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London : PHntad by Wiluam Clowmm and Sovt« Stamford Street. 



PreUoifaiaTy Obaervadons 326 


(Secrets for making Colours')-^ 

De moltiB et diTeras Aziirru Natundibas fiendis . • 341 
( To prepare several kinda qf Natural Azures,) 


De maltis Azorris per Artificium fiendis et artificialiter 

feeds 385 

( To make many kinds qf Artifieial Azures,) 


De Azorris fiendis de Herbanim Succis • . . 407 

(7b nuiie Azures from the Juice qf Plants.) 


De fiendis Viridibus Ramis et de Viridibus feeds cum 
Erbaram Suocb in diversis Modis • . « • 419 

{IhmaJU Verdigris and Green Pigments from ^ Juice 
cf Plants.) 

TOU II. a 2 


CAP. V. 


De Laccis et Pavonatiis fiendis in diversb Modis et Verzinis 433 
(7b make Lakt and Pavcnazo Colours and Verzino.) 


Ad Purpurinos et Colores Aureatos fatiendum. Etad 
Scuas atque Mordentea ad Aurum ponendum . . 459 

(7b make *' Parpormo'* and Gold Colours^ alio to make 
Site and MardanUfcr gilding.) 


De Cinabriis fiendis. Et multis aliis divenis Colloribus. 
Et de Mistoria CoUonim. Et ad CoUores Distemper- 
andum aecondam Magiatram Jacobum de Tholeto . 479 

(^On making Camabar and many other Colours, On the 
Mixture of Colours^ and on Distempering Colours aC" 
cording to Master Jacob of Tholeto.) 

Ad Lapides Anallonim oomponendoa acilicet Gernmaa 
Pretioaas Claras et Laudabilis Colloris • • • 507 

.(7b make Stones for Rings^ namely, Art^icial Gems, dear 
and of a fine colour.) 

A Dopengiare li Vetrij cum li Smalti de omne Collore 
cfae tu volj commo sonno Tazze o altre Lavore de 
Vetrio . . 527 

(Topamt with " Smalti** qfaU Colours on C^ps and other 
artu^ qf Glass.) 

Collorea Musaict • . 531 

{Colours for Mosaics.) 

Diyersi Collorea quibus Vasarii utuntm' pro Vasonim 
putcritudine ••••••« 537 

( Various Colours used by Painiersfor omanmUing Vases.) 


' De Tintia ad Tmgendmn Pamium Setam et Pellem in 

Camuaaium et multa alia • • • • . 547 

{Dyes for Cloth, SUk, Skins, Leather, and other things.) 




Preliminary Obsenrations • 603 

Secreti Diveni • • 609 

{Divers Secrets,) 


Preliminarj Observations 648 

Ricette per far ognt Sorte di Colori • • . • 649 

(Recipes far making all kinds cf Colours,) 


Preliminary Observations • • 721 

Modo da Tener nel Dipinger 727 

{Mode to be observed m Painting,) 


Preliminary Observations • 769 

Recoenil des Essaies des Merveilles de la Peinture, by Pierre 
Lebnm 767 

{Collection of Essays on the Wonders of Painting.) 

entitied 'Storia della Organizzazione Civile delle Belle Arti 
in Yenena per servire al Piano di Sistema Stabile di qnesta 
Imperiale e Reale Veneta Aocademia/ by Sig. Gio. O'Kelly 
Edwards (being a History of the Academy of Fine Arts in 
Venice) 848 

PreliminaTy Observations •••••• 846 

History of the Restoration of the Public Pictures at Venice • 849 

Pietro Edwards in the Academy of Fine Arts at Venice on the 
Propriety of Restoring the Public Pictures • . . • 885 

Additional Notes and Corrections • • • • • 891 

Note — On the Weights and Measures mentioned in these 

MSS 896 

INDEX 899 


Page 339, line 16 from top, for oonch read coat. 
377, dele note Q). 

610, line 3 from bottom, /or " a patrido " i«, read ** a patrido," i, e, with. 
668, 6 bottom,/or sandals, read taffeta. 

674,' 6 top, Jor a stone impervious to water, read an absorbent 

712,, 14 . bottom, /or with goatskin, and mb the work well, read 

and mb the work well with goatskin. 
bottom,yor Riformati, read Riformate. 
top, for abazzo, read abbozzo. 
bottom, /or Villalpandnr, read Villalpandos. 







, =— ^WW^P^-^^^^-^-"— ' ■ "i 







This MS. is of the fifteenth century. It is a small 
volume in duodecimo, on cotton paper, and is pre- 
served in the Library of the R. R. Canonici Regolari 
in the convent of S. Salvatore in Bologna. It is num- 
bered 165. On the outside of the fly-leaf is written 
" D'acquisto di D. Gio. Giuseppe Trombelli," and on 
the other side of the same ^^ Libro di P. Gio. Batta 
Nozzi, di carte 240." 

The first intimation we had of the existence of this 
MS. was from the 3rd series of the ^^ Memorie di Belle 
Arti," p. Ill, of Sig. Gualandi (Bologna, 1842), who 
mentions that it was with other MSS., in number about 
500, carried to Paris, where the words " Biblioth^que 
Nationale" were stamped on it, and whence it has been 
since restored to its original depository. 

On my arrival at Bologna Sig. Gualandi very kindly 
introduced my son to the Generale of the Canonici 
Regolari at the convent of S. Salvatore, and obtained 
permission for him to copy it. 

It is a book of recipes rather than a treatise, and 
affords interesting notices of all the decorative arts 
practised at that period in Bologna. The arrangement 

B 2 


is systematic, and I consider it an arranged collection,^ 
the author having copied different recipes as he became 
qpquainted with them, and arranged them in their 
proper places, leaving blank sheets between each chap- 
ter or subject, for additional recipea. The name of the 
author does not appear ; but as we find that the last 
sections in many of the chapters are written in a dif- 
ferent character, it may safely be inferred that these 
additions were made at a period somewhat later than 
the rest of the MS., and probably after the death of the 
original collector. The additions, which appear by the 
handwriting to have been made at least half a century 
after the other part of the work, are written with fewer 
contractions, in a more running character, and with finer 
strokes to the letters ; the black ink is not so pale, and 
(iie rubrics have nearly disappeared, while those of the 
earlier writing are as bright as at first The later sec^ 
tions are distinguished in the present work by the letter 
B in the margin. 

The language in which the MS. is written^ is some- 
times Italianised Latin, and sometimes Italian, with a 
mixture of Latin words, as was usual at that period, and 
the different recipes contain words from most of the 
dialects of Northern Italy, in which, however, the Lom-* 
bard seems to prevail, and the same word is frequently 
spoiled in three or four different ways. 

The precise date of the MS. is not mentioned, but 
there are allusions to circumstances which seem to fix. 
the date to the first quarter, or at latest, to the middle 
of the fifteenth century. 

1 That some of the recipes were co[)icd is proved by the occasional blanks 
ibat are left in the MS. 


In No. 136 is a recipe for making a ^* colore car- 
dinalescoy" in the later handwriting. Now the *^ colore 
cardinalesco** at this period was cnmsan, as appears 
from this chapter, and not scarlet As the Cardinals 
did not assume the red dress until 1464/ it follows 
that this additional chapter must have been written 
previous to this date, and therefore that the original 
MS. was some years older. The author also desires 
that alabaster of Constantinople diould be used for a 
certain purpose, a proof tibat the communication with 
that city still subsisted. This city was taken by Ma^ 
homet in 1452, and it is well known that the import^ 
ation of pigments was impeded, if not altogether 
stopped, when the Turks became masters of Constan* 
tinople. (See Agricola, de Metallicis.) The different 
articles mentioned in the MS. show that Bologna at 
this period had considerable intercourse widi other 
states. We find Giallolino and Azzurro della Magna, 
Spanish pitch, Eoman tin, Venetian tin, Alexandrine 
borax, lapis lazuli from Damascus and Cyprus, sand 
from the Yal d' Arno, besides the usual gums and resins, 
Indian lac, indigo, &c. 

The first five books treat of tibe preparation and 
manufecture of blue, green, and lake-coloured pigments. 
The first book treats of natural blue pigments, by which 
we learn the old masters possessed two, namely, Ultra^ 
marine and the Azzurro della Magna of Cenuini, also 
called in this MS. Azzurro Todesco or Azzurrum Teo- 
thonicum, Azzurro Spagnolo, and Azzurro di Lombardia. 
The author teaches how to distinguish one pigment 
from tlie other, and to prepare both for painting. The 

1 See note by Sig. Tambroni to Cap. 42 of the Treatise of Cennini. 


second book treats of factitious mineral blue pigments. 
The third book of blue pigments made from flowers. 
The fourth treats of green pigments. The fifth book 
shows that at this period lakes were made from lac, 
from kermes, and from Brazil wood, which last is 
identified with verzino — "verzino o vero Brasilio.** 
The sixth book is devoted to the composition of ^^ por- 
porino^" which was an imitation of gold. It also con- 
tains directions for gilding. 

The seventh book is a practical course of painting 
after the manner of Magister Jacobus de Tholeto, who 
was probably a Spaniard.' 

This book also commences with recipes in Italian 
for making certain colours, among which is the '' aizica" 
of Cennini, and then follow directions in Latin, which 
appear to be from an older work, ^^ ad fatiendum incar- 
natum pro incamare figuras," ^^ ad incamandum cru- 
cifixum," *^ ad fatiendum incamatum," &c. The author 
also gives instructions for preparing panels, and << gesso 
sottile " for painting. 

The style of painting, as appears from the seventh 
book, resembled that which, according to Malvasia, pre- 
vailed in Bologna in the early part of the fifteenth century. 

If we may be allowed to form an opinion of the skill 
of Magister Jacobus from his writings instead of his 
paintings, I fear we cannot assign him a high rank as a 
painter. The flesh colour was first to be laid on, then 
the eyes and outlines of the limbs were to be marked 
with black, the eyebrows with »nopia and black, the 
pupils of the eyes black, and a shade of sinopia under 

1 See No. 245. There was a Spanish college at Bologna ; and S. Maria 
Maddalena, formerly an hospital under the title of S. Onoiirio, was built 
in 1349 for the Spaniards. 


the chin. These directions are sufficient to identify 
Jacobus witli one of those painters who were contem- 
porary with, or immediate successors of Lippo Dal- 
Ei<isio, described by Malvasia,^ who, uninfluenced by 
the good example of Lippo, persisted in following the 
barbarous Greek style introduced from Constantinople. 
These artists lived in Bologna during the latter end of 
the fourteenth and b^inning of the fifteenth century. 
Pietro di Lianori, who retained die Greek manner, and 
who surrounded his figures with black outlines, painted 
in the year 1415 a picture in the ancient church of 
S. Fidriano di Lucca in Bologna, then belonging to the 
B. B. Canonici Begolari, in whose library the original 
MS. from which the present is copied is still preserved, 
and there is nothing unreasonable in supposing that the 
MS. may describe his method of painting. 

Tlie vehicle used by Jacobus appears to have been 
egg and gum-water, but when it was required to make 
a drapery of a fine and beautifiil rose colour, lac and 
ceruse were ground with linseed oil and white of egg. 

After this we have an ^^ aquam que est bona ad po- 
nendum super figuris et altris miniis." This consiste 
of oil of aloes, linseed oil, and ** vernice liquida." And 
in order that no information should be wanting to his 
readers. Jacobus de Tholeto tells us how to make lin- 
seed oil, and then how to make ^ vernice liquida," for 
which he gives two recipes, the first made of linseed 
oil and ^^ gomma de gineparo," tibe second of linseed 
oil, roche alum, and incense.* 

1 FeUina Pittrice, vol. i. pp. 30, 31. 

2 A third recipe, probably written by a later hand, for vernice liquida 
made of linseed oil and " vernice da scrivere," is given in No. 262. 


It was the belief of Malvasia and Tiarini,^ that 
Lippo Dalmasia and Fietro Lianori, both of whom 
must have been contemporaries, or nearly so, with the 
author of this MS., painted in oil ; but chemists have 
asserted that it is impossible to decide whether paint- 
ings have been executed with colours mixed with oil, or 
whether they have been painted in distemper and then 

There is nothing in the present MS. to show that 
the art of painting in oil was known at this period in 
Bologna (otherwise than in the imperfect manner before 
mentioned), although there is proof that the effects of 
boiling the oil, and not only of boilings but of setting 
fire to it, were well understood. It is therefore pro- 
bable, that the old pictures in Bologna which Malvasia 
says were painted in oil, were, in fact, painted in dis- 
temper, and then covered with the varnish described 
in the MS. ; for if painting in oil had been practised at 
Bologna at the time the MS. was written, the author 
could scarcely have failed to become acquainted with it, 
and to record it in his work, as St Audemar, Le Begue, 
and Cennini have done. 

The art of distilling oils was also known and prac- 
tised at this time in Italy, for the distilled or volatile 
oil of linseed is mentioned in No. 238, accompanied 
with a remark, that colours mixed with it will last for 
ever; and spirit of turpentine, the *' acqua di ragia" of 
the Italians, is also spoken of in No. 246. 

In No. 236 directions are given for preparing earths 
for use " in muro o in calcina.** As these were tem- 

1 Febina Pittrice, vol. i. p. 27. 


pered with strong gum water, or with the white and 
yolk of an egg well mixed, and beaten with the branch 
of a fig-tree cut into small pieces, it is clear that the 
author does not speak of painting in ^^ buon fresco ;" at 
the same time it is doubtful whether he is speaking of 
painting, or merely of the letters or legends which were 
at that time frequently written on pictures. 

The next subject treated of is the making of artificial 
gems, in which the author appears to have again had 
the assistance of his Spanish friend. The base of these 
factitious gems consists principally of a glass composed 
of crystal, calcined stir's bones, and sal alkali, without 

The early recipe in No. 268 for colouring glass red 
with copper, will be read with interest. The art of 
composing this colour was lost, although recipes for it 
have always existed. The note in the text alludes to a 
difficulty which exists in preparing this colour, from the 
tendency of the copper to pass into the state of peroxide, 
in which state it tinges glass green. ^ 

The application of the diamond to cutting glass was, 
it is said, suggested by the well-known anecdote of 
Francis I., who, in order to let the Duchess d'Estampes 
know that he was jealous, wrote the following lines on 
a pane of glass, which, says Le Yieil (De la Feinture 
sur Yerre, p. 206), may still be seen in his castle of 
Chambord : — 

" Souvent femme vane 
Mai habil qui s'y fie." 

" The efiTect," he continues, " of the impression of 
one of the points of this diamond on the glass, caused 

1 See Beckmann's Inventions, tit. Coloured Glass, whicli contains some 
tnteretting notices respecting this colour. 



it to be remarked that the characters were not only en- 
graved on it) but that the glass was actually cut ; thus 
an accident proved that the diamond was adapted for 
cutting glass, and doubtless gave rise to the practice 
which soon became general." 

It b a pity to spoil so good a story by proving the 
invention to be older, but Ihe truth must be told, and it 
will be seen by No. 217) that the art of cutting glass 
with a diamond was known and practised in Italy at 
the period when this MS. was written, that is, more 
than a century previous to the time of Francis I. The 
circumstance, trifling as it may appear, is useful in ascer- 
taining the period when coloured glass was executed. 

The same chapter (No. 2 1 7) also proves that the art 
of .corroding glass by means of an acid was known and 
practised contemporaneously wiA the last-mentioned 
invention. The direction for preparing the acid liquor 
are so clear as to place this beyond a doubt. ^ When," 
says the author, ^^ you wish to use this liquor, take equal 
quantities of each of these diree waters ; mix them to^ 
gether, draw witii the mixed liquor upon the glass, and 
it will be cut exactly as you wish wherever it is wetted 
by this water.'' The fact of the three liquids being 
kept in separate bottles is a proof of their effects when 
mixed. They would jn'obably have corroded the glass, 
which perhaps contained lead or other metals, easily 
acted upon by acids. 

The invention of this art has been attributed by 
Beckmann to Henry Schwanhard, glass-cutter to the 
Emperor Rudolph in 1670 ; and ilie invention is said 
to have originated in the following occurrence: — Some 
aqua-fortis having one day fallen accidentally on the 
spectacles of Schwanhard, the glass was corroded by it, 


and from this he learned to make a liquid by which he 
could etch writing and figures upon plates of glass/ 
Beckmann remarks, that it is not known how Schwan- 
hard prepared this liquid, and that '^at present we are 
acquainted with no acid, but that of fluor-spar, which 
will corrode every kind of glass."' 

The conclusion of the same chapter in the MS., 
No. 217, also shows that glass mirrors were in general 

It will also be observed, that the art of painting on 
glass with enamels of various colours is distinctly de- 
scribed in No« 270 ; and the ^^ smalti," or enamels, are 
also mentioned in No. 1 . It is usually considered that 
these were not in use until after the middle of the six- 
teenth century : the chapter in the text will, I think, 
disprove this fact The same ^* smalti " are also men- 
tioned in the MS. of the Marciana (No. 325, which is 
of the sixteenth century), with the additional information 
that they were brought from Germany. It is probable, 
therefore, that they were in general use for painting 
on glass in Italy during the fifteenth and sixteenth 
centuries. Gaye has shown ^ that the windows in the 
Duomo d'Arezzo, painted in 1477 by Frati Cristo- 
phano and Bernardo, were to be executed with colours 
'* cotte al fuoco e non messi a olio." The colours 
^^ cotte al fiioco " were, probably, these smalti, or enamel 

1 See Sandrart, Teatsche Akademie, to], i. p. 846 ; Doppelmayer, p. 

* Inventions, tit Glass-cntting. 

> Glan mirron are known with certainty to hare been used in the thir- 
teendi centnry. 

^ Garteggio Inedito d'Artisti, vol. ii. p. 446. 


This MS. also gives the composition of the old pig- 
ment Gialiolino, which was made of lead, tin, red lead, 
and sand ; and a method of applying leaf gold on glass, 
in which a solution of borax is the flux. 

The author next treats of Mosaics, and first of the 
white material which serves as a base for the colours. 
The blue colour is produced by adding ultramarine to 
the white material. The red colour for the Mosaics 
is formed of tin and calx of gold, with other ingre- 
dients, thus affording a certain proof of the antiquity of 
red colours produced from gold.^ While on the sub- 
ject of the production of colours from gold, it may be 
mentioned that in No. 32 there is a description of the 
process of procuring a purple from gold, by dissolving 
it in aqua regia (nitro-muriatic acid), and then preci- 
pitating it with the oxide of tin, a process which seems 
analogous to the preparation of the purple of Cassius, 
and the date of this must be at least 150 years previous 
to the first notice of the purple of Cassius in the his- 
tory of art. It will also be observed that No. 318 de- 
scribes a yellow colour for painting made from silver, 
the discovery of which has been ascribed, although 
without sufficient foundation, to Van Eyck. The pro- 
duction of a yellow colour, for painting on glass, from 
silver, has always been attributed to the Flemings ; but 
this recipe bears strong evidence of a French origin, for 
French ochre is directed to be used, and the ingredients 
are weighed by the usual French weights "denari." 
At the same time, however, it will be observed that the 

1 Mr. Hendrie (Theoph. E. E. p. 174) quotes some recipes for factitious 
gems from an old MS. ia the Britifih Museum (Sloane MSS., No. 3661), in 
which gold is used. 


word "giallo** is written according to the Venetian 
dialect The term ^^ anconitani " proves that it was in 
use in Italy, and probably for painting on pottery as well 
as on glass. No. 322 also describes a gold colour made 
from silver, for painting vases previously glazed. This 
is one of the additional chapters, and may therefore 
have been written at a later period. 

The next subject, glazes for pottery, is interesting 
because it shows what glazes were in use at this period. 
The base of the glaze employed was tin, to which was 
generally added Marzachotta, which was not the yellow 
oxide of lead, but probably a kind of firit like the com- 
position called Mastichot, or Massicot, by the Dutch. 

The colour with which the vases of Majolica and 
Damascus were painted is also described. These vases 
were known in Italy in the beginning of the fifteenth 
century. They are mentioned by Cennini as well as 
by the author of this MS., and in neither case as 

Yasari attributes the invention of glazing pottery 
with a vitreous glaze, composed of tin, litharge, anti- 
mony, and other materials, to Luca della Bobbia ; now 
many of the glazes mentioned in this MS. contain tin 
and litharge [terraghetta], but none contain antimony. 
It is also worthy of remark, that one of the recipes 
teaches how to make blue in relief in the Florentine 
method. Some of these recipes may, therefore, have 
been similar to those used, or invented, by Luca della 
Bobbia.^ They certainly existed in Italy during the 

ri (vol ii. p. 47) aays Luca was born at Florence in 1388. Passeri 
alio (Sloria delle Pitture in Majolica iatte in Pesaro e ne' luoghi circonvi- 
cmi) attributes the invention of this art to Luca ; others, observes Lanu, 



period when Luca was living, and are not mentioned 
as new inventions. 

*^ Les pieces d'art," says M. de Brongniart^ in his 
Traits des Arts G^ramiques,^ *'dues a cette famille d'ar- 
tistes Faienciers * [the family of Luca], ont pour gla- 

Yol. ii. p. 118, saj the art was brought from China, whence it passed into 
the island of Msyorca, and from thence into Italy, where it was principally 
cultivated in the state of Urbino. It was employed not only for vases and 
table-services, but also for statues and groups in relievo, some of which 
were coloured. The art reached the highest point of perfection in the 
period between 1540 and 1560. During this short interval were executed 
the most beautiful vases and table-services that were ever made of this 
material. (See De Brongniart, Traits des Arts C^ramiques, p. 58.) In 
the early part of the fifteenth century Giorgio Andreoli, commonly called 
Maestro Giorgio, invented the beautiful ruby red colour which is seen on 
pottery of this period. He worked at Gubbio between 1511 and 1537. 
The Duke Guidobaldo of Urbino took great interest in this art, and main- 
tained a factory of it at his own expense. In order to secure good designs 
he prohibited the artificers from designing the works themselves, and com* 
pelled them to use prints after great artists, and especially after Raflfaello ; 
and this gave rise, observes Lanzi, to certain reports concerning this artist 
and his father, and the nickname of the ** Boccalajo di Urbino," which 
was given to the great painter.* Many designs of Michael Angelo, of 
Raffaello del Colle, and other great artists, were executed in this mate- 
rial, and many painters were employed in making designs purposely for it ; 
and Taddeo Zuccaro relates, that the designs for the service made for 
Philip II. of Spain were by Batista Franco. Services were made also for 
Charles the Fifth and other princes ; and they were held in such esteem that 
Christina of Sweden offered to replace with silver vessels those which are 
now in the S. Casa at Loreto, which she desired to possess. See Lanzi, 
vol. ii. p. 117 — 120. . De Brongniart, Traitd des Arts Cdramiques, pp. 55 

1 See Traitd des Arts C<Sramiques ou des Poteries considdr^ dans leur 
histoire, leur pratique, et leur th^rie. Par Alex. Brongniart. 2 vols. 8vo. 
Paris, pp. 55—57. 

> The French term '* fayence," earthenware, was derived from Faenza, 
in Italy, where it was formerly made. 

* Another reason for this appellation was* that one of the most skilfhl painters 
of this porcelain was also called Bafiaello— his somame was Ciarla. His works 
then were truly said to have been painted by Bafiaello, and the vulgar supposed 
they were by Rafibello Samdo. See Lana, vol. ii. p. 119, n. 


9ure un veritable 6mail stannifere, bien glace, dur^ sans 
ger9ure." The principal colours employed are, accord- 
ing to the same writer : — 

A tolerably pure yellow, produced by lead and 

An opaque, pure, and dark blue ; sometimes like 
enamel, sometimes as if applied on the surface. 
Copper green. 

The dirty violet from Manganese. 
He adds, '^ These baked earths, with ornaments in 
relief of white and coloured enamels, were, for some 
time, the only coloured stanniferous pottery made in 
Italy. The manufacture of this varnished pottery, 
which Fasseri calls * semi-porcelain,' is still continued 
at Fesaro. This glazing was very beautiful.** 

It is evident that the pottery described by M. de 
Brongniart resembles that for which the recipes are 
given in the MS. They have the same ornaments in 
relief of white and colours, and the colours used appear 
to be nearly the same. 

The principal variation is in the yellow, which De 
Brongniart states consisted of lead and antimony ; but 
he does not add that this statement is the result of ana- 
lysis ; and he may have named antimony on the autho- 
rity of Vasari, who wrote above 100 years after the 
death of Luca, and who might therefore have been de- 
ceived as to the time when antimony was first used. It 
will be seen by referring to the MS., that the yellows 
were produced by lead (see Nos.298,299), and by silver 
(see No. 318). 

The pure, dark, opaque blue appears to have been 
ultramarine. In No. 303, the blue colouring matter is 
called 2jafirro, and in other recipes ^^ azurro" only ; but 


to judge from die colour and appearance of the blue on 
old Italian pottery, there is every probability that it waa 
produced by ultramarine. 

The copper greens are mentioned in Nos. 300, 301 ; 
the violet azure in No. 311. The latter was produced 
by adding Manganese to the azure. 

This is the only colour approaching to red which is 
mentioned in these recipes, excepting that which may 
be produced by exposing ^^ crocus martis *' to the action 
of fire, for the colouring of the Damascus or Majolica 
vases. See No. 316. 

The recipe in No. 284, for making a baked vase 
white without painting it, is worthy of notice as a his- 
torical fact ; because Fasseri, the great authority on this 
subject, says, ^* It was only towards the year 1500, that 
the idea occurred at Fesaro, of employing this stanni- 
ferous glaze, as the glazing of earthenware, and as the 
white ground, on which were executed those beautifiil 
paintings, which have given so much celebrity to this 
pottery, under the name of Majolica, and even under 
that of porcelain, a name which it owes to the beauty 
of its enamel.'* 

It is singular that although the author treats of 
making artificial gems of glass, of Mosaics, and of 
glazes for pottery, he should have omitted to treat of 
painting on glass ^ for windows; which was certainly 
known long previous to the date of this MS.,' and which 
was practised at this period in England, France, Flan- 
ders, Germany, and in some parts of Italy. 

1 Unlen windows may be included under the bead of " any other works 
in glass/' in No. 270. 
s See the MSS. of Theopbilus, Book it., and of Eracbus. 


On looking, however, into the early history of Bo- 
lognaj it will be found that the most ancient painted 
glass in that city (which is in the Church of S. Pe- 
tronio) was not executed until the middle, or end, of 
the fifteenth century (consequently after the date of tiiis 
MS.) by a lay Dominican, Beato Giacomo da Ulmo,^ 
who was much addicted to painting, or, as it was then 
called^ "writing*' on glass; and who "was the only 
person at that period who practised this art in Bologna." 

But although our author does not mention painted 
glass windows, he mentions three substitutes, or imita- 
tions, which, he says, "will appear like real glass." 
The first ' consists of parchment, which is to be painted, 
and then varnished on the painted side ; the second 
of parchment painted, and then covered with a couch 
of linseed oil ; the third of linen also painted, and var- 
nished with Vernice Liquida. 

It is not mentioned whether tiiese windows were in- 
tended for churches or private houses. 

The MS. concludes with a treatise on dyeing silks, 
thread, linen, and leather ; on the last subject it is very 
voluminous. To these are added a few miscellaneous 
recipes, among which are some for glues and cements 
of various kinds. 

The unfinished Table of Contents is by another hand, 
probably of the seventeenth century. 

I B. Giacomo was born at Ulm in Gennany in 1407. In his youth his 
derotion led him to Rome, then he became a soldier. Afterwards he went 
to Bdogna, where he assumed the habit of a lay Dominican, and gave 
himsdf op to painting on glass and working miracles. He died in the 
odour of sanctity in 1491. See the Guida di Bologna. Marchese, Vite 
de' Pittori, &c., Domenicani. 
See No. 165. 



{ 340 ) 




1. To know the qv/dity and nature qf good stones without 
amdlis? — ^Know that lapis lazuli is a mineral stone which 
cotnes from beyond the sea. Many persons sell it in powder, 
and some sell it in entire pieces ; it is of various sorts, and one 
stone may be of much greater value than another. Some 
stones are of a purple colour, and some of a dark violet, with 
red veins, and in some of the crevices is red earth ; and this 
stone is not so brilliant as smalt* And if its vein is white, or 
if there should be no spots of white here and there upon it, 
and if it should break easily, such stones are not very fine, 
because you cannot extract from them more than half their 
weight of fine azure ; and in exchanging these stones you lose a 
great deal, therefore none will trouble themselves about them 
but those that are unpractised. Many say that the bedt lapis 
lazuli is a stone of a blue colour, which appears to have some- 
thing of a violet tinge, with vein-like spots of gold in it ; and it 
is mixed with a whitish stone, and is very hard to break. And 
observe that the following is the test by which to distinguish 
the good from the bad : — First take a piece of the stone and 

1 Amalis. Query, Amulets or Charms ? 

s It is almost unnecessary to observe that the colour we call Smalt was 
not known until long after the date of this MS. ; I have, however, retained 

{ 341 ) 




1. Ad coffnascendum quaiitatem et naturam bonorum lapidum 
ab aliis sine amalis. — Sappi che lo lapis lazuli e una petra de 
minera che vieni ultra mare. Molti la vendino impolvere e 
alcTUii la vendino impezi integri e sonno de piu ragioni e de 
molto piu fia una pretra che un altra. Alcune petre sonno de 
colore pavonazQ, alcune de colore violato scuro e tiene la sua 
▼ena de rosso e in alcuni de li suoi canthoni hala terra rossa e 
non e la dicta petra troppo splendente quemadmodum de 
«malto. £ se la sua vena fiisse bianca o non fusse in qua e in 
la alcuna gocia de bianco e sia tenera a rompere : queste cotale 
petre non sonno troppo fini perche non se ne po cavare oltra a 
la meza de bono azurro e a mercatare queste cotale petre se ne 
ecapita in grosso impero non se ne vole impaciare che qua- 
lunque non ha bona pratica. Molti dicano che lo lapis lazuli 
optimo e una petra che celistrineggia e pare che tenga in se 
uono colore violato cum sentille di vene doro e ha misture de 
petre bianchette e de asa ben dura a romperla. E nota che 
questa e la sperientia de sapere quale sonno bone e quale sonno 
rei. Prima tolli uno pezo de le dicte petre e metila in nel 

the name for want of a better term. I consider it to mean those coloured 
glaties, or eaameb, mentioned in the MS. of the Marciana, No. 325, whjdi 
were hnraght from Germany, and which were used in painting on glass. 



put it into the fire, and let it become qnite red hot, then take 
it out and let it cool by itself; and when it is cold, if the stone 
retains its colour and does not become pale, it is good. But if 
it both improves and retains its colour, it is both good and 
perfect As for those stones which change the beauty of their 
primitive colour, we must consider how many degrees they 
have changed, because there are some stones which the more 
they lose the finer they are. And let us suppose that the loss 
of colour does not proceed from the quantity of earthy matter 
contained in the stone, that is to say, that what aziure it does 
contain is of good quality. But if it should proceed from the 
mixtures which are contained in the stone, we must neverthe- 
less consider the difierence made by this loss of colour, because 
it will yield less ; and this is known by its not being of an uni- 
form colour after it has been in the fire, but retaining its colour 
better in one part than in another. If it happens that the 
stone loses all its colour, then from whatever part it may have 
been dug, it is not ultramarine and is not fine, and conse- 
quently you cannot procure ultramarine azure from it, because 
the base of the azure, that is the stone, is not ultramarine. 
And even if it were ultramarine, it may contain so little sub- 
stance as not to make it worth while to work it, because you 
would spend money without any advantage whatsoever ; and 
the price of these stones in Italy commonly varies from 2 to 5 
ducats a pound, according as they are more or less fine. 

2- To distinguish German or Teutonic azure from the other; 
and some notice of the stone from which this German azure is 
made. — Know that the German azure is of several sorts, as is 
well known to those who have any knowledge and experience 
of it, because it usually contains in itself the stone from wliich 
this colour is made ; it is partly of a pale and opaque blue, 
and partly earthy, of a yellow colour and frangible, so as to be 
broken by the nail ; and these are the noblest azures of Ger- 
many that are foimd, and they usually appear somewhat trans- 
lucent or transparent if you keep your eyes steadily fixed on 
them ; but in this experience is the best guide. I'he value of 


fiioco e faria ben infocare de vantagio poi il tra fdora e lassala 
fredare da se steasa e quando sera refredata se la dicta petra 
ata in suo colore che non smortisca e bona. Ma se migliorasae 
coUore die lo mantenga e perfecta e bona. Ma quelle che 
mutano la bellezza dal prime coUore e da considerar in quanti 
^adi se mutano per che ce sonno de quelle che quanto piu 
tmontano tanto sonno piu fini. E poniamo che lo smontare non 
^nrocedesse da la quantita de la terra de la petra cio e che 
juello cotanto che tene de azurro e de bona natura. Ma se 
procedesse dale misture che sonno ciun la petra nondimeno e 
da fare la defirentia per lo callo imperho che renderia meno e 
questo se cognosce quando e stato in el fuoco non toma tuta 
duno collore, in alcun luoco se mantieni melglio che in uno 
altro. Ma se devinisse che la petra perdesse tutto el colore 
suo questa tale petra de qualunque parte fussero cavate non 
sonno de ultramare e non sonno fini e per consequentia non ne 
poresti cavare azurro ultramarine perche lo suo fondamento 
cio e la petra non e de de oltramare. £ ben che fussero de 
ultramare possino tenere tanto poco de substantia die non seria 
da impadarsine imperho che fsuresti la spesa senza utili alcuno e 
li pregi de le dicte petre in nele parte de ytalia communament^ 
oombatino da li doi ducati infino in cinque la libra e secondo 
che sonno piu e meno belle. 

2. Ad cognosoendum azurrum almaneum she Teothonicum 
ab alio et aliquam notitiam ipsius lapidis ex quo Jit predictum 
azurrum almaneum. — Sappi che lo azurro de la magna e de piu 
maineri secondo che ello e manifesto a chi de esse ha alcuna 
notitia e sperientia imperho che sole havere in se la petra che 
che se ne fa el dicto azurro parte de vena camillina e parte 
terra e de de coUore croceo e sono firan^bili a romperle cum 
r (^nia e quelli sono piu nobili azurri de lamagna che se 
trovino e soglino esse piu penetrabili e trasparenti a dtt tiene 
ben gliochi fissi in questo la experientia da molto piu dotri'na 
che altra cosa. £ li prep lore in partibus y tale combatano dali 


these stones in Italy varies from 12 bolognini ^ a pound to 20 
01* even 30 bolognini, when they are of very good colour and 
appearance. And know that the price of the azures, when 
extracted and refined, commonly varies from 1 to 3 ducats 
the poimd, more or less, according as they are more or less 

3. Here begins the practice of extracting the azure from the 
tapis lazuliy and of refining it? — Amtc is of two kinds, namely 
natural and artificial ; it is refined in the following manner : — 
Take the stone, which is a mineral, and after washing it with 
ley, heM it on burning charcoal, and afterwards extinguish it 
in good and very strong white vinegar ; then break it with a 
midlet on an iron anvil. Choose the good pieoes, and grind 
them fine in a brass mortar well covered, lest the finer particles 
should escape ; when Very finely ground put the powder into 
an earthen dish and pour over it hot water or hot ley with a 
little honey and clay, rubbing the azure with your hands or 
with a stick, iU order to extract the refined azure, and note 
that the water comes off of a green colour. Afterwards strain 
it through a linen cloth into a well-glazed earthenware basin,* 
and pour off the water, or, still better, the ley, leaving the 
powder of the lapis lazuli settled in the basin ; wash the azure 
with tepid but not hot water in a porphyry vessel, until the 
saline particles of the ley are washed away, and let the azure 
dry in the shade in the porphyry vessel ; keep it in a bladder 
or in a purse of chamois lekther : and note that if it is not of 
a good colour, or if it inclines to paleness, boil *'Brasil* 
wood*' * reduced to powder, in good ley or pure water, and 
then strain it through a cloth and put into it a little "alumen 
jameni," or ghsso,* and mix wiih your azure already re- 

1 Bolognini, coins of tbe value of six quattrini, or a bajoccho, equal to 
an English halfpenny. 

s There is another version of this chapter in a small MS. in the Biblio- 
th^ue Royale, at Paris, No. vi. MDCCXLIX. No. 9, entitled '* Ano- 
nymous Tractatus de Coloribus." The volume of which it forms part 
was tiated 14S1. The pHnci^ variations have been noticed. 

■J >■ 


12 bol la libra o all vinti bpl e per infino trenta bol la libra 
quando fussero avantagiati in colore et in apparentia. E sapi 
cfae li pre^ de U azuiri tracti e affinati comunamente combatino 
da imo ducato in fino a 3 dueati la libra e pin e meno secondo 
cbe aonno bellL 

3. IncipU praiiea ad extrcJiendum mmrrum de lapide lazuli 
U ipsum affinomdo. — ^Duplex est azurmm, scilicet natyrale et 
artificiale et ipsorum vero affinatio in modo asignatur isto. 
Acdpiatur lapidem istom qui est mineralis et igniatur post 
layationem lexini inter prnnas ignitas postea extingui^tur in 
perfecto et acerrimo aceto albo postea frange ipsum com 
malleo in ferrea incudenea et elige bonas partes et subtUiter 
terrantur in mort^o hereo optime coperto ne vapor ejus 
evalesoat et cum fuerit per optime tritum ponatur in patella 
terrea et de super pone aquam oalidam sive lexiyium calidum 
cum modico melle obluto et ipsum azurrum manibus fricando rel 
oum baculo ut exeat azurruin afinatum et nota quod prsedicta 
aqua efficitur yiridis coUoris postea cola per pannum lineum in 
lavella terrea ben yitriata post aquam sive lexivium quod 
melius est efiundatur et pulvis lazuli in layella residens postea 
ablue dictum lazurinimi cum aqua tepida et non nimis calida 
in porfido donee salsedo lexivii exeat et permitte ipsum azur- 
rum ad umbram siccari in prsedicto porfido et servetur in 
viaca in bursia camussi. £t nota quod si non est boni oolloris 
vel tendens ad pallorem dequoque [Brasilium] in pulverem 
deductum in bono lixiyio vel aqua pura postea per pannun^ 
cola et impone aliquantulum aluminis Jameni vel glasso, et 

s The Paris MS. has " patella ferrea bene plumbata." 

4 Brasilium. The word has been supplied from the Paris MS. 

A The parallel passage In the Paris MS. has *< Alumine glaro/' which 
appears to be qmonjmous with roche alum. See Cennino, chap. Uii., and 
the MS. of Le Begue, Nos. 42 and 299, where it is called " Alumen glacie" 
and ''Alumen glarum;'* and in No. 313 it is called simply '< glace.*' I 
haye little doubt that in all these passages roche alum is to be understood. 

The term Alumen Jameni occurs in Geber*s work on Alchemy. It also 
ooQun in die Le Begue MS. 


fined, and this gires it a good colour and will increase its 

4. The mode of working the powder of the before-mentioned 
stone into the pastille, — Take of mastic 1 lb., strained fine renn 
j^ lb., soap from goat or mutton suet \ lb., new wax 2 Ib^ 
liquid yamish 2 lb., linseed oil 1 oz. First melt the wax and 
soap in a glazed jar, then the renn and the mastic in powder, 
and afterwards the varnish and oil, and mix them with a spa- 
tula so as to incorporate them, and afterwards try if the com- 
position is well made and sufficiently thick by putting one drop 
into water ; the mixture hardens if it is well done, if not, boU 
it until it becomes hard, which done, strain it through a linen 
cloth into a baran fiill of clear cold water and put it by. When 
you want to use it, take equal quantities of the pastille and of 
lapis lazuli, and incorporate your mineral, reduced into very 
fine powder, with the pastille ; then put the pastille mixed with 
the powder into some glazed jar, and let the jar be half fiiU of 
cold water, so that the water may coyer the pastille by three 
fingers' width at the most, and let it remain in the water for 
15 days, and the longer the better; afterwards remoye the 
pastille from the water, and take good strong ley, which should 
be rather warm, and with it extract the azure frt)m the pastille, 
rubbing it with your hands in a glazed jar, and pouring by 
degrees the warm ley oyer it ; when you see the ley become 
blue pour it off by itself and put it into another glazed jar, and 
continue to do this until you have two other azures, not so fine 
as the first, and this you will know by experience, llien boil 
each sort separately with the ley and take off the scum neatly 
and carefrdly with a spoon ; when you have done this let it 
stand for a day and a night until all the azure settles at the 
bottom ; then separate the ley from the azure with a sponge, 
and wash the azure with clean water until all the saltness of 
the ley is extracted from it, then let it rest and the azure will 
sink to the bottom ; when settled pour off the water, let the 
azure dry in the shade, and afterwards keep it in lambskin or 
sheepskin, and take care not to expose it too much to the air. 


misoe cam tno azorro jam affinato et pei^ hoc dot bonum col- 
lorem et angmentabitor in pondere. 

4. Modus autem ponendi dictum pulverem ipnus lapidis in 
ptutillum. — Accipe de mastice lb. unam, ragia pini colliata lb. 
mediam, et de sapone capiino Tel aretino lb. mediam, cera noy& 
lb. diias, vemicis liquidsB lb. duas, olei seminis lini oz. 1 ; 
primo funde ceram et saponem in oUayitriata postea pone 
ragiam et pulverem masticb postea yernicis et olei et cum spa- 
tula misce ut incorporantur postea tenta si fderit cottum et 
spissum dico ponendo guttam unam in aquam si firmatur bene 
est si non coque ut dum firmatur quo viso cola per pannum 
lini in quodam vase pleno aqua clara et frigida et serva quum 
volueris eo uti accipe tantum de dicto pastille quantum de pul- 
vere lapidis et incorpora mineram tuam in subtilissimam pul-* 
verem reductam cum prsedicto pastillo postea mite dictum pas^ 
tillum cum dicto pulvere mistum in quodam vase vitriato et 
in dicto vase sit aquam claram usque ad medium vel tribus 
digitis ad plus supra pastiUum et dimite stare in dita aqua per 
15'"^ dies et quanto plus tanto melius postea extrahe dictum 
pastillum de dicta aqua et habeas lescivium bonum et forte et 
cum dicto lescivio aliquantulum caUdo extrahe azurrum de 
dicto pastillo et ipsum manibus fricando in alico vase vitriato 
et paulatim de dicto liscivio calido desuper mitendo et quando 
videbis azurrum extrahe de per se et mite in alio vase vitriato 
et Ac conlinua donee habeas alios duos azurros variatos non ita 
booos quam primum et demostrabitur per experientiam et cum 
dicto lixdvio &cias aliquantulum bulire quemlibet sortem de 
per se et cum uno coclario acipias spumam suavis et ingeniose 
et quando erit sic operatum permicte sic stare per diem et 
noctem donee totum azurrum petat fundimi postea sepera 
liscivium ab azurro cum spongia et ablue dictum azurrum cum 
clara acqua donee omnis salsedo liscivii exseat et permicte 
possare donee azurrum petat fimdum postea eice aquam so- 
prastantem et dictum azurrum permicte sicari ad humbram 
postea conserva eum in corio agnilino vel aretino et cave ne ayer 
ninus taoget eum. £t intellige quod azurrum ultramarinum 


And know that citramarine ^ anire must be refined by a ley 
and not by a pastille, because it is coarse and not heavy, and 
cannot be extracted in any manner by means of a pastille, or 
otherwise than by a good ley iminregnated with Ron^an soap, 
and this ultramarine, or German or Spanish azure, or that 
which is brou^t from Lombardy, is refined in the following 
manner by means of a ley. Take very clear .ley made firom 
the sifted ashes of brushwood' and dissolve a considerable 
quantity of Roman soap so as to make it very viscid, put your 
mineral reduced to a very fine powder into the ley and after* 
wards make it boil a little over the fire ; stir it gently with a 
spoon, then, pouring off the ley by degrees, you will find a very 
beautiful refined azure at the bottom of the jar ; afterwards 
wash it with pure water, to remove the viscosity, and strain it 
through a linen cloth, and you will have natural azure. 

5. Another sort of pastille is made thus, — ^Take of the best 
dried pine resin 6 oz., mastic 6 oz«, of new wax 3 os*, of lin* 
seed oil 4 oz. ; put all these things upcm the fire, and do with 
everything as you were directed to do for the other pastille. 
When you wish to incorporate the pastille with the powder 
directly, take the pastille out of the water and rub it well in 
your hands, which you must grease with linseed oil. If the 
pastille spreads well, it is right ; if not, repeat the boiling until 
you can spread it out well, and knead it like wax ; then take a 
porphyry slab, oil it with linseed oil, spread out the pastille 
flat upon it, and immediately sprinkle over it some of the 
powder of l^iis lazuli, kneading it up vdtb your hands until 
one pound of the powder is kneaded up with 16 oz. of the 
pastille, then put the pastille, together with the powder, into 
cold water in any glazed jar, and let it renwn as before in 

1 This part of the chapter is nearly a transcript of part of the Paris MS. 
before mentioned. 

I have supplied the word " Citramarine " from the Paris MS., which 
appears the most correct. In the first part of the Bolognese MS., the au- 
thor has described the method of preparing the true Ultramarine, or Azur- 
rum Transnuurinum, with the pastille; but he is now speaking of anodier 
kind of aaire,ibr whi^ a ley was to lie used instead of a pastille. This last 


e; debet debet affitiari per capitellum et non per pastillum : qnia 

nd < groesum est et non ponderosum nnllo modo extraUtar pastillo 

or j nisi bono capitello sapone romano infecto et dictam azurrum 

ip, I nltramarinnm Tel almanenm rel ispanetim vel de lombardia 

lat ' aportatnm affinator hoc modo per viam capitelli. Acipe 

Qg 1 lescivium de cineribus crebeDatis et sit bene clarom in quo 

im dissolve saponem romanum in bona qnantitate ut sit bene Ti&- 

le ehosum in quo pone mineram tuam in subtilissiinam pulverem 

or reductam postea ad ignem fiitias aliquantulom bolire fiitias et 

r- enm move plane et moderate com spatula postea paulatim 

a effiiso capitello invenies azmrum] pulcherrimum in fundo vasis 

ry j affinatum postea eum lava cum pura aqua ut auferatur ab eo 

ds viscositas et postea colabis per pannum lineum et habebis 

it azurrum valde naturalem. 

^ 5. Alium pastiUum sic fit, — Summe ragia pini optime eioce 

Q. oz. 69 mastids oz* 6, cene nove oz. 2, olei semink lini oz. 4, 

^ httc omnia pone super ignem et &c per omnia ut supra ha- 

e. buisti in alio pastillo. £t quando vis dictum pastillum cum 

3r pulvere inoorporare subito adpe dictum pastillum de aqua 

J) et ipsum ducas per manus multum bene perunta manus de 

,e oleo lini et si dictum pastillum bene extenderetur bene est si 

|] non reitera decotionem donee se posed bene extendere et 

g ducere per manus sicut cera tunc habeaa porfidum et undem 

Q unge cum oleo lini et de super pone dictum ditum pastillum 

g extensum super dictum porfidum sic splanata et aspergas su- 

] bito de dito pulvere lazuli desiqier et ipsum manibus inccMr* 

9 porando donee una libra dicti pulveris incorporetur cum sex- 

decim unciis dicti pastilli et hoc facto pone dictum pastillum 

g cum pulvere inoorporato in aqua frigida in quodam vase vitri- 

unro) ke ny«, wn brought from ** Almania ut de Anglia at Ispanea sea 
Lombardia ;*' a proof that this pigment was not prodaced in Germany only. 
Ceonini also speaks of its being foand at Siena. 

* Sabcarbonas Potassn imporus, Impure potash, or pearl-ash. It is gene- 
railj prepared by baming land plants, or wood ; in Italy vine branches 
were geoemlly used for this porpoae. 


another pastille not eo good, and do as before ; and note that 
if you wish to colour the azure, take a little spirit of wine and 
put it into the water with some good verzino ; but this does 
not belong to the art of preparing azure. 

6. To extract the gold from the lapis laztdi^—Teke the 
before-mentioned mineral lapis lazuli, and break it on an anvil 
or in a covered brass mortar, and put it in a basin of cold 
water, and you will see that it has veins of gold, and that sort 
is good. If you want the gold, pick it out piece by piece. 

7. To make good azure and r^ne it by means of a pastille. 
— Take as much lapis lazuli as you like and pound it very 
finely and carefully in a brass mortar, afterwards grind it on 
porphyry with clear water so as to become alnM)st impalpable, 
because in this state it will work better, and let it dry. 

8. The manner of working the before-mentioned azure into a 
pastille. — Take for every pound of lard, one pound of pine 
resin and one ounce of Spanish pitch ; then take a jar, free 
from fat, and melt the lard in it, and when it is melted and 
strained add clean pine resin, and mix it well, so that the 
ingredients may be incorporated together, afterwards add the 
Spanish pitch ; mix all thoroughly together, and let the mix- 
ture be as liquid as water. Then pour upon it a little com- 
mon oil, or linseed oil, and remove the jar fit)m the fire, oon- 
tinually stirring it with the stick while it is cooling. When 
you wish to put the powder of the lapis lazuli into this pastille, 
take equal quantities of the pastille and of the stcme reduced 
to powder, and melt the pastille over the fire in a glazed 
vessel, and when it is liquid like water put your stone into iti 
and mix it well with a stick ; afterwards take it away firom the 
fire, and let it remain from evening to morning, or even longer ; 
then heat it at the fire until nearly liquefied. You must place 
by the fire a pot ftdl of water, tepid, but not hot, in which you 
must put the pastille for a short time, then take a glazed jar 

1 Gold 18 not actuiJly foand in the Lapis Lazuli ; but the spots and veins 
which resemble this mineral consist of sulphuret of iron, which is always 
more or less present in the mineral. The Bomans called the Lapis Lazuli 


ato et permitte stare nt supra in alio pastillo non tarn bono et 
sequere ut supra. Et nota quod si vis ipsum coUorare acipere 
modicum aquas ardentis et intus in ipsa aqua pone aliquantu- 
Inm de virzino bono tamen non est de arte azurorum. 

6. A cavar loro de lo lapis lazuli, — Accipe dictum lapidem 
mineralem lazurrinum et eum frange in ancudenea sive in 
mortare hereo cop^rto et pone ipso in quodam vase ut sit de 
at^ua frigida et Tidebis venas aureas habentes et illud est 
bonum. £t si ris aumm acipe ipsum paulatim paulatim. 

7. j^are azurro bono et afinarlo per via de pastillo^ viz. — 
Recipe de lapide lazuli quantum vis et eum pista in mortareo 
faereo valde bene et caute postea macina ipsum in porfido cum 
clara aqua quantum potest ut veniat subtile quasi sine tacta 
quia melius operabit deinde demicte eum sicari. 

8. Modus panendi sapradictum azurrum in pastiUum. — 
Summe per omni libra lardi lb. unam ragia pini et et untiam 
unam pegule spagnole postea habeas ollam unam multum 
nitidam a pinguedine deinde mitte lardum dictum in ditta oUa 
ad colandum et quando colatum fiierit tunc mite ragia pini 
munda et mistica bene ut incorporantur postea impone desuper 
dictam pegulam spagnolam et insimul incorpora valde bene ut 
deveniat sicut aqua deinde impone desuper aliquantulum olei 
communis vel seminis lini postea remove dictam ollam ab igne 
semper mistando cum baculo dum reirigiatur. £t quando vis 
mittere dictum pulverem lapidis lazuli in hunc pastillum 
acdpe tanto de dicto pastille quanto de dicto lapide in pulve- 
rem redutto deinde recipe dictum pastillum et mitte eum ad 
ignem ad liquefaciendum in quodam vase vitriato e cum lique- 
factum fuerit ad modum aquae tunc impone lapidem tuum et 
mistica bene cum uno baculo postea sepera eum ab igne et 
dimitte sic stare a sero usque ad mane vel plus deinde calefac 
eum ad ignem ut deveniat quasi liquidum et habeas ad ignem 
oDam unam aquae plenam dico quod aqua sit tepida et non 

ortbU description, Sapbinis Regius, under the supposition that it contained 
gold. See ftkchhofiher, Chemistry applied to the Arts. 


widi hot water and pour it on to the pastille, mixing it con- 
tinually ; and as the pastille loses its azure, keep oontanually 
adding hot water ; and note, that if the pastille should break, 
you must not knead it, but let it stand a litde, and pour off 
the water from the pastille, then pour some other hotter water 
on the pastille, in the manner you did before, and mix it : 
and ofafler?e, that when the azure changes colour, you must 
immediately pour off the coloured water into another vase ; 
and it will be of less value than the first. If you choose to 
return this into the first pastille another time, then it will come 
out like the first azure ; and know, that when you take the 
second azure extracted from the pastille, you can put it back 
a second time, and it will come out a better azure. And note 
also, that all the powders of lapis lazuli, when they are put 
into the pastille, diminish and lose one half. If you wish to 
extract completely the whole of your azure from the pastille, 
make it boil in ley until the pastille becomes white, and then 
prepare it in this way.:^-Take the first jar (and do the same 
with the others) and strain the contents into another jar 
through a thick piece of white linen cloth ; then take another 
clean jar and rub the piece of linen to and fro upon the bottom 
of it, and all the good azure will be extracted : if it were 
squeezed, the azure would get into the pores of the linen. 
Then pour it into that which has been strained through the 
linen, and let it settle until it all sinks to the bottom ; throw 
away the water, and heat the powder with clear ley so that it 
may boil a little ; then throw it into another jar, and let it rest 
until it sinks to the bottom ; next take out the ley dexterously 
and cautiously with a sponge, and pour dean water into it and 
mix it well. Then let it stand, and take out the water in the 
same way. that you did the ley, and let it dry in the diad^, and 
keep it in a purse. 

9. To make uitramarine azure another way. — ^Take the 
mineral stone of the lapis lazuli, which has veins of gold, and 
which is of a blue colour, and this is the finest sort. Divide 
the stones into three classes ; and first select the deanest and 


calida et m ipsa oUa cmn aqua tepda mite aliqnantalum 
dictum pastillum postea habeas catimim unum vitriatum eum 
aqua calida et mite intos dictum pastillum semper misticando 
^t'quaudo pastillum deficit de aEuiro renova semper aquam 
magis calidam. Et nota quod si pastillum frangeretur cave ne 
tu misticas sed dimete ipsum stare aliquaiitulum et separa 
aquam a pastillo et desoper pastillum impone de alia aqua 
ma^ cdida per supradictum modum et mistica. Et nota 
quod quando azunrmn mutat colorem statim sepera aquam 
azurrinam in alio vase et erit minoris pretii quam primum. 
Et si vis retomare aliam vicem in pastille prime dum supra- 
dictum veniet ut primum azurmm. Et inteiige quando tu 
acipias azurum secundum extractum de pastille tu potest eum 
remietere aUa vice in pastille veniet libi meliorem azurrum. 
Et nota quod omnes pulveres lapidum lazulorum ut mictantur 
in pastillum defitiunt et callant per medium et si vis extrahere 
penitus azurrum de pastille &c eum bullire in lexivio dum- 
modo pastillus deveniat albus postea adpe azurrum iUum et 
eum quoque per bunc modum acipe primum eatinnm et sic 
reitera cum aliis et cola in uno alio catino per unam petiam 
spissam panni lini albam et adpe alterum catinum netidum e 
pel mena la dita peza suso per li fondi e tuto lo azurro buono 
uscira fuora perche se se stringesse intraria in la peza e poi 
metilo in quelle che sia colato con la peza e poi lo lassa posare 
infino che e tutto al fbndo poi gietta via laqua et fallo bulire 
cum lisda chiara tanto che bolla uno poco poi giettalo in uno 
catino e lassalo possare tanto che vada al fondo poi cava la 
lisda fuora dextramente et ingeniose cum una spongna poi 
ra«cti dentro de laqua chiara e misticalo bene poi lassa 
posare e cava fora laqua per lo mode che cavasti la lisda poi 
kssalo secare a lombra et servalo in bursia. 

9. Affare azurro uUramarinum per alium modum. — Tolli de 
la petra minerale de lo lapis lazuli la quale tene de vene 
doro e de di coUore dllistrino e quella e la piii fina della quale 
preta ne farai tre sorte prima elleggio le piu necte e le piu 


finest, which contain no stone or earth ; second, choose those 
that are of the middling sort ; and, thirdly, those that remain, 
which belong to the third sort ; and put each sort by itself 
Then put those which you wish to use into a crucible, cover it 
with a tile, and put it on a charcoal fire or in a hot oven for 
a whole day ; then quench the stone in hot vinegar, and after- 
wards pound it in a bronze mortar, well covered, and sift it very 
fine. Then put the azure into a glazed jar with pure water, 
and stir it with your hand or with a stick, and let it rest 
Remove the water carefully with a sponge, then grind the 
azure well on a porphyry slab, and afterwards put it into pure 
water in a jar, and stir it well with a stick. Then let it rest 
for the space of a foter notter^ after which pour that water into 
a clean glass, because the finest azure is that which will 
remain at the bottom. You must grind the inferior azure 
which remains a second time, as before. Then take out the 
coloured water and lay it aside, and do as before ; then grind 
it again, and do this until there remains no more azure, and 
when you have put away all the waters by themselves, let them 
settle well, so that all the azure may sink to the bottom and 
the water remain clear above. Then take ofi^ the water with 
a sponge as before, and when you have completely removed it, 
wash the azure with tepid caustic ley^ stir it well with a stick, 
let it settle, and then take out the ley as you did the water, 
and let it dry in the shade. This is the true preparation of 

10. Mode ofmaihing a pastille to extract the azure from the 
lapis lazuli, — ^Take of pine resin oz. viij, Greek pitch oz. iiij, 
mastic half an oimce, linseed oil oz. ij ; then take a glazed 
pipkin, and put it upon a tripod over a slow and clear fire, and 
when it begins to get hot, put into it first the linseed oil, and 
let it warm a little ; then add the Greek pitch in powder, and 
incorporate it thoroughly with the oil, mixing it with a stick 
until it is done ; and you will know when it is done by trying it 

1 Ranno da Capo is probably the same as CapiteUo, The tenn rtamo is 



belle le quale non tengano de spetie de alcuna altra petra o 
▼ero de terra. Secundo eleggie la mezana sorte. Tertio 
eleggie quelle che ayanzano che e la terza sorte e metti 
omni una da per se e poi meti quelle che tu yoi lavorare in 
nno crugiolo e coprilo cum luia tegola e meetilo al iuoeo de 
carboni o vero in lo fomo caldo tuto uno di e poi immortalo 
cum aceto forte poi lo pista in uno mortaro de bronzo ben 
coperto poi lo stamegna ben sotili e poi pone lo azuro in uno 
catino vitriato cum aqua pura e rimenalo cum mano o cum 
uno bastoni e lassalo ripossare poi cava lacqua con una spogna 
moderatamente poi torai lo azurro e macioalo sopra uno por- 
fido molto bene poi lo porai in aqua pura in uno catino poilo 
rimena bene cum uno bastone poi lo lassa repossare per spatio 
duno pater nostro poi mecti quella aqua in uno vaao de vetrio 
netto imperhoche lo azurro subtilissimo e quello che romara al 
fondo e quello azurro piii grosso che te romara atritalo bene 
una altra volta commo prima e poi cava laqua azurra e mectila 
da parte e fa commo prima poi la trita de novo e cusi farai 
tante volte in fino a tanto che ce azurro e quando tu 
faaverai poete tutte laque da per se lassale ben pcssare si che 
tutto lo azurro vada al fondo e laqua remanga cfaiara de sopra 
poi cava laqua cum la spogna commo e di sopra ditto e quando 
laverai tucta cavata multo bene lava lo dito azurro cum lo 
ranno ' da capo tepido e remenalo molto bene cum lo bastone 
e lassa possare poi cava la liscia commo laqua e lassa secare a 
lombra e questa e verissima preparatione. 

10. PrcUica a fare pastillo per cavare lo azurro de lo dicta 
lapis lazuli. — ^Piglia ragia de pino oz. viij. pece greca oz. iiij 
mastice once meza olio de semi de lino oz. ij poi tolli uno 
pignatto vitriato e polio sopra a uno tre piei cum lo fuoco sotio 
lento e chiaro e commo comincia ad esser caldo mectice prima 
lolio de semi de lino e lasselo uno poco scaldare poi ce pone la 
pece greca spolverizata e incorpora multo bene cum lolio 
misticando cum uno bastoni per iniino che sera cotto che lo 

1 Liscivio. 
vou. II. 


in the same manner as yon tried the first-mentioned pastille. 
Then strain it like the other, and when it is cooled in the 
water, put the pipkin on the fire as you did at first ; and when 
it begins to get hot take oz. ij of linseed oil, and add to the 
said pastille, and when it is well melted, add an ounce of tur- 
pentine, always mixing it well ; then take the pipkin, and while 
it is still boiling put oz. viij of the powder of the mineral, 
pounded very fine, by degrees into the pipkin, keeping it still 
boiling gently; then throw the pastille into cold and clear 
water in a basin, and when it is cold, grease your hands with 
linseed oil, and work the pastille about this way and that in 
your hands like dough ; and when you have worked it suffi- 
ciently, put it back into the water, and let it stand seyeral days, 
changing the water two or three times every day ; and at the 
end of six days take the pastille, and some warm honey-wat^ 
(that is, take ten measures of clear water and one of honey, and 
let them boil for the tenth part of an hour, scum well, and thesi 
strain the liquid through a linen cloth, and it is done) ; wash 
the pastille with the honey-water previously warmed, and ex- 
tract the azure the first time ; the second time let the honey- 
water be a little warmer, and the third time a little wanner 
still, as in the other recipe. And know that the first time it is 
very troublesome to extract, the second time it is easier, and 
the third time it is easier still ; and the reason is, that each 
time the water is a little warmer ; but take care not to have it 
quite so hot as to melt the pastille : if this should happen, cool 
it by throwing cold water over it. Take care that the water is 
tepid the first time, warmer the second time, and warmer still 
the third time, otherwise you will never be able to extract 
the azure. 

11. To make azure and to refine it well, — Take lapis lazuli, 
and pound it in a bronze mortar as carefully as you can, in 
order that the powder may not escape, and when it is well 
pounded, if the powder is of a greenish colour, it must be 
ground upon a marble or porphjrry slab with clear fine white 
honey ; but if it is not of a greenish colour, grind it with strong 



conoscerai in quando sera cotto al segno de laltro pastillo poi 

locola commo laltro e quando sera freddo in laqua mecti la 

pignata al fiioco commo fedsti prima e quando comincia a 

sealdarse tolli oz. ij. de semi de lino e poi meti el dicto pastillo 

e quando sara ben disfatto mettivi una oncia di trementina 

sempre menando bene poi toUi la pignatta e cusi bolendo mectivi 

oz. Yiij. de polvere de la dicta preta ben sotili a poco a poco ne 

la pignatta sempre bolendo competentimente poi gietta lo 

pastillo nella aqua firedda e necta in uno catino e quando sera 

freddo ogniti le mano cum olio de lino e toUi lo pastillo e tiralo 

in qua e in la in mano commo pasta e quando laverai ben 

menato remetilo in la sua aqua e lassalo stare alcuni di e ongni 

di li muti laqua doi o tre volte e in capo de vj di tolli lo 

pastillo e cum laqua de mele calda cio e toUi x. mesure de 

aqua cliiara e una de mele e bolla la decima parte de hora una 

e schiumala bene poi la cola cum panno de lino e de &tta e 

lava lo dicto pastillo cum la dicta aqua de meli calda e cava 

lo azurro la prima volta la seconda volta sia uno poco piu calda 

e la terza uno poco piu commo ne V altra pratica. £ sapi ohe 

la prima volta e grande fatica a cavarlo in la seconda meglio e 

in la terza melglio la ragione e che omni volta laqua e uno 

poco piu calda ma guarda che non fusse in tuto tanto calda che 

lo pastillo se disolvesse e se purre ocurisse aiutalo getando 

supra de laqua fredda. £ habbi cura che la prima aqua sia 

tepida la seconda piu la terza piu imperbocfae altramenti non 

lo caveresti mai. 

11. Affare azurro e afirtarlo bene^ — Torrai la petra lazuli e 
pistala in uno mortaro di bronzo piu cautamente che tu poi 
acio non sfiiita e quando sera ben pisto se questa polvere ha- 
vera colore verde sci e da macinare sopra lo marmo o porfido 
cum lo mele chiaro e hello e bianco. Ma se non tene de co- 
lore verde macinalo cum aqua gommata ben forte sopra porfido 


your band or with two sticks, and put the ley into the bag ; 
rub it so that all the azure may be pressed out, and then 
wash the azure with a ley made of the ashes of vine branches^ 
and having done this two or three times, put it to dry in the 
shade, in whatever way you like, and when it is quite dry, if it 
should not be of a good colour, you must proceed in the fol- 
lowing manner. 

12. To give a good and fine colour to the azure, when it is 
not well coloured. — ^Take several eggs, and make them boil till 
they become hard, then open the eggs in the middle with a 
knife, take away the yolk, and fill up the hard white of the 
eggs with sal ammoniac in very fine powder; then cover it 
with the other parts of the eggs, and tie them so that they will 
not come open, and put them in a new glazed jar for one night 
in a place which is very damp ; in the morning you will have a 
water made from the sal ammoniac, which you must pour upon 
the azure so that it is entirely covered with the water, and it 
will make the azure of a most beautiful colour, and of twice 
the value that it was before. Dry it in the shade, and keep it 
in a leather purse, or in a box, and expose it as little as pos- 
sible to the air. 

13. How to prepare the azure and to work it into the pastille 
to refine it. — Take the lapis lazuli which has golden veins ; 
the deeper it is in colour, and the purer from other mix- 
tures, the better, and of the more perfect kind it is. You 
must put it into a shell, and let it stand over a charcoal fire 
until it becomes red hot; then throw it into strong vinegar, 
and repeat this 3 or 4 times, each time making it red hot, and 
quenching it in fresh vinegar, because by calcination it is more 
eaaly pounded and reduced to powder. And if the lapis 
lazuli is not of a perfect sort, it must not be heated, because 
it will lose its colour, and know that it is much better to take 
the lapis lazuli pounded and reduced to powder, because you 
can see its colour better. But if it is in pieces, the pieces 
must be pounded in a bronze mortar, well covered, lest the 
powder should escape into the air ; then you must grind the 


capitello e sfregalo si che tucto lo azurro escha fuora de poi 
lava el dicto azurro cum lo capitello facto de sementi e facto 
questo doi o tre volte metilo a secare a lombra commo a te 
piace e quando sera ben secco se noD havesse in tutto bello col- 
lore farai in questo modo commo seguitara di socto. 

12. A dare bono e bello collore a lo azurro qxtando non fusse 
bene coUorato. — Recipe parechi ova e falli tanto bollire che 
diventano duri de po apri li dicti ova per mezo cum uno cor- 
tello e leva via el tomo giallo e impelo albuihi duro de li dicti 
ova de polvere ben subtili de sale armoniaco e de poi copri con 
Taltra parte de li dicti ova e ligali bene che non se aprino e 
poUi in una pignata vitriata nova per una nocti in loco che 
flia ben humido e la matina haverai laqua facta del sale armo- 
Biaco la quale porai sopra alo azurro in tanto che sia tutto 
coperto de la dicta aqua e renderalli beletissimo collore e do- 
pio pregio che prima e seccalo a lombra e serbalo in saculo de 
curami in una scatola e fa che senta meno haiere che poi. 

13. Pratica a sapere fare la preparazione de lo azurro e 
porlo in lo pastillo per affinarlo. — Accipe la preta de lo lapis 
lazuli che habia vene doro e quanto e de piu pino collore e 
necto da laltre misture tanto e migliore e de piu perfecta sorta 
lo poi ponere in uno coccio e lassa la tanto stare sopra al fuoco 
de carboni che diventi bene infocata e rosscia e cosi infocata 
gietala in lo aceto forte e cosi farai 3 o 4 volte omne volta 
reinfocandola e spingendola in nuovo aceto bianco perche lo 
calcina meglio per poterla pastare e redurla in polvere. £ se 
lo lapis lazuli non fosse de perfecta sorte non se vole infocare 
perche perderia lo collore £ sappi che e molto meglio torre 
lo lapis lazuli pisto e reduto in polvere perche se vede meglio 
de che collore le. Ma se sonno in pezi se voglino pistare nel 
mortare de bronzo coperto multo bene perche la polvere non 
ralesca al vento poi lo macina sopra al porfido e quando sara 


powder upon porphyry, and when it is very fine, let it dry* 
When dry, you may grind it with ley or with tragacanth, be^ 
cause this )nakes it more easy to grind, and let it dry ; and so 
much for the preparation of the lapis lazuli. 

14. The way to make the pcutiUej and to refine the before^ 
mentioned lapis lazuli, — ^Take 3 oz. of pine resin, oz. j of Spa* 
nish pitch, oz. j of mastic, oz. j of linseed, and put it all over 
the fire in a glazed pipkin to boil slowly together, and let the 
composition boil until a drop of it thrown into cold water, and 
taken up in your wet fingers, ceases to stick to your fingers, 
when it is done. Then take it from the fire and immediately 
strain it through a cloth, receiying it in a basin of cold water ; 
when the pastille is hardened, grease your hands with linseed 
oil, and take the composition, and pull it to and fro Uke bird- 
lime ; then make it into a cake, and you can then keep it a 
long time, either in or out of water, and so much for the pre- 
paration of the pastille. 

15. 7%« toay to incorporate tlte pounded lapis lazuli tcith 
the pastille to refine it well, — ^Take of the powder of the lapis 
lazuli one pound for every 10 oz. of the pastille, and put the 
pastille into a glazed pipkin and make it almost boil ; then 
take the powder and put a little at a time into the pipkin, and 
mix it well together with a stick, and throw the mixture while 
hot into a basin of cold water ; then oil your hands with linseed 
oil, as you did before, and knead the paste very well in order 
to incorporate the ingredients thoroughly together ; then make 
them into a cake and put this back into a bajsin of clear cold 
water. You may keep it as long as you like, and you must 
keep it at least a fortnight ; and so much for incorporating the 
powder with the pastille. 

16. The way to wash the powder out of the pastille to refine 
it. — ^When you wish to extract the azure, put the pastille into a 
glazed pipkin, with tepid water ; and there must be enough water 
to stand four fingers' breadths over the pastiUe ; let it remain 
so for the space of ten paternosters, and then throw away that 
water, and add some more water to it, and do this three or 

1^ ■ • • "J^ ■■ ■ ~"^^— ••■^»» 


bene Bttbtilissimo lassalo seccare e quando e secco lo poi maci- 
nare cum lisciva o vero cum draganti perche lo fa piu paljpa- 
bili e lassalo seccare e queeto e quanto ala preparatione de lo 
dicto lapiB lazuli. 

14. El modo affare el pastillo e affinare la dicta preparatione 
de h lapis lazuli supradicto. — Recipe oz. 3 de ragia de pino 
oz. j de pece spagnola, oz. j de mastice, oz. j de semi de lino e 
mecli omni cosa al foco in una pignatta vitriata a bulire pia- 
namente e tanto boUa che gietandoni una goccia in aqua fredda 
e poi pigliandola cum li deta bagnati non se apicha ale deta 
alhora e cocta e cosci calda toUa dal fuoco e subito colala in 
nno panno e ricogliendolo in uno catino daqua fredda e quando 
el pastille e ben indurate ongniti le mani cum lolio de semi di 
lino e piglia la dita compositione e tirala in la e in qua come 
se & el yischio poi lo reduce ad modo duno pane e conservare 
el poi longho tempo o voli in aqua o senza aqua e questo basta 
a la compositione del pastille. 

15. El modo da incorporare la sopradicta preta pista inlo 
pastille per affinarla optimamente. — Summe de la poire de lo 
dicto lapis lazuli per omne libra oz. x de lo dicto pastille e 
mectilo in una pignatta vitriata e fallo tanto scaldare che sia 
per bollire alhora tolli lo dicto lapis in polvere e metilo a poco 
a poco in la pignatta e misticalo bene insieme cum uno bastone 
e gietalo cosi caldo in uno catino daqua fredda poi ongiti le 
mano cum lolio de semi de lino commo facesti la prima volta 
e tiralo molto bene acio se incorpora bene poi lo reduce 
oommo uno pane e rimetilo in uno catino daqua fredda e 
cbiara e* poilo tenere quanto voli ma vole almanco stare per 
XT di natural! e questo basta in quanto alia incorporatione de 
la polvere. ^ 

16. El modo da cavare la dicta polve de lo pastillo per 
qfinarla. — Quando voli cavare el sopradicto aziuro del pastillo 
pcHii el dicto pastillo in uno catino vitriato e metivi de I'aqua 
tepida e e vole esser tanta aqua che stia 4 deta sopra al pastillo 
e lassalo cusci stare per dire X patri nostri poi sparge via 
quella aqua e metice de laltra aqua calda e fa cusi iij o iiij volte 


four times until the pastille is warmed through. Then take 
two clean sticks a foot long, and of the thickness of one finger, 
round at the ends ; and with these stidcs you must knead the 
pastille in the warm water, turning it inside out with the sticks 
and continue doing so, and changing the warm water, until the 
azure begins to come out of the pastille, and when the water is 
full of the azure, empty it into another basin, holding back the 
pastille in the basin with the sticks. Then pour some hotter 
water oyer it, and continue to do so until all the azure is ex- 
tracted. When you see the ashes, which are of a dull colour, 
work out, put them away into another vase, because they are not 
good, compared with the first sort. Pour the 3 or 4 first washings 
into the first basin, and as many more into the second^ and all 
the rest in the third basin. The first will be of a fuller colour, 
but not so finely pulverized ; and the second will be of a very 
good colour, but not like the first, and the third will be of a 
whitish colour and very finely pulverized. Then put each sort 
by itself, and take out the water, then clean the azure with 
eggs .beaten up with the branch of a fig-tree, and make the 
azure into a paste with these beaten eggs ; then wash the azure 
with clear and weak ley until the ley comes off clear, fire- 
quently renewing the ley, and then dry the azure in the shade, 
out of the way of dust, and keep it in a little bag of chamois 

17. The toay to make ^^ azurro di lamagnay^ or German azure, 
or Spanish azure, and to rejine it well. — Take the mineral stone 
of the colour of smalt, or of a yellow colour, break it in pieces, 
and free it from other mixtures and impurities, and then pound 
it very fine in a bronze mortar, covered, over, in order that the 
powder may not escape and be blown into tha air, and sift it 
with a very fine sieve. Then take very strong and clear ley, 
made from baked ashes, with which you must wash the powder 
of the lapis lazuli four or five times, and receive all the waters 
in a basin, and pour the ley carefully ofTthe azure, which will 
settle at the bottom of the basin. Then take very clean and 
white honey, and grind up the azure with the honey, a little at 


tanto che el pastillo se scalde de dentro poi toUi doi bastoni 
loDgbi mezobracio e gross! uno deto poUiti e necti per tutto e 
tondi in capo e cum quest! bastone se vole cemenare el dicto 
pastillo nela dicta aqua calda e revoltando quello dentro de 
fora cum li diet! bastoni e tanto farai cusc! scambiando laqua 
ealda per infino che lo azurro oominciara ad husdre fora del 
pastiUo e quando laqua e ben piena de azurro voita quella 
aqua azzurra in uno altro catino retinendo el pastillo nel fondo 
del catino cum 1! diet! bastoni poi 1! rimecte suso del aqua piu 
calda e tanto fa cusc! che nescha fora tucto lo azurro e quando 
tu vedrai uscire fora el dnaraccio che e di colore smorto 
metilo da parte in uno altro vaso perche non e buono apresso 
quello de prima. Meet! la prima lavatura 3 o 4 volte nel 
catino e altratanto nel secondo e tucte I'altre nella terza sorte 
el primo sera piu pino de collore ma non sera cusi subtil! e el 
secondo havera assai buono collore ma non commo el primo e 
el terzo sera de collore bianchetto e sera sutilissimo poi meet! 
eescuno da per se e cavarai laqua e poi pui^ lo azurro cum 
gli ova sbactuti cum una rama de fico e impasta lo dicto 
azurro cum quest! ova sbattut! poi toll! liscia chiara e dolce e 
lava lo dicto azurro cum essa liscia tanto che la liscia nescha 
chiara renovando spesso la dicta liscia e poi lo pone a secare a 
lombra dove non vi vada polve e serba lo in saculo camusi. 

17. Pratica affare azurro de lamagna o vero azurro thodesco 
vero azurro spoffnolo e ajinarlo optimamente. — Toll! de lo lapis 
mineral! de collore de smalto, o vero de collore crocio e rom- 
pilo bene e acapalo de 1' altre misture e immonditii poi lo pista 
molto bene in uno mortaro de bronzo coperto primo che non 
sfidta et non vada la polvere alaiere poi lo staccia cum una 
stacia subtil! de poi toUi liscia fortissima e chiara facta de 
cenere recotta cum la quale lava la polvere de lo ditto lapb in 
fino a quattro o cinque volte e coglie tutta la lavatura in uno 
catino e lassa bene scolare la liscia de lo azurro che stara in lo 
fondo del catino poi toll! del mele molto bene netto e bianco e 
vieni macinando lo dicto azurro alio dicto mele a pocho a poco 


a time, on the porphyry slah, until it is ground fine ; then take 
four or five glazed basins, and put the azure into one basin, in 
which you must distemper it with strong ley, mixing it well 
with your hands ; when it is well mixed, pour it ofi*yery quickly 
into another vase, and continue washing it until the ley becomes 
dear, and let the coarse azure remain at the bottom ; then 
grind up again the coarse azure which you have left at the 
bottom, as you did before, and when it ia ground put it wiUi 
the first, and wash it all together as you did before. When 
you have washed it well, let it rest for the space of one pater 
noster ; then pour it ofi" slowly into another basin, and wash it 
until you have washed away the fine parts. Then grind up the 
coarse parts as before mentioned, if you like, and mix all to- 
gether, coarse and fine — ^that is to say, the first, second, and 
third washings ; and when you have washed the powder well, so 
that the ley separates entirely from it, let all the ley run off, 
and put the azure into a glazed pipkin, and pour over it strong 
white vinegar, so as to cover the azure, and as much common 
salt as is sufficient Let it stand so for two natural days ; then 
pour off the vinegar into a basin, and when it is run off, wash 
the azure in three or four clear waters, atid throw all tliose 
waters on to the vinegar which first ran off the azure, as there 
may perhaps be something useful in it, which you must put with 
the good. You must then separate the fine azure firom the 
coarse in this manner : — Take a new glazed jar, into which put 
the azure ; then take ley so warm that you can just bear your 
hand in it, and some soap scraped very fine with a knife, add 
to each pound of azure half an ounce of soap, mix all these 
things together, and then have ready a small bag in which you 
may shake up the mixture together until it froths ; then empty 
the pipkin carefully, taking off the scum with a spoon, so that 
only the coarse part may remain behind ; next take the scum, 
and put it back into another pipkin with a little more fresh ley, 
and do the same as you did before ; then pour off into the first 
basin the coarse parts which remain, and grind it again, and 
do as before ; afterwards grind that which is with the soap with 


in su lo porfido prima che vegna subtili e commo sera tutto 
macinato bene habbi 4 o 5 caiini vitriati poi metti el dito azurro 
in nno eatino nel quale stempera el dicto azurro cum liscia 
forte remenandolo bene cum mano e quando sera bene stempe- 
rato e iu presto presto scola in uno altro vaso e cusci seguita lo 
lavare per infino ne yieni la liscia chiara e lassa romanere 
lazurro grosao al fondo e de novo remacina quello grosso che te 
remasto al fondo commo prima e commo e macinato metilo in- 
siemi cum lo primo e lavalo tucto insiemi commo da prima e 
commo tu laverfu ben lavato lasselo reposare per uno pater 
nostro poi scolalo pianamente in uno altro eatino poi lo lava 
tante volte che se ne cava lo sotile e poi de novo macina el 
grosso se te place commo di sopra e dicto e tucto lo ricoglie in- 
aemi grosso e suctili cio e el primo e el secondo e el terzo e da 
pcH che lai molto bene lavato tanto che nescha la liscia chiara e 
lassalo bene scolare da la lixia poi lo metti in una pignatta 
▼itriata e e mectivi sopra de lo aceto forte e bianco tanto che lo 
azurro stia coperto e tanta quantita de sale communo che sia 
sufficienti e lassa cusci stare per doi di naturali e poi scola el 
dicto aceto in uno eatino e commo e scolato lavalo a tre o a 
quatro aque chiare e tucte quelle aque bucta in su lo aceto che 
cavasti prima de lo azurro acio se vi fosse niuna cosa bona la 
quale mecti insiemi cum lo buono da poi sepera lo azurro buono 
dal grosso in questo modo toUi uno pignatto novo vitriato nel 
quale mecti el dicto azurro poi tolli liscia ben calda quanto se 
li possa sofiririre la mano e habi del sapone raso ben sottili con 
lo corteUo e vole esser tanto che sia per omne libra de azurro 
meza onda de sapone e mistica tutte queste cose insiemi poi 
habbi uno sachetto cum lo quale tu volte e travolte molto bene 
le dicte cose per infino a tanto che faccia una buona schiuma 
de poi scola la dicta pignatta in uno eatino caute tirando suso 
la schiuma cum uno cochiaro infini romane solamente lo grosso 
e da poi tolli la dicta schiuma e de novo lo rimecti in una altra 
pignatta cum uno altro poco di liscia nova e fa el simili commo 
da prima poi scola nel primo eatino el grosso che te remane 
remacinalo una altra volta e fa commo prima poi vieni lavando 


clear and clean ley, and then take a glazed jar with urine ib 
it) and boil the urine, and for every pound of azure add half an 
ounce of gum arabic, and scum it well, and put some scent into 
it When it has boiled, take it off the fire, and when cool put 
the azure into it, and let it stand so for a night ; then pour off 
the urine, and let the azure dry in the shade, and turn the 
azure frequently with a stick ; then put it into a little leather 
bag before it is quite dry, and squeeze it well in your hands, or 
put it into an ox bladder, which must be prepared by soaking 
the bladder for one night in vinegar and salt ; and keep it well, 
and you will have an azure like ultramarine. 

18. To make azure by vneans of the pastille. — Take pine resin 
oz. iij, Greek pitch oz. j ; poimd the pitch and mix the whole 
with oil, and put it to boil slowly in a glazed jar until it is 
done, and this may be known in the following manner : — Take 
a drop of the composition and throw it into cold water, and if it 
does not stick to your wet fingers it is boiled sufficiently. When 
it is done, take a glazed basin of cold water, and strain the said 
composition into the water through a cloth, screwing and 
squeezing it with a split stick so that it may all come out of 
the cloth, and let it harden a little in the water ; and when you 
wish to use the pastille, warm it a little, and take for every 
half pound'^of the pastille, half a pound of azure — ^that is, of 
the stone pounded into a fine powder — ^and mix and incorporate 
well the powder and the pastille, and let them lie for a week. 
Then take a glazed jar, and put into it some tepid water ; put 
the pastille into this water, and wash it very well in the same 
way that birdlime is washed, pulling and kneading it to and fro 
in the hand, and taking care not to break it, and continue 
doing this until the water becomes blue, renewing the water 
frequently. Then set aside that azure water, and take another 
basin of water a little warmer than the first ; put the pastille 
into it, and do as you did before until it becomes blue, and put 
it apart as you did tlie first, and do this until the water no 


quello che e in nel sapone cum liscia ben chiara e netta poi 
tolli UDO pignatto vitriato cum orina e fa bullire la dicta orina 
ne la quale mecti per omni libra dazurro meza oncia de gom- 
arabico e schiumalo molto bene e metili dentro alcuna cosa odo- 
rifera e quando ha bulito levalo dal fuoco e commo e refredato 
e tu vi mecti dentro lo azurro e lassalo cusi stare per una nocte 
e poi scola via la ditta orina e poi pone asciugare lo dicto azurro 
a lombra e apre el dicto azurro spesso cum uno bastone poi lo 
ripone in uno sachecto de corami in nanti che sia in tuttb 
fomito de sciugare e menalo bene per mano o vero tu lo pone 
in una visicha de bove la quale sia attuata in questo modo farai 
stare la visicha in lo aceto e sale per una notte e servalo bene e 
haverai azurro simili al oltramarino. 

18. A fare azurro 'per via de pastiUo. — Tolli ragia de pino 
oz. iij, pece greca oz. j, e pista la pece e mistica omne cosa 
cum olio et mettilo a bullire a poco a poco e mectilo in una 
pignatta yitriata infino a tanto che sera cotto e questo se cog- 
nosce in questo modo tolli una gocia de la dita compositioue e 
gietala in aqua fredda e se non se apicha ale deta che sieno 
bagnati e cocta poi quando e cotta tolli uno catino vitriato cum 
aqua fredda e cola la dita composition in questa aqua cum uno 
panno spregnendo e ritorcendo cum uno ligno fesso siche tutto 
vegna fora del panno e lassalo indurare uno pocho nel aqua poi 
quando voli operare el dito pastillo rescaldalo uno poco e tolli 
per omne meza libra de pastillo una libra dazurro cioe la preta 
pista in polvere sotili e mista insiemi la polve el pastillo molto 
bene incorporando poi lo lassa stare per 8 di naturali poi tolli 
uno catino vitriato e metice dentro del aqua tepida e metti lo 
pastillo in questa aqua e lavalo molto bene commo se lava lo 
viscfaio tirando e remenando in qua e in la cum mano e guarda 
che tu non lo rompi e cusi farai in fino a tanto che laqua 
diventa azurra renovando spesso laqua alhora pone quella aqua 
azurra da parte poi toUe imo altro catino cum laqua che sia 
uno pocho piu calda che laltra prima e mecti dentro lo pastillo 
e & commo prima intanto che diventa aziurra e serbala da 
parte commo prima e fand cusci infino a tanto che laqua non 


longer comes off blue, and put each water away by itself; coyer 
it up, and let it settle until the azure sinks to the bottom ; then 
take up the water with a sponge cautiously, so as not to moye 
the azure, and when all the water is removed, let the azure at 
the bottom of the basin dry, and keep it ; and know that the 
first is perfect azure, and is worth five ducats the ounce, the 
second less, and so the third. 

19. To make azure another way. — ^Take lapis lazuli of a 
violet tinge, very dean from earth and impurities and particu- 
larly from pyrites, and break it in a bronze mortar, after- 
wards grind it very fine upon porphyry or marble, and then dry 
it. Then make a pastille from the following ingredients, viz. : 
take for one pound of the stone, 4 oz. of new wax, the same 
quantity of colophony, 4 oz. of naval pitch, and one ounce of 
powdered incense, and you must first liquefy the wax in a glazed 
jar ; you must then put 5 ounces of linseed oil, only half of 
which is to be used at first, the other part is to be reserved. 
Then add all the other things, pulverizing all that should be in 
powder, and when they are melted or dissolved, strain them 
through a linen cloth into a glazed vase, such as a washing 
basin, filled with clear cold water ; then take the pastille with 
the powder of the lapis lazuli, and put it on a marble slab, and 
incorporate one with the other. The proof of their being per- 
fectly incorporated is, that the pastille breaks while kneading 
it in your hands, but it must be done a little at a time, a piece, 
for instance, of the size of a chestnut, and the whole must be 
made into a cake, and must be suffered to stand 3 or 4 days. 
When you wish to extract the azure, do it with hot water, 
having an assistant to throw the water over your hands while 
you are kneading and washing the pastille, letting the water 
run into a glazed vessel, and setting apart three waters, and 
changing the water imtil it is no longer coloured. Then let it 
settle and pour off the water, strain the azure through a cloth, 
and let it dry, and it will be done. 

20. To make azure another toay. — Take of lapis lazuli one 
pound, and grind it well and sift it through a linen cloth ; aftier- 


diventa piu azurra e metti omne aqua da per se coperta e las- 
sala tanto possare che lo azurro sia andato al fondo poi cava 
tutta laqua cum una spogna cautameute che lo azurro non se 
mora poi che sera ca^ata tucta laqua lassa seccare lo azurro 
nel fondo del catino e conservalo e sappi che lo primo e per- 
fecto azurro e vale cinque ducate loncia lo secondo yale mancho 
e cosi lo terzo. 

19. Ad faciendum azurrum per aliam mam. — Accipe lapis 
lazuli bene multumque mundum a terra et superfluitate et 
maxime a marchesita et sit coloratus colore violatii et ipsum 
tere in mortario bronzi postea macina super porfidum sive mar- 
morem suctiliter postea desicha ipsum deinde fac pastillum ex- 
istis rebus, viz., sume pro una libra dicti lapidis uncias quatuor 
cere nove et tantumdem colofonie et untias 4 pice navalis et 
untiam unam incensi pulverizati et unam oUam habeas vitria- 
tam in qua liquefac ceram super quam pone untias 5 olei semi- 
nis lini sed primo non ponas nisi medietatem dicti olei lini et 
aliam partem serva deinde pona et omnes alias res pulverizatas 
quae pulverizanda sunt et quando erunt destrute sive disolute 
tunc cola per pannum lineum in uno vase vitriato sicut est lavella 
in quo sit aqua clara et frigida tunc sume pastillum cum pul- 
vere lazuli et pone in marmore et simul bene incorpora unum 
cum reliquo. Signum vero perfecte incorporationis est quando 
trando pastillum cum manibus frange tamen debet incorporari 
ad modicum ad modicum proice qualibet ad quantitatem unius 
eastanee et tunc ex omnibus fiat panis unus et permicte stare 
diebus tres vel quatuor. £t quando vis exthraere azurnun ex- 
trahe ipsum cum callida aqua ita tamen quod unus proiciat 
aquam super manus tuas et tu move pastillum lavando ipsum 
et aqua cadat in vase vitriato seperando aquam ter et mutando 
tantum quod plus non colloretur et permitte posare et sepera 
aquam et cola azurrum per pannum subtile et permitte sicari 
et erit factum. 

20. Ad faciendum azurrum per alium modum, — Summe lapi- 
dem lazurinum libram unam et eum tere bene et cribra per 

TGI*. II. E 


wards grind it fine npon porphyry, and let it dry ; then take 
Greek pitch, naval pitch, olibanum, mastic, yemicem annarii (?), 
clean new wax 2, ^, 2,^ and common oil ^, 1 ; melt all these 
things together in a sancer and mix them well. Then take a 
basin full of clear water, and strain into it through a cloth all 
those things which you melted in the saucer, and anoint your 
hands with oil, and take the composition which you put into the 
basin, and knead it well before the fire like wax ; then by de- 
grees incorporate the powdered lapis lazuli with it, and let the 
mass remain in a ball for 3 or 4 days, and the longer the better. 
Next take a large glazed vase, and put the ball into it, and 
pour hot water upon it, stirring it with a wooden stick, and work- 
ing it well until the water is coloured with the azure ; separate 
it, and add fresh hot water, and do as you did before, and put 
it into another basin. Do this as long as the water comes off 
coloured, and if there seems to you to be any colour left in the 
ball, take some common ley almost boiling, and pour it upon 
the ball and stir it strongly, then put it back with coloured 
water from the third washing ; afterwards, when the water has 
cleared, pour it off so that none of it may remain, and then 
cover over those vases with a sieve in the sun, and let them dry. 
This must only be done in clear weather. 

21. The way to make coarse azure. — Take the stone called 
*' viterola de lamanea," ' which is like pumice stone, and grind 
it fine without any liquid. Then take a little turpentine, new 
wax, and naval pitch, and put it to melt, and when the whole is 
melted put into it some of the powder of the stone, and stir it 
with a stick to mix it well \ then take warm water and a ladle 
or a stick, and work it till the azure is extracted, frequently 
changing the water and setting it aside. Let it dry, and keep 
it in a leather purse. 

1 These numbers probably refer to pounds, ounces, and drachms ; the 
figure with the comma under it stands for ounces. 

s The Viterola de Lamanea is probably native blue Vitriol, or sulphate 
of copper ; because in the Nuovo Plico (p. 126), it is said, that '* when 
Viterolo de Lamanea is boiled with the Verdigris and Sal Ammoniac in 
strong vinegar, and a piece of iron put into it while boiling hot, when cold 


pannum Imeum postea tere eum subtiliter in porfido et pennicte 
riocari deinde accipe pecem grecam et picetu navalem, oliba- 
imm, masticem et vernicem annarii et ceram novam mundam 
2, ^, 2 (sic)y oleum comune ^, 1, omnia ista fundantur impatella et 
fortiter incorporentur postea habeas parasidem unam aque clare 
plenam et cola per pannnm omnia que intus infusisti scilicet in 
patella et tunc acipe de oleo et unge tibi manus et acipe ea que 
in paraside poeuisti et due bene ad ignem ac si esset cera postea 
paulatim incorpora dictum pulverem lazurrinum et permitte 
dita massa stare admodum palle per 3 vel 4 dies et tanto plus 
tanto melius erit deinde accipe unum vas cupum et et magnum 
ut sit vitriatum et intus pone dittam pallam et infunde de aqua 
calida deinde remove eum cum baculo de ligno et due fortiter 
quoosque aqua fiierit bene coUorata coUoris azurri et sepera 
illam et pone de nova aqua calida et fac sicut prixis et mite in 
alia paraside et sic reitera dummodo aqua venit coUorata. Et 
si tibi videtur quod remanserit de azurro in ditta palla accipe 
de comuni liscivio quasi bullito et micte desuper palla et due 
fortiter et repone in tertia lavatura cum alia aqua azurra postea 
quando aqua erit clara proice ilia ut nil remaneat et tunc cope- 
rias parasides illas cum stamenia ad solem et dimicte sicari et 
hoc non debes facere nisi per tempus clarum. 

21. Modus faciendi grosmm azurrum, — Summe lapidem qui 
didtnr viterola de lamanea et est ad instar pumicis, tere ipsum 
sine aliquo licore subtiliter tunc recipe modicum terebentine et 
cere nove e pice navalis et pone ad liquefaciendum quando 
erunt liquefacta tunc micte intus pulverem dicti lapidis et move 
baculo ut sint bene admisia et inde habeas aquam calidam et 
accipe misculam sive baculum et move tantum quod azurrum 
exeat mutando semper aquam et secuando ad partem et per- 
micte sicari et serva in bursia corii. 

the iron is found to be of the colour of copper ;" being in fact actually 
coated with copper. 

Native Sulphate of Cop))cr occurs massive, stalactitic, and pulverulent ; 
it is rarely found crystallized. When a portion of it is dissolved in water, 
and spread on the surface of iron, the latter is immediately covered by a 
film of copper. See Phil. Min., p. 313. 

E 2 


22. To make German azure, — ^To make azure like German 
azure, take of rasscia^ as much as you like, that is to say, that 
rasscia whidi comes from Germany, and which is like stone ; 
crush it upon a marble slab and grind it well, then take gam 
arabic, and dissolve it in twice the quantity of water, and dis- 
temper the gum, and then with this gum water distemper the 
rasscia, and when they are well incorporated, take strong ley 
made fix>m the ashes of vine branches, and wash the azure two 
or three times with this ley ; then let it settle to the bottom, 
separate the ley, and let it dry, and the work is done. 

23. To extract sol, L e. gold^ from the lapis lazuli. — ^Take 
lapis lazuli, and pound it very fine on an anvil or in a bronze 
mortar, or, if you like, grind it on porphyry, first heating it m 
the fire, and when it is well ground take for every pound of 
powder an ounce of mercury, and mix it well together with the 
powder ; then take a linen cloth, not of too close a texture, or 
a sieve, and put these things — ^that is to say, the powder and 
the mercury — into whichever of these you choose, and press the 
piece of linen in order that the quicksilver may pass out with 
the gold ; then pour the quicksilver into a crucible, and put it 
in the fire, when the mercury will go ofl^ in vapour, and the gold 
will remain behind. 

24. To make azure^ and to know the place where it is pro- 
duced. — Take lapis lazuli, which is a stone that comes from 
Organia, in the country of Tartary,' and which is dug from the 

1 I have not been able to find the word '* rasscia" in any Vocabulary. 
From the imperfect description of the text, I should consider it to signify 
the indurated Blue Carbonate of Copper. 

* Beckmann says, that the real Lapis Lazuli is found in the mountains of 
that part of Tartary, called Bucharia, which extends eastward from the 
Caspian Sea ; and particularly at Kalal and Budukschu. This is confirmed 
by Tavemier in his ' Travels.' I believe it is not found in Hungary, which 
country we are to understand by the word '* Organia,*' or in Cyprus ; but 
in both these countries are copper mines, which produce the blue ore. 
From the former, the blue pigment called ** Ongaro " by Lomazzo (Trat- 
tato della Pittura, p. 191), which Pacheco says was used by Titian 
(Tratado de la Pintura, p. 873), was prepared. The blue copper ores of 



22. Ad faciendum azurrum almaneum. — A fare azurro 
commo de lamagna toUe la rasscia quella parte che tu vole 
cio e quella rasscia che vene delamagna la quale e commo 
petra rompilo in sulo marmo e macinala molto bene poi toUi 
gemma rabico e doi parte piu che la goma de aqua e stempera 
la dicta gomma e cum quella aqua gomata stempera la dicta 
rasscia e quando sonno bene incorporate e tu tolli ranno forte 
iacto de cenere de sciermento e lava lo dicto azurro cum esso 
ranno doi o tre volte poi lo lassa andare al fondo e sepera lo 
ranno e lassalo seccare et de facto. 

23. Ad extraendum sol^ i. e. aurum^ de lapide lazuli. — Ahyve 
lo lapis lazuli et tritalo bene subtili in su lancudini o' vero in 
mortaro de bronzo o Yoi spolverizarlo in porfido metendolo ad 
infocare nel foco poi commo e bene trito tolli per omne libra 
dela dicta polve una oncia de mercuric vivo e miscola insiemi 
cum la dicta polvere ben de vantagio poi tolli panno de lino che 
non sia troppo ficto o vero una stamegna et in qualunqua tu 
voli metivi dentro le dicte cose cio e la dicta polvere cum lo 
ariento vivo e spremi la dicta peza acio nescha lo argento in- 
siemi cum loro poi poni lo dicto ariento in imo crugiolo e polio 
al foco lo argento andara via in fiimi e el sole remarra in lo 

24. Ad faciendum azurrum et cognoscendum locum ubi nasci^ 
tur. — ^Tolli lo lapis lazuli lo quale e petra che vene de Organia 
de paese de tartaria et la se cava la dicta preta de le montagne 

Cyprus have alwajs been celebrated, and are still produced there. It is 
almost unnecessary to observe, that Uiis blue pigment from Hungary and 
Cyprus is the Azzurro della Magna formerly mentioned. Large quantities 
of blue copper ore have also been found in Persia ; and have frequently 
been mistaken for Lapis Lazuli. Tavemier gives the following account 
of it :— 

*' In the copper mines of Persia, veins of lazur, which is much used in 
that country, and with which the flowers on the ceiling and roofs of apart- 
ments are painted, have also been found. Before these were discovered the 
Persians bad no other lazur than the real kind, which comes from Tartary, 
and is exceedingly dear. The Persian lazur is a sort of copper ore ; and 
when the stone is pounded and sifted, which is the process employed with 


moiurtains of that country, and where also are fonnd sapphires 
and other precious stones. The stone is also dug in the country 
of Damascus, and in Cyprus ; and the people of those parts, 
who are Tartars and infidels, call it in their tongue ^^agiara,"^ 
that is to say, azure stone. When you want to use this stone, 
take it, and if the said stone is in large lumps, put them in the 
fire so as to he heated throughout; sufier them to remain in the 
fire for ten hours, and let the fire be burning all round them, 
and if you allow them to stay longer in the fire they will be 
finer ; and if you put them into a pipkin they will be still better 
refined in the following manner : — Take an unglazed pipkin 
pierced with many holes at the bottom, and with a few at the 
sides, and put charcoal around it ; then put the large lumps of 
lapis lazuli into this perforated pipkin, which must be placed on 
a tripod, and when the stone has been burnt for the above- 
mentioned space of time, take strong ley made of ashes of oak, 
or glass ashes — that is soda — and the ley will be so much the 
better if you take equal quantities of both of these, with a little 
quicklime, and make a ley as clear and clean as you can, and 
then put the stone red hot into the cold ley, and let it remain 
for three days ; next pour ofi^ the ley, and let the stone dry, and 
then pound it in a metal mortar, and reduce it to as fine a 
powder as you can ; and if the stone should contain any gold, 
you will extract it with quicksilver as was before directed. Wlien 
it is well sifted, so as to be very fine, put it into a shell of cold 
water, and mix it with a clean spoon, and then let it settle in 
that water till the powder is all gone to the bottom, and all the 
impurities remain above ; then separate the water from the dust 
with a sponge, softly, so as not to disturb the powder or the 

the real kind, it forms a fine paint, which appears very bright and pleasant. 
After this discovery, the Persians durst no more purchase the Tartarian 
lazur ; and Mahomet Beg issued an order that painters should not use fo- 
reign but Persian lazur. This prohibition, however, did not long continue ; 
for the Persian lazur could not stand the effects of the atmosphere like the 
real kind, but in the course of time became of a dark and dismal colour. 
Sometimes it was full of scales, and would not hang to the end of a soft 


die soirno in quelli paesi e la se trovano zaffirri et altre prete 
pretiose. Et ancora se caya de la dicta preta in le parte da- 
masco et in le parte de cipre et la gente de quelli parte che 
8onno tartari et infideli la chiamano in loro lingua agiara cioe 
petra de azurro. £t quando voi laYorare la dicta preta pren- 
dila e se la dicta preta fiisse in zuppi grossi mecti i peze nel 
fuoco che arda da omne parte e lassali stare nel foco per x 
hore e fa che habia bene il foco da omne parte e se piu la lassi 
stare nel foco pin se affinara. £ se tu la mecte in una pignatta 
ancora se affina melglio in questo modo : toUi una pignatta non 
vitriata e mecti de intomo carboni e la pignatta Tole esser forata 
nel fondo cum spessi bugi e cum alcuni bugi de intomo poi 
poni in la dicta pignatta bu^ta li pezi de lo dicto lapis grossi 
e la dicta pignatta yole esser sospesa in uno tre pei poi che sera 
la dicta preta bene cocta et bene infocata per lo dicto spatio 
habi liscia forte facta de cenere de cerro o de cenere de vetrio 
cioe soda tanto megliore sera la liscia se tu vi poni de luna e 
del altra cenere anna et cum uno pochettino de calcina viva et 
fa liscia chiara et necta quanto piu poi poi cusci calda mecti la 
petra in lo dicto ranno freddo e lassa stare per 3 di poi sepera 
hi dicta liscia e lassa resciugare la dicta preta poi la pista in 
uno mortaro de metallo e fa polvere piu subtile che poi et se la 
dicta petra tenesse doro farai cum lo argento vivo commo e di 
sopra dicto et commo e ben staciata che sia ben subtili mectila 
in una concha daqua fredda e mista bene cum una mescola 
necta bene e poi la lassa ben reposare in quella aqua che la 
polyere sia bene andata al fondo et omne cativita rimara de 
sopra et sepera laqua de la polve cum ima spogna pianamente 
che non movi la dicta polvere o dicto azurro e se vedesci che 

hair brush. On this account it was soon neglected as a coloured earth, and 
the lazur of Tartary again introduced/' 

1 Agiara. The usual term for Azurro in those parts of Italy situated 
between the Apennines and the Po. It occurs in contracts for pictures by 
Denys Calvart, and Marc Antonio Seccadenari in 1601, and by LudOYico 
Carracct in 1587. 


azure ; and if you see that it is not well cleansed, wash it an* 
other time in the before-mentioned manner; and when it is 
quite clean let it dry, and grind it dry on the porphyry as fine 
as you can, a little at a time ; and if you should have any 
trouble in grinding it dry, add a little water to it, and when 
you have ground it fine put it into a large and flat glazed 
earthenware pan, spread it along, and let it dry, and then grind 
it again on the porphyry, and sift it very fine. It must then be 
refined with the pastille, made according to this recipe :~-Take 
1 oz. of white resin, 1 oz. of incense, 8 oz. of Greek pitch, 1^ oz. 
of turpentine, 1 oz. of linseed oil, and if you wish to make a 
greater quantity make it according to this proportion; then 
take a glazed pipkin, and put it on the fire on a tripod, and 
make a fire of charcoal without flame ; first put the oil into the 
saucepan, and let it get warm, and then the Greek pitch, mix 
them together with a clean spoon, and when the pitch is well 
melted add the resin, and keep continually stirring it ; then 
add the incense, and tlien the turpentine, and mix all together, 
and take care to keep a moderate fire, in order that the mixture 
may not catch fire inside ; then remove the vessel from the fire^ 
and strain the contents through canvass like a strainer. Next 
take a basin of glazed earthenware, and fill it half full of clear 
cold water, and put that canvass over the basin, and then strain 
the mixture which is in the pipkin into this water, and when 
you have strained it all, take it out of the water, and put it 
where it will not get dirty. If you wish to refine one pound of 
lapis lazuli, take two pounds of this pastille, and it will even 
bear another ounce of azure. Then take a clean glazed sauce* 
pan, and put it over a moderate fire, and add another ounce of 
Greek pitch, and it will be sufficient for making a larger quan- 
tity ; put the oil into it, and do as before, and let it melt slowly ; 
then remove the saucepan from the fire, and pour it while hot 
over the lapis lazuli, and mix it well. When it is well incor- 
porated, before it gets cold, take a shell of firesh water and 
pour it on the hot pastille which you have in the pipkin, and the 
whole will sink to the bottom and adhere together ; and when 


non fbfise bene depurgato lavalo una altra volta alo dicto modo 
e oommo sara bene depurgato lassa lo sciugare poi lo macina 
in 8U lo porfido cusci dasciuto quanto piu poi a poco per volta et 
se te ibese fatiga a macinare dasciuto metice uno poco daqua 
poi che lai macinato subtili metilo in uno vaso de terra vitriato 
largo e piano e stendivilo suao et lassalo sciugare bene poi lo 
aremacina in lo dicto porfido e statiarlo che sia ben subtili poi 
se vole darli la concia cum lo pastillo doe cum questa maestra. 
Tolli 02. j de ragia bianca, oz. j. de incenso, oz. 8 de pece 
greca, oz. Ij^ de trementina, oz. j de olio de seme de lino se ne 
Toi far maggior quantita fallo secondo questa proportione poi 
faabbi uno tegami yitiiato e polio al foco in su li tre pej et fa 
fuoco de bragia e non de fiamma prima mecti in lo dicto tegami 
lolio et lassalo uno poco scaldare et poi la pece greca e mescola 
insiemi cum una mescola necta et quando la pece e ben disfatta 
mettivi la rasina et vene sempre mescolando poi lo incenso poi 
la trementina et mista et fa che lo foco sia molto temperate 
accio non se acenda dentro poi levalo dal foco e colalo cum uno 
canayacdo ad modo duno colatoro poi tolli uno catino de terra 
vitriato et fallo mezo daqua chiara et fredda et mecti quello 
canayacdo sopra alo catino poi cola et metivi suso quella de- 
ootione che e in lo dicto tegami et fa bene colare dentro in 
questa aqua poi che lai colata tucta cavala de laqua et ponila 
in loco che non se imbrutta. £ se voi afinare una libra de 
azurro tolli doi libre de questo pastillo et anco comportara una 
cMida de azurro piu poi tolli uno tegami necto vitriato e ponilo 
al foco temperato et mectivi oz. j. piu de pece greca et baster- 
alti per fame maggiore quantita et metivi dentro lolio et fa 
commo de sopra et lassalo strengiare adagio poi leva lo tegami 
dal foco et cosi caldo mectivi su la polvere de lo lapis lazuli e 
mista bene et quando sara bene incorporata prima che se freddi 
habbi una concha daqua fresca e metivi in su questa materia 
cosci calda che hai nel tegami et tucta la materia andara al 
fondo et arapicarasse insiemi et commo e bene arapicato cavela 
de laqua et riraenala per mano commo pasta tirando et distend- 
endola bene poi lo pone nel aqua del catino et se apicfaa ale 


it coheres firmly, take it out of the water and knead it in your 
hands like dough, pulling and spreading it well. Then put it 
into the water in the basin, and if it sticks to your fingers 
anoint them with linseed oil ; let the pastille remain in the said 
water for six days, changing the water in summer twice each 
day, and in winter once ; and when you wish to extract the 
azure, take a glazed basin and put the pastille into it, with 
tepid water ; let the pastille get warm, and cover it with a ladle 
and press it When it is well melted, put a little hotter wat^ 
to it, or else warm that same water in a vase, and so wash it 
eight times with that same water, and then let it cool, and the 
pastille will float upon the top, and the azure will go to the 
bottom ; and you must keep the water covered, in order that 
no dirt may get into it. Then remove the water with the pas- 
tille softly, in order that the azure which is at the bottom may 
not be disturbed ; warm the water that was removed, and re* 
turn it upon the azure, and then let it cool, and the pastille will 
float upon the top. Then separate the water and make it boil, 
and when boiled return it upon the azure as before, and take 
out the pastille, which will be good for making other azures, 
and put it away in a clean place ; and know that the first azure 
is the finest, the second less fine, and the third still less ; and 
you must keep the azure in a chamois leather purse, or in a 
glazed earthenware jar. 

25. The way to refine the pastille; and if it slumld happen to 
get burnt so that the azure does not work ovt^ the way to cureit,^^ 
Put cold water into a pipkin and place it over the fire. When 
the water is hot, put the burnt pastille into it, and when the 
pastille also begins to get hot, take it out of the water, and 
put it into a glazed jar, and again place it over a slow fire ; 
then add to the pastille the following things. If the azure and 
the pastille together weigh two pounds, add 1 oz. of new wax, 
1 oz. of olive-oil, 1 oz. of turpentine, and mix all well together 
with the pastille, and take the pipkin from the fire and poor 
cold water into it and let it cool ; then knead and work it as 
before, and if it should stick to your hands, anoint them with 



mano ongite le mano cum lolio de semi di lino et lassa stare in 
la dicta aqua per 6 di mutando laqua destate doi volte el di et 
de invemo una volta et quando voi cavare el dicto azurro tolli 
una catino vitrio et mectivi dentro el dicto pastillo et habi aqua 
tepida e lassa rescaldare el dicto pastillo et coprilo cum una 
miaoola et vienlo spremendo et quando lo pastillo e bene dis- 
facto metivi uno poco daqua piu calda o vero rescalda quella 
aqua medesima in qualche yaso et cosi cum quella medesima 
aqua calda lo lava 8 volte poi lassa refredare et el pastillo 
rimara de sopra et lazurro andara al fondo et tene coperta la 
dicta aqua acio non vi vada alcuna bruttura poi cava laqua de 
sopra insiemi cum lo pastillo pianamente che laziu'o che e in 
nel fondo non se mova poi pone quella aqua a scaldare et ri* 
tornala sopra a lo azurro et lassa poi reposare et el pastillo 
arivra a sommo poi sepera la dicta aqua et faUa bullire et ri- 
tomala bulita sopra a lo azurro al dicto modo et cava fora el 
pastillo che e buono per chavare deli altre azurre e riponilo in 
loco netto et sappi che el primo azurro e piu fino lo secondo 
meno lo terzo mancho et serbali in saculo camusci o vero in 
albio de terra vitriato. 

25. Modo affinare el pastillo se casofusse che te venisse arso 
che non ne uscisse lazurro pratica a racoTunario, — Tolli uno 
pagnolo et metivi dentro aqua fredda et ponilo al foco et 
quando e calda metivi dentro lo pastillo arso et commo se co- 
mmza a rescaldarse cavalo fora et habbi uno tegami vitriato et 
polio al foco et metivi dentro el pastillo et dalli il foco lento et 
gioDgivi sopra del pastillo queste cose se fusse infra lo azurro 
et lo pastillo libre doi oz. j de cera nova, oz. j de olio de olivo, 
oz. j de trementina et miscola omne cosa bene insiemi cum lo 
pastillo et leva el tegami dal foco et metivi dentro aqua fredda 
et lassa lo refredare poi lor mena et extiralo commo prima et 
8e se apicasse ale mano ongiti le mano cum olio et per questo 


oil, and in tliis way you will make it right, and you may wadi 
the azure out of it as before, and it will be good azure. 

26. The uxiy to make the pcLstiUe to prepare one of these stones 
when it is much finer than the rest. — ^Take 4 oz. of white 
resin, 8 oz. of Greek pitch, 1 oz. of turpentine, 1 oz. of mastic, 
1 oz. of linseed-oil, and use this for a pound of the lapis lazuli, 
and do as you did before. 


modo lo riconciarai et cavane poi lo azurro commo de sopra et 
sera fino azurro. 

26. Modo da fare elpastillo per lavorare una di queste prete 
quando fusse piufina de vantayio piu che laltre. — Pilglia oz. 4 
de ragia biancha et oz. 8 de pece greca, oz. j de trementina, 
oz j de mastice, oz. j de olio de semi de lino et questo ado- 
pera per una libra de la dicta preta dazurro et £& la pratica 
commo di fiopra. 

( 384 ) 



27. How to know ultramarine azure from the artificial, by 
trial and examination.^ — Take the dust of the mineral, or a 
little of the azure extracted from the mineral, and put it on 
a red-hot plate of iron shining and without rust. If it does 
not change colour, it is excellent. If it turns hlack, it is of 
little value. If it is adulterated, the ash will be pale. If it 
turns whitish, it is made artificially. 

28. It is known in another way by experience.* — Put a little 
azure in your hand, or into a shovel, pour clean water upon it, 
and rub it with your fingers, and if it immediately settles into 
the cracks of your hands or of the shovel, that azure is very 
fine and good ; otherwise it is not so. 

29. To make azure artificially. — Take one pound of brass 
filings, and the same quantity of sal ammoniac" or a little less, 
and dissolve the sal ammoniac in aqua tartari ; then, witli 
that water, make a paste with verdigris, and put it into a glass 
cucurbit covered and sealed up like a blind alembic,^ and let 
it stand under hot dung for 15 days; then take out what is 
inside and put it into a crucible in a place where it will melt, 
but uncovered ; when melted take it out, and when it is cool, 
grind it on a stone with aqua tartari, and let it dry, and you 

> This recipe is also in the Paris MS. vi. MDCCXLIX. No. 9. If the 
mineral turn black, this is a proof that it is copper ore, and not Lapis Lazuli. 
Eraclias mentions the same test for distinguishing the true Lapis Lazuli. 

s This recipe is also in the Paris MS. 

( 3^5 ) 



27. Modus cognoscendi azurrum ultramarinum ah artifidale 
per experientiam et examen, — Accipe pulverem minere ejus aut 
parum de azurro extracto de minera et eum pone super lami- 
nam ferri ignitam et nitidam absque enigine. Si non muta- 
verit coUorem optimum est. Si vero revertit ad nigredinem 
parom valet Si vero affalsatum est cinis smortua efficietur. 
Si vero revertitur ad albedinem artificialiter factum est. 

28. Alio inodo cognoscitur per experientiam, — Pone aliquan- 
tolum de azurro in manu tua aut pone in scutella et desuper 
infunde aquam claram et frica cum digitis postea subito si 
aderat per manus rimmulas aut per scutellam azurrum illud 
valde pulcrum et bonum est aliter non. 

29. Ad faciendum azurrum per artifidum, — Abbeas libram 
unam limature heris et tantundem salis armoniaci vel parum mi- 
nus et solutum sit sal in aqua tartari sive oleo deinde cum 
aqua ista fac lutum de viride heris et micte in cucurbita vitri 
coperta et sigillata ad modum factum elembicum cecum et 
dimitte sub fimo calido quindecim diebus — postea extrahe quod 
est intus et micte in cru^bulo et micte in loco fusionis disco- 
perto tamen ut fundatur deinde extrahe et cum refrigidatum 
fiierit dacas super lapidem cum oleo sive aqua tartari et per- 

' Sal Ammoniac is now called Hydrochlorate of Ammonia, and ^* aqua 
tartari sive oleo*' is a solution of Potash. 

4 A blind Alembic appears to be an alembic without a pipe for convey, 
ing the yapour to a receiver. 


will have azure ; and if you wish to make it brilliant, colour it 
with a solution of scraped verzino in white wine, in the same 
manner as you were directed in the other recipe concerning 
natural azure. 

30. To make azure artificially, — ^Take four parts of a stone 
brought from beyond sea, which is called mercury, and it must 
be sublimed according to the usual method, that is to say, it 
must be held on a red hot and burning plate, for a consider- 
able space of time, in order that it may be reduced to powder, 
then take two parts of sal ammoniac, and one part of sulphur, 
grind each well by itself; then mix them well, and put them 
into a glass yase, lute the vase with the philosopher's lute,^ and 
let it dry. Then put the vessel into the furnace, and give it a 
moderate fire, and when you see the white smoke come out of 
the mouth of the vase, make no more fire ; and when it is cold 
break the vase cautiously and you will find good azure. 

31. To make artificial assure. — ^Take fine marble, and about 
an equal quantity, by guess, of the flower of metal ' which the 
dyers use, and grind them well together, boil them in good red 
wine, put the mixture in the sun to diy ; afterwards grind it 
again, adding more of the said flower, then grind it and dry it 
again. Afterwards take verdigris and indico, and grind them 
well together, and then you must have *^ lac calvisei,'' other- 
wise called starch, and mix the ingredients until the colour 
pleases you. Put it in the sun to dry and it is done. 

32. To make azure. — ^Take of Roman vitriol 1 lb., saltpetre 
i lb., of cinnabar 2 oz., of roche alum 3 oz., of sal ammoniac 1 oz., 
of orpiment 1 oz., of verdigris 1 oz. ; and let each be ground se- 
parately very fine, and then let them be mixed together, and after- 
wards put them to distil in an alembic ; first with a very slow fire, 

1 Lutiun Sapientae oonsiBted of white of egg beaten to a froth, aod 
miied with iron 61ing8. A coat of this was to be applied on the vessel to 
be luted, and when this was dry, another coat was to be given ; awi 
80 on until three or four had been applied. (See Breve Compendio di 
Maravigliosi Segreti dal Sig. F. Domenica Auda Veuezia e Bassano. And 
see I Secret] di Don Alessio Piemontese, Part I., p. 187. Ed. Venezia, 


micte eiccari et habebis azumim et si vis illuminare ipsum 
mitte yerzinum abrasum in vino albo et collora ut habuisti in 
recepta de azurro naturale. 

30. Ad faciendum azurrum per artifiHum. — TolU parte 
qnattro duna preta ultramarina che se chiama mercurio e 
Tolse solimare secondo el loro modo cioe che se vole tenere in 
su la piastra infocata e acesa per spatio duno pczo acio che se 
possa spolverizare poi tolli doi parte de sale armoniacho et una 
parte de solfano e macina bene omne una da per se e poi le 
miatica bene et mectile in uno vaso de vetrio et lutalo cum 
luto de sapientia o vero philosophioo et lassa seccare poi lo 
mecti in lo fomello et dalli el fiioco moderato et quando tu 
Tederai uscire el fiimo bianco per la bocca del vaso non fare 
piu foco et quando e freddo mmpe lo vaso cautamente et tro-* 
varai buono azurro. 

31. Ad faciendum azumim artificiale. — Summe de lapide 
pulcro marmoreo et tantundem ad extimationem de fiore mec- 
talli quo tintores utuntur et tere simul bene et fiau! deinde 
bulUre in vino rubeo bono et pone ad solem ut siccetur postea 
iterum tere adendo de dicto flore et sicca deinde iterum tere 
et sicca postea accipe de viride ere et de indica, et bene simul 
tere deinde habeas lac calvisej aliter vocatur amido et simul 
viisce donee color tibi placet et pone ad solem ut siccetur et 
erit factum. 

32. Ad azurrum faciendum. — Recipe vitrioli romani libram 
imam, salis nitrii Ubram mediam cinabrii oz. 2, aluminis rocze 
oz. 3, salis armoniaci oz. j, auripiumenti oz. j, viridis leris oz. 
unam et quodlibet per se teratur subtiliter deinde insimul cor- 
porentur et postea pone ad distillandum per elembicum prime 

* I think this is a mistake, and that for " mectalli '* we should read 
*• guati," as in Nos. 86, 40, 76, 76, and 77. The explanation of the term 
is giTen in No. 75, where it is said to be the froth which floats on the 
(tjren* vaU when they are dyeing with ^oad. This froth is the produce of 

VOL. ll. ^ 


and take off the first water by itself, until the alembic reddens, 
then put away that water by itself, and collect the next water, 
that is the second water.^ You must know, as I said before, 
that the fire must be gentle at first, for the first 6 hours ; and 
you must then increase the fire until the alembic gets white 
hot, and no longer emits a red smoke, which shows itself in the 
recipient vase ; then let it cool, and this water will be stronger 
than any water in the world. For this water dissolyes and cor- 
rodes, and reduces to water all things under the sky, namely, 
stones and metals, and is white and clear like spring water ; and, 
if heated, gives out a very red smoke ; it is strong and acrid, 
and must therefore be kept securely closed. And when you 
wish to make azure, take that second water, which you set 
apart, and dissolve verdigris in it, keep it in a glass vase, and 
warm it a little at the fire, as the jewellers do, because it will 
dissolve sooner, and when it is dissolved, put some oxide of 
tin into it and evaporate the water, and in the bottom of the 
vase you will find very beautiful azure. And if you wish it 
to be more beautiful and like ultramarine azure in appear- 
ance, take very fine brass filings, and put them into the before- 
mentioned water, and do as above directed ; when they are 
dissolved, put oxide of tin into the mixture, and do as before, 
and you will have an azure better than German azure, and in 
appearance and colour it will be equal to ultramarine. If in 
that water you dissolve the golden marcasite, as before, you 
will find a beautiful purple, and if you dissolve iron filings in 
it, and put calcined brass into that water, you will have a red 
colour, which is called ^^ minius." 

33. To make azure, — Take of lime made from marble or 
travertine, obtained from the living rock, one pound, of verdi* 
gris one pound, of sal ammoniac two pounds, and grind the 
whole together to a fine powder ; make the whole into a paste 
with spirit of wine like rather stiff dough, and then put the com- 

1 The water deMaibed here u evidently nitro-muriatic add, the aqua 
regia of the Alchemists. This recipe is a proof that the colour called the 
** Pur])le of Cassius," was known at least 150 years before the period of its 


cum igne lentissimo et aocipe aquam primam per se donee 
erabescat elembicus tunc remoye aquam illam per se et coUige 
aquam per se aliam scilicet secimdam aquam et scias ut supra 
dixi ignis primus esse debet lentus per 6 boras deinde auge 
fortem ignem donee alembicus albescat et non amplius mictet 
fitmum rubeum qui in vase apparebit tunc dimitte frigidari et 
supra dicta aqua est fortior quam aquam mundi. Nam hsec 
aqua solvit et corrodit et in aquam rediget omnia qiue sub celi 
sunt viz. lapides et mectalla et est alba et clara sicut aqua 
fontis et si calefit emitet fiimum rubicundissimum durum et 
fortem et ideo serva earn bene obturata. Et cum vis azurrum 
fiusere, acipe secundam aquam quam servasti et in ea disulve 
Tiridem ens et tene eam in vase vitri et aliquantulum calefae 
ad ignem in modum orifici quia citius disolveretur et disolutum 
desuper pone de calce Jovis et evapora aquam et infimdo vasis 
invenies azurrum valde pulcrum et si vis eum pulcriorem quasi 
azurrUm ultramarinum in aparentia. Accipe limaturam eris 
▼el octoni subtilissimam et pone in prsedicta aqua et fac ut 
supra ut disolvatur et disolutum desuper pone calcem Jovis et 
fac ut supra et babebis azurrum meliorem quam almaneum et 
in apparentia et in coUore est sicut azurrum ultramarinum. Et 
si in ista aqua disolveris marchesitam auream ut supra pul* 
<:rum pavonatium invenies. Et si disolveris in ea femim lima- 
tum et in tali aqua posueris es ustum invenies colorem rubi- 
eundum qui vocatur minius. 

33. Ad faciendum azurrum, — Accipe calcina marmorina o 
vero travertina in petra viva libri unum verderamo libre j sale 
armoniaco fibre 2 et macina omne cosa subtili et in pasta cum 
aqua vite in modo duna pasta de pane durecto poi pone la dicta 
compositione in uno panno de lino grosso et forte et poninolo 

i«puted discovery. The golden marcasite (auriferous iron pyrites) being 
dissoWed in the aqua regia, was precipitated by the oxide of tin, and the 
result was a beautiful purple colour, 

F 2 


poeition into a thick and strong linen cloth, and place it in dung 
for the space of a month. Then take it out, when it will have 
become hard like a stone ; and if it does not become hard, let it 
remain beneath the hot dung until it hardens, and then pound 
it fine and grind it on marble, and take for every pound of this 
composition two ounces of the flower of woad, and grind them 
together, and rub them up with a little spirit of wine, and incor- 
porate all well togetlier ; then let the composition dry, and keep 
it in a bag of chamois- leather excluded from the air. 

34. To make azure, — Take of sal ammoniac two pounds, and 
brass filings two pounds, and sublime the mixture 6 or 7 times. 
Put the azure which is at the bottom upon a marble slab in a damp 
place, and it will dissolve into a blue water, and do the same 
with the sal ammoniac, mixing it with the azure, which it will 
soon soak up, and put it to dry. And know that this can be 
done with every metal, but brass and copper are the best, and 
the least expensive ; and this azure is worth 4 ducats the pound. 

35. To make azure. — ^Take 1 oz. of sal-ammoniac, and 6 oz. 
of verdigris, and grind these powders very fine with oil of tartar 
upon marble ; then put them into a glazed vase, and let them 
stand some days, and you will find the verdigris converted into 
a very beautiful azure. 

36. The way to make azure. — ^Take the shells of hens' eggs 
well washed, and put them into a new jar, and lute the jar with 
lutum sapientiae. Calcine the shells and then grind them 
fine upon a stone ; afterwards take clean indigo^ liquefied with 
common water, and mix the lime with that colour by grind- 
ing it upon the stone, a little at a time, until it assumes a good 
colour. But if you have no indigo, use the froth of dyer's woad 
instead of it, and do as before ; and know that while the woad 
is boiling in the dyer*s cauldron, you must take away the froth 
and mix it with the egg-shells, and afterwards dry and keep it. 

37. To make azure. — Take of refined saltpetre, brass fiUngs, 
sal-ammoniac, sulphur vivum, and quicklime, each one ounce, 

^ This is the true Indigo. 


Mcto lo litami per spatio duno mese de po el tra fora essendo 
tornato duro in forma de petra et non tomando duro las^lo 
tanto stare sotto lo litami caldo che diventi duro et de poi lo 
pista Bubtili et macinalo in marmo subtili poi tolli per omne 
libra de la dicta compositione oz. 2 de fiore de guato et macina 
de compagnia et sborfandoli cum uno poco daqua vite et incor- 
pora bene insiemj poi lassa sciutare et serbalo in saculo de camos- 
scio che non stia alayere. 

34. Affare azurro. — TolG sale armoniaco lb. 2 liraatura de 
octone lb. 2, e fa solimare sei o 7 volte et pone lo azurro 
che e in fondo sopra uno marmo steso in loco humido e disolve- 
rasse in aqua cilistrina et el simili fa del sale armoniaco et 
agiungi insieme et imbevera lo azurro de sopra ditto sopra el 
marmo et imbeverasse presto e polio a secare et sappi che se 
po &re de omne metallo ma loctone et lo ramo e piu digno et 
cum mancho spesa et el dicto azurro vale ducate 4 la libbra. 

35. Ad faciendum azurruw, — Accipe sale armoniaco oz. j 
verderame oz. 6 et macina queste polve bene subtili cum olio de 
iartaro sopra marmo poi lo pone in uno vaso vitriato et lassalo 
stare alcuni di et troverai lo verderamo conyertito tucto in azurro 
aaa bello. 

36. Modus faciendi azurrum, — Recipe testas ovorura galli- 
narum ben lotis et mitte in olla nova et luta Into sapientise et 
caldna et deinde tere subtili super lapidem tunc accipe indicum 
bene mundum et liquefactum cum aqua comuni et cum isto 
colore misce super lapidem terendo dictam calcem paulatim 
paulatim quoutque habeat ooUorem bonum. Si autem non habes 
dictum collorem indici loco ipsius pone ^umam guati tintorum. 
Eodem modo fac ut supra et scias quando guatum bulit in cal- 
darea tintorum debee spumam auferre et miscere cum dictis 
testis oTorum et postea sicca et serba. 

37. Ad azurrum faciendum, — Summe salnitrij affinati lima- 
ture octonis salis armoniaci sulphuris vivi calcis vive an. oz. j 


grind what is necessary to be ground, and put the ingredients 
into a glass jar, and pour very strong white yinegar upon them, 
so as to cover the powders. Lute the jar with lutum sapientiae, 
and put it in dung for 15 days ; then grind the powder, and 
preserve it in a purse of chamois-leather. 

38. To make azure in another way. — ^Take one drachm of in- 
digo, and grind it well, and take a great quantity of the juioe of 
the euphorbia,^ and mix and incorporate them well. Put theio 
in the sun, let them dry, and preserve them. 

39. To make azure, — Procure some very white marble or 
travertine, and bake it in a furnace in a linen clothe lute it 
with lutum sapientise ; then take the lime, and put it into water, 
and wash it three or four times. Afterwards take indigo, wash 
it in water, and let the lime absorb that water ; then dry it in 
the shade. Repeat the operation until the colour suits you. 

40. To make azure, — Take very white marble, and roast it 
in the fire for a day and a night, and when it is calcined grind 
it fine upon another marble slab ; then take the fix)th of indigo 
or woad which is in the dyer's vat, and soak the powder in it, 
and do this until the colour of the azure pleases you, then dry 
it ; and when you require it, take and use it. 

41. To make artificial azure. — Take of sal-ammoniac 1 part, 
of verdigris 2 parts, of ceruse i a part, grind them well toge- 
ther, and make them into a paste with oil of tartar, and put the 
whole into a glass vase luted in the maimer of the philosophers ; 
and when the lute is dry put it into the oven while the bread is 
baking, and when the bread shall have been baked 7 times, the 
process vdll be completed. 

42. To make good azure. — Take the third part of a pound of 
lime made from marble or travertine, 4 oz. of verdigris, and 
two oz. of sal-ammoniac, grind the whole together with strong 
white vinegar, in the manner of a sauce, and then put it into a 
jar well closed, and expose it to the air for three days and 

1 Lac Turtumagli — the juice of a species of Euphorbia. Matthioli 
(p. 1318) names seven species; but it is probable that the species from 


pro quolibet teranturque que terenda stmt et pone in olla 
yitriata et super-pone acetum album fortissimum ut supemactet 
pulveribus et luta oUam luto sapientias et pone sub fimo diebus 
15^ deinde macina ipsum et repone in bursia camusdj. 

38. Ad faciendum azurrum per alium modunu — ^Tolle unam 
dragmam indici et bene molle et habeas multum lac turtumagli 
et simul misce et bene incorpora et pone ad solem et dimitte 
siccari et repone. 

39. Ad azurrum faeiendunL — Invenies marmorem sive tra- 
▼ertinum coUoris albissimi et quoqnatur in fumo in panni lini 
lutato luto sapientiae deinde accipiatur cals et ponatur in aqua 
et laretur ter vel quatuor postea accipe indicnm et lavetur in 
aqua et cals illius aque potetur deinde siccetur in umbram et 
iteretur operatio donee color tibi placeat. 

40. Ad azurrum faciendum. — ^Recipe marmorem albissimuni 
et alia ipsum in igne per diemque noctem et cum calcinatum 
fiierit super alium marmorem subtile tere deinde Recipe 
spumam indici sive guati quam in caldaria tintorum est et im- 
bibe per dictum pulverem fortiter et cum siccum fberit iterum 
imbibe et hoc tamdiu iacies donee coUor azurri tibi placeat et 
sica et cum opus fuerit toUe et utere ipso. 

41. J fare azurro arttJiciak.-Ac^fe sale amoniaco parte 
j. yerderame parte 2 biacha parte meza spolverizati bene in- 
eiemj et impasta cum olio de tartaro et pone omne cosa in uno 
▼aso de yetrio alutato al modo filosofico poi che e secco lo loto 
ponilo in lo fomo del pane quando el pane se coce poi che sera 
cocto el pane 7. yolte sera facto. 

42. Affare azurro bono, — Summe lo terzo duna lb. de cal- 
cina marmorina o trayertina et oz. 4 de yerderamo et oz. doi 
de sale armoniaco poi macina omne cosa insiemj cum aceto forte 
e biancho ad modo duno sapore poi lo mecti in ima ampolla 
bene turata et mectila alayere per tre di et tre nocti poi la soc- 

whence thu milky juice was extracted was the Euphorbia Esula, the Ttthy- 
malos Pinea, called in Italian Erba latte and Lataroli. 


nights ; then bury it^ and let it have rain, wind, sun and air, 
and suffer it to remain for the space of six months, and let it be 
exposed both to the winter and summer. At the end of 6 
months or thereabouts take it out, and break it, and you will 
find the azure, at which you ynll rejoice ; grind it well with 
strong ley, put it into a glazed vase, and let it rest until it 
sinks to the bottom ; then pour off the ley and wash it again with 
very weak and clear ley, and do as before. Then wash it with 
clear cold water, and let it settle, the good azure will sink to 
the bottom, and the bad will remain in the water like indigo. 
Then remove that blue water with a sponge so as not to disturb 
the azure that is at the bottom, and let it dry in the shade, and 
you will have good and fine azure. Keep it in leather so that 
the air may not have access to it. 

43. To make azure. — Take of verdigris 6 oz., sal-ammoniac 
1 oz., unbumt gesso 1 oz., grind each dry by itself, then mix them 
together and soak the powders with water of tartar, so that the 
water may cover the poM ders, and put all into a flask, and stop 
well the mouth of the flask. Tie a string round its neck, and 
hang it to the chain in the smoke for some days, and you will 
find the azure, which you must grind well, and then preserve it. 

44. To make splendid azure. — To make splendid azure for 
walls. Take a glass [copper ?] flask, and put into it enough 
powdered travertine, well and finely ground, to fill it half way, 
and pour upon it very strong vinegar distilled through an 
alembic, so as to fill the flask. Then seal up the mouth of the 
flask, and put it in dung or in the refuse of grapes for a month. 
Afterwards take it out, and you will have azure, which you 
may grind and keep. 

45. To make azure. — Take very thin plates of silver, and 
fasten them skilfully over the vapour of very strong vinegar 
in a jar, so that there may be a space of one finger's breadth 
between the vinegar and the plates ; cover the jar well to ex- 

^ elude the air, and put it in a warm place, such as dung or the 
refuse of grapes, for a month, then uncover it, and you will see 
the aziure upon the silver plates. This you must rub and scrape 



terra et fache habia aqua et vento et Bole et ayere et lassala 
stare per spatio de 6 mesi et fiu^he ella participa delo invemo 
et dela state in capo dc 6 mesi o circha cavarala fora et rom- 
pila et troverai lo azurro del quale tene alegrarai et madnalo 
sotili in marmo cum liscia forte et polio in uno vaso vitriato et 
lassa poeare tanto che Tada al fondo poi sepera la liscia et lavalo 
una altra volta cum liscia dolce dolce et chiara et fa commo 
prima poi lo lava cum aqua chiara et fredda poi lo lassa pos- 
sare et lo azurro bono andara al fondo et el grosso stara per 
laqua ad modo duno endico et cava fora quella aqua dilistrina 
cum una spongna per modo che non conturbi lo azurro che e al 
fondo et lassa secare alombra et haverai azurro bello et bono et 
serbalo in corami che non senta ayere. 

43. Ad azurrum faciendum. — Recipe verderame oz. 6. sale 
armoniaco oz. j guersa cruda oz. j et madna cescunj subtili das* 
duto poi le mista insiemi et imbevera le dicte polvere cum aqua 
de tartaro che laqua sopravanza ale dicte polvere et mecti omne 
cosa in una ampoUa et obtura bene la bocca de lampolla et 
legala in lo coUo et appiccala al fiimo sopra ala catena per 
alcuni di et troverid lo azurro cl quale macinalo bene et serbalo. 

44. Ad faciendum azurrum feriale, — Ut habeas azurrum 
feriale per murum. Recipe ampulla yitrii et intus pone tantum 
de pulvere travertini bene triturati et subtili ut dimidiam sit et 
desuper pone acetum fortissimum distillatum per alembicum ut 
Tas sit plenum et os ejus optime sigillatum et pone sub fimo aut 
Tenada per unum mensem postea extrahe et habebis azurrum 
quod tere et serba. 

45. A (Ac) faciendum azurrum. — Summe laminas argenteas 
subtOissimas et liga ingeniose supra vaporem aceti fortissimi in 
oUa ita quod remaneat unius digitis de vacuitate inter acetum 
et laminas et coperi bene ollam ut non respiret et pone eam in 
loco calHdout est fimus aut venatiaper unam mensem et desco- 
perias et videbis azurrum super laminas quem frica et rade et 
repone dictas laminas ut supra et sic reitera donee consumentur 


off, and then put back the plates as before, and repeat this until 
they are consumed. And if you have no silver plates put brass 
plates instead, and do as before ; but it will not be so beautiful. 

46. To make azure. — ^Take one part of sulphur vivum, two 
parts of Roman vitriol,^ both in fine powder, and two parts of 
quicksilver. Put these articles well mixed into a flask, and heat 
them as you did the vermilion ; when it is done it will give out 
a blue smoke. Then take it from the fire, and when it is cool 
grind and keep it. 

47. To make azure? — ^Take 2 ounces of quicksilver, 3 ounces 
of sulphur, and 4 ounces of sal-ammoniac ; grind the sulphur 
and sal-ammoniac very fine, and then take a flask with a long 
neck, and lute it with lutum sapientiae on the outside the 
thickness of one finger from the neck downwards, and let it dry. 
Then put the before-mentioned ingredients into the flask, and 
stop up the mouth of the flask with a cork, make a very small 
hole in the middle of it, and put this flask into a new unglazed 
jar nearly full of sifted ashes, so that it may be covered halfway 
up the neck by the ashes. Then put the jar over a charcoal 
fire, let the fire be very slow for the first four hours, and in- 
crease the heat until you see white or blue smoke issue out 
of the fiask. Then immediately remove the fire^ let the flask 
cool and then break it ; grind the azure fine on porphyry, and 
keep it in a place free from air, and you will have good azure. 

48. To make azure. — ^Take of roche alum, Roman vitriol, and 
saltpetre, each one ounce ; distil them through an alembic, and 
then keep the water in a vessel securely closed. Then take 
calcined egg-shells, and grind them with the distilled water, 
and let them dry : do this three or four times. Then take very 
strong vinegar, and for every pound of vinegar take 5 oz. of 
verdigris ; grind it up with the vinegar, and distil it through 
an alembic, and with that distilled vinegar soak and grind the 
egg-shells three or four times. Then dry the mass, and keep 

1 I think that in this case, Roman Vitriol signifies Sulphate of 


et si non habes laminas argenti loco ipsius pone laminas octoni 
et fiet ut supra sed non ita pulcrum. 

46. Affare azurro. — ^Aocipe parte j. de solpho vivo et parte 
doi de vitriolo romano spolverizati subtili et parte doi de argento 
vivo et mecti le sopradicte polve in una ampolla bene incor- 
porate et cocilo conuno lo cinabrio et quando sera cocto fara fiimi 
azorro alhora tolli via el foco et quando sera ireddo macinalo et 

47. Ad €unirrumfaciendum.-:-^nisnn.eonce doi dargento vivo 
onoe tre de solphino et once quatro de sale armoniaoo et macina 
bene subtili lo solfo et lo sale predicto poi tolli una ampolla che 
habia el collo longo et inlutalacum luto de sapientiade fora grosso 
uno deto dal collo ingiii et lassalo sciuctare poi mecti queste cose 
sopradicte in nel ampolla et obtura labocca de lampoUa cum su- 
vera et lassali in el mezo uno foro picolino poi mecti questa am- 
polla in uno pignatto novo non vitriato quasi pieno de cenere cre- 
bellata poi pone lampolla in la dicta cenera che sia coperta fino al 
mezo del collo de la dicta cenera et poi ponila dicta pignatta al foco 
de carbone et dalli el foco lento lento da prima per 4 bore poi lo 
vieni crescendo per infino attanto che vedrai uscire de la dicta am- 
polla fumi bianco o vero fumi azurro alhora subito levali el foco 
et lassa refiredare poi rompe lampolla et macina lo azurro in por- 
fido subtili poi serbalo in loco senza ayere et haraj bono azurro. 

48. Ad faciendum (izurrum. — Accipe alumi de rocho vitriolo 
romano sal netrio ana oz. j, e stilla per lambicco poi serba 
laqua bene opturata poi torrai calcina de codole dova et ma- 
cioala cum la dicta aqua stillata et lassa secare et cosi farai 3 
4 volte poi toiuj aceto fortissimo et per omne libra daceto 
torai oz. 5 de verde ramo et macinalo cum lo dicto aceto poi lo 
pone a stillare per lambicco et cum quelle aceto stillato im- 
bevera et macina lo sopradicta calcina 3 o 4 volte et poi lo 
seoca et serbalo in bursia corj et haverae hello azurro et cosi 

> ThiB recipe ia of the same nature as that in No. 30, but the proportiona 


it in a leather purse, and you will have fine azure. You may 
do the same with lime made from travertine or marble, but 
lime made from egg-shells is better. 

49. To make azure. — Take a flask of pure copper, and put 
lime made from white marble into it, so as to fill it half way ; 
then fill it with strong white vinegar, and put it, well covered 
over, into a warm place for a month ; then take it out, and 
grind the mass, adding to it some indigo, and put it away, and 
it is done. 

50. To make azure, — Fill a glazed earthenware vase half 
full of urine ; then take strips of copper, as thick as for a copper 
cauldron, and suspend them in the air at about two fingers* 
breadth above the urine ; stop up the vase, and let it stand for 
two months, and you will see the azure upon the strips of 
copper ; and if you wish to scrape them you may do so ; and if 
you wish them to remain until they become quite brittle, they 
will become so in seven months. 

51. To make azure} — Take of verdigris 2 oz., sal ammoniac 
1 oz., white lead \ oz., pounded together ; make them into a 
paste with oil of tartar, and put all these things into a glass 
vase luted with philosophers' lute, and put the vase into the 
oven for bakiog bread, and when the bread has been baked six 
or seven times the process will be completed. 

52. To make azure. — Take indigo and verdigris well ground, 
and a greAt quantity of the juice of the euphorbia, and grind 
them well together. Place the mass in the sun, and dry it 
well ; then wash it, and it will be good azure. 

53. To make azure from silver. — Take 3 oz. of silver, and 
1 oz. of copper ; melt them together, and make them into very 
thin plates, and suspend them over the vapour of vinegar in a 
vase, well covered to prevent evaporation ; then put the vessel 
into hot dung for thirty days ; the azure will remain attached 
to the plates ; then take it away, and renew the operation as 
long as the plates last. 

' A repetition of No. 41 . This recipe is given in ** Secrets des Arts et 
des Metiers," 


porai &re cum la caldna del travertino o inarmo ma la calcina 
de le cocdole e meglio. 

49. AdazurrumfaciendunL — Ahbeas ampulla de puro cupro 
et pone intus calcem de albo marmore ita ut dimidia sit et 
adibe acetum album fortissimum ut plena sit et eam pone in 
calido loco copertam optime per unum mensem postea extrahe 
et macina dictam massam adendo sibi de colore indici et repone 
et est fiictum. 

50. Ad azurrum fadendunu — ToUi orina et mectila in uno 
Taso de terra vitriato et el vaso vole essere per mita poi toUi 
piastre de ramo a modo de caldare grosso et mectili in ayere 
cbe stia discosto dalla orina doi deta et obtura el vaso et lassa 
stare a termine de doi mese et vederai sopra le lamini lo azurro 
e se tu le vorai radare se ponno radare et se tu le volesscie 
lassare stare tanto che tucti vengano frangibili et farasse in 
secte mesL 

51. Affare azurro, — Recipe verderamo oz. 2 sale armoniaco 
oz. j biaeha oz. ^ spulye[ri]zati insiemi et impasta cum olio de 
tartaro et pone tute queste cose in uno vaso de vetrio lutato de 
lute philoeophico et metilo in lo fomo del pane quando sera 
cocto el pane 6 o 7 volte el sera facto. 

52. Affare azurro. — ^ToUi indico verderamo bene macinato 
habbi multo lacte de tortomaglio et macina bene insiemi poi 
lo pone al sole a seccare bene poi lo lava e de facto bono 

53. Affare azurro de arffento.—AhYye oz 3. dargento e oz. j. 
de ramo, et fondi insiemj et fanni piastre sutilissime et poUe 
sopra alo vapore de laceto sospese in uno vaso bene coperto che 
non poflsa evaporare poi lo poni socto lo litamj bene caldo per 
30 di et lo azurro remara atacato ale lamine et levalo via poi 
reitera la pratica per infino le lamini saranno bonne. 


54. To make czure^ — Take of sal ammoniac 1 oz., verdigrb 
3 oz., and mix them together with water of tartar until they 
are as soft as dough, or rather softer. Put the mixture into a 
hot oven in a well-dosed glass vase, and let it remain there for 
several days, and you will find good azure, which you must 
keep in a sealed jar, or in a bag of chamois leather. 

55. For the samej in another way. — ^Take 2 oz. of bttrnt 
copper, 1 oz. of sulphur, and 1 oz. of tartar of wine ;^ grind the 
whole together, and make it into a paste with urine passed three 
times throng a filter, or with strong white vinegar ; then put 
it into a glazed vase, and boil it over the fire, stirring it well. 
Take it ofl^, and put it into a glass vessel ; stop up the mouth of 
it, and let it remain in the sun for fifteen days, and you will 
find azure; andif it isnot crystallized with the urine or vinegar, 
leave it in the oven after the bread is taken out. 

56. For the same^ another toay. — Take 1 lb. of very fise 
brass filings, 3 oz. of quicklime, 5 oz. of tartar pounded fine 
and calcined, for it will be better than raw, 4 oz. of terra verde, 
1 oz. of sal ammoniac ; mix all these things together with strong 
white vinegar, so as to be like dough, or rather thick, and put 
the mixture into a glass or glazed earthenware vase, well closed, 
so as to exclude the air, and place it in horsedung or the refuse 
of grapes, and let it remain there, well covered up at the depth 
of about two or three feet, for fifteen days ; then take it out, 
and grind it well on porphyry, and put it into a leather purse ; 
and know that this azure is better for walls, upon mortar, than 
for any other purpose. 

57. To make azure for toallsy upon mortar. — ^Take finely- 
powdered and very fine white lime from marble, and put it into 
a new glazed jar, so as to fill it about half, or rallier less ; and 
know that the lime must be very fresh and fine. Then fill the 
jar with very strong red or white vinegar, and lute the jar so 
as to exclude the air ; put it under horsedung, or under the 
refuse of wine, for one month or forty natural days ; then open 

1 An impure supertartrate of i)otash. 


54. Ad /itciendum €usurrum. — Recipe salis cmoDioniaci oz. j, 
▼iridis eriB oz. 3, confitiantur simul cum tartari aqua donee moUe 
fiat gicut pasta vel modicum plus et ponatur in fiimo calido in 
vase vitrio per otime obturato et stet ibi per aliquos dies et in- 
venies azurrum bonum et reserva in vase plumbato sive saculo 

55. Ad idem per alium modum, — ^Accipe oz. 2 rami combusti 
et oz. j sulpburis et oz j feccis vini et terantur omnia et im- 
pastentur cum hurina distillata per filtrum tribus vicibus yel 
impasta cum aceto albo ibrti postea pone in aliquo vase vitriato 
et bulliat ad ignem et commisciatur bene postea elleya et pone 
in yitreo vase et bene os ejus obtura et dimicte stare ad solem 
per 15 dies et inyenies azurrum et si non fiierit zellata hurina 
siye aoeto dimicte in fumo post extractionem panis. 

56. Ad idem per aliam farmam, — Summe limaturam rami 
subtilissimam lb. j. calcis yive oz. 3 tartari pulyerizati subtili 
et caldnati quia melius erit quam crudi oz. 5 terre viridis oz. 4 
salis armoniaci oz. j omnia confice insimul cum acerrimo aceto 
albo ut sit in modum paste et potius magis spisse et pone in 
vase yitrio yel terreo yitriato per optime obturato ut non respiret 
et pone sub equino fimo yel yenatias et ibi maneas bene coperto 
per tres yel duos pedes circum circha per 15 dies demum ex- 
trabe et trita bene eum in porfido et repone in buraia camusi. 
Et scias quod hoc azurum magis bonum est per muros in cal- 
dna quam in aliis rebus. 

57. A fare azurro per muro in calcina. — Hayye calcina de 
marmo bene sotili et canida et metila in una pignatta yitriaia 
noya tanto che sia mezo o mancho piu tosto che piu et sappi 
che la calcina yole esser fireschissima et bene subtili poi empi 
la pignata de fortissimo aceto rosso o biancho poi copri la dicta 
pignatta cum luto che non respire poi la poni sucto lo litami de 
cayallo o yero socto la yenaccia per uno mese o 40 di naturali 


the vase, and you will find at the top bright azure good tor 
walls, and underneath it impurities — that is, the lime — which 
you may throw away. 

58. To make azure by means of aqua fartis. — ^Take of Ro- 
man vitriol 1 lb., of refined saltpetre 4 lb., and 4 oz. of vermi- 
lion, grind all these things together very finely, mix them well 
together, then put them in a bottle and distil them through an 
alembic with a gentle fire at first, and receive the first water 
until the alembic begins to get yellow, or to redden ; then re- 
move the recipient, and put on another, and lute the edges 
well, so as to be air-tight, and receive the next water, and throw 
away the first water, for it is useless for this operation, and 
then increase the fire, and let the recipient have all the 
vapours from the large bottle as long as you see any come 
off*, and keep this water in a vessel well closed so as not to 
evaporate ; and this water is useful for making good azure 
almost like ultramarine. It is also useful for gilding all kinds 
of things.^ 

First, if you wish to make azure, take calcined tin, and put 
it into a glass or glazed jar, and pour some of the before men- 
tioned aqua fortis over it, so as to stand half a finger's breadth 
over the oxide of tin ; let it stand so until the calcined tin is 
well sunk to the bottom, and is highly coloured ; then pour off 
the water, and you will find good and fine azure, which you 
may sell for 5 gold ducats the pound. 

If you wish to make calcined tin, take tin and put it into an 
earthenware vase, place it on the fire, and let it melt, and when 
it is melted, continue to mix it until it cools, and do not let it 
clog togetiier, and you will have a calx (oxide) with which you 
may make the azure. You can also make the calx of tin in 
another way. Take tin filings and put them into a glazed jar 
and pour over them distilled vinegar, and cover the jar closely. 
Place it in dung, and let it remain until the tin and vinegar 

' The description in the text appears to be imperfect. It is probably an 
inaccurate version of the recipe in No. 32, for making '* an azure better 


poi descopre el yaso e troverai de sopra azurro bono per muro 
et bello et de socto fecia cio e calcina la quale gieta via. 

58- A fan azurro per via daqua forte. — ToUi vitriolo ro- 
mano lb. j salnitrio afiiiiato lb. ^ et cinabrio oz. 4 et tucte 
qneste cose macina bene subtilissimi et poi le mista insiemi 
multo bene et polle in una boccia et destillale per lambicoo 
prima cnm lento foco et colglie la prima aqua per infinj che lo 
lambico se comincia afiare croceo o vero rosigiare alhora re- 
moye Tampolla et mectinie una altra et tura bene le junture 
ehe uon spirano et coglie Faltra aqua et la prima gietta yia 
che non vale niente in questa opera et alhora cominza a fare 
im poco magiore foco che prima et fa che lampolla receva bene 
i fomi da la boccia grandj per infino che tu vedi che ne vieni 
et serva questa aqua ben turata che non respire et questa aqua 
e bona da &re azurro bono quasi simili a lo azurro oltramarino. 
Et e bona ancora da dorare omne lavoro. 

Prima se tu voli fare azurro toUi calcina de stagno et metila 
in uno vaso de vetrio overo vetriato et desopra ce pone de la 
dicta aqua forte dicta desopra tanto che sopravanze mezo deto 
de sopra ala calcina et lassa stare cosi tanto che la calcina sia 
bene andata al fbndo et bene colorita poi sepera laqua et tro- 
Tanu azurro bono et bello del quale azurro venderai ducad 
b doro la libra. 

Et se tu Yolesci fare la calcina de stagno toUi delo stagno et 
polio m uno vaso de terra et metilo al foco et lassalo desfare 
et commo e disfatto non finare mai de mistarlo per infino a 
tanto che se fredda et non lo lassare apicare insiemj et sera 
&cta calcina cum la quale poi fare el dicto azurro. Ancora 
poi &re la dicta calcina de stagno in uno altro modo : tolli 
limatnra de stagno et polla in una olla vitriata et disopra ce 
pone aceto distillate per lambiccho et oopri bene la dicta olla 
et polla sub fimo et lassa tanto stare che lo stagno et aceto aano 

tfian Gemmn azure, which, in appearance and colour, equals ultra- 




are dissolved, because it will then be converted into a very fine 
and almost impalpable powder ; and with this you can make 
the azure. 

K you wish to gild iron or any other thing, take the tlnng 
you wish to gild, and varnish it, and let it dry ; then draw 
what you like on the varnish, and put some of this water upon 
it. Warm it at the fire, and when it is hot, rub it with a linen 
cloth, and it will be well gilded. 

B 59.^ Take strong ley, and as much as you like of indigo, 
grind it with the ley, according to the depth of colour you 
wish for. For example, if you wish the colour to be very deep, 
grind more indigo with the cold ley, and then make the ley 
boil with the indigo for the space of one misererej and after- 
wards remove it from the fire, and immediately put a little 
roche alum in powder into it, and mix it and let it cool until it 
is tepid or almost cold. Then put it into a piece of linen and 
rub it upon a chamois leather skin, and the skin will become 
blue. Dry it in the meridian sun or at the fire, and when it 
IB dry, rub it with your hands and make it soft, and it will have 
become a beautiful blue skin, &c. 

1 The title is wanting. It appears to be a recipe for dyeing skins 
rather than for painting. The hand-writing is more recent than that in 
the preceding chapters. 


disolttti perche se convertira in polrere subtilissimo quasi senza 
tatto et cum questo poi fare el sopra dicto azurro. 

Et se tu Tolesse dorare ferro o altro tolli la cosa che tu voli 
dorare et inyemicala et lassa sciucare poi designa quello che 
te piace in la dicta vernice poi yi meti desopra de la dicta 
aqua et scald(a) al foco poi commo e bene calda sfrega cum 
panno de lino et vira dorato hello. 

B 59. Recipe lisciyium forte et indicum quantum vis et ma- 
dna eum cum dicto liscivio et pone tantum emdicum secun- 
dum vis ut sit coloratum viz. si vis ut sit magis coloratum 
pone magis indicum ad macinandum cum dicto Ibcivio frigido 
demum fatias dictum liscivium hollire cum dicto indico per 
spatium unius miserere et postea extrahe ah ingne et imme- 
diate pone in eo unum modicum aluminis rocci pulverizati et 
misce et dimicte frigidari dummodo tepidum fiat et quasi fri- 
gidum demum pone eum in petia linea et fiica super pellem 
camusciam et fiet azurram et sicca ad meridiem aut ad ingnem 
et quando erit sica frica manihus et reduc cam ad morhitatem 
et erit facta pulcram pellem turchinam et cetera. 


( 406 ) 


BO. To make azure from the juice of herbs. — First collect in 
the beginning of the month of July those violet flowers which 
grow in the fields, and with the juice of them fill a glass flask, 
and pour strong vinegar or urine into it until it is full ; let it 
be well covered over, and put it in dung or in a heap of quick- 
lime, or in the refuse of grapes for a fortnight, then take it 
out, and you will find your azure made. 

61. Also^ to make azure from herbs. — Take the blue flowers 
which are called '' oculos pulcini,'' and boil them with vinegar 
and powdered resin and roche alum, and let the vase be air- 
tight ; afterwards strain the liquor through a cloth, and you 
will have a good blue colour. You may keep the dried flowers 
for a whole year. 

62. On the same subfect^ to make blue from herbs. — Take the 
flowers of wild peas, and select only those petals which are in- 
side and above the others, and which are of a dark purple, and 
poimd them ; extract the juice from them, and incorporate the 
juice with white lead, and you will have a durable and tried 
blue colour. 

63. To dye linen cloth blue toith Juice of herbs.^ — Take the 
berries of the '' chacabassia," and bruise them well on a thick 
and white, but not new, linen cloth, on both sides of the cloth. 
Then take a vessel full of urine, and put the cloth over it so as 

^ This appears to be a version of one of the recipes for *^ Fezsette.'' I 
cannot find the explanation of the term ** Chacabassia*' ,- perhaps, «s 
was sug^gested to me by a gentleman well acquainted with the subject, 

( 407 ) 



60. Ad faciendum azurrum ex succo herbarum. — Primo col- 
lige in principio mensis Julij illos iSores yiolatos qui naacuntur 
in campb et ex succo eorum impleas unam ampullam vitream 
et desuper infiinde fortem acetum vel orinam usque ad sum- 
mum et sit optime copertam et pone sub fimo aut sub acenra 
calds vive yel sub venatias per 15^ dies postea extrabe et in< 
venies azurrum &ctum. 

61. Ad idem de azurro herbarum. — Collige flores azurrinos 
qui Yocantur oculos pulcini et fac eos bullire cum aceto et cum 
ragina pulverizata et aluminis rozi ita quod yasculum non 
pofisit aspirari postea collabis per pannum et habebis bonum 
colorem azurrinum et poteris servare per totum annum flores 

62. Super eadem de herbarum azurro. — Reqipe fiore de pe- 
selli salvatice et toUi solamente quello fiore che e de dentro in 
8US0 I'altro fiore el quale e pavonazo scuro et quelli pista et 
cayani lo sugo et incorpora lo dicto sugo cum biacca et haverai 
colore cilestro durabili et provato. 

63. A fare la peza azurra de sugo derbe. — ToUi delle po- 
mellj de la chacabascia e sfregali bene in uno panno de lino 
grosso et bianco non novo da omne lato de la pezza poi toUi 
uno catino pino de orina poi pone questa pezza sopra a questo 

it may be the nme as *' scaldabassa," which is mentioned in the Le 
Begue MS., and which was certainly a blue colour, because it was used 
with yellow to produce a green colour. 

VOL. IX. * G 3 


not to touch the urine, and let it stand for three or four days. 
Then take it up and it will have become blue ; and when you 
want to use it take a small piece of that cloth, put it into a 
'shell ; add a little gum water, and let it stand to soak for the 
space of one miserere ; then press it, and with what you press 
out, paint what you like on paper, on miniatures, or elsewhere, 
and it will be a fine colour. 

64. To make blue in another manner with Juice [of plants]. — 
Summe stercho canino bianco, et spolverizalo bene subtili et 
stemperalo cum orina ad modo de coUore et cum questo stercho 
stemperato cum orina, scrive, depinge quello che tu voli et 
lassalo sechare, poi toUi lo sugo delli granelli dellebe, et poUo 
cum lo pennello sopra le lettere o fogliami della mistura de lo 
stercho et subito diventara collore azurro hello, et se misti 
el dicto sugo cum lo stercho, et cum lorina, et mistica bene 
insiemj, vira azurro, ut supra. 

65. How to grind azure to use with the pen and in body 
colour, — Take the azure, and put it into a glazed pan ; then 
add some very clean honey and incorporate them well together 
then grind the honey with the blue upon marble or porphyry 
until it becomes an almost impalpable powder. When it is 
ground fine put it back into the pan and wash it several times 
with warm water, and when it is well washed with warm water, 
wash it with cold water, and after each time let the azure 
sink to the bottom. Continue this until it is well washed, 
cleaned, and purified ; then take the azure and put it to soften 
in clear and clean ley in a glass vase, such as a tumbler, and 
let it stand for the space of seven days ; change the ley every 
two or three days, and then wash it well with fresh and clear 
water, and let it dry in the shade in a place where no dust will 
get to it. And if you wish to use it as a body colour, dis- 
temper it with size made from clippings of white chamois 
leather and it will be good. And if you wish to use it with 
the pen or for miniatures, take the azure and distemper it with 
glue made from parchment clippings, or with gum water and 
prepared white of egg, and it will do well. 


eatino per modo che non tochi lorina et lassala stare 3 o 4 di et 
poi la leva et sera diventata azurra et quando la vol operare 
tolli uDo poco de queUa peza et metila in una cocia et metice 
uno poco daqua gommata et lassa stare a moUo per uno mise- 
rere et poi lo spremi et cum quella spremitura dipenge quello 
che te piace in carta sopra aliminii o altrove et sera bello 

64. Affare cuairro per aUro modo cum suffo. — Summe stercho 
canino bianco et spolrerizalo bene subtili et stemperalo cum 
orina ad modo de collore et cum questo stercho stemperato 
cum orina scrive depinge quello che tu voli et lassalo sechare 
poi tolli lo sugo delli granelli dellebe [ellera 7] et polTo cum lo 
pennello sopra le lettere o fogliami della mistura de lo stercho 
et subito diventara collore azurro bello et se misti el dicto sugo 
cum lo stercho et cum lorina et mistica bene insiemj vira azurro 
ut supra. 

65. Comma 9e macina lo azurro per adoperare a penna etjare 
corpe, — ^Accipe lo azurro et mectilo in una scudella vitriata et 
poi mectivi del mele ben necto et incorpora bene insiemj poi 
macina el mele insiemj cum lo azurro supra marmo o porfido 
et macinalo tanto che venga quasi senza tacto et quando sera 
bene macinato aremetilo in quella scudella et lavalo piu volte 
cum aqua tepida et poi che sera bene lavato cum laqua tepida 
lavalo cum aqua chiara et da luna volta et laltra lassa andare 
lo azurro al fondo et tanto continua che sia bene lavato puri- 
ficato et necto poi tolli lo dicto azurro et metilo amollo in 
ranno da capo necto et chiaro in uno vaso de vetrio commo e 
uno bichiere et lassalo stare per spatio de 7 di et omne doi o 
3 di mutali lo ranno novo poi lo lava molto bene cum aqua 
frescfaa et chiara et lassalo sciugare a lombra in loco che non 
vi vada polvere. £t se tu el voli adoperare per fare corpe dis- 
temperalo cum colla de retalglie de camoscio bianco et stara 
bene. £t se tu el voli per operare appenna o per minij tolli 
de lo azurro et distemperalo cum colla de rasura de carta o 
▼ero cum aqua gommata et cum chiara dovo preparata et stara 


66. To mix azure far writing. — ^Take whatever kind of azure 
you like and grind it gently with prepared white of e^ and 
ley upon porphyry, and then put it into a horn. When it is 
quite settled, throw away that ley and white of egg, and do 
this three or four times, and the last time throw away the ley, 
drain it and then let the azure dry. When you wish to use 
the colour add a little gum water to it and mix it well ; and 
when it is settled, throw away that gum water and put some 
fresh, and use the colour. Some mix it with white of e^, but 
if you use white of egg, you must renew it every day, because 
if it remains too long, it ^ums the azure black. And if you put 
in it some wax from your ears, it makes the colour flow mudi 
better. Some persons say that if you put gum water into the 
azure, it turns black ; and it is said that the azure should be 
ground with ley made from the ashes of the oak or with calcined 
ashes. Distemper it, when it is dry, with white and yolk of 
egg, and this makes it more beautiful, more shining, and more 

67. 7%« toay to refine the azures when they are impure, — If 
you have azure which is not clean, take the azure and put it in 
urine to soak for the space of one month, and then wash it with 
clear water, and distemper it as above, and it will become clean 
and beautiful. 

68. for the same purpose. — Take the azure and distemper it 
with white of egg and tragacanth, well beaten and incorporated 
together, and distemper your azure with this. 

69. To purify azure. — If the azure is too earthy, it may be 
purified as follows : — ^Take white and clean ashes, and an equal 
quantity of quicklime, and let it be very white ; then take equal 
quantities of vinegar and water, and put them into a new and 
clean jar, and boil them with the ashes and lime, and afterwarda 
let them cool and settle, and with that ley wash the azure, and 
know that after such washing the azure will appear black. 
Then wash the blackened azure with white wine, and let it dry, 
and put it into a shell with about a fourth part of gum water. 

70. To colour the azure. — Take verzino, scrape it fine with 


66. A distemperare azurro per scrivare. — Reccipe de qua- 
luDque sorta de azurro te place et macinalo legiermente cum 
€ihiara dovo preparata et lisciva da capo sopra porfido poi mec- 
tilo in lo oomecto et commo ello e bene reposato et tu giecta 
▼la quella liscia et ohiara et cosci fa 3 o 4 volte et I'ulti- 
ma Yolta gieta via la liscia et lasselo bene scolare et lasselo 
seccare. £t quando tu lo yorai operare mectice uno poco 
daqua gommata et misticalo bene et commo e bene possato 
g^etta via quella aqua gommata et mectice della nova e dope- 
ralo. Alcuno lo tempera cum chiara et aqua gommata. Ma se 
tu lo conciaraj cum chiara se vole renovarla quasi omne di perche 
standoce troppo fa lo azurro negro. Etsetucemistidelabrut- 
tura de le oreccbie lo fa piu corrente assai. £t alcuni dicano che 
mettendo de laqua gomata in lo azurro diventa nero et dicano 
che se de maoerare in liscia facta de cenere de cerro o cenere 
recotta et distemperarlo poi quando sera sduto cum chiara et 
tomo dovo et questo lo fa piu bello et piu lucente et piu puro. 

67. El modo dajinare li azurri quando fussero grossi. — Se tu 
havessi azurri che non fossero necti toUi lo dicto azurro in lorina 
amolli per lo spatio de uno mese et piu poi lo lava cum aqua 
chiara et distemperalo commo e dicto disopra e vira necto et 

68. Ad t<fem.~-Accipe lo azurro et temperalo cum chiara 
dovo et draganti sbatuti bene insiemj et bene incorporati luno 
cum laltro et con queUo tempera el tuo azurro. 

69. Ad purgandum azurrum. — Si azurrum est nimis terrestre 
nc purgatur. Bedpe cininerem candidum et mundum et toti- 
dem de viva calce et At bene alba et aeetum et aquam equali- 
ter et mitte in vase novo et mundo et &c simul cum dneribus 
et caloe bulire postea permite infngidari et clarificari et cum 
tali liadvia lava azurrum et sias quod post talem lavationem 
azurrum apparebit nigrum et deinde lava cum vino albo dictum 
azurrum nigrum et permicte siccari deinde pone eum in cocu- 
leam cum aliquantula aque gumate per quartam partem. 

70. Ad edorandum azurrum. — Reccipe verzinum et subtiliter 


glass, and put the scrapings into prepared white of egg for a 
day and a ni^t, so that the raspings may be covered with the 
white of egg ; add a little pounded roche alnm, then strain all 
these ingredients throng a piece of white linen, and temper 
the azure with {his coloured white of egg. 

71. To ^^muUipfy*^ your azure} — Take azure with a little 
ceruse, mix them together, and distemper them with white of 
egg ; AQ<1 if you wish the colour to be paler, add more ceruse, 
and it will be ^' multiplied." 

72. To colour your azure very well. — Take 3 oz. of oil of 
bitter almonds, and an equal quantity of olive oil, putthem into a 
stone vase with azure, and boil them, without smoke^ for 7 hours ; 
do tins three or four times, and afterwards wash the azure with 
tepid ley, then with cold and clear water, so as to clean it well. 
Then dry it, and it will be well coloured, and you may temper 
it as you like. 

73. To make indigo. — Take the herb woad and pound it very 
fine, and make it into little balls like apples ; then take for 
every pound of woad two ounces of common salt, three ounces 
of sulphur vivum, and one ounce of roche alum ; grind all these 
things with the herb, and afterwards put them into a copper 
vessel of clear water, and mix them to the consistence of sauce 
not too thin, then put the vessel over a clear fire, and let it re- 
main until it becomes like dough ; next put it on a table, and 
spread it out rather thin, and afterwards cut it with a knife in any 
maimer you please and let it dry, and you will have good indigo. 

74. To make indigo. — Take two ounces of *^ gesso sottile," 
and grind it with 10 oz. of dried woad, that is to say, the flower 
(or froth), and grind it well ; then mix a little albumen of eggs, 
that is to say, prepared white of eggs, with it, and incorporate 
the whole well together, and dry it in the sun, and when it is 
dry cut it into pieces just as you like. And note, when you 

1 To <' multiply azure/' t. «., to increase the* quantity. In the present 
instance ibis is done by adding white to it, which also diminishes the inten- 


rade cum vitro et pone raauram illam in clara ovi preparata 
per diem et noctem ita quod rasura ilia sit coperta a dicta clara 
cum modioo aluminis rocci pulverizati deinde colabis hec omnia 
com petia panni .lini alba et cum predicta clara colorata temper- 
abiB azurrum. 

71. Ad mukiplteandum azurrum. — ToUe azurrum cum mo- 
dioo ceruse et misoe simul et distempera cum clara ovj et si vis 
magis clanim micte plus de cerusa et multiplicatur. 

72. Adcolorandum azurrum aptime, — ^Invenies oleum amamg- 
dolarum amarum oz. 3 et totidem olej olive et pone in lapideum 
vasem et &c bullire cum azurro sine fiimo per 7 boras et sic ter 
vel quatuor &ties postea ablue cum liscivio tepido deinde cum 
frigida aqua et clara ut sit bene mundum postea sicca et colo- 
ratum erit oongrue et tempera eum quomodo vis. 

78. Adfatiendum eiuftcunt.— Reccipe guatura in herba et eum 
pista yalde bene subtUiter et fac pallottas sicut poma postea 
aocipe pro omni libra dicti guati ontias duas salis comunis et 
oQtias tres sulphuris vivi et uhtiam unam aluminis rocci deinde 
bene trita omnia »mul cum dicta berba postea pone omnia in 
uno vase rameo cum aqua clarissima et stempera ad modum 
salse non nimis clare postea pone super ignem clarum et fac tan- 
turn stare ut veniat ad modum paste postea pone super unam 
tabulam et stende aKquantulum subtile bine ad modicum indde 
cum gladio ut tibj placet et mite sicari et erit factum indicum 

74. Ad faciendum indicum. — ^Tolli once doi de gesso subtili 
et macinalo cum x once de guato secco cioe el fiore et macina 
bene subtili et poi ce mistica uno poco de albume dova cioe 
cbiara doya preparata et incorpora omne cosa bene insiemj 
poi el pone asciugare al sole et quando e seccbo fannj pezi 
oommo te pare. £t nota cbe quando tu el madni mectice 

sity of the colour. The term <* multiply" was much used by the old Alche- 
Biista in the above sense. 


grind it, mix with it a little roche alum dissolyed in water, and 
it will be good and fine indigo. 

75. To make fine indigo. — ^Take one part of flower of woad, 
which flower is collected in the dyers* vat when they are Ixnling 
woad ; bake it well in an earthenware shoTel, until it is weU 
burnt ; then grind it fine, and take 5 parts of the white earth 
which the fellmongers use,^ pound it and mix it well with the 
powder of the woad ; afterwards grind the whole with clear 
water upon a stone, like psdnt, then spread it on a smooth table, 
and let it dry a little in the sun ; afterwards break it into small 
pieces, and let it dry agun in the sun. Then take some of the 
first composition, and make it of the consistence of a rather thin 
soup, and put the pieces into it to soak ; then take them out 
and dry them in the sun or at the fire, and if the colour is not 
sufficiently deep, renew the process as ofl«n as you think pro- 
per ; aft;erwards dry it, and keep what you have made. 

76. To make indigo. — ^Take gesso, ground very fine, three 
parts, and flower of woad six parts ; mix and grind tiiem well 
together until they become like paste of a good colour. Then 
take alum water made with roche alum, and again wet up this 
gesso and flower, add more firesh flower of woad until it is as 
thick as porridge ; and before you put in the alum water yon 
must spread the mixture of gesso and woad on marble or hard 
stone until it is very dry. It must then be wetted up again 
with the alum water ; afl;erwards spread it out, and let it be- 
come very dry, and preserve it 

77. To make indigo another way, — Take flower of woad, and 
make it up into a paste with urine and strong vinegar ; make 
a cake of it, and dry it in the sun, and if it is pale add more 
flower of woad to it, until it becomes of a fine colour ; then cut 
it into pieces, and finish drying it, and it will be done. 

78. To make indigo. — First you must know that the various 
sorts of this colour are made of a certain herb which is called 

1 There it no doubt that this was lime. 


ono pooo dalumj de rocho disoluto in aqua e sera bono et bello 

75. ^are bello indico, — Reccipe partem unam floris guati 
qui floe colligitur in caldarea tintorum quando guatum dequo- 
quatur et ipeum bene coque in pella terrea donee peroptime 
comburetur postea tere eum subtile deinde accipe terram albam 
qua utuntur pelliparij et pulveriza et toUe de ea partes 5 et 
bene missia cum pulvere predicto guati postea cum aqua clara 
omnia simul conjunge supra lapidem ad modum coUoris deinde 
extende supra tabulam politam et dimitte aliquantulum sicari ad 
solem postea fac parva frustra et iterum dimite sicari ad solem 
hoc facto acipe de primo composito et fac unum brodum aliquan- 
tulum currens et impone ipsa frustra ut imbibantur deinde ex- 
trhae et sicca ad solem vel ad ingnem deinde si non est satis 
coloratum reitera donee videtur tibi postea sicca et serva quod 
fiu^um erit 

76. Affare indico. — ^Tolli gesso macinato subtilmente per 
terza parte e fiore de guato per sesta parte et mistica et macina 
bene insiemj tanto che yenga ad modo de pasta che habbia bono 
collore poi tolli aqua alumata cum alumj de rocho et reintridi 
questo gesso et fiore de novo cum la dicta aqua alumata cum 
piu fiore de guato novo tanto che sia commo una farinata. £t 
nanti che tu ce mecti laqua alumata se vole stemdare lo gesso 
et lo fiore in uno marmo o vero sasso vivo in fino che e ben 
secho poi se vole reintridare de novo cum la dicta aqua alumata 
pm lo stende et lassalo seccare si che sia ben secho et ripoUo. 

77. Affare indico per aJtram viam. — Reccipe fiore de guato 
et impasta insiemi cum orina et aceto forte et fanne uno migli- 
ado et secalo al sole e se ello bianchegiasse metice piu fiore de 
guato et cusi fisi tanto che habbia bello colore poi ne fa peze e 
fonussce lo de seccare et sera facto. 

78. Ad faciendum indicum et cor^tionem ejus, — Primo sci- 
endum est quod genera istius coloris fit de quadam herba que 


woady and this herb is boiled down in a jar until no part of it 
remains ; it is then dried, and is called by different names ; it 
is made in various places, and is nearly perfect azure. 

79. To maJte indigo. — Take prepared gesso, ground fine, and 
mix it with flower of woad, and grind it until it becomes like 
soft and watery paste, and has a good colour. Then take roche 
alum, and distemper it with hot water ; then wet up afresh the 
gesso and flower with the said alum water, so as to be like a 
thin porridge ; let it remain so until it begins to shrink, then 
spread it out, and let it dry ; afterwards wet it up again with 
the alum water and flower of woad, and spread it out again on 
a plank or table of polished walnut wood, or well-polished 
marble or stone. When nearly dry, cut it into pieces just as 
you like, and let it finish drying, and it will be good indigo. 

80. To make indigo in another way, — ^Take flower of woad 
and very white starch, knead them together with urine pre- 
pared and strained through a filter, and strong white vinegar, 
equal parts of each. Make the whole into a cake, and dry it 
in the sun ; and if it is not sufficiently coloured, add to it more 
flower of woad, and put so much of it that it may be of a lively 
colour, and it will be done. 

81. To make indigo by another method. — ^Take woad in the 
herb, and pound it well, and put it in the sun in a vase, and let 
the sun always shine upon it, and let it stand so for several 
days, and every day wet it with urine until it breeds worms, 
and it will produce large worms of a blue colour. Then take 
these worms and pound them, and extract the juice of them by 
means of a linen cloth, not too tight ; then let the mass remain 
by itself, and when it begins to shrink make it into a cake like 
dough, not too thick, and put it to dry ; and when it is nearly 
dry, so that the juice can be pressed out well, cut it in pieces 
just as you like, and let it finish drying, and it is done. 


vocatur gnatum et ilia herba coquetur in vase donee nil de sub- 
stantia remaneat deinde desicatur et diversis nominibus nomi- 
netur et in diversis partibus conficitur et quasi azumim est. 

79. Affare indico. — Tolli gesso curato macinato subtili et 
mistalo cum fiore de guato et tanto lo vieni macinando che sia 
commo pasta intrisa brodosa per modo che habia bono collore 
poi tolli alumj de rocho et distemperalo in laqua calda poi 
reintridi de novo lo dicto gesso et fiore cum la dicta aqua 
alumata per modo che sia commo una farinata liquida e lassalo 
cusci stare per infino che se cominzia a stregnare poi lo stende 
e lassalo seiugare poi de novo lo intridi cum la dicta aqua 
alumata e fiore de guato e de novo lo stende in una tavola de 
noce o asse bene polita o marmo o petra bene polita e lassala 
quasi secare poi ne ia li pezi a tuo piacere e lassalo fomire de 
secare et sera bono indico. 

80. Affare indicho alio modo. — ^Ahvve fiore de guato et amido 
bene canido e impasta insiemj cum orina preparata e stillata 
per filtro et cum aceto bianco e forte tanto de luno quanto de 
laltro e fimne uno migliacio e secalo al sole e se venisse che 
non fosse bene oolorito metivj piu fiore e tanto vi ni mecti che 
habia bono e vivo collore e de facto. 

81. Affare indicho per altra forma. — ^Tolli guato in herba e 
pistalo bene e mectilo al sole in uno vaso e fache lo sole li dia 
di continuo e lassalo stare piu di e omne di lo bagna cum orina 
per infino a tanto che inverminisce e fara verminj grossci de 
collore azurro poi tolli quei verminj e pistali e tranne el sugo 
per uno panno de lino non troppo stretto poi lassalo reposare 
per se medesimo e commo se comincia a stregnare e tu ne fa 
una focacia come se fusse pasta non troppo grossa e mectila a 
seocare e quando sera a presso che secca che lo sugo se tirera 
bene e tu ne fa in pezze commo te pare et lassali compire de 
secare e de facto. 

( 418 ) 



82. To make verdigris. — ^Take very thin slips of copper, and 
put them into a vase, and then place the vase three pahns deep 
in horsedung, underground, in a damp place, and let it remain 
thirty or forty days ; then take it out, and rub the slips well 
with very strong vinegar ; then put them back under the dung 
in the vase, and let them remain well covered for the space of 
one month, when the verdigris will be formed. 

83. To make verdigris. — ^Take a copper pot, with a cover 
that can be luted on to it, and fill it with very strong vinegar, 
then put on the cover, and let it remain sixty or seventy days 
underground in a warm and damp place ; then take out the 
vase, and scrape away the verdigris that adheres to the bottom ; 
then put back the vinegar, and return it as before, and continue 
this as long as any of the basin remains. 

84. To make verdigris. — Take plates of copper, and suspend 
them over the vapour of strong vinegar in a jar covered with 
clay and well closed, so as to be air-tight ; then put the jar 
into dung or the refuse of grapes, in the time of the vintage, 
for the space of fifteen days, when you must open the jar, and 
you will find the verdigris adhering to those plates. Scrape it 
away, and return it as before. 

85. To make verdigris. — ^Take very thin copper and cut it 
into pieces of half an ounce or one ounce each ; arrange them 
in a glazed vase with common salt — that is to say, one stratom 
of copper and another of salt; then fill the vase with strong 
vinegar, and cover it with lutum sapientise; put it under- 
ground in a damp and warm place for a month, and you will 
have good verdigris. 


( 419 ) 



82. Ad faciendum viridem ramum. — Accipe fecte de ramo 
subtilissimi et mectile in uno vaso e poi lo pone socto lo litami 
de cayallo socto terra in loco humido socto tre palmi et lassalo 
stare 30 o 40 di poi el tera fora et sborfiei molto bene cum aceto 
fortissimo le dicte lamine poi le ritoma socto quello litami in 
quelle yaso et stiano bene coperte per spatio duno mese et sera 
&cto Terderamo. 

83. Ad xnridem herem faciendum. — ^Tolli uno catino de ramo 
com uno copercldo che li stia sogillato et inpe lo catino de fortis- 
simo aoeto poi lo copri cum lo suo coperchio et lassalo stare per 
60 di socto terra cbe habia caldo et humido poi tolli fora el 
vaso et rade via el verderamo che se teni al fondo poi remectili 
suso quello aceto et tomalo al modo disopra et & similmente 
per infino a tanto die lo catino ne mena. 

84. Ad faciendum viridem ramum, — Summe le piastre de 
ramo et sospendi le f opra alo vapore de lo aceto forte in una 
pignatta coperta cum creta bene obturata che non spire poi lo 
poni in lo litami o vero renacia al tempo de vendemia per spatio 
de 15 di poi apre la dicta pignatta et troTcrai el verde ramo 
che sera apicato a quelle piastre et rade via quello et poi lo 
toma al modo sopradicto. 

85. Ad viridem ramum faciendum. — Habbi ramo subtilissimo 
et fiumj peze de meza onda o duna oncia luno et acconciale in 
uxu> yaso yitriato cum sale communo cioe uno strato de lamine 
et uno de sale poi impe lo vaso daceto forte et coprilo yaso 
cum Into de'sapientia et mectilo socto terra per imo mese in 
loco humido et callido et sera facto bono yerderamo. 

VOL. II. n 


86. To make green for painting on ges90. — Take 5 ounces of 
strong white vinegar, of copper-foil and Roman vitriol equal 
quantities, and a little alum ; grind them all together, and let 
them dry, and when you want to use the colour distemper it 
with gum water, and it will make a good green. 

87. To make green, — ^Take orpiment and indigo " de baga- 
don,"^ and grind them well with water. When the colour 
settles, grind it again with gum-water, and it will make a 
green ; and, if you please, take orpiment and grind it, and mix 
with it white lead and indigo, and do as before, and it will be 

88. For the same. — Take viridem presimum' and grind it 
with water ; let it dry, then temper it with gum-water, and if 
you wish it lighter, put in a little more orpiment, and it will be 
of a good colour. 

89. To make a good green with buckthorn. — Take small berries 
of buckthorn' when quite ripe, put them into a glass vase, and 
crush them well with your hands ; then place them in the sun, 
and let them remain until the juice rises above the berries ; 
then strain the refuse, and throw it away, and if the juice 
weighs one pound put into it the weight of two quattrini' of roche 
alum in powder. Place the mixture in the sun in a well-dosed 
glass vase, and let it stand three or four days, stirring it well 
three or four times every day ; and if it should happen to dry 
afler a time, distemper it with clear ley, with a little gum. 

90. To make green. — ^Take indigo and grind it with plenty 
of safiron, and with a little white lead and gum-water, and it 
will become green. 

91. To make green. — ^Take the juice of the plant " morella,"^ 
and incorporate it with white earth, such as the fellmongers use, 
and mix a little gum-water with it, and it will become green. 

1 The true Indigo. 

s Spincervino. The Rhamnus catharticus, Sap green. 

3 Quattrini. Small copper coin, worth about the fifth part of a crazia, or 
the 60th part of a Florentine lira ; perhaps so called because a quatCrino 
waB of the value of four denari or piccioli, now no longer in tise. Alb. Diz- 


86. Affare verde da dipengiare in gesso. — ^Tolli once 5 de 
forte aceto bianco poi tolli battitura de ramo vitriolo romano 
ana et un pocfao dalumi de rocho et macina onme cosa insiemj 
et laasalo secare et quando tu voraj operare stemperalo cum 
aqua gomata et sera bono verde. 

87. Ad viridemfaeiendunu — ^Invenies aurum piumentum et 
indicum de bagadon et tere bene earn aqua et cum se resident 
tere cum aqua gumata et fiet yiridem et si tibi placet acipe de 
aoropiumento et tere et simul misce de biacba et de indico et 
&c ut supra et erit yiridis. 

88. Ad idem.'^ToUe viridum presimum et tere cum aqua et 
dimite sicari et deinde tempera cimi aqua gumata et si vis 
mag^ clarum impone aliquantulum auripiumenti et congrue 

89. Affare verde bono cum spingerbino. — ^Recipe granelli de 
spinogerbino quando sonno bene mature et metili in uno vaso 
de vetrio et amalpali bene cum le mano et metili al sole et 
lassali stare tanto che leve suso li grappi e quelle venacie poi 
U cola et premili bene et gieta via quella venacia et grappi et 
se lo dicto sugo fiiase una libra metice doi quattrini dalumi de 
rocho spolverizato poi lo pone al sole in vaso de vetrio ben serato 
et laasalo stare 3 o 4 di et omni di lo mistica 3 o 4 volte molto 
bene atomo et par spatio de tempo se secasse distemperalo cum 
ranno da capo chiaro cum uno poco di gomma. 

90. A fare verde. — ^Hawe indico et macinalo cum-zaffiurami 
asso et cum uno pocho de biacha et uno poco de aqua gomata 
et cum quella aqua gomata madna li sopradicte cose et vira 

91. Affare verde. — ^Tolli sugo de herba morella et incorpora 
com terra bianca la quale usa li piliciarj et mistace uno poco 
daqua gomata et sera verde; 

« Solatro Nero, Cacabo, It. Black Nightshade, Eng. Solatrum hor- 
tente, vulgare, officinarum, uva valpus, lupina-strychnoa, Lat Morellc, 
Hordle den Jardins, Fr. Hierba mora, Sp. 

H 2 


92. To make a light green^ excellent for miniatures.^'Ttlke 
dark blue lilies, pound them well, and extract the juice from 
them ; then take roche alum dissolyed in water, and in this 
alum-water wet some pieces of white linen three or four times, 
and each time dry them in the shade ; then wet the pieces of 
linen in the juice six or seven times, and each time let them 
dry well in the shade ; then keep them closely shut up in a box, 
in order that the air may not have access to them. When you 
wish to use the colour, take a small piece of that linen and 
put it into a shell, and soak it in gum-water just sufficient to 
cover it Let it stand so for a ni^t ; then press it well, and 
stir it about in the shell in order to extract the colour ; and if 
you choose to make it more brilliant, put it to soak in prepared 
white of egg, and use it for miniature and for drawing leaves 
upon paper. 

93. To make dark green. — ^Take berries of buckthorn, not 
too ripe ; pound them, and extract the juice from them, and 
then do the same as was directed in the other recipe for making 
light green. 

94. To make green. — ^Take myrrh and put it into a glazed 
vase, and fill it with strong white vinegar for the space of 
several days. A scum will rise on the top of the vinegar, and 
that scum is good and fine verdigris. 

*95. To make good green. — ^Take honey and strong vinegar d 
each as much as you like, and incorpcnrate them very well to- 
gether ; then put the mixture into a well-luted copper vase, 
place the jar a foot deep in every direction in warm dung, in a 
place where the sun shines strongly, and let it remain so for a 
fortnight ; then take it out, and you will find all the matter 
converted into fine verdigris of a perfect kind. 

96. To make hbte green. — ^Take someof our own azure,^ and 
safiron well soaked in clear water, grind it on a marble slab 
with the azure, and incorporate them well together until the 
colour becomes a fine green ; let it dry in the shade, and dis- 

1 Probably azzurro de Lombardia, mentioned ib No. 4. 


92. Affdre verde chiaro perminiare aptimo. — Recipe 11 gilglj 
azorrini scuri e pistali bene et tranni lo sugo poi tolli alumi de 
rocho disoluto in aqna et in questa aqua aluma^a ce bangna le 
peze bianche de toralglia doi o 3 volte et omne yolta le sciuga 
alombra poi bagna la dita peza in lo dicto sugo 6 o 7 volte et 
emne volta la pone a sciugare alombra molto bene et poi la 
eonserra in bossola bene serata acio non vengha laiere. Et 
qnando la rorai operare tolli uno poco de qnella peza et metilia. 
a mollo in aqua gommata in una coccia tanto che stia coperta 
da la dicta aqua et lassa stare per spatio duna nocte et poi la 
preme molto bene et rimenala in la coccia acio lo colore escha 
fi>ra et se te place per farlo piu lustro la poi porre a molle in 
dnara doTo preparata et usalo per miniare a &re fogliame la 

93. Affare verde scuto. — ^Ahve grani de spingerbino che non 
nano troppo maturi et pistali et cavane lo sugo et poi fa simil- 
Bdente commo e disopra dicto in laltra ricetta dalo verde 

94. Affare verde. — Tolli mirra e metila in uno vaso vitriato 
et impelo vaso de aceto forte bianco per spatio de alcuni di 
questo aceto fieura fiore de sopra et quello fiore e bono verde 
nuno e fino. 

95. Affare verde bono. — ^Abwe mele e aceto forte ana el tuo 
▼olere et incorpora multo bene insiemj poi lo pone in imo vaso 
de ramo bene copertp poi lo pone socto lo litamj bene caldo et 
stia in loco dove el sole ferisci forte et & che lo vaso stia socto 
lo litamj uno pel per omne verso et lassalo cosi stare per 15 di 
poi lo cava fora et trovaral tucta la matheria convertita in verde 
ramo bello in grado perfleeto. 

96. Affare verde azurro. — Summe azurro nostramo e zafia- 
ramj bene mollo in aqua chiara et atritalo sopra lo marmo cum 
lo azurro et incorpora bene insiemj tanto che vegna bello verde 
et lassa separe alombra et distemperalo cum aqua gommata.. 


temper it with gum-water. If you like, you may put instead 
of the 8a£fron, yellow earth dyed with the juice of buck- 
thorn,^ and it will become green ; or the juice of buckthorn only. 

97. To make a green water far painting an canvas. — ^Take 
ripe French beans, and put them into a small bag of strong 
canvas, place the bag in a press, extract the juice, and set it to 
boil, and let it be reduced one-half. Then add some powdered 
roche-alum, and remove it from the fire, and it wiU be a good 
and fine colour. 

98. To make a natural blue green, — ^Take azure of whatever 
kind you like in fine powder, and put it to soak in soft water ; 
then take fine verdigris, grind it very fine with soft water, and 
add to it so much safiron as will make it a dark green. Then 
put it into a glass comet and mix it well, let it rest so as 
to sink perfectly to the bottom, and the water will remain 
above the verdigris clear and of a green colour, and this green 
water must be separated cautiously from the verdigris. Next 
take some of that soaked azure, and pour off as much of the 
water as you can from it Then take the green water, and 
throw it upon the azure, and mix them well together, stirring 
them with your finger, and you will have a perfect blue-green, 
and it will maintain its colour ; and when it is dry, if you wish 
to use it, pour some of the green water upon it, and soften the 
blue-green with your finger, and if it is weak, distemper it with 
fine gum, and it will be a most perfect blue-green. 

99. To make good green. — Take the pips of the *' pero dtri** 
no" which are ripe at the time of , and extract the 
juice from them ; then take an equal quantity of white wine, 
and boil them down till reduced by one-half; then take rocfae 
altun in powder at discretion, and add it to the liquid when it 
boils ; then take it off the fire and set it to cool, and when it 
has settled and cooled strain it, and keep it in a glass vase, and 
use it for painting. 

too. To make *' verde alommo." — Take the scum of woad, and 

1 See No. 105. 



Et se te piaoe tu poi torre in loco del zafieramj quella terra 
gialla tenia cum lo sngo de spino gerbino et Yira verde o vero 
cum lo sugb de spino gerbino. 

97. A fart aqua verde da dipengiare inpanno. — Havve fagi- 
oli maturi e metili in uno sachetto de canavaccio bene forte et 
mitilo a Btrigere et tranj lo licore mitilo a bulire et lassalo disi« 
mare per mita poi li pone uno poco di polve de alumi de rocho 
e toto dal fooo et sera bona et bella tenta. 

98. Affare verde azurro naturalu — ^Tolli azurro de qualun* 
que sorte voi bene subtili et metilo amoUare in aqua dolce poi 
tolH de lo yerde ramo fino et macinalo cum aqua dolce ben sub- 
tili poi lo metti tanto zafiarami che diventa verde scuro poi lo 
pone in uno cometto de vetiio et mistalo bene poi lo lassa re- 
posare siche vada bene al fondo la quale aqua te remara diso- 
pra alo verderamo chiara coUorita in yerde la quale aqua verde 
se vole separare da lo dicto verderamo cautamente poi toUi el 
tao azurro mollificato et sepera via quella aqua quanto piu poi 
et de po tolli la dita aqua verde e gietala sopra a lo azurro et 
incorpora bene luno cum laltro remenandolo bene cum lo deto 
et haverai verde azurro perfecto et mantira lo colore et quando 
fosse seoco e tu lo volesci operare gietali de la sopraditta aqua 
verde et molifica lo verde azurro cum lo deto e se fiisse debili 
distemperalo cum gentili gomma et sera perfetissimo verde 

99. A fare verde bono. — ^Tolli li acini del pero citrino maturi 
al tempo de (etc) e trannj lo sugo poi tolli altretanto 
vino bianco et mistica insiemj et fa bulire per mita po tolli 
alum] de rocbo in polvere el tuo parer e gietalo suso quando 
bolle e misticalo uno poco poi lo leva dal fooo et polio afredare 
et oommo e reposato e fredato et tu lo cola et serbalo in uno 
vaso de vetrio et usalo a dipengiare. 

100. Affare verde aUommo. — ^ToUi la fiorata del guato e seccala 


dry it until it becomes a powder, aiid temper it with gum water 
and a little roche alum, and it will make a good green. 

101. To make green. — ^Take verdigris, and grind it very fine 
with strong vinegar, and put it on a new brick which has a hol- 
low in the middle ; let it stand until the moisture and the vine- 
gar are removed, that is, until the brick has soaked up the 
moisture. Do this four or five times, and each time soak the 
verdigris with fi*esh and very strong vinegar ; and this is called 
ptudfying the verdigris. This purification is also done with ley 
made from ashes in the manner before -mentioned. Then take ' 
the purified verdigris and mix it with a littie white lead or a 
little orpiment, and distemper it with gum-water, and it will 
become a fine and good green.^ 

102. To make green. — Put the ripe seeds of the buckthorn 
into a boiler with an equal quantity by weight of strong white 
vinegar, and boil it down to one-half; afterwards strain it 
through a piece of linen cloth into a glazed vase, and when you 
wish to use it, take some of it, and use it as you please. 

103. To make green. — Take as much as you like of strong 
white vinegar, and add to it some verdigris reduced to a fine 
powder, a little powdered roche alum, a littie safiron, a small 
quantity of the juice of rue, and a littie powdered gum arable 
Let it all stand in the vinegar for 5 days, then mix a littie oeruse 
with it, and it will become of a fine green colour. 

104. To make a light green for miniature — -proved, — Take 
violets in the month of March, pound them well, and squeeze 
the juice into a glazed saucer ; put in a littie well groimd roche 
alum, and mix it up ; afterwards take some pieces of very white 
linen cloth, not too thick, and dip them into the saucer three or 
four times, and the oftener the better, and each time dry them 
in the shade, and when you wish to use the colour distemper it 
witii gum water. 

I This appears to be purified, or, as it is sometimes called, Distilled 
Verdigris, the Verd' Etcmo of the Venetians. 


in polve poi la stempera cum aqua gotnata e cum uno pocho 
dalumj de rocho et sera bono verde. 

101. Affare verde, — Ahawe verderamo et macinalo cum forte 
aoeto multo subtili tolli el ditto verderamo cum lo aceto macinato 
et mectilo in uno matone novo el quale habia una concava in mezo 
«t lassalo stare tanto cbe la humidita et lo aceto «a andata via cioe 
che lo matone habia bevuto quella humidita et cosi continua 4 o 5 
volte et omne volta reintride el dito verderamo cum novo aceto 
fortissimo et questa se chiama la purgatione de lo verderamo et 
anco se fa la dita depurgatione cum lo ranno facto de oenere re- 
cotta il modo desopra poi tolli de lo dicto verderamo depurgato 
mistalo cum uno poco de biaccha o vero uno poco de oropiumento 
et distemperalo cum aqua gummata et vira bello verde e bono. 

102. A fare verde. — ^Recipe semina spini cervini matura et 
micte eas in caldario et tantumdem aceti forti et albi scilicet 
quantum est pondus semina predictorum et fiu; devenire usque 
ad medium postea cola cum pezia pannj lini et eum pone in 
vitriato vase et cum vis operare tolle de ipso et utere ad bene- 
placitom tuum. 

103. Ad viridem faciendum.'^Summe aceti albi forti quan* 
turn vis et in eo pone viridem ramum in pulverem subtilis re- 
ductam et aliquaatulum pulvis aluminis rochi et modicum 
za&rami et modicum sued ruuite et aliquantulum pulvis 
gnmme arabid et in aceto permite stare per 5 dies et deinde 
misce cum eo aliquantulum ceruse et efficitur color magis 

104. Affare verde chiaro per minto provato. — Redpe de 
mense Martij violarum et pista bene et exthrae succum in una 
scutella vitriata et impone aliquantulum aluminis rocci optime 
triti et misce simul postea redpe pezias panni lini albissimi et 
non nimis subtiles et infunde eas in dicta scutella ter vel qua- 
toor et tanto plus tanto melius et pro qualibet vice sicca eas ad 
humbram et ciun vis eas operare stempera aqua gumata. 


105. To make a splendid ydlcw, finer than arpimeni er Oer- 
man giallolino, — ^Take berries of bucktboni, when* they ore 
quite ripe, extract the juice from tfaenii and keep it in a glass 
jar well closed for a fortnight. When you wish to use it, take 
strong ley, clear and fine, and for each mezzetta^ of ley take 
an ounce of roche alum in powder, and make it boil with the 
ley for the space of one paternoster in a glazed yase ; then re* 
move it from the fire and let it cool. Next take for every tum- 
bler of ley with alum one-third of a tumbler of the juice, and 
incorporate it well with the ley and alum, which will become a 
sort of dark green water, and let it stand thus incorporated for 
a night or more. Then take rery fine white earth such as the 
fellmongers use, and incorporate it gradually with the green ley, 
in a vase, such as a saucer, with your finger, and add to it so 
mudi earth that it may be of the consistence of dough ; keep 
mixing it with your finger as long as you can, and set it to dry 
in the sun ; and if you please you can soak it two or three times 
in the green ley, in order that it may become more beautiful 
and of a brighter colour. Distemper it with clear ley, and an 
equal quantity of prepared white of egg, and with powder of 
gum arabic, and let it remain together for two nights. And 
if you wish to use the yellow before it dries, that is, when 
you have just made it, take some of the green ley and mix it 
with a very little white earth, and paint with it whatever yon 
like, and it will remain a most beautiful yellow. And know 
that the juice is good all the year, but is nevertheless better 
stale than firesh. If it becomes hard, mix a little ley with it. 

106. To make a goodand natural green — -proved — ^Take ver- 
digris and grind it very fine with water ; then dry it Next 
take some of the before mentioned yellow and mix with the 
verdigris, that is to say, three parts verdigris, and one of 
yellow, and it will become a noble and durable green, and you 
may mix more or less yellow, as you please, because the more 
yellow you put, the lighter it becomes. 

1 A glazed earthen vesBd used to measure wine ; it holds the fourth psrt 
of a Florentine Fiasco. Alb. Diz. 


105. A fare giaUo belitisgimo piu che oropiumento o giaUoKno 
ddamagna. — ^ToIIi graoelli de spingerbiuo quando sonno ben 
mature et trannj lo sago et serbalo in nna ampolla de vetrio ben 
turata et lassa cosi stare per 15 di et quando tu lo vorai operare 
tolli ranno da capo forte chiaro et bello et per onine mezo de 
ranno tolli una oncia dalmni de rodo in polyere et &llo bollire 
insiemj cum lo ranno per uno patemostro in uno yaso vitriato 
poi tolo dal fi)co et laasa refredare poi tolli per omne bichiero 
de ranno alumato il terzo duno bichiero de lo dicto sugo et in- 
corpora bene inaemi cum lo dicto ranno alumato che diventara 
ad modo duna aqua verde scura et laasa stare cosi incorporate 
una Docte o piu poi tolli terra biancba ben subtili la quale opera 
li piliciaij et incorpora cum lo dicto ranno verde a poco a poco 

. in uno vaso commo e una scutella cum lo deto et tanta terra tI 
meti che vemgna duretta ad modo de pasta et sempre mistica 
cum lo deto quanto poi et poUo a secare al sole et se te paresse 
tu poi darli doi o tre bangni cum lo dicto ranno verde ado che 
▼en^ piu bello et cum piu vivo ooUore et distemperalo cum 
numo chiaro et altratanta cfaiara preparata et cum polvere de 
gomarabicaet laasa stare insiemj doi note et cum quelle lo dis* 
tempera. £t se tu lo vorai operare el dicto giallo nante che se 
secche doe quando tu lo fai che e fresco tolli de lo ditto ranno 
verde et mistavi poco poco terra biancha et dallo dove te place 
et rimara giallo belitissimo. £t sappi che lo dito sugo e bono 
tutto lanno e de migliore stantio che frescho e se se indurasse 
mistali uno poco de ranno ado diventi morbido. 

106. A fare uno bello et tuUurali verde provato, — ^ToUi ver- 
deramo et macinalo ben subtili cum aqua poi lo secca poi tolli 
de lo sopradito £^lo et mistica cum lo dito verderamo doe le 
tre parte de verderamo et una de ^allo et vira nobili verde du- 
rabili et poi mistare piu e meno giallo commo te pare perche 
commo piu giallo vi meti piu chiaro vene. 


107. To make a very dark green — proved, — ^Take indigo and 
grind it very fine ; then incorporate it with a little of the before 
mentioned yellow, and it is done. Distemper it with white of 
egg or gum water. 

1 08. To prepare blue^eent, or blues when they are impure. — 
Take tibe bine-green or bine, and put it into a piece of linen 
cloth and squeeze it, and wash it in a saucer of fresh and dear 
water, and when you have washed it well, the colour will ank 
to the bottom. When it is well settled throw away the wato* 
at the top, and then add a little clean white honey and mix it 
untid it froths ; then grind it well on porphyry, put it into a 
glazed rase, and wash it with tepid water until Ihe water comes 
off clear. Then wash it with clear ley, and afterwards with 
clear water two or three times, and let it settle weU ; pour off 
the water cautiously, and then distemper it with prepared 
white of egg, or with size made from clippings of leather, and 
it win do well. 

B 109. To make a green tincture far writing, — Take 2 lbs. 
of calcined verdigris, reduce it to fine powder, and distil it in 
an alembic, and keep the water that comes o?er and it is good 
for writing and dyeing thread, &c. 


107. Affare uno verde icurimmo probata. — ^Ahvvi indico et 
macinalo bene sotili poi incorporalo cum uno poco de lo sopra- 
ditto giallo ed e facto et distemperalo cum chiaro o aqua gom- 

108. Acmdare verde azurri o azurri qnando Jrusaro graaci. 
— Harve lo verde azurro o azurro et metilo in una peza de 
panno de lino slretto e lavalo in una scutella daqua frescha et 
duara et commo lai bene larato lo colore andara al fondo et 
quando sera bene reposato gieta via laqua de sopra poi li mecte 
uno poco de mele bianco et netto et mistica bene per infino 
atanto che &ra una schiuma poi lo macina in porfido molto 
bene poi lo pone in uno vaso vitriato et lavalo cum aqua tepida 
tanto che laqua nescha chiara poi lo lava cum lisda tepida poi 
cum laqua frescha doi o 3 volte poi lassalo bene refoesare se- 
para via quella aqua cautamente poi lo distempera cum chiara 
dova prqparata o cum colla de branche de ritalglie de oorami 
et stara bene. 

B 109. A fare tentura verde da scrivare. — ^Recipe lb. doi de 
verderamo abrusdato et &nne polvere subtili et polla a distil- 
lare a lambioo et serva laqua e de bona da acrivare et da teg- 
nare filo etc. 

( 432 ) 




110. To make good and fine lake. — ^Take 1 lb. of clippings of 
Rosato/ and put them into very strong ley made of ashes, sudi 
as the dyers use, in a new glazed jar, and set it on the fire to 
boil, and boil it slowly for the space of two paternosters^ tiien 
pass the ley and the shavings throng a clean linen strainer, 
and press it strongly with the hand so that all the ley may pass 
out ; then put back the ley to boil again without the clippings, 
and when it is boiled, throw it on the shavings which are in the 
strainer, and press the strainer hard witli the hand so that all the 
ley may run out, and put it by. Throw away the shavings and 
wash the strainer well, so that there may not remain in it any 
hairs of the shavings. Next take 5 oz. of roche alum in fine 
powder, and put it a little at a time into the ley, until the ley 
begins to settle, which you may know by its turning almost en- 
tirely to a thick scum, from top to bottom, and you must keep 
on mixing the ley with a clean spoon until it becomes cool and 
settles ; then put the ley into the clean strainer and strain it all 
ofi^, and the lake will remain on the strainer. Let it remain on 
the strainer until quite diry, and then put it into a small basin 
of glazed earth full of clear and cold water, and stir it and 
rub it up well with the hand until it diffuses itself; all the 
scum which rises to the top at first must be thrown away with 
a feather ; then wash the strainer well and pour into it the 
water in which you have put the lake, and the clear water will 
pass out along with the alum, and this is called purifying it 

1 Roflaio 18 a kind of woollen stuff dyed with " grana," that is Kennes. 

( 433 ) 




110. Affare laccha bona et hella. — ^Tolli lb j de cimatura de 
grana de rosato e mectila in raiino fortissimo facto de cenere 
la quale usa li tentoii in una pignatta yitriata nova et poUa al 
fooo a bullire et boUa pianamente per spatio de doi pater 
nostri poi mecti el ranno et la cimatura per uno collatoro 
netto de panno de lino et premilo forte cum mano siche 
tutto el ranno escha fora et poi repone el dicto ranno a 
bullire de novo senza ala cimatura et bolito el gieta sopra ala 
cimatura che e in lo collatoro et preme forte el colatoro cum 
mano siche tutto el ranno escha fora bene et ripollo da parte et 
la cimatura gietta via et lava molto bene il colatoro siche non 
1^ rimaoga veruno pelo de la ditta cimatura poi tolli once cinque 
dalumi de rocho spolverizato subtili et metilo a poco a poco per 
vdta in el dito ranno per infino che el ranno se strenge che lo 
conoscirai quando el dito ranno tutto quasi se converti in una 
achinma grassa in fino al fondo et mai se vole finare de mistare 
el dicto ranno cum uno cochiaro netto per infino che se fi^da 
bene e che se strenga poi meti el ditto ranno stretto in lo dito 
collatoro lavato et cola tucto lo ranno et la lacha remara de 
dentro et lassala tanto stare in lo ditto collatoro che ella se 
seche bene poi la pone in una calineUa de terra vitriata plena 
daqua finedda et diiara et rimenala et sfregala bene cum le 
mano tanto che se diffaccia et tutta quella schiuma che vene a 
Bummo da principio se vole giettare via cum ima penna et lava 
bene lo colatoro et ripone suso questa aqua ove hai stemperato 


from the alum. And when the lake is nearly dry, remove it 
from the strainer, and spread it out with a broad knife on a 
new tile, let it dry in the shade, and before it has done drying, 
cut it into pieces according to your fimcy, and let it dry, and 
it is done. And know that the more it is purified from the 
alum, the more beautiful and lively, and the better it is. And 
observe this secret, that if you wish the lake to have a brighter 
colour and one which will never change, when the shavings are 
boiling, add a lump of assafetida^ as large as a chesnut 

111. To make lahe in another manner. — ^Take baked ashes, 
such as the dyers use, and make a caustic ley, and keep it 
clean and clear ; then put the ley to boil in a glazed jar, and 
when it boils, put a lump of quicklime, not slaked, into it, and 
strain it through a close cloth. Then take 2 ^' petitti" of this ley 
clean and fine, and put it into a new glazed pipkin and add to 
it half a pound of shavings of cloth, mixing it well ; then put 
the ley over a clear fire, and make it boil until reduced to one- 
third. When it is so reduced, add to it 3 oz. of roche aliun, 
and make it boil until it is reduced one-third ; then strain it 
through a straining cloth into a glazed vase, and put the lake 
on a new brick that has a hollow in the middle, a little at a 
time if the brick will not hold it all at once, and let it remain 
for the space of 5 hours ; then take it out and do this as long 
as any lake remains. Then put it into a basin to finish drying 
in the heat of the sim, and when it is nearly dry, spread it on 
a very smooth table, and when quite dry, cut it into pieces ac- 
cording to your pleasure. 

' The virtue of this gum resin probably lay in the bitter or eztractive 
principle, for it is known that lakes are more durable if the water used in 
making them be previously boiled with some astringent bark, such as the 
bark of the beech, or the small branches of the poplar. (See Traits de la 
Peinture au Pastel, du secret d'en composer les couleurs, avec indications 
d*nn grand nombre de nouvelles substances propres k la Peinture k I'huile, 
et le moyen de pr^venir I'alt^ration des couleurs. Par M. P. R. de C. C. 
k P. de L. Paris, 1788.) The permanence of the colour of the Kennes is 
thought to be owing to the astringent matter it contains. 


la lacha et laqtia chiara uscira fuori insiemi cnm lo alumi et 
questa se chiama la purgatione de lo alumj et quando la dicta 
lacha sera quasi scinta et tu latra del dicto colatoro et cum 
uno colltello largo la spiana in una tegola nova et lassalo sec- 
care alombra et nante che se fomischa de secare fanni li pezi a 
tuo modo et lassa secare e de facta. Et sappi cfae quando se 
fa quella purgationi de lo allumj tanto e piu bella piu viva et 
melglio. £t nota questo secreto che se tu voli che la lacha hab- 
bia piu viyo collore et mai non perda quando la dicta cimatura 
boUe metice tanta assa fetida quanto una castagna et stara bene. 
111. Affare lacha per altro modo. — Recipe cenere ricolta et 
tEL capitello et fanne ranno la quale cenere usa li tentore et 
serbalo necto et chiaro et poi pone a bullire el dicto ranno in 
una pignatta vitriata et quando el ditto ranno boUe metice una 
zuppa de calcina ma che non sia disolta poi la cola cum uno 
panno stretto et colgli lo ranno netto et bello poi tolli doi pe- 
titti de de questo ranno et metilo in una pignatta nova yitriata 
et metice meza libra de cimatura de grana mistando molto 
bene poi la pone al fuoco chiaro et falla bollire tanto che le tre 
parte revengna luna et quando e rentrata per terzo et tu ce 
pone tre once dalumi de rocho poi lo fa bullire tanto che a 
rentre per terzo poi la cola per uno telo de staccia in uno vaso 
ritriato poi la pone in uno matone novo el quale habia uno 
concavo in lo mezo et metice la dicta lacca a poco a poco se 
non ce po capire tucta e lassala stare per spatio de 5 bore et 
poi la cava et cosi farai per infino che tu nai poi la pone in una 
lavella a fomire de secare al sole bene caldo et quando e per 
aecarse stendila in suso una tavola bene polita et quando e bene 
secca fannj li pezi al tuo piacere. 

That Assafoetida was used occasionally by painters, is proved by a Doca- 
ment, dated 1347, which was discovered by Professor Ciampi, in the Ar- 
efaivcs of S. Jacopo di Pistoia. Professor Branchi, of Pisa, to whom the 
docnment was submitted, together with fragments of paintings from S. Ja- 
copo, which he analyzed, could form no opinion as to its probable use, which 
appears to be explained by the text. See " Lcttera dal Prof. Branchi al 
Sig. Scb»jf Ciampi sopra gl* ingredieuti di varj musaici e di varie antiche 



1 12. To make lake in another way. — Take quicklimey and 
put it into a yase to boil, with 8u£Scient water to coyer the lime 
two fiiigers deep, and mix it well with a stick. Let it boil for 
the space of 3 Aye Marias ; then sufier it to cool for a night, 
and afterwards filter the liquor which stood on the lime. Put 
the yerzino scraped fine into this water, by which it should be 
coy^red ; then take fine flour, or starch in powder, and put it 
into the water with the yerzino, and mix it well together. Let 
it remain so for a night, then separate the water carefully, and 
make the starch or flour into a ball as if it was dough, and put 
it to dry in the oyen after the bread is taken out, or eyen later, 
in order that it may not bum, and let it dry well. Then knead 
it again with the water of the yerzino, and let it rest. Throw 
away the water, and make the paste into little balls like hazel- 
nuts, and put them to dry in the shade where no dust or other 
dirt can get to them, and the lake will be made. And if you 
wish the lake to haye a bright and perfect colour, take shayin^ 
of rosato and put them to boil in the lime-water, and let them 
boil until reduced one-half; then strain the liquor and put the 
yerzino to soak in the water, and follow the recipe as before. 

113. To make verzino good for painting flowers on minia" 
tures. — ^Take a piece of lime, reduce it to powder, and put it 
into white of egg, and stir it well with a stick, in the same 
manner as the white of egg is prepared for yermilion ; let it 
settle, and then separate the scum and filter off* the white of 
e^. Then take yerzino scraped fine with glass or with a rasp, 
and put it into the filtered white of egg, and let it soak for two 
days, and there must be enough white of egg to coyer the yer- 
zino and it is done. 

114. For the same^ another way, — ^Take quicklime and put 
it to soak in a yase with sufficient water to coyer the lime three 
fingers deep, stir it well with a stick until you see that it is 
well slaked ; then let it settle for two days, and take the clear 
water and some scrapings of yerzino, and put the yerzino to 
soak in the water for the space of three days. Then put the 


112. Affare lacchaper altra via. — ^Tolli calcina viva et me- 
tila in uno vase a bullire cum tanta aqua che sopra avantia a 
la calcina doi deta et mistila bene cum uno bafitone et bolla 
per spatio de 3 ave marie poi lafisa fredare per una notta poi 
destilla per iiltro la ditta aqua che e sopra a la calcina et in 
questa aqua pone el verzino raso subtilmente et fa che lo ver- 
zino stia coperto da la dicta aqua poi tolli fiore de &rina o vero 
amido in polvere et metilo in la ditta aqua dove e el verzino 
e mistica molto bene insiemj e lassa cusi stare per una nocte 
poi sepera la dicta aqua cautamente ed e quello amido o vero 
fiore de farina ne & una pallocta commo se fnsse pasta et poUa 
a secare in lo fomo quando e tratto el pane o piu tardo che non 
se abruscia et lassala bene secare poi la reintride cum la sopra- 
dicta aqua del verzino poi la lassa reposare e gietta via quella 
aqua e de la pasta ne fa pallottecti ad modo de avellane et 
polk a sciugare alombra dove non vi vada polvere ne altra 
bnitura e de fiicta. Et se tu volesci fare che la dicta laccha 
habbia vivo et perfecto collore tolli cimatura de rosato et poUa 
a bollire in la sopra dicta aqua de calcina et tanto bolla che 
arentre per mita poi la cola et in la dicta aqua pone a molle el 
verzino et seguita la recieta al modo de sopra. 

113. Affare verzino da jiorire minij bono, — Recipe calcina 
impetra et fimne polve et metila in chiara dova et rimenela 
bene cum uno bastone commo se concia lachiara per lo cinabrio 
et lassa possare poi sepera via la sciuma et distilla quella 
cbiara per filtro poi tolli del verzino raso subtili cum vetrio 
overo cum la raspa et metilo de dentro in la dicta chiara stil- 
lata et lassalo stare a moUi doi di e vole esser tanto chiara che 
lo verzino stia coperto e de fatto. 

114. Ad idem alio modo. — Ah we caldna viva et metila a 
moUe in uno vaso cum tanta aqua che sopra avanza ala calcina 
3 dete et rimenela cum uno bastone molto bene per infino a 
tanto cbe tu veghi che la calcina sia bene disciolta poi la lassa 
posare per doi di e colglie laqua chiara e bella poi tolli de lo 
verzino raso et polio a molle in la dicta aqua per spatio de 3 di, 



whole on the fire and boil it down to one-half or less ; then add 
some pounded alum and a little gum arable, take it off the fire, 
and let it settle ; when cool strain it throu^ a piece of linen 
cloth and it will be fine verzino. 

115. To make verzinoy another way. — Take verzino, scrape 
it 6ne, and put it into a glazed vase to soak with a sufficient 
quantity of cold and purified urine to cover the verzino ; then 
add 2 parts of alum zucharino, one of white-lead, and a little 
pounded gum. Let the whole stand to soak for two days, then 
strain it through a linen cloth, and put it to dry ; afterwards 
distemper it with gum water, and it will be good yerzino. 

116. To make verzino and to preserve ii in powder. — ^Take 
verzino, scrape it fine, put it into a cup, and pour upon it a 
quantity of prepared white of egg sufficient to cover the ver- 
zino, add a little roche alum so as not to make it froth ; then 
add a drop or two of honey, and let it stand for one natural 
day. On the second day, add a little whipped white of egg, 
and scrape into it some of the before mentioned alum, as you 
did before, so that it may not froth, and do this for three or 
four days ; afterwards strain it through a clean piece of linen, 
put it into a shell and let it dry in the sun ; then scrape it out 
of the shell and preserve the powder. When you wish to use 
it, put the powder into a shell with some ley in it, to soften, 
and do as you please with it 

117. To make pavonazzo with the Juice of herbs. — Take thick 
pieces of linen cloth, not new and white, but such as pieces 
of old towelling and sheeting ; then take roche alum and 
dissolve it in boiling water and then let it cool. Soak the rags 
in this water, wet them well, and dry them in the shade ; then 
take the juice of a plant which is called '* gilosia," ^ and wet the 
liLcn rags many times in this juice, and between each time let 
them dry well in the shade. Keep them in a place open to the 
air, such as a saucer ; and when you wish to use the colour take a 
little of that linen, and put it to soak in a shell with gum water, 

1 Erba Gilosia. The Amaranthus Tricolor. 


poi lo pone al foco a bollire per la mita o mcmcho poi li pone 
uno poco di alumi pisto et uno poco de commarabico et tolo 
dal foco e lassa possare poi lo cola qnando sera freddo cum 
ima peza de panno de lino et sera bello yerzino. 

115. Affdre verzino per altra ma. — Hawe yerzino et radilo 
snbtilmente et metilo in uno yaso yitriato a mollo cum tanta 
cMina firedda et porificata da le fecce che copra el yerzino poi 
c^ poni alumj zucharino parte 2 et per terza parte biacha et 
uno poco de gomma pista et lassa stare a mollo doi di poscia 
lo cola cum una pezza et polio a secare poi lo distempera cum 
aqua gommata et sera £sttto bello yerzina 

116. A fare et conservare lo verzino in polvere, — Summe yer- 
^um et subtile rade et pone in parasdde et desuper infundi 
daram oyi preparatam ita quod coperiatur yerzinum et impone 
desuper aliquantulum de lumine rochi ita quod non &cia spu- 
mam et deinde mite unam aut binam guctam mellis et permite 
stare per unum diem naturalem. In secunda yero die addas 
aliquantulum de clara oyi rupta et abrade super de predicto 
alumine ut prius fecisti ita quod non fatia spumam et sic faties 
per tres'yel quatuor dies — ^postea cola cum pettia munda panni 
lini et micte in coculea et dimitte siccari ad solem postea 
abrade de coculea et serya pulyerem et cum yis operari mitte 
de dicta pulyere in coculea cum lexiyio ad mollificandum et 
fi^ yelle tuum. 

117. A fare pavonazzo cum mgo dehrbe (sic). — ^Accipe peze 
de panno de lino grosse et non siano noye bianche commo e peze 
de toyalglie et peze de coltrice use poi tolli alumj de rocho et 
disfallo in laqua bolita poi lassa fredare et in quella aqua aluma 
le peze et bagnale molto bene poi le sciuga alombra poi tolli 
lo sugo duna berba che se chiama gilosia et in quello sugo 
faagna le peze piu e piu yolte et da una yolta et laltra lassale 
sdugare alombra bene et consenrale in loco che le dia hayere 
commo e una una scatella et quando la yorai operare tolli imo 
poco de quella peza et metila a mollo in una cocda cum aqua 


and let it Btand for the space of an hour ; then press it out and 
paint with it. 

118. To make the colour br<isilium. — ^Take Terzino or brasi- 
lium, scrape it and put it into sufficient gum water to corer 
the yerzino, in a glazed vase for a day and a night, and then 
boil it until the third part is consumed ; then add some roche 
alum to it and boil it a little, and then pour into it one-third 
part of strong wliite vinegar, and let it boil a short time, after* 
wards strain it and keep it excluded from the air. 

119. To make verzino another uKiy. — ^Take scraped verzino, 
steep it in prepared white of egg for two days ; afterwards strain 
it through a piece of white linen drop by drop on a new brick, 
and let the rerzino remain until dry ; then take it off carefully 
with a knife, and put it away, and when you wish to use it, 
soften it with water, and write whaleyer you like. 

120. To make a colour like grana toith verzino. — ^Take ver- 
zino scraped fine, and soak it in ley as strong as you think pro- 
per for the space of 3 days ; then let it boil over a slow fire in a 
glazed vessel until the fotirth part of it is consumed ; then add 
to it immediately a little alum zucarino, and a little roche 
alum in powder, and mix it well with a stick ; then let it cool, 
pass it through a filter, wrap it up closely, and put it away, and 
you will have a good colour like grana. 

121. To make verzino over the fire. — Take half an ounce of 
verzino scraped fine, and a sufficient quantity of white wine to 
cover the verzino ; then put these ingredients into a new glazed 
pipkin, and let them soak for the space of one natural day. 
Then add to them one-eighth part of roche alum, and the same 
quantity of gum arable in powder, and let the whole stand an- 
other day. Boil until the liquor is reduced one-half, let it cool, 
then strain it through a piece of linen, and keep it in a well 
closed glass bottle, and it will be good. 

122. To make good verzino^ proved excellent. — Take verzino 
collombino^ scraped fine, and put it to soak in very strong and 

* Verzino Collombino. Marco Polo, the Venetian traveller, says, the 
best Brazil wood, or, as he calls it, Verzino, grew in the Isle of Ceylon. 



gomata et lassa stare per spatio de una hora poi la spremj et 
con quella depengie. 

118. Ad faciendum collorem brcuilium, — Recipe verzinum 
^ye brasilium et rade et pone in aqua gummata ita quod co- 
periat Terzinum in yase yitreato per diem et noctem postea 
pone ad bulliendum donee terzia pars consumetur postea pone 
intus de alumine roccj et bulliat parum postea pone de forti 
aceto albo quantum fuerit tertia pars aque et bulliat parum 
postea cola et serya bene turatam. 

119. Ad faciendum verzinum per aliam formam, — Abeas 
▼erzinum rasum et mitte in clara orj preparata per duos dies 
postea cola earn cum pezia panni lini gutatim super matonem 
noyum et fac manere donee siccatur postea cum curtello elleya 
diligenter et repone et cum yis eum operare moUifica cum aqua 
et scribe quicquid yis. 

120. Affare coUore de grana cum verzino. — ^ToUi yerzino raso 
fiubtilj et metiio a mollo in ranno da capo forte bene quanto te 
paiA che stia basteyole per spazio de 3 di poi lo fa bullire al 
fuoco lento in uno pignatto yitriato per infino a tanto che sia 
consumpta la quarta parte poi poni subito uno poco dalumj 
zncarino et uno pocho dalumj de rocho spolyerizato poi lo mis* 
tica cum uno bastone bene et poi lo lassa fredare et poi lo stilla 
per filtro et ripoUo bene turato et hayerai bono coUore de grana. 

121. Affare el verzino al fuoco, — ^Tolli meza oncia de yerzino 
raso subtile poi tolli tanto yino bianco quanto copra el dicto yer- 
zino ^i lo pone in uno pignatello yitriato noyo et lassalo mol- 
lare per spatio de uno di naturali poi tolli una otaya dalumj 
de rocho et altratanto gommarabico spolyerizato poi lo pone in 
lo dicto pignatello dal yerzino et lassalo stare uno altro di poi 
lo pone a bullire al foco et quando sera arentrato permita poi 
lo lassa fredare poi lo cola cum una peccia de panno di lino et 
serbalo in ampoUa de yetrio bene turata et sera bono. 

122. Affare verzino bono provato optima. — Recipe yerzino 
coUombino subtilmente raso et metiio a mollj in ranno da capo 

Depping tappoaes the term ** Verzino CoUombino" was derived from 
Colombo, a city of Ceylon. See Depping, Histoire du Commerce entre 

• m ^a 


clear ley, and let tlie ley be 3 fingers deep over the yerzina 
Let it soak in a glazed pipkin two natural days, and then put 
in a good pinch of tlie clippings of cloth dyed with grana, and 
let them soak well. Tlien put the liquor over the fire to boil 
until reduced one-half^ add a little rocbe alum, a little gum 
arable in powder, and a little assafoetida, and let it boil slowly 
for the space of two misereres, so that it may not boil over, as 
it makes much froth ; let it cool, and strain it through a piece 
of linen, and keep it in a well closed flask. 

123. To make verzino in the sun, — Take the verzino, scrape 
it fine, and then put it into a large fish shell, or in a glass vase, 
with sufficient red wine to cover the verzino ; let it soak for a 
day and a night in the shade, not exposed to the night air ; put 
it in the heat of the sun, and let it stand for 3 or 4 hours ; and 
take roche alum and a little gum, poimd them both fine, and 
add them to the verzino ; and let the verzino stand in the sun 
for 3 or 4 days, but do not expose it to the night air. Then 
strain it, and keep it in a well closed jar, in order that it may 
not change its colour, and it will be good. 

124. To make verzino in another way, — Take verzino, and 
scrape it with glass, and then put the rasped wood into a shell 
half full of water, and let it stand for a day and a night; 
and having done this, strain it through a cloth, and press 
it into another saucer, and put into it a piece of alumen 
scabis,^ the size of a bean, and afterwards set the lake in the 
sun, and let it dry, and preserve it When you wish to use 
it take a little drain water, and distemper it with that water, 
and use it. 

125. To make a pavonazzo colour. — Take blue flowers which 
grow in the corn when it blooms, and extract the juice, and 
then do as before directed for the other purple made with the 
pieces of linen, and it is done. 

126. To make a pavonazzo colour^ perfect for painting on icalb. — 

le Levant et TEorope depuis les Croiaades jusqu'k la fondation des Colo- 
nies d'Ain^riques, 2 vols. Paris, 1830, p. 146 n. Verzino Colombino is 
mentioned in the Tariffe of Pisa quoted by Pagnini in the work entitled 


fortissimo et chiaro tanto che lo dicto ranno avantia sopra al 
verzino 3 o 4 deta e lassalo stare a moUe in uno pignattino 
vitriato doi dj natural! poi li mete una bona piccichata de cima- 
tara de grana et fa che se mollifica bene poi lo pone al fuocho 
a bullire per mita poi tolli uno poco dalumj de roecho et uno 
poco de gommarabico in polvere et uno poco de assa fetida et 
lassa bollire per doi miserere pianamente ado non si spargaper 
la schiuma che fara poi lassalo refredare et colalo cum una 
pezza et serbalo in ampolla bene turata. 

123. Affare el virzino al sole, — ^ToUi el verzino et radilo 
subtili poi lo pone in una coc<;ia de pessci grande overo vaso de 
vetrio cum tanto vino vermilglio quanto che copra el dicto ver- 
zino et lassalo moUificare per uno di et una nocte alombra in 
loco che non 11 dia lo sereno poi lo meterai al sole bene caldo 
et lassalo stare 3 o 4 bore poi tolli alumj de rocho et uno poco 
de gomma et pista subtile luno et lalltro poi lo meti in lo dito 
verzino poi lassa stare al sole el dicto verzino 3 o 4 di ma la 
Qocte & che non stia alo sereno poi lo cola et serbalo in una 
ampolla bene turata acio non se smortisca et sera bono. 

124. A fare verzino alio mode. — Recipe verzinum et rade 
cam vitrio et postea tolle cocleam et pone in ipsa cum lingno 
rupta cujus medietas sit aqua clara et permite per unum diem 
et unam noctem hoc &cto tolle ipsum et cum panno cola et ex- 
prime in aliam cocleam et immise tantum alumen scabis quan- 
tum est unum ciceris postea pone ad solem et permicte scicari 
deinde serva et cum volueris operari tolle aliquantulum aque 
cUoche et distemperabis cum ea aqua et opera. 

125. Ad faciendum colorem pawnatium, — ^ToUi fiori torchi i 
<iuali nascano in lo grano quando spiga et tranni lo sugo poi fa 
a modo di sopra in laltro pavonazzo cum le peze et de fatto. 

126. Affare collore pavonazzo perfetto per operare in muro. — 

** Delia decima e delle altre gravezze del commune di Firenze,'' &c. 
Lisbon e Lucca, 1765-66. 
^ Qjuery Alumen Scagliuolo ? 


Take yellow ochre, clean from all other mixtures, and put it 
into a vessel which will stand the fire, and set the yase with 
the ochre to bake in a brick or glass furnace ; and know, that 
if you put it at the top of the furnace it will become of a red 
colour like vermilion. And if you put the vase at the bottom 
of the fiimace in a place where it will have more heat, it will 
become of a fine pavonazzo colour, and you must let the vase 
remain in the furnace from the time that the fire is first lighted, 
until the furnace is emptied, when it will be done. 

127. To make a very durable and beautiful verzino. — ^Take 
calcined tartar and make as clear a ley with it as you can ; 
and if you make the ley with white wine, it is better than 
making it with plain water, but either will do. Then take 
verzino scraped very fine, as much as you like, and put it to 
soak in the ley so that the verzino may be just covered by the 
ley, and no more, and let it remain so for a day and a night 
Then put it into a glazed jar, and let it boil down one-third, 
that is to say, let it be reduced by one-third ; then add gum 
arable in fine powder, as much as you think will su£5ce, and 
let it boil a very little. Add a little roche alum, in fine powder, 
and immediately take it off the fire and let it cool and settle ; 
then strain it through a linen cloth, and keep it in a well- 
closed phial, and throw away the lees. 

128. To make a light and brilliant pavonazzo for using on 
paper ^ that is to say^ for boxes, and on parchments. — First give 
the parchment or boxes, or other similar things, a coat of vei^ 
milion distempered with gum water, and let it dry ; then take 
scraped verzino and put it to soak in white of egg well broken 
and beaten up, clear and without froth, that the verzino may 
be covered with the white of egg, and let it stand for two na- 
tural days. Then separate the verzino fi*om the white of egg^ 
and with that coloured white of egg, give 3 or 4 coats over 
the vermilion, each time letting it dry in the shade, and you will 
have a bright and beautiful pavonazzo ; and know that you must 
not put any gesso whatever upon the parchment, but only give 
a coat of vermilion on the bare paper, just as it is, because if 



Hawe terra gialla et ben necta da altre misture et ponila in 
UDO yaso bistugio o altro vaso che arestia a foco et mectilo 
dicto vaso cnm la dicta terra a cociare in fomace de matone o 
vetrio e sappi che se tu lo mecti desopra a la fomace vira uno 
collore commo dnabrio rosso e se tu mecti lo dicto vaso in 
fundo de la fomace in loco che habia piu caldo vira uno collore 
pavonazo e bello. £ volse lassare stare el dicto vaso in la for- 
nace da principio quando se accende foco per infino che se sfor- 
na la dicta cocta. 

127. Affare verzino heUitissimo et durabilu — Tolli cenere de 
feccia et fanne liscia bene chiara quanto tu poi e se tu farai la 
dicta liscia cum vino bianco e meglio che a farla cum laqua 
cummuna ma omne una e buona poi tolli verzino bene raso 
Bubtili la quantita che voli e poUo a mollo in la dicta liscia per 
modo che lo verzino stia coperto da la liscia et non piu et lassa 
cuaci stare p^ di uno et una nocte poi lo pone al foco in uno 
pignatino vitriato et lassalo boUire per terzo cioe che arentre 
la terza parte poi li pone tanto gommarabico bene pisto quanto 
te paia che sia bastevili et lassalo bollire uno poco poco poi ce 
pone uno poco de alumj de rocho bene subtili et subito lo leva 
dal foco et lassalo refiredare et reposare poi lo cola cum panno 
de lino et serballo in una ampoUa bene turata et le fecce gietta 

128. Affare pavofiazzo chiaro et lueido per qperare in carta 
doe fare scatole et pargamene. — Prima campeggia le perga- 
mene o scatole o altre cose edmili de cinabrio cum aqua gom- 
mala distemperato et lassa sciugare poi toUi verzino raso et 
polio a mollo in chiara dova bene fratta o dibatuta et chiara 
senza schiuma tanto che lo verzino sia coperto da la dicta 
chiara et lassa stare per doi di naturali poi sepera lo verzino 
da la chiara et de quella chiara coUorita darai 3 o 4 mane 
flopra a lo lecto de lo cinabrio et omne volta lassa sdutare 
alombria et haveraj pavonazo chiaro et laudabili et sappi che 
ale dicte parchamene non se li vole dare giesso de niente de 
fora ma solo dare lo cinabrio in carta schietta commo sta 
perche se tu li daessi lo gesso lo verzino lo faria crepare per 


you were to put gesso on it, the verzino would make it crack 
on account of the white of egg. And upon the payonazzo 
colour, you can make flowers with other colours and paint just 
as you like ; and this is a tried recipe. 

129. To make good lake. — ^Take of urine as much as you 
like, and put it into a vase for the space of a week ; then 
pour it into a pipkin and make it boil until no more scum 
arises. Then make it into a ley with strong ashes. Next 
take raw gum lac and pound it as small as panic, put it into a 
new glazed pipkin, and add to it some of the ley of urine, 
which must be quite clear, and mix it well with a stick ; let the 
urine or ley be warm when it is poured upon the gum, and 
when it is well mixed, pour off gently the ley so coloured, and 
put it into a glazed jar. Then take roche alum in fine powder 
and mix it with water ; then put some of this alum water into 
the shell containing the ley coloured with thflac, and when 
you see that it begins to froth, do not put any more. Then 
put that which has coagulated into a piece of linen like a 
strainer, hang it up high, and let the water run off; then take 
the drainings and put them back into the pipkin where the 
gum was still left, and mix it up well. Then pour it out, and 
repeat this another time, thus making 3 sorts of lake ; the first 
best ; the second not so good ; and the third worst And know 
that tlie ley must be very strong, made with urine, and baked 
ashes, and it must be poured very hot upon the powdered gum, 
putting the gum on a strainer or filter of linen ; then pour the 
hot ley several times upon it ; afterwards add the alum, and 
dry it ; and also dry by itself what remains in the strainer, and 
it is done. 

130. To make lake as before in another manner. — ^Take of 
gum lac 5 lbs., reduce it to powder and sift it through a 
close sieve ; then take filtered urine, which has stood for 20 
days, and place a small kettle on the fire, into which put the 
imne, and when you see the scum which floats upon the urine, 
remove it with a perforated ladle, and when the urine is well 
skimmed and warm, add 3 oz. of roche alum in powder, and 


amore de la chiara et sopra el dicto pavonazo poi fiorire cum li 
altre collore e dipen^are commo a te pare e place e de pro- 

129. Affare lacha bona. — Acdpe orina d'homo quella quan- 
tita che voj et mectila in uno vaso per Bpatio de 8 dj poi la 
pone in una pignatta e falla tanto boUire che non faccia piu 
scfaiuma poi ne fa lixia cum cenere forte poi toUi gomma de 
lacca cruda et pistala minuto oommo panico poi la pone in uno 
pignatto novo vitriato poi vi pone de la dicta liscia de hurina 
che sia bene chiara et necta et miscola bene cum uno bastone 
et & che la hurina o vero la dicta liscia sia calda quando la 
pone sopra ala gomma et commo e bene mista poi ne cava fora 
quella liscia pianamente cosi coUorato et metila in una concha 
vitriata poi tolli allumj de rocho bene subtili et stemperalo 
cum aqua poi de questa aqua alumata ne pone in questa concha 
dove e la liscia gomata e coUorita et quando tu vede che se 
comincia a pigliare non yene mectare piu poi tolli quella che e 
arapresa et mectila in una pezza a modo de uno colatoro et 
apieala ad alto et lassala scolare poi tolli quella scolatura et 
rimectila in su la pintola dove arimase la gomma et mista 
bene poi nella cava et fa commo facesti prima poi reitera una 
altra Tolta et cosi ne fa de tre sorte la prima e migliore la se* 
conda meno la terza mancho. Et sappi che la liscia yole esser 
fortisdma facta de hurina et de cenere recocta et mecterla 
sopra ala gomma pista bene calda et mecti la gomma in una 
torcefecio o colatoro de panno de lino poi ve mecti suso lo 
nmno bene caldo piu volte poi la luma et secala et quello che 
te rimane nel colatoro ancho secalo daparte et e facto. 

130. Affare laccha ut supra per aJtro mndo. — Summe gum- 
mam lacce libras 5 et earn pista et cribella cum spisso cribello 
et demum habeas orinam humanam pausatam per xx dies et 
stillatam per filtrum et habeas imum caldareum parvum et 
pone ad ignem cum supra dicta hurina et quando videbis spu- 
mam habeas capitem foratam i. e. miscolam perforatam et cum 
ea proice spumam que supematat urinam et quando urina erit 


pour off the urine which remains upon the lake, taking care not 
to pour off the lake also, and let the lake dry by itself, and not 
by the fire, nor in the sun, and it will be good and perfect lake. 

B. 132.^ — ^Take of verzino, scraped with glass or with a rasp, 
whatever quantity you like. And if you have a drinking-glas 
fiiU of scrapings, reserve half of the verzino, and put the other 
half to soak in so much ley as just to cover the verzino ; let it 
soak for the space of one night. Then put it to boil slowly 
over the fire, and when it has boiled while you can say one ave 
maria, take some of the verzino which you reserved, and 
put a small quantity, little by little, upon that which is boiling, 
and continue to do this as long as you have any leil, always 
waiting a little after each time ; and when you have no more 
left;, and the verzino is reduced to one-half, stir in as mnch 
roche alum (and it must be well powdered) as you think suflS- 
cient^ and immediately take it away fi*om the fire and let it rest 
and cool. Then strain through a thin piece of linen that part 
only which comes away of itself, without pressing out the dregs. 
Put it into a well-closed glass phial, and place it in the heat of 
the sun for a day or two, and it will be fine and perfect verzino 
for writing. And if you wish the coloiu* to be darker, add to 
it, when it boils, a piece of quicklime as large as a bean, and it 
will be done. 

B. 133. — ^Take one ounce of verzino, scraped witli a rasp or 
with glass^ Put a third part of the verzino to soak in sufficient 
spirit of wine to cover it, for the space of one natural day, and 
add to it the weight of one quattrino of roche alum in powder. 
Put it over the fire, and let it boil for the space of one pater- 
noster, strain it, and keep it in a phial, and also put by the 
verzino. Then take the rest of the verzino, that is, the other 
two-thirds, and put it to soak in very clear vinegar, and add to 
it a quattrino or more of alum and a quattrino of gum arabic, 
and a good half drinking-glass full of vinegar. Let it soak for 
8 or 10 days, and then soak in this liquid the verzino which 

1 The rubrics are wanting in this chapter and the next. 


urinam que supra lacha erit taliter quod non pritias lacha postea 
permite laca sicare non ad ignem neque ad solem per se Ipsa et 
erit bona et perfecta lacha. 

B. 132. — ^ToUi verzino raso cum vetrio o cum la raspa la 
quantita che tu voli. £t se la raditura fosse pieno uno bichiero 
tolli la mita de lo dicto verzino et polio da canto et I'altra mita 
micti a molle in tanto ranno da capo che lo verzino stia bene 
ooperto dalo dicto ranno et lassa stare a moUe per spatio 
dmia nocte poi lo pone a buUire al foco temperatamente et 
commo ha bulito per una ave maria et tu tolli de quello ver- 
zino che reservasti et mettivini supra a quello che bolli a poco 
apoco et cusi continua per infinj che nai sempre staendo imo 
pooo da una volta alaltra et commo non nai piu et che dicto 
verzino sia arentrato per mita et tu tolli tanto alumj de rocho 
qnanto te pare bastevilj et metivilo dentro et mistalo uno pocho 
et sia bene spolverizato et subito poi lo leva dal foco et lassalo 
reposare bene et fredare bene poi lo cola per panno de lino 
raro solamente quello che uesce da se senza aspremare le fece 
de niente. Et poi lo pone in una ampolla de vetrio bene obtu- 
rata et polli al soUe bene caldo per uno di o doi et sera bello et 
perfecto verzino da scrivare. £t se tu lo volesti piu scuro me- 
tice quando boUj quanto uno cece de calcina viva et sera facto. 

B. 133.— Recipe una onciade verzino raspato cum la raspa 
cum vetrio e tolli el terzo del deto verzino et mectilo a mollo 
in tanta aqua viti quanto stia bene coperto per spatio de uno di 
natnrali et mectid uno quattrino de alumj de roccho pista et 
poi lo pone al foco et boUa per uno patrenostro et colalo et ser- 
balo in una ampolla et lo verzino ancora reserba poi tolli el 
resto de quello verzino quelli altri doi terzi et poUo a mollo in 
aceto ben chiaro et ponce un quattrino o piu de alumj et uno 
quatrino de gomma rabico et lo aceto vole essere uno bono mezo 
bichiero et lassalo stare a molle per octo o dece di et poi ce 
repone a mollo el verzino che resto dalaqua vite sopra ali altri 



was taken out of the spirit, adding it to the other two-third^ 
in the sun ; then add to it another quattrino of pounded alum, 
and let it stand in the sun in a glass vase for 4 or 6 days ; then 
put it away in a phial, after straining it When you wish to 
use the colour, take some of the yerzino that was in the spirit, 
which will be almost yellow, and mix it with one-tenth part of 
the yerzino which was in the vinegar, and write with it, and it 
will be fine ; and if you wish to have it darker, put more of the 
verzino made with the spirit into it, and if Kghter, less. And 
the yerzino will be better if made in this manner, viz. : — ^Take 
the yerzino, scraped as before ; then take a tumbler of vinegar, 
and let it boil for the space of one paternoster, and put into it 
2 or 3 quattrini of pounded alum, because when the vinegar is 
boiling the alum dissolves and liquefies sooner ; and if it does 
not all dissolve it is of no consequence. Then put the verzino 
and the gum to soak in it, and place it in the sun for 8 or 10 
days, and it will be good, and mix it with the other verzino, 
steeped in the spirit, and it will be light or dark as was before 

B. 134. To make a perfect btack. — ^Take a small jar of tiie 
juice of sumach,^ and put it to boil until reduced by one- 
fourth, and add to it a good ladlefhl of dirt from a grindstone, 
and reduce it two fingers more, and then add of Roman vitriol 
in powder 3 oz. and 3 oz. of pounded galls, and when you have 
added these things make it boil till it is reduced by two fingers' 

B. 135. —Take 1 lb. of " panicella,'* and let it boil in a vessel 
of strong ley until it is reduced four fingers' breadth, and put 
into it whatever you wish to be yellow ; and if you wish this 
yellow to be green add a ladleful of the seed of *' ghebbi " and a 
little verdigris pulverized, and strained through a cloth, and 
put the yellow into it, and it will become green. 

B. 136. To make a perfect colore de grana^ such as is wom 

1 Rhus Cotinuf, Codnus Coriaria, Venus's Sumach, the Venice Sumach. 


din tbrzi al aole et poi ce ag^ungi uio altro quatrino dalumi 
spolverlsato et lassalo stare al sole in uno waao de vetrio per 
4. o sei di et poi lo repone in vostra ampolla ooUato che de et 
quando lo vorai adoperare toUi una parte de quello verzino de 
aqna vite che sera giallo qnad et amistalo et amistalo (sic) cum 
la dedma parte de laltro Terzino de lo aceto et scriyi cum esse 
et sera bello et se lo Toi piu scuropu verzino daquaviti cepone 
et lo [se ?] lo Yoi piuchiaro ce ne pone meno. Et se tu farai in 
questa forma sera mellglio affiire dicto verzinoy viz. : — ^ToUi el 
rerzino raso commo di sopra poi tolli uno bechiero de aceto et 
boUa per spatio di uno patrenostro et mectioe dentro 2 o 3 
quattrini de alumj pesta perche boUendo lo aceto lalume se 
eottsuma et lique&ase meglio et se non se liquefisisse tucta non 
fa nientj poi ce poni a moUo lo verzino et la gomma et polla al 
sole per 8 o 10 di et colalo et sera bello et mistalo cum laltro 
verzino de aquevite che vera cliiaro o scuro commo tu hai hauto 

B. ISi. Affare colore Tieroperfecto. — Tolli uno orciolo daqua 
de sootaao et metilo a bollire tanto che calli la quarta parte et 
mecdce una bona scutella de loto de rota et falla calare doi deta 
et poi oe pcme de lo vitriolo romano pisto 8 oncie et 3 oncie de 
gaUa pista et quando ce mecti queste cose fa bullire tanto che 
calli doi deta. 

B. 135. Tolli libra una de pauicella et mectila a bollire cum 
uno broco de lisciva forte tanto cbe calli quattro deta et mecti 
dentro cio die voi che sia giallo et se tu voli che questo giallo 
sia verde tolli una scutella de seme de ghebbi et uno poco de 
verderamo spolverizato et colalo per panno et mecti dentro 
quello che fo giallo et sera verde. 

B. 136. A fare perfedo eollare de grana eardinalesco cam 

The piint is uMd in djeing yellow. From its astringent properties, it is 
used as a substitute for galls. 


by cardinaU^ with verzino. — Take a pound of verdno, and rasp 
it| or cut it across aa fine as possible, and put it to boil in half 
a kettlefiil of clear rain or river water ; reduce the water one 
half, and before you take the kettle off the fire, add a pound of 
roche alum, and make the water boil for the space of one pater- 
noster, and it will become red, then remoTC it firom the fire and 
let it cool until you can keep your hand in it, and pour white 
vinegar into it. And if you require a colour such as cardinals 
wear, do not put vinegar to it, but strong ley. And you will 
have 3 colours if you like to boil what remains at the bottom 
of the kettle in the strongest ley that you can get ; let it be 
reduced by two-thirds, and it will be a perfect violet 

B. 137. To make lake. — Take one ounce of crude lake or 
grana, put it into a small pipkin, and pour on it sufficient 
urine or ley to cover the lake, and make it boil on a moderate 
fire for half an hour without smoke. When it boils keep mix- 
ing it, and when it has boiled take i oz. of rodie alum, and 
j^ oz. of sal gem,' and grind them well with ley, and put them into 
the jar before it haa done boiling ; then take the vessel fi*om 
the fire immediately and let it cool. Next take a wash-hand 
basin and a petito of stale urine, or of strong ley, and throw the 
whole into the basin, and mix it together, and stir it very well 
with a stick, and put it for 15 days in a place free from dust, 
stirring it every evening and morning ; at the end of a fort- 
night take a small linen bag and strain it, and put what yon 
have remaining on a new and clean tile, and dry it directly in 
the shade, and you will have fine lake. Put it back into a box 
and cut it into pieces, &c. 

B. 1 38. To makefile lake another way, for miniatures. — ^Take 
clippings of fine ^^scarlato de grana," and put them into a 
glazed jar, and pour upon them sufficient urine to cover the 
clippings by two fingers' breadths, and put it, well covered 
over with a cloth, in a place not exposed to the air, and let it 

> That this colour was crimson, and not scarlet, is proyed by the fact of 
the verzino assuming a " colore Cardinalesoo " when mixed with an alkali > 
because alkalis have the property of changing vegetable reds to blues; 


verzinoy etc, — ^ToUi una libra de yirzino et raspalo overo tag* 
lialo atra^erso minuto quanto se po et mectilo a bollire in aqua 
pioTiana chiara oyero aqua de fiume cioe che sia mezo broco et 
&110 bollire tanto che se sceme per mita et innante che leve la 
caldara dal fuoco habbi una libra dalumj de roco et fallo bollire 
per uno patri-nostro et sera virmiglio et levalo dal fuoco et 
lasaalo fredare tanto che tu ce possi tenere la mano et mectice 
dentro aceto bianco et se tu el voli cardinalesoo non ce mectare 
aceto ma mectice lieia forte et haraj tre colore. Et se voli che 
quelle che romane al fondo de la caldara a bolire ne la piu forte 
lisda che poi havere et &, che calle le doi parte et sera perfecto 
violato etc. 

B. 137. Affare laccha. — ^Recipe una oncia de laccha cruda 
orero grana et mectila in uno pignatello et mectivi suso urina 
dhomo overo ranno tanto che sia coperta la ditta laccha et 
iaila bollire al foco temperato meza bora senza fund et commo 
bolle sempre mestala poiche ha cosci bollito toUi meza oncia de 
alume de marocho et meza oncia de salgemmo et macinali bene 
cum ranno et mectilo nelo pignatello nanze che romangna de 
bollire poi lo leva subito dal fiioco et lassalo fredare poi tolli 
noa lavella et uno petito dorina dhomo reposata overo de ranno 
forte et cacialo suso in la lavella et mistica omne cosa inmemj 
et remenala molto bene cum uno bastone et poUa per 15 dj in 
loco che non ce vada polvere et remistalo omne sera et omne 
matina et in capo di xv di have uno sachetino de panno de lino 
et colalo et quelle che romane in lo colatoro polio suso una 
tegola nova et bene necta et li la secha de bocto alombra et 
hayerai lacha fina et reponla in una scatola et fanne pezze etc. 

B. 138. Affare laccha per aUro modo per minij fina, — Re- 
cipe cimatura de scarlacto de grana fina et mectila in uno vaso 
vitriato et de sopra ce pone tanta orina dome che la cimatura 
sia coperta per doi deta de sopra de la orina dhomo et polla 

bene coperta cum uno panno in loco che non venga aiere et 


whereas, if the vinegar had been added instead of a strong ley, the colour 
would have been scarlet, and not '* Cardinalesco." 
The purest kind of rock salt. 


remain there until the clippmgs rot, and when they are rottcD 
pour the urine off; then grind the dippings, and when they 
are perfectly ground coyer them up on a jneoe of yery thin 
linen cloth, and you will haye fine lake, &c. 

B. 139. To make ftiAe.— Take cloth or clippb^s of [cloth 
dyed with] grana, but the rosato or scarlet cloth is beat, be- 
cause it has more substance. Put them into ley made from 
the ashes of bean-stalks, and let the ley be strong. Put the 
ashes into it and strain it 8 or 10 times, and it will be yery 
strong ; then put the cloth into the ley, and the colour will 
soon be dissolyed. Strain it and let it settle ; and if you wish 
to ^ye body to the lake, take roche alum, and mix with the 
lake, and put it to dry, and it is done. And know that the 
ashes may be of oak or burnt tartar of wine, &c. 

B. 140. To make lake in another manner. — ^Take 1 lb. of 
gum [lac], and put it into yery strong boiling ley, and let it 
dissolye ; then take three glasses of tepid water in which 2 oz. 
of roche alum haye been dissolyed, but first put the water into 
a large shell, throw on it the boiled ley, and let it remain so 
for 2 days ; then take a glass and take also that gum and water 
and ley, and strain it in a small woollen bag ; let it run through 
and the lake will remain at the bottom. 


lassala costi stare tanto cbe dicta cimatura se immarcisca et sia 
fragida et quando sera ben fragida scola via quella orina bene 
et poi macina la cimatura molto bene et quando sera bene ma- 
cina coprili sopra una pezza de panno de lino bene subtili et 
averai laca fina etc. 

B. 139. Affare htcha. — ^Recipe panno o veramente cimatura 
de grana ma el rosato o panno de grana e migilore percbe ha 
piu substantia et mecti in lesciya de cenere de fava et questa 
Ivscia, vole esser forte et £bl cosci octo o dece volte mectendo 
dentro la cenere et colala cbe sera fortissima et in la dicta 
lisda poni el dicto panno el quale se consumera presto et poi el 
cola et lassa possare la colatura et se ta voli dare a lo dicto 
collore oorpo toUj alume di rocho et mistica cum la dicta lacca 
et poUa a secare et e &cta et sappi cbe la cenere se po fare de 
cenere de cerro overo de feda de vino etc. 

B. 140. Affare lacha per aliro modo, — Redpe lb. una de 
gomma laqnale porai in liscia fortissima quando cbe boUe et 
lassala disfare bene poi babi tre zayne dacqua tepida in la 
quale da doi once dalume de rocbo ma prima mecti laqua in 
una concola grande et desopra butaraj la lisda bulita et lassa 
stare cusd doi di poi toUi una zaina et piglia questa gomma et 
aqua et liscia et poUa a coUare in una sachecta de tela et lassa 
uscire fora et la lacha romara al fondo. 

( 458 ) 



141. To make purpurino^ that is to say a golden colour. — 
Take quicksilyer and Venetian tin, of each as much as you 
like ; melt tiiem togetiier over the fire, and then let them cool ; 
grind the mass, and then take a glass flask, and lute it with 
philosopher's lute, and let it dry. Put the powder into it, 
place the glass in a furnace over a slow fire, and leave open 
the mouth of the flask ; when it ceases to smoke, remove the 
fire, and when it is cold break the flask, and you will find a 
splendid purpurino, which you must grind fine upon porphyry. 
Distemper it with gum water and use it. 

142. To make purpurino another way, — Take equal quan- 
tities of quicksilver and Roman tin, and melt them together, 
and when cool grind the mass fine ; then take sulphur vivnm 
and sal ammoniac, of each equal quantities, that is to say, the 
same quantity as the quicksilver or tin, and grind all toge- 
ther to a very fine powder ; then take a small bottle, and put 
these ingredients into it, lute the bottle with lutum sapientiae, 
and put it into the furnace with a slow charcoal fire ; do not 
close up the mouth of the bottle. When it leaves off smoking, 
remove it from the fire ; and when it is cold, break the bottle 
and you will find the purpurino. 

143. To make a fine gold colour another way. — Take beaten 
tin, sulphur vivum, quicksilver, and sal ammoniac, of each 
equal quantities; put all into a flask, lute the flask with 
lutum sapientise, and close the mouth of the jar with a cork ; 
then pierce the cork in the middle with an awl, put the jar in 


( 459 ) 



141. Affiire purpurino scilicet colore daro. — Recipe argento 
Tivo et stagnao vinetiano ana el tao volere et liquefac ad ing- 
nem insimul et dimite infngidarj postea macina omnia insimid 
poetea tolle ampullam vitream et luta earn cum luto philosofico 
et dimite siccarj deinde pone intus dictas res et pone in fur- 
nello cum lento ingne et ne os ampulle claudatur et cum desi- 
nerit futere fumum subtrhae ignem et cum fuerit fridda frange 
ampulla et invenies purpurinum nobilem quern macina super 
porfidum subtiliter et stempera cum aqua gummata et utere. 

142. A Jare purpurino alio modo, — Tolli egualmente ariento 
vivo stamgno romano et fallo strugiare insiemj quando c freddo 
madnalo bene subtili poi tolli solfo vivo sale armoniaco ana cio 
e quanto fd Targento vivo e lo stagno et macina omne cosa 
bene subtili insiemj poi tolli una bocciecta et mectice dentro le 
dicte cose poi la inlota cum loto de sapientia et mettila in lo 
fomello et falli al foco de carbone lento et non obturare la 
bocca della boccia et quando non Aimara piu levali el foco et 
quando e freddo rompi la boccia et troveraj el purpurino. 

143. A fare collore doro hello per altra via. — Awe stagno ba- 
tuto solpho vivo argento viro et sale armoniaco tanto deluno 
quanto delaltro poi mecti omne cosa in una ampoUa et inlutala 
cum luto de sapientia et serra la bocca della ampulla cum una 
suvera poi fora la suvera cum una lesina in lo mezo et poUa al 


the fire and let it remain there moderately heated, till the 
Bmoke comes ofi^ yellow. Then let it cool, and break the jar, 
and you will find good purpurino. Dbtemper it with gum 
water, and use it for painting miniatores and other things. 

1 44. 7b nuAe purpura^ in whatever quantity yen like. — ^Take 
1 oz. of sal ammoniac, H oz. of sulphur, 1 oz. of quicksilver, 
and 1 oz. of tin. Then take a bottle with a very low neck, 
and lute it with lutum sapientiae up to the neck ; then mix the 
tin and quicksilver together over the fire, grind them with the 
other things, and put the whole into the bottle, and make a clear 
charcoal fire under it. When you see the smoke issue from it, 
continue the fire, and let it remain until you see a silvery line 
roimd the bottle ; then let it cool, and preserve it, and when 
you wish to use it, take this porporino, and grind it, and then 
put it into a vessel with gum water, and it will do ; and know 
that it will bear a great deal of gum water. Lay it upon 
colours or other miniatures. 

145. . To make a gold colour in another manner. — ^Take 2 oz. 
of tin, and mix it with one pound of quicksilver, and when 
they are well mixed ^ add 2 oz. of sal ammcMiiac well ground ; 
mix all well together in a glass vase, such as a urinal ; put it 
in the furnace, and give it a moderate fire for a day and a half. 
Then remove it firom the fire, and let it cool, and you will find 
a fine golden colour, with which you can write. Distemper it 
with wtute of e^ well beaten. 

146. To make a good and fine gold colour, — ^Take a ben's 
egg, make a small hole in it, take out the white, and leave the 
yolk in the shell ; then fill it with quicksilver, and stop up the 
hole securely and put it under a sitting hen for the space of 
30 natural days, and you will have a golden colour,' which you 
must distemper with gum water. 

147. To make golden fringes with the paintbrush. — ^Take 

For the method of mixing the tin with the quicksilyer, see No. 168. 


foco et fidla tanto stare et cociare temperatamente che per lo 
bu^o escha lo fumo giallo allora toUi via lo foco et lassa fire- 
dare et rompi lampoUa et troverai lo purpurino bello et bono 
et distemperalo com aqua gommata et adoperalo a fare minj el 
altre coee. 

144. A fare purpura secando la quantita che vat. — ^Havvi 
once j de sale armoniaco, once una et mezo de solpbo once j 
dargento vIto et once j de stagno poi tolli una boccia cum lo 
collo basso basso et inlutala cum luto de sapientia per infino al 
coUo poi tolli lo stagno et lo argento viyo et incorporalo insiemj 
al fuoco poi lo matina cum le altre cose sopradicte et metili in 
nella boccia et poUa in lo fomello et falli lo foco de carbone et 
sia chiaro et quando tu vedi uscire el fumo continua lo foco et 
lassalo stare per infino che tu vederai uno signo atomo ala 
boccia ad modo dargento et lassa firedare poi lo conserva et 
qiumdo lo yorai operare tolli questo porporino et macinalo poi 
lo pone in la gbiavella cum aqua gomata et lavalo doi o 3 volte 
cum dicta aqua gomata et stara bene et sappi che porta asa 
aqua gomata e dalla sopra li collori o altri minii. 

145. A fare coUore daro per aUra forma. — ^Tolli once doi de 
stangno et metioe dentro una libra dargento vivo et commo 
Bono bene incorporati insiemj mectioe doi once de sale anno- 
niaoo ben trito et mistica bene insiemj in uno vaso de vetrio 
oommo seria uno orinalj et mectilo al fomello et falli lo foco 
temperato per uno di et mezo poi lo leva dal foco et lassalo 
firedare et trovarai oollore doro bello et cum lo quale poterai 
scrivare et distemperalo cum chiara doya rupta bene. 

146. A fare coUare doro bello et bono. — Tolli uno oyo de 
gallina et falli uno bugio picolo et cava fora la chiara et lo yen- 
telle lassa in la cocia poi lo impe de argento vivo et serra bene 
quelle bugio cum colla poi lo pone socto la gallina covante per 
spazio de 30 di naturali et haveraj oollore doro et distemperalo 
com aqua gommata. 

147. Adfatiendumjregios aureos eum peimetto. — Recipe ar- 

* Sec a recipe somewhat similar in the collection of Lc Beguc, No. 22. 


gum ammoiiiacy' and cut it small with a penknife, and soak it 
for a night or a day in strong white vinegar or in urine, and 
afterwards grind it with a little white of egg, and make flowers 
with your pen, or write upon gold with the paintbrush, and 
make a fringe or whatever else you like ; and when it is dry, 
breathe on it slightly, lay on the gold and press your band 
upon it. When the gold has set, take some cotton, or a hare's 
foot, and rub it on the gold, and remove the loose gold. And 
if you wish to make a fringe or flowers with your paintbrush 
upon figures, add also a little ochre. 

148. To lay dead gold upon colours. — ^Take incense, wbite 
gum, and sugar candy, of each equal quantities, grind them 
together, and distemper the mass with strong vinegar or wine, 
and make it sufficiently liquid not to clog the brush ; and it 
must be thoroughly mixed so as to dry well when applied with 
the pencil. Lay it on where you wish to put the gold, and 
when dry, lay the gold upon it, and press it with the cotton ; 
when you have pressed it down well, rub it with the cotton, and 
the gold will remain clear and fine. 

149. To lay gold upon booksj that tSj upon paper, — ^Take 
white of egg, well whipped with the milk of the fig-tree, and 
gum arable in fine powder, about as much as a nut Soak it in 
the white of egg, add to it a little pure safiron, and let it also 
soak in the white of egg for the space of one natural day. Then 
take a small sponge or a paintbrush and dip it in the com- 
position, and spread it thin where you wish to lay the gold, 
and immediately apply the gold ; then press it with cotton, let 
it dry well, and burnish it with a tooth, and it will become 

150. To gild cloth or canvas. — ^Take gum ammoniac and put 
it into a little urine, and let it stand for a night ; then make it 
into a paste with ceruse and a little honey ; then lay on the 
mordant, and the next day lay on the gold. This is good also 
for laying gold upon paper. 

1 This is the gum resin Ammoniac, and not Armenian Bole, which is 
mentioned in No. 160 under the term " Bolarminiiun ;" and again in No. 


moniacum et incide minutatim cum curtello et pone in forti 
aoeto albo vel in orina ad mollificandum per noctem vel diem 
postea macina eum cum aliquantulo dare ovi et fatias flores 
cum penna yel scribe supra aurum cum pennello et fac fregium 
et quicquid vis et cum siccum fiierit aliquantulum satage et 
pone aurum et preme manum super aurum et cum captum 
fiierit aurum habeas de bombage vel pedem leporis et due 
super aurum et toUe aurum non captum. £t si volueris facere 
fregium vel flores cum penello super figuras adde aliquantu- 
lum et de ocrea. 

148. A mectere orosenza lustro in suso li collare. — Havve in- 
censo gomma biancha et zuccaro candio ana, et macina le pre-* 
dicte cose insiemj et stemperale cum aceto forte o cum vino et 
fallo tanto liquido cbe non se abombola et vole essere bene re- 
menata tanto che sciuga bene dalo penello et dallo dove voi 
porre loro et quando e sciuto pond suso loro, et fermalo cum 
lo bambagio et quando haverai premuto bene sfregalo cum lo 
bamba^o et loro remara necto et bello. 

149. A mettere oro in suli lihri doe in su le carte. — Awe 
chiara dova rupta cum fid lacte multo bene poi torai tanto 
gomarabico quanto una avellana subtilmente spolverizato et 
metilo a moUo in la dicta chiara poi torrai uno poco de zaferamj 
Jniegro et metilo a molli in la predita chiara per spatio duno 
dj naturali poi tollj uno poco di spogna et bagnala in la dita 
compositione o vero cum uno pennello et gratalo dove tu voli 
metere loro subtilmentj et subito mecti loro et poi lo ferma cum 
bambagio poi lo lassa bene sciucare et brunisce cum dente et 
sera lustro. 

150. De aurando panno vel tela. — Summe armoniacum et 
pone in modica orina et ibi stet per noctem postea conficitur 
cum oerusa et modico melle et tunc ponitur dicta ascisa uno 
die et alio die pone aurum et etiam valet ad ponendum aurum 
in carta. 

161, both '^armoniaco" and " Bolarminium *' are mentioned. See similar 
recipef m D. AleanOy Part I. p. 1 14. 


151. A golden colour for gilding. — Take gam of almonds 
and saffron, and grind them on a mortar, and put them into a 
glass vase ; place the mixture by the fire to warm, and after- 
wards mix some whipped white of egg with it, and paint 
wherever you like, and it will be of a golden colour. 

152. To make a mordant for gilding on walls, — ^Take calcined 
bone, ground fine with weak glue, such as pardiment glue, and 
let it dry ; and when quite dry grind it up afresh with linseed oil, 
and make it rather stiff; then take a little liquid varnish, and 
incorporate it with the bone-dust. Add to it a little saffiroo, 
sufficient to give it colour, and make it rather stiff. When you 
wish to put the gold on the wall, the mortar must be dry, and 
the mordant must not be applied too thick. Let it remain 5 
or 6 days, and then put on the gold. 

153. To write with silver. — Take the silver marchesite,^ and 
grind it very fine on porphyry with strong vinegar ; liien wash 
it and purify it well with other vinegar. Distemper it with 
gum-water, and write whatever you think proper. 

154. To make a good and fine silver colour. — ^Take tin filings 
and quicksilver, of each two parts, well pounded with gum 
arable wetted with water, and write whatever you please with 
it ; let it dry, and then you may burnish it. 

155. To gild all bodies. — ^Take tartar, atramentum,' quick- 
silver, and salt, and distemper the whole with strong vinegar, 
and warm the mass a little at the fire, and when you widi to 
gild, put a little water in the glass, diat is to say, some of the 
above-mentioned water, so as to cover what you cast 

156. To make a golden eohur for writing. — ^Take juice of 
celandine,* and put it into a well- closed glass flask, place it un- 
der horse dung, or the refuse of grapes, and let it remain there 
for a month ; afterwards take it out and grind a little orpiment 
witli the liquor, and put it back into the dung for a fortnight, 
and then it wiU be purified. And when you wish to write with 

1 See Beckmann, Inventions, Tit Zinc, and Agricola De MetaUicis 
p. 435, 436, Venezia 1650. 


151. De auro colhre ad aurandum. — Habeas gummam 
amangdolanun et crocum et molle in mortario et recollige in 
▼ase vitrio et pone justa ignem ut calefatiat postea misce de 
dara ovj firacta et pinge ubicumque volueris et erit color aureus. 

152. A fare mordente da mectere cro in muro. — ^ToUi osso 
caleinato et subtili macinato cum colla dolce commo coUa de 
carta poi lo lassa seccare poi che e bene secho remacinalo de 
novo cum olio de semj de lino et fallo uno poco duretto p(» 
toUi uno poco de vemicj liquida et incorporala cum lo sopra- 
dicto osso poi 11 pone uno poco de croco quanto li dia collore et 
Yole essere uno poco duretto e quando voli mectere loro in muro 
la calcina conviene essere secha poi pone lo mordente non troppo 
groeso et lassalo stare 5. o 6. di poi mecto suso loro. 

153. A scrivare dargento. — Pilglia marchasita che tengha 
de argento et macina la in porfido bene subtili cum aceto forte 
poi layala et purificala bene cum laltro aceto poi la distempera 
com aqua gummata et scrivi quelle te pare. 

154. A fare collore de argento hello et &mo.*— Tolli stamgno 
limato argento viyo ana parte doj pisto bene cum gummorabico 
hmnecttalo in aqua et scrivi quelle te place cum esse et lassa 
secare poi le porai brunire. 

155. A mectere a oro omne eorpo, — ^Awe tartaro atramento 
ariento vivo et sale et distempera onme cosa cum forti aceto et 
scaldalo uno poco al foco et quando tu voli dorare pone uno 
poco daqua in uno vaso do e de la sopradicta aqua tanta che 
copra do che tu giette. 

156. Ad fatiendum aureum eollorem pro scribendo, — Recipe 
suocum celidonie et pone in ampulla vitrea et bene clausa pona- 
tar sub fimo equino aut venatia et ibi maneat per mensem postea 
extzahe et moUetur aliquantulum de auropiumento cum ipso 
lioore et remitatnr in fimo per quindedm dies tunc erit puri- 
ficatus quum autem vis scribere mitcte aliqtias guctas died 

s It b bjr no means dear what the Italians understood by this term. The 
MS. of Le Begue shows that it had difierent significations. 

s Cetidonia, Chelidonuim. A yellow lake is made from thb plant. 


it, pour a few drops of this liquid into a shell or comet; then 
put in a leaf of fine gold, and liquefy them together, and after- 
wards write with a pen whatever you like, and burnish the writ- 
ing when dry. 

157. To make gold letters. — ^Take gesso, with which panels 
are primed, and with which the tailors mark their thread, and 
ochre, and also a little white of egg, well beaten with a sponge, 
or otlierwise ; grind all these things together for a considerable 
space of time, and add a little wax from your ear, in order that 
it may flow freely from the pen. Write where you like, and 
let it dry, afterwards put the gold on and fix it with cotton ; 
when dry, burmsh it with the tooth of a wolf, or of a sucking calf, 
or of a mule, or of an ox, or with a stone, or knife. 

158. To write in gold with a pen* — ^Take water of cinnabar, 
and saltpetre, of each equal quantities, one grain of common 
salt, and one leaf of fine gold, which you must put into a shell 
along with the before mentioned ingredients in the evening, 
and let it remain all night; in the morning write, and the 
letters will be most beautiftd. 

159. To make water for gilding. — Take 3 jars of water, 
\ lb. of roche alum, and 1 oz. of white, that is, calcined tartar, 
of verdigris about as much as a bean, and one handful of 
common salt ; pound all well together, and boil them down to 
one-half or more, and with that water paint what you like. 

160. To make size for gilding. — Take of gesso sottile about 
as much as a nut, grind it with clear water, and make it to- 
lerably stiff ; aft;erwards take some Armenian bole, about as 
much as a bean, and grind it by itself with clear water. Then 
mix it with the gesso, and add a sufficient quantity of fine glue 
already dissolved, a little white sugar, and a little ear wax^ 
and grind all these ingredients together. And know that the 
glue must be made so as not to stick to the porphyry in the 
grinding, and when you wish to use it, place it upon hot ashes 
in order to liquefy it. And note, that if the glue has remained 
melted in the vase for several days, it is better and lighter ; 


liooris in coclea aut oornetto deinde pone unum folium auri 
fini et liquefac insimul postea scribe cum penna quid vis et 
quando erit sicce burnias. 

157. Ad faciendum Kteras auratas, — Summe gissum cum 
quo ingessatur tabulas et ocrea i. e. cum aqua saccatoris tin- 
gunt filum et modicum et dare ovi bene rupta cum spungia 
aut aliter et omnia ista insimul madna per magnum spatium 
deinde toUe modicum de sorde aurium et macina insimid ita 
quod currat scribendo deinde scribe ubi vis et dimicte siccarj 
postea pone aurum desuper et firma eum cum bombige et 
quando fiierit siccum burnias cum dente lupino vel victule lac- 
tentis vel mule aut bovi vel cum lapide aut telbella [coltello ?]. 

158. Ad scribendum aurum cum callamo. — ToUe aqua cina- 
brij sal nitrij et unum granum salis comunis ana et unum 
folium auri fini quem pone in una coclea simul cum predittis 
rebus in sero per- noctem et in mane scribe et erunt pulche- 

159. Adfatiendam aquam ad aurandum, — Habeas tres or- 
ciolos aque et libram mediam aluminis roccj et untiam unam 
tasi albi L e. calcinati et viride ramum quantum est &ba et 
manipulum unum salis comunis et bene ad invicem pistentur 
et tantum bulliat quod deveniat ad medietatem vel plus et cum 
aqua ilia pinge quid vis. 

160. Affare scisa da meetere oro. — Habeas gissum subtilem 
quantum est nux et macina cum aqua clara et fatias eum ali- 
qualiter sodum postea Recipe bolum arminium quantum est 
faba et macina eum de per se cum aqua clara postea missce 
com preditto gisso deinde habeas collam nobilem distempe- 
ratam et mite intus quantum necessarium est postmodum pone 
intus aliquantulum zucberi albi et aliquantulum fectie 'auri- 
cnlarum et predicta inmmul macina. Et scias quod colla 
debet esse taliter quod in macinando se adhereat porfido ali- 
quantulum et quando vis operare pone eam super calidum 
cenigem ut bene liquescat et nota quod si colla starct aliquibus 



and if the mordant is laid too thickly upon the paper, scrape it 
smooth and thin. When you wish to lay the gold on it, bathe 
it with clear water, put on the gold, and fix it with the cotton, 
and when it is dry burnish it well with a tooth. If the mordant 
is too soft, put a little white of egg into the water, when you 
are applying the gold, or add some to the mordant, and it vill 
be good. 

161. To make size for gilding. — ^Take gum ammoniac, and 
grind it first without water, and then with the juice of garlic, 
to which add a little Armenian bole, and when the mass is 
dry, it must be ground up again with the garlic juice ; then 
apply it where you please, and afterwards lay on the gold. 

162. To draw outlines of gold with size. — ^Take gesso sot- 
tile,* and grind it with white of egg, neither beaten nor 
whipped, add to it a little honey of roses,* and a drop or two 
of weak size at discretion, with a little ear wax. Then make 
the outlines or other things, and, when dry; breathe upon them 
a little, and immediately apply the gold, and press it gently 
with the cotton ; then burnish it, and it will be lustrous and 

163. To make letters of gold—proved^ and true. — Take fine 
gold, and grind it on porphyry with roche alum ; then take np 
very carefiilly the gold and alum, and put the mixture into a 
glass saucer ; wash it several times with tepid water, then with 
cold water, and each time let it settle, in order that the gold 
may sink to the bottom ; when the gold is well purified and 
cleansed^ let it dry. When you wish to use it, distemper it 
with gum water, and write whatever you please ; let it dry, 
and then burnish it if you think proper. 

164. To write gold letters with a pen as before. — ^Take fine 
gold leaf and mix it with white honey in a saucer, then grind 
it upon porphyry very fine with common salt, wash it with hot 
water like '^ smalto," and do as before. 

1 See No. 213. 


diebus in vasculo distemperata esset melius et levius et quando 
ascisa esset nimis grossa super cartam rade earn ut sit bene 
equates et subtilis et quando vis super earn aurum ponere bal- 
nea earn cum aqua clara et pone aurum et firma cum bombice 
et cum siccum fiierit bene cum dente bumias, et si esset nimis 
dulcis pone in aqua quando mictis aurum pone desuper ascisa 
vel cum aqua aliquantulum dare ovi et bonum erit. 

161. A fare soisa per mectare oro. — Recipe armoniaco et 
macinalo senza aqua poi tollj sugo dalglio et macina lo armo- 
niaco cum lo ditto sugo et mectice un poco de bolarminio et 
quando fusse secco se vole remacinare cum lo dicto sugo e 
dallo doi voi poi mete loro. 

162. A fare il profile doro cum scisa. — ^ToUi gesso subtili et 
macinalo cum chiara doTO che non sia rupta ne dibatuta et 
metice uno poco de mele rosato et alcuna goccia de colla dolce 
a toa discretione cum uno poco de scarcatura de orechic et poi 
fa li profili, o altro et quando e secco ansciare suso uno poco 
e subito mette loro et calcalo uno poco cum lo bambagio poi 
lo bnmisse et sera lustro et bello. 

163. A fare lettere daroprovata et vera, — Havve oro fino et 
macinalo in porfido cum alumj de rocho molto bene subtili poi 
recolgli el dicto oro et alumj macinato molto bene et metilo in 
una scudella de vetrio poi lo lava piu volte cum aqua tepida et 
poi cum la fresca et omni volta lassa possare acio loro se ne vada 
in fimdo et quando loro sera bene purificato et netto lassalo 
secare et quando lo vond operare distemperalo cum aqua go- 
mata et scrivi quello te piace et lassa seccare e poi lo brunissci 

164. A scrivare oro cum penna ut supra. — Havve oro fino in 
folglio et mistalo cum mele bianco in una scudella poi lo ma- 
cina in porfido overo macinalo in porfido cum sale comuno 
molto bene subtili poi lo lava cum aqua tepida ad modo de 
smalto et seguita commo de sopra. 

' The iUcettario Fiorentino gives a recipe for this compound. It consists 
of Infusion of Roses, 6 lbs. ; white sugar, 2i lbs. ; best honey, U lb. 



165. The same — another way. — Take a little gum, white, 
fine, and clear, and soak it in a shell with a little roee-water 
for the space of one natural day or night ; then take a clean 
glazed saucer, and moisten the saucer with the liquefied gum. 
Next take fine gold leaf, and mix it with the gum, and having 
ground it fine, wash it as you did before, until it be well 
washed, purified and cleaned. Distemper it with gum water, 
in the manner I mentioned in the other recipes. 

166. To make a mordant for burnishing and laying on gold. 
— Take of gesso sottile as much as a nut, a little vermilion, 
su£Bcient to ^ve it colour, and a piece about twice as large as 
a bean of hepatic aloes,^ and grind all together with clean 
water on porphyry or marble, until reduced to a very fine 
powder. Then let it dry, and grind it again with water ; let 
it dry again, then grind it afresh with gum-water mixed with 
half as much again of white of egg, and with a little honey of 
roses, and a piece about the size of a bean of sugar candy; 
grind all these things well together, and while grinding add a 
little wax from the ear. When ground, put the powder into a 
small horn and let it settle for the space of two or three ^'days ; 
then throw away all the scum which will rise to the top, use it, 
scraping away the thicker parts, and immediately apply the 
gold and burnish H. 

167. To make a good mordant for gilding^ which is easily 
prepared.— Take good weak glue, with a little gesso sottile 
and a little safiron, grind it all together ; then lay the mixture 
wherever you like and let it dry. Then, breathing on it, lay 
on the gold and burnish it. 

168. To make a golden colour for writing with a pen on paper 
and canvas. — Take tin and quicksilver in equal quantities at 
pleasure, first put the tin to melt in a crucible, and when it is 
melted pour into it the quicksilver, and mix the ingredients 
well with a stick, and incorporate them together, and they will 

1 This substance was formerly much used in varnishes to grve them a 
yelk>w eoloar. Sec No. 204. 


165. Ad idem per aiiam viam. — ^ToUi uno poco de gomma 
bianca et bella et chiara et metila a moUo in una coccia cum 
uno pocho daqua rosata per spatio duno di naturali o nocte poi 
tolli una scudella vitriata bene necta et unge la dicta scutella 
cum la dicta gomma lique&tta poi tolli oro fino in folglio et 
mistalo cum la dicta gomma poi lo pone a macinare bene sub- 
tili et lavalo commo facesti disopra tanto cbe sia bene lavato 
purificato et necto et lo distempera cum aqua gomata ut te 
certiorem feci in aliis receptis ut supra. 

166. A fare scua per brunire et parre oro. — Avre gesso sub- 
tili quanto una noce et uno poco de cinabrio quanto li dia col- 
lore et quanto seria doi fave de aloe pattico et macina omne 
cosa insiemj cum aqua chiara in porfido o in marmo tanto cbe 
sia sutilissima poi la lassa secare poi la macina una altra volta 
cum aqua et lassa secare poi la remadna de novo cum aqua 
gomata et chiara dovo la mita piu che laqua gomata et un 
poco de mele rosato et quanto una fava de zucaro candio et 
macina multo bene insiemj omne cosa et macinado metice uno 
poco de bructura de orechie et macinata che sera metila in lo 
(someto et lassala possare per spatio di doi o tre di po gietta 
via tutta quella schiuma che ella mandara di sopra poi lado- 
pera radendo le parti grosse poi ansciando et subito mete loro 
et brunissce. 

167. Afarescisa bona et breve per mettere oro. — PilgliacoUa 
gentili che sia dolce cum uno poco de gesso subtili et uno poco 
de zafferamj et macina omne cosa insiemj poi lo pone dove y(^lj 
et lassa secare poi ansciandoce mecti loro et brunissce. 

168. A fare coUore doro da scrivare cum penna in carta et in 
tela. — ^ToUi stangno argento vivo ana el tu volere prima pone 
lo stagno in uno crugiolo a fundare et quando sera bene fuso 
buttace dentro lo argento vivo et mistalo molto bene cum uno 
bastone et incorporali bene insiemj et vira ad modo de polvere 


become like dust ; then throw this dust into a saucer, and take 
sulphur and sal-ammoniac of each the same quantity as of the 
quicksilver ; pound the whole very fine, and mix it all together, 
put it into a bottle luted finom the neck downwards. Close 
the bottle well with an iron cover and lute die top of it with 
lutum sapientis ; then set it to boil over the fire until the 
moisture is evaporated and consumed by a slow fire. Let it 
cool, and break the vase, and you will find a fine and good 
golden colour ; and when you wish to write, take some of this 
mixture, and grind it very fine with white of e^ ; then put it 
into a horn and write, and the letters will appear fine and shining. 

169. To lay gold on paper for letters. — Take gesso sottile, 
and grind it with glue not too strong ; then add small quantitiea 
of Armenian bole, sugar candy, red sugar, and honey of roses, 
grind the whole together, and apply it wherever you like, and 
when dry, scrape the rough parts, and breathe on the paper, 
and immediately put on the gold, and then burnish it. 

170. To make a mordant for burnishing and gilding, — Take 
a little gesso well ground, and then take one-third part of pardi- 
ment glue, and soak it in water ; grind it all together with a 
little minium, and it will be good. 

171. To make mordants for gilding on figures^ on cmvasy on 
stone J on woody on gesso j and on mortar or toalls. — Take litharge, 
verdigris, and a little ochre, and grind them with a little linseed 
oil and liquid varnish ; incorporate them well together, and then 
^Id in the usual manner. 

172. To make a water for gilding all things. — Take the 
marcasiteof gold,* and grind it well upon porphyry with very 
strong vinegar ; then boil, and treat the mixture like salts ; 
afterwards distil it through an alembic, and three waters will 

* Auriferous Iron Pyrites. Phillips (Mineralogy, pp. 219, 324) says 
this mineral contains gold. Beckmann (Inventions, Tit. Zinc) remarks, 
that that was the true Marchasita aurea which contained Zinc. He 
adds this is pro|>crIy a stone, the metallic particles of which were so en- 
tirely sublimated by fire, that nothing but useless ashes remained behind. 



poi butta questa polvere in una scudella poi tollj solfo et altre- 
tanto sale armoniaco egualmente quanto fa lo soprascripto ar- 
gento vivo et pista menuto bene subtilj et miacola insiemj omni 
cosa et metila in una boccia alutata dal coUo ingiuso et obtura 
molto bene la bocca cum uno coperchio de ferro et disopra ob- 
tura cum luto de sapientia poi lo pone a bullire al fiioco per in 
fine che le humedita de le dicte cose siano giallate via et con- 
sumate cum fiioco temperate poi lassa firedare et rompe lo yaso 
et trovarai coUore doro bello e bono et quando tu voraj scrivare 
tolli de la dita mistura et macinala cum chiara dovo bene sub- 
tili poi lo pone in uno comecto et scrivi poi apareranno lustre 
et belle. 

169. A rnectare oro in carta cum litera. — ^ToUi gesso subtili 
et macinalo cum colla non troppo forte poi ce pone uno poco 
de bolo arminio et uno poco de candio et uno poco de zucaro 
ro6SO et uno poco de mele rosato et macina insiemi et dallo dove 
Toi et quando e secco rade le parti grosse et ansciace suso et 
subito mete lore poi brunissce. 

170. A fare scisa da brunire eporre arc. — Awe uno poco de 
gesso ben trito poi tolli la quarta parte de colla de carte et polla 
a moUo cum laqua poi macina omne cosa insiemj cum uno poco 
de minio et sera bona. 

171. A fare mardenti da metere oro in figure in parnio in 
petra in Kgno in gesso e in calcina o muro. — Recipe litargirio 
verderamo et uno poco de ocria e macinale cum uno pocho de 
olio de seme de lino et cum uno poco de vemice liquida et in- 
corpora multo bene insiemj poi facommo se fa per mectere oro. 

172. Ad afare una aqua da dorare omnia. — Summe marche- 
sitam auri quam optime tere super porfidum cum aceto acer- 
rimo et inde bullant ut fiant sicut sala postea distilla per alem- 
bicum et exibunt tres aque cum prima scribitur in carta cum 

It contauied fixed quicksilver, oommunicated a colour to metaU, burned in 
the fire, and was at length entirely consumed. Agricola had said the same 
thing 200 years before. Compare Agricola de Metallicis, pp. 181, 343, 
376, 436,438, Ed. Vcnezia, 1560; and sec Matthioli, 1443. 


come over. With the first you may write on paper ; with the 
second, which is red, you may write on canvas, on iron, or on 
gesso, and when it is dry rub it with a rough doth, and it will 
become fine and shining gold ; and with the third, which is 
black, you may write upon glass, and when it is dry you may 
rub it with a very harsh and rough cloth, and it will be splendid 

173. To make a mordant for gilding on paper, and for bur^ 
nishing accordijig to the Oermati manner.'-^TBke gesso sottile 
and white clay in equal quantities, and temper them, as if for 
writing, with white of egg beaten up with the milk of a fig-tree ; 
write whatever you like upon paper previously polished with a 
tooth. Then let it dry and scrape off the rough parts. Then 
take white of egg coloured with safiron, lay on the white of egg 
by degrees with the paint-brush, and directly afterwards apply 
the gold or silver leaf, press it lightly with the cotton, and let 
it dry. When dry, clean it with bread-crumbs, first polishing 

. it with a tooth, and it will stand well. 

174. To make purple oriceUo. — Oricello has a purple colour ; 
boil some water, when it is hot liquefy the oricello in it, and 
rub it hard, and press it through a strainer into a glass goblet, 
boil the water as you did before, and strain it two or three 
times. Then put a strip of safiron and a piece of gum into an 
egg-shell, and warm it on the coals, and do this 2 or 3 times, 
and the next day, when that water has settled, strain it well 
through a strainer and distemper it, and lay it upon paper, and 
write, and then let it dry. Then take gum ammoniac and 
grind it well with ley, and mix a little vermilion with it, and 
write whatever you like upon the oricello with a paint-brush or 
a pen, and let it dry. Having done this, take a leaf of gold 
between your little finger and thumb, blow upon the lea^ and 
place it upon the gum ammoniac, and fix it well first with your 
finger and afterwards with a stone, but do not rub it. Clean it 
with bread crumbs ; do this once or twice ; if you mix the ori- 
cello with lake or vermilion it will be brighter. 

175. For the same^ anotfter xcav. — Take the milk of the fig- 


secunda que est rubea scribitur in tela ant ferro vel in gisso et 
ea sicca fricatur cum panno aspero et fiet aurum pulcrum et 
histrum : cum tertia vero aqua que est nigra scribitur super 
▼itrium' et ea sicca fiicatur cum aoerrimo et aspero panno et fiet 
aurum nobilissimum. 

173. A fare scisa per metere oro in carta e per brunire secondo 
luso thodesco. — ^Invenies gissum subtilem et cretam albam equa- 
Hter et bene tempera cum clara ovj que sit rupta cum fici lacte 
et earn tempera ad usum scribendi et scribe quid vis in carta 
prius cum dente polita et permicte siccarj et inde rade rudes 
partes deinde tolle claram cum crocho coloratam et cum penello 
paulatim supermite claram et postea statim supermicte folium 
auri aut argenti et firma eum modicum cum bomboce et per- 
mitte sicari et sicco purifica eum panis mulica prius cum dente 
polita et peroptime manebit. 

174. AdauriceUampurpureamfatiendum. — Auricellam pur- 
pureum habet collorem sed bulli aquam bene et captefacta 
auricellam liquefac intus et frica fortiter et frica per stamineum 
in parascide vitreo et iterum bulli aqua similiter ut prius fecisti 
et pro bis vel ter cola aquam illam et sic filo croci et gummj in 
testa ovi et calefac super prunam et feceris bis vel ter in sequenti 
die aquam preditam cum resedit bene iterum cola per stamen 
et oolata tempera et in carta pone et scribe inde permitte sicari 
postea tolle armoniacum et ipsum fortiter tere cum urina et 
immisce aliquantulum de cinaprio postea super auricellam cum 
penello vel pennam quod vis scribe et permitte sicari. Hoc 
facto tolle folium auri et digito parum vidat et ad maximam 
druge folium et super armoniacum pone et cum digito ferma 
bene postea cum lapide et noli fricare et cum panis mulica 
purifica hoc fac semel vel bis demum sublimj capum auricelle 
cum laccha vel dnabrij et clarius erit. 

175. Ad idem alio modo. — Summe lac ficus et misce cum 


tree, mix it with white of egg reddened with yermilion, and 
write what you please upon paper, and let it dry ; then lay the 
juice upon it and do not rub it, but press it with a stone, and 
polish it with a fine cloth. 

176. To make water of quicksilver^ for gilding ostrich feathers 
and other things very beautifully. — First lay a stratum of com- 
mon salt in a retort, and on that lay quicksilver, cover the ves- 
sel with an alembic with a very large head, and let the retort 
be a very long one. Distil it with a slow fire, and afterwards 
preserve it, and when you wish to use it, take some of the water 
and dip in it an ostrich feather, wetting it on each side, and let 
it dry well ; do this twice, and the third time dip it and do not 
dry it, and while it is still wet spread gold leaf on both ddes of 
it, and hold it to the fire and shake it, for the whole feather 
will then become gilt. 

B. 177. To make a mordant for gilding on paper^ on walls^ 
and on everything else, S^c, — Take parchment glue, pour on it a 
little cold water, and let it stand 3 days in the shade ; then put 
it in the sun until it becomes decomposed, and if there is not 
enough water, add more to it ; and when quite decomposed, 
reduce to powder some tiles or red earthen vessel not over-baked, 
or gesso sottile, and mix them well together, and then spread 
the mixture thinly wherever you like, lay the gold on it, and let 
it dry, and then biunish it with a boar's or a horse's tooth. 

B. 178. To write in gold on any cloth you like. — ^Take ox-gall 
dried in the smoke, distemper it with gum arable, and write 
wherever you like ; when it is nearly dry, apply gold upon it, 
and it will be good, &c. 

1 In this recipe, the term ** Azoch " is used to denote the metal mercury 
or quicksilver. It is derived from the Arabic From the Arabic it passed 
into the vocabulary of the Alchemists, where it was used to denote the mer- 
cury of metals, the first principle of metals, and an universal medicine. Pa- 
racelsus used to boast that he had a spirit at his command, called " Azotb," 


clara mbificata cum cinabrio et quodvis scribe in carta et per- 
mitte sicarj deiade superpone succum et noli fricare sed cum 
lapide firma et cum pano levis purifica. 

176. Ad fatiendum aquam azock ad deaurandum pennas 
strutit et alia valde pulcherrime. — ^Primo fac stratum salis co- 
munis in urinali et superpone azoch vivum et superpone alem- 
Ucum cum capite valde magnum et sit orinale bene longum et 
distilla cum lento igne postea serva et cum vis operari tolle de 
dicta aqua cum qua madefatias peimam strutii ab utroque latere 
et dimicte bene sicari et sic fatias bis terzia vice balnea et non 
sicces et super eam sic balneatam extende folia solis ab utraque 
parte et monde ad ignem, et scurla quia tota ibi penna efficitur 

B. 177. Affare scisadapore oro in carta muro a in omni altro 
luoco. — Recipe coUa de carta et mectili uno poco daqua chiara 
et lassala stare tre di alombra poi la pone al sole tanto che 
diventa tucta putre£su^ et marcia et puzzolento et se mancasse 
laqua agioi^nicine et quando e bene diffatta fa polvere de tegoli 
o de coppi rossi non tracotti overo gesso subtili et misticale in- 
siemj et poi dalla ove tu [vuoi ?] subtili et desopra pone loro 
et lassa secare de poi lo inbrunisce cum uno dente porcine o 
cavallino etc. 

B. 178. A scrivare doro in ornne drappo che vai. — Recipe 
fele de bo secco al fumo et distemperalo cum gomarabico et 
scrivi ove tu voli et commo e quasi secco pone sopra loro et sera 
bello etc. 

whom he kept imprisoned in a jewel ; and in many of the old portraits he 
is represented with a jewel inscribed with the word ** Azoth" in his hand. 
The Spanish name for mercury, Azogue, is deri^d from Azoth. 

( 478 ) 




179. To make vermilion. — ^Take of quicksilyer two parts, of 
sulphur one part ; first melt tlie sulphur, then add the quick- 
silver, mix them well, and reduce them to powder, and then 
put the powder into a flask luted with lutum sapientis as 
high as the neck. Place the flask on the ashes until all the 
humidity is driven off; then close the mouth of the flask with 
cotton, and give it a tolerably strong fire until the matter rises 
to the neck of the flask and is very red ; then take it firom the 
fire, let it cool, and it is done. 

180. To make vermilion. — Take 1 lb. of sulphur viTum, 
with one pound of quicksilver, and 4 oz. of tin ; put them into 
a crucible well covered with lutum sapientis, apply beat 
until a knife held to the opening of the crucible is no longer 
discoloured or turned blue, and you will have good vemulion. 

181. For the tame, another toay. — ^Take of sulphur vivum 
3 lbs., put it into a basin, and cover it with another basin, and 
make a fire under it, and, when it is melted, add a pound of 
mercury, and incorporate them well by mixing them imtil they 
harden ; when cold, grind the mass well upon marble, put the 
powder into a bottle, and close up the mouth of the bottle with 
earth ; make a moderate fire under it, and when you see the 
contents rise so as to fill the whole of the bottle, remove it from 
the fire, and let it cool. Then break the bottle, and it wiU be 
perfect vermilion. 

( 479 ) 



179. Ad nnabrivm facienduTn. — Reccipe argento viro parte 
doi Boplfaro parte una et prima disfa lo solpho de po ce pone 
lo argento tIto et misticali bene et redulli in polvere depoi lo 
pone m una ampolla lutata da hito de sapientia in fine al coUo 
poi la pone sopra le cinige per infino a tanto che le humidita 
sieDo andate via poi serra la bocca de lampoUa cum lo bam- 
ba^o e dalli lo foco uno poco grande per infino die la materia 
BKmta a presso el coUo de lampoUa e sia bene rosso de po li 
tolli lo foco e lassa fredare e fatto. 

180. Ad faciendum cindbrium. — Summe libram j sulphuris 
▼ivi cum una libra argenti riri et quatuor untias stangni et 
pone in crisole bene obturato cum luto sapientie et quoque tan 
diu quod cultellus non blueatur a foraminibus crugibuli et 
Iiabebis cinabrium bonum. 

181. Ad idem alio modo. — Recipe sulphur riyi libras tres et 
pone in una paraside et coperi earn bene cum alia paraade et 
&c subtus ingnem et quando est liqiiefactum pone intus unam 
Kbram mercurii et incorpora bene mistando dummodo induratur 
et quando frigidum fuerit macina eum bene super marmorem 
et pone cam pulverem in una boda et claude os botie terra e- 
&c subtus unum modicum ingnis et quando rides quod ellcvat 
tur iDtantum quod impleat totam bociam tunc remove ab igne 
et dimite fri^dari deinde frange bociam et erit cinabrium per- 


182. To make vermilion.^ — Take 1 part of quicksilver and 
two parts of sulphur, clean, yellow, and well ground ; put all 
into a bottle and cover it lightly with lutum sapientiae ; then 
put it into the furnace, and give it at first a gentle fire ; cover 
the mouth of the bottle with a tile, and when you see a yellow 
smoke, keep up the fire until you see the smoke come off red or 
scarlet ; then remove the fire, and when it is cold you will find 
fine vermilion. 

183. For the same, another way. — Take a glass jar luted 
with lutum sapientisB up to the neck, then take 2 parts of 
white sulphur well ground and one part of quicksilver ; after- 
wards put them into the flask ; then make a small charcoal fire, 
and place four stones round it ; set the flask upon them, and 
cover it with a tile. Uncover it fl*equently ; and when you see 
a blue smoke come out of it, cover it up until you see a red 
smoke ; then take it away from the fire, for it is done. 

184. To make a yellow for drawing gold Jlowers on paper.-- 
Take a little 8aflh>n and a little white lead, and distemper 
them together with gum- water ; let them stand so as to be 
well incorporated for half an hour, and it is done. 

185. To make a very beautiful white, — ^Take egg-shells and 
well-pounded glass and mix them together ; then put the mass 
into an earthen jar, and place the jar in a furnace for one 
natural day. Then take it out and keep it And when you 
wish to use it, grind it very well upon marble, and distemper it 
with gum-water. 

186. To make vermilion quickly. — ^Take 1 lb. of lead, \ lb. 
of quicksilver, and 4 parts of yellow sulphur ; grind all these 
things well together, and put them into an earthen jar over 
the fire for 14 hours, and it will be done. 

187. To make camillina. — Take vermilion, azure, and ceruse, 
and grind them together ; and if liie colour is to be dark, put 
more vermilion and azure, and it will be good. 

1 Recipes nearly limilar to this and the next arc contained in the MS. of 
Le Boguc, Nos. 174, 176. 


182. Ad faciendum einabrium. — Tolli una parte de argento 
vivo et doi parte de solfo giallo e necto e ben macinato poi 
pone oinne cosa in una bocia et incoprila legiermente cum luto 
de sapientia poi la pone in lo fornello et dalli da prima lo foco 
ligiero et copre la bocca della bocia cum una tegola, e quando 
tu vederai lo fumi giallo continua lo foco per infino che vederai 
Qscire el fumo rosso o yermeglio alora tolj vialo fuoco et quando 
sera freddo troverai beUo cinapro. 

183. Ad idem alio modo. — fi[abeas unam ampollam vitream 
lutata de luto sapientie usque ad summum collj deinde recipe 
partes duas sulforis aibi et bene triti et partem unam argenti 
vivi postea pone in ampulla sopradicta et fac de carbonibus 
ignem lepidissimum et circa eam cum quatuor lapidibus et 
pone ampullam desuper et coperi eum cum tegula et sepe disco- 
perias et quando videbis fumum lividum coperi dummodo 
videbis exire fumum rubeum tunc toUe ab igne quod factum 

184. Affare eollore ffiaUo perfiorire in oro in carta. — Reccipe 
nn poco de zaflaramj e uno poco de biaccha et stempera in- 
riemj cum aqua gomata et lassa cusi stare acio se incorpora 
per una mez* bora et sera facto. 

185. A fare biancfio beUiiissimo. — Tolli cociole dova'et vetrio 
bene pisto et misticali insiemj et poi la pone in uno in uno vaso 
de terra et mectilo in una fomace per uno di naturali poi la 
cava fora et serbalo. Et quando lo vorai operare macinala 
molto bene in marmo e distemperalo cum aqua gomata. 

186. A fare dnabrio hrevemente, — Abeas libram j plumbi et 
me^am libram mercurii et quatuor partes sulphuris gialli et 
omnia insimul acriter tere et pone in vase terreo ad ignem per 
horas 14**" et erit factum. 

187. A fare camtUina. — ^ToUe einabrium azurura et cemsam 
et macina insimul et si esset obscurum micte plus de cinabria 
et dc azurro et bonum erit. 


188. To make a violet colour, — ^Take a little indigo, a little 
vermilion, and a little cernsei grind them very fine and dis- 
temper them, and you will have a fine violet colour. 

189. To make the red colour for shading gold letters on foper. 
— Take scraped verzino and put it in a horn-shaped vessel, 
with sufficient white of egg to cover it ; let it remain in the sun 
for a day ; afterwards press it out, and keep it in a well-dosed 
glass flask ; and, when necessary, use it for the red outlines of 
gold letters. 

190. To make a flesh colour for painting thejlesh of figures} 
— Take sinopia and ceruse, and apply it wherever you wish to 
paint flesh ; when it is dry, take black and mark the eyes and 
limbs, and lay on the lights with pure ceruse ; and for the eye- 
brows use sinopia and black together, and it will be brown ; 
the pupil is made with black and no white, and the shade of 
the jaws with sinopia, and the efiect will be good. 

191. To colour the flesh in painting a crucifixion. — ^Take 
ochre, ceruse, and a little terra verde, mix them together and 
lay them on the figure, and when dry, mark out the limbs with 
black made with charcoal, with which mix a little anopia, lay 
on the lights with ceruse, and do as you like. Paint the hair 
with sinopia and charcoal mixed and pounded together. 

192. To make flesh colour, — ^Take indigo mixed with orpi- 
ment, and it will make green, which, mixed with ochre ' and 
white, makes flesh colour. 

193. To make another camillina colour. — ^Know that by 
mixing ceruse with verzino it will become a camillina colour ; 
and if you wish to make violet add a little azure. And if you 
wish to make green take a little indigo and orpunent 

194. To make good and fine arzica, — Take one pound of 
weld, which the dyers use, cut it very fine, then put it into a 
glazed or tinned vase, and add to it enough water to cover the 
herb. Make it boil until the water is half wasted, and if there 

1 It is probable that this and some of the following recipes were derived 
from the Greek (if not immediately translated from it). Sinopia is men- 
tioned for the first time in this recipe ; it is also probable that this colour 


188. A fare colore violato, — Prima tolli uno poco de indico 
et uno poco de cinabrio et uno poco de cirusa et macina bene 
sabtili et distempera et vira fino violato. 

189. A fare eolhre per porre sopra la rosecta de loro in carta. 
— Somme verzinum abrasum et pone in corneto cum tanta 
ovoram clara preparata ut coperiatur et dimite manere ad 
solem per unum diem postea exprime eum et serva in ampulla 
vitria bene obturata et quando necesse est utere in li profili de 
la lectra de la rossecta de loro. 

190. Ad fatiendum incamatum pro incamare figuras, — ^ToUe 
sinopiam et cerufiam et micte ubi vis incamare et cum siccum 
fiierit toUe nigrum et reinvenias oculoB et alia membra et 
illamina cum cerusa viva et super cilia sinopia et nigrum in- 
amul et erit brunum luciula fiet de nigro et puntum album et 
in mascillis mnbra de anopia rubea et bene stabit* 

19L Ad incamandum crucifixum, — Abeas ocream et ceru- 
sam et aliquantulum de terra yiride et misce simul et pone in 
cracifixo et cum siccum fuerit reinvenias membra cum nigro 
fecto de carbone et misce cum eo aliquantulum de sinopia et 
expleas opus cum cerusa et fac sicut tibi videtur piles fac de 
^pia et carbone misto et insimul pisto. 

192. Ad faciendum incamatum. — Capias indicum mistum 
cam auripiumento et fiet colorem viridem ocrea et album 
insimul incorporata veniet incamatio. 

193. Idem alius color camillinus. — Scias quod ponendo 
cerusam cum verzino erit color camillinus et si vis facere 
Tiol^tum pone aliquantulum de azurro. Et ^ volueris facere 
^dem pone modicum indici et auripiumenti et fiet viridem. 

194. A fare larzica bona et bella. — Piglia libra una de 
berba gualda la quale opera li tentore et tagliala ben minuta 
poi la pone in uno vaso vitriato o vero stagnate et metice tanta 
aqua che copra la dicta herba et falla tanto bulire che tomi per 

was the Sinopia of Ccnnini (the Red Heematite), and not the colour of this 
name, described by S. Audemar, p. 145. 
2 This must be burnt ochre. 



18 not enough water add a siAdent quantity and no more ; then 
take 2 oz. of travertine finely ground, or 2 oz. of white lead, 
and ^ oz. of roche alum ground very fine, then put all tiiese 
things together a little at a time to boil in the vase directiy, 
before the water cools, and stir the water continually, remove 
the vessel from the fire, and when nearly dry, pour off the 
water. Then take a new brick hollow in the middle, lay the 
arzica on it, and let it settle perfectiy ; then put it on a small 
and well polished board to dry, and it is done. 

195. To make white lead, — ^Take leaden plates, and suspend 
them over the ^vapour of very strong vinegar in a vase, which 
after being luted must be placed in dung for two months ; then 
scrape away the matter that you] will find upon the plates, which 
is the white lead. Do this until the plates are consumed. 

196. 7b make minium quickly. — ^Take calcined litharge, and 
lead, prepared together over the fire, and you will have 

197. To make pattefor seulpturinff all kinds of things^ thai 
is to way i figures and medallicnij and to make moulds. — ^Take 
white lead and mastic, and put the mastic to soak in suffident 
clear water to cover it for the space of one ni^t ; then make 
this water with tiie white lead into a hard paste like dough, 
and knead it well with your hands. When you wish to model 
anything, knead the paste with your hands, having previously 
greased them well witii lard. Then impress whatever you like 
on the paste and let it dry, and the impression will be sharp 
and fine. And you may make the paate of any colour you 
like, by mixing up some colour with the paste. 

B. 198/ — ^Take 1 oz. of tragacanth, and put it to soak in 
sufiicient water to cover it for the space of one day and one 
night ; then take a pound of white lead and grind it with tiie 
moist tragacanth. Then let it harden till it is as stiff as dough, 
and knead it well with your hands, adding to it a little white 

1 The Rubric is wanting. It appears to be a recipe fo^ making artifidftl 


mita et se mancaae laqua arigiognicine qxtanto bolla et non piu 
poi poi toUi once doi de travertino molto bene macinato overo 
dd onoe di biacca et meza oncia de alumj de roccho bene 
sabtili poi mete tatte queste eoee a bolire in lo dicto vado 
sabitamente nante che laqua se fredda e mete queste cose a 
pooo a pocho tuttayia remenando laqna et leva dal foco et 
qnando sera a presso che fredda et tu ne cava via laqua poi 
toUi imo mattone novo cavato in mezo et metice dentro lo colore 
de larzica et lassala reposare multo bene poi la pone in su una 
asicella bene polita a secare e de &tta. 

195. A fare biacha. — ^Tolli lamine de piombo et metile 
disopra alo vapore de lo aceto fortissimo in uno vaso et eoprilo 
bene cum luto et metilo socto lo litamj per doi mesi poi rade 
la matheria die e la biacha che trovarai sopra ale lamini et fii 
per lo sopradito modo per infino cbe sonno consunte. 

196. A fare ndmo brevemenie, — ^Awe caldna de litar^rio 
com piombo confeetato insiemj al foco et sera minio. 

197. A fare pasta da icolpirecmM laMm><noe figure f^ 

e fare forme. — Piglia biacha et mastice et pone la mastice a 
mollo in tanta aqua chiara che stia coperta per spatio duna 
oocte poi impasta la dicta aqua cum la dicta biacca dura ad 
modo de pasta et menala bene per le mano. £t quando vorai 
soolpire ungite le mano cum lardo bene et menala bene per 
numo poi imprompta quelle che tu voj et lassa secare e vira 
oecto et polito et poi la fisLre venire de quelle colore cbe tu voli 
mistando insiemj cum la pasta. 

B. 198. Recipe once una de draganti et mectili a mollo in 
tanta aqua che se coprino per spatio de uno di et ima nocte et 
poi tolli una libra de biacca et madnala cum lo dicto draganti 
mollo et noi lo indura ad modo duna pasta et menalo molto 
bene per mano et mistace uno poco de mele bianco ado non 

M 2 


honey in order that it may not crack. Anoint yonr hands 
the honey, and let the paste be well kneaded ; then impress 
whatever you like upon it, and the impression will be sharp 
and fine. You may make it of whatever colour you please bj 
mixing some colour with it, and when you have taken the im- 
pression, you must glue it on with glue made from parchment 
clippings, and let it dry, and when it is well dried polish it 
with a tuft of cotton, and it will become shining like a 
bone, &C. 

199. Abo another colour. — ^Take green and ceruse, and 
make a drapery or a leaf, shade it with pure green, and then 
make the outlines with black or with Tcrzino ; lay on the lights 
with ceruse, and do this with all the colours, and when yon 
wish to make flowers with azure, add a little yolk of egg ; and 
for roses add a grain of salt 

200. To make another camiUinus colour. — Azure mixed 
with white is a camillinus colour ; with orpiment a splendid 
green ; with saffiron, it is also green ; and with dragon's blood, 
or with lake, it will be a purple colour. 

201. To make a rose colour^ very good and beautiful. — Take 
1\ oz. of lac, and the same quantity of ceruse ; grind diem 
with linseed oil ^ and prepared white of egg, and apply upon 
paper. If you wish the colour to be very good, take an equal 
quantity of grana, and grind with the other ingredients, and 
you will have a finer colour. 

302. To make a blue colour, — Take orpiment and lac, of 
each equal quantities, and grind them together with prepared 
white of egg ; and you will have a blue colour. 

203. To make a light rose colour for miniature. — ^Take tra- 
rertine pounded fine, as much roche alum as travertine, and an 
equal quantity of scraped verzino ; boil the verzino with strong 
ley, and, when it boils, add the other ingredients and reduce it 
one half; then strain the liquor through a loosely woven cloth^ 
and you will have a fine rose colour. 

1 It appears from th« treatise of Cennini, chap, cxliii., that it was a 
common practice to mix lake with linseed oil for draperies. 


cKpe et ungite le mano cum dicto mele et fa che sia bene 
remenata et poi impronta quello te piace et vira necto et bello 
et poila fare yenire de che collore tu voli mistando cum essa el 
dicto colore et commo tu hai improntato se vole incolarla cum 
oolla de caniicia et lassa sciugare et quando sera bene sciucta 
et tu la polisce cum uno matofib de bambagio et vira lustra 
como uno oeso etc. 

199. Idem alius color. — ToUe yiridem et cerusam et fao 
yestimentum vel folium postea umbra cum viride puro postea 
profila cum nigro vel yerzino deinde iUumina cum cerusa et sic 
poteris facere de omnibus coUoribus et quando vis facere flores 
cum azurro pone aliquantulum de vitulo ovj et quando rosas 
pone unum acinum salis. 

200. Ad faderidum alium colorem camiZ/tmtm.— Azurrum 
emn albo misto est color ciMnillinus cum auripiumento est 
yiiidis pulcer cum zafaramino est etiam yiridis et cum sanguine 
dracoms aut lacca erit color purpiureus. 

201. Ad Jiunehdtan colorem rosatum qptimtan et pulcrum,-^ 
Bedpe lac untiam unam cum dimidia et tantundem ceruse et 
macina cum oleo seminis lini et cum clara ovj preparata et 
pone in carta et si vis magis coloratum et optimum acipe tarn- 
tumdem grane et macina insimul et babebis. 

202. Adfatiendum colorem perseum. — Habeas auripiumenti 
et lac de ntroque tantum et insimul macina cum clara pre- 
parata et habebis.' 

203. A fare la rosedaper miniare. — Tolli travertino subtil- 
mente psto et tanto alumj de rocbo quanto fii lo travertino et 
altratanto Ycrsano raso et mecti lo verzino a bulire cum ranno 
forte et quando bolle mectice le sopradite cose et fa bolire che 
arentxe per mita et poi lo cola per una peza rareta et haveraj 

* There is apparently a mistake here, for ^' perso" signifies dark blue, 
Mmd orpiment and lake would produce an orange colour. 


204. To make a certain water whidi is good far applying 
upon figures and other miniatures. — ^Take oil of aloes, linseed 
OiI» and liquid varnish, of each equal quantilies ; boil these 
kigredients together^ and put them into a flask. When you 
Irish to use the liquor, anoint with it the figures or miniatures 
when they are dry, and not before, and they will be shining 
and very beautiful. 

205. To make linseed oil. — ^Take one quart of clean and 
pure linseed, damp it a little and then put it into a vase over 
the fire and stir it up with a spoon, and then push the spoon 
several times to the bottom so as to moisten all the seeds. 
You must add a little water in order to soften them ; then pat 
the seeds into a strong woollen doth, place it in the press, and 
the oil will flow out 

206. To make liquid varnish, — ^Take of the gum of die 
juniper [sandarac], two parts, and one part of linseed oil, boil 
them together over a slow fire, and if the varnish iqppears to 
you to be too stifl; add more of the oil and take care not to let 
it catch fire, because you would not be aUe to extinguish it, 
and even if you could extinguish it, the varnish would be dark 
and unsightly. Let it boil fior half an hour, and it will be 

207. To make liquid vamish in another manner^ — ^Take 1 lb. 
of linseed oil, and put it into a new glazed jar, and then take 
i a quarter [of an ounce ?] of roche alum in powder, and an 
equal quantity of minium or vermilion ground fine, and i oz. 
of incense also ground fine. Mix all these ingredients together 
and put them into the oil to boil, stirring it with a stick ; and 
when the oil is boiling, as it is likely to run over, have another 
glazed jar ready, and put it by that which contams the <nl, so 
as to catch the oil that runs over, in order that it may not ran 
mi the ground, and m this manner make it boil up 8 or 4 
times, and eadi time pour back what has run over, on that 
which is boiling in the jar. Having done ihis^ set fire to the 
oil on the right hand side with a lighted straw, and let the oil 
bum on the upper part, but so that the jar may not burn on 



204. Ad fatiendam quemdam aquam que est bona ad pofienr 
dum super Jiguris ei altris miniis. — ^Abeas oleum aloe oleum 
jeminis lini et yernice liquida de unoquoque tantum et hoc 
fetias simul bulire et repone in ampulla et quaudo opus est 
unge figuras aut minios dico ipsis desicatis et non ante et erunt 
lustre et pulcherrime. 

205. A fare olio de seng de lino. — Pilglia uno quarto de 
aemj de lino necta et pura et amachala uno poco poi la pone in 
tmo vaso al foco et cum uno cochiaro la yienj mistando poi va 
piu volte in lo fondo del dito vaso cum lo ditto cochiaro et falli 
spatio die se li possa infondare la granatella et volse imborsarla 
com uno poco daqua ado diventi morbida poi la mecte in panno 
de lana forte et polla all frescoli et uscira fuora lolio. 

806. A fare tjemice liquida, — ^Tolli gomma de ^eparo le 
dm parte et olio de semj de lino et fit bulire insiemj cum fuoco 
temperate et chiaro et se te pare esse troppo sodo et tu ce pone 
pin olio predicto et goarda che la fiamba non se li aprenda 
perdie non lo poriste spingiare et se purre lo spingesse viria 
n^ra et brutta et holla per meza hora et sera facta. 

207. A fare vendci liquida per altro fnodb.— Recipe libre j 
de olio de semj de lino et metilo in una pignatia nova vitriata 
poi toll! mezo quarto de alumj de rocho spolverizato et altra- 
tanto minio o cinabrio subtili macinato et meza oncia de in- 
censo bene trito poi mista omne cosa insiemj et ponile in lo 
dito olio a bulire insiemj mistando cum uno bachetto et quando 
loIio ha lo hollo per volere prosperare de fora habi aparichiata 
una altra jngnata vitriata et metila apresso quella de lolio per 
modo che quello che se spande vada in laltra pignatta acio che 
lolio non se spanda in terra et in quello modo & levare el bo- 
lore 8 o 4 volte disopra et ongnj volta retoma quello che va 
diaopra in su quella disocto che boUe facto questo acende lolio 
de lo lato dextro cum una paglia apresso de essa ma lassa 
^idare lolio uno pooo dal canto disopra per modo che la jng- 


the inside, on aocoant of the too great heat, for oth^rwiBC the 
oil would smell unpleasantly. When you light the oil with the 
straw, remore the jar from the fire, and let it bum while you 
can say three paternosters, then extinguish the oil with a wooden 
cover, putting it upon, the jar, and when it is extinguished, 
remove the cover in order to let the vapour escape. Then put 
it back over the fire ; do this 3 times, and it is done. 

208. To purify eeniae.-^9k& ceruse, put it into a clean 
jar, which should be placed over the fire, stir the ceruse conti- 
nually with a stick, and it will become white. 

209. To make a pigment from the shamngs of doth, of the 
same colour as the cloth, — Take quicklime and baked ashes^ 
of each equal quantities, and make a caustic ley ; take the 
ley, clean and clear, put it into a clean vase, and make it 
boil, and when it boils add to it the clippings of cloth of 
what colour soever you like, and, after it has boiled down to 
one-third, add to it a little roche alum at discretion; then 
strain it and put it to dry on a clean tile or upon a table, and 
q>read it out, and when nearly dry, cut it in pieces as you 
like, and it is done. 

210. To make a water for painting on linen cloth or silk. — 
Take 2 oz. of sal-ammoniac, 2 oz. of salgem, 1 oz. of saltpetre, 
poxmd the whole together, and then distil it, and keep the 
water until you need it ; you may paint on whatever doth you 

211. To make a yellow water for drawing and paintifig on linen 
or woollen. — ^Take of roche alum 1 oz., of safl&*on 2 oz., and a 
little ley, and boil all these things together till reduced by one- 
third, and it is done. 

212. Give for making any mould you like for casting fgures* 
— ^Take Armenian bole, flour, and clear water, and knead them 
together until they form a rather stiff paste ; model what you 
like with it Sulphur will do equally well, it only requires 

213. To make gesso sottile. — Take gesso and soak it in a 
vase so that the water may cover the gesso ; mix and stir it up 

.^ m^ .Jl 


natft Don arda de dentro per troppo caldo altramente lolio 
puzaria. £t quatido tu acendj lolio cum la paglia remove la 
pigoata dal fiioco et lassa ardare tanto che tu diche 3 patri 
Dostii poi aramorta lolio cum uno coverchio de ligno et mitilo 
sopra ala pignata et aramorto che le remove lo ooperchio per 
che el fumj escha fora poi ritomalo al foco poi cosi farai 3 volte 
et sera iatta. 

208. Ad purffondam centsam. — Ahbeas cerusam et earn 
pone in ollam mundam et micte super ignem semper movendo 
cum baculo dictam cerusam et effidtur alba. 

209. Adfatiendum colorem de cimatura panarum cttfus coloris 
erit talem colorem habebis* — Filglia calcina viva et cenera re-* 
cocta tanto de luna quanto de laltra et fa lisia per capitello et 
toUi la liscia necta et bella poi la pone in uno vaso necto et fa 
bullire et commo bullj mectice la cimatura de que colore che 
tu vol] e quando havera bulito tanto che sia rentrata per terzo 
et tu ce pone uno poco de alumj de rocho a tua discretione poi 
la cola et polla a sciugare in una tegola pollita o vero in una 
tavola eft distendila et quando sera quasi sciuta fannj li pezj a 
tuo piacere e de facto. 

210. A fare aqua da dipengiare in pdnno de lino o de seta* — 
Afawj once 2 de sale armoniaco once 2 de sale gemmo once j. 
de sal nitrio et jnsta omne cosa insiemj poi le metti alambichare 
et serba laqua al bisogno et porai dipengiare suso omne panna 
die tu volj. 

211. A fare aqua giaUa da disignare et dipengiare inpanno 
de lino o de lana. — Tolli alumj de rocho once j zafaramj 2 et 
uno poco de liscia et fa bolire queste cose insiemj quanto che 
call) per terzo e de focto. 

212. CoOa da fare omne forma che tu voli per gietare fgure^ 
— ^Havvj bolanninio fiore de farina cum aqua chiara et incor* 
pora tanto che sia duretta et & che forma tu volj. Et ancora 
el solphano fit quello medesimo et sia solo disfatto. 

213. A fare gesso «icf»7t.— Piglia la chiavarda del gesso 
luddo et metila a moUo in uno vaso siche laqua stia disopra al 


3 or 4 times every day, and at the end of 5 days take a struner 
and strain off the water ; and if you grind it, it will be finer. 
Then make it into cakes, and put them upon new tiles or bricks 
to dry ; then put them away, and take care to preserve them 
firom dust and dirt, and it will be fine gesso sottile. 

214. To make a window of goat-skin parchment which will 
appear to be realghus. — ^Take the skin of a kid or a sheep or a 
goat, macerate it, remove the hair without lime, and scrape it 
very fine ; then take a drachm of clean and clarified honey, mix 
it with 8 or 10 whites of eggs well beaten together with the 
honey in the same way as white of egg is beaten up fi)r ver* 
milion. Put the skin to soak in the white of egg and honey, 
squeeze it with your hand while in the composition, and let it 
remain in soak for 2 or 3 hours at the most ; then take it out 
and stretch it well on a firame, and let it dry. Then paint 
upon it what you please, and let the colours dry well. After- 
wards varnish it on one side, that is, on the nde on whidi the 
colours are, and dry it in moderate sunshine, and it will appear 
like glass. 

215. For the same in another way. — Take kid or sheep-skin 
parchment, scraped very fine, wet it with warm water ; then 
stretch it on a firame, and let it dry ; afterwards paint upon it, 
and again let it dry. Then take rather warm linaeed-cnl, and 
rub it over the parchment, and let that dry also, and it will re- 
semble glass in appearance. 

216. To do the same with linen cloth. — ^Take a linen cloth, 
very dean and dose, and stretch it out well upon a frame ; 
then take white of e^ well whipped, separate it firom the scuni, 
and add to it one-third part of gum-water. Then lay it over 
the doth with a sponge, so as to soak the doth with it all 
over, and let it dry, and then paint upon it in any manner 
you like, and let that dry also ; then give it another coat of 
the white of egg and gum-water, and let it dry again. Afl;er- 
wards apply a coat of liquid varnish, and it will appear like 


gesso et miscola molto bene oinne di 3 o 4 volte et in capo de 
5 di tolli una stacia et cola fora laqua et se tu la triti sera piu 
subtili de poi fiinne pagnetti et mectile sopra coppi novi o vero 
matone ado che se sciugano poi la ripone et fino che se sdu- 
gano gnarda non vi vada polvere ne altra bmctora et sera bello 
gesso subtili. 

214. A fare una finutra de carta caprina che parera vetrio 
naturalu — ^ToUi una pelle de capretto o montone o duna capra 
et macirala et de pela la sezna [senza?] calcina et radila sub- 
ttljasimamente poi tolli una dragma de mele spumato et necto 
et mista lo cum octo o x chiara dova bene dibatuti insiemj 
com lo mele ad modo se dibacte la diiara per lo cinabrio, poi 
mecti la dita pelle a moUo in la dicta chiara et mele et spremila 
cum mano in la dicta compoaitione et poi la lassa stare a molle 
in la ditta diiara per doi o tre hore al jnu poi la tira fora et 
iq>icala bene stesta ad uno telaro et lassala sdugare et & che 
la sia bene tirata poi la dipenge commo te piace et lassa sdu- 
gare bene 11 oolcxri poi la inyemica da uno lato doe da lo lato 
de li colore et pdlla a sdugare al sole temperate et aparera de 

215. Ad idem per aUamfcrmam. — Ahwi carta de ci^retto o 
montoiie rasa snbtilmente et bagnala in aqua tepida poi la 
stende insnso lo telaro et lassa sdugare poi la dipenge et lassa 
sdugare pd toUi olio de semj de lino uno poco caldo et dallo 
disopra ad ala dita carta et lassa sdugare et sera commo vetrio 
in aparentia. 

216* Ad idem in panno KnL — Hawi panno de lino bene 
polito etfitto et polio in su lo telaro bene tixato et steso poi tolB 
chiara dova ben dihatuta pd sepenila dala sdiiuma et nustace 
per lo terzo de aqua de gamma pd la da sopra alo dilo panno 
cum una spongia tanto che lo panno sia ben trapsffiato per 
tado et lassa sdug^ffe pd la dipenge cum gliodti o commo voj 
et lassa sdugare poi li da una altra mano de la dita cUara et 
aqua gommata et lassa sdugare poi li da la vimice liquida et 
oommo christo vetrio. 


217. Tb make a water for cutting glass. — Take Titriol, whidi 
comes upon the walls, and make a distilled water from it, and 
keep it in a vessel well closed. Then take Roman vitriol and 
pound it well, distil it, and keep the water also in a close 
vessel ; then take sal-ammoniac and distil it, and keep this also. 
When you want to use the liquor, take equal quantities of each 
of these waters, mix them together, and draw with the mixed 
liquor upon the glass, and it will be cut exactly as you like 
wherever it is wetted witii this water. And also, if you wish 
to cut glass, or to make small mirrors out of large ones, take a 
fine diamond, and draw upon the mirror with the point of the 
diamond, and immediately put the glass into water, and it will 
break directly by tapping the glass dexterously wherever you 
have touched it with the diamond. 

218. To make an earth for casting any fine thing. — ^Take of 
potter*s clay sifted fine 20 parts, and of common salt 1 part, 
then take \i a bocale of water, boil it, and dissolve the salt in 
it, let it cool, and make the clay into a paste with the salt and 
water, and work the mass into a cake ; set it to bake until it 
becomes red like fire, then pound and work it again with the 
salt water. Next take the thing which you wish to cast or 
mould, and lay it on something smooth and polished^ and take 
a hoop, and put into it the thing which you wish to mould, and 
then lay the earth upon it, and press it down well, let it dry 
over a slow fire, and cast it according to your iancy, and it will 
be fine and clear. 

219. To make a pojtefor modelling that will withstand the 
fire. — ^Take scales of iron and pumice-stone and pound well 

together, then make them into a paste with white of e^ well 
beaten up, and model whatever you like with it Let it dry 
slowly, and it will become very hard and will stand fire. 

220. To make a paste with which you can do both good and 
evilf €md can seal <xnd unseal any letter, and can model whatever 
you likCf and which will become very hard after you have 
fnoulded it^ if you suffer it to dry^ and to which you may give 
whatever colour you please, — Take gum-tragacanth and gam- 


217. A fare aqua da tagliare el vetrio. — ToUi vitriolo che 
nasce per le mura et fanne aqua a lambico et serbala bene 
turata poi toUi vitriolo romano et pistalo bene et fanne aqua a 
lambico et serbala bene turata poi tolli sale armoniaco et fanne 
aqua alo lambico et serbala bene et quando la voraj operare 
toUi de le ditte aque de omne una tanto et mistale insiemj et 
disegna lo Tetrio cum dita aqua et tagliarasse doye sera bag- 
nato cum dita aqua a tuo piacere. Et ancora se tu volesse 
taligliare retrij o spechj grandi farli picolj tolli uno diamante 
fino et disegna cum la punta de lo dito diamante in su lo 
specchio et subito lo mecte in aqua et erompirasse subito per- 
cotendo lo vetrio dextramente dovj tu haverai tochco cum lo 

218. A fare una terra da ffietare omne suttili cosa. — Recipe 
terra da &re pgnatti staciata subtili parte 20 sale comuno 
parte una poi tolli mezo bocale daqua et falla bulire poi ce 
pone quello sale a disfare poi laasa fredare poi impasta la terra 
cum la ditta aqua salata et iannj pane et metila a codare tanto 
che tomano rossi ad modo foco poi la strita et stadala de noro 
et impastala de novo cum la dita aqua salata poi tolli la cosa 
cfae tu Yoli gettare o formare et metila in loco poUito et piano 
et toll] uno cerchiello et mecti dentro la cosa che tu toU 
formare poi mecti suso la dicta terra et calcala bene poi la 
lassa seccare a lento foco poi gieta la tua fantasia et vira necta 
et bella. 

219. A fare pasta da impromptare che aresta a foco. — ^ToUi 
schaglie de ferro et pumice et pista bene omne cosa insiemj poi 
impasta cum chiara dova bene dibattuta poi imprompta quello 
che tu Toli et lassa secare adagio e diventara durissima et 
arestara a foco. 

220. A fare pasta cum la quale poi fare el bene et el male et 
poi disiffillare et sigiUare omne lettera et poi impromptare quello 
te piaee diventera durissima poi che averai impromptato et poi 
foarla vinire de quello colore che tu voli ponendola a secharcp— 
PigUa gomma draganti et gommarabico ana et mecti tuctj 


arable, of each equal quantities, and eteep them in sufficient 
water to cover them for 20 hours ; then pound them yery fine 
in a mortar. Ne&t take 1 lb. of white lead to each ounce of 
the gums, and mix the whole together like dough ; and, if you 
wish to hare the paste white, do not add anything more to it 
If you wish to have it of any other colour, mix with it whatever 
colour you like in fine powder, and work the ingredients well 
together, in order that they may be thorou^^ly incoqwrated 
one with another. Then anoint your hands with castor-oil, or 
linseed-oil, or oil of bitter almonds, and take this paste, and 
knead it very well in your hands ; and when you have kneaded 
it well, you can impress whatever you choose upon it If yoa 
wish the paste to remidn soft, put it into a cabbage-lea( and it 
will remain soft for as long a period as you like. 

221. To make musk soap. — ^Take a vase of whatever size yon 
like, made of good earth, and let it be rather thick in order 
that the weight of the lime may not break it, and near the 
bottom of it there must be a hole, closed with a peg, and on 
the iuside, in front of the hole, you must put a wooden platter, 
and upon the platter you must put a lump of tow, enou^ to 
cover the bottom of the jar, and upon the tow, in front of Ihe 
hole, put a small piece of thin linen. Then mix two parts of 
ashes from the baths with one part of quicklime, and place the 
mass upon the piece of linen that is upon the tow in the 
vase, and spread it well all over it. Then take rain-water, 
according to the quantity of the ashes, and pour it into the 
vase at two or three times, because it boils up and absorbs the 
water, and there must be enou^ water to cover the ashes to 
the depth of two fingers'-breadth or less, and when it ceases to 
boil, let it stand for a whole night, and in the morning take out 
the peg and let out the ley ; and when you have drawn off a 
bocale full of it, pour it back into the vase, and it will be- 
come rather thick ; do this two or three times, and the last time 
let it rest a little, and then strain it ; and if it comes away too 
fisist, press the ashes down a little in the vase, because it must 
issue from the whole like a thread in order that the ley may 



queste oose iir tanta aqua che stiano a moUi per 20 hore poi 
pistale bene in uno mortaro che eiano bene piste poi toUi lb. j. 
de biacha per omne onda de le dicte gomme et incorpora omne 
cosa insiemj commo pasta. £t se tu la voj canida et bianca 
non ce metare piu niente. Et se tu la Yolesci daltro colore 
collorita mistace quello colore che te piace bene subtili et 
mista bene ado se incorporano luno cum laltro et poi te unge 
le mano cum olio de riciuta [ricino ?] o olio de semj de lino 
o olio de amandole amare poi piglia questa pasta et menala 
molto bene intra le mano et oommo e bene menata porai im- 
promptare quello te piace. £t quando la volesse mantinere 
liquida dicta pasta mectila in una foglia de colo et sempre stara 
morbida per omne tempo. 

221. A fare sapane moschato. — Habbi uno yaso de la ca- 
padta che tu toj £Eu;to di bona terra et sia ben grosso a cio la 
'possanza de la calcina non lo rompa et apresso del fondo vole 
esser uno bugio el quale se conyene serrare cum uno spinello e 
dal canto dentro nante el bugio se vole metarce uno tagliere 
et sopra al tagliere se vole metarce una faldella de ca- 
pedo che copra el fondo del ?aso et sopra el capedo nante al 
bugio mectice uno poco de peza rada poi tolli doi parte de 
cenera de bagno et una parte de calcina viva poi la in- 
corpora cum la cenere poi la pone sopra a la peza che e 
sopra al capecdo in lo vaso et distendila bene per tutto poi 
tolli aqua pioriana secondo secondo che e la cenera et mectila 
in el yaso in doi o 3 fiate per che ella boUe et resciugase et 
?ole esser tanta aqua che stia sopra ala cenera doi deta o 
manco et quando non boUe piu lassa stare cusi tucta una nocte 
et la matina cavala spinella et lassa colare el capitello et 
quando naj cavato uno bocale remitilo disopra al vaso et yira 
uno pooo brutto et questo fa doi o tre volte et lultima volta 
lassa uno poco reposare poi lassa colare et se venisse troppo 
forte calca uno poco la cenera del vaso perche la spinella vole 
gietare a filo acio che lo capitello vengna netto e bello poi che 
lo capitello e tutto vinuto che la cenera sia senza aqua toUj 


ran off clear. And >rhen the ley has entirely nin off so that 
the ashes remain dry^ take half a jug of water, and pour it 
over the ashes in the vase, and when it is strained poor it 
back 3 or 4 times into the yase, and. the last time draw off the 
ley clear. And if you wish to know whether the ley is pro- 
perly made, put a firesh egg in it ; if the e^ goes to the 
bottom it is not good, and if the egg floats it is good. Then 
take 9 bocali of this ley, and one roll of deer's or cow's 
tallow, which makes lb. 2 oz. 9, and melt it well oyer the fire ; 
and when it is well boiled pour it into this ley, and keep 
stirring it for the space of half an hour ; then let it rest for a 
night or more, and if you wish to add musk or any other scent 
to it, reduce it to a fine powder, and add it to the tallow whidi 
is in the ley, mix it up w^ll and let it settle. Then put the 
soap in the sun in order that it may refine itself better, and it 
will harden so that you may make it up into balls, and it is 

222. To make good camphor} — Take 1 lb. of mastic, and 
steep it in two pounds of distilled vinegar, and put it in a 
round flask, and place it in dung for 3 days ; afterwards place it 
in the sun« and close up the mouth of it, to exclude the rain, 
for thirty days in summer, and you will find a congealed mass, 
and will have yery fine camphor. 

223. To make Alexandrine borax? — ^Take roche alum, and 
make it into pieces of about \ an oz. each, and then put them 
into a glazed jar, and pour some milk oyer them so that the 
milk may coyer the alum by two fingers' breadths, and each 
day change the nulk for 8 days, or until you find it mild to the 
taste. Then take beef-marrow and an equal quantity of oil of 

^ D. Alessio also gives a recipe for making factitious Camphor (Part II. 
p. 43), which he says was almost as good as that which was brought from 

' It appears that two kinds of Borax were in use, the natural and the 
factitious ; the former was brought from Alexandria, whence its name. D. 
Alessio (Part I. p. 129, 130) describes different modes of imitating it, 
•among which is that mentioned in the text. According to this writer, 
borax was used in medicine, and in cementing gold. 



meza brocha daqua et metila sopra ala cenera che c in lo vaso 
et colata che sera remectila 3 o 4 volte suso in lo vaso et 
loltima volta recoglie el capitello chiaro. £t se voj sapere 
quando lo capitello e £icto fino se conosce in questo modo tiene 
lino ovo frescho desopra se lovo va al fondo non e fino et se sta 
a galla e fino. De poi toll! 9 bocali de questo capitello et uno 
rotolo de sego de cervo o de vacha che sonno libre 2, 2 [oz. ?] nove 
e fallo bene strugiare al foco et bene bolito metarlo in questo 
capitello et sempre remenalo per spatio de meza hora poi lo 
lassa possare una notte o piu et se iu ce volj metere musco o 
altre cose odirifare pulverizale bene subtili et metili sopra al 
sego che e in lo capitello et mistiealo bene de vantaggio poi lo 
pone a reposare poi lo pone al sole acio che se afina meglio et 
restringerasse per modo che lo porai a palotare e de facto. 

222. A fare la camphora bona. — ^ToUj libram unam masticis 
et pone in duabus libris aceti stillati et pone in palla rotunda 
clausa sub fimo per tres dies postea pone ad solem et obtura 
bene ejus os propter pluvias in estate per triginta dies et 
invenies massam congelatam et habebis camphoram nobilis- 

223. A fare borace alixandrina. — Recipe alumj de rocho et 
faraij pezuoli de meza oncia luno o circha poi li pone in una 
pignatta vitriata poi li pone desopra de lo lacte tanto che lo 
lacte avanza desopra alalumj doi deta et omne di li rimuta 
el lacte per infino a octo di tanto che tu veghi a la Imgua che 
te paia dolce poi toUi meroUi de ossa de bovi et altratanto 

It was also used in reducing or fluxing metals and nielli, and by. ladies 
as a cosmetic to whiten, soflen, and cleanse the sicin. Alexis does not al- 
lude in the most distant manner to the use of Borax in painting ; and he 
appears so well informed on the subject, that it is scarcely probable that he 
should have been unacquainted with the fact, if it had been so used. The 
real Alexandrine Borax is mentioned in No. 269, where it is used as a flux 
in gilding on glass. 



almonds, melt them in a pipkin, and then strain them and pour 
them into the jar with the alum and milk, and let the oil and 
marrow cover it by three fingers' breadths. Then put it into 
the sun for three months, that is to say, June, July, and Au- 
gust, and take care that neither rain nor dust falls into it, and 
it is done. 

224. To prepare vermilion for using with the paint-brushy 
and as a body colour. — Take of vermilion whatever quantity you 
like, and grind it dry to a fine powder on marble or porphyry, 
and afterwards grind it with clear water, or with ley, until the 
powder is very fine and almost impalpable ; let it dry upon the 
marble and put it into a horn, and wash it very well with clear 
and strong ley until it is very clean, and afterwards wash it 
again with fresh water until you think that the ley is well 
washed out of it ; then sufier it to become nearly dry and wash 
it again with hot water and let it settle, and when nearly dry 
add to it some white of egg prepared with saflBron and with 
twigs of fig-trees ground up, and make it liquid enough to flow 
well in the pen while writing. And if you wish it to use in 
body, put a little yolk of egg along with the white. And if 
you wish it for writing or making flowers, do not add the yolk 
of egg to it, and that it may be without froth or gloss add a 
little ear-wax to it ; if too glossy, throw away that white of egg, 
and put some fresh to it without safiron or ear-wax; if it 
hardens so as not to flow in the pen add to it two drops of rose- 
water. And if you wish the white of egg not to smell, add to 
it (that is, to the white of egg) a little realgar (red orpiment) 
or camphor. 

225. To prepare azure to use as a body colour^ and to use with 
the pen. — Take the azure and put it into a glazed saucer, and 
then add some clean honey to it, and incorporate them well to- 
gether ; grind the honey with the azure upon marble, and tbe 
more it is ground the finer and better it will be. Then put it 
back into that saucer and wash it with warm water, until the 
water runs off clear ; then wash it with cold water, and between 
each washing let the azure sink to the bottom, and continue to 



olio damangdole et metile in una pignatta a disfare et poi le 
cola et mectile disopra a la ditta pignatta de lo alumj et lacte 
et fii Che lo dito olio et merolle sopra avanzano 3 deta poi 
la pone al sole per 3 mesci cioe giugno, luglio et agosto et 
guarda non li piuova ne vada polvere e fatta. 

224. A preparare ii cinabrio per tidoperare a penna etfare 
^iorpi. — Piglia del cinabrio la qnantita che voj et maeinalo 
molto bene aseiutto in marmo o in porfido et poi lo madna cum 
aqua chiara o vero cum ranno da capo quanto sia bene subtile 
quasi senza tatto et lassalo seccare in 8U lo marmo poi lo mecti 
in lo cornetto et lavalo molto bene cum ranno diiaro et forte 
tuito che sia bene netto poi de novo el laya cum aqua chiara 
tanto cbe ta crede che ne sia bene uscito quello ranno poi el 
lassa quasi seccare poi lo lava de novo cum aqua calda et 
lassalo posare et quasi secare poi metice sopra chiara dova pre* 
parata con zaferamj et cum rami de fico triti et fallo tanta 
liquido che scorgha bene per la penna scrivendo. ^ se tu el 
voli per fare eorpi metice uno poco de rosso de ovo insiemj 
cam la chiara. £t se tu el voli per scrivare o fiorirj non ce 
metare lo rosso del ovo. Et per £Etrlo che non facia schiimia 
et lustro metice uno poco de scarcatura de orediie et se fusse 
troppo lustro gietta via quella chiara et metice de la nova 
dove non sia za&ramj ne brutura de orechie et se se indurasse 
che non scorisse per la penna metice doi gocie daqua rosa. 
£t se volesi che la chiara non puza mectice dentro uno poco de 
risa gallo o de canfora et cioe in la chiara. 

225. A prtperare azurro per fare corpi et per adoperare a 
penna, — Accipe lo azurro et metila in una scudella vitriata poi 
ce metti del mele bene netto et incorpora bene insiemj poi 
macina lo mele cum lo azurro sopra marmo e tanto piu sera 
raacinato tanto vira piu lino et migliore poi lo remetti in quella 
scudella et lavalo cum aqua tepida tanto che laqua nescha 
chiara poi lo lava cum aqua frescha et da luna volta alaltra 
lassa andare lo azurro al fondo et tanto continua che sia bene 

N 2 


do 80 until it is well washed and purified. Then let the aznre 
dry, and soak it in clean and strong ley in a glass vase, such 
as a drinking-glass, and let it stand for the space of 7 days ; 
each day change the ley, and then add some fresh to it, and let 
it dry in the shade in a place free from dust. And if you wish 
to use it as a body colour, distemper it with parchment-size, or 
with size made from clippings of white chamois leather, and 
it will do well. And if you wish to use it with a pen or for 
miniatures, distemper it with gum-water and with prepared 
white of egg, and it will do well. 

226. To prepare white lead for painting, — Take the white 
lead, and wash it several times in hot water, and then take two 
grains of clear gum-arabic and 3 grains of white incense, 
grind them very well with a little clear water, and then add 
the washed white lead, and grind the whole together, and 
collect it and add to it as much gum-water as you think it will 
bear, and if it is too hard put a little fresh water to it, and it 
will do well. 

227. To prepare verdigris for painting, — ^Take verdigris 
and grind it weU with very strong vinegar, and then make a 
hollow in a new brick, and put the verdigris into the hollow, 
until the brick has soaked up the vinegar, and do this 3 or 4 
times, each time grinding up the verdigris with the vinegar 
afresh. Then take a little gum arabic, and grind it up to- 
gether, and if you wish it lighter, add a little giallolino to \U 
and it will be well coloured. 

228. To prepare orpimentfor using as a body colour. — Take 
orpiment, and grind it dry, and know that it is hard to grind. 
In order to grind it quickly, grind some glass with it, and it will 
grind quickly, and, when it is well ground, distemper it with 
gum water and yolk of egg. 

229. To make gum water, — Take clear water in a glass cup 
with gum arabic in powder and make it rather warm over the 
fire until it is well liquefied, and then keep it in a phial and 
use it. 

230. To temper prasminum, — Take prasminum, grind it 



lavato et purificato poi lassa sciugare lo azurro poi lo mecti a 
mollo in ranno da capo netto et forte in uno vaso de vetrio 
commo e uno bichiere et lassalo stare per spatio de 7 di et 
omne di li muta el ranno poi ce meti del novo poi lo lava cum 
aqua frescha et lassalo sciugare alombra in loco che non vi 
vada polvere. Et se tu el voli adoperare per fare corpi dis- 
temperalo cum colla de carta caprina o vero colla de ritalglie 
de camoecio bianco scamosciato et stara bene. Et se tu el 
voli per operare a penna o per minii distemperalo cum aqua 
gommata et cum chiara dovo preparata et stara bene. 

226. A preperare la biacha per dipengiare. — ^Tolli la biacba 
et lavala piu volte cum aqua calda poi tolli doi granelli de 
gomarabico chiaro et 3 granelli de incenso biancho et macinali 
molto bene cum uno poco daqua chiara poi ce metti la biacha 
lavata et macina omne cosa insiemj poi la racogli et metice 
tanta aqua gommata quanto te pare che comporta et se fusse 
troppo dura metice uno poco daqua chiara et stara bene, 

227. A preparare il verderamo per dipengiare. — Hawi ver- 
deramo et macinalo cum fortissimo aceto multo bene poi lo 
pone poi fa uno cavo in uno matone novo et pone el dito ver- 
deramo in dito concavo per infino a tanto che lo matone havera 
surbito quello aceto et cusi continua 3. o 4 volte omne volta 
renuudnando lo verderamo cum lo aceto poi toUj uno poco de 
gommarabico et macina insiemj et se tu lo volesci piu chiaro 
madnace uno poco de zalulino et congrue colorabitur. 

228- A preperare hropiumento per fare corpi, — Tolli oro- 
piumento et macinalo dasuto et sappi che e duro a madnarlo 
per macinarlo presto macinace insiemj cum esso del vetrio et 
macinarasse presto et commo e bene macinato distempera cum 
aqua gomata et trolo dovo rosso. 

229. A/aciendum aqiuzm ffummatam. — Summeaquam claram 
in ciato vitrj cum gummarabico triturato et fac aliquantulum 
calefieu^re ad ignem donee sit bene liquefactum deinde serva in 
ampulla et utere. 

230. Ad distemperandum prasminum. — Accipe prasminum 


with pure water^ and let it dry, and when you wish to use it, 
temper it with gum water, and if you wish to hare it lifter, 
add some (n-piment to it, and it will be well coloured. 

231. To temper minium, — Take minium and grind it with 
pure water, and put it into a vase, and when it is settled, 
separate the water well, and temper it with gum water. 

232. To temper gialhlino. — Take of giallolino whatever 
quantity you like and grind it on porphyry very fine with fresh 
Q^ and then let it dry. Then grind it again with clear 
water, and let it dry, and then temper it with gum water and 
a little yolk of egg. 

233. To temper the roseetta. — Take the rossetta and grind it 
well with gum water, and it will become hard like the other 
colours. When it is hard, temper it with fresh water. 

234. To prepare saffron. — Take safiron, and soak it in a shell 
with prepared white of egg for 3 hours, and it will be a fine 

235. To temper lake to use in body. — Take the lake and 
grind it in gum water with 2 or 3 grains of white and clear 
incense, and when it is hard, temper it with fresh water. 

236. To prepare the earths for painting on teaUs or an 
mortar, — Know that you must first grind red earth, and green 
earth, and every other earth for painting on walls, dry, after- 
wards very finely with clear water, then let the colour dry, and 
temper it with very strong gum water, or with egg, that is to 
say, with the yolk and white mixed and well beaten up to- 
gether, and with fig wood cut small into the white of egg, and 
with tins vehicle temper any letters, and they will look well. 

237. To lay flat tints and make \omamentaX\ foliage. — ^If 
you wish to make foliage, lay on a flat tint of what colour you 
like, and let it dry very well. If you lay a flat tint of green, 
use the pezzette made from the blue lily ' for the shade, and 
giallolino for the light. If you lay a flat tint of azure, use the 

I Sec anlc, Nos, 02 and 125. 

i^i^mii , .. I 


et eum tere cum pura aqua et permitte sicarj et cum vis ope- 
rare tempera cum aqua gummata et si vis eum magis clarum 
pone cum eo de auropiumento et congrue colorabitur. 

231. Ad distemperandum minium. — Habeas minium et tere 
cum aqua pura et mitte in vase et cum resederit sepera aquam 
optime deinde tempera cum aqua gummata. 

232. A distemperare el zallulino, — ToUi del zallulino la 
quantita che voi et madnalo in porfido cum urina frescha sub- 
tilissimamente et poi lo lassa secare poi lo rimacina de nuovo 
eum aqua chiara et lassa secare et poi lo distempera cum aqua 
gummata et uno poco de rosso dovo. 

233. A distemperare la rossecta. — ^Piglia de la rossecta et 
macinala bene cum aqua gummata et indopiasse commo li altri 
coUore et quando e dura stemperala cum aqua chiara. 

234. A preparare el zafaramj. — Abbi zafaramj et metilo in 
]a tua cocia a mollo cum chiara preparata et lassala stare a 
molle per 3 hore et sera bello zallo. 

235. A distemperare lacha per fare carpi, — ToUi la lacha et 
macinala cum aqua gommata et cum doi o tre granelli de 
incenso Inanco et chiaro et quando se indurasse stemperala cum 
aqua chiara. 

236. A preperare le terre per adoperare in muro o in calcina. 
— Sappi che la terra pagonaza et terra verde et omne terra da 
dipeugiare in muro se macina prima da secco et poi cum aqua 
chiara molto subtilmente poi se lassa sechare poi se distempera 
cum aqua gommata ben tenace o vero cum lovo cioe chiara et 
rosso misto et dibatuto bene insiemj et cum lingno de fico 
sminuzato in lovo et cum esso distempera tucte lettere et stara 


237. A campeggiare et fare f off liami.^Se tu volj fare fog- 
liami campeggia prima de quellj coUore che tu volj et lassali 
sciucare bene de vantagio. Se tu campeggie de verde la pezola 
de lo giglio e lombra sua et el zallulino e lo suo relevo. Se tu 
campeggie de azurro lombra sua e la pezola pavonaza et la 


purple pezzette for the shade, and white lead for the li^it If 
you lay a flat tint of red, use yerzino for the light 

238. To make stones for rings^ that is to say^ precious gems 
clear and of a fine colour » And you may. i^ this way^ quitMy 
and easily y make pearls^ mines, and balas rubies which are 
artificial J and not Tiatural. — ^Take of the good stone which is 
called alabaster of Constantinople* as much as you like; first 
make it hot like iron and quench it in very stnmg white 
vinegar ; afterwards grind it fine in a bronze mortar, and put 
the whole of it into linseed or olive oil, and let it remain for 
3 days or more. Afterwards put it into a cucurbit, and distil 
it through an alembic, and collect and keep what comes over. 
And when you wish to colour it, put into that water whatever 
colour you like, and it will keep its colour for ever. So if yon 
want to have a sapphire, put ultramarine azure into it. If yon 
wish to have an emerald, put in some verdigris. If you wish 
to have a topaz, put in some oil from the yolks of hen's eggs and 
tan, and a certain water must be made by soaking the colour in it 
for 3 days with some alum zucarino or scagKola, and then 
strain this coloured water through a fine and close linen doth, 
and in the same manner do what you pleajse. Then thicken it 
by the fire to the consistence of dough, and take some of that 
paste and cut it into whatever shape you like, a stone or a cup^ 
or a vase, boiling it well with olive or linseed oil, or with oil of 
bitter almonds ; dry it in a hot sun upon a polished board, and 
it will be like true and natural stone, and preserve this recipe 
as of great use and advantage. 

239. You may make in the following manner with crystal^ 
painted and factitious stones, such as topazes^ sapphires, ^c*— 
Take 1 lb. of the best crystal, and grind it in a mortar and dft 
it, so that it may be in a very fine powder. Then add 5 lbs. 
of stag's bones, calcined to perfect whiteness, and if you cannot 

I The Alabaster appears to supply the place of the pounded brides used 
in the common process of distilling oil. The object of employing it was to 
equalize the heat and to economise time and fuel. It probably also pre- 
vented the danger of the oil boiling over. 


biccha e el suo relevo. Se tu campeggie de rosso el suo relevo 
e el verzino. 

238. Ad lapides anuUorum componendos scilicet gemmas pre- 
tiosas claras et laudabilii coUaris. Et margaritas rubinos et 
balascios que sunt artijiciales et non naturales poteris ita com- 
panere eito et facile. — ^Redpe de bono lapide qui yocatur ala- 
bastrum constantmopolitanum quantum vis et ilium primo 
ignias ut ignitum ferrum et extingue in acetum album aoerri- 
mum poBtea tere in brumzi mortario subtiliter et totum pone 
in oleo lini vel olive ubi stet 3^~ diebus vel plus postea pone in 
cucurbita et stilla per elembicum cujus distillationem collige et 
serva. £t cum autem vis coUorare pone in ipsa aqua quem 
colorem vis et perpetue tenebit colorem. Nam si yis habere 
zafirrum intus pone azurrum ultramarinum. Si vis habere 
smiralgdum intus ponem viridem herem. Si vis habere 
topatium intus pone oleum vittoUorum OYorum gallinarum et 
% [stannum] quequidem aqua fiet cum interposito collore 3 die- 
bus rasine aluminis zucarini vel scaioli deinde aquam coloratam 
cola per pannum lineum spissum et subtilem et idem fac quid 
vis. Nam congela juxta ignem ut veniat ad duritiem paste et 
de tali pasta tolle portionem et incide ad quam formam vis 
lapdem vel coppam sive vasem bene buliendo cum oUyq oleo 
vel oleo seminis lini aut oleo amangdolarum amarium in fire- 
venti sole ad desiccandum super asidem politam et erunt 
tamquam vere et naturales et hoc habeas pro magno dono ac 

239. SicJiuiU de christallo lapides picti contrqfacti ut topatii 
zqfirri etc. — Abeas libram j cristalli optimi et tere in mortario 
et cribra ut sit subtiliter pulverizati postea pone 5 libras ossum 
cervinum combustum usque ad albedinem perfectam si vero 
non poteris habere zervinum ossum habeas bovinum ossum sive 

* This recipe somewhat resembles one in the Sloane MS., No. 3661, but 
in this last MS. it is said that the sapphire is to be imitated with " Az- 
zano Ultramarino," while in the text ** good azure " only is mentioned. 
See Theopbilus, £. ed., p. 176. 



have stag's bones, take beef bones or buffalo bones. Tlicn 
take of sal alkali 5 lbs., grind it fine, and mix it all together, 
and put this powder in a strong covered jar, lated with 
lutum sapientise, and place it into a glass furnace where it may 
remain 5 or 7 days at the most, and melt it into glass there. 
Afterwards put some good azure upon it, and knead both up 
together, and a blue colour will be produced and you may 
make up small or large sapphires, which yen may set with the 
stone called emerald. If you wish to have a topaz, add saflton. 
If you wish light rubies put vermilion, if dark, verzino. If 
pomegranate coloured put verzino or oricella or rose colour. 
If you wish jasper, put burnt orpiment ; for what is made of 
glass, is made of crystal, as before. 

240. To make pearls.— Take very clear crystal glass, and 
reduce it to as fine a powder as you can, and incorporate it 
with white of egg, and slime of snails, and with that paste 
make pearls in moulds, so that they may be round, perforate 
them with a hog's bristle, and then put them in a hollow vase 
over the fire, so that they may become white hot ; then quencli 
them in cold water, and they will be very beautiful. 

241. To make beautiful saucers of crystal. — Calcine bright 
crystal or white marble stones, and then take 6 rotoli^ of this very 
white calx, 2 rotoli of burnt tartar, and 1 rotolo of sal alkali ; 
put them all into the glass furnace, and let them melt there, 
and you may make saucers and whatever you like, and they 
will be as beautiful as crystal ; and if you paint them with saf- 
fron of Mars, and heat what you have painted at the fire, it will 
be like fine gold. 

242. To make rubies. — Take of roche alum 2, 1, of saltpetre 
3, 1, and reduce them to fine powder together ; then take ver- 
zino boiled with wine till reduced one -half, and with this wine 
mix and knead up the said powders to the consistence of sauce ; 
put them into a glass vase with a gentle fire, that the liquid 

1 Rotolo, a Venetian weight of about 32 oz. ; also a Sicilian weight of 
i^lbs. But sec No. 221, p. 499. 


baffidmuin deinde tolle salis alcali lb. 5 et subtiliter tere et 
coznimsce bene insimul et hunc pulyerem pone in forti oUa 
coperta et Into aapientie lutata et pone in formace vitrialorum 
ubi stet quinque diebus vel secptem ad pins et illic fundatur 
yitrimn postea superpone de bono azurro et insimul stempera 
et fiet color cilistrinns et conficias zafiros grossos yel parvos 
quos actabis cum petra que vocatur smiraglius. Si vis habere 
topatium pone desuper crocum. Si rubinos claros pone cina- 
briunu Si obscuros pone verzinum. Si granatas pone yer- 
zinum siTe oricelle aut rose. Si iaspides pone exustum de 
auripiumento nam quod fit de vitro fit de cristallo ut pre- 

240. Adfatiendum jnargaritcu. — Accipe vitrum cristallinum 
lucidissimum et subtiliter pulveriza quantum potes et incorpora 
cum albumine ovj et spuma lumace et de ilia massa forma 
perlas cum formis ut sit bene rotunda et perfora cum una seta 
porci deinde pone eas in uno vase cupo ad ignem tantum quod 
fiant albe postea extingue eas cum clara aqua et erunt pul- 

241. Adfatiendum pulcras scutes de cristallo. — Habeas lapi- 
des vivos cristallinos sive marmorinos albos et de ipsis fac cal- 
cina de quo vis deinde accipe de ista calcina albissima rodulos 
6. tartari usti rodulos 2. et sal alcali rodulos unum et pone in 
farnaoe vitri et ibi fitc fimdere et poteris facere scutellas et quod- 
quumque volueris et erunt pulcre ut cristallus et si pingis de 
croco ferri et calefatias ad ignem picturas erunt sicut aurum 

242. Ad rubinos componendum. — ToUe aluminis rocci 2. j. 
sails nitri 3. j. et pulveriza subtiliter insimul deinde accipe ver- 
zinum bulitum in vinum ad medium et cum dicto vino impasta 
et incorpora dictos pulveres ad modum saporis et pone in vase 
vitrio cum parvo igne ut siccetur et in unam massam reducetur 



may evaporate, and that the whole may form one mass. Take 
it off the fire, and let it stand 7 days, and you will find a well- 
coloured substance like dough, mould it into any shape you 
please. ♦ 

243. Tonuike balas rubies. — Put a stone of pure crystal into 
a hollow iron ladle, and make a good fire under it. When the 
whole of the ladle, with the stone in it, is red hot, take clear 
and cold spring water, and throw a drop of it upon the stone, 
and afterwards put it back gently to the fire ; then take dra- 
gon's blood in fine powder, make it into a lump, and anoint the 
stone, and put it back to the fire so that the ladle may get red 
hot with a little fire, and then remove it from the fire and let it 
cool near the fire, and when it is almost cool, rub it with a piece 
of very rough wooUen cloth, and it will be well done. 

244. To make fine pearls^ and of a good colour to all appear- 
ance, — ^Take stones from the heads of fishes in fine powder, and 
incorporate the powder with white of egg to the consistence of 
dough, and then shape the pearls that they may be perfectly 
round ; perforate them with a hog's bristle, and pass a horse- 
hair through the hole ; then place them in the sun to dry. Then 
boil them in new milk, and let tliem cool in a place free from 
wind and dust until they become hard. 

245. To make pearlsy which are just like natural pearls^ and 
undotibtedly real and good. — Take mother of pearl, or very fine 
pearls, or that shining matter which is in pearls' shells, pound 
it fine, and take two parts of this powder, and one part of very 
white powdered gum arabic, mix the whole with dew, and then 
make up the pearls into a good shape and dry them before the 
fire, and before they are quite hard perforate them with a hog's 
bristle, and then let them get very hard, and polish them gently 
with the tool with which the goldsmiths polish stones. Then 
take very white cheese and some milk of a fig-tree, and put the 
powdered cheese into that milk, and expose it to the open air 
in a clean vessel, and it will be dissolved. Then string your 
pearls on a horsehair or thread, warm them well before the fire, 


et IcTa ab igne et dimicte stare per 7? dies, et invenies mathe- 
riam in modum paste bene coloratam et fac aut forma quid vis 
ad libitum. 

343. Ad fatiendum balascios. — Accipe lapidem cristalli puri 
et habeas unam palectam ferri concayam et ea micte lapidem 
et fac subtus ignem bonum et cum fuerit ignita tola palecta 
cum lapide intus habeas claram et frigidam aquam surgentem 
et proice imam guctam super dictum lapidem postea suaviter 
repone ad ignem et habeas sanguinem draconis finum pulveriza- 
tam subtiliter et fatias ex eo unam maxam et unge lapidem e^ 
remite ad ignem ut palecta veniat rubea cum paryo igne deinde 
elleya ad igne et permitte frigidarj justa ignem et cum fuerit 
quaffl frigida firica eam cum pettia panni lini acerrimj et bene 
erit factum. 

244. AdfatiendumpuJcmsperlas tamquam et laudabilis cohris 
in aparentia, — Habeas lapides pisscium de capitibus pulyerri- 
zatos snctiliter et incorpora cum albumine oyj ut pasta forma 
postea et &c ut sit bene rotunda post perfora cum seta porci per 
quod foramen pone setam equi et dimite ut ad solem siccentur 
demum quoque eas in lacte recenti et dimicte fridare in loco 
sine yento et pulyere donee in duritiem conyertantur. 

245. Ad fatiendum margaritas siveperlas tanquam naturcdes 
^ cptimcu et veras sine dubio. — Summe matrem perle siye perlas 
minutissimas aut lucidum illud quod est in conchiliis perlarum 
et pdyeriza subtilissime et de eo pulyere adpe partes duas et 
partem unam albissimam gummam arabicam pulyerizatam et 
misoe cum aqua roris demum informa optime et desicca ad 
humbram et antequam multum indurescant perfora cum seta 
porcina et dimitte fortiter durescere postea poli plane cum quo 
polinnt aurifices lapides postea acipe casum albissimum et lac 
fici et pone in eo lacte ditum casum pulyerizatum et dimicte ad 
serenum in yasculo mundo et disolyetur postea micte perlas tuas 
in seta caballi aut in filo et calefac bene eas ad ignem postea 
tnerge eas in tali disolutione et eleya et dimitte sicari demum 


dip them iDto this solution, and take them out and let them dry, 
and then warm the solution. Dip the pearls in it and dry them, 
and repeat the process until you have very bri^t pearls ; tiien 
bury them in barley meal for 2 hours, and rub them well with 
a cloth. And a certain Spaniard^ told me that I mi^t dissolre 
them in lemon juice^ and dry the powder, and make up the 
pearls with snails' slime, so as to be like dou^. Then shape 
them, and take a piece of stale and tender beef, cut it open, 
and, making holes in the meat, put each pearl into a separate 
hole, and join the pieces together, and tie them well lest the 
vapour of the pearls should escape, and bake them in the oven 
until the meat is well dressed for eating, and they will be good 
and perfect ; but if by chance the meat should be too much 
burnt for eating, ^ve the pearls to a pigeon to swallow for a 
day or more, and they will then be very bright. 

246. To make large pearb out of small ones, — >Grind small 
pearls fine in a bronze mortar, and then take the juice of citrons, 
and filter it ; next take urine and spirit of turpentine, of eadi 
one-third part of the quantity of the citron juice, and knead up 
the powder with this water so that it may become like dongh ; 
let it stand for 3 days in the sun, and afterwards knead it well 
together and put it upon glass, and make pearls just as you 
please with " oleo muscellino,"* and then perforate them with a 
hog*s bristle, and pass a horsehair through the hole and leave 
them in the sun until they are dry. Then put them into the 
belly of a fish, having thrown away the inside, and bake it 
as if it were a pie ; then take out the pearls, and you will find 
them converted into hard stones. Rub them well in a linen 
cloth with barley meal, and they will be very bright. 

247. To clean pearls. — ^Take pearls, and wash them well in 
clear water in a very clean cloth, and then take ultramarine 
soap,' and dissolve it in water, and wash them as before. 

' '. u ^ . — 

1 Probably Jacopo de Tholeto before mentioned. 

2 A composition of oil, water, spices, and odoriferous drugs. See Rioet- 
tario Fiorentino. 


iterum calefac dictam disolutionem et sumerge et desica et sic 
tandia reitera donee habeas perlas luccidissimafi deinde sepelias 
eas in furfdre ordeacio per duas boras et frica optime cum panno. 
Et quidam Ispanns dixit mibi ut eas in succo limonum sol- 
▼erem norem recottam et siccetur et cumglutinetur cum glutine 
limatii et dnt sicut pasta et formentur postea accipe frustrum 
camis veteri et macer tauri et divide frustrum et facta fovea 
incame colloca singulas perlas in singulis foveis et reiunge 
cames et liga perfecte ne vaporet fumus perlarum et infumo 
bene assa et sint bone ad comedendum et erunt bone et perfecte 
sed si forte erunt nimis aduste da comedere columbo per diem 
vel plus et erunt lucidissime. 

246. Adfatiendum perlas grossas de minutis. — Tere parvas 
margaritas in mortario bmnzi subtiliter demum accipe citosita* 
tern citrorum et distilla per filtrum et de urina et de aqua rasi 
quantum est tertia pars aque citri et impasta dictum pulverem 
cum hac aqua ita quod deveniat sicut pasta et dimicte per tres 
dies ad solem postea cum glutina diligenter et depone super 
vitrum et forma margaritas ad libitum cum oleo muscellino 
postea perfora cum porcina seta per quod foramen pone setam 
eqninam et dimite ad solem donee sicentur demum pone in 
ventre piscis bncefallj egeritis interioribus et sue sive cuscias 
ventrem et fac inde pastillum et quoque et extrage et invenies 
lapides duros. Et frica eas cum fiirfure ordei in panno fortiter 
demum da coUumbo vel gallo comedere per diem j vel amplius 
ncut videtur et iterum frica cum fiirfure ut prius et erunt luci- 

247. Ad margaritas sive perlas clarificandas. — ^Accipe perlas 
et lava fortiter in aqua limpidissima in panno mundissimo et 
tunc acipe saponem ultramarinum et disolve in aqua et lava ut 

s Probably the Roman Soap, with which it was said in No. 4, that the 
Azunim Citramarinam was to bo washed. 


248. To make an emerald of crystal. — ^Take crystal, and soak 
it in alum for 12 days, and then cook it in verdigris, and it will 
be in appearance a fine emerald, like a real one. And so you 
may make a sapplure and all other precious stones according 
to the colour you add to the crystal, proceeding in the same 
manner as before, and you will have imitations of all the precious 

249. To make a chrysolite with crystal. — Take a crystal, and 
steep it in alum for 15 days ; then cook it in orpiment, and it 
will appear a chrysolite. 

250. Tomaheamber.^ — Take burnt tartar, and make a ley with 
very strong vinegar, reduce it by boiling to one half, strain it 
again through the burnt tartar, and let it settle and dear itself. 
Then take yolk of eggs for the red, and white of egg for the 
white, and beat them well, and let them stand for 3 days in the 
sun until they are decomposed ; then put the vinegar with the 
eggs into a glass vase, place them near the fire, and make them 
boil, and for each egg put 2 [oz.], 5 [dr.] of spirit of wine and 
of honey ; of tempered saffron, 3, 1 ; of myrrh, 3, 5 ; and of 
dierry gum, 3, 5. Strain all these things so prepared, boil them 
for an hour, and let them cool, and make amber [beads] just as 
you please ; then pierce them with a hog's bristle, and aflierwards 
anoint them with linseed oil, and at length, when they are dry, 
anoint them with liquid varnish, and they will be very beautiful 

251. To make amber (beads). — ^Take the whites of hen's 
eggs, and whip them with a sponge till they cease to froth ; add 
a little roche alum, colophony well powdered, and some cherry 
gum. Strain the mixture through a cloth, and put it into a 
flask well closed and luted, and set the flask in a jar full of 
water ; boil it for an hour, and then put it to cool in the open 
air, and dry it, and afterwards wrap it up in a linen cloth and 
bury it in dung for 3 days, and it will then be liquid, so that 
you may work it in your hands, and make beads and whatever 
you please. While you are modelling them, anoint your hands 

1 The value of amber at this time may be estimated by the numerous 


248« Ad Jatiendum smiralgdum de chrtstalh. — Habeas cris- 
taUum et micte in allumine per dies duodecim postea quoque 
in yiride ere et erit smiraldus nobilis in aparentia ut esset 
finom. Et sic poteris habere zafirruni et omnes lapides pre- 
tiosoe secundum colorem quern vis mictere cristallum et iac in 
supradicto modo et babebis omnes lapides pretiosos contrafactos. 

249. Ad fatiendum crisolitum de cristallo. — ^ToUe cristallum 
et micte in alumine per 15 dies demum quoque in auripiumento 
et apparebit crisolitum. 

250. Ad fatiendum atnbra. — Accipe cinerem fetie et fac lis- 
ciyium cum aceto albo fortissimo et deinde fac eum bullire per 
medium ut revertatur et iterum cola per dictum cinerem et fac 
eum quiescere ut sit bene clarum demum acipe ovorum vitella 
pro rubeis et albumina pro albis et percute bene et permitte 
per tres dies ad solem quiescere donee fiant putride deinde tolle 
dictum acetum cum dictis ovis in uno vaso vitrio et pone ad 
ignem et fac bullire et pro omni ovo mitte 2. 5. aque vite et 
melliB ana, et croci stemperati 3. j. mirre 3. 5. gumme cere- 
aarum 3. 5. stringentur ea et omnia sic preparata fac bullire 
per unam horam et micte frigidari et forma ambra ad libitum 
tuum et fora ea cum porcina seta et postea unge ea cum oleo 
seminj linj demum quando sunt sicce unge ea cum liquida ver- 
nice et permitte sicare et erunt pulcherrime. 

251. Ad ambra fatiendum. — Tolle albumina ovorum galli- 
narum et cum spungia tantum perchute ne aliqua spuma ap- 
pareat et mite aliquantulum aluminis rocci et colofonie optime 
pnlyerizate gume cerese et per pannum cola et pone in ampulla 
bene clausa et lutata et pone in oUa aque plena et fac bulire 
per unam horam demum pone ad refrigidare ad serenum ut 
siccetur postea involve in panno lineo et pone sub fimo per 3 dies 
postea erit liquida qua poteris ducerc in manus et forma ambra 
et quioquid vis aliud et cum formabis ea unge tuas manus 
comuni oleo et fora ea et pone ad siccandum et erunt facta. 

recipes for imitating it. The use of this factitioas amber appears to have 
been for making " beads for Paternosters," as it is expressed in No. 272. 

VOL. IL <> 


with common oil, pierce the beads, and let them dry, and they 
will be done. 

252. For the same.— Take white of eggs, beaten as if for 
distempering vermilion, and put it into a flask and boil it in 
very strong vinegar until it coagulates ; then break the flask, 
and make beads of it. 

253. For the same purpose, — Take arsenic in crystals * and 
roche alum finely pounded, of each equal quantities ; distemper 
these ingredients with white of egg well whipped, and then put 
them into a very clean budello di castrone, which must be boiled 
until it becomes hard. When you wish to use it and soften it, boil 
the budello with white vinegar, and make the beads as you please. 
If you wish to make them yellow, add some saffiron, and mix 
the ingredients well together in powder ; then strain the powder 
through a linen cloth, and boil it as before directed. And if 
you wish the colour to be red, mix the white of ^g used for 
vermilion with sandal-wood* in ppwder, and do as before di- 
rected. And if you wish the colour to be green, take verdi- 
gris, and mix it with white of egg, and do as before. And if 
you wish it to be blue, take azure, and do as before directed. 

254. For the same^ as before, — ^Take purified white of egg, 
coagulate it over a slow fire, and make beads of it ; then let it 
dry in the sun, and you may make it of whatever colour yon 
like by putting into it the colour which you wish to give it, 
but it must be coagulated in a round shape. 

255. To calcine crystal — ^Take small pieces of crystal of the 
size of chesnuts, wash them well, and dry them ; put them in a 
reverberatory furnace, until they are red hot, then throw diem 
into clear water. Do this 4 or 5 times, and then pound what 
was calcined ; and in the same manner the emerald must be 

1 The method of preparing arsenic in crystals is thus described by Mat- 
thioli : — *' Crystalled Arsenic, so called because it is transparent, like ciys- 
tal, is not found native with orpiment, as my countryman Vannoccio writes 
in his Pyrotechnia ; but is prepared artificially from pounded orpiment and 
salt, by heating and subliming them together in certain covered earthen 


252. Ad idem. — Habeas albumen ovorum ruptum in modum 
ad temperandum cenabrium et micte in ampulla ut impleatur 
et in aceto acerrimo fac buUire donee eongeletur demum frange 
ampulla et forma ambra. 

253. Super eodem. — Piglia arsenico cristallino alumi de 
roccho bene pisto ana et distempera queste cose cum chiara 
dora rucpta bene poi mecte queste cose in uno budello de 
castrone bene necto et & bullire tanto che divente sodo et 
quando el vorai adoperare et indolcirlo fa bulire lo dicto budello 
cum aceto bianco poi forma Umbra [lambra ?] a tuo piacere. 
Se tu le voi fare gialli mistace del zafaramj et remista bene 
insiemj in polvere poi lo cola cum panno de lino et cocilo 
commo e dicto disopra et se lo yoi rosce mista cum la chiara 
del cinabrio cum li sandoli in polvere et fa commo e disopra 
dicto. £t se lo voi verde tolli verderamo et mista cum chiara 
et & commo disopra. Et se volesce azurre tolli azurro et fa 
per lo modo sopra dicto. 

254. Ad idem ut supra. — Habeas ovorum clara purificata et 
coagula lento igne et fac ambra postea dimite ipsum sicare ad 
solem et potes fiicere de quolibet colore vis colorare pone intus 
ool<H%m sed formam rutundam debet coagulari. 

255. Ad calcinandum eristallum. — Capias pecios christalli 
parvoa ut castanea et ipsos bene lava et desica demum pone in 
igne reverberationis donee rubiscentur postea proice in aqua 
frigida et ita f^c 4. vel 5 vicibus deinde pista quod calcinatum 
est Et idem modo calcinabitur smirigUum. 

Tp w cla , made for the purpose ; the arsenic sublipies and attaches itself to 
the coTers, and becomes dear and transparent, especially in the centre." 
Matt. p. 1428. 

* Sandali Rossi. The wood of the Fterocarpus Santalinus. It is used 
in djeing, and for colouring Tarnishes. 

VOL. II. * o 2 


256. To prepare crystal. — ^Take crystal, make it very hot, 
and quench it in cold water ; break it and reduce it to powder ; 
and when it is powdered, take 5 parts of the powder, 1 part of 
calcined tartar, and 1 part of sal-alkali ; melt them together 
until the tartar and sal-alkali are consumed, and then colour 
the glass with any colour you choose, if you think proper, and 
do what you choose with it. 

257. To make fyctitious crystal. — Take the whites of 30 
eggs, beaten to a froth, and 2 . 2 of common salt, put them into 
a jar to boil till reduced to one-third ; then fill the jar again, 
and add of oil of chamomile^ ^'^j > ^^^ ^^ again till it dries, 
and then set it by to cool. Make it into any form you please. 
With oil it will make amber, and without oil it will appear like 

258. To soften crystal,— Take roche alum, and grind it well 
upon marble with very strong vinegar, then put it into a glajsed 
vase, and make it boil until it is dry. Having done this, take 
it out and grind it again, and do this 5 times, and afterwards 
put it in a glass flask beneath dung until it is dissolved. Then 
throw away the supernatant water, and you may then give a 
colour to the crystal, and mould whatever you like. 

259. To imitate precious stones with crystal. — Take roche 
alum, alum zucarino, Roman vitriol, and " salis copertum," of 
each equal quantities, and put these ingredients into clear 
and strained ley, and dissolve them, and you may colour the 
crystal. For a sapphire, add azure ; for an emerald, add ver- 
digris ; for a ruby, add vermilion ; for a balas ruby, add ver* 
zino or *^ stupio ;" for hyacinth, sky-blue and a little azure ;. 
for amethyst, some oricella ; and so you may imitate aU stones 
by adding different colours* Remember, however, that the 
crystal and the colours must be dissolved like colours and 
coagulated. Then boil them till they become like stones. 

260. To soften crystal previous to stamping or carving it like 
wax. — ^Take fine crystal and put it to soak in the blood of a 

* The old method of preparing this oil was by steeping chamomile flowers 
in olive oil, and exposing the bottle to the sun for 40 days. See Rioet-> 


256. Adjixandumcristallum. — Tolle crifitallum et calefatias 
eum valde fortiter et proice in aqua firigida et ipse frange et 
redue in pulverem et eo pulverizato recipe de ipso partes 5 et 
partem j de tartaro calcinate et partem j de sale alcali et Ainde 
insimul donee tartarum et sal alcali consumentur et ibi colora 
ipsom de quo colore vis colorare si placet et fac de ipso opus 

257. Adfatiendum christallum corUrqfactum. — Habeas album 
trigmta ovorum et ^ : 2. {sic) salis comunis et bene spumatum 
pone in ampulla ut buUiant donee reducatur ad tertium et 
iterum repleatur ampulla et in ea ponatur olei camomille 
2. ij (sic) et iterum buliatur ut desicetur et pone ad refrigidan- 
dum et forma quic vis cum oleo erunt ambra et sine oleo apare- 
bit cristallum. 

258. Ad molificandum cristallum — Accipe aluminis rocj et 
tere bene super marmorem cum fortissimo aceto deinde pone 
in vase vitriato et fac bulire donee desicetur hoc facto extrahe 
et iterum tere et sic fac vicibus 5. postea pone in ampulla 
vitria sub fimo donee solveatur deinde aqua que supematet proi- 
ciator et tunc poteris dare coUorem christallo et formare quic- 
quid vis. 

259. Ad faciendum lapides pretiosos cantrcifactos de anstallo. 
— Abeas aluminis rocce, aluminis zucarini, vitriol! romani, salis 
copertum ana et tere bene simul et pone in urina colata et 
clara et dimite ut disolvitur et poteris colorare cristallum pro 
zafirro pone azurrum pro smiralgdo pone viridi es et pro rubino 
cinaprium pro balascio brasilem sive stupio pro iacinto celeste 
parum azurri pro amastito ex oricella et sic poteris habere 
omnes lapides ponendo colorem. Memento tamen quod cris* 
tallus et collores debent resolvi ad modum colons et congellare 
demde bulliant in modum lapidum. 

260. A moUiJicare el cristallo prima che porai impromptare 
et tagliare comma cera. — Recipe el cristallo fino et metilo a 

tario Fiorentino, p. 5M8. At the present time a distilled oil is made Trom 


Iamb, or of a calf fresh killed, and it will soon become soft, 
and when it is cold it will again become hard and shining as 

261. This is a hidden philosaphieal operation^ that is to say, 
to make large corals out ofsmaU ones in this way. — ^Take what- 
ever quantity you like of the small seed corals, and pound 
them and pulverize them so as to be almost impalpable, and 
then take lemon-juice, well purified, as follows: — ^Take the 
juice and first strain it through a tliick woollen cloth, and do 
this 3 or 4 times, and then filter it until it is perfectly clear, 
and knead up the powder with this juice in a glass vase ; and, 
when well incorporated and soaked, let the juice cover the 
powder by two or three fingers' breadths, and then you will see 
that it will produce a certain creamy or thick liquor on the top 
of it. Take this and put it aside in a clean jar ; then take the 
powders, and let them dry until they become as hard as stiff 
paste, and with this paste make large corals, or images, or 
horses, or figures, or branches of coral, or whatever you like, 
and put them into a place secure from dust, smoke, wind, and 
sun, and let them dry a little ; and before they are quite dry, 
anoint them with that creamy liquor which you reserved ; let 
them dry well and completely, and you will have a fine and 
polished and genuine work, which is of considerable profit. 

262. To make good liquid varnish. — Take 2 lbs, of com- 
mon oil, and 2 lbs. of fresh linseed, and boil them together in 
a glazed pipkin until it is reduced one-half, and then pour it 
into another glazed vase, such as a pipkin, and take a tripod 
and place the pipkin on it^ and make a clear fire under it, and 
when the liquid begins to boil add to it 30 or 40 cloves of 
garlic, cleaned and scraped fine, and a little roche alum at 
discretion, and let it boil ; and if you wish to know when it is 
well done, take a hen's feather and dip it in the mixture. If 
the feather is burnt it is done well ; take it from the fire, and 
liefore it is cold add to it one pound of sandarac well pounded, 
a little at a time, and keep continually stirring it round with h 


moUe in sangue dagnello o de vitello quando se amaza, e poco 
stara che sera morbido, et commo sera freddo retomara duro et 
lustro comme prima. 

261. Questa e un opera ocuUa JUosqficale : doe fare coralli 
ffrossi de li piccoli in questo modo. — Accipe quella quantita cbe 
tu voi de li coralli picoli finissimi et pistali tanto et polverizali 
tanto subtilmente che paiano essere senza tatto de poi tolli el 
8ugo de Umone che sia bene depurgato in questa forma tolli 
lo sugo et prima lo distiUa per uno panno de lana grosso et 
questo fa 3 o 4 Tolte poi lo (Ustilla per filtro tanto che sia bene 
chlaro poi impasta cum lo dicto sugo la predita polvere in uno 
vaso de vetrio et commo sonno bene incorporate et imbeverate 
de vantagio tk die ce sia tanto sugo che avanze sopra alia 
dicta polvere doi o tre deta de poi tu vederai che produra de 
sopra ima certa graseza o licore grasso piglialo et polio da 
parte in uno vaso neto poi tolli le polvere et lassale seccare 
taato che fomano dure ad modo duna pasta uno poco duretta 
de la quale pasta forma li coralli grossi o forma vase o imma- 
gine o cavalli o figure o branch! de coralli o quelle che te piace 
et polle in loco dove non sia polvere ne fumj ne vento ne sole 
et lassale alquanto secare ma prima che siano fornite de secare 
ungile con quella graseza o licore che reservasti de poi lassale 
seccare bene in tucto et haverai opera polita et bella e vera et 
de bono guadagno. 

262. A fare vernice liqquida bona. — Ahwi lb drt dolio 
comane et doi libre de semj de lino fresca et fa buUire insiemj 
in una pignatta vitriata tanto che calla per mita poi la mecti in 
uno altro vaso vitriato commo uno pignato poi havvj uno tre 
pei et disopra vi mecte la dicta pignatta et fall! di socto el 
fooo diiaro et commo comenza a bullire e tu ce pone 30 o 
quaranta spighi de alglio mondato et bene alanato sutili poi ce 
pone uno poco de alumj doi rocho a discretione et lassa bulire 
et cociare et se voi sapere quando e bene cocta tolli una penna 
de gallina et baguala in la dicta cocictura se la peuna vieni 
pellata e cocta et facta et levala dal foco e nante che se fredda 
mectice una libra de vernice da scrivare bene pesta a poco per 


stick, and when it is nearly cold add six or eight whites of egg, 
well beaten and cleared, as they are used for Termilion, and 
mix the whole well, and then place the varnish for one day in 
the sun, stir it every hour, and keep it in a cool place, and it 
will be good. 

263 To make vermilion, — Take qnidcsilver, and two parte 
of yellow or white sulphur, incorporate the sulphur well ground 
with the quicksilver, and put it into a battle well luted with 
lutum sapientiae, and let it dry. Then put it into the oven and 
give it a gentle fire, and cover the top of the vase with a tile, 
uncover and cover it finequently, and when you see a yelbw 
smoke come over it is nearly done ; let it remain, and give it 
more fire until a red smoke, almost purple, arises. Hien. ex- 
tinguish the fire, and let the bottle cool, and you will have fine 

264. To make^ with ^ pearls^ one fine and very good 

pearL — ^Take the juice of moderately ripe lemons, and put it 
into a glazed saucer, and distil [or strain it ?] * and take 

care not to let dust or smoke or any other dirt have access to 
it. Then pour the juice into a glazed vessel, such as a cup, 
and put into the juice as many pearls as you like, let the pearls 
be perfectly free from all dirt, and let them remain closely 
covered up until they are well softened. Then take them out 
of the lemon juice and wash them well with clear water, so 
that no greenness may remain on the pearls. Then make them 
up into a paste with water of slugs, which is made in this way. 
Take the slugs and clean them well, and put them into a 
glazed saucer, and sprinkle a little salt well pounded ufoa 
them, in order to clean them from all slime, and then a little 
sal-ammoniac, and let them remain so for a day and a ni^t, 
after which distil them in an alembic, and use the water that 
comes over for your purpose. Then take a piece of very 
clean glass in the palm of each hand, and with the pieces of 
glass make your pearls dexterously round, whether you wish 

1 and ' These words are illegible in the original. 



▼olta e sempre vienj mistando intorno cum uno bastone poi 
quando sera quasi jGredda et tu la cola cum una stamegna poi 
quando sera fredda mectice sei o 8 albuma dova bene dibatuti 
et chiara commo se fit per lo cinabrio et mista bene poi la 
mecti uno di al sole et mistala ad omne ora et serbala al fresco 
et stara bene. 

263. Affare cinabrio, — Abbi argento vivo et doi parte de 
zolpho bianco o giallo et incorporalo lo solpbo bene trito cum 
largento et polio in una boccia alutata bene de luto de sa- 
pientia et lassa sciutare poi la pone nel fomello et fiedli foco 
ligiero et copri la boca del vaso cum ima tegola et spesso lo 
scopri et ricopre et quando tu vedi vuscire el fiimo giallo sera 
apresso che facto et lassalo tanto stare et dalli lo foco che facia 
lo fumo rosso quasi pavonazo ahlora toli via lo foco et lassa 
fredare e de facto fino cinabrio. 

264. Affare de perle una hella perla et bona de van- 
tagio. — Tolli sugo de limone i quali siano mezanamente ma- 
turi et mectilo in una scutella vitriata et distillalo per lingua 

et fa che non vi possa andare polve ne fumj ne 
altra bructura poi pone lo dicto sugo in uno vaso de vetrio 
commo e una taza poi mecti in lo dicto sugo quanti perlj che 
tu vqj esiando le dicte perle ben necte da omne loto et salla- 
vezza et lassale stare ben coverte per spatio che siano ben 
mollificate dapoi le remove dal sugo e lavale bene cum aqua 
chiara bene scrillente per modo che non rimanga nisciuna 
verdeza ale perle poi le impasta cum aqua de lumache la quale 
se fa in questo modo. Tolli le lumache et mondale bene et 
mectili in una scutella vitriata poi li pone suso uno pooo de 
sale bene trito acio depurga omne baviglia poi li pone suso uno 
altro poco de sale armoniaco et lassale stare cusi per uno di et 
una nocte et poi le pone a stillare per lambicco e de questa 
aqua usarai ala tua opera poi habbi doi peze de vetrio bene 
polite in cescheduna palma de le mano et cum li dicti peze de 
vetrio le ritonda dextramente o vo fare una o doi o 3 perle o 


one, two, or three pearls, or as many more as you like ; and 
when the pearls are perfectly round string them upon a dean 
hog's bristle, first boring them with a silver thread or horsehair, 
and hang these pearls between two saucers of glass, suspended 
between the two saucers so as not to touch them in any part. 
Fasten the two saucers closely togetlier, and then put them in 
the sun to dry ; and when they are hard rub them well with 
the dust of emeralds and with a doth. Then take barley- 
meal, and mix it witli the pearls and powder, and rub them 
well again with the cloth, and they will be bright and fine. 

265. To make sapphire^ and to refine and colour it — ^Take a 
crystal, or a transparent stone, and whichever you take beat it 
strongly and then quench it several times in cold water ; then 
])ound it, and take an equal quantity of sal alkali, and melt 
them together. Afterwards put them into a furnace, and add 
a little zaS&rro. And if you wish to have the colour green, add 
a little minium, and note, that some say that ^^caUamita 
femina" ^ makes a transparent red. Note also, that these stones 
are found upon Mount St. Bernard, and are good and perfect 
crystals, as if they were really mineral. 

266. To make a gold colour, —Take ley and ochre, of each 
equal quantities, and grind them with linseed oil ; then mix a 
little verdigris and black, and grind them together, and then 
put them in a small jar over the fire, and when the oil begins 
to boil take it off the fire, and spread it wherever you like, and 
it will be of a gold colour. 

267. To purify zajirro, — Take the zafirro and wash it with 
salt and vinegar, and then keep it in strong vinegar for the 
space of 6 days, change the vinegar every day, and keep doing 
this until the impurities are removed and the colour is refined. 

268. To make red glass. — ^Take 1 lb. of copper, and melt it, 

^ Agricola (Dc MetalliciB, Lib. v. p. 249) says there were several kinds 
of minerals called Calamites ; that they differed in appearance and in pro- 
|)ertics; that some attract iron powerfully, and these are called the *'male 
calaniitcs;" others attract it lc&> ])owcrfully, these arc called the *' female 


quanto voli et quando le dicte perle seraimo bene retonde mec- 
tile in una seta de porcho bene necta et forale prima cum uno filo 
de argento o cum una seta de cavallo lungha et mecte queste 
perle in mezo de doi scudelle de vetrio suspese suso in la dicta 
setula de cavallo per tal modo che le dicte perle stiano in mezo 
de le dicte doi scudelle in aiere suso in le dicte sete che le dicte 
perle non tochano in nisciuna parte et le dicte scudelle siano bene 
serate insiemj poi le pone al sole a seccare et quando seranno 
dun tu le pone suso de la polve de lo smeriglio et sfregale bene 
cam quella polvere de lo smeriglio cum uno canavaccio poi tollj 
semoladorzo et mista cum le dicte perle et polvere et sfrega de 
novo molto bene cum lodicto canavaccio et saranno lustre et belle. 

265. Ad fatiendum zaffirrum et ipsum affinando et color- 
ando. — ^Accipe christallum vel lapidem trasparentem et quod 
vis accipe et eos calefac fortiter demum extingue in aqua 
frigida plnribus vicibus postea pistetur deinde tolle totidem de 
sale alcheli et insimul funde et postea pone in furnum et adde 
secum parum de zaffirro. Et si vis quod fiet viridis adde 
pamm de mineo. Et nota de callamita femina aliquis dicit 
quod &cit rubeum trasparentem. Et scias quod dicti lapides 
ioveniuntur in montagna sancti Berardi et sunt perfecti et boni 
cristallini tamquam de propria minora. 

266. A fare coUore doro. — ^Tolli ranno et ocria ana et ma- 
eina cum oleo de semj de lino poi ce mista uno poco de verde- 
ramo et de nero et macina insiemj poi lo pone in imo pignatino 
al foco et quando cominza a bolire levalo dal foco et lavoralo 
dove voi et sera in collore doro. 

267. A porificare el zafirro. — Ahavve el zaffiro et lavalo cum 
lo sale et aceto poi lo lienj a moUi nello aceto forte per 6 di et 
omne di li muta laceto et tanto fa cbusci che lo loto o stista 
vada via ed e facto fino. 

268. Affare vetrio rosso, — ToUi libra j de ramo et fundilo et 

cdamites." In the former it is not difficult to recognise the loadstone or 
magnet; the latter from the properties ascribed to it, such as making 
copper white when added to it, was probably Electric Calamine, or siliceous 
oxide of sine. See Phillips' Min., p. 354. 


and when it is melted add 4 oz. of lead, and incorporate them 
well with each other and throw the mass into cold water, and 
it will be broken small like grains of com. Then grind it as 
fine as you can, and stir it into the glass, and it will become 
red glass, for making paternosters and other articles. 

Also note that copper filings thrown into the glass make a 
red, but they require a very gentle fire. Calcined lead has 
the same effect, and so also has minium and white lead. 

269. To lay gold upon glass. — Take very thin bladders of 
crystal glass, as clean and pure, and liquid as possible, 
and break them just as you please, and lay real gold upon 
them. And Frate Giovanni told me that in order to fix the 
gold on to the glass, it was necessary to employ a solution of 
borax, the Alexandrian borax,^ which the goldsmiths use, toe 
this water makes the gold adhere well. And when you have 
laid the gold on to the white glass, put it in the mouth of the 
furnace, that is, where you stand to work, so that it may become 
hot, and take care as it dries to have ready in the furnace 
the glass upon which you wish to lay the gold, and with this 
glass some very fine safiron of Mars of the alchemists roust be 
mixed, in order to serve as a mordant for the gold, which will 
appear of a deeper colour. Then take out of the furnace the 
quantity of glass which you require, and heat it upon the marble 
slab upon which you make drinking glasses, and be quick, and 
take it with the iron for making drinking glasses, and lay upon 
it the piece covered with gold, and put the gold on the under 
side of it, that is, let it be between the two glasses. Then put 
it in the furnace to spread, and spread the glass vrith the gold 
in it with another iron, and when you see that it is well spread 
out and that it adheres well together, take it out and set it to 
cool on the top, where you set the rest of the glass to cool, and 
then use it for your own purpose just as you please. 

270. To paint glass^ that is to say^ cups or any other works 
in glass with smaltiof any colour you please. — Take the smalti' 

1 This is the true Borax. 

2 The composition of these smalti is not described. They were proba* 
bly, as I have mentioned in a former note, like those coloured glasses, or 


quando e fiiso metice oz. 4 de piombo et lassalo bene incor- 
porare et butalo in laqua fredda et vira minuto commo granelli 
de grano poi lo trita piu Be poi poscia lo mecte nel vetrio et 
Tira vetrio rosso da fare patrenostri et altre lavore. 

Idem Dota la limatura del ramo messa nel vetrio fa rosso ma 
vole poco foco et lo simile fa lo piombo arso et simili £ei lo 
minio et la biacha. 

269. A mectere oro in el vetrio. — ^ToUi vesiebe de vetrio sub- 
tilissimi che siano de vetrio cbristallino polite et necte et oocto 
quanto piu poi et rompilo commo a te piace et metivj suso loro 
vero et che frate gioahnne me disse per apiccare bene loro al 
vetrio se voleva torre aqua de borace quella borace Alisandrina 
che adoperano li orefici et cum qudla apicare loro in su lo 
vetrio la quale aqua lo fa apichare bene et quando hai apicato 
el dicto oro in su lo vetrio bianco pone lo in su la bocha de la 
fomace doe dove stai a lavorare in si facta forma che se scalde 
pot habbi cura commo e seccho poi debbia el tuo vetrio apari- 
diiato nella fomace in su lo quale voi mectere loro nel quale 
vetro vole essere miscolato crocum ferri subtilissimo de Arcfai- 
mista et questo vi vole essere dentro acio che facia lo lecto a 
loro die parera piu coUorito poi cava de la forma cio e quella 
qnantita de vetrio che voi et scaldala in su lo marmo dove 
lavore i bichiere et fa presto poi la piglia cum lo ferro che pig- 
lie li bichierj et poue suso la peza dove e loro et pone loro ala 
parte de socto cioe fa che Aa atramendoi queste vetrie poi lo 
pone nella fomace a stendare cum uno altro ferro et stende 
quella peza de loro si che sia bene stesa et quando vede che e 
bene stesa et bene apiccata cavela fora et metila de sopra a 
fredare dove mectj li altre vetrj poi ladopera al tuo lavoro 
commo te piace. 

270. A dopengiare li vetrij cum li smalti de otrnie collare che 
tu volf commo sonno tazze o altre lavore de vetrio. — Tolli ismalte 

eoamdi, spoken of in the MS. of the Marciana, No. 325, which were 
hrottght fnmi Germany, and which were used for painting on glass. 


you wish to use, and let them be soft and fusible, and pound 
them upon marble or porphyry in the same way that the 
goldsmiths do. Then wash the powder and apply it upon your 
glass as you please and let the colour dry thoroughly *, then put 
the glass upon the rim of the chamber in which glasses are 
cooled, on the side from which the glasses are taken out cold, 
and gradually introduce it into the chamber towards the fire 
which comes out of the furnace, and take care you do not push 
too fast lest the heat should split H, and when you see that it is 
thoroughly heated, take it up with the '^ pontello " and fix it 
to the ^^ pontello " and put it in the mouth of the furnace, 
heating it and introducing it gradually. When you see that 
the smalti shine and that they have flowed well, take the gla^ 
out and put it in the chamber to cool, and it is dome. 

271. To make blood red glass. — Take 100 lbs. of white glass 
and melt it in the furnace, and then take 8 lbs. of caldned 
manganese pounded, and 8 lbs. of sal alkali, which is to be 
mixed with the manganese, put these ingredients into a jar in 
the furnace to remain white hot for one day, and mix them 
well with an iron rod, and then take the mass out and reduce 
it to powder. Next take 3 lbs. of this powder and put it with 
the glass, that is to say, with 10 lbs. of glass ; stir it well with 
the iron and let it fine itself. If it is too dark, add white glass 
to it ; and if too light, add more of the material to it, and it 
will be good and perfect. 

272. To make yellow fflcus for paternosters or beads. — Take 
of lead 1 lb., of tin 2 lbs., melt and calcine them, and make 
glass for paternosters. 

273. To maAe ffiallolino for painting. — ^Take 2 lbs, of this 
calcined lead and tin, that is 2 lbs. of this glass for paternosters, 
2} lbs. of minium, and i lb. of sand from the Yal d'Arno 
pounded very fine ; put it into a ftimace and let it fine itself, 
and the colour will be perfect 


che tu volj adoperare et fa che sieno ben tenere et corrente et 
pistali in su lo marmo o porfido nel modo che fanno li orifice 
poi lo laya et polio ne lo tuo vetrio nello modo che lo vol porre 
poi lo lassa bene seccare poi lo pone in su lorlo de la camera 
doTe se freddano li bichierj dallato dove se cavano i vase frede 
e a poco a poco lo spigni nela camera verso lo foco che escie 
da la fomace et habbi cnra che non lo metesci troppo presto 
acio per troppo caldo non scopiassce poi che vedi che e ben caldo 
tolo con lo pontello et apiccalo al pontello et polio a la bocha 
de la fomace a poco a poco li da el caldo metendolo dentro et 
quando tu vedi che i smalte lucano et che sonno bene stesi et 
apicati cavali fora et pone a fredare nella camera e de facta. 

271. A fare vetrio ihcamato, — Accipe lb cento de vetrio 
bianco et mectilo a cociare nella fomace poi tolli lb octo de 
roaganese pisto de quello arso poi tolli lb 8 de sale alchali et 
mistica cum lo dicto maganese et mecti le dicte cose in uno 
testo nella caldara ad imbiancare per uno di et mistalo bene 
com uno ferro poi cavalo fora et pistalo et fanne polvere poi 
toi 3 lb de questa matheria et mecti sul vetrio do e in X. lb de 
vetrio et mista bene cum lo ferro et lassalo afinare et se fiisse 
tn^po scuro metivj dento vetrio bianco et se fusse troppo chiaro 
agionpvi de la dicta matheria et sera bono et perfecto. 

272. A fare vetrio giallo per poire nostra o ambre, — ^Tolli 
piombo lb j. stagno lb doj. et fundi et calcina et fa vetrio per 

273. A fare zaUolino per dipengiare, — Havve lb doi de 
questo stagno et piombo calcinato et doi lb de questo vetrio da 
patrenostrj et doi lb et j^ de minio et meza lb. de rena de 
valdamo sotilmente pista et mecti in fomace et fa affinare et 
sera perfecto. 

( 530 ) 



274. Take lead and tin, of each 1 lb., melt them together, 
and calcine them with common salt, until the whole is reduced 
to powder, in a reverberatory furnace, and then melt the mass 
and add to it its own weight of raw tartar, and reduce it to 
powder, and mix it again with common salt and put it in the 
reverberatory furnace for one natural day. Then wash the 
salt out with common warm water, and add more salt and 
calcine it again and continue this until it becomes a white cak. 
Take 7 lbs. of this calx and 1 oz. of calcined bones, and nux 
all together and put the mass into a glass pot, melt it and let 
it remain in fusion for 3 days, and try with an iron rod whether 
it is well digested and mixed, and it will be mosaic or white 
glass, of which you may make all other colours in glass as 
follows. To 8 lbs. of the said material, put one ounce of 
zaffirri in powder, and mix it well with an iron rod, and when 
it is quite melted, try with a little of it whether it is a good 
blue ; if not, add a little zaffirro, and let it continue liquid until 
it is of a good colour. Then cast it, and it will take whatever 
shape you like, but take care of the wind while you are cast- 
ing it. 

275. Another kind of mosaic. — ^Take 1 lb. of crystal glass, 
and put it in the fire, and when it is red hot, throw it into spirit 
of wine id which roche alum is dissolved and so quench it 16 
times, and then pulverize it on porphyry and mix with it three 
times its own quantity of ceruse in powder. RU a jar half full 
with it and cover it and lute it down, and put it in a soda 
fiimace and let it remain there as long as if it were soda, and 
when it is cold you will find your material fit to receive what- 
ever colours you like. 

( 531 ) 



274 Aocipe plumbum et stagnum ana lb j et funde insimul 
et calciua cum sale comuni quousque fuerit totum pulveri- 
zatum ad fumum reyerberationis post funde cui adjungepondus 
sm tartari crudi et pulveriza et iterum mise de sale comuni et 
pone in fumo reverberationis per diem naturalem postea lava 
inde sal cum aqua comuni calida post redde aliud sal et iterum 
calcina ut prius et sic fac tamdiu quod fit calx alba de quo 
acipe lb 7*. ed oz. j. ossum calcinatum et omnia insimul misce 
et pone in patella vitri et fac fundere et stet ita fiisum in 
fiisione per tres dies et cum virga ferrea vide si sit bene 
degestum et comistum et erit musaicum seu vitrum album 
mtus et extra quo poteris componere omnes alios colores vitreos 
in tali forma in octo libris supradicte matherie pone oz. j 
zaffini pulyerizati et misce bene simul cum vergha ferrea et 
cam fuerit bene fusum proba cum modico si fuerit in coUore 
azurri quod si non esset adde modicum de zaffirro et stet in 
fnsione quousque habeat bonum colorem postea proice et erit 
in forma quo volueris custodi tamen a vento quando proicis. 

275. Alius modus musaici. — ^ToUe christallinum lb j et pone 
ad ignem et cum fuerit ignitum proice in aquam ardentem in 
qua at desolutum polvere aluminis roccj et ita extmgue 
16 vicibus post pulveriza super porfidum et misce cum eo ter 
tantnm de cerusa pulverizata et pone in olla ut sit semiplena et 
coperi et luta et pone ubi dequoquitur soda et ibi stet tantum 
sicut soda et cum infrigidatum fuerit invenies materiam tuam 
preparatam ad recipiendum onmes collores quos volueris. 

VOL. 11. P 


276. To make a taffiwn colauredy tfuxt is golden coloured, 
mosaic. — Take some of the prepared material, and add to it 
1 oz. of 8a£Eron of Mars, and mix with it 8 lbs. of the prepared 
white material, and let it stand until it is of a gold colour. 
K it does not become so, add a little more safiron of Mars, 
and it will certidnly be like gold. 

But if you wish to make a red mosaic, put into the wUte 
material 1 oz. of alcocu, (?) and 1 oz. of calcined brass to 
8 lbs. of the said material, and it will be red. But if you wish 
to make black mosaic, melt 1 oz. of iron, and 1 oz. of tin, and 
throw powdered sulphur upon it and it wiU make a very good 

277. To make red mosaic.^ — ^Take three parts of the white 
material, 1 part of calx letitise, that is, calx of gold, 1 part of 
ashes of verzino and three parts of sal gem in powder ; mix 
the whole well together upon porphyry, and set it to melt in a 
glass pot in a glaas furnace and let it remain there for 4 
or 6 hours. Then take it out, and you will have a red 

278. To make a rose coloured mosaic. — ^Take 8 parts of the 
white material and 3 parts of calx letilise, that is calx of gold, 
and 2 parts of cineris pencholim, i. e. brass burnt and reduced 
to powder, and 3 parfas of sal gem, pulyerize the whole to- 
gether, and do as you did before. 

279. To make a pomeffranate-coloured mosaic. — ^Take 3 parts 
of the said material, and 1 part of calx solis, t. 0., calx of gold, 
half a part of manganese [ ?], and 1 part of salgem, and do as 

280. To make a blue mosaic. — ^Take 3 parts of the said ma- 
terial, 2^ parts of ultramarine azure, and 3 parts of salgem, and 
it is done. 

281. To make a green mosaic. — ^Take 3 parts of the said 

1 This and the suooeeding chapter are proofs that the art of prodadog 
a red colour from gold was known and practiaed at this early period. 
It IB not likely that the verzino mentioned in the first redpe could hare 
produced the red colour, for it must have been converted into cbarooal kvg 


276. Ad faciendum mu9aicum croeewn i. e. colorem cattj,— 
Capias de dicta matheria preparata et pone cum ipsa oz i. 
cro^ fem et uriece cum ea 8 iLs de dir«.*eria p^paxai 
et alba et stet quoiisque sit in coUore aurj si non fuerit adde 
adhuc de dieto crocho ferri et certe fiet ut aurum* 

Si autem volueris facere musaicum rubeum pone in dicta 
matheria alba oz. j alcucu, j. es ustum in octo libris dicte 
materie et fiet rubeum. Si autem volueris facere musaicum 
nigrum fiinde oz. j $ martis et onciam ^ Jovis et proice 
desuper sulphur pulyerizatum et fiet nigrum valde bonum. 

277. AJ fatiendum musaicum rubeum. — Accipe partes 3 de 
dicta materia alba et partes j calcis letitie i, e. solis et partem 
j. cineris brasilij et partes tres salis gemme pulverizatj et misce 
omnia simul multum bene super porfidum et pone fiisionj in 
una patella yitrj in fiimo vitri et stet per 4 vel 6 horas demum 
extrahe et habebis rubeum musaicum. 

278. Ad fatiendum musaicum rosatum. — ^ToUe partes 3 de 
dicta matheria et partes 5 calcis letitie t. e. solis et partes 

2 cinenis pencholimj i, e. es ustum et pulverizatum et partes 

3 salis gemme et pulveriza omnia simul et fac ut supra fecisti. 

279. Ad fatiendum musaicum granatum. — Habeas 3 partes 
dicte materie et partem j. calcis solis i. e. ami et partem me- 
diam de maneriaci et partem j. salis gemme et fiet ut supra. 

280. Ad fatiendum musaicum azurrum. — ToUe partes 3 dicte 
materie et partes 2 cum dimidia azurri ultramarini et partes 
3 salis gemme et fiet. 

281. Ad fatiendum musaicum viridem. — Capias partes 3. 

before the glass melted. I requested the opinion of an eminent chemist on 
the probable eflfectB of these three recipes, and he told me, that there was 
nothing in them which could have produced the red colour but the 



material, and 2 parts and 2 oz. more of calx of iron, and Sparts 
of sal gem, and it is done. 

282. To make a crysolite^ t. e., glass of the colour ofgold^ viz. 
— ^Take 5 parts of the said material, 10 parts of calcined lead, 
10 parts of sal^gem ; put the whole together into the fiimace for 
5 hours, and it is done. 



materie dicte et partes duas cum duabus oz. ma^ calcis martis 
et partes 3 salis gemme et fiet 

282. Ad fatiendum crisolitum^ t. «., vitrum colloratum colhre 
auri viz. — ToUe de dicta materia partes 5 satumi ard partes x. 
salis gemme partes x et pone omnia insimul in fdmo per 5. 
horas et fiet. 

( 536 ) 



283. To make fine white with marzachotto.^—Take 4 lbs. of 
calcined tin, 2 lbs. of marzachotto, 2 lbs. of stone,' and 3 oz. oi 
litharge. This is a tried recipe for painting vases. 

284. To make a baked vase white without painting it^ ifH^ 
wish the vase to be white and clean, — ^Take 100 lbs. of litharge 
ground fine with water and with 20 lbs. of powdered tin» ^ 
grind the whole together, and then lay it on the jar liquid with 
water, and it will make it white. 

285. To make a white with fflass.—Take 5 lbs. of tin, 3 lbs- 
of " pietra fucara de la viersa," 2 lbs. of good glass ; and if J^^ 
wish to improve it, so as to have it still finer, take 1 lb. 1^ 
of the said stone. 

286. To make a white on which to lay azure. — Take 81be. of 
marzachotto, 5 lbs. of stone, and 4 lbs. of tin. 

287. To make white for azure.— Take 5 lbs. of white glass, 

3 lbs. of stone, and 4 lbs. of tin. 

288. To make white for azure. — Take 2 lbs. of marzachotto, 
1 lb. of stone, and 1 i lb. of tin. 

289. To make white.— Tske 6 lbs. of tin, 3 lbs. of stone, and 

4 lbs. of marzachotto. 

1 The composition of this substance, which served as a base for the white 
covering of pottery, is not described. It probably resembled Mastichot or 
Massicot, which Kunckel (Art de la Yerrerie de Neri, Merret, et Kunc- 
kel, 2* partie, Livre 2, § premiere, traduit de I'AUemand par M. D. . • 
[Baron d'HolbackJ, Paris, 1759, p. 407) says was used for this purpose by 
the Dutch. It consisted of 100 parts of sand carefully washed and calcined, 
with 40 parts of soda and 30 parts of potash. For the second pre|)aratioo 

( 537 ) 



283. Affare triarico fino de marzachatto. — Accipe lb. iiij de 
stagno cocto t . e. stagno calcmato et lb. ij de marzachotto et 
lb. ij de petra et oz. iij de terra gietta et deprovata per dipen- 
giare vase. 

284. j^are liancho el vaso cocto senza dipentura se tu vox cite 
lo dicto vaso lia biancko et neeto, — Habeas lb cento de terra 
gietta macinata subtilmente cum aqua et cum lb vinti de Jove 
8pol?eri2ato et macina tucto insiemj poimectecum aqualiquido 
et fara biancho. 

285. Affare biancho de vetrio. — Tolli lb 5 de stagno et lb 3 
de petra fucara de la viersa et lb ij de bono vetrio et se lo voi 
oorre^are che sia piu bello tolli ima lb meno de la dicta petra. 

286. Affare bianco per mectare azurro. — Ahwe lb 8 de mar- 
zachotto et lb 5 de petra et lb 4 de stagno. 

287. Affare bianco per azurro, — Piglia lb 5 de vetrio biancho 
et 3 lib. de petra et 4 lb. de stagno. 

288. Affare bianco per azurro, — ^Tolli lb 2 de marzachotto 
vaaa, lb de petra una lb et mezo de stagno. 

289. Affare biancho, — Havvi lb 6. de stagno lb 3. de petra 
lb. 4 de marzachotto. 

of thiB massicot, 100 parts of massicot were mixed with 10 parts of salt, 
and the mixture was calcined several times. The Venetian MS. in the 
Sloane Collection, No. 416, mentions *^Mazachoto provenzale " as an in- 
gredient in the preparation for working " with azure upon vessels ' of 

' See No. 286, where it is called ^'pietra fucara (focaja), (i. e., stone 
«hicb reddens in the fire, silica flint), de la Viersa." 


290. To make white for a thin andjlat coat of azure. — ^Pnt in 
the mortar 4 lbs. of marzachotto, 2 Ibe. of stone, and 3 lbs. of tin. 

291. To make white for paintinff certain colours demsed jud 
as you think proper. — ^Take 6 lbs. of marzachotto, 9 lbs. of tin, 
and 3 lbs, of stone. 

292. To make a white for laying a flat tint of azure. — Take 
6 lbs. of calcined tin, 3 lbs. of stone, and 4 lbs. of marzachotta 

293. To make white.— Tdke 6 lbs. of marzachotto, 8 lbs. of 
stone, 9 lbs. of tin, and it is done. 

294. To make white for azure. — ^Take 12 lbs. of marzadwtto, 
and 12 lbs. of stone, and 13 lbs. of tin, and it is done. 

295. To make white for azure in relief. — Take 20 lbs. of tin, 
10 lbs. of marzachotto, and 12 lbs. of stone. 

296. To make white for azure in relief. — ^Take 5 lbs. of fine 
marzachotto, 6 lbs. of tin with lead, and 4 lbs. of stone. 

297. To refne whites that are hard in the fire. — Take 10 lbs. 
of calcined tartar and 1 oz. of manganese. 

298. To make the vase yellow. — Take litharge only, and it 
will be yellow, and take care that the earth contains no copper, 
for it would make it greenish. 

299. To make yellow for glazing on the inside. — TUce 6 lbs. 
of litharge, 2 lbs. of stone of La Viersa, and 2 lbs. of tufo firom 

300. To make the vetse green. — Take strips of copper, and 
grind them fine, and you will make a fine green. 

301. To make a green for glazing. — Take 12 lbs. of litharge, 
6 lbs. of stone, and 4 oz. of copper-parings. 

302. To make a deeper green. — ^Take 4 lbs. of tin, 2 lbs. of 
marzachotto, 2 lbs. of stone, and 4 oz. of copper-parings. 

303. To lay on azure with the paintbrush. — Take 1 lb. of 
marzachotto, 1 oz. of zaffirro, 3 oz. of stone, and, if it does not 
melt, add to it one quarter [of an ounce] of Venetian tin. 

304. For the same purpose, to make azure to lay on with the 
paintbrush.' — ^Take 10 lbs. of marzachotto, 2 lbs. of stone, 1 lb. 
of azure, 1 oz. of smalto ; and, if it does not melt, add an 
ounce more of smalto. 


290. Affare bianco per azurro mbtili spianato. — ^Recipe nella 
pila lb 4 de marzachotto lb 2 de petra lb 3 de stagno. 

291. Affare hiancho per dipengiare certe collore divisati com- 
mo te pare. — Ahwe lb 6 de marzachotto lb 9 de stagno, e lb 3 
de petra. 

292. Affare biancho per metare azurro spianaio. — ^Tollilbsei 
de stagno caldnato, lb 3 de petra et lb 4 de marzachotto. 

293. Affare biancho. — Piglia lb 6 de marzachotto lb 8 de 
petra et lb novo de stagno fomito. 

294. Affare biancho per azurro. — Tolli lb xij de marzachotto 
et lb xij de petra et lb xiij de stagno facto. 

295. Affare biancho per azurro relevato. — Ahwe lb xx de 
stagno lb x de marzachotto et lb xij de petra. 

296. Affare biancho per azurro relevato. — Havve lb 5 de mar- 
zachotto fino lb 6 de stagno cum piombo et lb 4 de petra. 

297. Adaffbiare i bianchi duri afoco. — Recipe lb x de taao 
cocto et oz. j de manghanese. 

298. Affare ffiaUo el vaso. — ^Tolli solo la terra gietta liquida 
et sera zallo et guarda che la terra non tenga de rame che lo 
&rebbe verdegiare. 

299. Affare giallo da vitriare denfro. — Ahwe lb. 6 de terra 
gietta et doi lb. de petra de la viersa et doi lb. de tufo de 
qnello de civitella. 

300. Affare verde el vaso. — Piglia loppe de le rame et maci- 
nale subtili et farai verde bello. 

301. Affare verde per invetriare, — Tolli lb. xij de terra gietta 
et lb. 6 de petra et lb. j. et j. oz. de ramina. 

302. Affare verde de vantaggio. — ^Tolli lb. 4 de stagno lb. 2 
de marzachotto lb. 2 de petra e oz. 4 de ramina. 

303. A mectere CLzurro apenello. — ^Ahwe lb. j. de marzachotto 
oz. j de zaffirro oz. 3 de petra et se non fundesse vi mete uno 
quarto de sfagno venitiano. 

304. Ad idem affare azurro per mectare a penello. — Hawe 
lb. X de marzachotto lb. doi de petra lb. j de azurro oz. j de 
smalto et se non fundesse mectivi oz. j piu de smalto. 


305. Azure to u$e with the painibnuh. — Take 4 oz. of mar- 
zachottOy 1 oz. of stone, and 3 quarters [of an ounce] of azure. 

306. Azure to use with the paintbrush. — ^Take 12 oz. of mar- 
zachotto, 4 lbs. of stone, 1 lb. of azure, and 1 oz. of zmalto, 
and it is finished. 

307. To make azure in relief after the Florentine fashion. — 
Take 12 lbs. of marzachotto, 4 lbs. of stone, 1 oz. of enamel, 
and 1 lb. of azure. 

308. To make azure. — Put into the mortar for the white 

5 lbs. of calcined tin, 4 lbs. of marzachotto, 3 lbs. of stone. 

309. To lay it on with the paintbrush.— Take 1 lb. of mar- 
zachotto, 1 oz. of azure, 2 or 3 oz. of stone, half an ounce of sal 

310. To make cLzure in relief to lay on with the paxntbrush.— 
Take 7 lbs. of marzachotto, 18 oz. of stone, 6 oz. of azure, 3 oz. 
of blue smalto. 

311. To make violet azure. — ^Take 14 lbs. of marzachotto, 
2 lbs. of stone, 1 lb. of azure, 1 oz. of manganese ; and, if it is 
not sufficiently purple, add half an ounce more of manganese. 

312. To make a good light blue colour. — Take 18 oz. of ter- 
raghetta, 12 oz. of stone, 1 oz. of fine azure. 

313. To make a fine coat of azure. — Take 18 oz. of tin, 

6 oz. of azure, and 6 oz. of marzachotto. 

314. To calcine tin and lead.— Take 100 lbs. of lead and 
25 lbs. of tin, and put them into a reverberatory fiimace. 

315. An earth for mending broken vcues, — Take 2 lbs. of dry 
[potter's] earth kneaded, and 3 lbs. of ground stone — a tried 

316. To make a colour for painting vases^ such as Damascus 
vases or Majollica. — Take 2 oz. of pietra focara, 1 oz. of lead, 
2 oz. of '^ crocus Martis," that is, yellow [hydrate] of iron, and it 
requires a moderate fire, and 3 oz. of marzachotto well purified. 

31 7. To make azure to use with a paintbrush, — Take 12 lbs. 
of marzachotto, 1 lb. of azure, 2 lbs. of stone, and one quarter 
[of an ounce] of scarlet enamel. 


305. Azurro per operare a penello. — Tolli 6z. 4 de marza- 
chotto, 02. j. de petra et 3 quart! de azurro. 

306. Azurro da peneBo.-'^CBfiisB lb xij de marzachotto lb 4 
de petra lb j. dazurro et una oz. de smalto fomito. 

307. Affare azurro relevato a modo Fiorentino. — PigUa lb 
xij de marzachotto lb. 4 de petra oz. j de smalto et una lb de 

308. Affare azurro. — ^Mecti nella pila per lo bianco lb 5 
de stagno acharso lb. 4 de marzachotto lb 3 de petra. 

309. Per mectare a pwello. — Ayve lb j de marzachotto oz 
j. dazurro doi o 3 oncia de petra meza onda de salgemmo. 

310. Affare azurro relevato per mectare a peneUo. — ^Tolli lb 
7. de marzachotto oz. 18 de petra oz. 6*de azurro oz. 3 de 
smalto azurrino. 

311. Affare azurro violato. — Awe lb 14 de marzachotto lb 
2 de petra lb j de de azurro oz. j de Manghanese et ee non 
fiisse tanto violato metivi meza oncia piu de manghanese. 

312. Affare colore de azurrino bono. — Havve 18 once de 
^etta once xij de petra oncia j d azurro fino. 

313. Affare azurro eubiili spianato. — ^Tolli once 18 de stagno 
oz. 6 de azurro et 6 once de marzachotto. 

314. A eociare i. e. calcinare stagno et piambo. — Piglia lb C 
de piombo et lb 25 de stagno et metilo in fomello de reverbe- 

315. Terra per araconciare vasi ro<^. — Tolli lb 2 de terra 
secdia lavorata et lb 3 de petra macinata prorata. 

316. Affare coUore per dipengiare vase commo vase damasco e 
de mayoUica. — Ahvye once 2 de petra focara once j. de piombo 
ooce 2 de crocho de marte i. e. crocho de ferro et vole foco 
temperato et once 3. de marzachotto bene purgato. 

317. J^are azurro da penello.— Tolii lb xij de marzachotto 
lb j de azurro lb doi de petra et uno quarto de smalto ver- 


318. To make ajine yellow far miniatures and other thingt.— 
Put two "Anconitani" of fine silver into a crucible to melt, 
and heat them in a blast furnace, and, when they are melted, 
add some well pounded yellow sulphur, and mix all well toge- 
ther. When the sulphur is consumed, add more to it, and 
continue this until the silver is quite dissolved ; then take it out 
of the crucible, and throw it into an iron trough. When cold, 
pound it, and grind it upon porphyry ; and if it does not grind 
well, that is, if it is not sufficiently burnt, return it again to the 
fire in the same manner, and continue this until you can grind 
it very fine. When the matter has been well ground with 
clear water, take French ochre, pound it and put it on an 
iron shovel, and let there be 3 oz. of it, and 6 denarj of 
common salt calcined ; mix, and heat the ochre upon the iron 
with the salt until it becomes red, and then grind it with the 
silver upon a brass plate, or upon a smooth brass basin with 
clear water as fine as possible, and let it dry. When you wish 
to use it, distemper it with gum water, and use it wherever 
you like, and you will have a fine yellow for painting and 
making flowers on black, white, azure, and green, and wherever 
else you like. 

B 319. To make a water to dissolve pearls. — ^Take 2 lbs. of 
sal-ammoniac, distil it through an alembic, and reduce it to 
water, and keep it in a well-closed bottle. Put the pearls into 
this water, and they will be converted into water, &c Hiis is 
a water that dissolves pearls, &c. 

B 320. To make pearls just like natural pearls. — ^Take pearls 
and pound them fine, and then put them into the before-men- 
tioned water ; then place the vessel containing the water with 
the pearls dissolved in it on the hot ashes to dry ; and when the 
water is nearly evaporated, and the pearls remain at the bottom 
of the vase, take it out, and add to it white of egg well beaten 
as if for vermilion, and knead up the pearls with white of egg 
like smooth paste. Then take moulds and make the paste into 
pearls, and let them dry ; pierce them, and let them boil in lin- 
seed oil. Then take them out and rub them in bran, and 


318. A fare zallo bello per minii o aUro. — Recipe doi anconi- 
tam de fino ariento et mectili in uno cnigiolo et mettili a fon- 
dare et & Aioco a vento poi commo sonno fusi metice solfaro 
giallo ben pisto et mista bene insiemj et quando e bniseiato el 
dicto 6ol&ro aragiongivinj piu et cusi fa tanto che el dicto 
ariento sia bene corupto poi cava la matheiia del crugiolo et 
^etala in canale de feiro et quando e fredda et tn la pista poi 
la macina in su lo porfido se non se macinasse bene cioe che 
Don fiisse tanto bniseiato. Iterum lo ritoma al foco in lo 
dicto modo et tanto fa cosi che tu la possi madnare subtilis- 
simamente poi che e bene macinato la dicta materia cum laqua 
chiara toUj ocria francese et pistala et polla in su una palecta 
de ferro e fa che sia tanta che ariyj a tre once et sei denaj o 
Tero denaratj o deratj de sale comuno arso et mista insiemj et 
scalda la dicta terra in suso lo ferro cum lo sale arso per infino 
a tanto che tome rossa poi la macina cum lo dicto ariento in 
una piastra de octone o voi in uno bacili piano de octone cum 
laqna chiara quanto piu subtili poi lassa siucare et quando la 
Toj adoperare distemperalo cum aqua gomata et adoperala dovj 
te place et haveraj bello giallo per dipengiare et fiorire in nero 
bianco azurro et in verde et doi voi altroye. 

B 319. A fare aqua da disolvere perk. — Recipe sale armo- 
niaoo lb doj et distillalo per lambiccum et reduc in aquam et 
earn serra in ampullam turatam et pone in dicta aqua perlas 
et convertuntur in aquam etc hec est aqua disolvens marga- 

B 320. Afareperle naturaJe quasi. — Recipe perle et pistali 
subtilmente poi le pone in la supradicta aqua a disolverle et 
pone a zelare la dicta aqua cum le perle solute in le cenere 
calde et quando laqua e quasi andata via et le perle remangano 
oel fondo del vaso et tu le cava fora et ponli in albumj dovo 
ben dibatuta commo per cinabrio et intridi le dicte perle cum 
la dicta chiara al modo de pasta bene incorporata et habi le 
forme et fanne perle et lassale scuhare [sciugare?] et fidli 
forare et poi le pone a bollire in olio de seme de lino et poi 
le toglie et caciale in lo gozo ad uno piaonj per 5 hore et 


afterwardB in a linen cloth. And if^ instead of pearls, you put 
mother-of*pearly it is good, and will make good pearls, &c 

Also, the mould for making the pearls must be of fine 
silver, and ^t, like that for a ^* Ciara botana," ^ but small 
And many persons have them perforated in order that they 
may pass a horse-hair tinrough the hole, and that they may be 
easier to pierce, &c. 

B 321. To make a stucco for mahinff imitaiian corals. — ^Take 
the white horn of a cow, break it, and soak it in a^roDg 
ley for the space of a fortnight ; then make it boil over the fire 
nntil it becomes soft like glue, and so that you can stram it 
through a cloth or a strainer ; and when it is drained, take 
vermilion in the fimest powder, and mix it up with the strained 
liquid, so as to be like dough, and ni^ke paternosters of it in 
moulds like pearls as before ; then boil them in linseed-oil, and 
let them dry. And if you scrape the horn with a glass, and 
then soak it in the manner above mentioned, it will soften so 
that you may strain it more easily, and do with it as before, 
and you will have fine and beautiftil imitation corals. 

B. 322. To make a gold cohurfor painiing earthen vessels pre- 
viously glazed. — Take pure silver caldned and burnt with 
alum, and arsenic and sulphur, three parts of lime, and one 
part of e^shells ; mix the whole together with white of egg 
and with juice of celandine and distemper it with gum arabic, 
and with this paint the vases before they are baked. 

1 The word is frequently used by Benvenuto Cellini, who writes it 
<< ciorbatana." Florio (Diet., Ital. and Eng., London, 1698) defines it to 


renchiude lo pianoj in loco che lo possce havere et poi cavali 
et stropiciali in lo remolo et poi in lo panno de lino. £t in loco 
de perle anco se ce pone la matre perle e bona et faraj perle 
belle etc 

Item le forme da fare dicte perle TOglino esser dargento fino 
et dorato ad modo de quello de ciarabotana ma piccolini et 
anco ce sono multi che le fanno forate acio possino poi mectare 
una seta de porco per mezo el bucio a cio siano piu fadli a 
forare etc 

6321. A fare stucho per fare coralli cordrafatti, — Recipe 
oomo bianco de bo et rompilo et mectj lo a moUo in ranno 
forte per spatio de xv dj poi lo fa bollire al foco tanto che tomj 
moUe ad modo de colla et per modo che se colara cum panno 
de Uno o stamegna et coUato che sera tolli cinabrio subtilissimo 
et bene macinato de vantagio et incorpora cum detta colatura 
ad modo de pasta et fannj patrenostrj cmn le forme commo le 
perie de sopra et poi li fa bollire in olio de semj de lino et 
lassale seccare. Et se tu radesti el como sopra dicto cum uno 
?etiio et poi lo mectesti a moUo in lo modo sopradicto et moli- 
ficarasse in modo che lo colarai piu &cilmente et fa commo de 
sopra et haverai coralli contrafacti et belli etc. 

B 322. AfarecoUoredoroperpegnarevase de terra primo 
vitriate. — Recipe argento pure caldnato et abrusciato cum 
alome de araenico solphoro parte tre de calcina gusce de ova 
parte ima tucta cum chiara dova mestica cum sugo de celi- 
dooia e distempera cum gomarabico et pigne luase inuante che 
se cocano. 

be '< a tninke to ahoot pelleti with one's mouth. Alao a kind of mortar- 
cbamber or short bombard." ^ 

( 546 ) 




323. To dye kidskim with verzino. — Take kidskins and wash 
them and press them well with the hand as much as necessary, 
and then take 9 oz. of verzino well pounded, and add to it 
24 bocali full of plain water, and 1 bottle of water of quick- 
lime, which lime must be slaked with a little, that is to say, 
half a glass, of ley made from the ashes of the vine, and when 
you see the lime begin to smoke, add to it three bocali of 
lime water, and pour it into the verzino and let it boil until it 
is reduced one-third ; then strain it and spread the skins one 
upon another. Then take 4 oz. of roche alum, with 4 bo- 
cali of water, and dissolve the alum in the water over the 
fire, and when the water is tepid, apply it lightly on both sides 
of the skins with a paintbrush gently, giving them one coat 
only ; then set them to dry in the shade, until they are half 
dry. Next take the said verzino and make it boil for a quarter 
of an hour, and then remove it from the fire, and take 1 oz. of 
fenugreek, and 1 oz. of linseed, well pounded together, and 
put them into the water with the verzino, let the mixture cool 
so as to become tepid, then give two or three coats on eadi of 
the skins, and each time let them dry until they are soft to the 
hand, but not quite dry, and stretch them on the pummel. 
And if you wish to have them of a fuller colour, the more 
coats of dye you give them the darker they will be. Put 
them to dry in the wind or in the air in a place where they 
will not be exposed to the sun, and fold and pull them to 

( 547 ) 



323. A tegnere caprete in verzi/io. — Reccipe li caprete et 
lavali et premili bene cum le mano tanto che sia bastevile poi 
toUi once nove de verzino bene pisto et metilo in vintiquattro 
boeali daqna comuna et j. bocali daqua de calcina viva la quale 
caldna se vole spengiare cum uno poco de liscia de cenere de 
vite cioe mezo bichiere de quella liscia et quando lo vede che 
comenza affumare et tu ce mectj tre bocali daqua de calcina et 
mecti nel dicto verzino et lassa bulire tanto che manche el 
terzo poi lo cola et toUi li caprete et stendilj tuctj uno sopra 
alaltro poi toHi once quattro de alumj de rocho cum quatro 
bocali daqua et metti lo alumj a disfare in dicta aqua al foco 
et commo laqua e divinuto tanto che sia tepida et tu ne da de 
questa aqua ale pelle cum uno penello da tucti doi li late de 
le pelle una volta ligiermente poi le pone asciugare alombra 
tanto che se sciugano per mita poi tolli el dicto verzino et fallo 
buUire per uno quarto de hora poi lo leva dal foco et tolli once 
j. de fingreco et once j. de semj de lino pisto bene insiemj et 
metilo in nel aqua del verzino ct lassa refredare che vegna 
tepda pioi ne da ale pelle doi o tre volte per pelle et omne 
volta le lassa sciugare che siano pastose ala mano et non siano 
seccbe in tucto poi le mecte ala storta o ala stroppa. Et se 
piu le voi pine de collore quanto piu li darai la tinta tanto 
viranno piu cupi et mectili asciugare al vento o alaiere dove 
non habiano sole et mectile alia stroppa et falle morbide. Et 
ancho chi volesse piu pino collore tolli uno torlo dovo et 



make them soft. And if you wish the skins to be of a still 
deeper colour, add for the maestra the yolk of an egg to this 
solution of verzino and stir them together and the colour will 
be very fine. 

324. To dye ktdskins in scarlet. — ^Take kidskins soaked with 
alum, and wash them well until the alum is washed out of 
them, and for every dozen of skins take 8 oz. of verzino pounded 
or rasped with a rasp, and put it over the fire with as much 
water as you may think sufficient for the skins, but the usual 
quantity is 3 bocali of water for every ounce of verzino, and 
let it boil until the verzino becomes nearly black. Then re- 
move it firom the fire, and let it settle for a night, and in the 
morning there will appear a certain scum on the top of it, 
which you must remove gently, because it would soil the skins. 
Pour one half of this dye into a basin, and put the skins 
into the other half to soak one by one, and manipulate them 
well, that is, stir them about and squeeze them and then 
put them on a string to dry without wind or sun, and when 
they are nearly dry, put them back into this dye or water one 
by one, take them out gently, and do not squeeze them. Then 
put them to dry as before, and when they are nearly dry, work 
them about well in your hands, and for the maestra take two 
ounces of tartar, and put it into a glazed jar, and make it boil 
until reduced one half, or more, and this is the maestra. Then 
take that first quantity of dye which you set apart, and add to 
it a little of the maestra and mix them well together, and tiy 
it upon your hand ; if you see that it has not enou^ colour 
add a little more to it, and take care not to add too much, be- 
cause it would make the dye too dark. And when the dye is 
tepid, apply it with a sponge on both sides of the skins and 
put them dripping as they are, upon a string to dry without 
wind or sun, because that would make them too hard, and 
when they are nearly dry, stretch them well with the hand or 
with a wooden hammer until they are quite soft, and this is the 
best and most masterly practice for dyeing. 


mectflo in questa aqua de verzino et stempera insiemj et mectilo 
per maestra in nella tinia et viranno beletissime. 

324. A tegnare caprede in vermiglio. — ^Tolli pelle de caprette 
alumate et lavale bene tanto che nescha lo alumj et per omne 
dofiina de pelle toUi 8 once de verzino pisto o raspato cum 
raspa et polio al foco cum quella aqua che te pare che sia 
bastevile per le pelle ma il consueto e questo che per omne 
oncia de verzmo vole tre bocali daqua et lassalo tanto bolire 
che el verzino diventi quasi negro ahlora levalo dal fuoco et 
lascialo posare per una nocte et la matina aparera uno certo 
panno et quello levalo via legiermente per che £ma machiarc 
le pelle poi toUj una catinella et metivj una parte de questa 
tinta et metila da parte poi tolli laltra mita et metivi dentro a 
bagnare le pelle a una a una poi le conda bene cum mano cio 
e remenale et spremile bene cum le mano poi le cava fora et 
mectile in una corda asciutare alombria senza vento e sole et 
quando seranno apresso che sciute et tu le rimecte in questa 
medesima aqua o intinta a una a una commo prima et cavale 
l^ermente et non le torcere et polle a sciugare al modo 
disopra et quando sonno a presso che sciute et tu le rimena per 
mano molto bene et per sua maestra tolli doi once de alumj de 
feecia et metila in una pignata vitriata et fallo tanto bulire che 
calli per mita o piu poi tolli de questa aqua per sua maestra et 
poi tolli quella prima in tenta che reserbasti et mistace uno 
pooo de quella aqua de maestra et miscola bene insiemj et 
£Bumi el saggio in su le mano se tu vede che non agia asa 
ooUore et tu ve ne gionge im poco piu et guarda non ve ne 
mectassce troppo perche te daria la tinta troppo cupa et quando 
la tmta sera tepida vienj bagnando le pelle cum una spogna da 
tucti doi li cante poi le pone cosi sgociolante in su una corda a 
sdugare senza vento e senza sole perche le faria incrudire 
troppo et quando sonno a presso che sciutte et tu le stendi 
bene cum le mano et cum la stroppa tanto che siano bene 

a 2 


325. To dye sheepskins scarlet^ on the side of the Jlesh^ for 
shoes. — Take the skins, and wash and wring them, and work 
them well with three or four waters, and then beat them well 
with a wooden hammer in order to press out the water, and 
then take a dyer's horse and spread the skins upon it and scrape 
them with a knife so as not to cut them, and squeeze them 
well, and then stretch them out upon a cord, and let them dry 
a little, and then beat them with the hammer until quite dry, in 
order that the dye may not penetrate through the skin. And 
for every dozen of sheepskins take 9 oz. of rerzino well ground, 
and put it on the fire with two metadelle of water for each 
ounce of verzino, and boil until the water is reduced one half. 
Then pour it into a glazed earthen vessel, and covw it up so 
as to confine the vapour, and put back the lees that remain 
behind, with ten metadelle of water, and make it boil until 
reduced to less than one half, and then begin to dye the skins 
with this last water, of which you must ^ve them two coats, 
and mix up the lees, and after each time let the skins dry, and 
the third time give them the stroppa and open them well, and 
when they are well opened, give them a third C4Mi.t of the first 
colour, and then give them a second coat of this colour, and 
when nearly dry, rub them lightly with your hand ; and then, 
for the fourth time, put for each dozen of skins one metadella, 
and one-third of ley into the dye, for its maestra. Some per- 
sons, in order to make the colour deeper and more brilliant, 
add two yolks of eggs. When they are dry, dye them with 
the dye into which you put the maestra, and, when again diy, 
rub them gently, and they will be done. 

326. To dye sheep-skins scarlet on the side of the hair, to make 
shoes. — Take the skins well washed and cleansed from lime, and 
4 oz. of galls well pounded, and boil them [in water ?] until re- 
duced one-third, and let them become tepid. Put the skins 
into this water and gall, and wring them well, and then let them 
remain in the water for a night ; then take them out and let 


morbide et questa e la migliore pratica et maestra che se £acia 
per tegnare. 

325. A tegnare montcne in vermiglio da h lata de la came 
per fare ecarpe. — ^Avve le pelle et lavale et Btorcile et rimenale 
multo bene a tre o a quattro aque poi torcele multo bene ala 
stro]^ acio neisca quella aqua bene poi habbi iino cavalecto et 
distendile multo bene cum una costa non che taglie et apremile 
bene poi le 8tende in una corda et lassale sdugare uno poco 
poi li da la stroppa o la steccha tante volte che sia bene sciucta 
acio la tenta non passa la pelle. £t per omne dozina de pelle 
de montone toUi novo once de virzino bene trito et mectilo al 
ibco cum doi metadelle daqua per oncia de verzino et fallo 
tanto bolire che advenga per mita poi lo pone in uno vaso de 
terra yitriato et coprilo bene che non sfiate poi lo cola et 
rimecte la feccia che rimane al foco cum dece metadelle daqua 
et fa bullire tanto che mancha piu che la mitta poi comenza a 
tringiare queste pelle cum questa ultima aqua de fecie et 
dalinj due mano di questa ultima aqua et rimista le fecie et da 
una volta et laltra lassale sciutare et la terza volta tu li da la 
stroppa et aprele bene poi che sonno ben aperte et tu li da el 
primo coUore questa terza volta et daglini doi mane et quando 
8ono apresso che sciutte stropale ligiermente cum mano poi la 
quarta volta tu vi ni mecte per dozina una metadella et uno 
terzarulo de ranno in lo coUore per sua maestra et alcuno ce 
mettj per fare piu lustrenti et piu pino el collore doi torlj dova 
et quando sono scucte et tu le tengne cum questa tanta che hai 
dato li dentro la maestra et quando sonno sciute et tu le 
stroppa ligiermente et sonno facte. 

326. A tegnare montonj in vermilglio dal canto del pelo per 
fare scarpe. — Abbi le pelle bene lavate et divolte dala calcina 
poi toUj once quattro de galla bene pista et falla tanto boUire 
che aventre per terzo poi la lassa devenire tepida et in questa 
aqua gallata mectj le pelle et storci le bene poi ce le lassa stare 
per una nocte et poi le tira fora et poUe asciutare et quando sonno 


them dry, and when tbey are nearly dry, giye them the stroppa, 
and then take i oz. of roche alum to each skin, and make 
it boil in a vessel with a small quantity of water, and soak the 
skins in this alum water, and squeeze and wring them so that aD 
the water may run well out. Then take a piece of lime which 
has not been slaked, put it into a basin, and add to it enough 
water to cover it by one finger's breadth, and stir it well, so that 
it may be perfectly dissolved ; then let it settle, and when it has 
settled for one night take off the sciun or crust which the lime 
forms on the top of the water, and then take two bocali of 
fresh water, and pour them into a pan, and when the water 
boils put into it 2 oz. of verzino well pounded, and boil it until 
it is reduced one-half, add to it a little pounded gum araUc, 
and remove it from the fire, and when it is tepid take away the 
skins, and sew them up all round so that the side of the flesh 
may be outside, and leave the neck open, and pour in the dye 
through the neck, and stir and shake it well 4 or 5 times in the 
dye, so that the dye may cover the whole of the skin. And if 
you wish to have a fuller colour, add to it for its maestra as in 
the last recipe a yolk of egg, well beaten up, adding it a little 
at a time to the dye until the colour appears full enough. Then 
pour it into the skin, and shake it all over it, so as to touch 
every part When the skins are dry, polish them on a smooth 
bench with glass, and they are done. 

327. To dye doff-cottars and couples a good and fine scarlet. — 
Take the skins, wash them well with fresh water, and let them 
dry ; then take 3 oz. of roche alum to each skin, bml the alum 
[in water], and when it is dissolved and tepid give each skin 
two or three coats of it. Then take for each skin 3 or 4 lbs. of 
galls well pounded, boil them a little, and let them cool so that 
you can bear your hand in the liquor, and then put this water 
and galls into a bucket, and shake the skin well about in this 
water, and let it remain in it a day and a night that it may be- 
come soft. Then put it to dry, and while it is drying, work it 
about in your hands that it may become soft. When it is well 
dried, take 3 oz. of verzino well pounded for each skin, and to 


apresso cbe sciute et tu le stroppa et stecchale poi toll j una onda 

dalumj de rocho per pelle et fallo bulire in uno padelecto cum 

una bocalecta daqua poi mectj le pelle a moUo in questa aqua 

alumata et spremile et Btorcile bene siche nesca via quella aqua 

multo bene. Et poi tollj de la calcina in petra che non sia 

disciolta et media in una catinella et metive tanta aqua che 

sopra avance uno deto et mista bene che se disolva tucta de 

▼antagio poi lassala riposare et commo e bene riposata per una 

nocte et tu li leva via uno certo solo o panno che la calcina per- 

duradisopra alaqua poi tollj doibocalj daqua frescha et mectila 

in uno padelecto et quando bollj et tu ve pone dentro doi onci 

de verzino ben jnsto et iallo bollire tanto che manche la mita de 

et mectiyj uno poco de gommarabico pisto et levalo dal foco et 

commo e tepido et tu tollj le pelle et coecile de intomo intomo 

per mode che lo lato de la came vegna di fora et lassa el collo 

scoBcito et per quello collo scuscito vi mettj la intenta et mane- 

giala et rimenala multo bene de vantagio in qua et in la cum 

la intenta 4 0^6 volte tanto che la intenta agiungha per tutto 

la pelle. £t se tu volesci lo coUore piu pino metivj per sua 

maestra laderietavolta uno torlo dovo bene sbatutoetmetilo in 

la dicta intinta a poco a poco tanto che te ptua che sia pino poi 

k) mecte in la pelle et dallj bene de intomo dela et di qua re- 

menando la dicta pelle poi che sonno tente et tu le liscia in uno 

banco polito cum lo vetrio et sonno facte. 

327. A tengere pelle de sovatto in vermiglio bane et belle. — 
Havvj le schinj et lavale bene cum laqua chiara et lassale suc- 
care poi tollj once tre de alumj de rocho per cescuna schina et 
fiiQo bollire et quando e tepido che sia bene disfacta dannj doi o 
tre mane per schina poi toUe per omne schina lb j. de galla 
bene pista et mectila a bollire uno poco et lassala refiredare tanto 
die tu ce posse patere lamano poi mectj questa aqua gallata in 
una bigoncia et menerai la schina multo bene per quella aqua 
et lassala stare cusci undi et una nocte che se molla bene poi 
la pone a sciucare et infinentre che se sciucca et tu le palmegia 
ado diventano morbide et quando e bene sduta tolli once tre 
de verzino per cescuna schina bene pisto et per omne oncia de 



each ounce of verzino put two bocali of water, and then add 
two glasses .of solution of tartar, and put it into the Y&nsDo 
when it is boiled, and then add i oz. of gum arabic, and put this 
dye into a glass vessel, as clean as possible. Tlien take the 
grounds of the verzino, and add to it 3 glasses of water, and 
make it boil until reduced one-half, and with this water, boiled 
on the grounds, begin to dye the skin with a paintbrush or a 
sponge, and let the dye be tepid, and so put it on as often as 
necessary, but do not put too much tartar (which is its maes- 
tra), that it may not be too highly coloured ; and when yon 
dye it, let it dry each time, and when it is dry ntb it with your 
hands, and then with the stick on the side of the flesh to make 
it soft, and it is done. 

828. To dye scarlet. — Take ^ lb. of sandal wood and ^Ibw of 
madder, boil them together with plain water until reduced to 
one-half, and then add half a fogliecto^ of ley for its maestra 
to make the colour deeper, and a piece of quicklime, and boil it 
until reduced to one-third ; then prepare the skins for dyeing as 
in the other recipes. 

329. To dye very fine scarlet, — Take 1 lb. of verzino co- 
lumbine well ground, and soak it in clear water for the space 
of two days, and then put it into a boiler containing 3 or 4 
bocali, to boil until reduced by one-third, add to it 2 oz. of 
quicklime and 3 oz. of roche alum ; and if the colour is pale 
add 2 oz. of fenugreek ; and if you wish to have it of a fuUer 
colour add a fogliecto of boiled ley and it will be of a fine 

830. To dye skins of a very beautiful and good purple colour, 
— First take the skin prepared like chamois leather, and dip 
it two or three times in clear water, and shake it and wrii^ 
it, and then take 2 oz. of roche alum, and put it into two 
bocali of plain water, and make it boil, and let it cooL 
Tlien take the skin, and dip it in the alum water, and wash and 
wring it well, and let it dry in the shade. Then take 2 oz. of 

1 A liquid measure used at Florence. 



verzino metivj doi bocalidaqua et poi ce mectj doi bicbiere de 
aqua de alumj de fecia et polla in lo verzino qiiando e oocto poi 
oe mectj meza oncia de gommarabico poi mecti questa tinta in 
UBO vafio de vetrio neto qnanto poi poi tolli quello fondaccio de 
verzino et mectice dentro 3 bicbiere daqua et fallo bollire tanto 
che maoche la mitade et cum questa aqua del fondaccio comenza 
a tegoare in su la schina cum uno penello o vero una spogna et 
fa che la tenta sia tepidaet cusi vi ni da tante volte che siaasai 
et n(m cemectare troppo alumj de fecia che e sua maestra acio 
non havesse troppo coUore et quando tu li daraj la tinta laasa 
scingare per omne volta et quando e facto et tu la mena cum 
mano et foi cum la stecca dal canto de la came che divente bor- 
bida (sic) e de £buHx>. 

328. A tegnare in vermifflio.—ToUi meza libra de sandoli et 
meza lb de robbia et fa bullire insiemj cum aqua comuna per 
in fino divengha piu che la mita poi ce mectj meza foglieta de 
raimo da capo per sua maestra et piu pino lo colore mectice una 
zupa de calcina viva et fa bullire tanto che arentre per tertio 
poi Dutrica le pelle per tegnare commo in le altre reoepte. 

329. A tegnare in verzino bellitissimo. — ^Abbi libre j de ver- 
zino columbine bene trito et metilo a molle in aqua chiara per 
spatio di doi di poi lo mecte in uno caldaro de 3 o 4 bocali a 
bullire tanto che calli per terzo poi ce mecti doi once de calcina 
viva et 3 once de alumj de rocho et se el collore fiisse chiaro mec* 
tice doi de fino greco et se lo volesti piu pino mectice una fbgli- 
ecto de ranno hollo et sera bono collore. 

330. A tegnare le pelk in colore de pcMmazzo bellitissimi et 
^e. — Prima tolli la pelle concia in camoscio et bagnala doi o 
3 volte in laqua diiara et remenala et storciala poi toUj doi once 
de alumj de rocho et mectilo in doj bocali daqua comuna et fallj 
levare el bolore poi la lassa fredare poi toUj la dicta pelle et 
bagnala in la dicta aqua alumata et lavala et storcila bene poi 
la pone asciucare alombra poi tollj doi once de verzino bene 


verzino, well pounded, and put it into a boiler with three 
bocali of water, and make it boil until it is reduced by one- 
third, and take the skin, very dry, and stretch it well, and then 
take the verzino, which must be tepid, and spread it o?er the 
skin with a paintbrush, or with a sponge, and let it dry in the 
shade, and out of the wind. When it is dry pve it two other 
coats of the verzino, letting it dry between each coat Then 
take a lump of quicklime, and put it into a piece of linen, and 
tie it closely and dip it into what remains of the verzino, and 
while you are thus wetting it, press out all that you can into 
the verzino, and then take the skin, and give it another coat, 
and it will become purple and beautiful. And if you wish to 
dye more than one skin, take for each skin 2 oz. of alum and 2 
oz. of verzino, and as much water as was mentioned above, and 
make it boil as before. 

331. To dye skins red, — ^Take the root of knot grass, other- 
wise called blood wort,^ which children put to their nose or 
tongue to make it bleed ; then take one metadella of strong 
white wine vinegar, and put into it some of this root very well 
pounded, and make it boil until reduced one half, and then put 
this dye into a pan, and when it is tepid dye the skins, and give 
them so many coats that they may have a good colour. And 
you may reduce this root to powder, because it is then good for 
dyeing all the year round. When the skins are dry rub them 
in your hands to make them soft. 

332. To dye kidskins green. — Take of the grains or berries 
of the plant or shrub called privet, by some called also " fioria,*' 
and by others ** oriola," which has a leaf like the laurel, and 
its leaf grows crosswise upon the bough, and at the end of the 
bough there grow several berries, black like pepper, which re- 
semble ivy berries, and which are ripe in the month of Sep- 
tember. Take 1 oz. of these berries for each skin, and then 
take several tender twigs of a fig tree, and cut them into little 
bits, and then distemper the said privet berries with two cup6 

1 FoligoDum Aviculare. 


pisto et metilo in uno caldaro cum 3 bocali daqua et fallo tanto 
boUire che arentre per terzo poi tollj la dita pelle bene sciuta 
et stendila bene poi tollj el verzino che sia tepido et dallo sopra 
ala dicta pelle cum uno penello o spogna et metila a sciugare 
aloaibra et senza vento poi che e sciuta dallj doi altre mane de lo 
dicto verzino et sempre da una mano alaltra lassa sciutare. E de 
poi tollj una zuppa de calcina yiva et metila in una peza de panno 
de lino et lega la bene poi tollj la dicta peza et bagnala in quello 
rerzino che te rimase et commo tu la bagni cusi la yieni spre- 
mendo in lo dicto verzino quello che cenuscira poi tolli la 
pelle et darai li una altra mano et lassa sciugare et sera pavo- 
,naza et bella. E se tu volesci tegnare piu che una pelle tolli 
per onme pelle doi once de aliimj et doi once de verzino et tanta 
aqua quanta fii dicto sopra et fallo tanto bulire. 

331. A tegnare in rondo la pelle. — ^Ahwi radice de herba 
spagnola alias dicta Saguinarella che li fanziulli se la mectano 
al naso o vero alia lingua per fare uscire el sangue poi tollj una 
mectadella de aceto forte de vino bianco et metiyj dentro de 
questa radice pista bene et fa tanto bullire che manche la mita 
poi mecti questa tinta in una catinella et quando e tepida vienj 
tang^ndo le pelle et dalinj tante mane che habia bona tinta et 
de questa radice fanne polvere perche e bona tucto lanno per 
tegnare poi che le pelle sonno sciute menale per le mano acio 
diventano morbide. 

332. A tengnare caprecte in verde. — ^Tolli de quelli grani o 
acinj che fa questa herba o arbore che se chiama olivella et 
alcuno la domanda fioria et chi la chiama oriola che fa la folglia 
commo lorbacho et fa la folglia in cruce in su la rama et in 
capo ce & parecchj granj commo pepere nigri et sonno commo 
adnj o pipere de hellola et sonno mature del mese de setempre 
colglie de li dicti granelli once j per pelle poi tollj parecchi ra- 
mictinj de fico tenere et talglialj in frustri menuti poi distem- 
pera cum doi scudelle daqua la dicta olivella et bene sbactuti 


of water, and beat it all up well together and let tbe water 
boil for a quarter of an hour, and then set it to cool untal it 
becomes tepid, and before you boil it, put into it a glassful of 
strong vinegar ; and when it has become tepid, lay two or three 
coats of tliis dye upon the skin, until it is well dyed. And if 
you wish to hare the dye of a deeper colour, add more of tbe 
privet berries, and it will be a fine bright green. 

333. 7b dye skins green. — ^Take ripe buckthorn berries and 
put them into a boiler, and add an equal quantity of vinegar, 
that is, an equal weight to that of the berries, and let it boil 
a little, and then strain it through a piece of linen doth, and 
poiur it into a glazed vase, and when you wish to use it, take 
the skins, and spread the colour upon them with the paint- 
brush, and they will become green, and you can keep this 
colour or dye for a whole year, if kept well closed. 

334. To dye the skins yreen, — Take some "pero citrine'* 
when ripe, and extract the juice, and then add some good and 
strong white wine to that juice, that is to say, for every petitto 
of juice, two of wine, and boil them together until reduced one 
half; then take a hare's foot or a paintbrush, or a small sponge, 
and dip it in the juice and dye the skins once or twice with it, 
until you consider the colour to be sufficiently deep. It must 
be dried without sun or wind. 

335. To make a green dye for dyeing cloth, thread, or silk. — 
Take roche alum, and dissolve it in a boiler, and let it boil till 
it is well dissolved ; then take it o£F the fire, and let it cool so 
that you can bear your hand in it, and then put the cloth, or 
silk, or thread, into it, and let it remain for a day and a night, 
and then take it out and let it dry well. Next take a little 
verdigris and make it boil in the water, and then remove it, 
and wheu the water is become tepid, put the cloth into it, and 
work it well in your hand, and let it dry, and if you give it 
another wetting with a little roche alum, it will become of a 
brighter colour. If you wish it to be darker, add more ver- 

336. To dye skins blue. — Take for each skin 1 oz. of indigo, 


insiemj et poi pone a buUire dicta aqua per uno quarto dhora 
pm la poDe a fredare tanto che diventj tepida et nante che tu 
faci bolire metice dentro uno bichiero daceto forte et commo 
sera direnuta tepida et tu da de questa intinta a le pelle doi o 
3 mane tanto che sia ben tento. Et se le voj piu cupi mectivj 
piu de qaelli granellj et rira verde chiaro et bello. 

333. A teffnare pelle in verde. — Accipe semina spinj cervinj 
matura et micte in caldario et tamtumdem fortis aceti scil: 
quantom est pondus semina predictorum et &c ut buliat parum 
demum cola cum peza alba linj pannj et eum pone in vitriato 
vase et cum vis operare acipe pellas et da super eas collorem 
ilium cum penello et reniet virides et potes servare dictum 

collorem sive intintam per totum annum bene clausa. 


334. A ieffnare la pelle in verde. — ^Tolli del pero citrine 
quando sonno mature et trannj el sugo poi toUj vino bianco 
bono et grande et mectilo in quelle sugo cioe per omne pectito 
de sugo doi de vino et fa buUire insiemj tanto che callj per 
mita de poi toUi uno pe de lepore o uno penello o uno poco de 
spogna et bagna in quelle sugo et tegne le pelle ima volta o 
doi secondo che te pare che habia vivo collore per omne volta 
vole essere sciuta senza sole e senza vento. 

335. Affare tenia verde da tegnare pannoj o refe o seta. — Re* 
cipe alumi de rocho et melilo a strugiare in una caldara et 
fidlo bullire tanto che se distrugia bene poi lo leva dal foco et 
lassalo refredare tanto che tu vi possci patere la mano poi ce 
mecti dentro lo panno o sete o refe et lassalo per uno di et una 
Docte poi lo tint fora et lassalo bene sciucare poi tolli uno poco 
de verderamo et fallo bullire in la dicta aqua et poi la leva 
via et quando laqua sera diventata tepida et tu vi mecti lo 
panno et manegialo bene cum mano et polio a sciutare et se 
tu li darai imo altro bagno cum uno poco dalumj de rocho 
vira cum piu vivo collore et se piu cupo lo volesci mectivi piu 

336. A tegnare pelle azurre. — Summe pro qualibet pelle 


and grind it well with strong vinegar, and to each otinoe of 
indigo take one foglietta of vinegar, and dip a paintlnrash or a 
hare's foot into it, and lay it upon the skins, and dry them in 
the shade. Then give them a second coat, and let &em dry, 
and they will be very beautiful. And if you boil the vinegar 
a little with the indigo, the skin will be of a much bri^ter 
and fuller colour. 

337. To dye the skins Mack. — ^Take the skin prepared with 
sumach and scrape it on the side of the flesh and rub it well 
with pumice stone ; then take whites of egg, and lay them on 
the side which you have pumiced, and let it dry. Next take 
fine black, and lay it with a paintbrush upon the white of 
egg which you laid upon the skin, and let it dry, and then 
take the maestra mixed up with oil, and lay it upon the black 
with a paintbrush, and let it dry in the shade, and then break 
it with the steoca, and it will be like silk, and its maestra is 
lime water mixed with common oil. 

338. To make a black dye for dyeing skins^ that is to sat/t 
fine shoemaker^ s black, without iron. — ^Take a boiler full of the 
juice of sumach, and add to it some dust from a wheel [or 
grindstone] and let it boil until reduced by two fingers' 
breadths in depth ; and when it is cool you may dye the skin 
with this dye, and every hour it will be a finer dye. 

339. To dye kidskins a fine and beautiful black. — ^Take the 
skins, and wash them very well in three or four waters ; then 
squeeze them and wring them well in the stroppa until the 
water is run well out of them. Then stretch them upon a string 
to dry, and for every dozen of kidskins take 2 oz. of verzino 
ground, and boil it until it is reduced to one half, and then 
take it off the fire, and when it is tepid begin to lay the colour 
on, and squeeze it well with your hands, and each time let the 
skin dry a little, and do this 3 or 4 times, and the 4th time 
put a little very clear lime water into the dye with which you 
dyed the skins, and this is its maestra, and dye them the fourth 
time, and when they are nearly dry, give them the stroppa 
until they are dry. Then take a little oil with a sponge, and 


oncia j de indico et emn bene macina cam forti aceto et pro 
qiudibet oncia indid unam foglietam acetj et infunde penellum 
ant leporis pedem et da snper pellas demum sicca eas sine sole 
deinde desuper alteram yicem dictam tintam et permite sicari 
et erunt polcherrime. £t si fetcies bulire aliqnantulnm dictum 
acetnm cum dicto indico Tenient tibi multum magis clare et 
colloris plene. 

337. A tegnare h pelle in nero. — ToUi la pelle conda in 
scotano et radda ben dal canto de la came poi tolli una pu- 
mice et pumiciala bene poi tolli chiare dova et dalli dal canto 
che tu hai pumiciato et lassa sciugare poi habbi lo nero fino et 
dallo cum lo penello sopra a la dicta chiara dova che desti 
sopra ala pelle et polla a sciugare poi habbi la maestra incor- 
porata cum lolio et dalla sopra a lo nero cum lo penello et 
polla a sdugare alombria poi la rompe ala torta poi la rompe 
ala stecca et sera morbida commo seta et la sua maestra sd e 
aqua de caldna viva nusta cum oleo comuno. 

338. A fare tenia nera per tegnare peUe doe tenta da calzo- 
hre Jinasenzaferro. — Ahyye uno caldaro daqua de scotano 
frngato e &Ila tanto bullire che calli quatro deta poi ce mectj de 
lo lozo de rota et bolla tanto che calli doi deta et quando sera 
fredda cum questa aqua tu porai tegnare la pelle et omne bora 
sera piu fina tenta. 

339. A tegnare caprecti in nerojini e belli. — ^Tolli le pelle et 
lavale molto bene a 3 o a 4 aque poi torcele et spremile bene 
alia stecca o ala stroppa tanto che nesca bene quella acqua poi 
le stende insuso una corda asdugare et per una dozina de 
pelle de capretti tollj once doi de verzino trito et &llo boUire 
tanto che manche per mita poi lo leva dal foco et quando sera 
tqndo et tu li comencia a dare el collore et premili bene cum 
le mano et da luna Tolta et laltra lassale uno poco sdugare et 
cosd fa 3 o 4 volte poi la quarta volta pone in nella tinta che 
bai tmti li caprette uno poco daqua de calcina vivd che sia ben 
chiara et questa e la sua maestra et tinge la quarta volta et 
poUi a sdugare et quando sonno a presso che sciutte et tu li da 
la stropa tanto che siano sducte poi tolli uno poco dolio cum 


lay on the kidskins as much of it as they will take, and then 
give them the stroppa in order that the oil may penetrate well 
into the skins. When you hare done this, roll up eadi skin 
into a lump by itself, and let it stand so for a ni^t, and then 
giye them the stroppa again, and spread them out in the 
shade, and they are done. And know, that the more yon 
soften them with your hand or with the hammer, the softer they 
will be. 

340. To dye sheep or kidskins a fine cmd good bla<A. — Take 
the kidskin or sheepskin, and wash it and wring it till the water 
comes off it clear ; then take galls well pounded, whidi you hare 
proved to be strong by trying them in your mouth, and put them 
into a pipkin, let them boil, and then let them cool so as to be- 
come tejnd. Then take the skin and gall it well ; aft;erward£ 
wash it with fresh water, and squeeze the water well out. Then 
take shoemaker's dye, that is, atramentum ; steep the skin in 
it and let it soak for the space of 4 hours ; then wash it 
well, until the water comes ofF clear and clean. Then take 
ley and a little oil, and wet the skin with this mixture, and it 
will become as soft as silk. 

341. A toay of preparing skins with the hair on, or without 
the Aair, that is to say^ deerskin or tDolfAin^ or badgerskiny or 
other skin, or kidskin^ or goatskin^ or the skin of other animab. 
And it is a well tried preparation, — ^Take skins which have been 
taken off the animal in proper time, and not from unhealthy 
beasts, and let them be dried without sun, or let them be a little 
salted, and put them into a tub of water, and let them remain 
there for the space of 5 natural days, in order that the flesh 
may be well macerated, and in the course of these 5 days 
renew the water 2 or 3 times on account of the unpleasant 
smell which arises from them. Then take them out, and let 
them drain, and when they are drained, put one upon the other 
on the bencd for cleaning the skins from flesh, those tliat are 
fleshy, I mean, and then strip the flesh from the skins just as 
you think proper, and so lay one upon another in order that 
you may not cut them with your knife, and when you have 


una spogna et dallo a li caprette quanto ne ponno portare poi 
li da la stroppa acio lolio peneira bene le pelle facto questo et 
ta reingoluppa omne pelle da per se commo uno pane et lassa 
stare cnsi per una nocte poi la da la stroppa de novo et dis- 
tendile alombra et sonno fisicte et sappi che quanto piu le re- 
morbidiraj cum le mano tanto piu seranno morbidi et cusi cum 
la stroppa. 

340. A teffnare tnontone o capretto in nero belli el bonj. — Pig- 
lia la pelle de capretto o de montone et lavala et stordla tanto 
che nesca laqua chiara poi tolli galla ben pista che tu senti ala 
bocha che sia forte et metila in uno pignato et lassa bullire 
poi lassa firedare che divente tepida poi tollj la pelle et gallala 
bene che ella sia ben gallata poi lavala bene cum laqua firescha 
et torcila bene che nesca quella aqua poi tolli tenta da calzo- 
lare cioe lagrimento et mecti la pelle in la sopradita tenta et 
lassala moUare per spatio de 4 hore poi la lava multo bene 
tanto che nesca laqua necta et chiara poi tollj liscia et uno 
poco dolio et bagna la sopradita pelle et vira morbida ad modo 
dona seta. 

341. Modo da condai-e pelle cum lo pelo et senza pelo cioe 
pelle de cervo o de lupo o de tasso o de lotrie o de capretti o de 
capre o daltri animali e de conda probata, — ^Recipe pelle scor- 
ticate a sta^one e non sieno de bestie che habiano insanita et 
aeno secche senza sole o vero alquanto insalate et metile in 
una tina daqua et lassale stare li dentro per spatio di 5 di 
natural! acio lo camacio sia ben macero et infra questi 5 di 
renova laqua doi o 3 volte ale dicte pelle pelle per la puza 
che &nno poi le cava fora et lassale scolare et scolate che 
sonno pune luna sopra alaltra in el banco da scamare pele cum 
came in tende bene poi excama le dicte pelle commo te pare 
et pone cusci luna sopra a laltra acio non te vengano guaste 
cum lo cortello et scamate che sonno levale dal banco et lassale 
scolare bene poi tollj uno barile daqua et &lla bulire et in 
questa aqua pone libre 4 de sale et commo el sale e disfacto 
bene et tu la lassa refredare tant^ che divente tepida et in 



stripped the flesh oflT, remove them from the hench and let 
them drain well ; then take a barrel of water, and make it boil, 
and pat into it 4 lbs* of salt, and when the salt is quite dis- 
solved, let it cool until it becomes tepid, and into this tepid 
water put half a wheaten loaf, and move it about wiA your 
hands until it is well dissolved. Then add to it some floor 
made from com (barley flour is best), and put as much as you 
think suflScient, so that the water may be tolerably thick, and 
know that the flour must not be bolted or sifted^ but must be 
mixed with the bran just as it comes from the mill. Having 
done this, and having mixed the tepid water with the meal, pat 
in the skins one by one, stirring them well with your hands 
without stretching them, and let the flesh be underneath, 
stretching out one skin nicely over another. Let them remain 
in this way for the space of 2 days, then take them out and let 
them drain well for the space of half a day, and in the evening 
put them back into the water, and let them remain in it 3 days, 
and stir them well, and at the end of three other days repeat 
th€^ process, and put the skins back again into the water, and 
let them remain for the space of 6 days in all, besides the other 
two days before mentioned ; and this is done in order that the 
hair may adhere more firmly. Then take them out of the 
preparation and put them to dry in the shade for the space of 
one night ; then arrange them in order, one upon another, upon 
planks or boards to remove the flesh from tliem, which yon 
must remove just as you think proper. And when you have 
done so, scrape them well, and take roche alum in crystals, and 
not in powder, for it is better, and put for 12 wol&kins, or 
deerskins, or similar skins 12 lbs. of roche alum, so that each 
skin may have a pound of alum, and 24 petitti of water, which 
will make two petitti for each skin, and let the alum dissdve 
well in the water over the fire^ and do not let the alum and 
water boil. Then put into the water 4 lbs. of salt, and when it 
is perfectly dissolved, let the water cool until it is tepid ; dien 
soak the skins in it, allowing for eadi hide one petitto of the 
solution of alum and salt, stirring the skin well with your hands 



questa aqua tepda metice mexo pane de formento et menalo 
bene per le rnano tanto che sia ben disfacto poi mecte in la 
dicta aqua farina de grano ma e meglio dorzo cioe quella farina 
cbe te pare bastevile et che^laqua dala farina sia uno poco 
spessa la prima volta sappi che la farina non vole essere staciata 
ne stamignata nia vole essere con la remola commo ella viene 
dal molino fiicto questo essendo laqua tepida cum la dicta 
fiirina mectj dentro le dictj pelle ad una ad una et menandole 
bene cum mano senza extirarle et fisi che lo camaccio sia desocto 
bene steso luna pelle sopra alaltra et lassale stare in questo 
modo dentro per spatio de doi dj da poi le tira fora et lassa le 
bene scolare per spatio de mezo giomo et la sera le remecte 
in nela dicta aqua et laasaoele stare dentro 8 dj et mistale bene 
et in capo de tre altre di fiate purre a questo modo et remetile 
purre de dentro et lassale stare per spatio de sei di in tucto 
et questi altre doi di desopra et questo se fa perche el pelo se 
ferma meglio de poi le tra fora de la dicta concia et polle 
asciugare alombra per spatio duna nocte poi le pone ordinata- 
mente luna sop*a alaltra in tabole o assci da scamare et poi 
Bcama oommo te pare et scamate che sonno scrullatile bene 
poi tclOi alumj de rocho cJbe sia in peze et non in polvere che e 
melglio et mecti per xij pelle de lupo o de cervo o similj a 
qaeste xij libre dalume de rocho che omne pelle ne venga ad 
bayere una libra e 24 petitti daqua che vengano doi petitti per 
pelle et lassa ben disfare lo alumj al foco in questa aqua et fa 
che laqua non bolle cum lo alumj poi ce mecte dentro quatro 
libre de sale et commo e bene disfacto lassa tanto refiredare 
laqua che advenga tepida poi mecte in comfetione le dicte pelle 
et per omne pelle li da uno petitto de la dicta aqua cum lo 
dicto alumj et sale et menandole bene per mano in nella dicta 
aqua tepida per spatio de uno miserere extirandole et ma- 
ne^andole ad una ad una bene sucte sopra ne la dicta aqua 
poi la goluppa et pon le cum la dicta confetione et ponile da 
purtie et con fa actuctj lavanzo de le pelle et lavanzo de laqua 
die te remane o vero confetione gietala sopra ale dicte pelle 
et fa che le pelle sieno stese in la tina luna sopra alaltra et 

R 2 


in the tepid water for the spaed of one miserere, stretdung and 
turning them about well one by one in the water. Then roll 
the skin up, and put it in the composition, and lay it aside ; do 
the same to all the rest of the skins, and pour the remainder 
of the water or composition upon the skins, and let the skins be 
stretched out in the tub one upon another and so let them re- 
main for the space of a day and a night, and know that if tbe 
skins are small, such as kidskins, two skins require but 1 lb. of 
alum. Then take them out, and let them drain for the space 
of half a day, and collect what runs off them, together with the 
other water that was left from the skins, and set it aside. And 
then, in order perfectly to clean the skins, take com flour, (but 
barley flour is the best,) that has been bolted, that is to say, 
as much flour as you may think sufficient, and wet it with tbe 
alum water which you reserved, and let the flour be mixed up 
well with the water like paste for making fritters. Then put 
into this paste 16 eggs, as well the shell as the white and yolk, 
with a glass of oil, rather less than more, and mix them up 
well together. Let the water be rather warm before you add 
these ingredients, and mix the whole well together. Then take 
the skins one by one, and fold them in the middle, that is, so 
that the hair may come on the inner side, and not be soiled by 
the preparation. Then put the skins one by one into the pre- 
paration or mixture, which must be tolerably liquid, and let 
them be thoroughly wetted by the mixture ; then pile them one 
upon another, and if you have any of the mixture remaining, 
throw it upon the skins. Let them remain for a day and a 
night, and then take them out, and put them to dry in the sun, 
or, which is still better, in the shade, and take good care not to 
stretch them in the least until they are dry ; and when they are 
dry rnb them down well upon a sharp piece of wood made 
expressly for this purpose, in order that the flour may fall off. 
Then cut off the flesh with a very sharp knife, and scrape them 
with an osier wand, and afterwards rub them well with the hand, 
that they may become soft. And know that this preparation is 
better in April and May, and also in September and October* 


lassale stare dentro per spatio duno di et duna nocte et sappi 
che ae sonno pelle picoUinj commo e pelle de capretto le doi 
pelle Togliano una libra de alumj et de poi tirale fora et lassale 
scolare per spatio de ^ di poi recoglie la dicta scolatura cum 
questa altra aqua che ce advanzata dele pelle et ripolla da 
parte. £t poi per affinare perfectamente le dicte pelle tollj 
farina de grano ma e meglio de orzo che sia afiorata cioe quella 
fimna che te pare che sia bastevile et stemperala cum laqua 
de lo alumj che reservasti da parte et sia bene misticata la dicta 
farina cum la dicta aqua ad modo duna pasta da fritelle et poi 
in questa pasta ce mecte 16 ova cum le coze et cum tucti 
cbiare et vintellj et rompili bene insiemj et metice uno bichiere 
dolio o manco che piu et mistica bene insiemj poi fa che la dicta 
aqua sia uno poco calda prima che tu ce mecte le dicte cose et 
mistica omne cosa bene insiemj poi toUi le dicte pelle aduna 
aduna et inuopiale per mezo cloe che lo pelo venga per de 
dentro et el camazo sia de fora et acio che el pelo non se habia 
troppo ad imbrutarse per la dicta concia et metile in la dicta 
conda o vero pinta et sia competentemente liquida et mecti 
dentro le pelle ad una ad una et fa che sieno bene impastate 
da la dicta pinta et pone luna sopra alaltra et se te avanza de 
la dicta pinta gietala sopra ale dicte pelle et lassale stare per 
spatio de uno di et una nocte poi tirale fore et poUe asciugare 
al sole a lombra che e melglio et guarda bepe che non le 
stirassce per veruno modo per infino che non sonno sciuche et 
quando seranno sciuche sfiregale bene sopra ad una stecha de 
meroUo bene tagliente facto a quelle mistiero acio che la &rina 
aene cagia tucta poi le scarna cum lo cortello bene tagliente et 
acnittale bene cum una vengastra poi le remena bene cum 
nano acio che diventano morbide. Et sappi che questa concia e 
meg^o daprile et de magiache in tutto lanno et anco de setem- 
1r^ et de octobre. £t sappi che per le pelle picole commo 
Knmo dagnelli o de volpe se vogliano conciare cum la mestra 
dele grande cum tucti li modi sopradicti. £t sappi che la 
concia de pelle senza pelo se vole tenere tucti li modi sopradicti 
salvo che vogliano essere pellate le dicte pelle in calcina et poi 


than all the rest of the year. Know also that the small skins, 
such as foxskins and lambskins, must be prepared wiUi the 
maestra for the large skins, with all the before-mentioned 
operations. And in the preparation of skins without the hair, 
the above directions must all be obseryed, except that the hairs 
must be taken off with lime, and then the preparation must be 
applied in the same manner as for those with the hair, except 
that they must be rubbed much more with the hand, to give 
them a finer surface. 

342. The preparation of a skin. — Take of roche alum in 
powder 2 oz., and 2 eggs well beaten, a good handful of flour, 
as much salt as is sufficient to salt down a pound of flesh, as much 
oil as would warm a dish of soup, and a large foglietta of warm 
water. Put into the water, first the alum in fine powder, then 
the flour, and then the salt, and mix these ingredients ; then 
add the eggs and the oil, and^tir the whole together while the 
water' is hot, put in the skin irom which the hairs have jbeen re- 
moved, and stir and manipulate it well, taking it out, and putting 
it back into the water ; then let it stand for a night or fer 4 
hours at the least. Take it out without stretching it, and you 
may then dry it, and beat it well with the hammer ; afterwards 
rub it down on both sides with pumice stone and it is done. 

343. To make chamois-leaiher. — Take skins tiiat have had 
the hair taken off by lime, and wash them well in water ; then 
take warm water, and put into it 5 oz. of roche alum to each 
skin, and an equal quantity of dough made with wheaten flour, 
and make a sort of gruel, into which put the skins, and then 
stir them about for a considerable time with your hands. Let 
them stand for a night, then take them out and dry them in the 
shade, and press them. 

344. To make chamois-kather^ dressed on both sides. — Take 
a round piece of wood, as thick as the thigh, and as long as a 
man is high, and place it up against the wall as the fellmongers 
do. And if you wish to prepare a kidskin quickly in one day, 
take the skin, which must be fresh, and lay it upon this piece 
of wood, and with the blade of a knife take off the hair and the 


li da la concia ordinatamente commo quelle dal pelo ma vog- 
liano essere piu remenate assa cum mano perche levano piu 
bella grana. 

342. Concia per una pelk, — Havve alume de rocho in pol- 
vere once 2, doi ova bene dibatutj poi tollj uno bono pugno de 
farina cio e el fiore et tanto sale quanto bastasse per insalare 
una libra de carne et tanto olio quanto condisse una menestra 
et una bona fogliecta daqua calda et mecti in la dicta aqua 
prima lo alumj bene subtili poi la farina et poi el sale et 
miscola bene poi mectice li ova et lolio et mista bene et quando 
laqna e calda mecti dentro la pelle depilata et maneg^ala bene 
et Btrocila bene traendola et remitendola in la dicta aqua calda 
poi premila et remenela in la dicta aqua calda poi lassala stare 
per una nocte o 4 bore almancho poi la tra fora senza astirarla 
et poUa asciugare et remenala bene a la stroppa poi la pumicia 
da luno lato et laltro e de facto. 

343. Ad camussium faciendum, — Summe pellas depilatas in 
calce et eint bene lotas in aqua demum habeas calidam aquam 
et in ea pone pro qualibet pelle oncias 5 aluminis rochi et tan- 
tamdem de pasta levata cum farina de fhimento et fac ut fari- 
oatam et intromicte pellas et dehinc inde diu manibus misce et 
pennicte per unam noctem deinde exthrae et sicha ad hum- 
briam et remena ad torquam. 

344. A fare eamoscio cum nervo o senza nervo doe scamosciato 
da omne parte.-^Tolli uno lingno retondo et grosso quanto la 
ooesa et longo quanto Ihomo et al muro appoggialo commo 
&IU10 li conciatore de corrame. Et se volesci fare una pelle 
de capretto subtitamente in uno dj tollj la pelle cbe sia irescha 
e^ poUa insuflo questo ligno et cum una costa de cortello per 


scarf-skin. And if it is a large skin, let it remain in lime as 
the fellmongers do when they wish to make leather of it, and 
then rest it upon the hefore-mentioned beam, and with the 
knife-blade take off the sinews, and wash the lime well off. 
Then take 3 fogliette of water, into which put i oz. of roche 
alum and half a handful of common salt, set tlie water over the 
fire in order to dissolve these ingredients. Then add a little 
oil, and remove it away from the fire ; and while the water is 
tepid, add to it an egg well beaten up, and mix it well in the 
water ; then dip the skin into it 3 or 4 times, and each time let 
it dry a little, and the last time let it dry well, and then beat 
it with the wooden hammer. 

345. To make chamois-leather withovJt fat.— 'Take milk, fine 
flour, and oil washed with ley, that the skins may not be soiled, 
mix the whole together with hot water, and put the skins into 
this water for three days ; then turn them over on to the other 
side for 3 days more ; afterwards let them dry, and do not 
stretch them. When they are dry beat them with the hammer. 

346. To make good chamois-leather. — ^Take for each skin 
3 oz. of flour, one tumbler of milk, 1 oz. of butter, and a little 
wheaten bread, and wet the whole well together with a little ley, 
in order that the ingredients may be well incorporated ; and if 
it is not sufficiently wet, add to it nothing but clear ley, and let 
it remain for 5 natural days, and then put it to dry, and beat it 
with the hammer. 

347. To make chamois-leather quickly. — Take 1 oz. of white 
soap and distemper it with ley, and then put the skins into the 
ley for the space of 4 days ; then dry them, and stretch them 
on a stick, and they will be white and soft. 

348. To make chamais-leather as white and soft at sUk.-- 
Melt pork'fat in a pipkin, and then take warm water, and wet 
up flour with it, and add to it the pork-fat, and mix all well 
together ; then take another pan, and spread out the skins in it, 
and take a bocale of milk, and pour it upon the skins, and 
then put in the above-mentioned preparation, and let the skins 


forza de bracdo li leva via el pelo et lo nervo. £t se fusse 
uDa pelle grande falla stare in calcina commo fanno li concia- 
tore quando le voglano condare per corame et poi lapoggia al 
dicto ligDo et per forza de la costa li leva lo nervo poi la lava 
heoe da la calcina poi toUj 3 fogliecte daqua et in la dicta aqua 
ce pone una oncia e meza dalume de rocho et mezo pugno de 
sale comuno et mecti laqua al foco che se disfaccia le dicte 
coee et poi ce pone uno poco dolio et levalo dal foco et quando 
e tepida laqua et tu ce pone uno ovo bene dibatuto bene et 
nustalo bene in la dicta aqua poi ce mectj la pelle 4 o 5 volte et 
da una volta a laltra lassala uno poco sciugare et lultima volta 
lassala bene sdugare poi la mecte alo lavello o ala stroppa e 
de fiicto. 

845. A fare eatnosscio senza grasso. — Ahvve lacte fior de 
fiuina et olio lavato cum ranno da capo ado le pelle non ven- 
gaoo machiate et mista omne cosa insiemj cum aqua calda et 
mecte le pelle in la dicta aqua per 3 dj poi le revolge da laltro 
lato per 3 altre dj poi le pone asciugare et non le stirare et 
quando aonno sciuche et tu li da la stecha et stroppa. 

346. A fare camotcio bono. — Piglia per cescuna pelle once 3 
de fiore de farina et uno bichiero de lacte et una onda de 
batiro et uno poco de pane de formento et distempera omne 
cosa indemj cum uno poco de ranno da capo molto bene acio 
che le dicte cose se iucorporano insiemj et se fiisse poca concia 
non ce agiongiare se non de lo ranno cbiaro et lassa stare per 
5 di natural! poi lo pone a sdutare et dallj la stroppa. 

347. A fare camoscio bremmente, — Redpe oncia j. de sapone 
bianco et stemperalo cum lo ranno poi mecte le pelle in lo dicto 
raono per spatio di quattro dj et poi le pone a sciutare poi le 
stira ala stecca et seranno bianche et morbide. 

348. A fare camoscio che sia bianco et morbido commo una 
ieia, — ^Tolli grasscia de porco et strugila in uno pignatto poi 
tolli aqua calda et distemperala cum farina poi ce mectj la 
dicta grrassda et mista bene insiemj poi tolli uno altro vaso et 
stendice le peHe poi tollj uno bocale de lacte et mectj sopra ale 
dicte pelle poi mecti la dicta concia et fa che le pelle sieno 


be well oovered by it, and let them remaiB there for 5 days, 
and they will be white and soft. 

349. To nutka chanuris-leather which mil always remain toft. 
— ^Take milk, barley meal, and oil, waahed with ley to soften 
the skins, and mix it all together with warm water ; then dip 
the skins in the mixture several times, and let them nearly dry 
each time. Afterwards leave them to dry in the shade, and 
beat them with the hammer. 

850. To make chamois-leatlier water-proof. — Take for each 
skin 4 eggs, and a good quantity, that is, a good glaasfbl 
of milk for each skin, and a little oil ; beat it all up well toge- 
ther, then let the skins soak in the mixture for 7 days, and 
turn tliem over once a day. Let them dry, and beat them with 
the hammer. 

351. To make chamois-leaiher. — ^Take the skins and soak 
them in water for 5 or 6 days, and then in warm water for one 
night ; then remove them from the water, and take off the hair 
with a horse's rib, and sprinkle them well with dear water 
and let them drain a little. Next take roche alum in fine powder, 
and 2 eggs to each skin, and flour well bolted, with a little 
wheat, and mix all these ingredients well with hot water, like 
paste for fritters, and then put the skins into the mixture for 3 
days. Then take them out, and let them nearly dry ; then 
mix some brass well with warm water, into which put the skins 
for 3 days more. Then dry them well without stretching them, 
and beat them with the hammer, and they are done. 

352. To make chamoie-leatherfrom parchment. — Take parch- 
ment and anoint it with olive oil, and rub it well with your 
hands, and afterwards mix soap with warm caustic ley, and dip 
the parchment in it, and rub it well in your hands until it is 
finished, and then press it 

353. To make chamots-leather from parchment. — Take the 
parchment and soak it in water for 3 natural days, then take 
it out and let it half dry, and do not stretch it at all. Then 
soak it in a pan of warm water, with a handful of bran in it, 
mix all well together, and let the mixture stand so for 2 days ; 


bene ooperte da la concia et lassa stare per 5 di et seranno 
biancbe et morbide. 

349. A fare camoscio che arestia marbido sempre maij. — 
Ahyye lacte farina dorzo olio lavato cum lo ranno acio le pelle 
pigliano la morbideza et mista omne coea inaemj cum aqua 
tepida poi ce pone le pelle piu volte et lassandole apresso che 
sducare da una volta a laltra poi le pone asciutare alombra et 
dallj la stroppa. 

350. A fare camoseio che arestia a2a^a.— Tolli 4 ova per 
pelle et lacte assa cioe uno bono bichier per pelle et uno poco 
dolio molto bene menato insiemj et poi ce mectj le pelle a 
molle per spatio de 7 di et omne di le remena Bubtuaopra una 
▼olta et polle a seccare et dalli la stcocha. 

351. ^ ecamosciare b pelle. — Havre le pelle et mettile a 
mollo in laqua per 5 o 6 dj poi le pone a molle in laqua tepida 
per una nocte poi le leva via data dicta aqua et levalj via el 
pelo per forza duna ooeta de cavallo poi le sciaqua cum aqua 
chiara multo bene et poi le pone a scollare uno poco poi tollj 
alumj de rocbo et sia bene subtile et doi ova per pelle et farina 
bene stacdata cum uno puoo de formento et mista bene insiemj 
cum aqua calda ad modo de pasta da fritellj et poi ce mecte le 
dicte pelle per spatio de 3 di poi le tira fora et lassale quasi 
sciutare poi tolli remola et mistala cum aqua calda bene poi ce 
pone le dicte pelle per 3 altri di poi le sciuta bene senza astir- 
arli et dalli la steccha e de facta. 

352. Ad catnuiiium de carta caprina faciendum. — Accipc 
cartam pecudis et eam unge oleo comuni et due cartam inter 
manus fbrtiter postea distempera saponem cum liscivo capitis 
tepido et intromicte dictam cartam et multum due manibus 
quoosque perficitur et etiam due ad torquam Ave steccam. 

353. Ajfare camoseio de carta pecorina, — Hawe la carta et 
mettila a molle nellaqua per 3 di naturali poi tirala fora et 
lassala quasi sciugare per mita et non la stirare de niente poi 
la pone a molle nellaqua tepida in uno vaso et mistace cum 
quella aqua tepida una pugnata de remola et mista bene omne 


then take it out and waah it in 2 or 6 waters, or until it is 
washed enough, and squeeze it welL Tlien take a vase, and 
fill it more than half full with water, and add to it as much 
alum as you think necessary, according to the quantity you 
wish to make, and one or two eggs beaten up ; and do it all in 
order : first putting the water into a pipkin, and heating it oTer 
the fire ; then adding the alum, and when the alum is dissolved 
let it cool until it is tepid, and then put it into a clean shell, 
adding to it a little wheat flour and an egg or two, and mix 
the alum- water well with the other ingredients ; then put the 
said parchment into it, and stir it well in the liquor. Then let 
it remain for 3 days, and let the said parchment be well co- 
vered with the preparation, and keep it free firom dust or other 
dirt Then take out the parchment and squeeze it well, and 
repeat the process ; then put it to dry in the shade, but do not 
stretch it at all, and then beat it with the hammer, and it is 

354. .To make chamois leather with sheep or kidskin parchr 
meat that has been written on. — ^Take the parchment that has 
been written on, and soak it in a pan of water, so as to be well 
covered. Next take a piece or two of quicklime, according to 
the quantity of the parchment, and put it into the water and let it 
dissolve and remiun in it one natural day, and then rub it well 
with the water, using your hand for this purpose, or rub down 
the written side with a piece of hard quicklime, and when the 
letters have disappeared put them into the liquor previously 
directed for preparing parchment that has not been written on. 

355. To make excellent chamois leather. — ^Take the skin from 
which the flesh has been stripped inside and outside, and then 
daub it all oyer with flour and water mixed like paste for wafers, 
and let it remain some days, that is, for three days or more ; 
then wash it well, and put it into a pan ; then take a new glazed 
pipkin, fill it with water, and put it over the fire, that is, pnt 
for each skin one metadella of water, and one ounce and a-half 
of roche alum. Let the alum dissolve in the pipkin, then pnt 
an equal quantity of common salt, and when they are well dis- 

"y^"^— ^^i , ^ 


cosa insiemj et lassa cusci stare per doi dj poi la tira fora et 
lavala a doi o 6 aque o tanto che sia ben lavata et spremuta 
poi tollj uno vaao et fallo piu che mezo daqua poi ce pone tanto 
alumj quanto tu credi che sia bastevile secondo la quantita che 
ta Yoli fare et uno ovo o doi dibatuto e falla ordinataxnente in 
prima mecte laqna in una pignatta et falla scaldare al foco poi 
mete dentro lo alumj et quando lo alumj sera disfatto bene et 
tn la lassa tanto fredare che sia tepida poi la mecte in una 
concha necta poi li mecte uno poco de formento cti smolglio et 
mio OYo o doi et mista bene la dicta aqua alumata cum le dicte 
cose poi ce mecte dentro la carta sopradicta et remenala bene 
ink dicta decotione et poi lassa stare per 3 dj et &che la dicta 
carta stia ben ooperta da la dicta concia et stia in loco che non 
vi yada polvere ne altra brutura poi cava fora la dicta carta et 
spremila bene poi factj da capo et remenala bene intra le nuyio 
et poi la pone a sciutare alombra et non la stirare per viruno 
canto et poi li da la stecca e fatta. 

354. Affare camosscio de carte pecarine scrtpte o de carte de 
capretti scrtpte. — ^ToUi le carte scripte et metile a molle in acqua 
in uno vaso tanto che siano bene coperte poi tollj una petra de 
calcina yiva o doi secondo la quantita dele carte et metila in la 
dicta aqua et lassala bene sciogliare et stare uno di naturali 
poi le sfirega cum la dicta aqua et cum mano o vero tu le sfrega 
com calcina soda disopra ala scriptura et poi che sonno andate 
via le letere meteraile nella concia commo e dicto disopra de la 
carta caprina non scripta. 

355. A fare camoscio hcnissimo. — Pilglia la pelle bene scar- 
nata dentro et de fora et poi la creta tucta de farina cum aqua 
ad modo de pasta da fare cialde et lassala stare alcunj dj cioe 
per di 3 o piu poi la lava bene et mectila in una concha poi 
babbj una pignata nova vitriata et impila daqua et polla al foco 
cioe mecti uno mezo daqua per pelle et mectj una oncia et meza 
dalmnj de rocho per pelle poi mectj lo dicto alumj a disfare in la 
dicta pignatta et poi ce pone altratanto sale comuno et commo 
9omu> bene disfacti et tu leva dal foco la dicta pignata et mecti 



solved remove the pipkin from the fire, and pour the water in 
which the alum and salt were dissolved into a pan, and when it 
is just tepid add for each skin 3 or 4 eggs well beaten. Mix them 
well with the water, to which add a little flour well beaten with 
the other ingredients, and a little oil, less than the fourth part of 
a foglietta to each skin, and mix all well together ; then put the 
skin into the liquor and stir them well in the preparation ; let 
them remain in it covered closely for 3 days. Then take out 
the skins, and squeeze them well one by one, and then rub them 
in your hands one at a time in order, and put them to dry shel* 
tered from sun, wind, or smoke ; then beat them with tlie ham- 

356. To make a preparation for chamois leather^ good^ and 
true^ and tried.^ — ^Take dry skins well seasoned and from healthy 
beasts, and put them into a tank of water to soak for 3 days, 
and then wash them well in the tank from all dirt that may 
hang about them, and when they are well washed throw away 
the water. Then take fresh quicklime, and put it into the 
tank, and mix it well with water, and when the quicklime is 
well slaked and dissolved so that it is very thin and liquid, put 
the skins into it one by one, continually stirring the lime water, 
and let them remain in soak for three or four days, more or less, 
according to the state of the skins, and until the hair comes well 
oS, Once every other day, or every day at the most, take them 
out of the lime water, and hang diem over the tank for an hour to 
drain ; then put them back into the tank, and when the hair comes 
well ofl^, lay them to drain well in a trough for two hours. Then 
take a beam supported on two feet, and lay the skins upon it in 
order, one upon another, and then take a crooked stick of the 
shape of a horse's rib, and scrape the hair with tlie stick from 
each skin, and when the hair is all stripped off, put them back 
to soak in the tank containing the lime and water for 16 or 20 
days, and every other day stir them about well in the lime water ; 
after 16 or 20 days take them out, and carry them to a running 

^ This recipe is distinguished in the original by a hand drawn in the 


laqua alumata et salata in una concha et commo la dicta aqua 
e divinuta tepida et tu ce mectj 3. o 4 ova per pelle bene diba- 
tutj et mistalj bene cum la -dicta aqua et poi li mecte uno poco 
di formento disfiicto bene cum la dicta aqua et mective uno poco 
dolio cioe manco che el quarto duna foglietta per pelle et mis- 
tica bene omne cosa insiemj poi ce pone le pelle et menale bene 
per la dicta conda et lassa stare per 3 dj le dicte pelle bene 
copeTte dala dicta concia et passati i tre dj cava fora le dicte 
pelle et spremilj bene ad una ad una poi le remena per mano 
ad una ad una ordinatamente poi le pone a sciutare in loco che 
non habia ne sole ne vento ne fiime et ponele ala stroppa o 

C^ 356. A fare concia in camoscio bona et vera et probata. — 
Tolli le pelle stagionate et non sieno de bestie insane et sieno 
le pelle seche et metilj in uno mastello daqua a moUe per tre 
dj poi le lava molto bene in lo dicto mastello da omne immun- 
ditia che Ic pelle havessaro et commo sonno bene lavate gietta 
viaquella lavatura poi toUj calcina nova et viya polio in lo dicto 
mastello et distempera la dicta calcina cum aqua molto bene et 
commo la calcina e ben disfatta et disolta et che ella sia ben 
brodosa et liquida et tu ce pone dentro le dicte pelle ad una ad 
una sempre remenando la dicta aqua et calcina et lassale stare 
a moUe li dentro per 3 di o 4 o piu o meno secundo le pelle et 
per mfino a tanto che se pelano bene. £t omne di o vero onrne 
doi di al piu le cava fora una volta da la dicta aqua et calcina 
et poUe sopra alo dicto mastello per una hora a scolare poi le 
ritoroa dentro in lo mastello commo prima et commo se pelano 
bene et tu le pone a scolare in una caviglia molto bene per doi 
hore poi habbi uno cavallecto da doi pei et mettice suso le dicte 
pelle ordinatamente luna sopra laltra poi toUj una bastone re- 
tratto in forma duna costa de cavallo et mandato giuso el pelo 
cam lo dicto bastone molto bene a pelle per pelle poi che sonno 
ben pellate remectile a moUe in lo dicto mastello dove te rimase 
1a dicta aqua et calcina per spatio de 16 o 20 di et omne capo 



stream, and wash them and squeeze them well, to remove the 
lime from them. And when they are well washed and clean, 
throw away the lime and water from the tank, wash it very 
clean, and pour into it as much lime water as you think will 
just soak the skins, and then put into it sufficient bran to make 
the warm water pretty thick. Put the skins, when well washed, 
one by one into the \iTaxi and water, and let them remain so for 
3 days; then take them out and wash them in a running 
stream to remove the bran, and afterwards carry the skins 
well washed to a ladder or a trough, and then take the skins 
one by one and wring and squeeze them well so that there may 
not remain any water in them, and the better they are squeezed 
and pressed the whiter they will become. And if in pressing 
the skins any bladders should form, prick them with a needle in 
order that the water may drain out ; and when the skins have 
well drained, and have been all squeezed separately, smooth 
the skins one at a time by pressing the hand all over them, and 
lay them one upon another well stretched at the neck, at the 
shoulders, and all over the skin, and then make the tank very 
clean, and put into it as much tepid water as you think the 
skins will well bear, and rather more than less. Then take an 
ounce of roche alum well pounded, and an equal quantity by 
weight and not by measure of pounded salt, and } oz. of gum 
arabic well pounded ; put the powders into the tank with the 
tepid water, and mix them well in order to dissolve them ; then 
take the skins one by one well stretched out, and dip them into 
the water in which the powders are dissolved, pressing them and 
dipping them, and stirring them well, that they may soak up 
more of the alum water, and do this to each skin separately, and 
when the skins are well stirred and soaked put them to drain 
for an hour, and let the drippings fall into the water in which 
the skins were dipped. Then take as much flour as you think 
sufficient for the skins, and wet the flour with the drippings of 
the skins which you reserved, and distemper it so that it may 
be like paste for making fritters. Add to the paste an ounce 
of oil, or one egg for each skin, and know that when you mix 


de doi di le remena molto bene in la dicta aqua calcinata de poi 
16 20 dj et tu le cava fora et portale alaqua corrente et lavale 
et spremile molto bene acio la calcina escha fora. £t commo 
soimo bene lavate et neetj tolli lo dicto mastello et gietta via 
quella aqna et calcina et lavalo per modo che aia bene necto et 
mectice tanta aqua tepida cbiara quanto tu crede che le pelle 
pofiBano ben stare a moUe poi ce pone dentro tanto dc remola 
groeea che la dicta aqua tepida yengna uno poco spessa poi tollj 
le dicte pelle ben lavate et metile dentro in la dicta aqua re- 
molata ad una ad una et cosi le lassa stare per 3 di poi le cava 
fora et lavale molto bene alaqua corrente acio tucta la remola 
vada via poi porta le pelle bene lavate ad una scala o vero ad 
una caviglia poi tollj le dicte pelle ad una ad una et dallj lo 
torcholo et premile bene che non ce rimagna niente daqua et 
quanto seranno meglio spremute et atorcholate tanto piu bianche 
viranno. Et se in lo torcolare le pelle faeessaro alcunc vesiche 
apuntale et foraJe cum uno adbo acio la pelle se possa bene soo- 
lare dalaqua et commo le pelle sonno bene scolate ad una ad 
UDa et bene spremute de vantagio stendile cum le mano per 
tata la pelle ad una ad una et pone luna pelle sopra laltra ben 
distesa al coUo a le branehe et per tucta la pelle poi tollj lo dicto 
mastello bene necto cum tanta aqua tepida quanto tu poi com- 
prehndare che le dicte pelle possano bene ricevare et innanze 
pin aqua che meno poi tollj una oneia dalumj de rocho bene 
pisto cum altretanto de sale pisto a misura et non a peso et 
meza osda de gomarabica bene pista poi pone le dicte polvere 
in lo dicto mastello dove e la dicta aqua tepida et remistale 
bene acio se disolvano poi tollj le dicte pelle ad una ad una bene 
stese et metile in la dicta aqua tepida dove sonno disolute le dicte 
polvere spremendole et reimbeverandole et remenandole bene 
ado pt^iano meglio quella aqua alumata et cusci fa a pelle per 
pelle et commo le pelle sonno ben remenate et et imbeverate et 
ta le pone a scolare per una hora et ricoglie la scolatura sopra 
alaltra aqua che te remase de le pelle poi tollj farina afiorata 
tanta quanta te pare bastevilj ale pelle et distempera la dicta 
fiirina cum la dicta scolatura dele pelle che reservasti et dis- 

VOL. II. s 


the flour, the drainings must be tepid and not hot Mix them 
well together, then take the skins one by one and put them into 
the paste or composition, and let them remain for three natoral 
days at the most ; then take the skins just as they come, with- 
out stretching them at all, and put them to dry upon a string 
in the shade, and as they dry you must stretch them, and theo 
beat them with the hammer, and rub them well with your hand 
that they may have a finer surface, and the work is done. 
And know that each kidskin, and skin of the same size, requires 
the alum and the other things of the weight above given. And 
if the skins are those of sheep, or goats, or such like, they re- 
quire 3 oz. of alum and 3 oz. of oil, or 3 eggs and U oz. of 
gum arabic for each skin. Follow the recipe as above directed. 

357. To dye silk or cloth red, — Take 1 lb. of silk, and 4 oz. 
of soap, and put them into a cauldron with water, and let it 
boil until you see the silk appear starred. Then take it out, 
and wash it well in clear water until the silk becomes white ; 
drain it well, and wring it with your hands, and then spread it 
out, and this is done when the silk is not boiled. Then take 
4 oz. of alum in another small vase and boil it, and dissolve it 
in dear water, and when it is dissolved take another larger 
vase, and fill it with firesh water, and put the alum into it, and 
then put in the silk, and let it remain 3 days and 3 nights, 
and then wash it and stir it about well in fresh water, wringing 
it well with your hand until the alum is washed out. Then 
take a kettle of fresh water, and 3 oz. of powdered verzino, 
and let it boil until reduced one third ; then fill it up widi 
fresh water, and boil it again till reduced one finger's breadth. 
Then take it ofi^ the fire and divide the water into two portions, 
and into one of these put the silk and let it stand till it is cold. 
Then wring it with your hand, and put it back into die other 
water which you reserved, and let it be as hot as you can bear 


temperala per modo che sia commo pasta da fare fritelli poi pone 
in la dicta pasta una oncia dolio per pelle o vero uno oto per 
pelle et sappi che quando tu disterapere la dicta farina la seo- 
latura vole essere tepida et non calda et mistica bene insiemj 
poi tolli le dicte pelle ad una ad una et metile in la dicta pasta 
compositione et lassale stare per 3 di naturalj al piu poi tolli 
le pelle commo le venghano senze extirarle de niente et polle in 
su ima corda a secare alombra et commo se venghano secando 
cusci le vienj stirando poi le pone ala steccha et remenale bene 
per mano acio levano piu bella grana et diventano piu morbide 
e de facto. 

Et sappi che omne pelle de capretto o similj a quelle vogliano 
lo alumj et laltre cose al peso dicto de sopra. £t se fiissaro 
peUe decajstrone o capre o altre simili vogliano 3 once de alumj 
per pelle et cusci 3 once dolio o vero 3 ove per pelle et una 
oncia et i de gomarabica et seguita la recepta alo sopradicto 

357. A tengnare airico o drappo rosscio. — Tolli una libra de 
sirico et 4 once de sapone et mectilo in uno caldaro cum aqua et 
bolla per iniino che vede aparere lo sirico ad modo de stelluccie 
da poi trallo fora et lavalo ben in aqua chiara per infino che 
lo sirico sera facto bianco et scolalo bene et torcilo cum mano 
dapoi lo stende. £t questo se fa quando lo sirico non e cocto. 
Ma poi tolli oz. 4 dalumj in uno altro vaso picolo cum la boli- 
tione et strugilo in aqua chiara commo e structo toUj uno altro 
Taso magiore et impilo de aqua chiara et mectj dentro lo dicto 
alumj et poi ce pone lo dicto sirico et stia li dentro tre di et 
tre nocte poi lo lava et rimenalo bene in aqua chiara torcen- 
dolo bene cum mano tanto che quelle alumj escha fora poi tollj 
uno^caldaro cum aqua chiara et tolli 3 once de verzino trito et 
&llo boUire tanto che arentra per terzo poi reirape lo dicto 
vaso daqua chiara et bolla de novo tanto che calli uno deto poi 
levalo dal foco et parte per mezo la dicta aqua de verzino et 
in una de queste parte ce pone lo dicto sirico et lassa stare per 
infino ehe se refireddj de poi lo torce cum mano poi lo repone 
in laltra aqua che reservasti et sia tanto calda che tu ce possce 



your hand b it. Then drain it and wring it well, and spread 
it out in the sun and it will be fine. 

358. To dye silk or thread saffron coloured or yellow, — ^Take 
1 lb. of silk and 4 oz. of soap, and boil it until it gives the 
before-mentioned sign of little stars, and then distemper it with 
4 oz. of alum as before and put the silk into it, and let it re- 
main in soak for 1 natural day. Then draw it out, and do not 
let it be stirred or washed in the water, but take it out and 
dry it in the sun so as not to crease it. Then take 2 lbs. of 
'Vherba roccia," called also ^^ panioella," and put it to boil in a 
cauldron until it is well boiled and prepared, and then take a 
^rase, and put fresh water into it, and an equal quantity of the 
decoction of this herb, and let both these waters be so hot that 
you can but just bear your hand in them. Then put in the silk 
and let it soak for 3 or 4 hours ; then wring and put it back 
two or three times into the decoction, which must be tolerably 
hot, and without any other mixture, and then spread it out to 
dry. ' 

S£9. To dye silk or thread purple. — Take 4 oz. of soap and 
lK)il [&e fiilk] as before directed, until it appears starred, and 
let it be washed in clear water, and then be spread out ; then 
take a vase with clear water, and put into it 2 lbs. of oricelloto 
every pound of silk, if the oricello is good ; if the oricello is 
not very good, put 3 lbs. of it into a cauldron for 2 hours, and 
let the fire be moderate ; then let it cool, and wring it well, 
and put it into a very clean woollen cloth and squeeze it well, 
and let it remain so for 3 days, and then wash it well in clear 
water, wring it, and then stretch it out in the shade, and when 
it is dry roll it up in a white linen cloth tolerably tight 

360. To dye silk or thread violet, — Take 2 or 3 lbs. of ori- 
cello, and divide it into two portions, and put one part of it 
into water to boil with the silk, and let it boil for an hour ; 
then draw out the silk and stretch it out, and fold it up ; after- 
wards put the other half of the oricello to boil together witli 
the former portion until there remains but a very little water. 


patere la mano poi lo scola et torcilo bene et stendilo al sole et 
sera beUo. 

358. A tegnare sirico croceo o vero giallo o refe. — Hawe una 
libra de sirico cum 4 once de sapone et bolla tanto che facia lo 
sopradicto signale de stellucie dapoi distemperalo cum 4 once 
dalumj commo e diclo desopra et mectj dentro lo sirico et stia 
a molle per uno dj naturali poi tiralo fora et non sia remenato 
nella dicta aqua ne lavato ma sia tracto fora et steso al sole 
per modo che non se intriche poi tolli doi libre de herba roccia 
cio e panicella et metila a bullire in caldaro per infino che sia 
ben cotta et confectata poi tollj uno vaso et metice aqua chiara 
et altretanta aqua de la cocitura de la dicta herba cotta et 
tucti doi quelle aque siano ben calde che tu ce possce patere 
la mano poi mectj dentro lo sirico et stia a molle per 3 o 4 bore 
poi lo torce poi doi o 3 altre vole mectj lo sirico a molle in la 
dicta aqua cotta et sia ben calda senza altra mistura poi lo 
stende a sciutare. 

359. A tegnare sirico pawnazzo o refe, — Ahyve once 4. de 
sapone et cocilo commo e di sopra dicto che apare certe stel- 
luccie et sia layato in aqua chiara et poi sia steso poi toUj uno 
Taso cum aqua chiara et mectice doi libre de rogello per una 
libra de sirico se lo rogello e buono se non fusse troppo bono 
meticene 3 libre et fa bene bollire cum lo sirico in uno caldaro 
per doi bore et sia lo foco temperate et poi lo pone a fredare 
et poi torcilo bene et metilo in uno panno de lana bene necto et 
stringilo bene et cusci lo lassa stare per 3 dj poi lo lava bene in 
aqua chiara et torcilo bene et poi lo stende alombra et. commo 
e sciutto metilo in uno panno de lino bianco ordinatamente 

360. A tegnare sirico violato o refe, — Tolli doi o 3 libre de 
rogello et partilo per mita et una parte sia messo in aqua a 
bullire cum lo sirico et bolla per una bora poi tira fora lo si- 
rico et sia steso et revoltato dapoi sia messo laltra mita de ro- 
gello a bollire insiemj cum lo sopradicto per infino che aremanga 
uno poco daqua poi levalo dal foco et stia lo sirico in quella 


Then take it away from the fire, and let the silk remain in that 
water to cool for one natural day. Then wring it and wash it 
with clear water and let it dry in the shade, and then pat it 
into a linen cloth rolled up tolerably tight as before. 

361. To dye silk and thread black. — Take i lb. of galls well 
crushed, and boil them in a cauldron with water, until they are 
well boiled, and then put in the silk to boil in the decoction 
of galls for half an hour. Then take it out and let it dry 
in the sun or in the wind, and then take 3 pitchers of shoe- 
maker's blacking, and 1 pitcher of the decoction of galls, and 
two petitti of dust from a grindstone, and mix the whole to- 
gether and make it boil for an hour. Then let it cool and 
clear very well, and then separate that clear water from the 
lees in another vase, and add an ounce and a half of well 
pounded vitriol and set it to boil, and when it has boiled for 
the fifth part of an hour, add to it half a glass of common 
oil, and then put in the silk to boil for half an hour. Then re- 
move it from the fire and let it remain so for a day and a half, 
and then take it out and wash it in clear water and wring it 
well, and spread it out in the sun, and this dye as long as it 
lasts is good for dyeing. And know that the silk must be 
always boiled, and if it has not been boiled it cannot be dyed ; 
and it must be boiled in the before-mentioned manner with 
soap. And the silk that has not been boiled is distinguisbed 
in the following manner from the silk that has been boiled. 
Put the silk into your mouth and chew it a little, and let it be 
wet with the saliva, then rub it with your fingers ; if it rustles 
while it is wet it is not boiled. 

362. To dye silk or thread green, — First make the fflik 
yellow with " panicella " as was before directed for yellow silk, 
and then take 1 lb. of silk and 4 oz. of indigo, and put it into 
a saucepan with a little water to boil for half an hour or less, 
and then take it away from the fire, and cover it for half a day 
with a cloth, and if the indigo is not dissolved, rub it up with 
your fingers in the water, and let it clear itself; then separate 
the water from the lees, and put the water into a vase that is 


poca daqua a refredarse per uno dj natural] p(H sia torto et 
laYBiD in aqoa cbiara et polio a aciucare alombra poi metilo in 
uno panno de lino agollupato competentemente strecto commo 
e dicto desopra. 

361. A tegnare sirico negro o refe, — Piglia lb \ de galla 
Dene amachata et cocila in uno caldaro cum aqua che sia cocta 
bene poi mecte dentro lo sirico a boUire in nella dicta aqua 
gallata per meza bora poi lo tira fora et polio a sciutare al 
sole al vento poi tolli tre brooche de tenta da calzolare et una 
broccba de quella aqua gallata et tolli doi petti de loto de rotta 
et mista omne cosa insiemj et fa bullire per una bora poi 
lassala refredare et multo bene rescbiarare et poi sepera questa 
aqua cbiara dale fecce in uno altro vaso et in questa aqua 
duara mecte una oncia e ^ de vitriolo ben pisto et polio a bul- 
lire et commo ba bollito per uno quinto dbora et tu ce mectj 
mezo bichiero dolio comuno poi ce mectj lo sirico a bullire per 
meza bora poi toUj via dal foco et lassalo cusi stare per uno di 
et mezo poi tiralo fora et lavalo in aqua cbiara et torcilo bene 
poi lo stende al sole et questa tenta dummentre cbe ella dura 
e bona per tegnare. Et sappi cbe lo sirico deve essere sempre 
cocto et se non fusse cocto non se poria tegnare et cocilo in lo 
modo sopradicto cum lo sapone et quando lo sirico non fusse 
oocto se cognosse in questa forma da lo sirico cbe e cocto se 
vole mectare lo sirico alia booha et masticarlo uno poco et fa 
che sia bagnato cum la saliva et da poi lo sfrega cum li deta 
et se quella bagnata stride non e cocto. 

362. A tegnare sirico verde o refe. — Prima fa lo sirico giallo 
com panicella commo e disopra dicto de lo sirico giallo poi 
tollj una libra de sirico once 4 de indico et metilo in uno oal- 
dareto cum poca aqua a bullire per meza bora o manco poi 
tola dal foco et coprila per mezo di cum uno panno et se lin- 
dioo non fusse desfato atritalo cum li deta in la dicta aqua et 
lassa rescbiarare poi sepera laqua cbiara dale fece poi mete la 
dicta aqua in uno vaso che sia bono da tengiare et quando tu 


fit for dyeing. And when you wish to dye it^ take the solution 
of indigo and put it to warm, and when it is hot, take a lump 
of quicklime as big as an egg, and half a pound of honey, to 
every pound of indigo. Then put one -third part of the lime 
into the wat«r, and when it is hotter, put in another third part, 
and when it is nearly boiling, add what remains, and then re- 
move the water from the fire, because if it were to boil, it 
would boil over the saucepan. Then pour the decoction into a 
vase, and let it be well covered over like a stew, and when it 
is cool enough to bear your hand in, put in gently the yellow 
silk, which must have first been dipped in fresh water and well 
wrung. 'Hien put it into the solution of indigo, and warm it 
gently, and if it is but sUghtly coloured put it back again into 
the dye, and you may repeat this several times with the dye 
as long as any of it remains, if you preserve it ; and when you 
wish to dye anything, put in fresh indigo and honey, but not ia 
such quantity as before. 

363. To dye silk a dark green. — ^Take the silk dyed with a 
purple or violet colour ; and when you have taken it out, dip it 
in alum, and then dye it with ^ pamcella,'* as was before directed 
for a yellow dye ; and when it is so dyed, you will do as before 
directed for a green colour, and you will have a dark green. 

364. To dye silk or thread blue, — Take the silk boiled and 
washed as before directed for boiling silk white and without 
alum, put it into the indigo-dye, and you will have a fine light 

365. To dye red. — Take for every pound of thread 3 oz. of 
roche alum well ground, and put the alum into a vase with 
water over the fire ; and when it has boiled a little, put Che 
thread into it, take it off the fire, and let the thread remain 
soaking in it until it is cool. Then take it out and wash it 
well until the water comes off clear ; and take 1 oz. of verzino 
in powder, either scraped or rasped, and pour water upon it, 
and boil it for an hour and a half. Hien remove it away from 
the fire, and strain it through a linen cloth ; then first set the 
strained liquor to boil, and when it is nearly bmling put the 


vole tegnare tollj la dicta aqua indicata et metila a scaldare 
bavj poi che e calda una zuppa commo uno oyo de calcina viva 
et meza libra de mele per libra de indico et poi mectj in la 
dicta aqua la terza parte de quella calcina et quando sera piu 
calda mectj laltra terza parte et quando sera per bollire me* 
tice laltra vanza et alora remove la dicta aqua dal foco perche 
Be boUisse usciria fora del caldaro et mectj la dicta bullitione 
in uno yaso et stia bene.coperta ad modo duno stufo et quando 
sera tanto fredda che tu ce possce patere la mano pianamentj 
mectice lo dicto sirico giallo e bagnato in nelaqua chiara prima 
et bene spremato poi lo mete in la dicta aqua indicata et calda 
pianamente et se havesse poco collore de novo lo remectj in la 
dicta tinta et cusi poterai fare piu fiate cum la dicta aqua per 
infino che durara se tu la conserve et quando tu volesti tegnare 
reoova la calcina et lo mele et non in tanta quantita quanto 

363. A tegnare lo sirico verde scuro. — Ahwe lo sirico tento 
in collore pavonazo o vero violato et tracto che laj fora tingilo 
in lo alume poi lo tegne cum la panicella commo e dicto de 
aopra in lo colore giallo et cosci tinto farai commo e dicto 
disopra in lo colore verde et haverai verde scuro. 

364 A teffnare lo sirico in turchino o refe. — Tolli lo sirico 
cocto et lavato commo e dicto desopra dela cocitura de lo sirico 
cosci bianco et cocto senza alume commo e dicto desopra 
mectilo in la dicta aqua indicata et haveraj bello turchino. 

865. A tegnare in roacio, — Havve per omne libra de refe once 
3 de alumj de rocho bene trito et mectj lo dicto alume in uno 
vaso cum laqua al foco et commo ha bullito imo poco et tu vi 
mec^ dentro lo refe et levalo dal foco et lassa cusci stare lo 
refe nel bagno fino che se fredda poi lo tira fora et lavalo bene 
per infino die nesci laqua chiara poi tollj once j. de yerzino in 
polvere o raso o raspato cum la raspa et metice suso de laqua 
et &llo bollire per una bora et j^ poi lo leva dal foco et colalo 
cum uno pannp de lino poi pone la dicta coUatura a bullire et 
quando sera per bollire et tu ce pone lo dicto refe et lassalo 


thread into it, and let it boil for an hour, and dien take out 
the thread and put it upon a stick to dry. Next add to the 
liquor which remains one glassful of very strong ley for eadi 
pound of thready and stir the liquor well, in order for it to 
unite with the ley, and then return the thread into it and boil it 
for a quarter of an hour ; afterwards stretch it out to dry in the 
shade, and it will be fine. 

366. To dye thread with verzino, — Take verzino, and boil it 
in water as long as you think sufficient, and then take the thread 
and gall it well ; afterwards wash it in fresh water, and then 
alum it, and let it nearly dry ; warm the verzino, and dip the 
thread several times into the dye to colour it, and dry it weU 
in the shade. 

367. To dye thread red. — Take some madder well pounded, 
and put it into a little ley made from vine ashes, and let it boil, 
and put the thread to boil in the ley for some time ; then remove 
it from the fire, and let it dry ; when it is dry alum it, and then 
boil it in a little verzino well boiled with water and ley mixed 
together ; then dry it in the wind without sun, and it will be 

368. To dye silk blaeh^ — Take soot, and scrapings of boilers, 
and well rusted iron, and boil these ingredients in red wine til] 
reduced more than one-half, and when it has become tepid, pat 
in the thread well dipped and dried several times in the dye, 
and it will become fine black thread. 

369. To dye cotton or silk black, — ^Take 1 lb. of iron filings. 
2 oz. of galls well pounded, 1^ oz. of Roman vitriol, rinds of 
pomegranates, bark of the roots of walnut-trees, 2 oz. of 
verzino well ground, and strong vinegar; boil all together 
until reduced to one-fourth, and let the decoction cool, and put 
it in the sun for 3 or 4 days, stirring it 8 or 10 times every day. 
Then strain it, and when you wish to dye silk or cotton set the 
decoction to boil, and boil the silk or cloth in it for a quarter 
of an hour ; then dry it in the shade, and the more you dip it, 
the finer and more beautiful it will be. 

370. To dye cotton cloth. — Take 5 lbs. o£ galls well pounded, 


boUire per una hora poi cava fora lo dicto refe et polio sopra 
uno bastone che se sciuta poi mectj in lo dicto bagno cbe te 
aromasto uno bichiero de ranno fortissimo per cescuna libra de 
refe et mista bene lo dicto bagno acio se incorpora cum lo ranno 
poi tomalj lo dicto refe et ponalo abullire per uno quarto 
dhora et poi lo pone asciugare alombra stcso et sera bello. 

366. A tegjutre refe in verzino. — ^Tolli verzino et cocilo in 
aqua tanto cbe te paia che sia bastevile poi tolli lo refe et gal- 
lalo bene et poi lo lava alaqua chiara poi lo aluma et lassalo 
quasi sciutare poi scalda lo verzino et mecte a tegnare lo refe 
piu volte in la dicta tenta et sdugalo bene alombra. 

367. A tegnare refe in roseio. — Ahwe uno poco de robbia 
bene pista et media in uno poco de ranno facto de cenere de 
vite et fallo bullire et mecti lo refe a bullire in lo dicto ranno 
per una peza poi lo leva dal foco et polio a sciutare commo e 
sduto et tu lo aluma poi lo pone a bullire in uno poco de ver- 
zmo bene cocto cum aqua et ranno misto insiemj poi lo sciuca 
al vento senza sole et sera bello. 

368. A tegnare in nero lo refe, — Tolli fuligini raditura de 
caldaro et ferrj bene aruginatj et fa bullire queste cose in vino 
Termiglio piu che per nuta et quando sera divinuto tepido et tu 
ce pone lo refe bene callato et sciucho piu volte in essa tinta et 
▼ira bello refe nigro. 

369. A tegnare guamello o seta in nero, — Ahwe una libra 
de limatura de ferro once 2 de galla bene pista cmce j et ^ de 
▼itriolo romano scorze de mele granare scorze de radice de 
Dooe poi tollj once 2 de verzino ben trito poi toUj aceto bianco 
forte et fa bullire omne cosa insiemj tanto che toma per quarto 
et poi lassa fredare pone la dicta decotione al sole per 3 o 4 dj 
et omne dj lo mista Sox volte poi la cola et quando tu vole teg- 
nare mecti a bulire la dicta decotione et metice la seta o panno 
a bullire dentro per uno quarto dhora et poi lasciuta alombra et 
commo piu ce la metera piu se fara bella et piu fina. 

370. A tegnare guarnello. — Tolli galla bene pista lb 5 et 


and put them into hot water with 10 lbs. of *^ pignolato,'** and 
then add 5 lbs. of Roman vitriol well pounded, and mix the 
whole well together, and let it stand a night, and it will be good. 

371. To dye banes preen. — Mix finely powdered verdigris 
with the very strong vinegar, and put white bones into a 
vase closely covered, warm them a little, and they will become 

372. To dye bones red. — Take verzino scraped, and put it 
into a glazed jar, and pour urine and ley upon it ; then dip 
bones into it, and they will be red. 

373. To dye skins a light grey. — Take 12 bocali of water 
and 3 oz. of galls well pounded, boil until reduced one-third, 
and then strain the liquor, and add 6 oz. of Roman vitriol to 
the decoction of galls, and dye the skins. And if you wish to 
have a dark grey add to it a bocale of ley, one glass of oil, 
and boil it, but the vitriol must not be boiled. 

374. To make good writing ink. — Take a bocale of good and 
strong white wine, 4 oz. of galls well crushed, one handful of dried 
rinds of pomegranates, one handful of the fresh bark of moun- 
tain ash scraped with a knife, and one handful of fresh baik of 
roots of walnut trees, and 2i oz. of gum arabic ; mix the whole 
together with the wine, and let the mixture remain for 6 or 8 
days in the sun, stirring it well 4 or & times every day. TTien 
add 2j^ oz. of Roman vitriol, and mix it frequently, and let it 
remain so for several days ; then put it over the fire to boil for 
the space of one miserere^ let it cool, and then strain it and leave 
it for 2 days in the sun. If you then put in it a little roche 
alum it will make it much brighter, and it will be a good and 
perfect writing ink. 

375. To dye bones of oxen^ buffaloes^ and goats^ of all colours 
inside and out. — Put the bones into strong vinegar, and let them 
remain for 7 days ; then boil them with that vinegar until re- 
duced to one-half. Add to them the colour with which you wish 
to dye them, and boil it with them ; then put in a little sal- 

Guamello is a kind of cloth made of cotton, but the teim is also used 


poUa in aqua calda poi ce pone lb x de pignolato poi ce pone 
lb 5 de yitriolo romano bene pisto et mista bene insiemj multo 
bene et lassa stare una nocte et sera bona 

371. A tegnare losso in verde. — Capias acetum acerrimum 
firidem erem subtilissimum et pone in dicto aceto et intus pone 
o«a alba in aliquo vaso bene coperto et aliquantulum calefac et 
efficitnr yiridis. 

372. A tegnare losso in rosscio. — ToUe verzinum rasnm et 
pone in olla vitriata et intus pone de burina et de liscivio et in- 
tus pone de ossis et fient rubeis. 

373. A tegnare pelle in bretino chiaro* — Tolli 12 bocalj daqua 
et once 3 de galla bene pista et fa tanto bullire cbe arentre per 
terzo et poi la cola et tolli once 6 de vitriolo romano et metilo 
in la dicta aqua gallata et poi tegne le pelle. £t se volesci 
bertino scuro metice uno bocale de liscia uno bichiere dolio et 
mecti a bulire ma non vole buKre el vitriolo. 

374. A fare inchostro bono et ^da scrivare. — Tolli uno bocale 
de vino bianco grande et bono et once 4 de galla amachata 
bene et una mandata de scorze de mele granote seche et una 
manciata de scorze de omello fresco rase con lo cortello et una 
manciata <de scorze de raiche de noce frescbe poi tollj once 2 et 
i de goniarabico et mistica omne cosa insiemj cum lo sopra- 
dicto vino et fa stare per 6 o 8 di al sole et omne di lo mista 4 
6 volte molto bene poi ce pone doi once et i de vitriolo romano 
et mistalo spesso et stia cosci per alcunj di et poi el pone al foco 
a bullure per spatio duno miserere et lassak) fredare et poi lo 
cola et metilo doi dj al sole et se ce meet] poi uno poco dalumj 
de rocho farallo pin lustro assa et vira perfecta et bona intinta 
da scrivare. 

375. A tegnare ossi bomni bufalini et caprini dentro et difora 
inomnewlare. — ^Aabeas de forti aceto et ossa micte intus et ibi 
dimicte stare per secptem dies demum fac bullire cum illo aceto 
Qsque ad medium et quem collorem vis colorare pone intus 
com ipsis ad bulliendum deinde pone intus cum ossis aliquan- 

to denote a woman^s dress made t»f diis material. Pignolato is a sort of 
cloth made of linen or hemp. 


ammoniac with the bones, and let them boil until they are 
coloured inside and out. 

376. To dye box toood black. — ^Take box wood, and leave it 
for a night in oil and sulphur, then boil it for an hour, and it 
will be as black as coal. 

377. To dye bones green. — Put bones well cleaned into a vase 
full of ley, with goat's milk and verdigris very finely pow- 
dered ; cover the vase closely, and bury it in dung for the 
space of 10 days, and the bones will become green inside and 

378. To make a cement which will resist water and oil — 
Take liquid varnish ^ oz., raw ceruse, very white quicklime, 
and white of egg, each ^ oz., and incorporate them together, 
and cement what you please. 

379. A wonderful cement for crystal and yetnst and for stone 
and wood. — Take ceruse and grind it up well with varnish, 
cement what you please, and dry it in the sun. 

380. To make a cement to fasten on gems. — Take two parts 
of powdered vitriol, 1 part of mastic, 4 parts of pitch, and melt 
them together, and they will form a very strong cement 

381. To make a cement for vases. — ^Take the yellow earth of 
the apothecaries, a little orpiment in powder, a little quicklime, 
and a little liquid varnish, and put all into a pipkin, mixing the 
ingredients together over the fire, and, while hot, cement what 
you please. 

382. To make a cement for vases in another way. — ^Take 
liquid varnish, ceruse, and a little Armenian bole, to make the 
cement more tenacious, grind the whole together, and cement 
what you please. 

383. To make a cement for wood work. — Take of Greek pitch 
2 parts, pounded bricks, and a little mastic, and grind the 
whole up well, and then with a hot iron cement whatever yoa 

384. To soften hones. — ^Take common salt and Roman vitriol 
in equal quantities, and grind them very well together ; then 
distil them through an alembic, and keep the distilled water in 



tolam de sale armqniaco et dimite tantum bulire qnod habeat 
illnm oolorem intus et extra. 

376. A tegnare basso in nero, — Recipe bussum et eum per- 
micte in oleo cum solfure per unam noctem et postea permicte 
buUire per horam unam et fiet nigrum ut carbonem. 

377. A tegnare ossa in verde, — ^Ttolli losso ben pollito et me- 
tilo in uno yaao pieno de ranno et de laete de capra et de ver- 
deramo bene subtili et copri bene lo dicto vaso et mectilo socto 
lo litamj per spatio de x dj et sera facto verde dentro et de 

378. A fare colla ehe tene aqua e olio. — Ahvve vemice liquida 
oz. 4 biacca cruda clacina viva et bene bianca et chiara dova 
ana oncia i et incorpora insiemj et incoUa quello che tu volj. 

379. Mirabilis colla ad ckristallum gemmas et super petram 
vel lignum, — Accipe ceruse et confice cum vemice bene et in- 
oolla quicquid vis et dimite secare ad solem. 

380. Ad Jatiendum collam ad gemmas retinendas. — Summe 
vitrioli pulverizati partes 2, masticem partem j. picis partem 4 
et insimul distempera et erit colla fortissima. 

381. Affare colla per vasa. — ^Tolle terra gialla da li spitiali 
et nno poco doropiumento in polvere et uno poco de calcina 
viva et uno poco de vemice liquida et mecti omne cosa in uno 
pignatino et mista molto bene sopra al foco et incoUa cusi calda 
quello che te pare. 

382. A fare coOa per li vase per aUro modo. — TtoUj vemice 
liquida cerusa et uno poeo de boUarminio perche sia piu tenace 
et macina omne cosa insiemj et incoUa quello che te piace. 

383. A fare colla per ft^Tiowi;.— Ahvve pece greca parte 2 
polve de matone et uno poco de mastice et macina bene insiem 
poi incoUa cum uno ferro infocato quello che tu volj. 

384. A mottificare losso. — ToUe sale comuno vitriolo romano 
ana et macinalj insiemj molto bene poi distilla per lambico et 
»rva laqua distillata ben turata. Et quando vorai moUificare 


a vessel well closed. When you wish to soften bones or horn 
or ivory, put them into the said water for the space of 5 houn, 
and it will soften so that you may impress on th^m what you 
like, and they will afterwards become hard as before. 

385. To make fi$h-glv£. — Take the bones of a pike or of any 
other large fish, dry them, and reduce them to powder in a 
bronze mortar ; then put the powder into a new pipkin, with as 
much water as you think sufficient for the bones or dust, and 
make the water boil until the bones are liquefied ; then touch 
the water with your fingers, and if they stick together it is 
good and perfect Then take it from the fire, and strain it 
through a linen cloth, let it cool, then cut it into pieces, and dry 
it in the wind without dust. 

386. To prime panels for painting on, — Take the panels and 
^ve them 3 or 4 coats of very hot glue ; after each coat let 
them dry tolerably, but let the last coat dry perfectly. Then 
take gesso in fine powder and well ground, so as to be very 
fine ; distemper it with warm water, and lay it upon the panel 
with a stick, and let it dry ; then scrape it, that is, scrape off 
the rough parts with a knife blade. Then take gesso sottile, 
with very clear size, not too strong, and lay it ten times, if 
necessary, with a paintbrush upon the first coat of gesso ; and, 
when it is dry, rasp it very thin, and draw upon it if you like 
with soft charcoal of willow or vine ; and if you do not like that, 
take a goosequill and put the charcoal into it so as not to soil 
your hands. And if you wish to gild it, take Armenian bole 
ground very fine with white of egg, which is to be diluted with 
one cupful of pure water, and beaten for one hour ; grind the 
Armenian bole very fine, and lay it on wherever you wish to 
gild, not twice only, but even so many as ei^t times, con- 
tinually adding Armenian bole, until the priming is very thick; 
and so you will have what you want. Wet the part you wish 
to gild twice with clean water, lay on the gold, and remember 
to let it remain for one hour, and then burnish it. 

387. To soften bones, — Put the bones into ley made with 
quicklime and baked ashes in equal quantities, and let them 


losBo o corno o avorio et metilo in la dicta aqua per spatio de 5 
bore et molifiearasse che porai impromptare quello che tu voli 
et indurarasse oommo prima. 

385. A fare eolla de pescio, — ^ToUi ossa de Luccio et de 
omne altro pesscio grandicello et sechali poi li spolveriza in lo 
mortara de bronzo et poi mecti la dicta polve in una pignata 
nova cum tanta aqua che te paia che sia bastevile ali dicti ossa 
pol?e et falla bollire tanto che sia ben liquefacta poi tocca 
quella aqua se tene insiemj e bona e de facta poi la leva dal 
foco et colala cum uno panno de lino et lassa fredare poi ne fa 
li peze et poUa asdugare al vento senza polve. 

386. Ad ingessandum tabulas causa pingendi, — Accipe tabulas 
et super eas da ter yel quatuor vicibus cum colla bene calida 
ab una vice ab altera permite sicari aliquantulum et ultima 
vice permitte sicari valde bene postea habeas gissum pulveriza- 
tum et bene macinatum ut sit subtile et distempera cum aqua 
tepida et da super asidem cum sticca et permite sicari quo 
facto rade eum gkdio scilicet partes grossas deinde habeas 
gissum subtile cum colla clara bene et non nimis forte et da 
super gissum poeitum deties si expediens fuerit cum penello et 
deacato earn subtUisdme rade si vis demum designa cum car- 
bone dulci aut de saloe aut de vite et si non consentiret tibi 
habeas pennam anseris et sepera nigredinem carboni. Et si 
vis ponere aurum habeas bolarmioium subtilissimum et maci- 
natum cum clara ovi fratta et distempera cum aqua pura viz. 
cum uno dato aque per unam horam et tempera ipsum bolar* 
nunium subtilissimum et da ubi vis ponere aurum nedum bina 
vice Bed multotiens usque octo vice adendo semper bolarminium 
ut grossuB multiplidter et sic habebis intentum balneando cum 
aqua dara ubi vis ponere aurum bina vice sed posito auro 
memento stare per unam horam et demum bumias ipsum 

387. Ad mollificandum ossa. — Pone ossa in liscivo facto de 
calce viva et cinera recoita ana et maneant per diem novem 



remain for 9 days, and the bones will become as pliant as yon 
wish. And if you wish to colour them, put in any colour you 
like, and having formed them into shape, anoint them with lin- 
seed-oil, and let them dry in horse-dung for 7 days. 

888. To dye skins green. — Take the sloes which grow upoa 
the blackthorn in the month of September, put them into a kettle, 
and pound them well ; let them boil, and ferment like wine in 
the sun for 3 days. Then separate the clear liquor firom the 
lees ; then take roche alum and a little urine, and twice as 
much strong white wine vinegar as urine, and dissolve the alum 
in the vinegar and urine ; and When it is cold, alum the skins 
with the solution ; and when they are nearly dry, wash them 
with that wine made from the sloes, and dry them in the shade. 
And the more coats you give them, the finer colour will be ; 
and you will thus have a fine colour for dyeing chamois- 

389. To knew good galls, — Good galls are knoini by their 
being small and wrinkled, and being hard within and appearing 
powdery without. 

390. To know good vitrioL — Good vitriol is known by its 
being blue within and very granular without. 

391.* [ To indhe dteeseglue.] — Take cheese of any sort, tole- 
rably old, and scrape it as thin as paper, or slice it very fine ; 
and then take the scrapings and put them to soak in fresh 
water for a day. Strain off the water carefully, and then take 
warm water, as much or rather less than what you threw away, 
and put the scrapings into the warm water. Knead the whole 
well with your hands, just as dough is kneaded for bread, in 
the warm water until all the fat is extracted from the cheese. 
Continue changing the water, then make the cheese into a cake, 
and put it into a vase of fresh water, so that it may always be 
covered with water. And when you wish to use it^ take what- 
ever quantity you want of the cake, and mix it with a little 
quicklime upon a very smooth board, kneading it well with a 

I The Rubric is wanting. 


tunc babebis passadutilem ad libitum et si vis colorare impone 
quern colorem vis et retucta in forma lineas cum oleo linj et 
dimicte sicari per 7 dies in equi fimo. 

388. A tegnare la pelle in verde. — Tolli granelli de brugno 
che hanno le spinj del mese de setembre et metile in uno catino 
et pistalo bene et lassalo bolire et levare suso quelli venaciuoli 
commo se fa colo vino al sole per 3 dj poi sepera lo licore necto 
da la venacia et poi tollj alumj de rocho et uno poco de hurina 
et cl dopio de lorina de aceto forte de vino bianco et disfa lo 
alumj in lo dicto aceto et urina et quando e ireddo et tu aluma 
le pelle cum lo dicto aceto et hurina alumata et quando sonno 
quad sciute et tu li da el bagno cum quello vino de le brugne 
et sdutale alombra et commo piu li daraj piu bello collore 
haveranno et haverai bona tenta verde per tegnare pelle de 

389. A cognosciare la bona galla, — La bonta de la galla se 
cognoBsce se e minuto et se e crespa et se e soda dentro et 
apara polverosa. 

3?K). A cognosciare lo bono vitriolo. — La bonta delo vitriolo 
se cognoBse se e cillistrino de dentro et de fora bene granoso. 

B391. {sic) ecipe cascio de qualunque 

ragiooe che sia vechio mediocramente et radilo subtilimente 
commo se rade la carta o vero tu lo pialla bene subtilj poi 
toll] quella radetura et metila a mollo in aqua chiara per uno 
di poi cola via quella aqua de la radetura cautamente poi tollj 
altratanta aqua calda o mancho quanto quella che hai getato 
via et de dentra ala dicta aqua calda ce pone la dicta raditura 
et remenala cum mano molto bene commo se mena la pasta da 
pane et tanto la remena in la dicta aqua calda che nesca tucta 
la graseza che ha el cascio et vienj mutando spesso spesso laqua 
poi la redu et fanne uno pane et metilo in uno vaso cum aqua 
chiara che lo dicto pane stia sempre a moUe. Et quando lo 
voi adoperare tollj de quello pane la quantita che voj et incor- 

T 2 


wooden stick ; then add to it a little sifted gesso, and mix the 
whole up again for a considerable time, and it will become 
cheese-glue for cementing wood-work and vases, and it must 
be used as fresh as possible, because then it takes a better 

B 392. To make a green and red and purple dye far dyeing 
bonesy cloth, thread, and whatever you likej (fc. — ^Take as much 
as you like of strong white vinegar, and put it in a glazed vase, 
and add to it scales of copper and copper-filings of a good red 
colour, Roman vitriol, roche alum, and a little verdigris ; let 
everything be well ground and mixed with the vinegar, and let 
it remain so for 7 or 8 days and nights, and this vinegar be- 
comes a good green tint for dyeing silk, bones, linen cloth, and 
other thmgp as well as for pamting. And if in this Uquor you 
put bones raw or boiled, and boil them and let them remsin 
in the liquor for the space of a month, they will become greeu 
for ever. And note that scales of copper make the best tint 
when fresh beaten. In the same manner things may be dyed 
red and crimson, using vermilion or mininm or ver^no, and 
put whatever you wish to dye into the liquor, and it mil dye 
it weU. The same can be done in yellow, using orpiment and 
proceeding as before directed ; and, if you like, you may put 
urine instead of vinegar. 



poralo bene cum uno pochetino de ealcina viva in snso uno 
asse bene polito et cum uno pastello de ligno li compiglia in- 
aiemj poi oe agiongi uno poco de gesso statiato et rimena da 
capo omne cosa insiemj per gran spatio e de diventata coUa de 
cascio per incolare lignamj e vasa et operala piu frescha che 
poi perche fa migliore presa. 

B. 392. Affare tenia verde et rassa et pavanaza a tengnare ossi 
parmi refi et do che volj etc. — Recipe aceto bianco fortissimo 
quanto vol et polio in uno vaso vitriato et mectice suso bacti- 
tora de ramo et limatura de ramo bene colorito rosso vitriolo 
romano alume de rocho et uno poco de verderamo omne cosa 
fiia bene macinato et mista cum lo .aceto et stia cusi per 7. o 8 
dj et nocte et questo aceto diventa bona tenta verde per teg- 
nare seta osso panno lineo et altre cose et per depegnare et 
se in questa cocitura mecterai osso crudo o cotto et faraicilo 
bolire et de poi stare per uno spatio de mese diventara verde 
imperpetao nota che la bactitura de lo ramo fresca fa migliore 

Et cosi se po fare de lo colore rosso come e dicto de lo verde 
et pavonazo cum lo cinabrio o minio et verzino et mecte a 
tengnere omne cosa che voi et tignirallo bene et simili se po 
&re de loropiumento in giallo et fa come de sopra et se voj 
m loco de lo aceto ce pone orina humana. 


De azuris naturalibus et primo de cognoBceiido vero l^u 
lazuli p. 1. 

CognoBcere azumim alemanum etc. p. 3. 

Praxis extraendi azumim a lapide 3. 

Praxis affinandi dictum azumim 3. 

Azurrum ultramarinum alio modo 12. 

Dar buon colore all' azuro mal colorito 13, 69. 

Azurro d' Alemagna 23. * 

Cognoscere azurrum ultramarinum ab artificiale 40. 

Azurrum artificiale 41 et sequentibus. 

Azurro per muro in calcina 54. 

AziUTO di sugo d* erbe 60. 

Azurro per adoprar a penna 62. 

Raffinare 1' azurro grosso 64. 

Moltiplicar lazurro 69. 

Far endico 69 et seguenti. 

Far verdi diversi 70 e seguenti. 

Giallo bellissimo 78. 

Lacca bella 90 e seguenti. 

Verzino 94 e seguenti. 

Pauonazzo con sugo d' erbe 96. 

Colore Brasille 96. 

Color di grana dal verzino 97. 


or THB 






The following extracts relative to painting, and the 
composition of yamishes, were selected from a Manu- 
script of the sixteenth century, now in the Library of 
S. Marco at Venice, but which formerly belonged to 
the Patrician Nani. The Abbate Morelli thus de- 
scribes* the Manuscript: — 

" It is a collection of recipes which make us ac- 
quainted with many compositions of the old professors, 
used in medicine, surgery, farriery, chemistry, painting, 
illuminating, gilding, working in stucco, varnishing, 
and similar works. Some of the recipes are common, 
others but little known. They are written in the 
Tuscan dialect, and sometimes the names of those by 
whom they were practised are prefixed. Among these 
are Andrea di Salerno, Frate Venetiano, Sansovino, 
Giovanni da Udine, Fundano, &c." 

These various recipes appear to indicate that the 
MS., like many others, was compiled for the use of a 
convent by some monk or lay brother, who presided 
over the infirmary of the convent, compounded the 

I Cfttalo^o de' Codici Yolgari della Libreria Naniana, Venezia, 1776, p. 81. 



medicaments, and prepared varnishes and pigments — 
occupations which, during the middle ages, were fre- 
quently carried on by the same person. 

The recipes for farriery appear to me sufficient proof 
that the MS. was not written by an inhabitant of 
Venice, where they would have been useless, since 
there were no horses in that city in the sixteenth 

The names of the artists alluded to in the MS. show 
that the author lived during the beginning and middle 
of the sixteenth century. It is probable that some at 
least of the recipes were collected at Rome ; for the 
author remarks, in No. 238, '' This I had from Master 
Andrea di Salerno:" and it does not appear that 
Andrea ever resided at Florence. Dominici* says that 
he was for a short period the pupil of Raffaello, whom 
he left at Rome, in 1513, to return to his own country. 

1 In the fourteenth century, while Venice consiflted almost entirely of 
the Island of Rialto, and that on which stand the Piazn and Church of 
S. Marco, horses were used there, and it was the custom for the senators 
to ride on horseback to the Council Chamber ; it was eren considered be- 
neath their dignity to approach it in any other way. This (act, perhaps, 
accounts for the number of monuments in the different churches in Venice 
of men on horseback, which placed, as they generally are, high on the side 
wall, or over a lofty doorway, present a singular appearance. Shortly 
after this time the bounds of the dty were enlarged by banking up the 
islands and deepening the canals ; and gondolas, which soon became the 
favourite mode of conveyance, were introduced. The different parts of the 
city were united by bridges : but as the level of the streets was scarcely 
above high- water mark, the bridges were necessarily elevated in order to 
allow the gondolas to pass under them ; and as the ascent and descent 
would have been too steep for foot passengers, the surface was cut into 
steps, which still remain. These bridges, of course, led to the disuse of 
horses, which in a short time were no more seen at Venice. 

> See Lanzi, vol. ii., pp. 82, 251. Andrea di Salerno was also called 
Sabbatini. He was bom in 14S0, and died in 1546. 


Unless, therefore, it can be shown that this recipe was 
written in the kingdom of' Naples, we must suppose 
that it was written a short time previously to 1513. 
In this recipe it was recommended to mix the blue 
pigments employed in fresco painting with milk ; and 
as Andrea di Salerno worked with Baffaello, it may be 
inferred that this was the practice of the best masters 
of that period. 

A recipe invented by Giovanni da Udine, for making 
Stucco, is given in this MS. Giovanni also worked 
at Borne under Baffaello, who had been invited by his 
kinsman, Bramante, to decorate the Stanze of the 
Vatican for Pope Julius 11.^ This invitation must 
have been given previous to 1513, for Julius died in 
that year. In 1527 Bome was sacked, and many 
artists lefl the city after this melancholy event, to seek 
in other parts of Italy a home more congenial to the 
arts; among these was Giovanni da Udine, who for 
some time resided at Florence, where he decorated the 
Palace and the Chapel of S. Lorenzo. Giovanni died 
in 1561, or 1564.* This recipe was communicated by 
another artist named in this MS.| who, although a 
sculptor and architect by profession, exercised consi- 
derable influence on the sister art of painting. This 
was Jacopo Tatti, usually called Sansavino or San- 
sovino,' a native of Florence, who studied painting 
under Andrea del Sarto. Sansovino, whose fame ex^ 
tended beyond the bounds of his native city, went also 
to Borne, on the invitation of Giuliano di S. Gallo, the 

1 Julius II. was made Cardinal in 1471, and Pope in 1503. 

* Lanzi, Indice de* Professori. 

s Lena, vol. iii., p. 152; and Indice de* Professori. 


architect of Julius II. He continued to reside in this 
city, returning occasionally to Florence, until the sack 
of Rome, when he was obliged to take shelter at 
Venice, where he died in 1570, at the age of 91. 

From the above statements it appears that these 
three artists were at Rome between the years 1503 
(the period when Julius II. ascended the Papal throne) 
and 1527 (when Rome was sacked) ; and it is highly 
probable that the recipes were collected during this 
period. The notices, therefore, of the preparation of 
the colours and oil, and the various recipes for varnish, 
will be read with much interest; and may fairly be 
considered to have been employed at Rome and Flo- 
rence during the best era of Italian art. 

The following facts appear to be established by this 

1st. That colours for painting in oil were ground 
with oil only ; and, when too stiff for use, they were to 
be diluted with oil incorporated into the colour by 
working it in with the pencil. 

2nd. That linseed oil was purified by boiling it over 
the fire with water for three or four hours. It was then 
suffered to settle and purify. 

3rd. That olio-resinous varnishes were considered 
proper for colours and paintings in oil ; but whether 
they were mixed with the colours, or otherwise, does 
not clearly appear. 

4th. That powdered glass was used as a dryer for 
lakes and other colours which dried slowly in oil. 

5th. That all varnishes were extremely viscous, and 
were thinned for use as required. 

6th. That oil varnishes were common at this period. 



7th. That the " vemice comune ** sold by the apothe- 
caries or druggists at this period was composed of 
linseed oil, pece greca, and calcined alum. 

The MS. contains some information relative to paint- 
ing on glass, and we find that there were several 
methods then in use : — 

1st With certain metallic colours applied on the 
glass with gum-water, which, by the application of heat 
in the fiirnace, penetrated into the glass. 

2nd. With transparent colours mixed with oil, which 
were to be afterwards varnished. 

3rd. With coloured glasses or enamels brought from 

4th. With colours tempered with glue, or white of 

The first and third methods were probably united, 
and there is documentary evidence that painting on 
glass with vitrifiable pigments was known and practised 
in Italy during the fifteenth century; since in the 
latter half of this century it was usual to stipulate in 
contracts for painting windows, that the colours should 
be burnt in the fire, and not laid on with oil — " cotti 
al fiioco, e non messi a olio.'* ^ 

The method of gilding on glass, described in No. 
339, and attributed to a Venetian friar, may have been 
practised in the glass-works which have been carried 
on during so long a period at Murano. 

) See Carteggio Inedito d'Artisti, vol. it., p. 446—449 ; and tee also 
the Introduction to this work. 

( 608 ) 







214.* Yellow paste like amber. — Take of gum arabic oz. 3, 
of varnish in grains^ oz. 2, pulverize and mix them well toge- 
ther, place them in a glazed pipkin, and mix them with a drachm 
of saflron tempered with common water, and let them remain in 
that state until they become like a paste ; then take the yolk of 
an egg, strain it through an old but good linen cloth, incor- 
porate it with the before -mentioned ingredients, and model with 
it what you please. Then dry it in the sun until it is hard, and 
anoint it with white of egg which has been well beaten ; dry 
this also in the sun, and then varnish and gild it according to 
your pleasure. 

301. Divers colours for painting works in oily or " a putrido,*^ 
8fc} — And mark that the colours are of two kinds, one of which 
consists of those which have no body, and which do not conceal 
the colours laid under them, but only tinge them, as saffiron 
for instance ; the other consists of those which have body and 
which cover every other colour over which they are laid, and 
many of these colours are inimical to each other, so that by 
mixing together they spoil each other, as white lead and ver- 
digris and white lead and orpiment. 

1 The numbers in the margin refer to those in the original, 
s That is, in grains or tears. 

( 609 ) 





214. Pasta gicdla ameambra. — ^Togli gomma arabica 02 : 3. 
vennoe in gran oz : 2. polveriza bene ogni cosa et mescola et poni 
in una scodella invetriata et mesoolavi una dramma di zaffe- 
rano stemprato con aoqua comuney et stieno tanto cosi cbe di- 
▼entino come pasta, poi togli uno tuorlo dnovo, et colalo per 
peza lina veccbia ma buona, poi lo incorpora eon le predette 
coee, et improntane quello cbe vuoi ; poi seccba al sole cbe sia 
duro, poi ugni con cbiara d' uuovo cbe sia sbattata ben et sec- 
cba al sole, poi vernica et indora a tuo proposito. 

30L Colori diversi per dipingere e lavari a olio o putrido etc, 
~-£t nota cbe e colori sono di due sorte una cbe non hanno 
corpo e non proprono quello cbe trovono sotto, ma solamente 
tinghono, oome e verbigratia el zafferano etc. un altra sorte 
e che^ hanno corpo e quali quoprono ogni altro colore cbe 
^ trouoYono sotto, et molti sono inimici I'uno del altro in 
mode cbe mescolandogli insieme si guastono, come e biacca 
e verderame et biacca et orpimento. 

' A ptttrido->that is, with white of egg which has been suffered to stand 
until it has become decomposed. See MS. of Jehan Le Begue, No. 298, 
p. 282. 


If, then, you wish to make whiter take good white lead, and 
if you wish red, take lake or miniuni or cinnabar. The lake 
has no body, therefoi-e take cinnabar, and according as yon wish 
the colour to be more or less dark, take more or less lake. If 
you wish to make it still lighter add a little white lead, so that 
it may become lighter coloured, &c. 

302. If you wish to make Jksh colour take white lead and 
lake, and make it lighter or darker as you please. 

If you wish ffreeuy take verde azurro, and mix it with 
giallolino and white lead, making it darker or lighter as 
you please. If you have no verde azurro, take giallolino, or 
orpiment and azure ; mix them together, and you will have a 
green, adding more or less of one or the other according to the 
degree of obscurity which you may desire. 

303. " Pofflionazo " [jxivonazzo,^ — Take white lead and 
azure and red lake, mix well together, and if you wish the colour 
to be darker, add more azure ; if lighter, add more white lead, 
and if you wish it redder, put more lake. 

304. Yellow. — Take pure giallolino, item pure orpiment, 
item ochre ; and because these colours have no body, lay white 
lead underneath. 

305. Black. — ^Take peach stones and char them, or born 
ivory, which will make perfect black, &c. 

306. Grey. — Take white lead, verde terra, ochre, and black ; 
mix together, and put more or less of one or the other until 
the colour is to your mind. 

The colours which have no body are these : — 

309. Verdigris, lake, ochre and verde terra, and they are 
very proper for mixing with those colours which have body. 

The tempera of these colours, prepared " a putrido/' is water 
and the yolk of an egg, and the quantity to be used is rather 
less than half the quantity of colour. 


Se adunque vuoi fare bianco pigli biaccha Btietta, se rosso 
togli laccha, o minio, o cinabro. La laccha non ha corpo, pigla 
adunque el cinabro, et secondo che tn lo vuoi, piu o man- 
cho scuro, pigla piu o mancho laccha. Se lo vuoi fare anchora 
piu diiaro mettivi un poco di biaccha secondo che tu vedi che 
rischiara, etc. 

302. Se vuoi fare inchamato piglia biaccha e laccha tanto 
che lo &cda piu oecuro o piu chiaro come vuoi. 

Verde, piglia verde azurro et puossi mescolare con giallolino, 
et con biaccha, et sara jnu o mancho OBcuro secondo che vorrai, 
et 86 non hai verde azurro piglia del giallolino, o vero orpi- 
mento, et azurro et mescola insieme et &ra verde, et mettivi 
piii et mancho delF uno et del altro secondo che lo vuoi piu o 
manco oscuro. 

303. Paghonazo o piglia biaccha et azuro et rosso-laccha, et 
mescola insieme et se vuoi che sia piu oscuro, mettivi piu azur- 
ro, se piu chiaro piu biaccha. Se piu rosso piu laccha. 

304. Giallo piglia Giallolino stietto, item orpimento stietto. 
Item ocria, et perche non ha corpo campeggia sotto di biaccha. 

305. Nero, piglia noccioli di pesche et fane carboni o vero 
avorio ars% et fa perfetto nero, etc 

806. Bi^o, piglia biaccha, verde terra, ocria, eK nero, et mes- 
cola insieme et mettivi piu o manco dell* uno o dell' altro se- 
condo che tu vedi, e viene a tuo modo. 

Colori che nan hanno corpo sano qnetti : — 

309. £1 verderame, la laccha, I'ocria, el verde terra ; et son 
buoni a mescolare con quelli che hanno corpo. 

La tempera di quest! colori fatti a putrido .La acqua e el 
tuorlo del vuovo un pocho manco che la meta del colore etc. 

vou n. V 


314. To make ^^indaco.*^ — Take flowers of woad and alum 
water, boil them together, strain through a linen cloth into a 
vase ; then take what remains on the cloth, spread it out on a 
tile, dry it well, and it will then be fine '^ indaco." 

315. To make fine azure, — Take 6 ounces of copper filings, 3 
ounces o^ calcined eggshells, 4 ounces of sal alkali, and 2 ounces 
of quicklime. Pulverize them well and mix together ; then 
place them in a vase of tinned copper, adding* as much of tbe 
strongest white vinegar as will cover them, then make the vase 
air tight, and put it under dung (horse-dung is best) for 20 (»r 
25 days, after which you may take it out, and it will be done. 

323. A most beautiful red from verzinofor pairUing or writ- 
inff. — Take lime and make ley, and when you have made it 
and strained it through a cloth, take any quantity you please, 
and scrape into it some good verzino, using the quantity which 
seems best to you, and leave it in that state for 2 or 3 days, 
until you see that the ley has well extracted the colouring 
matter of the verzino ; then strain it through a cloth, and 
put on it as much pulverized roche alum as will make the 
whole of the material feel its virtue,* and let it dissolve. Then 
add to it as much pulverized gum arable as will give the colour 
sufficient body, and expose it to the sun for 3 or 4 di|ys, stirring 
it occasionally that the gum may be dissolved and well incor- 
porated ; and when you think it is well purified and of the pro- 
per colour, take it from the sun, strain through linen, and keep 
it for use. 

The longer it is exposed to the sun the thicker it will be, &c. ; 
and if you leave it so long as to become hard enough to require 
distempering when used, you may distemper it with a little of 
the same ley, and your writing and painting with it will then be 
very beautiful, &c. 

You may add that portion of the verzino which remains on 
the cloth after the first straining to other verzino, and repeat 

> That is, a quantity sufficient to coagulate it. 


314. A fare lo Indaco. — Togli fiore di guado, et acqua allu- 
minata, et fa bollire insieme, et con un panno lino cola sopra 
un vaso questa cocitura et quelle che rimane in sul panno dis- 
tendilo in su una tegola et fallo asciugbare bene, et e indaco 
fine etc, 

315. Afore azurrofino. — ^Togli limaturadi rame oz. 6 scorze 
di Tuova calcinate oz. 3. sale arcfaoli oz. 4. calce viva oz. 2 polver- 
iza ogni cosa et mescola bene insieme et penile in uno vaso di 
rame stagnate, et mettivi tanto aceto bianco fortissimo che quo- 
pra questa materia, et turalo che non respiri, et mettilo setto el 
litaxne et maxime di cavallo per 20 o 25 ^omi, di poi lo cava 
et sara fatto. 

323. Colore belKssimo rosso di verzino per dipingere et scri- 
f^e. — ^Togli calcina et fa liscia et quando Thai fatta et colata 
per peza pigliane quella quantita che tu vuoi, et rastiavi su del 
?erzino buono tanto quanto pare a te et lascialo stare cosi due 
o3di tanto che tu yegghache la liscia habbia cavato la sustan- 
tia bene del colore del verzino, poi lo cola per peza, et mettivi 
su tanto allume di roccha polverizato che tutta quella materia 
ne poBsa sentire destramente della sua virtu, et mestalo che si 
solya, et mettivi tanta goma arabica polverizzata che gli dia corpo 
(liscretamente, et tienlo tre o quattro di al sole, et rimestale 
qualche volta acdoche la goma si solva et incorporisi per tutto, 
et quando ti pare che sia bene purgato et fatto di colore a tuo 
muodo, lievalo dal sole et polalo per peza lina, et serbalo et 

Quanto piu eta al sole tanto piii si fa corpulente etc. £t se 

tu lo lasciassi stare tanto al sole che riventassi si sede che poi 

alio adoperare havessi bisogno di stemperare, stemperalo con un 

poco di quella liscia, et scrivi, et dipingi con esse, et farai luia 

cosa bella etc. 

Quella materia del verzino che rimane della prima colatura, 

vi puoi aggiugnere verzino eodem mode et rifame e o simile al 

u 2 



the process in the same manner, either adding the same kind 
of wood as at first, or uang a more common sort, accor^ng to 
the quantity which you may add, &c. 

325. Divers colours for colouring windou>-glasses and other 
tcorks, — If you wish to make a beautiful black which will pene- 
trate into the glass, take fine iron filings, especially those of 
needles, if you can procure them good, or otherwise those scales 
which fisiU from the iron when it is beaten while red hot on the 
anvil ; then take an equal quantity of burnt lead or tin, or per- 
haps rather more of the lead than of the iron, which you will learn 
by experience, and grind them well together, with water on the 
porphyry like any other colour. Then distemper the mixture 
with gum water made with soft water, and draw your subject 
on the glass with this, letting it dry in the shade ; place it in 
the fiimace of a potter (who will generally know how to regu- 
late the heat), and heat it according to the best of your know- 
ledge in an iron vase, otherwise cover it with ashes only, and it 
will be beautiful. 

Burnt lead or tin is prepared in the following manner: — Put 
as much as you wish of it into a vase over the fire and liqueff 
it ; and from time to time, while it is still over the fire, take off 
the scum, and continue to do this until no more arises. In 
order to refine it, put the whole into an empty vase; and 
while it is over the fire, stir it so that the whole of the contents 
may be well calcined, and then keep it for use. 

If you wish to make a beautiful yellow colour ' which may 
penetrate into the glass, grind some silver leaf with a little 
honey and water, that it may hold together ; then wash it in 

1 Silver, " either in the metallic or any other form, possesses the sin- 
gular property of imparting a transparent stain, when exposed to a low, red 
heat, in contact with glass. Modern glass painters are accustomed to obtain 
three colours from silver, yellow, orange, and red. For this purpose no 
flux is used, the prepared silver is merely ground up with ochre or clay, 
and applied in a thick layer upon the glass. When removed from the fur- 
nace the silver is found not at all adhering to the glass ; it is easily 8cni{KHJ 
off, leaving a transparent stain, which penetrates to a certain depth. If a 
large proportion of ochre has been employed, the stain is yellow ; if a small 


primo, o del piu dozinale secondo la quantita che ve ne aggi- 
ungi etc. 

325. Cohri diversi per cohrire vetri da finestre et da altri 
lavori. — Se lo vuoi fare nero bello et penetra nel vetro togli 
lioiatura fine di ferro, et maxime limatara d' agoro quanto se 
ne pofessi havere, e buona, o di quella scaglia del ferro che 
cascha quando si batte caldo in su 1' anchudine, et togli piombo 
Btagno arsoy d* ognuno parte egaale et piu presto un poco 
piu piombo che scaglia come per experientia vedraj, et macina 
bene con 1' acqua in sul porfido, et fanne a uso di colore, poi lo 
tempera con acqna di ghoma che sia dolce, et dipingi quelle 
che Tuoi in sul vetro et lascia secchare a V ombra, poi gli metti 
in fomace di questi che fanno stoviglie, e quali gli sanno com- 
munemente quocere et quocigli ut scis in vaso ferreo assuoli 
con la cenere et Terra bello. 

El piombo o lo stagno arso si £bi cosi. Metti quella quantita 
che ttt vuoi in uno vaso al fuoco e squaglialo, et stia cosi al 
fuoco, et quella stiuma che egli fa di mano in mano cayala, et 
tanto fa coei che si consumi in questa, poi per raffinaria mettila 
tatta insieme in quel vaso dove non sia altro, et stando sopra el 
fuoco, rimescolala in modo che si arda tutta bene, poi serbala al 

Se vuoi fare colore giallo et bello el quale etiam penetra nel 
vetro. Macina ariento in foglio con un poco di mele acciocche 
si tenga insieme et con Tacqua, poi lavalo con le ditta nella 

proportion, it is orange-colourod ; and by repeated exposure to the fire, 
without any additional colouring matter, the orange may be converted into 
red. This conversion of orange into red is, I believe, a matter of much 
nicety, in which experience only can ensure success. Till within a few 
years this was the only bright red in use among modem glass painters ; 
snd though the best specimens certainly produce a fine effect, yet it will 
■eldom bear comparison with the red employed in such profusion by the old 
artists." Extract from an Essay on the Art of Glass-painting in the Phi- 
lotopbical Magazine for December, 1836. 


water with the fingers until it is well purified, in the same manner 
as powdered gold is treated. Distemper this silver with gum 
water made with soft water, dry it, then heat it in a furnace as 
before, and it will become very beautiful, &c. 

If you wish to paint with other colours whidi, although beau- 
tiful, do not penetrate into the glass, but remain on the sur£sux, 
especially with verdigris, fine lake, peach-stone black, or char- 
coal black, and generally all the colours which have no body, 
and also with fine azure, that is, ceneri azzurri, ^ve a coat 
of nut oil or linseed oil, which last is to be preferred for 
painting on glass, according to the painting which you wish to 
execute, and let it dry in the shade ; then grind up the colour 
with the same oil, and paint upon the coat of oil and let it dry, 
and it will be beautiful ; and although the ooloiu* does not 
penetrate, it will for a long time remain beautifu], and you 
may even varnish it afterwards, according to the best of your 

And with these colours, and with coloured glasses brought 
from Germany, and with ornamental works done with gold 
^'ut scis," on glass, you will make Jieautifiil windows and 
other works. 

And when you paint with the verdigris, if you grind some 
safiron in the same manner with the before-mentioned oil, 
and with this distemper the verdigris, it will be a green so 
much the more beautiful, &c 

You may also paint with these colours on window glasses 
and on drinking glasses, and on other utensils made of glass ; 
and you may also fasten on the glass leaf gold and silver ; and 
on this you may paint with colours or smalti, whichever you 
please ; and in the same manner you may lay divers colours 
over each other, and you will thus execute most beautiful 
works on glass or crystal, on vases, windows, and bell-glasses, 
and on plates of glass which are to be afterwards joined toge- 
ther, and a thousand di£Perent kinds of painting according to 
your taste, &c. 

328. If you wish to paint on glass ^^aputrido^ — First lay 


acqua tante volte che sia bene purghato come si fa aV oro 
madnato : poi tempera questo ariento con acqua di ghoma che 
sia dolce et lajscia secchare ; poi quoci in fornace ut supra et 
verra molto bello etc. 

Se vuoi colorire d' altri colori e quali saranno begli ma non 
penetrano nel vetro, ma stanno in superficie : et maxime verde- 
rame, laccha fine, nero di noccioli di pesca arsi, o di carbone 
et universalmente tutti e colori che non hanno corpo et azurro 
fine . I . di cenere, etc. Da col pennello una mano di olio di 
Doce, o di lino e meglio in sul vetro secondo la dipintura che 
Tuoi &rey poi lascialo bene secare a V ombra, poi macina el 
colore con detto olio, et dipingi sopra quelle, et lascia secchare ; 
et sai% bello, et benche non penetri durera assai tempo bello, 
paoi etiam poi invemicarlo ut scis. 

Et con questi colori et con vetri coloriti, che vengono della 
magna, et con lavori fatti d' oro ut scis in sul vetro farai bellis- 
sime finestre et lavori. 

Et quando tu dipingi col verderame, macina del zafierano al 
medesimo modo con detto olio et con questo tempera el colore 
del verderame et sara tanto piu bello verde etc. 

Puoi etiam in su vetri da finestre et bicchieri, et altri lavori 
di vetro fare lavori di questi colori et puoi etiam appicchare in 
sul vetro Y oro et V argento di pezi, et in su quelle lavorare di 
colori et di smalti quelle che vuoi etiam di diversi colori V uno 
sopra r altro, et in questo modo farai lavori bellissimi sopra 
retro o cristallo, sopra vasi, finestre, et campane, et piastre di 
vetro da congiungerle poi insieme, et fare mille lavori secondo 
la toa fantasia. 

328. Se vuoi dipigniere in sul vetro a putrido, — Da prima 


on a coat of soft and hot glae, and when this is dry paint 
on it. 

You may temper the colours with yolk of egg, and also with 
weak and slightly warm glue, the blue and white especially, 
for these two colours are much more beautiful and bright when 
distempered with glue than with yolk of egg. 

When you paint with blue in fresco, that is, on walls, and 
you desire that it may retain its colour and not turn black, as 
generally happens to the blues, dbtemper the colour with the 
milk of goats or of any other animal. This I had from Master 
Andrea de Salerno. 

329. The mode of making the best black printing ink. — Make 
a large lantern^ two feet and a half broad on each side, and ten 
or twelve feet in height, and cover it with cotton paper or 
parchment, for one \& as good as the other, and let there be a 
door at the foot of it, and put into it a tripod, and on the tripod 
a pan, and on the pan two pounds of Greek pitch. Set the 
pitch on fire, then shut the door ; take care that the lantern is 
air-tight, and let the pitch bum until it is entirely consumed, 
when the smoke frt)m it will affix itself to the interior of the 
lantern like soot ; then take out the earthen pan and the tripods 
shut the door, and with a rod beat the outside of the lantern, 
when the black will fall to the bottom, leave it to settle there ; 
then take it out and preserve it for use. But if you wish to 
clean the lantern more perfectly, tie some hen's feathers to a 
rod, and sweep the inside of the lantern with these, and add 
the black which you thus sweep off to the other black. When 
you desire to make printing ink, take the varnish which is used 
for varnishing, and the more perfect its quality the better. But 
in default of other, you may use that common sort which is 
sold by the apothecaries^ for varnishing wood and similar 
things, and procure a wooden rod, such as is used in making 
carpenters' glue, with which the varnish is to be stirred ; and 
put some of the black into it, and liquefy it as you require it ; 
and with this you know books are printed, &c. 

* Sec the recipe for " Vernice comunc,** No. 406, 



una mano di colla doloe et calda et quando e seccha dipingivi 

Et puoi temperare i colori col tuorlo dello vuovo, et etiaiii 
ODD la ooUa doloe et un pooo calda, et maxime lo azurro et el 
bianco per questi due colori vengono piu begli et piu chiari a 
temperargli con la colla che con V uoto. 

Et quando tu dipiugi con 1' azurro, in fresco cioe in siil 
muro et tu voglia che mantenga il colore et non riventi nero 
come comunemente fanno gli azurri, temperalo col latte o sia di 
capra o d' altro non importa. Hoc habui a Magistro Andrea 
de Salerno. 

329. Modo di fare el nero da stampare e libri optimo. — Fa 
un lantemone largo per ogni verso un braccio et quarto et alto 
cinque o sei braccia, et incartalo di carta bombagina o pecora 
non importa ; et da pie fa che habbia uno sportello et mettivi 
un tre pie et in sul tre pie un tegame ; et nel tegame due libre 
di pece greca et metti fuoco nella pece, et serro lo sportello, et 
fa che el lantemone non sfiati da alcuna parte, et lascia ardere, 
tutto el fumo che riesce s' appicha per il lantemone, a uso di 
filiggine ; alhora cava el tegame et el tre pie, et sera lo spor- 
tello, poi batti di fiiora el lantemone con una bacchetta, et 
quella materia chaschera in fondo, lasciala riposare, poi la cava 
et serbala et se tu vuoi meglio nettare il lantemone, in sur una 
bacchetta legate penne di gallina et spazalo dentro per tutto, 
et questo serba col primo, et quando voi fare la compositione 
per istampare, togli vernice fatta da invemicare, quanto mig- 
liore e tanto e meglio : ma basta di quella comune che vendono 
gli spetiali per invemicar legname et ogni cosa : et habbia un 
menatoio di legno di quegli da fare colla da legnaiuoli, et ri- 
mena di questa vernice et mettivi di questa materia, et falla 
liquida a tuo proposito, et con questa si stampa i libri come tu 
sai, etc. 


339. Mordant for gilding ghus, which has been tried by a 
Venetian friar. — Take one ounce of mastic which has been 
roastedy not burnt, but dried carefally, one ounce of coperoea' 
which must be fine and white and not grey, one ounce of yar- 
nish in grains, and half an ounce of burnt roche alum. Pul- 
verize the ingredients finely, and grind them up with weU puri- 
fied linseed oil. When you use this mordant, grind it with 
linseed oil well purified, and when you use it distemper it with 
the same oil, so that it may be of the consistence of ink, lay it 
on the glass, and expose it to the sun when it does not shine 
very strongly, and if the sun is very hot, place it in the shade, 
but in such a place that the sun may be reflected on it, and let 
it dry so far that when touched with the Qnger a slight impres- 
sion may be left on it ^lien this is the case, lay on the gold 
and let it dry well ; then clean it with the cotton, varmsh the 
gold, and let it become perfectly dry. 

But do not wash vases gilded in this manner except with fteA\ 
water, and be very careful in rubbing them. 

Linseed oil is thus purified : — Boil it over the fire with water 
for 3 or 4 hours, then let it settle and separate it from the 

* Thried by the painter Fundano? — A most excellent mor- 
dant for laying gold on oil paintings, on walls, on wood, on 
leather, on silk, and on cloth, and on everything you please, 
first laying on glue (and fish glue is best) wherever you may 
wish to lay on gold ; and the glue must be applied thinly on 
cloth and similar things in order that the cloth and silk may not 
absorb it. The glue being laid on and dried, the mordant is 
applied, and then immediately the gold, leaving it to dry, and 
not burnishing it. So where there is no glue lay on the mor- 
dant, and immediately after apply the gold. 

346. On marble and stones, — Take linseed oil boiled in 
the usual way, and take giallolino and verdigris and tow (?) 
in equal parts ; grind these tilings dry, then mix them with 

Sulphate of Zinc. « From p. 167 of MS. 

MORDENT!. 621 

339. Mordente per parre oro in vetro exfraire vinitiano pro- 
vato. — ^Togli mastice abbruciato, ma non sia arso, ma diseccato 
discretamente once una, et coperosa che sia bella et bianca et 
Don bigia oncie mia. Yernice in grani onde una. AUume di 
rocha arso oncie mezza. Polverizza ogni cosa sottilmente, et 
macina con olio di lino bene purificato : et quando lo adoperi 
stemperalo etiam cum questo olio che vengo come inchiostro 
cioe corrente ; et polio in sul vetro, et poi polio a sole che non 
sia molto caldo ; et se el sole fussi caldo assai polio a sechare a 
Fombra dove el caldo del sole reverbera, et secchisi tanto che 
resti in modo che toccandolo col dito pizichi un poco et all'hora 
poni loro et lascia seccare poi spaza e campi con la bombagnia 
quando e secco bene. £t poi davi su la vemice in su loro et 
&lla bene seccare. 

Ma non lavare questi vasi dorati in questa maniera, se non 
COD acqua fresca et stropicciali discretamente. 

L'olio di lino si purifica cosi : &II0 bolire al fuoco tre o 
quattro bore con Tacqua, poi lascialo riposare poi separalo dalF 

Ex pinctore fandomo pravato. — Mordente ottimo a porre 
ore in muro sopra dipinture a olio in su legno in cuojo et 
seta in tela, ma dando prima la coUa et in su ogni altra cosa 
che Tuoi, dando la colla dove bisognassi daria : et di pescie e 
m^lio, et in su tela o simili cose da la un poco tenaretta accioche 
la tela o seta non la bea, et data la colla et seccha si pone el 
mordente et subito Toro et lascia secchare et non brunire, simil- 
mente dove non si pone la colla, poni el mordente et subito I'oro. 

346. In sul marmo et pietre. — ^Togli olio di seme di lino se- 
coDda la quantita che ne vuoi fare, cotto ut scis et togli giallo- 
lino, verderame, et stoppino in parte eguale, macina queste 

' Lanzi mentions seven painters of the name of Fontana, most of whom 
flourished io the sixteenth century. 


oil, and lay the first coat on the marble or stone, and let it 
dry. This is done on account of the fragility of the marble, 
in order that it may not spoil the other things which are laid 
on it, &c. 

Then lay on a coat of liquid and hot glue, and proceed aa 
aboye directed. 

Although these coats must be very dry they should not 
remain long exposed to the sun, but for a short time only, espe- 
cially in winter, and then rather to prevent their being cold than 
for the purpose of drying them in the sun. 

' And observe, as an universal rule, that all oil mordants resist 
the water, and that those in which no oil is used do not with- 
stand the water, &c. 

Also when you wish to lay the mordant on polished iron or 
marble, or any other polished surface, you must first lay on a 
coat of glue neither too thin nor too thick, and let this dry ; 
then lay on the mordant, and then the gold, because without 
the glue, the mordant would not adhere firmly. 

351. Item. A moit excellent mordant of garlic juice for gild'- 
ing all things^ pasteboard^ panels^ toa/&, tron, marble^ tin, gessoy 
and leather, even if they are rough, — Take gum ammoniac, re- 
duce it to powder by pounding it on a stone with garlic juice, and 
while grinding it, add a little gum arable in such quantity that 
all the substances which you are grinding may have a slight pro- 
|K)rtion of it, because if you were to put too much it would dry 
too quick. Then grind up so much bole as will colour the whole 
substance, and grind up all these things together one after the 
other with garlic juice strained through linen, and if during the 
grinding these ingredients should become too viscous on account 
of the garlic juice and consequently difficult to grind, add some 
vinegar, but not more than is necessary. It is then finished, 
and you may use it immediately, distempering it with vinegar so 
that it may be sufficiently liquid and may flow well on the pencil. 
If you wish to preserve it ready made, it will keep for some 

' From p. 171 of MS. 


cose asciutte et mescola con I'olio, et da il primo letto in sul 
marmo o pietra, et lascia secchare, et questo n fa per la fra- 
gilita del marmo accib che la non guasti I'altre cose che vi si 
pongano su etc. 

Poi da una mano di coUa liquida et calda poi fa tutto come h 
detto di sopra. 

Queste cose anchora che bisogni sieno bene secche non vog- 
liono molto stare al sole se non un poco, et maxime di ?emo, 
piu per conforto del freddo che per secchare col sole. 

Et nota che nniversalmente, tutti e mordenti a olio reg^ono 
a I'acqua il che non fanno gli altri che non sono fisitti con 
rdio etc. 

Itemquando vuoidare il mordente insul ferropulito, o mar- 
mo o altra simile cosa liscia : da prima una mano di colla, 
non troppo liquida ne troppo tenace, et lasciala seccare, poi da 
el mordente, poi poni I'oro : perche senza quella coUa non si 
appicberebbe bene el mordente. 

351. Item. Mordente di sugho d^aglo ottimo per parre aro in 
su ogni cosa^ cartaniy tavolaj murOy ferro, fnarmOy staffno^ gesso^ 
gopra corame etiam ckefttsse crespo. — Togli armoniaco et pes- 
talo in polvere prima, poi lo macina in su la pietra con sugho 
d'aglo poi vi metti macinando un poco di gomma arabica, tanta 
che tutta quella materia macinata ne senta per tutto modes- 
tamente, perche la troppa sarebbe troppo di secchativa, poi simul 
etiam madna tanto bolio che dia colore a tutta questa materia, 
tatte queste cose macina insieme Tuna dopo I'altra con sugo 
d*aglo colato per peza, et se nel macinare queste cose le fossino 
troppo viscose per amore del sugo, et non le potessi cosi bene 
macinare, mettivi dello aceto quanto puoi forse tanto che basti 
a fare bene macinare et e fatto : Et lo puoi adoperare al' bora 
se tu vuoi, et stemperalo con I'aceto tanto che sia liquido che 
corra bene col pennello a tuo proposito. Et se tu lo vuoi serbare 
fiitto dura assai tempo et quando ne vuoi adoperare sendo sodo 
stempera <M)n aceto ut dictum est. 


time, and when you wish to use it, distemper with Tinegar as 
previously directed. 

353. Item, A mordant of garlic juice, — Pound the garfic, 
and pass the juice through a linen cloth, then grind up this juice 
with a little white lead to give it proper body, adding Arme- 
nian bole in quantity sufficient to colour it entirely, and as much 
urine as is sufficient to enable you to grind and incorporate it 
well, to make it sufficiently liquid to be applied well with the 
pencil. Then lay it on your work, let it dry, moisten it by 
breathing on it, lay on the gold and fix it with cotton ; then let 
it dry. You may preserve this mordant for some time after it 
is made, and when you wish to use it, if you find it hard dis- 
temper it with urine> tlien gild and burnish the work. And I 
think, according to the experience that I have had of the simple 
garlic juice, that it is good for laying gold on almost every- 
thing, even on marble, and it is not afiected by the dampness 
of the marble, or by the dampness of its situation unless it is 
exposed to the rain, and in this case every mordant of garlic is 

And if you wish to gild on silver with amalgam in some pkces 
only, and not all over, lay garlic juice with the pencil over 
those parts to which you intend the gold shall not adhere, and 
let it dry. Then lay on the gold with the amalgam all over, 
just as any other thing is gilded with amalgam, and the gold 
will not adhere to those parts on which garlic has been ap- 
plied, and you will thus have the gold alone on clean grounds. 
You may then remove the garlic juice from the work and dean 
it well, and in this manner you may execute beautiful works. 

Take aLso any work executed in tin after your own design, 
and clean it well ; then cut, or pound, or bruise a clove of dean 
garlic, and anoint well with it the tin over the design on which 
you wish to lay the leaf gold ; then gild and fix the gold with 
the cotton, and let it dry ; afterwards burnish it dexterously, 
and, lastly, uncover the ground of tin which you did not intend 
to pld. On these you may paint or enamel, or varnish, and 
execute most beautiftil works. 

MORDENll. 625 

353. 7^^171. Mordente di sugo daglo. — Pesta Taglo et passalo 
per peza» poi macina di questo sugo con un poco di biacca tanto 
che gli dia corpo a discritione, et poi tanto bolio armenio che 
tiDga quella qualita che tu macini, et tanta orina che basti a 
farla bene macinata, et incorporata, et liquida a tuo proposito per 
darlo col pennello, et polio in sullavoro et lascialo secchare, poi 
lo rinyieni con \ alito caldo, et poni 1' oro, et fermalo con la sua 
bambagia, et lascialo seccare ; poi spaza e campi ut scis. Questo 
mordente, dura assai tempo fatto, et quando ne vuoi adoperare 
et fiissi durOy stemperalo con 1' orina, pruova a brunire. £t 
credo secondo la esperientia che ho del sugo d' aglio semplice 
che sia buono a porre olio quasi in su ogni materia ; et etiam 
in sul marmo, et non rinviene propter humiditatem marmoris 
nee loci humidi, nisi desuper pluat, il che fa etiam ogni mor- 
dente d' agio. 

Et se vuoi dorare sopra argento com malgama et vuoi che 
resti dorato in alcun luogo et non per tutto, dove tu vuoi che 
r oro non si appichi ; da col pennello sugo d' agio, et lascialo 
secchare ; poi da \ oro con la malgama per tutto come si dora 
ognaltra cosa con malgama, et dove sara il sugo dello aglio, 
non si attachera, et cosi harai 1' oro solo in su campi netti, poi 
puoi levare el sugo del aglio et nettare bene^ et farai lavori 
begli et netti. 

Togli etiam el lavoro di stagno fatto a tuo modo et nettalo 
t>eQe, poi habbia uno spicchio d' agio mondo, et taglialo o sop- 
pestalo, o masticalo et poi ugni con esso sottile lo stagno sopra 
el disegno dove tu vuoi porre 1' oro di pezzi et ponvi loro et fer- 
malo bene con la bambagia poi lo lascia secchare, poi lo bru- 
nisci destramente, et poi scoprire poi e campi dello stagno dove 
tu non vuoi che sia loro, puoi etiam sopra loro dipignere snial- 
tare invernicare, et farai lavori bellissimi. 


You may also draw what you please on the tin, and gild the 
remainder of the ground ; thus the works will be tin, and the 
ground gold. 

You may also try the experiment on parchment or cotton 
paper, first polishing it, and then anointing it witli the cut 
clove of garlic, having previously bruised or pounded the 
garlic, if necessary, gilding it as above and burnish it if you 

370. Colours tempered with oil are prepared in the following 
manner. — Grind up the colour wit& linseed or nut oil as stiff as 
you can, that is, with as little oil as posable, and so that it may 
be very fine, and that on being felt between the fingers, no 
hard grains can be perceived ; and when you paint with it, if 
you find the colour too stiff, dip the pencil in a little dl and 
incorporate it well with the colour. 

877. A most excellent glue for damp and moist places which 
alvoays becornes harder^ but only fears the heat, and fives every- 
thing to wood and sfone^ which must be cu smooth as porphyry. — 
Take one pound of good yellow wax, nine ounces of liquid 
varnish, and one pound of black naval pitch. Put the vamidi 
into a pipkin over a slow fire, that is hot enough to liquefy 
without burning it ; ^ then throw in the wax, liquefy it in the 
same manner and incorporate it well with the varnish ; then do 
the same with the pitch, having previously pounded it, etc. Hien 
take Armenian bole ground to a fine powder, and stir some of 
it into the other ingredients until the whole material becomes 
liquid, and yet so tenacious that it fixes and holds together 
firmly the things which you wish to glue together ; and you must 
stir the ingredients well together and use them warm, because in 
a short time the cement hardens so that you cannot glue with 
it. And when you have applied it where you please, and wish to 
make the surface smooth and polished, take a firebrand fit)m 
the fire and bring it near to the glue until the heat causes it to 
liquefy and spread ; you should also move about the firebrand 

> A proof that varnish was eztremeljr viscous, if not absolutely solid. 


£t puoi etiam disegnare lo stagno seoondo che tu vuoi et poi 
el resto de campi mettere a oro et oosi e lavori saranno biancbi, 
et ercampo doro. 

Puoi prouare anchora ad ugnere la carta pecora et bamba- 
^na, prima lisciata et poi ugneria sottilmente con lo spiochio 
del a^o tagliato, et se bisogna masticato o sottopoBto et porre 
r oro Qt supra et vedere se esibrunisse. 

370. E cohri temperati a olio si farmo in questo modo. — 
Macina el colore con olio di lino, o di noce et macinalo duro 
quanto puoi, .1. con poco olio, quanto puoi, et macinalo tanto cbe 
aa bene sottile che tu lo senta col ditto senza nocciolino o 
rendina alcuna : similmente quando tu dipigni e ti fussi troppo 
sodo toca un poco d' olio col pennello et incorpora bene col 

377. CoUa ottima per luogki humidi d molli che sempre piu 

induriwce^ ma solo feme el caldo et appicha ogni cosa insino a legno 

con pietra et che la pietra sia liscia come porfido. — ^Togli cera 

^alla buona libbra ima. Vemice liquida oz. novo. Pece nera 

navale lib. una. Metti la vemice in uno pignattino, et poni al 

fiioco lento che si scaldi bene, et si squagli et non arda, poi 

mettivi lacera et squagliala similmente et incorpora colla ver- 

nice ben, poi fii similmente della pece la quale prima sia pesta 

bene etc pdi habbia bolio armenio pesto bene in polvere et 

mettivene su tanto che tutta questa materia resti tanto liquida 

che possa essere tenace in modo che si possa bene appicchare, et 

tamen pig^ et tenga forte a cose le quali yuoi incollare insieme, 

et incorpora bene ogni cosa insieme, et subito cosi calda incolla 

qnello che Tuoi, perche aspetta poco et indurisce poi in modo, 

che non potresti incollare. Et quando tu 1' hai posto dove tu 

vuoi, et tu lo Yoglia fare liscia et pulita di sopra, togli un 

tizone di fuoco et accostalo alia colla tanto che senta el fuoco 

et si distenda per se medesima, et va menando il tizone per 

tutto et falla distendere, et assottigliare a tuo modo, et verra 

vou II. 


over the surface of the glue, and melt it so that it at length 
becomes smooth and beautiful, &c. And on putting the woii 
which you have cemented into water, it will immediately be- 
come very hard. 

394. Modes of making divers wimiAes ; and firsts of "fcn- 
ffivC^ (Bemoin), which will dry in the shade. — Take 2 oz. of 
spirit of wine which has been distilled 4 times (that which 
has been distilled 3 times will do, but not so well), and 
one ounce of benzoin. Put the ingredients into a bottle, 
and shake them until the benzoin is dissolved ; the varnish b 
then finished. It must be kept in a vessel closely stopped. 
This is a very fine varnish upon miniatures and all other deli- 
cate works, on paste, or glue, or wood, and also on paper afid 

395. Item, a varnish, — Take one pound of linseed oil, boiled 
" ut sds,^' * etc., and anoint the vessel with it while hot, and 4 
ounces of pounded carabe; " place it to dissolve with die bottle 
closed on the coals, and when it is nearly dissolved pour in 
the hot oil and stop it up ; afterwards, at the proper time, when 
the whole is dissolved, stir in 3 oz. of alum. 

Dilute the varnish with the necessary quantity of naj^tha, 
or linseed oil, or spirit of wine, and use it warm. 

396. /fern, a varnish of benzoin^ which dries very quickly and 
may be used on everything^ because it is pate and admirable far 
all delicate works.'^-Vui into a large glass vessel 5 ounces of 
good spirit of wine, with an ounce of fine benzoin pounded 
into very small pieces ; stop the vessel closely, and agitate it 
until the benzoin is well dissolved. Then let it stand for a day 
and a night ; pour ofi^ the clear part, throw away the sediment 
at the bottom, and keep the liquid in a welln^losed glass vessel : 
this liquid is tiie varnish. 

397. Item^ an excellent varnish which is made without the aid 

* Ut scis, &c. See ante, No. 339, p. 620. 

s The word is written ^^Carbone" in the MS. in the Marciana, and 
**• carabone " in recij)es somewhat similar in the Nuovo Plico and Abece* 
dario. 1 have vexHured to translate it " carabe *' (amber), because it is quite 


liada et bella etc. £t mettendo il layoro incollato nelF aoqua 
freaca si faiu subito durissima. 

394. Modi di fare vemice di Verse et prima di bengim che 
teeha etiam a/' ombra. — Togli aoqua yite Btillata quattro Tolte, 
tre Yolte fii, ma non si perfettamente oz due bengivi oz una di- 
guaza in ampoUa usque ad aolutione belzui ut Bcis, et e fatta : 
serbala turafca : questa e coea finissima, quasi sopra miniature, 
et ogoi altro lavwo fine di pasta, o coUe o legname et cartoni, 
et yetro. 

895. Item vemice, — Togli olio di lino libre una cotto ut scis 
etc ugni la boocia cum illo calido : carbone oz quattro, pesta et 
pooi a solyere con la boocia turata in su carboni, et quando e 
quasi soluta inmitte olium calidum et tura ; de inde tempore 
suo quantum est aolutum, inmitte tres uncias alluminis. 

Stempera coo olio di sasso . I . petronio o di lino o aoqua yite 
qn opz caldar. ut scis ^c. 

396. Item Vemice di bengim che eeceha prestissimo etpuossi 
^>v in ogni luogo pereM i chiara et mirabile in su ogtii lavoro 
faiissimo. — ^Metti in una ampoUa grossa di vetro og cinque d' 
*^ua yite buona, et una oz di belzui buono pesto in pezzuoli 
iiunoti, et metti tutta detta acqua et tutto il bengiyi et tura 
1 ampolla bene et diguazala tanto che el bengiyi si solya bene : 
poi lasdalo posare un giorno, et una notte poi cayala per de- 
chnatione et buta yia el fondaccio che resta, et senra questa 
^ua bene turata nella ampolla et questa e la yemice. 

397. Item vemice ottima la quale si fa senzafuocOf et seecha 

cfearthftt carbone does not liquefy over the fire, and becaiue, after a diUgent 
^^irch, I can attach no other meaning to it. I consider this to be the com- 
mon recipe for amber varnish : the amber being dissolved in a vessel prc- 
^^^7 greased to prevent it from burning, before the hot oil is added. 



offirtj which dries very quickly vnthaui being exposed to the son, 
and remains very clear j and with which may be varnished any- 
thing painted on panels pasteboard^ or iron. — ^Take qiirit of wine 
which has been rectified at least three times, because otherwise 
it would not dissolve the benzoin properly, and put it in a glass 
Tessel ; then take some benzoin and add either at once, or a 
little at a time, that quantity which you know to be suffitaoit. 
Then stop up the bottle and agitate it until the benzoin is ^- 
tirely dissolved ; and if, after it is dissolved^ it b of the con- 
sistence of good ** vemice liquida,*' and, as it were, tenacious^ 
and yamishes well, it is finished ; but if it is too thick, add 
more spirit of wine until you bring it to the correct standard ; 
and if it is too thin, add more benzoin. You may then pre- 
serve it for use. 

398. Item, a varnish tried by Master Jacopo de Monie San 
SavinOf the Sculptor^ which is proper for every kind of work 
and on all materials. — ^Take one ounce of sandarftc, (pround to 
a very fine powder, and 3 ounces of clear nut oil. Heat the 
oil in a glazed pipkin over a slow fire in the same manner as 
linseed oil is boiled ; then add the powdered sandarac a little 
at a time until it is dissolved ; add to it also at the same time 
so much clear incense finely powdered as will impart a pleasant 
savour to the whole mixture, stirring it well that it may dis- 
solve, and, if you please, you may also add a sufficient quantify 
of burnt and pounded roche alum to have a sensible effect on 
the whole composition ; and the addition of the alum will im- 
prove the varnish if you stir it until it is dissolved. It should 
then be strained through a linen cloth, and afterwards exposed 
to the sun and dew until a sediment is formed, which should 
be separated by pouring off the clear varnish, after which it 
will be ready for use. 

399. Itemy a varnish which spreads like oilj dries quickfy, and 
is very lustrous and beauJtifvl^ appearing like a glass mirror j and 
which is admirable for adhering firmly and for varnishing lutes 
and similar things, — Take one pound of linseed oil, boil it 
in the proper manner in a clean glazed pipkin, add to it half 


senza sole prestissimo^ et resta molto chiara^ et si pub vemicare 
offni lavoro dipinto in tavola o in cartoni o sul ferro. — Togli 
acqua vite che sia passata ire volte almanco perch^ non sol- 
Terebbe bene altrimenti et mettila in una ampolla di vetro, et 
togli del bengivi et mettivene dentro quella quaniita, tutta a 
nn tratto, o a poco a poco che sia abastanza ut intelliges : et 
tura r ampolla, et diguasa tanto che el bengivi si solva tutto 
bene, et se quando e soluto ti resta come vernice liquida buona, 
e che sia in modo tenace che invemichi bene, a 1' bora h fatta. 
Sn autem, se fnssi troppo dura aggiungivi tanta acqua vite 
che torni ala misura, et se fiissi troppa liquida aggiugnivi 
tanto bengivi che torni al proposito, et serbala et adoperala. 

398. Item vemiee ex Ma^. Jaccbo de Monte S. Savino scul" 
toreprooata, Et serve a ogni lavoro et in ogni materia, — Tc^li 
una oz di vernice in grani macinata sottilissima et tre oncie di 
olio di noce chiaro ; quoci I'olio lento igne in pignattino inve- 
triato, come si cuoce Y olio di lino : poi mettivi su la vernice a 
poco a poco, mestando anche quousque solvatur : poi mettivi 
8u al medesimo modo tanto incenso chiaro polverizato sottile, 
che condischa discretamente tutta la materia et mescola tanto 
che d solva bene, et se vuoi poi mettivi tanto allume di roccha 
arao et pesto che condischa questa materia virtute sua : tanto 
saramiglore, et mesta quousque solvatur. Poi colala per pezji 
hna poi tienla al sole, et al sereno poi colala per declinatione, 
et serbala et adoperala etc. 

399. Item Vernice che si distende come olio et seecha presto 
et ^ moUo bistrante et bella et pare uno specchio di vetro et per 
stetre a la cosa et sopra liuti et simile cose h mirabile. — Togli 
per una misura : una libra d' olio di linseme, et quocilo come 
^ fii in una pignatta invetriata netta, poi vi metti su meza 


a pound of well pulverized dear and fine Greek pitch, and 
stir and incorporate the whole oyer a slow fire ; then add half 
a pound of powdered mastic, and the moment you haye done 
so, withdraw the pipkin gradually from the fire, hecause it 
swells up, and incorporate the ingredients thoroughly ; then re- 
place the pipkin on the fire, and keep it there until cTerythiog 
is well dissolved and mixed, when some burnt and pounded 
roche alum of the size of a nut should be added and mixed, 
until that also is entirely dissolved and incorporated. Then 
take the varnish off the fire and strain it through an old linen 
cloth. Your varnish is then made, and it will be found to be 
beautiful varnish for wood, iron, paper, leather, and all kinds 
of painting and works, and for withstanding water. When you 
find it too viscous, dilute it with linseed oil in the proper 

400. Item, a most excellent varnish qfnuuticfor lutes, leather, 
panels, cloths, wood^ and pasteboard. — ^Take 3 ounces of strained 
and clear linseed oil, and boil it. Then take half an ounce of 
mastic pounded and ground, and add it gradually to the oil, 
mixing it in such a manner that it may be entirely dissolved and 
incorporated with the oil, and that it be properly evaporated and 
made into a varnish *^ ut scis ;" then put in a little pulverised 
roche alum at discretion, but sufficient to afiect all tibe yamish ; 
keep it over the fire until it is entirely dissolved and incorporated 
with the varnish and evaporated, after which you may take it 
off the fire, and strain it throu^ an old and good linen clotb, 
when it will be finished. But observe that everything should 
be done over a charcoal fire and with great care. 

401. Item. A most excellent mastic varnish. — ^Take one 
pound of mastic, half a pound of naphtha, and half an ounce of 
clear nut oil ; melt them together in a bottie or glass over a 
charcoal fire, and strain through an old linen cloth. 

402. Item. A most excellent clear and drying varnish pro- 
per for colours^ both in oil-painting and otlwr kinds of painting. — 
Take 2 ounces of clear and good nut oil, one ounce of clear and 
good Greek pitch, and half an ounce of clear and good mastic ; 


liblNa di pece grecba chiara et bella et polverizzata et mesta 
quando la metd, tanto che si incorpori bene a fuoco dolce, poi 
vi metta su mezza libra di mastice macinato, et quando lo metti 
perdi^ ei rigonfia lererai perb la pignata da fuoco et mettilo 
su a pooo a poco raestando et iaeorporaadolo bene, poi torna la 
pignata al fnooo et mesta tanto ohe si solva ogni cosa bene, poi 
mettivi quanto una noce di allume di roccha areo pesto et 
mesta che si solva et incorpori bene poi lievala dal fuoco et 
colala per peza lina veecfaia et serbala, et per legname, et per 
ferro et per carta et corame et per ogni dipintura et lavoro 
&ra un opera bellissima et per stare alia aqua, et quando ti 
pare soda stempera con olio di lino come si fa etc. 

400. Item Vemiee di Mastice optima per LitUi, qtioioy dipin- 
tare di Tavola et di tda^ per lavari di legname et oartani. — 
Togli tre oz d' olio di lino colato et cbiaro, et quocilo, poi abbia 
un oz ^ di mastice pesto et macinato, et mettilo in sul' olio a 
poco a poco mestando in modo che si solva et incorpori bene 
oon 1' olio et che aa afiunato ben et fatta vemiee, ut scis ; poi 
mattavi un pooo di allume di roccha arso et pesto, et sia a di^ 
cretione aecondo che tutta la quantita della vemiee ne parti- 
cipi : et ata al fuoco taoto che si risolva et incorpori la virtu 
sua ooUa yemice et svt^ri, ritiralo poi dal fuooo, et colala con 
peza lina vecchia et buona, et e fatta. fa ogni cosa con fiioco di 
earboni et discreto. 

401. Item. Vemiee di mastice qptima.-^Tog^ mastice libre 
ima, olio petranio Ubre meza, olio di noce chiaro oz meza fondi 
nisieme in boccia o in biechiere aopm earboni. cola con peza lina 
recdua et e fatta. 

402. Item, Vemiee ottima chiara et diseccativa hen per colori 
^ a olio ei per egni dipintura. — ^Togli per una misura : due oz. 
S olio di noce chiaro et hello, et una oz. di pece greca chiara et 
bella, et meza oncia di mastice chiaro et hello, macina la pece 


grind the pitch and the mastic [separately] to a very fine 
powder, and place the oil m a clean glazed pipldn over a char- 
coal fire, and let it boil gently until it is done suffidently, that 
isy until one-third has evaporated ; then put in the powdered 
pitch a little at a time, mixing and incorporating it well ; after- 
wards throw in the mastic in the same manner, and when it is 
dissolyed, take the vanush off the fire and strain it.throu^ a 
fine and old linen cloth. 

And if you wish it to be still clearer, prepare the mastic with 
tepid water in the following manner : — ^Take the larg^t and 
clearest tears of mastic that you can find, and soak them in 
tepid water, so that they may become tender ; then select the 
best pieces, dry them, and pound them. 

You may also try the efiect of adding a little burnt and 
pulverized roche alum when the other ingredients are dis- 
solved, so that the whole may virtually be seasoned with it, 
straining it afterwards. This \b done in order to purify it 

403. Item. A varnish of ^' olio di abezzo" which dries both nt 
the sun and in the shade. — Take " olio di abezzo," which must be 
genuine and not adulterated, and if you wish to know whether 
it is fabified, distemper it with nut or linseed oil, or naphtha, 
heating both the oils, &c., and spread it on a work, when, if it 
is not genuine, it will not dry for a long time, and then badly, 
because it is adulterated with turpentine, but if it is genuine it 
will dry quickly and perfectly. 

If you desire to varnish delicate works which will not be ex- 
posed to. water, but merely to bring out the colours and show 
their beauty, distemper the olio di abezzo as above. But if you 
wish to varnish more permanently on works which are intended 
to resist water, do not distemper the olio di abezzo with 
other ingredients, but heat it in a vase, melt it, and varnish 
with it. 

When you distemper it with linseed or nut oil, let it be with 
oil which has been exposed to the sun to evaporate, and the 
varnish will be much clearer. 


et il mastico sottile, et poni a fuoco di carboni in uno pignattino 
netto et inTetriato 1' olio et fallo bollire dolcemente tanto che sia 
bene cotto . I . tanto che scemi el terzo : poi vi metti su la pece 
macinata a poco a poco mestando ed incorporando^ pen vi metti 
el mastice similiinodoy et quando e bene soluto, ritirala et colala 
con peza Una sottile et yecchia. 

Et se tu Yuoi che la sia ancora piu chiara ; acconda el mastice 
con r acqua tiepida in questo modo. Togli i grani del mastice 
piu grossi et chiari che puoi et metti in acqua tiepida tanto che 
intenerisca. Cavane el midollo et secchalo, poi lo macina. 

Puoi etiam provare quando ogni cosa e soluta a mettervi un 
poco di allume di roccha arso polverizzato tanto che condisca 
virtualiter tutta quella materia poi la cola. Questo si ia per 
farla piu purgata. 

403. Item. Vemice tT olio di-beza che seccha al sole^ et senza 
9ok, — Togli olio di bezza che sia schietto et non falsato et se 
vuoi conoscere se e falsato stemprane un poco con olio di noce, 
di lino, o di sasso caldi tutti due etc., et distendine in sur un 
la?oro, e non seccherii se non con gran tempo et male, perche 
lo falsano andbe con la trementina, ma se e schietto seccha presto 

Se tu vuoi invemichare lavori gentili che non habbino a stare 
a r acqua, ma per colori et bellezza stemperalo ut supra. Ma 
se tu vuoi invemicare piu fermamente in lavori che reghino alia 
Acqua non lo stemperare con altro, ma scaldalo in un vaso et 
struggilo et invemica. 

Quando tu lo stemperi con V olio di lino o di noce, togli che 
ftumo stati al sole a svaporare et sera piu chiara assai. 


404. A most exceOeni varnish for varnishing arquebusesj cross- 
howsy and mm armour. — Take of linseed oil, Ibe. 2 ; varmsli m 
grams (sandarac), lb. 1 ; dear Greek pitch, oz. 2. ' 

Boil the oil, thai dissolve in it the other ingredients, and 
stridn through a much worn linen cloth, and when you ^dsh to 
use the varnish, scrape and polish the work, and heat it in a hot 
oven, because that is the best place to heat it ; and when it is 
of a proper heat, that is, when the varnish adheres to it firmly 
and does not fry [bubble or blister from too great heat], then 
lay it on thinly with an instrument of wood, so that you may 
not bum your fingers, and it will make a beautiful chanpog 

And if you supplied the place of Greek pitch with naval 
pitch, I think it would make the work black when you varnished it. 

When making the varnish you must boil it well, even to such 
a d^ee as to make it foam and bubble, if necessary, in order 
that it may be clear and thick. 

405. Item. An excellent common vamisbj good for varnish- 
ing whatever you please. — Take 2 ounces of clear and good lin- 
seed oil, and one ounce of good and dear Greek pitch, but 2 
ounces of the latter also will make the varnish thicker and gi?e 
it more body ; boil the oil over a slow fire, and then put in the 
pounded pitch a little at a time, that it may incorporate well, 
and add a little rodie aJum previously burnt and pounded, and 
when it is incorporated and boiled suffidently, that is, when you 
try a little of it in your fingers and find that it is done, strain it 
and keep it. When it is used it will be beautiful and good ; if 
it is too tenadous you will dilute it witli a little oil. 

And if you wish it commoner so as to sell it at a larger profit, 
take 10 ounces of oil to one of pitch ; and if you use black pitch 
it will be good for pommels of swords, spurs, and similar 

406. Item. Varnish l^pouncelfor writing paper. — Take the 
shells of unboiled eggs, soften them in water for a fortnight, then 
take off the pellicles and wash them ; dry them well by exposing 
them to the heat of the sun or the fire, then pound and grind 


404. Vemice otHma per invemichare arehibusi et balestre et 
armadure diferro, — Togli olio di seme di lino libre 2. Temice 
in graxu libre 1. pece grecha chiara oz 2. 

Quod r olio, poi stniggivi dentro 1' altre cose, pen cola con 
peza lina usata, et quando vuoi inyemicare el lavoro, limala o 
oettala prima bene, poi lo scalda in un fomo caldo perche fa 
meglo che scaldarlo altrove, et quando e debitamente caldo, 
cioe caldo in modo che la vemice vi si appiccha su bene et non 
frigge alhora invemicha et dalla sottile, con uno istromento di 
legno, accib non ti qnocha le dita, et fara un bello colore 

£ se tu vi mettessi in luogo di pece grecha pece navale, credo 
fitrebbe il lavoro nero quando tu lo invemicassi. 

Quando la fai falla bollire assai, et stiumala si oportet accioc- 
che la da bene ohiara et spessa. 

405. Item, Vemice ottima eomune et buana da invemichare 
queUo che vuoi. — Togli olio di lino chiaro et buono, oz. 2. Pece 
Grecha chiara et bella, oz. una ma se ne toi due verra piii tenace 
et corpulenta : quoci V olio lento igne, poi vi metti la pece pesta 
a poco a poco tanto che incorpori bene, poi mettivi un poco di 
allume di roccha arso et pesto, et quando e incorporate et cotta 
a sufficientia : e quando ne pruovi un poco fra le dita et sentila 
fatta : colala et serbala, et usala, et sera bella et buona, et quan- 
hai adoperarla fassi un poco tenace temperala con olio. 

£t se la Tuoi piu dozinale per vendere con piu guadagno togli 
X oncie d' olio et una di pece. Et se la togli nera sara buona 
per pomi di spade et sproni, et similia. 

406. Item, Vemice da porre in su le carte da scrivere, — 
Togli guscia d' uova non cotte, tienle in molle nella aoqua per 
15 di, poi lieva bene le pillicule et lavale bene, poi le asduga 
bene al sole, o al caldo del fuoco, poi pestale et macinale, et 


them and sift them through very fine rags. Then add to a 
pound of these i an ounce of clear incense, also strained throu^ 
rag and grind them up together ; then pass them again through 
rag. This is found to succeed well. 

393. Tried by Master Jacapo di Monte S. SavinOj the seuljh 
tor. Admirable stucco for making and modelling figures^ and 
for colouring themy and it resists water.^ — ^Take of finely pow- 
dered trayertine lb. v., and if you would have it finer and more 
delicate, take fine marble instead of travertine, and 2 lbs. of 
slaked lime ; mix them together with water, and stir and beat 
them well together like a fine paste, and execute what works 
you please with it, either by forming it with your hands or in 
moulds, and dry it in the shade. And if you wish to colour it 
white, when the work is dry enough to be tolerably firm, but 
not quite dry, grind white lead with water in the same way as 
colours are ground, and flower [or finest particles] of afted 
lime, and apply it with the pencil, and it will be very wUte, 
and will effectually resist water. And if you wish to cobur it 
with other colours, let the work dry perfectly, and then colonr 
it ; but these colours will not reast water, like the white, be- 
cause they do not incorporate or unite so well as that does with 
the materials of which the work is composed. If, then, you 
wish the colours to resist water, apply on the work the above- 
mentioned composition (which is to be used in the manner de- 
scribed), and paint on it with oil-colours. 

You may also coloiur the stucco with colours ground up dry, 
but these will not be so bright as if they were applied after- 

1 The invention of this stucco is ascribed to Giovanni da Udine, on the 
following authorities :— Morelli,* in his description of the Marciana MS.* 
observes, . . . *^ M. Jacopo da Monte, whose method of making varnish and 
stucco is there shown ; the stucco is the same as that which, on the authority 
of Rafaello Boi^hini (Riposo, p. 402) and of others, was inrented by Gio- 
vanni da Udine, and hj him employed in the celebrated Loggie of the 
Vatican.*' Borghini*fl 

• Catalogo de' Codici delU Libreria Nani, p. 32. 


paasale per istraccie che sieno finissime, poi mescola una libra 
di questa con | oz d' incenso chiaro, passato come questa et ma- 
cinale insiemey et passa iterum per gtraccio et h buona, et pro- 
vata, et riesce bene. 

393. Ex Moffistro Jacapo de Manie S. Sauino Scultore — 
prouato. Stuecho mirabile per fare figure ^c. et etiam im" 
prcntare et cohrirlo, et regge allacqua. — ^Togli treuertino ma- 
dnato sottile v libra, et se uuoi che sia piu gentile et delicato, 
Togli marmo fino in luogo di treuertino, et togli dua lib. di 
caldna spenta et mescolale insieme con acqua et rimenale et 
battile bene inaeme come pasta fine et &nne che lauoro tu uuoi, 
con mano o impromptato con le forme, et secchalo alombra 
et se lo uolesd colorire di bianco, quando il lauoro e tanto 
seccho che aa fermo, ma non secoo interamente, madna la 
biaccha con 1' acqua auso di colore, et fiore di caldna colata, 
et dalla col pennello, et sara bianchissimo, et stara forte allac- 
qua, et se lo uuoi colorire d' altro colore, lasda secchare il 
lauoro perfettamente ; poi lo colorisci, ma questi colori non 
reggeranno a lacqua come quelle bianco, perche non a incorpo- 
ranno, ne si miscono con la materia del lauoro come & quelle. 
Se a dunque tu uuoi che questi colori reghino a lacqua da in- 
sol lauoro la inzuppatura disopra detta la quale si da come qui 
dice, et poi dipigni k olio. 

Puoi etiam colorire lo stuecho co' colori madnati asduttj : 
ma non uenghono tanto yivi, quanto a colorirgli poi. 

Borghinrs account of the invention of this stucoo is as follows : '' While 
Giovanm was working with Raffiiello at Rome, excavations were made in 
search of antiquities among the ruins of the palace of Titus, and some 
Apartments were discovered decorated with grotesque paintings and small 
hbtorical figures and ornaments in relief, composed of stucco. Giovanni 
lad Raffiiello went together to see them, and were lost in admiration. Pic- 
tures of this kind being found in grottoes, were called < Grotesques/ Thej 
were carefullj copied by Giovanni, who made manj imitations of them in 
^ous places, and nothing was wanting but to discover the mode of making 
the ancient stucco ; he, therefore, tried so many things, that at last he dis- 
covered that he could make the ancient stucco with lune made from white 


traYertine, mixed with white marble in the finest powder; end ao, theie 
stucchi, with beautiful grotesque ornaments, and many new and rare designs, 
were employed by the order of Pope Leo (X.) in the Loggie of the 

Vasari, in his Life of Giovanni da Udine, mentions these experiments st 
greater length, and informs us what materials he tried befbre he succeeded 
in imitating the andent stueeo. 










Thi3 Manuscript^ without the date or name of the 
author, is certainly Venetian. It is in quarto, is 
written on paper, and is numbered 992. 

The handwriting is of the seventeenth century ; and 
although, from the following circumstance, the MS. 
may have been written diu-ing the latter part of the 
sixteenth century, I think it more probable that it was 
composed during the middle, or latter part, of the 
seventeenth century. 

In the fly-leaf preceding the commencement, and in 
the same hand-writing, and in similar coloured ink, is 
a sonnet (dedicated to Prince Emanuel Philibert, of 
Savoy), which appears to have been composed by the 
Canonico Michael Angelo Blanchiardi di Torino, as his 
name is affixed to it.^ 

Now, Emanuel Philibert died in 1580 ; if, therefore, 
Dr. Blanchiardi composed the MS., he must have done 
so previous to this period, and the MS. might have been 
written soon afler the sonnet. 

» The work on colours is followed by a copy, in a more recent hand- 
writing, and with blacker ink, of a letter from " II principe D. Anton. Ot- 
toboni al Sig. P. Pietro suo Figlio hora Cardinale eletto dal Ste Papa 
Aletnndro Ottavo suo Zio. 1698." 



Some parts of the early sections of the work, from 
No. 1 to No. 13 inclusive, bear such strong resemblance 
to parts of the 3rd book of Lomazzo's Treatise on Faint- 
ing, that it can scarcely be supposed that one was not 
copied from the other. Lomazzo's work was published 
in 1584 ; i^ therefore, parts of the MS. were taken from 
this, the date ir.ust be later than that period. 

But independently of these considerations, the work 
bears intrinsic evidence of having been composed at a 
later period. A change seems to have taken place 
during the interval that elapsed between the composi- 
tion of the MS. of the Marciana and the Faduan MS., 
not only in the pigments used, but in the varnishes. 
Essential oil varnishes are introduced in great abund- 
ance ; Spirit of Turpentine, Oil of Spike, and Naphtha, 
are the diluents ; while the hard varnishes, made with 
amber and sandarac, have nearly given place to mastic 
and olio di abezzo. 

Among the varnishes for pictures is one (No. 94) 
described as ^^ Alia Fiaminga," which is composed of 
spirit of wine, sandarac, and olio di abezzo. ^' Oglio 
cotto," prepared by boiling nut or linseed oil with 
litharge, is twice mentioned, namely in No. 70 and 
No. 96. 

One recipe only is given for making Lac Lake, but 
Gum Lac is frequently mentioned, being applied to the 
novel purpose of composing varnishes, by which the In- 
dian Japan work was to be imitated. The MS. con- 
tains recipes for varnishes of this description composed 
of different ingredients ; and for the preparation of the 
colours used in Japanning. 

Gamboge was used at this period as a pigment, and 


was prepared for paintmg by grinding it with lemon- 
juice and roche alum. I do not know when this sub- 
stance was first used as a pigment, but it was first em- 
ployed for medical purposes about 1 603. 

Articles of American produce are mentioned as in 
use ; among these are Campeachy wood (or Logwood) 
and Cochineal lake, which seems almost to have super- 
seded the lac lake as a pigment Cochineal is said to 
have been introduced in the beginning of the sixteenth 
century.^ It seems at this time to have been usually 
prepared with lemon-juice, or crystallized arsenic. 

In order that the Lakes, and some other colours, 
should dry when mixed with oil, glass, very finely pul- 
verized, was mixed with them ; and it is added, that 
they would then dry in twenty-four hours. 

We also find that paintings in oil had begim to suffer 
irom the effects of age ; and that they required, or it 
was believed that they required, to be washed with some 
corrosive liquid, and to be re-varnished. Directions, or 
rather recipes, for both these processes are given. 

No. 83 contains some recipes in Latin (the only part 
of the MS. written in that language), which seem to 
have been considered secrets. 

A method of transferring prints on to a plate of glass 
is described (in No. 95), in which it appears that the 
design was fixed by means of heat. It was probably 
painted afterwards, for in No. 96 a recipe for painting 
and gilding on glass is given, in which the colours are 
to be ground with boiled oil. The fact of this method 
being described in two Italian MSS., and the stipulation 

^ It was introduced into Spain soon after 1623. 



respecting it in contracts, proves the extent to which it 
was used in Italy. 

Two different recipes for etching grounds, and aqua- 
fortis, are mentioned in this MS. 

In conclusion I shaU observe, that in addition to 
the subjects I have mentioned, the MS. contains the 
usual recipes for colours used in miniature painting. 




( 648 ) 


1 . Of Colours in general^ and of what materials thgy are 

composed^ 8fc} 

White is made with gesso, lime, white lead, powdered marble, 
egg-shells well pulverized and sifted, and with the bone of the 
cuttle fish ground to a very fine powder. 

Yellow is made with '^ gialdolino di fomace " of Flanders and 
Germany,' orpiment, and ochre, with safiron and gamboge for 
water-colour painting. 

Blue is prepared with ultramarine and Hungarian' blues. 
Others are made with " smalti " and " smaltini " * of every 
kind, especially with those of Flanders, which are the best, with 
*' biadetti " * and similar pigments. 

Green is made with the " verde azzurri,'* * verdigris, " ver- 
detto,"' which is called '^ gialdo santo,'^ and approaches to yellow, 

' The whole of this chapter so closely resembles the fourth chapter of 
the third book of Lomazzo's Treatise on Painting (although additional co- 
lours are named in each class of punting), that it b scarcelj posable to 
suppose that the author of the MS. had not seen that work ; unless, indeed, 
it could be proved that both writers had made use of some common ori* 
g^al work, which had been used as a text book by the Lombard painters, 
in the same manner as the old Byzantine MSS., so variously rendered ioto 
Latin, in the Paris copy of Eraclius, the Clayicula, the Sloene MS., and 
the Theophilus of the British Museum. 

s In Uaydocke's translation of Lomazzo, written in 1590, the namet of 
these two colours are translated '* Masticot " and " generall." 

( 649 ) 


D^ Colari in generdk^ e di qmUi materie si 


tl Bianco si fa col gesso, calcina, biacca, marmo pesto, 
gnsci <r ouo bene polverizati, et settazzatd, e con osso di sepia 
benissimo macinato. 

Gialdo si fa col gialdolino di fornace di Fiandra, et Ale- 
magna, orpimento et ocrea, col zafiarano et Gomma gute, quali 
80D0 per r acquarello. 

Dirchino si prepara con gl' azuri oltramarini et ongari et 
altri si fa ancora con gli smalti, e smaltini d' ogni sorte, mas- 
sime con queUi di Fiandra, che sono U migliori, con li Biadetti 
et simili. 

Verde A fa con li verde azuni, verderami, yerdetto, che si 
chiama ^aldo santo, e lira al gialdo, terra verde, verde porro, 

* Hongarian Blue. Native blue carbonate of copper. 

* Smaiti and Smaltini. The smalti of Flanders were probably prepara- 
tions of Za£Bre ; the smaltino was most likely the blue glass, ** Axzuno di 
PoKzaoli," described by Orsini and Gralliani in the notes to Vitruyius. 

* Biadetti. The artificial carbonate of copper. 

^ Verde azzorri. Armenian stone, also a native carbonate of copper, 
in which the blue colour is mixed with the green. Haydocke translates 
this « Green Wze." 

^ Verdetto is defined by Borghini (Riposo, p. 169) to be a native green 
pigment Inrought from the mines of Germany. Giallo Santo is usually con- 
■idered to be a yellow lake made from the flowers of the plant called *^ Barba 
di Beoco/' the yellow goat's beard ; also from the Reseda Luteola (weld 



" terra verde," " verde porro," * and for water-colours, 
" verde di vesicha " or " pasta verde " [sap-green], the juice of 
rue, and of blue lilies. 

Mulberry colour is made with " morello di ferro *' and " mo- 
rello di sale," burnt Roman vitriol, ^^ celeste," and dark indico ; 
and for water-colours, Tumsol. 

Red is made with cinnabar, terra rossa, and fine lake. 

Orange is made with minium and burnt orpiment. 

Black is made with the smoke of burnt nut oil, burnt almond 
shells, smoke of burnt rosin, and black earth. 

The shadows of the jlesh are made with terra d' ombra, 
terra verde burnt, and asphaltum. 


2. The composition and mixtures of the colours^ and first of 

white lead? 

Sbiadato is made with white lead mixed with ochre, and is a 
colour similar to straw, or white lead with terra gialla. 

Biondo is made with white, ochre, and ^aldolino. 

Celeste is made with white lead, and blue or smalti, and in- 

Pale green is made with a mixture of white lead and verdi- 

Bright green is made with white lead, verderame, or gialdo 
santo, or the juice of rue. 

Yellow is made with white lead and gialdo santo. 
. Agatino is made of white lead and morel di ferro. 

V ^^ ■*' 

Blue is made with white lead and blues, or indico together. 
TTie colour of unripe strawberries is made with white lead 
and cinnabar, but with more cinnabar than white lead. 

Berettino and smoke colour are made with white lead and 

black well mixed together. 

' I ■ ■ ■ ... — 

pr dyer's weed) and other yellow flowers. From a comparison of thb 
chapter with Haydocke's translation of Lomazzo, it appears that the coloar 
here called Verdetto was one of those lakes to which the name of '* Pink*' 
has been giren. The colour in question, perhaps, resembled " Brown 


e poi r acqaarella, verde di vesicba, o aia pasta verde, succo di 
nita, di gigli azurri. 

Morello si fa con morello di ferro, e di sale, vitriolo romano 
ootto, celestro, et indico oscuro, e per acquarella il tornasole. 

Rosso si fa col cinaprio, terra rossa, lacca iSna. 

Ranzetto si fa col minio et oropimento arso. 

Negro si fa col fdmo d* oglio di noce arso, guscio di Mandola 
arso, fiimo di ragia, et terra negra. 

Umbra delle cami si fa con terra d' ombra terra verde arsa, 
e spalato. 

CainposUume e mischia di colore e po. della hiaca, 

Sbindato A fa con biaca mischiata con 1* ocrea, et e color 
simile alia paglia, o biaca con terra gialla. 
Biondo si fa con biaca, ocrea, e gialdolino. 
Celeste ai fa con biaca, e azuni, o smalti, et indico. 

Verde smorto si fa con biaca e yerderame mischiati. 

Verde vivo si fa con biaca, yerderame, o gialdo santo, oyero 
suoo di ruta. ' 

Gialdo si fa con biaca e ^aldo santo. 

Agatino si fa con biaca e morel di ferro. 

Turchino fid fa con biaca e azurri, oyero indico insieme. 

Ccior difragole mal mature si & con biaca e cinaprio ma piii 
dnaprio che biaca. 

Berettino e color difumo si fa con biaca e negro ben mischiati 

* Verde Porro. Perhaps the same as the Prasminum or Prasino of the 
old writers. Baldinucci (Voc. Dis.) says that it is a pigment of a whitbh 
green colour, like that of the leek, whence it takes its name. 

* Compare this passage as far as No. 13 with Lomazzo's Treatise, lib. 
iii., cap. Til. 


Mase cohur is made with white lead and cinnabiu', but more 
cimiabar than white lead. 

The colour of stone^ wood, bark of treesy and hairy is made 
with white lead and umber. 

Straw colour is made with white lead and gialdolino. . 

3. Mixtures of CrialdoUno. 

Green colour for the distance in landscapes is made with gial- 
dolino, blue, smalti, smaltino, and white lead. 

Green is made with gialdolino and indico together. 

A brighter green is made with gialdolino, indico, and orpiment. 

The colour of flames and glories is made with gialdolino and 

Orange colour is made with gialdolino and cinnabar, but with 
more cinnabar than gialdolino. 

4. The mixtures of blvjes^ smaUo^ and " biadetti.^' 

Dark green is made with blue and giallo santo. 

For purple and dark morello, blue and lake are mixed to- 

A morello a little lowered in tone is made with blue, lake, 
and umber. 

A morello of a very low tone is made with azzurro, lake, and 

5. The mixtures of verdigris. 

For bright green, verdigris is mixed with gialdo santo. 

Bright green for u>ater-colour painting is made with verdigris, 
rue-juice, and saffit>n. 

Dark green is made with verdigris, indico, and umber, and it 
is lowered by adding black. 

6. The mixtures of Indico. 
Dark purple is made with indico and lake. 


Color di rae si & con biaca e cinapiio, ma piu cinaprio che 

Color di sassij legni, scarze d! albert e eapelli si fa con biaca e 
terra d' ombra. 

Color di paglia si ia con biaca e gialdolino. 

Mischio del Gialdolino. 

Color verde per lontani paesi si fa col gialdolino, e azurro, 
smalto o snudtino, e biaca. 

Verde si fa col gialdolino et indico insieme. 

Verde piu vivo si fa col gialdolino, indico, et orpimento. 

Color difame e ^lendori si fa col gialdolino e cinaprio. 

Color di Naranzo si fa con gialdolino e cinaprio, ma piu cina- 
prio che gialdolino. 

Mischie degli azurri smaUi e biadettii 

Verde oscuro si fa con aznrro e gialo santo. 
Pavonazzo e Morello scuro, si mischia azurro con' biaca. 

Morello che perde un poco si fa con azzurro, lacca, e terra d' 
Morello che perde assai si fa con azzurro, lacca, e negro. 

Mischie del verderame, 

Verde tUvo si mischia il verderame col gialdo santo. 

Verde vivo per T acqttareUa si fa col verderame, succo di 
nita e za£Ferano. 

Verde perso si fa con verderame, indico, e terra d' ombra, e 
si perde assai piu aggiungendovi il negro. 

Mischie delV Indico^ 
Pavonazzo oscuro si fa col indico e lacca. 


The colour of irorij Hlver, tin^ ^c, is imitated with indico, 
lake, and black. 

7. The mixtures of cirmabar. 

The colour of ripe strawberries is imitated with cinnabar and 

Scarlet is made with cinnabar, lake, and white lead. 

Blood colour is made with cinnabar and lake. 

Ttte red colour on the cheeks of beautiful flesh is represented 
with cinnabar, lake, and white lead. 

The colour of burnt ochre is imitated with dnnabar and black. 

8. The mixtures of lake. 

The colour of cinnabar is imitated with lake and minium. 

The shades of the flesh are made with lake, minium, and 

The colour of black velvet is made with lake, blue, or indico 
and black. 

The colour of velvet of a berettino colour [grey] is imitated 
with lake, cinnabar, ochre, and white. 

Flesh colour is made with lake, cinnabar, ochre, and white. 

Violet colour is made with lake and blue. 

Dark morello colour \b made with lake and blue or indico. 

9. The mixtures of minium. 

Orange colour is made with minium alone. 

A light orange colour is made with minium and gialdolino. 

10. The mixtures of Gialdo santo. 

The colour of green grass or verdure is represented with gialdo 
santo and verdigris. 

Emerald colour is imitated with gialdo santo, rue-juice, and 
verdigris, for miniature painting. 

11. The mixtures of black. 

Light berettino is made with black, white, terra d' ombra, 
lake, and indico. 


Color diferrOy Argento^ Uagno^ et similiy si fa con indico lacca 
e negro. 

Mischie del cinapro. 
Color difragole mature si fa con cinaprio e lacca. 

Color di scarlato si & eon cinaprio lacca e biacca. 
Color di sangue si fa col cinaprio e lacca. 
Color di guancie eolorite di bella came si fa con cinaprio, lacca, 
e biacca. 

Color cf ocrea arsa si compone col cinaprio e negro. 

Mischie delta lacca. 

Color di cinaprio si fa con lacca e minio. 

Ombra di came si fa con lacca, minio, e terra d' ombra. 

Color di veluto negro si fa con lacca, azurro oyero indico, e 

Color di veluto berettino si fa con lacca, azurro o indico, negro, 
e bianco. 

Color di came si fa con lacca, cinaprio, ocrea e bianco. 

Color di viole si fa con lacca e azurro. 

Moretto oscuro si fa con lacca, e azurro overo indico. 

Mischie del minio. 

Color di naranzo si fa col solo minio. 

Color ranzato chiaro si fa col minio e gialdolino. 

Mischie del gialdo santo. 
Color di verele pianure si fa col gialdo santo e verderame. 

Color di smeraldo si fa col gialdo santo, succo di ruta, e ver- 
derame per miniare. 

Mischie del negro- 

Berettino chiaro si & col negro, bianco, terra d' ombra lacca 
et Indico. 


Smoke colour is made with black and vihite. 

12. The mixtures of white. 

T/ie colffur of the tops of mountains is made with white, 
ochre, and maiolica,' and they will appear as if touched by the 

Flame colour is made with white, gialdolino, and cinnabar. 

13. Of the shades in general, and how each of the above- 
mentioned colours should he shaded? 

We must first warn you that the shades must not be laid on 
lighter or darker than the colour which is to be shaded can bear. 
AH the mixtures of compound colours must be shaded with the 
darkest of the colours of which they are composed, used pure, 
and in the following manner : — 

Celeste made with blue and white, must be shaded with pure 

Green made with white and gialdo santo, is shaded with 
gialdo santo. 

Light morello mixed with umber, must be shaded with dark 

Blue made with indico and white lead, is shaded with pure 

Cinnabar mixed with white, is shaded with cinnabar alone. 

Umber mixed with white, is shaded with umber alone. 

Blue, black, smaltino, and biadetto, are shaded with indico, 
lake, and black. 

Verdigris is shaded with indico or black. 

Pure gialdo santo is shaded with umber. 

Dark morello is shaded with black. 

White is shaded with black or berettino. 

Gialdolino is shaded with ochre, or terra gialla, and umber. 

^ M^folica, a red earth. (Terra Bossa.) 


Color difumo si compone col negro e bianco. 

Mischie del bianco. 

Color delle dme d£ Monti si fa con bianco, ocrea, maiolica, e 
pareramio toohe dal sole. 

Color dijiamma si fa col bianco, gialdolino, e cinaprio. 

Deff ombre in generate^ e come si debba ombreggiare ciascheduno 

de suddetti colori, 

Avertasi prima a non dar ombra pia oscura, ne piu chiara di 
qaello che pub comportare quel colore che si deve ombreggiare. 
Tatte le miscbie fate di piu colori si devono ombrare in quel 
colore pure, che nella mischia resta piu oscuro, e nel modo cbe 

Celeste, fatto con azurro e bianco, Y ombra con puro azurro. 

Verde fatto di bianco e gialdo santo, V ombra col gialdo 
saoto solo. 
Morello cbiaro cioe mischiato d' ombra con morello scuro. 

Turchino &tto d' indico e biaca, o bianco, s* ombra con in- 
dico puro. 

Cinaprio mischiato con bianco, s' ombra con dnaprio solo. 

Terra d' ombra mischia con bianco, s' ombreggia con terra 
<r ombra sola. 

Azurro, negro, e smaltino, e biadetto, s* ombrano con indico, 
lacca, e negro. 

Verderame, s* ombra con indico e negro. 

Gialdo santo puro, s* ombra con terra d' ombra. 

Morello oscuro, s' ombra col negro. 

Bianco, s' ombra col negro o berettino. 

Gialdolino^ s' ombra con ocrea o terra gialla, e terra d' om- 

' See Lomazio, lib. iii. cap. nn. 


Safiron for water colours is shaded with the same saffiron, 
mixed with a little lake and umber. 

Orpiment is shaded with terra gialda and a little umber. 

Cinnabar is shaded with lake, or a mixture of cinnabar and 

Dark yellow is shaded with a mixture of lake and black. 

Umber is shaded with black. 

A red made with lake, and white, and other mixtures, is 
shaded with lake alone. 

Cinnabar is shaded with lake. 

All light colours, except white, are shaded with umber. 

14. How gum water far dissolving and distempering the colours 
for miniature painting is made, — ^Take what you consider to be 
a proper quantity of very clear and clean gum arable, leare 
it infused in rose water for a night with a little candied sugar, 
in a clean glass vase, which you will then place in a pipkin or 
other vessel, with common water in it ; let the water in the pip- 
kin boil for a short time, and the gum water will then be per- 
fectly prepared, so that the colours will not crack or scale off. 

15. To make a good green from blue lilies, — The flowers must 
be pounded with lemon juice, a little burnt roche alum, and 
glassmaker's soda, and then strained through a fine linen dotb, 
put in shells, and dried in the shade. 

16. To make a good green of verderame. — Take 10 parts of 
verdigris, 2 of corrosive sublimate, i a part of safiron, i of galls 
of Istria, and } of sal ammoniac, grind them up with very strong 
vinegar (distilled vinegar is the best), put them into a glass 
vase, and when the vinegar is clear and coloured, let it be de- 
canted and evaporated in a glazed vase. Then pour fresh vine- 
gar on the remainder, mix again and do as before, until the part 
which settles ceases to colour the vinegar, and if you pour the 
eoloured vinegar into shallow open vases, it will dry much 
quicker either in the sun or in the shade. When dry remove 

DE' COLOKt m GENfiRALE. 659 

Zaffi-ano per 1* acqunrella, b' ombra con Y istesso zaffrano 
meschiato oon poco di lacca, e terra d' ombra. 

Orpimento a' ombra con terra ^alda, e puoca terra d' 
' Cinaprio s* ombra con lacca, OTvero cinaprio e negro meschi. 

Gialdo scUro d' ombra con negro e lacca meschi. 

Terra d' ombra s' ombreggia col negro. 

Rosso fatto di lacca, e bianco, et altri mischie, a' omibra con 
lacca sola. 

Rosso di cinapro, s' onibra con lacca. 

I oolori chiari, eccetto che il bianco, si ombreggi&no con 
terra d' ombra. 

Come n facd T acqua di gofiia per dieciogliere e tempe^ 
rar t eolari per miniare. — Piglierai qnella qtiantitk di gomma 
lurabica ben cbiara e netta che ti pare, la porai in infnaione per 
una notte in acqua rosa con im poco di zucchero candito in un 
▼aso di retro ben netto, quale indi metterai in una scndella, o 
&ltro vaso in acqua comune dentro, che poi facendo bollire per 
poco tempo Y acqua della scndella che havera dentro il uasetto 
con r acqua goroata, che cosi redtarik cotta a perfettione, e non 
creparanno li colori, meno si spicaranno. 

Per cavar un bel verde da gilij azurri, — Si pestano li fiori 
con succo di limone, puoco alume di rocca bruggiato, e soda 
di vetriari, e colato per pezza sottile, si mettono in conchilie, e 
81 laaciano aaciugare all' ombra. 

Per fare un Bel verde di verderame, — Verderame, solimato, 

J i. 4. 

2afrano, galla d' latria, e sal amoniaco. Simacina il tutto 

Qon acetto fortiss"^ e se fosse distilato sark meglio, poi si 

n^eta in vaao di vetro, e quando il df o acetto sara chiaro e edo- 

nto si decanti, e si meta in vaao vitriato ad aaciugare *, e sopra 

le residenza si metta novo acetto, si mescoli sempre, e ai iacci 

come sopra sin Til tanto che le residenze non rendino piu colorito 

Y aeetto, et quelli acetti coloriti mettendoli in vasi spanti si 

^ngaranno piu presto all* ombra, et anco al sole, et seccati gen- 

VOL. IL z 


the colour gently by dipping the pencil in vinegar, and after- 
wards grind up the colour with a little rocfae alum and a little 
gum arabic, so as to make it into a cake. 

17. To make another brilliant green. — Take oz. vi of the best 
▼erdigris, oz. ij of tartar of Bologna, and dr. j ss. of rocfae alum ; 
pulverize the whole, and grind each article separately, then grisd 
them together rather stiffly with distilled vinegar, put the powder 
into a glass vase with a little saffron, and expose it to the sun. 
Then pour on it a bocale of distilled vinegar, and the longer it 
is exposed to the sim the more beautiful will be the colour. 

18. How to make yellow. — ^Take flowers of wall-flowers, grind 
them up with roche alum, strain throng rag, and preserve the 

19. How gamboge is refined. — It is ground up with lemon 
juice and burnt roche alum. 

30. How cinnabar is refined, — ^It is boiled with vinegar and 
roche alum. 

21. How to prepare lake for miniature painting. — Steep the 
pounded lake in rose water for 12 hours to soften, then grind it 
up with gum water made in the before-mentioned manner, add- 
ing lemon juice, vinegar, burnt alum, and candied sugar at dis- 
cretion. Observe, that burnt lake makes a beautiful shadow 

22. How to prepare cochineal. — Boil it with lemon juice, 
garlic juice, and burnt alum. 

23. How paper of " rosseto di Spagna " if ueed. — ^Apply first 
a coat of lemon juice, then one of alum water, and lastly an- 
other of lemon juice, letting each coat dry before the next is 
laid on. Aft;erwards, di{qping the pencil in lemon juice, take 
the rosseto off the paper aa you require it. 

24. How ultramarine blue is dietempered. — It is softened in 
boiled water for a night, and is then taken out and tempered 
with clear glue. 

25. How to purify the turnsole. — ^Boil it with urine, tb^ 
strain and squeeze it through a cloth. 

26. How to grind gold and silver for writing and miniatHre^ 


tUmente ool pennello bagnato d' acetto li anderai leccando, e 
raecDglie&do il colore, qual poi con poco d' alume di roeca lo re<* 
macinerai, et puoco di gomma arrabicaaccib si &ccia in pietra. 
Per fare nn aUro verde liuiro. — Piglia verderame 5 vi del 
piii hello, tartaro di Bologna 3 ij* alume di rocca 3 j ss, si pel- 
verizi il tutto e si macini separatamente, poi messi inirieme con 
aoetto stilato, macinato alquauto dnretto, mettaai in vaso di vetro 
al sole con poco di zafrano, e vi si aggiunga sopra un bocale 
d' acetto stilato, e piii che stan al sole sark piu bello. 

Gialo came si facet. — Si pigliano fieri di uiolette gialle, si 
nmcinano con alume di rocca, e colato per pezza il succo si 

La gemma gute come si raffini. — Si macinerk con succo di 
HmoQe et alume di rocca bniciato. 

// cinaprie eome si raffini. — Facciasi boUire con aceetto et 
alume di rocca. 

La laeoa eeme si prepari per mimare. — Mettasi in mole la 
laccapesta, inacqua rosaper 12 bore, poi si macini con I'acqua 
di gomma d^ di sopra, giongendoui succo di limone, aceetto, 
alume bruciato, e zuccaro candito il tutto a discretione. Nota 
che la lacca bruciata serve per far ombre belliss' 


La oocciemglia come si prepari. — Facdasi boUire con succo 
di limone, succo d' agUo, et alume bruciato. 

La carta di rosseto di Spagruij came £ adapri. — Prima se le 
dara sopra una mano di succo di limone, poi un' altra d' acqua 
sUnminata, poi un altra di succo di limone, lasciando perb s' as- 
eioghi dascheduna volta prima. Poi bagnando il peneUo in 
sucoo di limone, lo cavarai dalla carta a suo bisogno. 

X' azurro oitramarino come si tempri.^^Si mette a molle V 
azurro per una notte in acqua bolita, poi si cava e si tempera 
con acqua chiara di coUa di camuzza. 

i? toma sole come si purgki. — Si purga facendolo bollire con 
orina, poi si cola e si preme con pensia [pezza?]. 

Per macinar ore et arffento per serivere e mimare. — Prendasi 



painting. — Take of the finest and yellowest gialdolino di Fiandn 
oz. i 88. and of gold leaf o£. ss., little more or less ; grind them 
up together with fresh water a little at a time on a pieee of por- 
phyry ; then put the mixture in a glass, let it settle and pour 
off the water. In grinding silver, snpply the place of ^aldolino 
with nitre. 

27. A glue which holds as tight as a nail. — ^Take Greek pitch, 
resin of the pine, and powder of baked bricks ; mix them all 
together, and when it is to be used make it very hot. 

28. How to make ink that will remain black when water is 
added.^ After the inkstand has once been filled with ink of a 
good colour, a piece of red orpiment should be put into it, and 
if a piece of the same [t. e. the red orpiment] be put into white 
of egg, it will keep for a long time without putrefying. 

By boiling roche alum in water until one-third of the water 
has evaporated, and while still hot, washing it over paper with 
a pencil or sponge, when it is dry you may paint on it even if it 
were common blotting paper, which is not then liable to blot 

29. To make a good yellow for writing and miniature paivi- 
ing. — Take what quantity you please of the berries of buck- 
thorn while they are still green and unripe, bruise them coarsely 
in a mortar, put them into a vase with enough ley to cover them^ 
and place them to boil over a slow fire until half the ley is con- 
sumed ; then strdn through a cloth, and put the strained liquor 
again over the fire, with a little roche alum, not heating it to 
the boiling point, and when you have done tins, put it into shells 
to dry, and preserve it well-covered from the air. 

30. To make a most beavtifid orange-yeUow cobnsr. — Take 
orpiment, put it in a jeweller's crucible, and melt it over a char- 
coal fire, then take it from the fire, let it cool, and preserve it, 
and when you wish to use it, grind it finely, and temper it with 
gum water. 

31. How pasta i^erde [sap green] is made. — ^Take the gruns or 
berries of the buckthorn when they are quite ripe, and this will 
be about the end of September ; let them soften for 7 or 8 days 
in a vase with water in which roche alum has been dissolved in 


di gialdolino di fiandra del pin &io e gialo 3 i ss., di fogli d'oro 
3 88. pooo piu h menoy il tutto si macina con acqua fresca poco 
a poco, sopra pietra di porfido, poi si mette in un bichiero, si 
lasda posare, e si cola V acqua ; per macinu* V argento si mete 
in loco del gialdolino, salnitro raffinato. 

Colla ehe tien forte come un chiodo. — ^Piglia pecce greca, re- 
«na picea, e polvere di quadrelli cotti, mescola ogni cosa in- 
sieme, e dovendola adoperare falla scaldar bene. 

L* inchioBtro come si manienffki negro con cygiunffervi acqua. — 
Dopo ch' una volta sark aggiustato il calamaro con buona tinta, 
vi A metta dentro un pezzo di risigallo, e mettendo 1' istesso 
nella chiara d' ovo si conservera longo tempo senza putrefarsi. 

Facendo boUire allume di rocca in acqua die cali duoi terzi, 
e con quella cosi calda bagnando la carta con penello o spongia, 
asciuto che sara vi si potra dipingere sopra ancor che fosse carta 
strazza e leva le macchie. 

Per fare un bel gialdo da scrivere e miniare. — Piglia quella 
quantita ti place di grani o sia pomelli di spincervino ma verdi 
et immaturi, fracassali nel mortaro grossamente, ponili in uaso 
con dentro lisda, che basti per coprirli, indi li metterai a lento 
foco a boUire sino sia consumata quasi la metta della liscia, cib 
&tto li coUerai per una tella, et la collitura di nuovo metterai 
al fuoco con un poco di lume di rocca facendola solamente 
scaldare, finalmente la metterai in conchiglie ad asciugare, e lo 
difenderai ben coperto dalF aria. 

Color gialh ranzo bellimmo, — Piglia orpimento, mettilo in 
grisolo da orefici e fallo liquefar a fuoco di carboni, indi levalo 
dal fuoco, lascialo rafredare, e serbalo, e quando Yorrai servir- 
tene, macinalo sottil^ e tempralo con acqua di gomma. 

P€Lsta verde come si faccia. — Piglia bacchi o sia granelli di 
spincervino beniss™^ matturi, il che sara la fine di 7^^ ; lasciali a 
mo^o in un vaso per sette o otto giomi mettendogli dentro 
acqua nella quale sia disciolto alume di rocca, e sara per ogni 


the proportion of 1 ounce of alum t6 6 of the berries, and bo3 
it well until nearly half the water is consumed ; then cool it, 
strain through a linen cloth, put the part that is strained into 
pigs' bladders, and dry them in the sun or smoke ; and tfiis is 
called *^ pasta di yesicha.'' 

32. Haw to refine verdigris. — ^Take the yerdigris, grind it 
well, steep it in the best yinegar for 3 or 4 days, strain it, then 
pour the strained liquor on other well -ground yerdigris ; let it 
settle for 2 days more, strain it again gentler, learing the lees 
of the yerdigris at the bottom of the yase ; put the liquid which 
has been strained in a glass yessel with a little safiron, and keep 
it well covered. 

32. A most beautiful green colour, — ^Take the powdered yer^ 
digris, dissolve it with lemon-juice, and let it settle for 24 
hours ; then strain the most fluid portion very carefully, leaving 
the lees at the bottom of the vase. Put the strained liquid 
into a glass vase, and add to it a little of the above-mentioned 
pasta verde, let it dry, and when you use it, add to it some 
more lemon juice, and the more you add the more beaudful the 
colour will be, so that it will be like an emerald ; take care, 
however, that you do not permit the pendl to touch water. 

34. How to prepare cinnabar for mtmahire painting, — ^Grind 
the cinnabar on the poq)hyry with clear water, and let it dry ; 
then put it in a glass vase with urine, mixing the two sub* 
stances well together ; then let it settle, so that the cinnabar 
will fall to the bottom, and pour off the liquid gently. Then 
add more urine, mix as before, and continue to do thus for 4 
or 5 days, morning and evening, so that Ae cinnabar will be 
well purified. Then take some white of egg well beaten with 
a small piece of dry wood, pour it over the ptn«AKai> to the 
depth of a finger, mix them well together ; let the cinnabar fiiU 
to the bottom, and wash it as before for 2 or 3 days, so that 
the smell will be removed from the cinnabar ; and then^ when 
it is well purified, pour in some more white of e^, and mix 
well together. Leave it thus, and it vrill be most perfect 
When it is used, stir it well. 


Bei oncie di grani uno d' alume, e cocendo molto bene sine alia 
oonsiunatioiie quasi della metk dell' acqua, lasciala raffredare, 
si colli per tella di lino, e la collatura si ponghi in vesiche di 
porco, di poi si mettooo a aeocare al sole overo al fiimo, si 
chiama pasta di vesicha. 

Verde rame come si raffini, — IS piglia il verderame, si tritta 
bene, p<n % infonde in boni^s"^ aoeto per due o tre giomi, indi 
si cola, e la colatura, lasciando le fecci, si metti sopra altro ver- 
derame ben tritto, si lascia posare per due altri giomi, collasi 
di noTo gentil*^ lasciando la feccia del verderame nel fbndo del 
vaso, e la collatura liquida si mette in ampola di vetro con poco 
di zafierano, serbasi ben coperto. 

Color verde bellUt^. — Si piglia il verderame polverisato, si 
disolve oon bucoo di limoni, e si lascia posare per bore 24, indi si 
cola ]nan piano il piii liquido tralasdando le fecci nel fondo del 
vaso, e la collatura si mette in vaso di yetro, e se gl' aggionge 
on poco della sod^ pasta verde, e si lascia sciugare, e quando 
vorrai servirtene, li aggiongerai altro succo di limone, e quanto 
pin db £u*ai, tanto sark piii bello in modo che parerk un sme- 
raldo, avertendo perb che il pennello non toccbi acqua. 

Come d prepari il einaprio per miniare. — Macina il cinaprio 
sopra il porfido con acqua chiara, e quando sara macinato, 
lasciallo secoare, poi mettilo in vaso di vetro con orina sopra, 
meseolando ben insieme, poi lascialo posare tanto che vadi in 
fondo, poi getfca via V orina piano, poi metti dell' altra sempre 
Baescolando come prima, e cosi farai per quattro o cinque 
^<onii, sera e mattina, che sark bemssF^ purgato. Poi habbi 
cbiara d*^ ouo ben batutta oon un legnetto seoco, e mettila 
*opra il dnaprio che sopravanzi un dito, e stempralo bene in* 
^Vie^ lascia andar in fbndo il cinaprio, e & come del orina per 
d(H tre di, che levara tatto il tuffo al dnaprio, poi esaendo 
^ purgato mettevi altra chiara, e mescola bene e lascia oosl 
che sara perfettiss"**, e volendo adoperare, mescolano bene. 


35. Green for writing.— Tske the black nig^tsbade, extract 
the juice, strmu it, and write with it, and it will answer welL 
You may also do the same with the juice of rue. 

35a. To make lake^ indico^ and lamjhblackj dry quitAfy. — 
Grind them with oil, then take glass ground to a very fine 
powder, and incorporate with the colours by grindbg them 
together again ; and thus, in the space of 24 hours, they will 

36. To gild the leaves of boohs. — ^Having first put the book in 
the press, and cut it very evenly, give it a coat of well-beaten 
white of egg, and let it dry. Then take Armenian bole of the 
size of a nut, and candied sugar of the size of a small pea, 
grind them well together dry; then grind them ag^ with 
well-beaten white of egg, and ^ve the book another coat, 
neither too thick nor too thin ; let it dry ; then bathe it with 
the pencil dipped in clear water ; and before it dries, lay on the 
gold-leaf dexterously with the cotton, and when dry poli^ with 
the tooth. 

37. To make a very strong glue. — ^It is made with ceruse, 
minium, umber, and litharge of gold, all well ground up with 
boiled nut oil, and made into a paste which serves for cementing 
stones to wooden handles or other parts of small macJiinea, but 
it ought to be dried in the sun. 

38. Mode of etching on copper or iron with ^^ oqwiforHs^^ and 
how the said '* aquafortis " is made. — ^The plate of copper must 
be made very even and then burnished, and it must be varnished 
with a varnish made of wax, mastic, and the smoke of roan 
made into a cake by the heat of the fire, then heating the plate 
of copper in such a manner that when this cake is rubbed over 
it, it may be liquefied and united smoothly. It is th^i allowed 
to cool, and the design is drawn on it with a sharp style, and 
the plate is then placed so that it may hang over a varnished 
vessel which contains the aqua fbrtis made in the following 
manner : — 

39. *'^ Aquafortist — Pulverize verdigris, sal ammoniap, and 
galls of Istria, and put the powder into strong vinegar, and 



Verde per ecrivere. — Piglia solatro ortensey cayane il succo, 
eolalo, e acrivi che riusdra beniss^^. II mede potrsd ancor 
hie col 8UOCO di rata. 

Per far ascivffare prestamente la kuxa, indicOy e negro di 

fumo. Madnati a olio, si piglia polvere di vetro ben pesta, e 

macinati sottilm^ poi b' incorpora con li sud^. colori, rimacinan- 

doli di nuovo, e cosi in spazio di ventiquattro bore s' asciughe* 


Per indorare le carte de libri. — Primieramente messo il libro 
nel toreolo tagliato ben ugoale le darai wns, mano di cbiara 
d' ouo ben battuta, e lascia seccare, poi piglia bollo armeno 
qnanto una noce, zuccaro candito quanto un cece, macina bene 
inaeme a secco, indi torna macinare con cbiara d' ouo battuta, 
poi ne darai una mano, cbe non sia troppo liquido ne troppo 
spesBO sopra il libro, e lascialo seccare, e poi bagnalo con acqua 
cbiara col penneflo, et auanti s' asciughi mettiU li pezzi d' oro 
in foglio sopra destramente col bombace, e seccato, lisda con il 

Per Jar coUa gagliardiaiT^. — Si fa con cerusa, minio, terra d' 
ombra, e litargirio d' oro, si macina il tutto beniss™® con oglio 
di noce coto, e se ne fa pasta, qual serve per incolare pietre 
conmanicbi di legno o d' altra materia per &r madnini, ma 
deyesi lasciar seccare al sole* 

Modo £ intagliare in ratne e ferro can V aequa forte^ e came 
nfaasia d} acqua. — Si prepara la piastra di Rame ben spianata 
e lustra, e s' inyemicara con vemioe fatta con cera, mastice, e 
fumo di raggia, formandone al calor del fooco una paUotta, poi 
81 & scaldare la piastra a segno tale cbe passandoyi, e fregan- 
doyi sopra detta mistura si liquefaci con unirla legerm^ sopra 
detta piastra, poi si lasciar^ rafredare, e con un stecco aguzzo 
fiirassi il disegno cbe si yuole, poi si coUochera deta piastra in 
modo die ma pendente sopra d' un vaso yemicato, nel quale sia 
r acqua forte seguente. 

Acqua forte* — PigUad yerderame salarmoniaco, accetto forte, 
e galla d* Istria, il tutto polyerizzato, e messo nel detto accetto, 


after beating it c(xitinually with a spoon or *' spatula " for four 
hours, pour it over the suspended plate (but if you have to 
eograye on iron, instead of the sal ammoniac, put to it some 
corrosive sublimate), and let that water remiun on the plate for 
the space of 6 or 8 hours. 

40. To make the colours siand in fresco. — They should be 
distempered with milk ; this is found to succeed wonderfully, 
especially with the smalti and smaltini. 

41. Verdigritfor paintinff in water-colours. — Take of rerdi- 
gris oz. vj, and of refined tartar of wine about oz. j, pound them 
both separately. The verdigris is to be put with half a bocale ot 
very strong vinegar, weighing about oz. xij, into a new pipkin, 
and to be allowed to boil until, on a pencil being dipped in die 
vinegar, it will be seen to stun a piece of paper. 

During the boiling the above-mentioned tartar must be 
added, and when it is done it must be placed, cold, in a glass 
flask, together with what remains at the bottom, and the water 
must be allowed to clear ; and if, when it is used, the colour ia 
too deep, more strong vinegar may be added, and while it is 
used the pencil must not be allowed to touch clear water. 

Remember that the ppkin must not be uncovered during the 
boiling, lest the vinegar should evaporate ; a small hole in the 
cover, large enough to admit a small piece of wood, wiU be 
quite sufficient for stirring the mixture while it boils. 

42. To lay the colours on aiherjbrjlowers [for ornamenting]. 
— After you have laid on the silver, take lake and whatever 
colour you please, grind it up well with pure water, and give 
the silver 3 coats, one thin and the other two thicker ; and 
when it is dry, draw the ornamental fc^age or other woiks with 
the style, and then apply the varnish warm. 

43. To lay gold on sandals^ paper^ or other thingsj^-^Fvni 
apply a coat of strong Lyons' glue (?), in which yon will boil 
some white lead and yellow earth ground up together with a 
little honey ; then gild, and it will succeed wonderfully. 

44. Oil gilding on stone. — Take nut oil whidi has been 
boiled with litharge of gold, yellow earth, and minium, well 


qual poi per quattro hore continue si & passare sbattendolo con 
cucehiaroy o palletta sopra d** piastra pendente, ma dovendosi 
intagliare in ferro, in loco del sal annoniaco, si mette in d^ 
acqua del solimato, qual acqua si laseia passarvi sopra la piastra 
per lo spacio di sei o otto hore. 

Per far restore % cohri a fresco.'^i deuono stemperare con 
latte, e cib riesse beniss*^, massime ne smalti e smaltini. 

Acquarella di verderame. — Si piglia di verderame 5 TJ» si 
pesta beniss*^, poi si pesta di tartaro di Bote raffinato S j circa. 

Si mette d^ verderame in un pignatino novo con mezo bocalo 
d' aceto fortiss"**' come sarebbe 3 xij e si laseia bollire poi fin- 
tantoche pigliando un pennello, e bagnandolo in d^ accetto si 
vedrk tinger bene la carta. 

A mezo il b<^lio se li mettera il tartaro sud^, e doppo che 
sara fatto si metterk freddo in una carafla di Tetro, insieme con 
la residenza che sara in fondo, e si lasciara chiarir 1' acqua, la 
quale quando nell' adc^rarla restasse col color troppo carico, 
se le potrk aggiongere nel ampola altro aceto forte, ne bisogna 
nel adoperarla che il pennello tocchi acqua chiara. 

Avertasi nel boUir a non lasciar il pignatino scoperto accib 
Don svapori, bastando un piccolo pertuggio nel coperto per 
metterri dentro nel bucco un legnetto, e mescolar il tutto 
mentre boUe. 

Per fnetter oolori sopra argeafito fet jwrire. — Dopo ch' hauerai 
date r argento, piglia lacca, e qual si voglia colore, e macinalo 
bene con acqua semplice, e ne darai tre mani sopra 1' argento^ 
una cbiara, e T altre due piu spesse, e sciugato farai i fiorami o 
layori con stecco indi li darai la Temioe calda. 

Per metier oro sopra zendato carta o akro. — ^Prima darai una 
mano di coUa forte di lione, nella quale bollirai im poco di niele 
con biacca, o terra gialda madnati insieme, indi metterai V oro 
e riuscira bemssimo. 

Per metier oro sopra pietra a oglio. — ^Prendi oglio di noce bol- 
lito con litargirio d' oro, e terra gialda, e minio ben macinati^ 


ground ; give three coats of this, and let it remain thns for 2 
or 3 days, when you will lay on the gold. 

45. A char arid fine varnish. — ^Take of clear Venice turpen- 
tine oz. iij, and of odoriferous oil of spike oz. j, melt them well 
together over a slow fire, and use the varnish hot, recollecting 
that if you are using it on wood you must first give it a good 
coat of glue, or distemper the colours with gum water, in 
order that the varnish may not penetrate. 

46. A varnish which has been tried. — ^Take equal parts of 
white mastic and linseed oil, put them into a new pipkin over 
a slow fire, and when the oil is hot, add to it a little ^^olio d* 
abezzo," and continue to mix. 

47. Another pood varnish. — Take equal quantities of red 
mastic well powdered and linseed oil with a little resin ; put 
them over the fire in a new pipkin, stirring the ingre- 
dients continually for a quarter of an hour, when it will be 

48. Another varnish. — Take of oglio d* abezzo, naphtha, and 
white mastic, all at discretion; put the whole into a new 
pipkin over a slow fire, and boil until all the mastic is dis- 
solved ; if there is plenty of the olio di abezzo the varnish wiD 
be better. 

49. A varnish which dries directly. — ^Take equal parts of 
boiled linseed oil and white mastic, place them over the fire in 
a new pipkin with a littie oglio di abezzo ; let them boil while 
you can say a credo ; then add to them spirit of turpentine, 
equal in quantity to half the linseed oil, mixing it well with the 
other ingredients. 

50. Another varnish which dries directly. — ^Put into a pipkin 
a proper quantity of mastic, cover it with a somewhat greater 
quantity of naphtha, and leave the pipkin over the hot coals 
until the mastic is dissolved. 

51. A varnish which does not dry immediately. — ^Take of 
white mastic oz. j, of nut or linseed oil oz. ij, and of oglio di 
abezzo oz. ss ; put the whole into a pipkin, and boil over a slow 

I^ i^ 


e ne darai tre mam, e lascierai stare cosi per due o ire giomi, 
indi darai 1* oro. 

Vemice sottiUa e chiara. — Piglia trementina di Venetia 
cfaiara 3 iij, oglio di spico odorifero 5 j» & fcmdere bene insieme 
a lento foco, poi la darai caldo a tuo modo, auertendo di dar 
prima una buona mano di colla sopra se sara lavoro di legno, 
OYvero stemprerai 11 collori con aoqua gommata aocib la yemice 
non trapassi. 

Vemiee provata. — Piglia mastice bianco et olio di lino, di 
ciascono parti uguaU, metti ogni cosa in un pignatino nouo al 
foco lento, e come sara caldo 1' olio, metterai dentro un poco 
d' oglio d' abezzo e mescola sempre. 

Alira vemiee bona. — Mastice rosso ben pesto, et oglio di 
lino, tanto dell' uno quanto dell* altro, con poco di Raggia, metti 
ogni cosa in pignatiao novo al fiioco, mescolando sempre per lo 
spatio d' un quarto d' hora, et e fatta. 

jiUra vemiee. — Si piglia (^lio d' abezzo, e oglio di sasso e 
mastice bianco, il tutto a discretione, si pone il tutto in pigna^ 
tino a foco lento, e si fa bollir sin tanto cbe il mastice sia disfato, 
e sara piii gagliarda con assai abezzo. 

Vemice che subito i (uciuga. — Oglio di lino cotto con mastice 
bianco, parti uguali, pongasi in pigna°° nouo con poco d' oglio 
d' abezzo al fuoco, lascia bollir per spacio d'un credo, poi met- 
tiri dentro un poco d' acqua di raggia, tantoche sia per metta 
del oglio di lino mescolando sempre. 

AUra vemice che subito asciuga. — ^Metti in pignatino tanto 
mastice quanto ti piace, coprilo con olio di sasso che sopravanzi 
on poco, lascia il pignatino sopra le ceneri calde sintanto che 
raa dis&tto il mastice. 

Vemice dC aspetta, — Di mastice bianco 5 jj olio di noce over 
di lino 3 ij) d' oglio d' abezzo 3 ss., metti ogni cosa in un pigna- 
tino, e fa bollire a foco lento sin tanto sia disfatto il mastice, 
poi mettegli dentro poco oglio di sasso a discretione. 


fire until all the mastic is disaolved ; then add a little naphtha 
at discretion. 

52. A varnish which has been proved to dry instantly. — ^Take 
of coarsely pounded white mastic oz. j, of spirit of turpentine oz. 
j, of naphtha oz j, and of oglio di abezzo oz. ij ; put all the in-* 
gredients into a glass yessel closely corered with paper ; then 
put a tin pot orer the fire, to the handle of ?duch the glass must 
be suspended, being secured to it by a string ; and put into the 
tin pot suffident water to cover the glass. Boil the water for 
half an hour, and until the mastic is dissolved, taking care 
not to take out the glass while the water is boiling, as it would 

53. Another varnish. — Let any quantity of oglio di abezzo, 
naphtha, and mastic, be placed in a pipkin in the summer and ex- 
posed to the sun, and in this way excellent varnish will be made. 

54. How to wash old pictures previous to varnishing them. — 
Take tartar and black soap, and boil them with water. With 
this old paintings are washed, and afterwards varnished with 
the following varnish. 

55. A varnish for old pictures. — Take linseed or nut oil, oil of 
spike, and powdered mastic, all at discretion ; put them into a 
pipkin over a slow fire. This is found to succeed. 

56. Another mode of washing old paintings. — ^Take some weak 
ley and soap with a little of that amalgam ^ which is used for 
the backs of mirrors, and rub tiie amalgam all over the pic- 
ture ; leave it in that state for a short time, then wash it off 
with a new ley, and lastly wash off the whole with common 
water. This has been tried. 

57. A varnish which does not dry immediately. — Take a 

^ Amalgam for the backs of looking glasses. The process of sil««rtng 
miiron at Murano was described by Porta to be as follows : — '* The tin, 
hammered to thin leaves, was spread out very smoothly, and quicksilvvf 
was poured over it ; and when the tin was saturated it was covered with 
paper. The glass, wiped exceedingly clean, was then laid above it, tad 
while the workman pressed it down with hb left band, be ^Irew out veiy 


Vemice che suhito sciuga — provata. — Di mastice bianco mezo 
pesto 5 j, d' acqua di raggia 5 j, d' oglio di sasso 5 j, oglio d' 
abezzo 5 ij, metta ogni -coea in un ampoUa ben otturata con 
carta poi metti nna atagnata al foco, et in essa metti Y ampola 
cbe con spago sia legata sospesa al manico, e metti nella 
stagnata tant' aoqua che copra Y ampola, fii bollir Y acqua per 
spacio di mes' hora, e sin tanto che il mastice sia disiato, aver- 
tendo di non tirar fdori 1' ampola dal acqua nel tempo che boUe, 
perdhe Y ampola creperebbe. 

AUra vemice, — Oglio d' abezzo, oglio di sasso, e mastice, 
ogni cosa a discretione, ponganm in pignatino 1' estate al sole, 
che in questo modo si fa perfetl"'\ 

Come si lavino ii quadri vecchi nanti di dargli la vemice, — 
SS piglia alume di feccia, e sapon negro, si fa bollir con 1' acqua, 
e con quella si lauono bene i quadri vechi : poi se li da la 
segoente vemice. 

Vemice da darei a quadri vechi, — Si piglia oglio di lino, 
ouero oglio di noce, oglio di spico, et mastice pesto, ogni cosa a 
discrettone si mette in pignatino a foco lento, e riesoe. 

AUro modo di lauar quadri vechi, — Si piglia della liscia 
ddoe, e sapone con im poco di quel stagnoio che sta dietro i 
specchi, e si va con deto stagniolo sfi^egaciando sopra ii quadro, 
e vi si lascia stare poco, poi si lava g^ii detto stagnoio oon noua 
liscia, poi con acqua comune si lava giii ogni cosa — provato. 

Vemiee che aepetta asm, — ^Piglia un pignatino e poni mastice 

ctrefoUy with hb right the paper that lay between the tin and the glass, 
over which weighte were aflterwards placed.'* In Germany, howeveri ac- 
cording to Garzoni, an amalgam was used, composed of a mixture of lead, 
tin, the silver marchesite, and tartar ; while Porta sajs the mixture con- 
mted of antioHniy, lead, and colophonimn. (See Beckmann's ' Inventions,' 
vol. ii. p. 7S, 79.) 


pipkin, and put into it white masticy linseed, or nut oil, at dv^ 
cretion ; then boil it over a slow fire until all the mastic is dis- 

58. Mode of preparing lime for fresco painting, — ^Take quick- 
lime, quench it in water ; then grind it well with water, and 
after it is ground place it on a stone impervious to water ; let 
it dry, and it will then be ready for use. 

59. A varnish for pidurefratnes coloured like wabnti wood* 
— Take a pipkin and pour into it a proper quantity of the 
strongest spirit of wine, add to it some dry pine redn in the 
following proportions, namely : of resin, a piece equal in bulk 
to 5 nuts to a drinking glass of spirit ; then put the pipkin over 
the fire, and when the resin is dissolved, the varnish will be 
finished ; but take care that the flame does not approach the 
pipkin. You may then use it on any work you please, but re- 
member that dust before it is dry will injure it miKh. 

60. Secret for writing with leaf gold. — -If you wish to write 
with gold on parchment or paper, take of candied sugar oz ij, 
and fine ochre oz. j \ grind them well on a colour-grinder*s slab, 
then distemper with urine or barber's ley, and make the mix« 
ture so liquid that you can write with it. Then prepare your 
pen, and write on the paper as if you were writing with ink. 
When you have finished writing, let it dry well ; then take up 
the gold on some small pieces of cotton, breathe on the letters 
so that they wiU become rather moist, and then apply the gcrid 
dexterously, pressing it slightly with the cotton. In this 
manner the gold will remain fastened to the letters, and you 
must then rub gently with paper or something else on that part 
which is not written on to remove the loose gold ; and if the 
letters should be capitals, like the Roman letters, you may with 
a penknife proceed to take off the gold where it is not wanted. 
If in any place the gold does not adhere to the letters, you may 
put on some more ; and lest that also should not adhere, you 
may retouch the letters with the above-mentioned mixture, and 
again apply the gold when the composition is dry ; and this is 


bia]tioo et oglio di lino o di noce a discretione fa boUir a lento 
foco sin die il mastice sia disfatto. 

Modo d! accomodar la calcinaper servirsene a fresco. — Piglia 
calcina viva, e strugila in acqua, poi macinala bene con acqua, 
e dopo macinata ponila aopra pietra viva, lajsciala seccare, e 

Vemice da dare a Cornici colcrite di color di noce. — Si piglia 
nn pignati°^9 e dentro vi ai mette dell* acqua vita galiar- 
dias^ quella quantita si uol fare, e poi vi si mette dentro della 
rag^ di pno secca, doe in un bichiero d' acqua vita, si 
poaera tanta ra^a quanto sara dnque noci in circa, poi si 
mete al ioQJOy et a forza di foco si fa disfare, e come sara dis- 
fata la raggia alF bora sara fatta. Ma averti di non lasciar 
acoostar la vampa del foco al pignatino, quella poi si da al 
lavoro che ti piace^ avertendo cfae la polvere le fa danno non 

Secrettoper scrivere con oro infofflio. — Volendo scrivere con 
pro in carta pecorina o altra carta, piglia Zuccaro candito 5 ij, 
ocrea lina 5 j, macina sottilm^^ sopra una pietra da macinar 
colon, poi distempera con orina, overo liscia di barbiero, e lafarai 
tanto liqnida, che si possi con essa scrivere, poi accomoda la tua 
penna, e scrivi sopra la carta come se scrivessi con 1' inchiostro, 
e quando Iiaverai fomito di scrivere, lascia asdugare bene, poi 
piglia V oro sopra un poco di bombace a pezzetti, e con il fiato 
li soffierai sopra le lettere tanto che doventi un poco humida 
poi va applicando destramente V oro premendolo alquanto col 
bombace, che in questa maniera resterk V oro attaocato alia 
iettera, e dove non e scritto se ne andera via fregando legier^ 
con una carta o altra cosa, e se le lettere fossero Miusccle (sic) 
come le Romane con un temperino li puoi andar rappezzando, 
e levar V oro dove non fa bisogno, e se in alcun loco 1' oro non 
fosse attacato ne porai dell' altro, e caao che non s' attacasse, 
si ritocca con la mistura sud^, poi ponivi 1' oro dopo asciugata e 
Goei si fa. E se vuoi fare in altro modo piii facile, piglia succo 
d' aglio e con quelle scrivi, e lascia asciugare indi roetti sopra 

TOL. II. 2 A 


the manner in which letters are ^ded. And if you would gild 
in an easier manner, take garlic juice, write with it, let it dry, 
and lay on the gold in the aboye-mentioned manner. But this 
mode does not please me on accoimt of the smell. 

61. How very fine ink is made. — ^Take of strong white wine 
lb. 8, and of well broken galls of Istria oz. yiij, put them together 
in a glazed vase, and expose them to the heat of the sun or in 
a covered furnace for 8 days, stirring them frequently ; then 
separate the wine from the galls, strain it, and add to it of 
Roman vitriol oz. yj, and leave it in the shade for a week longer, 
stirring it frequently. Then take of gum arabic oz. ij, dissolre 
it in a pint of rose-water, and for 8 days more continue to mix 
this with the wine, at the end of which time use the ink with a 
little boiled wine, and you will find it good. 

62. To write with cinnabar. — ^Among all the methods tried, 
the following is esteemed the best : — Take the whites of two 
fresh eggs, and put them into a new pipkin ; then break the 
bough of a fig-tree, containing the milk, into minute pieces, 
which you will add to the eggs; and with another fig-tree 
bough beat the mixture up until the white of egg is well 
broken. Then strain it tlurough a fine linen rag, and place it 
in a well closed glass vessel, with an equal quantity of roche 
alum. Distemper your cinnabar with this white of egg, which 
must be first well ground with clear water, and dried so that 
you can write with it, and you must mix it well in using it 

In order to preserve the white of egg for a year, take red 
orpiment of the bulk of a chestnut, and put it in the white of 
egg, which consequently will never spoil ; and this serves for 
grinding the gold for writing. 

63. How to prepare indico bo thai when used it shail he inw- 
tiffU. — Grind it well with ample Water, dry it on paper in the 
shade, grind it again with urine, and again dry it. When you 
wish to use it thus in powder, mix it with white lead with as 
little oil as possible, and it will thus be beautiflil when used, 
if you first grind up the white lead very finely, and then dis- 
temper the indico. 


r oro al modo che di sopra s' h detto, ma per V odore non mi 

Inchiostro fimssT^ come sifaccia. — Vin bianco galiardo lb. 8, 
Galla d' Istria ben franta 5 viij, quale per otto giomi stia nel 
vino in vaso vitriato al sole, o nel fomello coperto mescolandoli 
spesso, poi separato il vino dalla galia, e eoUandolo, mettivi 
Titriolo Romano 3 ^9 e stiavi dentro altri otto ^orai all' ombra 
mescolandolo spesso, poi piglia di gomma arabica 3 ij e posta 
in O J a<^ua rosa, et per altri otto giomi mescola col vino, nel 
qnal tempo con poco di vin coto, et incorporate insieme, te ne 
servirai, e sark bono. 

Per scrivere eon cinaprio. — Fra tutte le maniere provate 
qnesta si stima boniss™*. Pigliarai donque la chiara di due 
ona fresche e messa in scudella nova, romperai una bachetta di 
fico verde cfae habi il late in minuti pezzi, e la porai nella 
duara, e con una bachetta pure di fico la sbatterai sino che la 
diiara ma ben dirota, il che fatto colerai per pezza di lino 
eottile, e la porai in vaso di vetro ben turato, e vi porai 
aitrettanto alume di rocca. Distempra il cinaprio con questa 
chiara che m prima ben macinato con acqua chiara, et asdu- 
gato in modo che poasi scrivere, e 1' anderai meseolando nel 

Per couservare nn anno la chiara d' ovo, piglia tanto risi- 
galo, come una eastagna, e ponili nella chiara, che mai si guas- 
terk, e qnesta serve per macinar Y oro per scrivere. 

Come 8* aceomodi V indico die in opra resti bello. — Macinalo 
bene con acqua semplice, poi mettilo a seccare sopra carta all' 
ombra, e poi tornalo a macinare con orina, e tomalo a seccare, 
e quando si vol adoprare cosi in polvere mischiato con la biacca 
con mane' olio si potra, e eosi restera bello in opera macinando 
prima la biacca un poco tenera poi stemprerai I' indico. 

2 A 2 


64. Haw to purify cinnabar and minium fin' miniature paint' 
inff. — If you wish cimiabar and minimn to be beautiful, grind 
them with firesh urine, and it will succeed well. 

65. A secret for making an unequalled green. — ^Take the purple 
lilies, that is, the flowers, and of these the petals only are to be 
used, and pound them until they are well bruised, and leare 
them until they begin to ferment ; then take burnt roche alum 
at discretion, grind and incorporate it well with the lilies, leave 
them on the grindstone for 5 or 6 hours ; then prepare the 
shells, and take a worn linen rag, put the lilies into it, and 
press the juice dexterously into the shells or vases ; then dry 
the colour in the shade, and you will have a beautiful green ; 
and if you wish to make the colour lighter, add to it a little 
quicklime at discretion. 

66. To prepare lampblack for outlining the gold in crimson. — 
Distemper it with ox-gall, then let it dry in the sun, and when 
you use it grind it with gum water. 

67. To make aqua fortis} — ^Take one pint of the strongest 
vinegar, oz. iiij of verdigris, oz. vj of sal ammoniac, oz. yj of 
common salt, oz. ij of arsenic, and boil them until one-third of 
the mixture has evaporated. 

68. Pcutefor the aquafortis. — ^Take of Greek pitch oz. j, of 
wax oz. 1 ss, and of gum arabic oz, ij; liquefy and melt 
these ingredients in water, and make a cerate, which must be 
rubbed gently all over the previously heated iron ; it must then 
be blackened by the smoke of a lantern, after which the design 
must be drawn with the needle. You must then put wax 
round it like a box ; and the space thus enclosed must be filled 
with aqua fortis, which must be left there for 4 or 6 hours. 

69. To write green letters. — ^Take strong vinegar, powdered 
gum arable, verdigris, and roche alum, all at discretion, mixed 
with the juice of rue, and made so liquid that the mixture will 
flow like ink. 

70. To make paper transparent as glass. — Take of nut oil lb. 
88. and of powdered white litharge oz. j ss, mix them weU in a 

* The aqua fortis and paste were for etching. 



Come 81 purghi il cinaprio et minio per miniare. — Volendo 
che il ciDaprio o minio venghi bello, macinalo con orina che sia 
8ubito fata, e riuscira. 

Secretto per fare un verde che rum ha pari. — Si piglia i Gilij 
Panonazzi, cioe i fiori, e si piglia le sempKci foglie poi si pes- 
tano tanto che siano amaccati, e si lasciano principiar a putre- 
fiursi, piglia poi alume di rocca bruciato a discrelione, e con 
r alume madna li gilii, et incorpora bene 1' alume, e poi 
lasdali sul macinino per dinque o sei bore, poi prepara le con- 
chilie, e piglia una pezza di lino usata, e metti li Gilij dentro, 
e con destrezza va premendo sopra le conchilie o yasi, e lasci- 
erai seccare all' ombra et haverai un bel verde, e volendolo 
&r piii chiaro yi porrai un poco di calcina viva a ttla discre- 

Per €u:comodar negro difumo per prqfilar V oro in cremesino. 
— Si distempra con fiel di bue, poi si mette a sdugar al sole e 
dovendolo adoperare si macina con acqua gommata. 

Per far acqua forte. — Una pinta d' accetto fortiss"® verde- 
rame 3 '^^} ^ armoniaco 3 7J sal comune 3 TJ arsenico 3 ij 
bollito insieme e consumato il terzo. 

Pasta per T acqua forte. — ^R. Pece Greca 3 j cera 3 1 ss., 
goma arabica 3 ij) il tutto liquefatto e fuso in acqua, se ne 
forma cerotto, il quale scaldato prima il ferro si toccara sot- 
tilm^, e tutto si fark negro sopra il fumo della lucema, poi con 
r ago si fara il disegno, e si pord. della cera attomo a foggia di 
scatola, e s' empira il luogo di d^ acqua forte, e si lasciera per 
spacio di 4 o 6 bore. 

Per scrivere lettere verdi. — Si piglia accetto forte, gomma 
arabica in polvere, verderame, alume di rocca, tutto a discre- 
zione, mescolati con succo di ruta, e si fa liquido in modo che 
poesa correre a modo d' incfaiostro. 

Per far carta trasparente come vetro. — R. Oglio di noce lb. 
88. litargirio bianco polverizzato 3 j 8^ il tutto mescolato in- 


new pipkin, and beat them gently for the space of an hour, but 
do not boil them. Let the mixture then settle for 24 homrs, 
and pour this purified oil into another pipkin with 5 viij of pow* 
dered white Greek pitch, and disBoWe them gently by heating 
them without boiling as above. 

71. To make white bone black. — ^Take of litharge and quick- 
lime each oz. 6, mix them with common water, and place them 
over the fire to boil ; put in the white bone, stirring continually 
until the wator boils. Then take the vessel firom the fire^ and 
do not cease stirring until the water is cold, when the bone wiU 
be black. 

72. To make bone as soft a$ wax, — Take equal quantities of 
Roman vitriol and common salt, pound them well, put them 
into an alembic and distil them, and preserve the water, and 
when you wish to soften the bone, put it in this water, and it 
will become soft as wax. 

73. To make white bone green. — ^Take a bocale of strong vine- 
gar, of powdered verdigris and brass filings eac^ oz. 3, and of rue 
j. handful. Pound each ingredient, put them all together into a 
glazed vase with the bone ; dose up the mouth of the vase, and 
put it in a cellar for a fortnight, when the bone will be green. 

74. A most beautiful green for miniature painting. — ^Taike 
equal quantities of verdigris, litharge of gold, and quicksilver, 
grind them all to a fine powder with urine, and put them into 
a bottle, which you must bury in horse dung for 20 days ; then 
take it out, grind the verdigris again, and you will have a most 
noble green for miniatures^ writing, and painting. 

75. To change bone to a most beautiful green colour. — ^Take 
well pounded verdigris, steep it in goat's milk and leave it until 
it becomes green; then put it into a copper vase with the b(me, 
close up the vase air tight, bury it in dung for a week, when yoa 
will find the bone of a green colour, which will be still more 
beautiful if the bone is afterwards boiled in nut oil. 

76. Another way of making transparent paper. — ^Take warm 
olio di abezzo ; there is nothing better. 

77. To make rosetto di verzino. — ^Take verzino or red sandal 

A TINQmiB 0S80. 681 

neme in pignatino novo, si fa lentamente scaldare per lo spacio 
d' un hora ma per6 non boUi, cosi fato lasciassi posare per hore 
24, poi ai mete in un altra pignata il d^ oglio purificato con 
3 Tiij di pece greca pesta e bianca, e si £3u:a fondere a puoco a 
puooo ma che non boUi come sopra. 

Osso bianco che diventi negro. — Litargirio, calce viva, an. oz 
6, mistica con V aoqua comune e meti a bollire, e ponivi V osso 
bianco sempre menando per fin che oomincia a bollire, e levalo 
dal foco, e non restar di menare sin che 1' acqua si rafireddi e 
sara negro. 

Osso come si facci mole come cera. — Piglia yitriolo Romano 
sal com. an. e ben pesti mettili in lambico, e distila e serva 
r acqua, e quando vorai molificare V osso mettilo dentro la d^ 
aoqua, e ver^ mole come oera. 

Osso bianco che diventi uerde. — Accetto forte bocoali uno, 
verderame polVerizzato, limatura d' ottone, an. oz. 3 ; ruta man. 
j, pesta ogni cosa, e metti in vaso invitriato, e metti 1' osso den- 
tro, e tura il vaso bene, e metti il detto vaso in cantina per 
qnindid di, e saranno verdi. 

Verde hellisfT^ per miniare. — R. verderame, litargirio d' oro, 
argento vivo an : macina tutto insieme sottiP con orina di puto, 
e poni U tutto in boooia sepelita in lettame di cavallo per venti 
giomi, e poi cavalo fiiori, e di novo tomalo a macinare, et have- 
rai verde nobiliss"^^ per miniare, scrivere, e dipingere. 

Per far osso verde beUissimo. — Piglia verderame ben rotto, e 
ponilo in latte di capra e lasdalo sino che diviene verde, di poi 
metilo in vaso di rame e ponivi 1' osso, poi copri benissimo che 
non sfiati, e ponilo in letame otto giomi, e lo troverai verde, e 
con fiurlo bollire nel oglio di noce, sara piu bello. 

Per far carta lucida in attro modo. — Piglia oglio d' abezzo 
caldo per farla belliss"^ non v' e meglio. 
A fare rossetto di verzino. — Pigla verziao overo sandali rossi, 


wood, cut it into small pieces, and soften it in rain water, in 
which it is to be left for three days ; then boU it until the water 
is reduced to half its original quantity, and for every pound add 
oz. 1. of roche alum with a scruple of gum arabic, and boil it 
until all the ingredients are liquefied, strain it, and it will be 

78. Mode of colouring bones so thai tkey toill appear like 
emeralds. — Take aqua fortis which dissolves metals and let it 
dissolve as much brass or copper as it will, put into it the bone 
which you wish to colour, having first carved it as you please, 
and leave it in the water for one night, when its colour will be 

79. To make a beautiful green. — ^Take the ripe berries of the 
buckthorn, pound them, boil them with roche alum water, and 
incorporate with them some of the yellow made from the buck- 
thorn and a little safiron^ and thus a most beautiful green will 
be made. 

80. To make brazil wood of four colours. — ^Take brazil wood, 
and steep any quantity you please (so that it is more than a 
third part) in clear water until the colour is very red. Then 
divide this colour into 4 parts : if you wish to make a rose 
colour use it pure ; if you wish it purple add lime water, but 
the water must be tepid ; if you wish a violet colour add a ley to 
it ; and if you desire that it should be of a mulberry colour add 

81. To make a green for writing and miniature painting. — 
Take verdigris, litharge, and quicksilver ; grind them all toge- 
ther with mine, and write or paint with this, which will be beau- 
tiful, and of the colour of an emerald. 

82. To make a green for miniatures and painting. — Take ver- 
digris, dissolve it with vinegar, and when it is well dissolved 
strain it through a fine cloth ; then grind it up well on the por^ 
phyry slab with clear water, adding honey during the grinding. 
Let it dry, and again grind it up with gum water, and it will 
he done. 

83. To render any colour more brilliant and permanent. —Take 


e taglia sottilm^ emettansi a molle in acqua piovana, e lasciali 
per tre giomi, e poi &lli bollire al calo della meta, e per ogni 
lib. agiongi oz. uno alume di rocca, et un scrupolo di gomma 
arabica, e facciasi bollire, tanto che le d^ cose siano lique&te, 
e colalo che sara fatto. 

Modo di tingere ossa che parerano tmeraldi. — Piglia acqua 
forte da partire, et falle man^are, e disolvere tanto rame, o 
ottone quanto ne pub disolvere, et in essa metti le ossa che voi 
tingere, havendole prima fate lavorare a tuo modo e lasciali in 
d^ acqua una note, e saranno belliBa"^. 

A fare un bel verde.-- Piglia bacche di spincervino ben mature, 
e pestali, e falli ben bollire con aqua d' alume di rocca, e in- 
corpora giallo di spincervino e un poco di zaffarano, e sara fato 
un verde belliss"*. 

A fare il verzino in qnattro colori. — Piglia verzino e concialo 
in acqua chiara quella quantitk che voi tanto che sia piu del 
terzo, e tanto che il color sia ben rosso. Poi parti questo colore 
in quattro parti ; e volendo fare color rosato adopralo come si 
trova, e yolendo pavonazzo, agiongi acqua di calcina, averti 
che il verzino vol tepido, se violate poni ILscia, e se lo voi mo- 
rello poni alume di fecda. 

Afar verde per scrivere e miniare. — R. verderame, litargirio, 
et argento vivo, e trita tutto insieme con orina di putto e scrivi 
o minia che sara belliss"^ e sara colore di smeraldo. 

A far verde per miniare e dipingere. — R. verderame e con 
accetto il brai disfare, e quando sara ben dis&tto il colerai con 
pano sottile, e poi lo macinarai sul porfido bene con acqua chiara 
e vi porai del miele nel macinarlo, e lascialo poi sciugare, poi 
ritoma a macinarlo con acqua gommata e sara fato. 

Ut vividior^ et maxime coiutans quilibet realdatur color. — R. 


the rectified Bptrit of urine in a glass phial, and mix your 
colour with this. Leave it, mixed, in the gentle heat of ashes, 
or of hot water, for half an hour, the mouth of the phial 
being stopped. Then separate the colour firom the spirit, and 
you will find it more florid, and much more permanent. But if 
the spirit is not to be obtained, a ley prepared from calcined 
tartar, nitro fixo,^ and the salt of urine may be used. 

If in this ley are boiled crimson woollen cloths, a most won- 
derful cochineal colour is obtained, which is commonly called 
'' scarlato col secreto." The same may be said of the other 

If copper is dissolved in the spirit of nitre [nitric add] and 
then precipitated by a solution of salt of tartar, there will be a 
green colour much less corrosive than the other colours. 

If by the same spirit ceruse is dissolved, and then precipitated 
by a solution of gold, there will be a very white and delicate 

84. To make green letters, — ^Take the juice of rue, verdigris, 
and safiiron, grind them together, and write with gum water. 

85. To make blue ink. — Take ^' endico bagatelle," grind it 
to a fine powder, liquefy it with the above-mentioned giun water, 
and if you wish the colour to be very fine add to it roche alum 
(without gum water it would not flow well), and it is then finished. 

86. To make the lily green. — ^Take the purple lilies, pick off 
the most highly coloured petals, and leave them to ferment for a 
day ; then poimd them in a mortar, put the juice in a cup, then 
tie up some quicklime and alum in a piece of linen rag, put it 
into the juice, stirring it about until the green colour is developed ; 
then keep it dry in paper, and let it be made in fine weather. 

87. Mode of extracting the colour of brazil wood. — ^Take of 
rasped or filed brazil wood, say, oz. 2, and white of egg at discre- 
tion, but in sufficient quantity to soak the brazil wood ; then take 
two-eighths of burnt roche alum, and put the whole together in 
a pipkin, and stir it with a wooden spatula until you see tbat 

1 Nitre deflagrated in a crucible along with charcoal. See Nuo?o Plioo, 
p. 123. 


spirituni defecatum urinae in vitrea phiala, cum eo misce colo- 
rem. Relinque miztum in leni cinemm vel aquae calidae calore, 
per semihoram dauso phiale ore. Separa deinde oolorem a 
spiritu et invenies fioridiorem, maximeque constantem, loco 
q>iritu urinae si desit adhiberi pote8t lixivium ex tartaro calci- 
nate nitro fixo, et urinae sale oonfectum. 

Si in hoc lisivio coquantur vellera panni carmesini extrahetur 
inde color mirificus cocdneus qui vulgo dicitur scarlato col secreto 
idem die de caeteris ooloribus. 

K nitri spiritum solyatur cuprum, ac deinde lixirio salis tar- 
tari praecipitetur babebitur color viridis alios colores minime 

Si eodem spiritu solvatur cerusa, ac deinde solie aqua praeci- 
pitetuTy babebitur candidissimus delicatissimusque color. 

Afar lettere verdu — R. ruta e cavane il succo, verderame, e 
zafierano e macina insieme, e scrivi con acqua gonunata. 

A far inchiostro turchino. — B.. endico bagatelle madnalo 
sottile, e liquefalo con acqua di gomma della soprad^, e chi lo 
vol &re bellifls"^ li meta alume di rocca, e senza acqua di gom- 
ma uon correrebbe ed e fatto. 

Fer fare il verde gilio. — Si piglia i gilij pavonazzi, e Be li 
levano le parte piii colorite poi si pone per un giomo a putre- 
fiursi, poi si pestano in mortaro, e si cava il suco, si pone in tazza, 
poi si mete calce viva et aliune, e messo in pezza di lino si pone 
nel detto suco &cendolo girare sin che si vede ricavato il colore 
verde e conserva poi asciuto in carta, e si fa in tempo bono. 

Modo di cavar il colore dal branle. — ^Piglia il brasile raspato 
limato u. g. (sic) oz. 2. piglia bianchi d' ova a discretione che 
tatto resti inzuppato, poi piglia due ottavi alume di rocca abruc- 
ciato, e il tutto metti insieme dentro una scudella poi con spatola 
di legno rimena il tutto sintanto che vedrai il tutto ben colorito^ 


the whole is well coloured, strain it through a linen rag, and 
immediately expose it to the sun that it may dry ; and if yon 
wish to make a beautiful purple, take Campeachy wood (?), and 
do the same with that 

88. To make the Indian varnish, first notice. — You most 
first heat an earthen vase, and while it is Tery hot put into it 
the gum lac pounded and sifted through a silk sieve ; then add 
to it about \ of an ounce of colophony, and at the same time, 
that it may hare a body, collect it on the end of a stick in order 
to present all parts of it to the fire, that it may all be of the 
same colour, and as soon as it is liquefied you will add to it, a 
little at a time, the powdered colours, observing that they must 
be quite dry when they are put in. 

89. For green, — Take 15 drachms of orpiment, a drachm of in- 
dico, more or less dark in colour, for the sky-blue, sulphur well 
pounded with indico at discretion, and so with the other colours. 
After the colours are well mixed on their sticks with the gum lac 
they must be frequently beaten on the marble, or in a hot mor- 
tar, in order to mix them well ; they are afterwards worked in 
the hands, and little tablets are made of them for use when they 
are wanted. For dark blue, indico alone ; for yellow, orpiment ; 
for red, cinnabar or mmium ; for olive, burnt orpiment ; for flesh 
colour, sulphur and minium ; and so for all the other colours. 

90. To extract the colour of the gum lac^ so that it will serve 
for bright colours, — ^Pulverize coarsely the gum, and put it 

into a ley of rosewood or vinewood, which will extract its co- 
lour ; you must then separate the water from the gum, and 
evaporate it carefully until it begins to thicken. You must 
then take it from the fire, and stir it with a silver spoon, and 
let it settle till the next morning, and when it is sufficiently 
thick, you must place it on a slab of marble, dry it and use it 
for giving a lustre to the gum and to all colours. Observe 
that this colour mixed with white lead makes a most beautifid 
flesh colour. 

The remainder of the gum lac must be washed in the ley 
until it has entirely lost its red colour ; it will then do for melt* 


oolla per pezza, e poni al sole subito a seccare ; se voi fare un 
bel pavonazzo, piglia il campucdo e fa Y istesso. 

Per fart la vemice Indiana^ jP avertimento. — Bisogna far 
scaldare un vaso di terra, essendo ben caldo metti della gomma 
lacca pesta e criyelata al setazzio di seta, ponivi insieme circa 
i d' oz. collofonia e n^' istesso tempo eh' havera fatto corpo, 
la coglierete alia cima d' un bastone per presentarla al foco 
Toltandola da tutte le parti a fin che prendi ugualm^ il colore, 
e subito liquefatta che sara, li metterai a poco a poco li collori 
ben pesti osservando che siano ben secchi nel ponerli. 

Per il verde. — Vi bisognano 15 dramme d' orpimento, e una 
dranuna d' indico piu o meno oscuro, per il turchino solfaro ben 
pesto con indico a discretione, e cosi dell' altri colori. Doppo 
che li colori saranno ben mescolati sopra li bastoni con la gomma 
lacca, bisogna batterli sopra il marmo, o dentro un mortaro 
ealdo molte volte per renderlo ben mescolato, e dopo voltarlo 
nelle mani e fame tavolette, per servirsene ne bisogni, il tur- 
(diino scuro, V indico solo, il gialo 1' orpimento, il rosso il cina- 
prio, o minio, color d' oliva orpimento abbruciato, color di came, 
sol&ro e minio, e cosi di tutti li altri colori. 

Per tirare il colore della gamma lacca che serve per li colori 
tnm. — ^Polyeriza grossam^ la detta gomma, e ponila in liscia 
di legno di rosa o di vite, e la detta liscia tirera il colore, bi- 
sogna separare le acque dalla gomma, e farle svaporare so- 
dl'* sin tanto ch' essa cominci a divenir spessa. All' hora 
bisogna levarla dal iuoco, e moverla con un chuchiaro d' ar- 
gento, poi lasciarla riposare insino alia mattina, e quando 
bavera fatto corpo, metterla sopra una pietra di marmo e farla 
seccare, e ye ne servirete per dare il lustro alia gomma, e a 
tutti li colori. Nota che questo colore con biacca fa color di 
came bellissimo. 

La residenza della gomma lacca bisogna lavarla nella liscia, 
sin tanto (Al habbi lasciato il ador rosso, e vi servirk per fon- 


ing with the other oolourSy as cinnabary orpiment, and others, 
because the gum being 'passed through the ley, is clarified [or 
bleached], and all the impurities of the inside will pass off with 
the colour. 

Tlie wood should be covered with a coat of yellow made 
with orpiment, and the colours placed on it, ad libitum. But 
this must be after having spread the yellow with a willow wand 
or some other stick. 

91. To purify the gum lac, so that it wiU gioe a lustre like 
crystal. — Take the clearest gum, break it in a strong and dear 
cloth bag, 2 fingers in breadth, and at the two extremities of 
the bag tie two sticks, so that they may keep the bag closed, 
which you will present to the fire, and continue turning it round 
until the gum passes through the doth, which you must scrape 
with a wet knife, on the marble, and continue to do so until 
the whole has passed through, taking care that you do not bum 
yourself, and this gum, thus purified, serves for giving a lustre 
to all works. 

92. An amber varnish, — Take common turpentine, make it to 
boil for a quarter of an hour, add to it some amber well powdered 
on the marble, boil it for half an hour imtil the amber is lique- 
fied, and take it from the fire. As soon as it is cold it will 
become hard ; when you wish to use it, dilute it with oil of tur- 
pentine in order that it may liquefy, and it will be better to 
beat it slightly that it may be more manageable, taking notice 
that while it is hot, it should be passed through a doth, and 
the part which passes through will be the best part. Apply it 
with the pendl or with the warm hand. It is necessary to ac* 
quaint you that this composition should be washed in hot 
water, after it has been well strained^ that it may be clean and 

93. Another secret to make the true Indian varnish. — ^Take 
gum lac and oil of spike, both of them clean and pure. Tlie 
oil must be cleansed from its impurities with an equal quantity 
of litharge of gold; it must then be redistilled and again 
left to settle until it becomes clear aftier being passed tvrice 


dere con li colori, oome cinaprio, orpimento, et altri, perche la 
gomma essendo passata per la liscia si rendera chiara, e tutte 
le sporchezze di dentro se ne anderanno alia tintura. 

Bisogna coprire il legno di gialdo fiitto con Y orpimento e di 
poi mettergli li altri colori ad libitum sopra, ma questo dopo 
haver bene disteso il detto colore gialo con un bastone di salice 
o altra 

Per purijicare la gomma lacca che darh il lustro came cris- 
tcUlo. — Prendi la gomma piu chiara conquassala dentro un 
sachetto di tella forte e chiara, che sii stretto due dita, et alle 
due estremitk del sacco, lega due bastoni che tengano serato 
il sacco, qual presenterai al fuoco, voltandolo sempre sino che la 
gomma pasai fiiori della tella, qual raschierai con cortello bag- 
luito sopra il marmo, e seguiterai sino che h passata, ma averti 
di non abbrucciarla, e questa gomma cosi purificata serve per 
lustrare tutti li lavori. 

Vemice ^ambra, — Piglia grassa terbentina, fala bollire per 
\ d' hora, e ponili del ambra sul marmo ben in polvere &ta, e 
falla bollire per mez' bora sin che f ambra sia lique&ta, levala 
dal ftioco, e subito fredda, diverk dura, volendola adoperare 
bisogna aiutaria con T oglio di terbentina, acci6 si liquefacda, 
e iala un poco scaldare per maneggiarla bene, avvertendo che 
quando e calda di farla passare per un panno et quelle che 
passeia sark il buono, applicandolo con pennello overo con la 
mano ben calda. Bisogna avertire che tutta questa composi- 
tione, si deve lavare nel acqua calda dopo d' haverla ben colata 
acci6 sii ben netta e purgata. 

Mtro tecreto per fare la vemice vera d* India. — R. Gomma 
lacca, et oglio di spiga tutti neti e puri, 1' oglio bisogna che sia 
oetatto dalla sua grossezza con tanto di letargirio d' oro, quanto 
di ogliOf e questo bisogna far passare per un vetro per distilla* 
tione, e si toma a riposare, sino che sia ridotto chiaro, e pa8<^ 


through the still. Another vessel shaped like this must be pro- 
cured, and for every 4 ounces of spike must be taken one 
ounce of gum lac (if it is very yellow 
and clear there is no doubt of its good- 
ness) ; the whole is then to be placed over 
a diarcoal fire and to be boiled until the colour is changed, 
and the varnish becomes like honey. To know whether it is 
good, put a drop on a knife, and if it remidns united it is good ; 
it must afterwards be poured through a linen doth into a vase 
of majoUca and preserved. 

Cinnabar is ground up with pure water, and dried on the 
stone ; then ground for a quarter of an hour with seven times 
its quantity of varnish. The varnish is then applied with a 
pendl, and the work is to be exposed to the air for 2 hours in 
order that the odour may pass away ; for the same reason the 
work is to be kept in a warm place ; any colour may then be 
laid on 5 or 6 times. 

After this it must be made perfectly clean and again var- 
nished, continually dipping the pencil in oil of spike. When- 
ever you varnish you must dry the whole perfectly. 

In using the yellow colour you must wait some time for the 
dissolution of the gum, or you must dissolve it over a slow fire 
if you do not wish to wait long. 

94. A very clear varnish for pictures and paper alia Fia- 
minga. — Take 7 ounces of highly rectified spirit of wine, 2 oz. 
of sandarac, and 2 ounces of olio d'abezzo. The sandarac, 
which should be very clear, must be pulverized and put in a 
bottle with the olio d'abezzo, which also must be very clear. 
Tlie spirit of wine must then be added, and the whole boiled 
gently over the fire, until the whole is dissolved, keeping the 
mouth of the vessel well closed, that the spirit of wine may not 
evaporate. The varnish must then be strained into a glass 
vase, learing the impurities at the bottom. When it is used it 
must be put into a majolica cup, the picture also must be 
heated, and the varnish applied with the pencil. 


sato due volte si piglia un altra bozza come qui e per ogni 
qoattr' oncie di spiga, si piglia un' oncia di gomma lacca, e 
come sark ben ^allo, e cbiaro, non si 
dubiti della sua bonta, questa tutt' in* 
sieme si mette sopra foco di carboni, e si 
& tanto bollire sin che si muta il colore, e diyenti come mele, 
per conoecer questo s' e buono, si mette una goccia sopra un 
oortello, e restaado tutto unito, e buono, e poi s'infonde per 
panno lino in vaso di Majolica e si consenra. 

II dnabrio si macina con acqua pura, e si fa seccare nella 
pietra, poi si piglia sette volte piu di vemice cbe di colore, si 
macina ben bene insieme per im quarto d'hora, poi si piglia 
nn pennello, e » mette alia robba, poi si fa stare all' aria due 
hore accio passi 1' odore, e si tiene la robba a loco caldo acci6 
piu presto passi 1' odore, e porre il color che piace 5. o 6 

Poi si netta polito, poi si piglia la vemice, e si da sopra il 
lavoro un' altra volta, con bagnare il pennello nel oglio di 
spiga sempre. Ogni volta che darai la vemice lascierai ben 
asdugare il tutto. 

D color gialo 1' hai d' attendere per disolutione della gomma, 
overo la farai a fuoco lento, se non voi aspettar tanto. 

Vemice lucidissima per pitture e carte aila fiamenga. — R. oz. 
7. acquevita sflematt"^ oz. due Sandaraca, oz. due abiezzo. La 
sandaracca sia ben chiara si polverizzi, e si meti in bozza in- 
sieme con r abbiezzo, che deve essere chiarissimo, et poi ponivi 
I' acquevite, e falla bollire dolcem^ al foco sino che tutto di- 
yenti acqua tenendo stopata la bozza accio Y acqua vite non 
tvapori, e poi si coli in vaso di vetro facendo restar a dietro il 
fondo, e quando si vol adoperare si mette in tazzine di Majo- 
lica, e si fa scaldare anco il quadro, e con pennello si va se- 
gaentemente dandola vemice. 

VOL. II. 2 B 


95. Mode ofengranoing and painting on glass? — ^The engraT- 
ing you wish to transfer must be soaked in water for tiie space 
of 24 hours or more, adcording to the size of llie paper. 

Then take a glass cup containing an ounce of tui^ieotine, 
and place it to boil oyer a slow fire for half a quarter of an 
hour ; add to it a drachm of powdered mastic, and let it again 
boil for half a quarter of an hour. Take the glass [to which the 
print is to be transferred], heat it well on one side only, then 
lay the print on a doth in order to absorb the superfluous 
moisture, and lay the glass on it, which should not be very 
hot ; then turn it over and remove the air-bubbles witii the 
fingers and also the paper, so that it may come oflf without 
force. When it is dry, take a wet rag, and rub until the 
design be^s to clear ; then, when it is dry, heat it a little 
by the fire xya the side oppodte the print, let it cool, and 
again rub off the paper with the wet rag, and, when it is dry, 
heat it by the fire more strongly than before, in order that the 
varnish may soak into the print and make <me body, and the 
woric will be clear and beautiful. 

96. Mode of gilding and painting on gkus^-^First grind the 
colours with boiled oil, that is, oil prepared in this manner. 
Take half a pound of litharge of gold and one pound of nut oil ; 
grind the litharge and put the whole into a varnished pipkin, 
and boil the oil until it is reduced to two-thirds of its previous 
quantity. Preserve it for painting on glass. 

To make the mordant for gilding on glass, take equal quan- 
tities of white lead, terra gialla, and minium ; grind the whole 
together with nut oil, and mix what is ground in a shell or 
vase witii oil boiled as above, boil the whole together a little, 
and then use it. 

97. To make most perfect toater of ^^grana.^* — ^Take good 
white wine, put it into a glazed pipkin, and add to it an ounce 
of verzino, and a drachm of grana ; boil it down to half of its 
original quantity, then add to it three quarters of an ounce of 

1 ThiB should rather be entitled, *< Mode of tnmsferring an engraTiog oo 
to glass.*' 


Modo di stampare e dipingere in vetro. — L'imagine che vorai 
fkre la porai in acqua comune per spacio di 24 hore o piu se- 
condo la groBsezza, della carta. 

Poi piglia tazza di vetro con un oncia di termentina e po- 
nila a bollire a foco lento per mezo quarto d' hora, poi vi po- 
nerai una dramma di mastice pistato e lascia bollire un altro 
mezo quarto d'hora, piglia poi il vetro, e scaldalo bene da una 
parte sola, habbi poi Y imagine preparata sopra una pezza, ma 
che non v* abbondi acqua per di sopra, e applica d^ vetro non 
troppo caldo sopra, e poi rivolterai, e anderai con le dita le- 
vando le vesighe, e parimente la carta che senza forza se ne 
viene, quando sara secca piglia pezza bagnata e va fregando 
per insino comincia a schiarire il disegno, poi quando sia secca 
scaldala un poco al foco da quella parte dove non v' e materia, 
e poi lasciala raireddare, e toma di nuovo con la d^ pezza ba- 
gnata a levar la carta, poi secca che sia, scaldala al foco piii 
forte che prima accio Y arteria insupi nella materia e faciei un 
corpo, e venira chiara e bella. 

Modo d! indorare e dipingere sopra vetro, — Prima macina i 
colon con oglio coto, cioe fato in questo modo. Piglia meza 
lib. di litargirio d' oro, et una lib. d' oglio di noce, e pesta bene 
il litargirio, e meta il tutto dentro un pignatino vemiciato, e 
fido bollire sino che cali il terzo. Serve per dipingere in 

Per indorare in vetro, piglia per fare il mordente, Biacca, 
terra giala, minio, tanto dell^ mio come del altro, macina il 
tntto insieme con oglio di noce, e poi metti il macinato in con- 
chiglia o vaso con oglio cotto come sopra, e fallo bollire un 
poco e poi adopralo. 

Afar acqua di grana perfetV^, — R. Vino bianco bono e me- 
dio in pignata invitriata et poneli oz. una di verzino, et una 
drama di grana, et falla bollire tanto che calli per meta, 
et quanto sara calata metili tre quarti d' oncia d* alume 

2b 2 


roche alum, and a quarter of an ounce of " alume di piuma/' 
that isy *' flower of stone." Put these ingredients oyer the fire, 
mix well till they are all dissolved and until all the gums [i. e. 
the two kinds of alum] are well incorporated (they should be 
previously well pulverized), then strain through a fine linen 
cloth which should be previously wetted with white wine in 
order that the cloth may not absorb too much of the water, but 
take care to press out the wine before you strain it 

98. To make fine lake. — Take lime water in which brazil 
wood has been infused, and add to it flour, so that it may be- 
come thid[, and when the whole is well mixed, let the flour 
sink to the bottom, make it into a small loaf, dry it in an oven 
not too hot, then grind it up, and with lime water make it into 
pellets, and let them dry in the shade. 

99. Varnish for gold, — Fine sugar lb. 1, gum lac oz. 1, and 
socotrine aloes dr. 2 ; pulverize each separately, then take of oil 
of turpentine oz. 8, and distemper the whole, strain through a 
coarse sieve ; it is to be used cold. 

100. To make crimsonfrom the " solatro Indiana.*^ — ^The ripe 
*' solatro '' being bruised, must be boiled with any quantity of 
water, gum arabic, and roche alum, over a slow fire, imtil the 
water is reduced to two-thirds ; it must then be left to clear, 
and the sediment must be dried in the shade, and then ground. 

101. Yellow. — Socotrine aloes distempered with clear water. 
Dry buckthorn berries, pounded finely with pulverized saffron, 
are boiled with alum water until the water is reduced to two- 
thirds ; it is then strained and dried in the sun. The quantities 
may be varied at pleasure. 

102. To nuike the Jinest Indian varnish. — Take oz. 8 of 
gum lac, oz. 4 of the white resin of Arabia,^ oz. 3 of mastic, 
and oz. ^ of borax ; liquefy the whole in a glazed basin. When 
dissolved, strain them through a silk cloth ; then take an ounce 
and a half of the composition, reduce it to powder, put the pow- 
der into a receiver, and throw on to it half a pound of spirit of 

1 Is not this white resin of Arabia, Oriental Copol ? 


di rocca, et un quarto d' alume di piuma, cio^ fior di 
piera e questa cosa fa che sia posta al fuoco, e mescola bene 
tanto che si disolva, e fa che siano ben incorporati insieme 
tutte le d*" gomme, e fa che siano perfettamente polverizate, e 
poi cola per pezza di lino sottile e bagnala prima con vino 
bianco, accio la pezza non ricevi troppo di quell' acqua, con 
struccarla pero prima bene dal vino. 

Per far huxa fina. — R. acqua di calcina nella quale vi sii 
stato infuso del brasile, et in essa poni fior di farina, tanto che 
8* inspessisca, e meschiata bene ogni cosa si lascia poi andar la 
farina al fondo, della quale fatto un pastoncello si ponga a sec- 
care nel fomo non molto caldo, tritalo poi e con acqua di cal- 
ciiiaformane ballottine,.e lasciale seccare all' ombra. 

Vemice da (?ro.— Zuccaro fino lib. j., goma lacca oz. j., aloe 
sncottrino dramme 2. si polverizi il tutto separatamente, poi 
piglia oglio di trementina oz. 8. si stemperi il tutto insieme poi 
si coli per sedaccio si pone in opera fredda. 

Far cremesi di solatro Indiano. — Ammaccato il solatro ma- 
turo senza groppo, si fa boUire con acqua e gomma arabica, et 
allume di rocca, il tutto a discretione a fiioco lento sino al calo 
di due terzi, dipoi si lasci schiarire, e la feccia si lasci seccare 
all' ombra e poi si madna. 

Gialo, — Aloe sucottrino si stempera con acqua chiara. Spin- 
cervino secco pesto minutamente con zafieranno polverizzato si 
fa bollire con acqua alumata tanto che cali due terzi poi si cola 
e si secca al sole il tutto a discrettione. 

Modo difar la vemice alT Indiana finish. — R. oz. 8. di gom- 
ma lacca, oz. 4 di raggia bianca d' Arabia, oz. 3 mastice, oz. ^ bo- 
race, il tutto fa liquefare in catino invitriato, distrutto si cola per 
tella di seta poi pigUerai un oz. e mezza di d^ compositione, la 
ridurai in polvere, la qual polvere metterai in recipiente, e le 
porai aopra meza lib. d' acqua vite rafinata quattro volte, e 


wine rectified i times, and put the receiver into hot adies or a 
sand bath until the powder is entirely dissolved. The varnish 
will then be finished. It is then used in the following manner : 
— Add to it a 6th part, by weight, of Spanish red,' and with 
this give 7 or 8 coats to the wood which you wish to varmsh, 
leaving each coat 5 (»r 6 hours before the next is laid on. 
After it is quite dry, it must be polished with a small brash 
and olive oil ; then two coats of vannsh must be applied, and 
when it is dry it must be rubbed very softly with goatskin and 
with Tripoli powder and oil, when it will be done ; but I warn 
you that you must follow the recipe exactly. 

103. Another Chinese varnish. — ^Take of white carabe [aifr- 
ber] oz. 2, of gum lac oz. |, of sandarac oz. i, and of rectified 
spirit of wine lib. 1. The gums must all be pounded, and put 
into a long-necked bottle, and left in infuaon for 2 days, in order 
that they may be perfectly dissolved, keeping the bottle well 
closed. Hie bottle must then be put La a very gentle sand- 
bath for 7 or 8 hours, and left to cool, when it will be done. 

104. Char varnish. — ^Take lib. 1 of spirit of wine, oz. 4 of 
fine turpentine, a quarter of an ounce of white mastic, and the 
same quantity of sandarac. Put the whole into a bottle, as io 
the preceding recipe, and in the same manner place it for 6 
hours in a sand-bath of such a heat that the varnish will boil. 
It will then be finished. 

105. Lustro di rasa. — Lustro di raea^ finr grinding bright 
colours [for painting] on glass, is made with equal part» of 
spirit of turpentine and Greek pitch, placed over a moderate 
fire imtil the pitch is melted. 

106. Varnish is made as follows. — Take one ounce of juniper 
gum [sandarac], oz. i of pure and clear oglio d*abezzo, which 
is called oglio d'abiezzo for making varnish, oz. j^ of the 
best 7 times rectified spirit of wine. The sandarac must be 
ground up, and made into a paste with the abezzo. It must 
then be put into a bottle, the spirit of wine must be added, and 

^ The Almagre of the Spanish writers. A pigment is still sold at Veniee 


porrai il recipiente a fuoco d' arena o cenere sin tanto che la 
detta polvere sia totta distrutta, e oosi la yernice sara fatta. IS 
adopera poi come sotto, mettendori dentro la sesta parte del 
peso, di rosso di spagna quanto sarkil peso della vemice, e doppo 
con nn pennello dare sette o otto mani sopra il legno cfae si vora 
acoomodare, faccendo distanza de una mano all' altra cinque o 
'sei bore, e doppo che serii ben seoca biaogna pnlire le dete opere 
con del settcdino oon og^o d' oUya, e poi applicanri due mani 
di Temioe, e secoo che sar^ lo stropiciarai pian piano con la 
camoaggiy e del tripoli in polvere con ogHo, e sara &ta. Ma 
averti che bisogna stare a quello e scritto. 

Atra vemice alia China. — Carabe bianco oz. 2. gomma lacca 
oz. ^, sandaracca oz. ^, q>irito di vino disflemato lib. j. si pestano 
tntte k gonmie, e poi si mette in bocia dal colo longo, e vi si 
lasci in infusione per due giomi accib si disolvi le sod'* gomme 
teoendobenissimotnrato la bocda, epoisi metea fiiooo di sabia 
gradaiistf"^ per sette o otto hore, e poi si lascia rafreddare e 
00^ sara fatta. 

Vemiee ehiara. — Lib. una spirito di vino, oz. 4 trementina 
fina, un quarto d' oncia di mastice bianco, et un quarto di 
sandraeca, il tuttomesso in boocia come 1' altra vemice, e le si 
da fdoGO per sei hore perb di sabia tantoche si vede a boUire, e 

Ltutro di rata. — D lustro di rasa si & per macinar colon 
vivi in vetro con parti uguali d' acqua di ra^a, e pecce greca 
sopra foco moderato sino si liquefacci la pecce greca. 

La vemice si fa come sotto. — Oz. una gomma di ginepro, 
oz. ^ oglio d' abezzo puro e chiaro, quale si addimanda oglio 
d' abbiezzo per £Eur vemice oz ^ acqua vite boniss"'* di sette 
cotte. Si macina la sandaracca e si fa pasta eon Y abiezzo e si 
mette in bozza, e se li mette sopra la d^ aoquavite e si mette 
sopra fuoco dolce, tanto che il tutto s' incorpori, fatto questo 

by the name of Tern Rossa di Spagna, but it is believed to be identical with 
the Terra Rossa d'Inghilterra, and to be actually brought fVvm England* 



it must be placed over a slow fire until it is well incorporated. 
When this is done, the wood or glass which is to be varnished 
is painted with a tuft of feathers. 

107. A varnish far miniatures and picture frames. — ^Take of 
spirit of turpentine lib. 1, of benzoin oz. 4, and of mastic oz. 2. 
Reduce the mastic to a very fine powder, and mix it with the 
benzoin in a varnished pipkin. Then put the spirit of turpen- 
tine into a bottle, which you must heat by means of a water- 
bath, and then mix it with the benzoin and mastic in the pip- 
kin ; afterwards incorporating it with the other things over a 
slow fire, &c. 

When this varnish is used on picture frames, you must add 
to it two ounces of sandarac also well pounded, and you must 
mix with the varnish the colour which you wish to apply on the 

108. To make very pure white lead. — ^Take the calcined lead 
of the potters, or litharge of gold or silver in proper quantity ; 
pound it finely, pass it through a coarse sieve of silk, and 
having placed it in an earthen vessel with very strong white 
vinegar (if distilled it will be better), leave it for 3 or 4 days, 
frequently stirring it, and letting the impurities of the lead 
go to the bottom. Then decant the vinegar, and pour over the 
lees fresh vinegar in such quantity that no odour may proceed 
from it and that the precipitate may be almost black. Then 
take rain or well water with the proper quantity of salt, and with 
this salt water precipitate the lead which is in solution, and wash 
it with common water until it has no more odour or savour; 
then dry it, by placing it on leaves of blotting paper until it is 

109. To make a colour like carmine. — Take powdered cochi- 
neal, put it into a ley, and add to it some finely pulverized 
crystallized arsenic, which is proper for precipitating the colour ; 
it will then turn out well. 

110. Colours for miniature painting. 
White lead, Burnt yellow [earth], 

Paris carmine. Burnt lake. 


con pennello di piuma si pinge il legno, o vetro se vole inver- 

Vemice per miniature e camici. — Acqua rasa lib. una, bigione 
oz. 4, mastice oz. 2, pestasi il mastice in sotill"* polvere, e si 
mesoola col bigione dentro una pignata vernicata, Y acqua rasa 
si mette in una boccia di retro, qual si fara scaldare al bagno 
maria e dappoi la mescolerai col bigione, e mastice nella pig- 
nata^facendola poi incorporare con le altre cose a fuoco lento, etc. 

Per mettere sopra le comid vi metterai due onde di sanda- 
racca anche ben pista, et il colore che vi yorai mettere, lo ma- 
cinend con la vemice. 

Per far ln<icca jmrgatis^. — Si piglia piombo calcinato da 
boccallari o litar^rio d'oro o d' argento, la quantitk cbe si vuole, 
si pesti sottiP, poi si passi per settaccio di seta, e poslo 
questo con acetto fortissimo bianco, e se fosse distillate sarebbe 
migliore, si lasci in un vaso di terra tre o quattro giomi mes- 
oolandolo spesso^ lasciando andare al fondo la terestreita del 
piombo, di poi si decanti, e sopra le residenze si ponga novo 
aocetto sin tanto che non dia piii sapore facendosi la terra quasi 
nera. Si prende poi acqua pluviale, o di pozzo con del sale 
alia quantita che si vole et poi con d^ acqua salata si pre- 
dpti il piombo soluto, poi si lavi con acqua commune sin a 
tanto che non habbi piu odore ne sapore, e poi s' asciughi, e si 
ponghi sopra foglii di carta strazza sin tanto sij secca. 

Per fare un colore* cani h il carmino. —Piglia cosoniglia pista, 
e si mete in liacia, e se li mette arsenico cristallino ben polve- 
rizzato, che questo e atto a precipitare il colore, e si cava 

Colori per miniare. 
Bianco di piombo, Gialo bruggiato, 

Carmino di Parigi, Lacca bruggiata. 


Dutch vermilion, Brown from bnmt terre verte. 

Rosso delle aguze, Burnt umber, 

Red from Roman vitriol, Indian black [ink ?], 

Red from rust of iron, Black from burnt acorns, 

Terra d' Inghilterra, Ultramarine, 

Stone yellow,* Lily green, 

Flanders yellow, Indica 

111. Secret preparation of the scammony, — Take out what 
you consider a proper quantity of dean scammony, liquefy 
it by means of a gentle heat with strong spirit of wine, 
with which a little salt of tartar has previously been dis- 
tempered, and afterwards filter the solution; then evapo- 
rate one-half of it in a water bath, and when it becomes 
tolerably cool, add to it as much rose water aa is sufficient to 
make the very pure resin of the scammony fall to the bottom 
of the vase, which should be of glass, fr^e fit>m all ungrateful 
savour, odour, and malignity. Then pour off the water, dry the 
powder, and keep it for use. The dose is half or even a 
scruple in some convenient vehicles, &c. 

112. Lily green. — ^Take the juice of the flowers of purple 
Elies, but the juice of the buds will be better, and having 
purified two glasses full of it, add a piece of lime of the siie 
of a small pea, and the same quantity of unbumt roche alum 
with a little pulverized candied sugar ; and when they are well 
dissolved and incorporated, the colour must be dried by ex 
posure to the air. 

113. To make very fine lake.* — Take oz. ) of lac, half 
drachm of crystals of tartar pulverized, and a acudella of hot 
water. First dissolve the tartar, then take the lac which has 
been ground, put it on a clean linen rag, and tie it into the 
form of a ball, and then cut off the superfluous part of the rag, 
and put the ball into the above-mentioned hot water, placing the 
scudella over some hot cinders, and leaving it there until the 

1 Probably native yellow ochre. The best kinds are sold in the lump, 
and not in powder. 
* In the original M5., this recipe is broken into two parts by a repetitioD 


Minio d' olanda, Biondo di terra verde bruggiata. 

Rosso delle aguze, Terra d'ombra bruggiata, 

Boeso di Titriolo Romano, Nero d' India, 

Rosso di rugine di ferro, Nero de' giande brugiato, 

Terra d* Inghilterra, Oltramarino, 

Gialo di pietra, Verde gilio, 

Gialo di Randra, Indico. 

JPreparazione segreta della 9cammonea. — Piglia qnella quan- 
tita che voi di scamonea netta, Uque&tta a dolce caldo con acqua 
vite gagliarda, dove prima sia stato distemperato un poco di sal 
tartaro a discretione, poi stemperata feltra la solutione^ poi in 
bagno maria & sfdmare la meta, poi rafiredato alquanto il d^ 
fiquore metivi dentro tanto d' acqna rosa quanto basti per far 
eadere nel fondo del vaso, che vol essere di retro, la resina 
prniss™* della scamonea libera a £Bttto da qual si yoglia ingrato 
sapore, odore e malignitk. Poi leva 1' acqua, secca la polyere 
e oonsenrela per i bisogni. La dose e mezo, o pure un scru* 
polo in yehicoli conTenienti, etc. 

Per fare verde gilio. — Si cavi il succo da fieri di gilij pavo- 
nazzi, da bottom sara migliore, e purgato nella quantita di due 
Incfaieri, si mette quanto un cece di fior di calcina, e un altro 
d' alume di rocca non abruggiato con un poco di zuccaro can- 
dido spolverizato, il che dis&tto che sia, e ben incorpwato, si 
sciuga all' aria. 

Per far iacca finish, — Si piglia lacca mez' oncia, cristallo 
di tartaro in polvere meza dramma, et una scudella d' acqua 
calda, si pone prima il cristallo, e si & disohrere, poi si piglia 
la lacca madnata e si pone in un pezzetto di lino pulito, e si 
trenge in forma di balla poi sL 

Per far lacca finiss^. — Osserva K due segni n€ri.|| Si piglia 
lacca, mez' oncia; di cristallo Tartaro in polver& meza;|{ 

of the title and the first tine ; as this was evidently a mistake, I have avoided 
it in the traBslstbn. 



water becomes well coloured. When this is the case, take the 
ball from the water, and evaporate the water gently over the 
hot cinders until the colour is condensed at the bottom ; it will 
then be done. 

115. To make a most beautiful purple lake, — Take an ounce 
of fine grana or cochineal, a quarter of an ounce of roche alum, 
and about a bocale full of common water. Boil the water with 
a quarter of an ounce of fennel seed until it is diminished one- 
third ; then add the grana or cochineal finely pulTerized, and 
boil the whole over a slow fire for a quarter of an hour ; then 
add the pulverized roche alum, and let it boil for another 
quarter of an hour. After this take it from the fire, strain it 
through a linen cloth into a new and unglazed earthen por- 
ringer, and leave it there for 8 days. You must then decant 
the water, or take it up gently with a spcxige, evaporating the 
little which remains until the colour is condensed, which yon 
must afterwards keep in shells, adding to it a little lemon-juice. 

116. Another sort of fine lake. — Take 12 grains of powdered 
cochineal or fine grana, add to it 2 ounces of ley ; leave the 
infusion for about 2 hours ; strain it through a linen cloth, and 
put it over hot cinders. When it boils» add to it pulverized 
roche alum of the size of 2 peas, when the ley will make a 
thick red scum ; as soon as this happens throw it all on to a 
stretched linen cloth, when the clear ley will pass through, 
leaving the coagulum on the cloth, which coagulum must afler- 
wards be dried and made into tablets. 

117. To make a red Parisino [Parisian] colour. — Take oz. 
\ of Brazil wood, and half a bocale of clear ley ; put the ley 
into a new glazed pipkin, and when it is hot, add to it the 
Brazil wood, keeping it over a slow fire for a quarter of an 
hour. It must then be strained through cloth into a new 
pipkin, and some pulverized roche alum of the size of a grain 
of rice must be added to it, and the mixture taust be stirred 
without heat for 7 or 8 minutes. The whole must then be put 


taglia il superfluo di d*^ pezzetta, si mette la detta balla nella 
soprascritta acqua calda, applicando la scudella ad un poco di 
cenere calda, et ivi si lascia sino che V acqua sij ben colorita, 
air hora si leva la balla dalF acqua, e si fa svaporare 1' acqua 
plan piano sopra la cenere calda sin a tanto che il colore si 
condensa nel fondo, e sara fatta. 

Per fare una laeca pavonazza belliss^. — Si piglia un' oncia 
di grana fina, o cocciniglia, allume di Rocca un quarto d' oncia, 
acqua commune circa un bocale, si fa bollire la detta acqua 
con un quarto d' oncia di seme di finocchio, sino alia diminu- 
tione d' un terzo, poi nella d^ acqua si aggiunge la d^ grana, 
cocciniglia macinata bene, e si fa bollire a fiioco lento per un 
quarto d' ora, poi vi si aggiunge 1' allume di rocca fatto in 
polvere, e si lascia bollire per im altro quarto d' hora, ci6 fatto 
si leva dal fuoco, si cola per pano lino in scudella nova di terra 
non vitriata, e si lascia per otto giomi, qual poi si decanta o si 
leva gentil^ con spugna facendo evaporare quel poco che restera 
sm tanto che il colore si condensa, quale si conserva nelle con- 
chiglie applicandori un poco di succo di limone. 

Un altra sorte di lacca fina, — R. Piglia 12 grani di coccini- 
glia, grana fina fatta in polvere, si pone in due onde di lissivio 
lasciandola in infiisione due hore incirca poi si cola per pano 
lino, e si mette sopra cenere calda, quando vorra bollire vi si 
aggiunge quanto due piselli d' allume di rocca in polvere, 
quando il liscivo fara schiuma grossa incamata all* hora si 
getta tutto in un panno lino steso, e passara il lissivo chiaro 
restando la schiuma nel panno, quale si fa seccare, e si fa 

P^ far color rosso Parisino, — La quarta parte d' un' oncia di 
legno di Brasile, mezo boccale di lissivio chiaro, si pone il liscivo 
in pignata nova invitriata, scaldato che sij, vi si aggionge il d^ 
legno tenendolo a foco lento per un quarto d' hora, dopo si cola 
per pezza in pignata nova, e vi si agionge quanto una rizzolla 
d allume di rocca in polvere, e si mena senza foco per mezo 
<}viarto d' ora poi si pone il tutto in un sacco accuminato, e si 


into a pointed bag and passed through twice, as in straimng 
wine. It may be kept in shells, &c. 

118. To make rose colour. — ^Take the aboYe-mentioned co- 
lour, heat it over the fire, and when quite hot add to it a little 
fish-bone (that is, sepia) in powder, but in very small quantity, 
that the colour may not be too dry ; then stir die whole well in 
ihe sun until it is cool. It may be kept without adding gom, 
but must be distempered with parchment glue. 

119. To prepare minium. — ^Take the minium, steep it in 
water, beat it up well ; then decant the finest part, and let it 
dry. It is to be incorporated with parchment size and a little 
purified honey. 

120. To make violet colour. — Take bastard madder,^ grind 
very finely a small quantity of it, and put it in hot [liquid] 
^' color di verzino," but take care there is no roche alum in 
it, which precaution you ought also to observe with the rose 

121. Straw colour. — ^Take lead yellow [massicot], wa^ it 
with a very strong and clean ley, then decant the ley, and dis- 
temper the colour with parchment glue. 

122. A most beautiful white. — ^Take some powdered Venice 
crystal [glass], add to it a third part of powdered sulphur, 
place it in a well-luted pipkin over lighted charcoal, and leave 
it there until the pipkin becomes well heated and red hot ; then 
take it off; and when it is cold break it, and collect the pig- 
ment which is in it, grind it and preserve it 

123. Another violet colour. — ^Incorporate 2 parts of the 
above-mentioned rose colour with 1 part of turchino or turnsole, 
and it is done. 

124. A most beautiful black. — Bum the books of gold-leaf, 
leaf by leaf separately ; let the ashes fall into clean water, 
then take them and incorporate with parchment glue. The 
colour will be most beautiful. 

125. A most beautiful blue.— Take ^' smaltino," pass it 

1 Galium Mollago, Gralium Album. The great ladies' bed straw, or 
wild Bastard Madder. 


paBsa due volte come il vino oolato^ e si conserva in conchiglie 

Per far color di rosa, — Si pigiia il color soprad*®, si pone al 
foco acci6 si scaldi bene scaldato vi si giunge im poco d' osso 
di pesce in polvere cioe di seppa, ma pochiss™* quantita accib 
il colore non riesca troppo secco, si move il tutto bene al sole 
sin tanto che sij rafiredato, e si conserva senza porvi gomma, 
ma si stempera con cola di pergamena. 

Per preparare il minio. — Si pigiia il minio posto nel acqua, 
si sbatte beniss°^ ; poi si decanta la parte piii suttile, e si lascia 
asciugare ; s' incorpora con acqua pergamena liquida con poco 
miele purificato. 

Per far color di vioU. — Pietra [pigiia ?] Galica bianca, si 
macina ben sottile in poca quantita, e si pone in color di ver- 
zino caldo, ma che non vi sii alume di rocca, il che si deve 
awertire nel color di rose ancora. 

Gialdo di Paglia, — Pigiia gialdo di piombo, si lava con 
lisciyo ben forte e netto, poi si decanta il liscivo, e si stempera il 
colore con cola pergamena. 

Un bianco bellis^. — Si pigiia cristallo di Yenetia fatto in 
polvere, vi si agionge la 3* parte di solfo in polvere, si pone in 
pignata tutto ben lutata sopra li carboni accesi, e si lascia sin a 
tanto che la pignata sij ben infocata, et accesa, poi si rimove e 
fredda ebe uj si spezza, e la matteria che vi sara dentro si 
nuu^na e serve. 

AUro color di viole. — Doi terzi di color di rose soprad*^ s' 
uicorpora con un terzo di color turchino, o tomasole ed e fatto. 

Un hellish nero, — Li libbri del oro in foglio abbrucciati a 
foglio per foglio al lume, e &r cascare 1' abbrucciato nel acqua 
netta, pigiia poi quella robba incorporala con coUa pergamena 
ed * belliss"* Ac. 

Un Turchino hellish > — Si pigiia smaltino passa per settaccio 
^ttile, incorpora con biacca e gomma macinata. 


through a fine sieve, incorporate it with white lead, and grind ' 
it with gum. 

126. Mountain green. — Grind the mountain green with 
parchment size and " succo verde." 

127. Sap green, — ^Take the berries which grow on the hedges 
in bunches like grapes, collecting them 24 days before the 
feast of St. Michael. When they are ripe, place them in a 
pipkin, and dry them well with pounded alum for 2 days in 
the sun. Then add to them clear ley, and boil them over a 
slow fire until reduced two fingers' breadth ; then strain the 
liquor, and pour it into a bladder and expose it to the air that 
it may dry. 

128. To prepare saffron for painting. — ^Take the safiron, tie 
it up in a rag, and steep it in white vinegar, with a little gum 
or white of egg beaten and strained ; but if you make use of the 
white of egg, use no gum. 

129. To make gold colour. — Take orpiment which has been 
well ground with ox gall, put it into a pipkin with saffiron and 
white wine, and let it boil over a slow fire until it has a body. 
When you wish to use it distemper it with white wine mixed 
with the above-mentioned gall. 

130. To make verdigris. — Take pieces of copper anointed 
with purified honey, and fasten them to the cover of a well- 
glazed pipkin, which must be full of hot vinegar made with 
strong wine ; then cover it and place it in a warm situation for 
4 or 5 weeks, and when you uncover it, remove the colour 
which you will find on the pieces of copper, and it will be most 

131. To make a colour of dragons blood. — Dri^on's blood 
is ground up with sal ammoniac and pounded gum ; it will be 
much better for the addition of white lead and minium. 

132. Distempering of cinnabar. — When the cinnabar is 
well ground, it is to be incorporated with a strong white; 
it is then dried on the stone, and reground with well- 
beaten white of egg and a small portion of Hepatic aloes. It 
may then be preserved, and when used it should be distem- 


Verde di numtagna. — Si macina il verde di montagna cou cola 
pergamena liquida e succo rerde. 

Stuxo verde, — Si pigliano bacche che vengano per le sieppi 
in fonna d'ave, si raccogliono 24 giorni avanti S. Micbele 
quando sono matturey si pongono in piguata, e a' abbruciono 
bene con alnme pestato due giorni al sole in infusione, poi si 
aggionge lisciyo chiaro, e si pone al foco lento acci6 bolli sino 
al calo di due detta poi si cola e si pone in vescica all' aria 
accia secchi. 

Accomodar il zafarano. — Si piglia il zaffarano, si pone in 
pezzetta legata, si pone in acetto bianco con un poco di gomma, 
OTero bianco d' ora ben sbattute e p&^sate, ma senza gomma se 
adopri il bianco dell' oyo. 

Per far color d^oro. — Orpimento ben macinato con fiele di 
bne si pone in pignata con zaffiurano, e vino bianco, e si lascia 
bollire a foco lento sin tanto che piglij corpo, poi si distempera 
con vino bianco, quando lo voi adoperare misturato con fiele 
soprad** . 

Afar verde rame. — Piglia pezzette di Bame onte con miele 
pnrificato, attaccali al coperchio d' una pignata ben vitriata 
die sij piena d' acetto caldo di vin forte fata, poi coprila e po- 
nila in loco caldo per quattro o dnque settimane e scoprendola 
lever^ il colore che troverai sopra li detti pecci di rame che 
sara belliss"^. 

Per far color di saangue di Drago, — Sangue di drago si ma- 
dna con salmiaco, e gomma pista riuscira piu bello con agion- 
gervi un poco di biacca e minio. 

Tempra del Cinaprio. — S' inoorpora il cinaprio con un bian- 
co forte, quando sara ben macinato, poi si lasda seccare sopra 
la pietra, e si macina di nuovo con chiara d' ovo ben sbatutto, 
et una picciola parte d' aloe epatico, si conserva, et quando si 

VOL. II. 2 c 


pered with spring water and a little white of egg, and it will 
flow more freely if a little myrrh be added. 

133. To make giallo ionto} — ^Take the berries of the bock- 
thorn towards the end of the month of Angaat» boil them with 
pnre water, until the water is loaded and thiek with colour ; 
add a little bnmt roche ainm and then stnun it Yon may 
boil the strained liquor to make the colour deeper, mixing witb 
it some very pure gilder's gesso ; then make the colour into 
pellets, and dry them in the shade. 

134. Secret far making lake. — ^To 2 pints of common water 
add 2 ounces of pulyerized soda, and leaye the mixture in this 
state for 24 hours ; then strain it, and put into the ley 6 ounces 
of ^* pastella ;'' then leave it again for 24 hours, strain it through 
[a bag shaped like] a capuchin^s hood, add alum water, stir it 
with a stick, and add water to it in order to remove the salt 
When the colour has fallen to the bottom, pour fM the water, 
collect the lake which will be at the bottom, dry it, and it will 
be finished. 

135k 7b make a carmine colour. — ^Take powdered cochineal, 
add ley to it, and instead of alum water, add well pulyerixed 
crystallized arsenic, for this will precipitate the colour, which 
will be brighter if treated as above. 

136. To extrad; the colour from Chinese grapee for pmiiing 
ofid miniatures. — ^Take the grapes when quite ripe^ pound 
them, pass them through a press, filter through linmi rag, and 
evaporate the juice over hot cinders ; when all the moistare is 
evaporated, take spirits of urine, which you must pour on to the 
juice, and let it remain until you see that it is well coloured. 
Then take some spirits of wine, and add them, ao that the 
colour may be precipitated, or evaporate it» and preserve the 
colour in small bags of parchment or skin. 

137. To make most beautiful sap green. — ^Take the berries of 
the buckthorn when they are quite ripe, which will be about the 


1 In the Nuovo Plico, Giallo Santo is ndd to be made of the flowers of 
the Erba Lizza, Barba di Beooo Orellow goat's beard). We may, tber»- 


vorit adoperare u piglia acqua di fonte oon un pooo di chiara 
d' oTo» e percfae corri meglio aggiongi un pooo di mira. 

Per far giaio sanio. — Piglia grana di qpincervino nel fine d* 
agoeto, fidlo boUire oon aoqua pura sin tanto che sij bencarico, 
e 8pe88o di colore con poco d* alume di rocca non bruggiato, 
p(n si coli quale per farlo per fBtrlo (jnc) piii colorito ai pu6 
&rIo bollire, e con detta oolatura B'impasti gesso purgato di 
quello d' indcMratori, e se ae fiiccino ballotte quali si seccano 
all' ombra. 

Secrettoper la laeca. — Piglia due pnte d' aoqua comune, e 
meti dentro due ojs. di soda polverijeata e lasdalo per 24 bore 
poi a cola, e pcH metti nella d* lisda oz. 6 paateUa, e A lascia 
per 24 liore» poi passala per capoceio, poi metti aoqua alumata, 
pcu mesoola con bastone et aggiongi aoqua per levare la sal- 
sediney qua&do il colore sara andato al fondo decanta 1* acqua 
poi piglia la koca che sara al fcndo^ falla seccare e sara fata. 

Per far oolare di camdno, — ^Piglia conaoniglia pesta, meti in 
lisdai e in cambio d* acqua alumata meti arseuioo cristalino 
ben poWeri^ato che questo precipita il colore e si & piu vivo a 
&re come sopnu 

Per cavare il colore dalF uoa ddla China per dipingere e mi- 
mare» — Si piglia la d*^ uva ben matura, poi si pesta, e si pa^sa 
per tordiio, poi ^ feltra per pezza di lino» poi A fa evaporare 
sopra le cieneri calde, paosata tutta 1' humidiia j^glia spirito di 
vino, si p<xie nel succo sin che si vede ben cdorito» piglia poi 
^nrito d' orina, e si mette accid precipiti il colore, overo fallo 
sraporarei e ^xxnsenralo in sacchetti di carta capretta o pelle. 

Afar pasta verdebeBistF^. — Si piglia la grana di spinsel- 
vioo ben matlura, che saia quando 1' uva e matura, si pista, e 

fore, tafely infer tJiat it was a yellow lake made aometimes with the juice of 
one plant, and aometinies with that of another. 

2 c 2 


time when grapes are ripe ; pound and boil them as soon as they 
are gathered, and add to them a little roche alum ad libitam, 
and when the liquor becomes of a beautiful green, which will 
happen in about an hour, take them from the fire, and when 
cold filter, and keep what passes through in a bladder in the 
chimney that it may dry well. 

138. To make excellent bailed hair. — ^Take the manes, fore- 
locks, and tails of oxen, horses, cows, and calves (but re- 
member that the tafls of horses are not good), place them in 
fresh water, and wash them so that there may not remain any 
grease or dirt ; then string them on a cord, afterwards put them 
into a vessel with ley and let them boil for 6 hours. 

139. To make super^xcellent (carmine, — Take an egg, make 
a hole in it so that the white will run out, then take mercury 
and fill the egg with it, stop up the hole and lute it according 
to the best of your ability ; then bury it two feet deep in horse- 
dung which is very much exposed to the sun, and do this b 
the dog days. Leave it in this situation for 40 days, then take 
it out, with great care, lest it should break ; then break it, and 
you will find in it a living animal ; let the animal die, and pre- 
serve it, it will fall to powder ; use this powder, which will be a 
most splendid carmine, for painting and miniatures, but yon 
must beware of the smell at the beginning. 

140. To colour canes and to imitate those of India, — Polish 
well the cane, then take gum water^ and mix with it white lead 
and smaltino according to your fiincy ; this is the compositioD 
which you must sprinkle on the cane with a pencil ; then shaking 
the cane hold it over the fire with sulphur until the cane becomes 
black. Then polish it with a wet rag, afterwards rub it well 
with a little olive oil, taking care to do this from knot to knot. 

141. To blacken the wood of the apple, pear^ olive, bar, service, 
cherry trees, and elm (f). 7- When the wood has been po- 
lished with burnt pumice stone it must be well rubbed with a 
coarse cloth and with the said powder, bathing the work with 
German size that it may be more polished ; it must then he 
cleaned with another rag. 


81 fa bolire come si trova, e a aggiunge an poco d'alumme di 
Bocca ad libitum, quando vedrai un verde belliss™®, die verk 
in spacio d* un hora, si leva dal foco« e fatta fredda &lla pas- 
sare per feltro, e conservala in vesica sotto il camino acci6 si 
secdiu bene. 

Per fare ciino hollito hellish, — Si piglia le cume e zuffe, 
cove di bovi, cavalli, vache, vitelli, ma averti che le cove de' 
cavalli non sono hone; Si pongono in acqua fresca, e si lava 
acdo non le resti untume ne sozzure alcune, di poi falle fillare 
in corda poi si pone in paroUo (sic) di liscia, e si fa bollire per 
6 hore* 

Per fare Chermino sopraeccellentissimo, — Piglia un ovo, £stli 
nn buco tanto che n'reschi la chiara, poi piglia mercuric, et 
emp r ovo, e di poi tura bene il bucco, e lutalo secundum 
artem, e ponilo in Ruto di cavalo sepolto un braccio fondo in 
loco chevi giocchi il sole piu sii possibile in tempo di Canicola 
fidlo, e fallo stare quaranta giomi ; poi levalo con avertenza 
che non si rompi, poi piu avertito rompilo che vi troverai un 
animale vivo, lascialo poi morire, e serbalo che andera in pol- 
vere, e di quella serviti, che sara un chermino non piu visto da 
dipingere et miniare, ma guardati dal tuto alia prima. 

Per far Cavne tinte efnte d* India. — Polisci bene la canna, 
poi piglia acqua di gomma, biacca, e smaltino, a tuo modo unissi 
con d^ gomma, £u*ai la composizione da spruzza su la canna 
con pennello, e dibattendo la canna la porrai sopra il fuoco con 
zolfaro sinche la canna venghi nera poi la pollirai con straccio 
bagnandola con acqua, e poi con un poco d' oglio d' olivo, e la 
sfregherai bene, avertendo di far questa fattura a nodo per nodo. 

Per far negro Pomo^ pero^ olivo, BussOy zorbolo, cerasa, vema 
\e omo f]. — ^Pulito che sara il legno con pomice bruggiata^ si 
freghi bene il lavoro con canovazzo, e detta polvere bagnando 
il lavoro con acqua di cola tedesca acdo venga piu pulito poi si 
neti bene con altra pezza. 


144. A water for bkuskening the aboff>e-'menHontd warh,-^ 
Boil llic rind of the pomegraimte in water tmtil a tliird part is 
consumed, and lay it all orer tiie work, which must be quite 
hot, with a pencil of hog's bristles ; then let it dry in the shade, 
and in the same manner give 3 coats, having the water 
always quite hot, and always leaving it to dry in the shade. 

Item, take Campeachy wood (f) which has been boQed in 
water with a little roche alum until a third part bas eva- 
porated, and while it is still hot, give 3 coats of it as above, 
leaving it to dry in tbe shade. Item, for putting on the black. 
The strongest white or red wine, in which you must put a quan- 
tity of iron filings at discretion, bearing in mind that the more 
iron filings you add the blacker will tiie composition be, and it 
should be left in inftuion for 24 hours ; it will thus make a 
most beautiful black. When the 24 hours are past you may 
add to it ox gall at discretion, afterwards boiling it until it is 
reduced one third. You must apply 3 coats of it while hot 
on the work, allowing each coat to dry in the shade, and the 
more coats you lay on, the blacker will the woi^ be. 

143. To polish the work. — Rub it well with new cloth ; then 
take fine Tripoli powder which has been well rasped and 
pounded finely with goatskin, and rub the work well, so that it 
will have a lustre ; then take white wax, if you wish it to be 
still brighter, and rub it over the worky wbidi will thus become 
most beautiful. 

144. To grind lake. — Spirits of wine or candied sugar, at 
discretion, with gum water and a few drops of oil of tartar. 

145. Beautiful smaUino. — Grind It up with ispnits of wine ; 
then regrind it with dragon's MOod iti fears before the spirits 
have evaporated, and it will be beautiful. It should ako be in- 
corporated with burnt Roman vitriol or burnt ^^pietra focaia,'^' 

146. To make the Turkish paper waved with dieers coloun, 
— The colours which succeed best on tfiis paper are fine orpi- 

' See ante, p. 537, n. 


Acqua per dare it nero a toprad** lavori. — Scorze di porno 
granato A faocino bollire in acqua che consumi un terzo» poi 
con penneUo di setola si dij 8opra il lavorOy che sij ben calda. 
Doppo coperto tutto il lavoro di detta acqua A laad sdugare 
air ombray e di quest' acqua sempre calda se ne dij tre mam, 
e ri laaciaao sciugare all' ombra sempre. 

Item n piglij compuodo a discrezione boUito in acqua comune 
alia consumatione del terzo con un poco d' alume di rocca, e 
cori calda si dij sopra tre mani come sopra, e si lasci sciugare 
all' ombra. Item per dare il negro. Vin fortiss"^ bianco o 
negro nel quale porrai dentro queUa quantity di limatura di 
ferro a discretione, avertendo che quanta piu ne sara verra 
sempre piu nero, e si dere lasdare in infusione bore ventiquat- 
tro, e iaxk nero belliss"^^ passate poi le 24 bore, o che il ferro 
aj consumato vi si pone dentro fiele di hue a discrettione, poi 
fidla bollire all' callo (jne) d' un terzo* £ la darai sopra il 
lavoro calda tre mani, e lasda sciugare mano per mano all' om- 
bra e oon piu mani piA nero verrk. 

Per hutrare il la»aro. — Sfrega bene il lavoro con canevazzo 
novo, e poi piglia tripolo fine e ben pesto raspato sottil^ con 
pelle di camozza si fre^ il lavoro ben bene, che si lustreri^ e 
pi^iia cera bianca per darli piii lustre, e frega sopra il lavoro 
che verra belliss"***. 

Per macinar iicoo.— Spirito di vino o zucchero candito a 
discrettione con acqua gommata con qualche gocda d' ogHo di 

SmaUino belh. — Si macini con spirito di vino, e poi rimad- 
narlo oon sangue di drago in lacrima, coei bagnato e sarii hello, 
et con rosso di vitriolo romano abbrugiato o pietra focaia bni- 
giata inooiporati &c. 

Per fare la carta turcheeca cndata di diverei colori. — ^Li co- 
lon quali riescono meglio in questa carta sono, orpimento, lacca 


ment or common lake, cinnabar, that is dark morello^ indico, 
that is purple, and .white lead ; but the eye must be the judge 
of the mixture and making of the colours. 

The colours are to be kept separate, but because the orpi- 
ment is rather light coloured, it should be mixed with cinnabar 
during the grinding, and thus it will be of the colour of gold. 
The lake should be ground up with cinnabar, which will flonk 
to the bottom, so that it requires to be mixed with lake; 
purple, not being found in nature, is made with indico aod 
lake ; green is made with orpiment and indico ; sky-blue with 
indico and white lead ; and black with ivory calcined in an 
uncovered crucible, but not too much calcined, as in that 
case it will become white, and indico is the colour which 
gives it body. These then alone are the colours which suc- 
ceed ; they must be well ground up with simple water and 
moderately liquid, so that they may be collected on the stone 
and placed in their respective vases. They are to be distem- 
pered wfth spirit made from good and not spoiled wine, after- 
wards adding to them 5 or 6 drops of the gall of an ox or 
calf, which makes them spread over the gum water of which 
we shall speak ; and if you do not think that the colour spreads 
sufficiently, add a drop or two more, and every time that the 
colours dry add spirit of wine. When they are ground you 
must add no more water, but spirit, which has the property of 
fastening the colours to the papers. We have now spoken of 
all that pertains to the disposition of the colours, and it remains 
for us to speak of the method of employing them. 

You will take, therefore, a tray of the size of the paper 
which you wish to psunt, with the sides 3 fingers high, and en- 
tirely covered with pitch ; you will fill it with water, but you 
must first put the water into a vase, and for one measure of the 
water you will add an ounce and a half of gum, or one ounce 
if it is pure and good, adding a little more water, because the 
gum will absorb part. Leave it in infusion for 2 days and 2 
nights, and then mix and squeeze it with the hand into the vase 
2 or 3 times a day in order to perfect the water ; and while 


fina, o commune, dnabrio, cioe morello scuro, indico cioe 
pavonazzo, biaca overo bianco di piombo, sij ^udice 1' occhio 
nel mischiare i coloii e nel &rli. 

Qnesti seirono separati, ma perche 1' oropimento sia troppo 

chiaro si mischia col cinabrio nel macinarlo, e cosi piglia il 

color d' oro, la lacca si madna col cinabrio, il cinabrio va a 

fondo da lui si che richiede compagna la lacca, per fare il 

paronazzo, non trovandosi naturale si fa con 1' indico et lacca, 

il verde si & con orpimento et indico, per il celeste si fa con 

indico et biacca, il nero si & con 1' avoglio in crociolo scoperto 

caicinato, ma averti che non stia troppo perche diviene bian-* 

chiss"* e V indico e quelle che li da corpo. Questi dunque 

solamente sono li colori che riescono, quali vanno macinati 

bemasimo, e ei macinano con acqua semplice e mezanamente 

Hqoidi si che si possano raccogliere sopra la pietra, e posti nelli 

▼asi n stemprano con acqua vite &tta di vin bono e non guasto, 

di poi vi si pone 5, o 6 goccie di fiel di bue o vitello maschio, 

che questo fa stendere sopra V acqua di gomma che si dira, e 

86 parerk che si stenda poco vi porrai una o due goccie di piA, 

et ogni volta che li colori sciugheranno, ag^ongi acqua vite, ne 

da che sono macinati yi porrai piii acqua semplice, ma acqua 

vita, che ha virtii di far attaccare li colori alia carta, e questo e 

qoanto appartiene alia disposicione de colori, resta ora che 

digponiamo il corpo di quelli. 

Piglierai adonque una cassetta fatta granda come la carta 
che voi dipingere, con le sponde alte tre dit atutta impegolata, 
empirai la cassetta d' acqua, ma prima porrai 1' acqua in un 
^^aeo e per la misura di detta acqua vi porrai un oz. e meza di 
gonuna, e se la gomma sara pura e bella bastera un oz. averti 
porvi un poco piii d' acqua, perche la gomma sorbisce la sua 
parte, e lasdala in infosioae due giomi, e due noti, e poi la 
meaoolarai e premerai con la mano nel vaso due o tre volte al 
giomo per perfetionar 1' acqua, e nel porla nella cassa &lla 


pouring it into the tray, make it pass tfaroaj^ a strong rag* 
To know whether the gam is too thidc, take a feather and 
lead it backwards from one side to the other frequently in tins 
manner ^S « first pouring in one or two colours ; aud if these 
colours r^ flow after the feather, it will be perfect ; and i^ 
on the contrary, they do not follow the feather, the mixture is 
too thick, and will require to be mixed with some spnng water, 
which must be stirred by the hand, moving it all oyer the tray. 
But this imperfeclion may also arise from a defect in the co* 
lours, for instance, when there are not sufficient ingredients, 
that is, too little gall or not sufficient spirit of wine ; the remedy 
for this can only be learned by experience. We may also 
warn you that if there is too much spirit the colour will be too 
light For each vase of colour you must have a pencil, and 
must place one colour after the other, a drop for each colour ; 
but you must not toudi the water with the pencil, and by its 
motion you must make the paint fall at equal distances. The 
colours being placed according to your &ncy, you must con- 
duct the pencil from one side to the other as previously di- 
rected, merely touching, howerer, the surfieioe of the water. 
You must afterwards make a comb of thin wood as long as the 
breadth of the tray^ in which you will insert hog^s l»istlee 
in this manner, {^imfflaaaaiiiiiH J > ^^ ^ thicker they 
are the more mKKHKtKMKKr delicate will be the 
waves of colour. Witii this comb you will pass over the whole 
tray, taking care to touch only the surfisu^ of the water, and 
you will thus succeed well. If you choose, you may make 
with tiie feather, circles, snakes, labyrinths, and similar things. 

147. 7b cauie a rose or carnation to become white. — Bum 
sulphur in such a manner that the flower may be exposed to 
the fumes, and it will become quite white ; but take care that 
tiie companion, which is on the same branch, may not feel it. 

148. To make fruits gnno wiAaui Ji^meb.— Oeave the 
youi^ plant to the root, take out the pith cm both sides ; then 
imite the parts, plaster them with ox-dung, and tie them to- 
geAer. This will succeed admirably. 


paflBare per pe2za forte. Per oonoBcere poi se la gomma h 
troppo spessa piglia una penna alia royesda, e goidala da una 
parte e dall' altra spesso in questo modo ^^ ma prima vi 
porrai un colore o due, se quelli colori ^F" corrono dietro 
la penna sark perfetta, altrimenti sara troppo spessa e conyerrk 
porvi aoqua di pozzo e mischiaria con la mano per la cassa, ma 
averti che db pu6 anche ayenire per difetto de colori, quando 
non yi sono ingredient! a sufficienza doe poco fiele, o poc' aoqua 
Yite et in ci6 Y esperienza vi fara pratioo, averti di piii che 
quando ri sara tropp' acqua rite, il colore sark troppo chiaro. 
Per ciascun vaso di colore haverai un pennello, e vi porrai uy 
color doppo Y altro una gocda per ciascun colore, ma non 
toocar r acqua col pennello, ma con il moto di quello &rai 
cader la pittura in egual distanza ; posii li colori a tuo modo, li 
condurrai con la penna da ima parte e dall' altra come ho detto 
di sopra, toccando perb solo la superfide del acqua. Di poi 
&rai un pettine longo come il trayerso di detta cassa, e lo farai 
d' asse sottile, nella quale y* inserirai delli pelli di porco in 

questo modo i£]5!E]J5iiiiir!!!JEEEiif ^^ quanto saranno piii 
spessi, le j||||l||||l||l^^ ^^^^ saranno piii deli- 

cate, e con il pettine scorrerai tutta la cassetta, ma ayerti di 
toccar solo la superfide dell' acqua, che cosi riusdra bello, 
e se yorai con la penna yi farai de' circoli, bisde, laberinti, 
e sinuli. 

Per far una rata o garofalo che divenghi bianco. — ^Piglia 
fooo di zolfo e con delicatezza fallo senlire al fiore che riuscirk 
bianchiss™^ ; ma ayerti non lo senta il compagno ch' b sopra la 
rama medema. 

Fare che lijrutti naschino eenza armella, — Schioppa la panta 
g^oyine sino alia radice, e leyali 1' anima da una parte e dal 
altra, poi unisse le parti, e con stereo di hue impiastra, e legale 
inaeme, che riusdra mirabile. 








Giovanni Batista Volpato, the author of the following 
MS., was a painter, bom at Bassano in 1 633. He was 
a pupil of Novelli, who had studied under Tintoretto, 
He settled at his native place, where, after the ancient 
school of the Bassani had become extinct, he practised 
the art^ and had several pugpils. He left some writings 
on painting, which were preserved in the select and 
valuable library of Conte Giuseppe Bemondini. From 
the Bemondini family the MSS. passed into the public 
library at Bassano, where diey are now preserved. One 
of these works, entitled *La Veritk Fittoresca,' is 
believed to be still unpublished, although it was an- 
nounced for publication at Yicenza in 1685. 

In the preface to this work, says Lanzi, Volpato 
protests that he had no master, but in a MS. at Castel- 
firanco it is stated that he was a pupil of Novelli He 
adds that the work is foil of good observations, whence 
it may be supposed he was well acquainted with the 
theory of tbe art Mr. Eastlake remarks' that this MS. 

1 Notes to Goethe on Colovn, p, 406. 


afterwards formed the groundwork of Verci's ' Notizie 
intorno alia Vita e alle Opere de' Pittori di Bassano.* 

Volpato left also another MS. in his own hand- 
writing, entitled * Modo da tener nel Depingere,' which 
is now published for the first time in the following 
pages, and the original of which was kindly lent to me 
by Sig. Baseggio, the librarian and president of the 
Athenaeum of Bassano, with a permission to copy it if 
we could, for the hand-writing was so bad as to render 
this extremely problematical. With some trouble, how- 
ever, we deciphered the MS^ with the exception of six 
or eight words, of which I took fac-similes. 

The MS. appears to have been composed in the 
latter part of the seventeenth or beginning of the 
eighteenai centary. That it was uot written previous 
to 1670 is certain, because Volpato quotes the work of 
Padre Lana, which was published in that year, and it 
was probably later, because he alludes to the practice of 
Canziani, the Veronese painter, who survived Volpato 
five or six years, being still living in 1712.* The terms 
also in which Volpato speaks of his recollection of the 
face of S. Pietro Martire in Titian's celebrated picture, 
suggest the idea of its having been written by an old 
man. On these grounds, therefore, I am of opinion 
that the notices in this MS. respecting painting in oil, 
are to be considered as applying to paintings of the 
Venetian school at the conclusion of the seventeendi 

The MS. purports to be a dialogue between two 
apprentices of painters, in which the elder explains to 

1 See Oriandi's Abeeedario. 


the younger, who appears to have just entered the pro- 
fession, the various technical details in which he is to 
be employed, such as preparing the grounds of the 
pictures, grinding the colours, setting the palette, tracing 
the outline, and other mechanical processes, on which 
the apprentices^ were usually employed. 

Volpato commences by describing the kind of canvas 
proper for painting, and observes that smooth canvas 
requires a thin ground only. He then teaches how to 
prepare grounds, of which he describes several, and 
states the advantages and disadvantages of each kind, and 
particularly the eflFects of gesso on grounds, which he 
illustrates by referring to the practice of Bassano. He 
also shows the advantages arising from making the 
surfaces of pictures smooth. After speaking of the 
preparation of grounds for pictures, Volpato treats of 
the preparation of walls for painting with oil colours. 

The next subject discussed is the different methods 
of transferring the design to the canvas, which is said 
to be the work of the boy and not of the artist; and 
then he takes occasion to speak of tracing paper and 
the method of using it, and of other mechanical con- 
trivances for copying pictures. 

Volpato then treats of grinding and preserving the 
colours, and of cleaning the palette and brushes, of the 
preparation of boiled oil, by boiling it with litharge, 
of the different kinds of varnish, of which he mentions 
three, namely, the "vernice grossa,** amber varnish, 
and mastic varnish. He says that he purchases the 
two former ready made ; the latter he makes himself. 

I Sec also the Brussels MS., pp. 771, 772, 782. 
VOL. II. 2 n 


and in this part of the dialogue he refers to the works 
of Armenini da Faenza and Raffaello Borghini, *' who," 
he adds, ^' teach all things pertaining to our trade, and 
how to make all kinds of varnish, as well as the proper 
mode of using them.*' 

Again, in speaking of the method of distempering 
the colours, of setting the palette, and preparing the 
sketch for the finishing, he speaks of these works, and 
says the directions given to him for this purpose by his 
master, '^ correspond exactly with those of Armenini, 
and you may write them out also, for besides this he 
teaches the whole process." These passages certainly 
afibrd a fair presumption, that the method of painting 
in the Venetian school was on the whole like that de- 
scribed by Armenini and Borghini, modified probably 
by the peculiar habits and style of every artist 

He then speaks of the choice, preparation, and tests 
of the goodness of the colours, and of the means of 
rendering certain colours more drying. 

Yolpato also alludes to the mode of preparing the 
sketches. He says, *^ I wash the sketches, I oil them, 
I varnish them, and on some of them I lay the white 
of egg, according to his (the master's) orders;" and it is 
on this occasion that he refers to the work of Armenini.^ 
After describing some other mechanical operations, he 
mentions the injuries done to pictures by cleaning them, 
and in particular by copyists, whose bad practices he 
describes and reprehends in the strongest terms, and 
he adduces one instance (the S. Pietro Martire of 
Titian) of the ill effects of applying oil (which he says 

^ See Armenini, Dei veri Precctti delta Pittura, cap. ix. 


is not good on pictures) on the surface of a painting, 
in order that the copyist might see it more distinctly. 
" This picture,** observes Volpato, " has been oiled so 
many times by the sacrilegious blockheads who have 
copied it, that he [the figure of the martyr] is so 
blackened and spoiled, that there is no telling what 
sort of face he has, and yet,** he adds, "I recollect 
when he was beautiful, and you may observe the 
children [the angels in the upper left-hand corner of the 
picture] which, being above the reach of similar influ- 
ences, are in excellent condition.*' This difference, 
however, is not so perceptible as it was in the time of 
Volpato, for the Pietro Martire was sent to Paris, 
where it underwent the operation of cleaning, and of a 
partial repainting. It is now in the church of S. S. 
Giovanni e Paulo at Venice. 

In the fly-leaf, but in difierent hand-writing, are the following 
words: — 


p. netar quadri lume di feccia. 

II libro delle stampe del Ricci, d. L. ii 

mi conto* . . • lire 4. 

Conto di ... 3. 

Spesi .... 6. 

6 .. 18. 

2l> 2 

( 726 ) 







F. My Silvius, on what subject shall we converse ? 

S. I have been but a few days with Sig. Floriani, therefore I 
should like you to teach me the mode of preparing canvas, 
colours, and those things which pertain to the buaness in which 
I am engaged, as I have had but little practice in such thmgs. 

F. Come, you fool, eat, eat, this is not the time for study ; 
when you have appeased your appetite I will tell you all. 

S. You are right, give me a glass of that wine which you 
praise as being so exquisite. 

F. Here, take it, you will find it most delicate. 

S. To the health of our masters. 

F, I know you are not a servant, but a friend of your master, 
because servants, being enemies of their masters, desire that 
they may have all kinds of misfortunes, and not success ; there- 
fore you do not deserve the name of a servant, but that of a 

S. My master's kindness obliges me to act thus. 

F. My master is not at all inferior to yours, and I would 
shed my blood for him ; I will therefore join you in drinkiog 
their healths. 

S. Truly, the wine is not inferior to the capon, and they botli 
deserve to be consumed in a proper manner. 

F, There is no one waiting for us, therefore we can take our 
time, and when we have finished, I will willingly instruct you, 

( 727 ) 






F. Silvio mio, e che volevi discorrer ? 

iS. Pochi giomi sono che stb con il S. Floriani, e per cib vor- 
rei che m' insegnasti il modo di preparar telle, colori, e tutto 
cib, che fa bisogno per servirlo, perche ho poco pratica di simil 

F. H6y pazzo, mangia, mangia, che non e tempo questo d' ap- 
pUcatione, che fomito ti farb veder il tutto. 

S. Hai raggione. Da mi un bichiere di quel vino che mi 
celebri cosi squisito. 

F, Eccolo, e sentirai una coea delicatiasima. 

S. Alia salute de' nostri patroni. 

F. Conosco bene che non sei servo, ma amico del padrone, 
perche li servi essendo nemici de' padroni, le desiderano bensi 
tutte le disgratie, ma non la salute, e percib non meriti nome di 
servo ma d' amico. 

5. La sua bonta m' obliga a questo. 

F. Veramente, ne anco il mio non e punto inferiore che span- 
derei il sangue per lui, et io istessamente ti rendo in loro salute 

5. Veramente, il vino non e punto inferiore al capone, e me- 
ritono r uno e T altro esser devorati come si deve. 

F. Non vi e alcuno che ci aspetti. Se la potremo prender 
comoda, che poi volentieri t' insegnerb principiando dal pre- 


beginning with the preparation of the canyas, and gradually 
going through all those things which belong to the art, because 
such pertain not to painters, but to those who senre them. 

S. We have now finished, therefore you may have the table 
cleared, but leare the wine, which will season but discourse. 
f. Drink away, for I have more of it. 
S. I will not disobey you. 

F. Now I will tell you what you desire to know. Rrst, 
you must be told that the canras must be good, strong, smooth, 
and well made ; that it must be prepared with a thin ground, 
and must be so durable as to last as long as the picture, 
and it is the duty of him who buys the canvas to asoertaio 
this, for if the canvas is bad it decays in a short time. Smooth 
canvas requires but little ground for priming, for if Ae 
priming be too thick, the colours become black &om the abun- 
dance of oil which is used, and the repetition of so many 
primings; wherefore you must take good canvas, stretch it on 
the frame, and give it a coat of glue made of the parings 
of very young pigs' skins, that it may be softer, for sudi glues 
as parchment glue, being strong and harsh, cause a cer- 
tain shrinking of the canvas, which has a bad efiect, iherefiire 
do as I teach you. When this coat is dry, polish it with 
pumice stone, give it another coat of glue, aa before, and let 
it neither be too weak nor too strong ; for if too weak it will 
not defend the canvas from the oil, and if too strong it irill 
cause the colour to crack ; that which is of the proper conast- 
ence will be soft like jelly when it is cooled. 

S. If the priming were to be laid on with pure oil, without 
glue, what would be the result ? 

F, When the canvas has no glue to defend it from Uie oil, it 
loses its strength, for the oil dries, so that it becomes like the 
bark of a tree, and when the canvas is taken off the stretching 
frame it cracks and splits. 

S. In some shops where they prime canvas, I have seen flour 
paste used: is this improper? 

F, Flour paste is very bad, becaiise if it is too stiff it cainses 


parar tele, e poi di mano in mano di tutte quelle coae che ci 
appartengono, perche queste cose non sono da pittori, ma ben 
da dii li serve. 

S. Siamo al fine, puoi sbratar, lasciendo il vino, qual servira 
per stemprar li nostri discorsi. 

F*. Bevi pur alegramente, che ne ho delF altra 

S. Non dubitar che non le mancherb. 

F- Hora ti dirb cib che brami, e prima sarai havertito che 
le telle sijono buone, forte, liscie, ben lavorate, che con poca 
noateria restino impresse, la bonta serve che tanta dura il qua- 
dro, quanta dura la tela, ed e dovere di chi le compra, che 
come Bono cative in breve si consumano ; le telle liscie poca 
materia 1' imprime, che come vi e troppa materia anerisse li 
colon per 1' abondanza de 1' olio che vi si pone ed il replicar 
molte primiture ; e perb piglia buona tela, e tiratain telaro, gli 
darai una mano di coUa di retagli di nonnate o maschiette per 
che riesce piii dolce, che le colle come di bergamina, essendo 
forte e crude, & certe ritiramente nelle tele che fa cativo efietto, 
e percib fa come t' insegno : asciuta la lisciarai con la pomice, e 
li darai un altra mano di cola come prima et osserverai, che non 
si troppo dolce ne troppo forte, la troppo dolce non difende la 
tela dair olio, e la troppo forte fa crepar il colore, e la buona 
sera tenera come gelo quando e rafiredata. 

& Chi dasse la primitura con olio puro senza cola, che 

f. Quando la tela non ha la cola, che la difende dall' olio, 
non pub conservar la sua fortezza, che 1' olio si disecca in modo 
che viene come una cortecia d' arbore, che volendosi maneggiare 
giu del telaro si taglia e si rompe. 

S. Ho veduto in certe botteghe ove si imprimisce tele usar 
coUa di farina, che forse non e buona ? 
F. La cola di farina e pessima, perche come e un poco gag- 


the colour to crack and scale off, and if it is too weak the 
damp causes the canvas to decay, and the rats eat it These 
persons use it because they prime very bad canvas, winch 
perishes in eight or ten years, and because the flour paste fills 
up the holes of the canvas. 

S. And those who use gesso ? 

F. To use gesso, is to tempt fortune, for many old paintii^ 
are to be seen spoiled by the gesso, yet many are in good 
preservation, but this arises from the quality of the glue, which 
may be either too strong or too weak, but weak glue is best, be- 
caude the strong absolutely spoils the canvas, whereas with the 
former very little gesso is required, for I have observed in the 
works of Bassano, that those pictures which have been primed 
with but little gesso are in good preservation, while those on 
wliich too much gesso has been used scale off; and you may 
distinguish these from the others by the texture of the canvas, 
the threads of wliich are visible, although being painted they 
are covered with gesso, priming, and colours ; while others which 
have smooth surfaces, from having too much gesso, scale off. 
Besides the pictures on canvas, we have examples of this in old 
paintings on wood, which are well preserved in consequence of 
this practice of using glue. But dust also is very injurious to 
old pictures, as you will observe in those belonging to the nuns 
" Riformati," and Capuchins, whose pictures being kept free 
from the dust, the colours are preserved admirably. In order 
to avoid this difficulty, I use simple glue, as I have told you, 
which I lay on twice, using the pumice stone after each coat 
when dry, that the canvas may become smooth. I afterwards 
give them the priming ground up with linseed oil. All earths 
are good for this purpose according to the taste of him who uses 
them. I use '^ terra da bocali,"^ terra rossa, and a little umber 

* Terra da boccali, called by Baldinucci (Voc. Dis.) Terra di Cava or 
Terretta. *' The earth or clay used in making earthenware for table ser- 
vices, which, being mixed with powdered charcoal, was employed for making 
grounds, and for painting chiariscuri, and even in the tints, and which was 
also used, temi)ered with glue, upon canvases on which triumphal arches, 
perspectives, and other scenes, were to be painted. It is better adapted for 


liarda crepa il colore e si scorza, e se pur e poca, al umido 
marcisce le tele, e 11 topi le mangiano, e queli l' adoperano 
percbe imprimono tele tristissiiney che in otto o died anni res- 
tano coDsumate, e perche la cola di farina ottura li buchi della 
tela, si senrono di questa. * 

S. Quelli poi che adoperano il gesso ? 

JP'. Con il gesso si gioca di fortuna, perche si vede assai pitture 
antiche sconcerti per il gesso, e molte ancora si conservono, il 
che proviene dalla qualita della cola, o troppo forte, o troppo dolce, 
ma la meglio e la dolce, che la forte sciupa assolutamente, et In 
questo modo ci vol pochissimo gesso, che ho osservato neir opere 
delBassano, che quelle che hano poco gesso si conservano, e quelle 
che ne ha troppo si scorzano, e ci6 si conosce dala tessitura 
dela tela che si scopre li relevi di detta, ben che habia gesso, pri- 
mitura, e colori, essendo dipinte, e quelle liscie che hano assai 
gesso si scorzano, et oltre le telle si vede I'esempio nolle tayole 
antiche^ che assai si conservono, e cib proviene da questa pra- 
tica della cola ; ma anco la polvere rovina assai, che osserverai 
dalle monache, da Riformati, e Capucini, che tengono le sue 
pitture nete da la polvere si conservano benissimo, et in fatti il 
gesso » vede che conserva molto bene il colorito. Ma per levar 
queste difficolta, io adopro cola semplice come ti ho detto, che 
data doi volte apomicando ogni volta dopo asciuta acib la tela 
vcnga liscia, li do poi la primitura macinata ad olio di lino, e 
tutte le terre sono buone per questa faccenda, secondo il gusto 
di chi comanda, io piglio terra da bocali, terra rossa, et un poca 
di terra d' ombra distemperate dopo fate in polvere sotile e pas- 
sate in foco con olio di lino senza madnarle, le do con il cortelo 
supra dela tela, e dopo asciuta e pomicata, le do un altra mano 
macinata, e cos^i resta impressa benissimo, e questo e un modo 
il piu sicuro e migliore per la riuscita. Ho veduto anco metter 

modelling than any other clay, because its particles are so minutely divided, 
that works made of it can not only receive the highest degree of |K)li8h, but 
the most minute works can be executed in it. It is dug at Rome, near St. 
Peter's, and at Monte S()ertoli, 13 miles from Florence." It appears to be 
like what is called in England ** China Clay." 


finely powdered and mixed with linseed oil and stirred together 
for a abort time, but not ground, over the fire. I then q>read 
this preparation over the oanyas with a knife, and when dry and 
pmnioed, I give the canras another coat of the same colouiSy 
but these must be previously ground, and thus the canvas will 
be well primed ; this is the best mode and the most certain in 
its results. I have also seen some persons steep the *^ terra da 
bocali " in water to soften, when it liquefies immediately ; then, 
removing as mudi water as possible, the same quantity of lin- 
seed oil as of the water which remains behind is to be added ; 
then the difierent ingredients are stiired together with a spatula 
until well incorporated. The priming is then applied to the 
canvas for the first time, but for the second coat the ingre- 
dients must be previously ground as I have before said. This 
method succeeds weU and is quickly done, as little colour is re- 
quired in the second coat, the canvas being already made 
smooth with the first. To the first coat made with earth dia- 
tempered with water is added the oil which is pressed fit>m the 
pencils when cleaning them, and which, being boiled with the 
sediment of the colours, dries like a mordant in the winter time ; 
but umber is suffident to make the second coat (which is 
ground) drying, and it does not require the boiled oil. TUs is 
the mode which I sometimes follow in preparing the canvas for my 
master, but the first mode which I mentioned to you is the best. 

S. How shall I know whether the glue is too strong or too 
weak, when it is made, since it is used hot? 

F. I touch it with two fingers, and feel whether it ia 
tacky, and thus I ascertain the fact ; if it is too strong, I add 
water, and do not let it boil any longer ; and if too weak, I let 
it boil until I consider it is of the proper consistence ; but take 
care you do not add to the glue either terretta or gesso, or any- 
thing, because these scale off in time ; but use the pure glue, 
in order to spread the priming, and that the canvas may retain 
its strength, as I have told you. 

S. When painters wish to paint on walls, how do they pre- 
pare them ? 


a mole nell' aoqua la terra da booale la quale si ]iqiie& suhito, 
e §^tata poi fuori tutta 1' aoqua che pub uadre, li getouo taato 
olio di lino quanto pub esser 1' aoqua che vi e rimastai e poi con 
una spatola la mescfaiono fine che b* incorpora, e poi k dano 
Bopra le tde la prima volta, ma la seoonda la dano macinata 
come t' ho detto, e rieaoe beninmo et e negotio breve che la 
seconda mano pooo colore & biaogno, easendo gk fatta liscia con 
la prima, nella prima Ceitta di terra stemprata con V aoqua vi si 
pone olio che si neta li peneli, che bulito con questa fece di 
ooloriy seca come mc^ente nel tempo del vemo, et ne la seconda 
che d Tnacina, basta la terra d' ombra per far secante, ne ci vol 
olio ooto. Questo e il mode che tengo alle volte preparar le 
tele al mio patrone, ma la meglio e nel prime mode che ti ho 

S. Per conoscer la cola quando si fa, se e troppo forte, o 
doloe, perche si da calda ? 

F. lo toco con due dita e sento se ha pidoo nel asciu- 
gard, e da quelo m' accorgo, se e troppo forte v' agiungo dell' 
aoqua e lascio levar il bolo, e se e dolce la lascio bolir fine che 
mi pare fatta giusto al bisogno, ma haverti di non por cosa al« 
cuna, ne terreta, ne gesso, nella cola, perche ocm il tempo si 
aoorzano, ma solo si dk la cola pura, acib si possa distender la 
primitura, e che la tela conservi la sua forza come t' ho detto. 

S. Quando li Pitori vogliono dipinger sopra muri in qual 
mode si preparano ? 


F. On walls, neither glue nor gesso is used, because they 
would scale off in a short time, but the wall should merely be 
anomted with linseed oil, and after several days, when it is 
quite dry, a tint should be applied of earths ground up as a 
priming, and, when this is dry, the wall is ready for painting 
on. And in the same manner, to make coloured sketches on 
paper, a tint should first be laid with the brush, but let the 
paper be strong and well sized, such as the blue or the white. 

S. And how is paper made transparent ? 

F. Some sheets of huckster's paper, I do not exactly know what 
it is called, are glued together, according to the size of the picture 
or figure which is intended to be traced ; these sheets are then 
anointed with common oil, or, still better, with nut oil. Tliere 
is also a good mode of oiling paper for the use of children 
when drawing, and also for laying over writing ; it is prepared 
thus -.—Take, &c. * 

Spread the oiled paper over the picture, and with a pencil or 
charcoal outline the figures, which are visible through the paper 
very clearly ; and if they are too black, tiiey may be toudied 
slightly with gesso on the darkest parts, not doing as some 
clumsy and imprudent persons do who outline the paintings 
with lake ground with oil, and afterwards oil the paper above 
it, and then press it with the hand until the above-mentioned 
outlines are impressed on the oiled paper. Such people ought 
to have their hands cut off as a punishment for the crime of 
spoiling such gems, especially when they are able to accom- 
plish their object otherwise in a better manner ; but this is only 
practised by tracers, who rule their lines, and can do nothing 
but daub canvas, for virtuosi do not make marks on pictures. 
These proceed with proper respect, and those who have 
valuable pictures in their custody should be aware of this 
practice, and if they catch any of those clumsy fellows, 
they should kick them out, and send them to the gallows as 

1 A blank in the original, in which it was doubtless intended to copy a 


F, Sopra muri non ci vol cola ne geso perche assoluta* 
inente in breve si scorzano, ma solo si unge con olio di lino il 
muro, e passati diversi giorni che sij benissimo asciuto se la da 
una tinta macinata di tere come primitura qual benissimo seca, 
pu6 il PittxH^ dipingervi sopra. £ cosi le carte per far model! 
ooloriti, si le da una tinta con il penelo, ma che la carta si forte, 
e che habi baona cola, come 1* azzurra o bianca ma di quella 

S. £t lucidi come si fara ? 

F, S' incola della carta da fatorela, non so il nome, quanta e 
la grandezza del quadro overo la figura che ci vuol lucidare, e 
poi si ungi ad olio comune overo di noce, che e meglio ; ma vi e 
anco un modo belo per unger carta qual serve a fanciuli per dis- 
segnar et anco per imponar a scrivere et e si, Piglia &c. — (jdc) 

e detta carta unta si distendi sopra il quadro e si contoma 
con lapis o carboni le figure che gia spicono benissimo e se fos- 
sero troppo nere si pub legermente tocar con gesso nella parte 
pill perse, e non far come certi sgratiati e temerarj che contor- 
nano le pitture con lacca a olio, e poi V ogliono la carta di so- 
pra, e con la mano le vano ritocando fino che resta impressi 
li sudetti contorni, che a questi bisognerebbe troncar le mani in 
pena di tal delitto, volendo guastar ^oje cosi rare potendo in 
miglior modo conseguire il loro intento, ma cib non viene usato 
se non da calcanti che vano rigando, e che non sano se non im- 
piastrar telle, che li virtuosi non mettono le noti sopra le pit- 
ture. Codesti si va con que' rispeti che si deve et a cib dovreb- 
hero haver V ochio chi le hano in custodia, che capitando di 
que' sgratiati scatiarli, e mandarli alle forche come indegni, 
ne lasciarli acostar a gioje si pretiose. 


Q&fit to live, and not suflbr them to approach such predoxu 

S. I myself have seen persons do this more than onoe ; bat^ 
having made this taradng paper, how is it used ? 

F. A leaf of paper is covered witli dry white lead or gesso, 
which, being placed between the tracing paper and the canvas, 
where it is^ oiled, the outlines of these figures are pressed 
with a needle of bone, and the coloured paper, which is placed 
between the two, leaves impressed all those marks which you 
have indented with the needle, and thus you will remove in 
regular order this coloured paper, having, however, fixed the 
tracing paper in two plaees that it may not move. I also do 
this, although I am not a painter, because it requires no 
skill in painting, but it is properly our business. And in the 
same manner, in order to transfer the dedgn to white paper, 
the paper is coloured with charcoal, or with black or red 

S. The ^* velo " which I have seen on a cartoon of my mas- 
ter's, how is it used ? ' 

jP. It is applied on the painting like the tracing papa*, and 
the outline is drawn on it with gesso. It is then removed to 
the primed canvas, and the marks, being pressed with a piece 
of linen held in the hand, are thus transferred to the primed 
canvas, or the gesso is again passed over the outlines which are 
transferred to the priming. 

S. How is the Gralicola * used ? 

F. The Graticola is used in two ways : the picture which is 
to be copied is either crossed with white threads, or the Grati- 
cola, being made on a frame, is applied over the pcture, and 
the same number of squares are to be struck on the primed 
canvas, which, whether it is larger or smaller than the painting, 
is to be divided in the same proportion. 

1 The " Velo " was used in a difibrent manner by L. B. Alberti, who 
describes it in his Treatise on Painting, Lib. II. It consisted of a piece 
of transparent gauze stretched on a framCi and divided into equal parts by 


S, Ho yeduto piu d' una yolta ancor io a far di qneate, ma 
fato questo luddo, come s' adopra ? 

^« Si tinge nn foglio di carta con biaca snta owero giesao, 
qiial posta tra il lucido e la tella ove sark ogliato e con 
mi ago di osso si calca li contomi di quelle figure, e quella carta 
tinta che fra posti, lascia impressi tutti quei segni, die haverai 
calcato con 1' ago, e cosi trasporterai per ordine quella carta 
tinta hayendo per6 saldata da due parti il lucido acib non si 
mova ; e questa la fado ancor io, bencl^ non son pittore, die in 
d& non yi entra artifido di pittura, ma e una pura operatione 
nostra, e cod per calcar sopra carta bianca, d tinge con car- 
bone, lapis nero, oyyero rosso. 

S, II yelo che ho yeduto in im cartone del mio padrone come 
s' adopra ? 

F, Quelo si aplica sopra la pittura come il lucido, e d con- 
toma con il gesso, e poi si trasporta sopra la tella imprimita, e 
con una peza di lino si ya con la mano calcando sopra quei segni 
ecosi restono impressi sopra la teliaprimita, oyeroche di nuoyo 
d replica con il giesso sopra li contomi, quali trapasseno sopra 
la primitura. 

S. La Graticola come s* adopera ? 

f. La Graticola si fa in due modi, cio e o sopra il quadro 
die d yuol copiare con fili bianchi, oyero fata in un telaro, d 
aplica sopra il medesimo quadro, e con 1' istesso comparto si 
bate sopra la tella primita, che essendo magiore o minore de la 
pittura si diyide con la stessa proportione. 

threads drawn acroas it. It was placed perpendicalarly between the painter 
and his subject, so that the rays of the visual cone might pass through 
it The points of intersection were marked with a pencil, and thus a correct 
outline was obtained, which was afterwards transferred to a panel or wall. 
* Gratieola. A square divided by white crossed threads. 


S. How are the lines struck ? 

F, A thread is rubbed with dry gesso or white lead, and is 
beaten over the compartments exactly as the joiners do with 
terra rossa over their wood ; and the painters strike the lines 
of the architecture in their paintings in the same manner, 
drawing the lines to the point of sight. 

S, Why do the painters use these tracing papers or grati- 

F. In the first place, to avoid the tediousness of drawing their 
works, which, in fact, is not their business, but ours ; and, in 
the second place, to profit by it, as it enables their scholars to 
copy their works with greater perfection ; and this plan was 
employed by Bassano, and my master has a chest half fiill of 
the tracings by the sons of Bassano from the works of their 
father, which, being touched up by the master, pass as his 

S' How are colours ground ? 

F. The white lead is ground with nut oil ; " verde etemo," * 
Indigo, and all other blues, charcoal and the other colours, 
with linseed oil. 

S. How are the stones cleaned after the colours are ground ? 

F. With bran, and then with a piece of rag, and the pa- 
lettes are cleaned in the same manner; but take care that, 
when you leave off using the bran, you do not leave any flour 
behind, which may have an injurious effect on the colours ; for 
when you grind up fine lake, or ^^ verde etemo," it will whiten 
and spoil, therefore the bran is better after it has been used 
several times. 

S. And suppose it should happen that you forget to clean 
the palette, so that the colour dries on it, how should it be 
cleaned ? 

F. With a little water and a pumice-stone. 

/S. How are the colours which have been groimd pre- 
served ? 

^ Purified or, as it is sometimes called, distilled vcrdigrris. 


S. Come 81 bate ? 

P, Si tinge un filo con giesso overo biaca suta, e si bate sopra 
li oomparti come fano li marangoni con la terra rossa sopra li 
legnami, e li pittori cosi batono Y architettura che fano sopra 
li quadri volendoli tirar al punto. 

S. Perche li Pittori usano questi lucidi o graticola ? 

^. Prima per levarti il fastidio di queste faccende non essendo 
sue ma di noi altri, e per valersi aci5 li scolari copiino le loro 
opere con maggior perfetione, il che U86 il Bassano, che apunto 
il mio Padrone ne ha meza una cassa di lucidi de figli del 
Baasano trati dalle opere del padre, che in tal guisa ritocate 
da maestri corrono come sue« 

S. Li colori come si macinano ? 

F. La Biaca con olio di noce, il verde etemo, e V Endico e 
cost tatti gr azzurri, et anco il carbone et gV altri con olio di 

S. Come si neta le petre quando si e macinato li colori ? 

F. Con la semola di formento e poi con un pezo di stratio, e 
cosi istessamente le tavolozze ; ma averti che quando la semola 
non e piu stata adoperata, lascia qualche poco di fiuina si che 
habi V actio, che se macinarai laca finao verde etemo bianche- 
giono e si guastono, e percib la semola e meglio oome si e ado- 
perata diverse volte. 

& E se per caso si scordasse di netar che il color si secasse, 
come si neta ? 

F, Con un poca d' acqua et una pietra pomica. 
S. Li colori macinati come si tengono ? 

VOL. II. 2 E 


F. In divers ways, viz. — ^in folded papers, in small saucers, 
and in bladders ; and this last is the best mode, for the oolours 
keep better ; bat white lead is kept in a vase with water ; the 
palettes also are placed in water, just as they are set in order, 
that the colours may not dry when the painter wishes to use 
them the following day ; but remember that lake, ^allo santo, 
and verderame are spoiled by the water, and they must be 
taken off the palettes before they are put under water. 
S, How are the pencils preserved ? 
F. They are kept ta linseed oil, and with that they are 
cleaned, pressing out the colour with a knife on a palette sus- 
pended over a vessel of oil, which oil you may afterwards keep for 
distempering the primings, as I have before told you ; but the 
large brushes should be cleaned with soap and water, especially 
if they are afterwards to be used with blues, but as soon as Uiey 
are dry wipe them well with a linen rag ; then wind a thread 
round them from the handle to the extremity of the hiurs, to 
keep them closer together, otherwise they will spread like 
flattened fimgi. 

S, How is boiled oil prepared? 

jP. The linseed oil is put into a clean pipkin or saucepan with 
some litharge of gold,' which is tied up in a rag, and fixed to 
a small piece of wood, which being laid across the pipkin or 
saucepan, suspends the rag so that it does not touch the bottom, 
because, if it should touch, it would bum, and the oil would 
become black, and when the oil boiled it would rise to the brim 
of the pipkin and flow over, but when the litharge is suspended 
these effects are not so easily produced. If the oil is boiled 
very much it will be more drying, and so whether you use much 
or little litharge ; you may also boil with it a little umber, 
this will have the same effect, except that the oil will not be so 
light coloured. Sometimes also the oil, soiled with the colours 
pressed from the brushes, is boiled with olio di abezzo, and is 
applied to the backs of old pictures, which are scaling off their 
groimds, in order to fix them. 

I It 18 unnecessary to observe that litharge of gold and silver are the 


F. In diverei modi cioe nelle carte piegate, ne scudelini, 
nelle vesiche, e questo e il meglio che si conservano piii, ma la 
biaca si liene in un vaso con acqua che apunto le tavolozze 
come sono preparate si metono nel acqua a cib li colori non si 
sechino, yolendoli adoperare il pittor il giorao dietro, ma averti 
die la lacca, il ^alo santo, et il verderame patiscono, e bisogna 
levarli avanti che si meta nel acqna. 

£>. Li peneli come si tengono ? 

F. Si tengono nell' olio di lino, e con quelo si netano, cavan- 
doli il colore con un cortelo sopra d' una tavoluza pendente 
sopra il catino dell' olio, qual olio poi ti serve per stemprar le 
primiture come t' ho detto, ma li grandi il meglio e netarli con 
sapone et acqua, massime come devono esser adc^erati con 
azurri, ma haverti che come sono neti asciugali bene con una 
peza di lino, e poi legali con filo dal manico fino alia estremita 
delle sete aci6 restino piu unite che altrimenti s' alargono come 
le vesce sponate [spianate ?]. 

S. U olio coto come si fa ? 

F. Si pone 1' olio di lino in un pignato o calderola neta e vi 
n pone del retargirio d' oro, legato in una pezzetta, legato con 
un filo e saldata ad un legneto che passi attraverso del pignato 
o calderola, lo sostenti che non tochi il fondo, perche come tocha 
il fondo s' abbrucia, e 1* olio vien nero, et anco volendo sor- 
monta I'orlo del vaso e si spande^ che cosi sospeso non fa tal 
effetto cosi facilmente, se bole assai si fa piu disecante, e cosi 
dal poryi piu o meno retargirio si puo anco cucinar con un pezzo 
di terra d' ombra e fa 1' istesso, ma non resta cosi chiaro. Si 
cucina alle volte anco V olio sporco con colori con olio d' abete 
e questo si da dal rovescio alii quadri che vechij che si scorzano 
per saldarli. 

same things. They derived their names from being extracted from ores 
which contained gold or silver. Litharge is the semi- vitrified oxide of lead. 

2 E 2 


S. How are varnishes made ? 

F. Varnishes are of different kinds: some we make our* 
selves, others, such as the '' vemice grossa " and amber Tarnish, 
we purchase, but I make the mastic varnish myself. 

S. Tell me how you make it ? 

i^. I take pulverized white mastic, and put it into a pipkin with 
spirit of turpentine, or naphtha, in such quantities that the spirit 
of turpentine may rise two -thirds above the mastic in the pipkin. 
I then set the pipkin over the fire, and boil it until the mastic is 
perfectly dissolved, and sometimes add to it a litde ^^olio 
d'abezzo." This serves for varnishing finished pictures, but if 
you wish to see divers modes of preparing these varnishes, con- 
sult Armenino da Faenza and Raiael Borghini, who teach all 
things pertaining to our trade, and how to make other kinds of 
varnishes, as well as the proper mode of using them. 

S. I have not tiiese books, nor can I see them. 

F. Borrow them, and write down what you wish to know on 
this subject ; perhaps your master may have the works, and 
then you may use them, because as they wrote of other things 
appertaining to painters, if your master studies painting, be 
will most certainly have them. 

S. If tiiey treat of painting, tiiey will not write on these things 
which pertain neither to the art nor the artist, for tins would be 
unbecoming, because our operations are merely vile and mechani- 
cal, and require no skill, but merely the labour of the hands. 

F. They were not prudent enough to separate these things, 
and it is very proper that painters should understand them and 
know their use, so as to give orders to those whose business it 
is to prepare them, and to know whether the things made are 
perfect, and also to know good colours, but then they are not 
obliged to manufacture these things themselves. 

S. How are good colours known firom bad, because sometimes 
my master sends me [to purchase colours], and I have not bad 
much experience on this subject ? 

F. Many are known by the eye, others by grinding them on 
the stone, others on the palette, in using them, and others dur- 


iS. Le vemici come si fanno ? 

F. Le vernici sono diverse, altre le facciamo noi, altre si 
comprano, come la vernice grossa, quella d* ambra si compra, 
quella di mastice la facio io. 

S. Dimi dunque come &i ? 

F. Si piglia mastici bianchi polverizati, si pone in una am- 
pola con acqua di ragia overo olio di sasso, la sua proporzione 
81 che r acqua di rasa sormenti due terzi sopra li mastici, si 
pone al foco, si fa bolir sino che li mastici siino bene liquefati, 
se le pub agiunger anco un poco d* olio d' abezzo, e questa serve 
per dar sopra li quadri fomiti, e se voi vedere diversi modi circa 
queste vemici, vedi Armenino da Faenza e Rafael Borgini {sic) 
che insegnano tutte le cose appartenenti al nostro mestiere, altri 
diverse sorte di vernice con il modo proprio di adoperarle. 

S> Io non li ho, non li posso vedere. 

F. Trova V imprestito e scrivi cib che ti fa bisogno in questi 
particolari ; e forse il tuo Patrone li havera e te ne potrai ser- 
vire perche scriveva altre cose appartenenti a Pittori^ e se e gia 
studiofio della pittura li havera certamente. 

& Se tratono di pittura non scriverano di queste materie che 
non s' apartengono ne a 1' arte ne agli artefici che saria cosa 
indecente ; che le nostre operationi sono vili e mecaniche, ne vi 
entra altro artificio che un lavorar di mani. 

F. Non hano havuto questa prudenza di separar le cose, e 
bene che il pittor le conosca e sapia, per potersi far bene servire 
et ordinar a chi toca tale operatione, e per conoscer le cose fate, 
se sono perfette, come anco il conoscer li buoni colori, ma non 
sono tenuti a fabricarli. 

5. Come si conosce li buoni colori da cattivi, perche alle 
volte il mio padrone mi manda e non ho molta pratica ? 

F, Molti si conoscon nel vederli, altri sopra la pietra ucl 
macinarli, altri sopra la tavolozza nel adoperarli, ct altri posti 


ing the painting, but the knowledge of the last is the painter's 
business, and not ours, for we do not paint 

S. Give me some rule by which I may know them. 

F. The first rule is, that they must be of beautiful colour, as 
white lead, lake, the blues, cinnabar, red lead, '^ gialorino," 
** giallo santo," &c. ; those colours which are in powder must 
be very finely pulverized. But with respect to the others, 
^^smaltino" should be very bright, and so should all other 
blues. If you wish to know whether the ultramarine is adul- 
terated, put it over the fire in a spoon ; if it resists, it is good, 
but if it blackens, it is bad. The lakes should not only be beau- 
tiful and of lively colour, but in the grinding they should have 
body and not be liquid. The giallo santo, on the contrary, 
should be of fine colour, and in grinding should become veiy 
liquid so as to require very little oil in distempering, and should 
dry very quickly, which is a sign that it is pure ; but if it hardens 
and requires a great deal of oil in grinding, that is a proof that 
it contains dirt or other impurities, and in this case it dries slowly 
and fades on the pictures. In the same manner, the lake which 
dries quickly is the best, and the ^'verde etemo*' should be 
crystalline, clear, and of a lively colour. And the last test for 
the colours is to place the pictures in the sun ; if they are not 
injured they are good, but if the colours fade they are bad, 
especially the giallo santo, the lake, and the indico. The 
earths in the lump are best, because they are natural, and there 
is no other material mixed with them ; but the venders are ac- 
customed to falsify everything in order to promote their own 
interests, and for this reason Borghini teaches the making of all 
colours, so that we may learn to manufacture them and to have 
them perfect, i. e., those which are most important, because it 
is much better to buy some colours ready made. 

S. Are there not many colours which require to be burnt? 
how is this done ? 

F. Umber, yellow, green, and red earths should all be burnt 
in the fire, placing them over a slow fire that they may not break 
firom the excessive heat ; they are gradually made hotter until 


in opera, e questa cognitione e del pittor che noi non dipin- 

S. Dami un poco di regola per conoscerli. 

F. La prima cognitione e che siino di bellissimo colore, come 
la biaca, la laca, gl' azurri, il cinaprio, e el minio, gialorino, e 
gialoeanto etc. queli cbe sono in polvere siino sottilissimi. Ma 
gl' altri, ilsmaltino e che sii chiaro di colore, e cosi tutti gl' al- 
tri azurri, 1' oltremarino per conoscerlo se e adulterate, si pone 
al foco sopra un guchiaro, se resiste e buono, se anerisce e cattivo. 
Le lache deno esser non solo belissime di color vivace ma che 
nel macinar abino corpo, e che non inliquidiscon. II giallo santo 
il contrario sii hello di colore, ma che nel macinar venga liquido 
che con pochissimo olio si stempera, et asciuga prestissimo che 
e s^no che e puro, ma come s' indurisce e che ci vole assai olio 
nel macinarlo, e segno che ha delle feci o di materia caliva e 
stenta asciugarsi, e nolle piture si perde, e cosl anche la laca 
che asciuga presto e la meglio, il verde etemo si cristalino chiaro 
e di color vivace. £ la prova ultima che si da ai colon e il por 
li quadri al sole, se resistono sono buoni, ma come svaniscono 
sono calivi, massime il gialo santo, la laca, e 1' endico ; le terre 
le grezze sono migliori, perche sono naturali, e non v' e altra 
materia mista perche usod per interesse a falsificar tutte le cose, 
e perci6 il Borgini insegna a &iT tutti li colon, si che noi poti- 
amo aprender il mode di fabricarli per haverii perfetti, cioe 
li piu important! perche di molti e meglio il trovarli fatti. 

S. Non vi soQO molti colon che si abruciono ? dimi in qual 

JF. La terra d' ombra, la ^la, la verde, e la rossa, tutte 
8* abruciono nel foco ponendole a foco lento acib non si spezino 
per la troppa veemenza del calore, ma a poco a poco si riscal- 


they have a most vehement heat and are roasted ; they are then 
sufficiently burnt. The yellow, however, is pulverized, and then 
burnt on a fire-shovel until it blackens, and when it cools it be- 
comes of a dark red colour. 

S. Tell me, pray, do you set your master's palette? 

F, Certainly ; I also distemper all the powder colours, and 
it is sufficient for him to tell me what he is going to paint, for I 
know what colours I ought to put on the palette ; I wash the 
abbozzi, I oil them, I varnish them, and on some I lay the white 
of egg according to his orders ; and then he has given me in 
writing full instructions in the distempering of the colours that 
I may know what to do, and his directions exactly correqx)nd 
with those of Armenino da Faenza, and thus you also may 
write them out, for besides this he teaches the whole process. 
Fatlier Lana^ also, a Jesuit, has treated of this matter m his 
discourse on painting. And remember to put boiled linseed oil 

1 The treatise is contained in a larger work, entitled, " Prodromo overo 
Sag^o di alcune Inventione nuove premesao al opera che prepare il P- 
Francesco Lana, Bresciano, della Compagnia de Gesh ; " Brescia, 1670, 
fol. The part which relates to painting begins at p. 135. Four chapters 
are devoted to this subject ; Cap. I. treats of Invention, Cap. II. of Deagn, 
Cap. III. of Colouring, and Cap. IV. of different methods of Painting and 
Drawing. The chapter on Colouring contains the usual directions for 
painting with four colours — a recommendation to mix ultramarine with all 
the flesh tints — full directions for mixing various tints on the palette, but 
none as te the mixing of the pigments with any liquid — as to the distribu- 
tion of the light — and of the light in which a painting is to be placed while 
in progress. The directions as to *' oiling out " are precise. Lena recom- 
mends for this purpose " boiled linseed oil, that is to say, linseed oil to 
which have been added two ounces of litharge for each pound of oil, 
warmed until it begins to boil." ** This application,*' he says, ** is not 
injurious; to the picture, as some have imagined ; and the advantage is that 
it dries quickly, for raw oil is a long time in drying." 

According to P. Lana, *' The priming consists in covering the picture with 
some colour, which is usually umber finely ground with a little white lead and 
terra rossa, in linseed oil ; this mixture being very stiff, and less liquid than 
the otiier colours, is spread evenly and thinly over the picture with a large 
knife ; when it is dry, another coat is to be applied, and after this, a third 
coat ; which I do not approve of, because, being too thick, it causes the 
colours which are Itud on it to change, for these sink into It so much, that they 


dono, e poi se li da foco vehemente fino che s' arrossiscono ; et 
allora sono arse. La ^ala, perb, si spolveriza e s' abracia sopra 
la paleta da fiiocco, fino che anerisce, che rafredata divene rossa 

S. Dimi in grazia, prepari tu la tavolozza al tuo padrone ? 

^. Certo che si, li stempro anco tutti li colori che sono in 
polvere, e mi bcusta che mi dica cib che vol dipinger, che so qnali 
devo pore sopra la tayolozza, lavo gli abozzi, li ungo, H do la 
vemice, et altri ancora la chiara d' uoya secondo mi comanda, 
e poi mi ha dato in scrito tutto cib che occore nel distemperar 
de colori, a cib sapia cib che devo &re, et e apunto come insegna 
Armenino da Faenza, e cosi li potrai scriver anoor tu che in- 
segna il tutto et anco il P. Lana Gesuita ha scritto di questa 
materia nel suo discorso di pittura. Et haverti che ne colori 
die difficilmente s' asciugono di porvi de 1' olio coto et anco ver- 
derame, come nel nero fumo et aspalto, e cos^i 1' azuro di Spagna 

partidpate of the colour of the priming itself. But in order that the colours 
should retain their briUiancy, the same colour should be repeated several 
times upon the first, and the parts should be more charged with colour than 
the life ; for instance, in colouring the cheeks, or oth^r parts, with cinnabar 
and lake, they should be made a little more rosy than the natural carnations, 
because, afler a time, they sink, and are toned down to their natural hue ; 
without thu precaution, they would become too pale and dead." — p. 158. 

In Cap. IV. Lana treats of the difierent methods of painting, in distem- 
per, in oil, and fresco ; also of miniature painting, painting on marble, on 
silk, tapestry, mosucs, and metals. 

In page 166, he observes that, ** when the painting is finished, some 
painters are accustomed to varnish it, in order that the work may be more 
smooth and brilliant." 

He then mentions an invention of his own for painting on glass, and 

afterwards treats of engraving. 

The remainder of the work treats of other inventions. I have been thus 
particular in detailing the technical processes described in this Treatise, 
because the work itself is rare ; and, as it treats on other subjects, it is not 
likely to form part of the library of a painter. Indeed, it is so little known, 
that the scanty notice of it in the work of Volpato is the only reference I 
have ever found to it; and it was not without considerable research that 
I at last ascertained, that Uie Treatise of Padre Lana, on Painting, was 
contained in the above-mentioned work. 


and verdigris with the colours which dry slowly, such as lamp 
black and asphaltum. And in like nuuDoier the Spaiush blue' 
should be distempered as stiffly as poadble with nut oiL The 
painters make it flow with spirit of turpentine, and ultramarine 
with naphtha. 

5. How do you varnish with the white of egg ? 

F. I apply the white of egg upon those [pictures] which he 
finishes without having varnished the abozzo, and which he com- 
pletes by merely '^ oiling out " and then retouching imtil finished, 
and on the others I apply mastic varnish. I beat up this white 
of egg well with a spoon, agitating it till it flows well through a 
rag, and adding to it a little garlic cut small, which has a good 
effect, and this was used by Canziani on his paintings. Your 
master wiU order all the rest that you may have to do. 

5. I am in a great fright and do not know what course to 
take ; the other day I let a canvas &11 against a box, and 
injured it so much that there is a large lump on one side ; and 
what makes the matter worse is, that my master is going to 
use the canvas so soon that I shall not have time to prq)are 
another, nor can I get any canvas of that size, and I ^ould 
not like my master to know it and be vexed about it ; what 
would you advise me to do ? 

F, Are the threads broken ? 

S. There is no hole in it, but it is in such a state that it 
cannot be used. 

F. What will you give me to tell you how to set it to 
rights ? 

S. Whatever you please, for I am very much annoyed at 
the accident, as it is a large canvas and of some value. 

F. We will share the reward between us, for I wish you 
only, as it were, to change wine for water. 

S. Most willingly ; but how is this change to be eflected? 

1 This was probably the "azzurri di Spagna" mentioned by Malvasia, 
Felsiua Pittrice, Vol. II., p. 349, which I consider (see Art of Fresco 
Painting, Int, p. xMii.) to be the native Blue Carbonate of Copper. 


stemperalo piu sodo che si pub con olio di noce, li pittori lo 
fano score con I'aoqua di rasa, e 1' oltremarino con V olio di 

S. Dimi come le dai la chiara d'ovo ? 

f*. Quelli cbe fomisce senza dar vemice sopra V abozzo, 
che solo con il lavor li fomisce e con 1' unger li ritocca, a queli li 
do la chiara d' novo, et a gV altri la vemice di mastici ; e questa 
chiara la rompo benissimo con un guchiaro, agitandola fra 
pezza, ponendovi dentro un poco d' alio tagliato minuto, che fa 
beir effetto, e cio usava il Canziani sopra de suoi quadri e poi 
il tuo patrone ti ordinarii cib che devi fare. 

S. lo son molto intricato, ne so qual partito pigliare, 1' altro 
^omo e cascata una tela sopra uno scrigno, et e sfondata con 
un rilevo bestiale, et il Patrone la deve pore in opera in breve, 
che non ho tempo di preparame altra, ne di quella misura non 
ne trovo, perche non vorrei che s' acorgesse e ricever qualche 
mortificazione, cosa mi consigli che facia ? 

F. E rota? 

S. Non e forata, ma in quel modo non si pub adoperare. 

F. Cosa mi voi donare che t' insegno il modo di agiu* 

S. Cib che voi^ perche mi preme ; essendo tela grande di 
qualche consideratione. 

F. Goderemo insieme il mercato, che altro non voglio da te 
che in tal guisa contracambierai vino per acqua. 

S, Pill che volentieri, ma in che modo farb questo cambio ? 

> Gia Batista Canziani was a native of Verona and pupil of Antonio 
I Calza ; be flourished about 1712. Vide Crespi, Pittori di Bologna, p. 189. 


F. Bathe with tepid water the back of the canvas, and it 
will become even. 

5. I am very much obliged to you, for I did not at all know 
what to do, but I have another difficulty ; my master has 
several pictures soiled by smoke, and has told me to wash them, 
but I do not know how. 

F. It must be some trick he wishes to |^y a friend or 
patron, because good pictures either never are washed or the 
owners perform this operation themselves ; and it is not merely 
a mechanical operation, because the pictures are eaaly spoiled, 
for if washed too much, those last retouchings whidi are the 
perfection of the work are effiiced, and I have seen many 
paintings spoiled in this manner by ignorant persons who know 
not what mischief they do. And I have even seen them wash 
paintings on panel and on canvas, in such a way that after being 
washed they have scaled off, because the gesso undemeadi was 
affected by the moisture, and swelled ; therefore it is great folly 
to wash good paintings. 

iS. I do not understand, or know anything about it. 

F. Your master ought to know this himself. 

S, But how should I wash them t 

F. Take some ashes, which have been sifted very fine that 
there may not be any pieces of charcoal or any large substances 
which may scratch the picture ; put them into a small pipkin 
with pure water, and with a sponge spread them all over the 
painting, and clean it by uioving about the sponge gently, then 
wash it off quickly with pure water, because the ashes corrode 
the colour. Afterwards wash it well with clear water, dry it 
with a linen cloth, and then varnish it with white of egg. 

S. But shotdd it not be oiled ? 

F. No, for the oil is not good on pictures, except on their 
backs when they are scaling off, as I have told you ; and in 
proof of this, see the Saint Peter the Martyr, at Venice, who 
having been oiled so many times by sacrilegious blockheads 
who have copied him, is so spoiled and blackened, tliat there is 
no telling what sort of face he has, and yet I recollect when he 


F. Bagna con acqua tiepida dal rovescio dela tela, che il 
senritio sara fato, e restera ugualgiato. 

S. Ti ringratio infinitamente, perchb era molto intricato ; ma 
un altra cosa, il mio Patrone ha diversi quadri afumicati, m' 
ha detto che vol che li lavi, io non so come fare. 

F. Sara qualche stratio per agradir qualche suo amico o 
patrone perche quadri buoni, o che non si lavono mai, overo 
che lo &no loro, e non e cosa da manual!, perche si possono 
guastar facilmente, che con il lavarli troppo se le consuma que 
nltiini ritodii che sono la perfetione de V opera, come ne ho 
veduti tanti coa guasti, per mezo di ignoranti che non sano 
d6 che fiuio. £ di piii ho yeduto anco lavar quadri in tavola 
e cod in tela, che dopo lavati si sono scorzati, perche il gesso di 
sotto risente quell' umido e si rilcFa ; e percib e gran pazzia 
lavar quadri buoni. 

S. Non me ne intendo, ne so quel che sia. 

F. Lo deve saper lui. 

S. Come dovrb fare per lavarli ? 

F. Prendi un poca di cenere sedazata sotilmente acib non vi 
sii carbone o materia grossa che possa raschiar il quadro, 
ponila in una scudela con acqua pura, e con una sponga disten- 
dila sopra il quadro, e leggermente maneggia la sponga 
netandolo, ma fa presto a levar con acqua chiara la sud^ 
cenere per che rode il colore. Lavato bene con acqua chiara, 
aaciugala con un drapo di lino, et asciuto come sij, dali la 
chiara d'ovo. 

S, Che lo ungessi ? 

F. Non lo fare, che 1' olio non fa bene a quadri, se non dal 
rovescio, come si scorzano come ti ho detto, e che cib sia vero, 
vedi il S. Pietro Martire di Venezia, che unto tante volte da 
sacrilegi e sgratiati che lo copiano 1' hano cosi guasto et anerito 
che non si vede piii che facia egli abia ; e pur a miei ^omi era 
belUssimo, e puoi osservare li putini che essendo alti lontani da 


was beaafcifiil, and you may observe the children, whidi being 
above the reach of similar influences>are in excellent preserva- 
tion, therefore these blackguards should be forbidden to copy 
such excellent works. This privilege should only be permitted 
to those who have a proper respect for pictures. Do you wish 
me to tell you anything else ? 

S. One thing, about which I am curious : my master has 
made me grind up several colours with pure water, and tells 
me he wants to make crayons of them for colouring on paper. 
What are these crayons, and how are they made ? 

F, You will see, because he will make the tints with the 
knife, and will make you point the crayons for use. But in 
order that the white lead and the powder colours may adhere 
together, he ynll tell you to add gum-water to them to make 
them firm so that they may be used, but the lamp black is 
formed into a paste with the " terra da bocali," and dried by 
the fire, and is sometimes used instead of charcoal for drawing. 

S. How is charcoal made ? 

JF. An iron tube is provided, the pieces of wood are pressed 
tightly into this, and the ends of the tube are stopped up with 
ashes that the smoke may not escape, and when the tube is 
red hot and no more smoke is given out, the charcoal is made ; 
the whole is then thrown into water. 

S. What sort of wood b used ? 

F. The plum-tree and the willow. 

S. Why is the tube fastened up air-tight ? 

F. Because if the wood were to bum, it would fall to ashes 
without making charcoal: when the crayons are made they 
are anointed with common oil, so that when used the marks 
may not be cancelled. Is there anything else you wish to 
know, for I would willingly communicate everything to you? 

S» I am very much obliged to you, and I think I want no 
more instructions for my functions ; if I have any difficulty 
£ will consult you. It is now time, however, for you to go to 
the ** piazza," and take your salad for supper ; our masters 
will perhaps come home late this evening. 


simili influsi sono conservati belissimi, e percib si dovrebbe 
vietare a questa sorte di canagle il copiar opere si fatte, e solo 
permeterlo a soggetti che portano a quadri li doYUti rispetti. 
De»deri saper altro da me ? 

iS. Una curiositk. II mio patrone mi ha fatto macinar 
dirersi colori con aoqua pura, e mi dice che vol far delle pastele 
per colorir sopra le carte. Cosa sono qneste pastele e come 
d fanno ? 

F. Lo yederai perche fara le tinte con il cortelo, e poi ti fara 
£ur le punte a te per adoperarli. Ma perche la biaca e qneli 
che sono in polvere stijno saldi, ti fara meter un poca d' 
aoqua di goma a ci6 aino salde per poterle adoperare, ma il 
nero fiimo s' impasta con terra da bocali, e si seca al foco e 
senre anco per carbone da disegnare. 


S. II carbone come si fa ? 

F. Si piglia una cana di fero, vi si pone dentro li stechi di 
legno ben serati, si atura con cenere delle parti di detta cana 
essendo posta nel focco acib il fumo non esali, e come la cana 
e infocata, e che si vede che non esala piii fumo, il carbone e 
fiito, s' estingue il tutto nel acqua. 

S. Che sorte di legno s' adopera ? 

F. Si piglia il susin, ed il salice. 

S. Perche s' atura e non si lascia respirare ? 

F. Perche ardendo andarebbe in cenere, ne si faria carbone, 
qual fatto si unge con olio comune acib che adoperato non si 
canceli. Vedi s* altro ti occore, che ti dirb il tutto volontieri. 

S. Ti ringrazio iufinitamente, che per la mia fontione altro 
non fa bisogno, e se haverb qualche di£Bcolta ti verb a trovare. 
Fra tanto e bora che vadi alia piazza a piglar I'insalata per la 
cena, li nostri patron! forse verano tardi questa sera. 


F. Mine is not gone far. They will come home at the usual 
time ; but before you go, I beg you will take a glass of wine, 

S, This cellar is very cool. 

F. Take this wine and taste it, it will taste as if it were 

S, To the health of our masters I 

F. To theirs and to our own ! 

S. Truly, it is very cool. 

F. Now I will taste it, in confirmation of what you say. 

S. I will take another glass. 

F. Two or three, if you like. 

£>. One will do for the present. 

F. Take it 

S. And with this I will drink your good health. 

F. May you long continue in good health. 


F. E poco lontano. Verano all' ora solita. Avanti che ti 
parti, bevi im bichier di vino. Andiamo. 

S, Questa cantina e molto fresca. 

F. Prendi e gusterai il vino che pare che sii in giaza. 

S. Alia salute de nostri patroni I 
F. AJIa sua et alia nostra ancora I 
S. Veramente e freschissimo. 

F. Hora lo gusterb anch' io alia confirmatione di quanto hai 
S. Ne voglo un altro bichier. 
F. Anco doi e tre se ti gusta. 
S. Un sol mi basta per hora. 
F. Prendi. 

S. £ con questo ti lascio la buona salute. 
JP. In buon vigore oonservati. 













The following pages are copied from the commence- 
ment of a MS^ preserved in the Public Library at 
Brussels, numbered 15,552, written in 1635 by Pierre 
lie Brun, a painter. The MS. is in small octavo, the 
writing extremely small and difficult to read, and the 
ink very pale. It appears to have been intended for 
publication, as it contains many drawings. The part 
of the MS. uncopied treats of Sculpture, Architecture, 
and Perspective. 

It appears from the MS. that Pierre Le Brun was 
contemporary with the Carracci, with Rubens, Laurens 
Dubry the Fleming, and Youet; and the scattered 
notices he has given relative to painting in oil must be 
considered as indications of the practice of this art in 
France, or rather at Paris, during the middle of the 
seventeenth century. The manner in which the author 
speaks of contemporary artists shows that he was living 
at Paris when the MS. was written. 

The object of the author in writing the treatise seems 
to have been to give amateurs such a knowledge of the 
mechanical parts of the art, and of technical terms, as 
would enable them to speak on the subject of painting 
with propriety, and without incurring ridicule. 


In the first chapter, therefore, he describes the im- 
plements used in the mechanical part of the art, and 
then recapitulates a number of technical expressions, 
some few of which ke explains, especially those relating 
to the light in which a picture should be viewed. This 
part of the work bears much resemblance to the Treatise 
of Bulengerus, De Pictura, Flastice, ^t Statuaria, 
lib. ii. cap. ii., a work which must have obtained some 
reputation, since it has passed through three editions, 
and has been translated into English/ 

The author then treats of painting in distemper and 
in fresco ; and he cites^ as authority for the rules he 
lays down for fresco-painting, Father L*Ange and 
Father Antoine the Capuchin, and M. Thierson, a 
painter. The latter he mentions frequently in the 
course of the work. 

The fourth chapter treats of painting on glass ; and 
I find, by comparing this chapter with the second part 
of Le Vieil's " Art de la Peinture sur Verre,** that the 
method described in the MS. was that which was gene- 
rally followed in France. The practice of the art, 
therefore, appears to have changed but little from the 
time of Le Brun (1635) to the date of the work of 
Le Vieil, 1774. 

In the fifth and sixth chapters, Le Brun treats of the 
proportion of the human body and of the beauty of the 

I The first Latin edition wai printed at Leyden in 1621, and the English 
translation in 1667. The work is mentioned in the letters of Rubens, who 
merely states that he had received the work, but had not had time to resd 
it. It appears from the explanations of many of the technical teims being 
in French, that the author was a Frenchman. His name, probably, was 


&ce, and in the seventh he teaches the nature and com- 
position of colours. He describes six kinds of azure, 
the first of which, called Cerul^e or " Turchino/* is the 
azure of Fozzuoli, of Vitruvius, and the smaltino of the 
Italians. The second, formed of mercury, sulphur, 
and sal ammoniac, has been called Venetian azure. 
The third, which is caMed ^^Ultramarine," is said to 
consist of calcined silver, aqua fortis, and sal ammo- 
niac The fourth is the Carbonate of Copper, men- 
tioned in tiie first chapter under the name of ^* La 
Cendr^e." The fifth is Indico, composed of the scum 
of woad, starch, &c. ; and the sixth is the true Ultra- 

The eighth chapter, entitled Secrets in Fainting, 
consists of detached hints relative to the technical parts 
of the art From these it appears that white was to be 
excluded from shadows (see No. 1), which we know 
was in accordance with the precept of Rubens, 

In No. 42, Umber and Lake are mentioned as 
forming a beautifiil colour for shadows. The directions 
given in No. 7, ** II faut fort ombrer en esbauchant,*' 
and the reason given for it, ^^ cela ayde a parachever 
avec plus grande facilite," appear to me to recommend 
the Flemish practice of getting in the subject in chiaro- 
scuro, after which it was necessary merely to apply the 
lights and local colours, leaving the deep shadows fi'ee 
from solid or opaque colour. In No. 10 it is recom- 
mended not to use umber in the grounds, because the 
colours sink into it. No. 19 shows that the colour of 
the grounds was generally of a yellow colour, the 
method of preparing which appears to be described in 
Chapter I. In No. 32 a process is mentioned by 


which a canvas can be prepared so quickly that a per- 
son may paint on it the same day. The author also 
advises the use of mineral colours, which were to be 
previously ground with oil (see Cap. 1.)^ and recom- 
mends that paintings should be exposed to the air. 
Nos. 23, 24, and 25 describe the method of preparing 
both drying and fat oils, whith were to be used for 
promoting the drying of certain colours, among which 
we find white lead, which is not usually placed among 
the slow dryers. Ground glass and verdigris are also 
said to be mixed with colours to make them dry. 

The method of applying the azure in powder, de- 
scribed in No. 39, is curious, but not uncommon, since 
it is mentioned several times in the MS. of De Mayeme* 
in the British Museum. 

No. 40 shows that even so late as 1635 statues or 
bassi rilievi were painted with colours. 

In order to preserve pictures from dust and fly marks^ 
it is recommended (No. 22) to wash them with white 
of egg, and the reason for using this is stated to be that 
it may be easily washed off with a damp sponge. It is 
added, '^ this cannot be done with varnish.*^ From this 
then it appears that it was not always usual to varnish 
paintings in oil, and this certainly implies that they 
were painted with a vehicle which rendered varnishing 
unnecessary; thus afibrding evidence of the truth of 
Vasari's statement that pictures painted in the manner 
of Van Eyck did not require varnishing. 

The MS. contains no directions as to the vehicle ; it 
is merely stated that the colours were to be ground with 

1 See Mr. EastUkc^s ' Materials/ &c., vol. i. p. 456, 456. 


ail, and that certain colours were to be used with dry- 
ing oil, in order to make them more siccative. In No. 
14, Oil of "Camamine" (Chamomile) is mentioned/ 
but on account of the difficult}' of deciphering the MS^ 
it is scarcely possible to distinguish whether Le Brun 
has written " bonne pour peindre/* or " bonne pour 
prendre." The supposition, coupled with the conclusion 
of the sentence, "it is as clear as rock water," is cer- 
tainly in favour of the first reading, whence we may 
suppose that oil of chamomile was used to dilute the 
colours in the same manner as spirit of turpentine is 
now used. 

With regard to the varnishes described in the MS., 
it will be observed that they are not oleo-resinous. The 
first varnish for pictures consists of mastic and " huile 
de sapin,*' which appears to be synonymous, or nearly 
so, with the "olio di abezzo" of the Italians. The 
second consisted of turpentine liquefied over the fire, 
thinned with oil of spike. The " Vernis Gros " (" ver- 
nice grossa** of the Italians) or common varnish was 
made of turpentine, oil of turpentine, and resin melted 
together. The two former, at least, were probably 
light-coloured varnishes ; the colour of the last seems 
doubtful. A passage in Chapter I. (No. 16) suggests 
the idea of a high-coloured varnish having been used 
occasionally " to lower the brilliancy of the colours." 
This may have been a relic of an older practice, and 

1 The distilled oil of chamomile (Oleum Anthemidis) is sometimes of a 
blue colour : that which is found in the shops is generally foreign, of a 
yellowish or brownish yellow colour, and becomes viscid by age. — Brande*8 
Dictionary, &c. 


appears more applicable to an oleo^resinous varnish than 
to one of those described in the MS. • 

Chapter IX. teaches how to speak of beautifiil paint- 
ings ; and Chapter X. is an account of the greatest 
painters in the world. The author commences this 
chapter with an extract from Quintilian (ch. 16, 1. 12), 
giving a brief account of a few of the great painters of 
antiquity. He then speaks of the modems, among 
whom he mentions Michael Angelo as a distinct person 
from Buonarotti. From the painters of the cinque- 
cento he passes to the artists who were contemporary 
with him, among whom he enumerates the Carracci, 
Rubens, and Simon Vouet, and he concludes this part 
of the work with observing that his friend M. Thierson, 
to whom he was indebted for many hints for his work, 
"is also a very clever man*" 

Chapter XI. treats of the various methods of gilding, 
and the work concludes with the recipes (or varnish 
before mentioned. 

^ -— ^~— , 



( 766 ) 






When Alexander the Great visited Apelles the Great, and 
began to talk of colours and paintings, the apprentices buist 
into a loud laughs so that their master was fiightened and 
ashamed of them, and whispered to Alexander, saying, ^' Sire, 
I entreat you will not speak of the profession, for the boys who 
are grinding the colours are bursting with laughter at the mis- 
takes you make : you are good for conquering worlds, we for 
representing them on pictures ; jour sword and our pencils in 
the same hand do not agree, and, to do well, every one should 
speak of his own trade, otherwise he furnishes a subject of 
laughter to the whole company.'' Alexander was silent, and 
laughed. Reader — ^my dear friend, I desire to fifee you from 
this annoyance, and from the fear that your ignorance should 
be the subject of derision, when you speak of painting on a fiat 
surface, one of the most noble arts of the world. The greatest 
deceiver in the world is the greatest painter of the universe and 
the most excellent workman ; for, to tell the truth, eminence in 
this art consists in a deception, innocent, and full of enthusiasm 
and divine spirit. Poets have their inspirations in the head, 
which is the seat of the poetic nerve ; punters in the tips of the 
fingers, and in the flowing point of the pencil. But the eye must 
be deceived, or the picture is worth nothing ; this must appear 

( 767 ) 






QuAND le grand Alexandre visitant Apelles le grand Youlut 

parler des couleurs et des peintures, les Apprentis esclatterent 

si fort de rire que le maistre en eust pear et honte. Sire (dit- 

il tout has) ne parlez point de le mestier car les gar^ons qui 

broient les couleurs crevent de rire vous entendant ainsi be- 

gayes : vous estes bon pour conquerir les mondes, et nous pour 

les coucber sur nos tableaux. Vostre espee et nos pinceaux ne 

s^accordent pas bien en une mesme main, et pour bien faire 

chacun doit parler de son mestier autrement on appreste a rire 

a toute la compagnie. Alexandre se tent et se print a rire. Je 

desire lecteur mon grand amy, vous delivrer de ceste peine, et 

de la peur qu'on ne se gausse de vostre niaiserie quand vous 

voudrez parler de la platte peinture, I'un des nobles artifices 

du monde, le plus grand trompeur du monde c'est le meilleur 

peintre de Tunivers et le plus excellent ouvrier, car a vray dire 

Teminence dc le mestier ne consiste qu'en une tromperie inno- 

cente et toute pleine d'entousiasme et de divin esprit, les poetes 

ont leurs inspirations dans la teste ou.est la nerve poetique, et 

les peintres au fin bout des doigts et a la pointe scarante du pin- 

ceau. Mais faut tromper I'oeil ou tout n'y vaut rien : il faut 

qu'on croie que cela est creux et enfonce, cela enfle, et bour- 

souffl^, cecy bors d'oeuvres et qui se jette entierement hors du 


hollow and ooncaTe, that swollen and convex ; this appear to 
project and stand out from the picture, that must appear distant 
a good league ; this of a prodipous height, that perforated ; 
this living and full of movement. Let the horse gallop and foam 
at the mouth through its hard breathing; let the dog bark 
loudly ; let the blood flow from tbe wound ; let the douds really 
thunder and be torn to pieces by frequent flashes of lightning ; 
let this dying man appear with his soul issuing fit>m his lips ; 
let this bird tire his beak by pecking at the grapes ; let the 
spectators call for the curtain to be raised, so as to see what is 
behind ; yet there is no reality in this, for the surface on which 
the objects are represented is flat, and truth is imitated so art- 
fully that nature appears to have animated the picture in order 
to assist painting to deceive us, and to laugh at our foUy ; 
hence it is that one painter wrote in his works ** res ipsa ^ — it is 
the thing itself y not the imitation ; and another, ^^ fecit ApeUeSy^ 
which that great artist wrote on three works in which he sur- 
passed art, nature, and himself; on the others he wrote " fade- 
bat,'' that is to say, ^*he teas doing itJ* He would not finish his 
designs lest he should make Nature blush, for she had already 
acknowledged herself conquered by genius and art, — not like 
those simpletons who were such fools as to paint an ox or an 
ass for a horse, and so wretchedly was the imitation daubed, 
that it was necessary to write under it in large letters, ** Gren- 
tlemen, tbis is an ass ;'' or, ^* Gentlemen, tiiis is an ox ;" but 
even in this they lied, for there were two asses; he [the 
painter] was the first, and the brute he had painted the second. 
Tlierefore, to know how to discourse on this noble profession, 
you must have frequented the studio and disputed with the 
masters, have seen the magic eflects of the pencil, and the un- 
erring judgment with which the detdls are worked out by the 

of the wonders of nature by Bene Francis, 
the King's preacher. 


tableau, cecy esloigne d*une bonne lieue, cela d'une hautesse 

extreme, cela perce k jour, cecy tout vif et plein de mouve- 

ment, que le cheval court et escume a force de soufSer, que ce 

chien jappe vivement, que le sang coule de la plaie, que les 

nuees tonnent en etktj et que les nuages soient toutdeeoousuB 

a force d'esclaires qu'on voie sortir coup sur coup ; que eest 

homme rende I'esprit, et qu'on voie Tame sur ses leuvres, que 

les ojBeaux bequetteut oes raisins, et se lassent le becque, 

qu^on crie haut qu'il &ut oster le rideau afin de voir ce qui est 

cache, cependant il n'y a rien de tout cela, car tout cela est 

plat, pris bas mort et contrefiut si artistement qu'il semble que 

la nature se soit couchee la-dessus pour aider la peinture k nous 

tromper finement et se mocquer de nostre bestise, de la vient 

qu'un deux escrit en les ouvrages ret ijma^ c'est la chose meme 

non pas la peinture, et Tautre fecit Apelles; ce qu'il nut en 

trois pieces ou il surmonta I'art, la nature et soy^mesme, aux 

autres il mettaityoct^&z^, c'est h, dire il faisoit. et a dessein n'a 

point Touluz aeheyer de peur de fair rougir la nature qui se fut 

confefisee yaincue par I'esprit et par I'art, ce n'est pas comme 

ces badaux qui ^taient si niaiz que pour peindre un cheval ik 

&isoient une asne ou un Ixeuf et encore si mal fagotte qu'il 

&lloit eacrire en gros cadeaux : Messieurs cecy est une asne, 

cecy est un boeuf, encore mentoient-il2, car ilz estoient deux, 

lay le beau {nremier, et cdiuy qu'il avoit point Tautre ; Pour 

scavoir done parler de ce noble mestier, il faut avoir este a la 

boutique diq>ute avec les maistres, veu le traint de pinceau, et' 

le jugement asseure pour esplucher toute chose par le menu .' 

. . may des . . . merveilles de nature par Rene Francois 

Pk'edicat. du Roy. 

The words omitted are illegible in the MS. 




1. The muller (that is, the stone with which the colours are 
ground) must be of flint or whetstone, so as to grind the colours 
on the porphyry and to incorporate them better with the oil 
The amassette ^ is of horn, and with this the colours are collected 
after grinding, and spread upon the stone. 

2. The scaffi>ld or easel of the painter is used to support the 
paintings for working. 

3. The pencils are made of a soft kind of hair, but which has 
suiScient resistance to keep itself straight, and to make a firm 
point for painting ; the hairs of bears are very good, so are 
those of martens and similar animals. Small brushes made of 
hogs' or pigs' bristles are also used, and pencils of fishes' hair^ 
for softening. 

4. The pinceliere is a vase in which the pencils are cleaned 
with oil, and of the mixture of oil and dirty colours is made a 
grey colour, useftil for certain purposes, such as to lay on the 
first coats, or to prime the canvas. The pincelier is a vase 
containing oil, in which the pencils are placed that they may 
not dry. 

5. A palette set for painting flesh colour must contain terre 
verte, cendre verte et bleue, brown pink, yellow ochre, vermi- 
lion, red ochre, lake, umber, bone black, and charcoal bbcl, 
with white lead in the middle. 

6. The painter's palette is the mother of all colours ; for, 
from the mixture of 3 or 4 principal colours, his pencil will 
create, and, as it were, cause to flourish all kinds of colours. 
They say to set a palette for the carnations (that is to say, to 
make the flesh colour), with green, &c. ; and this is the work 
of the boy. The principal colours are, 1st, white lead (so 
called because it is found in lead mines) } 2ndly, fine azure 

I Amassette— instrument with which the coloars are collected and 
scraped together on the stone. 




1. B iant que la moulette soit de caillou (c'est a dire la 
pierre a broyer) de gre ou de queux, afin de mieux broyer les 
couleurs sur le poq)hir et les mieux incorporer avec I'huile. 
L'axnassette est de corne, et amasse la couleur broyee, et 
eparse sur la pierre. 

2. L'Estodi, Teschafaux uu cheTallet du peintre, e'est sur 
quoy on posse les tableaux pour travailler. 

3. Les pinoeaux sout fait d'un poil doux toutefois qu'il ait 
une resistance pour se tenir droit et faire une pointe assez ferme 
pour peindre, les poils d'ouris [ours] y sout tres bons, moustoil, 
foines et autres semblables ; on se sert aussi de petite bruis- 
sette fait de soye de pourceau (ou cochon). L'on a aussi des 
pinoeaux fait de poil de poisson pour adoucir. 

4. La pinceliere est un vase ou Ton nestoie les pinoeaux avec 
Vhuile, et de ce meslange on fait un gris et bon a cer- 
tains ouTrages comme k fidre les premieres couches ou imprimer 
la thoile. Le pincelier est un vase ou Ton met tramper les 
pinoeaux dans de I'huile, de peur qu'il ne se seichent. 

5. Une pallette de carnation est du verd de terre, cendre 
yerd et bleuse, stil de grun [grain], ocre jaune, vermilion, ocre 
rouge, lac, terre d'ombre, noir dos et de charbon, avec blanc 
de plomb au milieu. 

6. La pallette du peintre est la mere de toutes les couleurs, 
car du meslange de trois ou quatre maistresse couleurs, son 
pinceau fiiit naistre et comme fleurir toutes sortes des couleurs, 
on dit preparer une palette de carnation (c'est a dire, pour 
fisdre la chamure) du verd, &c. Et c'est Touvrage du garden. 
Les mere3 des couleurs sont premierement le blanc de plomb 
(k cause qu'il se trouve en mine de plomb)» 2 le fin azur et 

« Probably seal's fur. 

VOL. IL 2 O 


and ultramarine ; Srdly, Venetian lake, which makes a moBt 
brilliant fleeh colour and scarlet; 4thly, Spanish yermilion; 
5thly, la cendr^ ; 6thly, charcoal black ; Tthly, massicot^ which 
serves for the fine yellow ; 8thly, " verd de terra ;" 9thly, 
dragon's blood; and, lOdily, '«la rosette."' These are the 
florid oolomv, ike oth^s are common. 

7. The canvases are covered witii pardiment glue or flour 
paste before they are primed with potter s earth, ydlow earth, 
or ochre ground with linseed or nut oil. The priming is kid 
on the canvas with the knife or amassette to render it smoother, 
and this is the work of the boy. 

8. To take the portrait of a person, or to draw from the 
life. Anciently, the art did not extend beyond drawiiig the 
outlines ; in later times the outline was covered with a single 
colour. To give expression and diaracter ; to open the mouth, 
the eye ; to give a smile ; to paint the soul, the character, the 
passions, &c. 

9. To paint the portrait after the life, to leave the work at 
the discretion of the pencil, and to the chance of the hand ; to 
heighten and relieve the colours, i. e. to give the colours lustre 
and lig^t ; item to varnish, and cover with varnish to produce 

10. Outlines, gestures, symmetry, proportions, expressions, 
and character, give renown to the pencil, and are the principal 
points to be aimed at. The inner part is eaisily done ; but the 
outline, the finishing touches, and the roundings oflf of die difler- 
ent objects are difficult 

11. To shade or shadow the works, put in the darks sod 
shadows, to give prominence to some parts, and make others 
recede, and to throw back the landscapes to a still greater 
distance, and compress them into a small space. The light 
and shade should be intermixed so that the divemty of colour 
may heij^ten and give roundness to both, 

1 La Roaette. See Chap. VII. No. 11. 



rontremariiL 3*. la laoque de Veniae qui a un inearnat et une 
escarlatte fort rive. 4^ le vermilloii d'Espagne. 5^ la cendree^ 
6° le Boir de diarbon, 7^ le ouussicot qui est le fin jaune, 8^ le 
verd de terre, 9« le sang de dragon, 10° la rosette : voila les 
coaleurs gayes, les autres sont nides. 

7. Les toilles s'encoiles avec colle de parchemin ou de &< 
rine ai:^»araTaDt qae les imprimer ; oa les imprime arec terre 
de potier, terre janae ou oere broyes avec hoille de noix ou de 
lin. Lfa dite inqsrimure se coucfae sur les toilles avec un cous- 
teau ou avec Tamassette pour les readres plus unie, et c'est 
Toavrage du garqon. 

8. Pourtraire et enlever au vif une personne, du eommenoe- 
ment on ne fiusoit que porfiller, puis apres on coumt le poui€l 
d'une seule eouleur . Donner contenance, sans images et bonnes 
nines, ouvrant la bouche, VcbH^ le rire, 6kc, peindre Tesprit, 
les moBurs, les passions, &c. 

9. Faire le pourtrali; au naturel, laisse Pouyrage a ladiscre« 
tion du pinceau et au hasard de la main, rehausser les couleurs 
et relever Touvrage, c'est donner le lustre et le jour aux cou* 
leurs. item remisser et coucher du vemis pour faire esclate. 

10. Les pourfils, les gestes, les simmetries et proportions, et , 
mines et bonnes oofttenances aont celles qui donnent bruit au 
pinceaux ; et le point principal de tout c'est eela. Le dedans se 
fait aisement, mais le pourfil, les demiers traits, et I'arrondisse- 
ment de la besogne est mal aisee. 

11. Ombrer ou ombrag^ les ouvrages, Sure des nuits, des 
ombrages pour faire esclatte, les autres reculer, les paysages 
bien loin et en petit volume. L'ombragem^it et le jour s'en* 
tremeslent afin que la diversity des couleurs facent rehausser 
et arondir I'une et I'autre. 

2o 2 


12. Besides the light and the shade, there is the half light,' 
which is something between light and shade, and is a colour 
composed of a mixture of the two, and is that which separates 
the colours; it is called ^' dejettement," and in Greek ^'ar- 

13. To paint landscapes on a flat ground in architecture, in 
the air, and as if among the clouds, covering but a small sur- 
face of canvas ; the ancients had two sorts, and afterwards three, 
the Ionic, Sicyonic, and Attic. To make figures, flowers, fancy 
subjects, rivers, to raise mountains, and tempests, &c. 

14. To paint landscapes, grotesques, arabesques, mstic 
scenes, fancies, chimeras, vignettes, tufts of trees, precipices, 
falls of water, sea pieces, storms, widi a thousand poetical inven- 
tions of the kind. 

15. To paint draperies, and clothe die figures, that is to say, 
to dress them with drapery, always using more than one colour, 
but there must be a mixture of colours. There is simple dra- 
pery, and there is drapery damasked and embroidered with 
historical subjects ; there are robes tucked up and with folds, 
which the painters cover with crape, and which are visible 
through the veil and the transparent gauze ; others which are 
broken with shadows in order to lower the brilliancy of the 

. colours. 

16. To lower the too great brilliancy of the colours with var- 
nish, which is like talc or crape spread over the painting ; to 
infuse into the painting the soul, the affections, the conceptions 
of genius (the inimitable invention of Apelles), in &ct to 
paint that which cannot be painted, such as thunder, lightning, 
the voice, the breath, &c. To lay on the colours with clean- 
liness, with harshness. 

17. Ceruse is made of lead and vinegar ; it is good in the 
flesh colour and similar things. Burnt ivory, which was used 

1 Millin giyes a difierent signification to this term. He aays, that in 
painting a picture, it is said to be in a fUse light, when it is i^oed in sn 
apartment in snch a manner that the nataral light enters on the side oppo* 


12. Outre le jour et rombragement, il y a encore le &ux- 
jour, qui tien du jour et de I'ombre et est un lustre compose des 
deux, ce qui separe les couleurs, il s'appelle le ^^ dejettemaus " 
et en Grec " armoge." 

13. Peindre en paysage, a fond plat, en architecture, en I'air, 
et comme parmy les nuees, peindre en petit volume. Les audens 
estoient a deux sortes et puis a trois, a Plonique, a la Sycioni- 
enne, eta rAtlique. Faire les personnages, les fantages, les fleurs, 
les fantasies^ les rivieres, dresser des montagnes, soulever des 
tempetes, &c. 

14. Peindre des paysages, des grotesques, arabesques, la rus- 
tique, des fantasies, et des chimeres, vignettement, touffe de bois, 
precipices, chutes d*eaux, baricuies, la marine, et les orages et 
mille gentiUesses et inventions poetiques de la meme taille. 

1<5. Faire la draperie, et drapper I'image, c'est Thabiller or 
en drappant, jamais on ne met une seule couleur ; mais il y 
&ut du meslange. II y a simple drapperie ; il y a celle qui est 
damassee, historiee a brodure, les robes retroussees et les repUs 
puisur& {sic\ les feintres les couvertes de crespe, et qui percen 
le voile et la thoille desliee, les autres qui sont meurtries avec 
les ombrages qui rabattent le trop grand esclat 

16. Meurtrir la trop grande gayete des couleurs avec vemix 
qui semble du talc ou du crespe ou de lairs espars sur le ta- 
bleau ; Tame, les affections, peindre les conceptions d' esprit sur 
le tableau (invention d' Appellee inimitable), enfin peindre ce 
qui ne se pent peindre, comme les tonnerres, esclairs, la voix, 
la respiration, &c. asseoir les couleurs propremen, estre trop 
rude a charge des couleurs. 

17. La ceruse se fait de plomb et de vinaigre ; elle est bonne 
pour incamer playe et chose semblable ; Tisvoire bruslee fait un 

site the artificial light which is supposed to illuminate the objects in the 
painting. Millin, Diet, des Beaux Arts. 


by Apelles, is a most ezoellent black, for if it is dissolved in 
vinegar and dried in the sun it cannot be effiiced. There are 
some works of powerfiil colouring, others feeble ; the latter, after 
the first painting, must be heightened with vigorous ooIoutb. 

18. A good picture should possess great invention, well 
observed proportions, pleasing and natural colouring, lively flesh 
colour, rich drapery, distant landscape, accurate p^'qpective, 
and tints so natural that the eye may earily be deceived. 

19. The heightenings are produced by throwing li^ts upon 
them, the hollows and retiring parts are produced with the 
shades, and thick darkness must be surrounded widi li^t. 
Softening is that tender union of the colours by which one colour 
is almost lost in the other. By glazing is meant the last thin 
coat [of transparent colour] which softens and gives brilliancy^ 
by glazing the white, the purple, the green, the yellow, &c. 

20. The painting should be placed in its proper light or in 
a full light, and concerning this you must know that all pednting 
supposes generally that the light comes from the right towards 
the left ; the false light^ is when the light shines from left 
to right, and in this case all the shadows are on the opposite 
side. Therefore, to place a painting in its proper light is to 
expose it to the light whence the painter supposes the li^^t to 
come, turning it towards the window, so that all the parts may 
appear as if hidden behind that part of the body which is illu- 
minated. It sometimes happens that the light fiills from above ; 
when this is the case the head, face, and nose are highly illumi- 
nated, and the rest of the neck, body, and person do not par- 
ticipate in the light except in a few places where streaks or rays 
of light fall on the folds and other parts which appear to swell 
and project out of the work. Again, it sometimes happens in 
the opposite manner, when the light shines from below, and io 

1 This 18 now called Faux jour. See Millin, Dictionnaire dcs Beaux 


ncnr excellent dont se aeryoit Apeles^ car 8*il est deamel^ et 
deffidten Tiiia]gre» et ara au soleil» il ne se pent effisuser. II y a 
des ofarrages de haulte cotdeur, d'autre Uaffiurde, mais apros la 
premiere couche 11 &iit domier la charge avee qoelques couleurs 

18. Un beau tableau doit aroir rinyention gaillarde, les pro- 
portions bien gardees, le colons plaisant et naturel, la carnation 
vire, la drapperie riohe, les pajsages fi»t esloigne, la perspec- 
tive bien obsenr^, la teinte si naturelle que I'oeil soit ais^ent 
contrain d'estre trompe. 

19. Les rebauts se font a force de jour qu'on verse dessus, 
les enfondremens, les creux, les rentremens, se font avec les 
ombres et les nuicts espaisses ceint de Jour et de lumiere. 
L'adoucissement se fait par une si douce liaison des couleurs 
qu'elle se perde quasi Time dans I'autre, glace, c'est mettre les 
demiers adoucissements et la coucfae demiere delicate qui donne 
I'esclat avec le blanc glace, on pourpre glace, verd glace, jaune 
glace, &c. 

20. La peinture se doit mettre a son jour, ou estre k contre- 
jour ; surquoy il faut scavoir que tout peindre suppose d'ordi* 
naire que le jour vieime du cost^ droite vers le gauche ; le con- 
trejour, c'est la gauche a droicte, alors tous les ombrages sont 
du coste oppose done le jour vient ; de b,ijon que tnettre une 
peinture a son jour, c'est la toumer vers le jour que le peindre 
snppose devoir estre le jour, k la toumer vers la fenestre en telle 
&fon que tout les membres soient comme caches derriere la 
partie du corps qui est enluminee. II advient aussi que le jour 
se donne d'en hault, et a Theure la teste, le visage, le nez, sont 
fort esclairez ; et le reste du col, du corps, et de la personne ne 
partidpes point du jour que par certains esclairs ou filet de jour 
qui esclate sur les replis et autres parties qui sembles s'enfler 
et se Jeter bors I'ouvrage. H y en a au contraire qui prennent le 
jour par en has, et se doivent mettre bien hautes, alors les pieds, 
genoux, et autres parties bien eminentes soet fort esclairees le 


this case the figures would be raised very hi^ and the 
knees and other prominent parts would be strongly illa- 
minated, while the &ce and other parts would be half eclipsed* 
Hie li^t must therefore always be suffered to enter on 
the side whence the painter supposes it to shine, tiiat is to 
say, the shadows must never appear to be thrown towards the 

21. In a painting there must be the point of sight, Ae 
vanishing point, the hollows and retirements of the members, the 
perspective, the receding and approaching parts, the feints and 
deceptions ; there is even the movement of the eyes, which, by 
a miracle of the pencil, are made to appear to be looking 
everywhere, which they never do in nature ; they even appear 
to be moved by the eyelids ; nothing is wanting to the figures 
but speech and life. 

32. To take the proper light, or the false light, that is to 
say, the side light which the window affi)rds the painter ; the 
feigned light trom another source, like the light on the angel 
in the Nativity ; the full light, when the li^t shines on the 
front of the whole portrait, and in this case there is no shadow. 

23. Foreshortening, retreating, or retiring, which causes 
some objects to appear distant. These parts must be piunted 
tenderly, that is, with softness, for if the colours were too strong 
the objects would appear too near. 

24. The shadows give roundness, the colours shade and give 
force to the work. The false light which appears where it should 
not ; a concealed light, such as that of a flambeau, a lamp. 

25. Drapery. To cast the drapery and to drape the figures, 
to add the ornaments, that is to say, to imitate the embrmderyf 
or to paint vases or flowers on the robes which are of gold or of 
*^ dorage," that is to say, like fine gold ; and there are several 
sorts of ^^dorage," according to the lightness or darkness of the 

26. To represent the death of a stag or other animal. To 
paint a landscape you must begin with the air, t. e., where there 
are no clouds, that it [the landscape] may appear nearer, and 


visage et autre paiiie sont a demy esclipsez. H faut done tous- 
jours dormer le pxxr du coste que le peiutre le suppose et jamais 
le contrejour, c'est a dire ne toumer jamais les ombrages du 
coste de la fenestre. 

21. n y a au tableau le point de jour, le tiers point, les en 
fondremens, rentremens de membres, la perspective, les esloigne- 
mens, les aproches, les fintes et tromperies ; il y a mesme du 
mouvement des yeux par un miracle du pinceau qui fait que 
Toeil regarde de toute part, ce que la nature ne fit onque ; mes- 
mes avec les paupieres on fait remuer les yeux, il ne s'en faut 
rien que lea images ne parlent et ne soient animees. 

22. Prendre le droit jour ou le centre jour, c*est a dire le 
joor du coste que la fenestre le donne au peintre ; le jour feint 
qui se prend d'ailleurs, comme k la nativite la clarte de lange, 
un jour de pleine face c'est a dire qui donne a tout le pourtrait 
un jour de front ; et la il n'y a point d'ombre. 

23. A racourcissement, rentrement, renfondrement, pour faire 
paroistre la peinture loing il faut que la chose soit peinte floue- 
uient, c'est a dire doucement, car si elle estoit rude et non pas 
flone, elle paroistroit de trop pres. 

24. Les ombrages font dejetter les couleurs ombrer et &ire 
rude labesongne, faux-jour qui se fait ou il nefaut pas, clarte 
desrobee c'est une lampe, flambeau, &c. 

25. Drapper, faire la drapperie et faire le drap, faire Ten- 
richissement, c'est k dire feindre la broderie ou semer des cor- 
bettes, c'est k dire des vases ou fleurs sur les robbes qui se font 
d'or, ou de cirage [dorage?], c'est a dire comme de I'or fein ; 
ct il y a plusieurs sortes de cirages [dorages?] aelon que la 
couleur est plus claire ou sombre. 

26. Faire un atterassement de cerf ou autre beste ; pour faire 
un paysage il fstut commencer a peindre I'air, c'est a dire, ou il 
n y a point de nufes, afin qu'il paroisse plus prfes et les autres 


therest behind. Thefbr^round, that isi theground whichsii»- 
tains the whole work, is to be painted with forcible colours. 

27. To paint or represent a dark night pierced by a single 
ray of light ; to round the figure, t. «., to make it appear in re- 
lief, which is done by means of light and shade. *^ Derober nn 
jour," that is, to represent a rising or setting sun in a comer, 
behind a mountain or something similar, which gives light to 
the whole. 

28. There are different kinds of light ; the '' jour de droit 
fil " is, when the lig^t comes from the right side ; " jour cache 
ou derobe," as when the son is supposed to be behind a moun- 
tain, not yet throwing its golden rays on the surfieu^ of the 
earth, at the rising of Aurora, or when she has opened the 
gates of light to the beautiful son of Latona, to restore the 
agreeable day-light, and to show her golden wig to the 
habitants of tibis low universe, and this is called ** jour derobe.'' 
^ Jour feint " is a light at midnight, as in the Nativity of Our 
Lord ; and ^' faux jour " is when one cannot discern whence 
the light proceeds. 

29. Distance of the works, when they appear distant, the 
colours being faint Deception is the perfection of the art, 
deceiving the eye, which imagines it sees what in fiict it sees 
not To paint with black and white, or in distemper, or with 
nut oil, which is the usual way, and the best, or in fresco. 

30. To work with crayons or charcoal, to sketch, to outline, 
to make the first design, to draw a roug^ sketch, to put on the 
first touches, to make the rough outline with crayon, chalk, 
charcoal, plumbago, vermilion, or to draw on the paper with ink. 
To sketch the first thou^ts on the canvas, then at Idsure to 
search for perfection and particularize all the parts ; to dniir 
the subject, to rub out the false touches of the rough sketch ; 
the " maistre traict" still remains to guide the sketched work. 

31. To represent a full face, that is, all the face ; thu&— 
[This part of the work is illustrated with drawing?.] 

32. To paint the outline or profile, t. e. the half or side &cc. 



u la terrasse est fort rude, c'est a dire, la terre qui sou- 
tien toute Fouvrage. 

27. Peindre ou &ire une nuict epaigse trendiee d'un petit 
filet de jour desrobe : arondir la figure, c'eBt a dire faire qu'olle 
eemble de relief, et qui se fait par le jour et Tombrage. Des- 
rober un jour, c'est fiiire en un coin derriere une montagne ou 
autre chose un soleil qui porte le jour, qui se leve, ou qui se 

28. II y a divers sortes de jour ; le jour de droit fil c'est 
quand on le £uct venir du coste droict, jour cache ou desrob^ 
comme par supposition que le soleil fiit derriere une montagne, 
ne jetant encore ses rayons dor& sur la surface de la terre, au 
lever de I'Aurore ou quand elle a ouvert les portes du jour a 
ce beau fils de Latone pour redonner les agr&bles clart& et 
Cure voir sa perruque doree aux habitans de ce baa univers, et 
s'appele jour desrobe. 

Jour feint c'est un jour en plain minuit, comme a la Nati- 
rite de Nostre Seigneur, et faux-jour, c'est quand on ne pent 
dicemer de quel coste il yient. 

29. Esloignement des ouvrages quand ils aemblent loing, 
estant flou^ ; feindre, c'est le haut point de I'art, trompant 
Tceil qui cnnt voir ce qu'il ne voit pas. Peindre de blanc et 
Doir, ou a destrampe, ou a huijle de noix, qui est I'ordinaire et 
la meilleure, ou a fresque. 

30. Crayonner, charbonner, grifR^nner, porfiler; jetter la 
{H^miere ordonnance, figuer grossement, jetter les premiers 
traictSy fiUre le grifibnnement avec crayon, craye, cbarbon, 
mine de plomb, yermillon ou figuer sur le papier avec I'ancre, 
Jetter des premieres pensees sur la toile, puis a loisir en recher- 
tber la perfection et particularisant toutes les parties, retirer 
la chose pourtraicte, efiacer les faulx traicts du griffonnement; 
le maistre traict demeure tout jours pour guider la besongne 

31. Peindre de firont ou en &ce ou en plain ; c'est tout le 
visage ainsi. 

32. Peindre de profil ou pourfil, c'est la moictie. 


33. To paint back views, t. e. backwards, when only the 
hinder part is painted. 

34. To paint with glories, as they paint saints. 

35. By "ordonnance" and design are meant the first 
touches, for painting refers to the colours which are applied 
upon the portrait. The size of the picture may be increased 
or reduced to a small scale; it may be pricked and laid 
on the ground and outlines, and poimced with pounce. The 
design thus executed is called ^* poncif," but it is the work of 
the apprentice. 

36. The colouring is very forcible, the colours well ai^ 
ranged ; the lights disposed in their proper places ; the drapery 
well cast ; the painter has a good touch, t . a. he paints the flesh 
well, t. e. the flesh colour of the face, hand, and foot, for the 
other part of the body is clothed. 

37. Moresques are pencils or horns drawn round a pamt- 
ing, and they are made of gold on a ground of the colour of 

38. Grotesques, in addition to these, contain figures. 

39. Arabesques consist of foliage and flowers. 

39a. Estampes (engravings) are copper plates. The word 
comes from estamper, which signifies to print in Italian. 

40. Cartouches are almost the same things, except that the 
*^ quartouche"^ partakes of the grotesque. 

41. Terms are figures which are placed under brackets 
or cornices, which they support by their heads, like pilasters; 
they have the form of human beings down to the waist, the 
lower part being shaped into columns or pillars. 

41a. Busts or models are generally half-figures ; such, ge- 
nerally, are portraits. 

42. Cameos are figures composed of black and white or red, 
or some other colour. 

43. The design of Michael Angelo, the colouring of Raf- 

1 Cartouches were ornaments of painting, sculpture, &c. Tbejr nv^- 


33. Peindre a doe c'est tout a rebours, qnand on peint le 
derriere seulement 

34. Peindre en gloire, comme on fait les saints ou saintes. 

35. On appelle ordonnance et dessein ces premiers traits, et 
pourtraire, ear peindre c'est avec les couleurs qui surviennent 
dessus le pourtraict. Si on veut aggrandir on peut reduire le 
tout au petit pied, le piquant et I'appliquant sur son fonds, et 
le poncer avec la ponce, et ce dessein ainsi fait se nomme le 
poncif, mais c'est pour les apprentifs. 

36. Le colons est fort vif, les couleurs bien posees, et bien 
mises ; les rehauts fait bien a propos, le drap bien drappe, le 
peintre toucbe bien c'est a dire fait bien la carnation du nud, 
c'est a dire de la face, de] la main, du ^pied, car le reste est 

37. Moresques sont des pinceaux et des comets autour d'un 
tableau qui se font d'or sur I'or couleur. 

38. Les Grotesques out de plus de personnages. 

39. Arabesques sont feuillages et fleurs. 

39 a. Estampes sont tallies douces : ce mot vient d'estamper, 
qui signifie imprimer en Italien. 

40. Cuiyer (?) quarts touches sont quasi les mesmes choses, 
sinon que le quartouche participe de la grotesque. 

41. Termes: ce sont figures que Ton mets sous trez ou 
poultres, ou sous comicbes^ les soutenans de la teste en guisse 
de pillastres et portent visage d'hommes et de femmes et le 
corps jusques a la ceinture, le bas estant fait en forme de 
colonne et pillier. 

41 a. Bustes ou modeles sont figures a demy, comme on 
Cut d'ordinaire les pourtraicts. 

42. Camaieuz, ce sont figures faites de blanc et noir ou de 
rouge ou de quelqu'autre couleur. 

43. Le profil de Michel-ange, le colons de Raphael, I'inven- 

seated scrolls of paper, rolled or twisted. Their principal ase was for in- 
scriptions. The word ** cartouches" was derived from " charta." 


faello, the inyention and boidness of Pannigpaniiio, and die 
ni^t scenes of Bassano united, would present to an artist the 
beau ideal of good painters ; they constitute the four elenmts 
of a perfect painter. 



1. For painting in distemper without oil, the oolotirs must 
be ground with water or glue ; gum is used for illuminatii^ 
and giving lustre and brilliancy to the colours which are 
heightened and rendered gay by the gum ; just as vamisb p^es 
a beautiful lustre to oil paintings, sernng as gauze and tak to 
defend them firom the dust ; and as crystal, to give lustre and 
light to that which seems gloomy and eclipsed. 

2. Painters use several colours in finishing the pictures and 
in painting in gum, oil, or water, without trituration, grinding, 
&c. We shall only menticm in tiiis place tiioee which are used 
with water, yiz., black from burnt stag-horns, Flanders black, 
black stone, and ink, which the dark tan colours approach 
yery nearly in colour, and from whidi the paler tawny colours 
are &r removed ; dark violet. Indigo, tumsol, the violet from 
logwood [?], distilled and boiled in vinegar ; the paste which is 
made of a littie white mixed with the ]»«oeding colour ; blue, 
which has several degrees of price and vivacity, that friiich is 
called ** blanchette*' and ** mourante ;'' light blue and sky- 
blue ; brown-red, common pure lake, the colour of armour, 
which is composed of this lake and saffron mixed with uiioe; 
gamboge and lake made from [BraEil] wood, vennilion, pure 
vermilion, minium as common as blanchette and as thai wbicb 
b called ^^ rouge-blanc f' '' laque blanchette forte," with or with- 
out ceruse, of the colour of flesh ; the carnations, composed of 
vemulion, lake, and white ; or of minium, vermilion, and white ; 
true flesh-colour ; the colour ctiead flesh, gamboge, brown-piok, 


tioD et la hardiesse de Panuesan, et les nukts de Baesan foot 
un peiutre Tidee des bona peintres; ce Bont les quatres 
elemena d'un parfiiit peintre. 



1. Pour trayailler en destrampe et saiiB hnyle U &ut broyer 
les couleurs avec de Teau ou de la colle, la gomme sert pour 
illuminer et doimer I'esclat et le rayon aux couleurs qui 
s'esTeillent et se rendent gaies k la faveur de la gosme, comme 
aussi le vemix donne un beau jour aux ouvrages en huyle, leur 
servant de crespe et de talc, pour le garantir de pousaere, et 
de crystal pour donner lustre et tirer au jour ce qui semble 
monie et esclipse. 

2. Les peintres se servent de plusieurs coideurs pour achever 
leurs tableaux, et pour peindre en gomme, en huile, et a I'eau, 
sans trituration et broyement, ou autrement. Se mete seule- 
ment idj celles dont ils usent a I'eau, a sayoir, le noir de cerf 
bnule, de flandre, et de pierre noir, et d'ancre, dont les tannez 
brans approchent de bien pres, car le tannez mourant en est 
plus esloigne, et puis ils usent du violet noir, de I'inde, du 
toumesol : du yiolet de bois de perse distille et cuit en vinaigre, 
da paste qui se fait d'un peu de blanc mesle avec le pr&edent : 
dePazurqui a plusieurs degrez de prix et de viyacite, de celui 
que Ton appele blanchette et mourante, du bleu blanc et 
celeste, du rouge brun, de la laque pure commune, de la 
couleur d' armure qui se compose de la dite laque et du safiran 
avec Y urine, de la gomme goutte et de la lacque couleur de 
boia, du yermillon, du yermillon pure, de la mine tant com? 
mmie que blanchette, et de celle que Ton appelle rouge-blanc, 
de la lacque blanchette forte avec ou sans la ceruse ; de la couleur 
de chair ; vermillonnee, composee de vermilion, de laque, et de 
blanc : de la mine, et vermilion, [et ?] blanc, de la yraye couleur 



saffiroD, which is mixed with massicot, pale yellow, golden 
yellow, brown minium and ** cendres,'' and the colour of dead 
leaved, sap-green, calcined [vitriol ?] " du mourant ;" sea-green 
and ^' du gay/' safiron, green-yellow made firom the berries of 
the buckthorn ; distilled verdigris [?], green-blue and mountain- 
blue, terre verte, grey-brown, grey [made of] white and black, 
tumsol and white, and several other compositions ; ceruse and 
Venice white, white lead, and chalk-white. I omit several 
other colours which are distilled and obtained from minerals 
and metals, as well as those used with oil, the different mix- 
tures of which would fill a whole book. 

3. Indigo mixed with orpiment makes a beautiful green for 

4. Orpiment makes a beautiful yellow, and is good for 
*' dorages." 

5. The shadows are composed of white lead, vermilion, lake, 
umber mixed with flesh colour, that is to say, with divers co- 
lours, — ^yellow ochre, ochre de ru, that is, dark-coloured ochre, 
massicot, " verde doye,*' sea green. 

6. Gold and silver of Germany, of Flanders, and of Paris, 
are also used with the colours, and in paintings with water 
colours ; but it must be remarked, that, when gold is to be 
applied on wood, iron, or copper, it must first have two coats of 
white, and the gold must be polished with the tooth of a dog 
or wolf ; and if it is to be laid on an oil ground, it must have 
one coat of white, two of red, and then one of gold colour : 
the gold is laid on this. As to the gold leaf, it is applied 
with a peflcil of badger's hair, and with the cotton. 

7. niuminatmg is working on vellum with white of egg or 
gum to distemper the colours, and in painting on them, pow- 
dered gold (not leaf gold) must be used, and *' azur d' Acre,*' 
that is to say, the finest which is brought with gold from the 
mines ; this is ultramarine, and is brought from Spain and tbe 


de chair, de la couleur de chair morte, de la gomme gontte, 
de la graine d'avignon, du safiran que I'on mesle avec le 
massicot, da jaune pasle et du dore, du minium brun et 
cendre et de la feuille morte, du verd de vessie, du calcine, du 
mourant, du verd de mer et du gay, du safrans, du Verd jaune 
da compose avec la graine d'ayignon: du distille, du verd 
Ueu et de montagne, du verd de terre ; du grisz brun, du gris 
blanc et noir, du toumesol et blanc, et de plusieurs autres 
compost : du blanc de ceruse et de venise, du blanc de plomb, 
et du blanc de craye. Je laisse plusieurs autres couleurs qui 
sont distillees, et que I'on tire des mineraux et des metaux, et 
toutes celles qui sont a huylle, dont les differentes compositions 
meritent un livre entier. 

3. L'inde, meslee avec de Y orpin, fait un tres beau verd 
en destrampe. 

4. L'orpin fait de tres beau jaune, et est bon a faire des 
drages [dorages ?]. 

5. Blanc de plomb, vermilion, lacque, la terre d'ombre pour 
taire les ombrages mesle la carnation c'est h, dire de diverses 
couleurs, Tocre jaune, I'ocre dru [de rue] c'est a dire plus 
brun, massicot, verd doye, verd de mer. 

6. L'on use aussi de Tor et de Targent d'allemagne, de flan- 
dres, et de Paris dans les couleurs et peintures a Feau, mais il 
&ut remarquer que I'or s'applique teliement sur le bois, sur le 
fer, et sur le cuivre, qu'il faut premierement mettre deux 
couches de blanc sur le bois, et qu'il faut pollir Tor avec le 
dent de chien ou de loup : et si on le couche en huile il faut 
nettre one couche de blanc, deux de rouge, et puis Tor de cou- 
leur sur lequel on met Tor ; quanta I'or en feuille, on Tapplique 
avec le pinceau fait de poil de blereau et avec le coton. 

7. Enluminer c'est travailler sur du velin avec du blanc d'oeuf 
qui destrampe les couleurs ou de la gomme, puis on peint av«c 
de I'or moulu (non pas en feuille) et azur d* Acre c'est a dire le 
plus fin qui vient avec Tor dans la carriere c'est I'outremarin, 
on Tapporte d'fispagne,' ou des Indes. 

1 Pacheco, whose work was published only six years afler the date of 
VOL. II. 2 H 




Frbsco painting is the art of painting on the wall while the 
first coats [of plaster] are still damp, that the colours may be 
absorbed and penetrate into them. It is generally executed id 
distemper, and lasts twice as long as any other kind of paint- 
ing. If the foUowing conditions ' are ohsenred, it will with- 
stand all weathers. 

First If the wall has not been plastered, you must apply 
tiiree coats or beds composed of sand and old lime, the older 
the better. The first coat must be of coarse river sand, 
passed through a coarse sieye, and old lime, as we have said 
before, — 7 parts of sand and 1 of lime. 

The second coat must be of the same material, ^cept thai 
the sand should be finer, and the lime in less quantity, that is 
to say, the sand must be passed through a finer siere. Dis- 
temper with milk of lime, which is made by putting old lime 
in a vessel with water, to rednee it as it were to a milk and 
clear broth. 

Hie third coat must be composed of the same material, al- 
ways diminishing the quantity of lime, and unng sand of fine 

The three first coats should be whitened with the same milk 
[of lime] : in working, the tool must be passed from right to 
left, and afterwards from ixjip to bottom, that all the holes may 
be filled; it must then be left a short tame before working 
on it. 

If the wall has already been fresh plastered, it will require 
but two beds or coats. 

The pencils are made with tolerably coarse hogs' bristles. 

this MS.y says, p. 391, that Ultramarine was not used by the Spanish 
painters on account of the expense. The azure sent from Spain to Flanders 
or France, therefore, may have been the native blue carbonate of copper. 
In the Bolognese MS. it is identified with Azzurro della Magna, which has 
been proved to be the native blue carbonate of copper. 




Peindrb h fresque ou k frais, c*est travailler stir Taparoir les 
couches premieres encore toutes fraisches afin que les couleurs 
8*imbibent et penetrent au dedans, et se fait d*ordinaire en des- 
trampe, et s'y dure deux fois autaut que d autre. Ceste pein- 
ture tien bon contre tout temps. 

Premier. — SS le mur n'est crespy nij reduit, faut faire trois 
conches' ou lict arec sable ou chaux vielle, tant plus vielle elle 
est et tant mieux vaut La premiere couche sera de gros sable 
de riyiere, grossierement passe, et de chaux yielle, comme dit 
est, les sept pars sable et la huitiesme chaux. 

Le second lict sera de la mesme matiere, sinon que le sable 
8cra plus deli&, et la chaux en moindre quantite, c'est-a-dire 
le sable {dus menu passe destrampe dans du lait de chaux, 
lequel se bit en mettant dans un pot de la chaux vielle et de 
Teau, pour la reduire en laict et claire bouillye. 

Le troisieme lict sera encore compose de la mesme matiere, 
diminuant toutjours la quantite de la chaux et affinant le sable. 

Les trois couches premieres seront blanchies du mesme laict, 
en tirant de gauche a droicte, et puis apres de hault>a-ba8, afin 
que tons les trous se remplissent, et fait on les laisse un pen re- 
poser pour y travailler. 

Sy le mur est ja recrespy, il n'y sera besoin que deux lict et 
Les pinceaux sont fait de soye de pourceau, et assez grossiers. 

^ This 18 the method of Father L*Ange and P. Antoine, the Capachin. 
^* Thierson adopts the same roethod| as he himself informed me. — Margi- 
^ «o*« by Author. 

2h 2 


The colours are lime white and charcoal hlack (any kind of 
charcoal will do), and black stone, the one being blacker and 
the other browner, which last serves for the shadows. 

This painting is done in distemper without oil, and the co- 
lours are clear and liquid as fluid ink. 

The painting is executed while the above-mentioned coats 
are still damp, by which the colours penetrate and are ab- 

If the beds or coats should dry before the work is finished, 
they may be moistened by throwing over them three or four 
jugs of water. 

The niches in which the figures are painted are generally 

Under the beams may be placed ** terms " or figures of the 
natural height, sustaining the beams with their hands and heads ; 
these figures are generally painted red. 

This kind of painting lasts nine or ten times longer than 
any other kind, and the more it is exposed to the rain the 
better it lasts. 

The ancients used to practise this kind of painting very 
much, and the Italians still do so. In the ruins of ancient 
Rome some beautiful examples of it are found, which testify 
its durability. 

When it is wished to represent a person, or some other 
figure, previous to laying on the coats of lime and sand, the 
design is to be drawn with charcoal or black earth, on several 
large sheets of paper glued together. The design having been 
drawn with charcoal made of the spindle tree, or of black chalk, 
the coats [of lime and sand] are then to be applied, and while 
these are still wet the niches and borders are drawn. When 
this is done, the paper containing the design is applied, and 
the principal lines having been pricked with a pin on to the 
niche, the designs are rubbed with the feathers of turkeys, or 
of some other bird. When the design is removed, the person 
or figure which was on it is found impressed on the plaster. 


Les couleure sont, scavoir, le blanc de la chaux, et le noir de 
charboD, il n'importe de quel bois et de pierre noire, Tun 
estant plus noir et I'autre plus brun, ce qui sert a faire les 

Ceste peinture se fait a destrampe sans huile, et sont les 
eouleurs assez claires et liquides comme de lancre coulante. 

La peinture se fait sur les dites couches encore fraiscfaes par 
le moyen de quoy les eouleurs s'imbibent et penetres au 

Que si les couches et licts venaient a se seicher auparavant 
la perfection de I'ouvrage, on les rafraichit en jettant dessus 
trois ou quatre potees d'eau. 

Les niches dans lesquels on point les personnages sont ordi- 
nwement rouge. 

Soulz les taz et poultres on y pent mettre des termes ou per- 
sonnages de haulteur naturel soutenant a deux mains et de la 
teste les dites poultres ; et sont ordinairement de rouge. 

La dite peinture dure neuf ou dix fois plus que I'autre, et 
tant plus elle est bastie des eaux pluvialles tant mieux vault 


Les anciens se servoient fort de ceste peinture, et encore au- 
jourdhuy les Italiens, il se rencontre dans les anciennes ruines 
de Rome des pieces de ceste peinture encore fort belles qui 
tesmoignent sa duree. 

LorsqueFon yeult representer un personnage ou quelque 
autre figure, on en fait le dessein auparavant que faire les dites 
couches, sur plusieurs grandes feuilles de papier collee en- 
semble. Ce diet dessein fait de noir de charbon de fusain ou 
pierre noir, puis on fait les couches et icelles estant fraisches 
on y &it les niches et les bordures et filets, cela estant fait on 
applique le papier portant le dessein piquette et perce avec une 
espmgle de principaux traicts dans la niche, puis avec plumes 
de coq d'Inde oisaux ou aultre on frotte le dit dessein, lequel 
estant oste, le personnage ou la figure portee en icelluy se trouve 
imprimee sur les couches. 


The back of the design is applied against the said fresh 
plaster ; and, as only the principal lines are marked, the de- 
sign is fixed upon boards near the painter, that he may 
imitate it in finishing, perfecting^ and shading the pierced 

Gypsum is of no use for making the plaster, for it swells and 
decays when exposed to the rain. 



A '' BEL aprest" is a painting executed on glass, baked and 
re-baked in the fire with colours that can stand the fire, such 
as the mineral colours. 

1. To make good black for drawing the outlines on the 
pieces of glass, you must take equal parts of clean scales of 
iron and rocaille ;^ grind them on a plate of copper for fire 
hours with a little urine. 

2. You must provide some crow-quills for writing and for 
drawing on the glass, for they are more delicate and firm than 
other quills. 

3. You must draw the figures as delicately as possible, 
keeping them very clean ; and whilst drawing them, be careful 
not to touch the surface of the glass with the fingers," for that 
would injure it^ but you must take the glass by the edges, and 
then leave it to dry. 

4. The glass being dry, you must have a pencil with a brush 
at each end, which is used for washing and shading the 

5. The colours are to be applied smoothly on the figures 
which have been previously drawn ; and when they are dry 

1 Rocaille--The white glass or flux to which different minerals were 
added for the composition of the various coloured glasses used for painting. 


Le dos du dessein s'applique contre les dites couches fraiches ; 
et, d'aultant qu'il n'y a que les principaux traicts de ponces, on 
met le diet dessein dessus une esse [ais] pres de soy pour 
I'imiter en ragreant, perfectionnant, et baillant les ombrages 
au poncif. 

Le piastre ne vaut rien a faire les couches, d'aultant qu'il 
renfie et se pourrit a la pluie. 



Un bel aprest c'est une peinture faite sur le verre cuite et re- 
cuite au feu avec des couleurs qid puissent soufirir le feu comme 
sont les mineralles. 

1. Pour faire son noir pour retirer les oualles, il faut prendre 
des escailles de fer des plus nettes et de la rocaille, autant de 
I'un que de I'autre ; et les broyer I'espace de cinq heures sur une 
platine de cuivre ayec un peu d'hurine. 

2. n faut avoir des plumes de corbeau pour escrire et 
retirer les oualles, car elle sont plus delicate et ferme que 

3. n &ut retirer des figures le plus delicattement que Ton 
pent, et les tenir tousjours nettes ; et en les maniant, ne mettre 
jamais les doigts dessus, car cela y nuict, mais il les &ut prendre 
par les costes, puis il les fisiut laisser seicher. 

4. Les oualles estant seiches, on a un pinceau emanche par 
les deux boutz, duquel on se sert poiu* laver ses figures et leur 
donner les ombrages. 

5. L'on couche les couleurs tout unie sur les figures qu'on 
a retires auparavant, puis quand eQes sont seiches on a un jun- 

Le Vieil says the best kind of rocaille was brought from Venice. See Le 
Vieil, " L'Art de la Peinture sur Verre," p. 106. 

s To write on glass— the technical eipression for painting on glass. 

3 Le Vieil says that during the drawing, the glass should be covered with 
a sheet of ^itc paper. 


you must take a very hard pendl of hogs' bristles, with wUdi 
the figures are scratched where lights are required, so as to 
remove the colour aad leave the glass white. 

6. Observe, that the under layer of colours must be dry be- 
fore laying on more colour. 

7. The secret of this kind of painting consists in making the 
black properly. It is said the addition of a little urine does 
everything when it is neither in too great nor too small quan- 

8. The figuresare to be much softened (or shaded) v^digrey 
before colouring them, then the colours are gla2^ smoothly 
upon this. 

9. The yellow is made with silver, copper, and a little yellow 
ochre, the whole ground up together on a plate of capper. 

10. The furnace must be heated for 12 whole hours, first with 
a small charcoal fire for 4 hours, the heat being gradually in- 
creased ; then fw the last four hours the furnace must be stroD^y 
heated. But take care to remove the charcoal fi-equently for 
fear of burning the pieces of glass which are underneath, and 
heat the furnace so that the fire does not smoke, fat this spoils 
the work ; but make a clear and strong fire. 

11. The pieces of glass are to be placed on a pan of iron on 
an iron tripod or fillet, just in the middle of the fire, so that the 
flame rises all roundit without mjuring them. 

12. Beds or layers of lime are laid between the pieces of 
glass above and below, that they may not break. 

13. You must provide some pieces of glass for experiments, 
which may be withdrawn trom the fire in order to ascertain 
whether the colours are sufficiently baked. 

14. These are the principal points to be observed in this 
art, for, as regards the outline, one cannot fiiil in this on 
account of the design which is placed under the glass, the out- 
lines of which have been traced as delicately as possible with 
black as has been before observed. 


ceau de soye de pourceau fort rude, avec lequel on grate sea 
figures a Tendroit qu'il fiint les jours, pour les emporter et 
laisser le verre blanc. 

6. Notte, qu'il fisiut que les couleurs de desoubz soient seiches 
auparavant que d'en remettre une autre dessus. 

7. Le secret de oeste peinture est quand le noir est bien fait, 
un peu d'hurine comme dit est fait tout quand il n'y en a trop 
n'y trop peu. 

8. Uon adoucit fort ses figures avec tm gri auparavant que 
les oolorer, puis les couleurs se glassent par dessus tout unie. 

9. Le jaune se fait avec de I'argent, du cuivre, et un 
peu d'ocre jaune, le tout broyez ensemble sur une platine de 

10. n faut cbaufiTer le foumeau douze heures entieres, pre* 
mierement k petit feu de charbon quatre heures, pms en aug- 
mentant tousjours, les quatres demieres heures il le faut chauf- 
fer avec des esclat, et avoir soin de retirer souvent le braise de 
peure de brusler les oualles de desoubs, et le cbaufiTer si bien 
que le fisu ne &ce point de fiimee, car elle gaste Touvrage, mais 
un feu clair et flambant 

11. On met les oualles dans une poille de ferre siur 
un trepied ou bande de fer justement au milieu du feu, de 
sorte que la flamme toume tout autour sans endommager les 

12. On fiut des lictz et couches de chaux entre les oualles 
dessus et dessoubs de peur qu'elle ne se casseut 

13. L'on a des essais que Ton retire pour veoir si elle sont 
assez cuites. 

14. Voila les prindpauz poincts de ceste sciences, car pour 
ce qui est du crayon. Ton ni pent manquer par le moien du 
dessein qu on a dessous ses oualles, duquel on en fait le porfil 
avec du noir comme dit est le plus delicattement qu'il est 


15. As for the colours, there are works which teach the man- 
ner of composing them, but practice and experience do a great 



Pythagoras was right when he said that man was the measure 
of all things — first, because he is the most perfect of all cor- 
poreal creatures, and according to the maxim of philosophers 
that which is the most perfect and first of its class is the mea- 
sure for all the rest; second, because in reality the common 
measures of the foot, the inch, the cubit, the pace, have taken 
their names and length from the human body ; third, beoause 
the symmetiy and well fitting of the parts is so admirable that 
all well-proportioned works, and especially buildings, temples, 
ships, columns, and similar pieces of architecture, are in some 
degree composed according to the proportions of man; we 
know that the ark of Noah, built by the command of God, was 
300 cubits in length, 50 in breadth, and 30 in height or depth, 
so that its length was 6 times its breadth and 10 times its depth. 
Now let a man lie down at full length, and he will be found to 
have the same proportions as to length, breadth, and depth. 

ViUalpandus, speaking of that inimitable chef-d'oeuvre and 
model of good architecture, the temple of Solomon, has curiously 
remarked the same proportion in certain parts, and also by 
means of this he has observed such rare symmetry throughout 
the whole work, that he has dared to assure us that from a single 
part of this large building, such as a base or a cajMtal of a 
column, onemi^t calculate the measures of tiiis beautiful edifice. 

Other architects tell us that the foundations of houses and 
the bases of columns are like the feet ; the capitals, the roofs, 
and copings are like the head, and the rest of the building 


15. Pour les couleurs, Ton a des recueilles qui enseignent la 
maniere de les composer ; la pratique et rexperience y font de 



Protagoras avait raison de dire que rhomme est la mesure de 
toutes choses, 1^ parce qu'il est le plus parfait entre touts les 
creatures corporelles, et selon la maxime des philosophes ce qui 
est le plus parfait et le premier en son rang, mesure tout le 
reste, 2® parcequ'en effet les mesures ordinaires de pied, de 
pouce, de coudees, de pas, out pris leur noms et leur grandeur du 
corps humain, 3^ parceque la symetrie et bien seans de ces 
parties est si admirable que toutes les ouvrages bien propor- 
tionnes, et nommement des bastimens, des temples, des navires, 
des colonnes, et semblables pieces d'architecture, sont en quel- 
que hqon composee selon ses proportions ; nous scavons que 
I'arche de Noe, bastie par le commandement de Dieu, estoit 
longue de 300 coudees, large de 50, et haulte ou profonde 
de 30, tellement que la longueur contenoit six fois la largeur 
et dix fois la profondeur. Or, qu'on coucbe un homme de son 
long, on trouvera la mesme proportion en sa longeur, largeur, 
et profondeur. 

Villapande, traitant du temple de Salomon, ce chef-d'ceuvre 
inimitable et modelle de toute bonne architecture, a remarque 
cnrieusement en certaines pieces la mesme proportion, et par ce 
moien en tout le gros de Touvrage, une symmetric si rare qu'il a 
bien ose asseurer que d'une seule partie de ce grand bastiment, 
d'nne base ou d'un cbapiteau de quelque colonne, on pouvoit 
coignoistre les mesures de ce bel edifice. 

Les autres architectes nous advisent que les fondemens des 
niaisons et les bases des colonnes sont comme le pied ; les ohapi- 
teaux, les toicts et couronnement, comme la teste, le reste comme 


like the body. There is also similarity as well in form as 
in name, and those who hare been rather more curious have 
remarked that, as in the human body, the single parts^ such as 
the nose, the mouth, are in the centre ; the others, which are 
double, are placed on the sides ; so the same order is observed 
in architecture. Indeed, some have made researches more 
curious than solid, assimilating all the ornaments of a cor- 
nice to the parts of the fisu^e, to the forehead, eyes, nose, and 
mouth ; comparing the volutes of the capitals to the flowing of 
the hair, and the flulings of the columns to the folds in the 
dresses of ladies ; indeed, so many resemblances do they find, 
that it would really seem that as art imitates nature, so the build- 
ing being the most artistical of all works, should be imitated 
firom the chef-d'oeuvre of nature, which is man, for the body 
of man is to other works what the statue of Polycletus was to 
other statues, which gave the rule to all others. It is for this 
reason that Vitruvius (book v.), and all the best architects, treat 
of the proportions of man, and among others Albert Diirer has 
written a whole work on the subject, measuring him firom the 
foot to the head, whether he is taken in face or in profile, down 
to the smallest parts. 

\The proportions of the human figure^ inserted at this place in 
the original^ being well known^ are omiitedl] 

Knowing the proportions of man, it is easy for painters, sta- 
tuaries, and image makers to proportion and perfect their works, 
and by these means is rendered credible what some have re- 
lated of Grecian statuaries, viz., that some of these having one 
day undertaken that each should form separately a part of the 
face of a man, the difierent parts were afterwards conjoined, 
and formed a beautiful and well-proportioned £au%. It is 
certain that from knowing the proportions one may know 
Hercules by his footsteps, the lion by his claw, the giant by his 
thumbs and the whole of a man by a sample of his body. It 
was thus that Pythagoras, having measured the foot of Her- 


le corps. II y a de la convenance aussi bien en effet qu'au 
sumom, et ceiix qui ont este un peu plus curieux ont encore 
remarque que, comme au corps humain, les parties qui sont 
unicques comme le nez, la bouche, le nombril, sont au milieu ; 
les autres, qui sont doubles, sont mises de coste, et d'autre avec 
une parfaicte esgalite, de mesme en architecture. Voire mesme 
quelqneuns ont fait des recherches plus curieuses que solides, 
apparians tons les omements d'une comiche aux parties de la 
&ce au front, aux yeux, au nez, a la bouche, comparant les 
Yolutes des chapiteaux aux cheveux entortillez et les cavelures 
des colonnes aux plis de la robe des dames, tant y a qu'il semble 
avec raison que comme I'art imite la nature, le bastiment estant 
rcBuvre le plus artiste, devoit prendre son imitation du chef- 
d'oeuvre de nature, qui est Thomme, de fagon que son corps en 
comparaison des ouvrages, est comme la statue de Polyclete, qui 
regloit toutes les autres. 

Cest pourquoi Vitruve, (liv. v.) et tons les meilleurs archi- 
tected, traictent des proportions de I'homme, et entre autre 
Albert Durer en a fait un livre entier, le mesurant depuis le 
pied jusqua a la teste, soit qu'on le prenne de front ou de profil, 
jusques au moindre parties. 

Sachant les proportions de Thomme, il est facile aux peintres 
statuaires et imageres (?) de proportionner et perfectionner 
leurs ouvrages ; et par le mesme moien est rendu croyable ce 
que quelques uns racontes des statuaires de Grece qu'ayant un 
jour entrepris de former chacim a part et en divers une partie 
de la &ce d'un homme toutes les parties estant puis apres assem- 
blees, la face se trouva tres belle et bien proportionnee. C'est 
chose claire que la faveur des proportions on pent cognoistre 
Hercule par ses pas, le lyon par son ongle, le geant par son 
poulce, et tout un homme par un eschantillon de son corps. Car 
c'est ainsi que Pithagore ayant pris la grandeur du pied 


oules, according to the impression which he had left on the 
earthy was enabled to calculate his height ; it was thus that 
Phidias from the claw of a lion could represent the whole ani- 
mal conformable to its prototype ; and finally, it was thus that 
the painter Timanthes having represented some pigmies who 
were measuring with a fathom line the thumb of a giant, could 
give a good idea of his size. 



The beauty of the face consists in a forehead large, square, open, 
clear, and serene ; the eyebrows being well-arranged, fine, and 
separated ; the eye well opened, gay, and brilliant ; the nose , 
the mouth small ; the lips coralline ; the chin short and forked ; 
the cheeks full and dimpled, the ear round and well turned ; and 
the whole combined with a clear, fair, and smooth complexion. 
There are several points to be considered with regard to 
beauty. The beauty of man properly consists in the form and 
size of his body: the other kinds of beauty are for women; 
there are two kinds of beauty — one still, which does not more, 
and which consists in the due proportion and colour of the 
limbs, the body not being puffed or swollen, the sinews not 
visible nor the bones piercing the skin, but the body full of 
blood, vigorous, and plump, the muscles raised, the skin polished, 
the colour vermilion. The other kind is moving and is called 
grace, consisting in the movement of the limbs, and espe- 
cially of the eyes ; one kind is as it were dead, the other living 
and acting ; there is rude, fiery, and severe beauty, and there 
is sofl beauty as well as insipid beauty. 

Beauty described. 

1. The skin of the whole body like jasper or porphyry, inter- 
rupted by small and graceful azure veins. 


d'Hercule suivant les traces qu'il en avoit laissees sur la terre 
tolligea tout sa hauteur, c'est ainsi. que Phydias ayant seule- 
ment Tongle d'un lyon figura toute la beste entierement con- 
formes a son prototype. Ainsi le peintre Timante ayant peint 
des pigmees qui mesuroient avec une toise le poulce d'un geant 
donne suffisamment a cognoistre la grandeur du geant. 



La beaute du visage^ gist en un front large, quarre, tendu, 
clair et serain, sourcils bien ranges menu et deli&, Toeil bien 
fendu gay et brillant, nez bien , bouche petite aux levres 

coralines, n^enton court et fourchu, joues relevees et au milieu 
le plaisant gelasin, oreille ronde et bien troussee, le tout avec 
nn teint vif, blanc, et vemie. 

II y a diverses considerations en la beaute ; celle des hommes 
est proprement la forme et la taille du corps, les autres beauts 
soot pour les femmes, il y a deux sortes de beaute ; Tune ares- 
tee qui ne se remue point et est en la proportion et couleur deue 
des membres, un corps qui ne soit enfle ny boufiy, auquel d'ail- 
leurs les nerfe ne paroissent point, ni les os ne percent la peau, 
mais plain de sang, d'esprits et enbonpoint ayant les muscles 
releves, le cuir poli, la couleur vermeille ; I'autre mouvante, qui 
s'appelle grace, qui est la conduite des mouvemens des mem- 
bres, surtout des yeux; celle Ik seule est comme morte, celle cy 
est agente et vivante ; il y a de beautes rudes, fieres, aigres ; 
d'autre douces yoir encore fades. 

De la beautS descripte en dix-huict articles, 

1. La peau de tout le corps comme jaspe ou porphyre, entre- 
coupee de petites veines azurees trenchant de bonne grace, c'est 
y voir mouvant. 

* Lecaron— L. dc la sapcssc. — Marginal note by Author. 


2. The hair flaxeD, golden, and curling naturally. 

3. The forehead gently arched, serene like the sky, polished 
like alabaster. 

4. Two eyes on a level with the head, large, sparkling, and 
beaming mildly. 

5. The eyebrows black, fine, well arranged, and arched. 

6. The cheeks like lilies and roses, indented by two dimples. 

7. The mouth flesh-coloured, and like pinks or coral. 

8. Oriental pearls or diamonds, set in the scarlet gums, eTcn, 
all of the same size, close, not pressed together, and not yel- 

9. The chin round and dimpled, not pointed or flat, or 

10. The whole complexion soft and smooth, without wrinkles 
or creases. 

11. The neck like snow or coagulated milk, beautifully round 
and of proper size. 

12. The temples well filled up, not deep andhoUow. 

13. The cheeks not sunken, hollow, pendent, or withered, 
but slightly raised, without, however, being too much swollen 
or pufied. 

14. The profile of the nose aquiline, dividing the &ce into 
two equal parts. 

15. The ears small, vermilion, close, and in no wise torn or 
drooping, or deeply marked. 

16. The head well rounded and proportioned to the other 
parts of the body, neither too small and thin, nor too long and 

17. The colour lively and fresh, and neither too red nor of a 
pale saffiron colour, nor with similar defects of complexion. 

18. The deportment grave, or gay without aflectadon or art, 
full of simple sweetness. 


2. Cbeveux blond, dorez et frisez par nature fort naife. 

3. Le front mollement voute, serain comme un ciel, polly 
comme albastre. 

4. Deux yeux a fleur de teste, estincelant, d'une belle gran- 
deur et doucement rayonnant. 

5. Les sourcis de brins d'ebene fort menus, bien arrangez, et 
ayeneez en fa^on d'arc. 

6. Les joues comme de lys et de roses entasmees de deux 

7. La bouche incarnadine, et d'oeillets ou de coraiL 

8. Des perles orientales ou diamans enchassez dans I'escar- 
latte des gencives, et tout a Tesgal, et de mesme grandeur, non 
entrouyertes, n'y entrebassantes, ny jaunisaantes.^ 

9. Le menton road et fosselu, non pointu, ny applaty, ny 

10. Tout le teint uny et delie sans estre detranche de rides, 
ny fendu de sillons. 

11. Le col de neige ou de laict caill^ d'une belle rondeur et 
grandeur proportionnee. 

12. Les temples bien remplies, et non enfoncees et creuses. 

13. Les joues non point abbatues, efiam^s, deschargees, pen- 
dantes ou flestries, mais doucement enflees sans estre pourtant 
trop bouffies et boursoufflees. 

14. Le nez aquilin a pourfil, et fendant a droicture le visage 
party esgallement 

15. Les oreilles petites, Termeilles, fermees et nulement 
arachees ou languissantes, et trop avallees. 

16. La teste bien arrondie, d'une grosseur avenante au reste 
du corps, non trop menue ni mince, ny trop longue et pointue. 

17. La couleur vive et animee sans excez de rongeur, de 
pasle couleur de safran ou pareille temissure de visage. 

18. Le maintien grave, gay sans feintes et artifices, plein de 
naifve douceur. 

> P. Binet, < Essay de Nature.* 

VOL. II. 2 I 




1. Colours [pigments] are formed in the earth and in mines, 
or are composed by mixtures and combination, or are extracted 
from herbs or otherwise. 

2. Black is made either with the soot and smoke of resin or 
with Tine twigs and shavings of pine, reduced to charcoal, 
pounded, and mixed with glue, or finally, with the burnt lees 
of good wine, dried and mixed with glue. This is very black, 
and imitates the Indian colour which is called ^^moree."^ 

3.* " Cerulee," which is called blue or " turquin," is made 
by grinding sand with flower of nitre until it becomes as fine as 
flour. Some brass filings are then sprinkled over it and incor- 
porated with the other ingredients ; the whole is then made into 
pellets and ground between the hands, then placed in a furnace ; 
the brass and sand then mix, from the heat of the fire, change 
their nature, and are reduced to a blue colour. 

4. '' Brusle " is made of ^^ mottee de sil" * heated, and extin- 
guished in vinegar, thus forming a purple colour. 

5. Ceruse or white lead is made by putting vine branches in 
butts, pouring vinegar on to them, fixing sheets of lead on the 
top, and fastening them up air-tight ; then, after some time the 
ceruse will be found attached. If it be heated in a furnace, its 
colour will be changed, and it will be converted into ** sanda- 
racque" or massicot. When plates of copper or brass are 
attached in the same manner verdigris is made. 

6. Ochre-<;oloured earth being taken from thcTeins of marble, 
when burnt and extinguished in vinegar, assumes the appear- 

1 Probably Indian ink. 

2 A marginal note states that this recipe was extracted from the '* Essa/ 
de Nature." This pigment is the Vestorian Asure of Vitruvius, the 
Azzurro di Pozzuoli and Smaldno of the Italian writers ; the term turguin 
— turchino, evidently shows its Italian origin. 




1. Les couleors se concreent en ]a terre et eu miniers, ou 
bien se composent par mixtioiis et temperatures, ou naissent en 
herbe ou autrement 

2. Le noir se fait ou de suye et fumee de poix raisine, ou de 
sarment de vigne et coipeau de pin, redigez en charbon pilez et 
meslez avec la coUe, ou enfin de lie de bon vin bruslee, sechee 
et meslee avec la coUe, cela devieut fort noire, et imite la cou- 
lour d'Inde, qu'on nomme moree. 

3. La cerulee qu'on nomme bleu ou turquin, se fait broyant 
du sable avec la fleure de nitre, si delie qu'il devient comme 
farine, on prend de la limaille d'airain de Cypre et en saupou- 
dre en cela afin de s'incorporer, on moule des pelottes entre ses 
mains, on les mets dans un vaisseau et dans une foumaise, lai- 
rain et le sable par la force du feu s'entredounant leurs sueurs, 
changent de nature, et se reduisent en couleur cerulee. 

4. Le brusle se fait de mottee de sil, embrassees et desteintes 
en yinaigre, d'ou se fait la couleur de pourpre. 

5. La ceruse ou blanc de plomb se fait mettant des branches 
des sarmens dans des tonneaux, les surfondant avec du yinaigre, 
et par dessus asseans des lames de plomb estoupant les queulles 
afin qu'il ne sort ny vent ny haleue, au bout de quelque temps 
on trouve la ceruse atachee. Si on la cuit en une foumaise, elle 
change de couleur et se convertit en sandaracque ou massicot, 
et quand on assied les lames de cuyvre ou dayrain ils en font 
du verdegris. 

6. Le sil qui s'approche de I'ocre estant tire des veiues de 
marbres si on le brusle et esteind en yinaigre il prend semblance 

s The " mott^ di sil *' here mentioned is stone ochre. Motte or Mote 
signifies a stone, gleba. The term *' sil " denotes a mineral earth of which 
colours are made ; it appears to be always applied to iron ores. 

2i 2 


ance of purple or crimson inclining to violet ; some think it is 
ultramarine azure. 

7. *' Kubricks,'' or ** bloodstones," ^ are also taken out of the 
earth ; orpiment, cinnabar, green chalk, or " verd de terre," — 
that brought from Smyrna is the best. *^ Sandaraque," which 
some think is massicot, comes from Pontus, and in some places 
it is found ready prepared by nature, without the necessity of 
grinding, sifting, or pounding. ' 

8. Minium is made of lead melted in an earthen vessel over 
the fire, and stirred with a stick until the whole is changed into 
minium, which is found attached to the sides of the vessel. 

9. Indigo ' is made with the flowers of woad ; that is to say, 
the flower and starch mixed with urine and vinegar ; then made 
into pellets, and dried in the sun. 

10. " Verdet " ^ is made of brass or copper filings, sprinkled 
with urine and sal ammoniac, then dried in the sun on a board, 
and sprinkled [vdth the same] until they become green. 

11. The "rosette" is made with brazil wood boiled over 
the fire with " grain " [grana, or kermes] and gum ; and, if a 
light red is desired, pulverized alum is added. 

12. Bose-coloiur is made with very small chips of brazil wood 
mixed with ceruse and roche alum, the whole distempered 
together, then covered with urine, and left in this state for 
some time ; it \& then strained through a doth, put into a glazed 
vessel, and placed in a dark diuation to dry. 

13. Purpurino is made with fine molten brass mixed with 
mercury, and made into a paste ; sulphur and sal ammoniac, 
which have been well ground in a wooden mortar, is then taken, 

I HflematiteSy or red ores of IroD. The Lapis Aoiatito of Cennino and 
other old writers. 

* Native red orpiment is plainly alluded to in this last sentence. 

s A marginal note shows that this definition was extracted from the work 
of D. Alessio Piemontese. 

4 Verdetto. Baldinucci says this is a mineral colour produced in the mines 


de pourpre ou cramoisi riolet ; aucuns pensent que c'est I'azur 

7. Les rubriches ou pierres sanguines se tirent aussi de la 
tenre ; Torpiment, le cinnabre, la craye verte ou verd de terre 
vient de la terre de Smyme et est la plus excellente. La san- 
daraoque qu'aucuns croyent estre le massicot, vient du pont et 
croit en certains lieux toute prqiar^ par nature sans qu'il la 
iaille moudre, cribler, sasser, ny piler. 

8. La mine se fidt avec du plomb que I'on met fondre dans 
une vaisselle de terre sur le feu, en le remnant avec un baston 
jusque a ce qu'il soit tout converti en mine, laquelle on trouTe 
attachee autour du pot. 

9. L'Inde se fait avec fleurs de pastel ou gueste, c'est a sea* 
voir, floree et fisurine d'amidon meslee avec urine et vinaigre ; 
puis on en fait des pelottes que Ton met seicher au soleil. 

10. Le yerdet se fait ayec airain et cuijvre lime, arouse 
d'urine vielle et sel armoniac, puis seiche au soleil sur un ais et 
s'arrouse jusque a ce qu'il vienne verd. 

11. On fait la rosette avec bresil que Ton met bouillir sur le 
feu avec graind et gomme ; si on veut avoir un rouge leger, on 
y adjouste de I'alun pulverise. 

12. La rose se fait avec brenl derompu bien menu, mesl^ 
avec ceruse et alun de roche, le tout destremp^ ensemble, puis 
on verse dessus de I'urine tant que tout soit convert, et ainsi 
on la laisse une espace de temps apres, il la faut couler par un 
linge et la mettre en un pot plombe en un lieu ou il n'y entre 
ny soleil ny clarte, et la laisser ainsi seicher. 

13. La couleur purpurine se fait avec fin estain fondu, et 
argent vif mesl^ ensemble, et en fSEut on une paste, puis on prend 
soulfre et sel armoniac tres bien broyez en un mortier de bois, 

of Germany. It cannot then have been synonymous with the colour men- 
tioned in the text, which corresponds in some measure with the Verdete of 
the Spanish writers, which is Yerdigris. Neither does it coirespond with 
the Verdetto of Lomazzo and the Paduan MS., which is a kind of Brown 


and the whole is incorporated together and put into a Inted 
phial in the furnace over a slow fire ; a gold-coloured yellow 
is thus obtained. 

14. Common lake is made by putting some cuttings of fine 
scarlet [cloth] ^ into a strong ley, which is boiled tmtil the 
whole is dissolved ; some roche alum is then added, and it is 
passed through a bag, adding to it some raspings of brazil wood 
and gum arabic, mixing all these ingredients together, and then 
making them into small pellets, which must be suffered to dry. 

15. Fine lake is made like common lake, except that no brazil 
wood is added.* 

16. Cinnabar or vermilion is made of sulphur and mercury 
ground together on the porphyry, then burnt in the furnace un- 
til they are sublimed. 

17. Azure is made by pulverizing mercury, sal anmioniac, 
and sulphur, and then burning them in an alembic 

18. Ultramarine is made with calcined silver, aquafortis, and 
sal ammoniac ; these are placed for some time in a well-dosed 
leaden vessel. 

19. The modern mode of making verdigris is to take some 
clean scales of copper, common salt, tartar of red wine, sal 
ammoniac, and leaven of wheat, distempered with vinegar ; the 
whole is then to be put into a glass vessel, and covered with 
dung for a certain time. 

20. '^ Rouget " is made with bruised brazil wood, lime water, 
and roche alum, all boiled together. 

21. Sap-green is made with the bruised fruit of the buck- 
thorn, which is boiled in a new pipkin with pounded roche alum, 
then left to stand in a warm place for 6 or 8 days ; it is after- 
wards put in a bladder, so that no air may have access to it 
Sometimes a little Spanish blue is used. 

22. '' Stil de grain " is made with [white] earth mixed with 
the juice of the flowers.' 

* The cuttings of fine scarlet cloth were dyed with gmna (kennes). 

' This is Lacca di Cimatura of the Italians. 

s The words " fleur de gencste'* are written in the margin of the MS., 


on incorpore le tout ensemble, puis se met en ane fioUe lutee 
sar le fourneau a petit feu, ainsi Ton a un jaune qui imite la 
couleur d'or. 

14. La grosse lacque se fait mettant de la tondure de fine 
escarlate dans de la forte lessive, que Ton fait bouillir tant 
qu'elle soit dissoulde en eau, on y met de Talun de rocbe, puis 
on la passe dans un sachet, en y ajoustant bresil raele et gomme 
arabiques, le tout mesle ensemble, puis on en fait des petites 
pommes qu'on laisse seicher. 

15. La fine lacque se fait ainsi que la grosse, sinon qu'on n'y 
met pas de hresil. 

16. Le Sinabre ou vermilion est compose de soulfre et mer- 
cure broye sur le porphir, puis brusle au fourneau a sublimer. 

17. L'azur se fait avec sel armoniac, soulfre, et mercure, le 
tout pulverise [et] brusle en I'alembic. 

18. L'outremarin se fsut avec argent calcine, eaue forte et 
sel armoniac qu'on met en un pot plombe tres-bien bouche 
quelque temps. 

19. Le verdegris a la moderne se fait avec escaille de cuivre 
bien nettoyee, de pouldre, sel comun, tartre de vin rouge, sel 
armoniac, levain de froment, le tout destrempe en vin aigre, 
ainsi se met dans un pot verre soub le filmier un certain 

20. Le rouget se fait avec bresil brise, eau de chaux, allun 
de rocbe, le tout bouille ensemble. 

21. Le ver de vessie se fait avec fruict de burguespine 
froissez, qu'on met en un pot neufVe bouiUir avec un pen d'alun 
de rocbe pile, ainsi se laisse reposer en lieu chaud par I'espace 
de six ou huict jours, puis se met en une vessie, de peur qu'il ne 
scorente ; on y adjouste si Ton veut, un pen de bleu d'espagne. 

22. Le stil de grun se fait avec terre et le sue de certaines 
fleurs mesle dedans. 

opposite the word '* certaines," which shows that the stil de grain was 
sometimes made from the flowers of the Genista Tinctoria, Common Djrer's 
Genista or broom, Dycr*s gpreen, Le GenSt des teinturiers 


23. English red, otberwuse called brown red, ^ red ochre, 
yellow ochre, umber, and yellow earth, are formed in the 


1. Snow-white, lime-white, milk-colonr, black, yine-colonr, 
silver-colour, lead-colour, water-colour, grey or mouse colour, 
livid- colour, straw-colour, flaxen-colour, gold-colour, Isabel- 
colour, violet-colour, safiron-colour, aurora-colour, flame-oo- 
lour, scarlet red, rose-colour, green, colour of pastel ou yerd 
nussant, citron-colour, flesh-colour, amaranth-colour, leek- 
colour, colour of verdigris, chesnut-colour, sad-colour, bru- 

2. There are 4 principal colours, — white, red, green, and 
black, or obscure. 

3. Colours which have great bri^tness, — snow-white, olver- 
colour, pale gold, green, scarlet, water-colour, blue, and 
purple ; all these colours are in the rainbow. 

4. A purple colour is formed when an opaque whiteness is 
intermixed with the rays of the sun, as at daybreak. 



1. Light colours should be intermixed with dark colours, as 
they give grace and adorn the picture ; red ought to be inter- 
mixed with blue and green, white with grey and yellow ; but 

1 Tern Ro88a dlnghilterra, the rod Haematite. 


23. Le rouge d' Angleterre autrement dit rouge brun, Tocre 
rouge et jaune, terre d'ombre et terre jaune, se concreeut en la 


1. La couleur blanche comme neige, couleur blanche comnie 
diaux, couleur de laict, couleur noir, couleur provine, coideur 
d'argent, couleur de plomb, couleur d'eau, couleur grise ou de 
souris, couleur livide, couleur paille, couleur blonde, couleur 
jaune comme Tor, couleur Isabel, couleur qui est entre vio- 
lette, couleur de safran, couleur d'aurore, couleur de flame, 
escarlatte rouge, couleur vermeille comme le rose, couleur 
verde, couleur de pastel ou yerd naissant, couleur citrine, cou- 
leur incarnadine, couleur amaranthe, couleur de poireau, 
couleur de verdegris, couleur temee dit de chastaigne, couleur 
de deuil, couleur brunette. 

2. Elles sont quatre principalles, la blanche, la rouge, la 
verde, et obscure. 

3. Couleurs qui ont grand clarte, la blanche comme neige, 
couleur d'argent, d'or candide, verde, escarlatte, couleur d'eau, 
cendree, et de pourpre, lesquelles couleurs sont toutes en Tare 

4. La couleur de pourpre se fait quand une blancheur ob- 
scure est entremeslee aux rayons du soleil, comme en Taube 
du jour. 



1. Les couleurs clairs doivent avoir lieu entre les obscures, 
elles donnent grace et omement en la peinture ; la rouge cou- 
leur doibt estre entremeslee entre la bleue et la verde, la 

* It appears irom a marginal note that the names of the colours are 
taken from Cardan, Lib. IV., de Subtilitate. 


you must take care not to use too much white, for it is like 
poison, inasmuch as its splendour diminishes the grace and 
beauty of the painting ; it also weakens other colours, and 
spoils their shadows. 

2. Terre verte is used in the shades of flesh colour, but it 
must be employed sparingly, for, as the colours become old, 
they appear raw, and would thus produce a bad effect 

3. Some use red ochre in their flesh colours, and with this 
make a beautiful colouring. 

4. To imitate a laughing face, the comers of the moatb 
must be turned up ; if they are turned down, the figure will 
appear sorrowful and weeping.^ 

5. The Italians use coal ' black for painting external works, 
because it is a black which resists the injuries of time longer 
than any other colour. 

6. The Italians burnish their mouldings, and then apply the 
gold with strong glue. 

7. You must shade very much in sketching, as that will 
enable you to finish with greater facility. 

8. Umber is of no use in the primings, for it absorbs the 
colours which are laid on it, and this produces a bad effect.' 

9. To make very beautiful green for glazing, verdigris must 
be used with varnish which shoiild be very brilliant and beau- 
tiful, and thus it will not fade soon.^ 

10. Fat oil is added to orpiment to make it dry, otherwise 
it would never dry ; it is also added to indigo. 

11. This orpiment is very beautiful in " dorage " and orna- 

1 A marginal note ascribes this well-known fact to " M. ThienoDy 

* Common coal was also used by the Flemings in painting in oil. See 
the authorities cited by Mr. Eastlake, * Materials, &c.,' p. 467. 


blanche entre la grise et la jaune. Mais il &ut prendre garde 
de auser trop de la blanche aux peintures, car elle est comme le 
Yenin et pour sa splendeur elle oste de la peintnre la grace et 
la beaute, elle diminue les autres couleurs et corrompt I'ombre 
des autres choses. 

2. On met de la terre verd aux ombrages de la carnation, 
mais il faut prendre garde d'en trop mettre, car les couleurs 
venant a vieillir, elles demeurent crues, et cela feroit un mauvais 

3. Aucuos usent d'ocre rouge dans les carnations, et avec 
icelluy font un tres beau coloris. 

4. Pour fau-e un visage riant, il faut que les extremites de 
la bouche montent en haut, si Ton les abaisse il sera triste et 

5. Les Italiens se servent de noir de charbon de terre pour 
trarailler hors d'oeuvres, comme estant un noir qui resiste plus 
longtemps a Tinjure du temps que pas ung autre. 

6. Les Italiens brunissent leurs moulures, puis appliquent 
I'or dessus avec de la colle forte. 

7. II faut fort ombrer en esbauchant, cela ayde a parachever 
avec plus grande facilite. 

8. La terre d'ombre dans I'imprimure n'y vaut rien, car elle 
fidt imbiber les autres couleurs qu'on mets dessus, et cela fait 
un mauvais effets. 

9. Pour faire de tres beau verd glasse, faut emploier le ver- 
degris avec du vemy ; cela sera fort beau et luisant, et si ne 
mouvera pas si tost. 

10. L'on met dans I'orpin de rtiuile grasse pour le faire 
seicher, car autrement il ne seicheroit jamais, pareillement dans 

11. Le dit orpin est tres beau en drage [dorage?] et 

s The reader will not fail to notice this condemnation of dark grounds. 
4 Palomino and Lionardo da Vinci give similar inatnictiona respecting 
the use of verdigris. 


12. Verdigrifl also is very good if employed with &t oiL 

13. Perspective and geometry are the foundations of pant- 
ing, and serve to give proportions and measures to all things, 
and to give an appearance of reality. 

14. Oil of chamomile is very good for painting,^ and is as 
clear as rock water. 

15. Enamel is cleaned with a ley made of ashes, and then 
washed with clean water. Soap is very efficient for deaniDg 

16. Vermilion is adulterated with lime; to detect this, it 
must be put on the blade of a knife [and heated] ; if good, it 
will, when cold, be of the same colour as before, but if one 
side of the knife remain black, and then become brown and 
blackish, it will be evident that the vermilion has been adul- 

17. Vermilion may be kept under cover for a long time, but 
when it is exposed to the air, the sun and moon spoil its beauty 
and diminish its brilliancy and vivacity. 

18. Fat colours preserve their beauty longer than any 
others ; hence it arises that gold lasts longer than any colour ; 
on account of the ^* or de couleur," which is fiit. To render the 
colours more durable, they must be used very thidi, and must 
not be spared when they are used.' 

19. The colour of the primed canvas is called *^ couleur 
mate," that is to say, ^' dead," on account of the fat oil ; and 
gold is applied only on a ** couleur mate," called ** or couleur, 
which is made of divers colours, and is good for receiving the 
gold of gildings and cornices.' 

1 It is uncertain whether this word is written in the text " peindre " or 
'' prendre." The former is most probable. I am not aware that oil of 
chamomile is used in painting ; but from the manner in which it is toeo' 
tioned in the text, I should think it possible that it may hare been used to 
dilute the colours or varnish in the same way as distilled Unseed oil, oil of 


12. Le verdegris est aussi fort beau emploie avee huille 

13. La perspective et la geometrie sont les fondemens de la 
peinture, et servent a donner les proportions et mesures a toutes 
choses, et faire les reconnoissances. 

14. L'huile de camamine est tres bonne pour prendre [pein-* 
dre 7] et est claire comme eau de roche. 

15. On degraisse lesmaille avec laissive que Ton fait avec 
cendre, puis on la laye avec caue nette. Le savon est tres bon 
pour degraisser et nettoier les brosses. 

16. On sophistique le vermilion avec de la chaux, pour Tes- 
prouver il % &ut mettre sur une lame, si il est loyal et mar- 
chant, estant refroidy, il aura sa mesme couleur, mais s'il 
garde une coste noire, et devient brun et noirastre, c'est signe 
qu'il a de la mechancet^. 

17. Le vermilion se conserve longtemps s'il est a convert, 
mais a Tair le soleil et la lune massacrent sa beaute, et meur- 
trissent Tesclat de sa vivacite. 

18. Les couleurs grasses demeurent plus longtemps belles, 
d'ou vient que For dure plus qu'aucunes couleurs, cela provient 

«de Tor de couleur qui est gras, aussi pour faire demeurer ses 
couleurs plus longtemps belles, il les faut emploier grasse^ et 
ne point espargner les couleurs en travaillant. 

19. La couleur de la thoille imprimee se dit couleur mate, 
c'est-a-dire, qui est comme mort, a cause de l'huile grasse, et 
I'or ne se met sinon sur une couleur mate, ce qu'on dit or 
couleur qid se fait de diverses couleurs, et est bonne pour 
recevoir Tor des dorures des corniches. 

•pike, naphtha, &c. Oil of chamomile is mentioned in the Bolognese MS., 
p. 518. 

* Lebrun quotes the authority of M. Thiesson for these observations. 

' Couleur mate. See this subject, supra. 

From this, as well as No. 7, Cap. I., it appears that yellow grounds were 
used at this period. 


20. In pictures exposed to the air, artificial colours should 
not be employed, but mineral colours and earths only, such as 
red and yellow ochre, yellow earth, umber, green earth, 
English red, " cendrees,*' smalt, and similar pigments. Smalt 
becomes more beautiful by being exposed to the sun than by 
being left in a close situation ; also paintings are much better 
when exposed to the air than when kept in a moist and dark 

20 a. The design must be bold, that is to say, the attitude of 
the person represented, making him look oyer the shoulder, for 
that gives grace and elegance to a picture. 

21. Indigo entirely fades if exposed to the sun, and so does 
minium ; indigo also fades if exposed to water. 

22. To preserve pictures from dust and fly-marks you must 
take some white of egg and beat it until it becomes like rock- 
water, and varnish the pictures with this : when necessary, the 
white of egg may be cleaned by passing a wet doth over the 
picture, which easily removes the white of egg, together with 
the dust attached to it. This cannot be done with vanusL 

22 a. One of the principal points in painting is to balance 
the figures well in the picture, so that the head should not be 
beyond the foot on which the figure is placed, for this would 
give rise to great faults. 

23. Drying-oil is made by putting some nut-oil into a pipkio, 
into which is put a rag containing umber and minium, which is 
suspended to the handle of the pipkin, and then boiled. 

24. Fat oil is made by putting a bag of litharge into a pipkin 
with oil, and boiling it. 

25. Or the litharge may be ground on the porphyry with oil 
made into a little ball and dried. When it is wanted for use 
it is boiled until the litharge is dissolved, and when cold the 
oil becomes as clear as rock-water. 


20. IJn tableau pour mettre a Tair, on ii*y doibt point 
emploier oouleurs qui sont composees, mais seulement les 
mineralles et qui proviennent de terre comme ocre rouge et 
jaune, terre jaune, terre d'ombre, terre verd, rouge d'Angle- 
terre, cendrees, esmailles et autres semblables. Uesmail 
devient plus belle au soleil qu*en lieu ferm^, aussi un tableau 
se porte toujours mieux a lair que en un lieu humide et 

20 a, II faut que le crayon soit hardi, c'est-a-dire, le posture 
du personnage qu'on represente, en la faisant regarder par des- 
sus Tespaule, et cela donne de la grace et ome mieu un tableau. 

21. L'inde devient toute blafarde si elle est mise au soleil, 
la mine toute de mesme si elle est a 1' eau ; de mesme pour 

22. Pour conserver les tableaux de poussiere et chiure de 
mouches, il faut prendre de la glaire d'ceuf et la battre tant 
qu'elle soit devenue comme eaue de roche, puis les vemir avec, 
lesquels on nettoie quant on veut, car prenant un linge mouille 
et en passant par dessus, on emportera facillement ladite glaire 
avec la poussiere attachee dessus, ce qui ne se pent faire avec 

22 a. C'est un des principaux points de peinture que de 
bien planter les figures dans le tableau, en sorte que la teste 
n'excede la pied sur lequel la figure se pose ; car autrement il 
y auroit de lourdes fautes. 

23. L'huile siccative se fait mettant en une chopine de Thuile 
de noix dans laquelle on y met un linge plain de terre d'ombre 
et mine, que Ton pend a lance du pot, puis la fait on bouillir. 

24. Huille grasse se fait avec de la litarge que Ton met 
dans un sachet en une chopine avec de Thuile, puis on la fait 

25. Autrement on broie la litarge avec huille sur le por- 
phyre, et en fait on petite balle que Ton fait seicher, puis quand 
on s'en veult servir, on les fait bouillir jusques a ce que la litarge 
soit fondue ; puis estant froide, elle devient clair comme eaue 
de roche. 


26. This oil is very good for drying the colours which do not 
dry, such as common lake, fine lake, white lead, black, ochre, [?] 
and other similar colours, which dry slowly. 

27. To counterfeit ebony, take lamp-black, with which ink 
and a little glue are mixed ; some persons add vinegar instead 
of the glue ; the mouldings are then passed over 3 or 4 times 
with this composition, and afterwards rubbed with a piece of 
rag or a reed to polish them. After this they are rubbed with 
a waxed cloth or with a piece of wax, to make them shine like 
ebony. If there are any spots, they are to be removed by 
rubbing with reeds. 

28. To make all kinds of polished woods take the colour of 
ebony, so as to deceive by them. 

The wood which is to be made the colour of ebony must be 
rubbed with a coat of " eau forte d'esteinte," (?) and when 
dry, 3 or 4 coats of good ink which does not contain any 
gum, must be applied. The wood must then be rubbed with 
a rag or cloth, or a brush made with Spanish reeds, and after- 
wards for a long time with wax ; and lastly, wiped with a clean 
cloth, when it will be like ebony. 

Note that the wood of the pear tree is more proper than any 
other wood. 

29. Ground-glass mixed with the colours is good to make 
them dry. 

30. To make wood of the colour of Brazil wood, rub it with 
distempered quicklime. The lime penetrates and thus makes 
it of a red colour. If the wood be afterwards rubbed with oil 
it will be more beautiful. Eemember that pear-tree wood is 
more proper for this than any other wood, because it is 
naturally much inclined to redden. 

31. To fix the tin on coats of arms, take some parchment 
glue with a little honey, and boil them together. Some per- 


26. La dite htiille eat ires bonne pour faire seicher lea 
couleurs qui ne seichent point, oomme laoque fine et commune, 
blanc de plomb, noir, ocree, [?] et autres semblables couleurs 
qui Bont long temps a seicber. 

27. Pour contrefaire le bois d'ebene, on prend de noir de 
fiimee avec de I'ancre, et un peu de coUe meslee dedans, 
aucuns y mettent du yinaigre au lieu de la dite colle, puis on 
passe par dessus les moulures trois ou 4 fois avec la dite com- 
position ; apr^s on les frottes avec un cbifire ou jonq pour les 
polir, cela estant fait on les frottes avec un linge cire ou avec 
un morceau de cire, pour les rendre luisantes comme ebene, 
s'il y a quelques taches, on les fait en aller avec des joncs a 
force de frotter. 

28. Faire prendre couleur d'ebene a toute sorte de bois, 
pourveu qu'il soit polli, en sorte qu'on si pourra tromper. 

It &ut frotter le bois qu'on desire teindre en couleur d'ebene, 
d'une couche d'eau forte d'esteinte, puis estant seicbe, faire 
trois ou quatre couches de bonne ancre qui ne soit point gom- 
mee, faut frotter le dit bois avec un cbifire, ou linge, ou brosse 
faite avec joncqs d'Espagne, puis le refrotter longuement de 
cire, apres Tessuier d'un morceau de drap net, et sera, comme 

Notte, que le poirier y est plus propre qu'autre bois. 

29. Le cristal broye mis dans les couleurs est tres bon 
pour les faire seicber. 

30. Pour faire bois de couleur de bresil, il faut prendre de 
la chaux vive destrempee, et en fit)tter tres-bien le bois qu'on 
desir avoir de couleur de bresil. La chaux penetrant au 
dedans le fait devenir ainsi rouge, si on le frotte puis apres 
avec de I'huile il en sera plus luisant ; notte que le poirier 
y est plus propre qu'autro bois, a cause que de soy il ne demande 
qu'a rougir. 

31. Pour asseoir I'estain sur des armoiries, on prend de la 
coUe de parchemin avec un peu de miel que Ton fait bouillir 

VOL. II. 2 K 


SOUS use flour-paste. If the tin is to be fixed with oil, ^' or de 
eouleur " ^ is to be used. 

32. To prime a canyas quickly, so that a person may paint 
on it the same day that it has been primed, you must grind 
together some parchment glue and ml priming,' and immedi- 
ately prime the canvas with this ; it will harden directly, but 
this priming is very apt to scale off when the canvas is rolled 

33. Minium in the flesh colour makes a beautifol colouring 
without ochre, because it naturally contains ochre, provided that 
it is not exposed to the air ; for the sun causes it to fade and 
lose its beauty. 

34. The longer the canvas has been primed the more valu- 
able is it, for the colours which are afterwards laid on it become 

35. If one desire to paint in oil on wax, the wax must first 
receive a coat of well-beaten white of egg to cause the colours 
to adhere, and also to enable one to paint on it more easily ; 
the white of egg must also be applied on glass and lead. 

86. A similar coat of white of egg is also fq>plied on 
marble and alabaster before laying on the colours, whether 
they are used with gum or with oil. 

37. Ivory must be washed with the water which is found 
under horse-dung, for the colours cannot be applied without 
this secret and invention. 

38. The stones of peaches and plums burnt and extinguished 
in vinegar make a most excellent black. 

39. To make blue draperies which are very beautiful, and 
which are made with azure in powder, first paint them with 
black and white, the lights being very strong (i. e. very white) 

1 Or de eouleur. See p. 896. 
* Oil priming. See ante, p. 772. 


enBemble, aucuns 8e servent de coUe de farine. Sy Tod le 
veult asseoir en huile, on prend or de couleur. ' 

82. Pour imprimer une thoille promptement en sorte qu'on 
y puis peiudre le meme jour qu^elle aura este imprim^, il faut 
prendre colle de parchemin et imprimure en huille, puis broyer 
le tout ensemble et aussitdt en imprimer sa toille, et durcit 
inccmtinent, mais le dit imprimure est suject a s'escailler sitot 
que Ton enrolle la toille. 

33. La mine dans la carnation fait un beau colons sans 
ocre, a cause que de soy elle porte son ocre, pourveu qu'elle ne 
soit point mise a Tair, car le soleil la fait devenir toute 
blaffarde et massacre sa beaute. 

84. Plus les thoilles sont vieilles imprimees tant mieux 
yallenty les couleurs qu'on met pas apres dessus en deviennent 
plus belles. 

35. Sy I'on desire peindre sur la cire avec des couleurs en 
huyle, il faut luy donner auparavant que d'y appliquer les 
couleurs, une couche de blanc d'ceuf battu pour les faire tenir, 
et afin aussi d'y peindre plus facilement, il &ut faire le sem- 
blable sur le yerre et sur le plomb. 

36. On donne a Talbastre et au marbre semblable couche de 
glaire d'ceuf auparavant que d'y mestre les couleurs, soit en 
gomme ou en huile. 

37. Sur I'yvoire il faut que se soit avec Teau qui se trouve 
sous le fumier de cheval, car on n'y pent peindre autrement ; 
les couleurs n'y pouvant estre appliquees que par ce secret et 

38. Les noieaux des pesches et des prunes bruslees, et 
d'estains en vinaigre font un noir tres excellent 

39. On fait des habits bleu qui sont fort beau et se font avec 
azur ^ poudrer, il les faut faire de blanc et noir, lesquelz il 
faut que le rehaut soit fort clair (c'est a dire fort blanc), et les 

3 It must be previously glued with flour paste. — N^ote hy Author, 

* Because the surface is quite hard, and the colours do not sink into it. 

2 K 2 


mid the shades very dark, so as to appear very beautifiil ; they 
must then be powdered with " azur." * 

40. To illuminate figures or medals, either of plaster, ala- 
baster, wood, earth, or similar things, first apply a coat of 
clear fish-glue, and then the colours may be laid on with gain. 
Nothing is so beautiful and brilliant as these figures. This 
secret is considered rare, and is of the first importance to the 
illuminator. The glue does not in any manner fill up the folds 
and hollows of the figures as other glues do ; for eren when 
painted one may perceive their finest lines and most delicate 

40 a. Lamp-black is poison among the other colours, as well 
as verdigris. This black lasts a long time, and b very easy 
to use. 

41. If some minium be mixed with white lead and a little 
fine lake a most beautiful carnation will be formed, as I know 
from experience. 

42. If a little umber be mixed with bone-black and common 
lake, or if " stil de grain" be mixed with common lake and a 
little minium, a most beautiful colour for shadows will be 

43. The purple colour made with fine lake and white lead 
harmonizes very well with green, white, and yellow draperies. 

44. Verdigris is added to charcoal black, or lamp black, to 
make these colours dry, but it is used only with the shadows, 
for it is a poison in painting, and kills all the colours with 
which it is mixed. 

1 Azure in powder. This appears to be a good method of painting blue 
draperies, because no oil is necessary but that which cements the black and 
white. This method of employing azure in powder was common in France, 
as appears from a passage in the Traitd de Mignature de Cristophe Ballard 
(Lyon, 1693— the first Edition was published in 1682), p. 217. In the 


ombrages fort noirs pour paroistre fort beaux, puis les poudrer 
avec azur. 

40. Si Ton yeult enluminer quelques images ou medale soit 
de piastre, albastre, bois, terre, et autres choses semblables, il 
faut passer par dessus une oouche de coUe de poisson fort claire, 
puis appliquer dessus ses couleurs avec de la gomme ; on ne 
voit rien de si beau et luisant comme sont les images (ce secret 
€8t tenu rare et est des premier pour Tenlumineur) la dite 
coUe ne remplit aucunement les plis et creux des images comme 
font les autres, car encore bien qu'elle soient peintes, on y pent 
remarquer jusques au moindres traictz et cheveux les plus deli* 
cats qui se voient. 

40 a. Le noir de fumee est venin parmy les autres couleurs, 
aina que le verdegris. Ce noir dur fort long temps, et s'y est 
fort facille a employer. 

41. 1% I'on mesle parmy le blanc de plomb de la mine avec 
un pen de fine lacque, cela fera une tres belle carnation, ainsy 
que je I'ay esprouve. 

42. Si Ton y mesle un peu de terre d'ombre ayec noir d'os et 
grosse lacque, il fera un fort belle ombrage, ou bien stil de grun 
et grosse lacque avec un peu de mine. 

43. La couleur de pourpre &ite ayec fine lacque et blanc de 
plomb reyient fort bien ayec les habitz yerds, et les blancs, en* 
semble ayec les jaulnes. 

44. On met dans le noir, soit de cbarbon, ou fumee, du yer 
de gris pour le faire seicher, il ne s'en faut senrir que dans les 
ombrages, car il est yenin dans la peinture, et fait mourir tons 
les couleurs parmy lesquelz il est meslez. 

latter work the azure is called " emul," and was probably smalt or the 
Italian Smaltino, which all persons agree was extremely difficult to use on 
account of its gritty texture. And see Mr. Eastlake's * Materials, &c.,, 
p. 455. 
* P. Anselme.— ilfor^tno/ note hy Author, 




1. That is not painting, it is nature ; and those figures look 
at the spectators, but with so natural a look that you would 
swear they are aliye. 

2. Do you see those fish ? Why they would swim if you 
were to pour water on them I Then look at those Inrds, which 
would fly away and pierce the sky unless they were secured, 
they are so well done. 

3. Is it possible that the pencil can have given such aoftiiess 
by such rough touches, and that such apparent carekssness 
should be so attractive ? 

4. When painting was in its infancy, and a suckling, painteiB 
handled the pencil so clumsily, and their works were so badly 
executed, that they were obliged to write under an object ^* this 
is an ox,'' otherwise you might have taken it for a quarter of 
veal, but at the present time painters are obliged to write under 
the figures ^^ these are painted," lest the q>ectator should fiuK^ 
that they are dead figures glued to the canvas, and Aey appear 
like living beings without motion, from being so well executed. 

5. Rich pictures must be spoken of as if they were real 
objects, not imitation. See how those dolphins play in the water 
which they have so agitated, and look at the birds, some c^ 
them warbling on the branches, others flying away and dis- 
appearing in the clouds I 

6. Apelles painted what could not be painted : one might 
hear the roar of the thunder, and the crackling of the clouds, 
flashing with lightning. 

7. See how well the folds of that drapery are arranged! 
Look at those snow white hands, where the veins seem to swell 
at each beat of the pulse I See how those muscles grow and 
swell I One may count the ribs, and the body is as well done 
as if Nature herself had formed it I Is it natural and real, or 
is it produced by art ? 

8. \Vhy did you give this horse a bridle, this horse which is 




1. Cela n'est pas peinture, mais nature et ces personnages 
la regardent tous ceux qui les regardent, mais d'uue oeillade 
si naifve que yous jureriez qu'ils sont en vie. 

2. Voyez-Tous ces poissons la, si yous versez dessus de Feau 
lis nageront, car rien ne leur manque et les oyseauz s'ils n'es- 
toient attachez ils prendroient I'air, et fendroient le ciel, tant 
sont ils bien faitz. 

3. Comme est il possible que le pinceau ait couche tant de 
douceurs sous ces traitz si rudes, sous des couleurs si rudes, et 
que parmy tant de nonchalance, on ait couche tant d'attraits. 

4. Quand la peinture estoit encore au berceau et k son pre- 
mier laict, le {MBceau estoit si niais, les ouvrages si lourds, qu'il 
falloit escrire dessus : c'est un boeuf, autrement vous eussiez 
pris cela pour un quartier de veau, maintenant il faut mettre 
dessous, qu'un tel peignoit de peur qu'on ne crut que ce sont 
des morts qu'on a coUe sur la toile, et des personnages vivants 
sans vie tant le tout est bien &it. 

5. Pour parler des riches peintures, il en faut parler comme 
si les choses estoient vrayes, non pas peintes. Voyez, je vous 
prie, comme ces dauphins follastrent dans ces bouillons d'eau 
qu'ils soulevent. Comme ces oyseaux, perchez sur ces ramees 
gazouilles, voi les qu'ils s'envolent et se cachent dans les nuees. 

6. Apelles peignoit ce qui ne se pouvoit peindre : on oyoit 
craquer lestonnerres et les tintamares des nuees esclattantes et 
toutes trenchees d'esclaires. 

7. Voyez comme ce drap est bien plisse, voyez ces mains de 
neige ou les veines s'enflent et semblent battre a la cadance du 
poux ; Yoyez ces muscles comme ils se poussent et s'enflent ; 
on pent center les costes de ce corps, tout le corps est aussi 
bien fait que si la nature I'avoit faconne de ses mains, mais 
encore est ce peinture ou nature, verite ou artifice ? 

8. Mon amy, pourquoy avez vous donne une bride a ce che- 


running at fiill gallop, foaming at the mouth, and looking as if 
it were out of breath ? I did it on purpose, for with two mcnre 
bounds he would have been out of the road and out of the can- 
vas, so you see I was obliged to hold him back by a bit; see 
how it makes him rear and caper I 

9. How finely and gracefully this groimd is broken and trel- 
lised I — you would swear that it was hollow and very deep. 

10. See how these springs rise on the tope of the mountains, 
and how the pendl of the painter makes these brooks to flow as 
well as Nature could do I They pursue their course full of 
small ripples, so agreeable to those lively little fish that swim 
between the waves. Look at the ducks gliding ammig the 
herbs, and see how they dive, raising heaps of little threads or 
hair^like lines of water I but you had better move back a little, 
lest they should sprinkle or splash you by shaking and beating 
the water with their feet 

11. The pictures of Philostratus are excellent in this respect, 
and will make you very rich in these matters. 




The first painters of reputation whose works are seen with 
admiration, and that not only on account of their antiquity, are 
Polygnotus and Ataglarphon,* whose simple method of using 
one colour only is even now practised by some, and is so esteemed, 
that these first elements of the new-bom art are preferred to the 
works of the great masters who followed them, from a certain 
ambition, as I presume, of attributing to themselves a more 
particular knowledge of things out of the common way. After- 

Probabl/ Aglaopho. 


yal qui court de tout sa puissance et jette son escume a gros 
bouillons et est hors d'haleine ? Je Tay fait a dessein, car en 
deux bonds il se fut jette hors de la carriere et hors la thoile ; 
il la fallu retenir par forche, yoyez comme par despit il s'en 

9. Mon Dieu, que ce fonds est hache bien menu et trellissee 
de bonne grace, vous jureriez que c'est une chose creuse et bien 

10. Voyez comme ces fontaines sordent des croupes de ces 
montagnes, comme la main du peintre meine les ruisseaux aussi 
bien que scauroit faire la nature, ils poussent hors par endroits 
tout plein de petits surjons bouillonnans commode a ces petits 
foUastres de poissons qui nagent entre flot et fiot. Voyez comme 
ces canards se coulent parmy ces herbes et couyillent. Voyez 
la comme ils se plongent boursoufiBant centre mont de petits 
brins et filet d'eau, retirezyous un peu h, I'escart, de peurqu'il 
ne yous aspergent et mouillent en fretillant ainsi des pattes et 
battant Teau. 

11. Philostrate en ses tableaux est excellent en oecy, et yous 
fera riche en ceste matiere. 


traicte touchant les plus excellens peintres de 


Les premiers peintres de reputation dont les ouyrages se 
yoient ayec admiration, et non seulement en recommendation et 
fayeur de leur antiquity, furent Polygnotus et Ataglarphon,^ 
desquels le traict tout simple et d'une seule couleur, se fait 
encore aujourd'huy par aucuns tellement estimer, qu'ils pre- 
ferent ces premiers elementz de Tart qui ne fiiisoit encore que 
de naistre, aux ouyrages de ces grands maistres qui ont este 
depuis, par certaine ambition, comme je pr&ume, de s'attribuer 

1 Quintilian, cb. zvf., Hv. 12. — Marginal note by Author^ 


wards Zeiixis and Parrhaaius, almost contemporariesi contri- 
buted greatly to the advancement of this art Zeuxis is said to 
have discovered the art of painting in relief by means of lij^t 
and shade, while Parrhasius proceeded to study delicacy and 
neatness of touch, for Zeuxis was the first who gave substance 
and living flesh to the limbs of his figures, as he found this manner 
more magnificent and august In this he is said to have imi- 
tated Homer, who represents the most robust figures as the most 
beautiful, even when speaking of women. Parrhaeius limited 
and determined all that concerns painting, so that he has ac- 
quired the name of the Legblator, inasmuch as all succeeding 
painters, as if compelled by necessity, have followed him in his 
manner of representing the gods and heroes. The art of punt- 
ing flourished principally in the time of Philip and Alexander, 
but in difierent degrees.of perfection. Protogenes was studiously 
elaborate ; Pamphilus and Melanthius possessed a fine style ; 
Antiphilus woriced with great f&cility ; Theo of Samos was 
wonderfully inventive and full of great imagination in design ; 
Apelles excelled in the beautiful and ingenious disposition of his 
subjects, and in his unequalled grace in painting amorous sub- 
jects, of which he made his boast ; and Euphranor was admired 
because, being among those most skilled in literature, he occa- 
sionally proved himself an excellent painter and sculptor. 
Among the modern painters we may mention Michael Angelo, 
Raffiiello d'Urbino, 'Chivoly (Cigoli ?) Buonarotli [I] Parmi- 
giano, Salviati, Polidor of Parma, and Titian. But Idlchael 
Angelo was greater in sculpture than in painting. Bassano was 
one of the most esteemed of his time, althou^ there was a cer- 
tain roughness in his style.^ Antonio Tempesta, an Italian, de- 
signed very cleverly, and for hunting scenes is unequalled. The 
Carracci are three Italian brothers,^ who are unequalled by any 
of their contemporaries, and paint with such grace that they are 

1 Leonardo da Vinci, one of the moat remarkable of painters, was never 
satisfied with his works, few of which he completed, because, it is said, that 
he could never realise with his hand the conceptions of his mind. 

' This is a mistake. Annibale and Agostino Carracci were brothers ; 
Ludovico was their elder cousin. 


une propre et plus particuliere iotelligence de telles choses au 
dela du commun. En suite Zeuxis et Parrhasius, presque 
contemporaius, adjousterent grandement a cest art de peinture. 
On tient que Zeuxis trouva la maniere de peindre de relief par 
le moien des jours et des ombres, et que Parrhasius s'etudia 
d'avantage a la delicatesse et nettete du traict, car Zeuxis fdt 
le premier qui donna du corps et de la chair viye aux membres 
de ses figures, trouvant ceste maniere plus magnifique et plus 
auguste ; et oomme ils tiennent imitant en cela le poete Homere, 
qui nous represente les figures les plus robustes pour les plus 
beUes, mesmes en femmes ; quant a Parrhasius, il a tellement 
compris et determine tout ce qui conceme la peinture, qu'il en 
a remporte le nom de legislateur, d'autant que tons les auteurs 
comme par necessite forcee, le suyvent en sa maniere de repre- 
senter les dieux et les heros. Or la peinture fleurit principale- 
ment environ le temps de Philippe, et jusques aux successeurs 
d' Alexandre, mais en diverses parties de perfection, a part Pro- 
togenes estoit grandement studieux de bien elaborer ses out- 
rages, Pamplius et Melanthius tenoient une belle maniere, An- 
tiphilius travailloit avec grande fadlite, Theon de Samos estoit 
meryeilleusement inventif et plain d'imaginations pour le des- 
sein, Apelles excelloit en belle et ingenieuse disposition et grace 
nompareille de peindre amoureusem^it dont luy-mesme se 
vantoit, Euphranor se fait admirer en se questant des mieux 
pourveu de bonnes lettres, il estoit quant et quant un merveil- 
leux ouvrier de peinture et sculptiure, ensuit de ceux cy sont 
ensuivi plusieurs excel lents maistres comme Michel- Ange, 
Raphael, Urbain, Chiyoly, Bonnarot, Parmesan, Salviat, Poli- 
dore de Parme et du Titian, mais Michel- Ange estoit tenu pour 
plus grand ouvrier en fiiit de sculpture que de platte peinture. 
Basan estoit des mieux estime de son temps, toutefibis avoit 
une maniere rude en ses ouvrages. Anthonio Tempeste Italien 

* Leonard de Vinci, peintre singulier entre les autres, ne se contentoit 
jamais d'ouvrage qu'il pent faire, et n'en menoit que peu au point jusqu'a 
totale perfection, et disoit que cestoit a cause que sa main ne pouvoit atteindre 
k la conception dc son enten dement. — Note by Author . 


admired by every one. Peter Paul Rubens is a very clevef 
man and a Fleming ; it was be who worked at the Luxem- 
bourg. Laurence Dubry,^ a Fleming, is considered one of the 
best landscape painters. M. Bunel' is the best painter in 
France ; he worked at the Tuileries and in the galleries of the 
Louvre ; his two best paintings are an Assumption and a ^' Pen- 
tecost ;" one is at the " Feuillans " and the other at the Augus- 
tines at Paris ; they are his latest works, and were executed a 
short time before he died. Freminet,' who left the unfinished 
paijitings at Fontainebleau, has been highly esteemed. Vouet* is 
considered one of the best of the present day. Vaulezar is re- 
puted to be very clever in painting and perspective. Lallemand * 
also is highly esteemed. M. Thiesson is also a very clever 



Painters use three kinds ; viz. ground gold, aiirum cantusum, 
which serves for illuminating images, or writing with the pen- 
cil ; burnished gold, aurum politum ; this word *^ bruni " haf 
two meanings ; sometimes it means to shade and make brown, 
sometimes to polish and lighten ; and ^^ or mat,^' aurum impoli' 
turn. ''Mat" comes from the Greek yi^rouo^y stultus, de- 

1 Perhaps one of those paintere brought from the Netherlands by Am- 
brose du Bob and Jean de Hoiy, and who assisted in painting in the 
Luxembourg. (Felibien, Vol. II. p. 114.) 

s Jacob Bunel, painter to the King of France. He was bom at Blois 
in 1568. His father, Frangois Bunel, was also a punter. Jacob painted 
with Breuii in the small gallery of the Louvre. Felibien, &c. Vol. I. p. 712. 

s Martin Freminet, a native of Paris. He succeeded Du Breuil in the 
works of the Louvre and Fontainebleau, and was chosen painter in ordinsry 
to the King. He was in great favour with Henry IV. and Louis Xlllf 


tres habil homme pour le dessein, mais pour des chasses il est 
sans pareille. Lea Caraches sont trois freres italiens des meil- 
leurs qui soit pour les present, et peignent de si belle grace qu'il 
se font admirer de tout le monde. Pierre Paul Rubens tres 
habil homme flaman de nation, e'est celuy qui a travaille a Lux- 
embourc. Laurens Dubry flaman est tenu des meilleurs pour 
le paysage. Monsieur Bunel estoit le meilleur peintre de la 
France, il a travaille aux Thuilleries et aux galleries du Louvre, 
les deux meilleurs pieces qu'il ait jamais fait sont une assomp- 
tion et une pentecost ; I'une est aux feuillan et I'autre aux Au- 
gustins a Paris ; ce sont les deux demieres pieces qu'il fist quel- 
que peu de temps auparavant que de mourir. Freminet a este 
aussi grandement estime, c'est celuy qui a laisse les peintures 
de fontaine blau imparfaite. Vouet est estime des meilleurs 
d'aujourd'huy. Vaulezar est estime tr^ habile homme pour 
la peinture mesme pour la perspective. Lallemand est aussi 
fort estime. Monsieur Thiesson est aussi tres habil homme. 



Les peintres se servent de trois sortes, d'or moulu, aurum can- 
tusum qui est propre pour enluminer les images ou escrire avec 
le pinceau ; d'or brum, aurum politum^ ce mot brunir a deux 
significations, quelquefois il signifie rendre brun et obscure et 
quelquefois pollir et esclaircir ; et d'or mat, aurum ifnpoKtum^ 
mat vient du grecq mataios, stultus, demens, inneptus ; et en 

bat did not live long to enjoy hb honours, dying in 1619, before he had 
completed the chapel at Fontainebleau. See Felibien, p. 114. 

4 Vouet, Simon, bom at Paris in 1582, died 1641. F^libien says that 
France is indebted to him for having revived the good manner of painting, 
and for having educated a number of pupils, many of whom afterwards 
Toae to eminence. 

» Lallemand, Greorges, a native of Nancy. He executed a number of 
designs for tapestry, and many pictures in churches. 

« Estofferie—- the Estoiado of the Spanish. See Pacheco, p. 852. 


mens, ineptus ; and in Italian mat signifies siUy^ so that *' or 
mat " is silly goldj without brilliancy and splendour. Matois, i. e. 
a do-nothing, a fool, and a good-for-nothing fellow ; it is gene- 
rally taken for a sharp and cunning man, per antiphrasim quasi 
minime stultus. It would also seem that this word, check-mate, 
and give check, and ^' mate," are derived from this root, mean- 
ing to stun a person, and exhaust all his resources ; the Ita- 
lians are great chess-players, th6 expression check-mate being 
derived from them. 

It may also be said that this word mat or mate is derived 
from the game of diess, so common among the Indians and 
Persians, for both nations call this by the same name. They 
call this game Scha^ i. e. king ; and Schatrahy i. e. the game 
of king ; as also schamate^ which means ^' the king is dead," 
just as we say check-mate ; so that ^' or mat " is a dead or dull 
gold, as opposed to a lively and brilliant gold. These words 
are taken from the author of the ^ States and Empires,' in the 
abridgment of his history of the kings of Persia, article ^ Nex- 
ere anauxion, 31 Roy.' '^Mat" signifies also a moist or flat 

First, ground Gold} — To grind fine gold, so that one may 
paint or write with it with the pencil, you must take gold leaf 
with 4 drops of honey, mix the whole together, and put it in a 
small glass vessel ; when wanted for use, it must be distem- 
pered with gum-water. 

Another mode of grinding Gold, — A proper quantity of 
beaten gold or silver is to be spread inside a smooth glass 
cup, and moistened with clear water. The leaves are then 
rubbed with the finger, wetting them occasionally, and not 
spreading them too much while rubbing ; this process is con- 
tinued until all the leaves of gold are well ground, continually 
adding water. When they are properly ground, the cup 

I Ground gold. Note by Author, " Le Sieur Alexis." It is a tnuisla- 


langue italique, mat, signifie sot, de iSaqon que or mat est un 
or qui est sot et sans esclat et splendeur. Matois, id est 
homme vain qui ne fait rien qui yaille un plaisant et vaurain 
[vaurien]. On le prend ordinairement pour un homme fin et 
ruse -per antiphrastm quasi minime sttdtus^ il semble aussi que 
ee mot des eschets mat, comme donner escbets, et mat vient 
dela, Youlant dire rendre une personne toute estourdie et au 
bout de son roulait ; les Italiens sont iort grands joueurs 
d'eschets, leur ayant donne ce mot de mat. 

On pent aussi dire que ce mot de mat ou mate est derive du 
jeu des Eschets fort familier aux peuples Indiens et Persans 
qui tous deux usent en icelluy de mesme noms, car ils appel- 
lent ce jeu schaj c'est k dire roy et schatrah jeu de roy, comme 
aussi schamate qui signifie le roy est mort, c'est ce que nous 
disons eschets et mat ; de sorte que or mat c'est un or mort 
ou mome qui n'est point vif ny esclattant ; ces mots icy sont 
tires de I'autheur des Estats et Empires en I'abrege de I'his- 
toire des roys de Perse, article de Nexere anauxion 31 roy. 

Mat, signifie aussi une couleur moite et grasse. 

Premier^ Or maulu. — Pour broyer Tor fin duquel on puis 
peindre ou escripre avec le pinceau. II faut prendre 
feuilles d'or battu et quatre gouttes de miel, meslez le 
toute ensemble et les mettres en un comet de verre, et quand 
on s'en veult servir, il le faut detremper avec de Teau de 

Autre manihre de broyer tOr. — On prend autant d'or et 
d'argent battu que I'on veut et les estend on en une tasse de 
▼erre bien unie mouillee d'eau clair, puis les broyer avec le 
doigt en les mouillant aucune fois, mais il ne les faut pas 
trop estendre en les broyant et ainsi continuer jusque a ce que 
toutes les feuilles d'or soient bien moulues en y adjoustant 
tousjours de I'eau et quand ils semblent assez broyee il faut 

tion of a recipe in the first part of the Secreti of D. Alessio Piemontese, 
Lib. V. 


must be filled with fresh water and stirred well. The gold 
is then left for j^ an hour to settle, after which the water is 
poured off, and the gold remains at the bottom of the cup. 
This is dried, and when used is distempered with gum-water. 
This is the best way of grinding gold. 

Burnished Gold. — ^To make the ground for burnished gold, 
you must take Armenian bole of the size of a nut, according 
to the quantity which is to be made ; bloodstone, of the size 
of a bean ; roche alum, of the size of a pea ; and a little 
vermilion, to colour the mordant, with a burnt crust of bread 
to make it dry ; the whole ground on the porphyry with a 
little water and glue. 

Another mode : — ^Take Armenian bole of the size of a bean, 
a little more or less according to the quantity which is to be 
made ; half as much of bloodstone, with a clove of garlic, and 
a little tallow, the whole ground up together with soap-suds 
and a little glue. 

Another way : — You must take gypsum of the size of a nut, 
Armenian bole of the size of a bean, the same quantity of he- 
patic aloes, and one-third as much of sugar candy ; powder 
each ingredient separately, then, putting them all together, 
you must finally add a little " civette " or a little honey. 

Another way : — ^Take equal quantities of fine gypsum, he- 
patic aloes, and Armenian bole, distempered with some white 
of egg which has been strained through a linen doth. If this 
composition is too stiff, it is to be distempered with fresh 

Another way : — Lay on the gold with well-gummed water 
alone ; and this method is very good for gilding parchment or 
skin. You may also use fresh white of egg or fig juice alone 
in the same manner. 


emplir la tasse d^eau fraiche, et Tesmouvoir tres bien ; cela 
fidt il les faut laisser reposer une demye heure, puis on coule 
Teau hors, Tor demeurant au fond de la tasse qu'on laisse 
seicher, et Tor que Ton s'en veut aider et servir, on le 
destrempe avec de Teau gommee, cecy est la plus belle 
maniere qui soit pour faire Tor moulu. 

Or brunt. — Pour faire Tassiette a dorer d'or bruny, il faut 
prendre bol armenique euTiron la grosseur d'une noix selon 
la quantite que Ton en veult faire, la grosseur d'une febvre 
de sanguine, allun de roche la grosseur d'un poix, et un 
pen de Termillon pour donner couleur a la dite assiette, 
ayec une crouste de pain bruslee qui sert pour faire 
seicher, le tout broyez avec un peu d'eau et coUe sur le 

Auti*ement : — On prend la grosseur d'une febvre debol arme- 
nie peu plus peu moins, selon la quanlite que Ton desire en feire, 
ct la moitie d'autant de sanguine, avec I'oeU d'un ail, et un peu 
de suif de chandelle, le tout broye avec de I'eau savonnee en 
y ajoustant un peu de colle. 

Autrement:— II faut prendre gipsum de la grosseur d'une 
noix, bol armenique la grosseur d'une febvre, aloe epatique la 
grosseur d'une febvre, et un tiers de succre candy ; etampe 
chacun k part soy et mettant I'un sur I'autre on y applique a 
la fin un peu de civette ou de miel. 

Autrement : — On prend gipsum fin, aloe epatique, bole ar- 
menique, autant de I'un que de I'autre, destrempe avec de la 
glair d'ceuf frais, laquelle on aura coule par im linge ; et si la 
dite assiette est trop forte, on la destrempe avec de I'eau 

Autrement : — ^On prend de I'eau bien gommee, et avec icelle 
seule on met I'or ; et est (la dite assiette) bonne sur parcbemin 
ou sur peaux. Le mesme pent on faire avec de la glaire d'ceuf 
fraiz, et aussi avec laict de figue senile. 

VOL. II. 2 L 


Remember, that, preTious to laying on the gold, the subject to 
be gilded must have seven coats of Spanish white distempered 
witb tolerably strong parchment glue,^ which must be smoothed 
with a linen cloth dipped in clear water, and then rasped or po- 
lished to make it smoother. When this is done, two coats of the 
aboTe-mentioned mordant are laid on it, and when these are 
dry, it is cleaned with a piece of frieze. When the gold is to 
be applied, the preparation is moistened with a pendl dipped 
in clear water, and the gold laid on. It is then allowed to 
dry, after which it is polished with the tooth of a dog or wol( 
and a beautiful burnished gold is the result 

If there are any defects in the gold after it is polidied, a 
piece of gold is to be laid on the defectiTO part, and attached 
with the breath, and then polished. 

To gild on copper with burnished gold, the copper must first 
be polished and made red hot, in order to ^>ply the gold with 
the agate burnisher, and it must then be heated agaiu. Two 
or three coats must be laid on in this manner, after eadi of 
which coats it must be replaced over a slow charcoal fire, in 
order to polish it. When gold is applied on or 

paper, the front tooth of an ox may be used. 

" Or matf** to make ^^orde cauleurJ*^ — You must take all the 
dirty coloiu^ and put them to boil on a dhafing dish in an 
earthen vessel, with fat oil out of the pinoeHere.* After .this 
has been thus boiled, it is passed through a loose cloth and 
again boiled ; and if the said ^^ or de eouleur " is not suffidently 
yellow, you must add some yellow ochre, a little coarse mas- 
sicot and minium, which must be well ground ; and this will 
make it dry well. 

Another mode. Take Armenian bole, ground up with Un- 

1 Note by Author. " Before boiling the glue, it must be purified hj 
washing it with ashes and hot water, until it is cleansed from the imfiuritiea 
and becomes white ; it is then boiled, and aAerwards passed through a ue? • 
or strainer." 

» Seeon/e, p. 771,No. 4. 


Nottez qn*il faut que an jR'ealable, la pi^ce qae I'em veult 
dorer soit blanchie sept fois avec blanc d'Espagne et coUe de 
pardiemia aasez forte,^ laquelle piece on adoucit avec un Hnge 
mouille dans de I'eau dair, puis on la racle ou (^presse pour la 
rendre unie. Ainai fiiite, on passe par dessus deux fois de la 
ditte assiette ej deasns, laquelle estant seiche, on la torche d'ua 
moroeau de firiae, et lors que Ton y yeult appliquer For, on la 
mouille d'nn pinceau avec de I'eau claire a mesure qu'on ap- 
plique YoTf puis on laisse seicher le dit or, lequel estant seicq, 
on le pollit avec une dent de chien ou de loup, cela fait on a 
un tr^ belle or bruny. 

£& d'avanture il y a quelque faute a I'or i^r^ qu'il est polypi 
on y remette un morceau d'or, qu'on fait tenir avec le hasle puis 
se pollit 

Pour employer I'or poly et bruny sur le cuiyre, il faut pre- 
mi^ment polir le dit cuivre et le faire rougir, afin d'appliqner 
I'or avec le caillou, et puis il le faut recuire, ce que Ton fait en 
mettant 2 ou 3 couches. Tune sur I'autre, et en le remestant 
tousjours a feu de charbon leger pour le polir, et lorsque Ton 
I'applique sur de la ou sur du papier, le dent de boeuf 

du devant y doit servir. 

Or mat pour faire or de cauJeur. — ^H iaut prendre toutes lea 
salles couleurs, et les mettre bouillir sur le rechault dans une 
vaisselle de terre avec de I'huile grasse que Ton prend dans le 
pinceliere, ainsi bouillie on le passe par dedans un Huge deliex, 
et puis on le taxi derechef un pen bouillir, et sy le dit or de 
couleur n'est pas asse jaune, on y adjoustera de I'ocre jaune, un 
pen de gros massicot et mine, le tout bien broyez ; et cela sert a 
le £ure seicher. 

Autrement : on prend boli-armenique broyez avec Thuile de 

1 Note margmale,^ On degresse la colle auparavant que de la mettre 
bonillir avec des cendrei et de I'eaa chaude, en la lavant tr^-bien tant 
qu'elle aoit toute nestoite de son ordure^ et devenue blanche ; puis on la 
fait bouillir, et la passe par aprte dans un balot ou dedans une couloire. 



seed or nut oil, and when gold is to be laid on the mordant, it 
must be neither too moist nor too dry.^ 

Another way.* " Or de couleur" is made with yellow earth 
or ochre, with a little white lead (to make it more similar to 
gold in colour), which is left to thicken on the porphyry, stirriDg 
it morning and evening lest it should skin over in drying. 
This mode is the best, because fire tarnishes and obscures the 

The *^ or de couleur " may be exposed to the sUn in order to 
make it dry more quickly. 

1. To make beautiful " or mat," a half dry brush must be 
passed over the " or de couleur," so as to freshen and render it 
fat and shining (that is, supposing the ^* or de couleur " is laid 
over the subject to be gilded). 

2. Fat oil is very good if added to the " or de couleur," as 
it makes it brilliant and shining. Also, if a coat of this oil be 
passed over the " or de couleur," when it is half dry, it will 
produce a gold as brilliant as burnished gold. 

3. Observe, that the " or couleur " must be nearly dry before 
the gold is laid on it, otherwise the gold would become dull 
without any brilliancy or splendour. 

4. To make beautiful ** or mat," such as is seen on mirrors. 
The subject to be gilt must be whitened in distemper, in the 
same manner as for burnished gold ; you must piime it with oil, 
using some very drying colours, and when dry you must pass 
over it some new and fat nut oil, and then apply the gold at 
the proper time. 

To make very good ^mmish for varnishing gold and all other 
things, — ^Take benzoin, and grind it as finely as possible between 
two pieces of paper, then put it into a phial and pour on it some 
very good spirit of wine, which must cover the benzoin to the 
depth of 3 or 4 fingers, and leave it in this state for a day or 
two ; then to half a phial of this spirit of wine you must add 5 
or 6 blades' oF safiron, slightly bruised, but not broken in pieces. 

1 Nate by the Author. ** This size [assiette] is very good oa marble.*' 
• Note by the Author. " M. Thiesson the painter." 


Un OU de noix, et quand on veut mettre Tor dessus le dit assi- 
ette, il faut qu'elle ne soit ny trop seiche ny trop humide. 

Autrement : or de couleur se fait avee de la terre jaune, ou 
ocre avec un peu de blanc de plomb (pour le rendre plus 
aprochant de For) qu'on laisse engraisser sur le porphyre en le 
remuant du matin au soire, de peure qu'il ne s'y face des peaux. 
C^est [cette] maniere est la meilleure, parceque le feu isit ter- 
nir Tor et le rend obscure. Aussi on pent mettre ledit or de 
couleur au soleil pour le faire plustot engraisser. 

1. Pour faire de bel or mat, il faut passer par dessus Tor de 
couleur avec une brosse estant a demy seicq pour le rafraichir et 
le tenir gras et luisant (cela s'entend quand il est couche sur 
la piece qu'on desire dorer.) 

2. L'huile grasse est aussi tres bonne dans Tor de couleur, 
pour le rendre beau et luisant ; aussi, passant une couche de 
cest huile par dessus I'or de couleur estant a demy seicq, cela 
fera un or fort esclatant comme or bruny. 

3. Nottez, qu'il fisiut que le dit or couleur soit quasi seicq 
auparavant que d'y appliquer I'or defsus, ear autrement I'or 
deviendroit tout mome et sans esclat et splendeur. 

4. Pour faire de bel or mat comme Ton void de les miroirs, 
il &ut blanchir en destrampe la piece que Ton veut dorer tout 
ainsi que Ton fait pour I'or bruny ; puis il faut prendre des cou- 
leurs fort seccative pour I'imprimer en huille ; estant seicher il 
faut repasser par dessus avec de I'huille de noix qui soit nou- 
velle et grasse, puis appliquer son or en temps et heure. 

J^our faire de trh beau vemy pour vemir Vor et toiUe autres 
ouvraffes. — II faut prendre benioin, et le broyer le mieux qu'il 
sera possible entre deux papiers, puis le mettre en quelque 
phioUe, et y verser dessus de I'eau-de-yie tres bonne tant qu'elle 
passe le benioin de trois ou quatre doigts, et le laisser ainsi un 
jour ou deux, puis on y adjoust pour demye fiole de telle eaue 
de vie cinq ou six brin de safran legerement estampe et tout 

3 Brins de Safl&on. The hair-like filaments of the safiron ia the part in 
which the colouring matter resides. 


When you have done this, siram it^ and vamisb with it some- 
thing that has been ^It, which will then become Yery beautifiil 
and shining ; diis varnish will dry qnickly, and will last seYeral 
years. Now, if it is wished to apply silver in the way in whidi 
gold is laid on, common white salt mnst be used instead of sa£BraiL 
This vamid is very good for varnishing all things, aB well 
painted as unpainted, such as tables and boxes of nut tree, 
ebony, &c., ^t or not gilt, or copper, for it causes to shine, 
preserves, and brings out colours, dries quickly without con- 
tracting dust or dirt, and may be cleaned with a cloth or fox- 

7b make a varnish with madic for oil paintififft.^ — ^Take 2 
ounces of hard mastic and 1 ounce of huile de sapin, put the last 
into a small new pot, melt the mastic over a slow fire, then add 
the oil, whidi must boil when mixed with it, and must be kept 
boiling very slowly ; for if it were to boil too fiercely, the var- 
nish would become too viscous. To know when it is done yon 
must dip a hen's feather in it ; if this is burnt, the varnish will 
have been sufficiently boiled ; then pour it into a phial or bottle 
to preserve it from the Hust When required for use it must 
be warmed in the rays of the sun. 

Fine vamisV is made with turpentine melted over the fire ; 
when melted, remove it from the fire, and add oil ot spike 
with mastic, and, if required, sandarac. 

Gros' [vemis] is made with turpentine^ oil of turpentine, 
and resin, melted up together. 

1 Vamish of Benzoin. Note by Author, " Le Sieur Alexis Pie- 


cntiers ; ce fait on le coule^ et d'un pinceau on en verni quelque 
olioee doree, laquelle devient tres belle et luisante et seiche in- 
continent dnrant plusieurs annees. Or si I'on vent accomoder 
Fargent comme Tor, au lieu de safiran on y met du sel commun 
blanc, le dit verny est tres bon pour vemir toutes choses tant 
peintes que non peintes, et aussi pour faire reluire les tables et 
co£5res de bois de noier, d'ebene, et de toutes autres eboses, 
pareillement aussi ouvrage de cuivre dor^ et non doree, car il 
£dt reluire, preserve, ayde aux couleurs, et se seiche inconti- 
n^it sans recevoir pouldre, n'ordure ; et se pent nettoier d'un 
linge OU d'une queue de r^iard. 

Pour faire verni demasticpour mettre sur les jpeintures faites 
en huile. — On prend deux once de mastic ferme, et une once 
d'buile de sapin ; que Ton met dans un petit pot neufve, on fait 
fbndre le mastic a petit feu, puis on y adjouste I'huile qu'on laisse 
quelque peu bouillir en le meslant tousjours afin qu'il ne bouille 
presque pas, car s'il bouilloit fort le vemy deviendroit trop 
▼isqueux, et pour scavoir s'il est cuit, on met une plume de 
poulle dedans le pot, et si elle se brusle incontinent c'est signe 
qu'il est fait> puis on le met en quelque fioUe ou bouteil pour le 
garder de la pouldre, et quand on ii'en veult servir, on le met 
au soleil pour I'eschauffer. 

Le fin Yemy se fait avec de la terebantine que I'on fiEut fondre 
«ur le feu, puis on la retire, et on y met de I'huile d'aspic avec 
du mastic, ou si Ton veult on y met du sandarac. 

Le gros se fait avec de la terrebantine, huile de terrebantine 
et poix resine, le tout fondu ensemble. 

• NoU by Author. <* M. Thiesson." 

> The Vermce groua of the Italians. See also Pierre Pomet, Hutoire 
G^o^rale des Drogues, VoL II. p. 64. 












The consideration which induces me to publish these 
extracts is, that they treat of the restoration of tiie 
paintings of Venice from injuries arising from damp, 
moisture, and other causes, which probably have a 
similar operation in England. 

This restoration by Sig. Fietro Edwards has been 
noticed in the Art Union. I endeavoured to learn the 
method adopted, but the extracts I was able to procure 
relative to this subject are extremely meagre. 

The author of this MS. is the only son of Sig. Fietro 
Ekiwards, to whom the restoration of the public pictures 
of Venice was entrusted. 

« Sig. Fietro Edwards practised the art at Venice^ and 
was employed by that jealous Bepublic, and subse- 
quendy by the Austrian Government, in restoring 
the public pictures. He died in 1821, at the age of 
76, and is still remembered with esteem for his know- 
ledge, skill, and integrity. The &mily were originally 
English, and lay claim to more than noble descent, 
but both father and son were bom in Venice, and the 
circumstance of the father having been employed by 
the Government in the restoration of the national 


pictures, shows the estimation in which he was held 
by those whom it may be presumed were competent 
judges. Sig. 0*Kelly Edwards was also employed in 
their restoration under the superintendence of his 

It appears from the statement I have made in the 
general Introduction, that the art of restoring pictures 
is now practised in the north of Italy by professors of 
skill and eminence. I have noticed Sig. Fidanza as 
having practised this art aU his lifetime ; and when I 
saw him he had been engaged in this employment at 
Milan for thirty-six years. These professors are not only 
employed by private individuals, but by the Austrian 
Government, in cleaning, repairing, and restoring the 
national pictures.' The art has in some cases descended 
in families ; and I have scarcely a doubt but that many 
of those who now practise it, either from tradition, or 
from the accidental discovery of MS. recipes, or from 
both, and from some of them having analyzed the 
materials used in these old paintings, possess the know- 
ledge, which they claim, of having ascertained the 
pigments and vehicles used by the great Italian masters, 
and the mode of their use and application. 

The MS. from which the following extracts were 
made was written by Sig. O'Kelly Edwards with a view 
to publication ; but in the Venetian territories works 
on the fine arts are not permitted to be published 
without especial permission from the Academy of 
Venice. This permission was refused ; but the autho- 
rities at Vienna, to whom the MS. had been submitted, 
directed that a copy of it should be made and preserved 
in the Academy iat Venice. I saw this copy among 


the Edwards' papers in the office of the secretary of the 

The first part of the book contains the history of the 
several academies of painting, &c^ in Venice. 

The beginning of the second part gives an interest* 
ing account of some of the public pictures ; of the 
search that was made for some that were missing ; and 
of the collecting of the best picture