loose, like two bright mother- 
cows licking^ (each her calf), the Yipa^ and S^utudri rush onward with 
their waters. 2. Impelled by Indra, seeking a rapid course, ye move 
towards the ocean, as if mounted on a car. Eunning together, as ye 
do, swelling with your waves, the one of you joins the other, ye bright 
streams. 3. 1 have come to the most motherly stream; we have arrived 
at the broad and beautifiil Yipa^ ; proceeding, both of them, like two 
mother(-cows) Hcking each her calf, to a common receptacle. 4. (The 
rivers reply) : Here swelling with our waters we move forward to the re- 
ceptacle fashioned by the gods (the ocean) ; our headlong course cannot 
be arrested. What does the sage desire that he invokes the rivers ? 5. 
(Yiivamitra says) : Stay your course for a moment, ye pure streams, 
(yielding) to my pleasant words.^ With a powerful prayer, I, the son 

1^ Prof. Roth (lllnfltr. of Nirokta, p. 133) refers to viL 2. 5 {purvi situSk na ma* 
tara rihane) as a parallel passage. 
i>8 Prof. Both (Litt. u. Gesch. des Weda, p. 103) renders : '* Listen joyfully for a 


of Kntika,^ desiriiig sncoonr, inyoke the ri^er. 6. (The riven answer) : 
India, the wielder of the thunderbolt, has hollowed out our ohannels ; 
he has smitten Ahi who hemmed in the streams. Savitpi the skilful- 
handed has led us hither ; by his impulse we flow on in our breadth. 
7. For ever to be celebrated is the heroic deed of Indra, that he has split 
Yfittra in sunder. He smote the obstructions with his thunderbolt ; 
and the waters desiring an outlet went on their way. 8. Do not, o 
utterer of praises, forget this word, which future ages will re-echo to 
thee. In hymns, o bard, show us thy devotion ; do not humble us 
before men ; reverence be paid to thee. 9. (Yiivamitra says) : Listen, 
o sisters, to the bard who has come to you from afior with waggon and 
chariot. Sink down ; become fordable ; reach not up to our chariot-axles 
with your streams. 1 0. (The rivers answer) : We shall listen to thy words, 
o bard ; thou hast come from far with waggon and chariot. I wiU bow 
down to thee like a woman with fiill breasf^ (suckling her child); as a 
maid to a man will I throw myself open to thee. 11. (Yi^vamitra says) : 
When the Bharatas,^ that war-loving tribe, sent forward, impelled by 
Indra, have crossed thee, then thy headlong current shall hold on its 
course. I seek the favour of you the adorable. 12. The war-loving 
Bharatas have crossed ; the Sage has obtained the £Gtvour of the rivers. 
Swell on impetuous, and fertilizing ; fill your channels ; roU rapidly." 

The next quotation is from the fifty-third hymn of the same third 
MaQ4^ verses 6 ff. : 

6. Apd^ tomam astam Indra pra ydhi kalydnlr jdya suranam grihe 

moment to my amiable speech, ye streams rich in water; stay your progress ; *' and 
ailds in a note : '* I do not connect the particle upa with ramadhvam^ as the Kirukta 
Riid Saya^ do ; the fact that vpa stands in another Pada (quarter of the Terse) 
requires a different explanation. The most of those interpretations of the Commen- 
tator which destroy the sense have their ultimate ground in the circumstance that he 
eomhines the words of different divisions of the verse ; and any one may easily con- 
Tince himself that every Pfida has commonly a separate sense, and is for more inde- 
pendent of the others than is the case in the ^oka of later times." In his Lexicon 
Both renders fitdvari in this passage by ** regular/* << equaUy flowing." 

us «Kusika was a king " {Kuiiko rajd babhuva. Nil. iL 2S), Sfiyai^ calls him 

uo xhis is the sense assigned by Prof. Both, s.v. pi to plpyana. Sfiya^a, following 
Tfiska, ii. 27i gives the sense '* suckling her child." Prof. Aufrecht considers that the 
word means '* pregnant." In the next clause aasvachai is rendered in the manner 
suggested by Ptot A., who compares BT. x. 18, 11, 12. 

^ *< The men of the family of Bharata, my people " {BharatO'kuUhjaJ^ madtya^ 
mr9$** S&yasa). 


U I $faira rathatya ifihato nidhdnai^ vimochanaih vdjino ddtshindvai \ 
7. Ime hhqj&i angirMO virHp&h divM ptdrano Oiurasya vlrd^ \ Vtha^ 
mik'&ya dadato moffhdni sahasra-tdve pratirante &yuh \ 8. Rupammpam 
moffhavd hohhaviti mdydl^ kpinvdnas tanvam pari wdm \ trir yad dival^ 
pan muhHrttam dgdi watr mantrair anfitupdl^ jntdvd | 9. Mahdn riskir 
d&va-id^ deva-jULto aatabhttdi tindhum arnavam nfiehahhah \ Vtivdmitro 
yad avdhat Suddsam apriydyata Kuitkehhir Indrah \ 10. Sath^dh wa 
hjinutha iloham adribhir madanto glrbhir adhvare 9uU taehd | devebhir 
viprd^ fishayo nrichakshaso v4 pibadhva^ Kuiikdh tomyam madhu \ 
11. Vpa preta Ktdikdi ehetayadkoam ahafk rdye pra munehata Su^ 
ddsah I rdjd vjittram janglianat prdg apdg udag atha yafdte vare d 
prithivyd^ \ 12. Ta^ ime rodasl ubhe aham Indram atuihtavam \ Vthd" 
mUrasya rakihati hrahma idam Bhdraiafh janam \ 13. Viivdmitrdl^ 
ordBata hrahma Indrdya vajHne \ karad in nah surddhasah \ 14 (=Nir. 
vL 32). Eim te hurvanti Klkateshu gdvo ndSiram duhre na tapanti ghar* 
mam \ d no hhara Pramagandasyavedo Naichdiakham maghavan randhaya 
nal^ I 15. 8asarparlr amatim bddhamdnd hjrihad mimdya Jamadagni- 
dattd I d Suryasya duMtd tatdna iravo deveshu amritam ajuryam \ 16. 
Sasarparlr abharat tnyam ehhyo adhi irava^ panchajanydtu krishfishu \ 
id pakshyd navyam dyur dadhdnd ydm me palasti-jamadagnayo dadul^ | 

21. Indra aiihhir bahtddhhir no adya ydehehhreshfhdhhir ma- 

ghavan iiira jinva \ yo no dveshfi adharal^ sas paduhta yam u dvishmas 
tam u prdno jahdtu \ 22. paraiufh chid vi iapati iimbalaih ehid vi vriS* 
ehati \ ukhd ehid Indra yeshantl prayastd phenam asyati. 23. iVa sdya- 
kasya ehikite jandso hdhaih nayanti paSu manyamdnd^ \ ndvdjinaik 
vdjindh hdtayanti na gardahham puro ahdn nayanti \ 24. Ime Indra 
Bharataeya putrdh apapitvafh ehikitur na prapitvam \ hinvanti aham 
aranam na nitya^ jydvdjam pari nayanti djau \ 

*' 6. Thou hast dnmk soma ; depart, Indra, to thy abode : thoa hast a 
handsome wife and pleasure in thy house. In whatever place thy great 
chariot rests, it is proper that the steed should be unyoked. 7. These 
bountiful Yirupas of the race of Angiras,^ heroic sons of the divine 

1** Suyaoa says that the liberal men are the Esbattriyas, sons of SadSn^ that 
virttpah means their different priests of the race of Angtras, Medhatithi, and othen, 
and that the sons of the sky are the Mamts, the sons of Radra {Ime yUgam kurvatjaj^ 
hhqjah Saudatah kthattriyah tishatn yajakah virupah nanarupaj^ MedhatUhi-praihri* 
toffo *ngirata$ eha divo 'mrasya iwebhyo *pi balavato Rudraaya putraeo .... Jf«- 
rMto^). The YirClpas are connected with Anginu in B.y. z. 62, ff ; and a YirQpa is 
mentioned in i. 45, 3; and TiiL 64, 0. 


Dyans (sky), bestowing wealth upon Yi^vamitra at the sacrifice witli a 
thousand libations^ prolong their lives. 8. The opulent god (Indra) 
constantly assumes various forms, exhibiting with his body illusive 
appearances ; since he came from the sky thrice in a moment, drinking 
(soma) according to his own will, at other than the stated seasons, and 
yet observing the ceremonial. 9.^ The great rishi, god-bom, god-im- 
pelled, leader of men, stayed the watery current ; when YiSvamitra 
conducted Sudas, Indra was propitiated through the Kuiikos. 10. 
like swans, ye make a sound with the (soma-cruahing) stones, exult- 
ing with your hymns when the libation is poured forth ; ye Kuiikas, 
sage rishis, leaders of men, drink the honied soma with the gods.^ 
11. Approach, ye Kmiikas, be alert; let loose the horse of 8udns to 
(conquer) riches ; let the king smite strongly his enemy in the east, the 
west, and the north ; and then let him sacrifice on the most excellent 
(spot) of the earth.^ 12. 1 Yiivamitra have caused both heaven and 
earth to sing the praises of Indra ;^'' and my prayer protects the race 
of Bharata. 13. The Yiivamitras have ofifered up prayer to Indra the 
thunderer. May he render us prosperous ! 14. What are thy cows 
doing among the E[lkatas,^ who neither draw from them the milk (which 
is to be mixed, with soma), nor heat the sacrificial kettle. Bring to us 
the wealth of Pramaganda; subdue to ua to the son of KichaSakha. 
15. Moving swiftly, removing poverty, brought by the Jamadagnis, 
she has mightily uttered her voice : this daughter of the sun has con- 
veyed (our) renown, eternal and undecaying, (even) to the gods. 16. 
Moving swiftly she has speedily brought down (our) renown from them 
to the five r^ices of men ; this winged^"^ goddess whom the aged Jama- 
dagnis brought to us, has conferred on us new life.'' Omitting verses 

ut Venei 9-13 are translated by Prof. Both, litt n. Gesch. des Weda, p. 106 f. 

1** Comp. M. Bh. Adip. t. 6695. Apibaeh eha tataJ^ tomamlndrena taha Kauiikah] 
« And then the KaoBika drank soma with Indra.*' 

ISA Compare R.V. iii. 23, 4, which will be quoted below, 

»• Compare R.V. iv. 17, 1. 

^ KtkafaJ^ noma deio 'narpythnivatah \ ** Kikata is a country inhabited by people 
who are not Aryas." See the second toL of this work, p. 362, and Joum. Royal As. 
800. for 1866, p. 840. 

^ Faltahifa, This word is rendered by Sfiyana ** the daughter of the sun who 
causes the light and dark periods of the moon, etc." (Fakthaspa pakaKadi-nirvdha-' 
katpa Suryatya duhUa), Prof. Roth a.v, thinks the word may mean ''she who 
changes according to the (light and dark} fortnights." 


17-20 we have the following : '^ 21 . Prosper ub to-day, o opulent India, by 
numerous and most excellent suooonrs. May he who hates us &11 down 
low; and may breath abandon him whom we hate.'' This is suooeeded by 
three obscure Yerses, of which a translation will be attempted further on. 

Saya^a pre&ces verses 15 and 16 by a quotation from Sha^guru- 
^ishya's Commentary on the Anukramanika, which is given with an 
addition in Weber's Indische Studien i. 119 f. as follows: Sasarpati- 
dv-riehe prdhur itihdsam purdvidah J StMdaio-njripater yajne Vamhthdt' 
fnaja-SHnktina \ VUvdmitraiydhhibhiliam halam vdk eha tamantataJ^ \ 
Vdstshfhendbhihhutah sa hy avdsidaeh eha Oddhi-jah \ tasmai Brdhmirh 
iu Saurim vd ndmnd vdehaih Satarparlm | Surya-ije&mana dhfitya 
dadur vai Jamadagnayah \ Euiikdndm tatah sd vdn mandh chintdm 
athdnudat \ upapreMi Ku&ikdn Vikdmitro *nvaehodayat \ lahdhvd vd- 
cham eha hfuhtdtmd Jamadagnin apHjayat \ '^ Saaarparir " iti dvdhhydfk 
righhydm Vdeham stu/oam avayam \ '' Eegarding the two verses beginning 
" Sasarpariy* those acquainted with antiquity tell a story. At a 
sacrifice of king Saudasa^the power and speech of YiSvamitra were 
completely vanquished by Sakti^ son of Yasishtha; and the son of 
Gadhi (Yiivamitra) being so overcome, became dejected. The Jamad- 
agms drew from the abode of the Sun a Yoice called '' Sasarpari," the 
daughter of Brahma, or of the Sun, and gave her to him. Then that 
voice somewhat dispelled the disquiet of the Jamadagnis [or, according 
to the reading of this line given by Sayanu {Kuiikdndm matih ad vdy 
amatim tdm apdnudat) ** that Yoice, being intelligence, dispelled the 
unintelligence of the Kuiikas."]. Yiivamitra then incited the Kuiikas 
with the words upapreta < approach ' (see verse 11). And Being glad- 
dened by receiving the Yoice, he paid homage to the Jamadagnis ; 
praising them with the two verses beginning ' Sasarpari^.' " 

In regard to the verses 21-24 Sayana has the following remarks: 
^^Indra Utibhir ity ddydi chatasro Vasishtha'dveshinyah \ purd khahi 
Vthdmitra-Hahyah Suddh ndma rdjarshir dsU \ aa eha kenaehit kdrafiena 
Vaaiahtha-dveshyo ^hhat \ Vihdmitraa tu iishyaaya rakahdrtham dhhir 
righhir Vaaiahfham aiapat \ imdh ahhiidpcHrupdh \ tdh ficho VaaMfhdh 
na irinvanti \ '^ The four verses beginning * o Indra, with succours ' 
express hatred to Yasishfha. There was formerly a royal rishi called 

>^ The BrihaddevatS, which has some lines nearly to the same effect aa theae Z 
hare quoted (see Ind. Stad. i. 119), giTes Sudas instead of Savdisa. 


fiudfis, a disciple of Vi^yamitra ; who for some reason had incurred the 
ill-will of Yasishtha. For his disciple's protection Yiivamitra carsed 
Yasish^ha in these verses. They thns consist of curses, and the Yasish- 
thas do not listen to them." 

In reference to the same passage the Bfihaddevata iy. 23 f., as quoted 
in Indische Studien, L 120, has the following lines: FardS chatasro yds 
tattra Vamhtha-dveshinlr vidu^ \ ViSvdmitrena idh proktdh ahhtSupdh 
Ui smfitd^ I dvesha-dvethdi tu tdi^ proktd^ vidydch ehaivdhhichdrikdh \ 
VamhthdB tu na ifinvarU* tad deh&rryaka-^ammatam \ kirttaiuich chhra- 
vandd vd *pi maMn dothah prqfdyaie \ iatadhd hhidyate mUrdhd kirtti- 
Una Srutena vd \ teshdm hdldh pramlyante toitndt tdB tu na klrttayet \ 
** The other four yerses of that hymui which are regarded as expressing 
hatred to Yasishtha, were uttered by Yiivamitra, and are traditionally 
reported to contain imprecations. They are said to express hatred in 
return for (?) hatred, and should also be considered as incantations. 
The descendants of Yasishfha do not listen to them, as this is the will 
of their preceptor. Great guilt is incurred by repeating or hearing 
them. The heads of those who do so are split into a hundred frag- 
ments; and their children die. Wherefore let no one recite them.'* 

Durga, the commentator on the Nirukta,^^ in accordance with this 
injunction and warning, says in reference to yerse 23 : Tasmin nigame 
aha Sahda^ (Jodhaji) td Vasishtha-dveshini fik \ ahafk eha Kdpishphalo 
Vdsishfhai^ \ atoB tdm na nirhravimi \ ** The text in which this word 
(hdha) occurs is a verse expressing hatred of Yasishtha. But I am a 
X&pishthala of the family of Yasishtha ; and therefore do not inter- 
pret it." ' 

The following text also may have reference to the personal history of 
Yi^yamitra : B.Y. iii. 43, 4. A eha tvdm etd vrishand vahdto hari sakhdyd 
tudhurd wangd \ dhdndvad IndraJ^ savanam jushdna^ sakhd iakhyukk 
irinavad vandandm \ 5. Ku/oid md gopafk karase janasya huvid rdjdnam 
mayhavann fifiihin \ kuvtd md fuhim papivdihsam wtasya huvid me 
vawo amfitasya iikshd^ \ '^ 4. May these two vigorous brown steeds, 
friendly, well-yoked, stout-limbed, convey thee hither. May Indra 
gratified by our Ubation mingled with grain, hear (Hke) a Mend, the 
praises of a friend. 5. Wilt thou make me a ruler of the people ? wilt 

^ Am qnoted both by Prof. Both, litt. u. Qeech. des Weda, p. 108, note, ind by 
Pjrof. MQUer, TkL to Eig-yeda, toL u. p. UL 


fhon make me a king, o impetuous lord of riches? wilt thou make me 
a rishi a drinker of soma? wilt thou endow me with imperishable 
wealth ? " 

The next passage refers to Devairavas and DeTavata, of the race of 
Bharata, who are called in the Anukramanika, quoted by Sayaga, 
** sons of Bharata '' {Bharatasya ptUrau) ; but one of whom at least is 
elsewhere, as we shall see, said to be a son of Yiivamitra : R.y. iii. 
23, 3. AmarUhiihtdm Bhdratd revad Agnim Devairavd^ Devavdtah mdak- 
sham I Affne vi pa&ya hfihatd *hh% rdyd Uhdm no netd hhavatdd anu 
dyun I 3. Daia kshipal^ pikrvyaih Am'ajljanan iujdtam mdtrishu pri- 
yam \ Agnith ituhi Dawavdtaih LevaSravo yojanundm asad vaii \ 4. Ni 
tvd dadhe vare dpfithivyd^ ildyds pade stidinatve ahnum \ Dftshadvatydm 
mdnuahe Apaydydm Sarawatydm revadAyne didlhi | '' 2. The two Bha- 
ratas Deva^ravas and Deyavata have brilliantly created by friction the 
powerful AgnL Look upon us, o Agni, manifesting thyself with much 
wealth; be a bringer of nourishment to us every day. 3. The ten 
fingers (of Devavata) have generated the ancient god, happily bom and 
dear to his mothers. Praise, o Devairavas, Agni, the offspring of Deva- 
vata, who has become the lord of men. 4. 1 placed (or he placed) thee 
on the most excellent spot of earth on the place of worship,^^ at an 
auspicious time. Shine, o Agni, brilliantly on the (banks of the) Df i- 
shadvati, on (a site) auspicious for men, on (the banks of) the Apaya, 
of the Sarasvatl." 

Yiivamitra is mentioned along with Jamadagni in the fourth y^se of 
the 167th hymn of the tenth Man4ala, which is ascribed to these two 
Bi^es as its authors : Prasuto hhaksham akaram ehardv apt stomafh ehe' 
mam prathamaljL sHrtr un mjrije \ $ute idtena yadi dyamam vdm prati 
VUvdmitra^amadaynl dame \ " Impelled, I have quaffed this draught 
of soma when the oblation of boiled rice was presented ; and I, the first 
bard, prepare this hymn, whilst I have come to you, o Yi^vamitra and 
Jamadagni in the house, with that which has been offered as a libation." 

The family of the Yii^vamitras has, as we have seen, been already 
mentioned in £.Y. iii. 53, 13. They are also named in the following 
passages : 

iii. 1, 21. Janman janman nihito Jdtavedd^ VUvdmitrebhir idhyaU 
ajasral^ | 

^ Compare B.y. in. 29, 3, 4. 


<< The iiiideciqringJitaTedas(Agiii) placed (on the hettrth)]B in everj 
generitioii kindled by the TiiTimitrae." 

iiL 18, 4. Uek Mochuhd tahuoi putrak Huio hrihai My»A li^md- 
nethm ihehi \ twai Agne VthdwuUrmhrn iatk yor wuurmfijwui U Umvam 
ik&ri iriipai \ 

''Son of strength, when landed, do thon with thj npwaid flame 
inspire Tigonma life into thj wonhippen; (grant) o Agni, brilliant 
good fortone and prosperity to the YiiTanutras; many a time have we 
given lustre to thy body.** 

z. 89, 17. ^M U vayam Indra hhw^'aHndnk vitfydma ntwutHndm navd- 

ndm I vidydwM vadar aoa$d gjrintmto VUvdmUrdk ula U Indra nUnam \ 

** Thus may we obtain from thee new &Toun to delight ns : and 

may we, Yi^Tamitras, who praise thee, now obtain riches through thy 

help, Indra." 

This hymn is ascribed in the AnnkramanI to Benu, the son or 
descendant of Tiivamitia ; and the 18th verse is identical with the 
22nd of the 80th hymn of the third Ma^^ala, which is said to be Yii- 
vfimitra's production. 

In a verse already quoted (E.Y. iiL 88, 11) Yiivamitra is spoken of 
as the son of Kuiika; at least the Nimkta regards that passage as 
referring to him; and the Kui^as, who no doubt belonged to the 
same family as Yi^v&mitra, are mentioned in another hymn which I 
have cited (iii. 53, 9, 10). They are also alluded to in the following 

B.Y. iii. 26, 1. Vaiivdnaram matuM ^gniih niehdyya haviahmanto anu- 
ihatyafk warvidam \ 9uddnuih dwaih rathirafk vasuyavo girhhiJk ranvaik 

Ku&ikdao havdmahe \ 8. Mvo na krandanjanihht^ tarn idhyaU 

VdUvdnarah KuHkehkir yuge yuge \ $a no Ayni^ suvlryam wahyam da-- 
dhdtu ratnam amfiteihujdyfivih | 

^* We, the Kufikas, presenting oblations, and desiring riches, revering 
in our souls, as is meet,*^ the divine Agni Yaiivanara, the heavenly, 
the bountiful, the charioteer, the pleasant, invoke him with hymns. 
• ... 8. Yai^vanara, who (crackles) like a neighing horse, is kindled 
by the Ku^ikas with the mothers (%»e. their fingers) in every age. May 

^ This is the sense of tmuthaiyam according to Prof. Anfrecht Sfiyana makes it 
one of the epithets of Agni ** he who is true to his promise in granting rewards 
acoording to works " {9aty$namigaUm karmanurvpthphalo'pradane taijfO'prat^mtm)* 


this Agni, who is ever alire among the immortalBi bestow on us wealthy 
with vigour and with horses." 

iiL 29, 15. Amiirdyudho Marutdm %va pray&h prathamajah hrahmano 
viivam id viduf^ \ dyumna/oad hrahma KukikaBal^ a Irire ekah eko dame 
Agniih tarn Idhire \ 

** Combating their enemies like the hosts of the liaruts, (the sages) 
the first-bom of prayer*^ know everything; the Kusikas have sent 
forth an enthusiastio prayer ; they have kindled Agni, each in his own 

iii. 90, 20. Imam kdmam mandaya gohhir ahaii ehandrdvatd rddhasd 
paprathaS cha \ waryvoo matthhis tubhyam viprdh Indrdya vdhah KuH' 
kdso akran \ 

"Gratify this (our) desire with kine and horses; and prosper us 
with bnlHant wealth. The wise KuSikas, desiring heaven, have with 
their minds composed for thee a hymn." 

iii. 42, 9. Todm sutasya pltaye pratnam Indra havdmahe | KuSikdso 
avasyavah \ 

** We, the Ku^as, desiring succour, summon thee the ancient Indra 
to diink the soma libation." 

It will be seen from these passages that the Yiivamitras and the 
Ku^ikas assert themselves to have been ancient worshippers of Agni, 
and to be the composers of hymns, and the possessors of all divine 

In the eleventh verse of the tenth hymn of the first Man^ala of the 
It.Y., of which the traditional author is liadhuchhandas of the family 
of Yiivamitra, the epithet Kau&ika is applied to Indra : A tu nah 
Indra KauSika mandasdnah sutampiha \ na/oyam dyu^ pra stUira kfidh* 
sahasra-sdm fiahim \ '' Come, Indra, Kauiika, drink our oblation with 
delight. Grant me new and prolonged life ; make the rishi the pos- 
sessor of a thousand boons." 

Sayana explains the epithet in question as follows : Kauiika KuH* 
kasya ptdra . . . yadyapi Vihdmitro Kuiikasya putras tathdpi tad- 
rupena Indrasya eva utpannatvdt Kuiika-putratvam aviruddham \ ayaih 
vfitldnto ^nukramanikdydm uktah \ ^'KuSikas tv AUhlrathir Indra* 

i« Compare with thiB the epithet of dev^fa^ ** god-born," applied to WySmitra 
in iii. 63, 9 (abore p. 342) ; and the claim of Imowledge made for the Yaushthai in 
vii. 33, 7 (above p. 320}. 



iufyam futram iehhan hrdkmaeharyaSk chaeh&ra \ tasya Indrah era Gdthl 
putro jajnB '' Hi \ '' Kauiika meanB the son of Kuiika . . . Although 
Yiivamitra was the son of Ku^ika, yet, as it was Indra who was bom 
in his fonn» there is nothing to hinder Indra being the son of Koiika. 
This story is thns told in the Annkramanika : 'Ku^ika, the son of 
Ishlratha desiring a son like Indra, HTed in the state of a Brahmacharin. 
It was Indra who was bom to him as his son GSthin.' " To this the 
AnukramanI (as qnoted by Frof. liiillery Big-veday yoL ii. pref. p. zl.) 
adds the words : Gdthino Viivdtnitra^ \ $a tfiiJyam man^alam apaiyat \ 
** The son of G&thin was Yi^vamitra, who saw the third Man^ala." In 
qnoting this passage Professor Miiller remarks : ** According to Sha4- 
gnra^ishya this preamble was meant to yindicate the Eishitya of the 
liunily of Yi^vamitra : ^^ Saiff apavdde tvayam fishitvam anubhavato Fis- 
vdmitra-gotroiya vwakshayd itihdsaih dha " | '* Wishing to declare the 
xishihood of the family of Yi^vamitra which was controverted, although 
they were themselves aware of it, he tells a story.'' 

Professor Both in his Lexicon {$.v. Kau&iha) thinks that this term 
as originally appHed to Indra meant merely that the god *' belonged, 
was devoted to/' the Ku^ikas ; and Professor Benfey, in a note to his 
translation of B.Y. L 10, 11,** remarks that ''by this family-name 
Indra is designated as the sole or principal god of this tribe." 

*^ Prof. Miiller states that '* Sfiyana paflses over what Efityfiyana (the author of 
the AnukramasT) says about the race of Vis'Tamitra; " and aidda ** This (the fact of 
the pieamble being * meant to rindicate the Biahitra of the family of Vi^viroitra') 
was probably the reason why SSya^a left it ont" It is tme that S&yana does not 
quote the words of the AnukramanI in his introductory remarks to the third Man^ala ; 
but as we hsTe seen he had preyiously adduced the greater part of them in his note 
on i. 10, 11. 

*^ Orient und Occident, vol. i. p. 18, note 50. We haTO seen aboTe, p. 846, that in 
B.Y. liL 23, 8, another god, Agni, is called baivawta^ after the rishi DeraT&ta, by whom 
he had been kindled. Compare also the expression ^ivodato Agnil^ in R.y . yiii. 92, 2, 
which SSyana explains as » IHvodasena ahuyamSno ^gnih^ *'Agni iuToked by Diyodufia ; 
while Prof. Both $.v, understands it to mean ** Agni who stands in relation to Dirodusa. 
In B.y. tL 16, 19, Agni is called JHwdoMa^ya $atpatih, <* the good lord of DiTodasa. 
Agni is also caUed Bhfirata in B-Y. ii. 7, 1, 5; It. 25, 4; vi. 16, 19. On the first 
text(ii. 7, 1) SAyaoa says MaraiSh ritvy'i^ \ Ushaik sam&andhJ Sharaia^, ** Bharatos 
■re priests. Bhurata is he who is connected with them." On ii. 7, 5 he explains the 
word by fitvijam putra^tKanlfa^ << Thou who art in the place of a son to the priests.'* 
On the second text (It. 25, 4) iaamai Apnir BharataJ^ aarma yainaaly *' may Agni 
Bhfirau giye him piotection") Sayana takes BhSrata to mean *'the bearer of the 
dUation" {h&oUk» hhmrtiS^ \ but also refers to the S'.P.Br. L 4, 2, 2, where it is said, 
'<or Agni is osllsd 'BhSxata,' beoaufie^ beooming breath, be sustainf til creatnrea'* 



According to the Vishnu ForAna (pp. 398-400, Wilson, 4to. ed.) 
Yi^vflmitra was the twelfth in descent from Fururayas, the persons in- 
termediate being (1) Amavasn, (2) Bhlma, (3) Kanchana, (4) Suhotra, 
(5) Jahnn, (6) Smnantu, (7) Ajaka, (8) Yalakasva, (9) Ku^a, (10) 
Ku^mba, and (11) Qadhi. The birth of Yiiyamitra's father is thus 
described, Y.P. iv. 7, 4 : Teshd^ Euidmha^ "iakra-ttUyo meputro hha- 
v&d^* iU tapaS ehachdra \ tarn cha ugrthtapoMm avalohya *^md hhavatv 
anyo ^tmat'tulya'Vlryyah " ity dtmand eva atya Indra^ ptUratvam aytt- 
ehhat I Oddhir ndma ta Kauiiko ^hhavat \ ** Ku^amba (one of Kuia's four 
sons) practised austere fervour with the view of obtaining a son equal 
to Indnu Perceiving him to be very ardent in his austere fervour, 
Indra, fearing lest another person should be bom his own equal in vigour, 
became himself the son of Kuffamba, with the name of Gadhi the Kau- 
iika.'' Eegarding the birth of Yiivamitra himself, the Yishnu Purana 
relates the following story : Qadhi's daughter SatyavatI had been given 
in marriage to an old Brahman called ^chlka, of the family of Bhfigu. 
In order that his wife might bear a son with the qualities of a Brah- 
man, Bichlka had prepared for her a dish of charu (rice, barley, and 
pulse, with butter and milk) for her to eat ; and a similar mess for her 
mother, calculated to make her conceive a son with the character of a 
warrior. Satyavatl's mother, however, persuaded her to exchange 
messes. She was blamed by her husband on her return home for what 
she had done. I quote the words of the original : 

Y.P. iv. 7, 14. ** Ati pape kirn idam akdryyam hhavatyd kriiam ] 
atiraudrafk U vapur dlakshyate \ nUnam tvayd tvan-mdtfi'Batkfitai 
charur upayukta^ (? upahhuktah) \ na yuktam etat \ 15. Mayd hi tatira 
eharau sakald eva Sauryyehvlryya-hala-$anipad dropitd tvadiys chardp 
apy akhila-idnti'jndnO'titikBhudikd hrdhmana-sampat \ etach cha vipa' 

{Uha u vai ima]^ prqjal^ prano bhutva bibhartti Uumld va iva aha ** Bharata *' tVt). 
Another explanation bad prerionBly been given that the word Bh&r&ta means *' he 
who bean oblations to the gods." On the third text (ri. 16, 19) Saya^a interprets 
the term in the same way. Both, •.«., thinks it may mean *' warlike." In R.V. vii. 
8, 4, (V.S. 12, 34) we find the words pra pra ay am Agnir Bkaratatya ifinve, " this 
Agni (the son ?) of Uharata has been greatiy renowned." Saya^a makes hharatoiya 
^ yqiamanafya^ <*the worshipper," and pta pra ifi^^ ™ P't^hito bhavati^ *'is 
renowned." The Comm. on the Yaj. S. translates '* Agni hears the invocation of 
the worshipper" {js'rinv^ tfrinutt ahvanam). The S'. P. Br. vi. 8, 1, 14, quotes tho 
verse, and explains Bharata as meaning ** Prajapati, tho sapporter <^ the universe" 
{iYu^apatir vai Bharaia^ M hi idam murvam bibhartti^ 


rita^ kurvaiyds taioa a^audrditra'dMraM-mdrana-nUhtha-hshattri' 
ffdehdrah puttro hhavUhyaty asydS eha upaiama^ruchir hrdhmand- 
ehdra^ " | Uy dkarnya eva »d tasya pddau jagruha pranipatya eha mam 
dhd ** hhagavan mayd etad qjndndd anuihthiUtm \ prasddam me Jcuru \ 
wUl evamvidal^ putro hha/oatu \ kdmam evamvidha^ pautro hhavatu*^ \ ity 
ukto munir apy dha **evam aetv^^ iti \ 16. Anantarafh eha sd Jamad- 
aynim ajljanat tan-mdid eha Vikdmitram janaydmdsa \ Satyavatl eha 
Kauiihl ndma nady ahha/eat \ Jamadaynir Ikshvdku-vamSodhhavasya lienos 
tanaydfh Renukdm upayeme tasydm eha aiesha^hhattra'Vamia'hantdram 
ParaSurdma-iat^'nam hhagavatal^ aakala-loka-yuror NdrdyanoBya amiam 
Jamadagnir ajljanat \ ViSvdmitra-putras tu Bhargava^ eva S'unahSepo 
ndma devair dattah \ tatai eha Zhvardta-ndrnd ^hhavat \ tatai eha anye 
Madhuehhanda -Jayakjrita - Devadeva -Ashfaka - Kaehhapa -Hurltahdhhyah 
Vihamitra-putrdh habhUvuh \ 17. Teshdih eha hahnni Katdika-gotrdni 
fUhyantareshu vaivdhydm hhavanti \ 

'' ' Sinful woman, what improper deed is this that thou hast done ? 
I behold thy body of a very terrible appearance. Thou hast certainly 
eaten the charu prepared for thy mother. This was wrong. Por into 
that charu I had infused all the endowments of heroism, vigour, and 
force, whilst into thine I had introduced all those qualities of quietude, 
knowledge, and patience which constitute the perfection of a Brahman. 
Since thou hast acted in contrayention of my design a son shall be bom 
to thee who shall live the dreadful, martial, and murderous life of a 
Xshattriya ; and thy mother's ofispring shall exhibit the peaceful dis- 
position and conduct of a Brahman.' As soon as she had heard this, 
Satyavatl fell down and seized her husband's feet, and said, ' My lord, 
I have acted from ignorance ; show kindness to me ; let me not have 
a son of the sort thou hast described ; if thou pleascst, let me have a 
grandson of that description.' Hearing this the muni replied, * Be it 
80.' Subsequently she bore Jamadagni, and her mother gave birth to 
YiiSvamitra. Satyavatl became the river called Kauiikl. Jamadagni 
wedded EcQuka, the daughter of Renu, of the family of Ikshvaku ; and 
on her he begot a son called Paraiurama, the slayer of the entire race 
of Kshattriyas, who was a portion of the divine Narayana, the lord of 
the universe.^^ To Yiivamitra a son called Suna^epa, of the race of 

^ According to the BhagaTata Partbia, i. 8, 20, Paraifurfima was the dxteentli 
ineamation of Yiahna : Avatar$ $ho4aimm ptuytm hruhiuhdruho nfipan | (riuapUh 


Bhfigu, was given by the gods, who in consequence received the name 
of Devarata (''god-given"). And then other sons, liadhuchhandaSy 
Jayakfita, Devadeva, Ashtaka, Kachhapa, Harltaka, etc., were bom 
to YiiSv&mitra. From them sprang many families of Kaiisikas, which 
intermarried with those of other riahis." 

The Harivam^a, verses 1425 ff., gives a similar acconnt, but makes 
Kuiika, not Ku^amba, the grandfather of Yiiv^mitra : 

Kuia-putrd^ hahhUviir hi ehatvdro deva^arehasa^ \ Kuiikah Eudand" 
hhai cha Kuidmho MvLrtimdihs tathd \ Pahlavaih saha samvfiddho rdjd 
vana-charaft tadd \ EuSikas tu tapas tepe puttram Indra-samaffi inbhuh \ 
lahheyam it* taih Sakras trd$dd dbhyetya jajnivdn \ pUrne varika-saha9r0 
vai taih tu S'akro hy apaiyata \ aty uyra-tapasaih drishfvd aahasrdhhaJ^ 
purandarah \ iamarthah putra^'anane warn evdmiam avdsayat | putratv0 
kalpaydmdsa $a devendrah ntrottamafi \ sa Gddhir abhavdd rdjd MagJuh- 
van Katdika^ wayam \ Pattmkutsy ahhavad hhdryyd Oddhis tasydm 
ajdyata \ 

'* £uia had four sons, equal in lustre to the gods, Ku^ika, Kuian&- 
bha, Ku^amba, and Murttimat. Growing up among the Pahlavas, who 
dwelt in the woods, the glorious king Ku^ika practised austere fervour, 
with the view of obtaining a son equal to Indra ; and Indra from ap- 
prehension came and was bom. When a thousand years had elapsed 
SiEikra (Indra) beheld him. Perceiving the intensity of his austere 
fervour, the thousand-eyed, city-destroying, god of gods, highest of the 
deities, powerful to procreate offspring, introduced a portion of himself, 
and caused it to take the form of a son ; and thus Maghavat himself 
became Oadhi, the son of KuSika. PaumkutsI was the wife (of the 
latter), and of her Oadhi was bom." 

The Harivamia then relates a story similar to that just extracted 
from the Yishnu Purana regarding the births of Jamadagni and Yi^vfU 
mitra, and then proceeds, verse 1466 : 

Aurvasyaivam ftiehikasya Satyavatydm mahdyaSdh \ Jamadaynis tapa* 
vlryydjjajne hrahma-viddrh vara^ | madhyamai eha S'unaiiephaJ^ S'unah" 
puchhah kanishfhaka^ \ Fihdmitram tu ddyddam Oddhi^ Kuiika-^tan- 
danah \ janaydmdsa putram tu tapo-vidyd-iarndtmakam \ prdpya hrah- 

Tcfitvah kt^to nihkthattram akarod inahtm | " In his sixteenth incarnation, perodv* 
^ that kings were oppreeson of Br&hmani, he, inconied| mode the earth destitato 
of KBhattriyaa one and twenty times.*' i ^ 


marshi-sanuUd^ yo ^yam ioptarthitd^ gaia^ I VUvdmitroi tu dharmdtmd 
ndmnd Vtharathah imjitah \ jajne Bhrigu-prasddena Kauiikad varhio' 
wirddhafM^ \ Vthdmitrasya eha stUd^ Devardtddaya^ smfttd^ \ vikhydtds 
Pruhu lokeshu Ushd0i ndmdni vat ifinu \ Dwairavdi^ Katii chaiva yatrndi 
Kdtydyandlk Bmfitdh | 8'dldvatydm Siranydksho Renor jajne *tha Benu- 
pULn I Sdnkfitir Odlavai chaiva Mudgalai cheti vtSrutdh \ Mddhuehhando 
JayaS chaiva Devalai cha tathd ^shfaka^ \ Kachhapo Hdritai chaiva Fthd- 
mitrasya U sutd^ \ teshdm khydtdni gotrdni Kauiikdndm mahdtmandm \ 
Fdnino Bahhravai chaiva Lhydnajapydt tathaiva eha I Fdrthivd^ Deva- 
rdidi cha S'dlankdyaruh Vdskald^ | Lohitdh TdmadHtdS eha tathd Kdri- 
shaya^ imjritdh \ Sauirutd^ Kauiikdhk rdjaihs tathd ^nye Saindhavdya- 
ndh I Bevald^ Renavai chaiva Tdjnavalkydyhamarshandh \ Audumhardh 
hy Ahhishndtds Tdrakdyana-ehunchuldh \ Sdldvatydf^ Siranydtshd^ 
Sdnkfityd^ Odlavdi tathd \ Ndrdyanir Narai chdnyo ViSvdmitragya 
dhUnuitah | fishy-antara-vivdhydi cha KauHhdh hahavah emfitdh \ Pau- 
ravasya mahdrdja hrahmarsheh EatcSikasya cha | Mmhandho *py asya 
vamie *sinin hrahma-kshattrasya viiruta^ \ 

*^ Thus was the renowned Jamadagni, the most excellent of those 
possessed of sacred knowledge, horn hy the power of austere fervour to 
Bichlka, the son of Urva, hy Satyavatl. Their second son was S^unai- 
^epha ^^^ and the youngest S^unali^puchha. And Gadhi, son of Ku^ika, 
hegot as his son and inheritor Yi^vamitra, distinguished for austere 
fervour, science, and quietude ; who attained an equality with Brah* 
man-rishis, and hecame one of the seven rishis. The righteous Yi^va- 
mitra, who was known hy name as YiSvaratha/'* was hy the favour of 
a Bhfigu horn to the son of Kuiika, an augmenter (of the glory) of his 
race. The sons of Yiivamitra are related to have heen Devarata and 
the rest, renowned in the three worlds. Hear their names : Deva^ravas, 
Kati (from whom the Katyayanas had their name) ; Hiranyaksha, horn 
of BalavatI, and Benumat of Benu ; Sankfiti, Galava, liudgala, Madhn* 
chhandai Jaya, Devala, Ash^aka, Kachhapa, Harita — these were the 

^ The Aitareya Brfihmana, as we shall shortly see, makes ' S'nna^'epa' a son of 
AjTgartta. The Mahfibh&rata AnorfSsanap. verse 186, coincides with the HarivaA^ 

^*^ In another passage of the HaiiTaftsa (venes 1764 ff.), which repeats the par* 
ticulars given in this passage, it appears to be differently stated, verse 1766, that 
besides a daaghter SatyavatiT, and his son Yiffyamitra, O&dhi had three other sons, 
VitfTaratha, Yiifvakrit, and Yis'?ajit (Fi 'vdmitrat tu Oadheyo rq/a Vidparaihas UM \ 
Tihekxid Yiiiw^kh thaiva tatha JSaty&vaii nfipa). 


sons of Yi^yamitra. From them the families of the great Kauilkas are 
said to have sprang : the Panins, Babhrus, Bhanajapyas, Parthivas, 
Devaratas, S'alankayanas, Yaskalas, Lohitas, Yamadutas, Karishis, Sau- 
^tasy Kauiikas, Saindhavayanas, Devalas, Henus, Yajnayalkyas, Agha- 
marshanas, Audumbaras, Abhishnatas, Tarakayanas, Chunchulas, S'ala- 
yatyas, Hiranyakshas, Sankrityas, and Galayas.^'' Kardyani and Nara 
were also (descendants) of the wise Yi^yamitra. Many Kausikas are 
recorded who intermarried with the families of other rishis. In this 
race of the Paoraya and Kausika Brahman-rishi, there is well known 
to haye been a connection of the Brahmans and Kshattriyas. S^una^- 
i^pha, who was a descendant of Bhfigu, and obtained the position of 
a Kanaka, is recorded to haye been the eldest of Yi^yamitra's sons/' 

It will be obseryed that in this passage, DeyaiSrayas is giyen as one 
of Yiiyamitra's sons. A Deyairayas, as we haye already seen, is men- 
tioned in B.Y. iii. 23, 2, as a Bharata, along with Deyayata. Here 
howeyer in the Hariyamsa we haye no Deyayata, but a Deyarata, who 
is identified with STunaS^epha. This, as we shall find, is also the case 
in the Aitareya Brahmana. 

In the genealogy giyen in both of the preceding passages, from the 
Yishnu Parana, and the 27th chapter of the HariyafiiiSa respectiyely, 
Yiiyamitra is declared to be the descendant of Amayasu the third son 
of Paruravas. In the 32nd chapter of the Hariyamsa, howeyer, we 
find a different account. Yi^yamitra's lineage is there traced up to a 
Jahnu, as in the former case ; but Jahnu is no longer represented as a 
descendant of Amayasu, the third son of Pururayas ; but (as appears 
from the preceding narratiye) of Ayus, the eldest son of that prince, and 
of Puru, the great-grandson of Ayus. Professor Wilson (Yishnu Purana, 
4to. ed. p. 451, note 23) is of opinion that this confusion originated in 
the recurrence of the name of Suhotra in different genealogical lists, 
and in the ascription to one king of this name of descendants who were 

**• Professor "Wilson (V.P. 4to. ed. p. 405, note) gives these names, and remarks 
that the authorities add ** an infinity of others, multiplied by intermarriages with 
other tribes, and who, according to the Yuyu, were originally of the regal caste like 
Yi^yumitra; but like him obtained Brahmanhood through devotion. Now theso 
gotras, or some of them at least, no doubt existed, partaking more of the character of 
schools of doctrine, but in which teachers and scholars were very likely to have 
become of one family by intermarrying ; and the whole, as well as their original 
founder, imply the interference of the Kshattriya casto with the Brohmanical mono- 
poly of religious instruction and composition." 



really sprang firom another. It is not, howevery dear that the genealogy 
of Yi^vamitra given in the YishQU Purana is the right one. For in the 
Big-yeda, as we have seen, he is connected with the Bharatas, and in 
the passage ahont to be quoted from the Aitareya Brahmana, he is 
called a Bharata and his sons Kuiikos ; and Bharata is said both in the 
Vishnu Purana (Wilson's Y.P. 4to. ed. p. 449) and in the Harivamia 
(sect. 32, y, 1723, and preceding narrative) to be a descendant of Ayus 
and of Puru. Accordingly we have seen that the Harivam^a styles 
Yiivamitra at once a Paurava and a Kausika. 

. A similar genealogy to that in the 32nd section of the Harivamda is 
given in the Mahabharata, Anuiasanaparvan, verses 201 ff., where it is 
said that in the line of Bharata there was a king called Ajami^ha who 
was also a priest {^Bharatasyanvaye ehaivdjamldho ndma parthivah I 
hAhuva Bharata-ireahtha yajvd dharma-hhfitdm varah), from whom 
Yiivamitra was descended through (1) Jahnu, (2) Sindhudvlpa, (3) 
Balaka^va, (4) Kuiika, (5) Gadhi. 

One of the names applied to Yiivamitra and his race, as I have just 
noticed, is Bharata.^ The last of the four verses at the dose of the 
5drd hymn of the third lian^ala of the Eig-veda, which are supposed 
to contain a malediction directed by Yiivamitra against Ya&shtha (see 
above) is as follows : iii. 53, 24. Ime Indra Bharatasya putrdh apapitvam 
Aikitur naprapitvam \ '' These sons of Bharata, o Indra, desire to avoid 
(the Yasishthas), not to approach them." These words are thus explained 
by Sayana : Bharatasyaputrd^ Bharata^amiyd^ ime VthdmUrdl^ apapu- 
tvam apagamanaih VaaishthebhyaS chikitur na prapitvam \ [ Fdyuhtaih 
taha teshdm tanyatir nditi \ hrdhmandh eva ity artha^ | '* These sons of 
Bharata, persons of his race, know departure from, and not approach 
to, the Yasishthas. They do not associate with the Yasishthas. This 
means they are Brahmans." 

The persons who accompanied Yi^vamitra when he wished to cross 
the Yipa^ and the S^utudrl are, as we have seen above, called BhlLrHtas ; 
and Bevairavas and Devavata are designated in B.Y. iiL 23, 2, as Bha- 
r&tas. On the other hand in one of the hymns ascribed to Yasishtha 
(B.Y. vii. 33, 6) the Bh&r&tas are alluded to as a tribe hostile to the 
Tf itsus, the race to which Yasishfha belonged. 

'^ See Both'B Lexicon, $.v. Bharata^ (7) '* the name of a hero, the forefather of a 
tribe. His loni are called YisTfimitrai and the memben of his family Bharatas." 


In the legend of S'unai^^epa, told in the Aitareya Brahmana, vii. 
13-18,^' Yii^yamitra is alluded to as being the hotfi -priest of king 
Hariichandra, and as belonging to the tribe of the Bharatas. He is 
also addressed as rdjapiUra^ and his sons are called Kusikas. The out- 
lines of the story are as follows : King Hari^chandra of the family of 
Ikshvaku having no son, promised to Yaruna, by the advice of Narada, 
that if a son should be bom to him he would sacrifice him to that god. 
A son was accordingly bom to the king, who received the name of 
Eohita ; but Hari^chandra, though called upon by Yaruna, put off from 
time to time, on various pleas, the fulfilment of his promise. When the 
father at length consented, the youth himself refused to be sacrificed 
and went into the forest. After passing six years there he met a poor 
Brahman rishi called Ajigartta who had three sons, the second of whomi 
S'unaisepa, he sold for a hundred cows to Bohita, who brought the 
young Brahman to be sacrificed instead of himself. Yamna accepted 
the vicarious victim, and arrangements were made accordingly, **Yi^va* 
mitra being the hotfi-priest, Jamadagni the adhvaryu, Yasish^ha the 
brahman, and Ayasya the udgatf i (^a«ya ha Fihumitro hold d^jJamad* 
agnir adhvaryur Fasish{ho hrahmd Aydayah udgdtd).*' The sacrifice was 
not, however, completed, although the father received a hundred more 
cows for binding his son to the sacrificial post, and a third hundred for 
agreeing to slaughter him. By reciting verses in honour of different 
deities in succession S^unaii^epa was delivered ; and at the request of 
the priests took part in the ceremonial of the day. I shall quote the 
remainder of the story at length : 

17. Atha ha 8'unahsepo Viivdmitraiydnkam dsasdda \ $a ha uvdcha 
Afigarttah Sauyavasir ^^jrishe punar me puttrafh dehi** iti \ "^a" iti 
ha uvdeha Viivdmitro ** devdh vat imam mahyam ardsata^^ iti \ sa ha 
Devardto Vaihdmitrait dsa \ taiya ete Kdpileya-Bdhhravdl^ \ sa ha 
uvdclia Afigarttah Sauyavasia ** tvam vehi vihvaydvahai ** iti \ sa ha 
uvdeha Ajigartta^ Sauyavasir '^ Angiraso janmand ^sy Ajigarttih irU" 
tah kavih | fishe paitdmahdt tantar md *pagd^ punar ehi mdm " iti \ ta 

^ This legend is translated into German by Prof. Roth in Weber's Ind. Stod. 
i. 467 ff., into English by Prof. Wilson, Journ. Roy. As. Soc. vol. liii. for 1861, 
pp. 96 ff.y by 9r. Hang in his Ait Briihmana, vol. iL 460 ff., by Prof. M iiller 
in bis Anc. Sansk. lit pp. 408 ff., and into Latin by Dr. Streiter in hit ** Diss, do 


ia updcha S'una^epa^ ** adarhu ivd iasa-hastam na yach Mudreshv 
alapsata \ gavam trini iatdni tvam a/ofinlthah mad Angirah " iti \ sa 
ha uvacha Ajlgarttah Sauyavasts " tad vai md tdta tapati pdpa0i karma 
mayd kjritam \ tad aham nihnave iubhyam pratiyantu iatd gavdm^^ Hi \ 
%a ha uvacha S'unahiepa^ *^yah iakrit pdpakam kurydt hurydd enat tato 
^ par am \ ndpdgdh iattdrdnydydd asandheyam tvayd hritam " iti \ *' asan- 
dheyam^* iti ha Vihdmitrah upapapdda \ sa ha uvacha Vihdmttrah 
**£himah eva Sauyavasi^ idsena viiiidsishuh \ asthdd maitasya putro 
hhur mamaivopehi putratdm^^ iti \ m ha uvacha SunahsepaJi *^sa vai 
yathd no jndpdyd rdjaputra tathd vada | yathaivdngirasah sann upcydm 
tava puiratdm** iti \ sa hauvdcha Visvdmitro '^Jyeshfho me tvamputrd^ 
ndm sydi tava ireihthd prajd %ydt \ upeydh daivam me ddyam tena vai 
tvopamantraye" iti \ m ha uvdcha Suna^&epah '' sanjndndneshu vai hru- 
y&t sauhdrdydya me iriyai \ yathd ^ham Bharata-jrishabha upeydm tava 
putratdm** iti \ atha ha Vihdmitrah putrdn dmantrayumdsa *^ Mudhu- 
ehhanddh ifinotana Rishdbho Benur Ashfakah \ ye he cha hhrdtarah 
Bthana aemai jyaishfhydya kalpadhcam^^ iti \ 18. Tasya ha Visvumi- 
trasya eka-iatam putrdh dsuh panchdsad evajydydmso Madhuchhanddsah 
panchdiat kanlydmsah \ tad ye jydydmso na te kuialam menire \ tun 
anuvydjalidra ** antdn vah prajd hhakshUhfa " iti \ te ete *ndhrdh Pun- 
drdh S'ahardh Fviinddh Mutihdh ity udantydh bahavo hhavanti \ VatS- 
vdmitrdi^ Dasyundm hhnyishthdh \ »a ha uvdcha Madhuchhanddh panchd- 
£atd iordham '^ yad nal^ pita sanjdnlte tasmims tiehfhdmahe vayam \ pur as 
ivd iorve kurmahe tvdm anvancho vayani smasi^* iti \ atha ha VOvdmitrak 
pratltah putrdms tushfdva ** te vai putrdh pa§umanto vlravanto hhavishyor- 
tha I ye mdnam me ^nugrihnanto viravantam akartta md \ pura-etrd vira- 
vanto Devardtena Odthind^ \ sarve rddhydh atha putrdh eeha vah sad- 
vivdchanam \ esha vah KuSikdh vlro Bevardtas tam anvita \ yushmdme 
ddyam me upetd vidyd0i yam u cha vidmaei \ te iamyancho Faihdmitrdh 
MTve edkam eardtayah \ Bevardtdya tatthvre dhfityai iraishfhydya Gd- 
thindh \ adhiyata Bevardto rikthayor ubhyayor jrishi^ \ JahnHndm cJtd- 
dhipatye daive vede cha Odthindm \ 

** S^una^iepa came to the side of Yiiyamitra. Ajigartta, the son of 
Bnyavasa, said, ^Bishi, give me back my son.' *No,* said Vi^vamitra, 
* the gods have given him to me ' {devd^ ardsata) ; hegce he became 
Devarata the son of Yiivamitra. The Xapileyas and Babhravas are 
his descendants. AjTgartta said to Yi^vamitra, * Come ; let us both call 


(him) to us.'*" He (again) said (to his son), *Thou art an Angirasa, 
the son of Ajlgartta, reputed a sage ; do not, o rishi, depart from the 
line of thy ancestors ; come back to me/ S^unaiiiepa replied, ' They 
have seen thee with the sacrificial. knife in thy hand — a thing which 
men have not found even among the S^udras ; thou didst prefer three 
hundred cows to me, o Angiras.' Ajigartta rejoined, ' That sinful deed 
which I have done distresses me, my son ; I abjure it to thee. Let the 
[three] hundreds of cows revert (to him who gave them).' "* S^unaii^cpa 
answered, * He who once does a sinful deed, will add to it another ; 
thou hast not freed thyself from that iniquity, fit only for a S^udra. 
Thou hast done what cannot be rectified.' ' What cannot be rectified,' 
interposed Yi^vamitra ; who continued, ' Terrible was the son of Suya- 
vasa as he stood about to immolate (thee) with the knife : continue not to 
be his son ; become mine.' Siuna^iiepa replied, ' Speak, o king's son {rdja^ 
putra), whatever thou hast to explain to us, in order that I, though an 
Angirasa, may become thy son.' Yi^vamitra rejoined, ' Thou shalt be 
the eldest of my sons, and thy ofispring shall be the most eminent. 
Thou shalt receive my divine inheritance ; with this (invitation) I ad- 
dress thee.' S^una^^epa answered, ' If (thy sons) agree, then for my 
welfare enjoin on them to be friendly, that so, o chief of the^Bharatas, 
I may enter on thy sonship.' Yiivamitra then addressed his sons, 
* Do ye, MadhuchhiEuidas, Eishabha, Eenu, Ashfaka, and all ye who 
are brothers, listen to me, and concede to him the seniority.' 18. Now 
Yi^vamitra had a hundred sons, fifty of whom were older than Madhu- 
chhandas and fifty younger. Then those who were older did not 
approve (their father's proposal). Against them he pronounced (this 

^^ I follow here the tenor of the interpretation (which is that of the Commentator 
on the S'unkhayaua Br&hmana) given by Prot Weber in his review of Br. Hang's 
Aitareya Brdhmana, in Indische Studien, Ix. 316. Prof. Weber remarks that in tiie 
Bnthmanas the root hu + vi is employed to denote the opposing invitations of two 
persons who are seeking to bring over a third person to their own side ; in proof of 
which he quotes Taitt. S. 6, 1, 6, 6, and S*. P. Br. 3, 2, 4, 4, and 22. Profs. Roth, 
Wilson, and Miiller, as well as Dr. Hau^, understand the words to be addressed to 
S'unass'epa by his father, and to signify " we, too (I and thy mother), call, or will 
call (thee to return to us)/ But it does not appear that S*una8^epa*s mother waa 
present. And it is to be observed that the next words uttered by Ajigartta, which 
are addressed to S'unass'epa, are preceded by the usual formula ta ha uvacha Jji" 
gartUih Sauyavasih, " Ajigartta the son of S. said," which perhaps would not have 
been the case if both sentences had been addressed to the same person. 

"3 Here too I foUow Weber, Ind. St. ix. p. 317. 


doom), 'Let your progeny possess the furthest ends (of the country)/ 
These are the numerous border-tribes, the Andhras, Pun^ras, SletbaraSy 
Pulindasy Mutibas. Most of the Dosyus are sprung from Yiiyamitra.^ 
Madhuchhandas with the (other) fifty said, 'Whatever our father 
determines, by that we abide. We all place thee in our front, and 
follow after thee/ Then Yi^vamitra was pleased, and said to his sons, 
* Te, my children who, shewing deference to me, have conferred upon 
m9 a (new) son, shall abound in cattle and in sons. Ye, my sons, the 
offspring of Gathin, who possess in Devarata a man who shall go before 
you, are all destined to be prosperous; he is your wise instructor. 
This Devarata, o KuSikas, is your chief; follow him. He will receiye 
you as my inheritance, and obtain all the knowledge which we possess.' 
All these sons of Yi^vamitra, descendants of Gathin, submitted together 
in harmony and with good will to Devarata's control and superiority. 
The rishi Devarata was invested with both possessions, with the lordly 
authority of the Jahnus, and with the divine Yeda of the Gathins." ^ 
On this legend Professor Miiller (Anc. Sansk. Lit. pp. 415 f.) remarks, 
amongst other things, as follows : '' So rcvoltbg, indeed, is the descrip- 

>** See Weber, Ind. St ix. p. 817 £, and Roth in lus Lexicon, # .«9. anta and udant^a. 

^ This legend is perhaps alluded to in the Efi^halLa Bruhmana, 19, 11, qooted 
by Prof. Weber, Ind. St. iiL 478 : S'wuufiepo vai eULm 4figarttir Vttruna-gfihlto'pa' 
iyat I taya ta vai VaruAo-paiad amuehyata \ ** S'una^tfepa the sonof Ajigartta, when 
seized by Yaruna, saw this (yerse) ; and by it he was released from the bonds of 
Yaruna." Mann also mentions the story, x. 106 : j^tyaritaJj^ mtam hantum upa-- 
Murpad bubhukshitah | na ehal^ata papena khui-pra(tkaram acharun \ ** Ajigartta, 
when famished, approached to sky Ids son ; and (by so doing) was not contaminated 
by sin, as he was seeking the means of escape from hunger." On this KullQka anno- 
tates : JRtiAtr JJigarttakhyo hubhukthitah tan puttram S'untusepka-namanam svayam 
vikrltavan yqin$ ythdata-labhaya y^fna^yupe baddhva viiasOa bhutva hanivm praeha* 
krame \ naehakhut'prafikdrarihamtathakurvanpapenaliptaik | etach eha Bahvficha^ 
brahmane S'unaiiephdkhyaneshu vyaktam uktam \ ** A rishi called Ajigartta, having, 
when fiunished, himself sold his son called SnmaiT^epha, in order to obtain a hundr^ 
oows at a sacrifice, bound him to the sacrificial stake, and in the capacity of immolator 
was about to slay him. By doing so, as a moans of escape from hunger, he did not 
incur sin. This is distinctly recorded in the Bahyricha (Aitareya) Bruhmana in the 
legend of S'unatftfepa." The speakers in the Brahma^a, however, do not take by 
any means so lenient a view of AjTgartta's conduct as Manu. (See Milller*s Ano. 
Sansk. Lit. p. 416.) The compiler of the latter work lived in an age when it was 
perhaps thought that a rishi could do no wrong. The BhSgavata Purana, ix. sect. 7, 
and sect. 16, verses 30-37 follows the Ait. Br. in the version it gives of the story ; 
but, as we shall see in a subsequent section, the Eamuyaga relates some of the circum- 
stances quite difforcntly. 


tion given of Ajigartta'a beliayionr in the Brfihrnasa, that we should 
rather recognize in him a specimen of the nn- Aryan population of India. 
Such a suppositioui however, would he in contradiction with several of 
the most essential points of the legend, particularly in what regards 
the adoption of S^una^iepha hy Yi^vamitra. Tiivamitra, though ar- 
rived at the dignity of a Brahman, clearly considers the adoption of 
S^una|;i^pha Devarata, of the &mous Brahmanio family of the Angi- 
rasas, as an advantage for himself and his descendants; and the Deva« 
ratas are indeed mentioned as a fiunous branch of the Yi^vamitras 
(Y.P. p. 405, 23). 9unal^^pha is made his eldest son, and the leader 
of his brothers, evidently as the defender and voucher of their Brahma- 
hood, which must have been then of very recent date, because Yi^va- 
mitra himself is still addressed by S^unab^epha as R&ja-ptUra and Bhh 
raia-ftihabha" It must, however, be recollected that the story, as 
told in the BrShmana, can scarcely be regarded as historical, and that 
it is not unreasonable to suppose that the incidents related, even if 
founded on fact, may have been coloured by the Brahmanical prepos- 
sessions of the narrator. But if so, the legend can give ub no true idea 
of the light in which Yiivamitra's exercise of priestly fimctions was 
looked upon either by himself or by his contemporaries. 

In Indische Studien, ii. 112-123, this story forms the subject of an 
interesting dissertation by Professor Both, who arrives at the following 
conclusions : 

'' (i.) The oldest l^nd about 9unabiiepa (alluded to in E.Y. i. 24, 
11-13,^ and B.Y. v. 2, 7) knows only of his miraculous deliveranoe 
by divine help from the peril of death. 

'' (ii.) This story becomes expanded in the sequel into a narrative of 
S^unab^epa's threatened slaughter as a sacrificial victim, and of his 
deliverance through Yiivamitra. 

'' (iiL) This immolation-legend becomes severed into two essentially 
distinct versions, the oldest forms of which are respectively represented 
by the stories in the Aitareya BrahmaQa, and the Bamaya^a. 

'' (iv.) The latter becomes eventually the predominant one ; but its 
proper central-point is no longer the deliverance from immolation, but 

^ Compare also Rosen's remarks on the hymns ascribed to S'unas'i^epa ; Rig-yeda 
Sanhita, Annotationes, p. W. He thinks they contain nothing which wouM lead to 
the belief that they have any connection with the legend in the Bimayaoaand Ait, Br, 


the incorporation of S'onal^iepa, or (with a change of personft) of 
l^htka, into the familj of the Xuiikas. It thus becomes in the end 
a familj-legend of the race of YiivamitnL 

** There is thus no historical, perhaps not eren a genealogical, result 
to be gained here. On the other hand the story obtains an important 
place in the circle of those narratives in which the sacerdotal literatme 
expressed its yiews regarding the character and agency of TiiTamitra." 

In a passage of the Mahabharata, Adip. verses 3694 ff./" where the 
descendants of Pum are recorded, we find among them Bharata the son 
of Dushyanta (verse 3709) from whom (1) Bhumanyo, (2) Sohotra, 
(3) Ajaml4ha, and (4) Jahnu are said to have sprang in succession 
(verses 3712-3722) ; and the last-named king and his brothers Yrajana 
and Rupin are said to have been the ancestors of the Kn^ikas (verse 3723 : 
ancayah Kuiikdh rajan Jahnor amita-tefasah \ Vrajana-Rupinoh\ who 
were therefore, according to this passage also, descended from Bharata 
(see above, p. 354). The Mahabharata then goes on to relate that 
daring the reign of Samvarana, son of Jahnu's eldest brother Eiksha, 
the country over which he ruled was desolated by various calamities 
(verses 3725 f.). The narrative proceeds, verse 3727 : 

Ahhyaghnan Bh&ratdmi ehaiva sqpatndndm haldni eha \ ehalayan 
vasudh&ih chemdm halma chaiurangina \ ahhyayat tarn eha Pdnchdlyo 
tijitya tarasa mahlm \ akshauhinihhir daiahhih m enam samare ^jayat | 
talah ta-ddra^ sdmdtyah sa-puttral^ io-tuhrij/anah \ rdjd Samvaraneu 
tasmdt paldyata mahdhhaydt I 3730. JSindhor ftadasya mahato nikunje 
nyavasat tadd \ nadl-vishaya-paryyante parvatasya Mmtpatah \ tattrd- 
tasan hahun kdldn Bhdratdh durgam airitdh \ teshdm nivasatdm tattra 
iahasram parivaisardn \ athdhhyagackhad Bhdratan Vaiishtho hhagavdn 
ruhih I tarn dgatam prayatnena pratyudgamydhhivddya eha \ arghyam 
abhydharaihi tasmai U sarve Bhdratda tadd \ nivedya »arvam fishaye 
satkdrena guvarchchaae \ tarn dtane ehopavuhfam rdjd vavre svayam tadd \ 
^*purohito hhavdn no'stu rdjydya prayatemahi** \ 3735. ** Om^' ity 
warn Vaiishfho 'pi Bhdratdn pratyapadyata \ athdhhyaainchat sdmrdjye 
iarva-kshattrasya Pauravam \ vishdna-hhutam aarvaaydm prithivydm xti 
nah irutam \ Bharatddhyushitam pUrvam so ^dhyatishfhat purottamam \ 
punar halihhfitai ehaiva chakre aarva-^nahikshitah 

U7 Referred to bj Both, Liti u. Gescb. des Weda, pp. 142 ff., and Wilflon, Big- 
veda, iii. p. 86. 


** 3727. And the hosts of their enemies also smote the Bharatas. 
Shaking the earth with an army of four kinds of forces, the Panchalya 
chief assailed him, having rapidly conquered the earth, and Tanqnished 
him with ten complete hosts. Then king Samvarana with his wiveSi 
ministers, sons, and friends, fled from that great cause of alarm ; (3730) 
and dwelt in the thickets of the great river Sindhu (Indus), in the 
country hordering on the stream, and near a mountain. There the 
Bharatas abode for a long time, taking refuge in a fortress. As they 
were dwelling there, for a thousand years, the venerable rishi Yasishtha 
came to them. Going out to meet him on his arrival, and making 
obeisance, the Bharatas aU presented him with the arghya offering, 
shewing every honour to the glorious rishi. When he was seated the 
king himself solicited him, 'Be thou our priest; let us strive to 
regain my kingdom.' 3735. Yasishtha consented to attach himself to 
the Bharatas, and, as we have heard, invested the descendant of Pura 
with the sovereignty of the entire Kshattriya race, to be a horn (to have 
mastery) over the whole earth. He occupied the splendid city formerly 
inhabited by Bharata, and made all kings again tributary to himself." 

It is remarkable that in this passage the Bharatas, who, as we have 
seen, are elsewhere represented as being so closely connected with 
Yii^vamitra, and are in one text of the Big-veda (vii. 33, 6) alluded 
to as the enemies of Yasish^ha's friends, should be here declared to 
have adopted the latter rishi as their priest. The account, however, 
need not be received as historical, or even based on any ancient tra« 
dition ; and the part referring to Yasishtha in particular may have 
been invented for the gloriflcation of that rishi, or for the honour of 
the Bharatas. 

The 11th and 12th khandas of the second adhyaya of the Sarvasara 
Upanishad (as we learn from Professor Weber's analysis in Ind. St. 
i. 390) relate that Yisvamitra was instructed on the identity of breath 
{prdna) with Indra, by the god himself, who had been celebrated by 
the sage on the occasion of a sacrifice, at which he officiated as hotpi« 
priest, in a thousand Brihatl verses, and was in consequence favourably 
disposed towards him. 

It is abundantly clear, from the details supplied in this section, that 
Yisvamitra, who was a rajanya of the Bharata and Xusika families 
(Ait. Br. vii. 17 and 18), is represented by ancient Indian tradition aa 


tbe author of nmnerous Yedic hymnfl, as the domestic priest (puro- 
hita) of king Sudas (Nir. ii. 24), and as offidating as a hotfi at a 
saorifice of king HariiSehandra (Ait. Br. vii. 16). The Bamajana 
also, as ve shall see in a futore section, connects him with Triiankn, 
tbe father of Harii^chandrai and makes him also contemporary with 
Ambarisha; and in the first book of the same poem he is said to have 
visited king Da^aratha, the father of Rama (Balakanda, i. 20, Iff.). 
As these kings were separated from each other by very long intervals, 
Tritoiku being a descendant of Ikshvaku in the 28th, Ambarlsha in 
the 44th,^ Sadas in the 49th, and Daiaratha in the 60th generation 
(see Wilson's YishQU Parana, vol. iii. pp. 284, 303, 304, 313), it is 
manifest that the authors of these legends either intentionally or 
through oversight represented Yi^vamitra, like Yasish^ha (see above), 
as a personage of miraculous longevity; and on either supposition 
a great deal that is related of him must be purely fabulous. All the 
authorities describe him as the son of Qathin or Qadhi, the Anu- 
kramaQl, the Yish^u Purana, and the Harivamto declaring also that 
G&thin was an incarnation of Indra, and thus asserting Yi^vamitra to 
be of divine descent. It is not dear whether this fable is referred to 
in E.Y. iii. 53, 9, where Yiivamitra is styled deva^'d^, *' bom of a god," 
or whether this verse may not have led to the invention of the story. 
In either case the verse can scarcely have emanated from the rishi 
himself; but it is more likely to be the production of one of his de- 

^ According to the B&mayana, i. 70, 41 ; ii. 110, 32, Amborisha was only 28th 
from IkBhv&ku. Compare Prof. Wilson's note on these genealo^es, V.P. iii. 313 ff. 

iB> The word devqfah, which, following Both, «.9., I have translated "god«bom," 
is taken by Sayana as == dyotamandnafh fefaaam janayita, " generator of shining 
lights," and appears to be regarded by him as referring to the creation of constel- 
lations by Yisyamitra, mentioned in the RamftyasAi i. 60, 21. Prof. Wilson renders 
the phrase by ** generator of the gods ; " and remarks that " the compound is not 
devq/a, < god-bom,' nor was YisVamitra of divine parentage" (R.V. iii. p. 85, note 4). 
This last remark orerlooks the fact above alluded to of his father 6&dhi being repre- 
sented as an incarnation of Indra, and the circumstance that Prof. Wilson himself 
(following SayaQa) had shortly before translated the words prathama^jafy brahmanah 
in R.y. iii. 29, 15, as applied to the Eutfikas, by " the first-born of Brahma," although 
from the accent brahman here must be neuter, and the phrase seems to mean, as 
I haye rendered above, ** the first-born of prayer." The word ja is given in the 
Nighas^ as one of the synonymes of apatya, *< ofispring ; " and in B-Y. i. 164, 15, 
where it is coupled with jiihayaK, the compound devajah is explain^ by Suyana as 
** born of the god," i.^. the sun, and by Prof. Wilson as " bom of the gods." See 


This Terse (E.Y. iii. 53, 9} wluch claims a saperhuman origin for 
YiiSyamitray and the following verses 11-^13 of the same hymn, which 
assert the efficacy of his prayers, form a sort of parallel to the contents 
of R.V. vii. 33, where the supernatural birth of Vasishtha (w. 10 ff.), 
the potency of his intercession (vy. 2-5), and the sacred knowledge of 
his descendants (vy. 7 and 8), are celebrated. 

As the hymns of Yiivamitra and his descendants occupy so prominent 
a place in the Eig-veda Sanhita, and as he is the alleged author of the 
text reputed the holiest in the entire Veda (iii. 62, 10), the Qajattlpar 
exceUencdf there is no reason to doubt that, although he was a rdjanya, he 
was unreservedly acknowledged by his contemporaries to be both a 
rishi and a priest. Nothing less than the uniform recognition and 
employment of the hymns handed down imder his name as the produc- 
tions of a genuine '' seer,'' could have sufficed to gain for them a place 
in the sacred canon.^^ It is true we possess little authentic information 
regarding the process by which the hymns of different families were 
admitted to this honour ; but at least there is no tradition, so far as I 
am aware, that those of Yiivamitra and his &mily were ever treated as 
antikgomma. And if we find that later works consider it necessary to 
represent his priestly character as a purely exceptional one, explicable 
only on the ground of supernatural merit acquired by ardent devotion, we 
must recollect that the course of ages had brought about a most material 
change in Indian society, that the sacerdotal function had at length 
become confined to the members of an exclusive caste, and that the 
exercise of such an office in ancient times by persons of the regal or 
mercantile classes hod ceased to be intelligible, except upon the suppo- 
sition of such extraordinary sanctity as was alleged in the cose of 

It is worthy of remark that although the Aitareya Brahmnna (see 
above) declares that S'unassepa, as belonging to a priestly family, was 
called on to exercise the sacerdotal office immediately after his release, 
yet the anterior possession of divine knowledge is also ascribed to 
Yisvamitra and the Gathins, and that Siunai^epa is represented as suo- 

also BY. ix. 93, I s S.V. i. 538. (Compare Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 
forl866, p. 387ff.) 

^^ That many at least of these compositions were really the work of Yisvamitra, or 
his descendants, is proved,^ as we haye seen, by the fact that their names are mentioned 
in them. 


eeeding to this sacred lore, as well as to the regal dignity of the race 
on which he became engrafted. 

The fact of Yliyamitra haying been both a rishi and an officiating 
priest, is thus, as we haye seen, and if ancient tradition is to be belieyed, 
undoubted. In fact, if we look to the number of Yedic hymns ascribed 
to him and to his family, to the long deyotion to sacerdotal functions 
which this fact implies, and to the apparent improbability that a person 
who had himself stood in the position of a king should afterwards haye 
become a professional priest, we may find it difficult to bclieye that 
although (as he certainly was) a scion of a royal stock, he had oyer him- 
self exercised regal functions. Professor Both remarks (Litt. u. Gesch. 
p. 125) that there is nothing either in the Aitorcya Brahmana, or in the 
hymns of the Eig-yeda to shew that he had eyer been a king.^^ But 
on the other hand, as the same writer obseryes (p. 126), and as we 
shall hereafter see, there are numerous passages in the later authorities 
in which the fact of his being a king is distinctly, but perhaps untruly, 

It is so well known, that I need scarcely adduce any proof of the 
fact, that in later ages Kajanyas and Yai^yas, though entitled to sacri- 
fice and to study the Ycdas, were no longer considered to haye any 
right to officiate as priests on behalf of others. I may, howeyer, cite a 
few texts on this subject. Manu says, i. 88 : 

Adhyapanam adhyayanam ydjanam ydjanam taihd \ ddnam prati- 
yraham chaiva Bruhmandndm akalpayat \ 89. Prajdnum rakshanam 
ddnam ifyd^dhyayanam eva cha \ vishayeshv aprasaktim eha kshaUri- 
yasya samdsata^ \ 90. PaSUndm rakshanam ddnam ijyd *dhyayanam eva 
cha I vanikpatham ktUidam cha VaUyasya kfishim eva dm \ 91. Ekam 
eva tu S'udraeya prabhuh karma samddUat \ eteshdm eva varndndm SuSru- 
shdm anasuyayd \ 88. He (Brahma) ordained teaching, study, sacrificing, 
officiating for others at sacrifices, and the giying and receiving of gifts, 
to be the functions of Brahmans. 89. Protection of the people, the 
giving of gifts, sacrifice, study, and non-addiction to objects of sense he 
assigned as the duties of the Kshattriya. 90. The tending of cattle, 
giying of gifts, sacrifice, study, commerce, the taking of usury, and agri- 
culture he appointed to be the occupations of the Yai^ya. 91. But the 

^^ May not B.V. iii. 43, 5 (quoted abore), howover, be understood to point to 
lometidng of this kind i 


lord assigned only one duty to the STldra, that of serving these other 
three classes without grudging/' 

Similarly it is said in the second of the Yajna-paribhasha Sutras^ 
translated by Professor M. Miiller (at the end of the ninth volume of 
the Journal of the German Oriental Society, p. zliii.), '' that sacrifice 
is proper to the three classes, the Brahman, Kajanya, and also the 
Vai^ya.'' ^^ Prof. Miiller also refers to Katyayana's S'rauta Sutras, of 
which i. 1, 5 and 6 are as follows : 

5. Angahlndirotriya'Shanda-iudra-varjam \ 6. Brdhmana-rdjanya^ 
vaiiydnam §ruteh \ **' Men,^ with the exception of those whose members 

Mj Prof. Mailer does not give the original text. 

183 In one of these Satras of Eutyayana (i. I, 4) and its commentary a curions 
question (one of those which the Indian authors often think it necessary (o raise and 
to settle, in order that their treatment of a subject may be complete and exhaustive) 
is argued, viz. whether the lower animals and the gods have any share in the practice 
of Yedic observances ; or whether it is confined to men. The conclusion is that the 
gods cannot practise these rites, as they ore themselves the objects of them, and as 
they have already obtained heaven and the other objects of desire with a view to 
which they are practised {tatra devanam devatantarabhapad anadhikarah \ na hy 
atmanam uddiiya tyagah aambhavati | kincha \ devai elta praptO'tvarffadi^kamah \ 
na cha iesham kinehid avaptavyam asti y ad-art ham karmani kurvaie | ). As regards 
the right of the lower animals to sacrifice, although the point is decided against them 
on the grouud of their only ** looking to what is near at hand, and not to the rewards 
of a future world " {U hy asannam eva chetayante na paralaukikam phalam) ; still it 
is considered necessary seriously to obviate a presumption in their favour that they 
seek to enjoy pleasure and avoid pain, and even appear to indicate their desire for the 
happiness of another world by seeming to observe some of the Yedic prescriptions : "iVa- 
nu uktam iunaa' chaturdasyam upavdsa-dartanai syenasya cha aahfamyam upavaaa" 
darianaeh cha te *pi paralaukikam janantV* iti \ tat katham avagamyate ^Ue dhar^ 
martham upavasanti '* iti \ ychi veda-amfiti-puranadikam pafhanti teevajananti yad 
** anena kartnand idam phalam amutra prapayatg ** iti \ na cha etc vedadikam pafhanti 
napy anyebhyah agamayanti I tena sastrarthamavidvamaah phalam amtuhmikamaka^ 
mayantah katham tat-sadhanam karma kuryuh \ taamad na dharmartham upavasanti 
iti I kimartham tarhy ctesham upavaaah \ uehyatt \ rogad aruehir wham \ tarhi niyata* 
hale katham rogah \ uchyatc \ niyata-kalah api rogah bhavanti yatha tfitlyaka-eka" 
turthikadi'jvarah \ adhanai cha ete | " But do not some say that * from a dog having 
been noticed to fast on the fourteenth day of the month, and a hawk on the eighth, 
they also have a knowledge of matters connected with a future life ? ' But how is it 
known that these dogs and hawks fast from religious motives ? For it is only those who 
read the Yedas, Sairitis, Puranas, etc., who are aware that by means of such and such 
observances, such and such rewards will be obtained in another world. But these ftnimnla 
neither read the sacred books for themselves, nor ascertain their contents from others* 
How then, ignorant as they are of the contents of the scriptures, and devoid of any 
desire for future rewards, can they perform those rites which are the means of attain* 
ing them ? It is therefore to be concluded that they do not fast from religious motives. 
But why, then, do they fast ? We reply, becanse from ockness they have )& disincUn* 


are defective, ihoflo who haye not read the Yeda, eunuchs, and S^udras, 
have a right to sacrifice. 6. It is Brahmans, ESjanyas, and Yaiijaa 
(only who) according to the Yeda (possess this priyilege)." ^ 

ation for food. Bat how do they happen to be sick on certtun fixed days? We answer, 
then are also certain diseases which occur on fixed days, as tertian and quartan agues. 
Another reason why the lower animals cannot sacrifice is that they are desttute of 
wealth (and so unable to provide the necessary materials)." 

>** ** And yet," Prof. Mtlller remarks (ibid), "concessions were made (to other and 
lower classes) at an early period. One of the best known cases is that of the Batha- 
kSra. Then the Nishfidasthapati, though a N ishada chief and not belonging to the 
three highest classes was admitted to great sacrifices, t.g, to the g&vedhukacharu." 
The S'atap. Br. i. 1, 4, 12, has the following words: Tani vai ttani ehatvari vaehah 
**$hi" iii brahmanasjfa **agahi" *^adrava" vaiiyatya eha rqfanyabandhoi eha ^^adha^ 
M " Hi iudraaya \ ** [In the formula, havishkfid $hi, ' come, o oblation-maker,' referred 
to in the previous paragraph, and its modifications] these four (different) words are 
employed to express ' come : ' ehiy 'come/ in the case of a Brfihman ; agahif * come 
hither/ in the case of a Vaitfya ; ddrava^ * hasten hither/ in the case of a Bsjanya- 
bandhu, and adhava, ' run hither/ in the case of a S'udra." On this Prof. Weber 
remarks, in a note on his translation of the first adhyftya of the first book of the 
8'. P. Br. (Joum. Germ. Or. Boo. iv. p. 801) : '< The entire passage is of great im- 
portance, as it shews (in opposition to what Roth says in the first voL of this Journal, 
p. 83) that the S'ddras were then admitted to the holy sacrifices of the Arians, and 
understood their speech, even if they did not speak it. The latter point cannot 
eertainly be assumed as a necessary consequence, but it is highly probable ; and I 
consequently incline to the view of those who regard the S'Qdras as an Arian tribe 
which immigrated into India before the others." See above, p. 141, note 251, and 
Ind. Stud. ii. 194, note, where Prof. Weber refers to the Mahftbh&rata, S'fintip. verses 
2804 ff. which are as follows : SvahakarO'Vathafkarmt mantra]^ 8udr0 na vidyaU \ 
inrnach ekhudrtJ^ paka^cjjnair yt^avrata/van wayam | purnapatramayJm ahu^ 
pakayqfnasya dakshinam \ iudrdfy Faifovano noma iahoiranani iattuk dadau \ Ain^ 
draynyma tidhanena dakshinam Ui ndfy i'rutam | " The svSh&kira, and the vashat- 
kfira, and the mantras do not belong to a S'ddra. Wherefore let a man of this class 
sacrifice with pSkayajnas, being incapacitated for (Yedic) rites (irauia-vriUopaya'hmah \ 
Ck>mm.). They say that the gift (dakthiiML) proper for a pakayajna consists of a 
full dish {purnapdtramayi), A S'adra called Paijavana gave as a present a hundred 
thousand (of these purfiapfttras) after the Aindrfignya rule." Here, says Prof. Weber, 
^ the remarkable tradition is recorded that Paijavana, ij$, Sndfis, who was so femous 
for his sacrifices, and who is celebrated in the Big-veda as the patron of Yisrfimitra 
and enemy of Yasishtha, was a S'udra." In llie Bhagavata PurSna, viL 11, 24, the 
duties of a S'ddra are described to be <* submiuiveness, purity, honest service to his 
master, sacrifice without mantras, abstinence from theft, truth, and the protection of 
cows and BrShmans " {iOdrmya tamtatil^ inucham teva waminy amayaya \ amantra^ 
ytljno hy tuteyam tatyam g<hvipra-rakthafiam \ ). The Commentator defines amtmtro' 
y^fnai^ thus: fumtukanfutiva paneha'yi{fnanmh(hanamf **the practice of the five 
sacrifices with obeisance," and quotes Tujnavalkya. See also Wilson's Vishnu Puruna, 
voL iii. p. 87, and notes ; Miiller's Anc. Sansk. lit p. 208 ; the same author's Essay, 
at the end of the ninth vol. of the Joum. Germ. Or. Soc p. IxxiiL ; and Bohtlingk and 
Boih's Lexn»n, t.v, pakayqimh 


According to the Ait Br. viL 19, '*the Brahman alone of the four 
castes has the right of consuming things offered in sacrifice " {ei&h vai 
prq^'dh huiado yad hrdkmandh \ atha etd^ ahutddo yad rdjanyo vaiiyal^ 
indrah). And yet, as Prof. Miiller observes, it is said in the Sktap. 
Br. v. 5, 4, 9 : Chatvdro vai varnd^ hrdhmano rdjanyo vaiiyalf. iudro na 
ha eteahdm elaichana hhavati yah $omafh vamati \ sa yad ha eteshdm 
ehaiehit sydt $ydd ha eva prdyaschitti^ \ ** There are four classes, the 
Brahman, Bajanya, YaiSya, and Siudra. There is no one of these who 
vomits (f.«., I suppose, dislikes) the soma. If anyone of them how- 
ever should do so, let there be an atonement." 

Professor Weber, by whom also these words are quoted (Ind. St. 
X. 12), remarks that ''they leave open the possibility of Rajanyas, 
Yai^yas, and even S^udras partaking of the soma, the only consequence 
being that they must as an expiation perform the Sautramanl rite." 

In the twenty -first of the Yajna-paribhasha Sutras, translated by 
Miiller, p. xlvii., it is declared that the priestly dignity belongs to the 
Brahmans ; and it is laid down by the Indian authorities that even when 
the sacrifice is of a kind intended exclusively for Eshattriyas, the priest 
must still be a Brahman and not a Kshattriya, the reason being that 
men of the former class only can eat the remains of the sacrifice (see 
Eatyayana's S'r. Sutras, i. 2, 8) : BrdhmandJ^ ritvijo hhahha-pratishedhdd 
itarayohj ''the Brahmans only are priests, because the other two castes are 
forbidden to eat (the remains of the sacrifice "). See also Weber, Ind. 
St. X. pp. 17 and 31, and the passages of the Ait. Br. viii. 24 and 27, 
referred to in pages 30 and 31 : 24. ITa ha vai apurohitasya rdjno 
devdh annam adanti \ tasmdd rdjd *yahshamdno hrdhmanam puro dadhlta \ 
" The gods do not eat the food offered by a king who has no purohita. 
Wherefore (even) when not about to sacrifice, the king should put 
forward a Brahman (as his domestic priest)." 27. Yo ha vai tfin 
purohitdms trin purodhdtfin veda sa hrdhmanah purohitdh \ sa vadeta 
purodhdyai \ Aynir vdva purohita^ prtthivl purodhdtd vdyur vdva purO" 
hiio *ntarihham purodhdid ddityo vdva purohito dyauh purodhdtd | esha 
ha vai purohito yah evam veda atha »a tirohito yal^ warn na veda \ tasya 
rdjd mitram hhavati dvishantam apdbddhate \ yasyaivaih vidvdn hrdk" 
mano rdshfra-yopa^ purohita^ \ kshaitrena kshattra^jayati halma halam 
ainute \ yasyaivaih vidian hrdhmano rdthfra-yopah purohitah | tastnai 
viia^ ianjdnate aammukhdJ^ ekamanoM^ \ yasyaivam vidvdn brdhmofio 


nuhtra-^opah purohitah \ '' The Brahman who knows the three puro- 
hitas, and their three appointersy is a (proper) porohita, and should be 
nominated to this office. Agni is one porohita, and the earth appoints 
him ; Yayn- another, and the air appoints him ; the Sun is a third, and 
the sky appoints him. lie who knows this is a (proper) pnrohita ; and 
he who does not know this is to be rejected. (Another) king becomes 
the Mend of the prince who has a Brahman possessing such knowledge 
for his pnrohita and the protector of his realm ; and he vanquishes his 
enemy. He who has a Brahman possessing etc. (as above) conquers 
(another's) regal power by (his own) regal power, and acquires another's 
force by (his own) force. With him who has a Brahman etc. (as above) 
the people are openly united and in harmony." 

I add another passage from the same Brahmana, which might also 
have been properly introduced in an earlier chapter of this work 
(chapt. i. sect, iii.) as it relates to the creation of the four castes : 

Ait. Br. vii. 19. Prajdpatir yajnam (urijata \ yajnam srishfam anu 
hrdhma-hshattre asjrijyetum \ trahma-ksJiattre anu dvayyah prajdh asrij- 
yanta hutddai cha ahut&dai cha hrahma eva anu kutddah kshattram anv 
ahutddah \ etdi^ vat prajdh huiddo yad hrdhmandh | atha etdh ahutddo 
yad rdjanyo vaiiyah iudrah | tdhhyo yajnah udakrdmat | tarn hrahma- 
kihattre anvaitdm ydny eva hrdhmanah dyudhdni tair hrahma anvait ydni 
hshattrasya tarn (? tathi) Ishattram \ etdni vai hrahmanah dyudhdni yad 
yajndyudhdni \ atha etdni kshattroiya dyudhayii yad asva-rathah kavachah 
iehu-dhanva \ tarn kshattram ananvdpya nyavarttata \ dyudhebhyo ha 
rnna aeya vijamdnah pardn eva eti \ atha enam hrahma anvait \ tarn dpnot \ 
tarn dptvd parastdd nirudhya atishfhat \ sa dptah parastdd niruddhas 
tishfhan jndtvd svdny dyudhdni hrahma updvarttata \ tasmdd ha apy 
etarhiyajno hrahmany eva hrdhmaneshu pratish{httah \ atha enat kshattram 
anvdgachhat tad- ahravid **upa md asmin yajne hvayasva^^ iti \ tat 
** tathd " ity ahravU '' tad vai nidhdya svdny dyudhdni hrahmanah eva 
dyudhair hrahmano rupena hrahma hhutvd yajnam upavdrttasva** iti | 
"tathd" iti tat kshattram nidhdya svdny dyudhdni hrahmanah evadyudh- 
air hrahmano rupena hrahma hhUtvd yajnam updvarttata \ tasmdd ha 
apy etarhi kshattriyo yajamdno nidhdya eva svdny dyudhdni hrah- 
manah eva dyudhair hrahmano rupena hrahma hhutvd yajnam vpu- 
varttat$ j 

'Trajapati created sacrifice. After sacrifice, BrUhm^n (sacred know- 


ledge) and Esh&ttra (regal power)^^ were created. After these, two 
kinds of creatures were formed, viz. those who eat, and those who do 
not eat, oblations. After Brilhm&n came the eaters of oblations, and 
after EshlLttra those who do not eat them. These are the eaters of 
oblations, viz. the Brahmans. Those who do not eat them are the 
Hajanya, the Yaiiya, and the S^udra. From these creatures sacrifice 
departed. Brilhm&n and Ksh&ttra followed it, Brahman with the im- 
plements proper to itself, and Ksh&ttra with those which are proper to 
itselfl The implements of Brahman are the same as those of sacrifice, 
while those of Ksh^ttra are a horse-chariot,^^ armour, and a bow and 
arrows. XshSittra turned back, not having found the sacrifice ; which 
turns aside afraid of the implements of Ksh^ttra. Br^hm&n followed 
after it, and reached it; and having done so, stood beyond, and inter- 
cepting it. Being thus found and intercepted, sacrifice, standing still 
and recognizing its own implements, approached to BrahmS^n. Where- 
fore now also sacrifice depends upon Br&hm^n, upon the Brahmans. 
Ksh^ttra then followed BrUhm&n, and said, * invite me '^ (too to par^ 
ticipate) in this sacrifice.' Br^hmS^n replied, 'so be it : then laying 
aside thy own implements, approach the sacrifice with the implements 
of Br&hm^n, in the form of BrilhmS^n, and having become BriLhm&n.** 

^ The two principles or fanctions represented by the Brahmani and Eshattriyaa 

iM gee Weher, Indische Studien, ix. p. 318. 

1^ See Weber, in the same page as lajst quoted. 

iM xhis idea may be further illustrated by a reference to seyeral passages adduced 
by Professor Weber, lod. St. x. 17, who remarks : '* Hence every B&janya andYaisya 
becomes through the consecration for sacrifice {dlksha) a Bruhman during its con- 
tinuance, and is to be addressed as such in the formula employed," and cites S'. P. Br. 
iii. 2, 1, 39 f., part of which has been already quoted above, in p. 136, note ; and 
also Ait. Br. vii. 2Z: Sa ha dtktkamanah eva brahmanaiam abhyupaiti \ ** He a king, 
when consecrated, enters into the condition of a Brahman." See the rest of the section 
and sections 24, 25, and 31 in Dr.Haug's translation. The S'.P.Br. ziii. 4, 1, 3, says, 
in opposition to the opinion of some, that an as'vamedha, which is a sacrifice proper 
to Rajanyas, should be begun in summer, which is their season : tad vai vasanU eva 
abhyarahheta \ vatanto vai brahmanatya filuh \ yah u vai has cha ytyate brahmani-^ 
bhuya iva eva yqjate | ** Lot him commence in spring, which is the Brahman's season. 
Whosoever sacrifices does so after having as it were become a Brahman." So too 
Katyayana says in his S'rauta Sutias vii. 4, 12 : " Brahmana " ity eva vaiiya-rqjam' 
yayor api ) ** The word Brahmana is to be addressed to a Yaii^ya and a Rajanya also." 
On which the Commentator annotates : Vaiiya-rajanyayor api yqftie ** dtkthito *yam 
brahmanah'* ity eva vaktavyam \ na **dJkshito *ya>h kthattriyo vaieyova** Hi \ **The 
formuhi * This Brahman has been consecrated ' if to be used at the sacrifice of a Yaisya 



EsMttra rejoined, ' Be it so/ and, laying aside its own implements, 
approached the sacrifLce with those of BrSLhrnan, in the form of Br^- 
m&n, and haying become Bi^lhm&Q. Wherefore now also a Xshattriya 
when sacrificing, laying aside his own implements, i^proaches the 
sacrifioe with those of Brilhm&n, in the form of Briihm^, and haying 
become Brlihm&n.'' 

The Mahabharata, S^antip. yersee 2280 f. distinctly defines the duty 
of a Kshattriya in reference to sacrifice and sacred study : Eihattnya- 
Mydpi yo dharmm tarn U vdkihydmi Bharata \ dadydd rdjan na yacheta 
ffofeta na cha ydjayet \ nddkydpayed adhiylta prajdi cha paripdlayet \ 
** I will tell thee also the duties of a Kshattriya. Let him giye, and 
not ask (gifts) ; let him sacrifice, but not officiate for others at sacri- 
fices ; let him not teach, but study ; and let him protect the people." 

It is clear that these passages which restrict the right of officiating 
ministerially at sacrifices to the members of the Brahmanical order, ^^ 
represent a yery difierent state of opinion and practice from that which 
preyailed in the earlier Yedic age, when Yi^vamitra, a Rdjanya, and 
his relatiyes, were highly esteemed as the authors of sacred poetry, and 
were considered as perfectly authorized to exercise sacerdotal functions. 

The result of the confiict between the opposing interests represented 
by Yasishtha and Yiiyamitra respectiyely, is thus described by Professor 

and a Bajanya also ; and not the words ' this Rajonya, or this Yais'ya, has been con- 
secrated.' " 

1^ It appears from Airian that the Greclu were correctly informed of this prero- 
gatiTe of the Brahmans. He says, Indica, ch. zi. : K<d Boris S^ tUl^ Oiet, i^^rpn^f 
&vr^ ryis 0iffftris twp ru aro<fn<rrQy rointov ylytrtUj &s ivK &y &XAa»$ «ccxapi<rfi^ya 
rots $w7s 9^(raana5. " And whosoeTer sacrifices in private has one of these sophists " 
(so the highest of the classes, here said to be seven in numberi is designated) '* as 
director of the ceremony, since sacrifice conld not otherwise be offered acceptably to 
the gods." Arrian makes another assertion (ibid, xii.) which, if applied to the time 
when he wrote (in the second Christian century), is not equally correct After obserr- 
ing that the several classes were not allowed to intermarry, nor to practice two pro* 
fassions, nor to pass from one class into another, he adds : Movyoy tr^imv wurai 
vo^urr^p 4k irairrhs yiy^s ywicrBiu' tri ob fuiA9aic& ro7<n aro^urrfcrtp itcrl rk 
vp^fmrOf itXKii irdyr^y rttXatrwp^arti, " Only it is permitted to a person of any 
class among them to become a sophist ; for the life of that class is not luxurious, but 
the most toilsome of alL" However indubitably true the first part of this sentence 
may have been in the age of Yir'vamitra, it cannot be correctly predicated of the age 
of Arrian, or even of the period when India was invaded by Alexander the Great. 
The mistake may have arisen from confounding the Buddhists with the Brahmans, or 
from supposing that all the Brahmamcal Indians, who adopted an ascetic life, were 
regarded as '* sophists." 


Both at the olose of his work on the literature and history of the Yeda^ 
which has been bo often quoted, p. 141 : '' Yasiahtha, in whom the future 
position of the Brahmana is principally foreshadowed, occupies also a far 
higher place in the recollections of the succeeding centuries than hia 
martial rival ; and the latter succumbs in the conflict out of which the 
holy race of Brahmavartta was to emerge. Yasishtha is the sacerdotal 
hero of the new order of things. In Yii^amitra the ancient condition 
of military shepherd-life in the Punjab is thrown back for oyer into 
the distance. This is the general historical signification of the contest 
between the two Yedic fiamilies, of which the literature of all the suc- 
ceeding periods has preserved the recollection." 

Sect. YII. — Do the details in the hut two sections enable us to decide 
in what relation Vasishtha and Viivdmitra stood to each other as 
priests of Sudds ? 

It appears firom the data suppUed in the two preceding sections that 
both Yasishtha and YiiSvamitra are represented as priests of a king called 
Sudas. This is shewn, as regards the former rishi (see pp. 319 ff., 
above), by B.Y. viL 18, 4, 5, and 21-25 ; and vii. 33, 1-6, where he is 
said to have interceded with Indra for Sudas, who, as appears from 
verse 25 of the second of these hymns, was the son of Pijavana. A 
similar relation is shewn by K.Y. iii. 53, 9-13 to have subsisted between 
Yi^vamitra and Sudas (see above, p. 342) ; and although Sudas is not 
in that passage identified with the king who was Yasish^ha's patron, 
by the addition of his patronymic, we are told in the Nirukta, ii. 24, 
that he was the same person, the son of Pijavana. There is therefore 
no doubt that, according to ancient tradition, the two rishis were both 
priests of the same prince. It further appears that the Bharatas, with 
whom, as we have seen, Yilvamitra was connected, are in K.Y. vii. 
33, 6 referred to as in hostility with Sudas and his priest. Are we 
then to conclude that the one set of facts ezdudee the other — that the 
two rishis could not both have been the family-priests of Sudas ? 

There is no reason to arrive at such an inference. Yasishtha and 
Yi^vamitra could not, indeed, have been the domestic priests of Sudas 
at one and the same period. But they may have been so at different 


times; md the one ma; have Bnpplontod the other. It is, however, vet] 
difflcolt to derive from the imperfect materials supplied in the pasaageg 
to vhioh I have referred any dear conception of the shape and courw 
which the contest between these two rivals took, or to fix the periodi 
at which they regpeotively enjoyed tlieir patron's favour. Prof. Botl 
thinks"* that some light is thrown on this obscnre subject by th< 
different parts of the 53rd hymn of the third mandala of the Big-veda, 
This oompositioii, aa it; atands, eontains, as he considers, fragments ol 
hymns by Yidv&mitra or his descendants, of different dates ; and the 
verses (9-13), in which that lishi represents himself and the Kaudikai 
as being the priests of fiu^is, are, in his opinion, earlier than the con- 
cluding verses (21-24),'" which consist of impiecationg directed against 
Tasishtha, These last verses, he remarks, contain an expression ol 
wounded pride, and threaten vengeance against on enemy who had 
come into possession of some power or dignity which Yidvlmitra him- 
self had previously enjoyed. And as we find from one of his hymnc 
(the S3rd) that he and his adherents had at one time led SudSs tc 
victory, and enjoyed a corresponding consideration ;— while from Yasish- 
(ha'a hymns it is clear that he and his family had also been elevated in 
consequence of similar cMms to a like position ; — it would seem tc 
result thatYiJvamitro had onrsedYaaishtha for this very reason that he 
had been supplanted by him. The former with his Eudikas had througb 
the growing influence of his rival been driven away by SudSs to the 
Bharatas the enemies of that prince and of the Tidtsns ; and then 

"0 Sm Litt. nnd OGach. dea Weda, pp. 121 S. 

"' I luve (aboTfl, p. 313) cluraderiiBd these veises ■■ obscure and have left then) 
nutranilBted. The portions of tbe following reiiion which are pristed in italics an 
doabtfol : Tsne SI. " He (or, it) veies (tuna th* edgt of) eres an aie ; and btealu 
eren a iwori. A uetking caaldron, oTen, o India, when i^er-htaUd, casts oat foam. 
23. men, no notice is tlken of tbe arrow. The; lead away the inttUigmt [lodka] 
looking upon him ms beast Hen do not, howerer, pit a hack tonmagainrt anLceri 
thej do not lead an sm before horses. 24. These sons of Bharsta, o Indra, dedn 
sepantion, not ricinit;. The; conitantlf urge the hone ut^toa diiltnct ; they cott] 
about the bew in the battle." The reader may consult Prof.'Wilson'B trantikdon E.T. 
Tol. iii. p. 89 f., as well M Both's Iitt.ii.Ge8oh. desWeda, p. 109 f. InhiilUostra. 
tions of the Nirnkta, p. 42, Both conjactaies that both bdha and paiu, in verae 23, 
may denote animals of different natnres, and Ihst the ckuH may moan sometbing tc 
the ssme effect as " thejr look on the wolf as if it were a hare." In his Lexicon, «.«. 
paiu, he takes that word to denote a head of cattle (eia Stiick Vieb) as a term ol 
eontempt. He takes ^ocq/o, in Tcne 21, to mwn " having the impolsiTS force (i] 
{JSAmB-Kr^ of a bow-string." 


Towed vengeance against their enemies. Both remarks that if this 
conjecture appears too bold, which he does not allow, there is no alter- 
native but to regard verses 9-11 of B.Y. iii. 53, as interpolated^ and to 
hold that Yi^vamitra had always been allied with the Bharatas. Bat» 
as he nrges, in a period such as that which the hymns of the Yeda 
represent to ns — a time of feud and foray among the small neighbour- 
ing tribes, when the power of the leaders of families and petty chiefs 
was unlimited, when we observe that the ten kings were allied against 
Sudas — in a period of subdivided dominion like this it would be far 
more surprising to find a family so favoured by the gods as that of Yii- 
vamitra or Yasishtha in continued and undisturbed possession of in- 
fluence over any one of these chieftains, than to see mutual aggression, 
hostility, and vindictiveness, prevailing even among families and clans 
united to one another by community of language and manners. It is 
further evident from later tradition, as Both remarks, that Yasishtha 
and his family had not always been the objects of Sudas's favour; but 
had, on the contrary, been at some time or other sufferers from his 
enmity or that of his house; and in proof of this he refers to the 
passage which has been cited above (p. 328) from Sayana's note on 
B.Y. viL 32, and the S^atyayana and Tan^ya Bjrahmanas, as there 
quoted; and also to the 176th adhyaya of the Adiparvan of the Maha- 
bharata, yerses 6696 fL, which will be adduced in a future section. 

According to Both's view (p. 124) the alienation between Sudas and 
Yasishtha fomented by Yiivamitra was only of temporary duration, and 
we must, therefore, understand that according to his view, the former 
rishi and his family remained eventually victors in the contest for 
influence between themselves and their rivals. 

Professor Weber, in a note appended to an article by Dr. A. Kuhn 
in page 120 of the first volume of his Indische Studien, expresses 
a different opinion. ^'The testimonies," he says, '* adduced by Both, 
pp. 122 ff., according to which Sudas appears in the Epic ag& as 
hostile to Brahmanical interests, stand in opposition to his assertion 
that Yasishtha's family finally banished Yii^vamitra and the Kuiikas 
from the court of that prince. The enmity between the latter and 
YasLBhtha, the prototype of Brahmanhood, is thus by no means of 
temporary duration (Both, p. 124), but the very contrary." The 
passages cited by Both, which Weber here claims as supporting his 


yneWf an ICtna, ^u, 41 («e abofre, p. 296), &e AmkiamsQl 
wUtk the gi tjijai and TiD4 jm Hahmaam q[ii0tBd in p. 32S, ud 
Oe 12Mi nd ftUoviag wtddoM of flie Ad^ cf tiie IL Bh. vUch 
will be addociad heRtfter. To tibew maj be added the text from tfie 
Kaoslfltokl Brihiniia, dted in p. 328. If Sodas became ultimately 
la eopciled to VaaiAtba, and re-inatated bim and bis relatiTes in their 
portion of court priesti, to Uie erdnrinn of the riTil fiunil j of Tisra- 
■nttVy it ieemi baid to imdentand, aooording to Frofeasor Weber'a 
argnment^ bow that pnnoe't name dioald bare been banded down bj 
tradition as one of the most prominent examples of impiety displayed 
in resistanoe to Brabmanieal pretensions. It is, bowerer, to be obaored 
that, except in the text of ICanUy it is tbe descendants of Sodas, and 
not the king himself who are charged witb tbe outrages oommitted 
against Vasishtba's family ; and that in the passage of tbe M. Bh. abore 
referred to (Adip. tw. 7669 ff.) tbe son of Sodas is represented aa be- 
coming ultimately reconciled to Yasiah^ha.'^ And if the passages^ 
which baTO been cited above from tbe Big-veda (pp. 830 1) in allusion 
to Budds^s deliverance by the gods, refer to a real person, and to tbe 

^ It b alio worthy of reaiarit that the Amu^aaauip. of the M.Bh. oontaiiis a eoa- 
Tsnation heiwtea Yafiih^ and SandAia (the ton, or one of the desoendintB of^ 
Sndfif) about the pre-eminent parity and excellence of cows, yerae 3732 : BUumttm 
09a lAU tu ViUithfham fishi-^attamam \ IktJwakwvamitQo raja Saudato vadatam 
9ara^ \ t&rva - hka - ekarafk tiddKam brahma-koiam mmaUmmm \ pwrohitcm abhi- 
proihfum abhivadyopaehakrwiu \ Saudata uvaeha \ trailokye bhagavan kwuvit pavi» 
irafh kaihyate *nagha \ yat ktrttayan aada marttyah prapnuyat punytm uttamam | 
'< At thii time the eloquent king SaudSsa, iprnng from the race of IksliTalni, pro- 
eeeded, after lalutation, to make an enquiry of \^ family-priest Ya^iBhtha, the eternal 
gaint, the moit excellent of rishia, who was able to traverse all the world, and was a 
treasure of sacred knowledge : ' What, o Tenerable and sinless man, is declared to be 
the purest thing in the three worlds, by constantly celebrating which one may acquire 
tbe highest merit } " Ya^ishtha in reply expatiates at great length on the merit re- 
sulting from bestowing cows, and ascribes to these animals some wonderful properties, 
ai that they are the '< support of all beings" (pratuhfha bhutanam, rene 3736), *< the 
present and the future" {ySto bhutam eha bluwyam cAa, 8737), and describes the cow aa 
^ ponrading the uniTerse, mother of the past and future ** {jyaya §afvam idam vyapUm 
Jagat tthavarO'jangamam | tarn dhmum iirata vande bhuia-bhavyasya mataram^ 3799). 
The sequel is thus told in Terse 3801 : Varam idam iti bhumido (bhumipo ?) vichmiya 
prmaram fithtr vacKtmaik tato mahatma \ vyatf^ata mymtatmavdn dvifebhyo aubakm 
9Ka yo-dbanam aptavMu lokan \ '* The great, self-subduing king, consid^ing that 
these words of the ri^hi were most excellent, larished on the Brahmans very great 
wealth in the shape of cows, and obtained the worlds." — So here we find the son of 
Baudfisa eitollod aa a saint 


same indiyidiial with whom we are at present concemedy thej are diffi- 
cult to reconcile with these traditions in the Brahmanas, Mahabharatay 
and Puranas ; inasmuch as they are not said to be the productions of 
Yii^yamitra or his descendants, and as they necessarily imply that Sudas 
was a pious prince who worshipped the popular deifies in the way pre- 
scribed by the rishis by whom he was eommemorated, sinee the latter 
would not otherwise have celebrated him in their hymns as a con- 
spicuous object of divine favour. Tradition^ too, as we have seen 
(p. 268) represents Sudas to have been the author of a Yedic hymn. 
The verses of the 104th