Skip to main content

Full text of "Origin and History of the Name of Anderson; with Biographies of All the Most Noted Persons of ..."

See other formats


This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on Hbrary shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 

to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 

to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 

publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we liave taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain fivm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attributionTht GoogXt "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http : //books . google . com/| 








wHb eomplinieM$(f 

^111^ \\y \\y ^iii> \\y mii^ ^i^ 

But strezv his ashes to the wind, 

Whose sword or voice has served mankind, 

And is he dead, whose glorious mind 

Lifts him on high? 
To live in hearts we leave behind. 

Is not to die. 

Cbe family Record 


Full Christian Name of Husband on this first line. 


Full Maiden Name^of Wife on this second line. 

Their Surname (husband^s) only on this third line. 


On Pages iim26 of this Book* 


A NUMBER of letters and material have been re- 
ceived of a genealogical nature, v^ith requests to in- 
corporate the same into this work. It is to be re- 
gretted that this cannot be done, as the object of this 
work is simply to preserve and perpetuate the names 
and biographical history of the most notable mem- 
bers of this family name. 

The preservation of such a record cannot fail to 
prove invaluable and a source of pride and interest 
not only to persons of the name but to the world in 
general ; and this book may prove the foundation upon 
which a monumental work mav be constructed. 




2sr A m: e; 









tbe Crescent f anilly Record. 

"To live in hearts we leave behind is not to die." 




OEC Z 3 1932 




Frontispiece. Vase of Flowers. 


Illustration, Coats-of-Arms. 

Origin and History of the Family Name, 

The First of the Name in America, - - - 

Principal Branches of the Family, - - . - 

Historical and Biographical, 33 

Origin of the Surname, 49 

Origin of the Forename, 81 

Genealogy, 93 

Heraldry, - - - - - - - -- 94 

Illustration of Camp-Fire Chats, - - - - 98 

Patriotic Societies of the United States, - - 99 
Forenames of Men and Their Significance, - - 103 
Forenames of Women and Their Significance, - 109 
The Crescent Family Records, - - - - - 113 


NOW that we all have surnames, we are apt to for- 
get that it was not always so. We cannot eas- 
ily realize the time when John, Thomas and Andrew, 
Mary and Abigail, were each satisfied with a single 
name, nor reflect that the use of two is not a refine- 
ment dating from an obscure and unknowrn antiquity, 
l?ut quite within the reach of record and history. 

Every name, no doubt, originally had a meaning, 
or was at first assumed or imposed from its real or 
supposed fitness, from some accidental circumstance, 
or from mere caprice. Each individual is distinguished 
from his fellows by his name. But for this system his- 
tory and biography could scarcely exist. 

Our proper name is our individuality; in our own 
thoughts and in the thoughts of those who know us, 
they cannot be separated. Our names are uttered, 
and at once, whether in connection with blame or 
praise, with threat or entreaty, with hatred or love, 
we ourselves are affected by the ideas and feelings 
expressed. A few trifling words, in no way meant to 
apply to the man they describe, suffice to awaken the 
recollection of that man, his physical peculiarities, his 
moral character, and the most remarkable acts and 
events of his life; a few syllables will cause the tear 
to start afresh from the mother's eye, after years of 
consolation and resignation to her loss; they will sum- 
mon the tell-tale blush to the maiden's cheek, and she 
immediately thinks her secret is discovered; they will 
make a lover's heart beat more rapidly; rekindle the 
angry glance in an enemy's eye; and in a friend sep- 
arated from his friend, will renew all his past regrets 
and his fondest hopes. None the less rapidly do our 
thoughts connect a name with the .idea of the thing to 


which it belongs, be it land of birth, country, town, 
river, road, valley or hill. Dislike, desire, recollection of 
pain or pleasure, admiration, jealousy, kind feelings, 
national hatreds and love of country, one and all may 
be evoked by a single word, because the word repre- 
sents to us the very object which has created those 
emotions within us. Every person, even the most in- 
curious observer of words and things, must have re- 
marked the great variety that exists in the names of 
families. He cannot fail to notice that such names are 
of widely different significations, many being \dentical 
with names of places, offices, professions, trades, qual- 
ities, familiar natural objects and other things. There 
is probably no person capable of the least degree of re- 
flection who has not often, in idle moments, amused 
himself with some little speculation on the probable 
origin of his own name. It is not sufficient for a per- 
son of inquisitive mind that he bears such and such a 
surname because his father and his grandfather bore 
it; he will naturally feel desirous of knowing why and 
w^hen their ancestors acquired it. 

What w^ould the annals of mankind and the rec- 
ords of biography be if people had never borne any 
proper names? It would be a mere chaos of unde- 
fined incidents and an unintelligible mass of facts, with- 
out symmetry or beauty, and without any interest at 
all for after ages. Indeed, without names, mankind 
would have wanted what is perhaps the greatest stim- 
ulous of w^hich the mind is susceptible — the love of 
fame; and consequently, many of the mightiest achieve- 
ments in every department of human endeavor would 
have been lost to the world. 

Many of our ancient and modern institutions are 
intimately connected with the meaning and continued 
existence of proper names. It has been well said that 
hereditary names perpetuate the memory of ancestors 


better than any other monument, an affectionate re- 
membrance this, surely, and one which fosters the cause 
of morality; they teach, or at any rate remind sons of 
their duty to be worthy of their ancestors. 

Though its importance be felt in all phases of our 
social life, the origin of proper names does not essen- 
tially belong to a civilized condition. Undoubtedly it 
is intimately connected w^ith the gift of speech. A man 
must call his children by a distinctive appellation, either 
when he speaks to them or when he speaks of them in 
their absence, and when a gesture and an inflection of 
the voice are not sufficient to indicate his meaning. 
The distinctive title which he uses can only be a name 
exclusively applicable to the individual meant; on the 
other hand, the father will recognize the name given to 
him by his children. Again, the domestic animal, man's 
intelligent companion in his field sports, and the watch- 
ful guardian of his dwelling; the brook that runs be- 
neath his home; the tree that shelters or the forest that 
conceals it; the hill or the vale near which it lies, will 
soon be named by those who wish to distinguish them 
from similar objects around. If other men come to live 
near the first family, they will receive a name and give 
one in return. 

However simple these names be at first, so simple 
that they express nothing beyond the degree of rela- 
tionship between father and mother and children, and 
the order of their birth in the case of the last; be thev 
mere substantives used to point out more specially the 
dwelling and all that surrounds it; as the hut, the tree, 
or the brook — or even supposing that in the common 
intercourse which may exist between one family and its 
neighbor the only distinctive terms employed are w^e 
and they, and further, that sun, fire, destruction, or 
thunder, designate the beneficent or angry deity — still 
the system of proper names already exists in embryo, 


and is ready to be further developed, even to the high- 
est degree of importance and intricacy, in proportion 
as the social principle itself becomes more extended and 
more complicated in its constitution. 

Add new members to the family; collect several fam- 
ilies together and form them into one tribe; place a 
number of tribes holding friendly relations with one 
another in a less limited tract of land; then will the 
spot occupied by each tribe, every village or cluster of 
inhabitants belonging to the same tribe, every hill and 
thicket and brook — in a word, the land and the gath- 
ering of men upon it assume proper names, just as the 
tribes had already done before, and the families and 
the individuals that constituted them. 

From this outline of the first elements of social 
life, let us remove, in thought, for a moment, and place 
ourselves in the heart of civilized existence. The names 
of lands and dwellings have changed into the designa- 
tions of powerful states and magnificent cities; names 
which will be familiar for centuries after the grass has 
grown over and hidden even the ruins of their palaces 
and their fortresses and obliterated the very traces of 
their existence, and after political or naturally induced 
revolutions have depopulated, divided and totally dis- 
membered the provinces of mighty empires. Here the 
names of men distinguish the individual members of a 
great social body, magistrates, princes, chiefs of the 
great civil and political whole; and among these names, 
all of them less or more important at present, there 
are some which hereafter shall be handed down to his- 
tory as a rich inheritance, an object of envy to the am- 
bitious, and a pattern of conduct to the wise. 


The first Anderson of the hereditary Order of Baro- 
nets elected by patent was created in 1660, bart. of 
Broughtofi, County of Lincoln; and the ninth and last 
baronet of that place was Charles Henry John An- 
derson, who died in 1891. This family was founded 
by Sir Edmund Anderson, Knight, of Northumberland, 
who in 1552-1605 was Lord Chief Justice of the Com- 
mon Pleas. Other Andersons of equal prominence are 
undoubtedly the progenitors of many branches of the 
Anderson Family now scattered throughout America, 
and it is to be hoped these facts will eventually be 
collected and recorded. 

Plate I. — With regard to the name of Anderson, 
son of Andrew, from the saltire or cross of St. Andrew 
in the shield, as borne by families of the name, of Low- 
land origin^ in Scotland, it may also be taken to de- 
note a son of St. Andrew, that is a native Scotsman. 
The shield is that of James Anderson, the well-known 
antiquary, author of The Diplomata Scotiae, who was 
bom in Edinburgh in 1662, and died in London in 
1728. Arms: Azure, a saltire between three mullets in 
flank, and a crescent in base; Argent. Crest: half-moon. 
Motto: Gradatim (by degrees). 

Plate IL — Anderson, a Crescent, Or. Gradatim 
(by degrees). 

Plate III. — Anderson, Femoy County, Cork, bart. 
Crest, a Tree, surmounted by a saltire. Motto: Stand 

Plate IY. — Anderson, of London. Out of a ducal 
coronet. Or, a Stag's Head, affronte. 

There are several other Anderson Coats-of-Arms 
which we have not space to record here. 







THE philolog"ical derivation of Anderson is from the 
christian or forename of Andrew, which means virtuous, 
namely, a gymnast, which is equivalent to manly, out of 
which sprang dandy, from which came the surname of 

As a war name we find Androcles: Andrew's glory. 
Andrew: a man of heroic mould, giving Andy, Ander- 
son, and is equivalent to Manus, Bravo, Izod, Arba, and 

Andrew is a baptismal name, from which is derived the 
surnames of Andrews, Anderson, and Henderson. 

As a Birth-name we have Andrez; son of Andrew, 
equals Anderson, born on St. Andrew's Day, Nov. 30th. 

As a Biblical name the word Peri (very) was used by 
the Greeks to add to intensity of meaning. Periander: 
very manly, and connected with Andrew, which equals 
Fergus and Agenor. 



One of the first settlers in New England was Gawen 
Anderson, Massachusetts, who was admitted freeman in 

There was a John Anderson of Boston, in 1647; ^^^ 
one of the same name at Ipswich in 1665. 

Elizabeth Anderson was o^e of the witnesses present 
at the signing of the will of William Penn, so called Chief 
Proprietory and Governor of Pennsylvania. 

The Anderson name has been represented by numerous 
branches in various parts of America since the first set- 
tlement. The numbers seem to have been added to by 
successive immigrants and especially in the first quarter 
of the eighteenth century when so many of, the Scotch 
and Scotch-Irish emigrated The date of the settlement 
of John Anderson, the Scotch-Irish immigrant ancestor of 
the family, is uncertain; he was at Watertown, Mass., and 
married July 16, 1706, Rebecca Waight. Abraham An- 
dereson, of these parents, was born Aug. 18, 1708. Very 
little is known of him, until he appears at the Newtown 
township of New Marblehead, now Windham, Maine. 
He settled in 1740 among the first of the settlers. The 
farm which he cleared and improved was near the center 
of the settlement, and has always been one of the best 
in the town; it has descended from father to son in the 
family, always enlarged and improved. 

On the 22nd of April, 1708-9, landed on the Rappa- 
hannock in Virginia from Scotland Rev. James Anderson. 


He was born Nov. 17, 1768, and was ordained a minister 
of the Gospel by the Presbytery of Irvine Nov. 17, 1708, 
*'with a view to his settlem'ent in Virginia," and left Scot- 
land March 6, 1708. Recent investigations respecting 
the Anderson Family informs us that "The Anderson 
Family/' prominent members of which are scattered 
throughout the Southern and Western States, deduce 
from two brothers who emigrated from Scotland and set- 
tled in Hanover County, Va., near the close of the sevr 
enteenth century, and mentions a tradition that the 
"founder of the family in Virginia" was Thomas Ander- 
son of Northumberland County,England, who established 
a ship-yard at Gloucester Point in the seventeenth cen- 
tury. In either case, ancestors may have been drawn 
to this countr}'^ in part at least by a regard to ties of kin- 
dred with earlier emigrants; indeed the landing of a Pres- 
byterian clergyman on the Rappahannock, from Great 
Britain, at the beginning of the eighteenth century, can 
scarcely have been without some such motive. A repre- 
sentative of the family settled in St. Petersburg, Russia, 
and it is claimed that a blazoning of his arms are extant as 
follows: Vert three bricks lodged Or; Crest a buck 
lodged, holding in the mouth an acorn leaved, and wound- 
ed in the breast by an arrow: Motto: Nil desperandum 
auspice Deo. 

James Anderson came northward and was received by 
the Presbytery, Sept. 20, 1709, and settled in Newcastle, 
Del. He died July 16, 1740. His brother, the Hon. An- 
derson of Perth Amboy, was made in 1712, one of the 
Council of the Province (of New Jersey) in place of Will- 
iam Pinhorne, Esq. He died March, 1736, aged seventy- 
three, being then President of the Council. 






Anderson, a county in the East part of Kansas, has an 
area of 576 square miles. e^l \ 

Anderson, a county in the North Central part of Ken- 

Anderson, a county in the Northwest part of South 

Anderson, a county of Tennessee. 

Anderson, a county in East Central part of Texas. \j 

Anderson, a hamlet in Jackson County, Ala. jfcni 

Anderson, a postoflfiice of Shasta Co., Cal. xedi 

Anderson, a hamlet of Santa Rosa County, Fla. 

Anderson, a station in Clayton township, Adams Co., 

Anderson, a township of Clark Co., 111. 

Anderson, a station in Macoupin Co., 111. 

Anderson, the capital of Madison Co., 111. 

Anderson, a township of Perry Co., Ind. 

Anderson, a township of Rush Co., 111. 

Anderson, a township of Warrick Co., 111. 

Anderson, a township of Mills Co., Iowa. 

Anderson, a post hamlet of Fremont Co., Iowa. 

Anderson, a post hamlet of MacDonald Co., Mo. 

Anderson, a hamlet of Warren Co., N. J. 

Anderson, a township of Hamilton Co., Ohio. 

Anderson, a post village of Ross Co., Ohio. 

Anderson, a township of Williamsburg Co., Ohio. 

Anderson, a post village, capital of Grimes Co., Ohio. 

Anderson, a station in Preston Co., W. Va. 

Anderson, a post hamlet of Hancock Co., W. Va. x 








A THOROUGH perusal of the following life sketches 
of noted Andersons, eminent in all walks of life, will re- 
veal the fact that the Andersons have been actively and 
intimately associated with the ecclesiastical, civil, indus- 
trial and commercial affairs of America; and to become 
conversant with their history will naturally create in our 
children a source of pride in the name of Anderson here- 
tofore unappreciated. 

As builders and merchants they have built cities and 
illumined the marts of trade ; in the field of science and 
medicine they have obtained great prominence; in the 
arena of statesmanship they have produced men of 
thought and men of action; while at the bar and in the 
administration of justice they have shown erudition and 
wisdom. As clergyman, educators and lecturers they 
have occupied high places; as musicians, composers and 
artists they have contributed profusely to social life; and 
as authors and poets they are worthy to be crowned with 
a laurel wreath of fame. Also as heroes of colonial. Rev- 
olutionary and later wars they have rendered patriotic 
service, each one of whom has added lustre to the name 
of Anderson. 

ABEL ANDERSON, clergyman, educator, was born 
Dec. 6, 1847, ^^ Albion, Wis. In 1874-87 he was pastor 
of the Lutheran church in Muskegon, Mich., then at Ap- 
pleton, Minn.; and since 1888 at Montevideo, Minn. 
Since the latter date he has also filled! the chair of ancient 
and modern languages in the Windom institute. He 
was school inspector for a series of years; andf in 1884 
was a delegate from Michigan to the republican national 


ALFRED HORACE ANDERSON, railroad presi- 
dent, was born in 1858, in La Crosse, Wis. Since 1895 he 
has been president of the Peninsular railroad, at Seattle, 

ALBERT R. ANDERSON, soldier, lawyer, congress- 
man, was born Nov. 8, 1837, in Adams County, Ohio. 
During the civil war he attained the rank of lieutenant- 
colonel. He then practiced law in Sidney, Iowa ; was dis- 
trict attorney in 1876-80; and he was appointed state 
railroad commissioner in 1881. He was elected to the 
fiftieth congress as an independent republican. 

ALEXANDER ANDERSON, engraver, author, was 
born April 21, 1775, in New York City. He was the first 
wood-engraver in the United States. He was the author 
of an illustrated General History of Quadrupeds. He died 
Jan. 17, 1870, in Jersey City, N. J. 

ALEXANDER ANDERSON, United States Senator, 
was born Nov. 10, 1794, in Jefferson County, Tenn. He 
was United States Senator in congress from Tennessee in 
1840-41. He died May 23, 1869, in Knoxville, Tenn. 

C. L. ANDERSON, soldier, lawyer, congressman, was 
born March 15, 1845, in Noxubee County, Miss. In 1862 
he entered the confederate army as a private in the Thirty- 
ninth infantry regiment, Mississippi volunteers; and in 
1864 was transferred to Bradford's cavalry corps of scouts, 
with the rank of second lieutenant. In 1880 he served in 
the Mississippi legislature, and was elected to the fiftieth 
and fifty-first congresses. In 1896-97 he was United 
States district attorney of Mississippi. 

CHARLES ANDERSON, lawyer, governor. He was 
acting governor of Ohio in 1865-66. He was a man of 
high culture, and for many years was an influential citi- 
zen of Cincinnati. He died in 1895, in Cincinnati, Ohio. 


CHARLES M. ANDERSON, soldier, lawyer, con- 
gressman, was born Jan. 5, 1845, ^^ Jtiniata County, Pa. 
He removed with his parents to Ohio in 1855 ; and served 
in the Union army throughout the civil war. He engaged 
in practice at Greenville, Ohio; and in 1884 was elected 
a representative from Ohio to the forty-ninth congress. 

EDWARD D. ANDERSON, son of Milton Ward and 
Elizabeth Miller Anderson, was born Jan. 22, 1868, in 
Tennessee. He was educated at University of Tennessee, 
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, and a graduate of the 
United States Military Academy at West Point, N. Y. 
In 1 89 1 he was second lieutenant Fourth cavalry; and be- 
came first lieutenant Tenth cavalry in 1897. In 1900 he 
was wounded at Santiago; and since then has commanded 
the Twenty-sixth regiment United States volunteers in 
^ the Philippine Islands. 

GALUSHA ANDERSON, clergyman, educator, col- 
lege president, was born March 7, 1832, in North Bergen, 
N. Y. For eight years he was president of the University 
of Chicago ; and for three years was president of the Deni- 
son University, Ohio. For seven years he filled the chair 
of sacred rhetoric, church polity and pastoral duties in 
the Newton Theological Seminary, Mass. ; and now fill's 
the same chair in the divinity school of the University of 
Chicago. He was in St. Louis during the civil war, tind 
preached the first loyal sermon in that city in 1861 ; and 
he was one of a band of loyal men who succeeded in keep- 
ing Missouri in the Union. 

GEORGE A. ANDERSON, lawyer, congressman, was 
born March 11, 1853, ^^ Botetourt County, Va. In 1880 
he began the practice of law in Quincy, 111., and was city 
attorney in 1884-86. He was elected to the fiftieth con- 
gress as a democrat. He died Jan. 31, 1896, in Quincy, 


JOSEPH ANDERSON, soldier, lawyer, jurist, United 
States senator, was born Nov. 5, 1757, near Philadelphia, 
Pa. As a captain he fought at the battle of Monmouth; 
also went, in 1779, with Sullivan, against the Six Nations; 
in 1780 was at Valley Forge; in 1781 at the siege of York ; 
and after the war retired with the rank of brevet major. 
He practiced law in Delaiware for seven years. In 1891 
was appointed judge of the territory south of the Ohio 
river ; remained in that position until the first constitution 
of Tennessee was formed, which he aided in forming in 
convention ; and was an influential member of the United 
States senate from Tennessee in 1 797-1 81 5. In 1815-36 
he was first comiptroller of the treasury. He died April 
17, 1837, in Washington, D. C. 

JOSEPH ANDERSON', clergyman, philologist, author 
was born Dec. 16, 1836, in Scotland. He has been pastor 
of Congregational churches in Stamford, Norwalk, and 
since 1865 at Waterbury, Conn. In 1877 and 1890 he 
was moderator of the General Association of Connecticut, 
and in 1878 of the General Conference of the Congrega- 
tional Churches of Connecticut. He is the author of The 
Church of Mattatuck ; and History of Waterbury. 

JOSEPH H. ANDERSON, congressman, was born in 
New York. He was a representative in congress from 
New York state in 1843-47. 

JOSEPH REID ANDERSON was born in 1813, in 
Botetourt County, Va., and received a West Point Mili- 
tary education. In 1841 he settled in Richmond as a civil 
engineer; and in 1848 purchased the Tredegar Works, 
which under his able management gave employment to 
two thousand men. In 1853-57 ^^ ^'vas a member of the 
Virginia State assembly; and also in 1873-74 and 1877. 
On the outbreak of the civil war he was appointed briga- 
dier-general ; and later resumed charge of the Tredegar 
Works, which great arsenal was one of the very props of 
the Confederacy. He died Sept. 7, 1892, on the Isle of 
Shoals, N. H. 


JOSEPH REID ANDERSON, son of the late Gen- 
eral Joseph R. Anderson, was born Feb. 22, 185 1, in Rich- 
mond, Va. He graduated from the Virginia Military In- 
stitute, and the University of Virginia; and was assistant 
professor in the Virginia Military Institute. He is a suc- 
cessful manufacturer; proprietor of the Enterprise Coop- 
erage Works of Virginia ; and secretary of The Tredegar 
Iron Company of Richmond, Va. 

• JOSEPH W. ANDERSON, railroad president, was 
born Feb. 5, 1837, in York County, Pa. Since 1895 he 
has been president of the Stewartstown Railroad of Penn- 

JOSIAH M. ANDERSON, congressman, was born in 
Tennessee. He was a representative in congress from the 
Third district of Tennessee in 1849-52; and was delegate 
to the peace congress of 1861. 

LUCIEN ANDERSON, lawyer, congressman, was 
born June, 1824, in Mayfield, Ky. He was a presidential 
elector in 1852; served for two terms as a member of the 
Kentucky legislature. In 1863 was elected a representa- 
tive from Kentucky to the Thirty-eighth congress. He 
was a delegate to the Baltimore convention of 1864; and 
a delegate to the Philadelphia loyalists' convention of 

MARY ANDERSON, actress, was born July 28, 1859, 
in Sacramento, Cal. She appeared as Juliet at Macauley's 
theater in Louisville in 1876, and subsequently in other 
parts. She became a favorite actress in the principal cities 
in the United States, playing Macbeth, Parthenia in In- 
gomar, and other characters. In 1890 she married Mr. 
Navarro of New York, and retired from the stage. 

ALDEN ANDERSON, is prominently identified with 
the business and public aflfairs of California. He is at 
the head of The Alden Anderson Fruit Company, of 
Suisun, Cal., and other enterprises. He stands high in 
legislature affairs, and in 1900 was speaker of the Califor- 
nia State Legislature. 


CLIFFORD ANDERSON, attorney-general, 'was 
born March 23, 1833, in Virginia. He was elected judge 
of Macon city court in 1856; and served ten years as at- 
torney-general of Georgia. 

GEORGE B. ANDERSON, soldier, was born in 1831, 
in Wilmington, N. C. He entered West Point, graduated 
in 1852, and was appointed second lieutenant in the Sec- 
ond dragoons. On the breaking out of the civil war he 
resigned his commission to accept a brigadier-generalship 
in the confederate army. He died Oct. 16, 1862, in Ra- 
leigh, N. C. 

GEORGE W. ANDERSON, soldier, lawyer, congress- 
nxan, was bom May 22, 1832, in Jeflferson County, Tenn. 
He was a member of the state legislature of Missouri in 
1859-60, and of the state senate in 1862; was a presiden- 
tial elector in i860; served as colonel of g, regiment of 
the Reserve corps in 1862-64, and commanded the Forty- 
ninth regiment and First battalion E. M. M. in active 
service. He yvas elected to the thirty-ninth and fortieth 
congresses as a radical. 

HENRY JAMES ANDERSON, educator, author, 
was bom Feb. 6, 1799, in New York. In 1825-50 he was 
professor of mathematics and astronomy in Columbia 
College. He was the author of Geology of Lieutenant 
Lynch's Expedition to the Dead Sea; and a Geological 
Reconnoissance of Part of the Holy Land. He died Oct. 
19, 1875, in Hindostan, 

HUGH J. ANDERSON, law^^er, congressman, gov- 
ernor, w^as born May 10, 1801, in Wiscassit, Maine. He 
was clerk of the Waldo county courts in 1827-37; and a 
representative in congress from Maine in 1837-41. He 
was governor of Maine in 1844-47; ^ presidential elector 
in 1849; ^^d conxmissioner of customs in Washington in 
1853-58. In 1866 he was appointed sixth auditor of the 
treasury. He died May 3, 1881, in Portland, Maine. 


ISAAC ANDERSON, soldier, congressman, was bom 
Nov. 23, 1760, in Charlestown, Pa. He served with Wash- 
ington's army. He was one of the founders of the Meth- 
odist Church in America. He wrote an historical de- 
scription of Charlestown. He was a representative in 
congress from Pennsylvania in 1803-07; and a presiden- 
tial elector in 181 6. He died Oct. 27, 1838. 

JAMES HOUSE ANDERSON, the son of Judge 
Thomas Jefferson Anderson, was born March 16, 1833, in 
Marion, Ohio. In 1854 he began the practice of law in 
his native town; in 1855 became mayor of Marion; and in 
1856 prosecuting attorney of the county. In 1859 he was 
a candidate for the state senate ; and in 1860-66 was United 
States consul at Hamburg; and was of great service to 
his country in giving information leading to the capture 
of the steamer Columbia; in sinking a lighter at Ham- 
burg, and in thwarting confederate agents in various ways. 
He then became collector of internal revenue of the eighth 
district of Ohio, and subsequently engaged in the practice 
of law and banking in Upper Sandusky. Since 1874 he 
has resided in Columbus, Ohio; in 1878 was appointed 
trustee of the Ohio State University, and for nearly seven 
years was chairman of the executive committee of the 
board of trustees. In 1899 he was elected vice-president 
general of the National Society Sons of the American Rev- 
olution ; and ranks high in various patriotic and historical 
organizations. His grandfather, Captain James Ander- 
son, had seventeen grandsons in the Union army during 
the civil war, several of whom gave their lives for their 

JOHN ANDERSON, lawyer, state senator, congress- 
man, was born in Windham, Conn. In 1823 he served as 
a member of the Maine state senate; and in 1825-33 was 
an able and useful member of congress. In 1833-36 he 
was United States district attorney for Maine; and for 
many years was collector of the port for Portland; and 
was three times chosen mayor of Portland. He died in 
1853, in Portland, Maine. 


MARION T. ANDERSON, soldier, was bom Nov. 13, 
1839, in Clarksburg, Ind. He served as a Union soldier 
during the civil war, and joined Company C, Seventh In- 
diana volunteer infantry ; and was in the first battle of the 
war, and his regiment captured the first rebel flag. He 
was promoted to orderly sergeant; then subsequently de- 
tailed as acting sergeant major of the regiment, and in 
1862 was commissioned second lieutenant. In 1863 he 
received his commission as captain, and as such was se- 
verely wounded on Dec. 31 of that year. He also acted 
as major, lieutenant colonel and colonel, and commanded 
his regiment much of the time for the last eighteen months 
of his service. For seven months he was an inmate of 
Libby prison; was one of the seventy-five officers who 
drew lots for their lives to afford two victims to be hanged 
the following morning in retaliation for some executions 
of rebel spies made by Gen. Burnside in Kentucky; and 
on Dec. 1 1 made his successful escape from that prison. 

NORTON BROCK ANDERSON, lawyer, legislator, 
was born Jan. 8, 1843, in Todd County, Ky. He received 
his education at the Paducah College, Kentucky, Bethel 
College of Russellville, Ky. ; and at Harvard University. 
He has attained prominence as an able lawyer of Platte 
City, Mo., and in 1870 was elected prosecuting attorney 
of his county. During 1889-93 he served as a member of 
the Missouri state senate. He was one of the revisers of 
the Missouri general statutes; and has contributed ex- 
tensivelv to law Uterature. 

born Jan. 12, 1750, in Hanover, Va. As captain in the 
Fifth Virginia continentals, he led the advance of the 
Americans at the battle of Trenton, in 1776, crossing the 
Delaware river in the first boat, and driving in the Hes- 
sian outposts several hours before the main attack was 
delivered. He was at the battles of Brandywine and Ger- 
mantown, and was a daring leader wherever dash and res- 
olution were needed. He died Oct. 16, 1826, in Louis- 
ville, Ky. 



MERLE H. ANDERSON. In the early part of the 
1 8th century two brothers, Robert and Joshua Anderson 
came to this country from the North of Ireland and set- 
tled in Path Valley, Franklin County, Pa. They were 
Scotch in their ancestr}^ and presumably belonged to the 
Scotch colony which was driven into Ireland by the perse- 
cutions of James II. Robert was married to a Miss Pat- 
terson of Path Valley. One of the sons of this union, 
James, married Nancy Lang of Armstrong County, Pa., 
and from this alliance sprung three daughters, Polly, Jane, 
and Peggy. 

Joshua Anderson married a Miss Elder. Their son 
Thomas married Jennie Bingham of Westmoreland Coun- 
ty, Pa., and from this union sprang four sons, Bingham, 
Joshua, Thomas, and John, and three daughters, Maria, 
Jane, and Martha. 

Of these, Joshua, the descendant of Joshua, married 
Jane, the great-granddaughter of Robert. To them were 
born six children, Thomas Bingham, J. Milton, Harvey, 
James, Robert, and Belle. Their home was in Armstrong 
County, near Leechburg, Pa., and there many of them 
still live. Thomas Bingham was married to Lida A. Brown 
of Saltsburg, Pa., in 1872. He was a Presbyterian minis- 
ter then located at New Bedford, Lawrence County, Pa. 
From this union have sprung seven children, of whom 
Rev. Merle H. Anderson is the eldest. His early 
years were spent in Latrobe, Westmoreland County, 
Pa. He received his academic education at Chambersburg 
Academy, Chambersburg, Pa., and at Washington and 
Jefferson College, Washington, Pa., graduating in i8q.'^. 
Thence he went to Chicago and attended the McCormick 
Theological Seminary, graduating in 1896. During his 
seminary course he supplied the Presbvterian churches of 
Reading, 111., and Pratt, Kan. Immediately upon gradu- 
ation he was called to the pastorate of the First Presby- 
terian Church of Ebensburg, Pa., where he lived until 
Sept. 1st, T900, when he removed to Philadelphia, to take 
charge of the Mutchmore Memorial Presbyterian Church. 


JAMES HAMILTON ANDERSON, soldier, lawyer, 
was born May 30, 1842, in Cincinnati, Ohio. In 1857 he 
moved with his f-ather to Keokuk, Iowa; and three years 
later to Missouri. For awhile he was in a regiment of 
the North East Missouri volunteers in 1861 ; and in 1864 
he enlisted in the Forty-fifth regiment volunteer infantry. 
He subsequently studied law in Keokuk, and since 1866 
has practiced his profession in that city. He was vice- 
president and manager of the Keokuk and Northwestern 
railroad ; and he built the original street railroad in Keo- 
kuk, of which for several years he was president. He is 
president of the Keokuk school board ; and takes an active 
part in the public affairs of his city, county and state. 

His ancestor, Robert Anderson, the Robert Anderson 
of Dunregan, Scotland, went over to Ireland with William 
of Orange in 1688. He was at the battle of the Boyhe. 
He was given two farms of about seven acres each in 
County of , Cavan, Ireland, where he settled and lived, 
marrying a girl named Jackson, of Coote Hill, Cavan 
County, Ireland. H^ had a brother George Anderson, 
who went, about 1690, to Baltimore, Maryland, where he 
raised a family. On returning to Ireland on a visit to 
his people he was drowned off the ship. Robert Ander- 
son had a sori James and had a son James who married 
Maria Hamilton, a daughter of John James Hamilton, an 
Episcopalian clergyman in County Cavan, Ireland. They 
had three sons, James, Robert and Samuel Hamilton Ire- 
land. James came to Canada, settled at Greenville and 
died a bachelor, at the age of 82. Samuel died a bachelor 
at the age of 81, at Keokuk, Iowa, in 1874. Robert mar- 
ried in Dublin, Ireland, in 181 1, Constance Hoare, a 
daughter of an attorney named Patrick Hoare. They had 
two sons, Robert James, who went to Cincinnati, Ohio, 
and married Mary Jane Whitney, in 1839; and David 
Robert James, died in 1891, at Keokuk, Iowa, at the age 
of yy, leaving three sons and two daughters, at Keokuk, 
Iowa, Samuel James Hamilton and William, who is now 
in Tacoma, Washington. David Anderson is living in 
Keokuk, Iowa, aged yy. He had no children. 


ISAAC ANDERSON, clergyman, founder, was born 
March 26, 1780, in Rock Ridge, Va. He was a success- 
ful clergyman of Maryville, Tenn., where the Southwest- 
ern Theological Seminary was established through his 
efforts. He died Jan. 28, 1857, in Rockford, Tenn. 

JAMES PATTON ANDERSON, soldier, congress- 
man, was born about 1820 in Tennessee. He served in 
the confederate army during the civil war and attained 
the rank of major-general. He was elected a delegate to 
the Thirty-fourth congress from the territory of Wash- 
ington. He died Sept. 20, 1872, in Memphis, Tenn. 

JAMES W. D. ANDERSON, clergymian, lecturer, 
poet, was born March 3, 1859, in Coffey County, Kan. 
He is the author of a work entitled The Kansas Metho- 
dist Pulpit ; and is also the author of a number of merito- 
rious poems. 

JOHN A. ANDERSON, clergyman, congressman, was 
born June 6, 1834, in Washington County, Pa. He was 
a chaplain of volunteers in 1862; was in the service of the 
United States sanitary commission in 1863-67, and was 
president of the Kansas State ' Agricultural College in 
1875-79. He was elected a representative from Kansas 
to the Forty-sixth, Forty-seventh, Forty-eighth, Forty- 
ninth, Fiftieth, and Fifty-first congresses. 

JOHN JACOB ANDERSON, educator, author, was 
born Sept. 30, 1821, in New York City. He is an edu- 
cator of New York City, and has prepared a number of 
historical text books, among which are Manual of Gen- 
eral History; A History of France; History of England; 
and Common School History of the United States. 

JOSEPHUS ANDERSON, clergyman, journalist, au- 
thor, was born Oct. 7, 1829, in Hanover County, Va. He 
is one of the foremost clergymen of the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church South ; and for the past twelve years he has 
been editor of the Florida Christian Advocate of Lees- 
burg, Fla. 


RASMUS BJORN ANDERSON, educator, diplo- 
mat, author, was born Jan. 12, 1846, in Albion, Wis. In 
1866 he became professor* of Greek and modem languages 
in Albion Academy, near his home. In 1869 he became 
instructor of languages in the University of Wisconsin, 
and in 1875-83 filled the chair of Scandinavian languages 
and literature in that institution, where he also founded a 
Scandinavian library. He has been a prolific writer, and 
has contributed to Johnson's Universal Cyclopedia; Mc- 
Clintock and Strong's Cyclopedia, The American Supple- 
ment of the Encyclopedia Britannica ; and to the last edi- 
tion of Chambers' Encyclopedia. He has lectured exten- 
sively on the subject of Norse literature and mythology. 
In 1885-89 he was United States minister to Denmark; 
and since 1898 has been editor and publisher of America, 
a weekly Norwegian paper. As an author of fcooks he 
has won an enviable reputation, his principal works being 
Norse Mythology; America Not Discovered by Colum- 
bus ; Echoes from Mist-Land ; History of the Literature of 
the Scandinavian North ; Viking Tales of the North ; The 
Younger Edda ; The Elder Edda ; and several works in 

gressman, was born Aug. 14, 1788, in Louisville, Ky. He 
was elected to congress from Kentucky in 1817 and again 
the followinof term. In 1822 he was a second timie re- 
turned to the legislature, and was chosen speaker. He 
was appointed minister to Columbia in 1823 and in 1826, 
when, proceeding to the Panama congreses as envoy ex- 
traordinary, he died on the journey. He died July 24, 
T826, in Tubaco. 

RICHARD H. ANDERSON, soldier, was born Oct. 7, 
1 82 1, in Slatesburg, S. C. He was made a brigadier- 
general in the confederate army; promoted to lieutenant- 
general in 1864; and in the Wilderness campaign had sev- 
eral important commands. He died June 26, 1879, in 
Beaufort, S. C. 


ROBERT ANDERSON, soldier, was born June 14, 
1805, in Louisville, Ky. In 1825 he gradluated from 
West Point, and was assigned to the Third artillery as 
second lieutenant. In the Black Hawk war of 1832 he 
was colonel of a company of Illinois volunteers. He took 
part in the Seminole and Mexican wars; and in 1857 was 
appointed major of the Eirst artillery. He was com- 
mander of Eort Sumter when it was forced to surrender. 
He attained the rank of brigadier-general; and subse- 
quently was brevetted major-general. He was one of the 
founders of the Soldier's Home in Washington. He died 
Oct. 2y, 187 1, in Nice, France. 

born Oct. i, 1835, in Savannah, Ga. He entered the con- 
federate army in 1861 ; and rose by successive advance- 
ments to brigadier-general in 1864. In 1867 he became 
chief of police in Savannah, Ga. He died Feb. 8, 1888, 
in Savannah, Ga. 

RUEUS ANDERSON, missionary, author, was bom 
Aug. 17, 1796, in North Yarmouth, Maine. He devised 
the Christian Almanac, which is still continued under the 
title of the Familv Christian Almanac, and has a circula- 
tion of nearly half a million copies annually. He was a 
missionary in various countries. He was secretary of the 
American board of foreign missions in 1824-27. He was 
the author of Memoir of Catharine Brown; Foreign Mis- 
sions, Their Relations and Claims; History of the Ameri- 
can Board's Missions in the Sandwich Islands, Turkey and 
India, Peloponnesus and Greek Islands. He died May 
30, 1880. 

SIMEON H. ANDERSON, lawyer, congressman, was 
born March 2, 1802, in Garrard County, Ky. He served 
frequently in' the Kentucky legislature. He was a repre- 
sentative in congress from Kentucky in 1839-41. He died 
Aug. II, 1840, near Lancaster, Ky. 

ROBERT L. ANDERSON, railroad president, was 
bom Dec. 11, 1856, in Mayfield, Ky. He is president of 
the Live Oak and Gulf railroad at Ocala, Fla. 


^ressm'an, was born July ii, 1853, ^^^i^ Greeneville, Tenn. 
He was elected to the Tennessee state legislature in 1880; 
and was appointed a principal examiner of contested land 
claims in the general land office in 1889. In 1894 he was 
elected to the Fifty-fourth congress as a republican. He 
now practices law in Newport, Tenn. 

WILLIAM ANDERSON, soldier, jurist, congfressman, 
was born in 176'^, in Chester County, Pa. He served 
throusfhout the Revolutionary war, taking a prominent 
part in the siege of Yorktown. He was a representative 
in congress from Pennsvlvania in iSog-i.c; ; and in 1817-19. 
He was afterwards a iudee of Delaware countv court : and 
a customhouse officer at Chester, Pa. He died Dec. 14, 
182Q. in Chester, Pa. 

armv officer, author, was born Jan. 2t, t8.'^6, in Chilli- 
cothe. Ohio. He was educated at the Mount St. Marv's 
Collep-e. Maryland: and graduated from the Cincinnati 
law school : and subsequentlv practiced law. Durinsr the 
civil A^rar he served as a soldier in the Sixth reeiment of 
the Ohio volunteer infantrv. He has been lieutenant in 
the Fifth United States cavalry: captain in the Twelfth 
ITnited States infantrv: and was actine field officer durinp^ 
the civil war : maior of the Twenty-first United States in- 
fantrv: major of the Tenth United States infantrv: lieu- 
tenant-colonel Ninth United States infantrv: and since 
t886 became colonel of the Fourteenth United States in- 
fantrv. In t8o8 was made brip'ad'ier-p-eneral volunteers. 
He commanded the first exnedition to the Philippines: 
commanded the land forces which took Manila : was made 
maior eeneral volunteers Aug-, i^, t8o8: brig-adier gen- 
eral United States March ^. tSqq, and retired Jan. 21, 
Tooo. He has been vice-president of the Sons of the 
American Revolution: past commander of the Loval Le- 
p-ion : besides holdfine various other positions of honor. 
He is the author of a number of Monographs of Military. 
Masonic, and Patriotic subjects, 


SAMUEL ANDERSON, congressman, was born in 
1774 in Pennsylvania. He served repeatedly in the Penn- 
sylvania state legislature; and was speaker of the house 
during two sessions. He was a representative in congress 
from Pennsylvania in 1827-39. He died Jan. 17, 1850, in 
Chester, Pa. 

engineer, state senator, railroad manager, was born May 
29, 1839, in Atw^ter, Kansas. He moved to Kansas in 
1856; and in t86i enlisted as a private in the Fifth Kan- 
sas cavalry, and was brevetted colonel at the clo^e of the 
war. He has been commander of Lincoln Post, G. A. R., 
at Topeka. and also served as department com'mander of 
Kansas. He has been county surveyor; member of the 
Kansas House of Representatives for two terms; served 
as state senator; and is now assistant general passenger 
agent of Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railway. 

ness man of Dayton, Ohio, was bom Jan. 30, 1856, in 
Centerville, Ohio, being the son of Robert M. and Eliza- 
beth M. Belville Anderson. After receiving his educa- 
tion, in 1876, he became identified with the Buckeye Iron 
and Brass Works, which employs three hundred skilled 
workmen : and of this concern he has been secretary since 
1877. He was the first president of the Dayton Fan 
and Motor Company. He has been a member of the 
board of police commissioners ; and holds a leading rank in 
Free Masonry and other fraternal orders. For several 
vears he was connected with the Ohio State Militia. He 
married Miss Harriet E. Cooper, and they have one son. 

WILLIAM C, ANDERSON, lawyer, congressman, 
was born Dec. 6. 1826, in Lancaster, Ky. He served in 
the Kentucky legislature in 185;! and 1853; and was a 
presidential elector in 1856. In 1859 he was elected a 
representative from Kentucky to the Thirty-sixth con- 
gress. He died Dec. 23, 1861, in Frankfort, Ky. 


SAMUEL JAMESON ANDERSON, lawyer, railroad 
president, was born in Decemiber, 1824, in Portland, Me. 
In 1856 he was elected attorney for the County of Cum- 
berland, and in 1856-60 was surveyor of the port. In ' 
1869 he was elected president of the Portland and Og- 
densburg railroad. In 1878 he was nominated by the 
democratic party for congress, but failed of an election. 
For some years he was major-general in the state militia. 

yer, jurist, was born April 2, 1801, at the old homestead 
in Virginia. In 1806 he moved, with his father. Captain 
James Anderson, to Fairfield County, Ohio. For three 
successive terms of seven years each he was an associate 
judge of the court of common pleas of Marion County, 
Ohio; and filled numerous other positions of honor. He 
died Jan. 25, 1871, in Marion, Ohio. 

THOMAS L. ANDERSON, lawyer, congressman, was 
born Dec. i, 1808, in Greene County, Ky. He was elect- 
ed to the legislature of Missouri in 1840. He was a presi- 
dential elector in 1844, 1848, 1852, and 1856; and was a 
mem'ber of the convention for remodeling the state con- 
stitution in 1845. He was a representative to the Thirty- 
fifth and Thirty-sixth congresses. He died March 6, 
1885, in Palmyra, Mo. 

WILLIAM B. ANDERSON, soldier, farmer, con- 
gressman, was born April 2, 1830, in Mount Vernon, 111. 
He was elected surveyor of Jeflferson county in 185 1 ; and 
was a member of the state house of representatives of 
Illinois in 1856-60. He entered the Union army in 1861 
as private, was successively elected captain, lieutenant- 
colonel and colonel, and was brevetted brigadier-general. 
He was a presidential elector in 1868; was elected a 
member of the constitutional convention of Illinois in 
1869: and was elected to the state senate of Illinois in 
187 1 to fill a vacancy. He was elected to the Forty-fourth 
fongress as an independent reformer. 



April lo, 1830, in South Onondaga, N. Y., and now lives 
in Syracuse, N. Y., in the house in which the negro Jerry 
of '''Jerry Rescue'' fame was secreted when rescued from 
United States officers while attempting to force him back 
into slavery under the ''Fugitive Slave Law." He was 
educated in district and select schools; and at Onondaga 
Academy and J. W. Fowler's National Law School at 
Poughkeepsie, N. Y. He has been active in politics, but 
never sought office. He represented city in board of 
supervisors; and was clerk of the board many years. He 
was one of the chief clerks in United States provost mar- 
shal's office on its establishment in 1863, where and with 
bounty committee he remained until the close of the civil 
war. He attempted to raise a company in 1862 for 149th 
New York State volunteers; but was prevented by sick- 
ness, and the men were turned over to another company. 
He had three brothers and two brothers-in-law in the 
Union army. For several years' he was engaged in school 
teaching. In 1857 he was admitted to the practice of law 
in state courts; and later in United States district and cir- 
cuit courts. He married Julia M. Bennett, daughter of 
Russell Bennett of Camillus, N. Y., and grand-niece of 
Joel Barlow, the diplomat and poet, mjinister to France, 
and who died in Poland while on a mission from this gov- 
ernment to meet Napoleon at the time of his disastrous 
flight from Moscow. His father was Calvin Anderson; 
born in Willington, Conn., 1805; mother, Ann Auringer, 
daughter of Francis Auringer, Saratoga County, N. Y. 
His grandfather was also Calvin Anderson; born in Wil- 
lington in 1772, and who came to Onondaga County, N. 
Y., in 1804. His great grandfather was George Ander- 
son, who had two brothers — Robert and Thomas — and 
who came from Scotland to Willington, about 1740. He 
was a Revolutionary soldier — having responded to the 
first call or cry of alarm ; was at Lexington in Col. Knowl- 
ton's regiment under command of General Israel Putnam. 
His paternal grandmother was Huldah Cushman, who 
through her father was a direct descendant in the male line 


from Robert Cushman of the Mayflower, who personally 
chartered that vessel for the Pilgrim voyage in 1620. 
He gave up law practice during the civil war; at the close 
resuming it, as attorney and mercantile collector for job- 
bing houses, and later made specialty of managing and 
settling estates. For the past forty years he has been no- 
tary public in Syracuse, N. Y. 

WILLIAM HENRY ANDERSON is superintendent 
of the public schools of the City of Wheeling, was born 
Sept. 9, 1840, in West Liberty, Va. He belongs to a 
family of teachers, and thus far has made that high call- 
ing his life work. .He received his education at the West 
Liberty Academy; taught six years in country schools; 
was principal of the Public Schools of Bethany; and was 
three years principal of the Wellsburg Public Schools. He 
removed to Wheeling in 1879 and served six years as 
principal of the Fourth Ward Public School; and in 1885 
was elected superintendent of all the public schools of 
Wheeling, which position he now holds. He married 
Martha C. Carle, and they have two sons and one daugh- 

bom March 28, 1854, in Galena, 111. He is pastor of the 
Westminster Presbyterian Church of Toledo, Ohio. His 
father, Robert Anderson, came to America in 1850. The 
following tracing of his ancestry covers a period of 350 
years, running back from the year 1900. No reliable rec- 
ords have been discovered beyond Josey Anderson of 
Paisley, Scotland, who flourished as a merchant in that 
place about 1575. He was prominent in religious cir- 
cles, being an officer in John Knox's church, and as this 
record will show, figured in the religious commotions and 
persecutions of those troublous times. His son Archie in 
1602 enlisted as one of the Scottish yeomen under Earl 
Gorey for the purpose of quelling insurrections in north- 
ern Ireland. After this result had been attained he, with 
others, remained and from him the line is traced through 
seven generations to Robert Anderson of Eden Prairie, 


Minn., who died in March, 1899. The names in the line 
of descent are as follows: Josey of Paisley, Scotland; 
Archie, Josey, James, Archie, James, Robin, Robin and 
Robert ^1824-99). These investigations were made at 
considerable cost both of time and money, Robert Hall 
Anderson of Sixmiilecross, Ireland, going to Scotland in 
person, and conducting a most thorough and painstaking 
search for all the facts obtainable. 

BESIDES the foregoing famous Andersons, whose 
names and deeds are familiar as household words, from 
Maine to CaHfornia, there are others of growing import- 
ance, whose individual efforts loom up like stars above 
the horizon of the comimon multitude. As leaders of pro- 
gressive life and thought each one of them adds his indi- 
viduality and infiuenec towards America's industrial, com- 
mercial and social greatness; and to perpetuate their 
names and deeds should be a sacred duty of the state, 
and worthy of the gratitude of its citizens. Mention is 
here made of all the noted Andersons accessible; and 
data of any omitted will be received and placed on file 
for future editions of this work. ^ 

HENRY WATKINS ANDERSON, a noted physician 
of Covington, Va. ; and son of Robert Carrington Ander- 
son, t he oldest living trustee of Hampden Sidney Col- 
lege. The son graduated from Baltimore Medical Col- 
lege, is overseer of the poor; county physician and coro- 
ner of. Alleghany County, Pa. 

eighth regiment United States volunteer infantry, was 
bom Sept. 30, 1849, "i^ Bernardsville, N. J. He was in- 
structor at W6st Point for four years; and superintendent 
of Yellowstone National Park for seven years ; is in active 
service on the field of battle in the Philippine Islands; and 
"has rendered efficient service to his country. 


ville, Tenn., was bom in that city June 30, 1871. His 
parents are Kentuckians. He was educated in the Nash- 
ville public schools and by his father, Greene Fleming 
Anderson, Sr. He graduated in law fromi the Central 
Tennessee College ; and was subsequently admitted to the 
bar to practice law before all the courts of Tennessee. 
He has attained success in his chosen profession ; and has 
constantly important cases before the supreme court of 
Tennessee and the United States circuit and district courts 
for the middle district of Tennessee. 

ELBRIDGE R. ANDERSON, is a noted lawyer of 
Boston, Mass. He has traveled extensively in Europe; 
and has contributed valuable legal and other articles to 
current literature. 

nent clergyman of Columbus, Ohio; and has contributed 
quite a little to current literature. 

T. G. ANDERSON, register of deeds for Steele Coun- 
ty, N. D., is prominently identified with the business and 
public affairs of his city, county and state, at Sherbrooke, 
N. D. 

PETER C. ANDERSON. Since 1877 he has been en- 
gaged in business at Hammond, Wis., as a dealer in farm 
machinery, real estate and insurance, in which he has been 
very successful. In 1900 he was the democratic nominee 
for member of the Wisconsin state assembly for St. Croix 

First National Bank of Taylorville, 111., was bom Sept. 19, 
1865, in Taylorville, 111. He is the son of William W. 
and Martha L. Anderson; and attended the Peekskill 
Military Academy, N. Y. He has always taken a promi- 
nent part in the business and public aflfairs of his city, 
county and state. 


general manager of several private corporations of Min- 
neapolis, Minn., was born May 5, 185 r, in Denmark. He 
is a successful lawyer, and prominent in the order of the 
I. O. G. T. 

OWEN ANDERSON, a noted attorney-at-law of Ot- 
tawa, 111., was born July 20, 1865, i^ La Salle County, 
111. He is the son of Ole and Anna Anderson; and at- 
tended the Luther College of Decorah, Iowa. 

FRANK ANDERSON, of Sioux City, Iowa, was born 
March 17, 1856, in Lawrence County, Ohio, and is the 
son of Lewis and Catherine Wylie Anderson. He is a 
member of the live stock commission firm of Anderson 
and Smith Company. He married Rose Carter of Lan- 
caster, Ohio, and has four children. Lewis Anderson, 
has grandfather, settled in Marietta, Ohio, and he is 
thought to have come from Maryland. 

Miss., was bom Feb. 21, 1853, in Smith County, Miss., 
and is the son of Henry Prior Anderson arid Ruth Duck- 
worth Anderson. He has been mayor of Taylorsville ; 
lecturer for Farmers' Alliance in Jones and Smith coun- 
ties ; and is now postmaster of his city. 

ELI T. ANDERSON, physician and surgeon of Hor- 
nellsville, Mo., has attained note throughout the West in 
the medical and surgical treatment of diseases of the 
eye. He has also contributed extensively to medical lit- 

GILES RENDELL ANDERSON, the son of George 
Anderson and Emma Rendell Anderson, was born April 
II, 1864, in Lansingburgh, N. Y. For fifteen years he 
was secretary of a large manufacturing concern of Cleve- 
land, Ohio; and then became financial secretary of the 
Y. M. C. A. He is now postmaster and city clerk of 
Belleair, Florida. 


EDWARD ANDERSON. He is vice-president of 
the Anderson Lumber Company, of Charleston, S. C, 
and Jacksonville, Fla. 

frame dealer of Dallas, Texas, w^as born Dec. 3, 1857, near 
Bardstown, Ky. He is the son of Thomas D. Anderson 
and Sarah Elizabeth Kindall Anderson. He married Ma- 
mie E. Runner, and has two sons. 

HERMANN B. ANDERSON, physician and surgeon, 
was born July 22, 1856, in Hanover. He is a successful 
physician of Hewlett, Va. ; member of the Board of 
Health; chairman District School Board; and has filled 
various other public positions of honor. 

JAMES CHARLES ANDERSON was born in 1876 
in Scotland. He is assistant cashier of Emmons County 
State Bank at Braddock, N. D. 

SAMUEL LILLEY ANDERSON, clergyman and ed- 
ucator, was born Oct. 9, 1865, in Granville, Pa., and is 
the son of James Anderson and Mary Ida (Owens) Ander- 
son. He is now principal of schools of Sioux, Neb. 

Baptist Church of Springfield, Mo., was born July 30, 
1862, in Henry County, Ky., and is the son of James O. 
and Louise Osborne Anderson. He married Serelda J. 
Rice, and has two children. 

DR. C. L. ANDERSON has attained note as a success- 
ful physician in California and Washington, D. C. He 
has contributed extensively to medical literature. 

postal clerk, of Monett, Mo., was born July 5, 1869, near 
Tuscola, 111. He is the son of Alexander Hillis Ander- 
son, and grandson of Alexander Anderson, a noted physi- 
cian of Terre Haute, Irid., who was born in 1801, and died 
in 1878. 


was born June lo, 1833, in Nelson County, Va. He was 
a son of Robert Henry Anderson and/ Mary S. (Kim- 
brough) Anderson. He graduated from the Medical Col- 
lege of Richmond, Va., and attained great success in his 
profession. He married Miss Mary Barclay Rodes, and 
had two sons and one daughter. He died in 1898, in his 
native county. 

BENJAMIN M. ANDERSON, of Columbia, Boone 
County, Mo., wUs born in the county where he now re- 
sides, Dec.. 4, 1854. He was educated in the public schools 
of Columbia and State University; held the office of 
county collector two termis; and was presiding judge of 
Boone county court one term. In 1896 he was elected 
to the state senate. 

mar School at Lafayette, Ind., was bom March 9, 1859, 
in Madison, Ind. He is a noted educator of Indiana; and 
present district grand secretary F. and A. M. 

JOHN B. J. H. ANDERSON is engaged in the min- 
istry of the gospel at Dublin, Texas. He was born in 
1865 in Mfssissippi. 

Zion Church of Wilkesbarre, Pa., was born June 30, 1848, 
in Frederick City, Md. He is general statistical secre- 
tary; editor Church Year Book; andi staflf editor of Star 
and Zion, the chief church organ. 

and bank cashier, was born* April 17, 1871, in Denmark. 
He graduated from the Glenwood Academy, Minn., and 
taught school several years. He is now cashier Burton's 
Bank of Wheaton, Minn. 

S. ANDERSON is prominently identified with the 
lousiness and public affairs of Pennsylvania. He is con- 
nected with the Longmead Iron Company of Consho- 
hocken. Pa. 


JOHN ALFRED ANDERSON is an eminent clergy- 
man of Orange, Mass., and pastor of the LutheJran Church 
there. He was born Sept. 29, 1871, in Palm Valley, Tex., 
and is the son of Mr. Swen Anderson. 

FRANK O. ANDERSON is a member of the Empire 
Furniture Company, manufacturers of cham'ber suits, of 
Jamestown, N. Y. 

GEORGE D. ANDERSON is a noted lawyer of Ma- 
rietta, Ga. ; arid takes an active part in the public and 
business affairs of his city, county and state. 

RICHARD IVY ANDERSON, retired capitalist and 
farmer of Elba, Va., was born Aug. 15, 1826, in Louisa 
County, Va. He is the son of John Anderson and Nancy 
Lasley; and his grandfather was Nathan Anderson, who 
first settled in Eastern Virginia. 'He has been justice of 
the peace; county supervisor; school trustee; and was a 
member of the Virginia state legislature for four terms. 
He married Ann Eliza Allegree, and his son. Dr. James 
A. Anderson, of Lynchburg, Va., was bom Jan. 23, 1857. 

LATHROP ANDERSON is vice-president and treas.- 
urer of the Powell Brothers Shoe Company of New York 
City, founded in 1848. 

1870, in East Orange, N. J., and is the son of Charles 
Wesley Anderson. He is now general manager United 
Electric Light Company of Springfield, Mass. 

WALTER L. ANDERSON is a member of the law 
firm of Tibbetts Brothers, Morey & Anderson, of Lincoln, 

. HJALMAR C. ANDERSON of ^Rush City, Minn., was 
born June 3, 1872, in Grantsburg, Wis., the son of Axel 
T. Anderson. He has been city treasurer, druggist, and 
is now cashier Bank of Rush City. He was a delegate to 

the Minnesota state convention; and is prominent in re- 

puiblican politics. He married Amanda C. Peterson, and 

has two children. 

• / 


WILLIAM F. ANDERSON, owner of Metropolitan 
Pharmiacy of Rush City, Minn., was born July 4, 1876, 
and is the son of Axel T. Anderson. He married May 
E. Johnson, and has one son. 

CHARLES ANDERSON, an eminent surgeon, was 
bom June 13, 1850, in Chillicothe, Ohio. He has been 
acting assistant surgeon in the United States army; 
United States examining surgeon; and is now United 
States surgeon at Fort Brown, Texas. He has been a 
member Board of Health, Santa Barbara, Cal. ; and filled 
various other public positions of honor. 

JOHN OSCAR ANDERSON was bom April 13, 1877, 
at Porter's Mills, Wis., the son of C. J. and Augusta An- 
derson. After graduating and attending Normal school, 
he engaged in educational work, and is now teaching in 
West Superior, Wis. 

SYLVESTER B. ANDERSON, bank director, was 
born Feb. 13, 1846, near Mt. Liberty, 111. For four years 
he taught school: and was deputy sheriff for six years. 
He has attained success as special insurance agent; and 
is interested in Jefferson Savihgs Bank of Iowa as director 
and stockholder. He married Miss Cornelia E. Price, 
and has a son and three daughters living. 

GEORGE C. ANDERSON is a native of Kentucky: 
\Vas born in the little hamlet of Rock Springs, on the 
Ohio river, Dec. 9, 1856. He is an oldtime school teacher; 
has been deputy county clerk in his native county for sev- 
eral years. He came West in 1885 and located in the 
city of Abilene, Kansas, and at once engaged in the ab- 
stract and msurance business. In 1890 he became an 
employee of The Travelers Insurance Company of Hart- 
ford, Conn., in the real estate and loan department, which 
position he held until 1898. He has been an examiner of 
real estate for The Union Central Life Insurance Com- 
pany, of Cincinnati, Ohio; and is now special agent in the 
health department of The Security Trust Life Insurance 
Company, of Philadelphia. 




of commerce in the University of South Dakota, was' born 
at Quincy, 111., Jan. lo, 1870. His father, W. S. M. An- 
derson, was a son of John Anderson of Snow Hill, Mary- 
land, whose father was Stephen Anderson, who came from 
England, and was a nephew of Professor John Anderson, 
of Glasgow. Professor Anderson spent his early days in 
Missouri, graduated from Centenary College (Mo.), and 
Fenton Normal (Mich.), and studied at Vanderbilt Uni- 
versity. He taught in the Missouri Wesleyan and Morn- 
ingside Colleges, and is now teaching in the University 
of South Dakota, where he organized the four years 
course in commerce — the first of its kind in any Ameri- 
can College — and introduced the degree of "Bachelor of 
Commerce." He originated and first used the idea of 
**Touch Typewriting.'* 

DAVID ANDERSON, soldier, manufacturer, state 
senator, w^s horn Nov. 26, 1825, in Qarendon, N. Y. In 
1862 he joined the Nineteenth Michigan infantry. In 
T864 was commissioned as major: and at the close of the 
war received a colonel's commission. Tn 1873-74 he 
served with distinction as a member of the Michigan state 

JEROME A. ANDERSON, surgeon, lecturer, poet, 
was born July 25, 1849, in Randb-lph County, Ind. He 
was a member of the Kansas troops in the Price raid of the 
late civil war. He* served one year as surgeon on the 
Pacific mail steamer, and has practiced medicine contin- 
uallv since in San Francisco, Cal. 

MELVILLE BEST ANDERSON, ed^ucator, trans- 
lator, and critic, was born March 28, 185 1, in Kalamazoo, 
Mich. He is a professor of English literature in Stan- 
ford university, California. 

OSCAR DAVID ANDERSON, lawyer, jurist, was 
born Dec. 27, 1854, in Jamestown, N. Y. He has been 
justice of the peace at Red Wing, Minn. ; judge of probate 
court ; and court commissioner. 




OTTO LEANDER ANDERSON, farmer, lecturer, 
legislator, was born Feb. 27, 1849, i^ Sweden. He is a 
successful farmer and stockraiser of Rockerville, S. D. 
He was a representative in the fifth session of the South 
Dakota legislature. 

WILLIAM ANDERSON, clergyman, was born April 
29, 1864, in England. He is now one of the foremost 
clergymen of the South in the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, and fills a pastorate in Wheeling, W. Va. 

WILLIAM J. ANDERSON, lawyer, public official, 
was born May 20, 1854, in Canada. He has been mayor 
of Grand Forks, N. D. He was a judge at the World's 
Columbian Exposition. 

WILLIAM PELBY ANDERSON, actor, manager, 
was born March 16, 1793, in Boston, Mass. He managed 
the Tremont; and built the Warren theater of Boston, 
Mass. He appeared in London as Hamlet and Brutus. 
He died May 28, 1850, in Boston, Mass. 





Of names in general it is very interesting to inquire 
into their origin and history. 


All proper names* had originally a peculiar and 
appropriate meaning. Some persons might feel dis- 
posed to argue that there is nothing in the ordinary 
course of things to prevent the giving of names from 
sheer whim and without any meaning ; but it is quite 
as difficult to imagine the absence of motive and of 
fixed guiding principles in the choice of a name as it 
is in any other matter. It would be contrary to Man's 
nature to denote the object of his thoughts by sounds 
which produce no impression upon his memory, no 
representative idea in his mind. If the principle 
asserted, then, hold good in the matter of common 
nouns, much more must it be true with regard to the 
proper name, whose characteristic is, as we have said, 
that it places under our very eyes as it were, the 
individual object to which it is applied. 

That some definite idea should belong to the name 
when uttered, is so much needed by men in general 
that the natives of North America are in the habit of 
giving a name selected from their own language to 
any stranger deemed worthy of their especial notice. 
To them his own name does not sufficiently describe 
him, because it probably conveys no idea connected 
with his physical appearance. An anecdote is related 
of the Imaum of Muscat who when about to appoint 
a private physician asked his name. " Vincenzo,'* was 
the physician's reply. Not understanding it, the prince 
requested that its ' meaning should be explained in 
Arabic. The Italian gave the meaning, as Mansour, 
or Victorious, and the prince delighted with the happy 
omen offered by the name, ever after called him 
** Sheik Mansour." 

If we glance next at the records of travellers in 
distant countries, we shall find that whether they be 
private individuals or men engaged in scientific in- 
quiry, they never give a nam^e to a people, a country, 


an island, or an unknown rock, without some defi- 
nite reason. Some allusion is made in it to physical 
conformation, to dress, to customs, to external pecu- 
liarities, or to certain circumstances which made the 
discovery a remarkable one. This natural habit has 
rarely been deviated from except when a desire has 
been felt to erect some geographical monument on 
distant shores, in honor of some denizen of the heavens; 
or to record, in a lasting form, some contemporary 
event, or the name of some contemporary character 
of distinction; or, lastly, to perpetuate the memory 
of a benefactor of his kind, and to testify of a na- 
tion's gratitude to a feHow-countryman of great pre- 
eminence. The long catalogue of proper names, with 
a meaning, which may yet be found among our older 
nations, in spite of mixture and corruption of races; 
and the longer catalogue disclosed by etymological 
inquiry, fully bear out these remarks. Schegel, a very 
learned philosopher, has traced descriptive epithets in 
almost all Hindoo names. So marked was the exist- 
ence of these meanings among the Hebrews, that 
their literature is strangely tinged by their influence. 
The older names among the Arabs, and those since 
introduced into general use, are highly significative; 
the face is acknowledged in the case of Grecian names, 
and the remark is equally true of all names derived 
from Teutonic origin. The most distant nations in 
our own more immediate circle of civilization exhibit 
no difference in this respect. Most of the natives of 
North America are named after some animal; during 
their lifetime they receive another title when they 
have earned it by some deed of daring, which it ex- 
plains and of which it is the token. The name of a 
most powerful chief in one of the Marquesas Islands, 
contains an allusion to the shape of a canoe, in the 
management of which he excelled. Thunder is the 


name of the King of the Chenooks, a warlike tribe 
who live on the left bank of the river Columbia. The 
Kamtchadales, Koriakes, and Kuriles, have all of 
them significant names. 


In the first ages of the world a single name was 
sufficient for each individual; and that name was 
generally invented for the person, in allusion to the 
circumstances attending his birth, or to some personal 
quality he possessed, or which his parents fondly 
hoped he might in future possess. 

Christian names being given in infancy, and by 
friends and relatives, cannot, as a general rule, have 
bad significations, or be associated with crime or mis- 
fortune. It is otherwise, however, with surnames. 
These will be found to be of all shades, from the best 
to the worst, the most pleasing to the most ridiculous. 
They originated later in life, afber the character and 
habits of the individual had been formed, and after 
he had engaged in some permanent occupation, trade, 
or pursuit. They were given by the community in 
which he dwelt — by enemies as well as by friends. 

The first approach to the modem system of 
nomenclature is found in the assumption of the name 
of One's Sire in addition to his own proper name; 
as Caleb the son of Jephunneh. Sometimes the adjunct 
expressed the country or profession of the bearer; 
sometimes some excellence or blemish; as Diogenes 
the Cynic ; or Dionysius the Tyrant. 

A mother's name, that of a parent, or of some 
remoter ancestor more illustrious than the father, 
have in the same way been used to form new names. 
A like attention has been paid to sentiments , of friend- 
ship and gratitude. Sometimes the wife's name be- 
came the husband's surname. The name of the tribe 


or people to which a man belonged might also be- 
come a surname. If any particular name described 
the locality of a man's residence or property, it may 
serve the same purpose. Personal acts and qualities 
have given rise to a great variety of surnames. 

Surnames are traceable to several chief sources. 
There will be seen evidences in physical and political 
geography that the designations of countries, moun- 
tains, rivers, districts, towns, villages, hamlets, are all 
associated with the names of persons whom we daily 
meet, suggesting to the thoughtful mind most inter- 
esting topics regarding the histories of families and 

Though the majority of our ancient family names 
are territorial, we have many large classes of excep- 
tions, and the origin of most of them is not at all 

Surnames can scarcely be said to have been per- 
manently settled before the era of the Reformation. 
The keeping of parish registers was probably more 
instrumental than anything else in settling them; for 
if a person were entered under one name at baptism, 
it is not likely he would be married under another 
and buried under a third ; in some instances, prior to 
the keeping of parish registers, persons were recorded 
as having different names at different periods of their 
life. As to the derivations of surnames, it should be 
remembered, that places were named before families. 
You have only to examine any of those names which 
serve for lands and also for persons, to see this plainly. 
If you found the name of Cruickshanks, or Pretty- 
man, Black-mantle, or Great-head, you would not 
hesitate. These are evidently coined for persons, and 
you find no such names of land, or for the double 
purpose. But then you can have as little doubt that 
names like Church-hill, Green-hill, Hazel-wood, Sandi- 


lands, were first given to places; and when you find 
them bpme both by land and persons, you will con- 
clude the persons took them from the territories. In 
general then, when a place and a family have the 
same name it is the place that gives the name to the 
people, not the family to the place. This rule, which 
will not be disputed by any one who has bestowed 
some study or thought on the subject, has very few 

There is a class of fables, the invention of a set 
of bungling genealogists, who, by a process like that 
which heralds call canting — catching at a sound — ^pre- 
tend that the Douglases had their name from a Gaelic 
word, said to mean a dark gray man, but which 
never could be descriptive of a man at all; that the 
Forbeses were at first called For beast, because they 
killed a great bear; that Dalyell is from a Gaelic 
word, meaning **I dare;" that the Guthries were so 
called from the homely origin of gutting three had- 
docks for King David the Second's entertainment, 
when he landed very hungry on the Brae of JBervie 
from his French voyage. These clumsy inventions of 
a late age, if they were really meant to be seriously 
credited, disappear when we find from record that 
there were very ancient territories, and even parishes, 
of Douglas, Forbes, Dalyell, and Guthrie, long before 
the names came into use as family surnames. 

It was formerly customary to receive names from 
ancestors by compounding their name with a word 
indicating filial relationship. Names so compounded 
were termed patronymics, from Pater: father, and 
Onoma: a name — father being used in the sense of 
ancestor. When personal names merged into family 
appellations, patronymics became obsolete; or, more 
correctly, ceased to be formed. Before this change 
was effected, in case a man was called Dennis: bom 


on the Day of St. Dennis, sometimes his eldest son 
would be called Dennison, which in some cases, be- 
came Tennyson; and a man from a village in which 
was a church dedicated to St. Dennis was called 
Dennistoun. After the period in which descriptive 
names flourished, each of his children, whether male 
or female, would be called Dennis, so that this be- 
came literally a patronymic, inasmuch as it was a 
name received from a father. Howbeit, only those 
names that were taken from a parent when such 
was not the rule are called patronymics. Personal 
names lead the van as to all others, and are the 
basis of half their successors. Long after personal 
names were almost as widely diffused as persons, we 
find patronymics coming into use, the offspring of 
necessity arising out of multiplicity. 

But when we come to realize that nearly one- 
third of Englishmen were known either by the name 
of William or John about the year 1300, it will be 
seen that the pet name and nick form were no freak, 
but a necessity. We dare not attempt a category, 
but the surnames of to-day tell us much. Will was 
quite a distinct youth from Willot, Willot from Wil- 
mot, Wilmot from Wilkin, and Wilkin from Wikock. 
There might be half a dozen Johns about the farm- 
stead, but it mattered little so long as one was called' 
Jack, another Jenning, a third Jenkin, a fourth Jack- 
cock (now Jacox as a surname), a fifth Brownjohn, 
and sixth Micklejohn, or Littlejohn, or Properjohn 
(i.e., well-built or handsome). 

The first name looking like a patronymic is ante- 
diluvian, viz., Tubal-Cain: flowing out from Cain, as 
though O'Cain, given to intimate pride in relation- 
ship to Cain. During the Israelitish theocracy Gentile 
patronymics were in common use, as Hittites from 
Heth, but those personal came in later. As soon, 


however, as the New Testament opens we meet with 
Bar-Jonah, Bar-Abbas, names received from fathers in 
the conventional patronymical sense. It is, therefore, 
manifest that the chronology of patronymics, the 
period of their formation, lies about midway between 
primitive ages and time current. 

The Saxons sometimes bestowed honorable appel- 
lations on those who had signalized themselves by 
the performance of any gallant action, like the Ro- 
man Cognomina. Every person conversant with the 
history of those times will call to mind that England 
was much infested with wolves, and that large re- 
wards were given to such as were able by force or 
stratagem, to subdue them. To kill a wolf was to 
destroy a dangerous enemy, and to confer a benefit 
on society. Hence several Saxon proper names, ending 
in ulph and wolf, as Biddulph, the wolf-killer, or 
more properly "wolf-compeller,'* and some others; 
but these, among the common people at least, did 
not descend from father to son in the manner of 
modem surnames. 

Another early species of surname adjunct is the 
epithet Great, as Alexander the Great; with words 
expressive of other qualities, as Edmund Iron-side, 
Harold Hare-foot; and among the kings of Norway 
there was a Bare-foot. France had monarchs named 
Charles the Bald, Louis the Stutterer, and Philip the 

As society advanced more in refinement, partly for 
euphony, and partly for the sake of distinction, other 
names came into common use. 

Modem nations have adopted various methods of 
distinguishing families. The Highlanders of Scotland 
employed the sirename with Mac, and hence our Mac- 
donalds and Macartys, meaning respectively the son 
of Donald and of Arthur. 


It would, however, be preposterous to imagine 
that surnames universally prevailed so early as the 
eleventh century. We have overwhelming evidence 
that they did not ; and must admit that although the 
Norman Conquest did much to introduce the practice 
of using them, it was long before they became very 
common. The* occasional use of surnames in England 
dates beyond the ingress of the Normans. Surnames 
were taken up in a very gradual manner by the great, 
(both of Saxon and Norman descent) during the ele- 
venth, twelfth, and thirteenth centuries. By the mid- 
dle of the twelfth, however, it appears that they were 
(in the estimation of some) necessary appendages to 
families of rank, to distinguish them from those of 
meaner extraction. 

The unsettled state of surnames in those early 
times renders it a difficult matter to trace the pedi- 
gree of any family beyond the thirteenth century. In 
Cheshire, a county remarkable for the number of its 
resident families of great antiquity, it was very usual 
for younger branches of the family, laying aside the 
name of their father, to take their name from the 
place of their residences, and thus in three descents 
as many surnames are found in the same family. 
This remark may be forcibly illustrated by reference 
to the early pedigree of the family of Fitz-Hugh, 
which name did not settle down as a fixed appellative 
until the time of Edward III. 

Although most towns have borrowed their names 
from their situation and other respects, yet with some 
apt termination have derived their names from men; 
as Edwardston and Alfredstone. But these were from 
forenames or christian names, and not from sire 
names ; and even alrriost to the period of the con- 
quest forenames of men were generally given as names 
of places. 


The Normans are thought to have been the first 
to introduce the practice of fixed surnames among us; 
and certainly a Httle while before the conquest, some 
of these adventurers had taken family names from 
their chateaux in Normandy. ** Neither is there any 
village in Normandy/' says Camden, **that gave not 
denomination to some family in England:*' The French 
names introduced into England at the conquest may 
generally be known by the prefixes de, du, des, de, la, 
St.; and by the suffixes font, ers, fant, deau, age, 
mont, ard, aux, bois, ly, eux, et, val, court, vau^c, 
lay, fort, ot, champ, and dille, most of which are 
component parts of proper names of places, as every 
one may convince himself by the slightest glance at 
the map of Northern France. But that these Norman 
surnames had not been of long standing is very cer- 
tain, for at the Conquest it was only one hundred 
and sixty years since the first band of Northmen 
rowed up the Seine, under their leader Hrolf, whom 
our history books honor with the theatrical name of 
Rollo, but who was known among his people as 
"Hrolf the Ganger.'^ 

But whether in imitation of the Norman lords, or 
from the great convenience of the distinction, the use 
of fixed surnames arose in France about the year 
1000; came into England sixty years later, or with 
the Norman Conquest; and reached Scotland, speak- 
ing roundly, about the year 1100. 

The first example of fixed surnames in any num- 
ber in England, are to be found in the Conqueror's 
Valuation Book called Domesday. ** Yet in England,'' 
again to quote the judicious Camden, "certain it is, 
that as the better sort, even from the Conquest, by 
little and little took surnames, so they were not set- 
tled among the common people fully until about the 
time of Edwar^ the Second." 


Those dashing Norman adventurers introduced to 
the British Isle the custom of chivalry and the sur- 
names they had adopted from their paternal castles 
across the channel. They made a rage for knight- 
hood and turned the ladies' heads. An English prin- 
cess declined to marry a suitor who ^*had not two 
names." Henry I wished to marry his natural son 
Robert to Mabel, one of the heiresses of Fitz-Hamon. 
The lady demurred: 

"It were to me a great shame 
To have a lord withouten his twa name." 

Whereupon King Henry gave him the surname of 
Fitzroy, which means son of a king. 

V The era of fixed surnames does not rest only on 
the authority of Camden. It can be proved by a 
thousand records, English and Scotch. It is almost 
sufficiently proved when it can be shown the race of 
Stuart — already first of Scotch families in opulence 
and power, distinguished by no surnames for several 
generations after the Norman Conquest. Much later 
the ancestors of the princely line of Hamilton w^ere 
known as Walter Fitz-Gilbert, and Gilbert Fitz- Walter, 
before it occurred to them to assume the name their 
kinsmen had borne in England. But surnames were 
undoubtedly first used in the twelfth century, and 
came into general use in the following one. 


Was formed by adding ing- to the ancestor's name, as 
^Ifreding, which means Alfred's son; the plural for 
which is ^Ifredingas. 


Which is exceedingly common, is generally indicated by 
affixing son to the name of a progenitor, and is in- 


capable of being used in a plural form or in the gen- 
eric sense. For instance, Gibson, a son of Gibbs, a 
contraction for Gilbert. Munson, a son of Munn, a 
contraction of Edmund. 


Are from the Latin word De, which means of. This is 
a Patronymical sign common to French, Italian, and 
even German names. Thus Deluc, which means of 
Luke. Dwight means of Wight; and De Foe means 
of the Faith. 


Fitz stands for Filius, a son, and received through 
the Normans. 


Corresponding more or less closely with de, ac, is 
the Dutch van, and usually applied with the force of 
they as Vandersteen, which means of the stone, hill, 
from which have sprung Folli, Fell, Knox. Vander- 
velde means of the field ; Van Meter means living on 
hired land; and Vandeveer means of the ferry. 


Is a form of the Celtic means mac, which the Cam- 
brian people made Mab or Map, and shortening it to 
a letter b, p, or its cognate f, gave it work to do as a 
patronymical prefix. Thus, Probart, son of Robert ; 
Probyn, son of Robin; Blake, son of Lake; Bowen, 
son of Owen; Price, son of Rice or Rheese; Priddle, 
son of Riddle; and Prichard, son of Richard. 


The Highlanders, Irish and Welsh hold mac in 
common. The Welsh delight to have it in the forms 
of mab, map, ap, hop, b, p, f. In Irish names mac 


tends toward mag-, ma, and c. But Scotland took 
most lovingly to mac. The Milesians found a greater 
charm in Eoghan : a son, forming ua, and that used 
as O in the sense of eldest son, for he only was al- 
lowed to use it. The Irish developed a patronymic 
out of- their Erse treasury more elastic and poetic 
than the Gaelic mac. The Celtic for young, offspring 
son, is, as above given, eoghan^ whence Egan for 
Hugh, eoghan : son of Hugh; and also Flanegan, son 
of Flan. 


Is mac, meaning a son ; and O from eoghan, for a fit 6t- 
bom son. The Gaels also had a patronymical affix 
derived from eoghan, known as ach, och, the sou/ce 
of our ock, as seen in hillock, which means little hill. 


Is formed by az, or ez affixed. The two words are vari- 
ations of the tail Filius, a son; as Alvarez, son of 
Alva; and Enriquez, son of Henry. 


Was sometimes formed by placing the name of a son 
before the name of his father, as Galileo Galilei, which 
means Galileo, the son of Galilei; Speron Speroni, 
which means Speron, the son of Speroni. 


Is itch for a son ; and of, ef or if for a grandson or 
descendant. Romanovitch Jouriff: son of Romain, 
grandson of Joury; and Romanoff, descended from 
Romain, son of Rome. 



Assumes the forms pulosy soula^ as in the name Nicol- 
opulos, son of Nicholas. 


Are sohriy zen, sen, son, zoon, and dotter, such as Men- 
delssohn, son of Mendel; Thorwaldsen, son of Thor- 
wald ; and Larsdotter, son of Lars. 


Is aitis, ait or at, used as affix, thus, Adomaitis, mean- 
ing a son of Adam. 


Is putra, added as an affix ; as occurs in Rajaputra^ 
son of a king. 


Is tse, or se, used as an affix, as Kung-fut-se, which 
means Kung, the son of Fo; and Yang-tse-Kiang, 
river, son of the ocean. 


Is iliuSy as Hostilius, son of Hostis. 


Is idas, modified to ida, ides, id, i, od. For instance, 
Aristides, son of Ariston. 


Proper is ben, from the word Eben, a stone. The Chal- 
dees used Bar in the sense of lofty, elevated, superior, 
which was primarily applied to eminence, and is iden- 
tical with our Barr. As Barzillai, son of Zillai ; Ben- 
Joseph, son of Joseph. 



The primary sense ot kin seems to have been rela- 
tionship: from thence family or offspring. 

The next meaning acquired by kin was child, or 
** young one/* We still speak in a diminutive sense 
of a manikin, kilderkin, pipkin, lambkin, jerkin, mini- 
kin (little Minion), or Doitkin. 

Terminations in kin were slightly going down in 
popular estimation when the Hebrew invasion made 
a clean sweep of them. They found shelter in Wales, 
however, and directories preserve in their list of sur- 
names their memorial fqrever. 

In proof of the popularity of kin are the surnames 
of Simpkinson, Hopkins, Dickens, Dickinson, Watkins, 
Hawkins, Jenkinson, Atkinson, and all the rest. The 
patronymics ending in kins got abbreviated into kiss, 
kes, and ks. Hence the origin of our Perkes, Purkiss, 
Hawkes, and Hawks, Dawks, Jenks, Juckes, and Jukes 


This diminutive, to judge from the Paris Directory, 
must have been enormously popular with the French. 
England's connection with Normandy and France 
generally brought the fashion to the English Court, 
and in habits of this kind the English folk quickly 
copied. Terminations in kin and cock were confined 
to the lower orders first and last. Terminations in 
on or in and ot or et, were the introduction of fash- 
ion, and being under patronage of the highest families 
in the land, naturally obtained a much wider popu- 


These are the terminations that ran first in favor for 
many generations. 


This diminutive ot et is found in the English lan- 
guage in such words as poppet, jacket, lancet, ballot, 
gibbet, target, gigot, chariot, latchet, pocket, ballet. 
In the same way a little page became a paget, and 
hence among our surnames Smallpage, Littlepage, 
and Paget. 

Coming to baptism, we find scarcely a single 
name of any pretentions ,to popularity that did not 
take to itself this desinence. The two favorite girl- 
names in Yorkshire previous to the Reformation w^ere 
Matilda and Emma. Two of the commonest sur- 
names thiere to-day are Emmott and Tillot, with such 
variations as Emmett and Tillett, Emmotson and 

Of other girl-names .we may mention Mabel, which 
from Mab became Mabbott; Douce became Doucett 
and Dowsett; Gillian or Julian, from Gill or Jill 
(whence Jack and Jill), became Gillot, Juliet, and 
Jowett; Margaret became Margett and Margott, and 
in the north Magot. 


After these local names **the most in number have 
been derived from Occupations or Professions." 

The practice of borrowing names from the various 
avocations of life is of high antiquity. Thus the Ro- 
mans had among them many persons, and those too 
of the highest rank, who bore such names as Figulus, 
Pictor, and Fabritius, answering to the Potters and 
Paynters, of our own times. These names became 
hereditary, next in order after the local names, about 
the eleventh and twelfth centuries. As local names 
generally had the prefix de or at, so these frequently 
had 7e, as Stephen le Spicer, and Walter le Boucher. 



The same principle which introduced surnames bor- 
rowed from trades and occupations led to the adop- 
tion of the names of dignities and offices, which also 
became hereditary; as Emperor, King, Prince, Duke, 
Earle, Pope, Bishop, Cardinal, etc. 



These seem to form one of the most obvious sources 
of surnames, and a prolific source it has been. Noth- 
ing would be more natural at the first assumption 
of surnames, than for a person of dark complexion 
to take the name of Black or Blackman, a tawny 
one that of Browne, and a pale one that of White 
or Whiteman. But it was not from the head alone 
that names of this description were taken, for we 
have, in respect of other personal qualities, our Longs 
and our Shorts, our Strongs and our Weaklys, and 
our Lightfoots and our Heavisides, with many more 
whose meaning is less obvious. Among the names 
indicative of mental or moral qualities, we have our 
Hardys and Cowards, our Livelys and our SuUens, 
our Brisks and our Doolittles; and Brainhead, which 
later became Brainerd. 


Everybody must have remarked. the great number 
of names of this kind. Who does not immediately 
call to mind some score or two of the name of Ed- 
wards, Johnson, Stevens, and Harrison, in the circle 
of his acquaintance. Many of the christian forenames 
of our ancestors were taken up without any addi- 


tion or change, as Anthony, Andrew, Abel, Baldwhi, 
Donald, etc. Others have been corrupted in various 
ways, as Bennet from Benedict, Cutbeard from Cuth- 
bert, Stace from Ustace. 


The surnames from these sources are almost in- 
numerable. There is scarcely a city, town, village, 
manor, hamlet, or estate, in England, that has not 
lent its name to swell the nomenclature of English- 


We find the names of the heavenly bodies, beasts, 
birds, fishes, insects, plants, fruits, flowers, metals, 
etc., very frequently borne as surnames; as Sun, 
Moon, Star, Bear, Buck, Chicken, Raven, Crab, Cod, 
Bee, Fly, Lily, Primrose, Orange, Lemon, Gold, 
Silver, etc. 



There are several surnames derived from consan- 
guinity, alliance, and from other social relations, orig- 
inating, from there having been two or more persons 
bearing the same christian name in the same neigh- 
borhood; as Fader, Brothers, Cousins, Husbands; and 
closely connected with the foregoing are the names 
derived from periods of age, as Young, Younger, Eld, 
Senior. From periods of time w^e have several names, 
as 'Spring, Summer, Winter. The following surnames 
may also find a place here: Soone, Later, Latter, 
Last, Quickly. 


There are a good many surnames which seem to 
have originated in sheer caprice, as no satisfactory 


reason for their assumption can be assigned. It is 
doubtful, indeed, if they were ever assumed at all, for 
they have very much the appearance of what, in these 
days, we are accustomed to call nicknames or sobri- 
quets, and were probably given by others to the per- 
sons who were first known by them, and so identified 
with those persons that neither they nor their im- 
mediate posterity could w^ell avoid them. To this 
family belong the names borrowed from parts of the 
human figure, which are somewhat numerous; as 
Pate, Skull, Cheek, Neck, Side, Nailes, Heele, etc. 
Then there is another set of names not much less 
ridiculous, namely those borrowed from coins, and 
denominations of money, as Farthing, Money, Pen- 
ny. Besides these we have from the weather. Frost, 
Tempest, and Fogg; from sports, Bowles, Cards; from 
vessels and their parts. Forecastle, Ship; from mea- 
sures, Peck, Inches; from numbers. Six, Ten. 

It is really remarkable that many surnames ex- 
pressive of bodily deformity or moral turpitude should 
have descended to the posterity of those who perhaps 
well deserved and so could not escape them, when 
we reflect how easily such names might have been 
avoided in almost every state of society by the simple 
adoption of others ; for although in our day it is con- 
sidered an act of villainy, or at least a "suspicious 
affair," to change one's name unless in compliance 
with the will of a deceased friend, when an act of 
the senate or the royal sign-manual is required, the 
case was v\ridely different four or five centuries ago, 
and we know from ancient records that names were 
frequently changed at the caprice of the owners. 
Names of this kind are very numerous, such as. Bad, 
Silly, Outlaw, Trash, etc. 





To account for such names as Justice, Virtue, Pru- 
dence, Wisdom, Liberty, Hope, Peace, Joy, Anguish, 
Comfort, Want, Pride, Grace, Laughter, Luck, Peace, 
Power, Warr, Ramson, Love, Verity, Vice, Patience, 
etc., they undoubtedly originated in the allegorical 
characters who performed on the ancient mysteries or 
moralities; a specie of dramatics pieces, which before 
the rise of the genuine drama served to amuse under 
the pretext of instructing the play-goers of the " old- 
en tyme." 


Various causes might be assigned for the variety 
that exists in the nomenclature of Englishmen. Pro- 
bably the principal cause is to be found in the pecu- 
liar facilities which that island had for many ages 
presented to the settlement of foreigners. War, royal 
matches with foreign princesses, the introduction of 
manufactures from the continent, and the patronage 
which that country has always extended to every 
kind of foreign talent — all have of course tended to 
introduction of new names. 


The practice of altering one's name upon the oc- 
currence of any remarkable event in one's personal 
history, seems to have been known in times of very 
remote antiquity. The substitution of Abraham for 
Abram, Sarah for Sarai, etc., are matters of sacred 
history. In France it was formerly customary for 
eldest sons to take their father's surnames, while the 
younger branches assumed the names of the states 
allotted them. This plan also prevailed in England 
sometime after the Norman Conquest. 


In the United States they carry this system of 
corrupting or contracting names to a ridiculous ex- 
tent. Bamham is Bamum; Farnham (fern ground) 
Famum; Killham (kiln house or home), Killum; Birk- 
ham (birch house) Birkum, and so forth with similar 
names. Pollock becomes Polk; Colquhoun becomes 
Calhoun; and M'Candish becomes M'Candless. 


By an historical surname is meant a name which 
has an illusion to some circumstance in the life of the 
person who primarily bore it. Thus Sans-terre or 
Lack-land, the by-name of King John, as having rela- 
tion to one incident in that monarch's life, might be 
designated an historical surname. To this class of 
surnames also, belongs that of Nestling, borne by a 
Saxon earl, who in his infancy, according to Verstegan, 
had been rescued from an eagle's nest. 


During the middle ages the Latin language was 
the language of literature and politics; accordingly 
in history and in the public records proper names had 
to assumd a Latin form. The change was not al- 
ways a happy one. Authors were obliged to change 
their own names as well as the names of the persons 
they celebrated in either prose or verse. The history 
of France was still written in Latin in the seventeenth 
century, all names consequently recorded in Latin. 
In the sixteenth century the Germans used to trans- 
late them into Greek. The absurdity which it en- 
tailed undoubtedly hastened the disappearance of the 


The chiefs of an American tribe in North America 
receive a new name when they have earned it by 
their exploits. 


A similar practice prevails in various negro tribes. 

The Greeks, in olden times, used to change their 
names on the smallest pretense, and with the greatest 

The emperors of Japan and those of China after 
their death receive a new name. * 


With us a woman changes her name when she 
marries; among the Caribs of the Antilles it was the 
custom for husband and wife to exchange names. 
In some formerly, and at the present day in Cape 
Verd Islands, a liberated slave takes the name of his 
old master; the adopted person substitutes the name 
of the person who adopts him for his own; the law 
allows that a donor or testator may require that 
his name should be taken b^'- the person benefited. 

In 1568 Philip enacted a law that the Moors 
who lived in Spain should abandon the use of their 
peculiar idiom, and of their national names and sur- 
names, and substitute in their stead Spanish idioms 
and Spanish names. He hoped to make new men of 
them, to denationalize them, if we may use the term, 
and to merge them into his own people. He had a 
keen appreciation of the value of proper names, but 
like all despotic sovereigns, he was blind to the in- 
fluence of time, which can alone produce the gradual 
fusion of a conquering with a conquered people, more 
especially w^hen differences in religion add their over- 
whelming weight to one side of the balance. 

The Moors obeyed, but still retained their nation- 
al feelings and religious beliefs ; later^ however, when 
they were compelled to choose between exile on the 
one hand, and apostacy on the other, they returned 
to their old country, and carried back with them a 
number of Spanish names. Accordingly, in several 


Mauritanian families descended from the Andalusian 
Mussulmans, we still find the names of Perez, Santi- 
ago? Valenciano, Aragon, etc., names which have 
sometimes led European authors into error, and made 
them fancy they saw apostates from Christianity 
among the descendants of the martyrs ot Islamism. 

The robbers whose trade it was to carry men 
away and sell them as slaves, needed no legal com- 
pulsion to change the names of their slaves. The 
precaution which they naturally took in this matter 
baflSed the researches of disconsolate parents, who 
could only endeavor to recover their lost children by 
a description which was always imperfect and always 

In modem times the same system has been 
adopted, although it has not been dictated by equally 
prudential motives. The laws of Christian Europe 
have even in our own times legalized the sale of 
slaves. As soon as a negro had landed in the colo- 
nies it was usual for his purchaser to give hin a new 


In England the middle classes acquired a decidedly 
important political influence as early as the year 
1258, or not later than 1264, the quarrels of the 
nobles and the king having opened the road to Par- 
liament for the representatives of the commons. More- 
over, an act that no tax should be levied without 
the consent of their representatives was passed before 
the year 1300, and accordingly, soon after that date, . 
we find hereditary names commonly used in the mid- 
dle classes. 

For a contrary reason the change cannot have 
taken place in Germany until a much later period. 
In order to prove this, an instance is given which 


will be all the more conclusive from its being con- 
nected with an intermediate point between that coun- 
try and France. In the town of Metz, which in idiom 
and' by union with the dominions of the descendants 
of Clovis and Charlemagne, was decidedly French, 
but which for thirty years had been Germanized in 
consequence of its political position, you might have 
noticed at the close of the thirteenth century that its 
chief magistrates, who were all knights, bore without 
exception individual or derived surnames instead of 
family surnames. When we say derived, we mean either 
from the place in which they lived, or from the post 
which their military duties obliged them to occupy. 
It was not until the close of the latter half of the 
fourteenth century that hereditary names became 
common among men who were high in office, so that 
among their inferiors it is only fair to infer that they 
were rarer still. 

The etymology of hereditary names in England 
and' in Germany is generally the same as in France 
and Italy. The following remarks will embody the 
inferences to be drawn from their examination, for 
the use of philologists. In languages of Teutonic or- 
igin, when descent is implied merely, the word son is 
placed after the father's name*; such is the derivation 
of all the family names in the languages of Sweden, 
Denmark, Germany, and England, which terminate in 
this way. There are some exceptions, such as Fergu- 
son and Owenson, which serve to corroborate the 
statement as to the possibility of the union of two 
languages to form one and the same proper name; 
in the instances quoted above, a Saxon termination 
is joined to a Caledonian or a Welsh name. 

Attention has already been drawn to the custom 
of giving the father's name, in the genitive case, to 
the son as a surname. The addition of a final s in 



English, and of the syllable ez in Spain, sufficed to 
change Christian pra?nomina into surnames, and 
aftei-wards into family names; Peters, Williams, 
Richards, Henriquez, Lopez, Fernandez, literally (son) 
of Peter, of William, of Richard, of Henry, of Lope 
(or Wolf), of Fernando or Ferdinand. 

D'Andre, Dejean, Depierre, have probably become 
family names in France in a similar way. The name 
of the writer who was perhaps the keenest apprecia- 
tor of the genius of the immortal Dante that ever 
lived, Giuseppe di Cesare, shows that a similar form 
w^as not foreign to Italian customs. 

As in Italy, so also in the greater part of Europe, 
the practice of drawing up deeds and charters in 
Latin was almost universal, and in these the son 
was designated by his father's name in the genitive 
case, hence we must attribute all the names which 
are characterized by such a termination to this cus- 
tom. Such names, for instance, as Fabri, Jacobi, 
Simonis, Johannis, etc., names which would be mul- 
tiplied without end if other languages had retained 
the old Latin termination like the Italian. The coun- 
tries where the greatest number will be found will be 
those (it may be quite safely conjectured) where the 
custom of writing legal documents in Latin prevailed 
the longest. 

Somewhat similar in Wales, the sign of descent, 
or rather of sonship, led to the formation of sur- 
names, which later again became hereditary names. 
The word **ab,'' when placed between two names, 
expresses descent, Rhys ab Evan (Rhys, the son of 
Evan); the vowel is gradually lost in common use, 
and the name becomes Rhys Evan, and, according to 
the same rule, successively takes the form of the fol- 
lowing patronymics, Bowen, Pruderrech, Price. 

It is still the same theory, only more simply car- 


ried out, which regulated the formation of family 
names in Ireland and in Scotland. As soon as the 
head of a clan had adopted some hereditary name, 
that name was given to all his vassals, whatever 
rank they might happen to occupy, and however re- 
motely connected they might be by ties of kindred 
with the head of the clan, and further, even though 
they had only entered it by enfranchisement or by 
adoption. The feeling of pride which suggested such 
a system is by no means an offensive one; we excuse 
it on the ground of its similarity to the old patri- 
archal customs; the head of the clan who is so pow- 
erful, and such an object of reverence, is but the eld- 
est brother of a large family, and the name which he 
takes belongs to all its members. 

It will not be quite so easy to discover a reason 
for the feeling of vanity which in Spain and in Por- 
tugal led to such a tedious multiplicity of names. 
Birthplace, or the customary home, are not considered 
sufficient for a full description of a. lordly title; alli- 
ances, adoptions, and the like, were all dragged in to 
increase the number of' names. An ignorant phase of 
devotional feeling added to its proportionate share 
to their Christian praenomia; it may, therefore, be 
easily inferred what needless confusion must have 
arisen in the ordinary transactions of life through 
this two-fold prodigality of names. 

As the nobles in Sweden had not adopted heredi- 
tary names before the close of the sixteenth century, 
it followed as a matter of course that the middle 
classes did not use them until a still later period. 
The choice of names which this latter class made is 
worthy of notice. We know many names in France 
which indicate occupations, such as Draper, Miller, 
Barber, Maker, Slater, Turner,* etc. The same may 

'I'Mercier, Meunier, Barbier, Boulanger, Couvreur, Tourneur. 


be found in England, but not in the same quantity ; 
the oldest English commoners were freeholders of 
land rather than either merchants or manufacturers. 
There are few if any such, in Sweden; the greater 
part of their names are the names of properties, or 
of farms, or of forests, and were of that character 
because they were selected by a class who wished to 
approximate to the nobles by imitating their ways, 
and consequently not because they were the result of 
a need for distinctive signs — a need which is totally 
distinct from any individual wish or caprice. 

In Holstein and in Courland there are still many 
families who have no names peculiarly their own. 
In this instance, again, the scourge of feudalism is 
felt in all its severity. 


Whatever concerns the origin of our family — ^from 
whom proceeded the sturdy men that planted our in- 
fant states has for all of us an especial charm, not only 
from what we know, but for what we hope to ascertain. 

Our ancestors, tracing back their lineage to Pict 
and Dane, to the legionaries of Rome, or to the sea 
kings of the Baltic, had gained strength from the 
fusion in their nature of various and opposing ele- 
ments, and combined what was best of many races. 

That our ancestors were fond of fighting when 
provoked, regardless of personal safety or private 
advantage, cannot be denied. For the five centuries 
following the conquest, wars at home and abroad 
succeeded with little cessation. Military duty was 
incumbent on all who could bear arms. Personal en- 
counters between knight and squire in mail with lance 
and battle axe, the rest in quilted doublets, with pike 
and bow, made men indifferent to danger, and induced 
habits of hardihood and daring. 


According to some authorities the history of man- 
kind began with Adam and Eve about six thousand 
' years ago; and that their decendants spread over 
Asia first, then over Africa, and then over Europe. 
But science clearly points that the world and its in- 
^ habitants in some form must have existed for millions 

of years. 

It took primitive man four thousand years to learn 
how to make a hole in a stone, insert a stick in it, 
and use it for a weapon. Then he became master of 
the forest, with power readily to provide himself with 
meat-food. From fisherman and hunter man developed 
into a herder of flocks, a tiller of the soil, a cultivator 
of grain. Then came attachment to the family and 
the growth of the family into clans and nations. 

The first historical record is dated about three 
thousand seven hundred years ago, when a man by 
the name of Inachus led a very large company of emi- 
grants from Egypt into Greece. These found that 
country inhabited by savages, who no doubt, were 
the descendants of those who had wandered there 
from Asia. 

Inachus and his companies established themselves 
in Greece, and from that point of time Europe gradu- 
ally became occupied by civilized people. 

Thus three quarters of the globe, Asia Africa and 
Europe, were settled. But America was separated 
from Asia by the Pacific Ocean, almost ten thousand 
miles across; and from Europe and Africa bj'^ the At- 
lantic, about three thousand miles across. Of America 
in ancient times people knew nothing. 

The ships in olden times were small and feeble; 
and navigators seldom dared to stretch forth upon 
the boundless sea. Even the mariner's compass, that 
mysterious but {steadfast friend of the sailor was not 
used by the Europeans until 1250. 



It was in the year 1607 that the first emigrants, 
to successfully form a permanent colon3% landed in 
Virginia. For twelve years after its settlement it 
languished under the government of Sir Thomas 
Smith, Treasurer of the Virginia Company' in Eng- 
land. The Colony was ruled during that period by 
laws written in blood; and its history shows us how 
the narrow selfishness of such a despotic power would 
counteract the very best efforts of benevolence. The 
colonist suffered an extremity of distress too horrible 
to be described. 

Of the thousands of emigrants who had been 
sent to Virginia at great cost, not one in twenty 
remained alive in April, 1619, when Sir George 
Yeardley arrived. He bought certain commissions 
and instructions from the company for the **Better 
establishing of a commonwealth here,'' and the pros- 
perity of Virginia began from this time, when it 
received, as a commonwealth, the freedom to make 
laws for itself The first meeting was held Juh' 30, 
1619— more than a year before the Mayflower, with 
the pilgrims, left the harbor of Southampton. 

The first colony established by the Plymouth Com- 
pany in 1607, on the coast of Maine, was a lament- 
able failure. 

The permanent settlement of New England began 
with the arrival of a body of Separatists in the May- 
flower in 1620, who founded the colony of Plymouth. 

The Separatists' migration from England was 
followed in a few years by a great exodus of Puri- 
tans, who planted towns along the coast to the 
North of Plymouth, and obtained a charter of gov- 
ernment and a great strip of land, and founded the 
colonv of Massachusetts Bay. 



Religious disputes drove Roger Williams and Anne 
Hutchinson out of Massachusetts and led to the 
founding of Rhode Island in 1636. 

Other church rangles led to an emigration from 
Massachusetts to the Connecticut vallev, where a 
little confederacy of towns was created and called 

Some settlers from England went to Long Island 
Sound and there founded four towns which, in their 
turn, joined in a federal union called the New Haven 

In time New Haven was joined to Connecticut, 
and Plymouth and Maine to Massachusetts; New 
Hampshire was made a royal colony; and the four 
New England colonies Massachusetts, New Hampshire, 
Rhode Island and Connecticut — were definitely estab- 
lished. The territory of Massachusetts and Connecti- 
cut stretched across the continent to the * 'South Sea'' 
or Pacific Ocean. 

The Maryland colony was founded by Lord Bal- 
timore, a Roman Catholic, who was influenced in his 
attempts of colonization by a desire to found a refuge 
for people of his own faith ; and the first settlement 
was made in 1634 at St. Mary's, Annapolis was 
founded about 1683, and Baltimore in 1729. 

Meantime Henry Hudson in the employ of the 
Dutch, discovered the Delaware and Hudson Rivers in 
1609; and the Dutch, ignoring the claims of England, 
planted colonies on these rivers and called the coun- 
try New Netherlands. 

Then a Swedish company began to colonize the 
Delaware Bay and River coast of Virginia, which 
they called New Sweden. 

Conflicts between the Dutch and the Swedes fol- 
lowed, and in 1655 New Sweden was made a part of 
New Netherlands. 


The English seized New Netherlands in 1664, giv- 
ing it to the Duke of York; and the Diike, after es'- 
tablishing the province of New York, gave New Jersey 
to two of his friends, and sold the three counties on 
the Delaware to William Penn. Meanwhile the king 
granted Penn what is now Pennsylvania in 1681. 

The Carolinas were first chartered as one proprie- 
tary colony but were sold back t6 the king and final- 
ly separated in 1729. 

Georgia, the last of the thirteen English colonies, 
was granted to Oglethorpe and others; as a refuge 
for poor debtors, in 1732. 

In 1774 General Gage became governor of Mass- 
achusetts; and seeing that the people were gathering 
stores and cannon, he attempted to destroy the 
stores, and so brought on the battle of Lexington 
and Concord, which opened the war for Independence. 
The English army was surrounded at Yorktown by 
Washington and the French fleet and forced to sur- 
render. A convention at Philadelphia framed the 
Constitution of the United States. 


Before the United States became a nation, six 
European powers owned, or claimed to own, various 
portions of the territory now contained within its 
boundary. England claimed the Atlantic coast from 
Maine to Florida. Spain once held Florida, Texas, 
California and all the territor}^ south and west of 
Colorado. France in days gone by ruled the Missis- 
sippi valley. Holland once owned New Jersey, Dela- 
ware and the valley of the Hudson in New York and 
claimed as far eastw^ard as the Connecticut River. 
The Swedes had settlements on the Delaware. Alaska 
was a Russian possession. 



CHRISTIAN names are so called from having orig- 
inally been given to converts at baptism as sub- 
stitutes for their former pagan appellatives, many of 
which were borrowed from the names of their gods, 
and therefore rejected as profane. After the general 
introduction of Christianity, the epithet was still re- 
tained, because the imposition of names was ever 
connected with the earliest of its sacred rites. It is, 
nevertheless, most incorrect; since the majority of the 
personal names of modem times are borrowed from 
sources unconnected with Christianity. With what 
propriety can we call Hercules and Diana, Augustus 
and Julia, or even Henry and Caroline, Christian 
names? They should be called forenames (that is 
first names), a term much more preferable to the 
other. Perhaps the word name, without any ad- 
junct, would be better still. We should then use the 
name and surname as distinctive words; whereas we 
now often regard them synonyms. 

From the earliest times, names to distinguish one 
person from another have been in use. The names in 
the Old Testament are mostly original and generally 
given at the birth, in accordance with some circum- 
stance connected with that event, or from some 
pious sentiment of the father or mother. The Jewish 
child received his name at the time of circumcision. 
This practice is still adopted amongst the Jews, and 
has been followed by the Christian Church giving a 
name at baptism. 

The ancient Greeks used only one name, which 
was given on the ninth day after birth, and w^as 


chosen by the father, who also possessed the right 
of altering it. These names generally expressed some 
great quality — as bravery, wisdom, or skill. Thus 
Callienachus means excellent fighter; and Sophron 
means wise. In later times many names were derived 
from those of their gods — as ApoUodorus, the Gift of 
Apollo. The eldest son usually bore the name of his 
paternal grandfather, to which was sometimes added 
the father's name, or the occupation, place of birth, 
or a nickname. 

The Romans at a very early date used two 
names, and later on each Roman citizen had three. 
The praenomen was, like our Christian name, per- 
sonal to the individual; as Caius and Marcus; in 
writing, the initials only wrere generally used. In 
early times it was given at puberty, but afterwards 
on the ninth day after birth. Women took no prae- 
nomen until marriage, when they adopted the femi- 
nine form of their husband's name. Every Roman 
citizen belonged to a gens and to a familia included 
in it. The nomen gentilicum (the second name) 
usually ended in ius, cius, or aius. The third name 
was the hereditary cognomen borne by the family, to 
which was sometimes a second cognomen called 
agnomen, was added. The cognomen was often de- 
rived from some event in the family history, or from 
some personal defect. In common intercourse the 
praenomen and cognomen only were used, as C. 
Caesar, for C. Julius Caesar. Many of the Roman 
names w^ere of a much less dignified origin than the 
Greek, as Cicero (Vetchgrower), Crassus (Fat), Naso 

The Celtic and Teutonic names were originally 
very significant. Many were derived from **God," as 
Gottfried, Godwin, and others from genii or elves, as 
Alfred Elfric (Elf King). Personal prowess, wisdom. 


and nobility of birth, were the origin of many names 
still in use, as Hilderbrand (the War Brand), Arnold 
(Valiant Eagle) Osborn (God bear). After the intro- 
duction of Christianity many of the old names were 
superseded by those taken from the Scriptures. These 
names in course of time became much altered; as for 
example, Owen,, Evan, and Eoghan " are different 
forms of Johann or John. A change of name was 
sometimes made at confirmation, and amongst 
Roman Catholics an additional name is given at the 
first communion. Sir Edward Coke tells us: **If a 
man be baptized by the nsCme of Thomas, and after 
at his confirmation by the bishop he is named John, 
he may purchase by the name of his confirmation. 
And this was the case of Sir Francis Gawdye, late 
Chief Justice of the Court of Common Pleas, whose 
name of baptism was Thomas, and his name of con- 
firmation Francis; and that the name of Francis by 
the advice of all the judges in anno 36, Henry YIII, 
he did bear, and often used in all his purchases and 
grants." Another instance is that of Henry HI of 
France, who, being the godson of Edward VI of Eng- 
land, was named Edward Alexander at his baptism 
in 1551; but at his confirmation in 1565 these 
names w^ere changed to Henri. 

In Germany the names are mostW of Teutonic origin, 
or connected with the early history of Christianity. 

Double Christian names were not much in vogue 
before the nineteenth century. A very early instance 
is that of ^*John Thomas Jones," a runaway thief, 
mentioned in a collection of autograph letters from 
Cecil, Earl of Salisbury, and his son (1601); Charles 
George Cook, Judge of the Admiralty in 1665; and 
Henry Frederick Thynne, brother to Lord Wey- 
mouth, 1682, are other examples, which might 
easily be extended. 


In France and Germany when surnames became 
universal, the prefix of De or von to a common ple- 
beian name was considered as a mark of nobility. 
In Britain the De was not considered the test for no- 
bility, for the names of some of the best families were 
not territorial; as Butler, Stewart and Spenser. 



It now remains simply to consider the state of 
nomenclature in England at the eve of the Reforma- 
tion in relation to the Bible. Four classes may be 


The leading incidents of Bible narrative were 
familiarized to the English lower orders by the per- 
formance of sacred plays, or mysteries, rendered un- 
der the supervision of the Church. To these plays is 
owed the early popularity of Adam and Eve, Noah, 
Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Joseph, Sara, Daniel, Samp- 
son, Susanna, Judith, Hanna or Anna, and Hester. 
But the Apocryphal names were not frequently used 
until about 1500. Scarcely any diminutives are 
found of them. On the other hand, Adam became 
Adcock and Adkin; Eve became Evott and Evett; 
Isaac became Hickin, Higgin, Higgott and Higgett; 
Joseph became Joskin; and Daniel became Dankin and 


The Crusaders gave several prominent names. To 
them we are indebted for Baptist, Ellis and Jordan; and 
John received a great stimulus. The sacred water, 
brought in the leathern bottle, was used for baptis- 
mal purposes. The Jordan commemorated John the 


Baptist, the second Elias, the forerunner and bap- 
tizer of Jesus Christ. Children were styled by these 
incidents. Jordan became popular throughout Western 
Europe. It gave to England, as already observed, 
Judd, Judkin, Judson, Jordan and Jordanson, Elias, 
as Ellis, took about the eighth place of frequency, 
and John for a while the first. 

THE saint's calendar. 

The legends of the saints were carefully taught 
by the priesthood, and the day was as religiously ob- 
served. All children born on these holy days re- 
ceived the name of the saint commemorated. St. 
James's Day, or St. Nicholas's Day, or St. Thomas's 
Day, saw a small batch of Jameses, Nicholases, and 
Thomases • received into the fold of the church. In 
other cases the gossip had some favorite saint, and 
placed the child under his or her protection. Of 
course, it bore the patron's name. A large number 
of these hagiological names were extra-Biblical — such 
as Cecilia, Catherine, or Theobald. All the apostles, 
save Judas, became household names; John, Simon, 
Peter, Bartholomew, Matthew, James, Thomas and 
Philip being the favorites. Paul and Timothy were 
also utilized, the former being always found as Pol. 


If a child was bom at Whitsuntide or Easter, 
Christmas or Epiphany, like Robinson Crusoe's man 
Friday, he received the name of the day. Hence our 
once familiar names of Noel or Nowell, Pask or Pas- 
cal, Easter, Pentecost, and Epiphany or Tiffany. 

It will be observed that all these imply no direct 
or personal acquaintance w^ith the Scriptures. All 
came through the Church. AU, too, were in full tide 


of prosperity — with the single exception of Jordan, 
which was nearly obsolete— when the Bible, printed 
into English and set up in the churches, became an 
institution. The immediate result was that the old 
Scripture names of Bartholomew, Peter, Philip, and 
Nicholas received a blow much deadlier than that 
received by such Teutonic names as Robert, Richard, 
Roger and Ralph. 

The subject of the influence of the Bible upon 
English nomenclature is not uninteresting. It may 
be said of the "Vulgar Tongue" Bible that it revolu- 
tionized the nomenclature within the space of forty 
years, or a little over a generation. No such crisis, 
surely, ever visited a nation's register before, nor can 
such possibly happen again. Every home felt the 


The introduction of double baptismal names pro- 
duced a revolution as immediate as it was uninten- 
tional. It put a stop to what bade fair to become a 
universal adoption of patronymics as single baptis- 
mal names. This practice took its rise about the year 
1580. It became customary in highly placed families 
to christen the eldest son by the name of the landed 
estate to which he was heir. Especially was it .com- 
mon when the son succeeded to property through his 
mother; then the mother's surname was his Chris- 
tian name. With the introduction of second baptis- 
lal names, this custom ceased; and the boy or girl, 
s the case might be, after a first orthodox name of 
;obert or Cecilia, received as a second the patronymic 
hat before was given alone. Instead of Neville Clarke 
he name would be Charles Neville Clarke. From the 
ear 1700 this has been a growing custom, and half 
be present list of treble names are thus formed. 


Until about the commencement of the seventeenth 
century, no material change in the designations of 
Englishmen had occurred since the days of the earlier 
Edwards, when surnames were generalh" adopted. 
John de la Barre, it is true, had become plain John 
Barr, and Roger atte Hylle had softened to Roger 
Hill, but still the principle of a single Christian name 
and a single surname had been maintained through- 
out. About the period alluded to, the innovation of 
a second personal name occurs, though but very rarely. 
The practice was imported to Great Britain from the 
Continent, w^here it seems to have originated among 
the literati in imitation of the trianomina of antiquity. 
The accession of the many -named house of Brunswick 
may be said to have rendered it somewhat fashion- 
able; and during the last century it has become every 
year more common. Should the fashion continue, it 
is probable that at the dawn of the twentieth' centu- 
ry it will be as difficult to find a binominated person 
in America, as it is in France at the present day. 

Another innovation belongs to the seventeenth cen- 
tury; that of the use of some family name as a bap- 
tismal appellation, as Gouldsmith Hodgson, Boscawen 
Lower, Cloudsley Shovel. This practice as well as the 
other is highly to be commended, as serving to iden- 
tify the individual with the designation. The genealo- 
gist will at once see its utility; and it is suggested to 
parents the desirability of inserting the maternal fami- 
ly name between the proper name of baptism and the 
surname, as James Morton Wilson, Henry Smith Brad- 
ley. Indeed it would be well to go further and add 
the maiden family name of the wife to the surname 
of the husband ; thus if a Charles Harrison married a 
Mary Bradshawe, they should thereupon write them- 
selves respectively Charles Bradshawe Harrison and 
Mary Bradshawe Harrison. If Vanity unites in the 


same escutcheon the arms of the wife with those ot 
her lord, ought not Affection in like manner to blend 
their names ? This usage is voluntarily followed at 
Geneva and in many provinces in France; and it sei*ves 
to distinguish the bachelor from the married man. 

In some districts, where a family name was orig- 
inally applied at the font instead of the usual James, 
Peter, or John, that family name has come to be re- 
garded as a regular christian name. For example: 
about Lewes, Trayton is fully as common as Samuel, 
Nicholas, Alfred, or any name occupying the second 
rank in point of frequency, and only less usual than 
Henry, ' William and John. In the sixteenth century a 
family of this name, from Cheshire, settled in Lewes, 
and continued to reside there for several successive 
generations, during the latter part of which period 
they became so popular that a host of children re- 
ceived the baptismal name of Trayton in compliment 
to them. The spirit of imitation succeeded; and there 
are at the present day scores of Traytons, who have 
neither any idea of the origin of their name, nor any 
doubt of its being as orthodox as the very common 
appellatives alluded to. 

We have seen that the Christian name, once im- 
posed, cannot be altered at the option of the bearer, 
as the surname may; at least not without the sanc- 
tion of episcopal authority. Towards the close of the 
eighteenth century. Sir William Bridges exchanged the 
name of William for that of Brooke, by license from the 
Archbishop of Canterbury ; but this is almost a solitary 
instance in modern times, as the occasion for it rarely 
arises. Before the Reformation, the unauthorized change 
of a Christian name was a grave offence. It is recorded 
in the consistorial acts of the Bishop of Rochester, that 
on Oct. 15, 1515, one Agnes Sharpe appeared and con- 
fessed that she had "of her own motion and consent, 


voluntarily changed, at confirmation, the name of her 
infant son to Edward, who when baptized was named 
Henry, for which she submitted to penance.'* The 
penance enjoined was to make a pilgrimage to the 
famous Rood of Grace, at the neighboring abbey of 
Boxley, and to carry in procession on five Lord's days, 
a lighted taper which she was to offer to the image 
of the Blessed Virgin. 


There were no Scripture names in England when 
the Conqueror took possession; even in Normandy 
they had appeared but a generation or two brfore 
William came over. If any are found in the old Eng- 
lish period, they w^ere undoubtedly ecclesiastical titles, 
adopted at ordination. Greek and Latin saints were 
equally unnoticed. 

Before many generations had passed, Bartholo- 
mew, Simon, Peter, Philip, Thomas, Nicholas, John 
and Elias, had engrossed a third of the male popula- 
tion; yet Domesday Book has no Philip, no Thomas, 
only one Nicholas; and but a springling of Johns. It 
was not long before Jack and Jill took the place of 
Godric and Godgivu as representative of the English 
sexes, yet Jack was from the bible and Jill from the 
saintly calendar. 

Without entering into a deep discussion, it may 

be said that the great mass of the old English names 

had gone down before the year 1200 had been reached. 

Those that survived only held on for bare existence. 

From the moment of William's edvent, the names of 

the Normans began to prevail. He brought in Bible 

names. Saint names, and his own Teutonic names. 

The old English names bowed to them, and disap- 

A curious result quickly followed. From the year 

— I 


1150 to 1550, four hundred years in round numbers, 
there was a very much smaller dictionary of English 
personal names than there had been for four hundred 
years before, and than there has been in the four hun- 
dred years since. The Norman list was really a small 
one, and yet it took possession of the whole of Great 

A consequence of this was the Pet-name Epoch. 
In every community of one hundred Englishmen about 
the year 1300, there would be an average of twenty 
Johns and fifteen Williams; then would follow Thomas, 
Bartholomew, Nicholas, Philip, Simon, Peter and Isaac 
from the Scriptures; and Richard, Robert, Walter, Guy, 
Henry, Roger and Baldwin from the Teutonic list. 
Of female names, Matilda, Isabella and Emma were 
first favorites; and Cecilia, Catharine, Margaret and 
Gillian came closely upon their heels. Behind these, 
again, tollowed a fairly familiar number of names of 
either sex, some from the Teuton, some from the He- 
brew, some from the Greek and Latin Church, but, 
when all told, not a large category. . 

This is not enough, for in common parlance it was 
not likely the full name would be used. Besides, there 
might be two, or even three Johns in the same family. 
So late as March, 1545, the will of John Pamell de 
Gyrton runs: 

** Alice, my wife, and Old John, my son, to occupy 
my farm together, till Old John marries ; Young John, 
my son, shall have Brenlay's land plowed and sowed 
at Old John's cost.'' 

The register of Raby, Leicestershire, has this entry : 

"1559. Item: 29th day of August was John, 
and John Picke, the children of Xtopher and Anne, 

*'Item: the 31st of August the same John and 
John were buried. " 


Mr. Bums, who quotes these instances in his * 'His- 
tory of Parish Registers/' adds that at this same 
time "one John Barker had three sons named John 
Barker, and two daughters named Margaret Barker.'* 

If the same family had but one name for the house- 
hold we may imagine the difficulty when this one name 
was also popular throughout the village. The diffi- 
culty was naturally solved by, firstly, the adoption 
of nick forms; secondly, the addition of pet desinences. 
Thus Emma became by the one practice simple Emm, 
by the other Emmott; and any number of boys in a 
small community might be entered in a register as 
Bartholomew, and yet preserve their individuality in 
work-a-day life by bearing such names as Bat, Bate, 
Batty, Bartle, Bartelot, Batcock, Batkin, and Tolly, 
or ThoUy. In a word, these several forms of Bar- 
tholomew were treated as so many separate proper 

It was, of course, impossible for Englishmen and 
English women to maintain their individuality on 
these terms. Various methods to secure a personality 
arose. The surname was adopted, and there were 
John Atte-wood, John the Wheelwright, John the Bigg, 
and John Richard's son, in every community. Among 
the middle and lower classes these did not become 
hercditarv until so late as 1450 or 1500. 

This is easily proved. In the wardrobe accounts 
for Edward IV, 1480, occur the following items : 

**John Poyntmaker, for pointing of XI dozen 
points of silk pointed with agelettes laton. 

**Jehn Carter, for carriage away of a grete loode 
of robeux that was left in the strete. 

**To a laborer called Rychard Gardyner for work- 
ing in the gardynei 

**To Alice Shapster for making and washing xxiiii 
sherts, and xxiii stomachers." Shapster is a feminine 



form of Shapper or Shaper — one who shaped or cut 
out cloths for garments. 

All these several individuals, having no particular 
surname, took or received one from the occupation 
they temporarily followed. 


None of the sciences is less generally studied than 
that of Genealogy. Like all the others, though dry 
and repellant at first, w^hen perseveringly followed out 
it becomes, in the research, full of interest, and pro- 
ductive of great results. 

An account of the origin, descent and relations of 
families is often a principal auxiliary to the true ap- 
preciation of history. In treating of persons who 
have distinguished themselves in their country's an- 
nals, not only are all those actions of their lives which 
have a bearing upon the character of the age in which 
they lived, or the well-being of the nation and com- 
munity to which they belonged, to be considered, but 
their own family and personal extraction, standing 
and descent. 

The genealogist confines himself to tracing family 
lineages, or the course of succession in particular fami- 
lies. That is his peculiar department. He leaves to 
the annalist the chronicling of events in the order of 
their occurrence, and to the historian the filling up of 
the details and circumstances to which these dry facts 
refer, and the description of the causes from which 
they spring, as w^ell as the consequences to which they 
lead. The sole puipose and pursuit of the historian 
is to be able to show '* Who is Who " and to distinguish 
those who are somebody from those who are nobody. 

The principal nomenclature of genealogy is as 
follows : 


All persons descended from a common ancestor con- 
stitute a family. 

A series of persons so descended is called a line. 

A line is either direct or collateral. 

The direct line is divided into the ascending and 

The projenitors are father, grandfather, etc. ; the 
other ascendants not in a direct line are called ancestors. 

The descendants are son, grandson, etc. ; the other 
descendants not in a direct line are generally termed 

The Collateral comprehended all those which unite 
in a common projenitor. 

Some affect to hold in contempt the study of suc- 
cession of families. Others undervalue it, without being 
fully aware of the importance of genealogical research. 

There are some people, says Dr. Lindsay Alexan- 
der, in his "Life of Dr. Wardlaw, " who say they 
attach no importance to a man's descent, or to family 
honors, and despise those who do. Perhaps they may 
be sincere, but their judgment in this matter is cer- 
tainly erroneous, and their feeling unnatural. **The 
glory of children, '' says the wisest of men, ** are their 
fathers;" and a honorable descent should be highly 


Heraldic devices, truly so called, made their first 
appearance in Europe in the middle of the twelfth 
century ; and about one hundred years later Heraldry 
became a science in high repute, w^ithout being able to 
trace its intermediate progress, or discover the names 
of those who first laid down its laws, or subsequently 
promulgated them. The earliest Heraldic document of 
which even a copy has come down to us is a roll of 


arms, that is to say, a catalogue of the armorial bear- 
ings of the king of England, and the principal barons, 
knights, etc. , in the reign of Henry III ; and, from in- 
ternal evidence, supposed to have been originally com- 
piled between the years 1240—1245. This transcript 
was made by Glover, Somerset Herald, in 1586, and 
is preserved in the College of Arms. Other rolls are 
to be found both there and in the British Museum, of 
nearly tljie same date, but none earlier; and no work 
explanatory of the science has been yet discovered of 
a period anterior to the reign of Edward IH. In'the 
reign of Henry III, armorial ensigns had become hered- 
itary, marks of cadency distinguished the various 
members of a family, and the majority of the present 
Heraldic terms were already in existence. 



At that period w^as to distinguish persons and prop- 
trtyy and record descent and alliance, and no modern 
invention has yet been found to supersede it . For this 
reason alone, as we have remarked elsewhere, of all 
ancient usages it is one of the least likel3'^ to become 
obsolete. Hundreds of persons may be entitled to the 
same initials, may possess precisely the same name; 
but only the members of a particular family can law- 
fully bear certain armorial ensigns, and the various 
branches of that family have their separate differences 
to distinguish one from the other. After the lapse of 
centuries, the date of a building or the name of its 
founder or ancient possessor, may be ascertained at 
the present da}', through the accidental preservation 
of a sculptured coat of arms or heraldic encaustic tile; 
and the careful study of early rolls of arms enables 
the historian to discover matrimonial alliances and 
family connections, of which no written record has 
been found; and thereby not only to complete the 


very imperfect genealogies of many of the bravest and 
Y^isest of English nobility and gentry, but also to ac- 
count for sundry acts, both public and private, the 
motives for which have been misunderstood, or alto- 
gether unknown to the biographer or the historian. 


Arms are not only granted to individuals and fam- 
ilies, but also to cities, corporate bodies, and learned 

Arms of Dominion or Sovereignty are properly the 
arms of the kings or sovereigns of the territories they 
govern, which are also regarded as the arms of the 
State. Thus the Lions of England and the Russian 
Eagle are the arms of the Kings of England and the 
Emperors of Russia, and cannot be properly altered 
by a change of dynasty. 

Arms of Pretension are those of kingdoms, prov- 
inces, or territories to which a prince or lord has some 
claim, and which he adds to his own, though the king- 
doms or territories are governed by a foreign king or 
lord ; thus the Kings of England for many ages quar- 
tered the arms of France in their escutcheon as the 
descendants of Edward III, who claimed that king- 
dom, in right of his mother, a French princess. 

Arms of Concession are arms granted by sovereigns 
as the reward of virtue, valor or extraordinary ser- 
vice. All arms granted to subjects were originally 
conceded by the Sovereign. 

Arms of Community are those of bishoprics, cities, 
universities, academies, societies and corporate bodies. 

Arms of patronage are such as governors of prov- 
inces, lords of manors, etc., add to their family arms 
as a token of their superiority, right jurisdiction. 


Arms of Family, or paternal arms, are such as are 
hereditary and belong to one particular family, which 
none others have a right to assume, nor can they do 
so without rendering themselves guilty of a breach of 
the laws of honor, punishable by the Earl Marshal 
and the Kings-at-Arms. The assumption of arms has, 
how^ever, become so common that little notice is taken 
of it at the present time. 

Arms of Alliance are those gained by marriage. 

Arms of Succession are such as are taken up by 
those who inherit certain estates by bequest, entail, 
or donation. 


The shield contains the field or ground -whereon 
are represented the charges or figures that form a coat 
of arms. 




Within the past few years there has been a remark- 
able movement in the United States, which has re- 
sulted in the formation of many patriotic hereditary 
societies of large membership, with chapters in every 
State in the Union. Those only are eligible to mem- 
bership who can prove their descent from an ancestor 
of Colonial or Revolutionary times, trom an officer or 
soldier or seaman of the various wars, from a pilgrim 
in the Mayflower, an early Huguenot emigrant, etc. 
These societies bring men and women of like traditions 
together, and organize them in an effective way for 
acrion. The action contemplated is patriotic — never 
religious or related to party politics. The general so- 
ciety from its headquarters issues charters to branch 
societies in the different States. Each State society 
forms an organized group of persons well known to 
each other, by name at least, and often personally. 

Certain of these societies have been very active in 
preserving old monuments, buildings, landmarks and 
historic documents, or in erecting tablets and monu- 
ments at historic places, or in marking the sites of 
battles or the graves of Revolutionary soldiers. Others 
have founded prizes to be given annually to school 
children for essays on events in American history. 
Others, again, formally celebrate the nation's anni- 
versaries. All of them foster patriotism and historical 
research, and teach organization — the sinking of indi- 
vidual desire in a common loyalty. There are proba- 
bly too many such organizations at present, and more 
are forming. The weaker societies will, however, die ; 
and those that remain will represent some real aspir- 
ation of their members. 


As the entrance to such societies is through descent 
from some ancestor, geneaology has been powerfully 
stimulated, and thousands of family records have been 
examined and summarized in print. Our Colonial and 
Revolutionary history has been studied in its details, 
which is the only way to fully realize it. The men of 
to-day have been connected with Colonial and Revo- 
lutionary times. The children of the coming century 
will find their ancestral records all prepared for them, 
and they will be face to face with high standards of 
duty and effort. 



Instituted in 1892, is open to lineal male descendants 
of civil or military officers, or of soldiers, who served 
the colonies between May 13, 1607 (Jamestown) and 
April 19, 1775 (Lexington). 


Founded in 1897, includes the lineal male descendants 
of soldiers or civil officers from 1607 to 1783, and of 
officers of the War of 1812, of the War with Mexico, 
and of the Civil War. 



Founded in 1896, is open to any male citizen of the 
United States who is Uneall}'- descended in the male 
line of either parent from an ancestor who settled in 
any of the colonies between 1607 and 1657, and whose 
intermediate ancestors adhered as patriots to the cause 
of the colonists throughout the War of the Revolution. 



Instituted in 1783 is composed of descendants of offi- 
cers of the Revolutionary army, usually the eldest male 
direct descendant. 


Founded in 1847, is open to the descendants of offi- 
cers of the army who served' in Mexico, usually the eld- 
est male direct descendant. 



Founded in 1865, is composed of officers who served in 
the War of the Rebellion, and of their eldest direct male 
lineal descendants. 


Is composed of lineal male descendants of soldiers or 
sailors of the War of 1812. 


Instituted in 1890, is open to officers of the navy who 
have served in war, and to their male descendants, etc.; 
and also to enlisted men who have received a Medal 
of Honor from the United States for bravery. 


Instituted in 1875, must prove their descent from a Rev- 
olutionary ancestor. The Sons of the Revolution (1876) 
is organized on the same basis. It is expected that 
these two large societies will be consolidated. 


Incorporated in 1775, is composed of the direct male 
descendants of Hollanders resident in America before 



Organized in 1883, admits descendants of Huguenots 
who came to America before 1787. 


Organized in 1891, is composed of women descended 
from an ancestor who held an office of importance in 
the colonies previous to 1750. 

There are various other societies for women, of 
which the most important are Daughters of the Am- 
erican Revolution, founded in 1890 ; and Daughters of 
the Revolution, founded in 1891 ; and there is also a 
society of Children of the American Revolution, founded 
in 1895. • 

<<-««■» ^r-r^T ^-r-rr-r-t-n ) ' 


Organized in 1894, includes male and female descend- 
ants of the passengers of the Mayflower (1620). 


The one decoration that is given by the government 
of the United States is the Medal of Honor, which was 
authorized by acts of Congress of 1862 and 1863 to 
be awarded to officers and enlisted men of the army for 
**gallantryin action and soldier-like qualities during the 
present insurrection.'' It has been bestowed only for 
conspicuous services. For example the Twenty -seventh 
Regiment of Maine Infantry was present on the field 
where the battle of Gettysburg wasfoughtj and its term 
of service had expired. The entire regiment, to a man, 
volunteered to remain on the field and fight the battle; 
and for this gallant conduct a medal was awarded to 
each officer and man. A Naval Medal of Honor is also 
awarded by the government and it is highly prized. 





Aaron : Lofty ; inspired. 

Abdiel : The servant of God. 

Abel : Breath, vanity. 

Abiathar: Father of plenty. 

Abiel. Father of strength. 

Abiezer: Father of help. 

Abijah: To whom Jehovah is a 

Abner: Father of light. 

Abraham: Father of a multitude. 

Abram: Father of elevation. 

Absalom: Father of peace. 

Adam: Man; earth-man; red earth. 

Adiel: The ornament of God. 

Adin, or Adino: Tender; delicate; 

Adolph or Adolphus: Noble wolf; 
i.e., noble hero. 

Adoniram : Lord of height. 

Alaric: All- rich; or, noble ruler. 

Albert: Nobly bright, illustrious. 

Alexander: A defender of men. 

Alfred: Elf in council; good coun- 

Algernon: With whiskers. 

Allan: Corruption of -^lienus. 

Almon: Hidden. 

Alonzo: Same as Alphonso. 

Alpheus: Exchange. 

Alphonso: All-ready; willing. 

Alvah, or Alvan: Iniquity. 

Alvin or Alwin: Beloved by all. 

Amariah: Whom Jehovah prom- 

Amasa: A burden. 

Ambrose: Immortal; divine. 

Ammi: My people. 

Amos: Strong; courageous. 

Andrew: Strong, manly. 

Andronicus: A conqueror of men- 
Anselm, or Ansel: Protection of 

Anthony or Antony: Priceless; 

Apollos: Of Apollo. 
Archelaus: Ruler of the people. 
Archibald: Extremely bold; or, 

holy prince. 
Ariel: Lion of God; valiant for 

Aristarchus: A good prince. 
Arnold: Strong as an eagle. 
Artemas: Gift of Artemis, or 

Arthur: High, noble. 
Asa: Healer; physician. 
Asahel : Made of God. 
Asaph: A collector. 
Asarelah: Upright to God. 
Ashbel: Fire of Bel. 
Asher: Happy, fortunate. 
Ashur: Black, blackness. 
Athanasius: Immortal. 
Athelstan: Noble stone. 
Aubrey: Ruler of spirits. 
Augustin, Augustine, or Austin: 

Belonging to Augustus. 
Augustus: Exalted, imperial. 
Aurelius: Golden. 
Azariah: Helped of the Lord. 

Baldwin : Bold, courageous friend. 

Baptist: A baptizer'; purifier. 

Barachias: Whom Jehovah has 

Bardolph: A distinguished helper. 

Barnabas or Barnaby: Son of con- 



Bartholomew: A warlike son. 
Barzillai: Iron of the Lord; firm; 

Basil:. Kingly; royal. 
Benedict: Blessed. 
Benjamin: Son of the right hand. 
Benoni: Son of grief or trouble. 
Beriah: In calamity. 
Bernard: Bold as a bear. 
Bertram: Bright raven. 
Bethuel: Man of God. 
Bezaleel: In the shadow of God. 
Boniface: A benefactor. 
Brian: Strong. 
Bruno: Brown. 

Cadwallader: Battle-arranger. 

Caesar: Hairy; or blue-eyed. 

Cain: Gotten, or acquired. 

Caleb: A dog. 

Calvin: Bald. 

Cecil: Dim-sighted. 

Cephas: A stone. 

Charles: Strong; manly; noble- 

Christian: A believer in Christ, 

Christopher: Bearing Christ. 

Clarence: Illustrious. 

Claudius, or Claude: Lame. 

Clement: Mild-tempered, merciful. 

ConraQ: Bold in council; resolute. 

Constant: Firm, faithful. 

Constantine: Resolute, firm. 

Cornelius: Horn. 

Crispin, Crispus, or Crispian: Hav- 
ing curly hair. 

Cuthbert: Noted splendor. 

Cyprian: Of Cyprus. 

Cyril: Lordly. 

Cyrus: The sun. 

Dan: A judge. 
Daniel: A divine judge. 
Parius: Perserver. 

David: Beloved. 
Demetrius: Belonging to Ceres. 
Denis, or Dennis: Same Dionysius. 
Dexter: The right hand. 
Dionysius: Belonging to Dionysos, 

or Bacchus the god of wine. 
Donald: Proud chief. 
Duncan: Brown chief. 

Eben: A stone. 

Ebenezer: The stone of help. 

Edgar: A javelin (or protector) of 

Edmund: Defender of property. 
Edward: Guardian of property. 
Edwin: Gainer of property. 
Egbert: The sword's brightness; 

famous with the sword. 
Elbert: Same as Albert. 
Eldred: Terrible. 
Eleazer: To whom God is a help. 
Eli: A foster son. 
Eliab: God is his father. 
Eliakim: Whom God sets up. 
Elias: The same as Elijah. 
Elihu: God the Lord. 
Elijah: Jehovah is my God. 
Eliphalet: God of salvation. 
Elisha: God my salvation. 
Elizur: God is my rock. 
Ellis: A variation of Elisha. 
Elmer: Noble, excellent. 
Elnathan: God gave. 
Emmanuel: God with us. 
Emery, Emmery or Emory: Pow- 

ful, rich. 
Eneas: Praised, commended. 
Enoch: Consecrated, dedicated. 
Enos: Man. 

Ephraim: Very fruitful. 
Erasmus: Lovely; worthy to be 

Erastus: Lovely, amiable. 



Eric: Rich, brave, powerful. 
Eraest, Ernestus: Earnest. 
Esau: Covered with hair. 
Ethan: Firmness, strength, 
Eugene: Well-born ; noble. 
Eusebius: Pious, godly. 

Hannibal: Grace of Baal. 
Harold: A champion; general of 

an army. 
Heman: Faithful. 
Henry: The head or chief of a 


Eustace: Healthy, strong; standing Herbert: Glory of the army. 

Hercules: Lordly fame. 

Herman: A warrior. 

Hezekiah: Strength o^f the Lord. 

Hilary: Cheerful, merry. 

Hillel: Praise. 

Hiram: Most noble. 

Homer: A pledge, security. 

Evan: Same as John. 
Everard: Strong as a wild boar. 
.Ezekiel: Strength of God. 
Ezra: Help. 

Felix: Happy; prosperous. 

Ferdinand or Fernando: Brave, Horace, Horatio: Oak wood; or 

valiant. worthy to be loved. 

Fe^us: Joyful, glad. Hosea: Salvation. 

Francis: Free. Howell: Sound, whole. 

Frank, Franklin: Contraction of Hubert: Bright in spirit; soul- 
Francis, bright. 

Frederic or Frederick: Abounding Hugh, or Hugo: Mind, spirit, soul, 

in peace, peaceful ruler. Humphrey: Protector of the home. 

Gabriel: Man of God. 
Gad: A troop, or company. 
Gaius: Rejoiced. 
Gamaliel: Recompense of God. 
Geoffrey: Same as Godfrey. 
George: A landholder, husband- 
Gerald: Strong with the spear. 
Gershom : An exile. 
Gideon: A destroyer. 
Gilbert: Yellow-bright; famous. 
Giles: A kid. 
Given: Gift of God. 
Goddard: Pious, virtuous. 
Godfrey: At peace with God. 
Godwin: Good in war. 
Gregory: Watchful. 
Griffith: Having great faith. 
Gustavus: A warrior, hero. 
Guy: A leader. 

Ichabod: The glory is departed. 
Ignatius: Ardent, fiery. 
Immanuel: Same as Emmanuel. 
Increase: Increase of faith. 
Ingram: Raven. 
Inigo: Same as Ignatius (Spanish 

Ira: Watchful. 
Isaac: Laughter. 
Isaian: Salvation of the Lord. 
Israel: A soldier of God. 
Ishmael: Afflicted her. 
Ithiel: God is with me. 
Ivan: Same as John (Russian 


Jabez: He will cause pain. 
Jacob: A supplanter. 
Jairus: He will enlighten. 
James: Same as Jacob. 



Japheth: Enlargement. 
Jared: Descent. 
Jason: A healer. 
Jasper: Treasure masteis 
Javan: Clay, supple. 
Jedediah: Beloved of the Lord. 
Jeffrey: Same as Godfrey. 
Jeremiah, Jeremias, or Jerome: 

Exalted of the Lord. 
Jerome: Holy name. 
Jesse: Wealth. 
Jesus: Same as Joshua. 
Joab: Jehovah is his father. 
Job: Affiicted, persecuted. 
Joel: The Lord is God. 
John: The gracious gift of God. 
Jonah, or Jonas: A dove. 
Jonathan: Gift of Jehovah. 
Joseph: He shall add. 
Joshua: The Lord is welfare. 
Josiah or Josias: Given of the 

Jotham: The Lord is upright. 
Judah: Praised. 
Julian: Sprung from, or belonging 

to Julius. 
Julius: Soft-haired. 
Justin, or Justus: Just. 

Kenelm: A defender of his kindred. 
Kenneth: A leader, commander. 

Laban: White. 

Lambert: Illustrious with landed 

Lancelot: A little angel; others 

wise a little lance or warrior; or 

a servant. 
Laurence or Lawrence: Crowned 

with laurel. 
Lazarus: God will help. 
Leander: Lion man. 
Lebbeus: Praise. 

Lemuel: Created by God. 
Leonard: Strong, or brave as a 

Leonidas: Lion -like. 
Leopold: Bold for the people. 
Levi: Adhesion. 
Lewis: Bold warrior. 
Linus: Flaxen-haired. 
Lionel: Young lion. 
Lewellyn: Lightning. 
Loammi: Not my people. 
Lodowic: Same as Ludovic or 

Lorenzo: same as Laurence (Span* 

ish and Italian form). 
Lot: A veil, covering. 
Louis: Same as Lewis. 
Lubin: Beloved friend. 
Lucian: Belonging to or sprung 

from Lucius. 
Lucius: Born at break of day. 
Ludovic: Same as Lewis. 
Luke: Light-giving. 
Luther: Illustrious warrior. 
Lycurgus: Wolf-driver. 

Madoc: Good, beneficent. 

Malachi: Messenger of the Lord. 

Manasseh: Forgetfulness. 

Marcellus: Diminutive of Marcus] 

Marcius: Same as Marcus. 

Marcus or Mark: A hammer, other- 
wise, a male, or sprung from 

Marmaduke: A mighty noble. 

Martin: Of Mars; warlike. 

Matthew: Gift of Jehovah. 

Matthias: Gift of the Lord. 

Maurice: Corruption of Amabuc. 
(himmelreich); the kingdom of 

Maximillian: The greatest Aemili- 



Meredith: Sea-protector. 
Micah: Who is like the Lord? 
Michael: Who is like to God? 
Miles: A soldier. 
Morgan: A seaman, a dweller on 

the sea. 
Moses: Drawn out of the water. 

Naaman: Pleasantness. 
Nahum: Consolation. 
Napoleon: Lion of the forest-dell. 
Nathan: Given, a gift. 
Nathanael, or Nathaniel: The gift 

of God. 
Neal or Neil: Dark, swarthy; 

otherwise (Celtic) chief. 
Nehemiah: Comfort of the Lord. 
Nicholas or Nicolas: Victory of 

the people. 
Noah: Rest, comfort. 
Noel: (Dies Natalis) Christmas; 

Born on Christmas Day. 
Norman: A Northman, native of 


Obadiah: Servant of the Lord. 

Obed: Serving God. 

Octavius or Octavus: The eighth- 

Oliver: An olive tree. 

Orestes: A mountaineer. 

Orlando: Same as Rowland. 

Oscar: Bounding warrior. 

Osmond or Osmund: Protection 
of God. 

Oswald or Oswold: Power of God. 

Owen: Lamb, otherwise, young 

Ozias: Strength of the Lord. 

Patrick: Noble; a patrician. 
Paul, Paulinus, or Paulus: Little* 
Peleg: Division. 
Peregrine: A stranger. 

Peter: A rock. 
Philander: A lover of men. 
Philemon: Loving, friendly. 
Philip: A lover of horses. 
Phineas, or Phinehas: Mount of> 

Pius: Pious, dutiful. 
Poly carp: Much fruit. 
Ptolemy: Mighty in war. 

Quintin: The fifth. 

Ralph: Same as Rodolphus. 
Randal: House-wolf. 
Raphael: The healing of God. 
Raymond, or Raymiind: Wise pro 

Reginald: Strong ruler. 
Reuben: Behold, a son. 
Reuel: Friend of God. 
Reynold: Same as Reginald. 
Richard: Rich-hearted, powerful. 
Robert: bright in fame. 
Roderic or Roderick: Rich in 

Rodolph or Rodolphus: Famous 

wolf or hero. 
Roger: Famous with the spear. 
Roland or Rowland: Fame of the 

Rudolph or Rudolphus: Variations 

of Rodolphus. 
Rufus: Red, red-haired. 
Rupert: Same as Robert. 

Salmon: Shady. 

Samson, or Sampson: Splendid 

sun, great joy and felicity. 
Samuel: Heard of God; asked for 

of God. 
Saul: Asked for. 
Seba: Eminent. 

Sebastian: Venerable, reverend. 
Septimus: The seventh born. 



Sereno or Serenus: Calm, peace- 

Seth: Appointed. 

Shadrach: Rejoicing in the way. 

Sigismund: Conquering, protec- 

Silas: A contraction of Silvanus. 

Silvanus: Living in a wood. 

Silvester: Bred in the country 

Simeon, Simon: Hearing with ac- 
ceptance . 

Solomon: Peaceable. 

Stephen: A crown. 

Swithin: Strong friend. 

Sylvanus: Same as Silvanus. 

Sylvester: Same as Silvester. 

Tertius: the third born. 

Thaddeus: The wise. 

Theobald: Bold for the people. 

Theodore: The gift of God. 

Theodoric: Powerful among the 

Theophilus: A lover of God. 

Theron: A hunter. 

Thomas: A twin. 

Timothy: Fearing God. 

Titus: Honorable. 

Tobiah or Tobias: Distinguished 
of the Lord. 

Tristram: Grave, pensive, melan- 
choly, sorrowful, sad. 

Tybalt: Same as Theobald. 

Ulysses: A hater. 

Urban: Of the town; courteous; 

Uriah: Light of the Lord. 
Urian: A husbandman. 
Uriel: Light of God. 

Valentine: Strong, healthy, pow- 
Vicesimus: The twentieth born. 
Victor: A conqueror. 
Vincent: Conquering. 
Vivian: Lively. 

Walter: Ruling the roast. 

William: Resolute helmet, or hel- 
met of resolution; defence; pro- 

Winfred: Win-peace. 

Zabdiel : Gift of God. 
Zaccheus: Innocent, pure. 
Zachariah, or Zacherv: Remem- 

bered of the Lord. 
Zadok: Just. 
Zebediah or Zebedee: Gift of the 

Zebina: Bought. 
Zebulon: Dwelling. 
Zedekiah: Justice of the Lord. 
Zelotes: A zealot. 
Zenas: Gift of Jupiter. 
Zephaniah: Hid of the Lord. 





Abigail: My father's joy. 

Achsa: Anklet. 

Ada: The same as Edith. 

Adela, Adelaide, or Adeline: Of 
noble birth, a princess. 

Agatha: Good, kind. 

Agnes: Chaste, pure. 

Alberta: Feminine of Albert. 

Alethea: Truth. 

Alexandra, or Alexandrina: Femi- 
nine of Alexander. 

Alice, or Alicia: Same as Adeline. 

Almira: Lofty; a princess. 

Althea: A healer. 

Amabel: Loveable. 

Amanda: Worthy to be loved. 

Amelia: Busy, energetic. 

Amy: Beloved. 

Angelica, Angelina: Lovely, an- 

Ann, Anna, or Anne: Grace. 

Annabella: Feminine of HannibaK 

Annette: Variation of Anne. 

Antoinette: Diminutive of Anto- 

Antonia,or Antonina: Inestimable. 

Arabella: A fair altar; otherwise, 
corruption of Orabllia, a praying 

Ariana: A corruption of Ariadne. 

Augusta: Feminine of Augustus. 

Aurelia: Feminine of Aureiius. 

Aurora: Morning redness; fresh; 

Azubah; Deserted. 

Barbara: Foreign; strange. 
Beatrice,or Beatrix: Making happy. 

Belinda: From Bella, Isabella, Eliz- 

Benedicta; Feminine of Benedic- 

Bertha: Bright; beautiful. 

Betsey: A corruption of Elizabeth. 

Blanch, or Blanche: White. 

Bona: Good. 

Bridget: Strength. 

Camilla: Attendant at a sacrifice 
Caroline: Feminine of Carolus or 

Cassandra: One who inflames with 

Catharina, Catharine, or Catherine: 

Cecilia or Cecily: Feminine of 

Celestine: Heavenly. 
Celia: Feminine of Coelus. 
Charlotte: Feminine of Charles. 
Chloe: A green herb; blooming. 
Christiana, or Christina: Feminine 

of Christianus. 
Cicely: A variation of Celia. 
Clara: Bright, illustrious. 
Clarice, or Clarissa: A variation of 

Claudia: Feminine of Claudius. 
Clementina, or Clementine; Mild, 

Constance: Firm, constant. 
Cora: Maiden; a form of Corinna. 
Cornelia: Feminine of Cornelius. 
Cynthia: Belonging to Mount 



Deborah: A bee. Fanny: Diminutive of Frances, 

Delia: of Delos. Faustina: Fortunate; lucky. 

Diana: Goddess. Felicia: Happiness. 

Diantha: Flower of Jove; a pink. Fidelia: Faithful. 

Dinah: Judged. Flora: Flowers; goddess of flowers 

Dora: A variation of Dorothea. and spring. 

Dorcas: A gazelle. Florence: Blooming'; flourishing. 

Dorinda: Same as Dorothea. Frances: Feminine of Francis. 

Dorothea, or Dorothy: Gift of Frederica: Feminine of Frederick 


T^ .,, T^ * J Georgiana, orGeorgina: Feminine 

Drusilla: Dew watered. , % 

of George. 

Geraldine: Feminine of Gerald. 
Gertrude: Spear-maiden. 

Ella: A contraction of Eleanor. 
Ellen: A diminutive of Eleanor. 
Elvira: White. 

Edith: Happiness; otherwise rich 

«, .' r>, Grace or Gratia: Grace, favor. 
iLona: x leasure. 

171 iTi t: u4..o»»,^..o Griselda: Stone; heroine. 

Eleanor, or Elinor: Light; same as * 

• ^ Hannah: Same as Anna. 

Elisabeth, Elizabeth. or Eli^a:Wor. h^^^,^^^ ^^ ^^^^.^^, Feminine of 

shiper of God; consecrated to „ 

^®^- Helen, or Helena: Light. 

Henrietta: Feminine diminutive 

of Henry. 

Hephzibah: My delight is in her. 

Emeline, or 'Emmeline: Energetic, „^,j^^ ^^ ^^^^^^^^. g^^^ ^^ g^^^^^ 

industrious. Hilaria: Feminine of Hilary. 

Emily, or Emma: Same as h„„„^^ „^ Honorfa: Honorable. 

Hortensia: A lady gardener. 

Ernestine: feminine and diminu- Huldah: A weasel. 


Esther: A star; good fortune. jja: Happy. 

Ethelind, or Ethelinda: Noble Inez: Same as Agnes. 

snake. Irene: Peaceful. 
Eudora: Good gift. Isabel, or Isabella: Same as Eliza- 
Eugenia, or Eugenie: Feminine of beth. 


Eulalia: Fair speed. Jane, or Janet: Feminine of John. 

Eunice: Happy victory. Jaqueline, Feminine of James. 

Euphemia: Of good report. J^an, Jeanne, or Jeannette: Same 

Eva: Same as Eve. as Jane or Joan. 

Evangeline: Bringing glad news. Jemima: A dove. 

Eve: Life. Jerusha: Possessed, married. 

Evelina, or Eveline: Diminutive Joan, Joanna, Johanna: Feminine 

of Eva. of John. 



Josepha, or Josephine: Feminine 

of Joseph. 
Joyce; Sportive 
Judith: Praised. 
Julia: Feminine of Julius. 
Juliana: Feminine of Julian. 
Juliet: Diminutive of Julia. 
Justina: Feminine of Justin. 

Katharine, or Katherine: Same as 

Keturah: Incense. 
Keziah: Cassia. 

Laura: A laurel. 

Laurinda: A variation of Laura. 

Lavinia: Of Latium. 

Leonora: Same as Eleanor. 

Letitia: Happiness. 

Leitice: A variation of Letitia. 

Lillian, or Lily: A lily. 

Lois: Good; desirable. 

Lorlnda: A variation of Laurinda. 

Louisa, or Louise: Feminine of 

Lucia: Same as Lucy. 

Lucinda: Same as Lucy. 

Lucrece, or Lucretia: Gain; other- 
wise, light. 

Lucy: Feminine of Lucius. 

Lydia: A native of Lydia. 

Mabel: A contraction of Amabel. 
Madeline: French form of Magde- 

Magdalene: A native of Magdala. 
Marcella: Feminine of Marcellus. 
Marcia: Feminine of Marcius. 
Margaret: A pearl. 
Maria: Same as Mary. 
Marianne: A compound of Mary 

and Anne. 

Marion: A French form of Mary. 

Martha: The ruler of the house; 

Mary: Bitter; otherwise, their re- 
bellion ; or, star of the east. 

Mathilda, or Matilda: Mighty bat- 
tle-maid; heroine. 

Maud: A contraction of Matilda; 
or Madalene. 

May: Month of May; or Mary. 

Mehetabel, Mehitabel: Benefited 
of God. 

Melicent: Sweet-singer; otherwise 
working strength. 

Melissa: A bee, 

Mildred: Mild threatener. 

Miranda: Admirable. 

Miriam: Same as Mary. 

Myra: She who weeps or laments. 

Nancy: A familiar form of Anne. 
Nora: A contraction of Helenora; 
Honora; and of Leonora. 

Octavia: Feminine of Octavius. 
Olive, or Olivia: An olive. 
Ophelia: A serpent. 
Olympia: Heavenly. 

Paula, Paulina, or Pauline: Femi- 
nine of Paulus or Paul. 
Penelope: A weaver. 
Persis: A Persian woman. 
Phebe, or Phoebe: Pure, radiant^ 
Philippa: Feminine of Philip. 
Phillis, Phyllis: A green bough. 
Polly: A diminutive of Mary. 
Priscilla: Advanced in years. 
Prudence: In Latin Prudentia. 

Rachel: An ewe. 

Rebecca, or Rebekah: of enchant- 
ing beauty. 
Rhoda: A rose. 
Rosa: A rose. 



My full name is: 

PI fire of my birth: 

Date of mil birth: 


Sfrhool at feu fieri: 


Occupation : 

Posiiions held, traits of character, etc : 

S^ Informatioa of my forefathers given on pa^es ii, D, F. 
Place of my mnrriaye : Bate of my marriage : 

Full maiden nam^ of mv wife: 

Place of her birth : 

Date of her birth : 

School fitiended : 

•"*■■••■•""■■""■""•■""■""""""■"•""*""*■"•"****"•••**---,•---*••••"*""••*-*■**•■"*•*■•■-** ..... — 

Her attainments, traits of chnrarter. etc.: 

Mar Intormation or her forefathers given on pag^es C, E, G. 

Christian Names of Our Children : 

7s f Chihl: 

Full Names to Whom Married: 

Married to : 

Born: OVd: 

Date of marriaee: 

2nd Child: 

Married to: 

Born : Died : 


Date of marriape: 

3rd Child: 

Married to: 

Borni Died: 

Date of marriafre: 

4 th Child 

Married to: 

Born- Died: 

Date of marriaere: 

5th Child: 

Married to : 

Born: Died: 

Date of marriatre: 

6th Child: 

Married to: 

Born: D'ed: 

Date of marriagre: 

Aktf^WiAeu married further information given on pages H, I, J. 


My father's full name is: 

Place of his birth: 

Date of his birth : 


Occupation : 

Positions held, traits of character, etc. : 


Place of his death: 

Date of his death: 

VS' Informatton of his forefathers ifiven on page D. 

Place of their marriage : Date of their marriage : 

Pull maiden name of his wife: 

Place of her birth : 

Date of her birth: 

Her attainments, traits of character, etc, : 

Place of her death : 

Date of her death : 

49" Information of her forefathers given on page F. 

Christian Names of Their Children: 

1st Child: 

Full Names to Whom Married : 

Married to : 


Born : Died : 


Date of marriage: 

2nd Child: 

Married to: 

Born: Died: 

Date of marrinye: 

Srd Child: 

Married to: 

Born: Died: 

Date of marrtasre: 

4th Child: 

Married to: 



Dale of marriajre: 

5th nhild: 

Married to: 



Date of marriage: 

ath Child: 

Married to: 



Date of marriage: 


My wife's father's full name is: 

Place of his birth : 

Date of his birth : 



Occupation : 

Positions held, traits of character, etc. : 

— ,f — 

Place of his death , 


Date of his death: 

4^^ Information ot his turelatners t^iven un page E. 

Place of their marriage : Da te of their marriage : 

Full maiden name 


of his wife: 


Date of her birth: 

Her attainments, traits of character, etc.: 

Place of her death 


Date of her death : 

4^ Information of her forefathers given on page G. 

Christian Names of Ttieir Children: 

1st Child: 

Full Names to Whom Married : 

Married to: 


Date of marriage: 

2nd Child: 

Married to: 



Date of marriage: 

3rd Child: 

Married to: 
.......................................................................... j^..................... 



Date of marriage: 

Ath Child: 

Married to: 



Date of marriage: 

5th Child: 

Married to: 



Date of marriage: 

6th Child: 


Married to: 



Date of marriage: 



My Fathers fathefs full name is: 

Place of his birth: 

Date of his birth : 



ffis father's full name was : 

His mother* s full maiden name was: 

Place of his death : 

Date of his oeath: 

Place of their marriage : 

Date of their marriage: 

Full maiden name of his wife : 

Place of her birth : 

Date of her birth : 

ffer father's full name was: 

Her mother's full maiden name was: 

Place of her death : 

Date of her death : 


Christian Names of Their Children : 

1st Child: 

Full Names to Whom Married : 

Married to: 

Born: Dipd: 

Date of raarrino"e: 

2nd Child: 

Married to: 

Born: Died: 

Dnte of rx\r^rr\'^^rn', 

3rd Child: 

Married to: ' 

Born: Died: 

Dnie of marriare: 

^th Child: 

Mnrried In: 

Born: Died: 

D^te of mnrrinp-e: 

5th Child: 

Marri d In: 

Born: Died: 

Date of nnrr5a«^e: 

6ih Child: 

Married tn: 

Born: Died: 

Date of marriag-e: 



My wife's Father's fa.iheis full name is: 

Place of his birth 

Date of his birth: 


His father's full nanip rmv .- 


His mofhefs full maiden name jras 

Place of his death : 

Date ^of his death : 


Place of their marriagp : 

Date of their marriage : 

Full maiden name of his wife : 

Place of her birth : 

Her father's full name was : 

Her mother* s full maiden name irns: 

Date of her birth 

Place of her death : 

Christian Names of Their Children 
1st Child: 

Date of her death 



Full Names to Whom Married: 

Married to: 

Date of marriatre: 

2nd Child: 





Married to 

Date of marriage; 

Married to: 




Date of marriaere; 

Married to: 

5th Child. 



Date of marriajre; 

Married to 




Date of marriaere: 

Married to: 


Date of marriac"e; 



My Mother's father's full name is: 


Place of his birth : 

Date of his birth : 


Occupation : 

His father's full name was: 


Place of his death: 

Date of his death: 

Date of their marriage : 

Full maiden name of his wife. 

Place of her birth : 

Bate of her birth : 

Her father's 

full name was: 

Her mother' & 

' full maiden 

name was: 

Place of her death: 

Date of her death : 

Christian Names of Tlieir Ciiildren : 
1st Child: 

Fuil Names to Wtiom IMarrled : 

Married to: 



Date of marriasre: 

2nd Child: 

Married to : 



Date of marrlape: 

3rd Child: 

Married to: 



Date of marriap-e: 

4M Child: 

Married to: 



Date of marriage: 


5th Child: 


Married to: 



Date of marriag-e: 

^th Child: 


Married to: 



Date of marriag-e: 




Mf/ wife's Mother's father's full name is. 

Place of his birth : 

Date of his birth : 


Occupation : 

His father's full name was: 


Place of h is dea th : 

Date of his death: 

Da te of their marriage : 

Full maiden name of his wife: 

Date of her birth: 

Her father's full name was: 

Place of her death : 

Date of her death: 


1st Child: 

Full Names to Whom Married: 

Married to : 

Born: Died: 

Date of marriaire: 

2nd Child: 

Married to: 

Born: Died: 

Date of marriag-e: 

3rd Child: 

Married to: 

Born: Died: 

Date of marriaR-e: 

Married to: 

Born: Died: 

Date of marria^re: 


Married to: 

Born: Died: 

Date of marriagre: 

6th Child: 

Married to: 

Born: Died: 

Date of marriage: 


My .ih Child's full name is: 

Place of birtli: 

Date of birth: 

School attended: 


Occupation : 

Place of marriage : 

Date of marriage: 

Place of birth : 


Date of birth: 




Traits of character, etc. : 

Fathefs full name : 

' Christian Names off Their Children : 

1st Child: 

Full Names to Whom Married : 

Married to: 

Born: Died: 

Date of marriafre: 

2nd Child: 

Married to: 

Date of marriag-e: 

3rd Child: 

Married to: 

Born: Died: 

Date of marriaire: 

4M Child: 

Married to: 

Born: Died: 

Date of marriage: 

5th Child: 

Married to: 

Born: Died: 

Date of marriagre: 

6th Child: 

Married to: 

Born: Died: 

Date of marriagre: 



Nil th Child's full name is 

Place of Urth: 

Date of birth : 

School attended: 


Occupation : 

Traits of character, etc. : 

Place of marriage : 

Date of marriage: 

Full name to whom married: 


Place of birth: 

Date of birth: 

School attended: 



Fathefs full name : 

Christian Names of Their Children: 

1st Child: 

Full Names to Whom Married : 

Married to: 



Date of marriage: 

2nd Child: 

Married to: 



Date of marriag-e: 

3rd Child: 

Married to: 



Date of marriafre: 

Mh Child: 

Married to: 



Date of marriag'e: 

5th Child: 


Married to: 



Date of marriag-e : 

6th Child: 

Married to: 



Date of marriag-e: 



My ih Child's full name is: 

Place cf birth: 


Date of birth : 

School attended: 


Occupation : 

Traits of character, etc. : 

Place of marriage : 

Date of marriage: 

Full name to whom married 

' . 

Place of birth: 

Date of birth: 

School attended: 



Traits of character, etc. : 

Fathefs full name: 


Mother* s full maiden name: 


Christian Names of Their Children : 
1st Child: 

Full Names to Whom Married : 

Married to: 



Date of marriaire: 

2nd Child: 

Married to: 

Born : 


Date of marriaire: 

3rd Child: 

Married to: 



Date of marriaire: 

4ih Child: 

Married to: 



Date of marriaf^e: 

5th Child: 

Married to: 



Date of marriafre : 

6th Child: 

Married to: 



Date of marriaf?e : 




My — ih Child's full name is 

Place of birth: 

Date of birth: 

School attended: 



Traits of character, etc. . 

Place of marriage : 

Date of marriage : 

Place of birth: 

Date of birth: 

School attended: 



Traits of character^ etc. : 

Father's full name: 

Mother's full maiden name: 

Christian Names off Their Children : 

1st Child: 

Full Names to Whom Married : 

Married to: 

Born: Died: 

Date of marriaire: 

2nd Child: 

Married to: 

Born: Died: 

Date of niarriajre: 

Srd Child: 

Married to: 

Born: Died: 

Date of marriafre: 

Mh Child: 

Married to: 

Born: Died: 

Date of marriage: 

5th Child: 

Married to: 

Rorn: Died: 

Date of marriatre: 

6ih Child: 

Married to: 



Date of marriag'e: