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English Language 











Ent«nd, MArdlKg to Act or CoograM, fB tyVTgar ISat, bf 


Is IbcClcrk'iOfflMOttlKDiflilCtOinrt otlbsllDlIcdSlatnfDr tbeSODtbOtnDlttrtetof 

N«« York. 

COFTBiaBT, lean, IT 


ComuaHT, IBM, IT 

mi' voac 


The Lectures which form the basis of the present 
volume wei"e delivered at the Lowell Institute, in 
Boston, ia the United Staten, in the autumn and 
winter of 1860-1861. They were prepared in the 
preceding summer, with such aids only as my private 
library afforded, and my departure foi' Europe in the 
spring of the latter year has prevented me from giving 
them so complete a revision as I had hoped to bestow 
upon them. I have, however, made such additions 
and other improvements as the time and means at 
my command would permit, and, having been invited 
to publish the Lectures first in England, I have en- 
deavoured to remove from them whatever might seem 
designed exclusively for the American public, and have 
adapted them, as far as I was able, to the common 
wants of all who desire to study the literary history of 
the English tongue. 


StpUmbtT, 1882. 


The references in the fooUnotea and elsewhere 
to the *^ First Series" apply to the revised edition 
(of 1885) of Mr. Marshes "Zeotures on the English 
Zangwige" a course delivered some time earlier than 
that included %n this book. 





SDAai ...... a .' 41 

Axolo-Saxo!I Vocabvi^bt, LrTBRATTRB, kso Qbaxium > • • U 

Sevi-Saxiik IjTEBATinn , . • • • • < IM 

£]TOL]5H Lakoitaoi ufD IjnsATuiiE OF Ti:E FiRST Pbbiod: ntux m 


CsKmiiT lU 


CmaacrcKifsirr or Second Period: rnou I3£0 to thb mn or roa 
Akthob of Pubi Plodosmak . , . . . . SH 

ri C0STENT5. 


Tbb Aut)[ou op Fns* FLOvoHutH and H:a Ikit&toiu . • • 2BS 

Wtcufti akd his School . ..•••• 139 

CaiDcKR AMD Ooim ,..*•>. )Ti 


Tbb Ekolisb Ljknacuit Am LrniRATiinB ranit Tits Bf/ii^mno or nn 
Fii>TB£Hta Cektl'bt to thb imB OF Caxto:* .... 1S4 


^E Ennuni Lahodior and Litrratubb fbom Caxton to tbb AccEasion 
or EuxuiLTu .,..,.,. 183 


Tm ExousR Li-suvLO* akd Litb3atvu Dranro tss BEra cr Blba- 



Aleunden SagB. ndgiven sf TngpF, 1S(8, 1 B. Stq. 

Jf/M (King) Anglo-SozoD Vereian of Bofthiua de CoDsolatioDe HiiIo80pbfaik 
edited b; CudalB, LondoD, 1829, 1 toL Bra. 

— Aofilo-SaxoD Venrioa of the Hintorj o( Fauliu Orosms, Titli & tiaDsIation by 

Thorpe, in Panli's Life of Alfred the Great Soe Pauli. 

Jtfric or Aeyrie, Homiliea pablisbed by the Aelfric Society, London, 2 vols. Sto. 

Alisannder Kyng, in Weber's Matrical Hoioancea, VoL 1. 

Anemi Riwie. The Ancreo Riwle, a Treatise on the Bales and Dntiea of Honaatic 

Life, edited and tnmslated for the Camden Society, by Jamea Uorton, London, 

1853, I Tol. 4to. 
Anetdota literaria, a CoUettion of Short Poema in English, Lfttin and French, 

illnatrstiTa of the Literature and Histoiy of England in the Thirteenth Centoi;, 

adit«d by T. Wright, London, 184S, 1 vol. Bto. 
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, The Salon Chronicle, with an English tmnalation by 

J. IngiBn), London, 1823, 1 voL 4to. 

— The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, edited, with a tranaktion, by B. Thorpe. London, 

1S61, 2 Tols. 8vo. in the series Beram Britannicomm IMedii Aeri SfHptoree, 

or Chronicles ajid Mainarials of Great Britain and Ireland during the 

Kiddle Ages. 

Anglo-Saxon Gospels, The Anglo-Saxon Version of the Holy Gospels, edited by 

B. Thorpe, leprintcd by L. F. Zlipslein, New York, 1846, 1 voL 12nio. Se<\ 

•bo, Qoepell. 

jTw>/d, Tile Cnslonui of London, otherwise called Arnold's Chronicle, reprinted, 

London, 1811, 1 toL 4to. 
AKhain, BogtT, Tbe Scbole ISeiAti, &&, London, lfi70, 1 vol. small 4to. 
Aimmiia, D. Magni Aosonii BurdegulenBis Opera, AmstclitdBmi, 17S0, 1 vol. ISmo. 

Bacon (Lord) Esssjes or CoonaelB, dTiI and morull, newly enlarged, London, 1625, 
1 ToL sniall 4(0. 

Ballads, English and Scotch Ballads, edited by Fmneis James Child, Boston and 
London, 1361, S vols. 12mo, 


f 7«Ttr«, antmalin 3 Apologb do la Ueogiu CatliaUM^ BtmlOBi, I nl 

ISmo. kA. 
BfOiniU; T«rt in GrHtt* BJI.liothck. TL t 
Strntn (Lmd). 8*a Fmiuarl. 
Bible, ^gUth, Th* Itolj Bill*, conUjnins th* Old TnUment nd tli* llkW, 

iMkdon. l«ll, 1 ToL foUo. 

^ HMb-Deatntli, or IJilh'-r'iL &«• j;«(j|«r. 

— Ftjlntbtt Sm StitT m>4 TVitt. 

BiMMH. B.. Pn««M LombM^ levdll* d«l ShoIo XIII., Slnmo, IBSfl^ t nL Sro, 

— 8neeie«ui rKalrtIi Gtillo-Iulld. Wlmo, 1SS3, ] vol. 8to. 

Bodj snil Boul, DiakiiTR* bftvfrti, !□ Appmilii to tba latin Pmhu Kltribotnl K 
ViJter MaptB. tditmi bjr Wriglil Iw the Camiltu 6Mi«ljr, Loadon, 1841, 1 r«L 4Ui 

^fMw. Sm Al/rtd, 

Btmnemirt, Iliitoin das Psj««iii d«rui> Is fln do M«jm Agf jiuqn'i dm jaara, 
pu Gugine UonntnUre, FUw, ISde, 2 T. 8nx 

JMiMrti, A DictioAiry of iliB Anglo-Sucm Linpi^ttv ^ B^> '■ Botvotth, 
Landon, 1S34. t toL Bto. 

Tli«Origiii of theQttninwand Scandinanui LaDgotigMtuiil KBlioti)^ I^mlno, 
1S4€^ I ToL IroL 
Bugmiagrti, FbU-DrnitMh inuulMion of tlio Bibl*, Hot ;«. Oe Rnntm ITinig* 

Sohtifl TonSadliKhct dartb D. Matti. Lnlh. Hagdcborch, 1(41, t h. fiillo. 
Xtor^i^ OtmmBair* da 1» Lansoa <f on, Berlin, 1813, 3 & Sio^ 

Otdrnut, OEMd*, Exodna. Daniel, Tnt in OmVaBibUotbtl:, & I, 

Cbxttm, Tho Gam* oif tlio Chca■^ Mpcoducfd tn fwajnule tiy V. Tigpn*, London, 

leoo. 1 tdI. folio. 

^ l>rrb«< to Ibc Mort« d' Arthur, f.n 

OUutrr, The CanUrbnr; T&lrfl of Gfoffr*; CIiano«F, a no* text, editad by T. 

^W^ie1ll fur lltn Terej S«dcl}', London, 1&4T-16S1, 3 vola. 12aeL 
V Brprint cf mnia ttxt. a. A. 1 toL 8ti>. 
— Tb* FMIIca) Work* of QtoSttj Chanter, with T^hiti'i Inicoductoi? D» 
conrar. Kom and OloHaij, London, 1819, 1 inU Stol 
CSrib-, OFr ^oAo, Tbe nntt of 8«d!lioa, in HtlinAi, Vol 8, q.v. 
. •- 0<«^ of MaUlww and put of St Mark**; London. IStSs I toI. »*& 

ClnvAywrfi nMnmCbipaeonottaing Scotland, tcpriu, London, 1S17, 1 ToLSra 
LCWM^ A OIoMaiul Index to tho pTint«d Bngliah Litcratan of Iho Thirlonnth 

OnUaj, t>y Ibrbtrt Colcridje, London. ISA9, 1 vtA. tn. 
; CbMAMMbk Xom ]>iecion«ri« rrttioo e pljmologioo da Lingna Portigncaa, pM 
F. 8. CoiiitHni-io. St^itiina Edi^ilo, Fari^ > ^S", 1 T. 4(0. 

iroBKs emu a tkbsb LscrDitn 

CnUam, TH* WaodcnuiBM in KdM, hutorif^-kritbdi ds>gd<ft nn LMpoU 

Onitcfii, I^ipdg, ISdl, 1 T. era. 
ONcrbr, P, £^ Ooana compUtM da FMl-La>nb Oovrier, Bnsdli^ 1B39. 1 T. Rvo. 
(Vdd. <;. C. BirtoiT oT lb* Eagliali UUmtm ud Lupugg^ tatdM. 19G3, 

— Oat&iM* of tb* HistoiT of ll>" Bn^uh Lupuc^ I ml. ISnw. 

Oartaij^ Bok« of. TIm U«)m of Clu1lt^^ ui Kn£U>t> Potn of tbt Vauitiaatk 
0wbu7. eiUted ly HsUiwell for tlia Pdk; Sncirt?. I^iilDn. IMI, 1 toL lima. 

Cnj. Fonw cC Hia Forma 'if Cvjr, a Boll of A&daat CooImij, laodo*, IIUI 
ItoL Sto. 

4V~*«V* C™*- 1^'t ia ^'•^* BibUoILok. K L 

D^kU, n Osmrilo di Dtnta Alighwti « I* Epitldeh oen illBstzsiiwBl • prcto # 
flrtra FMlMUt FircuMk VUl. 1 tcL ISbm. 
rpirimilw rtltnUrtwtlnillirWflprnrhmniilTfHrrifiir tinnmigtgnhmnTiiTTinilir 

nbu«Bii. iMi. lUi, 3 a avcL 

ZNv, OnamUik dtr BomauK^Mn SfaMhan, *ob Fricdiufa Dit^ 1** Antpb^ 
, 1W4, 1S60, 3 B. Sto. 
artM 8er SyttttUr. 
'Swevft, OloMuiam UMia ot InSmB LsUaiUli^ ru Sup. lnl.O»H>llllril * 
mOenm. ilignnl H«bmImI, Pwi^ii^ 184t^ 1850, 7 T. 4(0b 

•Ite cr pMtiMl, Eddk fttmnndw hiia FriS*. EJdt Shjllimica ten 
Mitii|Bior, HmhIb. i;sr-m7, 1 T. 4u. 

— j«aiiB«i4V|oo)W,BddsSMtMaDu)uMav. IlareiK^ 1H8. 18(1, T. 1 rtS.STOh 
E4>sriUI.Po«oa<iMthof,liiFiDlltlci] Pmum uid aiMp of Engbai). ToL 1. 

i^ptfi"*. Lexicon Pofticnm AsiiijiuD liagna Srptentricanlii (iMkadio Mid Luia), 
BfM Sntnbj5rn Egibaon, BkAiia, l8Mt 1 T- 8t«. 
Putllf of Fiwioaa, Londoa, ISAt, 1 TsL llaa, npnaUd U SapglMMt lo 
Ifaklu;:, 1«13. 

, DanU «l ta Lett jnl'ir* It«Hpnn^ Pariit 18M, 8 T. Bro. 
. VoUwtoRiaa uH do IdV* Eraw, uil4i«go?ra ioot ViMchar, Ultt«ht. ISM^ 
I B.8m 

ftmrcj, moao«};IIalriE porta, la SofMjr 7irre^0nstaLic«d«l>LleBgHCUh*lHik. 
K'ltiir uihI Vaci*. WbtaachafUioh* Qnmmalik d*r BffglJH'tn Spadw, <«■ 
. rMI«r ud Old SMte. L«iH)b. ISet, X a 8tc 
f fVfwMM^ Qf rmiil i— T<Slk«ra(lBnaan, Btriia, Tsriont jm* lo ISA}. S B. Sro. 
FtiMr, Senaaa cm tbc doth of th* OdbdIm* of Dtabj, n^irint, Losidon, 1708^ 
. roL IZmo. 

1 1 CorMu, Svn Qat* da CterccMfii} a Petli|:M> 4 Ia^« Fui* 
ItU. 1 X 13»0l 


muoottAPnicju. list or 

FMy. Tht VcAbulnr^ of Eut AagUa. Vt Koti«rt fettf. tmdaa, lUO, 3 Tola. S*a 
fViiiifiirf, A> JoAn. diruaiclii of Bngluiil, Frmw. S{:ain. ScimIukI. fte. Iniib 

Utcd by John ItiMiK^cr. Lo«d Berneti^ Laadon, 1123; IliA, S Tote, folio i nptisi. 

Loadon. 1813. S rob. Ito. 
fWtrr, Tbc Chatth Ilutcny <rf BriUitt. (ton th* Binh of Jniw Cbn't mtH tli* 

jMt 1618. Loadon, IMS, 1 voL foliciL 

Oil, Alfxatidrf, lo^oiiamu AB|;lica. 3nil editioi, Lonilon, 1631. mull 4ta. 
OeUiw/, Th» XV BualM of I'. Ouitliut Nom, AntiiiiExl MolaniorpliMni, n mrtA 

Tsru piDmintuitl dglrdnblo, tnuutaUJ onl of Lutin iiiUi Euclnh tnMUf bj 

Ail^TT 0«idiii|t OanllvmBii, Ifondun, ISW, 1 nL mull llo. 
a<Mp«l, The Qoipl iwDAftlin;; to 3E*itlieir !a Asglo-Saxoa kad NurthuntrUn 

Vcnion, ChinM>%#. US9, I loL 4I«. 
Cmkt, Tti* CmiFcmio Amuitt* of John Oom^ sdiUd I7 Dr. lUinLoM Fnl^ 

Lonilan, ISfiT, 3 vol*. Sro. 
Cnii^. a. G, I)iutl*k«, De&knial«r SonlBchrr ^pnche nnd Litlonlw, Slutlgart mnd 

T«tiiag*n. 183«, ItOO. iB.6To. 

Gntn, BililicFtlirk An Anti«I*ichaiMAicii Poni^ OottiBgok, )S9T-1S8% Swi. tat> 

3 n. : DoiUcliK Uoln-niritutifr B. I. II. ; OUmai. U. 1. X 
Grtmm. Jatot imJ WMdn, titnltebet Vittahath, Lnprig. JMJ-«a. B. I. O. 

ID. 410. 


BtUMft, Rittar^, Th« firjndptl KarigadoM. TojagM, «nd DiMOtcrie* mad* bj 

tlia EbcUiOi }f>lian. Lon-loa, 1(98, 141)9, 1000, » mla. fblioL 

.— B^pkmont ta BRkloft. &«., Loadan, 1S13, 1 *ol. Ito. 
B^gf, <Mn, Chronicle in Ucin, m'Ui tantinaniioD in froiff. *dited Lj' Qnftoa. 

lepttal. LoDdon, 1812. 1 toL iU). 
EtufI, 7.nlacbrin fUr DontvdiM Allotlnini, Ioii«ij^ 18<l-<3. 13 6. Sro. 
Ha^t, SUpi-n, Til* pMtlms of Plodamt^ nfuJBt, odiud bj Wriglit Sat Pen/ 

Sodcl^, London, 184S, 1 to), ilmo. 
tbimtkriai^^ niitoria Bcgwo Homglconnn, wuum Snorrio Stctlso. BoIUk 

I7TT-1838, e T. foUo. 
ltiii»nJ. Potfoa 8axoaic«m StenH Noni, cdMA O. A. SehswCfr, Hacuui, 183% 

ifrnVunJ; Truulation of put of Old TmIbdekL fn WyeUffU Xinont, q.9. 
HijfVMd, Join, Tho Four Fa. a vn; turn; GD1«riw1e of * EU»(r, ■ Punloiwr. • 

pMaeaty, sad ■ Pcdlir. nprict in Dodilvjr'i CoUtttion of OU! Ftnjt • hIm ma»j 

•Enftlo fUj* ; iM col)ocl«d edition oiiit*. 
OifMtim, (M nril>fwMA^ Horn Bdgiai (luioui ynn d»*B t« IU7), 3" 

Ai^br, tl B. 8m. 



BtlmAid, Ralph, Cbronicl'^ of England, Scotknd, uid Ireland, rapriDt, TxiDduii. 

1S07-180S, 6 T-oIs. 4to. 
BtHtMd. See Piiny. 
EaokfT, Hiekard, Of the lawca of Ecclesiasticall Foliti^ by Biehsrd Hookra. 

BookesL to 17., London, vithonC date (lesi), 1 toL folio; The Fift Booke, 

London, lfiB7, I toL folio. 
Hon) (Kjng) The Gosfe of KyBg Horn, in Horn et Rirapahild, edited for tho 

Baiinatjne Club by Francisque Michel, pBrii, 184S, 1 T. 4to. 
Huydecoper, Breeder AantekeniageD op Uelia Stoke, in his edition of that author, 

Leyden, 1772, 8 B. Svo, 

Jama (King) Z, Poetical Remains of Jamei the First, Perth, 1787, 1 vol. 13ino. 
Jontotit ^'^ Works, London, 16I6-16SI, 3 rola. folio. 

KatitUr. See Denkmller AltniederL Sp. and Lit. 

Kliptlnn, Louit F^ A Gnuniniir of the Anglo-Sawjn Langnage, New York. I8<9, 

1 ToL I2iaa. 
K»ox, John, First Blast of the Trumpet agoiiut the monBtrona Begimeat of 

WomeD, is Appendix to Kuoi'a Historis of the B«funnation of Eeligioun 

irithin the Realme of Scotland, IMinburgh, 1732, 1 toL folio. 
KnjtUnga Saga inFommanna S<%ar, K XI.. Eaapmanuahiifn, 1828, 8to. 
Kotntn, De Nederlsudsche Boerenstand Histoiisch Buehreren, HBartem, 18A8, 

IB. 8*0. 

Langlaade. Bee ¥ien Plonghnuu. 

Langtoft, See Boiert <^ Branne. 

hatiTiuT, The Fyiste Sermon of Mayster Hughe Latemer. vhych he preached 

before the kynges maiestie, &c, y* viiL day of Marche, kccccciux. (vith six 

other sennona), London, John Daye, n. d. 
layamiM, Lajamon's Brut, of Chroctcle of Britain, edited by Sir Frederie 

Madden, for the Sode^ of Antiquaries, London, 1847, 3 vols. Bra 
Libel of English Policy, in Political Poenu and Songs, relating to English 

Eistoiy, &c Vol 2, 

JJUie or LOly, Euphoes. the Anatomie of Wit, Euphoee and His England, by 

John Lylje, London, 163S, 1 vol. amaU 4bx 
Linditfanie Gospels. See GoapeL 
ZoTU, GuiUaume de. See Boman de la Hoee. 
Lutier't German (Hoch-Deutsch) Bible. See SiUr vnd 7%i4e. 
I^dgate, J^ Tarioos extracts in Warton and other critical trritMit 

iltlvrye. Sir 7%omat. See Morto d'Aithnr. 

MmndtBillt, Tba Toiige and Tiarule of Sir John HaanderiUa, Kt London, 



ITlii Kpr'nt, «ilh Intraduction, KotM, sad GlMMty ij BstBuwO, LdoAm 
1839, 1 roL Sno. 

Xartyr, Ptf<r, UcoidcR^ in 8nppl««trnt to Uailiiyt, 
Knmff, J. 4*. 8m Rornan da ti Rom. 

Jfuiof; FoMu of Lkttrsac* Uiaot in Politkal FMnw and Soap cif Bbglimt 

Mitvl* PlnjK, Sfinnoa t^nit, (n lUltqo!* AaliquM Vot. L 
Uirrorfar ^[^Mnlos, nprint, LcnitoD, ISIC^ StuI). il& 
3IinMH<3olhio Seriphina, Sm Ulfila. 

UntircK 0., Danak (Mboft bdiImi U<1g>Tr. EjfUnluTii, tSM. S B. Bra 
ifiirf^ JKr ntmui*, Tlia Apologjv of ^ Thoau Horv, kn;^, LoDdon. a. d 

(1133) 1 tdL ISmo. 

— Hb Workn of Sir Thomiu Mnitv Knjs'i't &«■■ *i7tUa tgr him is lb* Eogljsll 

hmg^ Loniloo, 1S67, 1 tot. folioi. 
ttortr if Artliiir, Th« Ittrlli, Lj-r, ddJ AnUs of Kvng Aiiliar, Ae, ud fa Ifa nd 
Lr Moric Puiliur, Loutlon, 14&C: nprisl, •diuil t^SMilitiy, Loiuk^ lUTt 

MnUtuttr, tikiarit, Fint PHt«f th«£lnii(iDtBrU, Loodoa, 1SS1, 1 tuL sm. 4(o, 

Hjila, BtffM »t NlIU ^(]piic«;ai ok Sommr Iuidi, KHTpmuiiuhaTfb, 1771; 
1 nllto. 

— Khb !h^ fliolora Kikli at FJionuii, Lalia* r«i)iliu, ram Olomuio, TlArBl^ 

1809. 1 TuL 4to. 
Kib«litn|[«A. I>«r Nibelun^ Litil, AliJriulc 4«r nxadK^rift At* Ft*i1inmi Toa 
IaMb«nt Ltipt!^ 11140, 1 tol. tut, 

(Mtm or Hxeitvf, FMms n«nr befon rtiitttd Ac, LoDdu^ 1700, 1 toL tlo.; 

•U» cxcetTilB ia Varton and otlitr critical wriUm 
OMki'» nunitin in Jlfrr^i On^ni, f.r. 
Orm or Onain. Th« OnnulBm, (roia tti* original mtlUUtript, ti\uA b; IL U. 

Wbitfh OzfonI, 18£3; S fola. Sfo. 
Of/ruf, Eriifc l ut aiiigagrtKW Toa Onff. R6n!iMb*:]c, tUl. t T. 4tA 
(hrl asd MighOapdc Ttw Owl aad tba Nigbtiii£a)^ in Mri^ Kaf^Uh PiMm, 

wiitcd by 1^ Wtjgbt for Um Fonj SMaa^. londoa, 1843, 1 mL IXmo. 

PttwW, Br. a. The lift nf Alfrtd lh« a(Trt.l<s whSAUappradcd Alfred'* Ansio- 

Samo T«niiM of Ominit LondoD, 18A7, t ml. ISmo. 
fo1*fr«m, L'EdMtwwamant da Is loagaa rnataiao, i<ar Jcm Fahgran ; rvptiol, 

fdltnS by F. O^n, Fariis USX 1 t«L HiUo. 
IVrcci', Tbe Rcjitdmit of oiit niMb UMnl^i of lU Clcrgj. bf Bagia«U Fcox^ 

Londaa, IHO^ < rob. Gra. 



'fHitwB. Oiritlt*, Dct Vj TfOuMtmU, lUI, tcprlotad U Pfdcnett'i I>i»k* 
Skriitcr, Kjubfclum, 13£]. B. UL 
Fiarr, Tmnuklion of VirgU'i Arnnil. Minpbtr^ liy Tiijriifv t>«*dun, lUI. 
Pier* Flon^inuia, Tlic Virioa vid tht Cvtvd of l^us FtaoghmaB, cditcil b; 

Wright LondoD. 1841. 3 Tota. ItoOL 
FlatM>Nt«di BiUo. e** Bafnluytn. 
I JSiay. i&c ddar, Satnni Bine*]', ImuUtfd lijr PUInBou Hulbad, UmSoa. 1001, 

' Foliliol Si»c^ Tb« I\>liti««l Song* of Ba$1«»d lh>in tbt Roiss ct Jotin to thtt 

of Ednnl U, «Uud by Wtigbt for tli* Ou»aou SucIrE;, LoDJon. W9, 

I tdL «Io. 

^ Poliiieal FwoB ud 8on(r« rdklinf; to EnRlith Rintaij, fnia Uie an««)i«a of 

Edwanl Iti. to Uot of RicUrO HI, wliUJ Ij Wri^l in lUr. UriL hlai. 

Aon Soipt VoL I, lUB, Vd. S, 1681. 

Arfrr Com. JMtid, CoiutaRtliiapIo *nd lu Samtoat, Nnr York. 19SS. 3 ToUSia 

FimapKnium Puruloram, lixt Oxiitonm, edited \ij Way fur OsmdM Soeiatj, 

iMdca, T. 1. 1S4I, T. 2, IS^ 4to. 
AtrrAeiv til^BM aad PilsrinugM, or VougM Knd Land Tnr«lB la ftll fwta of 

Um World. LoDdoB, 1C2S-S. A Tola. (bUo. 
ihvnry, RmuhIcb of tlu Wj<Ufflu KbU. 6w JFyvr./t. 

iSdCotiaM. TtM Art* of En^Uh PMalt^ Loadoo, IMS ; npriat, «ditfd by Haalo- 
wDod, LoniW ISll, 1 ToL 4to. 

£*MJk, fihmuu, A Onmatar eS Om Aa^o^tlaa ToDgna, tnoaktcd \g TliOifVi 
Capwihmn, 1S30, 1 kJ. Bto, 

KajKoHonit L«dqu*Baoiui,oaDictic>inui[T*dalaI«iv<wilMTto^b«iloai:i^Pi^ 
ISli, S T. Stol 

RfJIqaloi Antiqaa^ Soft fmu asdcnt MaocKiipta, \y T. Wiiglit aod J. 0, 

IUUl<r<'ll. iMuko, U4I, X tdIk. Sml 
S«i«iii BritanBlcBiwn Ucdii Aori SaifUitn, dr ChnsiolM bdiI UnnoriBls of 

Omt Bcilain and Inlnad doiinj tllo MUdto Ages, mow publiifaing in Sto. 

wlnoM, by ilin firUiah GoTemswiU, mdra tba dirtction of Uia UaaUr of Uw 

BoUk Sw Anglo^SaxoD ChroalrL^ Cafj^rwH^ Acncjt, totitiol PMoia and 

So^t** ^;b1 *>id Htitorica] iMUn, 
SUbaid. Odbt da Hon, Poem on, in WAtt*» Uttrieal Bow aa twt VoL 3, y.n. 
Jblcrf i/ Sramtr, or RiAtrt ilmwing. Ptttr Latt^ta/ti ChMklda (m iDtw 

Inlnd and imjnov'd by ibicrt t^ i^inaxe), odilcd bj Tboioaa Haana^ OxuadL 

lT2d. 3 Toli. Sto. 
Xisdn^ ^ Oionettier, Chnmiele Traiucrib'd and no* firtt jeblbh'd froH • U& 

in tlM narlryan Library, by Tbomaa Hmidc^ ftriiird, 1731, 2 tolL Sw; 

nptdl, London, ISIO, 3 voU. Bira 

— Ima aad Legends of til* Saiata: SL BnuuU^ Vttiy SmjoIx, London 


1814, 1 ToL l!mo; Life and UartTnlom of Thomai i Btdtet, do. London, 
ISIS, 1 ToL I2moi Fragment on Popular Science, in Wrfffift Fopoiar 
Traatiaeo on Scieucp, q.v. 

Soman de la Boas, le, par OuiUaBms da Lerrit et Jetuui At Uevng, edited by 
Mion, Paris, 184*, 4 T. 8»o. 

tioqvefort, <r. B. B., QloesaiFe de b Langue Bomane, Paria, 1808, 3 T. Bri).) 
SuppUment, ibid. 1820, 1 T. 8ro. 

Hoyal and Historical Letters during the Reign of Henry IT^ TillllA?", IMQ, 

Vol. 1, 8»o. in Rer. Brit, Med. Aov. Script. 
Buahworth Gospels. See Goipetg. 

Saekville, T., lodnction, tee., in Mirroor for UsgistntMb 

— Poetical Worlts, London, 1820, 8vo. 1 vol. 

— Gorboduo, or i'prrei und Polrci in Dodsley's Old Plaj«, 
Sandrai, E. G., £titde sur Chaucer, Fans, IB39, 1 vol. 8vo, 
Sckaiid, Oesetze der Angpl-Sjchsen, 2" Ansgabe, 1859, 1 B. Bto. 
Shakripeare, Works of, Knight's FictorinI Edition, London, 1839, 8 toIs. Sto. 
Sidaep, Sir Philip, Countess of Pembroke's Aicadia, Defence of Poesy, aiiJ othei 

works, London, 1G05, 1 toI. fulio. 
Strllon, J., Poeticul Works, edited by Dyer, London, 1843, 2 toU. Bto* 
Snorri Sturluton. Ben Edda the younger, and Heimskringla. 
Specimens of Lyric Poetry oomposeil in England in the Iteign of Edirard L, 

edited by Wrighl for the Percy Society, London, 1842, 1 toL 12mo. 
apcmtr, Ediatind, Poetical Works, edited by HiUard, Boston, 1842, 6 vols. Sro. 
Sialdtr, P. J,, Die lAndeBspraeheo der Schweiz, odei Schwetzerische Dialektologii^ 

Aaran, 1319. 1 vol 8vo. 
Stanihurit, Bichard, Description, ttc, at Ireland in Holinshed, ToL 8. 

— Translations, tec, extracts in Warton. 

Slier uni Thiele, Folyglotten-Bibel inin Bandgebraneh, Bielefeld, 1SS4, 4 B. 

in S, 8vo. 
Surrey and Wyatl, Songs and Sonnets, reprint, London, ITIT, I vol. Svo. 
Snrteos Psalter, Anglo-Saxon and Early English Psalter, published by tlie 3ur*.(?i 

Society, London, 1843, 1847, S vols. 8vo. 
Sytvi»tir, Du Dartat, his Divine Weekes end Workes. translated by Sjlvesler, 
Liondon, 1611, 1 vol 4to. 

7rgnir, EtaioM, Samlade Skrifler, Stockholm, IS47-18S1, 7 B. Sva 

Ivrner, Sharon, Thfl Hiitory of the Anglo-Saxons, Philadelphia, 1S4I, 2 

vols. 8to. 
Ts'idah. WUIiam, The Newo Testament, 1626 ; reprint, afUr Bagstcr, by Q. P. 

Dabncy, Andovei, 1837, 1 vol Svo. 


IJnMa, WSliam, The Sapper at th* Loid^ Londoo, Kcccccxzxm, t. (laje of 
T^TviiO. See CiitKMr. 

IHfiia, Odn die um crbalteDni DeslmEIei dra Qotbiacben Spracbc^ Text 
Gnmnistik and Worterbnch, beirboitet and heranag^eben von F. L. Stamta, 
Pldcrborii, I8fi8, 1 B, Sra I iuve oaed also the verj valuable edicioa of ths 
fragments of the ALsfia-Gotbie Scriptaraa b; Oabelentz and haeb«, IMS, 

Vitti Maerlatit, Jacob, Spiegel Historiael, aitgegerea door de Maatscbappij der 
Nederlandsche Letterkunde, te Leiden, 18J;9— 1362, 3 B. 4to. 

PirtotiiaHnta, TraieU in the Eaet, in Supplement to Ualctugt. 
VSUaanpU, Lea Bomans de Lt Table Boode, eC lea Contea dn aodene Breton^ 
Paris, 1861, 1 voL Bto. 

WnTtvn, TTanuu, The EistoiT of English Poetr? from the Close of the Eleventh 

to the Commencement of the Eighteenth Centuij, edited by Pcict^ London, 1810, 

S Tola. 8ro. 
Wiber, Uetrieal Gomaneea of the Thirteenth, Fonrteenth, and Fifteenth Cen- 

tuiio, Edinbuigh, 1810, 3 toIs. I2mo. 
Wedfftoood, Betaleigh^ A Dictionar; of English Etjmologj, with Notea b; George 

P. Uanb, Vol. 1, New York, 1861, Bto. 
Wilton, tn Wylton, The Three Options of Deniosthenea in FaTOor of the 

Ot^thiuus and the Four PhUippii^ London, 1S70, 1 voL ito. 
Wright, r, Popolar Trestiae* on Science, written doring the Middle Ages, 

London, 1841, 1 toL Sva See ftbo Pieis Ploogbman, Anecdota Literaria, 

Beliqain AntiquEc, && && 
Wj/ciifr, Apoli^ for the Lollarda, Camden Socie^. London, 1842, I ToL 4ta. 

— The Holf Bible in the eaxlieBt English Versions, made from the latin 
Vnlgato bj John Wy eliffa and his Followers [^Her^ord and Purtmi), edited 
by Ker. 3. VwahaU and Sir F. Usdden, Oxford, UniTend^ PttM, ISfiO, 






Tin fltilijeet or tb« oourw upon which T am »bout U> enter t.itt 
b<s a» neftrty m I am able to exprets:* it in a comprebemiTc title, 
thv Origin and Uistor; of the KngUah Language, and of the 
Early Literature it embodic«. I gfaiUl not notice the works of 
those natives of England who have nrittcu, on domestic as 
well aa on moro gi-nera! topics, in foreign tongue*, Lalio and 
French, bcciULM those works, though composing a part of the 
national literature, do not belong to the literature of the En- 
giiab lanfftia^, which alone is embraced in tlic plan of the pre- 
sent readings. I confine myself to the history of early English 
literature for two reasons. The first is the impossibility of butvcv- 
iog, in so abort a series of discourses, the whole field of English 
inttillectual actiMi ; the eaeond, that the harmonious execution 
irf my purpose — which is to discuss the two branches of tbo 
Mil^ect> language and literature, with constant reference to 
Iheir reciprocal influence on each other — excludes those periods 
when their history had ceased to be cnnnirn-nL 

Ulie English language bad already gone through its principal 
pbaaea when the earliest of the works, which are now oollecK ^ 


Lntr. L 

I lively known to miMt gnnimariuns, Icxicogmplior*, and common 

I reciders an the body of Englidli Htemtiire, nuido its apppariiiice. 

! A single epoch witoeswd ttie oompletioD of tliat organic acUon 

, by which the Knglish speech n-as developed from ita elements, 

nod the bvgiDntii" of that nae nra of Koglish authorship, the 

product* of which alill BuhKirt im n consdounly felt and recog- 

nbcd i^iency in the world of letters. Tb« lungiiAge had pocvd 

the sIngeA of infancy and youth, attained to the ripe perfectioa 

of manhood, and thus complgU<ii its physidn^cn] history, bcforo 

tbe existing period of itii lit«nitiire twgiin. In tn»ting the two, 

I then, the tpeeoh and its liCerstitre, eonjointly, I am necessarily 

lunit«d to the centuries when both were undergoing the nio> 

cemve processes of evolution ajid growth, and when tbe pro- 

, gri:aa of each was dependent on that of tbe other, nod conditioned 

[ by it. 

This period extends from a little before the commeucement 
I of the reign of Uenry IIL to the lutter years of QiiL-eu Eliza- 
beth, and thns embmoee not far from fo<ir hundred years. 
I During this space, the tntolleet of England, stimrd at once by 
' Inborn impuhtea, and by external inHuonnea, tiad iiecome luxu- 
riantly productive, and was constantly struggling to find articu« 
late symbols and syntactical combinntiona, wherein to embody 
I and communicate the vivid ini&g\7B, docp thoughts, and eamot 
[ aspirations which it hod either spontaneously originntcd, or 
i appropriutod from the litoratiirc« of ancient or ron-i<^ nations, 
while tho liingiiage, stimulated to a oontinually renewi^l evolu- 
tion of organic action by the neceiittitics of a te^generated literary, 
political, social, and oomntcrcial life, was grailiinlly expanding 
into a largcQCM of capacity, and moulding ilKcIf into a fitncas of 
form, to serve as a vehicle for tlie vut, and varied, and strangv 
conoeptiuns it vas now called upon to express. 

This proceis, or rather thU double series of proceaseii, was 
completed, as I have said, about the end of the sixteenth cen- 
tury, and our view of the lanijruagtt and its monuments will 
embnoo little which belongs to lotfix datct, except so far as I 

l-wt. 1. 



may incidentally refoi to subsequent verbal forms or iotelleclual 
prixluda, tts iceults of tvndvocics nlri^dy insnifcstf.'d in the 
£D};liiih mioJ iuhI lU cpocch, ia tlie era which vns Mre muTc 
parliculiuly oonisidvring. 

The tongue of England and her intellectual culture had now 
re»i>eAtiTely attained to a stage of advancement wkere neither 
imperiously demanded new capubililies iu the other. The lan- 
guage no longer tihuwcd the want of (hot affluence, and polish, 
and cleamcdt, sad forcc^ which human speech can aequiro only 
l^ long UKe as the roedinm of wrttlen coinpoNitioQ in the various 
fornic of narratiTe, iiitagitialivt: and diitcuntive literature, and, 
fo modem times at lea^t, by the further aid of exposure to the 
•timuhttiog and modifying influences of the bistoiy, and poetry, 
and philosophy, and grauiiDar, and Tocabuhuy of foreign 
tongues. The English mind and heart, meanwhile, bad been 
gathering knowledge, and cxp<-riencc. and strength, and catho- 
licity of fiynijiatby, and they were now able to expand to 
the full dimenftions of their growth, gird themselves to their 
mightiest moral and iutelluctUHl efforla, and bur»t into sung, or 
Sermon, or ictory, or parliamentary or fon-nsJc liarangue, without 
fear that the mothei-tongue of England would want words to 
give adequate and melodious expression to their truetn feelingR, 
their most solemn eonviclions, and their loliiest aspirations.* 

Tho history of this philological and intellectual progress is 
the too vast theme of the pn-^ent. course; and if I shull succeed 
in conveying a general notion of the gradual living processes 
by wliieh the English tongue and its literature grew up, frcim 
the impotent uttemnco and feeble conceptions of th* thirteenth 
Kntury, to the divine powt^r of expression displayed in Tj~ndule's 
r^aion of the New Testament, in the nxteenth,and the revela- 
tion of man*8 moral nature in the dramas of Shakespeare, at the 
oommcncemcnt of the eeveuteeiUb} I shall bare aocompUMhcd 
the taak 1 have undertaken. 

■ 8m UlvBtntioii L at l^ nid of ibli Icctoia 

a t 


Lect. L 

The UogtiUtic facta and literary illiiMrations required for the 
cunprohcnHion of suvh a skt^ch will be drawn cliiefly froni 
sources &iuUiar )i)d«ed to many of tbo audience, but wliicb 
do not oome within tbe babitiiul ob»en-ation und knowledge of 
what ifl called the reading public; tnt I •ball endeavour not to 
ailrnnce iheorieB, employ technical teritiK, or inlroduoe cttalionx, 
which will not easily be understood by any person p086csaed of 
iuflicicnt lilcraiy culture to foci bo intelligent interest in the 

In all inquir{«a into the liistory of past ages, whether ■■ 
nwpvdii tbe inat<>rial ooncerns or the intvllvctual action of men, 
thft question constantly pret>en(s itself: wliat wn« tbe iuhvrvnt 
worth, or what is the surviving practical importance, of tbe 
object*, or the nets, tJie monuments of which we are investi* 
g«tii:g?-'and hence wo mu»t a«k : what was the nctusl sigLi^- 
cancv of that l>ygone literature, into which, both for its own 
auke as an interesting chapter in tlie annals of the human mind, 
and for the sake of the language, of whose changes it conslitul«« 
tht; only record, we propose to look? The few examples which 
can be cited will not, of thenuelre«, suffice to convey an ade- 
quate conception of tJiu special charact4.-r, Mill k«« of tbe wttalth, 
of old EugliHh liUTatnre; but I shall endravour to illustrato 
tliem by such biognipbical or historical noliocs as may Rnrro to 
ahow tbetr connection with the social and intellectual life of the 
periods and the people to which they belong, and thus help my 
in-art-ra to arrive at oonclusioDs for themselves which I may not 
tbiiik it necessary in all cases formally to express. I shall strive 
thus to invest my subject with a higher philonophical interest 
than belongs to nicro iiiidorical grammar, and the consideraiiona 
which miggest themselves in our survey will, I hope, give some 
addilinnn) incitement to the impulse now beginning to be felt 
by to many scholara towards the study of the neglected wul 
foi^lten authOTS of ages which want, indeed, the putiiih and 
rcltnement of subsequent centuries, but are, nevi?rlbel.-as, ani- 
milled and informed with a fpontaneotu life, % fre^neiui, and 

Lnrr. t 


vi^iur, rarv ia the prodactions <tf eras mora advanced in artificbl. 

A literaturu which extends throutjli four cvotaric*, and nlii<A 
was succe^vely vi:po) to tb« tdimuliLtiog JiifluviKca of Micb 
radical revolutions in Oitirch and in State, of such important ' 
■dT-ancea in every branch of knowledge, such scbievementa 
ill Goe and industrial art, and sucb triumphs of human power 
over physical naturo, cannot he d(;scrihcd by any one Hcries of 
epilbet^, nor, indvm], were ibt traits alwaya so marked that all iti 
products are tecogniaible as luinii-ttakably of Englinb growth. 
But it may be said, in general, tbat, more than moet other 
equally imaginative literatures, it was practically and visibly 
connected with the actual soda! being of man, with his t-njoy- 
menta and suffvringH in this world, and hu bopex and fearti ia ' 
reference to another. It was a reRectioD of the waking life olj 
an earnest, active nation, not, like no much of the eoateupo> 
rancouB expression of Continental genius, a magic mirror showing 
forth the anmbetontiul dreams of an idle, lusuriouB,and fantastic 

The eminently practical cliaracter of old English literature to 1 
due, in a considerable degree, to the political condition of the 
En^liflh government. The insular position of England nuule 
that kingdom, from the beginning, more llian any other Kunv 
pean state, independent of the international com bin at ions which, 
in a great degree, controlled the destiny and moidded the 
in«tJlution« and choracrtcn of the Continental peoples, and this 
isolation of the goveniment was felt and shared by tho nation. 
It entered into the English heart, aod has, in all the buet 
, periods of E»gli»li literature, constituleil a marked and peculiar 
characteristic of \U genius. While the writers of most oiher^ 
Europtnu countries have lukd their periods and their echooli^ 
in\v]ii(-hnowcla«» romantic, now Gallic, and now Gothic 
influences predominated, and tttampod with a special character. 
Dot merely the works of individual autliora, but the entire lit»- 
imiy effort of the time, the literature of England has neves 


I«r. L 



nibmittod itself to anj «uoh tr»ntin<-lN, t>ut Iiiv> atw.i^ rnalnlalned 
a self-guided, if not a nholly fl<;lf-iiii>[>ircd, esuttence ; and this 
ja perltaps the bt«t reawn that can !«• siv<-n why OontlneQlnl 
critic*, traiiiix), m until recently they bare been, In the tradi- 
lioofi and obstirvancc-* of their Bcboole, have so gtncraily i)ri)vcd 
unahlc to comprcbend the drift and true ugnificanoc of En^l'^h 

The politics] and litenury independence of England grev mth 
th« dtmintitjon of il« continental territory. So long as the 
Rriti.ih throne bcid any inipoTlnnt portion of it« dominions by a 
feudal tenure which obiigt-d it to ackuunh-dge the vu^^rrainty of 
the crown of Finnce, it was a paity to ttie Continental political 
compact, and, as such, involved in all tlie feuds, and warfares^ 
and conflicts of social and industrial interests which distracted 
that or^iiimtion. And, what was rven a grvat«r eril, it was 
subject to the OTershadowing domination of Rome, which claimed 
and rcceivetl the hoinage theoretically due to the el«rnnl city ns 
th« earthly mettvpolis of the uoivereal Church, but practically 
aoconled to her as the natural representative of the temporal 
■upremacy exorcised by the ancient mtBtTCHs and capital of the 
r vorld. But though England 8harc<l with the CuntincDt in the 
baneful ln(lufuc« of this spiritual and semi-political despotism, 
yet it was only at coinparativi^ly mre intervals that it was felt 
and Hubmittod to, in its full i;xtenl, by the English government 
and people. There was always something of a dispodtion to 
inquire into the foundation of the atithority claiiiied by the 
Roman pontiff, to doubt Hw infn]lilitlily of hitt dircision*, and 
to tn-ad CD forbidden ground, by debating questions which, 
acconlinj^ to (he doctrine of papal supremacy, had been for 
ever settled by a tribuoal incapahio of error and armt-d with 
the thunderbolts of Iftwven for the enforcement of its decrees. 

The Romish Kee ilnelf, well knowing that the geographiool 
position of England secured it from phyncal coercion, was slow 
to proceed to extremities against a oiowa and a people wha 
laigbt, at any time, de«piw its mandates with impuuily. Heuc* 

Luer. L 


the relaHow between the papacy and Ensland were Ronfrally 
Uk« those between a sovereign who shuts his oyc« to insurree- 
(ionaiy movements in a rebellious province too strong or too 
distant to ho rvductid bj force of uraia, and a people that 
Bnbmitx under protest, and is biding its time to throw off a 
fbrdgn nnd obnoxious yoke. The English nation and its nTttcra, 
then, were not habitually sunk in that hnmilintiiig subtniMioD 
b> the papacy which long paralyxcd the inUt)I(^ctii.iI energy of 
other Christian races, and Festrained them from the dieconioa 
of high and noble themeo, ni>r was the occnpaut of the Romno 
K9 regnrded with that aliject reverence which fK> often in ('on- 
tin«D>al hiMoiy bestovred upon him the name and attributes <^ 
the Moit High. While Charles V, of Tnincc, in the great 
Bchixm of the fouriccDth century', a little boforo tho clow of his 
n!iign,wiw making, us Froiivart sayx^'a gpecyall commandement 
thrdtigboule his realine, that evety manne shulde take and 
repute Clement for pope, and that every inanne sbulde obey 
bim as Ood on erthe," WycIiSe, cheered and sustained by 
many of the nobility as well as commonalty of Englandf, was 

■ FriiiiaiTt. Lord Bfrem'a TnaditfoD, L & S4& See Illiutnlioa IL at tba 
•ad «i thii loMurr. 

f 'Halid mm ««to dqwj thaticc the lalnrdii, that wdd nirrr ani* bcra hood 
la {RMrca et tbr Strrmiipnt, or *twc!i h) th^il tvin<i ihi-w sm tlx priDcipalM: 
— WilliaRi Nrrj'lf^ [Sir] Lottfwio CtilTortli, Jon Climlowh. Ridinnl Stitny, 
TlMDMBl^viRcr,siKl mtvt of allr, Jon Biountneu [E*rl ofSiliibmy] * ■ And 
of J. UvtaUfB thmsei hcaaa tgntdiMmjmotpiu^t*.' — Capfraiit4C^rviuttf, 

f. S4«. u. i»r. 

Th«ae noblcmon 9»i grnXlmna nma l« bare Wn n&tr ateioato hnttio^ 
tar acTcn yean talcr, •> «« Ion from Cifgnirp. p. 2tO; an. 1.1M, -Tho T/iludia 
■i4 op KmM «1 WrttBuniUr and at I'luilti^ wiih nUiaiiiitiliI*> •ccnuKMnn af 
hMB Uial luut; to I)in ChorcSi, wbrcb »ouii<)i>d in itmlruiviniac of tlu SncnnnlM 
and of ■lB(uti« oj llin Clierrb. 'I'li* tarjtiteyncri* nl tho p*>|'le that vcrr k> lotbit 
wvt« tbrar: — Rii^uid SlocTjr, Lodcvik Cli^^rth, l^iDM Latrmcr, Joo M->iui< 
tit[». I'iir! <rrr« priae^al tustrDctourl* ot ittnt'tit*. T!i# i^yna, *>i>m hf litd 
mnnT^vil thft m^Uco ct the** lu^^, ho ot"p^l t<<EU Ut bU prr^cnr aad vajUbod 
lum : tbttad ham tka tM KhnM no mnrr niFyntco no imvh opinioan.* 

Tbr Eari ef Saliebnry, at Inil, dird io the luitb hs hitd canard, for, whni la 
1400. at ' Cietdr.* aa iiuiUTcction vun put dowo nnd ' tha toas di»ir ham |lh« 
■«hai>| oole ot the Abbn, and acni'l of miiij' of hor Iwdi*,' it appoam that 'tba 
«1 «r Saltbvj au dM ihtn; oud voatbi, for ha v» a grot Urtarto of 1^ 


LtCT. L 

impreesiiig upon Urliau. tlicD rcciignised lijr the Knglish nation 
as the lawful incumbent dI' the papal tlirone, the lenaoa that 
Victor Kmanuet and Garibaldi aae, willi stronger means of 
'moral suasion,' iwculcatiug u[K>n a stiff-necked succe^or of 
Urban to-daj. ' I take as bilove,' wrote Wydiffe to the pope, 
*tbat nona acbuldc sue tbe Popt^ dq do saijit that now is in 
liercoe, bot in aUmvchv as he Kui;d Chri^tt : for James and Joint 
errid, and Peter and Fowl sinned. And this I take as holusomo 
counseile, that the Pope leeve liis worldly lordschip to woridljr 
lords, as Christ gaf him, and move speedily all his clerks to do 
so; for thus did Christ, and taught tbiis his diflciplea, till the 
fcnde had blvnded tiis world. • • • And I suppose of our 
Pope that he will not be AnticliriKt and revomc Christ in thin 
wirktiig to the contrary of Christ's wille. For if he summons 
agetis retoun by him or any of tiia, and pursue this unskilful 
Bumraoning, he is an open Antichrist.** 

LoUanlit. * dp*piit«r lit lacnmeatia, far ha wold net he MnCuwd rnhm h» whnld 
it-lr,' — Citf^aw. p, 378. 

* The ortboi^phjr of thli juang* b eritl^ntlj *oine«hat noderniacd. anil then 
■r* ■piUTTntty *ninn Trilltn^ rcrlal pmts in the Irxt. but 1 print il u t dad it n 
Vnojibkn't Lifpof W)'l'IIIG^ ii. 4S6. Th* dvlilfntCv ju'ijFniviit nf Tlaomwi Brokat, 
ilottUj M tbeialcfMtsaf faJsonler Ird him to niihold Ibc moottraiwalnucvluck 
Mi«inpt«d the deiu from the junidiction of lay cnnilcal Iribttnab, ne fcr from 
lironnibia lo U)« pafxl ooaTL Ib wrilin|t ta Canllnnl Albert, tin aud ; * I know 
■at liow il 8l«>]rt liefip«n« thai, M ttm i^mirt ot Rdrk, Bmbbiu i« dvlivirfd and 
Chriit iond«Riii(d ud troeiflrd.' I cite from Boniianitrc. Qntoire Ar» FtjtMOM, 
I. 163. vhich I am bof [ff la hare an ^portttniljr tn rMommcod t» a work of 
pMt mrarch and mwit. 

CapgnrOk >noo IS8$, lap: 'In the DC icn of ihia Un^ Jo^ WideC 11! 
oifsfia of the derd. ttie cnom)' of the Chuvh, tlw ooafMion a( men, the fddL 
at hairaio, tho in«roiu« of Jiwritlp. the notitebw of aaima. ha tha ritbhl doma 
of Ooi, «a« titiri irith a boribJ p«nU)f- thonr Ant* hia bodj,' te. ftft Hot 00^ 
wilb)C«nding thia biltmini agninit WjrliBr, ht rapnaacw no diaappntulKin ol 
tbp apflinilioa of Lynch Inwio Ihoie vhp, in 13M, 'hronle the hatlea'brtba 
•Xfninmiiiiipallon ft nttiln liriiiK twi uig iwcfi a^inU tha Church, and tha tar- 
hncution of tha boJitw of TJivir do«nu«d awi>m|iliMa. Ila «itea, with appuvnt 
«»cul. A-O. mo, the oommon opinion that Crban wal ■• rarj titsaat.' iin<! hnd 
dfpowii (h« Eagliih cudbnl Adam 'for non other cooae' than tbjil 'ha laltid 
him niacli of hi* inoag iitnn ;' and ha evidently Mierea thai Pope Iiuiocmt IV^ 
«lio had interfrt«d with thn riirTtl of royal and MigKirial cwlrnastial patiannEa 
in Escland, di<:d hy tln-iiiilntionof 0«4 in ISSI. aflfr haTinu l^rii •nmmanpJ l« 
jndgmrBI by Uobat Groit«di^ Ul« Biahop of Idiieol^ who afpifimd to iuin ts • 


Lkt. L 



Th« occnsionnl ooati'sU botwi^cn tbc CoaUovntal •overelgnu 

■nd thu popfS chi-^fiy conceriivcl the temporalitifis of ttta 

Cburcb, or grt^vr out ot lueRtiouH afffcttng them, and them waA, 

uwually, lens riiAposition to meddle with doctrinal points or mar- 

of eccIeHiiutical dbcjplioe than id England.* There ■ 

bolder spirit of inquiry preraiied, and though the sovereigns 

ofeescd due Epirttual obedience to tJic pupacj, wo mny apply 

many of them what Fuller says of Jk-ury VII. : 'To th« 

Pope lie was siihmUsive, oot fwrvilc, bix d«votton being G«ldom 

Liritboiit deiiigD, ao using his Uolini>Js, that he wldom stooped 

|dowTi to him in any low reverence, but, with the esme gesture, 

he took up something in oidcr to bis own ends.' f 

Tho independence of thu EiigHiih proplc gave their literature 
» freer character, brought it to l>c;iir uu all their iulvnsts, spi- 
ritual and temporal, and thus invested it with a reality and 
■traighl furward naturalness of thought and expression not often 
met with in the contemporaneous writings of Gunnanic or 
omanoe authors. 

Tlie reality of old English literatare, and its truth to nature^ 
do by no means imply that i( is not as highly original aod inven- 
tive us thct«e of other countries, which aro lesa ^thful cxpres- 
LSDOS of the every •day thoughts, nnd fe«linga,and passions ol 
iiumanity. No man supposes that Oallot's fantastic figurt« are 
i imaginative than Itaphael's life-like creations ; or that Da 

■ftnd «act him on (h« lide wilh the pike of hi* «rMM M>IC ud jcid ttiiu; 
'Si>*^ «iw«h. kail ooRio to tho ifetii.' 

Knr d<H4 llin rhMDick* nkiiifrai kbv in<li^alion st Ui« nngrscloiu mvpttan of 
n onjiiat b«ti uMifd ID 1402 : ' In this ijFioe n> oitte » buJIe tm tile Couil 
rcatU BooMiu], wbach rvrolcu) tUa tfc« erwn Ihur hod br Kraualed buij ^rm 
Mere; of vhet^ roo moth flundir nod olllqui tjfO"' '''* Chtwli) for i1h4 taiii* 
fl«7«l7 lliat il wnt no miirv troM to lb# Poi<f writiag than lo a dogge but ; for u 
fftc m ba voM gadcr mon^, no oR jn wcM he uinlttn dd gnccs sad gmunl oexn. 

—CtpfT*t. (Il 2S1. 

* Tli» Gafir uid GIdlwIIina ftod in Italy, Ibongli orfgjnalini In Ibo rinlry o( 

ktPD OanMn princrlj houara, ma Id fn'i'nl, lior^rcr di^piiaed. at tiollum. liUb 

I Ikaa kCOoUat brtvwn 111* imperial ihro^ir asd tLo ptfiol are for ibe temporal 

l^tnillij. wtiidi liolk acpircd to uiold ta tlw roprrwotatiTa and cnc^eaHir of Ua 

twtiiB Ovaim. 

I Cburcb Uist«i7, iv. ISO. SeUea, Table Talfca. I'opt, p. 21T. 



Vinci wrought under a higher inspiration when he drew hi« 
caricatures than when he designed the Last Supper. The 
early literature of England, which originated comparatively few 
of what are technically called romantic works, was abundantly 
fertile in the exercise of that best function of the imagination, 
the creation of forma of humanity whose constitution and action 
are, throughout, in accordance with the law of man's nature ; 
and we find in it, before we arrive at the close of the fourteenth 
century, the germs of every species of inventive composition 
which English bards Mid dramatists have since made illustrious. 
Indeed, bo truly did imaginative and creative power characterise 
the early vernacirlar literature of England, that, in spite of the 
life-like, homely truth of its personages and its scenery, actual 
historical narrative had but a very subordinate place in it. The 
northern and southern extremes of Christendom, Gothic Iceland 
and Romance Spain, as well as polished France, had produced 
historical works which almost dispute the palm with Herodotus*, 
but their literatures, though teeming with extravagant fictions 
and elaborate and cunningly wrought versified compositions, 
could not yet boast a single great poeL Anglo-Norman Eng- 
land, on the other hand, had given birth to no annalist who de* 
serves the name of a historian ; but had, in Chaucer, bestowed 
upon the world a poet who, both in sympathy with external 
nature, and in the principal element of dramatic composition — 
the conception of character, the individualising of his personages 
— had far outstripped whatever else the imaginative literature 
of Christendom had produced. 

In these studies, the progress of our investigationB is often 
arrested by the want of sufficient materials to enable us satis- 
factorily to determine the true character of particular branches 
of literary effort, or even to decide questions of pure gram- 
matical form. The publication of such of the remaining me- 
morials of early English and Anglo-Saxon literature as still 
■urvive only in manuscript will do something to supply oui 
• See QlDitntiDD III. at the end of tliii Isctnn. 

Lturt, t- 



defect of knowledge In tliore pAiticukrs ; but much of irtiat we 
know to hiiTo once existed in those dialccta ha;^ irrecovera])!; 
perished, uud the pstant rccorils of the intellectual actioo of 
EoglaDd io Ilie fourU-cntli nnd previoii.1 ccot'jries have come 
dovD to ua in sttcli an imperfect, and of^en evidently corrupted 
form, that we shall never be as well acquainted with the gram- 
mar and the literature of tho Anglo-^Siucon and the tranHition 
periods tut with those of the corro^pondiug eras ia tliu histury of 
Continental philology. 

The dfirtriiction of the products of AntrTo-Saxon, of Anglo- 
Korniau, and of early Kngliah genius, oc^itsii^neii l>y thu Danish 
invasions, the civil wars of different periods, and thesupfHreaoMHi 
of the moiiasterics in the sixteenth century, is in many aspects 
mncb to ho deplored; hut for such apparent calamities there ar% 
in the tcheme of Providcuco, slwsj-s KufTicient compensations. 
Not only mnrt the old crop be removed from the eifrth to make 
way for the new, but it must also be in a good measure con- 
■umed, before adequate stimulus can be felt for the industry 
which is required to produce nnothcr harrest. \Vc have abun- 
dant reason to rejoice that Homer, and Tbucydi<Ivs, aud Plato, 
and many master-pieces of the <rreek dramatists, that Terence, 
arid Cicero, and Horace, and Virgil, and much of Taoitus, have 
escaped the casualties which have destroyed the works of other 
Bcarcely loss renowned andent authors ; but whether the exist- 
ence of the whole tiody of Greek and Koman literature, down to 
the prenent day, would have been an advantage lo modern 
genius, is qnite another question. I have heard one of tlie 
most accomplished of American scholars, the most eloquent of 
American forensic orators, say — thotigh, indeed, in that playful 
tone wbicli CO often left one in doubt whetlier his wonls were 
to be taken in caraert or in jest — that he thought the burning 
of the Alexandrian library a most fortunate event for the 
litt4>reeta of letters. Modem originality, he contended, would 
otherwise have been amotherod, modern independence of thought 
overawed, and modem elasticity of intellect crushed down, by 



I.Ecr. L 

the liixiirinnt abiuidanco, ond authority, and weight of ancient 

Genius csnnot t)irir« under too dense a shade. It re<)iiirc:it 
ruoin fur itit pxpmniiion, snd air und suHliglit for il« nouruh- 
mcnt. It is the solitary pimhiru-onk, not the sapling from the 
sheltered and crowded furt-st, that has tnado that tr«e a syinbol 
of healthful vigour, and pennaseuce, aiul strength. Wlien tb« 
liiiigun^ and the litt^rature of Athetu) bad become so familiar at 
Rome that every l.alin author wrote under the influence of 
Grecian models, and every work of the ima^itation was trivd 
by tliu cnunna of Greek critidioii, when the republic and the 
empire had plundered HeUn«,and8icilr, and Asia Minor of their 
artistic wealth, and the capitnl counted as many statm-s as 
citizt^^ns, then native literature dcelined, and formative tut — 
whioh, indeed, at Rome had never fairly ritien above tho imita()v« 
sta^e — became debwed, and neither revived until, in thestorma 
of the Middle Agt*, so many of those precious achievomeota of 
GrociBO intellect and fancy had ponshcd, that only enough were 
left to serve aa ini^itements by their exeellenee, not enouj-h to 
discourage further effort by a variety which bad anticipated 
^erery conception of the crcntivo tnuigination. The life and 
Hteraturo of a people may bo inspirited, Htimulatcd, modilit-d, 
but not liabitoaJly sustained and uuiiriihi'd, by eiotic food oi 
the dried fruits of remote agea. Kreiih nutrimenl must enter 
largely into the daily supply, and the intellect aiid heart uf 
every nation must be stirred by living sympathies with the 
special good wid evil of its own land and time, as well lu with 
the permanent interests of univerral humanity. 

Hence the destruction of so many of the works of Anglo- 
Saxon, Anglo-Norman, and early KngHith writers is a Ives, not 
to literature, but only to wliat is of less importance, the history 
of literature ; and we may lind, in the direct lienefits resulting 
from the events which occasioned much of that destruction, 
nifficient consolation for the partial ciils they caused. To lliat 
&«rcG Befonnation which levelled the monasteries with the 

Lmrt. L 



gromii) &od wuttcivdomnnihiliitecl thttirliMmiyitccumulatioiu^ 
iut sowed living seed wherever it pluckeil up dry mubblv, v« 
owe Speniwr, znA Hnoker, and BaooQ, aw] Shakeitpeitrv, nnd 
Tililton, not one of whom had been poasihle but for tlif fmh 
norlJt-winil, which, by sweeping away the swann of old opinioo-t, 
old facts, old tbou^ts, that hung like a darkening cloud over 
EuropC) opened on«' more tlic blue skv, and the vud and stum 
of beavcD to tilt nsion of men. 

But tiioiigb no inconnderable share of the fruits of .Saxon and 
of enrly English genius has perished, we have reason to think 
that most of their products which possessed intjinsic worth, or 
were of piactical value to their owe time, liava come down to ua 

, in a more or lesa complete alate; for we do not iind mention of 

' many iort authors in terms which give reason to mppose that 
tb«y were of special interest or importance. There is, however, 
evidence that certain branches of popular literature, in their 
rudimentary stage* (if indeed that c:in buc-alk-d literature which 

'was perhaps never reduced to writing), are imperfectly repre- 

[i»ented by their existing reranin& I refer especially to the an- 
htfitorical, tnulidonal, or leigendary nurrntivcs, which, whether 
woag or mga, verse or prose, appear to have constituted, from 
the earliest timea, a'fa%'ourite amusemoDt, and, indeed, almost 
the only refined enjoyment, of the secular orders among our 

ttemote progenitors. These were fKobably, in general, only 
orally tnuwmittvd from age to age, and we do not know enongh 
of tbeir elwracter to be aide to delenninc in what degree of 
relationship tliey stand to the national folk-lore of later ftgea. 
•Several of the yet extant minor poems of tlie Anglo-Saxoni 

,pomesa much excellence; and tlie lays which Alfred coude* 
led to learn and sing could not have been absolutely without 
lerit. I do not know that any Anglo-Suxon songa have been 

"preserved which bear much resemblance to the English ballad. 
Dor could thi« branch of poetical composition have originated 
io long poems like Keowtdf, or the rtory of Brut, or the later 
lomauee of Alexander; for the balbd properly turna ou biogia- 



LmfT. L 

pMcal iiicidentx, not mylliioal or binUtrical cvvDt«, and i* tlicr»* 
fbie nwliually different ftoia tbene works, 1>oUi in oonceptioa nuil 
Id fonn. There arc popular poems belonging to the youUi, 
uot the infnucy, of Enji^liKh literature, which stoud out eo pro- 
minently from Uie Jightvi- poetry of tlic-ir time, and seem so 
Oomptetely to h«Te aoticipnt«d the torn; of I»Ut c<.-iituri»s that 
we know not how to Account for thuir ai'pt^inince. The an- 
tiquity of tJiese is certain ; and we cannot but Hiiapect that (licy 
u« tegmeotary remains of a body of certainty not Saxon, but 
«ariy Engliali poetry, of which moat of the known ballad, and 
olber papular litcmLure of Enj^laad, wuidd give ua no idea. 
Perhaps the iiiowt. renmrkiible of them are tbe well-known ana* 
creoollc, called by Wartou 'a drinking-tallad,' though not lecb- 
DJcatly a ballud, fint printcl !n Gammer Gurton's Kecdle, io 
1575 —but of which ttii-rt- arc iiuLnn>«npt copies much older is 
date — and the pouUcal dial<^iK-, The Nut-brown Maid, which 
fin>t appeared in that strange medley, Arnold's Clirouid^ 
printed in 1521. Were these oompoditJouH now to bo jud^jed 
upon internal eridence, and by comjuariion with other KnglUh 
poetry of tbeir time and class, they would be unhesitatingly 
pronounced clever literary imposlurca, of a much later date; 
but their p-uuinencHi u not Open to question. 

^Vlthutigb much of Saxon m well as of old English prose and 
▼orse bas puiiithi-d, there still rcniaini enough of the latter, if 
not to enable us to form a complete estimate of tJic intellvntuiil 
products, popular and scholastic, of the transition period, yet at 
least: to disclose tbe primitive form of nirarly every branch of 
English literature which has flourished in later agea. 

In discussing the subject before us, I shall endeavour to draw 
tbe attention of my hearers rather t« Uiu literary aibiptations 
and capikcities of the Knglish language than to tbe peculiarities 
of ita grammar. I adopt this method partly because tlie mi- 
nutisD of inflecdioiial and syntjictical structure cannot, without 
much difliculty, be made clearly tntelli^pbU^ to the car; p^lly 
be«uuft«, in th« waut of aoceMible mat«iiul for study and oou 


LivT. L 



pvieon, there nro manj important queitiom of grammatictil 
bf»tory upon which it is not vet |K)«siblu to sn-ivu nt definite 
conclu&iona; and the mere suggestion of conjecturnl tlle'>rit^«, 
unsupported by probable evidence, would teod only to miiilc^ 
and embamtfis. 

The Romaoce lanKunf^ nre mucti more komogt-neous io con- 
rtniction than thu Rugliali; they are all derivctl, by more or 
\tm direct preccjt<tes, from one and the same ancient tongue, or, 
rather, group of nearly related dialects, aad they so far confonn, 
in their giammatical structure, to the Latin, the common repre- 
eentatiTG of them all, and to each other, that the means of 
itltutrating their forms by compariiion and analogy ar« very 
abunduut. If tliern be a hmtiu in the table of dntt^nt in odd 
of these laDgu;^ee, it may generally be supplied from the gene- 
alogy of another, and hence there are comparatively few points 
in their etymotogy, or in their early history, which are either 
wholly uncxptaiaed, or which stand lu anonialoua, unrelated 
phik-logical fact«.' Another circurnKtanoc )■»■ contributed to 
save Iboir ^^mmar from much of the oonftision and obscurity 
in nhicli, iiM wo thai) tft-, tlie inflectional and »yntuctical system 
of early English is involved. The Latin van the only Italic 
dialect known tothe .Middle Agea which possessed an alphabetic 
■ystem; and the new popular speeches, when first reduced to 
writing, naturally conformed in their leading features to the 
orthography of that lan^uEigc, which still remained a living 
tongue anmug tlie cU*r^' of the one only organised branch of 
tbe visible Church in We.itvm Kurope — one ndglit almost add, 
oraong the common people of Italy — and furiibihed nt once a 
loodel and a standard of comparison for the expression uf vot-al 
Monds by written characters in all tiie Romanoo &mUy.t Uence, 

■ 8m tniMlntloB IT. at lb* md of Iliii IrctanL 

t Th* Mviitol will Hoi in Fa«riel, ' Dbdi^ (t Im orifpMe At la Jjuigot rl in h 
Uii-Jraitiv ItfllicnarCi,' nuKb inlonaUng inferMticm on the rtUtuttt urn of t^ 
Uiio IrfaGunee in lUI; in tbr (liirtMOlh, fbarlMiiIli, uil Sfti>(9lii nrnluriML Mot 
mij «a> pofiutur jiimi'liin); iel^in raninioo iu thiit oiuntr} in tb« Icil-iMintioaod 
■Bimy, bnl titnto *m c^nxuidod (O Um pwplc ia Uist Ioi^ijcl 



Lrar. 1 

altboagh manuitcHpta of the Middle Ages in Uiose dialects ftrel 
trufficieplly diHcrop:mt ta their orthognipby to ciwUo occasioDs] 
einbarratutiucnt, jet, in Uio notnlion of iho Inflectional syllableaii 
to any one of Uiem, there is not tlie saroe wide range of 
tion as in early Engli^, where, from the want of a general 
authoritatirc otandanl, orthography Biictuatcd, foUowing no«] 
Qotbic and now Komancc precedent, with an nnocrtainty u-hicli* 
conepired with great irregiiluritj in tho utto of tbe inflections 
tlieniwelvcs, to proiluce on irrec-oadlable diveraity. Fur 
reasons it has been found pmctJrable to constritdi for 
Buccessiro periods ia the pbilologieal history of the diiferent 
Komance dialocts, aceidencea and rules of eonvord and regiineii,J 
which probably approach aJmoit aa nearly to accuracy as thai 
dialects themselves npproactied to anifomiity tn iim-. But with 
all Ibexe advantiigeii, tlie pteciiie knowledge of the priinitivo 
grummar of the Komance languages has advanced slowly, oitd it 
is scarcely a generation once Itayoouaid discovered even so 
simple a thing as the difference between the plural and sbgolarj 
form of the noun in the dialect of Noil[i<.'rD France. 

For a variety of reasons, both the facllitiua and the induce- 
ments for the study of early English grammar have been fewer 
and Ic!« effectual than for corresponding rescarchtis in Franco 
■nd other Continental countries; and when wc take into account 
also tlic greater inherent diflficnltits of the subject, it is not snt^ 
prising tltat thus far there is not agcni-ml »grc«-mc'Qt of scholars 
on many cardinal points of early English inllection, and indeed 
that no thorough, sj-stcmatic and comprehensive attempt at the 
invesligaticn of tbcso qu<tttioiis has yet been made.* Tho 
serious study of English baa but just begun, and it is not a 

* I Vttght hvM to dnw tbe attontioD of tli« M*dtr to tlw iwmwkaU* ■ Wla 
■cliafllii'lia OmniiiiRlik dir EngUtchfn Spacha* of Pirdtwand tba nluaUe cmt> 
liQu^lioo of it b^ Siohi^ Drither of vhidi bfvun* kooini to ma nnlil an«r iliit 
V'^lumc «a* nadjr tor the prtM. Their uv, honTrr, oiuatiafacio^, not •> moeb 
from wHiit of philoloipcal acunicn. u Imeaiue thcf aw fbnndrd an a ton limile I 
tangoed eu^ BoUioritiM, Mid braniuin (hv; do not tzt,t», irtUi nilOciu)! duliiwfr 
BMii tho biatodcal dnduiuuuit of tb* Uagoaga. 

Lect. L 

OOOD SSmuilS W15TS0 


generation einc6 sonnd ling^uiatio pbilo«>|>h]' was fini brotiglit 
to bear actively and effectively «pOB it Tbe methcxl of lli« 
study Anglican Hclioliirs have Ic-amcd from German teacheni, 
and, from the luiluriil inclination of tbu pupil to tread in the 
Btcpt of bis master, there is a fttrong t^ndtrocy aovi, wbile the 
bet* of Kngliah philological bisloiy are yet bnt imperfectly 
known, to plsc« the theory of English grammar on the tuimc 
advanced footing aa that of the Gpnnan,tho early rtagea ofvhidi 
have bei'D fur moro thoroughly invcsti^ted. 

The great mass of Mholars otherwise i,-ompct«nt to enter oa 
such spcculatiooa have at present the meapv of tiding but a part 
of the material which ia absolutely indispenaable to the esta- 
blishment of general conclusions. Manuscripts are ftcceasible to 
comparatively few, and accurately printed editions of old authors 
are not y«t numerous enough to fumt«h the ncccsary data. 
We have admirable editions of Layamon and the Ormulnm, as 
well aa of Bome leas conspicuous literary moaumenis not widely 
distant in dato from tboec works. Wc pos»cM the Wycliffite- 
sioQS, alsoi ID an extremely mtiufnctory form, but very few 

li«T Eogltsb authors of the fourte^^'nth century ^xtit iu editions 
vhicb at all meet the demands of critical scholarship, (dancer 

, both for literary and for grammatical purposes, the most im- 

artant souroo of infomintiou rn'i>ecling the vigorous iroutb of 
the Euglisb tongue;, but — with the postible exception of 
|Vrigbt'« Ciinlf-rbiiry Tales, foiraded almoM. cntin-ly on a 

ngic manuBciipt — we have. ^ far as I am aware, no edition 
of any of the works of that great author which is worthy of 
onfidenca as an exhibition of the grammiitical spiten, I will 
. say of Chaucer bim^lf, but even of any one of the scribes 
who have copied his writings. No competent scholar has yet I 

lijccted the manuscripts of Chaucer to a critical examination < 
compariann ; and hence we cannot pretend to pronounce 
with certaiity upon what ia a very important, and would seem'^ 

dbrebond a very obvious matter, the precise extent, namely, to 

" "~ 


iBBRnDLAiirn' or earlt BxaLieii 


wliiuh, in tliat author's irorks, the syntactical relatioDS of worxis 
are determined by inflection.* 

Only a 8ingl« KngliRh irork of the thirteenth ecotuiy bns heea 
brought within our reach in sncb a form as to authorise us to 
speak puxitiTcly upon the Bynta^rtical system vhicli Ihc author 
lollowix). Tlii« iAi the Ormulum, of which) forhinatoly, bat n 
BiDgle inaQiiHcript,nfjpareittlyUie original itM-lf, is known. But 
llie value of tiiLs otherwise most iniiioriaiit pliilo!o;;ical mona- 
meni is much diminished by the uncertainty of iu date and of 
the locnlity of its dialecfc, and by the fart that there does not 
exict, at U-a»t la pnot, enough lltcraiy mnterial of its own pro- 
bable period to serve as a teet by which its conformity to tb« 
general contemporary tisago of the kaguago con be tried, or to 
whieh it can itself bu applied m a rtandard of comparison. 

But in fdl inquiries into the grammatical hiflory of enrly 
English, it roiuit be borne in mind that such was the dialeotio 
confusion, and such tlio irregularity of ortliugraphy, that wo an 
not wanaated in affirming of scarcely any one form, or any on© 
Bpclliiig, that it wax normal for its time. It is ae trne of orttio- 
grapliy and grammar as of literary fonn, that there is no unity 
until great authors arise and become gUKrally rc^y^^nised as 
authoritatiTO standards. The founders of a niilional Htcmtnre, ^ 
tberefoTG, conform not to previously settled- and acknowledged ■ 
canons of national sprwch, for none such exist, but to some par- 
ticular dialect, or they [x-rhaps frame a moro or less eclectic 
diction, and by their aitthority establish « grammar, fint for 

* I tbinl; do maawliotMa mt^o Cb>nc«r a ttaAytin rionht that habtd ao 
orthograftiinl, a Emnsiitiral, nnd a pnowlical *y*tf4n, rhoiigh m hart not yrt 
nefiiicA la GndlcA tb« kcjr to Ihcm. Bnidv* Uio ray (troug inttmal vridnica 
of hi* wftiTki. wn hirt, in hia niLdrrw to Adam, terircatr. and m Tinilna and 
Crtwul*. Bonk V, t. Itl04 — 7. diro.-t tcatjmoiiy to a loliciludc for Uio carcM 
eepyiug of hia aiavuncrijil*, vkliili provi-i that !it> hy nn ntanii wmtn at nadnm. 

Wlut ii vntitMi ia not a a«^vp Irit nf ChHOi^rr, conjtdnial et tttrCtie, bat a 
llUcal nprodoetian of one «* mora of tha bm maiiiucript*. villi Tariov itadingi 
tram all th* otfaart vliieli har* anjr prct*iuioD« lo auilioritx,— in ihott, no oditioa 
ooaduetM) on tbo wma prindplM as tiin nMa Wy«1iffll« T«fnana I7 Fttahall 


Lsn. I. 



lh«ir literary follower, and, after some time, for the nation, 
Xo full and comprtrhenHtve gfiu-rel work on English dialecto- 
logy, ancient or modern, ha.* yet nppearecL Very confident 
lions, indeed, are pronounced with respect to early English 
dlitlccts and their relation to modem local patois, but certainly 
verj- many of them find no ciiOiciE-nt support in tliv print«l cvi- 
^denoe on tJie Htibject ; and if we are yet authorised to draw any 
adusioQ, it ia that the diversities were too nutneroos to admit 
' being grouped or classiBcd at all, with any precision of chro- 
Jogicnl or geographical limitation. 

German must be conaidcTt^d to have been a written laDgiiage, 
to hare ponessed a literature much earlier than our corn- 
site Engliab. The Nibelungen-Ued in its recorded form 
placed at about the year 1200, and there were numcroin 
wntteo compoations between that period and the year 1300, in 
difTtTnrnt German dialects, and of a cbarador Hlu-ly to be, and 
which wo know actually to have been, widely circulate. Now 
the tendency of a popular written I itorature is to harmonise the 
DrdancoM of langunf^e, and we have sufficient evidence that, 
many centuries, (he dialects hnve beeu dying out, and that 
German bos been both ftpoken and written with constantly in- 
Eireaeing uniformity ; and yet, in spite of all this, we find tn 
Fmuenicb*!; collection exiimplc* of some hundreds of Germanic 
dialeclA alleged to be actually itpoken at the present day, aiul 
italder baa given us the parable of the Prodigal Son in forty- 
German and twcnty-fievon Romance patois employe*! in 
Switzerland alone. In all this, no doubt, there is an enormous 
oration, which has been produced by giving a phonographic 
etling of the colloquial pronuuciaJion of words really the sime 
almoet everywhere, sod differenced in form only as any two 
tem would viiry in uU'^ring, and any two Uim^ners in pho- 
phically recording them. Tliere are shades of differenco 
ia the articulation of almost any two members of the nine 
lily, brother and sister, husband and wife, for example, and 
iro persons ofton diffureutly bear, and would differently expcees 

c a 




Lbct. L 

In Alpbabodcal dutrncUm, the proDucciation of tbe tame indi- 
riduol. If s hair-hour*A ooDvi;r#ation in od« of Ibo most culli- 
VDied circles \a Kn^iunl or AmGriL-a were to be writK^i don-n by 
two obwrvers, from the par, and withmit regard to the poiiveu- 
tionul ortlio^Rphy of t)io irordH cmplojod^'we dioald buve, not 
aivply Ik diiilect which to the eye woiiM vktj vi'vMy from that 
of booicH, hut tbe two reporters would give us two diAlects vary- 
ing aXmoet a.4 much from eadi other aa either from th« ulaRilv^ 
orthography; bcsMles which, each of the speakers would apjicar 
to have hia own eiil>or<linate patoii. Hence, moat of this allt-gvd 
diversity of dialect is imaginary, *uhjectiTo in tho listener, or 
accidciitid in the epeakor, nnd the wclUtrained car of a single 
pcrHon wnuld find no Htich cxtvnt of coiutsnt diflVrvnco as the 
printed collections would lend lu to nippom. 

Until, howerer, th« smaller states and commnnities of mcdisB- 
Tal Kurope wer« absorbed into the la^er political organizations, 
and until national litcrstnres hod been created, and a greater 
Bxityand univfrsality fjivpn to lin^jiiiNtic forms by the invention 
of printing, the real local difTcrcDccs of speech were constantly 
augmenting, but in moro recent periods, the written and printed 
pago, the frcqticnt reference to acltnoTClcdged slandxtrds of gram- 
mar and orthograptiy, have served as a constant correctiret 
whkh, in England as well as on tho Continont, is always bring* 
ing all deviations back to the normal form.* In the thirteenth, 
and until near tlic close of the fourteenth centuries, the people 
of England hod no snob Rtandards, and tbe actual diveialtln of 
dialect, Uiough perhaps le«s numerous and important tlian the 
orthographical <li£rercnces Itctwettii the mantiscripts would seem 
to indicate, were nvTcrtlieless probably greater than they are 
in any European nation, of equal numbera, at the pre*7Dt day. 

From all this it will be et-ident tliat whatever may bo tbe 
value of a precise historicnl knowledge of primitiTe English 
grammar and literature in all their manifestations, such know* 

'San Fint S«Tim, L«<Ttai» XXI.. p. WO and tollnwinc pogM. TbU teot 
khoin Uia al«<tn1iiy of tbo ■ttnwpU to harmoolia tli« artbiafitphj of «i> 
cieot MHS. , Biid to totcc old writeta to a <>oiifora)il7 to an imapiiuiy Mand- 
an], wbldi mn; iiid«Ml trulj tvjirvwntwhiit vould hitio twooaBOod ortho- 
i;r»pblaal ■jst«Hi for mmu* com dialMl al mkds ooa tlma, tint whtdi wv can 


Leer. L 

ExausH OBAiuuB noouu 


Jjledge is not attainable at thie timo, and irith eiicli means as are 

r!accasiblo to Aram'ican, and, gcnerallj, Kiigluh Echolars ; nud 
ail att«n)p4 to present to yon unytbing moru than an approii- 

t^iuto ustimotv of tJicir pe«uliarilitd uould be but a piece of 
durlalaniam, alike discreditable to tbe speaker and unprofitable 
to the audience. 

But tbore is a further difficulty. The Anglo-Saxsn and the 
Komiau-FrcDcb, from tbo anion of irbicb tlio English is cbi^y 
derived, were inflected language*, and liad tliv Kyntactical 
peculiarities common to most grantmani wilb intiectioiu; but 
in the friction between the two, tbe variable and more loosely 
attacbi'd growths of both were rubbed oflF, sad tbe speech of 
Eogiaud, in becoming i^umpc^ as iltsti actively EnglLsh, dropped 
•0 uiauy natire, and eui)plii:^ tJii;ir pliwc with so few borrowed^ 
Terbol and nominal endings, that it ocftsed to belong to the 
inflected class of tongues, and .adopted a gniminar, founded in a 
oonsideiablo dcgreo upon principles which characterise that of 
seitticr of the parent stocks from which it is deiired. It ia 
iltogetber a new philological individiuil, distinct in linguUtic 

F^diaracfcr from all oUter European itpeeebof, and not tlieore- 
lic^y to be aaimilated to them. 

But the difference between English and the Contioental 

^languages docs not consist in tbe greater or le» amount of 
lection alouc Tbe Danish, with tbe remarkable exceptions 
of the passive verb and tbe coalt^scent definite form of thu 
Dun, ia almost as simple as English in this respect, but it ii 
ended from an inflected tongue, witii little mixture except 
from tbe German, which belongs also to the Gothic stock, and 
has most of the same syntocticod peculiarities as the Old- 
Mortbem, a local dialect of uhieh is the more ininmliale parent 
of the Danish. Danish, then, is tbe product of two cognate 
)aiiguagi.-.s, minus a certain number of inflcctitms, not, indeed, 
Mrictly common to both, but rcpreaenled in both. But English 
stands in no such relation to its Gothic and Bomauee sourcta: 
Th« Danich is an intimate mixture of snbstaoces much alike in 

r ooafldcntlj laf * a p mM* Um aitUiilatioii or even Uie gmaiaax of may 
bar ta whom v« >pfilr it. Beaiile^ we Miub omt^n Lho great naoet- 
: to bow tu vrt^ogrtphj wtta Iban pboiiogTaptUa. 



Lkt. L 

their elementaiy character, and it is often impossible to tay from 
which of iu tTCo constituent* purticuhir lioguistic foatAirt-.i Imve 
bc«a derirod. Engluh is a putchworic of two, or rather, three 
t(iHU«fl,(lI»Jmilar {□ inaleri.'U as well nii in form,iu]d to a distant 
oliMrver has a prcvailiug hue rery ditfeieot from lliat of cither 
of them, though, upon a nearer approach, the spedal colour and 
texture of c«ich web is dlaceniible^* 

Tlio general and obrioos distinctton between the grammar of 
the Englisli and that of the Continental tongues is, that wliereai 
in tlie latter the relations of words are determined by their 
form, or by a traditional etnicture of period bnndvid down from 
a more strictly i»(leotional pha«e of those languagw, in EngliMb, 
on the other hand, those relations do not indicate, but ar« 
deduced from^ tb« lofpcal categories of the words which oompnae ' 
the period, and heuce they must be demODstratcd by a rcry 
different process from that wliich ia ap)iroj>riAti> fur syiitaxea 
depending on other pnttciplce,t A truly ptiilosophical a>-stem* 
of Eoglixh tiyntax cannot, tJien, be built up by means of tbe 
Latin scaffolitin^', which hii» served for thi; construction of all 
the Uootineiital thirories of grammar, and wilU whicli alone tlio 
literary public is familiar, but must be conceived and executed 
OD a wli-jl)y new and original plan. 

The Continoiit.ll riiHhod of gr&mmatJcal demonstratiou is un- 
Kuited to the philosophy of tbe English speech, bcoause it subor- 
dioatea tiyntax to inflection, the lo^cal to the forma). We nay . 
regard syntax, the analysis of the period or the F^yuthcsis of its do* 
Dieiit^ iu two different aspects: aa an assemblage of rules for 
determining tiie agreement and govcrnmeot of wonls by corr»* j 
spondenco of form, or as a thi-oiy of the structure of siTnti-noci 
founded upon the logical relations of words, without special oon- 
sidtirntiou of their forma. The first, or more material and mechani- 
Gul view belongs especially to highly inflecti-tl lunguag«Sias totha 
I jOtin, for example, and in a less degree to the Uurman; the latter, 

* Bm, on PrpDcli and L«tin (otutractiow ia BsgliA, LotsM IL 
t 8m Pint Ssriu. JiKtan XTL, p. 300. 

LscTk L 



or moro intcUiMitaal, to tliue whose words aie inTaiiaUe, or n«ariy 

BO, as tile Englifb. English gr&mmor is not to be taught by 
tables of panuligois and niles of uonmnd and r^noan, and wa 
must either, as vie. do with yo\iaj^ children, treat sjotax as s 
collecdou of arbitrary models for the arrau'^-mpnt of words In 
periods, which arc to bo learacd hy roUs, and followed aflerwards 
ttfl uareflvctiugly lu thv prooesscit of a handicraft, or we must 
oOQsidcr tlic constniclion of the senteooe a logical problem, to 
be solved by an almost purely intellectual calcnlus, and with 
rcrj' few of the mechanical facilities which simplify, if thoy do 
Dot lighlcti, grammatical study in most other tongues. 

The French presentfl the curioos phenomenon of a langua^ 
inflected in it« written forms, but for the most part uninflccted 
in actual i^pcuch, and henoo its syntax is mizt^sl ; but tttill the 
word hut been mightier than the letter, in so far that it hua 
impoeed upon even the written dialect a structure of period in 
some dc^ce approximating to that of languaj^es whose words 
are uucltangvablc in form.* But grammarians think in tho 
laogiin<^ of books, and all or«l departures from that dialect aro> 
with tli<-m, anomalies or corruptions not eutitJed to a [Jaoo ia ■ 
philosophical view of speech. 

Hence there exists 00 grammar of spoken French, and the 
theorists of tJiat nation persist in regarding what ore really 

* Thii diitiiKtkin twtmca Ma] am) vrittvn Frcach ia impottnitl to be Tcept in 
miai ta alt iB^niriw into the inSui'i)'*o of Horwiii-Frwieb on EnglUh ii7nU( 
Tli«t« i* inikod tniicb vnecttainlf u to tho pninuncutian of Nonmui.I-'ri'iu'h nt 
mad far ■onto eeotorica iTcT tlt< ConqiiHt, liut vuriooi) ciIl-u^lttan■^r• iviidiT it 
|irola)>l* Ihkt Ihtn vw, at thai porioci, alaioct ut frral a iluunpaacj brtswn tho 
laa«iu4:>i of IxKik* and (hat of thti mukpt. is all toe tliatsols «{ Kwthcra nmoe, 
■# thMo U at (ka prrMoC dij. Writlvn Krcoch bad it» ipcdal tnilimtoa tm 
Eo^b: bat lli« ifokcD tongoo of tho Normaa imtiiignnta wu niidanbtrdly > 
■wh mora inportant «gt«t in nodiiying lbs l*AgDa|[a of EnsLind. Saa Pint 
Bmra, Uvtnn XXL, and lh« work* ot Fa!i«nr«> anil Oinin Uiriv nttmil to. 
It wait be NODFnibanl tint Aiit(lo.S«xoD alio liail nut on); ita local dialcvlK. bat 
■(•gratral eoUaqiiial fncnu, wbiclj, in all|in'l:abilil;r.diflrf(<dT(>i7*idul7riom tlia 
vctUa lcu)j|iir. Aii|tk>-£(*xon Kni;liith in ikrriTnl not itholl; from tii« Aii^i>. 
Saioa of boofca. which altnw i» luimrn to aa, lint ta a groat mottwee, no doob^ 
ft«« a *f>ak«ti t«ngntf that boa now nltfrty pcriiUed, except fa fur ai it lioa Nnd 
OSk Ibnl >■ *tM< BOntba and llita in tho iitcntiir^ ot tho modern Ea|[lith pmpk. 



LccT. L 


KyotacUcal differoDCM between their two dialects as mors qiics> 
tioQx of pronUDctntion. The Frcntih of tbe gruminariant is no 
infltsctvd, und properly ndead lan^fuage*, the Geriiiiin inflected 
1>ut liriug, and lite aignification of the period is controlled by 
tbe infiecttooB in both. It is natural, tiioreforp, tbat the pbiloto> 
^ct« of tboM; outious KhouM, in tJwir gruoimuticuL inquiries, be 
ipocifilly uttiactvd hy tlie variable portion, the infloctlouiU 
ebaracteriatira of wordn, and Nhould lesiB regard the logicitl 
r^latiooM which maj, and in Gngtii-h do exist almost indei>en- 
deatly of form. However Ivaruwl CoiiUnenttd scholars may be 
In the libemture, ttio concrete philology of toaguc« foniign to 
their own, they have, in their grammatical speculations on tbo«e 
toDgues, until recently, rather ncfflcctcd syntax, except so far as 
it necessarily connocte it«clf witb comnpondvuco of cndings.t 

Tbc ultimate objecla of the present course are ]>tiiIoIogical, not 
Hngiiistic. I shall therefore make the presentation of gram- 
matical facts and theories alwai'S subordinate to the elucidatioD 
of the literary products and capacities of tho Etigliah spcecb, and, 
so f AT BS the gratamar ts concerned, I shall attempt little beyond 
a ({eoeral view of the processes — loss and gain of itiltections, 
and changes in tbe arrangement of words — by whidi the Anglo* 
Saxou syntactical period has beeo coorerted into an Englieb 

I hhie already urged what seem to me suiBcienb rcascms for 
adoptim this method, but were these groands wanting, I should 

* Hm thcenttod nptvmurf ot ib» ilpbaUtiesl, «ritt«a, OTertb«on] tmie«eal 
FnoM ii ttmakublj excmpliflcd in the 1bv> ot rat, tor touftti ffiilinp in 
French I'^'t'J Dtnit, io ((cncral, rhjroo to tho vje tm wi^ •* ihn nut. Tbiw, tbr 
■unl|4^ Uia ffminfne poutttitt pronani^ or Ita bomoarm ilio firwt and Ihiid 
|NnOB liMguUr pre«nt CQlyitDrtiVf, tiann^Muiiot bo rhjmtiil with tbeplnnil 
TCtb Tiama«nl,»oru mian mgeaiAytiM to lira*, tbough th« comnnasM in 
both csMS H nuimpMchablft. 

t BBtnaj** atamiittf of tfio langna d'Oil, thooffb txeMdinjilj fiiL ofoa tb« 
fb*in> et liKlividual wodt, is oHos^t^c drnt npeo rfiAms, ocrpl in tli« »«« 
aittor of conranL Ibak'* uimcnnif gnmnu* purann atat/li tlio umc niMbo^ 
tait Dim; QruMutik te BotDsnbdita SfMohto, siiil ethn Ute Qrantn pbal» 
ingiMit sn wodi aom majM* OD tbii foteL 

UwT. L 



find otbirrB not less satisfftvtorj in the opioion I entertain that 
the Elu<ly of langiuigo is, iu this couDtrj' at least, takiug too 
gvDvnilly a wrong ilirectioD. 

"WiuO. is property called philotogy, thst ii, the stud; of Inn- i 
gungea in oonaectioa with, and aa a means to tlie knoirledge of 
lli« Uteiature, the hietoTy, tho whole moral and intollcctual actitHi j 
of diCEcfcnt peoples, is much neglected hy American Kholara, uud 
a profentKlly {irofonnd, but really most Kupvrlidal reacnrcb iuto 
linguistic analogies and ethnological relations is mibsti(ut«d 
.instead. The modem scteDc« uf linguiatics, or coroparatire i 
gnmiaar and etytnulogy, Tequitea for its successful pursuit a 
command of facililios, and ahove all a previous discipliov, which, 
in the United iStates, is within tlie reach of but a small propor- 
tion of men disposed to litenuy occupations, and heuce for th« 
rpreaent it must be the vocation of a few, nota part of the geoerul 
kedueation of the many. Anierlcau scholars seldom po^seaa the 
[elementary grammatical trainiu>; which is the first n»]uii<it« to 
in the study I am speakiug of, and it is a veiy groos 
l^nl a very prevalent error to aiippoae that this tmtniiig con be 
•eqtiired by the perusal of theoretical treatises, or, in other 
words, lliatit is po«sible to become a linguist without 6xst being 
I • phiIol<^3t> The ht;st, imloed (lie only means we at present 
of imbuing ourselves with tfie necessary preparatory 
attainment is, a thorough mastery both of the forms and of the 
cdcml synthesis of the words wbjch compose the languages of 
'Greece aud Rome, and are organically combined in their lita- 
fatares. This attainment at onoe {arolves a discipline Siting m 
fcr linguistic investigation, and provides us with a standanl of 
comparison by which to measure and test the peculiarities of other 
tongues. Now, thougli forms may be taught by tabire of stemn 
t-and cnding«, yet combinations cannot, and the mastery wc speak 
[of is not to bo attained by conning gnunmars and consulting 
[dictionaries. It must be the product of twu factors, a rote- 
vledgc of paradigms and definitions, and a Ion*; nnd familiar 
' COBTerse with tho intellect of classic antiquity a« it still lives and 



usGcuRic ercDtsa 

Ljoct. L 

moves in the extant litorary renuuna of Greece and Rome. We 
must know worrU not ns alwtract gnimiiiatical niul logical qriao> 
. titieit, but ajt aniiiiatt^ auil mocial beingx. Root*, inSecUon*, 
word-book d«fii)itioti.s nro prodiiotM of Uko decomposition of 
upeccb, uot speecb itaelf. They are dead rE<mains, stripped of 
tlieir nittirc utluchmcnts and functions, and faenco it ia tliata 
living Danitili Hchulur, liiin«cir» man of rsru philolo^cal attain* 
iDcnt and of keen linguiatJc perceptioiu, calls »cltolaetic grammar 
Mho grave of language.'* Had the founder of compuiBtiTe 
anatomy contented himHelf witli tJte cxaminatioD of tlie o«aeoua 
remains of dead animalA alono, his •cieuce would have died, and 
do8«rvfd to die, witJi hira; but it was his knowledge of par- 
tictiUr (ikctetons u8 the fnunework of Itviiig organtsmii that 
enabled him to diTin« and leoonttruct tho mascles, and 
Teins, and fieshy ttsaues, and integuments that on<% made the 
\ bones of Moutaiartru breatiiiDg and moving bcingit. Indi- 
^ vidually, words have no inherent force, injected form* no rig- 

J j nificonoe, nnd they become organic and exprecairo only when 
they are united in certnin oombinationB, acconiing to their qieotal 
afRniticH, nnd inspired with lifo by the breath of man. The 
Htudy of forms and of the primary or nbslroct iiiusudng of words 
muflt go hand in liand with wide observation of those forms aud 
of tJic plastic modification and devnlopment of tbe signification 
of words, as exemplified in tho living movemejit of nctiial speoch 
or literature, aud no unioimt of grammatical and lexical know* 
ledge is a substitute for the fruits of such obsers-ation. A scholar 
might know by lote every paradigm and every syntaclical rulo 
in the complct«st Greek grammars, every definition in the most 
voluminous Gn-iik lexicons, and yet fairly bo said to have no 
kiiowlculgo of the Greek language at all. In short, a atudvnt of 
Greek, p<>6«t«sed of tiicsc elements only, is just in the pwition 
of an artthinetical pupil who iim learned the forms, names, and 
ab«tract values of the Arabic numerals and tho theory of the 
decimal notation ; tltnt in, he in barely prepared to begin the renl 
■ N. F. 8L Gnmdtrig, VnvlcM BMttci^ 1. iv. 

Lacr. L 



•tudy of hia enliject Inherently, bU attainments are worth 
I nothing, and it is only by practical familiarity with DumcTical 
•combiuutions ttiat t'ley acquire real Hignificancti.' 

Ilio want of a thorough knowlod^ of language aa a veliicle 

of literature and of actual spevch is painfully maniieeted in mucli 

of tlio philological, and especially etymological, discussion of our 

time and coimlry. We have bold etlinological tl>«orie« founded 

on alleged liaguiatic affiuitieB, comprehensiTe speculations oa 

the inherent significanoo of ladtcal combiaatioua, and conhdenk 

phonological systems, propounded by writers who are unablo to 

' construe a poge,or properly articulate the diorU«t phrase in any 

languagu but their omut ^of >8 thia theoretical dreaming by 

soy means confined to the soliolnrship of the United States. A 

.ngc for causative specidmiou in chamctcrii^lic of the philosophy 

of th« day. VaA aa in tlie accumulation of facts in every branch 1 

'Of human knowledge, the multiplication of theoriee has tieen i 

*itiU more rapid, and even in Germany, where the unflagging ' 

iaduxtry of Teutonic reaeareh is heaping up such immense 

jatores of real knowledge, the imaginative aud the constructive 

itiee are yet more active than the aGi|utKttivc. A Gomtua . 

inquirer, indeed, does not pause until he has amassed all the 

kn'kwn facta belonging to or bearing upon his subject, but the 

want of sufficient data, where the necessary elements are not all 

attainable, rarely deters him from advancing a theory. However 

iiadei^unte his obeer^-ations mnyprove to warrant final conclusions, 

fhe eeUloni fails to givo the rationale of the recorded phenomena, 

ftod if he can obtain but one linguistic fact, he turns that one 

* 8m Dtnitratian V. M tlu- mi «f thi* l<«tui«. 

t It ««nld indwd be nbavnl to inntt that » linsabt en nem- be mmpetpnt to 
i(«w llw ttnt*9n at Ungmgi* vIiMe UtCMlvra lia ha* not mutcn'rl but ha 
I b«aM»« ■» onlj hj u inijmxlc knowlodg* of not thp gnunmoF alone, but Ui» 
log pUlolflgf of Kvcnl lODKuca pOMowinic fuUy derelop^ inSactional tnmtan. 
It I* Balf bj rneut* of u i«q(uuiUnc« iriUi nrattifmona liteMtaiM in n-'inbinB- 
iran wilii Ihr noalmnf of their teliiclc^ that idiolw* an Ma la riw to tliow 
fJiiloi^pltical and «oniia«Ii«o>iTO rievt of tka wMutial ehnndwof lutgnngc and 
Ibc relations of Unsnaga ■miath djatingoinh th* writings of Usa Uulkr nod 
SSM0 flttwr lineiiists of tlu Cootinttittal Mfaoola 




Into n Iaw, or, in otlier wonlii, ge&erall»e(i it, with scarcely lesi 
coDlidence tluui be siiraB up tbe results of a million. 

Com[xuati ve philology is in itx infsiic!]r,^n etrong «nd Tigoroui 
infiiDcy indeed, but still, in its t«iHlcacic« and tiAlnts, too preco- 
cioos. It (a the youngest of tlio 8cieneo«. Jklodern i»i|uirera 
have collected ft very great number of appaix^tly ifloliiUffl 
pfaitolo^cal facta, they bavo detected multitudes of eeeiuing, 
as well as numcruuii wcll-cctabliahcd lioguiiftic anido^«i, and 
tliuy have found liurinony aad resemblance where, until lately, 
nothing had h<;cn discovered but confusion and diventity. But 
atUI here, as everywhere else, speculation Ib much iu advance of 
knowledge, and many of tlic hjrpotheses which are sprouting 

I like mushixK>ms to-day, are destined, like mushrooms, to pass 

"■way to-morrow. 

The too exclusive couteuiplalioD of isolated forms has led to 
tlic adoption of nuuty linguistic theoiies which, I am persuaded, 
will not stand the teat of investigation, conducted with wider 
knowledge and with more compreheusivo lights, drawn, not 
ftom comparison of paradigms alone, but from the whole field 

^of social Olid literary history. It is maintained, for instauev, by 
a claat of linguists who imist on expLiioing changes in language, 
not by facta within tlw reach of actual observation, but hy as- 
sumed inherent laws of fipoccb, that the stage of development 
when languages form iuflcctious belongs wholly to the ante-bis- 
torical, I might aim r-«t say, the fossil ages; and it is confidently 
asserted that no new inflections now arc, or, within the period 
through which we can trace the history of language by its monu- 
ments, ever have been, constmcted in any human tongue. Yet 
every Romance, and some of tbe Gotbicdiidcota, present not one 
only, but several demonstrable, recent instances of the formatioa 
of new ooalesoent inflections, precisely analogous in force to 
those of ancient Unguagea.* 


■ Sm t'int SsriM. LttuTM XV. ucl XVI. Th« butorical •ndtncM «f a tf» 
dtncf to tlw flmaation of naw ratloKntt inflrctiniu in ibo EnnptnQ lan^uatir* is 
llifHiddle Agniic, 1 Minc^ awn amnvmn* in th*DatdUt«TslDr«ortho (hit 

Ijm. L 



In like mnnDer, th« geoeral receptioD of the weU-«ibiblL<thed 
theory of a relationship between ini<et European lacguagee, and 
their common, or rather panillt-l, di«ccut from an OricntAl 
source or iiource», has given liirtb to ver; bnsty conclusions 
w-itli regard to the actual biography of indiridual vocables. 
Etjmolrt^sls incline to neglect the historical method of deduc- 
tion in their inquiries, and to refer Gothic and Romance words 
directly to any Sanscrit, Celtic, or Sclavonic root which happens 
to re«en>blc them, lasteod of tracing, in literature and in *pceeb, 
tbe true route by whicb, and tlte source from which, they hava 
migrated into our mother-tongue.* The former is the least 
tboriouB and tbo moft ambitious method. It is cafiier, by the 

lib and Ibvrtwnth otutiirln (hnn ui an; other. Tho atuilpiit will llmi lata of 

I walMcencM, kiiiiv of wliifli uv ■nn rnrioii* and inatruAiTr. in Ihc nolca !■> 

Ti* •nilr BlsKcfiocr, in Hoffmanii too FaUfnliboi'i Hone Bcltrior, Part llf.; 

< CanI (nd* FJqiait, siow mUmUob, Put IV. : U> ferrgaat. puhLilinl l<y VIm- 

tber, ud to Uin Lerra tui Sinta ChrintlRit. riliinl liy ItDmuiu^ Sta. "the ia> 

dioaiioa o( «luMren to o«arotni ttiv r^VK^tinn of llii^ i^niElixb r«A, w oil mmk 

I whal H e*U«d tiw v««k (l>i>llrr, tlio ngukr) w*<kod of infirction b fmnilkr to 

' (iliBtrriii^ pvnon. There vw a riaular ttadmcf in tbodarlyfiagMcf •oiaa 

rihe wodim ItaUaa dIalMU, Biondolli, • Ponit- Lombanl* Inflit«i' p. tOS^ Mle, 

' VolJ« per Toll^ ri i nuora pron d*lb afboo col qual* ai toiipddd 

I d aTiUTaao tntlB h inpgDiarlll ndla fonnonnap dtl t/npi psMati » Art 

b{(j. pDSKUna atnrirt^ cho U r^olo paBmalinili a do dnlimte enno 

KMOcaid' Tbeaa dtfarliim ttota pmwtnt an not, iodatd, tttktly Mtr 

DM, bat tbaj ate inslaiieea of the «ptmion of a pnacipk vhleh micbl lead 

> nrw inflKlioea. It it ta tl» nine canw tlial «c arc to aam1>« th<> roinpl<rlion 

I tt the coitjugatka of tba d«Cr«tiT* IaIid Trrba In najran Il«lisn. Tb« UBocule 

frrfa, Eiir. Bum. fni, I bdiDrn nvre? t>r«aiM ngiclar; but andarf, dowomo. 

cialf^ «aa orr^tiuUT wgiladf oa«Qti^1ed is Itallaa, aa its eompotuidi riandarf^ 

I t(i am alill. Andara in isdMd not elawoal Latin, bat it bdong* t« an oadf 

|'p*io>l «r RamanM «tjBwki|(T. 

■ To adiolaia of aa^ pntMHbna la tonnd lingwtlie Itarnin^ ttiit tnia of 
Naatk ii crrtaiidT' BBpndnMa : but when wc find, in a dictioouy irWuii ]ifl|>nlar 
faroor ban earriod tliMinsh aeren odltimti, lacti aConiAIns abvtmliliiii u ilia 
Itetngmaw *Hysa o bi^m of Oao>t«nd(^ and in tfaa moM irid?!j rimttltJ of Ed- 
llith dtclioittriM KiKh ipfcuhttona la ti>a*« of W*hilrr on tb* irotds »il#g«d to 
Lb* ce^iialc vith llic Ilebnw bank, it ii ovidrnt thut then ti a largo clan of 
(bMk>bnj«t« and book-nukei* who nocd to W onliijhIcncJ in n^jtrd to Ibn troa 
rfodpto of «tfa>i^wl raatweh. 8c«vrcbitt«'>Diclionaty,ciliUeaof IHS^j^ 
, *a4 DlynCih«7 of prtatk, «. r, xrUr^ ** wnll a* thd i;akii.uo vorJa of Ao 
•meaaiiic ia «tlwr E«rop<<9a lanitUAgi^ ianinply tlio Latin pncdiec^bnt ii 
' nfartd bj VTtMcr t> tho Uotvtw ba tab 



Lver. L 

b«tp of the alphabetic arnuigcmeDt nt vocaljalurica, to torti orf^r 
a doicvn dictionuiea, and gather around a given Kngli»b irord n 
gr»up (if forcipn rootfl wbich contain more or fewer of tbe same 
vocal elemrntB, and exhibit a (jrcaUrr or less analogy of mean- 
ing, tban to aoek tlie actual bixlor; of tbo word by painful 
research into the recordii of travel, and commerce, and politico] 
combination, and religious propagandism, aod immigration, and 
0(M>qiW8t, which arc the ordinary muaiu of the dUeemiostion of 
words; but the txwult obtained by thiM tcdioua and unovtenta- 
tioiiti method oro of far greater value, aud far deeper phlloMphi- 
cal interest, than tbeoriea which, by revcniDg the prooesa, found 
ethnological deeceut, and build the wholo fiibric of a national 
bittory, extending through ton centtiri<.'9, on the Roman ortbo> 
graphy of a tingle proper name belonging to a tongue wholly 
unknown to the Romans themselves. 

In fad, utiduniabte aa are many of the unexpected r«%ulls of 
nodem linguixlic research, tlie mosa of speculative inquires are, 
imder ditfercut eirounictaoces, going beyond the extravagance 
of the etymologtHta of the seventeenth century. Of dead or 
remote languages these totler knew only Greek, Latin, Hebrew, 
and Arabic, and they made no scniplv to derive any modorn 
word directly from any root, in any of thrwe tonguca, which In 
tbo least rescmhlvs it in form and signification, without at nil 
troubling themHelvi-!! about the historical probabilities of tho 
ease. MiMlem philologltts have added to tb« attainments of 
Uieir predeeessora a knowledge of the vooabulanes of the San- 
nrrit. an<l Celtic, and fx^lurotiic, not to speak of numerous other 
diah^t* ; and not only are tbe root-celUrs of all these considered 
M lawfitt plunder, whenever a radical is wanted, but, in the 
lack of historical evidence to show a connection between natioos 
widely separated by space or time, the ooincideace of a few 
words or Ryllables is held to be sufficient proof of blood^relalioo-' 
■hip. Henoe etymology lias become not an aid in historical 
investigation, but a gubstitute for it. A slielf of dictionarie* is 
certainly a more cheaply wrought, and U thought a richer mine 

t*at, L 

ooiiJK.Tcm.u. UTcotrms 


of ethnological truth, tiinn a libraiy nf dironkltn or & msiga* 
tine of urchires ; and tfae moHC poaitiva tetttimonj' of ancient 
aonalistaisoTerruInl upon 6Tid<.'nix' cimved from the comparison 
of a few wi>n)», the very existence of vliicli, in the forma ascribed 
to tliem, ia often a matter of much uncertainty.* 

The conjecliiriil Epcvulataons of the present day on tlie gono- 
ral tcndcnciL-K and fundamental laws of language are even more 
doabtful tiian the historical deductiorus from supposed philologi- 
cal factiu We cannot, indeed, assume to place arbitrary limits 
to the adrancc of any branch of human knowlcd^jc, and there is 
no one philological truth which we are authorised to my ratiAt 
for ever remain an ultimate fact, incapable of further resolution 
or explanation, but there are mnny phenomena in speech 
which, in the present state of linguistic science, miutt be treated 
as ultimate. \Vith respect to tJiese, it ia wise to forbear attempts 
to guess out their hiddm meaninj; and ana]og;ies until we shall 
discover related facta, by comparison with which we may at 
length be able safely to generalise. 

But in all the uncertainty and imperfection of onr knowledge 
OQ the subjoct of English philology', there still remains enough 
of positive fact to lead na to safe conclusions on the moM. promi- 
nent phenomena of our great granunatical and lexical revolu- 
tions ; and in a course which, it may bo hoped, will serve to 
some as an introductjon to the earnest atudy, if not of the in- 
flectional forms, yet of the spirit of early English lit«rat4ire^ 
■ud) a general view must suGSoe. 

* OootMs's Vfaahrmgm dor KctUa b!iroH«cIi-kritii<ch daci^li^ ISfll, u m 
ie inttaiiM «( pan hiibirirki inivatii^slioii. With a eemtgf and io* 
rare «rtn ia Oirwiny. tbe anthar. tu uc hii own iroriU hat *iidMToar«d 
dcr Hoiiil dor &hriftat«l]cr dc* Allcjtbnau Schritc ror Schriu rnnnmi^hrn. 
wi dm il«* Aaav MnladandtB Wqt dor E^molocieo niiglirbil rn ivrmvulf n. miil 
ht Gbabapt Am su* dnr 8{mdin ggndtSpftMi D>l«g*a tii« di« nvle Strjle ringp- 
llm;<it>mlil «r dia hohv Itnl«iitinig dciwlbvo, lomal clu rro di* Altai Mhwcigm, 
■irgHidi Totkiuuit htt-' la RuvreliM to cooductnl. ctymolog; m;r Mltly Ini 
ofifd ia aa ft cnlicol hdp ia catinulicg tfao woiglit of tfntimonjr anil in d^UN 
ming qaevtioiM ppoa which tbs Uitoriol potA ore conilictiag or MU^oioB*; 
lal It ii K hjBtMOD-pratoran to (nboidinxt* tha pMitlTa «ddaiiM of trvOiMa 
llTiiMra to tingviMio dnfaietioiL 

as txauan philolmt Imtt. l 

Among the many ends which we may propose to ourwlves in the 
itudy of Innguage, there is but one which is common and neces- 
sary to every man. I mean such a facility in comprehending, 
and such a skill in using, his mother-tongue, that he can play 
well his part in the never-ceasing dialogue which, whether be- 
tween the living and the living or the living and the dead, 
whether breathed from the lips or figured with the pen, takes 
up so large a part of the life of every one of us. For this pur- 
pose, the information I shall etrive to communicate will be, cer- 
tainly not in quantity, but in kind, sufficient;- and though genius 
gifted with nice linguistic sense, and rare demonstrative powers, 
may dispense with such studies as I am advocating and illiu'- 
trating, I lielieve they will be found in general the most efficient 
helps to a complete mastery of the English tongue. 


I. (p. 3.) 


, I AH fitr from mainUioii^ that ihe Inngtiagc of En$Ian4 hia at any 

nc bcoomn a fixrd imil inflcxibk tiling. In the adult mnn, phj'no- 

]m«on», not propiTly coiutitutional changcis go on for yttu* 

Itpforo disnjr con Curly he mid lo hare comoicnood. Ili« m^Rx, 

Lisdi^, wbcn Iw pasMs froid youth to manlieod, am nlicnd}- Titlly dc- 

ifjnprd, but, nmkr &Toarabl« cirounubloceB, and with propiT trarning, 

tikcjr continue for acme tiBM longer to aojiiire addittooul atrength, 

poiriT of action utid of rcnslance, flexibility, :uiil, one intgjit alnioM lay, 

dexterity, in tUc poriomuuiw of tli«ir appropriute ftmcllonB. New 

^■rgtutic muleriul la abftarbcd and aasiraiiated, and elEblc and supcriluoua 

cIm are Ihraini off; but in all tbia ihera are no rcvolutiutu nnalcc 

IfMia lo tboac try whicli ibe ourtJing btcotoea a chiM, lli«> cbild a man. 

ISo in languages employed as <ho nicdiinn of varlrd lileraty effort, ibere 

I snbJMU of intt'llrctnal du(conr<c, practical applicaliona of scteD> 

! principle, and ncv oondtttonii of xiciiil and matCTtnl life nmltiplyi 

an incrcttHDg pliancy and adaptability of spcccli, a ooniuot appropria- 

ttoQ and Ibrmutton of ncnr rocablCH, rejvction of old and worn-out 

phraici, am) revivification of asphyxiated words, a rhvlorical, in iihart, 

not a gnunnialical cliange, vrliicb, to the nupciliciul ulm-rviT, nur girc 

lo the Uagusge a new a;4pcx;t, while it yet reuialns Hubsiantially tl>9 

The cfaid* acceaaonn to the English vocabulary au>oe the time of 
kespcare Iutb bcm in tli« departments of ioduslria] art and of 
atbematicnl, pbynical. and lingui>tic ocieuee. Tbey mfrcly compoae 
arc*, an in the caw of chrmixtry, whoeo tit^w tprminolegy^ 
bongb it ennbliH na to spcnk and urito of things the cxiritnce and 
rtics of which analysM boa but lately revealed to tis — haa not 
appreciably affected tbe structure of die KngliMb tongue or the luwa of 


narsa ahd illdstutioxs 

Lter. L 

hfl movratmt. Tn the dinloct of tmapnniive eompooilton, in all pnre 
lilcraliiro, in IWt, our vor.ibiiUi^ remaiua in ili« tnatn nnchatigrd, 
ojccrpt, indi-ud, iM it li»« bwm mrichod by ihe revival of cx]im«iv« 
imrds or fonu which hid unfortUDatvly boeo nffered to beoomt 


Thi* MRnptkn of dirinc atttbority mmI honoon to Ae Pqw fa of 
fiT()iii-nt iHxnirrwice both in ihc Chrnciicle of FroiHart, wlio wm an 
Mclennstic, and in i)i« writings of »jnnilar Continental aiilbofa in ilia 
tfidtDe Afto. In<1«od, it vim *o well unilmiood 10 be a liomiiga 
aoocplahlv to tli« Binkojia <]f Romi-, that ercn Moaltin mooai^ht ajvpcw 
to have uaed it !n tbe ooni)>limcntary addrvmu of ihrir iHtcra to the 
ponlilF whun they had « favour loaA. Duitng the pontilicatpof Jnno- 
«nl VIU., a MD ofUoluiinRicd the Conqueror, ilw^ ncwmijilfihw! Prioc* 
Djein, or Zizim, m he waa often called in Kuro|H-, itbo lad lirA fivm 
Turkc}' after hia farbcr's d««ib to cacape the oeruin doom which tm- 
peoded over the head of lh« brntbors of the rvlgniaif Sultan, waa 
Inveigled into lli« |>ow«r of the Grand MK«i«r of the Kiiifjlils of Rhcdaa 
by a nf«-odnduct, and thrown into prisoD. The luoilic-r and xiden of 
Djcfn retired lo Cairo, and aalied the intnccmioD of jVbd-ul-Ans, 
■Soldan of Bnbilon,' lor the rclmm- of the cai'tive. A1k1-uI<Az)x in- 
TOked the intcrrention of Pope Innocent VIII. in a cunoiis epi^llc, a 
Iranslaiioo of wMrh ii fctind in Arnold'* Chronicle, reprint of 1611, 
pp. 169, ISO. The Inter la addrcwicd: ' Unio the moot boly«at and 
buorabliiit Price in erlbe, Vicuy and Licflenaat of Ci^-at, srennora 
dtiring I>ord Innocence the riii., . . . extirpator of i>yniMrra . . . tlta 
■todo of (i«t ving in crihc;' and elirwhere in the letter the pope la 
•tyind ' a* in a maniT a God I ertlie, and the pacred brcihe of CryM.' 

'Hie uibM-ijnenl di-taiU of this alTair aro wortli adding, an an illustra- 
tion of the' Honicwhat un&mlliar hiatory of tbe tinM'i. Djem ws> sur- 
rendered by the Grand klaMer to Innoccol VTII., and kept under 
■urveillancu during lite life of tbat pontiff. Innocent waa eueeccdrd ty 
a more oclebmled ' exiir|:alor of rinncn^' Alexander VI., who truiled 
the unfortunate jwinee with grenler r%our, and aocm rcecircd — perbupa 
invited — proponnti from Kultan Ittiyexid II. for hi* BiMMIiatton, mid 
from Cbnrlea Vlll. of France (who vri>ili4<d tn uxe him aa an tDUrumitit 
jn a war with Raymid) Sot hia piii«haw. Afler tome higgling about 
terms, bia HulincM accepted the propwali and the taonoy of both 

Lbct. I. 

wrtrjoaf illcstiutioks 


rnanHcIis, and bonounbly rcdeetned his pl^dRMbrBntadmiaUtariiig 
f« doM of iwiBon to DJmu, and tfatm ilflinTiiis him orei, vhile yet 
[fclire. to til* King of Fwcco, AnuHIg tlip oilier trMunin* hr which hu 
jw briliud to tliJB ilinliououniblu nlipabtiun, Bi>v(>zid bad lu-iit him a 
fKtd or Ik'lilioiu ememld, with Uie poiinita uf onr Bttvimir and of St. 

Vaul vaginvcd upon it. 

Injiacent ^111. \nM ki littlo iwhftmod of bin mndDct In tbe luatter, 

tfaat he cAiuul to bo stmck, or mtbcr rjut, a iiH»bU in oonimnBontioii 
^vt tlw hug'''' ^7 trhJch h" tMiRsRrd to ncl lu lh« jailor of D}ejn — or 

pAThApA hp, to ti^i* n jilira^o of our dar, rci-ivly uconpted «« */™i7 fJrtwin- 

jri< tbe coining of ibu iii«dal bj- >H>uit) devonl oontemponur. This 

TBTV medal, which is about three ftitd one-third inches in diaineier, and 
1 in llt« spccimrn before mc of gold, rory ibickljr cast on a oojiper blaabf 
upon tbo obvcnx:, the head of Cbrixt, with tho tetrad ' iiis . xrc . 

Ml-VATor. . Mvsoi,' or of St, Paul, and upon the nvcTM i» tlu> ioscTip- 

tion, in s I^atin worthjr of tlic aubji-ct: — 

ntuxita . novaE . ad . siuiurrDiseu . vinnst . iebs7 . balvatoru . 


ntrntasBonEs . axtia . ayovi^RrtTR . oaasitTA're . hisbe . svsr . ab . tpso . 
hUAGKo . mirrcxo . s.D.n. fai-i: . ikxocexcio . octavo . pso . sl}(G^-LABl . 


It is T«^mailGubIe ibnt this ascnplion of divinity to the h«nd of the 
Rnini4i Cburcb. afler b^tving (aUva nucb into diniae, ahould liare tircn 
iwivcd m |]m! days of the prwect pope. The tTllramoiilanLit journals 
ftcely rmploy it ; and Bedini, Arclibiabop of Viterbo and Towanelb, 
CK Cardinal, in a recent pa^iontl (18C1) addrp«»c<i to hi* diooeiaiu% 
L only calU Pius IX. Clirisl's ' vicar on rarib,' hut mIis the fiuthful » 
dcpokil tbeir tribute of Peter's pence ' at lira fe«4 of the p«rsMUl«d 
M*s-<loti' — 'ai piedidd pfrwguitaloCom-Dio,' — tlimtapplyingtothe 
jKfK the name by whkh the laibir* of the Churdi uprrsBod the incar- 
aalioa of the Divinity in man. Chrirt wa* to thi-m ibu Oi-r>0/>uitoc or 
Oi'urlpof i to Cardinal Bedim, PiuR IX. i> tlic Man-God. 

m. (p. 10.) 


In Icelandic, the nutliora of Njila, LaxdRla-Ssga, and the Hdmv 
fategla: in French, Tille-Ilnritontn, Joinvitle, FroitMrl, and many 
Mher IcM iBijiorlant chronickr* ; in {'alntan, Jlamon Muntnner and 
Bvrnat d*Ci>clot ; in PottugnRM, Fornix Lopez, Uio ablent of all n>odin>- 
nl dironiRlorw, are all enlitled to a pluco in tbe front rank of hintoiical 





writ«r*, bttt DO poet of thoM «gfs and oountm* Mill Kan'i.v«« ts an 
actually living itifluttocn in liMmtitro. Kvi-n iho Itcnnaii dc la Kom ia 
htit litrln rriu), and tliat mllicr for linguixtic than fur lilctary putpnwa. 
Till! negl<«t into wbidi thin and otbcr potms of tlito nl.wH hare bllcn, 
in apiu of ibftir abundant Ixsiuty of imugo^', of thouo^hl, and crco <tf 
exprvMioD, la ihc natural <roBitr<| uvncu of llietr di-Cuicoc^ in power d 
(IitliDMiiiig ehanxcti-r, and iLcir wuntof unity of Goaocr)AJodi ia planau'l 
oxwution. Tbe rhymed clitx^>niclc« of tbe Uiddle Agea ar« gcticrally 
wholly destitute of poeliral merit, and tliey me rarely of muiJi raltia 
Miuddered dimply a* annnl*. They diuvgard hiatoricnl trulb, but &tl 
to aeoam tlie grooc* of liibl? by the MmSoe. 

Then obRcn-ntiona, m fur aa poetry is concenitd, do not apply to tli« 
litoratnrcof Gcnnimy. Th<> Admirable Teutonic epic, tho Nibelupgvif 
Lied, in olmoM ai WDndrrrul a pbcnoraanon a* tbo Iliad itarlf. Ttie 
oldciit manuMnptii of thi* pxra belong to tbe nrliCT port of the thir- 
teenth century, and though it ia founded on ancirnt and wid«-«pmil 
Gothic tmdiliou% it it ncillicr proved nor probable tluit the rhapuxlica 
of which it is coiupoaod exiai«d in a eolUcted, harmoniard, atid 
tceortlcd Ibttn, at a p«Hod lonji; previous lo tli« dalo of theae nsnaNcripta. 
Conaidered, tl>en, as a litorary monuiDefit, thn NlbduDgcn-lJed iu 
ouotentporaneous with the chixinicle of Ville-Hnrdouin. But Gcroiany 
luu DO Temscnlar liiBtorian of that epoch to boaar, and in fact it may ba 
■aid to be genumlly lm« of tbe iufanC age of vv«ty moderu literatura, 
wltli the exception oft^iat of Italy, ibatii haanot produced at (be ■onw 
lime gml poela and gren* hiiUoriaoa. In point of literary merit, tua 
loclaudio hiolorical school ranka far above any other of the Middlu 
Ages, and it is vorlh noticing thnt,— white the abltvt dironiclen of 
tbe Komaiico nation* confine thcrniclrcR chiefly to tho nnrratioa of 
ereDiM occurring under their own obwrration, or very near ihdr owd 
time, and in which tbey lud oflvn pur*onalIy participated, or at Unaat, 
known the principnl agcnlii, — reiy many of the lunat edebrated 
Icolimdic MgaH were comjKovd at dates coniadcnbly later than tfa* 
pvriodn wluiMi histoiy tbey recotd. Heoc«, in early Romanee hittoriaii 
literalun', the iierBannlity of the aiiiuliit often makes imlf eonspicuoiia, 
and his narrative lias a more subjective cliaracler than those of llw 
mffta, llie auOion of vhich are for the meal part unknovn, and not 
themaelva dntmatif ptrtotur. Ilotraver sforiiei and brilliant my ba 
llie Bomnnoo chronicles in the df«criplion of event*, they ara rani ly 
inferior to the Mgaa in the jortraiitiiv of all ibnt goca to make up tha 
penutuilily of the in'.livida'i). Few hiitorical nairaton have produeed 
man eomptcUly full aud roiuuLed uodds of AeA aiid blood huiaaiii^ 

MCT. I, 



Uinn Kjill, and Guamrr, and HnltgeHr, in Njili, and HOtknldr, scd 
OUf the Peacock, and Kjartan, in Laxdgla. 

IV. (p. 15.) 
omoix or tiik bouaxcb umgvagxs. 

UnlEI raomtljr, p1iUologi*bt linvc habitnnlly Kpokcn looadj' of tlM 

> Romanee languagca ai derirc^d Troin tlic Lnlin, oixlaTC undfrntood b^ 

amm raadera an meaitiiig ibcn-b^ tl*c claaai^al Kpctvh irhicb aervrd 

I the Tehidc of llit lit>;nit»r« of aud«Dt Romi^. lluit ibc ntnicrnrc, 

and more etpucuUly Uie vocabnlai}-, of the incidcni ticnuncc tt-ngtio 

|liflv« been rtty grtuitly uSccied hy the iullucnce of Latin, m xhc lun- 

[ of Roman lilenlure and of tbc RuiuiiJi Cburcli, ti indi^atably 

llni«; but lli«re is abundant evidenoe to show d»t, ouuicinpunmcvtioly 

fviili ibe written tangiuige of andcnt Koroi!^ there exiKl«d a jMipular 

l^«eob, Gomparauvi'ly tumplc in jnf!o(!tion.i1, and, of ootine, BTOtaeiical 

, and boaringft coiiudorablc nwcinblnnoe lo the medcni vriiltra 

'and spokoa dialtda of lliv l^Mnaoce luition*. TKm hnnibl« ioi^« ia 

mrntirdied li^ manj asciioit wiitcn under the niiroc of /in^Ha rwth'i-ci, and 

ii and its prnvinctnl diulecU are eonudervd hj: DttMt philologiits iia the tme 

puuils of the languagta nnir employed ihrou^iout Souihunt Kiitu[«. 

< AJthougb it U nsiudl/ rcfened to by a ooU4!ctivn nainr, there ta,a be no 

F^noitiim that it wiw dirided into a grmi number uf lucu! dialect*, mote 

or InH didi-j-iiii; Ijoim nch other and fnwn wntlen Latin, aiid tliat ihe 

dilTimnci^s b-Jtwecu these diakda hare boon, to aoine exteci at leant, 

perpetuated in tbonwdeiD longtiaeea which have succeeded lo and now 

^ApRiieot Ihftn. It ia fimhw pomible, i>eThap8 we luay e»en aay 

li^bable, Ihat there existed bctw<?«n llie oral and the recorded dialecia 

mT the capital ilaelf, some siich relation a» thnt between the written and 

I'lbe qKiken French of the prewnt day, and hence, that the language of 

IWavermtion at Rome difTcrod rety oonaidRrably I^doi that nf litorniurc 

Beaides the toadoncy to diviuon and nuailicotjan which nil langnagva 

ifaow whenever ihn nation* that vpcak thrm are themselves diridrd into 

fragmentii trpomted by phyiucal ur politicnl harrierii, tliere was. in 

I ncient Italy, a special cnuio of oonltiwn of i^icrch, which of ttxeU 

would nocuunt for a great deputture of the Of«l from the wiitten tongue, 

M well ua for Uie breakbg up of the epoken language, had it ever been 

I Knilbnn, into a mulliindo of dialects. I refer to the exbauation of the 

[nual population, and the substitution of fuieign-bom poedial alaTeaand 

}diihaade<l soldiere, &om even- part of the ancient known world, for the 

- Mtire and nbor^pinal iahnbitnnts of the coiL Thia Kxliauxtton waa 



L*CT, L 

prodoMd hf l]i« milibu^ coiuori|itiain, hy the tendency of popoLttion 
lowarda great Dommerciu] tuul indiulrixl ci-nucii, which hojiit^in brootwB 
HO marked a fcAtura of the aatocUtc tile of Etnvpi^ and by Hir nlxiotp* 
li>m of the t«Mer ealaMa into tlte dotaninK of the greni pn^riclont. 
Tho {linco of llie oonHurijit, or vmij^nint ouliru ptujuiul, wtw takea hy 
Mcrvito and ducharged mUit.-kr)' Btrungen tu ■ucU an (Extent, itiat tlie 
Latin and other Italic noea were nld to have bcwomv alntovt exiiiict in 
the runt dutricta even bcibre the daya of iho empire. Tlieae fbn-ignun 
wen! of many different etoelto and differait tongiin, aad iboiigli the 
Kuhrud eaptirm were dii>lril>itted iridioiit mnch regard (o cominuniiy 
of origin at of opcech, yet the disbanded TrtrntnR would nauirally be 
ci^loniwd uith aonie refr rwice lo tbcir iiaiiotiality, wid beoce nch con- 
iitdvrable allolnurnt of mililnry bonnly bndu would lie a centra whicit 
vroutd exvrciiu.- u peculiar inflaenee upon the Ungimge of itx own vicinitj, 
and lliiu tend to cniate m looil patois, if none existed there before. 

Raynuunrd, lo-xiqitc Roman, I. xtii^ olncrr«: 'II «t reeonnti 
BUJ04trd1)iii que la rcmana ruMitiiMt aa fiirnia de 1:% cnrraplinn dc la 
langue laline, <|ite rignoranco d« oeux qui [Mtrtitiunt viicore cotiv 
tangue, 4 rf[K>que do rinvmon den burdei du Nord. et leur melange 
ave« CM hordes, modilifreiild'uDu nuniti-e 8f<^iale, [largiiiiedeliujutiie 
k Bouvd idiome aoquit uu canieiJ!re dNtioct d'todividiialii^.' 

This tiieory nuppcwrs llint the claBiic*! Latin vna onec the general 
popalar ^icceh, not only of Iialy, liui of Spuin, Portugal, and France. 
Tliis is an anumption, not ouly without proof, but al variance with 
probability, and tliere b no reason to believe thai any one rulgar dialeel 
•ver had a ^eat l«mtortaI range in the Italian peninsula, still leas in 
the distant subjucteO provinces We know hiecorically tliat Italy waa 
originally, or at least, at a very early period, peopled by many difierent 
noes, wliieli were at last iiniled niider ths govemrncnt, and fiirced into 
a oonfbmiity with the ingtilutions of Home. But we have no proof 
that tlicir verntKiilar* erer melted luid harmonimd into one untlbnn 
b'nyua ru*tiea, and, iodcrfl, the [x-rinl through wliicti the sway of Home 
axtcndcd was alttig«4licr too sliori for such an ■nial;.-umulian to lutve 
taken'plaoe tinder sueti ciictiroManocv. The nuiic diatccia are lo be 
regarded not as eorrupiiom of tlie I.atin, or of any oliier single speech, 
but each as in a certain sense the representative of an older and mora 
jifimitive tongae. Tlieir nintnal r«f«mblBnce» are mult* of a tcndcni^ 
to coalesce, inipoced npon them by the social antl f^litical inOnence of 
Home, not evidence of greater likennw nnd eloscr relationship at au 
earlier stage. The I>atin itsetf is but a com{>n>niUe and an a inal^iu na- 
tion of llwlingunlio peculiarities of older apeccbo, and itwasprobab^ 

Ucr. L 



never cmplojed at Utt vulgsr tongue of Komnn Italy to a giralcr caUcnt 
than Ttiscan u spok«a «i this dnv in the modem Italian Statts. So 
&jr from beong the mother of thn rtKlio patots, tli« Latin itMcIf majr 
with greater tratli be regarded ax dcriviitive. and u* a ccioliucimce of 
more aocicnt fonux of tltccn. Thbt, iudvcd, in apfanuitljr Uss tni« of 
Ute gmnnuir of tbc vo<»t>tilury. Tbc Mock of words iu I<atia ia 
evjdratljr of a tttv mixed diaraoier, l>ul the ri-gulaiily aud complde- 
ncn of the inflection* iilioiv tlial the gnuuniar of mtne vuc audeut 
dialect rcrj- greatly ptvdominatca id the ooropoaite literary longoe of 

On tbe otlier land, it mutt be admitted, that the general coincidence 
of TocabuWy in the Komflnce laDgiuif^«i, and especially 'be occurrcnc« 
of nunKrous word>,Hib«ani)nIlyihc same in all of tliein, but nhich can 
hardly be traced lo s clnmcol Lntin murce — ctieh, for example, na It. 
acciajo, Sp. nccro, Vr. acivr; It nguglin, 8p. aguja, Fr. 
aiguille; It.arrivarc^ Sp-arribar, Kr. arriver; It. bianco, Sp. 
bianco, FV. blanc; It. bocca, Sp. boca, Fr. bouohv; It. cao- 
eiarc, Sp. enzar, Pr. cbuaiicr — ttccnm to ptiint to a commumt)' a( 
ongin which tlieir gnmunatical diu^i (.'[ar.cirs Ii-nd to diiproTU. Lit*:- 
nry nad ecdewiaMJciil influenoe* have ticcn rcry important agencies in 
brin^g about a naiformity in ibv ntuck of vrorda, and as to thoie tucb- 
bleu cotnmoa to all the Itoniiinn: dialect*, but unknown to clafliical 
Latin, it ia not improbable that they belonged to popular nomenclaturca 
eaau)eOt«d with lli« uiiUiury or civil adminiMralion of tbe Roman 
guTvrnment, and which were «nij>Ii^-«l an ifiJely m that goTernment 
sxteoded, though not tbrming a pan of tbe literal}' tougue^— See On ih* 
J}^trg«uc4 q/'DiaUet$, Loaure II. 

V. p. (27.) 


A lyiitax which looks do higher tliau to rulea of concord and r^- 
moi, th« determination of logical relulioua by tbe tallying of endings, b 
not a whit more infllecttial thnn the game of doiniuue& Tbe Bludy of_ 
iingniMics i* valtinble, leu* ii> nn independent punuit, tban aa a me«iM 
of nrcns ti) a widi--r nwgc of philologies, nDdcrvtcod in that briiad moitc 
in whicb the word ia now used in ticnnan eriliunn. Happily for tbe 
inti-rvata of lumlng, mctit di>>iingiiiBli«d Continental liDgiiiusi are phi- 
loJugiiitti aUo. On tbc other baud, American, and, I muit add, Hngliih 
pcefeaaed lingtiista, ore in general but uibblbg tbe >licl! while th«^ 
inugiofl tbenuehet to be ciyoyine the kentel of tbo A utt T duUre not 


Mens ASD tLLosmnoTw 

Lbci. L 

to be ntid«retood na UDdcrrxIuioK tli« tiii{;uifllie works of Buch meo a< 
Bo|ip ftod ifae brolhen Griinm. irhvmi IuIkxiis have funilsheil Um k«v Ui 
■Qi^ vut tuns of literate wcalih, but m Uie fame limo I miiintaiD tliat 
llie UuileDl of laDgnago who «iidH with ihe linguifttica of Bofip kod 
Giimin Iiad better never iiave b<^iD ; for gmmRiiir haa but a raln^ 
not a woith ; il ia • nicniif, not an «id ; it irachra but halAtralh*, and, 
tiXOiipl na on introduction lo fitmiliiif and thnl nbich litomtiira cinbo> 
dica, it ia a mrlnndioly licnp of Jtacbcd mIics, tnnrrowlraa boodi, and 
cmptjt ojratcr-Nhutla. You may fved tho btimnn iiilvllvct upon ruola, 
Udma, and «nilitigx, oa you may keep k liorae upon mw-dnat ; but yoa 
uiurt add a tiltk lilvnUuK in lIic oao oaae, u little meal in ibe olbcr, 
Mud the mote ibo bott«ir in bodt. Uunjr yintn ikga, Broint, aa AuMiri- 
oan gnuniDariaiit inreotcd what fae callol « parting -macbine, for teach- 
ing grammar. It waa n maliogany bo;c, aomo two fv«t atiuarc, provided 
will) a crank, filled wttb oog and crown -wher la, pulleya, band*, akafta, 
gudgcona, couplinga, apringai coma, nod occrairica; and wiik ticv«ral 
Irap-alicka prcgcciing through alota in the l<^ of it. Wbrn plaj-cd 
npoo bjr an expert operator, it/i(ncfK>n«(^ u the Krrncb my, rcry widl, 
and ran tliroogb the aynlocticnl caicgonca ua glibly aa the fbotraan in 
Soriblvrua did through thu prodiuulca.. But it had one capital ddcct, 
namvly, that the pupil mtiat liare lenmed gmnunar by auine vimplcr 
method, betiire he coidd luidenund the working of tlie ooDtrivaaoe, 
•nd ita IcMNinw, thercibre, came ruther laleu There ura many lod ' CDm> 
pounds oTpriotcr'a ink and brain-dribble,' atylod * Enjjliidi Gramiuan^' 
whiich, aa mcaua of inslniclwo, are, upou the whole, iiiltfior to Bruwn'i 

onionf ASD coMPOsmoN of the asglo-baxon peoplb ako 


BtunasB p^oe(^e^ling to the immcdiato subject of the preaeat 
lecture, I will offm an explnnatory rismark U[>on tlie noniencU- 

'ture whicb, in corumou wltlt uaiiy writers on Eurapeaii pbilo- 
hgy, I emplo;. I shall make frec^uent use of the ethnological 
qiithets, Gothic, Teutonic, Germamc, ScaixlinaTiiui, and Ro- 
Dtmice. Under the term Gothic I include not ouly the extinct 
Mceso-Oothic nation and huiguagc, and tlio coutempomoeoiis 
kindred tribet and tongues, but nil tlie later pifoples, »peech^ 

^imd dinlects oomuionly known as Anglo-ijaxon, German, Dutch, 
Flemish, Norse, Swedish, Danish, and loelaudic, together with 

.Mir compoaile modem English. All thcee are marlced lij- a 
MnMig family likcucsii, and Iienoe are assumed, tbougli by no 
mean^ historically proved, to be demwiidcd from a common 
WiUi the exception of a few words, chiofly proper 

^Jiamfis, which occur in the writiugK of the Greet and I^atin 
bi«toriana and geographers, the oldest Bpecimoa we poeaets of 

kJMiy of the Gothic UnguagiM is the remnant of a traDslation of 
the ScriptuR-a executed by Ultilas, a hidiop of the MfBSO-Gotba, 
hat hinuelf, according to PhlloMorgius, of Cappadocian descent, 

•who lived on the nborea of the Lower Diuiulie, in the fourth 

' cvnhuy after tihnst.* The Gothic languajrea divide themselves 
ioto — 

I. The Teutonic or Gennanic branch, which oonslstx of — 1, 
the ^tloBso- Gothic ; 2, the Anglo-Saxon ; 3, the Low-Oermaa, 
or Saxon; 4, the Dutch, or Netherlandish, including tha 
■ 8m lUiutntiodit IL miul T. M llw otdof Utii Icctnic 



lbct. a 

Flcmivh; 5, the Friaic; and 6, the Uif^fa-Oemuui, to wliicb^ 
niaybt! mlJcd Uie Ciinbric of the Sctte and the Trcdici Comuui 
iu Ital_v', and mauy Swigs and eva Pii^dmontesc pntois. 

II. The ScandiDAvian branch, which ttiil>n)c(-ii — 1, tho Old- 
Xorthcrn, or Icclaodic, improperly called ftiuiio bj many uorlicr 
Knglifih philologivtji ; '2, tlio Swedish; 3, the DanisJi, Including 
the Xorw. vr Norurc^nan. 

in. The Eiiglisli, which, though lets than half the 
ooinpoHiRr its total vocabulary are of Gothic descent, tflcla 
with tlukt family, hccausu in iti> tiomcnlint mixed grammatu 
Htructure thv Gothic syntax vory t^uitly predominated, and a 
majority oft.lic words cmploy.-d in the onlinar^' oral intcrconrasJ 
of life, and even in almost any giv.^n lik'niry compueition, ar« i 
of Gothic etymolo)^. Perhaps, also, the Scottish sJtoiild he 
regarded as a distinct spo^^, rethor than aa a mere dialect of 

Alt these, excepting the Mojso-Golhic, and presumably that 
also, have or liad a great number of e|>okfii, and many of them 
even written, more or leas divergent dialects. I am aware 
that the propriety of tliis application of the terms Qothio, 
Teutonic, and Gcnnanic is disputed t but it has long 
received, and will be better understood than any new phraseology. 

Romaace formerly meant — and is still defined In most dio* 
tionarica — the dialects of the Spanbh and Italian borders cl 
Fnmce ; but, in recent criticism, it is a generic term embracing 
all the modem languugt^'s usually regarded as cognate witlt tlte 
Latin, — in a word, the Itnlmn, Spanish, PortngiK'se, Catalan, or 
Xjeiuosin't, Provencal, French, tlie BoumaiiHcli of soreral Swies 

• S*c Fif»t Hwiwi. l.*etiiMi VI. . p. IS3. 

t Til* Catalan or L«tiiaiui m of Can riwken of lu ■ ittklvet of ttpaiti*h. II 
hjr Spaniidi he tnoBsl tbv naMtiililaico of Kninnoix *|i?eoliea einpl<>)'Dd Iu ttpAla. 
tbe exproBion taaj \io oortcct ; bot if the Ctutilwn. Urn writlaa laasnag* 
of m«t t*t^ "f ^piiin. be intended, it >■ nu moiv lni« Uiut C»talau is a div 
t«el or Spuiiah Ihui llmt SpAofah 1* • diulMTl ol CstsUn. Nrilli^ to ft d«- 
tinirivc or on oSuhoot of lb* oUiM. Th« (Ivrrloiiaidiil knd hlMtiry of naoli 
b iadepwKlent of tliat of UtsotbSTi aMdlboCninlan In, in thoimportotitpoliiS ' 
ol Uw ecastnatlOD et ptriod*, ueom to Ilia Frencli ihaa W the CortiUaiL 

Lkc*. II. 

oaiam or nut Asaui-fiAxoNS 


^oommunitics is its various forms, and Mm Vvallacbian. These, 
are subdivtJoi) into m»uy luciil di&leots, or jmtois, saven) 
of wbicb, eopecially in Italy, have been reduced to writing, and 
""Tnay not improperly be said to have their spvcial litcrulurcs. 
We cannot affix a chronological date to the epoch of change 
am the rustic or provincial Uoman to the modt-ra Komuice 
^fn any languagu of tliie tJtniily ; but, with tbe exception of single 
pbrwes in ancient liturgit-s, lavn^ and clironicles, the (Jdut 
ext-mt uionuuienti in a Romance dialect are generally cod* 
udered to be the oaths of Louis le Germaniquc and of certain 
French lords, subjects of Charles thu Bald, sworn ut Strasbtu^ 
in 842.* 

Many ruM^nt inquirers bclioTC that the Continental invader^ 
of Gothic origin, who rtducntd Celtic England to subjection a 
few centuries after Christ, emigrated Irom a emali district in 
ilsBwick now called Angclu, and wcrv all of onu racv — tlie 
Ingles, — that thi; d«.^guntion Saxou was not the propiM- appel- 
lation of any of tlicin, but a name ignornntly bestowed upon 
Jiem by tbe native CelUi, and at la«t, to some mtudl ostcnt, 
dopted by themselves. It is hence argued that the ]iri>{>er 
nunc of their language ta not Saxon, or even Anglo>8axon, but 
lie, or, in the modom form, EnglrUi. It ia farther iti-sisted 
thv prcN-nt Apocxh of England is nearly identical with tbe 
dialect introduced into the island by tlie imtnigruntx in questioo, 
consequently, that there is no ground for dtslinguisbing tha 
lid and the now by different names, it being sufficient to cha> 
nctedso the sucGcssiTc periods and phases of the Anglican 
speech by epilh<-t.s indicative of mere chroDolo;;ical relation, 
nying, for instance, for Anglo-Saxon, old, or primitivi; English, 
— fcMT our present tongue, new, or tnodem Englivh. 

I differ from tlic»o tbeoriiits as to both premises and oonclu- 
rion.t By thoeo who maintain such doctrines, it appears to be 
ifisamed that if tlie eridenoe upon which it has been hitherto 

■ Soe IlliuUstioo I. ■! flM nnd of tlii* locttinb 
t 8«e Kiirt Sttici, hrdan 1, ppi 41— 4S. 



Ucr. lb 

believed tbiit Ute intmignitioa was oompo»«d of tliree diflcrvnt 
tribes, — Jutn, or Jutlanrler*, Aoglcv, and Saxons, — coutd bd 
overthrown, it would follow ttiat tt con.<iUt«d of Anglos aloae. 
This iBaltojretber iticoiicliiAive; and it iiiuM. not ba forgotten 
Ihat the only historical proof which cetahlishca the participation 
sf a trilu called Augk-s io tho iuTa^iotLS of tho finh and sixth 
centuricfi at all is procLttly the uvideucc which ii adduced to 
show that SasoEU ocoompauied or followed tliera. It inim bo 
adinittviJ, indeed, that the extant direct testiioony upon t]i« 
whole uibject is open to great objections, and tbat scarcely any 
of the narrativo accounts of the Gcrmauic conquest of England 
wilt «taad the teut of historical criticism. Tliut the nuw-comcrs 
tlicmsclvtis etylod port4onM of \hf territory they occupied Emex, 
Su8»ex, Wesaex, and Middiiwox, — tlial is, the districts of tbe 
East ^xoDB, South Saxons, Weat Saxons, and 31iddle Saxons:, — 
is undisputed ; and it ia a violently improbable supposition, that 
tlicy bestowed ou these localities a name uii^akvuiy a[tplied to 
tfaenuielvefl by the natives, instead of calling them by their own 
proper and familiar natioiial, or at least tril)al, ap]>ellatiuu. 
Thcf also often spoke of themselves, or of portions of them- 
aelvc«, as Saxons, of their lan-pui^ as the Saxon spcedi, and 
Alfred's usual royal ttj^ktiire nas 'Hex SaxoDum,' though, iod«<id> 
they more generally called tliv wholu peoplu and the laQgiMett < 
Angle, or English. 

Apart from the testimony of tlic chroniclers — which modem 
inquirers socm generally and with good reason much inclined 
to suspect — tho only proof which idcntifios the Angles of 
England with any Continental people is the perhaps accddentol 
coincidence between tlieir uaino and (hat of » Germanic, or, as 
some writers maintain, ft Scandinavian trilie, occu[>ying a 
corner of Sleswick so narrow in extent as liardly to be uotioed 
at all in Continental history. It is equally true that there ts 
no external testimony to sliow that any notion, known to it«eU 
oa Saxon while yet r<-Niil<-nt on Teiitouii; soil, furnished any 
ooutingent to the Wies of invaden. Germanic and Scaodi- 

Leer. IL 



DiiTiaa litstnry are ralent on Ute whole tnliject*, «xrcpt. in xoma 
few [Mssagea probably borrowed &om Aoglo-Sason authorities ; 
aad in the wont of trurt worthy ioformation &om natiro aoiiAltsts, 
m muKt bare rvcoiusc to tbc iiit4:mal ovidcDce supplied by tlie 
InnRUage, and to tbo proluLbilitin deducci] from sudi iDdirccC 
aod fm^nciitju'y fncla a^ have come down to lis, tfaroiigb otLer 
channel^ from the dark and retnoto period of emigratjan. 

What then does the character of the language commonly, and, 
u I tbink, appropriately, called Anglo-Saxon, when examined 
. the earliest forms known to us, indicate with reqa-ct to the 

of those who vpokc it ? 

According to tl>e present views of the ablest linguists, gram- 

tica] structure is a much more efiwntial and permanent 

ict^^ristic of languages than the roc&bulary, and ia therefore 

alone to be congidercd in tracing their history and determining 

tlieir ethnological affinities. This theory, I think, is carried too 

far, when it i* insisted that no amalgamation of tlte grammatical 

chanicteriitic* of different speeclies is possible; for though 

ilasguageA often receive and assimilate a great amount of foreign 

Fmaterial without much change of structure, yet, on the other 

hand, there are cases of the adopHoo of more or leas of foreign 

stox while the voeabutary remains in a good degree the saroe, 

'and even while the people who employ it continue almost wholly 

unmixed in blood with other natioOR. The Armenians, for 

Lcxample, can boa^t of a purer and more ancient descent than 

Tany other Cbrislian people, and they hare kept thcmselve^^ 

during the whole period since their convemon to Christianity 

in the fourlh century, alraont as distinct in Iilood ami as marked 

^ta nationality as the Hebrews. Their language is lineally 

l^deecended from the old Armenian tongue, its radicals remaintDj; 

tilxtantUlly the same^ but its grammar is cveiywberc modified 

that of tlie prevailing idiom of the different countries where, 

in the wide dispersion of the Armenian people, it is spoken. 

• II d*««rre> U bt jpcdaUj notiMd t^l iht nukH at Btilbor Aafl* aor Sue* 
in lk«vul£ 


uuTvui or oR&iuuia 



Acoording to oar learnwl cotintrjnuiD, Mr. Rifr^ Use syntax 
of the Arinciiian ^okcn in Turkey has confortn<.>d itself to the 
Ktrtiottirit of the Turkish, an<l wliito tLe ancient Aimi;niaa 
Scriptures corrcapond with tJic llclirew text in tlie logionl 
coDStnictioD of p<rrio<Ut and the «rraiigeni(>nt of the wtmk Ibnt 
c«mp<«w ihcm, tiic modern Armenian eiactly invert* (he order 
of pohilion, and, in ucooidonoa with TurkUh synlax, places first 
all inatrumental, local, and circnrn^tantial qualifications, and 
announces the prineipnl propot^ition at the end of the oenlenre. 
Thus, to use the illustrntion of Mr. lUgga, a Tiirco-Annenian, 
in Baring, 'that a Gre«k nhot an Egyptian yoebrrday with a 
piito), in a drunken quarrel, in one of tlie stTerta of the city," 
imtead of arranging the words in the ancient Ami<«ian order, 
which Dvarlf corresponds witli the English, would announco 
the prapo«ili«n in litis fonn: — 'Yc«t«rday — of this city — of 
the streets — one — in — of wine — the use — in originating 
— of a quarrel — in conscqucoco — with a pistol — a Greek — 
an Egyptian killed.' • 

A liogui^ic inquirer, who oflopts the theory I am difciis«in^, 
might conchido from the Htiidy of modem Armenian grammar 
that the p(^ople and tti<; lanj^unge Monged to the Tartar stock ; 
whereas nothing is more certain than that tlie Armenians and 
their speech aro ethnologically unrelated to the Ottoman imq and 
the Turkish tonguo. If therefore it were tnie that the gram- 
matical coincidence between Aoglo^Saxon and any given Con- 
tinental dialect were closer than it is, t^e Idt^ntily of the two 
would not thereby atone he eonclosively proved. In point of 
fact, Anglo-Saxon grammar docs not precisely oorrespoud to 
that of any other Gothic speed), hul, on the cuntnuy, embraces 

tpomc ehamcteri^tics of aeTerol Germanic and even SoandinavioD 
Tt'e Anglo-Saxon, and especially the English langoage* have 
been afTected in both vocabulary and structure by the influence 
of all the Gothic and Konimicv tongues with which they hare 

tiCT. IL 

nrnms or okaioubs 


been brougfit into long and close contact. Doubtlesn this 
iDfltienc« is most readily pereeiv^^d and appreciated in the stock 
of words, but altliougli more obscure und much anialler in nctual 
antooDt of results, it a, I tbink, not Icu unequivoaU in itsvffefits 
upon the syntax. 

A oomparisftn of the Anglo-Sason goepeli with older monu- 
mcnta of the language, Beowulf and the poems of Csodmon, for 
instance, on tht- one hnnd, and with the Latin text ou the other, 
appears to mc to show very clearly that the syntax of the tJiuii<U- 
tioo, uid, through the inllnenoe of tbnt transia(ion,of the geueml 
AD^O*S<uton speech, was aenidbly affected by the incorporatioD 
of I^atin constructions previously unknown to it. I cannot 
ere go into this question at length, but I may refer to a siogle 
Fexetnpttficatioii of this influence in the eDtploymeot of tbo 
actirt! or present participle, in both abeolule and dependent 
phrase*, in close accordance with the Latin usage.* 

The Anglo-Saxon compared the *djecdvo by change of ending 
miy, or inficction, and not by tho adverbs mom and most: 
the Norroan-FrcDch, by tho help of adverbs. The English 
«l&pl<^ both methods, the latter almost uuiformly in long 
word*. Tbe pojseaftive relation between nouns wait expry-jtM-d 
in Anglo-Saxon by a regular possessive or genitive ease, and 
Bot by a preposition; in Normaa-Froncb, in general, by a prepo- 
nttoQ only. In English both modes are used. The Anglo-Saxoa 
L4id not employ a pr<-poitttinii before the iufinitive, but hod a 
'jfiectal verbal form nearly analogous to the latin gerund, whidi 
it by some considered as a dative cose of the infinitive ; the Nor» 
man-Freneh infinitive, in many cases, took a preposition. Ttie 
English first dropped the characteristic ending of the gerundial* 
thns reducingitto the iufinitive form.aDd then regularly preceded 
be infinitive, except when coupled with an auxiliary verb, by 
I preposition; thus amalgamating, or raUier confounding, the 
•ffictf of the two form&t 

• 8n maatMUon 11. at tho sdJ of M* Uctat*. 
t 8m ntortnltni UL at tb« ud of thii luctiM 



Lirr. n. 

IFoir them nnd oUior analogous ciues are tnatMioes of the sub- 
RtttiitioR of foKign gmnniatica3 combinations for oative itiflc«* 
tions, or, in olJicr words, of a nuxtum of gmmmara pro lanto. 
They are, imiecH, nol numerous or iin]>ortaiit enough to affect 
the generni character of English qmtox, which in in very laif[e 
meoaiue derived from that of the Anglo-Sucon ; but they are 
sufficient to prove that the doctrine of the imposeibility of any 
grummaticol mixture i» a too hasty gcncralisaUoo; and benc4 
the extent of syntactical aioalgamatiou is simply a qncstioa of 

The Anglo-Saxon is not gramniatEcslly or lexically idcnti* 
liable with the extant remains of any Continental dinleet ; butf so 
far as it is to bo coniiidcred a homof^eni-ous tongue, it much re- 
Komblea what in called the Old-Saxon of the Itcliand (s religions 
poem of the ninth ccntuty ), and the Frisic, botli of which belong 
to the Low-Qerman or .^xon branch of the Tculooic ; and hcuca 
we axe authorised to presume, that the bulk of tJie invadcn 
emigrated from wmc territory not remote from the coast of the 
North Sea, where the population employed a Low-German di»> 
lect or dialecbi. Tho composito and heterogeneous character of 
the Anglo-Saxon vociiVmhry, or, in other words, the internal 
evidence "lerived from the language itself, tenda to the same con* 
duiiODS, In respect to the origin of the tongue and the people, 
to which we ehoidd bo led by tJie little we know of iho hlstoiy 
of maritime Germany and the Netberland* during tlie period 
Hucoceding the Soman occupation of a part of that territory. It 
is evidently a mixed q>eech ; and we can, in many instances, 
trace ita different ingredients to sources not having mudi imme- 
diate relation to each other. 

The martial triumphs and extended despoJism of Rome dis- 
lodged and expelled from their native dwita great numbers, if 
not whole tribes, of a people who, at that period, were just in 
the state of semi-civil ization which Thueydides describes as that 
of the early Greeks, — a state which offers no obstacle to emi- 
^jratiou, but facilitates it, bccauso it has no permanent and well- 




Mcured homes, no strong local attachments, and at the same 
time is far enough advanced in pastoral au<l mrcbauica) art, to 
be provided with the mean:; of loc4inot40D and of the tniiv<ti>orta- 
Litjn of such objects as man in that condition of life most higbl/ 

The line of march of the fugitives who ix-trcatcd before the 
l!<<[[mn tcgioofi, would l>e to the north-we«t; both bccMtiw the 
lihiiR-, the Elbe, and their tributary .itr^ams, on which many of 
tfaein would embark, flow in that direction, and because the dif- 
Scult nalure of Uie coanti; lying between the outlets of the 
great northern rivers oppoaed the nioHt forniidable obstacles to 
the advnnee of a pUTHitiog force ; and, while it oflfFrMl ample 
Bieaaa of eubsl-tteuce in Uic abnitdance of the sea, yet h<-l(l oitt 
few attractions of a character to tempt the cupidity of the Roman 
robber. Ilence, independently of other more or less dmilar, 
earlier or contemporaneous, coiietinx-nt. cause*, it i» extremely 
prob«ble that, in oonseqnencc of the progrem of the iloman 
arms about the commencement of the Christian era, and during 
the immediately preceding and suceet^ing centuries, a multi- 
tude of tribes, and fragmenu of tribes, languages, and frag' 
tnents of langu^es, were distribnted along the coaels of the 
German Ocean, and the navignble vrators which discharge them- 
selves into it. 

Tbe jcalouiin of Gunily and of cbu», which are mieh a con- 
ipicuoua feature in the character of all rude raee«, would h)ng 
prevent the coalescence of distiuct bodies of these people, or the 
Gtsion of their unwritten dialects ; and these, indeed, by tlte iso- 
btion of those who spoke them, would tend to diverge rather 
tiian aflsimilate, until some one group or confederacy of tribe* 
ihould become strong enough to con(]ueT or al»orb the rest. 
Ve have no historical evidence whatever, of any political or Un- 
guittic unity between the inhabitants of different portions of the 
oout; and no legitimate deduction from tlie known habits and 
tenJencies of half-ravage life would lead to such conclusion. 

At this period, the low laads^ eubjeci to overflow by the Gei> 


coins or obbiuii ocum 

Lwr. a 

man Ocean itnd by tbo gnwt rivere which cin{>ty Into it, were 
not diked ; but, ta appears from Pliny*, the few iobabitiinU of 
th« tido-washcd flatn lived in hutn erected on nrlificinl moiinds, 
as upon the coa&t-^flUnds Ihcy do at this day. The nrt of diking 
•eenis to bavo been vuggotrtnl by the cwucvrsya and the mili- 
tary engiDccring of the Itomnns. But thv labour and expeitM^ 
involved ia it were fo great, tJiat it made vi-ry slow progren; 
sod no ooniiidernble extent of tliin ooost was diked in until Iod^ 
after the fiaxon conquest of Knj^UiDd. Upon tbo linn land were 
vast Kooda and morassox, which prevented free communicaljoo 
between the population, and it wai consequently eeparaled into 
indopondent bodioi, united by no tio of common interest. 

Wherever man, in tlte state of life in which the eoucurrcnt 
tcfltimony of all history pl&cea the Northern Oennans at tbo 
period of which we apeak, ia accessible to observation, he ia 
found divided into smnll and hostile duns, distinguished by con- 
siderable, and vou.fl.'intly widening, diflferenoes of dialect, nud 
incapable of bormonious or extended political or •octal action. 
The tradiUonal aocountA of the Saxon conquest of England 
tpeak of numerous succe^ve and totally distinct bodies of io- 
raders; and tbc probability that any one tribe, or any one oon* | 
tiauouH territorial district, even If all ila cbuu were unit«d under j 
one licail, could have famidbed a sufCcient force to nubilue tba' 
Island in any one or any ten Buccessive expeditiotis, is too slen- 
der to be admitted for a moment. 

The people who inhabit thocoattaof tfae NorLli Sea bavo now 
been Cliristiuuiscd for a tliouaand years, and brought under the 
mray of two or three governmentA. During all these ten cen- 
turies, all religiooa and all political influences have ponrtrfuUy 
tended to the extirpation of local diflerenoea of speech, and loj 
tbc reduction of the multiplied patois, if not to one, to two orl 
tlirni! leading dialects. Yet^ though all known external causes 
of discrepancy have long since ceased to act, we find tliat, in 
^it« of tbe harmonising influences to wlucb I have alluded, 

• VaL Hiif. B«l L 

Lxct. U, 



evf ly bfliir or tmrol, as we advance &om the Bbioe tc iht Eitlcr, 
briii^ us to a new vernacular. WiUiiii tli« epttoc of three hun- 
dred miles, we meet with nt least a dozen, mostly unwritten, 
dialects, not only »o diMcrepaiit as to be mutually uniDtclltgible 
to those who npeak tliem, but often marked by lexical and (putin- 
matical differences scarcely less wide thsn those which di^tiu- 
guish nay two Ootbtc or any two Romance tongues.* TTtere i» 
not a dhailow of proof, tliere is no semblance of probability, that 
the iiiliabilanis of thi»c cottsl* spiiko with more iiniformily 
ten ucnturic» iLgo than to-day, but every presumption is to tlte 

Jacob Grimm, Indcod, observes tliut all dialects and patois 
dovelope tbemMlTOB progressively, and llie Airtber wc look back 
in langmige, the smaller is their number and tlie less marked 
are tbey.f This is ia accordance with all linguistic theory, and 
if human nnnnU ri-achi.'d fur enough back to exhibit to us earlit-r 
StagM of dirergi^iico of KfRtN:!!, the propoxitiun would probably 
be found bistorically true; but if we take the different linguittic 
&milies of Europe, and follow them up as far as documentary 
evidence can be traced, the reverse appears, in very many cases, 
to be the fact. The dialects diverge as we ascend. If we com- 
pare any one of the Low-Gcmuin dinlcctx of the present day 

* Sm HalbcttHMfi Ttfj iCHOffcAtd* seooiint <it Iho oonfbiiioii uiil iiuUtoUlj' of 

ifoA In lL« PHnau pmiMa «t Hdltand, in Bnxmrrtli'* Origin of the (ict«*tiie 

Md Sowdiiunui UoguKr*. pp. 3ft-38. Sm abo Fmt Srrio. Loctunv It., jk. X, 

Md X V 1 1 1^ p. au And y*l tbf multitwle of ilisloeo wu gntirt witliin tho 

a^wij of penomi bow liTing than il ii at imsonL 

t ' ^He U nndutoi uod IKtlctto cQtIaltm nidi tonctirtitnid, D«d j« vdtm man bi 

' r Bjameha tuttkMfaAiit. dolo etriBittt !>t lhr« ZaU, AaAo KJiwa«hM nuecptiet 

■d UA Oha* (UnM Aiiuulmi* wiirf* iibtrbutpt dcr Unfmng doc Dialect*, wi* 

dn- VicUivit (!<r SprMhto ttabqpniillicli win.' 

AltlMa^ HialMDMd aatboTdedkra tlul iHt ]>ropMll>on ii'aiudwOMrliichta 

r Epncb« gsMOopft nnd in dtr HtXar thrrr Sjaltimu ingiwidrt.' it muit seTer> 

I ba comldavd nllwr u > rorottuy from the iln-lriiic «t th« dsMciit ct tha 

I liuiitly from k tingle HoA, itim u a itat«nrat «f luitorindly ttubliabwd 

Tha pr«a(K or ntbrr tUnitiatioiu, tdiloctd Iry Oriicm >monnt to Tttjr lilUn, 

' Mi the DonclnBon m Jmim ttot from cTidram, but from ■niuoplicni rounitnl on 

Aa RfiiMcod impowribOity of tAtnita nqitaiolif Itw vigin oi dialect* and Um 

ailfililii ilj of Innenuci. 





I shall God a tnark« 

with the ooQtainporanooas Htgh German, 
ilifTcrvDM indcud, wliicli, ir tli<! former now bad a living litora- 
tiiro and iron apokea by a people governed by a disi-iiiot gtoliU^H 
cat organisation, would pcrlupft be held sufficient to cutitle' 
(hem to be considered u» diGTerent«. But between ttto 
pucm Uuliond and the Krirt of Otrrid — both of the ninth 
century suid Uierefore nearly coi)lem{K>raneouii — tbu former 
being taken as tbe representutive of the Low, the latter as tliat of 
the Iligh German, thi.f e i« a much rnoro palpable difference than 
exiHtB at the present day, or at any intermediate period, between 
the dialects which stand in tbe place of them. If we extend 
tbe comparison go as to embrace tlie McRso-Gothic, which 
Grimm * declares to have become wholly extinct and to hare 
left no Burriving poBtcrity, we find a greater diveraity atill-t 
Over how la^ge a space cither of thcM three Germanic <pcec!Krs 
prevoiK'd, we do not knnw; nor have we any warrant whatever 
fur afliriiiiug, any protukble ground for presuming, that there did 
not exist, by the side of these, numerous other dialocta as unlika 
either of them as they arc Xaj each other. 

Ill the case of the Scandinavinu languages, the SwedUb, 
Dnnish, and modem Icelandic^ indeed, the bets are said lo b^H 
difTerent. It i» afBrmed that, at a period not very lemtrto, a 
tongue Kubstantially the same m what is now called IceUindio 
was spoken in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden, and that the pro 
•cut lauguagee of those tlireo eooatrie* are lineally dcMcndod 
from the primitive Old-Northern q>e«ch.} Admitting tUs to b« 
•0, a reason why we are able to tracv the Scandinavian dialects 
historioally to a common original might be found in the &Gt, 
that the migrotioo of the Scandinavian into their present seats, 
the multiplication of their numbers, their coniMMguent spread 
over a wide surEoce, and their separation and division into dis- 

* ' Di# goliacha I<t gam, tiau dux Hmu nawvM «n ibn aUUt gatrttva i 
t Imu llliiirinliaiu IV. (nil V, at Uie end of Ihia lectni*. 
; Sn lUiulrttioii VL it tlw cnil of [liij iMtoHk, 

LSCT. It. 



tinct tribea wilJi diverg*!nt speechea — all thew events are very 
mitch more roccnt than the occupatioD of Gcrnuuiy hy tliv on- 
widont of H* prrscnt popnlatiuii, imd the divisioa of tliat popu- 
latioa, if indeed evor houiogcneous, into separate tribes. 

The comparatively Ute date of the Gothic colonisation of 
ndiuurin is proved by a rariety of circumstances wbtch can- 
not now be detail<^d, hut it is well to refer to one of (liein — 
the fact, namely, that ttie older tmx whom the 8cai>diniiTiaa 
Goths expelled from Norway, Sweden, and perhaps Denmark — 
the Laplanders, or, as the Old-Xortliem writers call themt the 
Finns — is not yet exlirjigitedf but still ctisU a» a distinct 
people, with its original speech; vhereaa nearly every trace of a 

ore ancient popiilntion of Germany hoa utterly disappeared. 

Wo have uo fimiliu* evidence with respect to the unity, or 
et^o close rela4iou*hip, of the Oermnnic peoples and their dia- 
withiii any cr.lculahle period. It is not proTed that any 
lern High-German or Low-Gennan spwjch is derived from 
the Mtrao-Gotbic of UlRlas, or from the dialect of Otfrid, or of 
t!ie Ileltand ; aiid it iii jiist AS proliahle that all the Oermanie 
pntniit are de»cended from parallel old dialect^ the memory of 
■hicb is lost because tboir written monuments have perished, if 
ay such ever cinstcd. 

If we do not find a similar state of things in the Romance 
langu^es, it is because they are all directly derived, not indeed 
from the claastcal Latin, hut from eo^iile unwritten dudecia 
vliich group themselves around the Latjn aa their commoo n>- 
li|TCsentalivc and only mouthpiece. Hence their tendencies to a 
vidor divei^'encfl vrere always checked by the indiienco of a 
I antral, written, authoritative, evor-Iiving and immutable «pecefa, 

' parallel to which, so for as we have aoy rwwon to fceliev^ 
listed in GermJiny. 

As a genetul rule, then, applicable to what is called the bis- 

llorical periled, or that through which written records extend, 

dL-Ui-cU have usually tended to uniformity and amalgftmation as 

tbeydescenl the stream of time; and as wo tjac« them back- 


wards, they mmSfy like rivers and thwr tribatarits, until th« 
maiD current it loat ia a dtxponion &s cli^tractlDg ns the coq> ^, 
fu-sion of Babel.* ^H 

Krora all this it follovra that we have no r«aiton to tuppow^^ 
(hut Uie ooQC|uorors of England were » people of one namo or of . 
one speech; but ob the contraiy there is ereij probabili^ that^B 
tboy were, though othnologically and lingnintically nearly or^l 
remotely allied, yet practically, luid a» ihoy ricwcd themBelves, 
compoted of fragments of people more or Ices alien to each 
other in blood and in tongue. 

They were ChriatianiKed not fat from the dose of the axth 
century, and from tbia epoch all inHitenoe* tended to amalga- 
mation and community of speech. We have monumenli of-th« 
lan^^ungv which data very soon after this period, but, as ibey 
are extant only in copies executed In later cciiturio<t, we knSw 
not their primitive orthography, nor have we any actual know- 
ledge of the forma or grammatical character of the language 
earlier tbnn tho eighth or ninth century, because we possess no 
manuscript.^ of greater antiquity-t 

Wliatevcr, Ihim, may hare been tlie original ditcrepancic* of 
the opoech, they had been, at our eArliest acquaintance with it, 
in aome degree at< least, harmonised. Still we cannot say that 
Anglo-Saxon, ev«ii at that ]wrioiI, pre«ents the chnractcristice of 
a homogen«oii», »clf>developed tongue. Ila infledioitg, ta cxhi- 

• Hn lUnitnitioa VII. at tlu Md of Uila WHm. 

t TIm ^Mmninatioa of tli* tgt of AiiKio^^'uxon muniKH|4a Aca iaIoniBl *Ti> 
draw is a mttUr of mucli iliffimllj «uil uRorrtnintjr, bKBoM Uin« nr tew raeit 
writinB* of knom ditv, hf wluA Ulv astiqailjr of snilat«d eopiet («ii b« tntvd. 
An ciptrMtoa of Alftrd, la Uio pntee* to bis tnatlatMn of Iholhini, iroald bmi) 
to •how that Ai^lo-Suoa «a* bardl; •moimmiIj wrillFn Uagnaxa motil b* mtAf 
it m: for in the phrwr, *of t>ea-l«i(I«nn on EiisUic vtaile.* beo l^dnno 
MMn* Mt ■> fmpcrtjr Latii^ M«nnpl7lbf UxUanifuaft, thr vrill«a tongaa — a 
term m( Ukdj tobeiwcd If Aaf^o-Saxoa Iiotikimn tlwn eoMinoD. Tbii«o^ 
■ideation nuy be thanght to Amiafa utOlita a r gume n t iipuMt the aatlwatidty <l 
Avwr, wt)0 pata a Miaoairlpt of Aao^o-Saxon poetty with tUunlaalad aapluk 
into Alfnil'* handa vfcm ha <nuU Itara bata bat Ibn jttn M. It wnuU, how- 
«Tcr, Im goiiig quit* t<« far to den^r ihat ttio Anflto-Saxoa bad b*«a vhttaa at all 
sntil (0 Ute ■ period •• tb« UTlh«r Mini. 

lkct. n. 



bited In the woilis of difTerenfc writer;, and in difforent manu- 

•cripts of the same writer, vary to aa extent that indicates a 

great divereitA- of orttiogmphy, if not of nctrial decleosion and 

Goojujjatioi]. Its ayntAX i.t irrcgtiliu' aud di!)ci%paQt; and though 

both its grammar and its vocabulary connect it most nearly with 

tho Low, or PIutt-Deutsch branch of the Germao, yet it haa 

grammatical forms, as well as verbal combiuationa and vocublesi 

which indicate now a relatie&sbip to High-German, and now to 

Scandinavian, not to eipeak of Celtic rootfi which it may have 

1 borrowed from the Ilrilons, or may have received, at an vuilier 

>dat«,from the ancient fountainoflado-Europeou speech whence 

the Celtic aod Gothic, us well us the Romance and Helleoic, 

languages of Europe are tlteoretically oonsiilercd to have flowed. 

la Bbor^ the Anglo-Saxon was much such a Ungungc as it 

might be supposed would result from a fiteion of the 0Id-3iuton 

with Kmaller proportions of lligh-Gcrman, Scftndinavian, and 

Leven Celtic and Sclavonic elcmt^iits; and it bears nearly the 

tmoe relation to those ingreclientK aa modem English bears to 

I its own constituents, though, indeed, no single influence was 

r-ccrtcd upon it so disturbing in character aa the Nonnan-Freuoh 

[ baa proved to our present tongu& 

We find, tlten, neither in historical record, nor in the structure 
of the Anglo-Saxon speech, nuy sufficient evidcDoe of the ood- 
troUing predominance of any one tribe, or any one now idcnti- 
I fable dialect, in the Saxon colonisation of Ilngland; and wc 
ay fairly suppose Uint both arc derived, iu proportions no 
longer ascertainable, from all the raecs and tongues which were 
tHmd between the Rhine and the Kider, with contributions from 
''the Scandinavian and Sclavonic tribes of the Atlantic and Baltic 
ihores, and from other even more remote soukom which have 
, teft no traces sufficJently distinct for n'co^ilion. 

Although we we unable to say when the revolution tocdc 

iJwe, or by precisely whrt succession of steps the common 

>»pccch of Enghmd advanced from ihe simple accents of the 

r&aion poet Cwdmoo to the ornate culture of Chauoer, it is not 




the less ooiain that a chitii^> has occurred, which has separatctd' 
the dialect ttiatciDbodi<wtbuinodvnilit<rTatiiTcof Eugtaud, fntm 
the Anglo-Saxon ton^ie, bj an interval wider thati lite npac^J 
which divides the limguagc of modem Tuscany from that of] 
ancicot Romu. 

TliiTo is littlo force in tfao nr^umt-ut, that we ought to i 
iitt) laoguago of King Alfred Englidi lie<:au»« hU contcmporariefl' 
uRually HO stji^ it. That appelhilion has been irrevocably 
tnasferred to the present speech of Kngland, and baa become 
its exclusive ri};ht. To do«if^nt« by one tena things logically 
dirilact is to [Hirchasv simpi icily of nomwMlftturtt at tJio expenM 
of preciition of thought ; and there is no Hnguiiitic test by which 
tho identity of Anglo-Saxon and modtrn English can be eatar 
blished. Words, whether spokon or wntt<;n, whether addrc«aed 
to tlie ear or to the eye, are formed and gro«i|MKl Inlo periods 
as a means of oonununication between man and man. When- 
erer a givwi set of words and of syntactical forms becomes 
constant, and is generally accepted hy n people or a tribe, tlie 
aaeemhlage of them coDstitut«s a language ; but when the voca- 
bulary and the inflections of a particular speech liavc been so 
changed, either by the decay of native and the ttubiiLitutioQ of] 
foreign rooli*, or by grammatical corruptions or improTcmenta, 
that the old and the new diulei'-ts would no longer be mutually 
intclligiblcv in either their spoken or their writtea forms, to 
those trained to tue them, it is then an abu«c of words to gire 
to them a common ajipellntion. To call by the same name a 
language like the Anglo-Saxon — whose Tocabulary is mainly 
derived from Die single Gothic stock, nud wboM syntax is regu- 
lated by inflection — and a language Uke the Engliah — more 
than one half of who»e words are borrowed from Romance, or 
other remotely related aouxoce, and whose syntax depends upon 
aiuiliaricH, partidoji, and poxiUon — would lead to a mischievous 
confusion of ideas, and an entire misconceptioa <d our true 
philological position and relations.* 

* Tho smistst Ucrniaa scboUr tvCi, to hit Lil* of AlEnd, f. Itt, rprak» if 

Lect. IL 

u-rnr abv italiak 


A mcKlm) Italian guide, io oonducUng tke bsvelTer over an 
■ncient flel<l of battle, tatd poioting out the potiiiions of the 
boatile forces — old Konums and their Qullic, Epirotic or Car- 
thagiaianeiMMiiin— will speak of the Romausns i nostraIi,our 
troops; jet no tnaii insists on giving a oomtnon name to Uic 
Latin and Italian, or Latin and Spanish, or Latin and Fortugw«e, 
tboii^h either of these living languages is much more closely 
allied to th« epci-cb of ancient Rome, than is modern Eu^H^h to 
Aiq^o-Saion. It is true we can frame sentonoui. and even wrilo 
upon many topics without employing wonlH of Romance 
other foreign origin ; but none would thinic it possible to com* 
pose an epic, a tngedy, a metapby«ical or a critical dJBOuBsion 
vholly in Anglo-Saxon- On the other hand, cnliio volumes 
Day be vritt«u in either of the three SouthiTn Romuocc laa- 
gnages on almost any subject, except modem meclianical and 
KioDtific pursuits and achifvomcnts, with as clo§e a conformity 
to the Latin syntax as English construction cxbibite to Anglo- 
Saxon, and At the same time, vitliout vroployiog any hut Latin 
, and tliat in so oatural imd ca»y a style that the omisUou 
■of borrowed words would never be noticeil by the rcsd<?r. 

We do not yet know enough of the nature of language to be 
»ble to affirm that the vo<sib«lnry of a given tongue has absolutely 
av iDflucnoe upon or connt^ion with its grammatical strudnre. 
There ore faet« which seem to indicate the contrary; and when 
find, in Early English, indectional and syntactical features 
eign to the genius of the Anglo-Saxon, but which liad long 
existed in the Latin or in iti( Homaiicr descendants most 
tmnrably situated to exercise upon the apeedi of England the 
influence that one language can exert upon another, 
; meau quite unpbilosophica! to say that these new chaiacter- 
ittiea were spontaneously developed, and not borrowed from those 

iW Aa|1i>-8sSMI'v«b>d« of Uia !««■*•« 'til* Otrmn langMff*-' "Wch bem^ 
aotainlf do villi t» pMt praprittr u otbtnt mII tke An^o-Suon. EaclUli If 
■he kagiUBe vf AUM m> at once Omnan nnd Ecgtwh, «• mux admit UiU 'K it 
! to style tte dUcct it Sbalupcany PltU-DwiMk 



1.MT. U. 

oilier or moru advanced tonfn'*^^ which wcro then the sola 
mediums of Htonury ciilturo for KiiglUhincu. 

The pride of nationality, if it bos not prompted llie Tiew* I 
am criti(;titin<;, has at \ctat promoted their acc«ptaucc, and they 
seem lo me dtntitut* of noy more wlid found-ition. Tho French- 
man lui^cht, vith little leiH show of reason, imiintainUintFronoV. i» 
identical with the ancient Gallic, or with Latin, or with FraofHci, 
According as he inclines to Celtic, or Romance, or (iothic par- 
tialities, and might urj^c that the present liui;;uage of France 
deriTes its gramninlical cbaract«r wholly from one of them, 
without having been at all affected by the inflections or the 
gyntax of llie othorRi The diSercDOU in the extent to which tha 
tongue* of England and of France have been affected by extra- 
neon; influence) in wholly n (lueittton of degree, not of kind. 
French, indeed, in the opinion of some linguists, is more 
emphatically composite than English.* Still its material is 
chiefly Lutiii, though it may be impugwible to say how far it is 
baaed upon clnraicnl IaHu, and lidw far upon one or more of tb« j 
tmwritten popular diulects tL^ii\]1y spoken of collec4)Tely n^t th« 
linffua 7-us(i«a; but there is no reasonable doubt, that both 
English and French aro, and in all agea have been, aa Ruacep- 
tihle of modifirntiun by external influenM'fl, aa tho opinions, the 
characters, the modes of life of those who have >p»lc<:n them, or 
as any other manifcststJon of the intellectual actinty of man. 

It is true that the tendencies of all modern laoguagee koown 
In literature are in one and the same direction, namely, tn 
simplification of stmcturo, by rejection of Inflections; btit this 
is precisoly the tendency tJiat would be impressed upon them by 
the common causes, which, in modern times, hare operated alike, 
though in different dt^p^es of intensity, upon every people whoso 
history is known to lu-f 

■ In Cm nmribrp of lyntactical itTt|[uI>ritici^ of wnrentioiiB] plmww, oT i 
mitonii tatia irliicli an> iiol nt muefa oxcrpiioiu to faKicular nilia u dtputnm 
ftom all nif. I'rcni^li nrpf>l« aTViy otbw Ewopxn hajpiaga. IIom not lhl« ftetj 
fcnuih Bime evii^nM of tho vnj hftaro p i g iM fharwla' of th* oltnaBti i 
•e(B|iMD th* prawnt iipeo«h«l France? 

t Bn Kini SotlM, LrctUM XVII., ^ 81S. 

■.SCT. IL 



I cannot amnme inv aii<lieD«e to be fainillnr with the Ipxicd 
-«r grammtitical peciiliarilicii of lli« Anglo-Saxon tons^c, and 
therefore, inasmuch as some acquaintancQ with the vocnbuiliuy 
aad tfav Ejntacticnl etructunt of that Un^jtta^e is neceiusry to the 
^clear andenrtanding of tlie wirly history of En-^lish, I hope I 
(boil be pardoned for something, both of general duciustoQ and 
of dij dfitail on these suhjects. 

Tlie infleutional K;8t«m of laugoagcs is io some respecta their 
' least important feature, for it is, in the preeent condition of 
moat tongues known in Uterttlnre, their most mechanical and 
kast cxpraiwiTe cliaractcrigtic Wc will, thcrt-forc, first impiire 
into what is of greater interest : the nature and extent of the 
(took of words which compose the raw material of the Anglo- 
Saxon vocabulaiy. 

Independently of the evidenoe afforded by ita grammaticid 
Binicltire, a comparison of its root-forms with those of Oontinen* 
la) and Oriental rocahidaries shows, that the Anglo-Saxon bo- 
I longs to what has been callMl the lodo^ermanic, but is now 
' more gCRcmlly ittyled the Indo-Eiiropean family, and of which 
the Sanscrit is regarded as at once the oldf^t and most perfect 
^pe. In its more immediate relations to the modem languages 
of Western Europe, the Anglo*Sftxon, as I bare more than osoe 
remarked, ts cl&ssed with the Low>German branch of the Teu- 
tonic, and bas, thcrcfan!, a close lexical affinity, not only with 
tbc many dialects known by tht^ common apiK-llation of Platfc* 
Deutach, but also with those grouped undcT the denomination of 
Friaic, and with the Netherlandish, or, as it is commonly called, 
the Ihitch or Flemish. 

It» vocabulary eontains also a ooncideiable number of words 

not met with in Continental High or Ixtw German, bnt which 

are found in Celtic dialects. The Celtic contribution to the 

rocoibiilary, or, at Icatt, that portion of it introduce!;! by actual 

contact, with British Celta after the Conquest, does not appear to 

, kare at ail modified the syntax or otbeiwise affected the struc> 

Ftspe^ or, so far as wc have reason to bcli'TP, tho artindation of 

I Ihe IftDgunge. Hence it must be considered as having never 

Giitn%d rat" MIT orjipnic combiuntioa with Jt, or become one ol 
its oloniiiiiti<'7 coiii;titufnU ; but lut liarin^ rcmHioc-d n foroigD ' 
aoMfimiiuUid accretion. Indeed, Uicrc »eema to have always 
exiated, during the whole historical period, a reciprocal repul- 
sioQ between tho Celts and nil other European families, and 
their rcKp<:ctivn tongue*, which have intermixed in a leas de^rc« 
than is luuat hctwe^n eoaUguotis diulcctx. Thi» feeling of an- 
tagonism n-ui p:irticularl; strong mtb (be Anglo-Saxons and t>ieir 
immcdiotfi descendants, and it finds very frequent expresmon ia 
every ag« of Kngtiith hirfory.* Upon the whole, though tho 
Kpeech of continental Germany niay, in remote a^n, have Imea 
aSectod to an unknown extent by now extinct Celtic dialects, 
there U no reason to bcIioTC that the dcri^lopment and history 
of insular Anglo-Saxon and English have been sensibly modi- 
fied by any sucb influencea. 

There iu a claiui of words, small indeed, but not unimportant^ 
whii-h ari! thought to hare b«cn intjvHiuce<l intx) Britain by tho 
ancient Komanii, and to have been retained by the Celtic inbabt- 
tantA — or possibly by some early oolonints, of Gothic blood*.] 
already cstabtiBhed in Uritiiin at the time of the Roman cooquesfe' 
— and which piu«cd into the An;;to^Snxon dialect, if not boforo 
the convention of tliat people to Christianity, at Iea«t very Aooa 
after. Ore of these is cester, or ceaster, now a commoBi 
ending of the names of English town*, which ia the Latin j 
jtn, ■ fortified camp or gnrriwn; another is tlto syllabltt] 
the name of the town of Lincoln, which is the Latin' 
colonia, colony. Still another, probably, is cese, or cyee, 
choese, from the I<atin casous, for wv have reason to believe, 
that in this case both the thing and the name were maile known 
to the Britons by the Romans-t Slnett alto, may he the I^^atia 
Btrstum, a paved way, and still more probably may the Suson 
munt, a niountiun, bavo been taken from the Lolin mons. It 

• 8oe lUvuInilion VIIL «t tlie mil of thia Itclan. 

t 8m • SOU on Ih« word eiam io the AmniNB edUfea of WtiftfOtd:* JStj- 
BVlogictl DicticMiy. 
8m aim IllualrdtLoa IX. it tho *aA of tliii ImMm. 

Uvr. a 



voold indeed seem that no human speech could be so poor ia 
words dc8criptiv« ofunturtkl scenery as to need to borrow a nnine 
for moiintaiD, but Ibcre ure no mountaina on or near the conti* 
nental shores of the Uerman Occaii, asd heoiro the inliabitAnts 
of those coaatg may have bad uo nnmo for tbom. 

But tfae great majority of I^in words adopted by the Sosooa 
were, no doubt, di.*rtvccl from Christian misatoimries, uho at once 
tstnbli:<h<-d Uic I^liit as the official language of the Church, and, 
to Mfline extent, as the medium of general religious, moral, and 
intellectual insCniction. 

The bi-st Anglo-Saxon writers iccre purista ID rtyle, and re- 
luctantly admitted I.atin words into their vocabulary. IIcDce 
the Qum)>er of such in the Anglo-Sason GoepeU, the works of 
AlGric and of Ai&cd, and, indeed, in all tho native literature of 
Engkud, so long as AngI»>S«xon continued to bo a written 
language, in very small.* Tliis fact wti-nis bo authoriMc the inft-r- 
cnce which oliier evidence ahumlantly confirms, that ihe large 
mtroduction of Latin w^rds into every department of the En- 
glish qieech, Boon after it became recognisable as a new dialeoti 
was due more to secular Norman-French than to Romish eccle> 
aasttcal influence, though the form of the words of Latin ety- 
mology oflvn leave* it vary douhiful from which of tho two lan- 
guages they were immediately buirowvd. 

Besidfil the roots derived from these various source*, there are 
in Anglo-iSoxon a Email number of words, such for i-xumpic as 
circ, ciroe, ciriccyric, or cyricoa, church, which are sup- 
posed by some to have been tjiken directly from the Greek ; and 
therv are also a few which etymologists havu referred to Sclavonic 
roots : but these, though interesting in ethnological in<)uiry, aro 
not sufficiently numerous to have perceptibly aflected tlie cha- 
racter of tlie speech, and they arc, therefore, pbiloJogically un- 
^. important, 

^^f There occur in Anf*lo-Saxon writers, as might naturally ba 
W ctpected from the territorial proximity of the Germanic and 

^^L • 8m fiat SwiM, Lcctttn X. p. IM. 



LrcT. IL 

ScaQdinaviaD tribes, many words bdonf^Dg to the OId*>'orth6m 
tongue*, and a considerable oiimber wbo»e etymology i« total 
aiifi«itaiii, but the vocabulary is io very large proportioa 
Gerinaiuc, while iU composite character is further iihovm by 
th« tact that a greater number of Teutooic patois find their 
aoalogona, or representatives, in it than in any other one of the 
ooj^nato diali'cts. 

Thus much for the proximate sources of Anglo-Saxon, for 
the imme<Iiate genealogy of its vocabulary; but what is thft^M 
eeteotial character of the words wliich compose it? The^^ 
articulation, thu nieru sound of the words, is a. matter of little 
importance in the view I am now taking of the subject, but 
were it of greater nvoment and interest^ it would be altogether 
impracticable to prwtunt a eati^lkctoTy view of iU We know 
Anglo-SiLXon only as it is written, and no nnctcut grammariaa 
or lexicographer has recorded for ua the figured pronunciatioa 
of its vocabulary. That it varied much in different provini 
and centuries wo may loadity believe, and very probably many 
of the local peculiarities of ultcnuiou uru &ithfuUy representod 
in the prestent provincial paUiis of different English sliiiesL 
The Norman iutlueDCe, however, must have produced a very 

• 8m Fint Soriat, Jjt^rm XXII, pi 4I>L I aUwIi mach Importiuica l« tbt 
nmubiil-le cotnr><Joi>o« botu-'cn tlio ^onnaxlion of tlie UnoiiiJigw of tiio 1 
finatiao couulrim ■nil of Kn^lnnJ, lui an rtnli-nm itnt thit luiinn' had upou i 
latter to isltueiiM po<nrfii1 rnnugli botii to iatniiluM isloit rome nrw phonoU 
olcmrjiU. mil to pmrrre otiicn probably oara oomnioa to all thf Gothic (o 
tinl *hicli liDTii nnw ditajipfUDd from ibo icticiilalMiii ef tho Tvulonie dUkda 
Mtnbe llio Ujm of lhM« Mnnd* in thow Ungugta Ja •ama immw* id tb* I 
COM of «lBuicBl Latin and the Kontaea (lml«<4it jwt aa tiio kl«r H i p pcw ai oo i 
ttw (A in 8w<ili(h anil ili jiutinl diMppcanaea ia Duiuli naj b« thou^t more 
imBMilliilrly da» to tb(i inlluvnco of Gcrana. Thn lout lontiib tn GotmoD i 
wautins in lAlin anil grncnUy !n it' mncti-rn rv|itin<iilati>ni, ami il i* a Ktron 
proof of Uw IcauciooB hold of An^li'^'SitJcn upm tho £n(;!u!i onnnti "f •■ptnA* 
that it hdd Hut iti t "'^ ^ ">^ ^'^ >■> *['''■ ^^ '>f Bomub ceclfDUlicuni bdiI 
Norman conqDcit. Tlie ScaodinaTun rlnnrnt in Englidi ottboopy mty fairly b« 
af>p'<il*<' tona a Mnflrmatiim of lb* ■latcntcntoflhaehrooielanlhat the Jute* par> 
ticipntcd liirgrtir in tlir original Golliic iniaiKration* ; fi>r «Tvn If the Jntca «(t« 
ntt of Old'Kortbcm blood, lliry had, from clru<< proximilgr to that t«o^ thj pr^| 
bst^ (dcpt«d aonw ot ila Ibguiatie ptcnliaiitiea 

Lad. IL 



grriit dcraogcment of tlie naUre orthoepr, if Dot a total rtirotn* 
lion ill tl ; aud if we can rely od Miilcaster, and Gill, &ad I'.tbvi 
EngUfib orthoqtiets of the sixtcvntb and Mcv*.'ntv<-iith ccD(i!rk-}w 
there have bixu iiii]>ort»nt cliaiigei ia the i.i;tiidiird pr»nunci3 
tioo of Eiigllsb nittiiu the last two or three hundred yoais.* 

laqniriea into anci«nt modes of attlculatioD are aictrcmcly 
difficult, and doubtful in result, not <mly from the unocrtnioly 
which must always exist, first as bo tbo uxtvnt to wliicli aity 
pitfticular Kyst«ni of orthography was regularly phono^aplii^ 
and eeoondiy, ae to tlio norma] force of single letters, the 
■taodard sound of which is only traditiooally known ; but 
beodes tbta, we are cmbairafltMjd by tbo coufusioa that attends 
all phonological discussion in con«>qu<>iicu of tlw different 
appreciation of ^miliar sotrnda by different persons who hear 
and use them. We wranglti about the identity or diversity of 
vowels, and even of consonantal tounds in our own vernacular, 
wfatdi we have beard and employed every day of Oi.r lives ; and 
pronunciation itsvlf 18 no fiucluating that wc cannot rely upon the 
tiaditiottal artictilation, even of tlioKo sounds which seem mo«t 
constant, as suflkient evidence of the aDcieol utterunce of tbeni.t 

There t8 aomething surprising in the boldneis with which 
phQologiiita pronounce! on the orthoepy of dialects which havo 
been dead for a thousand years, or which arc known to them 

• 8ra FiM Scfio*. Lccfm XXIL 

t Sm^ on tb« unrcriiicly c^ (he pKntiDdiitinn of En|;liHti ia th« >ixl«)>nlli nnil 
nlcntli cralurwA. FirM Smm, Lrviun- XXII. In tbat Lcctiiw, p. 48*. I 
lM*t M u repnmntiaitE tli« \nt% or naiw Muud cf g^ in dnrtfayaid's *y«l<s. 
DMtrtlcM it iota. bM upon fitJtIiPr ntuninition I ib not elvar *h*t Cluuchjttid 
tOMiittwJ tho lUauaiarf chamelcrof tticiMnvl tn \iv, •ml 1 aailoublfal wbelUvr 
k> king or timiM *ouad vui lilm Ihat of our t:]i-^lrni n, or lik« m ia booL In liia 
iKIar to Sir W, Ctail. (Clii|« «MK(«iisg Scntlauil. rrpruil, ISl*. pp. Olt-4<^) hv 
vrilM ivrl4, worU, kftf, li»<B{itktit), lirli, itnM (tinW!), smcr, in all wlikh Wntl* 
«• pTo tho Tovwl tbo loae « foniiil: bat hf apella Uta tari; tako. trmtl <fivti), 
«bich ve procottiin villi tike «# aound, uid ak (ou) aDil Uoi^ wbm mudcni 
Mnployf t!u abon u wand. Stvoral of Cbmcbjuif • cduttspponriw 
I with «a mH* wblelt «• aptU and pronausce vitb long a. And m B. Jomod 
rib«a tb« aoBnd of Frcnrh en to e in muny voi>l* vbne at pmuttt ihnrt h ia 
. It ■w Bi M almoat imixniilila to dclcmiaa what Ot» aumti aitirabliaa el 


ahglo^asou oBTaooKAPnT 


only by written notation.' It would ho rory extur^nnt to 
wiy that tlie raoirt learned pliooologi^t faiw any mr^mt nf axiir- 
tftinitig the tnio artjcuktioa of Anglo-Saxon, or of any form of 
old Gemuin, tbat, id any cousidonble dcgrco, approucli to tbe^ 
fivciliticM we at present pof*e»i of learuiog tu>y coDtcmporann us 
foreign pronunciation, i->encK for example, by the bulp of 
figuretl spolliDg. But what approximation could an EngUilimiJit 
vho had nev«r heard Frt-ncli spoken, make to tbe exact utter- 
anoe of tbe nasals or of the rowel and diphthong u and nt, or 
how near would a Frenchman oomo to the two sounds of ourj 
f/i, by the study of written trcatiHcs alone ? In these 
indeed, we may rcry often convey the tnie promindation of 
foreign vowel or conKonant hy comparison with the mmc, or a 
very oloocly analogonn, sound in a laugua^ already known to 
tbe stodent ; but in our inquiriea into extinct phonologies we 
bare no such guide, and our conelusionK, though sometimes 
, made very plausible, are neTertbelea* eitrc-nn-Iy iiiic4:rt»iii.t 

The orthography of a very Urge proportJon of indigenous 
English words has undergone suocesrivo revolutions, which it : 
not easy to explun upon any sappoation but that of fiomcwhi 
correspooiUng changes in articulation; alUiougb it must bo 
admittfd that, if we suppose the individual letters to tiave bad, 
in gcfivriil, the Ktnio force as in oiu- modem sVBtem, tlie Anglo 
SoJtou spetUug of many words more truly represents tbo pro- 
nunciiition of to-day than our present orthography. 

Take, for example, that peculiar Eiiglixh Koiind, or rathci, 
oomlination of Dimple aoundit, which we represent by etc, as is 

■ Hilbcrtraia >pc»ki jwntirtl^ u to the BMrnli*! •huaotn of An^-9asa(t TvmH 
Munils Biiil y*t lidmita thtt iht ttvy pMpIo who ntrd iheni vtra lo dnublfiU i 
lo Ihp int arlioiiliiliiiii. aiul no Turiiiblo In thoir pronuncintioak «t Ann, IhU thq 
did not kna« hew 1-> rxprvM tli<mi IB nlpliiiliPtiv rhtnavn. ' t^natil* to «ati« 
kimwlr, be [the »ril«r] oftm bttpchingipd fcin<1n>] T«wnl* io tlia umo irard% i 
ona lima imUinn a or #0, uid atUrnrit or ubA y.' And in Uie nnt pangnpli h«' 
•Jd*: 'WhiU tli(> wrirrr ii Kr»l''"a ■l-^it liini fer pMpcr Icllm, w« pin* tha 
•OBDd bo wiidiNl (o cxpioM bgr M*iin)iD|[ tema miiUlo aoDnd brtwnn Ilia laltcn h* 

t 8nlUiuU«I'onX.*ttho«adcftliMkeUii«. 

Lkt. IL 

AXCLO-SAxox ORTnonitAPirr 


. and, in oth«r eof&t, bj the vovrel «, as in tube. Now aa 
tentive analysis of tUis sound will show that, without r^ard 
to Uiesemi-conaooantaly, which is iutroduced iminvdiatdy afl«r 
tbe consonant preceding the u, it is composed of two articula- 
ioii9 80 rupitlly pronounced a» »lmfliRt to coolt'itce into one. So 
sear ox this coalescence of sounds is cnpable of resolution, tbe 
'-fint is tbe shurt sound of i in pin, the second is the semi- 
consonantai tc. This cla^a of syllablca the Anglo-Saxon, and 
to some extent eaily English writers, spelt with iw instead of 
no or u. Thus hut, compU'iion, dctv or ctuf, new, h-ev^, in 
Anglo-Sason are spt'lt rcsp«clivfly, hiw, cliwp, niwe, briw. 
So the word ntle — which it is doubtful whether we arc to 
eoQsidor of native or forci_?n cxtnwHon — iu the Aacrcn Riwie, 
a code of i-arly English monastic preempts, is written riwle.* In 
them cases the Anglo-iSaxon and Old En^li^h spelliDg appears 
lo be more truly phonographic than the modem. 

If we assume that there is a general resemblance lielweea 
the Anglo-Saxon and the modem Enslinh pronunciation of tbe 
otds which arc spelt suhslanttally alike in hotb, we are driven 
I the conclusion that the former muEt have diflered very re« 
nsrirably in arlieulation from the contemporaneous Germanic 
dialects ; and tlib« would be a strong argtimetit in favour of the 
position that it was widely distinct fiom any of them. If, on 
the oontTary, we suppose that Anglo-Saxon resembled any 
Continental laoguago of its own era in sound, we must conclude 
that our English pronimciation of Saxon words has been changed 
to a degree very diflioult to account for.f It has been suggested 
kthftt many imfxirtant points of difference between Anglo-Saxon 
'iDd English pronunciation on the one hand, and German and 

* Alpv*«n(> •> pnrfdni Vy r.j, or/, En Ibrnnia kyllaUr ii^ ac«<ndi:Bg to moat 

drtatpiift^ pnmottiHvd «<>, to that nrit rlifmiw viilh po^. Tbis pranuBoatioD lua 

<Bu*ii {ram Urn diffieullv o( aKiculuiing Xbo Hini-<oiitoiiaMal y bMinrn (he r.ji, 

ttaaA tli<i u; bal tha crllioffnplij niiA-, hbiIoiIivt liko ttiriwi, sbow tW thii 

Kt tba anriwl ert^ot^, not U il tww Vj aajr mean* naiTonMl aiDoag good 

t 8m Tirtt 8eri«ft, Lcvtam XXn., p. «». 



Scandinavian on the other, are due tu the Celtic element in the 
former; but it is incredible that a Iangiian;e, which has added 
little to the vocabulary, and in no appreciable degree modified 
the syntas of either, should have produced any eeusible effect 
upon the pronunciation; and besides, it does not appear that 
there is any euch resemblance between the ardculation of 
the Celtic and the neighbouring Saxon and English dialects, 
that one can be reasonably supposed to have influenced the 

There is, indeed, one way in which English, though hardly 
SaxoD, orthoepy has probably been modified by comparatively 
modern Celtic influences. French philologists maintain that 
the pronunciation of the Latin, iu becoming the speech of the 
French people, must have accommodated itself to the organs 
and habitual utterance of a nation which if not strictly Celtic, 
had certainly a large infusion of Celtic blood. The modifica- 
tions thus introduced constituted a permanent and normal part of 
old French articulation, and have consequently, so far as French 
influence is perceptible at all in English pronunciation, given a 
special character to that influence. 

There are several points in which national pronunciation may 
be affected by foreign influence. The essential character of 
vowels or consonants may be changed, or the temporal quantity 
of the former lengthened or shortened ; sounds long established 
may be dropped altogether, or new ones introduced ; the accen- 
tuation of words or classes of words may be deranged, or finally 
the predominant periodic accent or emphasis may be shined. 

This last revolution is usually connected with a change of 
syntactical arrangement, and a familiar illustration will nhovt 
how the Anglo-Saxon periodic accent may have taken, and in 
many cases doubtless did take, a new position in passing into 
English. In short, direct propositions, if there be no motivo 
for making another word specially prominent, the verb in most 
languages usually takes the emphasis : Thus, English, I saw 
him; Danish, jeg saae ham; butFrench^ je le via; Ita'iao 

Ucr. It. 

ClLUtOES IK i:»r[l.v<;i9 


io lo vitli, the periodic accent, in each case, resting on the 
verb, in whatever part of tic phrase it is phu-ed. As a result 
of tkis and <AIivt auiilo|;o)i8 niUw, every laiiguAgo has its 
pccaliar modulation, depi-uding much upon it^ ityiitax, and a 
change of verbal armagement involves a change in that niodn- 
lation. We sec the effects of the habit of emphasizing (he 
period at a particular point, in tile proniiociatioa of persona 
who arc learning fnrt-igii langitage*. A FrcochniMt just bvgin- 
ning to speak English will be sure to say, I saw him, instead of 
I 9010 him, bocuiiEe, the verb coming last in French, he has 
been B4xii«tomed to say, jn le vi». If wv could suppoxc that 
bj mennft of a gTC^ler influx of French syntactjcal forni^ the 
places of the verb and the object should he reversenl in the Eng- 
lish period, so that in the pbrasc I have cited, Aim should pre- 
cedewtu', weidnitild leani to «ay, I him «air, not X him saw, and 
thui the periodic accent or emphasie would be transferred from 
the la»t but one to the last word in the phrase. 

Now, something like the converse of this change netnally did 
tAke place in the transition of Anglo-Saxon into English ; for, 
though the position of both the nominntiro and of the obliquo 
cases in the Anglo-i^on period wiu wiablv, yet the latter, es- 
pecially at the end of a period or member of a period, more 
frequently preceded than followed the verb, and tiierefore 'I 
him ftwr,* would oftcner be heard than * I saw him.* • 

■ As the rmr, set tmlj of tb« fwOBOOS, whith in Enjiliih imndini tlirooehool 
iadintblci, but of Itw noon, vEiicb Ja Eogliiti bu no olycciiiv or uciuative tarn, 
WW indicated bgr the rsdiag in Anglo-Saxon, it waa icnuiinikiintlly iniliDrrpnt 
«lwIli>T rilher tbo oominMiw or tha oMiqnn ran* prixvdMil or folLxrpd Ih« vrrli. 
But «h*i>, hy Iha loa* of tlio infliK-linii i\f tbv moud, tha vyntax beeame pMilionL 
(he impwiitiro pUw utid awi^itvl lo Ihr nominal jrc, the poa^MUtivr to lh« 
algcMnv. Ujr thin ttitagtmrnl ire hare lat >a (locntioiial Kdvunui^ which iho 
AnglA-Saxoa pwMj rd. In rradiB^ or tpnAiat, thn mien » niutHUuHl until th> 
t m fkati t word of tha propoiiiioa. or mi-mlwr, W ptODomtwl. kAir vhirii it linli* 
SsJ tacoB'W mtapantJTCljr ituodibh:, TIm mb n gnacrally tu rmphitic, if bM 
the MoM CMpliatie votd in the tcntcoM; uid bennif it be mtxnd to rsd the 
jCTJed. the whole pNpoRlion will b« mora inti'lliitihty fronminnHl, «nJ Uicrrfei* 
•bik* tb« UMcdpt mnre lomblf, than if Ihf tvrb ocvia at aa (ariii^r poiDt. Jb* 
hct Anglo-SBxnn aritcn t>bav much dextcritj in avaitiag tbranaelTCa of Ik* 
Itlnt; of anvigemut which the itnictitfc «t their loAgnago altosad. 


mnniKscLs is Pttosuscunos 

LtcT. IL 

In Ctet, the wbolo subject of tbe diflerence id tbo articulatioQ 
of cognatQ cliAlccta spakoo by naUoaa esp^ned to similar, if not 
identical infliteDCCB, hiu beoa LithMo not suflidenti; jnviwti- 
^■atdl ; AQCl the priacjplc* of pboDoIogy, the radical s&alj«i» of 
articulxte sounds, ntiut be botter uuilerKtood tlioD tbey now ara 
Iwfore any very satisfiictory explanations of the caiiMW, or eren 
Buy very accurut« sUitemi-iit of tbo facts, can bo arrivu-d aU 

We find between the Swedish uid Diuiiali, for example, clo«eIy 
allied as thoy are in voi-abtilary and slnictiirr, not merely dis- 
crepAOciL-H in tbo pronvinciatton of particular mordi>, for which 
an explanation might Him«timcs be m^geeted, but rndioal and 
vtde-reaobing differences of articulation, which no known facta 
OODDectot with the history of i^itber throw umcb light upon, 
unless we adopt tbo theory of a greater aodent direr«ity bctwoen 
those dialects than exida in their precent condition. Xlins the 
Swodca pronounce the eonsDnants in genfru), as well as the 
Towt'hi, with a distinctness of resonance which jniditit's the boast 
of Tcgn^r. that the ring of Swedish is &s clear aa thai of metal • ; 
while the Danes confound and lialf suppn^ss the contonanla, and 
apiit up the woU-discriiuimitfld towlIs of tho Old-Xortheru into 
a midtitiido of almost imperceptible shndca of lees energetic and 
cxprt-fifivc breattiing;!). 

la like manner, the Portuguede and Castilian, which havo 
grown up under not widely dissimilar circumstances, are cha- 
raeteriscd, the former by an abundance of nasals, and by the eh 
and sh (cb and j), which the Spanish wants altogethiu*. — the 
latter by gutlnrals and lisping sounds, which are unknown lo 
the Portuguese. 

The r«covoryof the truo pronunciation of Anglo-Saxon would 
be important, because it would facilitate etymological rcsenreb 
by the comparison of its radicals with those of languages eh>> 
ployiog other orthographical systems; and 11 would be convo* 
uieat for Ute purposes of acadeinicai in&truction and oral quota* 
tion ; but the present state of phonology, whicjt, like other 

* Ben, •001 mnlwat, din Un^ 

Idcr. IL 



bnmches uf Uogaistie knowledge, Is hiirrjtng to codcIiuiuds 
before tlic uoccssaiy faet« are accumulated, does not authorise 
Ul to expect tiiut wc shall itoon attain tu a verj preciw know- 
ledge of its articiilatioi), or be able to trace the stops by which 
its scoeota have been chaugixl ibto thon; of modem Euglish. 

Innfimucli as the Anglo-Saxons Ivamcd thoartof writingfroin 
Bonum missionaries, the presumption is ftrong that their alpha- 
betic notation corresponded nearly with the contemporaneous 
ortbogiapby of Home, and hence that the departures of English 
pronunciation from the eoundH indicated by thtt Latin vowels 
and couHonants in Contiui^ntiil iwigc are comparatiTcly reoeat 
innovations in tfa« orthoupy of tbe Anglican tongue.* 

* AltlMiigh the mM cbvaetoft vcn noploy^ bj mima oT tb* Gttmaie w 
mD 0* Scasdinaviaa tnbca btloM tbrir conrrnion to Chrintianil^. Ilii^rv i* no 
•cidut* ihat tb«r ««v* knolni lo tlin AbjiIoi^uaqi autij ■ nieii:Ii laltr jvricd. 
1W etiy Anglo-Saion olianttor whirli roKiublra tbc comsponding tunic IcUfrii 
^ ud «a knov not whon eitlicr thii character ortbc S vera iaUodocod iaU> Uut 
alphab**. It bu bmi «aul tbal tL« JkandinavUiu borrovtd tbo K bam tho 
Aii|l«-SiuoMn. Tho aaiiWr Chtutiaolution of tk'a iuttr propls, ■nd thnir knowa 
wumouaj cfibttA nnchr thia probable enough ; but tbu Old-Korthcni ntc* ili*> 
tinpiihiil iLnw two lettm much mart aMuntel; Ihui tht'a buukr iwiKlifcoun^ 
Mlul* tJM> Aui^ft-SaxODi onplojvd Ihcm with a conAuiion, which urniu lo inili> 
«■!• nor* {«d»t[|ic< notioiu of their valua lliati wf tticnilrl vipMt if i-it&«T i4 
tboB *Ba <f tbnr ova fnvnnlioii. OI<l-Mortlu?rii litcrotBtt sbom nu tnire of 
i>iiglo-S*s«a inilntum, and t^ uiiUnm of tli« uw of gmmmttintl fatnu Naon- 
Uing the Ao^o-3«x<ia in early Soindiia-Tiiii irntiii^ or ntbcr inMTif4ioiu^ are 
txo fnr uid loo oBiMTtaiii to oulhoriw th* iatcttuic: ttiAt tli«^ vm %iit (hula of 
aMh IsCuaocv. 

Tbn ii Little raaaoa tobeliemthat tbeScuiiliiiavf3UiilheBUpliruFr«rcinpl(>7«d 
the RDM to vbat can pivpal f tw ailed lik rary [luipisca. Tlicj wroto iftcada- 
tiotB, carrod calmdon and brief insmption^ in iLoeo Icttio*, hut U r«maiaa to be 
prorad that eltbrr tlM n^e laji or tb* |iibm aatiaa of tbal ptofJc ittn enr 
VTitttB it0«a at all b«fun Cliritliaa miMioDariea introduced into Seasduiavui ■ 
Be* Trlipoo and a new alp&bet. 

Tb* fiui that the Old-Northem baid» ««re well oadentood at ih« courta of 
tLt AnglO'^iaxaD Mnn and otbir wmilar eridcnee, tcad to «hn« that, ihtiaiih 
tba Old-Korthera and Saxon wrre not npinUd aa the aaeio apMcb, jrM Ui«y nraai 
IwTo macfa r ra w ablfd tach other is aiticulAlion. The leelantllc Tovd-tQusda. lor 
the owat port. ODiwide with the Latia — thdugb tho aecentcd Towda of tho 01 J- 
Kertkrtn appear to havn had a diphtbengal pronnndation uclcnovni to ui; oi tho 
alphabet* of So«tli(Tii Kampo — and baie «« have a lurthor aqtaniimt is xtppoit 
<f Oe^nMnat ratsblanoebttWMn tlM Anglo-tkion and tba Oonlineiiul Tuirala. 

BMk nppoaw the otthcgnfihte MctDla to bare longthened the towwI in Ao)^ 


nqxOKCiATiox or aic<iu>-bjuh)N 


AuoD, and, in nm* qumo, to hvn eh*ii|pd it* qu«3i^, bnt BOt to h«ve inai!« it 
dipiittiengal 1 mut I Iwlipvwit i* KPntnlly eoMldrrvdilmply u m ufD of jtntodical 
hrnuiK not of utiTM uf i<oi(w. But Onik — whou Biibiryof En)|li*h LIutsIiim 
>n-l of Ihn Engliih Laagiuga did not twconi* kaowii U> m* luiiiJ ani-r tli« tmt of 
rliis tvlome vupMpand Iw thepnaa — iTguMin a nol^oa p.39T, voLL at tltal 
work, Ui>t. in MID* cMta at tcaat, Hi* vaatoraUd to««1 had the itami or loag 
•ound, nhiU Ui« MMiitod Tav«l «■• ^vonooitiwd ahort. BotworUi, Otipn of Q*t. 
fttid Soud. lao^ |^ ST, ^waka of ' Uia dipklhongKl otXar* nf tti« wboU irrnltni n( 
Anglo-^xoo T«wol>.' lodwd, Umi* m» vcij fair argumMila to [nota thai i!m 
Anglo-Saxon acconta indicated |iirModi«al length Mid that tbrj did cot, thil tU« 
voireU wo* dlplilkonftal and Itiat thoy wan not ; and v* roaj aa wtll eontttm 
■ hit w« tsnaut oooomI, aaarjy, ttiat w« koow sMt to noihiog at all on lb* 

ThiM an nan; tWM whrr* tko diphtliaoeal ehnrflclM of an Engliih rowd it 
IIm nmlt of a coolcacrnca bntvotn two rowcla nhich. in Anglo-Suuni and oarlj 
Engliah, balonged lo diflfrsnt ayUablaa. In Ih* nonl omt, llin u ir^oilK fcr Iha 
Anglo^xon (. vbieh in mnlmi Engliih ii uaiuUjr nTviwntnl iij, and pro- 
naunced u. cithcc y or ;. tliough in oUicr nu«i it baa Ivat moeowlad hjte.othj 
gh, villi i1ji atntnK* Tarial; of articulation. Tbo if, Uira. ia notan alcmcnt in tbe 
di|i1ilhnn£Hi rotiiid of tti* », in tlil* jriartii'uUr word, and <> haa jnnciaglj th* aaina 
aousd in iirt; manj ajUablM wlivrv it ia not fiillownl liy ir or lijr s iwvt. Tlia 
Anglo-Siixon word far vmi, ai^., was n-cn. aonirlimra apvllrd aiaa. whith waa a 
diwTllablr. In the Omnium it iaapttkdnibriin, in old Engliili aant, in>iin, mnti, 
MiWB, and waa, a* pmaodj proraa, pronouaonl in two ajltablra. Tbc lattnr flinna 
Terj' oaailv pm into ewit, <a on, with Ilia dtjihlhoDg*] e, and th* origin of th* 
difklbonsal aonnd In varj many Bngjlialt long towi^ nu; be traced to a aamilar 

I tnj Iwraobanrrr, whntabonld haTo bren alaltd licforr, that, la iirialinitAaglct- 
SaxoD. I omit Ibo accvutf, bwauM Uiejrar* wuilinji tn ivrj matt; of th» bMt 
SIS3. and [irintrd tdilioiia, became the anivrlaintj uf llipir value would onlf 
*ab«Taia reodcia whom I auppcM not to br maatcn of lh<? Uognogp, and ba> 
eavne I thuuM. Iiy rini<tayin£ tkaa. Inncoie the chnnMv of (Tiun of tbn prcaa in 
printing % Totuma tlie {iroob of wliieli I aliall not bare an o|iportuiuijr t» 


I. (p. 48.) 


Hb text or IliMt Mtli*. u |ciT(« b)r dilbrAit uithoritiM, raiiM eniuidmUy, 
I gdntfrain Biug«f, OnmauJr«deUl«sgBad'Oil, 1353, ToLLp.lS. 



Fro Deo aitinr ct pro cliriMiun jioUo L-t iioMro oontinaQ salvament, 
d'ut Ui in avant, in quant Dtus lutvir et podir ma donai, si salvard w 
ciiC meon fra<lr« Karlo et in ajudba «l in cadana ccaa, u cum om per 
dndt son fradra Mlvar din, in o quid il mi altmd fazd, et ab Lu^er 
kdI ]^d Donqtlam prindiBi, qui, moon vol, cixt meon fmdre Kurio in 



Si Lodhttwigs mgraiu«nt, que aon fntdre Kvlo jurat, coatemt, e( 
Kiulu* mco* Mcndni <k »uo p«rt non Id rtanit, «i io ictunur non I'iiK 
pois, nu io nv ncnl*, ctil tso rcbmuu- tut poi«, in Diilla ajudha contra 
Lodbuwig null li iiKr. 

Perhap* tb« moct important point to he noticed ia thcso monumeota 
isllic uMof ibe futurvji Nalrarni and prindrai in the onth of Lotus, 
micrt! M Riucb cvidrnoe to prom that the modem lEontnitr^ fiilum ia a 
oQsloccnt fennaiioD (see Finrt Sraius, Lcrtnrc XV., p. 331!); but wo 
hsi-i! li«rc vcty iwarly tbe present Fienvli rutur« in ibis oldeal apecimTO 
of tbe languages It is, however, certainly a new iii(l«ciion, whatever 
BMjp be itsongin; fi>r Ibe Latin salvabo could never have become 
■alvarni. Thu ortbographicnl combination dh in ajndha in both 
OBlLa in ri'inarkahrf, as pcohnlily indiraiting r.hnt the d van anpiniled ot 
pnnoancci H, in that word and in other limiUr cC'mbiniuioaa. 




11. (p. 47) 


The pnr^iple nbwlute often t)cciin< in tho Anglo-Saxon gae^>clk 
TIiiu, iu Miitlhi^w ). 20: Him fa soClice ^a« ■■'"S t><^ncen<luro, 
Vu]gaiiv Hkc uutein co cojrtlautr. In ibc Linduliuiic go^le we 
hnvc the iIoublA Jbira, 8a* loStice fie he Seneentlo + Coliti^ 
which flioni lli«t the traotliiliir hiuduii'd hctw«<-n thu I^tin conrfnic- 
lion, fiaiisofilico ho8L-ncL'ii(I«, and Uicniori.- idiuaiAiio CaBBoSlioe 
tv he Cohle. TIm Rutliworlh tMct gives, 8«nili he f» f ))ohte, 
nnd, pis Hodlicc he polite, nol vciiliiring upon iho pariioifital coa- 
Ktnictinn uX alL The olJcr W yd Iflilr i«xt ho* : Sothdj* h/m thcakyiit^ 
tunw thingus; the later. But vhitc hu tbcujie (he> thb^s. In ilin 
pariiculiir <*>*•-, tho mom modeni trannLitJon* nil employ the rcrb; but, 
nLTcrthclcw, thi: alnolutc porlicipiiil ooniitnKtion hu bvcocM: Mtabtuhcd 
in Engli^ ^ntnx ; nnd notwdjr icruplts lo wril« : The woNthcr becemiug 
fine, we siutitd wi uiir jotimty ; The wamm prvivtUR M-^on-, and the 
mdBbeiti(;iin|>niciical)k-, tho troop* wait into n-iiiitr-tioarlcrB; tbi>UjA 
ii BiuM be sdtuitted that thb lorm b lea* fraely lued in the colloquial 

Tbi; protent or acttvo partlciplo in oldi^ Anglo-Saxon U veiy gener- 
ally, and, ro far aa I have obacrred, nnibnnly, itted dihcc with an 
atutiliary vab in Rich oooUmctiMis aa vatptimiiitg, or na lui udjcclive 
or dcacriptire epiih«t, or aa a nnuo. In thb btbr uaiw, it b oHi-n a 
ootnpcnind of a noun, nod a participle wbirb on^rjally loHy bave 
£uT«roed the D»tin ; and iU orafiloynient aa a technical participle ui a 
dependent or an independent phnae (which is to very cuaimon in Latin 
and Greek y, ia ol Inbit ezceedio^y nn, if, inJeed, it ooenra at nil, in 
Bc4iwuir or in Odmon. In the Ang^Saxon goapcl>, and in bier 
w-^ilc^^ this conairoction is rery firqutnt, and wc in Knglii^ Kill kit : 
Svfdng my way clnr, I went on with my pttjcct; Having largo aicaaa 
at lua dUpMal, he gave liberally. 

I MM no renacaaMe groand lor doubting tliat these Mtutrtidiana 
were borrowed frtnn thu Latin and incorporated iaia iho Anglo-Iwxon 
as a new syntactical deniGnt ; and U so, they are eaaes of a mixlurG oi 

I an aware that tlw active partidjilo is employed by Ullilaa in ao- 
Wfdaww with ibc Latin nnd Grrtk tuagei and that it b cAcn Ibtuid in 
inleriiBCar, word-ror-word, Ai^Io-Saxui ttvnalution* from the Latin. 
Bui the \tay ctocwnax with wLidi the traniilalioa of Ullilas corrv- 
tfioada 10 the gmmmaticol cunKtmclion cf lib original b a fusptciaua 




cttcumntancv; tini] wltstcver diangts the trnntlalor or hU copyivtt amy 
have nuulc in llic origiiui] iirriuigrmuit ot' i1il> vtorcli, I ibink uo [<craaii, 
wbc) Ku pRu:ii«.-d tKu art nf triuiHldtiun cii()ui;li 10 bu ii oiiniiiclrut juJgP 

> on tbcuibji'ct, call doubt tliat UUUaa rendcTLil Uic GrM'l:, fiml, nord by 
wurd, uikI not MnUinci: b/ nenlunoe. Ti]«::u: puticijuut coiiMradidM 
are iki adir«n« to the geociai a^ntox oTuU die Goiliic lonj^es, and tkpy 
M completely iiiUed to Mcore mJopiiou iu tliose wticli had crcuted a 
lileralute before uanHlationa of lUe ScripUites irera atlemjited in tbem, 
ibat 1 think w« ai« juiuifitd in believing ihal, in tLe employment ot 

.tfacM <x>nsin:ictii>ii*, Ulfiltu was foUdiring tiic idiom of th« Greek, and 

raMofbisown Juigu«g«, 

I admit that tho ADglo-S*xoD com[>atind f-jriicii>inl tiouni^ in whieh 
tbtt nonn-rlrincnt nuy har« beat oiiginnlly an luxiiialivc govcmod bj 
ibo participlt!, give mmc ooiintennocu to the >tippuiitMin tbut, in an 
earlier Ma^ of Uio lan;;iuf;u, the autirc [i)irltei[ilc ytas twcd aa a teebtii- 
oal rerial Ibnu ; but ibiil euustruetiou liai! certuinlj' bcounM; nesr)/, if 
not altogetber, obtoklv before the tratubtiiMi of ihe guttpeb, if indeed 
k ever existed. Tbew compounds are lu euaily esplioblo upon the 

|tbeoi7 lliat the parlloijna] drment Wiu mcd as a immui, aa u|«n tliat of 
Ibetr having a regi>neii ; aud I think tbul iIuh i« Uiutr Irui' rtyinulc^cnl 
bicbM^. I am too well aware of tho diSicullj of provlug a negatiTe to 

^tl&xm Oiat DO case of inie ])articipial oatiMniiOliaa exiata in primitive 
ILoglo-Saxon, but I ki^w of none wbcre the active parliciple ia not 
as a nouD, m an adjective, or an a defcriptivo adverb. This lant 

^■mployniMit of thin part of »poecli occnra in older, and tomclimea in 

fvDiJcTii Uanith; aa, lian kom rideadet, he cimc ndlt^lg; hua 
loaimcr kjirendet, abe uomeH driving/jr. In German, curimuly 
nougb, the patsiM (ttrtieiple b em]>lvj'cd in itueb ouch; aa cr kam 
ftritten, sie kOmtut jft/ahren. It la true l]at, in the admirable 

IpaoUli Bible of l^^O, aa well aa in Ctiri»lian Peduncn'tt rarlier Xeir 

[T«umeut, the active participle used aa an luiljecijre (and It ia not em* 

■ ployed otbcnri** than adjeciively or adverbially), luts the tame ending; 
but at present, when a dtncripiive, it cnd» in e, and the goiilival t ia 
•dd^d only in adverbial oonMrucliona. 

Tbo opinion of oven J. titiinm respecting ibe Frific lajogoage, and 
Ik facta on which ihoKc opiniono arc foundod, may be cited in proof of 
lbs pOMailMlity of linguiatic amiilgamnlifin. That grvat griimmnrina 
cUnvex, GcBcb. der D. &., SitO (47^) : ' Die triouscbc uprnclic htill 
' fine mittu xwiodicn iu^ddivltnacbcr und idtnordisdicr,' and p. SitS 
(jfil) ; ' Id denki^^lem aua der mhd. uud taoL toil ersdieint aio noch 
■it fiameii, die akh den alteSchaischeD und alUtochdeuUcben an dia 


Kvaa Axo iLLvnnisioss 


91-iU tteOtn ; die al^gewbiedenlielt ie» Tolks lut, buniths mt anf Uand, 
dim altcn Rpraduttaiifl g«hegt, uiid rann i>l tu Arm schliuc berachtigt, 
da« von <1«id miltclflllcr itickwfirt* bin xiim bi^inii Av* nniintvii jh^ 
w6 im btctntKhm volkxrrclil ciiuclnu iriuiiaclK! uiirtcr bc^giti-n, und 
TiMi dn bia «ur jtcit dw ItCmcr, in dcr IHi^riicIk-ii npmcbii vcrlmluii** 
nijfaaig wcnittvr VRt^ndnning«]i cingviruli-n nctn ucnlui, all in jcdcr 
ondem dcuUclMTii. auub in <l<^n jctzlgtn fri«iiltc)ii^i ilinlccicn duucrt nod) 
rkl altcri)iUnilich««, wiewol auT dvn w«MfriemMben die nicdcrliindlaiilie, 
■uf den OHirriemocheu die ni«dcr-und bodidciiMclie, auf den nftHMe- 
fiwlM>u dii^ iiicderdenUdic nod ditnisdw aprircbe aUirlceii unfluM getibt 
ha)>«i.' Now ihit ioflncuoe of the n«ighbouriiig hngtuigcs oo the 
Friuc ti Dot conRnrd to t]i« TOcabuUry, bill extend* la gnuniD&tJcal 
torniH and CAMtruciion*, nn<l, brginning on cither ihc NcilicrUndbb, the 
Low-GcTOian, «r th«> Iligh-Gcrtnnn IrcinliiT uf the fVi.iian«i you mi^ 
puv, •onMiiinm by abnnst iinpRrccptible gT«daiioR% b«it, in the coac of 
dUtricU iu.-p<«nt«l by jthyiucal barrian,oft«nt>y moTeabntjitlnuutliona, 
frDinany of tlio liixt-iui^iiiioiiod lsciguag«a to a FiiMim dialc« I containing 
'viel alKirtliilinlicWs/aud thence^ by* like succcmton o(tttip», ihmugb 
tlM) Gcrmanioed Duniiih of tM)tilIi«ni Jutland, to the Icai mixed Scudi- 
aariAD of tbc Buliic islondi. 

nt (p. «.) 


8oin« of tlitte burrowed IbrtoB in Engliab have bmi sap^Kaed to be 
of Soandinarbu ntlhcr than of Korniaa- French extraction. I ihiuk 
it non pivbable that ilK-y are det-ired fram llio Iftlicr tourco, b«»uM 
ihcy did not inaike their appcariuicd in Kngland until an«r the Norraan 
Conqnetc So &r (M ihcg<-n«ral quolion of t)i« (xNnibility of mixed 
grannur is conoompd, it i* of little conacigucnoft whHbcr wo iwcrib« 
thMa to Scandinavian or lo Ronwnce inliucnot^ ao long an the lact that 
they ore iunign eoiiatruvtionti is admitted. 

In Icclondio, and in Swedish and Daoiah, lli« compontire of a^jee- 
tirvB may, under ct'i-Utn circumatancat, be Cmncd by the eqaivaknt of 
mart, but the miperlniivo ia always an Infli-elioQ, and not. a« in (he 
Itumance languiigvs, formed by th« eooiparalivo adverb with tfaa 

'Hie Icelnndio did not exprau tlie poMemive or genitirc rv-lalion by 
a prrpONiion. The Old-Nortbera af alwaya took the datirc, and ia 
Iraiuktcd in Latin by ab| de^ «r ax. The modem JBcandiaariaa 

Lmtt. 1L 


dialecU vaCf in mnn}' cases, a propoaition lu the aigii bf tlie poincHiivc 
or ^nitivc, ami llif^y pnatuit houir curioiu coiticidmoc* wiiti ICnxliidi 
in the une of tlic piinide. Neillii-r thi: DiniiJi nor iIm- F.iiglUh emplaya 
tbc {ircponitiou af, oli na a cagii of ilii? gutiitivc, wilh nil nounit iiidiit- 
criiiiiiMt«lj'. In Eiiglub, we may uf ; ' « tMin of. intclliguicr, of 
tnniiiig, of c«p«eitj-,* but nirt, ' a field of frrtiitty.' lu tUe iatler caae 
we cMi lue ibo pniticli; ooly with the adjective, as: 'a Aeld ot yrtat 
fcniliiy.' So,n«Mn!)>cGhotMcri'cs, in Danish, >en Mand af Opdrn- 
gclso, of Licrdom, af Dygtiglit^d,' iK>t, 'en Agnr nf Kriigt- 
barhcd,' lbi>u^)i we niay ray : 'an Agnr af ^/or pruglbarhcd.' 
In both lan^juages, wbvrc (be [irvjxuiiiioa in used directly with the 
noun, a modurate def;rev ofllie quality ascribud invery vfti-n «x[tivawd, 
and hcnee n-e may suppote thatan adjective of Umiuciun is uiid«rMood. 

The Uld-Noribcm, as well as its modem reptean-Dtativot, we • 
{Mitide before thr infiaitiro much im in English, and mmelimea twi>, 
til at will) nn iii)itiilir<! bdog found iii Irrlnndic, n« well a» til at and 
for at in Dnuiidi. Tliia cMrespond* with the vulgnr EnglUb/oi' to, 
^far to go. It is ntd that tJie inlimtiTe with kI occun in the Nor- 
Uiunil>rian goepcb and rituals. I am not dl^xH>d to diaputc the fud, 
though I liare oot bf«n able lo find an exau[>li; of thia eoiiiitriictiou in 
the priiit«d texta. But however this may be, this form is not ibe 
origin of Ut« EiigUsli iufiiiiiivp with fo, «bi«h coii d«rly be traced bode 
to the Angli>-SaJioD g«rtiiidial. It abould be notiuud tliat to wyrce, 
wbicb occurs in the Csntbridgo edition of the LindiiJarce text of St. 
Maiihew xii. S, a» an altcrnativo for to doanne. is probably eilbcr a 
misprint, or on error of the iicribv, for to wyrceDDv, arising from th« 
bet that the next word is inHunnadagum (printed in one), the U rut 
pliable of wbici), Jn, no doM-Iy leseuibles ne iu inunuicript as to have 
led to the omiamon of (he latter by tlifl cofiyiA. 

It t* a DM iniprobaUe anggestion, thai tome of the Romance con- 
Bmctiona, to which I ha.vv referred the oorr«»]>ondiiig EngliiOi 
fimn*, arc thvmMlvcs of Gothic origin, for all Europe wan expcuvd to 
Gothic inHucnccf at the period of the fannataon of the Eotnance 



IV. (p. 52) and illurtrntion V. (p. 80.) 




>IiMu.<]othk of ridlu. F«nttb Crntiu^. Ftom SUmm'a edition, 189a, p; 6. 

Alt« unnr, Jiu in bhatoam, vcihnoi hkdio )>«jn. Qtioai t<iudiiuusDt 
^eiDs. Viilr|iai vilju )>cinii, avo iul]iiuianjnIiiiiiuair)>aL Hlaif uoKiroaa 
^ana rinlciiiiui gil' udb himnia <ltiga. Joh allet him, | otei tknJana 
M^aima, tvativo jnli vcis altnlnin ]>A)iii »kulam iiii«araiiD. Jail nt 
Viggoi* nnti in fruilahnjiu, uk htuti am nf |>9JDnui tibilm; nntc fdaa 
iat ^aduigKrdi jnh muIiU juh Tuljitu ia airinii. Amon. 

A^OIMm^f AvXbBud- Kinlh erailiux. AllitcMire udriijIheicalpwa- 
llMHk Tom BelMMlln'* tal, IttSO. p. 4<L 

Fadar if nJk- firibo bamo. the if an tbvm bohflo* 

bimiUrikrMi- <iniuihiit (i tliin lutno- 

niionlu gi-huiiilico. cuma llnu <!raf)iiff rilu. 

Uuunia ibin iiiiilli-o' obur tliHu uuenolij, 

«1 fo lama au i.-iilu. fv diar tipfa ifr an ikcm bobor 

htniitrikn. G«ru((lagu gehuiiillkel rati' 

drobiiu tlM godo. diina beluga bclpa. 

Eiidi aUt uf Iwbenat uuard' managoro tmouciildio. 

al lb uuv oilrum inannum doan. Nfl lat ni £til<st<si)* 

ktha unibti. So ford an in> uaillMin' 

Be oaj uairdige fled. Ac halp uf nnidar Allan* 

ubiloii dodituu 


An^SsiM •UlIontiTB and rbjtbmlial fonfiMto. Onin'a Tci^ S. SBni 
A^ of J(& not ttntRl. 

[flAIig] fiidcr, |m |iG on lifofanum mrdajit 

g«rvc[or^iulJ vutiir«> drv^G I S^ [ilnuin Tcoraum hllgad 

noma oiSSa bvomum I |iu cart ucrg«ad vera. 

Ucr. n. 



Cjrme ftn rice vl(Jc anil Jin rtflfSii't rilln 

&mrfd wndcT rodorw hiorc, odn pun en rDmro foldaa 1 

Sylc at t6 d|g« doml^inn blicil, 

bUf bwrap, holprnxl rem, 

^onc tingnlan, nMflfatt mcolm] ! 

Ne lict unc cculunga cnj'iwin In arfde^ 

BC pu UB Ereidoin f^«f, fulai valdcnd, 

from ylU gulivuiD & td vt<luu fcore I 


Aa0b-Sam from tlia tfer Tf-lamont, Uattknr tL S— II. T«st (4 rh« 
Vbirenitj Bdidora, duntridsFv IMS. Age of XIS. not Mattd 

fKier an pu )ie eart on heofentiin, Si pin naina (^dialgod . T»-b«eaine 
pin rice . Gewurile ^in willn on «or0nn, swa sva on bcofonum . Uroe 
^edi^lbiramliciin hUr ii]rl« u« to dm^ . And fcrrgyf v* in gyXtM tm 
nr» v£ ibrg^faa liram gj-lundum. And ii« goind ^ (U on ooatnuogc^ 
■oalys OBofyrda: SoSliee. 

flttt-Dtnlkh or Sif reh. Sistoorth crntn^. iVora IhT2«]iTik(cai*i -ronioo «f 
lAlfccf'a Bigh-Otnnui tmulotbii, text of iSfl. 3Itp!«biir|!; 1C4J. 

Tiue Vader in dim Ilcmmcl. Hyn Name werd« gebilUget. Dyn 
Rike Icame. Dyn Wille geschce, Tp Erilt-n alw ini Hemmd. Vnwj 
dacUikc Biod giff vn« liHiicn, Vnd vorgiff vn» vnse SchUlde, ■Ue 
T/ rasen ScbUldcncrs \orgcxiea. Vnd viJnj vns aiclit in VuTaukin;^, 
nndfr vorlOM vnii twi dcm iiuct , wcnie djme ja dat K^k« , vQ de 
KnSk , T& dc Ilcrlicboit in Eiriclicit , Aram. 

mon oixiuir. 


Aom OtMil** Kriit KinlhMnlw;. FEbTratdittHpluiML Qnfl'a Tot, ISSI. 

Filer unf«r g6a,U> . bill dr^U^tin tliu gnn^to . 

in hfmilon (6 liAbcr . titilh li nAiuo ihin«r . 
Biqu^nc unn ihinnit r(chi . ihas bolia bCmilriclii . 

diini iniir xua fo gii^oi . ioh ^nmizigcn tliing^n . 
Si nolllo tbin biar nidarc . Tof^r \{i nf;in hJmilo . 

jn Mn hilf una hiare . fb thn ^ngilon duiflBU tbAn. 


vans AXD iLtc^nxnoNS 

I«T. tL 

TliEii digitlicliun xuhti . gib lifutti imii mit gini^htt . 

ich f>JJIon ciiili thrift Riom . Ihiniv fclbM \er» . 
Sciild hi\atr. un* lUIt^n . lo uuEr mih diun uuAllun , 

(untA thin iiuir tli^nkvn . lull 6m\n\tigva uufrkoi . 
Ni ^I'liUc unfili th'm nutat . in tliM uulrlaniucrlvn ftra. 

ibux uuir tii iiiilTigingen . iliar diia ni gllitlion . 
L^Ti uafili U thinajia , Uax unir An thlno tbc^gaoa. 


LhIIin'i tnnihtlef^ ftem Stiet uaA VdA*, IU4, ttbit iha •ditkn << 1IH4, 

UiHer V«Ii>r ID dfm HimmH, dcin Name wen!* gpIidligM, <l«in 
Reich iH.inmo, dpiti Willo gi-orhpho nuf Erd^ii wie im llimmfl, hiikt 
tKglich Itrot gib tiiui lu^iitc, and vvrgib nnj> unirrc Schutdra wic wir 
uni>*rn i>diu1<li^i-rD *frgc1ion uiid fUhrc un* nkbt in Vcmiclmng, 
ioudi-m crlow uoh tron deni LV-btl : dvnn drin Ut das lit-ldi uad die 
Ktaft tuid di« Hcrrlicbkcic, in Ewi](k«it, Amen I 

I here inwrt Mvrral Scmi-Snxon and old Gng1i*h rcnionii of llic 
IiOtd's PrnyiT, not for their bciiring tm the qncslirin of the divt'rgi-nce 
of diiiIi.-i--tK, bat bvcatiDu it in conv<iiinil In hari- ull tbc tituiHlatkins ol 
the Piiirnioiiler logctlicr, for the piirpuNe of inKiii^ Uie chnngeii in 

From • HS. of Uin Ptriy f«rt ef tlie diiilMDih Mntai;. BdiqidK Jin- 
ti^m, I. iSS. 

Fader arc niiit art in birrnx' blixMt, 

Mn hcgi- iimni- iit wurSc- bliwcddj 

Cumi^n itt inoic 6i kingdain, 

din bull wit ii b« «1 (Ion, 

la h«rvne and in erife all 10^ 

So itt Kill ben fill wel to iro; 

Gif ti" nllc one fii« dai 

TJic l>ml n( icbo dni 

And forgirc ii* lire »inn« 

Alii we don tire wiRprwiniMi ; 

Letrt ua noct in fondingc fnit(% 

Ooc fro ivel £u mI<I ui nll<-. Amon. 

From ft MS. of th* IhirtwDlh ruiliirj, Rrllquiv Anliqas. 1. 191 

Fader oure ]wt art in Ix'Vf, i-lmlgrcd bee t*i nonie, i-eiunc ^i 
kineniche, y>irortli« pi wylli- alw i« in licvenc so be on ertlie, onn 

Lkt. 1L 



[di-dajr«a-bred gif m to-iIa}', & forglf ua our gultci^ al» we fbrgifet 
oure gulurv, & n« led ows nowtb into fbndii^g^ ant}! ala ows of 
htm& So bo hit. 

FMm ■ IISL of Uie tkiitMntli emtuiy, RelofTUK Antlfim, L £7. 
Cre fadw ia hevcDQ Ttohe, 
J>i naiDo be haliid ever i-licbe, 
fxt brings us to ^i niicliil blisoe^ 
^i willv lo wirche I'll ns wime^ 
AI4 bit U in lirTcne i do 
Ever in eorpc ben it tl n, 
Jiot holi bK(I )>at IcMk'li aj 
fu send bit oirn )'i!i ilka daj. 
Forgive oiu allc )>at wcluvi|idoD, 
Ala vre fen^ret ucb ofir man, 
Ke Icie us £il!e in nofondingf, 
Ak fidldo na fro }<<! foole ]>ii^- 

PMh WjFlifTo't Ktw T«staiHDL Oxford. tSSO. Malth«v n. 9—13. 

Ourefadir that STt in bett«nes, halwid be ibi wtme; tbi kyngdoon 

ae to; br tlii wilk doouin boneosDd ioertbe; pf to vs thia 

Tdqr oufT breed ourc olh«r eubstiiiince ; and rorj«u9 to va oure dutlla 

u we foijcue to ourc drtlotire ; snd Iccde va nat in to tcmptacwon, 

bat drif ncra v% (n yucl. Amen. 

Prom Pumrj'* rrcfmlon, MBi* tdltlon. 

Oure fadir that art in beuoncti, hnlewid b« tbi name; tht kingdoom 
[soiM to ; be tbi will« don in ertbe as in bvuuie ; jyve to va tbi« dni 
ftnm breed oner otbir enbaLinnoe ; anil ibrjjut^ to i,-s our« dvtitii as wo 
LiDfSmcD toonra deitonris; and leds ts Dot in to (eraptackKin, but 
IdtlyvcTG vs fro yuel. Amen. 

Fi«aD TyndUc'* Ttmaatitl. ISM. BfpFiAt. nnntoD, ISIT. 

O van fiUhcT whicb art in biivm, balowvd be tbjr nani«. Irf* thjr 

Dm come. Tbj* vryl! be iuIlitlirO, nn wHI in crib, as hit yv in h«Tcn. 

LOeve TS thi* dnye cur dayly breade. Jiad ior^e ts nnre tiT«)^«c* 

men aa we forgerc tfaem which (reaopas vs. Leede r» not into temptii- 

tioD, but delyvre tb rrom yvell. Ainen. 

In compnring the Tcrnons of the Hvliand nud of Otfrid with end) 
ratber and with ibe other Kpccinwmi, allowiuice mtut bo made foi 



LuT. II. 

raruttonfl due to tlicir porlicnl form*, for tli« parajilinuilial diamctir 
of both, and pcrliap* far difTcrfnecu of onhn^rajibioil Hj-ilnn ; birt 
nAcroll dniuclium, llierc itliU TCnuiin pnmlli-I tronliiaiid fonasraaiigli 
lo servo u u resBunnbly Mtialactor^ test of thi- lagicnl and giammaliml 
ruttmblince and dircrwlips bctwpMi the Low-diman dinlcct of llie 
former und llio nigli-Gcrrran of tlie latter, as al*o Iwtwocn the jMxrtical 
Old-Saxon of the llvliand, th« ^Dglo-Saxoa of tli« t«xl from Groin, 
and ihfi proic of tho Anglo-Saxon T«ti«i«iiL 

Between tli^ l'tnit-Dcut*cli or nodem Sajcon «r Bugmhas<i> >nd ibt ] 
UiglcGermnn of I.iitlicr the psratklinn is pcrfoct, the one bein^ a 
tmntlatioD from tliu oilier, and of counc lli« coTrCfpondcncp is aliiioat 
mjnnlljr cloac bctwucn the Mceao-Golltia of UlGlas, ihr. Anglo-SoxoD 
Tatnmcnt, and tL« PUti-DcutDcb of Buj^iihagon, all of irliich bcUiRff j 
to dm Lovr-GcrmaD bnndi of tlie Tcntlooic. 

In comfariug ihoNj monuiiicnts xf iho Tcatonio language in difTomt 
dkltJoU and from dilTiTcntchi-onological ppriodH, I do not find proof] 
that at remote historicid pcri«ds the dLilects of tbc German apcwjj 
were ' 1«M pinini}- dinriitgiiinliod than in later cnu.' On tbc contrarj, it 
appears to mc Ihat the great diriuonR of the lnngii^« were rnnoh Icat 
widely fvpnintrd tn tlic nxtctnlh cvntury ihnn in ibc niiilb. So tOT asj 
tlic evidciK'i' dfdndlik- fium UlSIwi goat, tbc dbtnnoc mu*t hare bcoi 
greater »itl in tlic li>iirili ^-ntttry, and conwqncntly lliv dialects appew 
to approxiinnto aa tbey advance, diverge lu they aiocnd. 

It i« tnie llial, in order to arrive at coaclunivc rcralia, much more 
extended coicpariwna miut be tiiade, but I ihink that an cxaminnlion 
(if nildibrand and IladabraDd* Muf^lH, Noiku-, the numciotu philo- 
lo^cal monumoita in Itaupt'a Zeiiaehiifi, and Graft'a DiuliHka, 
npccbdly the nneicnt vocabalaricsand interlinear gloana of the Mtddla i 
Agea, — for exnTiiplc, the glonary In Graff, I. 128. «t. wq^ from two 
mSS. of Ibc eighth crnltiry, — ciuinot fail to (trcnglbGn the inference I 
draw from the diflvrcnt tcxti of the I^rdS Prayer. 

V. (pp. 41, 62.) 


Tbia, I UD aware, ia coatmry to the opnton of J. Grimm, wbe 
tnya, Geech. dor D. S. 884 : " Zur zeii, wo deutadic apnMbc In dcr 
gocbichtc auftrilt .... ihre cigncn dialccte achcinen unbedeulendcf . 
und nacntscbiedcner aU in dci f»!ge." In a ccTt4un aoue, the German* 
ittftiago maltca ila appearance in htMory in the cinaate agea of Greek 
and BonuB literntare, that in, the language ia oficn ^(£ai of, and a 

LccT. U. 

BOTBH AKD nxrsTBxnoKs 


lev nn>per nn^ coinman DOinu bdoa^ing to H btg reoanlfil hj ih^ 
wriirm of tli*i«> ppriod.*. Bui lliu^ fi-'w rtinainB g.rtr us iio uolion 
vr'nnicrrr nf tltn infl(.-xi<ir»l or tj-ntuclieal Q'stem of the langvi^«, or of 
tin' iiiuiunl nliiiidu of Its dialects, and eonsequeDtljF do means of 
vmjmiing or (utinutiii;; t)i« di»cretjuiici«8 of tliow dialects. On Ui« 
fenneT pnint Ulfibn luruii>li(-s as our oailiMt infomMiion, and, of coune, 
Mir tint tnoirledgt of any Germanic speech dates froia xhe fourlb 
ceuiurj. Wfr have no oontemporaneooi or neariy cool«iD])oraneioiu< 
mtaiiu of sny oognare dialect, except « few tingle vords fit-.m wliich 
BO nfe eondnaioofl can 1>« draim, and liencc we I:n<>w nothing of ib« 
nwrnbloDCCS or diverntieit belwevn the diiTi-rent hranclie* of the 
Teatoutc tipeecli at that period. The nsteninn, then, ibat the Geiman 
dialcciK, nt oiir Grac historical noqtuin lance with thu Inngtia^, 'a|)|)r4ir 
to huv« beat lem broadly dixtingiii3iit:il thun iif^crworda,' is ■ pure 
coojectiue aostitined by no known fuct. For compurixoni of tbe early 
iDd modem Gertnamo iipc<MJica, sec illusLnitJon IV. ut end of tliis lecture. 

VL (p. 52.; 


Then Is stTODf cvidcnoc la prove un identity of fjieed) In oil the 
ndinaviaa cotintriei at tbc cocnmcrnenncnl of ibeir Itteniturv, or 
ber to show ihnt, in npStu of locnl difTi-rcncen of dialect, the language 
regarded on on* by tfaoae who iwed it. The rafditony on this 
nifoct will be fiiund in tbe pre&ee to Ej^hooa's I.exicoD Po«iicum 
Icti'fuo: Lii^'un: Sc|>teutrioDalia, where all ibv punioges in 01d-Nonh«m 
llcntiin; whicli bL-arou tbo quvation arc collecled. But. on the oilier 
a-i, s «iin[Mriaun of the diction of the monuMrrpti vttnhlisbr* rather 
I div^ty tlian a unity of language at the earliest period l« which tlu^ 
mch. Wo l)ar« no manuxcripts in nny of the Sc«ndtDaTtan dialcctt 
elder than the twcUlh, in all |>rob«bilily none older than the lliirteenth 
eoituiy, ihongli very many of the wnrku fbnnd in these mauuxcripta 
aw of matih earlier rUte, and, no far a* can be judj^ by inH-rnal 
eviilt^ioc, mom or Icoi futtlifully conformed to a more primitive ortho- 
^jihy and ^nunuiai'. lu urii;iiuil ntanutcripEx, or contemporaneooa 
copies^ of works composed ta Dmimurk and Sweden a* cutiy no the 
lUat exialjng codex of any Icelandic ituihor, there occur numGJO<us 
vnrdf^ ftyrniB, and constructions which an more closely nlltcd to thote of 
tlie n>cdern dialects of ibono coiiniiics than lo the ruculiubiy and 
fnauiar of tbc Old-Nonh«i'n. It lia« been hence argued, llut iha 




tan. 11. 

I>SDuli And Swcdidi am dmoetidvil, mit from die Old-Nortliom i>f th« 
Ict-lundic writer*, but froai iiignBtc pAtallrl dialrcu of cqiMl ■ntH|iuir. 
Tli« uvidnDcc friMu llui runio inacrifitiocm fotuid in tLc Nortttere Kitw- 
dMiw — innny of whldi utq bdivvnd, und ■omn almoat ocrlainl^ knowB ' 
ta bv muub inorw aocient iIub any uxtant tiiaiiD«cri]i( in «nj ^candina- 
tIui dialiM-t — alllioiigh llu'ir urtliof^jthyiii very rnriablc and uuocrtiiini 
poiuta to lliu aamo concluHou. Tfio tuictly ooinitioni origin, tWii, ot 
tli« loclaudio, Swedish, and Dnnixh, iliougb vary gencinlljr adniiirod, ia 
not absolutely proved, and mj- own langn^ge on this subjuct in my Klrst 
Serioa, L'wture XVII., p. 3B8 and clwiriicrc, niuai La tnkm with K.tne 
qualtSoation. But th« orrw, if it be an cttof, v/m not aiuii-ml to my 
Ugunaent in Ibo poMagCM rvfermLlo, for tlie catential liu!i siiU Hulxtistis 
namely, that wbile tbn lodoiulio, proicclcd ftvm fcreifiii iiiilii<:tii:>M by 
tho almoMt con)pl«lv n>cint and lilcnuy, »■ well m p)iyMcal uolaiiun ^ 
the people which uitv5 it, boa undugttnc tittle change, the DitiiiJi and 
Swodixh, on the contrary, hare dvpmtcd from their enillvr forms to an 
extent, and in iliirotionK, piOjiOTtioiialc to, and drirrmined faj, lh« 
mnount and chu.nioicr of the alien iiillucncM to which they hsM been 
reapcctivcly ucpoM-'d. The Swnlinli in still iMu-niially a ScandiaaTtsB 
laagne^ in both words nnd funnii, but, llKitigb tli<.- Duiica ha*« prrsvned 
the pirinvip*! charactrrimicn of tbeir aiMiieiit granunsr, tbetr voeabaluy 
ia Untcntably dMintioniilixed. 

Sec Molbvch'a nk(.-id) of the hutory of the DanbL language, in tin 
laat editioD of hb Duuitb Dictionary, 1639. 

vn. (p. M.) DiveKaEHCB of dialbctv. 
I beg Dot to be mJsandetstood a» coTertly atfptliig, [ti any of thn 
foregoing renwrks, against tho received opinioa of a oommon origin uf 
the Hliole huuiaii rnoo. I am not a oanrert to the opposito theory, nor 
do I ptolws (o be oompeteBt to -weigh tbo pofely physicHl evldenoe on 
thia queslion ; but the (area of tnth i« nlBV* Vfttkoned when it ia 
aiulatned by ■naoimd er((uinents, and I do not b«>ut«>t« to any that in 
toy jodgmont, tbo endenco dorivnblu from actnal, a* diatingnlBhed 
from coajoctnml lingiiuti^ hiiitory, dora not nuppoit the iloctriae of tlie 
unity and common di-scont of thi> haman speciw. TtThilo mnking thia 
adndaaion, I mnxt ttuint that, in the proMODt stato of oar kno«le>lg«^ 
ve hnve iintliiiitf liki^ ennrtuviTii rvulcnrain fnvnrof tlwcnntnuy teach- 
ing, ami tlintiKh we may taiily diiuriiia ami wei^b rnicli la^t* ae aio nov 
belore tta, every cuulid pnmon will cooeodo Ihut wc ore, na yet, by no 
means in ponewiiiMi of oU tho olomenia bcloogiug to tho problom, and 
Uiat fnture invent iRation* will donbtleee cnnae many a vattation in the 
bnhuioe of probebilitica boforu certain^ ia loachod— if indcod that 
fwini Ih> evi-T attainable. 




The opinion I bavo advance of tbo (liTprgenco of Ungaite«« ua «-o 
follov tlieni np to tbnir cvliwit trcomIoi! formi, and thdr coiiveTgL-ii<« 
OS itif'V ilccic«(xl, U not irrocoDcilalile with tlu' woll-MlahluJioil fw^t of 
Ui« MtnArncy of cv^ry hiiinnn ijwccfi In "■If-jiiviwon, and tW progres- 
mvti dcvcLopRiviit of dinlncta uikUt ci-rtAiti circunxinnc*^ WbcneVfT 

botnognncoiw [mv|i1i; with u couiiuoii Iuii;;iie ti divided inio wpunic 
and uncomi<-cli.>d uiIh^ hy (uuiuiuiioci, hj IucaI eluuigcB in Tclt^om or 
poljtica] iuniiluiioiift, or bv *ay of the iiumeruiia csuwh wlii^ break up 
brg« nutioiu into sinalkr fl-;igincnio. lb« itpcvcbca of tlic dilTi^i-Dt mun* 
b«ni of t]i« rac« become dixiiucl, not by virioe of bwa of rcpulMon 
And divergence inheivnl in ibe lunpiago ilwlf, but jiist in prujnrtion to 
ftlbfl cbamcler nnd energy of tho new cirannHiances under wlilcli iIm 
rfG[«ralc diviuonH of the fiunily an.- ]>bccd, and tbo dcgroc in wLicb tli« 
oomtiinn ten lion between '.iK-m i» interrupted. 

Now, admitting i}ial ull men are doscmdcd from a Ningto ji^r, iheae 
divinona of natron and of tonguu nmnt Ituvc bc<!n vtsry catnmiiti at that 
aittre period wli«n ogriouliure and itrt did not yet ndiiiit ol'd^tiiity of 

pnblioo, and tvben for tbu diildren vtewvry awarming hire, 

■Tha vorid muall befbr* iLm, wtwn tocLooaa 
Tbsir ptaot of rwU' 

1 brace the prunilivc lai^g;uaga or btDtpingvi were Moon ^il up into s 

nnltitude of laloiiii, mure or leas nnlike to tach olber and to thcironm- 

Linoa mouice. Tbe»* ant event" of vrliicti liuuiun annaJa havt pfcH-rvrd 

^only staiity audimpcrfeetrvcordii; but t)ie diali.'ctiocliaoj^es.piuiliic.-ed by 

lautKHitiou and coJonintioa within tbo hit^xirical p*'riod. .ire nullkK'ntlj 

Well known (o enubleu* to eonceiro tbe extent ol lh« linguitiic revo- 

hiionn whicb muit bare occurred in rrtnntcr civa. But from ibe «K«t 

■ndcnt date to wliidi antlit-ntiu jiioliini* rfcimU i-jctrfid, tbc yeurrnl ti-n- 

ideiK^ of bnnian political Hicii-ty bun bvcn liiwurda incrvnifd cntiinitini- 

>nlion, intermixture, confuMon, and uinal^nmtion of races nnd tongnr'. 

Ucnoe, during thia period — the only period lhroti}^i whicb we can 

I tnoe thi! history of langtia^- with any approuch toccrtaiRty — all inRu- 

BK««,wilb tlie exception of tboie of emigration and anokigoQacanseN of 

liule ooni]ianiiire importance, bitve oo-ojwraled to produce a conalanlly 

, ioctoulng convergence of tbc more widely dilTiised dialeciA, and an 

f'etlirpatioa of the leaa iniporiaDC bimI mnrc muTowly limit^^l paidiH. 

While then it is theoretical ly I»<H in)[m>luhlo that the npo of genvml 

I ipfirrixiiiiniion win pr<«cded by a long period of general divergence of 

tangncH, it taial be n'meniliereJ tliat this eonduiiiua ia mere initller of 

JnfcTcnce front analogy, and by no mean* an minbltAcd &ci ; for all tbat 

Uaory teucbea tin is, lliat the further we go back tlie wider was tbe 

divenity of xpeech amoDfc men. ' Tout oe que nous savona dee lai^uM 

au ifc <]Bes lea pJua roiaaee de leur ongine,' saya Furie^ ' aona !«■ 



mm AKD nxcFTiunoits 

LwT. n. 

mimtrc ^vinita en iliAkctmit noim-tlialrclmpcu ^mdit*. II ri«ut,|>«int 
Kit uiiWDur h I'lititl^, [loiir ks y ttttidre, il'tnunairwn ^v«n<TmmlB ot nn 
U-iDpa Irfei-Iung reUtivcmait k U vie, je tie i]U ya dot individuM n <k« 
famUlea, mnis dee peuiJea,' &c. Facriei, J>anU tt la Laague Itau'cnnt, 
UM, U. SOS. 

Tho ]>roporicion, that longuKgea dcaccodcd from the mmv stock nra 
incajiabk- of gnitnmatical niixtur«, aecrna (o tn« to involvu a ouuimdic- 
lion, onii nt liut to lend incvitnbl/ to lli« avidmioD against which I iim 
proloiting. [t Mnumoi thnt iqicc'Phcs dtriTcd frDin a ccmnnoii ori^iinat, 
■nd diM-clopfd from it by urgunic low, iii-di-ppndi-ntlj of txiitiuI lin- 
giuKlic inflticncOH, Ixvoroe. hy iho action nf ibii common Inw uf ihrir 
helii^ io divvrse from «ach other id Hiniciuru und Hptwilio natitrc, tiial 
aUlidtigh t)i«y Mill n^aiii Ui« CMeutial crliamcltTisttU of thdr comnuin 
pareni, no nlliaiicc or malcKienco bi>iwcL'ii ihcm i» jMntble. This is at 
varianot! with nil that organic ]>hyt'iology has taught vs, and if the 
alleged repu;! nance nnd iircooncilabilitv bo ndniiilfd, wo must r«aort 
V> the hypothcaiaof nn lndrprndrnt crwition for every known l&ngoacfii 
I am Dot prqxirx'd to aciopt tlii* lij-jioiIn»iii, but, tt tho mtno tim«, • 
admit thiit in iho [ihcnomma of language Doniud<-tv(I hy thontwIvM, 
and without rcfcmicc to theological doctrine* or vtliuologicnl ihconei, 
I do not find any aerious objection Io it; and if 1 beltvTcd in the impoii' 
aibili^ of grammatical mixture, p«nnancnt lingiiiiitic hybridinn, I 
ahuuld (iiid myiu-lf conijx'ilcd to ckjwuk it. 

None but Ota fuUowi-rsof ilieaolioul «f which Dnrwin b now the moxt 
conipictiouB teacher infer, from aimllariiy of Ktriic^luro, a community of 
origin helwocu different organic specie* of iho eanw gcna* in a (laiticu- 
lar country, or botwccn rc}>r€feni»livo tpccios in dilfeicDt coiintrica. 
By moat boinnitJ*, oaliK, between which no ooniilaot diBinvaee can b« 
pointed out except in the »hape of the ciipof the acorn, nninttintainMl 
to bo'apcpifi<«lly diittincl, and not dr*c<-n<Icd Irom a comioon Mock. 
Why, llirn, i^ it not ripijilly probabtr that the community of nature in 
ntnn lini producrd any niimtier of Inngu^^ ckuwly n-icmbling cadi 
other, but not genealogically rcbtcd F In compwing very nuiny speciua 
of pliuil»ai)dnnimala,dM!|ioiniaorcotacidenc«!aTevuMly more nutnerotut 
ami important thim ibow of dilTvrenoc, but whih' a tiYghl div«i:genc« in 
Ronnnl type is licJd to «stabliidi a fpcciSc ilivprsiiy in iho lri« or th« 
(|uadrup(.*d, an eiionnouii diiicre|iancy in vocabnlnry and f^ntax i« nol 
MiniddoTttd asdi^roring oommtmity nf origin in fangiMgea. If bngiiaga 
Im coii^dercd aa a gift (him an cxitmal »urcc — a madiine with a 
coriaiu limited nu)g« of movement* — it U difficult (o got rid of tlin 
theoiy of hcrcditaiy or mtlier tmdilioniil docent ; but if «c regard it 

LicT. IL 

wna AKD ujujgnxrtovs 


m» an organic {irodact, a natiini! rcKi]t or iht- oonctitulian nn4 cnrxliiitin 
of iMUi, and not as an aiaeinUage of orbitnirv or convcnltoniil syniboLs 
it follows iLat k-xii:ii1 ur graniinuiical mwniblaDoes in IftiigtiBpw no 
more prove itidr original idoniiijr tliaii a oerUin coincid«noe in tbtie- 
lure aiKl rnnetion of orgnn «»iiibti»)ic8 a conunguiuily b«(wem all tfa4 
■fwcica of tl>o gen\a/di4 in (luadruped*, or iIm descent of all ihv planta 
oinhraccd under the generic leimJicMg from a idnglc gcna. 

VIII. (p. fiO.) 
mnPA-nrr bcth-eem sixoss asd celts. 

Not to Nponk oTrarlier and Ion tiimiiior instances, I vaay rder to tin 
tiuainll)' luilicrnus iicconntoflhelTiahandof tlii; fouririld king* canghl 
•ad lanii-d hy Iticlianl II., iu FrotxMtri (vrlio of roune waa tptaking tb« 
RDlinMfUisof bUEiigliHli fri«iida); tu SUnihTim's IreUind, in llolindicd; 
to Wr«u'H[i«pct8,quoied in tlienoti^ft to Witkins'ardiiioii ofSirTbnoiM 
Bn>wn«; and finally toPinkenon.u'hosrgiH^Mslouily iheinferiorilyof 
tho Celtic niioe : ' Sl>i>v mo n gnt>l <>'.' «aid be, - and I am don«.' Thns 
DjunioDR of countc an not nuihoritins nor worth citing for any purpoM 
•accept a* nxpnvidoniiof n frvling uliich, aNwr Iuiti- abandon t vrideno^ 
faaa been tnlcnaiiMid hy at! ihn non-CV-llic inhubiiiinU of England, fton 
ibe Sflxon inriuion to the prc-M-nt duy ; and tliis ii an imporUnt bet^ 
beeauM! it tcsid^ lo Expliiin whyKiiglisli ho* Imrrowtil so few woidBfrom 
anj esintiiigliirinsof t)i« Cullic. If lltv Celtic Brilunn wa« a Cbrinian 
people at (be time of tbeir subjugation hy tbe Saxotis, to the exunt 
iriiicb ikcir adi-ocaUfs maintain, and had tbe culture which has every- 
where aooompanied i\w diffusion of Chriuiiinily. iVT ctnild ixnt hav* 
fiiilcd to pmpagaie that rel^on among their conqticron, unlcsa an in- 
vincible otutnclr van fniitTd in the mutual anti|ttthy hrtun-n tbi' naiioti*. 
But iJti! AnfcIo-iSmcono wcro converted by miMionnriai Imm liome, and 
the lame caiu« whidi pr^cntcd tbi.- incorporation of any conniiiirntbla 
portion of tbe Celtic vocabulary into ihi* Piwon BpwsA — wbrther the 
faUallMtnal inlcriority of ibc Celt or ihc liativd of race — prevented aino 
the adoption of the Chriitian religioo by tbe invaders. 

EL (p. GOl) 


Koentn, OeNedi'rbuidichcBoi-renitand !Ii:>tori«di BcKbrcvcn, p. 17, 
liiflowLi^ Boot, ascribes a Latin ori^n to tbe Dutch nrord.i nkkcr, 
Sfrr, xaad, tatiim, liooi-vork, /urea, jufc, Juifun, wan, 


Lkt. 11 

9ai»»v», domchrlrgol, J!ageHvm, siklcel, teevla. upadc, 
apattia. Emry onii nf ihrKc ivoriln, and other* (if (he xamc cIiim, 
Mcli Mciillor, eutttr, or covhcr, arc tound in Anglo-t^xoti, nnd Um 
arfltunant is equ&IIj slrong Ui abow Utat ttiat Inngun^ took tlivm lh)m 
tlio mine BOurcfl. 

The gmcmlly iiLTi-rior oultnrc of tli« Celtic to tlie Lniin nnd Golbio 
race* would aflbrd a prcsumptioii Uiat ilw) Cdu olao tinil bonovt^ frttm 
lh(^ Rnninnn sudi of llicoe words as ocvur hi thi-ir ipoecli. Bill tbo 
curintm nnd nlmoat nnnolicod fact of lli« utiHlvoce of trajnng-machinM 
nm<mg llic < Entile, Blutrdhy liic cMrr Plinj, ('Vin'iiaDadviuKic-iIooDdilioil 
i>l' t)olli ngriciiliunil nnd mrcli-iniral an in (hat pfwpiv, anil, of txmtm, 
MilbomcH tin to tiippow that thrj hnd a prnporlioDotrly complpto mral 
vooabulai]^. Tbu probahilitj* u ihitt mod of tho vrorda in qucatioa 
beloug to an earlier pvriod of liumim iporcli thun that of the exjiilcnctt 
of any langunf-c idonlJfiaUe bh diMJnotlv Cfllirr, Gctliic, or Ii«1ia. 

I lisTt- elwwhtre adrerted lo llif pti'laliility ihut many word* atlc^i^ 
to be Celtic wcr« of Latin origin, nnd tlmt in naray ciim'n. roots luppoecd 
Cdlic aT«^ 88 pntbahly, Goiliic. Mr. Davica wys that earl is Welsh 
from cir, a drey or alcdge, but 48 I have obaerved in a note on th« 
word Ctrl, in the Amcaican edition of Wedgwood, cart occurs in tha 
KoTH< Alcxnndur'a Ssga, of ihc (liiTtccndi ccndiiT, and may, tbcnJbro, 
with cqunl plaiwibility, he rliiinicl an Gothic. 6'oim has be«n aappoaed 
to Im! at \\\hh origin^bul n» iliin word i" fotind in mediwal Gnr\ and 
l^tin, ni ii-«ll an in (>ld-Frrti<;h and ItiOuin, it ia a hbtoricnl, nol an 
etymotngica! qucslioD, to what xlock it twlongn. $rc Ihi Cangc (tuna, 
2> gunna, gonna, gonna, gunclln. Tho WelJigwii, to which it ia 
nrfciTcd, is Mid to RKun toga, hat, as a<|ucMion of mt/Ka/ etymology, 
more probublL- nuurcn for sown mar hv luund dw-wkcrc; for (li« Dame 
of ao complex a RiirriK-nt in not likely to be a primitive. GarneU 
tbinka hamnr la Wuiisfi berfa, butloa, W. botwra, crooit, W. crog, 
Unter, W. dcintur, i«nn, W. gwain, ;Mrn, W, pan, toltltr, W. 
aawdnrinw, &e., &c. But ia cot barroie mor» probaUy llw A. 8. 
bcrcire from )>«ran to carry ; builon the French baatoOt a bod or 
knob, from bonter, to piisli or eproni ; crool cognate with Icdandio 
kr6kr, a hook \ Uftir frcm ttii I-atin tcndcra, lo fttrteh ; teem, tb« 
Gothic wagen, ragn; pan, ihr. Gri(hi<? panna, pandn, pfanne; 
and ctpccially tolder, which i* limtid in all the Itumancc luttgiingn, iba 
Ijuin solidarc, from nolidnfl, uwd by Pliny in iIm preoiai! scniw, M 
toldtr? Thms arc purely <|ueKtioi)a of hitlorieal «cymology, and wa 
con no nior« determiDU ihcm by eompariaon of forms, than we can 
Lprote by the linguiiiilc clmi^cler of the luaH AUied, Uiat ihu prinea 
, or bod nut a real exisieuoe. 

■ Sm, port, pp. St!-J>14. 

Lkot. IL 



X. (p. 6-1.) 

tnvFiczvtr or apfrixiatiko roBEioH souKiia. 

' PrnnDK irbotK ntu-nlioci biw not Iwvn 8pf<.-ully diavm to the ntbject 
■re liul« avtnre of ;he itiflicult}-, I will not tay, of iiniutibg or of 
wriiing <Uin-D, but even of htarirtg lh« pecalior Miunda of foreign 
hagiugiw. Ad snecdote uixj sein'O to illiigtntic this. There ia ■ 
Peraiau word in Tciy common utw ihroughout tbc litwt — baUishwab 
— BMttDiiig n gift ox n present. It is eqaimlent in mwning to the 
Old-EogliHb, nnd in cmplojsd t>}' thr nlti-ndjint!* cm men 
and Rtnngcrv, wbcti g!ibi am nude or V3|icclcd, in just ilic tamm 
waj. Tbe Tiirliiiib *rliculalion i>f all woniH ia excOMlinglj dittincti 
and (hi* particular word, buk)iabre>li, vrhidi ererf traveller in Turk^ 
bpim a bundrvd liuKs a duj-, ia uiivicil wiili aa un«lioa Out mskea it 
Tifnr impnwiivc lo tli« ears of ■ htrimger; hvWM oo« would imagiiw 
that ila lrTi« pronuncLalioii would be tcadily amod hj the oboiaect ear. 
NotwithaUading tbi», > diatinguiahi-d gmtleman vbo had pscaed mod 
of hia ]tr« in Ibreign land*, and had apcot many yean at ConslaniiDopltt 
in a dij)Ioiiuntic cnpncity. wu tiiubla to come any n<«rcr to the sound 
of balclvhrcKii tlinn baeUhtarch. Viv: llitia irriin in onv of bii publi>bt!d 
Iftiera: ''Flwrc inonljr one word in alt my Irtii-m which t am cr-riain, 
(however ibry mny bt: wrillrn), of not having apdt wroi^, and llut ia 
the word hacUhlasch, which ngnilics a pmenL I hsvcv heard it ao 
often, and my car in m ncctuitonted Vt the aound, and my longiic to the 
proannoialioo, ihut 1 am now oertain I am not wTtmg tbc hundredth 
port at a wfaiii]i«r or liap. Tli«re la no olbCr word in thn Tuikiih, ao 
well tmpre9N.-il on my mind, and eo well tvmemlwred. muitcvtn- rJao 
I hare wrilien, bodahtaacb I my earliest acquiiintunce in the Turkiib 
language, I almlt ncrer tor^l got ! '— Conttaalinople and iu KneirtmA, 
ta a teritt of Itttert, by at Amfrican tmtg rrWcJif. N. X, 183D. IL 
p. 151. 

U, then, pcrmna of fiur intclligcncit «r« liabla to straiigvly to t>errert 
the Hmnds of foreign words which ihcy bav« Ttcsrd and used for yean^ 
what can any man's opinions be worth co th« iotuidB «f • Lmgu^a 
nlitd) be never heard at all 7 



Isi order to a jii«t vstimato of the capacities of the Anglo- 
SuoD tonga«, we miut pass from the forms nnd Eotm^R of its 
woixist the aenHUniiA inipr^iuinDa ttiey produce od the organ of 
bearing, to their eignificauce, their power of commuoicaLing 
fact aiu) I'xciting cuiutton, which constjtutcs the cewoce of 
human spu'ch. 

We irnis* liere admit that our knowledge of Atigto-Sazoo ia 
not irucfa a8 to enable ub to pronounce on this point with aa 
much certainty aa in the caso of many other luiigiinj^cs. dead aa 
well 08 living. Tbo extant, or at leaat printed, literature of 
that tongue is not lufficicntlj extensive and varied in subject 
nni) in treatment to furniab us wltti the r.riio and only means 
we can ever poseta of learning the actual force of words, 
namely, observation of their ueo at different periods, in difTorent 
Gombinntionx, and by difTeri'nt wrilcnt, and we thcri;f"re do not 
understand an Anglo-Saxon book an we dj a work in & living 
foreign, or even an ancient claasical, langui^e.* True tb« 
close allionco between the Anglo-Saxon nnd Euglixh helps us 
to mn tliTotigh An^Io-Saxon narrative works, and Kiruple 
homiiies like those of Alfnc. with trreat case: tmt wDen w» 

* Anirlo-RuM Tcxtoofintplijr w*> in • rorj nnMitiafacFtorj oonditiMi nattl 
tto appMrADOO of Bonrortii'n laburiuu* dtditiaoarjr. whioli, llioajb muoli 
b«lilnd tlM AdvacMd liiisiiiMk tiuS«tni« of our daj, vm a rery tinoly and 
importaDl Mlditiou to oiir fa«dlIU«« [or ^xiAyia^ tho •DClont moib«r tooKn* 
of Eugiaail. Tli<> utowArlpn to Sobtnid'i OoMtM dor AnK<)-!^M>li*on, and la 
Or^iu^ Itlbliothoit (ler An)[et'S^haUfbcti Pi>oi!4t. >tR alan Tnliiabia coatribn- 
ItODK lo tha Mino l)mncfa of plillolagjr. Itul. a(m hU. vord-book* caaaol 
pi bcfiKid their ButbaiiUea, and a tagiamury litanlure oaa Iutc but im- 
. pcrf uot IcskooK 




toicft on Anj^lu-SnxoQ pi>om lo ham), wu interpret, not Kod our 
author, and no man can make himitelf as much at home id 
Beowulf and Ctedmon as a good Gredan may in Ilomcr.* 

But im{Ktrfcct as is our knowledge of niccdixtiDCtJonH and e^a* 
ncMvut )ihtidc« of meaning io Ati^lo-Siixoa wonia, we cau t&y, 
villi conGdcDce, that in the higbc^ quiilitj of speech, the power 
of varied cxprcsdon upon mor'tl and inttfllectual topics, tliia 
language was c^rtuiDly not iaferior to any other of tbc Gothic 

Id estimating its capaciti^ in this rospect, ve are not to 
compare it with the modem Scaudiuaviiiu and Teutonic toDgiii>^ 
which tuiTc rcofiTvd centuries of culture nnce Anglo-Saxon 
became toclinct, but witJt thoso languagett ai periods when they 
bad enjofc-d a iniicii infc^rior amount of Christian and clamc 
l&fluenoe. Christianity wa.iintroducedamoDg1ho An^Io-iSaxons 
in tJio Fixth century, into those parts of Germany with which 
the Anglo-Saxons were most nearly connected, somo centuries 
aft(^r the emignttioa of that people, and into ScandinaTia and 
Icelani] not far from the year lOOD. though tome small pnngre^s 
bod hvcn made hv Christian miK^ionorics in Denmark, Norway, 
and Sweden at an earlier puriod. It would not be &iir to ma 
ft pAiallcl between the Anglo-Saxon of the ago of Ctcdmou, 

* It mnj ivcm ■ tMlaz, but I belian) It in ft jms oUcrratioii, that om cf tlw 
ba>l ['ivtir^l mis of |<mlirinnoy tn h foret^ l*ii-iia(,v i« tlir dagn* in whioli ttm 
•loilral (I Ciptbk of tajoyias u llDndir in tbo esc of il. When vn hurt m fur 
■ P ptB p ri> J «d a new ■pnrii that Ibc mistake* of a itmngcr. in its icniinniar or 
^UUlMutioa^ pFodace njioli ni tbc ramc <xU «nd In^icroiu cH^i-t an rrroni in onr 
vmmcnUr, w« mj !« niro itut »p bare prrtt; fnllj niiulvrpLl il ; Ituc wr nnitt 
rtgui ovmlrea ■> lini* ualil *« lm« bveonio thiui &i imbnnl villi itt if-irit. 

Sjatned Ltfdiit cagmred »pan the QtvaX Pftnmid, for thtr Atltt^Uion d 
th« disMibodlod tpriu* ifait luniil tlmt ' yilo *tujif bilAiu,' itnil of •ocli tntiuw 
tnfdUcn !a th« EaM m tnlc'il ks]i|<ra Io hunff nn lsa^iiijp< innra nodem Uiu 
tbit of Cheopt^ a Uerogljpbic reconi of bis aatiquariui pilgnmigv to J^sjpt) 
bat I dciibt whether ^r. Biieb conld contriT* to «sinet an honest Lnig^ cnt of 
tlio ftaaihio aolceiiau in MqnnoM and joxtatnwrion «t Iho birds^ re]>lik^ and 
botnsd taUlo Ikkt figlBt* tn thiit intcrililioa : mi4 I (ntr tbtt tlie pvrbai« Ion 
toKkal UrtaM* «f Mr Conylitntv's Aii^lo-^AZoa rb^m* did not ttriko Hr. 
KemblD u tonueal cnongh (o frroduce thut tthitarj Jtvpitatian of tk^tjJtm wtodl 
laa VitmA hold to be bo KnicraUe to the btuHb of scdtotujr gtnticmca. 



!«». ML 

who lived in tfie MTotitb ccDtiiry, and tbe German oT Ooctli*; 
the compariflon oiij^t to be in«titut(^ brtwccn coneeponding 
■tages of philological development. Such a corrEwpondeDoa 
cannot be nrrivud at by a mere coinpiitalion of time, because 
we have no siifficipnt means of knowing the precise syntactical 
or lexical character of either sjweeli until some time after Cbris- 
tianity had be»bowed ttpon thetn the Iloronu alpbaket, and mip> 
plied tiotL the meanK and the inocntiTC4 for an extended literary 
culture. To ihia r<?inark the Slceeo-Gotkic ia an app:iifnt 
exception. It is said that Ulfilas, who tranaUted the Scriptures 
into his native tongue, in the fourth century, himself iuTcnted 
his alplia1>et, or rather accomraodatod the Greek and Latio 
eharoders to ht» purpmses, and fimt reduoiul the ]t[a»o-Gothio 
language to writing.* Wo abonld tlK^refore diippone that be 
would have employed, in hia troiialsiion, the current farms and 
the standard vocaimlary of the heathen period; for the conver- 
sion of the Jilneo-Goths was then too rcocnt to allow any very 
enential modifiration of their speech by Cliristiaa influences to 
bare taken place. In the wnut of evidmee to the contnxy, 
we should think eurselvea ai'tlmriacd to suppose tliat wo have, 
in the remains of the work of Ulfilan, a specimen of a Gothic 
diakct in what may ba called a normal fonn, that is, a form 
spontaneously developed by the operation of its own organic 
laws and native tendeucie*, uncontrolled by alien iufliicnces, 

* ThcophilM * 0«ibie Uohai:^ «r nlhw ■ toiliop of the Cotlif (poasbl; an 
(jHEKvjiut •■■ parlAat), v,a prmtat at tbo Council <^ Nicci xJt, tt6, •iitl lib limo* 
iaferm) lint Mime «>nii<Irri>tila prvpoMlnn or On Mm«-0uih4 (rim Cliiuitiuiuod 
■ maple of gmmti«4u brfuni tht> eiKution of L'tdlM*! tnnuiMiOD. Thcro U abe 
etlirr (Tidrnro «( Iho introduction of CtirUlianil; Binonj; tbia peepl^ hj Capf*- 
docian «pt>t«<^ in tii» Utlitl ceiiluiy. It it not jiroliabl* thnt a ChrLidaa Miioa 
veuM rnnain a tmndreil ytan witttmt Itlltn, tnA il ia bardlj nvdihia tliit titaj 
(ontcntfd thomulm, m long, wi^ aa miLs aa alphabet •* tba mae. UIHIm 
maul, tlian, bo tolun nllxr ai Uia itnpTonc tban » ibr inTcaMer of tho oliJubrt 
be «M<I. I ■(« no k'TOniit) for th« oiuninn tkil tba moufciah or M»''k-1<itlvr 
diimftfn of the lliildlc Abm wftk bomiweil fruio IboM of tJUIaa. 'lliota «ha 
did not ialiirit bii i|t«ch vould not hare BUt^nHlid Ui kii alpbalicL ThRw ii no 
vaiy doM njarmbLuicc bttirccn bis ajBtam and tho iue>li>inl faWk Irllat, anil Um 
latUvdiMsaotfoUovIhe tmnfMaantof ihalbnaar, or rptain all ita chmcUnh 




except, m(loe<1, bo far as the (liolion of a trMislation is sInaTV 
modilird by the idiom of its (.riginal and the nature of iU 
Babjoct But I bare shown, I tMak, that the fi»i» of the par- 
ticiple and tlie Bfotactical oonstniclion of the period wore, 
conlrun' to th« genius of tiitt Gothic lumilj of tongu<«, pro* 
InUy cooformcd hy UI6laa to tfae xxia^ of the Greek; and it 
u poiuilile thai, otltcr graininatical innovations were introduced 
br him. ^Vi^ respect to the inRectional forms and the general 
vocabulary of the MfEw-Gothtc, bowerer, wo hare no evidence 
of any corruption or chanjje-* 

Of other Tculonic diiilucts, ire hare only a few fra^entB, 
too tnconsidvrable in amount and of too doubtful rmdi'ng, to 
wrve as ft basis for any general conclusions, until a »;iifficicnt 
time after the cbristianisation of (rermany for important uhangM 
to bave taken place. 

The oldest existing Scandinavian roanuscriptfi date only from 
the thirtrontb century, though some of the works of whic% they 
are copies were no doubt com])osed during the heathen era, 
and many within a few years after. But it was the almost 
universal habit of Ecribca to L'onform orthography and inflcctioo 
to the standaixt of tlu-ir own tiini^, and therefore a maun^cript 
copy of a work of an earlier period is, in general, not entitled 
to much weight as evidence in regard to tlic fiwinal vhiiracter- 
teties of II>o dialect of the origiual.f 

The Meeso-Gothic, as we have seen, cannot bo identified at 
the direct parent of any later Teutonic dialect; and as its lite* 

* Thi! Upnh ilS. of TTUIm oaHcd the Oxlos Aigcotrai, eitbcr bvni)u« bound 
iu liinr. or braiwc it it nteentcd almMt whollf in dim chtrnct^n, i* thauii'it 
ro h»n hem wrlltca not \atia Uiim n handrfd or ■ liusdrad and fiflj ji-nn bO'T 
Uw doMh tfT tbp inwUlnr, anil tliv tnv oitirr nunt rwnuns oT lliaL Unenn^ 
arc itfrmi to atwul thr uma ;<rii"l. It i« nol itnpmiUs llul tht X<m^<Aide 
btd vaittBoao •ome eliBiig« in tbi: intcritn, bat iti litmtsni iru aiiparcnllj m> 
TOtrirttd Ibit tlwre vdi liltlo rooin for the wnllfti iwciiliir dttltcl lo inHutnM 
tb« ncnd. «iid (t t* imtbaUn thai in aorid*ii«* aad TecAliaUi? Ui« Moviv-Oolliit 
«f UUlu ia pnrrr «t)il avm uaMpliinticatod than anj' olhtt phnological moiumeat 
•f EiiMpetn lil«nitanv 
t «M Firrt Satka, LeOan XIX, p. SO. 


iKKfo-caimc A»o asqlo-uxox 

hart. III. 

rnhire pcrUbcd Rlino«t us kood as it ira« bom, we Are AcquatDted 
witli it only in » tuni;le phttso, ttiAl, luiiudv, when tl )>pra]ii; 
into sudden existence as a fuii»l;ed medium of literary effort. 
AM tlic other Gothic tongues, on the contmry, ticcomo liret 
kiiuM-Q to as, tit periods whcD they had bc«Q siibjvcled for a cod* 
eidtsmble time to in6iic]iccs which cannot have failed to pro- 
duce very emccntinl modifif«tion» in th<-m, uud when they were 
fititl in an uimlable sind revolutionary coiidilioii. 

Between the M<eso-Gotiiic and the Anglo-Saxon, then, no 
fair comparison can be institulcil, and a^ to the otlier cognAt« 
langwigeii, tiie only juift method o( tcstiug their respective capa- 
bilities would be to Cake each at tlie highest pitdi of culture 
Mid of power att.'unc<l by it, under thooe frctih iinpulseji of 
youthful civilisatiuu which, in most rospecia, were the same for 
tliem atL 

The Anglo-Saxon reached this Ua most ehusic atage *» early 
U the ninth century, and tku works of King Alfred, and of 
Alfric the gnmmarton (who, bowover, died a hundred years 
later,} may be taken as apeciini-ns of the language in its be«t 
estate; the Icelandic was at Ha ncrac probably in the twelfth 
century, the mga of Nji'ill being the best exeinplifiootion ; and 
thv Higli-Germ&n, as it appeare in the NiWIuugcn Lied, about 
the year 1200. llalfaccntury lutcr,thcvoluntinoiisworksof Van 
Alaerlunt, and other conteiiiporaneoii* writers firvt gave fonn 
and coUKiHteii<.% to the Nellkerlaiidisb or Dutch, aod e^tabluihed 
its syntax miUtiiDtiully na it has since remained. 

In comparing these languages at these rei^ective periods, 
we shall observe tliat the Anglo-Saxon laboured under what 
was in &omo respects a disulvaniaj^, that of bcin^; a more 
mixed and compOKite tpcech in jioint of Tooahnliiry and, iu 
tome dr^Tce, of ^-utai, and tliorefore was 1e«s harmeuioua and 
tjrmmetrical in its growth and dovotopmcnt tbnn the ditfcrent 
Continental branches of the Gotltic. Its derivative* ore gene* 
rally less easily and lc«8 oertaiuly (raced to more primitiTc 
forms and simpler significations. Hence the moaning of • 

Lbct. lit 



iiu^r proportion of ita words is appnrOQHy arbitrary, an<I not 
(leduL-ible iVoiu tb« piinuiry tense of kiioWQ rstilicitU; and with 
respect to that |iortiou of its roots which are not identifiable as 
QolhEc, its power of derivation nnd coniposilioa is loasi than Ibnt 
by other Gothic dia'ects over their own indigenous 

It ia partly, no doubt, to its inixeii character that the Anf^lo- 
Saxon is indebted for il^ copinuHuvH;, which is perhaps tho 
feotuxie of its vo<ubu1ary thnt first strike* a student rninilinr 
with t>ie Scaadinuvian and Gennaii bkngitiigfiL Id mere num- 
ber of vocables. Its poetical nomenclature, indeed, falls for short 
of that of the Icelandic; but the copiousness and wealth of a 
8j>eech is not to beeetimalod by a numerical computation of 
wonl«. Th« true test ia : for what variety of dislind Musiioua 
iuipresflions, iroageii, and objects, and of moral sentiment and 
intellectual conception, for what amount of attributives of 
■quality, for what ciitcgorics of being and what Mian i feat at i on b of 
action it has upccilic names. The mere multiplication of desig- 
nations fur a KingU* thin;;, thon<fh it may inercMC the power of 
picturesque eJtpri-isiiin, and is therefore a convenii-ut [m'tieal 
and rhetorical reitource, does not add to the real copiousni.48 of 
a fipeech. Thus, the Icelandic prc&e Edda, or Art of I'octjy, 
enumerates more than a hundred names for the sword, and a 
large number for the ship, and for other objects eunspicuouM in 
MoTthem life. Most of these were no doubt ori<nDnlly de- 
scriptive epithets, and their use snggested, in place of the 
generalisation of the leading properties or usea of the object 
which is expresEed by its ordinary name, a sensuous image 
derived from some one of iUs characteristics, or a traditioDal 
reeollectlon connected with tlie epithet, and thus incidentally 
inct«ased the stock of imagery at the command of the p<M«. 
Bui when epithets become obsolete in daily speech, their ety- 
mological nguiRcance is mon forgotten, though they may con- 
tinue lo be UBed in the dialect of verse mcrt-ly as synonyms for 
KSfh other — a meaofa ot aroiding too fre<j»ent repetition — or ia 


nn or conocaxBss 

LMf. IlL 

order to cinptoy a divtiun wbicb U thoiigtit poetical, amply 
becAuae it ta oot familiar. 

The power of eiibstitulini^ a hundM upilhctfl for the proixr 
namo of tl>>i object to which the; are apjilicd is oot a proof of 
the eopioutincKii of » hmguitgu, even while the ctjrinolo^ of the 
epitlioU is remvtnbercd, au<I while tticr are coniiequcDtl; de~ 
Mfiptive or suggestive; but when tbcir origin is forgotten 
ftnd thcf bccomo Kynoayma, they arc hindraiiMs rather than 
helpSf and even in poetical diction ore little bettor than tinsel. 
To taempltfy; (o tho»o who know thai falchion is derived from 
the Latin f a 1 x, a Hicklc or scythe, the word suggiwU an image 
wbicti 9U!ord does not excite, and Uicreforo incroaaes the pic- 
turesqueoess of the pootical phraao in whicti it occurs. Uut to 
those who are ignoraut of its etymology, it is dinply what may 
be called a seitBation-syoouytn foreword. It is nicumraended 
only by metrieid adaptation, or simply byila unfamiltarity; it 
adds absolutely nothing to the vxprasiTawei of the diction 
whieti eiiiplojs it, and in most cumi is, both to writer and 
reader, simply fuvltan. In words of this class, it muit tie nd- 
mittcd that ttie Anglo-Saxon is »i>t pcuticularly rich, awl it 
may therefore be said to be inferior to the Icelandic in tbe 
metrical and rhetorical instmmentalitiee, the mechanical ap- 
pliance*, of the poetic art. 

But when we come to tho words which indicate diffinenC 
atates, emotions, puKfiniis, mental procc»os, all, in shoi-t., tJiat 
expressee the moral or intellectual man. the Anglo-^ion vo- 
cabulary is eminently affluent. Hence Icelandic paints, wbilo 
Anglo-Saxon describes and phlloeopbises. The Icelamlic «agn 
Is a pantomime, in which you aco the actors in all the s:io 
fiPBsire scenes of the drama^ and infer their emotions, Ibeir 
aims, their motive*, from tlicir acta. The Anglo-Saxon give? 
utterance to the inward status, and disclose* men's tLouj;bts 
rather than depicts their loaterial shape and their external 
actions. A belter proof of the ridi moral cxi>res8ivenc88 ol 
Anglo-Saxon than any citation of examplea la found in Iha 


rowER or courosinoii 


Act, thai thoM KngliBh dramAtiii-ts and poof«, irfao have most 
clearly rwenleil the working of the kuart Ami thrown most 
flight iDto tbc d«(!p ahyttea of tbo soul, employed a dictioa 
compowd in Uie Ittr^;e3t measure of words le^tiDiat^ly de- 
(cvnded from the ancient mother of the EagUsb speech.* It 
r it in thU inherited quality of luond rcvvlation, which has beco 
Iperpetuabid and hiuided down from the tongue of the Gothic 
Eoonqucror* to its EngliiOi Itmt-bom, tiiafc Ues in good piirt ttio 
Bixrct of Shakspeare'd (wwer of bodying forth sa much of truui's 
iutemal being, and clothing so uany of his mysteiioua ityra* 
patbies in living words. 
Although, aa I have remarked, Aoglo-Stixoa words not ap- 
i parently of Gotliic origin an* not freely used as material for 
ideriTation and coni]io.4ition, tlie indigenous roots, on thv other 
IhaiMl, exhibit a remarkable plasticity in the way of derivative 
fennution, and a great aptitude for organic combination, Ttiruer 
widl illuiitratea this property of AngIa-&ixou by tablcii of pri- 
mitives witli their eecondury form*, aud h« i-numemtes more 
t'thaa twenty dcrivatiTCH from the noun hyge (or hige) which 
Fiigtufies both mind and thought, Ihiit is, iutclloct qiueecent, and 
intellect in BcLiun. Among tlie^in are verbs, secondary nouns, 
hWljectives and adverbs, wliicii, by various motltfi cat ions, exprea 
! sot only mental slates and mental acts, but a variety of moral 
emotions sad alTcctioDs. Prom mod, mind, tamper, and 
.getbaac, a word of nlHed original meaning, are giviin an 
^equal number of derivatives; «o tliat (riim tlic«c three roots we 
bare, by the aid of ugnificant terminations and a few «ubordinato 
compound elements, not lees than sixty words exprewiiTc of 
tQtellectutd and moral oonoeptions.t llicre arc, beai<le« these, 
a great nunil>er of other almost equally fertile radicals bc- 
Llonging to the same department of the vocabulary, and hence 
will bo obvious that its power of expression on moral and 
intellectual subjects muit have been very considerable. Indeed 

• 8m Pint Stiim. Ltcion VL 

t 8m UlnsU-jlioa L, at Mid of ttu* Lxtvi*. 


ksauosjLxox eosnu 

UffT. tlL 

It would be difficult to find, io aay itmguaee, n tenn ^ndl- 
Mtlre of tnotal Htatfl or emolioD. or of int^Jk-ctiiftl mIiod or 
perception, pxccptinK, of course, the arU6cial tcnna beloogtog 
to the technical dinlixit of nicUpbj'sics, which ia not at leant 
spproxiiontvly r«pre«(:iitcd in tlie Anglo-Saxon vocubuiary. 

The Atiglfi-Saxon translation of the GonpuU w«U illiislrata 
the capacities of the tongae for a varied and comprvlicnsire 
range of expression. Wo know not the hiitory, the aiiUior, or 
the prcciEo dnto of this tntn^lnlion, but it hclongB to the best 
period of the literature, and was made fntin the Vulgate, or 
more proiwhly, porhaps, from eome nearly itiinilur Latin vcr- 
non.* Our atitboriHed trauHlation of the aoine books is remark- 
able for il8 freedom from Gri-<-k. I^in, ftnd Romance idioms; 
hut it falls iu (his rexpix't fur behiiul the An;^lD-.Si«xoii, whiclt 
admits scarcely any hut indigenous words, and milMlilutcs oative 
componiitU, or specially froraed deriratirn:*, for tlhww foreign 
words which the Eiigliuli IrimalatorB have adopted from Hcbi'inv, 
Greek, Latin, and I'Veuch, and incorporated into the modem 
religious dialect 

Although the Anglo-Saxon admitted of composilion and de< 
rivation to a great oxtunt, the nnmber of its primitivis, or at 
least of words trcntad oa pn'miUvea becauw Ibey were inca< 

* To dricfinui* what Int lb» Anglo-Sasoa UaMlatioa of tW Brinip'llsita CtUovsd, 
would nqttlre * tu Diors mtical essninUioii «f Iht nriotu cwiibLhui tit tiit l^iia 
Ompnlf than I tnnttadanojiportUBily tanuit*^ I will, homntr , Do(i(«>d(put«M 
from th»foinniDn ViilgiW muling in ■ ]wwiignii>liirli bspfwn* kilwit tliii iiiniawl 
iu»d«r inj eye ThoptrMst ■nlliohanl V«]^lcTvnionorihcIorif*Pra}*r,in KUt- 
tliaw tI,. eivr* tliolbnitli(tliofltBtp<r«omd)prtitia*Unu;— puita eoiitnini tmpv 
•tttMlMtbttm <U Dctii* hadis,«np*r*«bitkatUlem t]«is(UM>dulb«equJvni«nt 
at the Oit«k Jna^viar, *t>il4 tlio Mmo »'n>d f n LbIj'Il t« wdtt wH ']rq'ii>lidi«iiBin. 
In the int mkdniag, tnt^vtot it tml(<d u > puliripuil kt^ccliro (Kim In-tu ^ 
M iiiti, in the lollBF, u Amd (*<j^ •• M Itpi. lu tlM All):^^■S]lI<1^ Ocnprb^ 
£«ilagbwainU««n, ordvitti wAmlieaiH ikilj.i* nnrlcgrpd in b«(k KnagftiMi. 
1!» LuMlur,in« Irxiol Mnitliir liw oTvr wisllir, which rtjmoloeiMQ/ thevH 
tnnadamly. tho liushworUi, ilnghiricinlicii, and. u ut liicntm^ JastoB- 
d'llira, which Utter won! ca um w di trrf doMlf to Uui».in {iwi Iiiii>, Hi* 
wmd UMd ill ilia JIu^tiTD* tfit ia Uio only «Dn whidi mo t* rr|,iinle<] ma 
IwJiliMi of itu[icr*Bl>iil«nlialii. CUbj, who Mail kitVtnioQ lk>ni th* 
aT«dc,<nplii}B>iiitciDi^ dulf. 




pal>!« of reBoliiUon into eimplpr forma and Inl^nniDg^ wm bo 
Urge that tlicro was less ocoiitioa for coinpotiiitiK than ia most 
oth«r langiiaEji-!) of the same stock. This fiu^t, together with 
tlie mode; of inflection employed ia the graminar, accounta for 
tli» moiiotiyllsbic cbaractvr of tliu vord^ Compounds ktc built 
up of at least two ^liable clonu-nt^ nnd must, except in somu 
few cnse9 of conlctMMMioe of syllables, be |T(iit;raUy longer tban 
primitives. Hence, oilier things being equnt, the language 
which cmploj's fewest compoundn vitl have the shortest words. 
If ike same speech varies or inScct« its words for teniae, person, 
number, and case, b; what is calleil the strong method — that 
is, by chango of letters of the radical, instead of addition of 
n'llAblcx, as when we make the past tense of the verb leatl, not 
Uaded, but led — thi'^ is slitl another cau«! of greater brevity 
of words than ia found la Uingii8g«a which inHect by augmen- 

ft ia surprising how fiir we mnj carry literary compositioQ in 
Eoglisb, without introducing any word which requires more 
than a single emiseion of breath for its articniation. The late 
Professor Addimu Alexander, of Princeton, bus well illustrated 
thl« property of Anglo-Saxon, or rather Saxon -English, hy two 
spirited sonnets in which only words monosyllabic in pronun- 
ciation are employed. Some few of thL-^, indeed, are Latin or 
Bomanoe, and some of the verUs are dr«lined by the weak or 
SQgmentative inflection, but much the lar(;€£t proportion of 
the words are native, and in our aniculati«u thosu written 
vith two syllftbli-x arc habitually pronounced in on&" One of 
Uium; moDOsyllabic sonneta is as follows : — 

■ 8om«diiiig of Iho Mue sort ma; be done in Fn-iich, in<l viifa gmUr £icilitj 
k CiaaUa, Iwoum thoao lui|rM([w^ ia nilumUiiiij: tdtto wonlt, oltcn rcUio Um 
Hnu or niliiul (rlUiUe oely, and lbs CkIuUd trj fn^iuntlf dro|« evto tbe 
fiwIaNMaaanlodhat, FcirrrMirotdaCaljIanpoeutiriiinply-iiiHrivR.tjIlaMwd 
Imb. eoBdaUag wlu>l}7 et memtjiitiAft, but ia R«on>ncv tntajt^itinoa "f l.liia aort 
ttss ia iBiuli Um nriotj «( Ihougbt and iiaa|<rrj, uil Inn llvubilit^ oud gno* 
tf nprcwEoB, Uuo in the Ensliuli oui'iifilM 1 bsvf cilrd. See Illiutrtuoa U, 



'nitnlc not tlmi Wn'n;'ili lies in ihir hi-[ round wmrd. 

Or lliiil the l>rii-f and jilaiii must ii«t.ii» In; wi«k. 

To irlioni cim iliia be tint-, wliu unco han Iicnnl 

Tlie ciy for hi-!p, th* longiio iliai nil men *|i«ak 

When iinin, or woe, or (t-ar, in in thi." llirnat. 

So that <3ich word giuTwd om i» like a slirick 

Premcd from lh« iwru IkutI, or a Ntnut^ wild noW 

Snng hj" w>m(! fiiy.or firatlt There U ■ orrf-ngih 

Which (licM if Btrvtched too Cir or tfau lou fine, 

\\'hic!i biia mere bfif^lit than brmdlh, more do[jt1t than Im^tK 

Lvt bill ihii force of rlimi->lit. iirtd *]H>ich ]iv mine, 

And \iv thai irill niny inko ihi' 'heV, fiit, (ihraie, 

Wliidi glow* but btimn not, ihongh it Im-md Hnd 8hin«^ 

Ughl, but no lient— a lliuh, btit noi ■ bhiio I 

The#c ing<>nio»8 productions are inberc-itinE, not ns post<->«ing 
high poetical merit in themselves, or m inod<J* tn bo follotrei] 
in the selection of wordx, hut because they op^n eimotts view* 
of the oompiwition and slnieturc of otir native ton^e and its 
r<rlAtMl dinlodM, and becaiiae they well illnxtnkte irliat is cnif 
wdert-d m the gein'ral moii(?m tendency of all human *p«vh to 
simplification of form, and to a lees mechiuiieal nnd iirtilldal 
ByntAclical sj-sfem. The ablest writers select their wordx, not 
with referpiicc to their historiad ori<pn, but solely for the sake 
of their iMlnpttttiiin to the efl'ect aimed at on the mind of the 
reader or hearer, and he who deliberately iiws an Anglo-Saxon 
instead of a more expretwive Romance word, ts at tnuefa ft 
pedant, as if lua dictiun wire comptw-d, iu the Urgest poaaibla 
proportion, of wonltt borrowed froui the vocabulary of Rome. 

The niast^n of the English tongue know that oaeh of its 
great branches has itsspecial adaptatious, TIio sithject, in very 
many infitanocq, aa especially in metaphysical, philological. 
criUcal or asthcttcal disnis^ion, pr(«cribe« nnd compels a diction 
cninp08od, in a liberal pereenta^^o, of Greek and Latin ininie* 
diate or secondary deriratives : and this not always hecaose the 
Anglo-Saxon wantwl corrt-Kponding words, hut often hecauae 
they have become olaolctc. Hence an author, who, in a dw* 




eoaree or a poem desired for popular effect, wovtld fpc»li 
ftlmost pure Anglo-Saxon, might, vt-n- Ukvly. in treating ihe 
tfaemos to which I bnvc just referred, find it convenieot to 
j«soee<J even the LAtinism of Johneon. 

There is at pn.iicot n very ifLrong tenden<;y to the renval of 
oWoloto Englbtb ADd Anglo-Saxoa worda, and the effect of &n 
Bcrvaaing tttidy of our aacient literature U very visihlc in the 
tyle of the best prow, and mom ettpcdally, poetic compo#ilioiiM 
of the prc9M7at dfty. Our ?oat))ularT is capahle of great enrich- 
[ineDt from the titore>house of the ancient An);lican sp^ecli, and 
reriral of a tast/) for ^Voglo-Saxoo and early Eoglifib 
litcnuure will exert a very important iufiuenc« on the intellec- 
tual activity of the next gen erutioD. Tliepi-dantiy of individuals 
may, DO douU, z» Uie i^aiiie afft^tutiou hati done iu Oerniauy aud 
llullaud*, carry puiistic partialities to a lengtli as abaurd as 
Jipt^rammatism in literature, but the general faDiiliarily of 
men with clit£sic ami Ci^iutiuentuI philology will always 
snpply a oorreetive, and no gri^t dauj^r is to be apprflii-nded in 
llliis direction. In any Kvent, tlie evil will be K*^ thaa wait 
Eperieneed from the stilted cla&sicism of .luhnson, or the Gallic 
IniitationK of Gibbon. The recovery of forgotten native words 
will affect En;;li«h eomethinf* iu the same way, though not in 
the eame diredion, as did tlie iiiQnx of Kreucb words in the 
fourteenth century, and of Latin in the rixteeutb ; and the gain 
I be aa real as it was in tliose inslancea. But it is not by an 
rion of words aloue, tbat the study of Anglo-Saxon ant) 
ancieot Engliitli literature is dwti&ed to affect that of the 
Ljiresent and c«ming generationsL The r<-c"V)-ry of flie bi*t 
Ifortion of the ubsok-to vocubtdaty will bring with it, not o:ily 
new expressivcncai of dicfciou, but something of the v^ur and 
Lfrenhness of Ihonght and wealth of politic itiingtry which usuallv 
accompanies Ilie revival of a nntioual fipiril iu literutAire. 
Although the Anglo-^Saxon is the bubbling well-epriDg wl)u«(,< 

* 8m> Pint SeriM, Lwtnt* EL 


AxoLO-MiON LiTeKAnniB 

lect. ni. 

Mwect waters have given a specific flavour to the brondtr and 
more iinp«tuou!t carriiDt of our maternal speech — and therefore 
Homo knowlodgo of tho more jirimitive is essential to a com- 
prcbetisioo of the histoiy of the derivative Ungnage — yet the 
UtCRttnre of ancient Anglia stAods in no such relation to that 
of modem England. Beoivulf, and tho sangn of Cajdmon and 
Cynewulf, and even the relics of the great Alfred, were kiiried 
mA of sight and forgotten long before any work, now reco^JMid 
as distinctivoly English in spirit, hsd been coDceiTed in the 
imai^ination of ite author. The iMirlirat tnity English writers 
borrowed neither ima^ry nor th<>iight nor plan, seldom even 
form, from older native models, and hence Anglo-fiaion lit^ 
ratiire, so far from being the mother, wn« not even the nurse of 
the infant f:;i-nius which opened its eyes lo the stm of Eni^land 
five ccntiirit« ago. The history and criticism of Anglu-Siixos 
litentture are tlierefore almost foreign to our mtbiect; but were 
they more nearly related to it, I shonid bo obliged to exclude 
them from prevent consideration, because tlte illiist rations I 
must adduce would be borrowed from a tongue genenJly un- 
known to my audience, and no tnuuilation could fairly represent 

Altbongb the literary chnmetcr of Anglo-Snton writcre had 
no appreciable infliienoe on the spirit, little on the form, of 
early English authorship, yet certain traits of tbc specilic intel- 
lectunl and social life of the Anglian people Hurvived for a time, 
and miinirc»ted tliemaelveH in the nascent literature of tbc 
mixed race which had succeeded to the name and place of tbe 
Gothic immigrnnt. Hence, some general remarks on tho lead- 
ing chnnteterlstlct of tbe poetry and prose of the Anglo-Suxom, 
considered as an expression of the mind and heart of that 
nation, will not be altogether out of place. The poetry of the 
Anglo-Saxons, so for as we Icnow il by its extant remains, it 
chirfly sacred, or at least religious in subject, and, though not 
remarkable for plan or invonfcioD, is very elevated in tone, and 
flxbibits much noblenem of Motimcnt aad beauty of detail 

UcT. lU. 



Tbe poems of Uw earljr Christiaa era among tbe Scai>diiiaTtBiif 
have, with some remarkable fxccptiouB, not much merit except 
Uuit of skill iu ovurconiag tLe dJRiciiltic-s imposed by bighly 
nxti6cial forms luid canons of metrical coin|to«it.iou. In tlio 
hijjher excellenoeB of poetry, the celebrated epic, Beowulf, ranlca 
perhaps fiist among the mouuments of Anglo-Saxon litcratore, 
but ID subject, pLin, ond trvatiavut, it ditfera tK> widely iroia 
thv gcueral character of the veisitied compoiiitiaQii ia Uie lau- 
guage, that it caanot bo considered as a product of the same 
genius or tho same influences which have given form and spirit 
to (he other liturofy efforts of that puoplc^ It i», I tliink, un- 
questionably of Continental and healhen origin, though in 
pninitrg through the haods of Christian revisers and copyistK, jt 
bu undergone tho moditiratioiu ovceesaiy to render it less 
ohjectiooablo to tlic tustca and opinions of s convtirt«d natioa. 
We canuut affirm it to be a txauslation, because we luivc no 
knowledge of any Continental source tiroiu which it ouuld Itavu 
been taken. In it« macbiocry, it has many points of re> 
BembUnce to Scandinavian mythic poetry, and though there 
uiats uo Old-Nortliem poem of very .siuiilar churnctcr, thoro are 
proM o^u — generally indeed of much later date— ' which ia 
tooe aiMl treatment arc not unlike the story of Beowulf. It^ 
•ceneiy and pcrsuuiige^ are DanUli, aud the whole poem be- 
tongv both iu form and essence to the Scandinavian, not to ihv 
Oennanic school of art The substance of Beowulf, eitlter aa 
a»ga or a« poem, came orcr, X believe, with some of the con- 
qncrors; and its existence in Auglo-Saxon 1it«r»turo I coosidcx 
as one among the many proofs of an infusion of the Scaod)- 
tuviaa element in the immigration.* 

Tbe poetry of the Anglo-Saxons is to be comprehended only 

■ Tbe &(!. that not LbeinoBt Mmots tlliuion to ihepMuncf 1t*ainil/or lolha 
atcfj it nab«la* ba* jot bem dWKmnxl ta aii; AD|^!)uca antliM, jimM* lliiit 
it Miiaot ktvc bNa gsnorallr known lo Ui« icJiAUn nf thtl naUon. ■□(! H ■• not 
inpMtctb)<> Xhal iM m-GrtinMiio c^tneUr iriKlrml il so little KMptablv to a 
pvople clii«<il7 of TVHinnle origta, thai it nenir oMalatd n«eh dimhtioa 
mMemg thtazL Tito coiDcidoBoi of OiMt orltto pruptr nuDM fa KbkIuiiI and 
ia thM poem ptore* BotliiDg, m thcu lumc* tuuj bkva beca UIuwIm' 1ih> 
fiatt«d frota tbe Caatiii«Dt> 



LwT. in 

tlirougli a knowlpdire of tbeir lungna^, nnd I must rcfor ihoM 
who Are cont«iit«<l with niereljr jroiicrnl viewx of it.4 charact<)f to 
'.lie many tranalations and oritical worlut on tlie wbjeet whicb 
Kti;;lish and Gonnan scbolar^ have n-ci-ntly produced. I slinll, 
h'lWi-vor, ill bringini; out tlio prominent traits of early Ea^lisli 
literature, as tJtvy from time to time develop tUetiiftelTc*, bare 
occasion to notice poiiitti of contract aii<I of coincidence between 
the products oi Saxon and oi En^tnti ge ninit, and to present 
them more effectively than I oould now do by a more cxiendtii 
«pecin] criticism. But I will hero again refer, EOnirvrhat io 
detail, to an important defiMency in Anglo-Saxon literature, 
'which I have already noticed as cbaractcriatic also of early 
En]*lish letters — the want of a vernacular bistorkol adiool, 
whicb that people neema never to have poaacsMed. 

The oontT««l in thi« rcKpoct between the Ariglo-Saxonj and 
the Scandinavian \ortliinen, who were nearly allied to them id 
apeecfa, and probably in blood, Lt venr remarkable^ Tbc North- 
men wero men of action, eDt«rprt8ing mcndumtx, navigutora, 
litintcm, Eoldierg of fortune, learling the van of every bnttle 
from Norway to Byziintinm, »iiluluere of mTiigo and of elTeioi- 
Date, e.^bau.ited raccii, coloniata, le^alatora, conquerors over the 
rigours of climato and the forces of iuanitnatc nature. Thcao 
berote i^iialitii-it wi-re [xtrpotiiivteil in the energetic adveitturera 
who made themselvea mastera of Normandy, were infiised by 
them into thdr Gallic, Romance, and Fraucic aubjeotfl, and 
finally became the leaven, by -which tbc now torpid elements of 
the Anglo-Saxon cbanxcter were thrown into a new fermenta- 
tion, and stirred to tiiat marvellous physical and moral ac- 
tion which has made the English nation so long foremost amone 

Tlio admiration felt by such a people for the htgli q»aUtic«, 
which alone had rendernl p'^sdiblo tho great exploits of their 
kings and chieDains, naturally dispoted the Northmen to the 
preeervation of the memory of heroic achievements, and to an 
interoit lo tlie personal history of men distinguished for prowoai 

tSCT. lit. 

THE S4X0S cimoxicut 


Mul success. The sa^a-iiian, or reciter, was everywhere a 
(atoi>red guest, and the skill with which these silist^ coo- 
structed the plan of their historica], or rathor hiogniphiral, 
luuratiuns, bii<I fillml in thv dctaihi, hiu nwcr been KurpuiiMid in 
the antutU of any peoplu. 

The ADglo-S.ixons, on the other hand, when hy a aexias of 
epafitnodic efforts they had expelled the Rritoua from tlieir 
uaCivc; homes, iiu<l vstablifihed thcmst^'lvcs in the cujojuicnt of 
the companitive abundimco ntid comfort which the milder 
climiite uid more genial sioil of Ku^iaitJ nfforded, aeeiu to hare 
relajeed into a life of ingiorioiia t-aMj. If tljey were ever rouaed 
to dvod" oi vigorous action and martJa] daringf it wiu! in Htrif<(» 
among tlieini'clvea about the division of th« spoil Hit-y had won, 
or ill the defence of their new homes againM iova^on and 
phmder by the Huccesdve swamu of hardy and hungry warriors, 
whom the North was ever eeuilin^ forth to ti-ar from them lb« 
booty which thoy bad wrung I'rmn the imbecile Celt- Thtjy 
bad censed to be an actire, and imd become a contemplativ't 
people; and (to intiigiiificant w«re tbe amtesls between the 
Saxon kin-rlings, recorded in the meagre native unnab, that, 
as Milton aays, they were not ' more worth to chronirle than 
the van of kites or crows flix'kitig and fighting in the air.* 
Tbe life and reign of Alfred form a brilliant excxiptiun to 
tbe auinteresting character of Anglo-^xoa history ; but in 
ffcneml, vapid, empty, and uncrilicnl as are the Saxon chro- 
□ ielefS they artr, in the wordsi of the miuv writer, 'worthy 
enough for the thingB they register.* ^(leh being the true eba- 
miMor of the Anglo-Saiion »;cu)ar historians, it is etraage that 
luittoiiAl pride »hoiiId liiive led English critics to attach such 
extravagant value to tbe aerie« of annals geueridly known by 
(lie name of the Sason Chronicle. 

The Saxon Chronielo is a dry chronological record, noting iii 
tiiG esmt; lifeiem tone important and trifling events, witlioiit the 

;ht«3t tinge of dramatic colour, of criticism in ^dghing evi- 



In-. III. 

douce, or of jiiilfjinitiit io the selection of the facts oanated. 
The folIowtDg t^xtracU lire fair spKimcits : — 

An. oooc.xi.ix. In iht* yaa Mnrtion and Tnlcnliniaii mcciei-diil to 
i)m! empire «nil rd^Ml «vcn irtnt<tre. And in iheir dava UengoH sud 
lluna, invited by W}'i't^>oni, king of llic BritoriH, wiDgbi Briiain, on 
tliv nhoru trliidi U &iimi.-(I Ypninm lli-oi ; lint in suppori of tbo Dfi- 
loiH^ tfUl xAerwaida ibey I<iiigbt afpunat llivin. 

An. cooc.LXXlll. In ihiftytwr Hcii|;i->l luul fought agninet ihv 
Weldi nod look oounticM booty; and Oie Wvlkh ll«d tvom tlic Angtt^a 

An. D.IX. In ibis year Si. Bi>DQdict tlie abbot, falbi-T of all monk*, 
went to hcnveii. 

An. Dcxvt. In tlii* y<>ar jElIidtwlit, king of tbu Ki-nliiih people, 
died; Im rngmKt lvi winter*; and E»dbn!d, liia ton, lucceMlMl to ibe 
kiogdotn, who nontrmnod hi* ba|itiAin and lived in licutWii inauiwr, w 
tlint h« had hi* fiittinr'* relict to uifv. ThtTn Loiirt-tiliu*, who wai 
arcbbiidiop of Kent, iran minded tlint Ik; would go nAiih over md and 
fbrmkn all. But by nigbt iliu Ajicvllc I'l-Icr ciinif to him, and Mverriy 
noaurgvd bim, beoauoe be vn-ii)il wi fornake God'n Hock; and bad* him 
to go tu the ktRf! and prtooh to bim tli« ti-ue railb: and b'- did h> and 
tbe king trae cDiivvrii-d, uud wiu 1ia[iiiz«d. In tbU king's day, T^n- 
nmtiiu, wbi> was iu Ki-iit iifler Augumiiie, di«d on the irili duy of tb« 
Bouea of Februuy, and who Iiurk-d beaidc Aiiguotiuc. Artvi' him Md- 
litiis RUOCMded to lite Ati:h)>iiih"]ir-ic, who had boca binliup uf London. 
And within llv« ycnra after, Melliiiu died. Thm hI>it him JuBiua 
auoomxlcd lo the archbishopric, who hnd been tuihop of Itochmcr, and 
Iinllowcd HnnumiiH biiihop tbcretn. 

An. VCLXXI. In tliis yuar wtia tbc ^reut d(«trucl!oD of UrdiL 

An. ixx:.xciii. In tliis year dirv fi>rwuniiii^ came over llie land ot 
tbu NdrlhuDi brill 11!^ and miM'Tably lerrillcd the penpte: fben? were 
vxcoMfe wliiilwiiidH ond lighlningM, and tiery drngi'iii were mvm flying; 
in iho nir. A great faniins «pon fiillowt.'d thvus tnkenn; ntid a tiiilo 
after that, in the nnift year, on ilto viih of ihe Idm of January, tint 
Imtoo of hftttbcn men mivrnbly destroyed GodV diurch at Liiidi»* 
fiLmn, flirou^h rujiinc and nluu{{IiICT. And SJega died on tli« Tiiitfa tJ 
tbukal. ofMardi.* 

Sometimes tbe events of a yeaty e^eciaUy in the Inter porta 

* J adopt TEiCip»'a Imiiliition ia Ui« Ber. BiiL M*i, Aar. Svif t««Mi 

UCT. 111. 



of tlic cTiroiitclo, ore cxU'udcd over a page or two, but, in Uii:t« 
rA.''e.s we hare gk'iierall; a mera accuniuiatiou of tacts as barren 
and an inaij^iificaut as tbiao I have cileil, or, prrbnps, an ac- 
couot of the foiindatioa or viHluwiii(.-ut of a muaiwtm-y, tUv 
iostituUoD of a bUbop or tiie relatioEis btdwet^u tbe Epglisli 
church nDct tbe see of IConic Vt course, in all lliis, thftra ^ 
occasionally a fact which gives us a faint glimpae of tbe actital 
life of the English man iiu<) woinan, as for example Iho nar- 
rative of the »KiiNti nation uf King Cynuwiilf in 755 (properly 
7M), aod there are, here and tbeie, notice* of nntunal astro- 
oomicsl «D<] meteorological pbcnomeoa; but taking the chro- 
nicle as a whole, I know not wburv tAso to find n Hcrica of antinU 
which is so barren of ul) bunuu) interv:^!, and for aJI purposes 
of real history so wortlile^i^ And yet Iiigmiii, the editor of tbo 
Eeoond edition of thiit work, declares in bis preface tbiit * pbilu- 
Bophicnlly coii:iidered, this ancient record is the second great 
phenomenon in thn history of mankind,' tbe first place being 
generously awarded to ' tho cacred antuda of tbo Jowa.* JiStei 
web commendation upon a work no dMtitiitc of merit and of 
value, wo must iidmit that the I>aui.ih critic irpukc in tcrm« of 
great moderation when he affirmed that, as compared wilb the 
HeiroskringiA of the IceLindor 8noni Sturluson, the hislAry of 
Herodotus wan tbo work of a bunglur, and that of John Miiller 
DO belter tban » first amy. 

From the want of blstoncal talent among tbe Auglu-8axon«, 
ve know little of their xociul life, and of tbe pruetieal working 
of Ibcir inxtitutionx; but their Jiteratui^ and espemlly their 
legishktion, are those of a people by no (nuuiM tulvanecil in social 
colture, and tboir art seems to have alwayst reinninc^d at a 
my bumble level.* Tbe itpecific causes of their decay we are 

■ Anglo-SMMQ wtilen MctUw Ic tlirlr MUUtrTiovD mnfh ikill in •ooia of llis 
■rta^ optdaUy ihom ■atMnrinit to tlio matcnal lomji of tbn Rninith 
y|>; InU tbo anrririig npeeinMaa of ib.-lr hatidvvoA Un not jcivn liysnr 
m ma euUcd tupmaioQ of tbclr Bl>iUliH in thi) tvi;<tc1. It U ileputod 
«b«tl>«r »aj r«B>lai ot Aoitlo-Saion nnJiitrrdii'D utiU ruit, dqiI tii' ttelitaooj » 
»lroBg to sliinr thtt tiinlr cbuicliN aiul (ilticr[iul)lic ua wrll n* jmTsto bnildiBBi 


I^KQUAOrj l\TI.tlCT£D jUID KSlSrLtCTtO • LtWT. Ill 

unaMe to ani^, but it is ertdcot Out at ttie time of the Coa- 
f^iic)4, the pitoplu and tbtir litcrattirv wrrf iti n «taU; of Liuiguiah- 
ing dqirfscion, wliicli wjis rulivtf'itjd and clioervd hy no symptom 
oi' letuniing life aud vigour. 

Tbo Nannau Conquest did nof cause, it onlj bastened, tb-j 
dowiifnlt of t)ic •Sftson cominonnTAllb, and by infusing tbe ele- 
lii<.-iit« (if a new iifi? iiilo uii i^xliaiulcil rovi;, it leKtorinl iu organs 
once more to btMiItby action and tbua reacued it from Kinking 
into the stale of wtter iMirbuiisni to wbicb it wns nipidly tending. 

In ordvr more oU-Jirly lu rxbibit Ibc rclaliuus bctncua tlie old 
and tbe m^w fcatiurit of tbe H[)(?<;tb of Knglund, aiiit to csplttia the 
procL'dS of triitisitioii from tbat wliicb was to tliat nbtd> i», it 
will lie Qeccsiary to <]evoto a few words to a general account of 
the grammatical structiiro of Anglo-S&xon. 

Of langiiitgfit <!onKidt;i'ed as gnmntutical individualx, th«re 
are, tbi>orelieally, two great cUskcs; (a), tbooe iu which the 
synlacljcftl roUtions of words arc detcrmiaei by coincidtnoe or 
conx^poudc-nce of form, the forms bdng varii-d according to 
iiiimbvr, pcreon, ca»p, moud, tcnw, gcndi-r, degree of com- 
)>art»on and other coiiditiuux, M fur uxampbv when by adding 
an a to tlie indeterminate or stem form of tbe Terb <;tt^ wu 
make it an indicative present third person singular, gives; and 
(b), those where tbese relations are indicatc-d by position, atuili- 
uries and particle*) tin; wnnU thcnittnlvm ipinaining iiuvaricd, 
as when we make tbe Aarae verb, (/ive, a future l>y placing the 
auxiliary u-iti before it. Practically, however, there are few, 
if any, speeches in which viUter of tlu-w i^yntnctii-iil ayslems i« 
fully carried out, and tbe two are alino^ everywheie more or 
Ices intermixed. All as^gnmeuts of lunguagtis, therefore, to 
either class, must be considered only ns apjiroxiuiate aad com- 
parative statements of the Caet. 

WHO ■! bMt liamlile ftractima. Or«II ilisworkiof ■an'thawb, *rTliit«<:(aMis 
tliR hM Ust of llio srliilii! (aporiljr i>f a pfOfJo. >ail we msj ha •ur* tliat tJiOM 
trim IikV" iu'Vit ralwl a irarthjr «hiiKh w t«in{il« hi*a ncTct £cao hrjvad nwdkh 
oi^ ia til* iufitnOT uU, 

Lan, tu. 



The Anglu Saxon, partly, no doubt, iu coiuoqiipiira of iti 
coinpMiUi Htriicturis piLrtakcs largely of the chamctcristica of 
both dassee ; but, aa compared -nttli iii<xli-ru EDgli»li, iU syutax 
may be coaudoriHl as iuflccttoDftli and iu a coiiMderable degree 
indcpi^Ddcut of position, tli« »ense beiug olteD equally UDe- 
((luvocal, whether tbe words of a period ara arrnnj^d in one 
onter or another. Th« inflcdjona of Ihi- verb were mor« pi-vctra 
in this iudivatioD of niimlx-r, and, tliongli in a less degree, of 
person than of lluie or condition ; still they vrcro not stifficiently 
so to allovr of the omissiou of the nominative pn>n<>iii). Anx- 
iliary rorbs wero uKi-d much lu! in modern Engluh for the 
cxproaHiou of nccidviiUi, yet they were employed wntb greater 
reAerre, and we can consequently, by means of ausltiarivs, 
ospr««s in English a great<.T variety of conditions and ipiiUificf^ 
tioos of the act or state indicatod by Iho verb Hum the Anglo- 
Saxonn were able to do. It is singular tbat though there 
existed a simple as well as compound past tetues, there was no 
modff of expressing the future of verbs by cilfatT Inflvction or 
auxiltariee, and the Saxoit coultl only say, I ffive to^lay, I t/Ut 
to>n)OTfxiw, not I «hiiU or will give tn-morrow. This waii im- 
donbtedly a defect, and we have impioved upon the Anglo- 
Saxon syntax by devcl<)pin<; future uuxiliarics out of the indc- 
pen<Ient Terhii akall and uritl, the tunner of which originally 
expressed duty or necessity, the latter intention or dedre, with- 
ont rcfcjrcnce to time. 

Thti wimt of the Saxon verlnal inflections for number and 
peTSon can liardly be considered an imperfection in the English 
language; for iDflc-rtion though it may ri>)iice the number of 
wofds, gives no greater precision, but on tbe oontnuy, )c«a force 
of expreMion tu theae nspects than may be obtained by the 
nae of auxilianes, pronouns, and other determinativee.* In 

■ Tht Mipl«jnmt or til* nnmloiliT* |irann4ia vm Mt bj the Latiut Uiam> 
(dn* to slrvngtln^ thn fw* <■( Fipmsioii. aoJ UiirrlbiA though thp dtslineliati 
of fcHcm* ia TMj mukpil ia tb JBdwIiooi of Iho Latin vo-K ll"? otiva mode it 
mrv* cmflulk \rj istrcdiiMng Ibc [ewoilii, u w da t; n>-<Ju{.JinUu« it. llioii)Cii 
is oamIm r locn. Thai Iho Roaiu vonU (07, Balaimfl; tIiIi, (/) tar, >atX ogo 
vi^i, cr*T«ti«i[ani*< rtdi,inMMa viMro va ahould mjt, t tavr^it) aiytif. 



LMr. la 

KyntoxM whcro tho pronooD is alvrays cxprcswd, as it is in 
Aaglo-SAxon and Kngrwh except in tin* iinpcruUve, tJic distinc- 
tion of Dumber and person is wliolly supertluous. Tliutt, wlit-re 
u foruignvr Kay«, ju tiid broken EnglisU, he ffiv«, instead of he 
ffivet, wo under«t«nd him perftxiti;. The ominioa of the «. 
the fign of the singular number and tliini pt-non, oociidons no 
I'mhan-assment, and it would bo no detriment to English syutiix 
if wu otirwlvvH wtre to omit it ultoffother. liut in Ijatin and 
Italian, where the pronoun ia verj- ofu-u oinitted, a mistake io 
tJto obaiactiiristic ending confounds the listener. 

So thu limitation of purticular puMt or future iuBections, er 
vvvu auxiliary L-ombinalioii*, to tpecific porltuns of timc^ is a 
suuroe of conslant embtirnusniont in tJie use of word*, without 
any corresponding luteal or rhetorical beneliL Thua the French 
rule, strict conformity to which requires us to nay: — elle 
chanta hxer au lover du soleil, she san^ ye»terday at 
suoriDB, but, elle a chanti ce matin »u luTer du soleil, 
she hat »tin{f this ntoming at sunrise, is a blemish in tb« 
Byutox, not an adrantiige. In these and other like phrases, the 
time is really fixed, not by the form of the verb, but by the 
words yesterday and thut morning, and the dixtinclion between 
the tensi-a haii, in their prcitent lue, no solid foundation ; whereita 
in Rnglbh the difforence betwtea the preterilc and the com- 
pound, he aang, and he has ewt^, is n lof^cal one. The conso- 
queDce in tliat in Fn-nch practice, the granimaticnl distinction 
tiM been found too subtle to be obserred, and the compound is 
very frequently employed when t)iu preterite should be. 

Another difference lietweeD ADglo-.Saxon niid Englixli is, lliat 
the Utter ba-i nearly got rid of the jierplexing and unprotituhlo 
distinction of grammatical gender. In Aoglo<S<uoa, as m 
Groek, Lntiii and GcrmEui, nouns hare three genders, sad theso 
do not depi.-nd upon mix, even in the cave of organised being) 
capable of being thus distinguished. This confusion is, bow- 
ever, not carried so far in Anglo-Saxon us in German, where 
Fraueuzimnier, icomanf is neuter, and AlannsperBon, a 

UCT. lU. 



maUpenoJifiB rominine, or as ia Swedish, wbcro mcnniskja, 
man in the abtitmd, ia feminine; but Ktill Uiu Siison tn»clen, 
oar modem Tnaiden, is, like the GerroaQ cotrespondiug niiiid- 
cfaen, a netiter, and in the case of inanimate objects, to which 
geodcn aro convent toiialiy ni^cribcd, tbcy arc uppliod in a very 
difierent wny frnm our own. Tbiu in Asglo-Suon, 00 sIm) in 
Icelandic, the word for moon, mon% is masculine, that for 
«UT), Eonne, femiaine." 

It may be remarked, in psssing, that the theory of gram- 
matical gender has not been miicb nttendefl to by most pfat- 
lolop:st9, and, so far an 1 am aware, has not been tiatiidACtorily 
dtscussec) by any. The disHnctioa of gender, however arbi- 
tnrily it may be applied • — and there are fv^w Inngiingea where 
it i» not much more so than in Enaliitli — fieem* to be more 
tcBacionsly and constantly adhered to than any other gnun- 
matical peculiarity. In German and French, where the genden 
nppt-ar to be almost wholly convent ionnl, mistakes in gender 
are rarer than any other enor in speech, and in all langiuigea 
with grammatical gender, the blunders of foreigners in this 
respect are more hidirrous to a native ear than any others what- 
ever, even when they oceiir in pronouns or tn the names of 
manimate objects. We cannot without a sinfle hoju- a Freodw 

* In G<Ra*j>, ibe diminutim m ntuti'r, mlliOBt ngaid to tax. V • I c r 
■ml Mutter. Brnd«r and Setiwrarcr. faibrr, niolbcr. brcillkrr asil tStirr, lot 
IhHr •nonlily ttti btcome nculcr in luking lt« aff'tlianal' ev M«xiig kmm, 
Vilerelion, UUttrri^hcti, firadcrl^ic. Scbvcitetlcin. So fiv b tbk 
tMOti thattb* dUliattiiv duiiKnnttoDi of «x in iho lowrr (oimili^ Sdotiobon 
■■d WoibehoD, male ■Dilfmnlc.Rn'i-ntRtmnllolljaralvr, and KfaratbohomiM 
of a popolar tale ba« apt* diminattTo na^. aa ]lari>cb«n, the ovutrr prunonn 
ta,{l, i lufd ioatcail «t t!i« frmiiiiii^ id apiiiliiig of btr. Id IuIimh, iliv dini. 
nvtiTe of itnunina AO«ni in oftm iiiati!:aluir. which bcro rrpivanils tor Latin 
aeUtt*. tbct gmAtt Ml btlni; recoitnlMd in Italian gnimmir, and la tarola, tho 
laUc, tnaf hlircil taroiinn, lh« lilll« taMn. for iU dioiinutivf. 

la iWjDungoT ncinuii. thegmmlrxtrrnallonniiiaib tbe dutiorlioaof acx 
math kaa [Jainly than is tb« adult. This it doabtlen the maeti why tho nnrt<( 
pwaw ui it U »o eonuaoftl; apfilied to in&ntt and othar ;oiio« nraUim in 
Englri'f, asd it may be from asaJo;^ wfib Ihia £>ct tliac Uin diminalicn I bar* 
meotioae*! kaiisbMn mad« npotn-. Tlicre aj* many Ttomti^ bovrrrr, fw b^ 
Ufviog tbat gnamatinl gtndw «m cri^iuH/ whoUjr indaptMJMt of aax. 



LtCT. Ill 

oua speak of a wumaa m he, or read tho concluding iwiiteDce 
of tlie proface to tlie PortugiKse Guifle of Foiiswcn and Curolino, 
lo which tho authors, after expreffiiDg the hope tJmt their Iiouk 
may Bocurv acvcptnn«B with studious pcreonii, add : ' and espe- 
cially of youth, at which we delicate him particularly.'* But 
to u«, who in general treat inanimate oh'ecta as witliout gender, 
it is hard to sec why it should provoke tho mirlh of a Freoch- 
man, when a foreigner, in Bpcsking French, makes the noun 
table a masculine iiisteat) of a feniiuinc 

The Anglo-Saxon adjectires also had three genders, though 
these were by no means accurately or uniformly discrimitiAted. 
and they had tlint farllier iiiconvenicnoc, wliii;h lic?itiiit-rH find 
such a Rtu in 1)1 tug- block in Gorman grammar, of diiiijnct de> 
finite and indeflnite fonns — a subtlety which answers nn pur- 
pose liut to i.'nibnniu» and confound. Tho adjectives were 
compared by iuiIo:-tioD, and both adjective and noun hod soYtrfLl 
inflections for case, but these were not so well dispcriminated ax 
to aild cSHeiitially to preciinon of cxprt-ssioit ; and I do not know 
that Eogliiwh syntax is tn any respect more equivocal or am- 
biguous for the want of tlicm. 

Upon the wholly, I am inclined to think thnt while our pre- 
sent syntax is in many respects more direct, precise and simple 
timti the ancient, tliu Anglo-Saxon grammar hod no advantages 
orer the modem English but tlicse: firrt, greater Iilwrty in the 
arrangement of words in tho period, which i:i an impoitant 
rhetorical convenience, both with respect to force of expresxioa 
and to melfldioua sequence of sound ; and, second, a somewhat 
greater abundiince of rhymes, a^ witll ns variety of metrical fi-ct, 
wliieli, in iuflocted languages, facilitate poetical compo^iUon and 
relinre the ear from the perpetual recurrence of the samo 

• Kovo Onis <ls CoannafS^, am Pottupct i loglra. Tl>« Knr OuIJn ef 
the CwKvnalion in PorinjWM *Bd BngUrii, par Joti da Fqhim* s V»in Ctt»> 
lino. Poiw. lUS. 

Till* ii^ I imap'nr. Uic mMt ddicnlaui tollKiiao of Unaittn tDjwhera ID b* 
Imai io s riag\e xtAaaa. 

Lbci. IIL 



pain uf rhyraiog words now become so wcantonio In Eo^lUfa 

English ^iranimitr is now too s«nl<Hl, if not in its forms, at 
least in iti tendencies, to be likely to revive any of the obsolete 
ch«ntct«ri9Etics of Aoglo-SuEon inflection, but wc inn; possibly 
Kfltore, for poetical purposes, the uld Knglt.-<h iufii)iliv« hik) 
plural verbal endings in en, as to toien for to loie, they lovim 
for tboy focc, which Spenser did not scruple freely to nse, 
though in his time tht-y werv quite obsolete in pn?so. Lun- 
gnage ftoldoin goes hnck in it^ furnis. rhaii;^h Ibi; re-Aiiiinatioa 
of seemingly dead words is common in all Ut«ratmea. The 
freedom of syiitacticnl arrutigemcnt which iras poesewed by the 
Ai^lo-Suxon is irrccovcnibly gone, lind it is the only one «f oiir 
losses for which modern syntax f^ivea ui no equivalent. Hut 
this was a rhetorical, not a logical advAntage; for the nsuol 
order of wortN in Anglo-Saxon did not conform to any natural 
or m> calliMi logical succession, and therefore — thmigh it might 
make a period more effective, in a spoken harangue, by putting 
the most stirring words in the most prominent pa-itions, or 
wbere^ according to the national periodic Iniouatioo, the em- 
phiMt naturally falls — yet it tlid not malce the grumni-itical 
construction clearer, but, on the contrary, rather ti^iided to 
involve and obscure iUf 

The principal philological gains to be expected from lb« 
itudy of Anglo-Saxon nr<', a more thorough acf^uniDtance with 
English etymology and a better itnderst^nidiiig of tlx.* rmlical lin- 
guistic principles which are the foundation of rhe grammatical 
stnicturt^ of onr mother tongue ; and we «>liall atiijRin-, as I have 
already remarked, a considerable addition of oprt^Ktvc native 
words to the present vocabulary and a corresponding enrich- 
ment of our literary diction. That the rerival of words of the 
Gothic stock will giipplant or expel much of the Komance por- 
tion of our modern English is neitlier to be expected nOr de- 

■ 8e* First ScrM, Lcftntn XXIII_ und XXIT. 
t Sk Firat Smni, Lccfure XXL, ri>. 3Ui, W(L 



Un. IlL 

•iirc^l. Social Ufo in our time has become too many-sided, it 
AppntprixtfJi too much of the uew sod fordgii, hii<1 rL-Tiuctiutou 
too much of the dopart«d and the dormaiit, Xn he content vith 
aaything nhort of the utmost largentjsa of expression. Inlagel^ 
if not ideas, are mnltipljnng more rapidly than npproprioto 
name* for tJicm, nnd our vocabulary will conttuiio to cxtcod ai 
Inug w our culture mivancex. 

The view I have token of Anglo-Saxon grammar tii estretnclj 
general, it would he nearer the truth to say, superficial, hul 
anythiu}; of minuteneM and fulnws would bo incoiuistcnt with 
oml exhibition, and would, moreover, oontiatiie Kiteli an amount 
of time that too little would he left for tlie diacusnon of p<rinta 
of more immediate intcresl, A comparison of a few pcrioda 
from the iiarrntiro of Ohther in King Alfred'ti Oro^us, and from 
the preface to Alfred'K lIoethiuH, nilh Kn^liiih tmiixluLionR, 
will serve hotter than more of formal detail, to illustrate the 
most important diflcrcnccn bctwpcn the two languages"; and in 
future lecturo« I sttall endeavour to convey a general notion of 
the gradual proce«M8 of linguistic change, hy presenting a 
pMilm and » diapter of the Aoglo>$«xon Gotipvis with a itvriea 
of voTsionxuf the same in the aucoesaive stage* of Kngli«h. Be- 
fore proceeding to the comparatiro analysis, it is neceasaiy to 
present a few paradigms of tho principal parts of speech io 
Anglo-Saxon ; tho other grnmmatica] peculiarities of the lan- 
guage iiiuy be gradually brought out as wo advance la the dfr- 
compoMitioi) and eoustruction of seotenoe&t 

■ 8t* Illii»li»liM 1V„ Bl end nf this L«ctm«, 
t Sm lUiumuciii lU.. UttiQl tiiu l^eun. 


L (p. 95.) 


From Tiuiuu'i Hiitoiy of the Anglo-Suoni^ Appendix L 

AsciEKT Notni: 

Iifge or hige, mind or thought, 

Secondu; meaningi^care, diligence, itiidj. 
boga, care, 
hogn, care, ioduBtiy, eHbrt 

A^jeotiTea, being tlie noun go applied: 
hige, diligent, studioua, attentiTSt 
boga, prudeaC, eolicitooe. 

Tcrbs from the noun : 

hogian, to meditate, to study, to think, to be vise; to be 
anxiouB : and hence, to groan. 

hvffsan. I *° "'"'^y> *° ^ wlicitona, to endeaTour. 

hicgan, ) to study, to explore, to seek vehemently, to en- 
hycgan, J deavour, to Blroggle. 

Secondary noun derived from the verb : 
hognng, care, effort, endeavour. 

Secondary nouns compounded of the ancient nona ud uiotlivi 
higecTEft, acuteneaa of mind, 
bigeleast, n^ligence, corelesanefl^ 
higesorga, anxieties, mental griefk ' 

i^K-^lP- 1 prudence. 
bogoHcip, ) '^ 

hygeleast, folly, mndness, scurrility. 

bygesceaft, the mind or thought. 



NOTK-" AMD lUUVfrnxTlOim 


Adjeellres GomiMMed of the nacicnt soan sd^ a incaciag word; 
Iiygelcaiic, void «f mind, fboluh. 

. j * roc' I ™"ff""''*"°*'''' ccclloii in mimL 

hogofcart, | "^ 
hognill, anxious fall of cnrr. 
hif[« frod, wise, prndait in tniud. 
Iilge leaB, tli^ligmt, inciirioua. 
liig« Strang, atroog in niinX 
bige thnncle, natiou*, provident, lltougbtftiL 
Advrrt)* from die adjective: 

higeleaslioe, ticigligentljr, inairioinljr- 
bogfall liee, anxioualy. 
Amciekt Noux: 

Uod, (lie tniad; alao, paa^on, irnubill^. 


modiao, to be hig^-niind«d. 

iDodigan, to rage 

modgiaD, to Mvrrll. 

Af^octirea oompotod of the n<nm and auolber word or ayllabla i 
tnodeg, ) irritable, 
modig, I angry, ptwid. 
modfiil, full of mind, irriiablc. 
modga, 4.'lat«d, proud, disuoguisbed. 
ntodbwata, f«rvid in mind, 
tnodilic, mngnnniEnoiiji. 
mod lean, iruuk-mindvd, ptuiUUainioui 
mod Ktathol, lirni-mindL'd. 
modlliwcr, puti'.iil in mind, mMkf mild 

Seoondnry noans compowd of ibe andent DOim and widd other: 
mnii gctbanc, thought* of tli« mind, council, 
mod getboht, iCrciigih oTinind, rcaioiuiig. 
mod gcwinnc, conllicla of niiod. 

mod«> myula, iIm alTectioiiM of ihe tniindi, the inoUutioiM 
modhcte, htat of mind, anger, 
nodleaitlc, foltjr, putUtanimitj, alothfulnaiL 
modne«a«i pride. 

modaefa, ibc iutdlcct, actuation, intelligaie^ 
mod sorg, grief of mind. 


ScGondaiy nouns, of later formation, composed tii an adjective and 

another noun : 

modigneBBe, 1 ,. -j - 

j.° [ moodineHB, pndP, animoaitjr. 

mod BeocDesae, aickneAs of mind. 

mod Btatholn^BBe, firmnesBof mind, fortitud*! 

mod sumneBBo, concord. 

mod tbwerneBse, patience, meekneHH. 

Adverb formed from the adjective: 
modiglice, proudly, angrily. 

AnciEMT Noon: 

g . [ the mind, genius, intellect, Benae. 
Secondary meaning: — wisdom, prudence. 

Noun applied as an adjective : 

., I wise, akilfuL 

gevita, conBcioua; hence, a witueaa. 

Terb formed from the noun i 

witan, to know, to percelv& 
gewitau, to understand, 
witegiao, to prophesy. 

Adjectives composed of the ancient noun, and an additional syllable 
or word : 

wittig, wise, skilled, ingenious, prudent. 
ge-witig, knowing. 
ge-witleas, ignorant, foolish, 
ge-wittig, intelligent, conscious, 
ge-witseoc, ill in mind, demoniae. 
witol, wittol, wise, knowing. 

Secondary nouns formed of the ancient noun and another nonn: 
witedom, the knowledge of judgment, jffediction. 
witega, a prophet, 
vitegung, prophecy, 
wite saga, a propbeL 
ge-witleast, folly, madnem 
ge-wit loca, {he mind, 
ge-witnesa, vritness. 




Uet. UL 

ge-witHcipe, wiinoM. 

wite-olof*', trifles. 

witsord, ihe aiiawcr of i1m) win. 

NouMofmorsnccnt itntc, tiAring been funn«d out oftboiuljf.cliva: 

gewitiiuocii«a«, inmii^. 

witigdom, knowledge, wbdom, prowicDce. 

«i tolneftHU, knowledge^ wndoon. 
Secondary a^ecliTOi formed tipoa the wcondai^r ooua : 

iritodomtic, propliciicol. 

Copjanctioiu ; 

witodlice, 1 tadoed, for, ^>..^ to.w,^ 
Advcrhi lbrm«d Iroin parlicijileii acid odjcctiTca : 
wUendlicc, ) , , , 

wit.igUc«, i '"'««"'6':'- 

G^hon^ 1 Ao m^nd, tlought, oianioo. 
tbani^, tlic irill. 
Ihonc, llio iliuught. 

Secondary meaning: ira net of the will, or tlianka, 

ihinp, 1 

And from llio conscqtienoe coiirenwd from ntltng at the council cama 

ge-thincth, hcnour, dignity. 
VeriM formed from the hood : 

tbincan, ) to think, to ooncoive, lo ftel, to naMti, to ocn- 

thencan, } mdcr. 

ee-thenc«n. | ,„ ^„^ 

thuncinn ) . . ■ 

, ] tothnnk. 

^c-thnnctnn. | 

thingan, to addrcM, to apeak, lo >iip[)licnl«, 

g&-thancmctan, to ccn^<l«r. 

AdjcRtivei foitnvd from the ancient noun: 

ih col' t '^^"g''*'^'^) '"^l*^v<H (^"'*o<»' 
gc-lbancol, miDdfii]. 


Morea axd nxoTTAATtoxB 


ihancful, Oumkfui, ingcnioius oonUoL 
tbancwurth, gntierul. 
thancolniod, proTidvni, wUc^ 
Socondiuj notmi formed Seam t1i« verb t 
thoht, 1 ,. ,. , . 

gc-thoH r'""^"^' *^°"«'''- 

([e-tlieitht, couDciL 
gfl-tbeukter«, councitlor. 
thnncuDg, Uia&king. 
thancmQtuaog, deliberation. 
Seeomfaty verb irom woondiuy noun ; 
ge-lbeahtixD, tocoBsult. 

More recent noaa Itoiq tltia verb : 

ge-tlicnlhing, council, conaultauon. 

AiKxlier aecondiiiy verb : 

yrabetbenuttn, to ibink about koj ibiog. 
Adjective from Kconilnrj vert): 

ge-tliealitendlic, coDiiulling^ 
Adveri> f/om adjective ; 

thancwurtlilice, graloriillj-. 

Tt b «Tid«iit (hat tn tbia Hit, which niisbl be eonsiderebly enUrgtJ 
from (be aune roots, diflerent orLhugrapliical fonns are occiaionulljr 
given as different words, end the jwolicient in Anglo-Stoion nil] rm 
ibit tbero is room for criiiciina in several otiier r«»pect8. But I cbooM 
to print mj Buthortts I tind him in Uie rhiladclphia edition or lci4l, 
mnJctng no cbnngei in th« iroi-ds. except, (o Icstcii (be cIiiidcc» of tjpo* 
(^pliica] mbtoke, tli« Mtbititiition of the modcru English for th« Sucn 
dtantcter. There in nlwaj'a aotnothing to bo luuncd from cvon tlie 
errors ofa scbolar^-^-ut Icut the IcMon of humility, wbeg w« couoidtr 
evr owo Uabilily to suuilur nliortcomiiiga. 

n. <p. 97.) 

voxosnrtjjLBio cataus poErRT. 

Th« rsritj- of Oibdan books bt Amorica jnslifles me, I thinic, in 
IvintiDg tt part of this pvcm, which l^oliot y Tories, who quoi«B it ia 



the preraca to hia Gramatica y Apologb de la Llcngtia Cathalano, 
thus introduces : 

' H<3 ja dit tamb£ que nh dificnltot u podri trobnr altra Uenguo, quo 
Bin mea breu y concisa quo k nostra ; y oxA es per la abundaticia que 
t^ de monoBsillaboB, com ea de vcurcr en laa a^uents quartetaR, qua 
couipongu^ lo aiimea po^tich de Don Ignaai Ferr^ra^ doctor ea medi- 


A Dfu, nn ea tr«B, 7 al Fill fet hom. 

Un Bol Df u, que tot ho pot, 
Es lo qui es, un scr en tres ; 
No Bon trep Ddua, un boI ea 
Lo Deu del eel, que ea en tot. 

Si ab eat un sol Ber tres Bon, 
C6ro pot Bcr no niea que un D^ 
Qui fa lo foch 7 la neu, 
La Hum, loa eels 7 lo monT 

Un sol ee ; puix i ler tres, 
Fins i tres Bcra Be lion de darf 
T ai ea un boI ser, es clar 
Que ea un Bol Deu 7 no niea, 

£s ell lo qui ha let lo llum, 
Lo blanch, lo foch 7 lo net, 
Per qui dela pitii eurt la tiatf 
Per qui del foch ix lo fum. 

Ea del mon 7 dela oela ley, 
Qui tot ho t4 dins Ba ma ; 
Tot lo que vol ell, se &, 
Que tot quant vol ea aa llej. 

Al torn aeCi son tota loa aanta, 
T prop d'cll Bon loa chore non, 
T en un Bol clior la veu ae on, 
De eant, aant, amit, ea fiiu cant*. 
«tc. etc etc 


m. (p. 112.) 



Moat grammariaitB agree that the Anglo -SfLXon had neitlier deSnite 
nor iadetinite article. Klipstein treats the ilectinabte ae, sco, pKt, 
and the indeclinable ^e, both of which are genetnlly contddered pro- 
perly prononiiB, as definite articles, but lie denies that thfTe wiu an in- 
definite. In the early stages of the language, for example in Beowulf, 
tlie poems of Ctedmoa, and other ancient monuments, the nouns are 
cnmmonty conHtrued, aa in Latin, without a determinative; but at later 
periods bi>tli Re, se^, )>(ct, and |)c, are employed as definite articles. 
But it is equally true that an, one, served as an indefiniti;, as in the 
f-econd of the pasatages quoted from Ohrher, in Illustration IV., post, 
an port, a harboiu:, and an myoel ea, a great river, Pauli'a Alfred, 
]>. 248, &c. We must therelbre cither admit both article* or reject 

Se, Bed, pie t, is thus inHected : 

N. w 8e6 l<Bt 

G. IXEfl 

D. t>am )>tD're |iani 

A. foot ]>d fKt. 










The following tkble i^iowb the variable endings of the m/anfl in tbt 
iLffi.'rent decleonona. 



l«ci. IIL 


JTir** Declemion. 



Xa*e. Ftm. 
-a -e 


Dot. and 1 
AbL J 

-an -an 
-an -%a 



-an -an 


Nom. and Aco. •an 

Gen. •ena 

DaL and Abl. -um 



Second Dtcleruion. 

77iir(/ Dtclmtion. 




Ftm. IftuL 


/•»B. Anrf: 



— — 


-u .{•«) 



•H -CB 


-e -ea 

Gut. nnil 




-e -a 


-e -e 



-e ^ 


-« -(..) 

Nom. and 



-a .^ 


-u -n 





-a (-iB>) -n 

Dnt. nnd 



-nm -nm 

Ittdefinite endinga. 


-um -um 



/. n. 




-re -M 




-re -iin> 

-um (-on, -an) 



-e — 


Lm. lU. 



Pffinile endiitgi. 





«■ . 
















-nm {-on, -an) 






The Comparative is formed from the Positive indcfiniie by annexing 
-ra for the masculine, -re for the feminine and neuter; the Superlative 
fnmi the same by adding -ost or -ent for tlie inddiniie, and -esta for 
the mnaculine, -este tor the feminine and neuter, definite form. 


Fint Person. 




















StCOr.U Person, 




















Third Person. 






m.f. n. 





















The Posses^ve Frononna are the genitives of personal pronouns of 
the firat ana second persona, treated on nominative Blcm-form«, and de- 
clined like the indefinite adjective. There is no pcssesaive pronoun ot 
the third person, the genitive j^ural of the personul pronoun being \isaA 

123 SOIza AHO lU^DSTUTKUia laot. UL 


The parts of speech given imdcr the head Article, declinable and 
Indeclinable, ur« generally used as Uelattve Prononna. The Interro- 
gative is thus declined ; 

















There are several clauses of Terba, both strong, or Inflected by anjf- 
mentAtion, and weak, or inflected bj letter-change. A few examplei 
of each munt suffice. 




Class I. 

Class IL 

Claaa IIL 

Sing. ic luf-ige 



fill luf-aat 



he luf-a8 



Phir. we, ge, hi luf-ia5 



If, as in intenogative sentences, the pronouQ follow the verb, tli* 
plural is luf-ige, h^r-e, tell-e. 



ic luf-ode 
Jill luf-ode«t 
be luf-ode 
yn, ge, hi luf-odon 























Inf-a h^ 

luf-iaS ( hjfr-a8 

luf-ige I hjfr-e 

t6 luf-igenne 
Active S ^^'W^^'> 

luf-ian h^-an 

Pari. Past 

to hyr-enne 

teal- don. 

r teU-aS 

t6 teli-ann* 





Class L 

Class II. 

Class UL 









hj'lt (healt)' 


riw. 1 



r draga8 






























bne'c* hedlde 
bne'con hedldon 





breo beold 
brecaS J" healdaS 
brecQ 1, healde 


r dragaB 

Prei. brecan hcaldan 
GfTvnd. t4 brecanne W healdanne 

, '. ,. ' t brecende healdende 
and Active J 

t6 dragan ne 


Pari. Past 


) brocen (ge-) healden (ge-) drageu. 

The perfect and pluperfect tenses are formed, as in the cognate 
Golhic ktiguRges and in modem English, by the verb habban, to 
have, used en an auxiliary with the past or passive participle. 

There is no true paB:<ive voice; but, as in English, the place of the 
paafuve ia supplied by the paat or pasuve participle, with the aubslon- 
tive verb wcsan, to be, as an auxiliary. 

Wcsan ia thus conjugated: 




K com 

pii cart 

he if, ya 

we, g(-, hf synd, syndon 

■^ J wicre 

■^ IwKTon, 

Present, 9, 



ef, sfg, 8e6 Imperjecl, », wiera 

s^n Plur, Wicroii. 


Part. Pres. 
„ Paat 



ti5 wesonne 
(ge-) wesen. 




Lrct. hi. 



Tbe ADj;lo>Saxi>ii rerh baa no futura Udw in oilhcr nu}de; th« pra- 
•pnt btinf; tmploj.-d inslond of* fiituw, Tb« fircwot of th« dt^feeliva 
Ttrh lie^D, to ie, bowevcT, has fraqiHrnily a dislinct tutunj ugntCcA- 
tiiMi, aud ihiu Mrve« »* a future to w cmn. 

Be^o b thus coqjijgalcd : 

/luticpru. I. ti«6 SubJ.prtt. htA 

i. byO, PUr. hvbn 

3. 1)yS Imptr, bc6 

"^- {is* «- {S' 

/■^ bete, Crr. ti betene, rarUprtt, bc6nd& 

IV. (p. 1120 
eithacis ntou oHTHEn's nahhati\t, axd rwM Ai.pnKD*8 


Tliis Damtirc, which in inlmduccd hj King Airn,-!! inlo hi* tmiKla- 
lioQ of OroMUis >* inlivciiting both u tmng, ao &r iw myXv i* ooocejnod, 
IKvbably Alfred's own norlc, aniil an conlainii^ the arllcM autheniio 
intbrinalion wo poswss ci^nccrning ihc gcr<grnphy and tbc people of the 
«oiialriM it dcwribcsL In vrlial langiuigc Ohllu-r coiiiRiimi<aJp<l nilli 
the king docs not appcnr, hul it wiu {irohabljr in iho Old-NnrtIi«i-n 
nther than in lh« Anglo. Snjton. Wo have muoii lo Iwlicrc that 
tb? two fpcechea ruoiibti.'d cnch otlicr mlTiciently, in Uie ninth trnturj-, 
In be mutually inlelli;;ible to tlicvm u.-king tbvni, mtd tbm: is evidence 
that the b/i of lite Korthorn bards who viaitcd England were undcr- 
alood hy at le«»t the Sason iioblca. 

1 give ; I. the Anglo-Saxon text, from the appendix to Pauli'a LiTu 
of Alfred. London, 1857; I hare, hovrever, to diminiHli the chanoee 
of tvpc^Tajfliical error, lined ih« common Knglisli typr inatmd of tlie 
A n|{(u-S«ixun letter, bo Ibr as the alphnbri* <vrmjHind; S. an Knglixh 
wurd-lbr-word renwo; S. Thorpe'* tmnilatioa, in which, aa will be 
•een by lh« nolvK, I bavc eotrcclcd an obrioua error; 4. A French 
inuulatioR of Tborpc'* vcnion. 

1. Fcia apclla him NeJoo 
'2. Manj things him totd 
S. Tbe Beonnas t^ld him 
4. Xea Boorous In! rncontirent 

t>a lk«niia^ a-gfcr 

tk« Bcvrmax, both 

many juniciilnni, both 

pltuicuTS dctaiU, tan I 





1. of 








2. of 








9 «r 






tli« ollivr 


4. d< 








1. )<a jml> liy Vtan wa^roD. ae 

2. tbal around Oiem sbont wet«i Imt 
8. V'^'^S ot^und Ui«mi but 
4. qui !«■ environnaicnt; mais 

be njmUi 1iw«t 
be wut'Hot what 
bu knew not whnt 
U ne nvnii pn ce ^ui 

1 ^tea BoCc* wmr. foTliirm he bit sylf ne gnH«h: 

3. (of-) Uu) tooth wax, for-thnt iio it wU* not aaw. 

8. WM true, bncuiiM: he did not »m it liiioidf. 

4. itail Tiui, paroc qu'il n« to royail pM lul-ueme. 

1. Da Fionas bim Imhto. and }« Bcormu aprvcon 

i. Tbe Finns bim (liought, and tbe Bconnas apnke 

5. It twined to him ibnl ibc' Finns and tbe BcotrtDU ([loke 
4. II Jui Mmklftit <|uc Ivk Kinois m lea Beomaa parliutnt 

1. neah ra gcScoda: 

2. nigfa on« Ungoagc. 
8. tttxaiy ono knguage. 
4. k p«u pria un seul laagagft. 

SwiSoiit be for 0yd«r. 
Clii<'Ri(«t he ^irod tbitber, 
Uc went tliithcr chieRj, 
II J- alU principaleniCDt, 

1, lo-««can I'm" Inndis Mrnictmgn. far fmna 

S. beside* tho hnd'* acdng, fer ibo 

8. in nilditJon to acving l)iv eoiuiuy, on acoonnt of the 

4. non-ncuI«ment pour voir la oontrje, niais A cniue dca 

1. hon-bwailuBi, (otftem bi habboS nwj-iic icScI« baa on 

3. hone- whale*, fur-iluit tbr^ bare rvrj noblo bones in 
8. walmuca, because they bave tgtj noble bonea In 

4. moTBO, paroc qu'ik ont du bcllua dflvntn i 

I. hyra toSum. ^a teH hf brohton aaiBe 

i. their tcctb, these teeth iiwy brought aoin« 

8. their U>clh, aoniA of thew twib thiey bronglit 

4. lenrs n&cfaolrea, d^ftnaea dont il« port^rcnt qnvlqnca-unei 

1. fwna cynini^. and bj-ni liyd biC aw^&e god to 

2. (to-) tlie king: and their hide la vtij good ibr 
8. 10 tbe king: and their bidea arc Tei^ good fer 

^ aa roi: et leun peauz lont bconea poor ki 

LKt. Uh 



1. Mip-mpnia : 

Se IiwidI 


aide lesaa 

2. ihip-npo. 

This whole 


niDch leu 

9. >bip-rop««. 

I'fais vrhnic 


niui^h less 

4. cotdagM d«a luirtrM. 

CcRe boIfiDO 


lii-aucoup plus p<.iii* 

1. tkmiK «8re liwiilnii. 

2. tliaa other wliul«*, 
S. than other vrhnlc*, 
4. qne tea outre* blileiDli<^ 

IK! biS ho Imgra forno fv&n 

not i< he longrr thnn iFvcn 

it bring not longer thiui sci-cn 

■i*^tant pM ]>liu longue que rjiC 

1. «lnft Uog. ae oo hi« a^tim \».ndv i* fe b«tau 

8. «U8 long; but in hb own iimd i« tbo beat 

S. «1Ih I but in bi* own country is the Imt 

i. auncB ; mais daiu Md propre [nj:* it ; a I4 mcillcura 

1. hvrtd-hnnlntl, 
S. whole- hunting, 
jL wliBlv-hunbii£, 
4. diuaa k U UJeiiWt 

)>a beoK ealita And feowertigea eJna 
tLoj are eight and for^ ells 

thpre thcj' Are t^ighl-and-forqr ella 

14 «lle8 out quar&ntc-buit uuio 

L lange. md ^a mnsUa fiftiges etna latyg. ^ra 

S. lepg, and (he lari!^^ fi'V "^^ '""£ ! (''^) '^o 

8. long, and the ht^vta &{ly elk lung; of theae 

t. de longuetir, M l«a plus giaiidva eu out ciuqunnte; <1« celkft-d 

I. he Bsdc 
S. h« Mid 
8. ho mid 
4. iJ dit 






1. twam dagum:* 

2. two day*. 
8. two day*. 
4. deux juur^ 

eyxa siiDi 

(of-) fix fmie 

aiul live oihcn 
ct cin<] 

II« was 

He waji 

He was 


olUoga ?xiig on 

alevr sixij in 

«kw sixiy in 

aucrcs en nvaitut tni eoixRnic en 

swybe epedig man od feim 
(a) Tpry wealthy man in the 

a vcty w>.-aUt>y roan in tboee 

un hiJimnc trc>-riclic dons lea 

1. xthtum ft heora epcda on bettH, f ie on 

2. ownings that tlxiir wealth in is, that is in 
8. pOMOBioM IB which their wealth consuts, that is in 
4. bieus qtii ooDstitucrtt tears ridivnta, c'«rt-a-dire en 

J. wild-dcontm:* He hKfde )>a-gyl. ]« be )K>ne cyningo *oK(t!, 

S- wQd deer. lie had yet, when bo the king Mugbt, 

8. vUd deer. He had at the lima he caiD<> to the king, 

4. oeA nuvagcs. II araic h I'^potiuc oit U vint vers le loi, 



Lxn. la 

1. tiiTTit* deora uiilx^bohtra *jx liimd :- !)■ dcor lii htduH 

J. (of-) Umo deer udhoU ws Itundrvd. Time d«rr thi-y bight 

8. six hundred uaanld Xhxnv deer. Tlicac deer lliejr call 

4. Hx cents oerfs appHvoiate bveaduB. lis ftppellvnt cm oerlii 

1. bnnnii. }nr* wvron «yx Rtsl-faraniui. Ba 

5. rein*, (of-) llii-m wem nix Klmlc^rein*, Umvq 
8. rein<4l«cr, of irbich thcri: wcm fix itooy rein-deer, which 
4. Aea renneo, ]>anni ccox-ci nix fuicnt dea rcnnci poir^ <iui 

1. bcod nwyRo dyro mid Finmiin. fbrfmn 

2. WD very d«r with (the) Finn*, fer-thac 

3. nre T«ry Tallin bio antongrt the Finn, b«<9UM' 

4. cnt tuie grando valetir cbn le* FintuK, parce ^ut 

1. bj fod Jm witdan tiranaa mid;' 

2. (hey catch Uio wild rvinn wiih(ihnn). 
8. thoy catch the wild mn-dccr with tliem. 
4. par lour moycn iU pr«iincnt ks rcntic* aBUTagGA 

Notes, /ela, indcelinnhle adj. (i)>iKi)nlo in EngliiJi, bat exUnt in 8e. 
M\;—tptlla, ace pL from tpell, lidia<fs, in/omtatioa, &c^ ohmlele 
m tbb scnwi biit extant fn $pttl, a chami, tkv vvrb to rptU, and the 
laat ajrllnbleof Gotptlt — aadon, 3. p. pL impL indie, fi-otn »tc^an, 
•eyjfaii, urgau, to toy, or Itltj^-^gfer ge — y«, loth— and, txxaat^ 
a* an oltcraative only, In tilkrr, not saa coi^uiioliv«. Atg'per i* moro 
pmcmlty iiiicd in the aeiiu; of both than hd, hu, hdtwrd (Id, both, 
tu;d, (u-o), buta, buttt, bHttea, which arc ilio etymologiciil ctfuivaliutta 
of WA, or than b«g€n;-~-of, ahovf, from, out of, but nerer m^^ of 
poaicii^ve in Anglo-Saxon; — hyra, poti. pi. of the 3. p. of llwperaooal 
pronouu. See p. 131; — |>(rffl,dai.for nrnrv oommcdi form )>(Jm,-— jrmt, 
Gw. urn, about, nround, obwictc; ac, — but, olmoldtc. Untati, bvta, 
exiiila in Anglo-f^xon u n conjunction, thou^th icldoni uiwd. Alfred 
employ's il in Ilocthiii*, c. xxxiv. § lu. ; — ng$te, 3. p. nng. imp. indie, 
fium ni'Ian or nylan, tiot to kiioie, a negative verb funned by tho 
conlcKcncG of the [article n«, n«r, and tcittin, (•) know. Tlie lendenc/ 
to cnalcicmt formaiiona waa carried fliiihcr in (^rly Engliali thaii In 
Angto-Soxun. See Fint Seri«, Lfviuic XVIH ; — f<THo6t», io8#a 
u the gi-nilirc of t^e noun toU, and tbo pbmw nearly oorrapondato 
tbo of a Inilli, of the Kriplurol dialect; — fubte, 3. p. uiig. imp. indie 
tW>in |)incan, to k"", h^tre utcd impcnenally with tbe dative Aim, 
aa, in the uodeni form, widi tbe first jieraoo, m«-litmighl;^gtbtedt. 

•'&CT. m. 



latigwiyt, obfol«tc; — $wiSort, miporlntive, from jift'Sf, rtn/ ntuth. 
Tlw root in adj. 5wiB, ftcyS, flrvnff, jttmjfrjvl, grtat, whicb, wilh its 
twenty <](!ri villi VII and compuuiub, is entirely obaokle. It ii a, angular 
in»nnc<- uf tin- wixlun' of vocabularies in Engltah, lliat »o common and 
no aimtik a native wonl aliouH Iiuvl- been super^edci) bj a borruweil 
root. Vtrs'aihe Latin rcrum. Frt-iich rrai, and waaat6ntuaediii 
Engtiab aa an objective. Tlius Cliaucer, Wife of Bath'a Tale : 

ThBrgb vltich h* may hii nmiy ftondd ma; 

(o-cacan, extant in <Jte;— jiceawttn^e, root pxtant incAoce', but with 
an olycclivc meaning; — ftort-kwixlvm, led. roHniliTaIr, walnit; — 
aSele, G«T. cd«l, aoMe, precious, ah*Atie iu English;— mtrafan, 
nan. pi. miporlativ^, dclinitr, a9«octul« with mgcel, large. Thorpe 
motilutvs fa nattan. 'l/ieniosto/fJieni,' vihhhienaraagenrerafiht, 
for Ktit id properly atgnilicxliTe of iiuaiility, not of number; and be- 
tidea, ihia rendering u inconnaient witb die context, because if ihn 
geuenl lengih of the whole was fortj-eigbt elle, ' ihe roo«t of lliein ' 
could not have been fiily cUs long ; — ip<di^, ftrnperous. Oar modon 
v«fb (i> tptf-d mtaiu, oftt-n, to pTMjMr; — f, cxmimclion for fat; — 
hataS, UFc twc Ai^^Af only in n poMiivn tetiM:, but hatan like tha Q«r. 
hci«acn, meant both (o oa// and to bt eatUd. 


I. Ohlbere ftede f no acir faatte Halgolaiid fe he on 

3, Ofathcre said that tlio ohira bight IlalRoliuid that he In 
8. Ohtliera mid that tlic nhire in which lie dwelt ia ciilleil 

4. Ohtbcro dit quo tc comte o& il danenratt a'appclle 

tiau nHui ne bude be norSan 

no Rinn not dwelt bj north 
no one dwelt to the north 

pentonnc n'hnbitnic pIusauDord 

port oa saSeweardiim ^aan 

port to Eouthwards (of) thiit 

port to the south of that 

port Bu eud de cetto 

1. lande, ^onc man bict Scyringe«-1teal. fytcr ho cwwS 

2. lanJ, which men htght Scyriagcs-hnl; tliillKT, h* laid. 
8. land, which is called Scynn^v*-heal; thither, he said, 
i. ooBti^ qui «tt appeM Scyringea-hc«l; ice port, dit-il, 



bade-.* He cwaiS f 


dwelt. Ho said that 


Holgolatid. He said that 


Halgobad. U dit que 


hira'.- Donne ia an 


(or)lum. There ia a 


of him. There is likewise a 


que liii. n y a auMii un 



txKT. Ill 

1. f .iun ne mihtc gcwglian cm ■nnm moode^ ffff xuta 

2. tliat oue not might Nail in one nionih, if one 

3. no oat could kiU in ■ mMith, if be 

4. powjonc ne pout navigiur tliuis un moiii, iU 

1. on niht iricoilc, and n)c« itcgo hioHo aTnliyms iriitd. 

8. by night lay-by* and tac\\ day had fair wind; 

8. Innded W night, nnd tuvtrj day had a fuir wind; 

4. abonlait d«nuit, «t que choquc jour ilc&t nu rvnt liivonbti;; 

1. nnd oiltn (iii hwitc be tccal Mglian be )iuid«. end on j'lrt 

5. ntid all tlic while he iJioald Miil by (the) land, and nn ihn 

3. and all Uiv while he would Mil along the land, and on the 

4. el loul le teinpa tl cotoyetmit la terre, e( au 

1. atoorbofd him biS nn«l InUaii<I. and ^no fa 

2. Blarboan] (of)hiniwil!-bfl cm Inland, and tben the 
8. flUrboanl will firM b« Iraland, snd tbra th« 

4. tribord i] y anm prrmi^rMnent Inlaud, et oisniie lea 

1. igland |ie synd bctiix Iralande. and (•iiinm) Uodir,* Donne 

2. iiilaDttB whidi arc betwixt Indnnd and lliin land. Then 

5. inlunda which ure beiweni Irnlnnd and thia land. Then 
4. ll«t qui aonl «nlra Indand et cctic oontr^. Ensiute 

1. ia ^ia land o8 h» 171ns 

3. in Ihi* Unil tiU lio corovtb 
8. it ia thin land until be oonm 

4. c'm( Mitc contri-e Juxtiu'ii cc i]u*i] vienne b 

to Rctringca<bcalr, nnd 
to Sciriagoa-hcal, and 
to S(TiTing«s-lieal. and 
Sciringea-bcal, et 

1. eolne w«g on (wt ba-cbord NtwCwcgt. 

2. all (the) way on the InrhruiTd, Norway. 
8. all tlie v»y on ihc InrhonnI, Norway. 
4. loutIetr^«t ail }>nhor(l,c'eMlnKorTJg«. 

wis siSan yona 
To aouih (of) 
To die south of 
Au eud da 

1. Sdringca-faenl fylS awySe mycd as up in on ^i 

2. Sciringea-hcal ruiu(a) veij great ixa up into th« 
8. Sciringea-hatl ■ TCiy great aeii rum ujt into the 
4. Sciriogea-lieal uoe vaAo raer a'avan«e dnna U 

1. land, aoo ia bradrc ftmatt sntg man ofaneui mage. 

2. land, wliichi* broader than any man oT«r-*M may, 

3. landrirhichiH brTiA<bT ihiin niiy one enn aco over, 

4. terrc, qui iwl ai laigo que pcnonne nefcutwirdcraumcot^i 

Lrt IlL 

Hons AS& nxusniATioss 


1. And is Golliuid mi oSm liralfc on^can. ani] niKKa .^tcnde*.' 

2. and in Gviland on(rhi-)oiticr tutle iigalnst, niid iIktd St-dand. 
S, and Jutland is i]|>]ioute on Uic oUier tide, tuiJ tliL-n St'clnnd. 
4. ct Juilnnd<«tvis-4-viade I'auire o6t^ et siirte Scelandc. 

1. Sra He liP insrnig hand miln np in on )>Kt Innd. 
$. ThJA tm licrth numy liuiidred niilt-n up in duit lund, 

3. Tliix icA ties man/ miles up in tliai Iiuid. 

4. Cette m«r»'uvancep!usicura milles dans C« paj's, 

1. aad of Sciringe«-1)CaI he cwnr^l '^ he M^lodc on fU* digaa 

2. And fnim Hritit^M-bea] be aaid llut Im nudtl in fire da;> 
8. And from Sciriiigat-heid be eiiid Uiat he asilod in IIti; dajrn 

4. £t d« Sciringe»-bea] U die qu'il navIguiieaciDt) joun 

I. to J-icm porW fp. mon hiM ^-ttirfium. m ««nt 

5. to th« pott tbnt mi-a hig}) t ut - 1 1 cntiis ; litis (>1aivd> 
8. to the port wbivh is Oiilk'i] jEi-Hclhutn; whUib ia 
^ i CO port <iui c«t appcl^ ^(-HKlhum; qui at 

1. bctnh Winrdnm nnd Seuxuin. aitd Angt«. and hyrif 

3. betwixt (tli<:) WendK and Saxoni, and Anglos <uid bclcnga 
8. b«tvro<-ji ibe Waidd and S«axonB, and Anglo^ and bclooga 

4. i«wA «ntrc lea Wenda tt lcaSax<inB,et)e8Atiglt9,vti]tuap{Mirtirm 

1. inoa Iknei 
S- to (tli«) Itaiies. 
ft. to Denmark. 
4. aa Daaemarc. 

If<xm- It will bnobnerved tliatlhccmmtruRlionof ihiApassa^coafbima 
m(n'cRenrlTthanibatol'ili«form«rtotlieEi^litliidiam. t owkenoallempt 
to aolve tli«(,'«<frai)lii<;aldiflkidti«8it praieot^but it i* well iAo)morv«lbi)t 
wxnecriticaMippow tlut Irataod should b« road Inaland or Island, 
/rcfdW, and ibat Gotland ia not Jutland, la trrmslutfd bj Tl)nrpi>, 
but tW ialand of Gotblemrt. butle ia still extant in the noun bootk, 
and rb« lata syllable of neighAwr in from t]i4> taiue root-,— etc tfS, from 
eirediKt or ctviYOniii, >• the mod^ro fnarA,-— on, one, U ihe origin of 
Ibe inddinitc article a, an; — port it no donbt iho Latiu portu*; 
—toieodt, imp. indic, &om wi'ci'an. Tb(r root vie ftevm* to have 
m»nt originally an abiding or rtttint; place, a ttati^n, Th* NonlinH'n, 
who depended pnncifMlly on narignttoo for a livelihood, applied tlie 
COmfModinf OId-N<Mtbeni vtk, fxcluoivcly, to a bay or luuboor of 




Leer. in. 

r«fiig«; the AnRla-Sksoiu, to tmy pbce of aIiMl«, n a loirn. Tht* it 
the prohalile origin of tbc t<-rmin»tio«i — tct'cA in Norwich, &e. In Uiui 
jmMnfti', Kicodt involves ihi noticn ofa ha^-, ftsaccanlurconldiiol Itv- 
bjr witliout cnieriDjj a linrbour; — amiifrne, tAiao\e%a in Eii^I'^ii^ 
artat, eril, s<i]«rktjve of irr, err; — bi6, from Jeon, to be, Um l>ere 
llie lurcc of a future; — baehord, now supon^dcJ hy larhoard. 
Bickardtoa givn no earlier aiKhoril/ fi>r ihi* Jnitcr word than llalvigli. 
Babord, m-idontly idmticat irilh baebord, is found in mou of tho 
European Inngnsgw, but no mtir^lor^ ctymolo^ ha* b«<ni mggfitt«d 
fordilurr wont; — ^tman Hal at- II at um. ThisuM of lli« dintiv*, 
stngiilnr or plnrnl, with a prepontion, ■» the apprllmiro of a town, iit 
yvty common in IcrUndic- 'l'h<^ £ict ti important, )xcaii>c it >howii 
tliat tli« derivation of the c-iiiling — um in the namex ei lowni frutn Gcr. 
heim ia, in nunj' AiM^, prronniiu. ^ce First Scrirs, I^rclnrcU. p. 14, 
and Appendix, 4. In l)i« mgs*, iP(-^<rSum i> gmcralt^ collud 
lIciftaliKFor RoiKab^r, in whicli fomtt tlic namo often occurs in 
Kn}^tl(nga-Stiga. In the prcwnt ini>ttin<M-, lliG (urm is no doulit llmt 
wlitL'h llie Norwegian Ohtber gave it, htit this oonalmciion, tlioitgh 
iiirv, iij>iKttr« not tw bo unpreoedentcd in AngLo-Soron, at \va»l in tbo 
Hin^'ular. Ketuble, Cod. Dipi £v. Sax. Xo. 3A3, un iiuott^d f<^T aiioilin- 
pnirpoae in Ilaupt's ZeitwhrJO, XIT. 2^2., giv«« tJiis phrase from a gnm 
of Adwlatnn to Wutfgar : '({uandam hJIuria parli«ulam in looo i)uaa 
ooiioole ttt H«mtne rociiunl;' — AyrB, 3. p. indtc. pre*, nng. from 
hsran, to htoTt to obey, and hence, like tfao German gehSrtn, to 

I have inlrodnc4<d a French translation mado bj B (Kcnd from 
lliorpe*a vervon, for the purpoK^ of a cuinf«rat)vo view of tlw Anglo- 
SaKon, the Hnglii>li. and the French periodic cmidTactton. I tliiuk ihs 
Utier might, wiihoiit violence to tli« idiom of the language, have been 
nado to thow a cIoikt confurniiij to I'horj-c'a syntax, but, iboagfa it 
wni not MKxruci.'d with any nich purprdr, it will b« apparent from a 
coiiipariwin of tlir dil!rTcnt IvxXn that Mngliih inrolax CorretfMada aloUMt 
an ncnrljr with French as with Gothic ptvccdcnt. I beliero port and 
mil ore tliu ontj- wordi of T^olin cxlractJDn n*«d by Alfrrd in theM 
cxttacta. Tborpe'a traniJalion, which undioualjr avoida noo-Saxon 
wordi, luta thirteen derived from French and Lalht. About ten of tin 
«erd» onplojred by Alfred are now obiolele 

U«. UL 




From Curdilu's cditioti, LondoD, 1829 ; with (2) a literal vcr^on ; 
and (3) Oudole's tiwsl&doa. 

1, Adfred Kuniug wwa vrealliHtod Sibm bee and 

S. Atrrcd, tciogt ^*» trannkur (of-) Uiis bocJc nod 
3. Alfred, king) waa tratiftktor of litis book and 

I. Ue of bcc I^dcne od EngUac weodc >wa Lio na is gedoa. 
S. it from book-lod«n inlo Engli*h tamed u it now ia dOM. 
S. turned it from book-In^n into I-lngltih u* it now is done. 

1. hwilum h« seiie word be wocde. hwilum anil^t of 

2. Wliit«s be set wun) by word, wlult^ (cnae for 
8. SooMftimes be set word hy word, aomettnus mouiing of 

1. andgito. >wa awn bo hit fa mvcotolost and andgitrullioost 

2. Mtwc, jtut na ho it tbc moci't-lnrlj- and intelligibly 
8. mmnin^ «a bo the mum pl.tinly and nmX clearly 

1. getvccan coihie. for {wm mistlicum and manigf^dom wconild 
i. apuik mijrlit, lor Ot« diHtntciiog and mautJold world 

8. euuldrCBderil, for the vatioua aod naniiUd vrurldly 

1. bl<gi»n fu hine oft n^pcr go od mode ge oo lichoniaa 

2. bu^iiCM which him oft boil) in mind and in body 
8. occnpatigiu which often btuiod him both in mind and in body, 

1. tntgodan. Vn bi«gu u« mot swifc earfo)i rime 

2. buued. Tba btWDoses m are very hard (to) ccmat 
8. The occupationa nre to us rety dllSculi to be uumbtired 

1. ^ on his dsgum on )/* riou boeomon fe ht 

2. which in his days upon thoae ruhns cnmc ihiit he 
S. which in his days come upoa the kingdoms which he 

1. aoder&ngen httfdsr and Jicuh ^ he fas boc 

2. nadertakon hiid, nnd yet when he ihi» book 
8. bad undertaken, and nevCTthcleni when ho had learned 

1. hcOe geleoraode, and of I^eoe to Engliecum 

2. had leanied, and from Lfttiu inlo En^lsh 

8. ihit book, and lunied it fiom Latin into Um 


MOTES AMD XLLnrrunoou 

L.^ :a 

Mt .UiU for GikI» 
pray* and fbr God'a 

1. spcDi) g«w«id«. )■& gcworhtc ]i« bl eftcr tu lG^1>e. 
S. apencb lariied, then irrouglit Ii« i( anenruda to (u) Iny, 
3. Eiiglinli langungc, be oftervarda compoaed it In rvno, 

1. am urn hco uu gtdoa u, and nu 

2. to u it iiow (lone is; sod now 
8. M it D«>w ia done. Aud ht now ptajv *nd for God't 

1. naraen liekiMp ricno f^u tSe |>&s Lj. ntdAi) IjtkU- 
S. name bcjgi eadi (of-) thnm tliat ihi* Unn. (io)md liitx, 

8. BUM iinpUireB eveiy one of thoM! irbom it l«iUto H«ililtUbook, 

1. ^ he IW hitie gcbiddo snd him im wito giT be 
S. ttiRt bo for him pny end bim not blame if ho 

9. that be would pny for him aiitd not blame him if he 

1. hit ritillicr>r ongitc Imniie he mihte Kir|'«Bid« kIo moo 

3. it nghtli«r tuidenlnnd ibaa be niightt tor that €Mih maa 
8. nore rightlj: undcreiand it thiui be could. For vntj man 

1. Hceal hii hii atidgitoa mottle nnd 

2. nbuuld t>v Ilia unili-rsiiuidtng's meuuR nud 

3. must accoiiling le tlie ratwura of hia undcratanding and 

1. bo hb ntmeltiu iprccnn iSiet hu Hprecti. and 

2. bjr hia Idaiire, itpctik thnt li« ajivokcth, and 
S. According to hia Idrarc, apcnk that which he q)eak% k&d 

1. don f f bo dc^. 
8. d» that lliat he doetb. 
8. do that which be doea. 

Nom. wtaUitod, from tesatk, a forHgtter, tfram*; TPUiAiiiiril. 
Itod is apparanitj alltrd to Mandan, to tiand, but ita feroe in lliia ooau* 
|iound ia not cleur. W'ealhttod ia irrl»ullf ob«oU-ii'; — bee-ltdene, 
tfJtn in iiM.'d for /Miin nnd for tanpiagt. See First SrriM, App«iidix, 
1, Chuucnr uwa Itdm, in ibla Intier avnae, in the Squieica TaJe: 

Binlit la hir* hankta hJai tbna ib« njde. 

The phnae bec-ledtn belongs to h pvriod when Anglo-Saiion waa ao 
rnr>;)f , and lalin ao uiilTetsally employed for literary purpoaea, that the 
I.itliTirMuniphHticulIy ibe langnagvof booka; — teeade tana ttendaHf 
t> turn, obaolelc in this ainMe, but snrviTii^ probably in irwiJ, ta go, 
and ttftnt.mmxxnK imp. of ^; — Avi/um, datlrepl. from AipiV, Aicifc, 

lmt. in. 



s while, time tpaee;^andgit, andgt/t, or andget, mind, inieUigetKt, 
mttitaug, phgsieai itniu, wbollj obaolcte wiUi il« uwn/ deriTatirtM snil 
eoinpotuids. The niunl «nd iuttjWtual DiHoencliilure of (he Ar|{Io- 
Sucon had b««ciDiie ulnuxit wliolly lost bv&ru Cliauwr'a tunr, an will be 
ibown ill Lviture VIII. The subsliiulioti of Itoniancu worda tut GoUiic, 
<ir Anglo-Saxuu. e.\iund«d also very liir in llie vooabulury of common 
DulerMl life. Of tlif EngliB^b iiuinus of iht! fivu M-iiaen, liro, tmte and 
(MicA, «ro ICunmuw. See »Ibo Firm Seriea. Lvcturu VI, p, 135. Bo*- 
Worth, tiiid«T andget, quol«a aa Aitglu-Suxoo writer as anyiug: ^a 
fif andgita ^Kslicbouaasj-nd. geiiht, lilytt, tprttc, e tang or 
ittHC, and Arapvugi ilie live aenaM of ibu body ar« sight, /tearing, 
{lilyel, Engl, liitfn), tfMefi, imtU, aod loach. Busworlh do««not ap- 
pear U> anxpcict niiy rrmr in this {iwva)^, but il is ]>ouible tbat iprae, 
^»e€ch, i» a misreading fi>r iim<te, l<i*te, tnill exlaot in tmack. But ihic 
ub/DORiciuuccrtiun. In thct Ancrcn Kiwic. about a.d. 1300, it in mid: 
}e bcorte wanlcina itcoS |>o vif wiltc* — uhAc & hcningr-, tpttunge and 
rawUtingc, &, vucricbca limes iii^liingc; niid wc wiillrlS *pckm of nllt^ 
nor hwo tc wit ^mw wvI, he di-A iUifamnnoi Itc^tc. The teardm* oftke 
kmrt are the /'m tenses : liyht and hearing, Kpnakiag and tmell, and 
ei-rry litays j'erJing, and tee wiU speak o/tbeia all; far ic&mum'n* hetpl 
these we4l, kedoeth* SoUmton's hett. Another tnanuMriptrvadat smcu- 
chinge Ibr apckunge, And tho U'amod<^iitor of thcCRtndi'n Society's 
pdition of lliv Annra Kiwlc thinks that, in th« copy hu printed ftoiu, 
KpckangA \a on vrror Ibr smekungi;. But ih« author of the Ancr«o 
liin'tc, in dinvuKHRg the Ivtnplationa to whicli the indulgence of (he 
BcoaN expoaoa tu^ diluK^ (inl upna sight, then upon iptteh, thuii pre- 
facing hia rcnurks ou this aubjccl: Sptllange & unccchiuige beoA ine 
muke hotic. Me albfie is iOen f «>vu : nuh wn wbulen tui«u mueelmnge 
rort ill we spoken of owur mete. Talking and taste are ^th in the 
mtHitK, at the light i» in the eyes ; but w« ihall omit umVe until tee epeak 
o/ifoiir meaS. He tbcn gof« on (o ictat of htanng, (ben of sight, eprech 
aui heiring, jdinlly, coDciudiug thin bcciiun by aaying: ^ia beoC uti |i« 
^r«o wiitrfl f> icb habben isp«keD of. SpdEti we du fchortltcbe of ft- two 
o8r«; (■aiiJ) ni« nout »ptHui*g« ^e tuuJSee wit, aae maeeehitage, ]>auh hi-o 
bpon bcuA)! ino muAc. Thett art stow the three tmtee thtU I have spoken 
of. Speak tee note ihortig «/ the other two ; though talking u not a 

■ Ihiti. It is to Iw re^rritivl th^it the bin Wniing afrgBnaaiarianB ha* re- 

freted ibe imfcrtuit iliitinctJoa bctwtca JotA, snaliMy, and deeih, iadeptaiisU. 

t Nn* llui coiiou (oaloKonco^ i D o for ca lit, «io^ ; { S < a for m liir, (|>kdi} 



ttCT. IIL 

ttVM e/tke mouth at tiuling is, thcuffk thtg are ioth in the mouth. Uu 
tlitrD [irocMsln to tn-al of lh< until and of iht touch or ftfliag, but niukes 
no mcntiou of the latti, tliough in ihv VUUh mod concludiog [«rt, bs 
girea ntl« of abstinence. In Ihv onxind punigraph of ihi« piu-t he M,y»t 
OfaihVe&nd of sjmcIk, *ad of lliu oSie yriltniii inouti i-H-id; Of tight, 
and 4if tptteh, and of tht other »cM*a enoitsh hat bttn said. Notwith-' 
•UuidiDg tfae vritur'a protest, thou, iliat 'litUiag in mit u itcnw of the 
month a$ tat^ny i«,' yet he Imbituollj' ircutcd speech ua u ncaw. Of 
the five namts of the senwa enunncrated in the jxiao^ vite<) bj 6o*- 
wotth ander andget, gttiht, tight i» iho onl/ one now tucd to indl- 
caloawnw, and hrapung, from hrapaK,li> touch, utlbntl ilscog- 
iwtoti, » tcMit altcgctlicr. 

Then wiu a ainuige oonfuxioa in tlto vm of tlic niunea of the soosoa 
in the Middiv Agt«. Cliftaocr'a croploj-niivt of feet for mtU u aa 

I vrns M nigh, I might feU 

Of llio bothum the aweta odour. 

SomatMl of the Rote,T. 18-14. 

Whttn I M nigh mc vaight fete 
Of thu bothnm the awctc odour. 

Ji. B. V. 3012. 

In&eor^nal, tbe verb ia »enttr,lM, lentlrt, lo perceive; tenfi'r 
d^iliea lo smelt in tn«di.-m Frencli AiM>;—twtotolott, advert> superl. 
from twtotoi, plain, clear, which ia ob«olctr, with all ila progenj; 
ff4reccan, recan, lo tpeat, cxiaitt only in rtcbon. Between rtean, 
(0 ^Mtit, nud reckon, lo couai, there i* the vsmo unnlogy a* bvlwoen th« 
two corTV*ponding scniea of the rcib to tell; — for hiw here n«arty the 
tneaning of ui tpite of, ttotteithstanding ; — mittlioum, dnt. pi. from 
niittic or miilie, in not iillied to miV, but it a coinpouud from mi'j 
and lie, mit-lite, unlite, discordant; — lichomaH, liodg, oIxhiIcIb ex- 
cept in the uu-EiiglitiJi lykt- or like-Vfake, corpte-tfaleh ;-~tarfof, 
obauleiu;— rim<, numbtr, not the Grxco-Latin rhythmus, ia the 
true source of our rhyme. The rewmbUnca betweeo rime and Greek 
ApiOuoi in buih form and matntDg dcaervca tintJce; — ricu, realm, Gor, 
Beich, allied to rich, but otlxirwise obiiolete; — geteorhte x x to 
itofe, turned into a lay or verse. TIii» maj", ond probably tkxs refer 
to the me(ri?«l, or rather rhylbmica] portions of Bovlhtu^ which Alfred 
tnuudated into both proie and verse; but some have anppoaed lliat the 
wliole vcnioD ia to be considered aa a opedes of meaeiu«l compoailioa. 


It would be bard, however, to liken it to anj'tbing we call verse, unless 
it be Kicbtcr's Streckvers; — healiap, infin. halstan, from hal$, 
the neck, to implore, to persuade by embracing. The root and all its de- 
nvatives are now obsolete in English; — wite, blame, allied to tioil; — 
mtc^e, measure, extant in verb, to mete; — tEtneltan, leisure, allied to 
empty. The Latin vacuus, the equivalent of emptif, was used in the 
sense of at leimre. 

Iq this pre&ce, Alfred uses no Latin word. Cardale's translation 
has seventeen, of Latin and French derivation. Many of Alfred's most 
important words, as will be seen hy the above aotes, have entirel; dis- 
^^leored from the English vocabulary. 



TiriT wt)]cti it sown ia not quickened except it (lie. Itie 
decay of an old literature is u ucccssar}' coDcUtioo prw;i*dent for 
tbe origimnion uf a now mod« of intellectual life, in iioy people 
whtdi bu u proM and a pocli^ of its own. Hod not tlio spooch 
of tl>c Aiijilo-Saxons perialied, and with it tiie fonus of lii^ntry 
effort which employed it as a metliiun, the broador-flpreitdiug 
and more generous vin^ which now rcfn^hes th« whole earth, 
had never sprung from thu rcgrnoiTUod root of that old stock. 

The Noniuiu Coui|iieiit guvu tlm tiuiahiiig atruku to the etfcta 
commonwealth of wbivh I epokc in a former lecture, and through 
the intellectual winter and fprinir-time of t]ir«e centtiriux, which 
followed tfakt cvviil, the germ of a new and nobler nalioniility 
lay biirie<l in (he soil, undergoing the slow and almost impcr- 
a-ptiiilc chiuigoB that were gradually fitting it for a vigorous 
and prolific growth. 

During this pvriod, tlio Saxon, the Norman, the Danittb 
settlor and tho few remains of tlie Celt were slowly miilting and 
conU-sciog into a bannonizod whole, if not into a homogeneous 
moKfl, and thiw a now nation, a new character, and a new Mcial 
luid political iutluence in the world of letters, of ait and of arms^ 
were gradually developed. 

The immediate moral and intullccttial rc-iitilts of the Conqueat 
wrro fully realized, and the cliimi*'ter of Kn^lisli intellect, taste 
Bud temper, so for at U-Ji^t a» foreign action was concerned, waa 
completely formed in the reign of Kdward III. — the era of 
lianglaude, and Chaucer, and Uower, and AVycliflTo. Tbu now 

Lkt. IV. 



inf^rcdicnts had.tiocQ iutroducod and iDCorpoint^d, aJid a iiiiitj 
of fcvliug and spirit f-.tUtbti»lieil, lit^fore tliuite great writer.i oom- 
mciiMH] their laiMuni. In short, KiikUsIi nationality bad becouie 
fult^^^tiwii, and all that it remained for the ConUncnt to do, id 
its capacity of an infonaiug juSuencc, wax to fumisli m-w tul- 
ditioitH tu the Block of words at tbu cummund of the Kngli.-ili 
writer, and modcU of litemry ferni to serve us leading-striuga 
for tlio tirtit eKtaj's of an incipient litttratiire. 

In tfae hiatoiT of Antjlo-Xormim England, we find compara- 
tively few tracL'S of that hoetility of ntco nbidi is so common 
bctwevu a ix>ii<)ueTed And a couquvring pi-opio, and I think that 
recent English writ«rit have exaggerated tbe reciprocal dislike 
tnd repugnance of the Nonnau and the Anglo-Saxon. A jealousy^ 
indeed, existed — for the causes of it lie too deep in humun 
nature to bv crudicat«d — and thcro are not wanting evidences 
of its oocasiona] inamfestalion ; but the civil mid sucial discurJs 
seem generally reeults of tbe contiictiug iat(.-reats and srmpatbics 
of ranks and clasws, rather than of a settJed animosity butweca 
tbe home-born and tbe comcling. 

Down to thu lime of Edward III. the two languages, uaUve 
and stranger, if not the two peoples, existed ride by ride, each 
fonning a separate current in the common channeL llieir 
intermingling was very gradiiaL Norman-Krcucb, which was 
tbe language of tlio schools, disturbed tlie inflections and tho 
articulation of Fiigli.^h, while English conlTibuled no inconridcr> 
able number of words to the vocabulary of Norman-Frencht 
modified its grammar in some particulars*, and thus created the 
dialect known hk AngI<i-Nonnan, which still sitrvivcs in import- 
ant literary rt:main3, but is moM fiuntliarly known u«, for a long 
period, the forenric and judicial language of Enghind. 

The Normans found in EngUmd as many objecu and in-iti- 
tuUoaa now to theraaelrcs aa th«y brought with them and 

* Far JaalAno)^ U OT«ttbnv the X«inau-Frmc& bv of Uu IbnnatioD of tba 
ftanl fa aosaa. 


Etau^n or Ti<iinTE!(ia cektvbt 

lAcr. IV. 

Etnpomd npon the Eoglish people. Hcaco, so loDg as the two 
diulccls co-exitite(l ax iadept'DdcDt speeches, the NomiAn, in its 
various applicatioDB and uses, borrowed u much a* it giive; iui<l 
accordingly, down at least to the accetuIoD of Kdvraxd I If. we 
tind in thv FroDcb used in iBngUnd, including the nomencUituro 
of law and govenimi.-nt, qiiito ux large a proportion of Saxon 
words as ooDtcmporauci^tw KugUxli liod borrowed from th« 

TJie entire EngliKb vocatnilary of tbc thirt«cutli centurj, aa 
far as it is known to us by its prtau^l literature, consi«tJ^ accord- 
ing to Coleridge's Gloasorial Index, of about eigbt Ihou&and 
words. Of tbcso, only about one thousand, or between tw(dvc 
luid tbirleen per cent., arc of Latin and Romance derivation. In 
iJio actual nwige of luiy «in^lii author, such words do not ittc«ed 
four or live per ct^nt., and of this amull proportion, vome were 
probably taken directly from Ijitin moral and theological lite- 
rature, Uiougli in funn tlioy ntny have been aoeommodated to 
Noruian modes of derivation. Hie language thus far was sub- 
stantially Anglo-Saxon, but modified in its periodic structure, 
and stripped of a certain number of inflectious, the lose of which 
was compensated by newly developed auxiliaries, and by a more 
libeml use of particles and dctcrininatircs. 

Philologists hare found it impoKsiblv to fix, on linguistic 
grounds, a p<*-riod when Anglo-Saxim can be said to have ceased 
and Kiigli«h to have b^un ; and this is one of the rca»on« why 
soHie are disposed to deny tliat any such melainorpliosi* ever 
took place, and to maintain the identity of the old speech and 
the new. The change from the one to Die other was so gradnal, 
Ibat if we take any quarter or even half of a century, it is not 
easy to point out any marked characteristic difTenmce between 
the general hinguago of the beginning ami the tnd of it, tbougti 
partjeular manuscripts of Ihc same work, differing not very 
much in date, sometimes exhibit dialects En very different states 
of rcsolutjon and reooujttruetion. The diflicult^ of discriminating 
the successive phases of the language by a chronological arrange- 

trcr. tV. 



in«Qt Is innch inrreofied b; tlie &ct, that lUthough then arc 
numeroun written mAnumentA from every age of English bislory, 
yet there is, in the scricM of printed vemacuUr writing, almost 
a hiatus, which e\lvii<l.i through :l large part of the thirt^^cstb 
ccntur}-, or in other words through one of the most iraportaot 
eras of English philological reTolutioo. Bo^idos tliis, we are in 
many caaett wboUj unable to diatinguiith with certainty, or even 
with reasonable probability, dialecrtic or individual peeuliaritiea 
from the landmarlcii of goD<>r:^ chanj^ and progress ; for iiot- 
withrtandiiig tho conG<lenoe with which critics axsigu p&rtimlar 
writings to particular localities, upon internal evidence alone, 
ve really know very little on the subject. Id fact, in the pre- 
sent linguistic school, British as well aa Continental, hastily 
generalized conolusioiut and positive assertion are so often sub- 
stituted for sufficient documentary proof, that be, who «tudi«( 
tho early philology of modern Kurope only ho fiu- as it ie ex- 
hibited in grammars and dictionaries, and fpeciilatire essay*; is 
very frequent accumulating uiwubstantia) theoriea, instead of 
actiuiring definite truths which can be shown to have ever had 
a real existence. 

In ages, when a native literature has not yet been created, or 
the structural formK of language established by the autliorita- 
tive example of great and generally cinmliitcd works of geniuR, 
there can be no slandaid of diction or of grammar. Most writers 
will bo persons wliow intellectual training has been a«iuirefl 
thioagfa older literatures and foreign tongues. Their fiiaefforta 
will incline to be imitutive, and tliey will follow alien models 
not only in theme and treatment, but even in grammntical com- 
podtjon. Krcry author will aim to be a philological reformer, 
tod will adopt Huch syfrtem of orthography and of syntactical 
form and arrangement as accidental circumstances, or his own 
special tastes and habits of study, may have siig^te<l to him. 
Uenoe no safe conclusions as to the common dialect of an age 
or country, at a period of linguiv-tic transition, can be drawn 
from a single example, or from tbc coueijrtent usage of a singlfl 



Lc«. IV 

writer. No historically prol>al>Ie theory of pix>frrca8 and cliAoge 
CAn explain the remarkable {j^ramiuatic&l (iifTfrencea bdweu 
the older Ba<i the not much lattr text of Layamon, or bi-l.w^n-n 
either of Ihwo and the nearly conteinponmeciu work of Omtin, 
becau«tt the iut«rv(.-i>iQjf period is entirely too short for such 
n-vobitioris to hare beea accompliithi-*). Atiil in like monucr, 
even after tlie lan^age had assumed the (^^neml chnmcter 
which now marks it, we 6nd between the two testis of the Wy- 
clillltc tranxlntioiiH of the Bible, or rather bctwoon IIeri>ford'H 
and WyclilTcV traanlntion and the first recension of it, gram- 
tDati(!ul difTej-enovii, whiofa it would be extravagant ta aseril>c to 
a general chango in English syntax during the very few yenn 
that are suppoMKl to have elapsed between the execution of thfl 
firet version nnd tb« rcvi«OQ of it by Purvey. 

Allliough the proocm of tranifonnation from Anglo-Saxon to 
English WM too givdual a»d too obscure to admit of precipe 
chronoht^ical determiaatioD, yet subsetiuent cpoclis of change 
in our vernacular, aflor it bad once dropped the forroal, or, to 
•peak moro accurately, the inflectioDal peculiarilica of Anglo- 
SoiuD gTnmmDr,nre somowliat more distinctly marked, »»d it is 
jnadicitbte to indio<it« its siiccc«ive periods by tolerably well 
charactcrited nnd ea^tily reoogiiiBablc tokt-tu, though, a» in the 
ktntory of other languages, the dates assumed as tbe beginning 
and the end of thoK^ cpodis ar« somewhat artntrury. It is not. 
however, lliat the talwr growth of Kngliob lias aiHiially In-*-!! 
more per salittm than at earlier periodn, but because, from the 
increasing uniformity of the written dinloct — a natural result 
of the gvueml circulation of tbc works of distinguished autbot«, 
and tbe <M»i:m;r|ueut universal prevalence nf the forms wbieh 
they hod oousecrated — and aluo from the much greater numlier 
of literary monumenta which ore historically known to have 
been produced in diffirent parts of tbe island, wo can trace the 
hifAory of tlic language, and follow nil tin movements with far 
greater fitcility than through periods when contemporaneous 

Lbpt. it. 

PKnioDS m BNOtisa 


writen diffcretl more widvljr and the philological memoriiiU ar« 

Th« Ty>n(lon PliHoIogical Society, m its ' Propwal for tli? 
pulilicatioQ of a, New English Uictionaty,' diridea KnglUh, for 
philological purposes, into three periods : the first, from its rise, 
about \i50, to the lioforinntioii, of vhich the fin^ prinEi-<cl 
KDf*lish trikDKlntiou of tbo Hcv Testament, in 15S6, nthy he 
tak«'4i ns the t%-irlir!!st momimciit ; the scoond, from the Reform- 
ation to and includiDg the time of Milton, or I'rora 1526 to 
I6i4> the date of Milton's dcatb ; and the thinl, from Milton 
h» our own day. 

These ptriods, I wippoite, arc fixnl for Icxico;^phtca1 con- 
Ffiiit-ucc in the ooUet-tioti of ntitliorilic^ lu I do nut diK;oTirr 
Any otlier sufficient ground for the division. Neither is Craik'a 
rfirtribution ait«ielber satisfactory. The first, or Karly Eajrlish 
period of that author extends from 12,^0 to IZ'tO; hiit 9i.-ctind, 
or Middle Kn^liiib, from the latter date to 1530 ; and bin thinl, 
or Modern Hni^liiih, from the middle of the sixteenth century 
to the present day.* This, however, seems an ohjeciionabte 
dJTtsioD as to the second period, hccausi' it cmbncett, in one 
group, wriU;nt fct unlike in lid-rary and philolof;ieal rhiiracter 
ai TAiiglande and Wyatt, WyelifTe and Sir Thoniiis More; anJ 
M to the la<it, because it orerlooks the philolo^od rcrolulion 
due to the introduction of printing, the more general ditfosion 
of clasdcsl literature, and the first impulse of the Rerormatinn, 
•nd clmcfl together writent wIki liave «o little in common as 
&T Philip .Sidney and Walter ScotL i att<u:Ii very little im- 
portance to these arbitraty divisions of the annals of our lan- 
guage and literiiturc, hut bavlni; on a former occasion adopted 
an armn^cnient not coinciding with cither of these systems, I 
•hall, both for the sike of uniformity.and becaaw I have fomid 
it at once convenient and suited to my vievrii of English phjlo- 
Inpcal history, substantially adhere to it in this cout«i\ Tht 

OoD^SM of tbv IliXorj of tb« Ei^IbIi Li^najik 


WBI0B8 w tyouen 

firtit period I would, with Cisik, consider u oxtt^ndiDg from 
about tli« midiilc of the thirtet-nth to tlic middle of tlio fonr- 
t«pnlli centiir; ; thi^ second wauM trnninnte with tli« Uiird 
quarter of tlie sixteenth century ; thn ttiird would onbnice all 
iiiibeequcnt phitsefl of both the Uogaoge and the literature 
down to ttic time of Milton, with whom the second period of 
the Philological Society conclude*. Tbs qncrtEon of suhaoqiioDt 
division or nulxlivision ia at present unimportant, hecaim-, for 
reasons already giren, I do not propose to carry down my 
eketchcs later than to the age of Sbakepcare, when I consider the 
language oa having reached what in the geography of great 
river* is called tlie tower coune*, and aa having become a flow- 
ing sea capable of hearing to the ocean of time the mightiest 
argoeiee, a mirror clear enough to reflect tbe changeful hues of 
cver^- sky, nnd give body and outline to the grandest forms 
which the human imagination bati ever conceived. 
, Tbe liternture of England, were it to be considered without 
reference to the revolutions of ite vehicle, might admit and per- 
haps require a division into very difTerent eras. Some of tlieae 
would commence with prominent and well-marked epocJMt of 
eudden transition, while in others, the periods arc sepArated by 
an age of apparent intellectual inactivity, during which tbe 
tnoDuments are too few and too insignificant to enable ub easily 
to trace the course of those hidden intlueiio'K, which were secretly 
and silently training and costuming tbe dranuilit pejvontv for 
a new and more triumplumt entry upon tbe stage of literature. 
But we propose to consider the language and its literary pro- 
ductivity as co-ordinate power*, reciprocally stimolating and in- 
teuiufying encb oU)cr, and hence, ao far ba their history is not 
concurrent, we must dietinguish their respective cbronologicA] 



* la Oramas, UutetlsoC oir vitli •onw writMi. Strom, k tliat krvrat audi 
IWuaUy narifnlile pttt of lh« wniw tt* nrer, vbtr* 11* nii>tlon ii due ]«• to tlivl 
inclinilion of ita Iwl tltui lo tlie nHinMnlam tMiuIrfd Iijr prvrieiu njadil^ of flow, [ 
■nd to Um hj'dTOalatv (■Tcasorc of tba iwiflct carrccli &<aai higbcr put* «f iu ) 




eras. I bftrc alri>adj- stated tliat the English language trftAined 
to ft rccogDtzable cxUtcuoc u k dislioct indiTiduality about the 
middle of the thirteenth century. Wc must now fix a period 
which is to be regarrled u tlie birth-dity of Kn<{li$h literature. 

When then cud England be said to liare fintt posccsscd a na- 
tive and peculiar literature? The mere exi^tlence of numeroua 
niitiDiscripts, ia the popular dialect, belonging to any given pc- 
riod, does not prove the esistenoa of a national literature at that 
epoch. A natioaal literature commeDces only when the geuiufl 
of the people exprcxsex itself, through Dative authors, upon to- 
pics of permanent interest, in tlic grsmtuatical and rhetorical 
fomui beHt suited to tho MSentfal character of the vernacular, 
and of thoKO who speak it. It is under such circnmitaDccfl only 
that prose or poetry exerts a visihle influence upon the speech, 
the tastes or the opinions of a imtiou, only by concurrent action 
aad re-action that literature and at^ciate life begin to stiDiulate 
and modify each other. In order that such effects may be pro- 
duced iu a mixed people, the races which enter into the compo- 
sition of the nation, and the dialects of those races, must Itave, 
to a consideruhit! extent, been liiLrnioniKcd and melted into one, 
and the people and the speech, thotigh clhnitlogically and histo- 
rically derived from different aod uoallied sources, miwt havn 
become so far ainalgamiitcd at to excite a feeling of conscioot 
iodividuaJity of nature and ■.■ommiiuity of interest in the popu- 
lation, and of oDeoea of substance and structure in the tongue. 

In a composite nation, such a union of races and of tongues 
strange to each o4hcr, such a neutralization and, finally, assimi- 
tatioo of antagonist elements, c&n only be the effect of a gradual 
mterfiision and a long comminfjling, or of some vis ab tatra 
which forces the reciprocally repellent particles into that near 
eontigttity when, as in the case of magnetic bodies, repuldoD 
eeaaes and attraction begina. 

The English political and other occadonal ballads and eonga 
of the thirteenth, the beginning of the fourteenth and probably 
earlier centuries, do not constitute a literature, nor would they 


rosioH or ;>ATioini asd or dialects 

Uei. IV. 

do »o, were tlw-y ten times more nainerous, because nMtlier the 
puMiu to wliioli tliey wvru nildrecMd, oor tbv speech in whJcti 
they were penned, yet poHessed aay onviic-«s <^f spirit or of 
(lialecLic form, aitd lieotiuse tliey verc foiindt^ on ercnts too 
circumscribed ID tbcir nclion, and on interests too tempomry id 
their nature, to appetd to ttie sympaUiiea of more than a single 
claw or province or ffencration. 

These compositiuDs were itometimos is Latin, sometimes in 
Norman-Frciieb, nod MiiictimeH (n dJaleot* of Siuou-Enf'lisbf 
wbieb had loi^ nil t3ie power nf [loetic ejcpmrnion that cbamdcr' 
bed the ancient Anglican tongiie, without hafing yet aot^utred 
anything of the graoes of diction and adaptation to venufied 
compo»itioQ already developed in the neigbbotxring Romance 
laDguuge»; and lastly, they were Aomctimcs nuiuaronic Tboy 
cannot, Uierefure, be regarded as the exprewfoo of anytliing 
which de-wrvea to he callc<l the national mind, though, indued, 
we trace in them, here and Cher?, the germs which were soon to 
be quickened to a strong and genial growth. 

The welding heat, which fioidl; brought the oonsttinents of 
English nutiouality into a coDustcnt nod coherent mass, was 
generatetl by the Continental wars of EdMurd III. The con- 
nection between tliotic oonstituentM )uul been hitherto n political 
■ggregulion, not a social union ; they had fonne>l u group of 
provinces and of races, not an entire and organized common^ 
wealth. Up to tliia period, the Latin «a the official language of 
the cler^, the Normjin-Frcni^ u tJiat of the court, the nobility, 
and the multitude of nmodattSf ntaiucfrr, dependents, and trades- 
men whom the Nomuin Conqueiit had brought over to the 
island, and the native English as the speech of the people of 
Saxon descent, had cn-existed without much clashing interfer- 
ence, and without any powerfully active influence upon eacb 
other ; and those who bahttually spoke them, though apparently 
not violently boBtUo races, were, nevertbelen, in their o»)tocI»> 
tiona and their intercKtt, almoat as distioet and unrelated an tho 
liiDj^uit^cit tlieiAselves. 

UcT. IT. 

OUfllX or XtlBRUCRB 


There was, then, nettbcr a national irpeccfa nor a naUuiiiI 
^irit, and of course iLore was and could be no national litera- 
ture, until tlic latter half of the fmirteentli centiiry. Trae, tbe 
Ormnlttm, and the chronicles of Robert of Gloucester, and 
Robert of BrnDQC, voluminous Mvrks to be noliix-d hvn-ant-r, 
as well w roaity minor prxhluctious in tbe native language 
exi#1«l farlicr; but they were in no *reuse organic pn>duct8 of 
Englitth g(tni>i*, or stamped with any of tbe peculiarities which 
we now recognise as characteristic of the literature of Ensl"-nd. 
We have no proof that any of these writinip! rxi-rtcd much gi-iieral 
inBuenec in tb« formation of ttic Eiigli*b character or the 
English tongue, but they are important aa eridences of tbe nature 
and amoimt of changes vhicb political, social, and commercial 
causes, rather than higher iulellcctuul impulses, had prodaced 
in tlu: language and the people. 

In one a^ect, then, the general subject of our cotirse pro- 
perly bof^ns with the age of Langlando and Wycliffe and Gowcr 
and Chaucer; but we propose to make a special study of tbe 
languAf^, sot merely as a passive medium of literary effort, 
bat as an informing clement in the character of that effort; and 
beooe we must preface our more formal literary discussions 
with something more than a bnsty glance at an cm of blind 
and obscure influeni-vs — - a rtage of that organic, involuMlary, 
and, so to ^eak, vegetal action by which the materials of our 
maternal tongue were assimilated, and its members fashioned, 
just Its in animal physiology tbe powers of nature form the 
body and its organti before the breath of conscious life ts breathed 
into them. 

In invectigating the origin of a literature and the relations 
between it and the tongue which is its vehicle, it is a matter tit 
much int«rL9t to uscrrlain the causes which have determined 
tbe character of the language in its earlituit iudividuulisod form ; 
and we can, not un&equeotly, detect the more genera] iufluencea 
and their mode of operation, as certainly in the speech iLscif iis in 
historical monumcuts. When, for example, we find, in follow* 




iog ihe liEiitoiy of a given tongue, nn infunon of new wordt or 
idioms 6f a particular liaguis^o cliaiactcr, we can gcuerally 
reoognixe the source Trom which they proccoded, with littla 
danger of mleUikc- : and the claas of words and oombiiuitions 
■0 borrowed will often furnish very satisJiictory endoicc a» to 
Ibe bistorical or ethuolo^cal chiu'acter of the influenecH which 
have been operative in their iutniductiou. If, for example, the 
vocabulary of trade, and especially of navigation, bo foreign In 
its origin, there is a strong presumption that the people wiu not 
ori^nully a commercial one. but that it possesMd or olftborntcd 
natural prodtict« suited to the wont* or the ta«t«s of other 
nationa, who were more addicted to traffic and foreign inter- 
couTve by sea or land — and that strangers have bestowed a 
mereanlile nomeDclature upon those to whom they resorted for 
pun-hH>e or exchange. If the dialect of war be of alien 
parentage, it is nearly certain that the people has, at aocod 
period of its oxiHtenec, l>een reduced by conquest and Bubjectm) 
to llie sway of nnotlier race, or at lca«t. that it baa learned, by 
often repuUiDg foreign inviuiion, effectually to resist it If tbe 
pbnMe<^og7 of law and of reli^on l>e not of native growth, we 
may be Kure that the jurisprudeuce and the creed of tbe land 
have been imposed upon it by immigrant I^islaton and 

In early Anglican linguistic an(l literary history, however, w« 
are not left to infer the nature of tbe c-uuivh of change from 
their viable efTecta. I'be ooDt«mporaneous political and histo- 
rical records and monuments — or rather the materials for the 
oonatruction of such — arc so numiTOus and so full, that though 
wo are left much in the dark with refereuoc to tbe social and 
domestic life of the Normao, and more especially tbe Saxoo 
population, and to many grammatical changes, yet the general 
relatioDS between the ADglo-KoAoo people, the Romish nu»- 
Monariea wbo converted tbcm to Christianity, the Northmen 
who plandered and for a brief peHi:>d rulnl over tbeni, and the 
Normon-FieDcb who finally subdued them and gradually amal> 

UcT. IT. eivsxa waica ntrLOE;EceD kablt esqusu 


gaiBAted with thfin, are well understood ; and we csa accord- 
ingly see io what way, though aot ulwuyo to wbat precise exben^ 
each of Uiosc ditttii-liiug laQueacc* taay b&ve aflTect^d the tipeecfa 
of Engl&nl. 

The difficulty of measunng and apportioniag the relative 
amount of effect produced by these different cauwa arises from 
tbc fact, that although they may sometimes have ticutntliKH 
«ich oilier, they arc frequently concurrent in their action, or 
&11 in witb already existing tendencies inherent, aa some hold, 
in the Anglo-Saxon language, but more probably impressed 
apoD it by drcamstanceH common to all the untions which baw 
participatol in the influc-ucvs of modem Europeun civilization. 
There are many ca»e« in which it ia quite iropracticiibht lo de- 
termine to which of several po^sihle causes a given effect is to 
be ascribed. With respect to these, we must content ourselves 
witb a balimcc of probubiliCies ; and us to thosr^ niimt-roiiH phi- 
lological data which can he historically connected witli uo kimwa 
older lact, a simple statement of the phenomena is, for the 
present, better than the shrewdeet gne«8 at the rationale of them. 

I shall hnvc occasion to illustiate the Dark Ago of Knglish 
{■liilologtcal history, the tJiirtcenlb century, by more or lcf» full 
references to many of its most impflrtaril nclicfi, but the attention 
of the student should be specially directed lo the four most 
conspicuous mouumeots which serrc to mark the projrress of 
change from (he AngI»-&ixoD to the Engli.di. Tht^^i- are 
Layamon's Chronicle of Brutus, the Aucren liisle, the Onnulum, 
and Hobert of Gloucester's Cbronicl& Tbe dialect of the 6ret 
three of these is generally civllcd Scmi-Saxon ; that of the last 
Eorly-Englisli, or ^inply, Kngli»h. Excepting tlie Ancren 
Kiwle, they are, anfortunately, all in verse. I ssy imfortunately, 
becaoso to tracing the history of the Huctuatioos of language, 
prose writings arc generally much mun- to be depended ou than 
p>etiy. The dialect of poetry is, for rhetorical reasons, always 
more or leas Temovrd from tbe common speech, and thi- f«-tri.T!i 
t£ rbytbm, metre, alUterstion* and rhyme incTitably affect both 



Lect. IV. 

the choice of words and the cmployntent of IntloctM forms.* 
Tlie convrational cftnomt of vcrsc, iind tliu habitu&l studies ntid 
Iniining of poetical writers, t«nd to hegut in thcro a di;fc-r<m(.'ti 
to the auUiority of older models and an attachmoiit to archaic 
modes of cxprrsnoQ. Honcc it follom that the Tocabulary ot 
poetry ii uHually in an carlEvr »tagb of development thim that of 
CODtotnporancoiis pro«e,and especially of coiilvmiwrancous vcr- 
aaoular speech, aod it is consequently rather behind than la 
advance of the laojni^^ o{ common life, and of onliaary written 
communication. Wo cannot, thwrefori-, siippoiw that oither of 
the workit to which I refer pretents a tnie picture of the laoguaga 
in which Englii>hnieD spoke and corresponded upon the moral 
and material erentR and interests of their time, at the sereral 
periods when thcj- were written. 

On the other liaiid, the diction of poetry [« ]e«i subject to 
accidental and temporary disturbances than that of proM ; ita 
TDcabuIary and sjntax usually conform uiore truly to the asaea- 
tia] genius of tho epccch, and radical and abiding characteristica 
of lan^ia^ are more faithfully exhibited by it than by the dia- 

* Vnn MMrlaot, «. d. 123d — 1900, In hi* Lrvem i«a fttneutut, quoted hy 
Bonotth, t4f*i 

Enilfi omiliil ic Vtaniiti; bm, 
Mil gocdcr \ivttr Lidilio hm, 
Pis Ait XyitUcltB aultcn lorn, 

EiiJn Ii'iuti MIT ill toiiiich <mort, 
J>it ill !i>'r Ibd'] m nni^rho'it^ 
ilea mort om dc rime acvkta 
Uiawlikc toiiifiis it) lQuI:«n. 

ia IttmilMi bj Bowrinic. Ai^'ik AnIitJ. p. 25. 

i'oT 1 *m FI ydi, I jtm bsoctis 

Otj^yoj* oourifxT^. ul mid rtU^, 
That ihol lliji Ihxhi- cliMinni ptroM] 
Unto mo nat yoan! pn™ rriuaf ; 
Ani yt je tyaiaa naj vor^e 
' In foisn connliTT thU j% nnturdl^ 

ThjBkrtli tint tUrfcjt for hv rjam 
Takes ui talninge wordo ■omKjrm*. 
S««worf li. Oriyin of tit Cfrm. and Semi. Lang. {>. lOL Bm FM 
OuTM, Lw tiire VIU, pL I.W, ud XTIL, p. 33a 




lect of other forins of compoeition, wliicb are more affected b; 
tlte caprices or peculiarities of the individual, or by other coa- 
tingcnt cau<<«. 

We sltiiU, thun, not widely err if we coiuider tiiese works as 
psampW, Bot indeed of the diuly speech of their own times, 
hut na following, at a ooosidcrable iQtcrTal, the general move- 
ment of the Englifih toogue, und, in the muin, faithfully reonrd- 
ing its greater inulations. 

But, as has been before observed, there in rciwoo to believe 
that the confuMon of dialects was such during almost tlie nhole 
of the three centuries next following the Norman Conquest, 
that no one could fairly lay c)uim to be considered as the stand- 
an) of the national toii^ie. Wc have not the ineuiis of knowing 
how fur cither of tlte writiiitjs in (juestion corresponded with 
sotac loeal roodification of the common speech, or bow far, on 
the contrary, it stands as a representatire of the more general 
lax^;uage of the land. Critical irritcrs spook of particular w.jirks 
as marked by Northern, or Southern, or WcsUro, or Northum- 
brian, or Anglian peculiarities ; but these tenmi are^ from our 
ignorance of the local extent of sucli pocubaritica, necesnrily 
used in a vague and loose application, and it would be ve^ 
ba7.-irdouR to suppose that they hare any precipe geographical or 
ethnological accuracy. 

Of pro«e English compositions of the twelfth and thirt^-entli 
centiirie:^ wo have not enough in print to enable us to coinptirc 
the {KH^lic and prose dialects of thow periods, and our knunhslge 
of actual speech in the vernactdnr of tho«e centurlen is extremely 
linkited, our conclu^ionB based upon uncertain premises. The 
Saxon Chrouicle come;* don-n to about the year ) 150. The dia- 
lect of Ihu latter portion of it npprnximutc* to English syntax, 
bat it is generally considered as uncquiTocally Anglo-J>nxoa ; 
^nd there are many fragments, in both prose and verse, of later 
Ji*, in which that language was still employed, others so 
>nfused in syntax, that it i» vitt,- difficult to detennice whether 
thej are most closely related to the old lauguugu or to the new. 

JE ±^ 



Ls;t. II 

The following extract from the Siixon Chronicle will serve 

show tufficiculJy the grammatical character of Anglo-Saxon at a 

, period soon ufler the Conquest ; for though it U not on-rtuin at 

what precise date it was written, it is evidently older than the 

chaptera which oonlAia the annals of the twelfth century. 

Milliiiiina LXXXIIL On ftUiim gettre aras aeo nnge^nnuiB on 
GlieMingat>)'ng betwjx ]iam obbode Durstime & liia tniui«>c&u. Mnat 
hit cow of ptM BbbotM unwisdoine. f lie niiabctul lii« tuuuccsQ on fcia 
)iingu). & pa munecas hit nmniiou l»r«lic« to hitii. & hesuiim liii>c ^ 
]m aceolde hcaldan hi rihtlicc & lufun hi. & hi wcJdon him boon 
botde & gebyniiniv. Ac m: nhhnt noMc f9M nnhl. ne. dyiir hmm vfolc 
ft beheot hv^m wyr*. Aiw* lUr^cii pe *bbot code into o»piiul;in. & 
■pntc uppon I'D muDccna. & woldc hi mintukun. & Mnil« wRtv linrnle 
mftnaum. & hi cuimm into oapitiilan on upfK>9i |>n mtincciu lull flcwc- 
pncxlo. And f^ vrteTon )■» munccm *wiS« ilrrvilR at hrom. nyiitoa 
hwt:t bcora to doiinu wure. oc loiacutMi. mime union into cjrun te bt* 
, lucan pm dnnin hito hvoui. & hi ft-TilDn rAct hvom into fam mrnnlrv. 
& wnMoQ hi;^ lit dragan. )« ^ii lii^ nc <Ion[(:ii nil ut gan. Ac rrowlia 
^in^ I'nr ^liun[> on d«g. f |>» Pi-eiiciace men brwcvn )ion« ch6r. St 
lorfedao towterd |>sm weofude. |iter fA munecaa w«ron. & Kime at 
fam cnihtan ferdon uppoa ^onc tippdlure. & •colotton ddimwrard mid 
4rvwtui toweard ^am haligdome. awn f on ^unv rode. |<c Mod bulbn 
fam wwfbde. Micodon on nuciii;;L- arvwan. VI: |>a wn-ccan miuivuu 
lagon oabaton 1>am wvofode. & suinc crujion undirr. & g}'mc clrapcdun 
lo Godc. bin miltiM- biddciide. fn |>it hi ne mthion nuni; miltac ict ronii> 
Dum bt^tun. UwKt mu^i'ii wt- Kc<^cun. Iiitton f fat scul4-'ilofi swiSb, 
ic f-a oKru )>u dura biwcon pvtt aduae. & codun inn. it ofidogon autne 
pA mujieou to dcotle. & iiueni^ gewiinilvdon pwrinnc. swa f ^ blod 
000) of ^am wKofode tippon ^aro gradun. it of fam gradan on ftt Hon. 
Vno fmt wnron o£tlagene to dcafia. Si euhlaieooe gewundada. M 

By Tborpe'a nearly literal translation of this passage, it will 
be seen tiiat the construction of the period was rapidly ap> 
proacbing to the modem English arrangomont. Keeping Ihii 
in mind, th« 8tudeitt will be nbl« to compare tho text and tbi 
translation by the aid of tfa«M observations. 

Ungc^wsmea la from the adjective ge)>wnr, or ^wnr, agreeing^ 
cojuooant, pleatani, Iicyond whkh I can trace no radical, nor do 1 


I.1CT. IV. 



BicmLcr any probably coKnate woTd in Ui« Golhlo language*. It ia 
quite obtoletc in Engliiili; — misbead ih fVom miabeottan, coiiip. zt 
^portielf! mis- and beodan, to Airf, command or govern ; — lufclieo 
la an adverb from luftan, to luve, meaning here, kttidly, alTi;ction!itoly, 
^hold, &itl:ful, goiile, now obsok'ie, but exraiit in tbe sLstef-tongnf*; 
— beiieot is Ax-m behatan, to promise; — miittukiBD ia a compound 
ofmifl- and luctan, to punihli or ditcipline-, obsolete in Engliab, 
but still found in all tho Gothic Inngiiiigot; — drcrcd of hvom, 
arraid of them; Afcred ia a parUdpIo from ^fwran, to put in 
fear; a/mrf in a comiption of it; — of is not a Rgn of the posM-^ve, 
bnt mciuin by; — toncuton is Irom aco^tan, to «hoot, riifh, Hli:;— 
uroon, fiom yrnun, a tmnspoaiiivc form of rcnnan. to run; 
>— bclacan, from bclucan, to nhiit or lock, wliraco tltu Kngliuli 
lock; — gulnmp A'om gulimpiin or Hmpian, to bnppra, now obso- 
lete; — torfedon, from torfian, to thraw or nhoot, obiolelv;— weo- 
fod, altar, Mid to be from wig, tm idol, and bed, a rcsiing-pbice. now 
obaokte;— rode from rdd, crosa, ^allowH, extant in rood-lofl, Holy- 
rood. Ac,;^gyrne, alHtd to tht modem ,v«irn:—.miUs« from mlid, 
metciful, mild; — begytan, extant in get, bt-jrtt; — eodon, imp. asso- 
ciate with gan, to go, obiwleto in modeni Engliati, tliuugli still used in 
ibe fourteenth century;"— sume |>a muuecaa, eomfl the monks. Th* 
BDodcru form, some of the monks, is a foreign idiom; — gradan, ftom 
grad, a atrp, Lat. gradua. I huve no doubt tliat grtf., grir, n i>irp, 
irliidi occtira in «> many forms in curly English, and which romr nrflrr 
to » Celtic origin, is the sain« word, tuid that the Cvlta olao took tbvir 
term irom the Latin . 

Thorpe's translation ia aa follova: — 

As. MLXXXIIl. In this year arose the discord at GlasWnbui^-, be- 
twixt the abbot Thur«liln and bis inooks. It came flt«t from the abbol'n 
lack of wisdom, so that he misruled hi* monks in many things and the 
monks meant it kindly to him, and pmyed him that he would entreat 
Ui«m rightly, and love them, nnd ihcy would be faithful to bim, and 
obedient. But the abbot would nuuglit of this, but did rhcm evil, and 
threatened ibein wortKi. One day the ablmt went into tbu cliiiptcr— 
house, and spnke against tbu monkH, and would miiniac tbi-ni, and H-nt 
after lajancn, and ihey cnme into tbe chapter-liotutu ujion the monka 
full-anncd. And then the monks wltl- greatly afraid of tbeni, knew 
BOt what they wen- to do, but Red in all direciioua: aonie tan into the 
cbtirch and lorked the doora afltr th«n ; and th*y went aflor them 
into the inona»lfTj", and wouM Uraj; tliein out, aa tliey diinrt iiol go out. 
But a rueful thing happened there ou ibul day. The Krenclunan broln 
■ And «Tcn jet in Scotland, gang. 



LrcT. IV. 

into t}i« qiiirr, nntl hnrlcd tovrarda tbc altar vhrtv tlie tnouks v?i«; 
■nd M>mu of rhc yonag onea wrat np oa the ii)>pcr Hoor, and k<pt 
iliooting downward wilh ojTOwt toward* iho Nuictiiary, m ilwt in th* 
Mod tlut Mood ahovn tfae alimr Ui«r« itiick monv iLrroum. And ih* 
Tri«lcbed moiikH Iny aboiit itin allnr, >nd nofiM- rri-pt undrr. and mni- 
cbIIj' cried to God. imploring hix n>orcjr, icriog that iIm-j nii^t n(>t ob- 
Iniii sny mfrcy from m«ii. Wliul cut wc siy, b«l that iht-j- nbot 
cruelly, ami l!ie oiiici* brake down llic doon thvtv, iinil uctiI in, luwl 
slew )iom« of tli« monka to d<-aili, and trouitded nniiy ilivrt'iu, »■> (tiat 
the blood <%\mc ftom llic ultar u[K>ti the atvps, and from the iIcjm (m 
fioor. Three wcro th«r« slain to death, and eighteen wounded. 

iiat I 

Although this extract Bhovns an Approximation to tlio moclero 
HVDtactical construction, which, its I hare ^idoavoured to ehow 
in a formur li'Cture, is in a oouiid(>rable degree borrowerl from 
the Fri'Dcb, yd thus far tho SaxoD Tocahulaiy had rt-ceivcd rory 
few cniitributiuDK from tbat Hourcv. Them i» not n Ringle 
French word in tJiO vfhole poMa^, while Thorpe'ii trAOslatiou 
contains fourteen, and eight of the Anglo-Saxon words of the 
original, with numcroua compnuuds and dorivativus from the 
eame roots, have become entirely obsolete. 

The work of Layamon, or perhaps Xa^timon— for we do not 
know the Mound of the 3 ia this natnc — is a v<«rntied chronicle 
of the t^arly fabulaitg history of Britain and its anciont royal 
dynasty. It commences with the defitruetion of Troy and the 
flight of ^neos, from whom descended Brutus, the futitid/r of 
th<- nrtii>>h niiiiiarchy, aiid cstpuiU to the reign of Athelstati. 
The aiillwritiea on which Layamon founds his narrative, as he 
himself states, are 'the Snglish book that St. Beda made' 
(meaning proliahly King Alfrifi's Anj;lo-Siuiin Iranfll.ition of 
Beda's Eecleaiaatical History, from which however, he seems to 
l>ave borrowed little), two writers, Albinus and Austin, who ar« 
not known to have produced any historind work^— Uiough Bed« 
acknowledges his obligations to the former for materials fnmLtbed 
him for the composition of his Ecolesiaiitical History of England; 
and lastly and chiefly, a thinl 'book, that a French clerk higlit 
Wace male* This latter work is the romance of Bnit, trac 




lated hy Wuce or Giisse, into Kormaii-Frcncli, from Geoffrey of 
A [oDnio utiles Latin IlUtory of tbe Itritoiii), uad completed, as 
appears by the concludiog couplet of the poem, in the year 

Layamoa has enlargeil upon his original, for the verftioa 
of Wace contains but 15,300 lineit, while I^ayamon's work 
extcntU to more than 32,000, though, aa the linca in the 
Inttvr ure shorter than tb« octo-5)~llabic verse of Wucc, thu 
quantity of matter i» not twice as groat Souio unimportuat 
paaaagea of Wace are omitted, and much i» added. The addi- 
^iions by Layamon are the finest parts of the work, almost the 
only part, in fact, which can be held to possess any poetical 
tni^t. We have not the means of ascertaining how far tfae«e 
are of Layamoa's own invention, for be occauonally refers, in 
a va^iic way, to other ' hooka' aa authorities for his narratives, 
and it i» probable that many of thu incidentit were borrowed 
from older nnd now forj^tten legends. lie seldom conforms 
eloeely to the lost of VVoee, and his compiu-ativo elevation of 
diction, of thought, and of imagery, entitles his work (o a 
higher rank than that of hiA original, and stamps it as a pro- 
duction of some literary merit. 

Tlie veisiticatioQ ia irregular, so metimea unrhymedand allite- 
rativo, tike that of the Anj^lo-Suxons, and tometamet rhymed 
like that of Waoe; sometimes merely rbythmEcal, sometimes 
in lines composed of refrular feet, thus showing, in the structure 
of the vorso a» well as in the syntax, evidences of Norman influ- 
ence. The two Kyxtema of versilicatioa are -intermixed, both 
sccurriDg sometim(-s in a single couplet, and the employment of 
nettfaer reata on any <liHcoverahle principli^ except that of mere 
convenience to the writer. The rhymed lines liear but a small 
proportion to the alliterative, and in general the rhythm follows 
that of Anglo-Saxon models. It is rentarkablu that aaao- 
nanoe, or correspoadence of vowels white the consonants differ, 
elsewhere hardly known in English reise, ia mudi used. 




Th€fle remarkable discrepancies in ToreiRculion Hiiggcst * 
doubt whether the chronicle of Laronion i« to l>c reganlwi sw a» 
cnttri.- work, and not rather aotbcproduclionof neventl different 
liAiidit, whoAC labours have be«n collected and faxhioned into a 
whole hy later editors and copvists^ But the plan has too much 
unity to render this supposition probable, and the lapee of time 
between the completion of ^Vace's poem and the date of tbo 
oldest maniiBcript of L>ayamon ia too short to allow of a «ucce>- 
sion of independent tramlatora. It is, bowerer, hj do mewis 
unlikely tliitt I^yamon availed himself of Tersionii by earlier 
writt-ra, who translated directly from Geo0rcy of Monmouth, 
and thiH may aerre in eom« degree to explain the want of uni- 
formity in bis Toreo. 

There is neither iuternml nor external eridenoe by which the 
date of the poem con be fixed with exact predaioii, but there 
are allusioos to events nrhich occurred late in tbe twelfth 
centuiy ; and, ou the other h»nd, the character of the diction 
and f^rnnior justify us in mying that it oould scnroely bare 
been written after the commencement of tbe thirteenth. 

It appears from the prologue, that Layamon reoided at Emiey 
in North Worccater^ire, and it ia hence argued tJiat tlie dialect 
in which he wrote was chamcteristic of that region. Tliis i« too 
slight crideiice to tvtablish a probability thut he confiQed him- 
self to the dialect of a shire, of which he may not have been a 
native and where his rcwideuce may have 1>e«>ii >ihort, and the 
external proof upon this point is not entitled to much con- 

There exists a manuscript of Layamon, which appears to have 
been written about tbo be^DQin^ nf the thirteenth c«ntiir)% and 
was therefore nearly oonteiiiporaneous vitlt the author. In the 
wont of evidence to the contrary, we are authorised to presume 
that this manuscript gives us the work substantially as Layamon 
wrote It. There is also extant a manuscript supposed to be 
only half a century, or thftxMit)'>ut*, younger. Tliis exhibit* 
diiTetences loo great to be explained upon the mippositinn of 




chan^ iQ the syntas of the lan^iage id ao bri^r a 
period, and vrhit-b moreovor arc not easily reconciled with any 
iticorjr of th<; cboLrac-turittticM of locul dialect);. \Vc must con- 
elude, eitlii;r (luit thia maiiii^cript belongs to n Intur period than 

' that ossigiied to it by the criticR, that the dtidect of the older 
manuscript was much behind its time, or tJiat tliere Ker« two 
ocorly contt-mportincoua diidccts in more widely different states 
of progrt-im, tbau wu should iiifi^r from auy other evidence. 

Tlie inflcctioniil aud syntactical character of IjnyamoD I shall 
discuss in remarks upon the passages 1 cite by way of illustra- 
tion, and I will here barely notice what la perhaps tie most 
remarkable, though not the most important, peculiarity in tb« 

kjrramtnar of Layamon — tlie use of the possessive pronoun hi^ 
a sign of the pos^eiiaive case, as when, iu more modem 
Eogli^b, it was not unusual to write Jokn hia book; iQiit<fa>l of 
John's book; As I have somewhat fully examined this point iu 

'my former series of Lectures on the English Language, I will 
not now again enter upon it.* 

Although the Chronicle of Layamon still retains % largo 
proportion of the Aiiglo-Kaxon inflectional forms, yet it approx- 
imate* ao closely to modem English in structure of period, that 
DO previous grammatical study is ret[uirod to read it. The fflos- 

'aarial index of the admirable edition published by Sir Frederic 
Madden in 1857, oonlains all the stem-forms and all the inflec- 

, tions, with references to the passages where they occur ; so that, 
with this help and that of the tiot», not to «peak of tbe tiaos- 
latJon which accompanies the text, any person of ordinary 
intelligence may peruse it with entire ease and »a',isf:iction. 

Tbe ^dmeus I select for illustration of Lavamon's dio- 
tiiHt and grammar are among his additions to Wace. The 
first consists of what Sir Frederic Madden calls ; ' Tbe amusing 
and draroatio passages relative to the Irish, and their conflict 
with the Britons.' Tbe second and third are characterized by 

Sm Fint Soriciv Loctun WILL, p, 8311. 

^^m 158 

LATAUOX l.n^. IV. ■ 

^^^1 the*nmc «ditor as: 'the 

highly curious passage [s^ regarding ■ 

^^^H the fairy elvea at Arthur's 

birth, and bis tniiiopuitution by tbem H 

^^^1 »ft«r death in a boat to Aralon, the abode of Argantv, their H 

^^^H queen.' Tliry will not give Iho ii-adcr so high an opitiiuti of | 

^^^1 l«jiunoa's gi'»iu8 as Home 

of his critics have tufcnained, and in ■ 

^^^H fact liiii mcriU as a translator secu to be greater than bia power ^^| 

^^^1 as an original vritvr. 


^^^H In the folJon-iug examples, th« first coliimn exhibits tlie oldest H 

^^^1 known text, I>elieved to he of I^yamou's own time, or very near 1 

^^^1 it ; the second, aa has boi-n ohaerved, is thought to haro been 1 

^^^1 written about half a century later. Tbo points are proMdioal* B 

^^^1 not marks of punctuatioD. 


^^^P prr ifah Gillomar 1 

po t-rdi Giltotmr! ^^M 

^^^H Whnr him com Tther. 

war lii com Vthcr. ^^^| 

^^^H & lirhdc hifcnihU*! 

andbcbtc hiioithtest ^^^| 

^^^^H to nvpiic furS nhWSi 

wepoi heoni fur|iribtcf. ^^^| 

^^^H & hco lo-kiliuo 

And fail tO'bliuc! ^^^| 

^^^^P & gripcn lirorc cnititt. 

noomsn liint cnioM^ ^^^| 

^^^^1 & of mid here brochnt ! 


^^^H feolcutv wmren hcora lochcC 


^^^H A igripcn on hoorc hond E 

and (^ptm on hire bonda 1 ^^^| 

^^^H bcor* fporvn longer 

birv Rpi-nii looge. ^^^| 

^^^H bongcn an h«ore axte ! 


^^^^1 muclc wi- KXK. 


^^^H pa liciclc Gillomar ft king ! 

po &ul« Gillomar ]>a kbg 1 ^^H 

^^^H a (mUe feolUc |>iiig. 

a riri)>c f«llkk ^ing. ^^H 

^^^^1 Her cunicS VCer ! 

Hot comcf Tiber! ^^^| 

^^^H Anrilics broiler. 

AuTcIic his bro^. ^^^| 

^^^H lt« wiilc bidden mi griS ! 

he wok bii!il<', min grif I ^^^M 

^^^H & noht (c}it«n mc wtA. 

and noht Gbw mc vnf. ^^^M 

^^^^H )ia formc&e bcoS htf tWdDM ! 


^^^H jiirt vre hcGou ui-jviucs. 


^^^H ii« purl« 2*^ nauero relicli«n ! 


^^^H )<ah JO fltOD Y» wrccchcn. 


^^^1 For sif ViW CoBantincTfunt 

il AndjcfTthcrConftantiiMiABCl 1 

^^^H vrulli- lirr mi imin bicurae. 

wo^^e Iwr mi mia bi-«oaiw> H 

^^^^P & rnlt'iiic ii.ii'ueu 


^^^^^ hif (iidcr rii^'. 


^M l.ter. IV. LATAMON 159 ^^H 

^H ich Iiinv wiillen giiSiun f 

■c)i bine nrolle gri|>tcf ^^^| 

^H & Utim bine liuien. 

uiid Iciv bine libbe. ^^^H 

^H A inne lifin; tjC^l^m t 

nnil in fuin: licnd<!i! ^^^H 

^H^ lirJcn hin« to mine londe. 

litm lede to tiiiiii! Wdo. ^^^H 

^^^K ^ king ward«(I« ^us ! 

pt! ki;; iturdeile |iuh ^^^H 

^^^V f» while bim a-lomp wuHl 

fie will.- bii Iii-luUf.- worC J^^^H 

^V SVoomi Vilieres eiitliles ! 

Werca Viber bis cbiiibletf ^^^H 

^H ai ^im time firtiS rilites. 

in fan toiui« forvi'ililcs. ^^^H 

^H kiJt^o ftir a ^G tua ! 

and Iblleo fbrooeral! ^^^| 

^^^^L & fehlen bi}iue> 

in bour and in bid. ^^^| 

^^^B mid rvrvordcn htoat to mVodcai 

nnd rnllrio jiam rahodol ^^^| 

^^^H and I'll IrlTrc wooren nakc<t«. 

nnd bii vreir iille nnkodfi. ^^^^| 

^^^^M pB ifr^en Irifco mC i 

|7o i-felijc Ytittt; uical ^^^| 

^V ^l linittcn wv* on (xxneA. 


^^^^B foDtidliulK! bco fubt ! 


^^^H ud neoSelw heo feoUen. 

|i|it bij jmlTe fiillen. ^^^H 

^^^H li«a cleop«d£ on beore kins ! 

bii gradde to hire king! ^^^| 

^^^P Wbu tert ^u niStng. 

War liart t>ou ni)ii[|j;. ^^^| 

^ vhi Dult pv Iiider wcndcal 

wi nolt («ii bidrr wende ! ^^^H 

^H fu loft uf h«T rcondcn. 

J>oii Iccdl Ts alle afefidfi. ^^H 

^H nnd PnlTmt fin ifCTGl 


^H inii OS fallen hrre. 


^H Gomel! UM to hntpo i 


^H mid hahjiRK ArcngKc 


^H ^iltunlc Gillomor! 

]>!» iliorde Gillomart ^^^H 

^H ^ (bren wei hjf bcorte lier. 

]>nr vure bin lionrt was for. ^^^H 

^H mid liiririTvc ctiiliten ! 

mid bis Yrt-ITu unibtea ! ^^^| 

^H be cocD to fan filite. 

he com to fia Bbie. ^^^| 

^H and PafiirDd rorS mid himi 

aud PaTceut (otf mid biml ^^^| 

^H beicn bco wearcn xaao. 

Ix>in« hii iTcrcD reie. ^^^H 

^^K pa ir^-b veer ! 

po ifch Vthn i ^^H 

^^^V f* icunivn we* |>«- Gtllotnor. 

fut icomc wM Oillomor. ^^^| 

^^m to him be gon riden ! 

to bim be gnn Hdci ^^^H 

^H and Ibmt bine I ^re ftdc 

and fmol hi in |ian lldb ^^^^^H 

^1 fnt ^t fpere |>urfi rade i 

}iat |ie rjHTt! ^rb-rod! ^^^^^H 

^1 A )« licorte tu-glad. 

aud ft brortc to-glod. ^^^^H 

^M UiseodUche be Kino biwctt 

lli;«nbebo he bine bi-wentl ^^^| 

^M £ oT-toc PAflenL 

of- (nek bo lone PaJ'eeBt. ^^^H 

^H and |>as word ueid« t 

and )>eoK nord iaid« i ^^^| 

^m Vilier pe fiilo. 

Vth<^ ^ iJHc ^^^1 

^L Paflest ^ fcnit abiilea t 

Voixat u'i ndt abide 1 ^^^H 

^^^H 160 uvAitox Lrct. ir. H 

^^^H her eutneJS Vlhcr ri^cD. 

bcr come)! Vtber ride. ^^^| 

^^^H Ht- fniat h'mtf uui.-n«n ^t tisued i 

IIo (mnt bine oui-non ^at hcued! ^M 

^^^H pat he adun halde. 

|>at he fill to pan grunde. H 

^^^H tiii4 |>ai fwoord puiu Ja bis mull i 

aod pM fweord pot in biti miip I H 

^^^^m Bvnile nele htm wea uiiciiO, 

liioh nictc hira was oucou^, ^^^H 

^^^H ^t f>e ord of I'lici airunJe 1 

fiat p« ord of ^9 fweord t ^^^| 

^^^^B voJ in |>ero eorfei 

wvnd in pan eor]>e. ^^^| 

^^^H I'n fmide Vih«r i 

pofiudc Vth«fr! ^^H 

^^^H P&ITi'nt iij nil |>cr. 

Pafccnt If nou par. ^^^| 

^^^K nu [111 hniirft [Irutlnodt 

cou pou faniirll Bnillondl ^^^| 

^^^^H al bi-tnlJ to pins hoad. 

al awonno to ^in liond. ^^^| 

^^^H Svrtt f'c irmi inrd! 


^^^^1 Jicr on )>ii tri't ilcd. 


^^^H wikicn 30 fculKii here I 

vonic^ Bon htn i ^^H 

^^^H fu and Giltnmnr ^in ifcro. 

)ioti nn Gillcrmara^ ^^^| 

^^H £ brukirS w<-l Itniil.^1 ! 

uid bniukcl) wri Brutlond i ^^^^ 

^^^^1 fer nu iu )iit biltechv inc ao hond. 

fur nou 21: bit liabbc)> on bond. ^^^| 

^^^H |ttt j,h amj,va Ut-^vTH '. 


^^^H luid uf wunicn hore. 


^^^H nt puruc ]^e nauvre udredo 1 

no peth he nohc dred«! ^^^| 

^^^H vrlia cmi fL-ullen feden. 

{■at sou £d feode. ^^H 

^^^1 puTlieidc Vdcr i 


^^^H und HoSSc h« nrndc |>er. 


^^^^1 and drof Irif<:i' moat 


^^^H ffioni >Tati.-re!i and {«ODd funea. 


^^^H and floli at |>a u«rde i 


^^^H )ie mid PniTout commcD to «rd«b 


^^^H 8uinine to feiv mc iwilen i 


^^^H A looppen in hcom Iciptm. 


^^^H mid wcdcTcn & mid walorcnt 


^^^H ]<Rr bco fortt-nlpn. 


^^^^1 pin' hvo ifpccddcn bcr 1 

pin t-fpod here ! ^^^| 

^^^H I'airrat and Giltomar. 

Pafccnl and Gillomare. ^^^| 

La^^iinon, IL pp. 332— 3M. ^^M 

^^^^^^ Tb« o«xt Bpectroeo is from vol. ii. pp. 364, 385. H 

^^^^1 pe time c5 ^ m» ieoron ! 

pe t^e com pM waa ienn 1 H 

^^^H )>a wru ArSur Iboreii. 

fio WHS Ar|>kir i!xir«. ^M 

^^^^1 8on« (wn be cxim an corSe 1 

Sone ib ba lo worlo ooo 1 H 

^^^^^^ aluvn liiuoiuensen. 

■luem him ondcrfoaga. H 

^M Ijxt. IV. 

L&TASIOX ^^^y ^^1 

^H hm hif^lpii )>iit child ! 


^H mid giildeic fii-ISe llronge. 


^H Imo %vUe bini niihte t 

and j^eupn hint mDite ! ^^^H 

^H . to benn bczA aire cnihien. 

h> beon heii alrv cnihtc. ^^^H 

^^^H hra xeiien him an oSer {ling ! 

hii jeuvn kifc lui o)ier ^Ing t ^^^H 

^^^1 ^t he Icoldc boon richo king. 

pat he fuli]^ bvo rit-he king. ^^^| 

^K hco sia<« hi pal priddo ! 

hii jciM^ him p»l pridde ! ^^^| 

^H fU h<! Moldc longc !ibbcR. 

^at he folik Ungp libb«. ^^^| 

^^ hm ^ifcn him ^t kiae-bcni i 

hii j<nipn Juinc boom 1 ^^^H 

^H enltvn fWitSe godc. 

{dW fnipc godc. ^^^H 

^H |«t he we* mcIe-GuTtl ! 

}i)it h« wcH mcte-Rurti i ^^^H 

^H of alle quikemoDiien. 

of alle cviki? tiumicr. ^^^H 

^H ^ispo«luc him ^ef! 

^ pe alfe hini ^teaf ! ^^H 

^H and nl fvn }>iU child ifwh. 

and al fb pat child i-peh. ^^H 

^^^f The follonitt}* passage is 

from vol. iii. pp. 142 — 146. ^^H 

^H p«r VM Slodrcd nf^sla^a i 

pur wiu Mndrtd of-flaje! ^^^| 

^H and idon of lif-da^e. 

and idcin of lif-dajc. ^^^| 


* and alli; hi» cnihieat ^^^H 

^H in piui lihte. 

illuje ill f!ui fihle. ^^^| 

^H per wGorm of-flagfl ! 

par tT«ren of-Hn^o ^^^| 

^H alk ^ fiitJle. 

oUc pe fiielle. ^^^| 

^1 Ardurcf bcTcd-m«n 1 

ArthuRA biredmen ! ^^^M 

^M >i«ie. 

helijfl and love. ^^^| 

^H and V" Itniltrf nlto t 

and pn Rruttm nll« i ^^^H 

^H of Arnurrrix>r<!p. 

of Arthur bis bord«. ^^^H 

^M and nllc bif MctlT^! 

ftnd allc lii. fcittriin..! 1 ^^^| 

^H of fi^le kini-ricbcf! 

oe riche. ^^H 

^1 And Arilur fonranded ! 

And him aeolf for-w..... ^^H 

^^ mid wal-f[>fre brgKl«. 

mid ODO fptm brmle. ^^^| 

^1^ fiftcnp b* luifiln ! 

... tciK- hi? haild« : ^^^1 

^^^^L Ibondliohi! wtuidra. 

fcond .. die u-ond.. ^^^| 

^^^^f nion Diilitc i f^m laAcn ! 

m«a mihtc in pan lenllot ^^^| 

^^V iwB gipuen i^ralie. 

two gloDca prcttTlCh ^^^| 

^1 pa uaflieraaiiMiTe! 

Po naf par n* mora i ^^^M 

^H i |i«n fehte to iono. 

iloacd in Ion fihte^ ^^^| 

^H of tira bunilred |iiiseDd DMiDDCni of two hiiiulrc^ ]iouMnd maBDii! ^^^| 

^^ p* yei Icteo to^liaune. 

pat psT laf to-htwu. ^^^H 

^H bttreu Aritur Peking ane! 

bote Arthur )>e king *. ^^^| 

^1 & of hiTcDiliMf tw«i«a. 


and t«r«i of luTcaih***. ^^H 


^^V 162 UTAUOR Lt«r. 17. J 

^^^H Aif>ar voa fur-wnn4«d ! 

Artliur nit Tor^wondocl ! ^^^| 

^^^H wnntler ane fwitSe. 

woiiddi'lidia fwifio ^^^H 

^^^1 ^r to bim com ft cnaiu] 

)iar i^om n jnng enaas ! ^^^H 

^^^H fe w«* of Iiif ininn«. 

^at viis of hU cimne. ^^^| 

^^^H be wcf Cadorri* fiiMi 

lip wasCadorhiafotiftl ^^^| 

^^^H ft eorl^fof Corwaiio. 

cnrl of Comnlc:. ^^^| 

^^^H Confiuniin )ic-lii« |ir ounia f 

Confhmtia be kehta t ^^H 

^^^^1 he wcr|)nn kinge <leoKL 

)w king bine lomede. ^^H 

^^^H Artnr him lokcde on ! 

pa king to him hi-li«oU! ^^H 

^^^^1 fvr he Ini on A)lden. 


^^^H imd fw* vronl fclde i 

md f«oc word Saie. ^^^M 

^^^H mid Borlirullo heorlo. 


^^^H CoDkIid fM art wikum«t 

Comtanlin )>oubiirt viIcohm! ^^^| 

^^^B )>u wM're C^ionffcoM. 

|Kni were Qidor..* f.n«. ^^H 

^^^H idi |m< t>ilnd)« hora t 

ich fo bi-Uke li«re ! ^^H 

^^^H mtmi kiinTirlie. 

mine kmoriclic. ^^^| 

^^^^1 snd nilc iniiio BratMf ! 

and vile mine BniUual ^^H 

^^^H klo|iinpriifi-C 

wd hi fiDK iioii. ^^^1 

^^^1 tu)<1 linld hcom all« )« tex«f) 1 


^^^1 f« haVihcon iAAHdoD ft min« dft5«n. 


^^^H iukI !>l'e 1'" hfsffi god« ! 


^^^H f» hi V^Rr^r da^ten ftode. 


^^^H And ich irull« usren to Auftta i 

And ich wollo wonde to Ancltm t ^| 

^^^^M to unirpA ntrv ntnidone. 


^^^H ID Argnnto ^md qiKin« ! 

to Atgant fnn cweaoe. ^^^| 

^^^H alucn (Wi^ foeoDO. 


^^^H & hen flul tiiino wnnilst) 1 

and ;<« fal mtn« irondeft ! ^^^| 

^^^1 mnkirai >llo ifimdo. 

DM al [funddL ^^H 

^^^1 ftl hnl mo Diakion 1 

^^^^1 mill hulowniic dndicn. 

mid hnteirot, ^^H 

^^^1 And feo^A ich cnmeit irall« ! 

^^^^1 to miiw kiniricho. 
^^^^1 and wimirn mid Bnitbm i 

^^^^M mid mtirhf^lMfi \ninno. 

^^^H JEfnr, fa.n wi>rdrn i 

Enfhc )«D .... 

^^^^H nor com I'C fo wcndim. 

..r com of iei WMidfc 

^^^H )«t wMaaKoonhat liSflnl 

A In... fcrt bot i 

^^^H fcootMOi mid v^on. 

vondri mid ^~ bercib 

^^^H ftnd tmi wimmE {lor inne ! 

ftnd iwn vrtnim iua! 

^^^B wnderiiche tdihie. 

voDdorlicbo ig^uied. 

^^^^^, ml heo nomm ArSur «ii I 


UTAUOa 163 ^^M 

^^^H and aneouAo hiii« uorockn. 

nn. ..f»a bote hero. ^^^^ 

^^^B tnd ibfte hine mititi Iddcn ! 

and hinv kin. -dnn Icfdc! ^^^H 

^^^^ * forf gUDTicn hiiM! liBon. 

Mwl fbr|> ...gan wende. ^^^H 

^H pa wcTliit iwiir^cti ; 

po wno... .^•nde S ^^^H 

^^t |i:it M*lin Piulo nhJIcn. 

)>nt Mrrlfii liiide wi)e. ^^^| 

^H |iat wonro unimMo carfit 

^at (Mv betoi moch^ ciu«i ^^^| 

^1 tit A*^t»«f fbriS-fare. 

after Anlium for^faieb ^^^| 

^H Bnitirr iloiii-S Tieif. i 

Bnill.. ileue^ pAe i ^^H 

^K ^ lie hon on liuc. 

^t ha be. 00 liDti. ^^^H 

^^^^ft aod irtintiirn u. AuaIud J 

and ir.nio in Atiailnn ! ^^^| 

^^^H mid tajn-d alro altiui. 

mid .... efle otra cwvnc ^^^H 

^^^H ancl tuVic^ eucre Biitief {Ate 


^^^V vhiui ArSur ciunC ItSe. 


^V NtTuaueriwinoa iborc! 

Ffas neuero f« tnan ibmei ^^^| 

^^^^^ of naoer nano burdo icorea. 

no of irornmnn icc-rc. ^^^H 

^^^H fv «imDO of ]>an foQc ! 

fW oonni! (<f {-AD iojv i ^^^^t 

^^^H of Artnra fitgcn mans 

of Arthur ic^c moie. ^^^H 

^^^^F Bnlovrhilo trcfan witcjet 

Bute wile Will a iritii ^^^H 

^H Mici'ltn ihntn. 

Merlin ihoit'. ^^^| 

^H bo bndado mid nrorde ! 

he liiiile mid wordoa 1 ^^^| 

^H biftiuidc-ru'CoKn loSe. 

his fuscf wero Ib^ ^^^| 

^H ^t on ArRur Iculde jcU ! 

)<3l Artbnr fuldc jile ^^^| 

^H ctun Angkn to fuUte. 

come Bmlief ... for to )italpe. ^^^H 

^B In th« notitis, ttio enrller t«xt sliows agnulita), not an abrupt, ^^H 

^m departure from the Anglo-Saxon inflectional syHtem, tbe iMcr ^^H 

^M <^PJ A much widur divergence, und a confusion of fomts nbicfa ^^^| 

^1 is more emhiirrnA.ving to the syntax tlinn tbu droppJDg of tho ^^H 

^1 cnse-€nilings altogether wouid have been, lite most obvious ^^H 

^^^B cbangea in the iollcctioiis and construction of nouns are that in ^^H 

^^V both texts the pluroL in a is rcrf freely uG«d, and that, in the ^^| 

^K later, tlie preposition of ts 

employed with the genitive, or, with ^^H 

^M a Rtem-form of the noun, : 

aa a sign of the genitiva ^^^| 

^P In the adjective, the distiDction between the definite and io- ^^H 

^M definitfl fomu is gencially obBerved, though not nnfir«qu«otiy ^^| 

H neglected. 


^^^ The personal pronouofl are, in the nutin, subetantiallj' the ^^| 

^^^B aune aa in Anglo-Saxon, 

but the dual form of none of them ^^H 

^^^^ occats in th« later text. 





Lkct. IV. 

The conjugation of the verb io most pointa ivspmltlM tho in- 
AeotJon of the asime part of ipeoch In Anglo-Saxon, but the 
infinitive, which in the later text drops tho charact(.-ri»4ic n, 
coniiRonly take* tiie [iroposilioD to, and tiie gerund i«, not 
I infrequently, confounded with tlie infinitive on on& side, nnd 
tbe active participle in -n/fe on the other. The plural T«b in- 
dicative present Itns generally tbe ending -eS, except when the 
pronoun of the first or second perron followi its verb, in which 
COM it ends in •«, or sometimes in -«». 

Sonto instonees of tho confounding of the odivo parlidpU) 
with the verlnl noun in -inge are met with, but Ibrae are rare, 
and in fnot th(; participle ia not of frequent oecnmnnoe in cithfT 
text Rut ]>erliaps tbe most important novnity in IjAynraon'n 
cnntrtiTiction of the rcrh U tho regular employment atvrill and 
shall as technical lUisiliatie-K. In both tests, as will he leeen by 
the extroctit, they ai-e uned almosi pnwiscly on in modem 
English, and indeed with a closer conformi^ to tbe present 
practice tlian is found in many works of even oa late a date am 
the fourteenth century. 

Tliefle arc the general charactcrittica of IiayamoD's ftyotax, 
hot there ore certain npeoitic points in the diction and grammar 
of the pamagea above quoted which merit more particular 

In tho first extmet ; 

lo-1>iliii«, qtiicklj, in a lively mnan«r, common in oMBn^Uit'bui 
BOW obwiclr; — KOolcitt, ncl-couth, mldom known, itrange, obsolete ; 
— wi«nxe, battle-axe, frotii wig, war, obwleie; — nwiltc, very, ob- 
ioklo;^eooUio, obnlete, al least in 0)iswniie,UKHighpn>huhlj allied 
Io A.-S. gesielig, profpcroo^ and to tbe modem tillif: — gri-^, 
peoee, ob*>I«e; — formeiitc, foreoioft. Thi* word ia often us«l in ihe 
sense of Jim, and ii^ prolmbly, ctyntOlogtcolly tckntica] whh it;-~|>ur- 
fcn, obsolete, but perhaps nllted Io darn. The two words ooincide in 
mmc of the Gothic hoguageH; — riclien, realm, ob»!etc, tlxragh allied 
toncJi; — grlKien, U> spore, [nrdon, make peace with, obwlete;^ 
werdede, imp. This verb docs not oceiir in Anglo-Saxon, nor is it 
Ibond in (be Ancrcn Kiwle, ia the Ormnlum, or in Coleridge's Glos^ 

Uct. IV. 



til] Inckx. Il Kn-iuii to bu a coinngc oT Lajnunon'a irhlcb biled to ob- 
uiauixnilBltoii.tliougli it luu been ivvivt-d ia Uter ages as a participial 
adJMtirt, and cvvu as a vi^rb: — a-louip, imp. from a-limpinii, to 
happen, obBoIeiu: — to-rakcden, from rak«D, to rutli, ohmk-ie;— 
feoudlichi!, with fury or hale, lixiin fcond, tu cnumy, wlieace 
Jkik/, obMklv; — ni&ing, led. niBiragr, cmvai, obwklc; — Mccudpu, 
to dtif^Ricc, to doftroy, obMlcte; — iterc, compantuii, obwlcte;— u«ir, 
Ihtcd, 8c. fey, obmlclc. FiilatUM tn uied in incdiievalLal)ii,aDdfipge 
is found, though nrvl/, in Aiiglo-Ssxon. Hislorically, uvieiaswellM 
A.'S. fn^e, dvubik-^ <.-omiM from led. feigr, ftded, which dom not 
seem to be ia any way allied lo fkiuiu; — seie, good, ohsoldf; — 
ridcn,iipr ciiinefiVther rirfpn, Ti<idcii, ridmgly. Uiduii ishtri; 
Dol ili« nntiro, but the pMurc parliciplc, in aiislogy with t!ic Getniau, 
Br komtnt gcrittim. Hoc Lecture II., lIluMnilion [I; — balde, imp. 
from hicldvD, baldvn, to Huik or Jall, obmtiHi--, exocpl, ptftbupti, in 
tli« nautical tvrin to heti;—naattd, unknown, vxtaut iu nnconlh, in » 
iitarvut, but derivative seooe; — otd, point, obaolel*; — wod, w«at, 
obR>lctc; — bi-iald, iVom bi-t«lleti, to win or prove, obtolet?, unleM 
wa «uppo*c it to bn ilic modern voib ttU, so that bi-tald would mean 
told-cjf, oounlL-d, and hence, delivered; — iracd, happenod, ob>o!ct«i — 
wlLien, lodweU, ot»(^c(c;— brukct*, from hrukcn,lou«%obKil«tc; 
-"inc, dual, you two, ol]M>lete;^arnd<:, imp. from urncu, tmn*- 
pwilive form of A.-S. r«unaD, to run. la thn GloMoriml NoUa, how- 
ever. Sir F. Maddi;n expresses the opiuiuu tlut arndeiaframKrusn, 
ft cauaatircfonnof urneiti cignifyiug loride; — uerde, ferdo, hoat, 
Minf , obaotcte; — iwiten.lrom i-witen, lo flee^ perish, obsolete; — 

In (lie Mcond extract : 

icoTWD, doMn, obsolMv; — ineDgen, part, from fengeti, to take, 
ebwlrtv; — bigalen, ate bnnlo<l,obfoliKe;—galdere, magic, obsolete; 
— kine-bern, diild, obaolct^^; — cii>tcn, gifui, cooditioms oteolirt*, 
but peibi4M allied to dioose;— mute-cu>ti, libond, or tntbcr hofiit' 
sbl«. Sir F. Madden aseribea no special force to muto in this com- 
pound, bat, aaiD the oorrcqionding Ici>Iaudic matarmlldr, matar- 
goQr, tnalgoSr, it meaiu meat, and tbe agnifieailon ia, geoerous of 
food, hospjiablc. It is obaoUrto; — {•^•h, imp. tt<xa i^eoa^ to tlinve^ 
ob»ktc; — 

Iq the thi>d exUitct ; 

■ ncHc, active, brave, obsolete, — horn/l .m^n, ■ n^j^fiif, afatid^^ 
rauincn, from A.<S. hired, hjrred, a Ikmily, a mpH ooniL 71m 

Lrct. IV. MreJ-m/n, to common in Americn, tiiongh more probMbljr a 
n«w wiml fmia tlio ri-ib to Aim and mcrji, tavr, ponJblf, hare C»nw 
down frotu tliR A.-S. bired-man, Ici;). liirS-maSr. The word u 
oiltcrwrite t^Moleie;— fcolC) lot. f«il, iiuibj-, obtotcie; — wiil<»iicre^ 
Ama wal, ««1, carnage, dealli, s dead bodjr, and Kpcrc, ■pmr. 
Wal, in loel. vnlr, ia the flrai clcnimt lu valk^rta, diocovr of 
lli« Hbio. Wal ia obwlet«;— cnilitea, G«r. knvclit, kniylilt, 
ao]i)i«n;^cnauOi Grr. knabo, boy, aorvanl, hian;-^etitia*, Am, 
of cnn, kin;— foldcn. gronnd, olnoleie, unlt^aa poiaibly extant 
in /alhm; — bilachi', oominit, dclirer. Take often lias ibis icn** 
in old Kngliib; — witc, govnni, rah), obaoloie;— alal, error of BCribn 
for scat; — hali!-wi'i;;i', Ixdonin. Maddrn thinks t bin word ia from 
liirl, lumling, and hvTKft, wliey. It in ohml^lc; — drvncliOD, a c>tt» 
KitivG from drinchcn, to drink. At lca>t ihU in i(uilv na prolnblQ as 
iJiat it locuiiii to bnOio, Tlic ouun drench ia Mill utcd in on onologoiu 
tvant. SeoSe, aitbca, nnw; — wunien, to dwell, Ger. wohnvn, 
obtoktv in tbii Mme, but cxiuiit in uvnT, uvitfcii;— wunno, btia», 
Ger. Wonne, o'bsoleto;— vOeu, wave*, obaolvie; — noin«n, imp. 
from nimon, lo tukc,— aneonstc, tjuickly, from A.-S. naab, near, 
olwolctc;— gunncn, from gooa gant old Engt ^on, ollon noedaaao 
auxiliary to ibnu ihc lost tcnfwi^liSen, to go or come, obeolfrli>:~> 
IwurHvn, Ger. gewordon, como to ]>m)i, naod in old EngliiOi, but 
uowolMotciei^unttnetc, immmviirublp. extant in irnniMi;— iltuoB^ 
beli«V«;—bnrdo, woman, cxtnnt in W'/e; — wiic;e, A--S. witcga, 
|in>phrt,ugn, IVomwitan, toknow,ol]aoliit«;— bodcdo, from bod i«n, 
lo my; — quitEea, words, allied to quoth; — fulato, faUion, ud, 

In the orthogmjiliy, Ibo rvmarknble ebango from Hip, initial, to vA 
oocara. There ar« a few examples of thi* tnuifponitioa in earlier nu< 
mtscrilHs, bnt I bclicre it waa not rtgnhiriy lued by any wriur bdbre 
the timo of Lnyonwm. 

In the ebore extracts oo word of Lntm or Fr«Qoh etymology 
occurs, unlcM we ndopt tiie improbable auppiBitJon thnt care, 
A.-S. cnru, cearu, is from tho Latin cura. Maddcii's tnina* 
Intioo coDtaiiu twenty Latia and Frcocli wonls, oxcltuuvo ol 
rc[K.-UtioD$. At loa^t fifty of t]ie words employed by I^ayamcm 
ia these t'cw vcr»v8 are wiiolly obsolete. 

Sir F. Bladden'a tranBlstion of theso pasiage* is subjoined. 
Vi'otkU aad phrases included In ((iiolat ion-marks are in th« 

iMTt. IV. 



earlier, but not fa ilie Uter t«xt; words io brackets are tbe 
vartatioii.1 of (lie later text. 
First extract : 

Then [Tb-Tn] taw GUlomnr where TTther earoe to him, and oont- 
bb kiiights to Weapon [ibem] forlh-rigbt. Aail they very 
iljr gntfHKl [took] ibtir kuiviis ' atid olT wiili llmr brutdi*«— 
rtuaugu were tbeir louk^'^4lld gru»pod la their bsiails (heir luu;; spouti, 
'<»!(/ hung on their dhoulders gt«!it bnlde-Asea.' Tbea uid GJlloniai 
llie king a thing rciy sinuigc: — "Here conwth Utbcr. Aureliw [Aure- 
li«hi»] brother; be wilt mk my poaoo, and not fight with me. 'Th« 
bramoal nrc his »wiunii ; tunrcb mo ngniiiEi thpin ; yo no«J never rack, 
hrn^h jc "iny ibc wrctcbci 1 ' For [And] if L' ihcr, ConKiandne* aon. 
Bill here ticuoniL- my man, ' and giw to l'iui;ciit hin tiilhrn' realm,' I 
will bim grant jiciice^ and let him live, and in liiir bon<l> Imd bim to 
my Ittnd." The king njxike tbtu, ibc nhile worie bim ^it] bdull I 
Othen [Diher hisj knigbta were in the town ibrtb-rigbl, [and] Uid 
[wtj fln in the town, and fought nliiuply ; with Hworda [over all, in 
bower and in hall, and fitrt] niMhed lotcardt th<su ; nod t]i« Irish [tbi^] 
were [all] nakc'd. Vfbva tke Irisli ni«u saw. thai ■ ihe firiloos were in 
€ontltct,*ihey fought fieroelvi and ' neveribeltM [tbu^] tlicylell; they 
called on [to] >boir king : " Where art ibou, oitbiug I wliy wilt Ibou 
■M>t come biibcr? thou lolleat oa here [all] be destroyed: — 'and 
Pa»ctait, thy comrade^ xaw na foil her* ; — cotiic ^« to us to heljs willi 
great »inmgih 1 ' " Oillomor hwird thit ; iheirroiM his lican wa* sore ; 
tdlh hii Iriih kni^ht.'i be cami- to tlir light, ani\ I'lwrrit foi-tli with bim 
— l>o:h tliry wi-re iatcd ! WbuD Uthor riw, that (iilbmar wna 'il>ore* 
oomir, to him be gan ride, and Btiiutc liim in the vide, to that the upeor 
tbrouRh pierced, and glidMl to thu lit«rt. Hii^tily he peiued by bim, 
and [b<3 axid] overtook Paawut ; and said Oicw words C'tbiM- thi? good : 
"PawMnt, thoil thalt [why wilt thou not] abide; liere coinub L'thcr 
riding!" He nnote bim upon the head, lo that he fell down [to the 
(•round j, and itie svord put in bis mouth — audi mi-at to bim wa* 
iiraDgo,— ro (hat the point of the sword went in the earth. Then aiitd 
Uihor: "I'wocnt, lie now thprc; no'v thou bast Brilain all woo to ihy 
luind! 'So iinaw hap lo the; thcri-in thou art dead;' dirdl yc fball 
[now] here, thou, and Gillomar 'ihy companion,' and powK«« well 
Britain 1 For now I dtlirur it to you [ye it have] in hand, *m> that ye 
may prtaeiilly dwdl wiih uaheru;' ye need not 'erur' dread who yim 
Aai\ ftwdl" 'Thmtttid Uilier, and aftcnvnnts hi- thi-rc mn, bnd drove 
tht Irish mta over waltird and over Cms, and hIcw all tbu liosl ibut with 
*A laamed Qigtiib friend EUggmts tbnt this translation of tba I4[b line 
of p. )9I<, wit«, maj be errvuaoiui— tliat it slioatd b«, At ffritoni runaing 
laSttJier. See Bomenn, (ilosaair to Oraulun. 



LncT. IV. 

PMccnt caiue lo land. Some (o tli« wa fled, and leapt iatc tbcir *}iini; 
wi(h wcntliernnd wtili walcr iliore tbey periHh«dI' TbuH tliej 'aped' 
hero, I'uKcpnt mid Gillotnar. 

8econi) vxtruct : 

The timu oRic ibut wax choHcn, tlira wiui Arlhur bom. So soon as 
lie umc OH turtli [m M« vroHd], dvn* took [rrni-ivcil] him ; ' thcv cn- 
dlianti-d lliU child willi nia^'ic moat slrung,' iht-.y [And] gnvc liiin migiit 
to Iw ilie boBi of nil knighia; tltej gaxe him iuioiIilt ihinR, ihiit Im 
Hliouldbeo rich king; tliej gave Mm (lit- third, timt )ii- should livv 
long; lliny gftTo to him the priiice [tli« child] virtu««t fgllla] moat good, 
fo that lie tt'ax mn$t gcTKTOUs of ail tncn idive. Thia tUu elves ^re 
him, and ihn" thu diild thiired. 

Third BJtlrart : 

There were slnin all the brave, Arihunt minriora, high and low, nd 
all Ihc Britonit of Arliium [Arthur hi>] hoiud, and nil hia dcpendaDts, 
iif mnnjr Icingdomx [a kliigdoin]. And Arlhur [himsi-lf] ivoundnl uiih 
[n] br<iad 'slaughler-'apcor; litl(.i-a druidtul vruuiidit he had; in th<! 
liawt one lui^^hl ihnist two gloves 1 Tlien vas tlicre no tiiure remained 
in the fSghu i>r two hundi«d thoiunnd men tluit tli«<re lii>' hiwvd in 
pleood, except Arthur the king 'alone,* and two of his knights. Arthur 
was wounded wondrousJy much. Thcro ounc 'to Jiim' u [jrouogj lad, 
who wn* i>f hi* kindrrd; hn wa» Cadom f Cador hin] k>d 'the' <-arl ol 
Cornwall; OoniiiiinticK-' thv lud [hi.-] hi^hi-, hv wiLadtmr to the king [the 
king him loved]. Arthiu- loultL-d on [Tht- king Iwheld] him, ' whcnj 
be lay on Me ground,' and aaid the«c word*, 'with sorrowf\d huu'l'; 
'* CousULUliiie, ihuu art welcome i lliou wert Cadors [Cador his] boo, 
1 give t]i4W bore nij kingdom, and defend thmi my Itritons ever in 
[well by] thy life, 'and maint-iin i.hcm ull the Iuwh thiil have stood in 
my dny*, and all the good law* tliat in Ulhers duya ntuud.' And I will 
fare to .\ralun, ' to the tuire.-it of all maidens,' to Ai'gante the (|Ufen, 
' an nic»t Ihir,' mid tJu^ iJiall make my wounds all Mimd ; make nie 
■11 whole with healing di^ughtA. And al^crwards 1 will come [again] 
to my kingdom, ' and dwell with the llriionn witli mickle joy." Even 
with the words there approached from (Ao w-a 'ihiit wa«' > [iittJc] timn 
boat, floating wilh the wiivm; and two women therein, wondrouily 
formed; and they luc>k Arlhur anon, and bare him ^luidily [to tlie 
'boat], niid laid him softly down, and fvrth they gnn depurl, Then was 
it aecompliBlied that Merlin whilom aaid, that micklo enro (sorrow) 
should be of [allHrj Arthura departure^ Tht Britons bdicre yet liiot 

LBcr. IV. 

TH£ AyCRE!! niWU 


h« i* alive, and c)wvU«tb tn Avalim niih tie binvt of all elrc* [<]nM>n»]; 
'aa<l tlie Briiaaa crer yet (-xpcct wli«n Arthur tdutll fvium.' Wiu 
li«ver ibc man bora, [ntMrJ of wcr any luilj- [woaun] cboHL-n, tliat 
ktiowcth of tlic mniti, to tittj tauri; of Arlbur. Bat whilom w:is a .lagv 
luglil >1i.Tlin; he raid with worda, — lii» *.iyiiiK'"'''^rv sooili, — tliat 'an" 
Arthur »lioul<l yi-t conic [/mre for] to helji ihe Kiigliub [Biiiom.]. 

Another monument of littlo )it«raiy intorost, but of not io- 
fvnoT ptiilologicnl, or, to «pcak more ti«curatal;, lexical uikI 
grnniiiiuticul iinporUince, ia the Ancrea Klwle, a code of moaaalic 
prt?c<:|>tii diawQ Up in prose \>y an uoknoTCn author, for tbo 
guitiance of a small nunncTv, or rathur religious society of 
ladies. TfaU work vnu probnbly compost»l if uol ia tho tnttvr 
port of ttw twelfth, at lat«Mt very early t& the 1hirtE!<^th ovutury, 
tmd is therefore nearly coutcmporaueuus with Ihe chronicle of 
Idtyamon, to the earlier text of which it bc-ars much reseroblancek 
The leoraod editor of thu only printed edition, that publtahed 
by the Camden Society in 1^53, ifayti nothing of tho probable 
age of his ninnuseript, but Wright, Kel. Ant. i. G2, xtatc* it to 
be of the ini<ldle of the Ihirtcetith century. There are at lea&t 
three other mamiscripls. besides a Latin translation, and one of 
the English eopii-s i» described lu older than that from which 
tJie Camden Society's edi(ion i» print<'d. They differ from vavb 
other conmderably in orthography, and theite diOereiKAa— some 
of which DO doubt, wore due to successive changes in Ihe current 
inodc«(or»petliug — und the iniiltipticiitiou of oopieaof u work 
intended for the private use of three ladies, not members of any 
religious order, prove that it must have been written a consider^ 
able length of time before the execution of tho latest manu- 
•Ciipl. I believe, therefore, that it iimy be cuusidcn.'d as 
belonging to the literature of the twelfth, quite as appropriately 
Wi to that of the thirteenth century. 

About one third of the Ancren Riwle is occupied with ut- 
stniclions for ceremonial observances, the reaidue with moral 
and religious teachings. Like so many other ascetic treatises of 
the Middle Ages, whether intended for tho edification of the 



Lkct. IV. 

prorcmed recluse or of tlie lAjinan, it contains littlo of dogtn&tio 
theoloj^, and few of those broa<ier views of CbriMtian duty 
which belong to the contemplation of man iw wliat God iitade 
bim — asocial being. Hence it ha'> ueitber the philoaophical 
reach of thought which cfaaractorizea the works of Wvcliffe and 
I'ccock, niid which is a natural result of free tholo^cal inquiry, 
nor Uie enlightened ptiilanthrupy and coiuprcbcnsiru charity, 
which breathe from U>e writings of dtvinis emancipated from 
(lie narrow corporate interests and exclusive dutiea of cloLHt«red 

1b a iifcrary point of view, it liiia no such value as to entitle 
it to critical noljce, iind, iicdrinj; no letamp of En^li^h birth-right 
but its dialect, it ia only for the value of its vocabulury and its 
Bjiitax that I embrace it in my view of English philologiciiJ 
liiwtorj". Di-lails on thcKO points will be given in coanectioB 
with till,' ppoctmcu Delected na an illu^lratioo, and I shall at 
pi-eoent coullne my olwcrvatiou* to tlie aLwIt of woni« which 
compose its vocabulary. The most obvious difierence in this 
respect between Layamon and the Ancren Riwle is the much 
larger proportion of L.-)tta und Norman woriU in tlio luttcr. 
8ir Frederick Aliidilcu JindH lean than one hundred such in the 
67,000 vereea of the two texts of Ijiyamon." The <(uantity of 
matt«r in the Ancren Kiwie, exclusive of Latin quotations, is 
less than half of that in Layamon, but the glossary to the 
former contains twice as many Frcncti wonU as Layamon, uid 
yet omit« a large iiiiuiWr because they were thought too familiar 
to need explanation. Much of this diflcronco in vocabulary is 

• H wc numlicr irorJ* dcritcd from the French (tTx'n Inr!nriiiig mme llint mny 
huTO IV.TI1H iliitvllj («im llw l^tin'i, wo ilo not lind in the cnrlirr text <J l-nynmnn'* 
pOTin to inoBj lu nn.v, wnnl nt «!>irh wi-m in uiatr, u apfKun bv Ili« S^iioa 
Cbronida. pfrrEoiu to ths laiiLiilpof thr twelfth rsntor^. Of (Iil« numbrr Iht 
Utfr ttn ivluna ahoat thirty. iui<l ndrls lo them rather diotc tlian fartv, whieh an 
nut fouiitl ill l!io forliiT vcnioa; ao that if we rtckfii ninety wonli of rreni-ll 
oH^n in both tuxt*. roiit»]niii(( loRitlior nicni than iii.HOU linoi. vc iholl Ixi abU 
lo form • tolcrnbly correct nitiiniil* how litile the Kunlbli viKuibuUij va* n-jilty 
■ffcclcd by foreign convi-nn even aa lnl« lu the miJJla of tlio Uiirlt'Pilth tCntniT. 
Sit F. MluUsh, Trot lo I^yjitaaa, \bL L p. ssiii. 

LwT. IV. 



doubtlpss to he aserihed to the f&ct that the Ancrea Kwie, 
treating of rellgiuiis aitlijflcta, naturally adopted the dialect of 
the KomUh a&celic diecipliDe, which was ia great [lart of T-atir 
derivatioa ; but etUt, as tho Ancrco Biwlc was written in Engliati, 
while Layatnou'a work was traadatcd from French and Latin, 
wc should have vxpected a larger rvlat-ive share of the foreign 
clement in Uio Iat1i>r production than a comparison of the two 
tixhihits. Tlie Laliii and French words of the Ancrt-n Biwlc, 
however, are by no mtans nil due to its religious character, and 
we finJ in it many Norman terras belonging to the comnioa 
dialect of ecctilur life. Compound word# of Siucoa etymology 
are lets frequent in Layamon than in the latter work, which had 
Bome remarkable iifKhitinalionB, Kuch, for example, as stude- 
atapeltiestne.ssf, uiuaniii^ nearly what N. P. Willis some- 
where calls siajz-at-kome-itiveness, the otKovpui of the Grceka. 
Thi« greater frequency of Norman words might be tbnught to 
prove tliut the prose work is of later date than the poetical, hut 
it Is by no rncaus conclusive evidence, because, as I have already 
remarked, thi; diction of poetry \i always archaic, and Layaraoa 
probably cuulinetl faimgelf to the conventionally estnblighed 
vocabulary of his art The ortliogiaphy appears to point to the 
opposite conclusion, though this ia a very doubtful question. 
In the AiKTvu Itiwie, the Angto-Saxou a: has almost dimppc»rod 
and the combination eo is Iva^ frcqiunt, but, on the other hand, 
it retains the iu; as riwU, rule, and, oddly enough, Oiwa, 
GUverie, Jews, Jewry, while in Layaraon this combination is 
often rephwcd by ew or cotv. The Ancrcn Biwle preserves tli« 
htc, but I~iyainon, except in one or two iastanctis, has always 
fi-lu* The arrangement of words, however, the periodic con- 
etruction, which is les likely to be a dialoctio peculiarity llian 

* UiMl ortliMpiaU TOTiHitlvr Ato u a tnio phcnotTHptiia rfprmotalion of Itie 
•onoil •ti{<po*rd to t« Indii^atftl b; it, nlucb in thul of (lie modem mi ia u'lto/r, 
bM Klip*tcin'< Aiigli>&ix<>a Gnumanr. p. 47, tioU, Myi: 'tbU combiiutioa o( 
•omid i*, indeed, one' I knnw no rrJt-rion )>y vhicli wn rui drlrrmin* vhetlitr 
• MuDil W one, but lliu <'ii>i-riiu<'atnl t-'ttoT capsvitf nf pi-il^n;;.!!!.)!:. A aouid 
(if lb* (ingiilir article can t>« »[>plJed to od uticolstioi) composed of vncceHiva 



Liet. IV. 

A naiuU of tli(> gcuvrol ihovomcBl of spocch, U almost modeni 
m ihe AiicniB Uiwlc — so much «>, sometEmea, u to lead one to 
quesUoD the autbonttoity of the tnaniutcripta — but tbU I tlnnk 
id to bo n»cril>cd to tlic colloquial Etj'lo of tfae work; for the 
dktioQ of cutiiuiou ?]>c(.-ck atnoDg educated men ut that penod 
iiiiint liave b(^^«u much influeacM) by the dialect of the court uiid 
titv Nonnau nubility. 

The following exttaot u froiu Part IV. on Temptationx 
OMiideu Society edltjon, pp. 210 — 216 : — 

Soutino iuglura bcoS |H)t no kiina«n ncructi of Doa oHvr glco, butca 
makicn chi-n* & wrenchm niia hoic mu9, ib achulrn mid liura cicn. 
Of y'ta mvMi'tv wriiuS |>co niiinvlii; oniliiK- iSc ilei>llcs kiirt, to hringtn o 
Ivilitic Lorv uiidiilu touenl. Uur jit' <;■ oriB wtl uScr ilcft wcl, noiMvivda 
no nnwen beo lokea |>iiterward mid rihi cie of gade heoiti: : luh 
winckotl oSnw half, A biiiold«0 o liift & nsqutat : ■& ^^if )ier ttout (o 
cadnriton, «6rr lotllicli, liidrrwiiTd hco HchuIcS mid dSor cicu i j; biron 
lioo ihetvfi )><-t gi>d, bro kIciiK^ odun boa ivo boro Mmn : utdi ^C but 
^jjcui |iet vuul U cvtT will u|ieii. p«onoe hco irraichrjS tioro tnuS mij, 
JiwoD bw tiirni.-ft god to rud : & 7,i{ Iiit b auuuliJ vud, tiurub nimv 
lasiungu heo wrcncbcQ hic to wume. Pros beott b«rv uwtuic [iropbet«a 
Arowtddart*. pcos bodiett biuar«u bwu ]>u atdidw dmuel oclnl x«t 
agmlvn liam mid hia ^imm« grenuungf.-, & bu bco echultu boiu uili 
graiiDGD •.% niiiclen, •& miLkton xur acmbtmiDt uor ^c mitcbcle angoiM* 
iCo pine of hftlk*. Anh li>r )iui faco hcoA )>c I<9B« t« mcncn, p«t heo 
biunmiliflnd Ii-oracK bom m«i»lt:r to makitm griniinr cbcrv. 

pK wn-l^fulle liiiiori-n fv ucundu akirmvS mid kniuus & 1m i» bu 
knif-vrurijcuv, & j)leii'K mid siruurdets & bervO luuu bi )« wbwpe orde 
uppcn bis vaagfi, Sweord & kail' «6er beoS scbeqiQ & IcaoruiDde 
mrdea pet lie trarpeV fVomintud him, & HkinneB lotiword c4h«. Aob 

Alioncnlii). which icquiiv* citUer tm nrnimon* of btcatb «r too difl^nt pvitiao* 
of th* i>i^[MB of oprecb, caunot bo praliiaBdL thoucli thn Hpuntc dement* of il 
often niajr bo. Tho tomUnalion Jtw, i*^ i* not oalj lnca|«l>l0 of proInnipttloD, bat 
cuiOQt bo uU«r«d at all wilhoat Ilia aiii «f s third tlanml. natnply, a vovd 

Theia WT, however, n few nimd* which mtj bt indeOiiitdj praUagwl, and jat 
mm to Ih> compowd of two ilUl mere daDtnlaiy ■Micalntian*. I t^brt» iboM 
into wluch tlio y conaonuil a|iiH<an to enter u a ■abomlinata cotnponcnt. th^ 
}-ji(:IiHli <-4, <A, are vrrjr iimH}' (-^y ami fty, and in *oniD artbcipafihica, tli« 
l^nlitti, for cxamplr. in ntliicrb J cumajiond* to uur y «onHiaasl, Itt^ aiv rx> 
pcntnl oivDrdinglf, ai IjSdrr. in En^liali (poUiniL rA^«r, ijlli, ilMte, ftc &«. 

I.tcr. IV 



beo bodiri^ hwn fc donflcn ochulcit ploim mid ham, mid tiow tcfanpe 
•ul«)S & fikirmrn mid ham nlmtirn. £ dvxtiii a»e prdc; pilchrvlat, cnrhon 
tODward «<Scr, & mid belle eweonlGH nlsneueD ham |>iiru}iul, fft heOH 
ken« & keoruiiide, £ atotiche ponffl. 

|>o si<iwe li?! & slepci^ iSo dci>flc* bnrtnc, MP lii» deore deorling 1 & tc 
dmud ieic5 tii» Hitrt jiiJnn to hi* rtitm, it lutclcfl hiin al Jiet Ii« euer 
wnk. Uor, N> hit i> nikcrlicJiR lo hwamM is iOrl nf gnd! )■« uornd 
BinSrli-R jeome, tt lit ideli.- udiJituoS hiueliobo his lore, po pet i* id?l 
£; jwai'IeiU', He in )>« dw>fl« beroies sl«p : anb he nchnl n domcjdri 
griinlJclie abreidpn mid (e dndfiil dr«ini<> of f e CDglene hemen ! & ino 
belk wondredc »ieliclio sn-fikicn. ' Siirsiti*-, niArltti, qui jaci-iii in i«- 
pdlchrix.' nure:itc', ci vcniic Bdjudicinm Ssluntoiii.* 

pc ^jacATv is fv* fcondtii ■ikcbatlSJc, & liS puct iJ^im iiskcD, & Gtrefl 
abntcn sdcen & Innitichc MureS liini uono rii):i'!m miichrlf & monic 
roktn tqg«der«, & blowcS ^erinne, &ab1«nt liim sulf: psVrrA £ mnkrlS 
^eritmefigureBofnngrim, aw^Ofl rikcnarendoRf habbeSmuchduorlo 
rikeoai. pia is al ft* ranges b1i»^. & tt- iicond biiiali nl )iiii fruiiitfn. & 
laohwcJ! fM Iwt to bcivfrl. Wtl umlprwoiKl currich wis moii |'is : ]>« 
gold & Kolurr bnHv, & cucricK corSlicIi vihiu, Din buica «ar89 J^ Mlmt, 
^t Bbt«!nt cupriclmc mon )>(t| bloaweS iu bum i pet t*, pet boltiw^ htm 
ine bam ! ^uruh bam ino beortfl pradp i & al J>et he rukr-lnS A prd<!rf S 
tpgndp-Tc, & clball «f cni pingo ]>ct nia bat«n takeu, more )ii-n hit ho 
twod, a) Bchul ine belle iirurftra to bim tAdden & neddr«n, & boSc, im 
bate Beift, aeliuloi boon of irnrincM hix Iciirlcl £ hi* kniitrtar. pel nolde 
her pe ncodfalo u«dcn nu acbru'icn. ' Siibicr Iu Bli-rnctur tinea, et ope- 
limcDttim unm voimia.' 

pe. finre glutiui in pea foDden manei^. Uor be alikd! cnor iSa 
celcrc, otivr iBc kiicbene. II is beorte is iSe diwhea ! bia fxmbt it al iBc 
niqipc 1 liiH lif i8e tunnc ■ his aoiile iOe crocke. KiuneO forft biuorm 
hia Louetde iMsmiltecl & bismoomwed, » dttcha ine bis one bond, & n 
Boodeia hisofrer: i»nKclcdroidworitcN,.£ wigoMiMeaordninkmBioii 
^t haueS imunt xo ttntlcn ! bibult iiii j^rcmu Tromhe, & to uMod lanb- 
wc(I f«t bo to bc»tcS. God preatcS peiis pus |>urub I«ii<i. ' Scrvi mei 
couicdent, c* Toe tMnri^tis.' &c. ; ' Mine men.' be soiff, ' achulcn etcn. A 
on acbnl encr bmiRn-ii : Sc je sclitilen bonn ueondes fade, world a biilm 
ende.' ' Qiiantum glorificsvit n> ct in deliciis fnii, tanlum dal« d Inctum 
et lomMnitiiD.' In Apoculipsi : ' Contra tmum pocolum quod miicuil, 
muc«to ci dno.' Oif po gukhcnttppR vrcallindo bras to drlnckcn, & ^eot 
in bii wida protc pet he uwetlo urifiiiincn. AjcaD ono, jif him two. 
ho ! iiwuclt ia Godcs dom aseao )>e pore, & ojoan po dnnckorca iSe 



The fuliowing irords require oxplmiilioa, or merit nottoo. ch*rsM|| 
tuxr, W17 dtoes, grimaces. Ko aatiiiliiAiorj etymology hu been «nggc*t«d 
£>r ibU word, wbicb occura m ibe Low Laiiu of ibo aevenO) ocnituy. 
See Uici Id voc.;— uaiselto, unhappj, tmm A.-S. evllgi hnpjn-, ob« 
Bolelo;— ontfulo, malif^ant, from loel. voodr, Dhu. onil, eril, 
vkVod. I bolioTo tliis root occdis in A.-8> onlj' iu comixiiiiidii. Ii u 
obwlele; — knrt. TIiUaDd tlio numorous allied wonlaare, nuconling 
toD!(c>, chorn, (cohors) corti*. See Ducaiige. a. t,, vthera 
the earlioxt dcliniiion ii»: ntrium rnilicnm atabulla el ali'ia 
vdificiiscircumdolnm; — null, but, A.-S. ae,olMol(tie,irDDl cxMdI 
in certain useKof iho inteijrcticmnA;— oluft, A.-S.Iyft,air, akTi <uc- 
tant in a-fo/l; — ont, aaffht; — cad wi ton, to blamo, A.-S., «x'«nt ia 
torH-if; — loillicli, loatliMmn, AS. laMic. TliU nMt bkiirs tn ham 
paaaed fVom Ibo (lOibiR into ihn Itomnncc Inngn.igno, n> in Kr. laid;^ 
alentofi is d«lii>nl by Murimi: ' tlftlrth, nimn ni, hang* dnwn bin f^nnt, 
like a cio^ in pnrauit of (^m&' If thia i* correct, tha root would ho 
aiot (Ici>l. nlt^tir, npatli), a track;— laainnge, *landcr, Gcr. Lilstnr- 
UDg, obsolete; — forcwiddarea, Ibrctellera, Irrnn cweften, to miv, 
obaolcio; — atcIioh«,lial«AU:— ageaten, lofrisrhtm, ottlinr the A.-^ 
egciiinn, or from iho same root aso^Jlo^r.-i.— niiielun. Morton aug- 
gmti to boot with tlio Iwtis in annjogy wilb So. to nt-Tcl, to atriko, oa 
iho laonning. I think, lioworer, ilie A.-S. ncowcl, prouniie, rumikUca 
a boiler otyninlofty, and if this is the root, niuelcn means In throw 
llicmittlTca to tlie ground; — aiir, «oi(r;^metien, to moan, htmnon, 
laiMQC; — akirmeS, l«nceili, from akirmen, Fr. oscrtmor, allied to 
G«r. achirmon, not found in A.-S., and oxtiuit to KngliiJi only in 
fth'rtninA; — knif-worfmro, knifo-th rower, knifaud worpen w 
weorpon, A.-S. weoirpon, to rbrow, obulei|«;~>ord, point, edge, 
obMJcte; — pilch-clont: pilch i« atippoaed to be Lat. pellieeus, 
of fur, and to have auqninid tha moaning of f1ani)i>l;— alanoalen, 
A.-S^ aAntDHiin, tonumgninU, toMriko, obaololo; — borme, boratn, 
ob!K>lct«: — tnlcl, moudi, lips, tqtoleS, irom tuioI«n. in "peak. 
The etyn^nlofTy of iltcsa nordt ia not obvioto^ iinleaa wo refer lliom to 
A.-S^ ^<ri>inn, which is imiiniivc: obaoleie; — maKolefi, fmm mn— 
Sclcn, to talk, ohwlotc;— ^eorno, willin;;ly, esliml only in the verb 
logcarn; — underfuB, recdroa, from nnderuongeD, obanlMo;^ 
jomalcaa, Itoedleai, from some, car«, he«d, o1»o]eto;^abrotdcn, 
to awako auddenly, to bo MartJed, obaoleie;— bemen, trumpi^ ob»o- 
l«tc; — jiacare, covctooa man, fimn A.-S. gytsian, to detin, u 
covot, obwletA; — aakobafiic, affa-gaihonir, obaoloto; — mkclen, 
to hcup &p, Av-& hroac, a heap, obaolM*;— paSeroS, pokath, it« 




modem poti«r,potttr i^tngrim, at^oritm, atgoriifim, iurithro«tic;^ 
e»ng,afixil. ThMWorddownotnppcnrtobc A.—S. OhMlctc; — oibta, 
pomonioo, obMlctn; — boInwcA, dUlurba Iiimielf^ JV.-8. holgsn, 
obmtcto; — ntbalt, from ethotd«n, to rciutn. oh*DliMe cxcc]it in 
hettt, luid iw dciivatiTCs and coinpoumla ; - — iwurScD, to lierom*. ob- 
■olcte; — acbrtidun, lo clolhe, olidt^leto; — ;iuro, ^^rcodv, obeoleic; 
^nftp|)«, lalilo-clotbr Fr. nappe, extant in dinnmiTive fomi. napHa; 
••acoale. bowl. Dnn. Skasl, obiwlcte;- — imnnt, allied with miud 
hsuoSiDidni. has ID mind to, licncc, >• about to; — abntan ond«, 
a, a]wayt,ohMlcK; — bntnn, Yfitbout; — galchnciippn, gulch en. 
to cwftllow, cogn.itc with I^t.gulii; — wcnllind«, wdling, boiling, 
mollen; — Scot, pour, A^^S. g«otiin, obsolete;.— aan-cll«, poriah, 
axtanl in nritter. 

In tbia extract Ihore Are abont twenty vords, excluding repe- 
titions, of I^in and French origin. TbU is more than three 
per cent, of the whole number, and if we exclude the repeti- 
tions of native words aim, that proportion would t>e greatly 
increased. More than thirty words used in thette pajtsagi^ linvc 
become obsolete, and of these, tnany, aa will be seen by tbe 
ftbove notes, ore important. I add Morton's translation : 

Then mn tome jeKers who know of »> olber meana «f excil injt mirtti 
bnt to make wry fiicen, and distort their laoutb, nnd kowI with ihfjr 
ey«v Thia art tlie rnihappy, cnviotm mnn pmciiwth in ilie deTJI's 
eourt, to excite to ImightcT their cnriotw Lunl. For, if any one aailh 
or docth well, ihcy cannot, by any means, look lliat wny with the direct 
eye of a god h«rt; but wink in another din^cn, and Inok on the 
left hand, and obliqtiely : and if there b anything ta blntnir or dislike, 
therr th<7 »cnwl with both eyes; and when iliev bowff boy px>d, they 
hang down both their ears ; bnt their desire of i-ril is ever wide open. 
Thi-n ihcy diMoft llieir montb, when they inm good lo mil; and if 
lh«rc is iomowbnl of evil, ih<ry distort ii, and nuke it wome by de- 
traction. Th«w are their own propheln — foreleiling iheir own «mL 
They shew bffoiebnnd how the hairfiil fimd jhall »irike terror Into 
them with hill hidoon.4 grinning; and how ihry *hnll thcmcelrca gna«h 
llieir teeth, and beat their breasU. with rueful look* for the greni an- 
giiiflt of the pains of helL But they ai« the lew to he pitied, becnnM 
tbcy twve IcariMd beforeland ihdr tnde of mskiiig prim clinr. 
TiM wtatbfol i»8B f«acetb b«fiw« (be deril with knirea, an 1 he i* hia 



Im. IV 

kiiife'tlirowfT, and plarelli vitb sworilii, tuul bf<arc(}i tli«m upon bii 
tongue by ihp ehnrp point. Sirord and \jiifv burh arc shaqi wid catt* 
ing iTor<3>i wliich ho CMlrth forUi, and ihrnrwilh aliairks oiliL-n. And 
it f<>rfb(idr< how ibr deiWn lAnlt phj^ with tb<<in with their >biu|i awiM, 
and iikiniiUh about with ibiitn, iin<I io« tb^m like n |ii)«b-clout every 
om^ towards UQoibi-r, miil Hlrike tWm througb irilb bdl'itwtuda, wbicji 
an kwii, cutting, and horrible ^ina. 

The dtuggard lit-th nnd *lccpetb in ibe deviT* boaom, a» hi* dear 
darling ; and tb« dpTJI applidh hi* moaih to hia e»r*, and tidU liitn 
whatovLT hu will. Vat, thi* i* certainly the case with every one who 
i* not occupied in any thing good : tbn devil aMidnoiuly tatk«i and the 
idle lovingly nx^uvc bi* Inooiu. Me tliat i.i idle nnd oreleM is iho 
ttcrir* biMunt-slevper : but ]ie aball on DootUHluy be fntrfnlly ilartlcd 
*ll)i the dreadful mund of the anpels' trumpcta, aiid sUali awakiti in 
terrible amnremmt in bell. ' Ansp, yo dead, who lie hi gravn: ariae, 
and ccimv to lim Savior 'r judgment." 

The OTTctoiu man i* tin' <levirs nih-gaibcrer, and lieth Always in Hie 
■)Jm», and buHity bctlirii liiiu««lf to heap up much, and to nikc many 
together, and bloweih ibe>«ia, and blindeth biiuwlf, pokeih, and tnakeih 
therein figures of ariibmetic, as tlioK accoiinlaniM do w)io have much 
to reckon up. Thin in all thv joy ril thin fool, and (he dvril icelh all 
tbift ganie, and latigbcth no that he bur«tetb. Kvcry nine man well 
underatandelh thin; that both gold and Mlver, and nil rnrthly gooda, 
•ra nothing but earth and ambeo, vibicb blind every man that bioweih 
npon ihent; that ii<, diMiuiotelh liimielf for tlicm; a proud in bnut 
thiongh tlicni; uikI all that he bei^th up and gaihereib tegetlier, and 
po«MMtu.>« of auy tiling more tlian ia neoesmiy, is nothhig biu aibe>t and 
in bell it sbatl all become ic<ails and addera to him ; and hMh bis kirtd 
and }m covering, ns iMiiah Riiib, aliotl be of imrm*, who would not 
feed nor clothe the needy, 'The wom ia aprend under ibee, and the 
worms CMCT ibee^' 

The greedy glutton ia the devil's purveyor; for bo alnya bannla tbe 
cellar or tlie kilcbeo. U'ta heart is in tb« dishes; all his thnaght is of 
the lable-clolb; bin life is in the tun, his mul in the pitcher. Be 
comeih into tlic prt^nce of hi* Ixird betnmited and bcsroeared, with a 
duib in one luinil and n liowl in tbc- other. He talks muek ineohcraiily-, 
and M^gervtli like u drunken iiutu who aeemetb about to fall, looka at 
his great belly, imd tlie derll laughs so that be btirMeih. God lbu» 
thtvatenetb such pereons by Isaisb, ' fkrri nwi ix>iiKdot)t, et vo* os»- 
ri«tiii,' &Q. : ' My (tenants shall eat, but ye shall always hunger ; ' nnd 
Tu aball bo food for dcvilK, world without end I 'Hovr miicb slui batb 

Ltd, IT. 



glorified IiarBtIf, ai.d lialh lived dellcaoudjr, to mucli tarmmt nnd «nr- 
roir giv« iiei*.' ' Contra iiimoi poctiltuu quod miwiiil, miwi-iD ri duo.' 
Giv« tlie IcMspot inoll«n brass to drink, and pour it into his wide throat, 
that he muy dio inwardlj. Lo ! «uch is lite jud|,'mcut uf God sgaiiut 
ibr gltiElon, Olid against drunkard*^ in tbo ApocoJjpw. 

The Ormulum, of wbich J have Kpokt-n ag one of tlie moat 
important pIiil<.>logicaI monuaie:its of tb(> period under cuDSi- 
demtiun, baa excited, and, in some respects, merits more nttcn- 
tion tban the Ancren Kiwle." 

The Ormuliim coii»«t8 of a paruphnisc of scripture with a 
Iiomilctic commentary, atid im conslmcI'M] much on the plan of 
OtfriO** KrLtt. The extant fragments, irhich foriiiniitcly contain 
the dedication and commencement, amount to tweuty thouraiid 
vetsea, but are apporeatly only an inconsiderable portion of tho 
entire puem. The author was Ormin, or Orm, an Engti^ 
monk of the order of St. Au^Him.^ and ho named the poem 
OuiDLUH after binucLf, eayiug, at the opening: — 

piM boc JM n cm m nod (I Ormiulum 
Forr]>i Jiatt Orrni iit u-mhiit«. 

The bcetoiral of hi.s own name upon the worlc may he con- 
aMered an indication of personal vanity on the part of the 
author, and it ta evident that he was aiDhitioits to distinguish 
liiin.ifif as a reformer, lioth in Kuglieh philology, or at least 
orthography, and in religion. His »y«tcm of spelling,— not new 
in principle, and to a certain extent common to all the Gothic 
languages — though cumberftorae in prsctine, is carried out by 
Ormin with a consistency and uniformity that show a very 
c'lreful atti-niioD to English phonology, and give it something 
uf the merit of an ori>^nal invthcHi. He evidt^utly attached 
i ntucb raluc to this Eyst4nii, aud expected a con»iderable cJroU' 
lation of his book, for he earnestly enjoins upon all who copy it. 

* Saa. OD Out rooabalST^ nnd th« proaodj of tlio OnaatuiD, Firct KeriM^ 
Icctnna v.. i>p. 1p7; VI., p. 103; XIX.. p. 307; XXIV., pp. -14;— tM. 



Lkt. IV. 

to follow scTupulously the apell ing employed by liimwlf. Eitli«r 
for vaDt of poetical merit, or fur the great freedom \f1th which 
he censured the corruptions of ihe Cburch, or because reoden 
woro ropoUcd by the utiooutb appearance of bis orthography, or 
foraome other unknown rcn«on, 1I10 book fitilud to t)<r<;uru l)i« 
populnrity ita author hoped for, xad it do«» Dot wem to liuve 
ever been copied at all. llie only existing manuKoript i» pro- 
bably tbe original of the author luinself, and ibere ib uq re-i^ii 
to beltove that his spelling was ever adapted by any other 
writer. The piiiicipul peculiarity of OrininV OTtbogruphy is 
tliat Uie oonsoniiut u doubled after abort vowi4s, fx(«pr in n few 
ease* where, probably for want of room in the manutcript for 
two consonanU, a seniicirculur mark is put over avowel to indi- 
cato its quantity. Thcru urc abo marks of oontractioo. and 
some other signs the force of wbidi Is not always apparent. 

It U obvioiu tiuit if the npelUng of the- Onuuliini were 
proved tnily to n^prcsent the general contctopoiunoous proinin* 
ciation of Kngliali at the titno it was written, this orthography 
would be a very important aid in acquiring a knowled(;<> of th&t 
pronunciation, because tho tcmporul quantity of all the vovrels 
is indicated in evviy oombinoUun in which they can pouibly 
occur. Tlie author evidently iIwiyntKl lo miikv it u jiliono- 
gmphic expression of the normal Kogltsh articulation, for he 
expressly declares that English — a term which be wotUd bar<lly 
have applied to a local dialect -- am bo properly written in no 
other way. Besides this, it may be observed that, willi re-ijifct 
to the temporal length of tlie vowels, the notation of Orm, in 
ino>t cases, corresponds with what i^ and is tupposcd to havo 
long been, the habitual pronuneiation of English, Uimigb in 
many casei^ the essentia! quality of vowels and the accentuation 
of syllables has certainly been changed. 

On the other hand, the number of Scandinavian words and 
Idioms in the vocabulary and syntax has led many critic* to 
regard the work of Orm as a specimen of a North-eastern [utois, 
deriving a special character firom tbe Danish colonists in thai 

Lb(,» it. 



quarter of Englaad.* The weight of this evidence hu perimp* 
been cxa^goratc<), and I do not attach much impoitanco to the 
coincidvnovs bctwi-ca tlio Danish orthography and Ihat of the 
Orniuluin. Eogluh pronumriiitiou ii^-is with Ihc Dautsh ia 
Rt-iny points in which botli dilTcr from llio G<^niuin, und I am 
much disposed to believe that tiie npclliog of the Ormulum 
constitutes as faithful a reprcsentafioa of the oral Kn^Hsh of ttit 
time as any ono work could be, at a pciiod of great confusion of 
speech. f 

Tlio vorvifi cation differs from the Anglo-Snson modck in 
wanting aliit<:r:)linn, and in po59^i>»ing it regular mclriciil flow; 
from the Xoi maa French in wantiiig rhyme ; and, allowing for 
the difference between accent and classical quantity, it closely 
resembles that of wmc Latin poems of the Middle Agce, bova 
which it was probably imitated. 

The vocabulary contains a few words borrowed from tincrpd or 
eoclesiastical Latin, but scarcely any trace of Norman influence. 
The s>'Qtax of Orm, as will be soen by an examhintion of the 
pasaages I select for illustration, does not differ much from that 
of nodeni English, and if the work wctk reduced to the prcscBt 
orthography, it would present very few diftieultics to a readtq- at 
all Eamiliar with old Engliiih liCer&ture. The Rio«t reniiirkiU)le 
general characteristic of the syntax is its regularity, which, in 
spite of the temptations to licence, common to all modes of 
Tenification, is greater than is to be found in any other English 

■ PvrtufM llw uoft inpoKnot Scan^iQariisinn in the OnniUnm ii ih» ■*• of 
mr#B, tlie or%is of tho ini>dcni art, m the third [ii-Ttrio plural uid!r«lir« |im(Bt 
ef tb« TMb lir«l), bnn. b*0, la if, Atcd oiVUf*. f"r llm lirrl Uiw iu En^Vh bo 
far m I hkre obatrm!, oo pp. 1ST knd 237 of Ilia fii*t iiilumi! d tli» Orniuluin. 
tboogli •iand«B4 rUeb in Lijwnon ii reprcMSkd bj beon, bco^ be»S, biS. 
tK. ia ibo M«M cotuaon fcrmof IbupUml. 

f Til* ortbosrapby of the Onnaliiin, if it don nol diijiiava (h« doclriDn of On 
difjilbcait*) ptonuiirlatfon of llm innn TavDlt. ri'ttaiiil} tfiiiln aa K>iiiiti-nMiir« to it. 
Bad thii bxin m xvrj tnuked ciliaraclvHiilii: of lb« Kn^liitti urticiilaliuu of lii* t>uw% 
it eooU hanUf bare eampcd »a mcute au ear u that of Onn ; ami, on tbo otlia 
fcaad, if IhD towpU h»d brrn diTidcd into distinct ibadci^ u Id tnaAem Vnaith, 
%» «a«U hare fevnd hiniKlf undu' the nccean^ of iaTcntiiig clxorttetcn to rcpr^ 
I tiMM -mMMt of wocd. 

■ a 



Lun. IT. 

compoBiUon, except tiiom of modern date. This implict not 
outy a Closer attentioa to th« subject tluut bwl been beslowod 
upon it by otJier authors, but • gen«m] stability of granimittical 
forms, evidencu of wkieli U Dot to bo found eUewliere. Tba 
duparturea from the author's own sy«t«rn are, with very few 
exceptions, aa might bo expected, sacrifices to tti« CBOons uf 

Considered w a poem, tbe Orraulum ha« no merit but that of 
nnooU), 6uent, and regular versification, niid it ciliibllH doul- of 
tbe eharacteristic traits of English genius. Witli tlie exeei>lion, 
tborcforo, of lt>t rcmaikable prosody, its claitns to the attention 
of the student are of tiie Kmntt rbamctcr as Iboae of tbe Ancrea 
fiiirle, and it is not a fit subject for litenuy eriticiKm. 

I have emltfaced this poem in tbe same claw with I^yiinwn 
and the Ancicn Iliwic in dufrrence to the opinion of En^Ii^h 
philologists, who generally incline to treat its diaWt as srmi- 
Saxon, rather than as distinctdvoly English. It appears to me 
to belong to a later dale thnn fltbvr of those writings, or than 
some productions which I shnll hare occasion to consider here- 
after ; but its total want of all trace of naliunality of thought 
and character induces me to accede the more readily to itv 
separation firom the literature which forms the subject of thu 
next lecttu<e, and which, in some caMt at lca«l, shows a faint 
glimiuvring of the spark that was soon to bo kindled toa radiant 

Afltorr putt latt te Lalbrrd Crist 
AflcT tlial diEt ihe Lord Christ 

Won ctimrttn off EgypptO 
vax fivnc fniRi Egypt 

Inntill ft Undoir Galileo, 
into ill* bnd of Galilee^ 

Till Na»ine|>esa cjiaatrs^ 
to Nuxnrctli'a town, 

pataflterr w^tP P^ Coddifnllboa 
dMnoHer Hiith tho Oosnolbook 

Lacr, IV. THE OBUnLDU 181 

Bilffif he far well lannge 
Temaioed he there well long 

Wipy hise frend tatt hofideim himm 
with hia friends that had bim 

To TuminiTi & to gKteon, 
to keep and to protect, 

Wipp Marje [latt hisa moderr waaa 
with Maij that his mother wu 

& maj^dena (iweirt ut dene, 
and maidea throughout clean, 

& vit>)> JoBKp t'^tt waea himm sett 
and with Joseph that was him Mt 

To fedt^nn & to fosstrenn. 
to feed and to foster. 

& illke Lenntenn forenn {le^ 
and evciy Lent fared they 

Till SerranitemcBS cheastre 
to Jonisalem's ci^ 

A35 att te Passkcmcsseda^ 
Bye at the Passoverdaj, 

SwB Bomm )>e hoc hemm tahhte, 
BO aa die book them taught, 

To freUBenn )>er )>att hejhe tid 
to keep there that holyday 

)>att Judisskenn wise, 
in the Jewish wise, 

Forr p&tt te^ wsrenn gode menn, 
for that they were good men, 

& Godeas lasheaa heldenn. 
and God'a laws held. 

And 8i|)|>enn o )>att ;er t<att Criat 
And afterwards in the year that Christ 

Waaa ofi twellf winnterr elde 
ma of twelve winters igs 


pe^ oomenn inntiU Serrsaliem 
they •DRte into Jerusalem 

Att te^re Pa^keineHse, 
at ihcir Posaover, 

Sc hcldenn far ))att balljlia tid 
and held there that hdy diM 

O )>att Judisskenn wise, 
in the Jewish wise. 

& Jesu Crist wass }>ar vipf hemm, 
and Jeaua Christ won there with them, 

Swa Bumm )>e Goddspell ki])e)i^. 
BO as die Gospel Bailh. 

& aSlcrr )>att te tid wass gaa 
and afler that the time was gone 

pe^ wcnndenn fra }>e tenunple, 
they wended from the temple, 

tic ferrdenu towarrd Kazane)> 
and furcd towards Nazarelh* 

Am daj^esa gang till efenn, 
a day's journey till evening, 

& wenndcnn {)att te Laferrd Criat 
KUd weened that the Lord Chrut 

Wi|)l) liemra fatt gate come; 
with them that way came ; 

& he wasa )<& hehinndemi hemm 
and he was then behind them 

Bilcfedd att te temmple; 
remaining at the temple; 

& talt ne wisste nohht hias kimi 
and that not wist not his kin 

Aco wennde patt ha come, 
but weened tliat he came, 

& jfideaa heore wejje forr)) 
and went their way ibi& 

acu wi^L uuur nmy mfw 

* A friend Inqnlrea: Does oar word /an. In the lenae of the cost of ajoor- 
ne;, bear any lelatioa to tbia word f Thvroushfare certainlj does. 


Till )iatt itt comm till efenn, 
till that it came to evoning, 

& ta pejs misatenn pej^re child, 
and tlien they missed their 'hi Id, 

& itt henim offbrrliuhhte, 
and it them grieved, 

& jedenn till, & Bolihlenn himm 
and (thoy) went, and sought him 

Bitwenena sibbe & cuy%, 

among relationa and acquaintanc i% 

& te^ ne lundenn nohht off himm 
and they not found nought of him, 

Forr he wass att te iemmple. 
for he was at the temple. 

& te32 ]>a wenndenn eSl onnstea 
■od they then turned back again 

fatt dere child to aekenn, 
that dear child to seek, 

& comcnn effl till S^'^^oIiBm, 
■nd came again to Jerusalem, 

To sekenn himm )>Kr binoeno. 
to aei^ him there within. 

& tejs himm o ])e f^dde da;^ 
and they him on the third day 

)iteT fundcim i ])e temmple 
^ere found in the temple 

Bitwenenn |?ntt Judiaskena flocu 
among the Jewish flock 

patt Iteredd 'watis o boke; 
that learned wan in book; 

& ttere he salt to ^aj^aena hemm 
md there lie eat to ask them 

Off )>esjre bokess lare, 
of their book's lor^ 


& allc (latt himm herrdenn {ibt, 
and all that him heard there, 

Hemm |iiihhte mikell wunnderr 
them thought much wonder 

Offjifitt he wassfull jEep & vria 
of that be was full ^rewd and wIm 

To Bworenn & to fra^cenn. 
to answer and to ask. 

& Sannte Itlnrje comm till himm 
snd Saiot Iklary came to him 

& M^do himm pusa wi))|> worde, 
and Haid (to) him thus with word, 

Whi didesat tu, lef aime, Jmss 
Why diitst tfaou, dear Ron, thus 

Vtiyp ues, foiT UB8 to Bwennkenn T 
with us, for as to trouble? 

Witt hafunn Eokht te widewh&r 
TQ-two hava sougiit thee widewhen 

Ice & ti faderr ba]ie 
I and thy futher both 

Wi^p serrhfiill herrte & eaxxf, mod, 
with M>rrowfut heart and sony mood^ 

Whi dide)«t tu |iiHBdcdo7 
why didst thou this deed? 

& tanne fej^de Jchu CriKt 
and thon said Jesui Christ 

Till bafe Jiura yiiff worde, 
to both tliUB with word, 

Whatt woHs ;^uw bws to sekeim me, 

what waa (there t(l you bo to seek me, 

Whatt wasH 5aw swa to Bertjhenn T 
what waA (there to) you ao to sorrow T 

Ne wisato je nohht tatt me birrf 
Dot wist ye not that me becomea 

Lkt. IV. TEE OBHULtnC 185 

Sfin fadeiT ville {oTfaia 7 
my father'B will (to) do 7 

Ne |)Blt me birr)> beon hojliefull 
Dor that me becomes (to) be careful 

Abutenn hise |>ingess 7 
«bont bia things? 

& te23 ne mibhtemi nohht tatt word 
ftud thej not might not that word 

git ta we] unndetTBtiuitidetiii ; 
yet then wet miderstand; 

& he fa jede forp wi(>j> hemm 
and he then went forth with them 

& dide hemm heore wille, 
and did them their will, 

& comm wi^f hemm till Nazane)>, 
and came with them to Nazareth, 

Swa Bumm fo Goddapell kifefli, 
ao afl die GoBpel saith, 

is till hemm bafe he lutte & bcb 
and to them both be obeyed and bowed 

pnrrh eopfaaat hentrtunmnease, 
throngh eoothfaat obedieoce, 

. & wasB vri^f hemm till t>att he wase 
and waa with them till that he waa 

Off Jirittij winnterr elde. 
of thirty winters' ago. 

& tire laSUij Mor^e too 
■nd onr lady Slaiy took 

All ^att jbo sahh & heirde 
all that she saw and heard 

Off hire eune Jeau Criat, 
td her Bon Jesus Chriat, 

& off hies GoddcunndnaHi^ 
and of hia Divini^, 

1S6 TEE oruhluu Lmot. IT. 

& all ^hSt held inn hire ^otiit, 
and all cJic-it held in her thought, 

Swu Bumm ))e Goddspell ki])o]>]), 
BO as Uie Gohpel soith, 

& le^jdo itt all tosaracnn 033 
and laid it all together aye 

Inn hire {lohhtcus arrke. 
in her thought's ark. 

& hire suae wex & fraf 
And her enn waxed and tJirove 

I wisfldom & inn tilde, 
in wisdom and in ego, 

& he woM Godd & goda menn 
and he wai (tn) God and good men 

Well swifie lef & dore; 

well very plcaning and dear; 

& tatt wnxH rihht, forr he wass Godd, 
and that was right, for hft was God, 

& god onn alle wim. 
and good in all ways. 

Her eodejip nu ))iss GoddRpoU puaa 
Here endcth now this Gonpcl thus 

& uss birr)> itt )iurrhsekenn, 
and us (it) becomes it to through-aeartihf 

To lokenn whatt itt iKreff uss 
to observe what it teacheth ns 

Off ure sawlo ncde. 
of our Boul's need. 

Notes. — I bare already stated the general principle of Orm'e ortho- 
pruphy. There are nppareiil deviations from his oim rules, but these, 
U'hi.'n not mere accidi:nts, are doubtlrsB eTcplicable as special ciises, 
though we cannot always reconcile ihem 10 his usual practice. It will 
be iH-'cn thnt in words beginning with {>, and now pronounced with the 
th sound.! is ofli-'n Hubstituted,but this isalways done in conibnnity with 

Ltcr. IT. TBK OBMULUU 187 

vhnt was donbtleea an orthoepical mle. After worils ending In d, t, 
and BometimeB ss, f becomes t, as in the first line of the above extract. 
There are some exceptions to this rule, but they are not iniporlant 
enotigh to be noticed, frend, the sign of the plural is here omitted: — 
TTasa — bilefedd. This corresponds with the German n-ar geblie- 
ben; — witt, we-two, dual form; — whatt wass juw, what was to 
yon, what had you, what ailed you; — me birr)>, the verb is here an 
impersonal, as ought sometimes was at s later period; — faderr wille, 
the omission of the possessive sign after words indicative of &mily re- 
lation was very common for at least two ceatanea liter tiie time of 
Omi i — zhSt, oontractaon for jbo itt. 



Aa I have remarked in a former lecture, the change from 
Anglu-Siixnn and Semi-Soxon to EngHsh was bo gradual, that 
the history of the revolution can be divided only by arbitrary 
epochs ; and I have given some reasons for thinking that what- 
ever date we may assign to the formation of the English 
fipt-ech, English hterature cannot be regarded as having had a 
beginning until the English tongue was employed in the 
exprcHsion of the conceptions of a distinctively national genius. 
This, us we have aoen, cannot be said to have taken place until 
after the middle of the fourteenth century; but the incipient 
chemical union of Saxon and French was attended with an 
efTorvescence which threw off some spirited products, though it 
nmst be confessed that most of what is called the English 
literature of the thirteenth century, when compared with the 
conttmporaneoua poetry of Continental Europe, and especially 
of P'rance, resembles dregs ond lees rather than anything more 

To tlie grammarian and the etymologist, the history of the 
transition period, or the larva and chryaaHs states, is of in- 
t«rest and importance oa necessary to a clear view of the phy- 
siology of the English speech ; but, both because I aim to exhibit 
the literary adaptations of the language rather than its genesii 

l«CT. T. 

mmnimH cixTritr 


or Its linguistic &fEaitief), and became of the extreme difficulty 
of intelligibly presenting niceties of gmtamuliuitl furnj to the 
ear alone, I attempt nothing beyond n very gioteial ststcmeut 
of tiio leading Cncts of this period of English philologiciU 

We shall have time and space to criticise only the more con- 
spicuous writers nod their dialect, and wen among thuse writera 
I must confine myself to thoite wb« were soinelhing more tluto 
merely products of their age and countr}'. I can notice only 
tvo classes, namely, mich as are emphatically important witaeeaes 
to the state of English pliilulog)' in their time, itnd 8uch m con- 
tributed — by the popularity of their writings ami ttieir sym- 
pathy with the tendencies of the yet but half-developed nation- 
ality which was struggling into existence — to give form and 
direction to oontomporaneous and succeeding litenuy effort, and 
are oonKcquently to be regarded, not aa exampit-s, results, 
•imply, but as creative influences in English letters. 

Of the former class, the most celebrated is the short procla- 
mation issued in the year 12S8, in tho nign of Ueury III., 
which many English philologist* regard as the tintt i^pcc-imon of 
English as contradislingui^ir^ fmm Seini-<Saxoii.* Tiiere is 
no very good graroRiatJcal reason for treating ihU prnotiiTontion 
AS belonging to an essentially difTcrcnt phase of Kn^liith philo- 
l<^ from many earlier writings of lite same century; for 
tboighit is, En particular points, apprently more modern than 

* I wu^pem the nliton ot ths gT**l EnxUxli Pin>unii7 now ia ootmc of {«•• 
giaratlaii nniltr ttw NlUfdcM of (h* Londoa Thilaloi^nil Sociitlr. nuuidra thin 
•raliwpapar u Mit Bq^Uh, bat Sanii^^lan ; for il i* not uiiiniii: l)ii> iiiaiitiuiFnti 
fRiuunlMl M •xutiMd far ColfndKi)'* Gloowuil Imtat to U>« Ko^iali UttTalum 
«f tJia tUitanlb tmlut^. K'-itiri a» il ii^ il oeotaiaa^ baiidai sonc nnant fonna 
Dot BotiMil b; CoUndi;^ l>m» vonls not found in tha Glafurial Indiut : a, nl- 
WBj^ Bye; afvnmid {ix/.'miKidtj ; htttgle. ytonnaa. ordinniipii; frrof, proQl, 
(Ood; /K'fHtw, t«lp; nnj", noblM [»1 : curt,!/ (usatlvm); ni^fuou, cuuucillar; 
mttutt ^ftitmi5M\ Uv, dwroe; wfn (uri'tii), trrfu vurvn liuyrm/il}: irorliiKur, 
liOM«r. W* nuj bene* isfur tbnl tlie iliti nnpotiliHliMl nlics of th« lilmtun «J 
Uw thiilMiith e«nt«trT vill fumitli a cuD^dcmble numbor of wofdt not jtt ln> 
mporklnl iate Eo^uib TWAbaUrim 



Lkt. V. 

■ome of tliem — tho Ancrea Biwie for instanoo — it ui. Id otlin 
respects, quite as deciclcdiy of no older structure, lu real itn* 
portunce orines cIiieRy from the f&ct, tbut it is one of tlie 
Tcry few epecimeos of tlie EnglUK of th<tt century, the 
date of which u positively known*, tlint of the older toxt of 
LnyMnon being rntbcr doubtful, those of the later t«it uutl of 
the Ortnulum, ita well as of the Ancrea Riwh^ and of ino«t 
other tnn»u«cripta ascribed to tlio thirteenth century, alto^vtbui 

Another drcumstanee which adds much to its value is* Ihatj 
it was issued on an important political occasioa — Uie i«labliiib* 
ment of a govcrnmeDtal council or commisgion, in deroj^tioii 
the royal authority, and invt-stci) with almost absolute powers-^ 
ood that, tu appears from t)ie dociunenl itself^ copies of it were 
•cut, for public promulgation, to every vltiru in En^tland. The 
probability therefore is stronjr, that tJiia tranalation — for tho 
proclamation appears to have bccii drawn up in I-Vonch — was 
not written in tlic peculiar local dialect of any ono district, but in 
the form which most tndy corri.-«pond«d to the gvnersl feature! j 
of tlio popular speech, in order that it might be cvciywhersi 
iotelligible. It mnst then be considered the best eridcnoe 
existing of the condition of English at say fixed period in the 
thirteenth conlurj'. 

It bus been objected againot tins view of the philological 
iropoTtnDCO of this document, that, being an oflidal paper, ' it isj 
made up, in great part, of established phrases of form, many 
which had probably become obsolete in ordinary speech and 
writing,' t and hence i» to be regarded as no true represe&tatire 
of (he current Eoglifli of its time, but as an assemblage of 
archaic forau which bad lost their vitality, and, of coune, as 

' I un parh«p« in nrer in tnattag 1£n ftitoA lowUdi llii* mooiiBcat bcJoom? 
H kltocBtlioT oratain. There t* no doubt •» Ut Ui« dat« of Uie cvigiiul compou— 
lion, but HIV »« fun tliat tliU partlmLir Englisb topjr U fonkanponstaiu •mtlim 
tb* origianl f 

t Cni^ OotUsta of tbt Hiitocy of tlie Eagliib IinngimiL 

Un. V. 



bdoog^ag pliilologically to an earlier pciiod. This objection ia 
founded on vltat I thiuk »u ernineoux vivw of the facts of tbs 
CAse. After the Conque-ti, tlie Anglo-Snxon vitt supc-niolod bv 
French and Latin as the mediums of official coinmuDicalion, 
and there is reason to bclicvo fluit, except in grants to indi- 
vidiiaU nnd other matters of |>riv»tc cooccm, Scmi-Saxon and 
Early Eoglisb were little, if at all, used hy the }jiivornmcnt, this 
proclamation being, 1 believe, ttie only pultlic dociimtMtt kmiwn 
to have been promutgatod in the native tougucdunug the whole 
of tho twelfth tLDd tJiirteviith centuries. It was proliably em- 
ployed on thitf ocoasitin, buciiuse the political moveineol whicb 
extort«d from the crovru the E!>ftbment of the commi^rioD 
wail, r.8 far aa in that age any political movement could be, of it 
popular character, and it was thought a prudent measure to 
publish this coace«fiion to thv demaadii of the people in a dialect 
xntelligibtc to all. 

Thcni were, then, at that time, no 'eslablixhrd phrases of 
£Drm ' in the political dialect of the Engliith language Tho 
jTovi-niment could not hare used a stereotypfd ]ilini*i-.ilogy, for 
Che ruii.<u>n that none such existed; and act-ordingly t,hi« procla- 
snation must be viewed as an authentic moDuraenI of the popular 
■peech of Engtund in the middle of the thirlccuth oonturv, so 
iar as tliat ^>eecb had yet acquired a cunsiKtvut and uoifurm 

It U very short, containing, besides proper names, only about 
three hundrt'd wonlM in all, iiikI only bt-twocn one hundred and 
thirty and one hundred and forty di fferent wordv, even counting 
as such all the different inflections of the smav stem. Of courm-, 
it exemplifies but a small proportion of cither the grammatical 
forms or the vocsbiilaiy. In thia lattt^r re«[wct it shows no 
trace of Norman inHuf nee, all the words being Englisli, except 
'the proper names, a couple of ofBcial titles, duke and marakiiif 
and one or two words which tho Aoglo-Saxon had, in earlier 
a^ received from the Latin; but in the grammar, the break- 
ing; down of the Anglo-Saxon inQectiona] system hi plainly pur- 



htCT. V. 

oeptible. I give the text u I find it in HnuptV Zeitadirift* 
xL 298, 299, after Pauli.* 

llcnr', lliitrg Goilci rtiJti:rae Kin;; on EnglFnr)oin<Ip, Ihnavord on If^ 
Icttnd. <luk' on Norai', on Ai[uiuiii', and uorl rm Aiuow, Mnd igre^n]{0 
to All hiae hulde UumiIc and Uue ledu on HunU-niW Mliir*. 

Thact wiWo g« vr«l alle, llia«t wo vrillcn nad ttiinen, timet tfanct nra 
iMdaunm aQo othor tlia mou* dael of lieom, ilia«t licoth icfaMen tbtirg 
ui and tliurg thaM tcandM folk on ure liimcridie, liabbeili Idon md 
acliull<rn doD in th« worth&eaHi of Godo and oti urs Irooirlho lor tlia 
ftene of tbo loaodc thurg tJi« bmgw at ihan toforenlMida r«d<aDKn, 
beo >t«doliu«t and tlcMuido in kilo tbingv * haUia ii«iid», and m luam 
alia tiro trcowc in the tnmwtho, tliM hw ua og«n, lliaot boo sU(l«fn«<t- 
)tc)M huddcn and HwerMm to benlden nnd to wori«n iho iwiDCiwa, Ihaot 
b«on imakodQ and boon to makicn thurg tlinn tofon^iwidc nc<kan>eB 
othor thitTg tlio niouro ditcl of hoom nlawo ul*e hit !■ biforcn iaoid, and 
timet ndic other bel])e ihaet for to done U thiui ilclie otho ageaiea alls 
men, rigt lor to doiio nnd to tbaogcn, and noon dc ninie of loaiuk no 
of egtc, vr1i«rothurff tlua bMigte mugo booa ikt olltcr !n'4!rjed on cola 
wiM and gif otii oth«T ont« ciunen her mifjenea, w« wMatx and houtim, 
thnot all« ure treoiro hwni healden doadlicho Uoon, and for thaet we 
wiUcD, tluiM thia beo atedcdiMC and leattnde, wo aefideD i^ir this wril 
open iocined witli nre wd to bnldcn nmai^Ci gcir iiw hord. 

Witncne uMclv«n aot Lund«n' thane f^gteiMiilM day on the montlia 
of Octobr* in ibc two and fi>w«rtigtb« gea» of ure cruuiuge 

And tfaia vrta idon aetforen nre i>wom« r«deanen : 
Piere follow die aignatiirca of aoronl rtdefmtn at ooan^ots] 
and a«tforen othro mogo. 

And al on dio ileha irorden ia iacnd in to aonrihco othr« Adro outt 
al tliaer* kanericho on Englsaoloando and ck in td Ircloado. 

In modom Engliidi thua : 

Henry, by the irrace of God king in (of) Rnglind, lord in (of) Ir« 
land, duko in (of) Nominndy, in (of) A^nitainr, and tiirl in (of) Anjou, 
ROida giTcting to all hi* licgcx, clurk nnd lay. in HnntioKdonidurv. 

Thit know yo vrdi all, thni vre will and Rrant that what our oout»ctl> 

■ I nqnt Umt I sin nnatiU to fUmiuli n litAn] ot^ of ihii talMnMfng dnet- 
iB«ut. I'auU. twm wbom Uia text iu }Inii[it !• priiil^ !■■■ ihongiht ftl la nj«Mt 
lh« J of iba oriiHnil. mil I mppose alao tha ^ anrl r, ona or loth of whicii it 
factetilj employed. Wliclhcr other thangca luini W«ii iiiade, IJoaat know. Iial 
•Ten liwM an la luunitiftabb aa it vauU tw to aulvtitate; tcif, ercA tor x 
in ptiutia)! a i)ai<iu« Orarit maauscrifl. 

Uct* V. 

rnocUHATiON op henrt m. 


Ion, all or tli* major port of them, vha nro chouri (17 u* *nA bj tlia 
bnd'ti pcopio in our kingdom, Iihto doni? .Tnd slintl do, to t}ie honour of 
God Bud in nllc^anco to us, for th« good of the huid, hy the or^ancs 
of the oforcKud oouncilloT«, be iit«d&Kl inil pcniiim«nt in all tbin.i^ 
t)m« without end, and we eoramanil uU our Uvgns by ilii^ fuith iliat thtry 
ovre on, that di«^ ittdfiutly hold, and sw«(ir to liold and defend the re- 
gulattona that ore made and to be made by the aJbreaaid ooimcillon, or 
hy the roiijor port of lh«ni, aa ia before foid, and tlial «adi help odien 
this lo do, by Um Bune oaih, agnintit all men, right to do and to r««eivn, 
«nd tiiat DOoe taXe of land or goods, w1i«i«by this ordinance may b« 
IM or impaired in any wise, and if any [nt^;.] or any [plural] tnuia- 
glM) hwe againat, ir« will and command thut all oar U^ge^ iheat hold 
tm doadly fooa, and bccnttw we will tltat this be Bt«drast and pormnnent, 
w« tend yon those lctt«r* patent acaled with our aeal, to keop among 
yon in ciutody. 

WitnuH ouraclf at Tjoodon the dghtncnth dnr in the month of Octo- 
ber in llwt two and tottiuth yeur of cur coronntjon. 

And thia was done before our sworn conndlloia : 
and before other noblea [?]. 

An>d aD in lite «ame words Is sent into ereiy other slitre over all the 
Ui^dom in (ofj Eughad und abo into Ireliuid. 

The first thing which ictrilccs ux in the at))cct of this procIamaUoD is 
m ttnicture of period ao nearly corresponding with present naagc, Aat, 
■s the above traaslatioa shows, it is ca^ to make a modem Englid 
YersiOD, ooolbnning to the oi^inal in Ti-rbol amngement and t^-ntax, 
moA yet departing very little from the idiom of our own time. Tlie 
positional trjmxax had become oatabUdicd, and the inflectional endings 
bad no longer a real v*\jie. Tru«, fixim the force of habit, they oon- 
tintied long in lue, just aa in spelling we retain letters which faava 
oeaaad to b« pronoimood ; but when it was onco distinctly feit that tli« 
■yntaetical rcUlions of words had oocne to depend on precedence and 
■aqcunc*, the csmcs and other now iiseUn gmmmaiical signs wers 
ncgtecled, confmindod, and Jinally dropped, as wern the originni in'mbols 
of the larger numbrrs in the Arabic nolntian, when it wiu discorcred 
that position alone might be mode to tmlicalo the value of the &>cton 
of which the digits were the exponents.* 

The principle, that the gnunnmticiil calf^ories of the wonls in a 

■ See an aiplsnirion of tlis otig^ of tlio dsctmul QobLtica in s mIs la 
BDmboldf a KoMMi 


fBocuvAnox or tnaija m. 

LwTi. V. 

peruHl an <I(it«nnii>nil hj Uidr rcUljn pcnitioiiR, is the tnie character- 
tiKic of Knftlii-h o.i diictingniKbcd from Sucon, luid if wo co ilJ fix die 
epodiAl which Uiis priiid]^ hccamodiaonntniUii^ Uwof conemictioii, 
wo eouJil aaaigii a d>t« to the origin of tho English Ungungo m k fi«w 
llnguiKio individuiU- 

B^gel eoiiai<l<Ts the orthogmphj of thb proclamation k> impcFrtant 
ihnt, m an ariiolo in the bboodcI Bumbcr of the cJercDth volamo of 
llaufit, he dcTotM do Iom tlMHi eight and twsnlj doaelj printed odaro 
lieges to an oxaminalion of it. Were 1 conrinced of the aoiindneM of 
tboaa^eculitioaR,Ui*prr*cnl would aot bealii place for the exhibtlicai 
of the rcaulta arrirod at hj tlii* wrilor; but, however ingvnioaa may 
be hit viows, it appear* to m« that, in the cxcMrivo im^illari^ of nil 
OTtliogmplijr at that period, wo imj' find aafficicnt reuoo for dotibUug 
Mhie^utT wo are yet in po a a em Joa of ttiiEcicnt data to jutnify any poai- 
tive odDcIawoni on the rehttJoni between the ipokcn nnd tho writttn 
tooguo of England In the middle of the ikitteenih oentuiy.* 

■ W* e*a narcr lUtenniat^ bjr inttmal wHeawt wtietliir tb*a|p« tn mthogrtfkj 
ar* «(ntcmponin<<oii]i witli rluiiani !a pconnndetioo, sod it in only in a mj f*w 
rtorat aum Tliat urn 1iiit« mij- vitomal eiMeon aa 111* Mil>jtcl. Thn pnaamption 
U ilwayi ihnC Ilia ipeiling Trmiiiml nulterail Ions after lli* (pohaa venl had 
faMoni? Tfiry ditTiiront in aitinilalion. 

If «D compare tli« orthnfcrtjih/ of o«r lime witL tliat of Sbafcipear*** ap^ w« 
Knd T«i7 consid^niMi changnt sad v« know llut Eagliah poanadetiOB tn» hrmt 
■nuh moditlnl iliipe tbnttieriod. (S(o tho md«no*en thionbjrct (n FimSme^ 
LtetnraXXII.) Rnt tl>r dunea* ia vpctlioK hara aiA, in fmrnl hma maie tOr 
ti» parpomof l>riiu^lb« wriltan into rttMrewordaaMiritk the ^okenteaguv 
tet tar AjTiuHogieti rf ai u . fcr conraiianc* of tlie prioicr, tbr nalbnnitj, and 
is ea&ie cmm from nprle* ; not havn n oaf rcaiua to brhota thu oar jaram O t 
erthogiaphj ia norc truly plionof^mpMc Ibiu itin>(tirolM«4ndyear*ige^eic«p^ 
ptrhtpa. *o f«r w it hw bMD mulf to by droppiiig the note f la Many trwde. 

Tho Sfanlih Academy bweneoMMlrd in bii^agaliMt arerolutioo iii tboottiio- 
gnphycMTlheQutiliiui iBBjcmiffl, mid iiithi>IiMlaaeaith«Biod«m Kpalltnitmorrtnly 
nprtaentatheaitkuUtion thsn Ihpold orthoffnphy did. ThnrJianKo wnnot made 
tutfii— lh« orthoepy had bnn rwently modified, but to mike tho ottliograpbj 
B morK iinlfonn ind eonTODient luprwuioB of what had bMn In a long time iW 
normal promiiiriitian. Thiii we know liiatariaiUy, but if the diwnailoi)* on tba 
•ntyect ihontd be lotl, posli-rity in IkIi t m joiKlly iafnr, frooa the latemal •Tidraee 
in lh« mo, that tho art iituId lion of tli(> Spsnuh Qiu)or««nt a eoddcD ttumgv in the 
fini Inlf of t)i« nwctornth Mntaiy. u weran thetthe imnrnGtiliDB of Saxon woida 
in Engliih, in tli* tlnin of Henry III , diflctad auttOTiilly from ttiat employed in 
the ttone word* at tlie epodi «t tha Conqeeit. And In ilia ume way, Ifariog tho 
axttBil oridcnK out of lh<! qnKlien. a ttranRitr to Atuits-Amrrimn anicr, nb- 
•arriiig tlie ^i'iu'riI fix ploy mrnl of Wclniir b unhappy cuogrophy ia Kcw York 
^wipqwm and evlwul liooka, eould corns to aa otliat condnuMi LSaa thai Um 

1.BCT. V. 



The followiDg woTil* Mem to rcijtiirc tipocin] notice : 

Tf.KBa. Bead, 3 per. indie, nag. in witbout infloctioniU ending o( 
odier Mgn of ooi^ngntion ; — witcn, iroperatirti, cnda in n intiUMil off, 
wliieh bttUr wan tlio A.-S. Ibnn wbcn thu nominutivo pronoun fi>IIoiirc<l 
the vetb; — wiltpn, with n linal iuricadof )i or 8, but beoth rod 
hsbbeth witb t3ic kuur aound;— Boliallen widt n, tuin A.-S.; — 
hoaton witb n insuad of ^ or B; — be&Iden aod awerien, nib- 
JBOctive, with R «s in A.-S.; — to liealdon and to werien, infini- 
tirca with fo, oontnir; to A.-S. ; beon with n ioatcad of A.-S. 8; — to 
makien, g«nm^a] according to A.-S. conRtniction, but without the 
cbaradfTiatic -iie; — holpo, aabjunctivR, with < a* in A.—S.; — to 
don«, g^rrundial with duractcriiitic ending ; — to foang«n, gerundial 
vilbout charactoriitic ending; — Dime, aubj. with e an in A.>S.;— 
mugc, aubj. wiUi c an in A.-S.;.— cum vn,proticiblj inibj., with » n« in 
A.-S.; — hoaldun, nibj. witb n u tn A.-S.; — sendon, widi it (ur 8; 
— to bulden, geniud. without charactcriatic. 

Nooss. Igretinge is not a parlidple, hut a noun, jwrftj*?, Lat 
aalutom. The i, originally on augment of lli« participle and ja^t 
tense of the rerb, ia pretixed iHfo to two other nouna, iaecneaaea and 
ifoan, and to iltewedo, which in probnbly to bo conadored as an nd- 
joctiTO, thongh not, like ilafrde, n pnTtii-ipiiU ; bcsigte ia alliwl to 
tight, and therefore otymolngicallj corTi:>.-pon<i* to prmtittoit. 

Amectivkx. moare. It is worth nolicingr, ax nn inxtiutce of tfaa 
apfiioxinuitiiMi of laiqiuagea which hnvi: long diverged, (hat iho A.-S. 
niKra and th« Latin major, are, in ooiuequcnoe of orthoepic cJiange*, 
rapreaentied in modern EngliAh and in Portugtieou, napcclivclir, br the 
Buae word, more. Enf^-, m<^r, Port. lu t>ie kudo way — in pureuiince 
of more remarlLable laws of change by which, in (he Ciuibrk of tJie 
Sette and the Trodici Comuni, the Ger. k becomes b, the diphllton;; e{ 
■ sogndcdo.aad the palatal Mia dwnged intoj^ — the German adjective 
waich ia, in Cimbrie, upellcd and pronouRMul bog, which agreea is 
fbnn, and in at k<a*t one ncnniog, with the Celtic, bog. Seo a nMt on 
Buck, in the Amcriowi edition of WedgwoodV DicL of Eng. Kiyni. 
Oni other onie, Itegel supposes tlie e final in lh«i latter exnmpk lo 
bo the aign of the plural ; others have tnsat^ it as a ieminine nngular 
ending. The <inc»lion cannot be deteniiined bjr tlie ayntiix, for iho 
plumi might hare boco nwd aflor an alternative, but the dttdnctioa of 

paeple «t th» AmeTJean mmsieTcUl molrapolii bad lately beoanu m UnmUlily 
OfinrcJ in Bpecd) a* to talk of trlm-itn, at diiMlnt* rivt-ltn, and cC liif-Ui^ 
■iiijjtii i1 gpodt. 

O S 

LwT. T. 



never fo h&ve lioen nbecurcd in thci Eart, ami. Id the Middle 
Ages, tratuiiationH of OriuuUl rotniuiccs fuuudc-cl oq liU life, and 
imitatioaa of tbuni, conntituted an importaut feature in the 
literature of every European people possestung a writteo 

The most celebrated and popular, tbotigh not the earliest, of 
these poems, was the Atexaudreia of Philip Gautier, of Lille, or 
CbatUloa, which waa composed, aa appears irom iotemal 
evidence, between the fears 1170 — 1201. This ia modelted 
mainly afWr Curtius, and is written in Latin hexamotcrs. It 
served as tbc prototype of Dunieruutt versions and paraphimst* 
in many laoguages, and wan even ti-anslated into Old-Northern 
or Icelandic prosei by command of ^lagous Hakonason, a Nor- 
v^ian king, about the middle of the tbirtoenth century. 

Several of tbo translation* or uoitatiouo of Gauticr's work 
were written In verses of twelve ayllablen, or six iambic feet, 
wbicb were probably thought the nearest apj>roximaUoQ to the 
daasic hesamctvr practicable in modem poetry * ; aad it is said 

AAomon ocean tmea in Troilai tai CttatUt, iiir. 911, S16, CttaaM 

Aiul, •nia, ywit, fsina waali I don llw bM^ 
U Uiat I i^iM bail for to Jo n, 
But whatiuT l2i«t ya tlvell, or for bim go, 
I un, till Qod me boUcr minde Hod, 
At dateanun, liglit at mj witMa cud. 

JfahantcH t> oilW fiemin^ o! ymtdmn. 

It Mmcth hard. &a vrctchn irol nonitht I*r«, 

Tor "my slontfa, or oUvr vilAil wtebrtk 

Hill ii Mid l>,v hnn tlmt ba Dot wurlh two fcldie^ 

fint je ben »i»r. and that jre hna on luMil, 

IT u neither bjjdc, nc ikilfall to withxIoDd. 

Her* tha MnM of dutliKM or MaptdilT'. so romnionlj awriM to tba boittion, li 
plunt; implied, tliougb it mtul be iidniitt«l that tii« pfedio tttati ot Ih« phiMM 
is >hicb tba word ocmn i> oot miU; tDnAn out. 

* Th* oorliiMt attempt at imilatioii of tht dawol hoxunnUir whifli I Iut« 
MM with in Eofliib if a rtiymod cmsIM tnanUud tna Viigil in Pnrr^s 



Lkt. T. 

that eUtmndrine, aa a dcsignatioD of a p&rlicular motre, took 
iU D&me Trom it« emplojmeut in ihvte popular &uil widely dr- 
oiiUtcd poems. Cliiiucvr, though ho does not bimsielf write 
in this reree, speaka of it, under the nsme of exaTnetnm, as a 
oommoD boroic mea«ir& 

Tregcdia a to nyn a ocrlojn elorit^ 
At oldo boolcM mokea ua meinoriai 
Of bom thu Blood ia gret piMptntf^ 
And ia yfkllw oat ofhe^ dcgrt 
In to DUMrio, aod onditfa wroccbodly. 
And ihuy bon rvroifod coraunly 
Of six (tiot, which men clepa nromr/ron. 

3/ontta Talt, Prologaa^ 

The ot<] English poem of Kyn^ Alistiiucler it, however, Dot 
in the same metre aa moat of the Kouiaiice poems on the samo 
auhjcct, but in a v«^iy irregular riij-meil v*'rse of seven or eight, 
and Bonictiraea more syltablee. It ia not a tiaoalation of the 
work of Gautior, but of some Kronch poem now unknown, ao 
that w« have not the mcuns of detcrmiuing how far it is merely 
a faithful version, or how far it was modifiod by the translator. 
The Ktory, ns narrated in Kyng Alisnumler, does not rtwt tipon 
clanHioal authority, but is, ruiidi more probably, laudo up fmm 
the spurious Alexander of CaltL<thenes and other mediffival trana 
lationa from Oriental romoocos. and from confused Eastern 
traditions brought home bypilgrims and cnisadeni.* That itia 

vanion of JaroniB** prologM to his I^tia Blbl*. VjdilBlo Vcnloo^ L ST, 
whara Et ia print**! «■ pnm: 

S«w ttiniAt Inntath at*, Satnnuu tvniMlh hii rawniM: 
Now □*«« kpi Cometh ft^ from an hi), tn> bauanii lawnaa 

■ Tlia «wk whEdi, In tho Middlo ARna. pawMl osJnr tha saiaa of OtUiitfaana^ 
in Inotrn ti> liBTa bean livntilalaJ (rn<n tlm Paotinu iubi Uraek abost- Iha yvmr 
1<)T<>. 1<7 Siinan SaUu an offit-pr of !)>• oaurt of l-anntaiiiinofJe in tbo rnK> of 
>lK-hioi Dncaa. So* Wrbcr'n Hririoal Rom«a«*a, vol. L. iBteDdncrioa, p. xx. 

Tlio tiiU(«oiUM balwMiD WeaUrn Eompa and iha Lvnuil. whirh becun* *o 
tm\veal aeon aflar iLia dal*, intrHiuivJ ihi> mmsniw to tha Ijtitn tiatinof, ami. 
Irf OMMW of tnaatatioiu^ it wa* aiym finnnnillj ililfiif»l ■monif a puMio in attieli 
Iha van far tho ttamwrj of the Uolj' Saitahrhro had asdtisl a dbw ialereal in tte 
hittorr and th* gMgniphj of the bat. Tha wiilo popiilarily vfaiiji ikia fading 

Lmbt. V. 



MlbltaxitiKUy a tTUHhtioD, or at U-Mtnn imUntion, nnd not an 
original EngUsb eompoxitioD, Buliiff^cturily nppears from a 
variety of passages, aiid among olhet^ from this : 

Thb bataU deHtut«d la, 
Id the French, wal y-wis, 
ncnfora Y haro, hit to eolour, 
Sorowed of Uie Latyo aubMir. 


To what I^tiD auUior refei-cDce is here made, does not appear, 
bat it is not probable that it was Gaulicr, for if tho tranaliitor b:ul 
been familiar with that author, he would hardly have failed to 
introduce into his work Boine notice of tbe death of Tliomas & 
Bccket, who was ao popular a iaint in England la the thirteenth 
oentury, and whode martyrdom, as some of his admin^ira both 
ancient and modern chooise to call it, is mentioned by Gautier. 

The author professes to unumi-rato hio sources at the com- 
mencement of chap. i. of Part II., but It u quite erident that 
he knew little or nothing of tJte real works of the writvn he 
rpccifieA, or of tho aulhonhip of the uuiiu»cript« be uitL-d, aud 
the testimony of all 'Latin books 'was, in bis eyes, of equal 

The list of authorities, in which the form of tho oamcti shows 
it to be atnuiHlatiou from the French, is as follows*:^ 

Thoo Alisann4«r went ihorougfa <l«sertf 

Uaay wonilres bo «^^ apeit, 

Wtucho be dnda wel desoyiw 

By good clorkos in har lyue; 

By Aristodo hia maiatcr thnt was; 

Butter clerk uthea non oiui. 

1 to A* itoi; torrei to stinulatc •till fartbar tb« nrlotit.v and th« •dAb- 
•Uan of Kurafitv and nuuiy a warrior of Uia aott imuofA of Tictorint m 
tnSliaiil, abd eooqunU aa rxtmaire, as tboae of Alaxaiuler. Bat this and othrr 
iMDtnew 4td kooUiM and better aarrJM, b; tnnung liis Btteniioii of acholon 
lo tb« DiMW MitlMBtie taotce* ot bitUtrital inform^tioa rtsprcting tha lUc of 
AWuxler, ■^Jeh war* to bo foiiaj In Ctiilint and nllivr Liilrn itiithnra, tad tltna 
CMIrilitilad, in aoma iltgrMs (o Uic nriTal of a Uate for claaaic litcralimh 
• Wabcr, Helriea) JknuiRi^ L pp. 169, lOOi 



lM(*. Y, 

H* VM wttb )>,vin, Mul H^(;]i, and nroot 
AUu tliiwi nruaOruH, (Gt)d it wootl), 
Sskimoo, that all tlie w«iUe thoirouf^ J*^ 
In ttxOh witDesm holdo h^ mjdo. 
Yudro also, that w»s k> vyn, 
^ In hi* bokca tcllcith ilii*. 

Mftivler Enitroga bi-Tctb hyia iricncna 
Of die vraniirca mon uud Iviaio. 
Stant JiTome, y«e Aulkm y-^yitf 
Hem hath alio la book y-wryU; 
And Uagost«ii«, tlie gods derk. 
Hath miuk tliorof mycbcJ w«ik. 
Denya, thnt wa* oT godo memoria^ 
It dwwetli al in hi« book oTrtoriai 
And aim) I'ompe, of l{otii« lordo^ 
Dude it wrili^D crery wnnltt. 
B<Jicldeth me tluirof ng Ijim1v| 
Her bokea ben mj diewer, 
And ihelyf of Al^fiaunder, 
Of whom fleigh so ricb* Aknadtf. 

The *Lyf of AlyiauDdcr' bcre referred to U vcrj probably th« 
-work fn^Kelj* ascribe'd U> Cnllistbenc*, wbo is not aicnttODcd by 
Dnin« atiioDg tlie writcra from whum tbe autbor drew. 

The most iut«resting and really poetical features of this rc^ 
manoe are tbe feir couplets of descriptive and »0atlineiital verse, 
introduced at tlio commencement of tJio divisious of tbe tUay. 
Tbi-eo have, in gcDcml, no connection willi tliu OBrmttvo, uid, 
as far a« we can judge by internal eTideoce, are interpotatious 
by tbe translator, and therefore probably original English com* 
poaitions. Thus Part I. chap. iL : 

ATeril is mcory, and lonf^tb tlie day; 
Ladies loven solas, and piny ; 
Swaynos, jiiM«s; knrglitis. tamay; 
Syogith the nygh^Dgido, gmdoth thto jayi 
lie bote KuniMi chongctfa ' tba day, 
Aa y« wdl y-socn may. 

* cknngtth ii protaUj aa «n<r ef tlia ]><b ot fmM tcft AmffilX e* tirnynJ^ 
Buiku to cnck hf iijai^ Kid ■hriulugik It is aol ia CoUn4(a 


Chapter IV. 

When com ripeth in every eteodo, 
Mury hit h in feld and hyde ; ' 
Syime hit is and Echome to chide ; 
Knyghtia wollith on huntyug rido; 
The deor galopith by wadin ude. 
He dutt con his time abyde, 
Al his Tille him sh&I bytyde. 


Chapter TL 



Muiy time ia the weod to sere ; ' 
The com riputh in the ere : 
The lady is rody in the cherc ; 
And maide bryght ia the lere ; • 
The koighttes huntcth after dere, 
On fote and on destrere. 

Gere and &ire tlie somerys day epryng, 

And makith mony departyng 

Bytweone knyght and his swetyng. 

liieo HUnne ariseth, and fallith the dewyngf 

Theo nesche clay hit makith olyng. 

Sf ony is jolif in the momyng, 

And tholeth deth or the CTenyngl 

If ' is in this world bo aiker thyng 

So is deth, to olde and yyng I 

Tlie tyms is nygh of heore wendyng. 

Ofte springeth the bryght* morwe 
Mony to blisse, and mony to sorwe; 
Qned hit b muche to borwe : 
And worse hit is ever in sorwe. 
Tho that can nought beon in pea, 
Olte they maken heom evel at eaa. 

In ^me of May hot is in bonre; 
Direre, in medewe, epryngith Hours} 

* i!/dt ii a measoie of Uod, a field. Perhaps here it it itaik. 

* M« vtod to tert i to diy and bum the Tenda or stabble. 

* Itn, eonntananet, Av^ hlaor. 


Chaptvr XII. 


7%« lailica, Icnvghti* honourtth; 
^nreooro love iti hcorlc durith, 
Ac Dade ooward byhjrnilu kouritb ; 
TImo Ifttgc gorotfa ; ibo aythyog buritb; 
G«nti] IDSD Ilia leiian hoDountli, 
In boisfaf in dt^ in gmUI, in loun. 

Muiy hit U in Mnnc-riiTng? 

llio nao oponiih anil uiwfirjmg; 

Weye* &iritk, tlio dnya* cljng; 

Tbe nuideuw tlutirhh, Um fuulia ayngl 

Dainoade nuikiUt niornyng. 

Whan hir* Isof makiUi per^ri^ 

Lbci. V. 

Thew pa-ssages, it will be observed, aa well m tli« othpn of 
aimilar character which occur in th« poem, ueari; all refer to a 
timo or staKoa of th<; <Uy or year, but tL«y are introduced 
willioul uny regard to the period of the occurrences t\xo nanra- 
tire of whioh they introduce. They hare much the air of hnviog 
been oonipoited as poetical embclti«huteDt« of a calcudiu- or 
almanack, and I su.'tpect tliem to have bc«u taken from somo 
6uch work — perhaps a previous production of the traoidator 
himself — instead of having been written oxpreasly for intro- 
duction into his veisioD of iJie Romance of Alexander. 

Tlw geography and the history, luktural and military, of this 
poem, lire of about equal value, as will appear from the following 

There ta another ydlo halt Guigerldea 
Thero l>en jiuM oaateb a&d ofpoepluprwi 
HjT bccth abo nychol and hoLdo) 
Aachilda of seven ycrea ddo, 
Hy no ben no mora Terr«ymenl; 
Ac hy bon of hody Ciire and g«uit( 
Hy tion nntlielM liur« and wighth, 
AdcI godo and ongTndul to fighd^ 
Aa<l hnvc lioricii auenntuit, 
To bum Rlalworlbo and af|ivraunt> 


Clerkes lij ben vitL tli6 best 

Of alle men hy ben queyntest; ' 

And evermore hy beth tTerTende; 

And upon other conqueirende ; 

Bj the moae and bj the aterren, 

Hy connen jugge all werron. 

Hy ben the attherbest . 

That ben from est into vest ; 

For hy connen ahete the gripes fieigheyng 

And die dragons that ben brennyng. 

Verses 4862—1881. 

Michel ia the wonder that is vnder Crist Jesna. 

There bjonden ia an hyU ia cleped Malleua. 

Lisbieth now to me T praie for my loue I 

This byll is so heie that nothing cometh aboue ; 

The folk on the north-half in theater atede hy beth, 

For in al the yet no sunne hy ne aeeth, 

Hy on the aoutb-half ne seen eotme non 

Bot in on moneth, atte fest of Selnt Johnj 

Thoo that wonetb in the est partis, 

The Bonne and the bote skye 

Al the day hem ehynetb on 

That by ben black so pycchea som. 

Veraes 4902—4918. 

Ac thoo hem aroos a ryle meschaaace 
Kyng Alisaunder to gret greuaunca. 
Tpotamoa comen flyngynge, 
Out of rocbes, loude nayinge, 
Grate bestes and griselich, 
llore than olijaunz dkerliche. 
Into the water hy shoten onon 
And freten ■ the knigbttes eveiychon. 

Verses 6164— 5170; 

The gode clerk, men cleped Solim, 
Hath y-writen in bis latin, 
That ypotame a wonder beeat ii 
Van than an oliikunt, I wis ; 

204 KOtisCE or alezasdeb Lut. T. 

Toppe, and rugge,' and cronpe, and oon^ 

Is eemblabel to an hors. 

A fifaort beek, and a croked tayt 

He Iiath, and borea tuaah, aexua frjle; 

Blak is Lis hened aa pjrodte. 

It is a beeate ferlidte ; 

It wil al fruyt ete, 

Apples, noten, reis^s, and wbete> 

Ac mannes flesshe, and mannes bon 

It looetb best of ever^clum. 

Ve«e« 5182—5195. 

Theo delfyna wonett hire byade j 

A strong best of g^et pryde. 

They hareth schuldren on the rjgstf 

Ecbe as scbarpe as sweordu egge. 

Whan the dcl^n the cokadriU Beoth* 

Anon togedre wroth the buth, 

And amyteth tc^edre anon ryght, 

And makith thenne a steome fyght, 

Ac tlie dellyn is more queynter, 

And bait him in the water douner ; 

And whan theo kocadrUl him over swymmeth, 

He rerith np hia brustelia grymme, 

And his wombe al to-rent ; 

Thus is the cokadrill y-echent, 

And y-slawe of theo de]fyu. 

God geve ows god fyn I 

Verses eei&--C6ii 

The Byntactical constniction and inflections of thi'i pou^>' wou:d in- 
dicate a higher antiquity than its vocabulary, the iuXtici of which 
abounds in French words, while the syntax seems to belong ki a period 
when English had as yet borrowed little from thd Norman tongue. 
Thus I find that in the eighth chapter of the first part more than ^ per 
cent, of (he words, exclutdve of proper names, ute B'rench. Several 
Scandinavian words also make their first appea/inoe in English in this 
roniance, though the syntax shows no trace of Old-Northern influence. 
Thus bavtne is the Icelandic hamr, a disguise, generally the form of an 
animal, assumed by magic power ; — onde, brtiath, is IceL audi; — or- 

' mgge, tmA, 

laxT, T. 



ped, viilinnt, is tlionglit to bo the Iwl. pnrtiriplc orpinn, from vorpa, 
io ihrow, but as orpinn is not iiwil in ihi* mrm in Icclantiic, the 
«tymology is at least doubtful ; — p'tn^t, purw, i« the Icol. pungr. 

An important worV, eomctJmc« ascribed to ii more aDcient 
dtttfi, but I bHicvc pretty certuiuiy belonging to this century, ia 
The Owl ami Niglitingale, a rhyming poem of about eighteen 
hundreil v^ritefl, in octo^iyUabic iambic metre. Thla haa not been 
traced to any foreign source, aud is probably of nativo inron- 
tioQ, — a cii'cutustfUice which invests ft with uomo iutvrcst, s3 
the earliest known narrative poem, of a wholly imftginative 
character, conceived in the native tongue after the SaxoQ 

It ia a diRpute between an owl and a nightingale concerning 
their reapcctive powers of song. ITie smoothness of the versifi- 
cation shows a practised ear, and of course a familiarity with 
forngn models, for English verse hnd hardly been yet cultivated 
extensivtily enough to fumiah the roijuisite truining. The 
vocabulary contains few Norman words, hut many of Scandi- 
navian origin, while its dialectic peculiarities, auch as the sub- 
stitution of V for the initial /, do not indicate that the poem 
WM composed In a northern or north-castcm district. The 
dialogue, though neither elegant nor refined, is not wanting in 
spirit, and the general tone of the composition is in advance of 
that of the period to which other evidence, internal and external, 
■asigns it. 

The commencement is as follows; — 

Ich was in ono nimaiG dal<^ 

In ono Huthe dis<Je hale.' 

I-hcrde ich hoMs grcte tale 

As hule and odo ni^tingnle. 

That plfut was stif and siaic and iOaa^ 

Sum wilo (ofto, and lud among; 

* AiU* iiyU i^t, T«i7 Mliied er Matt Iiollow, 


m OWL Hyo THE KlGItllNOlU 

Lkt^ V. 

An idibtt ajcn other ■val.t 
And Irt lliat wolo* mod ti( ■!. 
And cithdr Kido of oAercs ciul** 
That Klre-vom« that lii wmta; 
And huro and him of otbere miifi 
Ho boldo pl&iding sutfae nroqgci, 

Tli« ni;(tin(^Q bi-fon llie «pcclM^ 
Id Oiw tioTDO* of DIM brcvbe*; 
And Mt upoiM viura bo;^e, 
Tbar were sbnU bloRne i-nosi^ 
In or«* wiwto thiclce hcggc, 
I-mcind' mid tfiirn nnd gronc M^gSV) 
llo ira* the glodur ror the mc,* 
And WDg a Yd« cunne wiio :* 

Ilct tttii^lc th« drcim ■" that bo wtm 
<M hnrpi! lunl pipo, ihnn ho nera, 
B«< tliu;(le tliat lio vrera i-Hhato 
Of horptt and pipe than of thiMob 

'nio Mod on old Moc thar bi-Mlt) 
Thar tho nlo soBg hin tide. 
And wAi mid iri «1 l>i-(rrairc. 
Hit wan thare liule carding-ttowe.'* 

TIm ni,ttingnl« hi i-n^. 
And hi bi-ho!(l and otpt-m^, 
An lhu3;t« wf'l wP* of thnrn hnl& 
For m<?" hihalt Imllkb)* nnd fuloi 
" Cnwixt," ho HOli*. " uwey thu flo I 
Me is the wnii* thit icb the m ; 
I-wis (or thine wlo Ictc'* 
'Wd oft ich min« M>ng r«n--tot«; 
Min hortc nt-llith, and fiilt mi tongs^ 
llioiulo tfan art to me i-thrung«.'' 

* MwJ^«weIl«lirithiniligmtica. ■ (nttr, vrO. * (w(f, loeLkoatr, bahf^ 
tfunu'toT. (oDditiona. * hirrw, ramer. * intkr. Ootcridg* noggsla trfrj^ 
hnv We^h-RroTc. * on, «««, a. * i-nriad, miai^ad. * rw, tnandiC's. 

thmtt Ikr drrim, il wi-mnl llio loun; U-l Itti^li, i( M^misl nlher. " tanting- 
atiww. dvi-lling-iilBM. ■' mf, ilL " n'. nca.Fr. on. ■■ l^licA, ituiaomat 


Me lust bet' spetcn, thane mago 
Of thine fills jojetinge."* 

ThoB hule abod fort hit was evo. 
Bo Ds nii;^te do leng bileve, 
Vor hire horte was so gret, 
That wel nej hire fnast* at-echet; 
And warp a word thar after longe : 
** Hd thincthe nu bi mine aotige J 
West thu that ich ne cunne Binge, 
The;^ ich oe cunne of wntelJnge? 
I-loRie* thu deat me grame,' 
And seist me bothe tone* and echame) 
gif ich the holde on mine oote,^ 
So hit bi-tide that ich mote I 
And thu were ut of thine rise, 
Thu aholdest unge an other WBe.'* 

After much reciprocal abuse, the DightiDgale bursts into 

ThoB word ajaf the nijtJDgale, 
And after thare longe tale 
He Bong BO lude and bo scharpe, 
Sijt BO me grulde schille harpe,* 
Thos hule luste thider-ward, 
And hold here eje nother-ward. 
And sat to-srolle and i-bclje," 
Also ho hadde one frogge i-EToI^Si 

The birds then agree, upoQ the proposal of the nightingale 
to refer the question of superiority to 'Maister Nicbole of 
GnldefordV who 

is wis ftnd war of worde ; 
Ha is of dome sathe gleu," 
And him ia loth evrich imthen; 

' tm laMt iet, I would nther. ' V^dinge, cluttering: * fnOMl, breaih. 

* i-iomt, oft«l. • granu, offenca. ■ tone, pain, Tiong, injuij. ' note, 
^umx, poMB Mi on. ' vut, wiie, manner. • njf to me gritlde tchillc harpr, 
M if one «wa tanehii^ « ihrill hup. " i-belye, nrallai), ■■ ^Itu, ikilTuU, 



UcT. T. 

lie wot innj^t in ec1i« toagfi, 
Wo singM ireL, iro gin^ wronge; 
And he can soliedc' ironi llie rv^U 
I'hnt iroj,6,* that tlituitCT* from the U{t«. 

Before repairing to the arbiter, howerer, tboy recommeoM 
thoir dialogue, and tint poem is nlmo«t ontirdj taken up with 
tboir abujit of «adi other, the oiglitiDgalo bt-gii uing the dis- 

' Iluin,' ho *ci)c, ' fino mo wlh, 

Wi <Io!itu that un-vi,itiii (loth 7 

Thu aitifnot a, nnd no^tt a Hal, 

And n) tlii aung it wailuvrni ; 

Thu mii^t niiti ihine longe aftre 

Alio tliai i-bcrcnli ihine i-berei* 

Tim fcliirchiwt nnd jioUnt to ihiM An* 

Thiit iiit i* griAlicIi to i-hcKi, 

Bit tliinchprt bothe wiie luid mcpo* 

Kop thnt tha •un^'e. no tlint thu irepti 

Thii fli^M u ni^t and no^t a dai ; 

Tliarof ioh wiidri, aud vel mai: 

Vor pvrich tJiiug lluit »cliiuiifl ri^ 

Hit luTL-tli tliustcr and hutivt lijL.' 

The owl replies much in the eaine strain, and, aa will Iw 
■een by the following extracts, tfao two birds continne to obuM 
each o^er, id good sot tenn^ to the end of the poem. The 
owl: — 

Till) wonirt thnt ccb tong bo* gritlteh 

Tbnt thine papingo nix i-tich : 

Mi Ntdiie* i» bold and no;t un-onie,* 

Bo h i-Lich one gret« boinc^ 

And thin is i-licb one jiipe 

Of one r-innlo wodo iin-ripe> 

Ich singe brt thnn lliu dent ; 

Thu c)ialcr(--<t w dotb on Irish preoot; 

• tliMltr, da^CM. « t*>rt, 


Icli einge an eve a rijt time, 
And Boththe won hit is bed-tim«, 
The thridde nitlie ad middel ni^U^ 
And BO ich mine song adijte 
Wone ich i-so' arise vorre 
Other dai-rim' other dai-sterre^ 
Ich do god mid mine throte, 
And wame men to hore note.* 
Ac thu fiingcst allc-ionge ni^t, 
From eve fort hit ie dai-lijt, 
And evre eeist thin o song 
So longe Bo the nijt is long. 
And evre croweth thi wreoche crd 
That he ne swtketh night ne dai ; 
mid thine pipingc thu adunest* 
Thas monnes earen thar thu wuneut, 
And makest thine song bo im-wrA 
That me ne teith of thar nojt wrth. 
Everich mur^the mai so longe i-leste, 
That ho shal like wel im-wreftte ;* 
Yor barpe and pipe and fiijeles aonge 
Misliketh, j,l( hit is to long, 
Ne bo the song Berer bo murie. 
That he ahal thinche wel un-murie^ 
Zef he i-leateth over un-wille.* 

The nightingale : — 

' Hule,' ho aeide, ' wl dostu so f 
Thu singcst a winter wolawo ; 
Thu singest bo doth hen a anowe,' 
Al that ho HiDgeth hit is for wowe; 
Hit is for thine fiale nithe," 
That thu ne mijt mid us bo blithe, 
For thu forbomest* wel nej for onds " 
Than ure blisae cumeth to-londa. 

' t»*, see. ■ dai-rim, day-break, dswn. • nata, good, baneflti labour. 
* adunrtt, atoimat, dinnett * un-v/ratt, ymHhltm. ' over i«i-«Hti«^ beyuod 
what ii dsainible. ' to doth km a tnovK, lika « hen in tlia mow. ' nitit, 
•ntry. * Jbrbmtut,htiiueaU '• onde, malica 



Tliu &ro8t BO doth the ille, 

Evrich blisso him ia un-wille; 

Gnicching and luring him both' tttdt,' 

liif ho i-eoth tliat men both glads ; 

He wolde that he i-scje 

Teres in evrich monnea o;^e; 

He ro^te he thej fiockcs were 

I-meind bi toppea and bi here.* 

AI so ihu dost on thire side ; 

Vor wanne snou lith thicke and wide 

An all wijtes habbeth 8or;e, 

Thu ungert from eve fort a morja. 

Ao ich alle blisxe mid me bringe; 

Ecb wijt ia glad for mine thinge, 

And bliBSOth hit wanne ich cume, 

And hijt«th a^cn miao cume. 

The bloHtnie ginneth springe and spred* 

Both in tro and eke on mede ; 

The lihe mid hire fairs whte* 

Wolcumoth mo, that tliu hit wte, 

Bid me mid hire fidre bio ' 

That ich ahuUe to hire flo ; • 

The roae alao mid hiro rude, 

Tliat cumetb ut of the thomo wode, 

Bifme that ich tJiulle ninge 

Vor hire luve one akentinge.' 

The owl ! ~ 

Wi nultu nnge an oder theode,' 
War hit is muchclc more neode? 
Thu nenver ne Hinget in IrlonUe, 
Ke thu ne cumext no;tt in Scotlonde; 
Wi nultu fare to Noreweie? 
And aingin men of Galcweie 7 
Thar bcodh men that Intel kunne 
Of Bonge that is bincodiio the sunne; 

< both, betti, IB. ' rade, ready, present. ' Jtoekrt * * i-meind M litppi^^^^ 

and by here, companisi * * qnarrelline and pulling buir. * viiU, liil ■ i 

• Uo, bleo, blM, colour. * pi, fiM. ' tltmtingt, a mengr wng. ■ Iktoii^m ^ 
place, people. 


Wi nuJtu tliare preoste uoge, 
An tcche of thire writeUnge? 
And wisi ' hom mid thire atevene, 
The engelea singetb me hcovene 7 
Thu fareet bo dodh an ydel wel, 
That epringeth bi bume thar ia and,' 
An let for-druQ* the dune,* 
And floh on idel tbsr a-dona. 

The disputants become irritated, and are about to proceed to 
violence, when the wren, who 

for heo cathe range, 
War com in thare morejeiing, 
To helpe thare oistegale, 

iuterfereB, reminds the parties of their agreement to refer their 
differences to aa arbiter, and sends them to abide his judgment. 
The poem concludes ; — 

Mid thisse worde forth bi ferden, 
Al bute here and bute Terde,* 
To Porteraham that heo bi-come ; 
Ah hu heo spedde of heore dome 
Ke chan ich eu namore telle ; . 
Her nis namore of tfaia epelle. 

The Geate of Kyng Horn, a romantic poem of about dxteen 
hondred verses, belongs to the thirteenth century, and has not 
been traced to a foreign original ; but the existence of nearly 
contemporaneous versions of the same story, in French and 
other languages, renders it highly probable that the lirst con- 
ception of the poem was of a much earlier date. 

The following is a condensed outline of the plan. King 
Murray, the father of Hom, the hero of the tale, is defeated 
and slain t^ heathen, or, as the poet calls them, Saracen, 

' tpiti, show, taach, • tnel, tvritt • /or-dni^, dry-np, ' dune, the 
heath. * Al butt here and btUe Verde, vitiiout armj aod troaps, that is witboDt 
£aUoir«i« or ntioue. 



{.■er. T. 

viicingt, from Doiinurk, vrbo tti-izo IIotil, aod put to deatb all 
bia countrymen, except Ruch sa con8(!attor«n<HiitcuCbri)itiaDitj. 
Iforo is compelled to put to sea in a small Ifoat, wilb Keveral 
cuinpnuioDS, and looda in Wcatcrncssc, where be is boepitabl; 
received hy King Aylmcr, is carefully educated in all tbe 
ftocompliitbmeulA of a piigc, and excites a stfonj; paarioD in tb« 
breast of Uimcubild, tJie only dnugbter of tbc King. 

After being dubbed knight, he departs in (jueAt of adTcnttires, 
and, aided by a magic ring gircn biiii by tbe princaES, be defeata 
a party of Soraocn vikin<^ and carries tbe head of the chief to 
King Aylmor, but ih exiled hy that prince, irbu is not dispoMd 
to bvour his love for Rimcnliilrl. On taking leave of bi« tni»> 
tress, he liegs her to wait Bcven yearn for hia rdum, and gives 
her liberty to accept the hand of another suitor unless she haa 
a Hatisfactory account of bim within that period. During his 
alienee, he meets with a varivty of adventure*, but i» Bitally 
wnt for by Rimonhild, and arrives in time to reKue her 
from King Jklodi, who is prcs^ng for her band, and Horn and 
Rimenbild are married. After Uie marriage, be goes with a , 
troop of Irbh soldiery to Snddene, bis native Und, which he 
reoovera from the infidels. Ho finds hU niothvr, who bad coo- 
i>eale<l herself in a cave at tbe lime of liis capture, rtill alive, 
and retunu to Wcsternesne. Purii;g his absence, his false 
friend Fykcnild, who bad occasioned bis former banishment, 
bad g'lt possession of Rimenhild, and was trying to rompol her 
to consent to a marriage with bim. Horn cntcni Fykruild'* 
castle in tbe dtsgiuse of a harper, kills tbe traitor, and recorerf 
bis wifti. The poem commences Ihusi^ 

Alio beon be bU|i«, 
Jtat lo my noiig ly(«; 
A Mug ibc Krliol ,vHt nnga 
Uf Marry )>e kinge. 
King ho vra« bi weatt 
80 longe so hii larta. 
Godliild I lot hi« (jiicn ; 
Faire no niiste noo bcD. 


He badde a Bone, )>aC het Horn ; 
Fairer ne mijte non bco bom, 
Ne no rein upon birine, 
Ne Bunne apon bischine; 
Fiurer nis non ptme tie was, 
He was eo bri^t bo pe glas; 
He was wbit so pa Aur, 
Rose red was his colur. 
He was fvyr and eke bold, 
Ant of fiftene wynter old. 
In none kinge ricbe 
Nas non his iliche. 
Twelf feren he hadde 
pat alle with hem Udde; 
Alle riche mannea Bones, 
And slle hi were &ire gomes; 
Wi)> him for to pleie : 
And mest he luvede twele, 
pat on him hct Ha])ulf child, 
And |)at ofier Fykenild. 
A)iair was )>e beate, 
^d Fikenylde ye wergte. 

Wlien Horn lands irom the boat into which he had been dnreii 
to emL-ark by the heatbeo pirates, he takes leave of it with thii 
benediction I — 

Schnp, bi ^ le flode 
Dues have pa gode ; 
Bi ^ se brinke 
No water )>e nadrinke, 
Jef Jin come to Suddene, 
6ret)iu wel of mjne kenoe; 
Grot pa we! my moder, 
Godhild quen j>e gode ; 
And ade pe paene kjng, 
Jesn Cristes wifering, 
pat ihc am hot and fer, 
On this lond arived her; 
And seie )>at hei Bchal £>nd» 
pa dant oi mjne houde. 


Tas otsn or una iiomt 

Licr. T. 

King Aylmcr mcot« Horn and IiU companions soon kfW they 
Innd, and, afWr hearing tlieir story, conducts them to the 
palace, and gives them into the charge of bia steward AJrelbnia, 
with them instructionB : — 

StiwiirJ, uk nu liert 

Mt fttndtjTig, for to IcM 

Of |>ino mottun, 

OfimiJeandof rirerei 

J^nd tech him to horpe 

Wiji liin najlcn Kcliarpe; 

BiroTo tiic tp korvo. 

And of fo cupc ncrro; 

pu trch him of nlle f9 lift* 

pot ^u crre of wUte; 

In hi* fcirtm ^u wiM 

Into ofiare acrviM. 

Horn |>u underrooge, 

And tech him of harpe and aongo. 

At his parting from Rimenbild, shegirea him a ring, with the 

wordai — 

' Eni;^' ifoaf hso, ' tram, 

Jho meoM Ihc tati t>e l«i)c.* 

Tnk nu her )>!« f^old ring, 

Gixl him in |ie dubhlng.* 

per la upon T>v lUtftti 

1-gnve RjriDenhild )ie yiDgt\ 

p«r nis non t>c4ere ao onder snnna^ 

pal cni mon of telle cunno. 

For mi liivn pti hit ircrc, 

And on ^i fuigcr pii him her^ 

P« KtOQCH hvofi of viicb gniw, 

p«t pu na Hchall In Bon« plaoa 

Ofnoiio duiiitd* baon oTdiad, 

Ne oo bataille beou amad,* 

Ef ^u loke fet on. 

And fienke upon |>i lemnum. 

■ bm, tm, Mmt*. * iiMv, finlsUi^ or Mtting; er p«rbap* ft tw&n la 
111* dnrie* anipaTcd upon the (lapft or tlia tni^ powon eo ofar wd upon it, 
* JuaU*, distil hlon. * ffaod^ dumaTod. 

l4«r, T. 



Tbe G«ate of K>iig Hem hnn rerj littlo merit u a po«in, and it ia 
far from iMsscsHng the pliilologicnJ impiirlatice vlii^ ha* somcliiiMa 
hem aacribMl tn iu I'hcro aro, liowuvor, boridoi tli« worJit axpluned 
in tbe preceding note*, a few vncnblcH nui) combiontionK which ilcMrve 
notico, bccaiiii^ if I am net mt^tnknn, thcr nrc not roimd in any culicr 
Eoglixh woric- Thu«, alont occur* in its primitive farm id votK H'iR • ■» 

Po gimno )>d liundes gODa 
Abuie Horn al one' 

Ttat in ntroM 6C1 and 1055 it is m-itten, u at prewnt, al»ne ; and 
in vcxno &S!> wo lind the more ancient tiimplc one, used withi-iil uitt 

Nolilu he nojt go oae, 

A^ulf vua bis inone. 

<lt one, iho ptohab\« origin of iho mndeni vartt to af«n«, vhich h 
■uppoaed to be not oldor itinn the tixltwnih century, appcnn in tlia 
T«iai953: — 

Al on he wiu will P^ '^i'^S 

Of ^t ilkc wedding. 

There ia, in eoDpl«t 545, 5-lC, a viogular oompouod ihymt, which 1 
hare not obwrrcd in any olher poem of the lliLrtc«nth MDtniy, und 
vhidi, though a departure from llio Ian* of hannoiuuua oonaonanoi!, 
ataoM to have be«n a ^vouriio with old English poeta, for U ia wwntl 
limM employed by Chancer, Gowcr, and Oodeve:^ 
Kni2t, nu in )>i time 
For to aiito (i me. 

Tho French ward's coantang ropctiriona, coiutitnla aboat two per 
cent, of the TocnHnlniy, and th«y arc principally fiom the secular liti^ii- 
toraof thaCoDlinant. The Scuidinaviiin word* ait t«ir. Tbomtwiii^ 
■ad NorthtTO origin of one of them, /cr, v. l.V>, a]^<cuT to havo vkii|«a1 
tha gloMwivts. It ia eridontly tlto Uauixh for, Ic«L ftarr, which tiit 
Scandinavian elymologiHla refer to the verb at fara,tli« primitive menrc 
lag being ablt to walk, active, 'the more nkodcrn eene ia Urong, irrll, 
nnd in the |tt».i~<.- ci^^, ln>l and ftr «rideiidr tagnifies eaji and itmmL 
■Bog, a word for wliich no mtiHlJictory elymology has been saggexltNl, 
cx«nn in tertc 1 107, I>tit a» it is applied to the porter of a canio, it ii 
ujcd ntlicr in the Irinh, than in the modem English wnm.* 

* S(^ 00 the «ctd oAmr, Fint Sctim, Ai-pcndis, p. 698. aha Lwtcre XI, feH, 

* I n^TTit (4 <aj Itmt, wiib emy ponibU effort, I liui'e bcoa nnoUeto {in fur* 
■ «0£7 of HaTclok Uw HtxtB, ud I prefer tatbcr to omit nil notiM of it iIihu w 





Another tnt^re^ng profliiction of the pprioJ aoder coiudder- 
fition is the metrical rerdoo of the psalms, piiblLilicd b; tb« 
SurUt'S Sock-t}'. Tho date of thin Irnnglatiou is unknowD, bnt 
it cao biiriHy W latvrtliAnthr lirst half of thutJiirtwtitb century, 
thougli I beliere oo mnniutcript coity older tlian tlie middle 
the reign of Edu-ard II. is known to exUt. Its diction resemb: 
in many rapoct« tho dialect of the Owl aod tiie Nigfatinf^i 
but an important gnunrD»ticul distioction is tint it gcoerally 
use* the Danish plural tre instead of ben, bfJh or beolh, and 
uiotlier is that for the Anglo-Saxon endin<j of the verb in -th, in 
the indicative present, third peraon singular, and all persons of 
the plunti, as also in tbo imporitite, it subttitutt^^ e. Chaucer 
employs this fonn in the Itucvcs TaIc, asn p<-ciiliarity of th4 
spoeoh of two persons from the North of England : — 

Of o toun won titty bora tlial bigltte StrolMr, 
Fcr b the Norlb, 

and it has sometimp-i Ix-en nid to characterise the dialects 
dUtriots where the ScandinaviAn element is most perceptible. 
But it is highly improbable that this change is duo to Danish 
iotliience ; for the Danes did not make the com^spondin^ InfleO' 
tions of their o\™ Torb in », and, though what is absurdly called 
the hard sound of Ih (as in think) is extinct in the normal pro- 
nuncifttion of Dauinh, yet there is no reason to Iwlievc that it 
bircaine BO until long after the last Danish inrarioo of England. 

The origin of the nvw form is obscure, aod at pn'sent najfl 
htstorically dcnion'^iable, but it is perhaps to be found in th^* 
difficulty of tlie pronunciation of the A. Tlio substanlkc verb 
to he, which ocours more frequently than any otlier Terb, had 
Iways the third person singular, indiaitive present and pant, IB 

for i» and icw* were used in Anglo-Saxon just as they are 
now. The Xonnnns oould not pronoimce th, and io attempting 

tximiw sn MMont of it >1 tecoDi bkai. Tho cUmtti I have ana <Ia not 1m4 
mc to conosr 1r (tw oi>i[:i<>ii* vliicfa liirit bna fexnotlBw* csfic'Sit il oonotniiii 
tbt! hull plillalo^rnl iinport*iio» of thfa work. It Ukn isterMrtiitK tac* tbst 
UieditUuffiiialwOlii'liftnolBcci, Sbllanij Ilsrelocfc, Uac«d luadSMeBtCnun 
m Uwiita funUr. 

lpct. v. 



it, a Frencbman gtvea it the » or rather z sound wLich 8 most 
lurually has lui a verbal ending. It seems to me, theroforei not 
improb/iWe, tliat this Norman-French error in axtaculataon, 
combiiic<] wilb the fact that the moat important of all verlis, the 
verb to bsy already employed a as the endiuf; of the third per- 
BOD singular, ocaietoncd its general adoption na tlie characteristic 
of lliat inflection." 

I select as a specimen of this translation, Psalm CII. (CIIL 
of the standard EugliKh version), an<i, for the purpose of com- 
parisonx wiiich I leave the student to make for himself, I 
accompany tliis text, nnmbereil 3, with 1, the Anglo-Saxon 
rhytlimiciil version; 3. tlieoIderWydiflite^or Hereford's, prose 
tmsHlritioEi ; 4, the Latin, from the Surtees Pailter; and 5, a 
French prose translation, of the twelfUi century, puhlif^hed by 
F.Michel in 1860. 

1. Bletsa, mine aawlc, bliOe driliteot 
3, BIeM« thou, my Miul«, to ttic Lordt 

3. Bli«se, my aaiile, to Laverd lu iwe; 

4. Bcncdic, aninia nieo. Dominum; 

5. Rendu, In tncic nncmo, ft iKifctro Scgnor| 

1. aud «all min ianeniu his yuan Mcnn DnoicLn I 

S. Kticl all thingus iLnt wiihiitnc inu ben, to bisholi name I 

3. And allc ^nt with in me ere, lu Ii:lU lutmc himst I 

4. et omniu intpriora men noraen siiiicluiii tjus 1 

fi. e tres-tut<s ics cosn* (^ni ii»dcDi mei aimt, al caiat aum d« Iiu I 


1. Btetdge^ min« mwl«, bealde dryhien I 

5. Bleeaa thou, my auido, lo th« Lord t 

3. BliMC, mi laul, to Larcrd, of nllc thingosl 

4. Bsnedic, aoima mea, Douibiuia I 

6. Bencn^ la meio aneme, i nostro Segnor I 

1. ne wylt ^u ofergeuttul kEto wcorKan. 

2. aod wil« thou oot fbi^etu allc the j^Rtdinguit of tuOL 

3. And nil for-gcte alia his for^yheldtn^iai. 

4. et noli ohliriMci omnes rotritiulioues tjxa. 

6. « DC voillos obIi«r tuiM 1<m guercdunanctti de lui. 

* Sm tuAe at the cod of thU Lectiat, 



1. He |)iniiTn mandEcdum miltsade eallum ; 

2. That bath mercj to alls tlii wickidnesida ; 

3. pat winsomes to al!e fiine wickenesses ; 

4. Qui propitiuB fit omnibus iniquitatibus tuiai 
6. Cbi at merci de tutcs leg tuea iniquitex ; 

1. and fine adle ealle geluelde. 

3. that helith alle thin intirrnyteea. 

3. )>at hcles alle |>ine sekeneMes. 

4. qui eanat omnes longuorea tao«. 

b. chi sained trestutes les taes enfennetes. 


1. He aly»de liin lif leof of ftrwyrdot 

2. That njeen bicih fro delh thi lif j 

3. )>at bics fri>. Rtcrving |ii life derli ; 

4. Qui redcmit do interitu vitam tiiam| 

5. Clii racatcd de mort la tue vie ; 

1. fylde finne willan fe^ere raid gode. 

2. that crotinelh thee in tnercy and mercy dolng^ 

3. )>at cruunea pe with rewfiea and witl) merci. 

4. qui coronnt te in miacratione et misericordia. 
6> chi coruned tei en miaericorde e miaeraciuna. 


1. He fte gcaigefa^ste soSre miltse 

and fa mildhcorte mode getrymede; 

2. Tliat fulfillcth in goode thirgua thi dlwyr) 

3. |>at filleH in godca fi yhcrningeH al ; 

4. Qui Kitiat in bonia dcsidurium tuum ; 

5. Chi racmplist en bonea coses te tuen denderwf 

1. eart fa eadnotvo earne gclicaat 
on gcoguBo ml gleawe geworden. 

2. aha! be rcnewid as of an egle ihij oulhflb 

3. Ala cme )ii yhouihe be newed aal. 

4. renovabitur mc ut aquilaj juventua tua. 

6. aera renov6; sicume d'atgle la tue jurente. 



1. Hafast )>u milde mod, mihta stranga 
drib ten, 

2. Doende mercies the Lord, 

3. Dunnd mercies Laverd ia land, 

4. Faciens misericordias Domiciis, 
(. Faieanz misericordes nostre Sire, 

1. domas eallum ye deope Iier 

and ful treatlice teonan Jiolian. 
i. and dom to alle men miffrende wrong. 

3. And dome til allc on-right tholand. 

4. et judicium omnibus iujurinm patientibot. 
fi. e jugement k tuz torceunerie suffranx, 


1. He hifl wegas djde wise and cu8e 
Uoyse fiam mnran on mienige tid ; 

2. Enowen he made his weieti to Moises; 

3. Eonthe made he to Moises his waies welv| 

4. Notas fecit vias suas Moysi ; 

b. Cuneudea Get lea sues veies k Mojsen ; 

1. Bwylce his vitkti eoc weram iBrnhela. 

2. and to the sones of Irael bis willla. 

3. Hia willea til sones of Irael. 

4. filiis Israhel TOluntatea soaa. 
It. u fils Isniel ses Tolmitez. 


1, Uildheort )iu eart and mihtig, mode g«^M)^ 
ece dryhten, swa fu a wffire, 

5. Heewere and merciful the Lord, 

3. Rew-M and milde-hertcd Laverd gode^ 

4. Misericors et miserator Dominus, 

5. Merciere e merciable nostre Sire, 

1. is pin raiide mod mannnm cySed. 

2. long abidende and mjche mercitiiL 

3. And milde-herted and lang-moda. 

4. patiens et multnm misericon. 

5. padent e mult merdabl*. 


IB* utTta rdiLisa 

Lkt. V. 


1. Nelle ^ off cnile jrre liabbun. 

2. In u> cuennore he dull not wrathen, 

3. Xoghte wretli be nl in evemon, 

4. Nan in Gnem inudMir, 

5. Neivnt en ponnsnnlJotcd imintra, 

1. DC on eontaaie )io nwn hc^an. 

2. no in to wtthoiitc cndc lio fJial ihreU^ 

3. Ne in ai aal be thrcic {ur-fon. 

4. noque in a:t«miun itiilignnlnntr. 
fi. ne CD pardunilikted n« niiuiacen. 

1. Nu |>a be gcvjrhlum, w«*l<lciid, iinua 

iri^niinuin wyrhlum w<iid(*t ua tlon, 
i, Aftir euro i<yoncs 1« Hie nM to v», 

3. Noght an«r our sinne* dide li« til uk, 

4. Non Bfcundum peoGsM noatm fccji uobi^ 
i. Nnmt su]an« W nos pcccbex fiM b nu^ 

1. nt aAcr nruin »nri>-btc nwbar ^Idnn. 

2. <)« aftir outo vrickidiiuioiit be jidde to xm. 

3. ^e aflf^r i>ur wickenta fbr-jrlifld lu ]iux. 

4. ncquc Hc^uiidum hiiqiiitiilei ntwdna rctribuit nobSft 
t. n« eulunc lea dim iniqiuus ne rcgueredunad k du 


1 . For|>on |>n »(l«r hcahw«occ« heofeow ^M 
■nUdhoortnyuM mihtig drihlnn, 

2. For «&cr the hnjU of boucnn fro vrtha^ 

3. For nftw In'gbncs of hnrcn fm Innd, 

4. Quia Kcimdiim nltitudinem b<Eli n turn. 
6. Kor KuIuDc In lialti.-c« del civl d« !■ Uim, 

1. tuatum cyMcst ^ni )>e Infedoa ^. 

5. be Urcngtliidc hl« mercy rpcn men drcdcnde hyra, 

3. StTcnghf>c<l lie hii mere) over biin dredond. 

4. confinnnvit Dominn« mijtcricordtam ■nam nper Ibnenles eun. 
9. ofor^ U Kuc tniacriearde rar lee orcmanz weL 

Lacr. T. ths sdHtees ^salikb 221 


1. 8tn faa fbldan fiedma bewindeS, 
fies eastrodor and oefter west, 

2. Hou niyche the rising slant fro the going dona, 

3. Huw mikie est del stand weet del fra, 

4. Quantum dialat oriens ab occaflu, 

5. Cumbien desestait li naixiiemenz del deohedement, 

1. He betweonan )>ani teonan and unriht 

ufl frnm afyrde icghwier aynible, 
8. ftfeiT he made fro tb oure wickidnessia, 

3. Fer made he fra ua oure wickenes swa. 

4. eloogavit a nobis iniquitatea nostras. 

5. luinz fiat de noa lea uoz feluniea. 


1. Swa fieder JrenceS £egere his beamum 
milde weordan, 

2. What mauer wise the &der hath mercy of the aoBiii^ 

3. AIs rewed es fadre of sones, 

4. Sic ut miscretur pater fiiiis, 

5. Com Eutement at merci li pere des filz, 

1. swa UB inihtig god 
^am )>e hiue lufiaS, WSe weoriSeS. 

2. the Lord dide niercy to men dredende bjm; 

3. Bewed es LaTerd, fare he woues, 

4. Ita misertus eat Dominos 

5. merci ad li Sire 

3. Of )>a ^t him dredand be { 

4. timentibuB ee ; 

6. dea cremanz sei ; 


1. fbtfian he calle can ore pearfe. 

2. for he knew oure britil making. 

3. Fore our achaft wele knawes he. 

4. Quia ipaa scit figmentum nosbum. 
ft, fcu- il count la noatre fiiituie. 


1. GemQne, mibtig god, pat we synt moldan and diu^ 

2. Ho recordide for pouder wee bi^ 

3. Wined es he wele in thoght 

4. Memento Domine 
6. liecorda 

3. ^t dust ere we and worth no^i^ 

4. quod pulvis sumii.<s 

5. qui sua aumes puldre ; 


1. beoS mannea dagas tnawenum htgt 
RgUwer aniice, 

2. a man as hcj his da^^ea, 

3. Man his duit-s ere ais hai, 

4. homo sic ut Iknum dies ejus, 

fi. buem atcume t'ala li jun de Ini, 

1. eor5an blostman 
Bwa his lifdages bene fTadan. 

2. as the flour of the teld so he ahal flotire me^ 

3. Ala blome of feldo sal lie wel;)rea awa. 

4. et aic ut flos agri, ita floriet. 

5. ensement cume la flur del camp, iad fluriiK, 


1. ponne he gast ofgireS, 

2- For the spirit sha! thiu; possen iu hjnif 

3. For ga&te thurgh-tare ia bim it sal, 

4. Quia i^iritua pertTaosit ab eo, 

5. Kar li eapiriz trei>pa.-^iera en lui 

1. srSSsn hine garsbedd aoetl 

vmuan wide-^ThS, 
S. and be dial not atonde «l£Ue ; 
8. And no^t ondre-Etand he sil wi[Ii~«L 
^ ct BOO ait. 
Sl • bc pamuundra. 
X, ne bim man svS?an ' 

■^liwi I diet Knige Itowe. 
i. and he ihal no more knowoi hia plac«> 
8. And knawe na-mare fial be 
4. ct BOB cognoacit ampliua 
Su ■ BB cnnuiitn amplria 


3. His Btede, where Jiat it Bal be. 

4. locum aumn, 

5. Bun lio. 


1. yin mildbeortneB, mibtig dnhieo, 

jiurh eairs wonilda woruld wislic sUndet!, 

2. Tbe mercy forsothe ol' the Lord fro withoute ende, 

3. And Larerdcs merci evre dwelland, 

4. Miscricordia autem Domini a seeculo est, 

5. Mais la miscricorde nostre Segnur de pannanableted, 

1. deomat arid gedeiitHt ofer ealle )ia pe ondrtedaS him, 

2. find -rnto withoute ende, vpoa men dredende hym. 

3. And tit ai our him drcdand. 

4. et usque in steculum sa:culi super timentes eum. 

5. e desque ea parmanableted but lea cremaaz loL 

1. Swa his BoSffcstnyss awylco sCandBfi 
ofer |iara beama bearn, 

2. And the riittwianease of hym in to tbe Bonea of aone^ 

3. And in soncs of sone9 his rightwiaeDes, 

4. et juBtitia ejus super lilios filiorum, 
ft. 111 juatise de lui ka fiiz des hlz, 


1. )>e his bebodu bealdaS ; 

2. to hem that kepcn his testament. 

3. To pas fat yht'mea wite-word his ; 

4. custodientibuB teatamentum ejuB{ 

6. ft icels chi gtiardcnt !e testament de lui ; 

1. and fais gemynde mj-ele habbaiS 
2 And Diyndefu! tliei ben 

3. And mined sal )iai be, night and dai, 

4. et memoria retinentibuB 

5. e remembreur sunt 

1. fat heo his wistiest word wrnn^im efiun. 

2. of his maundcmens. t-n do Uieai. 

3. Of his bodea to do liam lU- 

4. mandata ejus ut faciani ua. 

5. den GUDundemenz de lui medcsm^ k fiure Iml 

S24 THE euarxsa fsalibr Licr. V. 


1. On heofonhame halig drihten 
hiB hBahaetl hror timbrade, 

2. The Lord in heuene made redi hia act*, 

3. Laverd in heven {rraitied neie kin, 

i, Dominns in coelo paravit aedem suonif 
6. Li Sire el del aprestad sun eiege, 

1. (lanon te eortSrfcum eallum wenldeS . 

2. and his reume to alle ahal loi-diihipen. 

3. And hie rike til alle boI Laverd in blia. 

4. et regnum ejus omnium dominabitur. 

6, e le icgne de lui-medeune h tutes choses B^;DiireTad> 


1. Ealle bis englaa ecne drihten 
bletuan bealde, 

2. Blisse 2ee to the Lord, alle his aungelis, 

3. Blisses to Laverd with alle jrout might, 

4. Benedicite Dominum, 

5. Beneiseiz le Segnor, 

3. Alle his aungda )iat ere bright ; 

4. omnes angeli ejus ; 

5. tuit U angele de lut ; 

1. heora bliSne frean 
miegyn and mihta jia hi a mnre word, 
habbaS and healdat^ and hjge fremmaS, 

2. mijti bi verlue doende the woord of hynij 

3. Mightand of thew, doand his norde swa, 

4. potentes virtute, qui tacitis vcrbum ejus, 

5. poanz par vertud, ^isanz la parole de lid, 

1. [wanting in Anglo-Sason text] 

2. to ben herd the voia of bia scrmoune^ 

3. To here atcven oi uis sugna •un. 

4. ad andicndum vocem Bcnuuiiuin ejiu. 
(, k mx la voiz de scs aenuuiw. 



1. Bletsum drihtcn eal his bearcm micgen, 

2. Blui^lli to the Lord all ;ce his vertuea, 

3. Blisaea to Laverd, alle mightea his, 

4. Benedicite Dominum, omaea virtutes ejus, 

5. Beneisaeiz al Segnor, tuteu tea rertuz de loi, 

1. and his )>egiui )>reat, )ie |)ict )ience nu, 
fet hi his willan wyrcean georne, 

2. ^ee hia aeninuns that don his wit. 

3. His hice |>at does )iat his witte is. 

4. Miniatri ejus qui fkcitis ToIuDtatem ejus. 

b. li saea ministre, chi faites ta roluntad de ltd. 


1. Eall hia ageu geweorc ecne drihten 
OQ hia ageaum atede eac blctsige, 

2. Bleg»ch to the Lord, atle ffic his werlvia. 
3. Blisses Lavcrd, with iville and thoght, 

4. Benedicite Domiaum, 

5. Beaeiaseiz k Segaur, 

3. AHe |)e werlces paX lie wroghb 

4. omnia opera ejus. 

5. treatutes lea ovrea de lui, 

1. ^r him his egaa aniveald EtandeS. 

2. in atte place jee hia domyitaciouna. 
3> In alle atedes of his lavcrdshipe ma, 
4. in omni loco dominationis ejus. 

6. en chescun liu de ta sue dominactun. 

1. Btetaige min aawt bliSe drihtcn 1 

2. bteBse thou, my souje, to ttie Lord I 

3. Blisse, mi Haute, ai Laverd swa I 

4. benediti, aoima mea, Dominum I 

5. beneis, U meie aneme, al Segnor I 

The m\j remark I think it Doceasaiy to make on the grammar of 
this pflolm is that the ohraae, man kia daies, in verse xv., vhere liis 




Ltcr. V. 

Bervca aa a poMouive tign, u eTidduOj' » literal tnuLdaikm fratn tlw 
LoUd homo ' ' di«ft ajus. The oriiifm of thu anonaloD* form in 
lAyni»(in may perhaps be traced to a similar »oiircv. It nlKxild !■« 
■dilod that the tranaluora bare often foUowed dilfereol t«xu of tbcir 

A cirrumstance which shows the coDtiniioil poverty of Eogliali 
int<-llert. in the thirtixtnlh cenhiry, it* wuiit of nutioQalitr* and , 
its incaiukcity for origiaal coraposiUoD, U that, while it pnxliicvd ' 
numeroitB transIationH of French nulhon, aiu) rvvlvHl old-world 
iables of domestic grvirth, it f^ro birth to no coDMdcrablo work 
c»nnect«(I with the reai bUtitry <if EQglaDd,cxce(ft thcchruiiicle 
of Robert of Gloiioester, Vt'e can hatdlyimagineafiDir subject 
Id iiadf, or one which appealed more powerfully to the srinpa- 
tbies and prejudices of the time, and npecinlly to the n.-itiotial 
pride of £»gli»htnen, if auy euch were fi^lt, than the cntsuidcs of 
Richard Occur de Lion ; and it would iDfallibly have iu-vpircd 
poelfT, if, in an ago when taleo of wild adveiitimt were »o 
popular, any poetical genius liad cxiirtod in the people I can- 
not finii, however, that, at that, period, the evplott*: of Richard 
had been mtidc tlie sidjject of any original Engli.<b poem, and 
the only early work we have on the subject, in an English dress, 
bvloiigx to the following century, and ia avowedly tran^tlated 
froKi the Freucb. 

It appears, however, that Joseph of l^icter, a contemporary ' 
and compianion of Richard, cel<3hrate<l his cxidolls in a Latin 
poem calli'd Antiocheis, of which only a few verseii are extent, 
and that a pilgrim called Qidielmus Peregrinufi wrote in LaUb 
verae oa the same stibject, but these do boC sctm to have ever 
found English tjiitialators. 

Ttic following extract will serve as a specimen of the diction 
and poetical character of the principal poem on the exploits of 
thtB king, which wero made ktiown to Eiigli»li readers in the 
fourteenth century by ft trausbUion from the French of an 
un known writer. 


Lost) JesoB kjng ofghxje 

Snche grace and vyctorye 

Tbou Bente to Kjng Hych&rd, 

That neuer was found coward I 

It is fill god to here in jeste 

Off hia prowease and bya coaqnesta. 

Fde romanaes men make newe, 

Of good knygfates, strong and trewe, 

Off hey dedys men rede romance, 

Bothe in Engeland and in France: 

Off liowelond, and of Olyver, 

And of every doseper; 

Of Alisander, and Chailem^, 

Off kyng Arthor, and off Gawayn, 

Bow they wer knyghtes good atid cnrte^rsi 

Off Turpyn, and of Ocier Daneya; 

Off Troye men rede in ryme, 

What werre ther was id olde tyme; 

Off Ector, and of Achylles, 

^Vhat &tk they alowe in that prea. 

In Frenashe bookys this tym is wrougklj 

Lewede menne knowe it nought ; 

Lewede menne cunne French non; 

Among an bondiyd unnethis on ; 

And neverthelea, with glad chere, 

Fele off hero that wolde here, 

Noble justia, I utidyrstonde, 

Of doughty knyghtes off Yngeloode. 

Parjbie, now I woU yow rede, 

Off a kyng, dooghty in dede ; 

Kyng Rydiard, the wenyor bes^ 

liat men fj'nde in ony jeate. 

Now alle that hereth this talkyn^ 

God geve hem alle good endyngi 

Lordynges, herkens bcfome, 
Eow Kyng Rychard was borne. 
HyB fadyr hyghte Kyng Hetuy. 
Lk hya tyme, q-hyrly, 
Ala I fynde in my aawe, 
Seynt Thomas was i-sla«e; 



At CotilyTbarr nt the nvtta-ttaa, 

Wlwr mimy mjT«clyii *re i-don. 

W]wn he woj twenty 11711IVT olda^ 

11« irat k kyng Hvrylhc hnldc, 

He vrol4l« no yyB, 1 uoilj'ralandc, 

Willi ^Iv tjvwirv Uiough he ho- fbndo. 

Hevjribeles hjra hwona b;tn Betide, 

That he gnuoted ■ wjff to w«dd«. 

Baslel^ be ccnt« bjs w>ndM^ 

Into manje dyvtms londea, 

Tbo fvyrsMe wytnnn that iron 00 liff 

Men wolds bringn hjm to wylT. 

UoMuig«rc« wcr« ivdj dj>gbt; 

To Mchippc tht!}' vmite thai }'lkc njr^ils 

Anon tbc tuij'l up thaj^ drowgh. 

The wjnd htm swvyd wel inoirgK. 

Wlieunc they coiac on mjrddi] tbe ae$t 

(No wj'nd ooethe luiddm hue; 

Tbcrforo hem whs sw}'ih« woo.) 

ADo(b«T Mhip thc^r cnuntryd tboo, 

8wylk on no w}'gb ihvy never noD ) 

All it was wbjt ofbtiel-bon, 

And every ttny] with gold begrare; 

Offptirc gnid WM thn tiave ; 

lU-r mo** was yvory; 

Off sunyie ibe Miyl wjrtCcTljr. 

Her ropCB wer off iiiely nj-lk, 

Al 10 wli vt AS ony mj'Ib, 

That Dobl? schjp was al withentc^ 

With clothj's of golde sprcd aboutet 

And li4T loof imd her wyndaa, 

Off luare Ibnotbe ]t was. 

Id ibftt acliyp tbcr wc:* i-dyght 
Knjrgbls and livdyya ofinckjll in;^t| 
And a tadj thvrinne was, 
BQ'gbt as the simne tbornp;b the glaiiL 
Her nni abordc gnune to siandc, 
And tifyd thnt other with hn bond^ 
And prejde hi-m for lo dncllc^ 
And bv oouiiaa;rl fur to tcUai 


And the; grannted with all ekylls 

For to telle al at her w/lle : 

* Swoo wyde landes we have weo^ 

For Kyng Henry us haa sent, 

For lo eeke hym a qwene, 

The fayrcBte that myghte fonde bene.' 

Uproa a kyng off a chayer, 

With that word they spoke ther. 

The chayer was oharbocle Bton, 

Swylk on ae aawgh tbey never noni 

And two dukes hym besyde, 

Noble men and mekyi off pryde, 

And welcomed the meaaangera ylkona. 

Into that Bchyp they gunne gone. 

Thrytty knyghtea, withouten lye, 

Forsothe was in that companye. 

Into that tiche schyp they went, 

As meseangers that weren i-aent; 

Knyghtea and ladyes com hem ayena| 

Sevene score, and inoo I wene, 

Welcomyd hem alle at on words. 

Tbey selte ti^teles, and layde a bordo| 

Cloth of sylk theron was sprad. 

And the kyng hyinaelve bad, 

That his donghter wer forth fette, 

And in a chayer before him setto. 

Trumpea begonne for to blowej 

Sche was aette ibrtb in a throwe, 

With twenty knyghtee her aboute, 

And moo off ladyea that wer stoute; 

All they giinne knele her twoo, 

And sake her what she wolde have doo. 

They eeten and drank and made hem glad% 

And the kyng hymscif hem bade. 

Whenne they hadde nygh i-eete, 
Adventures to epeke they nought forgeete. 
The kyng bam tolde, in hys reaoun, 
It com hym tfaorugh a vysyotuii 
In his land that he cam froO| 
Into Yngdond for to goo ; 


And his donghtyr that wu » dei% 
For to wende bothe in fere. 
' In this roanere we have na dygh^ 
Into that lond to wende ryght,' 
Thenne aunswerjd a messanger, 
Bys name was calljd Bemager, 
'Forther wole we eeke nought, 
To my lord she schal be brought t 
When he her with eyen schal sen, 
Fol wel payed wojl he ben.' 

The wynd was out off the northeati^ 
And servede hem atte the beate. 
At the Tour they gunne arryre. 
To London the knyghtes wente belyv*. 
The meaaangera the kyng have told 
Of that lady fayr and bold, 
Ther he lay, in the Tour, 
Off that lady whyt eo llour. 
Kyng Henry gan hym son dyght, 
With erla, barons, and many a, knygh)^ 
Agajn the lady for to wende: 
For he was curteya and hende. 
The damysele on lond was led, 
And clothis off gold belbre her spred. 
And her fadyr her befom, 
With a coron off gold i-com; 
The meeaangerB by ylk a syde, 
And menstrallea with mekyl pryde. 

Weber's Metrical Romamm, tcA. IL 

The early English rhymers and anDOilists observe a eimilar 
mysterious silence with regard to King Alfred, the memory ot 
whom, as a Sason King, one woiild suppose, could hardly ever 
have perished among the direct descendants of hie subjects, 
fellow-soldiers, and citizens. But the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, 
which devotes about ten octavo pages to a dry detail of some of 
the principal military and political events of his reign, does not 
notice a single trait of his moral or intellectual charai:ter, a 
'single interesting incident of hia private life, or a single 
fact from which it is possible to form even the most general 

l.tCT. V. 



estimate of tus meriU as a niter, or his personality m ft man. 
Early Engluh vcmaciiliir lUorature is «qi«iiiy bom-n of infor- 
oiatioa rtMpvctiii;; lldtt rcinarkiittli; jirmcft, aud popular traditioo 
ietAiD«d no remembrance of biin, except aa bis name was 
coQDect«d with iMiwrul oolIoctioDS of provcrlw which were 
ucribod to him. 

The poems^for such we must call them if all rhymed oom- 
poBitioDs are poetry — of Kobert of Gloucester, who fiouri«h«d 
fthout the year I3U0, are of coui^idtrablc ptulologicil importance, 
of some value as coiitributiuns to our knowledge of the 
btrtory of England, thougii Iheir litetaiy merit ia of a bumble 

ITie principal work of this author is a chronicle of Enghmd, 
ind tlivic is a colb.-ction of live;! of (he Eoglinh sainto, which i* 
'%ow attcrihed, upon satiRfactory e^ndence, i» the Kume writer, 
^le subject of this latter production would naturally tend, la 
"that age, to ^irc to it a wider circulation than could bo ncrjuirt-d 
ly » Toluminous chronicle in grc/>t piirt relating to rcmotv 
secular erentg ; aod accordingly we find that the maniiMvipu of 
the lives are much more numerous tbau tlioee of tlie history. 

The chronicle dtiierTes notice, not only for its contributions of 
otherwise unknown facts, but because it is the most ancient 
professed history in the English laugtiagc. It extends from the 
siege of Troy to the death of Henry III. in 1272. The larlier 
pirt is founded on Geoffrey of Monmouth, the latter geoemlly 
on more tmslwortby sources, and it conveys some information 
of value upon both the physical and the social condition of 
England in the thirteentli century. The following Uoes tn 
iavourable spocimcns of the autlior's manner : — 

EngeloDiI y a wel god loud, ich wens of eche lond best, 

T Md in ^ enile uf ^a world, a> al in |>o Wcat, 

fi Bcs gof> hym al a bovie, li« numt as sui yln. 

Usro ton' bco* d»m' ^ Ukso duulv, but hit ba )>orw g}l« 

Qtfoi* of )>e seluo tond, as me* ha)> y seye wylc. 

^fi^ifLtat*. ■Awtpcn.pran.rFTcrrjngtaEaclaoL ■dum^oMdi, Otr.^arC 
''• [tiolstil; ««Tar tor /tie. * mi, mra. 


From SoVip to Norp he ys long eijte hondred myle: 

And foure hondred mjle brod from Est to West to wenda, 

A m^dde po lond as yt be, and no;t as by fe on eade. 

Plente me mar in Engelond of alle gode y se, 

Bute folc yt for gulte ojier ^eres fe worse be. 

For Engelood y» ful ynow of fruyt and of tren, 

Of wodea and of parkca, fat ioye yt ye to sen. 

Of foules and of bcaCea of wylde and tnme al bo. 

Of salt fysch and eche freach, and fa)Te ryueres fer to. 

Of weDee swete and oolde ynow, of lesen ' and of mede. 

Of seiner or and of gold, of tyn and of lede. 

Of Btel, of ym and of bras, of god corn gret won. 

Of whyte and of woile god, betcre ne may be non, 

Watcrce he ha|> eke gode y now, ac * at be fore alle o)>er Jm 

Out of the lond in to fe sec, annes as fei be. 

Ware by f e echippes mowe come fro fe se and wende, 

And brynge on lond god y now, a bouto in eche eode. 

In )>e centre of Canterbury mest plente of fyaah ys. 

And mest chase a boute Salcsburi of wSlde beetes y wy& 

At London achippes mcHt, & wyn at Wynoeatre. 

At Herford schep & orf' , & fniyt at Wircestre, 

Sope a bo(it« Couyntte, yrn at Gloiicestre. 

Metei, as led & tyn, in )>e contre of Exceslre. 

Euerwik of fiiirest wode, Lyncolne of fayrest men, 

Grantcbrugge and Hontyndone meat plente of dup fen. 

El^ of fairest place, of &irest siito Roucestre. 

Euene ajcyn Fraunce stonde |ie contre of Chichestre, 

Norwiche ajeyn Denemarc, Chestro ajeyn Yrlond, 

Duram ajeyn Norwei, as ich Tnderslondo. 

fre wondres (ler bcf in Engolond, none more y not. water of Bu)ie ye [>at on, fat euer ys yliche hnt 

And fersch & euere springe, no be chcle* no so gret. 

Suche bafes )>er bef' fcle in fe cios & in the stret 

Upon |ie pleyn of Salcsbury pat oJ)er wonder ys, 

pat Stonhyngel ys y clepnd, no more wonder nya, 

po Btones stondep per bo grete, no moro ne mowe be, 

Euene vp ryjt & swj'pe hye, pat wonder it is to se : 

' Iften, paetiires. ' ac, but. The panctuation is reguUtcd rather hj tb* 
■wtro than by the sjntai. ' erf, cattle, here, and generally, black cattle 
vrongly explained by Coleridge eb ihttp. * ehcU, cold, modera ehSl. 

UCT. ?. 



Aad oltr ligg*'!' ^y^ aboue, )wt k mon may \ie of n tai, 

fai rcko Rion woiidre mii^ }iow heo w«rc tint a rvKd. 

For no}K!r gyn, uy inoiiiiu's Btriiiiijlie, yt |>]rnkvr|>, iw oivjle ;t do. 

"Mi^ me Kbnl li«rc urturword of flrt wmulrea bo)ie iwo, 

And bow li«o were 6rst y mad. j'o |>ri<lde wonder y* 

Up fe hat of fo pdt. NorJ> vrynd (^ne y wja 

Out of ^ cr|ie ofi« conio^, of holos «s jrt iren^ 

And blovre^ rp of {'ilbo hol««, to )>at yt woId« a raw 

And bcro rp groto clonic*, jcf heo went per ncjr. 

And blowc bcm here and [kto <r\roa fn lofto on bef. 

Fajrc wft^cH moiijon ^r boji in Eagolonde, 

Ao fouK nicst ofalle |>er h«y ich vndontoiMlc, 

pet )ie old k/n^M mad, wcro fxiru mo may ircodo 

Frora fv on ende of Eugvlond u«r|> lo |>i? u|<«r cnde. 

Fnm t>« Sou)! tttl^ ■ iii to l^o Kor)> £aing<atcet; 

And ]>om fie Kat in to )>6 Weot Ik«iuldeamte. 

From Donore in lo Cke^cre lil!e)> WallingeetreU, 

From &o)i|> E^ in lo Nor^ Wen, and {•ni f* Mm Aai grele. 

)M} ferpo u m«st ofnllc, )tat t4llo|i frnm 1'ntiriiiuii, 

From Jh) on codr Comcwnylu nnon to Ciitrjiayit, 

Fro ^ Noi^ £»t ia to iktup Wvst iii tu EngtJonde'n eodc : 

Fowc mo di.'pup jiilco w<-y, ^ttl )iy moiij god totin do^ w<nd«^ 

So o]cn« load ya Eu^ond, and h> pur vrilli outui or^* 

yu fa faiteM men of )>e world frr iuno befi y borl^ 

So dene, tnd 6ilr, & purwy t', amuci); oJ>er men )ieo bc|i, 

fM mo know^ h«ra io ech« lond by ^yjie, wbere me ban «^. 

So elaoo at to i« |>at lond, and moiine's blod so ]»»■, 

^t fe grci md* comep not )>or, )>iu me clopn^ |)o Iio1y fur, 

^ tor frcl«p monnci lymc^ ry^t a* heo were brcndc. 

Ac mtn of Fnmoe in f iiku vnet me iiyt> (odo u nKsidc, 

2ef beo ben broujt in lo Eiigolvnd ; war |>orur mo miiy wytt^ 

ynt Engdood ys lond bent, as yi is 7 write. 

I The Livea (uul J,egi>Q<Is of the Saints, by the nme nutlior, do 

^^not differ graramatiudly from the ChinHiicle, but tbey ara more 

"^lopttlar in tone, ouil in ^'mcral iiiirv interesting, because tbey 

, no doubt, very faithful r<^ti<;ctiims of the opiuioos aod scDti- 

* ISli^ iMdi. * «rt, berc drau, n 'J metal, dtcvhcn-, niar<^. ■ pariqtl 
swliiu^ Aut^coRiplexiaiiei. * nit', li'lriTfi. jiI»][im. 



Lnr. T> 

meobi, DM irell as of tho habits and manners of the Engtbtb 
people, at a period ooaoeraiog wliich our suorcvs of informatioD 
■re scanty. 

The Life uf St. Brandan, piiblislKsl by Ihe Percy Society, la 
of the same fabulous cbaracler as a large proportion of Um 
nionkidi k'jjtiiiln of the Middle Ages, but the ruartyrdom of 
Becket, alito publL«hed bj Ihc sittne Society, bat very much 
higher pretemioos to litenu-y tnvrit Ui&n most part* of Ui« 
Chronicle can boast, and is by no inean« wanting in drantatie 
life and spirit. The most curious part of the Lives of the 
SainiR is a CMinographical. astronomical, nod pfaysiolo^ca] 
fragment printed in Wright's Popular Trcoliea on 8cienc<i. Of 
course, 9cieut4lic accuracy is not to be looked for in a work of 
that period, but the trnttisc in ((iiestioR, in its views of the laws 
of nature, and of gnuit oisniicul facts— such an the relative mug' 
nkudeM and distancc-Jt uf tiie suu and mooii, tbe phase* of the 
latter, which are illustrated by comparing her to a ball sboD« 
iil>finliyac!uidlc,an(ithemoon'8 influence on the tides — is much 
]t*» absurd than most popular workii of the ngu, and therefor^, 
wiLli all its errors, it may be looked upon as oontnining truth 
enough to make it nn instructive efsay. The aiiu lo stated to 
be one bundrc<l and nxly-live times, the earth nine timex, as 
large as the moon, and aa to the distance of Iho heaven or firma* 
roent from the earth, we aro told that, — 

Moclia is bituene hevene aai uitlie, lor lh« man that mijte | 

Edie dai eveue fuurti itiylo Uprijt and clc« mo, 

He no M^oldo to the hoxie bovmi;, ikitt b1 tlay ;e i->DDtb, 

Come in fiisi« thoueemi ;cr, ibnr a* ilic iicrrRn boodi; 

And ibo; Adam euro liinU: &dvr biuld« bi-goiUMi luioo^ 

Tho W WM Aim y-makcd, rowatd bsveao gun, 

And hnddo ecb dai Iburti niyte orene ujvijt i-go. 

Ila naddo no^t gut to heveoe i-oomo hi a tbouMud ^ and i 

The proportion of Homaoce words in tbo general dictic 

Kobert of tiloucester does not exceed four or fire per cent., bu 4 

the number of vocables of this clac*, which mdw th«ir 


Lmct. V. 

ttOBEKi or BUirSKI 



appearance in his works, in considerable, and bis additions to 
ihe current vocabulary of English are important, thwigli other- 
wise he cannot bo tatii to Lave done much tor the elevation of 
(li« natJTO lit«mture. 

The rhymed history uHtiailr known as the Chronicle of Rohert 
Manning, or Robert of Biunne, Is tbv moxt vohimiiiouA vork in 
the English of tlie early piirt of the futirtcentli century, and it 
is the lust conspicuous production belonging to what most phi- 
)otogiitt« consider as Uie finit period of the Engli^ language, 
which, as before remarked, extends from about 1250 to shout 
1350. The first part of tbi« chronicle is a tn>ns1ut!on from 
the Brut of Waoc. It comeit down to the death of Oadwalader, 
nnd has never been printed. Tlie ttecoud, a tranalatioa £rom 
the Anglo-Noniuiu of Peter de I^angtoft, but with many 
enlargements and correelionft, brings down the history of 
Xoglaoc] to the death of Kdward I. This was published by 
^eamv in 1735, under the name of LuD;^o(t's Chronicle^ niid 
•mas reprinte^l in I8I0. The style of de itruiiue is superior to 
that of Robert of Gloucwk-r in case, though we can hardly say, 
gnce of expression. His literary merits are slender, luid hU 
Miction, which id formed upon that of Robert of Gloucester, 
though belonging to a rather more advanced period of philo- 
logical development, is di«tiuguii;hcd Cram that of his master 
by some important eliaract^rixtics. The vocabulary is consi- 
derably enlarged by new Itomanoe wonU, hut tite priucip.-il 
differsnoo between Robert of G]oucest« and Itobeit of Hrunuu 
13, that while the former miU:es the third person singular indi- 
cative present of the verb in th, and gi^ncrally, though indeed 
Dot uniformly, osea the Saxon form of thu perHoiial pronoun, 
Uio latter regularly employs the veibal ending a, and Imt geho 
for the noininiitive singular feminine, and ^ei in the nomina- 
tive} ^er in the genitive or posseasive plural of thu pcr»onal 

The prologue to the unpublished part of the! work, which in 
de Brunne'a own, is remarkable for its hearing on certain 



Ucr. r. 

quettionsof old English rersifieation, I introduce it as a favoiir* 
{iblf 8p4H^nieD of his alylv, lutd it is proper to remaxk that th« 
IrULtlator, in l>otl> divisiouK of liis work, followed tlu: Tcrsifica- 
tiun of hill original ; the metre in ihe first part being oetoiijMabie, 
while tlie liDes in the latter vary from eight tiyllablcB to the 
Aluxaudrinc, or exametron of six fcct^ which was the hvroio 
uifiwtiru of that ugv. It will bti found ia Ueanu'B editioa. 
Appendix tc Preface, p. xcri. 

Lordjuj^ea, tliai be now ha% 

If j« willo lisuni.- & li-xe 

All !•« Mory iif tugluixiir, 

Als Itobcrt Alftuiifng wrjien it fiind, 

dc on InglJ'xh l)a» ii Khewed, 

Kot lor |io Icrid bol for }v l«wod, 

For fo )»Ht in fw land wonn, 

)int |>e I>iit j'n no FTsnkjs conn. 

For tn hivl' ■cilacc it pimcn 

In ft-'Iavrsi'liip wIkh |«i uit iuni«n. 

Aiid it is wiHiuin (briu wyitm 

pe kIuIv of I'D land, and huf it wrttent 

Wliat ouDcru of Iblk fint it wan, 

A of whut k\iiile it finii Ix^ii. 

And gudo it ia for inun}' ihyngto, 

For to li«r« fa Jcilin of kyngu*. 

Wbilk were lulot & wliilk were wJ'm, 

& whillt of |>nm oonih rnant qnnni^; 

Ancl whilk <lid wrong & whilk r}gbt| 

& whilk nia^iti^nd pm A Oght. 

Of ^ore clc<t«s )mI1q Hr my inw«, 

Id vbnt lymc it of what lawn, 

I iallc ;^uw Hobewe Iro gre lo gn, 

Sen |>6 ifuie of dr Noe, 

Fro No« vnW EiM-aa, 

A wliat ln'twix t>sm waa. 

And fro KncAs tillc Bnilu* tjn^ 

^t kfndc hi; trllm in f'i* rfingb 

Fro Itniiit* lillt? Cudwutudmi, 

ft but Br j ton )>ul |>t> laudv leeb 

— ^'- 


Alle fat k^de & alle the frute, 
ftit come of Bnitus ))at is )>e Brute; 
And pe rjght Brute is told oomore, 
|>an the Br^BB t^e wore. 
Afler pe Bretons jie Inglia camen, 
pe lordscliip aff'is knde (•oi namen; 
South & North, West & Est, 
fax calle men now [>e Inglis gest. 
When pai first amaag [le Bretons, 
)>Kt now ere Inglin fan were Saxont, 
8axona Inglia hight alle oliche. 
)ut arjned vp at Sandwyche, 
In Jie kyoge's tjme Vortogerne, 
]>Bt pe lande walde ^am not weru& 
y&t were ma^sters of alle pe to)iire, 
Hengist he hight & Hon his bro)iire. 
Jiea were hede, ala we fjnde, 
"Where of ia coinen oore Inglis kjnde. 
A hundrethe & fifty ^ere ])ai com, 
Or fat receyued Cristendom. 
80 lang woned fai |)ia lande in. 
Or fa herde out of Saynt Aust^, 
Amang fe Bretons with mykelle wo, 
In sclaundire, in threte & in thro, 
fes Inglia dedes je may here, 
Aa Pen telles alle fe manere. 
One mayster Wace fe Frankes tellei, 
fe Brule alle pat fe Latyn spelles, 
Fro Eneaa tills Cadwaladre, 
fis mayater Wace per leuea he> 
And rjght as mayster Wace saja, 
I telle mj-n Ingiis fe same ways. 
For mayster Wace fe tjitpi alle rfmei^ 
fat Pers ouerhippis many tymea, 
MayEter Wace fe Brute alle redea, 
& Fers tellis alle fe Inglis dedes. 
fer mayster Wace of fe Brute left, 
Eyght begynnes Pers efl, 
And tellis forth fe Ingiis atoif, 
Mtd u be Rays, fan say L 

SSS BOBERT or BBcmn tmet. T. 

Ala f^i hafwrjten & aa^d, 
Haf I alle in myn Inglis lafd. 
In B^pte Bpeche aa 1 couthe, 
)tat ia lightest in manne'a tnoutha. 
I mad noght for no diBouni, 
Ne for no naggers no harpcnra, 
Bot for )ie luf of a^ple men, 
Jiat Bfrangc Inglis can not ken. 
For tnBn^ it ere fat strange Inglii 
In 15*1116 wate neuer what it ia, 
And bot )>Bi wirit what it mente, 
Ellifl me thoght it were alle achenta. 
I made it not forto be praised, 
Bot at fe lewi-d men wiTe a^sed. 
If it were made in rjme couwee^ 
Or in Btrandore or cnlerlace, 
^t rede Inglis it ere inowe, 
jiat courhe not baf coppled a kowe, 
jat outlicre in counee or in baatOD 
8om Huld hof ben fordon, 
60 )>at fc'le men )iat it herde, 
Suld not wilte howe fat it fcrd«. 
I ICC in song in acdge^g tale 
Of Krccldoim & of Kcndale, 
Non linm ra^-n as )>ai )>am wrogh^ 
& in ]ier ea^ng it semes noght. 
J»at may fou here in Sir Tristrem, 
Ouer gCHtca it has fc nteem, 
Ouer all fat is or wna, 
If men it Miyd an mode Tliomaa, 
Bot I here it no mnii so sny, 
fat of fw>m cnpjile iw>m is awaf. 
So fare fnjrc saying here befoma^ 
Is fare traiiiiilc nerc forlome, 
fai Bttjd it for priile & noblc^e, 
fat non were wijlk as fei, 
And alle fnt fni wild ouerwben^ 
Alle fat ilk willc now forfare, 
fai aayd in so qitainte Inglis, 
fat manj'one wale not what it ji^ 

Lkt. T, bobert of BBimm 239 

feribre beujed wcle fe more 

In Btrnnge ryme to trauajle aora^ 

And my witte vra% oure thjnne, 

So strange Rpeclm to trauayJe in, 

And forsotfa I couth noghc 

So strange Inglis as I>ai wroglit, 

And men beaoght me man^ a t^ma, 

To tumc it bot in ligbt r^me. 

l>ai eajd, if I in Htranfre it tume, 

To here it manyon suld skume. 

For it ere names Aillc selcouChe, 

J>at ere not Tscd now in mouthe. 

And iJerfore for fe conionalte, 

)iat bh'tbeljf wild listen to me. 

On liglit fangc I it begnii, 

For luf of fe Jewed maii, 

To telle )iam )ie cbaunces bolde, 

)iat here before wan don & tntde. 

For )iis making I wille no mede, 

Bot gude prayere, when je it rede. 

Jierfore, je lordea lewed, 

For wham I haf jiis Inglis schewed, 

PraycH to God he gjf me grace, 

I tranajled for jour solace. 

Of Brunne I am, if any me blame, 

Kobert Mannyng is mf name. 

Blissed be he of God of henene, 

fat me Robert with glide wille neuene. 

In fe thrid Edwarde's tyme was I, 

When I wrote nlle ]iia story. 

In }>c hous of Si-xilte I was a throwe, 

Danz liobert of Maltone fat je know 

Did it wryte for felawea sake, 

Whi^n )iai wild solace make. 

The thirteenth century produced some interesting and curiona 
didactic poems. Those which are tranalated or imitated from 
French or Latin models have, as might be expected, greater 
emoothness of versiJication, hut less originality of thought than 
thoae which seem to be of native inventioo. One of the best 


apecimeDS of the former class is the dialogue bet:weeD the bodj 
and the soul, printed id the Appendix to the Camden Society'i 
edition of the Latin poems ascribed to Walter Mapea. 

This poem is believed by the editor to be of the thirteenth 
ccntui-y, find there are manuscripts of the English version, of 
veil as of corresponding French and Latin texts, which cannot 
be of a much later date. I cannot, however, resist the con- 
viction tliat the copy from which thU text is printed ia 
more recent, for its dialect is grammatically more modem than 
that of almost any English wriler before the time of Chaucer. 
The English poem ia a translation, but there is reason to think 
that the Latin original is a native English composition. It has 
merit both of thought and of expression, and the interesting 
glimpses it gives of the life and manners of its time invest it 
with some historical value; for though it extends to but two 
hundred and fifty lines, it contains no inconsiderable amount o( 
real information on these snhjecta." 

The commencement of the poem is as follows: — 

Ala I lay in a winleris nyt, in a droukening ' bifur the day, 
Vor Botlie I HH15 a Felly' ayt, a body on a here lay, 
That havde ben a mody * knyjt, and hitel served God to payj; 
Loren be haved ilic lives lyjt; the goat wag oiiie, and acliolde away. 
Wan ihy goat it scholde go, yt bi-wt-nte * and witli-siod, 
Bi-holod tlie body there it cam fro, bo aerfulli with drcdli mod ; 
It Hcide, ' weile and ivalawo 1 wo wortlic thi (leys, tbi foule blod ! 
Wreche bodi, wjy IiBtou3 bo, that jwilcne were so wilde and wod7 

* TI10K are mnny points of rencmbUDCe bctvcrn tliit poem and sn Anglo-Suion 
dialogne on the bsihb snlijcct, publislied from a MS. of tlie twelfth centuiy, bj 
Sir T. PliiUips. Tho moLilalcd condition of the laltcr renders tho comparison 
difficult, but (he list of luiuricB in the old Englislj Bork spems to be much more 
ccpious lh:iD that in tlie Anglo-Snion, nnd of course to indicate an adrance in 
tho comforts and ri'finpments of life. Although the copy published by Sir T, 
Phillips is of the taelftli lentuiy, the dialeot biiongs to an earlier dale, and tho 
poei.i was, in all probability, written before ttic Xomiiin Conquest had introduced 
the riegancies wliich soon followed the transfer of the English cro\m to the head 
of a i'reneh prince. 

I droiitniiny, slumber. • K%, alraige. • modj/, proud, brava. • tt 
uKiile, turned back. 




tliat were wonwl lo ride hoyre on horw in and wit. 
So kowtj-ntc knit', i-kii<5' so widi:, n» n Ivim ttr« ntid pruud, 
j^tT« ii nl ihi michck pride, uiiil liii Inli:* rh.-it wai *o loud? 
,wri liatou iht-ro so Isire aiilf. i-piicktd' iii iJint ptjrc Mbroud? 

boon (hi cusU«a and thi lourcui ? tlii cbuumbren and Uii riclic 
I-pe7nlod with m riclie Itixtm? nnd tlii riche robrs nlleT 
Thine cowltwi^ luul ibi cav^Tlourcii? ihi cpndrli tind llii riclic pallcsf 
Wrvchcdp, it i« now Oii birtir, to riomwc thouj nrl^lt tlicr iiiiw fkllc 
fwcro b«i ihi miirdli* w«des? ihi Homers', wilU t)ii ric^hi.- b«i*I«M? 
Tbi proude ]>iiIi-lVi-j'8 and tbl MledM, tbut tloiis liaddiait in dotvr 

TU ftuoouns ibat were nougl to grede 7 and tbioe bciunden ilaai thou 

iL-dde ? 
Ue thinkcth God i> tlie to gii<-i3c>, tbni alio thtnv Amd boon Iro tl>« 

prero ben t]iiii« cokes Bn«llc, tliat scliuldcn pan gieithtr ihi ni<:li', 
k'itfa ^i«'*, 8ir«te for to emellv? iliai iLuuj nuvcri; wercrc fot of 
do iImI fouU Ooys to mwcllf '*, ihnt foule wonmtf echoldcn 6t«T 
And thoQj hare:'! tho pine <if hcllc with glolonf e mo bi-g«to, 
'or God tKho[> ihv nitir hi* f>cliap, nnc] gaf the bothe nji and «lu]; 
ihi Inking" WHS i-lttR, to wtHv iiliir thin nnnc wil.' 
*Ne too 1 nvTi-re wycbi!-iT»ft, lit- wyst I J«iil vra» giiod nor it, 
Bci|« tM u wrt-'ichv dumb and mad, bote us tdii,^ tau;;teit titer til. 
Set to serveu the to qucnte ■*, bothe at eTcn and u mtiruen, 
iiihin I w«g the bi-lauitl " to jemo '*, fro liie tinw that tliouj was born; 
'IUU2 ibnt d^m cnnihcst dome, Kholdcfl babbo be war bi-fom 
If mi folyc, uit Rtniot; now with ihi hIvc (lioiijnn for-lorn. 

The miBor poems of the firnt ugr nf Eu^^liMli lit^nUure mny 
"be dividvd inlo liallndii, pi^jlilical songs and duvoliuniil versr. 
JlftDjr of these, iaoludiug aome of the moet curiotts and iin- 
portatit, are id Latin, llivae of course have oat much phUo- 

■ iv^prynte knit, qiuintly. naaiagilj fruDcd. ' j-jtwf. tnon. ' l/Jf, tmml 
"* i-prictfJ, imf^irj ur ilfck*!!, * smiIM, qnilU. * ntarjll, nirllirol. igty. 
* MHvr*. bcdslraiU. * in lUtUrUdiht, Ud on llm ri|t!>t lm»J ; lb* plttnl (arm of 
-th* piftkipU vsmnam. ' y"^', sliaiild b» yno//. nij^nrlly, ttmtK. " fprttt, 
-du) would regrolarijr be (jn^ bat I (Wipcrt it i» ben <p>n«. "frttr, rating. 
** wrffr, UMt, tvttth to bread. " Miity, nnv riu>ti>!}'. pomr. " to 9^"*% 








routtcAi. sosas 

LrcT. 7. 

logical relatioD to our present aubject, and J caonot notice them 
further tbui to etate their existence, aod to invite uttciilioa to 
them M well worthy of pcnuuil. 

The variety of mcitrcfl in tli*-«i; productions is great, ami 
though we do not find all the niodeni fonii-s i>f thv stanza in 
<.<ar1y Engli^li verse, yet tbcro ore few puctic measures ezaiiiplia 
of which may not ha produced from that period. The oarratire 
poems in general have little to mark them as Eii);liiih, except 
the language in which they are written. Poemii uf tJiin chaructor 
would drcutato mainly among the comparatively un&ducated 
daoee, and tbo copyists, hy whom they were transcribed, woald 
generally bo perMoOH of Icsm accumto scholastic training and 
hahitM thuD those engaged in the mnltiplirjition of works dc- 
Higucd fur readera of higher culture. Henco the maniiMcripts 
containing them would ho more negligently executed, and, con* 
BC4]ueDt1y, ore Ivsi to bu rvlied on, as vvidcoci-« of tbo gram- 
matical cbariictcr of the language, thau works of higher aima 
and gmiT«r lit-eraiy merit 

These poi-niK are geiierally anon\-mous, a ciictirastaiico which 
haa been thougliC to ehow that they were translatiau:^ ; but of 
this wo have often better proof in internal evidence, or in tbe 
exintence of the Kreuch originals, in manuscripts of more 
ancient date. In fitct, it was only when the national spirit 
was awak'-iitd to dl.*linct consciousness, by the intuTDol stniggle 
called the Barons' wan, thnt sufficient literar; ambition was 
roused to prompt to original composilioa; and it has been justly 
rem'irked that the general want of literary taste is shown by 
tlie fact that tlio best, most natural, and moat graceful pro— 
ductioDB of French poets were neglected, while far inferioc- 
woiks were translated in considerable numbers. 

The political songs and satireaoftheihii-teenth and fotirtvi-oth 
centuries are an interesting feature of early Kugti&h literature, 
not as possessing merit of conception or of execution, hiii 
because tliey are the first ftyniploins of a new life, the fiist 
evidences of nafcont nationality in modem Kugloud. They 
have some resemblance to tLe popular political poetry of reccafj 

Uer. V. 

VSB or riKKCR ra EimoFi 


times, ftt Iea:it they bavc its gnemess, liitt they are wanting [a 
Um bumour vhich diaracteritied lnt<-T EnglUh verse of the 
Bune dao. Moat of the estani political poents of tlic period 
we are discosdog are in Aiiglo-Konnaii, or in Latin, for llu; 
reason, amoDj;^ otherv, that in the thirteenth century, i>t least, 
written Etigtiifh wcu nut much emjilu^'ud fur any [Hirjtose; and 
a« there waa at that epoch no people, in tJte modem social sense 
of that word, there existed no natiTe public interested in 
political affairs, which could he addressed ia the native tonguft 
At this time, the French ranked first among the Uteraiy 
languages of Europe, for it had reached a iniicli nione adranix-d 
et^i^ of gnunniatical and rhetorical culture than any other, 
and waa, therefore, better euit«d, not only for poetical compo- 
atton, but for every branch of higher intellectual effort. Its 
niperiority for literary purposes was felt and admitted, even iu 
states where the tnBuenoe of France in political niatturs wag 
far from great; and French acquired, in the thirteenth century, 
that widely dtSTuscd currency, as a generally known and there* 
fore conrenient common medium of oommunication, which it 
has ever since mainiained throughout Continental Europe. 
lUartino de Canate, a Venetian annalist of the thirteenth 
eentuiy, composed his chronicle in French, because, to use \\\» 
own words: 'the French tongue is current throughoot the 
world, and is more delectable to n-ad and to hear than aujr 
other.* * firunctto Latini, the tvacber of Dante, wrote bis moet 
important wt>rk in the same language, and he thus apologizes 
fur using it instead of Italian : ' If any shall ask wliy tlii^ liook 
is written in Romance, according to the patois of France, I 
Wing bom Italian, I wilt say it is for divers reasons. The one 
ii that I am now in France, the other is, that French is the 
nioc4 delightsome of tongues, and partaketh most of the com- 
mon nature of all other la]>guage«.*f 
The employment of Flrench by native Gi^|ligb autbois is by 

* TaioEi* it U K«nBtiii; lotiodaetiaai, 3e(}t. 

t ri wi ii> ■iisiliMailiiji [iiii iniiiiwl IJiiiwMt iiuJl in i Ili iil Ii jniinji 

■ S 



L«T. T 

DO nicans to be ascribed wholly to tho predominance or Kormao 
JDflui'jico in EnglAod, but, in a coimidcrablo degree, to tbe fact 
tliui, for the time, it occupied much the (ftme poeitioo which 
biu) liitbertu been awarded to tha Latin, as the oomrann dialect 
of learned Christendom. This bet has been too geuerally over- 
looked hj literurj historiaus, and conniqucotly too much weight 
hasbecnaEcribvdto political undsocialcawtcs, in accounting for the 
frequent UMof French by English writers, when, in Imth, its em- 
ployment was very much owing to purely literary considtsrstiona. 

Slany of the poems on English political a^irs were the woik 
of native Xormun, not Kngliah writ«rB, though EngUiih subjects, 
and some were writt«a even in Proveiifal. 

As has been already observed, a great variety of metres an 
employed in tiiese poems; but most of the EngliJth, thou^ 
rhymed, and resembling Romimce poetry in structure, retain 
the ancient national chanicteristic of nllitention, and thus 
combiuo the two ayntems, w they do tiie rocubularies, of both 
language*. Others again are pnrtly In Eugli^ii, partly in Frenetic 
thus showing that those for whom they were written were 
equally familiar with both latkgua:^ Thus a poem of tlie yaw 
1311, upon tbd violation of the promiooa of Magna Charts, so 
often confirmi-d and so oflcD brokea by English kings, com- 
mences with a stanza in tho two laoguagieSi 

L'en puct r«Te ut dcfcre, 

Ceo fuit-il Irop •nrenl; 
It nil noutlitrr vrel ne £(ire; 

Tkerlbre Engekud is tlienL 

A* tnur*, puin qn» m* Mmiaunnt rUllioiu !• dirol* que n cat per divpEna 
niioii*. Tune ^ dm tamM m) fniui;* pt r»ilni por (w ^ U pHbnn oat |laa 
driiuble rt pliu comuna a tout Irngagrn. 

.Vanuterii^ of tkr Uhmry <^ th.' Uni'tfrtity tf 7W*«, CoA. L. 11. It 
The Eirm )»('ayii. {iMictiillj writtcii pitnia, ii rvuiirkaUf^ tiat I kiinv not bow 
far it i( Jtulifivd lij' ii('i«r Riioipiil siilhortlip*. Unb KuppoaM pBlois lo 1» 
ui imrtilivD»otil,aiiilcitMlhslI«iiiii!gi(u yrar'mt^al pati>pata, ge*eliaBttor, 

AltliDuch y* tHaBM b* MrUin u to llto pncit* dfftnjtiaa wtiioli ltmi«lW 
Lntioi would hive givta h> pavoy*, he •('{lonaltjr dim it In t&p vm* of ^id/ns; 
tnd ngRtd* tba Itoiuao* m s pnecal •pptoh, of wticb frencb ww s local turm. 


Nosire prince de Engletere, 

Far le coneail de ea gent^ 
At WesCminsteT afler the fcire 

Made a gret parlement. 
La ctiartre fet de eyre, 

Jco I'eateinlc et bien le cre^) 
It van holdc to neih tlie fire, 

Aod is moItcQ al awey. 
Ore De e&j vaks que dire, 

Tout i va i Tripoloy, 
Hundred, cLapitle, cnurt, and ahin^ 

Al bit gotli a devel way, 
Des plueagca de la t«re 

Ore escot«z un Barmoun, 
Of iiij. wise-men tbat ther were, 

'Wbi Engclond is brouht adooxL 

rhe ferste seide, ' I understonde- 
Ne may no Iting wel ben in londe, 

Under God Almihte, 
But be cunne himself rede, 
Hou be Bbn! in londe lede 
Eveti man wi J ribte. 

For might ia riht, 

Libt is night, 

And fibt is fliht. 
ffoT mibt in riht, the lond is tawelea; 
For niht is liht, the lond is loreles; 
For fibt is Jliht, the lond ta mimelea.' 

That other seide a word fid god, 
'Whoso roweth ajein the fiod, 
OITsorwe be Kbal drinke; 
Also hit fareth bi the tmsele, 
A man shal have litd hele 
Tber agein to ewinke. 

Nu on is two, 

Another is wo, 

And ii'end is fo. 
For on is two, tliat lond is streinthelwi 
For wel b wo, the land is routheles; 
For frend is fo, tbu lond is lovelsk' 

846 XNaLiaa folitical poems L«t. T. 

That thridde seidc, ' It is no wonder 
Off thiHe eyres that gotL under, 

Whun thcib comen to londe 
Proude and stoutc, and ginneth ^elpc^ 
Ac of tbing that nholde helpe 
Have theih coht on honde. 

Nu luBt haveth lere, 

Thef u reve, 

And pride hath slere. 
For lust hath leve, the lond is thevelei| 
For thef is reve, the lond is penyles; 
For pride hath sieve, the lond is almaalen* 

The ferthe Bcide, that he is vod 
That dwellcth to muchel in the flod. 

For gold or for auhte; 

For gold or Hilver, or any wele, 

Hunger or thuret, heto or chele, 

AI shal gon to nohte. 

Nu wille is red, 

Wit is qued, 

And god is dei. 
For wille is red, the lond is wrecftil) 
For wit is qned, the lond is wrongMi 
For god is ded, the lond ia ainfhL 

"Wid wordcR as we ban pleid, 
Sum wisdom we ban neid 

Off oldo men and junge ; 
Off many a tliingc tlmt is in londt^ 
Whopo coudc it iindcrntonde. 

So have I told wid tongu«. 

Eiche and pore, bonde and fre^ 
That love ia god, je mai se ; 

Love clepetb ech man brotluri 
For it that he to blame be, 
Forjif hit bim par chariti, 

Al thcib he do other. 

Love we God, and he ub alle. 
That wBB bom in an oxe atiUfl^ 


And for na don on rode^ 
His swete lierte-b!od he let 
For us, and ua faire hct 

That we sholde be gode. 

Be ire tta gode and Btedefast, 
So tliat we muwen at the last 

Haven hevene bllsse. 
To God Almihti I preie 
Lat US never in ainne deie, 

That joye for to miase. 

Ac lene ua alle so don here, 
And leve in love and god manere^ 

The dcvel for to sLende; 
That we moten alle i-fera 
Sen liim tliat us bonhte dere, 

In joye withoute ende. Akeh. 

Tlie authors of some of these songs might even boast with 
Dante: Locntiis sum in lingua trina ; for occasionally French, 
].atLii and English are intermixed, as in the following poem, of 
the early part of the reign of Edward IL, also contained in the 
Political Songs published by the Camden Society. 

Qnant honme deit parleir, rideat quse Yerba loquaturj 

Sen coTCnt aver, ne stultior inveniatur. 

Quando qiiis loquitur, bote rcaoun reste theiynne, 

Derisum patitur, ant Intel so shal he wynne. 

£n seynt eglise sunt multi stepe priores; 

Summe beoth wyse, multi sunt iuferiores. 

'When mon may mest do, tunc vclle suum mamfesta^ 

In donia also, si vult libi praimia pncstat. 

Ligrato benefuc, post haw; k peync te verra ; 

Pur bon rin tibi lac non dat, ncc rem tibi rendra, 

Sensum custudi, quasi mieu valt sen qe ta mesoun; 

Thah thou be mody, robur niohil est nine resoun. 

Lex lyth donn over a!, fallax fiaus follit ubiquej 

Ant lore nye bote emal, quia gena se gestat iniqne. 

Wo walketh wyde, quoniam movet ira potentea; 

Byht con nont ryde, quia vadit ad insipientes. 


Eisniisn poi.inr.n, rotvs 

L»c: V 

Diinimodo fmuii cupcrmt, let mil nonl lonco y km^e; 

El ijuiu Bic na cit, rvlh ntny nout uiiIItcIip MoU'Ic. 

Fab nii'ii fi'cj'tiC covmnitnl, <|uaiiivis (ilii dicnt, * b.ilietiiai' 

Yix dnbit UQ vivu g«uut, Ivao la> tiuia po^n Hclii*. 

Iklyn aat ibya duo auiit, qui fmni;uot plvliii nmonttii ; 

Ca deua pur una Mint facicnds im[K (lutorem. 

Trrtonn rliuitpnificAl, c( jiaucta ent data rwdud; 

ItfHMin c<'rt.i(icnt. confiiii<lit el tnoitia tr^oan. 

Pci« mny notil wrl br, dtim Onl per nriniina tiinn; 

Lord CriMt, th:it thou tc, prr te ut m liii* mi^iciiul 

IiifirDiiu moiitur, thnli Ii-chcimll tig^r byi^dc; 

Vivtu dix't^iittir, nU non tlint li«r *but nbjile 

Tula pliinoun L"ovfrez, (|tii d« re jilurima prMidroitnt; 

Au drojD Vien vcirw, <iiiod tmllum rciii tit-i nmdruunt. 

Et>lo pncificTts, so myli ilmii wcMo lliy vvllc; 

Alwi vcridicii*, mil M<>i>d pro ii>ni[K>re stille. 

l'(N-« wit i-n l«rc p«r to, I>rU", alim polMlul 

I><;r<-iid<-j! gucro, no ticn inrndnt pgfittiu^ 

God Lord Almyhtj, da pacvat, ChtvUi bcnunni 

Thou Goniil al djlity, be nc pcmmiu in igno ! 

TbU confusion of toogues led very Batnmlly to Iho oomtptaon 
of ttiem aD, aod (maseciuently Done of them were written or 
spoken aa correctly asat tlio peri<x! when they were kept distinct, 
lu short, the grammar of both l^uglii^k imd Aiiglo-Norroan 
becamo more and moru irn'^Inx, om I'Vi-iit-h iiid l.aiin grow 
more fjiniilinr to the Kn^Uxh jicnple. The Anglo- Nomian, aa 
it «&■* oliserred in tlie lout lecture, duparled from Hie Konnaa- 
FrenchinllectioQ^.and Anglo-I^tEn becnmt? almost ut maeuionic 
■8 the work* of Folciigo, or ai> ili« Daeo-Latin of Wallachtii, 
in wliich coiiitlry tlie travelk-i' Wabli was waked Iwfore dawn, 
by the tajMtter of a humblu inn, who was standing over him 
with braiitly-bottlo and glam, and otTcring liira a mominj; 
draught, with thv vlaseto Baliitatioa : ' Viaae aeluutppt. 
Domino ? ' 

In fhct, a macaronic stage seems very often to mark the 
decline of an old literature and language, in oountrivii exposed 

Llct. V. uuTuns or LAKGUAOEa S4.9 

to powerful foreign infliieoces. We find examples of Latinisma 
in Byzantine Greek, and of Hellenisms in the decay of classic 
Latin. Auaonius — not the last lawyer who has exchangtd the 
bar for the chair — introduces Greek vocables into his veraew, 
aud, in hia twelfth epistle, after saying, in hybrid words, that he 
has wasted time enough in arguing causes in the Common Fleoa 
and in Bank, and in delivering lectures on rhetoric : 

Jam eatis, J ^iXc [lavXc, iroiuv imtirtiplfirifiiy, 
Ev Tt t(Vifi cailSnic Tt tni iagrataiat caCtfpuic, 
'Pqropituic lu^Diai, &c. &c. 

he invit«8 bis friend Faulus to visit him and share with him a 
bottle of veritable Chateau Margaux, which he calls : 

rinrap vinnio bonoio. 

The English political poem oldest in subject, if not in date, 
cont^ned in the Camden Society's volume, is a satire upon the 
Emperor, or King of Almaigne. It is as follows": — 

[Ma Hurl No. 2253, Fol. ABto, of the roign of Edirari IL] 

Ktteth atle stille ant herkneth to me: 
The Kyn of Alemaigiie, hi mi leaut^, 
Thritti thouBent pound ajik^du he 
For te make the peea in the coimtn!, 
ant HO lie dudi; luure. 
Richard, thah thou be ever tricliard, 
trichen abalt thou never more. 

Bicbard of Alemaigne, whil that he wea kyng, 
• ■•••• 

Haveth he nout of Walingford O ferlyng ^— 
Let him babbe, ase he brew, bale to dryng, 
niaugre Wyndesore. 
Kichard, thah thou be evur, etc. 

The Kyng of Alemaigne wende do ful wd, 
He susede the mulne for a castel, 

250 POLITIOAL eONQS be*. T. 

With liare shnrpo swerdea he grounde the Bt«l, 
Uo wcnile that the sayles were mangonel 
to hclpe Wyndeaore. 
Kichitrd. etc 

The Kyng of Alcmaigne gednrodo jb host, 
Makcdc him a caRtel of a mulne post, 
Wende with is prude ant is muchclo hott, 
Brohte from Alemayne mony aori goet 
to store Wyndcsore. 
Richard, etc 

By God, tliat ia aboven oua, he dude muche i^nne, 
That lotte passen over cee the Erl of Waiynce: 
ITe hatli rubbod Engelond, the morcx, ant th[e] fenM^ 
The gold, ant th» nelver, out y-boren hcnno, 
for love of Wyndusore. 
Richard, etc. 

Bire Simond de Mountfort hath «worebi ys chyi^ 
Uevcdo he nou here tlio Erl of Waryn, 
Shulde lie never more come to is yn, 
Ne with Bhcld, ne with apere, ne with other gjn| 
to help of Wyndouore. 
Richard, etc. 

Sire Siinond do Afontfort hath suore hi ya oof^ 
Hevedc he nou here Sire Hue de Bigot, 
Al he ahulde quite here twelfmoncth sco^ 
Shulde he never more with hia fot pot 
to helpo WyndeBore. 
Richard, etc 

Be tlic lucf, bo the loht, mre Edward, 
Thou shall ride eporoled o thy lyard 
Al the r}'hte way to Dovere word; 
Shall thou never more brcke fore-ward, 
ant that roweth »ore : 
Edward, thou dudesl ase a shreward, 

fontoke thya emea lore. 
Richard, etc 

Early English satirists by no means confined themselvea to 
censuring political abuses, and in tbeir complaints of the cor- 

I*CT. V. 



ntption of the Cliurcli the; show » IkiMdcm woriliy of tlio 
martjr nge of the Reformation. The Latin poems of tbia clstsa 
Bin pari iciilat-Iy itevere, and they are often written in a ttme of 
mournful seriooaness, which is not li kclj to have been employed 
except by ecclesiastics who deeply felt the degradation to which 
their profession ws8 reduced, by tho di-pmvity of th« higher 
classes of the clergy. Somt of the Eujjfltxh songs on this 
Fu)>je«t are full of curiotu infomia.lioa both on the relations 
between the clergy nod the laityi and on the liabitual mode^ of 
life of tho middling and lower classes of the people. The 
following is the commencement of a long poem, oontained io 
the rolttme I have so often referred to* 

Wbh "wotc and wralce in londe and manxlauhl is i-ooms^ 
Whii bmiQier md derthe on eonlie tlie pore bnth iindemoDU^ 
Whii besMa ben ibua nlarve, wliii com Iiath ben co dert^ 
je ibat wolen abidf^ liatnetb and je muwcn here 

the Hkil& 
I ndle lijen for no man, borlcne who co wile. 

God grrtcth wcl llie dergie, and ndth ibcih don amis, 
And doth hem to iindcntandi; lliat litd treuthe thrr is; 
Par at tlie court of Bomv, tlier lr«uthi: sholdc bigtnnc^ 
Him is Ibrboden the palets, dar bo tioht enm ihcrinne 

for duure ; 
And thanh the pope depe him io, y.t alial be sloude tberoota. 

AUs iIm popes dcrkes bsn taken hem to red, 
If tientlie ccnao amongcs hem, that ht^ nhal be dod. 
Tbcre dar he oolit iihctri-n liim lor donlc to be ilnio, 
Among &ODU of the cardinaus dar ho noht be (cio, 

for fcerd, 
ITSj'taoale may mete wid him he wole shaken hi* bcri 

Toix of clerk baietdc i-hcrd at the coart of Rome ; 
Ne were be nerore swich a clerk, silveilcs if be com^ 
Tbouh be were the wiseste Oiat ex-ere vru i-bom, 
But if be Bwvte ar he gt^ al hts WC}'e ia lom 

Or h» «bal iinge W didero, oc al geineth him aofal. 




Fm- irilivre be in oMinlra nn 1>orrling. n direir^ 

Imi him corns to tlic conn hiw ti«<lct fS>r to iilirire, 

A&<l bring)' wid liini mIvct and non ocIit wnl, 

B« he Mcvure iki muclitl m wrtvclip, liiw? nnlni nholcn be «pcda 

fill <lJIIe, 
For Corojrtue idiI Sj^monic tiui thu wcrld (o (ri]l& 

Akh erchebiiUiop nml bb^op, Hat oiihto for to «niquen 
Offalo men nfliuli churchv of whut lif ihrih were, 
Siimnio ht'ih fi'lw tx-mMlf, nnd lm\ra n »ojy lif, 
Therforc dorco liii noht tpdtc <br ruing of xtrif 

thurvr d«H:c«, 
And that crerich btwrcicd otHcr of hnv wrccchvde weilte^ 

Bui oerto lioli elmrcbc la mudtcl {•brouht llwrr doune,* 
SiibtliMi Seiiil Tbomns wsa iiLuiii and Hiiltca of UU croun«b 
lie waa a pil«r arJht to lioldt'ii up liolt clmrdic, 
Thtae odi«re ben (o aloUNe, and fuiniclicbc kunncn woicba^ 

TheTlbr« in holi churchc hit &relh the more ami& 

But ercri man maj «d l>wlio, irltu bo lalcc jeiae. 
That no moq mny vrel mtvc twnic lordea to queaie. 
Sununc beib m ofico wid ibc kin];, and giideren trctor to liepd, 
And the OnuuchUe of holi fihurobe hU laurn ligge alepe 

AI to manye tli«r both airidwi if liit were Godca iri]lQ. 

The feeling or conttctous national life, irhich bad lieco 
nvrnkciioo) by the Baroits' WuiVi scvms to have liccn much less 
frci-ly iitanifisctcs] iu tie cnrlj part of IImj fonrti-wiHi oenttiry, 
and in fact to htve become simrmt dormant, for a coti&idemlde 
tame before the French wars of Edward III. roui^cd it again to 
a long and vigorotis activity. Tliu Tolumi.'S of politicul puema 
of the reign of Ivlwnrd Ilf., which form a part of *he scries 
of Clironiclea and Memorials of Great Britain and Ireland, do 
Dot' ooDtain a single Knglfsli itong older tlian thoae of Lawrence 
Minot, which were wriltea after the year 1330. 

The various coUectiotut of poetry belonging to the first age 
of EugUeli Utciatur^ which tho philological wal of achoUn 

IJxrr. T. LTBIO 70EIBT 253 

has lately given to the world, contaia many descriptive, amatory, 
and religious songs of no inconsiderable merit. I select the 
fuliiiwing from the Specimens of Lyric Poetry composed in 
England in the reign of Edward I., published l-j the Percy 

With longyng y am lad, 
On molde y woxe mad, 

a maide luarreth me; 
Y grede, y grone, un-glad. 
For Relden y am sad 

that Bcmly forte eg; 

levedi, thou rewe me, 
To rouihc thou liavest me rad ; 
Be bote of that y bad, 

My lyf is long on the. 

Levedy, of alle londe 
Lea me out of bonde, 

broht ii;haia in wo, 
Have resting oa honde, 
Ant sent thou me thi Goiide, 

Bone, or thou me sloj 

my reste is with the ro: 
Thah men to nie linn onde. 
To love nuly noht wondc, 

ne lete tur non of tho. 

Levedi, with a! my miht 
My love is on the liht, 

to menske when y may; 
Thou rew ant red me ryht, 
To dethe thou havest me diht, 

y deje longe er my day ; 

thou leve upon mi lay. 
Treuthe ichave the plyht, 
To doR that ich have hyht, 

whil mi lif leste may, 

Ly!ie-whyt hue ia, 
Hire rodu ho rose on lya, 
that rcveth me mi reib 


Wynimon war ant wys, 

Of prude but bereth tbe prii^ 

burde od of the best; 

tbis woramoQ wouetb hj wot, 
Bribtest under byR, 
Uevene y tclde tii hia 

Thut o nybt were hire gesL 

Lhkten jb come witb loTe to tonnfl, 
Wjib blosmcn ant with briddea rotm% 

that al this blisae brTngeth; 
Dnycs-e^cB id tbis dalea, 
Notes Buctc of nyhtt^Ies, 

uch foul song eingcth. 
Tbc ihrecidcoc him tliretetb oo, 
A-way is hucre wyntei wo, 

when wodprove springethi 
This foules Bingclh ferly fele, 
Ant wlytcth on butre wynter wele, 

that al tbe wodc ryngeth. 

Tbu rose raylcth hii'e rode, 
Tbc Icvea on ibc lylbe woda 

waxen al witb wille ; 
The mone mandetb bire bleOp 
Tbe lilic is lossom to eeo, 

the fenyl ant tbe fille; 
Wowcs this wilde drakes, 
Miles mut^eth htiere makes, 

asc strem tbnt strikftb Btillef 
Mody mcneth, bo doh mo, 
Icbot ycbam on of tho, 

for ]ove tbat likce ilia. 
Tbe mone mandelb bire lyht, 
60 dotb the seraly sonne biyht, 

when briddes singctb brema; 
Beowes donketb the dounea, 
I}eore!) witb hiierc deroe rouneB^ 

domes forte deme; 
Wormcs wnwerh under cloude, 
Wynimcn waxetb wounder prouda^ 

hma. T. LXBIO FOETBT 250 

■0 well bit wo] hem seme, 
{ef me ehal woate wille ot'on, 
This wnruie weole y wole tbr-gon, 

uit wyht in wode be fleme. 

Wyktee wateneth al my care, 

Mou this leves waseth bare, , 

Ofte y Bike ant mourne eare, 

When hit cometh in my thoht 

Of this worldes joie, hou hit goth al to nc^L 

Now hit is, ant now hit nya. 

Also hit ner nere y-wys, 

That muni mon Kitli soth his ya, 
Al goth bote Godcs willc, 
Alie we shule deye, thath ns tike yU& 

Al that gren me graucth grene, 
Non hit faleweth al by-dene; 
Jlienu, help tliat hit be aene, 

And shild ua from helle, 

For y not whider y ahal, ne Hon longe her duells. 

Jesu, for thi muchcic mihl, 

thon jef ua of thi grace, 
lliat we mowc dai ant nyht 

thtnken o thi face. 
In myn herte Itit doth me god. 
When y thenke on Jeau blod, 

that ran doun bi ya ayde, 
From hia bene doun to hia fot, 
For ouB he spradde is herte blod* 

his wondes were eo wyde. 

When y thenke on Jheau ded, 
min herto over-werpee, 

Mi Boulc is won so is the led 
for my foln werkea. 

Fol wo is thnt ilke man, 

That Jhesa dt-d ne tbenkes on. 

256 tTBtO POITST Iwt. T 

irhftl he aofn«(Ie so Mr«I 
For my tyaaee y wil wew. 
Ant alle y wylc hem for-ltiM 

□ou aiit evermore. 

Moa that is in joie ant blis, 

ant lith in shame ant ^nn^ 
He ia more tlion un-wiii 

thnt ther-of nul nout blynna. 
Al tliis world hit guth a-way, 
Ue thynkcth bit ou^yth tt<imcsday, 

nou man gos to gnjimUe; 
Jhesu CvJMt tiiat tlioicdc (led, 
lie may ourc eoutoB to hercne led, 

witbinnc a lutcl etoundo. 

Thah thou have al tlii willc, 

tlienk on Goi!<'s wondcs, 
For that we nc shuldp Kpille^ 

he tholedc hnrdc Htouiidmj 
Al for mon he thulcde dcd, 
jyf be wyle leve on is red, 

ant leve his folie, 
We tJiiile have joie ant Wis, 
Uori; tlian wc cuntie sc-icn y-wya 

in Jcsu coinpngnie. 

Jhemi, ihat wea milde ant fre, 

wea with spcre y-Htonge; 
He wnH nailed to the trc, 

with scourgen y-swongcn. 
Al ftii- mon he tholede iijiame, 
Withoutpn gnlt, withoutcn blain*) 

bothc dny ant other. 
Mon, ful nmeliel he lovcdc tha, 
When he woldc make (he fire, 

■nt bicome thi brother. 

Ucr. V. 


Tbe origin of diiuigw in inBoctton am very HMotn he Imccd, bocniut 
thej origii^oi^i in populnr spctxih, mnd ore not odoplnl l>^ the nrritii^ 
tongiK until the modv uitA occtiston of ihi'ir inlroilnciicn ■> rorgolh-Ji ; 
bai in caaco where t}i« nKlirv baa hcva brought into ctwilact iriUi a 
iorn!|7Ti Inngouf^v wv tim oRcn »cc buvr n new Icndvncv nii;rltt hare 
hera crcalial, or an cxisliiig one Hlreiipllnniwl, loward* ■ nivoluliun in 
■ [lurticubr direction. L«t us lake tliQ ow vf llM old verbal plural in 
-tn. Ttic Anglo-SaxoD plural indicalirc prcwnl, an we bavc alreadv 
•een. aided in M, m ttmt imrtcnd of ire Un-e, cr we Unen, the Sazona 
Mid wc lufldf A, with tlie mmi; cottumnnml ending ns in t1i« aingiilar, 
Iir Itaf-alh. The jmt ici>s« of ibn indic-itirc, aa w« luf<D(/on, k4 
lottd, and of both tenths of tlx.- nubjunptiri?. aa wv luf-ion, that uv 
niuy tow, we ^^xi-odo^^, thai kv ui'yAf lout, alwav* riwled in -on. 
But tlimigli ihu prctenl iodicatiirv i>tur«I ol'all n.-{;iilur vpxti» undcd in 
(A, all tli« fcnii-auxiliancH, exo-pt willan, to will, niadv tLc plural in 
on, and llw Anglo-Sax^na taid wc willaiA, k* will, but, at tlw 
rante linut, wc ncoulan, w« mngon, we cunnon, we inoton, for 
tct fhall, ire way, \et can, <ce must. 

Tbe Nortnnn-Krcndi, WVf. mwU-m Fmicb, made the fiwt pi-r»on 
plaral, in all an*-*, in ons — ihr. * b<'iii(r probably r^kiit aa it iivr i> — 
and mid niina aimcnti, m love. Tbis tcnnination, tiKiugb a nua), 
borcAconnderable rc^'inblance to tlw fiaxon plumi in on. There waa, 
then, aconuDMi point !n whicli tlie two langui^nt ooDcnrred. Tbe 
frtnchman ccnild not pronounce the th, and a% the two natioDs had 

T««d to adopt f, the nearr^t approxiiaaiioii a Konuun couK) make to 
"the aound of Ih, a* ili« jign of tlie third perarn aii^ular of thr virb, 
it was V(Ty naiiiral that \\wy i4K>nld «iiii'lov the t\ga on, which wa« 
coinmoD to both, a* the nign of itic 

The Saxon ending on wax not accented, and the vowel ww pro- 
bably nuraewbai vWun-lT articulated, like tlic t, in the modcra icnni- 
tuition ea, in tlie virib hai-den and olbunof ilmt endiug. Thew cir» 
cuiu»iances tend lo explain why wc find tbe pluni of the indKativG 
jmc^nr in tite Onnulum with ihe ending in en inaicnd <4lk. Tlua 
aoon bcciimu tlie rf|tular fnnii in English, and thi» m* ibc fin«t «ep of 
pifgrrm lo the modcTO di.ilcct, in which wc liave dropped the plund 
ending altogether, j[iring it, in nil tlie perwn% the wine f-"- '■ -iie 
firM pewoo nnguhir. Thua we «t, I tove, anil wc tort, ym 




Ion, wliile eailjr Englu^ writrn laid : I tovt, bnt n« loe«n, ]roa /ocvn. 

In modem Frvncb, and there is ernj rcflMin to briiorc tn OH 
Ncnniiii-Fn.-nch bIm>, tli« llire« pcnuni cf ll»! iiiii)niiiir mai the tlitnl 
pcraon of tbi^ plural of Ui« verb, ibough (be Iiilltr lutt an adilitioiul 
i^lbbk in writing, ara praioanced alike, tlie urrmiiul sellable being 
■itent In speech; for the pluml aiment is pronixiiiccd atme, jiiM 
like ibeungiiUr, aimc. Of th<? nx perwDs, KJngoUr and plunl. llii> 
French pronounce fnar oliki-, njcMing tho plural ending em alto- 
gether, and thi* bet prohalJj- conlribiitRd tn fiicililntv the dropping 
of tlie new Engliiili plural i-nding in n, which did not long remain in 

Anolh<^ new form ofexpteiajua firat exemplific*!, «o fiir as I know, 
in the tItirteeiilU cwiliirj-, iit ihe uw ot the plural pronoun imtriid of 
lh« singular, in uddi«»ing n Miiglo jwnon. 1 do not oIjm^ii-c thii uiie 
of ilie pronoun in contcmponineoiw French, nor in any of thv Northern 
Gothic langungeii, but it was olmdj common in Dutch, and it is poa- 
sible tlutl <lic English borrowrd it Irom that source. Noi ninny English 
words or forms arc derived fivmi tltc Diileli, but Chaucer quotes m 
F!cmi«h prorcrb, and one of the wonJn nccnrring in ii, qand or ^noe^ ■ 
bad, evil, is found in the Owl nod Ntghlingslr, the t^rtcts I'aallcr, i 
wi^ll as in ullicT early Eiiglbii writcn^ liidine, ton, comnion in old 
ballads, oocura in the Stirtcea Ptallf'r.* ThcM; wontu sre not Anglo- 
Saxon, and OS tltvy were probably laki-n Irom tht- Dutch, oilier worda 
and forms may have been receired from the santc languoge. 

But though the pinral pronoun was tlius early applied U> ali^l« pcr> 
•ons, t}ie complete separation of the two, and the conllnvment of tl)«i 
singulsr Ihou to the ix'ligioiw iiin|r*f, nnj veiy mucli Inifr. Tlier aevm 
to have be«i employed iiidiscriniiniiti-Iy Ibr smral n-ntxries, and in 
the Morlc d'Arthnr, printed in lJKi>, thim and you, iky and your orv 
constantly occurnr^ In the nune sentence and addnencd to one nnd 
dieiune person. 

* Bof il*(ep«r, io his 6reed(T« suriclMBinfceD oji Vvlk Stok*^ I, KT, sxaininM ' 
lbs etymobisy (^ bid*on st canaidCTabls Irngtii. It is a MmpooEd of iht 
|«HkU by Bii'lUin ilcRifnuintiTn pooniTnii: bj diea, the primiti'rw tncaio^ 
beliift, ArrtAfi. Ihcrmpon, and benca. tatmtdiattlj/. luditn nod atlllm (mtt 
iUtjh) are ooaiinoiL S», Hinle Clmsttiia, 4:!. Stft, SAT, »13, UTS, ;10O abo 
Bebuert, OI<a*. Vtdi. 




We uo uow to enter on a n«w pbUulngical and literary era, an 
era in wliHi EngliHh genius first acquired a sclf-consciovis in- 
dividuality, and liie Eaglish language and its titerattire dia> 
entangled theniselTes from tlie confusion in which the conflict^ 
ittg authority of Saion precedent and French example had 
involred them. In this second period, the speech of England 
became, no longer an ill-a^sorted inisturc of discordant in- 
grodieot*, but na Ofganic couihinatlon of well aniniilatod, though 
beterogeneooa elements, aDimatcd hy a law of life, and endowed 
with a vigour of constitution which has giTen it a luxuriant 
youth and a healthful manhood, »nd still promises it a length 
of days m great, an expansion as wide, as hu-ve fidlen to the 
lot of any of the tongues of man. 

ConsidRring Engliab, then, lU' primarily atwl radically a Gothic 
gp«e<ih, inT»tod with anew asjiect, and iiuipEred with anew 
life hy Romance influences — juat as animalii are ao modified, 
is hahits, instincts, size and specific characteristics, by changes 
of nutriment, climate, and other ontwnnl cireumatanoes, that 
the nosdentlfic observer hnitatcs to recognise them a« still 
belon^ng to the primitive stock — let us inquire for a moment 
into the nature of the action hy which extental fnoes could 
produce such important revolutions. 

There arc two principal modes in which foreign conquest 
bbI forvign indueace alfect langua^ The first and moet 

■ s 



LvT. n. 

obTiouA is, by tbe introduction of f^vign wonlf, {diom^ uid 
t;rammalical forms, whidi nui; bo carried far witliout any vciy 
ufiprt-nnblv vitecl upon tlie mdioal cbaract?r of the lao^ 
nr iipoi) tlie spirit of the people nbo i»e it. Tbe other i|3 
tbe more slowly and obscurely roaaifort«d action of new iunti- 
tulions, Inws, and opiiiiom^ upon the iiit<.-llcctual rooatitutimi 
and habits of thought of tlifi people, and, indtrccily, upou ths 
lii]{ical structure of tbe language as the vehicle of tbe lOCft: 
sion of tbe national mint) and character. 

Wc should supjjow, k priori, tlial the first influence of a 
cultivated language, emploj-^d by a conqneriiig pvopic, upon 
the Ices advancwl spw-ch of o ruder subject rwe, would be to 
denationalise Its vocabuUiry by tbe intri>duction of n large 
number of foreign vrord^, and that syntnctival cbnnges wonld 
be alowcr in findin'* their w.iy into tbe granunar; but tli« 
hifltory of the mo<leni Inn^ia^es known in liUsrature secroa xo 
show that this i.« not universally the cue. 

1 have alrea<iy mentionwl the curious inrcrsion of periodic 
nrrnngemuiit which the Turkiih hn< produced in tiie modem 
Armenian, without much ^tffccting the vocabulary ; and 1 have 
given reasons for ludievinjr tl>at bntli JIccso^Gothio aad Anglc»- 
Saxon were infliK'ni:<:<l, in C4>rtain points of tlieir grwnmnr, by 
Greek an<l I^liu syntax. The Gothic languages, which seem 
i/} have modi6ed the Etructuro of tbe Romance dialects, have not 
bestowed upon th^m any very ihrgv proportion of Northern 
words; and tb«iii;h the nyntiu of the native speech of England 
underwent important changes between the Nonnan ComjUest and 
the close of the periMt we have ju«t dismisaoil, yet the number of 
Romance wordb which had been nnturalixcdin England was, tints 
fur, by no means connidenihle. .Vt has been before obserrod, the 
whole numljcr of (in-ck, Latin, and FreurJi wonls found in the 
printed Englisli anlbors of tbe tbirtoontb century, even in- 
cluding those whieb An^lo-Saxon had borrowed from the 
nouiendatore of theology and ethics, ."caroely exceeds om 




tlioasand, or one eighth part of tlic total vocAhulary of thut 
en; anVl in the actual diction of any one KD;{li»h writer of 
tite period ia question, not above one word in twuDty or twenty- 
five is of I^tiu or Itoronncc di-rivutioii. 

Itut while these influences were bo slow and so gradual ia 
their opcistion on the lexical chai»ctcr of Englifih, moral caiuea 
were at work, which, at the critical tuumcilt, gave nev eoeigj to 
the aaaimilative power of tlio Euglisfa tongue, and when the 
craving for a inor« geiterous intellectual diet vras distinctly felt, 
nnd Inrger facilities were deinande<i, English suddenly enriched 
itself by a -j^cat accession of i.atiD and Koninncc wonin. It is a 
remarkable fact, us we shall nco more fully hereafter, that at the 
rery tnoment when it wiu luituriklixinjr tluA foreign element with 
the greatest rapidity, it aiserted most t-uergetically its gram- 
matical indepondenoe, and manifested a tendency to tlio 
revival of Aii^lo-Saxon fiyntactioil fonns wbieb bad beooma 
well-ni^i obsolete. 

Hitherto, change bad been principally in the way of ditor- 
ganization, decomposition, but when tlie iuhitbitants of England 
HO longer ounMiitU-d of a eorporutioii of fiireis;ii I<tr<!« tmd ii herd 
of aboriginal scrEii, when a community of interest had grown np 
between the native and the stranger, and mutual sympathies 
were bom, then n new, horoie and geniiil nationality sprang into 
being, revived the Sfiarks tliat yet slitiabered in the a»he« of 
departed Saxondom, and fed them with a fuel horiv>wed alike 
from the half-forgotten stores of native growth and from the 
more abimdunt products of sunny and luxuriant France, 

Romanee words and fornix bad Iteen imposed by foreign 
authority upon a reluctant and onreoeptive speech, the sufficient 
modiura of communication for a people too rude and imculti- 
vatcd to feel its own debasement, anil to know tlie extent of its 
own intellectual doficicacies; hut when revived, or rather new- 
born, Englund awakened to a couscioiuiuess of the want^ which 
mako tiiemselves so imperioudy felt whenever a new national 



Lkt. TL 

life IB derelopi^d, it proceeded to supply thoae wnnU by tlio siim- 
marivBt method?, fioin aJI accesiiblii wtirces. 

Thvnceforwiird^ to use the coniparisoa of Sl Jerome, tl seized 
nnd Appropriated foreign words as a cocqueror, — do longer tm- 
willingly received and bore tb&o la a bodge of servitude to an 
aticQ yoke. 

English, OS dirtingnislicd from Ai^lo-Saxon, thus far caa 
liardly be sail to hare gained otlier than a negative existenee, 
for it bud lost tbe formal diaracteristies of the old speech, and 
had not yet acquired tbe shape or spirit of the new. The 
Fpoken and writteo dialect was but a cornipt^xl and denaturalized 
jaj]gon, or rather coogcrica of jargons, for every durtrict bad it« 
local potoi* which was broadly diMinguished from the speech of 
other shireii. The necessities of social and political life, indeed, 
compelled the occairional employment of these native dialects in 
written commtinication, by perKtns whose scholastic trainiag 
WM Latin or French ; but until tbe close of tbe thirteenth 
century, there was bo indigenous public which possessed a 
written vernacular, to any such extent as to be accessible to 
literary influcQceii. For all the purpo«cti of common national 
culture, therefore, English may bo regarded as still un- 

I have before remarked that the popular ballads, which ex- 
isted in local dialects, did not constjtute a literature, and that 
England had no peculiar literature of her own till after the 
middle of the fourt.oenth 0(^'ntury. Tlie aum of those who 
epokc the native tongue, of those who lintened to, and even 
those who composed, the popular ballads, were, in all proba- 
bility, wholly ignorant of letters, and for tbcm English existed 
only OS a epokon language Tbe traiiition^t and the legendii, 
thu Iiiillads and the war-«i>ngsi, which float from mouth to 
mouth, in any unwritten speech, cannot constitute a literatuFG^ 
for they cannot exLit in lixed and permanent forms. In thv 
retentive memory of tbe humblest clusa of bards and narrator^ 




they may dwell and be repeated for years with little chnngc of 
(brm or anWauL'o. Biitmuiij'uftbe poetical rccitem tiud s:^- 
men ate thein^lvcs creuton, and if memory cliance to fail, or 
if a finer ear or a more itnagiuatiTo t«m))erameQt siif»;cet 
improTemente in the ballad or the story they ri^cit'.-, tlicy will 
not scruple to make verlial or invcutive changes. HeDce every 
bard ia continually moulding and rcmouldiag Iiia lays into 
accordance with hia habitual tastes and eentimenu, or with the 
changeful temper which the bumour of the moment may 
itupire. The leading facts, the raw material, may remuia the 
same, but tbt- poim or the saga, so lont; om it ia unrecorded, will 
continually appear and reappi-ar in a new dress, a new phraseo- 
'"?>■( and often in a new prcdomiDant strain of imagery, of 
tiiought or of Hcntimcnt. 

Now, conntaiit peuuUaritiea of vorbal combination, of prevalent 
tone, and eapedally of the aspect in which the relations between 
man and man, and man and nature, are viewed, cioii«tituto the 
characberistic and caitence of every primitive nutiotial literature, 
and dilTerunce the imaginative creations of one nascent people 
from those of another. They ar« at once the fieah that clothes, 
and the oi^anic principle that animates and individualises the 
intellectual products of all uncultiviited lucea. lu purtiidly civi> 
lized nations, living under similar climatic and other physical 
ooaditions, the subjects will he alike, the leading facta of life 
aeariy identical ; but it is the point of view from which lacL* 
are regarded, the embLllislimeuts of fancy with which they 
arc decorated, that characterize and diKtingiilah the national 
treutiitent of tlieni, or, in other words, the national lit^'mture, 
in ruder periods of associate life. 

Tbo poems and tales of primitive ages turn mainly on the 
material {nterifta of rnen, though the events which aot upon 
those interests may be occasioned by moral aS'ections, passions, 
Or emotions. The moral judgment on facts, and even tha 
exhibitioa of their moral results, the discussion of their bearing 


OD tbe iotcrests of Bocietv, belong to later ages, and to an 
entirely differeot [ibase of literature.* 

Uotil the intellectual productions of rude eras are recorded, 
and preserved in permanent memorials, &) as to afford oppoi- 
tucities for study, comparison, imitation, they will be indi\-idual 
in the moral and the imaginative ck-ment that enters into them ; 
and while they bear the general iikenet* which belongs to all 
the productions of uncultivated races, diSferenced only by the 
special cbamcter of each writer, they will not be marked by the 
liner analo^ries, the subtler contracts, and the nicer shailes of 
colour, which are the result of artificial culture, and which be- 
come, when maile in a certain degree uniform and permanent, 
the characteristics of national geuius. 

The birtU tiT revival of a truly national and peculiar liter^ure 
is generally contemporaneous with an enlargement of the voca- 
bulary, by foreign importation, or by the resuscitation of obsolete 
words of native growth. It is not always easy to say whether 
this exten>:ion of the means of expression is the cause or the 
couHcquence of the conception and familiariEation of new ideas ; 
but, in any event, new thoughts and new words are necessarily 
connected, if not twin-bom. Hence the awakening of a new 
spirit of nationality — which was a result of the French and 
Scotch wars of Edward 111. — the enlargement of the English 
vocabulary, and the impulse to the creation of an original 
English literature, were nearly simultaneous. English scholars, 
though trained as all educated Englishmen thus iar had been, 

• In tliB IccLinilic eagaa, it is rare to find ttoy condpni nation of the arts of 
cmol rioli^in'o in which those narratircs Rl'ound. oml o bloo.)y routiier ia generally 
•poltpn of as aBlorvirfci. a preat uo(. Tims in Njalu, wlii^n Flnsi vai prepariiii; 
to ittnck the sons of SjJill witli Ere and hwohI, lie i-oncpaled his pnrpiwe from hi» 
futbtr<in-1aff II :illr, because he thought llallrwould letia allra itorTirkia, 
prt'Toiit all morder. Morgum Jjolti ^at slorvirlti, intiri;"m |j6tli hann 
harm -dan!<i, it seemed to mnny a p-eat act, to manv his i<epincd u death to be 
regretted, are tho stronesst eipreSBions of disapprobation eommoDly used on 
■nth occaaions. 

It is vorlh ndtidrts that, in the laat cxtunple, harm-d«nEi ia ta si^sctin 
•greeing vith the lubjcct of tte phrase. 

Lkct. TI. 



in fichooli whore ooly French anJ Lotia were pTumoatieilly 
(auglit, liail already become weary of reading cvtu tLe mastsT- 
piecea of Continental genius in a fort-igii gurb, and the tranii- 
luitton of Fn-iicL pminis into tbu untivu Kpixii'h of Knglaad, 
ttivir Dat.iinili7^tion a;* Kngli«li potaessionH, vha the first move- 
Qi«nt in the maDifeetaliun of » new literary life. 

The want of a sufficient DomcDcLature and the convenieiioe 
of rhyme luii) inutre, ua is wry clearly «ceu lu all tl)0 oM^ 
Englbh Tcriiiuns, naturally lixl to the viujiloyment of many 
French words in the tranala,tiou3 ; and in an age when Latin 
and French, or at least the Jattex, were quite as fainiliur U> 
every educated man as English, a considernblu prupurliou of 
French words might, in Kiiglishinir French poi^m*, be intro- 
duced aluiost unconsciously to the translator, and without 
cxcitinK much notice on the part of a reader. Tbo circulation 
of traii.slat<!ii work? was iii> longer confined to the higher classes, 
who hithetto bad aknur etijoyud tiny opporti initios for literary 
cultures About the niiddfe of tlio fourteenth century, schooln 
wcri) est<iblighed in which English was both taught as itself 
on object of Ktiuly, auil employed aa a vehtclu of iuKtructJou 
in other languages and di»ci])lini''S. Wiatcvcr esidted in tite 
English ton^ie, whether hy trnosUtion or by ori^nal compo- 
Bition, now became a part of the j^'enei^ patrimony oi the 
English pvople, and there, ns everywhere else, the Icarniug, the 
poetry, the piiihwophy, which had bwm slowly gathered on the 
eummilti of social life, and had be<:n llie peculiar nutriment of 
fitvoured claxscis now flowed down to a lower level, and r&- 
frexhcd, as with the walcri of a fountain of youth, the humbler 
ranks of the EnglL'ih people. Native poet.-;, composing original 
works in their own tongue, would naturally use the poetic 
diction in which the productions of French literature had been 
clothed in assuming an English drem ; for these were their only 
Temacular models. Hut English rhymers were still generally 
koquuintcd with French, and that language, as we have se«n, 
had already attained a culture which entinoQtIy tilted it for 



Licr. VL 

literary purpose*, and made it, m the I^Ud has nlmiys Wco, a 
atorehuiise of poetic wealth in noida an well aa in tLuiiglit, tutd 
a convenient resource to versificts who were in rain struggling 
to find adcqriat« expression iatlie Tocabutnryof Saxon- HoKlisb. 
Thtr Euglinh middlv dafttea, who w«re now, fur the Hmt time, 
admitted to the enjoyroent of literary pleasure«^ accepted, «• n 
oonaecrated speech, the dialect employed l>y their aulhorR and 
tranalatont, witJiout inquiry into the etymology of its consti- 
tuents, and tliiis, in the ooiirst: of one geueration, a gruntcr 
number of French woitbi were introduced into Eogliab verse, 
and initiated as lawful memWrs of the poetical guild, than in 
tfav Dearly three centurioa which hud vlapeud sinec the Normao 
Coii']iKiit. The foreign matter became thoroughly aisimilated 
ntitrimeut tu the Rp<x;ch, the mind and the heart of the frag^ 
mentary peoples who had now combined iu an entire oi^aaixed 
commonwealth, and though the nowly uloptvd Itomance words 
were not indignooiis, yt-t they were ac)cuowlii)g<Hl and t'ult to he 
H genuine Englifb, na those whose deitceut from the Gothic 
Hock wan moat unequivocaL 

Epictetua ohrcrves, that the sheep, though it cats grass, pro- 
daces not hay but wool. So Euglish writtrit of the iourtccntli 
oentiiry, though they derived their chief int<?t)ectuAl food from 
the fields of Uomaiice literature, conceived, nevertbelesfi, original 
thoughts, imposed new shades and distinctions of meaning on 
the wonls they borrowed, coloured with new hues the images 
drawn friun nature and the reflections prumpttHl by the «pecial 
forms and conditions of English life, uid thus created anew 
litirary substance, which soon became a distinct and indepen- 
dent individuality in the world of Kdters. 

It is a great, but rery widely spread error, to suppose that 
liiB influx of French words Id the fourteeulh century was due 
alone to poetry and other branches of puro litcrulurc. The 
law, which now first became organized into a science, introduced 
Very many fiTma borrowed from tho nomoncliiture of I^tin and 
French jurisprudence; the glass-worker, the cntimelier, the archi- 


tocabulaut or fbosb 


te7t, the t>rnss-fouu(ler, ttie Flemish cloUiier, And the other liiLDtli' 
craftsmen, iniioin Nurni-in taste aad luxuiy inTttitdi, or ilomulio 
oppr(;H)ii>» uxpwllecl from the ConUneat, brotiijlit with tliem tho 
rooibuliiriea of their rt^pcctivo arts ; and ilciiiterranean com- 
merce — which WHS Htinitilatvd by the demant) for English wool, 
then the fiiii,-*l in Kumpo — imported, from the hurbours of a 
Bc<t whi;re Freneh was the predominant language, both new 
articles of merchandize and the French dcsii^ontioii^ of them. 

The sdcnoea too, medicine, phyaicr, gc(><;raphy, alchemy, 
astFolo^O*) All of which became known to England chicily through 
French channel.'', added numerotiii npedfic terms to the exieiting 
Tocahulary, and very many of the words, first employed ia 
English writings na a part of the tecboical pbiascolo;;^ of these 
variouB arts and kuowk-d^OH, soon passed into the domain of 
common life, in modilied or uutechnicol scnse^ nnd tbua 
hecome incorporated into the general tongue of society and 
of hookft. 

The poets, so far bom cwrupting English by a too lar]ge 
infuaion of French word«^ were in truth nwfrved in tlio em- 
ployment of such, and, when not const rain ei) by the necfwtities 
of rhyme, evideatly preferred, if not a atrietly Anglo-Suxon 
dietioo, at least a dialect composed of words which uae hwl 
already familiarized to the English )>eople. 

The tntth of this position, which has been overlooked in the 
great msKs of uncritical auimadveriiion on tiie English hingiiago 
of the fourteenth century, will be at onee made sppareut by 
an examination of the dialect of the pixwe writers of that era, 
and of those poems which are addressed to the least reRnod 
dimes, and employ the h-otit oruate aad most simple aad intel- 
ligible dtdlon. 

As tbU is an unfamiliar view of the subject, and tts it if a 
point of interest and importance in tbc hiBton,- of Knglisb 
philology, it may be worth while to derote a little time and 
space to the special consideration of it. Sir John Mtitidcvillo 
is generally coD^idercd tho oorUcst prose writer of the second 


■in joim UA:«i>Bni4.r 




period of KnglUh literature and philology. Manderille led En; 
land in the jL-nr 13'i:i, ondspcQl many years iu txavel, principally 
in Orittntal cimnlrict. After his rt^tiini to hiii native land, h« 
dtvw up, iu the yciu- 13SG, an account of hin obcerratJone, in 
T^atiQ, and, to use his owu words, ' put this boke out of Lntya 
into I-'reoschc, and translated it ^en out of FFea-tcbe into 
Englyracbe, that orery loaQ of my Nadoun may imdots 
staode iU' * 

Tlic manuscripts of llfaiiduvillc, in tho tbroo lan^inges 
which bio travels apficarvd. are m> uiituoroux that iiolli 
Kays: *I will undertake U>iay that, of no book, will) the vxcvp* 
UoQ of tlie .Scripture*, can rooro nmniiscriptfi be fouad, of th« 
er»d of tlio fourteenth and fac^'inniui* of the filtccuth ccalurica,' 
and thcr« aro nn U-«k thfui Dinc-tocn mpios in tbc British 
Miucum aloii«. .Six of t\>*iita an? in ICiiglinb, and titi^m arc few 
grvat public or private libraries in England which do not cod* 
tain ono or more manugcriptx of tiiis author, in the vernacular 
tongue. This fact prove^u Tcry wido cin^ilation of tbo book, 
and of courMi that its dialect wiut readily itilolii^'iblotathe great 
iDOff of EDgtishH^Kaking people. Although tJio stylo and 
grammatical iitructure of Mandoville are idiomatic, yet thu p 
portion of words of Latin niid French origin employed by hi 
in his straiRbtfomunl, uiipouticiil, and unadorned narrative. 

* OinJn mil*r<< or MunlsTille Imiw oA<a nDilcntood Uia m iv|inEawnti 
Hut h« ipiat th« inlftml bttwfcn 1313 oiil lUO •bnwL Bat Ibt* ha dim 
Mjr. AftM MaliiiB, |k 310 of Uif rrpriut of 1S3&, that hu 'departed from oi 
Oontrtni atuj [iMM>d tho Bn, tlia Znr at Qmer 1313,' k* ^Ut, • ii«v I 
tooun linm (mmrgnM 1117 wl/) to ivtco ; for (iuwtMi Artoijrkoi^ that mo diii 
nun. llio (linjDcn Itiu piiilv of »ij lalwiir, asriwl mj will? (God knontbr). 
Ihuit Ukjng- SoIdm ia mj wncdfaeil tmI*. rMonljiigc tbc tyme pauid, t hx 
fylAOrd tbcuo thiagc* tad ptUe ham wiyUoi ia llii* bok«, u tt wMo conw in to 
m; mjadi^ tho Zmt oT Qno* ISM in Ih* M Ztw Uat I dcpaiud* boat ourr 

U Manilvrills had iMt (pvot • ci>a«ld*n)iln lima (n Eoftbod ■fUr Us 
uA Ixforr writing hit Invpli, it. i» c|uit* impowiblr (hat hi* Eagliah *hoatd 
be«n to iJismalic. An alm'ii[v<if (Tiirt^-finr ;«ux at ■ period wlini tho En|;IJi _ 
tufoiiiii WW tn ao luuUMc a atiilr. Would luv« left him ht behdad th» •rtnat 
MsdUJoD «f Itu ifMcb at bia ntiink 


Leer. Tt 

Sib joh:* uahdbtillx 


greater than that found in the works of Langlanilc, Cliaucor, 
Gower, or any other Eogli'sli pnet of tbitt ocntury. lu ttie 
Prologue, which, liesidoJi proper a»nies and Latin c^uotations, 
contnins something lewi than twelve hundred vords, more than 
one hundred and thirty, or eleven per ccnt^ arc of Ijatin or 
French origin, and of these, the following thirty are new to 
KiigUsb, or nt least not found in the printed literature 
of tlic preceding u^nttiry: — iuwenibly> because, comprehend, 
conquer, certain, environ, excellent, former (noun), frailty, 
glorious, glory, iuflame, inumhcr (inumhratc), moisten, nation, 
people, pbiloso(>her, piuinly, proclaim, promiwe, pronounce, 
provincci publish, reconcile, redress, sutiject, tr-mporal, transJate, 
trcapaseer, visit. The new words aro relatively more numerous 
in the Prologue ttiiin in the rest of the work, but the Latin and 
Romance are nor. in larger proportion than !n the Uiinative 
generally. I find, however, in chapters i., ii., iii., x»., xxii^ 
the following words of that character, which aro not in 
Coleridge's Oloeitarial Index: — abMaiii, uhimdant, ambaMador, 
Miointi apparel, appear, appraize, array, ntlcndant-e, benefice, 
benignly, bestial, mlnilation, cause, oliaplet, elicrisli, circum- 
cision, claim, clartv 0'S'iO> command (verb), comparison, eoo- 
tiniially, contrartous, contmry, convenient, convert, comer, 
cover (in the present ttenKc), cruelty, cubit, curiously, date, 
defend (forbid), degree, deny, deprive^ desert (waste), devoutly, 
diaper, discordant, discover, disfigured, dispeud, dtM^ever, dtver- 
•ity, duchy, enemy, enforce, engender, cetate, estimation, ex- 
amine, faitlifidly, fcrtre (a litter, Lat. ferctram), fiercely, 
fornication, fonndatioo, generation, govontancc, gnm, idol, 
immortal, imprint, incline, inspiration, join, jouc« (rushes), 
letters (alphabetic chnnicterE), Uncage, marquiii, menace, 
minstrelsy, money, monster, mortal, multitude, necessary, 
obedient, obcissant, obstacle, officer, opinion, ordinance, oidi- 
nately, orient, ostrich, outrageously, paper, posture, pearl, peich 
(a pole), perfectly, profitable, promise (noun), proper (o%ii), 
province, purple, quantity, rebellion, receive, region, relation. 



l4XT. VL 

religious, rehira, reTereml, royally, roynlty, nwlclv, racnunmt, 
•cicnc, search, scripture, servitor, signification, Aimony, Holdicr, 
tulfiim, specialty, spiritual, stranger, subjection, superBcription, 
tnbli-, tompDral, tcstamcot, tbrone (verb}, tiuiDe, titlo (iii- 
Bcriplintt), title (right), nnction, iBury. value, rary, vaiilteJ, 
Tease), vicar, victory, vulture ; oiie hundred and forty-four in all. 
We find, thsn, in the Prologue and these five chapters, ithich 
make about an eighth oftliu volume, one hundred and seventy- 
four Latin and Itomance word^ not met vitli m tho printed 
littrrntitre of the thirt<wnth c<tntiiry. If we inippoce tbo re- 
mainder of the Ixwk to contain aa many in proportion, we 
Bhould have, in a single worl; of one writer, an addition of 
about fourteen htmdred worda of tlic Latin ittwk to the voca- 
bulary of the previous century. It i* indf«d probable that the 
nncxnniined chapter" of -Mandcvillc might yield fewer new 
words, but aa other authors of the first half of the foiirtwnth 
ecntuiy contain many vociihles not found in that writer, n-e 
arc certainly wife in Mying tliat between 1300 and 1S50 ac 
many Latin and French words were introduced into the English 
lan^tage as in the whole period of more than two centurira 
which had elnpsed hetwoen the ConquOKt a&d the beginning of 
the fourteenth century. 

It wn«, then, the common neceaeitiea of the people, the 
esfMtntLal deficiencies of the remnnnt of Anglo-Saxon which 
now con<>lituted the vernacular of England — and which, in its 
dehnsed estate, had lost its character of a flexible, an expre-^sive 
and a multifarious Kpvecb — that oceaaoned the incorponttton of 
K> many Itomtinoc wordti into tlie English langiiap* ; and poetry 
is guiltless of tlie charge of having corrupted the simplicity and 
purily of the native tongue. 

The English of Mandevillc, with few exceptions, heloufrs to a 
more advancml utagft of pro'^ss than that of Robert of fllou- 
oestcr, and the proportion of Romance wonis in the English 
Tocabulaiy seems to have been (tiiddenly increased in our 
AuUior'a tim^ and in all probability mora by the popularity o( 

Lan. VL 

ent Joa!« 



bifl works, tban by the inilueiica of any other viiter of ths> 

Although the dialect of Mandeville eshihits the langiu^, 
tipoo the vhok-, inamorvdcTcIopi'dpbaEc thiin Ifac works itf uiiy 
pncediog anthor, there is othorn'i^e notlimg in his volume 
which marks him aa an EnglUhman. It U piimly a record of 
obeerratioDS, and a detail of information gathered from other 
eourres. It poF«!ESC9 no national tone of colouring, and the 
Latin «n<l Fri-nch toxfs might i-qtially well h(»vc been written 
by a Kubjuct of the French or of the Kiiglisli crown. The 
immense popalarity of Man<leville, and the influence hi) 
writingB probably produced npon the language, justify me in 
giving fnlliT extracts from bin fjiivcis thun can bo oflbrdcd for 
authors wboe« philological importance is lefifi, though Ibeit 
literary merits may be greater. 

ran PBOLoars. 

For aU moche m tb«i I.>An<1 bcK'nile the Sfc, ilut is to teye, tlie 
Sloty I.ond, tliat iir.a alien the l^ntid nf Pmmvwnoun, or of Bplic«li\ 
jnuti^ngft nJtc otbcr<! LonileM, i« the ino«t worllij I.onil, mo^t excellent, 
xxad J^Ay and Sorvreya of nllc utliere I^ondcn, and in hlcswd nnd lui!' 

P-^-wtil of ihe precyou.i Body and Blood of ourr I-ord .Ie"U CriM ; in tite 
■^•hiche Lond it lyVtdo Iiim lo lake Flmichc nnd Bltind nf ihr Virgyne 
3Iiirie, 1o enrrrone iliiit holy Lend wilh his Mraw^ir Fcrl ; and there 
9>« wolde of Ilia ble^scdii>;ftte emuiinlin- Ijim in tin- «yd bU-nwd and 
.^gloriouso Virgine Marie, and bvocnie Mmi, and wurehe imiiiy Mvr:icl(.-!i, 
a^jtd pr«^ho and leehc the Feyth^ xnd the I.awe of Crielcni* Mvn luilo 
3its ChiMiYii ; and thern it lylccdo him to Fiiffre uiany Rq>rcTJnge9 and 
^Scomc* for na; and hv thai vstn Kyng nf Ilevene, of V.yr, of Kribe, of 
^S«e nnd of alle ihingM lliat hen ennteyncd in hem, woldi^ n!)e nnW hen 
^crlepod Kyng of tlial Loud, whnn hi- ncjde, Hex sum Jude^rum, thnt in 
•^o tieyuc, I am Kyityo/ Jetit*; and tliat Lwid hecheen lidbie »llc otlu-r 
—^Liondes, as lh«i hcrie and nxjst wortlii Ivuiid. and the rootil veitnoune 
!^ffyond of alle the World ; For it is the lli^ne and ilie myddeti of all ihe 
~^VciTid; wytaeaij-ngc the FhiloMplierc, that wyihe thus; Virint rtrvm 
«~n audio conritlit; That is to seyc, The y<rt«( ojtilngn h fn lie i^ifd- 
'J»; and In that Lcoul be wolde lcd« bis Lyf, and suffirt Fauicuu sad 


Dethe, of Jcwes, for us ; for to bye and to ilolyvere us fitjir. Peynes of 
Hello, nnd from Deihe wiihouten endc ; the wliiclic was ordcjned for 
UH, for the S_viiiie of oure formere Fader Adam, and for oure owne 
Synncs also: For as for himself, he hadde non evyllo desfrved: For he 
tlioiiglite nevi'ro evylle ne dyd evylle; And he that was Kj-ngof Glorie 
and of Joye, myghti-n best in that Place sulTre Dcthe; because he cL&» 
ill that Lond, riithcrc than in ony othcre, there to HutTre hi» Pitasiotin 
and I)is Dcihe : For he that wil pupplinche ony thing to make it openly 
knowen, he wil make it to ben cryed and pronounced in the mydde! 
place of a Town ; bo that the thing that is proclamed and pronounced, 
may evenly Btrccchc to alle Parlies; Kighte bo, he that waa formyoui 
of alle the TVorld, ivolde suffre for us at Jerusalem ; that is tlie myddea 
of the World ; to that endc and cntcnt, that his Passioun and his Dethe, 
that waspupplisclit there, myghle ben knoiven evenly to alle the Partiee 
of the World. See now how dere he boughte Slan, that he made after 
his owne Ymnge, and how dere he azcn boghte us, for the grete Love 
that he hadde to us, and we nevcrc deserved it to him. For more pre- 
cyous Catcllc nc gii'ticr Kansoum, ne myglite lie put for us, than hia 
blesaede Boily, his jnecyous Blood, and his holy Lyf, that he thralled 
fur ua; and alle he oflred for us, iliat nevcre did Synne. A dere God, 
what Love hadde he to us his Subjottes, whan he that nevcre trcapaced, 
■woldc for Trcspassours sufTre Dethc 1 Righle wet oughtc us for to love 
and worsehipe, to drede and scrven suche a Lord ; and to werschipe 
and preyse BUche an holy Lond, lliat broiighle forihe suche Fniyt, 
ihnrghe the whiche every Man is Haved, but it he his owne defaute. 
Wtl may that I-ond bis called delytable and a fnictuoiia Lond, that was 
bebledd and moysled with the prccyouse Blodecf oure Lord Jesu Crist; 
the whielie is the same Lond, that oure Lord behightcn us in Heritage. 
And in that Lond he woldo dye, as seised, for to kve it to us his Child- 
ren. .Wherfore every gode Cristcne Man, that is of Powere, and hathe 
whereof, scljolde peyncn him with all his Strengthe for to conquere 
oure righie Heritage, and chacen out alle the mysbclcevynge 5Ien. For 
wee ben clcpt Ciistcne Men, afire Crist our Fadrc. And zif wee ben 
righte Children of Crist, we otighlo for to chalenge the Heritage, that 
oure Fadre lafte ua, and do it out of helhene Mennes hondes. But 
nowe Piyde, Covetysc and Envj'e han so enflawmcd the Hertes of 
Lordes of the World, that thei are more besy for to disherile here 
Keyghbores, more than for to clialenge or to conquere here righte He- 
ritage before seyd. And the comoun Peple, tliat wolde putte here 
Bodjes and here Catolle, for to conquere oure Heritage, thei may not 
do& it witliouten the Lordes. Far a semblee of Peple withciuten ■ 

Lgct. VL 



ClieTent«7B, or a chief LonJ, is u a Flock of Schc^p vrithoiitun a S(hrp> 
penla i the which dojiBrlclli and (kspnriiVih, and wyicti urrcr whidra 
.to go. Bui wold« (iod, that ih* icmfirircl lAii-tlm and nllo worldly 
I/n'dcswcrm nt godc accord, nnd iriih tlic nontcn I'cpli: wocltJcii uikcn 
thiit boly Vingc over tbo Sec. Thannu I tmwe wcl, thai witliiu a Utyl 
tjrme, ourc nghlii Ilcritngc lidbi'u U}'d tcholtle be Moonsyled aud put 
Id die Hondo) of Oic liglile Hetru ot' Jcsu CruU 

And for tit mcwbe aa it la Icuge tj'me {laastid, tlial ih«r was no g«ii«- 
nOe PaMage no Vyag« over Uie See ; aud niauj' Mvn de(iir«i for to 
her« speke od'the holy Load, and ban thei'ecif (.tct Sola<:« and Comibrt; 
I Jolm Maun<Iev}-U«, Knyght, alio bo it 1 be not worihi, that iras hon 
in Ei^lood, in ibe Tovd of S<yiit An>on«i, pained tha Sec, in the Ze«r 
of our Lord Josu CriM 51CCCXMI, in ilie Day of ScjnC MichcUo; 
and hidro to have bon longu time over the Soc, and have rcya and goa 
ihoTgbe mnnyc djrvrw Londu^ imd manj Province* and Kyngdomua 
and Ilo, and have |<u«Kd tfaorgbc Tnitaryu, Vtneyc, Grmonye the lit- 
ylk and the grctc; iburgbc Lybye, Caldocand agrct partiuof Ethiope; 
ihcvghc Amaxoyiiu, Inde the laooo and the morv, a gret parU«; ami 
thoi^fao out many othere Des, tliat ben ubouti^ Inde ; wb*TS dwellcn 
many dy vetae Folkm, and of dy vutkc Uanca-a and Lawia, atid of dy verse 
Sdiappes of 3X«i. Of vrluehe Lowks and Ilea. I aclialle spdie more 
pleynly beroaftrc And 1 acJialle dvriiw zou nim parltft of lliiiigca that 
there ben, whan time Kvbiilli! ben, aftre it tuay bcit come to my tuyude; 
and apecyally for h(.-ni, tliui iryUe and are in purpoc for to visiti.* the 
Holy Cilue of Jci'uraU'iu, and llie boly Places that are thereaboute. 
And I Khatle telle the Weye, ttiat thci arbuJIc bi>Idrn tbidio. For 1 
have oAen tyniea pwwd aixl r)-den dui way, vritli gode Companye of 
many Lordcs ; God be tbonkcd. 

And ice ichiille tiitijiniinndc, that I hiivc put thia Dnko out of Laiya 
bilo FtMiscbr, mill ITansluIrd it uxen out «f J^n-nrehe into Kng{r*«chc, 
tliat every >[iin of my Naeiuun iii;iy uiic! imiotidu it. But and 
Knyghtea and otbere noble and wurthi Ateii, liiat coinie l^-ayn but 
litylle, and faon beu bosondo the See, knowvu and undiniioodcn, xif [ 
ene in devisyogc, for lorzityiige, or «Uca; tliat Uiu mowe ruOnuiae it 
.and Amende it. For things paawd out of lunge t)'nie Irom a Mamiea 
iii}-nda or from hia syglit, tui7i«n tone into forzL-tynge : B«canw! that 
Idynde of Man no ntay not ben comjirchcntled ce witheholden, for the 
!Pneltec of Mankyndo. 

Feou ff. 137-1S9. 

And th<Tlnre I tcltaltc tcllo xou, what tl>e Sou^lan loIJe me uponi 
ally, b his Chambrc. He tcct v«ydcn uitt of hie Cliaiabre alle 


of men, Lorcica and otherc: for lie woldo Rpcke wltlt me id Cunseille. 
And there lie askcde me, liow tlie Ciistcne men governed hem in oare 
Contree. And I wvde him, liighlewcl: ihonked be God. And he 
scyde me, Treuljche, nay: for zee Crisfene men ne recllicn riglite 
noglite how untrewiy to serve Cod. Zc ncliolde zeven cnsample to the 
lewed pepJe, for lo do wtl; and zee zcveu liem t'iiK;imiiIe to don evylle. 
For the Comown<ra, upon festyluUc dayes, wlian ihei Rchotdi^n gon to 
Chirche to ecrve God, than gon ihoi to TavemcR, and hen there in glo- 
tony, alle the day and a!le nyghte, and eten and drynken, as Beates 
that have ilo I'escmn, and wite not whan thei have y now. And also 
the Criatene men cnforcen hem, in alic manerca that thei mowen, for to 
fighie, and for to deaceyven that on that other. And there with alle 
thei ben ao proude, that thei knowen not how to ben clothed; now 
long, now Khort, now atreyt, now large, now awerded, now daggered, 
and in ailc manere gyaea. Thei scholdcn ben aymple, meke and trewe, 
and fiilie of Almea dede, aa Jheau woa, in whom thei trowe: but thei 
ben alle the contrarie, and evcre enclyned to the Evylle, and to don 
evylle. And ihei ben so covcyloua, that for a lytylle Sylrer, thei sel- 
len here Doughlrea, here Sustren and here owne Wyfea, to pntten hem 
to Leccherie. And on with draweihe the Wif of another: and non of 
hem lioldethe Feytlie to another : but thei dcfouien here Lawe, th&t 
Jlicsii Crist betook hem to kepe, for here Salvaeioiin. And thua for 
here Synnes, hnn tliei loat alle tliia Lond, that wcu holden. For, for 
hire Syunea here God halhc taken h^m in to oiire Hondca, noghtp only 
be Strengths of our aelf, but ft^r here Syimea. For wee knowen wel in 
verry aoihe, that whan zee serve God, God wil heipe zou: and whan 
he ia with zon, no man may be nzeiiBi yon. And that knowe we wcl, 
be oiu-e Pro|jhecyea, that Cristene men achulle wynnen aion this Lond 
out of oure HonJca, whan thei serven God more devoutly. But ala 
ionge ala iliei ben of foulo and of unclcnu L3'vynge, (aa thei ben now) 
wee liave no drede of hem, in no kynde ; for here Goil wil not belpen 
hem in no wiae. And than I asked liiin, how he knew the State of 
Criatene men. And he answerde me, that he knew alle iho state of the 
Comcunea also, be his JIe.«sangoros, that lie sente to alle Londea, in 
inanere as thei weren Marcliaiintes of precyous Stones, of Clothes of 
Gold and of othere thinges; for to knowen the miinere of every Contree 
Amongcs Criatene men. And than he lect clepc in alle tiie Lordea, that 
he made voyden firal out of hia Chambre ; and there he sl hewed me 4, 
that weren gretc Lordea in the Contree, that tolden me of my Contree, 
and ol many othere Cristene Contreea, als wel aa thei had ben of the 
same Contree: and thei spak Frcnsche right« wel; and the Sowdan 

r.Kcr. VL 

POLiTicii. coiiDniott or emiukd 


otwi, when? of I had grti Miarayllc, Alia*! ihnt it i» grcl neUiinilrcto 
pure Fejlb*" aiid li> ^ure 1,awv, wliaii ftilk ihat Xwn with ontrn J^wc, 
•chultc tcprevcn ua and uadci'DeTnto w* ol'mirc Synnci^ Anil tlioi t!u»: 
icholdea ben converted to CriM »nd to tb<t I^vrc cl" Jhiism, Im- oiirc godu 
Entamples And bo nun; ncccplablR Lif to God, aud na cunvu'li'd to tha 
Lnwc «f Jlie*ti Ciint, ben tburgba onrc WykkcdiMyao und urjllc lyrj-tigo, 
fi^ ffo US And Slraungcra fro the boly anil rerry Bc^Imvv, rcbullu lliui 
appclfm n« bbi] lioUleii uh fur wjrklccde Lj'rorta and citm'd. And tieuly 
thia any sotlie. For tUc Snnuunca l>en p/>Ae and ffyihfblle. For tli<fl 
kepen fin^tirly the CSmauudtfuait of tli« Holy Bouk Alkurun, tlial God 
sent* hem b« hiaM«w«g«r Madiomel; W the wU!die, ns tbti ecjoe, 
srynt Gkbriclk the AuDgel ollea ^me tolde the wi]l« of God. 

AUbough tJie dictioB of ^landevUle shows that the Englbh 
language tiud tuadti a rapid ndrauoe within a few yeai'», tuid had 
acquired great coinpasii and Ele:<ibility of expression, tlie lioiir 
for a truly national literature bad not yet struck. But it wa« 
nigh at hand, and the blind struggles of the yet unconscJoua 
English intilk-rt, luid thu inutcriul and social wants of the 
Englieb pir^pk-, vrvre projiariug u fittor inudiiun to vinbudjr it, 
wbcoCTCr Knglisb genius should be ready to incarnate itaclf in 
a new and original form. The slow and hard-won conct'ssions, 
which now tho nobles, now the buryesses or civic populations, 
and now, to trotne extent, the ru!>-ti<; clance, had extorted from a 
5UCCe»ioD of.d<^spotio kingx, and tlie gradual amalgamation of 
tlie indigenous and tho foreign element, had at length created a 
people, by which tena is meant, in modem political language, 
at) independent body of frcemcu, born, every man, to the en- 
joyment of lifo, piTSiMiid liberty, the ownership of «-lf, und the 
lue, control, and disposal of the fruits of his own labour.* The 

* T un Awnre that Krfdotn oc Tilleiiisn •xutod In EofcUnd to a «onkidpn1)lj 
bit«rFPrio<l (Ii»ii I tin laa)1<«nth eantivj ; hut tb«rlU«ia«BpFrjrtiillv JiJ n'A totm 
■ gmt pn>|xiitkiii of the iKi|iuLii1iuii, The nntton ni not diridol. us in lenM 
Eiu«E'Mn tlitPi. lalo noblea, tmngnsfi. atid ktA. bat there vu « T<'r7 nimURrai 
duB o( rncsl tiller* of the Mil, and«t«a of K'nlt?. who vtn, to nil intent* u>d 
paipota. porWDall; bm Ittn ui lh( roniniQiuilly at En|cliil»t in ul Ihsr lUf. TIi* 
ran) tonunonNn unil the l;iiri:*uv* fat outsuulMmt all oltivr naku, and cou- 
Milntad tb« rul pm^js of EoeUad. 


OLD roBTiCAi. roKin 


itnioD of such a people with the govorning djnasl; or di 
wlit-ther here<liuiry or elective, coa.ttit»toii a nalion; nnd 
aj^pgation of masten and serfs, an; political Bociety without • 
general coiiimututy of rights and iDtorests, utulor whatever foim 
of goverumeutal orgaaizatlon, compoBM a horde of brutal lonln 
and Imitified thrall^ &ot a civilizod commonwealth, a people or 
u iintioD, 

To t)jiit coiiditiou of political and mciol progncsi England hat^^ 
now arrived. It was a new eodetj, wilJi n new Iniigtugp, s no^| 
character, new wants, t&stea and seniiinenis, and was, tlien-fon', 
just in the position to receive and to inspire a new Uttratiire, ft^^ 
tho expression of a new and vigorous national life. ^M 

But uUhough, from this ttmnictil, t)iu |>ro<) net ions of nativ^^ 
gcniuHaru ninrkvd by peeulLititte^ nei'i?r before manifcAtcd on 
KngliKli soil, and which have since continued to characterixe all 
sueceeding English lit«r.itii re, yet the old forms of eompi-sition, I 
the conventional hiws mid rL'^lritinl.f under which alono poetry 
bad hitherto Dxistcd, were not at once (some of them never have ! 
been) discanled. llie vocabulary, indeed, bad become strougly 
tinged with an infusion of Itomanco words, but, though the 
prv>C4iKS of appropriation and Rsaimilation of this foreign material 
wtu still going on, there n-crc i^ymptoms of a reaction in fa- 
vour of oiigulole or at IcaHt olisolcsi:ent Saxon philological and 
poetical canoiw. Early English poetry divided itnelf into two 
Rchools, both employing tbe same vocabulary' but in iHfTercot 
forms of composition. The ouo followed Continental models in 
liu-ralurc, the otbei sought to leGonimend it«elf to tlie tasto- 
anil ehoraeter of the more tiumcroui piirt uf the population, b^ 
reviving the laws of Saxon verte, some reinaina of which atiU 
lingered in the niomory of the common people. 

The t^on alliterative and rhythmical verse was especially 
suiti'd to a ianguiige nboiuidiug in inoDo8y]lnbk-«, with fo<? 
prefixes, and with a principal aecent on the first sjUablc, wiiicli 
was also usually the radical. Rhyme and metre are 
to tongues with longer words, and witli an accentual syai 

Lan. VL 



wbicb thrgw-s the ttixss of voice towurda tlie end, ratliev tbao 
liic bt'ginniiig, of tho won!. TJie Kystem of versification, be- 
longing to tlie langun^ which furnished the worda esprc6£)v« 
of the new ideas and new conditiona that formed tho dis- 
tisguiahiog elomcnt of tho new natiouality, could not but fiunlly 
prevail; aiwl, after u short Ktrugglc, ADglo-Suxon verification 
yielded to the etiperior fituLVs of Ronuiuce metres for the pre> 
tout t«nd«iicicifl of lCng!t»h genius, j^ist m the character and 
institutions of the Anglo-Saxon people had yielded to the mors 
energetic life and higbt-r culture of tho Xomian. 

The poems of Lnuroncu Minot, which date a little after the 
middle of th« foiirtt'cnth century, are intercstiug as nn attempt 
to unite tlie Saxon characteristic of alliteration, not merely 
with rhyme, but with poetic measuTes both of veriie ami stanza 
which properly belonged to Bomance literature. It was, in- 
deed, not the limt experiment of the kind, but in almost all 
previous essays the verKitietition was so Imperfect^ that even 
when tbey imitate the longer French veisc«, and, of course, 
contain more syllables in the measure than was u^ual with the 
Anglo-Saxon poets, thoy are rather rhythmical than metricaU 

Tho workx of Miuot exist only in s single manuscript, of a 
date somewhat later tli.nji his own, written in a strongly markod 
border diiilect which may almost be callcii Scutch; and, there- 
fore, they are not to be relied upon as evidence of the gram- 
matical progress of the English language. Tbey have mucb 
the air of a literaiy exercitalion; f')r the cloven short poems of 
which the collection consiats exhibit spccimeo* of ten diflercnt 
metres and stanxas. These poems are of interest on accoimt 
of their vorsiGcation, and especially because they are t!ie earliest 
political verses known to have been composed in this period 
of Kngli?(b literature, or, indeed, after the accc»>ioD of Ed- 
ward III. to the throne. The following two will euffico to ^te 
an idea of Minol's diction and merits as a poett^ 



Hoie Edward the king omt in Brahmtif 
And take homage of all Iht tand. 

God, that ichope botb w uk] antid, 
Bavo Eilwurtl king of ti^land, 
Bolli hody. Haul, iu>i) li(^. 
And granu him joj witliuwira strif t 
For nani m«ii to Uim t-r wrai)i. 
In Fraunce and in Flandroa botb l 
For ho defrndm SM hb right. 
And tharto Jhetu gninic him mighty 
And »o to do botb night ami dxy, 
Tlmt yt tnny Im to CmxIiIci jaty. 

Ourv kiti)^ ita« oumui, trely to teUf 
Into Bmliiuit Ibr to ilni'U j 
The kftjivr Lovu or Bstutc, 
That ill that Iftud iluuv lud uo pen) 
Be, and aJs hU aona tiro. 
And othrr priix^.'* iniiny tno, 
Bbwclioppe* atiJ I'rclsipc war tharo fcl% 
Tliat had Ail nickil ircrldlf wslo^ 
Princw and poflc, aid and ^ouft 
Al tliat ipM with Duche tnngi 
AH thai mme vrilh grvte hoonwn 
Sir Kduiu-d to nivc and neooro, 
And pvoford him, with all ihnyre TtSt^ 
For to bald tlic kiiifm >tiH)L-. 
. 'ilie duki.' r>f Brabnnd, fint of all, 
Stoti;, for thing thai might birall, 
Tlist be Ruld bi>tb daj and night 
Help air Edward in hi» ri^bt. 
In touD, in fcl<l, in f'ritli and fco. 
Thio Firori? Uin dtikr and nU hia mcDf 
And al the ton)» that iviib htui Icn^ 
And iharUi htid thai up ibairo hend. 
Than king Edward lok« hia rest 
At Andwerp, wharc htm tikcd bcrt} 
And tliare ha made hia mon^ ]>U]rM^ 
That no man raid mj tharc o^jntt 
His nwn^, thni nan gude and Idoi 
L«ft in UntUuul I'ul mdUU deW| 

Lect' vl iawbence ionoi S7V 

And all that land, nntill this day, 
Fara the better for that jomay. 

■When Philip the Valiw herd of thii, 
Tliarat he was ful wrotli iwiB j 
He gsrt assemble his barounes, 
Princes and lordes of many tonnes. 
At FarisM toke thai thaire counaoile, 
Whilk pointca might tham most availei 
And in all wise th^ tliam bithought 
To Btroy Ingland and bring to nought. 

Schipmeii sone war efter sent, 
To here the kingce curaandment ; 
And the gnlaics men also. 
That wiat both of welc and wo. 
He cnmand than tliat men suld fan 
Till Ingland, and fur no thing Hpare^ 
Bot brin and cla both man and wife, 
And childe, that none sitld pas with li'fl. 

The galay men held up thaire hand"<^ 
And thanked God for ihir tilhandes. 

At Hamton, als I understand, 
Come the gaylayes unto land, 
And ful last thai stogh and brcnd, 
Bot noght HO makill als sum men wend. 
For or thai wened war thai mett 
With men that Bone thaire laykea letL 
Sum was knokked on the hevyd, 
That the body thare bilcvid ; 
Sum lay Btareand on the stemes ; 
And sum lay knoked out their heniM, 
Than with tliam was non other gle, 
Bot ful fain war thai tliat might Ho. 
The galay men, the BUih to Ray, 
Most nedcs turn another way ; 
Thai Boght the Btrcmis fer and widfl^ 
In Flandres and in Scland syde. 

Than saw thai ivhare Cristofer Btod% 
At Armouth, opon the flude. 
Than wen[t] thai theder all bidene, 
The galayRs men, with bcrtes kene, 
Viij. and xl. galays, and mo. 
And with tham &1b war torettea twc^ 

S80 lAWBXXCE lUSOI bet. Vli 

And other many galiotcii. 

With grcle Doumber of smalc botes] 

All thai hcTed od the Jlodc 

To «ele air Edward mens gode. 

Edward oure king than was noght ihen^ 
But BODF, whtn it come to his ere, 
He umbled all liis nion full stilt, 
And said to tham what was his will. 
Ilk man made liim redy then, 
So went the king and all his men 
Unto thaire echippcs fut hastily, 
Ala men that war in dede doghiy. 

Thai iknd the galay men grete waofl^ 
A hundereth ever ogaynea ane ; 
The Inglia men put ibant to were 
Ful baldly, with bow and spere; 
Thai slogh thare of the galaies men 
Ever sexty ogaynea ten ; 
Tliat Slim liggea ;^il in that mir« 
Alt hcvidliw, wiihowten hire. 

The Inglia men war armed welc^ 
Both in yren and in stele ; 
Thai Eight ful fuRt, both day and nigh^ 
Als long as tham tainted might. 
Bot g;ilay men war bo many. 
That Inglia men wex all wery; 
' Help thai Bi^ht, bot thare come nane, 

Tlian unto God thai made thaire mane. 
Bot aen the time that God was bom, 
Ne a hundrcth jere bifom, 
Was never men bettiT in fight 
Than Ingliss men, whil thai had myghk 
Bot sone all maii<tri gan thai mis; 
God bring thaire sautes untill his blis I 
And God assoyl iliam of thaire ein. 
For the gude will that thai war in I AnMB, 

Listena now, and leves roe, 
Who BO lifcs thai sail Be 
That it mun be fill dere boght 
That tUr galay men have wroght. 

Latrr. VL lAiniBNCE HINOt 101 

Thni hoved still opon the flode, 

And rev(id povcr men tlinire gudoj 

Thai robbed, and did mekill echame^ 

And aye bare Inglis men the blame. 

Now Jheeu Rave all Ingland, 

And blis it with his holy hand 1 Am«a. 

How Edward, als the Romance na^ 
Held his sege bi/or Calais. 

Calais men, now may ye care, 

And muming mun jfi have to mede; 

Mirth on mold get je no mare, 

Sir Edward sail ken jow jowre credeb 
Whiium war ,ie wight in wede, 

To robbing rathly for to ren ; 
Men 30W Eonc of jowre mls^ede, 

20Wre care es cumen, will je it ken. 

Eend it ea how je war kene 

Al Inglis men with dole to dere; 
Thiure glides toke jfi al bidene, 

Ko man born wald je forbere ; 

;e sjiared noght with swerd ne Bpera 
To stik tham, and thaire gudes to stele. 

With wapin and with ded of were 
Thus liave je wonnen werldea wele. 

Weleful men war j.e iwis ; 

Bot fer on fold sail ^e nc^ht far& 
A bare sal now abate jowre blis, 

And wirk 50W b:ile on bankea bare. 

He sail jow hunt, als hund dose han. 
That in no hole Kill jc jow hide. 

For all ^owre sjieche will he noght spefi^ 
Bot biggea him right by jowre side. 

Biside ;iow here the bare bigins 
To big his boure in winter tyde; 

And all bityme takes he his ines, 
With semly Be[rjgantea him bLndai 


The word of him walkea fill wide, 
Jesu, save him fro mischance I 

In bataill dar he wcle babide 
Sir Philip and air John of France. 

The Franche men er fen and fell, 

And ma-sc grete dray when thai er digltt| 
Of tham men herd alike tales tell, 

With Edward think thai for to £ght^ 

Him for to hald out of his right. 
And do him treaon with thaire talea 

That was thaire purpos, day and nigbt, 
Bi counaail of the cardinalea, 

CardinaJcs, with hattes rede, 

War fro Giiaya we!e thre myle; 
Thai toke thain; counaail in tlint Btedfl 

How thai might sir Edward bigile. 

Thai Icndcd tharc hot litill while, 
Til Franche men to grante thaire graov. 

Sir Philip wan funden a file, 
He fled, and fhgbt nogbt in that placa. 

Id tihat place the bare waa blith. 

For all waa funden that he wight | 
Philip the Vaias fled fu! swith, 

With the batail that he had broght 

For to have Calaya had he thoght, 
All at his Icdcing loud or etil! ; 

But all thaire wiles war for noght^ 
Edward wan it at hia will. 

Lystcns now, and ^e may lere, 

Ala men the suth may understand; 
The kntghtes that in Calais were 

Come to sir Edward eare wcpeand, 

In kirtcll one, and awerd in hand, 
And cried, ' Sir Edward, thine [wej ■>*) 

Do now, lord, bi law of land, 
Thi will with us fi/r erermATA.' 


The nobill bnrgase and the best 

Come unto bim to bave ibaire bire ; 
The comun puple war ftil prest 

£ape3 to bring obout thaire Bwire. 

Tbai Baid ali, ' Sir Philip, oure Bjrt, 
And bis sun, ur Jobn ot' France, 

Has left us ligand in the mire. 
And brogbt us tili this dokfiil dance. 

' Onre horses, that war &ire and &t, 

Er etin up ilkone bidene ; 
Have we nowther conig ne cat, 

That thai ne er etin, and bundes kene^ 

All er etin np ful dene, 
Eb nowtber levid bicbe ne whelp; 

That ea wele on onre sembland sene ( 
And thai er fled that suld us help.' 

A knight ibat was of grete renown^ 

Sir John de Yiene was bin name, 
Be was wardaine of the tounc. 

And had done Ingland mekill Echame. 

For all th^re boste thai er to blame, 
Fnl Btalwortbly tbare have tbai strevyn. 

A bare es cumen to mak tham lame; 
Eajea of tbe toun to him er gifen. 

^e kiues er golden him of the jate, 

Lat bim sow kepe ibam if be kon; 
To Calais cum tbai all to late. 

Sir Philip and Sir Jobn bis sun, 

Al war fill ferd that thare ware fun, 
Thaire ledere may thai barely ban. 

All on this wise was Calais won; 
God Bare tbam that it so gat wan. 

Tlte attempta of Minot, and of other later as weU aa con- 
temporaneoos rhymerB, to reconcile the Gothic and Romance 
Bf steins of Terse — like many suggestionR of compromise oa 
mora important subjects — satisfied tlie partisana of neither 



Lacr. TL 

mode of compoiiilion, &n<l bin eiample waa followed bj do gnat 
writer. I^ii(,'landc atid kix kcIiooI adhered strictly to tbc Suxod 
canoDs. Gower nnd Chnuoer, and the great body of Riigli«h 
poets, preferred ItoRianoe metres. Half-vray meiutiireit faikd 
altogether. Alliteration, it is true, v»8 occosiooally employed 
OS a casiud onument, but the woika of Lan^Iando and his im- 
mediate follovn'rs wore tlio lust, of any merit, wbit-k legnlarl; 
conformed to tli« c«noa« of Anglo-Saion rvnte, aiid the struggla 
ended with the llniil triiiinph of Romance formEL 

l*ho worica of the Kngliiih poets who followed Anglo-Saxea 
models, in the latter part of the fourteetitb eeotury, are araoog 
tbe most interestini; and important literary productions of that 
tge ; and hence it becomes ueccasary to devutca moment to the 
melrictd or rather rliythitncut cytteiu of tJiu ancient Anglian 
people, which, with one important difTerence, correspeoda (o 
(hot of the Scandinavian and some of the Gernmoic rac«& 
Ancient rci8i6cation is founded on temporal quantity, modem 
on aceeutuation ; but modem Itomancc Tonc agrees with the 
ela«eal metres in requiring a certain number of syllitble^ to 
each measure, and the acrouted syllables are, in uuinbi^ and 
poritJoD, subject to the snino laws of regidarity and sequence 
ns the tcitipMTnlly long syll^iblcfl in tlie classic metres. lint in 
the primitive rhyUimical poetry of the .Scondiuamna and tbe 
Anglo-Saxons, the number of tmacoented syllables and the 
position of the aceented ones were variable, so tluib rh>lhini; 
was conKtant but the numhir of these latter. In the itu- 
passioned, emphatic recitatiTe of nulcr ages, this numeiicaU 
regiilnrity might be a sufTicieot formal distinction I>ctweetB. 
poetry and prose ; but when the lay of the hard was writtCEk 
down, and read, not chanted or declaimed, it waa soon per- 
ceived that something more v.^^ required to enable verse to 
produce an agreeable sensuous effi^ct upon the car. This wax 
first obtained by the simple expedient of alliteration ; but as the 
poetic, car became more cultivated, and, of course, more fas- 
tidious and more exacting, other coincidences of sound ireifl 




iLtroduced, Tlie Sciuiditaviana employed line-rliyrae both a« 
bairandaa pcrfei-t rbyme, thnt is, Kyllabk-s whieli ogrecx] iu tfae 
CODSOoants. but cliflfcri>d iu tiie vowels, an Uuul, Und^/ear, fire, 
and syllables wbicb ngreed in all the vocal tk'tnentjf, or oixli- 
uuy rbymes. la tJieir puetry, these corresponding syllabic* 
wcviuTod not at the ends of the lutes, but in paira in the esme 
l\ae, though, in the later stages oi* IccUitdic literature^ end- 
rbyine was cmployvd also, litis latter form of consaaaoce was 
•ouetimes usvd by Uic A»g!4>*SucoDS, — probably from ad no* 
<)uaiutaitc't; with Coiititiental rliyme» which the Sciiiiiiu.-iviaDs 
^d iiut poitsees, — but neither liatf-rhynie nor any form of line- 
ihytne seema over to have bci.'D designedly iotroducod, though 
the Danish and Norwi'giiin biinl.-< who frequented tho courts of 
the Saxon kinj^ must have made tliat form of v«ntficatioD 
known in England. 

I do nut find aoy SAttsfactory evidence that assonance, or 
the employment of the same vowel with different consooaut^ 
which eharocterizcM the li%]Ud poetry of Spiun, inis resorted to 
in the clas-ic Aiiglo-8iison period; but in the scmi-Sason of 
Layamon, w we have atrcwly seen, it is of frequent oocurrencoa 
and I have no doubt it was iDtenlionally introduced. Critics, 
however, do not appear to have always reeogniz^^d tbiit coin> 
ddeoce of sound in Laynmon as tme aswnance, aud they have 
aoinctinies endeavoured to explain it by the gratnitous assump- 
tion, that syllables spidlcd with vi-ry didWcnt consonants were 
pronounced alike, so as to mako perfect rhymes of pairs of 
mynl* which are apparently a&^onant merely. Tliiit rcscm- 
Uance of vowel alone proved too monotonous for the Northern 
ear, whieh was trained by its habitual system of strong infle&> 
tion to demand coutnutb m well us coincidence of syllable, and 
lh« innovation of I^yamon found no imitatoni. 

During the era of transition from the AnL,'l<^SaTon to the 
Engliah nationality and speech, the native biiiii:^ ncre • 

of NormoQ-Freiich poetry, and the Saxon vci 
•liBoet total disuse, while nearly every varic^ot Hem 



Lkt. VL 

waa fre«ly ecnployvtL But wlirn Uic Eii^1i5li people luul u 
goQo tlje Inst of theii metamor[)hos<-«, aud appeared as a nev 
«iitate upon the Htage of human afbirs, there vox natarallv a 
haitatioD, a vadllntion, with rc^^ixl to the fbims in which Uta 
nascent litcrsturv »huuld clothe iti^elf, and there were still coo* 
flictiDg tendeucies and imrlialitles to he recfmciled. 

^Miil<-, therefore, tlie first great Eoi^lish poets were aa 
tborotighl; and unmiMakeably nstjonal, in matter and iu 
spirit, as tho most marked of their sucoctMors, we find in 
CliAUcer only Romiuico forms of eompositjon; hut in l.«nglaQdc^ 
ilio author of Piurx I'lougbman, and his followers, purely 
l£I^;li8h tboughia, and a well asamilated composite diction, with 
the rhythmic and i^Uterative elructuro which characterizes 
Anglo-Sazon vense. It is rc-marknhle, as I have elsewhere oh* 
eervecl, that in tiiiu attempt to rerire those obsolete measures, 
L&Dglande adhi^rwi ' moi'e closely to the normal form«, and 
allowed himself fewer licenses, than did the Aoglo-Saxoos 
tlicmMilvcs; ami hU poonisneeordiiiglr exhibit more traly tho 
c««ciiliHU'hunivten«tii'«ufiillitei'ali^oaiidrbylIiinical verAethau 
any "f ihi; Work^ of the luiistviv who«o verailicaliuu he cupit.^. 

Hence, though highly origiuid, thoroughly genial, and fully 
Imhued with the spirit of the age and of the commonwealth 
of which be was tho first-hora intellectual rod, yet, in his 
TcrnGcntion, be was little better than a servile imitator. This 
is by no rncaun a xingular inftlanoe of the constraint which 
the employment of ancient instrumentalitit^ im|>o«os upon a 
modem author. No scholar of our day, writing in I^tiu proe^, 
woiil<l think hiiTisdf snfc in juitiiiif; to-^ethcr any two wonle, 
for the conihintitioii of which bt^oiuld not adduce the authority 
of a claHDc example, nor, in hexamet«rs, or the lyric metre*, 
would he venture a sucocasion of syllabbii for which bo cookl 
not find a precedent iu the Oradua ad I'amasauni. 

Tho etrifc between the Romanoe and the Saxon forms of 
▼ente was not of long diirnlion. Bi^iido* the reasons I have 
already given for tho triumph of the former, thero was 

Lect. TL bouamhc pobirt 2S7 

fact that Anglo-Saxon poetry was olisolete, unintelligible, dead 
and forgotten, white Norm«n-French literature was still aliving, 
a luxuriant and a fragrant vine, I^nglande wa the last of 
the old school in form, the first of the new in genius and 
Bpirit. The authors of Piers Ploughman and of the Canterljury 
Tales are both intensely English ; but as two sons of the same 
parentage, while closely resembling each other, olien reproduce, 
the one, the mother's traits, the other, the lineaments of the 
father, so Langlande most prominently exhibits the Anglo-Saxon, 
Chaucer the Norman-French, complexion and features of the 
composite race, which they so well represent and adorn. 

There is not much literary matter of special interest or 
importance, which can he positively aasigned to the period 
between Minot and I^anglande ; but there are numerous versi- 
fied romances, chieSy translations from the French, which 
were executed, or at least transcribed, in the course of the 
fourteenth century. Most of these, as I have before remarked, 
are carelessly copied, and they are often stamped with dialectic 
peculiarities which certainly belong to no era of the common 
litei'ary dialect of England. They could, therefore, even if 
possessed of conspicuous literary merit, not well be employed as 
illustrations of sketches which aim to give an outline of the 
progress, not of the aberrations, of the English language. But 
they are, in general, so worthless in themselves, that they 
would not repay an analysis, and I prefer to limit myself to 
productions which were either efficient causes, or normal results 
and exemplifications, of the majch of English genius and the 
English speech. 

The following poem, written on a very important occasion — 
the death of Edwaid III., in 1377 — is smooth in versification, 
and is a not uni'avourable specimen of the power of expressiou 
to which the language had attained at that peiLod ; — 


rOEU on THE PKATU OF £II1T&1U> m. 

Lact TL 


A I Aere God, wlint nwj tl<>> bv. 

That die tiling wirm dim) woMiedi amy t 
IVnKlaclij'p in bin a vuiij le, 

UDDe(h« hit dura al a day. 

Tliei bco so clii*T «t aooy. 
So kof to hau, aud lodi to lote, 

And M fik«l in lK<orc fny, 
That Seidell Ucijc i> mnv lor^lau 

1 tc) tiil iHit willioulcn ik cnuac, 

Anil ()i«rdi'ic talcM r!Iit god li4^| 

For ,%ir )'e coniilruvrv llitJi vUum!, 
I |>uU ;t(>u liuUy oat of di«(Iv, 
Tliat jMiin) KliaiiM ;tor livrl irutd iHnit, 

And JO rhi» mnivre wyiJy (r*l«. 
fie that «u ur oioM fped« 

la idilcn twye and cone rorjcts. 

Sum tyme un EuglU tchip we had, 
NoIm;! !iit wu!s uod li'-rli of tour; 

Thorw a\ Clifi.-ii'niliim liit yrtut dnul. 
And Mif wold nlimdi; in udi a ulntir. 
And hat Aont bjrdv a Buharp nchouTi 

And othu- aiotmea wnalv oiid grcUj 
Nou is lliat achip, tlut bar tfau 6ouf, 

ScIdcD scijo aotl woe funsete. 

Into that Hcliip ihn- kmgclli a roothitr, 

Tiiat stociril lh« >ch)p, and gorcrocd Ul; 
la al ihi* world ni* nich nnmhiir, 

A* BMi ihctikuth in my wit. 

Whil aclilp uiid mibur tognlrr wm ):mt, 
Tlici dmldc nuthvr icnijient, druyjc, nor WCtet 

Nou be tli«i t>otlj« III nrndtr itit; 
Ilia edd«ti adge is aone ibiji-te. 

Schntpo wnwca tliat acliip lias mylod, 

And Myod all Mwa at av«niur; 
For wynt tw woderw nmer bit lay W, 

WU tbe iMtliur miht codiiir. 


Thouj the see were ro«j, or ellea dimuvdr, 
Gode havenes that achip wold geete. 

Noil 18 that »cliip, I am wel Buir, 
Selde iseye and sons fotjcte. 

This good Bchip I may r«mene 

To the cliivalrye of this londe; 
Sum tjme thei counted nou;^t a bene 

Beo al Fraunce, ich underatonde. 

Thei toke and alouj hem with her wonde^ 
The power of Fraunce, bethe tanale and gretej 

And broujt the kyng hider to byde her bonde; 
And nou liLt eone hit is ibrjete. 

That Echip hadde a ful siker mast, 

And a sayl strong and large, 
That make the gode schip never agast 

To undertake a tliinge of charge. 

And to tliat 8clii|) (lier longed a barg% 
Ofal Fraunce jaf noujta cleete. 

To us hit wa3 a siker liirge ; 
And now riht ciene hit is for^etc, 

The rother was nouther ok oe elm. 

Hit was Edward the thridde the noble kniblt 
The prince his none bar up his helm, 

That never acoumfited was in fiht. 

The kyng him rod and rtiuwed ariht, 
The prince dredde nouther si ok nor streeU^ 

Noil of hem we lete ful lilit ; 
That seldcn is seige is sone for^ete. 

The swifte barge was duk Henri, 

That noble kiiiht, and wel ai^sayed; 
And in his leggiiunce worthily 

He abod mony a bitter brayd. 

jif that his enemya oujt outrayed^ 
To chasteis hem wolde he not le(«. 

Nou is that lord fii! lowe ileyd; 
That seida is eeije ia sone fotjete, 


This gode comnnes, bi the rode, 

I likne hem to the Bchipca mart; 
That with heore calcl and with heoro good* 

MayQtcncd the werre both farnt and laot. 

The wjnd that bleu; the Khip with bhttt. 
Bit waa gode prejei'Cs, I ecy hit atretc; 

NoM ia devoutnoB out icast, 
And laoaj gode dcdea ben ciene foi3et« 

IlitiB ben this lordes ileid fill lowe ; 

The Btok is of the same rote; 
And ympe biginnes for to growe, 

And 3,it I hope schal ben ur bota^ 

To woldo his fomtn undeifote, 
And OS a lord be ect in getc. 

Criat, lenc ihnt he eo mote, 
That aetden iaeije be not foijete. 

Weor that impe ffiilly growe, 

That he bad imrri, nap, ntid pith, 
I hope he schiiidc be kud nnd knoura 

For conquerour of moni a kith. 

He iH ful livelidi in tynic and Ulli 
In amies l<i Iravaj-lc and to awete. 

Ciist, Jii'C we so fare him with, 
That selden eeijc be never forjele. 

And therefore holliche I oti rede, 

Til that this ympe bco fulli grow«^ 
That uch a mon up with the hcde, 

And mayntene him bothe hcije and lowe. 

The Fronsclie men cunnc bothe bost and bltnv^ 
And ivilh hrore scornea us to-threte; 

And we beoth bothe unkiiyndo nnd slowc^ 
That selden iseije is sone forjete. 

And therfore, gode aires, takelh reward 

Of jor douliti kyig that deyjtede in ttgo. 
And to his wme prince Edward 

That wetlu woa ofallc coroge. 

UccT. TL 



Such two lotdcit of hrije p»r»Rti 
b not La cortiic: wbom ve achnl gete. 

Ain3 non lii'oro ton bi'pitiiicih to svrage^ 
That wide i9c:i3U IH sorni lur^Ki. 

AnofTiCT p"pm which is not witliout »me philologiciil im- 
portance, and whirh ii* uf iiitcnvit tor the light it throws on tlie 
moQTiers of the higher cIoaseR of eociety in the fourteenth cen- 
tury, and tJieir probable moda of education, is the Boko of 
Curta^yc, nu c-ditiou of which has hc!<cQ puhlislicd bj the Camdca 
Society. Thin is a spociw of School of good Kfnmient, for pngei 
who wiTC themsMlvi-s of gentle hirth. It disclwcR a coarseDMa 
of habits ill tin; more clwrated clawea, strangely contratiting 
with the materiid luxury which seem8,*from other eridenoe, to 
have prevailed at that period in royal and noble cirole& Tlie 
Fonne of Cury — which is stated to have been 'compiled of tha 
chef Maistcr Cokes of kyng Richard the Scowndc kyng of 
Enjjlond after the Couijucjit,' an<I which exist* iu a msnu^ript 
eertaiuly iieArly tw old lui the b>-;;iniiingi>f the fifteenth century — 
shows that the kitchens of its time were, in variety and M.-nMUftI 
piquancy, little inferior to those of LucuUus and Apiciiis. But 
English luxury, in the fourteenth century, waa confined chiefly 
to the grntiGcatioQ of the gro»-cr appetites; and costly and 
div<rrsified indiilgeiice of these by no means implies refinement 
and elegance of manners and sentiment, but, on the contrary, 
rathersupposesnsensuaiity of constitution, mbich twsilydcgene- 
mtes into a clownish disregajd of the graceful convtationalitica, 
and even of the deccnciee, of civilized life^ 

The Boke of Cnrtanye is contained in the game manuscript 
with the Liber Coconim, a cookeiy-book of the fourteenth cen- 
tur)-, tlie publication of which, as well as of others of the same 
clfti's, Wright suggeste as a desideratum. The vocabulary o( 
books on these and kindred unfamiliar subjects is rich in termt 
rarely elsewhere met with, and they fuinish nmcli information 
both uu the ta->tes and habits of mediieval Kuropej paitioularly 

D 9 



Lkt. Vt 

on ft topic wUch, thougli of pn^fuund inleTcx!, b<w rn^;^ the 
aUeDtion (^ competent schotan leu tluu altnoat any otlia' 
)>nuich of modern history — the MmruercUt relationa bi^ween 
the tlifTcrtMit European ctat^^ anH bctw4?«n Karope lutd th« East. 
The trad« of tliK tliirtvouUi and fourtcroth centuries wna con- 
ducted OD a larger Kale, and a more extensively remificd and 
more cunningly organized Ryetem, than is usually siispevl<-d hy 
penona not familiar with tbo cihromclts, and more especially 
the Don-litttraTy record* of th« Middle Agt*. The questions : 
what were the articlea wliich the grcAt tnercbaots of the Aledt- 
terninenn oountrice imported from tlte East, at different periodx 
iK^tween the downfall of Rome and tho diswvery of the Cajjc of 
Good Hope ; hy what mode of exchange and hy what roiit<-s of 
transport did they obtain them ; aad* above all, where and by 
what iiiKtnimeiitnlitJt4 these artides we» distrilxited — bnva 
been as yet hut imperfectly answered. Researches in that 
direction — which the throwing open of secret arehires is aa 
rapidly facilitating — will fnroish elucidations of many oluciirc 
pajsoges in early literature, and, especially, advance our know- 
ledge of liistoricni etymology, for which, linguistic conjecture {«, 
in Tcry many department* of philolngy, a very poor substitute^ 
Much of the Bokc of Our1a.iye is too repulsive for quotation. 
Tlie following passage seems to show that pages did not receive 
a great amount of literary instruction, but it gives a more 
fiivourahle imprcsaion of their moral training than the Uvea of 
their lords would authoriite lis to expect. 

TIT (hat thou bo a j.txig tnlbuDt, 
Anil thrnki; tbo MViIrs fnr lo haunt, 
Tlii» U-moint schullt! thy moi&icr ibe morke, 
Croi Orttt till? *]>C(lc in alli^ llii wiTko ; 
Syllbai Iby Pater yotltr bo wilLe ibe tech% 
As Criices owno pnsUaa coo prcdie ; 
Aft«r tby Am Sfaria and ibi Crtde, 
Thai riiiilii! t})« nv« at dome of drtda; 
TbrniU) ufluT to blt-ssc fbc tritli the Triotrit 
/a nomiRe PaU it UxLa bo wiilu tbo ; 


LuT. VL 



TTiwi witL Markr, Nfntlnrw, Liikf, and Jc«, 

Wiih llie piv cruet ami tli« 1ipkIi uamei 

To «hryY« tic in gciiotul iliou tJialle Ivn, 

Thy coi^teor and miitrMCvr iu fL-re ; 

To eeche ibe LyugilAm of God, my cbyldo, 

Tiienio y red* tliou be not wy!d«. 

Therdbre wi>Tsdu{i Gnd, bpthc oldc and $od^ 

To be in body nml >oii!c y-lidio utrnng. 

Wben liion c^nnv to ihn chtirche dote, 

TnkQ the lialy irainr Hiciidiitid va floM ; 

Redo or Kyogv or byd pniyu'iti 

To Criat, for aUe thy CryMeu feiys { 

Be curlayM U> God, and kuele doim 

On boihe kncen triib gretc dsTccioun. 

To mora diuu fiIiaHi? kn«le o[>nn the loaSi 

The tother to thyiwlf rbou hAlili; nlon«i 

When ihon minihK-i* nt iho hfgb aiitcm, 

With hothc hondoH thou mrvc tbo prcat in fen, 

The ton to MabuUc tho tothcr, 

htKl thou bylc, my drrc l>rotIicr. 

Aootlier curiasyu y wylJo the leube, 

Thy fndnr and moditr, with mylde xpcehe, 

Thou worachipand htvi? \vlih iiUe thy myjt) 

TIat tliou dvr^llo the lensur in ertliely lyxt> 

To anoilwr man do no mon: amya, 

Then thou woldys be done of hym and hy% 

60 Crist thou pJcM«, and goia tlio I0V4 

Of Dwnne and God that i^ytt«a abaro; 

Be not to mckc, hut in mmc ihn holda^ 

fibr clli* ■ li»Io ihoa urylli- he toMo. 

Be tliat to ry.^tvy«nc« wyllt? uiiclyno, 

A* holy wrj'jt taya lu veh: and fyite, 

Hia Bed« Bcliatle uurcr go aeuhe nor bred^ 

Ne iniShr of mon uo ahamea dedo. 

To Inrgyr thou aliaile the hast, 

To vcnjauncc lokc thou come on Inrt { 

Draw the lo pc«c witli alio thy stninglhfl^ 

fio atryf ami bate dmw the on longtbo^ 

Tf toon uko the good for Goddya mkc^ 

Aoi the want tbyqg wheroT to lAke^ 

S94 THx BOEz or custastb Smcx. VL 

Gyf hym bone wordys on liiyre manere, 

"With glad aemblairit and pure good char. 

Also of service thou shallc be &e 

To every mon in hyn degr6. 

Thou Bchalle never lose Ibr to be kynd<^ 

That on forgets another hase in mynde. 

Tfany man have part with the in gyf^ 

With hym thou make an even akyft; 

Let hit not henge in bonde for glose, 

Thou art uncurtayse yf thou byt dose. 

To aayntes yf thou thy gate haiw; byjt, 

Tlioa achalle fulfylle bit with alle thy mjp^ 

Lest God the stryk witli grcte vcnjaunce, 

And pyt the into i>ore penauncc. 

Leve not aile mon ihat sjickc the fayre, 

Whether that hit bun comync, burgta, or majT| 

Id BWelo wordia tho ncddcr was closeti 

DiBseyvaiint over and nivHlosut ; 

Tlierforo thou art uf Adania blode, 

With wordii) bo ware, hut tiiou be wode | 

A short worde is comjTiiy soilie, 

That first slydes fro monries toihe. 

Loke !j-:icr nuvor that thou become, 

Kepe thys worde for alio and sommo. 

Lawje not to <>f [t] fur no solace, 

fibr DO kyn myrih ihiit any man maM| 

Who lawes all that men may se, 

A Mhrew or a fola hym KDies to l)& 


The precise date of the poem called the ViaJon of Piers 
Ploughman is iinknovro, but there is little doubt that it was 
gircn to the world bftwcH-ii the years 1360 uid 1370, The 
authorship nf tlio work is alto nmtt'.'-r of uucertaitity, nnd the 
tradition which ascrihea it to Ltiiglaude, an English monk, is 
not BTipt**>''t<^ti by conclusire testimony. But a perhupe imaginary 
LftUg^andc bas long enjoyed the crt'dit of the cumpoi^itiou, and 
until eridcnce shall be adduced to invalidate: his posBcsftory 
claim and establish an advente title, there he no danger of 
dicing injustice to the real author by availing ounelves uf tluit 
Dam« as » convenient impersonation of an unknown writer. 

The familiarity which the poet displaj-s with ceclcsiastlcal 
lit«rature could, in that ngi', hardly have be<ru attained by any 
but a member of the clerieal profi-saion, and therttfure the pre- 
sumption is strong that he was a churchman, ilis zeal and his 
conviction did not carry him to such perilous lengths as were 
hazarded by WyctifTc and hiii school, but he was a forerunner in 
tlie same path, and though we know nothing of his subsequent 
hiwtory, it ia not improbable that be ultimately arrived at the 
some results. 

The author of Piers Ploughman was evidently well acquainted 
with the Latin poeinsi ascribed to Walter de MapeSi written 
obietty in tlie previous century, and of which I have been unable 
to take notice in tJiia succinct view of early English literature^ 
because, having been composed in Latin, they caimut properly 


1)6 included in a historical sketch of English philology. But 
though there aie passages in Piers Ploughman, which, if they 
8to(«l alone, might be coL.«idere<l as directly Ixirrowed from 
SlapeP, yet the general treatment of the suhjeot hv Langlande 
is fo pec diar, that the whole work must be prouoiinced eiuioently 
original, in the sense in which that epithet is usually and pro- 
perly applied, in literary criticism, to discursive and imaginative 

Every great popular writer is, in a certain sence, a product of 
hia country and his age, a reflection of the intellect, the moral 
sentiment and the prevailing social opinions of his time. The 
author of Piers Ploughman, no doubt, embodied in a poetic 
dress just what milliuus felt, and perhaps hundreds had uttered 
in one fragmentary form or another. His poem as truly ex- 
pressed the popular sentiment, on the subjects it discussed, as 
did the American Declaration of Independence the national 
thought and feeling on the relations between the Colonies and 
Great Britain. That remarkable document di:-closed no pre- 
viously unknown facts, advanced no new political opinions, pro- 
claimed no ticntiment not warranted by previous manifestations 
of popular doctrine and the popular will, employed perhaps 
even no new combination of words, in incorporating into one 
proclamation the general results lo which the American head 
Jind heart had arrived. Nevertheless, Jefferson, who drafted it, 
is as much entitled to the credit of originality, as he who has 
best expressed the passions and emotions of men in the shifting 
scenes of the drama or of song. 

The Vision of Piers Ploughman thus deiives its interest, not 
from the absolute novelty of its revelations, but partly from its 
literary form, partly from the moral and social bearings of its 
Bubject — the corrujitions of the nobility and of the several de- 
partments of the government, the vices of the clergy and the 
abuses of the church — in short, from its connection with the 
actual life and opinion of its time, into which it gives us a clearer 
insight than many a laboured history Its dialect, its tone, and 

Ltct. TIL 

Fiess PLOuanuAK 


lU ])oelic drcKS alike couitpirci U> secure tn the Vision a wide 
circulation aiuon^' the oimiuooaity of tlio realm, iind, by formn- 
latiug- -to use a fuTourite word ol" the day — wntiinenta alinoi<t 
uiiivensall}' felt, thou-;li but, dirnly appieiifiidid, it brought tbein 
inle dUtincL oouxcii)U.«»t!^, and Ibua prcjtared the HnglUb peojilu 
for the receplioii of tlie seed, which the labours of WyclifFc and 
bis associates wero alrcaiiy sowing anion}; rhcto* 

The mimbi-'r of early mitnuscriptj) of thix work whkh Mill siif 
Ttvc provcM ilx gcui-jnl dilTiisidn; and tiie wid» variations which 
osist bolwvun thv vopidit k)k>w that it had excited inten'st 
enough tiibuthiiii^'ht woithy of careful revision by tliuongiuul 
huthor, or^ n» h more ])nibi>blc, of iuijioriaitt in»difii'«tiou by 
tli<! numerous editors and trauscnbei-s under «)inso rc'CoiiMoii 
it i-abgutjuently pueed. This, indeed, wii« ihu umi-loni of ihe 
time; but ia most ca*c«, copyists only acw>mmodatod the dia- 
lect of the author to tii;it of tbctr own age or di^lrivt, or, at 
mos.t, adiltid hero and there an explanatory gloss, whereas in 
mroe of the later manuscTipls of Piera Ploughman, a very dif- 
ferent tone (if scntuncnt prevails from that which marks what 
i» iH^lieVcd to be tbo ori}{iuuI text of the work. It liud bc-cnmo 
eminently a popular piiftsc«U(iou, n didactic cntecbiKm. Tbi:i fact 
aod its anotiyinou.-i charaeter wonhl be thought to jiiAtify licenses 
{□ copyists, whereas tJie works of Gower and Oltaucer came ia a 
purely literary form, ard with an autJiority ik'rired from the 
Eocial position of the wnU-rs, which' secured lliein from being 
60 frtely tampered with by later editors ; and ci>nst.'qui;ntly tht 
differonoes between ilifferent manuscripts of those authors are 
generally grummatical or ortliogr&pbical merely. 

The quernloiiii tone of Piera Ploughman in another circum- 
etancB which gave it special favour in the eyes of tlie ]>'>putiioc, 
or rather of the middle classes, which had acquired a certain 
degree of opnU-nce and culture, but yet not sLrenjith enough to 
be able to protect themselves effectually »gniii«t the rapitcity of 
their Kpiritu.-il and temporal lord!!. 

The people, under all guverument« — at least under all tliOM 


nms rLocoRiuji 


irhrme Buhjecbt enjoy any acknowledged positive rig'nts m 
the sovereign power — are hftljilimlfy dinpixk-d to compUiot 
Tbia is c«pccial[y true of tbe Enf,'lish, wbo, with & govenimviit 
Rlino«t tmifonuly bi'^ttcr, in iU internal adminutratiou, tJiao 
tliose of any iif their ContiiiL-nfal neighbours, bnvc always been 
a nation of good-natured gnimblers, Politiml BaXirtm, cont 
plaints with a stroug spice of humoar sod a lilieral &barc of pc^ 
Bonality, art.- particularly acceptable to that people, and frequency 
aix) freedom of «iich criticism on gorcrunicntal action \ia», 
uiiiIi^T inoiit reignx, been a characterisLic of the public lifu of 
Kii^land. The extortion of Jlagna Charts was a maiiifeelation 
of English cbaracti^r, and the spirit of that initmroeot^ which 
was broader thiin its letter, has foKtorrd the inclination, and 
Bocurod tho right, of thv (iiil'jc«t tn Ht iu juil-nncnt on hta nih?. 

If we compart! the earliest writini*s which Are distinctively 
Ensliih in tcrnpir irnd Innguagr^ inclmlin-; Picnt Ploughman as 
thi-ir boft and Iniest n>pr«sentalive, with Mkiha of the Auglo- 
Saxonit, we shall find that certain salient traits which mark the 
Engliiih are almost wholly wanting in Saxoa. Tbe clement of 
humour, though in a ri^ry dillVrrDt m-usu from that in which tJio 
word is u««d i» the dialect of Oenuan crilirasm', i*, and from 
the fourteenth century has been, eminently cbaixlcteristic of 
English literature. I'his trait docs not exist ia the estant re- 
mains of Anglo-Saxon poetry or prose, nor doos it appear to 
have formed an iugrodicnt in tJie chancier of that pco])Ie. 

Tho ([uality of hiiniour is everywhere, in some measure, 
fniit of culture. Not only savages, but all rude races who have 
to struggle gainst an ungeni&l climate, and a soil which yields 
nv spontajieous fruit«, arc grave. Wit and huinoiu' are prtxlurla 
of that etagn of civilization, which belongs to such a devclofn 

■ Bnitliali hniooiir h oftoD nt onee t«thFtie and laagbUr-Moviag; Oesmaa 
Umnonr if, iiot unfnriuratljr. Tray droatir. villioul hi-int ritlxr. In lliii oeaiiut^ 
I d« not. Mrluol;. inrlud^ Uio laJM if M jkiii*. •■til Um the wDndoiAil worlu of 
Jaon Paul, tbo priiiM of genuine' humouriala, Sauui of TwcL'i >Uvkt tn tail of 
tbii qbulily. and I thinli ihuni arc, in modcni lilirattnA Cr* m"fv booiuroiu 
Ul» ifiin 111* aiirutiioitnitihjr of (bo lujlat-erngtmit, ToosU^ is llia tualb 
at lua oallvi-tcd wurlu. 

■ to 

Lkt. to. 

WIT Axo hdiioiib 


meut of the materinl resources of a country as leavcB to its more 
prot^perous iDhabltants nomv Icisuiv for otbtT occuputioDS tliHU 
lb« suriuua toilfi aD(i hazanlB of vim, or the loDfJy and nleot 
aud wear; pursuiU of the chaae — for to those who live by *ood- 
crart, liuottiig is a soUtaiy labour, not a ftocial recreation. 

TLt) degree of artificial culture whicb is required for lli« 
^fneratioQ of such producta will be vcr)- differtnt under diSen-Dl 
cliiDut/rs and otbur nalural conditions. Id the frozen North, 
and UD the infertile saodn of a tropical duscrt, where constant 
effort is reqiiirt:d to supply the physical wiuiU of lifci these 
sparkling traits of tlioti^ht wiU not nianifeet theiiLselved, except 
under the infiuenee of letters. But under more genial aliiee, 
where Earth altnoiit H{>ontnn(.-ou«Iy fiH-dt! her children, tbepoetia 
impulses and (L^pocts of Nature lienelf supply a culture, wLicb 
«eeing in Hutiie degree to render tLe artificial truuiug of schools 
aud of )>ook8 superfluous, and to endow the most uiitnught with 
a quickness of apprchonsjon, and a kccoQess of peroepUon of 
less obvious annlo^cs, which, iu le«s favoured cUmes, are alniOKt 
always acquired, not Belf-dcvci<jped, faculties. Besides tliw, in 
tliose countries which were tlie neiits of audcnt civiliitation, a 
traditionnl ctillure has survived tLe revolutions of nuuiy oentu- 
rits and »til! pervades the lowest strata of society.* The remains 

* ^e tadition* of luly Iiktv tti>pt Mvr, in the nanorj of ih* p«opl», DM 
Mij ummfTtnutntpneutt i>t numnt hiitory. but misifat Uw loniuiliit dmwi aad 
TWMi* of tlif MiiUtn A|tfi<. The progivu of kD»irlcd|[a ia ibe Kottltcfn >Ut«s 
•f lUljr hai, witliia ■ ti* jcan. ditnucil n lul* kr rfmliug uDong dum, which, 
Inb ili(ii a gpncTstion »iiiCT\ nivr luokcl uj>mi a frinkd puflt^ Ttip »n!>jiTW 
■tJtdrd luluFnlly coonnrt IhemHlTci with tliD (niclitioiu I harn i|H>k>-ii cJ, uiiil 
■I Iliis inoRi>-ut, ia I^ifilmoiit ami Lombai'dj', (he fiLVunnta botikn. ■moiig tfaa 
kut-imtnickU rank* who md ■■ all, •» tb* nhl niiDanwi of cbir^Ir;. Of 
IfiMn the Ubuj m Ftuxcu nei ^u«li «i molKat U gcncruioei« dcgli IntpcfBton, 
lir, Ouclii, Piindpi, Bwooi • FMladini di FrnAdn. conundnndo d* CoiitaatJm 
SmfttMot* nno ad Oitendo^ Ccote d* AdhUsK^ aad, Gcbbqio bbtto a Uncnxiis 
Meria ddir ipwdi iMfma* « vlttoria da hii ripodau toatro i Tanhi, an tiw 
tMBt fopakr. ChMp cditiou of th««« ar* nuIti'idlMl and boU ia gnat numbtn^ 
•ad thay an nad hj thouMndo of penons in conditiona of UTa in wUeh, ta 
bf^adand AsKdM, nothing ia «<v heard of Ike 'dovtcpaa* c< him, whA 

With all bis poengo fell 
At Poetanbia. 
Ob the istclligibility of Lstfn in lUlj, ne /) Btnyhini, Yu. 488. 


mr AMI Bcuuon 


of cKiiiic art, aod the rague momorie* of Iij-|*od6 national 
power aiiil splcodour, coutribute also to educate and Tcfino cla^ati 
wliicb, in younger mcM and more recently subdued rrgions, 
fell bi:li>w tbc mich uf nil ck-ruliiig uifluc-nouN. 

Hence vrbile the Gotliic Irilnis Uuuigb profound and strong 
in iotdlect, ore obtuse till aitilicially quicki-ned by education, 
tlio RouiaDPc nations are rapid and precocious in the operations 
of till- iutollcci, eeufiblo to artistic beauty, alive to the cfaarma 
uf nature, nnd oi'cr avmke to tbu sense of the ludicrous. The 
P'ipubce of Kiinipv who I»n<{b tlie mosti and bave the most 
iiiitth-iuiipiriii^ (iiiilMt ami habit.s are the Nua|iuliUiii plebeians; 
but a Styrian or a Carintbiau peasant, irith tbe same amount 
of poeitivv attiuum<:-nt which ttic humble Italian poeseeses, is as 
Buk-uiJi not to siky hk stupid as iht^ cattle be drtra** 

The dUtinctiou 1>etwcca wil and liiiinour is not Tory vaialj 
exprcs^ or upprehf^mlcil, as is abundantly shon-ti by tbe 
thoUHUid aboTtive attempts to (lincriniiDate b«tvrc«o them; and 
it is as difficult to ddine cilbcr as to dvscribo tJio biulLc tbcj 

Wit tins liCcn tinid to consist in tlie perception of obscure r^ 
lationjt, and tliis hulf-trulb explaiuH bow it is that men of mul- 
ti&uious reading — whose knowledge, of course, rereats to them 
analogies not obvious to less iiutructcd nuods — are DOTer with- 
out wit. 

I Hbidl not attempt wtinl none lias yet DAtisCnctorily nccom- 
pliglitKl, the dcflkTiptiou and limitation of wit and humour, nor is 
any discussion of tlie special character of the former csmntial 
to our present piuposc ; but wc may say, in a gent^ral way, that 
while Iruo nit is as universal as ftocial culture, humoiu* is local- 
ised and national, and tho diMinctive forms in which different 
peopltct clothe the ludicrous conceptions peculiar to tlien'.m;WtN 
and a]ino»t iunpprvciuble by strangers cuiijititute iheir national 

English humour, then, t» Aitgticir^ wil. It is a fl[:arlf tbroHn 
out whenever the positive and negatire electridtiM of tbc French 
' FooU nnBcitar, omtoc Ql. Italns nswilaT, Owbsbiu Sl. 


Licr. VII. 

warn riJiiTaiiMAM 


Bad Snxon eoluititiionts of tlic 'En^li»h inteltcot are pasniiig into 
equilibniia), and no gruit F.ii^lLib wriior has ever been able 
wholly to suppress it. Piers Ploiisbtnan is poirodL'tl with 
hiimnurr and this qimlitj imdoiititodly ooutribntud, in a great 
degree, to ita grncnil po]>til.'irity. 

Thi! familiarity of eveii the labouring classes with this work, 
and the strong hold it soon aci|uircd on the popular mind, are 
well illustrated in tliu curious letter addre,<«cd to the commons 
of Es8i-x by the cnlightuncd, bravo, and putriotio John Ball, 
who is conspicuous «* oik; of the few dericil advocates of the 
righlA of man, in the Middle Age&* In thxa letter, th* 
reformer introduces the names of John Schep or Slu'pherd — 
borrowed probably, as Wright eugg^ests, &om the opening lines 
of the poem ; 

I shocip me tntn chnudea 
Aft I a idic<-p wi-crc, — 

and that of Piers Ploughman, as pn-sonages familiar to those 
vliom he was addressing ; and in another part of the k-ttcr, be 
quotes, in an emphatic way, the phrases ' do well ' and ' do 
better,' which are of very frci]iieDt occurrence in the Vision an 

■ ] tok* Ibf lut of lliis htUr from the Intrcdnctifni to Wrighfi tdilioD of 
Pkn nonGhmm : 

• Jo!in Sfifp, Mmrtime SHnI Mmt prifftt of Tork*. and now cf ColcI)(«t«r, 
grarlrlli wiU JahB Nr-tnclnw. Uit) John Iho jUillrr.anil Jnha Curttir, nnd biddtth 
thfm liint llii-j bi'wiir* of guyl« in boroiiph, nnil »t!iiid uii;.illipr in Oods nunc, 
«od bi'WpIii I'irrt IVmivhihh go/ to hit vtrir, and rimttiw irrll Hob ihp k.Uxt, 
nnd t;iko with jua Jolui 'I'lvirmiin. snd nil Ii» fcitowi. and no mot Joiia tli« 
>lilUr Ii^th T-groand amal, KDiiill. uniBlI. The kin^ (onno at hnrtv sliil] jitf for 
bU. IVirarn or yo be tror, know yoor fn-nde fro yoor tite, li^ra jnongh. and 
>ay toi!: Asil d/i ml snd ^Urr. nniil lliv *inn>. and Mtke pews and bold* yon 
rhtriii. Knd to bid<lr[|i J»)in TrnrniiK uid »tl liis MIovm.* 

Tho ortliograi'liy S* p tM;a;nX» llin prtiliiliililj thdt t!;e font tlvrp, ip th« 
rooplrt quotnl bItott. » erronrau*, and iiiicWulitFdiT lh« won), vlien uanl iat 
tluphird, Iiad ft dtiFiTtnt fooiiiaaeialion from that si^vo to it vhca It vu ainifil} 
thu Kiinio of tliv quiidi-ut«^. 

Tho Ivtlvr is iTitu>-*l>nit noi tm\j from it* nnswtion «ilh Hi* pivm. Picra 
Plai^hnuLn. biit u a iprcimvn of on aryot. or ranTinIionnl di*li>ct ; fm ibvn «an 
ht DO doubt tiut TOch pliniM ■■ ' guylp ia borough * ' do «rl uid Uttrr.* uid 
Ibo lika^ had Mimo other tluui their apparent and Utissl nnuuiig. 


niiis Fijocaavxv 

Un. VI 

tlie <ie)tigniilioTi8 of two of the allogorknl dminsMt pci'mnn 
the poem. It is prob&ble lliat in ttiiii c<u« Jolin Soliep 
Piora i'lougtiman, as wt'll as the other propi?r named lined in 
th« IcItiT, were appellatioiu (kssumed as a dU^uiM by real pet 
SODS, Uiuti^h the people of Etwcs doublleas well knew who wi 
nieaat liy dicm. 

But ulivllirr wc Fiippow llicso nnmca to bo here used aa 
dicAtiug a ola-ts, or as Uie Tunns de fpu»re of Judividua]*, 
fiwt of their employment for the one purpniie, or their anunip* 
tioD for the other, proves that their poetical and political si, 
ficaocc^ and of course the general »cope of the poem, wcro wi 
understood by the humblest cUks of Engltth citizem who w 
open bo any form of litentry influence. 

h» t liave already remarked, a circumstance which gim 
porUnce to Piers Ploughman and it« imilnlionit i», the form of 
IX))-!!^^! compost tioii in which they arc dre.%ied. The vene U 
neither metrical nor rhymed ; but it U characterised by rhythm 
and ullitcration, according to the Anglo-Saxon models of verrf- 
jication, and, as vraa observed in the last lecture, it conforma 
more closely to the convenlionat rule* of Aiiglo-Snxon poetical 
composition than any of the existing ivniains of the poetry of 
thnt literature. TIuk fact hiLt been partly cxid.-uned by the e; 
ciiiiintiuice tlint it watt an iiiiit.iti»n of an extinct poetical fo: 
but it is also an evidence that the influence of the Danish i 
vaders — whose baids employed rhythm and alliteration wi 
greater strictness ttuin the Anglo—Saxons luid ever done — hod 
Bonio weight in reviving the taste for a form of verae which had 
become obsolete in the imligenous literature of England, 
the otJier hand, it su^csts the probability that rhythm and 
gtdar alliteratioD, though they had nearly disappeared from 
written unlive [loetry, may liave liecn kejvl alive in pi:>)iutjr 
hftllads, existing iu ond tradition toagn-aterenteiit thauwntK^ 
records now remnining would anllturiice w to infer.* 

* Fop mi mtcmnt of Angio-Snxon ami olA En^^ish >llit(Tiili*« ii.e«<mt& wet 
Vim SuImv iMHan XXV. It bw btca coqjcctUMd Uia* (luN «H Itt iMl 

".ad 1 
'om ] 

LicT. VU. 



The Virion of fho Plougtiman fiirnitihi-s ftlnmdant evidence ot 
fbe fiimilifu-ity of its autbor with the li^tin Scripturest, the 
writings of the fathers, and the commentarit's of Romish expo- 
sitors, but exbibitE very few traces of a knowk-dgo of Romance 
literatiiro. Still the propoitioa of Nonnan-Frt- ach words, or Bt 
least of worils which, thoiigli of T.ntin orijrin, are Frt-ix-h io 
fwrn, is quite as great as in the works of Chaucer. The taini- 
linr use of this mised vocabulary, io a poem evidently intended 
for the popular ear, and composed by a writ*'r who gives no 
other cvidfiico of an acqiiaiiilanc« with (hu literature of France, 
wouldf were other proof wanting, tend strongly to coolinn thu 
opinion I have before admnced, that a targe infusion of French 
words bad been, not merely introduced into the literature, hut 
already iucorporatud into (be common bingiingc of England; 
and that only a very *mall proportion of those employed by the 
poets were first introduced by them. 

The poem, if not altogether original in conception, is abua- 
dantly so in treatment. The Hpirit it breathes, its imagery, the 
turn of thought, the style of illu;(tration and argument it em- 
pioys, are as remote as po!u<ible from the tone of Anglo-Saxon 
poetry, hut exhibit the charact^ristio mond and mental traits 
of the Englishman, as clearly and unequivocally a» Ihe most 
national portions of the works of Chaucer or of any other natire 

Tlie Vision has little unity of plan, and indeed — considered 
M a .-ialtre against many individual and not ohvionitly conuccted 
abuses in church and state — it needed none, liut its aim and 
purpose are one. It was not an expostulation with temporal 

«nei*nt Ttnr, m nrll a* iti Greek ftnd Latin cIjihiIchI pix'lrx, *""<>' T^t osdiB. 
roTvrpd mctriiMl clminil, thn (itcppr Hf^euloin Of which rrndcrvj it mani 
melodioDt (o tlic rnr tlinn cur nu:^^ nccFnliwIion mNkra it> But )lic Aii|:lo-Scixc>n 
rr>li?in vni cridcnllj: idcnticnl iritli the IcvLindic. cifcpt thnt il irnnli'J knit uti 
whole rhjinc; and Snorri Sluililson — whoiorciy full ond coni|i1f(e lo'laudii: Alt 
of P00U7, nritira ibcut thn middle of the lluito'ntli i-riilitiy. i« uill oxUnt — 
dw* net «llud« U anj chfinirtoTlstic Of itne tint nDirvrnTinn, wliol« and half, Una 
Kiid tvmiiniil. rlijrniv. sad arifint, though be i* tcry minuto ia his uialfui at ill 
Uw n Mtiiamt* «t po«l>e torn. 

301 rtXBS FLOCaHUAS Tj— vil 

nnd Bpiritual rulers, not an attempt to awaken thoir consciences, 
or excite tlieir sympathies, and thus induce them to repent of 
the sina and repair the wrongs they had committed ; nor waa 
it an attack upon the theology of tiie Church of Rome, or a 
rcviilutionary appeal to the passions of the multitude, It was 
a calm, alk-gorical exposition of the corruptions of the state, of 
tlie church, and of social life, designed, not to rouse the people 
to violent rcsisitance or bloody vengeance, but to reveal to them 
the true causes of the evils under which they were suffering, 
and to secure the reformation of those grievous abuses, by a 
united exertion of the moral influence which generally accom- 
panies the possession of superior physical strength. 

The allegory, and more especially the dream or vision,*is, in 
the simpler stages of society, and consequently in the early lite- 
rature of must nations, a favourite euphemistic form for the 
announcement of severe, or otherwise dL«agreeable truths. Its 
cap'^ity of double interpretation might serve as a retreat for 
the dreamer in case of apprehended persecution, and when once 
it had become a common mode of censuring social or political 
grievances, it would continue to be employed by those who no 
longer needed the disguise of equivocal language, merely be- 
cause it was the xisiial form in which the inferior expres.sed 
his dissatisfactiou with the administration or the corruptions 
of the superior power. 

While, therefore, Wyeliffe, at a somewhat later day, assumed 
a posture of open hostility to the papal church, by attacking 
some of the cardinal doctrines on whicii the supremacy of the 
see of Rome is founded, the Vision of Piers Pioughman had not 
taken so advanced a position. At the same time, it was ex- 
tremely well calculated to suggest opinions which it did not 
itself openly profess ; and the readers, who recognized the tru'.h 
of the pictures of social and ecclesiastieal depravity there pre- 
sented, could hardly fail to suspect the necessity of adopting 
some more energetic measures of reform than a mere resort to 
moral snasiou. TIence there is no doubt that the Vision, and, 

* For some ver; int^rcHCing st.atementi ia regard to tlie ideas of tbe 
indcat racea od the subject of dreams, B«fl E. B. Tylor'a JSatiy Uittory ^ 
Maiikiiid. Introduetors Chapter. 

LccT. Tn. 



afowyeara aft«r,tlie Creed, of Piera Ploughman, — which latter 
is more exclusively directed against the corruptions of the 
Komiflh Chuivb, — potterfully aided in prumoting the reception 
of the doctrines of WyeliSe, eucouragod the circulation of *"c 
n«w English versions of the Scriplnms, a«:i thiw plauted, deep 
in the English mind, the germ of ttiat religious revolution 
which was so au-^piciou^ly begun and perfected in the gixteenth 
century, u well a-s of tJie political reforms which followed, a 
hundred yeai-a later. 

1 shall not go much into detail in givin^f a general view of 
the Etrticturc of this intvrci^tiu-; and rcmarkahle poem. Xo 
branch of crit it-ism is less goucrally profitable or instructive 
than that which di-tcuiuteH the plan of litt^rary composition^ 
except in reference to the drama, the special aim of which is the 
exbibition of tlie entire roorul character and internal life of in- 
dividuals, considered as types of humanity in its almost infi- 
nitely varied phases. The exposition of Uie plan of a work of 
imagination no more helps us to form & eoncoption of the itn- 
prcsinon we derive from the praduction itself, than a de»;riptioii 
of a skeleton would aid ua in constructing a viRual image of the 
person of a Washington. It is the muscular form, the circu- 
lating fluids, the coloured integuments, tliat give life and indi- 
viduality to organic objects and to the product* of the organized 
fancy; and the actual ]>cru:»a] of a poem is as essential to an 
idea of it as a whole, as the ught of a man to a clear notion of 
lii:i persona I ity. Every primitive, incipient literature is spon- 
taneous and unconscious, not premeditated and cntieal. I» 
this stage of art, or nithcr of impulsive composition, narrative 
and dificursive works of imnginntion are written without a plan. 
The poem shap^-s and organizes itself as it grows; and it may 
be remarked that in the .majority of cases where authors have 
themselves set forth the scheme and purport of their allegoric*, 
it bAs been found difBcult, if not impossible, to recognize the 
profeaeed plan iu the finished work. 

But to return. The dreamer of the Vision, * weary* for- 


THE nsiOR or rins rtxmaamx 

iKCT. \lt 

wan<l(re<),' falls asleep 'on ft May morwcnjnge on Malreme 
liilles,' the poet tliiia happily Miggostiti^, at the coromeQc«iii«nt 
of the poem, the cheerful images Ix-loiiging to the return of 
spring a&d the beautiful sceneiy for which lliat locality ia still 
famoufl. He sees the iohatitantx of the enrth gatliered in a ihxT 
moodow before him, and ubsi-rvej tlieir various ranks and occii> 
pfttioDB, dvToting a large jiaii of his dcMriptioo to an account 
of the dilTerent ordera of tbe oionaatic aiid Kecular clergy, re- 
ligious mendicants and pilgriros, and depicting in strong 
language their worldliness and depravity. 

I Ibni] ihtn tmrt, 
A!l« (he lount ordrca, 
Piediyiigo tbu peple 
Tor profti of heinKlret 
Gloacd l]i« gospel, 
As bciD good liktd; 
For coTi'iiiw; of cojwn, 
Coostniwcd it lis thci iroldo. 

This sketch, vith the old &b1e of belling the cat, occtiplct the 
Intrudiiction. In the first section, or Patme, as the writer 
Btyira it, a heavenly meraenger, the perMnification of 'holi 
ohirche,' appciire to Uie dn^amer, and bestows axplanation^M 
warnings and counsels upon him. In the aeoond FftMua, 
olwcrves 'on his left half a wom&n, who is thus described: — 

I loked OD my Irft baU, 
A* the lady m« tnughie, 
And was war of a woman 
Worthilich^ y-clntbed, 
Forfilcd wiih {wlurs 
The fyavie upon cnbs, 
T-Coroiuwd with * cnroins 
The kyng hath noon bcun 
Fctitllcbu' hire IVtigres 
Were freued wilb gold wyr, 

* jWiUoW, dcg^ntlj, Konoaii-Fmcb. faictiainniofl^ boa L>L Ia3*t« 

Lwi. VIL 

ras Tisiox or fieks rLouauiuui 


Ani! r}i«riMi rede nibica 

A" rirdp ns any gicccio,' 

And iJiamaiKKlcs vf livrretA pril) 

And double niaiiete raphlrea, 

Orii'iiiids* and ewi^es,' 

£iiTt'Q)'me))* to d«fttro]r«. 

Utre robe nns fii) dche^ 
Of iwm3 »it-.irlcl fngif.yticd, 
"Wilh rilinnv* uf riid guld 
And i>r I'iclic KkincH. 
Hiri-' urmy mc mvysJied, 
Swich richcMeanugb I uev<!F6; 
I huddo wonder wbst eliu uo^ 
And wbuB wit' ube w«re. 

This lady, as Holy Chircb« iiifonns him, is Mode, or what tlia 
■English Sfripturcs call liicre, and 'lu the pojiea piileb' ia na 
familinr at Holi Cliirch« bentelf. His visitor now leaves him, 
ttnd in tbe remainder of the second, &s well as in the third and 
fourth sectious. the dnttnicr observe* how all, high and low, 
rich and poor, Iny and c1ei;gy, alike olTrr their homage to Mede 
or Lucrv, who C(mtnu:t« a ]«gid marriag;*; with Falsehood. lo 
the third PAi^itu.t, Mcde in lakeD Ento &vour at ci>urt, and is much 
careeaed by the friars, though her intrigues are )tomt:tini(« 
thwarted by Conscience, who seems to have greater inBuence 
with the king than with the priesthood. The king proposes a 
tiew matrimonial alliance between Medu aud CoDficicuc^ to 
which proposal the latter replies: — 

' fUrdt, bnming or gloirinj; (dbI. • erimii!. n<3 sapplui*. • magt, deAncd \ij 
Wrinlit with • qnctj- at lo ila Knin«. 'a kiml of prtcicw nlonc.' Ui Ihn oyun- 
tHarinr, tua'Watrr ur grrcn hcrj\. Ean, in old Fiuich, wai >jirlli-i) in ■ (crmt 
Torinj or 1•ll}^ ni»l, Knionit olhrn. *auw«, oftwo, taigtv md Ik-dm XMyr, M 
■laokiaotwitliirluiilini: iu r\'*i'nil>I»iicn to 111* A.S. Luer or Iiwrr. IfiL hTprr.) 
MNT, A vnitpr-rtMwL ' mutaifiitn to ilff)n/jfr. Tlw roby. nnd mn.nj' oihi't 
pNCiaiw >i(ina. w«n^ worn in tlic Xiddle Agn n« Miulcta Bgniiuit poitoa ; and 
llMgr V*r# bt'lipTi'd hj oiaDy nodical men laaurlaphyaioil infltMno*. *> rvmiNliiil 
•cmtli In iliv hwUitiK of (roundly whoUirr tioax pouoiiDd or DD[>oiiioiivd »<-)ij>uuj. 
KccipM Tor tli« apf Uoatioa of iii»ia ia»j bo fouod <4 u kU date aa the mexta.- 
Iffrmh ocotAnr* 

308 tns TisioH or riSBS flocosiuv Licr. VU. 

Crist it me forbcd* I 

Er I wmJdp i>wicli« b wi^ 

Wo mo hitidv I 

For riu\ U Tn-lf. of Iiin fctllli 

Fikcl of hire upL-nhc, 

Aiid inukctli mi^ niywlo 

Tnut of liin! irawr 
Bitntj'elli ful maaye. 

He thiu proceeds to state bU objections to th« Dinteh, at great 
leugth, brin^n<; out the itbtupg in Church and State, of nhidi 
Mode, or thu Iotc of lucre, iu tiiv cniiw.*, but tiually proposes to 
leave the queetiou te tbu decision of Ressoo. Tcace now euten 
upon ibc Hcdne ii8 u Miitur to piirlmmt-iit for mirths for griev- 
tkii<:eM inflict«d upon hiiu hy Wrou^, and KeaMtii and CooKciencv, 
prevail vith the king, who announoes his determination 
govero his renltn according to the ndvieo of Beasoo. Tb 
coodudea the fourth Kctioa and the lir^t vision. 

Tho dn-amvr ^ waked of liia wynkyug ' and attempted to pro- 
ceed OD hiti pilgrimi^e, but 

wo wmwilhnlle 
That [l)c] ne bndilc alept aaddsr* 
And 7'>cighcD nioorc 

BecomlDg fatigned, be, like many other good ChrUti&tu 
•od sinoe his time, 

tat snAely a-douBt 
And »ei<l« bin hildvp, 
Aod so lie tmhlcdc on hi* bcdH^ 
Thei broaghu.- him a-alt^ 

He now has a aecond vision, in which be again 

angh the Icld Ail o{ folk, 

and Reason preaching repentance to difTt-rent cIosms of offendeni, 
each of which is penoutfied by the name of the sin to which it 
is uddicttnL One of the efaicf sinuen is Coveitise* who, after i 


long and curious voluntary confesdon, la subjected to a crow- 
examinatioQ by Repentunce. 
The following is an extract: — 

' I hove ben CDTeitoiis,' qaod tliifl csjtif, 
•I bi-knowe' it here, 
For som tyme I served 
Sjrome-at'e- Sty le, 
And was hia prentice y-pligh( 
Hia profit to wayte. 

' First I lemed to lye, 
A leef outher tvreyne; 
Wikkedly to weye 
Was my firste leaBon ; 
To Wy and to Wyocheatrt 
I wente to the feyre, 
'With many manere marcbaundiB8| 
As my maister me higbte. 
Ne hadde tbe grace of gyle y-go 
Amongea my chaffare, 
It hadde ben unsold this seven yer, 
So me Godhelpel 

' Thanne drough I me among dn|Ml% 
My donet* toleme, 
To drawe the liaer* alon^ 
The lengcr it semed ; 
Among the richo rayea 
I rendred a lesson, 
To brocbe hem with a pak-nedl(^ 
And playte hem logiderea, 
And putte hem in a presse^ 
And pyne hem iberinne, 
Til ten yerdea or twelvs 
Hadde tolled out thritteno. 

' My wif was a webbe, 
And wo]] en cloth made ; 
She Bpak to spynnestereB 

' M-Jnoiee, confew, Ger. bekaniieii. ■ ionU, a name appKed TO gramioaii 
bom DoDHtiu, the authar of a celebrated Latia acddeace and lyntaz, and, aftca> 
vud«,toany manual of uubuctiiiiigOiMt of mien * ttwr, aelTigc^ 



laa. VIL 

Ta opTnncn !t oute, 
Ac Uie pouni] thai powd faj 
P«ised a quatron moore 
Tban mvn oir«n« nimcart' 
Who K> wo>-«l iniihe. 

* I boughic hir« barly-mal^ 
She br««r il to teile. 
Pen/ nlo and puddjrng ala 
She ponrod tc^derca, 
For Uborcre and far loirc folk 
Thai lay by liyitiHcIie. 

'Tbe bvMe nio lajr in my boor. 
Or ID my bcd-dianibrc ; 
And vrlw so bumm«d tfaera^ 
Boughic it iltonifiur, 
A gnlon Tor « grolff. 
God wont, no triao '. 
And yot it ciuii in cn[ipc-m«I(^ 
Thill ciiift my nif uncd. 
KoHC l]i« Iti^nrmter 
Wiw hire rigbl« nune; 
Bhp halh hoI<len huklceiT* 
Al hire lif tyiUL-. 
Ac I Hvrere now, m iIim tic I 
Tlwt sjnac wol I k-u-. 
Awl noTorc nJkkt^ly wcyit 
Ne wikke cbalTaro use; 
Bui w«nd«n to Wnlt^ghnm, 
And my wif nU, 

Anil biiMu t)ia Knodc «f BromhollB 
Brynge ma out of d«llc.' 

' Rcpentedetdow cvoreT' qnod I(epenUuno% 
*Or reMliluctoD madcat* 

* Ym*, onfH I WM y-tierborw«d,' qtwd Iw^ 

* With iin hwp of chnfimefi, 
I rooii wbiin ihvi were a-raiM 
And rilli-di: lure mtdun.' 

* mmerr, hert {irobablj tbn bowl of « itMlfanl. «r «f a p^ of KilMt 
Mlly, kCDjL * s**. Tbit pMticKbatagMiaiavwtokqiMttioafraaad >Sn^ 
■UT«ly,ia«migl|]raMdfi)ri«& Sm Finl SaiM^ iMtata XXVI, fP. a».U«i, 


' Tbat wtiB no reatitucion,' quod Repentaimoe^ 

* But a robberia thefts ; 

Tliow haddest be the bettre wortbi 

Ben hanged therfore, 

Than for al that 

That thow hast here shewed,' 

' I wende riflynge were reatitucion,' quod lu^ 

• For I lemed nevere rede on boke ; 
And I kan no Frentuhe, in feith, 

But of the ferthcEte ende of Northfotk.' 

'Usedestow evere usurie?' quod BepenlMiiMMh 

*In al thi lif tyme.' 
'Nay sotbly,' he wide, 

' Save in my yoiithe 

I lemed among Lumbardea 

And Jewea a lesson, 

To weye pens with a peis,' 

And pare the bevyeste, 

And leue it for love of the cro% 

To leggd a wed' and leae iL 

Swiche dcdcs I dide write, 

If ha hia day breke, 

I hare mo manoira thorugh reiage^ 

Than thorugh miseretur et commodaL 
' I have lent lordes 

And ladiea my chafiare, 

And ben hire brocour after, 

And booght it myselve; 

Eachaungea and chevyaannoe* 

With Rwich chafikre I dele. 

And lene folk that leae wola 

A lippe at every noble, 

And with Lumbardts lettres' 

I ladde gold to Rome, 

And took it by tale hei^ 

And tolde hem there laase.' 

* pel*, Vt. poid^ wd^t ■ wti, pled,-^. ■ ZtnaSar^ btt't$, UDi 

of exchange. Then sia some passages in tjiia «xtnet whidi I do not nndantaa^ 
J h^a mj rMdcn m^ ba more fortaoale. 


' LcDiestow erere lordet, 
For lore of hire maynteiiaiincaf * 
* Te, I hare lent to lordes, 
Lored me aerere mSter. 
And hare y-maad many a Imjgtit 
Bothc mercer and dmper. 
That jnTed nevere for his jxvatiaboia 
Noglit a peire glovea.' 

' BaHtow ipiii oD porere men. 
That mote nedea bonwo ? ' 

* I hare as mnchc pil^ of pOTcre mea. 
As pedlere hath of catlea. 

That wolde kille hem, if he cacche hem myghto^ 
For coveitiae of hir ekj^nnea.' 

' Artow manlich among tbi Degbeborai 
Of thi mete and drrnkc 7 ' 

* I aiD holilen,' quod he, * as benda 
As hound is in kichena, 
Amongea my negheborea, namely^ 
Swiche a namo ich hare.' 

Tbe multitude of repeutant bearers set out on s pilgrimt^ 
10 Truth, under the leadership of a pilgrim who is thoa 
described: — 

Ac there was wight noon to wjv 
The wey thider koutbe, 
But blustredcQ fiirtb as beeistM 
Over bankea and hillw ^ 
Til 'ate was and Ionize 
lliat thei a leodc ' metts, 
Apparailled as a paynytn 
In pilgrymca wiae. 
He bar a burdnnn' y-boimdl 
With a brood liate, 
In a wiihwynde wise 
T-wounden aboute; 
A bolle and a ba;^ 
He bar by bin syde, 

■ Itede, num. penoB. * burdain, *taS 

Lter. VU. 

TUB Vision OP ptens rLocoDiua 


And hundred or ampidles) 

On his hat Helen, 

!Ugn<!* of Synnv, 

And fhrllcu nf Gnlicc, 

And many n croticliic' on hU dob^ 

And ktj'ca of Koinp, 

And tlic vumyclu tii-foret 

For mtoi iJiuldv knowa 

And 86 bi tiiae Bignes 

Whom bo sought hadde. 

It mny Ijc worth remarking, in connection with this de-icrip- 
tion, which would in lunny particulars apply to the religious 
mend icui til of the Eaut at the present dny, whether Moslem or 
Cbristion, that the different tokens cniimerat«d indicated the 
different shnnea or other sacred localities which the pilgrim h«d 
visited or professed to have visited. The 'shclle of Galice,' or 
cocklc-Bbell, was the proper eognizniiw; of those who had paid 
tlieir vowH at the shrine of St. James, at Compostella in Ualicio, 
OD the coast of which province (he cockle-sliell abounded ; the 
palm and tbe cross were worn by those who liad worshipped at 
the Holy Sepulchre: the keys of Peter, and the vcmyele, or 
painting of tlie handkerchief of St. Veronica, on which the Sa- 
viour iuipn-sisi-d Wxn likeneju, when be wiped the sweat from his 
brow with it on bis way to Calvary, by those who had been at 

The pilgrim* notwithstanding his experience as a traveller, 
am) the sftnctity with which his visits to so many sacred localities 
bad invested him, proved a blind guide, and Uie wanderers put 
themselves imder tbe direetion of Piers tbe Ploughman, who 
now, for the first time, appears in the poem. The new guide 
employs them in productive labour, but they become seditious, 
and are at last reduced by the aid of IIungiT, who subdues 
Waste, the leader of tbe revolt, and humbles bis followers. 

ampulla, gmcnllv, wmaM phinli; here it urnn* to mun lokrn^ * ermiciti, 
the modiim frtilcA Ukra it* nuus frun it« crou-tik« Cocm, 

814 tsE Tisioii or FiEBs PiAroHUAit Lkt. til 

The poet here alludes to the effects of a recent famine and 
pl^ue, and sharply satirizes the liuury and ^travagance of the 
wealthier classes. The ' pardons ' or indulgences of the Pope 
are contemptuously treated, and the pilgrim goes in search of 
•Do-well,' a personification of good works, the true nature of 
which is treated as a difficult question. Wit appears to him and 
describes the residence of Do-well, Do-better, and Do-best, de- 
livering, at the same time, a rambling moral and religious lec- 
ture. For this he is reproved by his wife, Studie, evidently a 
ftrong-minded dame. 

That lene was of lere, 
And of liche bothe,' 

who takes the words out of his mouth, aad, after a long Hb- 
floursei during which her husband, Wit^ 

bicom so cnnfua 
He kouthe noght loke, 
And as doumb as dethe. 
And drough him aiere, 

ite recommends the Ploughman to her cousin Clergie, for further 
instruction. Clergie gives his pupil a dissertation, in which 
occurs what has been called a prophecy of the dissolutiou of the 
monasteries by Henry VIII. : — 

And thanne slial the abbot of Abyngdonc^ 
And al his issue for evere, 
Hare a knok of a kyng, 
And incurable the wounde. 

When Clergie concludes, the pilgrim exclaims: — 

This is a long lesson, 
And Utel am I the wiser, 

' Lent of ttft and of liche, mragM in doctrino and in ppreon. Tail it ■ 
MFcaam Bgninat icliolnstie tbeologf, 'science falaelj §o called,' u opposed ta 
practical, liviDg Ciinstumt]r. 


rnK nsioR or riERS PLOucauAit 


^Be«ds to reply, at great length, and receives a reproof from 
^Rpture, for bis indocile temper. Then follovs another vision, 
'in which th« drvamcr is cxposeO to tlic CcniptatioD* of fortune 
JBj neriMial pluisiirc, in rescued hy OH Age, and fal]« into a 
jBdit-niion on tlie covetoiianeiH of the friaf!), the doctrine of 
predestioatioa and other religioUH topics. Nature now curies 
him to a mountain, and Bhows him how all living creatures, man 
■lone excepted, arc obedient to the dictate of Bcwon, alter 
vhieh follows an exhortation from Imaginalivc, conccroing tha 
>^vine puniglimeuts, the duties of charity and mercy, and the 
;greater responsibilities of the leamod and the rich. 

Several sections of similar geneml character follow, in which 
new personifications of virtues, Tices, and moral and intellectuat 
qualities are introduced. In tho eighteenth section, the cha- 
racter of Piers Flougbman is ideutilicd with that of the Saviour, 
and the remainder of tbis suction is principally occupied with 
Christ'^ Pansiou, hifl dejwent info Hell, the rcAcno of the patri- 
archs and prophets, his resurrection and his final trinmph over 
the infernal fqiirita. We have then the foundation of tfac visible 
Church, the opposition of worldly men and princes, and an attack 
of Antichrist on the Church. Afterwards, the Castle of Unity, 
the strong-hold of the Church, is »e»nilcd by an army of prieata 
and monks, and Conscience, the governor of the cn«tlc, is driven 
out, and goes in quest of the Ploughman, when the dreamer 

^^hc movement of the poem i«, to a con^dcrable extent, dia> 
^filtic and iu tliese portioni) the dialect is evidentlyoolloquial, 
.though the characters are not sufficiently individtialized to give 
ithe performance much of dramatic effect; but it seems ex- 
llremely well calculared to influence the claea for whose use it 
|«aH chiefly intended, and the success it met with snfBciently 
proves that, in spite of its Latin quotations, it was, in the main, 
■rell suited to their comprchunsion. 

Although, OS I have before remarked, the proportion of words 
if forcij2;n origin in the vocabulary of Piets Ploughman i» aa 


IBB Vision OF TIERS noCflllMAir 

LscT VU. 

great ft* In Chuuccr, yet tlie stnictiire of the dinlect is mote 
nrcliaio, and there are many words which are now obaol«fe,in- 
cliuliiij^ n coDRiderable number the meaning of vhi<-h is alto- 
gether unknown. But there ia no euch difference in the dtock 
of words, or in the syntacticid combinations of the two aiitiiont, 
M to oreat« a maiked dialectic diMtincUoii between them, and 
tliej' iirft hardly more unliko tlian the &tyle and diction of two 
Engli&h writers of the present day, who should treat tbcmu 
and address audiences w different as thoso of Chaucer and 

The moods and b-nsca of the rerb had a4!quire<l very nearly 
their present force, and the -past and future amtliAriM were 
used stibiNtantJally as in modei'a English. I mention this point 
particularly, because it has been said that the curious and intri- 
cate dintinctiou wo now make between tbo two auxiliaries 
ehnlt and unit, i* of ri?ccnt oriipn. CtuM.^ may indeed be fouod 
in Pirrs t'loiighinan, wht^ru »hiill is iise^l in a connection tiiat 
would, in modern usage, require tvitl, hut tliese ore few, and 
some of them douhtfnl ; nnd [ have obtterred no case vbere 
ttri'U ia put for the modern skaU. 

Th& verbs arc inflected much according to the Anglo-Sasoa 
(asbioD, the ondini; lU characterizing not only the tJiird pcr^oQ 
ringular, present indicative, but ull the persons of the plural of 
that mood nnd tense, as well a« the imperative. The infinitive 
generally ends in en, as does also the plural of the past tense, 
and both the weak and strong form of conjugation are employed. 
To all thette nit<4 there are exceptions and the poet seems to 
have been influenced much by rhythm In the conjogation of bl^ 

The nouna, witJi few exceptions, fonn the plural in e, and th^ 
adjective plural usually terminates in e, but the declemdoa Orf 
this port of speech is irregular. 

Tlie return to the Saxon conjugation of the verba, which, u 
we Imvi; seen, had been much disturbed, is cnriouts as u . 
exemplilication of the reactionary tendency I bare loeDtionedr a 


«D(1 the influence of Piers Ploughman, or of the spirit by which 
ibat work was animated, was strong enough to keep this revived 
inflection cuirent until after the time of Chaucer. 

There is, in general, mucli care and precision in the use of 
words, which seem often to be employed with an intelligent re- 
ference to their derivative history, and, in some instances, they 
are explained by a direct statement of their descent. The der- 
ivation of the word heathen from heath, as implying the rude 
and uncivilized inhabitants of wild and unreclaimed territory, is 
curious, and it has appeared as original in more than one later 
linguistic work. The whole passage is as follows ; — 

' Clooth (hat comrth fro the wevyng 
la n<ight comly to were, 
Til it be fulled under foot 
Or in fullyri" st(>kke3, 
Wasshcn v/iA with water, 
And with lasclcs cracched, 
T-toukod' and y-leynted,' 
And under tnillonrB hande ; 
Right so it fai-cti) by a bam, 
Tlial born is of a wombe, 
Til it be criHtncd in Cristas name, 
And confcrnied of iho bisshope, 
It is hcilicnc ajt to hevene-ward, 
And hflp-loea lo the aouie. 
Hcihcn is to niene afier heeth 
And unlik'd erthc, 
As in wildc wildcraesae, 
'Wexeth wilde biiestes, 
Budc and unrcsonable, 
ISeanyDge wi thou ten cropiera.* 

P!eT8 Ploughman, although allegorical In its plan, and di- 
dactic in its aims, gives us more minute and intimate views of 
the material and social life of that age, than almost any poetical 

' g^mJttd, dyed. * y-ttynttd, stretched on t«iit«i> 



tKt. VIL 

work [□ early Euglish liU;Tutiir& Wo have gliinpsn nt the con- 
dition, and wva the dre«8 and nulriment, of tbe kltoiiring 
cluises, tl>e procefnas of the arU, the frauds of arttaaiut and 
dva)erB,tlw corruptions in Ihv udiuinistnitiou ofjiLstice, the rela- 
tions btitwoi-n Iho cicrg}- and Uie people, and, in Hhort, at all tbo«e 
circuinBlancci nhich made up the actualities of En);li«h lifo in 
tbe fourteenth centuiy; and lionce, though it deals with no 
questions of chronology, this j^ma is a cootjibaUon of soma 
value to the domestic histor; of tliv Enj^li^h nation. 

Tbe fbUowiog p««sagei are of the clinracter juat indicated t — 

' Hphhm Tie wi'l<! I wi-nde. 
Til I bar*: djiicd bi this day, 
AdiI }--droake bodies' 

' I have 110 pcny,* quod Iic(% 
* Puletlos to bugge,' 
He neiihvr g>-«i no gjj*,* 
But two gr«iui chaMi^ 
A fcv'c oruddca ukI creiMi 
And nn luvcr* cako, 
And two lore* of bene* and bm^ 
Y'bnkc fc<r mj ftantm;' 
An<l 7<:t I Mye, by in)- tuule I 
I hiivo no mit bacon, 
No no ookt-uc)',* bj Crlatl 
CdIi>]>pc« liir to nuilcva. 

* Ac I liavc pi-rcilo and poTOtta% 
And mnnye onlp plnuntaSi 
And clc a cow and a ctl^ 
And a cnrt innro 
To drnn*(' n-lcid my ilnnge, 
Thn vhilc ihu difi^tlilc Uilrih; 
Aii<l by ihin UiIihIo we mote lyre 
Til Lamini-iau tynie. 
And l>y ihai, I hope to have 
Herroftl iu my croito, 

• timw, lidj. 

* tflttnqf, Wright ttink*. ■ lean fnd. 

' ffryt, pig*. • hattr, mIsmL * /amiM. i 


And tbannc may I dighte thi Aynetf 
Ae me deers liketh.' 

Al the povcre peple tho 
Peacoddes fetteo, 
BesGs and baken apples 
Thei brogLte in hir luppea, 
ChiboUcH and ctiervclles, 
And ripe chiriea manye, 
And profrede Piers this present 
To plese with Hunger. 

Al Hunger eet in haste, 
And sxed after moors. 
Thanne povere folk, for fere^ 
Fedden Hunger yeme, 
With grene poiret and pesen 
To poisone bym thei thogbte. 
By that it neghed neer harvest, 
And uewe com cam to chepyng;' 
Thannc w^ifl folk fdyn, 
And fedde Hunger with the beste, 
With goode ale, aa Gloton laghte. 
And garte Hunger go slepe. 

And tho wolde Wastour noght werdM^ 
But wandren aboute, 
Ne no beggere ele breed 
That benes ione were, 
But of coket and cler-matyn,' 
Or ellis of clene whete ; 
Ne noon halfpeny ale 
In none wise drynke. 
But of the beate and of the brunnpate* 
That in bm^he is to selle. 

Laborers that have no land 
To lyre on but biro bandea. 
Deyned noght to dybe a day 
Nyght-olde wortess 
May no peoy ale bem paye^ 
He DO pece of bacone, 

tttpgnff, market ' coiet and cUr-vUyn, Saer kindi of bread, * Irtw 
bniwiMtt, nehMt with malt. 

NoQglit to hn u It fitbdora or a (rcr«, 

l-'or to kVq fiirtiai 

Uoonlichc at olhuTi: :iieikUCH boUMi^ 

An<l Imtieii btr cwcu«. 

EIrage ' is tbc liaU« 

Ecb day in th« wike, 

Tbur ilic lord ne llie lady 

LJkiHli Dof^lii to oitie. 

Now baiti ccb riclic ft rula 

To eion by hymtwlTO 

In a piyTcc parlour, 

For pov«ra tn«m«i t$k9. 

Or in n clMtnibr« witli a dijmtoMi 

And kvc the diir/ bnlto 

T)u)t wiu mtuul tot melM^ 

Sifcn to cli-n inae. 

And nl to aparc to ipcnd* 

HiBt npillc iJial flnotbvr. 

Tenet $791— 5808. 

Tbnnnc PnHcnoft perMyrad 
Of jHiintM of tbU ctitc, * 

Thnt wi-re ccilinny* llivru^ covtutJM 
And unkyntUi di^aryiig ; 
Moore to good tlan to God 
Thv gotno* bU lov« ca&to, 
And ymuf^yDcdo bow 
Hv it oiyghte bavo 
With falte momrca sad mH,* 
And with &ls «itDM»; 
L«Qcd* for lova of tlio wed,* 
And loolb to do tratbe; 

BMlMohol}, in»d«ni oMnj. 



And awuted thorugh which 

Wey to bigile, 

And menged * his marchftundiMi 

And rande a good moustre ; * 

'The worate withinne was, 

A greet wit I let it, 

And if my neghebore hadde anj hjB^* 

Or aaj beest ellis, 

Hoore profitable than niyii, 

Ifanje sleigh tea I made 

How I myghte have it, 

Al my wit I caste. 

And but I it hadde by oother wej, 

At the loHte I stale it ; 

Or priTeliche his pure shook, 

And nnpikede hitie lokes; 

Or by nyghte or by daya 

Aboute was ich evere, 

Thorugh gile to gaderen 

The good that ich haTe. 

' If I yede to the plowgh, 
I pynched ao narwe, 
That B foot lond or a forow 
Feccben I wolde 
Of my nexte neghebore, 
And nymen of his erthe. 
And if I repe, over-reche, 
Of yaf hem reed* that ropen* 
To seise to me with hir sikel 
That 1 ne sew* nevere. 

' And who 80 bonded of m^ 
A-boughte the tyme 
With presentea prively. 
Or paide som certeyn; 
So he wolde or noght wolde^ 
Wynnen I wolde, 
And bothe to kith and to l^n 
Cnliynde of that ich hadde. 

■ witmiftd, nfated, bad with good. ■ mousin, sample, or perliapa show, edB> 
wdsig Bzmigniient so u to hide defect*. ' iifu, lerviuit, * rted dlrectloDA 


•tvat, n^edL * Mtvsvvsd. 


* And who eo chcpcd mj chaffsn^ 
Cliidcn I nolde, 
Bat lie profrcdc to pua 
A pcny or tweyne 
Uoore than it was wortht 
And yet wolilc I swere 
That it coHtc me muche moore, 
And so avroor moDye otbes.' 

Tenea 8737— 879S. 

Barons and buTgeieeS) 
And bonde<mcn ala, 
I Bctgh in tliis nascmblee, 
Ab ye shiil here afier ; 
BakKleri^a and brcwestcrei^ 
And bocliicrs niaaye ; 
WoUen webbestere, 
And weTcreB of lynnen, 
Taillours and Knkcra, 
And tollcra in nmrkettc^ 
Masoiia utid mynours, 
And many othere crafleB. 
Of alio kynne ]ybbynge laboran 
Lopen ' forth fiomme, 
As dikercs and delverea, 
Tliat doon hire dcdea ille, 
That dryveth forth the longo d^ 
Witli Dieu save dame Emme. 

Cokes and hire knaves 
Cryden ' Hole pierf, hote I 
Goode gees and gr3's! 
Gowe, dyne, gnwcl ' 

Tavomcra unli! hem 
Trewely toldcn the same, 
Wliit wjTj of Oseyo, 
And reed wyn of Gascoigne, 
Of the Uyn and of the Kochel, 
The roost to defie.* 

Veraes 480—457. 

Lkt. vil thk tisiok of hebs floughman 323 

Langlsnde Beems to have shared in the popular prejudice 
uudei which the profession of law has always lahoured. He 
thus satirizes the bar: — 

Tet hoved' ther an hundred 

In howvea* of aelk, 

Sergeantz it bt-semed 

That serveden at the baire, 

Pleteden for pehyea 

And poundes the lawe ; 

And noght for love of our Lord 

Unlose hire lippca ones. 

Tbow myghtest bettre meete mytt 

On Maiveme hiUes, 

Than gele a mom of hire month| 

Til moneie be E^ewed, 

Verses 41$— 439. 

In the third passus, Mede's confessor proposes to her to secure 
her salvation hy giving his church a painted window, to which 
•be assents: — 

Thanne he assoiled hire aoona, 
And sithen he seide : 
' We hare a wyndow in werchyngs 
Wole aitten ua ful hye, 
Woldestow glnze that gable 
And grave therinne thy name, 
^ker shotde thi soulc be 
Hevene to have.' 

Verses UiO^lOt, 

* Have mercy,' quod Mede, 

* Of men that it haunteth, 
And I shal covere youre kirk| 
Toiire cloiatre do niaken, 
Wowea' do whiten, 

And wyndowes gla^en, 

■ I>« ri , wut«d, ■ ioava, hooda or exga. * Wowet, villi. 

T a 




Do peyiit«n and portraye^ 
And paic for ibo makjDgv, 
That oxcTy m^^' thii mnjm 
X am n»UT of joon houa»>* 

tJpoa this the Pilgrim obscrTc*: — 

Ac God to all« good folk 
Bwieh gnvjage dolcDdetl^ 
To writm in irj^dowct 
Of hir v«l dedcB. 
• • • • 

Lftt noght till left Iialf 

Xttio ae rathe 

Wiiu what thnw wcrchcflt 

With thi right iij-do J 

For thus hy ihu ^«]td 

Goode tneu di>ca lur alroeaw. 

VewM H83— 1507. 

The aathor exhibit a liberality towards the Jews rarelj met 
with in that age : — 

Sliolde no criAtese CRalure 

Crjcn at the jMt, 

N« &iUe pa^ oe potsge, 

And prelalcs dide «« ihd sboIdoL 

A Jew wold« DOglit M a Jew 

Go JAtigljrng for dcfanic. 

For ollc Ibc nii-blc* on (hi* mootdi^ 

And he amende il mj^gble. 

AUasI tliat a erinttat creattire 

fibal be nntcyiidc til unotber ; 

Syn Jowt*, that we ju^sa 

Jndaa felawtt, 

Eytiier of hem lielpeUi ootbar 

Of that Ihnt hem nodctfa. 

Whi ncl wo criairDO 

Of Crnlo good bu as Vyndc 

Am Jcwea, that ben aura lorea-mm. 

TeiMs &818— 53S7 

' mgfftiinia. 


The following passage on U>a degeneracy of bc^ nature and 
nuu) jflstiiking: — 

' And BO it &retfa by Bom folk noWf 
Thd ban a &ir epecbe, 
Crowne and cristendom, 
The kynges mark of hevene ; 
Ao the metal, that is mamieB 0OUI& 
With Bynne is foule alayed. 
Bo&e lettred and lewed 
Beth alayed now with Bynne, 
That no lif loveth oother 
Ne oure Lord, as it semeth. 
For thorogh weire and wikkede weHu^ 
And wederea nnresonable, 
Weder-wise shipmen, 
And witty clerkes also, 
Han no bileve to the Ufle, ' 
Ne to the loore of philoso&eib 

' Aatronomiens al day 
ia hir art &illen, 
That whilom warned bifor* 
What Bholde lalle after. 

' Shipmen and shepherdes, 
That with ahip and sheep wentea, 
Wiflten by the walkne* 
What eholde bitide, 
As of wedres and wyndea 
Tim warned men ofte. 

' Tilieris, that tiled the ertho, 
Tolden hir maistres, 
By the seed that thei sewe, 
What thei aelle myghte, 
And what to lene, and what to lyve bf| 
The lond was bo trewe. 

*Now fiuleth the folk of the flood, 
And of the lond bothe, 
Sbqiherdea and ahipmen, 
And BO do thiao tilieii% 

■ t^ Aj, iSffm ct vaatim * walhie, doaSa, mOta, 


Neither thui konnctli ne knowetb 
Oon cours bilbrc another. 

' AstruDomytns also 
Area at hir wittes cailc, 
or that wa« calciiled of the element 
The contrarif thei fynde ; 
Grammcr, the ground of al, 
Bigilelh now children, 
For u noon of tliia nowe clcrke% 
Who HO nymcth hcde, 
Naught 0011 among un hundred 
That an auutour kun conBtruwe^ 
Ne rede a Icttro in any longage 
But in Latin or in EngliiuJi.* 

Venee 10,826— 10^ B7Sw 
Also the following: — 

For Sarzcns lian Bomwhat 
Somyiige to ourc bileve; 
For thei love and bileve 
In o pcraonc almyghty ; 
And wc, IcTi'd and lowed, 
In oon God ahnyghty ; 
And onn Alukumeth, a mailt 
In mysbilevo broughte 
Sarzens of Surrce, 
And Reo in what ntanere. 

' Thin Makometh was a cristens 
And fur he inoHl« noghl ben a pops 
Into Surric he Boughte, 
And thorugh him: eotilc wittea 
Be daunted' a dowve, 
And day and nyght hire fedde^ 
The com tliat i»ho croi)pede 
Ho ca-ste it in liis ere ; 
And if he among tho peple prechad^ 
Or in [iloCfB come, 
Tbonne woldc the colTera* oom* 
To the clorkea era 


Mcnyoge as ttftcr mete, — 
Tliua Makometb hire cnchauntede ; 
And dide folk thanni: fiille on kneei^ 
For he awoor in his prcchytig 
That the ooivere that com bo, 
Com from God of hevene. 
As messager to Makometh, 
Men for to teclie. 

And tins thonigh wiles of his wi^ 
And a whit dowrc, 
Makometh in inyiibileTe \ 
Men and wommen broughte ; 
That lyved tho there and lyre yit 
Leeven ' on hiiie lawes. 
• 'And Biththe our SaTeour au&ed. 

The Sarzcna so bigiled 
Thorugh a cristi-ne clerk, 
Acorsed in his soule I 
For drede of the deeth 
I dare noght telle truthe, 
How Englis-the clerkcK a colvere Ma 
T^t coveitise highte, 
And ben manered al^r Makometh, 
Tliot no man useth trouthe.' 

Veraes 10,408—10,453. 

I have dwelt the longer upon the Vision of Piers Ploughman, 
because I think justice has never been done to ita great merits 
— which can be appreciated only by thoughtful study and to ita 
importance in the literary history of England. Although Wright 
has rendered an excellent service by making this poem accessible, 
and in the main intelligible, to common readers, much labour 
ought still to be bestowed upon it. A scrupulously literal re- 
production of the best manuscripta, with various readings from 
all the copies, is needed ; and few old English authors better 
deserve, or will better repay the careful attention of English 

The Creed of Fien PloughmaD, which appeared, as is supposed, 

■ btPtn, belierik 


twenty or thirty years after the VisioD, may or may not be a 
work of the same author. The style and diction are much the 
same, but the later work is more esclusively theol<^cal, and 
graver in tone, and it shows an advance upon the opinioDS of 
the earlier poem, harmonizing more unequivocally with the 
views of WycliSe and the Reformers of his school, but it does 
not seem to have ever obtained the wide currency and influence 
of its predecessor. 

The general character of this work will sufficiently appear 
&om these passages : — 

Than tLonght I to frayne' tho fint 
Of this fours ordres ; 
And preeed to the Prechoure^ 
To proven her wille. 
Ich highed to her house, 
To herken of more ; 
And when I came to that cooit^ 
I gaped aboute, 
Y-buld upon ertbe heights 
Bay I nought in certeyn 
Syththe a long ^'me. 
I Hmed opon that hous, 
And yeme theron loked, 
Whow the pilereu neren y-pain^ 
And pulchud' ful ciene, 
And queyntly y-corren 
With curious knottea; 
With wyndowea wel y-wronght| 
Wyde up a-Ioile, 
And thanne I entred in, 
And even forth wcnte ; 
And al was walliid that woDO^ 
Though it wiid were, 
With poslemes in privlti 
To pascn when hem liste; 
Orcbeyai'des and erberea 

■^t^tWiinqiiiieoL ■ MU, boildinff * jwldlud; pdiilitAi 


Eresed' wel dene, 

And a cariaus croa 

Craftty entaykd, 

With tabernacles y-tight* 

To toten' al abouten. 

The pris of a plough-load 

Of penies so rounde 

To aparaile that pyler 

Were pure litel. 

Than I mtmte* me forth 

The mTDstre to Vnowen, 

And awajtede a wooa' 

Wonderly wel y-bild. 

With arches on everiche hal^ 

And bellyche y-correa, 

With crochetes on comercs, 

With knottes of gold, 

Wyde wyndoweH y-wrought, 

T-wryten fui thikke, 

Shynen with ehapen sheldus, 

To ehewcn aboute, 

With merkes of merchauntei 

T-medeled bet wen e. 

Mo than twentie and two 

Twyae y-noumbbred. 

Ther is non heraud titat liatb 

Half swich a roile, 

Bight as a ragcmaa 

Hath rekned hem newe. 

Tombes upon tabernacle* 

Tylde opon lofto, 

Housed in hornea, 

Harde eet abouten, 

Of armede alabauatn 

Clad fur the none*, 

' etesed, dipped, tiimmed. ' y-tight, fonijihed- * tnbemaele* . , , . 
tot^n ; Men ia to look, and tbe pbiaaa means belvedera, look-ant towers. 
* mun/e, fTOm minnen, to be minded, to incline. ' awagtede a teoon, ob- 
aervsd a dwelling m hooM. 

330 Tina cbbed of piebs flovqbium hwt, VIL 

Moad opon marbul 

In mnny manner wjse, 

KnyglitCH in tlicr coitisanl* 

Clud for llic noncK ; 

Allc it seiii<;d Hcyntea 

Y-wicrod opon crtlie ; 

And lovuly ]adipH y-wrougltl 

Irfj'cn liy IiiT nydi'B 

In mmiyc giiy giirni^mcna, 

That WITCH gold bctttn. 

Though the tax of ten yen 

Wrre truwcly y-fjatlured, 

Noldu it noijgiit inaktn that hom 

llnlf, an I trowo. 

Thim cam 1 to tliiit cloystre, 

And gnped ahoutt^ii, 

Whoii^^h it \v,i.i pilcrnd and pe^t^ 

And jtortrcycd wi'l dune, 

AI y-Iiyl<Kl witli k'cd 

Lowe to the Bionia, 

And y-pavpd with poyntfrfl 

Icli point after other ; 

With cunditoH of clene tya 

Closed al aboute, 

With Uvoures of lattm 

Lovclichc y-grc'ithed, 

I trowa tJiu giiynagc of the ground 

In a grct tJiyre 

Nold npantile that pinco 

Oo poynt tyl other ende. 

Tbantic was thiit ehapitre houit 

Wrought on a greet chircbe, 

Corveii and covcmd, 

And [pieyntctychc entaylcdi 

With Kemliche selure ' 

Y-8Cet on loAc, 

Aa a parlemcnt-hotu 

T-peyntod about*. 

Hiiume fi'jd I into iraytoim^ 


And fond tliere another. 
An balle fiir an hygh kynga 
An houahold to holdcn, 
With bi-ode bordes aboutea 
Y-benchtd wtl clene, 
With wyndowes of glaaa 
Wrought us a chirche 
Than walkede I ferrer, 
And went al abouten, 
And eeigh halles full heygb, 
And houses ful noble, 
Chambrea with chymeneji^ 
And cliapeles gaye, 
And kycheneB fur an high kyng* 
In casteles to holdcn ; 
And her dorfoure y-dight 
With dores (hi stronge ; 
Fermerye and fiuitur, ' 
With fele mo houses, 
And al strong stou wal 
Stemc upon hcithe. 
With gaye giu-ittis' and grete^ 
And jche hole y-glatwd, 
And other houses y-nowe 
To herberwe the (]ueene. 
And yet thise biJderes wiln bc^gaa 
A baggc ful of whete 
Of a pure pore man. 
That may oneihe paye 
Half his rent in a yer^ 
And half ben byhynde. 
Than turned I ayen. 
Whan I hadde all y-toted, 
And fond in a freitoure 
A frere on a benche, 
A greet chorl and a grynii 
Growea aa a tonne, 
With a &ce bo fat 

' ^ •m tt ar , nAetoj, * garittt, perhaps gurot^ hut I tUnk mm proba^f 
tojTBta, or pininelM. 


Aa a ful bleddcre 

Biowett bretful of breth. 

And OS a bog^ honged 

On bothen his cUekts, and his cliyB 

With a cbo! lollede 

So greet ai a gos e;, 

Growcn al of grece ; 

That al wagged liis Heish 

Ah a quick myrc. 

His cope, that bi-clypped hjfin, 

Wcl clcnc was it folden, 

Of double wurstede y-djght 

Doun to the hcle. 

His kyrtel of clone wluit, 

Clenlycha y -sowed, 

Hit was good y-now of grouod 

Greyn for to beren. 

I haylsede ' tliut hirdmon, 

And hcndlich I nayde, 

' Godo sire, for Godea love I 

Canstou mc groith tellen 

To any worllidy wiight 

That wisscn me cou&e, 

Whow I ehulde conne my Crede, 

Christ for to folwc. 

That levede* Iclliche* hymselia 

And lyvede tlierafter, 

That foyniidc no fulMhede, 

But fully Christ suwede? 

For rich a ccrteyn man 

Syker wold 1 trostcn, 

That he wolde tclie me tlie trewth% 

Aad tume to nou other. 

And an Austya^ this ender day 

£gged me fastc ; 

That he wolde t«chen we wel. 

He plyght me his treuthe, 

And seyde me ' corteyn, 

• taybedd, ulated. * Uved*. beliend. ■ UliA, loTtOy, bwM^. 

* Autlyn, Angiutui* tau. 

1.BCT. TU 

X1IE CUBED OF rrGRs plocohuas 


^^Uien Christ i^ei 
Ouro ordre wits cuellc* 
And crrt y-fimndo,' 

' FJKt, fdan-f,' quath h^ 
*Fy on liiii pilclie 1* 
He is Init aliorliif, 
Eked with clo<it«'8, 
He )ioM«(h liix ordvn&iniM 
With borm nnd thcTw, 
And poreliiucth hem pnyrvlpgei 
Wilii pcDj'c* ju> rounde. 
It is ■ piir pariinncn craft, 
PrOTG and anay ; 
For luix-e they ihy monejri 
A moneth therafter 
Certes Uteigh tbnu comr ngro. 
He vil Uic nought knovrn. 
Bat, fslawc, oiiro fbundtmcnt 
Va* fir*t of the ollii^rc. 
And vc ben foundtH fiilltclia 
Witlioutcn fuviiti»e, 
And vre ben clcrkes j-cnovtBt 
Cuimyng in Bcliole, 
pMred in proct-*^on 
By pcocmae of Iaw& 
Of OOM order ther beA 
Bicbopes wel manye, 
Seyotca on mndri Rt«dea 
That duffrcdcm hnrdc ; 
And ire ben proved the prui 
Of popes at Rome, 
And of gxettest degrj 
As godapelles teUeth.' 

Lines SOS— 612, 

The Pilgrim, who had already consulted a Minorite, Wsits, ia 
turn, the tvo rematniug ordore ; the AtiHtyns or Augustioa and 
the Carmelitea, who ahuse the * Prechours ' nod the 'Minouts* 
M heartily as they had been censured by them. He then Mil 

* pUeif, Air, or long lup^ doth, cloak. 


roEu o}i Riciuiio n. 

Lser. TIL 

in witl) Pi<-rK PluiightnKD, who cxpo««« tlu> cnrmplions of moo- 
astic life, and diamifises Uie Pilgrim after liaving taught faim a 
Creed puMnQtially conforming to that called 'the ApiwtliwV 

Another [kk-iu of iiiniilvtr iiielrical rtructiirc, but of esclusirt^ly 
political ch.irAc1er> is tlte alliterative nllr^iy on tho abuses of 
the rei^ of liJdiaid tl., and hit) intc-iidHl deposition. This is 
an imitation uf the etyle and matmer of Pii^n Ploiiplmiiin, luid 
is not without point and epirit. Tbo dialect remains the same, 
substantially, tliougli, while the vocabiilury is more modern, the 
f^mmar ti*, in Home mtpects, more urchitic. It is a matter of 
iKim« iut«resl to ob^rre tJiat it cootnins many tiaiitical phnises, 
xtted with a familianly quite new to EnglUh iJLeralurc, nnd 
which shows thai the iocreafiin^ naTigation and foreign com* 
inercc of Kogland were beginning to exert an appreciable 
influence on the dialect of boi>k« as well u of ordioaiy ^wecb. 

The pawagfl into which most of these phrases are iiitTodrieed 
is, for the period, almost unique in its cltaracter, and aa iieversl 
of the tcchuicid torms employed in it hero occur, for the firrt 
time, in En^tixli, it may be worth citing, though perhojia not 
cJcuriy iutelligil'lu to mere luDdsnieD : — * 

Knd tamme were ao Ifvrs 
at diu fTriBl Qomn, 
ihui ilicy bcnte on a honet, 
and Inrti a topic saile 
aflbr diG wyode ffrcMboly, 

* In tfas Glouarid Sfduoki ud Eiii(«d«liaM, l^yuaan HL <T8, Sir P. 
Hidden qootCB thaw liiii-* frcaa a Banowripf vlilrli b»» wnr beoi [iristfd : — 
Then br tron on Iho Ittas. aed thaf b«r tnmni« i>Mcbtn| 
Ok«b«n vp tba enmjl, oiblea tbaj mtCD ; 
TTiji it liio wjudtu ««tCD bcr uiliR*, 
Spmrlg tfik to llio fti*, til* ifOM bawr-Ijno ; 
^dcrcn to ifc* KfAt-npt», th# pt4o clorh CiIIm; 
Thar hifd*** >» Ml bddir Ixmlui and Uic lafc vjaixmi 
Th" liliihn brrlbe at htt tuk. Iha lioiaM kc f^ nd** ; 
II* Rvt'ii;!^ ma ihja twele acllip (Wtfla fto llw haorai. 

la UJit iardr tho primHiitt lorn oUarietrdt If ao^ 11 iaa (((f towacda tkt 
etjnal'O «t that olanua voc^ 


to make n gaoA tCaxv. 

Than lay tlit lordis a!eo 

with luatc 311(1 with charge, 

and luiv abouji« ihc barge, 

am! blaEnod ihc mnibtcr, 

ihnt knewc nol (he kyiidu couM 

ihst In llii- criifit? tmigid, 

■nd wiirai'il litiu wisdy 

of ibc wcdir uOc 

lliai:!!!' iliii inaaic in the m;dda% 

«t tilt- [iioiitho cndc, 

boirid flor brcsiyi^gc, 

ond brotijlf hcni in lotid ; 

fTnr tic hnil thri ttrikud n stroke^ 

ond Rlcrid hem thu bctld', 

and ii)mu-d a bonet, 

or tb« bliikt come, 

t]t«7 had be ttiroWG overe ibe bordcj, 

lackenardu iclioone. 

Tile volume of Political Porms «nd Song* from which the 
abore lines urc taken cuiitaiiiH an irregiiiiirly allitt-mtivc poem, 
in eight-lined stanzas, called the Coniplainl of the Plough man. 
This vM formerlv ascribed to Chaucer, and exhis in no otrUer 
fonn than in printed editions of tin; fiAei-nUi century, although 
it probably bblongit, a< originally writtttn, to the reign of 
llicbard IT. It is a satire on the abuses of Chuivb and State, 
but u wortlt)- neither of the natao it clAitns nor of lli« author 
to whom it has been attributed. 

I am not aoquuiiitcd with any poem resembling Piers Plough- 
Tnan in poetic form, of later date tbnu the fourteenth century, 
'which is worthy of notice, though there were s^rvcral attempts 
cat imiltUioD of this rhythm and metre in subsequent age«- 

I have already adrcrtcd to the remarkable circumstance, thai, 
ft,hough many political aonga and satires of the preiii.'diug cen- 
'fcnry, of a popular cost, wore in English, a large proportion of 
the most important poems of this class in the rdga of Ednard 
111. were in French or in LoUn. 


pouncju. rowiT 

LwT. va 

Thin may prohalily bo explained by the fact, tint many of 
tbem relate to erentfi or tn«aaiireH of policy, the connection of 
whicb witli the material well-bein;; of tbe commaoalty was not 
rvry obvious, and which therefore did not much i-xcito the 
int«r«st of the English-speaking people^ but appoiilcd ra'ji«r to 
Uie paflaionR, the opinionn, tiie pHncipiM of the gOTcmin^ 
claase^ who were generally, no doubt, better mstmctcd ia 
written French and Latin than in the native tongue. 

These clanes, iotleod, at the |M-nod we are now treating of, 
oertaiidy «pi»be English habitually, but they had not cultivated 
it SB a gnveromentsl or officdal organ of communication, and it 
was therefore essentially unlit for the discussion of political 
Rubjects. Such topicM found much bett«^r velilcK-a in Latin and 
in French, which latter tongue, as we bare seen, bad gradually 
been trained up to a pon-er of expression that had enabled It to 
compete with Latin aa a learned and uoiversal q)eech. 

F^isBort, in describing hiu prvsontation of a volume of his 
poems to Richard IL, ob«erv«-s. Ait a noteworthy circumEtance^ 
that the King ' iokcd in it and reed yt in many places, for he 
coulde speke and rede French very well ;' and in tho same 
paragraph he mentions Uenry Ca(rtyde,an English squire, as an 
*bonc&i man and a wyse, and coud wdl speke Frenche.'* But 
the Banto chronicler informs us that the negotiations for the 
peaM of 13d3 were conducted in Frencli, and that the Enr^Hsh 
commissioners were much embarrassed by their want of a know- 
ledge of the niceties and subtleties of that language. 

* 'TtiinthnljnBro d<«7T«d to«a mj book* fliBt Ihitd bponglitftr hjnj soh* 
■aw* it in Lin c1iuTn1>ro, for I had Uyda it than reiy 00 hb b»ddii. Wlianne lh« 
kjngn opcDod il, it plcHiixl hyrn wi^II, fbr It in» brtt Dnlunijii«i] and oritlra, and 
eoncnd with ciTtniioD rcluot. ntlh Irai botooH of sj-Iuer and girlt«. nod ram ot 
p)|il« in Ow mvdikp. vyih two great dafBTB gylt*. ri-ehoU- wroogbto. Than iho 
kjng dvniauDdtil ti]* n-kritof il tr*«tcd, and I abowrd hym how it trcnted matOT* 
of loa« i whrrof t2io Wrnge «m gladdf and lohM In tl, will rifd .vt in muiy f\ntea, 
Ibrh* coidde (prko mid redo Fcrui^h nty w^ll ; anJ lie tookajrl loakDy^lit of byt 
obunbtv, samod Stt Iticbnrf* Crtadon, lo beat* it into hy» «ccrct« cbanibrr.'— 
Ixitd Bcmen'a FKuutt, «bap. <au:viii Keprkt of 1S12, vol. a, chap, edi 

p. SI0L 

LncT. VU. 



< The engly«i^em«n,' sajs bi>, ' Iiad mcichc payne to here mi^ h> 
Tiidoratiktidtf llie iVcnchcnicn, who were full of siil)tyl« WPi'ilc», snd 
clvked pci'swacions and double of vrdr'niiatHtyiijii', tlio wliidie ih« 
/renclieiiipn woliie loumi' «» iliiry lyirt to tficir prcilVlo ntitl nilunimtag*, 
whiclio englywhcnu-ii vw nnt in U«-ir liingngi', iar their iqirrhe anrl 
«ntent is plaync ; and iit«) tlie ciig^lisJiiocn ware enlburranl thnt the 
Fnmchcnum hnd nut ulwiiyim v|>li«Id<'n t}i«- iirl}'c!c!>, jirotnjscii und con- 
dyeyoM, ralyficd in the ari_vflt« of iiiiicu; yrt tbv frencfanicui wolde 
ever (yndc one poyut* or oilier iu ilit-ir wrilvnges, bj Botn* tiutit^-lc 
clcil«!d vrorde, ftlFi'TDiynfre iLat th« cngiywlMimjii had broltea the ptace, 
and nat ihey; wherfuio wlmn the L-nglyMHliomi-n fiaw« or herJi- In the 
frtnchtnifiiB vrritynges noy darkc or clok^d wordo, lliey made it to be 
exatnyned by such na were ]>roraund]y Icrnrd in the Invrc, and if ihvy 
fvunde it amyew, tliey caiiiicd H to bo MtisrlM and nmpnded, (o itio 
enient ih?y woido Icanc nolhyngi; in trouhk; anil tint cnglyfiihm^n, to 
excuse thcniwifv, tcnMo my, thut fri-ndipm«m Ivniyn^ sudi subtyitiea 
ID tlieir yonib ninxto ncdc* he more nibtyle tlian tJuiy.** 

The poems which we have now been considering, anci othore 
of minor importance, though of kiiidrcti i^pirit, coutributecl thwr 
share to tlio extension of the English vocabulnry, to the flexi- 
bility of the synttLX, and to the various ciiltiint of the En};;Usb 
people, and thuei prejiared tJie speech and the nation for the re- 
ception of the controvereial writings and the scriptuial versious 
of the Wycliflito school, the inHuoiico of which on the language 
and literatuitt of England will be cxumiaod in tJie next lec- 


It ia difficult for Englishmen and Anglo-Americnns, who habitunlly 
apeak much as i!ity write, and write much aa thi-y sprnk, to couoejve 
<rf" the co-oxialence of two dialect* in a people, one alnioj^t lukiformly 
employed in convftrsalion, the oth*T almost as ezcluidvely in writing. 
Yet Kiich was ilie sinTc of things in I^^gla^d, ftom tlw Conquest at 
Ieii*l to the iniddin of !h<! fourteenth ccnturj', and such U the case in 
n large pwt cl' l£urop<! at this diiy.f In Itnly, for tmiance, there is 
nlmoit crcrywhure a popuhir hju'ccK, onmnionly employed by all oliuavN 

* Lord Bi-tnnn'* FroinMrl, cTisp. exer^ rrprial of 1812, vol. U. pp. SD9, BIW. 
8m DOt« on Italian diiloct* at the end of lliis twIaNk 
t On the Engliab o( tlte llieUnEjna tee Wntter Sooll in A)4 &>]/. 



lect. vn. 

in (lUDiliur oral int^rcoane. tni ao f*r cnHiTaUM] tbat it cm i», thtrngh ' 
it mroljr iis MTitt4>D, wltilo, at tbo imrio timo, Ibn liiiRtik comnnft 
d*I tnl ia, or, IM it iaoftoD cnlled, tlui TnNoan tlinlnct, in known to all, 
U tiie UnKattffo of guvemnumt, of loKislatioa aiui {HiiliiuiiMilMT- disiriw- 
■ion, of lofral pmcrvdinftK, of bookii, of jonrmlH, lUKi of oomvjinnil* 
euuc ttiul in aluo (imiila^tl on tlin utiliutu uf rvUgioiu lutd H'ltolit^ii^ 
iniitraotjon. lliit tLU lit<'nry tongtus at UmsI in tlxwR puita u( ItoJv 
wbero dudeotH wiilul;: lUflvnuit fruni il «r« liKbilnallv apokon, niwuyii 
ronuitu to Ibe Italiaiui UkiuhIvim ««>«utiaUjr ■ forwigo longiuLKi^.* 
Tills bet BiooilclU utalva in Btiouger 1«ntiK tbim a jirudent ■trnngiir 
would voulurti to do npou ttiQ 't««tiiao(iv of bin own nliaerriition. 
'Tanto c voro elm, jier pftrtoMi « ■criYMi: iUliaiiaiiiuDtA, dubbiamai 
itupanra qiuiaUi Dustro lingiui eon Ituiglu e bboriixu >tiuli. jmico oicdo 
«)i« me aitpreodeMioio U> Utina o la fnuceae ; « n mulerodo ilc 11' afG* 
DitA «u ooj noBlri dlalL'Uj u d«l continuo l««:g«t«. Mtrimrv e jxtrluro 
I'iialiauo, bcQ pocU gJiuigono » Irattarlo oome cottvienai, « gTMuU b 
heqn«uti aooo le difliealtA che incoDtiiajuo ogniqniUvolta lofjlknut , 
trpom Mtn chiarHEBa a proprieU )o uoatre idee, i>oichv vcraiaeut« dob* 
bjamo tradam II nosiro tli«l«tto in tdtra linKnn, ralo a din, npprMfio- 
tare sotto diTemt forma i DO*tri pcai,\«ri.'~BI<m<MU, Saggionl DiatMl 
tiaSo-SaUei. s. 

Thtn ia a similar di«iM«]MDcj botv)>ei) Ibe written and qwkea 
luigna^ in man^ part* of Onrmanj, Iboititb iJm difftnioa of literat; 
onlturci In that roantrr hnn modo tho dioWt of book* nioro iuu««mJly 
familiar (lian in moat KtiioiKsn iiatitnw. TIte trnvdlcr SMtaen, vIioM ' 
joiimal* ImTo litUily beon notynnd and publi.-dinl, aomstimM make* I 
ditricM ill them in llio Platt-Donliidi of bin unttTn iiroviiMM^ and slate* 
miimnly that hi< nwif lliat djal«ct> in orOnr that llinnc pawMKim maj not 
Iw uiMl4!nit()o<l bv Ktraiifiar* into wlioan' luuidn bin pajivn might c-haaea 

* Sfllbatdias*bUd«til«ii U&eitei kcmwn m (di« Spca«be) dar flanptaacfea 
aanb anr in ihrem aigeiieR DUl«kt. nnd dja Toduwu nlobe di« KeadutAbMia 
Hpnetia Mlbxt apteolMn. wattini alobl d«ti wabma btiMHoben uud familuina 
liall ikror Uiapiairapracho In Ibto BOobM alnrafahroB, aaa PoTchl olclrt 
MID alien lUDnnDrn Itjcbt ventitiidcti lu werdon. — TtUad, ia flaUa, It. 
WiuMe AiuliiuUr in IUUm nfcAf ^merluti, f. S. 



Vft come now t.i a period wheo far other neceasitiea than those 
of itiiaginjtivo litcrattirc, of mochanical or draorutivo art, or of 
any intt-rcat of materinl life, dwnnnded tbft fonnnlion of a new 
special DomencUture — a nomenclature and a phraseology, which, 
tliongb fiist employed in a limited range of themes and dis- 
cussioiiH, yet, from the intimate relation of tticsu themes to idl 
thp hi^^her luipirationn of humanity, gradually acquired more 
cxleiidi'd wgniticiince and more varied applications, and finally 
became, in Rrent part, incorporated into the general speech a« 
a now enlivcniDg and informing cliineut. 

I refer to the theological voctiibulary of Wycliffe and his (Us- 
eiple.1, which, in a conaiderahlQ pioportioo indeed, waa composted 
of words already familiar to the clergy and the hotter instructed 
laity, but whlth those reformers populariiied, and at the mmt- 
time enlarged and modified, by new ternu coined or borrowed 
for use in their translations of the Scriptures, and by imposing 
on already known words now, or at least special acceptatiotui. 

Tho Angtii-Saxons poi^e&ied a vernacular translattou of the 
Gospels, and of some other ports of the Bible ; and BCrc-ral 
more or less complete versions of the Srriptiirea existed in 
French as early ttn the twelfth century. But thero is do reason 
to believe that any considerable portion of the Bible, except tho 
Psalter, had erer been rendered into English, until the trans- 
lation of the whole volnme was undertaken, at the suggestion 
of Wyclilfe, and in part by hie own efforts, a little before the 



Uet. VOL 

hepaoiDg of tbc last qoarter of tlic Awrteeoth ceotni^. EttgUsb 
preacbers, it is true, had olwitvs frc«Ij iatrodaced into their 
ecnnoDB quotatioDs firom the vnlgAte, tmiu^ated for tfae occuion 
hy tbemwlves, &Dd thas tfav praple bad already ti<>ci>i»e toniewliat 
bmiliiuizcd with tbc conUiits of tbe Old aad New Tcstamcot; 
l>ut< tbew •ennooN were rarvlr oopii-d for circulation, or probnUy 
eren wiiUen dowo At all, and Uiererore no opporttini^ existf^ 
for the study or oonstUtation of the liilile u «n English book.* 
The English nation, for rcamns stated in a former lecture, 
bad alwajH been pmctically more independent of tho papacy 
UuD the CoDtlnenta) states. Tlw (chiem in Uie church, with 
tbc long struggle between tbc claimnnts to the choir of Peter — 
Mch of uliou) denounced biit rival as an anti-pope, and excom- 
mufttcated hta foltowers as beretica — natunilly iniioh weakened 
the autboritj of both tJic coDt«ading parlies. M«a were not 
only at liberty, but found tbenisvlvc* compelled, to inquire which 
was the truv bead of tbe church, and Ibt-y could uot tnrestigatA 
the title of the respective claimants to ecclesiastical supre- 
macji without £eing rery natorally led to doubt whether eitlier 

* Hm bHulationa of Ui« tMta citMl by VjetiSb himwIC in lh« tontrOTmUI 
woria mott MMflduit)/ ucribrd (o bin, hj «o idmu tgtt* liirnlljr with tin 
nniea at Ota Vow Ttstomnit, and of n ptrt <d tb* OIJ. vlilcli he u bdiornl to 
Imv« ntPBlod. 8m InlroAorlian to Uatldm aad FonhtlT* edttJiHi tf ik« 
W]rdiS<« Tnuudatiaiis. ComiatiMnB oT tliis aeit bare often liMn afipf^M lo aa ft 
iMl «tf tho antlwntidt; ot wriling* attribatM to bu pea. Oat iImj tt^m to Ma 
10 Iw fUitlod to vtf littk wdght VjtUlb wM» Touh brfm lio bmi1« Ui 
tnnalatioD, ind bU lah* wnika mnat o(Un bar* fc^m written wben b» cDold iwC 
bar* tMd Uwt tmulatim with liim. Th* ' porv tail jf,' lu be bvmbl; mH* UsvtlC 
oouinlf did not ncant bia own roniim with th« r«Tcrcnn> witb which w« TJew 
il -, and • gpoi bthlioil aeholar lik« biin, Ending a Intiii Hriptanl Irxt in aa 
anlhor (w waa irtolin^ or harinK 0(ca«!nn tfl lun oiio which Mcamd ta liiia, 
maid, in lb« ftrrmir ot cooipMilJoo. wtil* down lb« tn&alolicn wbicb, at tht 
mooicnt. ptntrtiUd ilarit, a&d whkib tba atgwnent is biad antsnlad aa lh» Iracrt 
oiprrtatan of tho inpaeingt 

F«w anthoia ato Tain raxnifb tobodiapoard toqaoI«orn>p««t IbnTOwn watdi^ 
oreron tbowwdaof another whiBli Ihoy hnro mhBe tbmtowabj'tnBiilation. and 
I Ihink ft writer «f the i««aeot Axj would toonw ro-ttMulate a tiiaii|i,a from aa 
aci'Ot anlhnr ho wjihcd to qnotf, than nudiclf a rolnm*. and toff a «tt^tie« 
wliirh ho iind trniisliitu! on n tanner occatjnn. A dinttii^ocj-, ibtnibn, ixinDrm 
a text quotJ'd l>y Wjrlifli.' uud hi* iivu ferniHl liat-l^ili'iii nt it ttfrirhcrp. aJTonla 
■0 («««inplio« nguut Ite laiheotJeitj- of a nuuiiificriid nttribntrd to bin. 

Lkt. VIIL 



of tliom was better tbao a a*iirpcr. The decision of the im- 

nicdiatc qucjiiion bctwi-cu thw rival iiontiHii tamed, in the end, 

nota on political than on canoiiica,! groiiiwU*; but white it 

was ander disciiftnon, the whole doctrine of papal siijireinacy 

undcnrent a sifliug, that rereale^t to tlioiisaads the fiandy Datiire 

of the foundation on which it restetl. A rc«iilt more imporlAnt 

than the purticulnr coiiclasiom Arrivisl ut.ns between the cinims 

«f Urban and Clemenf, wa«, thnt the eontroveray tAught and 

habituated thinking ecclesiaalics, attd, by their example, tb« 

laity, to exercise their reason upon topics which had before 

been genendly considered as points which it was bWph< moua 

even to debate. 

Tiie habit of unquestioning submifrron to tJie decrees of a 

church which arrogated to itself infallibility of opinion, and 

binding authority of judgment, upon religious questions wboBO 

* Cnpgmrd kitki hh a •prrimi^ of tlt« wEninnila — mHami nyVKt or mllmv 
aJ rtgiM — cmplafal Xj Tope ■nil Anli-Pope with tba ttntt^ipm of Ihtir iwfmtif* 

■At«o bo noliStil ontolh* Kyng [Richnril TL], that lh« AnUiKipe a>3 &• Eja] 
of Vnaat tw thai Mcordid. OtaX Uic Hii] Kyng of Fmhiu, with hel|i of tlio dak* 
of IlMtgoity, ind otiilr, oehwl M4 t&a Anitju^jic in tlin ittle at Batdii ; aad tlic nmo 
Aaliiwiw oelial niiili* (Im Kvi>k of I''rHiiii«<ni|K'n]<m, uiil olbir iIhIlih kc k-1iiI 
ntdnve ia tho lordoliiiipiB of Itiiil«. AIho. hn t^ormcil tbo Hiax vkittm*! 
•cbdd &I1« if tlie Antipopo and tlio Eirng wptp thus oocvdnl. »sd th« K<ne of 
Fniuiu cmpcronrc^ — ha oehnlil be that nej chnlanjE* thv daminiow of Ynglood. 
notrfor tb* P«j« MUMtlMh tbi Kin^, Ilul be (cbal nuke wa pn wilh ths 
Hjng of fnsn* but on lhi» oondkiMt. Uut the Kbg <f Vtaai* (dial fiiTMro tha 
OpiiUMi of tho t(v*o Fopr, and «nfip ooa of hii pujdo 10 4M Ofajn Ua/^ 
CiljyrMKV jLi>. 1300, !>(>. ;!U, 3^ 

ll abcmld be addod llial, on tlio aana OMarim, tbo Fofw sdccd in tbu (or tha 
nful «f tbc ftmoQi (Cahitn^ Qwara iapniit and JVnHB)«M/i>.ifo«^ n nnpottaiit 
to tho UbotM* of Bn^nd. 

' Tho Fo]>« in"rtR;lod mod) of o^ejn ttaisin vhich ven nad ia lUo bod 
■^jB tbelibcrt«of the ohorclii anil for thePofw tufp<orA that it wa* not t^ 
Ejragio «>L thenfar he arnt kia nmagrre to atctv Ih* Kyng that nnh itBratH 
Rth«ld be abrefit whadi be aepTa tha IIUr* of Ho)j (Aareb, apocultj thM« 
fo, " Qam i»|inlil " and ■■ IYraiaiiir« facia." " 

Tho noneBl ■wai ill eiiesni far asking a concmim^ whieiS, ng'Uf slant anj 
timiBMl«iwta, «t«ld hare beat loo mwb for the Mb.i]j fndrpendeaor of E^- 
bad; aail th«ml> the rHiwit *■■ eataettd \tj ihn hint aboto uroticMOL Ibr 
Mr»ii^i-r iiifi^raa ii<i)>Ht. 'wtn pmmoiwnr* of b«s Ibal dwelled at B;mi, it 
■aid aot t« ^rasKt^d; bat. (or GiToun of the Pope, tbd gnnatal bxm tat |to> 
i]«ioiica M (i( vtaU tWemenC-'-C^gnm;, aM ti^irA 


Tttacinz or kviaotrrr 

iMTi. Via 

conprefaeiMloo deraaada the ciereiss of m»a'» highest fiicnlHn, 
had DAtarally begiDtteo a ipirit or de&reDce to the dicta of 
ffrr^t names in secular ieanung also. Tfaii deferefice ■ i.^rM^<m - 
izol the man of the origioa] litaiatare (^ the CootiDeot throo^ 
the Middle Ag«a ; and in diactunoiu upon qurstioiu of nataral 
knowlet^e, of hiatovy, of criticiiOD, tfan upimons of enuamit 
wntcn mm conrooaly dted, not aa ai;gumeDt9, or even as the 
tfiatimony of competent witnfissefl to facta of oburratioa, but as 
bMine coi>dufioD)t,»carccly lc« iirefragaUe or loss sacred than 
the inured infiilUbllitj of a pootiC Habitual nibmiasioa to 
tbe jorinliiction of aeeular name*, aa, for example, to the opi- 
oioDs of Aristotte in phj-sics and metaphj-Bics, was politicly 
cQcouniKed and incrilrati^d' br tb" churct, not merely because 
particular in':tn)>liyMic4>-tliroIoi3cal dogmas of Rome found sup- 
port in the Aristotelian pliilnw>pby, but because sticb submissuMl 
was a practical recugnition of the principle of authority in all 
moral and iot«)lectual things. Just so, in the public policy of 
our timesi the governing classes, fat some states liberal in their 
own domestic ndniinistnition* sustain the umirp^ dominion of 
certain dynuttes over foreign territory, not' ItecaiiM tbeybclicvo 
the right or npprove tbe oppresrions of tbo^e dynasties, but 
because their rule is an embodiment of tbe aristocratic prin- 
ciple in government, and is therefore the representative and ally 
of aiistocracy everywhere. 

Tbe abode given to the dominion of tbe papnl see, by tbe 
•cbbm and tbe discussions occasioned by that event, did much 
to weaken the authority of human names in letters and in 
pbiloeopliy; and it faappcucd at a very favourable juncture for 
Etiglivb tlUiratiire, which thus, at its very birth, acquired ac 
independence, and conBeqnenity an orifpnality, that a half- 
century earlier or later it would not have attained. 

T^o Utcratiirv which belongs to the civilization of mudem 
Europe is es^nlialty Frott-stant, becatiae it almost uniformly 
on'ginnted, if not iti a formal revolt against tho power of physi- 
cal coercion exerted by thi? church, at teaxt iu ii protest against 
tbe morally binding obligation of ber decrees, and Its earliest 

r. VIIL 



rxpreaioD wag a denunciation of those abuses nhkli bad coo- 
Tertcd hor, from a nursing mother of tho bt-st aiid )ioli«st 
affections of tho heart, inio a worldly, ambitious, self-seekio;;, 
rapaciomt, and oppressive or^nnizatjon. It is only when men 
are emancipated from humiliating spiritual saritade, that the 
intellect can bo set free; and the traininj;, which the uaolK^tmcted 
investigation and diiwusHiou of theological doctxinc iuTolres, b 
tbe most powerful of all methods oi intellectual culture. 

The WyclitBte trauslationa wore made from the Latin of the 
rulgate.* There is not much reason to suppose that any of the 
persona engaged in this work kuc^w cnouf^b of 6rc«k, still leM 
of Hebrew, to transliitc directly from tln'so laiigiiugi^; and 
consf'iucutly the nvw *yutjicfic»l cowibinatiohs they introilui-ed 
are all according to the Latin idiom, except in so far as the 
dialect of the vulgato itself had been modified by the influence 
of the Greek and Hebrew texts on which it was founded. But 
the tmu»latorR often r^^sorted to coinmentators for cxplaniitii^n, 
and thiiit aometimes became ai^ipiaintod with Hebra!»in.-i at 
(iecond band; and the loU-st revinion of (he vervioD, that of 
Purvey, ia by no mt-ana a slavifh oopy of the literal seose of tbe 
Tulgate, while it weeded out>, without scmple, a large propoitioa 
of tbe I^inixms which tho lirxt trauelators bad introduced into 
their rcnderin<^ from au anxious dcwire for stiict conformity to 
a text recugiiizod by the church aa of e[|ual authority with tbe 
ncred original itself. 

I cannot go into a history of these rersioos on tbe present 
occasion, or examine tbe evidence OQ tho question : how lar 
John Wycliffe was personally concenied in (be esecutiou of 
them. It must suffice tosay tbatin the only entirely trustworthy 
editioa we po!3wsii of any of them — the liber veri aurens^ 

■ Bj mtgatf, I hero mean the Ijatln tntnaluliiin siloptisl Iij Iho ctiurcii and 
MniMI to JnndB*, aatuu llip uuinuacriiila then ia cixcuUiion eould W idpntifl«d 
■vith it. But tbs capiu of thl^ Sei^tnra^ m ef teoilsr worica. mra eAco viilolj 
diicRpOAl, «T«ii vbcn pNtetiri\f lMnMr(bcd fton tfa*Mino anginal ^n dt- 
MBnlanoe which ci|l>lii» hov t)x« ■■ymiJa cn)dli^^tHltio»^ '<■ • r*™>S< 
^»t*i1 at Icnsth In a wnbuaqiuiiit p«rt of Ihia nn^BGi4d> !iqr«h« traiuil« ' 
* K Bjke 00 Latjv bibi« nuaiM imr*.* 



lAvr. VII t. 

the golden Look, of OKI-Kn^Uflli pLiloVjg; — that, nnmely, 
pub)i«b«(l at Oxford in 1830, in four iimu-to volumes, undtr the 
nlitorship of Koraliall nnd Miuld«ii, the; older text, from Qviicsis 
to fianicli iii. 20, is believed to be the work of Hereford, ud 
EugtUh ecclesiastic;* the remainder of the Old Testameut 
and Apwiypha is supposed, and tb« whole of the New Testament 
nUiiost cvrtfiinly knovro, Iji have hvtiu traDiilat«(l by WycliSe; 
while the hit^rr text of th« entire Bible i» ascribed to Purvey. 
The preeine periods of the bejpnntng and ending of n work, 
which miiBt have ocdipii-d mauy years Id its execution, have 
not boon axocrtoined, but ire bare rtMuon to think that the older 
text was ix>mpl<!t«d about 1380, tbe reriiion by Purvey some 
eight or tvii yiArs later, or a little before 1390. 

These tmnHlatiomi must, in npile of the f^eat ooet of copnng 
them, have been very widely drctilated ; for old mnnuscripbi of 
them are still very numerous, although we know tbnt, for a cen- 
tury and a half after the work whs done, nowvariisl paios wer« 
tnki-n by th« Itoiiiish occIc«iattical authorities to ««cur« the de- 
struction of every trace of tills heretical verKion. 

It is a noteworthy drcutnstance in the history of the literature 
of Protestant couutrios, that, in e\'ery one of them, the rreatjon 
or revival of a national litcrattin^ has commi'uced with, or at 
Iviut been annonnccd by, a translAtioa of the Scriptures into 
tbe venijtcnlar, wliich ha* been remxrkablo botli as an aocumto 
representative of tlie original t«xt, and as on exhibition of tho 
best power of expresition possessed by the laogoa^ at that atagv 
of its development. Henoe, in all those coiiutries, thi-** vei^ 
eions have had a very great influence, not only upon religion) 
opinion and tuoral ti»iuing, but upon literary effort m other 

* Btrrfao^'* poili'in, thocwiipoiil muniMriptof which la ulillaxtHiit. cncltatcvpUj 
vicb Ui* ■f'viiiJ tivnl of (lio cha^c? nnil tito« abor* nirniiuuml : ' Tbe x^sgr-' 

I makr t}\c rlntcniMit in llio trxl in lUffrfncc la the aulliaritjr ef Iha ciitor* of 
tho Wydiffiio Innalatioiu ; bat I tliink tbn intrnul ctidonoc i« isiuut Iba iur>. 
poiitioti l\in llio older Knian, IVdid GtniwU lo tknicli, «<• tlm woril of mm man. 
Ttirre nru iiii[-5rtiiiit (triRiRintirnl <li[Tiir«aM» bvl«*(iti tlio hintoririil liook*, down 
to Ta rati pom rail incluiiii?. an<\ tho rpmAJutlrr of Uiat T*nk<n. F<ir inatuilci', in 
Ihd fi>r]ii>'r, lli« •rtivn pt^ttdplc gicncroU; cndi in ynye ; in the laltvr, it luiMltj 
ttmiiiuitu* in <niie. 

ixBi. vin. 

nmtgtxm josixa 


fields, and indeed iipon thu whole pliilological history of the 
DtittoD. Thus the Knglinh translntioiis of the WjclifRte nchool 
the DaniBli vereion of 1250, and the GeruiaQ of Luther, nre, 
liiigiiiitticiilly considered, amon? the very best examples of \hv 
moat cultivated phasf. and aiost perfected form, of their r«- 
qwctive languages at the timt-s whtn tht-y itppcitrvd. Th« 
Gemiao and the Danish BihIcM have, indvcd, oxorti;d u mii<!h 
niOFB importnnt literary influence than the WycliUlte^ But 
this is due, not more to superior excellence, than to the fact 
that the former translations appeared atter the inTentiofi 
of prioting, and were consequently c:isily and cheaply multi- 
plied and distrihubed; and further thnt their circulation was 
encourtv^d and pmnioted by hoth the temporal and the eccle- 
siastical aiithoritieii of the countries where they were pnhlished. 
The Wycliffite veraions, oa the other band, existed only in 
manuscript during a period of between four and five centuries, 
and. for a hundred and fitly yLvm, c-?uld be copied and circu- 
bt*^ only at gi-eat Imxard to both transcril>er and reader. 

llie exoellenoe of translation, nhich was n necessary condition 
of the literary influcnco of all these verwon-, is to be ascribed 
to two principal cnuiics The tiret is the obvious one, that the 
translators, as well as the public, vtcrc in a state of ^?at roli- 
gloiis sensibility, and inspired by the feeling of intellectual 
exaltation and cspaudon, whicli always acronipanics the cmnn- 
cipation of the mind and conscience fiom the galling i^hackWs 
of spiritual desiKJtiem. The other is the less tiimiliar fact, that 
the throe languages wore then marked by a simplicity of voca- 
bulary and of verbal conihinii.tion, which more nearly agreed 
with the phraswlogy of the original Scriptures than does the 
artiticiat and complicated diction of later agi^ ; and of ooiirso 
they exhibit a closer reseniblance to the Hoiir<-w and Greek 
texts than would he practicable with a more modera style of 
Upreesion, aa<i with a greJitcr number of words more siiccific 
to meaning and less capable of varied application." 

• Qtv Full Strit^ LectaM XXVltt, p. 5*1 



Lmt. viil 

T have nlrcadj- ocoiplcd no large n porfioD of tJiIs coune in 
treating of llic earlier fornw of the E»glwl» Innf^iuigc aod lite- 
rature, that I esnnot go much into df^tail witli regard to the 
peculiarities of the diction of tho Wycliffite Scriptures; but th« 
most imfiorC/tiit of them will appcur from no cxsminatioD of 
W'ycIifTe'fi itixl T'tirTcy'H Teniono of n. rh-iptcr from lh« Gotpsb, 
and k oomparisou of tliem witli other tmrii'latioQB.* 

I select th« eighth chapter of Af atthew for thin piirpone, and 
for the coiivcuieitcie of coinpHruMR I give : I. The Anglo-Saxon 
vvrHion, from tho Compel of Matthew printed at the T-fnivendty 
PrcxHutCiuabridgo, ID 1658; — 2. a word-for-wonl English traiw- 
lation of the Anglo-Saxon ti*xt; — 3. WycliflTn'B tnui-'liitioii ; — 
4. Piirvey's reviiiioti ; — and 5. the Latin of the Vulgate, from 
Sticr and Theile, 1854. 1 add, hy way of further iltu«tration, at 
tho i-iid of thin lecture, the Ma«ii-1^iothic of TJlfilas, lind tlid 
original Greek. TyndaluV an<l CIktIcu'r tnuiiilalions of the saoM 
chapter will be found »t Uiu end of I.ecture XL 

THE Eiaura cu-^pteb op MATrnEW. 

L Sotdicn )« nft Hnlcnd of ^am miinte DjSu*Mtl!br^ 
2i (P(ir>).v>'ith wiMtn liic Sarioiir frum llie mount ciiiM*dawii, dia 

3. Foraotho when JIiwuh hadile comen iloiiti fro the hit, 

4. But whaiuK) Jhesus vas cvra« doun fro the Ul, 
A. Cum auieni iIeK«ndifliM da mmt^ 

1. Q'ligdon him myds rn«tiIo. 

2. <<>11ow<nI him gmt mnltitadt^ 

3. mnny cuniptiiiyes fiilcwideo hyni. 

4. myrli |Hip!« «UMt« hym. 
6. wcuta mat «uin tnrbic tnuliai. 


1. Da gcmaWhln in hnsnlla to him and hine to bin 

2. Then nigliw) a Icpcr to him and him(-"rlf) to 1 

3. And loo I a lepmuiw mnn ctunniynge worshipida 
4t, And Inn 1 a Icprouae Riaa cun iind wonchipida 

6. El ecc« I titproBua Teiiieoa aduiuhst 


1. ge-eaSmedtle, and paa cvmS ; Drihtcn, gyf pa 

2. htiinbled, aod thus apake ; Lord, if thou 

3. hyta, aayinge ; Lord, jif thou 

4. liym, and seido ; Lord, if tiioa 
6. eiim, dicena ; Dominc, A 

1. wylt, |m miht m^ geclsEnsioa. 

2. -wilt, thou canBt me cleanse. 

3. wolt, thou niaist make me clene. 

4. wolt, thou maist make me clene. 
6. vis, potes me mnndare. 


1. Da astrehte ee Hslend hys hand, and lirepoda hyv* 
S. Then outstretched the Saviour bis hand, sud touched him 

3. And JheauB holdynge forthe the hond, touchido hym 

4. And JhcBUS helde forth the hoond, and touchide hym, 
ft. Et extendens Jesiu manum, tetigit eunt 

1. and fu8 cwKiK, lo wylle; beo geclamaod. And hya 

i. and ihaa spake, I will; be cleaiiBed. And his 

3. aayinge, I wole ; be thou maad clene. And anoon 

4. and seide, Y wole ; be thou maad cleene. And anoon 

5. dicens, Yolo; mtmdare. Et confestim 

1. breoflawffis hF^dlice geclensod. 

2. leprosy was immedbtely cleansed. 

3. the lepra of hym was cleniud. 

4. the lepre of him was clendd. 

6, mundata est lepra ejus. 


1. £)a cwfeS se Hielend to him, Wama |>e |>iet ya 

2. Then said the Saviour to hira. See that thou 

3. And Jheaus suth to hym ; See, say thou 

4. And Jhesus seide to hym ; Se, seie thou 
6. £t ait ilti Jeaus; Vide, neraini 

1. hyt DSDt^m men ne secge; ac gang, reteowde 

2. it (to) no man te)l; but go, show 

3. to no man; but go, shewe 
4> to no man ; but go, nliewe 

L dixeris; Md vade, ostendg 




1. fe |>am Baccrde, and bring lij'm fa lac fe Moysca 

2. tlioe (to) Iho priest, and bring him ihe gift that Mos«s 
to prestis, and olire that jifto tiiat Moyscsi 
to the prcatis, and offre the jift that ilojsea 

3. tlice 

4- thee 

5. te 

aacerdoti, et offer 


1. bebead, 

2. bad, 

3. cotnatindidp, 

4. comaundide, 

on hyra gecjrSnesse. 

for their inrormation. 
into witnesffiiig to hem 
in witnesaj'ng to hem. 

5> pncceptt Moyses, in testimonium illis. 

1, SoSlicc I'd 

2, (For-)sooth -when 

3, Sothrly when 

4, And whanne 
5. Cum auiem 










he linddo cntriUe in to Caphanwum, 
he haddo entrid in to Cafamaum, 

introisset Caphamaum, 

1. l>a gencalcchte hym an hundrcdcs ealdor, hyne 

2. there nighed (to) Bim a hundred's oaplain, biia 

3. centurio neijida to hym 

4. the centurlen neisede to him 
6. accessit ad «um oenturio 

1. biddende, 

2. praying, 

3. preyiiifre hyra, 

4. and preiedc him, 
6. rogans eiun, 


1. And pua cwcBende, Drihten, min cnapa liB on mfnnm 

2. And thus aaying, Lord, my knave lieth in my 

3. And !>nid, Lord, my child lyclh iQ the 

4. And Bcide, Lord, my childc lij'th in the 

5. ct dicena, Daniiue, pucr meus jacet in 

1. huse lama, and mid yUe geftread. 

2. houiK himc, and with cvit afflicted. 

3. lions sike on the palsie, and is yud loumientid. 

4. hotis sijk on the |iii1esie, and is yue! turmentid. 

6. domo paralyticus, et male torquetur. 

Lta. rtIL 




1. Da OiibS Be Htelend to him, Tc ciime and Iudo gehtele. 

2. Then said the Saviour to liim, I come asd him heal. 

3. Aad JheBiia Raith to hym, I ehal cume, and elial helc hym. 

4. And JhesuB eeide to him, Y echal come,aQd schal hcele him. 
6. £t ait ill! Jesus, Ego veniam, et ciuabo eum. 










Da andswaroda ae hundredea ealdor and pus cwteS, 
Then answered the hundred's captain and thus eaid, 
And centurio answerynge railh to hym, 

And the centurien answeriUe, and seide to hym, 

centurio ait, 



worth i, 


ac cwebS )iin 
but epeak thy 
but oonly siy 

Et rcspondens 

Drihten, ne eom io 

Lord, not am I 

Lord, I am not 

Lord, Y am not 
Domine, non aum 
mine ]>ecene ; 

my roof; 

my roof; 

my roof; 
tectum meum ; 

biS gchffiled. 
wi!l-be hooled. 
ahail be helid. 
ahal be heehd. 
eanabitur puer rnetu. 


)iu ingange 



thou in-go 



thou entre 



thou entre 





an word, and min cnapa 

one word, and my knai-e 

bi word, and my child 

but oonli seie thou bl word, and my childe 

Bed tantum die Terboi et 


and I 

SoStice ic eom man under anwealde gesett, 

(For-)sooth I am (a) man under authority set, 
For whi and I am a man ordeynd vnder power, 
For whi Y am a man ordeyned vndur power, 

Nam et ego homo sum sub potentate constitutus, 

hffibbe fegnaa under me ; and ic cwa^Se to pyaum. Gang, 

and I say to this. Go, 

and I aay to this,' Go, 

and Y scie to this, Go, 

et dico huic: Vodc^ 

have soldiers under me ; 
hauyngc vndir me knijtis ; 
and haue knyjtia vndir mo; 
habeas aub me milites; 




1. nnd 

2. and 
8. ui)<l 
4. and 

ft. et 

he gnK ; and io cireSc lo o|mini, Cam, aadW^inS; 
be gMrtk ; Mid I my to (iiii-}albFr, Corks nnd hi> com^tli ; 
luon M]icr, Cdfnctbmi.nRiliiccompih; 

hu gutli ; uid 

li«goith; &ivd 

vadit : et 

to aiK>d>u-, Conw, and hrcomrili; 

alii, Vttii, et TCOtt; 

uid tio WTTCB. 
and ho duotlu 

ninunt ]>ootc, W'yta fi», 
vay nurvant, I>o thin, 
i to my wcnuiuiit, Do thou th!> thing, and ho doth. 
i to my Bemauntr Do this uiil be doith k. 

MfTO moo, Fao boo, et fiiolt. 

1. Witodlice ^ M ICorlend )>ut gohyntc, ]>a wandrods bc^ 

2. NuiT whiut ibo I^viour diia bonrd, than wondoKd bfl^ 

3. SothuJy Jhuana, keerynsu thcH tliiagu^ woodrid*^ 

4. And JhMiu lierde tboM ihiogia^ and wondridot 
ft, Audien* auteni Jesus mimtiu eM, 

1. ■ndownftlo ]i»m t>a b!m IVIagdom 
i. and uld to diem tlwt hiui liilUiired: 
8. and ealde to men myngo hynt : 
4. u>d Hudo to men that sueden him t 
6. ot Mquentibua ao dixit: 

SoB 10 9cega eovr na 

Sooth I aBvCto) yoa oot^ 

Troii-ly I wyo to jou 

Trttuli 1 wio to joa 

Amea dioo Tobu 

1. gvnttUa io fire rayccino geln&n on Imbel. 

S. met I so much bdnf in ImrtuL 

3. I luDd mt M grciQ feilh in TneL 

4. V foond not ao grcoto foiih in laraeL 
ft. noD iDTcni taoiniQ Gdcm io IvuL 


1. To Mttnm 
S. In iooth 
S. Solbuly 
4. Ana 

icMGcge eow, 
I «y (lo) you, 

Y Miy 10 jou, 

Y toie to ^n, 

Dico aiitem 


Pst manige camB 
'I'iMt many (ohall) crano 
that nanye »bu]en cocne 
that nuuy achulen eonie 
(|uod midti nb Ori«nte 

1. OMt-cbcle and irMt-dvle^ and wnniafi mid Ahrahnme 
8. (tho)cMi-den1and(lbo)weM><i«al,and dwell with Abraluun 
8. the ert luid wcM, and Khnkn leat with Abnbam 

4. the eeat and tho west, luul a-'huleu nue wilh Abraham 

i. Oeeidenie TNUtnt M rocnntbent emn Atatalisa 


1. and Isaace and Jacnbe, on hevfena rioef 

2. and Isaac and Jacob in heavens' realm ; 

8. And Yeaac and Jacob in the kyngHam of heuenee; 

4, and Tsaac and Jacob in the kyngdoni of heuenes; 
fi, et iBoac et Jacob in regno ccclorum ; 


1. Witodlice )iises rices beam beo% aworpene on |ia yW- 

2. Verily thia realm's children (!) be out-cast in{to) the outei- 

5, forsDthe the aonya of the rewme shulen be cast out into vttre- 
4. but the Gones of the re^vme scliulcn be caat out in to vtmer 

6, filii autem regni ejicientur in Cenebras 

1, mestan ftjatro : fter biS w^pi and to]>a giistbitung. 

2. most darkneu : there (shall) be weeping, and (of) teeth grinding. 

3, mest derknesaisj there shal be weepynge, and beetvnge togidre of teeth. 

4. derknesais; there achal be wepyng, and granting of teeth. 
5> exteriores ; ibi erit ' fictua et Gtrldor dentium. 


1. And se Hcelend cwieS to |>am hundrydcs eatdre, 

2. And the Saviour said to the hundred's elder, 

3. And Jbeans saide to ccnturio, 

4. And Jhesus seide to the centurioun, 

5. Et dixit Jeans centurioni, 

1. Ga; and gewurSe ^6 swa swa Jiu gelyfdest. And se 

2. Go; and be (it) (to) thee so as thou bclicvedst. And the 

3. Go ; and as thou hast bileeiied be it don to thcc. And the 

4. Go ; and as thou haxt bileuyd be it doon to thee. And the 

6. Vade; et acut credidisti fiat tibi. £t 

1. cnapa wees geheled on I'tert: tide. 

2. knave van healed in that hour, 

3. child was helid tro that houre, 

4. child was hcelid fro that hour, 
ft. aanatua eat puer in ilia boia. 


1. Da ee Hielend com on Petres hnse, 

2. When the Saviour came in(to) Peter's house, 

3. And when Jhesus haddecomen in to thehousofSymoiid Petre, 

4. And whanne Jhesus was comun ia to thc-housof Syraount Petre, 
i. Et ciim veuiwet Jesua in domum Peti^ 


wrcurnra teahslations 

Lkt. VUL 

1. l-a 

2. then 







be BBf 
he Bay 


he hja Bw^re licgcnile, and 

he hia mother-in-law Ijing, and 
Ilia w)-u(.'a moder Yiggynge, and 
hiB wyucs modir hggytige, and 
Bocrum ejus jacentem et 

ahakun with feueria. 
shakun with Jeueris, 



1. And he mthnin byre hand, and ee fefbr big fortlet: 

2. And he touched her hand, and the fefer her left ; 

3. And 1)0 touchiilc hir bond, and the feucr letie hir: 
4> And he toiichide hir bwind, and the feucr \eite hir : 

6. Et tetigit nianum ojuA, et dimisit earn ftbiii: 

1. ta arns hco, Did |iencide him. 

2. then arose Khc, and eei-ved them. 

3. and she roose, and eeruyde hem. 

4. and stie rocs, and scniede hem. 
5. et eurrexit, et ministrabat els. 


1. SoSlice )ia hyt eefen wais, 

2. Sootlily wbtn it evening ivas, 

3. Soihcly whan the euenyng was niaad, 

4. And whanne it was cncn, 
5. Vespere antem &cto, 

1. manege deofol-seooe : and 

2. many devil-sick : and 

3. many haiiynge deuelys: and 

4. maiiyc that haildcn deuebs : and 
K. multoH da:monia habentcs : et 

1. unclienun gaslas mid h3'S worde, 

2. unclean ghosts with his word, 

3. epiritia by word, 

4. epirilis hi word, 
t> spiritns verbo, 

big brohton Wm 
they brought (to) him 
thei broujte to hym 
thei brou^ten to hym 
obtutcrunt ei 

he ut-adnede )ia 
he out-drave the 
he caatide out 
be castide out 

and he ealle 
and be all 
and helide alle 
and heclide alle 
et omnei 

LoCT. Vltl. 



1. gebttMe )ia yrd-hnbbcndaa; 

8. boRlod tbo ovil-haring ; 
S. hanjngc yud; 

4. that vcara ynd at uk ; 

(, mate Uabcntes curavit ; 


!• X)vt vum griVIIrd fn-t gccwcdra h ^tirb KnaJam 
S. That might-bn fitllilU'd ivliat kjioIimi U through Esaiss 

3. that it »huti}c be fiilQUiO, thut tUiiig that wa> mud by Ynaic, 

4. that it wiTC fullillid, tJiut wn> wid by Yni«, 

quod dictum est jvr Iicii.ini 

enoSoad^ Ho onfcng ur« uutriim- 

mying, lis t«ok our infirm- 

fuvingc. He 

nriyngc, [lo 

diorntcm, Ipm 

ab»r ure adU. 
bnre «itr ailsL 
berc onn sykeneuis. 
bar pure Kknctais. 
legrotatioDcs nostra* ponaiit. 

(. nt Kliinpleretur, 
1. }oD» wii«^a, Sna 

i. the prophet, 
3. the prt^hcte, 
4k tbt pToTcte, 
S. prophctnin, 

1. nan, and 

S. itio, and 

3. teea, 

4. t«M, 

I. aeoeint, 



toke oiiro infiriny- 
took oura inJinnjr- 
infainitatci aoRrw 





1, Da gc»ah te Iltclertd mycla raenigeo jmbatas 

t. Wh«ti tnw tho Sftviour innch people about 

8. Sotboly Jho«u« twytx^ innn/ aimjnnyea about 

4. And JhextM my mycbo ptiplo abouts 

5, VidetM autcm Jcsa* tortiaa multiui circum 

1. byn«, )>a hot ho hig 
i. hira, ihva bndo ho them 

3. hym, had Iti* tUtdpli* 

4. him, and bade biu ditciplia 

5. aci, jumit 

&mi ofer )<OQa muSaxi. 
(to) &rc over th« inter, 
go ou«r tho wator. 
go ouer tho watir. 
iro trana freCmn. 


1. Da geneabdite him fta bocore, and cirtM, 
% Then ni^ed (to) him a eoribs, and mid, 
8. And 00 aciibe, or a man of Imre, commynga to, saldo lo hym, 
' '"' ' — '^- noijodo, aod wide to hyn^ 

untia acriba ait iUi, 

4. And a 
^ £t 



a '•4 



1. L«reair, io fyUgB ^>> ■"'» liHsder 

i. Teacher, I Mow tlieo 

3. Mklatre, I iba] mm thee 

4. Maifdr, T Aal ma tlies 
6. Migut«r, Mqnar tB 

1. flent. 

5. &reit. 

3. ahnltgo. 

4. Bcbaltgo. 

6. uai*. 


whidir mtm 





1. Da 

2. Then 
8. And 
4. And 

6. £t 

1. boln. 
t. bolea, 

CwrS m nailead 

Mid th« Saviour 

JhwiM mid 

Jhomu Mid* 

dicit et 

to him, 
to him, 
Io hjnn, 
to hjvt, 







and heofcnaa foglu jie*<; eotlilicfl msDnettniia 
and boavcnii' foi*]* neata ; aootldv man's wo 

3. dicht^or£I>roH■lV,aIldb^iddtio^tbeel^Aannc]<tiM; bat nisniMa MlM 

4. d«iUMa 
6. bab«iit, 

1. DmfS hwior 

2. han-not vrbnr* 
8. batb nat wher 
4. hath no* when 

ft, noa babe* ubi 

andbriddisofheoieiieAanncxti*; but tnanniHaoiM 
et Toluoro Gcdi nidoa; filiotautcmboauiua 

ho b^ famlbd ah^lda, 
ho hta head may-lay. 
he K«te hit hoood. 
ho »cbal reMo hi* booA. 
oaput tvclineL 


1. Da ctntH to him oT«r of hya 1eomlng'-«&Oitnn^ 
S. Then said to him (an)othorof hia ditdplet^ 

3. Sothnli an other or his. dijuiplu Mida to hjni, 

4. Anotbtr of hfa dnriplii wide to him, 
(t. Aliiui Buton do disclpolia ejiu ait illi, 

1. DrilitCD, slyfb mo lenat to 

2. Lord, let jno firat 

3. Lord, mlTre me ff* fbat 

4. Lord, RuflVe me to go firtt 
(. Domiao, permitte no prlmom in 

Jorcnns and 

fin and 







I-wn-. VIIL 

wicumts xRASSLAnoiu 






mi one fieder. 

mjr father. 

my &ctir. 

my fiider. 

patrem meum. 


Da cwkS u Hcelend to him, Tylig me, and 
Then said the Sayiour to him. Follow me, and 
Fonothe Jhesua aaide to hym, Sue thou me, and 

But Jheans adde to hjia, Sue thou me, and 

Jeans sutem ait ilU, Seqaere ma et 

deade bebyrigan hjn deadan. 
(the) dead bury their dead, 
dede men biiye her dead men. 
deed men birie herdeedemen. 
mortuos sepelire mortuoa suoa. 






1. And he astah on scyp 

2. And he entered in(to) (a) ship and hi» 

3. And Jhean steyinge vp in to a litel ahip, his 

4. Aad whannehe wasgoonrpin toalitilBchip, hia 

5. £t ascendente eo in naviculamf 

1. hym fyligdon. 

2. him Tollowed. 

3. Bueden him. 

4. Bueden hym. 

6. diacipuli ejuo. 


and hya leoming-rayhtai 




Mcud aunt etna 

1. Da weaifi mycel styruDg geworden on 

2. Then was (a) great stir in 

3. And loo 1 a grete steiyng was made in 
And loo I a greet stiring was maad in 

£t eccG I motua magnus &ctuB est in 

wenrS olergoten mid 




f acyp 

the aliip was over-poured with waves; 

3. the litiL ship was hilid with wawia; 

4. the Hchip was hilid with wawea; 
ft. navicula operiretur fluctibua; 

^KTe a», 8wa f 

the aea, so that 

the see, so that 

the see, so that 

mari, ila ut 

witodlice he slep, 
verily he slept. 

but he slepte. 

but he alepte. 
ipse vero dormiebat 



tKT. Till. 


1, And !ii^ gcncnlirhton, and li^ an^Iitoii lij-iwv Jin* 

2, Aud iJu-y niglic<l, and(li«y awn):ed tim, that 

3. And litH disfipliKCJunii] ni^^tnliTm, tind ravaiden hjm, 

4. AudhiHeiJiKcipliicniiii.-ii tohvm, uid Tcrsiden hyat, 
6. Et accemeruiitud ctim discipuli cjuK,i<t niKil«T«runl «uni, 

1. cweSmdet Drih!<Ti, ha:\o «b; ve molon ftirwnirlSan. 
S> raving, Lord, eave us: wb must perish. 

3. miyingp, Lord, mqo v»: we porlaben. 

4. niid w:idi:n, Lord, xiii« rs; wt pcriscbeo. 
6. diccntcs, Uominc, uh-* non: perimua. 


I. Da owmS ho to him, To hvri tj-ntgo fbrhtc, g« Ijrdei 
i. Thi-n Ktid he to thcin. Fur wh;r are yu nlfrigbtcd yc(oiQlittt« 

3. AndJhcsiuddibto )i(fm,niiat ben xim: of lilil liuth ngactf 

4. And JhcMUH M-'ide to hvui,^V]iai beii ju of )iUl feitltiignito? 

5. El dicit tU Jeeus, Quid liniidi e«iU, modioee fidciT 

1. gcknlim. Da ama he and heboad ^m nrindn and ]wra 
'i. fuith? Then arowe be and bade the wind and the 

3. Tliuiiueheryflyng«comaund!deiolhe wvmlis and the 

4. ThaDueberooaandcotnauudidetolhe wvndia and tho 
i. Tunc BUi;geaR impcvavit veiil is et 

1. t£, and )>a;r wear5 geworden mj'cel vinyltncM^ 

2. iM, and there was (a) great caha. 

3. aee, and a gr^te pcaibl«ne»ie ia maad. 

4. aei', and a greet pe»ibilnr«(e ivaa maad, 

6. muii, ec facta eat trnn<^iullit.tik tongoa, 


men mindrodun, 
men wondered, 
men wondp.dcn, 
men wondridcn, 
hominca mimti aunt> 
f windaa 
that winds 

3. manere rioii in he this, fi>r iha wyndis 

4. nittDCT fiari in he thia, for the wyndis 

5. «at hic> quia vcnti 



f )>a 

















and t>ua owKden: Rwtpt 

and tbua apake: Vihut 

fnyinge : What 

and ficiden: What 

diccntua : Qnalii 

and aw him byrsumiad. 
and sea liim obey 7 
and tho ace ob«i«hcn to hjTn. 
and tlir fMx obciichrn to him. 
ct morii obvdiunt d? 





1. Ds K Hwlcnd eom oler|>(meinu8an on GeroMnlaon 

2. Wii«a tim Suviour came uvur tlm water tD(lo) (the) GetgeMue* 

3. And whati Jhesiu hadde cornea ouer tlie waior in [u ibe cuaiM 

4. And wkmuo Jbesos wu ooraun ouer (iio waili- tn to lUe cudIM 

2. £t cum Teoiseel trans £r«tum In ngiootiD 

1. ricu, f>a tunon hlin togeoea Ivrngea p& htefdoQ 

5. ooDQUy iliere ran him to«-)u^ main that had 

3. of men of Genazereih Ivrey meu Iiaujiige deutJis nuineu 

4. of men of Genua twey mtm nieitoa hfia iliat haddua 
fi. Gorasenorum, occurrcruut ei duo babantes 



, of 

byrRuuuin utgau^ide, 

1 H 




from (the) toiiiba out 







goytif.-e out fro birielia, 



and caiueu out of graues, 



de tQonum«nlid exeuntea, 


ifwiSe rnSc-, 


^ naa man 


mibte faraa 


very fii-rcu, 


that no man 




f lil ftwm;, or teichid, ta 

tliat no man 

mijte paiw« 


ful woode, 


tliat uoo man 




BJL'vi nimia, 


ut Bemo 




|)llrli |iODe 



tlutxtgh DiAt 



by that 



bi tlmt 
p«r vium 




1. And hig hrymdon, and cmcdon, 
3. And tbt-y crii-d, and aaid, 

3. And lool thei cried«n, cajinge, 

4. And Jo I tliet criedcD, and aciden, 
b. £teccel clainaverual dioent«a, 

1. moM, hwwt j» (>e and oa gsmteneT come J-tt bider 

5. aon, what ii (to) I her and us coounoaT ootneMthouhithat 
3. to theti, JhcMt tliu sone of God? baMtbou cornea 
4> to tlit^e, JbiMiu tlie eone of God f art tbou ccraua 
t. tibi, Jeso, fill Dei 7 Tcnicli boe 

What to TB and 

WliMl to vs and 

Quid nobis et 


iTTCurrrTE tsaksutiohs 

toKrt. VUl 

1. «T tide ua to |>i«agean«r 

i. «rc (the) time lu to tonucnt? 

3. hidir before thu tymo for to toiiTni4>nie nt 

4. lii<Ur biiore Uiu tvme to lurmraM *B? 
ft. aate i«mpudi torqutn noat 

a tmjta heord 
ID (<rf) Bwioe herd 

flockc of maof iiwyM 
grex mnltoram poKCOtom 


Dnr w»i HoSlice anieorr a 
Tliare wiu vvrliy un&r a 
Sofhcly ■ doc, or dnue, of many 

And Dot f(T fro lit-m vnu » 
Erat auti-m noo 1od([« ab illia 

Dianegra maniui, ItMuricnila. 
(of) mauj m«D, feeding 
was D&( f«r frwu bem. 


Da deofla aofiliu hyne bedoB, ^ua oweBendi^ Gjf 

Tho dcrila v«ril/ him boggod, tjiua saying, If 

But llip <l[:u«lia pxcycdcn him, wyinge, jif 

And the dcuclia jmyedon bym, aud aFideo. If 

Uamoim autetn ro^Uxuit cum, ^ccni«t, S 

)iti UB ut'Bdri&t, amKleua on |>aa nrioe Iicot4«> 

thou as out-drireM. acod ua iD(u>) tliis (oO awino fa«id. 

iboH casli*t out vs bcnooa, M'Ddc va in to tli« drou« of hi^ifc 

. tliou casliitt out vs fm hcQi>eN »«ni!« t* in lo ibe droua of iH-yno, 

ajicia no* bine, mitlcnoatn gregcni porconmb 


I, Da cvn)5 lie to him, FomS. 

3. Thtn a:iid )i« to thtim, Fare. 

3. And ho mith to hem. Go ^m. 

4. And ho Ride to hvm, Go ^u. 

b. £t 




Anil h^ 

And ihcy 

And tbd 

And diei 

At iUi 




amn : 

1. l]T(^g«nde fcrdoR OD fs 

9. ouUgotng hrvd iD(t«) th« twine ; 

3. out wdile in lo the hoggia ; 

4. out and wvtitco in to (he rvtyac ; 
(, abieruat in porooa; 

and liffrrihio:^^ 

and fofthwit;^^ 
and lool in a ,^^ 
and tool in 4^^^ 

Lkt. VIIL 



niwd on ]>» aC, 
down in(Ui) tlie sea* 
in lo I ho aM| 
in to tb« WC, 
in vasa^ 

L ftrde «all «eo lieord myclum onraae 

2. &red «U the herd (willi)agreat ruiili 
3- gTfli't him ol the droue weuK hcedljDgo 
4. greet bin: ni the draue wenie hccdlj-ng 

t. inipctu ubiit t«tiiii grcx por pracep* 

1, and big wurdun dcnde on fara wMcn^ 

$. and Ibvy wure dvud in tbc natcr. 

3. and l(i«i bcii dead in ivutrii. 

4. and tlid weren dcitd tn tbc wstri^ 
A. M morlui aunt in aquLt. 


1. Da bj^aa vilodltce flugou, and MBinot on ^ 

2. The berdsmeD verily lied, aod cune in(u>) tbe 

3. FonK>tb« Uie birdoa fleddon an'ey, and cui&mynge in to Um 

4. And tlio hirdia Hcddcn avroy, and mnm in to tbe 
ft, Pa*torea autom l'ug«mnb, st vcnieatea in 

L ccaitrc, and cyddon callc f.u ^ng; and he )'ara 

}. «i^i and (muilc) known all thrae tbin^; nndnhntit ihem 

3. citce, tuldun nllc dicia thingis; and of hmi 

4. citc« and tcldcn allc tbew ibiogit; and of hem 
6. civiuwm nnntiavcmnt oouuaj ct d*> ija 

L ^ ^ dcofiil-iKncnyiiu bn^oo. 

5. t]Mtlh« derit-sicknr^ had. 

3. t)»t hadden tbu fundi*. 

4. Ibal badden ibe feendia. 

6. qui dMOoala bafau«iant. 


1. Da eode eall aeo coster- warn togeanea ^m H«lCTid«i 

5. Tbeo went all tbe oiliieos 

3. And loo ! al tbe citee 

4. And lot al tbe dtee 

5. £t Micel tola ciWtM 

loward« tbu 
went« a,^«iuiii 
wenle out a^eus 
eziil obviam 



I. and Yii fti big byoe geaawun, Sa bndan big hyiw 

i. and wbi-n that they bim saw, tb«u bade tbey liim 

3. mctyngu bym; and tiym aoeil, tbei ptvideo hym, 

4. >»d wbanne tliiu haddoo aoyn bynt, thcd preledcB 
&• et vIm «» roj^tbMirt 


nEKEJOiiD's TnAxn-AnoN 

UcT. VUI. 

1. P t)i! rf!rd«! frwn 

i. dtat liR (would) fate froiu 

3. tliat lie Nbulile ])tktt fra 

4> lltu t>« wolde jiosn fro 

6. at trausni * 

lieorn gamerum. 
t]ieir bordeiB. 
bcr ooosiiik 
Ler coouis. 
finibva eoruBL. 

The eftrlier WyciifBle t«t of tbo firt t part of tie Oia Tcrt»- 
laeDt, or tfaat aiicribctl t<> H^nrforti, u renaarkabte botb for the 
reeiucitation of obsolete Aiiglo-Saxoa forms, sod for tbo iutro- 
dnctioQ of Latini&ms rceulliiig from an attempt at a litvral «la»b> 
xwsa of rendering.* 

Botb these circumstance* give Mme count'-naiicc to the enp* 
podition, tliat Hereford's vork ia only a recension of an Kn^Iiith 
prose traosIatioD belonging to a considerably earlier philological 
period ; but there is iio widouoc wliutcver of tbo existence of 
any micb, and Et is not iniposHible tliat Hereford's vncabulary 
and accidence were influenced by a familiarity with tlie Aoglo- 
SaxoD version of the New I'cstament, and of paiia of the Old. 

Among the Soxontsms, I may mention the use of tlie genin- 
dial instead of the posslvo. The f^aion gcrundial ended in 
«nn«, aad was used with tlie prc^fix lo, like our modem iuflnilivc, 
'thus, ht ^» to Ivjigenne sigoilied, botii, he i« about to love, and, 
more frequently, ke ia to be loved. Thia form H<;reford employs, 
Rubstiliitiiig the termination in.g« for enne, as, at thai is to wer- 
dt^nge, meaning, alt that i« to be wrvuglU ; the kid is to eeeth- 
ini/e, ttie hitl i« to be sodden, or boiled. 

He omit« the poR«i'«iivc Bigii in *, saying dow^ir husbonde, 
nnkil dow^tir, luigbon/le fadir, for daughter's husband, uncle's 
daughter, hiisbotid's faiher.f 

lie u>m;9 Uie verb &e as a future, as, they ben to Myn, for, thoy 
will say. 

• In I^ptnre V„ I dcpc^iioiifd tli« lOInd pKilm. ram llioBart«ra pKlter. wilh 
ntrefonl'ii imnalntion. 1 mlJ to tbia tcotnn. Longer NotM anil lUn^tnlioii*, IX., 
PniTtfy'* IriijiklKlii"! trf the (time pnalin. for tlie mks cif coEopnriBon. 

t Ulntrpln pf (lii* {■Riiuie^ii nf tliv Dindvni [-oatoaivo nga anfoatui in vnUn 
tl th« «arlj' joct of ttiv lixtcvuUi ceatniy. 

Uei. VIII. 



Jte employs oun and youre a» geniUves plural, not as pos- 
sesBire proQuune, as, oure dreed^ tJie dread of us; yi/un feer^ 
the fear of you. 

lie uses the Anglo-Saxon femioiDe ending iii #fcr, us rf««7t- 
ttti', ft female daiicorj dettter or aUiyster, a muFderes.4, syitgster, 
• soDgstresB. 

But the moat remarkable peculiaritaea of bis e^te are tba 


Thus he readers th« ablative absolute tilcially, ao, for ex- 
ample, the viso sumoio of the vulgate, not, m at prasenl, 
'a vixiou luivii^ been seen,' or 'having seen a viHloo,* but 
directly, a seen tweven,* The Latin impersonal videbatur, ib 
eeen>ed, be renders it wa» seen, aud he constantly uses the 
accusative boforo the inliuitiTu. Thiu;, instead of'l dreunied 
tliat w were binding sKeavte' be ba» ' I dreiiinvd us to binden 
iheavea;* but tbi-s though most probalilya inm« lran»fereuce of 
a Latin form, a possibly a uatire idiuiti, for it is of frequent 
oocurrenoe ia Icelandic. 

In Wycliffe's and Purvey's texts, these un-EngiUb expres- 
rions disappcsr, and arc ttupcrsedc-d by more modem etymolo- 
gical aud i^toetival forms. The feminine ending «(ct, for 
example, is supemoded by the Frondi 6n«; and this ending ia 
employi'd much more freely than at present, and ia applied 
indisoriniinatdy to Saxon and Itomance roota. Thus ne have 
daunaerease, diMiplcseo, dwelleresHe, dev-oureiae, Bervaunteaae^ 
Bleciease, tfarsJleMte, wailoresKKi, aud the lilie. 

The syntax of these latter tmntilatorB is by no means free 
from either Latin or French coniitruclions, but it \», nvveitbe- 
le«H, miieh iiioie idiomatic Uian that of HeKford. Tbe gmm- 
Xii&tiod change, by which the active or present participle in 
--«nde assumed the form of the Terbal noun in -inif, and which 
I hare discussed in my First Seriet^ Lecture XXIX., became 

* Tbii Latiano^ it will hare ben •md. ocean abo in W}-tlifii\ Ibongh tordj. 
^Ana, In thn Mth raw of the Mghtii charter of AliUliev. altoulf tpraD, Iho «t 
wiao»««f tlia TUteao a Haii wti aurf Ay torn, aiUiogi any intBM» Ilia gti n m 
bMSf takrn aluolatdjr, m in I^tin. 




ertublished while these tranfiUtions were in process of execution. 
The distinctloQ betwcvn the piirticipla and tho noua was kept 
lip with coaadciniblc rc^larity until towards the end of tho 
fourteenth century, when it wns lust sight of; the piirticipial 
t«rininatJoii in wint^ or -tnd became obtolvti^v and both purticiple 
and verbal douq took the common ending -inff. The foicner 
translator of the Apocrypha, the Psalms, Proverbs, and tho 
Prophelfl, iLsed tho two forms, and, with few uxcvptions, accu- 
rately discriiniiiiit^sd between them; bnt when WyoliffB took up 
the continuation of Hereford's work, Ute participle in -end had 
gone so much otit of n»e that he dropped it altogether, and 
employetl the termination -hiy only, for both participle and 
noun, llencf, in Baruch lii. 18, which belongs to Hereford, 
we find, ' thcro is noon ende of the purcfutainff of hem,' j>ur* 
cha«!ng Iteicig a verbal noun; but n», in bis trnu.tlation, tlid 
true participle always ends in -entl or -endr, we liave* 
Baruch iii. 1 1 , ' Thou art set with men goeiide down to belle.' 
On tho other hand, in verse 25 of the same chapter, in 
Wycliffe's eoiitio nation, 'greet and not hauynffo eende* occurs, 
though htiuifnge ia a true participle ; and this form is alwayt 
used afterwards. 

Purvey'a test of the New Testament ia evidently founded on 
Wydiffc's translation, as his Old Tostamvnt pn>bubly is on that 
of Hereford. Purvey had thought much on tho general prio- 
dples of traD»latiou, and especially on the rules to be adopted 
in rendering Latin tnlo a langu^^ of bo diverse a grammatical 
structure as English. The prologue to his rGceosion, which fills 
sixty large quarto pages in Madden and Forsball's edition of 
the W'ycliftito versions, is extremely intoresting. I insert, from 
.the concluding part of it, a couple of extracts which will give 
the reader some idea both of his style and of his theory of 

For them roonx and othore, \Hth comuno obarite to saue alia 
■non in ourc rewiiie, whiuh« God wole liuud aniud, u aympl« criiatura 
hath truiulnliil the bible out of Lalyu mto Eugliab. Ftisl, ttua symple 

Ucz. VltL 



«RfltiiTis iwiSS.*) mj-chc imiuule, with diuerse fUan-Es and hdporii, to 
godcrc mania rtdi! bibtiK, and otlivn? doctuuria, tuiil comntia ^n^ uid 
to ninkn 00 I.ntjn biblu snmilcl tn-wi; ; ttiiJ tliauiie to Hludiu it of tho 
aose, the U'\t witJi the glow,', and ollit-r* doctouris, iw lie niijl« geie, 
uiid ([leciuli Lire on Uie cide t««wnicnt, that helpidc ftil niydie bi tiua 
Vfcrk; Uie ihridde tjme to coiuiscilu vritli dda gmnuLrieos, and cld« 
dyuynia, of liard« wordis and hai-do nentCDCis, hou iho niijtvj) bt*l be 
Viiduraiunden and Inm^lntid ; iho iiij. tymo to tmiiHlnip a» clccrli as he 
coude lo tho scniciici', aii<I to hnui? mmiic godc fclnwU nnd kunayngv at 
thi correcting of ibc trnnaJucionn. First it in lo knnwc, thai tha beet 
trnnHlnling in out of Lutjti into Enjjtiali, to triinxlatc nttir the WDlencc, 
Kiid not oncli oAir the woidiK, tto tliul the leiileiicu b<: lU opic, «iUiV 
ofM-ncrc, in Engliih as in IiHtvii, and go nut fui fn> llit li-ttrc ; and if 
ill*! Iettr« mai Dot be buM id (lie trnuiJutiiig, lei llie wntvuce cuero \)9 
Iiowt nnd ojieo, for tins wordis uwon lo wrue to lUe exiltrut and ■entcncc, 
uid tllin iln> wiirdin ben Bupcillu I'itlier fal-o. In translating into 
KD^linh, iiianit roHuluciuus moiin itiako lite »>(.'uti'ncQ open, aa un ablniif 
tiuv absolute may bo rcuiluid into iIicmo ibro wordix vrit)i vout-nable 
Tcrbe, the tcliilr. /err, if, a» gramaricQ* ncya ; aa tbuit, lAt maiittir 
rettingt, J itoade, mat b« resoliud tlitin, whilt the maitUr rtdilh, I 
$tonffe, eillier if th* inaitlir rtdith, etc. pitlicr/pr tUe uuiMr, clc. ; atid 
•uiRtymo it wolde acordc wpl with the iwnti;nco to b« remlnid into 
Klianne, cither into ajlirwarii, tliiiM, u-hannt l/it maittir rctt, I >tood, 
ei^er ajlir th« mftintir ttd, I atood ; luid Mimtvnif it nini wd be 
nwluid into n vcrl>e of tlic «nmc t«i», u olhi-rc Ken in the mmo 
Kaolin, nnd into ihiN word <t, thnt it, and in Engliib, on thnit, urwcen- 
tiiiiJi kominilnii firai titnnrt, thut is, anil men itttiUn wtxe dritfor drede. 
AIw> a purii(.-i|>!c of a prewnt ten*, i-iiher pn-tin'il, of autif vol*, trilliir 
poxaf, muv bi- rcnoluid into a vurbu of ilie Munu ten*, wd n coniune* 
cioim copulatif, as llin*, dkens, liiut IB, seiynr/e, uiui be rfwiluid thiu, 
and teilh eitliir thai edlli : nnd this wole, in manic plucio, nmke the 
sentence open, wliere lo Engliiehe it aftir the word, wolde be derk and 
douteAtl.* Also a relatif, which mai be ivfoluid into ha antecedMtt 
villi a coniunccionn copitlntif, su iIiiir, iciich rtnneth, aitd lie renntlA, 
Also whanno oo word is ooni* ml in a rcoxoiin, it nwi be ect forth u 
ofta as it ix vndiiD'tondcn, cither as oftc ns rrcsoiin and ncdo sxnn ; and 
Ihia word aulait, cither Vfm, max 8lond« tor j'orsolhe, either lor but, and 
thus I tm; comonnli ; and iniintyiue it niai ttonde tor and, as elds 
gramariena vtiyti. Also wluuiue netful ootutrucctoun is letiid bi reia- 
cioD, I twolue it openli, thus, where ihi« reesoiin, Daminum formtiia- 
Vunt adotiiary yus, ahulde be Engliwhid tliiu bi iho lotiro, the hvrA 
* Scu pogo T3, Hila, 



Uer. Tin. 

for )ie Yntrouf, not l>nt hcIM & ftw seek, (le lianduji Icyd vpon, and be 
tnanidiil for for rntmw)i ; |>nn, wnn CriM, ]«t ia God Almi;(ty, and of 
bla abaolut powtrr may nl )'iiig, nnd no )>itig is vnpoaubli- lo him, nor no 
plBg RUjr a^fn arond kim, and ;^ct ni.-ijr not of hi* ordinal power -gfiie ^e 
foDc for ^er <jntraw)>, anil vndii^ioiMoaan, nnd vnahiUia to meync, mich 
more nni o|ieT b<nef> may not li«lp, bat aller )>i' dixpnuicoon of him fat 
mcTuiJ*. Al CO it wmili bi |>ii, fat [« [N>pe inay hm bring in to gncei 
till Uoi^ him |iat lutip in mtraw)*, and id |>er iiyiinU: o« it wmifi ii 
Jrwm anil Saracooia and oper tiwilk, os is witiiewid, and of fnffid 
vritnc*. AI»o God ^n« him do &iT«r poner, not btil naoyl hem pat 
wil lou« per rytitir, or to bjmd hem and cuiso pat wU dure |>ef iniw. 
And bi K |>o mnii; roionn none of>cr prvM may not cjcccdc. And if it 
be nxid wcj-i-r ilk prt«t \»p a* mylcil power an fn pope, ai a neniM God, 
tt Kniip to nil! (-at ia Ibly to n Icrmo in pin omk oi|«r ji« or nay, ht for 
^t it mill he scli«wid out of lluli Wriltu. And no >t (coii)> n] so to nio 
it IN foly ani prcat lo premiino him to bane cuyii power wip ilk o^r, ha 
for pat )ie may gruunil him in po Cnf ; and ibli it vura lo denitt to ani 
mail any power pat God hap jeuim lo bim, or po vaytig |>cr of; for 
cciteyn I am, hovr cucr ani iniui lak ponvr to htm, or vae powsr, it 
profip nnt, but in nit mydM: lut God jcuip it, and wirkip wip it, and con- 
fcrmip it ; and certnyn I am, pat pc poirrr put GmI ;nii« Petre, Ite ^uc 
it DOt to htm alone, n« for him nlrjcic, hut he jatic it to po kirk, ami for 
po kirk, and to edifying of nl po kii^ ; no ho jciiip pe si^ of po M, or 
po act of ani mcmhro of pc liody, for help and cdllying of al po body. 
And Sent Jcrom ac^ip) Sam lyroe pe pmt wma fat ilk pnl pe biacbop. 
And bi for pat bnta wore made in religioun bi alinging of pc (end, and 
was soid in po peple, 1 am of P«tre, I of Poido, 1 of Apollo, 1 of 
Cc^sa, pc kiikis were ^iiemid bi pe comyn of praula cotiniieil. liut 
■Her pat ilk man callid faitn pal ho lapti^d his. and not Crista, pan was 
in al pc woi'ld irunieynid )<at on of pe preuis icliuld bo made cbcft^ 
nnd po wcdia of acj-smis schuld ba tan a wcy. por aa prestia wit bem to 
bo to per souereynit aogcta bo ciisiiim of pi* kitk, so knaw biacbopia 
b«m to be more of cuslum fan nf dispentncotin of Goddis trowp, lo per 
aoj^ets, pe moro per aonen^yni', and in emnyo pci owe lo gotiera po kirk. 
Lo I aey biochopx pmcnt, and pat pei tfoodun nore him, praU mai in 
p« atitOTC mitk fie ■acraiiicnt. But ibr it is irriltro, Pnsds pat preoton 
irel bi pci woi^i bad dowble hotwr, most Pal pel Iisuel in word aad 
todiing : it M-mi)> hem to preche, it ia pro6t to blca, it ia congrew to 
•acre, it cordip to hem to ;eue comyn, it ■> ntcvnri to hem to visit po 
•ek, to piay for pe mmtxti, and lo folo of po mctamentii of God. per— 
far noa of pe tdsdiopa, enblaweo wip enuy of pe fcadia tempiacoiu* 


uvr. vm. 



nunt^e; and new titc nhnlcn be tn};ni ni U ocordilK bc«t to tbc ini- 
UiDce. Bi lht» nmnrr, wiih good lyuyng and greet tnind, men moun 
eome to irovr and dnni trunaUiiiig, and txvivi! vniltindouding tif bolj 
writ, mini; it ncucrn to luinl at ihu bigyonuig. God (;ruiii)to to us alio 
giaco to kimiM! vte\, and kc])e wet lioU writ, snd Buflre ioiefuUl Mun 
pojDC for it at the Iasio I i\men. 

One of the most important cflccte produced hy the Wy cliffito 
TersioQS oq the En;,'1ish Inn^^ugc is, as I hare intimated, tiM 
eittAbliBhmetit of nliat is called the sacred or religtoiia dialect, 
vhicfa was lint fixed in thoKC vorsionit, and ha^, with littla 
wiation, contitiiitvl to be the Inn^age of devotion and of 
Ecriptnml trnnalatioD to the preset day. 

This ia mD§t obvioua in the verbal forms. Chaucer, and 
other secular writers contemporary with Wycliffe, very f^nerall; 
oae the Anglo-Saxon th o» tlio cudin;; of the third pcrwn 
■ingnlar present indicative of the verb, and froqueolly, though 
not conctootly, in all the pertions of the plura] and in the im- 
perative, and they also rsry often employ the plural pronoun 
yoUt in addressing a single pcnon. Wycliffe constantly, I 
believe, confines the th to the nngulur verb, and never employs 
it for the imperative; he makes the plural ending in m; and 
never employs yt or you in the »ingiilar ntimbi-r." All this is 
modem usage, except that en as the plural sign of the vorb has 
b(*n dropped. In short, the conjugation of Wycliffe's verba 
eorrespotids in all points very nearly to our own, with thus dif- 
ference, that in modem times the strong verba are constantly 
inclining more and mai6 to the weak con)ugntion.f 

It is curious, that the language of the original works aacribed 
to WycliHc in much less uniform and systematic tlian that of 

■ Btrrtatf* lemaral um of th« wtth and ptoooon b the wnc u Wjrtlffi-X bat 
lis cukM the im[wintiTe plural in tK TIiii*, is Bunch ii. SI — th* lut |MiMg* 
of llcn<tird*a tniulation. in which th« imptratire plural ocnm — m End : TkiM 
•nth lh« Lord. SrnaSi Axan jronre shnldria, irbcre Purrn; hu; Smu yt jaon 
■Cteldiir. In Wjclifiit'i condmiktioi]. (hr Snt [niji. [iL U ta Banudi it. 0, u»d tlit 
llbdMfipad: w* olsox'ti* ol .Syon, lirrt.' 

t Sm lUnaUatioB III., at ths end eC lliia Iwtmt, 



ttct. VII 

Imud, t>Ht yt ^ejr propbi-t. Jaa "pc tkwre. T^o it •omi^ yu ho U n< 
lijtl/ nor proli.^tly Crinin pope no )iia vicar Iml if li« bv bnii, ellis wb 
in he cuUtd holiodt iixlirT Jcrotii M'i|i. Pi-t |«t orJvyn of |icr awioia^^r 
in lo picatia, and puti«n heni Jier lil' in to idaiindrc of fc ppplp, |» 
ar« gil(y of |ie vnfi!i|<fuluea of lipm I'm «tw aclaundml. For •o|> I>ri nri 
ehoauD to ji'ts to be prc^ti* tu )ni pvplc, n* ^i onkjniid bi^ur to <Jigni' 
•0 fey hanst to NcliiiMi be for in hnlini^ cltin whi are p« prdWrid 
0^ )uH pumin in f^ce of niirriij*. And )'iTfor »0Jf> fr pope SjBisch' 
IJ« it to be coiuiiid most viti\ )':it i« litfor in dignilr, hnt if he pmiull 
in KicnB luid holm-a. fa Lvrd a(.-i|i bi ^ prophet, fur I'll hn>t paiii 
wey Kavaa, 1 nluil p\it )>c a vrey f>at |iu v«e not pmtbcd to me. 
dud« of fa biadiop houwi|i lo passe a bouc )>•; lif of f^ p<-pl<.% lu f« 1 
of ^ jerd iranaocndi|i fe Jif of |ic- tchep, as Gr*gori n-if. And Bt-mu 
»if> lo pepo niigmi, pi lVI:iwis biichopa lerc ^i at |>e lo liauc not n 
hem child<T bo curhid, nor yng mro kcnihid or «w>p*Tl; certej'n 
Mnni|> not chuplrlid tni-n to ren amoRg fo mjtrid vttcortcj'ily, |K>f p 
dcdro to be pn:it, or be !)rfur to hna )«t )>n coueitiiit noi to proflgt 
owr proudlj^ in coueiliii^ ftubiwcuua vf faem, o4* fe vrilk fa h 
not fMTc $ek.— [Cli*p. XVI.] 


The uniformity of diction and giaminar in WycIifTt-'i Tfo 
_Ju«tJinient gave that work a weight, as a model of d^TotioDl 
»inpo«nt.ion mii] wriptural pfiniM-ology, which nxitrcd ita fR 
neral adoption ; and imt onlv the ip«tnl furma I have in< 
tioni-d, hut many other arcbaUms vf tlie utAndard trnntdatJoi 
both ill Tocahular]- and in syntax, were adopted hy Purvey ati 
Tyndale from Vyclifft-, and by the rwisorB of 1611 froi 
Tyndale, and have thiut rtnnained almost withotil chan;^ fa 
SOO yeiirK. Iti fact, so much of the Wycliffite Bacrc<) dialect I 
Tx.-tuined in the standard version, that thongh a modem read 
may occasionally be emb«rraw>cd by an obsolete word, idiom, i 
Rpeiling, which occurs in WyclilTv's translation, yet if the grei 
reformer himself were now to be refllorcd to life, he woitl 
probably be able to read our common Bible from beginning I 
end, without having to ask the explanation of a mogle pasaaga. 
The works of I^angiande and of WyclilTv. especially tb 
latter, introduced into English a considemlile numlier of worffl 
ilircctly or indirectly derived from the I.atiii. lliey produced 

Lmtt. VUL 



ODTBid dedis, and pe^iM of hclle. For no doute aa onie Lord Jheni 
CriHt aiid liis apostlis prorcsipn pli^ynli, Antecrist and his cumd 
direii>li8 sliulen come, imA dimeyiic man}' men by ypocri^io and 
tpnimlrie ; and the bcste armeer of cri»lrn men a^cn* thin aiwid 
oheueiitcyn with liix ooat, it the text of holy writ, and nanit^ly Iha 
gospel, and vcri nnd opyn i-ntutuotple of Cristi* lijf and hi* npoitlif, 
and good lyiiyng tif mt-n ; for ihnntic ihei Bhulcn himwc wtl Anlvcntt 
and hi» moynee bi her oppi dedis contrarie to CrisliA tecliyng and 
ly«yng, Crim Jhe§u, for thyn endelea power, mercy and i-hariUe^ 
mnlie thi bte««id la^re Itnowiin and kept of (hi pnple, and make Vnowun 
tho ypocrtue and tit'iviintrie and cnritidnesKe of ADtcerist and liia 
meyuee, ibat ihi pnpic be not diraeyued hi hem. Amen, gode Lord 

I ftiJd chaptera t. and xri. from the ' Apology for the Lol- 
lards,' ascribed, upon probable i^ounds, to Wyoliffc. and pub- 
lished by tho Caoidcn Society. These chapters are fair Hpe- 
cimena of Wycliffe'a argURieiitataon, but hy no meAns of his 
declamation, and of bis invective, which he carrie-i to lengths 
of great sevorityi exposing with an unsparing band Che eccle- 
■iastica) abuser of histimv. 

An o)>er is f>iA f«t is pnt and a^Vid, \<M ilk prest may Tse |<e key !a to 
Ilk man. To pis. me finkip, I mny wrl wy fnn, syn al power ia of God, 
and, or fo goqiel scJI", fer is no power hut of God, ne man may do no 
}>iiig, bnt if he ^cuc bini fd mip, ; n* Crist •ei)', ;;c may wi]> out me do 
no f'ng, )iat oncly a muo vne liis power in lo ilk |>ing, uk God werkip U 
him, and iefif him lo rse it vnblainfully, and no forpcr, and fro pat may 
no man lette him. And yh is pat we hl-v, fat we mny of rijt w, if (»er 
be ani fung of power, or eallid power, )>at is not bi Crist, pat is no 
power, bnt fiils pride, nnd prcmnniii, and onii in name, and ai (o f,rai 
and eir«ct la now^l. Neiierpelca. n mnn ix nrld tn hano power, and Imia 
to ne power, in mnny wyi>e, na xum bi lawe and ordre of kynd. mnn Vi 
lawc and ordre of grace, and jomc bi lawo and ordro made and wHtua. 
And to it is add bi lawu pat is mad of pe kirk, pal ilk preat hap ft 
mme power to rte p«, key tn to nni man in po ])oynt of dip, an ft 
pope; but not ellia, not hut autonle in «ii>ec!nl be ,ieunn to him of pa 
kirk per to. But if it be aakid, if ilk pre^t m^ii vne pe ki-y in to ilk 
man, pat is to 1x7', lo awuilo him, or ellis to bind him fro grace, U acmi^ 
opiinly put ilk pri^nt may not iuM>ilr ilk to bring iiim tn henyni f' 
(0ifM!l »eip, pat Crist in a coort of pe Jcwia mijt not do o> i vcf 

wtcuite's AroiooT 


for )>e mtron^, not Init kolid a finr trek, t>e linndtia Icyd vpon, and be 
roaroelid for fcr vntrowfj )inii, wnn Critr, fnt is Cod Almijty, and of 
bis abeolut power rauy ul ^iig, and nn |>ing i> vnpowablo lo Iiiin. nor no 
fiag maj sgeo siond hiui, ■n'l j,fi niav not of hia ortlinat power ^d« fa 
(btk far )>er onirow|>, and vudu^xMicoun, and vmibglitA to rveeyite, midi 
more nni oyer t)«ii«|i may not h«l]>, but aA«r ]>■; diapoaicotin of him )M)t 
rcorTVii|t, Al m ii «pmi|i bi fb, ^t yt pop© may not bring in to grace, 
no bli^ him fat \a*t\f in ratrow^ and in fer Bynnw; u it Mini|> bi 
Ji-vcN and SaracnruK and ofet svrilk, ot is witnesiid, and of («i|iftU 
vritR<^*. Aino God ^n* him no fnrrcr powCT. not b«t aaoyl bora faX 
wii leu« fer «ynne, or to bynd ln-m and cm-w fai wil dure fer inno. 
And bi ao ^ Mnw rcioun none ofcr prcat may not oxccde. And if it 
b<! nxid w«)icr ilk prvat l»p m mykil power aa po pops^ u a neiiidt God, 
It temi|> to ni« f»t ia foljr to a krmo in ^iii cww oi|>er j^io or nay, be Ibr 
^t it inai be aclMwid out of tluU Writtc And ao it acmiji nl so lo me 
il Is foly ani preei to prwnime liim lo haue euyn power wip ilk olicr, be 
fi»r ^at h« may gn>uni) him in (-o Hif ; and foli it were to dwiic to ani 
nan any powvr ^at (iod hnti jcniin lo him, or |io v&yug per of; fiw 
ccrleyn I am, how ciicr ani man tak povor (o him, or vee power, it 
prafl^ not, but in na mydii- an God jcni^ it, and wiTki[> wi|> it, and con- 
fcrmi{> it ; and eprtnyn I am, put pc. powor Jini God jwno P*lie, lie ;[auc 
it not to him olonn, nc for him olotic, but he ^uc it to fn kitk, and for 
J>o kirk, and to wiifying of a1 |>u kirk ; os li« ^onip fc aiyl of )>e e«, or 
]>0 act of ani m<rmbre of t>Q body, for l]elp and edifying of al {le body. 
And Srnt Jcrom aeip, Snm tyme pe prMt vta fM ilk ^t f9 biscliop. 
And bi for put ixtUi were made in reUgioun bi atinging of po fend, and 
waa acid in ^e peple, I am of Pelr«, I of Poulo, I of Ajjollo, I of 
Co^^aa, (>e kirkia were goiicmid bi fc cotnyn of prcatis counacU. IJnt 
after )wt ilk nuin callid him jint, ho bapiijid hia, and not Cnals, |iun waa 
in al pe world wonJrynid )«C on of ye pmiia Khnld l>e made cbefi^ 
aiiil|<e>e«disofac}-nnia RcbuM be ion awe)-. Jxir na prcstis wit bcm to 
\yt lo (wr aoucrvynia aogct* bo cimtum of |ii» kirk, an knaw biacbopii 
li«ra to be mor« of cnatum pan of dinjiL-miacoun of Goddi* trow|>, to per 
toget», ft more fur Mtiereyna, and in comyn |>ei owe to goucm j>o kirk. 
Lo I sqr bixcltop* preaont, and pat pa siondua ner« kim, preMa mai ia 
yt autcn mak |>e KKxament. Dut for it ia wrilun, Pnmia ftt pmitna 
wel bi |>u wor|)i had dowble honor, mcfft (■at ^ci Iraucl in word and 
tocliing : it acmip bom to prcche, it is profit to bles, it in congrew to 
■aero, it cordis to hem to j,ctif. comyn, it ia neccmri to htm lo visit )<e 
•ck, lo pray Jbr y» mnii^ti, and to felc of )'e Hacivnii-ntii of God. pvr- 
fcr con of |>0 btacbopla, cnblaweu v'ty ciiuy of fo /i^dia temptacoiu. 

Ukci. TItL 



wrnji, if prcntis otierwile exorl or luoncAt fc pcple, if fi'i prtcJio in 
kirli, if jury Wi-Bse (le Hoc, for I »chal er/ ("Us to hvm |'at wcniip om 
[x-i* )>i:i||^, lie jiai wil not preMus do ^fiig fai fi-i art- bitluti of (iiid, Bpy 
hu wai in inuie |'UJ1 Crim * or vrat may bo put befvni hia llfiwli iind blodii* 
Anil if f» pT«at sacra Crist wan he blemb )>e aacnmetit of God id fn 
auter, awi|i he not to blewi|i fe popl«, )«t drfi(ii)> not to >aci« Crist? A 
jfi rniuBt prestis lionivr ^^r bidding }<« prml of God stintip fo ofBce of 
blt^aung, « bowrt Irwid men ami w.micn ; be stintip fe warlt of long, be 
ljiL|i no tryet of piuc-.tiing, ha t* dockid on ilk pnrt, be lta)i only \e name 
of prest, but h« holdif not |>ii plentc nn f^ jifrfrroMjD )'at fclli[> to his 
coiisctrmcoun. I pmy jiow prcntia wal bnnor in J>i« lo jow, |ial je brijjg 
in ^ediunngRof all«f>efullci!? forirran wor{>i diligence in taken a wey fro 
pTCK^a bi poitvr, aum uniling of mii>cli«f rytif in Jni 8ok ; an<t ^c gtyl 
harms of fa Lordti pairiinoyn, til ;« nlom wil bo polontntw in fe kirk. 
And for ft acja ofer inun {luti, if ■ biaohop in confrnning fat ha appro- 
pri|> lo him nlf wip out ground of yt Scripter, 2oait> gnee, vthi not a 
ainiplv prent ful in merit ia mure at God, of nior merit, gtie mor varfi 
faordmctiU ? Sum ij'm« was no I'eaomi, wuu ft tamv wan bixcJiop and 
prtait. And bi fern |ial prcethed wa» hied, or reriliur filjd curaidly hi 
fe world, ilk pre»t of Crift was callid indlflerenlly prcat and biadiop, 
as it «<rmil> be )'0 wordia of Jcrom. — [Chap. V.] 

An ofer poj-nt |>at is putt is |iiA, ^at |ior is no pope ne Criirtia riear, 
but an bol}- num. pis may )iu« bo prouid ; for him bo liowui|i to bo 
baiowid H-i|> |>c sacrament of bapuw, and of prMtbed, and of dignitc 
And oft is bitlun to prortis in ^e lawc to be holy and halow oper; and 
for hoyl« of halowing of fn Lord i* rp on hem. Also ('Us prayi]> Crist 
for alle bi«. Fader, balow hem in lron|>, y'l word is trowt', as [ju ha»t 
aend [mc] in tu \<« world, au 1iau« I anid brai in |>« irodd, and for hem 
I halow mynclf, faX pei be iialuwid in lruw)>. And ynt is badde in 
dccrvin; Loitapcri)) how pei achat aebap )>u iienrl of fc charge, fat )>ey 
be J'olid to niiiiiMcr prenly oper sacraments, for (>ey are inncuid fro fh 
not only for hermy, or oj'cr ilk grelter ayii, but also for ncgligens. In 
wilk ^ingis bysily it is lo not, |>at (>a aacraiiient of pn-sllicd bcfor oj'cr, 
more wor^ly, and wi^ cure, is to be jeaen and btne; for but if it Ixj 
« J^euen and Unr, it schal fnylc to be rate or fenn«, os it is not pcrfitly 
done. 0|>cr sncrnnientis are ;euen to ilk man for hiniailf, and silk pey 
are to ilk man as pel arc uinc wi)i hart and ooncicnee; but Jiis is not 
only j<:ui:u for hi-ni »ilf but for o)>cr, and yerfor is nede it be tane wiy 
wmy linrt and cU-xiv ci'iicii-ncc far htm nclf, and s* to o^or, not only 
wi)i out ilk syiiiit.-, but uIbu wifi out ilk name of £imr, for schunder of 
bre}ier, to waa prufli pr°8ihed in ;etieii, not only )>at men prcat, or b« 



WTcurre's ntrLCESCi 

List. VIII. 

Ijoud, but )«t >«y prapbct. ^a fv iwn. Lo it tetn't^ }<at be la not 
lij^^ ztor profi^lly Crisrs pope nc Iiis ricnr 1ml if lie be h«U, dlis wtii 
is be csUhI holiott fadirT Jrrom wi|>, pei f*t oiitryn of |i«r u/ t aau ry 
in to pnnif, and pottcn h«tn ^r tif in to sdaoiidrc of |ifl pople, |>ei 
are gihy of fc viirDi|>fuliK« of Iw-m Jwt «r* «ciaim<ln«L For aofftsAn 
dieou) to )>ia to Iw prvatii lo ^ i>v{>!<-, lui ^ ord«yuitl bcfbr to diguitc, 
■o ]ic^ kaujt to Bcliine be fur in IwliiMs^ cJtin «hi ure ^ ivefcnid to 
o|)cf ^t jxusun in (;nici! of meritU. And |«rfbr *ri^ |ie pope Svmndins, 
II« IN to b« eouiiiid laoal vilo, |iiit is b«foir in dignilc, bui if he [ci-ceIIo 
in Mcieot and boliuca. pe Lord mp bl f» proplMit, for fu Imsl puu m 
wey adena, I bcImI put t>e a wey ^l \ia v»e not prailbrd to me. pv 
dtde of f« bucliop biMiwi^ lo pMM a boue ^ lif of |<c prplci, as t>e Uf 
of ^e jcrd tranfcrndlp pe iif of |>p Khep, as Gresori in-'tf. And Bmnard 
sei^ to pope Eugrai, pi fcJawb biichoiM lere ^i »l |w to Imuc not wi^ 
^wm childcr fo curhid, nor ^t-ng mi-n kcnibid of comport; oaUtyn it 
temp not dinplctid mmi to run among po mjtrid TiKwrteynlj- ; pof yn 
d«circ to be pnai, or )« bvfor lo bem ^t )>a ooudtist no* to pmfijt co, 
oner proudly in ooiuutiof; mibiuc'voun of bum, of |>e will: |iu LeniUt 
not |icro jelfc — f Cliap. XVL] 

^la UDifoimity of didJon anj grainmar ia Wy<!liirc*s New 
TeeUment gave tliat work & wi-i^^'ht, na a model of dwotioonl 
oompOKition and scriptural ptirnscology, wbtch eacured its ge> 
Dfrul ailop(ion ; and not only tlie fpecial fomvs I have men- 
tJoned, but many other archaisms of the Ktandard InutMlutlon, 
both in vocabitlar>' and in xyntax, were adopted by Purvey an^ 
Tymlale from WyoliflV, and by the revisors of 1611 from 
Tyndalo, and have thtiK remaJni-d alntoet without chan^ for 
500 ycnnt. In fact, so much of the Wycliffile sacred dialect is 
n^ned in the Htandard version, that though a modem rrtwlcr 
may nccaxionaily be cmbarras-cd by an obsolete word, idiom, or 
spelling, which occim in Wyctiffu's tratwlatjon, yet if the great 
reformrr himself ware now to I»e restored to life, he would 
probably be able to read our common llible from beginniu}; to 
end, without having to ask the explanation of a single passa^ 

The works of l.angland'r and of Wycliffe, especially the 
latter, introduced into English a consideiuble mimbcr of words 
ditcctly or indirectly derived from the Latin. Tbey produced 

LEcr. VUI. 

wicliitk's APOLOOT 


ewrid Aeiit, ami peyne* of Ticlle. For do doute as oure Lord Jbtsa 
Crist sod hi* aptwtlt* profi«i(^ pli^iiii, Anlfcri>t and hU curtJd 
diwiplia dinlni ooRic, and diB«^ii« many tnoti by ypocmia and 
^raoDtTK ; and the bcsti: armtK-r of crislrn nidn t^ea* ihia cumd 
^oumlnjrn witb lit* oast, it the text of ]iol7 wril, and nnmirl^ tlic 
goiipc), and reri and opj^n eiuauitipli! of Cristia lijf and liis apostlir, 
aiid good lyujTDg of men ; Tor lhaiui« iha ^ulen k&uwe vrd Aiili-cnst 
and Ilia iaeyn«e bi her opyn dedia contrario lo Ciieiia t«cliyii^ and 
IjuyDg. Civt Jh<«a, for iJiyn cndi'les power, m«i-cy and i^iariiie, 
make llii b]««eid Inwc knnwiin and kept of ihi pnplc^ and make knoirun 
tka ypo«ri«« and tirauntric and ciiniidnr*ao of AntcciiM and liia 
mejlMOi ibat ihi pupJe be not di(Bi;yucd bi hem. Amen, god* Lord 

I add chaptcra v, and xv\. from the ' Apology for the Lol- 
Itids,' ascribed, upoa proboble grouud«, to WycHffc, and pub- 
lisbed bjr the Cnniden Society. Thew cliApters are fair spe- 
dmeas of WyclifTe'a argumentation, but by no meAna of hU 
declamation, and of his invective, which he carries to lengths 
of great Kovertty, exposing with an untEpuing hand the ecele- 
nastical nbnsea of hts tima. 

An 0^ is ^o )>at i* piit and »t>kid, {lat itk prc»t may rw |<e key tn lo 
Uk man. To fts, me )'inki)>, 1 m.iy ncl nrj fii", nyn al power isof God, 
and, a* fe gi>»ptl avif, per i» no power but of Gotl, up man may do no 
^tnf> bnt if h« jfiUK liirn ]it!; ai Crint tt^ip, ^e may wi|i out me do 
BO fit>S, fftt oncly a man vw.* his power in to ilk t>i"([, aa God wri-tip bi 
him, and le&f bim to vac it Tnblamrtilly, and no lorJ'LT. and fm Jint may 
no ram leOe him. And fis is fat we wy, pat wo m»y of rijt m>, if |>«r 
be ani fnng of power, or callid power, |«t ia not W Crist, (■« i* iwi 
power, but fiibi pride, and presDmid, an<l onii in name, itnd an to i:f- j 
and effoct i« nowjt. Nciierjiclws a man in wd to hane power. odU lene 
10 vso power, in many wyae, aa aum bt tawa and ordre of kynd, sii in U 
tawe and ordre of grace, and »me bi lawc and nrdro made and t*nttin. 
And ao it ia seld bi lawo pat ii mad of pe kirk, )>flt ilk prest hap pe 
Hme power to ret pe key ia to ani man in po poynt of de)>, a« pf 
pope; bnt not ellim not hni auiorito in upccial be ,^eunn lo him of pa 
kirk per to. But if it he a»kid, if ilk prent mm vae pn kry in to itk 
ami, pat ia to any, to Bntoiln him, or eilia to bind bim fro ^uoi?. ii si^uip 
opanly pat ilk prtat may not asuile i!k to bring him W lienjn; lor ps 
f»fd aeip, J«t Criat tn a cooal of pe Jci^-ia mijl not do nii veriu pOj 



Lkct. TUL 

or as repositories of an enlargod vocabulary, but bemuse tbejr 
bivd cnriohvd th« Kvery-daj ttpoevb of tlic pcoplo, and tlitis 
in«reo«ed the aOIueiine of tbat fountain which is tbe true aourre 
whence all great national poota draw their stock of liring (> 
brt-athing words. 

Although Lan){IuidG and tbe school of WyctifTe ore not to Ite 
looked upoa as gcvai Immcdintc ugi-ncics io the gooeral iro- 
provemcQt of written Eiiglisb, or m tAna<Uird» of tbo litcrarj 
dialect in their own age, there can be little doubt that they did 
exerciae a direct in6uenco upon the diction of Chaucer, aodt 
tlwugh him, on tho whole litt-ruture of the nation. 

It is well koovrn that the polilicvil party to whoM fortiinea 
Chaucer was attached, and of which ho waa a conspicuous 
mt-iiiber, was inclined to favour and protect WyclifTe amt his 
followers ; and it must, of course, have sympathized, ao far as a 
mediaval ariatocrncy could do so, with tbo popular body which 
constitatod the real public both ft the titeologian and of Piera 
Ploughman. Hence it is not poasiltlo that Chaucer should 
have hcen unacquainted with tho writings of the poet, or of the 
ntligious reformers; uor coitld a scholar of his acute fthilo- 
logical sensibility hare perused those remarkable works, with- 
out at oDoe perceiving that they contained a mine of verbal 
wMltii, a vast amount of the ricfaeat crude material for p •L-!ic»l 

Of such rewurci^s a gemiss like Cbaacer could not fail to 
avail hiiiiMilf, and I have no doubt that the great superiori^ of 
his style over that of his contemporaries, and the more ad- 
vanced character of bis dictlfin, arc to lie ascribed in Bone 
degree to his use of these means of iniprovi.-tni'Ot, — means 
which the more fastidious tnjit«, or the religious and political^ 
prejudices, of othi^ poets of the age prevented them frum 
sorting to. 

Iwrr. TIU. 

u<KO-(tOTHic rsxi 



if( tkxt of thk eiohth cbaptbr or H.iiTBinr. 

I. DnlnJ) pan atga^»ndin [inina af Mrguiijs, laistldndun uSar Jnuna 
iniujotm niunagoB. 

S. Jah Hii, mauna }>ruuflll habnndf durioiiBiKla inrait ioa qi]»tinds: 
Ihiuja, jnb^ vileis, magi mik galirainjan. 

3. Jah ufiakjund» liaodii nlinicok iroiua qijianda: viljau, vair[i hraiusl 
jail suii» lirain \a,r]i [>nUi |>rur>t5ll JH. 

4. Jal) i)n[f imm.i Iriitx: wtiw, <fi mnnn ni qi|uui>, aU g&gg, ])nk ulbaa 
Btttugei gii^in jah atbiiir gibii, fmt-i ■naliiiii|i Momh dii Ti'itvo<li|>.ai im. 

5. Alknih fan {-ain tnniilgnggnadin imiim in Kalurcaam, duacidt^s 
imma huQ'tnritp* bidjondH Ina 

6. jnh i]ipan<U: fniuja, )>iuiiuigux mdna ]igi)> in gorda luilipB, 
liardiiba hnlvi|)s. 

7. Jah n^p da imitm leans : ik qiioands galmlja ina. 

8. Juh audlmljandii <a )iuiitlala|'s <\^f: frauja, ui im Tsir)iii, d at 
hroi ntein Inagaggaia, ak patatnci <iif raimJa jab gHbuluip aa I'iuni^^sus 

9. Jah auk ik manna tm habands uf raldiitiija meinamma gadraubtin% 
jah qipa du paiDOia; gagg, jah gaggi|>; jaL an)>arainina: qim jah qimi)i; 
jah du tbalka tBcinamma: larei ^b>, jah tanjij-. 

10. G«hau^jnndii ^aa I«atia aUdaldkida jnlt qu)i dii paim alarlaiMJan- 
dam : anipn, qij'a iiiriii, ni in laracln svalntictji ^laiibcin bigat. 

I I . At'F'an (\ifii ixvia, |>ntei manitgni fmm urrunm jnh mggqa qinutad 
jah uniikuinhjond m:)i Abrabania juli Imka jnh lukotia in Jiiudangnrdjai 
hiiBtne ; 

12. l)i)>aIranjU8)>iudan^rdJM,uavaIrpan<lainriq!a|>aUlundumbito; 
jainar raii^'i^ grets jali kriiKU luu^ive. 

13. Ja)i qafi Iitm ^amnta hundathda; gagg jab sraffrp galaiibidei^ 
nirl'ai fitia, Jnh gnhriilDoda a )>iuiDBgi,u ia in jainu weilaL 

14. Jah qimands Je«ua in gardn Futraos jah gamw n-nihroD i» 
Sgandcin in IiHlon. 

15. Jul] ntuiick hHDdnn bo* jah alLulot ija ao faeito; jah urraiii jab 
■ndbuhtida imma. 



Lnrr. Tin. 

16. At«ndiaa]i\ja^an vnur)<8r)amtiia,atl<enindu imma diuinoaari«ti« 
nunagms jftb usraip fans atimaiiD vannia jali aiUnn }>aDs ubLl babaudaDa 

17> (i nnfiilliKvlciIi ^In gamtilidn jiairli Kkubii [iraufctu <ji^aitt]aQ ; 
n utimahtinH un.-aroii UKtinin jiili Kiiihtim lUibar. 

IK Giuuii^rnnd.i |'iin luiu.i nianagKiis biiibitiann bi nk, liaibait 
^u|>aii nponjoni liiniUr uuirein. 

ID. J«li duatgnggiuuU aios bukams <ia^ da iiunia: luiaari, laJiilJR 
^1c, liiswadtih )wdd i;aggis. 

20. Jah qa)> da imiua le«ue: fauhons grobca nigaa jali fu^Ioa 
bimiou ailaut, ip mniis innn! ni }iflbai|i, irsr liaubi|> sdn annbn»ivjai. 

21. Anj'arub |>nn xiponje !■ <|n|> du imnia: fnt^a uslniibci tnia 
fruiui»t galclpan jnli galilliAn niMii nn-innna. 

^2. Ip IcRUS (]ftp dit imtna: bustei «&r mia jafa let Jmn* dau)>Rn» 
fillinn Nrin.ini dnut>nnK. 

23. Jnh inatgia^indin imma In aki|>, afuriddjcdun imma iiiponjo* la. 

St. Job ni, vcgs iiiikilH Tur)> ui marelu, ovan-e [nta skip gnbuli^ 
Tair^iui tVnm vi-gini ; i|> is taialep. 

2'). Jab duatgaggaadans upuDJoa ia otTaJiadcdun ina qi^duMS 
jratija, iiaaei nnuN {raqistDam. 

3l>. Jah qa)> du iin Inmu: wa fanrbtci)!, letlil galaabjondaoa t 
panufa uiT«iMDdB gax>k Tindam jah m.irein, j.ih Tarji vis intkiL 

S7. If> |>ai miuiii 8i1i!nlriki<l<:il>in cjijiandam: wileik^ iiil lo, el jah 
Tindoajab lUHrri iifliaiH-jiuni immn? 

83. jBh<]im!iiidiii iminn hindur mnmn in gauja Gaif;gaiMiDe,ganio- 
tidcdun imma tviii daimonurjoi uh blaivantoai rmnandiuia, sleidjai filu, 
wrtmn ni mahta inntina unlfi^an (lairb }uina rig jainana. 

S9. Jail Kii, hropdudua qi)>RiiiIana ; wa una jah )>as, lesu, sosaa 
gu)'s7 qumt hvr &ur md holrjiin unida? 

30. Vunub ^un ftiirm im bsiirdn Kv^inii manngitizo hnldana. 

81. I^ fo HkiihNlu l)i-duii iim qijiundnna: jabu usvairpU una, nelao- 
b<'i unn fndri|'!ili in pu liairdu avtrini;, 

S2. Jab t|a|i du im ; ir->!-'!ii1' I It' "'* ui^ggandnm gntijitm in Iiairds 
crciuc; jab tai, run gavaurbu-dun aja alia m bairda and driiwon la 
mareiQ jah gadaiitmodcdUD in valuum. 

.13. 1)1 ])ai baldandaDSgaJ'Iaubun jaligalei)<andaiiagatai}iun in bauig 
all bi faan dnimnnaijatis. 

54. Jab iioi, nib m> banrgs iisddja Ti])ra lean jah gasuwandaoB isa 
bedun, ci uatifii biiidar moikoa iie. 


ohekk. tcxt 


■KarafJiiiTi ii nvr^ lijrii row apout fltuXoi-Ojfffai- aurji il;^\oi •oXXi'ii' 
*Kai iStiu \iTsoc rpaoiXOiir xpnaciurci (lurjji Ai'yua' Kiifiii, ia" OiXu^, 
iuraaai fit I'liOnpcoiii. ' (n( iIlTx'mic r>i>' X*'f" '/'^■"'f ovrmi Xiyuir 
GiXi, roOiipi'ffSqxr. kri fi>0t«i>c i«:a(Jri(i(Bfli7 nu«)u i( Wirpa. * cni Xf I'd 
aurw u 'InifuC '(Vr ^ifflvi fiefif, (iWr viruyt /iiavtor i:ji£nt- rji »piT, 
Mii wpoainytnr ro 2ufMV trpovirnicf rituiiiitiici 'it fmpfiiptor avroTc- 

iWapttKaKAr nhriy *t,'ai Ktyitr KupK, o naif iiov lUi^^-iTai iv rij oikr^ 

l-impnXimcDta eutut /JiffariCd^ti-ur, ^ Kiyti airji 'Eyui r'Adu'r Orpa<r((>*w 

faiiror. *inii druKpiOeic ^ iinroi'xipjfui; tfq Kiipii, Ouc lifii (kdI'OC !ra 

[fio* viro rvv OTityq'' I'ot'A^frt* dXXa ^luruf (ir« Xuyfi, tai inOifatTai n 

Toic /wv. 'tai yiip (yii lii-Hpniiriit lifii vfo Siinraiai; Ij^Bir iir tfi-iviiif 

aTpariiiTo^, im\ Uyw mury WnflvDitrt, mi iroixufrui. toidAXy EfX''"' ""' 

ip'jffrm' Koi r^ f(>uXfi/>«u nuiqiruv roCro, ■.iii roul. '"lijwutfut £i A Iqfuiic 

i9ii»^«9tr Mii (Ir^rroK uvrvAouftavirii- 'A^j})' Xlywt^lf, tap' Oiiliri roaai* 

I riff irfiTrivtr rji'lir^qX ivfior. " Xt'yw fi ufilc on voXXu, Airo uvtruXair 

■Qi 2>^/iuv lyt'juflif cai Ai-dcAitiiiaoi'rRi iiirit 'Aiipaafi rai 'lanac lal 

'laiiinji ir jh jJaaiXiiy Tuir ovpui'wi'* "o! f( vi'fM rilV j!-i0iXl'ac >ViiAi|0if- 

mrrai <■( ro a^orof to tfwripnf ivii f«rai o tXavOfiwt Kiti o ^^vy/ioc 

rir iloytuy. "kbi <'»[>' i 'lq«e-u( rjj i<:arorTaii;(pTra>(, wi isi^itv 

»ac ytvijDqrui «oi. vui in9ij o iralc nuroS «v rj Op^ jvoVp, 

" Kni iXUuv o 'IqiToOc tl( r4i> oiti'a;' (It'rpnv ■iJO' rgr rTtpAtpav ni^mi 
fStfiXttfiirrir nai wvpiaanvnay. "irni qf'^iru rqi' ;(> ificic <iu'T') kri af^ 
Sit- <ivrv> o ri;prut, iri vyV'"''! "•' ^i1i."n"< >ii""(('. *''t/iin( (i yim- 
fiiriK r(•l^^i|^ly•iav avrji Cai^iii-ifojittouc soXXovc, (<it ifffSiiXfr ri 
Tt-fvfiiiro Xu'yy, cn'i iF«i-rac fouc ic;riiivc i](oyTaQ (Oipiartwatr, '' utmc r\if* 
p^p to pn&irfia'llaaiov rou irpoipiiTin/ Xiyoi'tec -^vroi rat aaOtwdat iiiniv 
IXafiir, «ii ri)c w>«<«C liMfffa*"". '* 'lii»- ii 'IrriT"^( ruXXavr oxX»i>c 
*tpi avrof inXttitrtv RrtAHiir' dc to '• Kui iriKioiXBir iir yi'<tf' 
paTiirt (I'll' Dwr^ Ai^(i<rinXi, ataXwOfitv aoi tiiruu (lii- ''ifiit^n, **mi 
Xiyit air^ o 'lqmti>c Ai dXurTiitc fuXtovc f ^uvnr, hU( r«i XTfirii rui 

tXirn. *' irtp'K ft ruv fiiiOiirvr avrov ilviy aury Ku,>ii, itrirpii^r fioi 
rpwrtft- AxXtPtlv Mii thi-^t rop (rnripo ^iiu. "n 2( 'Iqvovc Xf-yii ourw 
f *AwX<iu9(i foi, voi ii^c Tovf VKiKiwc 0dij>ui Toit litvruiv p(i:)Mvc- 

" Kai Jfi^Jarn airy (If 'Xolof 4^'iiXouF)i)iTnv aiirv o'l /latfqroi RVrot-. 

)* col i^u atia/iit /ityn( tytVtra it- rp Htiki'iiran, wirri to irXoIov iuXv< 

■ writftiii I VXD riiif ku^rirwr' avroi ii iiaOtvitr. **fai vptxTrXfliimv ot 

r|M0itrai iytipat abrvr XtyiD>T«( Kvpic avaor, A<io\kiin&a. **«ai Xtyu 



Lmt. VIIL 

oiviHC T/ ?i>Aoi /«n ii\(yairi«ra< i fin iy«pOilc litttlfi^vtr role AiVfJmc 
Kn! rp iloXoirojf. i-oi trti't'o vnX^<7 ^icyaAi), *'oI ?« tii-Bp<iix«i iOair- 
fiamii- XiyoiTtf norasof iariy ouTitti OTi koi oi anfun mi ( fl/'Anoon 
iirntoi'x'uoir nirfi ; 

"* Kui JXOiiiTi aiTfi lie TO xipaw (ic r^r X'^P"' ^*' r'n?iijlq»^f, i'irv>» 
TDViiV iilirf Ivo Icufioniifitttn tc THr firqfid'uK t£(p](ii^>ro(, jfnAorui 
XJdi', uirrl ^ri) IiT^i'lir ritii irafilXflfif ?iu rSi' Hoi Jciirqc. " icui IJfci 
{^Mtfnr Xiyor'tc Ti vA''*' "li ooi, vli riiv ftuv [ )X0([ wj« son tnipvv 
flotirnx'iTni il/iiic ; *" Ji* ?j iiiilpcir a)r' aiiriui' ayi^ii Jin't""" '('XXmi- flu- 
«atilini' *' ni <( inifiovit iraptiuXbuf avioi' Xi'ynrrfc 1'^ Ji]JuXX<ii' it;iBCi 
isdirrtiXai' A/'iit (ic fi** '^V'Xqi' rwv ][i I'^wf. "iaiflxif dvtoic *l'*a* 
ym. M f«' i£i\l)oinc AiiqXDnr' *ic '4'' dyfAqi' rur xoi'pwi'- ml iltm 
i^pf^nv waaa k ayiSi fir ^(oifmr mrti roE tpnymv tic r^c tfiiXaaaar, 
itni AxiOafer Ir roif &£u0ii-, ''uj },i /}6in»ntf tfuyor, lai aTiAHorrtc 
*!( rifr iruXir dTifyyiiXnt- iratxa. lai ro rwr Sai^vif^o/fti'wr. ^ i,nt iitii 
xttaa % »aXK iii\\Oir tit ounii-ri)*!!' Tji 'Iqmv' Eoi lUrrK oWr vapr* 

pexix en. (cm.) moM runvET's setisios. 

}ll soulv, l>!^:i^ tIiciii llii' XmtA ; and allc iluiigit that lien with ynan 
nve, &/»;/ liiA liooli i)«ni<>. Mi k<iiIv, blfvoe thou iho Lonl ; >ii<l njle 
ihou forjeic alln i)ic ^cld^^ngis <if liim. Whicli doiih mcnri io iille tfai 
WKkUliH«<i«; which hretiih nlk ihi RJkiinjaii, Which n^eiihicih tfai 
Itjr fho dcth; vrliidi corowncth thci^ in mrrci nnd merciful doyngia. 
Which tillith llii lioijr in gnodia ; iht ;((Kigtl>u cchal be rennlid m titt 
jflnyike of an i-glc. Thr l»r<l doj-ngv muroii-H; And dctiin to alls men 
■uflrin^ irroDg. Hi: niiidc hine wt'its kiioiruii to MoIm*; hin vrillU to 
Hm uiaei «f Inracl. TIk' Luril i» a merciful doer, and merciful in 
willL- ; lunge abiilingc, uiid invcrlic inirtvifiil. He tchal not bo WTonth 
Willi ouli-n cnd<! ; mid hi^ iKilial not Uirclnv witb outen eaAe. He did* 
not to VH uAir nurc Eyiuitf ; nclber Itv jeldide to ys aAir oure vickid- 
netMJB. For bi the hi;ncMu of heaenG fro enbe ; he id>de ttnng hb 
mercton rich tlrflj'[ix« hym. A* mjvbe «* th« c«m U fer fro tin 
west ; he rnadi- fur uurc uickidii^veia fro ts. Ab n fadir lialh laeni on 
iones, tbe Lord iinildo mcici on mpn drcdyngo bini ; for h« knewe oiirn 
makyng. lie bithou,itft that w« hdu duct, n niun it aa faej; hii dsi 
•cbnl tlowTC ottt w an n flour of the freld. For th« i^urlt uhai pasmn a 
hjmif and ichal not abide ; and nchul no inort koowo kla place. But 

I.scr. VI I L 



tlie merct of the I^ord is fro vrilh oat bigj-nnjrng, and til in to vnih 
oulCT) mdc; on men dn^in^ hym. And his ri.^lfiilni'Mu: it in to Hut 
Kinr* of lonp* to }i<-in tliat kcpt-n Inn tMtuiui-nt- And hva niyn'U'ful 
of liisv coniavinili-'iiti-itiU; ii> Uo ibu. Tlie l<onl huili maud reili IjI; 
■tell! in Lfniji«; und hU revriue mlial be lord of alle. Aungi-UoflJif 
Lotd, bli-WL* ;lc tlia Lord ; .%e myjli in vvrtti. doyngc bin word, lo brrc 
ibe voiaof Ki* wordis. All« vmiiciof ilio Lord, bleue jco tbo Lord; 
je mjnyWii* of hym tlut donn lii« willr. Alio wcrki* of the Lord, 
blesie ;e tbe Lotd, in Mlt place of hit loi'dachipe; my wule, btcn« 
dieu (be Lord. 


CTAKOB 0? lltftCGCLilt INTO I!ROin>AIt TZI(B9. 

Tbts is (in inttxincc of tbe mne tsndciiey to regokricy of form wbich 
WH mcntioni-d in a note on the Italian di.ilrcl*, in a fonn«r lecture- 

I think it mudi lo bn regretted thai tlnj^liih gmmtnnriAns hnvc M 
gcncnlly adoplud tite di^stgnfttioaiit weak and strong, iniilrjid of tlic old 
tosu reyitlar and irrtt/alur <;uiljtigHtion. I do not iwnli'od for llio im- 
portiuioe of u doBcriptire nomencliiture la any brantb of wimti-, and I 
liavegivL-n my opinions on the nubjcot, at iome Ii^^, in the ninth 
lociurc in niy Firet S«TicB. But scieiililio di;i(i;pm[ton!i which aunimc lo 
be deM:ri[>live ougbt to be truly to, and liiia tJic lernu rt^tar and 
irregular, aa applied to the English rorL, eiiitii<!Dtly are, while the 
epitbeta ttv^l- and itrMg ore not so in any s^nec. That is n-gnlar 
wbkb copfonnslothe tail« or typ« m,')i>t gcni?:rai1y adopted; or, if there 
veral inodoU cr »tniid.ird>, of c<iunl aiiihnrity, then that ia tvgolar 
I oonfotms to any of ibcm. Now the only gimoral rule for lh« 
oovgi^twn of modern Engli.ih verb* ■« tliot tho part tctvm and ponNve 
participle arc alike, and that both are formed by the addition olil ored 
10 the sicm. It is true lliat among the tbw Kngtiah vetba wbtcb inQcL-t 
by loiter- cKangi-, instead of by augmtniiition, nnall grotips may be 
fanned which agive in tbi-ir mode o( uliaiij^iog the ttem ; and these are 
often the modem forms of verba which once were numerous cnoi^i to 
OMUtilule ao entire conjugation, sufliL-iently regular to be referred to a 
fixed type. But, in most cases, so large a pn>[<orlion of the rcrhs 
torapoeiog these conjugaiioiLs hare been lost, and ihooe remuiniiif liare 
liMn ao mncli vaticd in iaflGCiioti, that tho ancipot regulariiy i>* foa 
and thrj con do longer bo divided into ulsssea. <' 
in bis very Tokja^h^^QByg^^jGntrntnoi-s,' stMea th- 



Lntr. TUL 

• inpgnlai ' vtihn in EngliBli »t ' about one himili^ anil icn ; ' but m, 
dioui;;!) Ik; introdiKM^B tttp into liiit li»i. he oiah* crtep, ii >■ proliol'le 
that 1)4 hts ovciloolcml otli^ra, and tli« real number is, no iloubi, con* 
aidmbljr Ur|^, Of Ihcw Mrong or imcgiilar Tifrbs, not nioru tlian 
ftv« agTM: in nnj oim! mods of infli-ciinn ; in tno#l caMM bnt two <ir 
ihreo Mv coajufpiXrd alike, nnil in very mnny the verb 1ms i» jxintllrl 
at all. It iit ftirili^r lo lie obw-rvrcl, tliul in nrrrral jnManc«* ibvM 
jm,\n or triplets of vi-rbjt, Uioiigh now cunjiignlrd altkr, wero not m 
orif^tially, and therefore thcjr are douMy inrgnlar, an conformiiig 
neitlier to the most frequent (ircfteiit mode of conju^ration, nor to thtnT 
<rt™ primilive type. For «xiin)ple, a^rp, itrp, aiA tteep (btm the pan 
teneo and jac^ive participle alike— C7v/>(, ic/rf, tUpt : but ibe Angl»- 
Sa.'(i>n crc^p.iri nin^lc pnu cr^ap, plural crujion; «epan, ccpie; 
and»)4pan, iilnp, pnrtiripic iiUpen. A'«7>, (bra, la the only one ol 
th« (hrp«: wliicli conroi-niH to ancii-nl prMrdcnt. It shnrild howeror bu 
noted itut in Kbiitlu-w viii. H, ilie Lindiirfiime text htu geflopdfs 
Hm RutJiworrh Hluptr, and both WyclilTcand Purrcy alaptc, Ibr iba 
rtgular Anglo-^^xc<lI >lep. 

It \» objected lo the tL-mi rvyn/dr, that the forma H dcrignatcs an 
more nMdcm than the inileolion* by t«llcr- change, wbicb. It u 
infilled, are remaiiia of priniiliro inodva of regular conjitgiition ; bnl 
tbii objection baK no li>rce, becamw vc may admit a fbnn lo be rtjular, 
willtout blunting lliat it in primitivt; and vhat aio called th« atrotig 
verba in Engliah are moat truly deaertbed a* irrt^lar, becauM tbcy do 
not agT«e iu oonjufntlon, either vlth each other, or iriib the i^oxon 
verba from wh ieh i hey are de#e«idcd. For all the purpoaea of BngUib i 
grammar, re/ir/or and irrtffular are the beet inllectional deaignationa ^ 
that have been propoced ; and tliriiiuh, in (lie nomenclutiirc of compara- 
tive pliilolcf )-, leinis are vnntcd which shall diftingtiinh augmcniativ* 
inflectiona froni thom by Inttcr-change^ it ia better to employ, in iMich- 
ing Engliih, the old phrmteotogy, until aonw morv appropriate, or at^ 
ItMt lew mialMding, tenun ihan wrai and ■trvn^, rfiall b« aoegeaied. 

If-«niioPi«aaU.— Tht IiIrdUtuiI !n»e1ina«a at tl» B<Mt>li Oawti ht^pil n a Ika 
hiOL vwifln Vt Iho rfinrnuvm ■.limiMi» titvj nuM !■» w w tTi Irua Ott rtmlutM ~ 

Miitlin, aad p>rti>» tmrlii^, oiir>i>( imu'lj iiUdtkdni fl l>» lin«Mrl«n ami tli» (malia 

hair (ucwiAM In itmrurt^ii aliiii'X sxTf <*H|Ba' aHM^ttiw^ %«l«a. OMkliH tnM 
UHiiuf iti" >-liui" or T'T" >' >ii" I'-'^'o uMod Mfct* Itn.«od ■ anptMr env "* «n* < 
th>ml*i>Mi<>ii» hill v'lbl '-' >'<"••< " i-nm (iIk mmu t M ^ n JftiMjuiifaK In im-Wrtni 
lUnnirui^i', ■ tTi.tim »i bl, rvrHi)K*n hti <mmrf ■ wm f fc w Ouaow IMbtt. i 
ablih "Ml) 1 •ii<j]f i^itl !■ knosn la eilil. antl ■ OrUtiB «iapadlnm*f U«Bu)M>im,< 
■liijoit KM. Iiu XMi laiC) prtnlvl In U<c AMIsMai CMataM, odir t4a IMk at "( 




DeFOtz entering upon the special subject of the present lecturo 

— tlie literaiy and philological merits at Chaucer and of Gower 

— it will be well to take a retrospective new of the condition of 
the EnifliEh langii^^at the period of Chauccr'» birtli, to glanoe 
romnuirily ut tlie ciuivu of the rerolutioa it soon after under- 
wf-nt, and to consider the mode in which great authors influence 
the development of their native tongue in primitive eras of Lit»- 

The controlling power and wealth of a nohili^, French m 
parentage or descenti and tJ»e consequent adoption of the Anglo- 
Norman OS the dialect of the court, of purliamonti of the judicial 
tribunals, and of mxch of the foreign clvrgy us resided upon 
their ecolesiastioal beneftcea in England, liad, at the end of the 
thirteenth century, reduced English to little more tlian a lingua 
nutiea, which was tliou^it hardly worthy, or c»eu capable, of 
Uteraiy culture: aud thv slcmk-r merits of Robert of Gloucester 
and Roliert of Brunue were little calculatetl to raise the vulgar 
pQt<^i» ill the estimation of educated men. 

Uafl the British ciowo won the peruianent and ctttablishGd 
extension of its territorial posseaitiona on the CoDtincnti which 
the splendid aeries of viotories that marked ifae bv«t years of 
the reign of Edward lil. seemed to promise, the relative im- 
portaooe and more advanced rcSnemeat and dvilization of the 
Aoglo-Freocb provinoea — which embraced the whvio extent of 



Lkct. IX. 

tbo Atlantic coast of Fratioe — touM have given them a weight 
uid A prcdoiiiinunco in the social and political [Jfo of the king- , 
dom, that could oot have fuilt^ to be futal to thenatioiiul spirit 
and the national language of the Engli-tli people. The rerenes 
of the latl«r years of Edward's rdgn compelled the gOTerament 
to rcnounoe, for a timo, its ambitious dreams of conqaoet and 
annoxatioD, and to strengthen itself in tlio affecttona of its 
Eoglish-bom siihjecte^ by tliorouglily AogliciziDg itsi^f, and 
making England not merely the royal residence, hut u chief 
object of its fostering care, as the teal borne of the tbrone, the 
domestic hcsrth of a noited pcopleu 

But still literary culture and even rudimentary education 
yerc attaiuabic only through the medium of foreign tongues. 
Englisti wttfl not tauglit in tliv Khools, but Frcoefa only, uutil 
aftirr the accession of Richard II., or pwtiiltly the latter years of 
Edvard III., and Latin was always studied through the Freodi. i 
Up to this period, then, as tliere were no stasdaixls of literary . 
authority, and probably no written collections of established! 
forms, or other grutnmatica! essays, the languago had no fixed- 
D«8s or uniformity, and hiudly deserTcd to bo called a writtca 

There had been some writers, indend — Mieli, for example, u. 
tbe author of the Ormulutn — whosesyotAx aod orthograpby wcrft J 
w> uniform that a consistent accidence might be constructed fo 
them ; but the grammatical system of no one would answer for^ 
any other, nnd itio orthography varied so nmch, not only la 
different copies of tfao same author, but eveti in copies which 
are the work of one scribe, that we cannot doubt Uml there wi« 
exti«me irregnlurity, both in the modes of spelling and in tlig 
articulation and the inflectional forms of the same words. 

I have hence found it impossible to givo a dclai1c«) view of 
the ioHectiDnal or syntactical history of this period of English 
— an era of confusion and transition, when no recognitcd 
standard of accidence or of grammatical combination existei)— 
and I hare only illustrated, in a geooral wggri the few leading 

ucr. rz. 



dtaiacteriiitics of fonn which T«re commoD to all, or At least to 
most of tboso who attempted to cumposu io (be Temaoulkr 

From tliis BabyloniA confiiirion of 8i>eech, the influenee and 
example of Ctianoer did more to r&scue bis native tongue thao 
any other single cauBe ; and if we comparo his dialect with Hint 
of any writer of an earlier dato^ we sIhlII find tJint in compass, 
flexibility, espr«sivenes«, gmoe, and all the higher qualities of 
poetical diction, lie gave it at once tlie utin&it perfection which 
the materials at his band would admit of 

The English writers of the fourteenth century had an adTsn- 
tage which was altopether peculiar to their age and country. 
At all prcviottt) p<;riodg, the two lungua;^^ had oo-existed, ia a 
great degree indi'peudeutly of each otiier, with Utile tendency 
to intermix ; Imt in the earlier part of that oentuiy, they hegao 
to ooalesce, and tliU process was goinc; on with a rapidity that 
threatened a predominance of tlio French, if nob a total ex- 
tinction of the 8axon element. The political causes to which 
I hare alluded arrested this tendency ; and when the national 
spirit was aroused, and impelled to tbc creation of a national 
literature, the poet or prose writer, in stelecling his diction, bod 
almost two whole vocaLiitariea before him. Thai the cyntax 
Kboold l>e KD$;lish, national feeling demanded ; but Freaob wag 
w familiar and habitual to all who wore able to read, that pro- 
bably tbo Gcholarsbip of the day would scarcely have been able 
to determine, with respect to a Urge proportion of the words ia 
common use, from which of the two great wells of tpeeeh they 
had proceeded. 

Happily, a great arbiter otoko at. the critical moment of 
Mvcrnuce of the two peoples and dialects, to preside over tha 
divigion of the common propeity, and to determine what share 
of the contril>uti»n9 of France should be permanently annexad 
to tJ)e linguistic inheritanAs of Englishmen. 

Chancer did not introduce into thr; English langus 
which it bad rejected as aliens before, but out of th) 


Dicnox or cbacceb 

L»cr IX. 

had been already receircd, ho invested th« better portion with 
the rights or dtizensliiji, aii<] Hlumpcd them nttJi the mint-mark 
of Knglixb coinnge. In t\ii» way, lie fonnud a vocabulary, 
wbicb, with few esceptions, the taste and opioton of i-uocei-ding 
gcneratioDs has approved ; and a UleTary diction was thus csta- 
blislicd, which, iu all the qualities required for the poetic art, 
bad at that time no superior in the languages of modem 

The [wiiindneiw of CliaiiwA judgment, Iht' nicety of his philo- 
logical appreciation, and the delicacy of )iUi kcdm; of adaptatioa 
to the actual wants of the English people, are sut^eiently proved 
by the fact that, of the Komanec words found in his writinuB, 
not much ahovK one hundred have been Kiiffored to become ob> 
Bolete, while n much larger number of Anglo-Suxou words em- 
ployed by him have paxited altogether out of UJtc" 

It is an error to suppose that those writers who do m<Mi for 
the improvemeut of their own language, effect this by coining 
and importing new words, or by introducing new syntactical 
forms. The grent improvers of language in all literatures have 
been eclectic. They do not invent new innectiou?, forge new 
tenne, or efttabltsh new syntactical relations ; hut from existing 
word.t, discordant accidencea, conflicting modes of grammaticul 
aggregation, they cull the vocahidaiy, the mode of conjugation 
and declension, and the general syntax, best calculated to 
Iiarmoni:!C the divcr«iti(« of diiilccts, and to give a unity and 
consistence to the gi^ui-ral speech. 

If the firet great writer be a poet, his selection will, of course^ 

■ In thuiniimt<i'Toro1)«n1(tai'ord( I inelad« ttEinbof gencrnt «pTJie*tion only. 
Bud not tho Itclmi coll lien of iilchoni;, uUtJatj, Anil tho likp. vbirh tiAve bawn 
tuijcotUta with the luti lo whicli Uiey Monpd, nor UioM witU juvuLur to th«'l 
raligiuui olii'rvani^n of iht Bomiih Chunb, which or* not now u'lilcnit-XMl or 
trTcl; pmpln,v<<>l '" KneUnd. bM'aiuo the Entilinh pccplu U no longrc euaUUr 
Blth Uic ritual of ihiit ifliitiun. 1 nhould furAcr rvnmrk tbnt mimjr RouitillM M 
well iia fsixoc wonls oard l^y Chuiiivr »«• now fo oh»iij;i«i iii funn ami orlho|[nij>hj 
tlut Uii^)' urfl not mtd3/ uli-nlifiod villi liisir cri|{iiiiils hypvaiODa not foiniturwilh 
•IgriiioluKical tluduclioa 

Ukt. IX. 






be in eoin« tl^greo controlled by the mat<.-rinl coofiitEoDS of hit 
art; but us ibu poetic form embodies tlie lii<,'U(-»t egression of 
the bunuLD intellect, bia diction will be in geDeral of an elevate] 
ehoiucter, and, for ssthetic reasons, tho most mclo'lious aiid 
gmoefal irordu vriU be c-hosen, while tbc necessities of mctru 
will compel the adoption of a variety of in6ect4oaal fortos, wben- 
«Ter the accidence of the language admits of difforont modes 
of declcDtuou Dud i»ujug<itivn. 

The real iKtieHt which grutt authors in general confer oo 
their native tongue, consisU, first, in the selection and autlio> 
litation of tiu]y idiomatic, forcible, and espres^re t«rnui and 
phrases &om the cxistin'^ stock; and, secondly, in the embodying 
of universal, and of dislinctirely national, idvns and scutimcnb^ 
in new and happy conihiaations of words themselves already 
individually Eantiliar. Henoe it will often happen that the finst 
great writers in any language employ, no( a strange or an 
extensive vocabulary, but, on the contrary, a common and 
a Fc«tricted one; and the merit of their »tyle will be found to 
depend, not upon the number of tlie words tlicy use, but upon 
a peculiar force of expriMuion derived from an accurate percep- 
of the tawB by which words enUrg^ limit, or modify the 
of each other, and a coDi;eqiieQt felicity in the mutual 
<a of the eleiiientd of discouisc, and their atrangement 

In oonnciction with this point, I may, without departing too 
fcr from our subject, notice a widely difTiL^ed error which it 
may be hoped the lexicographical criticism of the preMUt day 
may di^eh I tefer to the opinion that words, individually, and 
tfTespedively of syntactical relations nnd of phraseological com- 
bination, have one or more inherent, tixod, and limited meanings 
which are capable of logical defmition, and of exprearioa in 
other descriptive terms of the same kngungft This may be 
true of artificial words — that is, words invented for, or conven- 
tionally appropriated to, the cxprt-wiian of arbitrary dixti net ions 
ihaicul notions in scicnea or iiu prnctical spplicatioos^ 



Lkct. IX. 

and nljo of the tinineii of mntcrinl n1>jcct« and of the »msaoua 
qiinlitieaof thiogs; but of the vocabulary of the pafKion! and 
the affectiotis, w)iich grows up and U informed with living 
rocanio^ by the iintural, invoUiotar; proci'sscs to which oil 
languiigie but that of art owf» its btin^. it is wholly uutriiei. 
SiK'h words live mid bitjittlientiK iti mntiinl (^nnliiiiniioti and in 
iiiu-rji-ltuiidoiicu u[nm otJier woi-d*., Thov cSiiiniif ''"'''' f"rco 
iricliuvvrviiuw relation into wliiclitlieyeii[ci';Miidvuit£c<]iiGiitly 
their mcaningR are aa various and a* exlinustk'sti as the pertiiti- 
tstiona and comhioatioDS of the digits of llie arithmeticul 
nokitioD. To tmcli, tbcrcforc, the mcaoiDg of a great piopnr- 
tioo of Uie words whirh <\>mi<o«e llie vocalmhuy of every living 
spcFeoh, by forinid du-nuition, h oa iinpiiwlble m to convey by 
description a uotioo of the shifting hues of the piffpon'a neck. 

This may bo rc-'uiily seen by the oxamination of any respect- 
able work on s>-nenyni8. The authors of these treatises, it is 
truci usually attempt <HMcrimitialiiig description of the senses of 
tlie wonU they compare and disitingiiiah ; Imt their dolinitionti 
have alinix't alwavii reference to the exemplifications they intro- 
duce of the actual use of the words discussed ; and it is from 
the context of the piissn;;es cited, not fmm thu formal (letini- 
ttous, that the student lenrus the true analogies and true 
differences betwtrcn wonJs thus brought together. In short, 
without the exempli li cations, the definitions would be unintel- 
ligible, while with tliem they are atmoet superfluous.* 

The power of selecting and combining words in such a way 
that each shall not only help, but compel, its fellow to give out 
the best meaniu<; it is capable of exprc#)>ing, ia that which ooa- 
Btitutes exccUenije in style, conimantl of language, or, in otiier 
words, the art of best saying what we have to say. So such 
merit is possible in the early stages of any language. The 
words are too few, the rcooidvd combinations not sufficiontly 
mulUtarious, to have tested and brought out the various mean- 

■ 8m UiumCiOQ L at Uio *nd t4 tliia Ircinnh 

I.i«r. K. 

TocvBOUBr OF roriiTKBSTii cirMuiir 

inga and applications of which words arc sawcptiblc; sod 
culture is not vet far cDough ii<lvanccil for the vxlstt-ucc and 
«otisciotis rwo'^iiition of a ratige and variety nf ideas, imnges, 
and tteniimviiu, wide enough to have detnanded ODjr j^eat 
taultiplicity of expreedoD. 

But ht tho period of EnL^li^b litontltirc upon irhidi ve 
have now entered, these iieoiwiiry conditions were approxi- 
mately HaLislied. A sufficient variety of subjectii bad been dl<<- 
euBsed to create a neoesaity for an estenaivo vocabulary, and 
to require a great range of syntactical and lojipciil combination. 
The want of words hnd been euppltcd from Latin or Romnuco 
sources, and flexibility of irtmcCure bad been acquired by (he 
translation an<l accommodation of foreign phraseological com- 
Unations, by tbe retniBcitaUoii of ohsolete Anglo-Saxon ood- 
structions, and by haKinling new verbal allinnc^^. Nothing was 
now wanting but the presence of a gnat geiiii» to avail bimsvlf 
of IhcM new-born facilities of utterance, or some special oocasion 
whidi Hhould prompt talent of a less original cast to employ them. 

In all great conjunctures political or literary, the hour and 
the man come together. When the harvest is prepared, Provi- 
dence sends forth the reapei's to gather it. Langlando and other 
less important laliourtTd, including, doubtlccv, many now for- 
gotten, had Htrivva to cnll, out of the cliaos of Snxon, French, 
and Latin words which confusedly btuzed around Ihem, a 
vocabulary suited to the expression of English ideas, images, 
itentiments: and they bad somewiiat blindly groped after the 
fittest acsociutton of these words in f^nuteologicul combinations 

At this cmis there appeared one of the groateot masters of 
speech that have illustrated the Htemlure of modern Kuropc — 
a genius gifted with the kcencrt ecnsibility to those latent 
affinities between piu-ticiilar words, upon which thdr most 
felicitous combinations defiend, with the soundest judgment in 
tbe appreciation of the power of individual terms, and with the 
most exquisite taste in tho selection and arrangement of the u. 

Hie stock of words, the riw material which had already b«ea 




Lavr. UL 

Mcanitilat«d for litenty coiuttniction, waa, afi wc biive se«n 
already, largo — bo large, in fact, that no great adHitiouR wera 
required in order to furniith a complcto supply for alt the 
ilrmaiidM of tliv poetic itrt. But them were slill some dcfi- 
cionclctt in tlie vocabHlary : fiwt, a want of worda suited to tbe 
csijencies of tlie Koioaiicc canoim of verse, which not ChAiiccr 
nlone, but the tuto and Jmigmcnt of tbe English people, had 
decided to adopt us thu laws of poetical composition ; ADd, 
secondly, at great iinporfi-ctlon in the dialect of monib nnd of 

After what I have ol»ervcd, in a former lecture, upon the 
great expreSBivenesB of Anglo-Paxoa id matters of ethical and 
intellectual concern, and lite richneM of Etti vocnbuLiry in the 
nomenclature of tbe passiona and tbe afTectiona, it moy soum 
almost a coutriidiction to ntilinn that this is the very point ia 
which early Saxon-English was most, deficient. But this fact IS 
80, and it was precisely this cha* of uutive wi>rds which bad, in 
the lorgCTt propnrtinn, bceoiuc olisolete. TJie An^io-Saxons 
had their own translation* of Uie Oospels, the Psalms, and 
some other portions of Sciiptura They had a theolofficnl and 
an ethical literature, and there ia good reason to believe tJiat, 
in spite of the influence of a Komanizcd prieMhood, tlie ii:)ti7e 
language was more hnbilitidly employed for ecclesiasiical und 
religious purposes than any of the Itomnnco dialects ever hod 
been. Tho obvion* reason for this is found in tbe fact, that 
An;^lo-Saxon and I/ttin were not cognate langusf^es, while the 
fiomanra ton^ie^ were, if not deacended from the Latin, at leant 
nearly relatetl dialects, and still retained a great reflemhlance to 
it. Hence, while a French or an Italian ecclesiastiG could eofiily 
aoqmrc a competent knowledge of the liuigusgc with which his 
own vernacular was most nearly allied, and while some trndt- 
tiona! familiarity with its written forms wati, nnd in fact still is, 
prt«erved among even the unlettered populace nf Italy and 
France, the upcech of Itomo, the consecrated dirJect of the 
Churchy was wholly strim^c to the- Anglo-Saxon peo{>let Tlitt 

Lktt. IX. isawsxiov uobal dialkct 

native clergy could acquire it only by long jeve of painful 
labour, and even its tectioictd phnuiee coul<] only vrith great 
difficulty be miide fiimiliar to the mind and ear, or aiticuliiUti] 
by the tongtie, of the Anglo>SaKon. There was, tlierefore, an 
absolute necefsity for the employment of the native speech in 
religious and moral dlocuadon ; and eo long a« England was 
independent of the Coutinvnt, there existed a full religious and 
ethical nomenclature. But early in the rlewutb century. In 
consequence of niatfimoninl and poHtieal nlliancc!!* with French 
princea, Norman influence began to noake itself felt in England, 
and the Conquest, in the year 1066, gave the 6nifihtog stroke 
to Angio-^xoii nationality, and introduced not only a new 
royal dynasty, but an army of fon-ign prii'iilit and tw^licrw, who 
naturally insisted on employing the language of Itome in all 
mAtters pertaining to the discharge of their functions. Anglo- 
Saxon, consequently, went very eoon, at least partially, out of 
us« 09 a medium of religious instruction, oral or written, and 
of moral discussion, \\1ieu sermons and liomilics were less 
frequently delivered in Anglo-Saxon, wheu that language was 
no longer employed by the h^anKHl in the treatment of tlienica 
connected with ethics, philosophy, and the social dutii^ it was 
very natnral that tho words belonging to those departments of 
thought should be forgotten, though the nomenclature of the 
various branches of material life still remained familiar and 
vernacular. We find, accordingly, that in the three centuries 
which ehtpscd between the Conquest and the uoon-tjde of 
Chaucer's life, a largo proportion of the Anglo-Saxon dialect of 
religion, of moral and intellecluni disoourve, and of taate^ had 
become utterly obsolete and UTiknown.* 

The place of the lost words had been partly aupplied by the 
(mportatioQ of Continental terms: but the new words came 
witliout the organic power of compotritton and derivation which 
belonged to those they had supplanted. Consequently, tboy 

■ 6m Icnitrr Xnio and Illudiatioiu IL at lb* *ai of ihi* )mIvi, S«t olao 
LMl«niIL. UluitnUon IV. 




tvn. IX 

were incapable of tboso modifications of form and extenuMis ol 
meaning which the Anglo-Saxon roots oould eo easUj niaunM^ 
and wliii-h fitU^d them for Uic CKpn-K^ion of the new ahnilcs of 
thought and of sentiment boro of vvvry hour in a miod and «a 
i^o like those of Chaucer. 

The poet, therefore, must 8oroetimc!i have found himself in 
want of language Miitcd to tho largeness and brilliancy of the 
new conceptionis thv hilliurto uofclt ct^ntitnents and unrevrnlcd' 
images, the strange ' thick -coming fancies,' vhich wore crowd- 
ing upon Mm and struggling for utterance. Where should he 6nd 
wordu for tlio cxpre«sion of this world of thought? where metal 
to lie Riainped with thia new coinage of th» brain? Shnuld h« 
resort to the «epulcbro of tbu Sucon mce, and «eck to rranimuLe 
a nomenclature which had died with tbe last of the native kings ? 
Or should he turn to tho living speech of a cultivated natioo, 
whusc blood was alrewlyso largvly infiixicd into the Tciito of ths 
Eagiinh |>eop!'% and whose tongue wa.'t almn*t as familiiir to 
Ibem OA the indigenous words of their own? Had Chauceiji^H 
under mich circiini<itance-t, attempted the revival nf the forgottiai^ 
moral phrawotogy of Saxoudom — which could now be found 
only in the mouldering parchments of obscure conventual 
libraries, and was probably intelligible to scarcely a living 
Englishman — he would have failed to restore the departed 
wordx and combinations to I heir original B!giiiticanc«,and wonhl 
have only insured the swift oblivion of tlje writings wliicli 
Rcnx'd as a nicdiinn fur the exporiiDOnt. On the conlrari', by 
employing the few French words he needed, he fell in witb tJ 
tendencies of his time, and availed himself of a Tocabuhii 
every word of which, if not at first sight intellipble to thi 
English reader, found a ready interpreter in the person 
every man of liberal culture. 

I,anglande wim the Fipiu, Chaucer the Charlemagne, of th^ 
new intellectnal dynasty of Kngland. The one established th^ 
indvpcndenoc and thi- Movereij^nty of his house; tha other, b^^ 
a wise |K)licy and by extended conquest^ oarriod Its domini 


o a pitch of iinprec«clpDtH prosperity and spleitdour. Chaucer 
voA a. priuw whusc- fittx^ss for tho scuptrc gftvc him a right to 
viel<] it, and the golden words he impr«»»ed with liU owu imAge, 
iitit scattered among liis cotrntrynien, were the medats of his 

Of the two caui»» which conspired to favoiir the introduction 
of French worda into EnglUlt Tcrsc — the poverty of the native 
Tocahulary and the necessities uf rhjinti and metre — ttio 
^tter is much the roost easily delisted and tiaoed; and we 
nre that a very large proportion of the Frencli words 

ployed by Chaucer aad Gower aro those wliich cuntaio the 
rbyroing Byltahlcs ut the oiid of Iho lint's.' 

I bavtt hefore alluded to the »ece«sary eonoectiou hctween 
th« Romaaca system of versificatiDn and a stock of words oc- 
e^ted according to the French orthoepy. This, in Chaucer's 
timet, tended, as can emily be xhown, in a more marktsl way 
than at present, to throw the stream of roice upon the 6nal 
•jrlhihlett contrary to the Saxon articulation, which, like that 
of the otJier Ootbic huiguages, inclined to accent the initial 
syllable. In comparing Chaucer's rcisions with the origiuals, 
as, for example, in tltu Romaunt of the Rose, we not unfre- 
<]ucntly find that he has transferred, not trimsJated, the rhymes; 
but it will he seen tliat a very large share of the French vrords 
to employed by him were such as, from their moral uses and 
■jgnificanco, wore inseparably connecti^-d with Christian dnctriae 
and ethicAl teKcbing, mid hiul therefiire Ixxome already known, 
tbtougb the medium of ecclesinattcal L^in, to even those ot 
the English people who were not familiar with the courtly aod 
cultivated French. 

Notwithstunding the neoc^-sity thtm imposed upon Chaucer, 
u the tr.iii.ilutor of highly imaj^iuative poems iuto a tongue 
hitherto without literary culture, and possessed of no special 

• 8m Pint &>ri<H Lfet. XXi7. p. #1. arft, 

390 ritzacH voeds is cbjiiiciik Lm. ix, 

vocabulary eonTentiooally dedicated to poetical use, he was very 
spariog ia the employmeut of French words not belooging to 
the class which I hare just referred to ; and he shows exquimte 
taste and judgment in bia selectioD from the vocabulary of both 
languages, whenever the conetraint of metre and rhyme left 
bim free to choose. Hence, though the Bomaunt of the Rose, 
and his other works of similar character, are admirably faithAil 
as translations, tbeir diction, which is an anthology of the best 
words and forma of both languages, is more truly poetical than 
that of the originals. Iq the hands of Chaucer, the English 
taDgu:^^ advanced, at one bound, to that superiority over the 
Freoch which it has ever since maintained, as a medium of the 
expression of poetical imagery and thought 

The actual number of Bomance words introduced by Chaucer 
is very much less than has been usually suppo.sed. His Tare 
felicity of selectiim is not less apparent in his choice of native 
than of foreign terms. English be employed from principle 
and predilection, French from necessity, and his departures 
from the genuine idiom of the now common speech of England 
are few. 

The general truth of these observations will be made ap- 
parent by a few numerical facts. The translation of the first 
part of the Roman de la Rose, or that which belongs to 
Guillaume de Lorris, including the few original Interpol at ions 
by Chaucer, contains something more than forty-four hundred 
lines or twenty-two hundred pairs of rhymes. Of these -psira, 
bftHt'cn one hnuiUvd and twenty and one hundred and thirty, or 
rather less than sis per cent., are transferrcii, with little change 
of form, from the French text, instead of being represented by 
ennivaloiit worJii of Anglo-Saxon origin. The convenience of 
employing rhymes ready matched to his hands was, no doubt, 
one re:ison why the poet availed himself of them, or, to expresH 
the sarno thought in another way, why he introduced int« 
his verses the two hundred and fifty French words of whicb 
tlieiie rhymes consist. 

laxT. nc* 

rsocR woBDS IX cnAOciB 


The twoslation of the first part of the Roman de la Rose 
contain)) ubuut thirty thousand wonls, and con»*;<|Uviit.Iy tlia 
DunihcT of Frt^cb word* emiilojL-d in th« trantfi-rrud rhyinea 
Is otiitidt^nihly les» ttutn one in n hundi%d uf the wholci number 
whicli make up the poem. Now, wlien we consider the com- 
parative poverty of native English, stripped, as we have seen 
it hod buvu, of alinoHt it< whole An^lo-Saxon moral and in- 
tellectual Domeuclature, m well tia of its itiflt^-clioual rhyiuiog 
eadingx, when we remember that French w»s the »nly medium 
of literary culturi?, and waa almost a^ well known as Kiigligh to 
those tor whom Chaucer wrote, it would set-m that such a pio- 
pordoo of French wonla — le^is than one per cent. — was not 
extruviigantly I.'ir;^ to employ in rhymiii)^ a tmnvlation of a 
French pi>t-in, even t(uppo»ing that they were now used for tb« 
6nit ttuie in an English book. Dut,in point of fact, they were 
by no means all now first introduM-d to the Englitth public ; for 
if we compivru ihrw; words with the vocabularies of carlit-r uad 
conteroporant^ila English authors, we shall find tbut very many 
of them had lieen already long in use, and wert? as well ktiowD 
to Eugliehmen as any woids of Latin or Fw-neh extraction. 
Sevt^al of the remaining words arc not employed by Chauctr 
himself id his other works, and they never appear again ia 
En^linh literature. Ho availed himself of the ticctiso of a 
trausialor for a special pnrpoHi^ and when tliut piirpixse v,ii3 
BWswered, the new words thus ust^d were dismissed from further 
iicrvice, and heai'd of no niorv. Ilvncv the charge, that Chaucer's 
poems, and especially hiw translation'!, hare corrupted his native 
speceli by a large and uuil«0C8sary iMJmixtiire of a foreign verbal 
eluuieut, IS wholly without foundation.* 

* Of the tw» bnn^ircil uid llflj French wonls whicb mal^e np Ifc* fmirt cl 
rhymes by Chnuecr from hU OTigiiul, the foUoning ure naattng in 
Colcridgc'i Qlooorial IniUx lo ha LItrmura nt thx Thinarnth Caoaaj: — Ada- 
mHit. addrw* (drtw), advuiUK*, ivUrK«iii<>iit anii allcgiktiM in lh« ttnt* ot all*- 
TiiLtioa, BmoTonB, wnorrt, uioiul. Bpp>ml^ ultealiti* (rntcntiT*), arariM^ brif£ 
ebsriMUCCk coMling. colotu; comptiuii. rootluil, (onfound, catitte. cnrioiu, diMOiB> 
flton^ dwcaiiv diipnsafw, diip]Ku>\ diviiui, »aiL>aitl«d, andim, ciuign, bblt^ AntA, 


HUBD cuARiCTEB OP csauaa 

LccT. IX 

The e«ecQtia] chnracter of English, as a mis«d and com- 
pMit« lAD^'uBgv, ma» indelibly sUniped upon it before the time 
of Chaucer. Ab cnmpanid with Angto«8iixoii, it irniy pro* 
pcrly l>e styled it new speecb, aev in syntax, ami rentrived Mtd 
eiiricb^l in rocabiilnry ; yet, in apjte of the influx of foi«ign 
worrls in llie course i>f tlio fouttwnib ot-ntury, it was no mere a 
new language limn Ihv Englisb u:itiou wm a new peopio; and 
It remained always a fit and appropri&le medium for tbo ez> 
preniiH) of Kngliiih thought And English fevlin^, clsan^in^ only 
u the new DatioD&lity advanced and grew to the fulnes of it« 

It it! not eotiy to make an intelligible, sprntic ooinpnn«on be* 
twci-n the dialect of Chaucer and that of earlier writers, bcciuw 
tliere is ixu-haps no one of them who^e subjects a^ree so nearly 
wiUi IliMse treated by him, that tiu-ir diction would be presumed 
to correspond as cloocly aa the idioms of their respective periods 
would allow. Tho style of hia prusc- works, whether translated 
or original — if, indeed, any of tliem uro origiAal — doca not. 

llowrpl. ttnlfr, roundalionffosDilamtnt). gunnant. glorj, liabitta SMW it bhalri^ 
tantimcTUl, iiJiiioiriMl<'il <«iiIiiniino(l). jaiiiiitxr, hcv In llio mu m of net OT ib>i \ 
bnigaor, linMg*. lowntnT, nwatErs, mmtiov. mitpritvunlii, niuimo, mMard. mnMb 
nrA, iiob]«4i\ oiuic«. «vifit, pMMa. plcwant priio in Ilia *riue d («u*iv r>'— »* 
(in pn-*viit I, nktiuiir* ((bonld b* jagoiior, h^tmnlh), nmummlUe, nooM, rocmuiiiM^ 
rffriin. rnliK'-'o. nmambHr. r«fn*intiTsmeK rraawii, nqOMt, rrtBiD. tcoU&Ka. tbu^ 
mritenj', IM*. ('•■el. r,ijii, virtocy, v«mHl. Alwi th* lUliiwiii^ of which the 
■Ma u foiui<.l iu L'olpridgo^^MAMorOmf, »e<iBt'mta/rli, dslitini*, iIri{ntME*,c«nD««, 
(MingMiu, l«iDtHn'. ]>lt*dir, lorlp-iilunii, rtptBtante, wnXKtJ. nmvarvn*- «d4 
IhMTk of whirli il*rii>iiT(>it or all!«l fcinat- oevur in OoUridjia: — Cfartipt (ten^ 
^:««iiA CoU.), gtnltn (^unlffitr, CnT<>.). elull<^ <K)<'l*ti(S Cb1k)|i nimmiv (mcMB^ 
iiblp. Ci>1f.\ moQcate ivnonmUiiniit, Col*.). Irnvcnr (Inaacd, traamin^ Col*.). Ita 
vttT re;ad incmw of t)is Frencli rlcmcnt in the En^liib Tonbdoiy, b«tw«n ttis 
Ix^neinK •■"! tha mtijillii ut thn fuurtxiiTli fentn/y, rcodm it highly fcobabb 
that nunj' or th(«« niiii^jr monU liwl ulnjulv [nva inlnMlacod \ij otliar Mitcn 
dnhng thnt iiitmaL Some of iliria. mt-iialy, xu-?!! kh nSi^i-m (whiith oomn ia 
Ihft Si-Ril-SuoD of the Ancmi Itiwlc, though, itrongdy racni^h, aot in the Ulm> 
ton uf I)i* Ihirltcnlb pnjtury). vsro Dalaniliaod • hundred uid t^ fcua bdbn 
ChaoMT'i fat*fir iu hd authca b*K*ii. W)irn Uio chancier aad rnW td thca* 
vonia ure cconidMvil. I XMvrfu tovichnlim Huold (wiiTiat Ckioccr of Ih* craw ol 
MrrufHag hi" nutirs ton^vi, rrrii ii|>ui> (iroof Ihat ho «u th* ftnt EntlU 
nitw who bid mr vnilnred to um kiijr of them. 

cniccEfi's nroRES :iOT HisroBiciL 

to ^ as the stock of words is concerned, dififer very e^eotiall; 
from tbat of the onguuO writings ascribed to Wycliffc, which 
ductus simiLor KuhjocU; but tht-y arc murkcd by okik of ortis* 
tic skill in c<>m|)0&it4uu, mid by greater Qcxibilily find grace oi 
periodic stracture. 

It is remarkable that Chaucer, eminently natioual as, in spite 
of tbo extent of his indebteclaess to foreign sourccjs be cmluinly 
i^ thoutd yet never have thought of taking the eubject of bi» 
i])8|iiration from the recent or conteinpuraueonK liiatory of bia 
own country. In Uie cose of a puet wbo did not conoem him- 
eelf with tbe re^tlitles of iiiiitetiiLl life, lint vaa dovoted to didactic 
or Epeeulativc views, or eveu to depicting tlie higher workings 
of paseioD, this omission would not seem strange. But Chaucer 
lived among the flivh-aud-blood humanity of his time, and 
deeply (tyntpatliixed with it. lluwiutu contempurarj-oftiie Black 
Prinra, and, as a true Ent^Iishmmi, tie could not but hare been 
profoundly interested in the campaigns of that heroic soldier, 
and proud of the trophies of Creci and Poitiers. But the glorie* 
ef English and French cliivalry, wliich shed such a golden glow 
on tite canvax of lii« couteicpomry, the chronicler t'roissart, are 
nowhere reBected from the page« of Cluuoer. On the coutrary, 
he seems studiously to avoid altudon to the liintory and political 
conoeros of hi« own country, oron when they lie most obviously 
in bis path. The character of iho Kuight, in the Prologue to 
the Canteibury Tiili^i, alTorded him an opportunity of cuUvoiiing 
his verse with come tluiih of national exultation, but in bia enu- 
meratioo of the Knight's campaigns, be mentions none of the 
scenes where Euglinh vuImirltHd bixu pitted against the chivalry 
of France ; and yet be t«lk us of tiiis warrior, tliat -^ 

I8S5. At AliioncIrR hn wo* w>inn it wa;t ironnc, 
Ful aiXv tyiiif hv hiiflilc ihi? hard bygouM 
Aliovi-[i iiUf tiiioiuuos in Pmci*. 
In LfKiio'i: liuiidt.- rcvc") uml in Buoc^ 
No ctiiteu Duiii HI c.ift-.' r.>f }ii« •i:''-Ti. 

394 CEAUCEB ABB rfiOI53ABT taCT. IX. 1344. Of Algerfr, and riden in Be1mari& 

l.D. 1367. At Lieji van he, and at Salalie, 

AJ>. 1352. Whan they vere wonne ; and in the Greete aee 

At many a noble arive hadde he he. 

At mortal batailles hadde he ben fiAenc, 

And foughien for our feith at Tramassene 

In lyatea thries, and ay alayn his foo. 

This like worthi knight hadde ben alao 

Somtyme with the lord of Falaiye, 

Ageyn another hethene in Turkye, &0. 

The eventa here referred to extend from about the date at 
the battle of Creci to that of the campatgu of the Black PriDCe 
in Spain, but the Knight participates iu no English battle; and 
though, when the poet speaks of the martial prowess of ihe 
Squire, his eon, he mentions that 

He hadde ben somtyme in chivachie, 
In t'laundres, in Artoys, and in Ficardie, 

he does not take occasion for any expression of patriotic senti- 
ment, or even intimate that the young soldier had there been 
engaged in the national service, or in anything more than pri- 
vate raids or the petty warfares of feudal barons, in which the 
honour and interest of England had no stake. 

The silence of Chaucer on these subjects appears still more 
extraordinary, from the faotthat he must have personally known 
the chronicler Froissart, who was long in the service of Philippa 
of Hainaut, the wife of Edward III., and who, aftfir an absence 
of seven-aod -twenty years, returned to England in the reign of 
Richard II,, ' to iuatifye the hystories and maters that he hadde 
written,' and to present to the king the ' fayre boke' I have men- 
tioned, ' well oulumyncd, couered with veluct,' and * gamysshed 
with elapses of syluer and gylte,' in which were engrossed * all 
the matters of amours and moralytees, that in four and twentia 
yeres before he hadde made and compyled.'* 

* Fioimtrt, chap, cc, rep rint <^ 1B12, ii. p. WBi 






Froisaart, as appcnrs from his ono frtiiUmi^Dts, ncgloctod no 
opportunity of inakiug t lie iLcqtiaintAnce of persons iuli^]li>,'tfnt in 
political imd military affiiim ; and bis character of a ' maker uf 
lijvtorie^' was as well known both io FraDcu and in Eu^^land aa 
vas that of Thucydides in Grc«cv, while hu wtu composing bis 
imnwrtal history of tbo Pelopounc'ua.a var. Hi«i repiiUtiuu na a 
p(w(, too, learned in criticiKm and Uie Liatoiy of French lil«ra- 
tiirc, would iMiliinlly liiive attracted Oiaucer t« him. Chaucer's 
Compluiut of the Bhick Knight, and Froissart's Uit du Cheva- 
lier Bieii, are the same poem, in an Euj^lish imd a French dreea, 
and there are some reotarkabto rcjicmhlancea of thought and 
expression betvrcvn Chuuci^'s Book of the Duchess nud Frois- 
BMit's Paradise of L"ve. la tiese cases, though it tnay bo 
impossible to my which was the original, tho coincidence proves 
that the works, and in all probability tho person, of the odq 
author were known to Uie ottwr. 

Under these oircuniMances, n-c ttlioUld suppose that the his> 
torical seal and ability of Frois.'iait would have inspired the 
English i>oi;t with (he di'«iro to culelirutc thu same events in ft 
poetic form. But Froitssarl himaelf did nut treut historical sub- 
jects in verse, and poetry seems to hare been considered a fit 
vehicle only for themes of a more imaginative cliaracter than 
the hard realities of contempomneous martial and polittcftl life. 

Chaucer borrowed much from French authors — more even 
(ban has b(.'«ii until rooently supposed— and tho iofiuence of 
French litt-mture is constantly Keen ta li'us vorks, even where 
tbc-y are not translationit; but there is every reawa to suppose 
that those from whom bin tales nere directly taken Imd, lu geue- 
ral, as little claim to originality as himself. Continued research 
is com^tantly carrj-iug further back the iuvenliun of the fables 
which we habitually ii.'xcnbe to the I^Iiddlo Agr^ and there are 
but few of tliem which can, with any confidence, hct affinued to 
belong to the period in which thev are first koown to us M 
existing ia a written foim. 

Few things in literature are more surpi-ieiog I >uity 



LBcr. IX. 

and univCTBalitj of popular fable*. Miiny of these, considf-red 
OS natural persoDificaliona or exempli 6oaUoi» of unirersal 
passions und moral qualities, may be supposed to tiave arisen 
iu<U*pi:ndc[ilIy of uicli <ittifT, us the forma in wbich, in rudi^ itgi-jt, 
certain primaiy idcs.s and opluioiu KpoutiinwuEl; clothe tbem- 
aeWee. But there are otlient, so artiliciul in their conceplion 
Dud treatui' ut, aiid so marked aud peculiar in the wic-ctiou and 
cbaradcr of their perBooaget, that it sceme quite impoRttible that 
they evnld have po^w-toed so close a Himiliirily, if they had been 
original productit of different agea and coutitnc« ; mid yet they 
are found among peoples between whom no interoounie can have 
existed since the commencement of the historic period. Eveiy 
reader of Grimm nod Ftrmeuich will re^tiember the diverting 
Low-German rinry of the race between the hedg<^ho^ and the 
hare, which indcvd cannot, in ita pr&M?nt form, he of great an* 
tiqiiity; butit isafHrmed toeiist in some of the North-Atnericno 
Indian tribes, who certataly ucttbor derircd it from nor comma- 
nicated it to thi; white*. 

In Chaucer's time, whatever had been given to the world 
was rogiirdod as common property. Moat wurlc^ of the Middlo 
Ages were anonyinoua, and authors seldom made any scruple 
in employing inventians or poetical embeUisliments which 
suited their piirpoite, without ackuowU^gment, and evidently 
wiUiout cotiwii)ii«it*s of wrong." Our modem notions of the 
saerednt.-Ns of literary property, of tho perpetual title of an 
author to the coinage of his own brain, arc, in part at least, the 
fruit of circuaiBtancea dependent on the mecbiinicikl conditions 
of the art of printing. So long an books were multiplied only 
by the slow and costly process of manual copying, the additional 
b>:Tden of a conipensatioo to the author, in the uhape of a copy- 
right, would have effectually prevented the circulation of mout 
works ; and writers who toiled for present fame or future im- 
mortality would have defeated their own purpose by imposing 
oonditioUH upon the copying of their works, which would, in 
must cases, have prevented the multipHcntinn of them alti^t her. 

" ' THeji tookopenJ;/ atamgufror^not terttlg a* OaetaJ' ' Titty loekOuir 
own,' M «B>ys a iHatiiiffuiiliod Frooch wrilur vf liiiuMlf, ' uft«r<r«r tAfv/^muf 

Bat wlim, l^ tlie Invention of printing, book-making became 
R uiftniifiu:tun>, the relations between the producer and tlie ooo- 
Rnroer were channel. It is true, that when tinc« tlie mMhani- 
cal facilities were provided, nn edition eonld be published at 
wliiit hod been the co«t of a single copy ■, but for this parpoeo, 
the arts of lype-fotinding and type-settins must first bo acquired 
by ft long ftpprenticcebip, and a large capital mnitt bo inre«ted 
in typ&t and presses. This capital and thU indn»try could be 
Bcc<ircd from a dangerous competition, only by protective laws. 
The protection originally designed for the benefit of the capitali^, 
the printer, yielded returns, which, first the editors of classical 
works, and finally aittliore of original cumpoifitlons, were allowed 
to share in nbuut that wnall proportion which, in ordinary cases, 
tbe profits of the writer still bear to those of the publisher ; and 
hence the notion of a right in literary property. This haa given 
birth to s new feature, if not a new estate, in modem society — 
a class of men who live by literary produrtion, a body of pn>- 
fessional writers, whose motive for authorship oonsLita mainly la 
the pecimiary rewards it yieldii, rewards which can be secured 
to tbem only by the authority of laws recognizing the right of 
property in literary wares, and punisbing the infraction of that 
right as In other cast-s of invasion of property. The authority 
of law, in all well-ordered goveminent^, carries with it a moral 
sanction, and the code, which establishes the legal right of aa 
author to the exclusive use and benefit of his intellectual labours, 
has created a respect for those rights, that extends even beyond 
the limits marked out by the law. 

That the legal title of the author is an important ingredient 
in the respect felt for his profoB&ional property is proved by the 
fact, that in cawjs which the law does not reach — as in regard 
to the works of ancient or foreign writers unprotected by an 
international copyright — the odium attached to plagiarism ia 
less strongly felt; and the commercial spirit of our age, in this 
as well aa in other things is much less tendw iputatioa 

than of the purse. • 



Leer. tX 

Van r^iiiicp, tlie moet eminent living vritcr of Ihc Nothcr- 
laiidft, ill some remarlcB at a congi-ces of autliura and pulilislipn 
lioMal Dni$e«lB,m)tlonf;Biime, to consider tiio general qnoslinn 
of literary property, said : ' For nearly forty years I havo lived 
priRci[Kklly by robbery nnd theft;* and he jiiotiSed his practice 
by the exnmple of Virgil, D&nto, TasMt Miltun, M<>licre,B.-icine, 
Voltaire, Schiller, Vond<;l, and Bildvrdijk, aU of ubom be d(^ 
clnrcd to be 88 iinfcrupulous plunderers as bintself. 

\N'hfD, tl.en, C]iitiicvr and Gover appropriated and nntlonal- 
ize-i thotak-Jtvcrgilitii by Frunoh po«-te, or by classic authors, they 
felt that they were only taking tip waifs, or c»trny«, which had 
been left by the original ownera free to t-banee occupancy, and 
which the Norman or Koman bard hod bimaelf protiably cume 
into poBBessioQ of * by finding,' aa the lawyers pbnse it. it iM 
on ©tymoloffical remurk worth making, now that we are upon 
tlie siibjtx't., thai the very word intvitum, commonly used of 
the origination of a poem or a machine, radically mean^ not 
creation of that which is new, but accidentally coming opon, or 
finding, that which is old. 

And, in fact, how much is there either hiatorically or psycho- 
I<^cal}y new in what the dialect of criticism calls inTi>ntion ? 
Shakespeare, the most original of writers, tnrent«] nothing, or 
next to nothing, in the way of plot or incident; and if you strip 
bis dramas of their artUtic drew Hn<I monil clement, the crenta 
are just what do or may happen a hundred times within the 
obeer\-ation of every man of experience in the world's nSaira. 
For iiiTention, in the way of creation of plot, for novel and 
rtartUng situations and combinations, you must go, not to 
Shakespeare, but to what arc called ••cmuit.ion' novels. There 
you will find abundancw of incident, that not only never did, 
but, without an invcrnion of the lawB of humanity, never could 
happen; while in all genial literature, the mere event* of the 
story Ciin ut any lime be matched in the fintt newspaper you tako 
up. Just in proportion as tbc words or tlie work* of tlie pe^ 
Moages of the dialogue or the narrative ^ue new to huiuaoiiaturfl 


"--- •"•' "■■■ 

Ucr. IX 




ander the oautUtioBE suppowdi jost in prc^ortlon ax tbey startlv 
or surprise the render or the spectator, they sue false aod vidoiis; 
and the nccesaiy and ooiuciously felt truth of tliem, as logica! 
Lilts of tlie diaracterand circnmstonces of the person depicted, 
I the t«st of the genius of th« writer. 
The ingouious gentleman who mnnufacturvd a stupendous 
marme reptile out of the booea of ivhale» waa c^rtniuly a great 
inventor ; but tlie judicious do not rank him higher tbnn the 
leaniod compnrstire anatomist who dcmonstrat«d thiit the 
h^rofckus wafl an impasturc, or than the rcuowaod naturalist 
whose free choice has authorized America to claim him aa her 
own, by a hotter titlo tbua the accident of hirtli, and who U 
content to a«^cvpt the works of God, even as they come from the 
bonds of tbeir Creator. 

bSo far aa Chaucer was avowedly, or at least nndiegutsi^dly, a 
usiator, thore is of course uo question of originality; but even 
hbis cnpadty he Aonn great power of language, and the 
three or four hundred line^ which he luit here and there inter- 
poUted into his otherwise close translation of the work of De 
Lonis, will 1>c at once recogniised as among the pn«>tiges of the 
^ktoem Rnent in sentiment and most beautiful in imagery and 
^^xprewion. • (Sec j>age ib'-i.) 

• Chaster'* ebility lu k tnoiiUIor wn* knosn. vtA bighly Bpp(«;i»ttil, fcy !■!■ 
liMMy coBlfmpcimrlM in Froiiff, WriRiil, in liii cnriiMu collfriioii. Ibo dnccdoU 
Ultnri% publiih** Ilit f>i11nHm)toampliiii«ntai7 (Isiiiiu ailtlnnrJ InCbtuivr t^ 
HWnhn niwliiiiiiin. ■Frrncli pMt of Uiovii timB:— 


PPMm Iha QiUiothiqn* Rojnliv US. 7^19, bl it, n.} 

OSocibIm^ [ilaina d» phUoMplii*, 

8«aM<tne en mmn et angin «□ fintiqii^ 

Orida emu «n (a potlm*. 

Bri^ cH ptflw. MigH mi n thon'ijna, 

Aiitt'« trja Iiuull^ i^iii fat U (lituriqae 

EntmniuM 1e i«gna d'Uncai^ 

L'i>l<9 tax gBuu, walx de Bmth, M qnl m 

Scmiln AMin ct pltnti Ic rwiar 

Aaxignonuii do la; 

Qnat miuUttuT, nobi* Q*1Trvj Cliaiuiffl 



Lnrr. r 

ft haa been thotiftlit slrangc that Chaucer, who borrowed 
freoly tram French iit^ntUirc, ebonld have taken to littlo froi 
Itnlinn sources. He i» supposed to bare hern twice ia lUly ; bj 
prnfoitsrs to Itavo learned tlie ctory of patirat Griadda, or tU 
Clorkfi'a Tiile, from Petrarch, at Patliis; and lie epcaks of Danfl 
wiUi reverence, and paraphmsca frwm the Infemo of thai po^ 
the ioscrtption over the gates of tlie inferaal n>giuDfi. But hi 
writing do not show much cvidt-nce of a familiarity- with Ilatiol 
literature, nor iloes he «pp«ir to be indchted to it for nnjthia 
more than thfi irtorj of I'roiliis and Creseide — which in a tram 
lation, or rather a paraphrase, of tho Filostrato of Hoccaceio- 
aud that of PatamoQ and Arcite, which is taken from t| 

Td m il'tmonn momUins dienx, an Al^iia^ 
Btila la r«M. oii la Itm ui;rdl<i«A 
Qui d'Anptt Suudm nl poii Sviicie ; 
Aafljctme tTtJI* c« nov ^oppliqaa^ 
L* dnranUr at l'<rthim^asiqii*h 
£■1 ban Anglta U lirr* tnnikUi; 
St TO msur oA ita plonl drniaiulM 
m cnb qni (but poor «iilx andMinr, 
ITk pM laog tMDf* qn* t« ailiBuk 
Gtwt inMlaiMxr, nobla Offfi«; Chandtt 

A toj poor e<k de U Aatahi* It«if 
B«qni''r arolr nn oum)[a anUallqa^ 
Doat b<loT«Mt iJa tout in Is bnillM^ 
PevrrtAraar d'cUpina toil rlbiqwai 
OR*Kt ma Oaiila xni paralitJqM 
JiuiqaM i «a qua tu saboTi 
SoMwia Mi, qui d« neo plaaa bim) 
Hiia pNU en sri !■> timca d'MMlI* 
Q*«, par diiliird, dft nojr btoit powT*^ 
Onat tnaiktour, ealila OMTrai Chauid«k 

FMto Imh. loans* d«ii»r^ 
Bb toB Jardin d« tnoh qv'oltia ; 
Ocowdn* c* quo j'ay dit f«t<nlH) 
Ton noble pW U dooco melodia ; 
Haia poDT acaToir, da Kaerif* ta pffa^ 
OrMit traaatetaiir, iwbU Gfftu; Clinnd* 

IdCT. IZ. 

aairctB's uisiuiix cmioitOLoar 


T«seiile of tlie eatne author. Cbauoer^ receusion of litis hitter 
tale difTcnt mticli in plan, arraoji^eineiit, ftod iixiident from tho 
TflMiidt^ to which, as we shall see, it is greatly superior in 
imagery and sentiment, though, perhaps, not in the conduct 
of the narnUire. 

Dante was too Bcrcrc, Petrarch too eentimenla], for the cheer- 
ful and buoj'aut Kpirit of Chaucer, anil it is therefore not eur- 
prifiing that he should have copied or imitated the lively 
Boccaccio rather tlian the greater but more unreal a«ationa 
of those authors. 

Chaucer, in fine, iraa a genuine product of the union of 
SiLXon and Xorman genius, and the first well-cbaractcrized 
specimen of tho intvlk-ctiial n«ultis of a comhination, which 
has given to the world a liteiature bo splendid, and a history bo 

The English is the only Gothic tribe ever thoroughly imbued 
with the Komanco culture, and at the same time interfuacd with 
•outbem blood, and consequently it is the only common repre- 
sentative of tlie two races. The civilization and letters of Ger- 
many and Scandinavia are either wholly dissimilar to those of 
Southern Europe.or they are clo«« imitatloiut. On tho other band, 
the social institutions and the poetry of the Itomaoce nations 
are eelf>dcve!oped, and but slightly modified by Gothic influ- 
ences. In En<;iand alone have the best sociul, moral, and iniel- 
tectual energies of both families been brought to coincide in 
direction ; and in Englixli cbnniclt^r and Engli^ literature wo 
find, if not all the special excellences which di«tinguish eaeh 
couslitiieDt of the English nationality, yet a resultant of the two 
forces superior in power to either. 

We are not well acquainted wnlli Ciiaucer's literary chronology, 
l»>t there is good reason to believe that his translation of the 
Roman do la Rose wax his first important work, and the Canter- 
bury Tales bia last, as it is imquestionably his grW** 

The Roman do la Rose ia in two p.-trts — the o jnt, 

written by GutlUmnio do Lorrli; about the year ! '■<(( 

D I> 

Ml fiv Inm Isfl^^BB kmuBS nm^ Md Its 

tlaaation writtoi hj Jaan de Mcanf^ kolf ft ae aluij taftei; 

UM Btflnfy MCffttt of wBdm aot ^iligiBg to BigaA 
«0«ldket8 bcflvtof p(M»;safliaoqrnaiBtBi<iiaiar< 
jHIBMBBt Of flW fUMtf Vt OtSSt COBODS OWlm aMBt|^ to 

impttrfKtamtM at the original will be fimod to d«aerTA 
■pecwl a tt gatJOB. 

Th« work of De Lonb !■ trudated Oktin. Tbe y^ntmnoHoo-, 
bf Do Mnii^ it modi •bridged, boi I believe nnc othc 
aMOitUUy cfaii&ged. Tbe gnvmll; clme cofreapondcnco b^l 
tween Uis fint part of tbe Banannt of tbe Bnse and the beat 

printed editlna of the work of De Loim — that of &Uoo 

nflfortU a gratifying proof tliot tb« exjating iiiaiiu''cripts of both 
are, in the nula, faithful tranDcripta of the respective aatliors* 
eopie*; for if either hnd bees much altered, the ooi ncidt.>Qce 
brtween the two couI<l cot be m exact. We arc, therefor^ 
wamntcd in belleTtng that we have tbe ttomanDt of the Roao 
very nearljr an the traaalator left it, in all points except that of 
(fmmmaUcal in8cctioo. 

In thi« important particnlar there ts much uncertain^ and 
confusion, with respect not only to the dtidect of the Bomannt, 
liut to that of all Chaucer's works. The manuscript copjeii of 
liiH writingR in the [liffiTcnt puhlic and private Ubrarira of Kng> 
lanil do not appear to have bt-en coIUted by any competent 
Hcliolar, and none of the printcH] editions, except, p<n^ap6^ 
Wright's Canlerbiirr Tales, are entitled to mnoh confidence as 
fattliful reproHuctiona of tbe codices. Caston's second edition 
tins been aupposod to be of hi<jh authority, bccaoH; it professedly 
irooforms to a niAnusuript which lie believed to be autii«Dtie ; 
but this was a point on which Caxton was by no means quali- 
fied to pronounce, and notwithstanding his profesBions of strict 
adherence to his text, his avowi-d practice of reducing what be 
mlla tbe ' rude English ' of oarly authon, to an otrtfaognphioat 

Latt. IX. 



Mid gmmniatical standard of bis own, detracts much from tlie 
ralue of all bis editions of works of prccediog centuries- 
There ore ccrtftiii points of inflcctiou io all thu wotIu of 
Cluiuccr, on wbich we are mtir^b ia the dark. The moitt im- 
portJUit of these, both syntactically, ajid in reference to verflifi* 
cation, is the grammatical and prOHodical value of the final a. 
Most generallj', it seems to have stood as the sign of the plural, 
but sometimes, uppurentiy, of case, and sometimes even of 
gender, in nouns, and of the dt^finitv form in the ndjcdive. 
But tbe published tests are not uniform and harmonioiis euou<fb 
in the use of this letter to enable us to form a eoa:aisteut Uieory 
«f its force, and to xtutti tbe rules which governed its employ- 
ment. There appeals to bo little doubt, however, that it oocura 
more £r«iucnt!y in the mauuscriptfi tbaa in tbe printed editions 
It was often otxtcurely written, or indicated by a mere mark, 
which later transcritiers and printers bare overlooked, and tfaa 
FCiiboration of it is, in many case^ abHolut«ty necessary to tbe 
metie of lines which arc fouud in tbe midst of passages generally 
of exquisite TersificatioD." 

Tbe printed copies are very inaccurate also in discriminating 
between the regularly and the irregularly conjugated verbs. In 
modern timoR, not only have many verbs originally iiTOgular 
become rtigiiliir in conjugation, but the two ^tems ore Bome- 
tamM blended. Thus tbe Anglo-Snxoo, cre^pan, to eretpy 
made the past tense singular, creap. But wo i^y, ervpt^ and 
the like, tlie t final standing for ed, the usual ending of tJte 
r«^dar conjugation, which some grammatical improver sup- 
posed to be a avcvfiffuy sign of tbe past inflection. The best 
manuscripts of Chaucer do not justify this corruption, though it 
appean in all tbe old editions. 

• Uy }tmm*i fiitud. Pnttwar Child, of n«mird Vaitvhf, Imi Idodlv* 
Miiiiiilril to mf iniua> iitlerMliiiK AtuarilJoni hd t&« ' final ia ■.'h;<u>;«r, ' 
ha ia itil] MOliBuing lii" mt**riR)>(w. I will not knticifats Ma Mndu-ion^ - 
Inut irill MMi bo giTsn to tlir irail'l hy hinmell. 8r« Wri^t'a Koto 

• »8 



Lrcr. IX. 

The translaticia of the BomaD de la Rose, in the form wa 
possess it, is iiot, f.hcn, a safe mithority upou the accidence of 
EDgli:<'h at the conuiK-nociuent of Chauoer's titcnuy career; 
hut, from ita general fidelity to the ori^ual, it affords a f-itr 
opportunity for compariug the relative power of poetical ex> 
presaion, posAened, at that time, by the two langungefc English. 
had Qot then attuned to the full compafis;. flexibility, and graces 
with which Chaucer hiniNclf, in his later works, endowed it. 
Still, I believe that DO competent jud)^ can examine the French 
text and ita English counterpart, without coiniiig to the coa- 
cliuioo, that the language, which, a generation or two before* ' 
had shown it»elf, in the bands of Robert of Gloucester and his 
follower De Brunne, poor, ru<le, and unpolished, had nuw, by 
aocretion and development, become eo improved as to be in qo 
wise inferior to the original of the Roman de la Rose, in any of 
the Rj>ccial qualities that go to mako up a perfect poetical 

The metre i* the eamc in the tranulation as in the original — 
iwnhic, octosyllabic rhyme — but a.s the e fiunl was, except 
lirhcii followed by a word beginning with A, or with a vowel, 
generally pronounced in both languages, a majority of the 
lines have a superfluous or ninth syllable in the teimiaal 
rhyme, which thus becomes an amphibnu:h instead of an ianibua. 
In this respect, however, no rale of serjueuco or arrangetiicnt !• 
followeil, the alternate succession of masculine and fvuiinin^ 
or Hin)>lc and double rbyines, not having then become obUgatoij 
ill French, as it neier did in English verse. 

So far as, with our imperfect knowledge of the pronimciation 
of English in Cliaucer's time, wo are able to judge, the vergi. 
ficatirin of this trunslation, though in genemi flowing and cor- 
rect, is less skillul than that of the poet*s later works; and he 
eshibita less facility in rhyming in the Romaunt tbun in hia 
Canterbury Tales. Thus, where a double -rhymed ending occur*, 
h«, much more firef]ucntly than in bis original compositioDS, 




nukes uitc of two wonia io one line ai: a cousoiiuace to & Buigls 
word Id aaothcr. Thiu : 





And many homely trees then mm, 
'lluit praclicis coinra, nnil nji^^va bunt, 
Mcdlura, plujnmo.i, pcurvn, ehesttiHis 
Cberide, of whicbc muny oae faint ia* 

With ciprpB, and wiih oUetri», 

Of which that nigh no plcniy her* it. 

Agaice the Siinn« nn hundred httaia, 

Bl«vf, yellow, luid rtd, thai fresh anil new it. 

Bat tbeae licenses are not common, and in general both rhjnne 
and metre are unexceptionable. 

To gire an cxt«nded comparison between the diction of tbe 
French poet and liis English tranHlnlor i» here imponible, and 
I muRt content my^lf with a specimen or two, which will ferva 
to direct the attention of the reader to the mode in which 
Cliaucer has embellialied and improved upon his originaL Thia 
be effects by th« use of more expressive word^ by the addition 
of picturcxqiic features to the imagery, and by tliu grciUcr con- 
duuation of elyle which tlie itructure of English soueUuta 

Venee 119 — 122 of the ongin&l run thua^— 

Si vi tot covert ct puvj 
L* fon» lie I'tave de f/ravetet 
titt pmcric grant et bclo 
Tr^ su piiS <!i; I'iaTO batoit. 

niia Chaucer rvnduiv, in four and a half verses, thus : — 

Tho* mw 1 wolo 
Th« bottomo y-pnved ereeiieit 
With grttvcl, full «f stones ahene; 
"Die ttw-jtilowics Hofte, sow and greiM, 
Beet right upon the water ude. 



Liwr. IX. 

An explanatory remark u soroetimeB introducpd by th« 
bmiulfttor, a» in tlie oomparisoo of tho aong of the birds in tbe 
row^gardeD to the ebant of llio eircDV. D« Lorrn bun said, 

672. TkhI c:<loil cil diRDB dniw et faiaiu, 

Qu'il DO vmhloit |uw chuu d'oitiaa% 
jUu 1« pjnid ren acancr 
A chant d«i aeraint* d« mcr, 
Qui, par lor tcmh <iu'dcs oat Biacs 
£t Mric*,* ont noo Beniinta. 

Xn the traiulaltnii thus : 

Such DWKtc Bong trail hrai emon^, 
Hiat me thougbt it nn birdc* »otig. 
But it vras wuotlvr like to \xc 
SoDg of m«remaidenit of th« mo, 
Tbat, fur liir mitgen It ao clere, 
TlioDgh wc mef emaideoB clepa hem hem 
Id Ettgliabt aa ia our iiAannce, 
HcD dcpe h«in aorcins in France. 

Hut Chnucer's ampli6catioii8 of the text of Dc Lonis are not 
naroeroiis, nor, with a aingle esoeptioo, of much importance. 
The addition, in the case I refer to, was noticed in Lecture XT. 
of iiiy Firet Series, and I here recur to it, not only for its in- 
herent intercut, ns the expression of a generous and truly English 
sentiment, of which there in no trace in tlie original, bat, mora 
especiaUy, because, in s later work, tlie poet repeats, expands, 
and enforces the sentiment, in a tone which plainly indicates that 
he had been cenoiired for expre.-aing it, and was Moixingau occnsioa 
for a Rpirited dt;fence of hiit principles. The connection lielween 
the two passages rendered it necessary to re-examine rhe tir«t. 

The word vjlain denoted primarily a man of rustic and 
plebeian birtbt and iiftcrwiirds, f-om the general dispositiun of 
the bigb-bom nod the rich to ascribe baae (]iialitie.i to men of 
humble origin, it came to signify, also, ignoble in spirit, mean 

• R'iqij*ftin «^la'i« lh!l word : JoH, «(f^^ll!^ dma, mSlodicnx, puitiblck 
moJjni. tnuii]uiIlo. l«at, gme. — nther n fanaiilable I'M iS niuuingn to b* 
d*dae«d ta>m the Lntin D^rorb, ••ro, late, to wliicb he ndma ••»•> 

Lxer. IX. 



sod Tolgar. At ft later period, the word acquired in English 
even A more ofTcDsivu nionil mcauiug; but in Chauc«r'H time, 
tlioiigli employed occa.''i<inaIIy by tlie poet himself in the same 
metaphorical way iw in Frencli, it was not habitually used in 
any oUter than the feudal sense of a tenant, or a serf Iwund tu 
the soil he tilled, or in the more g^neisl acceptation of a plebeian, 
low-bora person.' De Lonis bad iutiodiiccd this tvord and ita 
derivatire, ritounie, into a passage, v. i066, which Chaucur 
tmulatcs thm : — 

S175. * Villnnic at the bt^notng, 

' I voll,' myd Lotc, ' orcr nil tMng 
Th-iu I«^Ti.', il' thou wult bc b« 
Falae, and tn'Mpuc« ayenrt ma t 
I cnnw and hliirac genaully 
All bcoi that lovi-n vUluny, 
For vilbaio nialccth rUliune, 
And by bis duds a diurle it seine. 
Tbese Tillaiues amo witboul pitie, 
Friendship, love, and all bountte. 
I ntll receive uiiio my wr\-iM 
Hem that ben vtllaines of crapriae.* 

l^lIaDio (vilonnie) as first tisod ia this extract is employed in 
a moral sunse, but in the couplet: 

For villanie maketh villein*, 
Anil by his df€dg a cborl« ia aeane, 

cUleind, as plainly appears by the ori^oal, 

'nionnte fait U rilain^ 

' Thli latter vm tb* o^ramon inpanbx lonf; nltvr nannt'i tin)^ »tA i 
late U th* btgimiiag of the aizl«Fnlh Mntaiy. ViAtr IIidi aata it. in tut n(m»- 
rial Mtnon on tti* CooatMB of SieliiDonil aai Dcrbgr, nioth«F of Itcerf VIL, 
pmehad ia ]Ue. Spnikinit ot At ftaytt at Cbrut far iha fc^jpTcoMi cf \um 
mhbIm, and Ui asiirctfd intvRmlon fur ttin dqiwUil oMntM*, im ■**• : — ' Yf 
ia thii uortall Boil; be pn;*)! aa<l aakad rorf^veDn* ftv hia Eafnjva Ibit craci- 
Ijoi hjm * * * and jrtt iMT«rtli«Uaa ba optcjiitd bh potf doa tor them : modia 
mtbcr it it to MppOM, that bo diall 0|>t«7a« 1i» aikjai!* Ibr ■ * * thisDobl* piincn 
than fbr U* mortal Eiumj»». wt^ vara manj ami but pjtofifi.' ]>o«vil>'a 
rtpcint, 170S, p. 34; B*n t!<« mtA m««ia penom of low oMiditic^ w no* 
t)Mt«l *ith llu) poik til the dMMMd ' noble fcuiaeai.' 



Lnr. TX. 

In tbe nomlnaUvo to mal-etK, n&d vilianie is ita objective. 
Hence tiie meaning is: villiLin.t, or jicrsonB of plclxnan rank^ 
commit villanyor base aotiom, or, jo othin- words, those n bo 
nre villuins in a legal sotue are cqiecially prone to lie guUty of 
(be meanncMUi whicb wctg morally fitlgmntuced as villnny. 
Agaioat tbia opinion, Cbnncer'a noble tpirit, tbou^h be wa.<t of 
gentle birth, compelled him t« prutvtl, and ba Introduoed into 
his txanslation this disclaimert 

Bat ondentond in thmo cntrnt, 

That thb h not mine cnlnndeiDcat| 

To elepa no wtgbt in no ngea 

Onely gentle for liia Uiiagea: 

But wlkoso is vcniiKUD, 

And in lua port not outrageous, 

Vhm anch ono iliou mem ihco bc(bni% 

TIlOQ^ ho be Dot gpulle borne, 

Than mtdeat well wine this in sooth, 

That fae is gentle, becaun be dotb 

As loDgelh to a gcnrleman : 

Of horn none c')tcr (tcmc 1 «in, 

For certainly wilhoulco drtede 

A dorle is domed by his dcede^ 

or hye or lowc, m ye may nee, 

Or of what kiored that be bee.* 

Althotij^i tbc orijipnal harslinuss of the feudal rclsHoD !>•• 
twL'vn the Norman lord and tli« Saxnn churl hnd b«ea mm^ 
what softened by tliree centuries of common interest and reci- 
procal dependence and belpfulnese, jet Bodi sentiments as tbese 
were of too daogonnis a tendency to be well recwved by the 
higher claencs, in an ago when m many popular apostk-a of 
liberty, to Fraooe and in England, were preaching tbe natural 
equality of man. Hence Chaucer was undoabtMly blamed for 
tm&eceasarily procluming this disargantsing doctrin<-, in lbs 
translation of a work which pr^ri-ased no nueh socinl heresy. 

But the poet did not shrink from the position he had taken, 

* 8m Loogir KotM sud lUiutimtuuu, UL st tlw cad ol Uui Uctvnb 

UcT. IX. 



Bod in tbe Wif« of Bn(h'« Ttile li« again advanced and miiiD* 
taiDod the opinion, that tlie tme of gentility is Doblenen 
of life and courtesj- of manner, and not ancestral rank. This 
position is enforced at much leagth, the argument extending to 
ft hundred verses, nod b«ng conducted with a spirit which givet 
it altogether the air of a reply to a pcnsonul attack. It in of 
follows : — 

But tor y« tpckina of swi«lie gontilcnw. 
As i* <lcH:eni!it out of olH richtaen, 
There/or «chuld jo bi^n Iwilden grniil men; 
Swicbr arrogituncc u not Yri>rlh nn hen. 
Lolc irho thut in most vtrtumis iilnnv, 
Priv^juid i>ert, and most miwidiih ay 
To do the gtiil'iX dedes tbiit liu uuii. 
Talc him for Uie greitait geotil mau, 
Crial, wol wo cU/me of him our t;i-otilcflM^ 
Nought of oure ddrcs for hor oMe ricbeaMi 
For ibongh ihay give ns al bcr hcrilage, 
For which we claymt to be of high parage 
Tit may thay nol biquethe, for no ttii^ 
To noon of us, so verluoiw lyvyng, 
Tliat made hem gentil men y-callid b«, 
And had na folwe hem in si>ch dtgrj. 
Wd ens the wyse poet of tloronce. 
That hatta Daunt, speke of thia MntTitce; 
Lo^ in mcli mancr cf lym t* Z>«untcs tate : * 

* I IiiTw not bon iM« to iilpnlify Hit prFrisc [ciBBig« in Dioto ipfrmd to ij 
ChniKyT, but Ui« Italian po«t cipnsn vnj nmikr MntimoDt* ia lb* Omhm 
1 to th* IbOi'tb IVUInto in tliD CoQvilo: — 

Epoiehi lnmjM>iiit pard'up«tlnitv 

DijMrTo gill Id mio kmt« Blil«, 

Ch' h ho tcaato ocl tnllor d' Amonv 

EdM d(l ntero 

Pt» k> qnil TwntRi'nt* i V uam g«nt3g^ 

Con nuuk upn e soltilt^ 

Kipronaclo il giudido laUo c rilo 

Di que', tba TOglJon cii* di f«Dtilli^ 

• ••«•• 

£d i lauto dimU 




Ta\ Mold upriaiih by bh bnundua Bmall 

Prowcs of man, for God of his jiiniiiiiiW 

Wol ctial u'o clainic of him our gcntjlcse: 

For of our auaetttrtt wo no thing claj'iite 

But Ictnporn] diing, thai men may liurt and maym^ 

£k evci7 wight wot ihia »» ncll as 1, 

If gentiles wcnj plnuntml twturrUii 

Unto n oortnyn tignngc doun the )ini>, 

Prirt n« »pvn, thay iroldc n«vcr Gao 

To done of gonltlcicc the loir oflioc, 

Th^ might nought doon no viUsay or nta. 

The poet Riaaifcstly hoMx that, f^entility is not a generic di»- 
tioctioD, imd at the naiae time tjicitly gives in bis adboHion to 
the doctrine of the perpetuity of species, just now iintior dia- 
CUMJon, in a cIuss of philonophers who ncre not dreamed of by 
CLaucer ta likely to debate that question five centuries *Aer hii 
age. He proceeds ; — 

La Md IM» O)>in!on tn b«I, 
Clw r omn chiuu ecJni 
t!«mogMii£l, tktjiaiikif: Vtai 
Kipoio o Otlio di ooIaI nlrol*, 
B«ii«hi si> <1* Dwnio: 

• • « • • 

Chi 111 divl(i«, alcMiina il end*, 
Vtn poaaoo ([iiiiiii'xiii dir, ni tAmt 
fnwelit rili Baa di lor aatoim, 
« • • • • 

£ gmtiltcu dannqna virtutc^ 
Ua OOD Tiitota ot* dla ; 
Bireomi i <i«lo donin^w la Sttilai 
Ma «ii noB i toarcna. 

• • • • • 

Fwi nania ai vanll. 

JHteado: jwr iaohUtta io wn ooa III 

Ch'etii aon qtiui Dei 

<M (^ bun tal gnuia faor di tatU nl| 

Chi aula Iildio all' aalnis la don^ 

Ob« tcdo in *ua pcnoDa 

PaiCtltdincnle tUr, ainlii ad alqnaati 

ti» Mino dl rulicili ■' aentfta, 

]!«•« da Uio u«U' uina ba j aafc 




Tik fujrr nnd brr it in the dorkcut haoM, 
Bitwixc this And tti« ni<iiint Caukatnui^ 
AnA Icl men Ml the donv, nnd gf tht'iine^ 
Yit will the I'uyr an fiiir and ligUit; brenne 
Alt tni-tity tliousimd Dim might it Iwhblde} 
Hia oflifi! jiaiurc-1 uy wo! it ho!dc. 
Up peril oa mj- lif, til lliat it dje. 
Her nuiy ye m wel, bow tliai genterye 
la Douglil aniiexid to poa^esjaouti, 
Silhim folk n« doon li«r upentctonD 
Alwky. iM doll) llic Aiyr, lo, io his kyiid«. 
For Uod it wot, men maj fiil ofiim fyaia 
A loTdm MDC do ubanifi and Tilonjc. 
And ho tlint wol have pri« of hi» g<mUie, 
For b« was borcn of n fcciitil tioiu. 
And had lua eldrca iiobli* aud vvrluou% 
And Dyl himseloe doo iia gcDtll d«des, 
Ne folw his geotil auiiccter, that deed is, 
Uo u nought g^otil, be h« duk or «rl; 
For vilcyn synful dcedc« makcth a chetL 
For gentilncfsc nys Intt m)oin<i 
or thin auncestraii, for her hdgh bonot^ 
Which i;i a ftratm^ ihing to thy peraou; 
Thy gpnti!ei«;r TOUictli fro God ftUoODO. 
Than onmth ourc vciray gi-nlilinsc of graoa^ 
It wo* no thing t)!c]ui't}ic tu with oun: plae& 
Thijikcth how nobil, na oaiih Valcriiu, 
Was tbiike TuUiiut Hostilius, 
That out of poviTt Toa to high uuUeaae. 
lEcditli 8ea«k, and rediih etk Bt'cce, 
ThcT Kh\ilii y« se exprease, ibat no died i% 
That he is gonlil that doth genlil dedis. 
And thcrfcr, lierve liotubcnd, 1 lyDdud^ 
Al were it that myn a«in«:trr% wcr rud<s 
Tit may tho bigh« God, and *o hope I, 
Gmunte ine gruca to lyre* vtrtuoualy ; 
Thaa am I gentU, whun that I hygyaxta 
To lyve Tcrtuoudy, s&d weyren aymie. 

The dialect of th« traoslation of the Roman da la Rose 
ie, to geD«raI, more archaic tliao that of Chauctr's la(«r, and 



Lwci. IX 

esp«c[Ally hb original works, &□<! t1i<«e latter, wbich roach the 
Ingheat excellence of expression in the Canter1>iiry Tales, exhibit 
a force and hcuuty of diction that few Bacceediog authors havB 

Chaucer's t.n»i«1atioo of the RomatiDt of the Rose, which 
was n work of Uijt earlier years, wq« pcrhnps coDsciously de- 
sired as a pr«paralJ0R for original pot-tic effort. But whether 
80 (lesJ^^ed or not, he could hardly have selected a better exer- 
citatioD or school of practice, in the use of his mother tongue 
us a medium of imajriaativc composition. 

The French Romou <Ie la Rose — or rather tho firrt part of 
the two po(>ins which pa» under that name, bttt which are hy 
different authors, and but slightly connected as oomniencctnent 
and dequel — waain a style wholly new to English, and ilJt dialect 
was richest in many points, both of tbouybt and of expre-tsioo, 
where the poTcrty of English was greatest, A translation of it, 
therefore, was a work adioimhly suited, lu the haada of a genial 
artist, to the improvement of the practioit diction of English, 
in tho poiotd where it sceiled to be reformed before it could 
become a fit veliicle fur the oonoeptiona of a truly original 
poetic spirit. 

Indeed it may be aald, aa a genera] truth, tluit one of the 
Tcry best methoiis of learning to express ourselves aptly in our 
native lan^ia^ is to habituate ourselves to the utterance of 
thoughts and the portrayal of images conceived hy other minds, 
and embodied in other tongues, and there is fiertiupit no practice, 
by which wc can no readily acquire the commuud of an cxti.>nsive 
Tocnlmlary, or give to our pergonal dialect so great a compau, 
Sexihility and variety of expression, as by the tiaostation of 
authors whose thoughts run in cbauuels not familiar to our 
native literature. 

Kor is it that, in tranMation, we borrow either the words, or 
«vcn the phraseological combinatioDa of those from whom ve 
translate. This would be but a restamping of old coin without 
effacing the foreign ima^ and cupencriptioni « tlavish imito* 

Ucr. IX. 

on-iDCEB's mvon fokus 


tton of the original, which a man capable, or ambitious of be* 
coming capable, of well using hi§ own tongue, could not dest-end 
to. hut it is, that when ve tbink another uuin'M thou^^btjt in 
OUT own worda, we am forced out of tbe familiitr beats of our 
own personal diction, and compelled sometimes to employ 
Tocabii^d and verbal combinations, whirh, thongh thej may tte 
perfectly idiomatic, we have not before appropriated and made 
our own by habitual use, eomctimos t^) nc^tJate new alliances 
between vfrnacular words, whicb, if tbev never have yet botn 
joined together, novorthvlcs lawfully and profitably may b«." 

It is irapomible here to go into a critioul ej:.iminution uf tbo 
Qumerotia works of Cliauoer, original and imitative, and the 
■pace at our command will only enable us to take a cnrsi^ry 
view of some of the more important of his remiuning poems. 
Of the former claes, ono of the beat known is the Troilua and 
Crescidu, which is founded on the Filustrato of Boccaccio, and 
in port directly translated from tUat nufbor. Tbe additions to 
tixe Italian are extensive, impoi-t&ut, and probably mainly 
original, though certainly, in part, derived from French writers. 
Chaucer himself inakea no mention of Hoccaeeio, l>ut professes 
to derive the incidents of the stor^- from Lolliu.*, a Latin author; 
but no DUin oritpiiiil is known, nor have the longer additions 
been tnwei) U> niiy other source. It cannot be said that the 
poem is e»flentially improved by ttic changes of the translator, 
though, in some passages, great skill in the use of words is 
exhibited, and the native liumotir of Chaucer pervades many 
portions of the story, which, in the hands of Boccaccio, were 
of a graver ca<!t ; but, upon tlio wholo, the merit of Chaucer's 

* MAi>((T CliwliM indi^vinpnt mu gtmt in t»ilMl*UDg cot of one tongua into an 
olbcr, and tetlir tkill l>v hni in uur £nglitb aptai!!! to iudg« of tlio Ptimwi nnd 
ftopertia ol wordca. and to diui'V ■mtcnfca. thn nn; rim tia4 llixt I Imuii 
fcaosBti. And oHm tio voulde cngtiriha hit nimin* out nf Uic Lsliue or Omks 
fpoa lb* todtynr. hij lookiiiu of lli' W)ka onnl; witliont FP«diiig or onutniing at 
■U: ;ln mga iiKht vDrtlii« and Ti-rie profitable tor oil nvn. aawdl txih» mdttw 
rtaodingof the bookr, ta also for Ui« apUmas of framinf) ilia Anihoni in . i - 
■ad bMioring Ibcrcby their iodgnncnt, nnd thennttLill piitiiinj; ilii-jr l-ic^':. 
nUnnMOl (iiMch. — EpiitUtcH'diia'tl'raiuiatumrfltnunlIttiNt, Iranian: Itf 



Lscrr. IZ. 

ixintributions to the origiQ&l tale is not su«h as, in a brief and 
geneta) view of his poetical and philological character, to re> 
paj an analysiii. 

The vx()uisite poem, the Flower and the Ix«f, is, I am afmid, 
better known by Drjden'* modernization of it than by the origi- 
nid text. It first Appeared in [■'S07, and its authiuitieity has been 
suspected, but the internal evidence is ahnoit decisive ia ita 
faTOur. Chaucer himself, in the L^end of Good Women, ex- 
[n«eslj olludca to tliu 8ubjret, as one on which he had written, and 
there can he little douI)t Lhut the poem in i^ue^tion is iiis. Parts 
of it liavc been shown to be ii»itatio»8 or tratiElatious from tlie 
French, but thcjte constitute an inoonxidernhlv propoi-tioo of the 
work, and it mufd he r^arded a» among the most truly original, 
u it certainly is one of the finest, of Chancer productioaa. In<l(.-«d 
It may be said, with respect to many of the port's allef;ed obli- 
gations to Jtoniuut;e authors, tho eridenca of which has been 
industriously colloctod by Siindiasand others, that the passage* 
cited in proof of the theory tliat our author waa little better than 
a translator, are, for Uie most part, mere commonpla^^e*, which 
•re found in all literaturee, and the tniu orif^n of which dates 
iM) far bacic that no Romance author, ancient or modern, can 
fairly be supposed to have first expressed them. 

The general plan of the Flower and the Leaf is well enough, 
though Bomewhat quaintly, stated by the first editor: 

A gentJowomnn, out of an arbonr in a grove, ecolb a great Mmpnnta 
of knight* and ladic* in a ikunceupnn the grcmc gnusc: (lie which 
bong ended, tbc^ all kni^i-k- downn, anil do honour to the daisie, some 
to the flowDT, and snno lu the Itaf^e. Afterward this gentlewoman 
Itamcth b>' one of lh«»e ladies the meaning hereof, which i* this: 
Th<^ wliieli honour tlie flower, a thing faditi;? with ovary Wn-it, are 
•ndi iw looke alW btauiio and worldly pleasure. But tiioy that 
liooour the leafe, which abideth willi the mot, notwithManding tfaa 
froeta and winter utomini, nrr tbty whioh follow Tertue and during 
qualities, without rrgard of worldly nwjivctx. 

One of the moat Btrilung characteristics of this poem is the 


Lkct. IX. 

tmxvctna siupatst vmn vxTwrn 



iympftth; it manireste with nature. Some tatteta of this feeling 
&rc discoverable in Piers Ploug-hioan, but it is first fully dJRplayvd 
by Chaucer. The same sensibility to the charms of rural sealery 
and laodscapa beatity is indeed xhown cltti-wlioro by our author, 
but perbap^^ uonlivn: iu sn high a degniu. Thix feature of the 
poem rcnderx it probable that it isoneof Chnucer'AlaterwoHdi; 
fi)r the pcrticptiou of luudiicapo beauty depcudit upoD u long 
training of the eye, which i» hardly perfecteil tiotil a somewhAfr 
advanced period of life. Ik the hey-day of youUi, we do not 
see God in his works, and the increased eDJoyment of rural 
scenery is one of the compensations reserved by Providence for 
the sober ttga of those who have so familiarized themselves with 
the ways of Katuio as to understand somo of the maoy voioee in 
which she speaks to her children.* 

But the loTc of niiture^ as c-xliihited in this poem, is rather a 
matterof fcelinf^ ttiiu) of in(elligt-iit appreciation or of n-finc(l 
taste; for the dcscriptiun of tlie grove applies to thedippudand 

■ I T<ralBt)> bm to qiMtn a pouago boot k diaMone of nf «nn, ikUTrnd aad 
paliUAcd ia IMT :— 

'Th«ac«of thcvMiniuiliiu annibor eompamtioiL ItbuliHtiwiulyardfTod, 
(JHt At- mw* tit niaUrial btoaty in the myriad forms of fpuktantou* nnliu* uid 
tenutire ut. is Ilie U-l ilrrrlopMl iif all ttio pawDr* of Mii)nioiu jxTCiFpl lua. II 
tumoC amto M ila full prrftvlina unlil th» abntemcnt of the "oatiuol tatev" 
•Bom to Uin pun intrUigcDM its due luprriority atvr the phyiioal nuripni. uid 
tfaeMiiM lo wtiich Iha imprakicnu <f vuiblo bcaatf k» nddini*nl )im Imrn mdatd 
•adifuttiuliicdl^loag. iitiil pntup* luiraiuwIoiM vtlhotiml eulliration. Vomq 
nnooAicioiu cnltintioa. for iu Uim wluot of lifb oar gnat tmcket oftm ditgiUKM 
litr liwim Of All our Oifuii, tlio eye is the moal nuecptil^ of cultoti^ nai U 
U Um oa« fur «)m>v inralnatAn' tnininjc Kalum biu irnulii th* liuf^Mt prariiioa. 
ITatiaglit. nin+mi ■ti-i-r-1-"ti"r' '■*■"" tul on Cl i iif su<l colour, and it U longolwc^ 
TUlen, aloa*. Uut giTci tb« peratptioo of t!i« rtlirf «hi<!h apringa tram tba diV 
tribntloii of lifftit u>d riiodi!, (he affliota of diitaniM! and rclntivo poiition. kiuI ihn 
t$>iauiii of oompitnitiT* manniludoi. Thiu fkr, nnndMlinic ta|M>H(iiim earric* 
b«r pv^iil. But ill* tthci*«l porvoptlon of bmulT in a pniduol ei the pcdod wliea 
itNOistlMuae intelltcl bs* acquired ila Ml il-^miuioc otct mottiiltd pajBion, lh« 
»ii{A«mldod tfoit of monJ cullun^ and it ■ttnins not its ripnnnu. Mini unilnr tlw 
My* of an nulamaal mat, Mnturc hai thut mHrrrrd toe th* Rolxr ey« of nipi Um 
Dia«t inteUigrsI appnoiatioo^ m)<1 thu moil •iijuinlM nJQjmtia, of the ohoicMl of 
h*p «ciWKiUB pUb. osd the ervnini; of thp K'liolur wbo ha* made hi* life a du> 
cajilino U tbeeredby themoit eiiiioMii>g«>Dl(in}>liiti^-uof thr world «f iateUac^ 
0d giUcil vilb lh« molt exalted tJeamrci «f tht world of i 

416 m TU)WKS AND THE UtAT Imn. O. 

trimmed artificial plantation, and not to the wild and iree luxu- 
riance of forest growth. Chaucer here unfortunately followed 
Ma literary reminiscences, instead of trusting to his own instincts 
and )iis taste ; for he is borrowing from a French poet when he 
speaks of the ' okes great,' which grew * streight as a line,' and 
at equal distances from ea«h other,* and of the ' hegge,' — 

Wrethea in fere so well and cunningly, 
That every branch and lonfo grew by mesuia, 
Plaino as a boid, of an height by and by. 

But thia description of the turf must have been original for 
it is in England that one oftenest Bnds : 

The greno graa 
So email, so tliickc, so sliort, no frcmh of hew, 
That most like itnto green wool wot I it was. 

I believe no old manuscript of the Flower and the Leaf is 
known to be extant This is much to he regretted, because 
Speght's edition is evidently exceedingly corrupt, and the Terei- 
fication, which Beems to have been very polished and mellifluous, 
is much impaired by the inaccuracy of the text. 

* Dans le Dit du Lyon (do O. Mnchault). lea BtUrea do I'Ue oft ftbord* la poit^ 
aoQt loua do m6ino liaulcur, et pluQlvs u egole dislanca ; genre do psjtsga d^ji 
d^crit par O. de Lorris et qui cliarmuit loa anuienB Brctunh. 

Li TorgiiTS 6toit pompusBM, 
Car d'lirbrcfl y evoit oasei, 
AIhIs de groibsour ct do imiifesaa 
FurenC puroil, oC par aoblesse 
Plauti ei, que duIz ne onroit 
Com plus do I'uQ i I'autre Droit 

Sanilrat, iXude Mir Chauetr, p. 100. 

Id the trsDBlatioD of Owen, or tlie Lady nf Ilio Fountain, by Villnnatijaj, ia 
tjiia posautje: "Apr^s avoir elri bngtcmps, j'tirririil iLins la plus belle T&lUe do 
monde ; U s'^lcmirnt die arbroa, toua do m^mo liuottur;" and in a Dote, two 
eimiliir psBaages from Ihe Slyiyrian and the JlKbinogioii uro cited. — Villemanju^ 
Lea fiomaiis de la Talile Bonde, pp. 181, S38. This aetma 10 indicate a taat« 
generated, or rather depraved, by a too artificial civilization, auch aa we can baidly 
lappoae to have exiated in anj early Celtic nalion. 

LacT. IX. 



Chaucer's ^3t«At work, that on which hi* elnlm to bo raolced 
Unoi^ the 6rHt ornaments of modem literature muflt principiilly 
rest, b his Cnnterbuiy Talcs. Tbi« is a culIectJ'^D of stories re- 
lated by tho mvmbcrs of a company of pilgrims oe they roda 
together to woniliip and pay their vowa at the ahrtDC of * the 
boly bliaful martir,' St. Thomas k IteckeL 

The hoet of an inn, the Tsbfird, at Soutbwark — where tli« 
pil^ma, twenty-nine in number, accidentally meet oh their 
way to Canterbury, and piisn thi; night — joins their compnny, 
and acts as tb« presiding spirit of the party. It ia t^wd that 
each pilgrim thail tell at least one tale — for there ia some con* 
fusion about the number — on the journey to Canterbury, and 
another on the return ; but the whole number of stories is 
twenty-four only, Chniiccr having died beforu the work was 
completed. After a brief introduction, filled with the most 
cheerful images of epnng, the Reason of the pilgrimage, the poet 
commences the narrative with a description of the person and 
the character of each member of the party. This description 
extends to about seven hundred lines, and, of course, aflbrds 
epaoe for a vety and graphic portrayal of the physical 
Mpect, and an outline of the moral features, of t»ch. This 
htler part of the description is generally more r^Idly 
sketched, because it was a part of the autlior's plan to ullow his 
persoongen to bring out their xpectal tnuta of characie-', and 
thus to <)epict and individualize themselves, in the inter- 
ludes between the tales. The selection of the pilgrims is ewU 
dentiy made with reference to tliia object of devclopement in 
action, and therefore constitute-i an essential feature of tiie 
plot We hare persons of all the ranks not ti)o far removed 
ftom each other by artificial distinctions, to be suppcaed 
capable of associating upon that fooling of temporary equality, 
which 18 the law of good fellowrahip among IrarelWrs bvitud on 
the same journey and accidentally brought together. AU th« 
great classes of English humanity are thu'i representt^l, and 
opportunity is ^ven for the di.^play of the burmonics and the 

■ B 


cahturbdhy tales 

Iter. IX. 

jealousies wbirli now unitnl, now divi<l«l the interests of dif- 
forent OTi\vn nixl different Tocations ia the commonwenlth. 
The clerical ]>U(^riii)ti, il will t>e qWtvwI. kto proportionately 
very niim<!rouA. 'Jlie (^iposure of tlw* corruptions of the cburvb 
was doubtless a leading aim with the [>o«l, and If the whole 
sensa, which vns designed to ^xlend to at Iea«it fifly-rigbt taleii, 
had been completed, tbe crimiuations and recrimirialioii-i of the 
jeaJoos ecclfsiasUcs would bare exhibited tbe whole profession 
io &0 iiDcnviiiblo li^bt. But Cbauecr could bo just an well na 
Berere. Ilia purtiuit of the priorva, tJioiigh it docs not it|>ara 
the aflVctutions of the lady, is eoRiplimentar3r ; and bis ' good 
man of religion,' the ' pore Persoun of a toun,* of whom it it 
said that — 

Crintes lore, and hU apoitiM twolve, 

Uo taught, and ferM bo folwed it himiwlTe, 

bati been bundredd of timee quoted aa one of tbe mort benutitol 
pictures of charity, humility, and gonerouB, eonaeieiiTioiui, intel> 
ligent dfviitiou to the duties of the clerical cnlling, which can 
be fouD<l in tho whole ranji^ of English literature. 

None of thesi; rfcvU-ln.'*, I Ix'lieve, hax ever been trac(-d to a 
foreign sourci-, and th<ty are so Uioruiigbly nitttonal, that it is 
hardly possible 4a suppose that any imajfinatioa but that of on 
Engliabman oould havo conceived thorn. In the first introdtio 
tion of the individuala described io the prologues to titc itore 
Btoriee, and in tbe dialogues which occur at the pauses bctwee 
the tales, wherever, in sliort, the oarraton appi-ar in their ov 
psnonsi the ctianict^-rs aru an well marked and discriminate^^ 
and as harnionioiu and oonRi>itent in action, us in tbe best ^ 
oomediM of niodcrn limcx. AlUiough, IbeTefure, there is, in.«jl 
the plan of the composition, nothing of technical dramatic fornr-^?| 
or incident, yet the atimirable conception of character, the cto . 
Bummnte skill with vliicli each ia sustained and developed, an. 
tlie nature, life, and spirit of the dialogue, abundantly prov - 
that if the drama hod been known in Chauccr*8 time ■• 

LscT. IX. 



brondi of Uring Uterabire, be miglit buve attained to as Iii^li 
excellence in comedy 08 anj- Eii^li.4li or Continental writ«r. 

The atory of a comedy is but a contrivajioe to bring Ili« 
chAiactora into contnct (ind relation with each other, and the 
invention of a 8iiita)>Ie plot is a matter altogether too simple to 
hare rrcatcd the slightest difllculty to a mind like Cli.-tuccr'8; 
Ue is essentially a dramatist, and if his great work dove not 
appear io the conventional dramatic form, it 18 an accident of 
the tiiii<*t and by no means proves a want of power of original 
conception or of artistic skill in th« author. 

Tliia J8 a point of interest in the history of modem literatnre, 
because it is prohably the first instanco of the exhibition of 
nnqiieHtionnhle dramatic genius in cilli«r the Gothic or the Ho* 
maiiec laiiguagcf*. [ do not mean that tliere had not previonsily 
existed, in inodei-ii Europe, anything like histrioni<; repreHOnla- 
tion of real or imafi'"'"'? ovi-nts; hut neither the Decameron of 
Boccaccio, to which the ('atiterbury Ta'us have been compurtxl, 
nor any of the Mysteries and Moralitien, or oUier ima^ative 
works of the Middle Ages, in which several pi'niont^^-s are 
introduced, show any such power of conceiving and sustaining 
individual character, 08 to prove that its author could liave fur- 
nigbed the pcrsonrwi of a respectahlw play. Chaucer, therefore, 
may fairly he said to be not only tlie earliest dramatic geniia of 
modern Europe, but to have been a dramatist before that which 
is technically known as the existing drama was invented." 

The tales related by the pilgiiina arc as various as the cha^ 
ractvTS of tho narrators, grave, gay, pathetic, humoroim, morale 
licentiouH, chivalric and viilgnr. Fvw of the stories — perhaps 
Done of them — ore orijiinal in invention, and some are litUo 
more than close traniilations from th« Latin oi the French i 

* Tlw Mcondfolnmetrf the Rdiqniie Antiqnvof Wright and IblllvvH rontaln* 
taorman written In ChaMTr'a ovm tiine Ofviiut 'BliiMcIo PU}*.' U i-'if mu- 
miltmbti! intrrnt. both from iti nibjciTt. aiul na a philolotfldil Bionunn nl, nnd I 
Ktl^oiii to Uiu It^ctnue coi>lous miaclj tnsa iL &m LoD|[«r NoUv aod !llu>L». 

■ ■ • 



LrOT. IX. 

but most, oeptcially those of « gayer cast, arc thorooglily im- 
bued vttli Ctinucer'ii spirit and vitb English DfitioEuJ humour; 
tbcy hftve been imimatt^d with anew life, iinrlall that oouiititutes 
their real literary value ia entirely tie poet's own. 

It is of coarse impoesible to give an anaiyds of any number 
of thcso felled, nnd nothing but the perusal of them can convey 
to tbfl student the la»«t idi:^ of thuir cxtruordinnry merit. 

There are, however, b(wid(« tlio gen«rul fi-nturcs to which I 
have alluded, Ronie tmitu which remnrkahly ditliiigii:sh nil the 
fatlev— with the exception of two or three profe-^edly didnctio 
in character — &oin most of Chaucer's imitative worltH. Tboy 
are pervaded with sn emiDciitly practicral, Jifp-Ulco tone, and a 
pithy EcntciitiousoeMi which, by the cxix-oding appositeneaa of 
tho seutimeut to the ciraiinstanoes detailed, is atrildiigly con- 
trast*.^ with the moral platitudes and exlinu-tted comraoDploces 
of the P'rench poeta he so often copies, and still more strongly di^ 
tJuguishcd from the ethical lessons with which coutomporaneous 
writers so freely sfirinklc their pagex, English morality has 
generally been ethics in action, not, in theory or proftssion, and 
Cliuue«r modified moat of his Canterbury Tale^ in accordance 
with this trait of the national eiiaracter. 

The tale which is most unmistakably marked with the 
peculiarities of Chaucer's genius, and is therefore tlie most 
ehnracteristic of the scriojs i» the Nonnc Prestos Tale. This ia 
a story of the carrj-ing off of a cock by a fox, and tho escape of 
the fowl from the devourer through t]je folly of Reynard in 
opwning his mouth to mock bis pursuers, in compliance witb the 
advice of his prey. These mere incidents arc certainly not of 
Chaucer's invention, and the naked plan of the tale has been 
thought to be borrowed from a French fa1>le of about forty 
lines, found in the poems of Mario of Franco ; but Chaiiei^r has 
extended it to more than «ix hundred verses, the part thus 
added consisting chiefly of a dialogue — for, ' at thilkc tyme,* 
* Bestis and briddea could speke and synge ' — on the waniingB 
conveyed by visions, between the cook, who bad been terrified 

Lect. IX. 



by a dream> and the pride of his harem, *&yre damyeel 
PcrtUotc,' whom he had w-aketl by snoring in the agonies of hia 
Dightmkre. In tbU discussion Partlut assitils ChEint]cl(»r with 
both riiiictde and argument, tryiug half to shume and half to 
reason him out of bia unmanly fearsi : — 

* Away I * quod tclic, ' fy on yow, hcrtcles I 

AUiuI' quod avIiK, *hr by that GikI above] 

Noir huve ye lust myu hat, und al my lovnf 

I caii Duughl love a cuward, by iny fcilL 

For c«nts, what so cay wvtutiian »«ith, 

We alls deaureo, if it nu{<hto be. 

To have hoiubondee. hardy, riche, and in, 

And M-cr^ nnd no nygard. no no fool, 

No him that in t^an of dvrry tool, 

Nv noon avnunUr, by that (lod abovel 

How dural ye xiyii, for Mhamu ! unto yotir lon^ 

That any thing might nuikft yow a^L-rd J 

Have ye no muutee hert, and ban a berdt ' 

She nacribcs his druam to * replecciouns,* quotes * Catouo, 
which that was ho wise a tasn,' as saying, ' ae do no force of 
dremes,' and recommends an energetic course of remedies: — 

Of laiiriol, ctntury aail fumytere. 

Or elks of vWvi hay, tiiHt growith thero^ 

Of catapuH, or of gaytre beriia, 

Of crbe yvo that groweth in our yeid. 

The cock, in his rvply, ((ucstions the authority of Cato, and 
shows much reading, ()uotin); freely from legendary and classic 
lore. He pities the womanly ignorance of his feathered epouse, 
»ad, apropos of the legend of * Seint Kenclni,' says i — 

' I hadd« IoT«r than my Rhol^ 
That ye had rnd hi* Ii.%end, m hare ^ 
Same I'crtclot, I wy yow twvrcly, 
HacrobiuK, timt writ the avinoun 
In AiifTrtk of the worthy Ciptouu, 
AfTurtiic-th dreme*, and sallh tliat ihay bees 
Waniyng of tliiugui that men after bobq. 

422 Jam Miasm raetis iau i^et. IZ. 

And (brtbermore, I pn.y tow loketh wd 

la the Olde Teatameat, of Daniel, 

If he huld dremes eajr ranrt^; 

Rede eek of Joae[^, and ther achal ye aee 

Whetbir dremes b«D Bom tyme (I say nought alia) 

WamTng of thinges that schul after &0e, 

Lok of E^pt the king, dann Phaxao, 

His baker and hu botiler alao, 

Whethir thay felte noon effect in dremii.' 

He DOW tries to recover the ^ood graces of hia &raaiite 
•ultaaa by & method familiar to beopecked husbands, pencMwl 
flattery: — 

* Whan I ee the beant^ of yoor &e», 
Te ben so scaiiet hiew about your eyghen. 
It makith al my drede for to deyghen-* 

But, by way of quiet retaliation for Fartlet'e sarcasms, he eitea « 
LAtin proverbial saying: Mulier fst hominis amfitsiOf which 
he turns into a compliment by this tran^ilation: — 

' Madame, the sentence of this I^tyn is : 
Womman in mannes joye and mannes blin* 

fleigh donn fro the beem 
For it waa day, and eek his hennes alio. 
• > > • 

He lokith aa it nere a grim lioiln ; 
And oD his toon he rometh up and doon 
Him dcynod not to eet his foot to gronnde. 
He cliulcklih, wluin he hath a com i-found^ 
And to him rennen than his wifes alle. 

The fox seizes him while he is crowing, and the conclonoB oJ 
the talc is as follows; — 

Now, goods men, I pray herkneth alle ; 
Lo, how fortune torceth Eodeinly 
The hope and pride eek of her enemy. 
This cok that lay upon this foxes bak, 
Ib al his drede, unto the fox he spak. 

Uet. IX. 



jLni mi'lc, ' nrn, if that I wurc iia ye. 

Yet MlitiJd I suvn, (un iris Gutl holpi- me); 

' Tiimctli iigriii, j'« jjrouile tlitrli's all« [ 

A Tvrruy jjcaiilma upuii juw iiill«. 

Now ani I come unto thU vrooJca nyde, 

Haugri youre liede, tlie cok kIioI li«er abydei 

I wol liiia ele in faith, and tbat uiooii.' 

^e fox answered, ' In fiiilh, it bo doon.' 

And oLil Lo s|iak thut word, al wdcinly 

TlU8 ook brak from liis mouili dolTrerly, 

And heigh upon a tree ho fletgh nnooo. 

And whan the fox noigh that )ie wn« i-gooo, 

*AIIit»l' qnnd he, 'a Clinunt^clorc, alliuil 

1 have to yow,' quod he, ' y-don trcKpoN, 

lonsmochc m 1 makid you nf^^d, 

Whoji I yow hcnl, and hronglic out of tho ycrd| 

But, wru, 1 dudi: it iti no Yrick('<) nnU-nt; 

Com doun, and I wihul tciln vow wliut I menL 

I aohal aay svtli to yow, Gnd liclp mu ao.' 

•Ksy than,' quod be, ' I nchicw ua bmbe tuo, 

And fini I ticiirew myneir, bL>Lh<! bloitd uud boonti^ 

If thou bife'ile we auy clkr ibuu oi'Uea. 

Thoa tcbait uo iiiuro thui-^jb tliy lluterye. 

Do me to ^ytige and wyiiki.- wiiL uiyn ye. 

For ho thai wynkiih. wbau lie scholde eeo, 

AI wilfidly, God let him Derer the I' 

* Nay,' quod Iha fox, ' but God him giro tncschnunce. 

That in ao nndiacrot of goTcmatince, 

That jauglcth, whcQ ho acholdo holdo hia pcoa.' 

The Knightes Talc, or tti« Story of Ptdamoa and Arcitc, ia a 
farourable instaDoe of Chaucer's nianoer of dealing with thi- 
fables he borrowed from Romance authors. The Knight'ii Talu 
is an abridjrc^ translation of a part of Boocaecio's Teseide, but 
vith coiieidcTtiblu chnn^es in the plan, which is, perhnpe, not 
much improved, nod with important additions iu the dcsoriptice 
uud the more iniaginati w portionn of the atory. Thwi; addiliooa 
are not inferior to the tineot parl^t of Boccaccio's work, and ons 
of them, the description of the Temple of itaiB, is particularly 
iaterestisg, aa proving that Chaucer puESt^sscd a pover of 



UcT. IX. 

treating the grand and terrible, of which do racdem poet but 
Dante had jei given an example. The poet here intennixes 
the comic n'ilh the tragic, as itctiinl life, and tifc'u gri-at inter- 
preter, Sluikc^puarc, ko oOvn tio. Mature smilvM through her 
tean. Iitolated evenU, it is true, ar« frequeull; ittamited with 
uanntig»t«d sadness, liut human life, as a whole, whether 
individual or general, is iuterspereed with hidicrous scenoA. 

There is some confunon between the description of the 
edifice it»olf, and of Uio i^intlng* upi>n the walifi of it; htit It 
•eenu to Itave lieen a represeotatinn, at Thebt-s, of a temple 
of Ihlore in lliraee, with its decorations^ One feature of the 
construction of the temple is very striking, as showing the 
gliiwtly character of the light by which the darkness of it« 
iatetior wa« made visible : 

The DOftliea light in at the don ulioa, 
For WTHdow in the valle dq wa« there aooa, 
Thonigh which moo might do light disceme. 

I 8uppo8« the ' northern light' is the ntirora borcalis, but this 
phenomenon is ho rarely mentioned by nicJittval writcre, that 
it may be questioned whetht^r Chauct^r meant anything moro 
than the faint and cold illuminntion rcoMved by reSecUon 
tiirotigh the duor of iiu ajiartmcnt fronting the north. 

The views which the {joets of closaic antiquity and those of the 
middle ages took of nature, were modi6ed and limited partly 
by the character of their knowledge of pliysical law, and partly 
by the actual connection between natural phenomena uid the 
proctiail interests of human life. Celestial and meteoric ap* 
pearanci^ which neither affected the temperature of the atmo- 
sphere and the dii>tributioit of ruin and mow, nor were regarded 
us explicable by known l.iw, or as posscesing an astrological 
significance capable of tut«rpretatton, appear to have attracted 
■very little attention. In like manner, terrestrial objects, which 
wore not sources of danger or of profit, which neither helped 
nor hindered mit^-rial inttirests, did not in general excite interest 
enough to stimulate to the closeness of observation which ta 

1,1CT. }X. 



necessary to bring out the latcat poeti; that 1!cs litd under 
Kature'a rudt«t siirfhcc^ Igiiomnce of geography and of his- 
tory nmotliLTtid tbo coiniiopulite oliuity which ages of wider 
icstTuctioi) and culture have shown, and it if nol straa.:^c that 
tho Greeks, who regarded every foreipicr as a, Ltu-bariau, 
eutitlad to none of the privik-gcM of Hclleriic huinouity, should 
have felt no Bymp;ithy witli thosu humliUi cn-utiirtis which men 
too fiultishly cuimiditr as at all times subji-ct to their irrespon- 
«iblti dominion, an<l as without individaal rights and int«TieBts 
of their own. It is difficult to suppose euch chans''* 'n plij-sical 
law as the non-appcaraucc of tlie aurora buruili)', during the 
many ccuturies which have left no record of this striking 
phenomenon, would imply; but wbea we remember that the 
poetry of Greece and of Rome contains only tbo fewest, faiutest, 
and most questionable allusions to the phosphoric Eparkltog of 
the sea, we may well bclnrvelbftt those who bad a hundred timwi 
witnessed tlit:- coruacution of the northern lights, Uiought it a 
meteor too unrelated to the life of man to be worthy of poetio 

Every student of Chaucer, in reading the Squ^ens Talfl^ 
will share the of Milton, that we could — 

Call up him who Ml hnlf told 

Tho Ktory of Camlitiscim bold, 

Ol' CiimluU, and of AlgiirMftt, 

And irho hud Ouiiut.'*: to wife, * 

Tliai owuM the virtuous ring of f^ait, 

And of ilio wondrous bonw of hraM 

On which tho Tartar Ling did ride. 
This most admirable talv, which ui unfortunately unliniRhed, 
is the wildest and the uio:«t romantic ol' Chaucer's works. The 
origin of the fahie has not been discovered, un<l it hiia been 
argued that it must have been dptwn from an Orlontal 80urco; 
not bccautte any analogon to it is known to exist in Kastern 
literature, but beeause it is too littlu in hBrinony with the 
character of European invention to be supposed of Occidental 
growth. However this may be, the Boene and acceasories of the 


story do Dot belong to the sphere of Orieatal fiction, and the 
followiDg speculations of the bystanders on the myeterions pro- 
perties of the brazen horse and the magic mirror, sword and 
ring, (AQ hardly be other than the work of Chaucer, if not ia 
■ubstance, at least in form and tone : 

Greet was the pres that Bwarmed to and &o 

To gaurea on tliis hon that sConiielh so ; 

For it ijo higli was, aad so brod and long, 

So wd proporcioDed to be strong, 

Right as it were a stued of Liunbai'dye ; 

Therlo so borsly, and so quyk of ye, 

A» if a gL'Miil Poyleys courser were } 

For certed, fro hia tayl unto his ecre 

Nature ne art nc oiuthe him Douglit amende 

In no dtgre, as al the puepel wende. 

But cvci-moie Iter moijte wonder wan, 

How that it coutUt! f;oon, and was of bras; 

It was of fayry, as tlio poeple scmed, 

DiviTso pople divcrsly they demcdj 

As maay hedcs, as many wittes been. 

They murmured, as doth a swann of bec% 

And made skiles after her fonla^es, 

EebtvHyng of the olde poetries, 

And sfiydfn it was i-Jike the Pngas6, 

The bars tliat liadde ivyiigi's for to Jlc, 

Or elles it was the Grckissch hora SynOD, 

That broughte Troye to dostiuccioun, 

As men may in the olde gcstes ri;de. 

*Myn hert,' quod oon, ' is evermore in dredc^ 

I trow som men of nrmes ben tlierinne. 

That Kcliapi'n hem this cite for lo wynne ; 

It were good that such thing were knowe.' 

AnotlitT rowncd to his fclaw lowe. 

And sayde: ' It lyth, for it ia rather lik 

An apparencc maud liy some magik, 

As jogeloura pkycn at this festes grete.' 

Of sondt'y tliuughtes thus they jaugle and tret^ 

As lewed peple demeth comunly 

Of tliingcH that bea maad more subtilf 


ThsD they can in ber lewcdnes comprchende) 
They decmen gladly to the badder ende. 
And som of hem wondred un the miirour, 
That bom was up into the maihter toiir, 
How men micrht is it suche (hinges se. 
Another answerd, and sayd, it might wel bv 
Natureily by composiciouns 
Of angels, and of heigh reflexiouoa; * 
And HByde that in Rome was audi ood. 
They epeeke of Alhazen and Vitilyon, 
And Aristotle, that writen in her lyrea 
Of queynte myrroura and proBpectyree, 
As knowen they that han her bokea herd. 
And otlier folk have wondred on the Bwerd^ 
That woldc passe thorughout everything; 
And fel in speche of Telophns the kyng, 
And of Achilles for his queynte spere, 
For he coutbe with it botho hele and dere, 
Right in such wise aa men may with the BweH, 
Of which right now ye have your selven herd. 
They speeken of sondry hardyng of metal, ' 
And spckcn of medicines therwithal, 
And how and whan it schulde harded be, 
Which is unknowe algat unto me. 
Tho apecken they of Canacees ryng, 
And eeyden ullu, that such a wonder thing 
Of craft of rynges herd they never noon, 
Sauf that he Moyses and kyng Salomon 

* This reaaODing remiivla one (tf the popular eiplanation of tabls-tnming ud 
ether kindred mysteries. PersonB who cannot detect Uie Uick, and are afraid of 
being suapect^d of a Buperatitioua belief in the snpernatural character of the 
phpnomenon. if thej honeetlj confess tbeir inabilitj to solve tlie problem, 
take refuge in 'Kience,' and ascribe the alleged &cta to tUetricity, tbongh the 
knoo-a poirera of th&t agent are as inadequate to furnish a rationale of the eztn- 
oi'dinaiy gTrations and saltations which bevitcbed lAbles, chain a&d other hom^ 
hold gear are sffinned to execute, u are 

' compoaidoun* 
Of angels [angles], and Leigh reflezionnii' 

to explain the properties of the Tartar's magic minor. 

Men love to cheat tbemselves with bard words, and indolence ofttm aecepla IIm 
tamt of a pbcDomeDon la a substituto for the rciaott of it. 


Haidden a a»iov of connynt; in nidi art. 
11iu« aeyvn ihc pqile, and drowcn h«iD apart. 
Bat tiaUialn mid tadea Uut it wna 
Wonilcr thing to maku of fume •uvdicn gta^ 
And yit is gks nought lilet^ aitMcbco of fcroa^ 
But fur they ban i-knawvn it m> lerac; 
Therfor oetaK-tfa licr janjjIynfT aod livr vrimdor. 
As Mn> WDii^IfMl torn tk vKum o( tlioador, 
On pbbe sad flood, on ge>m>mtr. and ou inj'Bt, 
And on all* thing, & tiiai tiK cuum u wiaU 
Tliiu juif^en th«/, and demen and d«vyM^ 
Til that tlw kyng gan fro bu bord arii*. 

LixT. U*. 

Two oth«r tal«fl are inreAled with a good deal of critical 
tntcrect, by the &cC that they are generftlly supposed to have 
been taken, thougli with important modiiicatiotu, from Gower'a 
Coofeasio Atmtutia, wbich in bviiurod to bavo bc-cn published 
while Chaucer was engitged upon the CaDtcirbury Talcs. Bat 
Gower appq^rs to have invented nothing, and as not only the 
incidents but the plots of both tales arc found in more ancient 
forniH, it is moru probable that the two poeta borrowed them 
from a counion source than that one of tJiem, even before the 
days of copyright, ebould, without acknowledgement, have pla- 
giarized from a friend and contemporary of his own natioD. 
Either would, no doubt, have matlo free use of foreign authors, 
and of Ihoce [Mpular Icgemis wliich hud for ccn(urie» floated 
about the world, and were fairly to be re^rded as nuUiusjiliit 
common property, to which poteeision was a trufficient title ; bat 
Chaucer cannot be convicted of • conveying' anything that was 
rightfully Gowor's, without stronger oridenco than the reaeni- 
blunoe botween these stories. Indeed fhero is, in Gower'ft dic- 
tion, vome inturnnl evidence that the story of Constance is a 
trauidation from tlie French, such, fcir example, aa the use of 
enviroune as an adverb, in the French sense of nearly^ 
abouti aa: 

Within a ten aula eRi>troun«^ 

UcT. IX. 



vithtn about ten milc».' OUier instaoccs to tbe same purpoas 

might be cited ; but when ire consider the intimate relations of 

I tlie two langua^N, and the tiucvrtniutj (>F the boiiniJariF' tititwcn 

[them at Uiat periot), it must be admitted that such evidence i$ 

• vorth littJe. 

The leadinji incidents of tie stories are the same in both 
•utboTS, but in Chaucer's version^ have, in geoera), more minute- 
I ness of detail, though it is obserT^tble that where Oower is the 
binoeb circumstantial, Chaucer i» the mo(*t concise; and in bis 
treatment of th« tales there are many pawago*, where there is 
an appL'nraiice of artificial condenstation and ubridgctnent of tbe 
^JUnatire aft related by Gowcr, and a studied neglect of circum- 
stances not wholly uninteresting in themselves, but, at the 
same time, not essential to the conduct of the story. 

Gowcr's work had been recently published, and was fresh in 
the memory of those for whom Chaucer vns writing ; hence it 
is highly probable that these variations were introduced for tlie 
espr«es purpose of ^ving a new tone and character to histories, 
the leading circumBtances of which were already familiar. A 
vtanza in Chaucer's reraion of the Mau of Lawt« Talc, or the 
History of Constance, is particularly curious, because, as some 
of Chaucer's critics have suggi'«tcd, it is evidently designed as a 
criticism upon Gower'a treatment of an inddent in the story. 
In both narratives. King Alia, a Saxon king, visiting Rome as 
a pilgrim, invites the Emperor of Rome to dine with him. In 
Gowor, Morioe, the son of King Alia, is seat to an imperial 
country residence, to deliver the invitation. Qower thua ex- 
presses this : — 

This emperonr out of tlie town^ 
Wilhin a Ion mile ijnviroune, 
Whori^ n* ii liioiight him for ihe beiita 
Uath jmndty pliw't-ji Igr to resle, 

* Btrlrmm i» atix) !a tho moan my in t^ia Lib«l of EnglUli Polity, ■ pofm cC 
•}>■ feUowing MDtuTv, wliich will bo notiml hcnnfUr, tni br LjJgate, but I bm 
I «1«w*m1 it in od; work cC Qowu'b tune. 


AnA aa fortune woldc it tho 
He was dwpllcnd at one of tho, 
Tiie King A)lee forth with tliasseni 
Of CuBte hi? wife hath thidcr sent 
Morice hit pane, as he was taught, 
To the emperoitr, and he goth stTaugbt 
And in hi? fiulcr hnlve ho sought 
Ab he, whiche hia lordship sought, 
That of his highe worthinesse 
He wolde do bo greet inekenease, 
His Dwne town to come and ee. 
And yive n time in the citee, 
So that hie fader might him gete, 
That he wolde ones with him ete. 

TliiB did not suit Chaucer's more conrtly nottone of the 
respect and Jefercnt-e due from even ii king to so exaUed nnd 
saured a personage as the Emin'ior of Rome, and he makes King 
Alia present the invitation in person, cenoiiring at tlie same time 
Gower'f version of the atorv, thus: 

Som men wold seje, how thiit tiis child Maorioe 

Diitli liis message unto the eniperoar: 

Bdt, ns I gessi', Alia wiia not so nyce, 

To him 1h;it ia ^o soverajn of honoar, 

As lio that is nf Crintoa folk the flour, 

Sent en; oliilil, bai it is best to deome 

He nent himsilf, and so it may wel seme. . 

Tliere is, upon the whole, no doubt that Chaucer's is the later 
production, and, though it is a more finished performance than 
that of Gower, it is somewhat injured by tho intentional omis- 
sion of circnmstances which are used not witliont effect in 
Gower's vci-sion, but which Chancer may have dropped, in order 
that tho coincidence between the two might not be too close. 

The other nurralive which has been thought to be borrowed 
from the Confessio Amantis, is tlie Wyf of Bathes Tale. The 
dialect of this story, as given by Gower, varies considerably from 
that of the rest of his poem, ns it is older in structure, and con- 
tains several obsrlete words which Gower does not elsewhera 

Lect. IX. 



employ. It is tlien-forc, in nil probaMlity, an adnptntion of a 
more anciviit liile, in nhich tho incidenl-t, aoA in part the lan- 
gutigt-, are preserved. In Cliaucer's vendon there is the snme 
manifest intention of departing from Gower aa in the stot; of 
Conotanoe, and it is in this talc that he enforces, in tbc person of 
tbe old dame, tbe opinions concerning the true te«t of gvntlc 
nmk, which he bad formerly int«q>obited into hit translulioo of 
the Romaunt of the Ro»e. No such opiniom are exprectcd bj 
Gower, or, so far as I know, by any older English or Freneli 
author, and they arc no doubt Chaucer's own.* 

Gower wa;! n CO nttrmporary of the author of Piers Ploughman, 
and of Wycliffo as well as of CJiaiiccr. He is known to English 
rcadvK by tJie long poem styled the Confesaio Amantis, or 
Lover's Confession. Tbe reputation of Gower, which was, loi a 
long time, above hi? merits, seetns to be in some mcasiiro due 
to his connection with Chaucer, though he did not entertain 

A nmatkalil* fom of n(|irouion, which nmir* In tnwSOSSof tiirRnniaiuit 
Ktf tbf Ktae, tod whifb I da not manabcr lo liara olwrrcd olKwbtn in Cluuioo'a 
'Mrkt, d«wtTei ipwikl notio* — 

• S*7 boldrlv thj irin ' (ifiod ht} 

* 1 nil) >>• WTolli, if lliBt 1 m*j. 
For nangjtt that (hon ihntt t» nw mj.* 

I MMniaK of tbe phnsti ' if ihal I majr,' bcr* ii : if I «an vBt-ir vroih ; if I 

I rc(r«is from being vroth. I flad en analoj^xn phru> ia Pnul Lou'm Ccwi«c, 
I PampMii* IWligyua, ffeorndt T^ttre ParttrvUfrr : *Too*i>#*.iii>nrien Mtt« 
IfDii; paa an mot. utillo iioiitvlt*; pour rout panlr. /f timr ne tohj rUndirt, 
^MJtpuU-' 1 will luAMtjea anything'. If ( <-«n * (Scr paffB «3.1 

In kU tb«<R paaHS«a, Uui det«TmUiatioii, ia thomiDil nf tbct ii|r«iah<!T. oof- fvrfff 
tlM tKinji; in ^nlian, cor ia rtfiun {torn ii, U mnmvol 1q bs ao rtronir. Hint it hu 
MMtd to b« a n«ra M^tioo, and bn aaaumed tlw form «1 ■ pniMtiiioc Icgiullj 

lu Chancw, tb« oaaiMCmt nfgalivB rtrh, nilt, fin* th* npranicai a botq 
v^ich Coiiii«r muld not attain to ; for in Inngniittra nitnv a oqiniir* rrabal torn 
«Stib, tho attics it morn •R'ntoltc llikii wlivn a arpanite pntticl* ia mri, Tlia 
l^in nolo, tha Kngliih t nill, are a ippciL-s et affinnalin, whidi infaim man 
Uian BOB Tolo,/ avf/ nol — tho obitticn of a TOliUnn — and, on tl)«MMm7. 
inpUM n rtrann ToliUon in tho OffMuita dircclioo. Conricr Mt tliM and tlm*. 
bn W dora not nK tba nof^ro nrb, jt tin tivx, but bo [iitli Ui« t'lftt-rt'^ «t 
tall ia an afinnallrc fima: j* mux, and connocta tlio nigniiT* «iUi tho •cii 



later. IX. 

the views of reform which Chnticvr sluirnl vtth the other great 
writers of that ccnlnry vhom wo linvc just nsmbcl. His literary 
inffriyritj Is perhaps to be ascribed to the veiy fact (hat ho 
(Uil not posses the maolj independence and monU couru;^ of 
Wyclifle and of Chaucer, and wus unable to shake olT tlia 
feeling of doforence to tmditiona) niitborit;, which in all &get 
liAS proved no gecerall; fatal to originality in prodiictiirs intal- 
lectual effort 

Many of Cover's works are in Latin, and tlie only one which 
is genemllf accecsiblo is the Confessio Amantiii, an Kngliith 
poem, written, as the author doclares, at the request of King 
lUchartl II. In a prouin which was Eiippr(!Sfed in the copie* 
issued after Hichard'a dopoL*it{»n, he thus states the motive and 
occasion of tJte compneition of this work : 

I (bcnVe sad liavo It trndetstoDdSi 
Aa it befi'll upon a tide. 
As ihtug, which abuJdc tlw beitd% 
Under tho town of newc Troy, 
Wliich lokc of Brute Iiin finte jcf. 
In Theinte, whaa it was llowcn^ 
Aft I hy bole caiuQ rowend, 
80 3A fortimo 1i«T time bcIio, 
Jty If'g" 'nrrf pcrcluiiinoe 1 mettS, 
And »o licfoll M I cnme nigh, 
Out of my txwla, whnn ho nto sj^ 
Ho Ind nM! come into hi* barge 
And wtian I wm iviih liiin at lor^ 
AniOQgM otlier llnngcs nid, 
Ho hall) tliiit charge upon mo laldt 
And bad inc do my bcnncas^ 
Tlint (o his liighe wortliynciM 
Some nave thing I olmlde boln. 
That ho hinmJr it mighto loke 
After ibo formn cf my writing. 

The language of this last couplet would scotn to Imply that^ 
though we have Kroissart's testimony to the fact that the Kin;-' 
knew French, he was igDorsnt of Latin, and desired to bare 

LiCT. IX. 



eomotbing from tha p(^ of Gower, nbicb he oouM read hj 
biiDfietf, without the aid of an interpreter. He reeolTed to 
comply with tho royal command, and, because 

men am, and mthe it ia, 
That vtbo that al or wisdom writ, 
It dutieth otio !t mariDcii wit, 
To hem tbat nhall it aldny roJc, 

to produce sometliing of a less grave and aeveta cast than hu 
fonoer works ; to — 

go the middd wey. 
And write a bolc« becw^isQ the twqr, 

Smtmrhut of lust, MMncwhst of bra. 

« • • • 

And for tliat fciru men cnditr. 
In ourv m^li»}ip, I ihenkc iniik* 
A bokc fur King Ilictutrdeii nlcBa 
• ■ • • 

To mak'! a bokc afler liis heiite, 
And writ* in such a inauer wise, 
Which may be w!»doiiie to the ynte, 
And plaj to hem that Ijvt to play. 

The tiUe of the poem, The Lorer'a Confession, indicates ita 
general subject, which Is a consultation, in tho form of a con- 
fession, between an tinsuocessftil lover and an expcrivncod 
counsellor. The prologue ia devoted to an ezponire of the 
evils of the time, in which the schisni in the church ia alluded 
to, as the «au8c of the eocial wrongs of this ag(^ and of the cor- 
ruptions of the clergy, tncluding, of coitrae^ 

TliJa newe socte of loUardie. 

Tlie prologue is much superior to the rctit of the work, tliough 
certainly not veiy appropriate to the poem. The author seems 
to have written it with tho view of covertly giving tlio king 
some uHcful Kiigg6Stion», by pointing out existing abuj««, and 
hinting: at the remedy. He speaks of himself and hia general 
purpose thoB : 

r f 




tan. IX. 



Tbo ynw vertiie wt abovt^ 
And vice wim put nud«r Tot*. 
Now slant llie cra]>e uoder the K>t% 
Tbc wnrldc ia cbaiingvd ovei'aU, 
And ih«n>r moHlo i» xpectall 
That lovo is rklle inUi dlacorde. 
And that 1 tnk« lo rccorde 
Of evcrjr kind for liU partio 
Tli« cocnun volit, wliicli may nonghc Iw, 
Noi^t upon one, hilt upon allc. 
It la that mea now clrpc and cillo 
And min, lliut rt^us lien derided, 
la Ked« of love ia hnle guided, 
Tbe wem wvl no pee* porcliaicc, 
And lawe tiatb Ukv Icr double £ic^ 
So that jU8llo« out of the we/ 
With riglilvruii«Me U f^ne awey. 
And ihu* to loke on ctwj ha\t^ 
Men B«i« the »i>re witliout mire. 
Whicha fti tbc woride linlh ovecbiks. 
Tner is no regnc of atle out lake, 
For creiy dtmat bulb hU detc 
AAar the toraioge of tint wbt'le^ 
Which hlinde fortune ov«ttIirowelI>, 
Whttrof the certnio no nuui kDOweib, 
The hvwi wot what is to done. 

At tlie commencement of tlio action, tlie auUior, hk ths 

character of a dc«piuring lorer, wnndcrH alone in a foreni, and 

^offers a prayer to Venus, who maJtea ht-r appearauce and n;ffr« 

the suppliant to her priest, for counsej and consolation. After 

AD ezbortation from this father confessor, th« pvtittcnt begiiu 

^bis shrift, which is chit-Sy in the form of answera to (jui^tjoaa, 

Vcous's prieet being ovidcntly purtial to the Socntrio netJiod of 

nrntiinent. The counsels and comforts of the confessor consist 

principally of narrntircH, from ancirut aa well as mediffiral 

[legendary lore, which have generally little application to the 

limmediate subject. Thcso arc maiuly, if not aitogetlier, tran»- 

jhtion^ or rather mctxicul paraphnucs, from dassical as well as 


— '-J^ 



I.xcr. IX. 

later T^tin anthoni, and are executed with rery moderate skni, 
whether coDsidcTOd aa versioDs or ao adnptatjons. Of original 
inui^inativv power, the poctn hIiowm not the slightest tnoc, aod 
its prioeipfd iiiorit lie* in the sfnteotioiis pKasngn, vhich .ire 
bere and there interspersed, and which, whether borrowed or 
original, are often pithy and striluD^, In bi^ earlier worlca, 
Gower had cmplojod Lattti imd French altoj^cthcr. It is 
(Trncrnlly nippo»ed that he adopted Englivh as the language of 
the Ooi>f{'»sio Anmritis in consequenoeof theBuciseasof Chaupor'e 
poeniii ill llie veniaciilar ; but I think the lines I have alrt-a<ly 
quoted authorise us to tielicTe that KngtUh was selected in com- 
pliance with the wiab of the monarch, at whose request the 
work was undertaken. 

Of Gowei's principal Freneh work, the Speculam Mc<di- 
taatia> no copy is known to iie in existence, but there axe 
extant about fifty French amatory ballads composed by him ia 
imitation of Provenzul models, but which seem to exhibit oo 
special merit In invention or in style. 

In one of these, he apologiseB for hia want of command of 
French, as an Englishman, and it is remarkable that, if he waa 
conscious of any deficiency in tliis rcapi.-ct, hu should not have 
resorted to English until a late pi^riod of his life." It i^ not 
improl>ablo, »# has been oft^i augiKested, that certain pn^-iiges 
in the prologue to Chaucer's prose Testament of Ixirc, con- 
demning the use of French by uutiTc English writeis, may 
have boon aimed at Gower. ' There ben some,' says he, ' that 
kjk-Vk tlii^ir poysy niater in Frenche, of wliyclio speche the 
Frenche men have as good a fautasye, as we have in hearing of 
Frenche mennes Knglj'sebe.' ' Let then clerks endyten is 

J«hsB OawcrcfMP balndo «nve(«^ 
Et ^ JM nsi d« fnnvni* !■ fitrondck 
FftrdonclE nini qe j<m do MC forBTde> 
Jca mi EogloU n quier par tltli* tou 
Eitro exciuo nab quaicjuc nulls ciidl*^ 
bmonr ptrft en dun m jtulitta. 

lect. n< 



Latjn, for ihey Iiave the propertye of science, and the knowinge 
in that fucultyc; and Icttc Frfut'linicn in tJioyr Frcnclic silso 
cndyte theyr ([weyat termea, for it is kyndly to tlicyr mouthcs; 
and let us elieve our fuDtasyes in suche wordes as we lerned ot 
our dames touge." 

Gower certainly survived Clittuccr, but was probably bom 
before him. Hi« Etigllili i* pliiloto^lcally older, both in voca- 
bulary and iu gratiiuiatical «tructui-t.-, than (hat of Obuucer, 
though younger in both respects than the dialect of Piers 
Ploughman. Pauli ascribes his frequent use of Fi-ench words 
to bi)i habit of composing in that language, bot his vocabulary 
dots not differ i-ssvutially in thU respect from those of Lang- 
lande, (Jhaucer, and other authors of their time ; and I see no 
reason for believing that his dialect was more afiected by 
Bomance iuSucnccs than the common written language of the 
age in which he Iiv4»l. 

The metre of the Confe«aio Amantis i» the octosyllabic, of 
four iambuses, besides the HUperfluous f^llable which often 
makes what is called a feminine rhyme In point of rhythm 
and metro, Gower's versification is smooth, though less melo- 
dious than that of Chaucvr, and bts rhymes are inartificial, the 
same word, or the same entire syllable, being repeated for the 
eonsonancej without scruple. This peculiarity is also observable 
in bis French ballads. The conjugation of the verb is varied 
to stilt tho convcniouco of the poet, with little regard to the 
Suon distinction of strong and weak inflection, or to what 
appear* to have been the common u»^ of bis ugv. H« al«o 
confounds the affirmative particles yea and yea, at least acsmrd- 

* Thii pBMnga >ni| Uiut lirflvj rvfcmil to nro not the tmljr onta tn vhieh 
Oiuuirr appears to cciuurr Iiii Irilh^r poet; for the rondcinnatiMi ba p»>ca, in 
lbs pnloguo ui tkr Hrui of Laira Tile, on tbs immoniliQr of the ttariHtitt C»a»e* 
and of ApoUaaiu* nf Tjt*, tvith of which im found in the CDnfmio Aiiritnllii. It 
BDdMM«iMt by TyntiiMtui other critic* U hura b«n dddgntd to >i{>i-t> tu liovir. 
It it mach (o be laiii«ai*d tlisiChsucar himM-lf thoald h«v« jMlhii"! hivowa 
gTMteit work with niali vboddag ^vnomh mhI licwiUw B iif m nun; of hi* talca 


tug (<> pAiiirs test; but tliiii mny he the fiuilt of editdra and 
pnRt<;nt, fur In Oowor'ii time no KngUith idiom was better esta- 
blished than tbiji distinction. In fact, tboiigb not without 
power tta a sententious thinker, Gower givefl little eridcnoe of 
nrtiittic skill, or of the possession of any of the higher attribute* 
of (be poet. 

Pbiloiogimll^ trpciikiiig, Gou'cr Is, ok I have alrcad; rfmarked, 
older than Cliaucer, choujjh his first English work was not coni- 
poeed until the reputation of Chaucer, aa a great original and 
antional poet, waa ostabliHhod. The different, however, io 
thiH ri-flpect, is in do^rra rnlhiT tbnn in kind, and ns it conxuts 
mora in the tone, and in u negative want of Uie life and frc«h- 
tl«M and accuracy of Chaucer's lOn^lish, it ia not easy to specify 
its pcculiaHtiea. I may however mention, in addition to tba 
irregularity in verbal inflection alrendy noticed, the mora fre- 
quent wte of the participial termination in -«i(/, which marks 
the true distinction bcttvcen the pri'sent participle and the 
verl>al noun in -in^ — u disUnctioa, which, as waa obstTved io a 
former lecture, hocamo obeolato in English in the latter p:u-t of 
the fourteenth century, ttiougli kept up long aftenrards in the 
Scottisl) diittf^s^. There are, ao far as I have W-en oblo to 
obserre, no improvements of diction or style in Gower, which 
liad not been as well, or better, exemplified by Chaucer; and in 
these particulars Uic latter must be considered the master of 
the former. Skeltou and thoee who have copied him are ibere- 
fora in error in saying that — * Gowor first givnislti.'d our;lisb rude,' for most of Chaucer's work* are older than the 
(V>nft-i«io Amnnlis, and Gower himself make* Venua etyU 
Chaucer ' her poet,' and say that — 

in U)« Itoures of his youths 
In mmdry wbe, as he well couth, 
Of dJttees and of mages glnde, 
The which Ii« for my sake mada^ 
Tbo kwd fiillillod is otct oU. 

Thia, of course, implies that Chaucer** pocma had ilreadT 

LuT. IX. 



Kcqiitred » mile circulation before Qower vrote in Englisli 
verso at alJ. 

Tbe ConfeRsio Amaiitifi, then, did not directly aid tn enlargin<> 
the vocabulary or improving the syntax of English ; aod it did 
not introduce now metrical forms or enrich tite poetical diction. 
But it wan useful in diffusing a knowledge of flic new litfirwy 
tongu«, in Ehmiliariiiing the Eiigliah speech as a written lan- 
guage to those whosfe proper heritage it was — hut who had Ir^c'u 
taught alien accents by a foreign nitree — thiia giving to it its 
just and lawful predominance in th^ land wh<-rc it was crndlud, 
and had now grown to a xtrong and luxuriant adolescence. 

Gower wns rather an imitator of Chaucer than the creator of 
his own literary style ; bat his works, as being of a liighcr moral 
tone, or at least of higher moral pretcnaions, and at the samo 
time, of less artificial refinement, were calculated to reach and 
influence a eomewbat larger class than that wbicb would be 
attracted by the poems of Chaucer, und, ooDKc<]itcntIy, they 
•vem to luivtf had n wider circulation. The name of Chaucer 
does not, I Ik-HcvCi occur in the works of Shakespeare; but the 
play of Pcricic* — which, though it« ttuthondiip is disputed, was 
published in £?balce»penre'ti own time as a work of hU cnmpo* 
sition — is avowedly formed on the stoiy of Apolliniisi, Prince of 
Tyr^ in the Confessio Amantis; and Gower himself U intro- 
duced by name into the play, aud performs the office of tho 
chorus of the ancient drama. There is no doubt that the poem 
of Gower, however inferior to the works of his master, was much 
esteemed in hi^ lifetime, nnd still eujoycd a bigfa n-putntion 
in ages when Chaucer was almost forgotten. Hut pneterity has 
reveiced the judgement of its immediate predecesstirs, and tliougb 
Gower will long be read, ho will never a<;ain dispute the palm 
of excoltcoce with the true father of English literature. 

In taking leave of the great authortt of the fourteenth centoiy, 
I ought perhaps to apologise for devoting so large a portion of 
this brief coarse to the dialect and the literature of that period 
But I am coDvinced that the tmportaDce of Langlsndc and 

440 sixxvscnnn 

L«r. IX. 

Wycliff« and Chancer to all subsequont En^fluh pitilology and 
tntelleclital cflurt, tbou(;li loug vagui-ly retogalsei, is not yet 
apprecii\t<td wid uodentood. Nor mIiuII w« be ubio to cslitnalo 
thi'ir relative place and just sigoilicaDCtt in niir liu^rarjr liistoty, 
until Htill moK of tbe forgotten aulhonibip of ibat and tbe 
pro(;«tiDg centuries sbftll be brought to light, aii<l liogiiiscic 
Boi«.-nciv, aa applied to tbc EDgliab tongue, bo miieb fitttbi-r 
sdvanoed Iban it now is, or, witbont idcrcaRud faciUlicti uf to- 
vwftigatioD, can be. 

From tbe cormptioD of original t«xt« through tbe igaomnce 
or arroganpc of thwe wrho transcribed tbem, it is evident that 
we ciui aM;crlaiii lliv gnuumutJad tyAvm of particular writer* 
of tfau period we ore dijuniKKing ouly by tile examinutluD of 
authora' copies. This renders the publication of such, whenerer 
theyean b«discovercd,atnatterof great interestandiuportanba. 
If, indeed, the manuscTipt of the earliest vcrnion of tbe Old 
Tetttamoot, which is a»cribed to Hereford, U rntllv bis own, 
the value attached to such origioals might well tevm exag- 
genUe<d, for it would be clear tJiat one iroporlniil authority 
was not to be reconciled with itselfl Not only doe» the latter 
portion pf that trandation differ from the earlier in its inflec- 
tional systeni, but in the books which come last in the manu- 
script, the gramniiir is, in tiuiny poinbi. more arclinic than io 
the books which precede them in the copy, and which tlicrefore^ 
presumably, were firat executed. DoubtlesE^ the paleographical 
evidence ia decisive as to the identity of the handwriting in the 
hiittorical books and tho Prophets. But it is a long f4«p from 
this <)n'-Ktion lo that of the autbonhip of tbe maQuscript, and 
even the opiuioii of the very Icsnied and conscientious eilituri 
of the Wyoliffite translatioiis cannot outweigh the internal 
evidence to tbe contrary, uiiless mipported by stroog extomol 
testimony. Until such pn)of ts adduced, we are at liborty to 
believe that the manuscript ascribed to Hereford ia not n^ 
original, but a copy of a version by at least two different trans— . 
lotor^ who adopted different systems o( uddence. 

Lwr. IX. 



The original manuscript of a tmnslatioQ of Higdco's Poly- 
chroaicou \>y Truvisa, a ociutvinporar}' of Chaucvr, is mid, upon 
I know not what authority, to be still extant, and is now in 
coiirse of publictttioii. Tix-vi^n is reported to have trnaslnti^ 
the wholv vr a part of the Hible into EogliKb, and thu publica- 
tion of the chronicle may throw some light on his connection 
with the Wycliffite versione, and thus contribute to elucidale 
some very important qucstioua in tic history of the language 
and history nf England.* 

The zeal and a<rti?ity of Brilish ncliolarship are fast rescuing 
the remaining sibylline leareg of old Kn^lisii literature from 
destructiou, and a few yi>ani more will prepare tbo way foa* the 
crowning labour in tlic early philology of England — a worthy 
edition of tbe worlliiest of her ancient poeta, the iinmwtat 

In the meantime, though the texts of the authors upon whom 
I have dwelt so long prctsi^ut many prosoilical and grammatical 
problems which eamiot yet be solved, they are all perfectly 
ACCV3<«iblo, and, ko far aa the general purpotes of literary- culture 
and literary criticism require, intelligible. By the help of the 
Dotee and gloaaariee which accompany the recent editiooa of old 
English writers, fix>m Luyamon and the Ormulum to Lnnglaiide, 
WycliEfc, Chaucer and Gower, every one of (hi-m may he carily 
read, without prepai^atory study, and a great familiarity with 
their dialect may be acquired at less cost of time and labour 
than are needed to learn to spell oat, by help of dictionary and 
gnunnuir, a page of French or German. 

But, like tlie tmvclIiT, who, absorbed by the fwr proportions 
of a, Grecian portico and the living nculptures of its peiliment, 
Ivfgeta to explore the interior of tlie temple, I havo lingered 
too long about the vestibule, and must now hasten to pats 
through tbe darkened corridors which lead to the still mora 
■acred portions of the magnificent stincfurc. 

■ 8m Longar Nolw and lUiutiBtunu^ V mt tlu raid of thU IvciuK 


noNincAKCi or wona 

Lkt. IX 


uaxiriCAKCf: or nsirmcAL irons. 

Hie rittOowiMie oT popnlor English and American eri^dim !■ no* 
wheire more giM-iKglj msDifeincd than to Uie ratnrsgani mmmeiidiiMioi 
wbinh hnve been bcMowod on mbm modcni dicUottUj-mokeniaaphUo- 
■ophical rxponton ruid diccriRittifttcira of wordj. 

LcxieograplHini am »iidi:r ■ coiwlAni lumpraUon to nre themiclTet 
liilKitir Ity Imildiog on thfi <MUKlnti«n oF their pndcceMora, toii to 
■todv dtclioiuiric*, not liicrnture. Th^ tfaa* noquire t}i« hnbic of re- 
garding irordn an oom|>li:l('l_v ■i;{iiifi(Miit individtub) asd ihrr nrc pCOO* 
to iniilu|ily (iciKriplIoitsto miiko ilutinctiuns where no ditFi-rrncr t-xuts, 
■od CBpMrall/ to BBoribt? to uD^tc rocubiea in<-jitiit)g« whit^ belong, 
«itbcr to vniiix- pbrurulugicjl cxitiibiuaiions, grommaticul ngglutuutlinat 
io to (poitk, cr to a difliTvot meinbtr of tli« plinue fnvn tliat to wlti^ 
thej uii^ tlx-m. Heiwe ih«Lr definition* arv loo diSliw, and oAni to 
nneb embnrrMaed bj conililions and qualilkalion* u to lanoiker the 
ndicjil idea of the vord altogdliOT, or to cMitiiui it to a sg^t-cbl aeiife 
vliioli it oiily acc}d(>nta1I/ yoiwanini, inatead or giting it ft j^enenl 
GX]ireiBioo, which ndmiu oftlie protean rari«rf of tliftde and exivnsioo, 
that, in ciiIiivntMl Inngiu^e*^ belongs to aliuo«t nil wordi, cxc«pt nntnc* 
of vii>ib!« objocl^ and mere tcrma ef art whoK t^oificaiioa ia nnt 
oi^oically durulopcd fwm tlw root, but arbilrarilj and coarentiouallj 
impoMd upon tl. In Bludjing tho dcllnition* of iIm dictionsries whlcli 
f» for t\U bcBt in tbb rtapect, we find that tJioro was in the mind of 
th« tvxicogniphcr not n okamcH of diMioction, but a oonfttnon of 
lliougUt ariiung from tbe habit of inor^ntly poring on word-liMa, and 
eonslunlly oontempiating indiridual trrni* iMhtcd from iIkmmi oooiwg- 
lions and rrialioiu whidi alono em\ brtvihe into tbrm a living ^ril, 
and mako t)i<Mn .-tnyihing but unclaitic and inirl nultcr. 

[t is futile to siicmpt to lanko that abioliilc which !■, in its natun, 
relative and conditioiinl, to fbrmiiial*! that whidi in ilJttlf dora not ooa- 
BlilUle an Individiuil and cnmplclc idea, to make tcclmical dtjinitiijn ^ 
inoull)pi«Ke for vrortU whtcli ougbt to be allownl to >pcak for ilxm — 
Mflvt« by rxctnplidralion, and to pelriiy ttivm luio a rifcidity nf fiinr* 
ifTOConciliiblc wirh that pluy of Icaiure whtvh ia ho UM-'aiial lo tiU-lil.« 
exprcMiivtncaa. DiclioBary-dvGnilioBi^ cooudensl as a mtanit of pliiio* 

lijxrr. I3u 



logicnl instructson, are u infiTior to misoellltnMai reading M s bonuc- 
<kcns lo B IxUnnic garilco. Wonis, iriib tUs exoeptioa above (taled, 
cxCTt llivir living jniiYtn, and i;ive ullerance to sentiineat and meaning, 
onlj in llxi orj^niL- oombi nation a for wlitch nalure lias ailapted ihcm, 
■lid aoi in lli« aii>liabctic aingl«-fUe in wliich l*xicogniphera pcwl aail 
drill llii-m. Till! signilication of the vocabularv belonging U> tbe higher 
'kings of ihe mind and hcnrC depends on ihc context, and tbcTrfoni 
tbcae words luro nlmoKt n» mnny nhadM of meaoing aa thrjr hnve po*- 
•ibl« coml'inniionii with oiiirr wonj" in periods and phnwx. 'I'hi-w; 
(hadM can nnly bo pcrcmvcrl and apprc'licudi^d hjawidt^ famitiiirit^ 
with the Iil«mtnrc vhich prownta vftihiil onmbinntionn in all their 
«sri«ly; and all that n diciiooory cjtn do ia to giro the gcnnnl muaiung 
«f tho vocable and illiutmlu its clukngraihl*! hiiei \>y r-xi^mplilication o4 
itt moiit importiuit tiaca. There do«a not cxat a dicltonnij of ajif lan- 
guage, liiii^ or dead, vrhoM di^finitiuna are to be ootiaidurcd evidcii>ca 
M to tbe exact meaning of worda. Tbe heat dietionniy of tutjr living 
language )-et cxcctit(-d ia unquestiotiably that of the Gennan hj the 
brolbera Griroin. now in uoutse oTptihliuatton. Thew great philologiau 
do not attempt formal d«linilioti at all. The^ give the nearat cornor- 
ponding Latin equiralent, and a brief general iudicalionof the raeaniug 
of the word, but leave llie Ktiident to gather the precise signilicatioa or 
■tgaificatiane Com the ex em pHlJ cations. Richnrdwin's raluuble Engliah 
tliciioiuu; givea no deRcitions. A diciionar/ is but aa Index to ih« 
Uieratnre of a given Rpe«ch ; or rather it bears to hmgnnge the relation 
which a digest bur* to a »cnes of Ii^I reporta. Neither t« an aut/tority ; 
mA he ia but a aoriy lawyer who cites the oae, u iDdifTerent acholar 
who qnotM the other, m such. 


In niiutration I. to Lecture III. I have given a liat of man^ Anglo- 
Saxou words derired from the thnw rootn, hygo or hige, mind or 
IhoHghl ; mod, mind, pasaioii, inilalHlity, wit, gcniiu, iiildlcct, ncnm; 
and go-t banc, mind, thotight, opinion. Of thuac, hygeand ita Kora 
of dorivativee are aU obmlete. Of the wjuolly numiTuua progeny of 
mod, there remain only mood, mooiUlg, moodiatm, maodt/, mail. Tho 
thirty AngtO'Saxon word* derived from wit are reduced to Ie« than 
half a dosen, though we have formed several new compounds and 
derivatlvea from the Mme rtiot. From gvthaDC, wo have a larger 

m.'-.'un jJE:, 

,- - . u-«-- .f ..:^- t:^ : " : T , ■=■ ..'. i : - i^ -■■..: ^.k i, rc^ifKrt, 

"■■ ■ • '■•. ■ ■"■■' -- '■'--: '-^ • — -- : - "-^-f -^ - -: —-.■=.: L tt..u±. - i^i^x 

.-., ' .:. ; :.- --..i.::.; ^t^:- *ri - :-: — — -^- ?-e^. Tb* ^inei- 
.:.■■•■. ;■,-»■-- ■ r LZL :-r-s. t..T-_:.: i- : ; ■^:_t; e.:*:;;::^ n^i 
■•.■,::!i"= V ., r .-. . - , ,-■ — :■ t=.i :z ^.- iri ..:_ n— .'.it tzti. beaee 

i.-,..:....,-^. 7.V , , T ,. -, rT. - r- , --^£^7:;^- LuJt-r~ 

.-..: . .---■;..: ^ ■■-:_*; - • »-:Ti:_ "■ :. r-.u'r^-i 

■ ,,«,.,■,.,," ■;.:. s -». -ii. ,- : — . - T.-.n. LJJt per::i.iii; lo 

;.;-.■.:. . J. ■.;-■■::, T- -,j- ; i_- ■,;. :■-- -;•£ Tcrt Kill i- -cse 

*'..-.■«■ ^ V ■"-"-■':-■.:•,---' 1 ^-r-je ? j-E-E-shfi 

»*:-,'-'. » .' ' * . . " 1— -, -■ :. J , ,-.. J -r : A E^oi to 

- -. ■ . ...-■ - ■-— :ii l-reri-ra, 

» . . . • V •- ■ -->..-. - ■ - - ■ ■ i : T 1 -i_rir i' ■^.-..;:dal. 

I-.,-. ,.»■-;" >. -■ -- --^ J-i a..; Kr=:-U td 

» . ' ■ . -I . .. • ■ ■-- ■ ■ -.:: ■-■•- ?-,-.::»■ ii.» le m— ' ia aa 

::■- .■■,- - . ■, » ■- - ^•■- "^ ..-■_• _ T:-a o?;ti;» »]k 

■1. .1. . . . .. .. .-., - ■ ■ -v* -■.»:., 1. r ;• rJMij;-_o, U ki 

K < .«. ilir iv.s i.-i.'pL. t ^>s ^^'^ ^^s. .M .%. 1::—=^ > =. Mia F iJ ^I b t L 






in Chkuw'a dne, Imt much tlui greater pruportioD of Oitm tia>ct bctn 
tlnady trrpcoTornhly Inul, nnd hciicc, indL-jwodeniljr of thcdin-ci tefli- 
mony of the iii(inuincnl» of vHrljr £ii;;Iub It-tli-rs, it in vriilcnl tlial 
iba UDgun^u niunt hare become oompuiutiv«tj- |hk>i' iu all lu lugber 
depitlinttitB. Tbe vocabulary of th« printed litoniiure of the tkineeuth 
ccnUitj- consiaiB of aliout 8,000 wopis, of wliIcU D'>t Eir from 7,000 an 
Anglo-Saxon. Rejecting word« of fineign origin, &ndnrlitit are obviously 
differvnl fonnxof tbowime vocnblc, Boawortb's Anglo-Snxon Diclionnry 
eonlaim wimerhing lea* tbnn twice Uic Initcr numhor. Nrithcr Coli>- 
ridge iK>r Boiwoiib con bu KuppoMxl to be co'mpUdi: ; but if we nwiuiai; 
that the vtit: is as nearly lo aa the other, it would follow that allI^•half 
of thi! totiil Anglo-Saxon rocubulaiy had been lout berur« ibe year 1800. 
But oi Coluridgu'a GloaaariiLl Induc is oocfiaed lo printed booW and 
Bo«worlb emlmiCH moat known Auglo-Suxou niauuncnpis, bia Um ia 
proliablv considerably more exhaustive than that of Coleridge. B«- 
nrucn Uie year 1300 nod Chaucer's tiiue, ihcr? wax, i]oubtl««a, some 
fiutber lowi, and, tipon tho whole, 1 tbiiik it c)uito Mfn lo uy that at 
leut on«-(biirih, tuid in nil probability ooc-tliird, of the worH» com- 
poaing the Anglo-Saxon longuo were tilirrly forgott^rn before CJinuow 
bod writtm a line. It further nppcnn, from the characti-r of ibu par* 
ticnlnr wordi which I bave (buwn to bitvo been loM, ihnt (he moral anil 
IQtFllocinal, and the poetical uaoicncUtiirca were tbe porttona of ibe 
voeabulnry wliioh had aufleted nuut, and hence that a new supply o/ 
Irrmi in these ileprirneiiU vaa an imperiota neoeauly for all the pur- 
powa of litcnu-y oullure. 



ndns, £twl« but Chaucer, p. 38, in etiealuug of Chancer** 
don of (he Komau do la Rc«e, obeeivee : ' Nulle intention da 
donner au Roman de la Boss nne eouleur nstionale, duUo iui«iit(oii d« 
rembollir ou do Is oorr i gef. Lcs dilT^remcca qu'uno companutoD seiti- 
paleuM pent d^«onvrir »nt inugnifiantt*, ot co i]U*on a pris pour daa 
mMrpoluioDJi ac lit dan* l» mnnnacriti complctx.' For ooo who baa 
had no opportunity of conmlling *lc* mant»crit« comptcU,' it in difficult 
to judge bow fu ihrry ausiain thia broad statement; but the pasof^e 
tefinTed to in the text, which 1 thtuk few readen would r^-urd aa 
^inaignlficutt,' ia not Ibund either in U^on's edhion of tb« text of De 
Lorriii, or in tho Dntdi tranehtioa pubtiahed by Kaoder in VoL Q. cl 
I Denkniiler AltiuedGrlilndIac!ier SpndM tiad IJttaatar. 


Lbtt. IX. 



Hw CLtlra paango in Meou's «diiioD of tlia Froadi t«xt, ToL L 
pp. 68, 84, bUdOi thus: ~ 

2086. Vilonnio premiaranrat, 

Co dirt Amor*, veil et commaiit 
Quo tu gncrpbnw uns roprmdn^ 
f^« 111 n« veuls TOTS nm maqvandnt 
Bi inniuli et Mcommanio 
Tvtu ceuB qtii nimcnt Tilonnin. 
Vilonnio liut li rilains, 
Por CO u'oKl pua droia qno go ruofli 
Tiloins c«l fel «t mm piti^ 
Sana aerviM «t aan* amiti J. 
Apr^ t« garOe de retntin 
CboM dea g«na qui fuoe & tain i 
N'«*t pns proeaM de modire, Ao. Ao. 

Chancn-'* inUt^lnlion, it viU bo Man, u fattfodaeed between rwnm 
S095iind SOUS. In tlio Diit«h tniiuilti^Dii thopow^^e haatoSiomi — 

StiOB. Ic verbivdc liu, alls diMpcrbotdo 

Te loecbene «ew«li}a aonilcr bik^ 

Tp dot ghi nii wilt dimen vak. 

le ii^elwine eiido doo twkinnon t 

Dorpcrliedc, olle die tniniw^D] 

Tan bero to doeue, *«nUM mia] 

Dotptre no dorpcnuo no perdio nis, 

Wiuit si fel xijn ondo aonder gbenadiv 

Id li«ia te hotiben niachon rado; 

To nkmene dradit lu iiuiin« 

So qnftdcraniio ran xinn«. 

Vi'acht ht) Di«cto, dat fthl nict vertnet 

Dinghnn, die willon xijn bodocti 

Knde t« hcdnc, dat to hcclno aiaet; 

En CO ghecne rndrsieriu tc c^gen tftttut, ttc^ tla. 
lUl tnuulatian ia pvobabl^ older tluut thnt of Cbaticcr'and h a ftv 
on^ though I oanoot mree witJi Kuutlur, tbat it 'liann, nla LVhgr- 
imgnng butracbtet, t&r laeuterbuA ge](«n und dnrf aidi (Int 
(b.iiiccr'aclim Veniuclio kubn an di» Sato aUlleo.' 

Tho omiaaloa at w)iftt I liare called nn intn]iolalioD of CbawcT\ 
in lH>th Itl^ioo'a UiM and in titis old Dutch T«rwon, is certainly fnimi- 
&icio ovidcDi'c lliat it is nn aiUlition by tl:<' F.ii^-I^b tranftlnlor; andva 
bnvo a right to cull tijion tbuc who aflinu tlm^ hi* suppoaed avipUl- 
* Th« tnnalator. &«lnrik van Bmccl«, at BaUia Tan AJua, dUd Mom 
:33c. K4«i):. m, S39. 

Ixer. U. 



i^of bu eriginul are all toua^ in Uio hettt maiiiucitptj, to proJuot 
tlidr tcxis of lliia paaaag^. 

I take diiit oocKsiOD to call the &ttcntIoD of EnglUb scboliirt to tba 
fjuit inteKai of tliia Dntoh Iranslalioii, an<], in IJiL't, of iho gtnMTal 
Netlierlaniliali litoraturo of the tliirlaontb, ibun«f<Qth, and fiilveath 
MBUlrin, which, it is hnrdly cxtnrn^at to isy, is m link known ic 
English &n<l Atncricnn n^iolftn lu thnt of Chiiui. I quonion wheUHr 
thero is tmy cognate Kotirco of imtruction upon nvrlv Kngliiili philology 
•ad e^rcnology, which, if properly worked, would jinld n richer hnrrvn. 

The tnuMlntion in rjuoiiion doca not cwilbnn to clawly to Mcon'o t«st 
M don that of Cbauoor, but wme ptaeugea, where Onkucer followod • 
dJflarcQt reading from that text, cocreBpotid pret^ nearly with tba 
Dutch- Tbu*, in this passage : — 

21. Within my twentie ycere of age, 
1\^on dial love takcth his counigs 
Of ymiiige ft>lke, I ir«nte «oona 
To b«d, as I iTM woDt to doone : 
And fiLst I slept, and in sloeping 
Kfe mptto Mild) a ewavoning, 
Thai likvd ma wandrons vnAo, 
But in thnt sw(!V«n i» nevrr a dolo 
That it n' i» aftcrwnriJ bpfnil, 
Kight B* thia drcoinu wnll tell na olL 

U^OD'a text of the firat five veracB of the eotTesponding pawiga 
h: — 

Oi viaticamo an d« mon wige. 

Oh point qu'Arnoi:* prend l« paage 

I>ca joDf'S gCQ*, cnucbiei cMoie 

Uno nuit, Hi cnm je (outoio, 

Et me doimoie moult formeat, eto. eto. 

Te minoD ri.'cht>?n xx janii, 

Alte minno rn^emt to wnron 

Tan iongiicn lirdsD harcn clieiii^ 

So hich ic in rcai groct ghopdns 

Vp mijn bcHdc, code wart bcnuea 

llct coDcn slape alao xacn, etc eto. 
Chancer hero onea tooM In ibe aenae of early in the evening — ■ 
m««Diog montioned by Gill, as I hare noltvt b my Fim fscrie^ 
LatSuro XXT. ^ fiSO —and tho DuicU xaen, in tbe hul liuo abon 



lacT. IX. 

tpeUi, GOTTOfponils iMvly cnongb to randor it liigtttr |iTohable tluit 
both tismlntora followed n text different fVoiti thnt of Monn, wtiich dotal 
not conbun tha onnio ideu. It is ningular tfant tli« word courage or 
coragt, in the Moond lioo tjnoted from Chniioer, vbotJil hitva b«eD so 
geoerally auaaadnTOaod. It is, as t liare poJottd out in « note on tlia 
word coaragt in llio American edition of tho fine voltimo iif Wedg- 
wood's E^rniological Diotionnn', the Low-Latin coraagiuui or cam- 
bium, prestationis apocioH, » due or m'htile, as ia cleariy shown 
bothbftho Ji'Tcnchpaagosod tho Dutch cheina. 

A HBKtio.ii AUAifar xiBACi^-PLAn. (See Test, 419). 

Knowe je«, CrUlcn meo, tli&t as Crist God and nun i* boihe ' 
trewih, »nd Iif, as wit]i ibe f^<pcl of Jon, wc^e to the erryngc, trewih 
to the uuluiowj'ug and doutj-tig, tif to (he strange (o herrne and 
ww^'inge, ao Crist dude nothiiig« to as but eflccttwly in wrjrc of 
meny, in lieiillie of riin-ci^M*, and in tif of j^itdyng vrerlastynge jc^e 
for oiirc comiitiif ly morning and sorwynge in this raley of teeres. Ia 
niyroclis tlicrfore llmt Cvirt dudo hpcro in fTlhc. wilher in hymsjlt^ 
oiithcr in Iiiw w^ynli*, wrrca to rft^titd and in emcrt done, that 
synfiil men that i-rixii ih« broujtrn fory vmi*ww of rynov, wttynu 
hem in the wry<! of ri'^t hcluvc; to doutonM men not stcdc£ut, thel' 
broujtca in kunnyin^ to belcre plescn God and verry hope in God to 
been ■iccjc-fast in liym ; and to (be w«y of the wey*- of Ond, fiir tho 
grulir pctuiuiid- mid miffmiince of the IrybiiUcioun that men moien 
hari- tlicritine, th« broajien in love of b»j'nnyiiKC cburili', to tha 
whidii- alle tliiiiK ia li',1, and he to snflfere detbe, llie whidie inea 
most dreden, for llie evoi'laHtyn^ lyf and joyc that m«n moaie Iovod 
and disiwn, of tli« whicho tiling rcrry hope pnttith awey alio weri- 
ncMM! liL'cre in the wcyo of God. 'Ilmnno (ntliwi myiMolis of Crii* 
and of hyso scviiti* wrrrn thus HTV^tucI, ns by oure bi!itvc wo ben 
in cerleyn, no ninn nhnlili! iikhi in boiudc and plcye the niyracHa and 
workis tlint Crist so cmyBlfully witm^te to oure hi-lyt^ ; fur wboorer* J 
Ki dfiib, bo crritli in llic byleve, rei-<T9ilh Crist, ami utornyih God. 
Ho crrith in the bilevc, fur in that bo talcitb the most precious wcrkia 
of God in ]-ilcy and bourde, and so laVith his name in idil, and lO' 
niysnsith cure bilKve. A 1 Lord I ^tben an crtbcly MTraont dar ; 
taken iu pity and in bourde that that her ortbcly loni takiib in enwst, 
nt^ohe nioce vin ahuldca not makon ouro ploje and bourde cf tin 

X«T. U. 



BTndis and wcrlcU that God k> (mcstflitlj wroajt to na ; Ibr aollidf 
whan wc *o rfom-, ilmilo to syniif in takni awcy, on a urmunl wIuiD 
hts boiirdilh ir'tih hix rnaynlvr K-cnilli liU drciJe to ofTcniljTi livin, 
iMiiK'ly, whiini^R hd liourdilh U'Ub bU mnyttcr in thnt and iliat hn 
BU^nrter takiih in emest. 

An half fiynde lariere to eoule heltlie, redy lo escasen the yril and 
hull nTbilcre, wilh TIioiikm of Viidc, fc-irb, ilint he n-il ctvt k-trjn the 
fbni^d tmiffixe of tnjrnxclix plpyingc, but and i»ca ccbewcn il byiii b{ 
holy wrict opynly and by ourc biUvd. Wbetfore that his half 
ireoschip niny be Hirnyd to the hoolc, wo prrym hyni to bcbold«qi firtt 
it) tho Noonde nutitidcmmt of God tbnt ttitU * Tlinn Vhnlt not take 
Goddia iMim<; in idil ; ' tind --lytlii-n the mcrvctou* wcrkJK of God \ttn 
his name, a* thu gndc iri-rltis of cnifl<;sinn.ii been bis nunic, tbiui m thiit 
heat nf God is forbodcn to takun th« mervcloiuc w^ik of God in idil ; 
and bow moven thm be more takyn in idil tbati wluiiiie tbei ben 
Bttad iDeimua japynge siikkc, na Trhvn th«i brn picyid of japma? 
And ijUnen erneally God dy<l« brm to w, to toko «<■ bem of hyni ; 
dlis lbao(h« m tnlien hom in veyn. I>i>t:c tbanTic, firrnd, ^it il<i bylere 
idlitfa thM God diilr liiti mymdiii to a* for we uliuldcn plryn bt-m, nnd 
yn irowc it wiib to the, ' nay, btit for (bou »chuldi)4 moi-o drcdyn bym 
and k>vyn hym,' and ccrli" grept drr-d* nnd grot effwuirl Iiiovo stilTntli 
no plot inge nor jiipvug ivith hym. 'llianne «yihen mymelia plcyinga 
i«V«nith ibe irillc of God, niid ibc cndii for the which he vmujt 
Uynclia to na, no doute but th^it mymdis pl«yinge is xtrri loltyng 
of Goddin nam« in ydil. And jif iliis M■f^^ilh not to ib(<', all>oit ihu 
it tbtildo vtifliBeu to 8n lu-lbenc niAn, tbat ilicrefure wil r.oi picy in the 
w«rkii< of his mawtneto, I pr«ye ihri? red? «iilerly in ilie buok oj lyf 
that il CriM Jliceu*, and if tbmi mayxt fjtidon in bym ibnt he n-era 
exMnunplide thrt mm ^hllltll■^ plt^)*; mj-mcliit, bnt nUey the revere, 
and oure bvlo^'c ciiriiib tbut luddvn or bi.-ucni over that (Jrnt caBBuin- 
plidc us to don. llou thannv dumt Uiou )ioldcn wiih layrndtapJt^ngv, 
iytlien aUe ibe wurkiH of Crist ri^vcr^iden bem. und in none uf bt> 
weikis thei hea j^uudyd? namely, nylUen tbou iwyel tbiu-Ircn that 
tlMU wolt nutbing; levcn but that nmy be echewid of ouro bilcvt, nnd 
ljth«D in thin^ tliai is »cordyng wiili The fletcdi and to ihe likyng of il, 
M is myndis ptcyinge, Ibon wilt nothing don a^cnns it, but ^if it be 
■cbcwid of oore bilove ; niyche more in thing ihal is with ibe spirit, 
Hid alwoy exuawinplid in tho lif of Chri»t, nnd » fnily uTitcii in thu 
booke of lif^ na i» levyng of luyraclis ployinge nod of nllc jnpyng, ihoa 
Anlitont not hoMcn ajenya it, but ii' it tuy}te ben tcbcwid Bjtaa iha 


fcilere, ntL^a en si diTiiK '.Bax b •icwtrca ss ^-^'-lai T-o M»^ wttk 
the p«r!7« rhal a mor^ iiT.-T-rirlft co ti;« triris. ar-i more eumt &; lh^EJ 
in lb* y.frii Cr.r.M: as-i m i- "'•h-; "j^ae '1:30-17:^1 hT -w-.;V »:i.i"^cl»e 
h.'.^h'^i. ao rf,i ».-.,.wer- di.-t.-E-l::-. hTTcaiii. i=-i -herfiy tiKm kat^c 
mhI wi-wn t'^as ii i.* £.■-■1 tr^T^. TerK c^ji'i^Et'rt-e ; f^ jj- Uwn 
hviiii-t tj"!'fe 2 £».i;r ^Iji! !^a': ;- aufted • di-Ti:.-ii« <;*-di Co g^Kn rl]«v 
ihyo h-K-a^^, and th' 1 th»^nf:iT woldast « l:;tlr bem h to icite 
therofa pi<-y to th« ar.-I to al!-* the pnrle. no dfwre but that aTtit eoda 
men w(.W*-n d^mT^n the nr.k_vn..!c, miche more God and tile Lis ktsih 
demjeit alie thf> cri.-fen in'>Ti cnVynde that pleyen cr £iToarea the pier 
of the dftth or of the mjrac;-:* of the moK kvnde &J:r Crist, tliat drede 
and wroujfe mtraclli to brir.gen m«n to the eren-Ioatande hereto^ of 

* * - ■ • a 

Therfw* »(clie mvraclis fl^vinje now on dam witr.t-tjtith At* 
thingi.", first, is fff-'e ^rnne Hvfome the, secr^nd. it witneHii;li srete foW 
in the d'iin:r«. f.n-l tho thri'.le sr*«f Tenjann.^c af:ir; for ri:t as tlw 
chvldn^i of Ir-mel. whan >[o_v«'S was in iho hi! hiKily previnjie for hem, 
thei my.*tri-tyri;:' to bym. honouridtn a calf of gplj, and afrcrward eetra 
and driiik':n and ri-rf;n to plovn, and afierwai-d weren slevn of hem thra 
and twenfj- ih'.w^'rnd of mpn ; lo tlianne aa this pleviiijn; wittnes^de 
the dynnc of ther maiimctrie befoni. and her in_v«ry-t to MoriieB 
whanne thni i-hiil<]t; moi-t triinenede to hvtn, and after iher folv in 
ther plfcying', a:id the thriiiile the Tenjaunse that cnm afrtr ; so this 
myncl'u rrlirj-itipj is verre witneaw of inennna avericc and rnrcvtise 
hy(')Ti; that is m:iiimetric, a^ st-ilh thu apo^tele, for tliat that thei 
xliuMcn nfii'iiilvn Uf^in t!ic nivii-t of ther n»-;rhoris, thpi Rpcnden upon 
the pl'-ji.'', and •" i-eyen thu rente and ther dette tlici wnlen gmcche, 
and to mrf-nde two so myche upon ther pley ihi-i wolen nothing gmcche. 
AIho Ui giih-ren mi'n ro^'iilire to hien the derre ther votailia, and to 
Btiren m(-n to frloionyc, nml to priilc and boost, thei plcrn thc3in\Tncli8, 
and h1*o to liriii wlierof to sjn^mlen on these niyrach'a, and to holde 
fiilawscliip'! of t'liitj'iivc iind Wli'^ric in ?ich dayes of myraclis pleyin"e, 
thei bisien h'^iri liilorn to more gredily byiiilen ther ne-jbors, in byinge 
and in M-Uviti^'; and ho this plcyin^of myractis now on diyes is wcrr^ 
witiirwH! of 1iid'''>iiit cevcytJM!, that is maiimctrie. And ri^t as Mot!>ck 
wiiH thnt tymc in the liil indst travelyngc abonte the piipie, so now is 
('rJHt ill h'!V<!Tie willi his fiid<T most tiisily prcyinpe for (lie piiple; and 
n('ver ihn liilcrp nB the rhlyndrcn (jiir) of Isriicl diden that tyme that 
in lioni W(IH, in tluT i.leyin^c of ther maiimeirie, most fniily 10 distro^oj 
the grete tmvelo oi Moyxod, go men now on dayttes, afler ther hidooN 

Lbct. IX. 

A 8xniio» AOAissr uiRAci.E-naTf 


infiumc^trGC of covtlyae in (bv ptejing* of mjTscIi^ Ad ^d ^t in 

hem is to di«tr(ij« ilic cntMitivo prej-crc of Criirt in h«vQii4 tor hom, 

rCnd HEi thfrr mymcli* pleyingo witncBith ihrx mott Mvf in t}icr dcjTtg^ 

' and ihcrforo a* vnkjniidy Miilcn h> Anron the cjiildrcn of Isrnc), 

M-iyivH bcingA m tliv btl, 've iritui novur how it is of Muyvca, mule* 

Dfl ihcrTore Goildis liiat goo biforii n^,' m> unkvndi^U Bcyen men aow« 

on dujw, ' Crist dulli new no mvncliB for «», plcj" we iherfore Iiin 

olde.' luldyng mati^ Ifujoges lltcrto so ci>Ionrab!y that the jiuple ^,ifti aa 

tnvolie creddftM to hem as to tlio irwthi.-, and so iliei for^oleii to ben 

I pci'cever of tho prcyere of Crint, for tlie mautn«trjo ihat inoa don to 

tichc myraclia plopnge ; mniimcciye, I seye, tor siche pleying o DMn 

•a myche honciyn or more ihnn the woixl of God iriianoe it 'm prccliid, 

•nd therefore blnefcmcly ihni wyni, that eichi- pl«yinge doich mora 

I good than the word of God wonno it i« prcchid to the pnple. A ) 

IrOrd I whnt tnoixi lilnsfrrmr. in a\mut thcc, than b> ayyai to don th« 

brddj-rig> M in to prroJicn llii; word of God doth fcr luioc good than to 

I don tl^int tli»t tH hodyn onely by tnoD and not by God, M ia myraclia 

pl<-yiiig ? Hit funolhf, OS the lykntaM ofmyractiB wo clopen myracli^ 

li^t >o (he goldim oallb tlie cbiidren nf Israel cXcjnAea it God; in th« 

whicbe llwi haddeu ntyndo of the uldu niyncUa of God hHbrn, and for 

that licneaae thel worachipiden and prcytMdeii, a« thd wonchipidok 

|,and preddcii God in thtr deJe of his itiyractis to hoiu, and thrn-lar* 

^ihd diden «.tpreiae niaumctrye. So xytlicn now on dalca inyclie of Ui« 

pupk worschipilh and pwyftilh on*ly the licocnw of the myr.iclis of 

God, aa myche as the wordo of God in tlie prechoun mowth by the 

whiclie alio niyraclis bo don, no dowio that n« ihe puple dotfa mora 

Di&winctric now in niche mymclis ployingo thaD dide the puple of 

' Ifcfitol that ^nio in hi?rying« of tho calf, in as myche as the leayogei 

»nd InMtin of mynicliii plcvingc tlint men worwhippn in ht-m binore 

COiitmrioua to Goil, unil niori; ncMnJvngi! with ihi- d<;vii, than wwn that 

Lgoldcn uiif that the ptipic worsdiipid. And therefore th« maiimetiy« 

that tymc vna hut figiiro and licktinwe of m«nnuii tnaumciiye nowe^ 

and ibeHbre ccith tho apootel, uew tbc« thiogia in figiira Ibllsn to hen, 

*nd llierefore in Kcho royrnclia ]>kyinge ibe dcvnl i* tnoit plo;(id, m i]i« 

MyTcl IB best payid to diKoeyvu men in the licnrane of thut thing in 

fvhidte by God man wema convertid bilbrhond, and in whicbv the 

Lderel was tenyd byfombond. 'Iliorforc oute of doule wd>e myraclia 

ff leyiiig prctith myche more renjnunce than dide the pleyingo of Ihe 

(thylilr«qi of IsTn«l, after tlio heriyn^ of the calf, as tliia pleyin^ Wlllth 

but japts grottcrc nud mere bonfotca of God. 

a a I 



Van. a. 

nccoRDS or comoit urt. 

1 Ih*« KKiHiiliere iMn it Mated that Treriai's mannaeript of liii 
mndalioii of GlaaTilta d« PropficUtibtw Rcrum is still in oxixtcscah 
niitologicall}' Kpcnking, an clitinn of a work of thia diaractcr wooM 
bo mom mliiablo than a climnicle or a poem or oqiiii] oxUnt. Tlw 
Tario^ of Miitijt^tii diiwiiwcil bjr Rtanvitln «Dppo«M a CATTnxpQadtDgly 
axbunv*! vonnbiiliuy, and a greater Tnnge of verbal onmbination dian 
woiild ba ttkcly to oocnr In btalorieal namtiTa, or in poctnr, die 
dialect of which is mor« conTCntional than that of proaa. It ia lo 
irorlca on natural kiioirlcdge, and whidi connect thenudres with pno- 
ileal life, lliat we are chiefly to look for inforanatioo vjnm the actual 
apeedi of bj-gono agea, and eapeciaUy upon bMotJcal et}iaoI(^ — tlu_ 
true nbory of tho motamorphona and m%r8tioaa of woHa, ~ 

OrsBinvtlicajters orok the histoi; of language in written, and i 
dallf in el^^ant liurnlnrc; but, except in tlie ticcting dialect 
pcdantD, lingiiistic change and progrcn htpa in orat (jieecb, and it i^ 
long before tho pon take* np and raoovda Ilia fonat and worda ' 
have become cctiibltalird in dio lirii^ toogo^ 

If j-ou wouM know die preeent t«ndcnci«a of English, go, aa I.« 
did. to the market and the workakop; jrou will there hear now war 
and conibinution*, which ontora and poeta will adopt in a fiit 
generation; nnd in inrexligntii^ the philolngical liixcr)' (4' paatagHtJ^ 
whom mitrkct-jJooea are gram-grown, and the ham of wboao indnitry 
ia Ktilk'd, you rotut naort lo iboac written mcnKftala whoao sabjacls 
mo>t marly ajiproximale to tlio bujijr orcrj'-dajr lifi) nf ihdr ttmc 

1'hat litonitiu« whidi beat pieacrvn die nn premeditated, half-nnooa* 
•doua verbal expreaMOO od* humanity b richest in tnw philological 
■InatTuetion, aa it ia in ita revdationaof l4ie latdleetond tJie hcan ot 
■mn : beiico tho groat value and Ihe profound Intercat of old fiunUkr 
lettcm, joumala, private recorda of all aorlaL Predscly the diacloeuKl 
wo ahrink moit bom making with reapMjt to ouraelvca, and (be out- 
Kpokcn expreuions we are abyest in i»ing, attract ua most in the lift 
of distant i^e*. The moat inidgnilicant original memorial of the i 
woida of a living man baa na imperisbable worth tn remote potferi^ 
Kafioad and aenritive peraona destroy tbi-ir family Idtcn, and are i^ 
lueboit to record tbotr name* in the albuma of paper and of atooe with 
whidi all pluccf of resort abound; but, though we may not approre At 
rauity which led a dijttinguislicd authgr to hare hia nams cact«d (S 

tKCT. IX. 



iht niminit of a jijrramid he did not dinb, I tlilnic no ttarcHcr loolci 
od the record of » vmi to ooe of the tombB of the Egyplhtn kJo;^ l^ 
an ftucieal Gn^k — who expresses his dUappoinimeDt at fioding Doilitog 
to adiuire> << f'l rui- Kiihf — or at \he iiiH:ri]itir>D rrniely cut oa ibe 1^ 
of a gi^ntic ett)tti« M the entnncv of tb« grcut rock-tomple of Abou 
Simbd, to ootninciiionttc the halt of « dcUachinont of Koman loldicrjr 
•cnt up into Nubiii in Kcni-ch of diMtrlcrs — or fficn »t ihc bnro nanw 
which, thivc hundred yean ago, the old licrhiilift, Bdon, ncmtchod 
with tha poiDt of hia dagger on tho unoky irnll of a convent kitchen, 
noir in niina, in ArabiA Petrica — vritliout feeling that ho hu add«d 
to )iia Btores of knowledge both a hiatortcal fiu:t aud a ' form of woida,' 
vfaich will ailliiTrc to hut monoiy wh«n many an aloqacfil pbraao alall 
him vaniahed ihnn it. 

The old 1-lntt Deutob <7arAtcbr AmcOW/, which traata of diaeaow, 
Iheir cauMo, aud their vogetablo rfmcdieo, omhodiM more of tho 
vooalmlary of daily life than aJmoat any other vohimo in that most at- 
tractire dialect, and is of great pJiilohjgical intorcat. 

Von TO Pack £90. 
But Chaoeor knew that his age wiaui age ofiaCaneyinliteratiiML la all 
Utcrmlate, w iu tile, it in Uiu kIqII |>eri>]ii that oooaoienily aima at ori- 
ginality. The obild begs bin muse lu lupcat b fncnlliar tale rather than tdl 
hiin a senr oae. C'bauc«t*ii coiitvniporarion were mora latanttad in bu 
Tifaeeiamaiti liita thaj would haie been In uow Invoituona. 

Aflrra TO Paok 4S1. 

And asaia, *1'ert i Conn droit* cItIIb i)d* In poupta* tieaoeot la pitia; 
}• »> toaelMral [««, si je pnin, vtio-—DM>gti4 mm Maehlatd tt IfyaUt- 
jwJfu. VIH., p. at. 

In the copiiol Iriih atoryof Daniel O'Roarke. when the Maa in the Moon 
told Don to lei go hi* bold of tbe alokle bj which be was otinpng to the 
■urfooe of the Kitellila. Dao replied, '' Tha mora yoa toll roe to let go my 
heold tha mora 1 won't, lo I miU." 



WnRK this political Rnd mi^Dtiil agitatjoos of the foitrteeatl^ 
century — wliicli bad Wen. if not occasioned, at least ^eaitj 
iDcrcftsed bj> thv iiDtipiipiiI KchiKm — bjid once etilwided, tbo 
tellectuat activity of llie ngn of X<saglaodfl uod WytJiffe i 
Chaucer suddt^uly oeaaed, and was followed by a loDg period 
repose, or p»rhaps I might rather say, of letltargy. Tlie liter 
munumemts we poasess of the early part of tbe fifleentb ocotuiy 
exhibit few traces of original power. In some of tbem, Gveaj 
tbo language eevms to have rather retrograded thaa advanced] 
Dor did it numifcst much subfitontial progress, until tho new 
life, which the invention of printing infused iato literature^ 
made tUfJf felt in England. 

The English mind, brilliant as irere its achiereniesta In tin 
era we have just piviscd over, waa not yet so thoroogbly ; 
and vnlivcnt'il, that it van ttblo to go on in the path of cieatin^ 
lit<-ratiire by ito own inherent euoTgies, Itxtill r«<(uircd external 
iuipuiite ; and it was only by the itucoesiiion of electric thocka it 
rnceiced from the four greatest erents in modem history, which 
m rapidly followed e«cb other — tbo invention of printing, the 
discovery of the passage around the Cape of Good Hope, and of 
thu American continent, and tlie Itrfomiutiou — that it was full; 
awakened and inspiri-d with tbnt undying energy which, £u 
three bundled years, has filled the world with its renoiro. 

Ltpr. X. 

THOMAS occixra 


The first important poetical writer of tlie Rfle«ntb ceDtiiiy, 
whose works have come down to tis, ia Ttioiaas Ooclevo, a 
Iftwver, who is supposed to huvo fl'>llri^hc() about tbcyuir 1420. 
Moi>t of Ilia works cxint ouly in iuaiittNcri[>t, aud t[io»u that luivu 
been printed are not of a character lo inspire a veiy lively 
desire for the pul)licatioD of tlie remainder. Tbey are princi- 
pally didactic, and in great part translatioQS, the tuoet important 
of them lieing » treatise on the Art of Govcroment, taken 
piiucipallj from u T^itiu work of Kj^dius, a Rooiau writer of 
the Uiiitetiiilij century. Tbe <liclioii of Occleve is modelled 
ailer tliat of Cliaucer, of whom be pmfeiises to hare been a 
pupil, but there are some grammatical differences, the mo»t 
noticeable of them being tbe constant omitsion of tbe n final in 
the iatinitivo mood, and in the third pcr^oii plural of the tctIh. 
This, though not uncunkmon, was but of occatiional, or at li»8i 
of very irregular occurrence in the preceding century. 

I can liud nothing better worthy of citation from tbia author 
than bis lamentation upou Chaucer, which Warton gives from 
M tinpublished manuscript: 

But wdeuviaye, »o in myne lierl^ wo, 

That lli« bouour of Englinb (ouge is dede, 

Of which I wout was hua counsel aod ipdo I 

O miiysler d«re, and fadir revorwiti, 

My tnayMcr Cliaui-er, ll<iiue of duqucncO) 

Miirour of fruriiKin> ontendrmcnt, 

universal ftdir in •cicnci;, 

AIb^ ihut tliou ihinc cxcvll'tit innitenoe 

Id iliy bed mortd niigliic-it not lKM]Ucih« I 

Wbut lyh-d Di-ch 7 Altu why wrould bo ale Aal 

Di-th ibut ( nntight liarin singalcTe 

In alau^trc uf liiin, hut all the loud it Knottith: 

Bit*, naihi-IcM, yet hiiiowv tw powpK 

His DHOie to ale. Hih hti' v«rtiie axcitith 

Uttdayn from thee, wliicb aye us Uiclj hertitk 

With bok«[s] of his oroaii endiiing, 

TliAt is to all this lond cnlumj ning. 

The T«ni&catioa of tbis extract is intcicetiog aa showing that 



UCT. X. 

Uie final, which ceenu to have bL-como olcnt toon afl«r, vu 
Rtill pronounced in Ocdeve'« limv, nt lc«M in poeuy, oa it had 
boeu in Cbaiioer*«; for bequeutltj spelt bequetk«, la made to 
rhjrmo to tU iha — 

In thy bod mortol migbieat not beqvttfidl 

Wlint cyW Deili F Alos why would lie «f« th4f 

The « final, which is route in proae, is still oouottKl in Krendi 
Tcniificatiou, and not untVequcntly requires a prosodiral accent, 
though in actual roodiug of poetry, it is not muoh dwelt upon. 
That it was once nonnnlly articulated in prose, in both EDglisb 
and I'rencli, there can be no <]oubt. At what period it became 
Biteot in cither, it U ditlicult to dGt«naine, portly because 
■Hthograpby seldom nccumtely represents orthoepy, and partly 
because the dionge, tike other orthocjiicid and gratnaatknl 
reTohilioQH, came in grtkdually, and In«-jdlT, so that while one 
pruvinoe or writer in a given century may have dropped tJie s, 
another may have retained it mauy years later. The cmue of 
the loRH of this articulation is the saine in Irath Isngoagee^ 
niuncly, tbe tendency of both to discard inflectional ^llablcs— 
a teniicncy much aggrAvatcd In Engltsli by the confusion infro- 
duc«i! into ib< gnuninnr through a mixture of unrelated tongua 
disoordaDt in thuir acddenoes. 

Changes of tills sort are not received in litcruturo until they 
bare been long established in speoch, and the fiict, that in 
French poetry the c finjd still counts as a syllable, white it lias 
bceu null in En^;liBli •leni^ for certainly three centuries, woulil 
seem to imply Uiat it continued to bo colloquially prononnced 
in France mnch longer than in England. 

Contemporaneously with Occlere liTeii James I. of 8«)tliin(l, 
who was illegally soiled, in his early childhood," by Henry IV. 

* Th(iro Is a gacA cluil of dUnvpaoiy unniif; the mthoriKM U 10 tlis itar rf 
Riny Jiinic«'>cH|itiirv — or Tnthoriu to hia ken ml ibo timn — akd tlw donition o( 
hii imprisaaiDKiil.. In \.\\r (liiml and UCU Ksnait of tbo Mtoad c«dI>> et lli« 
Kii^'i Quuic, Uu king LuDw;f m^s tkst bswu taluii futour aS lb» aprf 

Caor. X. 

Jkilti t, or SCOTLilD 


it Eagliwd in the yciir 1405, and kept for ocarly tvcnty yean 

l^a priiMiier. His utptor citiisvd him to be well e^lurated, and 

aidea soreral {>i«ct=* writttin, n.i it ia said, uncquivocaUT in tbo 

attishdialect^the cnticUin of wtiich does not come witliio 

^tbfl plan of this coaree — be wrot«, io English, as it K;i;ins, u 

poua ia aibout fourteen hiindrod lioL'ii, callvd tbc King's Qtinir, 

I or book. This is a eulogiatiu rhapsody on tlie Liidy Jaiie Beau- 


ClliBi h* hkd ihtmAf 


Hot hx gtmlt tb« •i:ila of tanocfiiM 

But n«ra about tli« itovmer of Ecirii tiaa, 

Wtto it CBUiit thnu itPTial; indnetiM 
Of Goddi* vilt, or uthc- cimaltce, 

Ctn I iiol my, l«i (iiil of mj rwitriHv 
Sy tlmir aviM }* had of ia« tW cum 

£• MO to pM, take I u; nroatum. 

Cpoa tlie veTiB wi^ttriDg Io soil fre^ 
So inbrtuiMt'' "if w thtit ftvmjt dnj, 

Hl«t niiin|{i«> fdtinlj E|ti«lliir m woU or BO^ 
W* KtMog liiinil by hrta M:liorll]r lo esfi 

Of iojncju talctn md 1m1 awajr, 
W« wren im, and bm* in thvtt Kontnv, 
FottuBO it ■chill* Don othir nji* to b^ 

Qoiiu* u in lUajto vnrd, aai is alrcog pttM^ 
^ tm fiiith nf mr lif ih» hetjr |;o(^ 

Vout ooafurt iu MrovF, abindouuo 
Tba tociuid lialrre. Illicit bnih to tujiu^ 

X«n^ liT the ipiwo of Ecrii tn ico eyap. 
Till JujLii<T liiR tij'-pci liil adn-rt. 
And Willi coaf'^n in rtkvdi* <i ny nmoL 

d'i Itatatj of Scotland. n^Kut of 1S09, toI. n. p.407, it it mM; 
^iikirb* «M in thn ninth yran of his ^(^ tha U (aif ) d«r of JlaRh, in tb« 

' Iwara «f our inranucion 1-100, and waa kq't ia optiTitio of the Kngliclmian t^ 
tliD (paw of dgfat*«no jtona.' On page 410, tlie king u >aid to hare bnn 
MnrdMcd on lh« 21 of t'ebruaij 14t& 'in Uie 41 ;^tr* of bin agat' If Kin|[ 
Jamra «u bMj-t&rco j«nts old b I4SS, he niut hare i*ta Bxtra thus tinht ia 

. UOS, and Bpon the whuU 1 think it aafar (» tuOaw Kind Jamea' a own ehionolugy 
Uian ihal «I hialotical t«nipikiiL 



L«rr. X. 

fort, whom King James aAonranU married ; aoi tliovigh ita 
subject and purpose did not give room for mucb fertilirv of 
iDfcntioii, it is full of dolicacv, gnxon and fculin^, emooth and 
artistic in vcnfitiaitioo, atid. in ^'iiurnl pix^ic merit, KU]>erinr to 
any other English vente of the fifteeath or even the first half of 
the 8ixt«CDtJi century. 

The dialect is remarkable both for the occasional irttrodnction 
of Scamlinavian wordu and forms — rcminbcenoes, possibly, of 
ll.v author's oliildbood, which wua iiKed to a d tnli-ct muclt niodificl 
hy Norlhern influenees — and espiNitaUy for its freedom from nil 
French terms and idioms which bad not been fairly Datiiraliz«4 
in English. Tlio proportion of Kumancit aord* iu the King's 
Quair is ecarccly pr«vti.r (ban in tbo works of Chancer or of Gower, 
and, a* in tho^e aiilboni, w« find that miKt of tbem are iotro- 
diiced ratlier for the sake nf rhyme ami metre, than for any 
superior adaptcdiiras to poetical oxprcBsion. His d««criptiou of 
the lady of wliom lie wna cnaniourod is worth ([iioling »t length i 

. And tbercw' kcft 1 doua myn eye ugej'ae, 

Quiiaro aa I &w walkyag under the Tour^ 
Full fecrctcly, new ciunvn hir lo ]>lpyne, 

The fairell or tin; Iri-ftrhifl zoiing flourfl 
Tbdt ever 1 ftw*, ini-ilio', hcfurc that houra, 

For qiiliic}i liiilityiii! nlmio, nnon ailert, 

The bliiilc ol" all my body lo my bcrfc 

And thdiigli I itoiiil uliuifit ilio » lyip, 

No woniiiT waa ; for (]uliy ? my wiltisall 
WcT* fu ou4'rcuitii> w' [lU'fiiiicc und delyte, 

Only tlir<in^h loltiiig uf myn eyon full, 
Tlist fudajiily my hcit become hir thrall. 

For ever <if Irco wyll, ftir of mnnnco 

There wn* ao lakya in hir Itiete fnca. 

And in my htdc I drew rj* h;iilily, 

And trt (mivi 1 lent il onl agpyiie, 
And (aw Iiir walk that verray womanly, 

Willi no wiglit mo, botonly women lucyDa^ 
Than Riin I lliidy in myfelfand fej-ne, 

Ah ! fiitif ai* ze a warldly ciunture, 

Or bcvit^ly Uiliis in lihcncllc of uutuivt 

tMlt. X. 



Or Kt xc god Cupidis owin jirincciTt! 7 

And ctiinjrii ure to louCe me out <if hudf 
Or HIV ro veniy Natuie ibe godJrffo, 

Tlui )i:iiD (lepuyiitit w* Eour hctiuly hand) 
Tkia gHDJjn fiiil ol' llouris, as tlitrv Ruiidf 

Quitnt full I iliiiik, alltioe ! quhiit rtircieuM 

StU I Dialler CO Rour excdlence? 
GifT z<t A gdilili'lTu tic, luid y* zo like 

To do IDC |xiyii<:, 1 niuy il doI allcrt; 
Giff s(! be warliily ""if^lit, j'' dcmlli m* fifcoi, 

Quby lift God mill: zn\i lb tny dwffl litrt. 
To do u felj" priJwner ihim ((ncrt, 

TlMt lulia xou all, «iid wou of n«* but vo^ 

Add, iheretbre, m«ixu fuvie 1 r<:fii !i is lb. 
Qubcn I a Ijlill thinwe Iiad miud my luone^ 

Beirniling myn infurtiina and ray c^anoe^ 
Unknnwin htiir or qiiiiut u-nx b<^ to doo«, 

So fiTTfi 1 rallying into hili» diinec, 
That fudc^yiily my wit, my contvnance. 

My hcTt, my will, ray mtture, and ray mynd, 

Wn.1 cKaiigit cicnu rj'^ tu nne o^er kind. 
Of bir array the l«rm gif I f:tl wiite. 

Toward h«r f^ldia liaire, and ricli atyi^ 
In frvtwiTe oouvliit w' pvirlis quliite, 

Aud gictc Imlaa Inniyiig »n llie fyrv, 
W* mouy aiM iHn«rant and litire faplure, 

And oD hir hod« a chaplct frtTcfa of hew«, 

Of pliunys fKLi-iit rcdc, aud quhitc, and blmv 
Full of quaking fpanftis bry* a« gold, 

Forgit of Iclup like to tlie amorctli^ 
6a new, To frdch, fo plialliiii to bi-liold, 

Tlio pluinya eke like lo ilie f loure jonetliis 
And oiliLT uir fcliap, like lo ibe lloore jcoelti* 

And, above all this, ili«re was welo I wMt 

Boiolee eoevcl) to mak a world lo dot«. 
About bir neck, quliitc ax tbc fyn amaiUe, 

A gnddic chci-ne of final I orfcrcfje, 
^hare by ibrn: bong a rnby, wieut fiiiUi* 

Like to ane bcrt lclui{iin verily, 
Tlwt,'BH a Ipi-rk of low<; fu wanuwly 

Semyt bimyng upon lii'r quliite llirat«^ 

New gif there wiuj god pvrtye, God it woti. 

460 ixtas L or scotluio 

And for to walk that frelche Mayea morowc^ 

Ane hutce fhe had upon her tifluw quhite. 
That gudeliare had not bene fene to farowe. 

As I fuppoii!, and girt Iiihe was aiyle ; 
Thua halfljug iowfe for liafte, to fuich delytSf 

It was to Ii* her zouih in gudelihed, 

That for rudeniis to fyvke thereof I drede. 
In hir was zouth, l)cautcc, w' humble aport, 

Botintec, richelTu, and womuuly fuiture, 
God beller wote than my pen can report, 

Wifdomo, largefle cftate, and conyng fuie 
In every point, fo gujdit hir mefure, 

In word, in dede, in fcbap, in contcnance, 

That nature my' no more hir childe auanoOb 
Throw quhich anon I knew and underCtude 

Wele y' fche waa a warldly creature, 
On qiihom to rtft injii eye, fo mich guds 

It did my woful hert, I zow affura 
That it was to me joye wHiut mefure. 

And, at tlie laR, my luke unto tho herin 

I threwe furihwith, and laid thir verlia ferls : 
O Venua clere 1 of goddia ftellifyit. 

To quhom I zelde homage and fucrifife, 
Fro this day forth zour grace be magnifyit, 

Thot me rclTauit have in fueh wife, 
To lyve under zour law and fo funiife; 

Now help me furth. and for zour mcrci leds 

My hert to reft, y' diiis nere tor drede. 
Quhen I w' gudc enl«nt thia orifon 

Tims endit had, I ftynt a lytill Round, 
And eft myn eye full pitoiiHy adoun 

I kc(t, behalding unto liir lytill hound, 
That w' his bclliH playit on the ground, 

Than wold I fay, and figli Uierew' a lyte, 

Ah 1 wele were him y' now were in thy plyte 1 
An othir qnhile the lytill nyghlingalc, 

That Hit n]K)n the twiggis, wold I chide, 
And lay ry' thus, Quhare are thy notis fmale^ 

That thou of love has fong this morowe tyiti 
8eis ibou not hir y' fittis llie bclyde ? 

Ffor Venua' falcp, the blisfull goddeCe clia«^ 

6ing on agane, and mak my Lady there. 

Lbct. Z. JAUES I. OF SC0TLAR9 4(1 

And eke I pray, foi all the paynes grete, 
That, for. the lore of Proigne, thy filler ien, 

Thou fufierit quhilom, quhtu thy breflia wete 
Were with the teres of thyne eyen clere, 

All bludy ronne y' pitee wns to here, 
The crueltee of that iinkny'ly dede, 
Quharc wae fro the bereft thy maideabedfl. 

Idfl up thyne hcrt, and ling w' gudo entoit, 
And iu thy notis fuete the trelbn telle, 

That to thy filler trewe and innocent. 
Was kythit by hir hulband falfe and fell, 

Ffbr qiihois gilt, as it is worthy well, 
Chide thir hnlbundis y' are ihlfe, I lay, 
And bid them mend in the XX deuil vay. 

lytill wreich, allace ! maill thou not le 

Quho comyth zond? Ib it now time to wring? 
Qnhat fory liio' ia feilin upon the 7 

Opyn thy throte ; haftow no left to llngt 
Allace 1 len thou of refon had felyng, 

iNow, fwet« bird fay ones to me pepe, 

I dee for wo ; me think thou gynia Hepe. 
Hallow no mynde of lufe ? quhare ia thy maks t 

Or artow feke, or fmyt w' jeloufye? 
Or is fche dcde, or hath fche the foriaket 

Qnhat ia the canfo of thy melancolye, 
That thou no more lift maken melodye? 

Sluggart, for fchamo ! lo here thy golden hom 

That worth were bale all thy lyvis laboure. 
Gif thott fuld fing wele over in thy lyve, 

Here ia, in fiiy, the time, and eke the fpace: 
Quhat woftow then 7 Sum bird may cum And Ibyn 

In fong w' the, the malftry to purchaoe. 
Suld thou than ceflc, it were great foharae allact^ 

And here to wyn grec happily for ever ; 

Here is the tymo to fyng, or ellis never. 

1 Iho* eke thus gif I my handis clap, 

Or gif I call, than will fehe flee away ; 
And, gif I hald my pea, than will fche nap; 

And gif I cryc, fche wate not quhat I (ay : 
Thus quhat ia beft, wato I not be this day, 

Bot blawe wynd, blawe, and do the leuis fchak^ 

That 'urn tuig'may wag, and make hir tc wtke. 



UcT. Z. 

With tTiat anon tj* &1i« ioVc tiit ■ &ag, 

Qiiliare (y>ni nnon mo binli» tutd mlighti 
Bot than to here iha mirth iras lluun omanf^ 

Ou«r thu to fee ihc jiirte Sclil 
or hyr jTiwigo, my fpirit inw fo light, 

Hcibo* t tiawo l"pr jftyp m'nui sroft. 

So nvre my willia bound in all lo fcft. 
And to the noltii of the philomrno, 

Qtihilkin Icho {»ag tho ditue there t tnftid 
Dirofl to hir y' wnw my hertin qitcno, 

WitlKiiitin ((iih''m no toap* may hr gladfc 
And to tliat fiiiiA wiiIkinR in tho fdisiclr, 

iiy bcdis ihiiH whh liuinblc lt«rt cnt^n^ 

Dcoutly I fiiid on this nioiiwe. 
Quh«n fall lonr racrci nm upon lour dim^ 

Quboin fei-nico ia yet uncotilh tinto zow^ 
Sen qiihon ic go, ihrrr in not rilix than, 

Bot h<^rt qtiiiRnt on thn body miiy not ihriM 
Potow thy hi-TJn, qutio fuW hp gind hot tboii, 

Tbnt fiidi n gj'du lo fu^our luu uniluitntcc. 

Were it Oiroa Iwll, ifai> way tbou no^ forfnlEa. 
And, eftiT ihifl, ib« birdi* cvf-richonc 

Tuke u]) line otli«r ting full lotid and den^ 
And w* n toco faid. Well is v» bogooc^ 

Thnr, with otir miikis nrc lo^er bore; 
We proync and piny w^niit diMit nnd dang«r^ 

All doihtt in n foyt« full fro£:b nnd ncir% 

In liilliii fi-nicc hvijf, glad, end tromt. 
And r.v fr<rf\:li Miiy, ay ini-rciruU to britUa, 

Savi u-uloum be, z<: lk>iirv of monethia all, 
FfiT nol oody zour gram upon ua hydia, 

Itot nil ibc wnrid to wilnea thia we call, 
Tliat llrou-ii hnlh {h i>Uinly over all, 

W new IVcfcli (w-ti- nnd U'ftdrr grew, 

Our lyf, our luft, our gormtouTc, our qntMk 
Tlii" WM their fang, t» foatyt roe full heye, 

W full Riony nn«outh fivi-tc nnte and fehi^ 
And iherew* nil llial faire rjiwanl litr eye 

Wold cud tuiunir, tin it was Goddia will, 
Qnbnrv 1 uii^^lit fr, ftandiiis alfitii- fail dill, 

TbiJ liiitv llii(iu« y* ii»tun\ for mnillij^ 

In liJr \iCt^ wro' bad full lufingljr. 

UCT. X. 

imts L OF ecorLANn 


And, quhcn fche walVi% bad a IjiUI Uirawe 

Under ihe fuetc groQi' bvwU bent, 
Bir foire Avfch face, a* <|»iiil« ait any fniinre, 

Sohc liimyt hojs «ni! fimh her iviiyi* west; 
Bot iho began myn nxi* iiit<l tiimiont, 

To fcnc liir purl, luid li'Iovri! I nn ny*f 

Mclho* the day wo* tuni^t into n^. 

Tlie dialect of this poem is F.iiglish in almost cvcrytWng but 
ttw spelling. Only a jin-^lt- olil mamwcript of tho King's QuAJr 
exiatSf and I do not know that tliero U any reason to su[^>oae it 
to be thu origionl, or even an aulhentio copy. Tlie occasional 
bolting of tLc mctrp, which is in fjcnorn) smoolh, is strung 
cridcncc of some comiptiiiu of tlic t<'it; and it nmy be 
considered inipuxidhle tJiat a young man, educated in England 
from the age of three or even of eight or nine jeais, should 
have employed the orthogru|))iy of the niauuscript is ciues- 
tton. It Is, therefore, either n txaiiKcript made by a scribe not 
well rcntwi in the Engli-^b dialect, or it has been natMialited 
by some Caledonian, who 'loved Scotland better thua the 

King Jamea acknowledged Gowerand Chancer as hht ninxtors, 
hut he certaiqly did not k-arn from them this spelling of the 
eoncluding stanza of the po^im, Jo which be confesses bis 
obligations to them : — 

Vnlo impnin of jny mniitlcriK den*. 

Gowrrc and Chniiccre, tlinl on iho stcjifiis sM 
Of rhelhorikc, qahill thai wi-re lyvund h^ire^ 

Superlaliuc u:* jHitiis laiireai<;^ 
la momlilcL- iind eloijiu-uce ornate, 

I reeoinniend my buk in lynia aevea. 

And eke thoir aanlis rnio the bli»e of lierin. 

Apart from tbe interna] evidence of the poem itmlf, we have 
abundant other proof that its dialect is noT. that of the Scottish 
nation in the iirtt third of the fiitcciith century. Hulinftbed 
hai< prei^rved fur us a piece of testintouy ou this subject, 
directlj connected with the prince himself, in a k-tter wiilteit 




by King not>ert to King Heaiy IT., Id nntlcEpation of tli« 
powibility of the young piince'a capture whtli? trying to * fores 
the blooki'ie,' and propeeri to Francp. The diction of this 
CpiHtle is in the same pedantic etnin which charnct©rise<l the 
dialect of niauy Scotch writers of tfao follovring ecDtuiy, Fully 
trcnty-fiire per cent, of the woni« are French or I^ntin, and 
■inong them are such e\pre«Monit as: ' thair empire is caduke 
and ftagillt' * quhan princes ar roborat he amitco of other, *c.,' 
'to oWi-mpor to thir owr de»irc«,' and th« like. In «luirt, the 
whole Myle of the letter is as remote ns po!»ihIfl from the mm- 
plicity and nat^inilness of expression that tuarVed the Englieli 
of that period, and of which King James's poem constitutes so 
good a specimen. 

A little later, or ahout t1te year 1430, no-.iri«hed Lydgntc, a 
poi-t of moderate mi-rit, but to whom the ]>opiilnrily of hi* 
principal stibjects, tlie Fall of Princes, lakf-n from Boccaccio, 
the Deatriiclion of Troy, and the Siejfe of Thehe» — all founiled 
on middle-ago ndaptutiooH nnd amplilicutions of claadcu) narra- 
tives — gave a more Rcnerfil circulation than the work* of any 
other writur of tlint w^ntury ohtMned. 

I.ydgatc's poemti are extremely niimeroiia, and mootly st 
inedited. They embrace a rast variety of euhjotlA, includin 
gome not precisely fit to be treated by an ecclesiastic. The nu- 
published worka, so Ear as can he judged by the scanty extr 
in Warton and other critical writer*, are of of. Iwwt e»)ual nxv 
with thoRe which have heen printed. It is much to he wii 
tliat a selection of them might tie edited, because. frc»n 
great variety of topics, metro and prevalent tone, they wonid 
no doubt, funii;!li iinportAnt oontrihutions to tbo history 
English philology.